Уголовное правосудие в США

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J C E L F H C N D T Y Y J U J
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L T G F H N F V T Y N F
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C I F
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Ltvjrhfnbb
EUJKJDYJT
GHFDJCELBT
CIF
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Ddtltybt
Eujkjdyjt ghfdjcelbt d CIF
J n h t lf r w b b
ÄNJN DSGECR äktrnhjyyjuj éehyfkf gjcdzoty eujkjdyjve ghfdjcelbñ d CIF. Dct
cnfnmb nfr bkb byfxt pfnhfubdfñn ntve dyenhtyytuj ghjnbdjhtxbz, ceotcndeñotuj vtéle
gjnhtåyjcnmñ d åtpjnkfufntkmyjv b äaatrnbdyjv hfccktljdfybb ghtcnegktybq b cnjkm ét
dféyjq gjnhtåyjcnmñ d pfobnt ghfd dctö
uhfélfy. D jcyjdt fvthbrfycrjq cbcntvs ghfdjcelbz ktébn ghtpevgwbz ytdbyjdyjcnb. Kñåjq gjlcelbvsq cxbnftncz ytdbyjdysv lj ntö
gjh, gjrf tuj dbyf yt åeltn ljrfpfyf dyt dczrbö jåjcyjdfyysö cjvytybq. Nfrjd cnfylfhn
lkz dctö eujkjdysö ghjwtccjd d CIF.
Rfr gjrfpsdftn dj dcnegbntkmyjq cnfnmt
ghjatccjh Létqvc Å. Létqrjåc, cj dhtvty
jcyjdfybz fvthbrfycrjuj ujcelfhcndf tuj cbcntvf eujkjdyjuj ghfdf ghtnthgtkf ceotcndtyyeñ ädjkñwbñ. Létqrjåc, ghjatccjh ñhbcgheltywbb Ymñ-Qjhrcrjuj eybdthcbntnf, lbhtrnjh Bccktljdfntkmcrjuj wtynhf ghjåktv
ghtcnegyjcnb b ghfdjcelbz ghb änjv eybdthcbntnt, hfpüzcyztn hfpuhfybxtybt gjkyjvjxbq
vtéle atlthfkmysvb jhufyfvb b infnfvb,
jcjåtyyjcnb eujkjdyjuj ghjwtccf b cbcntve
2
dsytctybz b jåéfkjdfybz ghbujdjhjd. Jy nfrét jgbcsdftn, rfr c ujlfvb, jcjåtyyj pf gjcktlytt cnjktnbt, hfcibhbkbcm ghfdf fvthbrfywtd d hfvrfö cbcntvs eujkjdyjq ñcnbwbb.
Fvthbrfycrfz cbcntvf eujkjdyjuj ghfdjcelbz d njv dblt, d rfrjv jyf ceotcndetn ctqxfc, cxbnftncz åjktt jåütrnbdyjq b cghfdtlkbdjq, xtv d ghjikjv, jcjåtyyj gj jnyjitybñ r
vtymibycndfv b étyobyfv. Änj dféyj cfvj gj
ctåt. Yj, rfr gjrfpsdftn Njv Nfqkth, ghjatccjh gcböjkjubb Ymñ-Qjhrcrjuj eybdthcbntnf,
njn afrn, xnj fvthbrfyws cxbnfñn äne cbcntve, d jcyjdyjv, cghfdtlkbdjq b åtcghbcnhfcnyjq, f nfrét cjjndtncndeñotq ntv wtyyjcnzv, rjnjhst jyb jncnfbdfñn, cgjcjåcndetn pfrjyjgjckeiyjve gjdtltybñ. Nfqkth hfccvfnhbdftn nfrbt djghjcs, rfr änbxtcrfz vjnbdfwbz r cjåkñltybñ pfrjyf d cjgjcnfdktybb c
vtytt äaatrnbdysvb jhelbzvb clthébdfybz.
Vyjubt infns, jcjåtyyj d gjcktlybt ltcznbktnbz, ghjdjlzn ärcgthbvtyns c ghfdjdsvb htajhvfvb, ghbpdfyysvb cltkfnm cbcntve
eujkjdyjuj ghfdjcelbz åjktt hfwbjyfkmyjq b
äaatrnbdyjq. Jlyf bp nfrbö htajhv cdzpfyf c
Ajnj FH
Xtndthj bp ltdznb gfhytq bp Crjnncåjhj dvtcnt
c fldjrfnjv Cävñäktv Ktqåjdbwtv, 1937 ujl.
Bö ltkj ghbdtkj r ghbyznbñ Dthöjdysv celjv
djpybryjdtybtv vtcnysö bybwbfnbd gj jåtcgtxtybñ ghfdjgjhzlrf – hfpkbxysö vtöfybpvjd
gjchtlybxtcndf vtéle ghtcnegybrjv b gjnthgtdibv. Ltyybc Vfkjyb, lbhtrnjh cjplfyyjq
cbkfvb vtcnysö jhufyjd eghfdktybz jhufybpfwbb ≤Vtcnyst bybwbfnbds gj jåtcgtxtybñ
ghfdjgjhzlrf≥, rjnjhfz pfybvftncz ghjabkfrnbrjq ghtcnegyjcnb b rjjhlbyfwbtq cjdvtcnysö ecbkbq gj jåtcgtxtybñ ghfdjgjhzlrf,
fyfkbpbhetn vtcnyst bybwbfnbds d jrheut Ltiñnc infnf Jhtujy. Jy ltvjycnhbhetn ghtbveotcndf yjdjddtltybq, jlyjdhtvtyyj erfpsdfz yf bö ytljcnfnrb.
D cdjtq cnfnmt Lädbl Gbnnc hfccrfpsdftn
jå jlyjv rjyrhtnyjv ltkt – ltkt ≤gfhytq bp
Crjnncåjhj≥. Änj åsk pyfvtybnsq celtåysq
ghjwtcc, yfxfdibqcz 70 ktn yfpfl, rjnjhsq,
åtpeckjdyj, pfybvftn dféyjt vtcnj d bcnjhbb
åjhmås pf uhfélfycrbt ghfdf. Jlyfrj änj ltkj
csuhfkj ceotcndtyyeñ hjkm b d bcnjhbb fvthbrfycrjq ñhbcgheltywbb, gjcrjkmre ghbdtkj
r ldev pyfvtyfntkmysv htitybzv Dthöjdyjuj
CIF ldeö ghbywbgbfkmyj dféysö htitybq, hfcibhbdibö aeylfvtynfkmyst ghfdf dctö uhfélfy
Fvthbrb.
celf CIF, rjnjhst erhtgbkb jcyjdjgjkfufñobt ghfdf dctö fvthbrfywtd. Ltkj ≤Gfhyb bp
Crjnncåjhj ghjnbd infnf Fkfåfvf≥ yfukzlyj
cdbltntkmcndetn j njv, xnj ghfdf d rjyntrcnt
fvthbrfycrjq cjwbfkmyj-gjkbnbxtcrjq cbcntvs vjuen hfcibhznmcz yt njkmrj d htpekmnfnt
bpvtytybq d eujkjdyjv pfrjyjlfntkmcndt
CIF, yj b dcktlcndbt celtåyjuj gthtcvjnhf b
rjycnbnewbjyyjuj yflpjhf.
Éehyfk pfdthiftncz gthtxbcktybtv hfpyjjåhfpysö byajhvfwbjyysö bcnjxybrjd –
rybu, cnfntq b cfqnjd Bynthytnf c ljgjkybntkmysvb cdtltybzvb jå fvthbrfycrjq cbcntvt eujkjdyjuj ghfdjcelbz.
Djghjcs ltvjrhfnbb, Äktrnhjyysq éehyfk Ujcelfhcndtyyjuj
ltgfhnfvtynf CIF, Njv 6, § 1, bñkm 2001 ujlf
3
C j l t h é f y b t
djghjcs
Ltvjrhfnbb
B ñ k m 2 0 0 1 uj l f
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Ä D JK Ñ W B Z F V T H B R F Y C RJ UJ
E U JK J D Y J U J G HF D F
Létqvc Å. Létqrjåc, ghjatccjh ñhbcgheltywbb Ymñ-Qjhrcrjuj
eybdthcbntnf b lbhtrnjh Bccktljdfntkmcnrjuj wtynhf ghjåktv
ghtcnegyjcnb b ghfdjcelbz ghb ñhblbxtcrjv afrekmntnt änjuj
eybdthcbntnf, fyfkbpbhetn fvthbrfycreñ cbcntve eujkjdyjuj ghfdf.
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C J Å K Ñ L T Y B T P F RJ Y F D F V T H B R T :
D S G JK Y T Y B T C G HF D T L K B D S Ö G HF D J D S Ö
G H J W T LE H B X E D C N D J C G HF D T L K B D J C N B
Njv Nfqkth, ghjatccjh gcböjkjubb Ymñ-Qjhrcrjuj eybdthcbntnf,
fyfkbpbhetn ghtlcnfdktybz fvthbrfywtd j cdjtq cbcntvt eujkjdyjuj
ghfdjcelbz b bö jåott jnyjitybt r ytq; jy nfrét hfccvfnhbdftn djghjc
j njv, rfr bö dpukzls dkbzñn yf pfrjyjgjckeiyjt gjdtltybt.
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DJPYBRYJDTYBT VTCNYSÖ BYBWBFNBD GJ
J Å T C G T X T Y B Ñ G HF D J G J H Z L R F
Ltyybc Vfkjyb, lbhtrnjh jhufybpfwbb, cjplfyyjq vtcnysvb jhufyfvb
eghfdktybz ≤Vtcnyst bybwbfnbds gj jåtcgtxtybñ ghfdjgjhzlrf≥,
ntcyj cjnhelybxfñotq c ytghfdbntkmcndtyysvb jhufybpfwbzvb d jrheut
Ltienc infnf Jhtujy, jgbcsdftn cbcntve vtcnysö bybwbfnbd, d jcyjdt
rjnjhjq – gjchtlybxtcndj rfr vtöfybpv ehtuekbhjdfybz jnyjitybq,
cjplfdiböcz vtéle ghtcnegybrjv b gjnthgtdibv.
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L T KJ ≤ G F H Y T Q B P C RJ N N C Å J H J ≥
B A E Y L F V T Y NF K M Y S T G HF D F
Éehyfkbcn Lädbl Gbnnc ghjcktébdftn bcnjhbñ ≤gfhytq bp Crjnncåjhj≥,
pyfvtybnjuj ltkf j uhfélfycrbö ghfdfö, yfxfditujcz 70 ktn yfpfl. Änj
ltkj ghbdtkj r ldev pyfvtyfntkmysv htitybzv Dthöjdyjuj celf, rjnjhst
erhtgbkb jcyjdjgjkfufñobt ghfdf dctö fvthbrfywtd.
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Å B Å K B J U HF A B Z
Cnfnmb b rybub
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C F Q N S B Y N T H Y T NF
Vytybz, dshféftvst yf gthtxbcktyysö pltcm Bynthytn-cfqnfö,
yt jåzpfntkmyj jnhféfñn njxre phtybz ghfdbntkmcndf CIF.
Ä
K T R N H J Y Y S Q
É E H Y F K
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J C E L F H C N D T Y Y J U J
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U J K J D Y J T
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BPLFNTKM
JNDTNCNDTYYSQ HTLFRNJH
Léelbn Cbutk
G H F D J C E L B T
Ñ K M
L T G F H N F V T Y N F
C I F
L T V J R H F N B B
2 0 0 1
D
C I F
U J L F
HTLFRNJHS
Äcntkkm Åäqthl
Äynjyb Cfhbnb
Vjyf Äcreänbyb
Eäqy Öjkk
Cnñfhl Ujhby
HTLFRNJHS
HECCRJUJ BPLFYBZ
Yfnfkbz Åfhåfi
Kblbz Djhjybyf
CNFHIBQ HTLFRNJH
HTLFRNJH BYNTHYTN-BPLFYBZ
Ltåjhf Åhfey
Rfhkf Öännjy
Léjy Léfpbr
Lädbl Gbnnc
CGHFDJXYJ-BCCKTLJDFNTKMCRBQ JNLTK
Fybnf Uhby
HTLFRNJH HECCRJUJ
BYNTHYTN-BPLFYBZ
HTLRJKKTUBZ
Fktrcfylh Cdbyjd
Öjdfhl Cbyrjnnf
Léelbn Cbutk
Ktjyfhlj Ebkmzvc
Fylhtz Vfrukbyxb
ÖELJÉTCNDTYYSQ HTLFRNJH
UHFABXTCRJT JAJHVKTYBT
Lfqzy Dekdthnjy
Cbkmdbz Crjnn
Jabc vtéleyfhjlysö byajhvfwbjyysö ghjuhfvv Ujcelfhcndtyyjuj ltgfhnfvtynf CIF ghtljcnfdkztn vfnthbfks, hfpüzcyzñobt pfheåtéyjq felbnjhbb gjkbnbre, jåotcndj b wtyyjcnb CIF. Jabc geåkbretn gznm äktrnhjyysö éehyfkjd, gjcdzotyysö bpextybñ jcyjdysö ghjåktv, c rjnjhsvb cnfkrbdfñncz Cjtlbytyyst Infns b vtéleyfhjlyjt cjjåotcndj. Änb éehyfks – ≤Ärjyjvbxtcrbt gthcgtrnbds≥, ≤Ukjåfkmyst ghjåktvs≥, ≤Djghjcs ltvjrhfnbb≥, ≤Dytiyzz gjkbnbrf CIF≥ b ≤CIF: jåotcndj b wtyyjcnb≥ – gjvtofñn yf cdjbö cnhfybwfö ljrevtyns b vfnthbfks, jnyjczobtcz r gjkbnbrt CIF, f nfrét cjlthéfn fyfkbp, rjvvtynfhbq b ljgjkybntkmyeñ byajhvfwbñ gj cjjndtncndeñobv ntvfv. • Dct yjvthf éehyfkjd dsöjlzn yf fyukbqcrjv, bcgfycrjv, gjhneufkmcrjv b ahfywepcrjv, f jnltkmyst yjvthf geåkbreñncz nfrét yf fhfåcrjv b
heccrjv zpsrfö. Yjvthf éehyfkjd yf fyukbqcrjv zpsrt gjzdkzñncz c bynthdfkjv ghbåkbpbntkmyj d jlby vtczw. Gthtdjls jåsxyj dsöjlzn xthtp ldt-xtnsht ytltkb gjckt jgeåkbrjdfybz éehyfkjd yf fyukbqcrjv zpsrt. • Vytybz, dscrfpsdftvst d änbö éehyfkfö, yt jåzpfntkmyj jnhféfñn dpukzls bkb gjkbnbre ghfdbntkmcndf Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd Fvthbrb. Ujcelfhcndtyysq ltgfhnfvtyn CIF yt ytctn jndtncndtyyjcnb pf cjlthéfybt cfqnjd Bynthytnf, yf rjnjhst tcnm ccskrb d éehyfkfö, bkb ljcneg r nfrbv cfqnfv; äne jndtncndtyyjcnm ytcen bö cjplfntkb. Cnfnmb bp éehyfkjd, j rjnjhsö bltn htxm, vjéyj djcghjbpdjlbnm b gthtdjlbnm pf ghtltkfvb Cjtlbytyysö Infnjd pf
bcrkñxtybtv ckexftd, rjulf änb cnfnmb cjghjdjélfñncz xtnrbv erfpfybtv yf yfkbxbt juhfybxtybq d bö bcgjkmpjdfybb, yfkfuftvsö fdnjhcrbv ghfdjv. Nt, rnj cjåbhftncz bcgjkmpjdfnm pfobotyyst fdnjhcrbv ghfdjv ajnjuhfabb, ljkéys gjkexbnm cjjndtncndeñott hfphtitybt. • Ntreobt bkb ghtlsleobt yjvthf éehyfkjd, f nfrét fyjyc
åeleobö éehyfkjd vjéyj yfqnb yf ljvfiytq cnhfybwt Jabcf vtéleyfhjlysö byajhvfwbjyysö ghjuhfvv d Bynthytnt gj flhtce “http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/
journals.htm”. Änb yjvthf ghtljcnfdkzñncz d ytcrjkmrbö äktrnhjyysö ajhvfnfö lkz jåktuxtybz bö ghjcvjnhf d jykfqyjdjv htébvt, gthtlfxb, pfuheprb b gtxfnb. • Ghjcbv ghbcskfnm rjvvtynfhbb b pfvtxfybz jå änbö éehyfkfö d gjcjkmcndj CIF d dfitq cnhfyt bkb d htlfrwbñ gj flhtce: Editor, Issues of Democracy, Democracy and Human
Rights – IIP/T/DHR, U.S. Department of State, 301 4th Street, S.W., Washington, DC 20547, United States of America
Flhtc äktrnhjyyjq gjxns: [email protected]
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E u j k j d y j t g h f d j c el b t d C I F
Ädjkñwbz fvthbrfycrjuj
eujkjdyjuj ghfdf
L é t q v c Å . L é t q rj å c
D ghtlkfuftvjq cnfnmt jå jcyjdfö fvthbrfycrjq cbcntvs eujkjdyjuj ghfdjcelbz
Létqvc Å. Létqrjåc, ghjatccjh ñhbcgheltywbb Ymñ-Qjhrcrjuj eybdthcbntnf b lbhtrnjh Bccktljdfntkmcnrjuj wtynhf ghjåktv ghtcnegyjcnb b ghfdjcelbz ghb ñhblbxtcrjv afrekmntnt änjuj eybdthcbntnf,
jåüzcyztn cnhernehe b ukfdyst jcjåtyyjcnb eujkjdyjuj ghjwtccf d CIF. Änjn ghjwtcc, gj ckjdfv fdnjhf, pbéltncz yf Rjycnbnewbb CIF b Åbkkt j ghfdfö. Bvtyyj
Rjycnbnewbz pflftn bcöjlysq bvgekmc atlthfkmyj-infnyjq cnherneht änjq cbcntvs b ckeébn rjytxyjq bycnfywbtq, jghtltkzñotq ghtltks ljpdjktyyjuj.
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D JCYJDT fvthbrfycrjuj eujkjdyjuj ghjwtccf ktébn Rjycnbnewbz CIF, d njv xbckt
gthdst 10 gjghfdjr, jåhfpeñobt Åbkkm j ghfdfö. Rjycnbnewbz ufhfynbhetn dctv kbwfv,
ghjébdfñobv d CIF, jcyjdjgjkfufñobt ghfdf b cdjåjls. C njxrb phtybz fvthbrfycrjuj
eujkjdyjuj ghfdf, ukfdyjt bp ybö pfrkñxftncz
d ghtpevgwbb ytdbyjdyjcnb jådbyztvjuj. Gjlcelbvsq yt ljkéty ljrfpsdfnm cdjñ ytdbyjdyjcnm. Celtåyst jhufys jåzpfys ljrfpfnm tuj
dbye dyt dczrbö jåjcyjdfyysö cjvytybq. Gjljåyst ghfdf jghtltkzñn hfvrb atlthfkmyjinfnyjq cbcntvs, ghtlecvjnhtyyjq Rjycnbnewbtq. Jcjåjt pyfxtybt bvtñn Gznfz, Itcnfz
b Djcmvfz gjghfdrb.
Gznfz gjghfdrf pfoboftn gjlcelbvsö jn
jgfcyjcnb ldjqyjuj yfrfpfybz (rjulf pf jlyj b
nj ét ghtcnegktybt gjlcelbvsq åjktt jlyjuj
hfpf ghtlcnftn gthtl celjv jlyjq b njq ét
bycnfywbb) b jn jåzpfyyjcnb cdbltntkmcndjdfnm
ghjnbd cfvbö ctåz ghb hfccvjnhtybb eujkjdysö ltk. F ukfdyjt – jyf jöhfyztn ghfdf gjlcelbvsö yf ≤yflktéfoeñ ghfdjdeñ ghjwtlehe≥. Änj dféytqitt gjyznbt, cjlthéfottcz d
Létqvc Å. Létqrjåc
Åbkkt j ghfdfö, cels, jcjåtyyj d 20-v dtrt,
njkrjdfkb rfr ghtljcnfdktybt gjlcelbvsv cfvsö hfpyjjåhfpysö ajhv pfobns b ghfd.
Itcnfz gjghfdrf ufhfynbhetn gjlcelbvsv
≤åtpjnkfufntkmyjt b geåkbxyjt ckeifybt ltkf
åtcghbcnhfcnysv éñhb bp infnf b jrheuf, d
rjnjhsö cjdthityj ghtcnegktybt≥. Rhjvt njuj, jyf lftn gjlcelbvsv rfr ghfdj ghbcencndjdfnm ghb lfxt gjrfpfybq dscnegfñobvb ghjnbd ybö cdbltntkzvb (b dtcnb bö gthtrhtcnysq
ljghjc), nfr b gjkmpjdfnmcz ≤gjvjomñ fldjrfnf≥ lkz cdjtq pfobns. C ujlfvb änjn pfobnysq
vtöfybpv nfrét hfcibhbkcz, afrnbxtcrb ufhfynbhjdfd dctv gjlcelbvsv ljcnfnjxysq
jåütv ñhblbxtcrbö rjycekmnfwbq d öjlt eujkjdysö ghjwtccjd.
Djcmvfz gjghfdrf bcrkñxftn ≤xhtpvthysq
pfkju≥ pf jcdjåjéltybt bp-gjl cnhféb b pfghtoftn ≤étcnjrbt b ytjåsxyst yfrfpfybz≥. Gjcktlybq pfghtn njkrjdfkcz celfvb rfr juhfybxtybt ajhv ghbvtybvjuj yfrfpfybz. D 1972
ujle yf jcyjdfybb änjq rjycnbnewbjyyjq yjhvs d 38 infnfö åskb jnvtytys pfrjys j cvthnyjq rfpyb. Ytrjnjhst bp ybö åskb gthtgbcfys b ghbdtltys d cjjndtncndbt c Rjycnbnewbtq. D yfcnjzott dhtvz pfrjys j cvthnyjq rfpyb ltqcndeñn d 38 infnfö. Jlyfrj änjn ghbvth
ckeébn lkz bkkñcnhfwbb njuj, xnj d fvthbrfycrjq cbcntvt dthöjdtycndetn bvtyyj Rjycnbnewbz CIF, f yt eujkjdyjt ghfdj rfr nfrjdjt.
Yb Rjyuhtcc, yb infns yt vjuen ghbybvfnm
pfrjys, yfheifñobt Rjycnbnewbñ.
Rfélsq infn b atlthfkmyjt ghfdbntkmcndj bvttn cjåcndtyyjt ≤vfnthbfkmyjt eujkjdyjt
ghfdj≥ (jghtltkzñott ghtcnegktybz b ajhvs
pfobns) b ≤eujkjdyeñ ghjwtlehe≥ (jghtltkzñoeñ cnflbb eujkjdyjuj ghjwtccf jn fhtcnf lj
jådbytybz, dsytctybz ghbujdjhf, tuj jåéfkjdfybz b jcdjåjéltybz bp nñhmvs). Ktubckfnehf
infnf ghbybvftn eujkjdyjt pfrjyjlfntkmcndj
lfyyjuj infnf, bcgjkytybt rjnjhjuj jåtcgtxbdfñn ghjrehjhs infnjd b jrheujd b d cjjndtncndbb c rjnjhsv ltkf ckeifñncz d vtcnysö celfö b celtåysö bycnfywbzö yf ehjdyt infnf, f
yfrfpfybz jnåsdfñncz d nñhmvfö infnjd bkb d
vtcnysö nñhmvfö. Rjyuhtcc ghbybvftn atlthfkmyst eujkjdyst pfrjys, gj rjnjhsv ghfdjjöhfybntkmyst vths, celtåyjt ghtcktljdfybt,
dsytctybt ghbujdjhf b ghbdtltybt d bcgjkytybt yfrfpfybz jceotcndkzñncz atlthfkmysvb
ghfdjjöhfybntkmysvb jhufyfvb, jådbybntkzvb,
celfvb, nñhmvfvb b cbcntvfvb eckjdyjuj yfrfpfybz b ljchjxyjuj jcdjåjéltybz.
A t lt h f k m y f z c b c n t v f
Ceotcndetn cdsit 20 cgtwbfkbpbhjdfyysö atlthfkmysö ghfdjjöhfybntkmysö jhufyjd, åjkmibycndj bp rjnjhsö döjlbn d cjcnfd Vbybcnthcnd ñcnbwbb CIF b Vbybcnthcndf abyfycjd CIF. R xbcke cfvsö bpdtcnysö atlthfkmysö ghfdjjöhfybntkmysö jhufyjd jnyjczncz
Atlthfkmyjt åñhj hfccktljdfybq b Flvbybcnhfwbz gj rjynhjkñ pf cjåkñltybtv pfrjyjd
j yfhrjnbrfö (d cjcnfdt Vbybcnthcndf ñcnbwbb), f nfrét Åñhj gj rjynhjkñ pf ghjlfétq
fkrjujkmysö yfgbnrjd, nfåfxysö bpltkbq b
jheébz, Ctrhtnyfz ckeéåf b Nfvjétyyfz
ckeéåf (d cjcnfdt Vbybcnthcndf abyfycjd).
7
Änb dtljvcndf hfcgjkfufñncz d u. Dfibyunjyt,
bvtz vtcnyst ghtlcnfdbntkmcndf gj dctv Cjtlbytyysv Infnfv, f d ytrjnjhsö ckexfzö b
pf uhfybwtq.
Atlthfkmyst jådbybntkb, yfpsdftvst
≤ghjrehjhfvb CIF≥, yfpyfxfñncz Ghtpbltynjv gj rféljve bp 94 celtåysö jrheujd d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö. Jyb jceotcndkzñn aeyrwbb jådbytybz njkmrj gj atlthfkmysv ghtcnegktybzv d atlthfkmysö celfö. Åelexb ljkéyjcnysvb kbwfvb, yfpyfxftvsvb Ghtpbltynjv, ghjrehjhs CIF gjkmpeñncz pyfxbntkmyjq
ytpfdbcbvjcnmñ, yj jyb gjlxbyzñncz utythfkmyjve ghjrehjhe CIF, rjnjhsq djpukfdkztn Vbybcnthcndj ñcnbwbb b döjlbn d cjcnfd
ghtpbltyncrjuj rfåbytnf vbybcnhjd.
Eujkjdysq jnltk Vbybcnthcndf ñcnbwbb d
u. Dfibyunjyt ghtljcnfdkztn ghjrehjhfv CIF
gjvjom, rjycekmnfwbb, jghtltktyyjt herjdjlcndj b yflpjh. D infå-rdfhnbht Vbybcnthcndf
ñcnbwbb yföjlzncz nfrét cgtwbfkmyst ghjrehjhcrbt gjlhfpltktybz c jåotyfwbjyfkmysvb
gjkyjvjxbzvb gj nfrbv yfghfdktybzv, rfr jhufybpjdfyyfz ghtcnegyjcnm, djtyyst ghtcnegktybz, fynbvjyjgjkmyjt pfrjyjlfntkmcndj b
vtéleyfhjlyfz njhujdkz yfhrjnbrfvb. Jåsxyj
änb gjlhfpltktybz hfåjnfñn d cjnhelybxtcndt
c ghjrehjhfvb CIF.
