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Ron Martinez
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THOIVTSON
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HEINLE
AustraliaCanada Mexico SingaporeSpain UnitedKingdom UnitedStates
lntroduction
Introduction
Methodology
Teachersoften complain that teaching materials
are bland and devoid of the very topics we discuss
in our daily lives. The title of this book suggests
that the material covers controversialand difficult
issueswhich studentsmay be reluctantto discuss.
Many of the issuesare indeedcontroversialbut the
materialis in no way intendedto shock.In fact, the
contents closely resemblethose we find in our
newspapersevery day.
It is expected that this material will be used by
experienced teachers. The teachers' notes,
therefore, have been kept to a minimum and
comprise only short notes, the answers, and
occasionalextra ideas.
1. terboossuch as swearing, talking about death
and prostitution
a w i d e r c l a s sd i s c u s s i o n .
Bearingin mind the sensitivenature of many of the
topics, we suggestit will usually be best to start by
asking studentsto think silently about some of the
questionsbefore they are asked to say anything at
There are good reasonswhy general classroom all. They then work in pairs and small groups
m a t e r i a l s a v o i d t o p i c s w h i c h m a y l e a d t o before the topic is opened up to the whole class.
embarrassment
or friction in the classroom.Many In a similar way, with the reading texts, students
teachersmay be hesitant to use such materials. often work in pairs, with each reading a different
However, many more experienced teachers short text, which they then report to their partner,
recognise the motivational value of materials before the material is dealt with in the whole class.
which more closelyreflectthe real world.
During individual or pair work, monitor what is
This book presents just such stimulating and happening. You may wish to help out with
r e l e v a n t t o p i c s . T h r e e b r o a d c a t e g o r i e s a r e languagewhere necessary,but you can also judge
covered:
whetherand how the topic(s)can be openedout to
It goes without saying that, as the teacher, you
2 . s e r i o u s i s s u e s s u c h a s r a c i s m a n d g e n e t i c should remain neutral throughout any discussions,
engineering
seekingonly to encouragestudentsto expresstheir
3. personal matters such as appearance,hygiene views.
and nudity.
The materiirl is not intended to form the basisof a
course but a resource from which teachers can,
with their students, select topics which interest
them. The material should only be used with
classesyou know well and where the studentsare
sensitiveenough to respectand trust both you and
their fellow students.Even then, you must use the
material sensitively. Individual students or
membersof their family or close friends may have
immediate,personal,even painful, experienceof
many of the topics. In some cases,you may want
to checkwith an individual studentbeforeusing a
particulartopic in class.It is essentialthat teachers
remain alert for difficulties. If a particular issue
becomestoo sensitive,the teachermust be willing
to abandonthe topic and be preparedto move on
to somethingcompletely different.
Studentswill often have strongly-held views and
possiblyprofound personalexperienceswhich they
are willing to sharewith the class.Indeed,trying to
engagestudents in this way is perhaps the prime
purpose of the materials.While encouragingand
helping them to express their views and
experiences,you must, however,never lose sight of
the fact that it is a languagelessonand they must
be in no way pressurised into discussing or
revealingthings about themselveswith which they
are in any way unhappy. A student who wishes to
remain silent must have their right to do so
respected.
Using the internet
M o s t u n i t si o l l o w t h i s p a t r c r n :
Becausethe topics are controversial and regularly
in the news, it will almost always be easy to find
related material by a quick searchof the internet.
Usually typing two or three key words into a
search engine will be sufficient to give you
contemporary examplesrelevant to the topic.
left hand page: introductory discussionand one or
more short texts
Richard MacAndrew
Ron Martinez
How a unit is organised
right hand page: language work
discussion.
and further
The lcft hernd page usually provides the basic
material for a lesson,while the right hand page
providesextensionor follow-up work.
Contents
1.
Death
Talking dhout deatb, funerals, home burials
2.
Nudity
3.
Politicallyincorrectjokes
.Wby
'V/earing
no clothes is natural.
do people get so upset about this?
Is it OK to joke about disabledpeople, religion, deatb?
4.
Tabooconversationtopics
Questionsyou cdn't ask. For example: How much do you weigh/earn?
5.
lt should be banned!
Bullfighting, human cloning, boxing, the Ku Klux Klan - ban them all!
6.
Not my type
Bdd breath, bites his nails, thin legs- what do you auoid in a pdrtner?
7.
Sex for sale
Prostitution - cdn we stoD it? Should we stctDit?
8.
Swearing
Is it OK to swear? What swetr words do/could you use?
9.
Torture
Does torture happen in your country? Is torture always wrong?
10. Sexualharassment
rYhat's wrong with telling a colleague she has nice legs?
11. Briberyand corruption
gifts,bribes,perks- is thereany difference?
Rewards,
12. Designerbabies
Blonde hair, blue eyes- would yow like to designyour children?
1 3 . C h i l d r e nw h o k i l l
.When
a child kills someone,who is responsible- the child, the parents, society?
14. Gays and jobs
Does it matter that d doctor, teacher,or tbe Prime Minister is gay?
1 5 . A n i m a lr i g h t s
We eat them, we do experimentson them, we keep them as pets. Do you object?
16. Marriage- for better or for worse
What's the point of marriage thesedays?
17. Nobody needs a gun
Gun massacresin schools.
.Why
.Wbat's
wrong with diuorce?
do people carry guns?
'Would
you euer use a gun?
18. The sale of human organs
.Would
.Wbat
you let doctors remoue your orgdns?
about people who sell their organs?
19. AIDS
.Would
yowtreata frienddifferentlyif (s)hehadHIV?
Whatdo you knowaboutAIDSi
20. Tellinglies
How honestdre you?
21. Abortion
Are you Pro-lifeor Pro-choice?
22. NationalstereotYPes
"They're lazy and'rlirhonrrt." Blind preiwdice,or is tbere some truth in stereotypes?
23. Cheatingon YourPartner
tflhat is cbeating?Just looking dt someone else,fantasising'dn e-mdil relationsbip!
24. Are you haPPYwith Your bodY?
Haueyou thoughtabout it?
Cosmeticsurgeryi, ,o iongeriust/or the rich and famous'
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25. lmmigrationand racism
comingto liuein yours?
Ho* io you feelaboutpeoplefrom othercountries
26. Ghangingsex
next to d trdnssexual?
Transsexuals- would you feel uncomfortable if you sat
27. ls this news?
rwbat is the news for - to prouide facts or to sbock and entertain?
28. The right to die
Euthanasid- who has the right to choose?
29. Old enough to be her grandfather!
.V/hynot?
woman?
*on with a 25-year-old
A 7T-year-ild
30. Big Brother is watching!
be woftied about?
Are we losing our priuacy? Haue you got anything trt
3 1 . Anxiety and depression
'What
Do you get depressed?
c(tn you do about it?
32. Gay families
f*L ,lacl,andno mum.rybatis a normalfamilythesedays?
33. Begging
Should we giue beggarsmoney or lock them up?
culture
34. Compensation
easymoney?
More pectpleare swingthan euerbefore.Is it right or is it iust
35. Sportand money
ouerpaid?
Are tolt sportsprofessionals
36. Vanity
Are men uainerthan women?
3 7 . Legalisingdrugs
Is it time to cbangethe laws on soft drugs?
3 8 . Turning the other cheek
Do you-findit easyto forgiuepeopleor do you holdgrudges?
39. The death PenaltY
Are you in fauourof it?
40. Addictions
dre you hooked on?
Alcohol,nicotine,drugs, chocglate,shctpping,football.'what
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Death
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Introduction
Do you find this conversation offensive?
I haven't seenHarry for months. How is he?
> Dead! He died just beforeChristmas.
Which would you prefer to say?
He passedaway just beforeChristmas.
or We lost him just beforeChristmas.
Do you use similar expressions in your language to
avoid the words dead or died? lf so, what are they?
Discussion
ln your country:
1. When someonedies,what happensto their body?
a. It is buried. b.It is cremated.
c. Somethingelse
2. \7here do funeralceremoniestake place?
a. In a church b. At d sbrine
c. Sometuhereelse
3. Who usuallyattendsfunerals?
d. Only men b. Men and women c. Anyone
4. What colour do peoplewear ro signify death?
a. Black
b.White
c. A different colowr
.5.What do peopleusuallydo at funerals?
a. Cry openly and expressstrong emotions.
b. Keep their emotions under control.
c. Try not to cry, but cry quietly if they cdnnot help it.
When you die, would you prefer to be buried or cremated?
"Die,
my dear doctor? That's
the last thing I shall do!"
Lord PctLmerstot't
SURPRISING HONESTY AT FUNERAL
Family and friends at the funeral of George
Ramsbottom in Honley, West Yorkshire,
were stunnedwhen his brother,Frank, stood
up in the church and told everyonethat his
brother would not be missed.
Describing his brother as the meanestman
he had ever met, he went on to list all the
people who would be glad to know that
Georgehad died, and gave the reasonswhy.
He claimed that Georgewas a liar, a cheat,a
womaniserand a drunk. "He owed money to
half the people in the village; he had ruined
a number of marriages; and he was often
incredibly rude for no good reason. No one
will be sad that he has sone." said Frank
Ramsbottom.
Mr Ramsbottom's unexpectedspeech was
followed by complete silence. Eventually
Margaret Dudley, the minister in charge of
the service,stoodto say,"Let us give thanks
for George'slife with our final song." She
then sang on her own while everyone else
stood in silence.The service ended shortlv
afterwards.
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Reading
Read the two articles opposite. Then choose the best
answers to these two questions:
1.Why do you think nobody sangthe final song at the
fur-reral<tf George Ramsbottom?
a. Becausethey didn't agree with George's brotber.
b. Becdusethey were shocked hy what had happened.
2. What is Maplethorpecouncil going to do?
a. Order the body to be re-buried in a cemetery.
b. l"lothing.
Discussthe questionsbelow in pairs:
1. Was Frank Ramsbottomright ro make the speech?
2. "You should neverspeakill of the dead." Do you
agree?
3. Can you bury someonein their gardenin your
country?
4. Can you scattertheir asheswherever you like?
5. How would you feel if your nexr-doorneighbours
buried their grandmorherin their back garden?
Death
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HOME BURIAL CAUSES ANGER
A family who buried a relative in their back
gardenhave angeredneighbours.
Residentsof a care home were shocked to
seethe coffin of Daniel Stevensloweredinto
a grave in ChesterfieldRoad, Maplethorpe.
Staff at the Adamson care home, which
overlooks the garden, want the body reburied in a cemetery.
Geraldine Thomson, the manager of the
home, said: "Someone sent me a letter last
week to say the funeral would happen on
Thursday.I thought it was ajoke.
There were about 200 people in the garden
for the service.When I called the police they
said they couldn't do anything to stop it
becauseit wasn't illegal."
Maplethorpecouncil said it was not able to
prevent a burial on private land as long as
certainrules were followed.
Iaboos and /ssues
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Language
Use the correct form of these verbs below:
murder
kill
die
.....fora
1 . I ' m j u s t g o i n g o u t s i d e .I ' m
cigarette.
2. Do you want a drink?
> Y e s I, c o u l d
... acupof tea.
3. What's your new boyfriend like? I'm
....t0meethim.
. . warmed up! Are
9. You look like
you ill?
10.I don't just want to sit on the beachall day.
I'll be bored to . . .
you
have similar idioms in your language?
Do
Do you know these idiomatic expressions?
He's kicked the bucket.
He'spopped his c/ogs.
He'sgone to meet his maker.
4.I've been out shoppingall day. My feet are
. . . . . . m e !
5. The train doesn'tleavetill 4, so we've got
nearly an hour to . . .
'Whenever
you open your
6. Just keep quiet.
... theEnglish
mouth,you..
language!
Add the following words to these sentences:
death
murder
7. When is it going to stop raining?I'm sick to
of this weather!
8. Sorrv I'm so late. The traffic was . .
"'Will you pleasetakeyour
Discussion
feet
off *y bestcbair!"
Answer the questions below on your own:
1. How do you feel when the subject of death comes into the conversation?
a. [Jncomfortable- I don't want to talk abowt it.
b. lt dependshow other people redct.
c. Fine - it's perfectly natural to talk about death.
Or do you have another reaction?
2. You have to tell a close friend that a mutual friend of yours has died. You know that they were
very close. How would you start the conversation?
a. I'm afraid we won't be meeting Mary for lunch on Friday after all.
b. Haue you heard? Mary's jwst died.
c. You'd better sit dotun. I'ue got some bad news about Mary. She died last night.
C)r would you say somethingelse?
3. A friend of yours (a rather unreliable one) has just died, owing you a lot of money. After the
funeral his sistercomes to talk to you. Do you say:
a. I was hoping to meet one of the family so I can get my money back.
b. Poor George! He was such a good friend. (and forget about the money)
c. I shall miss George- but not as much as the ["1000 he ctwedme!
Or would you say somethingelse?
4. If the only work availablewas working with dead bodies - for example as an undertaker or a
pathologist - what would you do?
a. Take the job. Somebodybas to do lobs like that. It's no big deal.
b. I could neuer do a iob like that.'What would my friends think? I'd rather starue.
c. I'd ask for a huge salary.It would be OK if I was paid a lot.
d. Pleasestop tall<ing about it. I feel sick.
Compareand discuss your answers in pairs or small groups.
ls it OK to joke about death?
Iaboos and /ssues
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Nudity
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Vocabulary
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Nude / Naked- both words mean wearing no crothes. For exampre:
He wrrscompletelynarked.Shewas standingthere,in the nude.
Naturism is the activity of not wearing any clothes because you believe
it is more natural or healthy.
The peopfe who do this are called nudists or naturists.
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Discussion
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How would you react in the following situations?would you laugh,
be embarrassed,cover your eyes,
have a good look, or do somethingelse?
l. You are warchinga football match when a
nrrkeclwoman runs onto the pitch and stops
the garrnc.
4. You are ar the beach with your family. A man
and a woman put their towels near you, take
off all their clothesand lie down to sunbathe.
2. Some ncw friends of yours have a sauna.After
clinncr,they suggestyou all relax and chat in
the siruna.When you are getting ready, you
cliscoverthat you are expectedto be naked.
5. You are invited to dinner by some people you
don't know very well. After dinner, they show
you their holiday photographs.They had been
to a naturist resort in the south of France.The
picturesleavenothing to the imagination!
-1.Yru rrreshoppingin the main streetof your
town. You notice a man walking down the
street.He is not wearing any clothes,but is
carrf ing a shoppingbag.
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6. Your new boyfriend/girlfriend suggestsgorng ro
'V7hen
the beach.
you get there, it,s a nudist
beach.
Reading
Answer these questions. Then read the article to find out the answers.
l. How manv narlrristsdo you think there are in Britain?
a. 5,000 b. 25,000 c. 50,000
2.How many official nudist beachesdo you think there are in Britain?
a.10
b.50
c.100
.1.D. v..r think it is p.ssible to go on a nudist packageholiday?
EVERY BEACH SHOULDBE A NUDISTBEACH
This sunrmer British naturists are spokespersonfbr BN, the
British England to France, which British
planningkr swirn and bathe naked Naturism magazine. "we
wilr N a t u r i s m h o p e s w i l l i n c r e a s e
on public beachesthroughout the def'endour members in court
... as awareness of topless and nudist
collntry to draw .ttention to public long as we are satisfiecl
that they beachesin many partsof the world.
and official opp.sition to their have behaved reasonably
a n d Britain alreadyhas I 70 clubs and l0
lit'estyle.
there's
been
no
i n d e c e n t beacheswhere naturismis ofTicially
British Naturism. the leading UK behaviour."
permitted and, surprisingly, the
o r g a n i s a t i o nf b r n a t u r i s t s .i s n o t T h e N u c l e T o l e r a n c e C a m p a i g n ,
naturist lifestylc is becoming big
only encouraging its members to which
started quietty
last business. Members of BN enjoy
b a t h e n a k e d w h e r e v e rt h e y w a n t , N o v e m b e r , i s b u i l d i n g
up as discounts on ferry servlces.car
b u t i s a l s o p r o m i s i n g t o c l e f ' e n ds u m m e r a r r i v e s a n d B r i t a i n ' s
rental and breakdown insuranccand
the''in court if they iire arrestecl
by 25,000 naturists arrive at beaches can enjoy f2,000 nudist Caribbean
the policc.
and clubs all over the UK. There c r u i s e s . S e v e r a l l a r g e t o u r
"Basically.
.ur view is that every wiil also be a nude cross-Channel
operators, including Virgin. offer
b c a c h i s a n a t u r i s t sb' e a c h , "s a i c la r e l a y s w i m f i o m t h e s o u t h
o f natunstsummerpackages.
Nudity
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Taboosand /ssues
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Politicallyincorrectjokes
Discussion
Readthis joke about a blind person.ls it funny?
A blind man and his guide dog went into a department store to do some
by the tail and
Christmas shopping. Atl of a sudden, the man picked up his dog"sir!
Can I hellt
started to swing it)round in a circle. A salesassistantshouted,
"I'm
"No
yctu?"
thanks," the blind man replied,
iust looking"'
joke which upset
Have you ever laughed at something that other people thought was not funny or told a
people? Describe the situation.
ls it OK to tel jokes about anything and everything? Would any or all of the following offend you? Why?
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
a ioke about a physicallydisabledperson
a joke that makes fun of women
a ioke that makes fun of men
a loke that makes fun of the elderly
a ioke that ridiculesa particularreligion
a ioke involving a particular country or nationality
a loke making fun of lawyers
a ioke that makes fun of blondes
Do you know any jokes involving any of the above?
ls there a particular group of people in your country who are often the object of jokes?
Language
Use the correct form of these verbs to complete the jokes below:
climb
make
drown
pLtt
retrdtn
take
call
haue
. . . a blonde laugh on
1.How do you
Friday?
> Tell her a joke on Monday.
...ablonde?
2.Howdoyou
> Put a mirror on the bottom of a swimming
pool.
3. What's the differencebetweena blonde and a
computer?
information into
> You only have to . . .
a computer once.
say
throw
6. \fhy don't blondes get coffee breaks?
> It takes too long to . . . . . . them afterwards.
'V7hat
do intelligent blondes and UFOs
7.
...incommon?
> You often hear about them, but you never
seeone.
. . . to screw
8. How many blondes does it
in a light bulb?
> One. Sheholds the bulb still and the world
revolvesaround her.
. . . over the glass
4. Why did the blonde
wirll?
> Tcrseewhat was on the other side.
9. IX/hatdo you
brain?
> Gifted.
S.What do you do if a blonde . . . . . . . - a
grenadeat you?
> Pull the pin out and throw it back.
' . . if her doctor
10.What would a blonde
told her that she was pregnant?
> Is it mine?
. . . a blonde with half a
Did you find these jokes offensive? Do you know anybody who would? Are they blonde?
it to
Thi;k about a joke that you know and try to translate it into English. Write it down first and then tell
a classmate.
Politically incorrect iokes
Taboosand /ssues
Reading
The authors would like to make it clear that none of the following jokes has been written by them. They
are typical of jokes which exist in books of jokes and on joke websites.The jokes printed here are among
the least offensive! As you read the jokes below, rate each one for its level of humour and level of
offensiveness:
HUMOUR
A: very funny
OFFENSIVENESS A: verv offensive
B: a bit funny
B: a little offensive
C: not funny
C: not offensiveat all
loke 1
Q: How can you tell when a lawyeris lying?
A : H i s l i p sa r em o v i n g .
loke 7
How do you make a cat go 'woof'?.
Soak it in petrol and throw it on the fire.
foke 2
A womanwas payingfor someitemsin a
- a pint of milk,a packetof bacon,a
supermarket
smallbagof rice and a few vegetables.
The man at
the checkoutsaid,"l betyou'resingle,aren'tyou?"
"Well yes,I am,"the womanreplied."How
did you
you'rereallyveryugly,"replied
know?""Because
the man.
foke B
There was a young man from Calcutta,
Who had the most terrible stutter,
H e s a i d , P a s st h e h - h a m ,
And the 1r-ffjam,
And the b-b-b-b-b-b-butter.
foke 3
HOW TO IMPRESS
A WOMAN
Compliment
her,cuddleher,kissher,caressher,
love her,strokeher,comfort her,protecther,hug
her,wine and dine her,buy giftsfor her,listento
her,respecther,standby her,supporther,go to the
endsof the earthfor her.
HOW TO IMPRESS
A MAN
Arrivenaked... with beer.
foke 4
How do you makea dog drink?
P u ti t i n a l i q u i d i s e r .
foke 5
Q: How do men sorttheirlaundry?
' F i l t h yb u t s t i l lw e a r a b l e . '
A: 'Filthy'and
foke 6
Q: What hasfour legsand eightarms?
A: A pit-bullterrierin a children's
playground.
foke 9
A young man with a wild and multi-coloured
hairstylesits next to an old man on a park bench.
The old man staresat the young man. "What's the
matter,old man?" saysthe young man. "Never done
a n y t h i n gc r a z y i n y o u r l i f e ? "T h e o l d m a n r e p l i e s :
"Yeah. When I was in the Navy, I got really
drunk
one night and had sex with a parrot. I thought you
might be my son."
loke 10
Q: How do you know when you're too fat?
A: When you step on the scalesand it says 'To
be continued.'
foke 11
Q: If your wife comes out of the kitchen to nag you,
what have you done wrong?
A: Made her chain too long.
foke 12
Q : W h y d o l t a l i a nm e n w e a r l o t s o f g o l d c h a i n s
a r o u n dt h e i r n e c k s ?
A: So they know when to stop shaving.
Match the following reactions to the relevantjokes above:
a. Anybody who thinks setting fire to an animal is funny needspsychiatrichelp. They are sick!
b. That's in really bad taste.Peoplewho have a speechimpedimenr can'r help it.
c. I don't think you should joke about people'sappearance.It's not their fault!
d.I don't get it. (I don't understandthe johe.)
Discussion
Did you find any of the jokes offensive or 'sick'? Which, it any?
Who would be offended by the jokes above? Consider each one with a partner.
Are there any categories of jokes that you would describe as offensive that were not included above?
Taboosand /ssues
Pol iticaIly incorrectjoke s
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Work in pairs. Discussthese questions:
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When you fill in a form, are you h"ppy to give this information:
Yottr age?
Your mdrital statusl
Your income?
Are there any other questionsyou don't like answering?
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Readthrough the four conversationsbelow.Who are the peopleand what is the situation?
;
t
Conversation 1
A: Your blood pressureis absolutelyfine. Have
you beeneatingnormally?
B: Oh yes.The sameas normal.
A: And do you take any regularexercise?
B: Yes,I play squashtwice a week.
A: Mm. Tell me, how much do you weigh?
B: About 68 kilos.
t
Gonversation2
A:
B:
A:
B:
Ia
'We've
just moved in
Hello, I'm Jean Walker.
nert door.
Paul Burton. Pleasedto meet you. Do you
work locally?
Yes, I'm a solicitor with a firm on the High
Street.
A solicitor.That's a good job. How much do
you eirrn?
I
u
I
I
f
d
a
Conversation3
A:
B:
A:
B:
Hello. I'rn looking for a white tennis shirt.
OK. Tennisshirtsare over here.
As you can see,I'll need a fairly large srze.
Yes, I c:rn seethat. How much do you weigh,
if you don't mind me asking?
Conversation4
A: Gareth,you will be delightedto hear that we
wor-rldlike to offer you the job.
B: Great! Thank you very much.
A: \7e need tc'rtalk a bit about salaries.
B: Right, yes,of course.
A: Rernindme, how much do you earn at the
moment?
B: About {35,000 a year.
A: Yes,well, we won't be able to give you more
than that initirrlly, but we shor-rldbe able t<;
match it.
Tabooconversationtopics
a
J
a
"Good
morning. I'd like to talk
to you ahout the Bible."
a
J
-
Discussion
I
1.In each dialogue there is a personal question.
Decide if the question is appropriate to the
situation and the speakers. lf it is not
appropriate,why isn't it?
2. The questionsin conversations2 and 3 do not
have answers.How do you think the speaker
should reply in these situations?
3. Have you ever been asked an inappropriate
question? When and who by? How did you
respond? Have you ever asked an inappropriate
question by accident?What happened?
Taboosand /ssues
-1
I
J
d
a
I
T
t
t
I
!
;
a
2
l
Ir
i=
Language
i-
Mark the expressions below in the following way:
if they are polite ways of asking personal questions
O
R
if they are ways of responding to personal questions
E
F.!
Er
h
t-r
I
:i.r
EI
l-
=f..i
tsl
F-
-
ET
-l
-rEI
l.l hope you don't mind me asking,but ...
2 . I ' d r a t h e rn o t a n s w e rt h a t ( i f y o u d o n ' t m i n d ) .
1
'
l
J. t Know this is a bit nosey,but ...
4 . M i n d v ( ) r r ro w n b u s i n e s s !
5. wliv do you ask?
6. Can I ask you a personalquestion?
7. That's rrrther il personalquestion.
8 . I k n o w t h i s i s a b i t p e r s o n a l b, u t . . .
9. I'm afraid thert'sreally none of your business.
Discussion
Look at the questionsbelow.Decidewho has the right to ask you these questions.lt may be a particular
person, for example, a doctor, a priest, a police officer, a partner/lover.lt might be anybody or it might
be nobody. Write anyone. a particular person or no one next to each question.
-
How old are you?
Have you ever taken drugs?
E
How much do you weigh?
Are you planning to start a family?
How tall are you?
Who did you vote for at the last election?
How much do you earn?
Have you got a criminal record?
Have you got a boy/girlfriend?
Are you gay?
Are you a virgin?
How much was your CD-player?
Are you married?
\fhat religion are you?
\rVereyour parentsmarried?
How do you feel about abortion?
U
E'
-l
-
Ei
-q
rla
EI
rE
-
Work in pairs.Ask your partnerthe questions.Use the expressionsin the Languagework to help you
ask and answerthe questions.
II
-
-a
E
rla
--a
Your best friend
Gouldyou say these things to your best friend?
Your breirthis terrible.
I think you've had enoughto drink.
You smell nice. What is it?
You look silly in that shirt.
You need a haircut.
I think you should ring and apologise.
Your boy/girlfriend'sgot nice legs.
If you want to smoke, do it outside.
I wish you'd learn how to make coffee.
zrp)
Your fly is undone. (fly = 11611.er
E
-
-a
ET
-
Et
F'
-
Could you say the same things to your teacheror your boss?
Do you have a friend you can say anything to?
Are you a tactful person or are you more blunt and direct?
Do you think being direct is a good or a bad thing?
-l
td
I
I
I
F--
II
I
|!
Taboos
and/ssues
Tabooconversation
topics
4
It shouldbe banned!
Discussion
Here is a list of some things which are banned in some countries,but are allowed in others. In pairs or
small groups, discuss whether they are banned in your country and then comparewith others in your
class:
. toplesssunbathing
. smoking insidepublic buildings
. abortion pills
o s m o k i n gm a r i j u a n a
. sellingalcohol on electionday
o parentSsmacking children
lf some or all of the things above are not banned in your country, do you think they should be?
Why / why not?
Reading
Read these articles and answer the questions below each one with a partner:
WOMAN ARRESTEDON RIO BEACH
I'OX HUNT SABOTEURS ARRESTED
A young woman was amestedyesterdaytbr using
only one part of her two-part bikini. Braziliansare
famous fbr their love of the beach,and wear very
s m a l l b i k i n i s b u t t o p l e s s s u n b a t h i n gi s s t i l l n o t
'look the other way'
allowed.Policeusedto have a
policy but localauthoritieshavebegunto enforcethe
controversiallaw which forbids nudity.The woman
"This is Brazil - not
was unrepentant
afterher arrest:
England.not the US. We believein fieedomand we
bclieve in the right to show our bodies. This is
absolutelyricliculous."
Two men and a woman were anestedby police after
pulling a man off his hclrse,causinghim to breakhis
arm.The incidenthappenedas the threetried to stop
a fox-huntgoing aheadin the Sussexcountrysidein
t h c s o u t ho f E n g l a n d .
1. ls this law sensible, in your opinion?
'look the other way' policy?
2. What is meant by a
3. "We believe in the right to show our bodies."
Do you agree with her?
Severalminutes of arguing had precededthe attack
when the small group anived with bells and whistles
"Hunting fbxes is
to confusethe dogs and horses.
murder." screamedone of the group before being led
away by police.
1. Do you feel sympathetic towards the offenders
in this article? Why? Why not?
2. Do you have any animal sports in your country
which you think should be banned?
BAR FINED FOR ALLOWING SMOKING
KU KLUX KLAN RALLY VIOLENCE
Popularbar O'Malley's was fined $1.000on Friday
city order
nightfbr disobeyingthe new SanFrancisct'r
which prohibitssmokingin any public building.The
owner plans to appeal against the fine before a
"l
hearingthis afiernoon. tell you. even if the fine
stays.there'sno way I'm going to make my loyal
customersgo outsidein the cold to smoke."he said
yesterday.His customers have of'fbred a lot of
support.
"Has
the world gone mad'?This is a barl It's a place
"l
fbr vices." said one regular. can't drink without
smokingl"
Four members of the Ku Klux Klan brotherhood
were beaten up at a public rally in which KKK
"a cry fbr white freedom."
memberswere calling for
1. What do you think about this law?
2. What do you think the bar owner should do?
3. What was one customer's justification for
smoking in the bar? Do you agree?
It shouldbanned!
Tempers began to flare when the Klan members,
in traditionalwhite robes,begantheir march
clressed
t h r o u g h a p r e d o m i n a n t l yb l a c k n e i g h b o u r h o o d
"White power!" Locals took to the streets
shouting
and showedtheir opposition.some using violence.
Four men were anestedby the police.
"We are a peaceful organisationwith the right to
"It's not our
speakour minds," said one Klansman.
fault thesepeopleare animals."
1. Do you sympathise with the offenders?
'the right
2. The man from the KKK said they had
to speak our minds'. Do you agree?
3. Should groups like the KKK be banned?
Taboosand /ssues
Language
Use the correct form of these verbs to complete
the texts below:
stgn
go on
protest dgatnst
I (1) . .
. . . a protestmarch
tomorrow with Greenpeaceto (2)
. . . . the JapaneseGovernment's
policy on whaling. \7e are trying ro ger 5,000
p e o p l e t o( 3 ) .
...a petirion,whichwe
plan to hand in to the JapaneseEmbassy.This is
something I feel very strongly about.
urSe
ban
boycott
carry out
I belongto an organisationthat (4)
against animals being used ro test cosmetics.We
(5) . . .
politiciansand consumergroups
and (6)
. . the generalpublic to (7) .
c o m p a n i e s t h a(t8 )
.... experimentson
animals. Our aim eventually is for the
governmentto (9)
. . . all forms of animal
exploitation in the cosmeticsindustry.
cdmpatgn
lctbby
Discussion
Have you ever been on a protest march? What for?
Have you ever signed a petition? What for?
Have you ever boycotted a company or its products? Which ones? Why?
Do you think any of these actions make a difference?Which one is the most effective?
Newspaperlanguage
Certain words are found almost exclusively in newspapers, particularly in headlines. Match the
meaningson the right with the underlinedwords in the headlinesbelow:
I. POLICE OIJIZ ANIMAL RIGHTS GROUP
a. attempt
2. NUDISTS SEEK MORE SUPPORT
b. fight
3. MINISTER BACKS CANNABIS PLANS
c. interview
4. FASCISTPARTY IN POWER BID
d. supports
.5. NEW CALLS TO HALT FUR TRADE
e. demand
6. POLICE AND DEMONSTRATORS CLASH IN CAPITAL
f. stop
7. BOXING BAN PLEA
g. obstruct
8. GREENPEACEFOIL WHALERS
h. look for
Discussion
In small groups, decide whether any of the things below should be banned.Try to persuadethe others
in your group. Then take a vote for each one.
Iaboos and /ssues
bullfighting
g e n e t i c a l l ym o d i f i e d( G M )f o o d
f o x - hu n t i n g
h u m a nc l o n i n g
cockfighting
alcohol
f i s hi n g
cigarettes
whale-hunting
marijuana
shooting
prostitution
gunclubs
pornography
m i l i t a r ys e r v i c e
boxing
n u c l e a rt e s t i n g
soapoperas
b a l l r o o md a n c i n g
passports
It should be banned!
Not my type
Discussion
L How important is it for you to have a partner who is physicallyattractive?
2. Could you fall in love with someonewho was physicallyunattractive?
3. Have you ever beenout with someonewho had a disgusting/ embarrassinghabit?
Reading
Here are two letters to the 'problem page' of a magazine.As you read them, think about this question:
Hdt,e J,tttteuer nlet on),onewith the same or similar'prrtblems'?
Dear Betty,
Dear Bettv.
l've met thiswonderfulwoman.She's
, arming
t a l l ,b e a u t i f u il n
, t e l l i g e nct h
a man couldever
nearlyeverything
want.There'sonly one problem.Every
time shetriesto kissme I feel like
b e i n gs i c k !
thing
At firstI thoughtit was a passing
- that maybeshejust neededto brush
herteethmore.Now I realisethatthis
mustbe somekind of permanent
c o n d i t i o nW
. h a td o I d o n o w ?| c a n ' t
g o o n h o l d i n gm y b r e a t h( a sl ' m d o i n g
now)everytime sheleansoverto kiss
me. lt'sgettingto the pointwhereI
don'tevenlook in her directionwhen
shetalksto me! Thisis not your
kind of smellaveragemorning-breath
t h i si s m o r el i k es o m e t h i nhsa sd i e d
i n s i d eh e r !
W h a ts h o u l dI d o ?
Thomas
I have one of the most thoughtful,kind,
consideratemen on the planet but he
h a st h i s r e a l l yd i s g u s t i n gh a b i tt h a t I
can't standand I can't decide how to
tellhim.
B a s i c a l l yt ,h e p r o b l e m i s h e p i c k s h i s
n o s e .I d o n ' t m i n d s o m u c h w h e n w e ' r e
at home, alone, but when we're in
public, in a nice restaurant,or worse/ at
e hen we/rehaving
m y p a r e n t s ' h o u sw
just
want to disappear.He
dinner, I
s t a r t sd i g g i n gi n a n d p u l l i n gt h i n g so u t
and throwing them on the floor, or
even worse, puttingthem in his pocket!
And then afterwardswhen he wants to
hold my hand or touch my face I avoid
his advances- and of coursehe gets
upset.
I want to tell him about it becauseI
don't think he realisesthat he does it,
sim and I
b u t l ' m a f r a i dl ' l l e m b a r r a s h
d o n ' t w a n t t o l o s eh i m . I m e a n , I d o n ' t
w a n t t o s o u n dl i k e l ' m h i s m o t h e r .
P l e a s eh e l p .
Emily
Discussion
Discussthe following with a partner:
that tell you how bad Thomas'sgirlfriend'sbreath is.
