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11 ctynzåhz:
ujl cg ec nz
Äktrnhjyysq éehyfk Ujcelfhcndtyyjuj ltgfhnfvtynf CIF
Ctynzåhm 2002 ujlf
≤
F
vthbrfyws cghfibdfñn: xnj jn yfc nhtåetncz? Z ghjie dfc ghjljkéfnm ébnm cdjtq ébpymñ b jåybvfnm cdjbö ltntq. Pyfñ, vyjubt uhfélfyt ctujlyz bcgsnsdfñn cnhfö, b z ghjie dfc åsnm cgjrjqysvb b htibntkmysvb,
lfét gthtl kbwjv cjöhfyzñotqcz euhjps.
Z ghjie dfc pfobofnm wtyyjcnb F vthbrb b gjvybnm, gjxtve cnjkm vyjubt
ghbtöfkb cñlf. Vs dtltv åjhmåe pf cdjb ghbywbgs, b yfif gthdfz jåzpfyyjcnm
– ébnm cjukfcyj änbv ghbywbgfv. Ybrjuj ytkmpz dsltkznm d rfxtcndt jåütrnf lkz ytcghfdtlkbdjuj jåhfotybz bkb ytljåhsö ckjd bp-pf änybxtcrjuj ghjbcöjéltybz bkb htkbubjpyjq dths.
Z ghjie dfc gjvjufnm gjcnhflfdibv d änjq nhfutlbb cdjbvb gjéthndjdfybzvb...
Z ghjie dfituj nthgtybz ghb pflthérfö b yteljåcndfö, rjnjhst vjuen
cjghjdjélfnm ecbktybt vth åtpjgfcyjcnb, b dfituj nthgtybz d ghtlcnjzotq
ljkujq åjhmåt.
Z ghjie dfituj lfkmytqituj exfcnbz d fvthbrfycrjq ärjyjvbrt b edthtyyjcnb d tt ébpytcgjcjåyjcnb. Nthhjhbcns fnfrjdfkb cbvdjk fvthbrfycrjuj
ghjwdtnfybz. Jyb yt pfnhjyekb tuj bcnjxybr. F vthbrf ghtecgtdftn åkfujlfhz
egjhyjve nhele, ndjhxtcnde b ghtlghbbvxbdjcnb yfituj yfhjlf. D änjv cjcnjzkb gjlkbyyst cbkmyst cnjhjys yfitq ärjyjvbrb lj 11 ctynzåhz, b jyb
jcnfñncz yfibvb cbkmysvb cnjhjyfvb ctujlyz≥.
Bp jåhfotybz Ghtpbltynf Léjhléf E. Åeif
r cjdvtcnyjq ctccbb Rjyuhtccf CIF
20 ctynzåhz 2001 ujlf.
Pf ghjitlibq ujl fvthbrfyws jnrkbryekbcm yf yfgencndbt Ghtpbltynf nsczxfvb hfpysö cgjcjåjd, ghjzdkzz
htibvjcnm b ltvjycnhbhez cenm cdjbö wtyyjcntq. Änjn
dsgecr éehyfkf gjcdzoty njve, rfr jnhtfubhjdfkb
fvthbrfyws yf cjåsnbz 11 ctynzåhz, cnjzobt d hzle
dtkbxfqibö nhfutlbq, dspjdjd b jåütlbyzñobö vjvtynjd d bcnjhbb cnhfys.
Htlfrwbz
Lbpfqy jåkjérb: Ldf cdtnjdsö kexf jåjpyfxbkb vtcnj åfity Wtynhf vtéleyfhjlyjq njhujdkb d Ymñ-Qjhrt hjdyj
xthtp gjkujlf gjckt nthfrnjd. (AP Wide World Photo/Läybtk Öfkifqpth)
2
11 ctynzåhz: ujl cgecnz
Äktrnhjyysq éehyfk Ujcelfhcndtyyjuj ltgfhnfvtynf CIF
Ctynzåhm 2002 ujlf
Cjlthéfybt
11 ctynzåhz gjkjébkj yfxfkj yjdjq äht d fvthbrfycrjv cnhfntubxtcrjv vsiktybb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Nthfrns bpvtybkb rkbvfn vtéleyfhjlyjq åtpjgfcyjcnb b ghjlbrnjdfkb yjdeñ
≤dctjödfnsdfñoeñ cnhfntubñ≥ lkz Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd.
Hjåthn Lé. Kbåth, ghjatccjh Léjhlénfeycrjuj eybdthcbntnf, Dfibyunjy, cgtwbfkbcn
gj djghjcfv ujcelfhcndtyyjuj eghfdktybz b lbgkjvfnbxtcrjq ckeéås
Ärjyjvbxtcrfz wtyf nthhjhbpvf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
≤Fkm-Rfqlf≥ gjczuyekf yf rfgbnfkbcnbxtcreñ ltvjrhfnbñ, yj gjnthgtkf ytelfxe.
Åhfqfy C. Eäcåthb, ukfdysq ärjyjvbcn rjhgjhfwbb ≤Uhbaaby, Reåbr, Cnbdtyc b Njvgcjy≥
Yfltélf – jndtn yf nthhjh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Nthfrns gjlndthlbkb cnfheñ bcnbye: gbnfntkmyeñ chtle lkz nthhjhbpvf cjplftn åtlyjcnm.
Ljyjhs – ujcelfhcndtyyst, xfcnyst b rjhgjhfnbdyst – c eldjtyyjq äythubtq hfåjnfñn yfl ntv,
xnjås lfnm åtlytqibv d vbht kñlzv yfltéle b cjplfnm djpvjéyjcnb lkz hfpdbnbz ärjyjvbrb.
Bynthdmñ c Léjhlétv Rfhgtynthjv, lbhtrnjhjv ghjuhfvvs ecnjqxbdjuj hfpdbnbz rjhgjhfwbb
≤Ghjrnth äyl Uävåk≥, b Hjåthnjv R. Gbkfynjv, lbhtrnjhjv ghjuhfvv d cnhfyfö Fpbb b ñéyjq
xfcnb Nböjjrtfycrjuj htubjyf ytrjvvthxtcrjq jhufybpfwbb ≤Ötqath bynthyäiyk≥.
Rhbnbxtcrbq åfkfyc: ghfdf kbxyjcnb b yfwbjyfkmyfz åtpjgfcyjcnm
d rjyntrcnt nthhjhbcnbxtcrjq euhjps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Blen jåotyfwbjyfkmyst ltåfns gj rjycnbnewbjyysv djghjcfv, djpybrfñobv d cdzpb
c dtleotqcz ghfdbntkmcndjv CIF djqyjq c nthhjhbpvjv
Vfhr Åkbw, ghjatccjh gjkbnbxtcrjq abkjcjabb, Rkthvjyn Vfrrtyyf rjkktlé, in. Rfkbajhybz
Ébpytcgjcjåyjcnm Gtynfujyf: eybrfkmysq ghjtrn htrjycnherwbb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Nthhjhbcns yfytckb elfh gj cbvdjke fvthbrfycrjq djtyyjq vjob, yj juhjvyst ecbkbz
gj djccnfyjdktybñ b htvjyne plfybz gjpdjkbkb 3000 cjnhelybrfv vtytt xtv xthtp ujl
dthyenmcz yf cdjb hfåjxbt vtcnf.
Éfrkby C. Gjhn, rjhhtcgjyltyn Jabcf vtéleyfhjlysö byajhvfwbjyysö ghjuhfvv gj
djghjcfv gjkbnbxtcrjq åtpjgfcyjcnb b jåjhjys
11 ctynzåhz b cdjåjlf d Fvthbrt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Rjvvtynfnjh-kfehtfn jgbcsdftn bpvtytybt evjyfcnhjtybq d cnhfyt yf ghjnzétybb åehyjuj ujlf,
gjcktljdfdituj pf nthfrnfvb
Hjléth Hjptyåkfnn, ghjatccjh fyukbqcrjuj zpsrf b kbnthfnehs Kjyu-Fqktyljdcrjuj eybdthcbntnf,
äcctbcn éehyfkf ≤Nfqv≥
3
❑
Ljgjkybntkmyst byajhvfwbjyyst htcehcs
Dsåjhjxyfz öhjyjkjubz rkñxtdsö cjåsnbq: c 11 ctynzåhz 2001 ujlf gj yfcnjzott dhtvz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Cghfdrf, cjcnfdktyyfz Jabcjv vtéleyfhjlysö byajhvfwbjyysö ghjuhfvv
Djccnfyjdktybt Faufybcnfyf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Dslthérf bp ljrkflf Futyncndf CIF gj vtéleyfhjlyjve hfpdbnbñ
Åbåkbjuhfabz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Rybub, ljrevtyns b cnfnmb j nthfrnfö 11 ctynzåhz, nthhjhbpvt b vtéleyfhjlyjv jnrkbrt.
Cfqns Bynthytnf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Gthtxtym jcyjdysö cfqnjd Bynthytnf j nthfrnfö 11 ctynzåhz, nthhjhbpvt b vtéleyfhjlyjv jnrkbrt.
11 ctynzåhz: ujl cgecnz
Äktrnhjyysq éehyfk Ujcelfhcndtyyjuj ltgfhnfvtynf CIF
[email protected]
Bplfntkm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Léelbn C. Cbutk
Ukfdysq htlfrnjh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ebkmzv Gbnthc
Jndtncndtyysq htlfrnjh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ifhkby Gjhnth
Htlfrnjh Bynthytn-bplfybz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Nbv Åhfey
Htlfrnjhs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Vfqrk Åtylkth
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ltåjhf Åhfey
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Lébv Aekkth
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Eäqy Öjkk
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Vthk Rtkkthötkp
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Hbxfhl Kfylåthu
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Léekbäyy Lé. Gfeytcre
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Éfrb Gjhn
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Léjyfnfy Itqaath
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Hjpfkb Nfhujycrb
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Fylétq Pdfytwrb
Cghfdjxyj-bccktljdfntkmcrbq jnltk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Léjfy Ntqkjh
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Kbyy Ifqå
Öeljétcndtyysq htlfrnjh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ökj Äkkbc
Uhfabxtcrjt jajhvktybt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Cbkmdbz Crjnn
Htlfrnjhs heccrjuj bplfybz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Yfnfkbz Åfhåfi
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Kblbz Djhjybyf
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bkmz Ceckjd
Htlfrnjh heccrjuj Bynthytn-bplfybz . . . . . . . . . . . . .Fktrcfylh Cdbyjd
Htlrjkktubz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Léjhlé Rkär
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Léelbn C. Cbutk
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ktjyfhlj Ebkmzvc
4
Jabc vtéleyfhjlysö byajhvfwbjyysö ghjuhfvv Ujcelfhcndtyyjuj
ltgfhnfvtynf CIF ghtljcnfdkztn vfnthbfks, hfpüzcyzñobt pfheåtéyjq
felbnjhbb gjkbnbre, jåotcndj b wtyyjcnb CIF. Jabc geåkbretn gznm
äktrnhjyysö éehyfkjd, gjcdzotyysö bpextybñ jcyjdysö ghjåktv, c
rjnjhsvb cnfkrbdfñncz Cjtlbytyyst Infns b vtéleyfhjlyjt
cjjåotcndj. Änb éehyfks – ≤Ärjyjvbxtcrbt gthcgtrnbds≥, ≤Ukjåfkmyst
ghjåktvs≥, ≤Djghjcs ltvjrhfnbb≥, ≤Dytiyzz gjkbnbrf CIF≥ b ≤CIF:
jåotcndj b wtyyjcnb≥ – gjvtofñn yf cdjbö cnhfybwfö ljrevtyns b
vfnthbfks, jnyjczobtcz r gjkbnbrt CIF, f nfrét cjlthéfn fyfkbp,
rjvvtynfhbq b ljgjkybntkmyeñ byajhvfwbñ gj cjjndtncndeñobv ntvfv.
Dct yjvthf éehyfkjd dsöjlzn yf fyukbqcrjv, bcgfycrjv, gjhneufkmcrjv
b ahfywepcrjv, f jnltkmyst yjvthf geåkbreñncz nfrét yf fhfåcrjv b
heccrjv zpsrfö. Yjvthf éehyfkjd yf fyukbqcrjv zpsrt gjzdkzñncz c
bynthdfkjv ghbåkbpbntkmyj d jlby vtczw. Gthtdjls jåsxyj dsöjlzn
xthtp ldt-xtnsht ytltkb gjckt jgeåkbrjdfybz éehyfkjd yf fyukbqcrjv
zpsrt.
Vytybz, dscrfpsdftvst d änbö éehyfkfö, yt jåzpfntkmyj jnhféfñn
dpukzls bkb gjkbnbre ghfdbntkmcndf Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd Fvthbrb.
Ujcelfhcndtyysq ltgfhnfvtyn CIF yt ytctn jndtncndtyyjcnb pf
cjlthéfybt cfqnjd Bynthytnf, yf rjnjhst tcnm ccskrb d éehyfkfö,
bkb ljcneg r nfrbv cfqnfv; äne jndtncndtyyjcnm ytcen bö cjplfntkb.
Cnfnmb bp éehyfkjd, j rjnjhsö bltn htxm, vjéyj djcghjbpdjlbnm b
gthtdjlbnm pf ghtltkfvb Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd pf bcrkñxtybtv
ckexftd, rjulf änb cnfnmb cjghjdjélfñncz xtnrbv erfpfybtv yf yfkbxbt
juhfybxtybq d bö bcgjkmpjdfybb, yfkfuftvsö fdnjhcrbv ghfdjv. Nt,
rnj cjåbhftncz bcgjkmpjdfnm pfobotyyst fdnjhcrbv ghfdjv ajnjuhfabb,
ljkéys gjkexbnm cjjndtncndeñott hfphtitybt.
Ntreobt bkb ghtlsleobt yjvthf éehyfkjd, f nfrét fyjyc åeleobö
éehyfkjd vjéyj yfqnb yf ljvfiytq cnhfybwt Jabcf vtéleyfhjlysö
byajhvfwbjyysö ghjuhfvv d Bynthytnt gj flhtce “http://usinfo.state.gov/
journals/journals.htm”. Änb yjvthf ghtljcnfdkzñncz d ytcrjkmrbö
äktrnhjyysö ajhvfnfö lkz jåktuxtybz bö ghjcvjnhf d jykfqyjdjv
htébvt, gthtlfxb, pfuheprb b gtxfnb.
Ghjcbv ghbcskfnm rjvvtynfhbb b pfvtxfybz jå änbö éehyfkfö d
gjcjkmcndj CIF d dfitq cnhfyt bkb d htlfrwbñ gj flhtce:
Editor, Global Issues & Communications
Office of International Information Programs
IIP/T/GIC
U.S. Department of State
301 4th Street, S.W.
Washington, DC 20547
United States of America
Flhtc äktrnhjyyjq gjxns: [email protected]
11 ctynzåhz gjkjébkj yfxfkj yjdjq äht d
fvthbrfycrjv cnhfntubxtcrjv vsiktybb
Hjåthn Lé. Kbåth
Ghjatccjh Léjhlénfeycrjuj eybdthcbntnf, Dfibyunjy
Cgtwbfkbcn gj djghjcfv ujcelfhcndtyyjuj eghfdktybz b lbgkjvfnbxtcrjq ckeéå
11 ctynzåhz gjkjébkj yfxfkj yjdjq äht d fvthbrfycrjv
cnhfntubxtcrjv vsiktybb. Cjdthityyst d nj enhj nthfrns
dspdfkb äaatrn, cjgjcnfdbvsq c yfgfltybtv yf Gthk-Öfhåjh 7 ltrfåhz 1941 ujlf, ddthuibv Cjtlbytyyst Infns dj
Dnjheñ vbhjdeñ djqye. Lj 11 ctynzåhz flvbybcnhfwbz Åeif gjcntgtyyj dshfåfnsdfkf yjdeñ dctjåütvkñoeñ cnhfntubñ yfwbjyfkmyjq åtpjgfcyjcnb. Änf hfåjnf dtkfcm d hfvrfö fyfkbpf jåjhjys pf xtnshtöktnybq gthbjl, f nfrét gj
lheubv rfyfkfv. Jlyfrj nthfrns 11 ctynzåhz d jlby vbu
bpvtybkb rkbvfn vtéleyfhjlyjq åtpjgfcyjcnb. Cjdthityyj
yjdfz b pkjdtofz euhjpf dlheu cnfkf htfkmyjq b ghjlbrnjdfkf yjdeñ cnhfntubñ lkz Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd. Änf yjdfz
gjkbnbrf, rjnjheñ eét jrhtcnbkb ≤ljrnhbyjq Åeif≥, jhbtynbhetncz ntgthm yf euhjpe, bcöjlzoeñ jn nthhjhbpvf b
jheébz vfccjdjuj gjhfétybz.
Gthbjl gjckt öjkjlyjq djqys,
yfxfdibqcz c hfcgflf
Cjdtncrjuj Cjñpf gjxnb 12 ktn
yfpfl, htprj jåjhdfkcz zcysv
Jrjyxfybt gthbjlf gjckt öjkjlyjq djqys
cjkytxysv enhjv 11 ctynzåhz
11 ctynzåhz dytpfgyj gjkjébkj rjytw gthbjle gjckt öjkjlyjq djqys, yfxfditvecz ghfrnbxtcrb hjdyj 12 ktn yfpfl.
Yfxfkj änjuj gthbjlf – lhfvfnbxtcrbq ghjkjv Åthkbycrjq
cntys d yjxm yf 9 yjzåhz 1989 ujlf, pf rjnjhsv åscnhj gjcktljdfkb rhfö rjvveybpvf d Djcnjxyjq Tdhjgt, jrjyxfybt
öjkjlyjq djqys, f d ltrfåht 1991 ujlf – hfcgfl Cjdtncrjuj Cjñpf. Dgthdst åjktt xtv pf gjkcnjktnbz Cjtlbytyyst
Infns, rfpfkjcm, åjkmit yt cnjzkb gthtl kbwjv tlbyjq euhjps cdjtq yfwbjyfkmyjq åtpjgfcyjcnb b jåhfpe ébpyb. D
rjywt 1930-ö ujljd b dj dhtvz Dnjhjq vbhjdjq djqys nfrfz
euhjpf bcöjlbkf jn afibpvf. D ujls öjkjlyjq djqys änj
åskb Cjdtncrbq Cjñp b cjdtncrbq rjvveybpv. D jåjbö ckexfzö jgfcyjcnm åskf cthmtpyjq b zdyjq. Dcktlcndbt änjuj d
Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö b chtlb bö cjñpybrjd ceotcndjdfk
ibhjrbq rjyctycec gj djghjce j yfkbxbb rhegyjq euhjps,
öjnz gjhjq b djpybrfkb hfpyjukfcbz – rfr d cbnefwbb c
Dmtnyfvjv – gj rjyrhtnysv yfghfdktybzv ltqcndbq.
2001 ujlf. Crjjhlbybhjdfyyst
nthhjhbcnbxtcrbt frns d jlby
vbu bpvtybkb rkbvfn
vtéleyfhjlyjq åtpjgfcyjcnb b
ghjlbrnjdfkb yjdeñ
≤dctjödfnsdfñoeñ cnhfntubñ≥
D 1989-2001 ujlfö ceotcndjdfkj vyjétcndj vtymibö jgfcyjcntq – yfghbvth, änybxtcrbt rjyakbrns, hfcghjcnhfytybt
djjheétybq, nthhjhbpv, gjkbnbxtcrfz b abyfycjdfz ytcnfåbkmyjcnm, ujcelfhcndf-åfyrhjns, gjcktlcndbz rkbvfnbxtcrbö bpvtytybq, byatrwbjyyst pfåjktdfybz b åtlyjcnm. Öjnz yb jlyf jgfcyjcnm yt jrfpfkfcm ljvbybheñotq, Cjtlbytyyst Infns dct ét dvtifkbcm d hzl kjrfkmysö bkb htubjyfkmysö rjyakbrnjd, rfr d ckexft bhfrcrjuj dnjhétybz
d Redtqn (1990-91 ujls), cjåsnbq d Cjvfkb (1991-92 ujls),
yf Ufbnb (1994 ujl), d Åjcybb (1995 ujl) b Rjcjdj (1999 ujl).
lkz Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd.
5
D nj ét dhtvz åskb lheubt rjyakbrns, d rjnjhst Cjtlbytyyst Infns yt dvtibdfkbcm, yfbåjktt pfvtnysvb bp rjnjhsö åskb utyjwbl d Hefylt (1994 ujl), cjåsnbz d Åjcybb
c 1992 gj bñkm 1995 ujlf b uhfélfycrbt djqys d Kbåthbb,
Cmthhf-Ktjyt, Ltvjrhfnbxtcrjq Htcgeåkbrt Rjyuj (ghtélt
bpdtcnyjq gjl yfpdfybtv Pfbh) b lheubö cnhfyfö.
B, d-nhtnmbö, yt åskj rfrjq-kbåj jlyjq, dctghjybrfñotq b
zdyjq jgfcyjcnb. Dj dyenhtyytq catht änj ghbdtkj r njve,
xnj lkz åjkmibycndf fvthbrfywtd dytiyzz gjkbnbrf gthtikf d hfphzl ybpibö ghbjhbntnjd, b, nfrbv jåhfpjv, kñåjq
flvbybcnhfwbb cnfkj nhelytt jåhtnfnm gjllthére ghb ghjdtltybb wtkjcnyjq dytiytq gjkbnbrb bkb dsltktybb ceotcndtyysö htcehcjd yf änb ecbkbz. Pf heåtéjv, ytcvjnhz yf
dpfbvjltqcndbt cjñpybrjd yf djqyt d Gthcblcrjv pfkbdt
ghjnbd Bhfrf, f d bnjut b d ghtctxtybb uhfélfycrjq djqys
d Åjcybb b änybxtcrbö xbcnjr d Rjcjdj, jncencndbt cjdtncrjq euhjps jckjéybkj cjnhelybxtcndj, gjcrjkmre, rfpfkjcm, åjkmit ytn yfcnjzntkmyjq gjnhtåyjcnb d rjkktrnbdysö ltqcndbzö gthtl kbwjv jåotuj dhfuf.
≤Dctjåütvkñofz cnhfntubz≥ – nthvby, jgbcsdfñobq, rfr
cnhfyf åeltn bcgjkmpjdfnm hfpkbxyst yföjlzobtcz d tt hfcgjhzétybb chtlcndf – djtyyst, ärjyjvbxtcrbt, gjkbnbxtcrbt, ntöyjkjubxtcrbt, bltjkjubxtcrbt b rekmnehyst – lkz
pfobns b erhtgktybz cdjtq jåotq åtpjgfcyjcnb, wtyyjcntq
b yfwbjyfkmysö bynthtcjd. Dj dhtvz Dnjhjq vbhjdjq djqys
änj jpyfxfkj dtkbrbq cjñp, vjåbkbpfwbñ b njnfkmyeñ djqye c wtkmñ hfpuhjvf yfwbcncrjq Uthvfybb b Zgjybb. D ujls öjkjlyjq djqys fvthbrfycreñ dytiytgjkbnbxtcreñ
ljrnhbye vjéyj åskj jgbcfnm jlybv ckjdjv – clthébdfybt. D jnkbxbt jn ägjöb öjkjlyjq djqys, d 1990-t ujls jrfpfkjcm, xnj jxtym nhelyj cajhvekbhjdfnm jåoeñ cnhfntubñ
bkb rfreñ-nj jlye rjyrhtnyeñ ljrnhbye. D ghjnbdjgjkjéyjcnm xtnshtv ltcznbktnbzv öjkjlyjq djqys jncencndjdfk
rjyctycec gj djghjce j öfhfrntht euhjp fvthbrfycrbv yfwbjyfkmysv bynthtcfv bkb öjnz ås j njv, rfr jöfhfrnthbpjdfnm yjdeñ ägjöe. D htpekmnfnt d 1990-t ujls åsk dsldbyen hzl jhbtynbhjdjxysö ljrnhby, d njv xbckt bltb j yjdjv vbhjgjhzlrt, gjpbnbdyjv vyjujcnjhjyytv hfpdbnbb b
cnhfntubb dpfbvjltqcndbz b hfcibhtybz, ghbpdfyyjq cnbvekbhjdfnm hfcghjcnhfytybt ltvjrhfnbb b hsyjxyjq ärjyjvbrb. Rfélsq bp änbö gjlöjljd bvtk cdjb cbkmyst cnjhjys,
yj yb jlby yt jrfpfkcz ljcnfnjxyj rjvgktrcysv bkb ljkujdtxysv d rfxtcndt dctjåütvkñotq cnhfntubb lkz yjdjq
ähs.
Dspjd 11 ctynzåhz
Dct änj bpvtybkjcm pf jlby ltym 11 ctynzåhz 2001 ujlf. Nthhjhbpv gthtcnfk åsnm jlyjq bp jgfcyjcntq lkz Cjtlbytyysö
Infnjd b ghtdhfnbkcz d ghbywbgbfkmyeñ euhjpe Fvthbrt,
tt jåhfpe ébpyb b tt yfceoysv bynthtcfv. Nthhjhbcns bp
≤Fkm-Rfqls≥, rjnjhst pfödfnbkb fdbfkfqyths b bcgjkmpjdfkb bö lkz fnfrb yf Gtynfujy, hfpheitybz åfity-åkbpytwjd Wtynhf vtéleyfhjlyjq njhujdkb b eåbqcndf 40 gfccfébhjd b xktyjd ärbgféf yfl Gtycbkmdfybtq, cjdthifkb
vfccjdst eåbqcndf, rjnjhst åskb chtlcndjv gjkbnbxtcrjuj
ecnhfitybz. Tot ghtlcnjbn jghtltkbnm, vjéyj kb cxbnfnm
ärcnhtvbcncrjt b ybubkbcnbxtcrjt bcgjkmpjdfybt bckfvf
rfr gjkbnbxtcrjq ljrnhbys nhtnmbv njnfkbnfhysv dspjdjv
Fvthbrt gjckt afibpvf b rjvveybpvf. Ntv yt vtytt, ujnjdyjcnm nthhjhbcnjd cjdthifnm nthfrns c vfccjdsvb éthndfvb, yfghfdktyyst d lfyyjv ckexft yf ldf cfvsö vjueotcndtyysö cbvdjkf rjvvthxtcrjq b ujcelfhcndtyyjq ébpyb Fvthbrb, ntgthm cjplftn pyfxbntkmyeñ b zdyeñ jgfcyjcnm.
D htnhjcgtrnbdt lfét åtp dctjåütvkñotq cnhfntubb fvthbrfycreñ dytiyññ gjkbnbre d ujls gjckt öjkjlyjq djqys
jghtltkzkb nhb jåcnjzntkmcndf. Gthdsv bp ybö åskj ukfdtycndeñott gjkjétybt Fvthbrb. Bysvb ckjdfvb, gjckt
rhföf Cjdtncrjuj Cjñpf Cjtlbytyyst Infns pfyzkb gjxnb
åtcghtwtltynyst gjpbwbb gj dctv gjrfpfntkzv, rjnjhsvb
jåsxyj bpvthztncz vjom: ärjyjvbxtcrbv, djtyysv, ntöyjkjubxtcrbv, rekmnehysv. Yb jlyf lheufz cnhfyf yt bvtkf
cöjlyjuj ehjdyz b yb jlyf yf åkbéfqitt åeleott yt dsukzltkf dthjznysv ghtntyltynjv. Rfr gbcfk bcnjhbr Gjk Rtyytlb, fdnjh rybub ≤Dpktn b gfltybt dtkbrbö lthéfd≥, ≤ybrjulf yt ceotcndjdfkj ybxtuj gjöjétuj yf änjn hfphsd d
vjob – åerdfkmyj ybxtuj≥ (kjyljycrfz ≤Afqyäyik nfqvc≥,
1 atdhfkz 2002 ujlf). Änj ghtdjcöjlcndj gjhjlbkj rfr djcnjhétyyeñ htfrwbñ, nfr b ytujleñoeñ.
Cthmtpyjcnm änjq euhjps eceueåkztncz ldevz ljgjkybntkmysvb afrnjhfvb. Dj-gthdsö, åtcgjoflyfz b ökflyjrhjdyfz
ujnjdyjcnm eybxnjéfnm åjkmijt xbckj vbhysö uhfélfy åtp
vfktqituj euhsptybz cjdtcnb dspdfkf jgfctybz d cdzpb c
djpvjéysv ghbvtytybtv jheébz vfccjdjuj gjhfétybz
(JVG). Tckb extcnm gjdtltybt nthhjhbcnjd b pfzdktybz bö
kblthjd, f nfrét ljrfpfntkmcndf njuj, xnj ujcelfhcndf, gjllthébdfñobt nthhjhbpv, cnhtvzncz ghbjåhtcnb öbvbxtcrjt, åbjkjubxtcrjt b zlthyjt jheébt, ctqxfc tcnm hbcr, xnj
d åeleotv JVG vjétn åsnm ghbvtytyj ytgjchtlcndtyyj
ghjnbd Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd, f nfrét ghjnbd lheptq b cjñpybrjd Fvthbrb pf heåtéjv. Dj-dnjhsö, ddble njuj afrnf, xnj 19 nthhjhbcnjd d xtnshtö pfödfxtyysö cfvjktnfö
gjikb yf cfvjeåbqcndj ghb jceotcndktybb cdjbö fnfr,
ghbywbgs clthébdfybz ntgthm gjcnfdktys gjl cjvytybt. D
ghjnbdjgjkjéyjcnm änjve, lfét d hfpufh öjkjlyjq djqys
fvthbrfycrbt cnhfntub vjukb cnhjbnm cdjb hfcxtns, bcöjlz
bp ghtlgjkfuftvjq hfwbjyfkmyjcnb cjdtncrbö herjdjlbntktq
b pyfz, xnj gj cdjtq djkt nt yt cjdthifn zlthyjuj cfvjeåbqcndf, yfxfd vfccbhjdfyyeñ fnfre yf Cjtlbytyyst Infns bkb bö cjñpybrjd. Jlyfrj 11 ctynzåhz gjlhsdftn äne
rkñxtdeñ gjcskre.
Dj-dnjhsö, dcktlcndbt cdjtuj gthdtycndf, f nfrét jnyjcbntkmyj juhfybxtyysö djpvjéyjcntq nfrbö vtéleyfhjlysö
b htubjyfkmysö jhufybpfwbq, rfr JJY b Tdhjgtqcrbq cjñp,
Cjtlbytyyst Infns cnfkb buhfnm eybrfkmyeñ hjkm d htitybb åjkmibycndf jcnhsö vtéleyfhjlysö ghjåktv, åelm-nj
htubjyfkmyst rjyakbrns, änybxtcrbt xbcnrb, abyfycjdst
rhbpbcs bkb byst djghjcs. Änj yt jpyfxfkj, xnj Cjtlbytyyst Infns vjukb bkb ujnjds åskb ckeébnm vbhjdsv éfylfhvjv, yj änj ltqcndbntkmyj jpyfxfkj, xnj åtp frnbdyjuj
gjlrkñxtybz Fvthbrb gjgsnrb htibnm yfbåjktt jgfcyst
vbhjdst ghjåktvs dhzl kb vjukb åsnm äaatrnbdysvb.
6
Yjdfz dctjödfnsdfñofz cnhfntubz lkz
Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd
Jlyfrj Ghtpbltyn c cfvjuj yfxfkf ghzvj ujdjhbk, xnj djqyf c nthhjhjv pfdthibncz yt crjhj, b d zydfht 2002 ujlf,
dscnegfz yf cjdvtcnyjq ctccbb Rjyuhtccf, jy bpkjébk rjywtgwbñ, rjnjheñ dcrjht cnfkb yfpsdfnm ≤ljrnhbyjq Åeif≥.
... ≤Vs åeltv hfpheifnm kfuthz nthhjhbcnjd, chsdfnm nthhjhbcnbxtcrbt gkfys b ghtlfdfnm nthhjhbcnjd cele. B... vs
ljkéys gjvtifnm nthhjhbcnfv b htébvfv, cnhtvzobvcz
ghbjåhtcnb öbvbxtcrjt, åbjkjubxtcrjt bkb zlthyjt jheébt,
euhjéfnm Cjtlbytyysv Infnfv b dctve vbhe...
Chfpe gjckt 11 ctynzåhz flvbybcnhfwbz Åeif gthtrkñxbkf
dybvfybt yf djqye c nthhjhbpvjv. Dj-gthdsö, yf dyenhtyytv ahjynt flvbybcnhfwbz pfghjcbkf b gjkexbkf jn Rjyuhtccf cjdvtcnyeñ htpjkñwbñ, cfyrwbjybheñoeñ ghbvtytybt djtyyjq cbks ghb jceotcndktybb pfrjyyjq cfvjjåjhjys. Htpjkñwbz ukfcbn: ≤Ghtpbltyn egjkyjvjxty ghbvtyznm
dcñ ytjåöjlbveñ b yflktéfoeñ cbke ghjnbd ntö cnhfy, jhufybpfwbq bkb kbw, rjnjhst, gj tuj jghtltktybñ, gkfybhjdfkb, cfyrwbjybhjdfkb, cjdthifkb bkb gjvjufkb cjdthibnm
nthhjhbcnbxtcrbt frns, ghjbpjitlibt 11 ctynzåhz 2001 ujlf... c ntv, xnjås ghtljndhfnbnm kñåst åeleobt frns vtéleyfhjlyjuj nthhjhbpvf ghjnbd Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd≥.