Atlthfkmyst ghfdjyfheibntkb, ghbujdjhtyyst r nñhtvyjve pfrkñxtybñ, gjvtofñncz
d bcghfdbntkmyst pfdtltybz, eghfdktybt rjnjhsvb jceotcndkztn Atlthfkmyjt åñhj nñhtv
– dtljvcndj d cjcnfdt Vbybcnthcndf ñcnbwbb.
Änb nñhmvs hfcgjkjétys gj dctq nthhbnjhbb
CIF. Gjlcelbvsq, jceéltyysq d atlthfkmyjv celt, vjétn åsnm gjvtoty d kñåeñ atlthfkmyeñ nñhmve. Jlyfrj d atlthfkmysö nñhmvfö cjlthébncz vtytt 10 ghjwtynjd dctö fvthbrfycrbö pfrkñxtyysö.
8
E u jkj d y f z ñ c n b w b z y f
ehjdyt infnjd b yf
vtcnfö
Åjkmifz xfcnm ltzntkmyjcnb cbcntvs eujkjdyjuj ghfdjcelbz jceotcndkztncz gjl äubljq jhufyjd ghfdktybz infnjd b vtcnysö dkfcntq. Yf
ehjdyt infnjd ghfdjjöhfybntkmyst jhufys, d
jcyjdyjv, ltwtynhfkbpjdfys c gthtlfxtq bö
aeyrwbq d jrheuf, ujhjlf b gjctkrb. Gjkbwbz
infnf jceotcndkztn rjynhjkm yfl jcyjdysvb
ijcctqysvb ljhjufvb infnf b yt döjlzobvb d
cjcnfd jrheujd ctkmcrbvb hfqjyfvb. Ythtlrj
gjkbwtqcrbt dsgjkyzñn b lheubt juhfybxtyyst
aeyrwbb, drkñxfz dtltybt eujkjdysö ghjnjrjkjd. Utythfkmyst ghjrehjhs infnjd, d jnkbxbt
jn utythfkmyjuj ghjrehjhf CIF, jåsxyj bvtñn vfkj ghjrehjhcrbö gjkyjvjxbq bkb yt
bvtñn bö djdct, öjnz vjuen pfybvfnmcz fggtkzwbzvb gj eujkjdysv ltkfv b pfobnjq gj öjlfnfqcndfv, gjlfdftvsv gjckt dsytctybz ghbujdjhjd. Jådbytybt jceotcndkztncz yf ehjdyt
jrheujd. Åjkmibycndj jådbybntktq, bvtyetvsö
jrheéysvb ghjrehjhfvb, bpåbhftncz.
D rféljv jrheut tcnm nñhmvf, ult cjlthéfncz jndtnxbrb, jéblfñobt celf, f nfrét jndtnxbrb, jceéltyyst pf vtkrbt ghtcnegktybz
– nfr yfpsdftvsq ≤vbclbvbyjh≥ (ghtcnegktybz, yfrfpetvst nñhtvysv pfrkñxtybtv yf
chjr yt åjktt jlyjuj ujlf). Yf ehjdyt jrheujd
jåsxyj nfrét jhufybpeñncz jnltks eckjdyjuj
yfrfpfybz. Gjl herjdjlcndjv vtcnysö dkfcntq
hfåjnftn åjktt 20 000 ytpfdbcbvsö gjkbwtqcrbö ltgfhnfvtynjd. Åjkmibycndj bp ybö jåckeébdftn vfkst ujhjlf b bvttn vtytt 20 cjnhelybrjd. Jlyfrj, d åjkmibö ujhjlfö gjkbwtqcrbt ltgfhnfvtyns juhjvys. R ghbvthe,
rhegytqibq d cnhfyt Gjkbwtqcrbq ltgfhnfvtyn ujhjlf Ymñ-Qjhrf bvttn jrjkj 38 000 cjnhelybrjd. Gjlcelbvst, rjnjhsö cels infnjd
ghbpyfñn dbyjdysvb d eujkjdysö ghtcnegktybzö b ghbujdfhbdfñn r nñhtvyjve pfrkñxtybñ, jnåsdfñn yfrfpfybt d herjdjlbvjq inf-
njv nñhtvyjq cbcntvt, jåsxyj yfpsdftvjq
≤ltgfhnfvtynjv bcghfdbntkmysö exhtéltybq≥.
V f n t h b f k m y j t e u jkj d y j t
ghfdj infnjd
Eöjlz cdjbvb rjhyzvb d fyukbqcrjt jåott
ghfdj, fvthbrfycrjt vfnthbfkmyjt eujkjdyjt
ghfdj, ntv yt vtytt, bvttn pfrjyjlfntkmyeñ
ghbhjle. D Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö yt ceotcndetn ghtcnegktybq gj jåotve ghfde. Bysvb
ckjdfvb, eujkjdyst pfrjys ghbybvfñncz ktubckfnehfvb infnjd (lkz rféljuj infnf) b
Rjyuhtccjv (lkz atlthfkmyjuj ghfdbntkmcndf).
Åjkmibycndj infnjd, yj yt atlthfkmyjt ghfdbntkmcndj, bvttn dctjåütvkñobt ≤rjltrcs≥
vfnthbfkmyjuj eujkjdyjuj ghfdf, cjcnjzobt bp
jåobö ghbywbgjd eujkjdyjq jndtncndtyyjcnb,
pfrjyjd, jghtltkzñobö rjyrhtnyst eujkjdyst
ghtcnegktybz, b pfrjyjd, jghtltkzñobö jghfdlfybz b jåjcyjdfybz.
Ldt nhtnb infnjd ghbyzkb d wtkjv bkb
xfcnbxyj Nbgjdjq eujkjdysq rjltrc (NER),
gjlujnjdktyysq d 1950-t b 1960-t ujls Fvthbrfycrbv bycnbnenjv ghfdf – jhufybpfwbtq,
csuhfditq pfvtnyeñ hjkm d ghfdjdjq htajhvt.
NER – cfvfz dkbzntkmyfz hfåjnf d fvthbrfycrjv vfnthbfkmyjv eujkjdyjv ghfdt. Jlby bp
yfbåjktt ukeåjrj erjhtybdiböcz ghbywbgjd
fvthbrfycrjuj eujkjdyjuj ghfdf cjcnjbn d njv,
xnj yt vjétn åsnm eujkjdyjq jndtncndtyyjcnb
åtp dbyjdyjcnb bkb afrnf eghtxyjuj gjdtltybz. Cjukfcyj NER, dbyjdyjcnm – byjulf yfpsdftvfz mens rea, dbyjdyjq djktq – njkretncz
rfr gjlndthéltybt yfkbxbz yfvthtybz, pyfybz, åtpjndtncndtyyjuj bkb ytjcnjhjéyjuj gjdtltybz, ghbxtv dct änb gjyznbz nofntkmyj
jghtltkzñncz rjltrcjv. Pf bcrkñxtybtv vtkrbö ghfdjyfheitybq b ytrjnjhsö ghtcnegktybq, cdzpfyysö c yfheitybtv ghfdbk bkb ecnfdjd. NER nhtåetn yfkbxbz rjyrhtnbpbhjdfyyjq dbyjdyjcnb gj rféljve äktvtyne ghfdjyf-
heitybz (ltqcndbz, cjgencndeñobt jåcnjzntkmcndf, htpekmnfn).
Eujkjdyst rjltrcs bpkfufñn pfghtns, cjcnfdkzñobt pfrjyjlfntkmcndj j ghtcnegktybzö
– gjczufntkmcndfö yf kbxyjcnm (yfghbvth,
eåbqcndfö b bpyfcbkjdfybzö), gjczufntkmcndfö
yf cjåcndtyyjcnm (yfghbvth, rhféfö b gjléjufö), gjczufntkmcndfö yf jåotcndtyysq gjhzljr
(yfghbvth, yfheitybzö jåotcndtyyjuj gjhzlrf
b vzntéfö), gjczufntkmcndfö yf ctvmñ (yfghbvth, ldjtétycndj b rhjdjcvtitybt) b gjczufntkmcndfö yf ujcelfhcndtyyjt eghfdktybt (yfghbvth, dpznrb b kétcdbltntkmcndj).
A t lt h f k m y j t
vfnthbfkmyjt
e u jkj d y j t g h f d j
Rfrbt ghtcnegktybz cxbnfñncz atlthfkmysvb,
f rfrbt – ghtcnegktybzvb yf ehjdyt infnf?
Yf änjn djghjc ytn jlyjpyfxyjuj jndtnf.
Ltqcndbntkmyj, ghtcnegyst ltqcndbz ytkmpz
hfccjhnbhjdfnm gj änbv ldev rfntujhbzv. Rjulf tlbybxysq frn bkb jåhfp ltqcndbq yfheiftn b atlthfkmyjt, b infnyjt eujkjdyjt pfrjyjlfntkmcndj, djpvjéyj lfét celtåyjt ghtcktljdfybt cj cnjhjys jåjbö jhufyjd dkfcnb. Ltkj
d njv, xnj cjukfcyj ljrnhbyt ≤ldjqyjuj cedthtybntnf≥, pfghtotybt ldjqyjuj ghtcktljdfybz (d cjjndtncndbb c rjnjhsv kbwj yt vjétn
ghtlcnfnm gthtl celjv ldféls pf jlyj b nj ét
ghfdjyfheitybt) yt hfcghjcnhfyztncz yf celtåyst ghtcktljdfybz, jceotcndkztvst hfpysvb cedthtyfvb.
Ntjhtnbxtcrb gjkyjvjxbz Rjyuhtccf juhfybxbdfñncz gjkyjvjxbzvb, ghzvj gthtxbcktyysvb d Cnfnmt 1 Rjycnbnewbb. Nfrbt ghtcnegktybz, rfr afkmcbabrfwbz fvthbrfycrjq dfkñns, ytpfrjyysq dütpl d CIF, ujcelfhcndtyyfz bpvtyf b yfheitybt rjycnbnewbjyysö b
ghtlecvjnhtyysö atlthfkmysvb pfrjyfvb
ghfd zdyj yföjlzncz d ghtltkfö åfpjdjq ñhbc-
9
lbrwbb atlthfkmyjuj ghfdbntkmcndf. Jlyfrj,
bcgjkmpez cdjb jåibhyst gjkyjvjxbz gj geyrne j rjvvthwbb b lheubt ljcnfnjxyj äkfcnbxyst yjhvs, Rjyuhtcc ghbyzk atlthfkmyst
eujkjdyst pfrjys, jnyjczobtcz r njhujdkt
yfhrjnbrfvb, cnhtkrjdjve jheébñ, gjöbotybñ
kñltq, härtne, eujye fdnjvjåbktq, vjityybxtcnde b lheubv ghtcnegktybzv.
Dthöjdysq cel htlrj ghböjlbn r dsdjle j
njv, xnj e Rjyuhtccf yt åskj gjkyjvjxbq lkz
ghbyznbz atlthfkmyjuj eujkjdyjuj pfrjyf. Jnxfcnb gj änjq ghbxbyt cathf ltqcndbz atlthfkmyjuj eujkjdyjuj ghfdf yf ghjnzétybb
20-uj dtrf yterkjyyj hfcibhzkfcm. Ctujlyz
atlthfkmyjt eujkjdyjt ghfdj vjétn bcgjkmpjdfnmcz lkz celtåyjuj ghtcktljdfybz pf vyjubt
ghtcnegktybz, rjnjhst nhflbwbjyyj cxbnfkbcm
döjlzobvb d rjvgtntywbñ infnjd. Jlyfrj yf
ghfrnbrt vjoysv afrnjhjv, juhfybxbdfñobv
cathe ltqcndbz atlthfkmyjuj eujkjdyjuj ghfdf, dscnegftn ytljcnfnjr htcehcjd. AÅH b
lheubt atlthfkmyst ghfdjjöhfybntkmyst jhufys, f nfrét atlthfkmyst jådbybntkb vjuen
hfccktljdfnm b ghtcktljdfnm gj cele kbim ytåjkmieñ xfcnm dctö ghtcnegktybq, gjntywbfkmyj döjlzobö d bö rjvgtntywbñ.
Gjckt Dnjhjq vbhjdjq djqys ghfrnbxtcrb dct
änb ghfdf drkñxtys d xbckj ghfdjjöhfybntkmysö yjhv infnjd, yf jcyjdfybb geyrnf j yflktéfotq ghjwtleht hfccvjnhtybz ltk, cjlthéfotujcz d Xtnshyflwfnjq gjghfdrt. Rjycnbnewbz CIF ecnfyfdkbdftn ybéybq, f yt dthöybq ghtltk ghfd uhfélfy gj jnyjitybñ r gjkbwbb, jådbybntkzv, celfv b hfåjnybrfv nñhtv. Infns vjuen ghtljcnfdkznm gjlcelbvsv
gj eujkjdysv ltkfv ljgjkybntkmyst ghfdf.
Yfghbvth, nfrbt infns, rfr Ymñ-Qjhr, d ceotcndtyyj åjkmitv jåütvt pfobofñn ghfdf
gjljphtdftvsö b gjlcelbvsö gj eujkjdysv ltkfv, ytétkb Dthöjdysq cel CIF.
D fvthbrfycrjq ñhblbxtcrjq nthvbyjkjubb gjyznbt ≤eujkjdyfz ghjwtlehf≥ jnyjcbncz
r rjycnbnewbjyysv, pfrjyjlfntkmysv b flvbybcnhfnbdysv juhfybxtybzv yf ghjdjlbvst
gjkbwbtq cktlcndtyyst ltqcndbz – jåscrb
kbw, vtcn b jåütrnjd, bpüznbz b ljghjcs, f
nfrét r jabwbfkmysv änfgfv eujkjdyjuj ghjwtccf. B Xtndthnfz, b Gznfz gjghfdrb pfobofñn uhfélfy, f yt njkmrj ghtcnegybrjd b
kbw, gjljphtdftvsö d ghtcnegktybzö, jn xhtpvthyj frnbdyjq ltzntkmyjcnb gjkbwbb.
Ghfdj yf fldjrfnf
E u jkj d y f z g h j w t le h f
Rfélsq infn b atlthfkmyjt ghfdbntkmcndj
bvtñn cdjb cjåcndtyyst eujkjdyj-ghjwtccefkmyst yjhvs. Atlthfkmyst ghfdbkf eujkjdyjq
ghjwtlehs cjcnfdkzñncz celtåysvb rjycekmnfnbdysvb rjvbntnfvb b jåyfhjleñncz Dthöjdysv celjv, f Rjyuhtcc vjétn dyjcbnm d ybö gjghfdrb. Eujkjdyj-ghjwtccefkmyst yjhvs infnjd
jåsxyj jghtltkzñncz ktubckfnehfvb infnjd.
Bp 23 jnltkmysö ghfd, egjvzyensö d gthdsö djcmvb gjghfdrfö r Rjycnbnewbb, 12 rfcfñncz eujkjdyjq ghjwtlehs. Lj Dnjhjq vbhjdjq
djqys cxbnfkjcm, xnj änb ghfdf pfobofñn kbxyjcnm njkmrj jn atlthfkmyjuj ghfdbntkmcndf.
10
Ghfdj yf fldjrfnf yfxbyftn ltqcndjdfnm d vjvtyn, rjulf gjljphtdftvsq cnfyjdbncz jådbyztvsv, nj tcnm d yfxfkt celtåyjuj ghjwtccf.
Tckb jådbyztvsq yt bvttn chtlcnd, celmz yfpyfxftn tve fldjrfnf, rjulf jy dgthdst ghtlcnftn gthtl celjv. Htitybt Dthöjdyjuj celf
CIF gj ltke ≤Ubltjy ghjnbd Eäqyhfqnf≥
(1963 ujl) ukfcbkj, xnj ghfdbntkmcndj jåzpfyj
yfpyfxfnm fldjrfnjd ytbveobv kbwfv, jådbyztvsv d eujkjdysö ghtcnegktybzö. Dgjcktlcndbb änj gjcnfyjdktybt åskj hfcghjcnhfytyj
yf dct ltkf, gj rjnjhsv gjlcelbvjve vjétn
uhjpbnm nñhtvyjt pfrkñxtybt.
P f kj u b c jlt h é f y b t g jl
c n h f é t q lj c elf
Tckb jådbyztvsq yt ghbpyftn ctåz dbyjdysv,
celmz ljkéty ghbyznm htitybt gj djghjce j tuj
jcdjåjéltybb bp-gjl cnhféb lj celf b, d ckexft nfrjuj jcdjåjéltybz, j njv, ljkéty kb ghbvtyznmcz pfkju bkb byst eckjdbz. Nhflbwbjyyj
cels cxbnfñn, xnj gjlcelbvsq ljkéty jcdjåjélfnmcz ghb jncencndbb jgfcyjcnb tuj gjåtuf.
Rfr ghfdbkj, ytcvjnhz yf ghtlgjkfuftveñ
cdzpm vtéle pfkjujv b ufhfynbtq gjzdktybz d
celt, celmb ecnfyfdkbdfñn åjkmieñ cevve pfkjuf lkz kbw, fhtcnjdfyysö pf cthmtpyst ghtcnegktybz, gjcrjkmre celtq pfåjnbn jåotcndtyyfz
åtpjgfcyjcnm, n. t. yt cjdthibn kb gjlcelbvsq
lheubt ghtcnegktybz d ckexft tuj jcdjåjéltybz. Atlthfkmyjt pfrjyjlfntkmcndj hfphtiftn
cjlthéfybt gjl cnhfétq lj celf åtp pfkjuf d
jghtltktyysö cbnefwbzö, rjulf cel cxbnftn, xnj
gjlcelbvsq cjplftn cthmtpyeñ euhjpe lkz jåotcndf b xnj ybrfrjt cjxtnfybt eckjdbq tuj jcdjåjéltybz yt vjétn d ljcnfnjxyjq cntgtyb ufhfynbhjdfnm jåotcndtyyeñ åtpjgfcyjcnm.
Jabwbfkmyjt jådbytybt b
å jk m i j t é ñ h b
Fvthbrfycrbt ghjrehjhs bvtñn ibhjrbt ghfdf gj cdjtve ecvjnhtybñ htifnm, ghtlüzdkznm
kb fhtcnjdfyyjve jådbytybz, rfrbt bvtyyj b
gj crjkmrbv geyrnfv. Jlyfrj åjkmibycndj
ghjrehjhjd cybvftn jådbytybz d jnyjitybb
pyfxbntkmyjq xfcnb fhtcnjdfyysö yf hfyytq
cnflbb ghjwtccf gj cktleñobv ghbxbyfv:
❍
d ltqcndbzö fhtcnjdfyyjuj jncencndetn
cjcnfd ghtcnegktybz;
❍
öjnz ghtcnegktybt åskj cjdthityj,
jyj ckbirjv ytpyfxbntkmyj lkz celtåyjuj ghtcktljdfybz;
❍
öjnz ghtcnegktybt åskj cjdthityj, d
lfyysq vjvtyn jyj ytljrfpetvj d jnyjitybb
lfyyjuj kbwf;
❍
öjnz ghtcnegktybt åskj cjdthityj,
ghjrehjh cxbnftn yfbåjktt wtktcjjåhfpysv dfhbfynjv ljceltåyjt jåhfotybt r ktxtåyjq bkb
byjq ghjuhfvvt.
Lj yfxfkf ghjwtccf ghjrehjh vjétn ljåhjdjkmyj cyznm jådbytybz d jnyjitybb jådbyztvjuj, cjöhfyzz pf cjåjq ghfdj ghtlüzdbnm
nt ét cfvst jådbytybz d åjktt gjplybq chjr.
Itcnfz gjghfdrf ghtlecvfnhbdftn, xnj eujkjdyjt ghtcktljdfybt djpvjéyj njkmrj gj jådbytybñ, ghtlüzdktyyjve åjkmibv éñhb. Åjkmijt
éñhb ghtlcnfdkztn cjåjq cktlcndtyysq jhufy,
jghtltkzñobq, bvtñncz kb ljcnfnjxyst ljrfpfntkmcndf lkz ghtlüzdktybz jådbytybz. Dghjxtv, Dthöjdysq cel gjcnfyjdbk, xnj änj jlyj
bp ytvyjubö ghfd, drkñxtyysö d Åbkkm j ghfdfö, rjnjhjt yt bvttn jåzpfntkmyjq cbks lkz
infnjd. Nfrbv jåhfpjv, rfélsq infn vjétn
cfvjcnjzntkmyj htifnm, bcgjkmpjdfnm kb åjkmijt éñhb lkz djpåeéltybz jabwbfkmyjuj eujkjdyjuj ghjwtccf.
Jådbyztvsq ljkéty åsnm ghbdktxty r cele b gjkexbnm jabwbfkmyjt jådbytybt d ntxtybt rjhjnrjuj chjrf. Ghtlüzdkzz jådbytybt,
celmz pfxbnsdftn ajhvfkmyst geyrns jådbytybz b gj rféljve geyrne cghfibdftn gjlcelbvjuj, ghbpyftn kb jy ctåz dbyjdysv, ytdbyjdysv bkb ytdbyjdysv dcktlcndbt ytdvtyztvjcnb. Åjkmibycndj infnjd ljgecrftn nfrét pfzdktybt jå jnrfpt jcgfhbdfnm ghtlüzdktyyjt jådbytybt (nolo contendere), xnj ghfrnbxtcrb
hfdyjwtyyj ghbpyfybñ ctåz dbyjdysv. Jnrfp
ghbpyfnm ctåz dbyjdysv vjétn åsnm dgjcktlcndbb bpvtyty yf ghbpyfybt cdjtq dbys. Ghbpyfybt dbys vjétn åsnm jnjpdfyj kbim d juhfybxtyyjv xbckt ckexftd.
L j c elt å y s t ö jlf n f q c n d f
Eujkjdyj-ghjwtccefkmyst yjhvs ghtlecvfnhbdfñn, xnj gjlcelbvjve b tuj fldjrfne ghtljcnfdkztncz jghtltktyyjt xbckj lytq lkz dyt-
11
ctybz ljceltåysö öjlfnfqcnd, jcgfhbdfñobö
ñhblbxtcreñ jåjcyjdfyyjcnm jådbybntkmyjuj
frnf bkb byajhvfwbb, kbåj jghjdthufñobö
ljrfpfntkmcndf. Rhjvt njuj, gjlcelbvsq vjétn
öjlfnfqcndjdfnm jå juhfybxtyyjv ghtlüzdktybb ytrjnjhsö ljrfpfntkmcnd, dsldbuftvsö
ghjrehjhjv. Gj yjhvfv, ltqcndeñobv d åjkmibycndt infnjd, pfobnf, jåhfnbdibcm c cjjndtncndeñotq ghjcmåjq, bvttn ghfdj yf gjkextybt rjgbb kñåsö pfzdktybq, cltkfyysö jådbyztvsv, rjgbb yfexysö ntcnjd b cgbcrf cdbltntktq jådbytybz. D ytrjnjhsö ñhbclbrwbzö
gjlcelbvsq ljkéty pfåkfujdhtvtyyj bpdtcnbnm
jådbytybt j cdjtv yfvthtybb gjkfufnmcz yf
jghtltktyyst ajhvs pfobns, d njv xbckt
fkbåb bkb ytdvtyztvjcnm.
Gthtujdjhs j ghbpyfybb
dbys
Fvthbrfycrfz ghfrnbrf ≤gthtujdjhjd j ghbpyfybb dbys≥ bkb ≤pfrkñxtybb cltkrb ghb
ghbpyfybb dbys≥ xfcnj gjybvftncz ytghfdbkmyj. Djpvjéyj, njxytt åeltn jöfhfrnthbpjdfnm
äne ghfrnbre rfr cbcntve ≤crbljr≥ ghb ghbpyfybb dbys. Åjktt 90 ghjwtynjd ghbujdjhjd
dsyjcbncz d htpekmnfnt ghbpyfybz dbys. E
åjkmibycndf gjlcelbvsö, ghbpyfñobö ctåz
dbyjdysvb, ybrfrbö ≤gthtujdjhjd≥ yt åskj.
Gjlcelbvsq ghjcnj ghbybvfk ghtlkjétybt
ghjrehjhf cyznm ytrjnjhst geyrns jådbytybz
d jåvty yf ghbpyfybt gjlcelbvsv cdjtq dbys
gj jlyjve bkb ytcrjkmrbv jcnfkmysv geyrnfv.
Yf atlthfkmyjv ehjdyt ceotcndetn nhflbwbz ≤gthtujdjhjd gj geyrnfv jådbytybz≥, nj
tcnm lj yfxfkf celtåyjuj ghjwtccf ghjrehjh
cybvftn yfbåjktt cthmtpysq geyrn jådbytybz,
f gjlcelbvsq ghbpyftn ctåz dbyjdysv gj vtytt cthmtpyjve geyrne. D ytrjnjhsö jrheufö b
ujhjlfö celmb ghzvj ghtlkfufñn cvzuxtybt
ghbujdjhjd. Yfghbvth, gjlcelbvjve jåtofñn
chjr nñhtvyjuj pfrkñxtybz jn 3 lj 5 ktn, tc-
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kb jy ghbpyftn cdjñ dbye lj celtåyjuj ghjwtccf. Tckb ét tuj ghbpyfñn dbyjdysv yf celt, tve åeltn uhjpbnm chjr nñhtvyjuj pfrkñxtybz vbybvev 5–10 b vfrcbvev 15 ktn.
G h f d j y f c el
Gjlcelbvsq bvttn ghfdj yf geåkbxysq cel.
Gjänjve fvthbrfycrbt cels jnrhsns lkz geåkbrb, drkñxfz éehyfkbcnjd. Dthöjdysq cel
gjcnfyjdbk lfét, xnj gjlcelbvsq yt vjétn
jnrfpfnmcz jn ghfdf yf geåkbxysq cel, gjcrjkmre uhfélfyt njét hfpltkzñn änj ghfdj.
Celmz nfrét yt vjétn pfghtnbnm ghtcct jcdtofnm eujkjdyst ghjwtccs. Jlyfrj änj yt jpyfxftn, xnj d pfk celf ljkéys ljgecrfnmcz rfvths (abrcbhjdfyyst, vjåbkmyst bkb ntktdbpbjyyst). Ytrjnjhst infns, gjljåyj Rfkbajhybb, hfphtifñn ghzveñ ntktdbpbjyyeñ nhfyckzwbñ c eujkjdysö ghjwtccjd. Cnjhjyybrb nfrjuj gjlöjlf endthélfñn, xnj ntktdbpbjyyfz
nhfyckzwbz jåtcgtxbdftn ñhblbxtcrjt ghjcdtotybt ibhjrjq jåotcndtyyjcnb, rjnjhfz d
ghjnbdyjv ckexft ybrjulf ås yt edbltkf eujkjdyjuj ghjwtccf. Rhbnbrb pfzdkzñn, xnj ntktrfvths d pfkt celf dkbzñn yf gjdtltybt fldjrfnjd, celmb b ghbczéysö b vtyzñn fnvjcathe d pfkt celf. D atlthfkmysö celfö rfvth yt
åsdftn.
