Расширение НАТО

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DYTIYZZ
GJKBNBRF CIF
NJV 2
ÄKTRNHJYYST ÉEHYFKS BYAJHVFWBJYYJUJ FUTYNCNDF CJTLBYTYYSÖ INFNJD
YJVTH 4
Hfcibhtybt YFNJ:
gjpbwbz CIF
Jrnzåhm 1997 u.
Ghtpbltyn Rkbynjy jnvtnbk, xnj ≤hfcibhtyyjt b åjktt cbkmyjt YFNJ,
drkñxfñott d ctåz yjdst tdhjgtqcrbt ltvjrhfnbxtcrbt ujcelfhcndf, cvjétn tot kexit jåtcgtxbnm tdhjgtqcreñ åtpjgfcyjcnm b tot åjkmit erhtgbnm åtpjgfcyjcnm Fvthbrb≥.
≤Jyj åeltn cgjcjåcndjdfnm clthébdfybñ åeleobö euhjp, cjltqcndjdfnm
gjdsitybñ cgjcjåyjcnb yfitq rjkktrnbdyjq jåjhjys r htitybñ nhflbwbjyysö b ytnhflbwbjyysö pflfx gj jåtcgtxtybñ åtpjgfcyjcnb b ckeébnm
ufhfynbtq bcnjhbxtcrbö pfdjtdfybq ltvjrhfnbb d Tdhjgt. Jyj ghtlcnfdkztn cjåjq rkñxtdeñ xfcnm yfitq cnhfntubb gj cjplfybñ dgthdst d bcnjhbb
ythfpltktyyjq, ltvjrhfnbxtcrjq b vbhyjq Tdhjgs≥.
Ghtpbltyn Rkbynjy cltkfk änb pfvtxfybz, jndtxfz yf djghjcs 20 ctyfnjhjd CIF. Änbv jnrhsdftncz cthbz cnfntq d ysytiytv yjvtht éehyfkf
≤Dytiyzz gjkbnbrf CIF≥, d rjnjhsö ghjdjlbncz fyfkbp gjkbnbrb
CIF gj djghjce j hfcibhtybb YFNJ gj vtht njuj, rfr jåceéltybt änjuj
dféytqituj djghjcf döjlbn d htifñoeñ cnflbñ – d cnflbñ hfnbabrfwbb
ghbyznbz Dtyuhbb, Gjkmib b Xticrjq Htcgeåkbrb d xktys änjq jhufybpfwbb.
J xtv ghtélt dctuj pfåjnzncz flvbybcnhfwbz Rkbynjyf, Rjyuhtcc b fvthbrfycrfz jåotcndtyyjcnm ctqxfc, rjulf yf Rfgbnjkbqcrjv öjkvt yfxbyftncz lbcreccbz gj gjdjle hfcibhtybz YFNJ? Rfrbt rhbnthbb bcgjkmpeñncz d ajhvbhjdfybb gjkbnbrb CIF b dpukzljd Rjyuhtccf? Rfrbv ghtlcnfdkztncz YFNJ d ägjöe gjckt öjkjlyjq djqys, b rfr tuj ltzntkmyjcnm dsikf pf hfvrb ufhfynf djtyyjq åtpjgfcyjcnb?
Éehyfk, j rjnjhjv bltn htxm, fyfkbpbhetn änb b lheubt djghjcs. Rhjvt
njuj, r gthcgtrnbdt dsldbuftvjq ghtpbltynjv, ghtlcnfdbntkm flvbybcnhfwbb gj djghjce j hfcibhtybb YFNJ ljåfdkztn ibhjrbq jåpjh gjkbnbrb
CIF, åsdibq dscjrjgjcnfdktyysq djtyysq CIF hfpåbhftn hfcibhtybt
YFNJ c djtyyjq njxrb phtybz b d gkfyt åtpjgfcyjcnb b ghtlcnfdbntkm
CIF d YFNJ lftn jwtyre ysytiytq hjkb änjq jhufybpfwbb d vtéleyfhjlysö ltkfö. D éehyfkt nfrét ghbdjlzncz pfvtxfybz ctyfnjhjd CIF,
ghbybvfñobö ytgjchtlcndtyyjt exfcnbt d ltåfnfö d Rjyuhtcct gj djghjce
j hfcibhtybb YFNJ, b gjvtoftncz rjvvtynfhbq fyfkbnbrf xfcnyjuj ctrnjhf gj djghjce j dkbzybb YFNJ yf ltvjrhfnbxtcrbt b ärjyjvbxtcrbt bycnbnens.
Gjcktlybt cdtltybz j gjkbnbrt CIF d jnyjitybb YFNJ b gj djghjce j hfcibhtybb
änjq jhufybpfwbb, vjéyj gjcnjzyyj gjkexfnm yf yfxfkmyjq cnhfybwt Byajhvfwbjyyjq ckeéås CIF (ÑCBC), jpfukfdktyyjq ≤CIF b yjdjt fnkfynbxtcrjt cjjåotcndj≥.
Änf cnhfybwf hfcgjkjétyf dj Dctvbhyjq rjvgmñnthyjq ctnb gj flhtce:
http://usua.gov/topical/pol/altcomm/atlantic.htm
2
JÅTCGTXTYBT NHFYCFNKFYNBXTCRJQ ÅTPJGFCYJCNB
GENTV HFCIBHTYBZ YFNJ
5
Ghtpbltyn Rkbynjy jndtxftn yf djghjcs ctyfnjhjd CIF
ÅELEOBQ REHC D CATHT GJKBNBRB
TDHJGTQCRJQ ÅTPJGFCYJCNB
13
Bynthdmñ cj cgtwbfkmysv cjdtnybrjv ghtpbltynf b ujcelfhcndtyyjuj ctrhtnfhz gj djghjcfv
hfnbabrfwbb hfcibhtybz YFNJ Léthtvb Hjpythjv
HFCIBHTYBT YFNJ: ÅTPHFCCELCNDJ
BKB YTJÅÖJLBVJCNM?
18
Gjcjk Hjåthn Öfynth
Gjcnjzyysq ghtlcnfdbntkm CIF d Ctdthjfnkfynbxtcrjv cjdtnt
LKZ GJLLTHÉFYBZ ÉBPYTCGJCJÅYJCNB CTDTHJFNKFYNBXTCRJUJ
CJÑPF YTJÅÖJLBVS YJDST HTCEHCS
23
Bynthdmñ c åsdibv Dthöjdysv ukfdyjrjvfyleñobv Jåütlbytyysvb djjheétyysvb cbkfvb YFNJ d Tdhjgt
utythfkjv fhvbb CIF d jncnfdrt Léjhlétv Léjekdfyjv
RJYUHTCC B HFCIBHTYBT YFNJ
27
Cnäykb H. Ckjey
Cnfhibq cgtwbfkbcn gj djghjcfv gjkbnbrb vtéleyfhjlyjq åtpjgfcyjcnb
Yfexyj-bccktljdfntkmcrjq ckeéås Rjyuhtccf
DJPLTQCNDBT YFNJ YF LTVJRHFNBXTCRBT B
ÄRJYJVBXTCRBT BYCNBNENS
33
Léjief Vehfdxbr
Yfexysq cjnhelybr Fvthbrfycrjuj bycnbnenf ghtlghbybvfntkmcndf
BYAJHVFWBJYYST HTCEHCS
36
Fyjyc yjdsö cnfntq
Åbåkbjuhfabz
Rkñxtdst htcehcs Bynthytnf
3
Bplfntkm . . . . . . . .
Htlfrnjh . . . . . . . .
Jndtncndtyysq
htlfrnjh . . . . . . . .
Pfvtcnbntkb
htlfrnjhf . . . . . . .
...............
Htlfrnjhsrjycekmnfyns. . . . .
...............
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Cghfdjxysq jnltk .
...............
Öeljétcndtyysq
htlfrnjh . . . . . . . .
Uhfabxtcrjt
jajhvktybt . . . . . .
Gjvjoybr
htlfrnjhf . . . . . . .
Htlfrwbjyyfz
rjkktubz . . . . . . . .
...............
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Htlfrnjhs heccrjuj
bplfybz . . . . . . . . .
...............
Äktrnhjyyst éehyfks ÑCBF, geåkbretvst b
gthtlfdftvst yf dtcm vbh c nhtöytltkmysv bynthdfkjv, gjlybvfñn dféytqibt ghjåktvs,
cnjzobt gthtl CIF b vtéleyfhjlysv cjjåotcndjv, b byajhvbheñn pfheåtéyeñ jåotcndtyyjcnm jå änjq cnhfyt. Éehyfks ≤Ärjyjvbxtcrbt
gthcgtrnbds≥, ≤Ukjåfkmyst ghjåktvs≥, ≤Djghjcs ltvjrhfnbb≥, ≤Dytiyzz gjkbnbrf CIF≥ b
≤Fvthbrfycrjt jåotcndj b wtyyjcnb≥ cjlthéfn
fyfkbp, rjvvtynfhbb b bcöjlyeñ byajhvfwbñ
gj cdjtq ntvfnbrt. Dfhbfyns éehyfkjd c ubgthntrcnjdsvb dthcbzvb yf ahfywepcrjv b bcgfycrjv zpsrfö dsöjlzn xthtp ytltkñ gjckt
gjzdktybz fyukbqcrjuj dfhbfynf; dthcbb Adobe
Acrobat dsöjlzn dcrjht gjckt änjuj. Bpåhfyyst
yjvthf nfrét gthtdjlzncz yf fhfåcrbq,
rbnfqcrbq, gjhneufkmcrbq b heccrbq, ghbxtv
yjvthf yf gjcktlybö ldeö zpsrfö dsöjlzn d
ubgthntrcnjdjq dthcbb b dthcbb Adobe Acrobat.
Dscrfpsdftvst d éehyfkfö vytybz yt jåzpfntkmyj jnhféfñn dpukzls bkb gjkbnbre
ghfdbntkmcndf CIF. Geåkbretvst cnfnmb
vjuen djcghjbpdjlbnmcz b gthtdjlbnmcz
yf lheubt zpsrb pf ghtltkfvb CIF, tckb yt
cjghjdjélfñncz juhfybxtybzvb, rfcfñobvbcz
fdnjhcrbö ghfd. Ntreobt bkb ghtlsleobt
yjvthf éehyfkjd vjéyj gjkexbnm c yfxfkmyjq
cnhfybws Byajhvfwbjyyjq ckeéås CIF
(ÑCBC) dj dctvbhyjq rjvgmñnthyjq ctnb gj
flhtce: http://www/usia/gov/journals/journals/htm.
Éehyfks ghtljcnfdkzñncz d ytcrjkmrbö äktrnhjyysö ajhvfnfö lkz eghjotybz bö ghjcvjnhf, gthtlfxb, dsdjlf b gtxfnb. Rjvvtynfhbb b
pfvtxfybz vjéyj ghbcskfnm d vtcnyjt jnltktybt ÑCBC bkb htlfrwbñ gj flhtce:
Editor, U.S. Foreign Policy Agenda
Political Security – I/TPS
U.S. Information Agency
301 4th Street, S.W.
Washington, D.C. 20547
E-mail: [email protected]
Ghjcbv dfc ghbyznm r cdtltybñ, xnj
ysytiybq yjvth éehyfkf ≤Dytiyzz gjkbnbrf
CIF≥ hfcgjkjéty yf Yfxfkmyjq cnhfybwt
ÑCBC d dctvbhyjq rjvgmñnthyjq ctnb gj
flhtce: http://www.usia.gov/journals/itps/
1097/ijpe/ijpe1097.htm
4
. . . Léelbn C. Cbutk
. . . Gfnhbwbz Ö. Reikbc
. . . Lfqzy Vfrljyfkl
. . . Eäqy Öjkk
. . . Ufq Jkcjy
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Hfkma Läyötqccth
Vfhnf Ltqxth
Cmñpty Äkkbc
Cjab Ajkkb
Åhfqfy F. Uktrkth
Lébv Rtkvfy
Vfhufhtn F. VfrRtq
Létrb C. Gjhn
Cfveäk V. Fylthcjy
Dbdbfy Cnfk
. . . Åfhåfhf Kjyu
. . . Cbkdbz Crjnn
. . . Bdjyy Ifyrc
. . . Öjdfhl Cbyrjnnf
. . . Léjy Lädbc Öävbkk
. . . Léelbn C. Cbutk
. . . Bkmz Ceckjd
. . . Kblbz Djhjybyf
JÅTCGTXTYBT NHFYCFNKFYNBXTCRJQ
ÅTPJGFCYJCNB GENTV HFCIBHTYBZ YFNJ
Jndtns ghtpbltynf Rkbynjyf
yf djghjcs fvthbrfycrbö ctyfnjhjd
Ghtpbltyn Rkbynjy crfpfk, xnj jy gjllthébdftn bltñ ghbcjtlbytybz Gjkmib,
Dtyuhbb, Xticrjq Htcgeåkbrb r YFNJ, jcyjdsdfzcm yf ndthljv eåtéltybb, xnj änb ujcelfhcndf
åelen ghbdthétys ghbywbgfv Ctdthjfnkfynbxtcrjuj cjñpf, dytcen cdjq drkfl d
hfpdbnbt YFNJ b ecbkzn rjkktrnbdysq jåjhjybntkmysq gjntywbfk YFNJ. Änb rjvvtynfhbb
ghtpbltynf cjlthéfkbcm d tuj gbcmvt 20 fvthbrfycrbv ctyfnjhfv jn 11 ctynzåhz; d gbcmvt
åskb tuj gbcmvtyyst jndtns yf djghjcs, cdzpfyyst c hfcibhtybtv YFNJ.
Ghtlcnfdkzz cdjb djghjcs, ctyfnjhs erfpfkb, xnj e ybö ytn yfvthtybz dshféfnm gjllthére
bkb ghjntcn gj gjdjle hfcibhtybz YFNJ, rjnjhjt jyb öfhfrnthbpeñn ≤rfr Fkmzyc,
yfbåjktt ecgtiyj jåtcgtxbdfobq åtpjgfcyjcnm d bcnjhbb Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd, tckb yt
dj dctvbhyjq bcnjhbb≥. Jyb erfpfkb, xnj ghtélt dctuj tcnm ytjåöjlbvjcnm
d lfkmytqitv jåceéltybb b fyfkbpt änjuj djghjcf c ntv, xnjås fvthbrfyws cfvb vjukb
celbnm, åeltn kb änj htitybt ghbyznj d bö bynthtcfö bkb ytn. Chtlb ntö,
rnj gjlgbcfk änj gbcmvj, åskb ctyfnjhs-htcgeåkbrfyws Létccb Ötkvc, Léjy Ejhyth,
Räq Åäqkb Öfnxbcjy b Kfei Aärkjn, f nfrét ctyfnjhs-ltvjrhfns Läqk Åfvgthc,
Njv Öfhrby b Gjk Eäkcnjey. Lfktt cktleñn dslthérb bp djghjcjd
ctyfnjhjd b jndtns ghtpbltynf yf änb djghjcs.
DJGHJC: Rfrjq djtyyjq euhjpt ljkéyj
otq åtpjgfcyjcnb, f nfrét cjöhfybnm bcnjhbxtcrbt ltvjrhfnbxtcrbt ljcnbétybz d
Tdhjgt. Änj zdkztncz jcyjdjgjkfufñotq
xfcnmñ yfitq cnhfntubb, yfwtktyyjq yf cjplfybt tlbyjq, ltvjrhfnbxtcrjq b vbhyjq
Tdhjgs dgthdst pf dcñ bcnjhbñ vbhf.
ghjnbdjcnjznm lfkmytqitt hfcibhtybt
YFNJ? Rfrbv jåhfpjv änj hfcibhtybt
YFNJ gjdscbn åtpjgfcyjcnm yfhjljd Tdhjgs b Fvthbrb?
RKBYNJY: Åtpjgfcyjcnm Tdhjgs jndtxftn
ébpytyysv bynthtcfv Fvthbrb, rfr vs d
änjv eåtlbkbcm dj dhtvz ldeö vbhjdsö
djqy b d gthbjl öjkjlyjq djqys. Pf gjcktlybt gjkdtrf Ctdthjfnkfynbxtcrbq cjñp åsk
jcyjdysv obnjv, rjnjhsq pfobofk yfib
bynthtcs. Gjckt jrjyxfybz öjkjlyjq djqys
YFNJ jcnftncz jcyjdjq nhfycfnkfynbxtcrjq
åtpjgfcyjcnb. Åjktt cbkmysq b hfcibhtyysq Ctdthjfnkfynbxtcrbq cjñp, rjnjhsq
åeltn drkñxfnm d ctåz yjdst ltvjrhfnbxtcrbt ujcelfhcndf Tdhjgs, cvjétn kexit
jåtcgtxbdfnm åtpjgfcyjcnm Tdhjgs b Fvthbrb. Jy cvjétn jnhféfnm åeleoeñ euhjpe,
gjdscbnm yfi rjkktrnbdysq jåjhjybntkmysq gjntywbfk, xnjås jnhféfnm rfr nhflbwbjyyst, nfr b ytnhflbwbjyyst euhjps jå-
Cfvj ceotcndjdfybt YFNJ – ufhfynbz njuj,
xnj gthtl xktyfvb YFNJ, nfr b gthtl yjdsvb cnhfyfvb, rjnjhst ghbvryen r YFNJ,
yt åeltn cnjznm ytvbyetvfz euhjpf yfgfltybz. Tckb yjdst cnhfys åelen ghbyzns d
YFNJ, nj cfvfz äaatrnbdyfz cbkf clthébdfybz d vbht ghtélt dctuj cvjétn tot
kexit ghtljndhfofnm djpybryjdtybt rfrbökbåj rjyakbrnjd. Hfcibhtybt YFNJ gjpdjkbn änjve djtyyjve åkjre cghfdbnmcz c
euhjpfvb åtpjgfcyjcnb, rjnjhst dhtvz jn
dhtvtyb dct tot djpybrfñn. YFNJ cvjétn
åjktt äaatrnbdyj dsgjkyznm cdjñ jcyjdyeñ pflfxe, f bvtyyj ghjnbdjltqcndbt fuhtccbb, yfwtktyyjq ghjnbd tuj cnhfy-exfcnybw. Rhjvt njuj, rfr vs pyftv yf ghbvtht
5
Åjcybb, ghtcnegyst htébvs, ghbpsds r
yfwbjyfkbpve, f nfrét änybxtcrbt, hfcjdst
bkb htkbubjpyst rjyakbrns ghjljkéfñn
euhjéfnm nhfycfnkfynbxtcrjq åtpjgfcyjcnb.
Åjktt rhegyst b cbkmyst cjjåotcndf
nhfycfnkfynbxtcrbö ujcelfhcnd, rjnjhst
cvjuen jåütlbybnm dct cdjb djpvjéyjcnb
gj jåtcgtxtybñ åtpjgfcyjcnb, cvjuen lfnm
ljcnjqysq jndtn d ckexft, tckb djpybrfñn
xhtpdsxfqyst jåcnjzntkmcndf.
jåcnfyjdre lkz lfkmytqituj ghjwdtnfybz.
D rféljv ghtlsleotv ckexft hfcibhtybz
YFNJ, yfghbvth, ghb ghbcjtlbytybb Uhtwbb
b Nehwbb d 1952 ujle, Pfgflyjq Uthvfybb –
d 1955 ujle b Bcgfybb – d 1982 ujle, pyfxbntkmyj ecbkbdfkbcm cnfåbkmyjcnm b ltvjrhfnbz d rféljq yjdjq cnhfyt-exfcnybwt
YFNJ, f nfrét edtkbxbdfkjcm rjkbxtcndj
cnhfy, rjnjhst åhfkb yf ctåz jåzpfntkmcndf
pfobofnm nhfycfnkfynbxtcrjt cjjåotcndj.
D yfcnjzott dhtvz hfcibhtybt YFNJ vjétn ghbytcnb Djcnjxyjq Tdhjgt nj, xnj jyj
cltkfkj lkz Pfgflyjq Tdhjgs. Lfét gthcgtrnbdf xktycndf d YFNJ gjpdjkbkf erhtgbnm ltvjrhfnbñ d Wtynhfkmyjq Tdhjgt,
eukeåbnm htajhvs gj cjplfybñ cdjåjlyjuj
hsyrf b gjvjxm cnhfyfv, ghtntyleñobv yf
xktycndj d YFNJ, hfphtibnm rjyakbrns
cj cdjbvb cjctlzvb.
Hfcibhtybt YFNJ gjpdjkbn juhflbnm Tdhjge jn ytnhflbwbjyysö afrnjhjd euhjps
åtpjgfcyjcnb tt cnhfy-exfcnybw bpdyt: hfcghjcnhfytybz jheébz vfccjdjuj gjhfétybz
b hfrtnysö cbcntv lfkmytuj ltqcndbz.
Yb jlby bp yfc yt cvjétn äaatrnbdyj
cghfdbnmcz c änbvb dblfvb euhjps d jlbyjxre. Hfcibhtybt YFNJ gjpdjkbn eukeåbnm b hfpyjjåhfpbnm rjjhlbyfwbñ ltqcndbq
vtéle ujcelfhcndfvb c gjvjomñ änjuj
fkmzycf – jlyjuj bp yfbåjktt ltqcndtyysö
bycnhevtynjd htitybz änbv ghjåktv.
DJGHJC: Rfrbv jåhfpjv hfcibhtybt
YFNJ ecbkbn cnfåbkmyjcnm d Tdhjgt, tckb
cnhfys, rjnjhst cnfkrbdfñncz c yfbåjkmitq euhjpjq cdjtq åtpjgfcyjcnb, drkñxfz
cnhfys Åfknbb b ytcrjkmrj lheubö ujcelfhcnd, yt åelen drkñxtys d änjn ghjwtcc yf
gthdjv änfgt hfcibhtybz Fkmzycf?
YFNJ ljkéyj åsnm nfrét ujnjdj rj
dczrbv lheubv ytjéblfyysv cbnefwbzv,
drkñxfz dthjznyjcnm njuj, xnj Hjccbz vjétn jcnfdbnm bltb ltvjrhfnbb b djpdhfnbnmcz r gjkbnbrt cjdtncrjuj gthbjlf.
Öjnz vs levftv, xnj nfrjq dfhbfyn vfkjdthjznty. Vs cnhtvbvcz cjplfnm ljcnfnjxyj cbkmyst cnbveks lkz njuj, xnjås eukeåbnm jåzpfntkmcndf Hjccbb d catht ltvjrhfnbxtcrbö ghbywbgjd b vbhysö jnyjitybq
c tt cjctlzvb gjchtlcndjv yfitq gjkbnbrb,
yfghfdktyyjq yf pfrkñxtybt cjukfitybq c
Hjccbtq. Änb ecbkbz, f nfrét ghjwtcc hfcibhtybz YFNJ b gjlgbcfybt Jcyjdjgjkfufñotuj frnf vtéle Hjccbtq b YFNJ,
gjdsczn dthjznyjcnm njuj, xnj Hjccbz ghjljkébn cdjq rehc gj genb ltvjrhfnbxtcrjuj b vbhyjuj hfpdbnbz.
RKBYNJY: Hfcibhtybt YFNJ gjpdjkbn
erhtgbnm cnfåbkmyjcnm dj dctq Tdhjgt b
jåtcgtxbnm åtpjgfcyjcnm dctv ltvjrhfnbxtcrbv ujcelfhcndfv Tdhjgs, f yt njkmrj
ntv, rjnjhst åelen ghbyzns gthdsvb.
Änj åeltn cghfdtlkbdj gj wtkjve hzle
ghbxby.
• Dj-gthdsö, hfcibhtybt YFNJ – änj yt
cbñvbyenyjt cjåsnbt, f lkbntkmysq ghjwtcc, rjnjhsq åeltn ghjljkéty b gjckt
gthdjuj änfgf. D Vflhblcrjv rjvvñybrt
åskj cgtwbfkmyj jnvtxtyj, xnj YFNJ ≤jcnfdkztn jnrhsnjq ldthm lkz ghbyznbz ljgjkybntkmysö xktyjd Fkmzycf d åeleotv≥.
Nt ujcelfhcndf, rjnjhst zdkzñncz dthjznysvb rfylblfnfvb lkz xktycndf d YFNJ d
åeleotv, njkmrj dsuflfñn jn njuj, xnj jyb
åelen pyfnm, xnj YFNJ jåtcgjrjtyj bö åtpjgfcyjcnmñ.
D rjytxyjv cxtnt, hfcibhtybt YFNJ gjpdjkbn cjöhfybnm bcnjhbxtcrbt ljcnbétybz ltvjrhfnbb d Tdhjgt b eybxnjébnm bcreccndtyyj cjplfyyeñ Cnfkbysv kbybñ hfpltkf.
Yf ghjnzétybb 50 ktn Ctdthjfnkfynbxtcrjve cjñpe elfdfkjcm ghtljndhfofnm djpdhfotybt r kjrfkmysv rjyakbrnfv, erhtgkznm ltvjrhfnbñ b cjplfdfnm yfltéyeñ
• Dj-dnjhsö, YFNJ ghtlghbybvftn wtksq
hzl wtktyfghfdktyysö ifujd, xnjås gjds6
cbnm åtpjgfcyjcnm ujcelfhcnd, rjnjhst
åelen ghbyzns yf gthdjv änfgt, f bvtyyj,
yfxbyfz c edtkbxtybz xbckf exfcnybrjd d
ghjuhfvvt YFNJ ≤Gfhnythcndj dj bvz vbhf≥ b rjyxfz cjplfybtv Cjdtnf Tdhjfnkfynbxtcrjuj Gfhnythcndf (CTFG) b pfdthitybz hfåjns yfl Öfhnbtq YFNJ-Erhfbyf.
åcndtyysö yfwbjyfkmysö djjheétyysö cbk.
D atdhfkmcrjv ljrkflt åskj crfpfyj, xnj
cnhfys åelen cfvb jgkfxbdfnm hfcöjls,
cdzpfyyst c hfcibhtybtv YFNJ, pf bcrkñxtybtv ntö ghjuhfvv, rjnjhst yfwtktys yf
cjdvtcnyjt abyfycbhjdfybt. D htpekmnfnt
änjuj, gj jwtyrt Vbybcnthcndf jåjhjys,
jrjkj 40 ghjwtynjd ytgjchtlcndtyysö pfnhfn, cdzpfyysö c hfcibhtybtv, åeltn abyfycbhjdfnmcz cfvbvb cnhfyfvb b 60 ghjwtynjd hfcöjljd åelen rjvgtycbhjdfnmcz bp
jåobö ajyljd. Jåobt pfnhfns cjcnfdzn
ghbåkbpbntkmyj jn 9 lj 12 vbkkbfhljd ljkkfhjd, f änj åeltn jpyfxfnm, xnj yjdst
cnhfys-exfcnybws åelen jgkfxbdfnm ghbåkbpbntkmyj 35 ghjwtynjd ytgjchtlcndtyysö
pfnhfn, cdzpfyysö c hfcibhtybtv YFNJ
(jn 3 lj 4,5 vbkkbfhljd ljkkfhjd dgkjnm
lj 2009 ujlf bkb jn 230 lj 350 vbkkbjyjd
ljkkfhjd tétujlyj); ntgthtiybt cnhfysexfcnybws (yt drkñxfz CIF) åelen jgkfxbdfnm jrjkj 50 ghjwtynjd (jn 4,5 lj 5,5
vbkkbfhljd ljkkfhjd pf dtcm gthbjl bkb
jn 350 lj 425 vbkkbjyjd rfélsq ujl); xnj
rfcftncz Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd, nj jyb åelen dsgkfxbdfnm cdjñ 24-ghjwtynyeñ ljkñ
yf cjdvtcnyst ghjuhfvvs, cdzpfyyst c hfcibhtybtv Fkmzycf (jrjkj 15 ghjwtynjd –
yf jåobt jåzpfntkmcndf, cdzpfyyst c hfcibhtybtv YFNJ bkb ghbåkbpbntkmyj jn 1,5
lj 2 vbkkbfhljd ljkkfhjd d gthbjl c 2000
gj 2009 ujls), nj tcnm, d chtlytv jn 150 lj
200 vbkkbjyjd ljkkfhjd d ujl.