Yj dhtvz hfåjnftn ghjnbd yfc. Z yt åele yfåkñlfnm pf cjåsnbzvb, gjrf jgfcyjcnm åeltn edtkbxbdfnmcz. Z yt åele
cnjznm d cnjhjyt, rjulf euhjpf yfldbuftncz dct åkbét b åkbét. Cjtlbytyyst Infns Fvthbrb yt gjpdjkzn jgfcytqibv
d vbht htébvfv uhjpbnm yfv cfvsv hfpheibntkmysv d vbht jheébtv≥ (Tétujlysq ljrkfl Rjyuhtcce ≤J gjkjétybb
d cnhfyt≥, 29 zydfhz 2002 ujlf).
Änf htpjkñwbz åskf ghbyznf ghb cjjnyjitybb ujkjcjd
98-0 d Ctyfnt b 420-1 d Gfkfnt ghtlcnfdbntktq. Jåotcndtyyjt vytybt, rjnjhjt gjckt ghtpbltyncrbö dsåjhjd d yjzåht
2000 ujlf åskj ukeåjrj hfcrjkjnj, jåütlbybkjcm d ibhjrjq gjllthért yt njkmrj djtyyjq bybwbfnbds, yj b cfvjuj
Ghtpbltynf.
Htifñott pyfxtybt lkz änjq ljrnhbys bvtñn ldf äktvtynf. Gthdsq – joeotybt ytjnkjéyjcnb pflfxb, jnhfpbdittcz
d ckjdfö j njv, xnj ≤dhtvz hfåjnftn ghjnbd yfc≥. Dnjhjq
pfrkñxftncz d njv, xnj eybrfkmyfz jgfcyjcnm, cjplfdftvfz
jheébtv vfccjdjuj gjhfétybz, jåzpsdftn Cjtlbytyyst
Infns åsnm ujnjdsvb ghbybvfnm åscnhst, htibntkmyst b
eghtélfñobt vths. Jåf änbö bvgthfnbdf jnhféfñn bltñ j
njv, xnj rfrbv ås dscjrbv yb åsk hbcr ltqcndbz, hbcr åtpltqcndbz tot cnhfiytt. Åjktt njuj, Ghtpbltyn zcyj lfk gjyznm, xnj yfbåjkmieñ euhjpe ghtlcnfdkztn ytåjkmifz ujhcnrf ujcelfhcnd, jcjåtyyj Bhfr, Bhfy b Ctdthyfz Rjhtz, rjnjhst jy yfpdfk ≤jcmñ pkf≥. D lfyyjv ckexft åtcgjrjbn yt
njkmrj jgfcyjcnm njuj, xnj änb cnhfys cfvb ghbjåhtnen
JVG, yj b njn hbcr, xnj jyb, d rjytxyjv cxtnt, vjuen ghtljcnfdbnm nfrjt jheébt lheubv, jcjåtyyj nthhjhbcnbxtcrbv
uheggfv, gjljåysv ≤Fkm-Rfqlt≥.
Dj-dnjhsö, Cjtlbytyyst Infns ljåbdfkbcm b ljåbkbcm tlbyjleiyjuj ujkjcjdfybz Cjdtnf Åtpjgfcyjcnb JJY 28 ctynzåhz. Htpjkñwbz 1373, ghbyznfz d cjjndtncndbb c Ukfdjq
ªÈÈ Ecnfdf JJY, rjnjhfz yfltkztn Cjdtn Åtpjgfcyjcnb ibhjrbvb gjkyjvjxbzvb gj bcgjkytybñ cdjbö htitybq b ltkftn htpjkñwbñ jåzpfntkmyjq lkz dctö cnhfy-xktyjd JJY,
jåzpsdftn dct ujcelfhcndf-xktys Jhufybpfwbb jåüzdkznm
dyt pfrjyf abyfycjdeñ ltzntkmyjcnm ≤Fkm-Rfqls≥, jåvtybdfnmcz hfpdtllfyysvb b ghbybvfnm vths gj ghtljndhfotybñ gthtldbétybz nthhjhbcnjd. Öjnz htpjkñwbz bvttn crjhtt cbvdjkbxtcrbq, xtv ghfrnbxtcrbq äaatrn, jyf ghblftn
vyjujcnjhjyyññ ktubnbvyjcnm djpukfdkztvjq fvthbrfywfvb åjhmåt c nthhjhbpvjv.
D gjcktleñobt vtczws dscjrjgjcnfdktyyst ghtlcnfdbntkb
dytiytgjkbnbxtcrjuj dtljvcndf, hfdyj rfr b Ghtpbltyn, åjktt ltnfkmyj jåüzcybkb gjlöjl flvbybcnhfwbb, drkñxfz
djpvjéyjcnm eghtélfñotuj elfhf, n.t. ghbyznbz ghtdtynbdysö vth dvtcnj njuj, xnjås gfccbdyj élfnm b htfubhjdfnm
njkmrj gjckt njuj, rfr Cjtlbytyyst Infns bkb bö cjñpybrb gjldthuyencz yfgfltybñ. Nfr, vbybcnh jåjhjys Ljyfkml
Hfvcatkl pfvtnbk: ≤Nthhjhbcn vjétn yfgfcnm d kñåjt dhtvz, d kñåjv vtcnt, bcgjkmpez kñåst ghbtvs. Abpbxtcrb
ytdjpvjéyj jåtcgtxbnm gjcnjzyyeñ pfobne gjdcñle... Rjulf htxm bltn j xtv-ybåelm dhjlt jcgs, bkb cbåbhcrjq zpds,
bkb öbvbxtcrjuj jheébz, bkb hflbfwbjyyjuj jheébz, bkb
eåbqcndf nsczx kñltq d Wtynht vtéleyfhjlyjq njhujdkb,
lfét Ecnfd JJY ghtlecvfnhbdftn ghfdj yf cfvjjåjhjye. F
tlbycndtyysq äaatrnbdysq cgjcjå pfobns – gthtytcnb åjq
nelf, ult yföjlzncz nthhjhbcns... Gjänjve eghtélfñott
ghbvtytybt djtyyjq cbks cnfkj ntgthm hfåjxtq blttq≥ (bynthdmñ ghjuhfvvt ≤Xfc yjdjcntq c Lébvjv Kththjv≥ ntktrjvgfybb Gb-åb-äc, 4 atdhfkz 2002 ujlf).
D-nhtnmbö, 19 xktyjd YFNJ dgthdst d bcnjhbb fkmzycf ghbåtukb r Cnfnmt ª Ctdthjfnkfynbxtcrjuj ljujdjhf. Cnfnmz ª
nhfrnetn yfgfltybt yf jlyj ujcelfhcndj-xkty YFNJ rfr yfgfltybt yf dctö b jåzpsdftn bö ghbybvfnm vths d cjjndtncndbb cj cdjbvb rjycnbnewbjyysvb ghjwtlehfvb. D bnjut 16
bp 19 cnhfy dsltkbkb djtyyjckeéfobö lkz exfcnbz d faufycrjq rfvgfybb, ytcvjnhz yf nj, xnj jabwbfkmyj änf djqyf yt dtltncz rfr jgthfwbz YFNJ. Ljgjkybntkmyjt gjkbnbxtcrjt, djtyyjt b hfpdtlsdfntkmyjt cjltqcndbt åskj jrfpfyj nfrét åjkmibv xbckjv ujcelfhcnd, drkñxfz Hjccbñ,
Rbnfq b vyjubö fpbfncrbö b åkbéytdjcnjxysö cjctltq Faufybcnfyf.
D gjcktleñobt vtczws fvthbrfycrfz fdbfwbz b fvthbrfycrbt djqcrf cgtwbfkmyjuj yfpyfxtybz, gjllthébdfz faufycreñ jggjpbwbñ, åscnhj hfpuhjvbkb ghfdbdibq Faufybcnfyjv htébv nfkbåjd dvtcnt c bö cgjldbéybrfvb bp ≤FkmRfqls≥. Änf gjåtlf åskf jlthéfyf ujhfplj åscnhtt b c ujhfplj vtymibvb gjnthzvb, xtv jéblfkb vyjubt yfåkñlfntkb, b åskf dcnhtxtyf kbrjdfybtv vtcnyjuj yfctktybz,
cxbnfñotuj, xnj tuj jcdjåjlbkb jn nbhfybxtcrjq dkfcnb nfkbåjd.
Dgjcktlcndbb, dscnegfz 1 bñyz d Djtyyjq frfltvbb CIF,
Ghtpbltyn crfpfk cjåhfdibvcz rehcfynfv, xnj Fvthbrf ljkéyf åsnm ujnjdf r ≤eghtélfñobv ltqcndbzv, rjulf ytjåöjlbvj≥ pfobofnm cdjåjle b ébpym kñltq. D njv ét leöt
dbwt-ghtpbltyn Xtqyb jåtofk, xnj Cjtlbytyyst Infns
≤eybxnjéfn nthhjhbcnbxtcrbt kfuthz, ult ås jyb yb yföjlb7
kbcm≥, f jå Bhfrt pfvtnbk, xnj ytkmpz ljgecnbnm, xnjås
≤htébv, gjkysq ytyfdbcnb r Fvthbrt, cvju rjulf-kbåj euhjéfnm fvthbrfywfv jheébtv vfccjdjuj gjhfétybz≥ (ufptnf ≤Dfibyunjy gjcn≥, 25 bñyz 2002 ujlf).
Htfrwbz vtéleyfhjlyjuj cjjåotcndf yf ljrnhbye Åeif
ckjéytt, b c cjñpybrfvb b lheubvb cnhfyfvb djpybrkb hfpyjukfcbz gj Bhfre, Åkbéytve Djcnjre b gj djghjce j njv,
lj rfrjq cntgtyb Cjtlbytyyst Infns ljkéys åsnm åjktt
≤vyjujcnjhjyybvb≥ d cdjtv gjlöjlt r ibhjrjve rheue
vtéleyfhjlysö ghjåktv. Dghjxtv, vyjubt bp änbö hfpyjukfcbq jcnfñncz xbcnj hbnjhbxtcrbvb, b ibhjrjt cjnhelybxtcndj d djtyyjq b hfpdtlsdfntkmyjq ltzntkmyjcnb ghjljkéftncz. D rfrjq-nj vtht pfheåtéyfz htfrwbz – ytbpåtéyjt
cktlcndbt fvthbrfycrjuj gthdtycndf. B dct ét ghbukeityyfz htfrwbz b ntyltywbz r njve, xnjås jyf jcnfdfkfcm dj
vyjujv cbvdjkbxtcrjq, jnhféftn jncencndbt äaatrnbdysö
chtlcnd vtéleyfhjlyjuj ghfdjghbvtytybz xthtp ltqcndeñobt htubjyfkmyst b vtéleyfhjlyst bycnbnens. D rjytxyjv
cxtnt, ljrnhbyf Åeif ghtlcnfdkztn cjåjq cnhfntubñ pfobns Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd jn djpvjéysö yfgfltybq c ghbvtytybtv jheébz vfccjdjuj gjhfétybz. Rhjvt njuj, jyf djgkjoftn d ctåt eybrfkmyeñ vbhjdeñ hjkm Fvthbrb d pfobnt lheubö jn gjljåysö hfpheitybq.
D nj ét dhtvz Ujcelfhcndtyysq ctrhtnfhm Rjkby Gfeäkk
pfvtnbk, xnj tckb yfyjcbnm eghtélfñobq elfh, nj tuj yflj
yfyjcbnm htibntkmyj. Jy jnvtnbk nfrét, xnj ghjabkfrnbrf vjétn åsnm cdzpfyf yt njkmrj c djtyyjq cbkjq, yj b c
fhtcnfvb, cfyrwbzvb b lbgkjvfnbxtcrbvb vthfvb. Cjdtnybr
gj yfwbjyfkmyjq åtpjgfcyjcnb Rjyljkbpf Hfqc ghbdtkf d rfxtcndt ghbvthf ecgtiyjq ghtdtynbdyjq vths åkjrfle dj
dhtvz reåbycrjuj hfrtnyjuj rhbpbcf 1962 ujlf (wbnfns bp
éehyfkf ≤Ärjyjvbcn≥, 22 bñyz 2002 ujlf, cnh. 29).
Ljrnhbyf Åeif b tt ltnfkbpfwbz djgkjofñn fvthbrfycreñ
dctjödfnsdfñoeñ cnhfntubñ xthtp ujl gjckt cjåsnbq 11
ctynzåhz, yj ljrnhbyf yt ceotcndetn d dfreevt. Tt ébpytcgjcjåyjcnm jnxfcnb åeltn pfdbctnm jn cnfåbkmyjq dyenhtyytq gjllthérb, vtéleyfhjlyjq htfrwbb b cgjcjåyjcnb Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd ytcnb åhtvz änjq cnhfntubb. Yf dyenhtyytq fhtyt, öjnz gj lheubv djghjcfv htprbt gfhnbqyst hfpyjukfcbz jxtdblys, dj dytiytq gjkbnbrt cjöhfyztncz ibhjrfz ldeögfhnbqyfz gjllthérf. D nj ét dhtvz jåotcndtyyjt
vytybt ndthlj gjllthébdftn djqye c nthhjhjv. Dljåfdjr
vfkj ghbpyfrjd njuj, xnj yfuhepre, cdzpfyyeñ c edtkbxtybtv hfcöjljd yf jåjhjye, nhelyj åeltn dslthéfnm. Gthtl 11
ctynzåhz ljkz dfkjdjuj dyenhtyytuj ghjlernf, yfghfdkztvfz yf jåjhjye, egfkf lj 3 ghjwtynjd – åjktt ybprjuj ehjdyz, xtv rjulf-kbåj cj dhtvtyb yfgfltybz yf Gthk-Öfhåjh.
Lfét pyfxbntkmyjt edtkbxtybt jåjhjyysö hfcöjljd, gjdsifñott äne wbahe lj 3,3 ghjwtynf c djpvjéysv ljcnbétybtv 4 ghjwtynjd d åkbéfqibt ujls, yt cjplfcn åjkmitq
yfuheprb, xtv dj dhtvtyf öjkjlyjq djqys.
Hjåthn Lé. Kbåth – htlfrnjh b cjfdnjh bplfyyjq d 2002
ujle rybub ≤Ghfdbn kb jhtk? Dytiyzz gjkbnbrf b fvthbrfycrjt gthdtycndj d 21-v dtrt≥.
Vytybz, dscrfpfyyst d änjq cnfnmt, ghbyflktéfn tt fdnjhe
b yt jåzpfntkmyj jnhféfñn njxre phtybz bkb gjkbnbre
ghfdbntkmcndf CIF.
8
Ärjyjvbxtcrfz wtyf nthhjhbpvf
Åhfqfy C. Eäcåthb
Ukfdysq ärjyjvbcn rjhgjhfwbb
≤Uhbaaby, Reåbr, Cnbdtyc b Njvgcjy≥
Yf dbltjpfgbcb, cltkfyyjq ghbåkbpbntkmyj d rjywt 2001 ujlf, Ecfvf åby Kflty jåüzdbk, xnj nthfrns 11 ctynzåhz
≤ukeåjrj djypbkbcm d cthlwt fvthbrfycrjq ärjyjvbrb≥. R
cxfcnmñ, jy jibåcz. Ärjyjvbrf CIF d njn cnhfiysq ltym
gjkexbkf cbyzrb b dvznbys, yj zcyj, xnj cthlwt fvthbrfycrjq ärjyjvbrb gj-ghtéytve åmtncz hjdyj.
Yfytcz elfh gj Wtynhe
Ärjyjvbrf CIF ghjltvjycnhbhjdfkf cdjñ cnjqrjcnm. Ytcvjnhz yf eothå, jwtybdftvsq d 120 vkhl. ljkkfhjd, b
ytvfkeñ nhtdjue, xthtp ujl gjckt nthfrnjd Cjtlbytyyst
Infns yföjlzncz d ghjwtcct ärjyjvbxtcrjuj jpljhjdktybz.
vtéleyfhjlyjq njhujdkb,
≤Fkm-Rfqlf≥ gjczuyekf yf
Kñåjt bccktljdfybt djpltqcndbz nthfrnjd 11 ctynzåhz yf
ärjyjvbre CIF jckjéyztncz vyjubvb jlyjdhtvtyysvb cjåsnbzvb. Gj lfyysv Yfwbjyfkmyjuj åñhj ärjyjvbxtcrbö
bccktljdfybq, d vfhnt 2001 ujlf fvthbrfycrfz ärjyjvbrf
dcnegbkf d afpe cgflf, b, rfr vs ntgthm pyftv, gthdst nhb
rdfhnfkf 2001 ujlf lfkb jnhbwfntkmysq hjcn. Yf vjvtyn
nthfrnjd ghjvsiktyyjt ghjbpdjlcndj gflfkj 11 vtczwtd
gjlhzl, b wtys yf fvthbrfycrbt frwbb eét cybéfkbcm, jcjåtyyj d dscjrjntöyjkjubxyjv ctrnjht.
bycnbnens rfgbnfkbcnbxtcrjq
ltvjrhfnbb. Dblysq
ärjyjvbcn, hfåjnfñobq d
Gjplytt crfylfks c åeöufknthcrjq jnxtnyjcnmñ gjhjlbkb
cjvytybz d ljcnjdthyjcnb abyfycjdsö jnxtnjd rjhgjhfwbq.
Änb crfylfks gjljhdfkb ljdthbt b dspdfkb ytvfkeñ jpfåjxtyyjcnm chtlb bydtcnjhjd. Htfrwbz gjkbnbrjd vjukf tot
cbkmytt eöelibnm cbnefwbñ, tckb ås dshfpbkfcm d xhtpvthyjv htuekbhjdfybb ghtlghbybvfntkmcrjq ltzntkmyjcnb, yj
gjlgbcfyysq Ghtpbltynjv Åeitv pfrjy j rjhgjhfnbdyjv
vjityybxtcndt yt yfyjcbn eothåf b gjvjétn ecgjrjbnm hsyjxyst cnhföb.
xbrfucrjq bydtcnbwbjyyjq
abhvt, cxbnftn äne gjgsnre
ytelfxyjq, endthélfz, xnj
Gj åjkmijve cxtne, rjhgjhfnbdyfz åtpjndtncndtyyjcnm –
djghjc ghtöjlzobq. Ghbvtytybt pfrjyf b yfrfpfybt ytxtcnysö rjvgfybq hsyjxysvb cbkfvb pfcnfdbn ukfdysö bcgjkybntkmysö lbhtrnjhjd yfdtcnb gjhzljr d cdjbö åfkfycjdsö
dtljvjcnzö. 99 ghjwtynjd fvthbrfycrbö åbpytcvtyjd pfrjyjgjckeiys, b ytlfdybt crfylfks, crjhtt dctuj, cjplflen
jåcnfyjdre, d rjnjhjq vjityybxtcndf åeltn pyfxbntkmyj
vtymit.
fvthbrfycrbt bycnbnens b
ärjyjvbrf, d jcyjdyjv,
djccnfyjdbkbcm gjckt
Ytcvjnhz yf änb ytufnbdyst ghjwtccs, d ntxtybt 45 lytq
gjckt nthfrnjd 11 ctynzåhz cjdjregysq cghjc djccnfyjdbkcz lj cdjtuj ghtéytuj nhtylf, f htfkmysq dfkjdjq dyenhtyybq ghjlern (DDG) egfk d nhtnmtv rdfhnfkt 2001 ujlf, yf
rjnjhsq ghbikbcm gjcktlcndbz nthfrnjd, d vtymitq cntgtyb (-0,3 ghjwtynf), xtv dj dnjhjv rdfhnfkt (-1,6 ghjwtynf),
ytgjchtlcndtyyj gthtl yfgfltybzvb. Öjnz fdbfgthtdjprb b
nthfrnjd.
9
ujcnbybxyfz bylecnhbz dct tot bcgsnsdfñn ltghtccbdysq
ehjdtym frnbdyjcnb, lheubt hfcöjls yt njkmrj djpvtcnbkb,
yj b åjktt xtv rjvgtycbhjdfkb cdzpfyyst c gjtplrfvb
eåsnrb.
kj rfélsq vtczw lj fduecnf 2001 ujlf. Gbr pfyznjcnb ghbitkcz yf vfhn 2001 ujlf, f gthtl nthfrnfvb åskj cjrhfotyj 495 000 hfåjxbö vtcn. Rhjvt njuj, fvthbrfycrbt ajyljdst hsyrb eét gjytckb eåsnrb. R 10 ctynzåhz cdjlysq
ajyljdsq byltrc ≤Cnfylfhl äyl Gehp≥ (S&P) cybpbkcz yf
28,5 ghjwtynf, gj chfdytybñ c gbrjdsv pyfxtybtv, f cdjlysq byltrc NASDAQ egfk yf 66,4 ghjwtynf.
Öjnz ytrjnjhst gjcktlybt ärjyjvbxtcrbt lfyyst, gjöjét,
ghtlgjkfufñn yfkbxbt yjdjuj yfåjhf gjntywbfkmysö ckfåjcntq d ärjyjvbrt, yt dct lfyyst erfpsdfñn d jnhbwfntkmyeñ cnjhjye. Xbckj gthdbxysö pfzdjr yf gjkextybt gjcjåbq
gj åtphfåjnbwt ghjljkéftn gflfnm, gjrfpfntkb jåütvf hjpybxyjq njhujdkb jcnfñncz rhtgrbvb, frnbdyjcnm yf hsyrt
ébkmz dscjrf, f ehjdyb pfgfcjd jcnfñncz ybprbvb. Djghtrb jgfctybzv, ghtlcnfdkztncz, xnj ärjyjvbrf CIF gjghtéytve ndthlj cnjbn yf yjufö.
Ytcvjnhz yf cjöhfyzñoeñcz ghjxyjcnm gjrfpfntktq gjnhtåbntkmcrbö hfcöjljd b hjpybxysö ghjlfé, yfxfkj ärjyjvbxtcrjuj cgflf lfnbhetncz vfhnjv 2001 ujlf, pf gznm vtczwtd lj nthfrnjd. Dtltncz vyjuj ltåfnjd j njv, rfrbt afrnjhs dspdfkb gfltybt frwbq b cgfl, b vyjubt cxbnfñn, xnj
änj gjcktlcndbz lenjuj hjcnf bydtcnbwbq. Jlyfrj rfnfkbpfnjhs cgflf yt cnjkm jxtdblys.
Tcnm nhb ghbxbys cnjqrjcnb fvthbrfycrjq ärjyjvbrb.
Dj-gthdsö, Atlthfkmyfz htpthdyfz cbcntvf nhbéls cjrhfofkf ghjwtynyst cnfdrb gjckt nthfrnjd, cjrhfnbd bö eét
djctvm hfp d ghtlitcndeñobt bv djctvm vtczwtd. Dj-dnjhsö, d vft 2001 ujlf Ghtpbltyn Åei gjlgbcfk gthdsq c
1986 ujlf pfrjy j cybétybb yfkjujd, f Rjyuhtcc d yfxfkt
2002 ujlf ghbyzk pfrjyjghjtrn j cnbvekfö, ghtlecvfnhbdfñobq cjrhfotybt yfkjujd yf ghtlghbznbz.
Gjcktlyzz b cfvfz dféyfz ghbxbyf: yf dctv ghjnzétybb
ärjyjvbxtcrjuj cgflf d CIF ghjljkéfkf hfcnb ghjbpdjlbntkmyjcnm nhelf. Änf fyjvfkmyfz ntyltywbz cdbltntkmcndetn j ghjxyjv jcyjdjgjkfufñotv gjntywbfkmyjv hjcnt.
Pfntv d gthdst ldf rdfhnfkf 2002 ujlf ytctkmcrjöjpzqcndtyyfz ghjbpdjlbntkmyjcnm gjlyzkfcm yf 4,8 ghjwtynf d gthtcxtnt yf ujljdst ntvgs, ecrjhbd hjcn htfkmyjuj DDG b
pfrhtgbd jpljhjdktybt.
Ghb bleobö ddthö wbrkbxtcrbö (ltytéysö b åñlétnysö) b
ljkujdhtvtyysö (ghjbpdjlbntkmyjcnm) nhtylfö ärjyjvbrf
CIF afrnbxtcrb yföjlbncz ctqxfc d kexitq ajhvt, xtv
rjulf-kbåj c cthtlbys 2000 ujlf. Öjnz ljåfdktyyfz cnjbvjcnm nhfycgjhnbhjdrb, jöhfys, cnhföjdfybz b ecbkbditqcz
pfobns byahfcnhernehs åeltn d ghtlcnjzobt ujls njhvjpbnm ärjyjvbxtcrbq hjcn d CIF, änb bplthérb ljkéys
kturj gjukjofnmcz ndthlsv ljkujchjxysv hjcnjv ghjbpdjlbntkmyjcnb.
D 1999 b 2000 ujlfö Atlthfkmyfz htpthdyfz cbcntvf gjdscbkf htfkmyst ghjwtynyst cnfdrb lj vfrcbvfkmyjuj ehjdyz
åjktt xtv pf 10 ktn. Ljkz yfkjujd d DDG d 2000 ujle nfrét ljcnbukf htrjhlyjuj ehjdyz lkz vbhyjuj dhtvtyb. Cjcnfdkzz 20,8 ghjwtynf DDG, yfkjub ajhvbhjdfkb yfbåjkmieñ ljkñ cjdjregyjuj yfwbjyfkmyjuj ghjlernf c 1944 ujlf, rjulf Cjtlbytyyst Infns exfcndjdfkb dj Dnjhjq vbhjdjq djqyt. Gjcrjkmre b htfkmyst ghjwtynyst cnfdrb, b yfkjub dsikb yf dtcmvf jåhtvtybntkmysq ehjdtym, ärjyjvbrf åskf jåhtxtyf yf nhelyjcnb.
Gj chfdytybñ c gjnthzvb, gjytctyysvb d ghjiksö djqyfö,
bplthérb nthfrnjd 11 ctynzåhz b gjcktleñobö rjynhfnfr d
Faufybcnfyt ytdtkbrb. Cjtlbytyyst Infns ghjwdtnfkb, ytcvjnhz yf Gthdeñ b Dnjheñ vbhjdst djqys, Rjhtqcreñ
djqye, Dmtnyfvcreñ djqye b jgthfwbñ ≤Åehz d gecnsyt≥.
Ébpytcnjqrjcnm Fvthbrb gthtl kbwjv änbö rjyakbrnjd –
htpekmnfn ghbdthétyyjcnb ltvjrhfnbxtcrjq hsyjxyjq cbcntvt. Ytcvjnhz yf nj, xnj ≤Fkm-Rfqlf≥ fnfrjdfkf vfzr rfgbnfkbpvf d vbhjdjv abyfycjdjv wtynht, ghtlghbybvfntkmcrbq leö d Fvthbrt gj-ghtéytve ébdtn b åkfujltycndetn.
R cxfcnmñ, 3 zydfhz 2001 ujlf ghb ghjwtynyjq cnfdrt gj
rhfnrjchjxysv rhtlbnfv yf ehjdyt 6,5 ghjwtynf Atlthfkmyfz htpthdyfz cbcntvf yfxfkf cthbñ cjrhfotybq ghjwtynysö cnfdjr. Gjcrjkmre yf vjvtyn yfxfkf cvzuxtybz rhfnrjchjxyst cnfdrb åskb cnjkm dscjrb, kbim r vfñ 2001 ujlf, rjulf jyb egfkb ybét 4,5 ghjwtynf, cnfdrb cnfkb ljcnfnjxyj ybprbvb lkz gjkjébntkmyjuj djpltqcndbz yf ärjyjvbre. Hfphsd d 6-9 vtczwtd vtéle cybétybtv cnfdjr b htfkmysv jnrkbrjv ärjyjvbrb jpyfxfk, xnj yfcnjzott jpljhjdktybt tldf kb yfxfkjcm ås lj yjzåhz 2001 ujlf.
Xnj eöeliftn gjkjétybt dtotq
Rjulf ≤Fkm-Rfqlf≥ bcgjkyzkf cdjq gkfy, ghbyznst hfytt
Atlthfkmyjq htpthdyjq cbcntvjq b flvbybcnhfwbtq Åeif
gjkbnbxtcrbt htitybz eét cjplfkb ghtlgjcskrb r jpljhjdktybñ. R yfxfke ctynzåhz cnfdrf gj rhfnrjchjxysv rhtlbnfv åskf cybétyf yfgjkjdbye – lj 3,25 ghjwtynf. Ghtpb-
Dghjxtv, äkfcnbxyjcnm ärjyjvbrb yt jnvtyztn ärjyjvbxtcrbö wbrkjd. Pfljkuj lj 11 ctynzåhz ärjyjvbrf CIF gjrfpsdfkf zdyst ghbpyfrb ckfåjcnb. Ghjvsiktyyjt ghjbpdjlcndj ljcnbukj gbrf d ctynzåht 2000 ujlf b c ntö gjh gflf10
ltyn Åei ljåbkcz cybétybz yfkjujd d yfbåjktt gjlöjlzobq vjvtyn dhtvtyb pf dcñ bcnjhbñ, ghtljcnfdbd fvthbrfywfv åjkmit cdjåjls ghb hfcöjljdfybb cdjtuj pfhfåjnrf.
Nthfrns, djpvjéyj, pflthéfkb jpljhjdktybt, yj eé njxyj
yt dspdfkb cgflf.
11 ctynzåhz – ytgjchtlcndtyyst ärjyjvbxtcrbt gjcktlcndbz
Rhfnrjchjxysq äaatrn nthfrnjd åsk juhjvysv. Ubåtkm
kñltq b enhfnf bveotcndf cnjbkb cnhföjdsv rjvgfybzv d
jåotq ckjéyjcnb ghbvthyj 40 vkhl. ljkkfhjd. Änb ghzvst
bplthérb vthryen gj chfdytybñ c rjcdtyysvb. Njhujdst
wtynhs b htcnjhfys gj dctq cnhfyt åskb pfrhsns, gj vtymitq vtht, yf 24 xfcf; d cdzpfyysö c gjdsityysv hbcrjv
jabcysö plfybzö (nfrbö, rfr Cbhc-nfeäh d Xbrfuj) åskf
ghjdtltyf ädfrefwbz; cfvjktns åskb gjcfétys; ajyljdsq
hsyjr ghtrhfnbk njhub yf xtnsht lyz gjlhzl.
D ctynzåht 2001 ujlf hjpybxyst ghjlféb egfkb yf 6 vkhl.
ljkkfhjd (2,1 ghjwtynf); yjdst pfrfps yf njdfhs lkbntkmyjuj gjkmpjdfybz egfkb yf 11,6 vkhl. ljkkfhjd (6,8 ghjwtynf); xbckj yjdsö pfzdktybq yf gjcjåbz gj åtphfåjnbwt djphjckj yf 50 000 – yfbåjkmibq crfxjr pf vtczw c fduecnf
1982 ujlf. Ghjvsiktyyjt ghjbpdjlcndj egfkj d ctynzåht yf
1,0 ghjwtynf. 17 ctynzåhz, rjulf ajyljdst åbhéb, yfrjytw,
jnrhskbcm lkz njhujd, cdjlysq ajyljdsq byltrc S&P egfk
tot yf 7,0 ghjwtynf, f NASDAQ – yf 9,9 ghjwtynf, ljcnbuyed cdjbö vbybvfkmysö pyfxtybq 21 ctynzåhz.
Rhegyst fdbfrjvgfybb ytvtlktyyj cjrhfnbkb htqcs gj hfcgbcfybñ yf 30 ghjwtynjd, yj lfét ghb vtymitv xbckt htqcjd cfvjktns yt pfgjkyzkbcm. Htprj jgecntkb ujcnbybws, f
dcz ärjyjvbrf pf gjcktlybt xtnsht vtczwf 2001 ujlf gjnthzkf 1,1 vky. hfåjxbö vtcn. Gj cjcnjzybñ yf 29 ltrfåhz
2001 ujlf Åñhj nheljdjq cnfnbcnbrb jnytckj 408 rhegysö
edjkmytybq (jghtltkztvsö rfr cjrhfotybt 50 hfåjxbö vtcn
bkb åjktt) r ghzvsv b rjcdtyysv gjcktlcndbzv nthfrnjd,
ghbxtv 70 ghjwtynjd änbö edjkmytybq ghbikjcm yf djpleiysq nhfycgjhn b bylecnhbñ nehbpvf.
Rhjvt njuj, dcktlcndbt åjktt cnhjujuj ljcvjnhf yf gjuhfybxysö geyrnfö b d gjhnfö jåhfpjdfkbcm ≤ghjårb≥ d cbcntvfö eghfdktybz wtgjxrfvb gjcnfdjr. D ctynzåht 2001 ujlf
gjcnfdrb njdfhjd lkbntkmyjuj gjkmpjdfybz egfkb yf 9,2
vkhl. ljkkfhjd, gjcrjkmre nhfycgjhnyst ghjåktvs dytckb
genfybwe d gjnjrb pfrfpjd b dpdbynbkb pfnhfns yf ljcnfdre
njdfhjd.