1. Find words and expressions
2. Did anything in the two lettersmake you laugh?
3. Which problem above did you think was worse?
4. What would you do in Thomas'sor Emily's situation?
6
Not my type
Taboosand /ssues
Sex for sale
Discussion
1. Match the words on the left with the definitions on the right:
l. a prostitute
a. someonepaid ro go out socially with other people
2. a pimp
b. a house where men pay to have sex with prostitutes
3 . a r e d - l i g h rd i s r r i c r
c. a person who agreesto have sex in return for money
4. a brothel
d. part of a town where there are many prostitures
-5. a kerb-crawler
e. a man who controls prostitutesand lives off their earnings
6. an escort
f. a man who drives slowly along a road looking for a se"ual liaison
ls prostitution a problem where you live? ls there a red-light district in your town?
Readthe informationin the box and discuss the questionsin pairs or small groups:
At present,in Britain, a woman who
sells sex on her own in a single
property is not breaking the law.
However, it is illegal for a prostitute
to work, or to ask for work. in a
public place. If two or more women
sell sex in a single property, it is
technicallya brothel, which is illegal.
o What is the law in your country?
. Do you think it is too strict, too lenientor about
r:ight?\fhy?
o How would you feel if you found our rhar a close
friend or a member of your family was working as
a prostitute?
Shouldwe legalisebrothels?
Read the two articles to see if these statements are correct:
1.The police officer would like to have srricterlaws on prostitution.
2. The local councillorwould like to relax the laws on prostitution.
"lt's ridiculous
to try and eliminate a practice
w h i c h h a s b e e n g o i n g o n s i n c e t h e b e g i n n i n go f
c i v i l i s a t i o n .T h e r e a l w a y s h a s b e e n , a n d a r w a y s
w i l l b e , a d e m a n d f o r p r o s t i t u t e sy. o u c a n , t s t o p r t
b y m a k i n g i t i l l e g a l .T h e p r o b l e m s w e h a v e a r e
b e c a u s ep r o s t i t u t i o ni s n o t r e g u l a t e d T
. he women
i n v o l v e da r e a t r i s ko f b o t h p h y s i c a la n d e m o t i o n a l
a b u s ef r o m t h e p i m p s w h o , e m p l o y , t h e m .T h e i r
w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n sa r e o f t e n p o o r a n d t h e r e a r e
c o n s i d e r a b l eh e a l t h r i s k s .L e g a l i s i n gi t w o u l d g i v e
women more control over their lives _ their
h e a l t h , t h e i r s a f e t y a n d t h e i r f i n a n c e s .F r o m t h e
police point of view, it would also mean ress
o b v i o u s p r o s t i t u t i o no n t h e s t r e e t sa n d a r e d u c t i o n
i n r e l a t e dc r i m e s u c h a s d r u g d e a l i n g .T h e c u r r e n t
Iaws are contpletely impractical.lt,s time thev
were changed."
Helen Maddocks, senior police officer
"This
i s n o t a p r a c t i c a li s s u ea t a l l , i t ' s a m o r a t o n e
a n d l ' m d e a d a g a i n s ta n y c h a n g ei n t h e l a w . I n f a c t ,
I think the laws should be tougher.I agree we
s h o u l d b e c o n c e r n e da b o u t t h e h e a l t ha n d s a f e t yo f
the women, but the plain fact is, sexfor money is
wrong. Sex should not be for sale.The laws we
h a v ea r e n o t j u s t f o r s t a t i n gw h a t i s a l l o w e d a n d n o t
allowed, but also to show us what is good and
w h a t i s b a d . L e g a l i s i n gp r o s t i t u t i o n c r e a t e s t h e
i m p r e s s i o nt h a t i t i s a g o o d t h i n g . l t ' s a s i g n o f g r e a t
m o r a l w e a k n e s si n o u r s o c i e t y .P r o s t i t u t i o nm a y D e
t h e ' o l d e s t p r o f e s s i o n ' ,b u t t h a t d o e s n ' t m e a n t r
s h o u l d b e e n c o u r a g e dt o c o n t i n u e . "
Janet Boyce, local government councillor
Spend two minutesthinking about these questions,then discuss them with a partner:
l.Which argumentis closerto your own opinion?Underlinethe statementsyou agree
with.
2. Are you surprisedat the police officer's attitude? why? / \7hy not?
3. Do you agreethat prostitutionis a 'sign of great moral weaknessin our society'?
7
Sexfor sale
Taboosand /ssues
Language1
Language2
Look at this extract from the text:
Divide these expressions with /aw into three
groups:
1. What the governmentor the police do.
2. What offenders or criminals do.
3. What good citizens do.
This is not a practical issueat all,
it's a tnoral one.
Discuss with a partner. ls prostitution:
a practicalissueor a moral issue?
a complicatedissueor a straightforwardissue?
l n i m o o r t i - r ni ts s u eo r r n o n - i s s u e ?
Which verb does not collocate with issue.'
avoid
complicate
address
discuss
I
I
I
I
a. tighten the law
b. break the law
c. defy the law
d. obey the law
e. observethe law
f. relax the law
the issue
do
tackle
resolve
g. comply with the law
h. enforce the law
Which issues is your government addressing at
the moment? Which issues is it avoiding? Which
issues do you want your government to tackle?
i. ignore the law
j. abide by the law
k. changethe law
l. disobeythe law
Discussion
What would you say in reply to these people? Discuss with a partner.
I can earn {,1000 a week as
'lbat's
d prostitute.
about
four times ds much as I
would get doing a different
iob. So why should I stop?
Lots of girls are fctrcedinto
prostittttion. Often they are
illegal imnrigrants. They can't
go to the police becausethey
dre not in the atuntry legally.
"I believe that sex is one of the
most beautiful, natural,
wholesome things that
money can buy."
Steue Martin, actor
Prostitution is a problem
causedby men. There aren't
any prostitutes for women.
It's men who credtethe
problem dnd men wbo mdke
tbe laws.
Taboosand /ssues
I don't belieuetbdt sleeping
with a prostitute is being
unfaithful to my uife. lt's
only sex- nothing else.
Marriage is abont loue.
lf someone wants to accept
my money to haue sex with
me, what's thc prohlem?
It's their life and tbeir
body. It's my money and
it's none of your business!
It's the only way dirty old
m e n c d n g e t s c x ,P r o s t i l u l i o t r
is for sad, sad 1teo1tle.Tbe
women are sdd and the men
dre euen sadder. I'd ban it!
Sex for sa/e
Swearing
"When angry, count to a hundred; when very angry, swear."
Mark Twctin
Discussion
What would you say?
Work in pairs and compare your answers to the
following questions:
Would you swear in the following situations?What
would you say?
1. How oftcn do you swear?
2. What swearwords do you use most often?
3. Are there irny swear words you would never
u s e ?W h y ?
4.In what situationswould you try to avoid
swearing?
-5.Are you ever offended,upsetor annoyedwhen
other peopleswear?
1. You take some milk out of the fridge, but
drop it on the floor.
2. You are carrying two pints of beer in a bar.
Someonebumps into you and you spill the beer
down your trousers.
3. You miss the bus to work by a few seconds.
4. Somebodydrivesinto the back of your brand
new car.
5. Your ohone bill is double the normal amount.
Reading
Read the articles below. Tick (/) the true sentences.
l. Marth:r Johnsonwas sackedfrom her job.
2. Mr Slaterfeelsthat he has to swear at work.
3.lohn Ashford was arrestedfor swearing.
4. He is going to jail for 90 days.
PARTOF HIS PERSONATITY
A salesexecutive has taken her
ex-bossto an industrialcourt
c l a i m i n gt h a t h i s s w e a r i n gf o r c e d
her to quit her job. For over six
m o n t h sM a r t h aJ o h n s o n 4, 3 , p u t
u p w i t h t h e f o u l l a n g u a g eo f J a c k
S l a t e r ,m a n a g i n g d i r e c t o r o f a
transport company, and his
deputy, Darren Wiggins. Both
m e n s w e a rc o n t i n u a l l yt,h e c o u r t
wastold.
something about the awful
language.At leastnow I am in a
place where peopleshow respect
for each other."
Mr Slatertold the court that bad
language was part of his
p e r s o n a l i t ya n d a l s o c o m m o n i n
t h e t r a n s p o r tb u s i n e s s ." l c a n ' t
s t o p s w e a r i n g , "h e s a i d ." l ' m t h e
fucking boss.My workers would
all think I was fucking soft if I
Y e s t e r d a y M s J o h n s o n o f stoppedswearing."
W o r t hi n g , S u s s e x , w h o h a s D u r i n gt h e h e a r i n gt h e j u d g e h a d
r e c e n t l yt a k e nu p a n e w j o b , s a i d : to warn Mr Slater severaltimes
" l h a d a r e a l l yw o n d e r f u jl o b w i t h a b o u t h i s l a n g u a g e .T h e c a s e
t h e c o m p a n yb u t I j u s t h a d t o d o continuestomorrow.
A BIG SPLASH
T h e b a d l a n g u a g eu s e d b y J o h n
Ashford as he fell out of his
sailing boat into a river in
M i c h i g a nh a s l a n d e dh i m i n b i g
trouble. He appeared in court
'1OO-year-old
state
for breaking a
law which forbids swearing in
front of women and children.
F a m i l i e sw e r e p i c n i c k i n gn e a r b y
w h e n t h e a c c i d e n th a p p e n e d .
His defence team argued that
standards over the years have
changed and that it is now
p e r f e c t l ya c c e p t a b l et o s w e a r i n
e x t r e m e c i r c u m s t a n c e ss, u c h a s
falling into a river.
Mr Ashford, who faces up to 90
d a y s i n j a i l a n d a $ 1 0 0 f i n e ,w a s
caught by two sheriff'sdeputies.
T h e y w e r e f i s h i n gf r o m t h e s i d e
of the riverwhen he fell in.
Discussion
Work in pairs or small groups. Discuss these questions about the texts above.
Do yolr think Martha Johnson was over-reacting?If so, what do you think she should have done?
Do you think Mr Ashford should be in court? If not, what do you think should have happened?
8
Swearing
Taboosand /ssues
Language
Look at the sentence below from the second text:
It is now perfectly dcceptdbleto swear in
extreme ctrcumstances.
fn these sentences one of the words in italics is
wrong. Cross it out.
1. Swearingin certainsituationsis completely
una ccep tab Ie/ r u de/ inapp r op r i at e.
2.1 foLrndhis languagedeeply upsetting/
off ensiue/ o bscene/ sh o ckin g.
3. Using that kind of languageis perfectly
acceptable/OK/goodin some situations.
4. Somewords that people use are actually uery
Now make true sentences using some of the
expressions from examples 1 - 4.
1. Most peopleI know find swearing. . . .
2.My mother I father thinks swearing is . . . .
3. There are one or two words which I find . . . .
4. Swearingat someonein a public place is . . . .
5.I think it is . . . . to swearwhen you are really
annoyedabout something.
6.If the Prime Minister swore on TV, I would
findit....
Work in pairs and compare your answers.
funny/rude/terrible.
Discussion
Discuss the statements below. Do you agree or not? Why?
l. Swearingcan lre creafiveand expressive.
2.lt's r-rseful
to be able to swear in English.
3.lt's difficult to know how to use Englishswearwords.
4. You can sound silly if you swearin English.
5. Peoplewho swear a lot are just uneducated.
6. Children should be taught that swearingis wrong.
'JesusChrist'.
7. You can upset people by saying
8. Peopleshouldn'tuse swearwords in the street.
"Er . . . mind if we swear?"
Language
Discussion
The list below shows that swear words vary in
strength. Different people of different ages find
some words more offensive than others. Here is a
rough guide to some of the most common English
swear words and expressions:
Which of the words and expressions opposite
have you used or would you use?
Are you offended when people use religious words
as swear words?
Do you know of anybody who has got into trouble
by swearing?
Most English swear words are connected with sex
or the body. ls this the same in your language?
Weaker
Stronger
Damn!
Blast!
Hell!
Bloody hell!
It was bloody awful!
Crap!
It was really crap!
Bullshit!
He's a real dickhead.
He's a real shit.
Shit!
Pissoff!
Bastard!
Bitch!
Bollocks!
He's a total wanker!
He's a stupid prick.
He's an arsehole!
Taboo-strength:Fuck off!
Religiousswear words can offend much more than
words connected with sex, body parts or bodily
functions. Using God, Jesus Christ or Christ
Almighty will greatly offend some people.
Taboosand/ssues
Avoidingswearwords
Native speakers often avoid swearing by using
other similar-soundingwords. What do you think
the following examplesavoid?
1. He told me to F off!
2.It's flipping cold, isn't it?
3. Not bleedinglikely!
4. Oh, sugar!
5. P off!
6. He's a real B!
Swearing
Torture
Discussion
Work in pairs.What do you think the answersare to these questions?
ln 1996 there were 171 countriesin the world:
1.ln how many countriesdid peoplein prison or policecustodysuffertorture or ill-treatment?
a.21
b.67
c.124?
2. In how many countries did people die as a result of torture or inhuman prison conditions?
a. 16
b.46 c.82?
Find out the answersfrom your teacherand then discuss these questions:
1.Do the figuressurpriseor shock you or are they what you would expect?
2. Do you think the figures would be better or worse for this year? Or about the same?
3.ln which countrieswould you expectto find torture happening?
4. Whrrt rrbout your own country?
Reading
Read the articles through quickly and answer the questions below:
Which countries are mentioned in connection with torture?
Do any of the articlessurpriseyou?'Which?Why?
CASSIDY ATTACKS PINOCHET
In Chile in 1915,Dr Sheila Cassidy
was beaten, stripped and given
electric shocks all over her body,
forcing her to give the name of a
priest who had asked her for help.
She was later releasedas a result of
protestsfrom Britain. Yesterdayshe
spoke out following the arrest of
General Pinochet, the 84-year-old
"I
ex-dictator of Chile.
think
imprisonmentfor the rest of his life
would be appropriate.I know he is
an old man and he is fragile, but so
were the pregnantwomen who were
rapedand tortured," she said.
US POLICE UNDER FIRE
A recent Human Rights Watch
report, examining policing in 14 of
America's biggest cities, contains
some shocking statistics.Following
11,000 civil rights complaints
against the police last year, only 29
police officers were punished.Crime
in New York has halved since 1993,
but complaints about police abuse
arc upby 50Vo.
In one case,a suspectwas chokedto
death when arrested by a police
officer in 1994. The officer was
cleared of manslaughter,but the case
exposed the police to widespread
criticism.
FRANCE GUILTY OF
TORTURE
France became the first European
country convicted of torture when
the European Court of Human
Rights found it guilty of torturing a
suspected drug dealer during
questioning.The man was beatenin
an effort to obtain more information
about his suppliers. The court
described his treatment at the hands
'of
of five police officers as being
a particularly cruel and serious
'torture' under the
nature' making it
European Convention on Human
Rights.
Readthe articlesagain and answerthese questions:
1. Why was SheilaCassidytortured?
2. What was 'shocking' about the Human Rights \Watchreport?
3. What information did the French oolice want?
Discussion
Discussthese questionsin small groups:
'torture'?
1. Do you think that the conduct of the US police might sometimesactually be
'torture'?
2. How would you define
3. Do you feel that any of the casesof torture mentioned above might in any way be justified?
4. Do yon think the police in your country torture suspectsand known criminals?
Tofture
Taboosand /ssues
Language1
Language2
Put the words in italics in the right order to make
prepositionalphrases.
Complete the article below using the phrases
from the previous exercise.
1. Shewas later released
n r ( ) t c s t sf r o m B r i t a i n .(of as result a)
2 . I t h i n k i m p r i s o n m e n .t . .
his life would be appropriate. (of rest the for)
3. A suspectwas choked to death
. a police officer.
(with interuiew in an)
4. The man was beaten
obtain more information about his suppliers.
(to an effort in)
. . five
.5.His treatment
'of particularly cruel and
police officers was
a
seriousnature'. (of the hands at)
LIFE FOR THE TORTURE TWO
The trial of Justin Mathers and Gary Barstow,
both accusedof murder and torture, finished
today at Brigham Crown Court. (1) . . .
the six-week trial, the iury had heard evidenceof
some of the most horrible crimes ever described
in a courtroom. They had also seenphotographs
thesetwo men.
of injuries suffered (2) . . .
Both men were found guilty. The judge passed
"(3) .......
the
s e n t e n ciem m e d i a t e l ys ,a y i n g :
horror of your crimes,I have no hesitationin
your lives.
sendingyou to prison (4) . . .
(5) . . .
. your actions,five peoplewere
permanently injured and sevenwere killed. Two
men and three women lost their partnersl a dozen
..firmevidence,
6....
he was releasedfrom prison. (of the in absence) children lost their parents.
7.The governmenthad no choicebut to arrest
him. .
. . . w h a t h e w a s w r i t i n ga b o u t
them in the foreign press,but they lived to
regret their actions. (of in uiew)
the police' you
After your arrest, (6) . . .
said that you had enjoyed committing theseawful
give you a
crimes. Therefore, (7) . . .
punishment that matchesthe awfulnessof what
. . . any remorse
you have done, and, (8)
from you, I sentenceyou to life imprisonment."
' ll'::'r'r:"1
::::il:'
;:i i:;;!;:"0;l'i"o
"No-one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel,
inhuman or degradingtreatmentor punishment."
Article 5. United Nations. 1984.
Discussion
Work in small groups. Look at the situations below. Discuss how much force, if any, it is acceptablefor
the police or army to use in each situation in order to get what they want.
1. The police arrest someonefor a bank robbery.
They are absolutelycertain they have the
personresponsible,and he alreadyhas a
3. The police catch a member of a terrorist
organisation.He knows the names of other
membersof the organisation.He also has
criminal record, but at the moment they have
no evidence.They need a confession.They
information about where they have storesof
arms and explosives.This information will save
only have four hours to get one before he must
lives.
be released.
2. A child has beenkidnapped.The kidnappers
are threateningto kill the child if their
demandsare not met. The police catch one of
the kidnapperswho knows where the child is
being held. She refusesto tell the police.
4. Your country is at war. You capture a highranking enemy soldier who has considerable
knowledge of the enemy plans. This
information would certainly savethe lives of
many of your soldiersand possiblyshortenthe
war.
Would your response to situation 2 be the same if the child was yours or a friend's?
Taboosand /ssues
Sexualharassment
Discussion
Discussthese questionsin pairs or small groups:
l. Do you think work is a good placero find a parrncr?Why / why not?
2.ln a work setting,what body parts of a colleaguewould it be oK ro touch in your country?
Tick all the OK parrs:
hand
frrce
back
stomach
arnl
shoulder
hair
bottom
3. \X/hatwould happenif you did touch the parts of the body that you did not tick?
Reading
Make sure you know what these words and expressions mean before you read the article:
suggestiuephotos
sexy cdlendars
fl irt
sue
dressedseductiuely
chat up
FRENCH
FLIRT
AT WORK
The engineering workshops at a
well-known engine-maker based in
Paris seem as clean and innocent as
a church these days. The nude
photographs and sexy calendars
that used to be on some of the walls
have been taken down or thrown
away.
For that, the men in the department
mostly have one of their female
colleaguesto thank. Brigitte Janin,
an aerodynamicsengineer, said she
started arguing
against the
suggestive photographs from the
moment shejoined the company 13
years ago. "It was being done just
to provoke women," said Janin, 37.
o'When
I said we didn't like it, they
laughed at me." The company
finally changed their policy when
they agreed that the pictures could
be a form of sexual harassment.
Sexual harassment at work is a
relatively new issue in France.
French law now allows women to
sue for sexual harassment,but it is
limited to harassmentby a superior
of a subordinate. Typically, many
casesdo not make it to court.
"It
usually goes this way: the
woman complains about her boss,
and then she's fired," said one
lawyer specialising in workplace
harassment. Then she sues, and
money, if awarded,is usually little
or sometimes nothing at all.
"Judges
will say it's because the
woman is dressedtoo seductivelv."
he added.
"Here
we don't care about sexual
harassment." declared another
lawyer who, despite his bravado,
asked that his name not be
published. "Being macho is seen as
a good thing in the office. Chatting
up beautiful women is natural."
Read the text again and correct the statements below:
l. Seruitlharassmentonly appliesin casesof advancesfrom a subordinateto a superior.
2. Usuirlly erwoman is fired after she goes to court.
3. Manv judgesblame a woman's behaviour.
Discussion
How far do you agreewith Brigitte Janin about the photos? \X/hy?
Do you think that a woman who dressesseductivelyshould be preparedfor unwanted sexual
advrrnces?
Give an exampleof 'seductivedress'.
Can nren be serr.rally
harassedby women?
Have .vor-r
ever bcen in a difficult situation of this kind at work or college?
10
Sexualharassment
Taboosand /ssues
lr
-
Language
=
Complete these sentences with the correct preposition:
E
Ef
-
ot
up
obout
oJ
tn
.lor
betw'een
with
| . Thcre irre larvyerswho specialise. . . . . sexualharassmentcases.
sexualharassmentis a waste . . . . . time.
2. Trying to sue
3 . I f y o u c o n r p l a i n y, o u j u s t g e t l a u g h e d
4. If yoLrflirt . . . . . the men in the office, you're asking for trouble.
-
-5.My bossthinks hc can chat . . . . . all the women in the office.
6. (iomplaining . . . . . the sexualadvancesof your bosstakesa lot of courage.
FI
E
T.Yor.rcanpaycomplimentstoafemalecolleaguebutthereisafineline.....beingfriendlyand
being overfarniliirr.
-t
FT
E
Fr
FI
Discussion
FI
E
Work in pairs or small groups. Decide if the scenarios
below describea situationof sexual harassment.Should
anything be done about each situation?lf so, what?
ll-
I
lt.
lEf
l-
rF
F
Fr
F
FT
F
F
F
F
E
F
F
F
F
F
TH€9E,
FruE
MAKtENb
1. Brian l,ake often comesin to work with
"\il7ow,I love your hair," he
compliments.
often saysto the women in the office, or
"Nice skirt." Somewomen have noticedthat
he sometimesstaresat their breastswhen he
talks to them.
?. SusanBellfordgivesthe guys massages
in the
"She'sgot good hands,"
office during breaks.
they often say.A couple of the married men
don't seemtotally comfortable with it and
one gay man doesn'tseemto like it at all,
'make any waves.'
blrt acceptsit s0 as not to
rouchesbottoms - men'sand
3.Jilrnes.|ohnson
people
'';il
most
would
where
women's.
smilc' wink or give a pat on the back, James
"It's my way.of
givesa pat on the bottom.
.
being friendly," he says' what's interestingis
that the men :lnd women in the office seem
"Jamesis
to respectthat.
James,"saysone
"He's just a playful guy. He i;;',
worran.
mean rrnyrhingby it."
4. Kenpatricktellsdirty jokesin theofrice.
"The peoplein the office love it," he says
with a smile. Not everybody,it seems.Some
of the women have been seenleaving the
"Hey, have
office as soon as he starts saying,
you heard the one about the ..."
5'Jennifer Stewarthas a sexy body a'd is
t-Trt',:t;t"tffi:::X\nTJilffi::
..why should I be ashamedof what God's
..I
given me?,,sheargues. don,t think it
ir"k", anyone feeLuncomfortable. I haven'r
n.nra a single complaint from any of the
men in the office!"
6. Bill Swansoncalls all the men in the office
,ffj:;,::#t
all thewomen
I,X:;.T'calls
7. Shelly Layman is very tactile. She always
puts her hand on the arm of the person she's
talking to and always makes a point of
making direct eye contact.
Are you a tactile person? Do you touch people a lot? Has anyone ever objected to you touching them?
How can you tell when someone does not want to be touched?
Taboosand /ssues
Sexualharassment
10
L -
Briberyand corruption
Language
Match the words on the left to the definitions on the right:
1. a gift
2. a reward
3. a tip
4. a bribe
5. a perk
6. hospitalitv
7. a favour
8. influence
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
friendly and generoustreatment and entertainmentof guests
a benefit receivedas part of the arrangementswith your employer
somethinggiven willingly without payment
a helpful act
the ability to obtain favourable treatment from someone
somethinggiven or receivedfor doing somethinggood
a small sum of money given to someonefor their services
somethinggiven or offered in return for some, often dishonest,help
Now work in pairs. Match the 8 words above to one of the following situations. lf you think more than
one answer is possible, discuss the differences.
1. Your boss is retiring. The employeesgive her some beautiful gold earrings at her leaving party.
2. You visit a foreign company to discussa new contract. They pay for a S-starhotel and your expenses.
3. You want to build an extensionto your house, but you need permissionfrom the local council. You
give money to one of the local councillors to make sure you get permission.
4. Your salesmanager increasesyour businessby 200% in a year. You give him a new BM\X/.
5. After paying the salon, you give a little extra money to the hairdresserwho cut your hair.
6. You get a free lunch in the staff canteenevery day.
7. You use your friendship with a member of the government to make sure that you get a particular
governmentcontract.
8. You won't be home in time to pick up your suit from the dry cleaner's.You ask a friend to get it.
Reading
4
1
I
4
q
Readthe articlesbelow and answerthis question:
All three articlesinvolve briberv. Do thev also involve corruption?
a
{
MATCH-FIXING IS NORMAL
According to a former club manager,
bribery in Russia's top football
leaguesis so shamelessand obvious
that referees are known to ask for
more money in the middle of games.
The managerof a St Petersburgclub
"I've never
during the nineties said:
met a referee who didn't take money.
It's uselessto play if you have no
money."
Apparently, there are three ways to
success.You can bribe the other
team, you can bribe the referee,or
you can bribe the teams that play
your rivals. If you can afford to do all
three, the championship will be
yours.
11
Bribery and corruption
.SACKS OF CASH'
BRIBED BUS DRIVER SACKED
A bus driver from Bournemouth has The political bribery trial of the
been sackedfor taking his bus on an former Indian Prime Minister, PV
unauthorised route. Brian Jeffries Narasimha Rao, started today with
altered the route of the number 22 evidence from an MP that he
service after a passengeroffered him r e c e i v e d f o u r m i l l i o n r u p e e s
f2O to drop him off outside his (f70,000) in two sacks as payment
house"which involved a two-minute for supporting Mr Rao in a vote in
diversion.No bus stopswere missed, Parliament. He did not accuse Mr
but one passengerwas obviously Rao directly, but named other
displeasedand reported the incident ministers in Mr Rao's government
anonymously to the bus company. who had organisedthe deal.
"I
Mr Jeffriessaid, can't believethey
sackedme. I wasjust doing someone
a favour. Nobody was delayed or
inconvenienced.Whoever it was
who reported me needsto get a life."
Taboosand /ssues
Discussion
Language
Read the articles again and decide which answer
is best:
Use the 8 nouns from the first exercise in these
sentences:
1.ln the Russianfootball leagueyou can bribe:
a. referees.
b. refereesand other tedms.
2 The man reported the bus driver because
a. he missedhis stop.
b. he just thought it shouldn't happen.
The
Indian MP receivedthe money from
3.
a. colleaguesof Mr Rao.
b. Mr Rao himself.
Answer these questions in groups:
She'soffering a .
1.Her cat'sdisappeared.
person
who finds it.
to the
? I'd like some help
2. Could you do me a .
piano.
moving this
3 . H e u s e dh i s . . . . . . t o m a k e s u r et h a t h i s
d a u g h t e rg o t i n t o u n i v e r s i t y .
4. The pay is poor but they offer good .
- a company car and free health care.
5. The food was nothing specialand the service
was awful, so I didn't leave a
6.I have a feelingthey want us to enjoy their
. and then give them the contract.
T.Three more politicianshave beenaccusedof
. from businessmenin return for
taking
political influence.
8.I hope you will acceptthis . . . . . . from all of
us for your excellentserviceover the years.
1.Do you think a crime has beencommitted in
any of the three articles?
2.Can you imagineany of thesethings happening
in your country?
on the bus, would you
3.If you were a passenger
have reported the driver or laughed and done
nothing?
Discussion
Work in groups. What would you do in these situations? Choose a response or suggest an alternative.
1.A police officer stops you for speeding.She asks to seeyour driving licence.Would you ...
a. just giue her your driuing licence?
b. put some money in your driuing licenceand giue it to her?
2. At the end of your driving test the examiner tells you that you have failed. Would you ...
a. just feel disappointedand get out of the car?
b. get out your wallet and ask how much it would cost to pdss?
3. Your company is trying to win an important and lucrative government contract. The minister in
chargetells you that the contract is almost certainly yours and that he and his wife love spending
their holidays in the Pacific.Would you ...
d. do nothing and wait for a decision on who gets the contract?
b. orgdnise a free two-week holiday in Fiii for the minister and his wife?
4. Your daughter wants to go to university but she did not passthe entranceexam. Would you ...
a. ask the admissionsofficer how much it would cost to get her in?
b. tell your daughter to re-take the exam and stop going out euery night?
5. You are a witness in a seriouscriminal case.A friend of the defendantoffers you a large sum of
money to changeyour evidence.Would you ...
a. refuseto cooperdteand then tell the police what had happened?
h. take the money and do tuhat he asked?
6. You arrive at your favourite restaurantto find it is fully booked. Would you ...
a. giue the head waiter LL0 and ask him to find you d table?
b. just go somewhereelse?
7. A colleague at work who you are not attracted to offers to take you to your favourite opera
(or similar) after dinner at an expensiverestaurant- all expensespaid. Would you ...
a. feel tempted but sdy no?
b. pretend suddenly to like the person and say yes?
Do you know anyone who has been involved in a bribery situation like one of these?
Spend two minutes deciding how you can bribe your teacher to make your life easier!
Taboosand /ssues
Bribery and corruption
11
Designerbabies
Discussion
'designed' you. lf you had been them, what would
lmagine that before you were born your parents had
you have changed?Think about these questions:
Which one aspectof your appearancewould you change?
would you change?
Which one aspectof your character/personality
How do you think your life might have been different?
Are you pleasedyolrr parents did not designyou or do you wish they had?
Compareyour answers in pairs or small groups.
Reading
Readthrough the articleand answer this question:
Why do the Jones want a baby girl?
NEW LAWSMAY ALLOW
CHOICEOF BABY'SSEX
l i m a n d D e b b i e l o n e s( n o t t h e i r r e a l n a m e s ) ,
whose daughter was killed in a tragic
domestic accident last year, plan to use the
n e w B r i t i s hh u m a n r i g h t s l a w s t o w i n t h e
legal right to choosethe sex of their baby.
reasonsfor wanting a girl go beyond just
w a n t i n g t o r e p l a c eh e r . O u r f a m i l y d o e s n ' t
feel completeany more. I adore our sonsbut
w e w o u l d l i k e a n o t h e rg i r l . "
C e n d e r s e l e c t i o ni s o n l y p o s s i b l ei n B r i t a i n
f o r m e d i c a lr a t h e rt h a n s o c i a l ,p s y c h o l o g i c a l
o r p h y s i c a lr e a s o n sP. r o - l i f ec a m p a i g n e r s a y
that if the Jonesare allowed to choosethe sex
of their baby, it could lead to babies
The Jones,who have four sons, say that the
' f e m a l e d i m e n s i o n ' h a s d i s a p p e a r e df r o m b e c o m i n g c o n s u m e r i t e m s . A s p o k e s m a n
s a i d :" W e a r e t o t a l l yo p p o s e dt o e n g i n e e r i n g
their family since the death of Jasmine.
" W o r d s c a n n o t d e s c r i b ew h a t i t f e e l sl i k e t o t h e n u m b e r s a n d g , e n d e r so f p e o p l e i n
society.That leadsonly to disaster."
losethe little girl we had wanted for so long.
W e k n o w a n o t h e rg i r l w o n ' t r e p l a c eJ a s m i n e , T h e J o n e s ' l a w y e r s w i l l b e b a s i n g t h e i r
but we want the chance lo Iry," said Jim a r g u m e n t so n n e w h u m a n r i g h t sl e g i s l a t i o n .
"What we're hoping to do with the use A r t i c l e s i x g u a r a n t e e se v e r y o n e a ' f a i r
Jones.
o f t e c h n o l o g yi s c r e a t et h e f e m a l ed i m e n s i o n h e a r i n g 'f r o m p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e sa n d A r t i c l e
again. We have psychologists'reports and e i g h t p r o t e c t s t h e r i g h t o f e v e r y o n e t o
'resDectfor familv life'.
doctors'reoortswhich confirm that our
Read the article again. Mark the following sentencestrue (T) or false (F):
1.The.|onesfeel they need a baby girl to make their family completeagain.
2. At the moment in Britain it is not possibleto choosethe sex of your baby.
3. New laws on human rights may allow the Jonesto choosethe sex of their baby.
Discussion
Discussthis question in pairs or small groups:
\Why not?
Do .vonthink the Jonesshould be allowed to chooseto have a baby girl? Why?
12
Designerbabies
Taboosand /ssues
F
=
Language
-l
{
Look at these sentences from the article. Notice the expressions with rghf;
=
Jim and Debbie Jonesplan to win the legal right to choosethe sex of their baby.
Article eig,htprotects the right of everyoneto'respect for family life'.
Cross out the word in italics which does not collocate with right:
:t
=
='
=
:T
=t
1.You can hdue, win, protect, demand, build, defend, challengethe right to choose'
2.It's a(n) legal, moral, straight, automatic, basic nght.
Look at the sentences below. Mark them in the following way:
tl
if you agree
X
if you disagree
?
it you partly agree and partly disagree
1. An unborn child has rights.Those rights must be protected.
2. \X/edon'r have the right to interferewith a child's future personality and appearance.
3. Deciding the ser of your child will be a basic right in fifty years' time.
4. \7e should have the automatic right to chooseparticular genesfor our own babies.
Compareyour answers in pairs or small groups.
=
=
=r
Fr
F
F
F
F
F
F
tr
F
ts
ts
F
F
F
F
rt
Discussion
Work in pairs or small groups. ln each of the following situationssomeone is explainingwhat genetic
selectionthey want to make and why. Decidewhetheryou think they should be allowedto do what they
want.
1. There is a history of red hair in my family.
I have red hair and I was badly teasedat
school.I would like to make sure my child
does not have red hair.
5. The male membersof my family often suffer
from a rare and unpleasantbone disease.
I would therefore like to make sure I have a
baby girl.
2.My four-year-olddaughter,my only child, has
a fatal blood disease.Shewill die before she
is 12 unlesswe can find a match for a bone
6.I feel there is too much violenceand aggression
in the world. I would like to make sure my
child is a calm and gentleperson.
' f,:lf1l'*j:*:;i::'J,fl:'j:"1,::
;::H:'""Hl".
[xTi:.,.;il]'li[JJ;:il;
Tii:'.
3.ln my family there is a history of a fatal disease
that affectsthe nervous system.I want to make
sure that my baby is not likely to get this
disease.
4.I'm a universityprofessorand my husbandis a
doctor. We'd like to make sure our babv is
intelligent.
eyesand be about medium height when she
grows up.
8.I suffer from a geneticdiseasewhich I inherited
from my mother. My children have
a one in five chanceof having the samegene.
Before I start a family, I want to have treatment
to make sure I do not passon this gene.
"We will still have sex for pleasure,of course, but we will
view our children as too damn important to leave it to
a random meetingof sperm and egg."
Greg Stock, UCLA professor of procreation
Are you fascinated or horrified by this topic?
Taboosand /ssues
Designerbabies
12
v-
Childrenwho kill
Discussion
1.In your country,at what age is someoneconsideredan adult?
2. Until that age, do children who commit crimes get specialtreatment, or do they get the same
penaltiesadults get?