• B, yfrjytw, hfcibhtybt YFNJ ljkéyj
yfxfnmcz c ghbyznbz cfvsö cbkmysö ghtntyltynjd, d ghjnbdyjv ckexft änjn ghjwtcc yt
cnjbkj yfxbyfnm cjdctv. Åfknbqcrbt ujcelfhcndf jcjpyfñn, xnj hfcibhtybt YFNJ
rfr ghjwtcc, rjnjhsq ufhfynbhetn cnfåbkmyjcnm djrheu bö cjåcndtyysö uhfybw, pyfxbntkmyj gjdscbn bö åtpjgfcyjcnm, öjnz jyb
tot yt gjkexbkb ghbukfitybt cnfnm ujcelfhcndfvb-exfcnybwfvb YFNJ. Jyb dshfpbkb cdjñ gjllthére yfitq gjkbnbrt b jabwbfkmyj jljåhbkb htitybt, ghbyznjt yf
Vflhblcrjv cfvvbnt. Erhfbycrbt kblths
pfyzkb nfreñ ét gjpbwbñ, gjcrjkmre hfccvfnhbdfñn ghbcencndbt gthcgtrnbdysö
cnhfy-exfcnybw YFNJ yf cdjbö pfgflysö
uhfybwfö rfr dféysq drkfl d jåtcgtxtybt
ljkujchjxyjq åtpjgfcyjcnb bö cnhfys.
DJGHJC: D ljrkflt flvbybcnhfwbb Rjyuhtcce gj gjdjle hfcibhtybz YFNJ jn
atdhfkz 1997 ujlf ds ghtlgjkjébkb, xnj
yf Cjtlbytyyst Infns ghbltncz njkmrj
15 ghjwtynjd ytgjchtlcndtyysö pfnhfn, cdzpfyysö c hfcibhtybtv Fkmzycf, d nj dhtvz
rfr yjdst xktys YFNJ åelen jåzpfys dsgkfnbnm 35 ghjwtynjd, f tuj ntgthtiybt
xktys YFNJ (yt drkñxfz Fvthbre) åelen
gkfnbnm 50 ghjwtynjd. Åelen kb änb cevvs
dsgkfxbdfnm yjdst xktys YFNJ bkb tuj
ntgthtiybt cnhfys-exfcnybws? Åeltnt kb
ds jåceélfnm cjukfitybt j hfcghtltktybb
hfcöjljd dj dhtvz gthtujdjhjd j hfcibhtybb? Tckb ytn, nj rfr dfif bkb åeleofz
flvbybcnhfwbz cvjétn rjvgtycbhjdfnm änb
hfcöjls?
Rhjvt ytgjchtlcndtyysö pfnhfn, cdzpfyysö
c hfcibhtybtv Fkmzycf, jnltkmyst cnhfysexfcnybws dsyeéltys åelen ghjljkéfnm
ecbkbz gj cjdthitycndjdfybñ åscnhjq gthtåhjcrb cdjbö djjheétyysö cbk c ntv,
xnjås jyb jndtxfkb nhtåjdfybzv, pfabrcbhjdfyysv d yjdjq cnhfntubxtcrjq rjywtgwbb YFNJ, ghbyznjq d 1991 ujle. Pflfxb gj
åscnhjq gthtåhjcrt djjheétyysö cbk åelen bvtnm jcjåjt pyfxtybt gj vtht hfcibhtybz YFNJ, exbnsdfz htpjkñwbñ cnhfyexfcnybw, rjnjhfz rjycnfnbhetn, xnj jåjhjyf nthhbnjhbq yjdsö xktyjd YFNJ åeltn
jceotcndkznmcz pf cxtn bö ecbktybz d gthbjl euhjps, f yt gjchtlcndjv hfpdthnsdfybz
vyjujxbcktyysö djjheétyysö cbk. Gjcrjkmre Cjtlbytyyst Infns eét jåkflfñn
RKBYNJY: Jwtyrf hfcöjljd d ljrkflt
Rjyuhtcce jn atdhfkz 1997 ujlf jnxfcnb
jcyjdsdfkfcm yf cnfylfhnysö cjukfitybzö
YFNJ j hfcghtltktybb hfcöjljd. D cjjndtncndbb c änbvb ghbywbgfvb rfélfz cnhfyf jgkfxbdftn cnjbvjcnm cjlthéfybz tt cj7
pyfxbntkmysvb djpvjéyjcnzvb gj åscnhjq
gthtåhjcrt cdjbö djjheétyysö cbk, jyb yt
cnjkryenmcz c nfrjuj hjlf hfcöjlfvb d åeleotv. Vs åeltv ghjljkéfnm gjllthébdfnm yfibö tdhjgtqcrbö cjñpybrjd d ltkt
hfpdbnbz djpvjéyjcntq gj åscnhjq gthtåhjcrt djjheétyysö cbk, gkfybhez lfkmytqitt hfpdbnbt rjkktrnbdysö djjheétyysö cbk d hfvrfö YFNJ.
xktyjd. Nfrjq nbg ärjyjvbxtcrjq rjyrehtywbb b lbcåfkfycf vjétn cnfnm bcnjxybrjv
nhtybq b ytcnfåbkmyjcnb d Wtynhfkmyjq
Tdhjgt. Åeltn kb YFNJ dsyeéltyj jncnegbnm b hfphtifnm änb cfvst rjyakbrns,
rjnjhst dspdfys gjkbnbrjq dsåjhf yjdsö
gfhnythjd? Yt åeltn kb xktycndj d Tdhjgtqcrjv Cjñpt åjktt ghbdktrfntkmysv dfhbfynjv lkz ljcnbétybz ärjyjvbxtcrjq
cnfåbkmyjcnb, r rjnjhjq cnhtvzncz cnhfys,
ghtntyleñobt yf xktycndj d YFNJ?
Änb gjcktlybt jwtyrb pfnhfn, cdzpfyysö c
hfcibhtybtv Fkmzycf, drkñxfz nt, rjnjhst
åskb ghtlcnfdktys flvbybcnhfwbtq, ytbpåtéyj zdkzñncz ghjcnj evjphbntkmysvb
jwtyrfvb. Ctqxfc, rjulf YFNJ ghbyzkj htitybt, rfrbt ujcelfhcndf ghbukfcbnm, xnjås
yfxfnm gthtujdjhs jå bö dcnegktybb d
YFNJ, vjéyj åeltn åjktt njxyj jwtybnm
bö gjnhtåyjcnb d jåtcgtxtybt åtpjgfcyjcnb
b bö htpthds, f nfrét jghtltkbnm dkbzybt
änjuj ifuf yf åñlétn YFNJ. Änjn ghjwtcc
yfxytncz chfpe b åeltn ntcyj cdzpfy c ghjwtccjv ghbyznbz yjdsö xktyjd d YFNJ. B
öjnz rféljt bp nhtö ghbukfityysö yf gthtujdjhs ujcelfhcnd ghjltvjycnhbhjdfkj
cdjñ ujnjdyjcnm dytcnb cdjq drkfl, xnjås
rjvgtycbhjdfnm jåobt b yfwbjyfkmyst pfnhfns, cdzpfyyst c xktycndjv d YFNJ, gthtujdjhs jå bö ghbyznbb gjpdjkzn åjktt
xtnrj cajhvekbhjdfnm bö jåzpfntkmcndf b
pflfxb.
RKBYNJY: Ärjyjvbxtcrbt ghjåktvs
ceotcndeñn rfr d wtynhfkmyj- nfr b d djcnjxyjtdhjgtqcrbö cnhfyfö. Åjkmibycnde
bp änbö cnhfy ytjåöjlbvj eukeåkznm hfpkbxyst fcgtrns ärjyjvbxtcrbö htajhv, yfxbyfz c ghbdfnbpfwbb b dytlhtybz ecjdthitycndjdfyysö cbcntv htuekbhjdfybz b
rjyxfz ecbkbzvb gj åjhmåt c rjhhegwbtq.
Änj jlyf bp ghbxby, gj rjnjhsv vs gjllthébdftv hfcibhtybt Tdhjgtqcrjuj Cjñpf
c ntv, xnjås jy drkñxfk d ctåz ujcelfhcndf Wtynhfkmyjq b Djcnjxyjq Tdhjgs.
B öjnz Tdhjgtqcrbq Cjñp buhftn dféyeñ
hjkm d Tdhjgt, ytn ghbxby yfcnfbdfnm yf
dsåjht vtéle hfcibhtybtv Tdhjgtqcrjuj
Cjñpf b hfcibhtybtv YFNJ. D lfyyjv
ckexft jåf afrnjhf dféys. B d njv b d
lheujv ckexft änj åeltn ytpfdbcbvsq
drkfl d ltkj ghjwdtnfybz b åtpjgfcyjcnb
Tdhjgs. Jlyfrj hfcibhtybt njkmrj Tdhjgtqcrjuj Cjñpf ytljcnfnjxyj lkz jåtcgtxtybz bynthtcjd åtpjgfcyjcnb yfitq cnhfys
d Tdhjgt gjckt jrjyxfybz öjkjlyjq djqys.
D jnkbxbt jn YFNJ Tdhjgtqcrbq Cjñp yt
jåkflftn djtyysv gjntywbfkjv. Djtyysq
gjntywbfk zdkztncz chtljnjxbtv cbks
YFNJ, b jy ytjåöjlbv lkz cjöhfytybz tdhjgtqcrjq åtpjgfcyjcnb.
Hfcibhtybt YFNJ yt åeltn åtcgkfnysv.
Jlyfrj tuj vjuen gjpdjkbnm ctåt b ntgthtiybt, b åeleobt tuj xktys. D cdtnt ntö juhjvysö ghtbveotcnd, rjnjhst hfcibhtybt
YFNJ ghbytctn rfr Tdhjgt, nfr b Cjtlbytyysv Infnfv, jyj ghbytctn juhjvyeñ
dsujle c extnjv dkjétyysö chtlcnd.
DJGHJC: Vyjubt bp yfc hfccvfnhbdfñn
jcyjdyeñ euhjpe, rjnjhfz cnjbn gthtl 12
cnhfyfvb, cnhtvzobvbcz ghbcjtlbybnmcz r
YFNJ, crjhtt yt rfr djtyyeñ euhjpe, f rfr
åjhmåe pf ärjyjvbxtcreñ cnfåbkmyjcnm.
Vtéle änbvb 12 ujcelfhcndfvb ceotcndetn
zhjcnyfz rjyrehtywbz. Änb cnhfys åelen
bvtnm zdyjt ghtbveotcndj gthtl cdjbvb
cjctlzvb d åjhmåt pf ghbdktxtybt byjcnhfyysö bydtcnbwbq b hfpdbnbt ghtlghbybvfntkmcndf pf cxtn ghbyznbz d YFNJ yjdsö
Gj vtht njuj, rfr cdjåjlyst hsyrb erjhtyzñncz d cnhfyfö Wtynhfkmyjq b Djcnjxyjq
Tdhjgs, dgjkyt kjubxyj jéblfnm, xnj ärjyjvbxtcrfz rjyrehtywbz vtéle cnhfyfvb
änjuj htubjyf cnfytn åjktt byntycbdyjq, nfrjq ét, rfr rjyrehtywbz d Pfgflyjq Tdhjgt b d lheubö cnhfyfö vbhf. Jlyfrj yt ceotcndetn rfrbö-kbåj bcnjhbxtcrbö ghbvthjd njuj, xnjås xktycndj d YFNJ cnfkj ås
8
ås ghtjåhfpjdfnm cdjb djjheétyyst cbks,
vjlthybpbhjdfnm åjtdeñ ntöybre b dytcnb
cdjq drkfl d ltkj åtpjgfcyjcnb pf ghtltkfvb cdjbö uhfybw. Gj jwtyrt Vbybcnthcndf
jåjhjys, jyb vjuen ljcnbxm ≤phtkjuj≥ gjntywbfkf d ghtltkfö jlyjuj ltcznbktnbz
gjckt ghbcjtlbytybz r Fkmzyce. Vjéyj
jéblfnm, xnj yjdst xktys dytcen cdjq
drkfl gj dsgjkytybñ aeyrwbq b pflfx
YFNJ d ltkt jåtcgtxtybz åtpjgfcyjcnb.
pyfxbntkmyjq jnkbxbntkmyjq xthnjq d ärjyjvbxtcrjv cjhtdyjdfybb d hfvrfö Wtynhfkmyjq b Djcnjxyjq Tdhjgs. Pf gjcktlybt gjkdtrf xktycndj d YFNJ ybrjulf yt
bcgjkmpjdfkjcm lkz njuj, xnjås ghbdktrfnm
byjcnhfyyst bydtcnbwbb, crfétv, bp Idtwbb bkb Yjhdtubb.
Nj, xnj bvttn cfvjt åjkmijt pyfxtybt lkz
abhv b bydtcnjhjd, – änj ärjyjvbxtcrfz
cnfåbkmyjcnm. Cnhfys Wtynhfkmyjq b Djcnjxyjq Tdhjgs cvjuen ghbdktrfnm bydtcnbwbb c gjvjomñ ghbdfnbpfwbb, hfpevyjuj
bcgjkmpjdfybz cdjbö åñlétnjd b ltytéyjq
vfccs b ecbkbq gj cjplfybñ rdfkbabwbhjdfyyjq hfåjxtq cbks b cjrhfotybñ åtphfåjnbws. Xnj rfcftncz ntö tdhjgtqcrbq ujcelfhcnd, rjnjhst yf yfcnjzobq vjvtyn ärjyjvbxtcrb yt jxtym hfpdbns, nj ghfdbkmysv jndtnjv lkz ybö åeltn eukeåktybt
nfrbö htajhv, f gthcgtrnbds xktycndf d
YFNJ zdkzñncz ljgjkybntkmysvb gjåelbntkmysvb vjnbdfvb r ghjljkétybñ nfrjq
gjkbnbrb. Rhjvt njuj, hfcibhtybt YFNJ
yfhzle c åjktt ntcysv dpfbvjltqcndbtv
ghb htfkbpfwbb ghjuhfvvs ≤Gfhnythcndj dj
bvz vbhf≥ b htitybq Cjdtnf Tdhjfnkfynbxtcrjuj Gfhnythcndf, hfdyj rfr d cnhfyföexfcnybwfö YFNJ, nfr b jcnfkmysö cnhfyfö, gjpdjkbn erhtgbnm cnfåbkmyjcnm d
cnhfyfö Wtynhfkmyjq b Djcnjxyjq Tdhjgs,
ltkfz bö åjktt ghbdktrfntkmysvb lkz bydtcnjhjd. B yfjåjhjn, ytelfxb ghb hfcibhtybb YFNJ vjukb ås gjljhdfnm ärjyjvbxtcreñ cbnefwbñ dj dctv htubjyt. Gjcrjkmre
abhvs dhzl kb åelen bydtcnbhjdfnm ltymub
d cnhfys njkmrj gjnjve, xnj jyf – xkty
YFNJ, jyb dhzl kb jöjnyj åelen bydtcnbhjdfnm b d nfrbt htubjys, rfr Wtynhfkmyfz
b Djcnjxyfz Tdhjgf, tckb åeleott tt åtpjgfcyjcnb åskj ås gjcnfdktyj gjl djghjc.
Lfét yf ctujlyz änb nhb ujcelfhcndf dsltkbkb pyfxbntkmyjt rjkbxtcndj cbk, xnjås
htfkbpjdfnm ecbkbz YFNJ gj jåtcgtxtybñ
åtpjgfcyjcnb. Dct dvtcnt dpznst jyb edtkbxbkb xbcktyyjcnm YFNJ yf 300 000 djtyyjckeéfobö. Dj dctö nhtö cnhfyfö ecnfyjdkty étcnrbq rjynhjkm uhfélfycrbö jabwbfkmysö kbw pf ltzntkmyjcnmñ djtyysö. Bö
gthdjyfxfkmyst ecbkbz d jåkfcnb djtyyjq
htajhvs åskb crjywtynhbhjdfys yf gjdsitybt dpfbvjltqcndbz pf cxtn ybprbö pfnhfn b dscjrjq jnlfxb c ntv, xnjås ljåbnmcz äaatrnbdyjq åtpjgfcyjcnb yf åkbéfqibq gthbjl dhtvtyb. Cj dhtvtytv jyb
gjdsczn cdjq gjntywbfk, xnjås ltqcndjdfnm
cjdvtcnyj c djjheétyysvb cbkfvb YFNJ,
rfr d cdjbö cjåcndtyysö cnhfyfö, nfr b d
kñåjq njxrt vbhf.
Rhjvt njuj, Gjkmif, Dtyuhbz b Xticrfz
Htcgeåkbrf ghjltvjycnhbhjdfkb ujnjdyjcnm
dytcnb cdjq drkfl d ltkj åtpjgfcyjcnb pf
ghtltkfvb bö uhfybw. Gjkmif b Xticrfz
Htcgeåkbrf gjckfkb cdjb djjheétyyst
cbks lkz htitybt rjyakbrnjd d Gthcblcrjv pfkbdt. Gjkmif zdkztncz kblthjv d
änjv htubjyt, gjcrjkmre jyf gjvjuftn Kbndt b Erhfbyt hfpdbdfnm bö djjheétyyst
cbks b cjplftn jåütlbytyyst djqcrjdst cjtlbytybz c jåtbvb cnhfyfvb. Gjkmif, Dtyuhbz b Xticrfz Htcgeåkbrf dsltkbkb cdsit 1,5 nsczx djtyyjckeéfobö lkz Cbk
cnfåbkbpfwbb YFNJ d Åjcybb b Uthwtujdbyt, f Dtyuhbz zdkztncz njq jcyjdjq, c rjnjhjq Cjtlbytyyst Infns hfpdthnsdfñn
cdjb cbks d Åjcybb. Änb nhb ujcelfhcndf
yfxfkb cjdthitycndjdfnm cdjb ecbkbz gj
cjdvtcnyjq hfåjnt c djjheétyysvb cbkfvb
YFNJå hfpdbdfz bylbdblefkmyst rjynfrns
b exfcndez d vyjujxbcktyysö extybzö d
DJGHJC: Jåkflfñn kb Dtyuhbz, Gjkmif b
Xticrfz Htcgeåkbrf djtyysv gjntywbfkjv,
xnjås dytcnb cdjq drkfl d ltkj åtpjgfcyjcnb YFNJ, bkb ét jyb åelen ghjcnsvb gjnhtåbntkzvb åtpjgfcyjcnb yf åkbéfqitt
åeleott?
RKBYNJY: Gjkmif, Dtyuhbz b Xticrfz
Htcgeåkbrf ghtlghbyzkb dféyst ifub, xnj9
hfvrfö ghjuhfvvs ≤Gfhnythcndj dj bvz
vbhf≥.
cjnhelybxtcndf vtéle Fkmzycjv b
Hjccbtq.
Rféljt bp ujcelfhcnd ljkéyj gjcktljdfntkmyj htfkbpjdsdfnm ltqcndtyyeñ b wtktyfghfdktyyeñ ghjuhfvve htajhv gj vjlthybpfwbb djjheétyysö cbk, xnjås ljåbnmcz åjktt dscjrjuj ehjdyz dpfbvjltqcndbz d hfvrfö YFNJ, f nfrét gjdscbnm
cdjq djtyysq gjntywbfk d ntxtybt cktleñotuj ltcznbktnbz. Herjdjlbntkb dctö nhtö
ujcelfhcnd pfzdbkb j cdjtq ujnjdyjcnb dsgjkybnm äne pflfxe b ghjltvjycnhbhjdfkb,
xnj bö cnhfys cnfyen ufhfynfvb åtpjgfcyjcnb, rjulf jyb cnfyen gjkyjwtyysvb xktyfvb YFNJ.
Ghtpbltyn Tkmwby b lheubt hjccbqcrbt
herjdjlbntkb ghjnbdjcnjzn hfcibhtybñ
YFNJ, xnj jnxfcnb jnhféftn ckbirjv pfnzyedittcz ytljgjybvfybt cj cnjhjys vyjubö hjccbqcrbö gjkbnbxtcrbö herjdjlbntktq njuj afrnf, xnj Fkmzyc ghtlcnfdkztn
euhjpe lkz åtpjgfcyjcnb Hjccbb. Änj njn
djghjc, c rjnjhsv vs yt cjukfcys, b hfåjnfz dvtcnt, vs gsnfkbcm ehtuekbhjdfnm
änj hfpyjukfcbt. Jlyfrj, celz gj cbnefwbb,
vfkjdthjznyj, xnj hfcibhtybt YFNJ rfrnj gjljhdtn ghjwtcc htajhv d Hjccbb bkb
erhtgbn gjpbwbb hjccbqcrbö gjkbnbrjd-ghjnbdybrjd rjvghjvbccjd, nj tcnm, ntö, rnj
ghtlgjkfuftn, xnj bvtyyj d änjv ckexft
hjccbqcrfz ltvjrhfnbz jrfétncz åjktt
öhegrjq, xtv änj åskj d ltqcndbntkmyjcnb
yf ghjnzétybb gjcktlybö ytcrjkmrbö ktn.
Hfcibhtybt YFNJ yt dspsdftn jcjåjuj
åtcgjrjqcndf chtlb åjkmitq xfcnb hjccbqcrjq jåotcndtyyjcnb, rjnjhfz åjktt jåtcgjrjtyf ghjåktvfvb dsgkfns pfhgkfns b
gtycbb, rjhhegwbb b lheubvb dyenhtyybvb
ghjåktvfvb.
DJGHJC: Tckb hfccvjnhtnm dct afrnjhs
euhjps bynthtcfv yfwbjyfkmyjq åtpjgfcyjcnb Fvthbrb, nj gthdjcntgtyysv zdkztncz
juhjvysq zlthysq fhctyfk Hjccbb. Åjkmijq ghjuhtcc åsk ljcnbuyen, xnjås cybpbnm
yfghzétyyjcnm gj zlthysv ghjåktvfv pf
cxtn pyfxbntkmysö cjrhfotybq zlthysö djjheétybq pf gjcktlybt ltcznbktnbz. F yf
yfcnjzobq vjvtyn herjdjlcndj Hjccbb gjcntgtyyj cvbhztncz c djpvjéyjcnmñ hfcibhtybz YFNJ. F xnj ét pfdnhfiybt herjdjlbntkb Hjccbb? Hfcibhzzcm yf Djcnjr, yt
cjplftv kb vs ghtwtltyn lkz Vjcrds c
ntv, xnjås clthéfnm tt ecbkbz gj lfkmytqitve cjrhfotybñ cnhfntubxtcrbö djjheétybq b lfét yfxfnm hfphfåjnre rjywtgwbb
gthdjuj zlthyjuj elfhf?
Hjccbz ghjljkéfkf cdjb ecbkbz d jåkfcnb
htajhv b åtpjgfcyjcnb d ntxtybt gjcktlytuj ujlf yf ajyt lfkmytqituj hfcibhtybz
YFNJ. Ghtpbltyn Tkmwby åsk gthtbpåhfy.
Jy ddtk yjdsö kñltq d ghfdbntkmcndj,
rjnjhst zdkzñncz ghbdthétywfvb ärjyjvbxtcrbö ghtjåhfpjdfybq b byntuhfwbb
c pfgflysvb b vbhjdsvb cnhernehfvb.
Jy yfpyfxbk yjdjuj vbybcnhf jåjhjys,
rjnjhsq gjllthébdftn ljujdjh j cjrhfotybb cnhfntubxtcrbö djjheétybq CYD-2.
Yf cfvvbnt d Ötkmcbyrb d vfhnt änjuj
ujlf jy jåtofk gjnjhjgbnm Ujcelfhcndtyyeñ Leve c hfnbabrfwbtq Ljujdjhf
CYD-2 b dsgjkyznm Ljujdjh CYD-3, ghtlgjkfufñobq lfkmytqitt cjrhfotybt zlthysö cbk, gjckt njuj, rfr Ljujdjh CYD-2
djqltn d cbke. B, rjytxyj ét, Hjccbz ghbcjtlbybkfcm r YFNJ d vft änjuj ujlf b
pfrkñxbkf c ytq Jcyjdjgjkfufñobq frn.
D cfvjv ltkt, gj vtht lfkmytqituj hfcibhtybz YFNJ Hjccbz cnfyjdbncz åkbét r
Pfgfle.
RKBYNJY: Wtkmñ yfitq nhfycfnkfynbxtcrjq gjkbnbrb åtpjgfcyjcnb zdkztncz tlbyfz, ltvjrhfnbxtcrfz b vbhyfz Tdhjgf.
Hfcibhtybt YFNJ zdkztncz dféyjq xfcnmñ
änjq cnhfntubb, rfr, dghjxtv, b yfib ecbkbz gj gjllthért lfkmytqituj hfpdbnbz
Hjccbb rfr ltvjrhfnbxtcrjuj, ghjwdtnfñotuj ujcelfhcndf, ébdeotuj d vbht cj
cdjbvb cjctlzvb, dpfbvjltqcndeñotuj c
yfvb b c lheubvb ujcelfhcndfvb gj djghjcfv åtpjgfcyjcnb, drkñxfz cjrhfotybt
yfibö zlthysö fhctyfkjd. Nfrbvb ét åskb
yfib ecbkbz, rjnjhst ghbytckb gkjls d
vft vtczwt ghb gjlgbcfybb Jcyjdjgjkfufñotuj frnf YFNJ-Hjccbz, rjnjhsq cnfk
jcyjdjq lkz ibhjrjuj b hfpyjcnjhjyytuj
10
Änb gjcktlybt gjpbnbdyst bpvtytybz pfcnfkzñn cjvytdfnmcz d ntjhbb j njv, xnj hfcibhtybt YFNJ gjlhsdftn gjkbnbre htajhv d Hjccbb b tt ecbkbz gj jåtcgtxtybñ
åtpjgfcyjcnb. D kñåjv ckexft åskj ås gj
vtymitq vtht ytghjlernbdyj ltkfnm yfie
gjkbnbre d jnyjitybb YFNJ pfkjéybrjv
ytghtrkjyyjcnb Levs gj jnyjitybñ r
CYD-2. Gjcnegfz nfr, vs ås lfkb gjyznm
Levt, xnj vs åeltv clthébdfnm hfcibhtybt YFNJ lj ntö gjh, gjrf jyb clthébdfñn hfnbabrfwbñ Ljujdjhf CYD-2. D nfrjv
ckexft dgjkyt dthjznyj, xnj vs yt gjkexbv ås ybxtuj.
Yj yb ctqxfc, yb d åeleotv Hjccbz yt cvjétn yfkfufnm dtnj yf htitybz YFNJ bkb
yfkfufnm rfrbt-nj juhfybxtybz yf cdjåjle
ltqcndbq YFNJ.
Tckb Hjccbz åeltn ghblthébdfnmcz rjycnhernbdyjuj gjlöjlf d jnyjitybzö c YFNJ,
nj änj cjplfcn juhjvysq gjntywbfk lkz
dpfbvjltqcndbz gj ibhjrjve cgtrnhe djghjcjd, yfxbyfz c ythfcghjcnhfytybz zlthyjuj jheébz b rjyxfz uevfybnfhyjq gjvjomñ. Tckb Hjccbz ghtlgjxntn yt gjkmpjdfnmcz ntvb djpvjéyjcnzvb, rjnjhst tq
ghtljcnfdkztn Jcyjdjgjkfufñobq frn, nj
ybrfrbö ghtgzncndbq yt djpybrytn. YFNJ
cjöhfybn cdjñ cbke, ytpfdbcbvjcnm b cgjcjåyjcnm ltqcndjdfnm.
