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Quick Reference: Law Review Footnotes
This table give s example s of commonly use d citation forms printed in thc type face s
uscd in law revicw footnotes (as explained in rule 2). The last page and insidc back
cover present examples in the typefaces used in court documcnts and legal memo
randa (as explained in the Bluepages).
Clsns
rule ro
reporter
rutelo.j
lackson v. Metro. Edison Co., 348
F.
Supp. 954, 956-58 (M.D.
Pa.ry7z),aff'd,4gt.zd754(ldCir.rgZt),aff'd,4r9U.S.l+S
(tgt
r+).
service
rule 19
/n re Looney, lrgSl-rg$g Transfer Binderl Bankr. L. Rep. (CCH)
lllz,44l (Bankr. WD. Va. Sept. 9, 1988).
and
unreported
Atbrecht v. Stanczek, No. 8Z-C9515,
at *t n.t (N.D. ltt. Apr. r8, r99r).
pending
cases
r99r U.5. Dist. LEXIS
5o88,
lackson v. Virginia, No.77-tzo5, stip op. at I (4th Cir. Aug. 3,
rgZS) (percuriam), aff'd,443U.5. lo7 (rgtil.
-i.io.".,
Ross v. Weissman, l{o.9o-345 (0. Mass. fited Sept.
r8, r99o).
Cleary v. Rizkalla, 9z5F.zd 314 (1st Cir.19gt),petition for
cert. filed,60 U.S.L.W. l,4zz (U.5. lan. U, r9g2) (No. 9z-zrz).
Coxsl.nuTroNs
N.M. Coxsr. art. lV,5 Z.
rule 11
SrATtnns
-t.
code
rule l2'3
laws
r2.4
tz
Administrative Procedure Act S 6, 5 U.S.C. S 555 (zoo6).
zz U.S.C. g 2567 (Supp. I 1983).
session
Department ofTransportation Act, Pub. L. No. 89-67o,
rule
yt,944-47 $966).
Lncrsrnfrvn MaTnnnl,s
S
9, 80 Stat.
rule r3
unenacted bill
rule 13.2(a)
S.5r6, ro5th Cong.5 z (1992).
hearing
rule 13.3
Transforming the Federol Government To Protect Americo from
Terrorism: Hearing Before the H. Select Comm. on Homeland Sec.,
roTth Cong. z3-25 (zooz) (statement of.lohn Ashcroft, Att'y Gen.
ofthe United States).
repoft
rule 13.4
S. REp. No. 95-797, at 4 GglS), as reprinted in r9Z8 U.S.C.C.A.N.
926o,9261,.
UrupUnrrSHnO Victoria
E.
Anderson, Company Outing: How Consensual
Mm;scnrprs Relationsh p Agreements Adve rsely Affect Homosexua I Em ployees
rz (Mar. ry, zoo4) (unpubtished comment) (on file with the
rule r7.2.r
i
University of Pennsylvania Journal of Labor and Employment Law).
Lnrmns
rule 17.2.3
Letter from Pierre Arsenault, Exec. Editor, Harvard Law Review, to
Bryan M. Killian, Supreme Court Chair, Harvard Law Review (Apr. z,
zoo4) (on fite with the Harvard Law School Library).
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DEBoRAH L. RHoDE, JusrrcE AND GENDER 56 G989).
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CHARLEs DrcKENs,
Penguin Books
Blelx House 49-55
(Norman Page ed.,
r97r) (1853).
21 CHARLES ALAN WRIGHT & ARTHUR R. MILtER, FEDERAL
PRAcrcE AND PRocEDURE S roo6 (zd ed. 1987).
pamphlets
rulc l5
WoMEN's BUREAU, U.S, Dep'r oF LABoR, LEAFLET No, 55,
ro HER ,loB RrGHrs 4 (1978).
A WoRKTNG WoMAN's GU|DE
Kay Deaux & Brenda Maiot, A Social-Psychologica! Motdel of
Gender, ln TseonerrclL PERspEcflvEs oN SEXUAL DTFFERENcE 89,
89 (Deborah L. Rhode ed., r99o).
works in
collection
rule 15.5
OLf
vER WEN DELL HoLMEs, Law
in Couecreo
LEGAL PApERs
in Science and Science in Law,
zto, zro Q.gzo).
fohn Adams, Argument and Report, in 2 LEGAL PAeERS oF,oHN
lz2-lS L Kinvin Wroth & Hitter B. Zobel eds., 1965).
ADAMs 285,
Pemoorcer MaTERTALS mle
consecutively
paginated
i-ty$t,
rulc l(t''
|
(r
David Rudovsky, Police Abuse: Can the Violence Be Contained?,
27 HARv. C.R.-C.L. L. Rrv.465, 5oo (1992).
Thomas R, McCoy & Barry Friedma n, Conditional Spending:
Federalism'sTrojan Hors-e,1988 sup. cT. REV.45, ioo.
nonconsecutively Barbara Ward, Progress for a Smalt Planef,
journals Sept.-Oct. 7979 , at 89,90,
HARV,
Bus, Rev.,
pagin4ted
rult,
16.5
.
sruoe nt*:tTl--:t* ,
rule 16.7.1
Etten London, Comment,,4 Critigue of the Strict Liability Standard
for Determining Chitd Suppoft in Cases of Male Victims of Sexual
Assault and Statutory Rape, r52 U. PA. L. Rev. 1957, tgsg-61 Qoo,).
Note, Ihe Death of a Lawyer, 56 CoLUM. L. Rev. 6o6 (1956).
review
1(r.7.2
book
rulc
newsPaPer
rulc |6.6
Bruce Ackerman
,
Robert Bork's Grand Inquisition, 99 Ylr-e L.l.
7479,7422-25 (rggo) (book review)'
Andrew Rosentha[, White House Tutors Kremlin in How a
Presidency Works,N,Y, Ttnnes, lune r5, r99o, at Ar.
Cop Shoots Tire, Halts Stolen Car,S.F. CHRoN., Oct.70 ,1915 , at 43,
Innnnvrsws
ruk: 17 .?.5
Telephone Interview with Michael Leiter, President, Harvard Law
Review (Oct. zz, t999),
FonTncolrncc
Sarah Greenberger, Comment, Enforceable Rights, No Child Left
Behind, and Political Patriotism: A Case for Open-Minded Section
1983 lurisprudence,Tsj U. PA. L. Rev. (forthcoming f an. zoo5).
PUsLrcATrous
rulc
r7.j
Tnr
Ilrrnmrnt
Eric Posner, More on Section 7 ofthe Torture Convention,
VoLoKH CoNsprnlcv (Jan. 29,2oog, ro:o4 AM), http://www.
rulc
volokh.com/
| 11.2
Tn-netrrs
p
osts/rz33z4r58.s htm l.
rule 21.4
Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation, Japan-U.S., art. X,
Apr, z, 1953, 4 U.S.T, 2o63.
Urvrrnl
NatroNs
U.N. GAoR, 56th sess., r st plen. mtg. at 3, U,N. Doc. Als6lPv.t
(Sept. rz, zoor).
OF!'ICIAL RBCORDS
rul('21.7.
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Published and Distributed by
The Harvard Law Review Association
Gannett House
r5fl Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, Massachusetts o2138
U.S.A.
First Printing 2015
Printings are updated as appropriate.
Coordinating Editor:
Mary Miles Prince, Associate Director for Library Services
Vanderbilt University Law SchooI Library
With special editorial assistance on the citations of foreign
jurisdictions from the Directorate of Legal Research ofthe
Law Library of Congress.
Designed by Dynamic Diagrams
lsBN 928-0-692- 4oo79-7
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THE
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A Uniform System of Citation'
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BLUEBOOK
Twentieth Edition
www.legalbluebook.com
Compited by the editors of
the Columbia Law Review,
the Harvard Law Review,
the University of Pennsylvania Law Review,
and The Yale Law Journal.
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Copyright @ zor5 by the Columbia Law Review Association, the Harvard Law Review
Association, the University of Pennsylvania Law Review, and The Yale LawJoumal'
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Preface to the Twentieth Edition
This edition of Tbe Bluebook retains the same basic approach to legal
citation established by its predecessors. The layout of Tbe Bluebook
has been updated to make the information easier to access. Some citation forms have been expanded, elaborated upon, or modilied from previous editions to reflect the ever-expanding range of authorities used in
legal writing and to respond to suggestions from the legal community.
Here are some of the more noteworthy changes:
The Bluepages, introduced in the Eighteenth Edition, have been considerably overhauled for the Twentieth Edition. The Bluepages now
parallel thc Whitepages-helping practitioners cite a broader range of
soufces and greatly improving cross-references. Typeface rules have
been relaxed to accommodate practitioner use of r.{R(;E ANr) sMAr.r- cAPs.
Bluetable BT2 has also been expanded to include more local court
citation rules.
In addition to edits for clariry concision, and consistency, theTwentieth
Edition contains the following significant changes: Rule 1..4(e) clarifies the order of authories when federal and state legislative materials
are citecl together. In rule 1.5(b), the order of parentheticals has been
changed to reflect the removal of the "internal quotation marks omittecf" and "available at" parentheticals. Rule 3.2(A> provides additional
guidance for citing a range of pages and a single footnote within the
range in the same citation. Rule 3.5 provides guidance on the naming conventions for subdivisions that are numbered or otherwised designated in a piece. Rule 5.2(dXi) no longer requires indicating the
omission of internal quotation marks. Rule 5.2(f) provides guidance
on the use of internal quotation marks. Rule 1O.2.1(f) requires thc
omission of all geographical terms that follow a comma. Rule 1O.2.2
clarilies that words in a case name that would be abbreviated ie^cording to table T6 should not be abbreviated if the words are part of a
state, country, or other geographical unit that is the entire name of a
pafry. Rule l0.9(a)(iii) provides additional guidance on the formation of slip opinion short f<rrms. Rule 11 now provides guidance on
the citation of multiple amendments, sections within the same article,
and clauses within the same section.Rule 12.9.4 combines former
rules 12.9.1 and 12.9.5, provides guidance on citing principles, and
revises the citation fbrmat of model codes, restatements, standards, and
guidelines. Dean Richard Revesz and Professor Robert Sitkoff provided
valuable advice and assistance in revising this rule . Rule L3.5 clarifies
what year should be cited when a debate occurs in a different year
from publication in the Congressional Recorcl.Rrile 14.2(b) has been
expanded to include detailed information on citing c()mments to agencies. Examples of citing guidances and manuals have been included
in rule 14.2(d> as well as detailcd information on citing opinion letters. Rule 14.4 provides detailecl infbrmation on citing administrative sources found on commercial electronic databases. The citation
firrmats frrr Bar.r.nNtNe's l-tw Dlctton.tnv and Br,lcr's L,tw f)IcLIorl,,rnv
have been updated in rule 15.8(a). Rule 15.9 removes language
vtl
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that requires the use of"available at" in parallel citations. New rule
15.9(c) introduces a citation format for ebooks, stipulating that the
print versions of books are authoritative , but that ebooks may be cited
if they are the sole media through which the book is available. Rule
t6.6(a') requires that opinion pieces in newspapers be cited as"Opinion" rather than "op-Ed." Rule 16.6(f) clarifies that online newspapers may be used in place of print newspapers. Rule lE has been
updated in a number of areas to account for the increasing use and varied forms of Internet sources. The rule no longer separately categorize s
Internet citations as either direct or parallel; all citations are treated as
direct. Rule 18.2.l(b)(ii) provides for the direct citation of Internet
sources that share the characteristics of a print source such that they
can be fully cited according to another rule, whether or not the source
is in print. Rule 18.2.1(d) provides guidance on how to cite Internet
sources using archival tools. Rule 1.8.2.2(a) provides guidance on
citing author information on social media platforms. Rules 1A.2.2(b)
(iii) and 18.2.2(b)(v) detail how to cite titles for blogs contained
within a larger website and titles for social media posts, respectiv€ly.
Rule 18.3 now catalogs where within Tbe Bluebook guidance is
provided for citing various sources found on commercial electronic
databases. Rule 21 has been expanded to include new rules for citinfi
materials from the International Monetary Fr-rnd and the International
Criminal Court and has adopted simpler ways of citing United Nations
documents. We are grateful to the American Society of International
Law for its assistance with rule 2l and tables T3.T4, and T5.
The tables have been updated and expanded. Table T1 has been
revised to reflect the most current titles for the various statutory compilations, session laws, and administrative compilations and registers.
The abbreviations following the states and f)istrict of Columbia in
table T1.3 have been revised to follow the abbreviation convention
for jurisdiction names in the date parenthetical of cases. The citation
formats for these sources have been updated to reflect as accurately as
possible the uniquc breakdown of information within each. Table T2
has been updated to reflect changes in local law and legal citation. The
compilers are indebted to the following experts in foreign legal citation for their help in enhancing table T2: Zsuzsanna Antal, Francisco
A. Avalos,Annette L. Demers, Christoph Malliet,Yukino Nakashima, E.
Dana Neacsu, and Charlotte Stichter. The format of table T13 has been
changed from an inclusive list of periodicals to a more general guide
to abbreviating periodicals. Table T13.1 contains the abbreviations of
common institutional names and tableTl3.2 lists common words for
in periodical titles. The table also prescribes abbreviating geographical terms according to table T1O. If a word in a periodical title is not
included in any of the previously listed tables, revamped table 13 prescribes including the full word. Terms have been added to tables T6,
Ta,Tl4, and T15 as appropriate.
vill
The compilers wish to thank our Coordinating Editor Mary Miles Prince
for working with us in revising, clarifying, updating, and improving Tbe
Bluebook. The compilers would also like to acknowledge outside commentators who contribute d the ir expe rtise to th€ Twentieth Edition of
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Tbe Bluebook. The compilers are grateful to the law journal editors,
law librarians, and practitioners who responded to our call for sr.rggestions with helpful advice and comments.
Finally, the compilers request that any errors, omissions, or suggestions
for revisions be reported to the Harvard Law Review, (;annett Housc,
151 1 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge , Massachusetts
02138.
Acknowledgements
Tbe Bluebrxtk: A UniJbrm System of Citation is compiled by the editors of the Columbia Lau Reuieut,tlr,e Haruard Lau Reuieu,the Uniaersit! of Pennqtluania Laut Reuieut, a.nd Tbe Yale Laut Journal. Tbe
Bluebrx* is published and distributed by the Harvard Law Rcview
Association. The Coordinating Editor of Tbe Bluebook is Mary Milcs
Prince , Associate Director for Library Services, Vanderbilt University
Law School Library with special editorial assistance on the citatk)ns of
foreign iurisdictions from the Directorate ofLcgal Research ofthe Law
Library of Oongress.
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Contents
Preface
...,
vtl
.7
Introduction
.t
Structure of The Bluebook
General Principtes of Citation
Cattino qt2ripd
.
L
2
The Bluepages: An Introduction to Basic LegatCitation
lntroduction
3
3
a2
Structure of Legal Citations
Typeface for Court Documents
B3
Subdivisions
B4
ShortCitationForms
B5
Quotations
Abbreviations, Numerals, and Symbols
Italicization for Styte and in Unique Circumstances
Capitalization.
Titles ofJudges
B1
B6
87
B8
B9
Cases .
B11
Constitutions
Statutes, Rules, and Restatements
Legislative Materials
813
7
......
810
872
6
8
8
9
9
9
10
10
77
18
27
.
.
AdministrativeandExecutiveMaterials ........22
BooksandOtherNonperiodicMaterials. .......22
. ..23
PeriodicalMaterials.
. . . 24
Court and Litigation Documents
. .26
Thelnternet
. ..27
Services
.. .28
ForeignMaterials.....
.......28
fnternationalMaterials
874
815
815
877
818
879
820
827
The Bluepages Tables
BT1 Court Documents. .
BT2 lurisdiction-Specific Citation Rules
.
8T2.1
Federal Courts
and Styte Guides
.29
.30
30
.
8T2.2 State Courts.
BT2.3 Territories...
.56
Rules
Rule
1
1.1
Structure and Use ofCitations
Citation Sentences and Clauses in Law Reviews.
57
57
1.2
lntroductorySignals
5B
1.1
1.4
60
1.5
Order of Signals
Order of Authorities Within Each Signat .
Parenthetical Information
1.6
Related Authority.
Rute
.
...
Typeface Conventions for Citations
Tvoeface Conventions for Textual Materia[ . .
6"t
64
65
2 Typefaces for Law Reviews
2.1
2.2
.
.
67
67
69
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Rule
3 Subdivisions
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
.77
..71.
.
Volumes, Parts, and Supplements
Pages, Footnotes, Endnotes, and Graphical Materials
Sections and Paragraphs
Aooended Material
..72
..75
..76
3.5 InternalCross-References.....
Rule 4
4.1
77
Short Citation Forms
.
..78
..80
"|d.".
"Supra"and"Hereinafter" . . . .
.
.
Rule 5 Quotations
.
Formatting of Quotations
5.2 Alterations and Quotations Within Quotations
<? Omissions
5.7
Rule
6
6.2
.
85
.
.,BB
7 ltalicization for Style and in Unique Circumstances.
Rule 8 Capitalization
Rute 9 Titles of Judges, Officials, and Terms of Court
Rute
..
.90
..97
. .94
..94
..95
.
.
Rule
10.2
Forms
.
.96
Case Names.
10.2.1 General Rules for
.96
Case Names
10.2.2 Additional Rules for Case Names in Citations .
10.3
Reporters and Other Sources
10.3.1 Paratlel Citations and Which Source(s) to Cite
10.3.2 Reporters ..
10.3.3 Public Domain Format
Court and Jurisdiction
10.5
10.7
Date orYear.
Parenthetical Information Regarding Cases
10.6.1 Weight of Authority
10.6.2 Quoting/Citing Parentheticals in Case Citations
10.6.3 Order of Parentheticals
Prior and Subsequent History
l.0.7.L Explanatory Phrases and Weight of Authority
10.7.2 Different Case Name on Appeal
Special Citation Forms.
10.8.1 Pending and Unreported Cases
.
.
10.8
10.9
.
10.8.2 Fifth Circuit Sptit
10.8.3 Briefs, Court Filings, and Transcripts
10.8.4 Court Administrative Orders.
Short Forms for Cases
11 Constitutions.
Rule 12 Statutes. .
12.1 Basic Citation Forms
.
.
101
.
102
..702
.
10.4
10.5
.87
..87
.
Numerats and Svmbols
10 Cases
10.1 Basic Citation
.42
.82
..83
Abbreviations, Numerals, and Symbols
6.1 Abbreviations
.74
.
. 103
.704
.
.
1,04
..
106
..707
1,07
.
108
.. 108
.. 109
.. 109
.
.
.
.
'111.
'11.'I
. !1.
1,1,3
.
1,13
..775
't'15
118
Rule
..720
.
.
12.2 Choosing the Proper Citation
12.2.1 General Rute .
.
Form
..
"120
.
..
1.2r
.
1,21
xl
72.2.2 Exceotions...
122
12.3 Current Officiat and Unofficial Codes.
1,23
.
12.3.1 Additional lnformation
72.3.2 Yearof Code..
12.4 Session Laws...
12.5
12.6
12.7
1,23
124
1,25
Electronic Media and Online Sources
Other Secondary Sources
Invatidation, Repeal, Amendment, and Prior History
'J.2.7.1. lnvalidation. . .
12.7.2
726
727
.
.
"128
ReoeaI
'I28
12.7.3 Amendment
1.2.7.4 Prior Historv
12.8
12.9
1,29
.
Explanatory Parenthetical Phrases
Special Citation Forms.
12.9.1 Internal Revenue Code .
.
.
"12.9.2 Ordinances. . .
.
12.9.3 Rutes of Evidence and Procedure
12.9.4 Modet Codes, Principles, Restatements, Standards,
Sentencing Guidelines, and Uniform Acts . .
12.9.5 ABA Code of Professional Responsibility and
13
13.1
Rute
Forms for Statutes
Legislative Materials.
Basic Citation Forms .
13.6
13.7
13.8
735
1.35
.
136
1.37
Reports, Documents, and Committee Prints.
Debates
Separatety Bound Legislative Histories.
Electronic Media and Ontine Sources
Short Forms for Legislative Materials
.
138
1,40
1,40
1,40
t4't
14 Administrative and Executive Materials
14.1 Basic Citation Forms . .
14.2 Rules, Regutations, and Other Publications
'143
14.3 Administrative Adiudications and Arbitrations
't45
Rute
14.3.1 Names
14.3.2 Which Source(s) to Cite
Rule
15
15.5
15.6
15.7
743
746
1.47
.
Books, Reports, and Other Nonperiodic Materials.
15.1 Author
15.2 Editor or Translator
15.3 Title
15.4
743
"r46
.
14.3.3 lssuingAgency.
14.4 CommerciaI Etectronic Databases.
14.5 Short Forms for Regutations . . . .
xtl
137
1.33
13.2 Biltsand Resotutions......
13.3 Hearings
13.4
13.5
.
129
729
729
130
130
733
Ooinions on Ethics
12.10 Short
728
728
't47
't47
749
749
151
1,57
Edition, Pubtisher, and Date
ShorterWorks in Collection. . . . .
15.5.1 Works in Cotlection Generally.
15.5.2 Coltected Documents
Prefaces, Forewords, Introductions, and Epilogues
Setial Number
.
152
1,53
L53
754
"t54
1.55
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o
o
o
a
a
o
15.8
Speciat Citation Forms.
15.9
Electronic Media and Online Sources
Short Citation Forms .
15.10.1 Short Forms forWorks in Collection . .
15.10
Rule16
16.1
.155
.
1.56
.
.
.
.
PeriodicalMaterials
Basic Citation Forms .
Author
Titte
Consecutively Paginated.lournats
16.7
.
159
767
.....1.61.
. . 1.62
........
762
......1,63
16.7.1 Student-Written Law Review Materials
16.7.2 Non-Student-Written Book Reviews.
16.7.3 Symposia, Colloquia, and Surveys
...1.65
. 165
.
.
.
16.7.4 Commentaries and Other Special Designations. . . .
15.7.5
.
...
Newspapers.....
SpeciatCitationForms..
16.7.5
157
.....759
16.2
16.3
16.4
15.5 NonconsecutivelyPaginatedJournalsandMagazines
16.6
757
MuttioartArticles
Annotations..
.
.
766
L67
L67
.........767
....168
1.6.7.7 Prcceedings, Regular Publications by Institutes,
168
and ABA Section Reoorts
16.7.8 Newsletters and Other Noncommercialtv Distributed
16.8
16.9
Rule
17
17.1
17.2
Periodicals
Electronic Media and Ontine Sources
Short Citation Forms . .
Unpublished and ForthcomingSources .
1.69
169
770
772
.
Basic Citation Forms
1,72
Unpubtished Materials . .
...1,72
.
17.2.1 Manuscripts.....
1.7.2.2 Dissertations and Theses
172
1.73
.
17.2.3 Letters, Memoranda, and Press Reteases. . .
17.2.4 E-mail Correspondence and Listserv Postings
17.2.5 Interviews.....
17.2.6 SpeechesandAddresses........
17.3 ForthcomingPublications......
17.4 Working Papers
17.5 Electronic Media and Online Sources . . . .
17.6 Short Citation Forms .
1,73
.
1,73
1.74
1.74
"t75
1.75
.
L/O
.
176
.
18
The Internet, Electronic Media, and
Other Nonprint Resources.
18.1 Basic Citation Forms
LB.2 The
Rule
lnternet.
18.2.1 GenerallnternetCitationPrinciples
18.2.2 CitationstolnternetSources
........778
........ 178
...'179
......... 180
.......lB2
ElectronicDatabases
18.3
Commercial
1.8.4
CD-ROMandOtherElectronicStorageMedia..
18.5
Microform
...186
......
186
....186
18.5.1 Microform Coltections Reproducing Preexisting
Materials.
18.6
....186
18.5.2 Microform Cottections Containing Original Materiats. . .
187
.
787
Fitms, Broadcasts, and Noncommercial Video Materials. . . . . .
xltl
18.7 Audio Recordings
18.7.1 CommercialRecordings......
18.7.2 Noncommercial Recordings . .
18.7.3 Podcasts and Recordings Avaitabte Ontine.
18.8 Short Citation Forms .
..
188
188
.
188
.
.....
.
....
.. ..
. ...
.
Rule
19
Services.
19.1 Citation Form for Services
19.2 Short Citation Forms .
20
Foreign Materials . .
.
.
20.1 Jurisdiction....
20.2
. ..
193
.
1.93
..
Non-Engtish-Language Documents.
1,93
20.2.1 Documents Appearing in More than One Language ... .
20.2.2 Titles and Names of Documents in Languages
Otherthan Engtish
.
20.2.3 Abbreviations in Languages Otherthan Engtish. . .
20.2.4 Languages That Do Not Use the Roman Alphabet
20.2.5 Citations to Translations of Non-English-
.
.
Cases
20.3.1 Common Law Cases
20.3.2 Civil Law and Other Non-Common
20.4 Constitutions.
..
Law Cases . . .
.
20.5 Statutes.
20.5.1 Statutes in Common Law Systems
20.5.2 Statutes in Civit Law and Other Non-Common
20.6
20.7
Rute
21
21.1
21.2
21.3
21.4
.
1.97
.
1.97
..
198
.
..
200
200
.
202
Non-Engtish-Language Documents.
Jurisdiction Not Evident from Context
Treaties and Other InternationalAgreements
21.4.1 Name of the Agreement . . . .
21,.4.2 Parties to the Agreement , . . .
202
202
203
203
204
.
.
.
21..4.4 Date of Signing
204
2L.4.5 fteaty Sources
204
206
21.5 International Law Cases
21.5.1
The International Court ofJustice and the Permanent
21,.5.2
CourtoflnternationalJustice,..
Eutooean Union Courts .
EuropeanCourtofHumanRights.. ..
....206
.
. 209
. ... 21.0
InterAmericanCommissionon Human Rights.. ...... 277
Inter-AmericanCourtofHumanRights.. ..... 271
lnternationalTribunatforthe LawoftheSea .... .... . 272
2!.5.7 lnternationalCriminalCourtand OtherTribunals.. . ... 21.2
21,3
21.5.8 Other International Courts .
. . 214
21.5.9 lnternational Cases in National Courts. .
21.5 lnternationalArbitrations and Claims Commissions . . . 274
21.5.3
21.5.4
21.5.5
21.5.6
xlv
1.95
1.97
lnternational Materials.
21.4.3 Subdivisions.
.
... 196
... L96
.... 196
.. .. 796
.. 797
Law
Jurisdictions
Non-English-Language and Foreign Periodicals
Short Citation Forms . .
Basic Citation Forms .
1,93
.... 793
.... 794
....794
Language Documents.
20.3
190
190
....1,97
.
Rule
188
188
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21.7
2't5
United Nations Sources.
21,5
21.7.1 Verbatim and Summary Records
2t5
21.7.2 Resolutions and Decisions
21.7
21.7.3 U.N. Reports
278
21.7.4 Masthead Documents
21,9
21.7.5 U.N. Press Releases and Memoranda. . . . .
21.7.6 Adjudicatory Bodies Established by the United Nations 21,9
.
21..7.7 Sales Publications
21.9
27.7.8 Yeatbooks and Periodicals
220
220
220
220
21.7.9
RegionaI Organization Documents.
21.7.1.O U.N. Charter
21..7.77 U.N. Internet Materials
221,
27.8 League of Nations
21.9 European Union..
21,.70 Councit of Europe
21,.17 World Trade Organization
27.12 International Monetary Fund. .
21,.73 Other Intergovernmental Organizations
21.74 International Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)
227
225
225
.
227
.
27.1.5 Yearbooks
21,.1,6
27."17
.
ShortCitationForms..
Digests
Tables
Table T1
United States Jurisdictions
T1.1 Federat Judicial and Legislative Materiats
T1.2 FederalAdministrative and Executive Materials.
T1.3 States and the District of Columbia . .
Atabama (Ala.)
Ataska (Ataska)
Arizona (Ariz.).
Arkansas (Ark.). .
.
228
229
229
.....
..230
....23O
233
233
236
248
248
249
250
25L
.
.
California (Cat.). .
Cotorado (Coto.) .
Connecticut (Conn.)
Delaware (Det.). .
District of Columbia (D.C.)
Ftorida (Fta)
.
.
.
Georgia (Ga.)
Hawaii (Haw.)
ldaho (ldaho)
Ittinois (ltt.) . .
252
253
255
256
257
258
259
260
loL
262
263
Indiana (lnd.)
lowa (lowa).
264
264
265
266
.
Kansas (Kan.)
Kentucky (Ky.)
Louisiana (La.)
Maine (Me.)
Marytand (Md.). .
Massachusetts (Mass.)
268
268
.
.
270
xv
I
o
Michigan(Mich.)..
Minnesota(Minn.).
Mississippi (Miss).
Missouri (Mo)..
Montana(Mont.).
Nebraska (Neb)..
Nevada (Nev.)
NewHampshire(N.H)..
NewJersey(N.J.)...
NewMexico (N.M.)..
NewYork(N.Y.)...
NorthCarotina(N.C.)..
NorthDakota(N.D.)..
Ohio (ohio).
Oklahoma(Okla.).
Oregon(Or.)
Pennsylvanialna.)...
Rhodelsland(R.1.)...
SouthCarolina(S.C.)..
SouthDakota(S.D.)..
Tennessee(Tenn.)..
Texas0ex.).
Utah (Utah).
Vermont(Vt.)
......277
.....272
.....271
.......274
......274
......275
.
.....277
....278
... ..279
.........283
...285
..285
..
......287
....288
...289
...290
.........29I
...292
.....293
....294
.
...
Virginia(Va.)...
Washington(Wash.)
WestVirginia(W.Va.).
Wisconsin(Wis.)..
Wyoming(Wyo.)..
T1.4
..276
........276
..297
........298
.....300
...300
......301
......302
OtherUnitedStatesjurisdictions. ........303
......303
AmericanSamoa.
CanalZone
Guam ..
NavaioNation.
NorthernMarianalstands.
OklahomaNativeAmericans....
.....303
.......
303
.........3O4
.......3O4
........305
Puerto Rico.
Table T2
12.7
T2.2
Virginlslands
ForeignJurisdictions ...
ArgentineRepublic.
Australia
...305
........3O7
.....3O7
......310
........ 31.6
.....
.......318
T2.3.L AustrianLiinder..
......323
T2.4 Belgium,Kingdomof .....
......323
T2.5 Brazil,FederativeRepublicof..... .......328
T2.6 Canada
. ... . ...332
T2.7 CathoticChurch.
.......341
T2.2.7 AustralianStatesandTerritories.
12.3 Austria,Repubticof
xvl
..341
..344
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o
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o
o
O
I
o
o
o
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o
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o
I
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o
o
a
o
I
o
o
t
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o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
12.70 Colombia,Repubticof
T2.71, Czech Republic
T2.1.2
. ...
349
J)l
354
356
Egypt, Arab Republic of
12J,3 France, Repubtic of. . .
T2.14 Germany, Federal Republic
.
12.14.7 German Liinder
I
z.t)
362
J67
.
j68
Greece
r2.76 Hong Kong
12.t7 Hungary, Repubtic of .
370
373
376
379
.
12.78 India . . .
T2.19 lran, lslamic Repubtic of
T2.20 lraq,Repubticof
T2.21, lreland (Eire), Repubtic of
12.22 lsraeI
12.23 Itaty, Repubtic of
T2.24 J4p4n........
12.25 Kenya .
12.26 Lebanon, Republic of
12.27 Mexico
T2.28 Netherlands, Kingdom ofthe.
.....
382
384
387
390
393
402
.
I
z.z>
404
406
424
429
434
436
439
.
New Zeatand
r2.30 Nicaragua
T2.31, Nigeria
.
1232 Pakistan, lslamic Republic of
1233 Phitippines
r234
r235
...
.
441.
Roman Law
444
Russian Federation
444
SouthAfrica.....
1237 SouthKorea.....
451.
r238
457
460
464
12.36
454
Spain .
12.39 Sweden ..
.
T2.40 Switzerland
........468
T2.40.1 SwissCantons.
T2.41 Taiwan, Republic of China
T2.42 UnitedKingdom
...
. 469
... ....472
.....480
I2.42.I EnglandandWales
T2.42.2 Northern lretand (and lreland Until 1'924)......... 485
......487
12.42.3 Scotland
T2.43 Tambia,Republicof
TableT3
T3.1
T3.2
T3.3
T3.4
T3.5
T3.5
T3.7
T3.8
T3.9
Table
T4
... 489
.. 497
.. 497
.. 491
.. 497
.. 492
.. 492
.....
IntergovernmentalOrganizations. . . .
United Nations
League of Nations
Eurooean Union .
European Commission of Human Rights
European Court of Human Rights.
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights.
Inter-American Court of Human Rights.
InternationalTribunal forthe Law of the Sea
.
.
.
Intergovernmental Organizations.
Treaty Sources
.
..
..
492
493
..
493
493
494
XVll
I
a
T4.1
T4.2
T4.3
TableT5
Tabte
T6
.....494
U.SSources
lntergovernmentalTreatySources ........495
........495
UnofficialTreatySources
......495
ArbitralReporters
Offficiat
496
Case Names and lnstitutional Authors in Citations
CourtNames
TableTS ExplanatoryPhrases
TableT9 LegislativeDocuments.
TabteTr0 GeographicalTerms....
TabteTT
...498
.... 500
......... 501
........ 502
T10.1 U.S.States,Cities,andTerritories ........502
T10.2 Austratian States and Canadian Provinces and Territories. . . . 503
T10.3 Countries and regions
JudgesandOfficials.
TableTr2 Months.
TableTr3 Periodicals
TableTl4 PublishingTerms......
TabteTl5 Services
TabteTl6 Subdivisions
TableTll
..
.
5O4
....509
.......510
.....510
........517
..... .. 518
.
..522
Index
lndex
..
......525
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THE
BLUEBOOK
O
A Uniform System of Citation'
a
Twentieth Edition
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Introduction
Welcome to The Blueboo&, the delinitive style guide for legal citation in the
Llnitcd States. For generations, law students, lawyers, scholars, iudges, and other
legal professionals have relied on Tbe llluebook's uniform system of citation. In a
diverse and rapidly changing legal profession, Tl:e Bluebook continucs to provide
a systematic mcthod by which members of the profession communicate important information about the sources and legal authorities upon which thcy rcly in
their work.
Tbe Bluebook can oftcn be intimidating for new users. This introduction is meant
to assist yru as you begin what will likely become a lifelong relationship with the
Blueboctk system of legal citation.
Structure of The Bluebook
The Bluebook contains three major parts. The lirst part contains the Bluepages,
a how-to guide for basic legal citation. tlnlike the remainder of Tbe Bluebook,
which is clesigned in a style and at a lcvel of complcxity commensuratc with
the nceds of the law iournal publication process, the Bluepagcs provide casy-tocomprehend guidance fbr the everyday citation needs of first-year law studcnts,
sllmmer associates, law clerks, practicing lawyers, and other lcgal professionals.
The examples used throughout the Bluepages arc printed using simple typcface
convcntions common in the legal profcssion.
The second part, printcd on white paper, is the heart of the Bluebook system
of citation: the rules of citation and style . This pan is subdivided into two main
sections. The tirst scction, consisting of mles I through 9, cstablishcs general standards of citatkrn and style for use in all forms of legal writing. 'l'hc second section,
consisting of rules 10 through 21, prescnts mles for citation of specific kinds of
authority such as cases, statutcs, books, periodicals, and foreign ancl internationd
materials. Thc examples used throughout this part arc printed using typeface
convcntions standard in law journal footnotcs.
The third part consists of a series of tables to be used in coniunction with the
rules. Thc tables show, among other things, which authorit,v to cite and how to
abbreviate propedy. Individual tables arc refcrenced throughout the b<xrk. Finally,
there is a comprehensive indcx.
General Principles of Citation
The cenral ftlnction ofa legal citation is to allow the relder to efliciently klcate
the cited source. Thns, the citation forms in The Bluebttok are designed to pr<>
vidc the information necessary to lcad the reader directly to thc specific items
cited. Because of the ever-incrcasing mnge of authorities cited in legal writing, no
systcm of citation can be complete. Thcrefore , when citing material of a type not
cxplicitly discnsscd in this book, try to locate an analogous type of authority that
is discussed and use that citation form as a model. Always be sure to providc sufficient information to allow the reacler to find the cited material quickly and easily.
Getting Started
The Bluepages provide the best place to begin your study of Tbe Bluebook ry*
tem of legal citation. Indeed, first-year legal writing professors may wish to rely
on the Bluepages as a teaching aid. The Bluepages provide only an abbreviated
introduction to Tbe Bluebook system, however, and do not contain answers to
more difficult citation questions. For this reason, the Bluepages contain references
to related rules and tables found in other parts of the The Bluebook.
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INTRODUCTION
The Bluepages are a guide for practitioners and law clerks to use when citing
authority in non-academic legal documents. Please keep the following in mind:
Local Rules. Many courts have their own rules of citation that differ
in some respects from The Bluebook. Make sure to abide by any
citation requirements of the court to which you are submitting
your documents. An index of jurisdiction-specific citation rules is
contained in Bluepages table BT2.
Typeface. The Bluepages keep the tradition of
underscoring certain text. So long as you are consistent, however,
you may substitute itol'cs wherever underscoring is used in the
Bluepages. The remainder of The Bluebook employs a more
complex array of typeface conventions, including ordinary roman
type, italics, and Lnncr AND SMALL Cnps. These differences are
explained in Bluepages 82.
The Whitepages. Where the Bluepages and local court rules are
silent regarding the citation of a particular document, you may use
the other rules in The Bluebook. referred to as the "Whitepages," to
supplement the Bluepages. Keep in mind the typeface differences
between academic documents and non-academic leqal documents
as explained in Bluepages 82.
The Elements of a Citation. Generally, a legal citation is composed
of three elements: (1 ) a signal; (2) the source or authority; and (3)
parenthetical information. The Bluepages explore each of these
elements in detail.
Special Note for Law Students: The Bluebook is primarily written for two
types of users: academics and practitioners. The Whitepages provide rules
for academic publications such as law review articles and research papers.
The Bluepages set forth permissible deviations from the Whitepages that are
designed to accommodate the needs of lawyers and law clerks. The Bluepages
are used primarily for briefs, motions, memoranda, and opinions. For the most
part, the Bluepages only provide examples of how a citation should look. For
comprehensive discussions of the elements of a citation, you should refer to the
corresponding Whitepages as crossreferenced in the Bluepages.
Bluepages Tip: The Bluepages parallel the Whitepages in numbering and
content. You may use a Whitepage Rule to supplement a corresponding
Bluepage Rule.
B1
Structure of Legal Citations
Citation Sentences and Clauses
81.1
In non-academic legal documents, such as briefs and opinions, citations
generally appear within the text of the document immediately following the
propositions they support. Footnotes should only be used in non-academic legal
documents when permitted or required by local court
rules.
3
,,:
A citation may be inserted into the text of a document in one of two ways:
as a
stand-alone citation sentence or as a citation clause.
Citation sentences begin with a capital letter and end with a period. One
citation sentence may contain multiple citations separated by semicolons.
Use citation sentences to cite sources and authorities that relate to the entire
preceding sentenc€:
The U.S. Supreme Court has the power to invalidate statutes that
are repugnant to the U.5. Constitution. Marbury v. Madison. 5 U.S.
(1 Cranch) 137 , 177-79 (1 803) (federal laws); Fletcher v. Peck, 1 0
U.S. (6 Cranch) 87 ,'139 (1 81 0) (state laws); Dred Scott v. Sandford,
60 U.S. (19 How.) 393, 395 (1856), superseded by constitutional
amendment. U.S. Const. amend. Xlll. The U.S. Supreme Court also
has the power to review state court decisions. Martin v. Hunter's
Lessee, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 304,377-78 (1 81 6) (civil cases); Cohens v.
Virginia. 19 U.S. (6 Wheat.) 264,350 (1821) (criminal cases).
Citation clauses are set off from the text by commas and immediately follow
with a capital
letter unless the citation clause begins with a source that would otherwis€ be
capitalized. Do not end a citation clause with a period, unless it is the last clause
the proposition to which they relate. Do not begin a citation clause
in the sentence. Use citation clauses to cite sources and authorities that relate
to only ea4! of a sentence:
The Supreme Court adopted a broad reading of the Commerce
Clause during the New Deal, seeWickard v. Filburn, 317 U.5. | 1 1,
128-29 (1 942), though in recent years the Supreme Court has
reined in its broad reading somewhat, see United States v. Lopez,
514 U.5. 549,624 (1 995); United States v. Morrison, 529 U.S. 598,
612-13 (2000); Nat'l Fed'n of lndeo. Bus. v. Sebelius, 1 32 S. Ct. 2566,
2587 (201 2); but see Gonzales v. Raich. 545 U.S. 1, 39 (2005).
Br.2
IntroductorySignals
A signal is a shorthand message to the reader about the relationship between
a proposition and the source or authority cited for that proposition. Refer to
rule L.2 for more information on how to use these signals.
.
Bluepages Tip: Signals are capitalized when used to begin a citation
sentence but are lower case when used to begin a citation clause.
Signal
Use
[no signal]
The authority directly states the proposition, is the
source of a quotation, or was mentioned in the
proposition
E€-
The authority is one of multiple authorities directly
stating the same proposition
Accord
The authority is one of multiple authorities directly
stating or supporting the proposition, and one
of the other authorities was mentioned in the
proposition
l
o
o
o
the proposition
See
a
o
I
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I
a
I
The authority is different from the main
proposition but sufficiently analogous to lend
suppon
Compare..
t
o
t
I
The authority provides additional material
cf.
I
t
also
supporting the proposition
t
a
o
The authority supports, but does not directly state,
See
.
[and]
The authorities are similar or different in important
,.-
:-@.,- [9!!]:::
l9!"c1!
Contra
The authority directly states a proposition contrary
to the main proposition
But
see
The authority clearly supports a proposition
contrary to the main proposition
The authority supports a proposition analogous
But cf.
to
the contrary to the main proposition
See
.
qenerally
The authority is helpful background material
related to the proposition
Bluepages Tip: You may combine "e.g.," with "see" and "but see" to form
"see, e.g.," and "but see, e.q.," respectively.
When using more than on€ type of signal in a citation sentence, the signals
(together with the authodties they introduce) should appear in the order in
which they appear in the table above . For more information about the grouping
and ordering ofsignals, see
rule
1.3.
Separate authorities within each signal with semicolons. If certain authorities are
considerably more helpftrl or authoritative than the other authorities, you may
list the more helpfrrl authorities fi-rst. Otherwise, cite authorities in this order:
l.
Constitutions (first federal, then state, then foreign)
2. Statutes (first federal, then state, then foreign)
3. Federal cases (in order ofdescending authority)
4. St^te cases (alphabetically by state, in descending order of
authority
within states)
5. Legislative materials (first bills, then
hearings, then reports, then
debates)
6. Administrative materials (first executive
orders, then regulations,
then proposed rules)
7. Courrt documents (first records, then briefs, then petitions)
8. Secondary materials (first restatements, then books, then articles,
then Intemet sources)
For further guidance on the order of authorities, see
Explanatory
rule
1.4,
Parentheticals
Regardless of the type of authority you cite, it may be helpful to include
additional information to explain the relevance of the cited authoriry. Append
Bl.f
ri;
lt
a
' i",f
L
-
this information parenthetically at the end of your citation Out before any
subs€quent history).
Explanatory parentheticals should begin with a present participle unless the
parenthetical contains a quoted senteoce or a short statement. You may omit
extraneous words such as "the" unless doing so would cause confusion. Do not
begin with a capital letter or end with a period unless the parenthetical consists
of a quotation that reads as a frrll sentence:
See Flanaqan v. United States.465 U.5. 259,264 (1984) (explaining
that the finaljudgment rule reduces potential for parties to "clog
the courts" with time-consuming appeals).