3.At what age doesa child know right from wrong? 5 yearsold, 10 yearsold? 15 yearsold?
Reading
Readthe article.Then answer this question:What is the latest 'trend' in Americancriminaljustice?
THIRTEEN.YEAR.OLDGETSLIFE
Thirteen-year-old Peter Barton (not his real
name) was playing with a little girl of 6.
Claiming that he was pretending to be a
professional wrestler, Peter punched,
kicked and stamped his 6-year-old
playmate to death. Her liver was severely
damaged.Her skull was fractured.Medical
experts compared the injuries to a fall from
the top of a house.Peter was tried in court
as an adult and sentencedto life in prison
with the possibility of parolewhen he is 38.
Peter is one of many children in the latest
trend in criminal justice: if you are old
enoughto kill, you are old enough to face
adult penalties.That is what the Supreme
Courts of California, Florida and Texasare
saying - and the trend is spreadingfast
acrossthe United States.
"What we're dealing with is a new kind of
childhood criminal. They're starting
youngerand they know what they're doing.
They won't think twice about killing," said
Florida State District Attorney Adam
Emmitt. The State of Florida alone
registered312 homicidescommitted so far
this year by minors. Most of those
homicideswere gun-related.
The trend has children'srights activistsin a
rage.Lisa Weston,a member of one group
which is trying to prevent children being
"No one understands
tried as adults said,
why Peter did what he did - not even
Peter."PeterBarton beeinshis life sentence
on Monday.
Trueor false?
Read the article again and mark these sentences true (T) or false (F):
1. Peterwill be releasedwhen he is 38 yearsold.
2. Not all stateshave such harsh laws.
3. Adam lrmrnitt thinks the problem is worse now than it was before.
4. Lisa Westonthinks children should be treated differentlv from adults.
Discussion
l.Peter claimedhe was pretendingto be a professionalwrestler.Could he be telling the truth?
2.ls it really possiblethat a 13-year-oldboy could maliciouslyand intentionallykill a young girl?
3. Are children the same as they have always been or are they really different thesedays?
4. Has anything like this happenedin your country?
13
Children who kill
Taboosand /ssues
=
Language
:fl
Ghoose the correct ending for each sentence:
=
1. What we're dealing
2 . ' W h a tw e ' r e t a l k i n g
a. at is a steady increasein the number of child crimes.
b. with is a new kind of childhood criminal.
3. What we're looking
4. What we're saying
5 . W h a t w e ' r es e e i n g
c. here is a trend that shows no sign of slowing.
d. about is the future of our country.
e. is that children must start to take full responsibilityfor their actions.
fl
=
=t
Work with a partner. Circle the vocabulary item that does not belong in each group. Check any words
you don't know in your dictionary.
=
6. law1,er,evidence,defendant,judge
7. murder,fine, assault,manslaughter
=fl
t'l
-
:e
8. adult, minor, infant, adolescent
9. witness,crirninal,suspect,offender
10.parole,release,sentence)
pardon
I
Discussion
=e
=r
Discuss the following situations in small groups. Decide what should happen to the people in each
situation.Should they go to prison - an adult prison or a young offender'sinstitution?How long for?
Or should somethingelse happen?
E
I
F
r
rF
rF
F
F
b
I
F
rF
F
F
1. Sean,9, brings a gun to school.He shows it to
his friends and says, "Nobody messeswith me
o r I u s et h i s ! "
2. Two teenagers,
aged 15 and 16, come to school
with two semi-automaticguns and begin
shootingpeopleat random. They shoot 5 of
their classmates
dead and criticallywound
another 12. The 16-year-oldcommits suicide
before he is captured, the younger boy is
caughtand arrested.
3. l7-year-oldBobby fatally stabsa shop owner
in the town centre in an attempted robbery.
The shop owner tried to phone the police
during the robbery and Bobby panicked.
4. A l4-year-old boy shoots another 14-year-old
member of a rival gang. "I had to do it so that
they would let me be in their g2flg," he says.
The victim did not die.
5. A 16-year-oldshootshis father dead after the
father has a violent confrontation with the
"He got
boy's mother.
what he deserved,"says
"My mother has put
the boy.
up with enough
abusealready."
6. A 6-year-oldboy gets so angry with his
younger brother that he sits on him until he
stops breathing, shouting "I hate you, I hate
you." The brother dies.The 6-year-oldtold his
parents he had had enough of his brother.
Discussyour conclusionswith anothergroup.
Discussthe following as a class:
1.\X/hena child kills, who do you think is most responsible?
The parents?Society?The child?
\What
2. Are there any obvious ways to prevent such horrors?
are they?
3. If you feel your country's situation is very different from or better than the one in the US, can
1'ouexplain why?
'What
4. \flhat is the worst story of child killers you rememberreading about in the newspapers?
makesit the worst?
F
F
F
F
ft
Iaboos and /ssues
Children who kill
13
Gaysand jobs
Discussion
Discuss these questions with a partner:
1. Are there any well-known gay peoplein your country in the following areas:
the military
TV
politics
the law
sPort
the cbttrch
2. Arc there more gay peoplein someprofessionsthan in others?Which ones?Why do You think
that is?
Reading
Read the articles below and answer these questions:
1. Which article is about someonestartinga job? What's the problem?
2. Which one is about someoneleavinga job? Why is the personleaving?
SECONDOFFICER RESIGNS
ANGER OVER LESBIAN MAYOR
Another senior naval officer resigned last night as a
result of the Government's decision to allow
homosexualsto join the armed fbrces.
CommanderJamesMacDonald,43. who fought in the
war in Bosnitr. said of the Government's decision:
"There
are many good military reasons why
homosexualsshould not be allowed into the armed
fbrces. The Government. however, has chosen to
make a decisionfor political and legal reasons."
Commander MacDonald's resignation came a day
after BrigtrdierHoward Jones,47,askedto retire early
"l
fbr similar reasons.Brigadier Jones said: have no
personalproblem with homosexuals,but I do believe
strongly from both a moral and a military point of
view that there is no place for them in the army. The
Government has reached its decision fbr no good
military reason."
JanisHewitt will be ready fbr some strong opposition
when she becomesmayor of the small Welsh town of
Llanforclnext week. She announcedyesterdaythat her
lesbianpartnerwill be mayoress.
Ms Hewitt points out that she has never made any
secret of her relationshipand she sees no reason to
"We have been together for 20
start doing so now.
"and we have never hidden the fact.
years," she said,
It really shouldn't be a problem. There are more
important issues,ltke getting a better life for people."
Gareth James, chairman of the local Conservatives,
"This has come as quite a shock."
disagreesstrongly.
"It
degradesthe position of mayor. It
he said angrily.
is not the sort of thing we associatewith this town.
Things like this don't happenhere."
Trueor false?
Read the articles again and decide if the following sentences are true (T) or false (F):
1. Both officers feel there are military reasonswhy gays should not be allowed in the armed forces.
2. BrigadierJoneshas a personaldislike of homosexuals.
3.Janis Hewitt's lesbianrelationshiphas beena secretfor 20 years.
4. Garcth Jamesis unhappywith the idea of JanisHewitt's partner being the mayoress.
Discussion
Discussthese questionsin small groups:
1.Do you think it is OK ro have gay peoplein the armed forces?Vhy?'$7hy not? What's the situation
in your own country?
2. ShouldJanisHewitt be allowed to chooseher lesbianpartner as mayoress?Would it be a problen-r
in any way? Could this happenin your country?
14
Gays and jobs
Taboosand /ssues
Language
1. Look through the articlesagain and underlineallthe expressionswith the word'reason'.
2. One of the following patternsis wrong. Which one?
a. I
b. I
c. I
d.I
c. I
seeno
scc no
scc no
seeno
seeno
reasonto worry about it.
reasonnot to employ her.
reasonwhy he shouldn'twork here.
reasonof changingmy mind.
reilson for getting upset about it.
3. Put these expressionsinto the sentencesbelow:
the rettl rcdson
some redson
onc good rcdson
no reason
l . l c r r n ' tt h i n k o f
. . w h y w e s h o u l d n ' tg i v e h i m t h e j o b . H e ' s t h e i d e a lc a n d i d a t e .
2. Nobody knows
. . why he decidedto resign,but there are lots of rumours around.
Yor-r
3.
can't sirck someonefor . .
. If you do, you'll be breaking thc law.
4. For
. . he thinks gayscan't do the job properly,but he can't explain why.
4. Deletethe word or phrasewhich does not fit this sentence:
Sl-rehad tcr lcave her job for personal,financial, medical, powerful, a number of reasons.
Discussion
Discussthese questionsin pairs:
l. Do you think that there are any jobs which
homosexualsshould not be allowed to do?
Consiclerthcsc:
teacher
ltriest
lturse
TV prasenter
child minder
politician
doctor
police officer
2. Do you tliink peopleshould have to declare
thcir sexualitywhen applying for any of those
iobs?If so, which ones?
3. Think of three reasonswhy an employer
might not cmploy someonewho is gay. Are
any of thesegood reasons?
4. Would you employ a gay person?Why? \7hy
not?
5. Can you think of any jobs which a gay person
would be better at than someonewho was
straight(heterosexual)
?
6. Have you ever worked with someonewho
'Was
was gay?
their sexual orientation a
oroblern?
Taboosand /ssues
Gays and jobs
14
t
h
F
Animalrights
J
fr
=
J
g
Discussion
Work in pairs. List all the differentthings that humans do with animals.For example:
e
I. We eat them.
ai
J
1,.
4
IF
.3.
A
T.
*l
'1
4
-5.
o.
I
7.
8.
4
q
)
q
Do you object to any of these uses?
Reading
-)
'1
Read quickly through the texts below. Decide where you might find each one.
-1
-1
-1
J
FARM CLOSES
Protestershave finally fbrced
Shamrock Monkey Farm near
Henfield.WestSussexto close.
Monkeysfrom the fhrm, set up
i n t h e 1 9 5 0 ' sw
. e r e u s e di n t h e
development of the polio
vaccineand until recentlywere
still beingusedfor researchinto
other diseases.Animal rights
leaderJustin Hodge said: "It's
abouttime the farm closed.We
strongly object to places like
this and completelydisapprove
of what they've been doing
here."
WARNING
Tigers are
dangerous.
Do not climb
over the rail.
Do not feed.
The World-Famous
Rafferty's
Circus
Rafferty'sCircuswill be at ProspectPark
T u e sJ u l y 1 7 t h- S a tJ u l y2 1 s r
T i c k e t so n s a l en o w * f 7 . 5 O a n d f 1 0
Clowns, PerformingDogs,Terrythe TigerTamer
J u m b ot h e A m a z i n gC o u n t i n gE l e p h a n t
T h e F a m o u sH o r s e so f H i n d u s t a na n d m u c h m u c h m o r e .
Animal rights
lf
g
1
IF
I
*'l
4
-1
Remove all packaging
from the meat. Place
on a baking tray in the
centre of a pre-heated
oven at 200eC or Gas
Mark 6 for 35 minutes
or until golden brown.
Serve immediately.
For Sale
Six blackand white
SpringerSpanielpuppies
4 male,2 female,f300 each
Must go to good homes
Cafl 01235-783936 - Mrs Rogers
E
'1
)
*1
5
J
4
J
SEA TURTLES
The sea turtle is a valuable catch for poachers and illegal traders.
A l m o s ta l l o f i t c a n b e s o l d r n d u s e d .T h e m e a ri s a m u c h s o u g h t - a f t e r
delicacy,the shell is made into jewellery and the body oil is used to
make cosmetics.In Mexico alone,thousandsare killed eachyear and
exported to Japan. Three species of sea turtle are now close to
extinction.
ln your opinion, which texts refer to the mistreatmentof animals? Which one do you feel most strongly
about?
rc
4
IF
I
4
l
5
J
5
)
5
J
rd
qI
d
-_l
JLl
Taboosand /ssues
- l
J
t!!i
l
Language
Look at this sentence from the first text:
".\X/e
strongly object to places like this and completely
disapproueof what they'ue been doing here."
Decide whether the expressions below express an objection (O) or no objection (N):
7. I think it's awful.
1. I think that's fine.
8. It's outrageous.
2 . I t ' s q u i t eO K t o . . .
9. There'snothing wrong with ...
3 . I e r n ' t s e y I r p p r o v eo f . . .
10. It seemscompletelywrong to me.
4. I stronglydisapproveof ...
I l . I ' v e g o t n o o b i e c t i r t nt o . . .
.5.I wish peoplewouldn't ...
12. It doesn'tbother me.
6. I've got no problcm with ...
Use the expressionsabove to talk about
the list you made at the beginning of the
lesson.For example:
I strongly disdpproueof circuses.
It's quite OK to keep rabbits in yctur
gttrden.
I
Look at these patterns:
I't,egot rto prcthlemtuith zoos
as long as the dnimals are treated
u,ell.
There'snotbing Lurongwith people
hauing pets prouided they know how
to look dfter tbem.
Write two sentences of your own using
these patterns.
Discussion
Answer these questionsin small groups:
L Do y<;r,r
eat meat? If not, why not?
2.lf so, do yor-ror would you eat any of the following?
rabhit
dng
ueal
ltorsemeat
hedgehog
squirrel
seagull
rnonkel
pate de foie gras
alligator
3. Do you htrve a pet? \i7hat kind? How much freedom does it have?Wcruld it be happier in a different
environment?
'What
about keepingbirds in a cage?
4.ls it ever C)K to keep animalsin a cage?
5 . l s i t O K t o h a v et h e s ea n i m a l sa s p e t s ?
a mctnkeY
a rabbit
Ltl)orrot
tropical fish
a terraPin
6. Do you wear leathershoes?Do you own anything madefrom animalfur? Is therean ethical
difference?
7. Reaclthe opinion below. How far do you agreeor disagreewith it?
"Let's get
this straight. Animals haue no rights at all. I don't medn we should be
cruel to them fctr no redson. I eat animals. I wear dnimals. I depend on drugs
tuhich haue been testedon them. I medn, if testingmedicineson animals helps to
saue human liues, I think that's fine. And I'ue got no problems with testing
cosmeticson them either. I mean, if I use an aftershaueor d deodorant, I want
to know that it's safe. l'd rather a rabbit went blind - not me!"
Iaboos and /ssues
Animal rights
15
r
E
-i,,
d
Marriage- for betteror for worse
-l
d
1
I
I
d
I
r{
Discussion
Work in pairs. Discuss the quotationsbelow.What do you think they mean? Which ones do you agree
with? Which do you disagreewith? Which do you find amusing?
Love conquersall things.
Virgil
Love is blind.
Engli.shproverlt
Marry in haste.Repentat leisure.
English prutverlt
the
When a girl marries,sheexchanges
attentionof many men for the inattention
of one.
H eLen Rov'Iond. Anter icctnw'r il er
Marriageis like a dull meal wrth the
dessertat the beginning.
Henri, Comtede Toulouse-Lautrec
-1
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)
q
I
q
1
I
I
A
{
ll
.{
1
I
rf
4
d
Reading
I
I
-l
|l
Readthese two opinions about divorce.Which one do you agreewith more?
I
-1
||
fulia Casper- gettingdivorcedfor the sakeof
the children
T h eo n l y s u r p r i s i nt gh i n ga b o u td i v o r c ei s t h a t
it doesn'thappenmoreoften.What people
wantfrom a marriagemay be the samewhen
theyget married,but, aswe all know,people
c a nc h a n g e .
What he wantsmay be very differentfrom
what shewantsfive yearsdown the line.Very
often,men havethe attitudeof, "Shelooks
afterme and sheis therewhen I want her;but
I havemy own life."Women,on the other
h a n d ,t h i n k ," H e i s m y b e s tf r i e n d ;I w a n th i m
my emotionsand my
to sharemy interests,
beginsto feel
life."One or bothof the partners
lives,which
trapped.Theystartto live separate
resultsin tension,arguments
and battles,
which thenalsohasa negative
effecton the
childrenif thereareany.So,what is the point
of stayingtogether?lt's betterfor childrento
g r o wu p i n a r e l a x e dl ,o v i n ge n v i r o n m e nwti t h
homewith
one parentthan in a tension-filled
both oarents.
Of courseit'sbetterto avoidsplittingup - it
hurtseveryone,
especially
the children- but if
a marriageis over,it's bestto acceptthe
situationand moveon beforemoreharmis
done.
SueHardcastle- stayingtogetherfor the sake
of the children
Toomanypeopleseedivorceas the easyway
out. I admitthat in somecasesit may be
- for example,if your partnerwas
necessary
y o u .C e t t i n g
p h y s i c a l loyr m e n t a l l ya b u s i n g
the lastoption.
divorcedshouldbe absolutely
It'snot justa lifestylechoice.
Partof the problemis that peopleseemto
h a v ea n i m p o s s i b liyd e a l i s t ivci e w o f m a r r i a g e .
to
Theyexpectlove,romanceand excitement
f i l l t h e i rl i v e sa l l t h et i m e .B u tt h e f a c ti s ,
marriedlife is not alwaysperfectloveand
and
Therewill be arguments
harmony.
lt is boringat timesand,
disagreements.
e s p e c i a l lwy h e nc h i l d r e nc o m ea l o n g ,i t c a n
be hardwork! You'vegot to be willingto make
work. lt is this
the effortto makea relationship
effortwhich makesmarriagea rich and
ng experience.
satisfyi
And what exampleis it to childrenif you
doesit give?
decideto splitup?What message
"Whenthingsgetdifficult,you can just quit."
It'sno surprise
that peoplewhoseparents
How
divorceoftenget divorcedthemselves.
possibility
of
a
can theybelievein the
permanent
if the peopletheymost
relationship
trustedcouldn'tdo it?
I
a
I
I
I
-l
I
I
I
a
I
l.
-
tl
I
-,
-
a
T
I
I
I
t
-
2
16
Marriaoe - for better or for worse
Taboosand /ssues
I
E
Who believeswhat?
Mark the sentences below with 'S' if they are what
Sue says and 'J' if they are what Julia says:
1. Peoplcexpecttoo much from marriage.
2. Children can experiencenegativethings
in a baclmarriage.
3. Children whose parentssplit up can find
it difficult to trlrst other peoplelater in life.
4. Living with one parent can be betterthan
living with both.
-5.You shouldn'tgive up just becausea
relationshipis difficult.
Do you agree or disagree with the
statements above?
"If
the police stdrt dsking questions,I sball iust say
that yctu packed your things one night and left me."
Language
Complete the text below with the correct form of these words:
last
crsntest
sign
break
split up
breakdown
work
. . a contract beforethey get married
In rhe USA couplessometimes(1) .
'prenuptialagreement',which puts in writing what will happento their
callcd a
. It doesn'tsurpriseme that
if the marriage(2) .
money and possessions
long. Beforeit has even started,the
some of thesemarriagesdon't (3) . . .
huppy cor-rplearc already planning what to do when the marriage doesn't
(4) . . .
. And, of course,a prenuptialagreementonly works if both
partnersare reasonable.But what happensif one persondoesn'twant to
(5) . . .
. . . the divorce?Or what happensif someone
and (6)
'$fell,
what it really means is lots of work
the contract?
rries ro (7) . . .
- and money - for the lawyers!
Do you think prenuptialagreementsare a good idea?Would you have one?
Discussion
Work in pairs or small groups. Discussthese questions:
l.What experiencedo you have of divorce?Your own? Your parents?Other family members?Friends?
2. Can divorceever really be amicable?
3. Researchshows that the children of divorced parents are more likely to get divorced themselves.
Vhy do yolr think this is the case?
4. How easydo you think it should be to get a divorce?Which of theseare you in favour of?
a. diuorce on demand - wbeneuerone pdrty wants it.
b. wttit frtr a year to see if the couple cdn get bdck together again.
c. t'omltulsory counsellingfor six months before a decisionis taken.
.5.What do you think are sr.ritablereasonsfor getting divorced? Consider these:
'\Ye'ue
He's been unfaithful to me.
iust grown dpdrt.
He hits me.
Life is so boring.
I uant my freedom back.
She doesn't sleep with me any more.
'We
just hatte nothing m common.
I just married the wrong person. It's ds simple as that!
Taboosand /ssues
Marriaqe - for better or for worse
16
Nobodyneedsa gun
Discussion
I
In Britain it is illegalto have a gun without a ticence.
Followingthe Dunblanemassacrein sco'and in
1996'when a madmankilledalmost an entireclass primary
of
school childrenand their teacher,the laws
on gun possession have become very strict. The
same is not true in the United states, where many more
atrocitiesinvolvingguns' such as the columbine
incidentdescribedbelow,have taken place.
anything like Dunblane or columbine happenedin your
l' !"
country?
2. Cirn you rememberany similar incidentsin
the news?
Read the slogan of the united states National Rifle
Association (NRA),which has a lot of political
influencein the US.
t
I
I
I
I
I
I
N
a
3. What do you think abouran organisation
that has this as its slogan?
gr-rns
Ieg:rlin your c,runtry?
Are
thcy
easyto get?
1. 1..
-5.Do yolr or doesanyoneyou know own a gun?\7hy? IJfhy
not?
I
n
I
I
Reading
t
on April 20' 1999,two teenage boys at columbine
High school near Denver,colorado, usA, shot over
30 fellow students,killing 12 of thlm -.before
takinitheir
-"or"on"own rives.The following point of view was
posted on an interactivewebsite a few days
later by
from Britain. Read the text, then answer
the questions below.
What is it going to take for America to get
the protecting innocent people! Ordinary citizens
argue
message?
How many more young lives are we going that they
shouldbe free to arm and defendthemselves
to seewasted?How can the pro_gunlobby in the
US
in accordancewith the .SecondAmendment'. Def.end
still have such a powerful voice? After the Dunblane
themselves against who? The country isn't under
massacrehere in 1996,gun control laws, which were
attack! The civil war endedover 200 yearsagol
already strict, were tightened further. There was
a Most people in
Britain have never seenor handleda
nationwide amnesty on handguns. Many who had
- even our police don't carry them _
real
gun
but in
guns, for whateverreason,gave them up. Thev
were America you
can buy one on a Saturday afternoon
sick of what guns were capable of. people
even shoppingtrip.
What has happenedto a country that it
questioned whether shooting should remain
an can carry on with
one massacreafter anotherand do
Olympic sport. Dunblane shocked the whole nation
nothing? We're supposed to be .cousins' but the
and the effect remainsto this day.
family resemblanceis not very strong any more. I
But in the US, politicians are more worried about
don't recognisetheir culture.A country that can't ban
upsetting the pro-gun groups and losing votes than
gunshas lost its head,and its soul.
Discussion
Answer these questions with a partner:
I' what is the over:rll tone of the article -.ang9!
sarcasm,sympathy,somethingelse?
2.lf you were an American,wourd you take
off..r.. at this article?
3' could someonefrom your country write a
similar articlewith very similar argumenrs?
4' How doesthe writer comparethe Dunblane
massacreto the Columbinemassacre?
5' D. y.r-rthink the wrirer has ever beento the
united States?
6' could the r'vriterapply any of his or her criricisms
ro countriesother than the United States?
Nobodyneeds a gun
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THE COLUMBINE MASSACRE
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Taboosand /ssues
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Language1
ge 2
Langua
Use these words to completethe opinionson guns
and gun laws below:
Look at this sentence from the text:
wedpon
illegal
outlauted
liues
in self-defence
1. I think guns shor-rld
be made
2 . I f g r - r nws e r e .
. . , t h e n only criminals
would have them.
3. Guns don't take
. . . . Peopledo.
4. Anything can be usedas a lethal
A gun is simply one of them.
5 . 1 t h i n k s o m e o n ei s o n l y j u s t i f i e di n u s i n ga g u n
Circle the opinions above that are most similar to
your own. Do your classmatesagree?
People euen questionedwhether shooting
showld remain an Olympic sport.
Even is used to emphasisea point you are adding.
Use the correct ending for each sentence below:
1. Anybody can buy a gun 2. Someteenagerscarry guns around 3 . 1 w o u l d n ' t u s ea g u n 4. Hardly anybody carriesa gun in Britarn5.I think guns should be bannedcompletelya. they euen take them to school.
b. euen toy ones.
c. euen kids can buy them.
d. euen if I was attacked.
e. not euen the police.
Discussion
Guns and you
1. In which of the following situationswould
y o u u s ea g u n ?
a. To defend myself against an intruder
in my house.
b. In self-defenceagainst an attacker
on the street.
c. To hunt animals.
d. For sport on a firing range.
gtr
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2. Do you know where you could buy a gun if
you walntedone?
"Gun
control? Ouer my dead body!"
Guns and films
Answer thesequestionsin pairs or small groups:
a. (iroups who want to ban guns say that it is impossibleto think of three films
in which a gun never appears.Can you prove them wrong?
b. Why do you think guns are so prominent in films?
c. f)o you think that gun-violencein films has a direct effect on gun-relatedcrime?
G u n sa n d k i d s
Is it OK for children to play with toy guns?Did you do this when you were younger?
Wor.rldyou let your children play with toy guns?
ls it all bad news?
Do guns have any positiveroles in society?Use the expressions
below to help you expressyour ideas.
If we didn't haue guns, we wouldn't haue ...
It's becduseof guns that we ...
r[/e baue guns to thank
fo, ...
['m not in fauour of guns, but I must admit ...
Taboosand /ssues
Nobody needs a gun
17
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The saleof humanorgans
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Discussion
I
Underwhat circumstanceswould you allow an organ to be removedfrom your
body? Tick the ones you
agreewith:
{
il
rr. li I necdecl:rn operirtron.
b. After death, for generalmedicalpurposes.
c. T<rclonltc an organ to a closerelative.
cl.T<rcionateau organ to a close friend.
c. To help rurvoncin need.
f. To nrake monev.
g. Nevcr.
Many peoplecarry an organ donor card, which allows
doctors to take parts of their bodies if they are killed.
Do you carry one? lf not, why not?
f
l{
Donorcard
I request that after my death:
A. any part of my body may be used for the treatment
of others! or
B . m y k i d n e y sf c o r n e a s! h e a r t! t u n g s! l i v e r!
pancreasI be used for transplantation
Signature
. . Date.
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In the eventof my death. if possible,contact:
......Te|:
'Il
Remember to tell someone close to you that you
want to be an organ donor. Their agreement is
important if the time ever comes.
4
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Reading
Readthis articleabout debt collectionin Japan. Does the same thing
happen in other countries?
.1.
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JAPANESEURGEDTO SELLEYESTO PAYDEBTS
The phone calls fiom the debt to small businesses who
are Yamazaki,a small businessowner in
collector got increasingry more experiencing financial difficulties
Tokyo and also a recently-threatened
threatening. First, the standard and who cannotraisemoney in
"Maybe
other
borrower.
in the western
pressure:"You have to come up with ways. Their methods give
a whole world this is different."And indeedit
the money.Sell your housequickly ... new meaning to the idiomatrc
is. The United States,for example,
"It'll
sell your clothes and all your expression,
costyou an arm and outnumbersorgandonationsin Japan
belongingsif necessary."But then: a leg!"
by 20 to l.
"Sell
a kidney.You have two. don't
Aggressiue debt collection has Fortunately for Mr Mamoto, he
you? Many of our oolo^*:t:
:ntt uti"oy, u""n an unpleasanraspecrof found the legal help he neededbefore
haveone. you can ger $2g,000for
a tt" ilurin"r, world
but this new having to resofi to selling off partsof
kidney. You can get $9.500 for an
developmenthascausedoutrage.The
his body. He filed the first criminal
eyeball," said the debt collector. on
,ul" of body organs is especially complaint against one of the largest
taperecordingsof the calls.
sensitivein Japan,where people are loan shark companies in Japan, a
By this time, the personreceivingthe often reluctant to even ailow
tire companycharginginterestratesof 30
calls, Mr Mamoto, a retired donation of an organ after death for
to 40 per cent.National televisionhas
metalworker,was so frightened that medical purposes.
broadcast the recorded telephone
when he heard dogs barking, he .,we
believe that our bodies are threats repeatedly in an attempt to
thoughtit was debt collectorscoming
sacred.i would never allow anyone make Japanesecitizens aware of the
after him, his lawyer said.
to take anytirlngaway from my body ruthlessworld of debt collection.
These'shokoloan'firms lend money - dead or alive," said Mr Hiroshi
Readthe text again and answerthese questions:
Discussion
l'The c'lebtcollectorgave pricesfor certainorgans.Where was he possibly
geting those figurcsfrom?
7.I)o you think peoplewho oblect ro organ
donation are beins seliish?
The sale of human organs
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1' ln the telcphonethreatsthat were made, what did the debt collector
say that shows there have bec'r
other victims of thesethreats?
?. How did Mr Mamoro get proof of thesethreats?
3. Accorcli'g tr the article,lvhy are there so few organ donors in
Japan?
4. Wliich idionraticexpressionin the article means;very sxpgnslys'2
18
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Taboosand /ssues
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Language2
Remember this idiomatic expression from the Now put the expressions from the exercise
article,meaningthat somethingis very expensive: opposite into the sentencesbelow:
It'll cost )tou Ltndrm dnd a leg!
1 . I h a dt o t h i n k
.... before
Lots of expressions in English have the word 'and'
I decidedto becomc an organ donor.
in the middle.For example:sa/f and pepper.There
2. lt's amazingthat this is still a controversial
are two things to know about these expressions:
issuein this . .
|. The order neverchanges- you neversay 'cost
3. It's a complicatedissue.Therc'sno simple
rr leg ar-rcl
an arm.'
answer.It's not
'and'
2. Thc words beforear-rdafter
are almost
4. Maybe some day peoplewill changetheir
rtlwrrvsthe sanreword class- 'arm' and 'leg'
attitude towards organ donation - we'll just
are both nouns.
have to
Match the words below. The first one has been
5.In somecountriespeoplewho are willing to
done for you as an example.
donatetheir organsare
l. sick
a. and age
6. Theseare . .
ethicalquestions,not
wait
b. and hard
medicalquestions.
black
c. and far between
7. Finding an organ donor usedto be more
leaps
d. and bounds
difficult, but the situation has improved by
in this clay
e. and white
few
f. and foremost
8 . Peopleare . .
of being
fi rst
g. and tired
around
oushed
bv debt collectors.
think krng
h. and see
Discussion
Answer these questions in pairs or small
groups:
l. Do you think one day doctors will be
shoppingfor organson the internet?
Is there rrnythir-rg
wrong with selling
organs?
2. Would yor-rmind having your body cur up
for thc sakeof scienceafter you die?
Woulcl vou plrt a limit on what they can
take?
.1.What woulcl vou tell a personwho is
consideringl'recorning
an organ donor?
What wor-rldyou say to encollrageor
cliscourage
her/him?
"This
is the wctrstpart of the job - hauing
to clear up dfter a Rugby International!"
4. How do ,voufeel abor-rtusing animal organsin human beings?How about r-rsing
a monkey'sheart?
Wotrlclyou like the eyesof a pig?
.5.N'lanypeopledon't have the time or just can't be botheredto get an organ donor card. Some
countrieswant a new systemwhere doctors automaticallyhave permissionto take your organs
urrlcssvou havc il card which saysthat you are not an organ donor. A systemlike this one could
simplify:rnd speedthings up at hospitalsand savelives.'Wouldyou be in favour of a systemlike
this?
Taboosand /ssues
The sale of human organs
18
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Discussion
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Work in pairs. Answer the questions below:
How much do you know about HIV?
1. HtV infectioncanbe passed
on by which
of the followingmeans:
a.
b.
c.
d.
heterosexualsexual intercourse
homosexualsexualintercourse
kissing
u s i n gi n f e c t e di n j e c t i o ne q u i p m e n t
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2. Mark the following true (T) or false (F):
a . A I D S a n d H I V a r e t h e s a m et h i n e .
b . A n H I V t e s lw i l l s h o w i m m e d i a r e l yi f
someoneis infectedwith HlV.
c . C u r r e n tt r e a t m e n ct a n e l i m i n a t et h e H I V
infectionin some people.
Find out the correct answers from your
teacher.
Note: Although you mdy still hear the
term AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency
syndrome) it is nr.t
longer ttsed widely by doctors. Tbey prefey
tcttalk'of uir-rroge' or,aduanced Hlv infection,.
Before
effectiue treatments, someone with FiIv
almost cert;inty-drlrrtoprd.AlDs. This is no
longer the case.
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Reading
Answer these questions with a partner.
Then read the information below to find the
answers:
1. Which area of the world is mosr affected
by HIV?
2. Is there a cure for HIV?
3. Are more men or more women affected
by HIV?
4. Which age group is mosr affected bv
HIV?
1. HIV in the world
There were 33.4 million people
i n f e c t e dw i t h H I V a r o u n d t h e w o r l d
r n 1 9 9 9 :2 2 . 5 m i l l i o n i n s u b _ S a h a r a n
Afric:i,6.7 million in South and
S o u t h - e a sAt s i a , i . 4 m i l l i o n i n L a t i n
A m e r i c aa n d 0 . 2 m i l l i o n i n t h e U S A .
T h e r ea r e a b o u t 9 , 0 0 0 n e w i n f e c t i o n s
each day - 90"k of these in
d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s .M o r e t h a n l 4
million people have alreadydied of
t h e d i s e a s e i,n c l u d i n g2 . 5 m i l l i o n i n
19 9 8 .
2. Treatment
Although there is no actual cure,
drugs are now available which
suppress thc progress ol
HIV
i n f e c t i o na n d m a n y s u f f e r e r sc a n l i v e
r e l a t i v e l yl o n g a n d h e a l t h y l i v e s . F o r
most people with HlV, however,
recent advances in treatment will
h a v e l i t t l e i n r p a c t .T h e h i g h c o s t
of
d e v e l o p i n ga n d p r o d u c i n g n e w d r u g s
a n d t h e l a c k o f a v a i l a b l em o n e y f o r
h e a l t h c a r ei n m a n y c o u n t r i e sm a k e i t
19
u n l i k e l yt h a tn e w t r e a t m e n twsi l l e v e r
b e w i d e l ya v a i l a b l e
i n t h ed e v e l o p i n g
world.
5. Obstacles
S o m e t i m e s ,f o r r e l i g i o u s ,c u l t u r a l o r
e c o n o m t c r e a s o n s /i t c a n b e d i f f i c u l t
3. Who is most affected?
for people to use concJoms and
T h r o u g h o ut th e w o r l d ,r o u g h l ye q u a l
protect themselvesand their partners.
n u m b e r so f m e n a n d w o m e n a r e
A woman who is economically
infected. But HIV mostly affects
oependent on a man may find it
y o u n g a d u l t sa n d p e o p l e i n e a r l y
impossible to ask for slter ser.
m i d d l e a g e . T h e s ea r e t h e p e o p l e
Women are most commonly infected
w h o r a i s et h e c h i l d r e n ,s u p p o r t h e
through unprotected sex with their
elderly and build a country,s husbands or long
term partners.
economy.The loss of such people
Some governmentsdo not accept that
h a s h a d a n d w i l l c o n t i n u et o h a v ea
HIV is a problem for them at all. A
seriouseffect on the economiesof
few national leaders even rleny that
s o m ec o u n t r i e sp, a r t i c u l a r l iyn s o m e
s o m e b e h a v i o u rh a p p e n s ,s u c n a s s e x
areasof Africa.
b e t w e e n m e n o r d r u g i n j e c t i n g .T h i s
4. Stoppingthe epidemic
c a n m a k e i t p a r t i c u l a r l yd i f f i c u l t f o r
We could slow down the worlcjwide
people in those countries to be aware
HIV epidemicif everyonehad good
of and avoid the risks. We must
information about preventing continue to fight prejudice
and
i n f e c t i o n ,a l o n g w i t h s u p p o r tf r o m
increase understanding.Together we
s o c i e t yt o h e l p t h e m a c t o n t h i s
can make a difference.
information.Furthermore,
each new
Adapted fron ,lJnderstanc!ing HtV
generationof gay men needsto be
infection and AtDS,,
Terrence
madeawareof the risksof HlV.
