Современные демографические тенденции США

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CIF: JÅOTCNDJ B WTYYJCNB
NJV 4
ÄKTRNHJYYST ÉEHYFKS BYAJHVFWBJYYJUJ FUTYNCNDF CIF
§2
VTYZÑOBQCZ KBR FVTHBRB:
Cjdhtvtyyst
ltvjuhfabxtcrbt
ntyltywbb
CIF
Bñym 1999
JN HTLFRWBB
Y
f ghjnzétybb dctq cdjtq bcnjhbb, n.t. yf ghjnzétybb åjktt ldeö cnjktnbq, yfctktybt Cjtlbytyysö
Infnjd Fvthbrb gjcnjzyyj bpvtyzkjcm. D cnhfye
cntrfkbcm bvvbuhfyns bp ltcznrjd cnhfy vbhf. Gbjyths ghjrkflsdfkb
genm rfr xthtp Fnkfynbxtcrbq b Nböbq jrtfys, nfr b gj ceit, jcdfbdfz
hfpkbxyst nthhbnjhbb fvthbrfycrjuj vfnthbrf. Cktlez bö nhflbwbzv, bö
ctvmb b gjnjvrb cnhjbkb yjdst ljvf b ghbjåhtnfkb yjdst ghjatccbb,
hfpdbdfz cdjb cgjcjåyjcnb b cnfyjdzcm uhfélfyfvb CIF. Eöjl cj cwtys
jhtyjuj gjrjktybz, yf cvtye rjnjhjve ghböjlbn lheujt, jrfpsdftn dkbzybt yf cnhernehe b cjcnfd yfctktybz. Eét d yfit dhtvz, ukfdysv jåhfpjv,
d ntxtybt dnjhjq gjkjdbys änjuj dtrf, vjnjhjv fvthbrfycrjuj jåotcndf
zdkztncz gjrjktybt gthbjlf dphsdf hjélftvjcnb, gjzdbdittcz yf cdtn
dcrjht gjckt Dnjhjq vbhjdjq djqys. Yj kñlb cnfhituj gjrjktybz, åkfujlfhz edtkbxtybñ ghjljkébntkmyjcnb ébpyb b lbyfvbxyjve jåhfpe
ébpyb, dtcmvf frnbdys d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö Fvthbrb ctqxfc, yf gjhjut
yjdjuj nsczxtktnbz. D änjv dsgecrt éehyfkf ghbdjlzncz jcyjdyst ltvjuhfabxtcrbt cdtltybz j gjcktlybö bpvtytybzö d cjcnfdt yfctktybz CIF,
lfyyst j gthtgbcb yfctktybz CIF, yjdsö ntyltywbzö d bvvbuhfwbb b
hfcneotv dkbzybb cnfhituj gjrjktybz. D ytuj nfrét drkñxtyf åbåkbj■
uhfabxtcrfz b lheufz byajhvfwbz gj änjq ntvt.
CIF: JÅOTCNDJ B WTYYJCNB / B ÑYM 1999 U .
2
CI F : J Å O T C N D J B W T Y Y J C N B
Äktrnhjyyst éehyf ks Byajhvfwbjyyjuj futy nc ndf CIF
Njv 4 / Byajhvfwbjyyjt åñhj / Byajhvfwbjyyjt futy nc nd j CIF / § 2
[email protected]
Bñym 1999 u.
CJLTHÉFYBT
VTYZÑOBQCZ KBR FVTHBRB: CJDHTVTYYST LTVJUHFABXTCRBT NTYLTYWBB CIF
AJREC
5
CJTLBYTYYST INFNS FVTHBRB: VYJUJKBRFZ B VYJUJJÅTOFÑOFZ YFWBZ
Åbkk Rkbynjy
Ctqxfc, yf gjhjut yjdjuj nsczxtktnbz, Cjtlbytyyst Infns Fvthbrb ghbåkbéfñncz r njve dhtvtyb,
rjulf jyb vjuen cnfnm gthdjq d vbht ltqcndbntkmyj vyjujhfcjdjq, vyjujyfwbjyfkmyjq ltvjrhfnbxtcrjq cnhfyjq, d cjcnfdt yfctktybz rjnjhjq ljkz cnfhituj gjrjktybz xhtpdsxfqyj dscjrf.
Ghtpbltyn Rkbynjy hfcceélftn j ghjåktvfö, cjghzétyysö c änbv vyjujjåhfpbtv.
7
TLBYJT DJ VYJUJV: CNHERNEHF B ÄNYBXTCRBQ CJCNFD BVVBUHFWBB D CIF
Bcgjkmpez bcnjhbxtcrbt, cjwbjkjubxtcrbt b ltvjuhfabxtcrbt lfyyst, jåpjh ghjcktébdftn,
rfrbv jåhfpjv ckjébkjcm yfctktybt CIF.
11
BPVTYTYBZ D CJCNFDT YFCTKTYBZ CIF
Bp ljrkflf Cjdtnf ärjyjvbxtcrbö rjycekmnfynjd ≤Vtyzñofzcz Fvthbrf≥
D änjq rhfnrjq hfåjnt hfccvfnhbdftncz nhfycajhvfwbz ltvjuhfabxtcrbö gfhfvtnhjd ghjikjuj gjrjktybz.
RJVVTYNFHBB
13
GHJÅKTVS GTHTGBCB YFCTKTYBZ CIF D BYAJHVFWBJYYSQ DTR
Åfhhb Älvjycnjy
Rfrjdf wtkm gthtgbcb yfctktybz? Rfr cnhjzncz cdjlyst nfåkbws b rfr bcgjkmpeñncz lfyyst gthtgbcb? Rfr ghb ghjdtltybb åeleotq gthtgbcb åelen exntys ytljcnfnrb ghtéybö nfåkbw? Änb b lheubt djghjcs jåceélftn fdnjh, dblysq ltvjuhfa b cgtwbfkbcn gj gthtgbcb 2000 u.
17
LTÅFNS D CJTLBYTYYSÖ INFNFÖ GJ DJGHJCFV BVVBUHFWBB
Lfayf Cgäqy
Xnj ghtlcnfdkztn cjåjq Fvthbrf d cjwbfkmyj-rekmnehyjv jnyjitybb? Gkfdbkmysq rjntk, d rjnjhjv hfpkbxyst
rekmnehyst nhflbwbb, ghbdytctyyst bvvbuhfynfvb, rfr ås gthtgkfdkzñncz, ghtjåhfpezcm d ytxnj jlyjhjlyjt b
tlbyjt? Bkb ghb cnjkryjdtybb änb rekmnehyst nhflbwbb yt hfcgkfdkzñncz, f ghjcnj gthtvtibdfñncz, jcnfdfzcm
bylbdblefkmysvb, rfr byuhblbtyns d cfkfnt? Djghjc j njv, rfr ljkéys bvvbuhfyns dgbcsdfnmcz d fvthbrfycrjt
jåotcndj, ltåfnbhetncz ljdjkmyj lfdyj, ghbxtv hfpyst njxrb phtybz bvtñn jlbyfrjdj åjkmijt xbckj cnjhjyybrjd.
D änjq cnfnmt fdnjh, ghtgjlfdfntkm ujhjlcrjuj b ärjkjubxtcrjuj gkfybhjdfybz, cjchtljnjxbdftn dybvfybt yf
ltvjuhfabxtcrjv, cjwbfkmyj-ärjyjvbxtcrjv, rekmnehyjv b gjkbnbxtcrjv dkbzybb gjcktlybö ntyltywbq
d bvvbuhfwbb, jghtltkzz ghjåktvs, rjnjhst gjzdzncz d åeleotv.
3
21
RJHTYYST BPVTYTYBZ D GJKJÉTYBB CNFHITUJ GJRJKTYBZ
Ntjljh Hjéfr
Fdnjh, vyjuj gbieobq jå edtkbxtybb xbckf fvthbrfywtd cnfhituj djphfcnf d cjcnfdt yfctktybz CIF, hfcceélftn d
änjq cnfnmt j dféyjq hjkb änjuj ctuvtynf yfctktybz d cjwbfkmyjq b gjkbnbxtcrjq
ébpyb Fvthbrb. Ghbdjlzncz cnfnbcnbxtcrbt lfyyst j yfctktybb cnfhituj djphfcnf b tuj
jåotcndtyyj-gjktpyjq ltzntkmyjcnb.
26
YFCTKTYBT CIF: ULT ÉBDEN YJDST BVVBUHFYNS
Ebkmzv Ahtq
D cnfnmt, yfgbcfyyjq dtleobv cgtwbfkbcnjv-ehåfybcnjv, fyfkbpbhetncz dkbzybt bvvbuhfwbb, vbuhfwbb b ltvjuhfabxtcrbö cldbujd yf hfpdbnbt rhegysö b ytåjkmibö ujhjljd d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö Fvthbrb.
30
CVTIFYYJT YFCTKTYBT FVTHBRB
Hjitk K. Cnäyabk
Nböfz ltvjuhfabxtcrfz htdjkñwbz – crfxjr d xbckt cvtifyysö åhfrjd – crjhtt jåütlbybn,
xtv hfpütlbybn fvthbrfywtd. Fdnjh jåceélftn hfpkbxyst fcgtrns ntyltywbb r cvtifyysv åhfrfv,
f nfrét ytrjnjhst ghjnbdjltqcndeñobt afrnjhs.
35
ÅBÅKBJUHFABZ B HTCEHCS CTNB BYNTHYTN
CIF : JÅOTCNDJ B WTYYJCNB
Bplfntkm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hjpvfhb Rhjrtnn
Htlfrnjh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rhtqu Cghbyuth
Jndtncndtyyst htlfrnjhs . . . . . . . . . . . . Vfqrk Lé. Åfylkth
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cñpfyyf Ljerbyc
Pfvtcnbntkm htlfrnjhf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ufq Jkcjy
Htlfrnjh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hjpfkb Nfhujycrb
Öeljétcndtyysq htlfrnjh . . . Nfltei F. Vbcrbycrb-vkflibq
Uhfabxtcrjt jajhvktybt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cbkmdbz Crjn
Htlfrnjh Bynthytn-dthcbb éehyfkf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eäqy Öjkk
Cghfdjxyj-bccktljdfntkmcrbq jnltk . . . . . . . . . . . . .Vähb Äyy D. Uävåk
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ränb Igbutkm
Htlfrwbjyyfz rjkktubz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Öjdfhl Cbyrjnnf
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hjpvfhb Rhjrtnn
. . . . . . . . . . . . Léjy Lädbc Öävbkk
Htlfrnjhf heccrjuj bplfybz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yfnfif Åfhåfi
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kblbz Djhjybya
Äktrnhjyyst éehyfks ÑCBC dsöjlzn rfélst nhb ytltkb. D
ybö jåceélfñncz ckjéyst ghjåktvs, cnjzobt gthtl Cjtlbytyysvb Infnfvb. Jyb nfrét byajhvbheñn jåotcndtyyjcnm j cjåsnbzö, ghjbcöjlzobö d änjq cnhfys. Éehyfks dsöjlzn d cthbzö: ≤Ärjyjvbxtcrbt gthcgtrnbds≥, ≤Ukjåfkmyst ghjåktvs≥,
≤Djghjcs ltvjrhfnbb≥, ≤Dytiyzz gjkbnbrf CIF≥ b ≤CIF: jåotcndj b wtyyjcnb≥. Jyb cjlthéfn fyfkbp, rjvvtynfhbb b byajhvfwbjyyst vfnthbfks gj jåceélftvjq ntvt. Dct éehyfks
gthtdjlzncz yf ahfywepcrbq b bcgfycrbq zpsrb, ghb änjv ubgthntrcnjdst dthcbb geåkbreñncz xthtp ytltkñ gjckt dsöjlf
éehyfkf gj-fyukbqcrb. Dcrjht gjckt änjuj dsöjlzn dthcbb d
ajhvfnt Adobe Acrobat. Ytrjnjhst yjvthf éehyfkjd gthtdjlzncz nfrét yf fhfåcrbq, rbnfqcrbq, gjhneufkmcrbq b heccrbq
zpsrb, ghbxtv ldf gjcktlybö dfhbfynf dsöjlzn d ubgthntrcnjdjv htébvt b ajhvfnt Adobe Acrobat. Vytybz, dscrfpsdftvst
d änbö éehyfkfö, yt jåzpfntkmyj jnhféfñn dpukzls bkb gjkbnbre ghfdbntkmcndf CIF. Ghjcmåf bvtnm d dble, xnj ÑCBC yt
åthtn yf ctåz jndtncndtyyjcnb pf cjlthéfybt b gjcnjzyyeñ ljcnegyjcnm ghbdjlbvsö pltcm cfqnjd d Bynthytnt; nfrjuj hjlf
jndtncndtyyjcnm ytcen bcrkñxbntkmyj bö dkfltkmws. Geåkbretvst cnfnmb vjuen djcghjbpdjlbnmcz bkb gthtdjlbnmcz yf lheubt
zpsrb pf ghtltkfvb Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd, tckb jyb yt cyfåétys juhfybxtybzvb, rfcfñobvbcz fdnjhcrbö ghfd. Ntreobt bkb
ghtlsleobt yjvthf éehyfkjd vjéyj gjkexbnm c ljvfiytq
cnhfybws Byajhvfwbjyyjq ckeéås CIF (ÑCBC) dj Dctvbhyjq rjvgmñnthyjq ctnb gj flhtce:
“http://www.usia.gov/journals/journals.htm”. Éehyfks ghtljcnfdkzñncz d ytcrjkmrbö äktrnhjyysö ajhvfnfö lkz eghjotybz bö
ghjcvjnhf, gthtlfxb, dsdjlf b gtxfnb. Rjvvtynfhbb b pfvtxfybz vjéyj ghbcskfnm d vtcnyjt jnltktybt ÑCBC bkb d htlfrwbñ: Editor, Global Issues, Global Issues and Communications –
I/TGIC, U.S.Information Agency, 301 4th Street, S.W., Washington,
D.C. 20547, United States of America. Ds vjétnt nfrét bcgjkmpjdfnm cktleñobq flhtc äktrnhjyyjq gjxns: [email protected]
4
CJTLBYTYYST
INFNS
FVTHBRB:
VYJUJKBR FZ B
VYJUJJÅTOFÑOFZ
YFWBZ
ÅBKK RKBYNJY
J VTHT GHBÅKBÉTYBZ R
G
D
21
DTRE VS JCJPYFTV, XNJ ÅELEOTT
YTCTN D CTÅT RFR CKJÉYST GHJÅKTVS, NFR B PFÖDFNSDFÑOBT
GTHCGTRNBDS.
CKTLEÑOTV CNJKTNBB E YFC ÅELTN DJPVJÉYJCNM CNFNM GTHDJQ D VBHT LTQCNDBNTKMYJ VYJUJHFCJDJQ
B VYJUJYFWBJYFKMYJQ LTVJRHFNBXTCRJQ CNHFYJQ.
CTQXFC
D YFIBÖ JÅOTCNDTYYSÖ IRJKFÖ GHTLCNFDKTY
CFVSQ IBHJRBQ CGTRNH YFWBJYFKMYJCNTQ PF DCÑ BCNJHBÑ
BP CTVMB BVVBUHFYNJD.
YFGHBVTH,
D IRJKFÖ JRHEUF
YJV JN YFITQ CNJKBWS ÅTHTUE HTRB
GJNJVFR,
AÄHAFRC
EXFNCZ LTNB
B ÄNYBXTCRBÖ UHEGG, RJNJHST UJDJHZN ÅJKTT XTV YF
FVTHBRB,
100
D INFNT
180
GHBXTV RFÉLSQ GZNSQ EXTYBR
DBHLÉBYBZ,
–
YF GHJNBDJGJKJÉ-
HFPKBXYSÖ HFCJDSÖ, YFWBJYFKMYSÖ
HJLYSÖ ZPSRFÖ.
VS
LJKÉYS CLTKFNM NFR,
XNJÅS YFIF CBCNTVF JÅHFPJDFYBZ CGJCJÅCNDJDFKF HFPDBNBÑ NDJHXTCRBÖ CGJCJÅYJCNTQ RFÉLJUJ FVTHB-
RFYCRJUJ IRJKMYBRF, DJJHEÉFKF DCTÖ EXFOBÖCZ YFDSRFVB B PYFYBZVB LKZ GJKYJQ HTFKBPFWBB BÖ
GJNTYWBFKF B LFDFKF BV DJPVJÉYJCNM GHTECGTNM D ÉBPYB B D HFÅJNT, RJULF JYB DSHFCNEN.
CIF: JÅOTCNDJ B WTYYJCNB / B ÑYM 1999 U .
5
YJDJT
CNJKTNBT GHBYTCTN NFRÉT YJDST GHJÅKTVS B DJPVJÉYJCNB LKZ UHFÉLFY CNFHITUJ GJRJKTYBZ.
R 2030 U.
XBCKTYYJCNM KBW GJÉBKJUJ DJPHFCNF D YFITQ CNHFYT ELDJBNCZ.
YS R CTHTLBYT
21-UJ
DTRF CHTLYBQ FVTHBRFYTW ÅELTN ÉBNM LJ
YTIYÑÑ CHTLYÑÑ GHJLJKÉBNTKMYJCNM ÉBPYB.
JLYFRJ
ÄNB
82
ÅKFUJLFHZ
KTN, XNJ YF
6
ECGTÖFV VTLBWB-
KTN GHTDSIFTN YS-
LJGJKYBNTKMYST UJLS ÉBPYB
–
ÅJKMIJQ LFH.
JYB NFRÉT CNFDZN GHJÅKTVS GTHTL ATLTHFKMYSVB GHJUHFVVFVB, RJNJHST JÅTCGTXBDFÑN ABYFY-
CJDEÑ GJVJOM B VTLBWBYCRJT JÅCKEÉBDFYBT LKZ GHTCNFHTKSÖ.
YFC, KÑLTQ CHTLYTUJ DJPHFCNF,
–
JLYF
BP CFVSÖ CTHMTPYSÖ PFÅJN LKZ
GJRJKTYBZ, HJLBDITUJCZ D GJCKTDJTYYEÑ ÄHE,
–
CDZPFYF C NTV, XNJ
GJ VTHT CNFHTYBZ VS ÅELTV DJPKFUFNM YTDSYJCBVJT ABYFYCJDJT ÅHTVZ YF YFIBÖ LTNTQ, VTIFZ BV
NFRBV JÅHFPJV HFCNBNM YFIBÖ DYERJD.
ÄRJYJVBRJQ B GTHDSV C
DJPVJÉYJCNM
–
1960-Ö
GJCRJKMRE
VS DCNEGFTV D YJDJT NSCZXTKTNBT C VJOYJQ
UU. FRNBDYSV CFKMLJ ÅÑLÉTNF, GTHTL YFVB JNRHSDFTNCZ BCNJHBXTCRFZ
B ÄNJ YFI CDZOTYYSQ LJKU
–
JÅTCGTXBNM CJÖHFYTYBT GHJUHFVV CJWBFKMYJUJ JÅTC-
GTXTYBZ B VTLBWBYCRJQ GJVJOB LKZ GJÉBKSÖ DJ BVZ ÅKFUJGJKEXBZ ÅELEOBÖ GJRJKTYBQ FVTHBRFY-
WTD, RJNJHST ÅELEN ÉBNM D JÅOTCNDT, ULT VEÉXBYS B ÉTYOBYS ÅELEN YFCKFÉLFNMCZ ÅJKTT LJKUJQ,
ÅJKTT FRNBDYJQ B ÅJKTT GHJLERNBDYJQ ÉBPYMÑ.
YFV
GHTLCNJBN VYJUJT CLTKFNM D CKTLEÑOTV CNJKTNBB YF GENB CJPLFYBZ CNHFYS, RJNJHFZ EDFÉFTN
HFPKBXBZ VTÉLE CDJBVB UHFÉLFYFVB, DSCJRJ WTYBN CDJT VYJUJJÅHFPBT B JÅÜTLBYZTNCZ DJRHEU
JÅOBÖ WTYYJCNTQ.
CTQXFC,
ÅSCNHJ GHBÅKBÉFZCM R YJDJVE NSCZXTKTNBÑ, LFDFQNT C UJHLJCNMÑ
JNVTNBV DTÖB YF ÄNJV GENB, GJHFLETVCZ LJCNBUYENJVE YFVB GHJUHTCCE B ÅELTV CNHTVBNMCZ R
NJVE, XNJÅS LJÅBNMCZ TOT ÅJKMITUJ D UHZLEOBT UJLS.
CIF: JÅOTCNDJ B WTYYJCNB / B ÑYM 1999 U .
6
TLBYJT DJ
VYJUJV:
CNHERN EHF B ÄNYBXTCRBQ CJCNFD
BVVBUHFWBB CIF
Bcnjhbz fvthbrfycrjuj yfhjlf – änj bcnjhbz bvvbuhfwbb b hfpyjjåhfpbz. Cjtlbytyyst Infns ghbyzkb åjkmit bvvbuhfynjd, xtv kñåfz lheufz cnhfyf
vbhf, – d jåotq ckjéyjcnb cdsit 50 vky – b gjghtéytve ghbybvfñn gjxnb vbkkbjy xtkjdtr d ujl.
D ghjikjv vyjubt fvthbrfycrbt fdnjhs ghtlcnfdkzkb Fvthbre d rfxtcndt juhjvyjuj gkfdbkmyjuj rjnkf.
Gjlhfpevtdfkjcm, xnj yjdjghbåsdibt jnjqlen jn
cdjbö cnfhsö jåsxftd b ghbven yjdst, ghbceobt
Yjdjve cdtne. R ghbvthe, ltnb bvvbuhfynjd, rfr ghfdbkj, bpexfkb fyukbqcrbq, f yt hjlyjq zpsr cdjbö
hjlbntktq. Jlyfrj, d gjcktlytt dhtvz fvthbrfyws
cnfkb ghblfdfnm åjkmieñ wtyyjcnm hfpyjjåhfpbñ,
hfpkbxyst änybxtcrbt uheggs dyjdm cnfkb ujhlbnmcz
cdjbv rekmnehysv yfcktlbtv, f ltnb bvvbuhfynjd
pfxfcneñ dshfcnfñn ldezpsxysvb.
RJHTYYST
FVTHBRFYWS
Gthdst bvvbuhfyns, gjzdbdibtcz d Fvthbrt åjktt
20 000 ktn yfpfl, åskb gentitcndtyybrfvb, rjnjhst
ghbikb yf fvthbrfycrbq rjynbytyn c lheubö rjynbytynjd. Dvtcnt cj cdjbvb ctvmzvb jöjnybrb ldbufkbcm pf cnflfvb ébdjnysö bp Fpbb d Fvthbre gj gthtitqre, rjnjhsq ceotcndjdfk nfv, ult ctujlyz yföjlbncz Åthbyujd ghjkbd. Rjulf Öhbcnjajh Rjkevå bp
Bcgfybb ≤jnrhsk≥ d 1492 u. Yjdsq cdtn, yf nthhbnjhbb, rjnjhfz d yfib lyb jåhfpetn rjynbytynfkmyeñ
xfcnm CIF, ghjébdfkj jrjkj 1,5 vky rjhtyysö fvthbrfywtd, öjnz jwtyrb bö xbcktyyjcnb cbkmyj rjktåkñncz. Gj jibårt ghbyzd vtcnj, ult jy dscflbkcz, f änj åsk Cfy-Cfkmdfljh yf Åfufvcrbö jcnhjdfö,
pf Bylbñ, Rjkevå yfhtr rjhtyysö ébntktq Fvthbrb
≤byltqwfvb≥.
D gjcktleñobt 200 ktn kñlb bp ytcrjkmrbö tdhjgtqcrbö cnhfy dcktl pf Rjkevåjv gthtctrfkb Fnkfynbxtcrbq jrtfy, jcdfbdfz Fvthbre b cjplfdfz njhuj-
dst gjcns b rjkjybb. Dcktlcndbt änjuj ghbnjrf tdhjgtqwtd rjhtyyst fvthbrfyws cbkmyj gjcnhflfkb.
Ptvkz gthtöjlbkf bp byltqcrbö d tdhjgtqcrbt, f gjplytt – d fvthbrfycrbt herb d htpekmnfnt ljujdjhjd,
f nfrét c gjvjomñ djqy b ghbyeéltybz, ghbxtv byltqws gjcnjzyyj jncnegfkb, f yjdst
gjctktyws ghjldbufkbcm yf pfgfl. D 19-v dtrt ghfdbntkmcndj CIF gsnfkjcm htifnm ≤byltqcreñ ghjåktve≥, pfcnfdkzz gktvtyf ébnm
yf cgtwbfkmyj jndtltyysö exfcnrfö ptvkb,
yfpdfyysö htpthdfwbzvb. Ytrjnjhst gktvtyf cjghjnbdkzkbcm, yt étkfz jnlfdfnm ptvkñ, rjnjhjq bplfdyf gjkmpjdfkbcm. Dj vyjubö ckexfzö ptvkb
d htpthdfwbzö åskb gkjöjuj rfxtcndf, b byltqws gjgflfkb d pfdbcbvjcnm jn ujcelfhcndtyyjq gjvjob.
Ybotnf b åtphfåjnbwf chtlb rjhtyysö fvthbrfywtd
ceotcndeñn b gj ctq ltym.
Djqys pf nthhbnjhbñ yfhzle c pfdtptyysvb bp
Cnfhjuj cdtnf åjktpyzvb, ghjnbd rjnjhsö e byltqwtd yt åskj dhjéltyyjuj bvveybntnf, jåhtrkb rjhtyyjt yfctktybt yf htprjt cjrhfotybt lj vbybvfkmyjq jnvtnrb d 350 nsc. xtkjdtr d 1920 u. Jnltkmyst gktvtyf bcxtpkb djjåot. Ntv yt vtytt rjhtyyst fvthbrfyws ghjzdbkb åjkmieñ ébpytcgjcjåyjcnm. B ctujlyz bö xbcktyyjcnm cjcnfdkztn jrjkj
2 vky xtkjdtr – 0,8 ghjwtynf dctuj yfctktybz CIF.
Kbim jrjkj nhtnb rjhtyysö fvthbrfywtd gj-ghtéytve ébden d htpthdfwbzö.
Juhjvyjt rjkbxtcndj utjuhfabxtcrbö yfpdfybq d
CIF – ghjbpdjlyst jn byltqcrbö ckjd, d njv xbckt
yfpdfybz infnjd Vfccfxectnc, Jufqj, Vbxbufy, Vbccbcbgb, Vbccehb b Fqlföj. Byltqws yfexbkb tdhjgtqwtd djpltksdfnm nfrbt ctkmcrjöjpzqcndtyyst
rekmnehs, rfr rerehepe, gjvbljhs, rfhnjatkm b nfåfr,
gjkexbdibt ctujlyz ibhjrjt hfcghjcnhfytybt dj
dctv vbht. Chtlb vyjujxbcktyysö byltqcrbö bpjåhtntybq – rfyjä, cytujcnegs b vjrfcbys.
CIF: JÅOTCNDJ B WTYYJCNB / B ÑYM 1999 U .
7
≤PJKJNST
DJHJNF≥
Ukfdyjq änybxtcrjq uheggjq chtlb gthdsö gjctktywtd åeleobö Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd åskb fyukbxfyt, nfr xnj bvtyyj fyukbqcrbq zpsr cnfk d Fvthbrt
ghtjåkflfñobv. Jlyfrj dcrjht yfxfkb ghbåsdfnm b
kñlb bp lheubö cnhfy. D 1776 u. Njvfc Gtqy, ukfifnfq htdjkñwbjyyjuj ldbétybz d rjkjybzö,
cfv hjljv bp Fyukbb, gbcfk: ≤Tdhjgf, f yt
Fyukbz, gjhjlbkf Fvthbre≥. Änb ckjdf jnyjcbkbcm r gjctktywfv, ghbtpéfdibv yt
njkmrj bp Dtkbrjåhbnfybb, yj b bp lheubö tdhjgtqcrbö cnhfy – Bcgfybb, Gjhneufkbb, Ahfywbb, Ujkkfylbb, Uthvfybb b Idtwbb. Ntv yt vtytt d 1780 u. bp xtnshtö
uhfélfy Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd nhjt bvtkb fyukbqcrbt bkb bhkfylcrbt rjhyb.
D gthbjl c 1840 gj 1860 uu. Cjtlbytyyst Infns
ghbyzkb e ctåz gthdeñ åjkmieñ djkye bvvbuhfynjd.
Dj dctq Tdhjgt ujkjl, ytehjéfb, hjcn yfctktybz b
gjkbnbxtcrbt åtcgjhzlrb tétujlyj pfcnfdkzkb gjrblfnm hjlyst rhfz jrjkj 5 vky xtkjdtr. D Bhkfylbb
gjctds rfhnjatkz gjhfpbkf åjktpym, b åjktt 750 nsc.
xtkjdtr evthkj jn ujkjlf. Vyjubt bp ewtktdibö
ävbuhbhjdfkb. Pf jlby njkmrj 1847 u. xbckj bhkfylcrbö bvvbuhfynjd d CIF ljcnbukj 118 120. Ctujlyz
xbcktyyjcnm fvthbrfywtd bhkfylcrjuj ghjbcöjéltybz cjcnfdkztn jrjkj 39 vky xtkjdtr.
Gjhfétybt htdjkñwbb 1848–49 uu. d Uthvfybb gjåelbkj vyjubö tt ébntktq ävbuhbhjdfnm. D ujls
Uhfélfycrjq djqys d CIF (1861–65 uu.) ctdthzyt
gjgjkyzkb cdjb djqcrf, gjjohzz ävbuhfwbñ bp Tdhjgs, jcjåtyyj bp Uthvfybb. D yfuhfle pf ckeéåe d
fhvbb ctdthzy bvvbuhfynfv dsltkzkbcm ptvtkmyst
exfcnrb. R 1865 u. ghbvthyj gznfz xfcnm cjklfn fhvbb ctdthzy cjcnjzkf bp bvvbuhfynjd djtyyjuj dhtvtyb. Ctujlyz e 22 ghjwtynjd fvthbrfywtd – ytvtwrbt rjhyb.
Yfxbyfz ghbvthyj c 1880 u., d CIF cnfkb d åjkmibö rjkbxtcndfö ghbåsdfnm tdhtb, cgfcfdibtcz jn
étcnjrbö gjuhjvjd d Djcnjxyjq Tdhjgt. Pf gjcktleñobt 45 ktn d Cjtlbytyyst Infns gthtåhfkbcm
2 vky tdhttd, b d yfcnjzott dhtvz tdhtqcrjt yfctktybt CIF ghtdsiftn 5 vky xtkjdtr.
D rjywt 19-uj dtrf d Cjtlbytyyst Infns ghbtpéfkj nfr vyjuj kñltq, xnj Dfibyunjy jhufybpjdfk hfåjne cgtwbfkmyjuj wtynhf gj ghbtve bvvbuhfynjd
yf jcnhjdt Äkkbc d pfkbdt Fggth-Åäq åkbp u. YmñQjhrf. D gthbjl c 1892 u., rjulf jy jnrhskcz, gj
1954 u., rjulf tuj pfrhskb, jcnhjd Äkkbcf ckeébk
cdjtjåhfpysvb djhjnfvb, xthtp rjnjhst d Cjtlbytyyst Infns ghbåskb 12 vky xtkjdtr. Ntgthm änjn
jcnhjd cjöhfyty rfr cjcnfdyfz xfcnm Yfwbjyfkmyjuj
vjyevtynf ≤Cnfnez Cdjåjls≥. Cfvf Cnfnez Cdjåjls,
lfh fvthbrfycrjve yfhjle jn Ahfywbb d 1886 u., cnjbn d ufdfyb yf cjctlytv jcnhjdt. Lkz vyjubö bvvbuhfynjd änf cnfnez cnfkf gthdsv phbvsv jåhfpjv
cnhfys, cnfditq bö yjdjq hjlbyjq.