Atl. Richfield Co. v. Fed. Energy Admin..429 F. Supp. 1052,1061-62
(N.D. Cal. 1976) ("Not every person aggrieved by administrative
action is necessarily entitled to the protections of due process.").
5 U.S.C. 5 553(b) (2000) (requiring agencies to publish notice
proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register).
of
Such standards have been adopted to address a variety of
environmental problems. See. e.9.. H.B. Jacobini, The New
lnternational Sanitary Regulations, 46 Am. J. lnt'lL.727,727-28
(1952) (health-related water quality); Robert L. Meyer, Travaux
Preparatoires for the UNESCO World Heritaqe Convention.2 Earth
L.J.45, 45-81 (1 976) (conservation of protected areas).
For further guidance on explanatory parentheticals, see
82
rule
1.5.
Typeface for Court Documents
Court documents and legal memoranda use two typefaces: ordinary type and
lfalics (or underscoring).
While the Bluepages use underscoring rather than italics, keep in mind that
underscoring is the equivalent of italics. For citations appearing in non-academic
legal documents, follow these general des:
Italicize (or underscore) the following information in a citation clause:
Case names,
including procedural phrases introducing case names;
Titles of books and articles;
Titles of some legislative materials;
Introductory signals;
Explanatory phrases introducing subsequent case history;
Cross references, such as id. and supra; and
Words and phrases introducing related authority, such as
"Sualedl!."
Italicize (or underscore) the following information in the text of a legal
document:
Titles of publications, such as the New York Times:
Words italicized in the original source of a quotation; and
Any other word that would otherwise be italicized, such as
uncommon foreign words.
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Key differences between academic citations (the Whitepages) and non'
academic citations (the Bluepages):
Academic (,itations
(Whitepages)
Norr-Academic Citations
(Bluepages)
Typeface:
The following are
Italics
italicized:
The following ate italicized
or underscored:
Introductory signals
Introductory signals
Short form case names
Full and short case names
Procedural and explanatory
phrases in case citations
Procedural and explanatory
phrases in case citations
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"1d."
"1d.."
Titles of articles in
periodicals
Titles ofbooks. articles. and
Titles of congressional
committee hearings
Titles of some legislative
materials
Punctuation that falls within
italicized material
Punctuation that falls within
italicized or underscored
material
Introductory phrases for
related authority
Internal crossreferences
essays
Introductory phrases for
related authority
Internal cross-references
are not
Typeface:
The following are in Lancr
LARGE AND Srr,r.lu Ceps
Caps
ero Sluu
required Out may be used
for stylistic purposes)
Ceps:
Authors and titles of books,
including institutional
authors
Titles of periodicals
B3
Subdivisions
Give page numbers before date parentheticals, without any introductory
abbreviation such as "p." or "at." Cite nonconsecutiv€ pages by giving the
.
individual page numbers separated by commas (e.g., l01 , I03").
To cite a footnote or endnote, give the page on which the note appears, 'n.,"
and the footnote number:
United States v. Carolene Prods. Co' 304 U.5. 144, 152 n.4 (1938).
When the volumes are numbered, cite the volume number in Arabic numerals. If
the author of the entire work is cited, the volume number precedes the author's
name:
3 Ronald
E.
Mallen, Jeffrey M. Smith, & Allison D. Rhodes, Legal
Malpractice
If
1
01
-02
(201 4).
an authority is organized by section (5) or paragraph (fl), you may cite to
these subdivisions.
Most subdivisions (such
as
columns or sections) in citations are abbreviated.
See
#
t.''.',""'
table T16 for a list of subdivision abbreviations.
84
Short Citation Forms
You may use "id." when citing the immediately preceding authority, but only
when the immediately preceding citation contains only one authority. Always
indicate when a subsequent citation refers to a different page number in the
same source (e.g., "id. at 5").
You may use "supra" and "hereinafter" to r€fer to legislative hearings; court
filings; books; pamphlets; reports; unpublished materials; non-print resources;
periodicals; services; treaties and international agreements; regulations,
directives, and decisions of intergovernmental organizations; and internal
cross-references. You should not use "supra" and "hereinafter" to refer to cases,
statutes, constitutions, legislative materials (other than hearings), restatements,
model codes, or regulations, except in extraordinary circumstances, such as
when the name of the authority is extremely long.
B5
Quotations
85.1
Generally
Enclose all quotations, except block quotations, with quotation marks. Place
commas or periods inside the quotation marks, but place all other punctuation
outside the quotation marks unless such punctuation is part of the quoted text:
"When, as here, the plaintiff is a public figure. he cannot recover
unless he proves by clear and convincing evidence that the
defendant published the defamatory statement with actual malice,
i.e.. with 'knowledge that it was false or with reckless disregard of
whether it was false or not."'Masson v. New Yorker Magazine, Inc.,
501 U.5.496, 510 (1991) (quoting N.Y. Times Co. v. Sullivan, 376 U.S.
2s4,279-80 (1964D.
to permit recovery for choice of language which.
though perhaps reflecting a misconception, represented'the sort
of inaccuracy that is commonplace in the forum of robust debate
to which the New York Times rule applies."' Masson v. New Yorker
Magazine. Inc.. 501 U.S. 496, 519 (1991) (citation omitted).
"We refused
.
Bluepages Tip: A quotation appearing within another quotation can
either be parenthetically attributed to its original source or otherwise
acknowledged by indicating that a citation has been omitted.
For further guidance on quotations, including omissions and alterations
quoted material, see
rule
of
5.
85.2 Block Quotations
g
Quotations of fifty or more words should be single spaced, indented on
both sides, justified, and without quotation marks. This is known as a block
quotation. Quotation marks within a block quotation should appear as they do
in the quoted material. The citation following a block quotation should not be
indented but should begin at the left margin on the line following the quotation:
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fl |his presumptive privilege must be considered in light of our
historic commitment to the rule of law. This is nowhere more
profoundly manifest than in our view that "the twofold aim
[of criminal justice] is that guilt shall not escape or innocence
suffer." We have elected to employ an adversary system of
criminal justice in which the parties contest all issues before a
court of law. . . . To ensure that justice is done, it is imperative to
the function of courts that compulsory process be available for
the production of evidence needed either by the prosecution
or by the defense.
United States v. Nixon, 418 U.5. 683. 708-09 (1974) (citation
omitted). The Court then balanced this interest against the evils
of forced disclosure. ld. at
71 0.
Abbreviations, Numerals, and Symbols
B6
Tables at the end of this book contain lists of specific abbreviations for arbitral
reporters (T5), case names (T6), court names (T|, explanatory phrases (T8),
legislative documents (T!), geographical terms (T1O), judges and officials
(T11), months (T12), periodicals (T13), publishing terms (T14), services
(T15), and subdivisions (T16).
Close up adiacent single capitals (U.5.), but do not close up single capitals with
longer abbreviations (S. Ct,). Every abbreviation should be followed by a period
(Univ.), except those in which the last letter is set off by an apostrophe (Soc'y).
Spell out the numbers zero to ninety-nine. Use numerals for larger numbers
(unless they begin a sentence).
For more information about abbreviations. numerals. and svmbols. see
rule
6.
Italicization for Style and in Unique Circumstances
87
Words and phrases may be italicized (or underscored) for emphasis.
You may italicize (or underscore) non-English words and phrases unless they
have been incorporated into common English usage. Most Latin words and
phrases that are used in legal writing are in common English usage. Obsolete
or uncommon Latin words and phrases, however, should be italicized (or
underscored).
"Id." is always italicized (or underscored).
For more information about italicizing for style, see
de
7.
Capitalization
In addition to capitalizing "Court" when naming any court in full or when
referring to the U.S. Supreme Coun, also capitalize "Court" in documents when
refering to the court that will receive your documents:
This Court has already ruled on Defendant's Motion To Dismiss.
But The court in Watkins was attempting to distinguish earlier
precedent pointing in the other direction.
B8
Only capitalize party designations such as "Plaintifl" "Defendant," "Appellant,"
and "Appetlee" when ref-erring to parties in the mattcr that is the subiect of
your document:
Plaintiff denies Defendant's baseless allegations of misconduct.
But: In 5mith, the plaintiffs alleged that the defendant acted in bad
faith.
Capitalize the titlc of a court document only when: (1) thc docuntent has becn
filed in the mattcr that is the subject of your document; and (2) the reference
is to the document's actual title or a shortenecl form thcreof. Do ttot capitalize
references to the gencric name of a court document:
In their Memorandum of Points and Authorities in Opposition to
Defendant's Motion to Dismiss, Plaintiffs argue that Defendants are
strictly liable for Plaintiffs' injuries.
The Cou rt's Order of May
7
,2004, directed Plaintlffs to cease
production immediately.
But:There is no doubt that the initial temporary restraining order was
within the bounds of this Court's discretion.
Bluepages Tip: Do not abbreviate the titles of court documents in
+^.,+.,-l
tt tudt
-^^+^^-^..
)ct
ttEt tLE).
For all of the above reasons, Appellant's Petition for Rehearing
ought to be granted.
Not: For all of the above reasons, Appellant's Pet. Reh'g ought to be
oranted.
89
Titles of Judges
Justices are referred to as "Justice Story" and "(,hiefJustice Jay." Parenthetical
ref'erences are to "Holmes, J.," "Cardozo,.f.," and "lllack & Vhitc, JJ." Judges
are referred to as 'Judge Wisdom," "Juclgc Hand," and "Chiefludgc Friendly."
For more inlbrmation on how to refcr to iudgcs ancl othcr oflicials, scc
B1O
rule 9.
Cases
Bl0.l Full Citation
A full case citation includcs five componcnts: (1) the namc of the case; (2)
thc published or unpublished sourcc in which thc casc can be founcl; (3) a
parenthetical indicating the court and year of decision; (4) other parenthetical
information, if any; and (5) the subsctluent history of thc case, if any:
Engel v. Vitale, 370 U.S. 421 ,430 (1962) ("The Establishment
Clause, unlike the Free Exercise Clause, does not depend upon any
showing of direct governmental compulsion
ru
. . . .").
Thompson v. Hanson, 174 P.3d 120,125 (Wash. Ct. App. 2007)
(holding that a creditor may obtain a judgment against a transferee
even in the absence of intent to defraud), aff'd,239 P.3d 536,
fig-41(wash.2oo9).
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Bluepages Tip: lf an opinion is only available through a court's website,
the opinion's webpage URL may be included at the end of the citation.
Case Name
810.1.1
(i) Omit all parties other than the first party listed on each side of the "v.":
Dow Jones & Co. v. Harrods. Ltd.
Not: Dow Jones & Comoanv. Inc.. Plaintiff. v. Harrods. Limited and
Mohamed Al Faved. Defendants
(ii) For names of indMduals, use only last names, omitting first names, middle
names, and initials:
Darwin v. Dawkins
Not: Charles Robert Darwin v. Clinton Richard Dawkins and Edward
Osborne "E. O." Wilson
(iii) Omit words indicating multiple parties (such as "et al.") and alternative
names (such as "a.k.a."):
Kant v. Bentham
Not: lmmanuel Kant. et. al. v. Jeremv Bentham. a.k.a. The Father of
Utilitarianism
(iv) Some case names may include a procedural phrase. Abbreviate "in the
matter o{" "petition of," and similar procedural phrases to "In re ." Abbreviate
"on the relation o{" "on behalf of," and similar procedural phrases to "ex rel."
tWhen adversary parties are named, omit all procedural phrases except 'ex rel.":
Dombroski ex rel. Dombroski v. Chi. Park Dist.
Not: Michael Dombroski, as Administrator of Estate of His Minor Child,
5amuel Dombroski v. Chicago Park District, et al.
Ex parte
Zeidner
Not: Ex parte Richard Zeidner
ln re Fairfax
Not: ln the Matter of J. Fairfax
(v) Abbreviate words listed in table T6, unless the citation appears in a textual
sentence as explained in (vi) below. Abbreviate states, countries, and other
geographical units according to table T10 unless the geographical unit is a
named party. Never abbreviate "United States" when it is a named party. Omit
"The" as the first word of a party's name unless it is part of the name of the
object of an in rem action. You may abbreviate any words with eight letters or
more if substantial space is saved and the result is unambiguous. You may also
abbreviate entities with widely recognized initials, such as NAACP and FCC:
Seattle Times v. Univ. of Wash.
Not The Seattle Times v. The University of Washington
United States v. Haskell
Not: U.S. v. Erin Haskell, et al.
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Indus. Chems.. Inc. v. City of Tuscaloosa
Not: Industrial Chemicals, Inc. v. The City of Tuscaloosa
Laidlaw Corp. v. NLRB
Not: The Laidlaw Corporation v. National Labor Relations Board
For more guidance on abbreviation, see
rule 10.2.
Bluepages Tip: Underline the entire case name up to but not including
the comma that follows the case name.
(vi) When referring to the full name of
a case
in a textual sentenc€,
as
opposed
to a citation sentence or clause, underline the case name and only abbreviate
widely known acronyms and the following eight words: "&," "Ass'n,' "Bros.,'
"Co.," "Corp.," 'lnc.,' "Ltd.,' and "No." The first time you mention a case in the
text, follow the case name with the remaining elements of a fi.rll citation, set
off by commas:
In Penn CentralTransportation Co. v. City of New York.366 N.E.2d
1271 (N.Y. 1977),the court applied a version of the diminution in
value rule.
Not: ln Penn Cent. Transp. Co. v. City of New York. 366 N.E.2d 1271
(N.Y. 1 977), the court applled a version of the diminution in value
rule.
In a subsequent reference to the case within the same general discussion, you
may simply refer to one party's name (or a readily identifiable shorter version of
one pafty's name) if the reference is unambiguous:
The Supreme Court's recent takings jurisprudence has gradually
moved away from the New York Court of Appeals's formulation in
Penn Central.
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To point your reader to the specifc pages that relate to th€ cited proposition,
you must also include a pinpoint citation, often called a "pincite." Place
pincites after the page on which the case report begins, separated by a comma.
A pincite may consist of a page range, in which instance you should indicate
the first and last page of the range separated by a dash. Where the page
numbers consist of three or more digits, drop any repetitive digits other than
the final two digits (e .9., 102-06; 1020-30). To cite multiple pages that are
not consecutive, list each page or page range, separated by commas (e.g.,
I
has gradually
moved away from the New York Court of Appeals's formulation in
Citv of New York.
Reporters and Pinpoint Citations
Cite a reporter by listing: (l) the volume number
of the reporter in which the
(2) the abbreviated name of the reporter (isted ia table TL);
and (3) the page on which the case report b€gins.
case is published;
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Not The Supreme Court's recent takings jurisprudence
810.1.2
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103, 106-08, 132). If the material you wish to reference appears on more
nonconsecutive pages than is convenient to list in one citation, you may use
passim in lieu of a pincite. To cite a footnote, give the page on which the
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footnote appeafs, "n.," and the footnote number, with no space between "n."
and the footnote number (e.g., 199 n.4):
Baker v. Carr, 369 U.5. 186,195 (1962).
Newdow v. U.S. Cong.. 328 F.3d 466,471 n.3 (9th Cir. 2003).
guez v. Holder, 7 02 F.3d 504, 529-30 (9th
("Chief Judge Kozinski, disagreeing with everyone.")
Ga rfi as-Rod ri
.
2)
the first page of the case, simply repeat
For further guidance on pincites, see
Court and Year of
rule 3.2.
Decision
810.1.3
Indicate parenthetically the deciding court followed by the year of decision
(immediately following the page reference). When citing decisions of the United
States Supreme Court or the highest court of any individual state, however,
do not include the name of the deciding court. Table T1 lists the coffect
abbreviations for courts in U.S. lurisdictions.
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(i) The United States Supreme Court: Cite United States Reports (U.S.) if th€
opinion appears therein; otherwise cite to Supreme Court Reporter (S. Ct.):
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Meritor Sav. Bank v. Vinson, 477 V.5.57, 60 (1986).
Burwell v. Hobby Lobby Stores. Inc., 134 5. Ct. 275'1,2782(2014\.
(ii) Federal Courts ofAppeals: Cite Federal Reporter (F., F.2d, F.3d) and indicate
the name of the court parenthetically:
I
Envtl. Def. Fund v. EPA, 465F.2d 528, 533 (D.C. Cir. 1972).
United States v. Jardine, 364 F.3d 1 200, | 203
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United States v. Baxter. 492F.2d 150, 150 (9th Cir. 1973).
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Bluepages Tip: lf the pincite
the page number:
Ci r. 20
(1
Oth Cir. 2004).
(iii) Federal District Couns: Cite Federal Supplement (F. Supp.,
F. Supp.
2d,
F.
Supp. 3d) and indicate the name of the court parenthetically:
W. 5t. Group LLC v. Epro, 564 F. Supp. 2d 84,91 (D. Mass. 2008).
Harris v. Roderick. 933 F. Supp. 977 ,985 (D. ldaho 1 996).
.
Bluepages Tip: The correct abbreviation for each state is listed in
table T10. Some state names are abbreviated with two capital letters
(e.9., N.Y.), while others are abbreviated with one capital letter and
several lower case letters (e.g., Mich.). Do not include a space between
adjacent single capital letters (e.9., S.D.N.Y.), but do include a space
between a single capital letter and a longer abbreviation (e.9., "D. Conn."
for "District of Connecticut" and "S.D. Cal." for "Southern District of
California"). For more guidance on abbreviations, see rule 6.1.
(iv) State High Courts: Cite the regional reporter for the region in which the
court sits, if the opinion appears therein; otherwise cite the state's official
reporter, as listed in table T1. Indicate the state parenthetically, unless it is
unambiguously conveyed by the reporter title:
Peoole v. Armour. 590 N.W.2d 61 (Mich.
1999).
13
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,lir".i+; '
Chaudhary v. Gen. Motors Corp., 649 P,2d 224 (CaI.1982).
Bates v. Tappan. 99 Mass. 376
(1
868).
(v) Other State Courts: Cite the regional reporter for the region in which the
court sits, if the opinion appears therein; otherwise cite the state's official
reporter, as listed in table TL. lndicate parenthetically the state and court of
decision, unless unambiguously conveyed by the reporter title. Do not indicate
the department or district of intermediate state courts:
Kaolan v. Ziff. 530 N.W.2d 807 (Minn. Ct. App. 1995).
Rusk
v.State,406 A.2d 624 (Md. Ct. Spec. App. 1979), rev'd. 424 A.2d
720 (Md. 1981).
Campbell v. Sellers-Morris Corp., 82 Cal. Rptr. 2d 202 (Ct. App. 1 999).
Parallel Citation in State Court Documents
In documents submitted to state courts, all case citations should be to the
reporters required by local rules. To find local
are submitting a document, refer to Bluepages
des for the court in which you
table BT2.
Local rules sometime s require citation of both the offrcial state rcportet and t}rc
unofficial regional or state-specific reporter. This is called parallel citation.
IJflhere a pincite is necessary, include one for each reporter citation. when
the state or court is clear from the official reporter title, omit it from the date
parenthetical:
Pledger v. Halvorson. 324 Ark.302,921 S.W.2d 576 (1996).
Kenford Co. v. County of Erie, 73 N.Y.2d 3'12,537 N.E.2d 176, 540
N.Y.S.2d 1 (1e89).
Bl0.l.4 Pending and Unreported Cases
(i) tDffi and Vestlaw cases: Cite to the LnilS or'Westlaw electronic report of
the case when one is available.
The proper format is as follows: (l) case name; (2) case docket number; (3)
database identifier and electronic report number; (4) star page number; and (5)
court and full date parenthetical:
Albrecht v. Stranczek, No. 87
C
9535, 1 991 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 5088, at
*1, *3 (N.D. lll. Apr. 1 5, 1 991).
Kvass Constr. Co. v. United States, No. 90-266C, 1991 WL47632,
*2-3 (Cl. Ct. Apr. 8, 1991 ).
at
Bluepages Tip: Different courts and publishers use different formats
for case docket numbers (e.9., CIV-A, Civ. A., Civ., No.). Cite the case
docket number exactly as it appears. lf more than one docket number
is assigned to a case, the lead-in language (e.9., CIV-A, Civ. A., Civ., No.)
may be omitted after the first reference:
PKFinans Int'l Coro. v. IBJ Schroder Leasing Corp., Nos.93 Civ.5375,
96 Civ. 1816 (SAS) (HBP), 1996 WL 525862 (S.D.N.Y.Sept. 17, 1996).
14
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(ii) SIip opinions: When a case is unreported, but is separately available as a slip
opinion, give the docket number, the court, and the full date of the most recent
maior disposition of the case:
Groucho Marx Prods. v. Plavboy Enters.. No. 77 Civ. 1782 (S.D.N.Y.
Dec.3Q,1977),
For further guidance on slip opinions, see
rule 10.8.1(b).
(iii) Opinions only available online, but not in an electronic
database: Some
cases, particulady ones that are pending, can only be accessed through a
court's
website. In this situation, the webpage URL may be included:
Kaye v. Trump. No. 5128, slip op. at 1 (N.Y. App. Div. Jan. 29, 20Q9),
http://www.nycou rts. gov/reporter/3d series / 2009 / 2009
-00452.
htm.
Weight of Authority and Explanatory
Parentheticals
810.r.5
To add information indicating the weight of the cited authority to a citation,
insert an additional parenthetical following the date parenthetical. Indicate
when you are citing a concuffing or dissenting opinion:
Bush v. Gore. 531 U.5. 98,'144 (2000) (5-4 decision) (Breyer, J.,
dissenting) ('The political implications of this case for the country
are momentous.").
Zuni Pub. Sch. Dist. v. Dep't of Educ.. 550 U.S. 81, 1 1 3 (2007)
(Scalia, J., dissenting) ('The sheer applesauce of this statutory
interpretation should be obvious.").
Webb v. Baxter Healthcare Corp.. 57 F.3d 1067 (4th Cir. 1995)
(unpublished table decision).
Wersba v. Seiler,393 F.2d 937 (3d Cir. 1968) (per curiam).
An explanatory parenthetical may also be added to explain briefly the
proposition for which the case stands:
Green v. Georgia. 442U.5.95,97 (1979) (per curiam) (holding that
exclusion of relevant evidence at a sentencing hearing constitutes
denial of due process).
For further guidance on explanatory parentheticals, see Bluepages 81 and
rule L0.7.1.
Prior or Subsequent
History
810.1.6
A full citation should include the prior or subsequent history of the case,
subiect to several exceptions discussed in rule 10.7. Use one of the abbreviated
explanatory phrases listed in table T8 to introduce the prior or subsequent
history. Include commonly used explanatory phrases such as "aff'd," "aff'g,"
"cert. denied" (subject to a two-year limitation per rule 10.7), "cert. granted,"
"rev'd,' and "rev'd on other grounds" forevery applicable citation. Underscore
or italicize the explanatory phrase:
Gucci Am.. Inc. v. Gold Ctr. Jewelry.997 F. Supp. 399 (S.D.N.Y.
29,1998),rev'd,158 F.3d 631 (2d Cir. 1998).
Jan.
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Cooperv. Duonik,924F.2d 1520, 1530-31 (9th Cir. 1991)(holding
that police officers'actions did not rise to level of due process
violation), rcv'd_en bale, 963 F.2d 1 220 (9th Cir. 1 992).
cent. lll. Pub. serv. co. v. westervelt, 342 N.E.2d 463 (lll. App. ct.
1
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6), aff' d, 367 N.E.2d 661 (tll. 1 97 7 ).
Bluepages Tip: Explanatory parenthetical information about a case
should immediately precede information about subsequent case history.
'When
the case has
a
differcnt namc in thc subsequent history, providc the new
casc name, prcceded by thc phrase "sub nom." ("under thc name ot''). There is
no nccd to providc the new case nirmc if the partics' names are mercly rcversed
or if the subscqucnt history is simplv r clcnial of ccrtiorari or rchearing:
Great W. United Corp. v. Kidwell, 577 F.2d 1 256 (sth Cir. 1 978), rev'd
sub nom. Lerov v. Great W. United Corp., 443 U.S.173 (1979).
810.2 Short Form Citation
Once you have provided a ftlll citation to an authorityJ you lnav use a "shott
form" in latcr citations of thc same authority, so long as (1) it is clear to the
rcadcr which authority is relbrenced; (2) the full citation falls in the same
general discussion; and (J) the reader will have little trouble krcating the full
citation. Therc arc sevcral acccptable short forms for case citations. All ofthese
frrrms include "at" followcd by a pincite
.
'I'hc firllowing arc all acceptable short ftrrm citations of page 100 of Palsgraf v.
Long lsland Railroad Co., 162 N.E. 99 (N.Y. 1928) (Cardozo, J.):
Palsgraf, 162 N.E. at 100.
162 N.E. at 100.
ld. at '100.
When using only one partv name in a short form citation, use the name of the
lirst parry, unless that party is a geographical unit, a govcrnmental entity, or
another typc ()f common litigant. YOu may also shorten a long party name,
frrr example fiom First Nat'l Trust & Inv. Corp. to First Nat'l, so long as thc
rcference remains unambiguous.
Short citations take a slightlv rlifftrcnt form firr cases with parallcl citations.
Chalfin v. Soecter,426 Pa.464,465,233 A.2d 562,563 (1967), bccomcs onc
of the fblkrwing:
Chalfin, 426Pa.at465,233 A.2d at 563.
426Pa.at465.233 A.2d at 563.
td.
"1d." is the short firrm used to refer to the immediatcly preceding authorit)
.
Bluepages Tip: The "i" in "id." is only capitalized when it begins a citation
sentence. The underline always r uns under the period.
(i) Vhen used alone, "id." rcf'ers to the identical pincite refcrenced in the
16
immediatellpreccclingcitation:
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The Supreme Court has stated unequivocally that "apprehension
by the use of deadly force is a seizure subject to the reasonableness
requirement of the Fourth Amendment." Tennessee v. Garner,471
U.5. 1, 7 (1 985). By contrast, minimal police interference will not
always constitute a "seizure" for Fourth Amendment purposes. ld.
(ii) To refer to a different page or footnote within the immediately preceding
authority, add "at" and the new pincite:
To determine whether a particular exercise of non-lethal police
force was reasonable, courts engage in a balancing process that
weighs the nature of the intrusion against the "governmental
interests." ld. at 8.
(iii)
"1d." may only be used when the preceding citation cites only one source:
This process weighs the nature of the exertion of force against the
governmental interests at stake. See Heath, 854 F.2d at 9. This is an
"objective reasonableness" test. ld.
In the example above, it is clear that "1d." refers to Heath. By contrnst, the use
of "id." in the following example is improper because it is not clear to which
authodty "id." refers:
Not: To determine whether a particular exercise of non-lethal police
force was reasonable, courts engage in a balancing process.
Tennessee v. Garner, 471 U.5.1, 8 (1985); see also Heath v. Henninq,
854 F.2d 6,8(2d Cir. 1988). This process weighs the nature of the
exertion offorce against the governmental interests at stake. See
id. at 9.
Bluepages Tip: 5ources identifi ed in explanatory parentheticals,
explanatory phrases, and prior or subsequent history are ignored for the
purposes of this rule.
(w) The "id.' form for cases requiring parallel citations is as follows:
The Pennsylvania Supreme Court grappled with a similarly
complicated issue in an election dispute in 1967. See Chalfin v.
Soecter, 426 Pa. 464, 477,233 A.2d 562, 568 (1967). In Chalfin.
the court was forced to reach a decision under a severelv rushed
schedule. See id. at 468, 233 A.2d at 564.
(v)'ld.'can be used for various types of authoriti€s-not only for cases. For
further guidance on the use of "id.," see de 4.1.
Constitutions
U.S.
8L1
Const. art. l, 5 8, cl. 10.
U.S. Const.
amend. XVlll, 5 1.
Wash. Const. art. l, 5 32.
Bluepages Tip: Do not use a short citation form (other than id.) for
constitutions.
For further guidance on citing constitutions, see
rule 11.
17
I
Bl2
Statutes, Rules, and Restatements
Bl2.l Full citation
Bl2.1.l Federal Statutes
A full citation of a federal statute includcs three clemcnts: (l) the official name
of the act; (2) the published sourcc in which the act can be found; and (3) a
parenthetical indicating either (i) the year the sourcc was published (used firr
codcs) or (ii) the year the statute was passed (used for session laws):
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and
Liability Act, 42 U.S.C. 5S 9601-9675 (2012).
Department of Transportation Act, Pub. L. No. 89-670,5 9,80 Stat.
931,944-47 (1966).
Bluepages Tip: Nothing is underlined in a statute citation. "Section"
is indicated by the "5" symbol, the plural of which is "55." For further
guidance concerning citation of individual sections and subsections, see
rule 3.3.
Codes and Session Laws
For statutcs, cite a current official or unofficial code, an oflicial or privately
published collection of session laws, or a secondary source. Rule l2
provides l full explanation of thesc sourccs and how to decide which one to
inclucle in your citation.
Whenever possible, cite thc current oflicial code for statutes curently in
forcc. The official code for federal statutes is the United States Code. which is
abbreviated .U.S.C.'
A citation of an official or unofficial code
will tell the rcader where
a
statute can
be found by listing: (1) the title mrmber; (2) the abbreviated name of the cocle;
(3) the section numbcrs in which the act is codilied; and (4) the year of the
cited code edition (not the ycar the act was passed). Citations of an unofficial
codc, such as an "annotated code," must also include the name of the publisher
in thc date parenthetical:
'r
u.s.c.s 1(2012).
15 U.S.C.A. 5 205 (West 2008).
Bluepages Tip: The _U.-njled Slales eode is codified once every six years.
Therefore, citations of the "U.S.C." should identify the appropriate
codifying year, such as 2012.
To cite an indiviclual provision of a statute, include thc original section number
of the provision you wish to cite following thc statutc name. Note that the
"original section numbcr" ref'ers to a particular section of the act, not to the
scction of thc code in which that provisiol"r has been codified. Thus, in the lirst
example below, "5 6" refers to scction 6 of the Administrative Procedure Act,
while "5 555" refers to section 555 of Title V of the United States Code:
Administrative Procedure Act 5 6, 5 U.S.C. S 555 (20'l 2).
18
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National Environmental Policy Act
(20't2).
riir:'.:
of
ilr-rlr.,, :i::;i :i. rr
r;r::::j';::.
qlili
1969 5 102,42U.5.C. 5 4332
Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 5 1 03, 1 7 U.S.C.A. S 1 201
(West 2008).
Cite the session laws if the official or unofficial code is unavailable or
insufficient, for example, when the statute does not yet appear in a code or
when you need to refer to the historical fact of the statute's enactment.
The official compilation of federal session laws is the Statutes at Large,
abbreviated as "Stat." A citation ofthe Statutes at Large includes the following
elements: (1) the official or popular name of the statute; (2) the public law
number, abbreviated "Pub. L. No."; (3) the section number, if any; (4) the
volume number, followed by "Stat." and the number of the first page of the act;
and (5) the year the statute was passed. Session law citations may also pincite
the particular provision of the act cited and the particular page of the session
laws on which that provision appears:
Department of Transportation Act, Pub.
931,944-47 (1966).
L. No. 89-670, S 9, 80 Stat.
Health Professions Education Extension Amendments of 1992. Pub.
L. No. 1 02-408, 1 06 Stat. 1 992.
Bluepages Tip: Omit the year parenthetical if the name of the statute
includes its year of enactment.
For guidance on how to indicate a statute 's prior or subsequent history, see
ruJ,e12.7.
State
Statutes
Bl2.l.2
For state statutes, cite an official code whenever possible. Table T1.3 lists the
official and unofficial statutory compilations of each state, with the preferred
official code listed first. Although the citation form for individual state codes
varies, a full citation of most state codes includes the following elements: (l)
the abbreviated name of the code, as listed in table T1.3; (2) the cited section
number(s); and (3) the year of the cited code edition (not the year the act was
passed). Citations of an unofficial state code must also include the name of the
publisher in the date parenthetical:
Wash. Rev. Code 5 288.20.020 (2014).
Cal. Penal Code 5 181 (West 201 1).
N.Y. Bus. Corp. Law S 717 (McKinney 2000).
For guidance on citing state session laws, see
rule
12.4.
Procedural Rules, Restatements, Uniform Acts, and
Materials
Fed.
R.
Similar
Bl2.l.3
Civ. P. 12(bX6).
Fed. R. Evid.401.
Restatement (Second) of Contracts 5 90 (Am. Law Inst.
1981).
tg
I
l::::ff;:;::J::1,:il,"l
U.S.
a(AmLaw'ns'i1e75)
Sentencing Guidelines Manual S 2D1.1(c) (U.S.
Sentencing
Comm'n 2004).
i:l:::,:iil
on citing proccdural n:les, restatcments, ancl
uniform
Hnce
Materials
Brz.l.4Federal Tax
O
O
O
:#1i""::T:f['ffi:::l]J'fl:T[",1.']',n:li;Hifi::':ilill,[
only the current ve rsion of f'cdcral tax larvs, you may omit the year ancl publishe r
from citations of thc Intemal llcvenue (irde ("|'R'C.'') and
Treasury
fffit,::T:t
ff:::ffi::,,::,
t
Rcvenue corre, you may rcrrace .,26
U.s.c.,,with
o
t
a
"t.R.c.":
26 u.s.c. s 6r
I
(2012).
becomes: l.R.C. 5 61 (2012).
O
TreasuryRegulations
l'".' l"l
Treasury
Z',',1',2',,i'r,e&A(3xa)
Determinations
Whcn citing Trclsury determinations in court documcuts and legal memoranda,
l,}frxH\:ff11';ll:.fi.;:T'[: l].*:ii::xi:::;'i;1ffi;iJi:
;*:J; ;:ffi: ;i;.H;ff:il Xil;;.Tlli ;:l:l;::: r',,ll:',1,T'l'Xl
omit the dashes from thc mling number:
Rev. Rul.
B3-137,1g83-2C.8.41.
l.R.S. P.L.R.
l.R.S.
-
19Bs).
For guiclance on citing matcrials from othcr arlministrativc agencics, sce
I
table
a
T1.2
t
sh; F;;; iiiutio,,
a
ili.Hl,;:1ixillJ.j.l"i,'iilll;ili'l*'.ffi ::"'.TT'xil:,:['JT[::*;;,i
20
o
J
Bluepages Tip: Tax Court and Board of Tax Appeals decisions are cited
as court decisions, not agency decisions. For further guidance, see table
T1.1.
nr2.2
I
I
8601012 (Sept. 30, 'l 985).
G.C.M.39,417 (5ept".30,
I
:rny short form that clearly idcntifies the sourcc.
Rules I2.10, l3.a,,rnrl 11.5
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includc tablcs illustrrting acccptablc short firrms f<rr statutcs, rcgulations, and
legislativc nrirtcrills.
Yon ml1' usc "id." to rclcr to r statutc or rcguhtion codificcl s'ithin tht: sxnlc titlc
or reguhtior] citecl in thc inrmcdiatcly p|ccccling citation:
as the statutc
(italion
itatiorr
ldL.ntical
Provision
(2006).
28 U.S.C. 5 331
ld=
s0 C.F.R. 5 10.12 (2006). ld.
l'Lrli
ld. (
for
1
Legislative
ld. Citation lor
Dff"r"ut Provisron
within
S:rnre Titk:
rd. 5 1 332.
ld. 5 10.13(c)(1).
Materials
813
A firll citltion to legislative matcrial includcs the lbllorving componcnts. tlx)ugh
not ncccss:uilv in thc firllorving orclcr: (l) tl"lc titlc <>f tlre r.uateriul; (2) the
abbrevilted name of thc legishtivc boch': (J) tltc numbcr ussigned to tltc materiall
( 1) thc nunrbcr of thc (irngress ancl/ol legislative sessiorr, lnd (5) tltc )'car of
publication.
H.R. Rep. No. 99-253,
S. Rep. No. 84-2,
at 7
pt.
(1
1,
at 54
(1
985).
955).
Enacted Federal Bill
When citing fcderal bills. inclucle (hc nxme of thc bill (if relcvxttt), thc
abbreviltecl name of thr Oongressionul chamber, the number ol tltc lrill. thc
number of thc (iongrcss, thc scction
(il rny),
ancl the ycar of pLtblic:ation:
5.1983,93rd Cong.5 10 (1973).
H.R.
8638,gsth Cong. S2(1977).
Freedom of Information Act, S. 1 160, BSth Cong. 5 1 (1965).
Digital Millennium Copyright Act,
H.R.
2281, 105th Cong. 5 6 (1997).
Unenacted Federal Bill
Protection from Personal Intrusion Act, H.R. 2448, 105th Cong. 5 2(a)
(1997).
Federal Congressional Hearing
Toxic Substances Control Act: Hearings on S. 776 Before the
Subcomm. on the Env't of the Senate Comm. on Commerce,94th
Cong. 343 (1 97s).
Federal Congressional Report
H.R. Rep. No.99-253, pt. 1, at 54 (1985).
5. Rep. No.
B4-2,at7 (1955).
State Bills and Resolutions
When citing stlte bills and rcsolutious, iuclude : (1) thc r-rame ol'thc lcgislativc
bodv, (2) the numbcr of thc bill or rcsolution, (J) thc number ol the
lcgislativ"
,",
t
body; and (4) the number ofthe legislative session. Parcnthetically indicrte the
name of thc state and thc ycar of enactnrent or publication:
H.D. 636, 1999 Leg.,
413th Sess. (Md. 1999).
'l
H.R. 89, 145th Gen. Assemb., Reg. Sess. (Ga. 1 999).
For further guidance on citing legislativc materials, sec
Bl4
rule
o
13.
Administrative and Executive Materials
Cite fbderal mles and regulations to the (i)dc of
title, section or part, and vcur:
F'ede
ral Regulations (C.F.R.) by
46 C.F.R. 5 166.01 (2009).
(litations to rules or regulations in the Fcdcral Register (Fed. Reg.) should give
the commonly used nirmc of the mle or rcgulation, the volume and ptgc on
which thc mle rtr rcgulation begins, ancl the date of the rulc or regulirtion:
Federal Acquisition Regulations for National Aeronautics and Space
Administration,55 Fed. Reg.52,782 (Dec.21, 1990) (to be codified
at 48 C.F.R. pt. 1).
For administrative adjudications, cite b1' tlte reportetl name of the lirst-listed
private party or by the oflicial subiect-mattcr ritlc:
Trojan Transp., lnc., 249 N.L.R.B. 642
(1
980).
For arbitrltirxr awards, cite xs court cases if adversan, Darties are named and
administrative adjudications if they are not:
as
Kroger Co. v. Amalgamated Meat Cutters, Local 539, 74 Lab. Arb.
Rep. (BNA) 785,787 (1980) (Doering, Arb.).
Charles P. Ortmeyer,23 Indus. Arb.272 (1980) (Stern, Arb.).
For further guidance on citinli administrativc rules and rcgulations, see
815
mle
14.
Books and Other Nonperiodic Materials
Bl5.l Full Citation
(litations
t<r b<xlks, treatiscs, pamphlets, and other nonpcriodic materials should
include the firllowing elemcnts: (1) thc volume numbcr (firr multi-volumc sets);
(2) the full nlme(s) of the author(s) as writtcn in the publication; (3) rhc ritle of
the publicrtion (underscorccl or italicized); (,1) a pincitc; and (5) a parenrherical
indicating the year of publicirtion, rhe namc of the editor (if any), and the edition
(if more than one).
l'wo authors should appcar scparated by an ampersand ("&") in thc ordcr in
which they arc listed ol-r thc publication. lf a work has morc than two authors,
you may either list all <tf the authors' nanles or list the first author's name
fbllowed bv 'et al."
Matthew Butterick, Typography for Lawyers 54 (2010).
22
McNeill & William H. McNeill, The Human Web: A Bird's-Eye View
of World History 319 (2003).
J.R.
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A Bentham Reader 101 (Mary Peter Macked., 1969).
21 Charles Alan Wriqht & Arthur R. Miller, Federal Practice and
Procedure S '1006 (3d ed. 1998).
There are special citation forms for
I
c
I
I
1
de
9s5).
15.
Short Form
Citation
815.2
Use "id." to refer to a book or other nonperiodical material cited in the
immediately preceding citation. Otherwise, use "supra." The "supra" form
consists of (1) the author's last name; (2) "supra," underlined or italicized up
to but not including the comma; and (3) a new pincite:
Full Cite
ld.
Richard Posner, How Judges
269
(2010).
t
Think
Cite
Supra Cite
204-05.
ld. at
Mary L. Dunnewold et al., Judicial See id. at
Clerkshios: A Practical Guide 77
80.
See
Dunnewold
at 80.
C.
2.35
Fleming James, Jr. & Geoffrey
Hazard, Jr., Civil Procedure 5
(sth ed. 20ol
).
-
Posner, supra,
at 204-05.
et al., supra,
(2010).
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For fuither guidance on citing to books and other nonperiodic material, see
o
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few frequently cited works:
7 Am. Jur. 2d Contracts S 74 (1964).
88 C.i.S. Trial S 192
I
:
a
Good-Faith Eargaining, Black's Law Dictionary (1Oth ed.2014).
t
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"
David Hunter et al., International Environmental Law and Policy 555
(3rd ed.2006).
t
t
t
{".
ld. S
1.7.
James &
Hazard, supra.
s 1.7.
Bluepages Tip: For further guidance on short forms, see rules 4, 1 5.10,
16.9.17.6,and 18.8.
Periodical Materials
81.6
Full citation
816'1
A full citation of periodical material includes the following elements:
(l)
the full
written in the publicatioq (2) the title of the article
(undedined or italicized); (3) the abbreviated name of the publication; (4) a
pincite; and (5) the date of publication. The basic citation may differ depending
on the type of periodicat cited. For further guidance , see rule 16.
name(s) of the author(s)
Consecutively
as
PaginatedJournals
816.1.1
Most law ioumals are paginated consecutively throughout an entire volume (i.e.,
individual issues within a volume do not begin at page " I " but rather pick up
where the previous issue left ofD. To cite material appearing in a consecutively
,
23
paginated periodical, fbllow this frrrmat: <author(s)>, <tille,afurygrk>, <vol-
ume number> <abbreviated periodical name> <first page of article>,
<pincite> (<year of publication>).
Fred R. Shapiro & Michelle Pearse, The Most-Cited Law Review
Articles of All Time, 1 I0 Mich. L. Rev. 1483, 1489 (2012).
R.H. Coase,
The Problem of Social Cost, 3 J.L. & Econ. 1, 1 (1960).
For appropdate abbrcviations of periodicirl namcs, sec table T13.
816.r.2 Nonconsecutively Paginated Journals and Magazines
Christopher Hitchens, The New Commandments, Vanity Fair, Apr.
201 l, at 1.
816.r.l Student-Wriffen Work
Natalie Cotton, Comment, The Competence of Students as Editors
ofLaw Reviews: A Response to Judge Posner,154U. Pa. L. Rev.951,
982 n.1 04 (2006).
For guiclance on citing student-written work, consult nrle 16.7.1.
816.1.4 Newspaper
Articles
Abigail Sullivan Moore, This ls Your Brain on Drugs, N.Y. Times, Oct.
29. 201 4. at A1
.
Doug Esser, UW Library Freezes Bedbugs Off Infested Books, Seattle
Times, Dec. 7,2012, at 42.
816.2 Short Form Citation
Altcr providing a full citation of a pcrioclical, you
ma_y
usc "id." or
"supra" in subscqucnt citations. Iise "id." to refcr to pcriodical matcrial
cited in the immediately prececling citation. ()therwise , use the "SUga"
fonn intnrduccd in Bluepages Iil5.2.
-
Bluepages Tip: When your document includes citations of more than
one source by the same author, include an abbreviated reference to the
title of the cited source in any suora citation.
Llewellyn, Remarks, supra, at 401-06.
817
Court and Litigation Documents
This rule f<rcuses on citltions to court documents that have becn liled as part of
thc samc case. For citations of court documcnts liled in a diffcrent case. consult
rule 1O.8.3.