Higgins Trust
AIDS
Taboosand /ssues
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Discussion
Read the text again more carefully and answer these questions:
l. Why do most people not receivenew rreatmentsfor HIV?
2. How does the spread of HIV affect a country's economy?
3. What would help to slow down the spreadof HIV infection?
4. What factorscan be unhelpful in preventingthe spreadof HIV?
Discussthe following questionsin pairs or small groups:
.5.What is done in your country to help prevent the spread of HIV?
6. Do you think more could be done?If so, what?
7. What is the attitude of most people towards HIV sufferers?
8. How could the large drug companiesdo more to help?
Language1
Language2
Read through the text again and find the verbs
which go with the following nouns and noun
phrases.The first one has been done for you.
Complete the summary below with the correct
form of words from the previous exercise:
l.
mdke
2.
3.
4.
5.
7.
8.
9.
10.
little impact (para 2)
new drugs (2)
new drugs (2)
a seriouseffect on (3)
infection (4)
aware of the risks (4)
the risks (5)
prejudice(5)
understanding(5)
a difference(5)
Now match the adverbs on the left with the
adjectiveson the right:
1 1 .w i d e l y
1 2 .r o u g h l y
13. economically
14. most commonly
15. particularly
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
dependenton
difficult
equal numbers
available
infected
Although researchscientistshave (1) . . . .
and (2)
. . many new drugs to fight
the HIV infection. at the moment these
treatmentsare only widely (3)
in developedcountries.In developingcountries
infection rest on
efforts to (4)
( 5 ). . .
. . . u n d e r s t a n d i n g tohf e
diseaseand encouragingpeopleto (6)
the risks of unprotectedsex. The number of
deathsamong young people has, in some
c o u n t r i e s( 7
, )...
..aseriouseffect
on the national economy.It is vital therefore to
continueto (8)
. prejudice
people
and continueto (9)
aware of the risks of HIV infection.
Discussion
Discussthese questionsin pairs:
l. Do you know anyonewith HIV?
2.lf a friend of yours or a member of your family was infectedwith HIV, would you treat them
differently from the way you do now?
How far do you agree or disagree with the following?
1. HIV starteclbecauseof homosexuality.
rt
2. Too much money is spent on researchinto HIV. Cancer researchis more important.
il
3. Developedcountriesonly care about their own HIV infectedpopulation.They are doing nothing to
help the developingworld.
it
4.lt is irresponsible
of the Roman Catholic church to say that peopleshould not use condoms.
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Taboosand /ssues
19
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Tellinglies
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Discussion
Work in pairs.Choose one of the subjectsbelow to talk about for two minutes.During the discussiontry
to tell one lie to your partner.At the end of the discussion,tell your partnerwhat you think he or she has
lied about.
holidays
schools
work
sport
trauel
a hobhy
ls it possibleto go through tife onty teiling the truth?
Reading
Read the article quickly. Decide whether these sentences are true (T) or false (F).
1. Lord Archer wenr ro schoolat WellingtonCollege.
2. At one tirne he lost a lot of money.
3. He wils involvedwith a Drostitute.
ARCHER GOES
Jeffrey Archer pulled out yesterday from the
election to become mayor of London after
admitting that he had persuadeda friend to lie for
him in court in 1986. He could now face criminal
but various investment mistakes over a number of
years meant he lost it all and was left with huge
debts. Resigning from Parliament, he started
writing to pay back what he owed. His novels
became best-sellersand have earned him as much
t.
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as f50 million over the years.
A
political career the rumour spread that he had
attendedthe famous Berkshire school, Wellington
He returned to politics in 1985, but was forced to
resign a year later following storiesthat he had sent
f20OO to a prostitute, Monica Coghlan. Some
ct
College. In fact, he had studied at the far more
ordinary Wellington School in Somerset.It was also
newspaperssuggestedin their reports that Archer
had had sex with Ms Coghlan. He took legal action
widely believed that he had studied for an MA at
Oxford University. In reality, he took part of a
postgraduatediploma course - a course for which
and won libel damagesof f500000.
Jeffrey Archer became Lord Archer in 1992 but
questions over his financial dealings continue to
he was not qualified. Elected to Parliamentin 1969,
he was said to be the youngestMP ever. Not true.
this day and his ability to exaggeratesimple facts
seemsnot to have diminished.So. will he survive
There is no doubting his ability ro make money.By
1914 he had already made a fbrtune in business,
this latest scandal?Only time will rell, but Archer
has a reputation for being able to bounce back.
charges.
This is, of course,not the first time that Archer has
been economical with the truth. Early in his
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l. Why did Archer resignin I974?
2 . ' W h y d i d h e r e s i g ni n 1 9 8 6 ?
3. Why did he tilke somenewspapersro courr?
4.Why did hc deciclenor ro srarndas Mayor of London?
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1. Should peoplcwho have beencaughttelling a lie be bannedfrom holding public office?
2. Arc there :rny pr-rblicfiguresin your country who have conrinuedin public life despitequesrions
rrbouttheir pirst?Who? What are they supposedto have done?
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Readthe articleagain and answer these questions:
20
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Taboosand /ssues
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Discussion
Answer these questions on your own first. Then compare your answers with a partner.
Haveyou ever lied about any of the following?
1. Your qualificationsin a job application
2. To your parentsabout somethingimportant
3. Your agc
4. When a friend asked to borrow some money frorn you
-5.When being interviewed by the police
6. When you were late for work or school
7. When giving someoneyour addressor phone number
8. When you were going through customs
9. On an incometax form
10.Your salary
Language
Tellthe truth!
Look at this sentence from the text:
Work in pairs.Discusswhat you would do in these
situations:
Tbis is, of course,not the first time that
Archer hds been economical with the truth.
Being economical with the truth is another way of
saying lying. Below are some more ways of talking
about lying and dishonesty.Put the missing words
back into the expressionsbelow:
rnstLter
teeth
inch
lie
pack
ltg
a. He's lying through his
b.l told him a little white
c. I don't trust him an .
d. Just give me a straight
e. He's pulling your .
f. He told us a whole
. . . . of lies.
Now use the correct form of the verbs from the
expressionsin these sentences:
1. Jack told n-rehe'd had dinner with Tony Blair.
> And you believedhim? I think he was
. your leg.
2.1 askedhim three times if he'd borrowed my
\rValkmanand he wouldn't
. me a
straight answer.
3.I'm sureJim stole my wallet. He sayshe never
came in the room but I think he's . . . . . .
thror-rghhis teeth.
4. There'ssomething a bit strangeabout the new
boss.
> I know I don't
. him an inch.
.5.I'vcjust found out that Kathy hasn't beenvery
honest.She's.
me a whole pack of lies.
1. It is a beautiful sunny day and some of your
friends, who are on holiday, have decidedto go
for a picnic. They ask you to go. Do you:
a. call your boss and say you are ill?
b, call your boss and ask for the day off?
c. tell your friends you haue to go to work?
Or would you do something else?
2. When leaving a car park, you accidentally
bump into the car parked next to yours and
damage it slightly. Do you:
a. leauea note of apology on the windscreen
with your name and address?
b. wait for the other driuer to come back?
c. leauetbe car parl<as quickly as possiblel
Or would you do something else?
3. You are in the supermarket.You pick up a box
of eggsto put in your basket and drop it
accidentally,breaking some of the eggs.
Do you:
a. put it back on the shelfl
b. buy it anyway!
c. giue it to an assistantand sa1,you found it
like thdt?
Or would you do something else?
4. You pay for somethingwith a {10 note but
you are given changefor {20. Do you:
a. giue back the extra f"l0?
b. keelt the extra f10 for yourself?
c. l<ee1tthe extra f10 but giue it to charityl
Or would you do something else?
6. ['m basicallya very honestperson,but I
supposeI . . . . . . a little white lie from time to
time.
Taboosand /ssues
Tellinglies
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Abortion
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Languageand discussion
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Match the words on the left with the definitions on the right:
I . foetus
a. in favour of a woman's right to have an abortion
2. expecting
b. a baby before it is born
3. pro-life
c. againstabortion
4. pro-choicc
d. pregnant
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What is the legal position in your country regarding abortion?
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Before you read the text, which of the following is closest to your own view of abortion?
a. I :rm deeply,morally against it.
b.l don't seeanything wrong with it.
c. I don'r feel strongly either way.
d.I think it dependson individual circumstances.
I
I!
a
I
I
Do you know of any countrieswhere abortion is illegal?
I
I
.{i
q
Reading
A
a
As you read about this young woman's experience,try to answer this question:
\X/asher decision a positiue one
or one she regrets?
;l
I
I
E
I
tt
t:
Why I had an abortion
The reasonI had an abortionwas becauseI
knew I was far too youngto havea baby- it
wasthe wrongstageof life.I could havetaken
careof a babybecause
teenagers
do it all the
time.But basically,
I didn'twant a baby.
I wantedto wait until I was marriedso that my
husbandand I couldgiveour babyall the love
and careit needed.I don'tthink I was ready
for all the responsibilities
of motherhood.
Therewereso manyotherthingsgoingon in
my life at the time.lt wouldn'thavebeenfair
t|
to the babyif I couldn'tbe therefor it. There
was alsoa chancemy boyfriendand I would
breakup and the babywould grow up without
a father.And it wasn'tfair on my motherwho
would havehad to helpbringthe child up.
I alsohad big plansto go awayto university
to
trainas a nurse.I knewthatwould be virtually
impossible
with a babv.I listenedto mv heart
and afterlotsand lotsof soul-searching,
I knew
abortionwasthe rightanswerfor me.
(Fifteen-year-old
gi rl)
d
a
I
3
J
rt
I
F:
f
d
{f
A
tl
Discussion
d
Do you think the girl acted responsibly?Why / Why not?
Here is the opinion of a retired British doctor. She worked as a doctor both while
abortion was illegal and
for about 30 years after it was legalised.
"Before
abortion was made legal, all my colleaguesand r were m
fauour of it, but ouer the yedrs my uiews haue-changed.I think it
showld still be legal, but young girls today are using it as anotber
form of contraception.That is wrong and it was neuer the intention
of the reformers that this sbould happen."
How do you react to the doctor's view?
How do doctors in your country feel about this issue?
4
v
v
Jg
d
v
n
d
I
4I
4
a
-t
d
21
Aborlion
Taboosand /ssues
q
1
5
I
Language
Look at the text again and match the reasons the girl gives for having the abortion:
l.lwasfar
a. without a father.
2. I wanted to wait
b. plans to go away to university.
3. I don't think I was ready
c. too young.
4. There were so many other things
d. going on in my life.
-5.It woulcln'thave been
e. until I was married.
6. It was the wrong
f. fair to the baby.
7. Thc baby would grow up
g. for all the responsibilities.
8. It wasn't fair
h. stageof life.
9. I also had big
i. on my mother.
Work in pairs. Do you think any of the above reasons are good ones for having an abortion?
What about the father?
Readthis short article.Do you think the man has a right to do what he has done?
A FATHER'SRIGHTS
A man has successfullymanagedto prevent because only one doctor was consulted
his tbrmer girlfriend from having an aborlion instead of two, and other checks on the
- at leastfbr the time being.The clinic where physical and psychological state of the
the operationwas due to take place agreed woman had not taken place.Mr Curtis took
yesterdaythat they would not continuewith the legal action becausehe is opposed to
the procedureuntil further medicalenquiries abortion. His victory is only temporary,
hadtakenplace.StephenCurtis,24, took legal however, as there is nothing to stop the
action against the clinic, saying that the
woman going to anotherclinic. He hopesto
terminationwas againsttheAbortionAct rules be ableto persuadeher to changeher mind.
Discussion
Work in pairs or small groups and decide whether you agree or disagree with the statements below:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
It should be the woman's right to choose.Ultimately, it's her body and so it's her decision alone.
If you're mature enough to make a baby, then you're mature enough to take care of it.
A baby is still a personeven beforeit is trorn.
Abortion is for the irresponsible.
I believeall life is sacredand so abortion is a criminal acr ro me.
With so many other options, like adoption, I don't seewhy an abortion is ever necessary.
I don't agreewith late-term abortions, but I think the so-called'morning-after pill' is basically OK.
I don't believein abortion laws - it's usuallymen who make them.
If abortion is illegal,it only meansmore backstreetabortionswill happenand that is dangerous
for thc women concerned.
10. Abortion is wrong and should be stoppedat all costs,including bombing the clinicsif necessary.
One doctor from an abortion clinic was shot last month. He got what he deserved.
Finally,here are some arguments put forward by the Prolife Alliance in the UK:
Your life in your mother's womb started dt conception. Your heart started to beat 3 weeks
after conception. Your hrain waues could be detected at .\ weeks. Your organs were all
formed dt 10 weeks. Your hearing wds perfect dt 76 weeks. Ouer 180,000 abortions are
performed in Britain each year.Abortion is the most common surgical operation in the UK.
97o/"are of heabhy babies.90"/oare for social rather than medical reasons.
What is your reaction to these arguments?
Taboosand /ssues
21
-
Nationalstereotypes
"Heavenis where the police
are British,the cooks are French,the mechanics
are German,the lovers are ltalianand it's all organisedby the Swiss. Hell is
where the police are German, the cooks are English, the mechanics are
French,the lovers are Swiss, and it's all organisedby the ltalians."
Discussion
Discuss in pairs or small groups:
1.Did you find the joke above amusing?If you did, is it becauseof what you know about these
nationalitiespersonally,or what you know of their reputations?
2. Would you like to charnge
the joke in someway? Can you improve it by changingsomc of rhe
nationalitiesor some of the jobs?
3. Do you hirvetourists from other countrieswhere you live?\7hich nationalities?What are they like?
Reading
Readthis articleand underlineanythingthat surprisesyou or that you think is not fair.
BRAZILIANS VOTED BEST TOURISTS,GERMANSWORST
In a recent survey conductedby the American Board
of Tourism, professionals in various areas of the
tourism industry have rated Brazilians as the world's
best tourists. The survey gave points for things like
'politeness,''willingness
to understandand speak
English' and'cultural sensitivity.'Peopleworking in
jobs ranging from taxi-drivers to hotel receptionists
and airline flight attendants almost unanimously
rated the Braziliansas being 'friendly'and 'polite.'
The opposite seemed true of the Germans. "The
Germans just don't seem to get it," said one
The best tippers are the Japanese,according to the
survey. A travel agent representativeexplains: "The
Japaneseare afraid of 'losing face'. They'll do what
they think is expectedof them in the country they're
visiting, so they're usually extremely polite. They
rate very high in the cultural sensitivity category."
The French scoredextremely low in the 'willingness
to understand and speak English' category. "It's
amazing. They can be so rude and snobby," said a
manager of a hotel chain, based in New Orleans.
"They're
rude and impatient yet they expect service
ticket agent at Chicago O'Hare International
"You
Airyort.
try to explain things to them and they
answer you back in French. Not only that, they
smoke too much - even where it's not allowed -
with a smile. They travel outside Germany yet want
to have things just like at home. Plus, they never
and they're generally messy, leaving cigarettes and
other rubbish on the floor. It's unbelievable." A
tip."
summary of the Board's survey is given below:
Friendliestnationalities:
l. Brazilians
2. Japanese
3. Koreans
4. Canadians
5. Portuguese
Most polite:
Willingnessto understand
and speakEnglish:
1. Japanese
l. Brazilians
2. Dutch
Most culturallysensitive:
l.
Brazilians
2. Brazllians
3. British
4. Spanish
3. Swiss
4. Hungarians
4. Egyptians
5. Koreans
5. Poles
5. Koreans
2. Japanese
3. Romanians
Discusswith your partnerwhat you underlinedin the text.
22
Nationalstereotypes
Taboosand /ssues
True or false?
Read the text again and mark the statements below true (T) or false (F):
l. Peopleall over the world think Braziliansare the besttourists.
2. The Jirpaneseare often afraid of doing or saying the wrong thing when travelling.
3. The Frenchilre generallynot very happy to speakEnglish.
4. The Gcrmans wanr to get a real feel for the local lifestylewhen they travel.
-5.Thc Germans are happy to show their appreciationfor good service.
6. The French don't seemto be very tidy when they travel.
lf your nationalityis not mentionedin the four categoriesin the survey,do you think it should be?
Language
Discussion
The article describesthe Braziliansas 'polite'and
the Germans as 'rude.' Below are some more
words from the article and some other ones to
describe character. Match the words on the left
with their oppositeson the right:
Work in pairs or small groups. Which nationalities
do you think are being describedbelow?
1. They're always in big groups.
2. They talk too loud.
L politc
e.quiet
3. The men xre womanisers.
2. friendly
b. mean
4. They're good dancers.
3. loud
c. rude
5. They smoke too much.
4. generous
d. unfriendly
6. They're all fat.
5. open-minded
e. messy
7. They think they're the best.
6. ticly
f. intolerant
8. They're violent peoplc,I think.
Do the same with these:
7. honest
g. impatient
8. gentle
h. warm
9. patient
i. boring
10. fun
j. dishonest
1l . e x c i t a b l e
k. aggressive
12. distant
l. calm
How do you think people from other countries see
people from your country? Would they use any of
the adjectives above?
Taboosand /ssues
9. They're so mean. They cor.rntevery penny.
10. They talk with their hands.
I l . T h e y ' r eb a d d r i v e r s .
12. They're all rich.
13. They always want things done their way.
14. The women are beautiful.
15. They're all blonde-hairedand blue-eyed.
Do you think your discussionwould have offended
people from any of the countries you have been
talking about? Do you mind if your country is
talked about in the same way?
Nationalstereotypes
22
Cheatingon your partner
Discussion
Work in pairs or small groups. Which of the following do you considerto be cheating?
1. Your partner flirting with another person.
2. Your partner having fantasiesabout a friend of yours.
3. Your partner having fantasiesabout a celebrity.
4. Your partner kissing another person after a few drinks at a party.
-5.Your partner going to bed with another person after a fcw drinks at a party.
6. Your partner frequentlyhaving coffeewith another personand sharingintimate thoughtsand
dreamswith this person.
What do you think of internet chatrooms? Are they just fantasy or are they part reality?
Reading
Readthe articleand answer this question:
tMould you stdy with your husband/wife/partner if this happened to you?
CYBER-CHEATS
BEWARE
Soon after getting the computer, Jennifer'shusband,
" l w a s d e v a s t a t e d ,s" h e a d m i t s ." l n e v e r i m a g i n e dm y
Simon, (not their real names) started using the
h u s b a n dw o u l d e v e r c h e a t o n m e . "
i n t e r n e tn i g h t l y .A t f i r s t ,s h e d i d n ' t w o r r y . B u t s o o n h e
B u t i s ' c y b e r - c h e a t i n gs' t i l l c h e a t i n g ?
was spending more and more time in the home
o f f i c e ,s i t t i n ga t h i s c o m p u t e r l o n g i n t o t h e n i g h t . H e
"Yes, definitely," says one marriage guidance
c o u n s e l l o r ." F r o m a p s y c h o l o g i c a lp o i n t o f v i e w , i t
stopped coming to bed with her and sometimes
d o e s n ' t m a t t e r i f i t w a s r e a l o r i m a g i n e d- i n b o t h
would even sleep on the office sofa.A few times sne
casesthe marriage has been damaged in the same
e v e n c a u g h th i m s n e a k i n gs i l e n t l yo u t o f t h e i r b e d i n
way."
the middle of the night to go to the office computer.
N o t a l l p r o f e s s i o n a lisn t h e f i e l d o f f a m i l y p s y c h o l o g y
a g r e e . " l t ' s r i d i c u l o u s a n d d a n g e r o u st o t r y a n d
A t f i r s t s h e t h o u g h t h e w a s s i m p l y a d d i c t e dt o t h e
internet or
even
browsing through on-line
p o r n o g r a p h yB
. u t w h e n S i m o n s t a r t e dt u r n i n g d o w n
s e x ,J e n n i f e rg o t s u s p i c i o u s .
"He'd never not wanted
to have sex before," says
"Thatwas new
a
t h i n g .A n d I d i d n ' t t h i n k i t
Jennifer.
w a s b e c a u s eh e w a s u p a l l n i g h t v i s i t i n gn e w s s i t e s .
I k n e w s o m e t h i n gw a s w r o n g . "
images of attractivepeople by the media on a daily
b a s i s .l t ' s i m o o s s i b l en o t t o f a n t a s i s eT. h e i n t e r n e ti s
a place for people to carry out those fantasiesin a
safe and unharmful way. lf, as a result, there is a
c r i s i si n t h e m a r r i a g ef o l l o w i n g a n e p i s o d eo f i n t e r n e t
i n f i d e l i t y t, h e n i t i s o n l y a s y m p t o mo f s o m e t h i n gt h a t
With suspicionson full alert she started going
w a s a l r e a d y w r o n g i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p ,a n d n o t
through Simon's drawers and trouser pockets. She
necessarilya direct result of the cyber affair."
found nothing. Then she went to the computer,
This is, of course, of no comfort to Jennifer,who is
f i l i n g f o r d i v o r c e ." l a c t u a l l ys a w t h e i n t i m a t et h i n g s
looked through his files and found the answer:
23
monitor the thoughts and fantasiesof your partner,"
warns one psychologist."We are bombarded with
S i m o n w a s h a v i n g a n e - m a i l a f f a i rw i t h a w o m a n i n
he wrote to her. He really hurt me and I know that I
another part of the country.
w i l l n e v e rb e a b l e t o t r u s th i m a s a i n . "
Cheatingon your parTner
Taboosand /ssues
True or false?
Read the text again and mark the following statementstrue (T) or false (F):
l.Jennifer got suspiciousbecauseSimon startedcoming home late.
2. Jenr-rifer
discoveredSimon's internet affair by accident.
3. Psychologistsagreethat an internet affair is damaging to any relationship.
4. Jenniferand Simon are divorcing.
5.Jenniferknows what Simon and his lover'said'to eachother.
Did Simon cheat on Jennifer?Discussthis question in small groups. Then take a class vote.
Language
ln English we often use expressions to describe serious or taboo matters in an indirect way. These
expressionsare called 'euphemisms.'lnthe text below,underlinethe five euphemismsthat really mean
to have sex with someone.
"l've always been more or lessfaithful to my girlfriend. OK, OK, once I had a
one-night stand with a girl at the office. But we were both drunk. I'm not the
kind of guy to sleeparound. I mean, kissinganotherpersonis one thing, but
actually going to bed with them is another story. I don't know how I could
look myself in the mirror knowing I had been intimate with another woman.
The same goes for my girlfriend. If I knew she had been with another man, I
couldn't let the relationship go on. A very important trust would have been
broken."
you
lf
are a man, do you have a similar view to the man above?
you
lf
are a woman, would you be happy to have this man as your partner or not? Give your reasons.
Discussion
You and your partner,Chris, live together.One night you come home and find the following accidentally
left on the computer:
<<Chris>>I really love chattingwith you.
<<Lonely>> Me too. When are you going to send me your picture?
<<Chris>>I'll have to scanone. I'm not very photogenic.
<<Lonely>> It doesn't matter. I like you for you. You make me feel special.
<<Chris>>Yeah,you make me feel special,too. I had a dream about you last night.
<<Lonely>>You did? What about?
<<Chris>>Hmmm. I think I'd better not say.
What would you do next?
a. sit down at the computer and seeif there are more e-mails like this?
b. confront your partner straightaway?
'the silent treatment' until they ask what is wrong?
c. give them
d. pack your bagsand leave?
e. have a good laugh about it and tell your partner to grow up?
Or would you do somethingelse?
Does this e-mail interactiontell you anything about the state of your relationshipwith Chris?
What about the state of this internet relationship? (How serious is it? How long has it probably been
going on?)
Taboosand /ssues
Cheatingon your paftner
23
Are you happywith your body?
Discussion
You bump into a woman friend in town. You knew she was thinking of having breast implants and you
can see that she has obviously had the operation.What do you say to her?
rl. Nothing. It's too embarrassing.
b. "\7ow. Those look great! How much did they cost?"
c. "Wow. I'n"rsurprisedyou can stand up straight!"
d. Somethingelse.
ls plastic surgery popular in your country? ls it expensive?
Do you think peoplewho have plasticsurgery are too concernedabout their looks?
Reading
Readthrough the articleand answerthis question:
Is there tt similar trend in your country?
YOUNGER PLASTIC SURGERY PATIENTS
Surgeonsat clinics specialisingin plasticsurgery
are reporting increasingly younger patients,
according to a report releasedrecently by the
National Association of Plastic Surgery in the
United States.
"They
want to look like the people they see in
films or the models they see in magazines.It's
becoming an obsession,"said one doctor in a
beautyclinic in California."Last week we had a
woman in here who, at 30, said she was looking
too old and wanted a facelift. I told her to come
back and seeme in 15 years."
The averageage for patientsundergoingplastic
surgeryover the last year was 32, down from 34
just the year before.In Englandrecently,a 15year-oldgirl was in the news for announcingthat
her parents were going to pay for breast
enlargementsas her 16th birthday present.
Her mother said, "If it makes her happy and
gives her more chance of successin life, then
what is the problem?" Though women still
dominate the plastic surgery scene, men are
growing increasingly concerned with their
physical appearanceand are doing something
about it. According to the report,men now make
tp 39Vaof all surgeriesperformed - that's an
increaseof nearly 20Vofrom last year.
One man, who wished to remain anonymous,
said he got his liposuction - removal of excess
fat - after pressurefrom his wife. "She's a very
athleticwoman and, well,I enjoy a good steak."
Liposuction tops the list of plastic surgery
performed on men, followed by hair implants
and breastreduction.For women the top order is
still breastenlargement,followed by liposuction
and facelifts.
Readthrough the articleagain and answer these questions:
l. Why
2. Why
3. Why
4. Whv
arc younger peopleturning to plasticsurgery?
did the cloctorrefuseplasticsurgeryto one patienr?
is plasticsurgerynow more popular with men?
c-lidthc man have liposuction?
Discussion
Do you think the number of men who want plastic surgery will eventuallyequal, or even surpass, the
number of women?
Read again what the mother of the 1S-year-old
girl said. Do you agreewith her?
24
Are you happy with your body?
Taboosand /ssues
Language
Match these types of plastic surgery solutions to the problems below:
rhinoplasty (nosejob)
breast enlargement
bair impldnt
uaricoseuein remctudl
1. "This thing on my faceis an atrocity.I'm
surprisedbirds don't sit on it or that lightning
doesn'tstrike it in thunderstorms."
2. "1 hirtethem. I can't wear shortsor a bikini
becausethey stick olrt, especiallyon the back
of my tl-righs.
They're the ugliestthings I've
ever seenand they'regettingworse everyyear
bccauscI havc bad circulation."
3.
"l
startedrecedingreally badly at the age of
23. My wife saysshe doesn'tmind, but I hate
it. I meirn,I'm not completelybald or anything,
but I constantlywear hats and baseballcaps
beciruscI'm so self-conscious
about it. I could
ncvcr wcar a wlg.
facelift
tummy tuck
The boys at school
4. "l hate being flat-chested.
'ironing-board'.
Imagine!
usedto call me
I think I have a pretty face but I don't feel
confident about myself from the chin down.
I would like to feel good about wearing a tight
sweateror a low-cut dress."
5.
"l usedto have such a youthful, vibrantlooking face.Now my skin just sags.I think
I look twice my age."
6. "No matter what I do, my belly sticksout.
I think it has somethingto do with my posturc.
If I could just get a flat stomach,I wouldn't
feel so bad about looking at myselfsidewaysin
the mirror."
Which of the above treatments are most popular in your country? Are there any other ones that were not
mentioned?
lf you had the problems above and plenty of money, would you have the surgery? Tell your partner what
you would do for each problem.
Discussion
ln a survey of 37,500girls aged 12 to 15, more than half listed appearanceas their biggestworry.
What do you think is the reason for this? ls it a worrying statistic?
Are you happy with your size and weight? ls there a part of your body that you would like to change
(i.e.make smaller,make bigger)?
Here is an alternativepoint of view from a culture where people take a different view of size:
" l m u s t e a t s o l ' l l b e f a t a n d p e o p l ew o n ' t l a u g ha t m y f i g u r e , "e x p l a i n so n e o f t h e
" N o b o d y w i l l m a r r ym e i f
w o m e n i n a f a t t e n i n gr o o m i n C a l a b a rS
, o u t h e r nN i g e r i a .
I don't get fatter."Women come from all over Nigeriato put on extra poundsat these
"They will
fatteningrooms. "We can make any woman obese," boaststhe owner.
g e t a h u s b a n da f t e rt h e i r s t a yh e r e ,n o p r o b l e m . "T h e w o m e n e a t a l l d a y a n d a v o i d
m o v i n gs o t h e y d o n ' t b u r n o f f a n y c a l o r i e s ". l t ' s a b i t t i r i n g e a t i n ga l l t h e t i m e , b u t I
k n o w w h e n l c o m e o u t l w i l l b e a t t r a c t i v eh, e a l t h va n d b e a u t i f u l , "s a i dt h e w o m a n
we spoketo.
you
Do
think it will be fashionableto be fat one day?
Taboosand /ssues
Are you happy with your body?
lmmigrationand racism
Discussion
Discussthese questionsin small groups:
1. What different ethnic groups are there in your town / regloni
2. \Whereh:rvethey come from and why?
3. Does your country offer help to refugees?
If so, are you happy that your taxes help to support them?
Reading
Read the article and decide if these sentences are true (T) or false (F):
1. The villagersdon't mind that the refugeesare living nearby.
2. t-ittle Hurling was the only placethe refugeescould go.
ASYLUM SEEKERS provided accommodationfor
seekers.They are afraid that
There was trouble yesterday them. But Little Hurling is if they returnhome,they will
in the village of Little not the placethey shouldbe. be killed or persecuted.After
H u r l i n g i n K e n t a s 1 5 0 It would be betterif they were the terrible time they have
had in their own country,they
Kosovar refugeesarrived to in a largetown or city."
stay in the Hurling Business Amanda Parker-White, 52, needsomepeaceand quietto
the village help them recover."
Centre just outside the leader of
"Thereis no "Unfortunately,
village. Local people,upset committee,said:
there was no
that no one had spoken to entertainment here, no
them before sending the cinema,no library, and only
refugeesthere, held a protest one small village shop. The
point is: what are these
meetingin the villagehall.
"We are
a tolerant group of peoplegoing to do?"
peoplein Little Hurling," said Basil Lloga, a spokesmanfor
Major Ronald Smythe, who the refugees,said:"I am sure
has lived in the village for 25 the
villagers are not
"We
years.
are happy that the discriminatingagainst these
government has offered people. Most of them have
time to talk to the villagers",
said Kim Thompson of the
government'sRefugeeAction
Group. "We only found out
the refugeeswere arriving
this morning and there was
nowhereelse for them to go.
We very much hope the
villagerswill welcome them
and accept them into the
assistance
to thesepeopleand come hereas genuineasylum community."
Readthe articleagain and answerthese questions:
1.Vhy do the villagersthink Little Hurling is nor a good place for refugees?
2. Why might it be a good place for refugees,according to Basil Lloga?
3. Why did nobody talk to the villagersfirst?
Discussion
1. Do you think the villagersare being honest about their reasonsfor wanting the refugeeselsewhere?
If not, what do you think the real reasonsare?
2. How do you think the villagersin a small village in your country would react i{ 150 refugeeswere
sentto live nearby?
3. How would you personallyreact?
lmmigration and racism
Taboosand /ssues
Ir
F
Language1
Language2
lFf.f
Match the words on the left with the words on the
right:
fH
a. migrants
1 asylr"rm
b. immigrants
2. border
c. controls
3. cconotnic
d. officials
4. illegal
e. seekers
-5. irnmigration
Complete this text with expressions from the
exerciseabove:
Folkrwing the discoveryof fifty (6) . . .
. . . in the back of a lorry at Calais
thc government has ordered stricter
,vesterday,
and has
at (7) .
secr.rrity
.
.
.
.
t
o
b
e
w a r n e d ( .8.).
"Sfe ilre very willing to help genuine
vigilant.
....,"saida
( 9 ). . .
"but thesepeopleare just
govcrnmentministeq
Now look at this sentence from the text:
The point is: wbat are tbesepeople going to do?
Look at these other expressions with point.
Decide if you would use them to agree (A)' to
disagree (D) or to partially agree (P).
ltr
IF
FI
'F
H
rF
hl
-
FI
ts
Ll
F
rl
Fr
bf
F
hl
+.
Fl
l . Y e s ,I s e ey o u r p o i n t .
2.I takeyour point but ...
3 . I a g r e eu p t o e p o i n t .
4. That's a good point.
5. No, you're missingthe point.
6. That's not the point.
7.I can't seeyour point at all.
8 . T h a r ' se x a c t l yt h e p o i n t .
...\we
( 1 0. ).
cannot allolv just anyone into the country'"
F
rf
+r
Fl
-
Ll
Discussion
Work in pairs. To what extent do you agree or disagree with the points of view below? The expressions
in Language2 may be helPful.
H
E
F
-t
lF
FI
I dctn't see tt,hy my taxes
should supl)ort people
irctttrotber countries. I'll
nerer gct anl,thing from
t h e i r c o u n t r y ,u i l l I ?
'We
shctuld be
proud that sct
many lteople
would like to
liue in our
country.
I don't mind the refugees.
Tbey really need helP, but I
don't seewby we sh<tuldlet
anyone elseinto the crnntrY,
thougb.
FF-
Frr
F.
l-
A lot ctf these refugeesare
Muslims. Wouldn't it be
hetter if tbel' u'snY7. t
Muslim country where they
u'oLrldfeel more at home?
i.-
l-
fF.
-
l-
Asylum seekersdre asylum
seekers.They are desPerate
women, men and children.
You neuer know - ue
could be in their situaticttt
one day.
ll-
fF
t-
E
1-
E
E
F
It
There dren't enctttghiobs
f'We
,tr lotdl pcoltlc;s i/ ls.
cttrt'thdt,epeople front
otber corrntriestaking our
jobs.
Iaboos and /ssues
Wdre already
doing enougb in this
country. \X/hycan't
other countries dct
more?
V/e haue lots of menidl
johs that no one udnts to
do. We need immigrants
to come and do this w<trk.