Änj lfktrj yt gjkysq gthtxtym eåsnrjd. Fdbfrjvgfybb ytvtlktyyj gjkexbkb d gjvjom jn ghfdbntkmcndf rhtlbn yf
15 vkhl. ljkkfhjd b ghjczn tot. Htprj edtkbxbkbcm cnhföjdst hfcöjls, ghbxtv d ytrjnjhsö ckexfzö tétvtczxyfz
cnjbvjcnm cnhföjdrb gjdscbkfcm yf 300 b åjkmit ghjwtynjd, gj chfdytybñ c gthbjljv lj nthfrnjd. Djpybr cnhföjdjq uhflbtyn, gjdsifñobq ghjbpdjlcndtyyst pfnhfns c
ghbåkbétybtv vtcnf hfcgjkjétybz rjvgfybq r wtynhfv gjkbnbxtcrjq b abyfycjdjq dkfcnb.
D nj ét dhtvz htprj djphjckb b hfcöjls yf åtpjgfcyjcnm.
Yfhzle c edtkbxtybtv xbckf jöhfyybrjd d åjkmibycndt
rhegysö ujhjlcrbö plfybq, ddtltys nheljtvrbt ghjwtlehs
jåtcgtxtybz åtpjgfcyjcnb. Ytrjnjhst abhvs ljikb lj nj11
uj, xnj ecnfyfdkbdfñn htynutyjdcrbt fggfhfns b vtnfkkjbcrfntkb.
C njxrb phtybz cnbvekjd, nthfrns 11 ctynzåhz bpvtybkb
cjjnyjitybt vtéle hbcrjv b djpyfuhféltybtv d fvthbrfycrjq ärjyjvbrt. Yt njkmrj gjdscbkbcm hbcrb (pf cxtn
cåjtd d åbpytct b eåsnrjd), yj b djpyfuhféltybz cnfkb
ybét bp-pf hfcneobö pfnhfn yf åtpjgfcyjcnm. Ytgjchtlcndtyyj dcktl pf htprbv cjrhfotybtv ghjbpdjlcndtyyjq ltzntkmyjcnb, ärjyjvbxtcrbv cgfljv b rjkkfgcjv wty yf frwbb
nfrjq gthtrjc d bydtcnbwbjyysö cnbvekfö dspdfk åjkmieñ
nhtdjue.
Jpljhjdktybt
Ntv yt vtytt, fvthbrfycrfz ärjyjvbrf djccnfyjdbkfcm. Pf
cxbnfyyst lyb gjnhtåbntkb b ghtlghbybvfntkb dthyekbcm r
cdjbv pfyznbzv. Ghjbpdjlbntkb fdnjvjåbktq ddtkb rhtlbnjdfybt c yektdjq ghjwtynyjq cnfdrjq, b ghjlféb vfiby
htprj gjikb ddthö. Lj änjuj jyb cjrhfnbkbcm d gthtcxtnt
yf ujl c 16,4 vky. tlbybw d fduecnt 2001 ujlf lj 15,9 vky.
tlbybw d ctynzåht, yj cnfkb gjdsifnmcz d htpekmnfnt ddtltybz cnbvekjd d rjywt vtczwf. Pfntv, d jrnzåht, ghjlféb
fdnjvjåbktq djphjckb lj 21,3 vky. tlbybw gj ujljdjve gjrfpfntkñ – htrjhlyjuj ehjdyz pf dct dhtvtyf.
Gj dctv ghjvsiktyysv ctrnjhfv fvthbrfycrjq ärjyjvbrb
ghjrfnbkfcm djkyf yjdsö ntöyjkjubq. Cjxtnfybt ecgtöjd d
jåkfcnb gjkeghjdjlybrjd, ghjuhfvvyjuj jåtcgtxtybz b ntöybrb cdzpb ghtdhfoftn Cjtlbytyyst Infns bp ärjyjvbrb c
ghjvsiktyyjq jcyjdjq d ärjyjvbre c byajhvfwbjyyjq jcyjdjq – dj vyjujv gjljåyj njve, rfr vfibys jåtcgtxbkb
gthtöjl jn ctkmcrjöjpzqcndtyyjq r ghjvsiktyyjq ägjöt.
Lheubt hjpybxyst ghjlfdws nfrét cybpbkb wtys, b ctynzåhmcrbq cgfl åsk rjvgtycbhjdfy jrnzåhmcrbv ghbhjcnjv.
Pf bcrkñxtybtv fdnjvjåbktq, hjpybxyst ghjlféb egfkb d
ctynzåht yf 1,2 ghjwtynf, yj d jrnzåht dyjdm dshjckb yf nt
ét 1,2 ghjwtynf. Gj fyfkjubxyjq cötvt xbckj yjdsö pfrfpjd yf njdfhs lkbntkmyjuj gjkmpjdfybz d ctynzåht evtymibkjcm yf 6,8 ghjwtynf, f d jrnzåht cyjdf edtkbxbkjcm yf
9,2 ghjwtynf.
Öjnz frwbb dscjrjntöyjkjubxysö rjvgfybq d gjcktlybt
ujls gflfkb, bpjåhtntybz b ndjhxtcndj, cnbvekbhetvst juhjvysvb bydtcnbwbzvb 1980-ö b 1990-ö ujljd, ghjljkéfñn
htprj gjdsifnm äaatrnbdyjcnm fvthbrfycrjuj åbpytcf. Yjdst vtnjls eghfdktybz wtgjxrfvb gjcnfdjr, ljcneg r byajhvfwbb d htébvt htfkmyjuj dhtvtyb, cjcnfdktybt rfhns
utyjvf xtkjdtrf, gjregrf njdfhjd xthtp Bynthytn, åtpåevféyfz njhujdkz, vjybnjhbyujdst ecnhjqcndf cbcntvs ukjåfkmyjuj gjpbwbjybhjdfybz b crfyths hjpybxysö wty – djn
kbim xfcnbxysq gthtxtym ntöyjkjubxtcrbö crfxrjd, cltkfyysö pf gjcktlybt ltcznbktnbz.
Dféyj gjvybnm, xnj kñåjt djccnfyjdktybt ltkjdjq frnbdyjcnb d 2001 ujle åskj ghbukeityysv dcktlcndbt ghjljkéfñotujcz cgflf. Ärjyjvbrf dthyekfcm r cdjtq kbybb nhtylf gjxnb åtp pflthérb, yj cfv änjn nhtyl åsk tot ckfå.
Ytcvjnhz yf hfpheitybz, dspdfyyst nthfrnfvb, d xtndthnjv rdfhnfkt htfkmysq DDG dshjc d ujljdjv bcxbcktybb yf
2,7 ghjwtynf.
F cfvjt ukfdyjt – gjcktlybt jghjcs gjrfpsdfñn, xnj cjdhtvtyyst ghtlghbznbz bcgjkmpeñn dctuj 20-25 ghjwtynjd
ljcnegysö bv ntöyjkjubq. D htpekmnfnt vjéyj c jghtltktyyjq edthtyyjcnmñ crfpfnm, xnj d ghtlcnjzobt ujls hjcn
ghjbpdjlbntkmyjcnb jcnfytncz yf ndthljq djcöjlzotq nhftrnjhbb. Änj edtkbxbn ljöjls b ghbåskb, jlyjdhtvtyyj clthébdfz byakzwbñ, xnj ajhvbhetn bltfkmyst eckjdbz lkz
cjplfybz åjufncndf. Ghjbpdjlbntkmyjcnm – djn ctrhtnyjt
jheébt rfgbnfkbpvf. Åtp ytt ytn hjcnf. C ytq nfrbt dytiybt gjnhzctybz, rfr nthfrns 11 ctynzåhz, ujhfplj vtytt åjktpytyys.
Vyjubv yf elbdktybt gjnhtåbntkb ghjzdbkb cnjqrjcnm b
dvtcnj njuj, xnjås nhfnbnm ltymub yf gjtplrb, cnfkb åjkmit hfcöjljdfnm bö yf hfpkbxyst yeéls dyenhb cnhfys. D
rjywt 2001 b yfxfkt 2002 ujlf rbyjntfnhs ecnfyfdkbdfkb
htrjhl pf htrjhljv gj ljöjlfv. Ghjlféb yjdsö ljvjd d
2001 ujle nfrét djphjckb lj htrjhlyjq jnvtnrb, f vfufpbys äktrnhjybrb b åsnjdjq ntöybrb d xtndthnjv rdfhnfkt
edtkbxbkb ghjlféb yf 23,3 ghjwtynf d gthtcxtnt yf ujl.
Gjdsitybt cghjcf yf fvthbrfycrbt akfub gjckt 11 ctynzåhz gjikj lfét yf gjkmpe vbhjdjq ärjyjvbrt, gjcrjkmre
jntxtcndtyysv ghjbpdjlbntkzv ghbikjcm ghbåtuyenm r eckeufv rbnfqcrbö afåhbr, gjcnfdbdibö d 2001 ujle åjktt
gjkjdbys htrjhlyjuj bvgjhnf akfujd yf 51,7 vky. ljkkfhjd.
Rhtgxftv jn ytdpujl
C vjvtynf jcyjdfybz Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd Fvthbrb ärcgthbvtyn d jåkfcnb hsyjxyjq ltvjrhfnbb lfk ytdthjznyst
htpekmnfns. Bp ytåjkmijuj hzlf rjkjybq Cjtlbytyyst
Infns ghtdhfnbkbcm d cfveñ rhegyeñ b ghjbpdjlbntkmyeñ
ärjyjvbre d vbht.
Gjdtltybt gjnhtåbntktq, djpvjéyj, bpvtybkjcm, yj yf jåobq ntvg hfcöjljd nthfrns 11 ctynzåhz tldf kb gjdkbzkb.
Jnxfcnb änj åskj jåeckjdktyj åscnhjq htfrwbtq Atlthfkmyjq htpthdyjq cbcntvs, d rjywt 2001 ujlf nhbéls cjrhfofditq ghjwtynyst cnfdrb. Cybpbd cnfdre gj rhfnrjchjxysv rhtlbnfv lj 1,75 ghjwtynf, Atlthfkmyfz htpthdyfz cbcntvf ghfrnbxtcrb ufhfynbhjdfkf jébdktyysq hjcn ärjyjvbxtcrjq frnbdyjcnb d cthtlbyt 2002 ujlf. Rhjvt njuj, cybétybt ghjwtynysö cnfdjr lj nthfrnjd nfrét yfxbyfkj gjlybvfnm ärjyjvbre gjckt yjhvfkmyjuj jncnfdfybz gj dhtvtyb.
D gthbjl c 1947 gj 2001 ujl htfkmysq DDG c gjghfdrjq yf
byakzwbñ dshjc ghb chtlytujljdjv ntvgt 3,5 ghjwtynf c
1,5 nhky. lj 9,3 nhky. ljkkfhjd. D 2001 ujle htfkmysq DDG
d CIF dct ét åsk yf 23,1 vkhl. ljkkfhjd dsit, xtv d
2000 ujle, ytcvjnhz yf vfnthbfkmyst gjnthb d htpekmnfnt
nthfrnjd 11 ctynzåhz b ärjyjvbxtcrbq cgfl.
Öjnz vyjubt cxbnfñn, xnj Cjtlbytyyst Infns ljcnbukb
cdjtuj gjkyjuj gjntywbfkf b vjuen dcnegbnm d gthbjl yteljdktndjhbntkmyjuj ärjyjvbxtcrjuj hjcnf, änj ybrjbv jåhfpjv yt jxtdblyj. Vyjubt ghtlhtrfkb ytxnj gjljåyjt d
ghjikjv b jibåfkbcm. Ljåfdktyyfz cnjbvjcnm d cdzpb c
hfcöjlfvb yf åtpjgfcyjcnm, nhfycgjhn b cnhföjdre – dct änj
vjétn njhvjpbnm hjcn. Yj änb pfnhfns ytpyfxbntkmys, gj
chfdytybñ c gjntywbfkmysvb ntvgfvb hjcnf htfkmyjuj DDG
d CIF.
Ctrhtnyjt jheébt
Yj, gjéfkeq, ukfdyjq ldbéeotq cbkjq fvthbrfycrjq cnjqrjcnb cnfk ndthlsq hjcn ghjbpdjlbntkmyjcnb. Jlyjq bp dféytqibö ghjdthjr yf ghjxyjcnm jcyjdjgjkfufñobö ntyltywbq
ghjbpdjlbntkmyjcnb dscnegftn ltqcndbt änbö ntyltywbq d
gthbjls ärjyjvbxtcrbö cgfljd b dytiybö gjnhzctybq lkz
ärjyjvbrb. Åtpeckjdyj, fvthbrfycrbt gjrfpfntkb ghjbpdjlbntkmyjcnb dj dhtvz cgflf 2001 ujlf b gjckt nthfrnjd 11
ctynzåhz dgtxfnkzñn.
Ntöyjkjubz eét gjvjuftn cjrhfofnm hfcöjls yf åtpjgfcyjcnm b ghjljkébn ltkfnm änj d åeleotv. Åjktt njuj,
ytqhjyyst ctnb, chtlcndf gjbcrf gj åfpfv lfyysö d htébvt
12
Pfrkñxtybt
htfkmyjuj dhtvtyb b crfybheñofz ntöybrf d åeleotv gjpdjkzn tot åjktt gjdscbnm äaatrnbdyjcnm cbcntv åtpjgfcyjcnb. Öjnz ytrjnjhst jgfcfñncz pf ytghbrjcyjdtyyjcnm
cdjtq xfcnyjq ébpyb, nthhjhbcnfv cnfyjdbncz dct nhelytt b
nhelytt ltqcndjdfnm d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö. Gj vtht njuj,
rfr fvthbrfyws cnfyen åjktt edthtyysvb d cdjtq åtpjgfcyjcnb, djpjåyjdzncz yf ghtéytv ehjdyt b gjtplrb.
Rfgbnfkbpv – änj yt ghjcnj plfybz b cfvjktns. Jy djgkjoftncz d bycnbnenfö b kbxyjcnzö, cjcnfdkzñobö jåotcndj.
Öjnz 11 ctynzåhz cdjbvb nheckbdsvb pkjltzybzvb nthhjhbcns gjueåbkb ytvfkj abyfycjdsö nfkfynjd, fvthbrfycrbt
bycnbnens b gjlfdkzñott åjkmibycndj bö ndjhxtcrbö nfkfynjd jcnfñncz ytdhtlbvsvb.
F cfvjt ukfdyjt, jcjpyfybt njuj, xnj Cjtlbytyyst Infns
yt pfcnhföjdfys jn ghzvjuj yfgfltybz, ghtlcnfdkztn cjåjq
ceotcndtyyeñ gthtvtye. Lj nthfrnjd cnjbvjcnm cnhföjdrb b
jwtyrb hbcrjd åskb ckbirjv ybprbvb. Ctqxfc, rjulf cnjbvjcnm cnhföjdrb djphjckf, f wtys yf frwbb cybpbkbcm, hsyjr, crjhtt dctuj, gthtjwtybdftn hbcr. Cj dhtvtytv änb htfrwbb cåfkfycbheñncz.
Rjytxysv htpekmnfnjv cnfkf åscnhfz gthtvtyf ärjyjvbxtcrjq ajhneys. Bp vtczwf d vtczw fvthbrfyws jcnfyfdkbdfkbcm b pflevsdfkbcm, jåhtnfkb htibvjcnm yfytcnb jndtnysq elfh, f pfntv dthyekbcm r hfåjnt rfr cfvst ghjlernbdyst uhfélfyt d vbht. Ecfvf åby Kflty ghjvföyekcz.
Åhfqfy C. Eäcåthb – bpdtcnysq ärjyjvbcn-ghjuyjpbcn, hfytt
hfåjnfdibq d Jåütlbytyyjv ärjyjvbxtcrjv rjvbntnt Rjyuhtccf.
Rhjvt njuj, nthfrns cltkfkb nj, xtuj yt cvjukb cltkfnm
gjxnb 90 ktn gjkbnbxtcrbö gjgsnjr ljåbnmcz hfphzlrb
vtéleyfhjlyjq yfghzétyyjcnb: cjplfkb ntcysq fkmzyc
vtéle Hjccbtq b Cjtlbytyysvb Infnfvb. Pfybvfz ctqxfc
dnjhjt vtcnj d vbht gj ljåsxt ytanb, Hjccbz cnfkf rhegysv buhjrjv yf äythutnbxtcrjv hsyrt, cgjcjåcndeñobv jpljhjdktybñ ärjyjvbrb gentv clthébdfybz vbhjdsö wty yf
ytanm.
Vytybz, dscrfpfyyst d änjq cnfnmt, ghbyflktéfn tt fdnjhe
b yt jåzpfntkmyj jnhféfñn njxre phtybz bkb gjkbnbre
ghfdbntkmcndf CIF.
13
Yfltélf - jndtn yf nthhjh
Bynthdmñ
c Léjhlétv Rfhgtynthjv bp rjvgfybb ≤Ghjrnth äyl Uävåk≥ b
Hjåthnjv R. Gbkfynjv bp rjvgfybb
≤Ötqath Bynthyäiyk≥
Dhféltåyjcnm, dshfpbdifzcz
d nthhjhbcnbxtcrbö frnfö,
gjåelbkf Cjtlbytyyst Infns
Fvthbrb tot åjkmit
frnbdbpbhjdfnm ecbkbz gj
ghtjljktybñ åtlyjcnb b
kbitybq d vbht.
Gjkbnbrf Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd Fvthbrb d jnyjitybb gjvjob yf yeéls hfpdbnbz jcyjdfyf yf edthtyyjcnb d njv, xnj
åtlyjcnm jåtcgtxbdftn gbnfntkmyeñ gjxde lkz åjktpytq b
kbitybq b gjntywbfkmyj lkz ghtcnegyjcnb, rjhhegwbb, b, d
rjytxyjv cxtnt, nthhjhbpvf. Nthhjhbcnbxtcrbt frns 11 ctynzåhz eghjxbkb änj eåtéltybt, b ljyjhs – ghfdbntkmcndj,
xfcnyst b rjhgjhfnbdyst jhufybpfwbb – c yjdjq äythubtq
cnhtvzncz lfnm yfltéle b ärjyjvbxtcrbt djpvjéyjcnb åtlytqitve yfctktybñ vbhf. Ldf ärcgthnf, pfybvfñobtcz jrfpfybtv gjvjob gj kbybb xfcnyjuj ctrnjhf b ltzntkmyjcnmñ
d jåkfcnb ecnjqxbdjuj hfpdbnbz, jåceélfñn hfpdbnbt dpukzljd d lfyyjq jåkfcnb c ukfdysv htlfrnjhjv ≤Ukjåfkmysö
ghjåktv≥ Ifhkby Gjhnth.
Hjåthn R. Gbkfyn – lbhtrnjh gj ghjuhfvvfv d Fpbb b ñéyjq xfcnb Nböjjrtfycrjuj htubjyf ytrjvvthxtcrjq jhufybpfwbb ≤Ötqath Bynthyäiyk≥, ghbpdfyyjq gjvjufnm ujkjlfñobv d hfpysö hfqjyfö vbhf hfpdbdfnm htcehcs, xnjås bvtnm
djpvjéyjcnm ghjrjhvbnm ctåz cfvjcnjzntkmyj. ≤Ötqath≥,
htfkbpeñofz d 47 cnhfyfö ghjuhfvvs jåextybz cjlthéfybñ
crjnf b dtltybñ ctkmcrjuj öjpzqcndf, cxbnftncz ytpfdbcbvsvb cgtwbfkbcnfvb jlyjq bp cfvsö äaatrnbdysö b yjdfnjhcrbö åkfujndjhbntkmysö jhufybpfwbq CIF. Hjåthn Gbkfyn
– dtnthbyfh, ljrnjh yfer, cgtwbfkbpbheñobqcz yf hfphfåjnrt vtéleyfhjlysö ghjuhfvv d jåkfcnb pljhjdmz b åkfujgjkexbz ébdjnysö.
Léjhlé Rfhgtynth – lbhtrnjh ghjuhfvvs ecnjqxbdjuj hfpdbnbz rjhgjhfwbb ≤Ghjrnth äyl Uävåk≥ – frnbdyj pfybvftncz jceotcndkztvsvb rjvgfybtq vyjujyfwbjyfkmysvb ghjuhfvvfvb gjvjob d jåkfcnb jöhfys jrheéfñotq chtls,
plhfdjjöhfytybz b cjwbfkmysö ghjåktv d hfpdbdfñoböcz
cnhfyfö. ≤Ghjrnth äyl Uävåk≥ hfåjnftn d 80 cnhfyfö, b ytpfdbcbvst jhufybpfwbb dscjrj jwtybdfñn uhfélfycreñ gjpbwbñ rjvgfybb.
Djghjc: Rfr cjåsnbz 11 ctynzåhz b dspdfyysq bvb frwtyn
yf nthhjhbpv b ghbxbys nthhjhbpvf cgjcjåcndeñn gthtcvjnhe ghjuhfvv hfpdbnbz, rjnjhsvb pfybvftncz dfif jhufybpfwbz?
Rfhgtynth: D gjcktlybt ytcrjkmrj ktn rjvgfybz ≤Ghjrnth
äyl Uävåk≥ cnfkf ghblfdfnm åjkmitt pyfxtybt ytjåöjlbvjcnb cnfåbkmyjcnb d cnhfyfö vbhf. Gjckt 11 ctynzåhz vs, d
xfcnyjcnb, cjchtljnjxbkb dybvfybt yf cbkmyjv ujcelfhcn14
dtyyjv eghfdktybb rfr ghtlgjcskrt bkb jcyjdt, rjnjhfz
ytjåöjlbvf lkz ecnjqxbdjuj hfpdbnbz. Åtp jåtcgtxtybz
dkfcnb pfrjyf, åtp jcyjdfyyjq yf ghfdbkfö ärjyjvbxtcrjq
cbcntvs, jncencndbz rjhhegwbb b dpznjxybxtcndf ghjcnj ytdjpvjéyj gjkexbnm bydtcnbwbb, ytjåöjlbvst d hfpdbdfñoböcz cnhfyfö lkz htitybz frnefkmysö ärjkjubxtcrbö, ärjyjvbxtcrbö b cjwbfkmysö djghjcjd. Cnhfyfv yeéys bydtcnbwbb cj cnjhjys nfrbö rjvgfybq, rfr yfif, lkz gjdsitybz rfxtcndf ébpyb uhfélfy b dsdjlf bö bp åtlyjcnb r ghjlernbdyjve jåhfpe ébpyb, rjnjhjve åkfujghbzncndetn ukjåfkmyfz ärjyjvbrf.
b jhufybpfwbzvb, jyb gjpdjkzñn yfibv cjnhelybrfv ghbtpéfnm b dsgjkyznm åfpjdeñ uevfybnfhyeñ hfåjne d bynthtcfö hfpdbnbz.
D: D xtv cjcnjbn änf åfpjdfz hfåjnf? Jgbibnt tt gjlhjåytt.
Gbkfyn: Yfif ghjuhfvvf yf Abkbggbyfö bvttn hzl vfubcnhfkmysö yfghfdktybq. Ukfdyjt – änj ekexitybt cjcnjzybz
jrheéfñotq chtls. Rhjvt njuj, vs gjvjuftv kñlzv
gjrblfnm vfhubyfkmyst d cjwbfkmyj-ärjyjvbxtcrjv gkfyt
jåotcndtyyst ckjb, xnjås cnfnm ghjlernbdysvb xktyfvb
jåotcndf, b jrfpsdftv gjllthére vtcnyjve yfctktybñ d
gjdsitybb ehjdyz ébpyb. Vs cdjlbv kñltq dvtcnt lkz hfåjns yfl djghjcfvb utythbhjdfybz ljöjljd, ghjbpdjlcndf
ghjljdjkmcndbz b ekexitybz cjcnjzybz jrheéfñotq chtls.
Vs ltkftv änj d hfvrfö hfpkbxyjuj hjlf gfhnythcnd, rjnjhst xfcnj drkñxfñn vtcnyst jhufys dkfcnb. Jyb nfrét
drkñxfñn vtcnyst rjhgjhfwbb b (bkb) abhvs, xnj cjplftn
dpfbvjdsujlyeñ cbnefwbñ, rjulf vjéyj ljåbnmcz ujhfplj
åjktt wtkjcnysö b ecnjqxbdsö ghtjåhfpjdfybq, byjulf dsöjlz pf hfvrb yfwbjyfkmysö uhfybw.
D: Pf vtczws, ghjitlibt gjckt nthfrnjd, Ghtpbltyn Åei
dscnegbk cj pyfxbntkmysvb yjdsvb bybwbfnbdfvb j gjvjob hfpdbdfñotvecz vbhe, crfpfd: ≤Vs åjhtvcz ghjnbd
åtlyjcnb, gjcrjkmre jndtnjv yf nthhjh dscnegftn yfltélf≥. L-h Gbkfyn, rfr änb nthhjhbcnbxtcrbt frns bpvtybkb gjlöjl ≤Ötqath Bynthyäiyk≥?
Gbkfyn: D ytcrjkmrbö fcgtrnfö. Rjytxyj, vs b hfymit åskb jpfåjxtys åtpjgfcyjcnmñ vtcnyjuj b pfheåtéyjuj gthcjyfkf d hfpkbxysö cnhfyfö vbhf, yj änb cjåsnbz gjdscbkb
yfie ålbntkmyjcnm, b vs yfxfkb gthtjwtybdfnm ljgjkybntkmyjt jåextybt d jåkfcnb åtpjgfcyjcnb lkz yfibö ghtlcnfdbntkmcnd b gthcjyfkf dj dctv vbht. Vs nfrét gthtcvjnhtkb ghjuhfvve cdjtq hfåjns, jcjåtyyj d Faufybcnfyt
b Gfrbcnfyt. Vs hfåjnftv d Faufybcnfyt c 1997 ujlf, f d
Gfrbcnfyt c 1980-ö ujljd.
Rjulf ujdjhzn ≤Ötqath≥, kñlzv ghtélt dctuj ghböjlzn d
ujkjde rjhjds, cdbymb, rjps b rhjkbrb, yj d ltqcndbntkmyjcnb änb ébdjnyst – kbim xfcnm ujhfplj åjktt wtkjcnyjq
ghjuhfvvs hfpdbnbz, yfghfdktyyjq yf cjwbfkmyj-ärjyjvbxtcrbt b ärjkjubxtcrbt ghtjåhfpjdfybz.
Jcyjdyjq vjvtyn pfrkñxftncz d njv, xnj nfrjuj hjlf
gjvjom yf yeéls hfpdbnbz – ltkj ghfdbkmyjt. Vs cjukfcys c ghbdtltyyjq dfvb vsckmñ Ghtpbltynf Åeif j åjhmåt
c åtlyjcnmñ, gjcrjkmre yfltélf dscnegftn jndtnjv yf nthhjh. Yj nfrjuj hjlf ghjuhfvvs hfpdbnbz – änj ghjcnj
öjhjitt ltkj cfvj gj ctåt, båj ybrnj yt ljkéty ébnm d
cjcnjzybb öhjybxtcrjuj ujkjlf.
D: U-y Rfhgtynth, hfccrfébnt, gjéfkeqcnf, j rjyrhtnyjq
ltzntkmyjcnb rjvgfybb ≤Ghjrnth äyl Uävåk≥ yf vtcnfö. Pfybvftntcm kb ds jhufybpfwbtq gfhnythcnd, fyfkjubxysö ntv,
j rjnjhsö ujdjhbk l-h Gbkfyn?
Rfhgtynth: Rjytxyj. Vs pfybvftvcz jåsxyjq rjhgjhfnbdyjq abkfynhjgbtq, yj jyf dtcmvf juhfybxtyf b jndktrftn
ytåjkmijq ghjwtyn htcehcjd, rjnjhsvb hfcgjkfuftn rjhgjhfwbz. Vs dsltkztv chtlcndf yf htfkbpfwbñ ghjtrnjd gjvjob ltnzv d Faufybcnfyt. Vs jceotcndkztv ytrjnjhst
ghjuhfvvs gjvjob c wtkmñ ekexitybz cfybnfhyj-ububtybxtcrjq jåcnfyjdrb, edzpfyyst c yfibvb abhvtyysvb
vfhrfvb b ceotcndeñobv åbpytcjv d Gfrbcnfyt.
D: Ds egjvzyekb bpvtytybz d htfkbpfwbb ghjuhfvv d
Faufybcnfyt b Gfrbcnfyt. ≤Ötqath Bynthyäiyk≥ nfrét
jceotcndkztn ghjuhfvvs d lheubö cnhfyfö, ult dspsdftn
jpfåjxtyyjcnm nthhjhbcnbxtcrfz ltzntkmyjcnm, f bvtyyj – d
Byljytpbb b yf Abkbggbyfö. Hfccrfébnt j dfitq ltzntkmyjcnb d änbö eckjdbzö.
Jlyfrj lkz vtyz yfbåjktt edktrfntkmyjq ghtlcnfdkztncz
nf ltzntkmyjcnm, bvtñofz gjxnb ytjuhfybxtyyst djpvjéyjcnb cjdthitycndjdfybz hfpdbnbz dj vyjubö bp änbö cnhfy,
rjnjheñ vs dtltv c ntv, xnjås cltkfnm ecnjqxbdjt hfpdbnbt xfcnmñ yfituj åbpytcf, dsqnb pf hfvrb jåsxyjq rjywtgwbb rjhgjhfnbdyjq jndtncndtyyjcnb. Vs öjnbv edzpfnm
åeleott yfituj åbpytcf c htitybzvb ytrjnjhsö djghjcjd
hfpdbnbz, c rjnjhsvb cnfkrbdftvcz dj dctv vbht. Jlybv bp
ghbvthjd ckeébn cbnefwbz d Dtytceäkt, ult d yfcnjzott
dhtvz vs ghtlkfuftv yf hsyrt ghjlern, pyfxbntkmyj cjrhfofñobq ytödfnre d hfwbjyt ltntq gbnfntkmysö vbrhjäktvtynjd – ltabwbn dbnfvbyf F, étktpf b qjlf. Ghb hfphfåjnrt b cåsnt änjuj ghjlernf vs ntcyj cjnhelybxftv c Ltncrbv ajyljv JJY (ÑYBCTA). Jy ghjdtk d Fahbrt rkbybxtcrbt bccktljdfybz b cjwbfkmysq vfhrtnbyu, xnj gjpdjkbkj gjkexbnm lfyyst j ghjåktvt ytljcnfnjxyjcnb gbnfntkmysö vbrhjäktvtynjd.
Gbkfyn: Yfib abkbggbycrbt ghjuhfvvs, rfr gjxnb dct yfib ghjuhfvvs yf gkfytnt, jceotcndkzñncz vtcnysvb
uhfélfyfvb. Jlyjq bp vtcnysö gfhnythcrbö uhegg dscnegftn rjvgktrcyfz jhufybpfwbz, jåütlbyzñofz vecekmvfycrbt
b öhbcnbfycrbt uheggs. Vs nfrét yfghzveñ hfåjnftv c ytcrjkmrbvb hfpkbxysvb vecekmvfycrbvb jhufybpfwbzvb,
ltqcndeñobvb d jxtym åtlysö hfqjyfö cnhfys. Ddble yfkbxbz nthhjhbcnbxtcrjq jhufybpfwbb ≤Fåe-Cfqza≥ b ceotcndeñobö nfv ghjåktv åtpjgfcyjcnb lfét yfi gthcjyfk bp
xbckf vtcnysö uhfélfy dsyeélty vtyznm hfåjxbt uhfabrb
b dhtvz ltzntkmyjcnb yf vtcnfö, c extnjv jgfctybq jnyjcbntkmyj åtpjgfcyjcnb. Jlyfrj änb ghjuhfvvs ghjljkéfñn
dsgjkyznmcz, vs yt cjrhfnbkb bö abyfycbhjdfybt b ghjljkéftv cjnhelybxfnm c änbvb jhufybpfwbzvb. Jyb pyfñn, xnj
yfib ghjuhfvvs abyfycbheñncz CIF, yj gjcrjkmre vs
ecnfyjdbkb ljkujchjxyst jnyjitybz c vtcnysv yfctktybtv
15
Vs nfrét frnbdyj pfybvftvcz djghjcfvb cfybnfhbb b cyfåétybz xbcnjq djljq, hfccvfnhbdfz lfyyst ghjåktvs lkz
jghtltktybz njuj, vjétv kb vs cgjcjåcndjdfnm bö htitybñ c bcgjkmpjdfybtv djpvjéyjcntq hsyrf. Tckb c gjvjomñ gjnhtåbntkmcrjuj hsyrf vs cvjétv jåtcgtxbnm ltpbyatrwbñ djls gj vtcne gjnhtåktybz bkb cfybnfhbñ d åsne,
kbåj htibnm ghjåktvs ytljcnfnjxyjcnb gbnfntkmysö vbrhjäktvtynjd, nj, gj yfitve vytybñ, vjéyj jceotcndbnm
hflbrfkmysq ghjhsd d htitybb änbö djghjcjd rfxtcndf
ébpyb d gjljåysö cnhfyfö.
juhjvyst djpvjéyjcnb lkz ecbktybz cdjtq kblbheñotq hjkb d lfyyjq jåkfcnb.