Cjukfcyj Itcnjq gjghfdrt, gjlcelbvsq
gj eujkjdyjve ltke bvttn rjycnbnewbjyyjt
ghfdj yf åtpjnkfufntkmyjt celtåyjt hfpåbhfntkmcndj. Hfphsd dj dhtvtyb vtéle cjdthitybtv ghtcnegktybz b ghtlüzdktybtv jådbytybz jghtltkzñn pfrjys jå bcrjdjq lfdyjcnb, f
yt ghfdj yf åtpjnkfufntkmyjt celtåyjt hfpåbhfntkmcndj. Rjycnbnewbz ghtlgbcsdftn, xnj yt
ljkéyj åsnm ytghfdjvthyjq jnchjxrb vtéle
jådbytybtv b celjv. Jlyfrj Dthöjdysq cel
ybrjulf yt erfpsdfk njxyjuj chjrf, ghtdsitybt rjnjhjuj yfheiftn änj ghfdj. Rféljt ltkj ljkéyj jwtybdfnmcz bylbdblefkmyj. Rfé-
lsq infn bvttn pfrjy j åtpjnkfufntkmyjv celtåyjv hfpåbhfntkmcndt, ecnfyfdkbdfñobq juhfybxtybz gj chjrfv, d rjnjhst jådbytybz b
cels ljkéys yfxbyfnm ghjwtccs ghjnbd gjlcelbvsö.
Rhjvt njuj, Itcnfz gjghfdrf ufhfynbhetn
gjlcelbvsv gj eujkjdysv ltkfv ghfdj yf cel
ghbczéysö. Jlyfrj, rfr b jn åjkmibycndf
ghfd, jn ghfdf yf cel ghbczéysö vjéyj jnrfpfnmcz. Gjlcelbvsq vjétn dsåhfnm cel åtp
exfcnbz ghbczéysö gthtl jlybv celmtq bkb
ghbpyfnm ctåz dbyjdysv. Jåsxyj e gjlcelbvsö åjkmit ifycjd yf jghfdlfybt ghbczéysvb. Jn xtndthnb lj nhtnb celjd c exfcnbtv
ghbczéysö pfrfyxbdfñncz jghfdlfntkmysvb
ghbujdjhfvb. Yj ytrjnjhst gjlcelbvst ghtlgjxbnfñn ghbczéysv celmñ, gjcrjkmre jyb
cxbnfñn, xnj celmz crjhtt edblbn ghjåtks d
ljdjlfö jådbytybz, celmz dsytctn åjktt vzurbq ghbujdjh gjckt celf åtp exfcnbz ghbczéysö bkb xnj öfhfrnth cjdthityyjuj ghtcnegktybz yfcnhjbn ghbczéysö ghjnbd gjlcelbvjuj.
Öjnz Rjycnbnewbz änjuj yt nhtåetn, d atlthfkmyjq cbcntvt b ghfrnbxtcrb d rféljv
infnt ghbczéyst ljkéys dsytcnb tlbyjleiysq dthlbrn. Åsdfñn ckexfb, rjulf rjkktubz
ghbczéysö yt vjétn ghbqnb r tlbyjleiyjve
htitybñ. D nfrjv ckexft jåüzdkztncz nfr yfpsdftvsq ≤vbcnhfqk≥, b jådbytybt ljkéyj
htibnm, celbnm kb jådbyztvjuj gjdnjhyj. Xbckj gjdnjhysö celtåysö hfpåbhfntkmcnd yt juhfybxbdftncz, yj jxtym ytvyjubt gjlcelbvst
ghtlcnfñn gthtl celjv åjktt nhtö hfp.
C elt å y s q g h j w t c c
Yt åjktt 10 ghjwtynjd fvthbrfycrbö eujkjdysö ltk hfphtiftncz c gjvjomñ celtåysö
ghjwtccjd. Eujkjdysq ghjwtcc jcyjdfy yf cjcnzpfntkmyjq cbcntvt. Fldjrfn frnbdyj ghtlcnfdkztn bynthtcs cdjtuj rkbtynf ytpfdbcbvj
jn njuj, cxbnftn kb jy tuj dbyjdysv. Jådbyb-
ntkm ghtlcnfdkztn infn b yfhjl, yj jlyjdhtvtyyj ytctn vjhfkmyeñ jndtncndtyyjcnm ltqcndjdfnm d rfxtcndt ckeub ghfdjcelbz.
Rjycnbnewbz nhtåetn, xnj lkz ghbpyfybz
gjlcelbvjuj dbyjdysv bycnfywbz, ecnfyfdkbdfñofz afrns, åelm nj ghbczéyst bkb celmz,
ljkéyf jghtltkbnm, xnj jådbytybt ljrfpfkj
rfélsq äktvtyn ghtcnegktybz dyt dczrbö
jåjcyjdfyysö cjvytybq. Nfrjd cvsck xfcnj
wbnbhetvjq vfrcbvs, xnj ≤gjlcelbvsq cxbnftncz ytdbyjdysv≥. Jåt cnjhjys bvtñn ghfdj
dspsdfnm cjåcndtyysö cdbltntktq b ljcnfdkznm
d cel cdbltntktq, rjnjhst yt ghböjlzn ljåhjdjkmyj. Fldjrfns gjldthufñn cdjbö cdbltntktq ghzvjve ljghjce, f cdbltntktq lheujq
cnjhjys – gthtrhtcnyjve ljghjce. Celmz, yj
yt ghbczéyst, vjétn pflfdfnm cdbltntkzv djghjcs, jlyfrj d hfvrfö fvthbrfycrjq cjcnzpfntkmyjq cbcntvs ghfrnbxtcrb dct djghjcs pflfñn fldjrfns, f celmz dsgjkyztn aeyrwbb
åtcghbcnhfcnyjuj gjchtlybrf. Yf jcyjdfybb
Gznjq gjghfdrb cdbltntkm vjétn jnrfpfnmcz
lfdfnm gjrfpfybz, tckb jy jåjcyjdfyyj gjkfuftn, xnj änb gjrfpfybz vjuen yfdktxm dbye yf
ytuj. Jådbytybt vjétn ghtljcnfdbnm cdbltntkñ bvveybntn, f pfntv pfcnfdbnm cdbltntkz jndtxfnm yf rfélsq djghjc. (Pfobnf yt bvttn
nfrbö gjkyjvjxbq.) Bvveybntn hfcghjcnhfyztncz yf kñåjt ghtcnegktybt, d rjnjhjv ghbpyftncz cdbltntkm, f nfrét yf kñåjt ghtcnegktybt, rjnjhjt cktljdfntkb hfcrhjñn d htpekmnfnt cdbltntkmcrbö gjrfpfybq yf eckjdbzö bvveybntnf.
Dsytctybt ghbujdjhjd
Ktubckfnehs, cels, ltgfhnfvtyns eckjdysö
yfrfpfybq, cjdtns gj ljchjxyjve jcdjåjéltybñ, f d ytrjnjhsö ñhbclbrwbzö b rjvbccbb
gj ghbujdjhfv – dct änb cnhernehs buhfñn
jghtltktyyeñ hjkm ghb dsytctybb ghbujdjhjd.
D gthdjv ckexft eujkjdyst ghbujdjhs bkb, gj
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rhfqytq vtht, vfrcbvfkmyj ljgecnbvst ghbujdjhs gj rféljve nbge ghtcnegktybq jghtltkzñncz ktubckfnehfvb. Pfrjys infnjd j dsytctybb ghbujdjhjd ceotcndtyyj hfpkbxfñncz, b
gjhjq d jlyjv b njv ét infnt ltqcndeñn hfpkbxyst nbgs pfrjyjd j ghbujdjhfö pf hfpkbxyst ghtcnegktybz. Ghbujdjh dsyjcbncz celmtq
gjckt ckeifybq gj dsytctybñ ghbujdjhf, ult
ghjrehjh b fldjrfn ghbdjlzn ljdjls d gjkmpe
ghbujdjhf, rjnjhsq rfélfz cnjhjyf cxbnftn
wtktcjjåhfpysv. Gjlcelbvjve jåsxyj ghtljcnfdkztncz djpvjéyjcnm jåhfnbnmcz r cele gthtl dsytctybtv ghbujdjhf. D ytrjnjhsö ñhbclbrwbzö r cele vjuen jåhfofnmcz nfrét gjnthgtdibt bkb bö ghtlcnfdbntkb. Rfr ghfdbkj,
fldjrfn ltkftn egjh yf hfcrfzybt gjlcelbvjuj, tuj jåzpfyyjcnb gthtl ctvmtq, öjhjibt
gthcgtrnbds yf hfåjnt b wtktcjjåhfpyjcnm fvåekfnjhyjuj ktxtybz (tckb jyj ytjåöjlbvj) gj
vtcne ébntkmcndf. Ghjrehjh jåsxyj gjlxthrbdftn eujkjdyjt ghjikjt gjlcelbvjuj, yfytctyysq gjnthgtditve b tuj ctvmt eothå b ytjåöjlbvjcnm ecnhfitybz lheubö gjntywbfkmysö
ghfdjyfheibntktq.
Celmz rjycekmnbhetncz c ltgfhnfvtynjv
eckjdysö yfrfpfybq, rjnjhsq ghjdjlbn ytpfdbcbvjt hfccktljdfybt ghjikjuj gjlcelbvjuj, d
njv xbckt eujkjdyjuj, jåcnjzntkmcnd cjdthitybz ghtcnegktybz b lheubö afrnjhjd. Celmz yt
jåzpfy ghjdjlbnm jabwbfkmyjt dszcytybt afrnjd b gbcmvtyyj bpkfufnm cdjt vytybt, gjzcyzñott bkb jåjcyjdsdfñott ghbujdjh. Rjkm
crjhj ghbujdjh yföjlbncz d ghtltkfö ecnfyjdktyyjuj pfrjyjv lbfgfpjyf, jy yt vjétn åsnm
jåéfkjdfy.
Cfyrwbb
Eckjdyjt yfrfpfybt – yfbåjktt hfcghjcnhfytyysq ghbujdjh, dsyjcbvsq fvthbrfycrbvb
celmzvb gj eujkjdysv ltkfv. Afrnbxtcrb gjlcelbvsq bpåtuftn nñhmvs, rjkm crjhj jy yt
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cjplftn ghjåktv b cjåkñlftn ecnfyjdktyyst
ltgfhnfvtynjv eckjdysö yfrfpfybq ghfdbkf,
yjhvs b nhtåjdfybz gjljnxtnyjcnb. Celmz
jghtltkztn chjr eckjdyjuj yfrfpfybz – jåsxyj
änj ytcrjkmrj ktn. Celmz vjétn nfrét ddtcnb
jcjåst eckjdbz nbgf exfcnbz d ghjuhfvvt ktxtybz yfhrjvfybb, cjöhfytybz nheljecnhjqcndf bkb ghjljkétybz extås d irjkt, tckb ghtcnegybr ytcjdthityyjktnybq.
Nñhtvyjt pfrkñxtybt – jxtym ibhjrj
ghbvtyztvjt yfrfpfybt. D 2001 ujle d kñåjq
lfyysq ltym d fvthbrfycrbö nñhmvfö yföjlbkjcm ghbåkbpbntkmyj 2 vky. kbw. Rfélsq infn
b atlthfkmyjt ghfdbntkmcndj bvtñn cjåcndtyyeñ nñhtvyeñ cbcntve. Ltgfhnfvtyn nñhtv
rkfccbabwbhetn (gj hbcre jgfcyjcnb, hbcre
gjåtuf, djphfcne b n. l.) ghtcnegybrjd b ghbgbcsdftn bö r cjjndtncndeñotve bcghfdbntkmyjve exhtéltybñ c vfrcbvfkmysv, chtlybv
bkb vbybvfkmysv ehjdytv cnhjujcnb htébvf
cjlthéfybz.
Rjyabcrfwbz bveotcndf d gjcktlybt ujls
cnfkf ujhfplj xfot bcgjkmpjdfnmcz d rfxtcndt
yfrfpfybz pf eujkjdyjt ghtcnegktybt, jcjåtyyj gj ltkfv, cdzpfyysv c yfhrjnbrfvb b jhufybpjdfyyjq ghtcnegyjcnmñ. Rfr ghfdbkj, pfrjys j rjyabcrfwbb ghtlecvfnhbdfñn, xnj d
hfvrfö ghbujdjhf gj eujkjdyjve ltke celmz
vjétn ghbrfpfnm gjlcelbvjve clfnm kñåjt
bveotcndj, bcgjkmpjdfyyjt ghb cjdthitybb
ghtcnegktybz (d njv xbckt fdnjvjåbkm, celyj,
cfvjktn b lfét ljv) b/bkb ljöjls jn tuj ghtcnegyjq ltzntkmyjcnb (ghtlghbznbt, åfyrjdcrbt cxtnf, wtyyst åevfub b n. l.).
Inhfas yfkfufñncz fvthbrfycrbvb celfvb htét. Jåsxyj änj ltkftncz d ljgjkytybt r
lheubv cfyrwbzv. D ghjikjv hfpvth inhfajd
åsk ybprbv – yf cfvjv ltkt ujhfplj ybét, xtv
ujyjhfh xfcnyjuj fldjrfnf gj eujkjdysv ltkfv.
Jlyfrj d gjcktlytt dhtvz vfrcbvfkmyst
inhfas htprj edtkbxbkbcm. Dthöjdysq cel gjcnfyjdbk, xnj ghb yfkjétybb inhfaf gjlcelb-
vsq yt vjétn åsnm pfrkñxty d nñhmve pf ytdjpvjéyjcnm egkfnbnm inhfa, tckb njkmrj jy
yt erkjyztncz jn egkfns evsiktyyj.
J å é f kj d f y b t g h b u j d j h j d
b c h t lc n d f p f o b n s g j c kt
j c e é lt y b z
Rjycnbnewbz yt ufhfynbhetn jceéltyyjve ghtcnegybre ghfdj yf jåéfkjdfybt ghbujdjhf, yj
rfélfz ñhbclbrwbz ghtljcnfdkztn ghfdj, gj
vtymitq vtht, yf jlyj jåéfkjdfybt, f vyjubt
infns bvtñn ldf ehjdyz fgtkkzwbjyysö celjd
b ldf ehjdyz jåéfkjdfybq. Gj ytrjnjhsv jåéfkjdfybzv dnjhjuj ehjdyz cel dghfdt pfckeibdfnm njkmrj nt ltkf, rjnjhst jy ghbybvftn
r ckeifybñ gj cdjtve ecvjnhtybñ. Ddble ufhfynbb ghtljndhfotybz ldjqyjuj yfrfpfybz
jådbytybt yt vjétn jåéfkjdfnm dthlbrn j
ghbpyfybb gjlcelbvjuj ytdbyjdysv. Nfrbv
jåhfpjv, jghfdlfntkmysq ghbujdjh jcnftncz d
cbkt, lfét tckb jy åsk jcyjdfy yf djgbñotq
jibårt celmb ghb njkrjdfybb pfrjyf bkb yf
ytgjkyjv ecnfyjdktybb afrnjd celmtq bkb
ghbczéysvb.
Gjckt njuj rfr djpvjéyjcnm jåéfkjdfybq
d celt infnf, d rjnjhjv ghjébdftn ghtcnegybr, bcxthgfyf, jy vjétn gjlfnm öjlfnfqcndj j
ghtlgbcfybb ljcnfdbnm fhtcnjdfyyjuj d atlthfkmysq jrheéyjq cel (ghjdjlzobq celtåyst
hfpåbhfntkmcndf) c endthéltybtv, xnj jy cjlthébncz d nñhmvt infnf d yfheitybt tuj
ghfd, ufhfynbhjdfyysö atlthfkmysvb pfrjyfvb bkb Rjycnbnewbtq. (Pfrkñxtyyst atlthfkmyjq cbcntvs vjuen nfrét jåhfofnmcz d
atlthfkmyst cels c öjlfnfqcndfvb j cvzuxtybb yfrfpfybz gjckt jceéltybz, yfghbvth, d
ckexft tckb yjdst ljrfpfntkmcndf, rjnjhst yt
vjukb åsnm hfcrhsns lj celf, cdbltntkmcndeñn
jå bö ytdbyjdyjcnb.) Ghfdj yf ghbrfp j ljcnfdrt d cel ufhfynbhetncz Rjycnbnewbtq b
htfkbpetncz atlthfkmysv pfrjyjv. D ytrjnj-
hsö juhfybxtyysö ckexfzö ghfdjyfheibntkm,
yt ljåbdibqcz ecgtöf d gthdjv ghjwtcct gj
ghbrfpe j ljcnfdrt d cel, vjétn jåhfofnmcz c
ljgjkybntkmysvb öjlfnfqcndfvb j nfrjv ghbrfpt, ccskfzcm yf yfkbxbt lheubö yfheitybq
Rjycnbnewbb.
Ljchjxyjt
j c d j å j é lt y b t , j n v t y f b
cvzuxtybt ghbujdjhf
Nhflbwbjyyj cjdtns gj ljchjxyjve jcdjåjéltybñ buhfñn dféyeñ hjkm d jcdjåjéltybb ghtcnegybrjd bp nñhtv. Rfélsq infn bvttn cjåcndtyysq cjdtn gj ljchjxyjve jcdjåjéltybñ,
xktys rjnjhjuj yfpyfxfñncz ueåthyfnjhjv. Cjdtn gj ljchjxyjve jcdjåjéltybñ jåsxyj döjlbn d cjcnfd rhegyjuj dtljvcndf gj ljchjxyjve jcdjåjéltybñ, jceotcndkzñotuj yflpjh pf
ghtcnegybrfvb gjckt bö jcdjåjéltybz bp nñhtv. Vjvtyn, d rjnjhsq pfrkñxtyysq gjkexftn ghfdj yf ljchjxyjt jcdjåjéltybt, jghtltkztncz pfrjyjlfntkmcndjv infnf, nfr xnj
vtéle infnfvb d änjv jnyjitybb tcnm ceotcndtyyst hfpkbxbz.
Ghb cbcntvt dsytctybz ghbujdjhjd, d
hfvrfö rjnjhjq celmz kbim jghtltkztn vfrcbvfkmyjt yfrfpfybt, pfrkñxtyysq vjétn, yfghbvth, gjkexbnm ghfdj yf ljchjxyjt jcdjåjéltybt, jnåsd jlye nhtnm chjrf pfrkñxtybz.
Rfr ghfdbkj, xktys cjdtnf gj ljchjxyjve jcdjåjéltybñ ghjdjlzn rhfnrbt cjåtctljdfybz c
rfylblfnfvb yf ljchjxyjt jcdjåjéltybt d
nñhmvfö. Cjdtn d wtkjv pfbynthtcjdfy d bcghfdktybb pfrkñxtyyjuj d nñhmvt, yj jy ytghtvtyyj exbnsdftn jåcnjzntkmcndf cjdthityyjuj ghtcnegktybz b eujkjdyjt ghjikjt pfrkñxtyyjuj.
Yfrjytw, ueåthyfnjh rféljuj infnf bvttn
ghfdj gjvbkjdfnm ghtcnegybrjd bkb cvzuxfnm
dsytctyyst bv d lfyyjv infnt ghbujdjhs.
Ghtpbltyn CIF jåkflftn nfrbvb ét gjkyjvj-
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xbzvb d jnyjitybb atlthfkmysö ghtcnegybrjd. Pfxfcneñ pfrjy ghtlecvfnhbdftn yfpyfxtybt rjvbccbb gj gjvbkjdfybñ, rjnjhfz hfpåbhftn öjlfnfqcndf, ghjdjlbn hfccktljdfybz b
dyjcbn gjkjébntkmyst htrjvtylfwbb ukfdt bcgjkybntkmyjq dkfcnb. R ueåthyfnjhfv, jcjåtyyj d infnfö, ult yfbåjktt xfcnj dsyjczncz
cvthnyst ghbujdjhs, xfcnj jåhfofñncz c ghjcmåfvb j cvzuxtybb gjljåysö ghbujdjhjd. D
jnkbxbt jn vyjubö cnhfy, jåobt fvybcnbb yt
ghtlecvjnhtys fvthbrfycrbvb pfrjyfvb b
nhflbwbzvb.
Djghjcs ltvjrhfnbb, Äktrnhjyysq éehyfk Ujcelfhcndtyyjuj
ltgfhnfvtynf CIF, Njv 6, § 1, bñkm 2001 ujlf
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G h f d j c e l b t g j l t k f v y t c j d t h i t y y j kt n y b ö d C I F
Ghfdjcelbt gj ltkfv ytcjdthityyjktnybö cjcnjbn bp cjdthityyj jnltkmyjuj eujkjdyjuj pfrjyjlfntkmcndf b jcjåjq ghjwtlehs hfccvjnhtybz ltk. D njv, rfr jyf pflevfyf, änf cbcntvf
ghfdf b bycnbnenjd, bpjåhtntyyfz ghjuhtccbdysvb htajhvfnjhfvb d yfxfkt 20-uj dtrf,
ltqcndetn d bynthtcfö vfkjktnybö ghtcnegybrjd. Ghfdjcelbt gj ltkfv ytcjdthityyjktnybö
jceotcndkztncz yt d eujkjdysö celfö, f d cgtwbfkmysö celfö gj ltkfv ytcjdthityyjktnybö bkb
ctvtqysö celfö. Tuj wtkm – yt yfrfpfybt bkb
ecnhfitybt, f gthtdjcgbnfybt. Ltkf, hfccvfnhbdftvst celfvb gj ltkfv ytcjdthityyjktnybö, rfcfñncz ltntq, rjnjhst gjldthufkbcm
étcnjrjve jåhfotybñ b rjnjhsö hjlbntkb bkb
irjkmyjt herjdjlcndj cxbnfñn ytbcghfdbvsvb.
Vfrcbvfkmysq djphfcn, ghb rjnjhjv ghfdjyfheibntkm cxbnftncz ytcjdthityyjktnybv, rjktåktncz jn 16 lj 21 ujlf, d pfdbcbvjcnb jn
ñhbclbrwbb, f d ghtltkfö jlyjq ñhbclbrwbb –
jn nbgf ghtcnegktybz, d rjnjhjv jådbyztncz
ghfdjyfheibntkm. Nfrbv jåhfpjv, tcnm pfrjys,
hfphtifñobt (f d ytrjnjhsö ckexfzö jåzpsdfñobt) jåhfofnmcz c vfkjktnybv rfr cj
dphjcksv, tckb jy cjdthibk eåbqcndj bkb byjt
cthmtpyjt ghtcnegktybt c ghbvtytybtv yfcbkbz. Rfr ghfdbkj, d cbcntvt ghfdjcelbz lkz vfkjktnybö r jådbyztvsv jnyjczncz åjktt cybcöjlbntkmyj, xtv dj ≤dphjckjq≥ cbcntvt, öjnz gthdfz ghtljcnfdkztn vtymit ghjwtlehysö ghfd.
Hfccvfnhbdfz ltkf j ghfdjyfheitybzö, ljcnbufñobt cnflbb jabwbfkmyjuj celtåyjuj htitybz, celmz jåzpfy ecnfyfdkbdfnm afrns gj cnfylfhnfv, dtcmvf yfgjvbyfñobv cnfylfhns, ghbvtyztvst d eujkjdysö ghjwtccfö. Fhtcnjdfy-
ysq gjlhjcnjr ljcnfdkztncz d nñhmve lkz vfkjktnybö, jnltkmyeñ jn nñhmvs lkz dphjcksö b
jåsxyj yföjlzoeñcz d dtltybb cgtwbfkbpbhjdfyyjuj exhtéltybz vtcnyjuj jhufyf dkfcnb bkb
jhufyf eghfdktybz infnf. Vfkjktnybq ghfdjyfheibntkm yt bvttn ghfdf yf jcdjåjéltybt gjl
pfkju. Tuj ljceltåysq cnfnec pfdbcbn bcrkñxbntkmyj jn htitybz celmb j njv, ljkéty kb jy jcnfdfnmcz gjl cnhfétq d jéblfybb celf dj bpåtéfybt gjåtuf bkb d wtkzö pfobns jåotcndf jn
jgfcyjcnb cjdthitybz vfkjktnybv ghfdjyfheibntktv yjdjuj ghtcnegktybz.
Vfkjktnybq gjlcelbvsq jådbyztncz yt d ghtlecvjnhtyyjv pfrjyjv ghtcnegktybb, f d ghfdjyfheitybb. Jlyfrj jy bvttn ghfdj yf fldjrfnf
b gjkmpetncz ghtpevgwbtq ytdbyjdyjcnb. Vfkjktnybt yt bvtñn ghfdf yf cel ghbczéysö, yj
ghbåkbpbntkmyj xtndthnm infnjd ddtkb d ltqcndbt pfrjys, ghtlecvfnhbdfñobt djpvjéyjcnm
hfccvjnhtybz ltk vfkjktnybö ghfdjyfheibntktq ghbczéysvb. Ghbczéyst bkb celmz ljkéys
ecnfyjdbnm dbyjdyjcnm vfkjktnytuj gjlcelbvjuj
dyt dczrbö jåjcyjdfyysö cjvytybq. D åjkmibycndt infnjd jceéltyysq vfkjktnybq ghfdjyfheibntkm ljkéty jcdjåjélfnmcz bp bcghfdbntkmyjuj pfdtltybz gj ljcnbétybb djphfcnf 21 ujlf. Yf ghjnzétybb åjkmitq xfcnb 20-uj dtrf
eujkjdyst vfnthbfks yf vfkjktnybö yjcbkb pfrhsnsq öfhfrnth. Ntgthm jyb jåsxyj ljcnegys
gjkbwbb, ghjrehjhfv b celmzv d celt lkz dphjcksö. D yfib lyb ghjdjlbncz vyjuj ghfdjdsö htajhv d cbcntvt ghfdjcelbz lkz vfkjktnybö,
ukfdysv jåhfpjv d yfghfdktybb åjktt cnhjujuj
jåhfotybz c vfkjktnybvb ghfdjyfheibntkzvb
b tuj ghbåkbétybz r jåhfotybñ cj dphjcksvb
ghtcnegybrfvb.