Let them come, I say.
lmmigrationand racism
25
Changingsex
Languageand discussion
Put words from the list into the diagram below, according to whether you think these
charactertraits are
predominantly male, or female, or both male and female. Use a dictionary
if necessary.
rttl,sterious
rlct'iotts
pttssionate
emotional
straightforward
reckless
logical
sympathetic
practical
reliable
louing
senslttue
talkatiue
efficient
agSressrue
maniltulatiue
intuitiue
Talk about your choices in small groups. For example: "women tend to be more sensitiye
than men.,,
(Notice 'tend to' makes your statement less definite.)
Reading
Readthe articlebelow and answer these questions:
l. Why warsLisirJonesbannedfrom the pub?
2. \fill shego back to the pub now?
LANDLORD PAYS OUT OVER TRANSSEXUAL BAN
The British pub landlord has who hasbeenliving as a f-emale come for." After the ban.
Jones
alwayshad the right to choose for the last lg months,haclnever took the landlord to court
on
who he servesdrinksto. But that gone to the Jacob'swell as a t h e
grounds
of
sexual
right may haveendedyesterday man but startedgoing recentry d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . M r
Woodhead
whenDavidWoodheid,landlordwith a triend.
settledout of court, paying Jones
of the Jacob's Well pub in Afier her first appearance.f 1 0 0 0 c o m p e n s a t i o na n d g i v i n g
Honley,WestYorkshire,decided customers began to feel her a letter of apology
and an
to removehis ban on customer uncomfortable about sharing invitation to return to the pub.
Lisa Jones rather than face a conversations
with her. women Yesterday Ms Jones said the
courtcaseandchargeso1'sexual customersin particular were decision was "brilliant"
but she
discliminltion.
Mr Woodhead had banned Ms
Jones.a transsexual,becauseshe
unhappy that she was using the
laclies'toilet. Although living as
made his regular customersfeel
uncomfortableas they sat at the
a woman, she has not had a sex
changeoperation.
Mr wooclheadsaid, "l had to do
bar of his small village pub. 43year-old Ms Jones. a 182-
something. My job is ro make
sure that the majority of the
c c ' n t i m e t r e - t a l lf a t h e r o f t w o ,
c u s t o m e r se n i o y w h a t t h e v h a v e
Changing sex
would not be returning to the
pub. "l know I'm tall," shesaid,
"and
my voice is not as feminine
as it should be. but I hadn't done
anything to upset the regulars.
I ' v e n e v e rf ' e l ts o i n s u l t e d . "
Taboosand /ssues
Trueor false?
Mark these sentences true (T) or false (F):
1. Lisa Joneshas beengoing to the Jacob's'Wellsinceshewas 18.
2. Ms.Jonesmade both the men and women customersfeel uncomfortable.
3. Ms -forrescloesnot sound like a woman.
Discussion
Discussthese questionsin pairs or groups:
'Sfhy
l. Was the landlord right to ban Lisa Jones?Why?
not?
2.lf you were a regularcustomer,how would you have felt about Ms Jonesbeing in the pub?
3. Do l.or.rthink it makesany differencethat Ms Joneshas not had a sex changeoperation?
Language
The words below will help you in the discussion that follows. You can use them to describe how you
might feel or react in a particularsituation.Check any words you do not know in your dictionary.
plcased
unbarrdssed
concerned
ttnconcerned
shocked
angty
understanding
awkuard
intrigued
supportiue
sympathetic
uncomfortable
upset
indignant
worried
Discussion
Work in pairs.Discusshow you would feel and what you would do in the following situations.The words
above may help you.
l. A closefriend is about to get married.You
have met their fianc6(e)and like them very
much. A week before the wedding your friend
tclls you (s)heis actuallymarrying a
trirnssexual.
('\Wtuld it make any difference if your friend is
ct tndn marrying a transsexudlwoman or a
ruonlon marrying d trdnssexualman?)
4. You have been out a few times with a member
of the opposite sex. You have seena couple of
films together and been out for drinks a few
times. You get on very well and find this
person quite attractive. You go out for dinner
togetherone eveningand (s)hetells you that
(s)heis transsexual.
2. You are sitting in a bar at a table on your own.
A woman comesand sits at the sametable and
,volrstart chatting. After a while you notice that
shc has very big hands,rather a deepvoice and
obviouslyshaves.
5. You have offered an important iob in your
company to a well-qualified woman who
performed very well at interview. She accepts
"Perhaps
the job and at the sametime she says:
I should tell you that until three years ago I
was a man."
.1.One of your friends is having a party. She rings
yolr up and tells you that all the men have to
clressas woffren ar-rdall the women have to
dressits men.
6. Your best friend suddenlytells you that (s)heis
going to have a sex changeoperation.This
is a completesurpriseas your friend has never
told you of any worries about gender identity.
Transsexuality,gender and sex: Although the terms are often consideredinterchangeal:le,gender and
-ssrc
firc very diffcrent things. Sex is physical;gender is a part of your identity. A transsexualis someone
whosc phvsicalser is in oppositionto their genderidentity so, for example,someonewho has a male
body can say "l feel I am a woman". A common treatmentfor this condition is to changethe person's
ph;-sicalser by an operationand hormone treatment.
Taboosand /ssues
Changingsex
i
ls this news?
!
I
I
I
I
Discussion
I
I
Look at two people's opinions on television news. which person
do you most agree with?
"The public
has a right to know what's happening.I think they should nor
cur our anyrhing.pcople
arrcmature enoughto take in the reality of what happensin
the world everyday.,,
"TV
news sometimesseemsmore like a show.They want a bigger
audienceso they shgw shockingor
provocirtiveimages.TV news shor-rldreport rhe news, not
try io shock people.,,
Can you think of a recentexampleof somethingsensational
appearingon the news?
Reading
Readthe letterand answer this question:
Does the wrirer have a point or is (s)heberngroo sensitive?
TO THE PRODUCER(S)
AT CHANNET S
Dear Sirs,
I must saythat I was shockedand outragedby your broadcast
of the imagesof the
Concordecrashlast week. was it really necessaryto show the plane
actually going
down?Thiswas prime-timetelevision.Did it not occur to you ih"t
thereare children
watching at B o'clock in the evening?My 7-year-oldlittle girl
didn,t sleepfor three
nights!The imagesstill hauntme now as they will for a long time,
I am sure.How dare
you traumatisepeople,sliveslike that!
I am a responsibleparent who believesthat it is the job of news
agenciesto report the
newswithout showingunnecessarily
sensational
or graphicimagessimplyto attract
viewers.The terrible thingsthat happenin the world are not meant
to be usedas
entertainmentnor to increaseyour ratings.
Youcan be surethat I will no longerbe watchingyour television
newsbroadcastand I
will be encouraging
all my friendsand rerativesto boycottit too.
Yoursfaithfully,
ChrisHale
Discussion
t' which one of the factors below do you think most motivated
the parent to write the letter?
The time of the brctadcast.
The fact that tbe images showed people dying.
The fact that children were watchins.
The fact that the images *rr, ,rrrrrrrory.
Tbe srspicion that tbe images were used to imltroue the
station,s rd tr 110 <
2. would the sirmefactor have motivated you to write a lerter?
3. Do you agreewith the parent?\fhylwhy not?
4. Do yo, think a lemerlike this one would have any effect
on the producers of the news programmc?
5. Do yor-rthink the parent who wrore the letter is a father
or a mother?Why?
27
ls thisnews?
Taboosand /ssues
Discussion
Work in groups of three or four. You are a team of news editors at a national television station. The news
programme is broadcast during prime time when children will be watching. Look at today's possible
stories and decide together whether the images should be broadcast or not. lf they cannot be broadcast
at prime time, could they be shown in the late news, or should the film clips be censoredcompletely?
1. Protest:imagesof protestersand activists
beatenby police.
being excessively
.
2. Fashionshow: hot fashiondesigner,Roberto
Nudo, shows his new line of transparent
eveningwear - most of the models' bodies can
be seen- almost as if they were wearing
norhing.
7. Specialreport on drinking and driving: film
clips of the sceneof seriousaccidentscaused
by drunken drivers, including imagesof dead
bodiesand familiesof the victims.
3. Report on violence in films: examplesof
violent scenesfrom current blockbuster
movies which have been criticised for having
roo much violence.
9. Middle East conflict: child shot dead when
caught in crossfirebetweenIsraeli and
Palestiniansoldiers- pictures of the dead
child being carried by his father and mother.
4. Suicide:a relatively unknown politician
commits suicide by shooting himself in the
head - all caught on film.
5. War: fighting breaks out in a sensitiveregion
of the world, graphic imagesof casualtieson
both sides.
6. Prison riot: a riot eruptsin a large
overcrowded prison; imagesinclude the
d e c e p i t a t i o no f t h r e ei n m a t e s .
8. Bank robbery caught on film: policeman shot
dead.The camerashows a pool of blood on
the floor of the bank next to the body.
10.Freakweather:a large wave dragsten people
into the sea- caught on home-video.
11.Report on the safetyof the meat trade:
scenesshowing pigs, cows and sheepbeing
slaughteredin abattoirs.
12.Ice hockey: a player is left blind in one eye
after an attack by another player.The slowmotion camera shows exactly how it
happenedin graphic detail.
Reportyour decisionsto the class.
Language
Completethese expressions with words from above:
bypolice
a. excessively...
politician
b. arelatively...
...out
c. fighting
of theworld
d. asensitive...
...prison
e. alarge
f. ........ clins
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
l.
shot
caught in . . .
freak
the meat .
. . . in one eye
left
..detail
in.
Discussion
Which countries today have censorship of the press and television? Why?
Has your country ever had censorship? When? Why?
Do you think the internetwill make censorshipa thing of the past?
Taboosand /ssues
ls thisnews?
27
The right to die
I
tI
Discussion
I
Work in pairs. Match these words to the definitions
below:
st,ticide
murder
manslaughter
euthanasia
l T h e painlesskilling of a patient who is suffering
from an incurabreand painful disease.
2. Thc action of killing oneselfdeliberately.
3 . T h c illegal,deliberatekilling of a human being.
4. The crime of killing a personillegallybur nor
intentionally.
Which of these are crimes in your country?
Do you agree with the law as it is at the moment?
Reading
In pairs or small groups' read the following situations
and
.l
. Alan Jonesa
, g e d 7 8 , h a d a s e c o n ds t r o k et h r e e
w e e k s a g o . H e h a s s e v e r eb r a i n d a m a g ea n d h i s
c o n d i t i o n i s g e t t i n gw o r s e .A t t h e r e q u e s to f h i s
d a u g h t e ra
, n u r s es t o p sg i v i n g h i m o x y g e n u n t i l
his
h e . - r rstt o p s .T h e n u r s et h e n s t a r t sg i v i n g o x y g e n
a g a i n . P e o p l et h i n k t h a t M r J o n e sd i e c Jn a t u r a l l y .
L ; r t e rM
, r j o n e s ' d a u g h t e rt e l l s a f r i e n d w h a t
h a p p e n e d .T h e f r i e n c li s m a r r i e dt o a p o l i c e
officer.
A s a r e s u l t ,t h e p o l i c e c h a r g et h e n u r s ew i t h m u r d e r .
Do you feel that the nurse has committed a
crime?
Do you feel that the daughter has committed
a crime?
What punishments,if any, should be given?
2 . E i g h t y - s e v e n - y e a r - oAl ldi c e W e l l e r b r o k e
her hip a
y e a r a g o . S h e w a s t a k e n t o h o s p i t a lw h e r e ,
during
a n o p e r a t t o nt o r e p a i r h e r h i p , h e r h e a r ts t o p p e d .
A l t h o u g h r e s u s c i t a t e ds,h e h a d s e v e r eb r a i n
damage
a n d t h e d o c t o r sf e l t t h a t s h e h a d l o s t c o n s c r o u s n e s s
t o t a l l y a n d p e r m a n e n t l yT. h e y t h e r e f o r ew i s h e d
to
s w i t c h o t Th e r l i f e - s u p p o rm
t a c h i n e .M r s W e l l e r , s
f a n r i l y ,h o w e v e r ,o b j e c t e c sl t r o n g l y s, a y i n gt h a t
she
w a s e x t r e m e l yr e l i g i o u sa n d f e l t t h a t o n l y C o d
hacj
t h e r i g h tt o r a k e l i f e a w a y .
What do you think the doctors should do?
Do you think Mrs Weller,s family have the right
to
keepher alive?
discuss the questionsbelow each one:
3. Antonia james, aged24, sufferedsevere,irreversible
b r a i n d a m a g e i n a r o a d a c c i d e n ts i x w e e k s a g o a n c l
h a s n o t r e g a i n e dc o n s c i o u s n e s sS.h e i s b r e a t h i n go n
h e r o w n b u t b e i n g f e d t h r o u g ha t u b e . H e r p a r e n t s
f e e l t h a t A n t o n i a ' se x i s t e n c ei s n o m o r e t h a n a l i v i n g
n i g h t m a r e .T h e y w a n t t h e d o c t o r t o s t o p f e e d i n gh e r
s o t h a t s h e w i l l d i e a n d t h e y c a n b u r y h e r .T h e
d o c t o r r e f u s e ss, a y i n gt h a t f o o d a n d f l u i d s a r e n o r
'medical
t r e a t m e n t , b u t h e b a s i c n e c e s s i t i eosf l i f e .
Who do you feel is right - the doctor or the parents?
Who should make this decision - Antonia,s parents?
The doctors? A court of law?
4 . M i k e O ' B r i e n ,a g e d 5 8 , h a st e r m i n a lc a n c e r .H e
is
n o l o n g e ra b l e t o l i v e a n o r m a l l i f e a n d i s o f t e n i n
g r e a tp a i n . H e h a s a l w a y s s a i d t h a t w h e n t h i s
h a p p e n e d ,h e w o u l d t a k e h i s o w n l i f e . H o w e v e r ,n e
i s n o w s o w e a k t h a t h e c a n n o t o p e n t h e b o t t l e so f
p i l l s h e w a n t s t o t a k e . H i s s o n o p e n st h e b o t t l e
for
h i m . M i k e t a k e st h e p i l l s a n d d i e s p e a c e f u l l yT. h e
d o c t o r i s s u r p r i s e da t M i k e , ss u d d e nd e a t h , r e a l i s e s
w h a t h a s h a p p e n e da n d i n f o r m st h e p o l i c e . T h e
p o l i c e a r r e s t h e s o n f o r h e l p i n g h i s f a t h e rt o
commit
s ui ci d e .
ls the doctor right to inform the police?
ls the son guilty of committing a crime?
Discussion
with a partner considereachpatient in the situations
above.what would you wanr to happento you?
Would yolr wanr to die if you had a similar condition?
Now consic'ler
the family membersin each situation.rfould you
have done the samerhing?
28
Therightto die
Taboosand/ssues
I
1
I
I
I
Life and death
Look at these phrases from the texts:
He is no longer able to live a normal life,
The doctor is surprisedat Mike's sudden death.
Add /ife or death to the following words. Five can use both.
1. a busy
10. a varied
2. an exciting
11. a sudden
.1.a horrible
12. a tragic
4. instant
13. a long
-5.a natural
14. a hard
peaceful
6. a
15. an unexpected
7. a prematurc
16. a rewarding
8. a full
17. a slow
9. a lor-rely
18. a violent
Look again at the 5 expressions which take both life and death. Discuss the difference in meaning
between them. For example, a horrible life and a horrible death.
Discussion
Discussthe following questionsin pairs or small groups:
1. A man has beenin prison for murder for 30
ycars :rnd will remain there for the rest of his
life. Hc refusesto eat and saysthat he wants to
die. Should he be allowed to die?
2. The wife of a close friend has died recently.
Your friend has been terribly upset sinceher
deiltl-r.In a conversationwith him you begin to
suspectthat he is thinking of taking his own
life. \7hat would you do?
3. A closefriend is in hospitalsufferingfrom an
incurablediseaseand in a lot of pain. He asks
you to bring him in somepills from his home
so that he can end his life with dignity. \ilhat
would you do?
4. A woman terrorist was found guilty of planting
a bomb which killed 20 people.Shehas been
sent to prison for 20 years. She now refusesto
eat and saysthat she is not guilty. Should she
be allowed to die or should she be kept alive?
5. You are staying in a hotel with a rooftop
swimming pool. You go up to the pool one
morning and find a woman standing on top of
the wall around the outside of the building,
about to jump off. What would you do?
6. You are 85. You are starting to suffer from
seniledementia.You watched your father die a
horrible death from the same thing. Are you
going to suffer in the sameway or ... ?
Discussion
Work in pairs or small groups. Read the text and discuss the questionsbelow:
In British law, a personhas the right to refusetreatment,providedhe or she is fully
competentto make that decision.If a patient is not able to ask for or refusetreatment
(because,for example,they are unconscious)then a doctor can decide not to give
treatment.If a doctor decidesto do this. it is sood medical oracticeto consult the
p a t i e n t 'rse l a t i v e s .
1. Do you feel these laws are reasonable?
2. Are they the same in your country?
Four types of euthanasia
Suicide:killing yourself. In the UK it is illegal to help someonecommit suicide.
Voluntary euthanasia:when someoneasks to die. They may not be able to commit suicide so they
need help or thev may not be able to ask to die, but they have left instructions.
Involuntary euthanasia:This is when someonehas not actually asked to die. However, they are killed
so that thev do not have to suffer any more.
Non-voluntary euthanasia:killing someonewho is not able to ask to live or die. For exarnple,they
nrieht be in a long-ternrcoma.
Iaboos and /ssues
The right to die
Old enoughto be her grandfather!
Discussion
Which of these relationshipsdo you think are OK? Discuss in small groups:
1. A 25-year-oldrnan with a 4O-year-oldwoman.
2. A 17-year-oldman with a 4O-year-oldwoman.
3. A 40-year-oldman with a 17-year-oldwoman.
4. An 80-year-oldman with an 18-year-oldwoman.
Do you know anyone in a relationshipwith a much older or younger person?
Can you think of any famous people in a relationshiplike this?
Reading
Read this letter to 'Beth's advice column' in a magazine. Decide what advice you would give before
reading the reply.
bera. Be,tk,
l'm aotliag to a,t/" l* ry
a&tice et n7lf,J/roz'a raalt aek/auaahlp.
/l4r/ lFll"er tt 58 fr.,ut oU at4/ /4e/td i-d tt4arr,tbl a fi4l*tt uro.lna*t
o/ al 'l/ai't nen'wt ru1 a'te@la
i4 dpuarL@
t/tc,*t.ne!
W
S/.,p a (f/r loo re
/""tt.
tez,*tt
l4?
to
le
/4aff4
rrriJ/.
lfrt
|f"f/"")r
/oel, l^J t'ru d"r,wl/,al alp'd. i-tJ "nil" /r"t" 1p4t/n raurztT. 147
lFJJ"rrLtt a uz1 utee/J/4r/tr.,- aa/ t dot4'l f/"irr./" /n cc,a 4pp/4a,utdllh,r.l twttnn 4"alf,f tt. I cc,n'l i,or,ttl,/ah/4 rlJ ilra ""rA do
ry
,"af/rJr4q.M4aJ d/4auld t lo?
4
eure'taed Su
Now read the reply. Do you agree with the advice?
Seat eue'zneX, 8u'
'l/au a/.nr/d aeeUtl frr? k 1* /r..ln4tl
lorr r/n/, /pl/r"rL. J/n /r*t o
c/'ta't"p a/ a ncrn 1+ "t il llid. "rotnr,n a /44il,uq /ti.t ttta]rp l/* /tal
{
1
*1trffiffi-ffi*ffiiltp4'4't
1
q
tz4alltuhl o/ a awrc,n kicp /4er r.?". ,4rA fn,f t4of h ilrir"/. "1,b ^
,7n.n'tlzqz*athet' /tal opte ll/n o on rr rn"rolten al l/* la,44r/,?.7rr/
atuwliat lptt a/4/,1nr:n2ttote il4.r4jr,ltl /ph l/r.tt *t",r.rtaot"ne ol
dd4'Lt ora/ a.aprtnttota ilnf t1u.rtt.lpt/r"r, /,nt i,n /"tL lr/p.
{
Iq
BeJh
Who do you side with - the son or the father?
I
Trueor false?
I
a
Write true (T) or false (F) after each statement below:
d
1. The marriageis a fairly new one.
2. The son has evidencethat his father's wife is after his money.
3. Beth is in favour of giving the marriage a chance.
4. Beth is generallyagainstmarriagesin which one personis much older than the other.
'l
'1
hf
I
,1
A
29
OId enough to be her grandfather!
Iaboos and /ssues
rf
I
a
Language1
Language2
There are many different types of relationship.
Which of the following collocations could you
use to describe the relationshipyou read about
earlier?
Look at this sentence from the second letter:
| . r t c r t s u l lr e l : t r i o n s h i p
?. rrn ertramarital relatior-rship
3. a br-rsiness
rclationship
4. ir doomed relationship
-5.a platonic relationship
6. a romrrnticrelationship
7 . I s c r u r r lr c l i r r i o r r s h i p
8. a love-haterelationship
Match three of the expressions above with the
following meanings:
rr.a relationshipbetweena married man and
somconenot his wife
b. a relatiorrshipwith no future, which is going
nowhere
c. a closerclationshipbetweentwo friends,which
is not sexurrl
Just becauseshe'syoung, it doesn't mean
they hdue nothing rn common.
Match the two halves of these sentences:
1. Just becausehe'srich,
2.Just becauseshe didn't go to university,
h e ' sg o t a n i c ec a r .
3 . J u s rb e c a u s e
4. Just becausehe's70,
5.Just becauseyou don't like her,
6. Just becauseher last husbanddied in very
s u s p i c i o ucsi r c u n t s t a r t c e s ,
a. it doesn'tmean he'srich.
b. it doesn'tmean he'stoo old to get married.
c. it doesn'tmean she'safter his money.
d. it doesn'tmean she'slessintelligent.
e. it doesn'tmean the samething will happento
your dad.
f. it doesn'tmean you have to be unpleasantto
her.
Discussion
Discuss the following question in pairs: Would you be concerned if one of your parents re-married
somebody twenty years younger? Use the expressions below to help you.
Well, it wor.rldbe OK as long as ...
I'n-rtotally agirinst...
I'm all for ...
I t h i n k i t a l l d e p e n d so n . . .
Now work in pairs or small groups and discuss your answersto the following:
1 . A t w h a t a g e d o y o u c o n s i d e rs o m e o n ei s o l d e n o u g h t o :
begin going out with a boyfriend / girlfriend?
have sex?
g,etmarried?
have children?
A t w h a t a g e a r e p e o p l e t o o o l d f o r t h e a c t i v i t i e sa b o v e , i n y o u r o p i n i o n ?
2 . l s i t g e n e r a l l yb e t t e ri f p e o p l e g o o u t w i t h p e o p l e o f a s i m i l a r a g e ?W h y ? W h y n o t ?
3 . W h a t a d v a n t a g e sc a n t h e r e b e f o r a y o u n g m a n t o h a v e a r e l a t i o n s h i pw i t h a n o l d e r w o m a n ?
Any disadvantages?
W h a t a d v a n t a g e sc a n t h e r e b e f o r a y o u n g e rw o m a n t o s e e a n o l d e r m a n ?A n y d i s a d v a n t a g e s ?
4 . L o o k a t t h i s p e r s o n a la d v e r t i s e m e nftr o m a n e w s p a p e r :
L o o k i n gf o r f u n ? H i , l ' m 2 4 y e a r so l d , 5 ' 1 O " , 1 1 5 l b s . l ' m a
m o d e l , v e r y f i t , e x c e l l e n tb o d y a n d v e r y s e n s u a l l. ' m l o o k i n g
f o r a m a n , p r e f e r a b l ya M U C H o l d e r m a n w h o c a n h e l p m e
feed my expensive tastes.lf you know how to take care of
me, I know how to be very grateful. Box no.5497.
W h a t d o y o u t h i n k a b o u t a w o m a n w h o p l a c e sa n a d v e r t i s e m e nlti k e t h i s o n e ?
W h a t d o y o u t h i n k a b o u t a m a n w h o a n s w e r st h i s k i n d o f a d v e r t i s e m e n t ?
Taboosand /ssues
OId enough to be her grandfather!
29
Big Brotherls watching!
Discussion
Do you think that your employerhas the right to ask about your privatelife? Tick (/) the questionsyou
think it is OK for an employerto ask:
What is your ntaritdl stdtus?
Do you haue children?
r\lbat is the highest leuel of
formal education you haue achieued?
rYhat is your religion?
Haue you euer seruedin the military?
Are yotr a member of a political party?
Do you suffer from any physical disabilities?
Do yott haue any seriousdiseases?
Hdue you euer been in prison?
Haue you euer been conuicted of a serious traffic offence?
Are 1,ouhomosexual?
Hat,e you euer used drugs such as cannabis?
Reading
The article below describes some issues about privacy in the United States.ls your country similar?
Better or worse? In what ways?
Shhh...Someonemightbe listening!
E v e r f i n d y o u r s e l fw a t c h i n g ,t h e c l o c k a t w o r k ? B e
c a r e f u l ,i t n r a yb e w a t c h i n gy o u . A r e c e n ts u r v e yb y t h e
A n r e r i c a nM a n a g e m e nAt s s o c i a t i o n
r e v e a l st h a t 3 2 p e r
cent of major US firms record and keep track of
e m p l o y e e s ' c o m m u n i c a t iaonndsa c t i v i t i ews h i l eo n t h e
j o b . T o d a y ' sh i g h - t e c hm i n i a t u r ec a m e r a sf,o r e x a m p l e ,
n r a k ei t e a s yt o k e e pa n e y e o n y o u .
"Youcan put them in a fan, a smoke
d e t e c t o ra, l i g h t
s w i t c h ,y o u c a n p u t t h e m a l m o s ta n y w h e r e , "s a i d o n e
privatei nvestig,ator.
W h a t ' st h e b e n e f i t ?" l t k e e p sp e o p l eh o n e s t , "s a i d t h e
d i r e c t o ro f s e c u r i t ya t a l a r g er e t a i l e ri n L o s A n g e l e s .
" A n d i f a c o m p a n yf i n d s
e m p l o y e e sc h e a t i n go n t h e m
. r n dt h e y t a k e a c t i o n ,t h e y e n d u p s a v i n gm o n e y . "
A n d i t d o e s n ' t s t o p a t v i d e o c a m e r a s .M o n i t o r i n g
e n r p l o y e e s ' r . r soef t h e i n t e r n e ta n d e - m a i l i s n o w
c o m m o n p r a c t i c e .A c o m p a n y r e c e n t l ys a c k e dm o r e
t h a n 2 0 e m p l o y e e sf o r s e n d i n g e - m a i l s w h i c h t h e
c o m p a n yc a l l e d" i n a p p r o p r i a taen d o f f e n s i v e . "
T h e f a c t i s , o u r p e r s o n a pl r i v a c y i s d c c r c a s i n ga l l t h e
t i m e . C r e d i t r a t i n g ,c o m p a n i e s k e e p t a b s o n y o u r
p e r s o n afli n a n c i a h
l i s t o r yf r o m t h e d a y y o u g e ty o u r f i r s t
credit card.Anyone who has ever usedthe internet
k n o w s t h a t t h e i r s u r f i n g h a b i t s a r e c o n s t a n t l yb e i n g
traced by'cookies'. Even where you are at any
p a r t i c u l a tri m e w i l l s o o n b e e a s yt o f i n d o u t . A l r e a d y ,
e m p l o y e es e c u r i t yc a r d sr e c o r dw h e n p e o p l ee n t e ra n c J
l e a v eb u i l d i n g s .D i s c o u n ts u p e r m a r k ept r o g r a m st r a c k
what people buy, where and when. Cell phones,
h a n d h e l dd e v i c e s ,e v e n c a r n a v i g a t i o ns y s t e m sw i l l
s o o n h a v e d e t a i l e dt r a c k i n ga b i l i t i e s ,i f t h c y d o n o t
a l r e a d yh a v et h e m .
" l t a l l s e e m sl i k e a n i n f r i n g e m e notf o u r p r i v a c y , "s a i da
r e p r e s e n t a t i vo ef t h e A m e r i c a nR i g h tt o P r i v a c yL e a g u e .
" B u t i n a w a y ,w e a r et h e o n e sw h o o p e nt h e d o o r sa n c l
I e t t h e s ep e o p l ei n . "
1. What is the writer's attitude towards decreasing personal privacy?
a. irngry
b. warning
c. enthusiastic
d. neutral
2. What is the expression used in the last paragraphthat means privacy is not respected?
3. Look at the text again and find words and expressions that mean 'to monitor'.
{
4
Discussion
l.Monitoring peopleis good because"lt keepspeoplehonest." Do you agree?
2. Would your employerget more work from you if you knew they were watching you?
30
Big Brotheris watching!
Taboosand /ssues
c
4
c
Language
Look again at the last sentence of the article:
"Btrt
in it way, we ore the ones who oTtenthe doors and let theselteople in."
This statementexpressesthe ideathat our privatelives are'inside'.We also talk about informationabout
'private'
our private lives 'getting out'. Read the text below and underline more expressionsthat have the
inside'and'information getting out' ideas.
We rarely find out what goes on behind closed doors in politicians'lives, but
news laotout last weekendthat a senatorhas beenhaving a two-year affair with
her pLrblicrelations manager.Despite efforts to keep the pressout of her private
"lt's t-totthe
life, the senator'saffair leakedout through severalreliablesources.
"I
press'sjob to pry into the livesof public figures,"said the senator. feelexposed
rrndviolated." Now that the relationshipis out in the open,the senatorhas made
"My husband hasn't been a saint, either."
no effort to deny the affair, but added,
inside information and photographsby unconfirmed
Some soon-to-be-released
sourcesdo seemto support that claim.
Now complete these expressions from the text:
l.behincl
... doors
2. news got . .
3 . k c e pt h e p r e s so u t o f h e r . . . . . . . l i f e
4. the affair leaked . . . . . .
5. out in the
.informatton
6....
Privacyand you
Work in pairs or small groups and discuss what you would do in the following situations:
find your mother'sdiary.
1. Youaccidentally
Do you:
a. open it and readeverypage?
b . j u s tl o o kf o r s o m ei n t e r e s t i nbgi t s ?
c. feeltemptedbut put it back?
5. You own a shop and you suspectan
employee has been stealing cash from the
till. Do you:
a . i n s t a l al h i d d e nc a m e r a ?
b . a s k h i m / h e ri f t h e y h a v e a n y f i n a n c i a l
oroblems?
c . c o n f r o n th i m / h e rd i r e c t l y ?
2. You suspectyour partneris cheatingon
you. Do you:
a . g o t h r o u g hh i s / h edr r a w e r sa n d p e r s o n a l 6. You suspectyour son might be using
drugs. Do you:
t h i n g sf o r e v i d e n c e ?
a. talkto one of hisfriends?
b . d e c i d et o i g n o r ey o u rs u s p i c i o nasn d
b . g o t h r o u g hh i s b e l o n g i n g s ?
t r u s th i m / h e r ?
c . g i v e h i m a t a l k a b o u tt h e h o r r i b l et h i n g s
r irectly?
c . c o n f r o nht i m / h e d
3. A neighbourin the apartmentbuilding
acrossfrom you alwaysgetsundressedin
full view of the window.Do you:
a. lookthe otherway?
b . p h o n et h e p o l i c e ?
c . b u y a b i g g e rl e n sf o r y o u rc a m e r a ?
t h a t d r u g sc a n d o t o y o u ?
7. You catch a colleague having sex in the
office with your boss. Do you:
a. report it to the proper authorities?
b . a s k y o u r c o l l e a g u ew h a t i t w a s l i k e ?
c . s a y n o t h i n ga n d h o p e t o c a t c ht h e m
again?
4. You are usingyour boss'scomputerand
Do you:
B. You see a friend going into a lap-dancing
you seea file called'salaries'.
club one lunchtime. Do you:
ignore
it?
a. feeltemptedbut
a. askhim if hiswife knows?
b . p r i n tt h ew h o l ed o c u m e ntto r e a dl a t e r ?
b . j u s t p r e t e n dy o u d i d n ' t s e e h i m ?
c . .c h a n g ey o u rs a l a r ya n dt e l l y o u rb o s s
y o u rp a yw a sw r o n gl a s tm o n t h ?
c . f o l l o wh i m i n ?
Taboosand /ssues
Big Brotheris watching!
i
I
I
Anxietyand depression
t
I
t
I
I
II
Discussion
Read this information and discuss the questions below with a partner:
A recent medical survey in Britain revealed that 25,r/o of the
population saw no hope for the future and one in ten felt that life
was not worth living. Many teenagerswere excessivelyworried
about their weight and general appearance. Approxim ately 25"/"
claimed they suffer from anxiety over their studies.
1. Are you surprisedby thesestatistics?
2. Are you basicallyhappy with your life?
3. When is the happiestyou have ever been?
4. What is happiness?
Reading
Read through the article and answer this question - What exacfly is this man's problem?
' s t u p i d ' a n d' i n c o m p e t e n t ' .
When I was married I thought I was
I s h u tm y
miserablebecauseof my wife. So, we got
f r i e n d so u t a n d I b e c a m eg e n e r a l l yu s e l e s s .
d i v o r c e d ,a n d t h e n I t h o u g h tt h i n g sw o u l d
SometimesI would go out to do a bit of
change.But I was still depressedsomehow.
s h o p p i n ga n d I w o u l d s e e h a p p y c o u p l e s
F r i e n d su s e dt o i n v i t em e o u t , a n d t h o u g h I
w a l k i n g a r o u n d- s o m eo f t h e m w i t h
h a d n o t h i n ge l s eg o i n go n , l ' d t e l l t h e m t h a t c h i l d r e n- a n d t h e n I w o u l d f e e l e v e n
I w a s b u s y o r t h a t I h a d o t h e r p l a n s ,b u t l , d
worse.And so I thought,"That'sit! l'm
just stay at home and watch TV or vegetate. lonely. I need girlfriend."
a
And so I got on
S o , t h e n I b l a m e d i t o n m y j o b . I u s e dt o
the internetto try and meet people.And I
f a n t a s i sa
e b o u t j u s t l e a v i n gt h e p l a c e .I
did. And for a few weeks I actuallythought
startedtaking days off sick. My performance I was gettingbetter.But it got worse.
w e n t d o w n h i l l . B u t I c o u l d n ' tq u i t . I w a s
I startedthinking about old age and death.
s c a r e d .I w o u l d w a k e u p i n t h e m i d d l e o f
And prettysoon the thingsthat used to
t h e n i g h t ,j u s t l y i n g t h e r e- t h i n k i n g .
make me happy,things like nice weather
Then a job opportunitycame up at a
and a call from a friend,startedto seem
differentcompany,and for a few months
m o r e l i k e i r r i t a t i o n sL. i f e b e g a nf e e l i n g
I actuallythought I was gettingbetter.But
pretty pointless.I think I was on the verge
then it came back- with a vengeance.
o f g i v i n gu p o n i t a l l w h e n I m e t J u d y .
I startedcrying - literallycrying - for no
The advice Judy gave me changedmy life
r e a s o na t a l l , s o m e t i m e si n t h e m i d d l e o f
for the better,and probablyforever.I can't
t h e d a y . I s t a r t e dc a l l i n gm y s e l fn a m e sl i k e
believethe differenceit has made.