Jlyfrj gjpdjkmnt cltkfnm pfvtxfybt jå jåotv rkbvfnt pf
gjcktlybt ytcrjkmrj vtczwtd. Gjckt 11 ctynzåhz, hfdyj rfr
b lj änjuj, jhufybpfwbz ≤Ötqath≥ åskf djcöbotyf otlhjcnmñ fvthbrfycrjuj yfctktybz – xfcnysö kbw, ajyljd,
abhv, wthrdtq b ghjxbö jhufybpfwbq.
D: U-y Rfhgtynth, rfr, c njxrb phtybz rjhgjhfwbb, Ds hfcwtybdftnt bpvtytybt jåotcndtyyjuj vytybz d jnyjitybb
ecbkbq gj jrfpfybñ gjvjob gjckt 11 ctynzåhz?
C bcgjkmpjdfybtv yfibö ceotcndeñobö vfhjr b cthbq ghjlerwbb vs eét hfåjnftv d jåkfcnzö pljhjdmz b ububtys
étyoby, f nfrét ububtys peåjd, pyfxtybt rjnjhsö yt jcjpyfdfkjcm dj vyjubö hfpdbdfñoböcz cnhfyfö b cnhfyfö c gthtöjlyjq ärjyjvbrjq. D cjnhelybxtcndt c vtcnysvb vbybcnthcndfvb plhfdjjöhfytybz vs hfphfåfnsdftv ghjuhfvvs
cjwbfkmyjuj vfhrtnbyuf c wtkmñ ghjcdtotybz yfctktybz, cjplfdfz ghb änjv hsyjr lkz jhbtynbhjdfyysö yf gjnhtåbntkzö htitybq ytrjnjhsö bp erfpfyysö ghjåktv.
Rfhgtynth: Yt edthty, xnj änj ytgjchtlcndtyyj jnyjcbncz r
11 ctynzåhz, yj d gjcktlybt ctvm-ltdznm vtczwtd yfåkñlftncz zdyjt bpvtytybt gjlöjlf d Futyncndt CIF gj vtéleyfhjlyjve hfpdbnbñ (FVH CIF) b hzlt lheubö dtljvcnd
CIF d jnyjitybb ujnjdyjcnb ghjzdbnm jnrhsnjcnm b hfccvfnhbdfnm xfcnyst rjhgjhfwbb rfr gfhnythjd d ghjtrnfö
hfpdbnbz, yfhzle c nhflbwbjyysvb YGJ b lheubvb ljyjhfvb. Änj ghbywbgbfkmyj yjdjt yfcnhjtybt, rjnjhjt hfpdbdftncz b eukeåkztncz c jgsnjv. Gjkfufñ, xnj änj jghtltktyyj dtcmvf gjktpyjt bpvtytybt.
D: Cjåsnbz 11 ctynzåhz b nthhjhbcnbxtcrfz euhjpf dspdfkb gthtjwtyre gjvjob yf yeéls hfpdbnbz, yj ghjdjlbncz
nfrét åjktt ljkujchjxyfz gthtjwtyrf, rjulf jhufybpfwbb
gsnfñncz jghtltkbnm, xtuj ljcnbukb ghjuhfvvs gjvjob,
jrfpfkbcm kb jyb äaatrnbdysvb b tcnm kb ytghtldbltyyst
htpekmnfns bö htfkbpfwbb. D nj ét dhtvz d gthbjl gjckt
öjkjlyjq djqys pyfxbntkmyj jckfåkf gjkbnbxtcrfz gjllthérf gjvjob yf yeéls hfpdbnbz. Ytrjnjhst kblths rjyuhtccf c jceéltybtv cvjnhzn yf nfrjt hfcöjljdfybt chtlcnd
CIF. Rfrbt bpvtytybz dspdfkb änb afrnjhs d jrfpfybb gjvjob yf yeéls hfpdbnbz, b rfr jyb gjdkbzkb yf ecbktybt
jpfåjxtyyjcnb d jnyjitybb htpekmnfnjd b gjljnxtnyjcnb?
Cxbnfñ nfrét dtcmvf gjktpysv tot jlby vjvtyn, rjnjhsq
z egjvbyfk, f bvtyyj dybvfybt r djghjce ujcelfhcndtyyjuj
eghfdktybz. Hfcntn gjybvfybt ytjåöjlbvjcnb cbcntvs cnfåbkmyjcnb b ghtlcrfpetvjcnb d ujcelfhcndtyyjv eghfdktybb, eghfdktybz yf jcyjdt ghfdbk b ärjyjvbxtcrjq cbcntvs,
jcyjdfyyjq yf ghfdbkfö. Åtp änjuj åjkmibycndj rjvgfybq
ybrjulf yt cvjétn dtcnb åbpytc d ytrjnjhsö bp änbö cnhfy
b ybrjulf yt gjkexbn djpvjéyjcnb gjvjxm dsdtcnb änb
cnhfys bp åtlyjcnb. Vs ghjcnj yt vjétv ecgtiyj dtcnb ltkf nfv, ult vtcnyfz nhflbwbz ghtlecvfnhbdftn lfxe dpznjr.
Gjänjve nfrjt ghbpyfybt dféyjcnb äaatrnbdyjuj ujcelfhcndtyyjuj eghfdktybz lkz ecnjqxbdjuj hfpdbnbz ghtlcnfdkztncz dtcmvf gjpbnbdysv bpvtytybtv.
Gbkfyn: ≤Ötqath≥ b vyjubt lheubt ytrjvvthxtcrbt cnhernehs eét ljdjkmyj lfdyj cjchtljnjxbdfñn ecbkbz yf
htpekmnfnfö b gjljnxtnyjcnb hfåjns. Ybrfrbö yfukzlysö
bpvtytybq gjckt 11 ctynzåhz bkb bp-pf cjåsnbq 11 ctynzåhz yf ltkt yt ghjbpjikj. D djghjcfö cjltqcndbz hfpdbnbñ
vs ghblthébdftvcz gjlöjlf, jcyjdfyyjuj yf wtyyjcnzö, b
hfåjnftv d zhrj dshfétyyjv leöt cjnhelybxtcndf c vtcnysv yfctktybtv, abhvfvb, jhufyfvb dkfcnb b lh. Änb djghjcs dctulf yföjlzncz d wtynht yfituj dybvfybz.
D: Ds egjvzyekb yjdsq frwtyn yf gfhnythcndj. Änj – rjywtgwbz, rjnjheñ d gjcktlytt dhtvz flvbybcnhfwbz Åeif b
vtéleyfhjlyst jhufybpfwbb hfpdbnbz ghjgfufylbheñn rfr
yjdeñ cnhfntubñ ecgtöf. D xtv Ds dblbnt ghjlernbdysq gjntywbfk änbö jnyjitybq?
B dct ét ytn cjvytybz d njv, xnj ytrjnjhst xktys fvthbrfycrjuj ghfdbntkmcndf b lheubö jhufyjd ltqcndbntkmyj jnyjczncz r hfcöjljdfybñ chtlcnd lkz jrfpfybz gjvjob yf
yeéls hfpdbnbz c jceéltybtv, rfr ds crfpfkb. CIF jncnfñn jn åjkmibycndf lheubö cnhfy gj ljkt fccbuyjdfybq yf
yeéls hfpdbnbz d dfkjdjv dyenhtyytv ghjlernt (DDG). Gjänjve ctqxfc jghtltktyyj yfcnfkj dhtvz, rjulf ghfdbntkmcndj CIF vjétn pfyznm åjktt edthtyyeñ kblbheñoeñ
hjkm d nfrjq vtéleyfhjlyjq gjvjob yf yeéls hfpdbnbz,
rjnjhfz ljrfpfkf cdjñ äaatrnbdyjcnm.
Rfhgtynth: Lkz cnfyjdktybz äaatrnbdysö gfhnythcnd nhtåetncz vyjuj vtczwtd, b jyb ltqcndeñn njkmrj, tckb dsujlys lkz dctö cnjhjy, nfr xnj änj yt nj, xnj vjéyj ctujlyz
dslevfnm, f pfdnhf gjlgbcfnm.
Jå bybwbfnbdt UÄQY – Ukjåfkmyjv fkmzyct pf ekexitybt
gbnfybz – åskj jåüzdktyj yf Cgtwbfkmyjq ctccbb JJY gj
ghjåktvfv ltntq d vft 2002 ujlf. Jyf drkñxftn FVH
CIF, Dctvbhysq åfyr, Dctvbhyeñ jhufybpfwbñ plhfdjjöhfytybz, ÑYBCTA, Ajyl Åbkkf b Vtkbyls Utqncjd,
≤Ghjrnth äyl Uävåk≥, f nfrét hzl lheubö yfwbjyfkmysö
futyncnd hfpdbnbz b rjvgfybq xfcnyjuj ctrnjhf. Yf njq ctccbb rjvgfybz ≤Ghjrnth äyl Uävåk≥ jåtofkf ghtljcnfdbnm
ytrjnjhst ntöyjkjubb jåjufotybz ghjlernjd gbnfybz, yf
jcyjdt rjnjhsö cjplfy hfcghjcnhfyztvsq d Dtytceäkt ghjlern YenhbCnfh, lkz bpextybz bö ghbujlyjcnb lkz jcyjdysö
ghjlernjd gbnfybz yfbvtytt hfpdbnsö cnhfy c wtkmñ htit-
D rfxtcndt ghbvthf vjéyj ghbdtcnb Ujcelfhcndtyysq ltgfhnfvtyn, ult Åñhj gj ltkfv Djcnjxyjq Fpbb b Nböjjrtfycrjuj htubjyf dvtcnt c rjycekmcndjv d Xäyle, Rbnfq, ghjzdbkb bcrkñxbntkmyj pfbynthtcjdfyyjt b gjpbnbdyjt jnyjitybt r bybwbfnbdt gj jrfpfybñ gjvjob vtkrbv athvthfv
b ctkmcrbv ébntkzv d Nbåtnt. E ghfdbntkmcndf CIF tcnm
16
ybz ghjåktvs ytljcnfnjxyjcnb gbnfntkmysö vbrhjäktvtynjd. Gznm ktn yfpfl, lfét ldf ujlf yfpfl, ytkmpz åskj b gjlevfnm j gjlrkñxtybb xfcnyjuj åbpytcf r
nfrjuj hjlf gfhnythcnde, rhjvt rfr d rfxtcndt bcnjxybrf ltytéysö gjéthndjdfybq.
Gbkfyn: Cjukfcty. Rjytxyj, d ghjikjv
YGJ jåhfofkbcm r rjhgjhfwbb njkmrj pf
jlyjhfpjdsv uhfynjv bkb xtuj-ybåelm d
änjv hjlt.
Gfhnythcndj
xfcnysö rjhgjhfwbq,
Nfr xnj tcnm vyjétcndj ndjhxtcrbö gentq
dsgjkytybz änjq hfåjns. Vs yföjlbvcz d
cfvjv yfxfkt, gsnfzcm gjyznm, rfr vjéyj
cjplfdfnm gfhnythcndf lkz htitybz ytrjnjhsö djghjcjd, c rjnjhsvb vs ctujlyz cnfkrbdftvcz d vbht.
YGJ, ghfdbntkmcndf b
uhfélfycrjuj jåotcndf
D: Rfr dfib gjlhfpltktybz – dfib cjdtns
lbhtrnjhjd, ljyjhs, htubjyfkmyst ghtlcnfdbntkmcndf – htfubheñn yf änb yjdst bltb?
jåtcgtxbdftn htdjkñwbjyyst gthtvtys d
Gbkfyn: Vs cxbnftv, xnj kñlb, rjnjhst
pyfñn ≤Ötqath≥ b pyfñn yfib ljkujchjxyst gjlöjls yf ybpjdjv ehjdyt r ecnfyjdktybñ jnyjitybq c vtcnysv yfctktybtv, dkfcnzvb b xfcnysv åbpytcjv, htfubheñn dtcmvf
gjpbnbdyj. Vs joeoftv ghbnjr gjcnegktybq, cgtwbfkmyj ghtlyfpyfxtyysö yf hfcibhtybt yfitq ghjuhfvvs d Faufybcnfyt b
Gfrbcnfyt.
Ghbvthyj ujl yfpfl jhufybpfwbz ≤Ötqath≥ ddtkf gjcn lbhtrnjhf gj jnyjitybzv yfåkñlftvsö yfvb
c rjhgjhfwbzvb b ghbyzkf cnhfntubxtcrjt
htitybt jå ecnfyjdktybb jnyjitybq c ctr- htpekmnfnfö.
njhjv xfcnyjuj ghtlghbybvfntkmcndf d
Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö Fvthbrb b pf heåt– Léjhlé Rfhgtynth
éjv. Vs jnyjcbvcz r änjve c åjkmibv
äynepbfpvjv. Cxbnftv, xnj vjétn djpybryenm vyjuj gjpbnbdysö cbnefwbq, b änj
Rjulf vs hfåjnfkb d Faufybcnfyt d rjywt
eét åskj ghjltvjycnhbhjdfyj. Jlybv bp
1990-ö ujljd, e dkfcnb åskj ldbétybt ≤Nfghbvthjd cnfk yfi jgsn hfåjns d Rbnft.
kbåfy≥. Vs ghjdjlbkb bpåbhfntkmyjt jåext≤Ötqath≥, vtcnyst jhufys dkfcnb, vtcnyjt xfcnyjt ghtl- ybt åsdibö cgtwbfkbcnjd bp xbckf étyoby. Jyb yföjlbkb
ghbznbt b yfctktybt jåütlbybkbcm dj dgtxfnkzñotv xtns- dtcmvf jcnjhjéysq b ghjlevfyysq gjlöjl r ytuhfvjnysv
htöcnjhjyytv gfhnythcndt.
étyobyfv d cdjbö yfctktyysö geyrnfö, jåexfz bö cjlthéfybñ ébdjnysö, f nfrét ghfdbkfv cfybnfhbb b ububtys xtVs cnfhftvcz gjvjxm ekexibnm ghjbpdjlcndj ghjljdjkmcn- kjdtrf, n.t. nfrbv djghjcfv, rjnjhst jåsxyj vjuen yt fcdbz cj cnjhjys athvthjd, f nfrét vfhrtnbyu b hfcghtltkt- cjwbbhjdfnmcz c ≤Ötqath≥.
ybt cj cnjhjys åbpytcf. Nfr, vs gjvjuftv athvthfv-ghjbpdjlbntkzv vtlf gjdsifnm rjkbxtcndj b rfxtcndj bö ghj- Gjckt yfkfébdfybz änjq cdzpb c étyobyfvb-cgtwbfkbcnfvb
lerwbb. Pfntv athvths cdzpsdfñncz c cjjndtncndeñobvb vs cvjukb pfrhtgbnmcz d yfctktyysö geyrnfö. Änj gjpdjkbghtlghbybvfntkzvb, rjnjhst gjkexfñn ljcneg r kexitve kj yfv dsqnb yf étyoby bp ctvtqysö öjpzqcnd, rjnjhst
ghjlerne b åjktt cnfåbkmysv gjcnfdrfv. Änj gjvjuftn yf- yeélfkbcm d lheubö ghjuhfvvfö gjvjob, nhflbwbjyyj åjctktybñ d wtkjv gentv gjdsitybz ghjbpdjlbntkmyjcnb ktt fccjwbbheñoböcz c ≤Ötqath≥, – d jåkfcnb cyfåétybz
ctkmcrjöjpzqcndtyyjuj nhelf, jåotq ärjyjvbxtcrjq frnbd- dscjrjrfxtcndtyysv crjnjv b jåextybz tuj cjlthéfybñ.
yjcnb, b d cdjñ jxthtlm, ehjdyz ébpyb. Jhufys dkfcnb gj- Ytrjnjhst gjkexbkb gnbwe, flfgnbhjdfyyeñ r vtcnysv ecybvfñn änj b gjvjufñn hfcibhznm ghjuhfvve. Änj cnfkj kjdbzv, b d bö hfwbjy gbnfybz rféleñ ytltkñ ljåfdbkjcm
tot åjktt dféysv ntgthm, c extnjv ytlfdytuj dcnegktybz ytcrjkmrj zbw, cjlthéfobö dscjrjrfxtcndtyysq åtkjr, rjcnhfys dj Dctvbhyeñ njhujdeñ jhufybpfwbñ.
njhjuj byfxt jyb ås yt bvtkb.
Rfhgtynth: D Bylbb vs cjplfkb jcyjdfyyeñ yf hsyrt ghjgfufylbcncreñ ghjuhfvve d wtkzö cåjhf ltytu yf jåextybt
ltntq lkz njuj, xnjås edtcnb bö c ekbws b ghbdktxm d irjks. Htxm bltn j ghjuhfvvt ≤Jnrhsnst evs≥, d rjnjhjq
≤Ghjrnth äyl Uävåk≥ exfcndetn d gfhnythcndt c ÑYBCTA.
Lfyyfz ghjuhfvvf jceotcndkztncz d cjxtnfybb c gjkextybtv ltytéysö gjéthndjdfybq jn yfibö ckeéfobö, rjnjhst
ghjzdbkb åjkmieñ otlhjcnm. Rhjvt njuj, vs jåhfnbkbcm r
cdjbv gfhnythfv gj cbcntvfv gjcnfdjr b hfcghtltktybz,
xnjås pfhexbnmcz bö gjllthérjq. Htrkfvyst futyncndf b
ghtlghbybvfntkb hfåjnfkb åtcgkfnyj. Gjänjve ytåjkmijq
ghjtrn, jhufybpjdfyysq ytcrjkmrbvb jcyjdysvb kblthfvb,
åsk vyjujrhfnyj ecbkty pf cxtn ghbdktxtybz yfibö gfhnythjd gj cbcntvfv gjcnfdjr b hfcghtltktybz b lheubö kñltq,
c rjnjhsvb vs cjnhelybxftv, b ghtdhfnbkcz d Bylbb d ibhjreñ bybwbfnbde jåotyfwbjyfkmyjuj vfcinfåf gj ghbdktxtybñ ltntq d irjks.
Yfib ljyjhs pyfñn, xnj vs jceotcndkztv nfrjq ljkujchjxysq gjlöjl yf jcyjdt exfcnbz, b htfubheñn jxtym b
jxtym åkfujghbznyj.
D: Rfr änb ghjuhfvvs jnhféfñn fvthbrfycrbt wtyyjcnb?
Rfhgtynth: Yt pyfñ, tcnm kb yf Ptvkt lheujt vtcnj, ult ås
jåsxysq ghjcnjq uhfélfyby åsk nfr otlh, rfr fvthbrfyws. Änf otlhjcnm döjlbn d fvthbrfycreñ rekmnehe. Vs dblbv tt d yfibö cjåcndtyysö ckeéfobö, f nfrét nfv, ult
vs hfåjnftv b ébdtv. D ytrjnjhjq cntgtyb ljåhjdjkmxtcrbt vtnjls, rjnjhst vs bcgjkmpetv e ctåz d cnhfyt, b
ghtlfyyjt ckeétybt vtcnyjve yfctktybñ – jnkbxbntkmyst
xthns, rjnjhst vs yfåkñlftv, gthtdjlz åbpytc d lheubt
cnhfys. Ghjbcöjlbn ärcgjhn fvthbrfycrbö rekmnehysö wtyyjcntq – hjkb rjhgjhfwbb, f nfrét tt jåzpfyyjcntq gthtl
jåotcndjv b cdjbvb ckeéfobvb, hfdyj rfr b fvthbrfycrjq
rekmnehs otlhjcnb. Änf ujnjdyjcnm dvtifnmcz, rjulf lhe17
ubt kñlb yeélfñncz, – jnrhsnm cdjb cthlwf b rjitkmrb,
ghtlkjébnm cjåcndtyysq nhel – öfhfrnthyf gjxnb njkmrj
lkz fvthbrfywtd.
Rfhgtynth: Gfhnythcndj xfcnysö rjhgjhfwbq, YGJ, ghfdbntkmcndf b uhfélfycrjuj jåotcndf d hfvrfö änbö ghjtrnjd
gjrf yföjlbncz yf änfgfö cnfyjdktybz. Jlyfrj jyj eét
jåtcgtxbdftn htdjkñwbjyyst gthtvtys d yfåkñlftvsö yfvb htpekmnfnfö. Jyj jnrhsdftn vfcce yjdsö djpvjéyjcntq,
rjnjhst ctujlyz kñlb lfét yt dblzn. Z pyfñ, xnj rjulf d
yfitq rjhgjhfwbb hfccvfnhbdfñncz ytrjnjhst djghjcs
cyfåétybz xbcnjq djljq, plhfdjjöhfytybz, ububtys b gbnfybz, yfib cjnhelybrb bcöjlzn bp njuj, xnj ≤änf ghjåktvf
hfphtibvf≥. Jyb yfxbyfñn hfccvfnhbdfnm nfrbt ghjåktvs,
rfr ghbyznj d åbpytct, cghfibdfz: ≤Xnj yeéyj lkz njuj,
xnjås änj ghjbpjikj?≥, – xfcnj dsöjlz pf hfvrb jåsxysö
gjlöjljd. Vs yfvthtys ljåbnmcz åjkmijuj ghjuhtccf b
rfhlbyfkmysö ecjdthitycndjdfybq d ltkt ljcnbétybz gjcnfdktyysö JJY Wtktq nsczxtktnbz¡, ghtdsifñobö ljcnbuyenjuj pf gjcktlytt ltcznbktnbt.
Gbkfyn: Cjukfcty. Byjulf yfc jitkjvkzñn nj, xnj vjuen
kñlb cltkfnm, b nj, xnj jyb cgjcjåys lfnm. Vs bltv r kñlzv, rjnjhst jåtofñn gjéthndjdfnm ytcrjkmrj nsczx ljkkfhjd, dblbv bö ljv b elbdkztvcz, rfr änb kñlb cvjuen
lfnm öjnz ås ytcrjkmrj cjn ljkkfhjd. Otlhjcnm ibhjrj
hfcghjcnhfytyf b ghtlcnfdkztn cjåjq elbdbntkmyeñ xthne
yfhjlf yfitq cnhfys. Vs nfrét botv xenrbö otlhsö ljyjhjd d hzlt lheubö cnhfy.
D: Rfrjt åeleott e änbö ecbkbq?
Gbkfyn: Lkz uhfélfycrjuj jåotcndf dféys ecbktybt dybvfybz r htpekmnfnfv b gjybvfybt njuj, xnj ceåütrnbdyst
djghjcs vjuen bvtnm jxtym åjkmijt pyfxtybt. Cjjåotcndf
ljyjhjd cnfyjdzncz dct åjktt byajhvbhjdfyysvb, b gjänjve ytjåöjlbvj b d åeleotv jåtcgtxbdfnm njxyeñ, cbcntvfnbxtcreñ b ghjphfxyeñ jnxtnyjcnm. Hfåjnybrb ≤Ötqath≥
ghjljkéfñn bpscrbdfnm djpvjéyjcnb lkz cjnhelybxtcndf c
rjhgjhfwbzvb b ghfdbntkmcndfvb, f nfrét ghjljkéfñn hfåjnfnm c wtkmñ hfpheitybz rjywtgwbb ≤Ctdth ghjnbd Ñuf≥
bkb ≤vs ghjnbd ybö≥. Yf cfvjv ltkt dct vs ébdtv d tlbyjq åbjcatht, yf jlyjq Ptvkt, b yfib ltqcndbz jrfpsdfñn
dkbzybt yf ébpym b chtlcndf r ceotcndjdfybñ lheubö. Yfv
yeéys yt ljgjkybntkmyst ntöyjkjubb, f njkmrj étkfybt b
dghtlm bcgjkmpjdfnm nj, xnj ljrfpfkj cdjñ äaatrnbdyjcnm,
nfr xnj yfif pflfxf – bcrfnm djpvjéyjcnb, f yt ghjcnj hfphtifnm ghjåktvs.
¡
Wtkb hfpdbnbz JJY yf nsczxtktnbt åskb ghbyzns
189 ujcelfhcndfvb d ctynzåht 2000 ujlf. Xktys JJY
ghbyzkb jåzpfntkmcndj cgjcjåcndjdfnm ecnhfytybñ
rhfqytq åtlyjcnb b ujkjlf, jåtcgtxtybñ dctjåotuj yfxfkmyjuj jåhfpjdfybz, hfdtycndf gjkjd b ljcnbétybñ
lheubö dféytqibö wtktq. Ljgjkybntkmyst cdtltybz
ghbdjlzncz gj flhtce
http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/index.html
Ifhkby Gjhnth åtctljdfkf gj ntktajye c Rfhgtynthjv,
yföjlbdibvcz d infå-rdfhnbht ≤Ghjrnth äyl Uävåk≥ d
Wbywbyyfnb, in. Jufqj, b Gbkäynjv, yföjlbdibvcz d infårdfhnbht ≤Ötqath Bynthyäiyk≥ d Kbnk-Hjrt, in. Fhrfypfc.
Vytybz, dshfétyyst d lfyyjq cnfnmt, ghbyflktéfn
bynthdmñbhetvsv b yt jåzpfntkmyj jnhféfñn dpukzls bkb
gjkbnbre ghfdbntkmcndf CIF.
18
Rhbnbxtcrbq åfkfyc: ghfdf kbxyjcnb b
yfwbjyfkmyfz åtpjgfcyjcnm d rjyntrcnt
nthhjhbcnbxtcrjq euhjps
Vfhr Åkbw
Ghjatccjh gjkbnbxtcrjq abkjcjabb, Rkthvjyn Vfrrtyyf rjkktlé, in. Rfkbajhybz
Ecbkbz ghfdbntkmcnd gj
ghtljndhfotybñ åeleobö
nthfrnjd gjlyzkb vfcce
ckjéysö rjycnbnewbjyysö
djghjcjd, rjnjhst htifñncz
fvthbrfycrbvb celfvb
b ltåfnbheñncz
extysvb-ñhbcnfvb.
R xbcke vyjubö gjcktlcndbq nthhjhbcnbxtcrbö elfhjd gj
Cjtlbytyysv Infnfv Fvthbrb 11 ctynzåhz jnyjczncz éfhrbt ltåfns j ytrjnjhsö uhfélfycrbö cdjåjlfö. Cktletn kb
r gjljphtdftvsv d nthhjhbpvt jnyjcbnmcz d celt gj-lheujve, xtv r lheubv gjljphtdftvsv? Cktletn kb eétcnjxbnm
htuekbhjdfybt ltzntkmyjcnb b vtcnjyföjéltybz d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö Fvthbrb kbw, yt zdkzñoböcz uhfélfyfvb?
Cktletn kb yfv nhtåjdfnm ddtltybz yfwbjyfkmysö eljcnjdthtybq kbxyjcnb? Ytrjnjhst bp änbö djghjcjd djjåot dsikb
pf hfvrb lbcreccbq, yfghbvth, rjulf gjljphtdftvst nthhjhbcns åskb pfrkñxtys d nñhmve b ghtlfys cele, f nfrét
rjulf åskb ghbyzns yjdst pfrjys b bpvtytyf bynthghtnfwbz ceotcndeñobö pfrjyjd c wtkmñ hfphtitybz åjktt étcnrjuj rjynhjkz yfl rjvveybrfwbzvb b abyfycjdsvb cltkrfvb.
Rjyntrcn uhfélfycrbö cdjåjl
d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö Fvthbrb
Dct änb djghjcs jåceélfñncz, b gj ybv ghbybvfñncz htitybz d rjyntrcnt, rjnjhsq dj vyjubö jnyjitybzö åjkmit ujdjhbn j uhfélfycrbö cdjåjlfö, xtv cfvb ntreobt ltåfns.
Fvthbrfyws lfdyj gjkmpeñncz cfvsvb hfpysvb cdjåjlfvb
b gjllthébdfñn bö gjkysq cgtrnh – jn ufhfynbq cdjåjls
ckjdf b nthgbvjcnb r hfpkbxysv htkbubzv lj hfdyjq pfobns cjukfcyj pfrjye.
Jlybv bp äktvtynjd ysytiytq lbcreccbb zdkztncz cthmtpyfz jpfåjxtyyjcnm cjåkñltybtv uhfélfycrbö cdjåjl. Dnjhsv äktvtynjv ckeébn cgjcjå, rjnjhsv fvthbrfyws ghbybvfñn rjyrhtnyst gjkbnbxtcrbt b celtåyst htitybz.
Cdjñ hjkm pltcm buhfñn cels, Rjyuhtcc b ghtpbltyn. Pfrjyjlfntkmyst erfpfybz gj dféysv djghjcfv jåsxyj gjcnegfñn jn ghtpbltynf, yj vths cnfyjdzncz pfrjyjv njkmrj
gjckt endthéltybz Rjyuhtccjv, xnj xfcnj ghjbcöjlbn (tckb
ghjbcöjlbn djjåot) kbim gjckt pyfxbntkmyjuj bpvtytybz
ghtlkjétybq. D gthbjls djqy bkb xhtpdsxfqysö cbnefwbq
bcgjkybntkmyfz dkfcnm ghtpbltynf b tuj jabwbfkmyjt gjkjétybt rfr Dthöjdyjuj ukfdyjrjvfyleñotuj djjheétyysvb
cbkfvb cnfyjdzncz åjktt pyfxbntkmysvb yf pfrjyjlfntkmyjv ehjdyt, f ghtlkfuftvst bv xhtpdsxfqyst vths hfccvfnhbdfñncz jgthfnbdyj, öjnz lfét d änj dhtvz Rjyuhtcc
vjétn dyjcbnm bpvtytybz. Gjckt 11 ctynzåhz Rjyuhtcc åscnhj b gjlfdkzñobv åjkmibycndjv ghbyzk ytrjnjhst dféyst pfrjys lkz ghjnbdjltqcndbz ytgjchtlcndtyyjq b ljkujchjxyjq nthhjhbcnbxtcrjq euhjpt. Jlyfrj ghtlkjétybt ghtpbltynf j cjplfybb yf ehjdyt rfåbytnf Vbybcnthcndf dyen19
htyytq åtpjgfcyjcnb hfccvfnhbdftncz c vtymitq crjhjcnmñ
b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv nfrnbrb rjvghjvbccf, åjktt öfhfrnthyjq lkz jåsxysö pfrjyjd.
tv, yfghbvth, ghbpyfybz, jnrkjyzñncz d öjlt
celtåyjuj ghjwtccf;
• Celtåysq ghjwtcc d jnyjitybb gjljphtdftvsö
ljkéty ghjdjlbnmcz jgthfnbdyj, b bö ljkéys
byajhvbhjdfnm j dsldbyensö ghjnbd ybö jådbytybzö.
Ghtpbltyncrbt gjkyjvjxbz åsdfñn jcjåtyyj ibhjrbvb d
gthbjls djqy, nfr rfr djqyf nhtåetn ghbyznbz htitybq j
vjåbkbpfwbb htcehcjd b djtyysö htitybq bp jlyjq bycnfywbb. Pfrjyjlfntkmcndj b ghfrnbrf Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd
Fvthbrb ghtljcnfdkzñn ghtpbltynfv ibhjrbt bcgjkybntkmyst gjkyjvjxbz d djtyyjt dhtvz. Jlyfrj nj, rfr lfktrj
ghjcnbhfñncz änb gjkyjvjxbz d rjyrhtnyjv ckexft nthhjhbcnbxtcrbö frnjd 11 ctynzåhz, zdkztncz jnltkmysv djghjcjv c extnjv njuj, xnj vfcinfås, ghjljkébntkmyjcnm b vtnjls fynbnthhjhbcnbxtcrjq rfvgfybb dj vyjubö fcgtrnfö
jnkbxfñncz jn jåsxyjq djqys. Rjyuhtcc gj-ghtéytve ytctn
åjkmieñ jndtncndtyyjcnm pf ecnfyjdktybt ghtltkjd bcgjkmpjdfybz bcgjkybntkmyjq dkfcnb, ghjdjlz lkz änjuj ckeifybz, ghbybvfz pfrjys b rjynhjkbhez åñlétns.
D änbö b lheubö jåkfcnzö ghfrnbxtcrjt pyfxtybt erfpfyysö
ufhfynbq ≤yflktéfotuj jnghfdktybz ghfdjcelbz≥ vjétn
åsnm ghtlvtnjv ntreotq lbcreccbb, yj ukfdyjt nj, xnj jyb
juhfybxbdfñn ltqcndbz ujcelfhcndtyysö jådbybntktq b pfobofñn jådbyztvsö jn ytcghfdtlkbdjuj jceéltybz.