BVVBUHFYNS
GJYTDJKT
Chtlb jåotuj gjnjrf bvvbuhfynjd d Ctdthyeñ
Fvthbre jlyf uheggf ghbåskf cñlf yt gj cdjtq djkt.
Änj åskb fahbrfyws, pfdtptyyst rfr hfås d rjkbxtcndt 500 nsc. xtkjdtr d gthbjl c 1619 u. gj 1808 u.,
rjulf ddjp hfåjd d Cjtlbytyyst Infns cnfk ytpfrjyysv. Jlyfrj yf ghfrnbrt dkfltybt hfåfvb b bö
gjnjvrfvb ghjljkéfkjcm, jcjåtyyj yf fuhfhyjv
fvthbrfycrjv Ñut, ult lkz hfåjns yf gjkzö nhtåjdfkjcm vyjuj hfåjxbö her.
Ghjwtcc jnvtys hfåcndf yfxfkcz d fghtkt 1861 u.,
rjulf dcgsöyekf Uhfélfycrfz djqyf vtéle cdjåjlysvb infnfvb Ctdthf b hfåjdkfltkmxtcrbvb infnfvb
Ñuf, 11 bp rjnjhsö dsikb bp Cjñpf. 1 zydfhz 1863 u.,
d cthtlbyt djqys, Ghtpbltyn Fdhffv Kbyrjkmy bplfk
Ghjrkfvfwbñ jå jcdjåjéltybb hfåjd, rjnjhfz jnvtyzkf hfåcndj d jnltkbdiböcz infnfö. Gj dctv Cjtlbytyysv Infnfv hfåcndj åskj pfghtotyj d 1865 u.
c ghbyznbtv Nhbyflwfnjq gjghfdrb r Rjycnbnewbb
CIF.
Jlyfrj lfét gjckt jnvtys hfåcndf xthyjrjébv
fvthbrfywfv ghtgzncndjdfkb ctuhtufwbz b öelitt
rfxtcndj jåhfpjdfybz. D gjbcrfö kexibö djpvjéyjcntq fahj-fvthbrfyws cjplfkb dyenhtyyññ djkye
bvvbuhfwbb, gthtvtofzcm c ctkmcrjuj Ñuf yf ehåfybpbhjdfyysq Ctdth. Yj vyjubt xthyjrjébt ébntkb
ujhjljd yt vjukb yfqnb hfåjne. Gj pfrjye b nhflbwbb jyb ébkb jnltkmyj jn åtksö, d eåjubö ujhjlcrbö nheojåfö.
D rjywt 1950-ö b yfxfkt 1960-ö uu. fahj-fvthbrfyws, dtljvst Vfhnbyjv Kñnthjv Rbyujv-vkflibv,
ghbyzkb exfcnbt d åjqrjnfö, vfhifö b lheubö ajhvfö ytyfcbkmcndtyyjuj ghjntcnf, nhtåez hfdtycndf
gthtl pfrjyjv b ghtrhfotybz hfcjdsö ghtlhfccelrjd.
Gbr ldbétybz pf uhfélfycrbt ghfdf ghbitkcz yf
28 fduecnf 1963 u., rjulf åjktt 200 nsc. xtkjdtr dctö
hfc cjåhfkbcm gthtl Vtvjhbfkjv Kbyrjkmyf d Dfibyunjyt, b gthtl ybvb c zhrjq htxmñ dscnegbk
Rbyu. Dcrjht gjckt änjuj Rjyuhtcc CIF ghbyzk pfrjys, pfghtofñobt lbcrhbvbyfwbñ d jåkfcnb bpåb-
CIF: JÅOTCNDJ B WTYYJCNB / B ÑYM 1999 U .
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hfntkmysö ghfd, jåhfpjdfybz b nheljecnhjqcndf, f
nfrét d ghtljcnfdktybb, ghb gjregrt b cyznbb ébkmz
b d jåotcndtyysö vtcnfö. Ctujlyz fahj-fvthbrfyws
cjcnfdkzñn 12,7 ghjwtynf dctuj yfctktybz CIF. D
gjcktlybt ltcznbktnbz xthyjrjébt fvthbrfyws ljåbkbcm åjkmibö ecgtöjd ghb pyfxbntkmyjv hjcnt
fahj-fvthbrfycrjuj chtlytuj rkfccf.
ZPSR
B YFWBJYFKMYJCNM
Ctujlyz, ghjöjlz gj ekbwfv fvthbrfycrjuj ujhjlf,
ythtlrj vjéyj ecksifnm bcgfycreñ htxm. D 1950 u.
dsöjlws bp bcgfyjzpsxysö cnhfy cjcnfdkzkb vtytt
4 vky ébntktq CIF. Ctujlyz xbcktyyjcnm kfnbyjfvthbrfycrjuj yfctktybz d CIF ljöjlbn lj 27 vky
xtkjdtr. Ghbvthyj 50 ghjwtynjd bcgfyjzpsxysö
fvthbrfywtd – vtrcbrfycrjuj ghjbcöjéltybz. Lheubt 50 ghjwtynjd ghbtöfkb bp hfpysö cnhfy, drkñxfz
Cfkmdfljh, Ljvbybrfycreñ Htcgeåkbre b Rjkevåbñ.
36 ghjwtynjd bcgfyjzpsxysö ébntktq CIF ghjébdfñn d Rfkbajhybb. Rhegyjt bcgfyjzpsxyjt yfctktybt bvtñn tot ytcrjkmrj infnjd, d njv xbckt Ntöfc,
Ymñ-Qjhr, Bkkbyjqc b Akjhblf, ult jåjcyjdfkbcm
cjnyb nsczx reåbywtd, åtéfdibö jn htébvf Rfcnhj.
D Vfqfvb nfr vyjuj fvthbrfywtd reåbycrjuj ghjbcöjéltybz, xnj cfvfz åjkmifz ujhjlcrfz ufptnf ≤Vfqfvb uthfkml≥ dsöjlbn jnltkmysvb dsgecrfvb yf fyukbqcrjv b bcgfycrjv zpsrfö.
Ibhjrjt ghbvtytybt bcgfycrjuj zpsrf d fvthbrfycrbö ujhjlfö cnfkj gjdjljv r jåotcndtyyjq lbcreccbb gj ghjåktvt zpsrf d wtkjv. Ytrjnjhst fyukjzpsxyst uhfélfyt erfpsdfñn yf Rfyfle, ult ceotcndjdfybt ldeö zpsrjd – fyukbqcrjuj b ahfywepcrjuj – cjghjdjélftncz ctgfhfnbcncrbv ldbétybtv.
Lfås ghtljndhfnbnm gjljåyjt hfpdbnbt cjåsnbq d
CIF, ytrjnjhst uhfélfyt ghbpsdfñn ghbyznm pfrjy,
jåüzdkzñobq fyukbqcrbq jabwbfkmysv fvthbrfycrbv zpsrjv. Lheubt cxbnfñn nfrjq pfrjy ytyeéysv
b gjntywbfkmyj dhtlysv. Ghbpyfybt fyukbqcrjuj
d rfxtcndt jabwbfkmyjuj zpsrf, endthélfñn jyb,
pfrktqvbn kñltq, ujdjhzobö yf lheubö zpsrfö,
b jckjéybn bv gjdctlytdyeñ ébpym.
JUHFYBXTYBZ
BVVBUHFWBB
Cnfnez Cdjåjls yfxfkf jpfhznm genm dyjdm ghbåsdfñobv d njn vjvtyn, rjulf vyjubt fvthbrfyws
gj hjéltybñ cnfkb åtcgjrjbnmcz j njv, xnj
cnhfyf ghbybvftn ckbirjv vyjuj bvvbuhfynjd. Ytrjnjhst uhfélfyt jgfcfkbcm, xnj
euhjpt gjldthuftncz bö rekmnehf bkb xnj
jyb gjnthzñn hfåjne bp-pf njuj, xnj yjdjghbåsdibt ujnjds cjukfcbnmcz yf åjktt
ybprbq pfhfåjnjr.
D 1924 u. Rjyuhtcc ghbyzk Pfrjy Léjycjyf-Hblf jå bvvbuhfwbb. Dgthdst Cjtlbytyyst Infns ddtkb juhfybxtybz yf nj,
crjkmrj kñltq bp rféljq cnhfys jyb åelen ghbybvfnm. Tétujlyjt xbckj kñltq, rjnjhsv
hfphtifkjcm ävbuhbhjdfnm bp lfyyjq cnhfys, jcyjdsdfkjcm yf xbcktyyjcnb dsöjlwtd bp änjq cnhfys,
eét ghjébdfñobö d CIF. D bnjut yf ghjnzétybb
gjcktleñobö 40 ktn cnhernehf bvvbuhfwbb jnhféfkf
ckjébdittcz bvvbuhfyncrjt yfctktybt, rjnjhjt cjcnfdkzkb, ukfdysv jåhfpjv, tdhjgtqws b ctdthjfvthbrfyws.
Lj 1924 u. pfrjys CIF ghzvj pfghtofkb bvvbuhfwbñ bp Fpbb. Ébntkb fvthbrfycrjuj Pfgflf jgfcfkbcm, xnj rbnfqws b lheubt fpbfns gthtödfnzn hfåjxbt vtcnf, b hfcjdst ghtlhfccelrb ghjnbd kñltq c
fpbfncrbvb xthnfvb åskb ibhjrj hfcghjcnhfytys.
Pfrjy, ghtgzncndjdfdibq rbnfqcrjq bvvbuhfwbb,
åsk jnvtyty d 1943 u., f ghbyznjt d 1952 u. pfrjyjlfntkmcndj hfphtifkj cnfyjdbnmcz uhfélfyfvb CIF
kñlzv dctö hfc.
Ctujlyz fvthbrfyws fpbfncrjuj ghjbcöjéltybz –
jlyf bp cfvsö åscnhjhfcneobö änybxtcrbö uhegg d
cnhfyt. D Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö ébden 10 vky xtkjdtr
c fpbfncrbvb rjhyzvb. Öjnz åjkmibycndj bp ybö
ghbåskj cñlf ytlfdyj, änb kñlb ghbyflktéfn r xbcke yfbåjktt ecgtiysö bp dctö bvvbuhfyncrbö uhegg.
Bö ljöjl dsit, xtv e vyjubö lheubö änybxtcrbö
uhegg, f bö ltnb d åjkmijv rjkbxtcndt exfncz d kexibö eybdthcbntnfö CIF, gjkexfz cntgtyb åfrfkfdhjd, vfubcnhjd b ljrnjhjd yfer.
YJDFZ
CBCNTVF
Ujl 1965-q ghbytc rjhtyyst bpvtytybz d ghtéyññ cnhernehe bvvbuhfwbb. Cjtlbytyyst Infns
yfxfkb dslfdfnm bvvbuhfyncrbt dbps d gjhzlrt gjlfxb pfzdktybq, yf cvtye rdjnfv gj cnhfyfv ghbikb
rdjns, ecnfyjdktyyst lkz gjkeifhbq. Ghtlgjxntybt
CIF: JÅOTCNDJ B WTYYJCNB / B ÑYM 1999 U .
9
cnfkj jnlfdfnmcz hjlcndtyybrfv fvthbrfycrbö uhfélfy b bvvbuhfynfv, jåkflfñobv ltabwbnysvb d
CIF ghjatccbzvb. D 1978 u. Rjyuhtcc jnvtybk rdjns gj gjkeifhbzv b ecnfyjdbk jåotvbhjdjq ≤gjnjkjr≥, ntv cfvsv hfcgföyed ldthb tot ibht. R ghbvthe, d 1990 u. chtlb cnhfy ghjbcöjéltybz bvvbuhfynjd gthdst ltcznm vtcn pfybvfkb Vtrcbrf (57 000),
Abkbggbys (55 000), Dmtnyfv (49 000), Ljvbybrfycrfz Htcgeåkbrf (32 000), Rjhtz (30 000), Rbnfq
(29 000), Bylbz (28 000), Cjdtncrbq Cjñp (25 000),
Zvfqrf (19 000) b Bhfy (18 000).
Cjtlbytyyst Infns ghjljkéfñn ghbybvfnm åjkmit bvvbuhfynjd, xtv kñåfz lheufz cnhfyf vbhf. D
1990 u. yfctktybt CIF drkñxfkj gjxnb 20 vky xtkjdtr, hjlbdiböcz pf uhfybwtq. Gthtcvjnhtyysq bvvbuhfwbjyysq pfrjy 1990 u. ddtk ubårbq dthöybq
ghtltk d 675 000 bvvbuhfynjd tétujlyj, ghbxtv
jghtltktyyst rfntujhbb kñltq yt gjlgflfñn gjl
änb juhfybxtybz. C gjvjomñ änjuj pfrjyf CIF gsnfñncz ghbdktxm åjkmit rdfkbabwbhjdfyysö hfåjxbö b cgtwbfkbcnjd b jåtcgtxbnm bvvbuhfwbñ bp
cnhfy, rjnjhst d gjcktlybt ujls gjcnfdkzkb jnyjcbntkmyj ytvyjuj fvthbrfywtd. Ltkftncz änj gentv dslfxb cgtwbfkmysö ≤lbdthcbabrfwbjyysö≥ dbp. D
1990 u. gj gjljåysv dbpfv d Cjtlbytyyst Infns
dütöfkj jrjkj 9 000 xtkjdtr bp nfrbö cnhfy, rfr Åfyukflti, Gfrbcnfy, Gthe, Tubgtn b Nhbyblfl b Njåfuj.
YTKTUFKMYST
BVVBUHFYNS
Gj jwtyrfv fvthbrfycrjq Ckeéås bvvbuhfwbb b
yfnehfkbpfwbb, d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö ghjébdftn
åtp hfphtitybz jrjkj 5 vky xtkjdtr, b änf wbahf
hfcntn ghbvthyj yf 275 000 d ujl. Fvthbrfyws gj
hjéltybñ b ktufkmyst bvvbuhfyns jåtcgjrjtys
ghjåktvjq ytktufkmyjq bvvbuhfwbb. Vyjubt cxbnfñn, xnj ytktufkmyst bvvbuhfyns (yfpsdftvst nfrét
≤ytktufkmysvb byjcnhfywfvb≥) jnybvfñn hfåjxbt
vtcnf e uhfélfy CIF, jcjåtyyj e vjkjlsö kñltq b
ghtlcnfdbntktq vtymibycnd. Åjktt njuj, ytktufks
vjuen cjplfdfnm åjkmieñ yfuhepre yf cjwbfkmyst
ckeéås, abyfycbhetvst pf cxtn yfkjujgkfntkmobrjd.
D 1986 u. Rjyuhtcc gthtcvjnhtk bvvbuhfwbjyysq
pfrjy, c ntv xnjås htibnm ghjåktve ytktufkmysö
byjcnhfywtd. Vyjubt bp ntö, rnj yföjlbkcz d cnhfyt
yfxbyfz c 1982 u., gjkexbkb ghfdj gjlfnm pfzdre yf
ghtljcnfdktybt cnfnecf ktufkmyjuj ébntkz cnhfys,
rjnjhsq d rjytxyjv bnjut gjpdjkbk ås bv jcnfdfnmcz d cnhfyt gjcnjzyyj. D 1990 u. gjxnb 900 000 xtkjdtr djcgjkmpjdfkbcm änbv pfrjyjv lkz ghbjåhtntybz
ktufkmyjuj cnfnecf. Rhjvt njuj, pfrjy ghtlecvjnhtk
étcnrbt vths gj åjhmåt c lfkmytqitq ytktufkmyjq
bvvbuhfwbtq b ddtk cfyrwbb yf ghtlghbznbz, cjpyfntkmyj yfybvfñobt yf hfåjne ytktufkmysö byjcnhfywtd.
YFCKTLBT
Ecnjqxbdsq gjnjr kñltq, ghbåsdfñobö r åthtufv
Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd, ukeåjrj gjdkbzk yf fvthbrfycrbq öfhfrnth. Xnjås gjrbyenm cdjñ hjlbye b jnghfdbnmcz d yjdeñ cnhfye, ytjåöjlbvs cvtkjcnm b
vjåbkmyjcnm. Fvthbrfycrbq yfhjl bpdtcnty cdjtq
ujnjdyjcnmñ hbcrjdfnm, gecrfnmcz d yjdst pfntb, f
nfrét ytpfdbcbvjcnmñ b jgnbvbpvjv. Tckb fvthbrfyws, xmb ctvmb ébden pltcm ljkmit, crkjyys djcghbybvfnm vfnthbfkmysq rjvajhn b gjkbnbxtcrbt
cdjåjls rfr ljkéyjt, nj bvvbuhfyns dctulf ujnjds
yfgjvybnm bv j njv, xnj änj ghbdbktubb b yfcrjkmrj jyb dféys.
Bvvbuhfyns jåjufofñn fvthbrfycrjt jåotcndj
tot b ntv, xnj ghbdyjczn d ytuj jghtltktyyst vjvtyns cdjtq hjlyjq rekmnehs. Vyjubt xthyjrjébt
fvthbrfyws ntgthm jnvtxfñn b Hjéltcndj, b Rdfypf
– ghfplybr, jcyjdfyysq yf fahbrfycrbö hbnefkfö.
Bcgfyjzpsxyst fvthbrfyws gjllthébdfñn cdjb
nhflbwbb, ecnhfbdfz ekbxyst zhvfhrb yf 5 vfz –
≤Xbyrj lt vfqj≥. Dj vyjubö fvthbrfycrbö ujhjlfö
tcnm hfqjys rjvgfrnyjuj ghjébdfybz kñltq jghtltktyyjq yfwbjyfkmyjcnb b htcnjhfys c yfwbjyfkmyjq reöytq. Ghtpbltyn Léjy A. Rtyytlb, cfv dyer
bhkfylcrbö bvvbuhfynjd, gjlsnjébk äne cvtcm cnfhjuj b yjdjuj, yfpdfd Fvthbre ≤jåotcndjv bvvbuhfynjd, rfélsq bp rjnjhsö yfxfk ébpym pfyjdj b yfhfdyt c lheubvb≥.
≤Änj b tcnm ctrhtn Fvthbrb, – djcrkbryek jy, –
cnhfys kñltq cj cdtétq gfvznmñ j cnfhsö nhflbwbzö, rjnjhst lthpyekb jcdjbnm yjdst ghtltks...≥ ■
Jåobt cdtltybz j yfctktybb CIF bp geåkbrfwbb
≤Gjhnhtn CIF≥, bplfyyjq Byajhvfwbjyysv futyncndjv
CIF, ctynzåhm 1997 u.
CIF: JÅOTCNDJ B WTYYJCNB / B ÑYM 1999 U .
10
BPVTYTYBZ
D CJCNFDT
YFCTKTYBZ
CIF
Bp ljrkflf ≤Vtyzñofzcz Fvthbrf≥ jgeåkbrjdfyyjuj
Cjdtnjv ärjyjvbxtcrbö rjycekmnfynjd
Ctujlyz, yf gjhjut yjdjuj cnjktnbz, cjcnfd yfctktybz Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd cnfyjdbncz dct åjktt
vyjujjåhfpysv. D gjcktlybt ujls xbckj fvthbrfywtd kfnbyjfvthbrfycrjuj ghjbcöjéltybz, f nfrét
ghtlcnfdbntktq hfcjdsö vtymibycnd (n.t. hfcjdsö
b änybxtcrbö uhegg, cjcnfdkzñobö vtytt 50 ghjwtynjd yfctktybz b drkñxfñobö ytbcgfyjzpsxysö
uhfélfy, fahj-fvthbrfywtd, dsöjlwtd bp Fpbb b
fvthbrfycrbö byltqwtd) hjckj åjktt åscnhsvb
ntvgfvb, xtv dct yfctktybt cnhfys d wtkjv. D
1970 u. änb uheggs dvtcnt dpznst cjcnfdkzkb kbim
16 ghjwtynjd jn jåotq xbcktyyjcnb yfctktybz.
R 1998 u. änf ljkz edtkbxbkfcm lj 27 ghjwtynjd. Gj
ghjuyjpfv Åñhj gthtgbcb yfctktybz, d ckexft cjöhfytybz ysytiytq ntyltywbb r 2050 u. änb uheggs
åelen cjcnfdkznm gjxnb gjkjdbye yfctktybz CIF.
B öjnz gjljåyst ghjuyjps dctulf pfrkñxfñn d ctåt
jghtltktyyeñ ljkñ gjuhtiyjcnb, jyb ntv yt vtytt
gjrfpsdfñn, xnj d cktleñotv cnjktnbb yfctktybt
Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd åeltn pyfxbntkmyj åjktt hfpyjjåhfpysv, c njxrb phtybz tuj hfcjdjuj b änybxtcrjuj cjcnfdf.
Jcyjdyfz ghbxbyf änjq ltvjuhfabxtcrjq ädjkñwbb pfrkñxftncz d bvvbuhfwbb. Bvtyyj bvvbuhfwbz jåeckjdkbdftn åscnhsq hjcn xbcktyyjcnb uhfélfy fpbfncrjuj b kfnbyjfvthbrfycrjuj ghjbcöjéltybz, yfxbyfz c 1960-ö ujljd. Gj lfyysv pf 1997 u.,
38 ghjwtynjd fvthbrfycrbö uhfélfy kfnbyjfvthbrfycrjuj ghjbcöjéltybz b 61 ghjwtyn fpbfncrjuj
ghjbcöjéltybz hjlbkbcm pf ghtltkfvb Fvthbrb –
gj chfdytybñ c 8 ghjwtynfvb uhfélfy c åtkjq rjétq, 6 ghjwtynfvb fvthbrfywtd fahbrfycrjuj ghjbcöjéltybz b 6 ghjwtynfvb fvthbrfycrbö byltq-
wtd. Edtkbxtybt xbcktyyjcnb bvvbuhfynjd bp Fpbb
b Kfnbycrjq Fvthbrb d ntxtybt gjcktlybö ytcrjkmrbö ltcznbktnbq cnfkj d jcyjdyjv htpekmnfnjv bpvtytybq d bvvbuhfwbjyyjq gjkbnbrt. D xfcnyjcnb,
Pfrjy jå bvvbuhfwbb 1965 u. kbrdblbhjdfk cbcntve
rdjn gj ghbywbge cnhfys ghjbcöjéltybz, rjnjhfz
hfytt juhfybxbdfkf bvvbuhfwbñ bp yttdhjgtqcrbö
cnhfy. Pfrjy 1986 u. j htajhvt b rjynhjkt bvvbuhfwbjyyjq gjkbnbrb nfrét cgjcjåcndjdfk edtkbxtybñ
ljkb dsöjlwtd bp Fpbb b Kfnbycrjq Fvthbrb d yfctktybb CIF gentv ktufkbpfwbb åjkmijuj xbckf bvvbuhfynjd.
Yf ajyt hjcnf bvvbuhfwbb bp Fpbb b Kfnbycrjq
Fvthbrb hjcn jcnfkmyjuj yfctktybz Cjtlbytyysö
Infnjd htprj pfvtlkbkcz – d jcyjdyjv bp-pf cybétybz hjélftvjcnb chtlb yt-kfnbyjfvthbrfywtd c
xthyjq b åtkjq rjétq. D htpekmnfnt cybétybz hjélftvjcnb ljkz yt-kfnbyjfvthbrfywtd c åtkjq rjétq
cjrhfnbkfcm gj chfdytybñ c 1970 u., f ljkz yt-kfnbyjfvthbrfywtd c xthyjq rjétq kbim ckturf edtkbxbkfcm pf änjn ét gthbjl.
Bpvtytybz d jghtltktybb hfcjdjq b änybxtcrjq
ghbyflktéyjcnb nfrét cgjcjåcndeñn edtkbxtybñ
gjrfpfntktq hfcjdjuj b änybxtcrjuj vyjujjåhfpbz.
Änj yfbåjktt pfvtnyj yf ghbvtht fvthbrfycrbö byltqwtd, xbcktyyjcnm rjnjhsö dshjckf pf gjcktlybt
ujls åjktt, xtv vjéyj åskj ås jéblfnm yf jcyjdfybb cnfnbcnbxtcrbö lfyysö j cvthnyjcnb, hjélftvjcnb, bvvbuhfwbb b d htpekmnfnt åjktt njxyjq gthtgbcb yfctktybz. Hjcn xbcktyyjcnb änjq uheggs
yfctktybz gjpdjkztn ghtlgjkjébnm, xnj ghb gthtgbcb kñlb åjktt crkjyys cxbnfnm ctåz byltqwfvb, xtv
d ghjikjv.
CIF: JÅOTCNDJ B WTYYJCNB / B ÑYM 1999 U .
11
Yfwbjyfkmyst bpvtytybz d cjcnfdt yfctktybz
crhsdfñn pf cjåjq vtéhtubjyfkmyst b dyenhbhtubjyfkmyst hfpkbxbz. Utjuhfabxtcrjt hfcghtltktybt
hfcjdsö b änybxtcrbö uhegg bvttn dféyjt pyfxtybt,
gjcrjkmre jyj dkbztn yf gjntywbfk cjwbfkmyj-ärjyjvbxtcrjuj dpfbvjltqcndbz vtéle ybvb. Cjukfcyj
ghjuyjpfv Åñhj gthtgbcb yfctktybz, cltkfyysv d
1995 u., yf Pfgflt yfåkñlfkfcm cfvfz dscjrfz rjywtynhfwbz vtymibycnd (36 ghjwtynjd), pfntv cktljdfk ñu (30 ghjwtynjd), Ctdthj-Djcnjr (23 ghjwtynf)
b Chtlybq Pfgfl (15 ghjwtynjd). Ytbcgfyjzpsxyst
uhfélfyt c xthyjq rjétq ghtlgjxbnfñn ébnm yf ñut,
d nj dhtvz rfr fvthbrfyws fpbfncrjuj ghjbcöjéltybz, dsöjlws bp Kfnbycrjq Fvthbrb b fvthbrfycrbt
byltqws crjywtynhbhjdfys yf pfgflt cnhfys.
Hfcjdsq cjcnfd yfctktybz nfrét hfpkbxftncz d
åjkmibö ujhjlfö, ghbujhjlfö b ctkmcrjq vtcnyjcnb.
D åjkmibö ujhjlfö ghjébdftn åjkmit uhfélfy kfnbyjfvthbrfycrjuj ghjbcöjéltybz, uhfélfy c xthyjq
rjétq b dsöjlwtd bp Fpbb, xtv ytbcgfyjzpsxysö
uhfélfy c åtkjq rjétq (d 1996 u. cdsit gjkjdbys
xthyjrjébö fvthbrfywtd b dsöjlwtd bp Kfnbycrjq
Fvthbrb, f nfrét gjxnb gjkjdbyf dsöjlwtd bp Fpbb
ghjébdfkb d åjkmibö ujhjlfö, d nj dhtvz rfr fyfkjubxyfz ljkz ytbcgfyjzpsxyjuj åtkjuj yfctktybz cjcnfdkzkf vtytt 25 ghjwtynjd). B yfjåjhjn, cdsit
gjkjdbys dctö åtksö ytkfnbyjfvthbrfywtd b 48
ghjwtynjd kbw fpbfncrjuj ghjbcöjéltybz ghjébdfkb d 1996 u. d ghbujhjlfö. Fvthbrfycrbt byltqws d
jcyjdyjv ébden pf ghtltkfvb ujhjljd b ghbujhjljd
– d 1990 u. gjxnb gjkjdbyf bö ghjébdfkb pf ghtltkfvb ehåfybpbhjdfyysö nthhbnjhbq.
Gj vtht njuj, rfr cjcnfd yfctktybz cnfyjdbncz dct
åjktt vyjujjåhfpysv, ljkéys edtkbxbdfnmcz djpvjéyjcnb lkz cjwbfkmyjuj dpfbvjltqcndbz vtéle
xktyfvb hfpkbxysö hfcjdsö b änybxtcrbö uhegg.
Cvtifyyst vtéuheggjdst åhfrb (åhfrb vtéle kñlmvb hfpysö hfc b vtéle ytkfnbyjfvthbrfywfvb b kfnbyjfvthbrfywfvb) – jlby bp gjrfpfntktq cjwbfkmyjuj dpfbvjltqcndbz. Xbckj cegheétcrbö gfh, d rjnjhsö cegheub bvtñn hfpyjt hfcjdjt ghjbcöjéltybt,
htprj edtkbxbkjcm pf gjcktlybt ytcrjkmrj ltcznbktnbq, f njxytt, enhjbkjcm, yfxbyfz c 1960 u. Ntv yt vtytt, htpekmnfns bccktljdfybz, ghjdtltyyjuj d 1995 u.
Hjlthbrjv Öfhhbcjyjv b Rkjltn Åtyytn, gjrfpsdfñn, xnj nfrbt cegheétcrbt gfhs cjcnfdkzkb d 1990 u.
kbim 2 ghjwtynf, f cvtifyyst vtéuheggjdst åhfrb
– 4 ghjwtynf jn jåotuj xbckf cegheétcrbö gfh.
Vyjubt ltvjuhfabxtcrbt öfhfrnthbcnbrb jrfpsdfñn djpltqcndbt yf ärjyjvbxtcrbq b cjwbfkmysq cnfnec b jåüzcyzñn hfpkbxbz d ehjdyt åkfujcjcnjzybz
uhfélfy CIF. Nfr, yfghbvth, d htpekmnfnt bvvbuhf-
wbb cybpbkcz jnyjcbntkmysq cjwbfkmyj-ärjyjvbxtcrbq cnfnec kfnbyjfvthbrfycrjuj yfctktybz CIF,
gjcrjkmre bvvbuhfyns bp Kfnbycrjq Fvthbrb jåsxyj bvtñn åjktt ybprbq ehjdtym jåhfpjdfybz b ljöjljd, xtv yfctktybt CIF kfnbyjfvthbrfycrjuj ghjbcöjéltybz d wtkjv.
R xbcke lheubö ltvjuhfabxtcrbö öfhfrnthbcnbr,
jrfpsdfñobö dféyjt djpltqcndbt yf cjwbfkmysq b
ärjyjvbxtcrbq cnfnec, ghbyflktéfn gjrfpfntkb cjcnfdf ctvmb b djphfcnyfz cnhernehf. Nfr, edtkbxtybt
xbckf ltntq, ébdeobö d eckjdbzö åtlyjcnb, xfcnj
cdzpfyj c edtkbxtybtv ljkb ctvtq c jlybv hjlbntktv. Yfxbyfz c 1970 u., ljkz nfrbö ctvtq edtkbxbkfcm
d cjcnfdt dctö uhegg yfctktybz, b yfbåjktt dscjrf
chtlb fvthbrfywtd fahbrfycrjuj ghjbcöjéltybz
(38 ghjwtynjd), dcktl pf rjnjhsvb cktleñn fvthbrfycrbt byltqws (26 ghjwtynjd) b kfnbyjfvthbrfyws (26 ghjwtynjd). Cnhernehf ctvmb nfrét pfdbcbn jn
ärjyjvbxtcrjuj cnfnecf – yfghbvth, tcnm lfyyst j
njv, xnj hfcneofz ntyltywbz chtlb gjébksö kñltq
ébnm jnltkmyj jåeckjdktyf hjcnjv ehjdyz bö ärjyjvbxtcrjuj åkfujcjcnjzybz.
Jcjåtyyjcnb djphfcnyjq cnhernehs uheggs yfctktybz vjuen jåeckjdkbdfnm ntvgs tt hjcnf, rfr, dghjxtv, b gjrfpfntkb chtlytuj ehjdyz ärjyjvbxtcrjuj b
cjwbfkmyjuj åkfujcjcnjzybz. Nfr, yfghbvth, ehjdtym
åtlyjcnb dsit dctuj chtlb ltntq, f ehjdtym ghtcnegyjcnb – chtlb dphjcksö kñltq vjkjljuj djphfcnf.