Read the article again and discuss these questions with a partner:
1. What seemedto be the man'sproblem?
2.'What aspecrsof the man'slife did this problem affect?
3. Have you or anyoneyou know ever felt like him?
4. Who is Judy and what do you think she said to him?
5.'What advicewould you have given him?
31
Anxietyanddepression
4
{
Taboosand /ssues
1
q
q
J
t4
Language
Discussion
Complete the sentences below with these words:
Some mental conditions are controversial, with
some experts saying the problem is all in the
mind. Are the following conditions real?
usual
under
take
hartl
low
top
down
weather
l . T h i n g sa r e j u s t g e t t i n gm e . . . .
2. He's not his
. self at all.
-1.I'm feelinga bit under the . .
at the moment.
4 . I ' m f e e l i n ga b i t .
getting
on .
. . . of me.
5. Things are
6.I'm finclinglife . . . . . . at the moment.
7.I'm
. a lot of pressure.
muchmore.
8 . I ' m n o t s u r eI c a n .
Which sentence above is usually used to talk
about physical rather than emotional or
psychologicalhealth?
Do any of these sentencesapply to you or anyone
you know at the moment?
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
perntanenttirednesscausedby stress
SeasonalAffective Disorder
depressioncaused by long, dark winters
Post-traumaticstressdisorder
persistentemotional problems after being
inuolued in a traumatic incident
Road rage
getting angry and possibly uiolent becausertf
the stressof mctderndriuing conditions
Mid-life crisis
a sudden crisis of confidence suffered by men
around the age of 45
Reading
Readthese ten tips on how to be happy.Which do you think are genuinelyhelpful?
HAPPYHABITS
Tenprovenwaysto increaseyour happiness
Most peopleare unhappybecausethey chooseto be. All they haveto do is changetheir
mindsand learnsomenew habitsand their liveswill changefor ever.Here are ten habits
of happypeople.Try them and experiencethe resultsfor yourself.
. Act huppy- even if you don't feel it. A smilingface will get more smilesfrom others.
. Enioythe moment.Happinessis not producedby greatthingshappening,but by
recognisingall the little positivethingsthat happeneveryday.
. Takecontrol of your time. Happy peoplefeel in control of their lives.Setyourself
realisticgoalsfor the day.
. Takeregularexercise.Get your body producingthosedepression-busting
chemicals.
o Cet rest.We all needtime on our own and enoughsleep maketime to re-charge
your batteries.
. Sing.Peoplewho singare happier.lt's the peoplewho haveto listento them who are
unhappy.Be a singer.
o Get a pet. Strokinga cat or patting a dog hastherapeuticeffects,calminganxiety.
o Feedyour soul.Studiesshow that activelyreligiouspeopleare happier.They cope
betterwith crisesand are part of a supportive,acceptingcommunity.
. Prioritisecloserelationships.
Spendingtime in open communicationwith loved ones
stopsisolationand independence.
. Get out of town. Spenda few hoursa week in the countryside.Smellthe freshair,
touch the flowersand hug a tree.
Discussion
Discusswith a partneror as a class:
1. Is this seriousadviceor just light-hearted?
'changeyour mind'?
2. Do you agreethat to be happy you just needto
Are any unhelpful?
3. Coulclthe tips above help someonewho is seriouslydepressed?
4. Have yoLrever had to help a friend who was depressed?
Taboosand /ssues
Anxietyand depression
31
Gayfamilies
Discussion
Reading
What legal rights do gays have in your country?
l. Can they get married?
2. Can they inherit from a partner?
.1.Can they adopt children?
4. (lan they get a morrgageon a house together?
Read the article below and choose the best
headline.
A few months ago millionaire
couple Tony Barlow and Barrie
Drewitt shocked many people
when they became the first gay
couple to father children. The
couple had twin girls, Aspen and
Saffron, using eggs donated by a
woman who wished to help the
men have their own family.
Adoption agencies in Britain had
decided
the
couple
were
unsuitable parents, but the men
went to the United States where
they had more success.They had
no problem finding a surrogate
mother and the girls were born in
Los Angeles the following year.
After complex legal arguments,
US ALLO\TS ADOPTION BY C;AYS
GAY FATHERS FACE DISCRIMINATION
OUTRAGE AS GAYS PLAN THIRD CHILD
the US Supreme Court ruled that
the men could be named as the
parents on the twins' birth
certificates.
When the children were brought
back to Britain, the men faced
further legal difficulties as the
British authorities refused to grant
automatic entry rights to the twins.
Despite all these problems, the
men have now provoked further
outrage from those who claim to
defend traditional family values as
they have announced that they
intend to have a third child.
The men currently have 24
embryos which were frozen before
the birth of their twin daushters.
and although they have fallen out
with the suffogate mother who
caried the twins, they have now
found another woman who has
agreed to carry a child for them.
"We
adore having children," Mr
Drewitt said yesterday, "and if it
turns out to be twins again it will
be even more wonderful. The new
baby will be a biological brother
or sister to Aspen and Saffron. The
only difference will be the
sunogate mother." In contrast, an
official church spokesman said,
"We
would still argue that the best
place for children to grow up
would be within a traditional
family context."
I
I
I
I
I
I
Trueor false?
I
I
Read the article again and mark these sentences true (T), false (F) or don't
know (?):
1. Barrie and Tony couldn'r adopt a child in Britain.
2. The British authorities did not want ro let the men back in the counrry.
3. Barrie and Tony and the twins live with the twins' mother.
4. Not everyoneis happy about Barrie and Tony's plans.
I
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I
I
I
I
Discussion
I
I
1. How clo you feel about Barrie and Tony being parents?
2' Do you agreethat'the bestplace for childrento grow up is within
a traditional family conrext,?
3. What is a rraditionalfamily? Is it the sameas 20 yearsa o?
4. Do yolr agreewith the followinq statements?
There ttre good and batl
p Ltren ts. C)dt, p arents
Llrett't itu t ottldt i callt, had
- or good.
Ttuctwrnnen could raise a
family but n()t tuto men.
They would be useless
without d womdn.
A lot of people grout Ltlt
in a singlc-parent famill'
- two pdrents must be
better than that!
I
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a
a
a
I
1
T
I
a
Gay families
4
a
Taboosand /ssues
J
I
Language
Match these differentkinds of familieswith the definitionson the right:
a. They want to be successful.
1. irn afflr"rentfamily
b. Only one parent lives with the children.
2. a closefamil,v
They have a lot of money.
c.
family
3. a clvsfr.rnctionarl
d. They have strong relationships'
4. a single-parentf:rmily
e. They have a certainamount of power'
.5. a talenteclfarnily
f . They have a lot of personalproblems.
6. iur averagcfamily
g.
They're all good at something.
7 . tn influentialfamily
h. There'snothing specialabout them.
U . a n a m b i t i o u sf a r n i l y
Would you use any of the expressions above to describe your family?
Do any of the expressions above describe the family you read about earlier?
Do you five with your immediatefamily or do you also live with members of your extended family?
(grandparents,aunts, uncles,cousins etc.)
Discussion
Readthe articleand underlineanythingyou think is a good argumentfor or against gay marriages.
L E T ' SG E TM A R R I E D !
"We have a mortgagetogether,we have
.r cat together, we're no different from
t h e n e i g h b o u r s ,s o w h y c a n ' t w e g e t
married?" one gay man told reporters
outside the Vermont courtroom in the
U n i t e d S t a t e s .A l a r g e g r o u p o f g a y
couoles were at the court to hear
whether the statewould changethe law
a n d a l l o w s a m e - s e xm a r r i a g e s .M a n y
expressedtheir frustrationat not being
"We want to get
allowed marital status.
marriedfor the same reasonas everyone
e l s e- w e ' r e i n l o v e , "
A w o m a n c a m p a i g n efro r g a y r i g h t ss a i d ,
"Why do peoplewant to stopgay people
getting married?lt makes no difference
to them, but it makes a huge difference
to a gay couple who want to make a
publiccommitment."
A s p o k e s w o m a nf o r a t r a d i t i o n a fl a m i l y
"lf
organisationsaid, we startto re-define
w h a t a m a r r i a g ei s , w h e r e d o Y o u d r a w
t h e l i n e ?W h y n o t s a y t w o m e n a n d a
woman can get married,or threewomen
perhaps?"
Discuss the following views of same-sex marriages.Which views are closest to your own?
'Why
not? If two peoplewant to make a lifetime commitmentto each other,they
l. (lav rnarriage?
should be allowed to.
2.lt cloesn'tmilrter that they'regay.They've beentogetherfor 15 years.They should have exactlythe
srrmerights as :I normal couple.What is normal anyway?
.3.Marriage betweena man and a woman is natural. If marriagestopsbeing natural, where will it all
end? If two men can marry, why not three or four?
4. Marriage is for the procreationof children.Gay partnerscan't have children so they shouldn't be
allolveclto get married.
-5.I clon'tcarc if they want to get married or not. I just wish it wasn't all over the newspapers.
6. I ckrn'tbclievein marriageenyway,so it's not really an issuefor me.
Taboosand /ssues
Gay families
32
Begging
Discussion
Do you give money to beggars? Explain why, or
why not, to a partner.
I
Reading
a
I
Read through the comments below on an internet
discussion site and decide which opinion is closest
to your own.
i
I
I
What's your opinion of beggars?
-1
a
I
rl
we invited people from around the world to let
their voices be heard
on the subject:
I
it
Edilson Gomes Teixeira,Brazil
ln my city, Sao Paulo,we have lots of childrenwho
ask for money on the
s t r e e t s o' f c o u r s e ,l f e e l t e r r i b l ef o r t h e m , b u t l t h i n k t h a t
g i v i n gt h e m m o n e y
does them no good. Usuallythey are really begging
for an adult - even their
mother or father - just so that they can buy arugs
or something like that.
I don't know ... it,scomplicated.
1
{
J
a4
l
7
Ana Martin Fong Schmidt, USA
I come from San Francisco,California,where you
can't walk two blocksany
more without running into a homeressperson askingyou
for money.They,re
filthy peoplewho sleep and urinatein my doorway.
I used to give money, but
not any more. I supposeI've becomesort of numb
to it all. t riean, what is my
50 cents going to do to herp someone?rt'sthe Government,s
proni"n1,no,
mine.
Atsuko Fujimori, Japan
We have a place in my city,Tokyo,called "shinjuko
Station.,,I think this place
is an embarrassmentto Japanesesociety.There
are hundredsof homeless
people living in cardboardboxes.The Government
doesn'tcare about them
and neitherdo many people in Japan. But I do. I
take them food and clothes
and someti.mesgive money. Many of my friends
think I am crazy.I think rm
normal and they are crazY.I cannot sleepwell at night
if I know ihere is
someoneelse who has no placeto sleep.
James Foster, UK
l'm fed up with beggarsand fed up with do-gooders
who want to help them.
I don't give money and nobody should. lt on"lv
encouragesthem to beg even
more' And these people all seem to have dogs and
smoke.Why should I give
my hard-earnedcash to feed their pets and s--moking
habit?people living on the
streetsare there becausethey want to bel
1
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J
rl
1
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J
a
J
hl
J
g
J
TI
J
Ef
1
rrl
J
q
4
I
rl
I
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Discussion
J
Readthrough the commentsagain and answer
:
these questions:
l.who saysthat living'n the streersand begging
is basicailya crroice?
2. Who blamesbeggingon drugs?
-l' who sa,vsrhar the problem ii one rhar cannor
be solvedby individuals?
4. \Xlhofcelsashamedof the problem?
JJ
Begging
7
1
I
Taboosand /ssues
4
4
Poem
Language
Read this poem about being homeless, then
discuss the questionsbelow:
Write in a -/ess word from the poem with the
definitionsbelow:
1. No money - . .
Homeless,but not speechless
I am homeless
Penniless
S o I a s kf o r y o u r p e n n i e s
Countless
2.Ignorant=....
3.Many=....
4. Unable to protect/defendyourself = .
5.No care or feelingfor others =. . . .
6. Anonymous,unknown = .
T . W i t h o u t p u r p o s e= . . . .
8.'Without value =
9. It won't hurt =
A r e t h e t i m e sw h e n I f e e l
Pointless
Discussion
Useless
Would you give money or help in these situations?
Po w e r l e ss
1. A woman knocks at your door collecting
money for homelesspeople. She has an official
ID badge.How much would you give her?
2. A little boy offers to clean your shoesin the
street for 20 pence.
to do anything
to/for/about/with
t h e s e h e a rtl e ss
s e e - m e -n o ts
who areclueless
to my
f a c e l e sse xi ste n ce
Onepenny
Y o u r c ha ri ty
is shameless
My life...
w o r t h l ess
M y j o u r n e y. . .
r e c k l e ss
D o n ' t w o rry:
M y p a s s i n gw i l l b e
painless.
Discussion
1. What doesthe title mean?
2. What does the writer mean by Yowr charity is
shameless?
3. Explain the last line: My passingwill be
painless.
4. What is done in your country to help homeless
people?
-5.Why are so many peoplehomeless?
Taboos
and /ssues
3. A woman holding a baby asks you for money
on the street.She is crying.
'borrow'
4. A rather dirty-looking person asks to
50 pence for the bus.
5. You meet someoneon holiday in a Third
'World
country and after chatting' you realise
that with iust a couple of your traveller's
cheques,you could pay for their child to go to
university and have the chanceof a completely
different life.
6. You're in a restaurant and a woman comes in
with flowers and asks if you want to buy one
for your boyfriend / girlfriend.
7. You're at some traffic lights and someone
washesyour windscreen,then asks for some
money.
8. You receivea pack of Christmas cards through
the post from a charity for the blind. There is
no obligation to pay for the cards - you can
keep them for free - but you are invited to
send a donation.
Discussion
Write your own view on beggars in the same style
as the internet comments you read earlier. Pass
your comment to anotherclassmate.Then:
1. Read and seeif you agreeor disagreewith the
comment that has been passedto you.
2. Discussit with anotherclassmate(not the
writer of the comment).
3. Discussthe commentsas a class.
Begging
33
Compensation
culture
Discussion
l ' Is it conrmon to sue doctors,hospitals,
or newspapersin your country?
?' Have voll or anyoneyou
kn.w eie. rr..l ,n-an'" or beensued?what
wirs thc
outcome?
Reading
A few years ago a woman suffered severe
b.url: from a cup of coffee served at a fast
food restaurant
and she sued' Read what happened and
decide who yori side with - the woman
or the fast food
restaurant?
HOT COFFEE
VICTIMGETS$ENN
A woman has been awardeda total of armost
3 m i l l i o n d o l l a r si n d a m a g e s a
, f t e rc l a i m i n g
that the coffee she was served at a US
fast
food restaurantand then spilled on herself
was too hot.
The woman was in the passengerseat
of her
g r a n d s o n ' cs a r w h e n s h e w a s s e r v e d
a cuo of
coffeeat the drive-throughwindow of a local
fast food outlet. According to reports,
after
receivingthe food order,the grandsonmoved
his car forward and stoppedfor a moment
so
t h a t h i s g r a n d m o t h e rc o u l d a d d c r e a m
and
sugar to her coffee. She placed the
cup
between her knees and tried to remove
the
p l a s t i cl i d f r o m t h e c u p . A s s h e d i d
so, tne
e n t t r e c o n t e n t so f t h e c u p s p i l l e d o n t o
ner
l a p , l e a v i n gh e r s e v e r e l yb u r n e da n d n e e d i n g
hospitaltreatment.
n company representativeexplained that
coffee is kept at a particular temperature
D e c a u s ec u s t o m e r s n a t u r a l l y w a n t t h e i r
coffee served hot. He pointed out that
customersbuy coffeeon their way to worK or
h o m e , i n t e n d i n gt o c o n s u m e i t t h e r e , n o t
while in the car.
One commentator couldn,t believe the
woman won her case. ,,Theworld has g,one
m a _ dl .f y o u c a n g e t $ 3 m i l l i o n f o r s p i l l i n gh o t
coffee on yourself,then it,s only a matter of
l i m e b e f o r ew e g e t t h e h e a d l i n e s :
WOMAN CETS PRECNANT AND
SUES CONDOM COMpANy or
M A N W I T H B A D H A I R C U TS U E SF O R
E M O T I O N A LD A M A C E S . "
Discussion
Tell your partner who you side with - the
woman or the fast food chain. Explain why.
Take a class vote on the case. who do you
think was resptnsible for the injuries?
Are you sure?
Most peopte think the woman was at fault
for her injuries and that the amount of money
she received
was ridiculous. Here are a few more facts
about the case. First read the facts:
The wonrrrn sufferedthird degreeburns
over6o/nof her body in very sensitiveareas.
she was in hospital
for eight days' Shespilledthioffee while
she ,"r, ,i i-g ii, pa.k"d car rrying ro remove
the cup,slid.
li:;:'.ffiffXrff
it moving.
sheiriedtosertre
r-,...rr.?,r c,rcourt
rn,.gzo,ooo
[lJi'.';.'.'was
Thc' restaurirntknew of the problem' They.
had already receivedhundredsof complaints.
They kr-rewthat
clrirlkscrrnburn at temperaturesover 60
de.grees,
but'they maintaineda policy to keep their
c.ffee.i-10
degrceshigher.Thc chain makes over a
milrln iollars n doy in coffee sales.
Haveyou changedyour mind? Hold a
class debate.Dividethe class into two groups:
those who are on
the woman's side and those who side with
the restaurantchain.
34
Compensation
culture
a
I
a
I
a
a
a
Taboosand/ssues
a
f
F
d
!e
Language
=r
Complete the text below with the correct form of these verbs:
=
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
E
sttc
appeal
award
wtn
settle
take
Ifyouhrrveanacciclentatworkbecausetheworkplaceisnotsafe,youcan(1)........for
nearly f40,000 after fatllingdown a badly-lit
negligerrce.
C)newoman was recently(2) . . .
t h e c o m p a n yt o c o u r t .
c o m p e n s a t i oa
nn d ( 4 ) . . .
s r a i r c a s cS. h ek n e w s h ec o u l d ( 3 ) . . .
. . out of court, but the woman wasn't interested.She (6)
Tl-recornprrnytried to (-5).
hcr case,br-rtthe company are going to (7)
. . . againstthe decision.
Discussion
Look at the situationsbelow in small groups. Decideif they are legitimateor just a waste of time.
'emotional
1.A -19-year-olcl
actressis suing for
'too old'
c'listress'
aftcr being told that she was
to plarvthe pirrt of Juliet in Shakespeare's
Rorneottntl .[uliet.
wants $50,000 to pay for his
2. A br-rrglar
hospital bills. In attemptingto break into a
clothing store,he fell through the roof, broke
both his lcgsand was left immobile. He was
f o r r n dt h c f o l l o w i n gm o r n i n g i n s e v e r ep a i n .
He clairnsthe store is to blame for havrnqa
'fault-vroof'.
-1.A mr-rr-r
tripped and fell on a pavement because
it was uneven.He broke his wrist and is suing
thc local conncil for negligence.
4. A woman openeda bag of saladand found a
live frog inside. Sheis suing the supermarket
'severetrauma.'
beciruseshe suffered
the airline she
-5.A flight attendantis suir-rg
workcd for for r-rnfairdismissal.Shewas
sackcclbecauseshe hacl becometoo fat.
6. A woman is suing her health alrthority because
the sterilisationoperationthey performedthe
"Of course
previousyear had obviouslyfailed.
"but this is not
I love my new baby," she said,
what I had plannedfor my life."
7. A woman who ran over and critically injured a
pedestrianis suing the car manufacturer'
claiming that the brand new car's horn did not
work and thereforeshe was unableto warn the
passingpedestrian.
8. A vegetarianwants $1 million in damagesfronr
a local restaurant.Sheaskedfor the
'vegetarian'lasagneand halfway through her
meal discoveredthat there were bits of ground
beef in the sauce.
9. A father is suing his son for $25,000 - the
estimatedvalue of the family's car. lt seemsthat
the son, aged 19, borrowed his father'snew car
without askingfor permission.He then crashed
it. The son was unhurt, but the car was a total
write-off.
Discussion
Which of the following best sums up your attitudeto compensation?
l. I'nr torirlly againstit. It jr"rstencouragespeopleto sue for the slightestthing.
2. I crrn'tget worked up about it. It doesn'tbother me. It's neveraffectedme.
.1.I'm ell for it! The more peoplecan screwout of big companiesthe better! I wish a waiter would
snill somecoffeeon me!
Taboos
and/ssues
culture 34
Compensation
Sport and money
Discussion
Match these sportsmen and sportswomen to their sports:
t. Michael Schumacher
a. athletics
2. Tiger rVoods
b. tennis
.3.David Beckham
c. Formula One
4. Vcnus \Williams
d. football
-5.Marion Jones
e. golf
All of these professionalsare multi-millionnairesas a result of salaries,prize money,sponsorship
and
endorsements.
' who clo vou think is paid the mosr?why? \7ho is paid
the reast?\7hy?
. Are they paid roo much, in your opinion?
o Hrw much do the top sportsmenand women get paid
in your country?
o wh. is .ne .f the highestpaid? Do you think (s)he
deservesrhat salaiv?
Reading
Read this father's view and decide which sport he is talking about. Can his criticism apply to sports
in
general?
I M M O R A LE A R N I N G S ?
W h a t i n t h e w o r l d i s h a p p e n i n gt o
professionalsport?When I was a kid, it cost
$ 5 t o g e t a d e c e n ts e a ta t t h e s t a d i u m ,a n o
my dad would buy me a hot dog and
h i n r s e l ;f r b e e rw h i c h w o u l d b r i n s t h e t o t a t
c o s tt o a b o u t $ 1 0 .
LastSaturdayI took my little boy to see the
Ciants play. After the parking,tickets,
refreshments
and souvenirs,I walked out of
t h e r ew i t h $ 7 5 l e s si n m y p o c k e t .J u s ta s k
m e h o w s o o n l ' l l b e g o i n gb a c k !
B u t i t g o t m e t h i n k i n g :w h y a m I p a y i n gs o
much to watch a group of men throw a ball
a r o u n d ?A n d t h e n I r e a l i s e dI: w a s p a y i n g
BillySlater'salary$
: 3 5 0 , 0 0 0a y e a r .A n d
Matt Jerrold'ssalary:$500,000 a year.Oh,
and how could I forgetSal lbarra'snew
c o n t r a c t- $ 3 m i l l i o n o v e r t h e n e x t t h r e e
years.
Where is the perspectivehere?What are
o u r p r i o r i t i e sa s a s o c i e t y ?T h e r ea r e 3 5 , 0 0 0
h o m e l e s si n t h i s c i t y w h o d o n ' t h a v e a r o o f
over their heads,clothesto keep them
warm or food to fill their stomachs.And we
are paying thesemen 6- and 7-figure
salariesto keep ourselvesentertained!
Something'sgone wronu.
Look back at the article and answer these questions with a partner:
1. what things did the man have to pay for at the basebailgame?
2.Why ckreshe say ".fustask me how soon I'll be going back',?
3. What does he mean when he saysthat he'spaying the players'salaries?Do you agree?
4. Why does he start ralking about homelesspeople?
Discussion
1'Do vou birsicallyagreewith the man or does he have an old-fashioned,nostalgicview of
sport?
2.I)o vou go to live sport events?What is the most erpensivesportseventyou have beento? \Was
it
rvorth it?
-1.Have voLrever paid to watch a big sports event on pay-TV? If so, how much did you pay?
Sporland money
Taboosand /ssues
Language
Readthis text and underlineall the expressionswith 'worth':
A UK FOOTBALL MATCH
Going to see my football team is not cheap the cheapestseat is [20 - but I think it's worth
it. Usually you get your money's worth especially with our new centre forward,
Rivaldo. Apparently, he's on f,4 million a
year, but he's such a brilliant player, I think
he's worth every penny.
Recently, I took my whole family to see a
game. There are some guys who sell tickets
illegally outside the stadium - they're called
ticket touts - and you can get into trouble if
you buy from them. Normally, I would have
said that it's more trouble than it's worth. but
Now completethe expressionswith one word:
l.l. . .
i t ' sw o r t h i t .
2. You €letyour
. . . worth.
3. He's worth everv .
4. It's rnore
. . . than it's worth.
since I'd brought my whole family, which was
going to be very expensive,I thought it was
worth a try. So, I went up to one of theseguys
and negotiated four fantastic seats for {80 quite a bargain for such an important game
and such great seats.They were actually worth
around f120. When we tried to get into the
stadium, we were told that our tickets were
forgeries! {80 down the drain! You can
imagine how we felt!
So, we went back home to watch the game on
TV. My advice is never buy from a ticket tout.
It's not worth the risk.
5.I thoueht it was worth a , . . .
6. They were actually worth
7. It's not worth the . .
. . . f1,20.
How do you say these in your language?
W h a t d o y o u t h i n k ' € 8 0d o w n t h e d r a i n ' m e a n s ?
Discussion
The average professional footballer in the Premier League in England earns €400,000a year * around
€7,600a week. He trains, on average,for three hours a day and plays one or two games a week for 10
months of the year. This means he earns around f520 per hour. So, after one training session, he is
€1500richer. For the very top players, multiply all these figures by 6 or 7. People argue that the following
reasons justify the salaries.Which do you think are good reasons?
l.lt's rr short career- 18 yearsmaxirrrumthen yon're finishedas far as playing is
concerned.
4.It requiresa very high level of skill, which
They
only a very few peoplepossess.
should be rewardedfor that.
2.Top playerscan't go out partying and
eatingand drinking whateverthey want.
They have to look after themselvesand be
highl)' disciplined.They have a severely
restrictedsocial life for maybe zo y.nrr.
'
-5.JuliaRobertsgets $4 million to make a
film, so why shouldn'ttop footballersget
similar pay? They are just like film stars.
3. Yor-rrcarecr could end at any time through
injury.
6' Top.players are high profile superstarswh<r
can't leavehome without the media
following them. The money they get is
compensationfor having no private life.
Moreissues
1. The men's Wimbledontennis championwins €477,500.The women's championgets f430,000.What is
the reason for this? Women nearly always get less than men in sport. Why is this?
2. Some peoplethink that money has ruinedsport. Peopleused to play for the glory of winning. Now they
are open to bribery and corruption. What would you do about it?
Taboosand /ssues
Sportand money
-
Vanity
Discussion
In your experience,are the following statementstrue or not?
| . Men rrremore intcrestedin their appcarancethan women.
2.\Wornentalk to their friendsabour how they krok. Men
don'r.
-1.W<rrncnlike to go shoppingwith other women.
4' Men prefer fo go clothesshoppingalone.They arc afraid ro ask a woman
to helo thcrn.
-i. N,lcnspenclrrore on cosmeticsthan 10 yearsago.
Reading
Read the first part of the article and underlineall the differentthings that men do
to make themselves
'beautiful':
MEN'S BEAUTY IS BIG BUSINESS
If you think the world of face creams,
beautiful fingernails and silky-smooth
legs is exclusivelyfemale,think again.As
sales of
men's health and fashion
magazines continue to grow at a huge
rate, more and more men are queueing up
at health spas and gyms for complete
make-overs- "Lots of men are no longer
embarrassedto use products or services
that make them look and feel better.,'said
one enthusiasticbeauty consultant.Body
hair removal, manicures,pedicures,teeth
whitening and liposuction,to namejust a
few, are all now in high demand.Modern
man is even plucking his eyebrows to
complete the well-groomed experience.
So, what is the explanation for this? Why
are men spending more on pampering
their bodies than on CD collections and
DVDs?
Compare what you underlined with a partner. Do you know what all those
things are?
what is your explanationfor men's growing interestin theiiappearance?
Now read the second part of the articleto see if it gives the same explanation:
According to some, the explanation is
quite simple. Twenty years ago, the only
beautiful role models in the media were
wonten. Now, magazinecovers displaying
half-dressedmale models with six-packs,
tans and perfect hair, have persuadedmen
they are missingout on something.Inother
words. it's just clever advertising.
Others offer a more profbund explanation.
As traditional roles between men and
women at home and at work become less
distinct, men are looking for new ways to
expresseither their masculinityor their
Vanitv
new-found feminine side.
The masculineexpressionleads to joining
a gym and building muscle, the feminine
expression leads to moisturising creams
and beautiful nails. Thesedays it seemsto
be a combination of both. You could argue
that the modern man is quite simply confusedI
So, are men just victims of the advertising
industry, or are they trying to re-invent
themselves?Or is it just that women have
beenright all along - men are vainer?Now
they have the proof. Whar do you think /
Taboosand /ssues
F
I
,
t
F
t
I
t
I
I
+
t
a
:t
L a n g u a g e1
:l
Explainwhat the following mean:
:l
!t
it
F
F
F
F
F
F
FI
F
F
F
E
F
F
1. Mer-rare queueingup tlt heirlth spas
rrnclgyms ...
2. ... pantltering therr bodies ...
3. Male moclclswith sir-pacfts...
4. As trac'litirxralrolcs betweenrnen
rrrrclwomen becrnnelessdistinct
-5.joining :,rllyrn and building muscle
6. merr are trying to re-inuent themselues
Discussion
Do you think men hirvea 'feminineside'?
'ciiscovering'
it?
Do ,vouthink more rren are
'masculincsic'le'?
l)o women needtcl discovertheir
"Yrtnr
X-ray shows a tbin mon
struggling to get out."
ge 2
Langua
Two of the expressions below mean that you are not looking after yourself properly.Which ones?
tudtcb whdt yr.ttteat
tttkc regular exercise
utork out at the gynt
put on weight
stalt in shdlte
use body lotions
let yourself go
l)dmper yourself
take pride in your appe(trdnce
Now complete the text below with the correct form of verbs from the expressions above. Can you do it
without looking back at the expressions?
himselfgo a bit. He (2)
Sincernv brother reached40 he (1) . . .
(3)
. . what he eats and start
a lot of weight. I've told him he'sgot to start
. . . pride in your
looking after himself.I think it's important to (4)
. . . r e g u l : r r e r c r c i saen d
I w. a n t t o ( 5 ) .
. . i n s h a p e s oI ( 6 )
appearance
(
U
)
(7)...
. . . m y s e l of c c a s i o n a l l y -hl a v ea m a s s a g e
a t t h c g y m .I a l s o
legs
bod,vlotions or shaver-r-ry
once a month, for erarnple. Br-rtI do not (9) . . .
or anvthins like that. I mean.there are lirnits!
Vanitysurvey
Readthe following questions.You get 1 point for each 'yes'answer.Decidein the class how many
answersmean:
1 dm extremel.yuain - . . . ltoints
I am uain = . . . points
I dnt norrnol - . . . points
'yes'
1 . D o y o u s t o p a n d l o o k a t y o u r s e l fi n s h o p w i n d o w s ?
' so r e t h a n o n c e a m o n t h ?
2 . D o y o u g o t o t h e h a i r d r e s s e rm
3 . H a v e y o u e v e rd y e d y o u r h a i r ?
4 . D o y o u u s e h a i r g e l o r a s i m i l a rp r o d u c t ?
, 5 . H a v e y o u e v e r h a d a m a n i c u r eo r a p e d i c u r e ?
6 . D o y o u u s ea h a n d c r e a m ?
7 . Do you use any face creams?
B . H a v e y o u e v e r u s e dm a k e - u p ?
9. Do you pluckyour eyebrows?
1 0 . H a v e y o u e v e r s h a v e da p a r to f y o u r b o d y - o t h e rt h a n y o u r f a c , e ?
11. Do vou use exoensivedeodorantor after-shave?
12. Do you work out at the gym or in your bedroom?
1 3 . W o u l d y o u c o n s i d e rh a v i n ga n y s o r to f c o s m e t i cs u r g e r y ?
1 4 . D o y o u b u y f a s h i o nm a g a z i n e so r h e a l t ha n d f i t n e s sm a g a z i n e s ?
1 5 . l s a n y p a r t o f y o u r b o d y p i e r c e d- n i p p l e s ?n a v e l ?n o s e ?o t h e r ?
Work in pairs asking each other the questions.How many points did you score?
Taboosand /ssues
Vanity
Legatisingdrugs
Discussion
l. Makc a list of all the
illegaldrugs that you
know:
2. Which of those are
soft clrugs
and u
3.which
orthe;;,*, inyour
li,,n,.JI'fiTri,;!"("i',,
4. Dr yru know differeni
names f;;;.
same drug?
-5.Do you know what
rhe following _."r,
rgerousare they?
rril a joint
:;'"::!i',, ::;Y,'l;'o:,r,)','l')ii!,"'"
, *,,^::::("'
,'::,""0
7Are,
r,".",nf J,* J:ff;:i*il::Tj:iiT-;;j:'i"T:T:,i:;
l,'#fi Ti*: *;ir,
Reading
As you read through
the articfe
think of
rf you taereon the panet,
*.,;:"r::;.;:,:;:::.,:;::"*,
conctusion?
GRASS IS GOOD FOR
YOU
A panel of doctors,economists,
there who are wandering
parentsand police officers
around proved that legal
in the dark.streetsat
substances
such
night trying to buv as
United Srates has decided
nicotine and alcohol are
rhat marijuanafor pain
far
reliei,.. said more
drugsshouldbe madelegal.
addictive and harmful.
Their one of the doctors
"Marijuana
on the panel.
conclusionstook into
account "They should
actually does some
be able to gei wnai good.
factors of crime, medicine
The
same
cannotbe said of
and they need without
entering the cigarettes
evenprisonspace.
and alcohol.,,
criminal underworld.
"We
have a prison population
On other substances,the
of The effectiveness
panel
of marijuanaon agreed
over l0 million in this
that drugs such as heroin
country.
going
Many of thoseare in jail
rhrough and cocaine did
l:1i""1:
for drug_ chemotherapy
not serve the
has long Ueln community
relatedcrime, suchas
the saleJr known by
in
the
same way
the medicalp.of"rrion,
possession
of illegalsubstances,,,
marijuanacould. but argued
but political conservatives
that
sarctan officer of the
still keepingthose substances
Chicago raise opposition.
illesal
One senator meanl
Police Force. Because
moneyfor criminalr.,,W.
of new, spoke out
against the panel,s
tough laws, currently
don't
have
peopleshootingeach
3 out of 5 conclusions...I
can sympathise other.
peoplein prisonarethere
over tequila or controlling
because with.the patients,
but the iact is, prostitutes
of drug-related crimes,
with Marlboros,,,saij
which marijuana is
addictive and
means little space is
..Keeping
o1
left for harmful and
tle panel.
we don,t want that orugs
1_ll.l:.
violent criminals, the
illegal
ones the k i n d
allows peopleto do
of
thing in
o u r rilegalthinss.'.
yuftic. would really like to see communities,"
he said.
rocKed
awav.
The pun"'i will shortly
,l".panel disagreed.
be
But there were more
They
presenting
:1
its findings to the
reasons argued that,
although mariiuana government.
for legalising drugs.
r,": admirtedly u po,"niiully
::tr"d
"There
are cancer patients out
addictivesubstance,research
has
J/
!
I
i
a
a
.,
I
a
t
I'l
I
I
1
I
a
t5
-l
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:
t_-1
Legalisingdrugs
Taboosand /ssues
J
:l
-,
-]
I
Discussion
What were some of the reasons for legalisingdrugs mentionedin the article? Tick those which
mentionedin the article:
1. Drr"rgs
can help peoplewho are ill.