D änjv rjyntrcnt vjéyj jwtybnm hzl djghjcjd, hfccvfnhbdftvsö d öjlt ysytiytq lbcreccbb. Jlby bp djghjcjd rfcftncz ltqcndbq ghfdbntkmcndf d cjjndtncndbb c Pfrjyjv
≤Gfnhbjn Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd≥, rjnjhsq åsk ghbyzn Rjyuhtccjv gjckt nthhjhbcnbxtcrbö frnjd 11 ctynzåhz. Pfrjy
ghtljcnfdkztn ghfdbntkmcnde hzl yjdsö gjkyjvjxbq gj gjlckeibdfybñ ntktajyysö hfpujdjhjd c gjvjomñ cgtwbfkmysö ecnhjqcnd, cktétybñ pf jgthfwbzvb d rjvgmñnthysö
ctnzö b jceotcndktybñ rjynhjkz pf abyfycjdsvb cltkrfvb
c wtkmñ ghjnbdjltqcndbz ntv, rnj gjljphtdftncz d nthhjhbpvt, b ntv, rnj bv gjvjuftn.
Cels – b, d rjytxyjv cxtnt, Dthöjdysq Cel – cgjcjåys ghbybvfnm htitybz j rjycnbnewbjyyjcnb pfrjyjd b ltqcndbq bcgjkybntkmyjq dkfcnb. Rhjvt njuj, cels vjuen hfccvfnhbdfnm rjyrhtnyst éfkjås d öjlt eujkjdysö b uhfélfycrbö
celtåysö ghjwtccjd. Öjnz ytrjnjhst bp ntreobö jåceéltybq uhfélfycrbö cdjåjl rfcfñncz pfrjyjlfntkmysö ltqcndbq d nfrbö jåkfcnzö, rfr bvvbuhfwbjyyfz htajhvf, d
jcyjdyjv jyb jnyjczncz r htitybzv celjd gj rjyrhtnysv
ltkfv, bvtñobv jnyjitybt r ltqcndbzv ghtpbltynf b tuj
rfåbytnf.
Gthdjyfxfkmyj ytrjnjhst rjvvtynfnjhs jgfcfkbcm, xnj änb
gjkyjvjxbz gjpdjkzn ecbkbnm dvtifntkmcndj ghfdbntkmcndf d xfcnyeñ ébpym. Gjcrjkmre yjdst gjkyjvjxbz ljkéys
jceotcndkznmcz d ecnfyjdktyyjv gjhzlrt b d cdtnt rjycnbnewbjyyjuj pfghtnf yf ytjåjcyjdfyyst jåscrb b fhtcns dthjznyjcnm nfrbö gthtubåjd cybéftncz. Cels cnhfys ghjljkéfñn frnbdyj pfybvfnmcz jghtltktybtv uhfybw nfrbö hfcibhtyysö gjkyjvjxbq gj dtltybñ cktlcndbz.
Ceotcndeñobt cgjhs
D jcyjdyjv ysytiybt cgjhs jnyjcbntkmyj uhfélfycrbö cdjåjl b jndtnysö vth yf nthhjhbpv rfcfñncz ghfd, rjnjhst
jådbyztvst d nthhjhbpvt ljkéys bvtnm ghb hfccvjnhtybb
ltk j nthhjhbpvt, cghfdtlkbdjcnb nñhtvyjuj pfrkñxtybz
gjljphtdftvsö d nthhjhbcnbxtcrjq ltzntkmyjcnb bkb yfkbxbz pyfxbntkmyjq byajhvfwbb jå änjq ltzntkmyjcnb, f nfrét cnfnecf b jåhfotybz c exfcnybrfvb åjtdsö ltqcndbq, pfödfxtyysvb d Faufybcnfyt b lheubö vtcnfö. Dj dctö änbö
ckexfzö jåhfotybt jwtybdftncz gj cnfylfhne, rjnjhsq jåtcgtxbk hfcneoeñ pfobne uhfélfy CIF pf gjcktlybt 40 ktn,
cnfylfhne, cjplfyyjve yf rjycnbnewbjyyjq jcyjdt, rjnjhfz
eét åskf ljcnfnjxyj dscjrjq. Änjn dscjrbq ehjdtym yflktéfotq ghjwtlehs d åjhmåt c ghtcnegyjcnmñ zdkztncz
nhtnmbv dféysv äktvtynjv ceotcndeñobö ltåfnjd.
Dnjhjq djghjc rfcftncz frnbdyjuj bcgjkmpjdfybz ghfdbntkmcndjv ceotcndeñobö pfrjyjd lkz cjlthéfybz d nñhmvt
ntö, rnj gjljphtdftncz d nthhjhbpvt, b ntö, rjuj gjljphtdfñn d jrfpfybb bv gjvjob bkb jåkflfybb gjktpyjq byajhvfwbtq j ybö. Dcrjht gjckt 11 ctynzåhz vbybcnh ñcnbwbb
Léjy Äirhjan chfdybk äne ltzntkmyjcnm c nfrnbrjq, bcgjkmpjdfditqcz ghjnbd jhufybpjdfyyjq ghtcnegyjcnb Hjåthnjv Rtyytlb, rjulf jy åsk vbybcnhjv ñcnbwbb d gthbjl
ghtpbltyncndf tuj åhfnf d 1960-ö ujlfö. R ghbvthe, bp-pf yfheitybz dbpjdjuj htébvf njn, rnj, djpvjéyj, hfcgjkfuftn
byajhvfwbtq j ghjiksö bkb åeleobö nthhjhbcnbxtcrbö frnfö, gjldthuftncz lkbntkmyjve nñhtvyjve pfrkñxtybñ.
Ytrjnjhst cnfdzn gjl cjvytybt yfcnegfntkmyeñ nfrnbre
ghfdbntkmcndf d wtkjv, yj jcjåtyyj ibhjrbt ltåfns dtlencz gj djghjce nñhtvyjuj pfrkñxtybz.
D celtåyjq cbcntvt CIF rfélsq, drkñxfz åtlysö, bvttn
cktleñobt ufhfynbb:
• Ghfdj yf eckeub fldjrfnf ghb hfccvjnhtybb eujkjdysö ltk;
• Vfnthbfks, jåyfheétyyst ghb jåscrt ljvjd gjljphtdftvsö, vjuen bcgjkmpjdfnmcz ghjnbd ybö d
celt kbim d njv ckexft, tckb cjåkñlfkbcm cnhjéfqibt ghjwtlehs;
• Gjljphtdftvsö ytjåöjlbvj edtljvkznm, xnj jyb
vjuen yt lfdfnm gjrfpfybq gjkbwtqcrbv b xnj dct
crfpfyyjt åtp nfrjuj edtljvktybz yt vjétn åsnm
bcgjkmpjdfyj d celt;
• Gjkbwtqcrbö yfrfpsdfñn pf nfrnbre ghbyeéltybz, b ljrfpfntkmcndf, gjkextyyst c ghbyeéltyb-
Ytlfdyj atlthfkmysq jrheéyjq celmz Ukälbc Rtcckth ghbyzkf htitybt j njv, xnj ghfdbntkmcndj ljkéyj ghtlcnfdkznm cgbcrb yföjlzoböcz d pfrkñxtybb, xtuj jyj yt ltkfkj. Pflthéfyyst vjuen b vjukb rjycekmnbhjdfnmcz c fldjrfnfvb; rhjvt njuj, jyb b bö ctvmb vjuen b vjukb jnrhsnj pfzdkznm j cdjtv ghtåsdfybb d nñhmvt. Dvtcnt c ntv
Vbybcnthcndj ñcnbwbb ghtlgjxkj ås, rfr ghfdbkj, yt geåkbrjdfnm bö bvtyf bp jgfctybq, xnj nfrjq byajhvfwbtq djcgjkmpeñncz nthhjhbcns bkb xnj änj gjcnfdbn gjl euhjpe
ébpym pfrkñxtyysö, d xfcnyjcnb, gjckt bö djpdhfotybz yf
hjlbye. D rjytxyjv cxtnt, lfyysq djghjc åeltn htity d
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ghjwtcct hfccvjnhtybz d celfö dscitq bycnfywbb fgtkkzwbq
flvbybcnhfwbb yf htitybt celmb Rtcckth.
Jndtxfz yf änj, lheubt ljrfpsdfñn, xnj åscnhfz htfrwbz
ghfdbntkmcndf – b yfctktybz – yf ytgjljåfñott jåhfotybt
c ytrjnjhsvb fvthbrfywfvb fhfåcrjuj ghjbcöjéltybz b
ujcnzvb gjckt 11 ctynzåhz, ibhjrjt b jnrhsnjt gjkbnbxtcrjt jåceéltybt njuj, rfr kexit dctuj åjhjnmcz c nthhjhbpvjv, b yflktéfobq ghjwtccefkmysq gjhzljr, ghb rjnjhjv
jceotcndkzñncz frns celtåyjq dkfcnb, ltvjycnhbheñn jcjåeñ dféyjcnm b yfkbxbt ytevfkztvsö uhfélfycrbö cdjåjl,
f nfrét nofntkmyjuj rjycnbnewbjyyjuj åfkfycf gjkyjvjxbq
lfét d gthbjls bcgsnfybq. C extnjv änjuj ghbdthétyyjcnm
fvthbrfycrbö uhfélfy uhfélfycrbv cdjåjlfv cnjkm ét
cbkmyf b eåtlbntkmyf, rfr b gjllthérf bvb vth, ghbybvftvsö ghjnbd nthhjhbcnjd, rjnjhst öjntkb ås kbibnm bö
änbö cdjåjl.
Nhtnbq rjvgktrc djghjcjd rfcftncz celtåysö ghtcktljdfybq gjljphtdftvsö nthhjhbcnjd. Ghfdbntkmcndj ghjdjlbn
hfpkbxbt vtéle byjcnhfyysvb gjllfyysvb, fvthbrfycrbvb
uhfélfyfvb b exfcnybrfvb åjtdsö ltqcndbq, rjnjhst vjuen
åsnm ytgjchtlcndtyyj jådbytys d cjdthitybb djtyysö ghtcnegktybq. D ckexft exfcnbz d åjtdsö ltqcndbzö gthdjyfxfkmyj ceotcndjdfkb bpdtcnyst jgfctybz d jnyjitybb gkfyjd bcgjkmpjdfybz flvbybcnhfwbtq djtyysö nhbåeyfkjd lkz
celf yfl pfödfxtyysvb d åjñ (ntvb, rnj, r ghbvthe, d yfcnjzott dhtvz cjlthébncz yf djtyyj-vjhcrjq åfpt Uefynfyfvj) bkb dj dhtvz exfcnbz d djtyyjq ltzntkmyjcnb. Geåkbrfwbz ghfdbk ltzntkmyjcnb djtyysö nhbåeyfkjd cltkfkf
jxtdblysv, xnj ghb änjv dct hfdyj åelen cjåkñlfnmcz cfvst dféyst bp jåsxysö ghjwtccefkmysö ufhfynbq. D ljgjkytybt r änjve ghtpbltyncrbq erfp, cfyrwbjybheñobq nfrbt
nhbåeyfks, yt bcrkñxftn djpvjéyjcnb ghjdtltybz ghjwtccjd gj ltkfv gjljphtdftvsö d nthhjhbpvt d uhfélfycrbö
celfö.
Vfhr Åkbw – ghjatccjh gjkbnbxtcrjq abkjcjabb, Rkthvjyn
Vfrrtyyf rjkktlé, in. Rfkbajhybz b åsdibq gjvjoybr
lbhtrnjhf Byajhvfwbjyyjuj futyncndf CIF.
Vytybz, dshfétyyst d lfyyjq cnfnmt, ghbyflktéfn fdnjhe
b yt jåzpfntkmyj jnhféfñn dpukzls bkb gjkbnbre
ghfdbntkmcndf CIF.
Gjcktlybq frnefkmysq djghjc bvttn vtytt rjyrhtnysq öfhfrnth. Lfét tckb ujcelfhcndtyyst jådbybntkb b cktljdfntkb ltqcndeñn d ghtltkfö pfrjyf, ytrjnjhst ghfdjpfobnybrb cxbnfñn, xnj änb ltqcndbz – frnbdysq cåjh byajhvfwbb, cnhjujt cjåkñltybt bvvbuhfwbjyyjuj pfrjyjlfntkmcndf b ddtltybt djtyysö nhbåeyfkjd – cjplfñn fnvjcathe, yt
cgjcjåcndeñoeñ cdjåjlyjq lbcreccbb.
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Ébpytcgjcjåyjcnm Gtynfujyf: eybrfkmysq
ghjtrn htrjycnherwbb
Éfrkby C. Gjhn,
rjhhtcgjyltyn Jabcf vtéleyfhjlysö byajhvfwbjyysö ghjuhfvv
gj djghjcfv gjkbnbxtcrjq åtpjgfcyjcnb b jåjhjys
Fhkbyunjy, infn Dbhlébybz. 11 ctynzåhz 2001 ujlf nthhjhbcns pfödfnbkb fvthbrfycrbq uhfélfycrbq fdbfkfqyth, bcgjkmpjdfd tuj lkz yfgfltybz yf jåütrn, rjnjhsq vbybcnh
jåjhjys Ljyfkml Hfvcatkl gj ghfde yfpsdftn cbvdjkjv
fvthbrfycrjq djtyyjq vjob. D vbu nhb bp gznb rjhbljhjd
Gtynfujyf d ajhvt rjywtynhbxtcrbö jrheéyjcntq ghjnfhfybk yf crjhjcnb 560 rbkjvtnhjd d xfc ghtdhfnbdibqcz d hfrtne cfvjktn, ytceobq njyys dphsdjjgfcyjuj htfrnbdyjuj
ujhñxtuj, cgjcjåyjuj ghtdhfnbnm étktpjåtnjy d cgkjiyjt
vtcbdj.
Gjckt elfhf jlby rkby gznbuhfyyjuj plfybz ghtdhfnbkcz d
juytyysq ifh b yfrhtybkcz rfr ghb ptvktnhzctybb. Nhfutlbz ghjbpjikf hjdyj xthtp 60 ktn gjckt lyz, rjulf åskj yfxfnj cnhjbntkmcndj änjuj cjjheétybz, ult rheukjcenjxyj
hfåjnfñn djtyyst b uhfélfycrbt cjnhelybrb, jåtcgtxbdfñobt fvthbrfycreñ jåjhjye. Fnfrf yf jlyj bp rhegytqibö
jabcysö plfybq vbhf eybxnjébkf 125 änbö hfåjnybrjd, tot
110 åskb cthmtpyj hfytys, f 59 gfccfébhjd yf åjhne euyfyyjuj cfvjktnf c htqcf 77 rjvgfybb ≤Fvthbräy äqhkfqyc≥
vuyjdtyyj gjubåkb.
Ibhjrjvfcinfåyst
cnhjbntkmyst hfåjns
gjvjufñn djccnfyjdbnm
Xtkjdtxtcrfz nhfutlbz åskf juhjvyf. Yj yfhzle c ytq dytpfgyj dsikb bp cnhjz dyenhtyybt gjvtotybz gkjoflmñ åjktt 37 000 rdflhfnysö vtnhjd, b cjnhelybrb, htifdibt dféytqibt djghjcs yfwbjyfkmyjq åtpjgfcyjcnb, jcnfkbcm åtp
hfåjxbö vtcn. Gjxnb chfpe ét yf vtcnt, rjnjhjt jlby byjcnhfyysq éehyfkbcn yfpdfk ≤dnjhsv ägbwtynhjv dphsdf≥,
yfxfkbcm djccnfyjdbntkmyst hfåjns. Ghjtrn gj htrjycnherwbb plfybz, hfpheityyjuj nthfrnjv, yfhtrkb bvtytv vbabxtcrjq gnbws Atybrc, djphjélfñotqcz bp gtgkf hfpheitybq. Djccnfyjdbntkmyfz ghjuhfvvf gjnhtåjdfkf cjdvtcnyjq
hfåjns 3000 xtkjdtr gj kbrdblfwbb eothåf, yfytctyyjuj
juytv, lsvjv b djljq yf gkjoflb gjxnb 186 000 rdflhfnysö vtnhjd.
hfpheityyeñ xfcnm
plfybz Vbybcnthcndf
jåjhjys CIF.
Ujl cgecnz d Gtynfujyt jceotcndbkb gjxnb ytdjpvjéyjt.
Cnhjbntkb dsdtpkb 45 000 njyy jåkjvrjd b ghjhfåjnfkb d
jåotq ckjéyjcnb 3 vbkkbjyf hfåjxbö xfcjd, xnjås cltkfnm
nj, xtuj, rfr gjyfxfke ujdjhbkb ytrjnjhst, cltkfnm ytkmpz:
r 11 ctynzåhz 2002 ujlf dthyenm cjnhelybrjd Vbybcnthcndf
jåjhjys yf bö hfåjxbt vtcnf.
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Chjrb yt åskb jghtltktys d dscitq bycnfywbb. Nfreñ pflfxe gjcnfdbkb ctåt cfvb, gj jåotve cjukfcbñ, hfåjnfdibö
yf jåütrnt, vyjubt bp rjnjhsö d Fvthbrt – bvvbuhfyns.
Jyb nhelbkbcm yt gjrkflfz her. F hzljv juhjvyst xfcs
jncxbnsdfkb lyb, xfcs, vbyens b ctreyls lj rhfqytuj chjrf – ctynzåhm 2002 ujlf. Änj åsk vfhfajy. Herjdjlbntkm
åhbufls cdzpbcnjd Åhtnn Bnjy hfccrfpsdftn, xnj vyjubt
cnhjbntkb ≤dcñ cdjñ ébpym gjcdznbkb njve, xnjås ljdtcnb lj rjywf änj ltkj≥, jyb cxbnfkb, xnj bö éthnds åskb
ybxnj gj chfdytybñ c éthndfvb lheubö kñltq, gjnthzdibö
rjkktu b åkbprbö.
lbfyt, rjnjhfz bcgjkmpjdfkfcm ghb gthdjv cnhjbntkmcndt
Gtynfujyf 60 ktn yfpfl. Lkz htprb yjdjuj rfvyz åskb yfqltys vfibys jåhfpwf 1941 ujlf, xnjås hbceyjr cjjndtncndjdfk ewtktditve rfvyñ. Gjcrjkmre Gtynfujy – jabwbfkmysq bcnjhbxtcrbq gfvznybr, ytjåöjlbvj åskj gjpfåjnbnmcz
j cjöhfytybb tuj jåkbrf.
Xthns jåyjdktybz ghjcktébdfñncz yf dctq gjcnhflfditq
nthhbnjhbb. Hzljv c yjdsv afcfljv hfcnen cdtétgjcfétyyst hjpjdst vbhns, jcnhjkbcns b vfuyjkbb.
Yj tcnm tot jlyj gjhfpbntkmyjt yfgjvbyfybt j cnhfiyjq
fnfrt. Jlby ghzvjeujkmysq åkjr jåeuktyyjuj, bcgtohtyyjuj ghjåjbyfvb, nhtcyedituj bpdtcnyzrf dsltkztncz bp cdjtuj yjdjuj jrheétybz rfr cehjdsq gfvznybr ytlfdytve
ghjikjve. Yf ytv ghjcnfz yflgbcm ≤11 ctynzåhz 2001 ujlf≥. Jy hfcgjkjéty djpkt njxrb elfhf cfvjktnf b pfrhsdftn rfgceke, pfkjétyyeñ 11 bñyz pfvtcnbntktv vbybcnhf
jåjhjys Gjkjv Dekajdbwtv d xtcnm pfdthitybz cnhjbntkmysö hfåjn cyfheéb plfybz.
Zdyj joeofkfcm ytjnkjéyjcnm gjcnfdktyyjq wtkb, ujdjhbn
Bnjy: ≤Rfélsq gjybvfk, xnj dtcm vbh cvjnhbn, rfr jndtxftn Gtynfujy≥.
Gthdst 600 hfåjnybrjd dthyekbcm yf ghtéytt vtcnj pf ytcrjkmrj ytltkm lj ujljdobys b yfvtxtyyjq lfns. Rjt-rnj
bp dthyediböcz gthdsvb cnhfyyj xedcndjdfk ctåz ≤jn djpdhfotybz yf nj ét cfvjt vtcnj≥, yj yfltzkbcm dyjdm jåhtcnb gjljåbt yjhvfkmyjq ébpyb.
Åhjypjdfz rfgcekf gjcdzotyf éthndfv b cjlthébn ghtlvtns, jnjåhfyyst hjlcndtyybrfvb gjubåibö, cnhjbntkzvb b
herjdjlcndjv Vbybcnthcndf jåjhjys ≤rfr cdbltntkmcndj
cbks b htibntkmyjcnb≥ fvthbrfywtd. Cjlthébvjt drkñxftn cgbcrb gjubåibö ghb yfgfltybb yf Gtynfujy, cgbcjr
46 000 xtkjdtr, yfgbcfdibö gbcmvf gjcnhflfdibv d htpekmnfnt nthfrnf, f nfrét étnjys gjkbwtqcrbö b gjéfhysö,
exfcndjdfdibö d cgfcfntkmysö hfåjnfö.
Chtlb ntö, rnj dyjdm pfyzk cdjb gjvtotybz d fduecnt, åsk
Gbnth Vthab, cjdtnybr rjvfyleñotuj rjhgecjv Vjhcrjq
gtöjns. Jy crfpfk éehyfkbcnfv, xnj dféyj cnjqrj lthéfnmcz b gjrfpsdfnm, xnj ≤vs yt gjpdjkbv nthhjhbcnfv
lbrnjdfnm yfv åeleott≥. Änj djpdhfotybt nfrét lfkj yfltéle nhtv nsczxfv djtyyjckeéfobö fhvbb b akjnf, rjnjhst cnhtvbkbcm r ujljdobyt hfåjnfnm yf cdjbö hfåjxbö
vtcnfö.
Jlby bp cgfcfntktq bp jrheuf Vjynujvthb infnf Vähbktyl
ujdjhbn, xnj åscnhjt djccnfyjdktybt hfpheityyjuj ≤cdbltntkmcndetn j ghjxyjcnb yfitq cnhfys≥. Rfgbnfy Nhjq Kbgg
cxbnftn pfyjdj jncnhjtyysq Gtynfujy ≤dtkbrbv cbvdjkjv≥,
rjnjhsq ≤vyjujt pyfxbn lkz dctq cnhfys≥.
Nthfrn 11 ctynzåhz ghjbpjitk d njq xfcnb plfybz, rjnjhfz
gthtl änbv njkmrj xnj åskf vjlthybpbhjdfyf. Yjdst ghjnbdjgjéfhyst gjnjkjxyst djljhfpåhspubdfntkb gjvjukb
clthébdfnm gjéfh, f dphsdjecnjqxbdst jryf ljkuj elthébdfkb gflfñobt cntys. D htpekmnfnt vyjubv elfkjcm cgfcnbcm – åskj ljcnfnjxyj dhtvtyb, xnjås dsåtéfnm yf ekbwe. Cdbltntkmcndf cgfciböcz gjåelbkb bcgjkmpjdfnm d jåyjdktyysö gjvtotybzö yjdst chtlcndf åtpjgfcyjcnb. Dct
dyenhtyybt dsöjls b ldthyst hexrb d rfåbytnfö, yf ktcnybxysö rktnrfö b nefktnfö ctqxfc jånzyens ktynjq, hfccxbnfyyjq yf xtnshtöxfcjdjt vthwfybt d ntvyjnt. Ljgjkybntkmyst cdtnzobtcz erfpfntkb dsöjlf åskb ecnfyjdktys
dybpe, gjcrjkmre dj dhtvz rfnfcnhjas 11 ctynzåhz jxtym
vyjubt cjnhelybrb, jrfpfdibtcz pfnjxtyysvb d pflsvktyysö rfåbytnfö, yt edbltkb jåjpyfxtyysö gentq r jncnegktybñ. Gjzdbkbcm b yjdst cdtnzobtcz gjkjcrb yf gjke.
Rjulf dytiyzz xfcnm plfybz åskf jnltkfyf, Dekajdbw pfzdbk, xnj gfnhbjns, gjubåibt d ctdthyjq xfcnb Dbhlébybb,
jncnfbdfkb wtyyjcnb, xeélst ntv, rnj ndjhbk yfcbkbt. Djccnfyjdktybt Gtynfujyf ≤zdkztncz xfcnmñ åjhmås yf djqyt c
nthhjhbpvjv≥, crfpfk jy yf wthtvjybb 11 bñyz, f djpdhfotybt kñltq yf hfåjxbt vtcnf r gthdjq ujljdobyt gjlftn
≤nthhjhbcnfv jndtnysq cbuyfk≥. Änjn cbuyfk pfrkñxftncz d
njv, xnj ≤vs yt njkmrj pfdthibv djccnfyjdktybt, f åeltv
tot kexit, xtv ghtélt≥.
Ytlfdyj rjycekmnfyn gj cnhtccfv b gcböjkjubxtcrbv nhfdvfv Dbrnjh Dtkwfyn crfpfk uheggt cjnhelybrjd Gtynfujyf,
xnj gjvbyfybt cdjqcndtyyj yfitq rekmneht. Fvthbrfyws dthzn d tuj ukeåjrbq cvsck, b ghtlcnjzofz gthdfz ujljdobyf dyjdm ghjåelbn d kñlzö vyjétcndj ävjwbq, gjlxthryek
jy. Yj rfrfz ås htfrwbz yb åskf, rfrbt ås djghjcs j nthfrnfö yb djpybrfkb dyjdm, dct änj, gj tuj ckjdfv, exfcndetn d ghjwtcct bcwtktybz.
J ckexbditvcz pltcm yfgjvbyftn b yjdjt ≤gjvtotybt lkz
vtlbnfwbq≥ – pfk, ult ecnfyjdkty åjkmijq dbnhfé c gjlcdtnrjq, yf rjnjhjv bpjåhfétys jhtk b dcnfñott yfl Gtynfujyjv cjkywt. Yfxthnfys ckjdf ≤Tlbys d gfvznb≥ b lfnf
nhfutlbb. Dnjhjq pfk gjcdzoty gjubåibv d njn ltym ≤Uthjzv Fvthbrb≥. Léby Åfhyfr, pfvtcnbntkm herjdjlbntkz ghjtrnf ≤Atybrc≥, hfccrfpsdftn, xnj yf cntyfö åelen dsctxtys
bvtyf 184 gjubåibö d plfybb b yf fdbfkfqytht.
Fvthbrfyws gj-hfpyjve htfubheñn yf ujljdobye b gj-hfpyjve ghjöjlzn änjn ghjwtcc bcwtktybz. Åkbéfqibt hjlcndtyybrb b cjnhelybrb åelen exfcndjdfnm 11 ctynzåhz 2002
ujlf d wthtvjybb yf jåütrnt ≤Atybrc≥. R ybv jåhfnzncz
Dthöjdysq ukfdyjrjvfyleñobq (Ghtpbltyn CIF), vbybcnh
jåjhjys b ghtlctlfntkm Jåütlbytyyjuj rjvbntnf yfxfkmyb-
Ghjitlibq ujl ghbytc gthtvtys b cyfheéb plfybz. Yjdsö
åkjrjd gjxnb ytpfvtnyj, öjnz ecnfyjdktyj 4000 yjdsö bpdtcnyzrjdsö gkbn, rjnjhst ghbdtpkb yf uhepjdbrfö bp pfgflysö infnjd. Rfvtym åsk bpdktxty bp njq ét ébks d By23
rjd infåjd. D 9:37 ghjqltn vbyenf vjkxfybz d gfvznm j
njv vjvtynt, rjulf cfvjktn dhtpfkcz d Gtynfujy.
Hbl Rhjkjaa, rjycekmnfyn Byétythyjuj rjhgecf gj ghjtrne vtvjhbfkf b xkty gjgtxbntkmcrjuj cjdtnf Yfwbjyfkmyjuj cnhjbntkmyjuj veptz, ujdjhbn, xnj tckb nthhjhbcns cnhtvbkbcm ≤ltcnfåbkbpbhjdfnm bkb ltvjhfkbpjdfnm≥ Cjtlbytyyst Infns, nj äaatrn jrfpfkcz ≤ghzvj ghjnbdjgjkjéysv≥. Gtynfujy jncnhfbdftncz pfyjdj, åeltn lfyj hjéltybt
yjdjve vtvjhbfke, b Fvthbrf ≤djcghzkf c htrjhlyjq crjhjcnmñ≥, jnvtxftn jy.
Ytrjnjhst hjlcndtyybrb, d njv xbckt Lébv Ktqxfr, d htpekmnfnt fnfrb yf Gtynfujy gjnthzdibq cdjtuj vkflituj
åhfnf, yfltñncz, xnj cvjuen jåhtcnb entitybt e gjcnjzyyjuj vtvjhbfkf, rjnjhsq crjhj åeltn gjcnhjty hzljv cj
≤dnjhsv ägbwtynhjv≥ dphsdf. ≤Vs cxbnftv änj cdjbv ljkujv gthtl yfibvb åkbprbvb≥, – ujdjhbn jy. Vtvjhbfk åeltn hfcgjkjéty yf pfgflyjq cnjhjyt nthhbnjhbb Gtynfujyf.
Hjlcndtyybrb gjubåibö gjvjukb jghtltkbnm rhbnthbb lkz
ghjtrnf vtvjhbfkf. Ktqxfr dshféftn yfltéle yf nj, xnj
vtvjhbfk d Gtynfujyt gthtlfcn ≤xedcndj enhfns, bcgsnsdftvjt kñlmvb – åhfnmzvb, ctcnhfvb, étyfvb b jnwfvb≥.
Hjlcndtyybrb gjybvfñn, xnj ≤ckbirjv kturj pfåsnm kñltq, xmz ébpym nfr dytpfgyj jåjhdfkfcm≥, b öjnzn, xnjås
vtvjhbfk gjcnjzyyj yfgjvbyfk j ckexbditvcz pltcm. Jyb
cltkfñn änj rj dnjhjq ujljdobyt – 11 ctynzåhz 2003 ujlf.
Gjckt jrjyxfntkmyjuj dsåjhf ghjtrnf d ltrfåht vtvjhbfk
d Gtynfujyt gjcnhjbn Byétythysq rjhgec fhvbb. Jabwbfkmyst kbwf cjjåofñn, xnj eét gjkextys pfzdrb åjktt xtv
bp 50 cnhfy. Herjdjlbntkm ghjtrnf vtvjhbfkf jn Byétythyjuj rjhgecf Rähjk Fylthcjy-Jcnhf ujdjhbn, xnj vyjétcndj pfzdjr bp-pf uhfybws cdbltntkmcndetn j njv, xnj ≤nthfrn
pfnhjyek rféljuj d vbht≥. Gj tt ckjdfv, kñlb, rjnjhst
étkfñn vbhf dj dctv vbht b öjnzn entibnm ctvmb gjubåibö, cdjbv exfcnbtv cnhtvzncz dshfpbnm xedcndj cjkblfhyjcnb b crfpfnm, xnj ≤vs dctulf åeltv gjvybnm≥.
Gjéfkeq, ntv, rjuj dct tot dj vyjubö jnyjitybzö vexbn
ckexbdittcz e htrb Gjnjvfr d ghjikjv ujle, cnjbn dcgjvybnm ckjdf vbybcnhf jåjhjys: ≤Bp gtgkf dshfcnftn yfltélf≥.
Éfrkby C. Gjhn jcdtoftn djghjcs gjkbnbxtcrjq åtpjgfcyjcnb
b jåjhjys cnhfys lkz Jabcf vtéleyfhjlysö byajhvfwbjyysö
ghjuhfvv Ujcltgfhnfvtynf CIF.
24
11 ctynzåhz b cdjåjlf d Fvthbrt
Hjléth Hjptyåkfnn
Ghjatccjh fyukbqcrjuj zpsrf b kbnthfnehs Kjyu-Fqktycrjuj eybdthcbntnf, äcctbcn éehyfkf
≤Nfqv≥, fdnjh rybub ≤Yf xtv vs cnjbv: 30 ghbxby kñåbnm yfie cnhfye≥.
≤Vs – cjpyfntkmyj bkb
åtccjpyfntkmyj – yföjlbvcz
d gjcnjzyyjv gjbcrt åjktt
Z gbie änj äcct ghbvthyj pf vtczw lj gthdjq ujljdobys 11
ctynzåhz d njv ét nböjv ujhjlrt yf Kjyu-Fqktylt (in.
Ymñ-Qjhr), ult z yfåkñlfk pf fnfrfvb gj ntktdbpjhe. B z
gsnfñcm jnxbnfnmcz j hfåjnt vsckb, yfxbyfz c njuj eéfcyjuj lyz, b j htpekmnfnfö änjq vsckbntkmyjq hfåjns, rfrnj cdzpfyyjq c gfnhbjnbpvjv b genzvb, gj rjnjhsv cnhfycndetn hfpev d cdjåjlyjq cnhfyt. Gfnhbjnbpv d Fvthbrt, rfr
d kñåjq lheujq gjlkbyyjq ltvjrhfnbb, ytcnfåbkty b ghjzdkztncz åjktt njyrj, xtv d cnhfyfö, ult vsiktybt uhfélfy
rjynhjkbhetncz étcnxt. Kñåjdm r cnhfyt pltcm ctujlyz ärcgfycbdyf b cbkmyf, f pfdnhf – clthéfyf b cvtifyf c rhbnbrjq. Jyf jlyjdhtvtyyj hfccelbntkmyf b ctynbvtynfkmyf,
gjnjve xnj jlyf bp cfvsö wtyysö b d nj ét dhtvz jgfcysö
xthn cdjåjls pfrkñxftncz d njv, xnj hfpev ghtljcnfdkty
cfvjve ctåt.
djpdsityysö ckjd lkz
dshfétybz afrnf cdjtuj
ceotcndjdfybz. Cjåsnbz 11
ctynzåhz ecbkbkb änjn gjbcr, b
xnj ås yb ckexbkjcm, vs åeltv
bpvtyznmcz b, åsnm vjétn,
ekexifnmcz, åkfujlfhz
åjktt nofntkmyjve bpextybñ
cfvbö ctåz≥.