D chtlytv ytbcgfyjzpsxyjt åtkjt yfctktybt pyfxbntkmyj cnfhit, xtv dct yfctktybt d wtkjv. Njkmrj
24 ghjwtynf ytbcgfyjzpsxyjuj åtkjuj yfctktybz yföjlbncz d djphfcnyjq uheggt lj 18 ktn, d nj dhtvz rfr
änjn ét gjrfpfntkm cjcnfdkztn 30 ghjwtynjd lkz ytbcgfyjzpsxyjuj yfctktybz c xthyjq rjétq b yfctktybz fpbfncrjuj ghjbcöjéltybz b 35 ghjwtynjd lkz
fvthbrfycrbö byltqwtd b kfnbyjfvthbrfycrjuj yfctktybz. Hfpkbxbz djphfcnyjq cnhernehs vtéle hfcjdsvb b änybxtcrbvb uheggfvb jnhféfñn hfpybwe d
ehjdyt cvthnyjcnb, hjélftvjcnb, ghbnjrt bvvbu■
hfynjd b djphfcnt bvvbuhfynjd
Vfnthbfk dpzn bp dnjhjq ukfds ljrkflf ≤Vtyzñofzcz Fvthbrf: gjrfpfntkb cjwbfkmyjuj gjkjétybz b ärjyjvbxtcrjuj
åkfujcjcnjzybz gj hfcfv b gj ghjbcöjéltybñ bp cnhfy Kfnbycrjq Fvthbrb≥, jgeåkbrjdfyyjuj Cjdtnjv ärjyjvbxtcrbö
rjycekmnfynjd d hfvrfö ghtpbltyncrjq bybwbfnbds gj hfcjdsv ghjåktvfv, ctynzåhm 1998 u.
CIF: JÅOTCNDJ B WTYYJCNB / B ÑYM 1999 U .
12
GHJÅKTVS GTHTGBCB YFCTKTYBZ CIF
D BYAJHVFWBJYYSQ
DTR
ÅFHHB ÄLVJYCNJY
D 2000 u. Cjtlbytyyst Infns ghjdtlen
22-ñ gj cxtne gthtgbcm yfctktybz – yfxbyfz c 1790 u., gthtgbcm yfctktybz d CIF
ghjdjlbncz rfélst 10 ktn. Rjycnbnewbz
CIF ghtlecvfnhbdftn tt ghjdtltybt hfp d 10 ktn c
wtkmñ gththfcghtltktybz vtcn d Gfkfnt ghtlcnfdbntktq Rjyuhtccf CIF. Yf ghfrnbrt gthtgbcm yfctktybz ghtljcnfdkztn nfrét nfrét byajhvfwbñ lkz
jghtltktybz uhfybw bpåbhfntkmysö jrheujd gj dsåjhfv 435 xktyjd Rjyuhtccf CIF.
D
R
BCNJHBB DJGHJCF
C cfvjuj yfxfkf gthtgbcb yfctktybz CIF lfdfkb
ljgjkybntkmyeñ byajhvfwbñ j yfctktybb cnhfys
cdthö fåcjkñnyjuj vbybvevf, nhtåetvjuj lkz gththfcghtltktybz vtcn d Rjyuhtcct b jghtltktybz uhfybw bpåbhfntkmysö jrheujd gj dsåjhfv d Rjyuhtcc.
D öjlt gthtgbcb 1790 u. rféljq ctvmt pflfdfkcz djghjc j djphfcnt dctö tt xktyjd, gjkt b cntgtyb hjlcndf. D öjlt gthtgbcb 1820 u. d fyrtne åskb ljåfdktys djghjcs j cnhfyt ghjbcöjéltybz b pfyznjcnb d
hfpkbxysö jnhfckzö ärjyjvbrb. D gjcktleñobt gthtgbcb åskb drkñxtys djghjcs j hjlt pfyznbq,
ckeéåt d fhvbb, ljöjlfö, jåhfpjdfybb, f nfrét lheufz
dféyfz byajhvfwbz.
Htpekmnfns gthtgbcb, nfrbv jåhfpjv, bvtñn dféytqitt pyfxtybt yt njkmrj lkz gththfcghtltktybz
vtcn d Rjyuhtcct b jghtltktybb uhfybw bpåbhfntkmysö jrheujd, yj b lkz jhufybpfwbq b ljkéyjcnysö
kbw, ghbybvfñobö htitybz d hfpkbxysö jåkfcnzö –
åelm nj djghjcs jåotcndtyyjuj pyfxtybz, cdzpfyyst
cj plhfdjjöhfytybtv, jåhfpjdfybtv, nhfycgjhnysv
gkfybhjdfybtv b cjwbfkmysv jåckeébdfybtv, bkb
xfcnyjuj gjhzlrf, cdzpfyyst c hfpvtotybtv ghtlghbznbq, ébkmz, vfhrtnbyujv gjnhtåbntkmcrbö njdfhjd b hfphfåjnrjq ärjyjvbxtcrbö cnhfntubq.
Ybét hfccvfnhbdftncz bcnjhbxtcrjt jcyjdfybt gthtgbcb yfctktybz CIF, ghjdjlzotqcz hfp d 10 ktn,
jwtybdftncz pyfxtybt htpekmnfnjd gthtgbcb b jcdtofñncz ckjéyst ghjåktvs b djghjcs, djpybrfñobt
ghb ghjdtltybb gthtgbcb yfctktybz d cjdhtvtyysö
eckjdbzö.
WTKM
GTHTGBCB YFCTKTYBZ
CIF
Gthdjyfxfkmyj gthtgbcm yfctktybz Cjtlbytyysö
Infnjd ghjdjlbkfcm c wtkmñ gjkextybz lfyysö, ytjåöjlbvsö lkz gththfcghtltktybz vtcn d Gfkfnt
ghtlcnfdbntktq Rjyuhtccf CIF. Cnfnmz I Rjycnbnewbb CIF ghtlecvfnhbdftn jghtltktybt xbcktyyjcnb
yfctktybz cnhfys hfp d ltcznm ktn.
Yfxbyfz c gthtgbcb 1930 u., 435 vtcn d Gfkfnt
ghtlcnfdbntktq Rjyuhtccf CIF fdnjvfnbxtcrb gththfcghtltkzñncz gjckt gjkextybz htpekmnfnjd gjlcxtnf xbcktyyjcnb yfctktybz bp Åñhj gthtgbcb yfctktybz. Gththfcghtltktybt vtcn d Rjyuhtcct ghjbcöjlbn chfpe ét gjckt njuj, rfr vbybcnh njhujdkb ghtlcnfdkztn htpekmnfns gjlcxtnf xbcktyyjcnb yfctktybz
rféljuj infnf Ghtpbltyne. D Rjycnbnewbb CIF jujdfhbdftncz, xnj xbckj vtcn d Rjyuhtcct, pfybvftvsö
ghtlcnfdbntkzvb infnjd, ljkéyj njxyj cjjndtncndjdfnm xbcktyyjcnb yfctktybz rféljuj infnf.
Gjckt njuj, rfr rfélsq infn gjkexbn cdjt xbckj
vtcn d Rjyuhtcct, dyjdm jghtltkzñncz utjuhfabxtcrbt uhfybws bpåbhfntkmysö jrheujd gj dsåjhfv d
Rjyuhtcc. Rjyuhtcc nhtåetn, xnjås Åñhj gthtgbcb
yfctktybz ghtljcnfdkzkj cdjlyst nfåkbws ghjdjlbvjq hfp d 10 ktn gthtgbcb yfctktybz herjdjlcnde
infnjd lkz pfrjyjlfntkmyjuj gththfcghtltktybz
vtcn b jghtltktybz uhfybw bpåbhfntkmysö jrheujd
d ntxtybt jlyjuj ujlf gjckt 1 fghtkz, lfns pfdthitybz gthtgbcb.
CIF: JÅOTCNDJ B WTYYJCNB / B ÑYM 1999 U .
13
GHJWTCC
CJCNFDKTYBZ CDJLYSÖ NFÅKBW
Gthtgbcm yfctktybz yfxbyftncz c cjcnfdktybz httcnhf flhtcjd dctö uhfélfy cnhfys, xnj drkñxftn d
ctåz ckjéyst ghjwtlehs, yfghfdktyyst yf jåtcgtxtybt yfbåjktt gjkyjuj jödfnf yfctktybz. Yf rfélsq flhtc vtcnf ébntkmcndf dscskfñncz åkfyrb gthtgbcb dvtcnt c bycnherwbzvb j djpdhfnt gj gjxnt
pfgjkytyysö åkfyrjd. Jåsxyj yt dct uhfélfyt djpdhfofñn pfgjkytyyst åkfyrb d hfpevyst chjrb. D
cdzpb c änbv wtkfz fhvbz extnxbrjd gjctofñn nt flhtcf, jnrelf yt ghbitk jndtn yf ukfdyst djghjcs, rfcfñobtcz xbckf xktyjd ctvmb b bö jcyjdysö ltvjuhfabxtcrbö öfhfrnthbcnbr. Ghbkjébd nfrbv jåhfpjv pyfxbntkmyst ecbkbz, extnxbrb jghtltkzñn, ghjébdftn kb rnj-kbåj d lfyyjv ljvt bkb rdfhnbht, b
gjkexfñn jndtns yf jcyjdyst djghjcs. Änjn ghjwtcc
drkñxftn nfrét cgtwbfkmyst ghjuhfvvs gj jödfne
jghtltktyysö uhegg yfctktybz (yfghbvth, åtpljvysö kbw, kñltq, yföjlzoböcz d cgtwbfkmysö ktxtåysö exhtéltybzö, jåotébnbzö, rfpfhvfö, f nfrét
lheubö kñltq, yt ghjébdfñobö d cnfylfhnysö dblfö
ébkmz).
Gjckt jåjåotybz cdtltybq, cjlthéfoböcz d ghbckfyysö gj gjxnt jghjcybrfö, lfyysö, gjkextyysö
d htpekmnfnt hfåjns extnxbrjd b cgtwbfkmysö ecbkbq gj gjdsitybñ cntgtyb jödfnf yfctktybz, gjkexftncz jrjyxfntkmyfz wbahf xbcktyyjcnb yfctktybz
CIF.
LFYYST
GTHTGBCB
Jghjcybr, rjnjhsq gjkexbn d öjlt gthtgbcb 2000
ujlf åjkmibycndj ctvtq, ghtlcnfdkztn cjåjq nfr yfpsdftvsq ≤rjhjnrbq gthtxtym djghjcjd≥, rfcfñoböcz xktyjd ctvtq. Bcnjhbxtcrb ckjébkjcm nfr, xnj gjvbvj vbybvfkmyjuj yfåjhf djghjcjd, rfcfñoböcz
djphfcnf, gjkf b hfcjdjq ghbyflktéyjcnb, jndtns yf
rjnjhst ytjåöjlbvs lkz ghtlecvjnhtyyjuj Rjycnbnewbtq gththfcghtltktybz vtcn d Rjyuhtcct b jghtltktybz uhfybw bpåbhfntkmysö jrheujd, d öjlt gthtgbcb cjåbhfñncz b ljgjkybntkmyst lfyyst. Yfxbyfz c 1960 u., pyfxbntkmyfz xfcnm änbö ljgjkybntkmysö lfyysö dyjcbncz d cgtwbfkmysq åkfyr (bpdtcnysq gjl yfpdfybtv ≤lkbyyjuj gthtxyz djghjcjd≥),
rjnjhsq yfghfdkztncz ytrjnjhsv ctvmzv. Änb ljgjkybntkmyst lfyyst ibhjrj bcgjkmpeñncz d htitybb wtkjuj hzlf dféysö jåotcndtyysö pflfx.
Rhfnrbq gthtxtym djghjcjd, yfghfdkztvsq dctv
ctvmzv, cjlthébn 7 djghjcjd – itcnm bp ybö cdzpfys
c ltvjuhfabxtcrbvb gjrfpfntkzvb b jlby – c öfhfrnthbcnbrfvb ébkmz. D lkbyyjv gthtxyt cjlthéfncz
dct djghjcs bp rhfnrjuj djghjcybrf, f nfrét ljgjkybntkmyst djghjcs – dctuj 52 geyrnf.
Jåsxyj d ghjdjlbvjq hfp d 10 ktn gthtgbcb yfctktybz uhfélfyfv pflfñncz djghjcs j hfcjdjq b änybxtcrjq ghbyflktéyjcnb, öjnz ajhvf nfrbö djghjcjd xfcnj vtyzkfcm. Änb bpvtytybz dyjcbkbcm d cdzpb
c bpvtytybtv hfcjdjuj b änybxtcrjuj cjcnfdf yfctktybz, bpvtytybzvb cjwbfkmysö jnyjitybq, bp gjkbnbxtcrbö cjjåhfétybq, f nfrét d cdzpb c bpvtytybzvb gjnhtåyjcntq ghfdbntkmcndf CIF d cnfnbcnbxtcrbö lfyysö gj djghjcfv hfcjdjuj öfhfrnthf. Edtkbxtybt hfcjdjuj b änybxtcrjuj hfpyjjåhfpbz, bpvtytybt jnyjitybq r djghjcfv hfcjdjuj b änybxtcrjuj ghjbcöjéltybz, f nfrét gjdsitybt cghjcf yf
lfyyst gthtgbcb ecbkbkb dybvfybt r djghjcfv hfcjdjuj b änybxtcrjuj öfhfrnthf, f nfrét ghbdtkb r
djpybryjdtybñ yjdsö hfpyjukfcbq d änjq jåkfcnb.
D öjlt gthtgbcb 1990 u. uhfélfyfv pflfdfkcz djghjc j ghbyflktéyjcnb r jghtltktyyjq hfct – rfélsq xtkjdtr ljkéty åsk jghtltkbnm ctåz rfr ghbyflktéfotuj r åtkjq hfct, ytuhjblyjq hfct, fvthbrfycrbv byltqwfv, äcrbvjcfv, fktenfv, fpbfncrjq hfct bkb dsöjlwfv bp Jrtfybb, kbåj jnytcnb ctåz r
hfphzle ≤lheubt≥. Fvthbrfycrbt byltqws ljkéys åskb erfpfnm ghbyflktéyjcnm r rjyrhtnyjve gktvtyb.
Ghtlcnfdbntkb fpbfncrjq hfcs b dsöjlws bp Jrtfybb ljkéys åskb dsåhfnm cjjndtncndeñoeñ yfwbjyfkmyjcnm bp ghtlkfufditujcz gthtxyz. Yfhzle c
änbv djghjcjv j hfct, htcgjyltyns ljkéys åskb
jndtnbnm yf djghjc, bvtñn kb jyb bcgfycrbt bkb kfnbyjfvthbrfycrbt rjhyb, b d ckexft gjkjébntkmyjuj
jndtnf bltynbabwbhjdfnm ctåz c vtrcbrfywfvb, geähnjhbrfywfvb, reåbywfvb b lh.
D öjlt gthtgbcb 2000 ujlf yfctktybñ åelen pflfys
djghjcs jnyjcbntkmyj hfcjdjuj b kfnbyjfvthbrfycrjuj ghjbcöjéltybz, fyfkjubxyst djghjcfv, rjnjhst pflfdfkbcm d 1990 u., jlyfrj yf änjn hfp htcgjyltyns åelen bvtnm djpvjéyjcnm bltynbabwbhjdfnm
ctåz c åjktt, xtv jlyjq hfcjdjq uheggjq. D jnkbxbt
jn ghtlsleobö gthtgbctq, rjulf kñlb, bvtñobt
cvtifyyjt hfcjdjt ghjbcöjéltybt, ljkéys åskb
cnfdbnm ufkjxre d uhfat ≤lheubt≥, f pfntv dgbcsdfnm
gjzcytybt, d öjlt gthtgbcb 2000 u. åeltn cjåbhfnmcz
ghzvfz byajhvfwbz j ckfuftvsö cvtifyyjuj hfcjdjuj ghjbcöjéltybz jghfibdftvsö.
CIF: JÅOTCNDJ B WTYYJCNB / B ÑYM 1999 U .
14
YTGJKYJNF
JÖDFNF YFCTKTYBZ D ÖJLT
GTHTGBCB: GHJÅKTVF, GHBJÅHTNFÑOFZ
DCT ÅJKMIEÑ JCNHJNE
tcvjnhz yf nj, xnj gjkysq gjlcxtn xbcktyyjcnb yfctktybz CIF yt elfdfkjcm
cltkfnm ybrjulf, d gjcktlybt ujls jåotcndtyyjcnm cnfkf dscrfpsdfnm dct åjkmitt åtcgjrjqcndj gj gjdjle ytgjkyjns lfyysö –
jcjåtyyj gjnjve, xnj lfyyst gthtgbcb yfctktybz
cjcnfdkzñn tlbycndtyyeñ jcyjde lkz gththfcghtltktybz vtcn d Rjyuhtcct b ibhjrj bcgjkmpeñncz
ghb hfcghtltktybz abyfycjdsö htcehcjd ghfdbntkmcndf CIF. Åjktt cjdthityyst vtnjls cnfnbcnbxtcrbö b ltvjuhfabxtcrbö bccktljdfybq ctujlyz gjpdjkzñn Åñhj gthtgbcb yfctktybz jwtybdfnm ytgjkyjne cjåhfyysö lfyysö åjktt njxyj, xtv hfymit.
Jghtltktyyfz ytgjkyjnf lfyysö j yfctktybb öfhfrnthyf lkz gthtgbctq, ghjdjlzoböcz dj dctö cnhfyfö vbhf. D Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö ltvjuhfabxtcrbq
fyfkbp jödfnf yfctktybz gjrfpsdftn, xnj ytnnj-xbcktyyjcnm ytexntyysö kñltq (nj tcnm xbckj kñltq,
ghjgeotyysö d öjlt gthtgbcb, pf dsxtnjv pfdsitybz d gjlcxtnt) cjcnfdbkf 7 vbkkbjyjd d 1940 u.,
6,3 vbkkbjyf – d 1950 u., 5,6 vbkkbjyf – d 1960 u.,
5,5 vbkkbjyjd – d 1970 u., 2,8 vbkkbjyf – d 1980 u.
b 4,7 vbkkbjyf – d 1990 u. Ghjwtynyfz ljkz ytexntyysö uhfélfy gjcnjzyyj cybéfkfcm d gthbjl c 1940 u.
(5,4 ghjwtynf) lj 1980 u. (1,2 ghjwtynf), b djphjckf
d 1990 u. (lj 1,8 ghjwtynf).
D htpekmnfnt ltvjuhfabxtcrjuj fyfkbpf, ghjdtltyyjuj d 1990 u., gjxnb ldt nhtnb ytnnj-xbcktyyjcnb
ytexntyysö uhfélfy cjcnfdkzkb ghtlcnfdbntkb ytxthyjuj yfctktybz (d jcyjdyjv kñlb c åtksv wdtnjv rjéb). Vtéle ntv, ljkz ytexntyysö uhfélfy åskf d xtnsht hfpf dsit chtlb xthyjrjétuj yfctktybz
(5,7 ghjwtynf), xtv chtlb ytxthyjuj yfctktybz
(1,3 ghjwtynf).
D öjlt cgtwbfkmyjuj bccktljdfybz, ghjdtltyyjuj
d 1990 u., jåyfheébkjcm, xnj ytnnj-ljkb ytexntyysö
uhfélfy chtlb lheubö hfcjdsö b änybxtcrbö vtymibycnd nfrét dsit. Dthjznytt dctuj, ytljextn uhegg
yfctktybz, cjcnjzobö bp kñltq fpbfncrjuj b kfnbyjfvthbrfycrjuj ghjbcöjéltybz, bvtk vtcnj d htpekmnfnt yfkbxbz d änbö uheggfö jnyjcbntkmyj åjkmijuj xbckf kñltq, hjlbdiböcz pf ghtltkfvb Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd. Bvvbuhfyns vjukb yt gjyznm, rfr
ghjdjlbncz gthtgbcm b rfr yeéyj jndtxfnm yf djghjcs.
Y
Gjkbnbrb b pfbynthtcjdfyyst rheub d wtkjv cjukfcys c ntvb bpvtytybzvb, rjnjhst Åñhj gthtgbcb
yfctktybz ghtlkfuftn dytcnb d gthtgbcm 2000 ujlf.
Jghjcybrb, rjnjhst åelen hfccskfnmcz d öjlt gthtgbcb, åelen ghjot b gjyznytt cajhvekbhjdfys. D
jghjcybrfö åeltn åjkmit bcgjkmpjdfnmcz wdtnyfz gtxfnm lkz njuj, xnjås dsltkbnm rjyrhtnyst vtcnf, relf htcgjyltyns ljkéys åelen dgbcfnm jndtns yf djghjcs. Åjktt njuj, åelen cajhvbhjdfys yjdst gfhnythcrbt jnyjitybz c vtcnysvb ujhjlcrbvb dkfcnzvb, f nfrét dkfcnzvb jrheujd b infnjd. D rféljv
infnt åeltn cajhvbhjdfy rjvbntn gj jåtcgtxtybñ
gjkyjuj jödfnf, rjnjhsq d cjnhelybxtcndt c Åñhj
gthtgbcb åeltn cnhtvbnmcz ljytcnb lj dctö exhtéltybq infnf zcyjt gjybvfybt njuj, xnj dktxtn pf cjåjq gjkysq jödfn yfctktybz gthtgbcmñ. Rhjvt njuj,
Åñhj gthtgbcb yfctktybz CIF yfvthtyj bphfcöjljdfnm 100 vbkkbjyjd ljkkfhjd yf gkfnyeñ htrkfve,
yfghfdktyyeñ yf ghbdktxtybt åjktt ibhjrjuj exfcnbz jåotcndtyyjcnb d gjlujnjdrt cdjlysö nfåkbw.
jdjkmyj kñåjgsnyst gfhnythcrbt jnyjitybz ecnfyfdkbdfñncz cj cneltynfvb
b ghtgjlfdfntkzvb CIF. Åñhj gthtgbcb
yfctktybz hfccskftn åtcgkfnyst extåyst vfnthbfks gjl yfpdfybtv ≤Lkz xtuj yeéyf gthtgbcm 2000 ujlf≥ d ltcznrb nsczx jåotcndtyysö b xfcnysö yfxfkmysö b chtlybö irjk yf
dctq nthhbnjhbb Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd. Wtkm änjq
ghjuhfvvs cjcnjbn d njv, xnjås xthtp exfoböcz
cnbvekbhjdfnm ctvmb jnrkbryenmcz yf ghjcmåe jndtnbnm yf djghjcs jghjcybrjd, hfccskftvsö d öjlt
gthtgbcb. Jcjåjt dybvfybt åeltn eltkznmcz ntv hfqjyfv, ult ehjdtym cåjhf lfyysö d öjlt gthtgbcb
nhflbwbjyyj ybpjr.
Yf ghfrnbrt Åñhj gthtgbcb yfctktybz yt cvjétn
ljåbnmcz ecgtöf d htitybb cnjzobö gthtl ybv pflfx
åtp ibhjrjq gjllthérb b exfcnbz cj cnjhjys yfctktybz CIF. D öjlt änjq rfvgfybb ytjåöjlbvj åeltn
cjplfnm gfhnythcrbt jnyjitybz c flvbybcnhfwbzvb
infnjd b vtcnysvb jhufyfvb dkfcnb. Jlyf bp rjyrhtnysö pflfx, rjnjheñ ghtlcnjbn htibnm d wtkzö
gjdsitybz ehjdyz cjnhelybxtcndf vtéle Åñhj gthtgbcb yfctktybz b vtcnysvb dkfcnzvb, cjcnjbn d
njv, xnjås cjukfcjdfnm jåotyfwbjyfkmysq flhtcysq httcnh lkz jxthtlyjq gthtgbcb, gjcrjkmre ghbxbyjq ghbvthyj gjkjdbys ytexntyysö lfyysö ckeéfn ghjgeotyyst flhtcf. Yjdst vtnjls gjpdjkzñn
yfltznmcz yf cjrhfotybt jåütvf ghjgeotyysö flhtcjd, xnj d cdjñ jxthtlm lfcn djpvjéyjcnm cjrhfnbnm
xbcktyyjcnm ytexntyysö uhfélfy.
L
CIF: JÅOTCNDJ B WTYYJCNB / B ÑYM 1999 U .
15
RJYTXYST
GJKMPJDFNTKB LFYYSÖ,
GJKEXTYYSÖ D ÖJLT GTHTGBCB
Gthtgbcm yfctktybz pfybvftn eybrfkmyjt vtcnj
chtlb lheubö cnfnbcnbxtcrbö ghjuhfvv, ghjdjlbvsö
ghfdbntkmcndjv CIF, gjnjve xnj jyf jåtcgtxbdftn
ljcnfnjxyj dscjreñ cntgtym njxyjcnb lfét lkz ytåjkmibö utjuhfabxtcrbö hfqjyjd b gjluhegg yfctktybz. Ghfdbntkmcndj ghjbpdjlbn nfrét cåjh byajhvfwbb yf åfpt flvbybcnhfnbdysö fhöbdjd b cgtwbfkmysö jåcktljdfybq, yj njkmrj gthtgbcm yfctktybz
jåtcgtxbdftn gjkextybt ibhjrjuj cgtrnhf byajhvfwbjyysö lfyysö jåj dctv yfctktybb, rjnjhst vjuen jåhfåfnsdfnmcz d hfphtpt åjktt vtkrbö utjuhfabxtcrbö hfqjyjd b uhegg yfctktybz.
Lfyysvb, cjåhfyysvb d öjlt gthtgbcb yfctktybz,
ibhjrj gjkmpetncz atlthfkmyjt ghfdbntkmcndj, flvbybcnhfwbb infnjd b vtcnyst jhufys dkfcnb, f nfrét nfrbt äktvtyns xfcnyjuj ctrnjhf, rfr yfexyjt b
ltkjdjt cjjåotcndj. Yfxbyfz c 1970 u., rjulf htpekmnfns gthtgbcb cnfkb ljcnegysvb d ajhvt rjvgmñnthysö åfp lfyysö, vfcinfås bcgjkmpjdfybz änbö
lfyysö ibhjrbv cgtrnhjv gjkmpjdfntktq lkz htitybz wtkjuj hzlf pflfx htprj djphjckb.
cnherneht fvthbrfycrjq cnfnbcnbrb lfyyst gthtgbcb yfctktybz dsgjkyzñn jxtym
dféyst aeyrwbb. Nfr, jyb bcgjkmpeñncz
ghb cjcnfdktybb hfcxtnjd lkz hfphfåjnrb
ghjuhfvv b ghfdbntkmcndtyysö jnxtnjd (yfghbvth,
Ckeéåf bvvbuhfwbb b yfnehfkbpfwbb jgbhftncz yf
lfyyst gthtgbcb d jnyjitybb xbcktyyjcnb ébntktq
CIF, hjlbdiböcz pf heåtéjv, d cdjbö jnxtnfö, pfghfibdftvsö Rjyuhtccjv); ghb hfcxtnt dféytqibö
cnfnbcnbxtcrbö gjrfpfntktq (yfghbvth, hjélftvjcnb
b cvthnyjcnb), rjnjhst bcgjkmpeñncz, d xfcnyjcnb,
jhufyfvb plhfdjjöhfytybz d wtkzö vjybnjhbyuf cjcnjzybz pljhjdmz yfctktybz CIF; ghb cjcnfdktybb
byajhvfwbjyysö cdjljr j hfcghtltktybb yfctktybz gj djphfcne, gjke b hfcjdjq ghbyflktéyjcnb,
xnj gjcnjzyyj ytjåöjlbvj lkz jghtltktybz dtcjd
hfpkbxysö dsåjhjxysö jghjcjd – lheubvb ckjdfvb,
lkz jghtltktybz c vfrcbvfkmyj djpvjéyjq njxyjcnmñ ntreotuj cjcnfdf yfctktybz. Xnj ét rfcftncz flvbybcnhfwbq infnjd b vtcnysö jhufyjd dkfcnb, nj
jyb bcgjkmpeñn äne byajhvfwbñ lkz dszdktybz ntö
kbw b uhegg yfctktybz, rjnjhst yeélfñncz d rjyrhtnysö eckeufö, f nfrét lkz hfcghtltktybz cbk b
chtlcnd d wtkzö yfbåjktt äaatrnbdyjuj jåckeébdfybz yfctktybz.
D
Cnfnbcnbxtcrbt lfyyst, gjkexftvst d öjlt gthtgbcb, bvtñn dféytqitt pyfxtybt b lkz xfcnyjuj ctrnjhf. Rjvvthxtcrbt cnhernehs, eybdthcbntns b lheubt bccktljdfntkmcrbt exhtéltybz, ytrjvvthxtcrbt
jhufybpfwbb, chtlcndf vfccjdjq byajhvfwbb, extyst b jnltkmyst uhfélfyt yföjlzn dféyjt ghbvtytybt änbv lfyysv, jcjåtyyj d cjxtnfybb c lfyysvb,
gjkextyysvb d öjlt cjåcndtyysö bccktljdfybq.
Rjhgjhfwbb xfcnj ghbybvfñn dféyst htitybz gj
djghjcfv vfhrtnbyuf b ghjlfé yf jcyjdt cnfnbcnbxtcrbö lfyysö j yfctktybb. Bccktljdfntkmcrbt jhufybpfwbb bcgjkmpeñn lfyyst gthtgbcb lkz bpextybz
djghjcjd, rjnjhst xfcnj dkbzñn yf cjwbfkmyj-ärjyjvbxtcreñ gjkbnbre – yfghbvth, lkz yfåkñltybz
pf hjcnjv ehjdyz jåhfpjdfybz d wtkzö gjkextybz åjktt njxysö lfyysö j gjnhtåyjcnzö d ghjuhfvvfö
jåextybz xntybñ dphjckjuj yfctktybz. F chtlcndf
vfccjdjq byajhvfwbb bcgjkmpeñn änb lfyyst lkz
njuj, xnjås byajhvbhjdfnm jåotcndtyyjcnm j cfvsö
hfpysö dtofö – yfghbvth, jå bpvtytybzö d cjcnfdt
yfctktybz b pfdbcbvjcnb nfrbö bpvtytybq jn ghjwtccf vbuhfwbb.
Vjéyj cltkfnm dsdjl j njv, xnj Cjtlbytyyst
Infns yt cvjuen ljkéysv jåhfpjv äaatrnbdyj
aeyrwbjybhjdfnm, tckb hfp d 10 ktn d cnhfyt yt åeltn
ghjdjlbnmcz gthtgbcm yfctktybz. Nfr åskj d ntxtybt
gjcktlybö ldeö cnjktnbq, b änj ytcjvytyyj åeltn
■
cghfdtlkbdj b d uhzleotv nsczxtktnbb.
Åfhhb Älvjycnjy, yfxfkmybr Wtynhf bccktljdfybq ghjåktv
yfhjljyfctktybz b gthtgbcb yfctktybz ghb Gjhnktylcrjv
eybdthcbntnt, infn Jhtujy, fdnjh ytlfdyj ghjdtltyyjuj
bccktljdfybz d jåkfcnb gthtgbcb yfctktybz gj pfrfpe Åñhj
gj bccktljdfybñ ghjåktv yfhjljyfctktybz d u. Dfibyunjyt.
CIF: JÅOTCNDJ B WTYYJCNB / B ÑYM 1999 U .
16
LTÅFNS D
CJTLBYTYYSÖ
INFNFÖ
GJ DJGHJCFV
BVVBUHFWBB
LFAYF CGÄQY
Yf ghjnzétybb gjcktlybö ldeö ltcznbktnbq vfcinfås bvvbuhfwbb d Cjtlbytyyst Infns åskb yfcnjkmrj dtkbrb, xnj, yfdthyjt, änj cnjktnbt pfrjyxbncz ntv ét, xtv jyj yfxfkjcm, nj tcnm ltåfnfvb j
njv, rfrjt vtcnj djjåot ljkéys pfybvfnm bvvbuhfyns d fvthbrfycrjv jåotcndt.