817.1 Full Citation
A hlll citation of a court docurncnt includes the following elements: (l ) the name
of the document, abbrcviated whcrc appropriatc; (2) the pinpoint citation; and
24
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(3) the date of the document, if required. The citation should also include the
Electronic Case Filing (ECF) number found on PACER.
Abbreviation
817.1.1
Abbreviate the titles of court documents according to Bluepages table BT1.
Where there is an official record, such as the Record on Appeal in appellate
litigation, always abbreviate "Record" to "R." Do not abbreviate, however, when
doing so will confuse the reader:
Petitioner admits filing suit more than one year after knowledge of
the facts underlying its claim, Pet'r's Br.6, and further admits the
applicability of a one-year statute of limitations, Pet'r's Br. 7.
ln Defendant's Memorandum of Points and Authorities in Support
of Defendant's Motion for Summary Judgment, Defendant asserts
that the dangerous conditions giving rise to the accident resulted
from someone else's negligence, Def.'s Mem. Supp.5umm. J. 6, 9,
implying that Defendant was, indeed, aware of the risk. Yet, in his
Affidavit filed in support of the Motion, Defendant explicitly states
that he had no knowledge of the rising water level. Def.'s Aff. lltl
5-7; see also Jones Aff. Ex. A, at 2.
Bluepages Tip: You may enclose citations of court documents in
parentheses:
(Def.'s Resp. to Pl.'s lnterrog. No. 3.)
Pinpoint
Citations
Br7.r.2
Provide a precise reference to the cited document, such as to the page and line
on which the material appears in a deposition or fiial transcript. Us€ commas
only to avoid confusion. Separate page and line references by a colon. Page
references should not be preceded by "p.," but other subdivisions should be
identilied. You are generally not required to precede pincites with "at," though
it is customary to use 'at" in references to certain sources such as appellate
records (e.g.,
R.
at 5):
Hawkins Aff.6.
Trial Tr. vol. 2, 31.
Pet'r's 8r.6.
Clark Dep. 1 5:21 -'l 6:4.
Pls.'Am. Answer to Def.'s Countercl. 3-4.
Travis Decl. Ex. B, at 3.
R.
at 9.
Date
Br7.t.,
Provide the date of the cited document when: (1) more than one document
has the same title; (2) the date is relevant to the discussion; or (3) ifthe date is
needed to avoid confusion:
Plaintiff alleged that Defendant was driving at a rate far in excess of
the posted speed limit. Compl. fl 7. However, her sworn
testimony
25
is to the effect that she never saw the Defendant before the
accident and was thus unable to gauge his speed. Perryman Dep.
34:1 5-'18, Aug. 7, 2002;frial Tr. vol. 2, 51-52, Dec. 12, 2002.
Mr. Svensson attests that Plaintiffs president cared not about the
age of the inventory but only about its marketability. Svensson
Aff. f 5. In addition, Ms. Beatrice swears that Plaintiffs president
had the authority to waive the condition concerning the age of
the inventory, Beatrice Aff. tl 9, May 1 0, 2003, and that no other
corporate official had such authority, Beatrice Aff.n 2, June 2, 2003.
rtt7.I.4 Electronic Case Filings (ECF)
Court documcnts lilccl with thc electnrnic case managcment system emplol'cd
by PAOER for fcderll cases are assigned ckrcumcnt nuntbers. Adcl this Electronic
Casc F'ilir-rgs (ECF) number to thc citntions of electror-rically filed documents.
Feder Dep.5:30-12:10, ECF No.6.
Def.'s Mot. Summ. J. 2, ECF No. 15.
Bluepages Tip: Documents filed on PACER are imprinted with an ECF
header. lf these page numbers are different from the page numbers of
the filed document, use the page numbers of the original document.
817.2 Short Form Citation
a full citation, you may usc I short firrm if: (1) it will be clelr
to thc reader what you are citing; (2) thc firll citation falls in the same general
discussion; and (l) the readcr will hlve littlc trouble krcating the firll citation:
Aficr providing
First Reference
Succeeding Reference
App. to Pet. Cert. 137-39,ECF
No.15.
App. 137-39,
137-39.
ECF
No. 'l 5. or App.
Bluepages Tip: For court documents, id. should only be used if
significant space will be saved.
The liquid left on the floor by Defendant caused Plaintiff to lose her
balance, slip, and fall. Leach Aff. 33-39. This fall led to numerous
hospital visits costing well over 5l0,000. ld. at 52.
But: The liquid left on the floor by Defendant caused Plaintiff to lose
her balance, slip, and fall. R. at 5. This fall led to numerous hospital
visits costing well over 510,000.
818
R.
at 12.
The Internet
Blri.r Full citation
Bl8.r.r Direct Citations
26
A Full citation ofan Internct source includes: (1) thc name ofthe author(s) (if
applicrblc); (2) thc titlc of thc specilic page of the wcbsirc, such as I posring or
comment (underlinccl or italicizcd) (if applicable); (l) the ritle of thc main pa15c
o
o
;
o
o
o
a
o
o
o
o
a
t
o
o
I
t
c
I
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o
a
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o
t
I
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I
I
;
o
t
I
o
o
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o
o
o
o
of the website; (4) the date and time (if applicable); and (5) the URl. For funher
guidance on citing Intemet sourc€s, see rule 18.2:
David Lat, Movie Nioht with Justice Breyer. Above the Law (Oct.
27, 2A1 4, 3 :3 1 P M), http://a bovet h el aw.com / 201 4 / 1 O /
movie-ni g ht-with-justice-breyer/.
Fabrizio di Piazza, SCOTUSbIog on Camera: Laurence H. Tribe (Part
one), SCOTUSblog (Oct. 22, 201 4,9:53 AM), http://www.scotusblog.
com/med ialscotusblog-on-ca mera-la u rence-h-tribe-part-one/.
Eugene Kontorovich, ltaly Adopts Supreme Court's View of
ICJ Authority, Volokh Conspiracy (Oct. 28, 2014), http://www.
washin gton post.com/news/volokh-conspir acy /w p / 201 4/ 1 0 /28
italy-adopts-su preme-courts-view-of-icj-a uthority/.
/
Bluepages Tip: lf a source is available in both HTML and PDF (which
preserves the pagination of the print version), then you should only cite
to the PDF. Whenever possible, provide a pincite for Internet sources:
Ulrich Cubasch et al., Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science
Basis. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 121 (2013),
http://www.i pcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/a r5lwg l AffG i AR5Chapter0l _FlNAL.pdf.
If there is no date associated with the specific webpage, then the citation should
list the date when the website was "last modified" or "last updated" after the
URL lfthese indicators are unavailable, use the date on which you "last visited"
the webpage:
Yahoo! Home Page, http://www.yahoo.com (last visited May 16,
20't4).
Parallel
Citations
BlE.l.2
For printed material, you may provide a parallel citation to an Intemet source
:
Am. Mining Cong. v. U.S. Army Corps of Enq'rs. No. ClV. 4.93-1754
55H (D.D.C.
Ja
n. 23, 1997),
http://www.wetlands.com/fed/tullochl.
htm.
Short Form
Citation
BlA.2
After providing a full citation to an Intemet sourc€, you may use "id." or "supra"
in subsequent citations per rules 4 and 18.8(a):
Lat, supra.
Services
819
Cite services by volume, abbreviated title, publisher, subdivision, and date. If
the source is a case, include the abbreviated name of the court in the same
parenthetical as the date:
ln re Smithfield Estates. Inc., [1985-1986 Transfer Binder] Bankr. L.
Rep. (CCH) [i70,707 (Bankr. D.R.l. Aug. 9, 1985).
SEC v. Tex.
lnt'l Airlines ,29 Fed.
R.
Serv. 2d (West) 408 (D.D.C.
I
979).
27
Kovacs v. Comm'r,74 A.F.f .R.2d (RlA) 354 (6th Cir. 1994).
Whcn citing loosclcaf matcrial that will cvcntullll, be tround, nclcl the nlme of
thc bountl firnn in parcntltcses il'it is cliffl'rent fiom thc name of the l<xrseleaf
form; inclucle thc volume of the bouncl firrm if avail:rble
Marietta Concrete Co., 3 Lab. Rel. Rep. (BNA) (84 Lab. Arb. Rep.)
1 158 (May 7,1985).
Iror hrrthcr gr.riclance on citing scfl/iccs, sec
rule t9.
B2O Foreign Materials
Whcn citinla to anl'non-[].S. suurcc, whethcr in Iinglish or in another language
indicate the jurisdiction ptrcnthetically tt the cn(l ofthe citation.
,
For fbreign commou law clses, indicate the court parcnthetically:
R v. Lockwood , (1782\ 99 Eng. Rep. 379 (K.8.).
Oitc forcign statutes front comr.non luw countries like statutes of the
Ilnited Kingcbm (table 'f 2.42 United Kingdom), noting rhc iuriscliction
parcntheticxlly at thc end of thc citation:
Emergency Powers Act (Act No.3/1976) (lr.).
For firrthcr guidancc on citir-rg fbrcign sourccs, sec
B2l
rule 20.
International Materials
Founding Documents:
U.N. Charter art. 94, fl r.e.
Statute ofthe International Tribunal for the Law ofthe Sea art. r, fl
2, Dec.10, 1982,l'833 U.N.T.S.56r.
Multilateral Treaties:
United Nations Convention on the Law ofthe Sea, Dec. ro, 1982,
r833 U.N.T.S. 397.
Organization of American States, American Convention on Human
Rights, Nov. 22,t969, O.A.S.T.S. No. 36, rr44 U.N.T.S. rz3.
Bilateral Treaties:
Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation, Japan-U.S., art. X,
Apr. z, t953,4 U.S.T. eo63.
Agreement Concerning Payments for Certain Losses Suffered
During World War ll, Fr.-U.5., Jan. r8, 2oo1, Temp. State Dep't No.
ot36,2ootWL 4t6465.
International
Cases:
The stlndard citation fbr an intcrnational law casc include s: ( I ) thc name of casc;
(2) thc case number; (J) the reportcr (if an)); (.1) thc charactcrization of the
2g
dccision (iudgmcnt, provisional mcasurcs, crc.); (5) a pincite (using paragrlph
o
o
o
o
t
t
a
o
o
a
t
o
o
I
o
I
o
o
o
o
t
o
o
I
o
o
o
t
o
o
t
o
o
o
o
o
I
I
a
I
o
E
,r
.i.""::'
J! r
*'"i
+
[^,",u,,].-
numbers, if available, rather than page numbers); and (6) a parenthetical with
the date, prefaced by name of court if not otherwise evident from the citation:
Delimitation of Maritime Boundary in Gulf of Maine Area (Can./U.S.),
Judgment, 1982 l.C.J. Rep. 560, tl 22 (Nov. 5).
Prosecutor v. Katanga, ICC-01 /04-01 /07 -3436- Anxl, Minority
opinion of Judge Wyngaert, fl 320 (Mar. 7 ,2014).
For more on how to cite intemational sources. see
rule 21.
THE BLUEPAGES TABTES
Court Documents
BT1
This table provides suggested abbreviations for words commonly found in
the titles of court documents. Use these abbreviations in citations to court
documents according to Bluepages Bl7.l.l ancl 817.2. This table also
indicates certain words that should not be abbreviated. Unless otherwise
indicated, plurals are formed by adding the letter "s."
Words of seven or more letters not appearing
in this table may
also be
abbreviated, so long as the abbreviation is unambiguous.
Omit all articles and prepositions from an abbreviated title, unless the result will
confuse the reader. Other extraneous words may also be omitted, so long as the
reader can unambiguously identi$ the cited document.
Admission
Affldavit
Admis.
Affirm
Affirm
Amended
Answer
Appeal
Am.
Defendant ['s]
Defendants [']
Demurrer
Aff.
Dem.
Answer
Deny [ing]
Deposition
Appeal
oirygygll___Dlsc.
_
_4lq_q!19.
-App.__
- -4PP-"]9",-1pegq=_
,4LpS]tj"t-
Def. ['s]
Defs. [']
pllgl t
__4 s
___
_
Den.
Dep.
__
Dismiss
Dismiss
Docket
Docket
Document
Doc.
Application
Appl.
Evidence
Evid.
Argument
Arg.
Exhibit
Ex.
Attachment
Attach.
Grant
Grant
Attorney
Brief
A,.',y
Hearing
Hr'g
Br.
Injunction
Inj.
Certiorari
Cert.
Instruction
lnstr.
Compel
Complaint
Counterclaim
Compel
I!|..qgltgE,*-
lI-el"l9_sj_
Court
ct.
Judgment
Limine
Lim.
Cross-claim
Cross-cl.
Memorandum
Mem.
Minute
Min.
Compl.
Countercl.
_
J"T!4pp91.1* _L4
29
O
Mot.
Ileport and
obj.
Ile comme nclation
Op.
Ii.eport(]
opp'n
l{cqucst
Req.
()rcler
Order
l{esponclent
Resp't
tition
Pctitioncr I'sl
Pcririo[efs ['l
Pet.
Response
Resp.
Pet'r ['s]
Pet'rs [']
Ste_v
Stay
Subl;oena
Subpoena
Summaq
Summ.
Pls. [']
Sr.pplnrcnt Ial]
Suppl.
P.&A.
Srrl)p()ft
supp.
)uppfcss
Su
TRO
Nl()tk)n
()bicction
()pinion
()pposition
l)e
PlaintilT l'sl
I']laintifl.s l'l
Pl. ['s]
Points ancl
Authoritics
BT2
r
Rep.
Prcliminary
Prelim.
T'cmp<-lrary
l)rocluc lc, tionl
Produc.
Restraining
Quash
Quash
l{e corrsicle
r:rtion
R.
Rehcadng
Reh'g
llcply
Reply
ppress
()rcler
'l-ranscript
Test.
'fr
Vcrihccl
v.5.
1'estimot'r,v
Recons.
Rccord
R.&R.
Stilte
rncnt
Jurisdiction-Specific Citation Rules and Style Guides
This tablc lists krcal court mlcs lrrcl othcr ruthorities govcrning legal citntions.
Whilc this list is interrcled to l)c as ac:cumtc lncl comprchensive as possible, it
is inrprxtant filr practitirlncrs to check thc most rccent vcrsioll of krcal rules on
ofticial couft websites.
BT'2.1 Fecleral Courts
United States Court ofAppeals for the First Circuit
1st Cir. R. Notice
1st Cir. R. 32.1.0
to Litigants (cite as "Loc.
R.
")
(citation of unpublished opinions)
st Cir. R. 32.2 (citation to State or Commonwealth Courts and to
unpublished articles)
'I
Bankruptcy Appellate Panel for the First Circuit
l st Cir. Bankr. App. Panel
R.
8001-1(a) (shall cite as
"1
st Cir. BAP L.R.
_")
United States Court ofAppeals for the Second Circuit
2d Cir.
R.
1.1 (cite as
2d Cir.
R.
32.'l .1
"(LR
")
(citation of summary orders)
United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit
30
_
3d Cir.
R.
1.2 (shall cite as "3d Cir. L.A.R.
3d Cir.
R.
28.3 (citation of various types of legal authority)
(2008)")
t
o
o
I
I
t
o
t
o
o
o
o
o
o
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o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
rl
3d Cir. R. 1 13.13 (citation of Internet sources)
United States Court ofAppeals for the Fourth Circuit
4th Cir.
R. 32.1
(citation of unpublished opinions)
United States Court ofAppeals for the Fifth Circuit
5th Cir. R.28.7 ,47.5 (citation of unpublished opinions)
United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit
6th cir. R. 1 (cite as "6 cir.
R.
_")
6th Cir. R. 32.1(a) (citation of unpublished opinions)
Bankruptcy Appellate Panel for the Sixth Circuit
6th Cir. Bankr. App. Panel
LBR
R.
8018 - 1 (shall cite as "6th Cir. BAP
R.
8010 - 1(c) (citation of unpublished
_")
6th Cir. Bankr. App. Panel
opinions)
United States Court ofAppeals for the Seventh Circuit
7th Cir.
32.1 (citation of unpublished opinions)
R.
United States Court ofAppeals for the Eighth Circuit
8th Cir.
32.1A (citation of unpublished opinions)
R.
United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit
9th Cir. R.36-3 (citation of unpublished opinions)
Bankruptcy Appellate Panel for the Ninth Circuit
9th Cir. Bankr. App. Panel
R.
8018-2 (shall cite as "9th Cir. BAP
R.
United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit
1
Oth Cir. R. 1 .3 (should cite as
1Oth Cir. R. 32.1
"
loth Cir.
-")
R.
-")
(citation of unpublished opinions)
Bankruptcy Appellate Panel for the Tenth Circuit
l Oth Cir. Bankr. App. Panel R. 8018-1 1 (may cite as "1 Oth Cir. BAP L.
R.
_")
1Oth Cir. Bankr. App. Panel R. 8018-6
(citation of unpublished
opinions)
United States Court ofAppeals for the Eleventh Circuit
th Cir.
1
1
1
1th Cir.
R.
Title Page (cite as
R. 28-1
"1 I th
cir.
R.
-")
(k) (citations shall comply with The Bluebook or the
ALWD Citation Manual)
1
1th Cir.
R.
36-2 (citation of unpublished opinions)
United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia
D.C. Cir. R. 28(b)
(citation of various types of legal authority)
(citation of rulings under review)
D.C. Cir. R. 28(aXl XB)
D.C. Cir. R. 32.1(a)
(citation of published opinions and statutes)
31
D.C. Cir. R. 32.1(b)
(citation of unpublished opinions)
D.C. Cir. Handbook
of Practice and Internal Procedures LD (cite local
rules as "D.C. Cir. Rule
_")
of Ptactice and Interna
(citation of various types of legal authority)
D.C. Cir. Handbook
lX.A.8
United States Court ofAppeals for the Federal Circuit
Fed. Cir.
R.
2B(e) (citation of cases)
Fed. Cir. R. 32.1
(citation of nonprecedential opinions or orders)
United States District Court for the Middle District of Alabama
M.D. Ala. Civ. R. 1.1(a) (should cite civil rules as "M.D. Ala. LR
(should cite criminal rules as "M.D. Ala. LCrR
\
_")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Middle District of Alabarna
Bankr. M.D. Ala. R. 1000-1 (shall cite as "LBR
_,
Bankr. M.D. Ala.")
United States District Court for the Southern District of Alabama
S.D. Ala. R. 1.1(a) (may cite as "SD ALA LR
_")
_")
S.D. Ala. Adm. R. 1 (may cite as "SD ALA LAR
United States District Court for the District of Alaska
D. Alaska Adm. R. (a)-1 (may cite as "D.Ak. LAR
D. Alaska Civ. R. 85.1 (may cite as "D.Ak. L.R.
D. Alaska Civ. R. 7.1(c)
_")
_")
(citation of unpublished opinions)
D. Alaska Crim. R. 61.1 (may cite as "D.Ak. LCrR.
D. Alaska Habeas Corpus R.
1
.1
_")
(b) (may cite as "D.Ak. HCR
D. Alaska Mag. R. i (a) (may cite as "D.Ak.LMR
_'l
_")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Alaska
Bankr. D. Alaska R. 1001-1(e) (may cite as "AK LBR
_")
United States District Court for the District of Arizona
D. Ariz. R. Foreword (may cite
criminal rules as "LRCrim
civil rules as "LRCiv _") (may cite
_")
United States Bankmptcy Court for the District of Arizona
D. Ariz. R. Foreword (may cite as "LRBankr
_")
United States District Court for the Central District of California
C.D. Cal. R.
1
1-3.9 (citation of various types of legal authority)
C.D. Cal. Adm. & Mar. R. A.3 (may cite as "LAR
C.D. Cal. Bankr. App. R.
R.
_")
Footnote 1 (should cite as C.D. Cal. L. Bankr.
_")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Central District of California
Bankr. C.D. Cal. R. 1001-1(a) (may cite as "LBR
Bankr. C.D. Cal.
32
authority)
R.
_")
9013-2(c) (citation of various types of legal
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
frll
r,r
r
i
United States District Court for the Eastern District of California
E.D. Cal. R. 1 -100(a) (may cite as "1.R.
E.D. Cal. R. 5-1 33(i)
_")
(citation of various types of legal authority)
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Eastern District ofCalifornia
Bankr. E.D. Cal. R. 1 001-1 (a) (may cite as "LBR
-")
United States District Court for the Norrthern District of California
N.D. Cal. Adm. & Mar. R. 1-1 (should cite as
"Admir.
L.R.
N.D. Cal. Civ. R. 1-1 (should cite as "Civil L.R.
-'l
-') of legal authority)
(citation of various types
N.D. Cal. Civ. R.3-4(e) (citation of uncertified opinions)
N.D. Cal. Civ. R. 3-4(d)
N.D. Cal. Crim. R. 1-1 (should cite as "Crim. L.R.
-")
N.D. Cal. Habeas Corpus R.2254-1 (should cite as "Habeas L.R.
N.D. Cal. Pat. R. 1-1 (should cite as "Patent L.R.
-")
-")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Northern District of
California
Bankr. N.D. Cal. R. 1001-1(b) (cite as "B.L.R.
-")
United States District Court for the Southern District of California
5.D. Cal. Civ. R. 1.1(a) (may cite as "CivLR
5.D. Cal. Civ. R. 5.1 (l)
-") and regulations)
(citation of federal statutes
5.D. Cal. Crim. R. 1.1(a) (may cite as "CrimLR
-")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of
California
Bankr. 5.D. Cal. R. 1001-
l
(shall cite as "LBR
-")
United States District Court for the District of Colorado
D. Colo. Civ. R. 1.1(a) (shall cite as "D.C.COLO.LCivR
D. Colo. Civ. R. 7.1(e) (citations in
motions)
-")
D. Colo. Crim. R. 1.1(a) (shall cite as "D.C.COLO.LCrR
-")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Colorado
Bankr. D. Colo. R. 1001-1(b) (shall cite as "L.B.R.
-")
United States District Court for the District of Connecticut
D. Conn. Civ. R. 1(a) (may cite as "D. Conn. L. Civ. R.
-")
-")
D. Conn. Crim. R. 1(a) (may cite as "D. Conn. L. Cr. R.
United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Connecticut
Bankr. D. Conn. R. 1 001-1 (a) (may cite as "D. Conn. LBR
United States District Court for the District of Delaware
D. Del. R. 1.1(a) (shall cite as "D. Del. LR
D. Del.
R.
-")
-")
7.1.3(aX5) (citations shall be made in accordance with The
Bluebook)
33
iii:i=
o
lq;trlifit!;::;l,\{r{', r1i; i.ri;jlra:}{i litrJ;:r lllti :r;iit: {irnri..r
D. Del.
R.
t
2.1.3(aX6) (citation of earlier-filed papers)
D. Del. R. 7.1.3(a)(7)
(citation of unpublished opinions)
United $tates Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware
Bankr. D. Del. R. 1001 -1 (a) (may cite as "Del. Bankr. L.R. _")
Bankr. D. Del.
R.
7007-2(aXv) (citations acceptable if in accordance
with The Bluebook)
Bankr. D. Del. R. 7007-2(aXvi) (citation of earlier-filed papers)
Bankr. D. Del. R. 7007-2(a)(vii) (citation of unreported opinions)
United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Columbia
Bankr. D.C. R. 1001-1 (a) (may cite as "LBR
_"
or "D.C. LBR
_")
United States District Court for the Middle District of Florida
M.D. Fla. R. 7.01(b) (shall cite supplemental rules for certain
admiralty and maritime claims as "Supplemental Rule _") (shall
cite local rules as "Local Rule _") (shall cite local admiralty and
maritime rules as "Local Admiralty Rule _")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Middle District of Florida
Bankr. M.D. Fla. R. 1001-'l (e) (shall cite as "Local Rules
_")
United States District Court for the Northern District of Ftorida
N.D. Fla. R. 1.1 (may cite as "N.D. Fla. Loc.
R.
_")
A(2Xa) (shall cite supplemental rules for
certain admiralty and maritime claims as "Supplemental Rule _")
N.D. Fla. Adm. & Mar.
R.
N.D. Fla. Adm. & Mar.
R.
A(2Xb) (shall cite local rules as "Local Rule
-,)
N.D. Fla. Adm. & Mar. R. A(2Xc) (shall cite local admiralty and
maritime rules as "Local Admiralty Rule _")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Northern District of Florida
Bankr. N.D. Fla. R. 1001 -1 (A) (may cite as "N.D. Fla. LBR
_")
United States District Court for the Southern District of Florida
S.D. Fla. R. 1.1(a) (cite as "S.D. Fla. L.R.
_")
5.D. Fla. Adm. & Mar. R. 2(a) (shall cite supplemental rules for certain
admiralty and maritime claims as "Supplemental Rule _")
S.D. Fla. Adm. & Mar. R. 2(b) (shall
rules as "Local Admiralty Rule
cite local admiralty and maritime
_")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Middle District of Georgia
Bankr. M.D. Ga.
R.
Title Page (shall cite as "M.D. Ga.
LBR
_")
United States District Court for the Northern District of Georgia
N.D. Ga. Civ. R. 1.1 (may cite as "LR
---
NDGa")
N.D. Ga. Crim. R. 1.1(A) (may cite as "LCrR
NDGa")
- _")
N.D. Ga. Patent R. 1.1 (may cite as "Patent L.R.
34
O
o
o
a
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
t
o
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o
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o
o
o
o
a
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
t
o
o
o
o
o
,i1l,ri,'t{irXillt.\iiIr'{llir
{.
it;liiaiii }il,ilo,i
1liui
.'tl;iri'trrririr"r f,lffiitl
irii,l.Jt
ilrtrili,
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Northern District of Georgia
Bankr. N.D. Ga. R. 1001-1 (may cite as "BLR
_")
United States Banftruptcy Court for the Southern District of Georgia
Bankr. S.D. Ga. R. 13 (citation of Internet sources)
United States District Court for the District of Hawaii
D. Haw. R. 1.1 (should cite as
"LR_" or "CrimLR-")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Hawaii
Bankr. D. Haw. R. 1001-l (a) (may cite as "LBR
_")
United States District Court for the District of Idaho
D. ldaho Civ. R. 1.1(a) (may cite as "Dist. ldaho Loc. Civ.
R.
_")
R. _")
D. ldaho Crim. R. 1.1(a) (may cite as "Dist. ldaho Loc. Crim.
United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Idaho
Bankr. D. ldaho R. 1001.1(a) (shall cite as "LBR
_")
United States District Court for the Central District of Illinois
C.D. lll. R. 1.1 (may cite as "CDIL-LR
_")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Central District
C.D. lll. R. 1.1 (may cite as "CDIL-LR
oflllinois
_")
United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois
N.D. lll. Crim. R. 1.1 (may cite as "LCrR.
_")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Northern District of Illinois
Bankr. N.D. lll. R. 1 001-2(A) (cite as "Local Bankruptcy Rules")
United States District Court for the Southern District of Illinois
S.D. lll. R. 1.1(a) (encouraged
to cite as "SDIL-LR
-")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of lllinois
Bankr. 5.D. lll. R. 1001(A) (shall cite as "5.D. lll. LBR
_")
United States District Court for the Northern District of Indiana
N.D. Ind. R. 1.1(a) (may cite as "N.D. Ind. L.R.
-")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Northern District of Indiana
Bankr. N.D. lnd. R. 1001-1(a) (may cite as "N.D. Ind. L.B.R.
B--")
United States District Court for the Southern District of Indiana
5.D. Ind. R. i -1(a) (may cite as "5.D. Ind. L.R.
-")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of Indiana
Bankr. S.D. Ind.
R.
9029-1(a) (may cite as "S.D. Ind.
B--")
United States District Court for the Northern District of lowa
N.D. & 5.D. lowa Civ. R. I (a) (shall cite as "LR
-")
lS
N.D. & S.D. lowa Civ. R. 10(e)
(citation of statutes)
N.D. & S.D. lowa Crim. R. 1(a) (shall cite as "LCrR
-")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Northern District of Iowa
Bankr. N.D. lowa 9004-1(a) (may cite as "Local Rule
-"
or "1.R.
United States District Court for the Southern District of Iowa
-")
N.D. & S.D. lowa Civ. R. 1(a) (shall cite as "LR
N.D. & S.D. lowa Civ. R. 10(e)
-")
(citation of statutes)
N.D. & 5.D. lowa Crim. R. 1(a) (shall cite as "LCrR
t
-")
United States District Court for the District of Kansas
D. Kan. R. 1.1(d) (should cite as "D. Kan. Rule
_")
D. Kan.
R.
7.6(c) (citation of unpublished opinions)
D. Kan.
R.
83.1.2(a) (citation of standing orders)
United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Kansas
Bankr. D. Kan. R. 1001.1(b) (should cite as "D. Kan. LBR
Bankr. D. Kan.
R.
-")
9013.1(d) (citation of unpublished opinions)
Bankr. D. Kan.
R.
9029.2(a) (citation of standing orders)
United States District Court for the Eastern District of Kentucky
Joint Ky. Civ. Prac. R. 85.1 (may cite as "LR _")
Joint Ky. Crim. Prac. R. 60.1 (may cite as "LCrR
_")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Eastern District of Kentucky
Bankr. E.D. Ky. R. 100'l -1 (may cite as "KYEB
LBR
")
United States District Court for the Western District of Kentucky
Joint Ky. Civ. Prac. R. 85.1 (may cite as "LR _")
Joint Ky. Crim. Prac. R. 60.1 (may cite as "LCrR
_")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Western District of Kentucky
Bankr. W.D. Ky.
R.
5001-1(b) (shall cite as "W. D. Ky. L.B.R.
_")
United States District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana
E.D. La. Civ. R. Preamble (may cite
admiralty rules as "LAR _")
civil rules as "LR ,__") (may cite
E.D. La. Crim. R. Preamble (may cite as
"LCrR
")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana
Bankr. E,D. La. R. 1001-1(B) (may cite as "1.R. _" or "Local Rule
United States District Court for the Middle District of Louisiana
M.D. La.
R.
Preamble (may cite civil rules as "LR -, ") (may cite
_") (may cite criminal rules as "LcrR
admiralty rules as "LAR
United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Maine
Bankr. D. Me. R. 1001-i (mav cite as "D. Me.
36
LBR
")
o
o
o
o
o
-")
-")
a
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
a
t
I
o
a
I
o
o
I
o
I
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
United States District Court for the District of Maryland
D. Md. Adm. R. A(2) (may cite as " LAR
_")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Maryland
D. Md. Admin. Order 07-02 (cite as "MD LOCAL BANKRUPTCY
RULES')
United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts
D. Mass. R. 1.1 (shall cite as "LR, D. Mass
_"
or "LR _")
United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan
E.D. Mich. R. 1.1(a) (may cite
civil rules as "E. D. Mich.
LR
_")
(may
cite criminal rules as "E.D.Mich. LCrR _")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Eastern District of Michigan
Bankr. E.D. Mich.
R.
9029-1(b) (shall cite as "E.D. Mich. LBR
_")
United States District Court for the Western District of Michigan
W.D. Mich. Civ. R. 1.2 (may cite as "W.D. Mich. LCivR
W.D. Mich. Crim. R. 1.2 (may cite as "W.D. Mich.
_")
LCrR-")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Westem District of Michigan
Bankr. W.D. Mich. R. 1001(b) (may cite as "LBR
-")
United States District Court for the District of Minnesota
D. Minn. R. 1.1(a) (may cite as "LR
or "D. Minn.
LR
-"
-")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Minnesota
R. 9029-1(d) (may cite rules as "Local Rule
cite forms as "Local Form _")
Bankr. D. Minn.
-")
(may
United States District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri
E.D. Mo. R. 1.01 (may cite as "E.D.Mo. L.R.
E.D. Mo. R. 2.16
-")
(citation of Internet sources)
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Easterar District of Missouri
Bankr. E.D. Mo. R. 1001(A) (shall cite as "1.R.
-"
United States District Court for the Western District of Missouri
W.D. Mo. R. Preface (should cite as "Local Rule
United States District
or "1.R.
-"
Court for the District of Montana
D. Mont. R. 1.1(a) (may cite civil rules as "1.R.
rules as "1.R. CR _")
-")
-")
(may cite criminal
Mont. R. 1.5(c) (citations shall comply with The Bluebook or the
ALWD Citation Manual) (citation of cases and Internet sources)
D.
United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Montana
Bankr. D. Mont. R. 1001 -1 (a) (shall cite rules as "Mont. LBR
cite forms as "Mont.
LBF
")
-")
(shall
37
I
o
o
o
R. 5005-2(aX7) (citations shall comply with The
Bluebook or the ALWD Citation Manual)
Bankr. D. Mont.
United States District Court for the District of Netrraska
D. Neb. Gen. R. 1.1(a) (cite as "NEGenR
D. Neb. Civ. R. 10.1(aX4)
D. Neb. Civ.
-") sources)
(citation of Internet
85.1 (may cite as "NECivR
R.
t
-")
D. Neb. Crim. R. 49.2(a)(4) (citation of Internet sources)
D. Neb. Crim.
R.
61.1 (may cite as "NECrimR
-")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Nebraska
Bankr. D. Neb. R. 1001-'l (A) (shall formally cite as "Neb. R. Bankr.
") (may also cite as "Local Rule _")
P
United States District Court for the District of Nevada
D. Nev. Civ.
7-3 (citation of various types of legal authority)
R.
D. Nev. Crim.
R.
47-B (citation of various types of legal authority)
United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Nevada
Bankr. D. Nev. R. 1001 (a) (may cite as "LR _")
United States District Court for the District of New Hampshire
D.N.H. Civ. R. 1.1(a) (shall cite as "LR
D.N.H. Civ. R. 5.3
_")
(citation of cases)
_")
(shall cite as "SPR _")
D.N.H. Crim. R. 1.1(a) (shall cite as "LCrR
D.N.H. Pat. R. 1.1(a)
United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of New Hampshire
Bankr. D.N.H. R. Preface (shall cite as "LBR
_")
Bankr. D.N.H. R. 1050-1 (citation of cases)
Bankr. D.N.H. R.9029-2 (cite administrative orders)
United States District Court for the District of New Jersey
D.N.J. Civ. R.9.2(aX2) (may cite
"LAMR
admiralty and maritime rules as
_")
D.N.J. Civ. R. 85.1 (may cite as "L.Civ.R.
D.N.J. Crim. R.
60.'l (may cite as "L.Cr.R.
_")
_")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of New Jersey
Bankr. D.N.J. R. 1001-1 (shall cite as "District of New Jersey Local
Bankruptcy Rules, D.N.J. LBR _")
United States District Court for the District of New Mexico
D.N.M. Civ. R. 1.1 (cite as "D.N.M.LR-Civ.
D.N.M. Crim. R. 1.1 (cite as "D.N.M.LR-Cr.
_")
_")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of New Mexico
Bankr. D.N.M. R. Preface (cite as "NM
38
LBR \
o
I
o
o
O
o
o
I
t
o
o
o
o
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O
o
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,$lilr'i:;*{itil,'r,l h$rr:rtlrt {"ilirrllrrrt
iilrl,
,r,r{ l'[1
{' ;i{fi":1r, ;;rliill
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Eastern District of New York
Bankr. E.D.N.Y. R. 1001-1(bxii) (shall cite as "E.D.N.Y. LBR
-")
United States District Court for the Northern District of New York
N.D.N.Y. R. 1.1 (shall cite as "1.R.
-")
Crim. P. 1.1 (shall cite as "1. R. Cr. P.
N.D.N.Y. Adm. & Mar. R. (aX3) (may cite as "LAR
N.D.N.Y.
R.
-")
-")
N.D.N.Y. Patent R. 1.4 (shall cite as "1. Pat. R.
-")
Bankruptcy Court for the Northern District of New
United States
York
Bankr. N.D.N.Y. R. 1001-1(a) (may cite as "Local Bankruptcy Rule
or "LBR
-")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New
-"
o
I
o
York
O
United States District Court for the Eastern District of North Carolina
I
o
o
I
o
t
o
o
o
I
Bankr. S.D.N.Y. R. 1 001 - l (a) (shall cite as "LBR
-")
United States District Court for the Western District of New York
W.D.N.Y. Civ. R. 1.1 (shall cite as "1.R. Civ.
P.
-")
W.D.N.Y. Civ. R.56(aX3) (citation of evidence)
W.D.N.Y. Crim. R. 1(a) (shall cite as "L.R. Crim.
P.
E.D.N.C. Civ. R. 1.1 (shall cite as "Local Civil Rule
E.D.N.C. Civ.R.7.2
(citation of opinions)
-")
-")
E.D.N.C. Crim. R. 1.1 (shall cite as "Local Criminal Rule
(citation of opinions)
E.D.N.C. Crim. R. 47.2
-")
E.D.N.C. Pat. R. 301.1 (should cite as "Local Civil Rule
E.D.N.C. Adm. & Mar. R. A(1) (shall cite as "Local
-") Rule
Admiralty
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Eastern District ofNorth
Carolina
Bankr. E.D.N.C.
R.
Preface (will cite as "E.D.N.C. LBR
-")
-")
United States District Court for the Middle District of North Carolina
Title Page (cite as "LR
-")
M.D.N.C. Civ. R. 7.2 (citation of opinions)
M.D.N.C. Crim. R. Title Page (cite as "LCrR
M.D.N.C. Civ.
R.
M.D.N.C. Pat. R. 101
.
l
-")
-")
for the District of North Dakota
(should cite as "LR
United States District Court
D.N.D. R. Preface (may cite general rules as "D.N.D. Gen. L. R.
(may cite criminal rules
(may cite civil rules as "D.N.D. Civ. L. R.
as "D.N.D. Crim. L. R.
-")
-")
-")
39
I
United States District Court for the Northern District of Ohio
or "LR
civil rules as "Local Rule
-" or
(shall cite admiralty rules as "Local Supplemental Rule
N.D. Ohio Civ. R. 1.1(b) (shall cite
_")
"LSuppR
_")
N.D. Ohio Crim. R. 1.1(b) (shall cite as "Local Criminal Rule
-"
_" or
"LCrR
-") Pat. R. 'l .'l (should cite as "1.
Ohio
N.D.
P.
R.
")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Northern District of Ohio
Bankr. N.D. Ohio R. 1001-1(b) (shall cite as "Local Bankruptcy Rule
_"
or "LBR
United States District Court for the Southern District of Ohio
_")
5.D. Ohio Civ. R. 7.2(b) (citation of various types of legal authority)
I.l(a) (may cite
S.D. Ohio Crim. R.
as "S. D. Ohio Crim. R.
_")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District ofOhio
Bankr. S.D. Ohio
R.
9029-1(a) (may cite as "Local Rule _" or "LBR
R.
9013-2(b) (citation of unpublished opinions)
_")
Bankr. S.D. Ohio
United States District Court for the Eastern District of Oklahoma
E.D. Okla. Civ. R. 1.2(e)
E.D. Okla.
(may cite as
"LCvR
Crim. R. i.1(A) (cite as "LCrR
")
_")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Eastern District of Oklahoma
Bankr. E.D. Okla. R. 1001-1 (B) (may cite as "Bankr. E.D. Okla. LR
"LR
_"
or "Local
Rule
_"
or
')
United States District Court for the Northern District of Oklahoma
_")
_")
N.D. Okla. Civ. R. 1.2(e) (may cite as "LCvR
N.D. Okla. Crim. R. 1.1 (may cite as "LCrR
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Northern District of
Oklahoma
Bankr. N.D. Okla. R. 1001-1(B) (may cite as "Bankr. N.D. Okla. LR
or "LR _" or "Local Rule _")
_"
United States District Court for the Western District of Oklahoma
W.D. Okla. Civ. R. 1.2(d) (may cite as "LCvR
_")
_")
W.D. Okla. Crim. R. 1.2(e) (may cite as "LCrR
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Western District of Oklahoma
Bankr. W.D. Okla. R. 1001-1(B) (may cite as "Local Rule
United States District Court for the District of Oregon
D. Or. R. 1.3
40
(will cite as
"LR
')
_")
o
o
o
O
_")
S.D. Ohio Civ. R. 1.1(a) (may cite as "S. D. Ohio Civ. R.
t
o
I
o
I
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
t
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
t
I
o
a
o
I
o
I
o
I
o
o
I
o
I
I
o
".
United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Oregon
Bankr. D. Or. R. 1001-1(a) (must cite as "LBR
_")
United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania
E.D. Pa. Crim. R. 1.1(b) (may cite as "Local Criminal Rule
_")
-"
or "L.C.R.
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Eastern District of
Pennsylvania
Bankr. E.D. Pa. R. 1 001 -1 (b) (shall cite rules as "Local Eankruptcy
Rule _" or "L.B.R. _") (shall cite forms as "L.B.F.
-\
United States Bankruptcy Court for the illiddle District of
Pennsylvania
Bankr. M.D. Pa. R. 1001-1(b) (may cite rules as "Local Bankruptcy
Rule _" or "L.B.R. _") (may cite forms as "L.B.F.
-")
United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsvlvania
_")
_")
W.D. Pa. Adm. R. (aX3) (may cite as "LAR _")
W.D. Pa. Pat. R. 1.2 (may cite as "LPR _")
W.D. Pa. Civ. R. 1.1(A) (may as "LCvR
W.D. Pa. Crim. R. 1 (may cite as "LCrR
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Western District of
Pennsylvania
Bankr. W.D. Pa. R. 1001-'l (shall cite as "W.PA.LBR
-")
United States District Court for the District of Rhode Island
D.R.l. R. 101(a) (shall cite as "Local Rules" or "DRl LR
-'J
-")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Rhode Island
D.R.l. Adm. R. A(3) (may cite as "LAW
Bankr. D.R.l. R. 1001- l(a) (shall cite as "R.1. LBR
-")
United States District Court for the District of South Carolina
D.S.C. Civ. R. 1.01 (shall
(D.S.C.)")
cite as "Local Civ. Rule
(shall
"Local
D.S.C.")
Crim.
Rule
cite as
D.S.C. Crim. R. 1.01
-
-
United States Bankruptry Court for the District of South Carolina
Bankr. D.S.C. R. 1001-1(a) (may cite as "SC LBR
R.
_")
-"
or "Bankr. D.S.C.
United States District Court for the District of South Dakota
D.S.D. Civ. R. 1.1(A) (shall cite as "D.S.D. Civ. LR
-")
-")
Bankruptcy Court for the District of South Dakota
D.S.D. Crim. R. 1.1(A) (shall cite as "D.S.D. Crim. LR
United States
Bankr. D.S.D. R. 1001-1 (shall cite as "Bankr. D.S.D.
R.
-")
United States District Court for the Eastern District ofTennessee
E.D.
Tenn. R. 1.1(a) (may cite as "E.D. Tenn. L.R.
-")
41
E.D.
Tenn. R. 7.4 (citation of various types of authority)
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Eastern District ofTennessee
Bankr. E.D. Tenn. R. 1001-1 (b) (may cite as "E.D. Tenn. LBR
-")
United States District Court for the Middle District of Tennessee
M.D. Tenn.
R. 7.0
1
(e) (citation of various types of legal authority)
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Middle District of Tennessee
Bankr. M.D. Tenn.
R.
9029-1(b) (shall cite as "LBR
_")
United States District Court for the Western District of Tennessee
W.D. Tenn. Civ. R. 1.1(a) (shall cite
criminal rules as
"LCrR ')
civil rules as "LR _1 (shall cite
United States Ban*ruptcy Court for the Western District of Tennessee
Bankr. W.D. Tenn.
"Local
R.
9029-1(b) (cite rules as "L.B.R.
Form ')
-")
(cite forms as
United States District Court for the Eastern District of Texas
(may cite as "Local Civil Rule _")
Crim. R. 1(b) (may cite as "Local Criminal Rule _")
E.D. Tex. Adm. R. (a)(3) (may cite as "LAR _")
E.D. Tex. Pat. R. 1-1 (should cite as "P. R. _")
E.D. Tex. Civ. R. 1(b)
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Eastern District ofTexas
_")
(may cite
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Northern District ofTexas
Bankr. N.D. Tex. R. 1001-1(a) (shall cite as "N.D. Tex. L.B.R.