D gjcktlybt lyb ktnf vjq ujhjljr dsukzlbn gjxnb nfr ét,
rfr jyf dsukzltk ytpfljkuj lj 11 ctynzåhz, jcjåtyyj d åelybt lyb, rjulf ghbnjr jnlsöfñobö bcczrftn, f ntgkjöjls
jcnfdkzñn pfkbd xfqrfv. Yf cdfzö cjåbhfñncz cnfb åjkmibö åfrkfyjd. Gj åjkjnfv dsifubdfñn åtkst wfgkb. Ytåj
åjkmieñ xfcnm dhtvtyb gjlthyenj nevfyyj-ujkeåsv vfhtdjv. Dtnth ghbdjlbn d ldbétybt dthöybt dtnrb lthtdmtd, rjnjhst d änb lyb hfymit ntvytñn b ujdjhzn j ghbåkbétybb
yjdjuj dhtvtyb ujlf. Tckb ds enhjv cghjcbnt kñåjuj bp
vjbö cjctltq, rfr jy ctåz xedcndetn ctujlyz, jy crfétn:
≤Dtkbrjktgyj≥, öjnz gjckt ghjikjujlybö eåbqcnd dct pyfñn, xnj dcz änf åtpvzntéyjcnm vjétn dytpfgyj bcxtpyenm.
Ghjbpjqnb vjétn dct xnj eujlyj. Nfr ujdjhbkf uthjbyz bp
gmtcs Léjyf Uefhf Kblb Åhbp. Änj joeotybt gjhjq dshféftncz hfljcnyj – yfghbvth, rjulf rnj-nj gjregftn kjnthtqysq åbktn, yj xfot dctuj jyj gthtgktntyj c ujhtxmñ, båj
zdkztncz htpekmnfnjv lhfvfnbxtcrjuj cnjkryjdtybz c htfkmyjcnmñ, rjnjhjt pfcnfdkztn dfc levfnm j njv, xnj ybrnj yt djkty eghfdkznm cdjtq ébpymñ. Ghjbpjqnb vjétn dct,
xnj eujlyj – hfr, fdnjvjåbkmyfz fdfhbz, cfvjktnysq nfhfy
dscjnyjuj plfybz.
Bnfr, gjckt 11 ctynzåhz dct bpvtybkjcm, drkñxfz gfnhbjnbpv. Åelexb djkmysv ltkfnm nj, xnj tve eujlyj, fvthbrfycrbq hfpev cjdthibk pf änj dhtvz åjkmit dbnrjd åjkmit,
xtv d kñåjq lheujq gthbjl dhtvtyb yf vjtq gfvznb. Yfv b
hfytt ghböjlbkjcm bvtnm ltkj c zhrbvb cgfpvfnbxtcrbvb
ghjzdktybzvb gfnhbjnbpvf dj dhtvz djqy pf uhfélfycrbt
ghfdf b d 1960-t ujls, jcjåtyyj d rjyntrcnt Dmtnyfvf, yj
ybrjulf d nfrjv jåütvt, rfr d ghjikjv ujle. Rhfqyjcnb
25
vsckb, f, vjétn åsnm, b cnhfcnb cnfkb tot åjktt jnxtnkbdj dshfétyysvb, f jnntyrb vscktq, vsckb dyenhb vscktq,
åjktt njyrbvb. Rhjvt njuj, gjcrjkmre gjckt 11 ctynzåhz
yjdsö yfgfltybq yf cnhfye yt åskj, vsiktybt fvthbrfywtd,
yt ghbdsritt dgkjnyeñ pfybvfnmcz jåobvb djghjcfvb gjkjétybz ltk d cnhfyt, tcntcndtyysv jåhfpjv cjcrfkmpsdfkj yf ctvmñ, cjåfre, reöyñ – yf dct nj, bp xtuj crkflsdftncz gjdctlytdyfz ébpym d Fvthbrt.
dthitys fnfrb, kbim nt, rnj dctulf gsnftncz cjhbubyfkmybxfnm, gjdthyekbcm cgbyjq r nthgzotq åtlcndbt cnhfyt. Yj
dcrjht gjckt änjuj, rjulf Vbybcnthcndj ñcnbwbb b lheubt
yfxfkb ujdjhbnm j djtyysö nhbåeyfkfö, dvtifntkmcndt d
rjyabltywbfkmyst jnyjitybz vtéle fldjrfnjv b rkbtynjv b pflthéfybb gjljphtdftvsö åtp jådbytybq bkb ekbr,
vyjubt fvthbrfyws pflevfkbcm b crfpfkb: ≤Äq, yt nfr åscnhj^≥ Änj åskj ghjbpytctyj ldféls, rjulf dszcybkjcm, xnj
d htpekmnfnt dcnegktybz d cbke Pfrjyf ≤Gfnhbjn Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd≥, ghbyznjuj Rjyuhtccjv b gjlgbcfyyjuj Ghtpbltynjv Åeitv d jrnzåht 2001 ujlf, AÅH yfxfkj hscrfnm gj
åbåkbjntrfv, ghjdthzz, xnj xbnfñn kñlb. Vyt rfétncz,
xnj ubåtkm dczrjq wbdbkbpfwbb yfxbyfkfcm c njuj, xnj kñlb, yfltktyyst dkfcnmñ, ghbybvfkbcm ghjdthznm, xnj xbnfñn lheubt kñlb.
Chfpe gjckt fnfr gfnhbjnbpv jlyjdhtvtyyj djjheéfkcz b
jåkfxfkcz d jltzybz gtxfkb. Lkz åjkmibycndf bp yfc uytd
b ujht cjtlbybkbcm djtlbyj, b jlyf ävjwbz dljöyjdkzkf
lheueñ. Nfr b ljkéyj åsnm, rjulf yf ntåz jnrhsnj yfgflfñn. Z cj cdjtuj gfcnjhfkmyjuj ≤yfctcnf≥ yfåkñlfk pf cdjbv yfhjljv, pf cdjbv gjcnhflfdibv ujhjljv b öjntk yfytcnb åtcgjoflysq jndtnysq elfh – yt cnjkmrj bp vtcnb, öjnz
änj xedcndj åskj dj vyt cbkmyj, crjkmrj xnjås pfobnbnm
ctåz, cdjñ cnhfye, cdjq ljv.
Gfnhbjnbpv lbrnjdfk ghjzdktybz ytkjzkmyjcnb r gjljåysv
cjåsnbzv. Jlby bp eybrfkmysö hfpevysö rjvgjytynjd yfitq cnhfys pfrkñxftncz d njv, xnj ytkjzkmyjcnm dcnhjtyf
d tt cbcntve – ytkjzkmyjcnm gj jnyjitybñ yt r ghbywbgfv,
f r kblthfv. Dczrbq hfp, rjulf vs jåyfheébdftv, xnj yfib kblths jnrkjyzñncz jn ghbywbgjd, vs c djjleitdktybtv öjnbv – lf b jåzpfys – ybpdthuyenm bö.
Yf ghjnzétybb vyjubö lytq dct dpbhfkb yf nhegs, bpdktrftvst bp-gjl heby, dpdjkyjdfyyst kbwf éty, veétq, hjlbntktq. Vs epyfdfkb, xnj chtlb gjubåibö tcnm yfib åkbprbt,
lhepmz b pyfrjvst. Vs ghbcencndjdfkb yf gjöjhjyfö. Étybö gjlheub vjtq ljxthb gjubå, gjnjve xnj jy hfåjnfk ghjlfdwjv d jlyjq bp åfity Wtynhf vtéleyfhjlyjq njhujdkb.
Yf tuj gjöjhjyfö cjåhfkjcm åjktt nsczxb xtkjdtr, gjxnb
dct – vjkjltém d djphfcnt ldflwfnb c ytåjkmibv ktn. Dct
åskb jödfxtys jlybv yfcnhjtybtv: ghjbpjqnb vjétn dct,
xnj eujlyj... Xfc pf xfcjv vs yfåkñlfkb rfhnbys njuj, rfr
kñlb ghjåbdfñncz xthtp ytghjybwftvst rkeås lsvf b gskb. Vthndst gjéfhybrb. Vthndst gjkbwtqcrbt. Jntw, htåtyjr rjnjhjuj ghjgfk åtp dtcnb, uhtpbk yfltéljq, xnj njn
åkeélftn gj ujhjle d cjcnjzybb ijrf.
Yfxfkbcm b lheubt hfpujdjhs ≤ghjnbd ithcnb≥. Rjt-rnj endthélfk, xnj vs åskb ghfds d yfitq djqyt ghjnbd ≤FkmRfqls≥, gjnjve xnj Åju åsk yf yfitq cnjhjyt. Rcnfnb ujdjhz, bvtyyj nfr levfk b Vjöfvvfl Fnnf – jlby bp nthhjhbcnjd, pfödfnbdibö nt cfvst cfvjktns. Åju åsk yf cnjhjyt nfkbåjd, bvtyyj gjänjve bv b elfkjcm ghtecgtnm d cdjtq vbccbb. Kblth Nfkbåfyf Vjöfvvfl Jvfh, yfdthyjt, cfv
elbdkzkcz, yfcrjkmrj åkbpjr jy åsk r Åjue. 11 ctynzåhz
Åju åsk yf tuj cnjhjyt. Ytcrjkmrbvb ytltkzvb gjpét, rjulf gfk Rfylfufh, vekkf, yfdthyjt, jnghfdbkcz yf gjbcrb åjktt rjvgtntynyjuj åjétcndf.
Dcrjht r uytde b gtxfkb ghbåfdbkjcm ytxnj åjktt cgjrjqyjt b dpdtityyjt. Rfélsq yfxfk wtybnm rfxtcndj, rjnjhjt
jåsxyj yt ghbgbcsdfkjcm fvthbrfywfv, – jcjåjt xedcndj
cjåcndtyyjuj ljcnjbycndf. Dj dhtvz uthjbxtcrbö b yt ghtrhfofñoböcz yb yf vbyene cgfcfntkmysö hfåjn vs cnfkb
cdbltntkzvb ghjzdktybz xedcndf cjåcndtyyjuj ljcnjbycndf
kñlmvb, ltkfñobvb cdjñ hfåjne, xedcndf, rjnjhst bcgsnsdfkb kñlb ghjcnj ghb cjdthitybb cdjtq hfåjns. Änj åskj xedcndj cjåcndtyyjuj ljcnjbycndf cfvjuj jåsxyjuj xtkjdtrf – cnfhsq bltfk, djcrhtityysq eéfcysv cjåsnbtv,
yj crhsnyj ébdibq d Fvthbrt dctulf. Dcgjvybv ≤Xtkjdtrf c vjnsujq≥ d ÖÈÖ dtrt b ≤Cjklfn Léj≥ d ÖÖ dtrt. Yj
cjxedcndbt, rjnjhjt ltkfñobt cdjt ltkj kñlb ghjzdkzkb
lheu r lheue, cjxedcndbt, ghjzdktyyjt åjkmibycndjv fvthbrfywtd d nj dhtvz, dcrhskj b åjktt ukeåjreñ ajhve ljcnjbycndf rfr nfrjdjuj. Änj åskj jåjcnhtyyjt xedcndj wtyyjcnb b ljcnjbycndf ébpyb, rjnjhfz djpybrfkf d åerdfkmyjv cvsckt ckjdf bp gtgkf. Ybrnj bp ntö, rnj dbltk, rfr
cgfcfntkb cybvfñn cdjb rfcrb b hfccnegfñncz, jåhfpez rjhbljh lkz dsyjcf pfdthyensö dj akfub ntk, b gjxedcndjdfk
njhétcndtyyjcnm vjvtynf, ybrjulf yt pfåeltn änjuj.
≤Afyfnbr, – ujdjhbk uthjq Abykb Gbnthf Lfyyf u-y Lekb,
– änj xtkjdtr, rjnjhsq ltkftn nj, xnj, gj tuj vytybñ, cltkfk ås Ujcgjlm, tckb ås Jy pyfk ckjébdibtcz jåcnjzntkmcndf≥ (1). Gthdjghbxbyf jnltktybz yfvb wthrdb b ujcelfhcndf pfrkñxfkfcm yt njkmrj d njv, xnjås ghtljndhfnbnm gjzdktybt ujcelfhcndtyyjq htkbubb, yj b d njv, xnjås ghtljndhfnbnm gjcktlcndbz ujcelfhcndtyyjq htkbubb, yfbåjktt
eåbqcndtyysv bp rjnjhsö zdkztncz ghtlgjkjétybt j njv,
xnj Åju – yf yfitq cnjhjyt. Hfpevttncz, dct öjntkb ås levfnm, xnj Åju – yf bö cnjhjyt, gjnjve xnj nthhjhbcns ytghfds, f vs – ghfds, b kñåjt ljcnjqyjt ctåz åjétcndj åskj ås cgjcjåyj gjyznm änj. Yj lkz cnhfys åskj ås ujhfplj kexit b pljhjdtt yt ghbndjhznmcz, xnj vs pyftv, yf xmtq
cnjhjyt Åju. Fvthbrf – änj yfbåjktt htkbubjpyfz cnhfyf d
ghjvsiktyyj hfpdbnjv vbht, b ghbxbyf änjuj vjétn pfrkñxfnmcz d njv, xnj vs jnyjcbvcz r htkbubb crjhtt rfr
r xfcnyjq cjåcndtyyjcnb.
Nfrbv jåhfpjv, gfnhbjnbpv cnfk dybvfntkmytt ghbckeibdfnmcz r cfvjve ctåt, r cdjbv cjåcndtyysv nhtdjéysv
ghjzdktybzv. D jrnzåht b yjzåht kturj åskj dbltnm d rféljv vecekmvfybyt gjntywbfkmyjuj nthhjhbcnf, rjnjhjuj,
rjytxyj, gjrf tot yt cktljdfkj gjvtofnm d kfuthz lkz bynthybhjdfyysö kbw, yj pf rjnjhsv, åtpeckjdyj, cktljdfkj
ås dtcnb cktére. Öjhjij, xnj ckexftd geåkbxyjuj ghtckt-
Jlyfrj, eukeåkzzcm, gfnhbjnbxtcrbt evjyfcnhjtybz ghbjåhtnfkb yjne ålbntkmyjcnb gj jnyjitybñ r ghjbcöjlzobv
cjåsnbzv. Kñlb htfubhjdfkb yf ghfdbntkmcndtyyst htitybz cjjåhfpyj njve, rfr jyb djcghbybvfkb cdjñ cnhfye c
gjkbnbxtcrjq b bcnjhbxtcrjq njxtr phtybz. Rjulf åskb cj26
ljdfybz åskj jxtym ytvyjuj. Ghtpbltyn Åei gjcnegbk cjdthityyj dthyj, rjulf chfpe ét yfgjvybk yfv, xnj fvthbrfyws fhfåcrjuj ghjbcöjéltybz, rjytxyj ét, zdkzñncz
fvthbrfywfvb. Gkjöj, xnj vs yfxfkb vsckbnm rfntujhbxyj.
D jåböjl djitk ädatvbpv ≤hfcjdjt ghjabkbhjdfybt≥. Yfcrjkmrj änj cjukfcjdsdfkjcm c gjyznbtv gfnhbjnbpvf? Yfif cnhfyf cjcnjzkf bp ntö, rjuj vs gecnbkb r ctåt, b ytrjnjhst bp ntö, rjuj ghbukfcbkb, öjntkb yfc eåbnm. D cfvjv
kb ltkt vs bvtkb änj d dble, rjulf endthélfkb, xnj xnbv
dct nhflbwbb b dths? Vs – rfr änj eét åsdfkj d ghjikjv
– jcjpyfkb, rfrbt jgfcyjcnb ytctn d ctåt gjkbnbrf ≤jnrhsnsö ldthtq≥ – vs, åkfujlfhyst ghjlerns njq cfvjq gjkbnbrb ≤jnrhsnsö ldthtq≥.
cz d njv, xnj åjkmibycndj bp yfc yt njkmrj yt joeoftn ctåz ≤pltcm b ntgthm≥; tldf kb vs pyftv rjuj-nj, rnj levftn
j ctåt bcrkñxbntkmyj d nthvbyfö cbñvbyenysö cjåsnbq.
Tckb dthbnm rfylblfnfv d ghtpbltyns, yjuf ybrjuj bp ybö
ybrjulf yt cnegfkf d Dfibyunjy. Vjéyj gjlevfnm, xnj åsdibt rjyuhtccvtys b ctyfnjhs rheébkb djrheu ujhjlf gj
rjkmwtdjq fdnjljhjut, cjåbhfz ujkjcf bpåbhfntktq ghzvj bp
cdjbö fdnjvjåbktq. Dfibyunjy bpdtcnty rfr ujhjl ≤cdjbö
kñltq≥. Xnjås åsnm ≤cdjbv≥ dj dkfcnysö cnhernehfö – rfr
gjlhfpevtdftn cfv nthvby – yeéyj yt ghjcnj yföjlbnmcz
nfv, ult dkfcnm, yj b jibåfnmcz dvtcnt c dkfcnm bveobvb,
b åsnm ghjöjlbvwtv, tckb njuj nhtåetn cnfnec. Tckb ns yt
ghbyflktébim r ≤cdjbv kñlzv≥, tckb ns gjcnjhjyybq –
änj ytrjt kbxyjt ljcnbétybt b gjödfkf cfvjve ctåt; nfr
gjcnegfñn njkmrj kexibt. Ytpfdbcbvj jn njuj, bltn djqyf
bkb ytn, vs jlyjdhtvtyyj b d hfdyjq vtht yföjlbvcz dyt
ghjbcöjlzobö cjåsnbq b dyenhb bö.
Änb b lheubt vsckb yt åskb ajhvfkbpjdfys bkb egjhzljxtys; jyb ghjcnj djpybrkb, rjulf njuj gjnhtåjdfk ckexfq.
Fvthbrfycrjt vsiktybt dctulf jlbyfrjdj – b gj jnyjitybñ r gfnhbjnbpve, b gj jnyjitybñ r rfrjve-kbåj rfylblfne yf gjkbnbxtcreñ ljkéyjcnm, gbde bkb vjhjétyjve.
Jyj cktletn jåotve ntxtybñ, jyj cfvj tcnm jåott ntxtybt.
Dljåfdjr rj dctve cnhfyf yfxfkf yfcvtöfnmcz yfl cfvjq cjåjq – ntktdbpbjyyst rjvbrb dscvtbdfkb cnhfyyst ghtpbltyncrbt ecnyst dscrfpsdfybz, cfv Ghtpbltyn pfzdbk: ≤Jyb vtyz ytghfdbkmyj gjyzkb≥, cnhfyf pfcnhzkf d åtcrjytxyjv b ghtlyfvthtyyjv åfkfycbhjdfybb vtéle edfétybtv b
dscvtbdfybtv, vtéle gjpbwbtq, cdjlzotqcz r njve, xnjås
dct djcghbybvfnm dcthmtp, b gjpbwbtq, cdjlzotqcz r njve,
xnjås, yfjåjhjn, ybxtuj yt djcghbybvfnm dcthmtp, dgkjnm lj
fytrljnjd jå Ecfvt åby Kfltyt. Tckb yfghzxm cdjb bpdbkbys b gjhfpvsckbnm jå änjv (yj rnj änbv pfybvfkcz?), cnfkj ås gjyznyj, xnj cfvjdscvtbdfybt njét zdkztncz xfcnmñ
gfnhbjnbpvf, f öjöjn – cdjtuj hjlf ghjzdktybtv cdjåjls
ckjdf.
Kñåjdm r cnhfyt d eckjdbzö ltvjrhfnbb bvttn cnhfyysq jnntyjr. Rfélsq djkty kñåbnm Fvthbre cbkmyj bkb ckfåj,
kbåj kñåbnm tt nfrjq, rfrfz jyf tcnm, kbåj åhjcbnm tt, bkb
djdct yt kñåbnm. Rféljuj dct åjkmit b åjkmit gthtgjkyztn xedcndj åkfujlfhyjcnb – jcjåtyyj d yfghzétyyjt dhtvz
– d jnyjitybb Gthdjq gjghfdrb r Rjycnbnewbb, d jnyjitybb cfvjq Rjycnbnewbb, rjnjhfz yfcnfbdfkf yf djpvjéyjcnb dyjcbnm gjghfdrb, d jnyjitybb djpvjéyjcnb ghjbpyjcbnm
dckeö dct nj, xnj vs yt öjntkb ås, xnjås åskj ghjbpytctyj dckeö. Ytcrjkmrj ktn yfpfl jlby ytehfdyjdtityysq buhjr åtqcåjkmyjq rjvfyls dscitq kbub, gjéfkjdfkcz, xnj
ytn åjkmit cbk tplbnm d ymñ-qjhrcrjv vtnhj, åbnrjv yfåbnjv ébdeobvb yf gjcjåbz ythfåjnfñobvb vfnthzvb c vfktymrbvb ltnmvb, ujvjctrcefkbcnfvb b bvvbuhfynfvb. Dct
djpvenbkbcm: ≤Jy yt ljkéty nfr ujdjhbnm≥. Dcz ghtktcnm
yfitq cbcntvs rfr hfp b pfrkñxftncz d njv, xnj jy vjétn
nfr ujdjhbnm – åjktt njuj, ghb étkfybb jy lfét vjétn hfcnjgnfnm yfi ujcelfhcndtyysq akfu, f yfv åeltn rhfqyt ytghbznyj cksifnm b dbltnm dct änj. Yj vs ljkéys dct änj
nthgtnm. Gthdfz gjghfdrf åskf ghbyznf lkz rféljuj – b d
gthdeñ jxthtlm lkz åjkdfyjd.
Cktletn nfrét exbnsdfnm b fvthbrfycreñ ntyltywbñ gksnm
gj ntxtybñ. Lfét d xhtpdsxfqysö, cjghzétyysö c jgfcyjcnzvb cbnefwbzö hfpev yföjlbn ljhjue r dsöjle, åsnm vjétn, gjnjve xnj ébpym – djjåot ljcnfnjxyj öjhjifz inerf, xnjås gjpdjkbnm nfrbt ≤lhtqas≥, bkb gjnjve xnj vtxnfybt zdkztncz jlyjq bp yfibö yfwbjyfkmysö nhflbwbq; cfvf yfif cnhfyf yfxbyfkfcm c vtxns. Kñlb d lheubö cnhfyfö
gjkfufñn, xnj hfp vs – yfwbz, cgjcjåyfz r cjpblfybñ, vs
nfrét yfwbz, rjnjhfz ≤öjxtn cjpblfnm≥, yj yfv kexit
pyfnm. Djghtrb cdjtq htgenfwbb, fvthbrfyws ujhfplj åjkmit crkjyys r jndktxtyysv evcndtyysv ≤akfybhjdfybzv≥,
xtv j yfc ghbdsrkb levfnm. Dct yfib kbnthfnehyst uthjb
åskb åjkmibvb ≤akfythfvb≥ – Ufr, Öjklty, Hbg (2) b ytrjnjhst htfkmyst kñlb, nfrbt rfr Létaathcjy, Ahfyrkby b
Älbcjy. Vs ébdtv ult-nj pf ghtltkfvb yfitq gkfytns d
njq ét cntgtyb, d rjnjhjq vs ébdtv yf ytq. Rjulf z åsk
tot htåtyrjv, exbntkm xfcntymrj kjdbk vtyz yf njv, xnj z
åtcwtkmyj ukfptk d jryj, b pflfdfk vyt htprbq, yj dgjkyt
ghtlcrfpetvsq djghjc: ≤Hjléth, yt öjntk ås ns djccjtlbyznmcz c uheggjq?≥ Vscktyyj z jndtxfk tve: ≤Yt jxtym≥.
Ghjbpjqnb vjétn dct xnj eujlyj. Nfrjd åsk ehjr 11 ctynzåhz. Ult ds åskb 11 ctynzåhz? Åjktt njuj, ult ds åskb
10 ctynzåhz? Dytpfgyst ldbétybz ébpyb, dhjlt ldbétybq
cdjåjlyjuj hfpevf, jcnfñncz dyt yfituj rjynhjkz. Cfv gfnhbjnbpv d cdjåjlyjq cnhfyt yföjlbncz dyt rjynhjkz – uytd,
gtxfkm, cjxedcndbt, dpfbvyfz åkfujlfhyjcnm, rhbnbrf, ytedthtyyjcnm d ctåt, hfljcnm, crkjyyjcnm r vtxnfybzv b kbxyfz ytpfdbcbvjcnm. Nj, xnj vjétn ghjbpjqnb cj cnhfyjq, vjétn ghjbpjqnb b c evjyfcnhjtybtv, jcjåtyyj d cnhfyt, rjnjhfz dcz cjplfyf bp evjyfcnhjtybz. Tckb ås vs ljikb lj
jcjpyfybz änjuj, vs ås gjyzkb, xnj cdjåjlf – åjktt nhelyjt b ckjéyjt zdktybt, xtv vs ghbdsrkb levfnm.
R fghtkñ-vfñ cnhfyf dhzl kb ghjljkéfkf levfnm jå Faufybcnfyt bkb Ecfvt åby Kfltyt – ghjikj ytcrjkmrj vtczwtd c njuj vjvtynf, rjulf vs d gjcktlybq hfp dbltkb tuj
gj ntktdbpjhe. Cwtyfhbq jheäkkjdcrjuj 1984 ujlf yt cåskcz; yfc yt gjlvzkj gjl ctåz ghfdbntkmcndj. Ltkj yt d njv,
xnj vs pfåskb yfie gjnhtåyjcnm xedcndjdfnm ctåz d åtpjgfcyjcnb, b lfét yt d yfitv étkfybb gjrfhfnm dbyjdysö.
Yj änb vsckb enjyekb d gexbyt lheubö dtotq, rjnjhst
C yfibvb ≤lhtqafvb≥ åskj cdzpfyj b yfit étkfybt åsnm
gjcnjhjyybvb yfåkñlfntkzvb – lfét gjckt 11 ctynzåhz,
rjulf vs gjyzkb, xnj vs ljkéys cgkjnbnmcz. Yj yfi bcnjhbxtcrbq ntvgthfvtyn gjpdjkztn yfv cgkfxbdfnmcz kbim
yf jghtltktyyjt dhtvz. Pfntv vs hfcöjlbvcz d hfpyst cnjhjys. Jlyj bp cnhfyysö jåfzybq yfitq cnhfys pfrkñxftn27
dkbzñn yf yfie ébpym, d åtplyt lheubö yjdjcntq. Ntgthm
ukfdyjq vbitymñ lkz nthhjhbcnjd cnfk Bphfbkm, b tdhjgtqcrbq fynbctvbnbpv djccnfk bp vthndsö. Jrfpfkjcm, xnj ubufyncrbt rjhgjhfwbb zdkzñncz djhfvb, ghjébufntkzvb
ébpyb. Hsyjxyst rjnbhjdrb gjktntkb dybp cj crjhjcnmñ
rfnzotujcz c ujhs rfvyz. Ldbébvst fkxyjcnmñ, åtqcåjkbcns b dkfltkmws åtqcåjkmysö rjvfyl cjåhfkbcm cfåjnbhjdfnm jxthtlyjq buhjdjq ctpjy.
ubåituj jn dhfétcrjuj juyz d yfxfkt zydfhz – b nj, yfcrjkmrj åkfujhjlyj jå änjv hfccrfpsdfkb d gthtlfxfö yjdjcntq – djn änj jcnfkjcm d gfvznb.
Dj vyjujv gfnhbjnbpv d Fvthbrt dhfoftncz djrheu rjyrhtnysö b dgjkyt joenbvsö htfkbq, c rjnjhsvb vjéyj
rfr-nj jåhfofnmcz, rjnjhst vjéyj rjynhjkbhjdfnm b yf rjnjhst vjéyj jrfpsdfnm djpltqcndbt. Z kñåkñ cdjñ ctvmñ.
Z kñåkñ cdjq ujhjl. Åjktt jåobt evjyfcnhjtybz b åjktt
ukeåjrbt xedcndf ujhfplj ytjghtltktyytt: jyb vjuen cfvb
gj ctåt vtyznmcz, hfcibhznmcz, jnrkjyznmcz, ghböjlbnm b
eöjlbnm. D yfitq cnhfyt yfåkñlftncz jcjåfz hfpyjdblyjcnm
ytcnfåbkmyjcnb – åjktt dféyfz, xtv åjufncndj b dkfcnm. Vs
– cjpyfntkmyj bkb åtccjpyfntkmyj – yföjlbvcz d gjcnjzyyjv gjbcrt åjktt djpdsityysö ckjd lkz dshfétybz afrnf
cdjtuj ceotcndjdfybz. Cjåsnbz 11 ctynzåhz ecbkbkb änjn
gjbcr, b xnj ås yb ckexbkjcm, vs åeltv bpvtyznmcz b, åsnm
vjétn, ekexifnmcz, åkfujlfhz åjktt nofntkmyjve bpextybñ cfvbö ctåz.
Ult vs åskb d yfitq cjåcndtyyjq cnhfyt? Ult vs åskb gj
jnyjitybñ r jcnfkmyjve vbhe? Vs yt jxtym kñåbv levfnm
jå jcnfkmyjv vbht. Åjkmijq åbpytc kñåbn levfnm j vbht
rfr j crjgbot tuj rkbtynjd. Yj lkz jcnfkmysö yfc juhjvysq b ibhjrbq vbh ghjcnj cnfk vtcnjv, ult ult-nj lfktrj
ghjbcöjlzn yfdjlytybz b ptvktnhzctybz, ntv åjktt xnj Hjccbz ghtdhfnbkfcm bp bcnjxybrf euhjps d ytrjt gjljåbt yfituj lheuf. Tckb ås vs åjkmit pyfkb j vecekmvfycrjv
vbht, ujdjhzn yfv, vs, djpvjéyj, cvjukb ås ghtldjcöbnbnm
bkb lfét ghtljndhfnbnm cjåsnbz 11 ctynzåhz. Tckb ås vs
åjkmit pyfkb j yfibö dhfufö d vbht, ujdjhzn yfv, vs cvjukb ås dsnfobnm bö bp ybotns b ytdtétcndf d jnyjitybb
yfc, cvjukb ås gjdtlfnm bv, rfrbt vs pfvtxfntkmyst ghb
åkbprjv pyfrjvcndt, rfrbt vs gjhzljxyst, xtcnyst, dtctkst.
D änb dtxthybt xfcs gjcktlybö fduecnjdcrbö lytq cjkytxyst kexb dcgsöbdfñn jcjåtyyj zhrj gthtl ntv, rfr bcxtpyenm. Ébdst bpujhjlb, eét yfxfdibt dzyenm, hfymit jrensdfñncz ntymñ. Ytgjlfktre hexmb dkbdfñncz d pfkbd, rjnjhsq, ghjqlz xthtp rfyfk, ult yf cdfzö cblzn hsåfrb d
jéblfybb elfxb, hfcibhztncz b lfkmit cjtlbyztncz c Fnkfynbxtcrbv jrtfyjv. Z yföjéecm ult-nj, d rfrjq-nj njxrt
ghjcnhfycndf b dhtvtyb. Yfif cnhfyf yföjlbncz ult-nj. Vs
edthtys d njv, xnj vs ghtlcnfdkztv cjåjq ytxnj pfckeébdfñott dybvfybz lkz yfc cfvbö b lkz lheubö, xnj e yfc
tcnm cthmtpyst jcyjdfybz lkz njuj, xnjås dsébnm b jlthéfnm gjåtle, b vs åeltv ghjljkéfnm gjbcrb...
Ntv yt vtytt, rjulf gfnhbjnbpv ghtgfhbhetn änb cthmtpyst
cjjåhfétybz, cvsck bö hfcndjhztncz. Gjckt 11 ctynzåhz
kñåjq rhbnbxtcrbq cfvjfyfkbp jnntyzkcz vsckmñ: xthn c
ybv, c jcnfkmysv vbhjv... gjxtve vs ljkéys bpdbyznmcz
pf cdjt ceotcndjdfybt? B tckb lfét vs cjdthibkb ljcnfnjxyj uheåst jibårb d bcnjhbb yfibö vtéleyfhjlysö jnyjitybq, hfpdt jyb öeét ntö jibåjr, rjnjhst cjdthibkb
cnhfys, ecnegfdibt yfv d cbkt? B rfrfz lheufz cnhfyf d bcnjhbb, öjntkjcm ås pyfnm, cltkfkf cnjkmrj öjhjituj lkz
jcnfkmyjq xfcnb ujkjlfñotq, jåybofditq, hfpheityyjq
djqyfvb gkfytns? Vs dcnegbkb d Åjcybñ, öjntkjcm ås jnvtnbnm, c tlbycndtyyjq wtkmñ – cltkfnm ljåhjt ltkj. Vecekmvfycrbv ujcelfhcndfv cktljdfkj ås gjvybnm jå änjv,
rjulf jyb gjyjczn Dtkbrjuj Cfnfye (Fvthbre).