Cktletn kb gjlxthrbdfnm rekmnehyst hfpkbxbz bkb
cnfhfnmcz ybdtkbhjdfnm bö? Yeéyj kb cnbhfnm änybxtcrbt b hfcjdst uhfybws gentv fccbvbkzwbb bvvbuhfynjd, hfpvsdfz hfpkbxbz b cnhtvzcm r cjcnjzybñ, jåhfpeñotvecz d gkfdbkmyjv rjnkt, bkb kexit
gjllthébdfnm hfcjdst b änybxtcrbt hfpkbxbz c wtkmñ ajhvbhjdfybz åjktt cbkmyjuj gkñhfkbcnbxtcrjuj jåotcndf?
Jåt änb njxrb phtybz gjkmpeñncz ljdjkmyj ibhjrjq gjllthérjq. D jghjct yfctktybz cnhfys, ghjdtltyyjv d 1994 ujle Yfwbjyfkmysv wtynhjv gj bccktljdfybñ jåotcndtyyjuj vytybz, jnvtxfkjcm cktleñott: ≤Jlyb kñlb cxbnfñn, xnj cjöhfytybt hfcjdsvb b änybxtcrbvb uheggfvb cdjbö cgtwbabxtcrbö
rekmnehysö jnkbxbq gjqltn yf gjkmpe Fvthbrt. Lheubt dscrfpsdfñncz d gjkmpe fccbvbkzwbb hfpkbxysö
uhegg c ntv, xnjås bö cvtibdfybt d vfcinfåfö dctuj
jåotcndf dtkj r htfkbpfwbb rjywtgwbb gkfdbkmyjuj
rjnkf≥. Jghfibdftvst ljkéys åskb erfpfnm cdjt
vytybt gj änbv djghjcfv, gjkmpezcm cgtwbfkmyjq
irfkjq, rjnjhfz yfxbyfkfcm c geyrnf ≤cjöhfytybt
rekmnehyjq cgtwbabrb≥ (nj tcnm gkñhfkbpv) b pfrfyxbdfkfcm geyrnjv ≤cvtibdfybt d vfcinfåfö dctuj
jåotcndf≥ (nj tcnm fccbvbkzwbz). Htpekmnfns jghjcf
gjrfpfkb, xnj ghbvthyj nhtnm fvthbrfywtd cxbnfñn
gkñhfkbpv kexibv gentv hfpdbnbz, lheufz nhtnm dscrfpfkfcm pf fccbvbkzwbñ, f vytybz jcnfkmysö hfcgjkjébkbcm vtéle änbvb ldevz gjpbwbzvb.
D yfcnjzotq cnfnmt jgbcsdfñncz gjcktlybt ntyltywbb, cdzpfyyst c bvvbuhfwbtq d Cjtlbytyyst
Infns. Jåceélfñncz ltvjuhfabxtcrbt, cjwbfkmyjärjyjvbxtcrbt, rekmnehyst b gjkbnbxtcrbt gjcktlcndbz dscjrjuj ehjdyz bvvbuhfwbb lkz fvthbrfycrjuj jåotcndf, f nfrét yjdst ghjåktvs, rjnjhst
élen yfc d cktleñotv cnjktnbb.
Bvvbuhfwbz ghtlcnfdkztn cjåjq cdjtuj hjlf ägbkju bcnjhbb Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd 20-juj dtrf. D ntxtybt gthdjuj ltcznbktnbz yfituj dtrf d CIF
tétujlyj ghbåsdfkj cdsit 1 vky bvvbuhfynjd, b
nfrjq ét jåütv tétujlyjq bvvbuhfwbb yfåkñlftncz
b d ntxtybt gjcktlytuj ltcznbktnbz. (D gthbjl c
1915 gj 1965 ujls ehjdtym bvvbuhfwbb åsk jnyjcbntkmyj ybprbv jnxfcnb bp-pf ärjyjvbxtcrjq ltghtccbb rjywf 20-ö – yfxfkf 30-ö ujljd, f nfrét d htpekmnfnt ghbyznbz hfpkbxysö juhfybxbntkmysö pfrjyjd).
Ctujlyz bvvbuhfyns ghbåsdfñn d CIF yt bp ntö
cnhfy, bp rjnjhsö itk gjnjr bvvbuhfwbb d yfxfkt
20-uj dtrf, b gjctkzñncz jyb d cfvsö hfpysö fvthbrfycrbö ujhjlfö. Ntv yt vtytt, bvvbuhfwbz pfcnfdkztn dyjdm gjlybvfnm ytrjnjhst bp ntö djghjcjd, rjnjhst cnjzkb yf gjdtcnrt lyz cnj ktn yfpfl.
D jgeåkbrjdfyyjv d 1994 u. ljrkflt Åñhj ltvjuhfabxtcrjq cnfnbcnbrb ≤Bvvbuhfwbz d Cjtlbytyyst
Infns: gentitcndbt r ytjghtltktyyjq wtkb≥ (fdnjhs Abkbg Vfhnby b Äkbpfåtn Vblékb) erfpsdfñncz
nhb ghbxbys, cltkfdibö bvvbuhfwbñ ghtlvtnjv ltåfnjd d 90-ö ujlfö. Dj-gthdsö, xbckj bvvbuhfynjd
djphfcnftn, gj chfdytybñ c ybpitq njxrjq, rjnjhfz
yfåkñlfkfcm d 40-ö ujlfö. Dj-dnjhsö, ctujlyziybt
bvvbuhfyns pyfxbntkmyj jnkbxfñncz jn fvthbrfywtd, hjlbdiböcz d CIF, c njxrb phtybz bö änybxtcrjuj ghjbcöjéltybz, ehjdyz jåhfpjdfybz b ghjatccbjyfkmysö yfdsrjd. D-nhtnmbö, yt ceotcndetn gjkb-
CIF: JÅOTCNDJ B WTYYJCNB / B ÑYM 1999 U .
17
nbxtcrjuj rjyctycecf d djghjct j njv, ckeéfn kb bvvbuhfyns åkfujv bkb åhtvtytv lkz fvthbrfycrjuj
jåotcndf. B öjnz jåott cjwbjkjubxtcrjt bccktljdfybt, ghjdtltyyjt d 1994 u., dszdbkj, xnj d wtkjv
fvthbrfycrjt jåotcndj nthgbvj jnyjcbncz r bvvbuhfwbb, jyj gjrfpfkj nfrét, xnj, gj vytybñ 60
ghjwtynjd fvthbrfywtd, ysytiybq jåütv bvvbuhfwbb ljkéty åsnm cjrhfoty. Ytcrjkmrj åjkmifz ljkz
htcgjyltynjd (jrjkj ldeö nhtntq) cxbnfñn, xnj ljgjkybntkmyfz bvvbuhfwbz eckjéybn pflfxe gjllthéfybz tlbycndf cnhfys. Gj vytybñ fvthbrfywtd,
bvvbuhfwbz dhzl kb gjvjétn ecrjhbnm ntvgs ärjyjvbxtcrjuj hjcnf, ghb änjv 80 ghjwtynjd jghjityysö cxbnfñn, xnj gjdsitybt ehjdyz bvvbuhfwbb dktxtn pf cjåjq gjdsitybt ehjdyz åtphfåjnbws
(öjnz jyb b yt åjzncz, xnj bvvbuhfwbz gjcnfdbn gjl
euhjpe bö cjåcndtyyst hfåjxbt vtcnf).
LTVJUHFABXTCRBT
NTYLTYWBB
D gthbjl c 1905 gj 1914 ujls d Cjtlbytyyst
Infns tétujlyj ghbåsdfkj jrjkj vbkkbjyf bvvbuhfynjd, d jcyjdyjv vjhcrbv gentv. D ysytiytv ltcznbktnbb, yfxbyfz c 1992 u., d Fvthbre tétujlyj
ghbåsdfkj cnjkmrj ét bvvbuhfynjd, c njq njkmrj
hfpybwtq, xnj jyb gjkmpeñncz ctujlyz yfptvysv,
vjhcrbv b djpleiysv nhfycgjhnjv.
B d yfxfkt, b d rjywt yfituj dtrf ehjdtym bvvbuhfwbb åsk jlbyfrjdj dscjr, jlyfrj d ctujlyziybö
eckjdbzö bvvbuhfwbz jrfpsdftn lheujt djpltqcndbt
yf cnhernehe yfctktybz CIF, gjnjve xnj tuj xbcktyyjcnm c ntö gjh pyfxbntkmyj edtkbxbkfcm. D yfxfkt
20-uj dtrf hjlbdibtcz pf heåtéjv fvthbrfyws cjcnfdkzkb gjxnb 15 ghjwtynjd dctuj yfctktybz cnhfys, gj chfdytybñ c 9 ghjwtynfvb ctujlyz, ujdjhbncz d ljrkflt Vfhnbyf b Vblékb, f nfrét d cnfnmt
≤Cjtlbytyyst Infns d cthtlbyt ltcznbktnbz≥ (fdnjh – Rähjk Lé. Lt Dbnf), jgeåkbrjdfyyjq d 1996 u.
d ≤Ltvjuhfabxtcrjv åñkktntyt≥.
Bvvbuhfyns yfxfkf b rjywf cnjktnbz hfpkbxfñncz
ghtélt dctuj gj njve, bp rfrbö cnhfy jyb ghbåsdfkb. D gthdst ujls 20-uj dtrf åjkmibycndj bvvbuhfynjd ghbåsdfkb bp Bnfkbb, Fdcnhj-Dtyuhbb, Hjccbb, Rfyfls b Fyukbb. D 19-v dtrt bp Tdhjgs vjhcrbv gentv ghbåsdfkj cnjkmrj bvvbuhfynjd, xnj
ghfdbntkmcndj CIF lj 1908 u. lfét yt exbnsdfkj
ntö, rnj ghbtpéfk d Cjtlbytyyst Infns ceöjgenysv gentv bp Vtrcbrb b Rfyfls. D 20-ö ujlfö Vtrcbrf cnfkf rhegysv gjcnfdobrjv bvvbuhfynjd d
CIF, f ctujlyz bp änjq cnhfys d CIF ghbåsdftn yf-
båjkmitt xbckj bvvbuhfynjd. Ctujlyz gjckt Vtrcbrb cfvsvb rhegysvb gjcnfdobrfvb bvvbuhfynjd
cnfkb Abkbggbys, Rbnfq b Bylbz.
Ujhjl Ymñ-Qjhr åsk bpkñåktyysv vtcnjv ghbåsnbz tdhjgtqcrbö bvvbuhfynjd, rjnjhst dscfébdfkbcm yf åthtu jcnhjdf Äkkbc d 1910 ujle, rjulf
jrjkj 40 ghjwtynjd yfctktybz ujhjlf cjcnfdkzkb
kñlb, hjlbdibtcz pf ghtltkfvb CIF. Ctujlyz, rjulf
cnhfys Wtynhfkmyjq Fvthbrb b Fpbb cnfkb rhegysvb bcnjxybrfvb bvvbuhfwbb, gthdjt vtcnj c YmñQjhrjv ltkbn d änjv cgbcrt Kjc-Fylétktc. D gthbjl
c 1991 gj 1996 uu. d rfélsq bp änbö ujhjljd ghbåskj 600 nsc. bvvbuhfynjd. Ctujlyz rfélsq gznsq bvvbuhfyn ghbåsdftn d jlby bp änbö ldeö ujhjljd. Gj
gjgekzhyjcnb chtlb bvvbuhfynjd yf dnjhjv vtcnt
yföjlzncz Xbrfuj b Vfqfvb. C 1991 gj 1996 uu. d
rfélsq bp änbö ujhjljd ghbåskj gj 200 nsc. bvvbuhfynjd. Åjcnjy b Cfy-Ahfywbcrj, relf d yfxfkt dtrf
ghbåsdfkj åjkmijt xbckj bvvbuhfynjd, gj-ghtéytve yföjlzncz d cgbcrt 12 yfbåjktt gjgekzhysö chtlb bvvbuhfynjd ujhjljd.
D ujls, rjulf bvvbuhfyns ghbåsdfkb d jcyjdyjv
bp Tdhjgs, jyb ctkbkbcm d ctdthj-djcnjxysö b chtlyt-pfgflysö infnfö CIF. Ctujlyz, rjulf åjkmijt
xbckj bvvbuhfynjd ghbåsdftn bp cnhfy Wtynhfkmyjq Fvthbrb b Fpbb, jyb ghtlgjxbnfñn ctkbnmcz yf
pfgflt b ñuj-pfgflt cnhfys. Nfrbv jåhfpjv, bvvbuhfyns gjdnjhzñn vbuhfwbjyyst vfhihens, ghjkjétyyst ehjéltyysvb fvthbrfywfvb, b ntv cfvsv
hfccnfdkzñn jnxtnkbdst htubjyfkmyst frwtyns d ltåfnfö vtéle cnjhjyybrfvb fccbvbkzwbb b gkñhfkbpvf.
CJWBFKMYJ-ÄRJYJVBXTCRBQ
CNFNEC
Nhtvz jcyjdysvb bylbrfnjhfvb cjwbfkmyj-ärjyjvbxtcrjuj cnfnecf xtkjdtrf d CIF dscnegfñn jåhfpjdfybt, hjl pfyznbq b ehjdtym ljöjlf. D gjkyjcnmñ fccbvbkbhjdfyyjv jåotcndt kñlb, ghbåsdibt
bp hfpysö cnhfy, ljkéys kbim ytpyfxbntkmyj hfpkbxfnmcz gj änbv gjrfpfntkzv vtéle cjåjq. Vjéyj
nfrét jéblfnm cjrhfotybz nfrbö hfpkbxbq gj vtht
edtkbxtybz chjrf ghtåsdfybz bvvbuhfynjd d yfitq
cnhfyt. Jnxfcnb änb ghtlgjkjétybz gjlndthélfñncz
lfyysvb gthtgbcb yfctktybz 1990 ujlf. Ehjdtym ljöjlf åjktt lfdybö bvvbuhfynjd ghtdsiftn ehjdtym
ljöjlf e bvvbuhfynjd åjktt gjplytq djkys, b jyb
xfot pfybvfñn ljkéyjcnb vtytléthjd b cgtwbfkbcnjd-ghjatccbjyfkjd. Ntv yt vtytt, bvvbuhfyns gjcktlytq djkys xfot bvtñn dscitt jåhfpjdfybt,
xtv bvvbuhfyns ghtlitcndeñotuj gthbjlf b ehjéltyyst fvthbrfyws.
CIF: JÅOTCNDJ B WTYYJCNB / B ÑYM 1999 U .
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D 1990 u. chtlybq ljöjl ctvmb bvvbuhfynjd, ghbåsdibö d Cjtlbytyyst Infns lj 1980 u., cjcnfdkzk
35700 ljkkfhjd d ujl, nj tcnm ghbvthyj cnjkmrj ét,
crjkmrj chtlybq ljöjl ctvmb fvthbrfywtd, hjlbdiböcz d Fvthbrt. Vtéle ntv, chtlytujljdjq ljöjl
ctvmb bvvbuhfynjd, ghbåsdibö d Fvthbre gjckt
1980 u., cjcnfdkzk d 1990 u kbim 24600 ljkkfhjd. Chtlb bvvbuhfynjd gjcktlytq djkys d ldf hfpf åjkmit
vfkjbveobö kñltq (23 ghjwtynf), xtv chtlb bvvbuhfynjd ghtlsleotuj gthbjlf (11 ghjwtynjd) b fvthbrfywtd, hjlbdiböcz d Fvthbrt (10 ghjwtynjd).
Änb gjrfpfntkb ärjyjvbxtcrjuj åkfujcjcnjzybz jnhféfñn hfpybwe d cnherneht pfyznjcnb. Xtndthnm
dphjcksö bvvbuhfynjd, ghbåsdibö d CIF lj 1980
u., pfybvfkb herjdjlzobt ljkéyjcnb b ljkéyjcnb
cgtwbfkbcnjd c dscibv jåhfpjdfybtv, xnj ghbvthyj cjjndtncndetn fyfkjubxyjq ljkt chtlb fvthbrfywtd, hjlbdiböcz d Fvthbrt. Lkz chfdytybz, kbim 17
ghjwtynjd bvvbuhfynjd d nheljcgjcjåyjv djphfcnt,
ghbåsdibö gjckt 1980 u, pfybvfkb gjljåyst ljkéyjcnb. Ljkz bvvbuhfynjd, pfybvfñoböcz bylbdblefkmyjq nheljdjq ltzntkmyjcnmñ (13 ghjwtynjd),
ghbvthyj cjjndtncndetn bö ljkt chtlb ehjéltyysö
fvthbrfywtd. Yt cjdgflftn kbim jåhfpjdfntkmysq
ehjdtym. Ghbvthyj rfélsq xtndthnsq bvvbuhfyn
gjcktlytq djkys d 1990 u. bvtk lbgkjv jå jrjyxfybb rjkktléf, d nj dhtvz rfr chtlb bvvbuhfynjd
ghtlitcndeñotuj gthbjlf b ehjéltyysö fvthbrfywtd nfrjq lbgkjv bvtk kbim rfélsq gznsq – gj
lfyysv Vfhnbyf b Vblékb, f nfrét lheujq uheggs
bccktljdfntktq – Åfhhb Xbpebrf b Nthtps F. Cfkkbdfy, xmb htpekmnfns jåcktljdfybz yjdsö bvvbuhfynjd d 1995 ujle åskb jgeåkbrjdfys d rybut ≤J gjkjétybb d cnhfyt: Fvthbrf d 90-ö ujlfö≥ (gjl htlfrwbtq Htqyjkmlcf Afhkb).
REKMNEHYSQ
DRKFL
Htkbubz, zpsr, reöyz b nhflbwbjyyst ghfplybrb –
djn jcyjdyst äktvtyns ghbyflktéyjcnb r njq bkb
byjq rekmneht. Vyjubt rhegyst ujhjlf Fvthbrb ntgthm yfhzle c öhbcnbfycrbvb wthrdzvb b cbyfujufvb erhfifñn b vtxtnb. Dsdtcrb, ukfczobt j ghjdtltybb htkbubjpysö ckeéå yf ldeö bkb åjktt zpsrfö,
cnfkb ghbdsxysvb dj vyjubö yfctktyysö geyrnfö
CIF, gjcrjkmre vyjubt öhfvs ghtljcnfdkzñn cdjb
gjvtotybz htkbubjpysv jåobyfv yjdsö bvvbuhfynjd gjrf jyb yt cjplflen cdjb cjåcndtyyst. Vyjétcndj byjcnhfyysö zpsrjd, ghbdytctyysö bvvbuhfynfvb, c jlyjq cnjhjys, cjplfkj ljgjkybntkmyeñ
yfuhepre lkz hzlf hfqjyysö irjkmysö cbcntv, f c
lheujq – jåjufnbkj exfoböcz pyfybtv ytpfgflyjq
kbnthfnehs b bcreccndf.
Bvvbuhfyns jåjufnbkb b ufcnhjyjvbxtcreñ rekmnehe Fvthbrb, jnrhsd htcnjhfys b ghjljdjkmcndtyyst vfufpbys, rjnjhst jåckeébdfñn rfr bvvbuhfynjd, nfr b ehjéltyysö fvthbrfywtd. Nfr, yfghbvth, d
u. Dfibyunjyt ghjébdftn pyfxbntkmyjt dmtnyfvcrjt,
rjhtqcrjt b äabjgcrjt yfctktybt, yfwbjyfkmyfz
reöyz rjnjhsö cnfkf bynthtcysv ljåfdktybtv r nhflbwbjyyjq reöyt fvthbrfywtd. Xbyrj lt Vfqj b rbnfqcrbq Yjdsq ujl ibhjrj ghfplyeñncz gj dctq
cnhfyt. Cjplfybt vfksö ghtlghbznbq b bydtcnbwbb
d ≤cgzobt≥ hsyrb ébkmz d vfhubyfkmysö hfqjyfö –
djn ldf yfghfdktybz, yf rjnjhsö bvvbuhfyns gjvjufñn djphjélfnm ébpym d fvthbrfycrbö ujhjlfö.
Xnj ét rfcftncz ghtlgjxntybq d jnyjitybb fccbvbkzwbb bkb gkñhfkbpvf, nj yf änjn cxtn chtlb bvvbuhfynjd dscrfpsdfñncz cfvst hfpyst vytybz. D
bltfkmyjv ckexft jåt änb rjywtgwbb ljkéys cjceotcndjdfnm, lfdfz djpvjéyjcnm dyjdm ghbåsdibv
bvvbuhfynfv ghjljkéfnm ne rekmnehyeñ ghfrnbre,
r rjnjhjq jyb ghbdsrkb e ctåz yf hjlbyt, b d nj ét
dhtvz ghjlernbdyj exfcndjdfnm d ärjyjvbxtcrjq
ébpyb fvthbrfycrjuj jåotcndf.
EXFCNBT
D GJKBNBXTCRJQ ÉBPYB
Bvvbuhfyns htét exfcndeñn d dsåjhfö, xtv ehjéltyyst fvthbrfyws, gjnjve xnj vyjubt bp ybö tot
yt cnfkb gjkyjghfdysvb uhfélfyfvb CIF d htpekmnfnt ghjwtccf yfnehfkbpfwbb. Dyjdm ghbåsdibt bvvbuhfyns d djphfcnt cnfhit 18 ktn vjuen gjkexbnm
fvthbrfycrjt uhfélfycndj, tckb jyb yf ktufkmysö
jcyjdfybzö ghjébkb d CIF gznm ktn, evtñn xbnfnm,
gbcfnm b ujdjhbnm gj-fyukbqcrb, bvtñn jghtltktyyst pyfybz gj bcnjhbb b cbcntvt ujcelfhcndtyyjuj
eghfdktybz CIF b tckb bö vjhfkmysq jåkbr cjjndtncndetn ghbyznsv d fvthbrfycrjv jåotcndt ecnjzv. Htitybt gjkexbnm uhfélfycndj zhxt dctuj jnhféftn cnhtvktybt r fccbvbkzwbb cj cnjhjys bvvbuhfynjd. Bp dctö bvvbuhfynjd, yföjlbdiböcz d CIF
d 1990 u., 40 ghjwtynjd bvtkb fvthbrfycrjt uhfélfycndj. Yf gthdjv vtcnt d änjv jnyjitybb yföjlbkbcm bvvbuhfyns bp Bnfkbb b Uthvfybb (nhb xtndthnb dctö bvvbuhfynjd bvtkb uhfélfycndj), f yf
gjcktlytv – dsöjlws bp Wtynhfkmyjq Fvthbrb (vtytt 20 ghjwtynjd dctö bvvbuhfynjd gjkexbkb uhfélfycndj), ujdjhbncz d ljrkflt Vfhnbyf b Vblékb.
40 ghjwtynjd yfnehfkbpjdfyysö bvvbuhfynjd –
änj vyjuj bkb vfkj gj bcnjhbxtcrbv vthrfv? Gj
lfyysv Åñhj gthtgbcb yfctktybz CIF, d 1920 u.,
CIF: JÅOTCNDJ B WTYYJCNB / B ÑYM 1999 U .
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rjulf étyobyfv dgthdst cnfkj ghtljcnfdkznmcz
uhfélfycndj d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö, 49 ghjwtynjd
dphjcksö ébntktq Fvthbrb, hjlbdiböcz pf heåtéjv,
åskb fvthbrfycrbvb uhfélfyfvb. Ytrjnjhjt cybétybt ljkb yfnehfkbpjdfyysö bvvbuhfynjd vjétn
hfccvfnhbdfnmcz rfr ghbpyfr edtkbxbdfñotujcz
cnhtvktybz r gkñhfkbpve. C lheujq cnjhjys, ghbvthyj hfdyjt cjjnyjitybt gjrfpfntktq yfnehfkbpfwbb d 1920 u. b d 1990 u. ljcnjqyj dybvfybz, gjcrjkmre änj hfdtycndj bvttn vtcnj yf ajyt edtkbxbditujcz hfpyjjåhfpbz ytlfdybö bvvbuhfynjd b
bpvtytybq gjkbnbxtcrjuj rkbvfnf.
Rjulf htxm bltn j gjkbnbxtcrbö djghjcfö, åjkmibycndj fvthbrfywtd ghtlgjxbnfñn fccbvbkzwbñ
gkñhfkbpve. D öjlt jghjcf, ghjdtltyyjuj d 1994 u.
Yfwbjyfkmysv wtynhjv gj bpextybñ jåotcndtyyjuj vytybz, dszcybkjcm, xnj ldt nhtnb fvthbrfywtd
jljåhbkb – b ytrjnjhst lfét htibntkmyj gjllthéfkb – vsckm j njv, xnj ≤gjkbnbxtcrbt jhufybpfwbb, cajhvbhjdfyyst gj hfcjdjve bkb änybxtcrjve
ghbpyfre, cgjcjåcndeñn hjcne ctgfhfnbpvf b jckjéyzñn yfie cjdvtcnyeñ ébpym lheu c lheujv≥. Cjplftncz dgtxfnktybt, xnj kñlb htfkbpeñn yf ghfrnbrt
nj, xnj ghjgjdtleñn. Jndtxfz yf djghjc j cfvjjnjéltcndktybb, gjlfdkzñott åjkmibycndj htcgjyltynjd (89 ghjwtynjd) bltynbabwbhjdfkb ctåz rfr
≤ghjcnj fvthbrfytw≥, f yt ghbåfdkzkb xthtp ltabc
ckjdj, jåjpyfxfñott ghbyflktéyjcnm r rfrjq-kbåj
hfcjdjq bkb änybxtcrjq uheggt, n.t. yt cxbnfkb ctåz
≤fvthbrfywtv xthtp ltabc≥.
GTHCGTRNBDS
D htpekmnfnt ghjiksö b cjdhtvtyysö bvvbuhfwbjyysö ntyltywbq cajhvbhjdfkjcm yfctktybt CIF,
rjnjhjt d jcyjdyjv cjcnjbn bp kñltq c åtksv wdtnjv rjéb, ytkfnbyjfvthbrfycrjuj ghjbcöjéltybz
(74 ghjwtynf). Yj tckb bvvbuhfwbz åeltn ghjljkéfnmcz ysytiybvb ntvgfvb, nj r 2050 u. fvthbrfyws c åtksv wdtnjv rjéb åelen cjcnfdkznm ytpyfxbntkmyjt åjkmibycndj (52 ghjwtynf). Dsöjlws bp Kfnbycrjq Fvthbrb åelen cjcnfdkznm cfvjt rhegyjt
vtymibycndj yfctktybz (22 ghjwtynf). Fvthbrfyws
fahbrfycrjuj ghjbcöjéltybz åelen cjcnfdkznm
14 ghjwtynjd yfctktybz, f xbckj dsöjlwtd bp cnhfy
Fpbb edtkbxbncz c 3 lj 10 ghjwtynjd.
Dgthdst d bcnjhbb fvthbrfyws, pfgjkyzz jghjcybr d öjlt gthtgbcb yfctktybz 2000 ujlf, cvjuen
jnytcnb ctåz r jlyjq bkb ytcrjkmrbv hfcfv. Htitybt j njv, xnjås hfphtibnm vyjétcndtyyeñ hfcjdeñ bltynbabrfwbñ, cnfkj htpekmnfnjv byntycbdysö ltåfnjd vtéle cgtwbfkbcnfvb d jåkfcnb ltvju-
hfabxtcrjq cnfnbcnbrb, gjkbnbrfvb b jåotcndtyysvb uheggfvb. Änj jpyfxftn ifu r hfcjdjq
fccbvbkzwbb b ujdjhbn j njv, xnj hfcjdst hfpkbxbz,
rjnjhst hfymit dspsdfkb ghjnbdjhtxbz, vjuen d rjytxyjv bnjut gjkyjcnmñ bcxtpyenm. Hjåthnj Cehj,
fdnjh rybub ≤Xeébt chtlb yfc: rfr kfnbyjfvthbrfycrfz bvvbuhfwbz nhfycajhvbhetn Fvthbre≥, cxbnftn, xnj ysytiybq ktrcbrjy gj hfcjdjq ntvfnbrt yt
cjjndtncndetn htfkmyjve gjkjétybñ dtotq, gjnjve
xnj dsöjlws bp Kfnbycrjq Fvthbrb b Fpbb yt dgbcsdfñncz d vbh, d rjnjhjv kñlb rkfccbabwbheñncz
rfr cdjb b xeébt d pfdbcbvjcnb jn wdtnf rjéb – åtkjuj bkb xthyjuj. B yf cfvjv ltkt, d rfntujhbñ ≤kfnbyjfvthbrfyws≥ döjlzn rfr bvvbuhfyns, nfr b kñlb, hjlbdibtcz d CIF, b änj cnbhftn hfpkbxbz vtéle dyjdm ghbåsdibvb b lfdyj ébdeobvb d cnhfyt
kñlmvb. Åeleobt ltåfns gj gjdjle fccbvbkzwbb b
gkñhfkbpvf åelen cbkmyj jnkbxfnmcz jn ysytiybö,
gj vtht njuj rfr åelen cnbhfnmcz hfcjdst b änybxtcrbt hfpkbxbz vtéle kñlmvb.
D rjywt 90-ö ujljd Rjyuhtcc ghbyzk, f Ghtpbltyn
Rkbynjy gjlgbcfk ibhjrbq cgtrnh pfrjyjlfntkmysö frnjd, yfghfdktyysö yf htajhvbhjdfybt cbcntvs cjwbfkmyjuj jåtcgtxtybz yfctktybz. Änj pfrjyjlfntkmcndj juhfybxbdftn jghtltktyyst dbls ujcelfhcndtyyjq gjvjob bvvbuhfynfv. Gjcrjkmre bvvbuhfyns gjcktlytq djkys yföjlzncz d öelitv vfnthbfkmyjv gjkjétybb, xtv bvvbuhfyns ghtlitcndeñotuj gthbjlf, gjrf yt zcyj, rfr yfctktyyst geyrns b hfqjys c dscjrbv ehjdytv bvvbuhfwbb cvjuen eljdktndjhbnm gjnhtåyjcnb ntö kñltq, rjnjhst
yeélfñncz d gjvjob.
Xnj ét ujnjdbn yfv åeleott? Bp ltåfnjd gj gjdjle
bvvbuhfwbb vs vjétv epyfnm j yfc cfvbö rfr jå
fvthbrfywfö. Ghjbcöjlbn dct åjkmitt hfpvsdfybt
uhfybw vtéle uheggfvb yfctktybz. B öjnz lj rjywf
änb uhfybws cnthtnm yfdthyzrf yt elfcncz, lf änj b
yt yeéyj, bö vbybvbpfwbz ghtlcnfdkztncz ytbpåtéyjq. Fdnjhs Rjycnbnewbb, rjnjhst yfgbcfkb: ≤Vs,
yfhjl Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd, lfås jåhfpjdfnm åjktt
cjdthityysq Cjñp...≥ d rjywt 18 dtrf, dshféfkb yfltéle yf åeleott jn bvtyb yfwbb bvvbuhfynjd. Ctujlyz, yf gjhjut 21-uj dtrf, gthtl Fvthbrjq cnjbn
pflfxf – gj-ghtéytve drkñxfnm bvvbuhfynjd d dblt■
ybt åeleotuj yfitq cnhfys.
Lfayf Cgäqy, ghtgjlfdfntkm ujhjlcrjuj b ärjkjubxtcrjuj
gkfybhjdfybz fhöbntrnehyjuj afrekmntnf Eybdthcbntnf
infnf Dbhlébybz (Ifhkjncdbkk), fdnjh ljrkflf ≤Fvthbrf
yf uhfyb ldeö cnjktnbq≥, jgeåkbrjdfyyjuj d vft 1999 ujlf
Åñhj ltvjuhfabxtcrjq cnfnbcnbrb, u. Dfibyunjy
CIF: JÅOTCNDJ B WTYYJCNB / B ÑYM 1999 U .