DJGHJC: Rfrbvb ghbywbgfvb vs gjcnegb-
kbcm c njxrb phtybz cdjåjls ltqcndbq
YFNJ gj hfpdthnsdfybñ djjheétyysö cbk
yf hfcibhtyyjq nthhbnjhbb Fkmzycf c ntv,
xnjås gjkexbnm cjukfcbt Hjccbb yf yfi
gkfy hfcibhtybz?
D Jcyjdjgjkfufñotv frnt ybxnj yt juhfybxbdftn djpvjéyjcnm YFNJ hfpdthnsdfnm
cdjb djjheétyyst cbks, åjtdst chtlcndf
bkb dsgjkyznm rfreñ-kbåj bp cdjbö aeyrwbq. Gjcktlyzz xfcnm änjuj frnf cjlthébn
gjkjétybz jå jlyjcnjhjyytq gjkbnbrt
YFNJ, rjnjhst ceotcndjdfkb lj ghbyznbz
Jcyjdjgjkfufñotuj frnf b, d xfcnyjcnb,
rfr Fkmzyc ghtlgjkfuftn ltqcndjdfnm ≤d
cbnefwbb gj jåtcgtxtybñ cjdhtvtyyjq b
åeleotq åtpjgfcyjcnb≥. D cdjtv bccktljdfybb gj lfkmytqitve hfcibhtybñ YFNJ pf
1995 ujl ghtlcnfdbntkb Ctdthjfnkfynbxtcrjuj cjñpf cltkfkb pfrkñxtybt, xnj lkz
hfcibhtybz Fkmzycf yt nhtåetncz rfrbö-kbåj bpvtytybq d tuj zlthyjv gjntywbfkt; yf
jcyjdfybb änjuj d ltrfåht 1996 ujlf YFNJ
pfzdbkj, xnj e cnhfy-exfcnybw YFNJ ≤ytn
yb yfvthtybq, gkfyjd b ghbxby hfpdthnsdfnm zlthyjt jheébt yf nthhbnjhbb yjdsö
xktyjd åkjrf, yb ytjåöjlbvjcnb bpvtyznm
rfrbt-kbåj fcgtrns zlthyjuj gjntywbfkf
bkb zlthyjq gjkbnbrb YFNJ≥. Jcyjdjgjkfufñobq frn nfrét gjdnjhztn jlyjcnjhjyytt
pfzdktybt ghtlcnfdbntktq YFNJ, cltkfyyjt
d vfhnt 1997 ujlf, xnj YFNJ ≤åeltn dsgjkyznm pflfxb gj rjkktrnbdyjq jåjhjyt b
lheubt pflfxb gjchtlcndjv jåtcgtxtybz ytjåöjlbvjuj dpfbvjltqcndbz, cjnhelybxtcndf
b yfhfobdfybz gjntywbfkf lkz ecbktybz djjheétyysö cbk, f yt lkz ljgjkybntkmyjuj
hfpdthnsdfybz gjcnjzyyjuj rjynbyutynf
cdjbö djjheétyysö cbk≥. Rhjvt njuj, yb
RKBYNJY: Jcyjdjgjkfufñobq frn YFNJ-
Hjccbz yt åsk gjgsnrjq regbnm cjukfcbt
Hjccbb yf hfcibhtybt YFNJ. Jy åsk htpekmnfnjv yfituj, rfr, dghjxtv, b Ctdthjfnkfnybxtcrjuj cjñpf, htitybz j njv, xnj
jnyjitybz vtéle Hjccbtq b YFNJ vjukb
ås cnfnm dféysv drkfljv d ltkj cjplfybz
vbhyjq tlbyjq Tdhjgs.
Jcyjdjgjkfufñobq frn exhtélftn änb dpfbvjjnyjitybz b jåtcgtxbdftn åfpe lkz
åjktt ibhjrjuj dpfbvjltqcndbz. B d nj ét
dhtvz dct jcyjdyst ghfdf YFNJ jcnfñncz
gjkyjcnmñ pfobotyysvb. Ctdthjfnkfynbxtcrbq cjdtn jcnftncz dscibv jhufyjv
Fkmzycf, rjnjhsq ghbybvftn htitybz.
Exhtélfz cjdvtcnysq gjcnjzyysq cjdtn
YFNJ-Hjccbz, Jcyjdjgjkfufñobq frn ghtlecvfnhbdftn nfrét ghjdtltybt rjycekmnfwbq, rjjhlbyfwbñ hfåjn, f nfrét cjdvtcnyst ecbkbz b ltqcndbz d jåkfcnb ghbyznbz
htitybq. Jcyjdjgjkfufñobq frn nfrét
xtnrj jghtltkztn, xnj YFNJ cjöhfyztn pf
cjåjq ghfdf ytpfdbcbvjuj ghbyznbz htitybq
b ltqcndbq d kñåjt dhtvz. Cjdvtcnysq Gjcnjzyysq cjdtn ghtljcnfdkztn Hjccbb nhbåeye, ult jyf vjétn dshfpbnm cdjñ njxre
phtybz b, tckb djpvjéyj, cgjcjåcndjdfnm
dpfbvjltqcndbñ vtéle YFNJ b Hjccbtq.
11
jlyj bp jlyjcnjhjyybö pfzdktybq YFNJ d
jnyjitybb djtyyjq gjkbnbrb, cjlthéfottcz
d Jcyjdjgjkfufñotv frnt, yt juhfybxbdftn
djpvjéyjcnb Fkmzycf gj ghjdtltybñ extybq, jhufybpfwbb infåjd bkb cnhjbntkmcndf
b ärcgkefnfwbb byahfcnherneh. D cfvjv ltkt, Jcyjdjgjkfufñobq frn ghbpyftn, xnj
YFNJ ≤ljkéyj hfccxbnsdfnm yf bcgjkmpjdfybt fltrdfnyjq byahfcnhernehs, cjhfpvthyjq tt pflfxfv≥, exbnsdfz njn afrn,
xnj cnhfntubz YFNJ d yfcnjzott dhtvz pfdbcbn jn cgjcjåyjcnb ujcelfhcnd gjkexfnm
ytjåöjlbvjt gjlrhtgktybt d dblt ljgjkybntkmyjuj djbycrjuj rjynbyutynf.
Jcyjdjgjkfufñobq frn jnhféftn gjkbnbre
Fkmzycf yf lfyysq vjvtyn b yf åkbéfqitt
åeleott. Tckb ds pfvtnbnt rfrjt-ybåelm
ytjéblfyyjt bpvtytybt d öelieñ cnjhjye,
nj YFNJ jcnfdkztn pf cjåjq ghthjufnbde
gthtcvjnhtnm gjkbnbre d jnyjitybb hfpdthnsdfybz zlthysö b jåsxysö chtlcnd djjheétybq, b Jcyjdjgjkfufñobq frn yt vjétn
ckeébnm ghtgzncndbtv. Jlyfrj, vs yflttvcz b éltv, xnj gjcktlybt gjpbnbdyst bpvtytybz d Tdhjgt åelen ghjljkéfnmcz, b xnj
Jcyjdjgjkfufñobq frn cnfytn chtlcndjv
åjktt ibhjrjuj dpfbvjltqcndbz vtéle
YFNJ b Hjccbtq. ¬
12
ÅELEOBQ REHC D CATHT GJKBNBRB
TDHJGTQCRJQ ÅTPJGFCYJCNB
Bynthdmñ c Léthtvb Hjpythjv, cgtwbfkmysv cjdtnybrjv
ghtpbltynf b ujcelfhcndtyyjuj ctrhtnfhz gj djghjcfv
hfnbabrfwbb hfcibhtybz YFNJ
Ltåfns gj gjdjle hfcibhtybz YFNJ, cdzpfyyjuj rfr ≤c cthmtpysvb
ufhfynbzvb d catht åtpjgfcyjcnb, nfr b cj pyfxbntkmysvb hfcöjlfvb≥, gjvjuen ≤jghtltkbnm
rehc yfitq gjkbnbrb d catht tdhjgtqcrjq åtpjgfcyjcnb yf åkbéfqibt ujls≥, jnvtxftn Hjpyth.
Jy edthty d njv, xnj gjckt jrjyxfybz ltåfnjd Ctyfn CIF ghjujkjcetn pf ghbtv d YFNJ
Gjkmib, Dtyuhbb b Xticrjq Htcgeåkbrb. Bynthdmñ c Hjpythjv ghjdtkf
jndtncndtyysq htlfrnjh Lfqzy Vfrljyfkl.
DJGHJC: Zdkztncz kb hfcibhtybt YFNJ
nth, b z edthty, xnj yf Rfgbnjkbqcrjv
öjkvt r ytve jnytcencz bvtyyj nfrbv jåhfpjv.
cfvsv dféysv dytiytgjkbnbxtcrbv djghjcjv, yf rjnjhsq flvbybcnhfwbz Rkbynjyf
ljkéyf lfnm jndtn d ntxtybt åkbéfqibö
vtczwtd?
DJGHJC: D rfrjq cntgtyb flvbybcnhfwbz
kjååbhetn Rjyuhtcc d djghjct j hfcibhtybb
YFNJ b rfreñ cnhfntubñ jyf ghb änjv
ghbvtyztn?
HJPYTH: Änjn djghjc, hfpevttncz, zdkztncz jlybv bp yfibö dféytqibö ghbjhbntnjd,
b, rjytxyj, Rjyuhtcc ghblftn tve åjkmijt
pyfxtybt, ntv åjktt, xnj d jnkbxbt jn lheubö dytiytgjkbnbxtcrbö bybwbfnbd, htxm
bltn j rjyrhtnyjv ujkjcjdfybb, d htpekmnfnt rjnjhjuj ljkéyj åsnm cjåhfyj ldt nhtnb ujkjcjd d gjllthére änjuj htitybz.
HJPYTH: Z ås, yfdthyjt, yt cnfk yfpsdfnm
änj kjååbhjdfybtv, yj vs, rjytxyj, bcgjkmpetv dct bvtñobtcz e yfc djpvjéyjcnb lkz njuj, xnjås eåtlbnm Rjyuhtcc b jåotcndtyyjcnm d njv, xnj hfcibhtybt YFNJ
dsujlyj c njxrb phtybz yfwbjyfkmyjq åtpjgfcyjcnb Fvthbrb. B ghtpbltyn, b ujcctrhtnfhm Jkåhfqn, dghjxtv, rfr b dct, rnj hfåjnftn c ybvb, nhfnzn vyjuj dhtvtyb b ecbkbq yf gthtujdjhs c rjyuhtccvtyfvb, exfcnbt d ckeifybzö, gjlujnjdre vfnthbfkjd, d
njv xbckt ljrkflf, rjnjhsq ghtpbltyn yfghfdbk d Rjyuhtcc d atdhfkt, b gbcmvf, yfghfdktyyjuj bv 11 ctynzåhz d flhtc 20 ctyfnjhjd, d rjnjhsö cjlthéfkbcm jndtns yf
wtksq hzl cthmtpysö djghjcjd, cdzpfyysö c
hfcibhtybtv YFNJ. Vs nfrét dtltv hfpujdjh b c jåotcndtyyjcnmñ – c ntvb uheggfvb, rjnjhst ghjzdkzñn bynthtc r hfcibhtybñ YFNJ, d njv xbckt c dtnthfyfvb, c
ghtlcnfdbntkzvb htkbubjpysö jåoby, ltkjdsö rheujd b änybxtcrbö vtymibycnd. Gj-
Gjcrjkmre htxm bltn j cthmtpysö bynthtcfö
b gjcktlcndbzö, jåotyfwbjyfkmyst ltåfns
b htitybt, rjnjhjt ghtlcnjbn ghbyznm Ctyfne CIF, nfrét yjczn cthmtpysq öfhfrnth.
D rfrjv-nj cvsckt änj gthdst rhegyst ltåfns gj gjdjle gjkbnbrb d catht tdhjgtqcrjq åtpjgfcyjcnb, rjnjhst ghjdjlzncz d
yfitq cnhfyt cj dhtvtyb jrjyxfybz öjkjlyjq djqys. Htxm bltn b j cthmtpysö ufhfynbzö d catht åtpjgfcyjcnb b j pyfxbntkmysö hfcöjlfö. Rhjvt njuj, änb ltåfns yf
cfvjv ltkt gjvjuen jghtltkbnm yfie gjpbwbñ d jnyjitybb tdhjgtqcrjq åtpjgfcyjcnb
yf åkbéfqibt ujls. C extnjv dctö änbö
ghbxby, htitybt, rjnjhjt ghtlcnjbn ghbyznm, åeltn yjcbnm dtcmvf cthmtpysq öfhfr13
crjkmre gjcktlcndbz hfcibhtybz YFNJ yjczn cthmtpysq öfhfrnth, cnfyjdbncz jxtdblyj, xnj änjn djghjc nhtåetn gjlhjåyjuj jåceéltybz, rfr yf Rfgbnjkbqcrjv öjkvt,
nfr b pf ghtltkfvb Dfibyunjyf.
ltv jåceélfnm änjn djghjc, ntv åjkmit
gjllthérb vs jåhtntv b ntv cgjrjqytt åeltn ctåz xedcndjdfnm Rjyuhtcc. Vs, hfpevttncz, yflttvcz yf gjllthére ghtlctlfntkz d djghjct hfcibhtybz YFNJ. Vs ås
ghbdtncndjdfkb äne gjllthére, b d cdzpb
c änbv yfc jåjlhbkj pfzdktybt, cjlthéfdittcz d tuj gbcmvt.
Vs ltkftv dct lkz njuj, xnjås änb ltåfns
yfxfkbcm rfr vjéyj crjhtt. Z levfñ, xnj
afrn cjplfybz ghtpbltynjv b ujcctrhtnfhtv cgtwbfkmyjuj jnltkf (jnltkf Ujcltgfhnfvtynf CIF gj djghjce hfnbabrfwbb htitybz j hfcibhtybb YFNJ) lkz änbö wtktq
ujdjhbn j njv, xnj jyb öjnzn yt pfvfkxbdfnm, f jåceélfnm änjn djghjc b yfxfnm
ltåfns gj ytve rfr vjéyj hfymit, f yt d
gjcktlyññ vbyene.
DJGHJC: Yf dytiytgjkbnbxtcrjq fhtyt –
exfcndetn kb dfi jnltk d rfrbö-kbåj rjyrhtnysö vyjujcnjhjyybö bkb vyjujcnjhjyybö vthjghbznbzö, cdzpfyysö c hfcibhtybtv YFNJ?
HJPYTH: Vs, hfpevttncz, dybvfntkmyj ckt-
lbv pf ntv, xnj ghjbcöjlbn pf heåtéjv c
njxrb phtybz hfnbabrfwbb, f nfrét pf ntv,
rfr ghjöjlzn ltåfns gj änjve djghjce.
Jnxfcnb vs ltkftv änj gjnjve, xnj pfheåtéyfz htfrwbz yf änjn djghjc jrfpsdftn
pfvtnyjt dkbzybt yf ltåfns d yfitq cnhfyt
b jcjåtyyj yf gjpbwbñ Rjyuhtccf. Nfrbv jåhfpjv, vs dybvfntkmyj cktlbv pf gjkbnbxtcrbvb ltåfnfvb d lheubö cnhfyfö b pf
ntv, rfr änjn djghjc jcdtoftncz pfheåtéysvb CVB. Vs ghjdjlbv dcnhtxb cj vyjubvb pfheåtéysvb ghtlcnfdbntkzvb, rjnjhsö
bynthtcetn ghjwtcc hfnbabrfwbb lfyyjuj
htitybz yfitq cnhfyjq, b d åtctlfö c ybvb
epyftv j njv, xnj ltkftncz d änjv gkfyt d
bö cnhfyfö. B z, b vjb cjnhelybrb dscnegfkb d lheubö cnhfyfö b hfccrfpsdfkb j njv,
xnj vs ltkftv lkz njuj, xnjås pfheåtéyfz
jåotcndtyyjcnm gjybvfkf cenm yfibö ecbkbq b ne jpfåjxtyyjcnm, rjnjheñ fvthbrfycrfz jåotcndtyyjcnm b fvthbrfycrbq Rjyuhtcc bcgsnsdfñn gj änjve djghjce.
DJGHJC: Rfrjds, gj dfitve vytybñ, åe-
len gjcktlcndbz gbcmvf, yfghfdktyyjuj 17
ctynzåhz ghtlctlfntktv ctyfncrjuj rjvbntnf gj vtéleyfhjlysv jnyjitybzv Létccb
Ötkvcjv d flhtc ujcctrhtnfhz Jkåhfqn, d
rjnjhjv htxm ikf j hfcibhtybb YFNJ b
gkfyfö j ghjdtltybb rjvbntnjv ckeifybq
gj änjve djghjce?
HJPYTH: Vs, hfpevttncz, c eljdktndjhtybtv djcghbyzkb rfr gbcmvj, nfr b pfzdktybt ghtlctlfntkz rjvbntnf j tuj étkfybb cjltqcndjdfnm ghjwtcce hfnbabrfwbb.
Yfcrjkmrj vs gjybvftv, e ytuj tot cjöhfyztncz ytrjnjhfz jpfåjxtyyjcnm gj änjve
djghjce, b vs yflttvcz yf nj, xnj ckeifybz d Rjyuhtcct gjvjuen hfcctznm cjvytybz, rjnjhst bcgsnsdfñn jy b tuj rjkktub. Vs c cfvjuj yfxfkf ghbdtncndjdfkb
bltñ ghjdtltybz ckeifybq gj djghjce j
hfcibhtybb YFNJ. D fghtkt yf ckeifybzö
d ctyfncrjv rjvbntnt gj ltkfv djjheétyysö cbk dscnegfkb b ujcctrhtnfhm Jkåhfqn,
b vbybcnh jåjhjys Rjäy. Vs frnbdyj cjnhelybxftv b c lheubvb ajhevfvb d hfvrfö Rjyuhtccf, exfcndetv d ckeifybzö b
ghjdjlbv dcnhtxb c xktyfvb Gfkfns ghtlcnfdbntktq, c ctyfncrjq uheggjq yfåkñlfntktq pf ltzntkmyjcnmñ YFNJ, cjplfyyjq herjdjlcndjv Ctyfnf. Vs yf htuekzhyjq jcyjdt dcnhtxftvcz c exfcnybrfvb änjq uheggs, yfxbyfz c ghtpbltynf, dbwt-ghtpbltynf,
ujcctrhtnfhz b lfktt dybp gj änjq dthnbrfkb. Vs cxbnftv, xnj, xtv åjkmit vs åe-
DJGHJC: Rfrjuj hjlf jgfcyjcnm cdzpfyf
c htitybtv, fkmnthyfnbdysv hfcibhtybñ
YFNJ – nj tcnm, c cjöhfytybtv YFNJ d
njv cjcnfdt, d rjnjhjv jyj ghtåsdfkj d
ujls öjkjlyjq djqys?
HJPYTH: Z levfñ, xnj ceotcndetn yt-
crjkmrj jgfcysö vjvtynjd. Jåceélfz djghjc j njv, dj crjkmrj jåjqltncz änf bybwbfnbdf, b Rjyuhtcc, b jåotcndtyyjcnm cnhfys ljkéys pflevsdfnmcz b yfl ntv, dj
crjkmrj jåjqltncz jnrfp jn ytt. Jndtxfz yf
14
änjn ét cfvsq djghjc d cdjtv atdhfkmcrjv ljrkflt Rjyuhtcce, ghtpbltyn pfzdbk,
xnj jnrfp jn hfcibhtybz YFNJ cdzpfy cj
vyjubvb gjnthzvb. Dj-gthdsö, gjzdbncz
jgfcyjcnm njuj, xnj cnfnec åtpjgfcyjcnb
Wtynhfkmyjq Tdhjgs nfr b yt åeltn jghtltkty, f änj cltkftn lfyysq htubjy vtytt
åtpjgfcysv. Cktletn gjvybnm j njv, xnj
ldt vbhjdst djqys b öjkjlyfz djqyf, rjnjhst ghjbpjikb d änjv cnjktnbb, jnxfcnb
cnfkb htpekmnfnjv jncencndbz åtpjgfcyjcnb
b cnfåbkmyjcnb bvtyyj d änjv htubjyt.
Gjänjve åskj ås bcnjhbxtcrjq jibårjq
egecnbnm djpvjéyjcnm lkz gjdsitybz
ehjdyz åtpjgfcyjcnb b cnfåbkmyjcnb d änjv
htubjyt, xnj zdkztncz, yfdthyjt, kexibv
cgjcjåjv bpåtéfnm djdktxtybz yfc d tot
jlye djqye yf nthhbnjhbb Tdhjgs.
Yfrjytw, gj vjtve vytybñ, ceotcndetn b
jgfcyjcnm c njxrb phtybz rjywtgwbb Tdhjgs
b tt tlbycndf. Tckb vs jnrfétvcz jn hfcibhtybz YFNJ, nj gj cenb ltkf vs jcnfdbv d cbkt kbybñ, rjnjhjq Cnfkby hfpltkbk Tdhjge b rjnjhfz c gjvjomñ cbks
elthébdfkfcm d ujls öjkjlyjq djqys.
Änf hfpltkbntkmyfz kbybz, hfpevttncz,
bpébkf ctåz b yt bvttn ghfdf yf ceotcndjdfybt. Gjänjve, tckb vs cnhtvbvcz r
kbrdblfwbb änjq hfpltkbntkmyjq kbybb d
Tdhjgt b r gjcnhjtybñ ytltkbvjuj, ltvjrhfnbxtcrjuj b vbhyjuj tdhjgtqcrjuj cjjåotcndf, vs ljkéys yfxfnm c ghbtvf d
fkmzyc jndtxfñobö yfibv nhtåjdfybzv ujcelfhcnd Wtynhfkmyjq Tdhjgs b ajhvbhjdfybt ghjwtccf, d hfvrfö rjnjhjuj vs vjukb ås d åeleotv ghbyznm ljgjkybntkmyjt
xbckj yjdsö xktyjd.
Dj-dnjhsö, tckb yfv yt elfcncz hfcibhbnm
YFNJ, nj yfv yt elfcncz b erhtgbnm
fkmzyc. Cj dcnegktybtv nhtö yjdsö xktyjd
d tuj cjcnfd djkmñncz 300 nsczx djtyyjckeéfobö b lheubt htcehcs, erhtgkzñobt
åtpjgfcyjcnm fkmzycf. Cdjbv exfcnbtv d
djqyt d Pfkbdt b d ecnfyjdktybb vbhf d
Åjcybb änb cnhfys eét ghjltvjycnhbhjdfkb
yfvthtybt dyjcbnm drkfl d erhtgktybt
åtpjgfcyjcnb pf ghtltkfvb cdjbö uhfybw.
Nfrbv jåhfpjv, jnrfpfdibcm jn hfcibhtybz
vs ås gjnthzkb gjllthére nhtö ujcelfhcnd, rjnjhst vjuen b gj-yfcnjzotve
öjnzn gjvjufnm yfv d htitybb yjdsö pflfx
d catht tdhjgtqcrjq åtpjgfcyjcnb.
DJGHJC: Cxbnftnt kb ds, xnj cbkmyj
jnkbxfñobtcz lheu jn lheuf jwtyrb cdzpfyysö c hfcibhtybtv YFNJ pfnhfn, j
rjnjhsö cjjåofñn chtlcndf vfccjdjq byajhvfwbb, vjuen djpsvtnm htifñott djpltqcndbt yf htpekmnfns ltåfnjd gj änjve
djghjce?
HJPYTH: Rjyuhtcc, hfpevttncz, åeltn
jxtym dybvfntkmyj bpexfnm djghjc j pfnhfnfö, cdzpfyysö c hfcibhtybtv YFNJ. Rjyuhtcc eét dscrfpsdfk jpfåjxtyyjcnm gj
änjve gjdjle. Rjuhtccvtyfv cktletn jåhfnbnm yf änjn djghjc jcjåjt dybvfybt, gjcrjkmre bvtyyj ctqxfc vs gsnftvcz cåfkfycbhjdfnm yfi åñlétn. Ctujlyz, jlyfrj,
rjulf vs eét pyftv, rfrbt cnhfys åelen
dcnegfnm d YFNJ b rjulf YFNJ eét ujnjdbn cdjñ jwtyre nhtåetvsö htcehcjd, xktys Rjyuhtccf cvjuen d ntxtybt åkbéfqibö
vtczwtd gjkexfnm åjktt jghtltktyyeñ byajhvfwbñ, ytjåöjlbveñ lkz gjybvfybz
vfcinfåf ghtlgjkfuftvsö pfnhfn. Z yfltñcm yf nj, xnj gj vtht dytctybz zcyjcnb
d änjn djghjc e ybö gjzdbncz åjktt ndthlfz
jcyjdf lkz ghbyznbz ukfdyjuj htitybz j
njv, xnj dsujls jn hfcibhtybz YFNJ gthtdtibdfñn pfnhfns. Vs cxbnftv, xnj hfcibhtybt nhtåetn chfdybntkmyj crhjvysö
dkjétybq htcehcjd b chtlcnd, f jnlfxf jn
ytuj åeltn xhtpdsxfqyj dscjrf. Gj yfibv
D-nhtnmbö, tckb YFNJ yt åeltn hfcibhznmcz, d htubjyt yt åelen htfkbpjdfys ytrjnjhst bp ysytiybö gjpbnbdysö ntyltywbq.
Vs cnfkb cdbltntkzvb pfrkñxtybz ltcznrf
yjdsö cjukfitybq vtéle ujcelfhcndfvb
htubjyf jå ehtuekbhjdfybb gjuhfybxysö b
änybxtcrbö hfpyjukfcbq; nfrbt cjukfitybz
pfrkñxfñncz jnxfcnb b gjnjve, xnj ujcelfhcndf htubjyf gjybvfñn, xnj, ghtlghbybvfz gjljåyst ifub, jyb erhtgkzñn cdjñ
htgenfwbñ d rfxtcndt rfylblfnjd yf dcnegktybt d YFNJ. Tckb ét ghjwtcc hfcibhtybz YFNJ yt gjqltn dgthtl, nj änb ntyltywbb r erhtgktybñ cnfåbkmyjcnb b eukeåktybñ ltvjrhfnbb dhzl kb cjöhfyzn cdjb ysytiybt ntvgs.
15
jwtyrfv, d ntxtybt cktleñotuj ltcznbktnbz ljkz hfcöjljd CIF yf änb wtkb cjcnfdbn jn 150 lj 200 vky ljkkfhjd d ujl. Gj
chfdytybñ c vbkkbfhlfvb ljkkfhjd, rjnjhst vs pfnhfnbkb yf exfcnbt dj Dnjhjq
vbhjdjq djqyt, b c nhbkkbjyfvb ljkkfhjd,
d rjnjhst yfv jåjikfcm öjkjlyfz djqyf,
ysytiybt hfcöjls ghtlcnfdkzñncz jnkbxysv dkjétybtv chtlcnd – ghb eckjdbb, xnj
änj lfcn yfv åtpjgfcyjcnm b cnfåbkmyjcnm d
Wtynhfkmyjq Tdhjgt yf ytcrjkmrj ltcznbktnbq dgthtl.
b vbhyjq Tdhjgs – djpvjéyj, dgthdst pf
dcñ bcnjhbñ tt ceotcndjdfybz.
DJGHJC: Rfrbv jåhfpjv hfcibhtybt
YFNJ dkbztn yf jnyjitybz CIF cj cnhfyfvb, yt döjlzobvb d cjcnfd YFNJ, pf bcrkñxtybtv ntö, rjnjhst hfccvfnhbdfñncz
d rfxtcndt rfylblfnjd yf dcnegktybt?