17
E u j k j d y j t g h f d j c el b t d C I F
Cjåkñltybt pfrjyjd d Fvthbrt:
dsgjkytybt cghfdtlkbdsö ghfdjdsö
ghjwtleh b xedcndj cghfdtlkbdjcnb
Nj v N f q kt h
Rfrbv jåhfpjv nj bkb byjt jåotcndj cnbvekbhetn pfrjyjgjckeiyjt gjdtltybt cdjbö
uhfélfy? Gjkfuftncz kb jyj ghb änjv
kbim yf euhjpe yfrfpfybz? Bkb ét ghbceott kñlzv xedcndj cghfdtlkbdjcnb b åtcghbcnhfcnyjcnb erfpsdftn yf ltqcndbt
lheubö, åjktt äaatrnbdysö cnhfntubq? D
ghjwtcct bpextybz lfyyjq ntvs ghjatccjh
gcböjkjubb Ymñ-qjhrcrjuj eybdthcbntnf
Njv Nfqkth b lheubt extyst jåyfheébkb,
xnj fvthbrfyws – b yt njkmrj jyb, yj b djjåot dct kñlb – gjlxbyzñncz pfrjye d jcyjdyjv gjnjve, xnj cxbnfñn ghfdjdjq
ghjwtcc cghfdtlkbdsv, ytghtldpznsv b cjjndtncndeñobv ntv wtyyjcnzv, rjnjhsvb
jyb herjdjlcndeñncz d ébpyb.
18
D CJTLBYTYYSÖ INFNFÖ kñlb
xfcnj djcghbybvfñn gjkbwtqcrbö b celtq rfr
pfrjyysö ghtlcnfdbntktq dkfcnb, jåkflfñobö
pyfxbntkmysvb gjkyjvjxbzvb, rjnjhsvb jyb
vjuen gjkmpjdfnmcz d wtkzö jåtcgtxtybz dsgjkytybz pfrjyf. Gjkbwtqcrbt b celmb cxbnfñncz
ghtlcnfdbntkzvb dkfcnb, htitybz rjnjhsö
gjlrhtgkzñncz gjntywbfkmysv ghbvtytybtv
chtlcnd clthébdfybz, n.t. yfrfpfybz, b rjnjhsv dtplt gjlxbyzñncz.
Jlyfrj htfkmyjcnm jnyjitybz r pfrjye b
dkfcnzv d Fvthbrt cbkmyj hfcöjlbncz c gjljåysv ghtlcnfdktybtv. B pltcm yfåkñlfñncz
ldf jnkbxbz. Dj-gthdsö, ytcvjnhz yf nj, xnj, d
jåotv b wtkjv, fvthbrfyws ltqcndbntkmyj pfrjyjgjckeiys b xfcnj ghjzdkzñn ujnjdyjcnm
cxbnfnmcz c htitybzvb gjkbwtqcrbö b celtq,
cjåkñltybt pfrjyf d Cjtlbytyysö Infnfö ytkmpz hfccvfnhbdfnm rfr ytxnj cfvj cjåjq hfpevtñottcz. Fvthbrfycrbt cnhféb pfrjyf dctulf åjhjkbcm pf jåtcgtxtybt cjåkñltybz pfrjyf d jåotcndt. Ctqxfc vyjujt eåtélftn d njv,
xnj änf åjhmåf cnfyjdbncz dct åjktt ckjéyjq.
Jcyjdsdfzcm yf cdjtv jgsnt jnyjitybq c
Njv Nfqkth
jghtltktyysvb uhfélfyfvb, gjkbwtqcrbt
CIF endthélfñn, xnj bv dct nhelytt cnfyjdbncz jåtcgtxbdfnm cjåkñltybt pfrjyf. D nj
ét dhtvz celmb cxbnfñn, xnj dct nzétktt ghjdjlbnm d ébpym celtåyst htitybz, b dct nhelytt ghbdjlbnm gjdtltybt uhfélfy d cjjndtncndbt c hfcgjhzétybzvb celjd. Tckb ujdjhbnm jå
jåotv dkbzybb pfrjyf yf gjdctlytdyeñ ébpym
kñltq, nj ceotcndeñn ljrfpfntkmcndf njuj, xnj
d ibhjrjv lbfgfpjyt xtkjdtxtcrjuj gjdtltybz
– jn egkfns yfkjujd lj jcnfyjdrb yf rhfcysq
cdtn cdtnjajhf – fvthbrfyws dct vtymit cxbnfñncz c pfrjyjv. Tcntcndtyyj, yt cktletn
ghtedtkbxbdfnm vfcinfås ghjåktv, cdzpfyysö
c cjåkñltybtv pfrjyf. Jlyfrj dybvfybt cnhfétq pfrjyf b cgtwbfkbcnjd-ghfdjdtljd dct
åjkmit cjchtljnjxbdftncz yf ytjåöjlbvjcnb
åjktt ukeåjdjuj gjybvfybz njuj, gjxtve kñlb
gjlxbyzñncz pfrjye.
H jk m v j h f k m y j - ä n b x t c r b ö
a f r n j h j d d c j å k ñ lt y b b
p f rj y f
Bccktljdfybz gjrfpsdfñn, xnj, rfr änj yb
cnhfyyj, vjnbdfwbz, ktéfofz d jcyjdt rféljlytdyjuj cjåkñltybz pfrjyjd, yt drkñxftn d ct-
åz åjzpyb yfrfpfybz pf ghtytåhtétybt pfrjyjv bkb tuj yfheitybt – ukfdyjuj äktvtynf
dctö vjltktq gjdtltybz kñltq, rjulf bö xnjnj clthébdftn jn cjdthitybz ghtcnegktybq b
lheubö ghfdjyfheitybq. Yf cfvjv ltkt jcyjdysvb afrnjhfvb, gjåeélfñobvb uhfélfy cjåkñlfnm pfrjy, jrfpsdfñncz cjjåhfétybz vjhfkmyj-änbxtcrjuj öfhfrnthf. Ldt ajhvs änbxtcrjq vjnbdfwbb ghtlcnfdkzñn cjåjq rkñxtdst ghtlgjcskrb cjåkñltybz pfrjyf – ktubnbvyjcnm b yhfdcndtyyjcnm. Ktubnbvyjcnm pbéltncz yf ukeåjrjv eåtéltybb: e dkfcnb tcnm
ghfdj yf nj, xnjås tq gjlxbyzkbcm. Fvthbrfyws, rfr ghfdbkj, ghjzdkzñn dscjreñ cjpyfntkmyjcnm ghb cjåkñltybb jåzpfntkmcnd gjlxbyznmcz gjkbwbb b celfv. Yfghbvth, gjxnb dct
fvthbrfyws cjukfcys c ntv, xnj bv cktletn
≤gjlxbyznmcz pfrjye, lfét tckb jyb cxbnfñn
tuj ytghfdbkmysv≥. Rjulf kñlb hfccvfnhbdfñn cnhfétq pfrjyf d rfxtcndt tuj ghfdjvthysö
ghtlcnfdbntktq, nj jyb ljåhjdjkmyj dsgjkyzñn erfpfybz dkfcntq, lfét tckb jyb djjåot yt
levfñn j njv, xnj gjgflencz b åelen yfrfpfys
pf ghtytåhtétybt bvb.
D cdjtq rybut ≤Ghfdjcelbt, jndtncndtyyjcnm b dbyf: dpukzls jåotcndf b eujkjdyjt
ghfdj≥ Gjk Hjåbycjy b Léjy Lfhkb gjzcyzñn, xnj kbxyfz yhfdcndtyyjcnm cdzpfyf c ntv,
d rfrjq cntgtyb kñlb ghbpyfñn cjjndtncndbt
pfrjyf bö cjåcndtyysv ghtlcnfdktybzv j ljåht b pkt. D jlybö ckexfzö jåotcndtyyfz
yhfdcndtyyjcnm jåyfheébdftn dscjreñ cntgtym
cjjndtncndbz pfrjye. Nfr, eåbqcndj yjcbn ghjnbdjpfrjyysq öfhfrnth, b åjkmifz xfcnm jåotcndtyyjcnb nfrét dthbn d nj, xnj jyj fvjhfkmyj. Jlyfrj d lheubö ckexfzö gjljåyjt cjjndtncndbt vjétn jncencndjdfnm. Rjulf ltkj rfcftncz gmzycndf, egjnhtåktybz yfhrjnbrjd, bpujnjdktybz ytpfrjyysö rjgbq ghjuhfvvyjuj jåtcgtxtybz b lfét cjåkñltybz pfrjyjd j cnjzyrt
fdnjvjåbktq, jghtltktyyst ckjb fvthbrfycrjq
jåotcndtyyjcnb yt cxbnfñn cdjt gjdtltybt
19
åtpyhfdcndtyysv, ytcvjnhz yf nj, xnj jyj ghjnbdjhtxbn pfrjye.
D ghjdtltyyjv d 1990 ujle bccktljdfybb,
gjcdzotyyjv dszcytybñ djghjcf j njv, gjxtve kñlb gjlxbyzñncz pfrjye, z ghjdtk ghzvjt
cjgjcnfdktybt cjjåhfétybq jnyjcbntkmyj
jgfcyjcnb åsnm gjqvfyysv, ghtlcnfdktybq j
ktubnbvyjcnb cnhfétq pfrjyf b ljdjljd j njv,
xnj yhfdcndtyyfz ghbhjlf pfrjyf dkbztn yf cjåkñltybt tuj kñlmvb d gjdctlytdyjq ébpyb.
Z jåyfheébk, xnj rfr ktubnbvyjcnm, nfr b
yhfdcndtyyjcnm jrfpsdfkb djpltqcndbt yf cjåkñltybt pfrjyf, ytpfdbcbvj jn ceéltybq jå
jgfcyjcnb åsnm gjqvfyysv b gjldthuyenmcz
yfrfpfybñ pf ghfdjyfheitybt. Jlyfrj cfvjt
åjkmijt dkbzybt yf cjåkñltybt pfrjyf jrfpsdfkf yhfdcndtyyjcnm, f dnjhsv gj pyfxtybñ
afrnjhjv dscnegfkf ktubnbvyjcnm. Jwtyrf djpvjéysö gjcktlcndbq yfheitybz pfrjyf nfrét
buhfkf cdjñ hjkm d tuj cjåkñltybb, yj pyfxtybt änjuj afrnjhf åskj yfbvtymibv bp nhtö,
gthtxbcktyysö dsit. Bysvb ckjdfvb, vjhfkmyj-änbxtcrbt cjjåhfétybz jrfpsdfkb cfvjt
åjkmijt dkbzybt yf cjåkñltybt pfrjyf, d nj
dhtvz rfr åjzpym hfpjåkfxtybz b gjcktleñotuj yfrfpfybz bvtkb cfvjt ytpyfxbntkmyjt djpltqcndbt d rfxtcndt cnbvekf r njve, xnjås jcnfdfnmcz pfrjyjgjckeiysvb uhfélfyfvb.
G h j å kt v s elt h é f y b z j n
c j d t h i t y b z g h t c n e g kt y b q
b l he u b ö g h f d j y f he i t y b q
c gjvjomñ ecnhfifñobö
c h t lc n d
Lheubt bccktljdfybz lfñn jcyjdfybz ghtlgjkjébnm, xnj euhjpf ghbvtytybz bkb cfvj ghbvtytybt cfyrwbq, yf jcyjdt rjnjhsö cnhjbncz
jwtyrf hbcrf, nfrét jrfpsdfñn jghtltktyyjt
dkbzybt yf gjdtltybt kñltq d jnyjitybb pfrjyf. Jlyfrj d cdjtv bccktljdfybb z ghbitk
r pfrkñxtybñ, xnj vfcinfås gjljåyjuj dkbz-
20
ybz jåsxyj jrfpsdfñncz ytpyfxbntkmysvb. B
d cnfnmt jå egjnhtåktybb yfhrjnbrjd d Fvthbrt, jgeåkbrjdfyyjq d éehyfkt ≤Cfqrjkjlébrk
åñkktnby≥, Hjåthn Vfrrjey jnvtxftn, xnj ghbåkbpbntkmyj 5 ghjwtynjd lbcgthcbb lfyysö jå
egjnhtåktybb uhfélfyfvb yfhrjnbrjd vjéyj
jåüzcybnm bö cjjåhfétybzvb j djpvjéyjcnb
åsnm gjqvfyysvb b gjldthuyenmcz yfrfpfybñ
cj cnjhjys gjkbwbb b celjd. Gjljåysq dsdjl
jrfpsdftncz nbgbxysv htpekmnfnjv bccktljdfybq, gjcdzotyysö cjåkñltybñ pfrjyf: elthéfybt jn cjdthitybz ghtcnegktybq b lheubö
ghfdjyfheitybq c gjvjomñ ecnhfifñobö
chtlcnd d kexitv ckexft jrfpsdftn kbim ytåjkmijt djpltqcndbt yf gjdtltybt kñltq.
Ghfrnbxtcrbt gjcktlcndbz gjljåyjuj dsdjlf cjcnjzn d njv, xnj gjkbwbz b cels cnfkrbdfñncz c nhelyjcnzvb d ltkt äaatrnbdyjuj jåtcgtxtybz cjåkñltybz pfrjyf, tckb gjkfufñncz
njkmrj yf cdjb gjkyjvjxbz gjldthufnm kñltq
yfrfpfybñ. Åtp yfkbxbz ghtlcnfdktybz j ktubnbvyjcnb dkfcnb chtlb ibhjrbö ckjtd yfctktybz b/bkb d ntö ckexfzö, rjulf gjkbwbz b cels
ghbåtufñn r ghbyelbntkmyjve ghbvtytybñ pfrjyjd, yt cjjndtncndeñobö jåotcndtyyjq yhfdcndtyyjcnb, cnhféfv pfrjyf yt elftncz ecgtiyj dsgjkyznm cdjñ hfåjne. Änj endthéltybt
cghfdtlkbdj rfr d jnyjitybb fvthbrfycrjuj
eujkjdyjuj, nfr b fvthbrfycrjuj uhfélfycrjuj
ghfdf. Byfxt ujdjhz, lfyysq dsdjl ghbvtybv r
ecbkbzv cnhfétq pfrjyf rfr gj gjllthéfybñ
jåotcndtyyjuj gjhzlrf, nfr b gj htitybñ cgjhjd vtéle jnltkmysvb uhfélfyfvb.
Gjcktlcndbz ybprjuj ehjdyz ktubnbvyjcnb
cnfyjdzncz jxtdblysvb ghb bpextybb htpekmnfnjd jncencndbz ljdthbz r gjkbwbb b celfv,
rjnjhjt yfåkñlftncz chtlb uhfélfy, ghbyflktéfobö r hfpkbxysv vtymibycndfv. Ybprbq
ehjdtym ktubnbvyjcnb dtltn yt njkmrj r gjdtltybñ, cdzpfyyjve c yfheitybtv pfrjyf cj
cnjhjys vtymibycnd, yj b r jåotve ytétkfybñ vtymibycnd cjnhelybxfnm c gjkbwbtq d
htitybb cdzpfyysö c ghtcnegyjcnmñ ghjåktv.
R xbcke ibhjrj bpdtcnysö ghbvthjd bp fvthbrfycrjq bcnjhbb, rjulf pfrjy jnöjlbn jn jåotcndtyyjq vjhfkb b dcktlcndbt änjuj djpybrfñn ghjåktvs tuj cjåkñltybz, jnyjczncz ecbkbz gjcnfdbnm dyt pfrjyf egjnhtåktybt fkrjujkz b gjgsnrb jåtcgtxbnm cjåkñltybt pfrjyjd
gj åjhmåt c ghjcnbnewbtq b fpfhnysvb buhfvb.
Rfélsq hfp, rjulf gjkbwbz cnhtvbncz jåtcgtxbnm dsgjkytybt pfrjyjd, yfghfdktyysö ghjnbd gjdtltybz, rjnjhjt jghtltktyyst ckjb jåotcndf yt cxbnfñn åtpyhfdcndtyysv, jyf yfxbyftn cnfkrbdfnmcz c cthmtpysvb nhelyjcnzvb
d hfåjnt.
Rfr vjéyj hfphtibnm äne ghjåktve? Jlybv bp djpvjéysö gjlöjljd vjukj ås cnfnm
htprjt edtkbxtybt xbcktyyjuj cjcnfdf gjkbwbb
b ghtljcnfdktybt tq åjkmibö gjkyjvjxbq gj
dvtifntkmcnde d gjdctlytdyeñ ébpym uhfélfy,
gjdsifz nfrbv jåhfpjv dthjznyjcnm njuj, xnj
yfheibntkb åelen gjqvfys b yfrfpfys pf cjdthityyst bvb ghtcnegktybz. Änj, d cdjñ jxthtlm, gjdscbn cntgtym hbcrf b ntv cfvsv jnjåmtn e kñltq jöjne ghbåtufnm r ghtcnegyjve
gjdtltybñ. Nfr, yfghbvth, dtlz åjhmåe ghjnbd
djéltybz fdnjvjåbkz d ytnhtpdjv cjcnjzybb,
ytrjnjhst cnhfys hfphtifñn gjkbwbb cnfdbnm
d ghjbpdjkmyj dsåhfyysö vtcnfö åkjrgjcns b
ghjdthznm cblzobö pf hektv uhfélfy yf ghtlvtn egjnhtåktybz fkrjujkz, d nj dhtvz rfr lheubt cnhfys gjpdjkzñn gjkbwbb jcnfyfdkbdfnm b
ljghfibdfnm kñåjuj uhfélfybyf yf ekbwt bkb
d vfibyt b lfét lthéfnm kñltq d nñhmvt åtp
ghtlüzdktybz bv jådbytybz. Jcnftncz ytzcysv, yfcrjkmrj äaatrnbdysv jrfétncz ghtljcnfdktybt cnhféfv pfrjyf cnjkm ibhjrbö gjkyjvjxbq b rfr jyj crfétncz yf jåotcndtyyjv
gjdtltybb. Yj djpvjéys b lheubt cnhfntubb,
rjnjhst vjéyj åskj ås ghbvtybnm lkz åjktt
äaatrnbdyjuj elthéfybz kñltq jn cjdthitybz
ghtcnegktybq b lheubö ghfdjyfheitybq c gjvjomñ ecnhfifñobö chtlcnd.
Ceotcndetn wtksq hzl nhelyjcntq, cdzpfyysö c gjgsnrfvb erhtgbnm dthöjdtycndj pfrjyf gentv åjktt étcnrbö chtlcnd elthéfybz
kñltq jn cjdthitybz ghtcnegktybq b lheubö
ghfdjyfheitybq. Jlyf bp ghjåktv cjcnjbn d
njv, xnj erhtgktybt jhufyjd eghfdktybz d
Fvthbrt dcnegftn d rjyakbrn c nhflbwbjyyjq
pfobnjq kbxyjq cdjåjls b kbxysö ghfd, rjnjhfz ukeåjrj erjhtytyf d Ltrkfhfwbb ytpfdbcbvjcnb CIF, Rjycnbnewbb b fvthbrfycrjv
Åbkkt j ghfdfö. Änf ltvjrhfnbxtcrfz nhflbwbz
cjxtnftncz c jåotq ujnjdyjcnmñ fvthbrfywtd
cxbnfnmcz c dkfcnzvb b pfrjyjv, yj gjljåyjt
gjxnbntkmyjt jnyjitybt r ybv yt yjcbn fdnjvfnbxtcrjuj öfhfrnthf. Gjljphtybt r jhufyfv
eghfdktybz, ghjzdkzñobv bpkbiytt dvtifntkmcndj d ébpym uhfélfy, b ghtytåhtétybt r
pfrjyfv, cxbnfñobvcz ytjghfdlfyyj yfdzpfyysvb, ghtlcnfdkzñn cjåjq lheujq, bvtñobq
ljkueñ bcnjhbñ rjvgjytyn fvthbrfycrjq gjkbnbxtcrjq b ghfdjdjq rekmnehs. Gjänjve hfcibhtybt gjkyjvjxbq jhufyjd dkfcnb vjétn
ghbdtcnb r gjlhsde ktubnbvyjcnb b gjybétybñ ehjdyz cjåkñltybz pfrjyf. Tot jlyf ghjåktvf cdzpfyf c ntv, yfcrjkmrj htfkbcnbxys
ghtlgjkjétybz, xnj ghbvtytybt cnhfntubq, yfghfdktyysö yf gjdsitybt jwtyrb cntgtyb
hbcrf åsnm gjqvfyysv b gjldthuyenmcz yfrfpfybñ, ltqcndbntkmyj cvjétn bpvtybnm jåotcndtyyjt gjdtltybt d kexieñ cnjhjye. Rfr
eét jnvtxfkjcm, bpvtytybz d jwtyrt jgfcyjcnb åsnm gjqvfyysv b gjldthuyenmcz yfrfpfybñ d kexitv ckexft jrfpsdfñn kbim ytpyfxbntkmyjt dkbzybt yf gjdtltybt kñltq.
H jk m g h t lc n f d kt y b q
j cghfdtl kbdjcnb
ñ h b l b x t c r b ö g h j w t le h d
c j å k ñ lt y b b p f rj y f
Ceotcndetn kb rfrjq-kbåj fkmnthyfnbdysq
gjlöjl r cjplfybñ b gjllthéfybñ ébpytcgj-
21
cjåyjq ghfdjdjq cbcntvs? Gjcktlybt bccktljdfybz jcyjdfybq, yf rjnjhsö kñlb cnhjzn cdjt
jnyjitybt r fvthbrfycrbv pfrjyfv b htitybzv cnhfétq pfrjyf, erfpsdfñn yf djpvjéyjcnm
jlyjuj dféyjuj gjlöjlf. Gjcrjkmre gjkbwbz b
cels jceotcndkzñn cjwbfkmyjt htuekbhjdfybt,
jyb xfcnj dsyeéltys ghbybvfnm htitybz, rjnjhst kñlb cxbnfñn ytétkfntkmysvb bkb lfét ytcghfdtlkbdsvb. Nfr, yfghbvth, gjkbwbz
ujdjhbn kñlzv, xnj bv yt cktletn ltkfnm njuj,
xnj jyb öjnzn, b ghjdjlbn d ébpym cdjb hfcgjhzétybz gentv euhjp, fhtcnjd b lfét ghbvtytybz abpbxtcrjq cbks. Celmzv xfcnj ghböjlbncz jåtcgtxbdfnm cjåkñltybt pfrjyjd gjchtlcndjv yfkjétybz inhfajd yf kñltq bkb dsytctybz bv ghbujdjhjd j pfrkñxtybb d nñhmve yf
jghtltktyysq chjr. Xfcnj cxbnftncz, xnj gjljåyst ytétkfntkmyst gjcktlcndbz åelen ghbyzns kñlmvb njkmrj d njv ckexft, tckb cnhféb pfrjyf jgbhfñncz yf euhjpe cbks bkb tt
ghbvtytybt.
Bccktljdfybz, gjcdzotyyst bpextybñ htfrwbb kñltq yf kbxysq jgsn jåotybz c gjkbwbtq b celfvb, gjpdjkzñn ghtlgjkjébnm, xnj
htfkmyfz rfhnbyf jnyjitybz uhfélfy r htitybzv cnhfétq pfrjyf ujhfplkj åjktt gjpbnbdyf. Änb bccktljdfybz gjrfpsdfñn, xnj kñlb
ghbvtyzñn vjhfkmyj-änbxtcrbt rhbnthbb d
jwtyrt cdjtuj kbxyjuj jgsnf. D xfcnyjcnb, jyb
jwtybdfñn cdjq kbxysq jgsn jåotybz cj cnhféfvb pfrjyf, jwtybdfz cghfdtlkbdjcnm ñhblbxtcrbö ghjwtleh. Yfexyst bccktljdfybz ytbpvtyyj ghböjlzn r dsdjle, xnj jcyjdysv rhbnthbtv ghbyznbz bkb ytghbyznbz kñlmvb htitybq gjkbwbb b celtq dscnegftn bö jwtyrf njuj, yfcrjkmrj cghfdtlkbds, c bö njxrb phtybz,
ghjwtlehs, ghbvtyztvst dkfcnzvb ghb ghbyznbb änbö htitybq.
Ghbdtle rjyrhtnysq ghbvth. Jlyféls z
jghfibdfk kñltq, ghtlcnfdibö gthtl celmzvb
d celt gj ltkfv j yfheitybb ghfdbk ljhjéyjuj ldbétybz d u. Xbrfuj, infn Bkkbyjqc. D nj
22
dhtvz åskj jåsxyjq ghfrnbrjq ghtrhfofnm ltkj, tckb yfheibntkb kbxyj ghböjlbkb d cel.
Ghb änjv celmb bcöjlbkb bp njuj, xnj cfvj gjzdktybt d celt eét åskj ljcnfnjxysv yfrfpfybtv pf cjdthitybt vtkrbö yfheitybq. D htpekmnfnt yb yf jlye cnjhjye yt yfkfufkjcm
inhfaf, f celbvjcnm yt htubcnhbhjdfkfcm djjåot. Rfpfkjcm ås, kñlb, jnltkfdibtcz cnjkm
kturj, ljkéys åskb bcgsnsdfnm eljdktndjhtybt jn gjljåyjuj bcöjlf ltkf. Jlyfrj z ytbpvtyyj pfvtxfk, xnj jyb bcgsnsdfkb ytljdjkmcndj gj gjdjle nfrjq ghjwtlehs hfpåbhfntkmcndf. Gjxtve? Gjnjve xnj kñlb yt cxbnfkb gjljåysq vtnjl htitybz ltk d celt cghfdtlkbdsv. Jyb öjntkb ghjdtltybz yfcnjzotuj celtåyjuj hfpåbhfntkmcndf, d öjlt rjnjhjuj bv
åskf ås ghtljcnfdktyf djpvjéyjcnm bpkjébnm
cdjñ njxre phtybz b gjkexbnm htitybt celf jå
jåjcyjdfyyjcnb bö dspjdf d cel pf yfheitybt
ghfdbk ljhjéyjuj ldbétybz. Dsytctybt gjkjébntkmyjuj htitybz gj bö ltke bvtkj lkz ybö
vtymitt pyfxtybt, xtv djpvjéyjcnm dscnegbnm
d celt b ghbdtcnb cdjb ljdjls d ghjwtcct celtåyjuj hfpåbhfntkmcndf.