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RJHTYYST BPVTYTYBZ
D GJKJÉTYBB CNFHITUJ
GJRJKTYBZ
NTJLJH HJÉFR
D enhtyytq ufptnt z yfitk kñåjgsnyeñ yjdjcnm
rekmnehyjq ébpyb. Ntktrjvgfybb ghjdtkb cdjq
tétujlysq rjyrehc gj htqnbyue ntktghjuhfvv,
rjnjhsq ghtljghtltkztn ljöjl jn htrkfvs d cktleñotv ctpjyt. Gjåtlbkb ldt ntktrjvgfybb, rjnjhst ghbdktrkb åjkmit dctuj ntktphbntktq d djphfcnt jn 18 lj 49 ktn, cxbnfñoböcz, gj cjjåotybzv
ghtccs, yfbåjktt wtyysvb, c njxrb phtybz htrkfvjlfntktq.
Dgthdst fvthbrfycrbq hsyjr ghjzdbk cthmtpysq
bynthtc r ≤gjrjktybñ vjkjltéb≥ åjktt 30 ktn yfpfl.
Åtcgjrjqyst ltnb gjrjktybz ≤dphsdf hjélftvjcnb≥,
rfpfkjcm, jnrhsdibt ctrhtn dtxyjq vjkjljcnb, ctqxfc djikb d ckjéysq chtlybq gthbjl ébpyb, gjkysq nhtdju b hfpjxfhjdfybq. Jlyfrj htrkfvjlfntkb
b chtlcndf vfccjdjq byajhvfwbb, nfr ét rfr gjkbnbrb b kbwf, ghbybvfñobt htitybz, gj-ghtéytve
jxfhjdfys ñyjcnmñ b, gjöjét, yt jåhfofñn dybvfybz yf yeéls b dpukzls fvthbrfywtd cnfhituj gjrjktybz. D cgtwbfkmyjv dsgecrt ≤Ymñ-Qjhr nfqvc
väuäpby≥, gjcdzotyyjv ltvjuhfabxtcrbv ghjåktvfv, jlby cnfhtñobq ärcgthn gj fdnjhcrjve ghfde d
htrkfvt éfkjdfkcz, xnj ≤lkz htrkfvjlfntkz vjkjljcnm – änj dtctkmt... Dct änj bltn jn jlyjuj bp ytgbcfysö ghfdbk vfhrtnbyuf: yt nhfnmnt ecbkbz yf gjnhtåbntktq cnfhit 50 ktn, gjcrjkmre bö dct hfdyj
ybxtv yt elbdbim≥.
D cdjtq rybut ≤Xnj rktdj?≥ (1997 u.), gjdtcndeñotq
j ≤åbpytc-rekmneht, rjynhrekmneht b hfpdbnbb ≤öbggjdjuj≥ gjnhtåbntkmcndf≥, Njvfc Ahfyr endthélftn,
xnj jlthébvjcnm ñyjcnmñ, djpybrifz d 60-ö, jcnfytncz c yfvb yfdctulf. ≤Vjkjljcnm dctulf ljkéyf dsbuhsdfnm, – gbitn jy. – Yjdjt tcntcndtyysv jåhfpjv cvtyztn cnfhjt... Åelen yjdst gjrjktybz vjkjltéysö åeynjd njxyj nfr ét, rfr åelen yjdst gjrjktybz ukeibntktq lkz fdnjvjåbktq, peåyjq gfcns b
jåedb≥. Tckb Ahfyr ghfd, njulf fvthbrfycrbq åbpytc
b chtlcndf vfccjdjq byajhvfwbb yföjlzncz d
rjyakbrnt c fvthbrfycrbv Åñhj gthtgbcb yfctktybz. D änjv ét rjyakbrnt b gjkbnbrb, yt
ghjzdkzñobt pfåjns j cnfhitv gjrjktybb. Dct
jyb ébden, buyjhbhez ukfdyeñ ltvjuhfabxtcreñ
jcjåtyyjcnm 21-uj cnjktnbz: vjkjlst cnfkb dsvbhfñobv dbljv. Åeleott – pf cnfhbrfvb.
Öjnz vjkjlst vjuen jcnfdfnmcz jlybv bp hsyrjd
cåsnf, jyb jåhtxtys yf gjcnjzyyjt cjrhfotybt
xbcktyyjcnb b gjregfntkmyjq cgjcjåyjcnb. Ghjwtcc
rjkktrnbdyjuj cnfhtybz d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö yfxfkcz tot d 1800 u. Dj dhtvtyf Njvfcf Létaathcjyf
gjkjdbyf åtkjuj yfctktybz åskf vjkjét 16 ktn. Nfrjuj cjjnyjitybz vjkjljcnb b cnfhjcnb d cnhfyt yt
åskj eét åjkmit ybrjulf. Ytcvjnhz yf ltvjuhfabxtcrbt gjlütvs b cgfls, dspdfyyst djkyfvb bvvbuhfwbb b eåbqcndtyysvb ägbltvbzvb, d 19-v d. chtlyzz ghjljkébntkmyjcnm ébpyb gjcnjzyyj hjckf, b
jåotcndj nfr ét gjcnjzyyj cnfyjdbkjcm cnfhit. D
30-ö ujlfö yfituj cnjktnbz åskb ghjdtltys ytcrjkmrj jåotyfwbjyfkmysö rjyathtywbq lkz gjbcrf htitybz ghjåktv, gjcnfdktyysö åscnhjhfcneobv
gjébksv yfctktybtv. Yf ctujlyziybq ltym fvthbrfyws cnfhit 50 ktn jåhfpeñn yfbåjktt åscnhj hfcneoeñ xfcnm jåotcndf.
Ghb ljkujchjxyjq ntyltywbb cnfhtybz yfctktybz
CIF åjkmibv bcrkñxtybtv cnfk dphsd hjélftvjcnb, gj-fyukbqcrb ≤åäåb-åev≥, d gthbjl vtéle 1946 b
1964 uu. D änb ujls hjélftvjcnm d CIF dpktntkf lj
chtlytuj ehjdyz d 3,7 htåtyrf yf ctvmñ. Vtymit xtv
ltcznbktnbt cgecnz athnbkmyjcnm étyoby d CIF,
rfr ås dsljöibcm, htprj cybpbkfcm, ljcnbuyed d
1976 u. htrjhlyj ybprjq jnvtnrb d chtlytv 1,7 hjéltybq yf ctvmñ, xnj ceotcndtyyj ybét ehjdyz, ytjåöjlbvjuj lkz djcghjbpdjlcndf yfctktybz. C änjuj
dhtvtyb ehjdtym hjélftvjcnb ghjljkéfk cybéfnmcz, rfr b d åjkmibycndt ghjvsiktyyj hfpdbnsö
CIF: JÅOTCNDJ B WTYYJCNB / B ÑYM 1999 U .
21
cnhfy. Njn afrn, xnj jåobq ehjdtym hjcnf yfctktybz
rjktåfkcz d hfqjyt jnvtnrb djcghjbpdjlcndf, zdkztncz cktlcndbtv dkbzybz bvvbuhfwbb.
Dj dctö bylecnhbfkmysö jåotcndfö gfhs dcnegfñn d åhfr gjpét (tckb änj djjåot ghjbcöjlbn), yf
åjktt lkbntkmyst chjrb jnrkflsdfñn hjéltybt ltntq b hjéfñn dct vtymit. B lfét nt ltvjuhfas, rjnjhsö geuftn rjkjccfkmysq hjcn yfctktybz, ghbpyfñn, xnj cybéfñobqcz ehjdtym hjélftvjcnb ytgjchtlcndtyyj cdzpfy c ntv, xnj cjdhtvtyysq vbh yfpsdftn ≤ghjuhtccjv≥. Étyobys d jcjåtyyjcnb cxbnfñn åtpltnyjcnm bkb gjplytt hjéltybt ltntq
jcdjåjéltybtv. Änj gjpdjkztn bv nhfnbnm
åjkmieñ xfcnm cdjtq ébpyb yf rfhmthe, gentitcndbz b extåe. Cfvb ét ltnb gjrjktybz
dphsdf hjélftvjcnb ecnfyjdbkb änjn gjhzljr djcghjbpdjlcndf. D cthtlbyt 70-ö ujljd, rjulf ljcnbukj cdjtuj gbrf ldbétybt
pf jcdjåjéltybt étyoby, rjkbxtcndj åtpltnysö 20-ktnybö étyoby eldjbkjcm, f d
cktleñotv ltcznbktnbb d nhb hfpf djphjc
ehjdtym hjélftvjcnb chtlb étyoby d djphfcnt jn
30 lj 35 ktn. Åjkmibycndj änbö vfv cnfhituj djphfcnf hfåjnfkb, b e ybö åskj vtymit ltntq, xfcnj
kbim jlby htåtyjr.
Yj fvthbrfyws cnfhituj gjrjktybz dct åjkmit
gthtrhsdfñn vjkjlsö yt njkmrj gj xbcktyyjcnb.
Bö ljkz d yfwbjyfkmyjv åjufncndt pyfxbntkmyj ghtdsiftn ljkñ bö ltntq b dyerjd – afrn, rjnjhsq vjétn åsnm bynthtcty ghtlcnfdbntkzv åbpytcf, cnjkm
zhj jåöfébdfñobv vjkjleñ felbnjhbñ. Tétujlysq
kbxysq ljöjl njq xtndthnb fvthbrfycrjuj yfctktybz, rjnjhjq d yfxfkt 21-uj cnjktnbz gthtdfkbn pf
50 ktn, ghbåkbéftncz r nhbkkbjye (vbkkbjy vbkkbjyjd) ljkkfhjd. Änb fvthbrfyws cnfhituj djphfcnf bvtñn d cdjtv hfcgjhzétybb gjkjdbye ≤cdjåjlyjuj≥ (nj tcnm jcnfñotujcz gjckt eljdktndjhtybz
gthdjjxthtlysö gjnhtåyjcntq) ljöjlf d cnhfyt,
75 ghjwtynjd abyfycjdsö frnbdjd (cnjbvjcnmñ
åjktt xtv 8 nhky ljkkfhjd) b 80 ghjwtynjd cåthtufntkmysö cxtnjd d åfyrfö Fvthbrb.
D eckjdbzö dscjrjq ghjljkébntkmyjcnb ébpyb
gjrjktyb åäåb-åevf gj vtht cnfhtybz åeltn åjufntnm. Jyb eyfcktleñn åjktt 10,7 nhky ljkkfhjd jn
cdjbö hjlbntktq. Gj jwtyrfv Eghfdktybz cjwbfkmyjuj jåtcgtxtybz CIF, fvthbrfyws cnfhit 65 ktn,
åkfujlfhz kbxysv cåthtétybzv, ghjuhfvvt vtlbwbycrjuj cnhföjdfybz ≤Vtlbräh≥, dkfltybñ ytldbébvjcnmñ b yfkjujdsv kmujnfv, jåkflfñn yfbåjkmibv ≤cdjåjlysv≥ ljöjljv d cnhfyt, åjktt xtv d ldf
hfpf ghtdsifñobv ljöjl kñltq jn 25 lj 34 ktn.
Jlyb njkmrj étyobys d djphfcnt gjckt vtyf-gfeps
CNFHBRB: ÉBPYTYYJ DFÉYST HTCEHCS
Létqvc Itqåtk
Cnfhtybt yfctktybz Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd vjukj ås
ghtlcnfdkznm pyfxbntkmyeñ euhjpe, tckb ås gjébkst uhfélfyt dscfcsdfkb htcehcs bp jåotcndf, jnåbhfz bö e vjkjlsö fvthbrfywtd. Dhtvz jn dhtvtyb nfr j cnfhbrfö b
ujdjhzn. Yf cfvjv ét ltkt cnfhtybt yfwbb ghtljcnfdkztn
elbdbntkmyeñ djpvjéyjcnm lkz drkñxtybz yfbåjktt jåhfpjdfyyjq b éféleotq ébpyb uheggs gtycbjythjd d bcnjhbb CIF d åjhmåe c ghjåktvfvb cjdhtvtyyjuj fvthbrfycrjuj jåotcndf.
Pf gjcktlybt xtnsht ltcznbktnbz xbckj ébntktq CIF
cnfhit 65 ktn eldjbkjcm, b jéblftncz, xnj r 2030 ujle
jyj eldjbncz tot hfp. Ctujlyziybt gtycbjyths dblzn,
xnj gjckt dsöjlf yf gtycbñ e ybö tcnm dhtvz, äythubz
b étkfybt gjcdznbnm ctåz ljåhjdjkmxtcrjq ltzntkmyjcnb,
yf rjnjheñ e ybö åskj nfr vfkj dhtvtyb, gjrf jyb hfåjnfkb. Jyb dcnegfñn d jhufybpfwbb, gjljåyst Yfwbjyfkmyjve rjhgece gjébksö, rjnjhfz jödfnsdftn åjktt xtv
gjkvbkkbjyf uhfélfy cnfhituj djphfcnf.
D rjhgect, döjlzotv d cjcnfd Rjhgjhfwbb pf yfwbjyfkmyeñ ckeéåe, 24 nsczxb ≤ghbtvysö≥ åfåeitr b ltleitr ghjdjlzn 20 xfcjd d ytltkñ d bcghfdbntkmysö exhtéltybzö, ljvfö lkz nhelysö gjlhjcnrjd, rkfccfö, ghbñnfö
lkz åtpljvysö b lheubö vtcnfö, gjvjufz ltnzv, cnfdibv
éthndfvb étcnjrjuj b åtpjndtncndtyyjuj jåhfotybz cj
cnjhjys hjlbntktq, b pfåjnzcm j ytljyjityysö vkfltywfö b ltnzö-bydfkblfö. Jrjkj 13 nsczx ≤gjébksö gjvjoybrjd≥ gjvjufñn lheubv gjébksv jlbyjrbv kñlzv.
Lheubt gjébkst djkjynths pfybvfñncz c exfobvbcz,
djpdjlzn ljvf, gfnhekbheñn ébkst hfqjys b ljcnfdkzñn
gboe ghbrjdfyysv r gjcntkb kñlzv.
Veéxbys b étyobys cnfhit 55 ktn dct xfot jnlfñn
cdjq jgsn, yfdsrb, nfkfyns, bynthtcs b ndjhxtcrbt cgjcjåyjcnb vtcnysv ytrjvvthxtcrbv jhufybpfwbzv, jhufybpfwbzv d catht jåckeébdfybz b ljåhjdjkmxtcrbv ghjuhfvvfv, jhufybpetvsv xfcnysvb rjhgjhfwbzvb. Jyb ghbvtyzñn cdjb yfdsrb d hfpysö dblfö ltzntkmyjcnb, yfxbyfz
c jåhfpjdfybz b plhfdjjöhfytybz b rjyxfz jåotcndtyyjq
åtpjgfcyjcnmñ b jöhfyjq jrheéfñotq chtls. Cnfhbrb
jcjåtyyj öjhjij gjlöjlzn r hfåjnt c ghjåktvfvb ltntq
b vjkjltéb. Yfghbvth, 5 ltvjycnhfwbjyysö ghjtrnjd
gjl yfpdfybtv ≤Rjhgec evelhtyysö≥, ghjdtltyysö Rjhgjhfwbtq pf yfwbjyfkmyeñ ckeéåe, gjlnfkrbdfñn gjébksö
uhfélfy yt njkmrj cnfyjdbnmcz htgtnbnjhfvb d irjkfö,
yj nfrét exfcndjdfnm d djcgbnfntkmyjq hfåjnt cj irjkmybrfvb gjckt ehjrjd, jhufybpjdsdfnm hjlbntktq lkz
cjplfybz fccjwbfwbq ≤Hjlbntkm – exbntkm – irjkmybr≥
b gj-yjdjve exfcndjdfnm d hfåjnt vtcnysö irjk.
Gj vtht njuj rfr dct åjkmit b åjkmit gjébksö kñltq
b gtycbjythjd cnhtvzncz exfcndjdfnm d jåotcndtyyjq hfåjnt, herjdjlcndj cnhfys ljkéyj cjplfdfnm dct åjkmit
djpvjéyjcntq lkz bö hfåjns rfr gjkysq, nfr b ytgjkysq
hfåjxbq ltym. Bcgjkmpjdfybt gjntywbfkf 50 vky gjébksö
kñltq vjétn vyjujt lfnm d gjcnhjtybb kexituj jåotcndf
lkz dctö fvthbrfywtd.
Bpdtcnysq fvthbrfycrbq gcböjkju Ähbr Ähbrcjy jlyféls crfpfk, xnj gjcktlybq dspjd ébpyb pfrkñxftncz d njv,
xnjås ghbqnb r ghbyznbñ endthéltybz: ≤Z – änj nj, xnj
jcnfytncz gjckt vtyz≥. Tckb jy ghfd, nj ljåhjdjkmxtcrfz
hfåjnf, jcjåtyyj nfrfz, rjnjhfz jrfpsdftn dkbzybt yf vjkjlsö kñltq, ytjåöjlbvf lkz njuj, xnjås yfckfélfnmcz
gkjljndjhyjq b ghbyjczotq gjkmpe cnfhjcnmñ.
Létqvc Itqåtk, dbwt-ghtpbltyn Rjhgjhfwbb pf yfwbjyfkmyeñ
ckeéåe, yföjlzotqcz d u. Dfibyunjyt.
CIF: JÅOTCNDJ B WTYYJCNB / B ÑYM 1999 U .
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ghtlcnfdkzñn cjåjq, gj ckjdfv éehyfkbcnrb Äkkty
Uelvfy, ≤vtxne åbpytcvtyf≥ – 50 vky ltzntkmysö
étyoby, gjregfñobö rybub b gjnhtåkzñobö rekmnehyst wtyyjcnb, vyjubt bp rjnjhsö, åkfujlfhz ecgtöfv ujhvjyfkmyjq vtlbwbys, åelen ghjljkéfnm
frnbdyeñ ébpym b djpvjéyj lfét tot ljkubt ujls
pfhfåfnsdfnm ltymub.
≤Vjkjltéysq hsyjr åeltn ceotcndjdfnm dctulf≥, –
jnvtxftn htlfrnjh éehyfkf ≤Fvthbräy ltvjuhfabrc≥ Ithbk Hfcctk, ≤yj jy yt dctulf åeltn cnjkm
vjoysv gj chfdytybñ c lheubvb hsyrfvb. D åeleotv fvthbrfycrjve åbpytce ghbltncz yfexbnmcz kñåbnm kñltq chtlytuj djphfcnf≥.
Nfrbt ukeåjrbt ltvjuhfabxtcrbt bpvtytybz yt
vjuen yt ghbdtcnb r åjktt vfcinfåysv gjkbnbxtcrbv bpvtytybzv d åkbéfqitv åeleotv. Gj
vtht njuj rfr abyfycjdsq b gjkbnbxtcrbq wtynh
nzétcnb fvthbrfycrjuj jåotcndf gjcntgtyyj cvtoftncz r åjktt cnfhitve djphfcne, wtyyjcnb, ghbceobt cnfhitve gjrjktybñ, cnfyjdzncz dct åjktt
pyfxbvsvb. Gjébkst kñlb yt njkmrj cjcnfdkzñn
åjkmibycndj cjåcndtyybrjd ytldbébvjcnb d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö, jyb nfrét cfvst cjpyfntkmyst
bpåbhfntkb cnhfys. Gjllthérf c bö cnjhjys åeltn
ceotcndtyysv afrnjhjv yf dsåjhfö uhzleotuj
cnjktnbz.
Bccktljdfybz gjdtltybz bpåbhfntktq ujdjhzn j
njv, xnj e gjébksö bpåbhfntktq ytn xtnrj ghjuyjpbhetvsö gjkbnbxtcrbö jhbtynfwbq gj rfrbv-kbåj
djghjcfv – pf bcrkñxtybtv euhjp bö ghbdbktubzv.
Åelexb rjycthdfnbdysv gj vyjubv djghjcfv, cnfhitt gjrjktybt ckeébn zrjhtv ujcelfhcndf c hfpdbnjq cbcntvjq cjwbfkmyjuj jåtcgtxtybz, b änjn
zrjhm c rfélsv ujljv cnfyjdbncz dct nzétktt. Änf
ytevjkbvfz ntyltywbz ghblftn jcjåeñ dféyjcnm
rfvgfybb gj cjrhfotybñ bkb ghbdfnbpfwbb cjwbfkmysö ghjuhfvv, nfrbö rfr ≤Vtlbräh≥ b cjwbfkmyjt
jåtcgtxtybt. Yfghbvth, ghjtrn Gjkf Wjyufcf d cjcnfdt abyfycjdj-rjycthdfnbdyjq rjfkbwbb ≤Rjyrjhl≥ cjpsdftn jåotcndtyyst ajhevs, gjcdzotyyst ≤jndtncndtyyjcnb gjrjktybq≥, b d cdjbö geåkbrfwbzö endthélftn, xnj ≤lj njuj rfr åäåb-åev ghtdhfnbncz d ≤åev gjébksö≥, e yfibö gjkbnbxtcrbö
kblthjd tcnm tot gthbjl lkz ghbyznbz vth≥ gj htajhvbhjdfybñ gjkbnbrb cjwbfkmyjuj jåtcgtxtybz
gjébksö. Cnjhjyybrb änjuj ghjtrnf gjkfufñn, xnj
gjljåyst hfcöjls crjhj ≤gjukjnzn dct atlthfkmyst
ljöjls≥.
Pdexbn euhjéfñot, yj rfr crjhj änj ckexbncz? Lfét tckb vs ybxtuj yt cltkftv d gkfyt gthtcnhjqrb
cbcntvs cjwbfkmyjuj jåtcgtxtybz lj 2032 ujlf, cbcntvf dct hfdyj åeltn d cjcnjzybb ghjbpdjlbnm
75 ghjwtynjd ghbxbnfñoböcz dsgkfn. Nj tcnm lfét
ghb nfrjq rhfqytq cbnefwbb d åkbéfqitv åeleotv
yt djpybrytn rfnfcnhjabxtcrjuj gjkjétybz. Yj, rjytxyj ét, fvthbrfycrjt jåotcndj yt åeltn ghjcnj
cbltnm ckjéf herb, ybxtuj yt ghtlghbybvfz d catht
cjwbfkmyjuj jåtcgtxtybz. Eghfdktybt cjwbfkmyjuj
jåtcgtxtybz CIF cxbnftn, xnj hzl gjcntgtyysö evthtyysö htajhv abyfycbhjdfybz b ghtljcnfdktybz
eckeu, yb jlyf bp rjnjhsö yt gjnhtåetn ghbdfnbpfwbb, gjpdjkbn cjöhfybnm ghjuhfvve cjwbfkmyjuj
jåtcgtxtybz d ltqcndbb yf ghjnzétybb cktleñotuj cnjktnbz.
Lheubt ghjnbdybrb cjwbfkmyjuj jåtcgtxtybz
gjébksö rhbnbreñn tuj tot åjktt hflbrfkmyj.
Ghtpbltyn-jcyjdfntkm rjfkbwbb ≤Rjyrjhl≥ Gbnth Lé. Gtnthcjy ghtleghtélftn, xnj ghjuhfvvf
≤Vtlbräh≥ crjhj åeltn dsyeéltyf dcgjvybnm,
xnj nfrjt hfcghtltktybt ≤gj rfhnjxrfv≥. Djpvjéyj,
xnj, rfr jy pfzdkztn, jy pfoboftn bynthtcs ≤yfibö
ltntq≥, yj bynthtcyj åeltn gjcvjnhtnm, crjkmrj
änbö ltntq jnrhjñn rjitkmrb, rjulf flvbybcnhfnjh
rjvvthxtcrjq ghjuhfvvs vtlbwbycrjq gjvjob
cjjåobn bv, xnj pfnhfns yf gjllthéfybt bö cnfhtñobö hjlbntktq d ébdsö ckbirjv dscjrb.
Rjulf-nj cktlbnm pf ntv, xnjås åjufncndj yfwbb
hfcghtltkzkjcm gjhjdye, åskj pflfxtq ghjacjñpjd.
D ghtlcnjzobt ujls, djpvjéyj, kbim ≤dkfcnm ltljd≥
åeltn tlbycndtyyjq ljcnfnjxyj vjoyjq b cgjcjåyjq yf cjxedcndeñoeñ htfrwbñ cbkjq lkz njuj, xnjås clthébdfnm ltzntkmyjcnm fvthbrfycrböp rjhgjhfwbq b hfpdbnbt ukjåfkbpfwbb. Tckb änjn öjl vsckb
gjrfétncz djpkfufñobv ckbirjv åjkmibt yfltéls
yf cnfhbrjd, nj cktletn dcgjvybnm, xnj gjrjktybt
dphsdf hjélftvjcnb dctulf jéblfkj jn ctåz jxtym
vyjujuj. Ytkmpz celbnm j cnfhbrfö gjrjktybz åäåbåevf gj ysytiybv cnfhbrfv – rjulf gjrjktybt åäåb-åevf gthtqltn d rfntujhbñ cnfhbrjd, vjéyj jéblfnm jn ybö ceotcndtyyj lheujuj gjkbnbxtcrjuj gjdtltybz.
Cktleñott gjrjktybt gjébksö d Cjtlbytyysö
Infnfö åeltn yfbåjktt jåhfpjdfyysv, åjkmit gentitcndjdfdibv, åjktt ghjatccbjyfkmyj gjlujnjdktyysv, gjkbnbxtcrb uhfvjnysv b yfbåjktt ndjhxtcrbv d rekmnehyjv jnyjitybb gjrjktybtv, xtv rjulfkbåj hfytt. B jyb ytcen d ctåt pfvtxfntkmyjt yfcktlbt. Jyb dgbcfkb ctåz d ktnjgbcm bcnjhbb rfr åeynjdobrb, rjnjhst d rjywt rjywjd ghbikb r jncnfbdfybñ vyjubö åkfujhjlysö bltq: uhfélfycrbö ghfd,
zlthyjuj hfpjheétybz, ctrcefkmyjq cdjåjls, pfobns
ghfd gjnhtåbntktq, åjhmås pf xbcnjne jrheéfñotq
chtls b jcdjåjéltybt änybxtcrbö vtymibycnd, étyoby b ujvjctrcefkbcnjd. Cj dhtvty nfrbö ytpfdbcb-
CIF: JÅOTCNDJ B WTYYJCNB / B ÑYM 1999 U .
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vsö gjkbnbxtcrbö abueh yfxfkf yfituj cnjktnbz, rfr
Hjåthn Kfajkktnn b Ghtpbltyn Ntjljh Hepdtkmn, yb
jlyj gjrjktybt lj änjuj yt dcnegfkj d ghjnbdjåjhcndj c dkfcnmñ, dsldbufz jcnhst djghjcs jå änbxtcrbö
ghbywbgfö bcgjkmpjdfybz åjufncndf b dkfcnysö gjkyjvjxbq.
Vjkjljcnm – dhtvz jncnfbdfybz dscjrbö vjhfkmysö bltfkjd, lheujq nfrjq gthbjl ghböjlbncz yf cnfhjcnm. Ghfdlf nj, xnj åeynfhcrjt vjkjljt gjrjktybt
60-ö dshjckj d jndtncndtyysö dphjcksö, xnj crfpfkjcm yf bö bltfkbpvt. Yj cj dhtvtytv dphjckst cnfyjdzncz tot cnfhit, b d rjywt rjywjd ljcnbufñn cjcnjzybz, rjnjhjt jnkbxftncz jn cdjåjls eybdthcbntncrjuj ujhjlrf.
Jlybv bp ntö, rnj hfyj jcjpyfk änjn afrn, tot d
60-ö ujlfö, åskf Väuub Rey – jcyjdfntkmybwf ≤Ctlsö
gfynth≥, jhufybpfwbb, rjnjhfz pfybvftncz hfpdbnbtv
cdzptq vtéle gjrjktybzvb, jåhfpjdfybtv b erhtgktybtv cjwbfkmyjq b ärjyjvbxtcrjq cghfdtlkbdjcnb. Ghtlt ytq cnjzn djghjcs jåotyfwbjyfkmyjuj plhfdjjöhfytybz, pfyznjcnb, cjwbfkmyjuj jåtcgtxtybz, ébkbo, ecnjqxbdjq
jrheéfñotq chtls, jåhfpjdfybz b vbhf.
Rfr jyf jnvtxftn, ≤åkfujlfhz cdjtve ébpytyyjve jgsne, yfkbxbñ cdjåjlyjuj dhtvtyb b yfbvtymibö jgfctybq xnj-kbåj gjnthznm, dscnegfz c bybwbfnbdfvb, cnfhbrb jrfpfkbcm d yfbkexitv gjkjétybb lkz ltzntkmyjcnb yf
åkfuj jåotcndf≥.
Åskj ås jibårjq ghbxbckbnm cneltynjd 60-ö r
jåsxysv ghtlcnfdbntkzv chtlytuj rkfccf. Djpvjéyj,
åeltn cnjkm ét ytdthyj ghtlgjkjébnm, xnj cktleñott
cnfhitt gjrjktybt ghjcnj eqltn d gjkbnbxtcrjt ytåsnbt, rfr änj åskj c bö ghtlitcndtyybrfvb, rjulf
bö åskj vfkj b rjulf ckjdj ≤cnfhsq≥ åskj étcnrj
cdzpfyj cj ckjdjv ≤åtlysq≥. ≤Åsnm yf gtycbb, – jnvtnbkf Rey, – änj dct hfdyj xnj åsnm åjufnsv: ybrnj yt
vjétn ntåz edjkbnm≥.
Cnfhtñobt ghtlcnfdbntkb gjrjktybz dphsdf hjélftvjcnb c kturjcnmñ jåyfheéfn d gfvznb vyjétcndj
rjynhrekmnehysö fkmnthyfnbd, yf rjnjhst vjéyj
jgthtnmcz, cjdthifz htdjkñwbñ ghjljkébntkmyjcnb
ébpyb. Jyb dshjckb c enjgbxtcrbvb cnhtvktybzvb,
rjnjhst jåotcndjdtls nbgf Gjkf Uelvfyf cjxkb yfxfkjv pyfxbntkmysö gjkbnbxtcrbö gthtvty. D gthdsq hfp nt, rnj bpjåhtnfk fkmnthyfnbds ceotcndeñotve gjhzlre, vjukb åsnm ckbirjv ñysvb, bv yeéyj
åskj gjdphjcktnm. Bvtyyj änjn genm jyb b ghjikb c
60-ö gj 90-t. Ntgthm jyb cnfkb cnfhibv gjrjktybtv,
rjnjhjt ytkmpz buyjhbhjdfnm rfr bcgjhxtyysö ltntq.
Dsöjl yf gtycbñ lftn bv dhtvz, f cjwbfkmyjt jåtcgtxtybt – vfnthbfkmyst djpvjéyjcnb dthyenmcz r
DPUKZL D ÅELEOTT:
C NJXRB PHTYBZ XTKJDTRF GJRJKTYBZ
DPHSDF HJÉLFTVJCNB
Dslthérb bp ljrkflf ≤Fyfkbp ctuvtynfwbb≥,
gjlujnjdktyyjuj Fvthbrfycrjq
fccjwbfwbtq gtycbjythjd.
Gjrjktybt ≤åäåb-åevf≥ – änj uheggf yfctktybz CIF,
hjéltyyfz d gjcktdjtyyst ujls vtéle 1946 b 1964 uu.