HJPYTH: Tckb cvjnhtnm yf dtcm cgtrnh
bybwbfnbd, dsldbuftvsö d änjn gthbjl –
htxm bltn yt njkmrj j ghbtvt nhtö cnhfy,
yj b j gjkbnbrt jnrhsnsö ldthtq, j yjdsö
cjukfitybzö c Hjccbtq b Erhfbyjq, jå ecbktybb ghjuhfvvs ≤Gfhnythcndj dj bvz vbhf≥, f nfrét j yfibö cjåcndtyysö ldecnjhjyybö ecbkbzö c ujcelfhcndfvb htubjyf –
z levfñ, cnfyjdbncz zcyj, gjxtve vyjubt
ujcelfhcndf htubjyf yt gjkexbkb ghbukfitybz d Vflhblt r yfxfke ghjwtccf dcnegktybz, yj, ntv yt vtytt, dshfpbkb htibntkmyeñ gjllthére ghbyznsö d Vflhblt htitybq b pfzdbkb, xnj, ytcvjnhz yf jncencndbt
nfrjuj ghbukfitybz, jyb cxbnfñn, xnj htitybz vflhblcrjuj cfvvbnf cgjcjåys erhtgbnm b bö cjåcndtyyeñ åtpjgfcyjcnm.
DJGHJC: Rfr ds vjétnt öfhfrnthbpjdfnm
pyfxtybt htitybq vflhblcrjuj cfvvbnf c
njxrb phtybz tdhjgtqcrjq åtpjgfcyjcnb, f
nfrét gthtcnhjqrb b åeleotuj hfpdbnbz
YFNJ rfr jhufybpfwbb?
HJPYTH: Vflhblcrbq cfvvbn cnfk bcnjhbxtcrbv cjåsnbtv. Fkmzyc ghbyzk htitybt
ghbukfcbnm Gjkmie, Dtyuhbñ b Xticreñ
Htcgeåkbre r yfxfke ghjwtccf dcnegktybz d
fkmzyc. Hfpevttncz, änj cnfkj cj vyjubö
njxtr phtybz cfvsv pyfxbntkmysv htitybtv cj dhtvtyb jrjyxfybz öjkjlyjq djqys.
Rhjvt njuj, fkmzyc pfzdbk j njv, xnj jcnfdkztn jnrhsnjq ldthm lkz dcnegktybz d
tuj cjcnfd b lheubö ujcelfhcnd d gjcktleñobq gthbjl. Åsk, d xfcnyjcnb, jnvtxty ghjuhtcc, rjnjhjuj ljåbkbcm Hevsybz b Ckjdtybz, f nfrét jåhfotyj dybvfybt yf cnhtvktybt åfknbqcrbö ujcelfhcnd r dcnegktybñ
d YFNJ.
Jlybv bp ghbvthjd, eåtélfñobö yfc d
njv, xnj änj yf cfvjv ltkt nfr, cnfk xhtpdsxfqyj ntgksq ghbtv, rjnjhsq åsk jrfpfy ghtpbltyne b ujcctrhtnfhñ d Åeöfhtcnt
(Hevsybz) dctuj kbim xthtp ytcrjkmrj
lytq gjckt vflhblcrjuj cfvvbnf. Yf ekbws
dsikj cdsit 100 nsczx xtkjdtr lkz
njuj, xnjås ghbdtncndjdfnm ghtpbltynf b
ghbyznst d Vflhblt htitybz, f dtlm Hevsybz nfr b yt gjkexbkf ghbukfitybz r
dcnegktybñ d YFNJ, rjnjhjuj jyf nfr yfcnjqxbdj ljåbdfkfcm. Ghtpbltyn Rjycnfynbytcre htibntkmyj gjllthéfk yfxfnsq
YFNJ ghjwtcc. Nfrbv jåhfpjv, z levfñ,
e yfc tcnm öjhjibt ljrfpfntkmcndf njuj,
xnj dtcm änjn htubjy d wtkjv ghbdtncndetn
lfyyst bybwbfnbds, rjnjhst cgjcjåys gjdscbnm ehjdtym åtpjgfcyjcnb b cnfåbkmyjcnb d htubjyt.
Yfhzle c änbv, vflhblcrbq cfvvbn ghjljkébk ghjwtcc flfgnfwbb YFNJ, cdzpfyysq c
cjdthitycndjdfybtv tuj ltzntkmyjcnb, egjhzljxtybtv rjvfylysö cnherneh, ecbkbzvb
gj gjdsitybñ vyjubö bp tuj djpvjéyjcntq, yfghbvth, gjchtlcndjv Cjdtnf tdhjfnkfynbxtcrjuj gfhnythcndf, ecbktyyjq ghjuhfvvs ≤Gfhnythcndj dj bvz vbhf≥, öfhnbb
c Erhfbyjq b Jcyjdjgjkfufñotuj frnf c
Hjccbtq. Dct änj dvtcnt dpznjt ghtlcnfdkztn cjåjq dgtxfnkzñobq yfåjh bybwbfnbd,
rjnjhst lfñn YFNJ ndthleñ jhbtynfwbñ
yf htitybt yjdsö pflfx d catht tdhjgtqcrjq åtpjgfcyjcnb b yf htfkbpfwbñ wtkb, j
rjnjhjq pltcm eét åskj crfpfyj – cjplfybt
gj-yfcnjzotve ytltkbvjq, ltvjrhfnbxtcrjq
DJGHJC: Rfrjds, gj dfitve vytybñ, åelen cktleñobt ifub d hfcibhtybb YFNJ,
tckb Gjkmif, Dtyuhbz b Xticrfz Htcgeåkbrf gjkexfn xktycndj?
16
HJPYTH: YFNJ pfzdbkj, xnj d 1999 u.
ghbcnegbn r jåceéltybñ ghjwtccf lfkmytqituj hfcibhtybz, f nfrét j njv, xnj jcnfdkztn ldthm jnrhsnjq lkz ghbtvf lheubö
djpvjéysö rfylblfnjd, b åeltn hfåjnfnm
c ybvb d hfvrfö ≤Gfhnythcndf dj bvz vbhf≥ b Cjdtnf tdhjfnkfynbxtcrjuj gfhnythcndf. Z levfñ, xnj gjckt njuj, rfr åeltn
ghbyznj htitybt j ghbtvt gthdjq uheggs
ujcelfhcnd – f z levfñ, xnj änj ghjbpjqltn
r 1999 u. – djpybrytn ytjåöjlbvjcnm bpexbnm djghjc j njv, yfcrjkmrj ecgtiyj åsk
ghjdtlty änjn ghjwtcc. Z levfñ, xnj dybvfybt åeltn jåhfotyj yf byntuhfwbñ änbö
nhtö ujcelfhcnd d cjcnfd fkmzycf, f nfrét
yf nt ujcelfhcndf, rjnjhst r änjve vjvtyne cjöhfyzn étkfybt dcnegbnm d fkmzyc.
cf j pfnhfnfö, f pfntv ghtlcnfdbnm yfib
dsdjls Ctyfne lkz hfnbabrfwbb. Z levfñ,
xnj Ctyfn åeltn jxtym ghbcnfkmyj bpexfnm
djghjc j njv, xnj jpyfxftn hfcibhtybt lkz
fvthbrfycrbö yfkjujgkfntkmobrjd, lkz yfibö jnyjitybq c Hjccbtq, lkz ujcelfhcnd,
yt gjkexbdibö ghbukfitybz yf gthdjv änfgt, f nfrét lkz gjdsitybz äaatrnbdyjcnb
YFNJ; Ctyfn åeltn nfrét bpexfnm cdzpm
vtéle hfcibhtybtv YFNJ b jgthfwbzvb,
ghjdjlbvsvb d Åjcybb. Yj gjckt njuj, rfr
Rjyuhtcc bpexbn änb djghjcs, z edthty, xnj
jy ghjujkjcetn pf ghbtv änbö nhtö ujcelfhcnd – xtve, rjytxyj, åelen ghtlitcndjdfnm
étcnrbt ltåfns. Pfntv vs åeltv ljåbdfnmcz hfnbabrfwbb änjuj htitybz dctvb jcnfkmysvb cjñpybrfvb. Nfrjt htitybt ljkéyj åsnm ghbyznj tlbyjukfcyj.
DJGHJC: D xtv flvbybcnhfwbz ecvfnhbdftn ctqxfc ukfdyeñ ghjåktve c njxrb phtybz
hfcibhtybz YFNJ?
Z levfñ, xnj gthtl yfvb cnjbn pflfxf ljrfpfnm, xnj hfcibhtybt YFNJ dsujlyj lkz
cfvjuj fkmzycf, lkz Tdhjgs b lkz åtpjgfcyjcnb Fvthbrb. Kexibv cgjcjåjv ljrfpfnm
änj cnfytn ghbtv ujcelfhcnd d cjcnfd
fkmzycf. B öjnz änjn ghjwtcc pfqvtn ytcrjkmrj ktn, z levfñ, xnj d bnjut cfv
afrn dcnegktybz änbö ujcelfhcnd d fkmzyc
lfcn edthtyyjcnm d njv, xnj änj dsujlyj
yfv, yfibv cjñpybrfv b cfvjve fkmzyce. ¬
HJPYTH: D yfcnjzobq vjvtyn vs yföjlbvcz d ghjwtcct gthtujdjhjd j dcnegktybb
c erfpfyysvb nhtvz ujcelfhcndfvb. Yfv
ghtlcnjbn tot pfdthibnm änb gthtujdjhs.
Yfv dvtcnt c yfibvb cjñpybrfvb gj
YFNJ ghtlcnjbn pfdthibnm bpextybt djghj-
17
HFCIBHTYBT YFNJ:
ÅTPHFCCELCNDJ BKB YTJÅÖJLBVJCNM?
Ghtlcnfdbntkm CIF d YFNJ Hjåthn Öfynth
D ghjwtcct hfcibhtybz YFNJ ≤vs cnhtvbvcz ghjltvjycnhbhjdfnm,
xnj änf jhufybpfwbz yt njkmrj yt ghtlcnfdkztn cjåjq euhjps yb jlyjq bp cnhfy, f yfjåjhjn,
jåtcgtxbdftn dctv, rnj öjxtn hfåjnfnm c yfvb, ljcnjqyjt vtcnj yf vtéleyfhjlyjq
fhtyt, pfzdbk gjcnjzyysq ghtlcnfdbntkm CIF d Ctdthjfnkfynbxtcrjv cjdtnt≥,
gjcjk Hjåthn Öfynth. Gj tuj vytybñ, hfcibhtybt YFNJ ghtlcnfdkztn cjåjq ≤ytjåöjlbveñ
ghtlgjcskre r ljcnbétybñ ghjxyjq åtpjgfcyjcnb d Tdhjgt≥. Ghbdjlbvfz ybét cnfnmz
zdkztncz flfgnbhjdfyysv dfhbfynjv dscnegktybz Öfynthf d Xbrfucrjv cjdtnt gj
vtéleyfhjlysv jnyjitybzv, rjnjhjt cjcnjzkjcm d ctynzåht.
Rfrjt elbdbntkmyjt dhtvz gthtébdftn ctqxfc Jhufybpfwbz Ctdthjfnkfynbxtcrjuj ljujdjhf^ Dtlm dctuj ytcrjkmrj ktn yfpfl dct
öjhjybkb YFNJ; dvtcnt c Dfhifdcrbv ljujdjhjv tuj cjåbhfkbcm jnghfdbnm, rfr ujdjhbk Rfhk Vfhrc, ≤yf cdfkre bcnjhbb≥.
Jlyfrj d yfcnjzott dhtvz z c åjkmibv
eljdktndjhtybtv ljrkflsdfñ dfv, xnj cjñp YFNJ ≤ébdtn b ghjwdtnftn≥, jceotcndkzz cdjñ ltzntkmyjcnm d eckjdbzö ghjxyjq gjllthérb änjq jhufybpfwbb cj cnjhjys dctö tt 16 xktyjd, nhtö cnhfy, gjkexbdibö ghbukfitybt djqnb d tt cjcnfd, b 24
lheubö cnhfy, exfcndeñobö d ghjuhfvvt
≤Gfhnythcndj dj bvz vbhf≥.
ybnm änjn bcgsnfyysq b dthysq cjñp
YFNJ.
YFNJ gj-ghtéytve zdkztncz jgjhjq jlyjuj bp cfvsö eybrfkmysö ljcnbétybq d bcnjhbb xtkjdtxtcndf – 15 xktyjd Tdhjgtqcrjuj cjñpf cevtkb ljåbnmcz nfrjuj ytdblfyyjuj ghjuhtccf, rfr ecnhfytybt djqys bp
jnyjitybq vtéle ybvb. Ntgthm ytdjpvjéyj ghtlcnfdbnm ctåt, xnjås Uthvfybz b tt
cjctlb vjukb dyjdm hfpdzpfnm djqye, b ybrnj yt cjvytdftncz d velhjv htitybb cjöhfybnm b hfcibhbnm änj ≤tdhjgtqcrjt uhfélfycrjt ghjcnhfycndj≥, jlyjdhtvtyyj cnhtvbnm r njve, xnjås jödfnsdftvfz bv nthhbnjhbz cnfyjdbkfcm rfr vjéyj åjkmit b
ceotcndjdfkf dctulf.
YFNJ ébdtn b ghjwdtnftn, gjcrjkmre jyj
ghjzdbkj ctåz – djn eét d rjnjhsq hfp –
ytpfvtybvsv bycnbnenjv d eljdktndjhtybb
gjnhtåyjcntq b bcgjkmpjdfybb djpvjéyjcntq endthéltybz åtpjgfcyjcnb d Tdhjgt yt
njkmrj d ysytiybq gthbjl, yj b gjckt gthtöjlf d yjdjt cnjktnbt.
Ntgthm vs d YFNJ bvttv djpvjéyjcnm b
ghjzdkztv xtcnjkñåbdjt étkfybt gjcntgtyyj hfcibhznm änj uhfélfycrjt ghjcnhfycndj yf Djcnjr, c ntv xnjås d ytuj djikb
cnhfys, rjnjhst lj ytlfdytuj dhtvtyb yt
vjukb b gjvsikznm j åeleotv, cdjåjlyjv
jn gjcnjzyyj djpybrfñobö rjyakbrnjd.
Nfrbv jåhfpjv, Ctdthjfnkfynbxtcrbq cjñp
eét dsitk pf hfvrb cdjbö cnfhsö uhfybw,
– lf, d änjv cvsckt vs eét ≤hfcibhbkbcm≥ – cjplfdfz gthcgtrnbde b lfdfz yfltéle yf endthéltybt åtpjgfcyjcnb yf nthhbnjhbb dctuj rjynbytynf, åtpjgfcyjcnb, rjnjhfz yf änjn hfp åeltn ghjxyjq b hfcghj-
Dct 16 cjñpybrjd ghbikb r dsdjle j njv,
xnj öjnzn jåtcgtxbdfnm cdjñ åtpjgfcyjcnm
rjkktrnbdysvb ecbkbzvb, f yt d jlbyjxre,
lfét ytcvjnhz yf bcxtpyjdtybt ghbxby bö
dcnegktybz d änjn cjñp – öjkjlyjq djqys
b Cjdtncrjuj cjñpf. Ybrnj yt öjxtn djpdhfofnmcz r cbcntvfv jåjhjys jnltkmysö
yfwbjyfkmysö ujcelfhcnd; dct öjnzn cjöhf18
cnhfybncz yf dct cnhfys b yfhjls Tdhjgs,
ujnjdst ghbyznm exfcnbt d änjv ghjwtcct.
ytjåöjlbvsv. Dyjdm cjñpybrb cxbnfñn yfc
bcnjxybrjv dljöyjdtybz, herjdjlcndf b
ghbdthétyyjcnb jåotve ltke.
Vs nfrét ghbpyfkb, xnj endthéltybt vbhf
b åtpjgfcyjcnb d Tdhjgt nhtåetn htdjkñwbjyyjuj gjlöjlf r Hjccbb, cnhfyt, celmåf
rjnjhjq vjétn jrfpfnmcz jghtltkzñobv
afrnjhjv åeleotuj Tdhjgs. Vs yt ljkéys jnyjcbnmcz r ytq rfr r ghjbuhfditq
djqye gfhbb – yfgjljåbt Uthvfybb gjckt
1918 u., – f djcghbybvfnm tt rfr dtkbreñ
cnhfye, bvtñoeñ pfrjyyjt ghfdj åsnm xfcnmñ Tdhjgs d gjkbnbxtcrjv, cjwbfkmyjv b
ärjyjvbxtcrjv gkfyt, f nfrét d gkfyt åtpjgfcyjcnb, b hfccvfnhbdfnm tt rfr cnhfye,
ctqxfc yfgjvbyfñoeñ Uthvfybñ gjckt
1945 u., rjnjhfz ntgthm ghtdhfnbkfcm d cdjåjlyeñ b ltvjrhfnbxtcreñ Atlthfkmyeñ
Htcgeåkbre.
Gjänjve yfc ytjåöjlbvj hfccvfnhbdfnm dct
änb ghjåktvs jåcnjzntkmyj. Zcyj, xnj r
ysytiytve gjrjktybñ fvthbrfywtd dyjdm
jåhfofñncz c ghjcmåjq dpznm yf ctåz jghtltktyyst jåzpfyyjcnb, xnj lkz fvthbrfycrjuj yfhjlf ghbikj dhtvz cthmtpyj pflevfnmcz b ghbyznm jxtym dféyst htitybz.
Änj ghfdbkmyj, evtcnyj b ytjåöjlbvj, gjcrjkmre, ghbybvfz htitybt nfrjuj vfcinfåf, vs ljkéys jgbhfnmcz yf dcñ yfie åjufneñ gjkbnbxtcreñ rekmnehe.
Hfcibhtybt YFNJ... Xnj änj – åtphfccelcndj bkb ytjåöjlbvjcnm? Djghjc jnyñlm yt
hbnjhbxtcrbq, b r ytve ytkmpz jnyjcbnmcz
kturjvscktyyj. Lfdfqnt ghzvj gjcvjnhbv
yf afrns: nj, xnj yfc ctqxfc ghjczn cltkfnm, f bvtyyj ghbyznm Dtyuhbñ, Gjkmie b
Xticreñ Htcgeåkbre d YFNJ, åtcgjdjhjnyj cjtlbybn CIF c tdhjgtqcrjq åtpjgfcyjcnmñ. Änj ghtlüzdbn yfv yjdst nhtåjdfybz b, ytcjvytyyj pfcnfdbn yfc ytcnb ljgjkybntkmyst hfcöjls. Änj pfcnfdbn yfc dpznm
yf ctåz ljkujchjxyjt jåzpfntkmcndj gj
jåtcgtxtybñ åtpjgfcyjcnb b cnfåbkmyjcnb
Wtynhfkmyjq Tdhjgs. Änj åeltn jpyfxfnm,
xnj yfv ghbltncz cj dctq cthmtpyjcnmñ jnyjcbnmcz r jgfctybzv Hjccbb b gjcnfhfnmcz
hfpdtznm bö. Yfrjytw, änj gjnhtåetn jn cjñpybrjd gj YFNJ cjjåof jåtcgtxbnm nfrjt
gjkjétybt, ghb rjnjhjv dct ikj ås ghfdbkmyj, c ntv xnjås rfélfz cnhfyf d
Nhfycfnkfynbxtcrjv ghjcnhfycndt, jödfnsdfñotv nthhbnjhbñ, rjnjhfz yfxbyftncz d
Ctdthyjq Fvthbrt b ghjöjlbn xthtp dcñ
Tdhfpbñ, gj rhfqytq vtht öjnz ås d rfrjqnj cntgtyb hfccxbnsdfkf yf ecgtö Ctdthjfnkfynbxtcrjuj cjñpf. Vs öjnbv, xnjås c ntxtybtv dhtvtyb nt, rnj yföjlbncz d Xbrfuj,
Ahfyraehnt, Dfhifdt, Ghfut, Åelfgtint,
Åeöfhtcnt b ujcelfhcndfö Åfknbb – b, yt
elbdkzqntcm, d Rbtdt b Vjcrdt – vjukb ås
crfpfnm, xnj ltzntkmyjcnm YFNJ cltkfkf
bö åeleott åjktt åtpjgfcysv.
D nj ét dhtvz YFNJ dpzkjcm pf htitybt
pflfxb gjkjébnm rjytw cfvjq cthmtpyjq
b ghjljkébntkmyjq cj dhtvtyb Dnjhjq
vbhjdjq djqys djjheétyyjq åjhmåt d Tdhjgt, rjnjhfz ctqxfc dtltncz d Åjcybb, b gjcnhjbnm vjcn jn Cfhftdj 1914 u. lj Cfhftdj
1997 u.
B YFNJ dyjdm ljrfpsdftn, xnj jyj bvttn
lkz CIF juhjvyjt pyfxtybt yf vtéleyfhjlyjq fhtyt. Vs eét lfdyj cnfkb tdhjgtqcrjq lthéfdjq d cvsckt yflktéfotuj
jnhfétybz yfibö cnhfntubxtcrbö, gjkbnbxtcrbö b ärjyjvbxtcrbö bynthtcjd, f nfrét
yfibö ltvjrhfnbxtcrbö wtyyjcntq b wtktecnhtvktyyjcnb.
Gjkfufñ, xnj vs, fvthbrfyws, bvttv tlbyjt vytybt gj änjve djghjce, b yfif ghjljkéfñofzcz ghbdthétyyjcnm YFNJ zdkztncz rdbynäcctywbtq dshfétybz änbö ljkujchjxysö bynthtcjd b ytghtöjlzobö wtyyjcntq. Vyt ghbyjcbn eljdktndjhtybt njn
afrn, xnj rfélsq xkty Rjyuhtccf, gjctnbdibq YFNJ, rjulf z yföjlbkcz nfv, ytpfdbcbvj jn njuj, r rfrjq bp ldeö gfhnbq jy
ghbyflktéfk, dshféfk gjllthére ghjljkéfñotvecz frnbdyjve exfcnbñ CIF d ltkfö tdhjgtqcrjq åtpjgfcyjcnb. D nj ét dhtvz yf änjv rjynbytynt gjljåyjt frnbdyjt
exfcnbt tot hfp åskj ghbpyfyj ébpytyyj
Tckb vs öjnbv, xnjås dct ghjikj öjhjij,
vs ljkéys gjkmpjdfnmcz djpvjéyjcnzvb,
19
rjnjhst ghtljcnfdkztn yfv bcnjhbz. D yfcnjzott dhtvz e yfc tcnm ifyc ghjnzyenm
here cjnyzv vbkkbjyjd kñltq, rjnjhst
nfr ljkuj vexfkbcm d eckjdbzö rjvveybcnbxtcrjq nbhfybb b cjdtncrjuj ujcgjlcndf,
jnhtpfyyst jn ljcnbuitq pfgflyjq ltvjrhfnbb, ljcnbuitq pf gjcktlybt ltcznbktnbz
dctvthyjuj hfpdbnbz, b htpekmnfnjd gjnhzcfñotuj ärjyjvbxtcrjuj ghjuhtccf. E yfc
tcnm ifyc gjvjxm d kbrdblfwbb ghjhsdjd,
zdbdiböcz htpekmnfnjv yt jlyjq, f nhtö
hfpheibntkmysö tdhjgtqcrbö djqy ysytiytuj cnjktnbz. Yfv ghtljcnfdkztncz yb xnj
byjt, rfr eybrfkmyfz djpvjéyjcnm dj dnjhjq hfp pfdthibnm hfåjne, yfxfneñ Gkfyjv
Vfhifkkf, b cjltqcndjdfnm gjcnhjtybñ ltvjrhfnbxtcrbö, ghjwdtnfñobö b ébdeobö d
eckjdbzö åtpjgfcyjcnb cnhfy dj dctq Tdhjgt, rjnjhst yf änjn hfp yt åelen jnhtpfys
jn jcnfkmyjuj vbhf étktpysv pfyfdtcjv.
kfynbxtcrjve cjñpe. Ghb änjv jnåbhfkbcm
cnhfys, cxbnfñobtcz yfbåjktt gjlujnjdktyysvb lkz ghbyznbz yf ctåz jndtncndtyyjcnb, jåeckjdktyyjq xktycndjv d YFNJ,
b bvtdibvb yfbåjkmieñ dthjznyjcnm njuj,
xnj gfhkfvtyns 16 cnhfy jljåhzn bö dcnegktybt d äne jhufybpfwbñ. D yfcnjzott dhtvz vs dtltv c ybvb gthtujdjhs j gjlgbcfybb ljrevtynjd jå bö ghbcjtlbytybb r
Ctdthjfnkfynbxtcrjve cjñpe; d cktleñotv
ujle änb ljrevtyns gjcnegzn d gfhkfvtyns
b d ckexft hfnbabrfwbb, – cñlf döjlbn b
gjkextybt ldeö nhtntq ujkjcjd d Ctyfnt
CIF – egjvzyenst gthdst yjdst cnhfysxktys ghbcjtlbyzncz r Cjñpe yf dcnhtxt
YFNJ yf dscitv ehjdyt, rjnjhfz cjcnjbncz fghtkt 1999 u. d Dfibyunjyt b åeltn gjcdzotyf 50-ktnbñ YFNJ.
D nj ét dhtvz yf Vflhblcrjq dcnhtxt cjñpybrb ljcnbukb ljujdjhtyyjcnb j njv,
xnjås jcnfdbnm ldthb YFNJ jnrhsnsvb
lkz dcnegktybz d ytuj yjdsö cnhfy. Änb ldf
htitybz j xktycndt b jcnfdktybb ldthtq
YFNJ jnrhsnsvb lkz ghbyznbz d tuj cjcnfd yjdsö xktyjd ntcyj cdzpfys vtéle cjåjq; jåf jyb yfghfdktys yf ecnhfytybt hfpvtétdfybq d Tdhjgt b cjplfybt gjkjétybz,
bcrkñxfñotuj gjzdktybt yjdsö hfpltkbntkmysö kbybq yf änjv rjynbytynt. C njxrb
phtybz CIF ldthb YFNJ ljkéys jcnfdfnmcz jnrhsnsvb lj ntö gjh, gjrf ceotcndeñn tdhjgtqcrbt ujcelfhcndf, ujnjdst b
étkfñobt dpznm yf ctåz jndtncndtyyjcnm,
jåeckjdktyyeñ xktycndjv d änjq jhufybpfwbb. Gjrf xnj yt ghbyznj htitybz j njv,
rfrbt cnhfys åelen ghbyzns d YFNJ d cktleñoeñ jxthtlm b rjulf änj ghjbpjqltn.
Jlyfrj ndthlfz ghbdthétyyjcnm dpznsv yf
ctåz jåzpfntkmcndfv yfkbwj.
Nfrbv jåhfpjv, YFNJ ghbcnegbkj r cdjtve jåyjdktybñ. C änjq wtkmñ ysytiytq
dtcyjq d ntxtybt 44 pfvtxfntkmysö lytq herjdjlbntkb cnhfy xktyjd YFNJ ghbybvfkb
frnbdyjt exfcnbt d wtkjv hzlt gjhfpbntkmysö vthjghbznbq, yfxbyfz c gjlgbcfybz d
Gfhbét Jcyjdjgjkfufñotuj Frnf YFNJHjccbz b rjyxfz dcnhtxtq 43 ukfd ujcelfhcnd b ghfdbntkmcnd yf bcnjhbxtcrjv cfvvbnt YFNJ d Vflhblt. Gj pfdthitybb änjq
hfåjns YFNJ ghtnthgtkj cfvst ukeåjrbt
ghtjåhfpjdfybz c vjvtynf cjplfybz änjq
jhufybpfwbb 50 ktn yfpfl.
Änj zdbkjcm ghzvsv htpekmnfnjv herjdjlzotq ltzntkmyjcnb Ghtpbltynf Rkbynjyf b
ghjljkétybtv dsgjkytybz htitybq Åhñcctkmcrjq dcnhtxb yf dscitv ehjdyt 1994 u.