_")
United States District Court for the Western District of Texas
W.D. Tex. Civ. R. 1(c) (may cite as "Local Court Rule
_")
W.D. Tex. Crim R. 1(c) (may cite as "Western District of Texas Rule
")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Western District of Texas
Bankr. W.D. Tex. R. 1001(a) (shall cite as "Bankruptcy Local Rule
or "1. Rule _")
_"
United States District Court for the District of Utah
D. Utah Civ.R.7-2 (citation of unpublished opinions)
Local Rules of Practice Information (shall cite civil rules as "DUCiv
_") (shall cite criminal rules as "DUCrim R _")
R
United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Utah
42
Bankr. D. Utah R. 1001-1(a) (should cite as "Bankr. D. Ut. LBR
"Local Rule "\
_"
t
o
I
I
o
o
o
o
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_")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District ofTexas
Bankr. 5.D. Tex. R. 1001(a) (may cite as "BLR
o
I
I
I
E.D. Tex.
Bankr. E.D. Tex. R. 1001(a) (may cite rules as "LBR
forms as "TXEB Local Form _")
I
I
or
t
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t
i{{r r.${.J!{'ri{1)i[.iig:il1:ilrr:
Bankr. D. Utah
R.
{.,'l;llifill
{i]rr{t'rr
;irtri
lrf
,,
irllill;.::i lm;;;*
{r.
9013-1(i) (citation of unpublished opinions)
United States District Court for the District of Vermont
D. Vt. R. 1.1(a) (cite
R.
civil rules as "L.R. _") (cite criminal rules as "L.Cr.
_")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Verrnont
R. 9029-1 (aX1) (should cite rules as "Vermont Local
Bankruptcy Rule _" or "Vt. LBR _")
Bankr. D. Vt.
R. 9029-1(aX2) (cite appendices as "Vt. LB Appendix
(cite forms as "Vt. LB Form _")
Bankr. D. Vt.
_")
United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia
E.D. Va.
Adm. R. (aX3) (may cite as "LAR
_")
United $tates Banknrptcy Court for the Eastern District of Virginia
Bankr. E.D. Va. R. 1001-1 (may cite as "Local Bankruptcy
"LBR
Rule-" or
-")
United States District Court for the lVestern District of Virginia
(may
W.D. Va. R. 1(d) (may cite general rules as "W.D. Va. Gen. R.
(may cite criminal rules as
cite civil rules as "W.D. Va. Civ. R.
"W.D. Va. Crim. R. _")
-")
-")
United States District Court for the Eastern District of Washington
E.D. Wash. R.
Introduction (shall cite as "LR
-"
or "LMR
-")
E.D. Wash. R. 10.1(4) (citation of documents in the record)
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Eastern District of
Washington
"LBR--")
Bankr. E.D. Wash.
R.
9029- l(a) (shall cite as
Bankr. E.D. Wash.
R.
9013-l (dX2) (citation of opinions)
United States District Court for the Western District of Washington
W.D. Wash. Civ. R.85 (should cite civil rules as "Local Rules W.D.
Wash. LCR _") (should cite criminal rules as "Local Rules W.D.
(should cite magistrate rules as "Local Rules W.D.
Wash. CrR
Wash. MJR-")
-")
W.D. Wash. Civ. R. 10(eX6) (citation to the record)
W.D. Wash. Supp. Adm. R. 100 (may cite as "Local Admiralty Rule
W.D. Wash. Supp. Pat. R. 100 (may cite as "Local Patent Rule
-")
United States District Court for the Northern District of West Virginia
N.D. W. Va. R. Preface (cite general practice rules as "LR Gen P
(cite criminal rules as "LR Cr P
(cite civil rules as "LR Civ P
-")
(cite prisoner litigation rules as "LR PL
as "LR Bk P
P
-")
-")
-")
(cite bankruptcy rules
-")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Northern District of West
Virginia
Bankr. N.D. W. Va.
R.
Title Page (cite as "N.D.W.V.
LBR
-1
43
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of West
Virginia
Bankr. S.D. W. Va.
Title Page (cite as "Bankr. S.D. W.Va.
R.
R.
o
o
_")
United States District Court for the Eastern District of Wisconsin
E.D. Wis. Civ. R. 7U)
(citation of unpublished opinions)
United States District Court for the District of Wyoming
D. Wyo. Civ. R. 1.1(a) (may cite as "U.S.D.C.L.R.
_"
D. Wyo. Crim. R. 1.1(a) (may cite as "U.5.D.C.L.Cr.R.
or "Local Rule _")
_")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Wyoming
Bankr. D. Wyo. R. 1001-1(A) (may cite as "Wyoming LBR
_")
United States District Court for the District of Guam
D. Guam R. 1.1(a) (may cite general rules as "GR _") (may cite civil
rules as "LR _") (may cite admiralty rules as "LAR _") (may cite
habeas corpus rules as "LHCR _") (may cite tax rules as "LTR
(may cite bankruptcy rules as "LBR
_'l
_1
D. Guam R.4.1(b) (citations shall be in
the form found in The
Bluebook (16th ed.))
United States District Court for the Northern Mariana Islands
D. N. Mar. l. Civ. R. 1.1(a) (shall cite as "LR
_")
D. N. Mar. l. Civ. R. 5.2a(c) (citations shall be in a generally
recognized form)
D. N. Mar. l. Crim.
R.
D. N. Mar. l. Bankr.
R.
United States District Court for the District of Puerto Rico
_"
D.P.R. Civ. R. 1(d) (shall cite civil rules as "Local Civil Rule
or
"L.Cv.R. _") (shall cite admiralty rules as "Local Admiralty Rule
or "L.Adm.R.
D.P.R.
_")
Crim. R. 101(d) (shall cite as "Local Criminal
"L.Crim.R.
Rule
_"
" or
_")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Puerto Rico
Bankr. D.P.R. R. 1001-'l (a) (will cite rules as "P.R. LBR
forms as "P.R. LBF ')
_")
(will cite
United States District Court for the District of the Virgin Islands
D.V.l. Civ. R. 1.1(a) (shall cite as
"LRCi
D.V.l. Crim. R. 1.1(a) (shall cite as "LRCr
")
_")
D.V.l. R. App. P. 1(a) (shall cite as "V.1. R. App. P.
D.V.l. R. App. P. 22(i)
_"
or "VIRAP
44
_")
(citation of opinions)
D.V.l. Bankr. R. 1001-1 (shall cite as "Local Bankruptcy
,LBR ")
I
o
I
I
o
o
I
t
Table of Contents (shall cite as "LCrR _")
Table of Contents (shall cite as "LBR _")
R.
Table of Contents (shall cite as "LDR _")
D. N. Mar. L Adm. R. Table of Contents (shall cite as "LAR _")
D. N. Mar. L Disc.
I
I
Rule_" or
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United States Court ofAppeals for the Armed Forces
C.A.A.F. R. 37(cX2) (citations shall
conform with The Bluebook)
United States Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims
Vet. App.
R.
30 (citation of nonprecedential and supplemental
authority)
United States Court of Federal Claims
U.S. Ct. Fed.
Claims R. 1 (may cite as "RCFC
_")
United States Court of InternationalTrade
U.5. Ct. Int'l Trade R. B1
(citation of various types of legal authority)
United States Tax Court
T.C. R. 23(0
State
(citation of opinions)
Courts
n'l'2.)
Alabama
R. App. P. 28(aX10) (citations shall comply with The Bluebook or
the ALWD Citation Manual or the style and form used in opinions
Ala.
of the Ala. Sup. Ct.)
App. P. 53(d) (citation of no-opinion order of affirmance)
App. P. 49 (shall cite as "The Alabama Rule of Appellate
Procedure _" or "ARAP _")
Ala. R. Civ. P. 85 (may cite as "Alabama Rule of Civil Procedure
Ala.
R.
Ala.
R.
Ala. R. Evid.
1
102 (may cite as "Ala.R.Evid.
-")
_")
Alaska
Alaska
R.
App. P. 214(d) (citation of unpublished opinions)
Alaska R. Evid. 58 (shall cite as "Rule of Criminal Procedure
Alaska Adoption R. 1(a) (will cite as "Adoption Rule
-")
-")
Alaska Dist. Ct. R. of Civ. P. 33 (shall cite as "District Court Rule of
Civil Procedure _")
Alaska
R.
of Admin. 51 (shall cite as "Rule Governing the
Administration of All Courts
_")
Alaska Child in Need of Aid R. of P. 1(a) (will cite as "Child in Need
Aid Rule _" or "ClNA Rule _")
Rule
Alaska Delinquency R. 1(a) (will cite as "Delinquency
Alaska R. of Prob. P. 1(a) (will cite as "Probate
Alaska Stat. 5 01.05.01 1 (may cite statutes as
of
")
Rule
"AS ")
')
Atizona
Ariz.
R.
Civ. App. P. 1 3(aX6) (citation of cases)
Ariz.
R.
Civ. App.P.28(c) (citation of memorandum decisions)
Ariz.
R.
Sup. Ct.
11
'l
(c)
(citation of memorandum decisions)
Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. 5 1-10'l (may cite as "A.R.S.
-")
45
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Arkansas
Ark.
R.
Civ. P. 85 (mav cite as "Arkansas Rule of Civil
Procedure " or
"ARCP
_")
Ark.
Crim. P. 1.1 (mav cite as "Arkansas Rule of Criminal Procedure
R.
_")
Ark. R. Evid.
1
Ark. Sup. Ct.
102 (may cite as "A.R.E. Rule - _")
R.
4-2(a)(7) (citation of opinions)
5-2 (citation of opinions)
Ark. Code Ann. 5 1-2-1 13(c) (may cite as "A.C.A.
Ark. Sup. Ct.
R.
_")
House Style Gu ide (20 1 0), https://cou rts.a rka nsas.govlsites/default/
fi
les/Ho
u
seo/o20Styleo/o20Gu ide0/o20Septem be 120
1
0.pdf
California
Cal. R. Ct. 1.200 (citations
must be in the style established by the
California Stvle Manual or The Bluebook)
(citation of opinions)
lifornia Style Manual (4th ed. 2000), http://www.sdap.orgl
downloads/Style-Man ual.pdf
Cal. R. Ct. 3.1 I 13(c)
Ca
Colorado
Colo. R. Civ. P. I (c) (shall cite as "Colorado Rule of Civil Procedure
_" or "C.R.C.P. _")
Colo. App.
R.
58 (shall cite as "C.A.R.
_")
Colo. R. Prob. P. 1(b) (shall cite as "Colorado Rule of Probate
Procedure _" or "C.R.P.P. _")
Colo. R.P. Small Cl. Cts. 501(a) (shall cite as "Colorado Rule of Civi
Procedure " or "C.R.C.P. _")
Colo. R. Prof'l Conduct 9 (shall cite as "Colorado Rule of Professionar
Conduct" or "Colo. RPC _")
Colo. R. County Ct. Civ. P. 301 (b) (shall cite as "Colorado Rule of Civil
Procedure _" or "C.R.C.P. _")
Connecticut
Conn.
R.
App.P. 5 67-11 (citation of opinions)
The Manual of Style for the Connecticut Courts (3d ed. 2013), http://
wwwjud.ct.gov/Pu blications/Man ual_of_style.pdf
Delaware
Del. Sup. Ct. R. l4(SXi) (cite reported opinions according to The
Bluebook)
Del. Sup. Ct. R. 14(gxii) (citation of unreported opinions)
Del. Sup. Ct. R. 1a(g)(iii) (cite other authority according to The
Bluebook)
Del. Ch. Ct. R. 171(g) (citations are appropriate if made in
accordance with The Bluebook)
Del. 5uper. Ct. Civ. R. P. 107(dX Xa) (cite reported opinions
according to The Bluebook)
{o
^c
Del. 5uper. Ct. Civ. R. P. 107(dX4Xb) (citation of unreported
opinions)
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,llt nr-iir l{ll!.i:;;r i rir; {.il"rli,,rt lir"
;t ;:;t i,
Del. Super. Ct. Civ. R. P. 107(dX4Xc) (cite other authority according
to The Bluebook)
Del. Super. Ct. Crim. R. P.60 (may cite as "Super. Ct. Crim.
R.
_")
Del. Ct. C.P. Civ. R. 107(cXa) (citations are appropriate if made in
accordance with The Bluebook)
Del. Ct. C.P. Civ. R. 107(cX5) (citation of unreported opinions and
orders)
R. Civ. P. 7(bX6) (citations are appropriate if made in
accordance with The Bluebook)
Del. Fam. Ct. R. Civ. P. 10(d) (citations are appropriate if made in
accordance with The Bluebook)
Del. Fam. Ct. R. Civ. P. 107(cX5) (citations are appropriate if made in
accordance with The Bluebook)
Del. Fam. Ct.
Del. Fam. Ct.
R.
Civ. P. 107(0 (citation of unreported and
memorandum opinions)
R. Crim. P. 1(b) (may cite as "Family Court Rule of
Criminal Procedure _")
Del. C.
Del. Code Ann. tit. 1 S 101(b) (may cite as
Del. Fam. Ct.
"-
-")
Delaware Uniform Citation (2008), http://courts.delaware.gov/
5uperior/pdf/de-un iform-citation-2008.pdf
District of Columbia
(citation of administrative agency materials)
D.C. Super. Ct. R. Civ. P. 1 2-l(e) (citation of opinions from the D.C.
D.C. Ct. App. R. 28(h)
Cir.)
D.C. Super. Ct. R. Civ. P.85 (may cite as "Superior Court
-"
Rule-Civil
or "SCR-Civil-")
D.C. Super. Ct. R. Crim. P.47-l(b)
(citation of opinions from the D.C.
Cir.)
D.C. Super. Ct. R, Crim. P.60 (may cite as "Superior Court
Criminal
-"
or "SCR-Criminal
-")
D.C. Super. Ct. Dom. Rel. R. 7(bX1XA)
Rule-
(citation of opinions from the
D.C. Cir.)
D.C. Super. Ct. Dom. Rel. R. 1(a) (may cite as "Rule Governing
or "SCR-Dom. Rel.
Domestic Relations Proceedings
D.C. Super. Ct. Juv. P.R. 47
-"of opinions from the-")
(citation
D.C. Cir.)
D.C. Super. Ct. Juv. P.R.60 (may cite as "SCR-Juvenile
-")
D.C. Super. Ct. Land. & Ten. R. 1 (may cite as "Superior Court
or "SCR-LT
Landlord and Tenant
-"
-")
D.C. Super. Ct. Small Cl. R. 1 (may cite as "Superior Court
or "5CR-5C
Claims
-"
-")
D.C. Super. Ct. Small Cl. R. 13(a)
Rule-
Rule-Small
(citation of opinions from the D.C.
Cir.)
citation and style Guide (2009), http://www.dccourts.gov/internet/
docu ments/RevisedCitationGuide2009.pdf
47
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Florida
Fla. R. App. P. 9.010 (cite as "Florida Rule of
or "Fla.
R.
Appellate Procedure
_"
P._")
App.
Fla. R. App. P. 9.800
(citation of various types of legal authority)
Fla. R. App. P. 9.800(o) (citations shall be in the
form prescribed by
The Bluebook and the Florida Style Manual)
Fla. R. Crim. P. 3.010 (may cite as "Fla. R. Crim. P.
_")
_"
or "Fla.
R.
Jud.
Admin.
")
Fla. R. Juv. P. 8.000 (may cite as "Fla. R. Juv. P.
Fla. P.R. 5.010 (may cite as "Fla. Prob. R.
t
_")
_")
Fla. Small Cl. R. 7.010(a) (shall cite as "Florida Small Claims Rule
or "Fla. Sm. Cl.
R.
_")
Florida Style Manual (7th ed. 2010), http://www.law.fsu.edu/
jou rnals/lawreview/down loads/fl oridastylemanua l.pdf
Georgia
Ga. Ct. App. R. 24(d)
(citation of opinions)
Ga. Code 5 1-1-B(e) (may cite as "O.C.G.A.
_")
Hawaii
R. App. P. 1(c) (shall cite as "Hawai'i Rule of Appellate
Procedure _" or "HRAP _")
Haw.
Haw.
R.
App.
P.
2B(bXl ) (citation of opinions)
App. P. 35(c) (citation of dispositions)
Haw. R. Evid. 100 (may cite as "Rule _, Hawai'i Rules of Evidence,
Chapter 626, Hawai'i Revised Statutes")
Haw. R. Penal P. 60 (may cite as "Hawai'i Rule of Penal Procedure
Haw.
R.
-,)
Haw. Fam. Ct.
R.
,HFCR
Haw.
85 (shall cite as "Hawai'i Familv Court
-")
Civ. P. 85 (may cite as "Hawai'i
R.
Rule of Civil Procedure
Haw. Civ. Traffic R. 1 (shall cite as "Hawai'i Civil Traffic
"HCTR
Rule
Rule
" or
_")
" or
_")
Haw. Dist. Ct.
Procedure
R.
Civ.
P.
85 (may cite as "District Court Rule of Civil
_")
A Handbook of Citation Form for Law Clerks at the Appellate Courts
of the State of Hawaii (2008), https://www.law.hawaii.edu/files/
content/library/HandbookofCitation Form.pdf
Idaho
ldaho R. Evid.
'101 (a)
(shall cite as "ldaho Rule of
Evidence " ol
"r.R.E. "l
ldaho Crim. R. 2(b) (shall cite as "ldaho Criminal
-,)
ldaho App. R. 'l (shall cite as "ldaho Appellate
48
Rule
Rule
o
o
I
Fla. R. Jud. Admin. 2.1 1 0 (cite as "Florida Rule of Judicial
Administration
I
" or "l.C.R.
" or "l.A.R.
_")
I
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ldaho
R.
"t.R.c.P.
Civ. P. 87 (may cite as "ldaho Rule of Civil
Procedure
" or
_')
ldaho Juv.
_"
R.
60 (shall cite as "The ldaho Juvenile Rule
R.
6 (citation of various types of legal authority)
or "l.J.R.
_"1
lllinois
lll. Sup. Ct.
Style Manual for the Supreme and Appellate Courts of lllinois
(4th ed. 20 1 2), http://www.state.i l.us/cou rtlstyleMan ual/5upCrt,
StyleManual.pdf
Indiana
Ind.
R.
App. P. 22 (citation of various types of legal authority)
Ind. Small Cl. R. 1(B) (may cite as "S.C. _")
Ind. Code 5 1-1-i -i (may cite as "lC ')
Iowa
lowa
R.
App. P. 6.904(2) (citation of various types of legal authority)
lowa R. Evid.
5..1
103 (shall cite as "lowa R. Evid.
_")
Kansas
Kan. Sup. Ct.
R.
6.08 (citation of opinions)
Kan. R. Prof'l Conduct Prefatory Rule (may cite as "KRPC
Kan. Stat. Ann. Title Page (cite as
"K.5.A. ')
-")
Kentucky
_"
Ky. R. Civ. P. 1(1) (may cite as "Civil Rule
or "CR _")
(citation of statutes and opinions)
(citation
of unpublished opinions)
Ky. R. Civ. P.76.28(4)(c)
Ky. R. Civ. P.7612@)(g)
Ky. R. Crim. P. 1.02(1) (may cite as "Criminal Rule
Ky. R. Evid. 101 (should cite as "KRE
_")
Ky. Sup. Ct. R. 1.000 (may cite as "Rule of
"scR
-"
or "RCr
the Supreme Court
_")
--")
-"
or
Louisiana
La. Code Civ. P. 2168
(citation of unpublished opinions)
La. Code Crim. P. 1 (may cite as "C.Cr.P.
-") of opinions)
Admin. R. Pt. G. 5 B (citation
(mandatory use of a uniform public domain citation)
La. Ct. App. Unif .R.2-12.4(B)(2) (citation of opinions)
La. Sup. Ct. Gen.
Maine
Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. Preface (cite as "M.R.S.A.
-")
Uniform Maine Citations (2014), http://mainelaw.maine.edu/wpcontent/uploa ds/ 201 a / 02/ UMC20 1 4.pdf
Maryland
Md. R. 1 103 (may cite general rules as
"Rule
")
49
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Md. R. 1-104(b) (citation of unreported opinions)
Md. R. 6-103 (cite settlement of estates rules as "Rule
Md.
R.
B-504(aX1) (citation of opinions)
-")
Massachusetts
Mass.
App. P. 16(9) (citation of statutes and opinions)
R.
Mass. Dist. & Mun. App. Div. R. 16(g) (citation of statutes and
opinions)
Massachusetts Reports Style Manual (201 4-201 5), http://www.
mass.gov/courts/docs/sjcldocs/reporter-of-decisions-style-guide.
odf
Michigan
Mich. Ct. R. 1.101 (may cite as "MCR _")
Mich. Ct. R. 7.215(CX1) (citation of unpublished opinions)
Mich. R. Evid. 1 I02 (may cite as "MRE _")
Mich. Prof'l Conduct R. 1.0(a) (cite as "MRPC
_")
Michigan Appellate Opinion Manual (201 4), http:/ /courts.mi.gov/
Cou
rts/MichiganSupremeCourt/Documents/MiAppOpManual.pdf
Minnesota
85 (cite as "Rule of Civil Procedure
_")
Minn.
R.
Civ.
Minn.
R.
Civ. App. P. 136.01(1)(b) (citation of unpublished and order
P.
opinions)
Minn. R. Civ. App. P. 146 (may cite as "Rule of Civil Appellate
Procedure _")
Minn. Gen. R. Prac. 1.01 (may cite as "Minn. Gen. R. Prac. _")
Citing Min nesota Lega I Sources, http://www.leg.state.mn.us/leg/
leg h
ist/citation
s.a
spx
Mississippi
Miss.
R.
Civ.
P.
85 (may cite as "M.R.C.P.
_")
App. P. 2B(fX2) (citation of opinions)
Miss. R. App. P.49 (may cite as "M.R.A.P. \
Miss. R. Evid. 1 102 (may cite as "M.R.E. _")
Miss.
R.
Miss. Unif. Cir. & County Ct. R. 1.01 (may cite as "URCCC
_")
Missouri
Mo. 5up. Ct. R. 1.01 (may cite as "Rule
_")
Montana
App. P. 1 (shall cite as "M. R. App. P. _")
AF 06-0632 (02-25-10),ln re the Matter of Opinion Forms and
Citation Standards of the Supreme Court of Montana
Mont.
R.
Mont. Code Ann. Preface (cite as "MCA
mca/helo.htm
50
_") httpl/leg.mt.gov/bills/
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Nebraska
Neb. Sup. Ct. R. S 2-i 09(C) (citation of various types of legal
authority)
Neb. Unif. Dist. Ct. R. S 6-1505(C) (citation of various types of legal
authority)
Nevada
Nev.
R.
_"
Civ. P. 85 (may cite as "Nevada Rule of Civil Procedure
"N.R.C.P.
or
_")
R. App. P. 48 (shall cite as "Nevada Rule of Appellate Procedure
or "NRAP _")
Nev.
_"
Nev. Short Trial R. 35 (may cite as "Nevada Short Trial Rule
"N.S.T.R.
_"
or
_',]
Nev. Sup. Ct. R. 1 (may cite as "Supreme Court Rule
Nev. Justice Ct.
Procedure
_"
R.
_"
or "S.C.R.
Civ. P. 85 (may cite as "Justice Court Rule of Civil
oT "JCRCP
_")
Nev. Rev. Stat. 220.170(4) (may cite as "Nevada Revised Statutes
or "NRS
_"
_")
New Hampshire
(citation of orders)
N.H. 5up. Ct. R. 12-D(3)
(citation of opinions)
N.H. Sup. Ct. R. 25(5) (citation of summary dispositions)
N.H. 5up. Ct. R. 16(9)
New Jersey
N.i. Ct. R. I:1-3 (may cite as "R.
N.J. R. App. Prac. 2:6-2(a)(5)
N.J. Stat. 1:1-5.1 (may
_")
(citation of opinions)
cite Revised Statutes as "R.5. _") (may cite
New Jersey Statutes as "N.J.S.
_")
New Jersey Manual on Style for Judicial Opinions (2004), httpJ
/
wwwjudiciary.state.nj.us/appdiv/manualonstyle.pdf
New Mexico
N.M.
R.
App. P. 1 2-21 3(E) (citation of various types of legal authority)
N.M. Sup. Ct.
R.
23- l 1 2 (citation of various types of legal authority)
N.M. 5up. Ct.
in The Bluebook)
R. 23-1 12(F)
N.M. Dist. Ct.
R.
N.M. Dist. Ct.
R,
(shall follow the form of citations set forth
Civ. P. 1 -001 (D) (shall cite as "Rule
1-_
Crim. P. 5-101(D) (shall cite as "NMRA, Rule 5-_")
Civ. P. 2-101 (D) (cite as "NMRA, Rule 2-_")
N.M. Magis. Ct.
R.
N.M. Magis. Ct.
R.
Crim.
N.M. Metro. Ct.
N.M. Metro. Ct.
6-_")
R.
Civ.
6-101(D) (shall cite as "NMRA, Rule
3-'101(D) (cite as "NMRA, Rule 3-_")
R.
Crim. P. 7-101(D) (shall cite as "NMRA, Rule
7-_")
P.
P.
N.M. Mun. Ct. R.P. 8-101(D) (shall cite as "NMRA, Rule
N.M. Child.
ct.
NMRA1
R. 10-101(E)
8--")
(may cite as "Rule 10-_ NMRA")
51
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New York
(citation of opinions)
N.Y. Ct. App. R. 500.1 (g), 51 0.1 (a) (citation of various types of legal
authority)
New York Law Reports Style Manual (2012),http:l/www.courts.
state.ny.us/reporter/new*styma n.htm
New York Rules of Citation (5th ed. 2005), published by St. John's
N.Y. C.P.L.R. 5529(e) (McKinney 2003)
L. Rev.
North Carolina
N.C. R. App. P. 1(a) (may cite as "N.C. R. App. P.
N.C. R. App. P. 30(eX3)
_")
(citation of unpublished opinions)
N.C. R. App. P. App. B (citations
should be made according to The
Bluebook)
North Dakota
N.D.
R.
Ct. 1 1.6 (use of public domain citation format)
N.D.
R.
N.D.
R.
Ct. 11.7 (may cite as "N.D.R.Ct. _")
Civ. P. 85 (may cite as "N.D.R.Civ.P. _")
R.
Crim. P.60 (may cite as "N.D.R.Crim.P.
N.D.
R.
N.D. R. Prof'l Conduct 9.'l (may cite as "N.D.R. Prof. Conduct
N.D.
R.
Juv. P. (may cite as "N.D.R.Juv.P.
_")
_")
North Dakota Supreme Court Citation Manual (2000), http://www.
ndcou rts.gov/citation
Ohio
Ohio
R.
Civ. P. 85 (may cite as "Civil Rule
_"
or "Civ.
R.
_")
Ohio Crim. R.60 (may cite as "Criminal Rule _" or "Crim. R. _")
Ohio R. Evid. 1 103 (may cite as "Evidence Rule _" or "Evid. R. _")
42 (may cite as "Appellate Rule _" or "App. R. _")
48 (may cite as "Juvenile Rule _" or "Juv. R. _")
Prof'l Conduct Form of Citation (shall cite as "Prof. Cond.
Ohio
R.
App.
Ohio
R.
Juv.
Ohio
R.
Rule
_")
P.
P.
Ohio 5up. Ct. Prac. R. 1.05 (shall cite as "S.Ct.Prac.R.
_")
Writing Manual: A Guide to Citations, Style. and Judicial Opinion
Writing (2013]|, httpf /www.supremecourt.ohio.gov/ROD/manual.
pdf
Oklahoma
Okla. Sup. Ct. R. 1.1(a) (may cite as
"Okla.5up.Ct.R.
")
Okla. 5up. Ct. R. 1.200(c) (citation of opinions)
Okla. Sup. Ct. R. 1.200(fl (opinions shall be cited by reference to
public domain citation system)
52
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_")
App. P.48 (may cite as "N.D.R.App.P. _")
N.D. R. Evid. i 103 (may cite as "N.D.R.Ev. _")
N.D.
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R. Crim. App. 1.0(D) (shall cite as "Rule _, Rules of the
Oklahoma Court of Criminal Appeals, fifle22, Ch.1B, App. (year)";
Okla.
Okla.
R.
Crim. App.3.5(C) (citation of opinions)
Okla. Stat. Ann. (cite as
"_ Okl. St. Ann. 5 _")
Oregon
Or.
Civ. P. 1(G) (may cite as
R.
"ORCP
")
Or. R. App. P. 1.10(1) (shall cite as "ORAP
Or.
_")
App. P. 5.20(5) (citation of memorandum opinions)
R.
R. App. P. 5.35(3) (citations are to be in the form prescribed by
the Oregon Appellate Courts Style Manual)
Or. Unif. Trial Ct. R. 1.070(1) (shall cite rules as "UTCR _")
Or.
Or. Unif. Trial Ct. R. 1.070(2) (shall cite supplementary local rules as
"sLR
_")
2.010(13) (citation of opinions)
Or. Tax Ct. Reg. Div. R. Preface (should cite as "Tax Court Rule _" or
or. Unif. Trial Ct.
R.
"TCR ')
Or. Tax Ct. Reg. Div. R. 61 (AX3)
(citation of cases)
Or. Tax Ct. Magis. Div. R. Preface (should cite as "Tax Court Rule-
Magistrate Division
_"
or "TCR-MD
_")
Or. Rev. Stat. Preface (should cite as "Oregon Revised Statutes
or
"ORS ')
-"
Oreqon Appellate Court Style Manual (2013), http://www.
pu
blications.ojd.state.or.us/docs/UpdatedStyleManual2002.pdf
Pennsylvania
Pa. R. Civ. P.51 (may cite as "Pa. R.C.P. No.
-")
-")
Pa. R. App. P. 21 19(b) (citation of various types of legal authority)
Pa. R. App. P. 101 (may cite as "Pa. R.A.P.
PAstvle: A Pennsylvania Stylebook and Citation Guide for Legal
Writinq (5th ed.2014)
Rhode Island
Dom. Rel. P.85 (may cite as "R,Dom.Rel.P.
R.l. R. Juv. P. 36 (may cite as "R.juv.P. ")
R.l. Super. Ct. R. Prac. 1.1 (may cite as "R.P. --")
R.l. R.
R.l.
5uper. Ct.
R.
R.l. Super. Ct. R.
Civ. P. 1 (may cite as "Super.R.Civ.P.
-")
Crim. P.60 (may cite as "Super.R.Crim.P. "l
R.l. Super. Ct. R. Prac. 1.1
(may cite as "R.P.
R.l. Dist. Ct. Civ. R. 85 (may cite as "D.C.R.
R.l. Dist. Ct. R,
-")
-")
_")
Crim. P.60 (may cite as "Dist.R.Crim.P.
South Carolina
5.C. App. Ct. R. 101 (b) (may cite as "Rule
-,
-")
SCACR")
S.C.
App. Ct.
R.
220(a) (citation of memorandum opinions)
S.C.
App. Ct.
R.
268 (citation of various types of legal
authority)
53
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_, SCRCP")
_, SCRCrimP")
1 103(a) (may cite as "Rule _, SCRE")
S.C. R. Civ. P. 85(a)
(may cite as "Rule
5.C. R. Crim. P. 38 (shall cite as "Rule
S.C. R. Evid.
S.C. Fam. Ct. R. 1
(may cite as "Rule
o
SCRFC")
-
A Guide to South Carolina Legal Research and Citation (2d ed. 2009)
South Dakota
S.D. R. Civ. P.
5 I5-6-85 (shall cite as "RCP ")
(citation of opinions)
S.D. R. App. P. 5 15-264-69.1
S.D. R. App. P. 5 15-264-69.2 (shall
follow a public domain citation
system)
S.D. R. App. P. 5 15-264-93 (may cite as "S.D.R.C. App.P. Rule
_")
P. \
R.
Crim P.60 (shall cite as "Tenn.
Tenn.
R.
App. P. 27(h) (citation of various types of legal authority)
R.
Crim.
Tenn. Sup. Ct. R. 1 (shall cite Supreme Court Rules as "T.R.A.P.
"Tenn.R.App.P.
Tenn. Sup. Ct.
Sup. Ct.
_")
R. B
R. B, RPC
_"
or
(shall cite Rules of Professional Conduct as "Tenn.
_")
Tenn. 5up. Ct. R. 28 5 1 2 (cite Tennessee Rules of Post-Conviction
Procedure as "Tenn.Sup. Ct. R. 28, S _")
Tenn. Ct. App. R. 12 (citation of unpublished opinions)
Tenn. Ct. Crim. App. R. 19(4) (citation of unpublished opinions)
Tenn. Code Ann. 5 1-2-101 (a) (cite as "Tenn. Code Ann. " or "T.C.A.
_")
R.
App. P.47.7 (citation of unpublished opinions)
The Greenbook: Texas Rules of Form
(1
2th ed. 201 0)
Utah
Utah
R.
Civ.
P.
85 (may cite as "U.R.C.P.
_")
Utah Code Jud. Admin. R. 1-101(1XE) (may cite as "CJA
_")
Utah Sup. Crt. Standing Order No. 4 (Jan. 18, 2000) (citation of
opinions)
Vermont
Vt. R. Civ. P. 85 (mav cite as "Vermont Rule of Civil
"v.R.c.P. _")
Procedure " or
R. App. P. 1(d) (may cite as "Vermont Rule of Appellate
Procedure _" or "V.R.A.P. _")
Vt.
Vt.
R.
App. P. 28.2 (citation of opinions)
Vt. R. Prob. P. 85 (may cite as "Vermont Rule of Probate Procedure
_"
Vt.
54
or "V.R.P.P.
R.
_")
Small Cl. P. 14 (may cite as "Vermont Rule of Small Claims
Procedure
_"
or "V.R.S.C.P.
_")
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Texas
Tex.
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Tennessee
Tenn.
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Vt. Env. Ct. Proc. R. 7 (may cite as "Vermont Rule for Environmental
Court Proceedings _" or "V.R.E.C.P. _")
5l (cite as "_ V.S.A. S _")
Vt. Stat. Ann. 5
Virginia
(citation of various types of legal authority)
(citation of various types of legal authority)
Va. Sup. Ct. R. 5A:20(a) (citation of various types of legal authority)
Va. Sup. Ct. R. 5A:21(a) (citation of various types of legal authority)
Va. Sup. Ct. R. 5:1 7(cX3)
Va. Sup. Ct. R. 5:28(a)
Washington
Wash. Civ.
Ct. Ltd. J. 85 (may cite as "Civil Rule for Courts
R.
Limited Jurisdiction
Wash. Crim.
R.
Ct. Ltd. J. 1.8 (may cite as "Criminal Rule for Courts
R.
_"
or "CrRU
App. P. 18.21 (may cite as "RAP
Limited Jurisdiction
Wash.
of
_'"CRU _")
of
-")
-")
App. Dec. Cts. Ltd. J. 1 1.9 (shall cite as "Rule for Appeal of
or "RALJ
Decisions of Courts of Limited Jurisdiction
Wash.
R.
Wash.
R.
Evid.
1
-")
-"
103 (may cite as "Washington Rule of Evidence
-"
-")
Wash. Infraction R. Ct. Ltd. J.6.3 (may cite as "lnfraction Rule for
or "ER
Courts of Limited Jurisdiction
Wash.
R.
-"
or "lRU
-")
Gen. Application 14 App. 1 (citations must follow The
Bluebook)
Wash.
R.
Gen. Application 14.1 (citation of unpublished opinions)
Wash. Super. Ct. Civ.
or "CR
R.
85 (shall cite as "Superior Court Civil Rule
_")
Mandatory Arbitration Rule
-"
-"
8.4 (shall cite as "Superior Court
or "MAR
Wash. Super. Ct. Mandatory Arb.
R.
-")
Wash. 5uper. Ct. Spec. P. R. Exolanation (may cite as "SPR
Wash. Juv. Ct. R. I 1.21 (may cite as "JuCR
-")
-")
Wash. Rev. Code Ann. 5 1.04.040 (cite as "RCW
-")
Washington Courts Style Sheet (201 0), http://www.courts.wa.gov/
a ppel late-tria l-courts/su preme/?fa=atc*su preme.style
West Virginia
W. Va. R. Civ. P.85 (may cite as "W. Va. R. Civ. P.
-")
-")
Crim. P. 60 (may cite as "W.Va.R.Crim.P.
W. Va. R. Evid. 1 102 (may cite as "West Virginia Rule of Evidence
or "\IWRE _")
W. Va.
R.
-"
Wisconsin
Wis. Sup. Ct.
R.
80.02 (citation of opinions)
Wis. Sup. Ct. R.99.03 (shall cite as "SCR
-")
Wis. Stat. 809.19(1Xe) (cite authorities and the record as set forth in
The Bluebook)
55
Wis. Stat. 91 1.02 (may cite chapters 90'l to 91 1 as "Wisconsin Rule
Evidence _")
of
Wisconsin Guide to Citation (7th ed. 2012)
Wyoming
Wyo.
R.
Civ.
P.
Wyo.
R.
Civ.
P.
85 (may cite as "Wyoming Rule of Civil Procedure
Cir. Ct. 1 1 (may cite as "W.R.C.P.C.C. _")
_")
Wyo. R. Crim. P.60 (shall cite as "Wyoming Rule of Criminal
Procedure _" or "W.R.Cr.P. _")
Wyo. R. Evid.
"wRE
1
103 (may cite as "Wyoming Rule of Evidence
_")
Wyo. Unif.
R.
Cir. Ct. 1.01 (may cite as "U.R.C.C.
_"
or
_")
Wyo. Unif. R. Dist. Ct. 100 (may cite as "Uniform Rule for District
Courts of the State of Wyoming _" or "U.R.D.C. _")
Wyo.
R.
App.P. 28 (may cite as "Wyo.
R.
App.
P.
_")
BT2.3 Territories
Guam
Guam Code Ann. tit. 1, 5 101 (b) (may cite as "GCA _")
How to Cite Guam Law (3d ed. 2002), http://wwwjurispacific.com/
public/g uam_law'citation_g uide_09-02.pdf
Northern Mariana Islands
Northern Mariana lslands Supreme Court Stvle Manual (2010),
http://www.cnmilaw.orglpdf/style_manual/style,manual.pdf
Puerto Rico
P.R. Sup. Ct. R.
44(d) (citation of unpublished opinions)
Virgin Islands
tit. 1, 5 1(b) (may cite as " V.l.C. _")
App. P. 15(b) (citations shall be according to The Bluebook)
V.l. Code Ann.
V.l.
R.
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STRUCTURE AND USE OF CITATIONS
to authorities so that rcaders mav iclentifi ancl find those
authorities for ftiture rescarch. Citations are made in citation scntences and
chnscs (de 1.1) and arc introducetl b.v signals. Sigtrals organize authoritics
and show how those authorities support or relatc to u proposition given in thc
tcxt (rule 1.2). Citation scntcnces and clituses mav contain more than one signal. Order signals accorcling to rule 1.3.Within cach signal, arrangc tuthorities
rccording to rule 1.4. Parcntheticals may bc necessary to explain thc rclcvancc
of a particular authority to the proposition given in thc tc'xt (rule 1.5). (lertain
Pror.icle citutior-rs
additional infirrmation, specific to thxt authoriqi ma,v also be appcntlcd according to rule 1.6.
Citation Sentences and Clauses in Law Reviews
Citations mav be madc in one of two wavs: in citation sentenccs or in citation
clauses. In law rcview pieccs, all citations appear in fixrtnotcs appcnclecl to the
portions of thc tcxt to which they refer. For an explanltion of citation sentences
and clause s in pmctitioners' docume nts, see Bluepages 81.
(a) Text. (litations to authorities that support (or contradict) lt Proposition
made in thc main text (as olrposed to f(Dtnote text) tre placecl in firotnotes.
A fbotnotc call number should appear tt the end of a texttnl sentence if the
citcd authurity supports (or contradicts) the entire sentcnce. In contfttst, a call
number shoulcl appear within the sentence next to thc portion it st4rports if
tl-re cited authorit)' supports (or contradicts) only' that plrt of thc sentence. The
call number comes lfter any punctu:ttion mark-sttcl-t as a commt, scmicolon,
or periocl-with the exccption of a dash or a colttrr. ln tddition to cilation to
authorities, r fbotnotc may includc tcxtu:tl sentenccs that are relatcd to thc main
text to which thc footnotc is appendecl.
ts This is sentence one.1 Sentence two contains two call numbers;2
however, onty one of these-this ones-is surprising. Recal[ one
thing+' 6s11 numbers precede dashes and colons.
(b) Footnotes. If
a fixxnote itself cotttlins an asscrtion requiring support, lt
citation to the relevant authorit)'shotrlcl appear dircctl,v after the :tssertion lts
either a citation sentence (x a citation clause.
(i) Citation sentences. Authorities thxt stlpport (or contradict) an cntire lbotnote sentcnce are citcd in l separatc citation sentence immecliatclv lfter tl-tc
sentence thcy support (or contradict). The citatkrn sentence stlrts with a capital letter and encls with a period.
(ii) Citation clauses. Auth0rities that support (or curtradicf) onh part of a sen'
tence within x fcrotnote are citcd in clauses, sct off b.v commas, that imme cliatclv
follow thc proposition thcy support (or contradict).
(c) Example. The f<rllowing exccrpl illustrates thc
antl cllruscs in
tr
l llu
ttse
of citation scntences
rcvicw picce.
Some American lurisdictions place the burden of sustaining criminal defenses on the accused.l States have required defendants to
1.1
prove both insanity2 and self-defense.3 ln several lurisdictions the
defendant must even establish that a homicide was accidentat.4
w See.lohn Calvin Jeffries, Jr. & Paul B. Stephan lll, Defenses,
1
Presumptions, and Burden of Proof in the Criminal Law, 88 YALE
L.1.1325,1,329-30 (1979). The authors point out that the use of
affirmative defenses may relieve the state of its duty to prove a
sufficient factual basis for punishment,id. at457,and argue that
the reasonable doubt standard should not be limited to those facts
formatly identified as elements of the offense charged, id. aI qz7.
E.9., State v. Caryl,543P.zd 389,39o (Mont. 1975); State v.
Hinson, q z S.E.zd 548, 551 (S.C. rqZo).
M
'
M'
3
see, e.9., Quitlen v. State, rro A.zd 445, 449 (Del. r955); State
v. Skinner, rc4P. zz3, zz4 (Nev. ryo9). See general/yWnvrue R.
LnFnve & Ausrru W. Scorr, Jn., Hnuoeoor oru Cnrmrunl Lnw $ 8.r,
at7o4-o6 (zd ed. rg86) (discussing the origin of embezzlement
and false pretense).
s'" 4 See,
e.9., Chandle v. State, r98 S.E.zd 289, z9o (Ga. 1973); State
v. Enlow, 536 S.W.zd 533,541(Mo. Ct. App. 1976).
1.2
IntroductorySignals
(a) Signals that indicate support.
Ino signal] Cited authority (i) directly srares the proposirion,(ii) identffies the
source of a quotation, or (iii) identilies an authority referred to in
the t€xt. Use no signal, for example, when clirectly quoting an authority or when restating numerical data from an authoriry
Fn
Cited authorify states the proposition; other authorities also state
the proposition, but citation to rhem would not be helpful or is
not necessary. "E.g.i' may be used alone or attached to any other
signal (whether supportive or not).When it is attached to another
signal, it should be preceded by an italicized comma and followed
by a non-italicized comma.
See, e.9.,
But see, e.9.,
Accord
"Accord" is commonly used when two or more sources state or
clearly support the proposition, but the text quotes or r€fers to
only one; the other sources are then introduced by " occord." Similarly, the law of one jurisdiction may be cited as being in accord
with the law of another
See
Cited authority clearly supports the proposition."See" is usecl instead of "[no signat]" when the proposition is nor directly stated
by the cited authority but obviously follows from it; there is an
inferential step betwcen the authority cited and the proposition
it supports.
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See also
supporting
Cf.