D ntxtybt vyjubö ltcznbktnbq jyj ghbdktrfkj dybvfybt
ltvjuhfajd, gjkbnbrjd, bccktljdfntktq hsyrf b jåotcndjdtljd, rjnjhst bpexfkb gjcktdjtyysq dphsd hjélftvjcnb d 50-t, rjynhrekmnehe – d 60-t, ctvmb c ldjqysv
ljöjljv b Z-gjrjktybt 70-t, 80-t b 90-t ujls.
Ctqxfc yfbåjktt cnfhst ghtlcnfdbntkb änjuj gjrjktybz
gthtdfkbkb 50-ktnybq heåté b ghbåkbéfñncz r gtycbjyyjve djphfcne. Ytrjnjhst bp ybö eét dsikb yf gtycbñ.
Vyjubt cnfyen gtycbjythfvb lj 2010 ujlf.
Ytlfdytt bccktljdfybt, ghjdtltyyjt Fvthbrfycrjq
fccjwbfwbtq gtycbjythjd, d öjlt rjnjhjuj åskj cjåhfyj
juhjvyjt rjkbxtcndj byajhvfwbb gjchtlcndjv jghjcjd
ajrecysö uhegg, ibhjrjvfcinfåysö ntktajyysö jghjcjd
b lheubö cjwbjkjubxtcrbö jghjcjd, dszdbkj cktleñobt
jéblfybz ghtlcnfdbntktq gjrjktybz åäåb-åevf gj hzle
djghjcjd:
❏ Djctvm bp ltcznb jghjityysö gkfybheñn, åelexb yf
gtycbb, hfåjnfnm gj rhfqytq vtht yf ytgjkysq hfåjxbq
ltym. Kbim 16 ghjwtynjd ujdjhzn, xnj jyb djjåot yt
gkfybheñn hfåjnfnm.
❏ Itcnm bp ltcznb edthtys d cdjtq cgjcjåyjcnb
fltrdfnyj gjlujnjdbnmcz r åeleotve. Kbim 23 ghjwtynf
gjkfufñn, xnj bv c nheljv ghbltncz cdjlbnm rjyws
c rjywfvb.
❏ Kbim ldjt bp ltcznb gjkfufñn, xnj ≤åeleott cfvj
j ctåt gjpfåjnbncz≥, b kbim ltdznm ghjwtynjd gjkfufñncz
yf cdjb ctvmb d cvsckt abyfycjdjq gjvjob yf gtycbb.
❏ Ldt nhtnb jghjityysö eljdktndjhtys ltytéysvb
cevvfvb, rjnjhst jyb ctujlyz jnrkflsdfñn yf gtycbñ.
Vtymit xtv gjkjdbyf (48 ghjwtynjd) gjkfufñncz yf
cbcntve cjwbfkmyjuj jåtcgtxtybz rfr yf bcnjxybr ljöjlf
yf gtycbb. Bp änbö 48 ghjwtynjd kbim 15 ghjwtynjd
ghtlgjkfufñn bcgjkmpjdfnm änjn bcnjxybr rfr jcyjdyjq
bkb tlbycndtyysq lkz gjrhsnbz cdjbö hfcöjljd yf
gtycbb.
❏ Gjxnb gjkjdbyf (49 ghjwtynjd) jghjityysö ghtlgjkfufñn gjcdznbnm åjkmit dhtvtyb jåotcndtyyjq hfåjnt bkb
ljåhjdjkmxtcrjq ltzntkmyjcnb, åelexb yf gtycbb.
❏ Åjktt ctvb bp ltcznb (73 ghjwtynf) gkfybheñn
pfybvfnmcz öjååb bkb jcjåsv edktxtybtv, rjnjhjve
jyb gjcdznzn pyfxbntkmyjt dhtvz, åelexb yf gtycbb.
❏ Åjktt djcmvb bp ltcznb (81 ghjwtyn) bp ntö, rnj
endthélftn, xnj eltkbk pyfxbntkmyjt dhtvz jålevsdfybñ
cdjtq ébpyb yf gtycbb, ujdjhzn, xnj jyb c jgnbvbpvjv
cvjnhzn yf änb ujls.
CIF: JÅOTCNDJ B WTYYJCNB / B ÑYM 1999 U .
24
vjhfkmysv ecnhtvktybzv, rjulf-nj ghjckfdbdibv
bö rfr elbdbntkmyjt gjrjktybt.
Ctqxfc rfhbrfnehysq cnthtjnbg gjébkjuj fvthbrfywf – änj xtkjdtr, dtleobq gfhfpbnbxtcrbq jåhfp
ébpyb, jlyjq yjujq d vjubkt, rjdskzñobq gj gjkñ
lkz ujkmaf. Änjn jåhfp dtcmvf lfktr jn htfkmysö gjébksö kñltq, rjnjhst dct åjkmit hfåjnfñn yf ljåhjdjkmysö yfxfkfö, djpdhfofñncz dj dct åjkmibö
rjkbxtcndfö d extåyst pfdtltybz, frnbdyj exfcndeñn
d gjkbnbxtcrjq ébpyb b ltvjycnhbheñn ébdjq bynthtc r yjdjddtltybzv, jcdfbdfz rjvgmñnths. Kñåjq
cgtwbfkbcn, hfåjnfñobq c gtycbjythfvb, pyftn, xnj
d änjv djphfcnt kñlb cthmtpyj pflevsdfñncz j cvsckt ébpyb b cnfhfñncz gjcdznbnm ctåz xtve-nj ≤dtxyjve≥. Cktleñott gjrjktybt cnfhbrjd vjétn yfqnb
änjn cvsck d hfåjnt, rjnjheñ jyj jcnfdbkj ytpfrjyxtyyjq vyjuj ktn yfpfl.
Gjän Ebkmzv Ejhncdjhn, vjkjljcnm rjnjhjuj ghbikfcm yf dhtvz Dtkbrjq ahfywepcrjq htdjkñwbb,
gbcfk j vjkjltéb, ébditq d nj ytghjcnjt dhtvz:
≤Åkfétycndjv åskj ébnm d änj dhtvz hfccdtnf/F åsnm
vjkjlsv åskj ckjdyj ébnm d hfñ^≥. Åeltn dtcmvf pyfvtyfntkmyj, tckb bcnbyyfz celmåf hflbrfkmyjuj ghjntcnf d yfit dhtvz jrfétncz cdzpfyyjq yt c hfccdt■
njv änjuj ytjåsxyjuj gjrjktybz, f c pfrfnjv.
Ntjljh Hjéfr, ghjatccjh bcnjhbb d Eybdthcbntnt infnf
Rfkbajhybz d Ötqdfhlt, fdnjh rybu ≤Velhfz Fvthbrf: htdjkñwbz d ghjljkébntkmyjcnb ébpyb b åkfujcjcnjzybt ujcelfhcndf≥, bpl-dj ≤Ömñnjy Vbakby rfvgäyb≥, 1998 u., b ≤Ajhvbhjdfybt rjynhrekmnehs: hfpvsiktybz j ntöyjrhfnbxtcrjv jåotcndt b jggjpbwbb vjkjlsö≥, bpl-dj Rfkbajhybqcrjuj
eybdthcbntnf 1995 u.
Cnfnmz jgeåkbrjdfyf d éehyfkt ≤Wbdbkbpfwbz≥, jrnzåhm/
yjzåhm 1998 u. Gthtgtxfnsdftncz c hfphtitybz éehyfkf.
CIF: JÅOTCNDJ B WTYYJCNB / B ÑYM 1999 U .
25
YFCTKTYBT CIF:
ULT ÉBDEN
YJDST
BVVBUHFYNS
EBKMZV Ö. AHTQ
kfujlfhz tétujlyjve ghbnjre d Cjtlbytyyst Infns jrjkj jlyjuj vbkkbjyf yjdsö
bvvbuhfynjd, d jcyjdyjv kfnbyjfvthbrfycrjuj b fpbfncrjuj ghjbcöjéltybz,
hfcjdj-änybxtcrbq cjcnfd yfctktybz Fvthbrb cnfyjdbncz dct åjktt hfpyjjåhfpysv. Gj rhfqytq vtht,
bvtyyj nfrjt ghtlcnfdktybt gjkexftim, ghjcvfnhbdfz cnfnbcnbxtcrbt lfyyst gj cnhfyt d wtkjv. Ghtlcnjzofz d 2000 u. gthtgbcm yfctktybz gjrfétn, xnj
yt vtytt nhtö bp ltcznb ébntktq CIF – jnyñlm yt
åtkst fyukjcfrcs. D 2006 u. kfnbyjfvthbrfycrjt yfctktybt ghtdscbn gj cdjtq xbcktyyjcnb fahjfvthbrfywtd. F d 2030 u. rfélsq xtndthnsq ébntkm cnhfys
åeltn kbåj kfnbyjfvthbrfywtv, kbåj fpbfnjv.
Änf jåotyfwbjyfkmyfz cnfnbcnbrf ghtlgjkfuftn d
rekmnehyjv jnyjitybb yfkbxbt ≤tlbyjuj gkfdbkmyjuj rjnkf≥, d rjnjhsq gjgflfñn yjdst fvthbrfyws,
ghbyjczobt c cjåjq cfvst hfpyjjåhfpyst rekmnehyst nhflbwbb. Jlyfrj bpextybt cnhernehs yfctktybz
d jnltkmysö ujhjlcrbö fukjvthfwbzö cdbltntkmcndetn cjdthityyj j lheujv. C jlyjq cnjhjys, vs jåyfheébdftv, xnj jåkbre cnhfys d 2030 u. eét ctqxfc
cjjndtncndeñn 25 ujhjlcrbö fukjvthfwbq, ult gj
rhfqytq vtht 25 ghjwtynjd yfctktybz cjcnfdkzñn
dsöjlws bp Kfnbycrjq Fvthbrb b Fpbb, f yf ljkñ
fyukjcfrcjd ghböjlbncz vtytt 60 ghjwtynjd. Cñlf
Å
jnyjczncz rhegyst ujhjlcrbt fukjvthfwbb, ckjébdibtcz djrheu Kjc-Fylétktcf, Cfy-Lbtuj b Cfy-Ahfywbcrj (Rfkbajhybz), Vfqfvb (Akjhblf) b Ömñcnjyf
(Ntöfc), f nfrét vyjubt yt cnjkm åjkmibt ujhjlcrbt
fukjvthfwbb d Rfkbajhybb, Ymñ-Vtrcbrj b dljkm
ntöfccrj-vtrcbrfycrjq uhfybws. C lheujq cnjhjys,
åjktt xtv d gjkjdbyt ujhjlcrbö fukjvthfwbq CIF –
148 bp 271 – åtkjt yfctktybt cjcnfdkztn yt vtytt
80 ghjwtynjd – yf Ctdthj-Djcnjrt, Chtlytv Pfgflt b
d ujhysö infnfö, f nfrét dj vyjubö hfqjyfö Ñuf, ult
jcyjdyeñ uhegge ytåtkjuj yfctktybz, rfr ghfdbkj,
jåhfpeñn yt yjdst bvvbuhfyncrbt vtymibycndf, f
fahj-fvthbrfyws.
Ckjdjv, yjdfz bvvbuhfwbz b hfcghjcnhfytybt kfnbyjfvthbrfycrbö b fpbfncrbö vtymibycnd gj Cjtlbytyysv Infnfv jcnfñncz d pyfxbntkmyjq vtht
crjywtynhbhjdfyysvb d ghtltkfö ujhcnrb ujhjlcrbö fukjvthfwbq, rjnjhst ghtlcnfdkzñn cjåjq
≤gkfdbkmyst rjnks≥. Yf änbö nthhbnjhbzö dscjrbq
ghjwtyn vtéhfcjdsö åhfrjd b åjktt ybprbq ehjdtym
ctuhtufwbb ghb hfcctktybb zdkztncz htpekmnfnjv
cgtwtabxtcrbö eckjdbq änybxtcrbö fyrkfdjd, ult
ghjwdtnfñn ghtlghbznbz vfkjuj åbpytcf b rekmnehf
njq bkb byjq jghtltktyyjq änybxtcrjq uheggs, xnj
åskj öfhfrnthyj lkz bvvbuhfyncrjuj yfctktybz
cnhfys d yfxfkt ghjikjuj cnjktnbz. Djghjc d njv,
rjulf b rfr åscnhj yfctktybt änbö d jghtltktyyjq
cntgtyb rekmnehyj jåjcjåktyysö fyrkfdjd dsgktcytncz d jcyjdyjq gjnjr fvthbrfycrjuj yfctktybz.
Yjdsq fyfkbp cbnefwbb, rjnjhsq ghbdjlbncz ybét,
jcyjdfy yf ytlfdyj jgeåkbrjdfyysö cnfnbcnbxtcrbö
lfyysö gthtgbcb yfctktybz, cdbltntkmcndeñobö j
CIF: JÅOTCNDJ B WTYYJCNB / B ÑYM 1999 U .
26
njv, xnj jghtltktyyjt hfcchtljnjxtybt yjdsö bvvbuhfyncrbö vtymibycnd afrnbxtcrb eét ghjbcöjlbn. Änjn fyfkbp nfrét gjpdjkztn dsltkbnm nt ujhjlcrbt fukjvthfwbb, rjnjhst vjuen hfccxbnsdfnm yf
lfkmytqibq hjcn kfnbyjfvthbrfycrjuj b fpbfncrjuj
yfctktybz.
Jlyfrj dyfxfkt hfccvjnhbv rkfccbxtcrbt ghbnzufntkmyst lkz bvvbuhfynjd ujhjlcrbt fukjvthfwbb,
ult gj-ghtéytve cjchtljnjxtyj vyjétcndj yjdsö
bvvbuhfyncrbö vtymibycnd, cjcnjzobö bp kñltq,
hjlbdiböcz pf uhfybwtq.
RKFCCBXTCRBT
WTYNHS BVVBUHFWBB
Pf gthdst ctvm ktn 1990-ö uu. jrjkj 65 ghjwtynjd
dctö bvvbuhfynjd d CIF jåjcyjdfkjcm dctuj d 10 ujhjlcrbö fukjvthfwbzö. D Ymñ-Qjhr b Kjc-Fylétktc
ghbåskj ghbvthyj gj vbkkbjye xtkjdtr, d CfyAhfywbcrj – ghbåkbpbntkmyj dnhjt vtymit. Lfktt
cktletn Xbrfuj (Bkkbyjqc) – xtndthnm vbkkbjyf bvvbuhfynjd. Jcnfkmyst itcnm – Vfqfvb, Dfibyunjy,
Ömñcnjy b Lfkkfc (Ntöfc), Cfy-Lbtuj b Åjcnjy (Vfccfxectnc) – dvtcnt dpznst ghbyzkb vtymit yjdjghbåsdibö, xtv jlby Ymñ-Qjhr bkb Kjc-Fylétktc.
D änbö 10 ujhjlcrbö fukjvthfwbzö, ult rjywtynhbheñncz d jcyjdyjv yjdst bvvbuhfyns, ghjébdftn kbim jrjkj 30 ghjwtynjd dctuj yfctktybz CIF.
Åjktt njuj, dct jyb, pf bcrkñxtybtv Lfkkfcf b
Ömñcnjyf, ghbybvfz vyjétcndj bvvbuhfynjd, d nj
ét dhtvz bcgsnsdfñn jnnjr dyenhtyybö vbuhfynjd
d lheubt xfcnb cnhfys. D änjq cnfnbcnbrt ljvbybheñn Ymñ-Qjhr b Kjc-Fylétktc, rfélsq bp rjnjhsö pf
gthbjl 1990–97 uu. gjnthzk jrjkj 1,5 vky dyenhtyybö vbuhfynjd.
Gjxtve ét bvvbuhfyns ghjljkéfñn cntrfnmcz d nt
vtcnf, rjnjhst, gjöjét, cnfyjdzncz vtytt ghbdktrfntkmysvb lkz ébntktq CIF? Jndtn pfkjéty d ghjxyjq nhflbwbb djccjtlbytybz ctvtq, pfrhtgktyyjq d
fvthbrfycrjv bvvbuhfwbjyyjv pfrjyjlfntkmcndt, b
bcgsnsdftvjq kñlmvb gjnhtåyjcnb ébnm nfv, ult
ébden kñlb jlyjq c ybvb yfwbjyfkmyjcnb, ghbtöfdibt bp njq ét cnhfys, c ntv ét zpsrjv b rekmnehjq
b ult jyb gjkexfn rfr cjwbfkmyeñ, nfr b ärjyjvbxtcreñ gjllthére. Bvvbuhfwbz d gjhzlrt djccjtlbytybz ctvtq jåsxyj ghjbcöjlbn gj wtgjxrfv, ghbdjlzobv hjlcndtyybrjd b lheptq d jlyb b nt ét
vtcnf. Änj jcjåtyyj öfhfrnthyj lkz bvvbuhfynjd c
ybprjq rdfkbabrfwbtq, gjcrjkmre jyb d åjkmitq
vtht jgbhfñncz yf hjlcndtyyst cdzpb, gjvjufñobt
dytlhbnmcz d ytajhvfkmyst cbcntvs pfyznjcnb, rjnjhst ceotcndeñn d ≤rkfccbxtcrbö≥ wtynhfö bvvbuhfwbb.
Yfghjnbd, åjkmibycndj kñltq, hjlbdiböcz b
ljkmit ghjébdibö pltcm, jcjåtyyj åtksö b xthyjrjébö, ujhfplj åjktt kturb yf gjlütv. D ärjyjvbxtcrjv b cjwbfkmyjv jnyjitybzö jyb yt cnjkm juhfybxtys, xnjås rjywtynhbhjdfnmcz d jghtltktyysö xfcnzö cnhfys. Öfhfrnth bö vbuhfwbq ujhfplj
cbkmytt jåeckjdkty yfkbxbtv bkb jncencndbtv djpvjéyjcntq nheljecnhjqcndf b eljåcndfvb, jghtltkzñobvb rfxtcndj ébpyb, ytétkb hjlcndtyysvb
cdzpzvb. Gjänjve jnhbwfntkmyjt cfkmlj dyenhtyybö
vbuhfwbq lkz Ymñ-Qjhrf, Kjc-Fylétktcf b lheubö
ujhjlcrbö fukjvthfwbq c dscjrjq bvvbuhfwbtq yt
jåzpfntkmyj jpyfxftn, xnj ébntkb CIF åtuen jn bvvbuhfynjd. Ghjcnj d gjbcrt byajhvfwbb j hfåjxbö
vtcnfö ytbvvbuhfyns vtymit pfdbczn jn lheptq b
ctvtqysö cdzptq. Rfr ghfdbkj, jyb tlen nelf, ult d
gjcktlybt ltcznbktnbz yfåkñlftncz yfbåjktt dphsdjjåhfpysq hjcn pfyznjcnb, jcjåtyyj d rhegyst hfqjys yf Pfgflt pf ghtltkfvb Rfkbajhybb b vyjubt
vtcnf yf nfr yfpsdftvjv ≤Yjdjv Ñut≥ nbgf Fnkfyns,
ult djpybrfñn yjdst hfåjxbt vtcnf – d htubjys, xtq
hfcjdj-änybxtcrbq jåkbr yjcbn ghtbveotcndtyyj
xthyj-åtksq öfhfrnth.
Nfr rfr 10 rkfccbxtcrbö wtynhjd bvvbuhfwbb ghbdktrkb åjkmibycndj yjdsö bvvbuhfynjd, yt ghböjlbncz elbdkznmcz b njve, xnj bvtyyj d ybö cjchtljnjxtyj åjkmibycndj kfnbyjfvthbrfycrjuj b fpbfncrjuj yfctktybz cnhfys. Pltcm ghjébdfñn gjxnb
itcnm bp ltcznb kfnbyjfvthbrfywtd b fpbfnjd. Njkmrj yf ljkñ Kjc-Fylétktcf ghböjlbncz jrjkj gznjq
xfcnb kfnbyjfvthbrfycrjuj yfctktybz CIF, b dct ét
rféljq ujhjlcrjq fukjvthfwbb cdjqcndtyyf cdjz
jcjåfz cvtcm. Vfqfvb jåkflftn åjkmijq ghbnzufntkmyjq cbkjq lkz reåbywtd, Ymñ-Qjhr dktxtn ljvbybrfywtd, geähnjhbrfywtd b lheubö dsöjlwtd bp
cnhfy Rfhbåcrjuj åfcctqyf, f Xbrfuj gj-ghtéytve
jcnftncz vfuybnjv lkz vtrcbrfywtd. Dctuj d nhtö ujhjlcrbö fukjvthfwbzö – Kjc-Fylétktct, Ymñ-Qjhrt
b Cfy-Ahfywbcrj – ébdtn åjktt 40 ghjwtynjd dctö
fvthbrfywtd-dsöjlwtd bp Fpbb, öjnz jyb ghbåskb bp
hfpysö cnhfy. Rhegyeñ bvvbuhfyncreñ uhegge d
Ymñ-Qjhrt cjcnfdkzñn rbnfqws, abkbggbywtd xhtpdsxfqyj vfybn Kjc-Fylétktc, f d Cfy-Ahfywbcrj d
åjkmijv rjkbxtcndt ghtlcnfdktys jåt änb uheggs.
CIF: JÅOTCNDJ B WTYYJCNB / B ÑYM 1999 U .
27
C extnjv änjq cnfnbcnbrb yt elbdbntkmyj, xnj 4 bp
10 rkfccbxtcrbö wtynhjd bvvbuhfwbb ghbikb r njve, xnj åtkjt yfctktybt jrfpfkjcm d vtymibycndt,
bkb åkbprb r änjve (43 ghjwtynf d Vfqfvb b KjcFylétktct, 54 ghjwtynf d Ömñcnjyt b 55 ghjwtynjd
d Cfy-Ahfywbcrj). Fukjvthfwbz Åjkmijuj Ymñ-Qjhrf, jödfnsdfñofz 29 jrheujd, hfcgjkjétyysö d xtnshtö hfpysö infnfö, eét bvttn dctuj 60 ghjwtynjd
åtkjuj yfctktybz – pfvtnyj ybét chtlytuj gjrfpfntkz gj cnhfyt (72 ghjwtynf). Åjktt njuj, hfpyjjåhfpbt hfpkbdftncz gj dctq fukjvthfwbb, yt juhfybxbdfzcm wtynhjv ujhjlf. 21 bp änbö 29 jrheujd bcgsnsdfñn ghbnjr bvvbuhfynjd, jlyjdhtvtyyj nthzz dyenhtyybö vbuhfynjd d gjkmpe lheubö htubjyjd
cnhfys.
Jrfpsdftncz, xnj e änbö ujhjlcrbö fukjvthfwbq,
rjnjhst d rekmnehyjv jnyjitybb, rfr vs erfpfkb
dsit, ghtlcnfdkzñn cjåjq cfvst hfpyst ≤gkfdbkmyst rjnks≥, tcnm ghtbveotcndf gj chfdytybñ c jcnfkmyjq nthhbnjhbtq cnhfys, yfctktybt rjnjhjq jnyñlm yt cnjkm hfpyjjåhfpyj. Rjywtynhfwbz yfhzle c
åtksvb b xthyjrjébvb åjkmijuj rjkbxtcndf yjdsö
hfcjdsö b änybxtcrbö vtymibycnd ljkéyf ghbdtcnb
r åjkmitq cjwbfkmyj-ärjyjvbxtcrjq byntuhfwbb
änbö uhegg d ghtltkfö ujhjlcrbö fukjvthfwbq. Öfhfrnth nfrjq byntuhfwbb, jödfnsdfñotq vyjujxbcktyyst uheggs, cnjkm hfpyjjåhfpyst, rfr vtrcbrfyws, dsöjlws bp Wtynhfkmyjq Fvthbrb, rjhtqws, bylbqws, dmtnyfvws b lheubt, d hfpysö ujhjlcrbö fukjvthfwbzö hfpkbxty, d pfdbcbvjcnb jn ckjébditujcz d rféljq bp ybö cjxtnfybz ghjébdfñobö nfv
uhegg. Dghjxtv, ctuhtufwbz änbö yjdsö uhegg ghb
hfcctktybb dyenhb htubjyjd, relf jyb ghbåsdfñn,
bö ghbdzpfyyjcnm r étcnrj pflfyysv ghjatccbjyfkmysv ybifv, f lkz ytrjnjhsö uhegg tot b rhfqyt ybprbq ehjdtym gjkbnbxtcrjuj cjpyfybz dtcmvf
jckjéyzn bv genm r gjkyjq ärjyjvbxtcrjq b gjkbnbxtcrjq byntuhfwbb. Jlyfrj hfcneott xbckj cvtifyysö åhfrjd, rjnjhjt yfåkñlftncz d änbö ujhjlcrbö fukjvthfwbzö, b ghbpyfrb njuj, xnj dj dnjhjv
gjrjktybb ltnb dkfltñn fyukbqcrbv b xfot cxbnfñn
ctåz fvthbrfywfvb ≤xthtp ltabc≥, ghtlgjkfufñn gjntywbfkmyeñ djpvjéyjcnm gjcktleñotq fccbvbkzwbb, cdzpfyyeñ rfr c cjwbfkmyjq vjåbkmyjcnmñ, nfr
b c jnnjrjv kñltq bp änbö ≤rkfccbxtcrbö≥ wtynhjd
bvvbuhfwbb.
YJDST
WTYNHS BVVBUHFWBB
D yfcnjzott dhtvz dgthdst yfåkñlfñncz ghbpyfrb
ytrjnjhjuj ≤dsgktcrbdfybz≥ yjdsö bvvbuhfyncrbö
vtymibycnd, jcjåtyyj fpbfncrbö b kfnbyjfvthbrfycrbö, d ujhjlcrbt fukjvthfwbb, ult ghtélt bö rjywtynhfwbz åskf ytdtkbrf. Lkz änbö uhegg vtymibycnd wtgjxrb vbuhfwbq bp rkfccbxtcrbö geyrnjd ghbåsnbz bkb bp hjlysö cnhfy njkmrj yfxbyfñncz. D
åjkmibycndt nfrbö ujhjlcrbö fukjvthfwbq ghjbcöjlbn b ceotcndtyysq hjcn åtkjuj b xthyjrjétuj yfctktybz. D 90-t uu. d änbö ujhjlfö b bö jrhtcnyjcnzö
cjplfñncz yjdst hfåjxbt vtcnf, b egjvzyenst dsit
yjdst bvvbuhfyncrbt vtymibycndf yföjlzn ctåt ybib rfr d dthöytq, nfr b d ybéytq xfcnb ärjyjvbxtcrjuj cgtrnhf. D änbö hfqjyfö pf gthdst ctvm ktn 90-ö
uu. xbcktyyjcnm yfctktybz rféljq uheggs djphjckf
gj rhfqytq vtht yf 40 ghjwtynjd, ghbxtv d 1997 u. d
rféljq fukjvthfwbb ghjébdfkj yt vtytt 50 nsc.
ghtlcnfdbntktq rféljuj bp änbö vtymibycnd.
Xnj rfcftncz kfnbyjfvthbrfywtd, nj bö xbcktyyjcnm d Kfc-Dtufct edtkbxbkfcm pf ntreott ltcznbktnbt åjktt xtv yf 100 ghjwtynjd. Yt yfvyjuj jncnftn
cnjkbwf Yjdjuj Ñuf Fnkfynf, ult lj ytlfdytuj dhtvtyb kfnbyjfvthbrfywtd åskj rhfqyt vfkj. Xnj ét
lj jcnfkmysö ujhjlcrbö fukjvthfwbq, bcgsnsdfñobö åjkmijq ghbhjcn kfnbyjfvthbrfycrjuj yfctktybz, nj jyb hfcgjkjétys, ukfdysv jåhfpjv, yf ÑujDjcnjrt b Pfgflt CIF. Gjhnktyl (Jhtujy), Jhkfylj
b Eäcn-Gfkv-Åbx (Akjhblf), Cjkn-Ktqr-Cbnb (Ñnf),
Cbänk (Dfibyunjy), Jcnby (Ntöfc) b Abybrc (Fhbpjyf) – d rféljv bp änbö ujhjljd d ntxtybt 90-ö uu. kfnbyjfvthbrfycrjt yfctktybt djphjckj åjktt xtv yf
50 ghjwtynjd. Gj rhfqytq vtht yf 40 ghjwtynjd edtkbxbkjcm jyj d nfrbö ujhjlfö, rfr Zrbvf (Dfibyunjy), Nfvgf (Akjhblf), Rjkjhflj-Cghbyuc (Rjkjhflj), Vbyytfgjkbc (Vbyytcjnf), Jrkföjvf-Cbnb (Jrkföjvf), Åtqrthcabkl b Vjltcnj (Rfkbajhybz).
Änjn cgbcjr drkñxftn hzl yfctktyysö geyrnjd, ult
eét ghjébdftn rhegyjt kfnbyjfvthbrfycrjt yfctktybt, – nfrbt, rfr Jcnby, Abybrc, Zrbvf, Åtqrthcabkl
b Vjltcnj. Jlyfrj d ytuj döjlzn b ujhjlcrbt fukjvthfwbb, ult xbcktyyjcnm kfnbyjfvthbrfywtd, ytcvjnhz yf åscnhsq hjcn d gjcktlybt ujls, ytdtkbrf (Fnkfynf – 3,2 ghjwtynf, Cbänk – 4,2 ghjwtynf, Vbyytfgjkbc – 2,1 ghjwtynf, Jrkföjvf-Cbnb – 4,8 ghjwtynf). Gthdst kfnbyjfvthbrfycrbt gthtctktyws d änb
CIF: JÅOTCNDJ B WTYYJCNB / B ÑYM 1999 U .
28
hfqjys åelen hfcgjkfufnm vtymitq cjwbfkmyjq byahfcnhernehjq b rfgbnfkjv, rjnjhsvb vjéyj djcgjkmpjdfnmcz, yj bö gthtctktybt, dthjznyj, ghjkjébn ljhjue lkz ghbåsnbz nelf yjdsö kfnbyjfvthbrfywtd d ghtlcnjzott ltcznbktnbt.
Cgbcjr yjdsö ujhjlcrbö fukjvthfwbq, ghbnzubdfñobö fpbfncrjt yfctktybt, nfrét djpukfdkzñn
Kfc-Dtufc b Fnkfynf, ult änj yfctktybt djphjckj cjjndtncndtyyj yf 92 ghjwtynf b 79 ghjwtynjd. Abybrc, Lfkkfc b Ömñcnjy d 90-t uu. edtkbxbkb cdjt
fpbfncrjt yfctktybt åjktt xtv yfgjkjdbye. R xbcke
lheubö yjdsö ≤fpbfncrbö vfuybnjd≥ jnyjczncz Vbyytfgjkbc, Gjhnktyl, Åjcnjy, Cbänk, Ltnhjqn (Vbxbufy), Ltydth (Rjkjhflj) b Vfqfvb. D änbö ujhjlcrbö
fukjvthfwbzö xbcktyyjcnm fpbfncrjuj yfctktybz yt
jcjåtyyj dtkbrf. Pf bcrkñxtybtv Cbänkf (7,6 ghjwtynf) b Ömñcnjyf (4,6 ghjwtynf), ljkz fpbfnjd d yfctktybb jcnfkmysö änbö nthhbnjhbq cjcnfdkztn vtytt 4 ghjwtynjd, ghbxtv jåsxyj pyfxbntkmyj vtymit. D nj ét dhtvz lkz åjkmibycndf gthtxbcktyysö
hfqjyjd öfhfrnthty åehysq ärjyjvbxtcrbq hjcn,
cjghjdjélfñobqcz åscnhsv hjcnjv xbckf hfåjxbö
vtcn. Fpbfncrjt yfctktybt jcjåtyyj ghbdktrfñn htubjys, cbkmyst cdjbvb ntöybxtcrb ckjéysvb b yferjtvrbvb jnhfckzvb, xnj öfhfrnthyj lkz wtkjuj
hzlf yjdsö wtynhjd ghbnzétybz.