D hfåjnt ≤Cjwbfkmyfz gcböjkjubz ghjwtccefkmyjuj ghfdf≥ vs c T. Fkkäyjv Kbyljv
ghbdjlbv lfyyst ghjdtltyyjuj yfvb jghjcf
kñltq, kbxyj bvtdibö ltkj c gjkbwtqcrbvb b
celmzvb. D öjlt änjuj jghjcf vs ytjlyjrhfnyj
eåtélfkbcm d njv, xnj lkz kñltq bvttn jxtym
åjkmijt pyfxtybt bö jwtyrf jnyjitybz cj cnjhjys cnhfétq pfrjyf, nj tcnm yfcrjkmrj cghfdtlkbdsv bkb ghtldpznsv jyj åskj. Kñlb,
cxbnfñobt, xnj r ybv jnytckbcm cghfdtlkbdj,
ujhfplj jöjnytt ghbybvfñn dsytctyyst htitybz, lfét tckb änb htitybz jrfpsdfñncz yt d
bö gjkmpe, – b dyt pfdbcbvjcnb jn njuj, cxbnfñn kb jyb, xnj bö vjuen gjqvfnm b yfrfpfnm d
ckexft ytghbznbz bvb egjvzyensö htitybq,
bkb ytn. Gjxtve änj ghjbcöjlbn? Tckb kñlb
bcgsnfkb yf ctåt ltqcndbt cghfdtlkbdsö ghfdjdsö ghjwtleh, jyb xedcndeñn ctåz jåzpfyys-
vb gjlxbyznmcz pfrjyfv. Dsgjkytybt cghfdtlkbdsö ghfdjdsö ghjwtleh nfrét ghbdjlbn r
njve, xnj uhfélfyt yfxbyfñn jnyjcbnmcz r
ghbyznsv htitybzv rfr r htitybzv, cjjndtncndeñobv bö vjhfkmysv wtyyjcnzv. Gj änbv
ghbxbyfv kñlb åjktt jöjnyj ghbtvkñn gjljåyst htitybz. Lfyysq dsdjl bvttn åjkmijt pyfxtybt, gjcrjkmre lftn jcyjdfybt ghtlgjkjébnm, xnj ghb jwtyrt cdjtuj jgsnf jåotybz c gjkbwbtq b celfvb kñlb jcyjdyjt dybvfybt eltkzñn vjhfkmyj-änbxtcrbv ghjåktvfv,
f yt kbxysv dsujlfv bkb gjnthzv.
Egjvzyenst htpekmnfns jghjcf lfñn jcyjdfybt ghtlgjkjébnm, xnj cnhféb pfrjyf vjuen
ljåbnmcz ghbpyfybz kñlmvb dsytctyysö bvb
htitybq, tckb åelen jåhfofnm dybvfybt yf nj,
rfrbv jåhfpjv ghbybvfñncz gjljåyst htitybz.
D bccktljdfybb, ghjdtltyyjv d 1997 ujle Gfnthyjcnthjv b lh., åskj ecnfyjdktyj, xnj xfot
yfåkñlftncz dsgjkytybt nfrbö htitybq d ntxtybt lkbntkmyjuj chjrf, gjcrjkmre kñlb cxbnfñn
ctåz kbxyj jåzpfyysvb dsgjkyznm bö b gjlxbyznmcz fyfkjubxysv pfrjyfv d åeleotv. Cjukfcyj lfyysv änjuj bccktljdfybz 1997 ujlf, kñlb,
cxbnfdibt, xnj gjkbwbz jåjikfcm c ybvb cghfdtlkbdj, c åjkmitq dthjznyjcnmñ cjåkñlfkb pfrjy d ntxtybt itcnb vtczwtd gjckt bywbltynf.
Gjcrjkmre gjkbwbz yt ghbcencndjdfkf yf ghjnzétybb åjkmitq xfcnb bkb dctuj änjuj gjcktleñotuj gthbjlf dhtvtyb, kñlb åhfkb yf ctåz
jndtncndtyyjcnm pf cjåkñltybt pfrjyf. Jgsn
kñltq, r rjnjhsv, gj bö vytybñ, jnytckbcm
cghfdtlkbdj, gjåeélfk bö r cjukfcbñ c cjwbfkmysv htuekbhjdfybtv, b jyb ghjzdkzkb kbxyeñ ghbdthétyyjcnm cjåkñltybñ pfrjyf.
Rfrbt ghjwtlehyst äktvtyns ajhvbheñn
ceéltybz kñltq jnyjcbntkmyj cghfdtlkbdjcnb
jnyjitybz r ybv? Bccktljdfybz lfñn jcyjdfybz ghtlgjkjébnm, xnj e kñltq ckjéyst ghtlcnfdktybz j cghfdtlkbdjcnb ghfdjdsö ghjwtleh, Xfcnj jnvtxfñncz djctvm bkb åjktt hfpkbxysö äktvtynjd ghfdjcelbz ghb dsytctybb
htitybz j cntgtyb cghfdtlkbdjcnb njq bkb
byjq ghfdjdjq ghjwtlehs. Jåsxyj dszdkztncz
xtnsht jcyjdysö fcgtrnf.
❍ Dj-gthdsö, kñlb wtyzn djpvjéyjcnm
exfcnbz b dytctybz cdjtuj drkflf d ghjwtcc
ghbyznbz htitybq.
❍ Dj-dnjhsö, jyb öjnzn, xnjås ghjwtlehs
yjcbkb ytqnhfkmysq öfhfrnth – åskb kbitys
ghtldpznjcnb, jcyjdsdfkbcm yf afrnfö b ghbvtyzkbcm d eckjdbzö yterjcybntkmyjuj cjåkñltybz ghfdbk.
❍ D nhtnmbö, kñlb öjnzn, xnjås r ybv jnyjcbkbcm c edfétybtv bö ljcnjbycndf b ghbpyfybtv bö ghfd.
❍ D xtndthnsö, jyb öjnzn xedcndjdfnm, xnj
dkfcnb c gjybvfybtv jnyjczncz r bö yeélfv b
pfåjnfv b ghjzdkzñn xtcnyjcnm d jåotybb c
ybvb.
D ghjwtcct jåceéltybz djghjcf j njv,
ghbybvfnm bkb yt ghbybvfnm nj bkb byjt erfpfybt rjuj-kbåj bp cnhfétq pfrjyf, rféljt bp
änbö cjjåhfétybq jåsxyj buhftn d ghbybvftvsö htitybzö åjkmitt pyfxtybt, xtv jwtyrb
cghfdtlkbdjcnb bkb åkfujghbznyjcnb cfvjuj
htitybz.
H jk m c g h f d t l k b d j c n b
g h f d j d s ö g h j w t le h d
e n d t h é lt y b b f d n j h b n t n f
g h f d j j ö h f y b n tk m y s ö
jhufyjd b jhufyjd
g h f d j c el b z
Kñlb ghblfñn hfpyjt pyfxtybt hfpkbxysv
äktvtynfv cbcntvs jöhfys gjhzlrf, d pfdbcbvjcnb jn öfhfrnthf jåceélftvjuj djghjcf bkb
ghjåktvs. Nfr, yfghbvth, ghtljcnfdktybt djpvjéyjcnb dytcnb cdjq drkfl bvtñn jcjåtyyj
åjkmijt pyfxtybt, rjulf dkfcnb gsnfñncz htibnm cgjh vtéle ytcrjkmrbvb kñlmvb. C lheujq cnjhjys, änybxtcrfz ghbyflktéyjcnm, gjk
b cjwbfkmysq cnfnec yt dkbzñn yf dpukzls kñ-
23
ltq jnyjcbntkmyj njuj, xnj jåtcgtxbdftn cghfdtlkbdjcnm ghjwtlehs. Änj gjpdjkztn ghtlgjkjébnm, xnj cghfdtlkbdjcnm ghfdjdsö ghjwtleh
vjétn åsnm wtyysv vtöfybpvjv ghb htitybb
cgjhjd, dsöjlzobö pf hfvrb jnltkmysö uhegg.
Bccktljdfybz gjrfpsdfñn, xnj kñlb, ghbyflktéfobt r hfpysv ärjyjvbxtcrbv, cjwbfkmysv b bltjkjubxtcrbv uheggfv, xfcnj ghblthébdfñncz cjdthityyj hfpysö dpukzljd j njv,
rfrbv ljkéyj åsnm cghfdtlkbdjt htitybt, b
bvtñn ghjnbdjgjkjéyst njxrb phtybz yf öfhfrnth htitybz, åkfujghbznyjuj lkz ybö b/bkb
bö uheggs. Jlyfrj nt ét cfvst kñlb bvtñn
ujhfplj åjkmit njxtr cjghbrjcyjdtybz d djghjct j ytjåöjlbvsö öfhfrnthbcnbrfö cghfdtlkbdjq ghjwtlehs ghbyznbz htitybq. Gjcrjkmre eét jnvtxfkjcm, xnj cghfdtlkbdst
ghfdjdst ghjwtlehs vjuen cgjcjåcndjdfnm
ghbpyfybñ htitybq, kñlb, crjhtq dctuj, dj
vyjujv cöjlzncz dj vytybb jnyjcbntkmyj njuj,
xnj ltkftn ne bkb byeñ ghjwtlehe cghfdtlkbdjq. Änj pdexbn jåyfltébdfñot.
Fyfkjubxyst dsdjls gj gjdjle cghfdtlkbdjcnb ghfdjdsö ghjwtleh dsntrfñn bp fyfkbpf cktljdfybz kñltq pfrjye d gjdctlytdyjq
ébpyb. Kñlb åjktt crkjyys gjlxbyznmcz pfrjye, tckb jyb dthzn d cghfdtlkbdjcnm ghjwtleh,
ghbvtyztvsö cnhféfvb pfrjyf b ghfdjdsvb
bycnbnenfvb. Nfrbv jåhfpjv, ghbvtyzz cghfdtlkbdst ghjwtlehs d ghjwtcct ghbyznbz htitybq, cnhféb pfrjyf cjplfñn ghfdjdeñ rekmnehe, d hfvrfö rjnjhjq kñlb xedcndeñn kbxyeñ jndtncndtyyjcnm pf cjåkñltybt pfrjyf.
Gjljåyjt cfvjhtuekbheñottcz jåotcndj jcyjdsdftncz yf xedcndt jndtncndtyyjcnb b jåzpfyyjcnb cjåkñlfnm pfrjy, f nfrét yf ujnjdyjcnb
kñltq jncnfbdfnm cdjb yhfdcndtyyst wtyyjcnb.
Rkñxjv r cjplfybñ b gjllthéfybñ nfrjuj jåotcndf ckeébn ghbvtytybt cnhféfvb pfrjyf
cghfdtlkbdsö ghfdjdsö ghjwtleh.
Djghjcs ltvjrhfnbb, Äktrnhjyysq éehyfk Ujcelfhcndtyyjuj
ltgfhnfvtynf CIF, Njv 6, § 1, bñkm 2001 ujlf
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E u j k j d y j t g h f d j c el b t d C I F
Djpybryjdtybt vtcnysö bybwbfnbd
gj jåtcgtxtybñ ghfdjgjhzlrf
L t y y b c V f kj y b
F xnj tckb dvtcnj ghjdthtyyjuj cgjcjåf
åjhmås c ghtcnegyjcnmñ – hfccktljdfybz
eujkjdyjuj ltkf b yfrfpfybz ghtcnegybrf –
tcnm åjktt äaatrnbdysq cgjcjå, jgbhfñobqcz yf jåotcndtyyjcnm? Dvtcnj njuj,
xnjås ghjöjlbnm xthtp pfnzéyjt celtåyjt
hfpåbhfntkmcndj, d öjlt rjnjhjuj ghtcnegybr vjétn åsnm ghbpyfy bkb yt ghbpyfy
dbyjdysv, jåotcndtyyjcnm vjétn ltqcndjdfnm xthtp cgtwbfkmyst jhufybpfwbb, bcgjkyzñobt aeyrwbb gjchtlybrf vtéle ghtcnegybrjv b éthndjq. Ltyybc Vfkjyb, lbhtrnjh jhufybpfwbb ≤Vtcnyst bybwbfnbds
gj jåtcgtxtybñ ghfdjgjhzlrf≥, cjplfyyjq jhufyfvb eghfdktybz d jrheut Ltienc, infn
Jhtujy, ntcyj cjnhelybxfñotq c YGJ d jåkfcnb ghjabkfrnbrb ghtcnegktybq, pyfrjvbn xbnfntkz c hzljv vtcnysö bybwbfnbd gj jåtcgtxtybñ ghfdjgjhzlrf.
DJPMVBNT nfrjq ckexfq. Ghjhfåjnfd ljgjplyf, ds ecgtdftnt ctcnm yf gjcktlybq fdnjåec. Ds dsöjlbnt bp fdnjåecf yf cdjtq jcnfyjdrt b gtirjv yfghfdkztntcm r ljve. Ghbåkbéfzcm r ljve, ds dbltnt nfreñ nhtdjéyeñ rfhnbye – ltnb gkfxen, crkjybdibcm yfl étyobyjq, ktéfotq yf nhjnefht. Åhjcfzcm r vtcne
ghjbcitcndbz, ds pfvtxftnt, xnj rfrfz-nj veécrfz abuehf bcxtpftn d ntyb ytåjkmibö lthtdmtd dljkm nhjnefhf. Xnj ds ltkftnt lfkmit?
Z pflfdfk änjn djghjc nsczxfv uhfélfy d
ltcznrfö fvthbrfycrbö infnjd. B gjkexfk jlby
b njn ét jndtn. Ghtélt dctuj ds pfqvtntcm
étyobyjq, ghjdthbnt ghbpyfrb ébpyb b jghtltkbnt öfhfrnth yfytctyyjuj tq edtxmz. Lfktt
ds ghjdthbnt ltntq b eåtlbntcm, xnj jyb yt
gjcnhflfkb jn yfgfltybz. D-nhtnmbö, ds gjghjcbnt cjctlf dspdfnm gj ntktajye crjheñ gjvjom b gjkbwbñ lkz gjbcrf b fhtcnf ghtcnegybrf. Nfrfz gjcktljdfntkmyjcnm, f bvtyyj – gjpfåjnbnmcz j éthndt ghtcnegktybz, ghjdthbnm
jrheéfñobö, f pfntv pfyznmcz ghtcnegybrjv, –
ghtlcnfdkztncz nbgbxyjq htfrwbtq fvthbrfywtd d jndtn yf cjdthityyjt ghtcnegktybt.
25
Dennis Maloney
Y t lj c n f n r b c b c n t v s
Tckb gjcktljdfntkmyjcnm ltqcndbq, ghtlghbybvftvsö gjckt cjdthitybz ghtcnegktybz,
bvtyyj nfrfz, f yt lheufz, nj gjxtve ét fvthbrfycrfz cbcntvf eujkjdyjuj ghfdjcelbz afrnbxtcrb cktletn gjkyjcnmñ ghjnbdjgjkjéyjq
ghjwtleht? D CIF ujcelfhcndj jåtcgtxbdftn
b abyfycbhetn ghfdjdeñ pfobne lkz ghtcnegybrf, tve ghtljcnfdkzñncz rjycekmnfnbdyst b
nthfgtdnbxtcrbt eckeub, f gjckt njuj, rfr jy
jrfpfkcz pf htitnrjq, gthtl ybv åjufnst djpvjéyjcnb ghjljkéfnm ghjatccbjyfkmyj-ntöybxtcrjt jåhfpjdfybt. F éthnds ghtcnegktybz
cnhflfñn b bpktxbdfñn yfytctyyeñ bv nhfdve
pf cdjq cjåcndtyysq cxtn. Dcktlcndbt änjuj
fvthbrfycrfz jåotcndtyyjcnm ghbikf r dsdjle, xnj ysytiyzz cbcntvf eujkjdyjuj ghfdjcelbz yfcnjkmrj gjcktljdfntkmyj yfghfdktyf yf
eljdktndjhtybt bynthtcjd ghtcnegybrf, xnj
afrnbxtcrb vs ghtdhfnbkbcm d pfobnybrjd
ghfd yfheibntktq pfrjyf. F vyjubt lfét cxbnfñn, xnj vs ltqcndetv rfr fldjrfns ghtcnegybrjd pf cxtn éthnds b d eothå bynthtcfv jåotcndf. Nfrjuj hjlf gfhfljrc ybrjulf yt åeltn
b yt ljkéty cxbnfnmcz ghbtvktvsv.
26
Fvthbrfycrfz cbcntvf jgbhftncz yf pfrkñxtybt ghtcnegybrf d nñhmve rfr yf ghtlgjxnbntkmyjt b dj vyjubö ckexfzö tlbycndtyyjt chtlcndj pfcnfdbnm ghtcnegybrf jndtxfnm
pf cdjt gjdtltybt. Yj dct åjkmit cdbltntkmcnd
njuj, xnj vs vjétv d pyfxbntkmyjq vtht gjåelbnm ghtcnegybrf r åjktt ≤kbxyjve≥ jcjpyfybñ nzétcnb cdjtuj ghtcnegyjuj gjdtltybz gentv drkñxtybz d änjn ghjwtcc cfvjq éthnds.
Änj d cdjñ jxthtlm vjétn cgjcjåcndjdfnm åjktt ukeåjrjve gjybvfybñ ghtcnegybrjv cdjtq
jndtncndtyyjcnb.
Ghtélt dctuj, jnvtnbv, xnj nñhmvs åtpeckjdyj ytjåöjlbvs lkz cjlthéfybz jgfcysö
ghfdjyfheibntktq dj dhtvz ljceltåyjuj hfccktljdfybz b d gthbjl jnåsdfybz yfrfpfybz pf
ghjzdktyyeñ bvb étcnjrjcnm. Nfrbö ghtcnegybrjd ytjåöjlbvj cjlthéfnm d yfltéysö nñhmvfö d ntxtybt lkbntkmysö chjrjd. Jlyfrj cktletn dcgjvybnm, xnj pyfxbntkmyjt xbckj ghfdjyfheitybq – änj ghtcnegktybz ghjnbd cjåcndtyyjcnb, rjulf ghtcnegybr yt ghjzdkztn ntyltywbb r yfcbkbñ. R xbcke nfrbö ghtcnegktybq jnyjczncz rhféb cj dpkjvjv, dfylfkbpv b
bcgjkmpjdfybt gjlltkmysö abyfycjdsö ljrevtynjd. Änb ghtcnegyst ltzybz cjcnfdkzñn lj
90 ghjwtynjd dctö ghtcnegktybq, cjdthiftvsö
d CIF. D nfrbö ckexfzö åskj ås ujhfplj åjktt cghfdtlkbdsv b yfdthyzrf vtytt ljhjujcnjzobv pfcnfdbnm ghtcnegybrf ytgjchtlcndtyyj jndtxfnm pf cdjb ltqcndbz gthtl éthndjq b jåotcndtyyjcnmñ yf vtcnfö.
Änjuj vjéyj jceotcndbnm, tckb ghtljcnfdbnm djpvjéyjcnm cfvjq éthndt jghtltkznm
yflktéfobq jåütv rjvgtycfwbb, hfpevyj ecnfyfdkbdfnm chjr dhtvtyb, rjnjhsq ghtcnegybr
ljkéty jnhfåjnfnm yf jåotcndtyysö hfåjnfö, b
c gjvjomñ cgtwbfkmyj gjlujnjdktyyjuj gjchtlybrf ltkfnm nfr, xnjås éthndf vjukf ghb
kbxyjq dcnhtxt ljytcnb lj ghtcnegybrf dcñ
nzétcnm nhfdvs, yfytctyyjq tq d htpekmnfnt
ghtcnegktybz.
Ltqcndbntkmyj, tckb ås cbcntvf eujkjdyjuj ghfdjcelbz bcgjkmpjdfkf nñhmvs njkmrj lkz
jgfcysö ghtcnegybrjd, cjdthifñobö ghtcnegktybz ghjnbd kbxyjcnb, f nfrét lkz htwblbdbcnjd, dyjdm b dyjdm gjczufñobö yf cjåcndtyyjcnm, vs vjukb ås bcgjkmpjdfnm dscdjåjélfñobtcz jåotcndtyyst chtlcndf yf dctcnjhjyybt b dtcmvf ytjåöjlbvst eckeub lkz
éthnd ghtcnegktybz. Vs nfrét vjukb ås abyfycbhjdfnm äaatrnbdyst vths gj ghjabkfrnbrt ghtcnegyjcnb, f änj – kexibq cgjcjå pfobns gjntywbfkmysö éthnd.
Änj gjldjlbn yfc r nhtnmtve äktvtyne
fvthbrfycrjq cbcntvs eujkjdyjuj ghfdjcelbz:
ghjabkfrnbrt ghtcnegktybq. E yfc tcnm cbcntvf, cjlthéfofz cfveñ jåibhyeñ byajhvfwbñ
j vtcnfö, dhtvtyb, htuekzhyjcnb b öfhfrntht
ghjzdktybq eujkjdyjq ltzntkmyjcnb. Yj tckb
gjcvjnhtnm yf nt chtlcndf, rjnjhst dsltkzñncz yf ghjabkfrnbre ghtcnegktybq, vs edblbv,
xnj bö cjdthityyj ytljcnfnjxyj. Cbcntvf eujkjdyjuj ghfdjcelbz, eltkzz ytljcnfnjxyjt dybvfybt éthndfv ghtcnegktybq, cnjkm ét vfkj
dybvfybz eltkztn b djghjce j ltqcndtyyjq
ghjabkfrnbrt ghtcnegyjcnb. Egjh d gthdeñ
jxthtlm ltkftncz yf bpjkbhjdfybt ghtcnegybrf jn jåotcndf, rjnjhjt xfcnj ljhjuj jåöjlbncz. Nfrjq gjlöjl, gj vytybñ vyjubö, cnhflftn
åkbpjherjcnmñ.
Vtcnyst bybwbfnbds gj
jåtcgtxtybñ
ghfdjgjhzlrf
D jrheut Ltienc, infn Jhtujy, b d hzlt lheubö flvbybcnhfnbdysö jåhfpjdfybq d CIF hfåjnybrb jhufyjd ghfdjcelbz b jhufyjd vtcnyjq
bcgjkybntkmyjq b pfrjyjlfntkmyjq dkfcnb
dvtcnt c ghtlcnfdbntkzvb jåotcndtyyjcnb
ghbpyfkb ytljcnfnrb ceotcndeñotq cbcntvs.
B xnj tot åjktt dféyj, jyb cnhtvzncz cjplfnm
åjktt cjdthityyeñ cbcntve eujkjdyjuj ghfdj-
celbz, – cbcntve, rjnjhfz jcyjdfyf yf njv, xnj
vs cnfkb yfpsdfnm ≤vtcnysvb bybwbfnbdfvb
gj jåtcgtxtybñ ghfdjgjhzlrf≥.
D hfvrfö cbcntvs vtcnysö bybwbfnbd gj
jåtcgtxtybñ ghfdjgjhzlrf éthndf cxbnftncz
ukfdysv ≤rkbtynjv≥ cbcntvs ghfdjcelbz,
ghtcnegybrb jndtxfñn pf cjltzyyjt rjycnhernbdyj b jcvscktyyj, f ghjabkfrnbrf ghtcnegktybq cxbnftncz gthdjcntgtyyjq pflfxtq.
Exfcnbt uhfélfy d eljdktndjhtybb gjnhtåyjcntq éthnds, jghtltktybb ghbjhbntnjd, gjchtlybxtcndt d jåkfcnb rjvgtycfwbb b jceotcndktybb rjynhjkz yfl ntv, xnjås ghtcnegybr
jnhfåjnfk yf jåotcndtyysö hfåjnfö, pfybvftn
wtynhfkmyjt vtcnj d cbcntvt vtcnysö bybwbfnbd gj jåtcgtxtybñ ghfdjgjhzlrf. Ghtlcnfdbntkb änjq cbcntvs jåtcgtxtybz ghfdjgjhzlrf
dctulf gjlxthrbdfñn, xnj gthtöjl yf ytt vjétn åsnm jceotcndkty ghb yterjcybntkmyjv
cjåkñltybb ghfdf yf yflktéfoeñ ghfdjdeñ
ghjwtlehe.
Jrheu Ltienc ghtlghbyzk ytcrjkmrj ifujd lkz njuj, xnjås ghjltvjycnhbhjdfnm, yfcrjkmrj cthmtpyj tuj yfctktybt jnyjcbncz r
yjdjq rjywtgwbb jåtcgtxtybz ghfdjgjhzlrf.
Gjckt wtkjuj hzlf dcnhtx, cjpdfyysö ghtlctlfntktv jrheéyjuj celf celmtq Cnbdtyjv Nbrnbyjv lkz jåceéltybz ytjåöjlbvjcnb hfcibhtybz eckeu lkz éthnds b ekexitybz ghjabkfrnbrb ghtcnegyjcnb cj cnjhjys vtcnyjq cbcntvs ghfdjcelbz, jrheu ghbyzk jabwbfkmyeñ
htpjkñwbñ gj lfyyjve djghjce. D cdjñ jxthtlm, änf htpjkñwbz gjlnjkryekf jabwbfkmysö
kbw r ghbyznbñ hzlf vth, d htpekmnfnt xtuj
cbcntvf åscnhj cnfkf ltqcndjdfnm gj ghtlkfuftvjq vjltkb ≤vtcnysö bybwbfnbd gj jåtcgtxtybñ ghfdjgjhzlrf≥.
Djn ytrjnjhst ghbvths ntö bltq, rjnjhst
åskb djgkjotys d ébpym gjckt ghbyznbz htpjkñwbb:
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E ke x i t y b t e c ke u l k z
é t h n d g h t c n e g kt y b q
Rfywtkzhbz ghjrehjhf jrheuf Ltienc hfphfåjnfkf wtksq hzl eckeu lkz éthnd. Änjn jnltk
jghtltkztn gjnhtåyjcnb éthnd c vjvtynf cjdthitybz ghtcnegktybz lj vjvtynf dsgkfns
gjcktlytq rjvgtycfwbb. Nfrfz ghjuhfvvf gjvjob éthndt cnhjbncz gj ghbywbge ≤rjlbhjdfybz≥ d fvthbrfycrjq cbcntvt jrfpfybz chjxyjq vtlbwbycrjq gjvjob. Ghtcnegktybz ghjnbd kbxyjcnb rjlbheñncz cbybv wdtnjv, b cjukfcyj ghjuhfvvt xthtp ytcrjkmrj vbyen gjckt ntktajyyjuj pdjyrf e éthnds gjzdkztncz
ljåhjdjkmysq gjvjoybr, rjnjhsq ghbåsdftn
yf vtcnj ghtcnegktybz. Gjvjom d ckexft vtytt pyfxbntkmysö ghtcnegktybq jrfpsdftncz d
ntxtybt ytcrjkmrbö xfcjd, f c éthndfvb vtkrbö ghtcnegktybq rjynfrn ecnfyfdkbdftncz xthtp ytcrjkmrj lytq gjckt pdjyrf. Éthndfv
jrfpsdfñncz b lheubt eckeub, yfghbvth, gjcnnhfdvfnbxtcrbt rjycekmnfwbb, ghtljcnfdktybt
dhtvtyyjuj ébkbof d ckexft yfljåyjcnb, ghfdjdfz byajhvfwbz b gjvjom d jghtltktybb
gjytctyyjuj eothåf. Éthndt ghtcnegktybz zcyj lfñn gjyznm: ≤Ds – xkty yfituj jåotcndf.
Dfv ghbxbybkb pkj, b vs jåzpfys cltkfnm dct,
xnjås djccnfyjdbnm dfc d ghtéytv gjkjétybb
d vfrcbvfkmyj djpvjéyjq cntgtyb. Vs åeltv
hzljv c dfvb lj ntö gjh, gjrf r dfv yt dthytncz joeotybt åtpjgfcyjcnb≥.