Compare... Comparison of the authorities cited will oflbr support for or illttstr.lte the proposition. whcn uscd as a signal, "Compare" must
bc usecl in coniunction with "with"; thc "with" is preccdecl by
a comma, as is "and" whcn uscd. 'fhe rclevance of thc comparison will usually be clear to thc rcader only if it is explaincd.
Parcntheticirl explanations
I
(rule 1.5) folkrwing
cach authorit-v are
thercfore strongly recommended.
,
o
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Cited authority supports a proposition different fiom the main
proposition but suthciently irnalogous to lend support. l.itert[',
"cf." mcans "compare."The citation's tclevance will usrrally bc
clear to the rcader only if it is explained. Parcnthetical explanations
(rule 1.5), however brief, are thcrcfbre strongly recommendecl.
[and]...
with...
[and]...
I
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proposition when authorities that state or dircctl,\'' sup-
(b) Signal that suggests a useful comparison.
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a
port the proposition already have been citcd or discussed. The usc
of a parenthetical explanation of the sourcc's rclcvance (rule 1.5)
following a citation introduced by"see also"is encouraged.
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Cited authority constitutes additional source material that supports
the proposition."See olso" is commonly used to cite an authority
Compore Michael H. v. Gerald D., 49r U.S. 7to,72t (t989) (relecting
the claim by a putative naturaI father of the right to visit his chitd
conceived by a married woman), ond CATHARTNE A. MACKINNoN,
Feurrursn Uruoorrreo 49 O9B7) (contending that what connects
all women is their oppression in a sexual hierarchy), wifh Loving
v. Virginia, 3BB U.S. 1, p G96) (invatidating laws prohibiting interracial marriage), Doe v. McConn, 489 F. Supp. 26, Bo (S.D. Tex. rg8o)
(holding a cross-dressing ordinance unconstitutional as applied to
individuats undergoing therapy for sex-reassignment surgery), ond
Kenneth L. Karst, The Freedom of lntimote Association, 89 Ynre
L.J.6zt',,6;r (rg8o) ("The denial of the society of an intimate may
be partiat, as in the case of a parent who loses a contest over child
custody but is atlowed visitation rights, or virtually totat, as when a
noncustodial parent is denied visitation rights.").
(c) Signals that indicate contradiction.
Contro
But
'ee
Citcd authority directly states the contrnry of the proposition.
"Contra" is used whcre "[no signat]"would bc used for support.
Cited authority clead.v supports a proposition contrary to thc
nuin proposition. "But see" is uscd where "see" would be
ttsccl
for support.
But
cf.
Cited authoriq.' st-lpports a proposition analogt)tts to the contrar)'
of thc main proposition. 'I'hc use of a parcntheticirl explanation of
the sourcc's relcvlnce (rule 1.5) fbllowing a citittion introduced
by"but cf "is strongly recommended.
"Buf" should bc omittcd from"but see" and "but cf." whenever onc of these
signals follows another nefiative signal:
)
Contra Blake v. Kline, 6rz F .zd 7t8, 723-24 (Zd Cir. ryl);
see CHARLES Alnn WnrcHr, Law or Frornnl Counrs 5 +8 (+th ed.
1983).
(d) Signal that indicates background material.
See
Cited authority prescnts helpful background matcrial related to
proposition. Thc use of a parenthetical explanation of thc
sourcc material's relevancc (rule 1.5) following each authority
intmduccd by "see generally" is encouragcd.
generally the
(e) Signals as verbs. In footnotes, signals may be used as thc verbs of textual
sentences. rJ/hen using signals in this wiry, inclnde matcrial that woulcl otherwisc be included in a parenthetical explanation as part of the sentence itself.
Signals shoulcl not be italicized when usecl as verbs in tcxtual scntences (rule
2.1(d)).
Thus:
b
See Christina L. Anderson, Comment, Double Jeopardy: The
Modern Dilemma for Juvenile Justice, r5z U. Pn. L. Rev. m8r,
72o4-o7 (zoo4) (discussing four main types of restorative justice
programs).
becomes:
p See Christina
L.
Anderson, Comment, Double Jeopardy: The
Modern Dilemma for Juvenile Justice, r5z U. Pn. L. Rev. rr8r,
12o4-o7 Qoo4), for a discussion of restorative justice as a reasonabte replacement for retributive sanctions.
"
Cf, "
becomcs "com pare" and "e.g. " becomes
"for exam ple" when used in this
mannef.
r.3
Order of Signals
rJfhen more than onc signal is used, the signals (along
with the authofities they
introduce) should appear in the order in which those signals are listed in rule
1.2. \Vhen "e.g.," is used in conjunction with another signal, the other signal's
position in rule 1.2 shoulcl be used. Notc that the order of ar.rthorities within
each signal must conform to rule 1.4. Signals of the same basic rypc-sup-
portivc, compafative, contf:rdictory, or background (rule 1.2(a)-(d))-mLrst be
strung together within a single citation sentence and separated by semicolons,
Signals of different types, however, must be grouped
tences. For examplc:
h
in different citation
sen-
See Mass. Bd. of Ret. v. Murgia, 427 U.S. Zol GgZ6) (per curiam);
cf, Palmer v. Ticcione, 433 F. Supp. 653 (E.D.N.Y. 1977) (uphotding
a mandatory retirement age for kindergarten teachers). But see,
)
e.q., Gault v. Ga rrison, 569 F.zd g% (7th Cir. ryt
(hotdin g that
a ctassification of pubtic school teachers based on age viotated
equat protection absent a showing ofjustifiable and rational state
purpose). See generally Comment, O'Neil v. Baine: Application of
Middle-Level Scrutiny to Old-Age Clossifications, n7 U. Pn. L. Rrv.
798 (!97il (advocating a new constitutionaI approach to otd-age
c [assi ficatio ns).
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Vithin a citation clausc
(de
1.1),howcveqcitation strinlas may contain silanals
of more than one type , separatcd by scmicolons.
Order of Authorities Within Each Signal
Authofities within each signal are seplr.rtcd by scmicolons.
If onc authorit_v or sevcral authorities tol{cther are consiclcrably morc helpful or
authoritativc than thc other authorities cited within a signal, thel' shoulcl prcccdc thc others. Except in this situation, cite authorities in the ordcr in which
thel'are listcd below. Authoritics citcd in short fbrm are ordcrcd as though
citcd in full.
(a) Constitutions ancl other foundational documents are cited in the folkrwing orcler:
(I
) federal
o
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(2) state (alphabetically by statc)
( J) foreign (alphabetically by uriscliction)
(.i) foundational documents of thc Llnite d Nations, the League of Nations,
ancl thc tsuropcan Union, in that order
(lonstitutions of the same juriscliction are cited in reverse chronokrgical ortlcr.
O
(b) Statutes rre citetl according to jurisdiction in the following olcler:
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Feclcral:
(1) statutes in tl.S.C., Ll.S.O.A.. or { l.S.C.S. (b,v progrcssive orcle r of I I.S.( ).
tirle)
(2) statutes currcntly in forcc but not in tl.S.C.,II.S.(;.A., or tl.S.O.S. (by
rcverse chronological order of cnactnrcrtt)
(l)
rules of evidcnce and procedtrrc
(.1) repcaled statutcs (b-v reverse
chtrnokrgical ordcr of enactntent)
State (alphabcticall)' b)' state):
(5) statutcs in thc current codilicrtion (ry order in the codilicttion)
(6) statutcs currcntl_v in firrce but not in thc current codffication (bY
revcrse chronological order of cnactmcnt)
(7) rulcs of evidence and proceclure
(8) repealcd statutes (b_v rcversc chronological ordcr of enactmcnt)
F'oreign (alphabetically by jnrisdiction):
(9) codcs or statutes in thc current codilicati<xr (by order in the
coclification)
(10) statutes currently in ftrrce but not in cocles or thc current
codification (bv revcrsc chronological orcler of cnactment)
(l 1) repealed strtutes (b1' reversc chronokrgical orcler of cnactment)
(c) Treaties and other international agreements (otl-rer than the firunchtional documents of thc Unitcd Nations, the League of Nations, and the European LJnion) are citcd in revcrsc chronological ordcr.
(d) Cases lre arrangecl within
a signal accorcling to the courts issuing thc cited
opinions. Subsequcnt and prior historics are irrelevant to the order of citation, as
is whethcr the opinion is published or unpublished. Cascs deciclctl by thc same
court are arrlnged in rcversc chronokrgical ordcr; for tlris purposc, all lJnited
r.4
circuit courts of appeals are treated as one court (including the District of
Columbia and Federal Circuit). and all federal district courts are treated as one
court. Thc ordering system is as follows:
States
Federal:
(l)
Supreme Court
(2) courts of appeals, Emergency Court ofAppeals, andTemporary
Emergency Court ofAppeals
(3) Court of Claims, Court of Customs and Patcnt Appcals, and bankruptcy
appellate panels
(4) district courts,Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation, and Court
International Trude (previously thc Customs Court)
of
(5) district bankruptcy courts and Railroad Reorganization Court
(6) Court of Federal Claims (previously the trial dMsion for the Court
of Claims), Court ofAppeals for the Armed Forces (previously the
Court of MilitaryAppeals), andTax Court (previously the Board ofTax
Appeals)
(7) administrative agencies (alphabetically by agency)
State:
(t|) courts (alphabetically by state and then by rank within each state)
(9) agencies (alphabetically by state and then alphabetically by agency
within each state)
Foreign:
(10) courts (alphabetically by jurisdiction and then by rank within each
iurisdiction)
(l l)
agencies (alphabetically by jurisdiction and then alphabetically by
agency within each jurisdiction)
International:
(12) International Court ofJustice, Permanent Court of International
Justice
(13) other international tribunals and arbitral panels (alphabetically by
name)
(e) Legislative materials are cited in the following order:
1l,) bills and rcsolutions
(2) committce hearings
(l)
reports, documents, and committee prints
(4) floor debates
Cite materials within each classification in rcverse chronological ofder. If citing
both federal and state materials, cite federal materials lirst, in reverse chronological order Cite state matcrials in reverse chronological order and then alphabeti
cally by state.
(f) Administrative and executive materials
are cited in the followinq order:
Federal:
(l)
Executive Orders
(2) current Treasury Regulations, proposed Treasury Regulations
(l) all other regulations currently in force @y progressive order of C.[R.
title)
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(4) proposed rulcs not )'et in force (bv progressive ordcr offirture (l.FR
title, if any; otherwise by rcversc chronological order of proposal)
(5) all matcrials rcpealcd (b1'rer-ersc chronological orcler of
promulgatkrn)
State:
((r) state (alphabetically by statc), currently in firrce, thcn reperled
Foreign:
(7) foreign (alphabetically b,v jurisdiction), currently in forcc, then
rcpealed
(g) Resolutions, decisions, and regulations of intergovernmental organizations are cited in the following ordcr:
(l)
llnitecl Nations antl League of Nations, in revcrse chnrnokrgical ordcr
b_v issuing body (Gcneral Assembly, thcn Security Council, thcn other
organs in alphabetical orcler)
(2) othcr organizations (alphabetically by name of organization)
(h) Records, briefs, and petitions are cited in that orcler, and within each
classification by orclcr of the court in which liled (see rule 1.4(d)). Bricf.s
within the samc casc and court are cited in the folkrwing ordcr: plaintiff/pctitioner, defendant/respondcnt, and then amictts curiac in alphabctical order by
Iirst word of thc amicus party's name.
(i) Secondary materials
(l)
are citcd in the folkrwing order:
unilbrm codes, model codes, and restatements, in that orcler (in
reverse chronological order by categ(x)')
(2) books, pamphlets, and shorter works in a collcction of a singlc
author's works (afhabctically by last namc of author;if none , b1' first
worcl of titlc)
(J) works in iournals (not magazincs or Itcwsptpers), inclucling
fbrthcoming works and shortcr works in a collection of variotts
authors'works (llphabetically by last namc of author)
(4) book reviews not writtcn by stuclents (alphabetically by last name of
revicwe r)
(5) student-writtcn hw revicw matcrials inclr.rding book rcviews (alphlbe tically by last n:rme of author; if none , by lirst worcl of title ; if none , bv
periodical as abbreviated in cittttion)
(6) annotations (in rcverse chronological ordcr)
(7) maglzine and newspapcr article s (alphabetically by last namc of author;
if none , by lirst word of title)
(ti) working papers (a$habetically by last namc of atrthor; if nonc, by lirst
word 0f title )
(9) unpublished matcrials not lbrthcoming (alphabetically by last name of
author; if none, by lirst word of title)
(10) electronic sources, including Internct sources (alphabctically by hst
nanc of author; if none, by first worcl of title)
When not acldresscd above , for thc purposes of a$habctizing within cach classilication, use only the name of the first authof listed (if any) antl thcn proceed
to use thc titlc.
(i) Cross-references to thc author's own text or f(x)tnotcs.
t.5
Parenthetical Information
(a) Substantive information. Use parcntheticals,
as needed,
to explain thc
relevance of a particular authority to the proposition givcn in the tcxt. Parenthetical infbrmation is recommencled when the relevance of a cited authority
might not otherwise be clear to the reader (see rule 1.2). Explanatory information takes the form of a present participial phrase, a quOted sentence, or a short
statement that is appropriate in context.
(i) Phrases not quoting the authority. Explanatory parenthetical phrases
not directly quoting the authority usually bcgin with a present participle and
should nevcr begin with a capital letter:
generallyAkhit Reed Amar, Reports of My Death Are Greatly
Exaggerated: A Reply,48 U. Pn. L. Rev. 165r (r99o) (arguing that
the author and the two-tier theory of federal lurisdiction are still
viabte).
W See
Vhen
a complete participial phrase is unnecessary in context, a shorter parcnthetical may be substituted:
b' Such standards have been adopted to address a variety ofenvironmental problems. see, e.9., H.B. Jacobini, The New International
Son itary Re g u lati o n s, 46 AM. l. lNt' t L. 7 27, 7 z7 -zB (rgS z) (healthrelated water quality); Robert L. Meyer, Travaux Pr6paratoires for
the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, z EnnrH t.l. qS, qS-Bt
(1926) (conservation of protected areas).
(ii) Phrases quoting the authority. If, howeve r, the parenthctical information
quotes one or more ftlll sentences or a portion of material that rcads as a full
sentence, it sl-rould begin with a capital lctter and include appropriate closing
punctllauon:
*
3 Consequences ofChonging U.S. Population: Hearing Before the
H. Select Comm. on Population, g5th Cong. n Q97B) (statement of
Dr. David Birch) ("[T]here are more mayors of Rockville, Maryland,
than there are mayors of Detroit.").
F' Mari J. Matsuda, Public Response to Rocist Speech: Considering
the Victim's Story, 87 MrcH. L. Rev. z3zo, 4Bt 9989) ("We are a
legalized culture. lf law is where racism is, then law is where we
must confront it.... IL]et us presenta competingideology....").
Not: Mari J. Matsuda, Public Response to Racist Speech: Considering
the Victim's Story,87 MrcH. L. Rev. z3zo, 4Bt Q989) (exptaining
that "[w]e are a legalized cutture. lf taw is where racism is, then
law is where we must confront it . . . . IL]et us present a competing
ideotogy. . . .").
When dircctly quoting only a short phrasc from an authority, folkrw rule 1.5
(aXi):
*
But see Flanagan v. United States, +6S U.S. 259,264 OgBg)
(exptaining that the finalludgment rule reduces the potential for
parties to "clog the courts" with a succession of time-consuming
appeats).
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(b) Order of parentheticals within a citation.
W'hen a citation requires
multiple parcntheticals, place thcm in thc fbllowing order:
F" (date) [hereinafter short name] (en banc) (Lastname, J., concurring)
(pluratity opinion) (per curiam) (alteration in originat) (emphasis
added) (footnote omitted) (citations omitted) (quoting another
source) (citing another source), http://www.domainname.com
(explanatory parentheticat), prior or subsequent history.
In citations to online
such
tlut
sor-rces that
slurc the charactcristics of a print sotlrcc
thc-v coultl bc cited according to
de
18.2.l(bxii), thc
URL should
immcdiatell' precedc the cxplanatorv parenthetical.
sourccs (rule 18.2.2), the "hcrcinafter" parcnthcti
follow
the liRl. or if there is onc, thc "last visited''
cal should immediately
In citations to Internet
parentheticxl.
In citations to online and Internet sourccs that utilizc archival totlls, the archival
link should immediately'follow thc IIRL (rule 18.2.1(d)).
Notc that explanatory parcnthcticals prccecle
or othcr relatcd authoritl'(rule 1.6):
an.v
citati(xl of sttbsctluent histor.v
t,
Att. Richfietd Co. v. Fed. Energy Admin., 429 F. Supp. 7052, 1067-62
(N.D. Cat. rqZ6) ("[N]ot every person aggrieved by administrative
action is necessarily entitted to the protections of due process."),
aff d, SS6 F.zd 5 4z (Temp. Emer. CI. App. tgtil.
ir
Louis Loss, Ihe Conflict of Laws ond the Blue Sky Laws, 71 Hnnv.
L. Rev. 209 (1957) (discussing the bewitdering array of state laws
then governing interstate securities transactions), reprinted in
Lours Loss & Eownno M. Cowrrr, Brue Srv Lnw 1.80 (1958).
If the matcrial cited quotes or cites two or more dillcrcrtt sotlrces. includc lll
sorlrces in thc ordcr in which thcy wcre citctl within one qtlotillg or citing
ptfenthetical:
** Duncan v. Louisiana, 39r U.S.
omitted) (first quoting Powell
then quoting /n re Oliver, 333
quoting Gideon v. Wainwright
t45,t48-49 (t968) (footnote
v. Alabama, zB7 U.S.
4s,6l lt93z);
U.5. 257,273 (1948); and then
,37ztJ.S. i;s,343-44 bS6)).
Related Authority
Whcn citing a work, citations to rclatcd authorities may be hclpful to lricl in
locating thc primarl' work or to provicle relevant information not reflcctcd in
thc primary citation. (litations to relatecl authority may be appencled to thc primar)' citation with thc use of att italicized cxplanittory phrase.
(a) Related authority intended to increase access.
(i) "In." Vhcn citing it shortcr rvork such as an article, cssal'. or spe ech originalll'
published in a volume collecting such works, ttsc "in" to introdttce tlre collection as a whole (see rule 15.5):
r.6
ts Kay Deaux & Brenda Major, A Social-Psychological Model of
Gender,in THEonerrclr Prnspecrrvrs oru Sexunl Drrrrnerucrs 89,
93 (Deborah L. Rhode ed., r99o).
(ii) "Reprinted in." A work that conveniently reprints a sourcc originally published elsewhere may be introduced by "reprinted rn." As far as possible, pra
vide a complcte citation for the original work, followed by"reprinted in" and
the citation for the volume containing the reprint (see rule 15.5.2):
+
Louis Loss, Ihe Conflict of Laws and the Blue Sky Lows, 7r Hnnv.
L. REV. 2o9 Q95), reprinted in Lours Loss & Eowano M. Cowerr,
Blue Sry Lnw r8o (1958).
=
Thomas Jefferson, Kentucky Resotutions of 1798 and q99,
reprinted in 4 Dranrrs oN THE ADoploN oF rHE Feoennl CoNSTtruroN 540 (Jonathan Ettiot ed., zd ed., Phitadetphia, J.B. Lippincott
rB88).
To indicate excerpts or partial reprints, add the word "as":
p""
S. REp. No. 95-r8r, at
4
Q97),
os reprinted in 1977 U.S.C.C.A.N.
34o1,3414.
(iii) Other phrases. Othcr phrases may be used by analogy to rule 1.6(a)(i)
(ii), as appropriate (e .g.,"microformed on" (see rule 18.5.1), or"tronslated in" (see rule 20.2.5)).
and
(b) Relevant history. The prior or subscquenr history of a case (rule 10.7)
or of a statute (rule 12.7) may bc appended to the main citation for that case
or statute . See rules 10.7 tnd 12.7 for circumstanccs in which the subsecuent
history of a case or statutc must be indicated:
k' Matthews v. Konieczny, 488 A.zd 5 (Pa. Super.
A.zd 5oB (Pa.ryV).
Ct. t985),
rev'd,527
(c) Commentary. Works that discuss or quote the primary authority may also
be appended to the citation without parentheses as related authorities when
particularly relcvant or when locating the original soufce may be difficult. Use
italicized phrases such as "noted in:"'construed inl"'quoted in:',,reviewed
by,""cited with approval inl'and,"questioned in" to inrroduce these works.
Works that th€ primary authority discusscs, cites, or otherwise mentions, however, should be indicated parenthetically. Thus:
i"
Filled MitkAct $ r, zr U.5.C. 5 6r (zoo6), construedrn MilnotCo.v.
Richardson,35o F. Supp. zzr (S.D. tll.t97z).
But: Milnot Co. v. Richardson, 350 F. Supp. zzt (5.D.lll. t97z)
(construing Fitted Mitk Act g r, zr U.S.C. g 6r (zoo6)).
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TYPEFACES FOR LAW REVIEWS
Lelaal
writing uses four typefaces, though choice of font may varv (e.!a.,Timcs
Couri cr, etc.):
New Roman,
+
r
Ordinary Roman (Plain Text)
Underlined
't
-
ltalicized
Lnnce nno SmalL Caprrals
Law reviews usc two sets of t_vpcface convcntions-one firr law review tcxt
(eitlrcr main tcxt or footnote text) (rule 2.2) lnd one firr law review citations
(rule 2.1). tlnless otherwise notccl, the examples in The Bluelnok correspond
to thc convention firr law revicw f<xltnotes.
l'or an cxplanation of thc tvpefacc convcntions commonly uscd in othcr forms
of lcgal rvriting, sec Bluepages 82. Practitioncrs can mlkc rcady usc <>f the
exrnrplcs in Tbe Bluebutk b)' substituting thc typefacc convcntions outlincd
in the Bluepages firr those firuncl in thc exlmplcs thrcughout thc rcst of thc
book.
For cxample , a practitioner's brief might look likc this:
Directors manage the business and affairs of a corporation. See
Revlon, Inc. v. MacAndrews & Forbes Hotdings, Inc., 5o6 A.zd t73,
q9 (DeI. 1986); seqalso Del. Code Ann. tit. B, 5 rz+r(a) (zooo). In
Guth v. Loft, the court held that directors also owe a duty of loyalty
to the shareholders. 5 A.zd 5q,5ro (Det. 1939) (hotding that
directors' duty of toyalty demands that "there shalt be no conflict
between duty and setf-interest").
A simihr scction of a law revicw article mifiht reacl:
t.
Directors manage the business and affairs of a corporation.l In
Guth v. Loft, the court hetd that directors also owe a duty of loyalty
to the shareholders.'
r'
1See Revlon, Inc. v. MacAndrews & Forbes Hotdings, Inc.,
5o6 A.zd
773, 179 (Det. rg86); see olso Der. Cooe ANN. tit. 8, 5 r+r(a) (zooo).
'
2
F.<rr
5 A.zd 503, 510 (Del. rg;q) (holding that directors'duty of
loyalty demands that "there shal[ be no conflict between duty and
se tf-interest").
rtdditional guichnce , see
rule
2. 1,
rule 2.2,
,n'rd
Bluepages 82.
Typeface Conventions for Citations
Most law revicws
fiio
r.rse
threc tlifl'crcnt typctaces in citations:
OrdinarV Roman (Plain Text), /tolics, and LARGE AND SMALL
Cnprrnls
Some replace large and small capitlls
t
$'ith orclinlrv roman ttpe.'l'hus:
Colin S. Diver, The Optimal Precision of Administrotive Rules,93
Ynre L.l.6S (rq8;).
2.7
t
becomes:
s
Colin S. Diver, The Optimal Precision of Administrative Rules,93
Yale L.l. 6S (rq8;).
Othcr law revicws replace some italics, as wcll as all large and small capitals,
with ordinary roman typc:
I
Cotin S. Diver, The Optimat Precision of Administrative Rules, 93
Yate L.l. 6s OgB).
1'he cxamples in this book follow thc lirst convention, using all three typefaces.
The following list explains the more important typefacc conventions usecl in
law review citations:
(a) Case names (rules 1O.2, 14.3.1,2O.3,21.5, and 21.6).IIse ordinary
roman type fbr case namcs in full citations, exccpt for procedural phrases,
which are always italicized:
State exrel. Scottv.Zinn,39zP.zd 4t7 (N.M. 1964).
rvhen a casc name appears within an article title in a citation, do not italicize it:
F Thomas J. Madden et
al., Bedtime for Bivens: Substituting the
United Stotes as Defendant in Constitutional Tort 5uits, zo Hnnv.
J.
oN LEGrs. +69 (tg91).
Lochner, r98 U.S. at 5o.
(b) Books
(de
15). tJsc largc and small capitals firr both authors and titlcs:
F= RrcHnno KLUGER,
Sruple Justtct(t976).
(c) Periodicals (rule L6). Italicize article titles and usc largc and small clpitals
lbr periodicll names. Authors'names shoulcl appear in ordinary roman type:
h^ Katherine K. Baker, Once a RapistT
Motivational Evidence and
Relevancy in Rape Low,11o HARV. L.Rw.563
ts Cass
R.
Q99).
Sunstein, Lochner's Legacy, 87 Coruu. L. Rev.873 (1987).
e* David E. Bernstein, Lochnefs Legacy's Legocy, Bz
Trx. L. Rev. r
(zoo3).
(d) Introductory signals (rule 1.2). Itrlicize all introdr.rctory
signals when
thcy appear within citation scntcnces or clauscs:
*
See, e.9., Parker Drilling Co. v. Ferguson,3gtF.zd 58r (5th Cir.
1968).
Do not, howcv'e
scntencc:
r.
italicize
a signal
rvord whcn it sen
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Use itirlics fbr thc short form of case citations:
*
I
I
ts Lochner v. New York, r9B U.S. 45 (1905).
9
o
e
s as
the
ve
rb of an ordinary
M For an analysis of risk-allocation rules under the UCC, see Roger S.
Goldman, Note, Rrsk of Loss in Commercial Transactions: Efficiency
Thrown into the Breoch,65 Ve. L. Rev. 557, S6S-lz (rglil.
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(e) Explanatory phrases (rules 1.6, 1O.7, and I2.7). ltr,liciz.c all explanatory phrases:
v. Whirlpoot Corp.,579 F.zd tz6,9r (zd Cir.) (en
banc), cerf. denied, 89 U.S.gt'i6 (rgZB).
3 0reck Corp.
Notc, howevcr, that phrascs in rchted authorit) parentheticals, such
ing . . . )i' " (citing . . . )," :rnd " (translating . . . )" are not itrlicizc(l.
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"(quot-
(f) Punctuation. Itllicizc commas,
semicolons, and othcr punctuxtion nlxrks
only whcn they constitute part of the italicized nraterial, and not whcn thcl lre
mcrch' an clcment of thc sentcncc or citution in which the1. appcur. For cluritl',
thc italicizctl items in thc examplcs bekrw appeur in bluc:
':' See, e.g.,id.; Sabine Towing & Transp.
Co. v. Zapata Ugland
Dritling, lnc. (ln re M/V Vulcan), 553F.zd 48q (rth Cir.) (per
curiam), cert. denied, 84U.S.BSS
e
GSI).
Nancy Reagan, Editoriat, /usf 5oy "Whoo," Wnrr Sr. J., lan. 23,
ry96, aI At4.
Typeface Conventions for Textual Material
(a) Main text. l'he main text of law rcview pieces docs not contain citatious
lncl lrses onh' ordinrrr,y roman rnd itrlics. Most materiel rppeitrs in t.rrclirurY
roman type . Only the fblkrwing irre italicizcd:
(i) Case names. Italicize
pfrr:rscs srrclr rs '/n
.'
casc nanes, including
thc v.' ancl all proccdurd
re"'tnd-ex rel.":
Missouri ex rel. Goines v. Conado
(ii) Titles of publications, speeches, or articles. Thus:
r'' The library has a copy of The Path of the Law, which was published
inthe Harvard Law Review;
T
o
o
o
o
as
a complete set of the Federal Supple-
ment; and today's Woll Street Journa,l. lt does not have a copy of
Hearings on S. 776 or Alaska Statutes.
(iii) Style. Italicize u'ords for cnrphasis or othcr st.vlistic lturltoses (rule 7). Also
itllicize words that arc emphasizcd in (luoted mlttcr (rule 1.2).
(tr) Footnote text. tlnlike in thc main tcxt, a scntcnce in footnotc text mav colltair-l citrtions, which arc placecl in cit:ttiot-t clauscs emltecldcd in thc sctltellce
(rule 1.1(b)).
(i) Case names. When a casc namc is grantnt:tticalll plrt of thc sentencc in
which it appcars, it slrould bc itdicizccl:
*
ln Loving v. Virginia, the Court invalidated Virginia's antimiscege-
nation statute.
w
ln Loving v. Virginia,38B U.S.
t (tg6),
ia's antimiscegenation statute.
the Court invalidated Virgin-
)',
When the case name is not grammatically part of the sentence, but rather used
in a citatkrn clause embedded in the footnote text, use the typeface conventions
for citations (rule 2.1(a)):
F
The Court has upheld race-specific statutes that disadvantage
a racial minority, e.9., Korematsu v. United States, 3z3U.S.zt4
(t94Q,but those decisions have been severety criticized.
F lustice
Harlan quipped that "one man's vulgarity is another's lyric,"
Cohen, 4o3 U.S. at 25, but failed to provide further exptanation.
(ii) All other authorities. When referring to any other type of
authority,
whether or not the refbrence is grammatically part of the sentence, use the
typeface convcntions for citations if the full citation or a short form citation
(rule 4) is given:
e
different view is expressed in LeenneD HAND, THE BrLL oF RrGHrs
(1958), and HoLMEs, supra note 2.
A
If the reference appears without the full or shortencd citation information, follow the typeface conventions for the main text of law reviews (rule 2.2(a)(ii)):
F' Judge Hand explained his phitosophy of ludiciat review in The Bill
of Rights.
(iii) Explanatory parentheticals. In explanatory parentheticals, follow the
typeface convention for case names in citation text when a ftill citation clause
is included:
h
Nat't R.R. Passenger Corp. v. Morgan, S16 U.S. ror, uo (zooz)
(citing Chevron U.5.A. Inc. v. NaturaI Res. Def. Council, lnc., 467
U.S.8tz (rSB+)).
&' Nat'l R.R. Passenger Corp. v. Morgan, 536 U.S. tor, rro (zooz)
(addressing an argument based upon Chevron U.S.A. Inc. v.
Natural Res. Def. Counci[, |nc.,467 U.S. BIZ GS8+)).
re Nat'I R.R. Passenger Corp. v. Morgan, Sf6 U.S. ror,
(addressing an argument based upon Chevron).
uo
(zooz)
(c) Puncfuation. Italicize commas, semicolons, etc., only when they constitute
part of italicized material, and not when they are merely an element of the
citation or sentencc in which they appear. For purposes of clarity, the italicized
punctuation marks in the examples below appear in blue
:
it' When it decided Sabine Towing, the Fifth Circuit presented
a some-
what different rationate for its holding.
F
Brannon Denning's article, Reforming the New Confirmation
Process: Replacing "Despise and Resent" with "Advise and
Consent," suggests amendments to the Senate's proceduraI rules.
Itot: Brannon Denning's atlicle, Reforming the New Confirmotion
Process: Replacing "Despise and Resent" with "Advise and
Consent," suggests amendments to the Senate's proceduraI rules.
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3
t
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SUBDIVISIONS
Most subdivisions (such
as
columns or scctions) in citations are abbrcviatcd. Sce
table T16 firr a list of subdivision rbbreviations.
3.r
Volumes, Parts, and Supplements
A single work often rppears in separ:rtely plginatecl (or scctioned or ptragr.rphcd) volnmes, parts, or supplemcnts. A citxtion to matcrial that appcars in
onc such volumc, prrt, <lr supplement mllst iclcntiff the scp:tratel.]- pllginated
subdivision in which thc material appears.
(a) Volumes. \Vhen the volumes lre numberctl, cite thc volume nuntber in Arabic numcr.rls. If the author of thc entire work (all volumes) is cited. thc r,rrlttnte
nttnthcr prt'tt'dcs tlte arrthor's nltrnc:
r'
2 FREDERTcK PoLt-ocK & Fneoentc Wtt-ltnpt Mnlrrnruo. THe Hlsronv
oF ENGLTsH Lnw
'
zo5-o6 (zd ed. rgrr).
2 SuBcoMM. oN LABoR oFrHE S. Cotum.
on Lneon & Puertc
Wrrranr,92o Couc., Lectsrnttve Htsronv
MENr OppoRruNtryAcr oF
oF rHE EQUAL EnnploY-
7972,atrco7 Q97z).
Othcrwisc, thc volume number precedes the volumc's title:
Donald H. Zeigter, Young Adults os o Cognizable Group in Jury
Selection, T6 MtcH. L. Rrv. ro45, to4l ltgl9).
If no volnmc number is given but the volumc is readily identiliable b.v velr, trse
thc velr of the volume as tlrc volume number and omit the yetr after thc pincite:
,r Thomas R. McCoy & Barry Friedman, Conditional Spending: Federolism's Trojan Horse, 1988 Sue. Cr. REV. 85, 88.
"'
Donatd A. Dripps, Delegation and Due Process,lgBB DUKE L.l.657.
If thc volume dcsignation inclutlcs worcls, use bmckcts to avoid cot-tfitsiot.t:
1t977-r978 Transfer Binderl Bankr. L. Rep. (CCH) 1166,472
If volumes are numbcred in
a
ncw serics each year, give both the ycar ancl volphcing it befi)rc the wrlumc nttmbcr to
rumc number, br:tcketing the ,vcar and
avoid conftsion:
ItgqZlz
K.B. r54
(b) Separately paginated numbered parts.
separatel.v paginatcd
Wl-ren a work is clividecl into
(or sectioned or paragrlphed) scries, b<xrks, chapters, or
othcr parts, incluclc the rclevant subdivisions in the citation:
'"
z6 Conc. Rec. app. at 156 (1894) (statement of Rep. Hicks).
,'' ser. 14, pt. 2, at 150
,,
pt. 3, 5 4, at r5
(c) Supplements. Whct-r citinll a separately paginatecl (or scctioncd or pardgrlphecl) supplemcnt, identilj' thc supplement ancl its clate in parenthcses:
','
HAW.
Rrv. Srnr. g 296-46.t (Supp. rq8+).
ts Geoncr Glensor Bocrnr, THE Lnw or Tnusrs nuo Tnusrees $ 495
(rev. zd ed. Supp. 1985).
To cite both the main volume and the st4rplement, use an ampersand:
tr 4z
3.2
U.S.C.
Sttgtb
(1982 & Supp. I r9B3).
Pages, Footnotes, Endnotes, and Graphical Materials
(a) Pages. (iive thc page number or numbers before the date plrenthetical,
without any introductory abbreviation ("p." and "pp." are uscd only in internal
cross-rcferenccs
*
9
(de
3.5)):
ARTHUR E. SurHenlaruo,
H.R. Rep. No.
CorusrrrurroNAltsM
tN AMERtcA
45
G96).
82353, at 4-5 b95t).
llse "at" if the page numbcr may be conftrsed with irnother part of the citation; use a comma to set off "at." flse this form, frrr example, when thc title of a
work ends with an Ambic numeral or when the work uses Roman numerals for
pagination:
h
BrocnnpHrcnl DlnEcrony oF THE GovERNoRs oF rHE UNtTED
Srares ry78-t983, at 257 (Robert Sobet & John W. Raimo eds.,
198t.
F Thomas l. Emerson, Foreword lo CnrsnnrruE A. MncKrr.rtorrr, Srxual
Hnnnssmerur or Wonrruc Womeru, atvii,ix $979).
If an article,
case,
or other source within a largcr source is not separately pagi-
nated, cite thc page on which the itcm begins:
h
Bernard L. Diamond, The Psychiatric Prediction of Dongerousness,
rz3 U. Pn. L.Rev. q9 j97Q.
b
United States v. Bruno, r44 F. Supp. 593 (N.D. llt. r955).
ts Government Employees TrainingAct, Pub. L. No. B5-5o7,7zStat.
zzt
GgsB).
When referring to specilic material within such a source, include both the
which the spccific material
page on which the source bcgins and thc page on
appears (a pincitc), scparatcd by a comma:
F Matthew
Roskoski, Note, A Case-by-Case Approach to Pleading
Scienter Under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995,
97 Mtct-r. L. Rev. 2265, zzTt-75 Q999).
F" CATHARINE A. MAcKtNNoN , On
Exceptionality: Women as Women in
Law,in Frmrrursu Uruuoolnreo Zo,Z6-lZ OgBi.
When ref'erring specilicallv to matcrial on the first page of a source, rcpeat the
page number:
F Christina M. Fern6ndez, NoIe, Beyond Marvin: A Proposal for
Quasi-Spousal Support,30 SrAN. L. Rev. 359, 359 Q97B).
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a concurring or tlisscnting opinion, givc only thc
initial pagc 0f the casc and the page on which the specilic material appears.ltot
thc initial p:rge of thc concurring or dissenting opinion:
Vhcn citing material within
s, Baker v. Carr, l6q U.S. 186,297 (1962) (Frankfurter,
J.,
dissenting).
'Whcn citing material that spans more than onc palac1 givc the inclusivc pagc
nunrbers. seplrrted b1' an en dlsh (-) or h.vphen (-). Alwa.vs retain the last two
digits. but drop other repetitious cligits:
'$p
Edward L. Rubin, Note, Fairness, Flexibility, and the Waiver of
Remediol Rights by Controct, 87 YnrE L.l. to57, ro65-69 Q978).
If a hyphcn or dash would be ambiguns bccausc of the page numbering
sys-
tcm. use the rvord 'to":
l. Brrrren & JAMES S. Eusrtcr, FeoennL luconr Tnxnrtoru or
Conponnrrorus AND SHAREHoLDERS tl l.o6,at 5-31 to -32 (5th abr.
ed. ry87).
M" BoRrs
Cite nonconsccutive pages hy giving thc individud pagc numbcrs separatcd
b1'commas:
[r" Kleppe v. New Mexico,
426U.5.529,5i1,546 (t976).
Ifu source uses star paging (such 4s""3"),drop the star in tl-re ending page numbcr of a pagc rmge , but keep tl-rc star in lll re fercnce s to nonconscctltir,e page s.
;i'
2W
I
LL
rAM
B
LAc
K
sro
N
E,
C
o
rvr nn E ru
rn
nte
s * t5z, * t5 5-56.
Whcn a point is oftcn repeated throughout the cntirc source, llsc "possim"
rather thrn citing spccilic plges. Do not insert I comma after thc initial pagc
number:
\'
O
Linda S. Mullenix, The Constitutionolity of the Proposed Rule z3
Class Action Amendments, 39 Aatz. L. Rev. 615 passim Q997).
I
(b) Footnotes. 'lb cite a footntxe, givc thc pagc on which the footnotc appcrrs,
''n.," and the firotnotc numbcr, with no sptce betwcen "n." rtnd the number:
I
'l'0 cite
o
o
o
a
o
o
o, Akhil Reed Amar, The Two-Tiered Structure of the Judiciary Act
t7B9,qB U. Pa. L. Rev. 1499, r5z5 n.Bo (r99o).
of
l footnotc th:rt spans ntore thln one page , cite onl,v the page on which
thc fbotnotc begins,"n.," and the lbotnotc numl'rer:
i'
Akhit Reed Amar, The Two-Tiered Structure of the Judiciary Act
17Bg,BB U. Pn. L. Rev. 1499, 't56o n.zzz (tggo).
of
When ref'erring onll to specilic pagcs tlf a footnote that splns nlore thall one
prge , cite only' thc spccilic pages, rather than the page on which thc footllotc
bcgins:
u Akhil Reed Amar, The Two-Tiered Structure of the Judiciory Act of
t789,98 U. Pn. L. Rrv. 1499, t56r-6zn.zzz(tggo).
lir
cite both a range of pages atrcl also a singlc firotttotc thlrt appelrs within the
citc thc page rangc firllowcd bv a cotnma and tlrcn citc tlte fbotrlt>tc
in thc npicll manner:
pa!.ic rangc,
b Akhit Reed Amar,
1789,88
The Two-Tiered Structure of the Judiciary Act
U. Pn. L. Rev1499, 1523-24,t524n.75$99o).
of
Cite multiple footnote s (or endnote s) by using "nn.":
S"
r4r nn.18o-86
Treat nonconsecutive fq)tnotes (or endnotes) like nonconsecutive pages, but
(except for internal cross-referenccs) substitute an ampersand for the comma
separ.lting two footnotes that appear on thc same page or the final comma in a
list of three or more footnote s that appear on the same page:
3
W 29tnn.r4 & 18,316 nn.4,6 & 8-9
I
page in the
tcxt and a footnorc that begins on that page, use
an ampersand between thc page and the note number:
9
rene Merker Rosenberg, Winship Redux: t97o to 1990,69 Trx.
Rev. ro9, 14 & n.9o (t99o).
f
L.
(c) Endnotes. To cite an endnotc, give the page on which the endnote appears
(not the page on which thc call number appears)," n.," and the endnote number,
with no space between "n." and the number:
*
JoHN HARr ELy,
Drmocnncy AND DtsrRUSr zr5 n.85 (r98o).
To refer to both a page in text and an endnote whose call appears on that page,
use an ampersand betwcen the text page and the page on which the endnote
appears. In the following examplc, the cited text is on
p.6l
and the endnote is
onp.2l5:
*
JoHN
Hnnr Elv, DEruocnncyAND DtsrRUSr
6r&zt5
n.85 (r98o).
Otherwisc, cite endnotes in the same manner as footnotes.
(d) Graphical materials. When citing
tables, figures, charts, graphs, or other
graphical materials, give the page number on wl-rich thc graphical material
appears and the designation, if any, provided in the source, with no space
between the abhrcviation and the number. tlse the abbreviations in table TL6:
*
Kevin M. Clermont & Theodore Eisenberg, Commentary, Xenophilio
in Americon Courts,log HARV. L. Rev. rrzo, tqttbl.z Q996).
ts Jennifer Gerarda Brown & lan Ayres, Economic Rotionales for Mediation,Bo VA. L. REV. 323,397 fig.6 (t994).
'Io refcr to multiple charts, tables, figures, etc., on the same page pluralize the
,
abbreviatcd designation according to table T16. Use commas and ampersands,
not en dashes, to sepafate:
ts 9figs.3&4
W
tz36 tbls.r, z &
3
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35o n.12, 355 n.r8
To refer to both
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Sections and Paragraphs
If an ar-rthoriq' is organized bl
3.3
scction ($) or paragraph (fl), cite to these
sr,rbclivisions:
,
,
r5 U.S.C. $ 18 (r982).
6 JAMES WM. MooRE Er AL., MooRE's FEDERAL Pnncrrce
ll
S6.oZ
3d
ed.ry9).
A pirgc
nurber nlt'
also bc provicled if uscful in locating spccitic mattcr
within
the scction or paragraph:
'.
Lnunerce H. Tnree, Anenrcnru Corsrrrurror,rnl Law 5 $-4,at914,
$ 15-6, at
gzo
(zd ed. rgBB).
If rn authority is orl4anizccl in pirrt b1, indentecl paragraphs not introduce(l b)'
parugraph svmbols (1D, &r not cite sucl.r parlgraphs with thc svmbol. lnstead
Llse the written lbbrevirtion (para.):
'
THr
De
crannroN oF luoepgrornce para. z (U.5. 1776).
Do not citc indcntccl paragr:rphs if thc uuthority is ordinaril,v cited by pagc:
Mandela Trial Scheduled Today, USA Tooav, Feb. 4, t99r., aI A4.
Do r.rot usc
'lt" bcfi)re
a scction ur pamgraph svmbol:
; td.S7.
Not: /d. at S 7.
MoonE Er
AL.,
supro note 5, fl 56.o7.