YFNJ ghjdjlbkj frnbdyeñ ltzntkmyjcnm d
djcmvb hfpkbxysö jåkfcnzö, ghbxtv ljcnbétybz d jlyjq bp jåkfcntq erhtgkzkb gjkjétybt dj dctö jcnfkmysö, b dct dvtcnt
jyb cjplfdfkb xtnreñ b gjcktljdfntkmyeñ
jcyjde lkz endthéltybz tdhjgtqcrjq åtpjgfcyjcnb.
Ntv yt vtytt, herjdjlbntkb cnhfy YFNJ yt
jcnfyfdkbdfñncz yf ljcnbuyenjv. Nhb ujlf
yfpfl änf jhufybpfwbz ghbcnegbkf r jceotcndktybñ jlyjq bp cdjbö cfvsö ecgtiysö
bybwbfnbd – ≤Gfhnythcndj dj bvz vbhf≥.
Änf ghjuhfvvf djdktrftn d cathe ltzntkmyjcnb b rheu vthjghbznbq YFNJ 27 cnhfy
bp Wtynhfkmyjq Tdhjgs, Erhfbye b Hjccbñ,
f nfrét hzl cnhfy Wtynhfkmyjq Fpbb. Lkz
ntö ytcrjkmrbö cnhfy, rjnjhst cnhtvzncz
D bñkt d Vflhblt 16 ukfd ujcelfhcnd b
ghfdbntkmcnd cnhfy YFNJ ljcnbukb ljujdjhtyyjcnb j njv, xnjås ghtlkjébnm gthdsv
nhtv cnhfyfv ghbcjtlbybnmcz r Ctdthjfn20
dcnegbnm d YFNJ, GBV, rfr vs yfpsdftv
äne ghjuhfvve, ghtlcnfdkztn cjåjq ghjvtéenjxysq änfg yf genb r xktycnde d YFNJ,
cdjtuj hjlf gjkbujy lkz dcnegktybz d
Ctdthjfnkfynbxtcrbq cjñp, gthtöjlyeñ cnflbñ, gjpdjkzñoeñ pfhfytt gjlujnjdbnmcz
r xktycnde d änjq jhufybpfwbb, c ntv xnjås, rjulf Ctyfn CIF cghjcbn cjjndtncndeñobt cnhfys jå bö ujnjdyjcnb r dcnegktybñ d YFNJ, jyb vjukb lfnm gjkjébntkmysq jndtn. Xnj rfcftncz ntö cnhfy, rjnjhst
yt dcnegfñn d YFNJ bkb gj rhfqytq vtht
yt jrféencz d xbckt gthdsö rfylblfnjd, nj
GHV ghtlkfuftn bv gjcnjzyyjt frnbdyjt
dpfbvjltqcndbt c yfvb, rjnjhjt drkñxftn d
ctåz gjxnb dcñ hfåjne, rjnjhjq pfybvfñncz cjñpybrb. Yf cfvjv ltkt 14 bp änbö
gfhnythjd d yfcnjzott dhtvz ghbybvfñn
exfcnbt d Cbkfö gj cnfåbkbpfwbb d Åjcybb,
dyjcz cdjq drkfl d gjllthéfybt nfv vbhf
yfhfdyt c kñåjq cnhfyjq, zdkzñotqcz xktyjv YFNJ.
pfctlfybt d Ymñ-Qjhrt yf ehjdyt vbybcnhjd, yf rjnjhjv ghbcnegbk r hfphfåjnrt
cdjtq hfåjxtq ghjuhfvvs. Gjcktlyzz ghb
yfkbxbb ljåhjq djkb b gjkjébntkmysö ecbkbq c jåtbö cnjhjy vjétn gththfcnb d cnhfntubxtcrjt gfhnythcndj, jndtxfñott bynthtcfv jåtbö cnjhjy b jlyjdhtvtyyj jåtcgtxbdfñott gjkyeñ pfobne bynthtcjd dctö lheubö cnhfy. Lj cbö gjh nhelyj ctåt ghtlcnfdbnm, xnj d yfcnjzott dhtvz 1300 hjccbqcrbö djtyyjckeéfobö yföjlzncz d Åjcybb,
ult ltqcndeñn d cjcnfdt herjdjlbvsö
YFNJ Cbk gj cnfåbkbpfwbb. Fvthbrfycrbt
b hjccbqcrbt djtyyjckeéfobt jceotcndkzñn cjdvtcnyjt gfnhekbhjdfybt, ecbkbdfz
ltqcndbz lheu lheuf. Nfrjuj yt åskj c njuj
dhtvtyb, rfr gjckt Dnjhjq vbhjdjq djqys
hfcgfkfcm fynbubnkthjdcrfz rjfkbwbz.
Rhjvt njuj, YFNJ ecnfyjdbkj jnyjitybz
jcjåjuj gfhnythcndf c Erhfbyjq gjchtlcndjv gjlgbcfybz Öfhnbb, ghbpyfñotq ne
ébpytyyj dféyeñ hjkm, rjnjheñ buhftn änf
cnhfyf d cfvjv cthlwt Tdhjgs, xnj zdkztncz htifñotq ghjdthrjq dctö gjcnfdktyysö
yfvb gthtl cjåjq wtktq.
Dvtcnt c ntv, YFNJ yfgjkybkj ≤Gfhnythcndj dj bvz vbhf≥ åjufnsv gjkbnbxtcrbv
cjlthéfybtv gentv cjplfybz yjdjuj Cjdtnf
Tdhjfnkfynbxtcrjuj gfhnythcndf, gjpdjkzñotuj döjlzobv d ytuj 43 cnhfyfv-xktyfv
jrfpsdfnm gjvjom d jghtltktybb yfghfdktybz ltzntkmyjcnb GBV b ljdtltybb cdjbö
pfåjn b ghjåktv lj cdtltybz Ctdthjfnkfynbxtcrjuj cjñpf.
Yjdjt YFNJ nfrét rjhtyysv jåhfpjv vtyztn vtnjls cdjtq hfåjns, c ntv xnjås jndtxfnm cfvsv hfpyjjåhfpysv djtyysv
nhtåjdfybzv yjdjuj dtrf. Vs cjåbhftvcz
yf ldt nhtnb cjrhfnbnm xbckj infåjd, ddjlbv yjdst vtnjls jhufybpfwbb djjheétyysö cbk, ghtlyfpyfxtyysö lkz gjllthéfybz
vbhf b ehtuekbhjdfybz rhbpbcjd, f nfrét
cjplftv yjdst chtlcndf eghfdktybz änbvb
djqcrfvb. Jlyfrj ghb änjv vs jåtcgtxbdftv nfrjt gjkjétybt, ghb rjnjhjv Ctdthjfnkfynbxtcrbq cjñp gj-ghtéytve åsk ås
d cjcnjzybb cghfdbnmcz c kñåjq gjntywbfkmyjq djtyyjq euhjpjq b ghb rjnjhjv
hfcibhtybt YFNJ gjpdjkzkj ås änjq jhufybpfwbb cjöhfybnm tt ysytiyññ äaatrnbdyjcnm.
Jlyfrj, gjéfkeq, cfvsv pfvtxfntkmysv
ljrevtynjv zdkztncz Jcyjdjgjkfufñobq
Frn YFNJ-Hjccbz. Jy lftn gjcktlyññ djpvjéyjcnm d gjkyjv jåütvt ghbybvfnm
exfcnbt d ltkfö tdhjgtqcrjq åtpjgfcyjcnb d
njv ckexft, tckb änf cnhfyf gjljåyj dctv
lheubv ujcelfhcndfv åeltn buhfnm gj ghfdbkfv. Jcyjdjgjkfufñobq frn jåtcgtxbdftn
gjkyeñ pfobne cgjcjåyjcnb YFNJ r ghbyznbñ cdjbö cjåcndtyysö htitybq b cjöhfytybñ cdjbö jcyjdysö öfhfrnthbcnbr b aeyrwbq jåjhjybntkmyjuj cjñpf; rhjvt njuj,
egjvzyensq ljrevtyn ghtlecvfnhbdftn ibhjrbq lbfgfpjy rjycekmnfnbdysö vthjghbznbq, cjnhelybxtcndf b, yt elbdkzqntcm, lfét cjdvtcnysö ltqcndbq c Hjccbtq. D ctynzåht ytlfdyj cjplfyysq Cjdvtcnysq gjcnjzyysq cjdtn YFNJ-Hjccbz ghjdtk cdjt
Yfrjytw, vs d YFNJ jnrkbryekbcm yf étkfybt yfibö tdhjgtqcrbö cjñpybrjd dpznm
yf ctåz åjkmieñ jndtncndtyyjcnm pf jåjhjye b åjkmieñ ljkñ hfcöjljd gj jåtcgtxtybñ åtpjgfcyjcnb d hfvrfö yjdjq Tdhjgtqcrjq cjcnfdkzñotq åtpjgfcyjcnb b jåjhj21
ys. Dgthdst e Pfgflyjtdhjgtqcrjuj cjñpf
gjzdbncz djpvjéyjcnm ghjdtltybz cfvjcnjzntkmysö djtyysö jgthfwbq c jgjhjq yf
gjvjom YFNJ. Ghb änjv dvtcnj ceotcndjdfdituj hfytt cjgthybxtcndf ghb ecnfyjdktybb nhfycfnkfynbxtcrbö cdzptq gjcktlybt
åelen erhtgkznmcz.
cnfdkztn cjåjq euhjps yb jlyjq bp cnhfy,
f yfjåjhjn, jåtcgtxbdftn dctv, rnj öjxtn
hfåjnfnm c yfvb, ljcnjqyjt vtcnj yf vtéleyfhjlyjq fhtyt.
Nfrbv jåhfpjv, hfcibhtybt YFNJ ghtlcnfdkztn cjåjq ytjåöjlbveñ ghtlgjcskre
ljcnbétybz ghjxyjq åtpjgfcyjcnb d Tdhjgt.
Yj hfpdt änj njét åtphfccelcndj? Änj åskj ås åtphfccelysv, tckb ås yfv yt elfkjcm jceotcndbnm pflevfyyjuj cj dctvb tuj
dpfbvjcdzpfyysvb fcgtrnfvb; tckb öjnz ås
d jlyjq cnhfyt yfv yt elfkjcm ås ljåbnmcz
hfnbabrfwbb ljrevtynjd j ghbcjtlbytybb;
tckb ås yfv yt elfkjcm jåtcgtxbnm yfkbxbt
cjjndtncndeñobö htcehcjd – cfvsö crhjvysö htcehcjd, – ytjåöjlbvsö lkz gjllthéfybz cbks YFNJ bkb, tckb ås yfv yt
elfkjcm yf ghfrnbrt jceotcndbnm gthcgtrnbde, ktéfoeñ d jcyjdt dctö yfibö ysytiybö ecnhtvktybq – cjplfnm ghjxyeñ åtpjgfcyjcnm d Tdhjgt yf gthbjl dctuj 21-uj
cnjktnbz, rjnjhfz vjukf ås gjvjxm yfv
djccnfyjdbnm cghfdtlkbdjcnm, enthzyyeñ d
öjlt étcnjrjq bcnjhbb 20-uj dtrf. Djn njulf änj ltqcndbntkmyj åskj ås ghjdfkjv b
åtphfccelcndjv.
Gj vjtve vytybñ, bvtyyj yf änjv ajyt
yfv cktletn hfccvfnhbdfnm djghjc j hfcibhtybb YFNJ, ghtlcnfdkzñotuj cjåjq ifu
yf genb cjplfybz dctjåütvkñotq cnhernehs åtpjgfcyjcnb, yfljkuj cjöhfyzñotq
cdjñ ghjxyjcnm, gjcrjkmre gjljåyfz cnhernehf jndtxftn pfrjyysv gjnhtåyjcnzv
dctö cnhfy, frnbdyj exfcndeñobö d tdhjgtqcrbö ltkfö.
Ghtljcnfdkzz yjdsv cnhfyfv xktycndj d
Ctdthjfnkfynbxtcrjv cjñpt, vs ghtcktletv lfktrj bleoeñ wtkm lfnm cnhfyfv Wtynhfkmyjq Tdhjgs djpvjéyjcnm gjrjyxbnm c
ghjiksv, ghjiksv njuj cnjktnbz, d rjnjhjv ytedthtyyjcnm b ytcnfåbkmyjcnm xfcnj
ghbdjlbkb änb – b vyjubt lheubt – cnhfys
r rjyakbrnfv b nhfutlbzv. Vs cnhtvbvcz
r njve, xnjås gjkjébnm rjytw cjgthybxtcnde, yfghfdktyyjve yf ljcnbétybt ujcgjlcndeñotuj gjkjétybz d änjv htubjyt b pfödfne rjynhjkz yfl ybv, c ntv xnjås änb
cnhfys, ljkujt dhtvz ckeébdibt jåütrnfvb gjkbnbrb c gjpbwbb cbks, vjukb cnfnm
ceåütrnfvb – b öjpztdfvb – cdjtq cjåcndtyyjq celmås. Vs cnfhftvcz lfnm änbv kñlzv dyenhtyyññ edthtyyjcnm åtcghtgzncndtyyj ghtlghbybvfnm ecbkbz, yfghfdktyyst
yf djccjtlbytybt c Pfgfljv, erhtgktybt
cdjbö yjdsö ltvjrhfnbxtcrbö cnhfy, cjplfybt d ybö hsyjxyjq ärjyjvbrb, gjcnhjtybt
cdjtq ébpyb b ébpyb cdjbö ctvtq d cjjndtncndbb c cjåcndtyysvb ecnhtvktybzvb.
B d öjlt änjuj ghjwtccf vs gsnftvcz
ghjltvjycnhbhjdfnm, xnj YFNJ yt ghtl-
Jlyfrj z edthty, xnj vs ljåmtvcz ecgtöf,
– d xfcnyjcnb, z edthty d njv, xnj yfhjl
Fvthbrb drkñxbncz d pfdthitybt hfåjns,
yfxfnjq gjkdtrf yfpfl Gkfyjv Vfhifkkf b
cjplfybtv YFNJ. Gj cenb ltkf vs dct frnbdyj drkñxbkbcm d äne hfåjne. Gthtl dctvb yfvb ctqxfc cnjzn nhelyst pflfxb, yt
vtytt nhelyst, xtv pflfxb, c rjnjhsvb
ghbikjcm cnjkryenmcz cvtksv b lfkmyjdblysv herjdjlbntkzv 50 ktn yfpfl. Bcffr
Ymñnjy rfr-nj crfpfk, xnj jy ≤cnjbn yf
gktxfö ubufynjd≥. Vs njét cnjbv yf gktxfö ubufynjd, b z edthty, xnj, rjulf xthtp
50 ktn vs jrfétvcz gthtl celjv bcnjhbb,
åeleott gjrjktybt cjxntn, xnj vs c xtcnmñ dslthéfkb änj bcgsnfybt. ¬
22
LKZ GJLLTHÉFYBZ ÉBPYTCGJCJÅYJCNB
CTDTHJFNKFYNBXTCRJUJ CJÑPF
YTJÅÖJLBVS YJDST HTCEHCS
Bynthdmñ c jncnfdysv utythfkjv Fhvbb CIF
Léjhlétv Léjekdfyjv
Léjekdfy ujdjhbn, xnj ghbyznbt d YFNJ yjdsö frnbdysö xktyjd bp
cnhfntubxtcrb dféyjuj htubjyf Wtynhfkmyjq b Djcnjxyjq Tdhjgs ekexibn åtpjgfcyjcnm CIF
b bö cjñpybrjd. Jncnfdyjq utythfk fhvbb, rjnjhsq lj bñkz änjuj ujlf åsk
Dthöjdysv ukfdyjrjvfyleñobv jåütlbytyysvb djjheétyysvb cbkfvb YFNJ d Tdhjgt,
gjkfuftn, xnj Gjkmif, Dtyuhbz b Xticrfz Htcgeåkbrf ≤ghbdytcen cdtébq leö b äythubñ,
xnjås jébdbnm fkmzyc d hfvrfö tuj gjlujnjdrb r dcnegktybñ d ÖÖÈ dtr≥.
Bynthdmñ c Léjekdfyjv dpzkf rjhhtcgjyltyn ÑCBF Létrb Gjhn.
DJGHJC: Gjxtve ds gjkfuftnt, xnj YFNJ,
LÉJEKDFY: Dyenhtyyzz flfgnfwbz fkmzy-
rfr ds crfpfkb, zdkztncz yfbåjktt ecgtiysv djtyysv fkmzycjv d bcnjhbb?
cf c yfbåjkmitq jxtdblyjcnmñ, levfñ, ghjzdkztncz d yfitq djtyyjq cnherneht. Ukfdyjt rjvfyljdfybt jåütlbytyysvb djjheétyysvb cbkfvb YFNJ d Tdhjgt, r ghbvthe, cjrhfnbkj xbckj gjlxbytyysö tve
htubjyjd c xtnshtö lj nhtö. Yf 25 ghjwtynjd cjrhfotys rflhs. Hfwbjyfkbpbhjdfyf
rjvfylyfz b cbkjdfz cnhernehs.
LÉJEKDFY: Gj vyjubv ghbxbyfv. Ghtélt dctuj, YFNJ ljrfpfkj cdjñ cbke rfr
gjkbnbxtcrfz b djtyyfz jhufybpfwbz dctv
ntv, xnj jyj ltkfkj d yfxfkt 40-ö ujljd,
xnj cgjcjåcndjdfkj jrjyxfybñ öjkjlyjq
djqys, gfltybñ Åthkbycrjq cntys b ≤étktpyjuj pfyfdtcf≥, djccjtlbytybñ Uthvfybb
b cvthnb rjvveybpvf d Tdhjgt.
Vs nfrét exbnsdftv d yfitq hfåjnt d
Infåt dthöjdyjuj ukfdyjrjvfyleñotuj
jåütlbytyysvb djjheétyysvb cbkfvb
YFNJ d Tdhjgt Tdhjgtqcreñ cjcnfdkzñoeñ tdhjgtqcrjq åtpjgfcyjcnb b jåjhjys
(TCTÅJ). Yfghbvth, xtnshtöpdtplysv yfxfkmybrjv infåf ghb dthöjdyjv ukfdyjrjvfyleñotv jåütlbytyysvb djjheétyysvb
cbkfvb YFNJ dctulf åsk fvthbrfytw.
Ntgthm änj ytvtw. Yfxfkmybrjv jåütlbytyyjuj b cjdvtcnyjuj infåf gkfybhjdfybz
zdkztncz nhtöpdtplysq utythfk-ujkkfyltw.
Herjdjlbntkm Uheggs gj rjjhlbyfwbb gfhnythcndf – ldeöpdtplysq utythfk bp Lfybb.
Nfr xnj tdhjgtqcrbt jabwths buhfñn dct
åjktt dféyeñ hjkm d rjvfylyjq cnherneht
fkmzycf. B dyenhtyyzz flfgnfwbz fkmzycf
åeltn ghjljkéfnmcz.
Yfxbyfz c 1989 u. fkmzyc ghbcgjcfåkbdftncz
r htfkbzv cjdhtvtyyjq Tdhjgs. Jlby bp cthmtpysö afrnjhjd nfv zdkztncz ytcnfåbkmyjcnm. B YFNJ htfubhetn nfrbv jåhfpjv,
rjnjhsq erfpsdftn yf tuj ubårjcnm b ytjåöjlbvjcnm tuj cjöhfytybz d ÖÖÈ dtrt. Ybult änj yt ghjzdkztncz c åjkmitq jxtdblyjcnmñ, xtv d Åjcybb. Fkmzyc, ghjdtlz hzl
dcnhtx yf dscitv ehjdyt, dpzk yf ctåz yjdst vbccbb, jceotcndbk rfr dyenhtyyññ,
nfr b dytiyññ flfgnfwbñ b dgthdst d bcnjhbb yfghfdbk djqcrf d Åjcybñ, xnjås
ghbdtcnb d bcgjkytybt vbhyjt cjukfitybt,
jåtcgtxbd nfrbv jåhfpjv cnfåbkmyjcnm d
änjv dtcmvf dphsdjjgfcyjv hfqjyt Tdhjgs.
DJGHJC: Yt vjukb ås ds ytvyjuj hfccrf-
Vs nfrét hfccvfnhbdftv rjywtgwbñ cjdvtcnyjq jåütlbytyyjq jgthfnbdyj-nfrnb-
pfnm j dyenhtyytq flfgnfwbb?
23
xtcrjq uheggs, ghb rjnjhjq vs vjukb ås
ckbnm rjvfylyj-eghfdktyxtcrbt infås. Jyb
vjukb ås aeyrwbjybhjdfnm gjl gfnhjyfétv YFNJ bkb rfrjq-kbåj lheujq jhufybpfwbb – yfghbvth PTC, Pfgflyjtdhjgtqcrjuj
cjñpf – ghb ghjdtltybb jgthfwbb, rjnjhfz
åeltn yjcbnm ghtélt dctuj tdhjgtqcrbq öfhfrnth. Änf flfgnfwbz xhtpdsxfqyj dféyf
gj vtht njuj, rfr YFNJ ghbcgjcfåkbdftncz
r ctujlyziybv b pfdnhfiybv htfkbzv.
YFNJ d Tdhjgt. Yfxbyfz c jrnzåhz 1995 u.,
pfvtcnbntktv dthöjdyjuj ukfdyjrjvfyleñotuj jåütlbytyysvb djjheétyysvb cbkfvb
YFNJ d Tdhjgt gj rjvfyljdfybñ hjccbqcrbvb djjheétyysvb cbkfvb d Åjcybb zdkztncz heccrbq. D htpekmnfnt änjq ljujdjhtyyjcnb hjccbqcrbt djtyyjckeéfobt hfåjnfñn d Åjcybb åjr j åjr c fvthbrfycrbvb
b yfnjdcrbvb cbkfvb, gfnhekbheñn cnhfntubxtcrbq Gjcjdbycrbq rjhbljh b tétlytdyj
dpfbvjltqcndeñn lheu c lheujv d cdzpb,
vfnthbfkmyj-ntöybxtcrjv cyfåétybb b nfrnbxtcrjq gjlujnjdrt. D htpekmnfnt änjuj
cjnhelybxtcndf d vft änjuj ujlf d Gfhbét
åsk gjlgbcfy Jcyjdjgjkfufñobq frn
YFNJ-Hjccbz, rjnjhsq jnrhsdftn åjkmibt
gthcgtrnbds yf åeleott.
DJGHJC: Rfr ghjöjlbn dytiyzz flfgnfwbz?
LÉJEKDFY: Tcnm ldf jcyjdysö djghjcf.
Gthdsq – ghjuhfvvf ≤Gfhnythcndj dj bvz
vbhf≥ (GBV), rjnjhfz cnfkf htpekmnfnjv
cfvvbnf ukfd ujcelfhcnd d zydfht 1994 u.
Änj åskj gjgsnrf fkmzycf fgtkkbhjdfnm
r åsdibv ghjnbdybrfv b ytghbcjtlbybdibvcz ujcelfhcndfv, b epyfnm, vjétv kb
vs cjjåof hfphfåfnsdfnm jåobt cnfylfhns,
ghjwtlehs b ljrnhbye lkz dsgjkytybz
cjdvtcnysö vbccbq d åeleotv. Ybrnj njulf
yt pyfk, xnj änjq ntjhbb åeltn ceéltyj
htfkbpjdfnm ctåz d Åjcybb. Änf ghjuhfvvf
djtyyjuj cjnhelybxtcndf åskf jlyjq bp
vjbö yfbåjktt ghbjhbntnysö pflfx. B jyf
jrfpfkfcm xhtpdsxfqyj ecgtiyjq: ntgthm d
ghjuhfvvt ≤Gfhnythcndj dj bvz vbhf≥ exfcndeñn 27 ujcelfhcnd; 25 yfghfdbkb cdjbö
jabwthjd cdzpb d Infå dthöjdyjuj ukfdyjrjvfyleñotuj jåütlbytyysvb djjheétyysvb cbkfvb YFNJ d Tdhjgt d Vjyct
(Åtkmubz). Änj ltkftn Infå dthöjdyjuj
ukfdyjrjvfyleñotuj jåütlbytyysvb djjheétyysvb cbkfvb YFNJ d Tdhjgt rhegytqitq vyjujyfwbjyfkmyjq infå-rdfhnbhjq
d vbht. YFNJ b yfib gfhnyths ghjdjlzn
15 rhegyjvfcinfåysö cjdvtcnysö extybq, f
nfrét exfcndeñn d cjnyzö ctvbyfhjd, hfåjxbö uhegg b lheubö ajhvfö cjnhelybxtcndf.
Vs ldbétvcz jn rjyahjynfwbb öjkjlyjq
djqys r cjnhelybxtcnde b lbfkjue. B änj
yfv elftncz.
DJGHJC: Rfrbt tot djtyyst flfgnfwbb
bkb bpvtytybz ljkéty ghtlghbyznm fkmzyc,
xnjås ghjdtcnb cdjt hfcibhtybt, rhjvt
ntö, j rjnjhsö ds eét hfccrfpfkb?
LÉJEKDFY: Gj cenb ltkf, ljkéyj ghjbpjqnb cktleñott: ujcelfhcndf, ghbyznst
d xktys YFNJ, ljkéys rfr vjéyj crjhtt
åsnm drkñxtys d byntuhbhjdfyyeñ cnhernehe ghjnbdjdjpleiyjq jåjhjys YFNJ.
Änj, yf vjq dpukzl, zdkztncz jlyjq bp gthdjcntgtyysö pflfx. Rhjvt njuj, ljkéys
åsnm cjplfys cbcntvs cdzpb, b frnbdbpbhjdfyf gjlujnjdrf rflhjd d wtkzö crjhtqituj
ghbdtltybz yjdsö ujcelfhcnd-xktyjd YFNJ
d cjjndtncndbt cj cnfylfhnfvb YFNJ.
DJGHJC: Rfrbv jåhfpjv yjdst xktys
YFNJ cvjuen ekexibnm dsgjkytybt fvthbrfycrbö nhtåjdfybq r åtpjgfcyjcnb?
LÉJEKDFY: Z cxbnfñ, xnj ghtlgjkfuftvst yjdst xktys YFNJ: Dtyuhbz, Gjkmif
b Xtöbz – yföjlzncz d cnhfntubxtcrb dféyjq xfcnb Tdhjgs. Änj njn åeath, rjnjhsq
ceotcndjdfk vtéle Uthvfybtq b Hjccbtq
yf ghjnzétybb cnjktnbq, b yf ghjnzétybb
cnjktnbq d änjv htubjyt dtkbcm djqys:
njkmrj d yfitv dtrt ldt vbhjdsö djqys,
eytcibt ébpyb vbkkbjyjd b vbkkbjyjd
xtkjdtr b ghbxbybdibt eothå cnjbvjcnmñ
d nhbkkbjys ljkkfhjd. Gjänjve ddtltybt
änbö ujcelfhcnd d fkmzyc erhtgkztn yt
Lheujt yfghfdktybt dytiytq flfgnfwbz –
änj yfit cjnhelybxtcndj c heccrbvb. Jyj
zdkzkjcm jlybv bp jcyjdysö yfghfdktybq
vjtq xtnshtöktnytq ltzntkmyjcnb d ljkéyjcnb dthöjdyjuj ukfdyjrjvfyleñotuj
jåütlbytyysvb djjheétyysvb cbkfvb
24
njkmrj åtpjgfcyjcnm CIF, yj b åtpjgfcyjcnm YFNJ.
xnj jyb åelen gjkyjghfdysvb, frnbdysvb
b gjktpysvb xktyfvb YFNJ.
Rhjvt njuj, änb cnhfys bvtñn djjheétyyst cbks, rjnjhst cj dhtvtytv jåtcgtxfn
wtyyst htcehcs lkz fkmzycf, b jyb eét
ghjltvjycnhbhjdfkb, xnj jyb étkfñn hfpltkznm yt njkmrj yfib wtyyjcnb b bltfks
d hfvrfö fkmzycf, yj b hbcrb, yfghfdkznm
cdjbö djtyyjckeéfobö d Åjcybñ. Rhjvt
njuj, z gjkfufñ, xnj änb ujcelfhcndf ghbdytcen cdtébq leö b äythubñ, xnjås
jébdbnm fkmzyc d hfvrfö tuj gjlujnjdrb
r dcnegktybñ d ÖÖÈ dtr.