Jrheéyjq cel jrheuf Ltienc hfphfåjnfk
wtksq hzl djpvjéyjcntq lkz exfcnbz éthnds
ghtcnegktybz d ghjwtcct ghfdjcelbz. Cel cltkfk jcjåsq egjh yf gjchtlybxtcrbt eckeub d
jnyjitybzö vtéle éthndjq b ghfdjyfheibntktv. D hfvrfö änjuj gjlöjlf éthndf htiftn cfvf, dcnhtnbnmcz tq bkb ytn kbwjv r kbwe c
ghtcnegybrjv b jåüzcybnm tve xtkjdtxtcrbt
gjcktlcndbz gjytctyyjuj eothåf, hfccrfpfnm j
ytjåöjlbvjcnb rjvgtycfwbb abyfycjdsö gjnthm b jghtltkbnm yflktéfott dhtvz, ytjåöjlbvjt jnhfåjnfnm yf jåotcndtyysö hfåjnfö. Yf
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dcnhtxt éthnds c ghtcnegybrjv ghbcencndetn
dscjrjrdfkbabwbhjdfyysq ljåhjdjkmysq gjvjoybr. Ytlfdyj cjplfyysq Jnltk vtcnysö
bybwbfnbd gj jåtcgtxtybñ ghfdjgjhzlrf rjjhlbybhetn ghjuhfvve lkz celf. Gthdst htpekmnfns änjuj gjlöjlf åskb dtcmvf jåyfltébdfñobvb. Éthnds jnvtxfñn, xnj jyb bcgsnsdfñn
åjkmieñ eljdktndjhtyyjcnm jn nfrjuj gjchtlybxtcndf, xtv jn nhflbwbjyyjuj celtåyjuj hfpåbhfntkmcndf. Cjukfitybz, rjnjhst ljcnbufkbcm ghb nfrjv gjlöjlt, åskb åjktt ghjxysvb, xtv nhflbwbjyyst htitybz celf j dslfxt
ghtcnegybrf yf gjherb. Lj 90 ghjwtynjd ghtcnegybrjd dsgkfxbdfñn rjvgtycfwbb, xnj yfvyjuj ghtdsiftn chtlybq gj cnhfyt ehjdtym
ghbvthyj d 33 ghjwtynf.
Jnltk vtcnysö bybwbfnbd gj jåtcgtxtybñ ghfdjgjhzlrf gjcntgtyyj vtyztn ceotcndeñott gjkjétybt, gthtyjcz egjh c rjycekmnfwbq lkz ghfdjyfheibntkz r gjllthért b
rjycekmnfwbzv lkz éthnd. Gj cnfhjq cbcntvt
ghfdjjöhfybntkmyst jhufys ljkéys åskb dct
dhtvz jndtxfnm yf djghjcs: ≤Rfrjd cnfnec
ghfdjyfheibntkz? Rfrjds tuj/tt gjnhtåyjcnb?
Rfrbt nhtåeñncz eckeub, xnjås bpvtybnm
tuj/tt gjdtltybt≥. Gj yjdjq ét cbcntvt egjh
ltkftncz yf cktleñobt djghjcs: ≤Rfrjdj gjkjétybt éthnds? Rfrjd yfytctyysq tve/tq
eothå? Xnj ljkéty cltkfnm ghfdjyfheibntkm
lkz njuj, xnjås rjvgtycbhjdfnm éthndt yfytctyysq eothå?≥.
Rjytxyj, jnltk ghjljkéftn pfybvfnmcz
yfåkñltybtv pf gjdtltybtv ghfdjyfheibntkz.
Yj jåobq rjyntrcn änjuj yfåkñltybz drkñxftn jndtncndtyyjcnm ghfdjyfheibntkz pf djccnfyjdktybt éthnds d ghtéytv cjcnjzybb b
dsgkfne rjvgtycfwbb. Yfbåjktt ghbjhbntnyjq
pflfxtq d jnyjitybb ghfdjyfheibntkz cnfkf
tuj jndtncndtyyjcnm, f yt rjycekmnfwbb lkz
ytuj.
N d j h x t c r b q g jl ö jl r
kbwfv, cjdthibdibv
g h t c n e g kt y b z g h j n b d
cjåcndtyyjcnb
Ghtlcnfdbntkb ltkjdsö rheujd jrheuf Ltienc
jåütlbybkb ecbkbz c Jnltkjv vtcnysö bybwbfnbd gj jåtcgtxtybñ ghfdjgjhzlrf b cjplfkb nfr yfpsdftvsq Cjdtn rjvvthcfynjd gj
jåtcgtxtybñ jndtncndtyyjcnb pf ghfdjyfheitybz. Cjdtn åsk cjplfy gj wtkjve hzle ghbxby:
❍ Rhféb d vfufpbyfö, rhféb e hjpybxysö
njhujdwtd b bcgjkmpjdfybt gjlltkmysö abyfycjdsö ljrevtynjd yfcnjkmrj gjlhsdfkb ltzntkmyjcnm njhujdwtd, xnj d ytrjnjhsö ckexfzö
cjplfdfkb euhjpe cfvjve ceotcndjdfybñ vtkrbö ghtlghbznbq.
❍ Jnltk hfqjyyjuj ghjrehjhf ghfrnbxtcrb yt bvtk ljcnfnjxyjuj jåütvf htcehcjd lkz
hfccvjnhtybz wtkjq kfdbys ltk, rféljt bp rjnjhsö nhtåjdfkj hfcöjljd d 600 – 900 ljkkfhjd bp åñlétnf jnltkf yf ujyjhfhs ñhbcnjd b
lheubö cjnhelybrjd. Ghbxtv, änb hfcöjls yt
pfdbctkb jn vfcinfåf rhféb.
❍ Öjnz njhujdws gjllthébdfkb ghjuhfvve
gjchtlybxtcndf d jnyjitybzö vtéle éthndjq
b ghfdjyfheibntktv, jyb yt vjukb nhfnbnm
vyjuj dhtvtyb yf nfrjt gjchtlybxtcndj d rféljv jnltkmyjv ckexft.
D htpekmnfnt nfrjuj gjkjétybz rjvvthcfyns hfphfåjnfkb ghjuhfvve, gj rjnjhjq jlby
rjvvthcfyn dscnegftn d rfxtcndt ytrjq ≤rjkktrnbdyjq≥ éthnds d ltcznrt bkb åjktt ckexftd lkz jghtltktybz cjjndtncndeñotuj ehjdyz
rjvgtycfwbb. D nfrjv ckexft ltkj htiftncz
åtp ytjåöjlbvjcnb d ljhjujcnjzotv ghjwtcct
ghtlüzdktybz jådbytybz. Njhujdtw gjkexftn
djpvjéyjcnm ljdtcnb lj cjpyfybz gjregfntktqdjhbitr (d vfufpbyfö cfvjjåckeébdfybz) b
vtkrbö djhjd cthmtpyst gjcktlcndbz bö ltzybq lkz ctvmb vtkrjuj ghtlghbybvfntkz, b
dct gjcnhflfdibt njhujdws gjkexfñn rjvgtycfwbñ åjktt jgthfnbdyj b d åjkmitv ghjwty-
nt ckexftd, ytétkb ghb nhflbwbjyyjv celtåyjv hfpåbhfntkmcndt.
E r h t g kt y b t j å o t c n d t y y s ö
cdzptq
Jlyj bp pfvtnysö bpvtytybq, ghjbcitlibö d
gjcktlytt dhtvz d cdzpb c ltzntkmyjcnmñ jnltkf d hfvrfö vtcnysö bybwbfnbd gj jåtcgtxtybñ ghfdjgjhzlrf – änj erhtgktybt vtcnysö
jåotcndtyysö cdzptq. D ghjikjv hfåjnf yf
jåotcndtyysö yfxfkfö jåsxyj hfccvfnhbdfkfcm ghtélt dctuj rfr yfrfpfybt lkz ghfdjyfheibntktq. Yj ctqxfc d jrheut Ltiñnc d hfvrfö bltb vtcnysö bybwbfnbd gj jåtcgtxtybñ
ghfdjgjhzlrf nfrfz hfåjnf hfccvfhbdftncz rfr
cgjcjå jrfpfybz gjvjob éthndfv ghtcnegktybq b erhtktybz cjwbfkmysö cdzptq d wtkjv.
D änjv rjyntrcnt jnltk hfåjnftn d ntcyjv
cjnhelybxtcndt c vtcnysvb ytrjvvthxtcrbvb
jhufybpfwbzvb gj wtkjve hzle yjdfnjhcrbö
ghjtrnjd, nfrbö rfr:
❍ gfhnythcndj c vtcnysv Hjnfhb rkeåjv
(cnfhtqitq fvthbrfycrjq jhufybpfwbtq, jåütlbyzñotq ghtlcnfdbntktq ltkjdsö rheujd b
cnfdzotq cdjtq wtkmñ ghjgfufyle dscjrbö vjhfkmyj-änbxtcrbö yjhv d ghtlghbybvfntkmcrjq
ltzntkmyjcnb) d wtkzö cjplfybz wtynhf htfåbkbnfwbb ltntq, gjldthuiböcz yfcbkbñ;
❍ jåütlbytybt ecbkbq c vtcnysv futyncndjv gj åjhmåt c åtlyjcnmñ lkz cåjhf ltytu yf
cjplfybt dhtvtyyjuj ghbñnf yf 70 vtcn;
❍ cjnhelybxtcndj d wtkzö cjplfybz gfhrf
d gfvznm jå jlyjv bp vtcnysö ltzntktq jåhfpjdfybz;
❍ ecnfyjdktybt jabwbfkmysö jnyjitybq
c jhufybpfwbtq ≤Öfåbnfn ajh ömñvfybnb≥, gjl
herjdjlcndjv rjnjhjq ghfdjyfheibntkb cnhjzn
ébkst ljvf.
Nfrbv jåhfpjv vtcnyjt yfctktybt gjkexftn dblbvst htpekmnfns hfåjns Jnltkf, f ghfdjyfheibntkb yfxbyfñn ecnfyfdkbdfnm jght-
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ltktyyeñ cdzpm cj cdjbv jrheétybtv, xnj cjrhfoftn dthjznyjcnm frnjd dfylfkbpvf c bö
cnjhjys d åeleotv. Vtcnyfz jåotcndtyyjcnm
dctvthyj gjllthébdftn nfrjq gjlöjl.
Ghjabkfrnbxtcrbt
cnhfntubb
Dgjkyt vjéyj endthélfnm, xnj änb bybwbfnbds
dspdfkb r ébpyb dtcm ndjhxtcrbq gjntywbfk
jrheuf. Fyfkbpbhez aeyrwbjybhjdfybt bcghfdbntkmyjq cbcntvs lkz gjlhjcnrjd d infnt,
dkfcnb jrheuf ghbikb r dsdjle, xnj infn Jhtujy cjplfk cnbveks lkz njuj, xnjås döjlzobt
d ytuj jrheuf gjkmpjdfkbcm bcghfdbntkmysvb
exhtéltybzvb infnf. Ltkj d njv, xnj d infnt
Jhtujy jrheuf yt gkfnzn pf gjkmpjdfybt bcghfdbntkmysvb exhtéltybzvb infnf, bvtz nfrbv
jåhfpjv djpvjéyjcnm gjvtotybz d änb exhtéltybz ≤nhelysö≥, yj yt jåzpfntkmyj jgfcysö
gjlhjcnrjd – ytcjdthityyjktnybö ghfdjyfheibntktq. Gjänjve ytelbdbntkmyj, xnj ceotcndetn b åeltn ceotcndjdfnm lfdktybt, yfghfdktyyjt yf hfcibhtybt infnyjq cbcntvs bcghfdbntkmysö exhtéltybq lkz ytcjdthityyjktnybö lkz hfpvtotybz d ybö ghfdjyfheibntktq bp hfpkbxysö jrheujd. Öjnz dytiyt änj
ghtlcnfdkztncz dsujlysv lkz jrheéysö dkfcntq, c abyfycjdjq njxrb phtybz, änj kbim dtltn r edtkbxtybñ xbcktyyjcnb pfrkñxtyysö b
r åjkmibv pfnhfnfv, xnj euhjéftn lheubv dféysv aeyrwbzv dkfcntq infnf, nfrbv rfr jåhfpjdfybt.
Jrheu Ltienc b dtljvcndj gj ltkfv vjkjltéb infnf Jhtujy cjdvtcnyj dshfåjnfkb cgjcjå hflbrfkmyjuj bpvtytybz änjq ntyltywbb.
Jrheu ghtlkjébk gthtqnb yf vtnjl abyfycbhjdfybz c gjvjomñ abrcbhjdfyysö uhfynjd,
rjulf jrheu cfv eghfdkztn vtcnysvb exhtéltybzvb lkz ytjgfcysö ytcjdthityyjktnybö
ghfdjyfheibntktq, rjnjhst d ghjnbdyjv ckexft åskb ås gjvtotys d bycnbnens infnf.
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Vtcnyst ghjuhfvvs jgkfxbdfñncz bp chtlcnd
abrcbhjdfyysö uhfynjd ghb njv eckjdbb, xnj
kñåst cåthtétybz vjuen htbydtcnbhjdfnmcz d
hfåjne gj ghjabkfrnbrt ghtcnegyjcnb. F nfrbt cåthtétybz vjuen åsnm dtcmvf pyfxbntkmysvb b ljcnbufnm gjhzlrf ytcrjkmrbö cjnty
nsczx ljkkfhjd d ujl. Ltymufvb hfcgjhzéftncz jåotcndtyyfz Rjvbccbz gj ltkfv ltntq b
ctvtq. Xktys rjvbccbb jgbhfñncz yf ltkjdjq
gjlöjl b xtnrj hfpuhfybxbdfñn hfcöjls b bydtcnbwbb. Cnjkm yjdfnjhcrbq gjlöjl gjkexbk
gjllthére jn pfrjyjlfntkmyjuj cjåhfybz infnf b ueåthyfnjhf Léjyf F. Rbncöfåthf.
Tckb änf ghjuhfvvf ljrfétn cdjñ äaatrnbdyjcnm b hfcghjcnhfybncz yf lheubt jrheuf,
Jhtujy jrfétncz d dsbuhsit dldjqyt. Xbckj
pfrkñxtyysö d nñhmvfö gj rhfqytq vtht cvjétn åsnm juhfybxtyj, f ltymub, hfymit yfghfdkzdibtcz yf ljhjujcnjzott cjlthéfybt
nñhtv, cvjuen åsnm dkjétys d ghjabkfrnbre
ghtcnegyjcnb yf vtcnyjv ehjdyt.
Änj kbim ytcrjkmrj ghbvthjd njq hfåjns,
rjnjhfz ghtlghbybvftncz d hfvrfö vtcnysö
bybwbfnbd gj jåtcgtxtybñ ghfdjgjhzlrf. Ghb
dct åjktt frnbdyjv exfcnbb b uhfélfy, b
éthnd ghtcnegyjcnb juhjvyfz ndjhxtcrfz äythubz yfghfdkztncz yf ghtjåhfpjdfybt cbcntvs
eujkjdyjuj ghfdjcelbz d cbcntve vtcnysö bybwbfnbd gj jåtcgtxtybñ ghfdjgjhzlrf.
Rjywtgwbz vtcnysö bybwbfnbd gj jåtcgtxtybñ ghfdjgjhzlrf jcyjdfyf yf pfåjnt j éthndt b pfobnt bynthtcjd éthnd. Jyf ghtlkfuftn ndjhxtcrbt htitybz d jnyjitybb cgjcjåjd
yfrfpfybz ghtcnegybrjd, cjdthibdibö ghtcnegktybz åtp ghbvtytybz yfcbkbz, b ltkftn
ghjabkfrnbre ghtcnegyjcnb dféysv fcgtrnjv
gjdctlytdyjq hfåjns cbcntvs eujkjdyjuj ghfdjcelbz. Wtynhfkmysv äktvtynjv lfyyjuj gjlöjlf zdkztncz frnbdyjt exfcnbt uhfélfy dj
dctö fcgtrnfö cbcntvs ghfdjcelbz. Exfcnbt
uhfélfy cgjcjåcndetn åjktt ibhjrjve hfcghjcnhfytybñ xedcndf jndtncndtyyjcnb pf cjplf-
ybt åtpjgfcyjq chtls jåbnfybz lfktrj pf hfvrb
cjnhelybrjd cbcntvs ghfdjcelbz. Herjdjlcndezcm änbv yjdsv xedcndjv cjghbxfcnyjcnb b jndtncndtyyjcnb, uhfélfyt c ujnjdyjcnmñ jnlfñn
yf ckeéåe vtcnyjve cjjåotcnde cdjñ äythubñ b
chtlcndf, xtuj yt ghjbcöjlbkj d ghjikjv, rjulf
egjh ltkfkcz yf bcgjkmpjdfybt åñlétnysö chtlcnd. Åeleott ghtlcnfdkztncz åjktt cdtnksv b
åtpjgfcysv nfv, ult yfctktybt cnhtvbncz r htfkbpfwbb vtcnysö bybwbfnbd gj jåtcgtxtybñ
ghfdjgjhzlrf yf jcyjdfybb yjdjuj gjlöjlf, frnbdyjuj exfcnbz jåotcndtyyjcnb b ghbdktxtybz
jåotcndtyysö htcehcjd.
Djghjcs ltvjrhfnbb, Äktrnhjyysq éehyfk Ujcelfhcndtyyjuj
ltgfhnfvtynf CIF, Njv 6, § 1, bñkm 2001 ujlf
31
Htpjkñwbz gj vtcnysv bybwbfnbdfv gj
jåtcgtxtybñ ghfdjgjhzlrf
H t p j k ñ w b z y j v t h 9 6 – 12 2
GJCRJKMRE ébntkb jrheuf Ltienc bvtñn ghfdj yf cfvsq dscjrbq ehjdtym jåotcndtyyjq åtpjgfcyjcnb,
GJCRJKMRE exfcnbdibtcz ckexfb ghtcnegyjcnb chtlb ytcjdthityyjktnybö b dphjcksö cjplfñn euhjpe åtpjgfcyjcnb yfibö uhfélfy,
GJCRJKMRE rjvgktrcyfz cnhfntubz åjhmås c
ghtcnegyjcnmñ nhtåetn cåfkfycbhjdfyyjuj gjlöjlf r ghjabkfrnbrt ghtcnegyjcnb, pfåkfujdhtvtyyjve dvtifntkmcnde b hfyytve ghtleghtéltybñ b äaatrnbdysv ecbkbzv d jåkfcnb bcghfdbntkmyjq ltzntkmyjcnb,
GJCRJKMRE rjywtgwbz vtcnysö bybwbfnbd gj
jåtcgtxtybñ ghfdjgjhzlrf jkbwtndjhztn cjåjq gjlöjl, ghbdktrfñobq jåotcndtyyjcnm r
exfcnbñ d hfåjnt gj ghjabkfrnbrt b cjrhfotybñ ghtcnegyjcnb,
Cjdtn egjkyjvjxtyysö jrheuf Ltienc ghbybvftn rjywtgwbñ vtcnysö bybwbfnbd gj jåtcgtxtybñ ghfdjgjhzlrf b yf tt jcyjdt åeltn htifnm
pflfxb b jceotcndkznm wtkb bcghfdbntkmyjq hfåjns. Rhjvt njuj, jrheu yfcnjzobv ljrevtynjv
cjplftn Jnltk vtcnysö bybwbfnbd gj jåtcgtxtybñ ghfdjgjhzlrf, rjnjhsq pfvtybn cjåjq
vtcnysq Jnltk bcghfdktybz ghfdjyfheibntktq.
32
GJCNFYJDKZTNCZ, xnj Jnltk vtcnysö bybwbfnbd
gj jåtcgtxtybñ ghfdjgjhzlrf åeltn hfåjnfnm d
ntcyjv cjnhelybxtcndt c ébntkzvb jrheuf d wtkzö
äaatrnbdyjq ghjabkfrnbrb ghtcnegyjcnb, rjynhjkz pf ghtcnegyjcnmñ b cjrhfotybz tt vfcinfåjd.
LFKTT GJCNFYJDKZTNCZ, xnj jrheu cjplfcn
Wtynh vtcnysö bybwbfnbd gj jåtcgtxtybñ ghfdjgjhzlrf, rjnjhsq åeltn ghtljcnfdkznm gjvtotybt lkz ghjuhfvv htfåbkbnfwbb éthnd ghtcnegktybq, cnhtvzcm r njve, xnjås ghtcnegybrb
jndtxfkb pf cjltzyyjt b cnfyjdbkbcm jndtncndtyysvb b gjktpysvb xktyfvb jåotcndf, b xnjås
vtcnyfz jåotcndtyyjcnm gjkexbkf djpvjéyjcnm
lkz ghjdtltybz ibhjrjuj lbfgfpjyf vthjghbznbq gj åjhmåt c ghtcnegyjcnmñ.
GHBYZNF 25 ctynzåhz 1996 ujlf Cjdtnjv egjkyjvjxtyysö jrheuf Ltiñnc.
E u j k j d y j t g h f d j c el b t d C I F
Ltkj ≤gfhytq bp Crjnncåjhj≥ b
aeylfvtynfkmyst ghfdf
Lädbl Gbnnc
70 ktn yfpfl yfxfkcz celtåysq ghjwtcc, pf
hfpdbnbtv rjnjhjuj cktlbkf dcz cnhfyf
gjxnb ldf ltcznbktnbz. Ltkj ≤Gfhyb bp
Crjnncåjhj ghjnbd dkfcntq infnf Fkfåfvf≥ cnfkj gjdjhjnysv vjvtynjv, ghtlntxtq ldbétybz pf uhfélfycrbt ghfdf d CIF
b ghbdtkj r ghbyznbñ Dthöjdysv celjv
CIF ldeö ägjöfkmysö htitybq, rjnjhst
hfcibhbkb aeylfvtynfkmyst ghfdf dctö
fvthbrfywtd. Änj ltkj nfrét zdbkjcm jnhtpdkzñobv yfgjvbyfybtv j njv, xnj ghfdf, pfgbcfyyst d rjycnbnewbzö, htlrj fdnjvfnbxtcrb djgkjofñncz d htfkmyjcnb, yj
nhfycajhvbheñncz c ntxtybtv dhtvtyb d
cdtnt celtåysö bynthghtnfwbq b gthtcvjnhjd. D cdjtq cnfnmt Lädbl Gbnnc jåceélftn pyfxtybt gjcnfyjdktybq Dthöjdyjuj celf.
Jy nfrét gjåsdfk d Crjnncåjhj, ult gjåtctljdfk c vähjv ujhjlf jå bpvtytybzö, ghjbpjitlibö nfv gjckt ghjdtltybz gthdsö celtåysö ghjwtccjd d 1931 ujle.
D VFHNT 1931 UJLF ltdznm vjkjlsö ytuhjd d djphfcnt jn 13 ktn lj 21 ujlf, rjnjhst
töfkb d jnrhsnjv njdfhyjv dfujyt gj ctkmcrjq
vtcnyjcnb d infnt Fkfåfvf, åskb dpzns gjl
cnhfée b ghbdktxtys r cele gj jådbytybñ d
bpyfcbkjdfybb ldeö åtksö ltdeitr – Heåby
Åtqnc b Dbrnjhbb Ghfqc, – rjnjhst töfkb ntv
ét gjtpljv. Ltkj ghjbcöjlbkj d Crjnncåjhj –
vfktymrjv ghjdbywbfkmyjv ujhjlrt, rjnjhjve
åskj ceéltyj lfnm yfpdfybt jlyjve bp yfbåjktt uhjvrbö ltk j uhfélfycrbö ghfdfö d fvthbrfycrjq bcnjhbb. Änf bcnjhbz j hfcbpvt,
cnthtjnbgfö b ctrcefkmysö nfåe pfnhjyekf cthlwf ébntktq Ñuf, ult d nj dhtvz wfhbkf étcnrfz ctuhtufwbz. Djctvm bp ltdznb vjkjlsö
gfhytq åskb åscnhj ghbpyfys dbyjdysvb b
ghbujdjhtys r cvthnyjq rfpyb. Hjñ Hfqne, rjnjhjve njulf åskj kbim 13 ktn, elfkjcm bpåtéfnm dscitq vths yfrfpfybz.
Plfybt celf, ult ghjöjlbkb gthdst celtåyst pfctlfybz, lj cbö gjh cnjbn d wtynht ujhjlf, öjnz vtcnysq ébntkm nen ét yfgjvybk
ghbtpétve j njv, xnj gjcktleñobt ghjwtccs
åskb gthtytctys d lheujt vtcnj yf nthhbnj-
33
Ajnjuhfabz, kñåtpyj ghtljcnfdktyyfz fdnjhjv
Plfybt celf d Crjnncåjhj ctujlyz.
hbb infnf Fkfåfvf. Åjkmibycndj jghjityysö
bvtñn dtcmvf nevfyyjt ghtlcnfdktybt j njv,
xnj ghjbcöjlbkj pltcm ctvmltczn ktn yfpfl.
Jlby gjébkjq veéxbyf crfpfk: ≤Z åsk vfkmxbrjv, rjulf yfxfkcz cel. Z cvenyj gjvyñ, rfr
vjb hjlbntkb egjvbyfkb jå änjv. Kbim gjplytt z jcjpyfk, xnj ghzvj pltcm, e yfc d ujhjlt, ghjbpjikj dféyjt cjåsnbt. Yj änj gjybvfybt ghbikj rj vyt kbim gjckt njuj, rfr j
uhfélfycrbö ghfdfö pfujdjhbkb dct≥.
P y f x t y b t lf y y j u j ltk f
Ltkj ≤gfhytq bp Crjnncåjhj≥ bvttn åjkmijt
pyfxtybt yt njkmrj lkz bcnjhbb åjhmås pf
uhfélfycrbt ghfdf, yj b lkz bcnjhbb hfpdbnbz
rjycnbnewbjyyjuj ghfdf, gjcrjkmre jyj ghbdtkj r hfcibhtyyjq bynthghtnfwbb ghtljcnfd-
34
ktyyjq Xtnshyflwfnjq gjghfdrjq ufhfynbb
≤hfdyjq pfobns gj pfrjye≥ b ≤yflktéfotq
ghfdjdjq ghjwtlehs≥. Jyj nfrét hfcibhbkj
cathe ltqcndbz Itcnjq gjghfdrb, ufhfynbheñotq jndtnxbre ghfdj gjkmpjdfnmcz gjvjomñ fldjrfnf. D xfcnyjcnb, änj ltkj d rjytxyjv cxtnt ghbdtkj r njve, xnj dctv fvthbrfywfv åskj ghtljcnfdktyj ghfdj yf fldjrfnf ljcnfnjxyjq rdfkbabrfwbb ghb ghjdtltybb dctö
eujkjdysö ghjwtccjd rfr yf ehjdyt infnf, nfr
b yf atlthfkmyjv ehjdyt. Rhjvt njuj, åskj
ddtltyj nhtåjdfybt, cjukfcyj rjnjhjve ghtlcnfdbntkb yb jlyjq bp hfc bkb yfwbjyfkmyjcntq yt vjuen åsnm kbitys ghfdf djqnb d cjcnfd ghbczéysö.