Not: Moonr Er AL.,supro note 5, at llS6.ol.
Rule 6.2(c) discusscs thc usc of scction :tnd puragraph symbols.
To citc scssion hrvs amencling prior acts that arc diviclccl into scctions within
sections, sec
rule f 2.4(d).
(a) Subsections. If thc sorlrcc contains punctultiort sepanttiug sections from
snbsections, usc thc original punctuation:
r;
N.M. Srnr. Ar,nr. g a-aa
Not: N.M. Srnr.
Aruru. 5
7g) Q9fi).
+(+4)(z)(c) (1S8i).
If tl.rc soulcc contains no such scparating punctuation, separxte thc subsection
clesignations using parentheses. not clccimlls. hvphcns. or other nrarks. 'l'llts.
placc'
1
" irnd "a,"
in parcnthcses ( "( l )"
uncl
"(a)").
(b) Multiple sections and subsections. When citing ntultiple scctions. usc
two scctiou s-vmbols (55). Givc inclusive numbcrs;do not use "ef Seq. " lclcrrtical
digits or lettcrs prccecling a punctuation mark ntav be omittccl, unlcss ckritrg s<r
u,ould crcatc confirsitlrr. Otherwise rctain all cligits.
':
WASH. REv. CooE Arur.
55 78.57.oo5-.52.9oo (West 1989 & Supp.
!991).
u
Der. Cooe Arun. tit. g, 55 Brz-Brg (rg8g).
Note that letters are sometimes used to designate sections, rather than subsecwithin them:
tions, and that scction designations may contain punctuation
F 4z U.S.C. $$ r396a-r396d (zotz).
If an cn dash or hyphen wor,rld be ambignons, nsc the word "to":
F 4z U.S.C. $$ r973aa-z to-4(994).
b MoNr. CooE Ar.rru. 55 ZS-r-3or to 324 Q9B9).
Vhen citing scattered sections, separate the sections with commas:
tr
N..1.
Srnr. Arr'r. 55 rBA:54-r, -3, -6 (West 1989).
Repeat digits if necessar_v to ar-oid confusion:
,
N.l. Srnr.
Arr.
55 rBA:58-r7, :58-25,:64A-zz.r,:64A-22.6 (West
1989)'
Vhen citing multiple subsections within
a .sirzglc section, usc
only one section
symbol:
F- z8 U.S.C.5
ros(a)(r)-(b)(r) (zorz).
h r9 U.S.C. 5 r+8s(a)G)-() (zop).
F Der. Cooe Aruru. tit. g, S 6gro(a), (c) (rg8g).
Btrt when citing multiple subsectior"rs
symbols:
F r9 U.S.C. 55 r48r(a),
witltin cliJferenl scctions, use two section
u+86(b) (zotz).
(c) Multiple paragraphs. Multiple paragr,rphs should be trcated likc multiple
scctions, fbllowing
3.4
rule 3.3(b):
ts
1
filr"
MooRE Er AL.,supra note 5,
BtuE Sxy L. Rep. (CCH) fl1| 4471-4474.
flfl 54.32*.35.
Appended Material
Indicate an appcndix or appencled note or commcnt by placing the appropriate
abbrcviation (sec table T16) lfter the citation to the largcst firll subdivision to
which thc item is appendecl, whether pagc, section, paragraph, chapter, titlc, or
votume
:
W James Edwin Kee & Terrence A. Moan, The Property Tax and Tenant
Equality, Sg Hnnv. L. Rev. 53r app. Ggt6).
M ResrnrEuerur (Secor'ro) or Tonrs 5 6z14 cmt. a (Am. Lnw lrusr.
1977).
Citc a particular page, section, or othcr subdivision in an appendix as follows:
M 5o U.S.C. app. $ 454 (zorz).
e Samue[ lssacharoff & George Loewenstein, Second Thoughts
About Summory Judgment, roo Ynlr L.1.73 app.aI e4-25 $99o).
Other Wpes of uppencled matcrial thxt serve as commcntary on the material to
which thel arc appendcd, or that firrther discuss a point related to thc tcxtual
cliscussion, should be citcd as notes or appcndices:
I
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$" Feo. R. Ctv. P. 6o(b) advisory committee's note to 1946
amendment.
&
REsrArEMENr (Secoruo) oF PRop.5 z.r cmt. c, illus. z (Arrir. Lnw
lusr. r97).
Further informrtion neccssar)' to identi$' which of sevcral namecl notcs is citecl
may bc ldded parenthctically:
7, 4z U.S.C. $ 186z note (rg88) (Denial of Financial Assistance to
Campus Disrupters).
s' N.Y. Bus. CoRp.
LAW 5
624 note (McKinney 1963) (Legislative
Studies and Reports).
Appcndices that reprint matcrills normalll citctl to anotlrcr sourcc shoulcl bc
citetl rccortling to rule 1.6(a):
y" An Act for the Prevention of Frauds and Perjuries, 1677, z9 Car. z.
c. z, $ t7 (Eng.), reprinted in lonn P. DAWSoN, Wrr-lrnn Bunuerr
Hnnvgv & SrnNlrv D. HEuoEnsoru. CnsEs AND CoMMENTS oN
1, at g+z (Sth ed. 1988).
Cournncrs app.
Internal Cross-References
3.5
of text, lbotnotcs, ancl gronps of authorities within thc piecc mirl' be
citecf using "supro" or"infra;'tlse supra to reftr to nutcrial thut has alrcadt'
appcrrrccl q'ithin thc picce. tise infra to refer to matcrial that appcars later in
the piece.
Portior-rs
flsc lr consistcnt naming convention lor subdivisions that arc nuttrbcred ttr otherwisc designlted in the piecc (Tbe lJluefux* suggests using Part'firr tnaiu
snbdivisons and "Section" fur all snltllcr subdivisions): use "note" to rcfcr to
footnotesvgithinthe sxmepiecctuse p.'and-pp."torefertoothcrplgeswithin
the samc piecc: "Figure" and "Tabte" are uscd to retcl to figurcs lnd tables
within the sarne piece . A varict,v of fbrms may bc used. F-or examplc:
w See supra text accompanying notes jo5-o7.
\'
See supro notes 12-15,
h
See cases ciled supro nore 22.
9z-97 and accompanying text.
L' But see sources ciled supra note 24.
w See discussion infra Sections ll.B.z, lll.C.r.
t,
See
,
See infro pp.
supra Part lV.
ro6-o7.
.b See infro p. 5o and note 1oo.
w' 9ee
supro Figure z.
it' See infro Tabte 3.
Notc that "suprd" is ltlso used in short firrm citutiot-ts fbr ccrtain
(sce
rule 4.2).
t,v1te
s
of sourccs
SHORT CITATION FOR}IS
This rulc provicles general guidrnce for all short forms. For guidance as to specific short fbrms see the followine rules:
Cases..
..ru1e10.9
... .. rule 1l
Constitutions
.
Statutes.
Materials.
Regulations
......rule
..ru1e12.L0
Legislative
1J.8
......ru1e14.5
Books,Reports,and Othef Nonperiodic
Materials.
Pcriodical Matcrials
Unpublishecl and Forthcoming Sources
....
rule 15.10
....ruIe16.9
....rule17.6
Internet, Electronic Media, and Other Nonprint Resources. . . . .
rule 18.8
....rule19.2
....ruIe20.7
....rule21.17
Services
ForcignMatcrials....
International Materials
For additional guidance on the usc of short forms in court documents and legal memoranda, sec Bluepages 84, B10.2, B12.2,815.2, 816.2,and,Bl7.2.
4.1 "Id"
"ld." may bc uscd in citation sentences and clauses for any kind of authority
except internal crossrefbrences (as describcd in rule 3.5). In court documents
and legal memoranda, usc "ld. " when citing the immediately preceding authoriry,
but only uben tbe immediately preceding citatiL,n contains onry one
autborit!.ln law review
footnotes, use "id." when citing the immediately preceding authority within the same f(x)tnote or within the immediately preccding
footnote when tbe prececlingfootnote contains onl! one autbority.Note that
the period at the end of "rd." is always italicized.
Indicate where
a subsequent
citation varies from thc former, such
If the lirst citation refers only to
as
the specilic
work contained within an authority, do not use "id. " for a subsequent citation to the entire
authorify. Instcad, use the "suprd" form (see rule 4,2(a)).
page number being cited.
a shorter
The folkrwing examples illustrate the use of "ld." to refer to a variety of commonlv cited materials:
;* 1 Chalfin v. Specter,
* 2ld. at563.
F" 3 42 U.S.C. $
+
4
W, 5
See id. g
U.C.C.5
also id.5
43
A.2d 562,562 (Pa. ry61).
r9B3 (1994).
r98r.
f-:oz(z) (Arvr. Lnw lrusr. & Ururr. LnwCowrwr'r.t
r-tof (a).
k' 6 Dupuy v. Dupuy, [t977-t978 Transfer Binder] Fed. Sec.
(CCH) fl 96,048,at9t,7o7 (Sth Cir. May 9,r97).
1977);see
L. Rep.
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Id. I196,o52, a|91,705; see olso U.S. CoNsr. art. l, 5 8, cl. ro
(giving Congress the power to punish "Offences against the Law of
Nations").
'
8 FrErvrrr.ic
JAMES, JR.
& Georrnrv C. Hnznno, Jn., Crvrr PRocEoune
ed.
rg8r).
Gd
55 r.t-.r
e
,
See id. 5 t.Z.
10
3 WTLLTAM Horoswonru, A
Hrsronv or El,tct-tsH Lnw 255 (3d ed.
ry27).
t1
t id. al
5-q bd ed. 19r4).
, 12 Tr-rouns C. ScHelltuc,
A Pnocrss or REsroErulnr Secne cnltoru:
NercHeonFrooo Trpprruc z, reprinted in Ecottolttc FoUNDATtoNS oF
Pnopenrv LAW 3oZ, 3oB (Bruce A. Ackerman ed., t97).
13
,
14
ld. at 3.
JAMES
15
& Haznno, supra nole 8, 5 1.5.
See id.
"/d." mly not be usccl to rcfcr to one ruthority in
prcccding fixrtnotc cites nrorc than one sourcc:
l
preccding fbotnote
il
thc
16
See Robert B. Reich, Toward a New Consumer Protection, 728
U. Pn. L. Rrv. r (1929); Note, Direct Loan Financing ofConsumer
Purchases, 85 Hnnv. L. Rrv. r4o9, 14t5-r7 Q97z); see olso ChaLfin
v. Specter, 233 A.zd 562 .Pa. ry67).
o
I
7
'7 See
Not:
17
Chalfin,43 A.zd aI S7o.
See id. at 57o.
Sourccs idcntified it-t cxplanatorl'parerttheticals, explanatory phritses, or prior/
subsequcnt histor),, howevcq arc ignorcd firr the purposes of this rulc. Thtts, thc
firllowing cxrmples are corrcct:
46o U.S. 66o,663 (1983) (quoting
Ralston v. Robinson,454 U.S. zot,zo6 (rq8r)).
'8 Tuten v. United States,
'e See
,
id. at 664.
Ditlon v. Gtoss, z56U.S. 168, ll6 (rgzt), quotedin Nixon v.
United States, 5o6 U.S. zz4,4o (t993).
20
21
.
22
'
23
See id. at 37 4.
Kohter v. Tugwel[, z9z F. Supp.978,985 (E.D. La. ry68), off d per
curiam,393 U.S. SZt (tg6g).
See id. aI9Bo.
''/d." ma1' not be usecl to rcfcr to an intcrnal cross-refcrencc:
24
See supra text accompanying note z.
2s
See supra text accompanying note z.
Not:25 5ee supro id.
4.2
"Satpra" and "Herein
ftef'
"Supra" and"hereinafter" may be used to refer to legislative hearings;court lilings; books; pamphlets; reports; unpublishcd materials; nonprint resources; pcriodicals; serviccs; trcaties and intcrnational agreements; regulations, directivcs,
and decisions of intergovernmental organizations; and intcrnal cross-references.
"Supra" and"hereinafter" shoulcl not be used to refer to cases, statutes, constitutions, lcgislative materials (othcr than hcarings), restatements, model codcs, or
regulations, except in cxtrnofdinary circumstances, such as when the name of
the autl-roriry is extremely long:
?
2b
ln re Multidistrict Private CivilTreble Damage Antitrust Litig.
Invotving Motor Vehicle Air Potlution ControI Equip., 5z F.R.D. 398
(C.D. Cat. 197o) [hereinafter Air Pollution Control Antitrust Case].
Appropriate shurt forms for cases, statutes, and legislativc materials (othcr than
hearings) are providecl in their fcspectivc rules.
(a)"Supra."When an authority hirs been ftrlly citcd previously,the"supro"form
may be used (unless "id." is appropriatc or "supra" is inappropriate for that
authority). Thc "supra" form gencmlly consists of the last name of the author of
the work, followed by a comma and the word"supra." Indicate any particular
manner in which the subsequent citation difTers from the former
If the author is an institutional
author, use the firll institutional name. If no
author is cited, use the titlc of the work; for unsigned stude nt-writte n law rcview
materials,use the appropriate designation (see rule 16.7.1(b)).
Indicate the footnote in which the ftrll citation can be found, unless thc fi.rll
citation is in thc same footnote, in which cnse"supre" should be used without
any cross-refercnce. Indicate any particular manner in which the subsequent
citation differs fiom thc former. Volume , paragraph, section, or page numbers
may be added to rcfer to specific material:
h
27
Reich, supra note
*
28
z HoLoswoRTH, supro note ro, at 6.
$,
at 6.
$F 29 JAMES
& Hezano, supra note 8,9 7.zt; W. Pnce Keeron Er ar.,
Pnossen AND KEEToN oN rHE LAW or Tonrs 5 r, at z (Sth ed. rg8+);
see also supra text accompanying note 7.
ts
3o Keeroru
Er
AL.,
supra note 29, $ z, at 4; Note, supra note 16, at
7476.
*
31
Cf.
ScHellrNc, supra nole 12, at
j.
Note that citation of a second item or work founcl within a volume of collected
materials dready cited takcs the form:
F"
s2CntnnnnE A. MAcKtNNoN,On Exceptionality: Women asWomen
in Law,in FEralrursu UrrrwroorrrEo 7o,7o
9
33
(r9B).
CnrHnnrrE A. MAcKTNNoN, Desire ond Power,in Femrrursn
rreo, sup ro nole 32, at 46, 47.
U trrtvtoor
(b) "Hereinafter." For authoritl' that would be cumbersome to citc with the
rusual "supra'' form or fbr which the regular shortcned form may confuse the
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reader. the author may establish a specilic shortcned form. After the lirst citation of the authorit)', but befrrre any cxplanatory parcnthetical, place the word
"hereinafter" and the shortcncd form in brackets. The shortened form should
appear in the same typcface as in the full citation. In subscquent citations, cite
the authority using the shortencd form folkrwed by a comma lnd the approprirte "supro" cross-rcf'erence (nlle 4.2(a)):
*
34
F
35 RrcHnno H.
Proposed Amendments to the Federol Rules of Criminol Procedure: Hearings Before the Subcomm. on Criminal Justice of the H.
Comm. on the Judiciory, g5th Cong. 9z-% (197) [hereinafter Heoringsl (statement of Prof. Wayne LaFave).
Counrs
v
Fallor.r, Jn. er nr., Hnnr nlto WrcHslen's THe FEornnr
Froennr Svsrem llo (Sth ed. zoo3).
AND rHE
36 H ea ri n g
s,
su
p
ro note 3 4, ar 33 (statement of H on. Edward
Becker).
I)o not usc the "hereinafter" firrm when r simple "supra" torm is adeqtratc:
*
37 FnLLOT't
Er AL.,s\pro note 35, aI343.
The "hereinafter" firrm, however, should be used to distingtrish two authorities
rppearing in the samc footnote if thc simplc
"s
upro" form would bc confttsing:
See Edward B. Rock, Saints ond Sinners: How Does Deloware
Corporate Law Work?,44 UCLA L. Rev. roo9, tot6-r7 (rggz) lhereinafter Rock, Soints and Sinnersl; Edward B. Rock, The Logic and
(lJncertain) Significance of lnstitutional Shareholder Activism, 79
Geo. L.J. 445 G991) [hereinafter Rock, Shareholder Activisnl.
ts
38
?
3e
See Rock, Sainfs and Sinners, supra nole 38, at 1019; Rock,
Shareholder Activism, supro note 38, aI 459-63.
QUOTATTONS
5.r
Formatting of Quotations
fifty or more words.
(a) Quotations of
(i) Indentation and quotation marks. The quotation should be indented on
the left and right without qu)tation marks, and quotation marks within a block
quotation should appear as they do in thc original:
lr
[T]his presumptive privilege must be considered in light of our historic
commitment to the rule of law. This is nowhere more profoundly
manifest than in our view that "the twofold aim [of criminaI iustice]
is that guilt shalt not escape or innocence suffer." We have elected to
emptoy an adversary system of criminaI justice in which the parties
contest all issues before a court of law . . . . The ends of criminal
lustice would be defeated if judgments were to be founded on a
partiaI or speculative presentation ofthe facts. The very integrity of
the ludiciat system and pubtic confidence in the system depend on
full disclosure of att the facts, within the framework of the rules of
evidence. To ensure that f ustice is done, it is imperative to the function of courts that compulsory process be available for the production of evidence needed either by the prosecution or by the defense.
United States v. Nixon, 4r8 U.5. 683,7o8-o9 (1974) (second altera-
tion in originat) (citation omitted). The Court then balanced this
interest against the evils of forced disctosure. ld. a|7rc.
(ii) Footnote and citation placement. In law review text (in which citations
are not permitted), the footnote number should appear after the final punctuation of the quotation. In law review footnotes, court documents, and legal memoranda (in which citations are permitted), the citation should not be indented
but should begin at thc left margin on thc line immediatelv following the quotation.ln law review footnotes,where the quotation is placed within a parentheticll, it should be enclosed in qtxrtation marks and not otherwisc set off from the
rest of the text.
(iii) Paragraph structure. The paragraph structurc of an indented quotation
should be indicated by further indenting the first line of each paragraph. The
lirst sentencc of the lirst quoted paragraph is only indented, however, if the first
word of the quoted passage is also the first word of a paragraph in the sourcc
bcing quoted. If language at the beginning of the first paragraph is omitted, do
not indent thc first line or use an ellipsis. To indicate omission at the bcginning
of subsequent paragraphs, inscrt and indcnt an ellipsis. Indicatc the omission of
one or more entire paragraphs by inserting and indenting four periods (". . . l')
on a new line. The folkrwing example illustrates thcse rules:
$fr
0n appeal to the federal courts via a habeas petition,
McCleskey alteged that Georgia's capitaI sentencing process was
administered in a racially discriminatory manner in viotation of the
Equat Protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. McCleskey
based his claims on a study, conducted by respected law and
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economics Professors Baldus, Pulaski, and Woodworth . . . . The
Baldus study examined roughly z,5oo murder cases . . . .
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. . . Professors Baldus, Pulaski, and Woodworth also subjected
their data to an extensive statistical analysis.
In law review footnotes, when the quotation is placed within a parenthetical, it
should be enclosed in quotation marks and not otherwise set off from the rest
of the text.
(b) Quotations of forty-nine or fewer words.
(i) Indentation and quotation marks. The quotation should be enclosed in
quotation marks but not otherwise set off from the rest of the text. Quotation
marks around material quoted inside another quote should appear as single
marks within the quotation in keeping with the standard convention.
(ii) Footnote and citation placement. The footnote number or citation
should follow immediately after the closing quotation mark unless it is more
accurate to place it elsewhere shortly before or after the quotation.
(iii) Paragraph structure. Do not indicate the original paragraph structure
of quotations of forty-nine or fewer words except when the material quoted
would commonly be set off from the text, such as lines of poetry or dialogue
from a play. In this case, the quotation may appear as a block quote per rule
5.l(a)(iii),
regardless of its length.
(iD Punctuation.
Always place commas and periods inside the quotation
marks; place other punctuation marks inside the quotation marks only
if they
are part of the original text.
Alterations and Quotations Within Quotations
(a) Substitution of letters or words, When a letter must be changed from
upper to lower case, or vice versa, enclose it in brackets. Substituted words or
letters and other inserted material should also be bracketed:
)
"[P]ubtic confidence in the [adversary] system depend[s upon] futt
disclosure of all the facts, within the framework of the rules of
evidence."
(b) Omission of letters. lndicate the omission of letters from a common root
word with empty brackets ('iudgment[]").
(c) Mistakes in original. Significant mistakes in the original should be followed by "[sic]" and otherwise left as they appear in the original:
)
"This list of statutes are [sic] necessarily incomplete."
(d) Changes to citations.
(i) Use a parenthetical clause after the citation to indicate when the source
quoted contains any addition of emphasis, alteration to the original in the
quoted text, or any omission of citations, emphasis, or footnote call numbers.
When a citation requires multiple parentheticals, place them in the order indi
cated in de 1.5(b):
5.2
)
"The fact that individuals define themselves in a significant way
through their sexual relationships suggests. . . that much ofthe
richness of a relationship will come from the freedom to choose
the form and nature of these intensely personal bonds." Bowers
v. Hardwick, qz8 U.S. t85, zo5 (1985) (Blackmun, J., dissenting)
(second emphasis added).
in limiting the sound emanating from the bandshell. The court
concluded, however, that the city's sound-amplification guideline
was not narrowly tailored to further this interest, because "it has
not [been] shown . . . that the requirement of the use of the city's
sound system and technician was the least intrusive meons of
regulating the volume."
Ward v. Rock Against Racism, 49r U.S. 78L,797 (1989) (alteration
in original) (citation omitted).
(ii) Do not indicate the omission of a citation or footnote call number that follows the last word quoted.
(iii) Do not indicate that emphasis in the quotation appears in the original.
(e) Quotations within quotations. Whenever possible, a quotation within a
quotation should be attributed to its original source. lnsert a parenthetical following any parenthetical required by
5.2(d):
de
)
Chief Judge Skelty Wright noted Congress's"firm resolve to insure
that the CIA's'power that flows from money and stealth' could not
be turned loose in domestic investigations of Americans." Marks v.
ClA, 59o F.zd 997, roo8 (D.C. Cir. ry28) (Wright, C.J., concurring in
part and dissenting in part) (emphasis added) (quoting Weissman
v. ClA, 555 F.zd 69z,6gS (D.C. Cn. gZ)).
Note that sources included in parentheticals pursuant to this rule should be formatted as though they appear in citation clauses (see des 2.1and2.2@-)Gtr)).
(f) Internal quotation marks.
(i) Internal quotation marks should be omitted if the opening mark appears at
the very beginning of an in-line quotation and the closing mark appears at the
very end.
)
Original: lf "the agency's answer is based on a permissible
construction ofthe statute," that is the end ofthe matter.
)
The dispositive question is whether "the agency's answer is based
on a permissible construction of the statute."
ilot: The dispositive question is whether "'the agency's answer is
based on a permissible construction ofthe statute."'
(ii) Do not omit multiple levels of nested
marks except as this rule allows,
even though "quoting" parentheticals beyond the first level may be omitted
under rule 10.6.2. Alternate between double and single quotation marks as
appropriate.
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ts Originat: In this context, "the distinction between 'iurisdictional'
and 'non-jurisdictional' interpretations is a mirage."
F
The Court noted that, "[i]n this context, 'the distinction between
"iurisdictional" and "non-jurisdictional" interpretations is a
mirage."'
Not: The Court noted that, "[i]n this context,'the distinction between
jurisdictional and non-jurisdictional interpretations is a mirage."'
(iii) Do not fail to include a"quoting"parenthetical
because this rule requires
omission of internal quotation marks (rather, omit "quoting" parenthcticals only
as allowed by rule f 0.6.2).
(iv) Do not omit internal quotation marks in block quotations.
Omissions
Omission of a word or words is generally indicated by the inscrtion of an ellipsis,
three periods separated by spaces and set off by a space bcfore the lirst and
after the last period ("....... "), to take the place of the word or words omittcd.
Note that ". " indicates a space.
An ellipsis should ncver be used to begin a quotation; nor should it be used
when individual words are merely altered (rules 5.1(a)(iii) and 5.2).
(a) When using quoted language as a phrase or clause. Do not indicatc
omission of matters before or after a quotation:
p
Chief Justice Burger wrote that the availabitity of compulsory
process is "imperative to the function of courts" and that "[t]he
very integrity of the ludiciat system and public confidence in the
system depend on full disclosure ofall the facts."
Howevei indicate omission of matter within such a phrase or clause with an
ellipsis:
s
Chief Justice Burger wrote that the availabitity of compulsory process is "imperative to.......courts" and that "[t]
he.......iudicial system and public confidence in the system
depend on futl disclosure of all the facts."
(b) When using quoted language as a full sentence. For example, assume
the text of the original language is as follows:
F National borders
are less ofa barrier to economic exchange now
than at almost any other time in history. As economic activity
continues its relentless drive toward wortd-wide scope, trademarks
become even more important. Why, then, are certain scholars
advocating less comprehensive trademark protection? In fact, this
seems counterintuitive.
(i) Where the beginning o/ the quoted sentence is being omitted, capitalize
the first lctter ofthe quoted language and place it in brackets ifit is not already
capitalizcd:
ts "[B]orders are less of a barrier to economic exchange now than at
almost any other time in history."
5.3
(ii) Where the midd.le of a quoted sentence is being omitted, insert an ellipsis
where the language is omitted:
)
"National borders are less of a barrier.......now than at almost
any other time in history."
(iii) Where the end of a quoted sentence is being omitted, insert an ellipsis
between the last word being quoted and the final punctuation of the sentence
being quoted:
)
"National borders are less of a barrier to economic exchange now
than at almost any other time........"
(iv) Do not indicate the deletion of matter after the period or other final punctuation that concludes the last quoted sentence.
)
"National borders are less of a barrier to economic exchange now
than at almost any other time in history."
(v) Where language after tbe end of a quoted sentence is deleted and is folIowed by further quotation, retain the punctuation at the end of the quoted
sentence and insert an ellipsis before the remainder of the quotation.
)
"National borders are less of a barrier to economic exchange now
than at almost any other time in history........IE]conomic activity
continues its relentless drive toward world-wide scope, [so] trademarks become even more imoortant."
(vi) If language both at tlte end. and afrer tbe end of a quoted sentence is omitted and followed by further quoted material, use only one ellipsis to indicate
both of the omissions:
)
"National borders are less of a barrier.........[E]conomic activity
continues its relentless drive toward world-wide scope, Iso] trademarks become even more important."
Note that the punctuation at the end of the first sentence should follow the
ellipsis:
)
"Why, then, are certain scholars advocating tess.......? [T]his
seems counterintuitive."
(c) Vhen ornitting a footnote or citation. Indicate omission of a footnote
or a citation with the parenthetical phrase "(footnote omitted)" or'(citation
omitted)" immediately following the citation to the quoted source. Do not
insert an ellipsis for an omitted footnote or citation.
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ABBREVIATIONS, NUMERALS, AND SYMBOTS
Abbreviations
of this book contain lists of specific abbreviations for arbitral reportcrs (T5), casc namcs (T6), court names (T7), explanatory phrases
(T8),legislative documents (T9), geographical terms (T10), fudges and oflicials
CIl l),months (T12),periodicals (T13), publishing terms (T14), services (T15),
and subdivisions (T16).
Tables at the end
Abbreviati<lns not listed in this book shor-rld be avoided unless substantial spacc
will be savcd and the resulting abbreviation is unambigtxrus.
Note that in legal writing the same word may be abbreviated differently for
diffbrent uscs:
p'
F.
and Fed.
F, app. and App'x
(a) Spacing. In general,close up all adiacent single capitals:
+
N.W.
P
S.D,N,Y.
But do not close up single capitals with longer abbreviations:
ts D. Mass.
Pe S.
Ct.
In abbreviations of periodical names (scc table T13), close up all adiacent single capitals except when one or more of the capitals refers to the name of an
institutional entiry, in which case set the capital or capitals referring to thc entity
off from othe r adiacent single capitals with a space . Thtts:
*
Geo.
L.J.
'$ 8.C. L. Rev.
lr
N.Y.U. L. Rev.
t"
S.
lrl.
U. L.l.
Individual numbers, including both numerals and ordinals, are treated as single
capitals:
tur-
F.3d
+
S.E.zd
{r A.L.R.4th
But, inscrt a spacc ad.jacent to any abbreviation containing two or more letters:
ts So. zd
*
Cal. App. 3d
ts
F.
Supp. zd
6
6.r
Close up initials in personal names:
)
W.C. Fietds
(b) Periods. Generally, every abbreviation should be followed by a period,
except those in which the last letter of the original word is set off from the rest
of the abbreviation by an apostrophe. Thus:
}'
Ave.
)
Bldg.
But:
)
)
Ass'n
Dep't
with widely recognized initials, e.9., AARP, CBS, ClA, FCC, FDA,
commonly referred to in spoken language by their initials rather than by their firll names; such abbreviations may be used without
Some entities
FEC, NAACP, NLRB, are
periods in text, in case names, and as institutional authors. Do not, however,
omit the periods when the abbreviations are used as reporter names, in names
of codes, or as names of courts of decision. Thus:
>
NLRB v.
Baptist Hosp., Inc., 442 U.S.7n Gg7).
United States may be abbreviated to "U.S." only when used as an adlective (do
not omit the periods):
U.S. history
In addition to the abbreviation " U . S . ;' always retain periods in abbreviations not
commonly referred to in speech as initials (e.g., N.Y., S.D.).
Numerals and Symbols
(a) Numerals. In general, spell out the numbers zero to ninety-nine in text
and in footnotes;for larger numbers, use numerals. This general
de
is subiect,
however, to the following exceptions:
(i) Any number th^t begins a sentence must be spelled out.
(ii) "Hundredi"thousand," and similar round numbers may be spelled out,
if
done so consistently.
(iii) uflhen a series includes numbers both less than 100 and grearer than or
equal to 100, numerals should be used for the entire series:
)
The ptaintiffs gained, respectively,
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But: history of the United States
6.2
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But: E. Betden Corp.,z39 N.1.R.B.776(t978).
)
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tr7,6,and 28 pounds.
(iv) Numerals should be used if the number includes a decimal point.
(v) Where material repeatedly refers to percentages or dollar amounts, numerals
should be used for those percentages or amounts.
(vi) Numerals should be used for section or other subdivision numbers.
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(vii) In numbers that appear in text and citations use commas to separate
groups of three digits when those numbers contain live or more uninterrupted
digits. Thus:
> t,234,567
But:9876
But: $5678.9o
Do not cmploy this convention in citations to pages, statutes, volume numbers,
Intcrnet database locators, docket numbers, the U.S. Code, or other sourccs
whose classification systems do not themselves include commas:
[e United States v. Watker, No. oo-4oo98-JAR, zoo3 WL
Kan. Jan.
r3r7u
(D.
6,zoo3).
(b) Ordinals.
(i) tlnless part of
a citation, ordinal numbers appearing
in text and footnotes
are controlled by
rule 6.2(a).lf part of a citation, ligures
are used for all ordinal
numbers. f)o not use supcfscfipts:
b 4rst Leg.
F ath ed.
(ii) In textual sentences, where rule 6.2(a) requires that the numcral be uscd,
"znd" or "3rd" for ligures representing ordinal numbers ending in two or
thrce. But, in citations, for ligures representing ordinal numbers ending in the
numbcr two or thrce, use "2d" or "3d;' not "2nd" or "3rd." Do not use superusc
scripts in any case. Thus:
F
The roznd Congress coutd not pass a rute that would bind the
1O3rd congress.
But, in citations:
e ro3d Cong.
S zd
ed.
(c) Section ($) and paragraph (u) symbols. The first word ofany sentence
must be spelled out.ln addition,spell out the words"section"and"paragraph"
in the text (whether main text or footnote text) of law review pieces and other
documents, except when referring to a provision in the U.S. Code (see rule
12.10) or a federal regulation (see rule 14.5).ln citations, the symbols should
be used (except when citing session laws amending prior acts as noted in rule
12.4(d)).Vhen the symbols are used, insert a space between "$" or "fl" and
the numeral. See rules 3.3G) and 3.3(c) when citing to multiple s€ctions or
paragraphs.
(d) Dollar ($) and percent (%) symbols. These symbols should be used
wherever numerals are used, and the words should be spelled out wherever
numbers are spelled out, but a symbol should never begin a sentence. There
should zol be a space between"$"or"%"and the numeral.
ITALICIZATION FOR STYI,E
AI\[D IN T]NIQUE CIRCUMSTAI\ICES
See
rule 2 for
a general discussion
on the uses of typefaces. The conventions
below apply to italicization for emphasis, italicization of foreign words and
phrases, and italicization in other unique circumstances.
(a) Emphasis. Words and phrases may be italicized for emphasis.
(b) Foreign words and phrases. Italicize
non-English words and phrases
unless they have been incoqporated into common English usage. Latin words
and phrases that are often used in legal writing are considered to be in common
English usage and should not be italicized. However, very long latin phflses
and obsolete or uncommon Latin words and phmses should remain italicized.
For example:
)
I
)
)
expressio unius est exclusio alterius
ignorantia legis neminem excusat
sero sed serio
ex dolo malo non oritur actio
But:
)
)
)
)
)
)
e.g.
resjudicata
amicus curiae
corpus juris
obiter dictum
modus operandi
>
non obstante veredicto
)
mens rea
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
i.e.
quid pro quo
certiorari
ab initio
de jure
habeas corpus
prima facie
en banc
"id.' is always italicized. Note also that other typeface mles
may control. For example, when "e.g." is used as a signal it should be italicized
Note, however, that
as
per
de
2.1(d). Similarh always italicize procedural phrases in case names,
such as'/n re" or " ex
rel.i under rule f 0.2.f(b).
(c) Ietters representing hlaothetical parties, places, or things. ltalicize
and capitelizs ildividual leners when used to represent the n:rmes of hypothetical parties, places, or things:
)
A went to bank
I
in state X.
(d) The lowercase letter "1.' Italicize the lowercase letter'/" when used as a
subdivision, as in a statute or de, to distinguish it from the numeral'l ":
>5zr(0
) cmt. /
(e) Mathematical expressions. Italicize mathematical formulas and variables:
) E: mc2
)o>zb
o
c
I
o
?
o
t
o
a
o
o
o
o
?
t
t
o
a
o
o
t
o
o
o
O
t
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
I
o
a
a
o
o
o
CAPITATIZATION
(a) Headings and titles. Capitalize words in a heading or title , including the
initial word and any word that immediately follows a colon. Do not capitalize
articles, coniunctions, or prepositions when they arc four or fewer letters, unless
they begin the heading or title , or immediately folkrw a colon.
(b) Internet main page titles and URLs. Capitalize URLs and words in an
Internet main page title in accordance with the actual capitalization of the
source.
(c) Text. Exccpt for headings, titles, and Internet main page titles and tlRls,
capitalize according to this rule. When this rule does not address a particular
question of capitalization, refer to a stylc manual such as the Chicago Manual
of Stfle or the Gouernment Printing OfJice Style Manual. Practitioners should
also refer to Bluepages 88 for further advice on capitalization. Additional
words that should be capitalized in legal writing include
:
(i) Nouns that identify specific persons, ofificials, groups' government
offices, or government bodies. These words and phrascs should always be
capitalized according to the following examples:
s" the Social Security Administrator
The plaintiff was dectared disabted by the Sociat Security Administrator and was awarded benefits.
ts the Administrator
For fifty years, the statute has provided that the Administrator
make all necessarv determinations.
M the FDA
The FDA has approved the satts as safe and effective.
&u
the Agency
The Agency reported that all areas of the country met the stan-
dard for nitrogen dioxide.
e
Congress
Members of Congress are immune from false imprisonment
claims under certain circumstances.
tr the President
sitting President's executive power allows him or her to pardon
convicted criminats.
A
But:
e
the congressional hearings
The congressional hearings were held on the potential cumuta-
tive effects of these three rules.
v
the presidential veto
The presidential veto does not confer such power upon the
President.
(ii) Exceptions. Certain words are exceptions to the above rule and should be
capitalized according to the following rules:
Act
Capitalize when referring to a specific legislative act:
)
A union has a statutory duty
offair representation
under the NationaI Labor Relations Act.
)
Circuit
The record of the hearing shows that the Act
required operators to pay for their own retirees.
Capitalize when used with a circuit's name or number:
)
We have decided to follow the Fifth Circuit and
District of Columbia Circuit in that regard, rather
than this circuit's unclear precedent.
Code
Capitalize when referring to a specifc code:
)'
At teast one court considered the significance of
the change between the t939 and r954 Codes.
Commonwealth Capitalize if it
is a part of the
full title of a state, if the word
it modifies is capitalized, or when refering to a state as a
governmental actor or
)
a
parfy to
a
litigation:
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts sued
several companies.
)
Constitution
The Commonwealth may not relitigate the issue in
a post-conviction hearing.
Capitalize when naming any constitution in full or when
U.S. Constiturion, but do not capitalize the
adjective form "constitutional." Also, capitalize nouns that
refering to the
identify specific parts of the U.S. Constitution when referring to them in textual sentences, but not in citations:
)
Students in this class have studied the full faith
and credit clause of the Pennsylvania Constitution.
The students agree that the clause in that constitution is substantially similar to the Full Faith and
Credit Clause in the U.S. Constitution.
But: He claims his constitutional rights were violated.
)
)
Of att the amendments in the U.S. Constitution, the
Fifth Amendment may be the most complex.
Accordingly, there was no violation of Article l,
Section 8, Clause r7 of the Constitution.
But: See U.S. CoHsr. art. l, 5 8, cl. t7 (granting
Congress the power to "exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever . . . over alt Places
purchased" by the United States).
Court
Capitalize when naming any court in fi.rll or when referring to the United States Supreme Court (with some
exceptions for court documents and legal memoranda,
see Bluepages BE):
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
I
o
o
o
o
o
o
a
c
O
o
o
H
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
Catifornia Suoreme Court found no violation in
sucn a case.
fu' The
*" The argument in the state supreme court
concerning the lack of prior notice was based
solely on state authorities.
iw"
When the Court approves the argument, it
becomes constitutional doctrine for the entire
country.
uE
The court of appeals reversed the trial court.
e. The Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit affirmed.
Fede ra
I
Capitalize whcn the word it modilies is capitllized:
F The FederaI Constitution provides for three
branches of government.
I
.ludge, lustice
A higher level of clarity is required in statutes that
require federal spendin g.
Capitalize when giving the name
iusticc or whcn refcrring to
a
of a specilic fudge or
Justice of the []nited Stxtes
Suprcmc Court:
I
In one ofthe first decisions on point, Judge Cedarbaum reiected a group appointment.
in This era of constitutional non-interference ended
when the Justices proclaimed a profound national
commitment to the principle that debate on public
issues should be uninhibited.
+
State
will hear
oral arguments on the issue of gay marriage at the
end ofthe month.
The lustices of the state's highest court
Oapitalize if it is
a
part of thc firll title of
a statc,
if thc word
it modifics is capitalized, or when refcrring to a state
governmental actor or
as a
as a
party to a litigiltion:
principal issue is whether the State of Kansas
may impose its motor fuet tax. The State Commissioner adopted a broad-based poticy.
1* The
9: The State brought this action two years ago.
Term
Capitalize whcn refcrring to a'l'erm of thc [inited States
Supremc Oourt:
F The United States Supreme Court considered this
issue in this Term and in four other Terms since
the 1978 Term.
F
The central common law courts sat onty four times
a year, but customarity the year began with Michaetmas term.
TTTIES OFJUDGES, OFFICIAIS, AND TERMS OF COLIRT
(a) Justices and iudges. Justices are referred to as "Justice Ginsburg'and
'Chief Justice Robertsl'Parenthetical references are to "Brennan, J.,""Scatia,
J.,'and'Brennan & Scalia, JJ."Judges are referred to as "Judge Surrick" and
"Chief Judge Scirica." Capitalize 'justice,"'chief justicei and "judge'according to rule 8(cXii). For parenthetical references, abbreviate titles of iudges and
officials as indicated in table T11.
(b) Ordering. As
a matter of etiquette, lists of judges should be in the order
indicated at the beginning of each volume of the official reporter for the court.
Justices of the United States Supreme Court are always listed with the Chief
Justice first and then in order ofseniority.
of court. A term of court currently in progress may be referred to as
"this term.'The immediately preceding term,no longer in progress at the time
(c) Term
of publication, should be refe rred to
by year:
)
as "
last te rm." Any terrn may be indicate d
the 1999 term
The Supreme Court Term should be indicated by the year in which the Term
began, not the year it ended. Capitalize "term" according to de 8(cXii).
10
CASES
Citation of
a U.S. Supreme
'vl
Meritor Sav.
for
Court case:
'versus"
reporter volume
no.
\
\
Bank*v.:,Vinson,,'477'
L--------r-----r
nrstparty
+
seconjparty
first page of
case
)-J
specific page refened to
U.5.,' 57',,: 60, (1986).
!-r,|
f
"ri[j:J.fi:i:.,Iij.,"1*:#iljlt:h:,13:,"1;;1
Citation of a case decided by the U.S. Court ofAppeals for the Fourth Circuit,
later reversed by the U.S. Supreme Court, with parenthetical information about
the Fourth Circuit decision:
\
parties
("1:Hi'Jrt?$"il'i:L*) ;jrt?:rT"".T;
reporter volume
no.
|
first page of
')-,AA
case
oli'*l""j
l, | ,A
I
deciding
court
I
United States u MacDonald, " 531..t.2d,,196," 199-200, (4th Cir.. 7976) "
(resting review of the dispositive issue on the principle of iudicial economy),
*
rev'd,,,435 " U.5. " 850,, (1978).
++\\
action of higher
court
parenthetical phrase describing
decision of Fourth Circuit
citation of reversal
Short form for the above case after it has been cited in full:
volume no. and reporter
abbreviation
MacDonold, 537 F.2d'
L__\___J
shortened case name in
(do not use governmentar
at
qi
specific page refened to
797.
italics denotes
parry)
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
that page number follows
I
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
Main Elements
Names.
ReponersandOtherSources.....
Court andJurisdiction.
Date oryear.
Parentheticallnformation
PriorandSubsequentHistory.
..
Case
.....
rule
1O.2
rule 10.3
.
rule 10.4
rule 10.5
...... de
10'6
.. rule 10.7
Basic Citation Fofins
10.1
Filed but not decided
Hoshiiima v. Jensen, No. 9o-345 (D. Mass. fited
Sept. r8, r99o).
Unpublished interim
Sansone v. Sauder, No. 9o-345 (D. Mass.
Oct. 25, r99o) (order granting pretiminary
order
inl
unction).
Published interim order
Haber v. Scotten, 725 F. Supp. 1395 (D. Mass.
r99o) (order granti n g prelimi nary iniunction).
Unpublished decision
Kitchens v. Grohman, No. 9o-345, stip op. at 6
(D. Mass. Dec. 4, r99o).
Decision published in
service only
Tice v. Scotten, r99o Fed. Sec. L. Rep. (CCH)
1c2,342 (D. Mass. Dec.4, t99o).
Decision published in
newspaper only
Mishra v. Grohman, N.Y. I.i., Dec. 5, r99o, at r
(D. Mass. Dec. 4, r99o).
Decision available in
Yee v. Kitchens, No.
electronic database
LEXIS 2o837, at
fl
9o-345, r99o U.5. Dist.
*6-8, *ro (D. Mass. Dec.4,
7990).
Decision available in
electronic database after
revision
Phibrick v. Haber, No. 9o-345, r99o U.S. Dist.
LEXIS 2o837, at *4 (D. Mass. Dec. 4,t99o,
revised lan.3, t99i.
Published decision
Ward v. Reddy, 727
Mass. r99o).
Appeal docketed
Yee v.
Brief, record, or
F.
5upp. t4o7, r4tz lD.
Grohman,TzT F. Supp. r4o7 (D. Mass.
ry9o), appeal docketed, No. 9o-567 (rst Cir.