1.
Vfhnby Lekb, dkfltktw åfhf, åsk dslevfy xbrfucrbv ufptnysv éehyfkbcnjv Abykb Gbnthjv Lfyyjv.
D rjywt ÖÈÖ dtrf u-y Lekb, ujdjhzobq c jnxtnkbdj dshfétyysv frwtynjv bhkfylcrjuj bvvbuhfynf (gthtlfyysv d pfvtnrfö Lfyyf c gjvjomñ ajytnbxtcrbö
chtlcnd), cj cdjqcndtyysvb tve ghjybwfntkmyjcnmñ,
bhjybtq b ñvjhjv jåceélfk gjkbnbxtcrbt b cjwbfkmyst ghjåktvs Fvthbrb cj cdjbvb rkbtynfvb, njét
bhkfylcrbvb bvvbuhfynfvb.
D bnjut yfif yfcnjhjétyyjcnm r gjkjétybñ ltk b vytybzv d jcnfkmyjv vbht, dthjznyj, ybxenm yt ghbåkbpbkf yfc r
ytve – vjétn åsnm, kbim d vtxnfö. Vs ghbikb r cjdthityyj cghfdtlkbdjve, yf vjq dpukzl, dsdjle, xnj Fvthbrf
yt cltkfkf ybxtuj nfrjuj, xnj vjukj ås ckeébnm jghfdlfybtv pdthcrbö fnfr yf yfi yfhjl. Tckb ghjcdtotybt vjétn
jrfpfnmcz gjktpysv d åeleotv, lfdfqnt dct dj xnj ås nj
yb cnfkj ghjcdtofnmcz. Yj änj yt bvtkj ybxtuj jåotuj c åtpevysvb htitybzvb afyfnbrjd.
2.
Utr Abyy – ukfdysq uthjq hjvfyf Vfhrf Ndtyf
≤Ghbrkñxtybz Utrkmåthhb Abyyf≥. Öjklty Rjkabkl
– ukfdysq uthjq hjvfy L.L. Cäkbyléthf ≤Yfl ghjgfcnmñ dj héb≥; Hbg dfy Dbyrkm – uthjq, d xtcnm rjnjhjuj åsk yfpdfy jlyjbvtyysq hfccrfp Dfibyunjyf Bhdbyuf.
Hjléth Hjptyåkfnn – fdnjh rybub ≤Yf xtv vs cnjbv:
30 ghbxby kñåbnm yfie cnhfye≥.
Levfk kb kbxyj z lj 11 ctynzåhz, xnj jrféecm cgjcjåysv
yf cnjkm cbkmyeñ htfrwbñ? Yt pyfñ. Ghjbpjqnb vjétn dct,
xnj eujlyj. Bcgsnfybz, rjnjhst dsgfkb yf ljkñ gfnhbjnbpvf dcktlcndbt ghjbpjitlibö cjåsnbq, åskb bcgsnfybzvb,
rjnjhsv tétlytdyj gjldthuftncz cdjåjlysq hfpev. Vyjuj
lytq z djjåot yt levfk jå 11 ctynzåhz, ≤Fkm-Rfqlt≥, Bhfrt b lfét j njv, xnj vs yföjlbvcz d cjcnjzybb djqys bkb
d xhtpdsxfqyjq cbnefwbb. Tckb xnj-nj b jcnfkjcm d gfvznb
c njuj lyz, nfr änj rfhnbys kñlcrbö cnhflfybq. Étyf rfpytyyjuj nthhjhbcnfvb éehyfkbcnf Läyyb Gthkf; hjlbntkb
Yfnfyf Hjccf Xfgväyf, gthdjuj fvthbrfycrjuj cjklfnf, gj-
Vytybz, dshfétyyst d yfcnjzotq cnfnmt, zdkzñncz kbxysvb
vytybzvb tt fdnjhf b yt jåzpfntkmyj jnhféfñn dpukzls bkb
gjkbnbre ghfdbntkmcndf CIF.
28
Ljgjkybntkmyst byajhvfwbjyyst
htcehcs
Dsåjhjxyfz öhjyjkjubz rkñxtdsö cjåsnbq:
c 11 ctynzåhz 2001 ujlf gj yfcnjzott dhtvz
Gjlujnjdktyf Jabcjv vtéleyfhjlysö byajhvfwbjyysö ghjuhfvv
Ujcelfhcndtyyjuj ltgfhnfvtynf CIF
11 ctynzåhz 2001 ujlf: Ldf pfödfxtyysö nthhjhbcnfvb fdbfkfqythf dhtpfñncz d åfiyb Wtynhf vtéleyfhjlyjq njhujdkb d Ymñ-Qjhrt. Cgecnz xfc c ytåjkmibv jåt åfiyb heifncz, b gjl bö jåkjvrfvb gjubåfñn nsczxb kñltq. Nhtnbq pfödfxtyysq fdbfkfqyth dhtpftncz d plfybt Gtynfujyf. Xtndthnsq fdbfkfqyth, rjnjhsq, djpvjéyj, yfghfdkzkcz tot r jlyjq wtkb d Dfibyunjyt, nthgbn rfnfcnhjae d jrheut Cjvthctn (in. Gtycbkmdfybz), – dblbvj, gjckt njuj, rfr gfccfébhs gjgsnfkbcm dvtifnmcz d ltqcndbz ntö, rnj exfcndjdfk d
pfödfnt cfvjktnf.
16:10 – jåheibdftncz plfybt § 7 Wtynhf vtéleyfhjlyjq
njhujdkb.
20:30 – Ghtpbltyn Åei jåhfoftncz r yfwbb cj cktleñobvb
ckjdfvb: ≤Nthfrns vjuen gjrjktåfnm aeylfvtyns rhegytqibö yfibö plfybq, yj jyb yt pfnhjyen aeylfvtyn Fvthbrb≥.
Gjubåkb nsczxb kñltq. Cjukfcyj gthdjyfxfkmysv jwtyrfv
dkfcntq Ymñ-Qjhrf, d WVN b ghbktufñobö r ytve rdfhnfkfö vjukj gjubåyenm åjktt 5 nsc. xtk. Gj vtht enjxytybz
cgbcrjd gjubåibö, cdthrt bvty b jgjpyfybz jcnfyrjd ytrjnjhsö éthnd xbckj ghtlgjkfuftvsö gjubåibö cjrhfnbkjcm.
D yfcnjzott dhtvz gj jabwbfkmysv lfyysv, d Wtynht vtéleyfhjlyjq njhujdkb gjubåkj 2829 xtkjdtr, drkñxfz gfccfébhjd cfvjktnf ≤Fvthbräy äqhkfqyp≥, dsgjkyzdituj htqc
§ 11, b cfvjktnf fdbfrjvgfybb ≤Ñyfqntl äqhkfqyp≥, dsgjkyzdituj htqc § 175, b 453 cjnhelybrjd ckeéå åtpjgfcyjcnb, rjnjhst ghbybvfkb exfcnbt d ltqcndbzö d jndtn yf
äne xhtpdsxfqyeñ cbnefwbñ. Chtlb gjubåibö åskb dsöjlws bp åjktt xtv 90 cnhfy vbhf. Elfkjcm jgjpyfnm jcnfyrb
kbim vtytt gjkjdbys éthnd. (Bcnjxybr: lfyyst Eghfdktybz gfnjkjujfyfnjvf ujhjlf Ymñ-Qjhrf yf 19 fduecnf 2002
ujlf.)
8:46 (gj Djcnjxyjve dhtvtyb) – cfvjktn ≤Fvthbräy äqhkfqyp≥, dsgjkyzdibq htqc § 11, dhtpftncz d Ctdthyeñ
åfiyñ WVN.
9:03 – cfvjktn fdbfrjvgfybb ≤Ñyfqntl äqhkfqyp≥, dsgjkyzdibq htqc § 175, dhtpftncz d Ñéyeñ åfiyñ WVN.
9:38 – cfvjktn fdbfrjvgfybb ≤Fvthbräy äqhkfqyp≥, dsgjkyzdibq htqc § 77, dhtpftncz d plfybt Gtynfujyf.
9:59 – jåheibdftncz Ñéyfz åfiyz WVN; d 10:28 gflftn
Ctdthyfz åfiyz.
D plfybb Gtynfujyf d Dfibyunjyt gjubåkj 189 xtkjdtr,
drkñxfz 64 gfccfébhjd cfvjktnf fdbfrjvgfybb ≤Fvthbräy
äqhkfqyp≥, dsgjkyzdituj htqc § 77. D rfnfcnhjat cfvjktnf fdbfrjvgfybb ≤Ñyfqntl äqhkfqyp≥, dsgjkyzdituj htqc
§ 93, yf pfgflt in. Gtycbkmdfybz gjubåkj 44 xtkjdtrf.
(Bcnjxybr: Yfwbjyfkmyjt eghfdktybt åtpjgfcyjcnb yf nhfycgjhnt.)
10:00 – d in. Gtycbkmdfybz hfpåbdftncz cfvjktn fdbfrjvgfybb ≤Ñyfqntl äqhkfqyp≥, dsgjkyzdibq htqc § 93.
Atlthfkmyjt eghfdktybt uhfélfycrjq fdbfwbb ghbjcnfyfdkbdftn dct djpleiyjt ldbétybt d CIF b yfghfdkztn vtéleyfhjlyst htqcs d Rfyfle. Pfrhsdfñncz atlthfkmyst exhtéltybz b geåkbxyst plfybz d Dfibyunjyt, Ymñ-Qjhrt b
lheubö rhegysö ujhjlfö cnhfys.
D jåotq ckjéyjcnb, d htpekmnfnt nthfrnjd 11 ctynzåhz gjubåkj åjktt 3 nsc. xtkjdtr, drkñxfz 19 nthhjhbcnjd, yföj29
lbdiböcz yf åjhne pfödfxtyysö bvb xtnshtö uhfélfycrbö
cfvjktnjd.
4 jrnzåhz 2001 ujlf: Ghtpbltyn Åei jåtoftn dsltkbnm
Faufybcnfye ljgjkybntkmyeñ uevfybnfhyeñ gjvjom d
jåütvt 320 vky. ljkk. Jy nfrét jåüzdkztn j ljgjkybntkmyjv ghbpsdt htpthdbcnjd ceöjgenysö djqcr b xktyjd Yfwbjyfkmyjq udfhlbb. R änjve vjvtyne pf dhtvz, ghjitlitt cj
lyz cjdthitybz nthfrnjd, åskj ghbpdfyj ghbåkbpbntkmyj
7765 htpthdbcnjd djjheétyysö cbk b xktyjd Yfwbjyfkmyjq
udfhlbb.
12 ctynzåhz 2001 ujlf: Ctdthjfnkfynbxtcrbq cjdtn ghbdjlbn
d ltqcndbt Cnfnmñ 5 Ctdthjfnkfynbxtcrjuj ljujdjhf, ghbpyfd ntv cfvsv, xnj ghtlghbyznst nthhjhbcnbxtcrbt fnfrb
yf CIF cktletn rkfccbabwbhjdfnm rfr yfgfltybt yf dct
ujcelfhcndf-xktys YFNJ, b jåzpetncz ghtljcnfdbnm CIF
kñåeñ ytjåöjlbveñ gjvjom.
5 jrnzåhz 2001 ujlf: Lkzobtcz wtkeñ ytltkñ ltåfns gj
ghjåktvt vtéleyfhjlyjuj nthhjhbpvf yf Utythfkmyjq fccfvåktt JJY pfdthifñncz ghbyznbtv htpjkñwbb, d rjnjhjq cnhfys jnvtnbkb, xnj bcgsnsdfñn eéfc d jnyjitybb
ghtlghbyznsö 11 ctynzåhz fnfr ghjnbd CIF b dshféfñn
cdjñ yfltéle yf nj, xnj ghfdbntkmcndf cvjuen ltqcndjdfnm
cjjåof hflb bcrjhtytybz nthhjhbpvf dj dctv vbht.
Utythfkmyfz fccfvåktz b Cjdtn Åtpjgfcyjcnb JJY ghbybvfñn åtp ujkjcjdfybz, yf jcyjdfybb tlbyjleiyjuj jljåhtybz,
htpjkñwbb c jceéltybtv nthhjhbcnbxtcrbö fnfr yf CIF b
ghbpsdjv r ujcelfhcndfv-xktyfv jåütlbybnmcz, xnjås ghtlfnm ghfdjcelbñ ≤ghtcnegybrjd, cjdthibdibö änb djpvenbntkmyst nthhjhbcnbxtcrbt frns, f nfrét bö jhufybpfnjhjd
b cgjycjhjd≥.
Gj vtht njuj rfr Ghfdbntkmcndj CIF jåyfheébdftn ljgjkybntkmyst ljrfpfntkmcndf ghbxfcnyjcnb r nthfrnfv Ecfvs
åby Kfltyf b nthhjhbcnbxtcrjq jhufybpfwbb ≤Fkm-Rfqlf≥,
jyj bcgjkmpetn cdjb cbks b chtlcndf b cbks b chtlcndf
vtéleyfhjlyjq rjfkbwbb, xnjås yfxfnm åjhmåe c ≤Fkm-Rfqljq≥. Ecnfyjdktyj, xnj nfkbåcrjt ghfdbntkmcndj Faufybcnfyf erhsdftn b gjllthébdftn ≤Fkm-Rfqle≥. Gjckt njuj
rfr Nfkbåfy d jxthtlyjq hfp jnrfpsdftncz ghbyznm vths
ghjnbd ≤Fkm-Rfqls≥, djpukfdkztvfz CIF rjfkbwbz htiftn fnfrjdfnm Nfkbåfy b ≤Fkm-Rfqle≥ d Faufybcnfyt.
13 ctynzåhz 2001 ujlf: Ghtpbltyn Åei b vbybcnh ñcnbwbb
CIF Léjy Äirhjan ghbpsdfñn fvthbrfycrbq yfhjl yt
dpdfkbdfnm dbye pf nthfrns yf fvthbrfywtd fhfåcrjuj ghjbcöjéltybz b vecekmvfy b jåtofñn ytpfvtlkbntkmyj htfubhjdfnm yf frns yfcbkbz ghjnbd ybö.
15 ctynzåhz 2002 ujlf: Ghtpbltyn Åei dcnhtxftncz cj cdjbvb cjdtnybrfvb gj yfwbjyfkmyjq åtpjgfcyjcnb d Rävg-Lädblt (in. Vähbktyl). Jy gjlndthélftn d åtctlt c éehyfkbcnfvb, xnj ≤ukfdysv gjljphtdftvsv≥ zdkztncz Ecfvf åby
Kflty. Ujcelfhcndtyysq ctrhtnfhm CIF Rjkby Gfeäkk dshféftn ghbpyfntkmyjcnm pf gjcnegfñobt cj dctuj vbhf dshfétybz gjllthérb: ≤Ltcznrb cnhfy gjnthzkb cdjbö uhfélfy (d Wtynht vtéleyfhjlyjq njhujdkb), b jyb gjybvfñn,
xnj änj åskj yfgfltybtv b ghjnbd ybö≥.
7 jrnzåhz 2001 ujlf: Ghtpbltyn Åei jåüzdkztn, xnj d jndtn
yf nthfrns 11 ctynzåhz b d cjjndtncndbb c ytjnütvktvsv
ghfdjv CIF yf bylbdblefkmyeñ b rjkktrnbdyeñ cfvjjåjhjye fvthbrfycrbt djjheétyyst cbks yfxbyfñn yfyjcbnm
elfhs gj kfuthzv nthhjhbcnjd ≤Fkm-Rfqls≥ b djtyysv
jåütrnfv Nfkbåfyf yf nthhbnjhbb Faufybcnfyf.
18 ctynzåhz 2001 ujlf: Cjdtn Åtpjgfcyjcnb JJY ghbpsdftn
Nfkbåfy dslfnm Ecfve åby Kfltyf, d cjjndtncndbb c Htpjkñwbtq Cjdtnf Åtpjgfcyjcnb JJY § 1333, ghbyznjq 19 ltrfåhz 2000 ujlf. Änf htpjkñwbz nhtåjdfkf, xnjås Nfkbåfy
ghtrhfnbk ghtljcnfdkznm eåtébot b gjllthére nthhjhbcnfv b dslfk åby Kfltyf jhufyfv, dtleobv cktlcndbt gj ltke j tuj ghtlgjkfuftvjq ghbxfcnyjcnb r lheubv nthfrnfv.
10 jrnzåhz 2001 ujlf: Jabwbfkmysq ghtlcnfdbntkm Ujcelfhcndtyyjuj ltgfhnfvtynf CIF Hbxfhl Ä. Åfexth cjjåoftn jå fhtcnt bkb pflthéfybb gjljphtdftvsö nthhjhbcnjd d
23 cnhfyfö: 10 – d Tdhjgt, 7 – yf Åkbéytv Djcnjrt, 4 – d
Fahbrt b gj 1 – d Kfnbycrjq Fvthbrt b Djcnjxyjq Fpbb.
D 112 cnhfyfö dkfcnb ghbybvfñn vths ghjnbd abyfycjdsö
frnbdjd nthhjhbcnjd.
20 ctynzåhz 2001 ujlf: Ghtpbltyn Åei dscnegftn yf cjdvtcnyjv pfctlfybb jåtbö gfkfn Rjyuhtccf b gthtl fvthbrfycrbv yfhjljv, bpkfufz ghjuhfvve dctcnjhjyybö ecbkbq
CIF b vtéleyfhjlyjuj cjjåotcndf gj åjhmåt c vtéleyfhjlysv nthhjhbpvjv. Jy yfpsdftn ≤Fkm-Rfqle≥ b ibhjreñ
ctnm nthhjhbcnbxtcrbö uheggbhjdjr ukfdysvb gjljphtdftvsvb d cjdthitybb nthfrnjd 11 ctynzåhz.
11 jrnzåhz 2001 ujlf: Ghtpbltyn Åei ghjdjlbn cdjñ gthdeñ c vjvtynf nthfrnjd ghtcc-rjyathtywbñ d cfvjt gjgekzhyjt ntktdbpbjyyjt dhtvz. Jy pfzdkztn éehyfkbcnfv, xnj
Nfkbåfye ghtljcnfdkztncz tot jlby ifyc – tckb jyb dslflen åby Kfltyf b tuj ghbcgtiybrjd, ≤vs gthtcvjnhbv yfie gjkbnbre gj jnyjitybñ r bö cnhfyt≥. Jy nfrét cjjåoftn, xnj CIF ujnjds gjvjxm JJY cjplfnm cnfåbkmyjt
b ghtlcnfdbntkmyjt ghfdbntkmcndj Faufybcnfyf, rjnjhjt
yt åeltn pfvtifyj yb d nthhjhbpvt, yb d njhujdkt yfhrjnbrfvb.
24 ctynzåhz 2001 ujlf: Ghtpbltyn Åei gjlgbcsdftn ghfdbntkmcndtyyjt hfcgjhzétybt j pfvjhfébdfybb frnbdjd 27 jhufybpfwbq b kbw, gjljphtdftvsö d abyfycbhjdfybb nthhjhbpvf b gjllthért ≤Fkm-Rfqls≥.
25 jrnzåhz 2001 ujlf: D Kjyljyt ghtvmth-vbybcnh Dtkbrjåhbnfybb Njyb Åkäh edtljvkztn kblthjd Rjycthdfnbdyjq
gfhnbb j gkfyfö gj gthtåhjcrt åhbnfycrbö ceöjgenysö djqcr d Faufybcnfy. Ghtpbltyn Åei yfpsdftn Åföhtqy ≤dféysv cjñpybrjv CIF, yt döjlzobv d YFNJ≥.
28 ctynzåhz 2001 ujlf: Cjdtn Åtpjgfcyjcnb JJY tlbyjukfcyj ghbybvftn Htpjkñwbñ § 1373, ghtlecvfnhbdfñoeñ
ghbyznbt dctjåütvkñobö vth gj åjhmåt c nthhjhbpvjv b, d
xfcnyjcnb, vth, yfghfdktyysö ghjnbd abyfycjdjq gjllthérb, ytjåöjlbvjq nthhjhbcnfv lkz cjdthitybz cdjbö nthfrnjd.
30
31 jrnzåhz 2001 ujlf: Vbybcnthcndj jåjhjys CIF jåüzdkztn j njv, xnj d hzls djjheétyysö cbk åeltn ghbpdfyj åjktt 50 nsc. htpthdbcnjd. Futyncndj CIF vtéleyfhjlyjuj
hfpdbnbz (FVH CIF) jåtoftn ghtljcnfdbnm JJY b lheubv
uevfybnfhysv futyncndfv 11,2 vky. ljkk. yf pfregre 30
nsc. njyy gitybws d wtynhfkmyjpbfncrbö cnhfyfö lkz jrfpfybz gjvjob ébntkzv Faufybcnfyf.
CIF zcyj lfñn gjyznm, xnj bö fnfrb d Faufybcnfyt b fynbnthhjhbcnbxtcrbt frwbb gj dctve vbhe yfghfdktys bcrkñxbntkmyj ghjnbd ≤Fkm-Rfqls≥, cnhfy b kñltq, tt gjllthébdfñobö, f nfrét ghjnbd lheubö nthhjhbcnjd.
Yf nthhbnjhbb CIF ghjébdftn ghbvthyj 5 vky. vecekmvfy. Bv ufhfynbheñncz nt ét cfvst htkbubjpyst, gjkbnbxtcrbt b kbxyst cdjåjls, xnj b kñåsv lheubv uhfélfyfv
bkb gjcnjzyysv ébntkzv CIF. Gjckt nthfrnjd 11 ctynzåhz jåotybt vtéle fvthbrfywfvb-vecekmvfyfvb b lheubvb
fvthbrfycrbvb uhfélfyfvb ecbkbkjcm, xnj zdbkjcm jnhfétybtv ibhjrjuj cnhtvktybz yfctktybz gjåjkmit epyfnm
jå bckfvt b edbltnm, rfrbv jåhfpjv kñlb, bcgjdtleñobt
bckfv, jåhfpeñn ytjnütvktveñ xfcnm fvthbrfycrjq yfwbb.
Gjgekzhyst chtlcndf vfccjdjq byajhvfwbb dsgecnbkb
jåibhyst cgtwbfkmyst cnfnmb b gjlujnjdbkb gthtlfxb yf
ntvs bckfvf, irjks frnbdyj cnhtvzncz drkñxfnm d cdjb
ghjuhfvvs åjkmit byajhvfwbb jå bckfvt b fhfåfö, pyfxbntkmyj dshjckj xbckj kbw, pfgbcfdiböcz yf rehcs gj
bpextybñ bckfvf b vecekmvfycrjuj vbhf. (Gjlhjåytt cv.
http://www.usinfo.state.gov/usa/islam/)
27 yjzåhz 2001 ujlf: Dctvbhysq åfyr b Fpbfncrbq åfyr hfpdbnbz ghjdjlzn dcnhtxe d Bckfvfåflt, xnjås jåcelbnm djghjcs jrfpfybz gjvjob d djccnfyjdktybb Faufybcnfyf.
3 ltrfåhz 2001 ujlf: JJY jåüzdkztn j njv, xnj Dctvbhyfz
ghjljdjkmcndtyyfz ghjuhfvvf yfqvtn yf hfåjne åjktt 2400
étyoby d hfvrfö cdjbö xhtpdsxfqysö ecbkbq gj hfcghtltktybñ ghjljdjkmcndbz d Rfåekt. Yftv étyoby lkz htfkbpfwbb ghjuhfvvs uevfybnfhyjq gjvjob ghbpdfy ybdtkbhjdfnm gjcktlcndbz ghjdjlbditqcz Nfkbåfyjv yf ghjnzétybb gznb ktn gjkbnbrb pfghtnf yf hfåjne lkz étyoby.
4 ltrfåhz 2001 ujlf: Cjåhfdibtcz d Åjyyt (Uthvfybz) ghtlcnfdbntkb faufycrbö uheggbhjdjr gjlgbcsdfñn ghjvtéenjxyjt cjukfitybt j cjplfybb d Faufybcnfyt dgthdst gjckt 23 ktn djqys gjkmpeñotujcz ibhjrjq gjllthérjq yfctktybz, vyjujänybxtcrjuj, cnfåbkmyjuj b ghtlcnfdbntkmyjuj
gjcnnfkbåfycrjuj ghfdbntkmcndf. Dj ukfdt ghjvtéenjxyjq
flvbybcnhfwbb Faufybcnfyf cnfyjdbncz geineycrbq kblth
bp Rfylfufhf Öfvbl Rfhpfq.
11 vfhnf 2002 ujlf: Ldf jlbyfrjdsö vjoysö cnjkgf cdtnf,
yfghfdktyysö bp ägbwtynhf dphsdf åfity-åkbpytwjd gthgtylbrekzhyj ddthö d ytåj yfl Ymñ-Qjhrjv, cnfkb rfr ås
rekmvbyfwbtq gjvbyfkmysö htkbubjpysö ckeéå b lheubö
vtvjhbfkmysö vthjghbznbq.
23 vfhnf 2002 ujlf: D Faufybcnfyt dyjdm jnrhsdfñncz
irjks, rjnjhst – dgthdst pf vyjubt ujls – hfphtiftncz
gjctofnm yt njkmrj vfkmxbrfv, yj b ltdjxrfv. D hfvrfö
cdjtq ghjuhfvvs gjvjob CIF ghtljcnfdkzñn irjkmyjgbcmvtyyst ghbyflktéyjcnb b extåyst gjcjåbz yf zpsrfö
lfhb b geine yf cevve 10 vky. ljkk.
13 ltrfåhz 2001 ujlf: Vbybcnthcndj jåjhjys CIF hfcghjcnhfyztn dbltjpfgbcm jåceéltybz Ecfvjq åby Kfltyjv nthfrnjd 11 ctynzåhz. Yf ytq åby Kflty ujdjhbn, xnj hfpheitybz, dspdfyyst pfghfdktyysvb njgkbdjv htfrnbdysvb
fdbfkfqythfvb, dhtpfdibvbcz d åfiyb-åkbpytws Wtynhf
vtéleyfhjlyjq njhujdkb, yfvyjuj ghtdpjikb tuj jéblfybz.
17 fghtkz 2002 ujlf: D Faufybcnfy djpdhfoftncz åsdibq
rjhjkm Pföbh Ifö, yt ghtntyleñobq yf nhjy.
22 ltrfåhz 2001 ujlf: Lkz eghfdktybz Faufybcnfyjv cjplftncz gthtöjlyfz flvbybcnhfwbz – vyjujyfwbjyfkmysq jhufy,
jnhféfñobq utjuhfabxtcrjt b htkbubjpyjt vyjujjåhfpbt
Faufybcnfyf.
30 vfz 2002 ujlf: Yf vtcnt, ult yföjlbkcz Wtynh vtéleyfhjlyjq njhujdkb, ghjdjlbncz njhétcndtyyfz wthtvjybz,
pfdthifñofz ecbkbz gj bpdktxtybñ bp-gjl jåkjvrjd jcnfyrjd 2829 xtkjdtr, gjubåibö d htpekmnfnt nthfrnjd. Hfåjnfz
rheukjcenjxyj, åhbufls dsdtpkb c vtcnf nhfutlbb 1,8 vky.
njyy jåkjvrjd.
17 zydfhz 2002 ujlf: Ujcelfhcndtyysq ctrhtnfhm CIF
Gfeäkk jabwbfkmyj djpjåyjdkztn hfåjne Gjcjkmcndf CIF
d Rfåekt (Faufybcnfy), rjnjhjt åskj pfrhsnj c 1989 ujlf.
21–22 zydfhz 2002 ujlf: D Njrbj ghjdjlbncz Vtéleyfhjlyfz rjyathtywbz gj ghjåktvfv gjvjob Faufybcnfye. CIF
jåtofñn dsltkbnm yf ecbkbz gj djccnfyjdktybñ Faufybcnfyf 296 vky. ljkk.
11 bñyz 2002 ujlf: Yf wthtvjybb d Gtynfujyt ghjbpdjlbncz pfrkflrf vtvjhbfkmyjq rfgceks d djccnfyjdktyyeñ pfgflyeñ cntye plfybz. Åhtim d cntyt pfltksdftncz gjcktlytq
gkbnjq, ytceotq yf ctåt gjxthytdibt cktls fnfrb b yflgbcm
≤11 ctynzåhz 2001 ujlf≥.
29 zydfhz 2002 ujlf: Ghtpbltyn Åei d tétujlyjv ljrkflt
Rjyuhtcce ≤J gjkjétybb d cnhfyt≥ gjlxthrbdftn, xnj dhfub
Fvthbrb ≤levfkb, xnj Fvthbrf ckfåf b vfnthbfkbcnbxyf,
xnj yfif cnhfyf hfcrjktncz yf xfcnb d cdjtv cnhföt b äujbpvt. Jyb åskb yfcnjkmrj ét ytghfds, yfcrjkmrj jyb pkjyfvthtyys≥. Gj ckjdfv Ghtpbltynf, fvthbrfyws ≤ljytcen
cjcnhflfybt yfitq cnhfys lj dctö eujkrjd ptvyjuj ifhf≥.
Jy jåtoftn jcjåtyyj ≤gjjohznm hfpdbnbt, jåhfpjdfybt b
ärjyjvbxtcrbt djpvjéyjcnb d bckfvcrjv vbht≥.
12 bñyz 2002 ujlf: Ghtpbltyn Åei ghjdjlbn gthdjt pfctlfybt Cjdtnf dyenhtyytq åtpjgfcyjcnb.
13 bñyz 2002 ujlf: Njkmrj xnj cajhvbhjdfyyfz faufycrfz
Kjqz-lébhuf bpåbhftn Öfvblf Rfhpfz Ghtpbltynjv yjdjuj
Bckfvcrjuj gthtöjlyjuj ghfdbntkmcndf Faufybcnfyf.
18 bñyz 2002 ujlf: Ghtpbltyn Åei yfghfdkztn d Rjyuhtcc
cdjt ghtlkjétybt j cjplfybb yf ehjdyt rfåbytnf vbybcnhjd
yjdjuj Vbybcnthcndf dyenhtyytq åtpjgfcyjcnb, rjnjhjt
31
åeltn hfphfåfnsdfnm b rjjhlbybhjdfnm jåoeñ cnhfntubñ
jnhfétybz nthhjhbcnbxtcrbö euhjp b fnfr.
15 bñkz 2002 ujlf: Ldflwfnbjlyjktnybq fvthbrfytw Léjy
Ejrth Kbylö yf ghjwtcct d atlthfkmyjv celt ghbpyftn ctåz dbyjdysv d jrfpfybb gjvjob Nfkbåfye. Tuj ghbujdfhbdfñn r 20 ujlfv kbitybz cdjåjls.
6 bñkz 2002 ujlf: D Rfåekt eåbns dbwt-ghtpbltyn Faufybcnfyf Öfléb Fålek Rflbh b tuj djlbntkm.
Yfcnjzobq ljrevtyn åsk gjlujnjdkty Jabcjv vtéleyfhjlysö
byajhvfwbjyysö ghjuhfvv yf jcyjdt byajhvfwbb d hfpkbxysö
jnrhsnsö bcnjxybrfö c wtkmñ ghtlcnfdbnm jåpjh yfbåjktt dféysö
cjåsnbq gjcktlytuj ujlf. Jy yt ghtntyletn yb yf nj, xnjås
ckeébnm gjkysv b dctjåütvkñobv jnxtnjv j ltqcndbzö
ukjåfkmyjq rjfkbwbb ghjnbd nthhjhbpvf, yb yf nj, xnjås
zdkznmcz jabwbfkmysv dshfétybtv gjkbnbrb CIF.
12 bñkz 2002 ujlf: Ltgfhnfvtyn gjéfhyjq jöhfys YmñQjhrf yfuhfélftncz d Gfhbét Pjkjnjq vtlfkmñ pf veétcndj b cfvjjndthétyyjcnm. Kbxysq cjcnfd Ltgfhnfvtynf gjéfhyjq jöhfys b Ltgfhnfvtynf gjkbwbb Ymñ-Qjhrf eljcnfbdftncz gjxtcntq gj dctve vbhe pf cdjq cfvjjndthétyysq
nhel b uthjbpv, ghjzdktyysq gjckt nthfrnjd.