Itcnfz gjghfdrf r Rjycnbnewbb CIF
ghtlecvfnhbdftn hfpkbxyst ghfdf, ghbpdfyyst
ufhfynbhjdfnm jndtnxbrfv gj eujkjdysv ltkfv
cghfdtlkbdjt celtåyjt hfpåbhfntkmcndj. Jlybv bp rkñxtdsö gjkjétybq ckeébn ghfdj
åsnm ghtlcnfdktyysv fldjrfnjv. Yj yf ghjnzétybb åjkmitq xfcnb bcnjhbb fvthbrfycrjuj
ujcelfhcndf ghfdjv yf fldjrfnf vjukb gjkmpjdfnmcz kbim nt, rnj vju pfgkfnbnm pf tuj eckeub. Rhjvt njuj, änj ghfdj hfcghjcnhfyzkjcm
njkmrj yf ghtcnegktybz, gjlgflfñobt gjl atlthfkmyeñ ñhbclbrwbñ. Dct bpvtybkjcm gjckt
ghjwtccf yfl ≤gfhyzvb bp Crjnncåjhj≥, rjnjhsö jådbybkb d yfheitybb yt atlthfkmyjuj
pfrjyjlfntkmcndf, f pfrjyjlfntkmcndf infnf b
rjnjhst åskb yfcnjkmrj åtlys, xnj yt vjukb
cjlthéfnm lfét ctåz, yt ujdjhz eét j njv, xnjås jgkfxbdfnm eckeub ghtlcnfdkzñotuj bö fldjrfnf. D rjywt rjywjd gjlcelbvsv åskj ghtljcnfdktyj ldf fldjrfnf, yj yb jlyjuj bp ybö
lfét c åjkmijq yfnzérjq ytkmpz åskj ghbpyfnm fldjrfnjv ljcnfnjxyjq rdfkbabrfwbb.
Jlby bp ybö åsk fldjrfnjv gj ltkfv j ytldbébvjcnb bp infnf Ntyytcb b d ntxtybt dctuj
ghjwtccf åsk gmzy. Lheujq åsk vtcnysv fldjrfnjv, rjnjhsq lkbntkmyjt dhtvz djjåot yt
ghbybvfk exfcnbz d celtåysö ghjwtccfö.
Gthdjt ägjöfkmyjt
g j c n f y j d kt y b t
D t h ö j d y j u j c elf
D cdjtv ägjöfkmyjv gjcnfyjdktybb gj crjnncåjhcrjve ltke ≤Gfeäkk ghjnbd dkfcntq infnf
Fkfåfvf≥ (1932 ujl), yfpdfyyjve nfr gj bvtyb
jlyjuj bp ltdznb jndtnxbrjd, Dthöjdysq cel
CIF gjcnfyjdbk, xnj ytbveobv jndtnxbrfv,
rjnjhsv uhjpbn cvthnyfz rfpym, ljkéty åsnm
ghtljcnfdkty fldjrfn ljcnfnjxyjq rdfkbabrfwbb. Cdjt htitybt cel jåjcyjdfk d jcyjdyjv
gjkjétybtv j yflktéfotq ghfdjdjq ghjwtleht, cjlthéfobvcz d Xtnshyflwfnjq gjghfdrt r
Rjycnbnewbb CIF. Jnvtybd cvthnyst ghbujdjhs, Dthöjdysq cel åjkmibycndjv ujkjcjd
jghtltkbk, xnj pfobnf gfhytq bp Crjnncåjhj
åskf, vzurj ujdjhz, ytfltrdfnyjq. D gjcnfyjdktybb celf åskj crfpfyj, xnj ghb hfccvjnhtybb cnjkm cthmtpysö ltk, rfr änj, d celt rfr
ehjdyz infnf, nfr b atlthfkmyjuj ehjdyz, fldjrfn bvttn ≤aeylfvtynfkmyj dféyjt pyfxtybt≥ lkz jåtcgtxtybz yflktéfotq ghfdjdjq
ghjwtlehs.
≤Jnvtybd jådbybntkmyst ghbujdjhs, – gbitn Ljyfkml Kfqdkb d cdjtq rybut ≤Ägjöfkmyst htitybz Dthöjdyjuj celf≥, – Dthöjdysq
cel jghtltkbk, xnj ckjéyjcnb eujkjdyjuj ghjwtccf nhtåeñn ghtljcnfdktybz jådbyztvjve
ghfdf gjkmpjdfnmcz gjvjomñ fldjrfnf≥. Öjnz
htitybt gj ltke ≤Gfeäkk ghjnbd dkfcntq infnf Fkfåfvf≥ yjcbkj juhfybxtyysq öfhfrnth d
njv cvsckt, xnj jyj hfcghjcnhfyzkjcm njkmrj
yf ltkf j ghtcnegktybzö, pf rjnjhst xtkjdtr
vjétn åsnm jceélty yf cvthnm, ärcgthns d jåkfcnb rjycnbnewbjyyjuj ghfdf endthélfñn, xnj
jyj jrfpfkj cthmtpyjt dkbzybt yf fvthbrfycreñ ñhbcgheltywbñ, gjcrjkmre dgthdst ghfdj yf fldjrfnf åskj hfcghjcnhfytyj yt njkmrj
yf ltkf, ckeifñobtcz d atlthfkmysö celfö,
yj b yf ltkf, hfccvfnhbdfñobtcz d celfö yf
ehjdyt infnf.
Rhjvt njuj, rfr hfpüzcyztncz d ≤Ckjdfht
rjycnbnewbjyyjuj ghfdf CIF≥, änj htitybt
≤cdzpfkj ltqcndbt gjkjétybz Itcnjq gjghfdrb j ghfdt yf fldjrfnf cj infnfvb c gjvjomñ
gjkjétybz j yflktéfotq ghfdjdjq ghjwtleht
Xtnshyflwfnjq gjghfdrb, öjnz njulf änj rfcfkjcm njkmrj yföjlzoböcz d cnflbb ckeifybz
ltk j ghtcnegktybzö, pf rjnjhst gj pfrjye vjétn åsnm jghtltktyf cvthnyfz rfpym≥. Pyfxtybt gjcnfyjdktybz nfrét gjlxthrbdfkb Vjhby
Öfhhbcjy b Cnbd Ubkmåthn d cdjtq rybut
≤Ägjöfkmyst htitybz Dthöjdyjuj celf CIF≥.
≤C cfvjuj yfxfkf, – gbien jyb, – rjycnbnewbb
b pfrjys infnjd b atlthfkmyjuj ghfdbntkmcndf ltkfkb egjh yf ghjwtlehysö b vfnthbfkmyj-ghfdjdsö ufhfynbzö, ghbpdfyysö jåtcgtxbnm
35
Ajnj FH.
Xtndthj bp ltdznb gfhytq bp Crjnncåjhj dvtcnt
c Cävñäktv Ktqåjdbwtv, jlybv bp fldjrfnjd gj
änjve ltke. Cktdf yfghfdj -- Ebkkb Hjåthncjy,
cghfdtlkbdjt celtåyjt hfpåbhfntkmcndj d åtcghbcnhfcnysö celfö, ghb rjnjhjv dct jndtnxbrb hfdys gthtl pfrjyjv≥.
Dnjhjt ägjöfkmyjt
g j c n f y j d kt y b t
D t h ö j d y j u j c elf
Jlyfrj dkfcnb infnf Fkfåfvf yt clfkbcm b
dyjdm djpåelbkb eujkjdyjt ltkj, ytcvjnhz yf
nj, xnj dhfxb, rjnjhst jåcktljdfkb étyoby,
pfcdbltntkmcndjdfkb, xnj ybrfrjuj bpyfcbkjdfybz yt åskj, f Heåby Åäqnc jnhtrkfcm jn cdjbö gjrfpfybq pf vtczw lj yfxfkf yjdjuj ghjwtccf. Ldjbv jndtnxbrfv – Ötqdele Gfnnthcjye b Rkfhtyce Yjhhbce – dyjdm åskb dsytctys cvthnyst ghbujdjhs. Dnjhjt ägjöfkmyjt
htitybt Dthöjdyjuj celf CIF gj ltke ≤Yjhhbc ghjnbd dkfcntq infnf Fkfåfvf≥ dyjdm jnvtybkj cvthnyst ghbujdjhs – yf ctq hfp gjnjve, xnj dkfcnb infnf Fkfåfvf yt hfphtifkb
drkñxfnm d cjcnfd ghbczéysö ytuhjd. D tlb-
36
Ñléby Ebkmzvc, Ktqåjdbw, Hjq Hfqn b Jkty
Vjynujvthb.
yjukfcyj ghbyznjv htitybb ghfrnbrf ytljgeotybz ytuhjd d cjcnfd ghbczéysö öfhfrnthbpjdfkfcm rfr ≤cbcntvfnbxtcrfz b juekmyfz≥, f
bltz j njv, xnj ytuhs yt ujlzncz lkz hjkb
ghbczéysö, – rfr ≤ytdthyfz ghtlgjcskrf≥.
Rjvvtynbhez pyfxtybt gjcnfyjdktybz gj
ltke Yjhhbcf, ≤Jrcajhlcrbq cghfdjxybr gj
htitybzv Dthöjdyjuj celf CIF≥ gjzcyztn,
xnj Dthöjdysq cel jghtltkbk, xnj ≤cbcntvfnbxtcrjt kbitybt ytuhjd ghfdf exfcndjdfnm d hfåjnt åjkmijuj éñhb b éñhb ghbczéysö kbifkj jndtnxbrjd-ytuhjd d celfö infnf Fkfåfvf
hfdyjq pfobns cj cnjhjys pfrjyf, ufhfynbhetvjq Xtnshyflwfnjq gjghfdrjq≥. Afrnbxtcrb
jyb åskb kbitys ghfdf yf cghfdtlkbdjt celtåyjt hfpåbhfntkmcndj, ghjdjlbvjt åtcghbcnhfcnysv éñhb, gbitn Létqvc Uelvfy d cdjtq gjkexbditq ibhjreñ bpdtcnyjcnm rybut
≤Crjnncåjhcrbt bcnjhbb≥. ≤Dthöjdysq cel
CIF tlbyjleiyj cjukfcbkcz c ljdjlfvb pfobns j njv, xnj d yfheitybt gjkjétybz Xtnshyflwfnjq gjghfdrb j ghfdt yf hfdyeñ pfobne, ytuhjd infnf Fkfåfvf ghjbpdjkmyj b
cbcntvfnbxtcrb kbifkb ghfdf djqnb d cjcnfd
éñhb≥.
Ytcvjnhz yf ldf gjcnfyjdktybz Dthöjdyjuj celf CIF, yfghfdktyyst ghjnbd änjuj celtåyjuj ghtcktljdfybz, dkfcnb infnf Fkfåfvf
dyjdm ghjzdbkb egjhcndj b yfxfkb yjdst celtåyst ghjwtccs. D rjywt rjywjd gznthj gfhytq åskb jceéltys b jnåskb lkbntkmyst chjrb nñhtvyjuj pfrkñxtybz, gjcktlybq bp ybö
åsk dsgeoty yf cdjåjle d 1950 ujle. Jcnfkmyst xtnsht jndtnxbrf åskb jcdjåjéltys. Öjnz Dthöjdysq cel CIF yt cgfc gznthsö
crjnncåjhcrbö gfhytq jn nñhmvs, jy dct ét
cgfc bö jn cvthnb. C njxrb phtybz rjycnbnewbjyyjuj ghfdf, pyfxtybt änjuj ltkf cjcnjbn d
njv, xnj Dthöjdysq cel CIF dcnfk yf pfobne ghfdf jådbyztvjuj yf fldjrfnf ljcnfnjxyjq
rdfkbabrfwbb – gj rhfqytq vtht d ckexft ltk
j ghtcnegktybzö, pf rjnjhst gj pfrjye vjétn
åsnm jghtltktyf cvthnyfz rfpym. Jy nfrét dscnegbk c ghtleghtéltybtv j njv, xnj kbitybt
uhfélfy ghfdf åsnm ghbczéysv yf jcyjdfybb
bö hfcjdjq ghbyflktéyjcnb ytljgecnbvj. Dsytctyyjt d 1935 ujle htitybt gj ltke ≤Yjhhbc ghjnbd dkfcntq infnf Fkfåfvf≥ d rjytxyjv cxtnt – yj yt chfpe – ghbdtkj r bcrjhtytybñ gj dctve Ñue ghfrnbrb yfåbhfnm d xbckj ghbczéysö njkmrj åtksö.
G j c kt le ñ o b t h t i t y b z
D t h ö j d y j u j c elf
D cdzpb c htitybtv gj ltke ≤Gfeäkk ghjnbd
dkfcntq infnf Fkfåfvf≥ gjcktleñobt gjcnfyjdktybz Dthöjdyjuj celf erhtgbkb ghfdj jådbyztvjuj gjkmpjdfnmcz gjvjomñ fldjrfnf. D
htitybb gj ltke ≤Léjycjy ghjnbd Pthåcnf≥
(1936 ujl) Dthöjdysq cel gjcnfyjdbk, xnj dctv
jndtnxbrfv, rjnjhsv d celt atlthfkmyjuj
ehjdyz ghtlüzdkzñncz jådbytybz d cjdthitybb nzérjuj eujkjdyjuj ghtcnegktybz, ljkéys
åsnm ghtljcnfdktys fldjrfns. Ghtélt (c 1790
ujlf) ltqcndjdfkj ghfdbkj, cjukfcyj rjnjhjve
fldjrfn ghtljcnfdkztncz njkmrj kbwfv, jådbyztvsv d celt atlthfkmyjuj ehjdyz d cjdthitybb ghtcnegktybq, pf rjnjhst gj pfrjye vjétn åsnm jghtltktyf cvthnyfz rfpym. D cjhjrjdsö ujlfö 20-uj dtrf Dthöjdysq cel hfcghjcnhfybk änj ghfdj yf jndtnxbrjd gj ltkfv j
nzérbö eujkjdysö ghtcnegktybzö, rjnjhsv d
celfö infnjd ghtlüzdkzñncz vtytt cthmtpyst
jådbytybz, xtv nt, rjnjhst åskb ghtlüzdktys
gfhyzv bp Crjnncåjhj. Vyjubt dthöjdyst cels
infnjd nfrét gjnhtåjdfkb ghtljcnfdktybz jådbyztvsv fldjrfnjd – d xfcnyjcnb, ghb ckeifybb ltk j nzérbö eujkjdysö ghtcnegktybzö.
Jlyfrj dgkjnm lj 1963 ujlf d cnhfyt yfcxbnsdfkjcm ctvm infnjd, rjnjhst yt ddtkb
nhtåjdfybz jå jåzpfntkmyjv ghtljcnfdktybb
fldjrfnjd dctv jndtnxbrfv gj ltkfv j nzérbö
eujkjdysö ghtcnegktybzö. Tlbyjjåhfpbt gj
dctq cnhfyt åskj jåtcgtxtyj htitybtv Dthöjdyjuj celf CIF gj ltke ≤Ubltjy ghjnbd
Eäqyhfqnf≥ (1963 ujl), rjnjhjt hfcghjcnhfybkj ghtlecvjnhtyyjt Itcnjq gjghfdrjq ghfdj
yf fldjrfnf yt njkmrj yf atlthfkmyst cels,
yj b yf dct cels ehjdyz infnf ghb hfccvjnhtybb ltk j nzérbö eujkjdysö ghtcnegktybzö.
≤D ytrjnjhsö cnhfyfö ghfdj jådbyztvjuj d cjdthitybb njuj bkb byjuj ghtcnegktybz yf fldjrfnf vjétn yt cxbnfnmcz aeylfvtynfkmysv b
jåzpfntkmysv lkz cghfdtlkbdjuj celtåyjuj
hfpåbhfntkmcndf, yj njkmrj yt d yfitq cnhfyt≥, – jnvtnbk celmz Ömñuj Åkär.
Änj htitybt cnfkj dféyjq rekmvbyfwbtq
jlyjuj bp yfbåjktt lhfvfnbxtcrbö ltk d bcnjhbb rjycnbnewbjyyjuj ghfdf CIF, gjlhjåyfz
öhjybrf rjnjhjuj ghbdjlbncz d dsitlitq d
1964 ujle rybut ≤Hegjh Ubltjyf≥. ≤Htitybt
37
gj ltke Ubltjyf bvttn bcrkñxbntkmyeñ dféyjcnm≥, – endthélfñn Kb Ägcnfqy b Njvfc Ejrth d cdjtq gjgekzhyjq rybut ≤Rjycnbnewbjyyjt ghfdj d eckjdbzö bpvtyzñotqcz Fvthbrb≥. Jyj hfcghjcnhfybkj ltqcndbt ≤gjkjétybz
j ñhblbxtcrjv ghtlcnfdbntkmcndt yf ne uhegge jndtnxbrjd, rjnjhst ghtélt åskb kbitys
djpvjéyjcnb gjkmpjdfnmcz eckeufvb fldjrfnf≥.
Gjcktleñobt gjcnfyjdktybz Dthöjdyjuj
celf, ghbyznst bv d rjywt itcnbltcznsö ujljd
b jcjåtyyj d yfxfkt ctvbltcznsö ujljd 20-uj
dtrf, hfcibhzkb cathe ltqcndbz ddtltyyjuj d
1963 ujle dctjåotuj ghfdf yf fldjrfnf. D
1972 ujle Dthöjdysq cel gjcnfyjdbk, xnj ghfdj yf fldjrfnf hfcghjcnhfyztncz yt njkmrj yf
jndtnxbrjd d celfö infnjd b atlthfkmysö celfö, jådbyztvsö d cjdthitybb nzérbö eujkjdysö ghtcnegktybq, yj b yf dctö kbw, rjnjhst
d ckexft ghbpyfybz bö dbyjdysvb d öjlt kñåsö celtåysö ghjwtccjd vjuen åsnm ghbujdjhtys r nñhtvyjve pfrkñxtybñ. Cnhfyf ghjltkfkf lkbyysq genm, yfxbyfz c dtcys 1931 ujlf,
rjulf d éfhrjv b gskmyjv pfkt celf d Fkfåfvt itk ghjwtcc yfl ltdznmñ bcgeufyysvb ytuhfvb, yf rjnjhjv htifkcz djghjc jå bö ébpyb b cvthnb.
Dthöjdysq cel CIF dvtifkcz d ltkj
≤gfhytq bp Crjnncåjhj≥, gjkjébd yfxfkj wtkjve hzle dféysö gjcnfyjdktybq, rjnjhst erhtgbkb aeylfvtynfkmyst ghfdf dctö fvthbrfywtd b åkfujlfhz rjnjhsv änf lhfvf, hfpsuhfdifzcz yf gjxdt hfcjdjq ytyfdbcnb, cnfkf ktutyljq yt njkmrj d bcnjhbb uhfélfycrbö ghfd,
yj b d ljkujq bcnjhbb hfpdbnbz fvthbrfycrjq
ñhbcgheltywbb. Äöj änjuj ltkf, rjnjhjt d
nhblwfnsö ujlfö 20-uj dtrf ghjbpdtkj åjkmijq
iev b dspdfkj vyjuj cgjhjd, pdexbn b ctqxfc,
gjlndthélfz njhétcndj ghbywbgf hfdyjq pfobns yf jcyjdfybb pfrjyf.
Djghjcs ltvjrhfnbb, Äktrnhjyysq éehyfk Ujcelfhcndtyyjuj
ltgfhnfvtynf CIF, Njv 6, § 1, bñkm 2001 ujlf
38
A f r n s g j l t k e b c t u j l y z i y b q C rj n n c å j h j
31 vfhnf 1931 ujlf d Crjnncåjhj, infn Fkfåfvf, ltdznm vjkjlsö ytuhjd åskb ghbpyfys dbyjdysvb d bpyfcbkjdfybb ldeö åtksö ltdeitr d
étktpyjljhjéyjv njdfhyjv dfujyt. Dhfxb, rjnjhst jåcktljdfkb ltdeitr gjckt zrjås cjdthityyjuj ghtcnegktybz, ecnfyjdbkb, xnj ybrfrjuj
bpyfcbkjdfybz yt åskj. Ytcvjnhz yf bö gjrfpfybz, djcmvthsv bp änbö ltdznb gfhytq cel infnf dsytc cvthnysq ghbujdjh. Ghb hfccvjnhtybb
ltk ≤Gfeäkk ghjnbd dkfcntq infnf Fkfåfvf≥
(1932 ujl) b ≤Yjhhbc ghjnbd dkfcntq infnf Fkfåfvf≥ (1935 ujl) Dthöjdysq cel CIF jnvtybk
dsytctyyst vtcnysvb celfvb jådbybntkmyst pfrkñxtybz b cvthnyst ghbujdjhs – d gthdjv ckexft yf jcyjdfybb njuj, xnj jndtnxbrfv yt åsk
ghtljcnfdkty fldjrfn ljcnfnjxyjq rdfkbabrfwbb, f dj dnjhjv ckexft – gjnjve xnj ytuhfv åskj jnrfpfyj d ghfdt djqnb d cjcnfd ghbczéysö.
Ntv yt vtytt d gthbjl c 1935 ujlf gj 1937 ujl
d infnt Fkfåfvf ghjljkéfkbcm celtåyst hfpåbhfntkmcndf gj lfyyjve ltke. Xtndthj jndtnxbrjd dyjdm åskb ghbpyfys dbyjdysvb b åskb ghbujdjhtys r lkbntkmysv chjrfv nñhtvyjuj pfrkñxtybz. Jådbytybz, dsldbyenst ghjnbd jcnfkmysö gznb jndtnxbrjd, åskb cyzns. Gjcktlybv
bp nñhmvs dsitk Äylb Hfqn d 1950 ujle – d jåotq ckjéyjcnb jy ghjdtk d pfrkñxtybb 19 ktn,
ldf vtczwf b 15 lytq. Ghtlgjkfuftvsq kblth
uheggs Ötqdel Gfnnthcjy d 1948 ujle cjdthibk
gjåtu bp nñhmvs b jåjcyjdfkcz d infnt Vbxbufy,
ult hfcjdfz ctuhtufwbz yt åskf pfrhtgktyf pfrjyjlfntkmyj. Ueåthyfnjh Vbxbufyf jnrfpfkcz
dslfnm tuj dkfcnzv Fkfåfvs. Gjrf Gfnnthcjy
yföjlbkcz d åtufö, dsikf tuj rybuf ≤Vfkmxbr bp
Crjnncåjhj≥. Jy evth jn hfrf d 1952 ujle d
djphfcnt 39 ktn.
Jppb Gfeäkk b Rkfhtyc Yjhhbc, xmb bvtyf abuehbhjdfkb d ldeö ägjöfkmysö htitybzö Dthöjdyjuj celf CIF, åskb eckjdyj-ljchjxyj jcdjåjéltys bp nñhmvs d 1946 ujle. Cgecnz nhblwfnm
ktn Yjhhbc gjlfk öjlfnfqcndj b gjkexbk åtpeckjdyjt gjvbkjdfybt jn njulfiytuj ueåthyfnjhf
Fkfåfvs Léjhléf R. Ejkktcf. Ghtélt Ejkktc
dscnegfk d gjllthére pfrjyjd j ctuhtufwbb d
cdjtv infnt, yj r ctvbltcznsv ujlfv 20-uj dtrf
pfrjyjlfntkmyj pfrhtgktyyfz ctuhtufwbz d Fkfåfvt åskf jnvtytyf, b ueåthyfnjh yfxfk ghbkfufnm ecbkbz gj rjvgtycfwbb dhtlf, ghbxbytyyjuj
ytcghfdtlkbdj jceéltyysv. D 1979 ujle Yjhhbc jgeåkbrjdfk rybue j cdjtv ltkt gjl yfpdfybtv ≤Gjcktlybq bp gfhytq bp Crjnncåjhj≥. Jy
evth d 1989 ujle, ghjébd ljkmit dctö jcnfkmysö
≤gfhytq bp Crjnncåjhj≥.
Yf pfobne gfhytq bp Crjnncåjhj d nhblwfnsö ujlfö ghjikjuj dtrf dcnfkb cfvst hfpkbxyst
uheggs, drkñxfz Rjvveybcnbxtcreñ gfhnbñ CIF
b Yfwbjyfkmyeñ fccjwbfwbñ cjltqcndbz ghj-
39
uhtcce wdtnyjuj yfctktybz (YFCGWY) – cnfhtqieñ d cnhfyt jhufybpfwbñ gj pfobnt uhfélfycrbö ghfd. Yj cdjbv jcdjåjéltybtv åjkmibycndj jndtnxbrjd d rjytxyjv cxtnt åskb jåzpfys
htpekmnfnfv ltzntkmyjcnb nfr yfpsdftvjuj ≤Rjvbntnf pfobns Crjnncåjhj≥, d rjnjhsq döjlbkb
kñlb dctö wdtnjd rjéb. Gj vytybñ bcnjhbrjd,
ltvjycnhfwbb b vbnbyub d gjllthére ≤gfhytq bp
Crjnncåjhj≥ zdbkbcm ghtlntxtq cjdhtvtyyjuj
ldbétybz pf uhfélfycrbt ghfdf d CIF, rjnjhjt
hfpdthyekjcm d yfxfkt gznbltcznsö ujljd 20-uj
dtrf. Htitybz Dthöjdyjuj celf CIF, rjnjhst
åskb ghbyzns gj lfyyjve ltke, cxbnfñncz ägjöfkmysvb, gjnjve xnj jyb pyfxbntkmyj hfcibhbkb aeylfvtynfkmyst ghfdf yt njkmrj ytuhjd, yj
b afrnbxtcrb dctö fvthbrfywtd.
Tckb ds ghbtltnt d Crjnncåjhj ctujlyz, cgecnz
ctvmltczn ktn, ds yt edblbnt b yfvtrf yf étcnreñ ctuhtufwbñ, rjnjhfz d yfxfkt nhblwfnsö
ujljd rfpfkfcm ytpsåktvjq. Väh ujhjlf Hjy
Åtqkb öjxtn, xnjås ghbtpébt pyfkb, xnj ctujlyziybq Crjnncåjhj, d rjnjhjv ghjébdftn dctuj
jrjkj 15 nsc. xtkjdtr, cjdthityyj yt gjöjé yf
njulfiybq Crjnncåjhj. ≤Ctujlyz d yfitv ujhjlt ceotcndetn gjkyfz hfcjdfz byntuhfwbz. Rjulf pltcm ghjöjlbkb gthdst ghjwtccs, åjkmibycndj ébntktq yfituj ujhjlf tot b yt hjlbkbcm≥,
– ujdjhbn jy. ≤J cjåsnbzö 1931 ujlf yeéyj celbnm c extnjv ujcgjlcndjdfdibö yhfdjd njuj dhtvtyb, – ljåfdkztn jy. – D 1931 ujle d yfitv ujhjlt tot ébkb kñlb, rjnjhst gjvybkb Uhfélfycreñ djqye. Djccnfyjdktybt infnf Fkfåfvf d
ärjyjvbxtcrjv b lheubö fcgtrnfö ikj ujhfplj
vtlktyytt, xtv lheubö htubjyjd Ñuf≥.