Dec. zo, r99o).
appendix Brief for Appellant at 7, Kitchens v. Scotten,
3ra (1! cir.tgrt) (l.'| o.4';10q)._
ryt
Disposition on appeal
!^
Philbrick v. Mishra, 925 F.zd 314,315 (rst Cir.
1991) '
Disposition in lower
court showing
subsequent history
Haber v. Yee,7z7 F. Supp. 7407, t4r2 (D. Mass.
rygo), aff'd, 925 F.zd 3r4 (rst Clr. t99r).
Petition for certiorari
Grohman v.Tice,9z5F.zd 3t4 (rst Cir. t99r),
petition for cert. filed,6o U.S.L.W. 34zz (U.5.
filed
lan.U, rgqz)
(No.
9z-zrz).
Scotten v. Kitchens, 925 F.zd 3r4 (rst Cir.
t99t), cert. granted,5o U.S.L.W. f S6z (U.S.
Petition for certiorari
granted
Jan. zr,
Disposition in Supreme
Court published only in
service
LO.2
r99z) (No. 9z-ztz).
Flynn v. Kaplan, 6o U.S.L.W. 442o, 44zt (U.5.
Feb. 4, t99z), vacating as moot 925 F.zd 3t4
(rst Cir. r99r).
Case Narnes
The only significant differences befween case nzrmes in textual sentences and
case names in citations are the italicization (rule 2) and the extent to which
the case name is abbreviated. The provisions of rule LO.2.1 apply to every case
name,whether in text or citations, but case names in citations are further abbreviated according to rule 10.2.2. Thus:
)
ln Southern Pocific Co. v. Jensen, z44U.S. zo5 (t9r7), Justice
McReynolds stressed the value of uniform laws.
)
Southern Pocific also indicates the breadth of federal lawmaking
power under the admiralty jurisdiction.
Noh In 5. Pac. Co. v. lensen, z44U.S. zo5 Q9q), Justice McReynolds
stressed the value of uniform laws.
But: in citations:
)
See, e.g.,S. Pac. Co. v. Jensen, z44U.S. zo5,
J.,
zz5-26 (r9r7) (Pitney,
dissenting).
de
Note that the examples throughout
82 employ the typeface conventions
for law review citations. For an explanation of typeface conventions, see rule 2.
For typeface conventions in couft documents and legal memoranda, see Blue-
pages 82.
10.2.1 General Rules
for
Case Names
Use the case name that appears at the beginning of the opinion in the cited
reporter as modified by the paragraphs below. If no name appears in the cited
reporter, use a popular name or cite as "Judgment of <date>":
)
)
Shelley's Case
Judgment of Oct. rr, zooS
Always retain in full the first word in each pafiy's name (including a relator)
except as provided below In extremely long case names, omit words not neceg
sary for identification; the running head (the short identifier printed at the top
of each page of the case) may serve as a guide. Make the following modifications
where applicable:
(a) Actions and parties cited. If the case is a consolidation of two or more
actions, cite only the fust listed:
)
Shetleyv. Kraemer
ilot: Shelley v. Kraemer,
McGhee v. Sipes
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
I
o
t
O
I
o
I
o
o
o
O
o
o
O
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
a
a
o
Omit all partics other than the first listed on each side. Do not omit the lirstlisted relator or any portion of a partnership name:
F
Fry v. Mayor of Sierra Vista
Not: Fry v. Mayor & City Council of Sierra Vista
But:
*
Massachusetts ex rel. Alison v. Pauly
ts Eisen v. Spradlin, Lincotn & Amorosi
Omit words indicating multiple parties, such as "et a[."Also omit alternative
names givcn for thc firstlisted party on cither side:
F
Cheng v. Seinfetd
Not: Cheng et al. v. Seinfetd d/b/a The Man, Inc.
Similady, for in rem jurisdiction cases, omit all but the
lirstlisted itcm or group
of items:
*
In refhree Pink Cadittacs
Not: /n re Three Pink Caditlacs, Two Turtte Doves, and a Partridge in a
Pear Tree
S(/herc real propcrfy is a party, use its common street address, if available
*
:
United States v. 6ro9 Grubb Road
Not: United States v. ParceI of Real Property Known as 6ro9 Grubb
Road, Mitlcreek Township, Erie County, Pennsylvania
In bankruptcy and similar cases, the casc name might contain both an adversary
and a nonadversary name. If both appear at the beginning of the opinion, cite
the adversrry name first, followcd by the nonadversary name in parentheses.
Include a procedural phrase such as" ln re" or" ex rel." bcf<rrc the nonadversary
name, followed by a descriptive or introductory phrase such as "Estate of" or
"lnterest of;'if any. lf only an adversary name or only a nonaclversary name
appears at the beginning of the opinion, citc the name supplicd:
s. Watlingford's, Inc. v. Waning (/n re Waning), rzo B.R. 6o7,6tt
(Bankr. D. Me. r99o).
*
a
/n re Drexel Burnham Lambert Group, Inc.,
S.D.N.Y. r99o).
rzo B.R. 724(Bankr.
/n re Estate of Benson, No. C7'95-2r85,1996 WL 118367 (Minn' Ct.
App. Mar. ry,ry96).
fr
State v. Powers (/n re Interest of Powers),493 N.W.zd 16Z (Neb.
7992)'
(b) Procedural phrases. Abbrcviatc "on the relation ofl' "for the use of;'
"on behalf ofi"'as next friend ofl' and similar expre ssions to "ex rel. "Abbrevi"in the matter ofl' "petition of] "application of;'and similar expressions
to "/n re. " Omit all procedural phrase s exccpt the lirst. Whcn adversary partie s
ate
are named.omit all proccdural phrases cxcept-ex
rel".
)
t
Gorman v. Bruh
Not: /n re Gorman v. Bruh
)
)
I
o
Massachusetts ex rel. Kennedy v. Armbruster
ExparteYoung
t
lnclude any introductory or descriptive phrases such as'Accounting
"Estate ofj'and"Will of." Thus:
)
)
In re Witl of Hott
Estate of Haas v. Commissioner
Procedural phrases should always be italicized, regardless ofwhether the rest
the case name is italicized. Thus. in law review text:
)
Ex
of
parte Young
(c) Abbreviations. In textual sentences, whether in main text or in footnote
text, abbreviate only widely known acronyms under rule 6.1(b) and these
eight words: "&," "Ass'n," "Bros.," 'Co.," "Corp.," "lnc.," 'Ltd.," and "No." If
one of these eight begins a party's name, however, do not abbreviate it.
)
Philadetphia Electric Co. v. Hirsch
l{ot:
PECO
v. Hirsch
But: NMCP v. Kaminski
For abbreviations in citations, see
(d) "Ihe." Omit 'The"
as
rule 10.2.2.
the fust word of
a
party's name , except
as
part of the
name of the obiect of an in rem action or in cases in which "The King" or "The
Queen" is a party. Thus:
)'
Miami Herald v. Sercus
But:
)
)
ln re The Ctinton Bridge
The Kingv. Broadrup
Do not omit
"The'in an established popular name, except when referring to the
case textually. Thus:
)
See The Civit Rights Cases, ro9 U.S.
I (1881).
But: Neither of the Civil Rights Cases opinions was correct.
Noh Neither of The Civil Rights Cases opinions was correct.
(e) Descriptive tems. Omit terms such as'administrator," 'appellee,"
"executor," "licensee,' and "trustee" that describe
)
a
Burns v. McMillen
Not: Burns v. McMillen, Administrator
But: Trustees of Dartmouth College v. Garodnick
party already named:
o
o
o
o
t
o
o
o
o
o
O
I
O
o
o
O
o
o
o
I
t
I
o
t
o
o
o
o
o
o
t
o
t
o
o
o
(f) Geographical terms.
Omit "State of;"'Commonwealth of]'and "People
ofl'except when citing decisions of the courts of that state , in which case only
"State,""Commonwealth," or " People" should be retained:
F
Blystone v. Pennsytvania, 494U.5.299 Q99o).
Not: Btystone v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 494U.5.299 Q99o).
But: Commonwealth v. Ferrone, 448 A.zd
6ll
Qa. Super. Ct. r98z).
Omit "City of;"'County ofl"'Viltage of," "Township of," and like expressions
unless the expression begins a party name:
s. Mayor of New York v. Clinton
Not: Mayor of the City of New York v. Clinton
But: Butts v. City of New York
Omit all prepositional phrases of krcation not following "Cityj'or like expressions, unless the omission would leave only one word in the name of a party or
the location is part of the full name of a business or similar entity:
*
Surrick v. Board of Wardens
Not: Surrick v. Board of Wardens of the Port of Philadelphia
But: Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsvlvania v. Casev
Not: Planned Parenthood v. Casey
*
*
Shapiro v. Bank of Harrisburg
Eimers v. Mutual of Omaha
Include designations of national or larger gcographical areas except in union
names (rule 10.2. f (i)). Omit "of America" aftcr " U nited States"
:
F
Flatow v. lslamic Repubtic of lran
F
United States v. Atuminum Co. of America
Retain all geographical designations not introduced by a preposition:
F" Biltman v. Indiana Department of Corrections
Omit all geographical clcsignations that folkrw a comma:
ts City of Artington v.
FEC
Not: City ofArlington, Texas v.
FEC
(g) Given names or initials. Gcncmlly, omit given name s or initials of individuals,but not in names of business lirms or where a party's surnamc is abbreviated:
ts Courtneyv. Sandman
Not: Paul Vincent Courtney v. Joseph M. Sandman
But:
h
Tanya Bartucz, Inc. v. Virginia
ts Linda R.S. v. Richard
D.
J.
Wise & Co.
Do not omit any part of a sumame made up of more than one word:
)
)
Van der Velt v. Standing Horse
Abdul Ghani v. Subedar Shoedar Khan
Given names that follow a surname should be retained. Thus, retain the full
name where the name is entirely in a language in which the surname is given
fust, such as Chinese, Korean, orvietnamese:
)
)
Yao Zhen Guangv. Yeh Zhi An
Chowv. Ha QuangJin
iloh Timothy Chow v. Ha Quang Jin
Similar$ if a party's name is of Spanish or Portuguese derivation, cite the surname and all names following:
)
Ortega y Gasset v. Alcala de Larosa
If in doubt,
use the name under
which the party appears in the index of the
reporter cited.
(h) Business firm designations. Omit "lnc.,""Ltd.;"'1.1.C.,"N.A.,,''F.S.B.,"
and similar terms if the name also contains a word such as"Ass'n,""Bros.,"'Co.,"
"Corp.,""lns.ior'R.R.icleady indicating that the party is a business firm:
)
Wisconsin Packing Co. v. Indiana Refrigerator Lines, Inc.
flok Wisconsin Packing Co.,
Inc. v. Indiana Refrigerator Lines, lnc.
This rule should be read narrowly. The omission of the business flrm designation is only appropriate if the name of the business could notpossl'bl7 be mis
taken for the name of some other entity, such as a natural person.
(i) Union and local union
names. Cite a union name exactly as given in
the offrcial rreporter. This general rule is subiect, however, to the following
exceptions:
(i) Only the smallest unit should be cited:
> NLRB v. Radio & Television Broadcast Engineers Local pp
tlok N LRB v. Radio & Television Broadcast Engineers Local ptz,
IBEW, AFL.CIO
(ii) All craft or industry designations, except the frst
full
such designation,
should be omitted:
)
Douds v. Loca[ 294, International Brotherhood ofTeamsters
Not: Douds v. Local 294, International Brotherhood ofTeamsters,
Chauffeurs, Warehousemen & Helpers
But: lnternational Union of Doll & Toy Workers v.Local379
(in)A widely recognized abbreviation of the union's name (e.g., UAI/I/) may be
with rules 6.1O) and 10.2.1(c).
used in accordance
(iv) All prepositional phrases of location, including those of national or larger
areas, should be omitted.
o
o
O
I
o
t
O
o
o
o
o
I
t
I
o
o
o
o
I
o
o
o
o
o
o
I
I
t
o
o
I
o
o
o
o
o
I
o
I
o
(j) Commissioner of Internal Revenue.
Cite simply
as
"Commissioner" or,
in citations,"Com m'r."
(k) Common names different from name in reporter. For cases not known
by the name that appears in the reporter, but known instead by a common
name, the common name must either be substituted for the reporter name in
its entircty, or indicated parenthetically in the same rypeface as the case name
in the reportcr:
F The Brig Amy Warwick
(The Prize Cases),
6l
U.S. (z Btack)
6:f
(rB6r).
b
The Prize Cases,67 U.5. (z Btack) 6lS G86).
Not: The Prize Cases (The Brig Amy Warwick), 6Z U.S. (z Black) 6:S
(r86r).
For cases known by the name in the reportcr, blut ako commonly known by a
short name different from that appearing in the reporter, the common name
mry rufibe substituted for the reportcr namc in its entirety in a full citation, but
it may be indicated parenthetically in italics:
h
Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer (Steel Seizure),
f+f
U.S.
579 9952).
Not Steel Seizure,34jU.S. Slg GgSz).
Similarly', for mandamus actions against courts where the case is known by the
writ is sought, the name may be indicated
name of thc ludge against whom the
parenthetically in italics:
S."
United States v. U.S. District Court (Keith),4o7 U.S. 297 Q97z).
And, for cases with multiple dispositions, a helpful identifier of the number of
the decision may be indicated parenthetically in italics:
F Hamdiv.
Rumsfeld (Hamdi llD,3t6F3d +So (qth Cir. zoo3).
This parcnthetical identi{ier is givcn only when a case is cited as the primary
citation. Once given, the parenthetical identilicr alone may be used as the case
name when the case is cited again, even in circumstances where a ftlll citation
would otherwise be required.
h
1
Stations, Inc. v. FCC (Fox l), z9o F 3d tozT (D.C.
Cir.), modified on reh'g, z93F3d fi7 @.C. Cir. zooz).
Fox Television
ts 2 Fox Television Stations, Inc. v. FCC (Fox ID, 293 F3d
(D.C. Cir. 2oo2) (quoting Fox l, z8o F.3d at ro43).
fl,
54o
In conformiry with rule 2.L(f), when citing cases according to the above rule.
the parcntheses themselves should ncver be italicized in eithcr main text or
footnote text.
Additional Rules for Case Names in Citations
Cite case names in citations according to the rules given above, but with the
following
fu
rther modifi cations:
10.2.2
Always abbreviate any word listed in table T6, even if the word is the fust word
in a party's name, unless the word is part of a state, country or other geographical unit that is the entire name of the parry:
)
)
)
S. Consol. R.R. v. Consol. Transp. Co.
ln re Acad. Answering Serv., Inc.
McGaugh v. Comm'r
I
But: South Dakota v. Dote
Not: 5. Dakota v. Dole
Abbreviate states, countries, and other geographical units as indicated in table
TlO unless the geographical unit is the entire name of the party (as opposed to
iust a part thereof). This includes "United States." Thus:
)
)
ln reW. Tex. PepperCo.
LeBeau v. Univ. of Md.
But: Staub v. District of Columbia
)
Ctr. for Nat'l Sec. Studies v. U.S. Dep't of Justice
But: Alvarez-Machain v. United States
But: Fritz v. County of Los Angeles
Abbreviate other words of eight letters or morc tf substantial space is thereby
saved and the result is unambiguous.
10.3 Reporters and Other
Sources
10.3.1 Parallel Citations and Which Source(s) to Cite
The federal and state iurisdictions table (table Tl) indicates which reporters to
cite for the decisions of most courts. Note that many state court decisions are
published in two or more sources.
(a) Parallel citations in state court documents. ln documents submitted to
state courts, all case citations must be to the source(s) required by local rules.
Many state rules require that citations to state court decisions include a citation to the official state reporter,followedby a parallel citation to a regional
reporter. Thus, these local rules, and not the citltion rules set forth in table Tl,
govern state court filings. See Bluepages table BT1O.I.3 for further guidance
concerning iurisdiction-specific citation rules.
(b) Case citations in all other documents. In all other documents, including
ordinary legal memoranda and law realew pieces, cite the relevant regional
reporter, if the decision is found therein. For example:
)
Swedloff v. Phila.Transp. Co.,t87
If the decision is available
A.zdt5z(Pa.ry6).
as an official public domain citation (also referred to
medium-neutral citation), that citation must be provided, as well as a parallel
citation to the regional reporter, if available.
as
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o
If the decision is not found in a regional reporter or available as a public domain
citation, cite the other sources indicated in table T1. Cite decisions of unlisted
courts as you would those ofcourts listed in the table.Ifa case is not available
in an official or preferred unofficial reporter or as a public domain citation,
cite another unoflicial reporter, a widely used computer database (rule 18.3),
a service (rule 19), a slip opinion (rule 10.8.1(b)), an Internct source (rule
18.2.2), or a newspaper (rule 16.6), in that order of prefercncc:
b
United States v. Cartisle, No. 9o-246551, r99r U.S. App. LEXIS S86:,
at *3 (8th Cir. Apr. rc, ry91 her curiam).
F
/n re Smithfield Estates, Inc., [t985-1986 Transfer Binder] Bankr. L.
Rep. (CCH) 1'7o,7o7 (Bankr. D.R.l. Aug. 9, 1985).
)
Simmons v. Brothers, No. 9o-627 (D. Mass. Dec. r9, r99o).
;'
State v. McArthur, No. C4-99-5oz (Minn. Ct. App. Sept. 28, t99),
http://www.lawlibrary.state.mn.us/archiv e I ctapun | 99o9 | 5oz.
htm.
l
United Statesv. Patermo, N.Y.Ttmes, Aug.z7,1957,aI zzr (S.D.N.Y.
Aug. 26, r95).
For citation to administrativc reportcrs, see
rule 14.3,2.
ro.3.2
Reporters
Bound publications that print only cases (or cascs and annotations) are considered reporters and are cited in roman type. A citation to a rcporter consists of a
volume designation (rule 3.1), the abbreviated namc of the reportcr (as shown
in table Tl), and the page on which the case report begins
on spacing in reporter abbreviations, sec rule 6.1(a).
)
(rule 3.2).
For rules
Burt v. Rumsfetd, 3zz F. Supp. zd t8g (D. Conn. zoo4).
rcportcrs were often named after their cditors rathcr than after
thc courts whose cases thcy rcported. Subsequently, official editor-named serics
havc been combined into iurisdiction-named scries with continuous volume
numbering. Such reporters are now generally cited by the official serics name
and number only;thc name of thc reportcr's cditor is omitted:
Eady American
>
Cobb v. Davenport, 32 N.l.L.
l6q
(Sup. Ct. 186z).
Not: Cobb v. Davenport, 3 Vroom 16g (Sup. Ct. 186Z).
I
But for tlnited Statcs Supreme Court rcportcrs through 90 tl.S (2lWall.) and
few early state reporters (sec table Tl.3), give the name of the repofter's editor
and the volumc of that series. If the pagination of thc oflicial iurisdiction-namcd
reprints and thc original reporters is thc same , usc the following form:
)
Green v. Biddte,
)
Hattv. Belt, +Z Mass. (6 Met.)
zr U.S.
(8 Wheat.)
r (r8zl).
+lr (r8+l).
If the pagination differs, givc parallel citations to the reprints and the original
reportcfs:
F
Wadsworth v. Ruggles, z3 Mass. 62,6 Pick.6l (rBzB).
Some very eady Pennsylvania federal and state court decisions are reported in
the initial volumes of the United States Reports.Wherc this occurs,include the
cite to "U.S.," along with a parallel cite to the appropriate lower court reporter:
)
Barnes's Lessee v. lrwin, z U.S. (z Dall.) r99, r Yeates zzt (Pa.
rZg:) (mem.).
)
United States v. Fries, 3 U.S.
rzgg) (No. srz5).
(:
Datt.) 5t5, 9 F. Cas. 826 (C.C.D. Pa.
10.3.3 Public Domain Format
When citing a decision available in public domain format (also referred to as
medium-neutral format),if the iurisdiction's format can be cited in the following
form (see table Tl), provide the case name, the year of decision, the state's twocharacter postal code, the tableTT court abbreviation (unless the court is the
state's highest court), the sequential number of the decision, and, if the decision
is unpublished, a capital "U" after the sequential number of the decision.When
referencing specifc material within the decision, a pinpoint citation should be
made to the paragraph number at which the material appears. If available , a parallel citation to the appropriate regional reporter must be provided.
The following examples are representative of the recommended public domain
citation format:
)
)
)
Beckv. Beck, 1999 ME 11o,
Ii6,ZllA.zd 98r,983.
:, S8+ N.W.zd 8ll,8lS.
Gregory v. Ctass, 1998 SD ro6, fl
Jones v. Fisher, 1998 OK Civ. App.
rzoL.
If a jurisdiction adopts
a public domain format that differs from the above, the
requirements of the jurisdiction's format should be observed (table Tl):
)
Cannon v. Am. Bowling Cong., 94-o641 , p.
t (ta. 4lzg
lgt+); 637 So.
zd 463,463.
)
Morton v. New Orleans Police Dep't,96-L799 (La. App. 4 Cir.
zlslgi;687 So. 2d699.
)
Sullivan v. State,98-KA-oo5zr-SCT (fl
>
State v. Brennan, 1998-NMCA-r76,117, tz6 N.M. 389, 97o P.zd
zf)
(Miss. 1999).
t6t.
ro.4 Court andJurisdiction
Every case citation must indicate which court decided the case. In American
and other common law citations,give the name of the court and its geographical
iurisdiction (abbreviated according to tables TI or T2 if included therein and
according to tables T7 and T10 in all other cases) in the parenthetical phrase
that immediately follows the citation and includes the date or year of decision.
For court names that include ordinals, format and abbreviate the ordinals in
accordance with de 6.2(b):
)
)
Commonweatth v. Virelli, 6zo A.zd
United States v. Andolschek,
58
4zF.zd
Pa. Super. Ct. r99z).
5o3 (2d Ci. tgqq).
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For citations to foreign cases, see
rule 2O.3
and
tableT2.
A more detailed court designation than those specified by the following paragraphs may be given ifnecessary
(a) Federal courts. In citations to United States LawWeek,the United States
Supreme Court is indicated with "U.S." In citations to the Suprerrxe Court
Reporter andthe United States Rqports,omit the Supreme Court's name.When
a Supreme Court Justice sits alone in his or her capacity as a Circuit Justice, cite
the decision
)
as:
Russo v. Byrne, 4o9 U.S.
rzrg (Douglas, Circuit
Justice r97z).
United States courts of appeals for numbered circuits, regardless of year, are
indicated
)
as:
zd Cir.
llot:
C.C.A.zd
Not: CAz
When citing the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia
Circuit and its predecessors, or when citing the Federal Circuit, use the following abbreviations:
)
)
For
D.C. Cir.
Fed. Cir.
disrict court
>
>
)
cases, give the
district but not the division:
D.N.J.
D.D.C.
C.D. Cal.
ilo& C.D. Cat. E.D.
Cite the old circuit courts (abolished
l9l2):
> c.c.s.D.N.Y.
)
C.C.E.D. Mo.
Cite the Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation:
>
J.P.M.L.
Cite the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court and Court
of
Review,
respectively:
>
>
FrsA
ct.,
FISA Ct. Rev.
Cite decisions of bankruptcy courts and bankruptcy appellate panels:
)
Bankr. E.D. Va.
>
B.A.P.9th Cir.
O) State courts. In general,
do not include the name
of the state:
indicat€ the state and court of decision. However'
is the highest court
ofthe court ifthe court ofdecision
)
People v. Armour, 59o N.W.zd
llot:
6t (Mich. t999).
People v. Armour, 59o N.W.zd
6r (Mich. Sup. Ct. 1999).
Omit the iurisdiction and the court abbreviation if unambiguously conveyed by
the reporter title:
)
DiLucia v. Mandelker,493 N.Y.S.zd 769 (App. Div. rgSS).
ilot:
)
DiLucia v. Mandelker,493 N.Y.S.zd Z5g (N.Y. App. Div. 1985).
Dubreuilv. Witt, 80 Conn. App. 4ro (zoo3).
iloft Dubreuilv. Witt, 80
Conn. App.
4ro (App. Ct. zoo3).
Thus, when a decision is rendered by the highest court in a particular jurisdic-
tion and the name of the reporter is the same as the name of that iurisdiction,
neither the name of the court nor the name of the state need be given:
)
Batesv. Tappan,99 Mass. lt6(1868).
Do not indicate the department or district in citing decisions of intermediate
state courts unless that information is of particular relevance:
)
Schiffman v. Corsi, 5o N.Y.S.zd 8gZ (Sup. Ct. t94Q.
When the department or district is of particular relevance, that information
should be indicated
)
)
lO.5
as
follows:
Schiffman v. Corsi, 5o N.Y.S.zd 8qZ (Sup. Ct. N.Y. Cnty. t94Q.
Lee
v. Perez,tzo S.W.3d 461 Oex. App. r4th zoo3).
Date or Year
(a) Decisions published in reporters. If possible, provide the year of decision; use the year of the term of the court only if the year of decision is unavailable. In ambiguous cases, follow the year given in the running head (at the top
of each page) in the reporter. Before Volume 108 of the U.S. Reports (1882),
opinions do not usually list their date of decision but rather list only the term in
which they were decided. For the dates of these opinions, refer to the Librarian
of the Supreme Court's list of dates, available at http://www.supremecouft.govl
opinions/datesofdecisions. pdf.
(b) Decisions published in other sources. Give the exact date for all unreported cases and for all cases cited to a looseleaf service, a slip opinion, an
electronic database, or a newspap€r:
)
Bedell v. Nessim, No. 9o-567, slip op. l4S8 (rst Cir. Jan. 19, t99r).
rule f0.5(a), the exact d^te is not necessary for cases that are labeled
'unpublished'but are nevertheless reported, including cases reported in the
Per
Federal Appendix and "unpublished" cases reported in the appropriate reporter
for the jurisdiction:
)
United States v. Tando, 68
F.
App'x 85 (9th Cir. zoo3).
(c) Pending cases and cases dismissed without opinion. Use the date or
year of the most recent major disposition. "Major dispositions" include onfil
the initial filing, whether in the trial court or on appeal (e.g., "fited," "appeal
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docketed," "petition for cert. filed"l, oril argument ("argued"), and, for
without opinion, the dismissal ("dismissed"). Indicate the significance of the date within a parenthetical phrase, unless its signilicance is
cases dismissed
explained elsewhere:
F
Bedetl v. Nessim, No.9o-567 (rst Cir. argued Jan. ro, r99r).
Otherwise no special notation is neccssary:
*
Bedett v.
Nessim,7z5F.Supp.t4o7 (D. Mass. r99o), oppeol dock'
eted, No. 90-567 (rst Cir. Dec. zo, r99o).
(d) Multiple decisions within a single year. when citing a case with several
different decisions in the same year, include the year only with the last-cited
decision in that year:
s
United States v. Eller, rr4 F. Su pp. 284 (M.D. N.C.), rev'd, zo8 F.zd
It6
(r+th Cir.
r953).
However, if the cxact date of decision is required in either case, include both
dates:
*
DiNapoti v. Ne. Reg'[ Parole Comm'n,764F.2d 43 Qd Cir. 1985),
petition for cert. filed, S+ U.S.L.W. lr+6 (U.S. Aug.29, rg8S) (No.
8s-rrs).
Parenthetical Information Regarding Cases
10.6
Weight of Authority
10.6.
(a) Generally. Information regarding the weight of the authority (e.g., en banc;
in banc; z-r decision; mem.; per curiam; Brandeis, J.; unpubtished tabte
decision) may be added in a separate parenthetical phrase f<rllowing the datc
of decision:
*
Webb v. Baxter Healthcare Corp.,57 F3d ro67 (+th Cir. rqgs)
(unpublished table decision).
When a casc is cited for a propositi<)n that is not the singlc, clcar holding of
a majority of the court (e.g., alternative hotding; by imptication; dictum;
dissenting opinion; pluratity opinion; hotding unclear), indicate that fact
parenthetically:
b Parker
F
v. Randotph, 442 lJ.S. 62, 8 t, Ggl
)
(Stevens, J., d issenting).
Garcia v. San Antonio Metro. Transit Auth., 469 U.S. 528, 57o
(rS8S) (S-+ decision) (Powetl, 1., dissenting).
Information regarding related authority (rule 1.6) or prior or subsequent
history (rule 1O.7.1(a)) that can properly be indicated with an explanatory
phrase (table T8) should not be given parenthetically. Thus:
*
Wersba v. Seiler, 393 F.zd %7 Gd Cir. 1968) (per curiam).
But: Wersba v. Seiler, 263 F. Supp. 8;8,
curiom,393F.zd%7 bd Cir. 1968).
8+l
(E.D. Pa.
ry6), affd per
r
(b) "Mem." and "per curiam." The abbreviation "mem." stands for the word
"memorandum" and should be used in a parenthetical if, and only if, a court
disposition was issued without an opinion. District court and other opinions
denominated"memorandum decision" are not designated"mem."in citations.
The phrase "per curiam'refers to an opinion issued"by the court" as an institution as opposed to a decision issued by a particular judge."Per curiam" is used
in a parenthetical to describe an opinion so denominated by the court.
(c) Seriatim opinions. Prior to the Marshall Court (which began February
4, l80l), the U.S. Supreme Court followed the traditional British practice of
eachJustice writing his own opinion rather than producing a majority opinion
for the Court. To cite such an opinion, include the parenthetical "(opinion of
Lastname, J.)."
10.6.2 Quoting/Citing Parentheticals in Case Citations
When a case cited as authority itself quotes or cites another case for that point,
a"quoting"or"citing"parenthetical is appropriate per rule 1.56).Within the
parenthetical, the same rules regarding typeface, pincites, and short forms apply
to the quoted or cited authority as if it were the direct source:
)
Zadvydasv. Davis,533 U.S.678,7t9 (zoor) (Kennedy,J.,
dissenting) (citing Shaughnessy v. United States ex rel. Mezei,345
U.S. zo5 Gssr)).
Note, however, that only one level of recursion is required. Thus, if a case quotes
which itself quotes another case, only one level of"quoting" or "citing'
parentheticals is necessary. An additional level of parenthetical information may
a case,
be used
ifthe information conveyed
is
particularly relevant.
10.6.3 Order of Parentheticals
Parenthetical phrases should be placed in the following order: (i) weight of
authority parentheticals; (ii) "quoting" and "citing" parentheticals; (iii) explanatory parentheticals. For more detailed information, see
1.5(b). Thus:
de
)
Wotf v. Colorado, 338 U.5. 25, 47 Gg49) (Ruttedge, J., dissenting)
fteiectingthe Court's conception of the exclusionary rule),affg
t87 P.zd 925 (Coto. t947), overruled by Mapp v. Ohio, 367 u.5.643
(tg6t).
If an explanatory parenthetical contains text that itself requires a,,quoting"or
"citing"parenthetical, the two parentheticals should be nested:
)
4o7,4o9 (zooz) ("[T]he statutory criterion for confinement embodied in the statute's words 'mental
abnormality or personality disorder' satisfied "'substantive" due
process requirements."' (quoting Kansas v. Hendricks, 5zr U.S.
Kansas v. Crane, 534 U.S.
346, r55
)
(tgg))).
Fultilove v. Klutznick, 448 U.S. 448, 519 (r98o) (Marshal[, J., concurring) (noting that conventional strict scrutiny is "strict in theory,
but fatal in fact" (citing Regents ofthe Univ. ofCal. v. Bakke,438
U.S. 265, t6z (tgtg))).
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fO.Z Pri"t ""d
Subsequent History
Whcnever a decision is cited in full, give the entire subsequent history of the
case , but omit denials of certiorari or denials of similar discretionary appeals,
unless the decision is less than two years old or the denial is particulady relevant. Omit also the history on remand or any denial of a rehearing, unless
relevant to the point for which the case is cited. Finally, omit any disposition
withdrawn by the deciding authoriry such as an aflirmance followed by revcrsal
on rehearing. Thus:
ts Cent. ltt. Pub. Serv. Co. v. Westervelt, 34zN.E.zd q6: (ltt. App. Ct.
ry26), off d,367 N.E.zd 66t (lll. tgz).
Not: Cent. llt. Pub. Serv. Co. v. Westervelt, 342 N.E.zd 46f (ltt. App. Ct.
ry26), affd,367 N.E.zd 66r (llt. t977), cert. denied, 434U.5. toTo
(rst8).
)
Cheng v. GAF Corp.,
63tF.zd ro5z (zd Cir. r98o), vocoted,45o
U.S.
go: (rg8r).
Not: Cheng v.
GAF
Corp., 63rF.zd to5z (zd Cir. rg8o), vocated, 45o
U.S. gol, remanded to 659 F.zd ro58 (zd
Cir.
rg8r).
case is cited or if
the disposition cited does not intelligibly dcscribe the issues in the case, as in a
Suprcmc Court "mem." Give se parate decisions of other issues in the case with
their prior and subsequent history only if relevant.
(;ivcp,'ior history only if signilicant to the point for which the
Explanatory Phrases and Weight of Authority
A partial list of explanatory phrases (as abbreviated) appears in table T8.
(a) Prior or subsequent history. Appcnd the prior or subsequent history of
a case to thc primary citation. Introduce and explain each prior or sttbscqttent
dccision with italicized words between each citation:
b
Cooperv. Dupnik, 9z4F.zd!52o,t53o & n.zo (9th Cir.ry9l,rev'd
en banc,963 F.zd tzzo (9th C'r. t99z).
If a subsequent disposition occurrcd in the same year as the primary citation,
omit the year from the primary citation's parenthetical.
If subsequent history itself has subscquent history, append the additional subscquent history with another cxplanatory phrase. For example , in the folklwing
case the Supreme Court reverscd thc Sccond Circuit, which had reversed the
Southern District of NewYork:
F
Herbert v. Lando, 73 F.R.D. f8z (S.D.N.Y.), rev'd, 568 F.zd gtr', (zd
Cjr. tgZl), rev'd, 44tU.S. tSZ 0g1il.
To show both
)
prior and subscquent history, give the prior history lirst:
Kubrickv. United States,58r F.zd togz{3dCn.ryl9),affq 435F.
Supp. 166 (E.D. Pa. ry77), rev'd, 444U.S.nt Q979).
Citations to prior or subsequent history should follow any parenthetical information given for the primary citation lrule 1.5@)).
10.7.1
(b) Significance of disposition. Give the reason for
a
sition does not carry the normal substantive signfficance
)
)
disposition if the dispo
:
vacated as moot,
appeal dismissed per stipulation,
(c) Overnrled, abrogated, and superseded cases. Also note cases that
have been overruled, abrogated, or superseded by statute or constitutional
amendment:
(i) Overnrled cases. Indicate cases where a later decision by the same court
(or a court with appellate jurisdiction over th€ original corrrt) explicitl! repudiates its earlier decision with the phrase "ove rruled by":
)
Nat'[ League of Citiesv. Usery,4z5 U.S.8ll Gg76),overruled by
Garcia v. San Antonio Metro. Transit Auth., 469 U.S. Sz8 (rS8S).
Also,when one case is ovemrled by multiple subsequent decisions by the same
court (i.e., separate decisions overmle separate parts of the holding), include
"ond" between the citations to each of the overruling cases:
)
Olmstead v. United States, 277 U.S. rB,8 (tgz8), overruled byKatz
v. United States, 389 U.S. 347 b95), and Berger v. New York, 388
U.S.
r+t(tg6).
(ii) Abrogated cases. Cases that are effectively Out not explicitly) overruled
or departed from by a later decision of the same court are indicated with the
phnse"abrogated by":
F Ahrensv. Clark,335
U.S. r88
(t948),abrogated byBraden v.3oth
Judiciat Circuit Court, 41o U.S. +8t+
(tgz).
(iii) Cases superseded by statute or constitutional amendrnent. When citing cases where a statute or amendment was enacted with the specific intent of
reversing the outcome of the initial case, the statute or amendment must always
be cited, and a later case recognizing xtch may be cited for support, as long as
the later case is decided by the same court (or a court with appellate jurisdiction over the original court) as the superseded case:
)
Wards Cove Packing Co. v. Atonio, 49o U.S. 542 (t989), superseded
bystatute,Civil Rights Actoftggt, Pub. L. No. to2-t65, ro5 Stat.
to74,as recognized in Raytheon Co. v. Hernandez,54oU.S.44
(zoo3).
)
Dred Scott v. Sandford, 6o U.S. (r9 How.) 3% GBs), superseded
by constitutional amendment, U.S. CoHsr. amend. XlV.
to this rule should be cited to the session laws (de
12.4) wherever possible, and, if appropriate, specific sections of the statute
Statutes cited according
superseding the case may be cited.
(d) Multiple dispositions. Multiple dispositions by the same court following
primary case citation should be connected with the word "cnd" in italics:
a
)
United States v. Baxter, 49zF.zd r5o (9th Cir.), cert. dismissed,4t4
U.S. 8or $9p), and cert. denied,4r6 U.S. 94o Q97d.
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Different Case Name on
Appeal
10.7.2
(a) Name changes in subsequent history. when the name of a case differs
in subsequent history the new name must bc given, introduced by the phrase
"sub nom.":
)
Great W. United Corp. v. Kidwett, 577 F.zd tz56 (5Ih Clr. tglS),
rev'd sub nom. Le(oy v.Great W. United Corp., 48 U.S. 1n O97q.
This rule applies even when the differencc in the name is slight, such as
change in only the proccdural phrases:
F
a
Paditta ex rel. Newman v. Rumsfeld, 243 F. Supp. zd +z (S.D.N.Y.),
affd in part, rev'd in part sub nom. Padilla v. Rumsfeld, 35zF3d
6gSQd Cir. zoo3), rev'd,542U.5.426 (zoo4).
(b) Name changes in prior history.
To indicate a different name in prior
history, use the following form:
)
Rederi v. lsbrandtsen Co.,34z U.S. 95o (rgSz) (per curiam), affg
by an equally divided court lsbrandtsen Co. v. United States, 96 F.
Supp. 883 (S.D.N.Y. rglr).
(c) Exceptions. Do not provide a different casc name (i) when the partics'
names are merely reversed;(ii) when the citation in which the differcnce occurs
is to a de nial of certiorari or rehearing; (iii) when, in the appeal of an administra-
tive action, the name of the private party remains the samc; or (iv) when the
change is simply stylistic (e .g.,"State" to "California"):
)
United Dairy Farmers Coop. Ass'n, r94 N.L.R.B. to94, enforced, 465
F
.zd r4ot (td Ck. tglz).
But: Perma Vinyt Corp., 164 N.L.R.B. 968 (tg6l), enforced sub nom.
U.S. Pipe & Foundry Co. v. NLRB, 398F.2d 544 (5th Cir. t968).
10.8
Special Citation Forms
Pending and Unreported Cases
10.8.1
(a) Cases available on electronic media. when a casc is unreportcd bttt
available on a widely used electronic database,
it may be citcd to that database.
Provide the case name, docket number, database identilier, court name, and full
datc of the most rccent major disposition of thc case. Cite to thc casc docket
number cxactly as it appears. If the database contains codes or numbcrs that
uniquely identiff the case (as do LEXIS,Westlaw, and Bloomberg Law), these
must be given. Screen or page numbers, if the database assigns thcm, should bc
preccdcd by an asterisk; paragraph numbers, if assigned, should be preceded by
a paragraph symbol:
)
Gibbs v. Frank, No. oz-3924,2oo4 U.S. App. LEXIS 21357, at*78-79
(ld Cir. OcI. L4,2oo4.
)
Chavez v. Metro. Dist. Comm'n, No. 3:ozCV458(MRK), zoo+ U.S.
Dist. LEXIS ttz66,at*5 n.3 (D. Conn. June uzoo4).
)
Int'I Snowmobile Mfrs. Ass'n v. Norton, No. oo-CV-zz9-B, zoo4 WL
2337372, at*3,*7 (D. Wyo. Oct. r4, zoo4).
)
Shelton v. City of Manhattan Beach, No. 81716o6, zoo4 WL
2t5374t, at *r (Cal. Ct. App. Sept. 28, zoo4).
P Ortho-McNeil Pharm.,
lnc. v. Teva Pharm. Indus., Ltd., No. zoo8-
t549, 2oo9 BL r8r48o, at *4 (Fed. Cir. Aug. 26, zoog).
If the name of the database is not clear from the database identifier, include it
parenthetically at the end of the citation:
)
Staats v. Brown, No. 6568r-9, zooo WA oo4zoo7,fiz5 (Wash. Jan.
6, zooo) (VersusLaw).
Citations to cases that have not been assigned unique database identifiers
should include all relevant information, such as the specific collection within
the database in which the case can be found:
)
Frankel v. Banco Nacional de Mex., S.A., No. 8z Civ.6547 (S.D.N.Y.
May 3r, rqSf) (LEXIS, Genfed Library, Dist. Fite).
)
Lindquist v. Hart, r CA-CV 98-o323 (Ariz. Ct. App. July 15,1999)
(Loislaw, Ariz. Case Law).
(b) Cases available in slip opinions. When a case
is unreported but available
in a separately printed slip opinion, give the docket number, the court, and the
full date of the most recent major disposition of the case:
)
Groucho Marx Prods. v. Playboy Enters., No. 77 Civ. rZSz (S.D.N.Y.
Dec. 3o, t977).
Note any renumbering of the docket:
)
United Statesv.Johnson, 4z5F.zd 630 (9th Cir.ry7o),cert.
granted, +ol U.S. gS6 (rgZr) (No. SZZ, tgTof erm; renumbered No.
7o-8, tgTtferm).
Always give the full docket number:
)
No.75-3r
Not: No. 3r
If the date given does not refer to the date of decision and the significance of the
within the parentheti-
date is not indicated elsewhere, indicate that significance
cal containing the date:
)
Ross v. Weissman, No.
9o-345 (D. Mass. fited Sept. r8, r99o).
To cite a particular page of a separately paginated slip opinion, use the form:
)
Ross v. Weissman, No. 9o-345, stip op. at 5 (D. Mass. Dec. 4, 1g9o).
If the case is not separately paginated, cite the page on which the case begins as
well as the page on which the particularly cited material appears:
)
Bedell v. Nessim, No. 9o-567, stip op. 3458,3465 (rst Cir. Jan. r9,
1991).
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In pending or unreported adversary proceedings in bankruptcy, supply both
the case number ofthe underlying nonadversary proceeding and the case number of the adversary proceeding:
F
Brown v. Sachs (/n re Brown), Ch. 7 Case No. B4-oor.7o-G, Adv. No.
B5-rr9o, stip op. at S (E.D. Mich. Jan. zrt,rg86).
(c) Other pending and unreported cases. Cases that are not available in slip
opinions or on electronic databases may be citcd to services (rule 19), periodicals (rule 16), or the Internet (rule 18.2.2).
(d) Depublished cases. A number of iurisdictions allow their decisions to bc
"depublished," usually when review is denied, and generally without a reported
ordcr. when there is no reported order depublishing the lower court decision,
the fact that the case was depublished should be indicatcd parenthetically:
F
Mitchelt v. Cal. Fair Plan Ass'n, 260 Cal. Rptr.
I
(Ct. App. tgSg)
(depu blished).
If the order depublishing a case is reported, the order should be indicated as
subsequent history pursuant to rule 10.7, introduced with the explanatory
phrrce"depublished by:
Fifth Circuit Split
10.8.2
Circuit was
On October l,
divided to create the new Fifth and Elevcnth Circuits. Cite cases decided during
the transitional period leading to this reorganization according to the fbllowing
rules: (i) cite decisions rendered in 1981 and labeled "5th Cir." by month; (ii)
givc unit information whenever available; md (iii) designate as "Former 5th"
any nonunit ludgment labeled as a Former Fifth judgment and rendcred after
1981, the United States Oourt of Appeals for the Fifth
Scptcmber 30,1981:
F
Birt v. Estetle,
F
Haitian Refugee Ctr. v. Smith, 676F.zd 1o23 Gth Cir. Unit B r98z).