DSDJLS
Jxtdblyj, xnj fpbfncrbt b kfnbyjfvthbrfycrbt
bvvbuhfyns gthtåbhfñncz d nt hfqjys CIF, ult
bö yt åskj d ghjikjv. Jlyfrj tot dféytt njn afrn,
xnj jyb, gj dctq dthjznyjcnb, gj-ghtéytve åelen jcnfdfnmcz vtymibycndfvb d hfqjyfö ghtbveotcndtyyj åtkjuj yfctktybz. Änb ≤änybxtcrbt gbjyths≥
gjkmpeñncz yjdsvb djpvjéyjcnzvb, yj b ytcen dcñ
nzétcnm yjdsö ghjåktv, gjljåysö ntv, rjnjhst bcgsnsdfkb bvvbuhfyns d CIF d ghjikjv. Pf gjcktlybt ujls d ghbujhjls Ymñ-Qjhrf, Xbrfuj b CfyAhfywbcrj gthtctkbkbcm lheubt uheggs gthdjghjöjlwtd. Ctujlyziybt vbuhfwbb ghbdtlen yjdst
vtymibycndf yf hsyrb nhelf d nfrbö ujhjlfö rfr
Cjkn-Ktqr-Cbnb, Vbyytfgjkbc, Jrkföjvf-Cbnb b
Rjkjhflj-Cghbyuc. D bnjut yjdst ntyltywbb dyenhb
nhflbwbjyysö fvthbrfycrbö ≤gkfdbkmysö rjnkjd≥, f
nfrét yjdst wtynhs bvvbuhfwbb ytcjvytyyj jghtltkzn d ghtlcnjzobt ltcznbktnbz öfhfrnth hfcjdsö
jnyjitybq rfr yf vtcnfö, nfr b d vfcinfåfö dctq
■
cnhfys.
Ebkmzv Ö. Ahtq, Wtynh cjwbfkmysö b ltvjuhfabxtcrbö bccktljdfybq, Eybdthcbntn infnf Ymñ-Qjhr d Jkåfyb
CIF: JÅOTCNDJ B WTYYJCNB / B ÑYM 1999 U .
29
CVTIFYYJT
YFCTKTYBT
FVTHBRB
D
HJITK K. CNÄYABKL
ntxtybt vyjubö ktn hfåjnf Öjhöt Ltkgbyfkf d rfxtcndt gjvjoybrf yfxfkmybrf jnltkf yfhjljyfctktybz Åñhj gthtgbcb yfctktybz pfrkñxfkfcm d njv, xnjås hfcghtltkznm kñltq gj xtnrbv jnltkmysv uhfafv: åtkst,
xthyst, kfnbyjfvthbrfyws, fpbfns bkb rjhtyyst
fvthbrfyws. Åelexb csyjv vfnthb-fyukjfvthbrfyrb b jnwf-kfnbyjfvthbrfywf, jy, jlyfrj, dctulf
pyfk, xnj äne ghjwtlehe yt dctulf kturj jceotcndbnm.
≤Z cajhvbhjdfkcz rfr kbxyjcnm rfr kfnbyjfvthbrfytw, öjnz d ltqcndbntkmyjcnb z kbim yfgjkjdbye
kfnbyjfvthbrfycrjuj ghjbcöjéltybz≥, – gjzcybk
jy. Gjänjve jy ghtrhfcyj gjybvftn ghjåktve cvtifyysö vtéhfcjdsö cegheétcrbö gfh, jn rjnjhsö
nhtåetncz ghb pfgjkytybb ljrevtynjd erfpsdfnm
ghbyflktéyjcnm cdjtuj htåtyrf njkmrj r jlyjq hfct. B tcntcndtyyj jyb pflfñn cghfdtlkbdsq djghjc:
≤Gjxtve vs ljkéys dsåbhfnm vtéle hjlbntkzvb?≥
D 2000 u d öjlt ghjdjlbvjq hfp d ltcznm ktn gthtgbcb yfctktybz änf ghjåktvf åjkmit yt djpybrytn.
Dgthdst d åkfyrfö gthtgbcb kñlb cvjuen gjcnfdbnm
jnvtnrb d cnjkmrbö uhfafö j hfcjdjq ghbyflktéyjcnb, crjkmrj jyb cjxnen jnyjczobvbcz r ybv. D
htpekmnfnt Åñhj gthtgbcb yfctktybz gjkexbn åjktt
ljcnjdthyeñ rfhnbye hfcghjcnhfytybz cvtifyysö
åhfrjd d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö Fvthbrb.
Ytcrjkmrj ktn njve yfpfl, rjulf nfrjq ghzvjq vtnjl jncencndjdfk, dtnthfy ltvjuhfabxtcrbö bccktljdfybq Åfhhb Älvjycnjy bcgjkmpjdfk ckjéyst vtnjls vfntvfnbxtcrjuj vjltkbhjdfybz lkz hfcxtnf njuj, rfr cvtifyyst åhfrb vtyzñn kbwj Cjtlbytyysö
Infnjd Fvthbrb, d hfvrfö bpextybz ghjwtccjd bvvbuhfwbb, rjnjhjt jy ghjdjlbk gj pfrfpe Yfwbjyfkmyjuj bccktljdfntkmcrjuj cjdtnf Fvthbrfycrjq
Frfltvbb Yfer. Htpekmnfnjv tuj ltzntkmyjcnb cnfk
jnxtn, jpfukfdktyysq ≤Yjdst fvthbrfyws: ärjyjvbxtcrbt, ltvjuhfabxtcrbt b abyfycjdst fcgtrns bvvbuhfwbb≥. Jlyfrj gjcrjkmre cfv Älvjycnjy, xtkj-
dtr åtkjq hfcs, hjlbkcz d Rfyflt b étyfn yf cjwbjkjut Iähjy Kb, fvthbrfyrt rbnfqcrjuj ghjbcöjéltybz, yf cfvjv ltkt tve yt åsk yeéty rjvgmñnth
lkz gjybvfybz nhfycajhvfwbq, ghjbcöjlzobö d yfitv jåotcndt. Jy b tuj ctvmz – ébdst b ltqcndeñobt exfcnybrb änjuj ghjwtccf.
Kbwj Fvthbrb vtyztncz d åerdfkmyjv cvsckt ckjdf. Rfr crfpfk Ghtpbltyn Rkbynjy, vs ljkéys åsnm
ujnjds r njve, xnj xthtp 30-40 ktn yb jlyf hfcf yt
åeltn cjcnfdkznm åjkmibycndj d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö Fvthbrb. Cfv Rkbynjy ujnjdbncz r änjve dhtvtyb, ibhjrj jåceélfz djghjcs, cdzpfyyst c hfcjdjq
nthgbvjcnmñ b ljcnjbycndfvb rekmnehyjuj vyjujjåhfpbz. Lheubt lbcrenbheñn j gjkbnbrt d jåkfcnb
bvvbuhfwbb. D wtynht gjxnb dctö lbcreccbq yföjlbncz gjntywbfkmyfz djpvjéyjcnm hfcrjkf d cnhfyt,
rjnjhfz åjkmit yt åeltn cnhfyjq c ghtbveotcndtyyj åtksv yfctktybtv, d jcyjdyjv tdhjgtqcrjuj
ghjbcöjéltybz.
Yj d ghjnbdjgjkjéyjv yfghfdktybb hfpdbdftncz
byfz ntyltywbz, rjnjhfz – ghb evtkjv jåhfotybb –
vjétn crjhtt ntcytt jåütlbybnm, xtv hfpütlbybnm
cnhfye. Änf nböfz ltvjuhfabxtcrfz ≤rjynhhtdjkñwbz≥ cdzpfyf c rjkjccfkmysv hjcnjv xbckf cvtifyysö åhfrjd.
≤Ltvjuhfabz – ltkj dtcmvf bynbvyjt, – jnvtxftn
Åty Lé. Ejnntyåthu, cjnhelybr Fvthbrfycrjuj bycnbnenf ghtlghbybvfntkmcndf b bccktljdfybq ujcelfhcndtyyjq gjkbnbrb (FBG) d Dfibyunjyt. – Cenm
yt d njv, j xtv ujdjhzn frnbdbcns, cenm d njv, xnj
ltkfñn vjkjlst kñlb b ltdeirb. F jyb pfybvfñncz
ntv, xnj dcnegfñn d åhfr lheu c lheujv b pfdjlzn ltntq≥.
Gj ghjuyjpe Älvjycnjyf, r 2050 u. 21 ghjwtyn yfctktybz CIF åeltn bvtnm cvtifyyjt hfcjdjt bkb
änybxtcrjt ghjbcöjéltybt, gj chfdytybñ c ctvmñ
ghjwtynfvb, rjnjhst, gj jwtyrfv, änjn gjrfpfntkm
cjcnfdkzñn d yfcnjzott dhtvz. Jy b lheubt bcckt-
CIF: JÅOTCNDJ B WTYYJCNB / B ÑYM 1999 U .
30
ljdfntkb cxbnfñn, xnj chtlb nhtnmtuj gjrjktybz
fvthbrfywtd kfnbyjfvthbrfycrjuj b fpbfncrjuj
ghjbcöjéltybz pfrkñxtybt åhfrjd c gfhnythfvb pf
ghtltkfvb njq bkb byjq jghtltktyyjq änybxtcrjq
bkb hfcjdjq uheggs cjcnfdkztn yt vtytt 50 ghjwtynjd. Nfrjuj hjlf åhfrb pyfxbntkmyj vtytt hfcghjcnhfytys chtlb fahjfvthbrfywtd, jlyfrj b chtlb
ybö bö ehjdtym pyfxbntkmyj dshjc, ghbvthyj c
1,5 ghjwtynf d 1960-t ujls lj 8–10 ghjwtynjd d
yfcnjzott dhtvz.
Cnjkm ukeåjrbt ltvjuhfabxtcrbt cldbub vjukb
ghjqnb ytpfvtxtyysvb, gjcrjkmre gj rhfqytq vtht
jabwbfkmyj pf änbv ybrnj yt yfåkñlfk. Atlthfkmyst dtljvcndf nhflbwbjyyj cjåbhfkb lfyyst c bcgjkmpjdfybtv ajhveks ≤jlby xtkjdtr – jlyf hfcf≥,
fyfkjubxyjq ajhvekt ujkjcjdfybz ≤jlby xtkjdtr –
jlby ujkjc≥, rjnjhfz yf ghjnzétybb bcnjhbb ghbjåhtkf ljcnfnjxysq fdnjhbntn. Nfrbv jåhfpjv Åñhj
gthtgbcb yfctktybz vjukj jéblfnm, xnj d åkfyrfö
gthtgbcb yt åjktt ldeö ghjwtynjd yfctktybz ghbxbckbn ctåz r ytcrjkmrbv hfcfv. D jncencndbt åjktt
ghzvjq ajhvs extnf ybrnj yt vju d njxyjcnb pyfnm,
rfrjds ltvjuhfabxtcrbt gjrfpfntkb yf ltkt.
Änf cbnefwbz dcrjht bpvtybncz. Gjckt gthtgbcb
2000 u. e ghfdbntkmcndf CIF gjzdbncz kexitt ghtlcnfdktybt j htfkmyjv gjkjétybb ltk. D 1997 u. Flvbybcnhfnbdyj-åñlétnyjt eghfdktybt CIF, rjnjhjt
jceotcndkztn yflpjh pf cåjhjv cnfnbcnbxtcrbö lfyysö yf atlthfkmyjv ehjdyt, endthlbkj lbhtrnbde,
gjpdjkzñoeñ kñlzv cnfdbnm jnvtnrb d cnjkmrbö uhfafö j hfcjdjq ghbyflktéyjcnb, crjkmrj jyb cxbnfñn jnyjczobvbcz r ybv. Änj bpvtytybt cnfkj rjvghjvbccjv vtéle nhtåjdfybzvb ytrjnjhsö uhegg j
ddtltybb uhfas ≤vyjujhfcjdfz ghbyflktéyjcnm≥ b
ntvb, rnj dscnegfk ghjnbd dczrbö bpvtytybq, åjzcm
hfpåfdktybz b cjrhfotybz xbcktyyjcnb cdjbö uhegg.
D öjlt gjlujnjdrb r gthtgbcb 2000 u. Åñhj gthtgbcb yfctktybz ghjdtkj utythfkmyst htgtnbwbb d
nhtö ujhjlfö Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd Fvthbrb. D Cfrhfvtynj, in. Rfkbajhybz, 5,4 ghjwtynf yfctktybz
cltkfkb jnvtnre d ytcrjkmrbö uhfafö j hfcjdjq ghbyflktéyjcnb, xnj gjxnb dnhjt ghtdsiftn ljkñ, rjnjheñ jéblfkb vyjubt cgtwbfkbcns. Rjkbxtcndtyyst gjrfpfntkb nfrét cdbltntkmcndeñn j njv, xnj
xbckj cvtifyysö åhfrjd hfcntn. Chtlb kñltq cnfhit 18 ktn 4,1 ghjwtynf cltkfkb jnvtnre d ytcrjkmrbö
uhfafö, f chtlb kbw lj 18 ktn bö xbckj cjcnfdbkj
8,1 ghjwtynf.
lyfrj, rjulf jncencndeñn jabwbfkmyst
rjkbxtcndtyyst gjrfpfntkb, djrheu hfcjdsö djghjcjd djpybrfñn ujhzxbt
cgjhs, f vtéle cjgthybxfñobvb hfcjdsvb b änybxtcrbvb uheggfvb yfctktybz xfcnj djpybrftn ytljdthbt, vytybz gj djghjce j pyfxtybb
cvtifyysö åhfrjd lkz fvthbrfycrjuj jåotcndf d
åeleotv, hfcöjlzncz.
Ytrjnjhst cjwbjkjub yfpsdfñn cvtifyyst åhfrb
vtéle fpbfnfvb b åtksvb, f nfrét vtéle kfnbyj- b
fyukjfvthbrfywfvb ghjcnj gjcktlytq ljåfdrjq d
gkfdbkmysq rjntk, d rjnjhjv c yfxfkf änjuj dtrf åskj gthtgkfdktyj nfr vyjuj bhkfylcrbö, bnfkmzycrbö,
ytvtwrbö b lheubö ctvtq tdhjgtqcrjuj ghjbcöjéltybz. Jlyfrj, ytcvjnhz yf hjcn xbckf åhfrjd vtéle
åtksvb b xthysvb, vyjubt cjvytdfñncz d njv, xnj
fahjfvthbrfyws ghbven pfvtnyjt exfcnbt d änjv
ghjwtcct.
≤Z gjkfufñ, xnj d Fvthbrt ceotcndetn gjxnb ytecnhfybvfz uhfybwf vtéle xthysvb b dctvb ghjxbvb, – cxbnftn Hjléth Ebkrbyc, ghjatccjh bcnjhbb d
Eybdthcbntnt Léjhléf Vtqcjyf, lfdybq exfcnybr
åjhmås pf uhfélfycrbt ghfdf. – Xthyst dctulf åskb
nhelyj gthtdfhbdftvjq vfccjq. Jlyfrj, ytcvjnhz yf
änj, xnj-nj dct ét ghjbcöjlbn. Dpukzybnt njkmrj yf
htrkfve gj ntktdbltybñ c exfcnbtv rhfcbdsö b yt
cjdctv åtksö veéxby b étyoby. Rnj jyb – cvtcm åtksö b xthysö, xthysö b fpbfnjd, kfnbyjfvthbrfywtd
b åtksö? Nhelyj crfpfnm≥.
Lheubt jéblfñn, xnj åhfr cltkftn nj, xnj yt elfkjcm cltkfnm lheubv rfnfkbpfnjhfv. D cdjtq cnfnmt d
≤Ymñ Ltvjrhfn≥ d 1996 u. yfexysq cjnhelybr FBG
Leukfc Lé. Åtifhjd gbcfk, xnj hfcneott xbckj vjkjltéb cvtifyyjq hfcjdjq ghbyflktéyjcnb ckeébn
≤kexitq yfltéljq yf åeleott fvthbrfycrbö hfcjdsö
jnyjitybq≥.
Hfvjyf Leukfcc, ghtpbltyn Fccjwbfwbb fvthbrfywtd cvtifyysö hfcjdsö b änybxtcrbö uhegg, c djcnjhujv djcrkbwftn: ≤Vs ghtlcnfdkztv cjåjq ébdjt
ljrfpfntkmcndj njuj, xnj kñlb ldeö hfpkbxysö hfc
bkb yfwbjyfkmyjcntq vjuen ufhvjybxyj ébnm dvtcnt, xnj cvtifyyst vtéhfcjdst ctvmb d ltqcndbntkmyjcnb yjhvfkmyj aeyrwbjybheñn≥. Vfnm Leukfcc
bnfkjfvthbrfyrf, f tt jntw – htåtyjr jn cvtifyyjuj
åhfrf fahjfvthbrfyrb b rjhtyyjuj fvthbrfywf.
Rjytxyj, vyjubt hfccvfnhbdfñn cvtifyyst åhfrb
rfr vtöfybpv gjcntgtyyjuj eybxnjétybz njq bkb
rjyrhtnyjq uheggs yfctktybz. Nfrbv åsk nhflbwbjyysq gjlöjl tdhttd, rjnjhst yf ghjnzétybb dctq
cdjtq bcnjhbb nofntkmyj jöhfyzkb cdjb hzls jn fccbvbkzwbb. Jlyfrj dtcmvf dscjrbq ehjdtym cvtifyysö åhfrjd tdhttd gjckt Dnjhjq vbhjdjq djqys
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CIF: JÅOTCNDJ B WTYYJCNB / B ÑYM 1999 U .
31
ghbdtk r gthtcvjnhe jabwbfkmyjq ljrnhbys ghjuhtccbdysvb yfghfdktybzvb fvthbrfycrjuj belfbpvf. B öjnz gjljåyst tdhtqcrbt jåobys gj-ghtéytve gjjohzñn åhfrb c tlbyjdthwfvb, jlyfrj dvtcnj
njuj, xnjås jnnjhufnm ntö, rnj pfrkñxftn åhfrb c yttdhtzvb, ntgthm jyb ghbdktrfñn r ctåt änb cvtifyyst cegheétcrbt gfhs.
≤Tdhtqcrbt jåobys, gj rhfqytq vtht, kbåthfkmyst tdhtqcrbt jåobys gthtikb jn gjpbwbb djpveotybz r gjpbwbb jödfnf, – gjzcyztn Äujy Vtqth,
ghjatccjh cjwbjkjubb d Åherkbycrjv rjkktlét b
åsdibq cjlbhtrnjh Ctdthjfvthbrfycrjuj tdhtqcrjuj åfyrf lfyysö ghb Eybdthcbntnt ujhjlf Ymñ-Qjhrf. – Yfåkñlftncz juhjvyfz frnbdbpfwbz ecbkbq gj
ecnfyjdktybñ cdzptq c änbvb ctvmzvb, yfkfébdfybñ
kbxysö rjynfrnjd, abuehfnbdyj ujdjhz, ghbujnjdktybt cdjtuj hjlf vyjujckjqyjuj ≤vekmnbrekmnehyjuj≥
gbhjuf, rjnjhsq ghtlgjkfuftncz dctv dvtcnt tcnm d
ljvfiytv rheue≥.
Öjnz cjwbjkjub chfpe ét erfpsdfñn yf hfpkbxbz
vtéle tdhtzvb b lheubvb uheggfvb vtymibycnd, ntv
yt vtytt jyb ghbpyfñn, xnj ädjkñwbz gjlöjlf tdhttd r cvtifyysv åhfrfv vjétn gjckeébnm jåhfpwjv
lkz cnhfys d wtkjv gj vtht njuj, rfr jyf jåyfheébdftn, f pfntv cnfkrbdftncz c hfcjdsv b änybxtcrbv
gthtvtibdfybtv yfctktybz.
GKFDBKMYSQ
RJNTK
Lkz njuj, xnjås edbltnm yjdjt kbwj Cjtlbytyysö
Infnjd Fvthbrb, cöjlbnt d åfrfktqysq vfufpby b
dpukzybnt yf ghjlerns gbnfybz vfhrb ≤Åtnnb Rhjrth≥. C ntö gjh, rfr d 1936 u. gjzdbkjcm gthdjt bpjåhfétybt cdtnkjrjétq b ujkeåjukfpjq Åtnnb, änjn
gjhnhtn ghtnthgtk djcmvjt djgkjotybt. Ntgthm e
änjq ltdeirb rfhbt ukfpf b ntvyst djkjcs. Jyf
cveuktt, xtv ctvm tt ghtlitcndtyybw, f tt xthns
ghtlcnfdkzñn cjåjq ytrbq cgkfd kbw åtkjuj, kfnbyjfvthbrfycrjuj, byltqcrjuj, fahbrfycrjuj b fpbfncrjuj ghjbcöjéltybz.
nf yjdfz Åtnnb åskf cjplfyf rjvgmñnthjv
d cthtlbyt 1990-ö ujljd gjchtlcndjv
jåütlbytybz ajnjuhfabq 75 hfpkbxysö
étyoby. Rfr gjzcyztn ghtlcnfdbntkm rjvgfybb ≤Létythfk Vbkkc, Byr.≥, ghjwtcc yt pfyzk
ckbirjv vyjuj dhtvtyb. Jlyfrj rjvgfybz ghbpyftn,
xnj hfcghjcnhfytybt yjdjuj jåhfpf yf dcñ yjvtyrkfnehe ghjlerwbb vfhrb ≤Åtnnb Rhjrth≥ dct ét gjnhtåjdfkj lkbntkmyjuj dhtvtyb.
Ä
Vtlktyysq öjl cfvjuj änjuj ghjwtccf vjétn åsnm
jkbwtndjhtybtv gjcntgtyyjuj gthtvtibdfybz hfc b
yfwbjyfkmyjcntq d yfitq cnhfyt. D cfvjv ltkt, nhtåetncz ljkujt dhtvz lkz njuj, xnjås yjdsq cvtifyysq fvthbrfytw gjzdbkcz d cjpyfybb jåotcndf.
Ñyfz pdtplf ujkmaf Nfquth Delc dytc cdjq drkfl d
äne ntyltywbñ, jåüzdbd, xnj cxbnftn ctåz ≤åtkxthybyfpbfnjv≥, n.t. cvtcmñ åtkjuj, xthyjuj, byltqwf b
fpbfnf.
Gj åjkmitq xfcnb genm d änjq ädjkñwbb ghjrkflsdftn hsyjr, f yt ghfdbntkmcndj. Gj vytybñ cgtwbfkbcnjd bylecnhbb vjls, ceotcndetn åjkmijq cghjc
yf vyjujhfcjdsö frnthjd b vjltkmthjd, d xfcnyjcnb,
yf veéxby. F lkz exfcnbz d ntkthtrkfvt ctqxfc jöjnytt dsåbhfñn ltntq-dsöjlwtd bp cvtifyysö vyjujhfcjdsö ctvtq.
≤Hfåjnybrb htrkfvysö futyncnd, rjnjhst yfybvfñn änbö vjltkmthjd b frnthjd, yt jnyjczncz r xbcke
bltfkbcnjd, – gjlxthrbdftn Ebkrbyc. – Bv yeéyj
ghjlfdfnm njdfh, b jyb dtcmvf nofntkmyj bpexfñn
ntyltywbb. Pyfxbn jyb dblzn åjkmijq hsyjr, jhbtynbhjdfyysq yf kñltq yt xbcnj åtkjuj ghjbcöjéltybz b yt nfr ghzvj yfwtktyysö yf gkfdbkmysq rjntk
nhflbwbjyyjq Fvthbrb≥.
Nj, xnj cthmtpyst extyst ujdjhzn jå bpvtytybb
jåhfpf gkfdbkmyjuj rjnkf, – cfvj gj ctåt jnhféftn
rfhlbyfkmyjt bpvtytybt cbnefwbb. D rfxtcndt vtnfajhs fvthbrfycrjuj vyjujjåhfpbz jåhfp gkfdbkmyjuj rjnkf åsk dgthdst lbcrhtlbnbhjdfy gjckt Gthdjq vbhjdjq djqys, rjulf tdhjgtqcrbt bvvbuhfyns,
öksyedibt d fvthbrfycrbt ujhjlf, jåhfpjdsdfkb änybxtcrbt b yfwbjyfkmyst fyrkfds, rjnjhst yt ceotcndjdfkb jåjcjåktyyj.
Yj dhtvz bpvtybkjcm, vtnfajhf rjnkf ecnfhtkf d
njv dblt, d rjnjhjv tt egjhtåkzkb hfymit. Cvtitybt hfc b änyjcjd yfxfkjcm gjckt Dnjhjq vbhjdjq
djqys b ghjbcöjlbkj d ghbujhjlfö. Kñlb etpéfkb
jn cdjtuj ujhjlcrjuj bnfkmzycrjuj, bhkfylcrjuj,
gjkmcrjuj bkb tdhtqcrjuj jrheétybz d byntuhbhjdfyyeñ chtle ghbujhjljd, pfntv gjcskfkb cdjbö ltntq d åjkmibt eybdthcbntns, ult nt cnfkrbdfkbcm c
vjkjltémñ lheujuj änybxtcrjuj ghjbcöjéltybz, rjnjhfz ntv yt vtytt dshjckf d ctvmzö cj cöjlysv jåhfpjv ébpyb.
≤Åjkmibycndj kñltq dcnhtxftn cdjbö gjntywbfkmysö gfhnythjd kbåj d rjkktlét, kbåj njulf, rjulf
jyb njkmrj-njkmrj yfxbyfñn hfåjnfnm, – ujdjhbn cjwbjkju Kb bp Hbxvjylcrjuj eybdthcbntnf (in. Dbhlébybz), rjnjhfz d yfcnjzott dhtvz ghtgjlftn d
Eybdthcbntnt infnf Jhtujy d Gjhnktylt. – Tckb e
dfc tcnm dscitt jåhfpjdfybt, nj ds c åjkmijq dthjznyjcnmñ åeltnt yföjlbnmcz d chtlt kñltq hfpkbx-
CIF: JÅOTCNDJ B WTYYJCNB / B ÑYM 1999 U .
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ysö yfwbjyfkmyjcntq, b änj edtkbxbdftn dthjznyjcnm dcnegktybz d åhfr c xtkjdtrjv lheujq yfwbjyfkmyjcnb≥. Cfvf Kb – ébdjt gjlndthéltybt änjuj
ntpbcf, gjcrjkmre dcnhtnbkf cdjtuj veéf Älvjycnjyf, lbhtrnjhf gjhnktylcrjuj Wtynhf infnf gj bccktljdfybzv yfhjljyfctktybz b gthtgbczv yfctktybz,
rjulf jyb åskb cneltynfvb.
Lädbl Wty, cgtwbfkmysq gjvjoybr d Eghfdktybb
gtycbq b cjwbfkmysö gjcjåbq Vbybcnthcndf nhelf
CIF, hfccrfpsdftn gjöjéeñ bcnjhbñ. Tuj vfnm ghbtöfkf bp Ärdfljhf, f jntw åsk csyjv rbnfqcrjuj
lbgkjvfnf, ckeébdituj d Dfibyunjyt. Bö åhfr, pfrkñxtyysq d rjywt 1950-ö ujljd, åsk ytjåsxty lkz
njuj dhtvtyb. Jlyfrj, rfr ujdjhbn Wty: ≤Z levfñ, gjvjukj nj, xnj kñlb, c rjnjhsvb jyb gjllthébdfkb
lheétcrbt jnyjitybz b jåofkbcm, åskb jåhfpjdfyysvb b byntkkbutynysvb, b öjhjij ctåz xedcndjdfkb c kñlmvb bp lheubö cnhfy b lheubö rekmneh≥.
Änf lbyfvbrf ctujlyz dgjkyt jåsxyf chtlb hjlbdiböcz d Fvthbrt fvthbrfywtd fpbfncrjuj ghjbcöjéltybz b kfnbyjfvthbrfywtd. ≤Yfåkñlfñncz dtcmvf
dscjrbt ehjdyb cvtifyysö åhfrjd chtlb kfnbyjvthbrfywtd b fpbfnjd, rjnjhst ébden d ljcnfnjxyj byntuhbhjdfyysö hfqjyfö pf ghtltkfvb bö nhflbwbjyysö hfqjyjd cjchtljnjxtybz yf ñuj-pfgflt b pfgflt
cnhfys≥, – jnvtnbk Älvjycnjy. D rfxtcndt ghbvthf
jy ccskftncz yf bccktljdfybt, d rjnjhjv ghbdjlbncz
80-ghjwtynysq gjrfpfntkm åhfrjd, pfrkñxtyysö c
gfhnythfvb dyt rjyrhtnysö änybxtcrbö uhegg, chtlb hjlbdiböcz d Fvthbrt vjkjlsö fvthbrfywtd fpbfncrjuj ghjbcöjéltybz d Yjdjq Fyukbb (yf ctdthjdjcnjrt CIF).
Gfhfljrcfkmyj, yj hjcn bvvbuhfwbb b ntyltywbz
r rekmnehyjve vyjujjåhfpbñ, rjnjhst vyjubt fdnjhs hfccvfnhbdfñn d rfxtcndt jcyjdysö afrnjhjd,
dtleobö r hfcrjkfv, yf cfvjv ltkt cgjcjåcndeñn gthtvtibdfybñ hfc b änybxtcrbö uhegg. ≤Rjulf jåotcndj lhjåbncz yf nfrjt vyjétcndj uhegg hfpkbxyjuj
änybxtcrjuj ghjbcöjéltybz, nj, c vfntvfnbxtcrjq
njxrb phtybz, cnfyjdbncz dct vtytt b vtytt dthjznysv dcnhtnbnm rjuj-kbåj dfitq cjåcndtyyjq yfwbjyfkmyjcnb, – ujdjhbn Ejnntyåthu. – Bvtyyj änj b
ckexbkjcm d ghbywbgt c tdhtqcrbv yfctktybtv≥.
Jcnftncz cgjhysv djghjc j njv, jödfnbn kb xthyjrjébö fvthbrfywtd ntyltywbz ≤rekmnehyjq gthtgkfdrb≥, rfr jyf jödfnbkf lheubt hfcjdst b änybxtcrbt vtymibycndf. Crtgnbrb erfpsdfñn yf ujhfplj
vtymieñ ljkñ åhfrjd vtéle åtksvb b xthysvb b
ujdjhzn, xnj åscnhj änjuj yt ghjbpjqltn. Lheubt jn-
dtxfñn, xnj cnfnbcnbxtcrfz åfpf dtcmvf vfkf, nfr rfr
lj 1967 u. d 19 infnfö gjljåyst åhfrb åskb ytpfrjyysvb.
GHJNBDJLTQCNDEÑOBT
CBKS
Öjnz vyjubt cbks ltqcndeñn d gjkmpe hjcnf xbckf
cvtifyysö åhfrjd, lheubt jckfåkzñn äne ntyltywbñ.
Jcjåtyyj zhrj änj ghjzdkztncz e fahjfvthbrfywtd.
Hfcneobq ctuvtyn xthyjrjétuj yfctktybz, rjnjhsq bltn exbnmcz d rjkktlé, dcnegftn d hzls chtlytuj rkfccf b dstpéftn d ghbujhjls, nfrét cktletn jåotq ntyltywbb r hjcne xbckf cvtifyysö åhfrjd. Gj
lfyysv Htqyjkmlcf Afhkb, rjnjhsq bpexftn jcjåtyyjcnb hfcctktybz fahjfvthbrfywtd, änf ntyltywbz
yfbåjktt pfvtnyf d Rfkbajhybb b d nfrbö ujhjlfö,
rfr Lfkkfc (in. Ntöfc), Kfc-Dtufc (in. Ytdflf) b Atybrc (in. Fhbpjyf), ult ctuhtufwbz gj hfcctktybñ
åskf vtytt dshfétyf, xtv d åjktt cnfhsö ujhjlfö
Ctdthj-djcnjrf b Chtlytuj Pfgflf CIF. R ghbvthe,
rfr jnvtnbk Älvjycnjy, d Rfkbajhybb chtlb fahjfvthbrfywtd d djphfcnt jn 25 lj 34 ktn 14 ghjwtynjd
pfveéybö xthysö étyoby b 32 ghjwtynf étyfnsö
xthysö veéxby bvtñn cegheuf lheujq hfcs.