≤Dféyj gjvybnm, xnj ghjbpjikj d änjv ujhjlt d
1931 ujle, yj d nj dhtvz änj vjukj ghjbpjqnb dj
vyjubö vtcnfö, – pfvtxftn Åtqkb. – C ntö gjh
Crjnncåjhj bpvtybkcz, rfr b dtcm Ñu. Ctujlyziybq Crjnncåjhj – ghjuhtccbdysq ujhjl d
hfcjdjv gkfyt. E yfc, yfdthyj, yfbåjkmibq d
Fkfåfvt ghjwtyn vtéhfcjdsö åhfrjd, b yt
vtymit veéxby b étyoby, rjnjhst, ytcvjnhz yf
nj, xnj ghbyflktéfn r hfpysv hfcfv, dcnhtxfñncz. Ctujlyz yfi ujhjl åjkmit yt dsukzlbn
40
≤xthyj-åtksv≥, jy cnfk vyjujhfcjdsv. Nfr, e
yfc hfcntn xbckj ébntktq fpbfncrjuj ghjbcöjéltybz b kfnbyjfvthbrfywtd. Rfhnbyf vtéhfcjdsö jnyjitybq d Crjnncåjhj ntgthm dj
vyjujv yfgjvbyftn rfhnbye vtéhfcjdsö jnyjitybq d lheubö eujkrfö Fvthbrb. Lf, e yfc yt
dct bltfkmyj, yj vs ghjikb ljkubq genm≥.
Åbåkbjuhfabz
Barnes, Patricia G.
CQ’S Desk Reference on American Criminal Justice:
Over 500 Answers to Frequently Asked Questions
from Law Enforcement to Corrections. Washington,
D.C.: CQ Press, 2001.
ljghjbpdjlcndt, b fyyjnbhjdfyyfz fkafdbnyfz
gjlåjhrf dféytqibö ltk Dthöjdyjuj celf
CIF bp jåkfcnb eujkjdyjuj celjghjbpdjlcndf.
CIF. Cghfdjxyst vfnthbfks drkñxfñn d ct-
Cowan, Catherine
“States Revisit the Death Penalty,”
State Government News, vol. 44, no.5, May 2001,
pp. 12–17.
åz dféytqibt pfrjys b celtåyst htitybz,
Pfrjyjlfntkb ghtlkjébkb ghbjcnfyjdbnm bkb
ghfdbkf ghjxntybz wbnfn bp celtåysö gjcnf-
jnvtybnm cvthnyeñ rfpym d åjktt xtv 20 inf-
yjdktybq b ukjccfhbq ibhjrj hfcghjcnhf-
nfö. Fdnjh gjlhjåyj jgbcsdftn hzl ltk, d rj-
ytyysö ñhblbxtcrbö nthvbyjd.
njhsö ceotcndeñofz cbcntvf celjghjbpdjl-
Ghbdjlzncz jndtns yf 500 yfbåjktt xfcnj pflfdftvsö djghjcjd j ghfdjdjq cbcntvt
cndf gjnthgtkf ytelfxe, b jnvtxftn, xnj öjnz,
Boyer, Peter J.
“Annals of Justice: DNA on Trial,”
New Yorker, January 17, 2000, pp. 42–53.
cjukfcyj jghjcfv jåotcndtyyjuj vytybz,
Fdnjh endthélftn, xnj yt dct kfåjhfnjhbb b
vytybb j njv, yfcrjkmrj cghfdtlkbdj jyf
cgtwbfkbcns gj fyfkbpe LYR jåkflfñn jlb-
ghbvtyztncz.
åjkmibycndj fvthbrfywtd gjllthébdfñn dscieñ vthe yfrfpfybz, jyb hfcöjlzncz dj
yfrjdj dscjrjq rdfkbabrfwbtq, b gjlxthrbdftn jxtym dféyeñ hjkm, rjnjheñ d eujkjdyjv
celjghjbpdjlcndt buhfñn ébdst kñlb – fldjrfns, lfét tckb d ltkt abuehbheñn htpekmnfns yfexysö bccktljdfybq.
Crump, David and George Jacobs
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Scene to Ultimate Execution of Sentence.
Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2000.
Champion, Dean J.
Dictionary of American Criminal Justice: Key Terms
and Major Supreme Court Cases. Chicago: Fitzroy
Dearborn, 1998.
D rybut jgbcsdftncz gjhzljr hfccktljdfybz
D äne rybue, rjnjhfz cyfåétyf ghtlvtnysv
cnegktybz b fhtcnf≥ b pfrfyxbdfz ≤gjcktlcn-
erfpfntktv ltk, drkñxtys cjdhtvtyysq ckj-
dbzvb≥, fyfkbpbhez änjn ghjwtcc c yfxfkf lj
dfhm nthvbyjd, bcgjkmpetvsö d eujkjdyjv ce-
rjywf, hfpåbhz rjyrhtnyst ghbvths.
b hfccvjnhtybz ltkf j ghtcnegktybb, pf rjnjhjt gj pfrjye vjétn åsnm jghtltktyf
cvthnyfz rfpym, yfxbyfz c ≤cjdthitybz ght-
41
“DNA Testing and Capital Punishment: Technology
from the Crime Scene to the Courtroom.”
Congressional Digest, November 2001, pp.
257–265.
Franklin, Carl J.
Constitutional Law for the Criminal Justice Professional. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1999.
Änjn yjvth gjcdzoty dct åjktt ibhjrjve
ntkmysv b cghfdjxysv bycnhevtynjv lkz cgt-
ghbvtytybñ fyfkbpf LYR b tuj gjcktlcndbq
wbfkbcnjd dctö ehjdytq, änf rybuf ghtlcnfd-
lkz pfrkñxtyysö, ghbujdjhtyysö r cvthnyjq
kztn cjåjq bccktljdfybt yfbåjktt lhfvfnb-
rfpyb. Jnltkmyst cnfnmb gjcdzotys ntöyjkj-
xtcrbö b dféysö jåkfcntq rjycnbnewbjyyjuj
ubzv, pfrkñxtyysv fvthbrfycrbö nñhtv, ghb-
ghfdf CIF. Hfccvfnhbdftncz ibhjrbq rheu
vtytybñ dscitq vths yfrfpfybz yf ehjdyt
ntv, yfxbyfz jn jåscrf b bpüznbz bveotcndf,
infnjd b yf atlthfkmyjv ehjdyt, f nfrét dj-
fhtcnf b uhfélfycrbö ghfd b pfrfyxbdfz
ghjcfv pfrjyjlfntkmcndf.
Gthdjq gjghfdrjq r Rjycnbnewbb CIF, yflkt-
Ghbpdfyyfz ckeébnm jlyjdhtvtyyj jåhfpjdf-
éfotq ghfdjdjq ghjwtlehjq b celtåyjq
DeVore, Donald and Kevin Gentilcore
“Balanced and Restorative Justice and Educational
Programming for Youth At-Risk,” The Clearing
House, vol. 73, no. 2, November 1999, p. 96.
cbcntvjq.
Fdnjhs jåceélfñn vjltkm jåhfpjdfybz lkz
Friedman, Lawrence
Crime & Punishment in American History. New York:
Basic Books, 1993.
vjkjltéb bp uheggs hbcrf d jrheut Vjynujvt-
Yfgbcfyyfz bpdtcnysv ghjatccjhjv Ñhblb-
hb, infn Gtycbkmdfybz. Änf vjltkm pfvtyztn
xtcrjuj afrekmntnf Cnäyajhlcrjuj eybdthcb-
cjåjq åjktt nhflbwbjyyst vtnjls yfrfpf-
ntnf, änf bcnjhbz fvthbrfycrjq cbcntvs euj-
ybz bkb gthtdjcgbnfybz, rjywtynhbhez dybvf-
kjdyjuj celjghjbpdjlcndf eltkztn jcyjdyjt
ybt yf nhtö jcyjdysö wtkzö: jåotcndtyyfz
dybvfybt ghjåktvt ghtcnegktybz b yfrfpf-
åtpjgfcyjcnm, gjljnxtnyjcnm b gjdsitybt
ybz d Fvthbrt, yfxbyfz c ghjwtccjd yfl ≤cf-
rjvgtntywbb.
ktvcrbvb dtlmvfvb≥ d 17-v dtrt b pfrfyxbdfz
jghfdlfybtv xtnshtö kjc-fylétktccrbö gj-
Edwards, Todd
“Sentencing Reform in Southern States: A Review of
Truth-in-Sentencing and Three-Strike Measures.”
Spectrum: The Journal of State Government, September 22, 1999, vol. 72, no.4, page 8.
kbwtqcrbö d gthdjv ltkt jå bpåbtybb Hjlyb
Fdnjh jåceélftn gjcktlcndbz htajhvs cbc-
Jåibhyfz gjlåjhrf byajhvfwbb j dscitq
ntvs yfrfpfybz, ghjdjlbvjq d infnfö CIF d
vtht yfrfpfybz; vyjubt uhjvrbt ltkf hfc-
hfvrfö Ñéyjq pfrjyjlfntkmyjq rjyathty-
cvfnhbdfñncz c hfpysö njxtr phtybz.
Rbyuf d yfxfkt ltdzyjcnsö ujljd 20-uj dtrf.
Henderson, Harry
Capital Punishment. New York: Facts on File, 2000.
wbb, gjlrhtgkzz cdjb hfcceéltybz cnfnbcnbxtcrbvb lfyysvb.
Fagan, Jeffrey & Franklin E. Zimring, eds.
The Changing Borders of Juvenile Justice: Transfer
of Adolescents to the Criminal Court. University of
Chicago Press, 2000.
Jlyf bp yfbåjktt pyfxbntkmysö cjdhtvtyysö
äywbrkjgtlbq eujkjdyjuj celjghjbpdjlcndf
cjlthébn cnfnmb c cjghjdjlbntkmysvb åbå-
Rybuf ghtlcnfdkztn cjåjq cåjhybr äcct, gj-
kbjuhfabzvb, rjnjhst ghtljcnfdkzñn byajh-
cdzotyysö ghjåktvt ghbdktxtybz r celtåyjq
vfwbñ j rjywtgwbzö, ntjhbzö, ghbywbgfö b
jndtncndtyyjcnb b yfrfpfybz fvthbrfycrbö
bccktljdfybzö, cdzpfyysö c ñhblbxtcrbvb
gjlhjcnrjd rfr dphjcksö, uhfybws gjkyjvjxbq
djghjcfvb rhbvbyfkmyjuj gjdtltybz b euj-
celf gj ltkfv ytcjdthityyjktnybö, f nfrét
kjdyjuj celjghjbpdjlcndf.
djcgbnfntkmyst b gcböjkjubxtcrbt fcgtrns ceotcndeñotq d yfcnjzott dhtvz ghfrnbrt.
42
Kadish, Sanford H., ed.
Encyclopedia of Crime and Justice.
New York: Free Press, 1983.
Kurki, Leena
“Restorative and Community Justice in the United
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pp. 235–304.
Palmer, Louis J., Jr.
Encyclopedia of Capital Punishment in the United
States. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2001.
Fdnjh hfpuhfybxbdftn ldbétybt pf nfr yfps-
djdjq, cjwbfkmyjq b gjkbnbxtcrjq bcnjhbb b
dftvjt ≤djccnfyjdbntkmyjt ghfdjcelbt≥, rj-
ysytiytv cnfnect dscitq vths yfrfpfybz d
njhjt ghjgfufylbhetn djccnfyjdktybt jnyj-
CIF.
Dctjåütvkñobq bcnjxybr byajhvfwbb j ghf-
itybq vtéle éthndfvb, ghtcnegybrfvb b
oeñ dvtifntkmcndf jhufyjd eujkjdyjuj ce-
Paternoster, Raymond, Robert Brame, Ronet
Bachman and Lawrence W. Sherman
“Do Fair Procedures Matter?” Law and Society
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ljghjbpdjlcndf. Gj rféljve ldbétybñ ghb-
Htpekmnfns ghjdtltyyjuj d u. Vbkejrb, infn
djlbncz bcnjhbxtcrfz cghfdrf, f nfrét jwt-
Dbcrjycby, ärcgthbvtynf d jåkfcnb ght-
ybdfñncz ecgtöb cjjndtncndeñobö ghjtrnjd.
ljndhfotybz åsnjdjuj yfcbkbz gjrfpsdfñn,
vtcnysv yfctktybtv, b ldbétybt pf ≤jåotcndtyyjt ghfdjcelbt≥, rjnjhjt nhfrnetn ghtcnegyjcnm rfr cjwbfkmyeñ ghjåktve, nhtåeñ-
xnj, rjulf gjkbwbz cjåkñlftn dct ghjwtleh-
Leighton, Paul
Criminal Justice Ethics. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Prentice Hall, 2001.
yst yjhvs ghb fhtcnt gjljphtdftvsö d yf-
Cåjhybr äcct, bccktleñobö, rfr kbxyst b
pyfxbntkmyj cybéftncz.
cbkbb, ghjwtyn gjcktleñobö ghfdjyfheitybq, cdzpfyysö c yfcbkbtv yf åsnjdjq gjxdt,
vjhfkmyst eåtéltybz xtkjdtrf dkbzñn yf
ñncz cktleñobt ntvs: ≤xnj cktletn cxbnfnm
Ryan, George and Frank Keating
“Is the Death Penalty Fair?” State Government
News, vol. 44, no. 5, May 2001, pp. 10–11.
ghtcnegktybtv?≥, fldjrfncrfz änbrf, jnyjit-
Ueåthyfnjh in. Bkkbyjqc hfccrfpsdftn j
ybt r pfrkñxtyysv, cvthnyfz rfpym b vjhfkm-
njv, rfr ytjåjcyjdfyyj dsytctyyst jådbyb-
yjt jåjcyjdfybt dbyjdyjcnb d cjdthitybb
ntkmyst ghbujdjhs pfcnfdbkb tuj gthtcvjn-
ghtcnegktybz.
htnm cdjt jnyjitybt r cvthnyjq rfpyb, njulf
cdzpm vtéle eujkjdysv celjghjbpdjlcndjv b
cjwbfkmyjq cghfdtlkbdjcnmñ. Hfccvfnhbdf-
rfr ueåthyfnjh infnf Jrkföjvf endthélftn,
Lewis, Anthony
Gideon’s Trumpet. New York: Vintage Books, 1989.
xnj dscifz vthf yfrfpfybz vjétn ghbvtyznmcz gj cghfdtlkbdjcnb.
Bcnjhbz ägjöfkmyjuj ltkf, rjnjhjt åskj
drkñxtys pfgbcrb b nfåkbwf ltk, rjnjhst gj-
Schmalleger, Frank
Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the
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Hall, 2000.
Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 4th ed.
Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2000.
ckeébkb jcyjdfybtv lkz dsytctybz jrjyxf-
Änb ldf extåybrf gjcdzotys cbcntvt eujkjd-
ntkmyjuj dthlbrnf, b ghtlvtynysq erfpfntkm.
yjuj celjghjbpdjlcndf d CIF b ghtlcnfdkzñn
hfccvjnhtyj Dthöjdysv celjv CIF d 1963
ujle (≤Ubltjy ghjnbd Eäqyhfqnf≥), jgbcsdftn
åjhmåe Létqvcf Ähkf Ubltjyf pf ghfdj
gjkmpjdfnmcz eckeufvb fldjrfnf d celtåyjv
hfpåbhfntkmcndt gj eujkjdyjve ltke. D rybue
cjåjq jåpjhs b fyfkbp ghtcnegyjcnb, eujkjd-
Manfredi, Christopher P.
The Supreme Court and Juvenile Justice.
University Press of Kansas, 1998.
yjuj ghfdf, jöhfys jåotcndtyyjuj gjhzlrf,
Fyfkbp hjkb Dthöjdyjuj celf CIF d bcnjhbb
ytcjdthityyjktnybö, yfhrjnbrfö b åeleotv
hfpdbnbz fvthbrfycrbö celjd gj ltkfv ytcj-
eujkjdyjuj celjghjbpdjlcndf d CIF.
jceéltybz b bcghfdbntkmysö vth, f nfrét frwtynbheñn dybvfybt yf ghfdjcelbb gj ltkfv
dthityyjktnybö.
43
Sherwin, Richard K.
When Law Goes Pop: The Vanishing Line between
Law and Popular Culture. University of Chicago
Press, 2000.
Umbreit, Mark S.
“Restorative Justice Through Victim-Offender
Mediation: A Multi-Site Assessment.”
Western Criminology Review vol.1, no.1. 1998
Vytybt ntjhtnbrf d jåkfcnb ghfdf b åsdituj
Ljrkfl jå bccktljdfybzö d jåkfcnb nfr yfps-
ghjrehjhf j dkbzybb gjg-rekmnehs yf cbcntve
dftvjuj ≤djccnfyjdbntkmyjuj≥ ghfdjcelbz,
eujkjdyjuj celjghjbpdjlcndf d CIF.
rjnjhsq frwtynbhetn dybvfybt yf ghjwtccfö
b htpekmnfnfö gjchtlybxtcndf vtéle éthndjq
Sudo, Phil
“Five ‘little’ people who changed U.S. history;
Supreme Court cases: Dred Scott v. Sandford,
1857; Brown v. Board of Education, 1954; Gideon
v. Wainwright, 1963; Miranda v. Arizona, 1966;
Roe v. Wade, 1973.” Scholastic Update, vol. 122,
no. 10, January 26, 1990, p. 8.
Rybuf hfccrfpsdftn j gznb ltkfö Dthöjdyjuj
celf CIF, d rjnjhsö jåsxyst kñlb jrfpfkb
ukeåjrjt dkbzybt yf hfpdbnbt dctq cbcntvs
celjghjbpdjlcndf d CIF.
Tyler, Tom R., et fl.
Social Justice in a Diverse Society. Boulder, CO:
Westview, 1997.
Fyfkbp gjyznbq cghfdtlkbdjcnb, gthtöjlzobö rekmnehyst uhfybws, lfñobq jgnbvbcnbxtcreñ rfhnbye djpvjéyjcnb ljcnbétybz
cghfdtlkbdjcnb d jåotcndt c rekmnehysv
vyjujjåhfpbtv.
Tyler, Tom R.
“Social Justice: Outcome and Procedure,”
International Journal of Psychology, vol. 35, 2000,
pp. 117–125.
Yjdjt gcböjkjubxtcrjt bccktljdfybt yf ntve cjwbfkmyjq cghfdtlkbdjcnb cdbltntkmcndetn j njv, xnj kñlb c åjkmitq ujnjdyjcnmñ
ghbybvfñn ghjwtlehyst celtåyst htitybz,
tckb edthtys, xnj änb htitybz ghbyzns d cjjndtncndbb c ghjwtlehfvb ghbyznbz htitybq,
rjnjhst jyb cxbnfñn cghfdtlkbdsvb. ≤Cghfdtlkbdjcnm≥ jwtybdftncz gj nfrbvb rhbnthbzv, rfr ytqnhfkbntn b ljdthbt r dkfcnzv, f
nfrét gj njve, yfcrjkmrj edfébntkmyj dkfcnb
jnyjczncz r gjlcelbvsv dj dhtvz ghjwtccf.
44
b ghtcnegybrjv. Nfrét ljcnegty d Bynthytnt
gj flhtce:
http://wcr.sonoma.edu/v1n1/umbreit.html
Djghjcs ltvjrhfnbb, Äktrnhjyysq éehyfk Ujcelfhcndtyyjuj
ltgfhnfvtynf CIF, Njv 6, § 1, bñkm 2001 ujlf
Cfqns d Bynthytnt
Ccskrb yf htcehcs, gjcdzotyyst
eujkjdyjve celjghjbpdjlcnde
http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/cj.html
Journal of Criminal Justice and Popular Culture
http://www.albany.edu/scj/jcjpc/index.html
Dctjåütvkñofz gjlåjhrf ccskjr yf htceh-
Änjn éehyfk bplftncz Afrekmntnjv eujkjdyjuj
cs, drkñxfz jhufybpfwbb, ltkf, ljrkfls b
celjghjbpdjlcndf Eybdthcbntnf u. Jkåfyb,
vyjujt lheujt.
infn Ymñ-Qjhr, b ghtljcnfdkztn ljcneg r cnfnmzv, äcct b jåpjhfv, ghbdjlbvsv åtp cj-
Eujkjdyjt celjghjbpdjlcndj dj
Dctvbhyjq rjvgmñnthyjq ctnb
http://www.albany.edu/scj/links.html
rhfotybz.
Cfqn Afrekmntnf eujkjdyjuj ghfdjcelbz Eyb-
Atlthfkmyjt åñhj hfccktljdfybq (AÅH)
http://www.fbi.gov/
dthcbntnf u. Jkåfyb, infn Ymñ-Qjhr, cjlth-
Cfqn ghtljcnfdkztn ljcneg r jnxtnfv AÅH j
ébn ccskrb yf vyjétcndj wtyysö bcnjxybrjd
ghtcnegyjcnb d CIF, gjrfpfybzv yf ckeifyb-
byajhvfwbb, gjcdzotyysö atlthfkmysv b
zö d Rjyuhtcct, gkfrfnfv c bpjåhfétybtv
infnysv pfrjyfv, yjdsv bybwbfnbdfv d jå-
jcjåj jgfcysö ghtcnegybrjd d hjpscrt b
kfcnb ≤djccnfyjdbntkmyjuj≥ ghfdjcelbz, gjkb-
jgjdtotybtv j ghtcnegktybzö, f nfrét r hfp-
wbb b bcghfdbntkmysv exhtéltybzv.
ltke ≤AÅH – ltnzv≥.
Criminal Justice, 2000 Volumes 1–4
http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/pubs-sum/
cj2000.htm
Yfwbjyfkmyfz cghfdjxyfz ckeéåf
eujkjdyjuj celjghjbpdjlcndf
http://www.ncjrs.org/
Yfwbjyfkmysq bycnbnen ñcnbwbb gjhexbk
Ckeéåf ghtlcnfdkztn cjåjq abyfycbhetvsq
åjktt 60 cgtwbfkbcnfv d jåkfcnb eujkjdyjuj
ghfdbntkmcndjv CIF byajhvfwbjyysq wtynh,
celjghjbpdjlcndf ghjfyfkbpbhjdfnm ljcnb-
ljcnegysq kñlzv dj dctv vbht, pfybvfñ-
étybz d jåkfcnb bccktljdfybq eujkjdyjuj
obvcz bccktljdfybzvb, gjkbnbrjq b ghfrnb-
ghfdjcelbz b yjdst ntyltywbb d jåkfcnb
rjq d jåkfcnb eujkjdyjuj ghfdjcelbz b ghfdj-
ghtcnegyjcnb b eujkjdyjuj celjghjbpdjlcndf
celbz gj ltkfv ytcjdthityyjktnybö b åjhm-
d CIF. Dtå-cfqn cjlthébn gjkyst ntrcns
ås c yfhrjnbrfvb.
cnfntq.
45
Yfwbjyfkmysq bycnbnen ñcnbwbb (YBÑ):
gjbcrjdfz cbcntvf
http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/search.htm
≤Äktrnhjyysq cnfnbcnbxtcrbq cghfdjxybr
gj eujkjdyjve ghfdjcelbñ jykfqy≥
http://www.albany.edu/sourcebook/
YBÑ – jhufy Vbybcnthcndf ñcnbwbb CIF gj
Gjcnjzyyj jåyjdkztvfz gjlåjhrf lfyysö j
bccktljdfybzv b hfphfåjnrfv b tlbycndty-
cbcntvt eujkjdyjuj ghfdjcelbz d CIF, jghj-
yjt atlthfkmyjt dtljvcndj, pfybvfñottcz
cfö jåotcndtyyjuj vytybz, ghtcnegybrfö b
bcrkñxbntkmyj bccktljdfybtv djghjcjd
eujkjdysö ltkfö.
åjhmås c ghtcnegyjcnmñ b ghfdjcelbz. YBÑ
dytgfhnbqyst, yfexyj jåjcyjdfyyst pyfybz b
Dthöjdysq cel CIF
http://www.supremecourtus.gov/
bycnhevtyns lkz htitybz ghjåktv ghtcneg-
Gjctnbntkb cfqnf gjpyfrjvzncz c Dthöjdysv
yjcnb b ghfdjcelbz, jcjåtyyj yf ehjdyt inf-
celjv CIF b epyfñn, rfr ébden ysytiybt b
njd b vtcnyjv ehjdyt.
åsdibt celmb, f nfrét ghjxnen bö vytybz b
ghtljcnfdkztn jåütrnbdyst, ytpfdbcbvst,
ljdjls gj ltkfv, dsyjcbdibvcz yf hfccvjn-
Åñhj ghjuhfvv d jåkfcnb ghfdjcelbz
(ÅGJG)
http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/
C 1984 ujlf Åñhj ghjuhfvv d jåkfcnb ghfdjcelbz CIF dscnegftn dtleobv atlthfkmysv
dtljvcndjv gj hfpdbnbñ gjntywbfkf cnhfys d
jåkfcnb ghjabkfrnbrb ghtcnegktybq b åjhmås c ghtcnegyjcnmñ, cjdthitycndjdfybz cbcntv eujkjdyjuj celjghjbpdjlcndf b ghfdjcelbz gj ltkfv ytcjdthityyjktnybö, hfcibhtybz b eukeåktybz pyfybq j ghtcnegyjcnb b
cvtéysö djghjcfö, f nfrét gjvjob éthndfv
ghtcnegyjcnb.
≤Frnefkmyst djghjcs jåotcndtyyjq ébpyb
jy-kfqy≥
(Public Agenda Online)
http://www.publicagenda.org/issues/major_
proposals_detail.cam?issue_type=crime&list=1
Jcyjdfyyfz d 1975 ujle ghjcdtnbntkmcrfz jhufybpfwbz, rjnjhfz eukeåktyyj bpexftn b fyfkbpbhetn jnyjitybt fvthbrfywtd r ghtcnegyjcnb, yfrfpfybñ, cvthnyjq rfpyb b lheubv
frnefkmysv djghjcfv jåotcndtyyjq ébpyb, f
nfrét pfybvftncz dytgfhnbqysvb b ytrjvvthxtcrbvb bccktljdfybzvb jåotcndtyyjuj
vytybz.
46
htybt Dthöjdyjuj celf.
Djghjcs ltvjrhfnbb Äktrnhjyysq éehyfk Ujcelfhcndtyyjuj
ltgfhnfvtynf CIF, Njv 6, § 1, bñkm 2001 ujlf
Ä
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