DJGHJC: Rhbnbrb hfcibhtybz YFNJ en-
dthélfñn, xnj ddtltybt d YFNJ yjdsö
xktyjd vjukj ås d rjytxyjv cxtnt kbibnm
fkmzyc tuj bcrjyyjq ghbhjls. Rfrjdf dfif
njxrf phtybz?
LÉJEKDFY: Änj njn djghjc, rjnjhsq
ljkéty jåceélfnmcz d ntxtybt åeleotuj
ujlf bkb ldeö. Yj dtlm ghjbpjikj ét hfcibhtybt fkmzycf d 1951 u. E yfc åskj 12
ujcelfhcnd-xktyjd, rjulf gthdsv dthöjdysv ukfdyjrjvfyleñobv åsk utythfk Äqptyöfeäh. D ntxtybt gjcktleñobö 30 ktn
vs hfcibhbkbcm lj 16 ujcelfhcnd. Nfr xnj
hfcibhtybt ghjbcöjlbkj b d ghjikjv. Z
gjkfufñ, ceotcndeñn dtcmvf ndthlst cnhfntubxtcrbt ghbxbys lkz ghbyznbz d xktys
YFNJ ntö ujcelfhcnd, rfylblfnehs rjnjhsö åskb cjukfcjdfys d Vflhblt (d bñkt):
Gjkmib, Dtyuhbb b Xticrjq Htcgeåkbrb.
Tot 12 ujcelfhcnd jåhfnbkbcm c ghjcmåjq j
dcnegktybb d xktys YFNJ, nfr xnj fkmzyce
b pfbynthtcjdfyysv cedthtyysv ujcelfhcndfv ytjåöjlbvj ghjljkéfnm lbfkju, f pfntv ghbyznm gjkbnbxtcrjt htitybt j njv,
crjkmrj tot ljkéyj ghjljkéfnmcz änj
hfcibhtybt.
DJGHJC: Zdkztncz kb hfcibhtybt YFNJ
djtyyjq ytjåöjlbvjcnmñ?
LÉJEKDFY: Z cxbnfñ, xnj lf. Z gjkfufñ,
xnj drkñxtybt d fkmzyc änjq cnhfntubxtcrb
dféyjq xfcnb Tdhjgs erhtgbn cnfåbkmyjcnm
b hfcibhbn djpvjéyjcnb lkz bydtcnbwbq d
Djcnjxyjq b Wtynhfkmyjq Tdhjgt. Nfrbv
jåhfpjv, vs nfrét ljåmtvcz ghjuhtccf yf
genb r ltvjrhfnbb. D rjywt rjywjd, hfphfåjnfyysq 50 ktn njve yfpfl gkfy Vfhifkkf drkñxfk d ctåz yt njkmrj Pfgflyeñ
Tdhjge, yj b Djcnjxyeñ Tdhjge b – lfét d
nj dhtvz – Cjdtncrbq Cjñp. Gjänjve änj
dj vyjujv cjjndtncndetn vtxnt Vfhifkkf,
rjnjhjq eét bcgjkybkjcm gjkdtrf. Ltqcndbntkmyj, yf vjq dpukzl, cnfåbkmyjcnm d
Wtynhfkmyjq Tdhjgt jåtcgtxbdftn Hjccbb
åtpjgfcyjcnm yf tt pfgflyjv akfyut.
DJGHJC: Ytjåöjlbvj kb hfcibhtybt
YFNJ lkz erhtgktybz jnyjitybq dyenhb
Fnkfynbxtcrjuj cjjåotcndf?
DJGHJC: Ds rhfnrj eét rjcyekbcm änjuj,
yj yt vjukb ås ds åjktt gjlhjåyj jghtltkbnm djtyyst gjcktlcndbz dcnegktybz d
YFNJ lkz Gjkmib, Dtyuhbb b Xticrjq
Htcgeåkbrb?
LÉJEKDFY: Z gjkfufñ, xnj hfcibhtybt
zdkztncz pfrjyjvthysv cktlcndbtv cjåsnbq, rjnjhst ghjbpjikb d 1989 b 1990 uu.
Vs yt vjétv jnrfpfnm d xktycndt ntv
ujcelfhcndfv, rjnjhst pf gjcktlybt 40–50
ktn vyjubv gjéthndjdfkb hflb cdjåjls b
rjnjhst nfrét cvjuen dytcnb åjkmijq
drkfl d åeleoeñ åtpjgfcyjcnm Tdhjgs.
LÉJEKDFY: Z gjkfufñ, änj ekexibn åtpjgfcyjcnm dctö nhtö ujcelfhcnd, änj jxtdblyj, yj dj dhtvz vjbö åtctl c gjkbnbxtcrbvb b djtyysvb herjdjlbntkzvb änbö
nhtö cnhfy jyb lfdfkb vyt gjyznm, xnj jyb
nfrét yfvthtdfñncz dytcnb åjkmijq drkfl
d ltzntkmyjcnm fkmzycf, rfr gjkbnbxtcrbq,
nfr b lbgkjvfnbxtcrbq, f nfrét d djtyyjv
jnyjitybb. Gjckt jåibhysö jåceéltybq c
herjdjlcndjv änbö ujcelfhcnd z eåtélty,
DJGHJC: Rfr ds gjkfuftnt, cvjuen kb
xktys YFNJ – gj jnltkmyjcnb b dvtcnt –
htibnm djghjcs hfpltktybz åhtvtyb jåjhjys d ljcnfnjxyjq cntgtyb, xnjås ghtjljktnm cjghjnbdktybt cj cnjhjys ntö xktyjd
Rjyuhtccf CIF, rjnjhst vjuen åsnm
yfcnhjtys ghjnbd hfcibhtybz YFNJ?
25
LÉJEKDFY: Z levfñ, xnj jlybv bp ntö djghjcjd, rjnjhst ytjåöjlbvj htifnm, zdkzñncz pfnhfns. Kbxyj z vjue crfpfnm, xnj dj
dhtvz vjbö åtctl c gjkbnbxtcrbvb b djtyysvb herjdjlbntkzvb dctö nhtö ujcelfhcnd jyb
ujdjhbkb, xnj yfvthtdfñncz gjkyjcnmñ ytcnb
dcñ cghfdtlkbdeñ ljkñ hfcöjljd yf hfcibhtybt YFNJ. Rfr z eét crfpfk, c vjtq njxrb
phtybz, d åsnyjcnm vjñ dthöjdysv ukfdyjrjvfyleñobv, z jxtym zcyj lfk gjyznm, xnj
jlybv bp nhtåjdfybq, rfr vyt ghtlcnfdkztncz, zdkztncz byntuhfwbz cbcntv ghjnbdjdjpleiyjq jåjhjys, cdzpb b gjlujnjdrb. Rfrbt
cfvjktns, celf bkb nfyrb pfregfnm njq bkb
byjq cnhfyt – änj tt cjåcndtyyjt ltkj.
vjéyj, cdjb jåütrns, yj yf jcyjdfybb vjbö
cjåcndtyysö jåceéltybq b dpfbvjltqcndbz
c änbvb nhtvz ujcelfhcndfvb z vjue cltkfnm dsdjl, xnj jyb åelen jxtym vyjuj
ltkfnm lkz fkmzycf b hflb ljcnbétybz ntö
wtktq, r rjnjhsv cnhtvbncz fkmzyc. Yf
vtyz ghjbpdtkj jxtym ukeåjrjt dgtxfnktybt nj, xnj änb ujcelfhcndf gjybvfñn wtyyjcnb b bltfks fkmzycf, rjnjhsö vs ghblthébdftvcz yf ghjnzétybb cnjkmrbö ktn,
b afrnbxtcrb dj vyjubö jnyjitybzö jyb
yfgjvbyfñn yfv j njv, hflb xtuj ét, cjåcndtyyj ujdjhz, b ceotcndetn yfi fkmzyc.
DJGHJC: Ltåfns gj djghjce j hfcibhtybb
YFNJ d Ctyfnt CIF gj dhtvtyb gjxnb
cjdgflfñn c ltåfnfvb gj dsdjle bp Åjcybb
djqcr CIF b YFNJ. Tcnm kb e dfc rfrbtkbåj jgfctybz, b yt jéblftnt kb ds rfrbökbåj ghjåktv gj gjdjle djpvjéyjq dpfbvyjq edzprb änbö ldeö djghjcjd?
D yfcnjzott dhtvz e yfc d fkmzyct ytn gjkyjuj dpfbvjltqcndbz vtéle 16 ujcelfhcndfvb. Yt e dctö bvtñncz jlbyfrjdst nfyrb; yt
e dctö bvtñncz jlbyfrjdst bcnhtåbntkb. Yj
vs ljujdjhbkbcm jå jåobö ghbywbgfö, cnfylfhnfö b ghjwtlehfö. B änb ujcelfhcndf, j rjnjhsö vs ujdjhbv, ltvjycnhbheñn änj, jyb
gjcnbufñn änb ghjwtlehs d Åjcybb ctujlyz.
DJGHJC: Tcnm kb rfrbt-kbåj lheubt djtyyst bpvtytybz bkb flfgnfwbb, rjnjhst ljkéty ghtlghbyznm fkmzyc, xnjås ghjdtcnb
cdjt hfcibhtybt, pf bcrkñxtybtv ntö dyenhtyybö b dytiybö, j rjnjhsö ds eét egjvzyekb?
LÉJEKDFY: C gjkbnbxtcrjq njxrb phtybz, z gjkfufñ, änj vjétn cnfnm jlyjq bp
ghjåktv. Z öjntk ås yfltznmcz, xnj djghjcs, cdzpfyyst c Åjcybtq, elfcncz htibnm lj
bñyz 1998 u. Yj pltcm ytjåöjlbvj ghbyznm
gjkbnbxtcrbt htitybz. Cbks gj cnfåbkbpfwbb, bkb CAJH, yföjlzncz nfv eét 18 vtczwtd, gjnjve xnj änj åskj gjkbnbxtcrjt
htitybt fkmzycf, jlybv bp rkñxtdsö xktyjd rjnjhjuj zdkzñncz CIF. Tckb CIF
bkb vtéleyfhjlyjt cjjåotcndj öjnzn bpvtybnm chjrb, nj fkmzyc ljkéty pfzdbnm, xnj
ghtlcnfdkztn cjåjq yjdfz vbccbz, b xtnrj
cajhvekbhjdfnm tt wtkb. Z cxbnfñ, xnj
xtv crjhtt änj åeltn cltkfyj, ntv kexit.
Bkb vs dsdtltv djqcrf d bñyt 1998 u. Änj
htitybt ljkéyj åsnm ghbyznj c gjkbnbxtcrjq njxrb phtybz b jxtym crjhj – z ås crfpfk, yt gjplytt ltrfåhz.
LÉJEKDFY: Ytn, z gjkfufñ, xnj cnhernehf eét flfgnbhjdfyf. Ntgthm e yfc tcnm
Cjdtn fnkfynbxtcrjuj gfhnythcndf, rjnjhsq
drkñxftn d ctåz dctö gfhnythjd (gj GBV).
Gjänjve d jnyjitybb bö ghbyznbz d YFNJ
d rfxtcndt yjdsö xktyjd z gjkfufñ, xnj
gjkbnbxtcrfz cnhernehf fkmzycf cvjétn
ghbyznm bö. Ntgthm bv, dthjznyj, ghbltncz
hfcibhznm cdjt infnyjt hfcgbcfybt b, djp-
Yj djghjc j hfcibhtybb – änj nfrét b
cnhfntubxtcrbq djghjc, b z öjntk ås yfltznmcz, xnj jy gjkexbn ljkéyjt jåceéltybt, gjnjve xnj änb htitybz åelen pfnhfubdfnm åeleoeñ åtpjgfcyjcnm CIF d ÖÖÈ dtrt. B vs ljkéys ghbyznm ghfdbkmyst htitybz. F änj nhtåetn dctjåotq gjllthérb
cj cnjhjys fvthbrfycrjuj yfhjlf, Rjyuhtccf b Ctdthjfnkfynbxtcrjuj fkmzycf. ¬
B gjänjve ghjåktve pfnhfn ytjåöjlbvj htifnm, yj z yf cfvjv ltkt gjkfufñ, xnj d
ytrjnjhsö jnxtnfö jyb åskb pfdsitys.
Rhjvt njuj, z yt pyfñ, rfr vjéyj jwtybnm
njn hbcr, c rjnjhsv yfv ghbltncz cnjkryenmcz d ckexft djpybryjdtybz njuj bkb
byjuj rjyakbrnf bkb lfét djqys. Gjänjve
z levfñ, xnj pfnhfns, j rjnjhsö vs ujdjhbv, yfv gjcbkmys.
26
RJYUHTCC B HFCIBHTYBT YFNJ
Cnäykb H. Ckjey, ärcgthn gj djghjcfv vtéleyfhjlyjq
åtpjgfcyjcnb, Yfexyj-bccktljdfntkmcrfz ckeéåf Rjyuhtccf
Lbcreccbz gj gjdjle hfcibhtybz YFNJ ≤vjétn cnfnm jlybv bp jcyjdysö
äktvtynjd, rjnjhst åelen dkbznm yf rehc dytiytq gjkbnbrb CIF d ntxtybt gjcktleñobö ktn≥,
crfpfk Ckjey. Ybét cktletn cnfnmz, d rjnjhjq jy jgbcsdftn djpvjéysq dfhbfyn ltqcndbq,
rfcfñoböcz ghjwtccf hfnbabrfwbb ljrevtynjd j hfcibhtybb YFNJ d Rjyuhtcct. Ckjey zdkztncz
cnfhibv ärcgthnjv gj djghjcfv vtéleyfhjlyjq åtpjgfcyjcnb d Yfexyj-bccktljdfntkmcrjq
ckeéåt Rjyuhtccf ghb Åbåkbjntrt Rjyuhtccf. D yfcnjzott dhtvz jy zdkztncz cjdtnybrjv
d ctyfncrjq uheggt yfåkñlfntktq YFNJ b ljrkflxbrjv gj cgtwbfkmyjve ghjtrne
Ctdthjfnkfynbxtcrjq Fccfvåktb ≤YFNJ d 21 dtrt≥.
JCJÅFZ HJKM CTYFNF
Rfr Gfkfnf ghtlcnfdbntktq, nfr b Ctyfn
buhfñn dféyeñ hjkm d ghjwtcct ghbyznbz
htitybq. D cjjndtncndbb c Rjycnbnewbtq
CIF, Gfkfnf ghtlcnfdbntktq ljkéyf ghtlcnfdkznm pfrjyjghjtrns gj hfcöjlysv
cnfnmzv. Cktljdfntkmyj, Gfkfnf ghtlcnfdbntktq ljkéyf jljåhbnm abyfycjdst pfrjyjghjtrns, rjnjhst ytjåöjlbvs lkz gjllthéfybz ghjwtccf hfcibhtybz YFNJ.
Ltåfns d Rjyuhtcct gj gjdjle hfcibhtybz
YFNJ eét yfxfkbcm. Änb ltåfns jabwbfkmyj åskb jnrhsns 7 jrnzåhz dj dhtvz
ckeifybq d ctyfncrjv Rjvbntnt gj vtéleyfhjlysv jnyjitybzv, yf rjnjhsö ghbcencndjdfkf ujcctrhtnfhm Välkby Jkåhfqn.
Jlyfrj afrnbxtcrb Rjyuhtcc hfccvfnhbdftn
djghjcs hfcibhtybz YFNJ eét yf ghjnzétybb ytcrjkmrbö ktn.
Rjyuhtcc eét ghbyzk ytcrjkmrj pfrjyjlfntkmysö frnjd d gjllthére ghjwtccf hfcibhtybz YFNJ. Cfvsv gjcktlybv bp ybö
zdkztncz Frn j tdhjgtqcrjq åtpjgfcyjcnb
1997 u., rjnjhsq jljåhztn ghjwtcc hfcibhtybz YFNJ b ghbpsdftn r ghjljkétybñ
änjuj ghjwtccf. D ytcrjkmrbö pfrjyjlfntkmysö frnfö, ghbyznsö d ntxtybt ghtlsleobö
ktn ghjcnsv åjkmibycndjv ujkjcjd d Gfkfnt ghtlcnfdbntktq b Ctyfnt, nfrét dshféfkfcm gjllthérf lfkmytqitve hfcibhtybñ YFNJ b dsltkzkbcm jghtltktyyst
chtlcndf c ntv, xnjås jåtcgtxbnm exfcnbt
gjntywbfkmysö rfylblfnjd d ghjuhfvvt
YFNJ ≤Gfhnythcndj dj bvz vbhf≥. Jlyfrj
djpybrftn djghjc, ytjåöjlbvs kb ldt nhtnb
ujkjcjd Ctyfnf, c ntv xnjås lfnm ≤cdjq cjdtn b cjukfcbt≥ yf hfcibhtybt Ctdthjfnkfynbxtcrjuj cjñpf b ghbyznm d cdjb xktys
Xticreñ Htcgeåkbre, Dtyuhbñ b Gjkmie.
Xnj rfcftncz Ctyfnf, nj jy buhftn jcjåeñ
hjkm yf yfxfkmyjv änfgt änjuj ghjwtccf.
C ntv xnjås ghjwtcc hfnbabrfwbb pfrjyxbkcz ecgtiyj, ldt nhtnb xktyjd Ctyfnf –
≤rfr ghbcencndeñobt, nfr b ujkjceñobt≥ –
ljkéys ghjujkjcjdfnm ≤pf≥ ghb ghjdtltybb
ujkjcjdfybz d Ctyfnt gj djghjce hfcibhtybz YFNJ.
Ctdthjfnkfynbxtcrbq ljujdjh, rjnjhsq bpdtcnty nfr ét rfr ≤Dfibyunjycrjt cjukfitybt≥, dctulf ghtlcnfdkzk jcjåsq bynthtc
lkz Ctyfnf. Rjulf änf nhfycfnkfynbxtcrfz
cltkrf åskf pfrkñxtyf d 1949 u., Ctyfn pfdthbk, xnj jy åeltn gjkyjghfdysv gfhnythjv d änjq cltkrt yf cnjhjyt CIF. D ljrkflt ctyfncrjuj rjvbntnf gj vtéleyfhjlysv jnyjitybzv gj gjdjle änjuj ljujdjhf
ujdjhbkjcm, xnj tckb yjdst xktys åelen
ghbukfitys d änjn fkmzyc, nj Ctyfn åeltn
27
hfccvfnhbdfnm änj rfr jåzpfntkmcndj, ñhblbxtcrb cdzpsdfñott flvbybcnhfwbñ ghtpbltynf b lfdfnm cdjq cjdtn b cjukfcbt d
jnyjitybb rféljuj ghtntyltynf. C ntö gjh
ghtpbltyns CIF bcgjkmpeñn äne ghfrnbre.
ghtlcnfdbnm ljgjkytybz r ljujdjhe yf
hfccvjnhtybt Ctyfnf.
GHJWTCC
Gkfybhetncz, xnj d ltrfåht 1997 u. cnhfysexfcnybws YFNJ ljkéys åelen jljåhbnm
htpekmnfns gthtujdjhjd gj gjdjle ghbyznbz
d xktys YFNJ nhtö yjdsö cnhfy. Htpekmnfns änbö gthtujdjhjd åelen ghtlcnfdktys d
ajhvt nhtö ghjtrnjd ghjnjrjkjd r Ctdthjfnkfynbxtcrjve ljujdjhe bkb jlyjuj ghjnjrjkf, tckb åeltn htityj jåütlbybnm nhb
ljrevtynf d jlby gfrtn pfrjyjd. (Rjulf d
1952 u. Uhtwbz b Nehwbz ghbcjtlbybkbcm r
YFNJ, åsk njkmrj jlby ghjnjrjk jå bö
ghbyznbb, f yt ldf.) Dthjznyj, xnj d zydfht
1998 u. Ghtpbltyn Rkbynjy ghtlcnfdbn ghjnjrjk[s] Ctyfne.
Afrnbxtcrb hfccvjnhtybt djghjcf j hfcibhtybb YFNJ d Ctyfnt åeltn ghjbcöjlbnm
d njn vjvtyn, rjulf ghtpbltyn ghtlcnfdbn
ghjnjrjk[s] yf Rfgbnjkbqcrbq öjkv. Tot
d vfhnt 1997 u. Nhtyl Kjnn (htcgeåkbrfytw,
infn Vbccbcbgb), kblth ctyfncrjuj åjkmibycndf, yfpyfxbk cgtwbfkmyeñ ≤Ctyfncreñ
uhegge yfåkñlfntktq YFNJ≥, xnjås rjynhjkbhjdfnm ghjwtcc hfcibhtybz YFNJ. D
cjcnfd uheggs döjlbn 20 xktyjd Ctyfnf b 8
åsdibö dscjrjgjcnfdktyysö kbw bp
herjdjlcndf jåtbö gfhnbq. Uhegge djpukfdkztn ctyfnjh Ebkmzv D. Hjn-vkflibq (htcgeåkbrfytw, infn Ltkfdäh), ctyfnjh Léjpta H. Åfqlty-vkflibq (ltvjrhfn, infn
Ltkfdäh) zdkztncz cjghtlctlfntktv uheggs.
C vjvtynf cdjtuj cjplfybz änf uheggf ghjdtkf vyjujxbcktyyst dcnhtxb c ghtlcnfdbntkzvb flvbybcnhfwbb, uhfélfycrbvb b
djtyysvb jabwbfkmysvb kbwfvb d YFNJ
b jabwbfkmysvb kbwfvb, ghtlcnfdkzñobvb
cnhfys-rfylblfns yf xktycndj d YFNJ.
Änb dcnhtxb gjckeébkb cdjtjåhfpysv rfyfkjv byajhvfwbb lkz Ctyfnf j ghjwtcct
hfcibhtybz YFNJ, f nfrét rfr ajhev lkz
ytjabwbfkmysö lbcreccbq gj djghjce hfcibhtybz YFNJ.
Pfntv ghjnjrjk[s] åeltn yfghfdkty d
ctyfncrbq Rjvbntn gj vtéleyfhjlysv
jnyjitybzv, rjnjhsq hfccvfnhbdftn gjcnegfñobt ghtlkjétybz b ghtlcnfdkztn bö
Ctyfne. Åjkmibycndj xktyjd änjuj rjvbntnf ljkéys ghjujkjcjdfnm pf änb ghjnjrjks
c ≤htpjkñwbtq j hfnbabrfwbb≥. Rjvbntn gj
vtéleyfhjlysv jnyjitybzv ghjdtltn ckeifybz gj änjve djghjce b hfccvjnhbn djpvjéyst ljgjkytybz b jujdjhrb, xnjås ljgjkybnm äne htpjkñwbñ. Rhjvt njuj, jcnfkmyst rjvbntns Ctyfnf nfrét vjuen ghjdjlbnm ckeifybz b ghtlcnfdbnm cdjb ljrkfls. Ctyfncrbq Rjvbntn gj djjheétyysv
cbkfv, rjnjhsq djpukfdkztn ctyfnjh Cnhjv
Nehvjyl (htcgeåkbrfytw, infn Ñéyfz
Rfhjkbyf), dthjznyj, åeltn buhfnm dféyeñ
hjkm, c ntv xnjås yfghfdbnm d ghfdbkmyjt
heckj ltåfns d Ctyfnt, yj bvtyyj Rjvbntn
gj vtéleyfhjlysv jnyjitybzv ljkéty
Änjn nofntkmysq ghjwtcc fyfkbpf gjcntgtyyj döjlbn d jabwbfkmyjt heckj, gjcrjkmre
Rjvbntn gj vtéleyfhjlysv jnyjitybzv
yfxfk ckeifybz gj djghjce hfcibhtybz
YFNJ, rjnjhst åelen ghjljkétys d yjzåht. Jcyjdyjt dybvfybt yf änbö ckeifybzö
åeltn eltkznmcz ukfdysv ghjåktvfv hfcibhtybz YFNJ, drkñxfz cnhfntubxtcreñ
wtktcjjåhfpyjcnm hfcibhtybz, djghjcs
pfnhfn b hfcghtltktybz hfcöjljd, rfxtcndtyyst öfhfrnthbcnbrb cnhfy-ghtntyltynjd
b djpvjéyjt djpltqcndbt yf jnyjitybz c
Hjccbtq. Ghtlctlfntktv änjuj rjvbntnf
zdkztncz ctyfnjh Létccb Ötkvc (htcgeåkbrfytw, infn Ctdthyfz Rfhjkbyf), b jy åeltn
jghtltkznm öfhfrnth njuj, rfr rjvbntn
åeltn ujnjdbnm äne htpjkñwbñ. Dféyeñ
hjkm åelen buhfnm nfrét ctyfnjh Ujhljy
Cvbn (htcgeåkbrfytw, infn Jhtujy), rjnjhsq zdkztncz ghtlctlfntktv Gjlrjvbntnf
Ghtélt xtv ghtlkfuftvjt ljgjkytybt r
ljujdjhe åeltn hfccvjnhtyj d Ctyfnt, jyj
ljkéyj ghjqnb tot ytrjnjhst ghjwtlehs.
Ctqxfc vjétn åsnm ckbirjv hfyj c edthtyyjcnmñ ujdjhbnm j njv, rfr åeltn ghjöjlbnm hfnbabrfwbz gj gjdjle hfcibhtybz
YFNJ, yj lfktt vs ghtlcnfdkztv djpvjéysq dfhbfyn ltqcndbq.
28
gj tdhjgtqcrbv djghjcfv, b ctyfnjh Åfqlty,
xkty Ltvjrhfnbxtcrjq gfhnbb rfr d rjvbntnt, nfr b d gjlrjvbntnt. Dthjznyj, xnj
ctyfnjh Hbxfhl Keufh (htcgeåkbrfytw, infn
Bylbfyf) b lheubt xktys rjvbntnf nfrét
åelen buhfnm åjkmieñ hjkm dj dhtvz lbcreccbb.
Dj dhtvz jåceéltybz d rjvbntnfö b yf
pfctlfybb Ctyfnf åeltn nofntkmyj ghjfyfkbpbhjdfyf jcyjdyfz wtkm Ctdthjfnkfynbxtcrjuj cjñpf, f nfrét ghfdbkmyjt hfcghtltktybt jndtncndtyyjcnb b cath dkbzybz d
cfvjv fkmzyct. Ghjujkjceñn bkb ytn ldt
nhtnb ctyfnjhjd pf hfcibhtybt YFNJ, d
åjkmijq cntgtyb åeltn pfdbctnm jn gjybvfybz cjdhtvtyyjuj cjcnjzybz dpfbvjltqcndbz
d hfvrfö cjñpf b jn rfxtcndtyysö öfhfrnthbcnbr cnhfy-ghtntyltynjd yf xktycndj d
YFNJ.
D zydfht 1998 u. lbcreccbz d ctyfncrjv
Rjvbntnt gj vtéleyfhjlysv jnyjitybzv
yfxytncz c jåceéltybz ntö gjkjétybq bkb
jujdjhjr, rjnjhsvb ctyfnjhs öjntkb ås
ljgjkybnm htpjkñwbñ j hfnbabrfwbb. Tckb
rjvbntn åeltn tlbyjleity gj gjdjle htpjkñwbb j hfnbabrfwbb, jy yfghfdbn äne
htpjkñwbñ yf pfctlfybt Ctyfnf. Dj dhtvz
jåceéltybz d Ctyfnt ctyfnjhs vjuen ghtlkjébnm ljgjkybntkmyst eckjdbz bkb
jujdjhrb, b gj rféljve bp ybö ytjåöjlbvj
ghjcnjt åjkmibycndj ujkjceñobö, c ntv
xnjås änb jujdjhrb åskb drkñxtys d htpjkñwbñ. Gjckt änjq nfr yfpsdftvjq hfcibhtyyjq lbcreccbb ytjåöjlbvj, xnjås ldt
nhtnb ctyfnjhjd, ghbcencndeñobö b ujkjceñobö (67 xtkjdtr, tckb dct cnj ctyfnjhjd
ghbcencndeñn yf pfctlfybb), ghjujkjcjdfkb
≤pf≥ b yfghfdbkb ghjnjrjk[s] ghtpbltyne,
rjnjhsq b pfdthibn ghjwtcc hfnbabrfwbb
jn bvtyb Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd.