2. Drugs keep cr:iminalsin br-rsiness.
3. Making drugs legal meansthat they can be taxed, and that meansrevenuefor the government.
4. Drug-traffickingis not as seriousas violent crime, accordingro many people.
-5.l.egalisingdrr.rgscould make the lob of law enforcementofficers much easier.
6. Alcohol and cigarettesare more addictiveand more harmful and are alreadylegal.
How many of those six points do you agree with?
Language
Use the following words to complete the sentences below:
immediate
heneficial
long-term
damaging
legal
designer
illegal
addictiue
l.Ciigarettesmoking is more
. . . to your health than smoking marijuanaor cannabis.
2. Nicotine is more
. . . than marijuana.
3. Mariiuana can have very .
. . effectson cancerpatients,helpingthem through chemotherapy.
4. The
. . . effectsof smoking dope are well-known - feelingextremelycarefreeand relared.The
. . . effectsilre lessclear.
-5.Horv can it be . . .
for a l6-year-old to buy and smoke cigaretteswhen at the sametirre it is
. . . for a 2l-year-old to buy and smoke marijuana? It's crazy!
6. One of the biggestdangerstoday is the so-called. .
. drugs which young peopleuse at
discosand parties.
Discussion
Do you agreewith the following opinions? Discussthem in small groups:
t . Gettinghigh on a joint is less
dangerousthan gettingdrunk.
1
z.
People who smoke dope change
their personalityover time. They
becomeirresponsible,unreliableand
ruin their lives.
-). Thedrug laws in our country are
1
alreadytoo relaxed.Theyshould be
far stricter.Fine people for a first
offenceand then send them to prison
if they re-offend.lt's the only way.
4 . Experimentingwith drugs is OK. You
just need to know when to stop.
5. Soft drugs lead to hard drugs.Just
don't even think of starting!
6 . More people die from alcohol-related
problems or accidentsthan drugrelated problems. StatisticalIy, drugs
are saferthan alcohol.
7. All recreationaldrugsshould be made
legal for adults.That would
immediatelystop relatedcrime.
B. Somecountriesin the Far Easthave
the right idea - executeall drug
dealers.Thatwould soon stoa the
drugs trade.
Have you ever tried drugs? Do you know anyone who has? Which ones?
Do you know where to get drugs in your town?
What problems have you seen in your community caused by drugs?
What would be the effect of legalisingdrugs? Taketwo minutesto think of three implications.Then tell
your group what you have thought of.
Iaboos and /ssues
Legalising drugs
37
Turningthe other cheek
Discussion
Discusswith your class:
l. Do you ea:lll forgive
people,or do you
hold grudges?
3 5;ll,l't;"J"Ii:l]:-,ru:::': r.,.,o-.?r'iJi,,r,,,
rhev
- ro
'" 'r"(
you?
' did
personwho:
chearecr
rhem.ut,f ,";;-;;;:;'r"t",
"'.
physic_ally
assaultedth"_j
spreadrumollrs about
them?
sfole from them?
wrts unfaithful to them?
(had sex with someone
else)
4. Woulci you forgive
the person in rhe situations
above?
r
.
.
.
.
Reading
Read through the first
part of this articre
and answer
the question befow:
A HUC IN EXCHANGE
FOR A BEATING?
;;:?l#lilJ'Jil'll;,1!rfilrgp:"", 33,waspured
rrom
histruck
andbadry
bearen
scenewas."rshi;;;l;t,tn" 1992raceriotsin Lur,tng"i"r.
j:t"JJ'i:i'^U;,**u###ii
l,i;l;t*;klitrl'l
Jti
fi::"''r"r',1fl
liilit/,n:n:i:#lr:nr;il*
^""".1Tii,",5,?,:iti[1if
*il#ij#lfr
was
rescueci
ou,:f"';::it
,-.J;;Y"l:"j,::'[il;,o,"::"u
in" iirr,o,eandviorent
Whatdo you think should
happento the attackers?
continuereadingand
answe,ir," qu""tions
berow:
*",.]t',|,
i;ffi :1L:"1;
I
I
D e n n y w a s J e f tw i t h
permant
o n v s i c a ld e f o r m ' . , " ;
r e c o v e rn
, riracutousli;;;;
h a n d i c a p sb u t h e d i d
1|"t
eventually
11,
who
nearry
b";,;;;i,;;il:'J:iT;:il:,XX:lflrenough."
",,""a.r"'"
triarorth"
_"i
I
ffi'.[::.,:F:;',x""T,nixi,"Xffi:1*#Tl4T:1i::
I
,;:
;';il:T{:'d:flH,"'#
;,i.:
#"::
*q ln,'d
"ti:j;I
l iilr*
I
)
II
1
q
Dutnot ResinaldDenn,y.
were reacl,p";";;
rmmediatety
"i 3,.,n" sentences
;r;;:;i'i:'
aftac:kers
and huggedth", bolto'ghout the trial, warkedr""r? L"''j,,oth"r,
of the
illni*iti;il,* tH,';?
r*fi';.'.;#l="d.
Ii{Hlf!r,r,'
ro,,,.uuo.Il?
a disability
allowancef.r
?fr"';#
4
I
I
Incomenow is the
$ 120 a weekhe
I
d
th" iri"8:;;::i:j::T#iiJ;,u"."'andhave;,";;ffJi:,"J3r';,ji:i:;n:i:l,j
J
a
l. Whar proof was
I
2. wh,rtw,rsReqina,l"N:l:i" heating?
-
T
jnJ",,.,,
;.fl1i.'
;.;,:tn:i .1'[j::
ai,f.r?
{:,1';,
red'Iong enough
I
5' Dicl'h"';;
fl
rf
;;iil'i''l''id"
r r d a b o u rw h a rr h e y
4
r-l
diJ ro Denny?
J-
Turningthe other cheek
Taboosand /ssues
J-1
)
-.1
-l
I
I
I
l
t
I
I
I
I
I
r
I
Discussion
1. Why clo you think Denny forgavehis
attackers?
2. Do yoLrthink forgiving them did any good?
ac'lmirehis act of forgiveness?
-1.Do ,vor.r
4. WoLrldyou have forgiven thc men if they had
ctrnc the samething to you?
Language
Match the words on the left with those on the
right to make whole expressionsabout
forgiveness:
a. grudge
l. forgive arrcl
b. cheek
2. wrlter urrdcrthe
c. forget
3. turn the other
d. shoulder
4. br-rrythc
e. hatchet
-5.holcl e
f. bridge
6.got a chip on his
Now use the expressionsin these sentences:
7. I always forgivepeople.I'm not the sort of
personto...
8. We usedto be bitter enemiesbut that's all
.. ..now.
9. If possible,the best policy is . . . .
If you can't forget, at least try to forgive.
1 0 . I t h i n k I n e e dt o g o a n d t a l k t o S a l l ya n d
'We
.
can't keePignoring
e a c ho t h e r l i k e t h i s .
1 1 . I f s o m e o n eh u r t s o r i n s u l t sy o u , y o u r i n s t i n c t
is to get revenge.The harder opti<tnis tcr
12. Martin's a very difficult personto work with.
... ahotttnotgetting
He's..
pronrotedlast year and he'sso cvnical all the
time.
Do you have similar expressions in your
t
I
( A h a t c h e ti s a k i n d o f a x e . )
r
In small groups, decide if you would forgive the people involvedin the situationsbelow:
I
I
t
il
t
r
I
T
I
t
;l
I
t
il
I
language?
Discussion
1. Your father tells you, when you are 30, that you are adopted.
2. Yor.rfincl out that your partner of 15 years has been sleepingwith your best friend.
3. You cirtch your mother reading your diary.
4. You lenclyor-rrcar to a colleagueat work who damagesit beyond repair.
-5. Yor-rrpartner slapsyou in the face in the heat of a seriousargument.
6. Yor-rrbrother/sist:' forgets your birthday.
7. You're in hospitalfollowing a major operationand your best friend doesn'tvisit you.
8. You find or.rtthat a good friend of yours has been revealingyour intimate secretsto others.
9. A strangerin a bar spills a cold beer on your new shirt and just laughs.
10. While making love, your partner calls you by someoneelse'sname.
ln Americawhen a criminal is found guilty,the victim is allowedto make a speech in court addressing
the criminal.Do you think this is a good thing? Why?
lf you were a victim, what sort of speech would you give?
Quotations
Which of the following quotationsis your favourite?Why?
A l w a y sf o r g i v ey o u r e n e m i e s- n o t h i n g
a n n o y st h e m s o m u c n .
Oscar Wilde
An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.
The Bible
"l can forgive,but I cannot forget" is only
"l
a n o t h e rw a y o f s a y i n g c a n n o tf o r g i v e " .
H.W. Beecher,American clergyman
"l
W h e n a m a n s a y s c a n n o tf o r g i v e , "h e i s
"l
l y i n g .W h a t h e m e a n si s , w i l l n o t
forgive."
Anonymous
The stupid neitherforgive nor forget;the
naive forgiveand forget;the wise forgive
but do not forget.
Thomas Szaz, American psychiatrist
f,
e
a
it
Iaboos and /ssues
Turningthe other cheek
The deathpenalty
Discussion
-a-.:il,lil
n,
".,r,
jlo),:r,
"
:: li.J,":,,
",,r,
jl:"1 t,,.,wharofrencesi
How,is-ir,#.i.aour:
Work in pairs. Disc
r n ( ) r .w h r r ri s r h e
s e v e r e spt u n i s h m e n r
rt"r.on
begiven?
Reading
Read the text below
penat,y
: l:,iTi"',',t
herore
rt,e
tffi"ii"iiT:n7'n,o,,
a,,ack?
My sisterwas walking
home from work
yearsago wf
two
her una,tili
to steal hur'"J,:l'"-men,stopped
saythatif youexecure
a murderer
,l:,T:l^*Ole
you
becomea murder".
vor^utf, t--uianr,,,noa
anaihei
stabbed
n",.,1.lfl3.f,"r?l"rl""'irted
tak"
,om"oil,
riru,
yo,,
lnn l;;: i: I uou
ro'nJ'"'iiu'?"i:t"'::?T
li:il;"H;'"
u",,n"",il
t"%:Hi::?J,:'"i"J
t changeJ.s,:meone,
mvviews
"" Iil"T"'"'il
Ji:[-hen
t'
lhe same horror .r. ,,^,,,--'.-.,-^],l"
"Jl,#'"
sufferi
ns,
a
";";;;
J'o,
"
Iil
iJ,;frX
trte. peoplethink
that ;, .rr"i. B-ul
my
Beforethat, it
easyto be liberaland
ro say tharlu,
lr:,lY
t iian,i
;;1,;;"
punishmenr.
Butnor.now.il;;;;r:""..::;Tl
that
the police..caught
my
were eye witnesse.s; ,iriui,r"killers:there
iflur"- *u, forensic
evidence.I th<
guvs should die
for
whafthey did T^*:
iT* only
I ney not
took her life,they
changedthe liv
sister
didn'thavethe luxury
of sayinggoodbye.
;:T:,:,1:?':;';,.'o'n'"kthatauutni' theeasy
J;:Hi:lili;f::"ilTi
r:1",ariretime
tnrnkso. Life imprisonrnent
is
meals,readingand televisi"" a iifetimeof hot
_ ,a',n"'an*Ouy"r,
expense.
Thatis not a suitabf"
pr"irnr"nt for a
murderer.
Butdeathis.
i
|"",;;;;;ilfilji:r'il;,;lrur:n.*i
.-Yv !'
will never ever be
the same.
i
i
a
Discussion
I
a
How do you feel about
the writer,s views:
. surprisccl
?
. shocked?
. synrpatheric?
r'
j
a
-
. horrified?
a
4
thedeath
ll"lliffii#?,,iJ:g'.yo{dvouwant
*^nui;:Tgfi
and
:d{i -!3,'TI""FoR
penalty'Add other
arguments of
your own.
Are you basicallv
- i n favour of or against
punishment?
capital
39
Thedeath penaltv
/
F
4
"Better
sit dctrun,son. I,tte
got
a bit of a shock
y1171.,.
frtr
Taboosand /ssues
J-]
I
-E-
)
-'l
-1
t-''
{
q
Language1
Language2
i
Do you know the nounsfor these verbs? Use a
dictionaryif necessary.
Complete the text below with the correct form of
the words opposite:
fl
VERB
{
cxecute
f,
e
e
a
NOUN
v ict
cor.r
cornpensate
irnprison
punish
abolish
:l
e
a
=I
a
a
=I
:r
:r
:t
F
F
F
F
F
F
tr
b
F
F
F
F
FT
F
F
Harold Spearsreturned home a free man
yesterday.He was lucky to be alive. He had been
(1) . . .
of murder in 1998 and sentencedttr
. . . by lethal injection.Beforethe
be (2)
sentencecould be carried out, the US state he
... the death
l i v e d i n p a s s e da n e w l a w ( 3 )
(4)
was therefore
penalty.Mr Spears' . . .
. Two months later
reducedto life (5) . . .
new evidenceemerged.Mr Spearswas found to
be innocent!He was freed on appealand will
receive$250,000 in (6) .
Discussion
Work in small groups. Read these texts and discuss the questionsbelow each one.
The TimothyMcVeighCase
M o r e t h a n 1 0 0 0 s u r v i v o r so f t h e
OklahomaCity bombing in the
U n i t e d S t a t e sw e r e a s k e d i f t h e y
wanted to witnessthe executionof
TimothyMcVeighby lethal injection
at TerreHauteFederalPrison,lndiana.
The deathchamberat the prisonhas
but over
only eightseatsfor witnesses,
2 0 0 o f h i s v i c t i m sa n d t h e i rf a m i l i e s
watchedhis executionby live video
link.
1. Do you feel it is right that the
survivorsof a terroristact should
be invited to watch the convicted
terroristbeing executed?
2. Do you think an executionlike
thisshould be televised- then
anyone who wantedto watch it
would have the opportunity?
Shouldthe programmebe shown
around the world on satelliteTV?
3. Public hangingwas abolishedin
Britainin 1868and the death
penalty for murder was abolished
in 1969.ls this evidenceof a more
humaneand civilisedsocietyor of
cowardIy, Ieft-wi ng Ii beralism?
The SaudiSituation
.I,100
saidit knewof morethan
Amnestylnternational
peopleexecutedin SaudiArabiain the past20 years/
with the currentaveragestandingat two public
everyweek.A swordis usedand as manyas
beheadings
threeblows may be requiredto cut the headoff.
1. What is your reactionto this information?
2. Do you think somemethodsof executionare more
acceptablethan others?If so, which?
3. "lf someoneis being executedfor a particularly
horrendousmurder,their deathshould be as painful
and humiliatingas possible."
How do you feelabout thisstatement?
The Caseof PatrickNicholls
PatrickNicholls,jailedfor life 23 yearsagofor the
familyfriend,was freed
murderof a74-year-old
yesterdayby the Courtof Appeal.The court
thatthe evidenceusedto convictMr
acknowledged
N i c h o l l sw a s u n r e l i a b laen dt h a tt h e i n j u r i e s u f f e r ebdy
causedby a fall.
were,in all probability,
the 7A-year-old
1. How do vou think Mr Nichollsfeelsnow?
2. How can the statecompensatehim for 23 yearsof
wrongfuI i mprisonment?
3. Have therebeenany caseslike thisin your country
reCentlY?
4. WouldMr Nichollshavebeenexecutedin vour
country?
Some countries give relatives of the victim a choice of what should happen to the murderer: they can
'blood money' from the murderer as
agree to the murderer being executed, or they can ask for
compensationfor the loss of their loved one and the murderergoes to prison.What do you think about
this?
Taboosand /ssues
The death penalty
Addictions
Discussion
work in pairs' List at least 5 different things
that people can become addicted to. choose
one from your
list and discuss the possible results of this
addiction.
work in pairs.Ask each other questionsfrom
one of the questionnaires:
D R I N KA N D Y O U
1 . D o y o u d r i n ka l c o h o el v e r yd a y ?
2. How muchdo you drinka week?
3. Do you evergetdrunk?How often?
4. Do you needa drinkto relax?
5. Do you drinkwith otherpeopleor on your own?
6. Do you regularlyget a cravingfor a drink?(=
a verystrong desire)
7 . D o y o u t h i n ki t , sa h a b i to r a n a d d i c t i o n ?
SMOKINGAND YOU
1. Do you smoke?Cigarettes?
Cigars?
A pipe?
2. How manydo you smokea day?
3. Do you smoketo relax?
4.Do you feernervousif you haven,thad a smoke
for a rongtime?
5. Do you getstrongcravings?
6. Do you wish you couldstopsmoking?
7 . C o u l dy o u g i v ei t u p e a s i l y ? .
J
a
I
t
J
J
Doesyour partnerhavea problem?
1
(
Reading
1
a
work in pairs' studentA read extract 1, student
B read extract 2. Then report the contents to each
other.
Extract I
Slowly, the drink began to take over and
things got worse. His behaviour was
becoming unpredictable.He tells of one
incident in a club on a Sunday afternoon
when a fight broke out and he and some
friends were involved. Minutes later he was
outsidebeing questionedby police and then
spent severalhours at the police station.He
was releasedwithout chargebut, in spite of
that shock, rhe next day he was banging
on
the door of his local pub five minutesbefore
opening time, craving his first drink of the
day. Then it dawnedon him. What kind of
person stands outside a pub every
day
desperatefbr a drink,/ Only someonewith a
drink problem. He was a well_known
sportsmanperhaps, but secretly he was a
l o n e l yd
. e s p e r a tael c o h oi lc .
40
I
I
Extract 2
J
One day, he arrived for training in a bad
state.It was to be the big turning point.
The first personhe saw was SteveJacobs.
"I've
got a drink problem ancl I need
to go to a meeting of Alcoholics
Anonymous," he blurted out. At lastl
He'd said it! Tony Adams, respected
captainof Arsenal and an Eneland
internationalw
. inner of six maio,
t r o p h i e si n E n g l i s hf o o t b a l l ,w a , a s k i n c
f o r h e l p f o r r h e f i r s r r i m e i n h i s l i l ' e .H e
finally admitted that he had a problem
that was too powerfulto faceon his own.
Almost immediately,a ray of hope came
to him. Despitethe messhe was in. if he
could devote the same enthusiasmand
energyto keepingoffalcohol as he had to
playingfootball,then he had a chance.
l
a
I
u
/
J
tF
tF
b
f-
Li
d
L4
y-4
Addictions
Taboosand /ssues
fr
t
E
Discussion
Now read the texts again and choose the best answers below:
1.ln
a.
b.
c.
;
the club one Sundayafternoon
thc lvritcr's iriends startcda fight'
the writer startecla fight.
it is not clear rvho stirrtedthe fight.
2. The writer
rr. kncw hc cor-rldstop drinking by himself.
b. eskcdsomeoncto hclp him stop drinking.
c. met sonreonefrom AlcohcllicsAnonymous.
Why do you think that such a successfulsports person becamean alcoholic?
I
I
i
I
I
;
I
_t
F
E
F
E
E
F
E
F
F
E
F
I
F
t'
F
I
F
I
F
I
F
h
F
F
F
l,
F
F
Language1
Language2
Use these words to completethe sentences:
Use the correct form of these expressions to
completethe sentencesbelow:
ttdLlictit,e
ttddict
dtldictat!
tttldictirtrt
alcobrtlic
ttlcohol
tlcrtbolism
to
numbcr of peoplcare .
1. A sLrrprisitrg
grunbling.
2. Hc checkeclinto rr clitricto try to get over his
clrr.rg.
.i.l'vc never met anyonewho is actuallya drug
4. Uoth heroit-tanclcrack cocaineare ertremely
. substirnces.
when he
.5.Shc rerliseclhe w:rs an . .
strrrtcdclrinkingat breakfasttime.
(r.The problem got so bad he startedhiding
. . . irroltnclthe house.
. is a daily process.[t
7. Overcotning. .
rrerlnssavitrs'n(t'to drink everyday for the
rest of vottr life.
seekltrofessionalh elP
get with drawal sYmPtoms
kick the habit
haue a drink Droblem
tuke dn orrrdo*
1.I think my boss
You can smell alcohol on his brcath first
thing in the morning.
2. Shedied after accidentallY
of sleepingpills.
3. A lot of peoplewant to give up smoking,but
it's very difficult to . ' .
4. When he wasn't able to get hold of any drugs
for a few davs. he started to . . '
.5.When he realisedhe was addictedto alcohol.
hedecidedto.....
Discussion
Discussthese questionsin Pairs:
l. What is the differcncebetweena habit and an addiction?
2. t-ook irgrrinirr the list you made earlier.Are sometypes of addiction more sociallyacceptablcthan
othcrs?If so, which typesand why do you think this is so?
-1.Arc the following addictionsreally possible?Are they dangerousin any way?
M1, son's nldictetl
to footboll! lt's
like a drug to hint.
I'm a shopaholic!
I cdn't resist buying
cktthes.
I'm d chocaholic!
I can't liue a day
withctut it.
4. Do ,vouiecl that there are certaintypes of personalitywho are more likely to becomeaddicts?
.5.What woulcl vou clo if you for-rndout that a colleaguehad a seriousaddiction problem, but was
ckringr-rothingrrbotrtit?
Iaboosand /ssues
Addictions
40
F
Unit by unit notes
1 Death
Bc aware that a discussionof
death at any rlme
rs capableof triggeringpowerful
emorions.
Reading
Put the s.tudentsin pairs. Each
member of the
pair reac'lsa different text, then
reports the
contents of the texrs to each other.
They then
w.rk rhrorrg,hthe questionsrug"rh"r. '
A n s w e r s :1 . p r o b a b l yb . 2 b .
StLrdents
could look at the discussionquestions
in prilirsancj rhen report back
to ttr. .t]rr.
Language
l. dying 2. murder 3. dying
4. killing
.t. kill 6. murder 7. death S. murder
9. death
10.death
The three idiomatic expressions
all mean: .He,s
dead.' Discussany similar ."pr.rri.r*
ir_,tt,.
stuclenfs'own Ianguage(s).
Thc carroon introducesthe related
and
cJrrngerous
area of suicide.
See:rlsoUnits 28. 39.
2 Nudity
Discussion
Ask students if they have ever experienced
a n y t h i n gl i k e t h e s i r u a r i o n si n 1 _ 6 .
Reading
lb 2a 3 Ir is possible.
Discussion
t l . t f c c l . c v e r yb c r c h s h o u l db e
a naturisr
,'.
Dench.z. I hc.ywill defendthem
in court if
they have behavedreasonably.
3. A ;u;.
cross-Channel
relay swim. 4. Discountson
ferry services,car rental and
breakdown
ir.rsurance,
irnd nudist Caribbean.ruir.r.
Language
I . p o s s i b l y2 . b a s i c a l l y3 . i d e a l l y
4. realistically5. surprisingly
6. obviously
7._Surprisingly8. Basically"9.
Ideally-1 0 . r e a l i s t i c a l l y1 : | .O b v i o u s l y
12.possiblv
3 Pofiticallyincorrectjokes
Be rvarnedrhat although this ls
not a sertous
.i;s1e',it is potentiallyone of the units most
likcly to offend.
Language
l. rnake 2. drown 3. put 4.
climb 5. throws
6. rerrain 7. have g. take 9. c a l l
10.say
You could put the studentsin pairs
and grve
jokes 1-5 ro one srudenr
and e_t0 to the other.
\X/henthey have completed rhem, ger
srudenrsro
tell the jokes to each other.
Reading
Pre-teachany vocabularystudents
rnight need.
Ncrte:a pit-bull terrier is a parricularly
fierce
breed of dog.'Woof is the word *.
u* ,,,
describea dog's bark - it is also the
sound of
something bursting into flames.
Follow-up
There are lots of websitesdedicated jokes
to
of
this kind. You could ask studentsro
searchfor
more jokes on specificsubjectson
the web.
4 Tabooconversationtopics
Different cultures seedifferent subjects
as taboo.
You can exploit this with a multi_lingual
class.
Reading
Get studentsto read the conversations
and work
out the peopleand situationson their
own and
then compare their answersln palrs.
Discussion
In Britain it is not ,the done thins,
to ask people
how much they earn .r, h.r* -uJh
they weigh.
Possiblereplies to the questionsin
conversations
2 and 3 are:,
Conversation2: Nor ds much as I,d
lika;
Solicitors aren't as uell paicl as you
think, you
know; Oh! I get by; I don't thiik that,s
any of
your business.
Conversation3: That's a rather
Dersonal
question; More than I should: li
na1, look a lct
b.ut it's all muscle,you know; I donlt
knctut_ I
daren't get on the scalesthese tlays.
The cartoon
This gives you the opportunity to
ask studer-rts
if
religion is a taboo topic among
their friends.
Language
1Q 2R 3Q 4R 5R 6Q 7R 8Q
eR
You could now return to conversations
2 and 3
and ask studentsto.readthem in pairs,
inserting
some of the expressionsfrom this
exercrse.
Your best friend
To finish off, put srudentsin pairs
and ask them
to chooseone of the statementsand
write a
short dialoguearound it. They can
then read
their dialoguesro the class.
Unitby unit notes
Taboosand /ssues
F
tr
F
18
T
il
f,
fl
f,
a
a
:T
:!
3
:T
t
:|
:'
FI
F
F
Fr
F
F
F|
F
F
F
F
F
F
5 lt shouldbe banned!
This unit coversa lvidc variety of topics.If,
on one
f<lcuses
cluringthc lessotr,disct-tssion
that
erplore
wish
to
IrIeY
vou
pirrticlrlrrrtopric,
further rrrthcrthan finish thc othcr activities.
Sonretopics nrcntitlncdin this unit are whole
- irbortion,clrugs,nuditl', racism,gun
tur.rits
rights, for exanrplc.
rrnclrrnit.tt:rl
1-losscssiot.t
Reading
hr thc first tert rt'look tl-reother way'prllicv is
rvhenthe police ignore peoplebreakingthe law.
In thc thircl tcrt the customer's iustificationfor
srrrokingwrls: i'tltar is :t placefor vices(bad
hebits),rutd l-reci'ttr'tdrink without smoking.
Language
I . I ' r r i g o i n g o n ? . p r o t e s ta g i r i n s t3 . s i g n
4. crrtnprtigns-5.lobbr' 6. r-rrge7. boycott
8 . c r r r r vo t t t 9 . b a n
Newspaperlanguage
lc 2h -icl 4a .5f 6b 7c 8g
Discussion
Notice therc rrretwo light-heartedsuggesticlns
btllrornn tlancing ancl sr,rapoperds.Ask students
if thc-rcrlrc ilny other lessseriousthings they
u'ould like to birn.
to justif-vwhv ccrtrrinthingsshould
Ask stuclents
sourceof
be bannecl.This coulclbe a usefr-rl
lcris: it tltntttgesy'our healtlt; it degradeswomen'
it's ,t lt,trbttricsport, it's moralllt wrong etc-
6 Not my type
T'[risunit looks at ph,vsicalattraction- but at
which repel rather
habits arnclchirracteristics
to check the list
migl-rt
want
You
tlrrrn rrttrrrct.
on thc seconclpage fttr artythingpotentially
or <lffertsive.
erttl.rlt'rllssittg
Reading
F-achnrerlber of a pair rcadsa differentletter.
Thev therrrcport the lettersto eachother before
working throtrghthe discussionquestions.
Discussion
l.l fcat likc being sick;this rnust be sttmekind
of'ltcrnttnent conditictn;I can't go on bolding
nry brcttth: I t*tn't et'en look in her direction
tt'ben sbc tttlks to me; This is not your duerdge
ntrtrrring-breathkintl of smell - this is more like
sornctbingbrts tlied inside her.
The cartoon
the cartoon:
bestclescribes
Which rrcljective
iurtrtt,,oiicnsit,c,childish, racist, mdle
cb,tttt,i rti st,stttPi di
Iaboosand /ssues
Follow-up
Ask studentsto write a letter basedon those
they read earlier,either fr<lmtheir expcrienceof
a partner,or choosingone or two problems
from the list in the final discussiot-t.
Alternatively,they can write a letter giving
adviceto eitherThomas or EmilY.
Seealso Unit 24.
7 Sex for sale
Discussion
lc 2c 3d 4b 5f 6a
Note that the term escort is often used as a
itttl t'.
euphemismf<tr Prttst
Should we legalisebrothels?
Studentscould work in pairs and read one tert
each, then report to each othcr.
Both statementsare false.
Ask studentswho they most agreewith - Helerr
Maddocks or JanetBoyce. If there is a roughly
even split, you could placestudentswith
opposingviews in small groups and, aftcr a few
minutes'silentpreparation,give them five
minutesto try to persuadeothersof their
ar€lument.
Language1
do dcresnot collocatewith the issue.
Language2
1 . a , f , h , k 2 . b , c , i I, 3 . d , e ' g , i
Discussion
put
If your studentsenjoy role play discussions,
the
of
onc
them in pairs, ask them to chtlose
speechbubblesand prepareand practisea
conversationaround the statement.They could
'perfornt' their conversationsfor the class.
Follow-up
Studentscould write their own views on
prostitutionbasedon their discussions.
I Swearing
Pleasenote this unit not only discusses
swearing,it also containsactual swearwords'
Reading
Studentscould work in pairs ar-rdread one text
each,then report to each other beforeworking
through the questionstogether.
Answers:2 and 3 are true. 4 It's a possibility.
Language
You should crossout the following: 1. rude
2. obscene 3. eood 4. terrible
Unit by unit notes
lT
Discussion
It is very diificulr for
studentsto appreciate
the
exirct force of sll
irisapprop,.,"*
*;I:
lT:,:,[1il:":l-Hffi
pollrf oLltthat if they
decide,., ur.-r*"nr
words,
rhey ru,r a high risk
of _;;;ri,,
*rnn*
rrnclsounding either
very silly or ve_ryoffensive.
Avoiding swear words
f u c k 2 . F l i p p i n g=
fuckine
rI . ti ,' r=t e c r l r r-r gh,l o o d ) .
4. suglr = shit
-i. P = piss 6. B = batstard
9 Torture
Discussion
Accorclingto Amnesry
Inter:national:1. At
least
124countries).
Ar t"rrt +e
..rffi;.;
(Nr"rrnbers,renor
decreasing.;;;;
potrce
<f 132;;;il;;;e
,1,i."'anc1
nr tortunnll
securiry
involved
or ill_treatingtheir
.irir"rrr.t
Reading
The counrriesirre:
Chile,
the
USA and France.
l. Sothatshewor-rtd
;h;",-'l-Jo} i pri.r,
si";
who hadaskeci
herforn"lp. 2. i;fl*'p,rti."
.fficerswerepunisrr"a
in ,iiuj.;';j ,;" number
of conrplaints.
3. In
abor-rtwho
suppliedrh; :ir;."rormatron
Discussion
Ciivestirdentsa few
minutes to think abour
thesecluestions
alone beforethey discuss
rhem.
Language1
l. rrsa resultof 2. f<.tr
the restof 3. rn an
inrerviewwith 4. lr.r
"n .ffort ,"' ,. l, the
hands
rheabsence
r>f7. in"i;",.; 8.byrhe
liirl;l,,
Language2
l. by the enclof 2.,ar
the hands of 3. rn
view
<tf 4. f<>rrhe rest of
5. as " l"lrr, "i 6.
in an
utrervlew with 7. in
an effort to S. in tlr"
absenceclf
Extra activity
Ask studentsif they
have ever seenor
cxpe.'encedheavy_handed
police acii,"rr.t, ,h.
use .t rear gas,rubber
bullers";J;;;..
cr.lnnonsacceptilble
for crowd .o.,r.o'il
S e ea l s o U n i t 3 9 .
10 Sexualharassment
Look for cllrrcnt cases
fo acld to this unit.
Reading
harassrnenrin France
is limited to
,1::t*:",
r-r.rassrnenr
by a sLrperi.rof a ,";;;;;;;,..
2. Usually a woma.n
is fired, then she goes
rc)
courr. 3..Many judges
blame ,lr.l-r".y ,fr.
woman dresses.
Language
l. in 2. for,of 3. at
4. wirh 5. up 6. abour
7. between
Ask studentsif rhey
agreewith scnrcnce4.
Foltowing
senrence
z,""J rr;;;;;;'!,u.
examplesof what i
run.,"
ropay
" .o,.ng,,.
:,il'ff::i'J:l::;Hi1'il""'
Discussion
Students
can discuss
the situations
in pairsor
smallgroupsbeforeo
f""db"lk ,.rr",i'rv,rf-t
,fr.
wholectass.Ask srudents
ri,;;;il;
'srruarions
rhemof a personal.rp.r,.r,.".
:.Tild
Ask the classif they find
,h; .:".,;'uff"r.,riu..
Follow-up
Ask students
to find a caseof fernale_ro_male
harassment
on fhe web beforefhe
next lesson.
11 Briberyand corruption
Language
1c 2f 39 4h 5b 5a
7d ge
r,hospiratity
lpurrir.,ty
a bribe)
: fl|{t^
JI . a
brthe 4. a rewa
7. infruenceg. n fru:rXrJ'
a tip 6' a perk
A s k s r u d e n r si f r h e y
h r v c e v e r h e e ng i v c n
a rip.
a reward or a bri
I
*l,atpe,ki
dc,theygetin ,n"?,iljfjl'vwc,rk.
I
Reading
Studentscould work
in groups of three. Each
member of the sro.up
reads a different article.
I
t
{
rrr".",* i,I i'ii"'"',,,.
r",,,
Il.:
:n"r,.po.i
rhe group.
l/
1
I
a
The articleabout the
bus dr:iverdoesnor r.nvolve
corruption.
4
A
Discussion
lb 2b 3a
f
a
F o r s t u d e n r sw h o a
n"
or
;:#ffiT1;H'r11,1*
T::.,.""Tpres
tnar they have read
or heard
,1,";;;;
I
U
J
,h. n._r.
Language
1. reward 2. favour
3. influence 4. perks
.'''
5. rip 5. hospitalitv
7. bribes g. oii
Discussion
Make sure studentsare
aware that they can
suggestalternativeresponses
in eachsituation.
You could also ask
eachgroLrpto rhink
of
a . n o r h ebr r i b e r ys i r u a t i o n
/ dilemma to plrr ro
the other groups.
Seealso Unit 20.
Unitby unit notes
Taboosand /ssues
E
J
rrl
*l
C''4
*1
J
J
I
1
F
F
F
tr
tr
ts
Er
p
r
fl
f,
a
i!
q
=r
f,
=l
a
a
rt
Et
F
F
F
rF
b
F
F
tr
F
F
F
F
12 Designerbabies
irt rvhich geneticsciencets
Clivcn tl-respeec'l
looks set to be at the
cieveloping,
this sr-rb;ect
forcfront of ethical clcbirtefor somc years to
conre.Studcrrtsmay have strong views on the
cxtent to r,vhichwc should interfcre with naturc
rrnclthe possibleeffectsof such interference,
wl-rethcrbcneficiirlor otherwise.
Reading
babv girl becausetheir only
The -|oneswant e-r
diecl
ancl
the,vfeel that their family
claughter
'ir
lacks fcmrrleclimension'.