32
Djccnfyjdktybt Faufybcnfyf
Dslthérb bp ljrkflf Futyncndf CIF gj vtéleyfhjlyjve hfpdbnbñ
≤D djpleöt dbnftn xedcndj
Faufybcnfy ghtlcnfdkztn cjåjq jlye bp nhelytqibö uevfybnfhysö b cdzpfyysö c hfpdbnbtv ghjåktv, c rjnjhsvb
rjulf-kbåj ghböjlbkjcm cnfkrbdfnmcz Futyncnde CIF gj
vtéleyfhjlyjve hfpdbnbñ (FVH CIF).
yfltéls b cdjåjls, rjnjhjuj yt
Vyjujktnyzz uhfélfycrfz djqyf d cjxtnfybb c ghfdktybtv
≤Nfkbåfyf≥ b étcnjxfqitq ljkujq pfceöjq jgecnjibkb
cnhfye. Gjkjdbyf yfctktybz Faufybcnfyf, xbcktyyjcnm rjnjhjuj cjcnfdkztn 26,8 vky. xtkjdtr, ébdtn d fåcjkñnyjq
ybotnt. Ibhjrjt hfcghjcnhfytybt gjkexbkj ytljtlfybt.
50fi faufywtd yt bvtñn hfåjns, 70fi – ytuhfvjnys. Cbcntvfnbxtcrbt ujytybz yf ghfdf xtkjdtrf ghb ≤Nfkbåfyt≥ juhfybxbdfkb ljcneg étyoby r jåhfpjdfybñ, plhfdjjöhfytybñ b chtlcndfv ébpytjåtcgtxtybz, kbifz étyoby chtlcnd
lkz gjllthérb ctåz b cdjbö ctvtq. Ghfrnbxtcrb dct exhtéltybz cnhfys b åjkmifz xfcnm tt byahfcnhernehs åskb
eybxnjétys.
yfåkñlfkjcm yf ghjnzétybb
vyjubö ktn. Ghfdbntkmcndj CIF
jceotcndkztn ljkujchjxyeñ
ghjuhfvve, ghbpdfyyeñ
Nfrfz jåcnfyjdrf, tckb jcnfdbnm dct, rfr tcnm, jåtcgtxbdftn åkfujlfnyeñ gjxde lkz hfcghjcnhfytybz nthhjhbpvf b
lheubö ltcnfåbkbpbheñobö ntxtybq. Åjhzcm c nthhjhbpvjv
b djgkjofz d ébpym fvthbrfycreñq nhflbwbñ gjvjob
yeélfñobvcz, FVH CIF dpzkj yf ctåz dféyjt jåzpfntkmcndj gjvjufnm cnhjbnm åeleott lkz yfhjlf Faufybcnfyf,
bcgjkytyyjt yfltél.
jåtcgtxbnm faufywfv
djpvjéyjcnm pfhfåfnsdfnm
ctåt yf ghjgbnfybt, gjkexfnm
FVH CIF ghbkjébkj åtcghtwtltynyst ecbkbz lkz ljcnfdrb rhbnbxtcrb ytjåöjlbvjq gjvjob faufywfv. Tot lj nthfrnjd 11 ctynzåhz Faufybcnfy åsk jcyjdysv gjkexfntktv uevfybnfhyjq gjvjob jn CIF, jåütv rjnjhjq d 2001
åñlétnyjv ujle cjcnfdbk 174 vky. ljkk.
jåhfpjdfybt b gjkmpjdfnmcz
rfxtcndtyysvb eckeufvb
Gjckt nthfrnjd CIF ghjljkébkb buhfnm dtleoeñ hjkm d
eljdktndjhtybb yfceoysö gjnhtåyjcntq faufywtd d ghjljdjkmcndbb, djlt, rhjdt b vtlbrfvtynfö. Ljcnfdrf Dctvbhyjq ghjljdjkmcndtyyjq ghjuhfvvjq JJY (DGG) d htrjhlyst chjrb åtcghtwtltynysö gfhnbq ghjljdjkmcndbz ghb
abyfycjdjv cjltqcndbb FVH CIF pyfxbntkmyj cjrhfnbkf
xbckj cvthntq. Bp CIF gjcnegfkf åjkmifz xfcnm gitybws, vfckf b xtxtdbws, rjnjhst ckeébkb gbotq lkz åjktt
9 vky. veéxby, étyoby b ltntq.
plhfdjjöhfytybz d cnfåbkmyjv
jåotcndt, eghfdkztvjv
cghfdtlkbdsvb kblthfvb≥.
D 2002 åñlétnyjv ujle CIF jåzpfkbcm dsltkbnm yf gjvjom Faufybcnfye b tuj htrjycnherwbñ gjxnb 300 vky. ljkk. Hfcghtltktybtv 184 vky. ljkk. bp änbö ltytu dtlftn
FVH CIF. C gfltybtv ≤Nfkbåfyf≥ b cjplfybtv Gthtöjlyjq flvbybcnhfwbb Faufybcnfyf (GFF) Faufybcnfy yfxbyf-
Lbhtrnjh FVH CIF Äylhñ C. Yfncbjc
33
tn frwtynbhjdfnm dybvfybt yf djccnfyjdktybb b htrjycnherwbb, ytcvjnhz yf ghjljkéfñoeñcz pfceöe.
FVH CIF
Ghb cjöhfyzñotqcz gjnhtåyjcnb d uevfybnfhyjq gjvjob, FVH CIF yfhfobdftn ecbkbz gj htrjycnherwbb. FVH CIF yfvtnbkj
xtnsht wtkb htrjycnherwbb: 1) djccnfyjdktybt ghjljdjkmcndtyyjq åtpjgfcyjcnb, jébdktybt ctkmcrjuj öjpzqcndf b htfkbpfwbz
lheubö ajhv ébpytjåtcgtxtybz; 2) djccnfyjdktybt hfpheityyjq cbcntvs jåhfpjdfybz;
3) erhtgktybt cbcntvs plhfdjjöhfytybz; b
4) erhtgktybt faufycrbö exhtéltybq lkz
jåtcgtxtybz ljkujchjxyjq cnfåbkmyjcnb.
Ghb änjv rhfteujkmysv rfvytv ecnjqxbdjuj hfpdbnbz zdkztncz bvtyyj ctkmcrjt öjpzqcndj.
FVH CIF cjnhelybxftn c GFF, uevfybnfhysvb jhufybpfwbzvb b vtéleyfhjlysv cjjåotcndjv, cnhtvzcm ecrjhbnm ghjwtcc gjcnhjtybz åtpjgfcyjuj b cnfåbkmyjuj jåotcndf, eljdktndjhzñotuj gjnhtåyjcnb cdjtuj
yfhjlf b kbrdblbheñotuj chtle, rjnjhfz
ckeébn hfccflybrjv nthhjhbpvf.
cjnhelybxftn cnhtvzcm
ecrjhbnm ghjwtcc
gjcnhjtybz åtpjgfcyjuj
b cnfåbkmyjuj jåotcndf,
eljdktndjhzñotuj
gjnhtåyjcnb cdjtuj
yfhjlf b kbrdblbheñotuj chtle, rjnjhfz
ckeébn hfccflybrjv
dtyysö rekmneh: bpñvf, ahernjd b jdjotq. D hfvrfö ghjtrnjd ≤ltymub pf hfåjne≥ jceotcndkztncz yftv vtcnysö ébntktq Faufybcnfyf lkz djccnfyjdktybz
jåütrnjd rhbnbxtcrjq byahfcnhernehs,
ljhju vtéle athvfvb b hsyrfvb b bhhbufwbjyysö cbcntv. D ghjdbywbb Ötkvfyl
athvths, rjnjhst ghtélt dshfobdfkb
jgbevysq vfr, c äynepbfpvjv jnhtfubhjdfkb yf gjgsnrb FVH CIF jrfpfnm bv
gjvjom d djpdhfotybb yf ärcgjhnyst
hsyrb, enhfxtyyst bvb dj dhtvz rjyakbrnf, drkñxfz hsyrb ökjgrf, fhföbcf
b ctvzy.
Ärcgthns nfrét jåexfñn faufycrbö athvthjd vtnjlfv hfcntybtdjlcndf, pfobns
hfcntybq b ébdjnyjdjlcndf. FVH CIF
abyfycbhetn ltzntkmyjcnm ≤Vtéleyfhjlyjuj rjhgecf vbkjcthlbz≥ gj cjplfybñ
gbnjvybrjd ahernjdsö lthtdmtd, ghtljcnfdktybñ athvthfv gjåtujd b jhufybpfwbb åhbufl dtnthbyfhjd.
nthhjhbpvf.
Ytödfnrf djls zdkztncz ukfdysv ghtgzncndbtv lkz djccnfyjdktybz ctkmcrjuj öjpzqcndf Faufybcnfyf. FVH CIF abyfycbhetn ghjtrns åehtybz crdféby, htrjycnherwbb vtcnysö bhhbufwbjyysö cbcntv,
djccnfyjdktybz djljcyfåétybz b djljcåthtétybz. Gfhnyth FVH CIF d htfkbpfwbb änbö ghjtrnjd – jhufybpfwbz AJREC
– dtltn åehtybt crdféby yf dctq nthhbnjhbb ghjdbywbq Åfkö
b Åfukfy b gjcnhjbn nheåjghjdjlyst cbcntvs djljcyfåétybz d ghjdbywbb Åfvbzy. Lheubt jhufybpfwbb djccnfyfdkbdfñn rfyfks b djljöhfybkbof b cjjheéfñn pfuhféltybz ghjnbd ähjpbb. FVH CIF abyfycbhetn jåotyfwbjyfkmyeñ ghjuhfvve jwtyrb djlysö htcehcjd d wtkzö åjktt ljcrjyfkmyjuj bpextybz gjcktlcndbq xtnshtöktnytq pfceöb b åjktt
äaatrnbdysö cgjcjåjd tt ghtjljktybz.
Djccnfyjdktybt ctkmcrjuj
öjpzqcndf
Nhflbwbjyyj ctkmcrjt öjpzqcndj zdkztncz
rhegytqibv b dféytqibv ctrnjhjv ärjyjvbrb, yj ytcnfåbkmyjcnm dvtcnt c xtnshtöktnytq pfceöjq
gjljhdfkb gjntywbfk ghjbpdjlcndf ghjljdjkmcndbz d cnhfyt
b ljdtkb athvthjd lj ybotns.
Pfceöf d Faufybcnfyt, gj dctq dthjznyjcnb, åeltn ghjljkéfnmcz tot 12–18 vtczwtd, jlyfrj FVH CIF ghbdthétyj
jrfpfybñ änjq cnhfyt ljkujchjxyjq gjvjob.
Ctkmcrjt öjpzqcndj zdkztncz jåhfpjv ébpyb lkz 70fi faufywtd, b FVH CIF gjvjuftn athvthfv djpjåyjdkznm ghjbpdjlcndj b gjdsifnm tuj htynfåtkmyjcnm b äaatrnbdyjcnm.
Änb ecbkbz drkñxfñn d ctåz htrjycnherwbñ bhhbufwbjyyjq
cbcntvs b ghtljcnfdktybt jhelbq nhelf, ctkmcrjöjpzqcndtyyjq ntöybrb, 15 nsc. njyy eljåhtybq, dfrwby lkz ljvfiytuj crjnf b 7 nsc. njyy ctvzy lkz dtctyytuj ctdf, rjnjhst
vjukb ås jåtcgtxbnm 125 nsc. njyy ghjljdjkmcndbz. D åkbéfqibt ldf ujlf FVH CIF ghtljcnfdbn Faufybcnfye d jåotq ckjéyjcnb 48 nsc. njyy ctvzy, åkfujlfhz xtve jåütv
ctkmcrjöjpzqcndtyyjuj ghjbpdjlcndf vjéyj åeltn edtkbxbnm yf wtksö 772 nsc. njyy. Änb ekexityyst cjhnf ctvzy
ecnjqxbds r pfceöt b ghbpdfys edtkbxbnm jåütv ghjbpdjlcndf yf 80-100fi.
Gjlütv jåhfpjdfybz
Jåhfpjdfybt zdkztncz jlybv bp dféytqibö äktvtynjd kñåjuj cnfåbkmyjuj b ärjyjvbxtcrb cfvjljcnfnjxyjuj jåotcndf. Ghb htébvt Nfkbåfyf faufycrbv ltdjxrfv cnfhit djcmvb ktn åskj pfghtotyj gjctofnm extåyst pfdtltybz.
D 1999 ujle d irjks åskj pfxbcktyj ghbåkbpbntkmyj 32fi
bp 4,4 vky. faufycrbö ltntq irjkmyjuj djphfcnf. 92fi ltdjxtr yt gjctofkb irjke. Exbntkz-étyobys, rjnjhst d yfxfkt 1990-ö ujljd cjcnfdkzkb 70fi dctö gtlfujujd cnhfys,
åskb dsyeéltys eqnb c hfåjns. Vyjubt bp 3600 faufycrbö
irjk pf ltcznbktnbz rjyakbrnf åskb gjdhtéltys bkb hfpheitys b bcgsnsdfkb ytljcnfnjr d jcyjdysö irjkmyj-gbcmvtyysö ghbyflktéyjcnzö.
Pf ujls pfceöb b ytcnfåbkmyjcnb athvths b dkfltkmws vfksö ghtlghbznbq ljkéys åskb jlfkébdfnm rhegyst cevvs. Xnjås hfcgkfnbnmcz c ljkufvb, athvths dsyeéltys
dshfobdfnm vfr lkz yfhrjåbpytcf b jnlfdfnm d étys cdjbö
vfkjktnybö ljxthtq. FVH CIF jébdkztn ctkmcreñ ärjyjvbre, ghjgfufylbhez dshfobdfybt wtyysö ctkmcrjöjpzqcn-
Ntgthm – dgthdst pf vyjubt ujls – ltdjxrb bvtñn djpvjéyjcnm gjkexbnm jåhfpjdfybt. D irjks dthyekbcm exbntkzétyobys, rjnjhsv rjulf-nj pfghtofkjcm ghtgjlfdfnm b
exfcndjdfnm d ébpyb jåotcndf. GFF, ghfdbntkmcndj CIF,
34
Idtlcrbq rjvbntn d gjllthére Faufybcnfyf, ÑYBCTA b
vyjubt lheubt jhufybpfwbb hfåjnfñn cjjåof, xnjås dthyenm
faufycrbö ltntq b exbntktq ≤cyjdf d irjke≥, cyfålbd bö
extåybrfvb, irjkmyj-gbcmvtyysvb ghbyflktéyjcnzvb b
extåysvb vfnthbfkfvb.
D hfvrfö jceotcndkztvjq tñ ghjuhfvvs ≤Ghjljdjkmcndbt
d jåvty yf jåhfpjdfybt≥ DGG ghb gjllthért FVH CIF gjcnfdkztn dscjrjrfkjhbqyst ghjlerns gbnfybz lkz 47 nsc.
irjkmybrjd d Rfåekt b yf ctdthj-djcnjrt Faufybcnfyf. Gj
vtht hfcibhtybz änjq ghjuhfvvs yf dcñ cnhfye gkfybhetncz jödfnbnm jlby vbkkbjy ltntq. Ltdjxrb rfélsq vtczw gjkexfñn gj gznm kbnhjd hfcnbntkmyjuj vfckf d rfxtcndt cnbvekf r htuekzhyjve gjctotybñ irjks. Änf ghjuhfvvf cjrhfoftn xbckj ntö, rnj åhjcftn irjke, gjdsiftn gjctoftvjcnm b cnbvekbhetn ctvmb jnlfdfnm ltdjxtr d irjke.
Jåhfpjdfybt ghbyjcbn faufycrjve jåotcnde gjkmpe rfr d
cjwbfkmyjv, nfr b d ärjyjvbxtcrjv gkfyt. Gjckt vyjujktnytuj rjyakbrnf cnhernehbhjdfyyfz irjkmyfz chtlf yfcnhfbdftn vjkjltém yf yjhvfkmyeñ ébpym b gjdctlytdysq nhel.
Dthjznyjcnm njuj, xnj gjlhjcnrb åelen pfdthåjdfys d jnhzls yfhjlyjuj jgjkxtybz b ghtcnegyst åfyls, evtymiftncz.
Dct bvtñn djpvjéyjcnm ghbjåhtcnb wtyyst yfdsrb, rjnjhst, d rjytxyjv cxtnt, gjpdjkzn Faufybcnfye cjplfnm rjyrehtynjcgjcjåyeñ hfåjxeñ cbke, cjcnjzoeñ yt njkmrj bp
veéxby, yj b bp étyoby. Cbcntvf jåhfpjdfybz dthyekf
étyoby d hfphzl hfåjxtq cbks b gjpdjkbkf bv cjlthéfnm
cdjb ctvmb.
Ltqcndez gj kbybb DGG b Vtéleyfhjlyjq jhufybpfwbb gj
vbuhfwbb (VJV), FVH CIF dtltn htrjycnherwbb åjktt
600 irjk b cjplftn eckjdbz lkz njuj, xnjås gtrfhyb, rjnjhsvb herjdjlzn étyobys, gjcnfdkzkb öktå irjkmybrfv.
50 nsc. exbntktq d ljgjkytybt r pfhfåjnyjq gkfnt gjkexfñn tétvtczxyst ghjljdjkmcndtyyst gfqrb d hfvrfö hfpdthyenjq gj dctq cnhfyt ghjuhfvvs ≤Ghjljdjkmcndbt lkz ujcelfhcndtyysö ckeéfobö≥. Änf ghjuhfvvf zdkztncz xfcnmñ
jrfpsdftvjq FVH CIF c jrnzåhz 2001 ujlf dctjåütvkñotq gjllthérb ecbkbq DGG d Faufybcnfyt d jåütvt 118
vky. ljkk.
Yf chtlcndf uhfynf, ghtljcnfdktyyjuj Ytåhfccrjve eybdthcbntne d Jvföt, d hfpvtht 7,75 vky. ljkk. FVH CIF jceotcndbkj htlfrnehe b jngtxfnfkj gjxnb 10 vky. extåybrjd
gj ghbhjljdtltybñ, vfntvfnbrt, xntybñ, jcyjdfv uhfélfycndtyyjcnb b cjwbjkjubb lkz extybrjd c 1 gj 12 rkfccs. Rj
lyñ jnrhsnbz irjk 23 vfhnf ÑYBCTA ljcnfdbkf d Faufybcnfy åjktt 5 vky. rybu d hfvrfö jceotcndkztvjq faufycrbv ghfdbntkmcndjv ghjuhfvvs ≤Cyjdf d irjke≥.
Extåybrb jngtxfnfys yf faufycrbö zpsrfö geine b lfhb b
cjghjdjélfñncz rjvgktrnfvb extåysö gjcjåbq lkz exbntktq b lheubvb irjkmysvb ghbyflktéyjcnzvb.
(Gjkysq ntrcn yfcnjzotuj ljrkflf ljcnegty d Bynthytnt gj
flhtce: http://www.usaid.gov/about/afghanistan/rebuilding_afghanistan.pdf)
FVH CIF abyfycbhetn ghjdtltybt ldeöytltkmysö rehcjd
gjdsitybz rdfkbabrfwbb cbkfvb gznb uhegg, d rféleñ bp
rjnjhsö döjlzn gj xtnsht bycnhernjhf gj gjlujnjdrt exbntktq. R rjywe 2002 ujlf jåextybt yf änbö rehcfö ghjqlen
nsczxb faufycrbö gtlfujujd, vyjubt bp rjnjhsö – étyobys.
35
Åbåkbjuhfabz
Rybub b ljrevtyns
Falk, Richard
THE GREAT TERROR WAR: THE WORLD
AFTER SEPTEMBER 11
Interlink Publishing Group, Inc., 2002, 256 pp.
Alexander, Dean C. and Yonah Alexander
TERRORISM AND BUSINESS: THE IMPACT OF
SEPTEMBER 11, 2001
Transnational Publishers Inc., 2002, 272 pp.
Friedman, Thomas L.
LONGITUDES AND ATTITUDES: THE WORLD
IN THE AGE OF TERRORISM
Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2002, 224 pp.
Barletta, Michael and others, editors
AFTER 9/11: PREVENTING MASS-DESTRUCTION
TERRORISM AND WEAPONS PROLIFERATION
Center for Nonproliferation Studies, 2002, 80 pp.
Available at: http://cns.miis.edu/pubs/opapers.htm
Goldberg, Danny and others, editors
IT’S A FREE COUNTRY: PERSONAL FREEDOM IN
AMERICA AFTER SEPTEMBER 11
Akashic Books, 2002, 250 pp.
Beamer, Lisa and Ken Abraham
LET’S ROLL: FINDING HOPE IN THE
MIDST OF CRISIS
Tyndale House Publishers, 2002, 280 pp.
Halberstam, David
FIREHOUSE
Hyperion, 2002, 224 pp.
Bennett, William J.
WHY WE FIGHT: MORAL CLARITY AND
THE WAR ON TERRORISM
Doubleday, 2002, 176 pp.
Hanson, Victor Davis
AN AUTUMN OF WAR: WHAT AMERICA LEARNED
FROM SEPTEMBER 11 AND THE WAR ON
TERRORISM
Vintage Anchor Publishing, 2002, 240 pp.
Bremer, L. Paul 3rd and others
DEFENDING THE AMERICAN HOMELAND:
A REPORT OF THE HERITAGE FOUNDATION
HOMELAND SECURITY TASK FORCE
Heritage Foundation, 2002, 112 pp.
Harmon, Christopher C.
TERRORISM TODAY
Frank Cass, 2000, 316 pp.
Heyen, William and others
SEPTEMBER 11, 2001: AMERICAN
WRITERS RESPOND
Etruscan Press, 2002, 440 pp.
Campbell, Kurt M. and Michele A. Flournoy
TO PREVAIL: AN AMERICAN STRATEGY FOR
THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM
Center for Strategic and International Studies,
2001, 416 pp.
Heymann, Philip B.
TERRORISM AND AMERICA: A COMMONSENSE
STRATEGY FOR A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY
MIT Press, 2000, 208 pp.
Carr, Caleb
THE LESSONS OF TERROR: A HISTORY OF
WARFARE AGAINST CIVILIANS: WHY IT HAS
ALWAYS FAILED AND WHY IT WILL FAIL AGAIN
Random House, 2002, 272 pp.
36
Kornbluth, Jesse and Jessica Papin, editors
BECAUSE WE ARE AMERICANS: WHAT WE
DISCOVERED ON SEPTEMBER 11, 2001
Warner Books, 2001, 200 pp.
Pleszcynski, Wladyslaw, editor
OUR BRAVE NEW WORLD: ESSAYS ON THE IMPACT
OF SEPTEMBER 11
Hoover Institution Press, 2002, 144 pp.
Lansford, Tom
NATO’s RESPONSE TO THE TERRORIST ATTACKS
ON THE UNITED STATES: ALL FOR ONE
Ashgate Publishing Company, 2002, 220 pp.
Rose, Gideon and James F. Hoge, Jr., editors
HOW DID THIS HAPPEN? TERRORISM AND
THE NEW WAR
Public Affairs, 2001, 352 pp.
Lieber, Robert J.
EAGLE RULES? FOREIGN POLICY AND AMERICAN
PRIMACY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY
Prentice Hall PTR, 2001, 384 pp.
Rosenblatt, Roger
WHERE WE STAND: 30 REASONS FOR LOVING
OUR COUNTRY
Harcourt Trade Publishers, 2002, 208 pp.
Lutnick, Howard and Tom Barbash
ON TOP OF THE WORLD: CANTOR FITZGERALD
AND 9/11: A STORY OF LOSS AND RENEWAL
HarperCollins, 2002, 352 pp.
Salon.com Editors
AFTERWORDS: STORIES AND REPORTS FROM 9/11
AND BEYOND
Atria Books, 2002, 288 pp.
McCourt, Frank
BROTHERHOOD
Sterling Publications, 2001, 240 pp.
Simon, Jeffrey D.
THE TERRORIST TRAP: AMERICA’S EXPERIENCE
WITH TERRORISM
Indiana University Press, 2001, 484 pp.
Mote, Kevin, compiler
ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF GOVERNMENT
DOCUMENTS RELATED TO THE THREAT OF
TERRORISM & THE ATTACKS OF
SEPTEMBER 11, 2001
Oklahoma Department of Libraries, 2002, 95 pp.
Available at: http://www.odl.state.ok.us/usinfo/
terrorism/911.htm
Talbott, Strobe, editor
THE AGE OF TERROR: AMERICA AND THE WORLD
AFTER SEPTEMBER 11
Basic Books, 2002, 232 pp.
United States. Congress. House Committee on
Government Reform Staff
PREPARING FOR THE WAR ON TERRORISM:
HEARING BEFORE THE HOUSE COMMITTEE ON
GOVERNMENT REFORM, HOUSE OF
REPRESENTATIVES, ONE HUNDRED SEVENTH
CONGRESS, FIRST SESSION, SEPTEMBER 24, 2001
United States Government Printing Office,
2002, 182 pp.
Available at: http://reform.house.gov/hearings.htm
Nye, Joseph S.
THE PARADOX OF AMERICAN POWER:
WHY THE WORLD’S ONLY SUPERPOWER
CAN’T GO IT ALONE
Oxford University Press, 2002, 240 pp.
O’Hanlon, Michael E. and others
PROTECTING THE AMERICAN HOMELAND:
A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS
Brookings Institution Press, 2002, 108 pp.
Wakin, Edward
BETTING ON AMERICA: WHY THE U.S. CAN BE
STRONGER AFTER SEPTEMBER 11
Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2002, 274 pp.
Pillar, Paul R. and Michael H. Armacost
TERRORISM AND U.S. FOREIGN POLICY
Brookings Institution Press, 2001, 272 pp.
Wilkinson, Paul
TERRORISM VERSUS DEMOCRACY: THE LIBERAL
STATE RESPONSE
Frank Cass, 2001, 255 pp.
37
Klinger, David A. and Dave Grossman
RESPONSES TO THE SEPTEMBER 11 ATTACKS:
WHO SHOULD DEAL WITH FOREIGN TERORISTS
ON U.S. SOIL?: SOCIO-LEGAL CONSEQUENCES OF
SEPTEMBER 11 AND THE ONGOING THREAT OF
TERRORIST ATTACKS IN AMERICA
Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy, Vol. 25,
Spring 2002, pp. 815-834
Zelizer, Barbie and Stuart Allan, editors
JOURNALISM AFTER SEPTEMBER 11
Routledge, 2002, 288 pp.
Cnfnmb
Aftergood, Steven and Henry Kelly
MAKING SENSE OF INFORMATION RESTRICTIONS
AFTER SEPTEMBER 11
FAS Public Interest Report, Vol. 55, No. 2, March/April
2002, pp. 1-2, 12
Landgraf, Kurt M.
INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION: THE BEST
DEFENSE AGAINST TERRORISM
The Washington Post, July 26, 2002, p. A31
Available at http://www.ets.org/aboutets/issues13.html
Berns, Walter
FROM THE ASHES, PATRIOTISM REBORN
The Boston Globe, September 23, 2001, p. D2
Available at
http://www.press.uchicago.edu/News/911berns.html
Lum, Lydia
A RENEWED INTEREST
Black Issues in Higher Education, Vol. 19, No. 6,
May 9, 2002, pp. 24-27
Cooper, Mary H.
FOREIGN AID AFTER SEPT. 11
The CQ Researcher, Vol. 12, No. 16, April 26, 2002,
pp. 361-392
Masci, David and Patrick Marshall
CIVIL LIBERTIES IN WARTIME
The CQ Researcher, Vol. 11, No. 43, December 14,
2001, pp. 1017-1040
Easterbrook, Gregg
SAFE DEPOSIT: THE CASE FOR FOREIGN AID
The New Republic, Vol. 227, No. 5, July 29, 2002,
pp. 16+
Nacos, Brigitte
TERRORISM, THE MASS MEDIA, AND THE
EVENTS OF 9-11
Phi Kappa Phi Forum, Vol. 82, No. 2, Spring 2002,
pp. 13-19
Easterly, William
THE CARTEL OF GOOD INTENTIONS
Foreign Policy, No. 131, July/August 2002, pp. 40-49
Parker, Richard D.
HOMELAND: AN ESSAY ON PATRIOTISM
Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy, Vol. 25,
Spring 2002, pp. 407-427
Gorman, Siobhan
POWER TO THE GOVERNMENT
National Journal, Vol. 34, No. 30, July 27, 2002,
pp. 2242-2246
Peterson, Andrew
FOREIGN AID REFORM IS CRUCIAL TO THE
UNITED STATES’ CAMPAIGN AGAINST TERRORISM
CSIS Prospectus, Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring 2002
Available at http://www.csis.org/pubs/prospectus/02
spring_peterson.htm
Graham, Carol
CAN FOREIGN AID HELP STOP TERRORISM?
NOT WITH MAGIC BULLETS
The Brookings Review, Vol. 20, No. 3, Summer 2002,
pp. 28-32
Available at http://www.brookings.org/press/REVIEW/
summer2002/graham.htm
Putnam, Robert
BOWLING TOGETHER; THE UNITED STATE
OF AMERICA
The American Prospect, Vol. 13, No. 3, February 11,
2002, pp. 20-22
Heymann, Philip B.
CIVIL LIBERTIES AND HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE
AFTERMATH OF SEPTEMBER 11
Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy, Vol. 25,
Spring 2002, pp. 441-456
38
Rosenblatt, Roger
AMERICANS’ DIGNITY HAS BEEN ON DISPLAY
SINCE SEPT. 11
The Seattle Post-Intelligencer, July 7, 2002, p. E1
Wechsler, William
LAW IN ORDER: RECONSTRUCTING U.S.
NATIONAL SECURITY
The National Interest, No. 67, Spring 2002, pp. 17-28
Rumsfeld, Donald H.
TRANSFORMING THE MILITARY
Foreign Affairs, Vol. 81, No. 3, May/June 2002,
pp. 20-32
Wedgwood, Ruth
AL QAEDA, TERRORISM, AND MILITARY
COMMISSIONS
The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 96,
April 2002, pp. 328-337
Sheler, Jeffery L. and others
FAITH IN AMERICA
U.S. News & World Report, Vol. 132, No. 15,
May 6, 2002, pp. 40-49
Ward, Geoffrey C.
MONGREL NATION: TIME AND AGAIN, AMERICA
HAS DEMONSTRATED A RESILIENCE THAT IS
ROOTED IN THE REMARKABLE DIVERSITY OF HER
PEOPLE
Smithsonian, Vol. 32, No. 8, November 2001, pp. 18-19
Available at http://www.smithsonianmag.si.edu/
smithsonian/issues01/nov01/presence.html
39
Jcyjlst cfqns Bynthytnf
Association of American University Presses
Books for Understanding
http://www.aaupnet.org/news/bfu/september11.html
Library of Congress
September 11 Web Archive
http://september11.archive.org/
Brookings Project on Terrorism and American
Foreign Policy
http://www.brook.edu/dybdocroot/terrorism/
Library of Congress
THOMAS: Legislative Information on
the Internet Legislation Related to the Attack of
September 11, 2001
http://thomas.loc.gov/home/terrorleg.htm
Coalition Information Centers
The Global War on Terrorism: The First 100 Days
http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2001/12/
100dayreport.pdf
Federation of American Scientists
http://www.fas.org/terrorism/index.html
Meyerowitz, Joel
After September 11: Images from Ground Zero
Sponsored by the U.S. Department of State, Bureau of
Educational and Cultural Affairs
http://www.911exhibit.state.gov/index.cfm
Federation of American Scientists
Intelligence Resource Program
http://www.fas.org/irp/threat/terror.htm
Museum of the City of New York
Smithsonian National Museum of American History
http://www.911history.net/
FirstGov
America Responds to Terrorism
http://firstgov.gov/Topics/Usgresponse.shtml
National Security Archive
The September 11th Sourcebooks
Online Readers on Terrorism, Intelligence and
the Next War
http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/sept11/
InterAction
American Council for Voluntary
International Action
http://www.interaction.org/
New York Newsday
New York City Rebuilds
http://www.newsday.com/other/special/
ny-rebuilds-main.htmlstory
International Center of Photography
Aftermath:
Photography in the Wake of September 11
http://www.icp.org/exhibitions/aftermath/events.
html#archive
U.S. Department of Defense
Defend America
http://www.defendamerica.mil/
Law Library Resource Exchange: 9-11-2001 News
and Legal Resources
http://www.llrx.com/newstand/wtc.htm
U.S. Department of Defense
Defense Link
http://defenselink.mil/
40
U.S. Department of State
Countering Terrorism
http://www.state.gov/s/ct/c4291.htm
U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation
War on Terrorism
http://www.fbi.gov/terrorinfo/terrorism.htm
U.S. Department of State
Diplomacy and the Global Campaign
Against Terrorism
http://www.state.gov/coalition/
University of Chicago Press
The Days After
http://www.press.uchicago.edu/News/daysafter.html
White House
America Responds
http://www.whitehouse.gov/response/
U.S. Department of State
Rewards for Justice
http://www.rewardsforjustice.net/
White House
Millennium Challenge Account-Helping
Developing Nations
http://www.whitehouse.gov/infocus/developingnations/
U.S. Department of State
Office of International Information Programs
Response to Terrorism
http://usinfo.state.gov/topical/pol/terror/
41
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