Åjkmibycndj ärcgthnjd gj YFNJ yf Rfgbnjkbqcrjv öjkvt cxbnftn, xnj cfvsv nhelysv djghjcjv d åjhmåt pf hfcibhtybt
YFNJ åeltn cnfhsq b pyfrjvsq dctv djghjc, f bvtyyj: hfpltktybt jndtncndtyyjcnb.
Jrjyxfybt öjkjlyjq djqys ghbdytckj c
cjåjq dhtvtyyjt pfnbimt d äyltvbxtcrbt
ltåfns d Rjyuhtcct gj gjdjle hfcghtltktybz jndtncndtyyjcnb. Gjckt gfltybz åthkbycrjq cntys änjve djghjce ghjcnj yt eltkzkjcm nfrjuj ét dybvfybz, rjnjhjt jy bvtk
d gthbjl öjkjlyjq djqys. Jlyjdhtvtyyj
jåceéltybt djghjcjd, cdzpfyysö c hfcöjlfvb yf hfcibhtybt YFNJ b pfnhfnfvb yf
htitybt åjcybqcrjuj rjyakbrnf, vjuen
cnfnm ghbxbyjq njuj, xnj änjn djghjc åeltn
lbcrenbhjdfnmcz c tot åjkmitq äythubtq.
Ctyfnjh Kjnn crfpfk, xnj jy öjntk ås, xnjås Ctyfn pfdthibk cdjñ hfåjne r fghtkñ
1998 u., pf ujl lj lfns, ecnfyjdktyyjq flvbybcnhfwbtq Rkbynjyf lkz ghjdtltybz
cfvvbnf YFNJ d Dfibyunjyt, c ntv xnjås
ghbdtncndjdfnm nhtö yjdsö xktyjd fkmzycf
yfrfyeyt 50-jq ujljdobys cj lyz jcyjdfybz
YFNJ.
Ctyfnjh Hjn, zhsq gjåjhybr hfcibhtybz
YFNJ, rjnjhsq zdkztncz d yfcnjzott dhtvz ghtlctlfntktv Ctdthjfnkfynbxtcrjq
Fccfvåktb, gfhkfvtyncrjuj jhufyf YFNJ,
ghtleghtlbk: ≤Ghb ltåfnfö j hfnbabrfwbb,
jcjåtyyj d fvthbrfycrjv ctyfnt, rhbnbxtcrb dféysv djghjcjv åeltn djghjc j njv,
rfr åelen hfcghtltkznmcz pfnhfns, cdzpfyyst c hfcibhtybtv YFNJ≥. Ctyfnjh Åfqlty, nfrét cnjhjyybr YFNJ b tuj hfcibhtybz, ghtleghtlbk, xnj ≤YFNJ jcnfytncz
htpjybheñotq jhufybpfwbtq... cnhfys-exfcnybws YFNJ, pf bcrkñxtybtv CIF, ljkéys jwtybnm, rfrjdf åeltn bö cghfdtlkbdfz ljkz ytgjchtlcndtyysö pfnhfn, cdzpfyysö c hfcibhtybtv YFNJ≥. B rfr crfpfk
ctyfnjh Åfqlty, jyb nfrét ljkéys yfhfobdfnm cdjq cjåcndtyysq gjntywbfk gj åscnhjq gthtåhjcrt djjheétyysö cbk d kñåeñ
njxre ptvyjuj ifhf.
DJGHJCS LTÅFNJD
Ltåfns d Ctyfnt, f nfrét d fvthbrfycrjv
Rjyuhtcct, åelen drkñxfnm d ctåz ujhfplj
åjkmit djghjcjd, xtv ghjcnj djghjc j njv,
rnj ljkéty ghbcjtlbybnmcz r YFNJ. Dthjznyj, xnj hfccvjnhtybt ghjnjrjkf[jd] åeltn
drkñxfnm d ctåz lbcreccbñ j hjkb Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd b tdhjgtqcrbö cjñpybrjd d
cjdhtvtyyjv vbht gjckt pfdthitybz öjkjlyjq djqys. Vfkjdthjznyj, xnj änj åeltn
eprjgfhnbqyfz lbcreccbz. D jåtbö gfhnbzö
tcnm ghbdthétyws b ghjnbdybrb änjq bltb.
29
Dgjkyt dthjznyj, xnj djghjc j hfcghtltktybb pfnhfn b jndtncndtyyjcnb åeltn cajrecbhjdfy yf ytcrjkmrbö fcgtrnfö: ytgjchtlcndtyyst pfnhfns, cdzpfyyst c hfcibhtybtv
YFNJ, ecjdthitycndjdfybt djjheétyysö
cbk, ytjåöjlbvjt lkz dsgjkytybz yjdsö
pflfx, b vths, yfghfdktyyst yf ghjljkétybt dsgjkytybq Ltqnjycrbö cjukfitybq d
Åjcybb. Rhjvt njuj, vyjubt xktys Rjyuhtccf cxbnfñn, xnj jcyjdyfz jndtncndtyyjcnm
pf ghbyznbt yjdsö ltvjrhfnbxtcrbö cnhfy
d kjyj pfgflyj-tdhjgtqcrbö cnhfy ghbyflktébn Tdhjgtqcrjve Cjñpe. Jyb öjntkb ås
yfåkñlfnm pf ghjwtccjv hfcibhtybz Tdhjgtqcrjuj Cjñpf, d htpekmnfnt rjnjhjuj,
djpvjéyj, cnhfys Djcnjxyjq b Wtynhfkmyjq Tdhjgs dcrjht ghbvryen r Tdhjgtqcrjve Cjñpe.
Ghtlgjkfuftncz, xnj tot jn 10 lj 13 vkhl
ljkkfhjd yjdsv xktyfv YFNJ yeéyj åeltn gjnhfnbnm, xnjås htajhvbhjdfnm cdjb
cjåcndtyyst djjheétyyst cbks b xnjås
jyb vjukb xtnrj dpfbvjltqcndjdfnm c djjheétyysvb cbkfvb YFNJ d ltkt jåtcgtxtybz rjkktrnbdyjq åtpjgfcyjcnb b ghjdtltybz jgthfwbq gj gjllthéfybñ vbhf.
Vyjubt ärcgthns b cfvb ghtntyltyns yf
xktycndj d YFNJ hfccvfnhbdfñn äne xfcnm
pfnhfn rfr hfcöjls, rjnjhst yjdst xktys
YFNJ d kñåjv ckexft dsyeéltys åelen
gjytcnb, xnjås vjlthybpbhjdfnm cdjb
djjheétyyst cbks d ntxtybt cktleñotuj
ltcznbktnbz.
PFNHFNS, CDZPFYYST
C CJDTHITYCNDJDFYBTV
DJJHEÉTYYSÖ CBK
Yfbåjktt ghjnbdjhtxbdsv b nhelysv
djghjcjv, c rjnjhsv flvbybcnhfwbz Rkbynjyf cnfkrbdftncz ghb jwtyrt åeleobö
pfnhfn b yf rjnjhsq ctyfnjhs jåzpfntkmyj
jåhfnzn dybvfybt, änj – pfnhfns, cdzpfyyst
c gjdsitybtv åjtdjuj gjntywbfkf cnhfyexfcnybw YFNJ. Änb pfnhfns, rjnjhst, gj
jwtyrfv CIF, cjcnfdkzñn jn 8 lj 10 vkhl
ljkkfhjd, yt rfcfñncz htitybz j hfcibhtybb YFNJ. Crjhtt änb pfnhfns zdkzñncz
htpekmnfnjv ltqcndbz yjdjq cnhfntubxtcrjq
rjywtgwbb YFNJ, ghbyznjq d 1991 u., d
rjnjhjq dsldbyens nhtåjdfybz, xnjås dct
cjñpybrb htajhvbhjdfkb cdjb djjheétyyst cbks b xnjås jyb vjukb åscnhj gthtåhfcsdfnm cdjb djjheétyyst cbks pf ghtltks cdjbö yfwbjyfkmysö uhfybw. Cjtlbytyyst Infns cxbnfñn, xnj änj ecjdthitycndjdfybt dféyj yt njkmrj lkz dsgjkytybz
yjdsö pflfx, cnjzobö gthtl YFNJ, yj b
lkz dsgjkytybz jåzpfntkmcnd gj jåtcgtxtybñ rjkktrnbdyjq jåjhjys yjdsö cjñpybrjd gj YFNJ. Vyjubt cjñpybrb eét yfxfkb ldbétybt d änjv yfghfdktybb, yj yb e
jlyjuj bp ybö ytn ≤yjdsö ltytu≥ lkz yfhfobdfybz djpvjéyjcntq gj åscnhjq gthtåhjcrt djjheétyysö cbk. Jyb gsnfñncz
dsgjkybnm pflfxb yjdjq cnhfntubxtcrjq
rjywtgwbb pf cxtn gjdsitybz äaatrnbdyjcnb b gththfcghtltktybz ghbjhbntnjd d cdjbö
ntreobö hfcöjlfö.
PFNHFNS YF HFCIBHTYBT YFNJ
Xnj rfcftncz ytgjchtlcndtyysö pfnhfn yf
hfcibhtybt YFNJ, nj d ljrkflt Rjyuhtcce
pf atdhfkm 1996 u. flvbybcnhfwbz Rkbynjyf ghtlgjkjébkf, xnj jåobt pfnhfns yf
gthdjyfxfkmyeñ ≤ytåjkmieñ≥ uhegge ghtntyltynjd yf xktycndj d YFNJ (gjljåyeñ
njq, rjnjhfz åskf jljåhtyf d Vflhblt)
cjcnfdzn jn 27 lj 35 vkhl ljkkfhjd d gthbjl c 1997 gj 2009 ujl. Bp änjq cevvs jn
9 lj 12 vkh ljkkfhjd åelen gjnhfxtys yf
≤ytgjchtlcndtyyjt hfcibhtybt≥ YFNJ, rfrnj: cjdthitycndjdfybt cbcntv eghfdktybz b
rjynhjkz lkz cdzpb vtéle yjdsvb cjñpybrfvb b ntgthtiybvb cnhfyfvb-exfcnybwfvb
YFNJ. Änb pfnhfns vjéyj åeltn hfcghtltkbnm d cjjndtncndbb c nhflbwbjyysvb
ghbywbgfvb hfpltktybz pfnhfn d YFNJ, d
cjjndtncndbb c ybvb ljkz pfnhfn CIF åeltn cjcnfdkznm jn 150 lj 200 vky ljkkfhjd
d ujl. Xktys Rjyuhtccf jéblfñn, xnj xktys YFNJ dytcen cdjñ ≤cghfdtlkbdeñ ljkñ≥ nfrbö jnyjcbntkmyj evthtyysö hfcöjljd åtp rfrbö-kbåj jujdjhjr. Åtpeckjdyj,
YFNJ cjukfcbncz yf nfrbt ghbywbgs hfpltktybz pfnhfn, yj åjkmibycndj tdhjgtqcrbö
cjñpybrjd cxbnfñn, xnj Cjtlbytyyst Infns gthtjwtybkb ehjdtym nhtåetvsö pfnhfn.
Dgjkyt djpvjéyj, xnj jabwbfkmyfz jwtyrf
åeleobö pfnhfn cj cnjhjys YFNJ jrfétncz ybét gjrfpfntktq, ghtlcnfdktyysö
Cjtlbytyysvb Infnfvb.
30
B gjcktlytt. Dthjznyj, xnj htpjkñwbz
Ctyfnf j hfnbabrfwbb åeltn drkñxfnm d
ctåz ytcrjkmrj gjkjétybq c ghbpsdjv r
cjñpybrfv gjlndthlbnm lfyyst j ytgjchtlcndtyysö pfnhfnfö yf hfcibhtybt YFNJ b
dsgjkybnm jåzpfntkmcndj gj yfhfobdfybñ
gjntywbfkf lkz åscnhjq gthtåhjcrb djjheétyysö cbk d kñåeñ njxre ptvyjuj ifhf.
bö åelen jådbyznm d ghjdfkt Ltqnjycrbö
cjukfitybq b xnj, djpvjéyj, jyb cnjkryencz c rhbnbrjq cj cnjhjys CIF pf bcöjl
änbö cjåsnbq.
Ghb nfrbö jåcnjzntkmcndfö lbcreccbz j
nhfycfnkfynbxtcrjq åtpjgfcyjcnb, f bvtyyj:
rnj djpmvtn yf ctåz åhtvz gj gjllthéfybñ
vbhf d Åjcybb, åeltn ghjljkéfnmcz gj vtht njuj, rfr Ctyfn åeltn jåceélfnm djghjc
j hfcibhtybb YFNJ.
ÅJCYBZ
Jlyjq bp yfbåjktt nhelysö ghjåktv vjétn
jrfpfnmcz nfrjt ytelfxyjt cjdgfltybt ghjwtccf ltåfnjd gj hfnbabrfwbb d Ctyfnt
CIF b jrjyxfybt vfylfnf Cbk cnfåbkbpfwbb d Åjcybb. Gjkbnbrf flvbybcnhfwbb
Rkbynjyf cdjlbncz r njve, xnj Fvthbrf
dsdtltn cdjb djjheétyyst cbks bp Åjcybb
gj jrjyxfybb chjrf ltqcndbz vfylfnf d
bñyt 1998 u., f rhegyst tdhjgtqcrbt lthéfds pfzdkzñn, xnj tckb Cjtlbytyyst Infns
eqlen, nj jyb gjcktleñn pf ybvb. Vyjubt
xktys Rjyuhtccf öjntkb ås, xnjås flvbybcnhfwbz clthéfkf cdjt ckjdj, jlyfrj, rfr
rfétncz, d yfcnjzott dhtvz Ghtpbltyn
Rkbynjy jcnfdbk djghjc j dsdjlt dctö cbk
jnrhsnsv b ghtlgjkfuftn, xnj ytrjnjhfz
xfcnm djjheétyysö cbk jcnfytncz nfv
gjckt bñyz 1998 u. Afrnbxtcrb, tckb åeltn
ghbyznj htitybt j njv, xnj YFNJ ljkéyj
åeltn ghjljkébnm jgthfwbb gjckt dsdjlf
Cbk cnfåbkbpfwbb, nj lkz ntöybxtcrjuj
bcgjkytybz änjq jgthfwbb gjnhtåetncz, xnjås ytrjnjhfz xfcnm djjheétyysö cbk CIF
jcnfkfcm d Åjcybb, f ≤yt pf ujhbpjynjv≥.
YFNJ-HJCCBZ
Rhjvt njuj, dgjkyt dthjznyj, xnj åeltn
jåceélfnmcz djghjc b jå jnyjitybb Hjccbb
r YFNJ. Ytrjnjhst ctyfnjhs dscrfpsdfñn
jgfctybt, xnj hfcibhtybt YFNJ vjétn
ecbkbnm gjpbwbb rjvveybcnjd b yfwbjyfkbcnjd d Hjccbb b ghbnjhvjpbnm ghjwtcc
htajhv d Hjccbb. Lheubt ctyfnjhs åtcgjrjzncz – xnjås cukflbnm ghjnbdjltqcndbt
Hjccbb d jnyjitybb hfcibhtybz YFNJ,
cnhfys YFNJ vjuen ghtljcnfdbnm Hjccbb
ckbirjv åjkmijt dkbzybt d ltkt ghbyznbz
åeleobö htitybq gj YFNJ. Flvbybcnhfwbz
Rkbynjyf ghbpdfyf gjrfpfnm, xnj gjkbnbrf
CIF b YFNJ jåtcgtxbdftn cjöhfytybt
äaatrnbdyjuj hfdyjdtcbz vtéle änbvb
rhfqyjcnzvb.
ÖFHFRNTHBCNBRB
GHTNTYLTYNJD
Fvthbrfycrbt ctyfnjhs öjnzn åsnm edthtys d njv, xnj nhb ghtntyltynf yf xktycndj
d YFNJ ltkfñn dct djpvjéyjt, xnjås
erhtgbnm ltvjrhfnbñ d cdjbö cnhfyfö b
xnjås dytcnb dféysq drkfl d ltkj dsgjkytybz pflfx, cnjzobö gthtl YFNJ. D änbö
cathfö bvtñncz jnltkmyst ytljcnfnrb, yj,
dthjznyj, ceotcndetn åjkmijq pfgfc ljåhjq
djkb b jghtltktyysö ecbkbq, rjnjhst cnhfys eét ghbkjébkb, xnjås htajhvbhjdfnm
cdjq gjkbnbxtcrbq cnhjq b gthtjhbtynbhjdfnm cdjñ gjkbnbre d jåkfcnb jåjhjys.
Vjétn gjrfpfnmcz ljcnfnjxyj bhjybxysv,
yj lbcreccbb j öfhfrnthbcnbrfö yjdsö ghtntyltynjd vjuen åsnm vtytt dféysvb,
ytétkb djghjcs, rfcfñobtcz rfxtcndtyyjq
cnjhjys fkmzycf, f nfrét hjkb CIF b
Tdhjgs d änjv fkmzyct.
Jnltkmyst xktys Rjyuhtccf, rjnjhst cxbnfñn, xnj ghbcencndbt djtyysö cbk bpdyt
ytjåöjlbvj b gjckt bñyz 1998 u., levfñn,
xnj tdhjgtqcrbt cjñpybrb ljkéys b vjuen
dpznm yf ctåz åjkmieñ jndtncndtyyjcnm pf
jåtcgtxtybt åtpjgfcyjcnb d Tdhjgt, ghbyzd
yf ctåz djtyyst pflfxb gjckt dsdjlf Cbk
cnfåbkbpfwbb bp Åjcybb. Åjkmibycndj ghfdbntkmcnd tdhjgtqcrbö cnhfy cxbnfñn, jlyfrj, xnj bvtyyj YFNJ ljkéyj ghjljkébnm
jgthfwbñ d Åjcybb gjckt dsdjlf Cbk cnfåbkbpfwbb b crkjyys jcnfnmcz d Åjcybb, yt
bvtz yf yfcnjzobq vjvtyn ybrfrbö xtnrbö
jåzpfntkmcnd cj cnjhjys CIF. Exbnsdfz
nfrjt ytjghtltktyyjt åeleott, rjnjhjt
jéblftn Åjcybñ, tdhjgtqws jgfcfñncz, xnj
31
CNHFNTUBXTCRBT DJGHJCS
Dct dsiterfpfyyst djghjcs åelen jåceélfnmcz d rjyntrcnt åjktt rhegysö ghjåktv.
Edtkbxbdftn bkb evtymiftn hfcibhtybt
YFNJ dthjznyjcnm njuj, xnj Cjtlbytyyst
Infns åelen djdktxtys d rfrjq-ybåelm
rjyakbrn d Tdhjgt d åeleotv? Rfrjds
yjdst pflfxb YFNJ d gthbjl, rjulf cjdtncrjq euhjps åjkmit yt ceotcndetn? J xtv
afrn ghbyznbz bkb jnrfpf jn bltb hfcibhtybz YFNJ Ctyfnjv crfétn Tdhjgt b dctve
jcnfkmyjve vbhe b rfreñ hjkm Cjtlbytyyst Infns ghtlgjkfufñn buhfnm d vbht
gjckt jrjyxfybz öjkjlyjq djqys? Nfr ét
rfr d cdjt dhtvz htitybt hfnbabwbhjdfnm
Dfibyunjyucrjt cjukfitybt d 1949 u. gjvjukj cajhvekbhjdfnm hjkm b jåzpfntkmcndf Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd yf cktleñobt 50
ktn, nfr b änb ltåfns vjuen jrfpfnmcz jlybv bp dféysö äktvtynjd, rjnjhst jghtltkzn dytiyññ gjkbnbre CIF yf uhzleobt ujls. ¬
32
DJPLTQCNDBT YFNJ YF
LTVJRHFNBXTCRBT B ÄRJYJVBXTCRBT BYCNBNENS
Léjief Vehfdxbr, gjcnjzyysq yfexysq cjnhelybr,
Fvthbrfycrbq bycnbnen ghtlghbybvfntkmcndf
Jnvtnbd, xnj d cnhfyfö YFNJ wfhzn cdjåjlf, ghjwdtnfybt b åtpjgfcyjcnm,
Vehfdxbr jnvtxftn, xnj YFNJ ≤d cjcnjzybb ecnfyfdkbdfnm yjhvs, rjnjhst vjuen jrfpfnm
ukeåjrjt djpltqcndbt≥ yf yjdsö xktyjd YFNJ b yf lheubt cnhfys, étkfñobt cnfnm
xktyfvb änjuj fkmzycf. ≤Öjnz jgkjnjv fkmzycf zdkzñncz dpfbvyst jåzpfntkmcndf gj
jåtcgtxtybñ jåjhjys YFNJ, rjnjhst åjktt dctuj jåütlbyzñn cnhfys-exfcnybws,
lheujq dféytqitq aeyrwbtq fkmzycf vjétn jrfpfnmcz tuj gcböjkjubxtcrjt djpltqcndbt yf
gjkbnbxtcreñ b ärjyjvbxtcreñ ädjkñwbñ Tdhjgs≥, – crfpfk Vehfdxbr. Léjief
Vehfdxbr – yfexysq cjnhelybr Fvthbrfycrjuj bycnbnenf ghtlghbybvfntkmcndf, f nfrét
dytinfnysq yfexysq cjnhelybr Bycnbnenf åkbéytdjcnjxyjq gjkbnbrb,
Dfibyunjy, b ghjatccjh Bycnbnenf vbhjdjq gjkbnbrb. Jy – xkty htlfrwbjyysö
rjkktubq d ≤Ejhkl äaathc≥, ≤Léjhyäk ja ltvjrhäcb≥ b ≤Jhåbc≥.
Rjulf d 1949 u. fvthbrfycrbq ctyfn hfnbabwbhjdfk Ljujdjh j ctdthjfnkfynbxtcrjv
cjñpt, d htpekmnfnt rjnjhjuj gjzdbkcz
åkjr YFNJ, jcyjdyst lbcreccbb åskb
crjywtynhbhjdfys yf fcgtrnfö djtyyjq ckfåjcnb gthcgtrnbdysö cjñpybrjd Fvthbrb.
djtyyjuj gfhnythf. D yfcnjzott dhtvz d
Pfgflyjq Tdhjgt ytn nfrjq cbks, rjnjhfz
ås cghfdbkfcm c djjheétyysvb cbkfvb
Cjdtncrjuj Cjñpf≥. C djtyyjq njxrb phtybz, ghjljkéfk jy, ≤vs gjcnegfkb lfét
ckbirjv ≤åkfujhjlyj≥, ghbukfifz cnhfys
ghbcjtlbybnmcz r yfv, yt frwtynbhez dybvfybt yf bö vjob, hfpvtht b gjkjétybb.
Ntv yt vtytt, pfrkñxbk jy, cjplfybt
fkmzycf åskj dsujlyj lkz Cjtlbytyysö
Infnjd, gjcrjkmre ≤djtyyst fcgtrns bvtkb dnjhjcntgtyyjt pyfxtybt≥.
Tdhjgtqcrbt cnhfys njkmrj yfxfkb djccnfyjdbntkmsyt hfåjns gjckt hfpheibntkmyjq
Dnjhjq vbhjdjq djqys. Jyb yt jåkflfkb
ljcnfnjxysv gjntywbfkjv, xnjås cgjcjåcndjdfnm jåtcgtxtybñ rjkktrnbdyjq jåjhjys.
Jyb yt cvjukb ås änjuj cltkfnm djjåot,
tckb ås Cjtlbytyyst Infns yt dpzkb yf
ctåz pfnhfns gj bö gthtdjjheétybñ, yf
rjnjhst ytjöjnyj ikb ctyfnjhs, gjcrjkmre
d nj dhtvz, rfr, dghjxtv, b ctqxfc, bö ukeåjrj djkyjdfkb djghjcs åñlétnysö fccbuyjdfybq. Äne jåtcgjrjtyyjcnm elfkjcm
cyznm åkfujlfhz cnfnmt djtyyjuj cnhfntuf
Åthyfhlf Åhjelb, d rjnjhjq fyfkbpbhjdfkb
dtcmvf cöjébt c yfcnjzobvb ghjåktvs
hfcibhtybz YFNJ.
Rfr ét änj vjukj ckexbnmcz? Änjn fkmzyc
åsk cjplfy d cdzpb c euhjpjq fuhtccbb cj
cnjhjys Cjdtncrjuj Cjñpf. Åhjelb jxtym
cthmtpyj djcghbybvfk äne euhjpe, yj jy
ljrfpsdfk, xnj ≤ytdjtyyfz ajhvf fuhtccbb≥, lheubvb ckjdfvb, ybpdthétybt htébvjd – änj yfbåjktt dthjznysq cgjcjå, c gjvjomñ rjnjhjuj cjdtncrfz bvgthbz vjukf
hfcibhbnm cdjt dkbzybt yf Pfgflyeñ Tdhjge. Djccjplfybt cjwbfkmysö ecnjtd cnhfy
Pfgflyjq Tdhjgs d kñåjq ajhvt vjukj
gjckeébnm rkñxjv r ghtljndhfotybñ ghjybryjdtybz Cjdtncrjuj Cjñpf d änjn htubjy. ≤Gj rhfqytq vtht, änjn fkmzyc cgjcjåcndetn b cnbvekbhetn djphjéltybt Tdhj-
D cnfnmt, jgeåkbrjdfyyjq d yjvtht ≤Qtkm
htdmñ≥ d ltrfåht 1949 u., Åhjelb jnvtnbk,
xnj ≤pf rjhjnrbq gthbjl Ctdthjfnkfynbxtcrbq cjñp ghtdhfnbkcz lkz yfc d yfltéyjuj
33
gs≥, – crfpfk Åhjelb, f bynhbub Cjdtncrjuj
Cjñpf ≤yt åelen ghtlcnfdkznm rfrjq-kbåj
euhjps≥. Cktljdfntkmyj, ghjljkéfk jy,
≤pyfxtybt änjuj cjñpf lkz Cjtlbytyysö
Infnjd åskj crjhtt gjkbnbxtcrbv, xtv
djtyysv, gjcrjkmre ujcelfhcndf Pfgflyjq
Tdhjgs vjukb ghtlghbyznm jghtltktyyst
ecbkbz d cjwbfkmyjq, gjkbnbxtcrjq b ärjyjvbxtcrjq jåkfcnb, njkmrj åkfujlfhz
jåtofybzv jåtcgtxbnm bv åtpjgfcyjcnm, xnj
b ufhfynbhjdfk änjn cjñp≥.
rf Tdhjgs ghtljcnfdkzkf hsyrb, njdfhs
b rfgbnfk, rjnjhsq cgjcjåcndjdfk ytghthsdyjve ärjyjvbxtcrjve hjcne cfvjq
Fvthbrb.