IT 2F3T
Discussion
(,ive str-rclents
two or three minutesto think
abolrt this alone beiore pr-rttingthem in small
lirollps to sharctheir views.You could then take
rr clrrssvote irnclhold a classdebate.
Language
Yrrr.rshcrulclcross olrt: build and straight.
Discussion
You coulcl ask str-rdents
to give more examples
geneticengineeringto
people
might
use
of how
'crcrlte'peoplein thc future.
Notc thc quote at the bottom of the page.Ask
stuclentsto crplain what the professormeans
and ask whcther they agreewith his prediction.
1 3 C h i l d r e nw h o k i l l
Cirsesof chilclrcncommitting brutal and horrific
nrurclersin both the UK and the US prompted
this unit, which rrrisesthe questionsof why
thcscthings happenanciwl-ratshould be done
irbout thc perpetrators.
Discussion
You could rrlsodiscr-rss
the age at which people
cilu vote, join the army, have sex legally,smoke,
bu.valcohol,get married anclget a driving
licencc.
Reading
Answers:The latesttrend is to treat child killers
"if
as thouglr the,vlvcrc adr"rlts: you are old
enoughto kill, you are old enoughto face adult
penalties."
True or false?
lF - hc nra.vget pirrolc 2T 3T 4T
Language
I b 2cl .la 4e -5c
6. evidencc(the othersare people) 7. fine (a
plrnishment,not i-lcrime) 8. adult (the others
rrreirll voufrgpeople) 9. witness(the othersall
Taboosand /ssues
have negativeconnotations) 10. setltence(the
others are all to do with beine freecl)
Follow-up
Studentschooseone of thc four final discussiorl
questionsanc'lwritc their response.
S e ea l s oU n i t s 1 7 , 3 8 , 3 9 .
14 Gaysand jobs
Over the past 20 or 30 yearsattitudes(and
laws) in many countriestowards gays havc
becomeconsiderablymore liberal. Howeveq tt.t
some areasof life, there is still considerable
prejudice.In somecountrieshomosexuality
remainsa taboo subiectand homosexualacts
may even be illegal.Peopleoftcn havc strong
feelingsabout gay issues.
Reading
1. The secondarticle.The problem is that thc
mayor wants her lesbianpartner to be the
mayoress.2. The first article.The personis
leaving the navy becausehe feelsthat the
(iovernmentshould not allow gaysto join the
armed forces.
True or false?
7T 2F 3F 4T
Language
1. good military reasons,political and legal
reasons,for similar reasons,for no good
military reason,she seesno reasonto ...,
'l
2. d is wrong. seeno reasoltto changetny
mind' is correct English.
3. 1. one good reason 2. the real reason
3. no reason 4. some reason.
4. powerful does not fit.
The cartoon
You may have to explain what a fete is and a
'
'guess
the weigbt of the caAe competitior-r.
15 Animalrights
The subjectof animal rights can provokc strong
feelings,as evidencedby the activiticsof the
Animal LiberationFront in the UK, an
organisationwhich takes forceful,direct actiotr
organisationsand individualsir-rvolved
agair-rst
in using animalsin scientificcxperimcnts.
Discussion
Possibleuses:We keep them as pets,use their
skin and fur for clothes,test medicitresancl
cosmcticson them, farm thern for meat or <tther
products,keep them in zoos, train them ttr
perform in circuses,use them for transport,use
them to pull and carry things,race them, use
them for transplants,sendthem into space.
Unit by unit notes
r
Reading
(clockw.ise
fronr top left, ending
in the rniddle)_
a.l.lc\t.spaper
article;an aclvertisenrent
for a
a ,rcwspaperor on a biltboard);
an
::1.:::-,(lf
ectvcrtlsclncnt
filr
puppies(in a newspaper'
rrr a sh'tr'rrvincl.*,sonle
c,rr\orerca,et
il::i:li:r',
r.ricc irr rrzoo;a1,:ii,;l';J::,:l*:
lahcl,rnf,r,,i-p.l-il*,,r*
Language
tN 2N 3() 4() 5()
6N 7() 8() eN l0o
llN l2N
Discussion
N<rticcser,.eral
urrrrsual,word-s:
ueal,pate de
frie
ti'rls,,srr/g//|l, sc1uirreI, hedgehog,
t":,rio7,iu.yuu
coukl rrlsousethe r
"
cjisc'ssio'
;,,-,;.',;:,;:'ilil
l.lj;::]'n
16 Marriage
Alrnost ccrtainlysomeone
in the classwill be
se'pararecl
or hilve parents,_h.,
hru."r.i_,nrnr..t
()r.c\,'cltrlrc separating
at the moment.
ObvioLrslr,,,rhi.s
topic l-an [.,eu"r1,
frr^fr-,t f,r,
nranv preople.
Discussion
Yrlu coulclrrskstucients
for other sayingsrhat
t h e l ' k n o w .r b o u t l o v c
a n d relationships.
Who befieveswhat?
rs 2.1.ts 4.1rs
Language
l. sign r. brc.akscbrvn
3. Iast 4. work .I. split
up 6. colttcsts 7. break
Discussion
YoLrcoulcluse onc of
thesepoints as the basis
firr e firllow_upr
writing r"rki
S c ca l s o L ] n i t s2 . 1 ,2 9 .
32.
17 Nobody needs a gun
Thcrc Arc nlrrnvwebsites
connectedwith both
D u n b l a r r ea n c lC l o l
i' r<,e,.j.:.h;,i;I'll,i:: *:'j Jlff enan,es
,:r
brrckgroLrncl
infonnation or if
studelrtsto clo sonrcreseitrch.,nr-'_,rr, y,r,,r.
Reading
T h i r i s i l l ) ( , r . \ ( )t ln(
as opposedtc_r
.._+.._r..
an
\ ( ) \ ' ( ) un r r g.)plnron
h rw a n r r o r e i l c il t
a
l
o
t
r
dw h i l e
-..llil..
sruclcnts
rerlcl,fo help enhance
the ef-fect,rf
sontc()lre
crplressingthcir view.
Discussion
( l i r t ' s ft r t l e
n t 5 i l f ( , u . ll.llnLltes
to irnswer the
(r'estrol.ls ar.re
befi
Answers:
r. a,,g".,
;::i,l[.:il :i:';:li::T'
and despair. 4. After the
Dunblanc r.)rassacrc,
l.)y: rvc.retrghtenccl.
Norhirrg
i"pp.n".l
il"
:rtter
Clolumbinc.
Language1
I . illegal 2. ouflarvecj
.1.lives 4. weapon .!.
in
self-defence
Language2
lc 2a 3d 4e 5tr
Discussion
If time is short, put.students_
in snrallgroups and
let thenrchoosewhich
sct of quesrionlthey
want to discuss.Tl
is vcry p,wcrful.
see ars, Units 5, , j, ;;.t"t'"
18 The safeof humanorgans
This unir looks at organ
transplants:rnclsome
of the r:elirted
moral and cthical irrl,*.'if
"
member of the class.has
""), .ii;..:;;,'.'ln',ri.".t
experienceof transnlan,r,_ah"u
,""u'ir.'*if ling t<r
sharethat with the class.
Be sensitivero rhe fact
fhat transplantsare ufr.n
unr,-,..1";;;,i.'
Discussion
If anyone has an orlian
donor cilrci,ask if the
clirsscan have a look
at r t .
Reading
1. ,\4anyof our borrowers
only h a v eo l r e .
r c c o r d e dr h e
. Becauscthe
1 . r h 1 rL1.11gl l r '3.
].H.
.f.rpaneseIrt'lierc thcir l.,odit,rll.e
sacrecl.4. It,tt
cost you drt Ltrnt and d
leg.
Language1
1g 2h 3e 4d -ia 5c
7f glt
Language2
l. krng and harcl
clayand age .1.black
and
,2.
whitc 4. wait ancl
see .!. few and fn, l.,"rlv."n
6. first anclfirrenrtr;t 7.l"rp,
",rJ h,,un.t,
8. sick anclrired
I
I
Extra activity
In the UK,peoplegivc
bkr'cl vollrntarily,witlr.ut
paymeut, but in some
countriesblood cionors
are paid for their contributionr.
d;;r',r,ryone in
classgivc blood? Arc
they,pnid?i, ;;is rieht?
Folfow-up
Asl<the classfo sea.rch
fhe internef for websites
.ffering tne possihiuty
'f ir,;;j;;;;,;,;;,,
t
I
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1 9A I D S
7
This unit ainrsfo be inforrnirtive
as well as
provoking cliscussion.
As thc ".ri.]t" ,fr, gun.l
information is the hesr
way of prcventingAIDS
- much of rhe
blame for rhe .,r"r"-r"i"g
sprread
of AIDS can be amributed
,,, ,*".rr,r..1",r.1i
Unit by unit notes
Taboosand /ssues
-
J
I
I
{
I
e
1r
g
I
T
I
t
T
g
I
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F
ts
ts
A discussionon AIDS may rarse
prcjr"rdice.
issuesrclrted to malc homttsexuality,morality
rrnd scnrrrlfrcecloln.You needto considerthis
whether to Llsethis r:nit.
lvhcrr clecic'ling
reputationsfor lying. If so, which arc thc worst?
Discussion
1. a, b rrrtclcl rrreall possibleways of passingon
HIV infection. 2. Thev are all farlse.
that when discussingab<lrtion,
Ren-rember
c l c e p l yh e l d a n d o p p o s i r r gv i c w s t n r y l ' ' t '
of abortitln can
erpressed.Personalexprerience
also make this a very sensitivetopic.
Reading
l . S u b - S a h a r aAr rf r i c a 2 . N o . 3 . R o u g h l ye q u a l
numbcrsof mcn and women. 4. Young adults
anclpcopleir-rearl.vmiddlc age
tr
I!
g
o
i
i
g
rg
r!
fl
F
F
F
Fr
b
F
F
F
F
tr
h
F
Discussion
| . Thc treatmentsare roo expensive.2. It kills
the pcoplewho raiscthe children,support the
elclerlvar-rdbuild the country'seconomy.
3. (loocl information about how to prevent
irrfection.4. The clifficultyof using condoms;
i-rwot.rtrln'sclcpendencyon her husband; the
that there is a
dcnial of sorlc governl-nents
prclblerrr.
Language1
2. clevelop3. producc 4. have -5.prevent
6. bc rr-radc7. arvoicl8. fight f . increase
1 0 .m r r k c l l c l I Z c 1 3 a l 4 e 1 5 b
Language2
3. available
l. clevckrped2. prodr-rcecl
4. prevcnt -5.increasing 6. avoid 7. had
tl. fight 9. nrirke
2 0 T e l l i n gl i e s
Discussion
After the trrsk,ask studentswhether their
partuer wrrs goocl irt l-vingor not.
Reading
IF 2T 3T
in 1974 to start writing, in order
1. Hc resignecl
to pay off his debts. 2. He resignedin 1986
over storicsrtbout sendingd2000 to a
prostitute. .1.Becausethey allegedthat he slept
witl-ra prostitute. 4. Becirusehe admittcd
pcrsuaclingrr frietrdto lie for him.
Language
rr. teeth b. lie c. inch d. answer e. leg f. pack
l. pulling 2. give 3. lying 4. trust 5. told
6. tcll
Tell the truth!
[.et studentswork through the questionnairein
prrirsbeiore comparinganswersas a class.
Extra activity
Prrtthis list on the board: Lawyers,estate
politicians, second-handcdr salesmen,
Ltgents,
tltc police. Ask the cl:rssif anv of them have
Iaboosand /ssues
S e ea l s oU n i t s 1 1 . 2 3 .
21 Abortion
Languageand discussion
lb 2d 3c 4a
At thc end of this discussiortscction,students
are askedoutright for their victr,'on irbortton.
Do not pressstudentsto give thcir views if they
prefcr not to.
Reading
Shefeelsher decisionwes e positivconc.
Language
\c 2e 39 4d 5f 6h 7a 8i 9b
What about the father?
This short readingtext prornptsthc often
forgotten question of the father's rights towards
Discussit in srnallgroups or
a pre€inancy.
briefly as a whole class.
Discussion
Ask studentsfirst to divide the 10 views int<r
pro-choicestatementsand pro-lifc statel.nents.
They then work through the views in pairs or
small groups.Finally,have a classdiscussiotlotl
the statementswhich attracted most c()llll-llent.
22 Nationalstereotypes
This unit is a relativelylight-heartedlook at
but it can, of course,still
national stereotypes
offend. To take discussionto a deeperlevel,
however,you might wish the classttl cratlline
the effcctsof stereotyping.ls it nothing morc
than a subtleform of racism?Does it have ir
negativeeffect?If so, what is that effect?Or is
it really no more than a little harmlessfun?
Discussion
If some studentscreatetheir own versiot-tof thc
;oke, ask them to read it alor-rdto the clalss.
True or false?
1F - the surveywas conductedin Ar-nerica2T
3T 4F - they want to havc things just likc at
home 5F - thcy ncver leavea tiP 6T
Language
Ic 2d 3a 4b 5f 6e 7i 8k 99 10i 111 12h
Discussion
Emphasisethere are no right answershere and
try to keep the discussionlight-heartcd.
Unit by unit notes
F
Foflow-up
Ask stuclentsto write
a clescriptionof their own
25 lmmigrationand racism
Theyrray wanrro explode
somc
]_l.l]ll,i"]ltt:
nrvths!lf rhcv
This is a highlv sensitive
urrit.Thc issucsrhat it
ririseshave beer_r
the flirshpointfor nors,
terrorisrnanclevertrvars.
Usc rvith cautlonl
Reading
lF 2T l. Therc rs nothing
firr thern ro do _ no
entertainmcnt,n() cinerna,
ctc. 2. Bccrruse
the
refr-rgees
need tt"t'" pctrceanclquiet.
3. There
was no ,,r.,ra.
olriectto national sfereorypng,
rrskthenr ro wrire erplaining
why, with
"''
rr.ft.rr'ller.
t. pt,rs,rrrrl'
a*p.r;ln,_...''
SccrrlsoUnit 2-i.
23 Cheatingon your partner
True or false?
lF tF .tt- 4T tT
Language1
1e 2c 3a 4b .jcl 5. illegal
immigranrs
Language
lttd tt orta ni,qbt sfuntl,,
sleep arotmtl, gontg to
bctl u,it/t lsonteoncl, tteert
intirrtttte tuitb
(Ltn ()t b cr t Lt{)| | tttfi
), b,r r r rrui't i" (u'ri"7tI r' rr r r,
Discussion
7. borderconrrolss. ;nr,.,rig.rii,r,i,,rri.inr,
9. asylurnseckers 10.
cconilnic rnigrants
Ask if srudentshave reacl
any reporrsof illegal
immigrantsdying on their j,r,,rniyr.
- "'' " If so, ask
whose fault the cleaths
*.r".
pairsor smallsroLrps
ro srarrrhe
,l,T:
:::U:lr1in
clrscussron.
Then
involv" th. wh,rl" class.y,ru
c-ruld tr1' ancl get sruclenrs
," ;r;.: ,i,r'r".",lr"
.lreing
Iine ialls [-,ctr,v.]c,r
fri."jr:'r".f
;rr,
'chcaring'.
Language2
lA 2P 3p 44 5D 6D
7D 8A or l)
(clepending
on rhe conrexr)
S e er r l s oU n i r s 1 6 ,2 0 .
Folfow-up
Ask studentsto search
thc wcb for information
on immigrantsor racisrn
in thcir homc rown.
24 Are you happywith your
body?
Closnrctic
surgcryis on the increase
anclpeople
ilre strtrtln.qto have it
rrt an increasinglyy.rung",
age.,Thisunit prronr;.rts
haIf_serio.,r'Jir.urriun
on rhe ropic irnci is unrikery
,,, ,,ri.',...]bur, as
illwrlvs,be scnsitive.
Bring sonrepicturesto
class_ thin supermodels,
nrusclynren fr.m health
"r,ngnrin;r,iiverw"ight
peoprle,
balclnrenetc.
Discussion
Vru coulclfinclout rvhefhe
r anyonein classhas
haclplasticsurgeryn,knn*r-"iri"""'rf-', n"r.
Reading
l. Thcy rv:lnrro look
like the peoplethey see
in
fil's a'cl
rnrguzines.
2. He ,ildh;
ri," _",
r(x) )'oun.q.-1.Thev are
becoming'inc;asingly
c-.'ce'ecl with their physrcal
"p;;;;;...
4. Ilecrruse
his wife wanred hint to.
Language
l . r h i n o p l a s f v( n o s c
i o b ) Z . v a r i c o s ev e r n
rcrrovrrl 3. hair inrplant
+. t,.""rr .nl,i.r"nl"n,
-i. facclifr 5. runrnrvruck
Discussion
T l r c t t ' r r . r l r o u tr h c f r r t r e n i n g
r ( ) o m si s
conrplcrell.rrureirnd is
he.e'ibr
- ir", ""f,fr."sl-t
str
cle.rsma).'v,r.r
r r,,dir.ur, rrrJii",ri' u.r,,.rn.
i
SecrrlsoLJnits6, .16.
fii.;::i:ifi
J?,
::i:L:[i]i:[,'ff;.;'",
n.,,
responsetO it, either agreeing
or clisagrecrng.
Seeirlso lJnit 22.
26 Changingsex
Peoplewho changetheir
sex can arolrsesrrong
feclingsin others;mosr
peoplewill have little
or
no experienceol understanding
of the problcm.
l,
,rl1t bea goodicleer
ro f,,"f;,r-rfr.
i,",,
f,,,
Iooking at rhc informarion
l]ox at ,h.lbnrru_ of
the secondpage in ,,..1.,
,,, .1",,;;:
rerrs
gender and sex, ancl to
erplain *hu ,,rrr.,.preople
feel that a sex chang" ,rp.r"u,r,r',r'n-.rra.r.
I
!
I
t
Languageand discussion
Say the words for studenfs
to repcat ancl get
them to rnark the stress.
I
a
I
Reading
1. Becausethe regular
cusfoners felt
r-rncomfortable.
2. No.
True or false?
lF - she srarrcdgoing recenrlv.
2T 3T
Language
The purposeof this activity
is ro give studenfsir
wide range of w.rds ro
deicribe il,; ;h."
would react ir.rrhe siturrrio,rs
in rhe i.ffr*i"*
discussion.Say the words
f.r, ,tud.nir"ri,
----"" " ,.p"",
irnclget them to nlark
the stress-
Unitby unit notes
Taboosand /ssues
I
1
q
I
I
q
r/
q
)
q
-1
d
J
a
I
rf
4
ril
!I
I
Discussion
(ict stuclcntsto cliscr.rss
the situationsin pairs or
srrrrrllgrotrps.
t
27 ls this news?
T
I
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I
f
T
l
I
3
l
Discussion
Ask studcntslvhrrt thcir prcferredTV channelis
for nelvs reporting ancl whv. Is tl-rerea Inorc
'sensi.ttiotrrtI'
reports?
c[rirttttcIfor ne'nvs
Language
rr. l)crrteub. unknort'n c. breaks d. rcgton
e. ovcrcrowded f. filrl g. clead h. crossfirc
i. r.verrthcrj. tracle k. blincl l. graphic
Follow-up
Write rr similrrrlctter to the one about thc
Cbncorcledisastcr,cornplainingabout one of the
tr,vclvcncws iteurson the secondpage.Pclintout
thev can Llscfrorn the
to stucicntsthe langr-rage
lctter:
Cor.rcorcle
I LutttL'ritit\{lo srll' ...
\Vitsi/ rcLtll\ nccessLlrlto ...
Did it rtot <tccttrto \'ott that ... etc.
28 The right to die
t!
In sot-ueclrtssesstlrclelttsma,vhirve direct
erpcrienceof fricnclsor relativeswho, as a
rcsult of rrge,illnessor accident,have bcerlin ,.r
lvherethe patient'sright to die has
situetior.r
For thescclassmembersthe
beenconsiclcrec'I.
to1'ricurrrvbe particularll'emotiveand npsetting'
!!
g
Discussion
2. sLricicle-1.mltrclcr
1. cuthrrtrrrsirr
,{. rnanslrrughter
rT
Rcfcr to thc bor rrt thc hottom of the scctlnd
of tvpcs of euthanasia.
page ior clefinitiorrs
a
IT
:!
=!
rl
if
EI
EI
t
F
h
F
Reading
rrt
lf 1'ouplrtt to hrrverr whole classdiscl-tssirln
thc cnd, rrllocatcfive minr-rtesfor each text so
tl-rrrttl-regroups finish at thc sametime.
Life and death
1.life 2. life -i. life/cleath4. cleath -5.death
6. life/clceth7. cleath 8. life 9. life/death
1 0 . l i f e l l . c l e i r t h l 2 . l i f e / c l e a t h1 3 . l i f e
1 4 .l i f c l . 5 . c l c e t h1 6 . l i f e l T . d e i r t h
I [J.life/clcath
Follow-up
A s k s t r r . l c t t tts,r w r i t . l-50words on thcir vtew
of euthrttrrrsirr.
SecirlsoLInit l .
Iaboosand /ssues
29 Old enoughto be her
g randfather!
Discussion
rheir
Searchthc web for famous couplcsusir-rg
names,ttnd ltren4ttidl agreementor prcttttpti,tl
contrdct.
Reading
You or a studentcould read the first letter alor-rcl
to the class.Another studentcan rcrrclthe rcply.
True or false?
IT 2F 3T 4F
Language1
7 probably apply to the rclationshipirr
6 ar-rcl
the letters.Somepeoplemay think that 4
appliesbecauseof the age differcncc.(lvrrics
might feel that 3 applies!
a2 b4 c.5
Language2
lc 2d 3a 4b -5f 6e
Discussion (extra activitY)
Get studentsto write their own personal
on a pieceof paper and stick
advertisemcnts
for everyoncto read.
board
them on the
30 Big Brotheris watching!
This r-rnitis about privacv and the cxtent to
which employerscan keep an eye or-rtheir
workers and obtain irrformationabout thcm.
which asks how
It finisheswith a questitlrlnaire
much you respectothers' privacy.
Reading
A 'cookie' is a filc placedon voLlrcompltter l'rv
a Web scrveras a sort of ID.
1b or d 2. dn infringement of our ltriuacy
3. it nmy be utatchingyott, keep trdck of, keep
an e)teon you, keep tabs on, lteing traced by,
rccrtrd, track.
Language
PRIVATE - INSIDE: behind closeddoors,
keep the pressout rtf her priuate life, insidc
inforntation
INFORMATION C;ETTING OUT: neursg,ot
ctut, the affair leoked out, I feel exltosed,out in
tbe open, soon-to-be-released
1. closed 2. or-rt 3. private 4. out -5.open
6. inside
in thcir
l)o studentshave sirnilarerprcssiot'ts
own language?
Privacy and you
After the classhas discussedthe situationstn
pairs or small groups,go through the situations
Unit by unit notes
fIrs lr clrtssitncl seewhr; would do what: ,.In
nurnber one, who would reird everypage?" etc.
31 Anxietyand depression
We clo nor normally admit to being cleeply
urrhaprp_v
or depressed.
This unit erplores the
tl[roo of actuallr.admitting that yuu are not as
happrl,rls voLl wclr.rlcl
likc to be.
Discussion
Itcacltlic information irbout the surveyalor-rcj.
Stuclcntsr'utswertl-requcstionsin pairs.
Reading
You nrishr wanr ro read this aloud while
stuclcntsfollow.
l. [Je rvassuffcringfrom depression.2. His
nrarrirlec,his job, slcep,his sociallife _ his
r,vl-rolc
lifc, in firct. euestion 3 is irbout
stuclents'or.vnerperiences.
euestior-r4 is
contpl(]tcgr_rcsswork.
Language
l. c'lorvn2. uslral -1.weather 4. low 5. top
6. harcl 7. under 8. take Senrence
3 is usuallv
useclro trrlk irbout phvsicalhealth.
Discussion
Ask studcntsif thcy have had any experience
of
rrnyoi theseconclitions- either their own. or
sourc()nethcy' knclrv.
Reading
If there is anv irdvicewhich srudentsthink is not
helpfLrl,crrnthey add their own, better advice?
Whirt rtbout rnedicationfrom the cioctor?
32 Gay families
Ovcr the past 20 rtr .30vearsattitudes(and
lan,s)in ntilnv countriestowards gayshave
beconrcconsiclerably
more libcral. Howevcr,
ir.rsonreirrerrs<lf life, there is still considerable
prejLrclice.
In sonrecountrieshomosexualitv
rerlrrir.rs
il taboo subjectand homosexualacts
nrilv c\.cnbe illegal.
Reading
The besthcacllineis probably: OUTRAGE AS
(;AYS I'[-AN THIRD C,HI[.D
True or false?
lT 2l- - rhcre wrts il problem bringing the
chilclrcninto rhe coLrnrry.3F - thev havc fallen
o u t u i f h r h eg i r l s 'r n o r h c r .4 T
Language
lc 2cl -lf ,+b -5g 6h 7e 8a
You crrr.rclescrilrcthe farnily in the text as an
r f f l L r e r rfra n r i l r (, t h e ya r e m i l l i o n a i r e s ) .
Unitby unit notes
Discussion
After studentshave discusscdtheir views in
or small groups,perhitpstake a classvote
1-rairs
on whether they think gavs should have rhe
legal right ro rnarrv.
Seealso Ur-rit16.
33 Begging
Discussion
tncourage studentsto tell cach other about anv
experiences
they have had with beggars.
Discussion
l. James2. Edilson 3. Ana 4. Atsuk<r
Poem
Yor-rcould read this poem aloud to the class.
Studentsmight also wanr ro reaclit aloud but
they will need time to rehearseit!
Discussion
The title rneanssomethinglike: I might bc
homeless,but I can still rell ycruwher I think.
Your charity is shamelessrefers to the line
before* One penny - that the help given rs s<r
small. My passingwill be painlessmeans I'll die
a painlessdeath.
Language
1. penniless2. clueless3. counrless
4. powerless 5. heartless6. faceless
7. pointless 8. worthless 9. painless
Discussion
The classcan comparetheir answersin Darrsor
small groups and then as a whole class.
i
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i
Follow-up
Studentscan write their answerto the very first
questlonon page one at home.
I
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34 Compensation
culture
Suingfor compensationis commonplarce
in the
US and on the increasein rhe UK. ioLr could
supplementthis unit with rccentcasesfrom the
press.Alternativcly, ask studentsto find .l case
on the web, searchrngrvith words like szc,
damages and contpensatton.
Reading
The last paragraphrefersro two absurd,
potentialcompensarionclaims.Ask studentsif
they think they could happen.
Language
1. sue 2. awarded 3. get 4. took .5.settle
6. won 7. appeal
a
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a
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U
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Taboosand /ssues
I
A
fl
t
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E
I
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E
E
I
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E
Extra activity
to usetheir
f trst for iun, rtskstttclents
to cornpletetheseheacllines:
inrrrginrrtiot'rs
sttt'lc'tt'l)(t Ittr ...
T t ' l t l t t r s / / ( ' - i- i / / / ( / ( ' / t s l r t r . . .
I)og sllcs ()tt'ttcr irtr ...
.\/l,ir'llls
Ou'rtt,rslrcs,/og ior ...
C.hild suespLtrettts
for ...
srtr'cltilrl [,,r ...
/'.n't'rtl-s
35 Sportand money
Language2
Put on u,eight and let )'rntrselfgt ilre tl-reocld
Discussion
lc 2c .ld 4b .5e
L has let 2. has put orl 3. r'vatchirlg4. takc
-5.stay 6. take 7. rvork out ti. palllper. 9. ltse
l\lichacl Schutrrtcheris paiclthe most, followcd
Willirrrnsand.fones.
bv Tigcr 'Woocls,Beckhrrttr,
Vanity survey
put the
If it would not causecmbarrassmcltt,
rcsultsof the sLlrvey(namcsof stuclentsand
points scorccl)orr displav in thc clrrss.
Reading
Tl-rcsport is Americrttriootball.
l. Pirrking,tickcts,rcfreshmentsanclsollvenlrs.
?. Becrluse
hc thought it was very expensiveancl
,,von't
lre going back. 3. The tnoney he pays
he
to scc rr grure prrvsthe large salariesthat the
plirvcrsgct. If the plaversgot a more reirsrlnable
srrlrrrv,he lvoulcl pl1' lessto secthe game.
4 . l l c e r r r r s t ' l ri cet ' l si t i s u r o t t g t o n e )
sportspcopleso rnr.rclrntottev r'vhenthere arc
houtclcss;leoplcotl the streets.
Language
l. think ?. rnone)"s -1.pcnrtv 4. trouble
.5.trv 6. rtrouncl 7. risk
ir corrplete waste
L80 tltnt,n tltc tlr,tirt = [t 'uvi-ts
of dfl0.
More issues
Thc rncrt rrrc prricltnttrc becaltsethey are on
court for longcr,ttftcrtdouble the time of thc
wol-nen.Thc tnetrlrlsoirttractmore sponstlrship
nlonc\'.
tr
36 Vanity
E
be potentiallvvery enlbarrassing
This unit cor.rlcl
so Llservith caution!
in certrritrclirsses,
rtttdlvomen'shealth and
Bring sortrcnrcr-l's
t<lclrrss.
lifestvlenr:-rgrtzittes
p
I
tr
fl
il
p
I
p
I
F
F
F
Language1
I . lots of men irrc startitrgto go to hcalth spils
and gyms 2. pa,vingLtgreat clealof
(unnecessar.v)
attentionto their bodics 3. strot-tg
s
t
o
m a c hm u s c l e s( t h a t l o o k l i k e t h e
and visible
top of a sir-parckof Lreercans) 4. beconreless
clearlyclefinedas to rvhat is male anclrvhat is
fen-rale-5.working out, gettingbiggcr rnttsclcs
6. give thetrselvesL1new rolc in lifc
Discussion
You uright wiutt to orgrrnisestudentsinto samethe statemcntsiirst. Then, if
ser pirirsto cliscrtss
so
rnir
thent
possiblc,
)'otl have a rnaleanclir
the santestatements.
fenr,rleclisctrssing
Reading
Tlrings thrrt nten clo: golilg n healtb spttsdnd
g1,r//-s,
botlt, brtir rcntot,tll,ntonicures,pedicures,
tcctb tt'ltitening,liposrtctittn,plucking e)'ebrcxus.
and/ssues
Taboos
ones ()Llt.
The cartoon
Thc cartoon could open Lrpthe topic of obesit,v:
why people get fat; why it's OK tor ;-'rrnln to bc
ovcrweight,but not for a woman etc. Is it trttc
that insideevery fat persontherc is a thirr one
to get ottt?
strr-rgglirrg
Seealso Unit 24.
3 7 L e g a l i s i n gd r u g s
Rcmemberyou lnay have stttdcntswho havc
experience(legalor illegal)of rccreational
You rnay also have studcntswho have
drr,rgs.
direct or indirect erperience<lf sclmeof the verv
negativeaspectsof drugs trnd clrugculture.
Discussion
Main soft clrugs:marijuanaanclcannabis.
Main hard clrugs:cocaineancihcroirt.
cigarettc
roll a joint - make a cannaLris
get high = when the drug stxrts t() ilffcct Yoil
smoke dope = rnariiuana
snort cocaine- inhalecocaincthrough vour
NOSC
a n a c l d i c t = s o l r l c o n c w h o r l e e d st o t a k e . r t l r u t l
b e c o m c a d c l i c t e c l= t h e p r o c e s s o i b e c t l t t t i t l g . t t l
addict
c l v e r c l o s e= a d a n g e r t ) t l s a l n o L l l l t o f . t d r t t g
corne off clrugs= brcak the addictiorl
Discussion
The following reasonsare m e n t i o n e c7l .: 2 , 4 . 6 .
Language
L d e m r r g i r r g2 . a d d i c t i v e 3. beneficial
4. immediate,long-ternl i . l e g a l ,i l l e g a l
6. clesigner
Unit by unit notes
?
Follow-up
Stuclents
could useall or some of the eight
strrtements
in the last discr-rssion
as the basisfor
thcir own written opinion on legalisingdrugs.
Language2
1. convicted 2. erecuted .3.abolishing
4 . p u n i s h m e r r5t . i m p r i s o r r m c r r r
6. compensation
S c cr l s o U n i t s 5 . 4 0 .
Discussion
After thc classhas discussecl
the texts and
questionsin small grollps, hirvea classfecdback
sessionto shareideasirnd ooinions.
38 Turningthe othercheek
Frlrgivcness
can be as shockingas other,more
obvious,trrbootopics.Obviously,stLldents
should not bc erpectedto revealanything about
thcnrselves
thrrt they do not wish to.
Reading
l. Thc irssrrultwas filmed and shown on TV.
2. He wrrsir truck driver. 3. They served4 years
of thcir lO-yearsentences.4. No. Many people
were outraged. .5.No. They showed no
relnorsc.
Language
lc 2f 3b 4e -5a 6d 7. hold a grudge
8. water unclertl-rebriclge 9. forgive and forget
| 0. bLrr,v
the hatchet 1 l. turn the other cheek
12. got e chitr-r
on his shor-rlder
S c ca l s o L h r i t3 9 .
39 The death penalty
This is rrn errrotivcsubjectwhich peopleoften
h r r v es t r o n go p i r r i o n so n .
Reading
I . ( S ) h ed i d n ' t b e l i e v ei n i t . 2 . ( S ) h et h i n k s t h a t
rlurc'lererscleservcthe death penalty.
A possiblcfollow-up questionis to ask the
studentswl-retherthev think the writer is a man
or ir womrll.r, rtncl rvhy.
The cartoon
You rray hrrveto explilin the double meaningof
get a shock Ask studentswhich adjectivebest
clcscribcsthe cirrtoon: sicA,sttrltid, hilarious,
brilliant. Is the cartoon anti-American?
Language1
c r e e t r t i o r rc.o n v i c t i o n c. o m p e n s a t i o n .
irlprisonmcnt, pLlnishment,
abolition
Follow-up
Ask studentsto write ir short pieccgiving their
views on capital punishrnent.
S e ea l s oU n i t s 1 3 , 2 8 , 3 8 .
40 Addictions
Discussion
You could start the lessor-r
by writing on the
board: Euerybody'saddicted to something ar-rd
ask studentsif they agree.
Possibleaddictions:smoking,alcohol,gambling,
drugs,work, shopping,stealing,lying,
chocolate,ser.
Reading
After studentshave reported to each other, givc
them timc to read their partner'stext.
Tony Adermsovercamehis addiction,returncd
football careerand has
to a highly successful
becomesomethingof an examplefor people
who want to overcomeaddictions.
Discussion
lc 2b Do this in pairs. Give studentsa fcw
minutes to discussthe last c1r-rcstion
before
discussingit as a class.
Ask studentsif they know of :rny other sports
peoplewith addictior-r
problems.
Language1
1. addicted 2. addiction 3. addict 4. addictivc
.5.alcoholic 6. alcohol 7. alcoholisrn
Language2
t has a drink problem 2. taking an overdose
3. kick the habit 4. get withdrawal symptonrs
5. seekprofessionalhelp
S e ea l s oU n i t 3 7 .
I
Unit by unit notes
Taboosand /ssues
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