Jlyfrj d ujhjlcrbö rdfhnfkfö Ctdthj-djcnjrf b
Chtlytuj Pfgflf CIF cjöhfyztncz cnfhfz rfhnbyf.
≤Bvttncz pyfxbntkmyfz ljkz xthyjuj yfctktybz, rjnjhfz dct tot ébdtn d wtynhfkmyjq xfcnb ujhjljd –
d Ltnhjqnt, Xbrfuj, Ymñ-Qjhrt, – b rjnjhfz yt djdktxtyf d lbyfvbxysq ghjwtcc ärjyjvbxtcrjuj hjcnf, – jnvtxftn Afhkb, åsdibq ghjatccjh Vbxbufycrjuj eybdthcbntnf, f ysyt dbwt-ghtpbltyn Ajylf
Hfcctkf Ctqléf d Ymñ-Qjhrt. – Bö änjn ghjwtcc yt
pfnhjyek, b jyb jcnfkbcm lfktrj gjpflb≥.
ot jlyjq ghjnbdjltqcndeñotq cbkjq ckeébn bvvbuhfwbz. Rfr ghfdbkj, bvvbuhfyns
yt dcnegfñn d åhfr c kñlmvb lheujq hfcjdjq bkb änybxtcrjq uheggs. D ytrjnjhjq
cntgtyb änj ltkfñn bö ltnb, jlyfrj cvtifyyst åhfrb xfot dctuj dcnhtxfñncz d nhtnmtv gjrjktybb. Gjcktlyzz ibhjrjvfcinfåyfz djkyf bvvbuhfwbb lfkf
gjrf njkmrj fvthbrfywtd gthdjuj bkb dnjhjuj gjrjktybz.
Dyt pfdbcbvjcnb jn htfkmyjq cntgtyb ghjbcöjlzotuj hfcjdjuj b änybxtcrjuj gthtvtibdfybz, rhbnthbtv cvtifyyjuj jåotcndf åeltn ljkz kñltq, rjnjhst jcjpyfñn ctåz rfr kbxyjcnb, ghbyflktéfobt r
hfpysv hfcfv bkb änybxtcrbv uheggfv. Lj cbö gjh
änjn ghjwtyn ytdtkbr. Jnxfcnb änj ghjbcöjlbn gjnjve, xnj kñlb, rfr ghfdbkj, ghbybvfñn hfcjdeñ
bkb änybxtcreñ ghbyflktéyjcnm jlyjuj hjlbntkz –
xfcnj hjlbntkz bp änybxtcrjuj vtymibycndf, xnj öf-
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CIF: JÅOTCNDJ B WTYYJCNB / B ÑYM 1999 U .
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hfrnthyj lkz xthyjrjébö b kfnbyjfvthbrfywtd. Jlyfrj d åjkmijq cntgtyb änf cfvjbltynbabrfwbz yfdzpsdftncz jåotcndjv.
≤E vtyz bcgfycrfz afvbkbz, b z ujdjhñ gj-bcgfycrb, gjänjve kñlb cxbnfñn vtyz kfnbyjfvthbrfywtv≥, – gjzcybk Ltkgbyfk, cjnhelybr Åñhj gthtgbcb
yfctktybz.
Hfcjdfz bltynbabrfwbz vjétn bvtnm lheujq bcnjxybr, yfghbvth, jåjcnhtyyjt xedcndj ujhljcnb d htpekmnfnt ghbyflktéyjcnb r jghtltktyyjq hfcjdjq
uheggt bkb djpvjéyjcnm gjkexbnm dsujle jn ghjuhfvvs ≤gjpbnbdysö ltqcndbq≥ kbåj lheubö ghjuhfvv, yfghfdktyysö yf gjvjom yfwbjyfkmysv
vtymibycndfv. D gjcktlybt ytcrjkmrj ltcznbktnbq
cnfkj vjlysv bvtnm byltqcrjt ghjbcöjéltybt. Pf
gthbjl vtéle 1970 b 1980 ujlfvb xbcktyyjcnm kñltq, rjnjhst d åkfyrfö gthtgbcb yfctktybz cltkfkb
jnvtnre d uhfat ≤Fvthbrfycrbq bylttw≥, edtkbxbkfcm
c 800 000 lj 1,4 vky xtkjdtr, xnj ghtlcnfdkztn cjåjq
ujhfplj åjktt åscnhsq ghbhjcn, xtv gjkexfñobqcz
d htpekmnfnt dsxtnf xbckf cvthntq bp xbckf hjéltybq. ≤Kñlb htibkb, xnj öjnzn cxbnfnm ctåz fvthbrfycrbvb byltqwfvb, jnxfcnb bp-pf hjcnf änybxtcrjuj cfvjcjpyfybz≥, – jnvtnbk Létahb C. Gfcctk, lbhtrnjh Ghjuhfvvs gj bvvbuhfwbjyyjq gjkbnbrt d
Bycnbnent bpextybz ujhjljd b åsdibq yfxfkmybr
jnltkf yfhjljyfctktybz Åñhj gthtgbcb yfctktybz.
Bvtyyj änbv gjpbnbdysv gjlöjljv r hfcjdjq bkb
änybxtcrjq cfvjbltynbabrfwbb gsnfñncz djcgjkmpjdfnmcz kbåthfkmyst tdhtqcrbt jåobys. D ntxtybt
ldeö nsczxtktnbq åhfrb c yttdhtzvb hfccvfnhbdfkbcm rfr cthmtpysq ghjcnegjr. Dj vyjubö vtcnfö tdhtb xbnfkb vjkbnde jå evthibö gj xtkjdtre, dcnegbditv d åhfr c yttdhttv. D htpekmnfnt cvtifyyst
åhfrb åskb htlrb. Gj lfyysv Vtqthf bp Eybdthcbntnf ujhjlf Ymñ-Qjhr, lj Dnjhjq vbhjdjq djqys bö
xbckj cjcnfdkzkj yt åjktt ctvb ghjwtynjd jn jåotuj xbckf åhfrjd tdhttd. Jlyfrj d 1970 u. d öjlt Jåotyfwbjyfkmyjuj jghjcf tdhtqcrjuj yfctktybz dszcybkjcm, xnj pf ghtlsleobt gznm ktn 30 ghjwtynjd
yjdsö åhfrjd tdhttd åskb pfrkñxtys c yttdhtzvb. R
1990 u. änjn gjrfpfntkm cjcnfdbk åjktt 50 ghjwtynjd.
Gjckt vyjubö cjdtofybq, hfpvsiktybq b ujhzxbö
cgjhjd hfpkbxyst uheggs yfbåjktt kbåthfkmysö ntxtybq belfbpvf b tdhtqcrbt jåotcndtyyst jhufybpfwbb htibkb rfhlbyfkmyj bpvtybnm cdjq gjlöjl.
Jyb gj-ghtéytve cnfhfñncz yt gjjohznm cvtifyysö åhfrjd, yj d ckexft bö pfrkñxtybz jrfpsdfñn
hfleiysq ghbtv yjdsv ctvmzv kñltq hfpyjuj dthjbcgjdtlfybz.
Jlybv bp ntö, rnj bpvtybk cdjñ gjpbwbñ, cnfk
hfddby Läybäk Ptvtk bp htajhvbcncrjq cbyfujub d
Dfibyunjyt. Ytlfdyj Ptvtk jnvtnbk: ≤D 1979 u., rjulf
z cnfk hfddbyjv, z cxbnfk, xnj ntö hfddbyjd, rjnjhst
pfrkñxfñn cvtifyyst åhfrb, cktletn bpujyznm bp fccjwbfwbq hfddbyjd. Yj c ntö gjh vjt vbhjdjpphtybt
pyfxbntkmyj bpvtybkjcm≥. Öjnz cfv jy gj-ghtéytve
yt pfrkñxftn åhfrjd vtéle ghtlcnfdbntkzvb hfpysö
dthjbcgjdtlfybq. ≤Z levfñ, xnj, tckb vjéyj ghtlcnfdbnm ctåt vyjujjåhfpyeñ, ytjlyjhjlyeñ tdhtqcreñ jåobye, nj änj b tcnm bvtyyj nj, r xtve vs
ghbltv d åeleotv≥, – cxbnftn jy. Dvtcnt c ntv jy
ghbpyftn, xnj änj gjnhtåetn htdjkñwbb dj dpukzlfö
njq xfcnb tdhtqcndf, rjnjheñ cbkmytt jåütlbyzñn
jåobt tdhjgtqcrbt rjhyb, f yt htkbubjpyst jåsxfb.
Jgbcsdftvst Ptvtkjv bpvtytybz d rfrjq-nj cntgtyb fyfkjubxys gthtvtyfv, rjnjhst ljkéys ghjbpjqnb d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö Fvthbrb gj vtht njuj, rfr jyb nhfycajhvbheñncz b ghtdhfofñncz bp
cnhfys c ghtbveotcndtyyj åtksv yfctktybtv d
cnhfye, ult ceotcndetn vyjujhfcjdjt cvtifyyjt yfctktybt. D rfxtcndt gthdjuj ifuf gj änjve genb yfv,
djpvjéyj, yeéyj gjyznm, rnj vs. F änj nhtåetn njxyjuj djcghbznbz dctö wdtnjd b hfpkbxysö jnntyrjd
■
vtéle ybvb.
Hjitk K. Cnäyabkl, åsdibq infnysq rjhhtcgjyltyn
≤Yäiyk Léjhyäk≥, d yfcnjzott dhtvz hfåjnftn d u. Dfibyunjyt b gbitn yf ntvs ltvjuhfabb b ehåfybcnbrb.
Änf cnfnmz gthdjyfxfkmyj åskf jgeåkbrjdfyf d yjvtht
≤Yäiyk Léjhyäk≥ jn 13 ctynzåhz 1997 u. Dgjcktlcndbb gththfåjnfyf fdnjhjv. Fdnjhcrbt ghfdf jn 1997 u. ghbyflktéfn ≤Yäiyk Léjhyäk Uheg Byr.≥ Dct ghfdf pfobotys. Gthtgtxfnsdftncz c hfphtitybz.
CIF: JÅOTCNDJ B WTYYJCNB / B ÑYM 1999 U .
34
ÅBÅKBJUHFABZ
B HTCEHCS CTNB BYNTHYTN
Bpåhfyyst rybub, cnfnmb
b ljrevtyns
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BPÅHFYYST HTCEHCS
CTNB BYNTHYTN
Cnhfybwf Fvthbrfycrjq fccjwbfwbb gtycbjythjd
(FFG)
[http://research.aarp.org/]
Jcyjdyst caths ltzntkmyjcnb: ≤byajhvfwbz b jåhfpjdfybt, hfåjnf c yfctktybtv, pfobnf ghfd gjnhtåbntktq, ghfdjdfz b celtåyfz pfobnf, ghtljcnfdktybt
eckeu xktyfv jhufybpfwbb≥. FFG bcgjkmpetn äne cnhfybwe Bynthytnf lkz byajhvbhjdfybz xktyjd FFG b
yfctktybz d wtkjv gj djghjcfv, rfcfñobvcz ghfd
gjnhtåbntktq, ärjyjvbxtcrjq åtpjgfcyjcnb, hfåjns,
pljhjdmz, cfvjcnjzntkmyjq ébpyb b lheubv djghjcfv, bvtñobv dféyjt pyfxtybt lkz gjébksö kñltq.
Jyf nfrét ckeébn gjktpysv bcnjxybrjv geåkbrfwbq
[http://research.aarp.org/rgs5pubs.html], nfrbö rfr ≤Jåobt cdtltybz j gjébksö fvthbrfywfö≥ b ≤Gjhnhtn
vtymibycnd cnfhituj djphfcnf≥, f nfrét bcxthgsdfñobv cghfdjxybrjv byajhvfwbb
[http://www.aarp.org/cyber/guide1.htm].
Fvthbrf b gjébkst kñlb
[http://www.seniors.gov/intro.html]
≤Fvthbrb b gjébkst kñlb≥ – bybwbfnbdf atlthfkmysö dtljvcnd b jhufybpfwbq gj jrfpfybñ äktrnhjyysö eckeu gjébksv kñlzv. Yf änjv cfqnt Bynthytnf
ghtlkfuftncz byajhvfwbz j kmujnfö, pljhjdmt b gbnfybb, pfobnt gjnhtåbntktq, pfyznjcnb b djkjynthcrjq hfåjnt, yfkjufö, gentitcndbzö b ljceut, jåhfpjdfybb b ghjatccbjyfkmyjq gjlujnjdrt, f nfrét
ccskrb yf lheubt fyfkjubxyst bcnjxybrb.
Fccjwbfwbz fvthbrfywtd, ghbyflktéfobö r hfpysv
hfcfv (FVÄF)
[http://www.ameasite.org/]
Wtkm änjq jåotyfwbjyfkmyjq jhufybpfwbb vtéänybxtcrbö b vtéhfcjdsö uhegg pfrkñxftncz d njv,
xnjås cjltqcndjdfnm ≤hfcghjcnhfytybñ gjpbnbdyjq
byajhvfwbb j vtéhfcjdjq b vtéänybxtcrjq ghbyflktéyjcnb d bynthtcfö bylbdblf b jåotcndf d wtkjv≥. FVÄF ghtljcnfdkztn cdtltybz gj nfrbv djghjcfv, rfr rkfccbabrfwbb yfctktybz d jabwbfkmysö
fyrtnfö, vekmnbänybxtcrfz b vekmnbhfcjdfz bltynbabrfwbz, djcgbnfybt ltntq d vtéhfcjdjq ctvmt, pljhjdmt, jåhfpjdfybt b vtéhfcjdjt ecsyjdktybt.
CIF: JÅOTCNDJ B WTYYJCNB / B ÑYM 1999 U .
38
≤Fvthbrfycrfz Ltvjuhfabz≥
[http://www.demographics.com]
Yf änjv cfqnt ghtlkfufñncz geåkbrfwbb, nfrbt rfr
éehyfk ≤Fvthbrfycrfz ltvjuhfabz≥, cdtltybz j ntyltywbzö d jåkfcnb gjnhtåktybz lkz herjdjlbntktq
rjvgfybq, vtnjls vfhrtnbyuf, ghjuyjps, byajhvfwbjyysq åñkktntym j ltvjuhfabxtcrbö ntyltywbzö
b ghjuyjpfö rjyüñyrnehs, f nfrét vtnjls bccktljdfybz.
Wtynh bccktljdfybq d jåkfcnb bvvbuhfwbb (WBB)
[http://www.cis.org/]
Wtynh pfybvftncz bcrkñxbntkmyj fyfkbpjv ärjyjvbxtcrbö, cjwbfkmysö, ltvjuhfabxtcrbö, abyfycjdsö b ghjxbö fcgtrnjd dkbzybz bvvbuhfwbb yf Cjtlbytyyst Infns Fvthbrb. Pflfxf WBB pfrkñxftncz
d njv, xnjås ≤åjktt gjkyj byajhvbhjdfnm jåotcndtyyjcnm b ajhvbhjdfnm gjybvfybt ytjåöjlbvjcnb
bvvbuhfwbjyyjq gjkbnbrb, cnfdzotq dj ukfde eukf
jåotyfwbjyfkmyst bynthtcs≥.
Wtynh ltvjuhfabxtcrbö bccktljdfybq b gthtgbcb
yfctktybz (WLBG)
[http://www.upa.pdx.edu/CPRC/]
Ltqcndeñobq yf åfpt gjhnktylcrjuj Eybdthcbntnf
infnf, WLBG d jcyjdyjv pfybvftncz hfphfåjnrjq
jwtyjr xbcktyyjcnb yfctktybz infnf Jhtujy. Rhjvt
njuj, jy jåtcgtxbdftn ≤djpvjéyjcnb lkz bccktljdfybz ghbxby b gjcktlcndbq ltvjuhfabxtcrbö bpvtytybq≥. Xthtp änjn cfqn Bynthytnf vjéyj gjkexbnm ljcneg r atlthfkmysv lfyysv b lfyysv infnjd, byajhvfwbb j ghbrkflysö bccktljdfntkmcrbö ghjtrnfö, geåkbrfwbzv WLBG b ccskrfv yf lheubt cfqns
Bynthytnf.
Bvvbuhfwbz: dtxyst ghjnbdjhtxbz
[http://theatlantic.com/atlantic/atlweb/flashbks/immigr/
immigint.htm]
Fyyjnfwbb cnfntq, jgeåkbrjdfyysö d ≤Fnkfynbr Vfyckb≥ gj djghjcfv bvvbuhfwbb yfxbyfz c 1896 u.,
dvtcnt cj ccskrfvb yf gjkysq ntrcn.
Bvvbuhfwbz d gfvznb fvthbrfywtd
[http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpedu/features/immig/
immig.html]
Yf änjq cnhfybwt, hfpltktyyjq yf xtnsht öhjyjkjubxtcrbö gthbjlf – Pfctktybt, Hfcneofz yfwbz, Dtkbrbq gjlütv b Bvvbuhfwbz ctujlyz – ghtlcnfdktyf
gjlhjåyfz byajhvfwbz jå bvvbuhfwbb d bcnjhbxtcrjq gthcgtrnbdt. Ghbdjlzncz dslthérb bp jcyjdysö
bcnjxybrjd b ccskrb yf gjkyst ntrcns ljrevtynjd.
1999 u. – Vtéleyfhjlysq ujl gjébksö kñltq
[http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/iyop/index.html]
D pyfr ghbpyfybz ≤cnfhtybz xtkjdtxtcndf b cdzpfyysö c änbv jéblfybq åjktt ≤phtkjuj gjybvfybz≥
änjuj afrnf, f nfrét ghtljcnfdktybz åjkmibö djpvjéyjcntq cnfhitve gjrjktybz d cjwbfkmyjq, ärjyjvbxtcrjq, rekmnehyjq b leöjdyjq cathfö≥ Utythfkmyfz fccfvåktz Jhufybpfwbb Jåütlbytyysö Yfwbq ghjdjpukfcbkf 1999 u. Vtéleyfhjlysv ujljv
gjébksö kñltq gjl ltdbpjv ≤Yfdcnhtxe jåotcnde
lkz dctö djphfcnjd≥. Yf änjv jabwbfkmyjv cfqnt Bynthytnf ghbdjlzncz rfktylfhm vthjghbznbq, rjywtgnefkmyst b jgthfnbdyst hfvrb änjq bybwbfnbds, f
nfrét ghtlkjétybz gj ghjdtltybñ hfåjns yf yfwbjyfkmyjv ehjdyt.
Yfwbjyfkmysq wtynh bpextybz jåotcndtyyjuj
vytybz (YWBJV)
[http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/]
Ltqcndeñobq yf åfpt Xbrfucrjuj eybdthcbntnf,
YWBJV ghjdjlbn ≤bleobt yf gjkmpe jåotcndf bccktljdfybz gj pfrfpfv ujcelfhcndtyysö dtljvcnd, exhtéltybq jåhfpjdfybz, xfcnysö ajyljd, ytrjvvthxtcrbö jhufybpfwbq b xfcnysö rjhgjhfwbq≥. Bynthtc ghtlcnfdkzñn nfrbt ntvs, rfr plhfdjjöhfytybt,
gjkbwtqcrbq rjynhjkm d ébksö hfqjyfö, irjkmyfz
ecgtdftvjcnm, ktxtybt yfhrjvfybb, hsyrb nhelf b
eöjl pf gjébksvb kñlmvb. YWBJV nfrét geåkbretn
≤Jåott cjwbfkmyjt jåjphtybt≥
[http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/gss/homepage.htm],
d rjnjhjv jwtybdfñncz ntyltywbb bpvtytybq dpukzljd, jgsnf, jåsxftd b pfåjn fvthbrfywtd pf gjcktlybt 30 ktn.
Vfq 1999 u. – Vtczw gjébksö fvthbrfywtd
[http://pr.aoa.dhhs.gov/May99/default.htm]
Abyfycbhetvfz Eghfdktybtv gj djghjcfv cnfhtybz
yfctktybz [http://www.aoa.dhhs.gov/], änjn cfqn cjlthébn byajhvfwbñ j ltzntkmyjcnb b vthjghbznbzö,
cdzpfyysö c kjpeyujv ysytiytuj ujlf: ≤Edféfqnt
ghjikjt, levfqnt j åeleotv: yfdcnhtxe jåotcnde lkz
dctö djphfcnjd≥. Ghbdjlzncz ccskrb yf Ltrkfhfwbñ
Ghtpbltynf, uhfabxtcrbt vfnthbfks, vfnthbfks,
gjlujnjdktyyst lkz fyfkjubxysö vthjghbznbqw
d ghjikjv.
CIF: JÅOTCNDJ B WTYYJCNB / B ÑYM 1999 U .
39
Fccjwbfwbz yfctktybz Fvthbrb
[http://www.popassoc.org/]
Änf jhufybpfwbz, jåütlbyzñofz 3000 cgtwbfkbcnjd,
tétrdfhnfkmyj geåkbretn éehyfk ≤Ltvjuhfabz≥, cjltqcndetn ghjdtltybñ bccktljdfybq d jåkfcnb ghjåktv yfhjljyfctktybz b ghtljcnfdkztn extysv djpvjéyjcnm jåvtyznmcz vytybzvb yf cdjtq tétujlyjq
rjyathtywbb. Bvtñncz nfrét rfktylfhm vthjghbznbq b ccskrb yf geåkbrfwbb.
Ghjtrn ≤Ujkjceqnt jålevfyyj≥. Ghjåktvf:
bvvbuhfwbz
[http://www.vote-smart.org/issues/IMMIGRATION]
Ghjtrn ≤Ujkjceqnt jålevfyyj≥ yfwtkty yf ghjcdtotybt yfctktybz d djghjcfö uhfélfycrbö ghfd. Änjn
cfqn gjcdzoty ysytiybv étcnrbv ltåfnfv gj gjdjle bvvbuhfwbb. Ghtlcnfdktys fyyjnbhjdfyyst
ccskrb yf cfqns Bynthytnf, yf rjnjhsö dscrfpsdfñncz njxrb phtybz pf b ghjnbd bvvbuhfwbb.
Åñhj ltvjuhfabxtcrjq byajhvfwbb (ÅLB)
[http://www.prb.org/]
Wtkm Åñhj ltvjuhfabxtcrjq byajhvfwbb – cdjtdhtvtyyjt ghtljcnfdktybt jåütrnbdyjq byajhvfwbb j ntyltywbzö d catht yfhjljyfctktybz d CIF
b pf heåtéjv b bö gjcktlcndbzö. R xbcke gjktpysö
geåkbrfwbq jnyjczncz tétvtczxysq byajhvfwbjyysq åñkktntym ≤Yfctktybt ctujlyz≥, tétrdfhnfkmyfz
cthbz ≤Ljrkfls ÅLB jå Fvthbrt≥ b ≤Cghfdjxybr gj
yfhjljyfctktybñ≥. ÅLB nfrét dtltn cfqn ≤Gjgytn≥
[http://www.popnet.org/], ghtlcnfdkzñobq cjåjq bcxthgsdfñobq fyyjnbhjdfyysq erfpfntkm cfqnjd Bynthytnf gj djghjcfv yfhjljyfctktybz, drkñxfz cfqns, cjplfyyst ujcelfhcndtyysvb b vtéleyfhjlysvb
jhufybpfwbzvb, ytghfdbntkmcndtyysvb jhufybpfwbzvb, eybdthcbntncrbvb wtynhfvb, f nfrét fccjwbfwbzvb b cthdthfvb cgbcrjd.
CtymjhYtn
[http://www.seniornet.org/]
Rfr cktletn bp ltdbpf ghjuhfvvs CtymjhYtn ≤Rfr
gjltkbnmcz velhjcnmñ d dtr byajhvfwbb≥, tt pflfxf
cjcnjbn d njv, xnjås ≤ghjcdtofnm gjébksö kñltq d
jåkfcnb rjvgmñnthysö ntöyjkjubq b jåtcgtxbdfnm
ljcneg r ybv d wtkzö gjdsitybz rfxtcndf bö ébpyb
b ghtljcnfdktybz bv djpvjéyjcnb gjltkbnmcz cdjbvb pyfybzvb b velhjcnmñ≥.
Wtynh ltvjuhfabxtcrbö bccktljdfybq Vbxbufycrjuj eybdthcbntnf
[http://www.psc.lsa.umich.edu]
D WLB, jlyjv bp cnfhtqibö wtynhjd ltvjuhfabxtcrbö bccktljdfybq Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd Fvthbrb,
hfåjnfñn extyst vyjubö cgtwbfkmyjcntq, pfybvfñobtcz bccktljdfybzvb d jåkfcnb yfhjljyfctktybz.
Gjkmpjdfntkb vjuen dtcnb gjbcr bynthfrnbdysö htcehcjd b gjkexfnm ccskrb yf fyyjnfwbb bkb gjkysq
ntrcn vyjujxbcktyysö geåkbrfwbq, drkñxfz geåkbrfwbb Ebkmzvf U. Ahtz, fdnjhf rybub ≤Fvthbrfycrbq
ujhjl d ägjöe gthtvty≥.
Cnfnbcnbxtcrbt htcehcs d Bynthytnt: ltvjuhfabz b
ébkmt
[http://www.lib.umich.edu/libhome/Documents.center/
stdemog.html]
Cjplfyysq Wtynhjv ljrevtynjd Vbxbufycrjuj eybdthcbntnf, änjn cfqn Bynthytnf ghtlkfuftn jåibhysq gthtxtym htcehcjd Bynthytnf gj djghjcfv ébkmz b ltvjuhfabb d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö Fvthbrb.
Gthtgbcm yfctktybz Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd Fvthbrb
2000 u.
[http://www.census.gov/dmd/www/2khome.htm]
Yf änjq jabwbfkmyjq cnhfybwt, jnrhsnjq Åñhj gthtgbcb yfctktybz CIF b gjcdzotyyjq ghtlcnjzotq
gthtgbcb, cjlthéfncz ccskrb yf gkfys b rfktylfhyst uhfabrb, cdtltybz j gthtgbcb d irjkfö, jnxtns
b jwtyrb gj htpekmnfnfv utythfkmysö htgtnbwbq gthtgbcb, jndtns yf xfcnj pflfdftvst djghjcs, cdbltntkmcndf exfcnybrjd, cdjlrb afrnbxtcrbö lfyysö b
ghjxbt geåkbrfwbb.
Wtynh ltvjuhfabxtcrbö bccktljdfybq Bycnbnenf
bpextybz ujhjljd
[http://www.urban.org/centers/psc.html]
Wtynh ltvjuhfabxtcrbö bccktljdfybq ghb Bycnbnent bpextybz ujhjljd [http://www.urban.org/] ghjdjlbn
ltvjuhfabxtcrbq fyfkbp b gjvjuftn cktlbnm pf jåobvb ärjyjvbxtcrbvb b cjwbfkmysvb ntyltywbzvb, nfrbvb rfr dkbzybt bvvbuhfynjd yf ärjyjvbre
b jåotcndj d CIF, bpvtytybt cjcnfdf ctvtq, gjkjétybt ltntq d ctvmzö c ybprbvb ljöjlfvb.
CIF: JÅOTCNDJ B WTYYJCNB / B ÑYM 1999 U .
40
Eghfdktybt gj djghjcfv cnfhtybz yfctktybz CIF
(ECY)
[http://www.aoa.dhhs.gov/]
ECY pfybvftncz htfkbpfwbtq ghjuhfvv, gjvjufñobö
cjwbfkmyj ezpdbvsv gjébksv kñlzv ghjljkéfnm
ébnm ljvf. Jrfpfybt cjwbfkmysö eckeu b ghtljcnfdktybt lheubö ghjuhfvv, rjnjhst lfñn gjébksv fvthbrfywfv djpvjéyjcnm erhtgkznm pljhjdmt, gjllthébdfnm cdzpm c ctvmtq, exfcndjdfnm d jåotcndtyyjq
ébpyb b ébpyb cnhfys. Yf cfqnt bvttncz ljcneg r
≤Cnfnbcnbxtcrjq byajhvfwbb j gjébksö kñlzö≥
[http://www.aoa.dhhs.gov/aoa/stats/statpage.html], lfyysv Yfwbjyfkmyjuj wtynhf byajhvfwbb j cnfhtybb
yfctktybz [http://www.aoa.dhhs.gov/naic/default.htm]
b erfpfntkñ cfqnjd Bynthytnf [http://www.aoa.dhhs.
gov/aoa/webres/craig.htm].
Eghfdktybt gj djghjcfv cnfhtybz yfctktybz CIF.
Cnfhtybt yfctktybz d vtéleyfhjlysö vfcinfåfö
[http://www.aoa.dhhs.gov/international/iyop/default.htm]
Cjlthébn jåobt cdtltybz j vthjghbznbzö ghfdbntkmcndf CIF, cdzpfyysö c jåüzdktybtv 1999 ujlf
Vtéleyfhjlysv ujljv gjébksö kñltq, b ccskrb yf
jabwbfkmyst htxb b pfzdktybz, bybwbfnbds Eghfdktybz, jåotyfwbjyfkmyst vthjghbznbz b cfqn Atlthfkmyjuj cgtwbfkmyjuj rjvbntnf gj gjlujnjdrt r
Vtéleyfhjlyjve ujle gjébksö kñltq.
Åñhj gthtgbcb yfctktybz CIF
[http://www.census.gov]
Åñhj gthtgbcb yfctktybz Vbybcnthcndf njhujdkb
CIF geåkbretn vyjujxbcktyyst jnxtns, cnfnbcnbxtcrbt lfyyst b ltvjuhfabxtcrbt bccktljdfybz gj
CIF. Dsgecrftvsq Jnltkjv byajhvbhjdfybz jåotcndtyyjcnb Åñhj åñkktntym ≤Afrns gj hfpkbxysv
djghjcfv≥ [http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/
factsheets.html] cjlthébn ccskrb yf gjktpyeñ byajhvfwbñ yf hfpkbxyst ntvs, drkñxfz ≤Vtczw yfcktlbz
fvthbrfywtd fpbfncrjuj ghjbcöjéltybz b dsöjlwtd
c jcnhjdjd Nböjuj jrtfyf≥, ≤Vtczw kfnbyjfvthbrfycrjuj yfcktlbz≥ b ≤Jåhfnysq jncxtn lj gthtgbcb yfctktybz 2000 u.≥.
Rjyuhtcc CIF. Ctyfn. Cgtwbfkmysq rjvbntn gj cnfhtybñ yfctktybz
[http://www.senate.gov/~aging/]
Rjvbntn pfybvftncz ghjåktvfvb cnfhtybz yfctktybz
b djpvjéyjcnzvb, ghtljcnfdkztvsvb gjébksv kñlzv d cjöhfytybb pljhjdmz, jåtcgtxtybb ljcnfnjxyjuj ljöjlf, gjbcrfö hfåjns b gjkextybb ébkmz.
CIF: JÅOTCNDJ B WTYYJCNB / B ÑYM 1999 U .
41
CIF: JÅOTCNDJ B WTYYJCNB
NJV 4
ÄKTRNHJYYST ÉEHYFKS BYAJHVFWBJYYJUJ FUTYNCNDF CIF
§2
VTYZÑOBQCZ KBR FVTHBRB:
Cjdhtvtyyst
ltvjuhfabxtcrbt
ntyltywbb
CIF
Bñym 1999
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