Ärjyjvbxtcrjt djccnfyjdktybt tdhjgtqcrbö
cnhfy xfcnj hfccvfnhbdftncz rfr cdjtjåhfpyjt ≤xelj≥. Yj gjkbnbxtcrjt djccnfyjdktybt Tdhjgs ghtlcnfdkztncz åjktt pyfvtyfntkmysv. D yfcnjzott dhtvz åjkmibycndj
fvthbrfywtd, rfr, dghjxtv, b åjkmibycndj
tdhjgtqwtd, djcghbybvfñn ltvjrhfnbñ d
Pfgflyjq Tdhjgt rfr ytxnj cfvj cjåjq
hfpevtñottcz. Lj Dnjhjq vbhjdjq djqys
ltvjrhfnbz åskf jxtym öhegrjq yf Tdhjgtqcrjv rjynbytynt. D åjkmibycndt cnhfy
jyf ghbjåhtkf åjktt bkb vtytt xtnrbt
jxthnfybz ytpfljkuj lj Gthdjq vbhjdjq
djqys bkb dcrjht gjckt ytt. Pfntv d yfcsotyyst cjåsnbzvb 20–30-t ujls jyf ecnegbkf vtcnj lbrnfne. D htpekmnfnt änjuj
öjhjij byajhvbhjdfyyst jåjphtdfntkb
ghtlcrfpsdfkb vhfxyst gthcgtrnbds hfpdbnbz ltvjrhfnbb dyt uhfybw fyukj-cfrcjycrjq rekmnehs. Änb gtccbvbcnbxtcrbt hfpujdjhs pdexfkb nfr ét, rfr ctqxfc pdexfn
dscrfpsdfybz j ltvjrhfnbb d cnhfyfö hfpdbdfñotujcz vbhf. Crjhtt dctuj, änb cjvytybz zdkzñncz åtcgjxdtyysvb rfr njulf,
nfr b ctqxfc.
Fyfkbp Åhjelb jrfpfkcz ghjhjxtcrbv. Gjl
pfobnjq YFNJ cnhfys Pfgflyjq Tdhjgs
djccnfyjdbkb cdjq ärjyjvbxtcrbq gjntywbfk, f nfrét dct cnhernehs uhfélfycrjuj
jåotcndf b gjkbnbxtcrbt gfhnbb. Åtpeckjdyj, xnj cjplfybt YFNJ åskj jlybv bp
afrnjhjd, rjnjhsq cgjcjåcndjdfk ärjyjvbxtcrjve djccnfyjdktybñ Tdhjgs. Åjktt
ytgjchtlcndtyyjt djpltqcndbt bvtk gkfy
Vfhifkkf. Pf xtnsht ujlf Cjtlbytyyst
Infns yfghfdbkb jrjkj 13 vkhl ljkkfhjd
d dblt gjvjob yf ghjtrn, yfghfdktyysq yf
ärjyjvbxtcrjt djphjéltybt jnltkmysö
tdhjgtqcrbö cnhfy gjckt Dnjhjq vbhjdjq
djqys. Ctujlyz änf cevvf åskf ås hfdyf
88 vkhl ljkkfhjd. Änj åsk pyfxbntkmysq
drkfl, yj åjkmibycndj bcnjhbrjd cxbnftn,
xnj ytgjchtlcndtyyfz abyfycjdfz gjvjom
åskf yt nfr dféyf, rfr gcböjkjubxtcrjt
djpltqcndbt. Nfrbt ldf vjvtynf, rfr yfltélf, rjnjheñ lfk kñlzv gkfy Vfhifkkf, b åtpjgfcyjcnm, rjnjheñ ufhfynbhjdfkj
YFNJ, cjplfkb jcjåsq rkbvfn. Jy jåtcgtxbdfk tdhjgtqwfv cnbveks r hfåjnt, yfrjgktybñ b dkjétybñ chtlcnd lj ntö gjh,
gjrf jyb cfvb yt ghbikb r ytdblfyyjve
ghjwdtnfybñ.
D 30-t ujls bcnjhbr Fhyjkml Njqyåb gbcfk,
xnj jnrfp Bnfkbb jn ltvjrhfnbb (d jåotghbyznjv gjybvfybb änjuj ckjdf) gjcnfdbk
djghjc j njv, cvjétn kb änj gjkbnbxtcrjt
hfcntybt gecnbnm rjhyb ult-kbåj d lheujv
vtcnt, rhjvt cdjtq hjlyjq gjxds. Ltcznbktnbt cgecnz gbcfntkm b frfltvbr Dfkmlj
Ahfyr gbcfk d éehyfkt ≤Ajhby faathc≥,
xnj ≤euhjpf (ltvjrhfnbb) gthtébdtn Ubnkthf, gjcrjkmre afibpv tcnm htpekmnbheñofz cbkf hfpyjjåhfpysö fynbltvjrhfnbxtcrbö yfghfdktybq d cnherneht cjdhtvtyyjq
tdhjgtqcrjq vsckb≥. D 1952 u., rjulf pfrjyxbkfcm jrregfwbz Uthvfybb cjñpybrfvb, bpdtcnysq gjkbnjkju Öfqyw Jqkfe,
gjctnbdibq cdjñ hjlbye, c gtccbvbpvjv
jnvtnbk cktleñott: ≤Dj vyjubö fcgtrnfö
åjyycrfz htcgeåkbrf dsukzlbn nfr ét, rfr
dnjhfz Dtqvfhcrfz, ytcvjnhz yf cvtye
ltrjhfwbq b bcgjkybntktq... Ytvtwrfz gjkb-
Fvthbrf lfkf vyjujt Tdhjgt rfr d gkfyt
ärjyjvbxtcrjq gjvjob, nfr b djtyyjq åtpjgfcyjcnb, yj jyf vyjujt b gjkexbkf. Öjnz
byjulf fvthbrfyws egecrfñn änjn vjvtyn
bp dble. Gj vtht lfkmytqituj ghjwdtnfybz
Tdhjgs ytrjnjhst fvthbrfyws cnfkb hfcwtybdfnm Tdhjge rfr rjyrehtynf, f yt rfr
gfhnythf. Yj änj jxtym eprbq dpukzl yf
htfkmyjt gjkjétybt dtotq. B öjnz tdhjgtqcrbt abhvs ltqcndbntkmyj rjyrehbhjdfkb
c fvthbrfycrbvb, djccnfyjdktyyfz ärjyjvb34
nbrf... jcyjdfyf yt yf ltvjrhfnbxtcrjv
jgsnt, f yf ukeåjrjv ävjwbjyfkmyjv
gjhsdt≥.
xtybtv zdkztncz Uhtwbz, ult ltvjrhfnbz
d htpekmnfnt djtyyjuj gthtdjhjnf d 1967 u.
gfkf b yt vjukf åsnm djccnfyjdktyf d ntxtybt ctvb ktn. D Nehwbb gj hzle ghbxby
djtyyst cdthufkb ghfdbntkmcndf, bpåhfyyst
ltvjrhfnbxtcrbv gentv, ghb änjv rfélsq
hfp djpdhfofz eghfdktybt ujcelfhcndjv
uhfélfycrbv herjdjlbntkzv d ntxtybt ujlf
bkb ytvyjubv åjkmit.
Änb jgfctybz cnfdbkb dctö d negbr. Hfpdbnbt ltvjrhfnbz d cnhfyfö Pfgflyjq Tdhjgs
gjckt Dnjhjq vbhjdjq djqys åskj ujhfplj
ecgtiytt, xtv gjckt Gthdjq vbhdjq djqys.
Änjve gjkbnbxtcrjve ecgtöe cjltqcndjdfkb
vyjujxbcktyyst afrnjhs, b jlybv bp ybö
zdkztncz cbkmyjt dkbzybt jhufybpfwbb
Ctdthjfnkfynbxtcrjuj ljujdjhf.
Ctqxfc hfcibhtybt YFNJ xfcnj jgbcsdftncz
rfr hfcghjcnhfytybt åtpjgfcyjcnb yf cnhfys
Wtynhfkmyjq Tdhjgs. Yj ctqxfc nfr ét, rfr
d cdjt dhtvz eét jnvtxfk Åhjelb, åtpjgfcyjcnm vjétn vtymit åsnm cdzpfyf c jnhfétybtv djtyyjq euhjps, ytétkb c jåtcgtxtybtv
cnfåbkmyjcnb pf cxtn erhtgktybz ltvjrhfnbxtcrbö bycnbnenjd b edthtyyjcnb, cgjcjåcndeñotq ärjyjvbxtcrjve hjcne.
Jlybv bp afrnjhjd åskf åtpjgfcyjcnm,
rjnjheñ ufhfynbhjdfkj YFNJ, gjcrjkmre
jxtym xfcnj cnhfö gthtl euhjpjq bpdyt ckeébk ghtlgjcskrjq ghböjlf r dkfcnb lbrnfnjhjd. Rhjvt njuj, YFNJ gjhjlbkj xedcndj tlbycndf chtlb cnhfy Ctdthjfnkfynbxtcrjuj cjñpf, d hfvrfö rjnjhjuj åsdibt
zhjcnyst ghjnbdybrb ghtdhfnbkbcm d gfhnythjd. Yj YFNJ åskj yt tlbycndtyyjq
cbkjq, rjnjhfz jåtcgtxbdfkf cgkjxtybt
ujcelfhcnd Ctdthjfnkfynbxtcrjuj ljujdjhf.
Ceotcndjdfkb b nfrbt afrnjhs, rfr njhujdkz b nehbpv, b nfrét lheubt vtéleyfhjlyst bycnbnens. Ntv yt vtytt zlhjv änjuj cjjåotcndf åskj jåzpfntkmcndj gj jåtcgtxtybñ dpfbvyjq åtpjgfcyjcnb b ujnjdyjcnm gjéthndjdfnm cdjtq ébpymñ hflb
lheujuj.
Djtyyst d ntö ujcelfhcndfö, rjnjhst eét
gjkexbkb ghbukfitybt d YFNJ, b lfét
ntö, rjnjhst gjrf njkmrj exfcndeñn d ghjuhfvvt ≤Gfhnythcndj dj bvz vbhf≥, cvjuen
gjkexbnm öjhjieñ gjlujnjdre c gjvjomñ
fvthbrfycrbö b pfgflyjtdhjgtqcrbö gfhnythjd. Dvtcnt c ytq jyb ecdjzn yfdsrb uhfélfycrjuj eghfdktybz, b änj dkbzybt åeltn
xedcndjdfnmcz yt njkmrj chtlb djtyyjckeéfobö. Ghbcjtlbytybt r YFNJ jpyfxftn
ghbcjtlbytybt r Pfgfle, d rjnjhjv
ltvjrhfnbxtcrbt wtyyjcnb zdkzñncz åjktt
ytjnütvktvsvb afrnjhfvb, xtv Vfrljyfkmlc b ≤V-Nª≥.
Änb dpfbvyst cdzpb vtéle cnhfyfvb jnxfcnb ajhvbhjdfkbcm d jndtn yf jåoeñ euhjpe, f jnxfcnb c wtkmñ gjcnhjtybz jåobö
ltvjrhfnbxtcrbö jcyjd. Rfr crfpfyj d ghtfvåekt Ctdthjfnkfynbxtcrjuj ljujdjhf:
≤Cnjhjys... gjkys htibvjcnb jöhfyznm cdjåjle, jåott yfcktlbt b wbdbkbpfwbñ cdjbö
yfhjljd, jcyjdfyyeñ yf ghbywbgfö
ltvjrhfnbb, cdjåjls kbxyjcnb b pfrjyf≥.
YFNJ – ghtcnbéysq rkeå. E tuj xktyjd tcnm
nj, xnj jyb öjnzn: cdjåjlf, ghjwdtnfybt b åtpjgfcyjcnm. Nfrbv jåhfpjv YFNJ vjétn
ecnfyfdkbdfnm yjhvs, rjnjhst vjuen jrfpsdfnm ukeåjrjt djpltqcndbt yf tt yjdsö xktyjd b yf lheubt ujcelfhcndf, cnhtvzobtcz r
xktycnde d YFNJ, bkb lfét yf nt, rjnjhst
öjnzn gjllthébdfnm ntgkst jnyjitybz c xktyfvb änjuj rkeåf. B öjnz ukfdyjq pflfxtq
fkmzycf zdkztncz dsgjkytybt jåzpfntkmcnd
gj jåtcgtxtybñ åtpjgfcyjcnb, xnj ukfdysv
jåhfpjv b ghbdktrftn lheubt ujcelfhcndf, tuj
gcböjkjubxtcrjt djpltqcndbt yf gjkbnbxtcreñ b ärjyjvbxtcreñ ädjkñwbñ Tdhjgs
vjétn jrfpfnmcz tot jlyjq dféytqitq
aeyrwbtq änjuj cjñpf. ¬
Fkmzyc nfrét cgjcjåcndjdfk gthtöjle åsdibö djtyysö herjdjlbntktq yf htkmcs
uhfélfycrjq ébpyb gjckt Dnjhjq vbhjdjq
djqys. Änj ghtlgjkfufkj eåtéltyyjcnm d
ghtdjcöjlcndt uhfélfycrbö, f yt djtyysö
herjdjlbntktq. D 20-t b 30-t uu. gfltybt
ltvjrhfnbq dj vyjubö cnhfyfö Tdhjgs åskj ltkjv her djtyysö. Yj d cnhfyfö YFNJ
änj åskj jxtym htlrbv zdktybtv. Bcrkñ35
BYAJHVFWBJYYST HTCEHCS
FYJYC YJDSÖ CNFNTQ
Barry, Charles L.
CREATING A EUROPEAN SECURITY
AND DEFENSE IDENTITY
(Joint Force Quarterly, no. 15, Spring 1997, pp. 62–69)
Kitfield, James
A LARGER NATO MEANS BIGGER HEADACHES?
(National Journal, no. 29, July 19, 1997, pp. 1467–1469)
Rbnabkl endthélftn, xnj djghjcs, cdzpfyyst c hfcghtltktybtv åhtvtyb jåjhjyysö hfcöjljd, rjnjhst jåceélfñncz d hfvrfö ltåfnjd gj gjdjle hfcibhtybz YFNJ, ≤eét
ctqxfc uhjpzn cnfnm ghtgzncndbtv lkz hfnbabrfwbb Ctyfnjv htitybz j hfcibhtybb d cktleñotv ujle≥. Fdnjh pfzdkztn, xnj hfcibhtybt YFNJ yf djcnjr pfgjkybn ceotcndeñobq cnhfntubxtcrbq dfreev b erhtgbn vjkjlst ltvjrhfnbxtcrbt ujcelfhcndf Wtynhfkmyjq Tdhjgs. Rbnabkl nfrét
gjkfuftn, xnj d fkmzyct tot d ntxtybt vyjubö ktn åelen
blnb cgjhs gj gjdjle lfkmytqituj tuj hfcibhtybz.
Tdhjgtqcrfz cjcnfdkzñofz åtpjgfcyjcnb b jåjhjys
(TCÅJ), n.t. rjywtgwbz cjplfybz tlbysö djjheétyysö cbk
d Tdhjgt, ghtlcnfdkztn cjåjq ≤djjleitdkzñoeñ bybwbfnbde≥, cxbnftn Åfhhb, jncnfdyjq gjlgjkrjdybr ceöjgenysö
cbk CIF. Vtéle ntv, TCÅJ ljkéyf ghtjljktnm tot vyjuj
ghtgzncndbq lkz njuj, xnjås ljrfpfnm cdjñ yfltéyjcnm,
ujdjhbn jy. ≤Cjtlbytyyst Infns öjnzn, xnjås Tdhjgf
yfxfkf djtyysvb chtlcndfvb htfubhjdfnm yf rhbpbcs≥, –
endthélftn jy. Ecgtiyjt cjplfybt TCÅJ vjétn jpyfxfnm,
xnj Tdhjgf dvtcnt c Cjtlbytyysvb Infnfvb cgjcjåyf
dpznm yf ctåz frnbdyeñ hjkm d ehtuekbhjdfybb rhbpbcjd,
djpybrfñobö pf ghtltkfvb Tdhjgs.
Pipes, Richard
IS RUSSIA STILL AN ENEMY?
(Foreign Affairs, vol. 76, no. 5, September/October, 1997,
pp. 65–78)
Cragg, Anthony
INTERNAL ADAPTATION: RESHAPING NATO FOR THE
CHALLENGES OF TOMORROW
(NATO Review, vol. 45, no. 4, July/August 1997, pp. 30–35)
Pfgflyst kblths ljkéys gjlevfnm yfl ntv, cnjbn kb
hfcibhznm YFNJ yf nthhbnjhbñ Djcnjxyjq Tdhjgs, tckb
änjn ghjwtcc ghbdtltn r jnxeéltybñ åjkmibycndf gjkbnbxtcrb frnbdysö hjccbzy, rjnjhst cxbnfñn, xnj d htpekmnfnt nfrbö ltqcndbq Hjccbz åeltn yfdctulf bcrkñxtyf bp
cjcnfdf Tdhjgs, ujdjhbn fdnjh cnfnmb, ghtgjlfñobq bcnjhbñ d Ufhdfhlcrjv eybdthcbntnt. ≤Ldecvscktyysq≥ öfhfrnth ≤cthjq pjys≥, hfpltkzñotq Hjccbñ b ysytiybö xktyjd YFNJ, ujdjhbn jy, gjvjétn jåüzcybnm Hjccbb xnj, yt
zdkzzcm xfcnmñ Tdhjgs d gjkbnbxtcrjv b djtyyjv cvsckt,
jyf ntv yt vtytt yt bcrkñxftncz bp xbckf tdhjgtqcrbö
ujcelfhcnd. Gfqgc ghtleghtélftn j njv, xnj nhtåeñncz
≤juhjvyjt nthgtybt b pyfxbntkmyfz vthf cjxedcndbz≥, rjulf htxm bltn j vtlktyyjv b ythjdyjv ldbétybb Hjccbb r
ltvjrhfnbb, b xnj ≤jncencndbt nfrjuj nthgtybz b cjxedcndbz åeltn kbim yf here fynbpfgflysv cbkfv≥.
Yjdst pflfxb YFNJ d catht gjllthéfybz vbhf b ehtuekbhjdfybz rhbpbcjd yfhzle c jnrhsditqcz djpvjéyjcnmñ
gjcnhjtybz yjdjq cbcntvs åtpjgfcyjcnb d Tdhjgt nhtåeñn
bpvtytybz cnhernehs fkmzycf, ujdjhbn Rhäuu, gjvjoybr
Utythfkmyjuj ctrhtnfhz gj djghjcfv jåjhjyyjuj gkfybhjdfybz b jgthfnbdyjq ltzntkmyjcnb. Jy endthélftn, xnj
fkmzyc ≤ctujlyz jåkflftn ljcnfnjxysvb djpvjéyjcnzvb
lkz gjkyjvfcinfåyjuj b äaatrnbdyjuj htitybz pflfx
yjdjuj cnjktnbz≥.
36
Rose, Richard
TEDDY BEARS: THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE ARE IN NO MOOD
FOR CONFLICT, WHICH OUGHT TO EASE NATO
EXPANSION
(National Review, vol. 49, no. 16, September 1, 1997,
pp. 44–45)
Htpekmnfns jlyjuj bp jghjcjd jåotcndtyyjuj vytybz d
Hjccbb gjrfpsdfñn, xnj hjccbzyt öjnzn vbhf, ujdjhbn Hjep.
Jy endthélftn, xnj d yfcnjzobq vjvtyn hjccbqcrbq yfhjl
d åjkmitq cntgtyb pfyzn cdjbvb dyenhtyybvb ghjåktvfvb,
xtv hjkmñ cdjtq cnhfys yf vtéleyfhjlyjq fhtyt. ≤Htfkmyst euhjps åtpjgfcyjcnb hjccbzy yföjlzncz dyenhb cnhfys, – ujdjhbn jy. – Ghtcnegyjcnm yf ekbwfö b rhegyst vföbyfwbb c cjåcndtyyjcnmñ≥ cj cnjhjys dscjrjgjcnfdktyysö
xbyjdybrjd b åbpytcvtyjd jrfpsdfñn yf hjccbzy ltvjhfkbpeñobq äaatrn, gbitn Hjep.
37
ÅBÅKBJUHFABZ
Asmus, Ronald D.; Kugler, Richard L.;
Larrabee, F. Stephen
WHAT WILL NATO ENLARGEMENT COST?
(Survival, vol. 38, no. 3, Autumn 1996, pp. 5–26)
Reprinted by Rand in 1997 as RP-622.
Gallis, Paul E.
NATO: CONGRESS ADDRESSES EXPANSION
OF THE ALLIANCE
(CRS Issue Brief 95076). Washington:
Congressional Research Service,
Library of Congress, July 24, 1997. 16p.
Barry, Charles
REFORGING THE TRANS-ATLANTIC RELATIONSHIP
Washington: National Defense University, 1996. 208p.
Gompert, David C.; Larrabee, F. Stephen
AMERICA AND EUROPE: A PARTNERSHIP
FOR A NEW ERA
New York, NY: Cambridge University Press,
1997. 276p.
Biden, Joseph R., Jr.
MEETING THE CHALLENGES OF A POST-COLD
WAR WORLD: NATO ENLARGEMENT AND
U.S.-RUSSIA RELATIONS
(Senate Print 105–26). Washington: Government Printing
Office, May 1997. 59p.
Goodby, James E.
NATO ENLARGEMENT AND AN
UNDIVIDED EUROPE
Stanford, CA: Center for International Security and Arms
Control, Institute for International Studies,
Stanford University, 1997. 16p.
Dean, Jonathan
THE NATO MISTAKE: EXPANSION FOR ALL THE
WRONG REASONS
(Washington Monthly, vol. 29, no. 7, July/August
1997, pp. 35–38)
AN INTERVIEW WITH JOHN R. GALVIN:
THE FORMER COMMANDER OF NATO DISCUSSES HIS
THOUGHTS ON THE CHANGING ROLE OF NATO IN THE
POST-COLD WAR PERIOD
(Fletcher Forum of World Affairs, vol. 21, no. 2, Summer
1997/Fall 1997, pp. 37–45)
Ek, Carl
NATO EXPANSION: COST ISSUES
(CRS Report for Congress, no. 97-668 F).
Washington: Congressional Research Service,
Library of Congress, July 2, 1997. 20p.
Muravchik, Joshua
WHY DIE FOR DANZIG?
(Commentary, vol. 104, no. 4, October 1997, pp. 40–45)
EUROPEAN SECURITY ACT: TWO STEPS FORWARD
ON NATO ENLARGEMENT, ONE ILL-ADVISED STEP BACK
ON MISSILE DEFENSE
(Decision Brief 97-D78).
Washington: Center for Security Policy, June 11, 1997. 30p.
Pelz, Stephen
THE CASE FOR LIMITING NATO ENLARGEMENT:
A REALIST PROPOSAL FOR A STABLE DIVISION
OF EUROPE
(National Security Studies Quarterly, vol. 3, no. 3, Summer
1997, pp. 59–72)
38
Sharp, Jane
TOWARD A SECURE EUROPE
(Current History, vol. 96, no. 608, March 1997, pp. 130–134)
Sloan, Stanley R.
NATO ENLARGEMENT AND THE FORMER EUROPEAN
NEUTRALS
(CRS Report 97-249 F). Washington: Congressional Research
Service, Library of Congress, February 18, 1997. 6p.
Steel, Ronald
EASTERN EXPOSURE
(New Republic, vol. 217, no. 2–3, July 14, 1997, p. 27)
Straus, Ira
NATO, GO EAST: AS NATO SPREADS TO
THE EAST, RUSSIA MAY DECIDE TO LOOK
EASTWARD AS WELL
(National Review, vol. 49, no. 15,
August 11, 1997, pp. 39–41)
U.S. Congressional Budget Office
THE COSTS OF EXPANDING THE NATO ALLIANCE
Washington: The Office, March 1996. 71p.
U.S. Department of Defense
REPORT ON ALLIED CONTRIBUTIONS
TO THE COMMON DEFENSE
Washington: The Department, March 1997. 37p.
U.S. General Accounting Office
NATO ENLARGEMENT: U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EFFORTS
TO ASSIST POTENTIAL NEW MEMBERS
(GAO/NSIAD-97–164). Washington: The Office,
June 1997. 28p.
39
CFQNS BYNTHYTN
Ghjcbv jåhfnbnm dybvfybt yf nj, xnj ÑCBC yt ytctn jndtncndtyyjcnb pf cjlthéfybt b yfkbxbt
gthtxbcktyysö ybét htcehcjd; nfrfz jndtncndtyyjcnm wtkbrjv kjébncz yf ghjdfqlthjd.
JDC YFNJ d Ñéyjq Tdhjgt
http://www.afsouth.nato.int/
Rehc ghjatccbjyfkmyjq jhbtynfwbb infåysö
jabwthjd YFNJ
http://www.ndu.edu/ndu/inss/nsooc/nsoochp.html
Cghfdjxybr Rjyuhtccf: hfcibhtybt YFNJ
http://www.cato.org/pubs/handbook/hb105-43.html
YFNJ: dthöjdysq ukfdyjrjvfyleñobq JDC YFNJ
yf Fnkfynbrt
http://www.saclant.nato.int/
Wtynh gj bpextybñ ghjåktv jåjhjys b vtéleyfhjlyjq
åtpjgfcyjcnb: cdzpb d catht jåjhjys b åtpjgfcyjcnb
http://www.cdiss.org/links.htm
YFNJ: pfxtv?
http://www.robust-east.net/Net/czechl.html
Rjvbccbz gj åtpjgfcyjcnb b cjnhelybxtcnde d Tdhjgt
http://www.house.gov/csce/
Yjdfz Fnkfynbxtcrfz bybwbfnbdf
http://www.eai.org/nai/nai.htm
Ajhby faathc: YFNJ
http://www.policy.com/issues/foraff/nato.html
Ctdthjfnkfynbxtcrfz fccfvåktz
http://ww.nato.int/related/naa/
Wtynh byajhvfwbjyysö htcehcjd, rjkktlé rfyflcrbö
djjheétyysö cbk, afrekmntn yfwbjyfkmyjq jåjhjys
http://www.cfcsc.dnd.ca/links/milorg/nato.html
Jhufybpfwbz gj åtpjgfcyjcnb b cjnhelybxtcnde d Tdhjgt
http://www.osceprag.cz/
Vtéleyfhjlysq bycnbnen cnhfntubxtcrbö bccktljdfybq
http://www.isn.ethz.ch/iiss/iisshome.htm
Gfhnythcndj dj bvz vbhf
http://www.shape.nato.int/pfp.htm
Vflhblcrbq cfvvbn YFNJ, 8–9 bñkz 1997 u.
http://www.embusa.es/nato/indexeng.html
Ljrkfl Rjyuhtcce j hfcibhtybb Jhufybpfwbb
Ctdthjfnkfynbxtcrjuj ljujdjhf: jåjcyjdfybt,
ghtbveotcndf, pfnhfns b gjcktlcndbz
http://www.state.gov/www/regions/eur/
9702nato_report.html
Futyncndj YFNJ gj rjycekmnfwbzv, rjvfyljdfybñ b
eghfdktybñ
http://www.nc3a.nato.int/
Ujcelfhcndtyysq ltgfhnfvtyn CIF: åñhj gj ltkfv tdhjgtqcrbö ujcelfhcnd b Rfyfls
http://www.state.gov/www/regions/eur/
europe_home.html#nato
Hfcibhtybt YFNJ
http://www.usis.hu/nato.htm
Hfcibhtybt caths ltzntkmyjcnb YFNJ
http://washingtonpost.com/wp¸srv/inatl/
longterm/nato/nato.htm
Byajhvfwbjyyjt futyncndj CIF: CIF b yjdjt fnkfynbxtcrjt cjjåotcndj
http://www.usia.gov/topical/pol/atlcomm/atlantic.htm
Hfcibhtybt caths ltzntkmyjcnb YFNJ: fyfkbp djtyysö
fcgtrnjd
http://www.fas.org/man/nato/index.html
Ghtlcnfdbntkmcndj CIF d YFNJ
http://www.nato.int/usa/home.htm
Jabwbfkmyfz yfxfkmyfz cnhfybwf YFNJ
http://www.nato.int./
Ghtlcnfdbntkmcndj CIF d Tdhjgtqcrjv Cjñpt
http://www.useu.be
40
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