66oF.zd 592 (5th Cir. Nov. rg8r).
b' Trailways, Inc. v. lCC, 676F.zd rorg $th Cir. UnitAAug. rg8r) (per
curiam).
)
McCormick v. United States, 68o F.zd 345 (Former 5th Cir. rg8z).
Briefs, Court Filings, and Transcripts
Citation for
a
document
Er',"f f"l.
10.8.3
petitioner's brief in a U.S. Supreme Court case
name
pincite
case
P"titil; Fili.,
(No. 05-1631), 2006 WL 3693418,
L-----r------r#
docket number
at
citatron
*!7.
commercial database
identifer (optional)
In general, all court lilings follow the same general form. The full nlme of the
document, as it appears on the ftling, must come lirst, abbreviatcd accorcling
to rule 10.2.1(c), followed by a pinpoint citation, if any The ftrll crse citation and the docket number should firlkrw the name of the documcnt lncl the
pinpoint ciation. If no decision has yet been rendered on the flling cited, cite
the case according to de fO.5(c), but the date in the parenthetical should
be the date on wbicb tbe filing was made, regardless of subsequent dispositions (e.g., oral argument). If a decision has been rendered, cite the case as you
otherwise would:
)
Complaint at 17, Kelly v. Wyman, 294 F. Supp. 8gf (S.D.N.Y. rg68)
(No. 68 Civ. lgz+).
Always include the docket number, whether parenthetically (when there ls
reported citation) or as the citation (when there is no reported citation):
)
a
Brief of Petitioner-Appellant at 48, United States v. Al-Marri, No.
c^33674 kth Cir. Nov. rz, zoo3).
The document number assigned by the court, such as that found on PACER for
federal cases, may also be included,but is not necessary unless it is essential to
finding the document:
|> Amended Complaint & Demand for Jury Triat, Viota v. Am. Brands,
Inc., No. 85-2496-G (D. Mass. Aug. r, rg8S), ECF No. 14.
With court-produced documents, including oral argument transcripts and transcripts of record, the same general rules apply:
)
Transcript of Oral Argument at 11, Ayers v. Belmontes,
e7
S. Ct.
Transcript of Record at 76-tT,Johnson v. Eisentrager,
ng
U.S.
O
l5l
(rgso) (No. :o6).
ufith amicus briefs, the same general rules apply, with the sole exception that
there are more than two signatories to the briel"et al." may be used:
)
if
Brief for Ringling Bros.-Barnum & Bailey Combined Shows, Inc. et
al. as Amici Curiae Supporting Respondents, Moseley v. V Secret
Catalogue, lnc.,537 U.S. 4r8 (zool) (No. or-ror5).
Further, though the above information is sufficient, a parallel citation to an elec-
tronic database or
)
a
website may be provided, if helpful:
Brief for Ringling Bros.-Barnum & Bailey Combined Shows, Inc.
et al. as Amici Curiae Supporting Respondents, Moseley v. V
Secret Catalogue, Inc., fi7 U.S.4t8 (zoq) (No. or-ror5), 2oo2 WL
t9875r8.
Such parallel citations rnust tnclude a
base where one is required
pinpoint citation to the electronic data-
for the primary document, and vice versa.
With audio recordings of court proceedings, including oral arguments and oral
dissents, the same general rules apply, except that the title may be a description
of the recording. Timestamps should be used for designating pinpoint citations.
If the recording is available online, append a URI pursuant to rule 18.7:
)
rrl
(rgZ:) (No.
Ora[ Argument at 11:38, Roe v. Wade, 4ro U.S.
- tg
g
o
18),
httl
www.
oyez.
o
rg
cases
t97
o
||
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z | ryz
ryz t7 o _t8
!
argument.
t
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q6g (zoo6) (No. oS-+gl).
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Dissent of .lustice Ginsburg
"t, Oral
aI
4125, Ledbetter v. Goodyear Tire
& Rubber Co.,tz7 S.CI.z16z (zooz) (No. o5-to74), http://www.
oyez.org/case
s
I
zooo-zoo9 I zoo6 I zoo6 o5-ro74/opinion.
For purposes of short fbrms (rule 10.9), a citation to a court document inclutling a case citation suflices as a citation to the case itself. Whcrc the case may bc
cited in short form pcr rule 10.9, it may be cited in short f<rrm in the citation to
the court document, but the docket numbcr must still be providcd:
ll. 1 Brief for the Petitioner, Demore v. Kim, 538 U.S. 5ro (zoo3) (No.
07-7497).
u" 2 Petition for Writ of Certiorari, Demore,
Sl8 U.S. 5ro (No. or-t49t).
citcd Lrsing,7 supra form, unlikc thc
which may not. L supra form for thc court document, howeveq does not
count for purpose s of the "live footnote" rulc. The document title will sufficc s<r
long as it does not create confusion. Hereinafter forms may also be used (rule
4.2(b)), if helpful:
Further, the court clocument itself may be
case,
+
3
Brief for the Petitioner , supra nole 7, at 12.
Court Administrative Orders
r0.8.4
(lite the oflicial reporter, if therein; givc the title of the order, if nny:
p
Order Discharging the Advisory Committee, 352 U.S. Bol (rqS6).
ro.g
Short Forms for Cases
a short form for I case may be uscd if
it clearly identilies a case that (l) is alrcady cited in the same frntnote or (2) is
cited (in either full or short form, including " id."; rn one of the preceding .firv
Jixrtnorcs. Otherwise, a full citation is requircd. Thus in thc following example,
thc use ofthe short form in footnotes 4 and 7-8 is correct:
(a) Footnotes. In law rcview footnotcs,
r
1
United States v. Montoya de Hernandez,
i,
2
Id. at
,
3
'
a
4n
U.S.53r (1985).
fi7-8.
See United States v. Martinez-Fuefte, 428 U.S. S+1, 5i7 $976);
Cat. Bankers Ass'n v. Shultz, 416 U.S. zr, 6z 6gld,); Zimmermann
v. Jenkins (/n re GGM, P.C.), 16S F3d toz6, tozT (5th Cir. rygil;
Cohen v. Drexel Burnham Lambert Grp. (/n re Drexel Burnham
Lambert Grp.), r38 B.R. 682, Zoz (Bankr. S.D.N.Y. t99z); In re
Draughon Training Inst., Inc., n9 B.R. 9zt,9z6 (Bankr. W.D. La.
ry90)'
See Martinez-Fuerte,4zB U.S. at 550; ln re Draughon Training,
u9
B.R. at 93o.
5 New
York v. Betton, 453 U.S. 454,457 Q981.
i,,
6
See id.
',
7
See Montoyo de
at 456.
Hernandez,4nU.S.at54o; Cohen, r38
B.R. at
707.
''' 8 5ee Martinez-Fuerte, 4zB
lJ.S. at 55o; Cal. Bankers,416 U.S. at 55;
ln re GGM, P.C., t65 F.3d at ro3o.
(i) Generally. Use of only one party's name (or a readily identifiable shorter version of one party's name) in a short form citation is permissible if the reference
is unambiguous.When only one party's name (or a short form thereof; is used,
it should be italicized. Acceptable short forms include:
)
)
)
)
)
Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer, 343 U.S. at 585.
Youngstown Sheet &Tube Co.,343 U.5.at 585.
Youngstown,343 U.S.at 585.
343 U.S. at 585.
/d. at 585.
Omit the case name as in the last two examples only if the reader will have no
doubt about the case to which the citation refers.
de
1O.2.1(k), a case may also be cited in short form by a different name
than that which appears in the reporter, so long as the full citation includes
Per
both versions:
)
Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer (Steel Seizure), 343 U.S.
579,585 G952).
becomes: Steel Seizure,343 U.S.at 585.
When citing an entire decision, and not a pinpoint therein, in short form, you
must include the shorter version of the case name, the volume number, repofter
designation, and fust page;but do /rot include a jurisdiction/date parenthetical:
)
Steel Seizure,
38
U.S. 579.
When using only one party's name in a short form citation, avoid using the name
of a geographical or governmental unit, a governmental official, or another common litigant. Thus:
)
NMCP v. Alabama ex
re
l. Patterson, 357 U.S. t+t+g, r+6 r+ (tgS8).
becomes: Potterson,357 U.S. at 454.
Not: NAACP,352 U.S. at464.
Notz
)
Alabama,357 U.S. at 464.
Reno v. Bossier Parish Sch. Bd., 5zo U.S.
47t,48o 999).
becomes: Bossier Parish Sch. Bd.,5zo U.S. at 48o.
Not: Reno, 5zo U.S. at 48o.
(ii) Commercial electronic databases. For cases that are available on an electronic database (rule IO.E.L),use a unique database identifier,ifone has been
assigned, in constructing a short form:
)
Ctark v. Homrighous, No. ClV.A.9o-r38o-f ,
Kan. Apr. rc,ry9t).
*3 (D.
ry9tWL 554o2, at
becomes: Clork, ry9t WL 554o2, at *3.
)
Albrechtv. Stanczek, No.87-C9535, r99t U.S. Dist. LEXIS 5o88, at
*r
(N.D. ltt. Apr.
B,t99t).
becomes:A/brecht, t99t U.S. Dist. LEXIS 5o88, at *r.
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Lindquist v. Hart, r CA-CV 98-q23, at*2 (Ariz. Ct. App. luty r.5,
1999) (Loistaw.com, Ariz. Case Law).
becomes: Lindquist, at *z (Loislaw.com, Ariz. Case Law).
(iii) Slip opinions. For dccisions availablc in only scparately printed slip opinions
(rule 10.8.1(b)),
F
use the following format:
Commonwealth v. Sam, No. 4359, stip op. at rz (Pa. Ct. Com. Pl.
Oct. zo, zoo5).
becomes: 5am, slip op. at 12.
When citing multiple slip opinions for thc same casc, cither give each dccision
a unique identilier in its initial citation or include a iurisdiction or datc parcnthetical in e:rch short form.'l'he following short forms are thus both acccptable
=
Doe v. Ctenchy (Clenchy lD, No. CV-o9-zor, stip op. at
:
4-6 (Me.
Super. Ct. Nov. zo, zorz).
becomes: Clenchy ll, stip op. at 5.
or:
+
Doe v. Clenchy, No. CV-og-zor, stip op. at
4-6 (Me. Super. Ct. Nov.
zo, zotz).
becomes: Clenchy, stip op. at 5 (Me. Super. Ct. Nov. zo, zorz).
(b) Two exceptions when using "id."'l'here are two exceptions when using
"id." ls a short form fbr cuse citations: (i) citation to thc same case , bttt to a different opinkrn thercin;ancl (ii) citation to thc samc case where thc c:tsc citation
includcs per.rllcl authoritics
(i) "Id." for different opinions. Whe n an "id. " refcrs to thc samc case, and to
the samc opinion citcd in the preceding citation, no parcnthetical is nccessarl'.
But whcn thc "id. " re ftrs t<> t diJferent opinion, that fnct must be inclicatcd parentheticxlly, cvcn if thc scconcl opinion cited is the majority opinion. I'htts, the
following cxamples are all corrcct:
=
1Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer (Steel Seizure),
:+:
U.S.
579 b952).
+, 2 ld. at 584.
:. 3 ld. a|635
;
0ackson, 1., concurring).
q
M. at 638.
r:"
5
ld. at 589 (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
=
6
ld. ar 5Bz (majority opinion).
for parallel citations. Iirr cascs in which a parallel citation is
required, thc "id. " form kxrks slightly clifli:rent (to avoid confusion). 'l'hrts:
(iD "Id."
+
Chalfin v. Specter, 426Pa.464,465,43 A.zd 562,563
becomes: ld. at
465,43
Not: /d. aI 465.
Not: /d. aI 465,563.
A.zd at 563.
j967).
ful in the same general discussion may be
referred to (in main text or footnote text) by one of the parties'names without
(c) Text. A case that has been cited in
further citation:
)
11
The issue presented in Bakke has not been futty resotved.
CONSTITUTIONS
Citation of Section 2 of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution:
abbreviation
for'amendment'
--\----
no. of amendment cited
-4
U.S. Corsr. - amend. " XlV,,, S, 2.
---\_
,
section svmbol and no. of section cited
abbreviation of constitution cited
Cite the United States federal and state constitutions by "U.S." or the abbreviated
name of the state (as indicated intableTl0) and the word'CoHsr."Abbr€viate the
zuMivisions of consitutions, zuch
)
)
)
)
)
as articles and clauses, according to
table T16:
U.S. CoNsr. art. l, 5 9, cI.2.
U.S.
Corsr. amend. XlV, 5 z.
U.S.
Corsr. pmbl.
U.S. CoHsr. art.
Lr. Corsr. art. X, pt. lV.
U.S. CoHsr. amend. XVlll (repealed 1933).
U.S. CoHsr. amend.
\Ylll, repealed byU.S. CoHsr. amend.
)(Xl.
When citing a provision that has been subsequently amended, either indicate
parenthetically the fact and year of amendment or cite the amending provision
intull:
)
U.S. CoHsr. art. l, S 3, ct.
r (amended r9r3).
F
U.S. Corusr. art. l, S 3, cl.
!, amended by U.S. Cottsr. amend. XVll.
Cite constitutions that have been totally superseded or are otherwise no longer
in effect by year of adoption; if the specific provision cited was adopted in a different year, give that year parenthetically:
F Anrrcles oF CoNFEDERAIToH
)
t
o
t
I
o
t
lll, 55 r-2.
Cite constitutional provisions currently in force without a date.If the cited prc
vision has been repealed, either indicate parenthetically the fact and year of
repeal or cite the repealing provision in full:
)
)
I
I
I
of r78r, art. lX, para. r.
Anr. Colsr. of 1868, art. lll,5
z(t8l).
Vrhen citing a constitution contained in an electronic database, indicate parenthetically the name of the publisher, editor, or compiler unless the constitution
is published, edited, compiled by, or under the supervision of, federal or stat€
offlcials. Also indicate the name of the database and information regarding the
currentness of the database as provided by the database itself:
I
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WnsH. Cousr. art. l, 5 z (West, Westlaw through Nov. zoo3
amendments).
Vhcn referring to multiple anendmcnts, scctions within the sanc lrticle' or
within the same section,it is pcrmissiblc to use a single citation claltse
Otherwisc, the second citation shottlcl rtsc id. rathcr than repeat the namc of
thc col-lstitution:
clauscs
U.S. Consr. amends. V, XlV.
U.S. CoNsr. art. l, $ B; id. art. ll, 5 z.
l)o not usc
a short
citation form (other than "id.") for constittltions
Text
Citation
tJ.S.(lonstitution U.S.Corusr.art.
lVSr
Strtc
constitution
S.C.
Cousr. art.
l,5rz
For firrcign constitutions, see
rule 20.4
Article lV, Section r
or the Fut[ Faith and Credit Clause
articte l, section 12
or the double jeopardy clause
12
STATUITS
Citation of an entire statute , the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and LiabilityAct, as codifed inthe United States Code:
official name of act
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act,
s 42ft U.S.C. F
SS r 96Ot_967 5* (2012).
\-J
+
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u.).L.
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aDDrevtalton
title number of code
cited
date of code edition cited
sec tion symbols and so.lof sections containing statute
number
t/
section symbol and specific section cited
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28' U.S.C.'5,, 7297.. (2072).
I\
abbreviation of code
l2.l
cited
Basic Citation
date of code edition cited
Foffis
Official and unoff,cial codes arrange statutes currently in force by subiect matter. official and privately published session laws report statutes in chronological order of enactment. Cite secondary sources-such as looseleaf services, the
CIS microform service, periodicals, newspapers, or electronic databases-only
when the above listed sources are not available.
Rule 12.2 explains when to
use each of these basic citation forms. The next
four rules discuss the citation forms for official and unoffrcial codes (rule 12.3),
session laws (rule 1.2.4), electronic media and online sources (rule 12.5), and
other secondary sources (rule 12.6). Rule 12.7 explains when the prior or
subsequent history of a statute may or must be cited, and
12.6 discusses
de
the use of explanatory parenthetical phrases with respect to statute citations.
Rule 12.9 outlines special citation forms for the Internal Revenue code, ordinances, rules of evidence and procedure, model codes, principles, restatements
of the law, standards, sentencing guidelines, uniform acts, and the ABA Code of
Professional Responsibility. Rule l2.l0 provides short forms for statutes.
Table TL lists citation forms for the codes and session laws of the federal and
state govefirments, and other United States iurisdictions.
Cited to
code
curent official
4zU.S.C. $ 1983 (zorz).
National Environmental Policy Act of t969
$ toz, 4z U.S.C. S 4332 (zotz).
Consumer Credit Code,
s 5-203 (1995).
Cited to current unofflcial
code
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Citation of an individual provision of the Ilnited States Code;
title
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Oru. Srnr. tit.
144,
U.S.C.A. g 14z6 (West zoro).
Parking Authority Law, 53 Pn. Srer. AHH., 5
342 (West zoro).
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Cited to oflicial session
National Environmentat Policy Act of 1969,
laws
Pub. L. No. 97-790, $ roz,83 Stat. 852, 853
(r9Zo) (prior Io ry75 amendment).
(litecl to privatel,v
Uniform CommerciaI Code -Generat
Provisions, 2oo4 Minn. Sess. Law Serv., ch.
t6z,arl. r,5 16 (West) (to be codified at
Mrruru. Srnr. Arur. $ 336.r-3or).
publishctl session laws
Uniting and Strengthening America by
Providing Appropriate Tools Required to
Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act, Pub. L.
No. ro7-56, zoor U.S.C.C.A.N. (rr5 SIaI.) ztz
(zoor).
(litccl to commcrcial
elcctronic database
ro U.S.C.A. 5 ror73 (West, Westtaw through
Pub. L. No. rrr-4 (exctuding Pub. L. No. ur3)).
(litcd m sccondary source SociaI Security Amendments of 1983, Pub.
No. 98-zr, 5r U.S.L.W.
zq
L.
Q9B).
Choosing the Proper Citation Form
12.2
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(a) Statutes currently in force. If possiblc, citc statlltes currently in firrcc
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to the current oflicial code or its supplement. Otherwise, cite a cttrrent unof:
licial codc or its supplement, the official session laws, privately publishctl sessi<rn hws (e.g., tlnited States Code Ctngressional ancl Aclministratiue Neus),
a commercial clectronic database , a kxrseleaf sclice, an Internet sotlrce , or tl
newspaper-in that order of preference :
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General Rule
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National Environmentat PolicyAct of 1969
(zotz).
12.2.1
\
toz, 4zU.S.C. 5 +llz
a new nain edition of the official Ilrxited States Code is pnblishccl cvcry six y'ears, and an annual cumulative supplement is published fbr
crrch intcrvening year An exact copy <tf the (lnited States Code in PDF' firrmat
Ir<rr exanrple,
can bc found at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectiontlScotle.tction?'
collectionCode=tlSCOl)E;these vcrsions may be cited as if they were the print
cotle. (irdilied f'ederal statutes cnactcrl snbscquent to the latcst cdition or supplcnrent of the Code should be cited to an nnoflicial code (c.g.,Vcst's []nited
Statcs (ktde Annotated) until publishcd in the United Stdtes Code.
(b) Statutes no longer in force. (lite statutes no longer in force to thc current
oflicial or unofficial code if thev still appcar the rein. Otherwise, cite the last edition of thc official or unoflicial code in which thc statute appeared, thc session
laws, or a secondary source-in that ordcr of preference. In any ctsc, thc fact of
invalidrtion, rcpeal, or amendmcnt must be noted parentheticall-Y tccording to
rules 12.7.1, l2.7.2,ancl 12.7.3:
im
Lawof June 4:'895,ch.4322,54,189i Fla. Laws 3,20-27
(repealed t959).
) Clayton Act, ch. 323, 5 7,18 Stat. 73o,731-32 (r94) (current
version at r5 U.S.C. 5 r8 (zorz)).
(c) Private laws. Cite private laws to the session laws if therein; otherwise, cite
a secondary source:
)
Priv. L. No. 9+-ZS, 9o Stat. 2985
j976).
12.2.2 Exceptions
(a) Scattered statutes. Cite the session laws if a statute appears in so many
scattered sections or titles that no useful citation to the code is possible. Indicate parenthetically the general location of the codified sections. Thus:
)
Tax Reduction Act of1975, Pub. L. No. 94-12,89 Stat. z6 (codified
as amended in scattered sections of z5 U.S.C.).
But: Robinson-Patman Act, t5 U.S.C. $$ r3-r3b, zta (zotz).
If the current version of a statute is split between the main body and the supplement of a code, it should be cited according to
1.1(c):
de
|> 4z U.S.C.5
rlgZb
(1982 & Supp. I 1983).
If the current version of a statute can be determined only by reference to multiple sources (not just a code and its supplement), it should be cited according
to rule 12.7.3:
)
3r U.S.C. 9llz+Q988),amended by ActofDec. 7,t989,3t
U.S.C.S. S yzq (Law. Co-op. Supp. rggo).
(b) Historical fact. The historical fact of
enactment, amendment, or repeal
should be cited to the session laws. A parenthetical reference to the current
version (see rules 12.7.3 and 12.8) may be added:
)
Two years later, Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of t965,
Pub. L. No. 89-uo, 79 Stat. +qS (codified as amended at 4z U.S.C.
SS
)
r97r, 1973to t973bb-t (zoo5)).
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2oo2 increased criminal penalties
for mail and wire fraud. See Pub. L. No. to7-2o4,5 gol(a)-(b),
zooz U.S.C.C.A.N. (u6 Stat.) 245,8o5 (to be codified at r8 U.S.C.
5S rlzrr,
rl+l).
(c) Materially different language. Ifthe language in rhe current code (including its supplement) differs materially from the language in the session laws and
the relevant title has not been enacted into positive law, cite the session laws. A
parenthetical reference to the code version, introduced by the phrase "codified
with some differences in language at" may be given. If differences in the language merely reflect subsequent amendments, however, cite the current code.
Cite the official code wherever possible. A current list of federal code titles that
have been enacted into positive law appears in the preface to the latest edition
or supplement of the United States Code.Simrlarly,state codes should indicate
whether the titles contained therein have been enacted into positive law
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Current Official and Unofficial
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N.C. Gen.
Srnr. $ r-r8r (zoo3).
Additional Information
t2.3.1
Additional inibrmirtion nay be requircd ls follows:
(a) Name and original section number. Give the statute's name tnd original section numbcr (as it appears in the appropriate session laws) onlf if the
statute is commonly citcd that way or if the information woultl otherwise aid in
identification. omit "The" as the lirst wotcl of a statute's namc. Inclucle the ycar
of the statute if it is in the ofhcial title . An Oflicial name , a popular name , or both
may be usetl:
:
Labor Management Relations (Taft-Harttey) Act 5 lot(a), z9 U.S.C.
S 185(a) (zorz).
Family Medicat Leave Act (FMLA) of
rggl,
z9 U.S.C. 5 z6ot (zotz).
(b) Title, chapter, or volume. If a code is divided into scpar:rtcly sectioned
or parapgaphcd titlcs, chapters, or volumcs, the title , chaptcr, or volttme number
must be indicatcd.Vhen citing the fedcrarl code, give the titlc nttmber bcfore
the name of thc codc:
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12.3
All citations to codcs should contain thc abbrcviated name of the codc found
in table Tl printed in large and small capitals; the section, paragraph, or article
number(s) of thc statute; and the -vcar of the code (determincd lccording to
rule 12.3.2):
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Codes
Cite the [lnited .States Code (U.S.C.), the official fedcral code, whenever
possible. Unofhcial fcderal codes includc thc United States (irle Annotated
(U.S.C.A.) tntlthc (lnited States Code Serrlcz (U.S.C.S.).Ofhcial and unoflicial
cocles for each state (where they exist) are listed in table T1.3.
4z U.S.C. 5 1983 (zorz).
rz U.S.C.S. $ rTro (LexisNexis 1993 & Supp. zoo4).
The form firr citation to statc codcs varics: table Tl.3 indicatcs whethcr lnd
in what manner k) identify the title , chapteq or volume numbcr of a state code
.
For example:
',
,
DEL. CoDE Ar.rr'r. tit.
NEv. Rev.
t3, $ r3ot (1999).
Srnr. $ zB.5ot (t998).
If
each title , chapteq or volume of a coclc contains differcntly numbered sections or paragr.lphs, then the volume , chnptcr, or title numbcr necd not be givcn
scparately:
'
Gn. Cooe Ar.rr'r. $ zr-z-16 (zoo3).
a separately scctioned or paragntphccl portion of
identilicd by subject matter rath€r than by a titlc, volumc, or chapter
(c) Subiect-matter codes. If
a code is
number, givc that subiect-matter namc as part of the cocle
r';. CAL. VEH.
:
Coor $ rr5o6 (West zooo).
TEx. Fnu. Cooe Aruru. 5 5.or (Vernon 2oo2 & Supp.
zoo4 zoo5).
Table T1.3 indicates which state codes require this treatment.
(d) Publisher, editor, or compiler.
Unless a code is published, edited, com-
piled by, or under the supervision of federal or state officials, give the name of
the publisher, editor, or compiler in the parenthetical phrase containing the year
of the code:
)
)
)
4z U.S.C.A. 5 3ooa-7 (West 2oo1).
r8 U.S.C.S. $ r3o7 (LexisNexistgg4 & Supp. zoo4).
Crl. VEx. Coor g u5o9 (West zooo).
Not: Cnu VEH. CoDE g u5o9 (Cal. zooo).
Table T1 indicates which federal and state codes require this information.
(e) Supplements. Cite material appearing in supplemenrs (including pocket
rule 3.1(c):
parts) according to
|> r8 U.S.C.5 Sro(b) (Supp. I rg8l).
)
rz
U.S.C. $ 1455 (1982 & Supp. I rg8g).
(f) Compilations of uncodified laws. If a code contains uncodified laws
printed in a sepafate compilation, cite in this manner:
)
N.Y. Uucor.rsol. LAW 5 ZSr (McKinney zooo).
(g) Appendices. If a statute appears in an appendix to a code, and the statute
is numbered and otherwise printed as if it were part of that code,cite according
to rule 3.4:
)
5o U.S.C. app. $ 5 (zorz).
If the statute is not printed as if it were part of a code, cite the session laws and
add an explanatory phrase (see rule f.6(a)(ii)) indicating thar the statute is
reprinted in the code's appendix:
)
Act of Aug. 3t, tg7o, ch.84z, t97o Mass. Acts 732, reprinted in
Mnss. Geru. Lnws Arrrr,r. ch. 4o app. at r8o (West 1985).
(h) Notes. If a statute appears in the notes section of a U.S. Code provision, cite
according to de 3.4.Information helpful in identiffing a specific note should
be added parenthetically:
)
U.S.C. $ r8zt note (zorz) (Continuation of Health Plan Coverage
in Cases of Faited Financial Institutions).
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12.3.2 Year of Code
When citing a bound volume of the current ofhcial or unofficial code, provide
parenthetically the year that appears on the spine of the volume, the year that
appears on the title page, or the latest copyright year-in that order of preference. If the date on the spine or title page spans more than one year, give all
years covered. If the volume is a replacement of an earlier edition, use the year
of the replacement volume, not the year of the original:
)
Nee. REv.
Srer. g 33-u4 (1998).
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Whcn citing a provision that appears in a supplement or pocket part, givc thc
1'car that appeafs on thc title pagc of thc supplement or pocket part. If therc is
none, give the latest copyright year of thc supplcment or pocket part. In either
case, if the date spans more than one ycar, give lll yelrs inclucled:
M lND. CoDE
Ar.rN.
$ z9-r-5-3.1 (West Supp. zoo3).
cite material that rppears in both thc nain volume lnd a supplcntcnt or
pockct part,give both ycars according to rule 3.1(c):
T<r
F Vr. Srer.
Aruru.
tit. 12,5892 (zooz & Supp. zoo4).
Ifa
code is ptrblished in looseleaffbrm,givc the year thtt appcars on thc page
on which the provision is printed or thc ycar that appcars on the first pagc of
the subdivision in which thc provision appclrs-in that orclcr of prefcrcnccrather than the years indicated abovc:
*t, ALASKA
Srnr. $ 28.o1.o1o (zooz).
Other dates (such as the date on which an rct becomes effcctive) may also bc
given parenthetically according to rule 12.8:
i.
Srnr. tit. to, $ 73o3-t.7 (1998 & Supp. zoo5) (effective July r,
OKLA.
2c02\.
Session Laws
12.4
(a) Name. When citing se ssion laws, alwal's give the namc of the statute and tlre
public law or chapter number. Onlit "The" as the lirst word of a statute 's namc.
An ofhcial name , a popular name, or both may be usecl:
,,u,
r
White-Slave Traffic (Mann) Act, ch. 395, j6 Stat. Bz5 (r9ro) (codified as amended at 18 U.S.C. 55 242r-2424 Qop)).
Foreign Assistance Act of 196r, Pub. L. No.
87-r95,75 Stat. 424.
If thc statute has no ofhcial or popular namc, identify thc ilct with a fr-rll clate
Ilsc thc form "Act of [date of enactment]," o! if that inlirrmation is r.rnavaihblc,
"Act effective [date of effectiveness]." Other idenrif.ving infbrmarion may be
.
added parentheticallv:
r,. Act of
Aug. 2t,r914,ch.85,r974 N.J. Laws 385 (providing unem-
ptoyment compensation for jurors).
Not: An Act concerning unemployment compensation for persons
serving on jury duty, and amending R.S. 43:zr-4, ch. 85, t974 N.l.
Laws 385.
(b) Volume. Give thc volume numbcr (oq if none, thc
1'ear) of the session
laws, followed by the abbreviated name of the session laws in ordinary roman
typc. The oflicial fcclerll session laws,.l|atutes dt ldrge,rre abbrcviatcd "Stat."
Abbrcviations for oflicial and privatcly published state session laws appcar in
table T1.3.When citing state se ssion laws, begin the abbrcviate d titlc of the scssion laws with the name of the state abbreviated according to table T1O, cvcn
if thc state name is not part of the official titlc; omit words in the official title not
ncccssary for identification:
W,
r97B Ark. Acts.
)
t935-t936ll1. Laws 4th Spec. Sess.
b
t878 Minn. Laws.
I
Not: 1878 Laws of Minn.
(c) Pages and sections. When citing an entire act,give the page of the session
laws on which the act begins:
F
National Environmentat Policy Act of t959, Pub. L. No. 9t't9o,83
Stat.85z GgZo).
When citing only part of an act, give the section(s) or subsection(s) cited, the
page on which the act begins, and the page(s) on which the relevant section(s)
or subsection(s) appear(s):
)
National Environmental Poticy Act of t969, Pub. L. No. 9L-t9o,
5
)
roz,83 Stat.85z, 8Sl-St+(tglo).
Act of June !5, t995, No. 3oz, 5
344,344 (West).
l5oz(u), 995 ta.
Sess. Law Serv.
(d) Session laws arnending prior acts. Session laws amending prior acts are
often divided into sections within sections;that is,the session law is divided into
primary sections, and these sections, in turn, contain sections of the amended
act. Cite the bill's sections by abbreviation (sec.) and the amended act's sections
by symbol ($):
)
Labor-Management Relations Act, ch. 12o, sec. ror, 5 8(a)(l), 5r
Stat. r35, tqvqt Gg+).
(e) Year or date. Give parenthetically the year in which the statute was passed
by the legislature. If no date of enactment is identifled, give the date on which
the statute became effective:
)
T
McCarran-Ferguson Act, ch. 20, 59 Stat.
6gr+) (codified as
amended at r5 U.S.C. $$ rou-ror5 (zoo6)).
Omit the year of the statute's passage if the same year is part of the name of the
statute or of the session laws:
)
Securities Actof t933, ch. 38, 48 Stat.74 (codified as amended at
15 U.S.C. 55 Z Z a-tt aa (zoo6)).
)
Act ofApr. 25, t978, No. 5r5, $ 3, 1978 Ala. Acts 569, S6g (codified
as amended at Au. Coor 5 93-tz (tg8)).
(O Codification information. If a statute has been or will ultimately be codified and the code location is known, give that information parenthetically:
> ActofJuty t2,1985,ch.223,5 I,
r98S Cat. Legis. Serv.z39,z4t
(West) (to be codified at Cnr. lHs. Cooe $ u589.5).
12., Electronic Media and Online Sources
(a) Commercial electronic databases. Ifhen citing a code contained in an
electronic database, give parenthetically the name of the database and information regarding the currency of the databas€ as provided by the database itself
(rather than the year of the code according to rule 12.3.2). In accordance with
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rule 12.3.1(d), also givc the name of the publisher, cditor, or compiler unless
the code is published, edited, compiled by, or under thc supervision ol federal
or state oflicials:
;,- 18 U.S.C.S. 5 rqS6 (LEXIS through Pub. L. No. 113-1o8).
r"' 18 U.S.C.A. $ r956 (Westtawthrough Pub. L. No. u3-93 (exctuding
Pub. L. No. r13-7il).
r,, CnL. Bus. & Pnor. Cooe S 167o (Deering, LEXIS through r995
Sess.).
!
CAL. Bus.
r.
WASH. REV. CoDE $
& PRoF. Coor $ 167o (West, Westlaw through 1995
portion of 995-t996 Legis. Sess.).
r3.64.o6o (VersusLaw through 1999
tegistation).
:.' Wrs. Srnr. 5 rg.zr: (LEXIS through 1994 tegistation).
::
Wls. SrAr. 5 rg.+: (Loislaw through r997-t998 Legis. Sess.).
r" Wls. SrAr. Aruru. $ 19.43 (West, Westlaw through lL995 Actz6).
(b) Internet and online sources. Whcn
states and municipalities publish
their oflicial statutes or ordinanccs only online, the online sourcc may be
dircctly cited.
::
BETLTNGHAM,
WnsH., Mur.r. CooE 5 16.6o.o6o (zorl), http://www.
cob.org/web/ bmcode.nsf/CityCode?OpenView.
Authentic,oflicial,or exrct copies ofa source avaihblc online can be cited
they werc thc original print sourcc (rule 18.2. 1(a)).
:... NEV. Rev.
as
if
Srar. $ z-r247 @oo).
tlnofficial onlinc sources rre cited in accordance with rule 18.2.2.
'r'
Rrv. Srnr. $ 4z-23.5 (zooq), http://www.capitot.hawaii.
gov/ h rscu rrent/Voto3_Chorzr-ozooD/ H RS ot4z I HRS-or4z-
HAW.
ooz3_ooo5.htm.
12.6
Other Secondary Sources
When citing a statute to any source other than a code , session laws, or an electronic database, give the name of the act and public hw or chaptcr number as if
citing to session laws (rule 12.4).Whcn re fcrring to a particular provision, givc
the section or subsection number aftcr the public law or chaptcr nttmbcr If possible, cite federal statutes (particularly those enacted after 1974) to the United
States Code Congressiuul and Administra.tiue News, indicating the volume
number (irnd page numbcr, if known) of the .ltatutes at Ldrge whcrc tlrc strtute
will appcar (note that the page numbers in these two sources often diflbr):
:" Act of July t9,t985, Pub. L. No. 99-68,1985 U.S.c.C.A.N. (qq Stat.)
t66.
a
Act of Aug. 13,t954,ch.73r, 1954 U.S.C.C.A.N. (68 Stat.
7q) 8T.
When citing an entirc act, give the pagc on which the act begins.When citing
part of an act, give both the page on which the act begins and the pages on
which the cited material appears. If the statute has been or will ultimately be
codified and the code location is known, give that information parenthetically:
)
Act of Juty 9,1985, Pub. L. No.99-61, 5 uo, 1985 U.S.C.C.A.N. (99
Stat.) u3, u5 (to be codified at 3r U.S.C. $ 5uz).
de
Cite other secondary sources according to
19 (services) or 16 (periodicals) in that order of preference. Give the date or year appropriate for the cited
source. If the name of a statute cited to a service includes the year, and the
service was published in that year, the year of the service may be omitted. If the
future location of the act in either a code or session laws is known, give that
information parenthetically according to rule 1.2.E:
)
Presidential and Executive Office Accountability Act of 1996, Pub. L.
No. ro4-33r, [r Lab. Rel.] Lab. L. Rep. (CCH) fl 56o (tgg).
If a recent statute has not yet b€en published in any source, give only the name
of the act; the public law or chapter number; the section or subsection number
if refering to only part of the statute;the ftrll date of enactment or, if none, the
date of approval by the executive or effective date; and the future location, if
known, in a code or session laws:
)
Alabama Corporate lncome Tax Reform Act, No. 8S-ltS (May 8,
1985).
12.7 Invalidation,
Repeal, Amendrnent, and Prior History
12.7.r lnvalidation
When citing a statute invalidated or declared unconstitutional by
this fact by citing the case in full:
F
a case,
indicate
Religious Freedom Restoration Act (RFRA) of ry93, Pub. L. No.
to3-t4t, 1993 U.S.C.C.A.N. (ro7 Stat.) 1488, involidated byCity of
Boerne v. Flores, 5zr U.S. 5o7 O99).
12.7.2 Repeal
When citing a statute no longer in force, indicate the fact and date of repeal
parenthetically, or include a full citation to the repealing statute when particulady relevant:
h Law oflune
r, 1895, ch.43zz,5
(repeated rg5g).
)
zl, rSgl
Fla. Laws
ch.3,zo-zt
Act ofJan. 24, t923, ch. 42, 4z Stat. n74, tzo8, repeoled by Budget
and Accounting Procedures Act of r95o, ch.946,5 lor(gZ), 64 Stat.
832,844.
12.7.3 Amendment
When citing a version of a statute that has since been amended, indicate the fact
and date of amendment parenthetically, cite the amending starure in full, or cite
the current amended version parenthetically:
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Supptemental Appropriation Act of r955, Pub. L. No. 663, $ 13rr, 68
Stat. Boo, 83o (r954) (amended r959).
.w.
33 U.S.C. $ t4z (t982), amended by tZ U.S.C. S tztz(fl (Supp.
Fa
I
196t.
F Clayton Act, ch. 34,
S 7,38 Stat. 730,731-32 (r9r4) (current
version at r5 U.S.C. S rB (zooo)).
Prior
History
12.7.4
\ffhen citing the current r.crsion of a statutc, prior historl' mav be given parenthctically according to rule 12.8 if relevrnt:
*
33 U.S.C. 5
(rqBz)).
tzlz(fl
(Supp. I r9B3) (amending 33 U.5.C. $ rz3z
,.' z8 U.S.C. $ t65z (zorz) (originalty enacted as Act of June 25, t948,
ch. 646, $ t652, 6z Stat. 86S, gqq).
'.
28 U.S.C. 5 t65z (zotz) (corresponds to the Judiciary Act of t789,
ch. zo,5 34, r Stat. 73,92).
:'
Clayton Act 5 z, r5 U.S.C. $ 18 (zorz) (original version atch.3z3,
$ 7, 38 Stat. 73o,731-32 (tSr/+)).
Explanatory Parenthetical
Phrases
Explanltorl' parenthcticirl phrases arc used to show thc cocle
12.8
locati<>n
of stat-
utes cited to scssion laws (rules 12.2.2 mcl 12.4) or sccondary sources (rule
12.6); t<> iclentifu usefirl datcs, such us the effectivc date of a strtute (rules
12.3.2 and 12.4(e));md to indicate thc invalidation (rule 12.7.1), re pe irl (rule
12.7 .2),trmendment (rule 12.7.3),or prior historl' Gule 12.7.4) of a statute
In addition, explanator.v parenthetical phrases mq' bc used to givc an1' othcr
relevant information about a statute:
.
:,
5 U.S.C. 5 SSf (b) (zorz) (requiring agencies to pubtish notice of
proposed rulemaking inthe Federal Register).
See
gcncrrlll' rule 1.5 (prrer-rthetical infrrrmation).
Special Citation Forms
t2.g
Internal Revenue Code
12.9.r
In citations to the Intcrnal Revenue (irclc,"z6 U.S.C." may be replacecl with
"1.R.C."'l'hr.rs:
z6 U.S.C. S 6r (zorz).
becomes: l.R.C. 5 6r (zorz).
In law rcvicw citations, thc year of the current United States Code or its supplcment (rs appropriatc) shoulcl always he given (rule 12.3.2). Citations to the
Internal Rcvenue Coclc us it appcars in an unofficial codc should idcnti$'the
unoflici:rl code bv placing the publisher's name in the parcnthetical phrlrsc containing thc vear of the vcrsion cited. 'l'hus, citations to l1.S.C.A. shoultl lppcar:
>
l.R.C. 5 r3Zr (West Supp.
r99r).
>
l.R.C. S rz+Z (West rg88).
See also rule 12.10 regarding short form citation of statutes. For special citation
forms for federal tax materials in court documents and legal memoranda, see
Bluepages 812.1.4.
12.9.2 Ordinances
Cite ordinances analogously to statut€s. Always give the name of the politicd
subdivision (such as a city or county) and the abbreviated state name at the
beginning of the citation. Do not abbreviate the name of the political subdivi
sion unless it is abbreviated in table T10. If the ordinance is codifed, give the
name of the code (abbreviated according to table Tl), the section or other
subdivision, and the year of the code (determined according to rule 12.3.2).
Print the political subdivision, state, and code names in large and small capitals:
F
MorurcomeRy, ALA., Coor 5
)
)
Ponruno, On., PoLrce
F
S.F.,
CoDE
lA-tt (rgZt).
art.30 (1933).
Fonr WonrH, Tex., Rev. OnorHnnces ch. 34, art. l, $ r5 (r95o).
Cat., PolrcE Cooe art. 16, div. r, 5 roZ5(a) (zooo).
If the ordinance is uncodified, give its number (or, if none, its name)
and,
in
a
parenthetical, the exact date of adoption. Print the political suMivision, state,
and ordinance name in ordinary roman type:
)
)
San Jose, Ca[.,
Ordinancet6,o43(an.q,ry7z).
Halifax County, Va., Ordinance to Regulate the Solicitation of
Membership in 0rganizations (Aug. 6,tgS6).
12.9.3 Rules of Evidence and Procedure
Citation of a Federal Rule of Civil Procedure:
number of rule cited
\
Feo. R. Crv. P.
'11.
abbreviation of set of rules citeo
Cite current or uniform rules of evidence or procedure in large and small capi
tals, v/ithout any date. Use abbreviations such as the following or abbreviations
suggested by the rules themselves:
)
)
)
Feo. R. Crv. P.12(b)(5).
FEo. R. Cnrm.
P.4z(a).
FEo. R. App. P. z.
) 1sr Crn. R. 5(a).
) Der. Cr. C.P.R.8(0.
F Fro. R. EvrD.
410.
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UNIF' R' Evto' 4o4(b)'
t'
Sup. Cr. R. 17.
When citing rules no krnger in force, give the most rccent oflicial source in
which they'appear and indicate the drte of repeal parenthetically:
l*
Sup. Cr. R. B, 3o6 U.S. 6go
bglil
ftepeated 1954).
Model Codes, Principles, Restatements, Standards,
Sentencing Guidelines, and Uniform Acts
12.9.4
Cite model codes, principles, restatements, standards, sentencing guiclelines,
uniform acts, and similar materials in large and small capitals, by section, rule ,
or othcr relevant subdivision. For principles and restatcments, give the year in
which the restatement was published. For model codes, standards, and scntcncing guidelines, give the year in which the code, principles, standards, or guidelines were adopted, unless the version citcd indicates that it incorpomtes sttbsequent amendments. In that case, give the year of the last amcndment, eve n when
citing a portion not amcnded at that time. Usually the cover or titlc pagc of
the source will indicate the date of thc most recent amendments incorpomted.
When naming the codc, principles, rcstatement, standarcls, or guidelines, use
the abbreviations listcd in tatrle T6 (abbreviation of casc names) or suggcsted
by the source itself. Indicate the author's name parenthetically. Abbreviate the
author's namc according to rule 15.1(c) (institutional authors):
,:' Pntrucrpres oF
THE LAw
or
FntvttLv
DtssoLuttott: AHnlvsts nruo
ReconmeronroNs 5 2.07 (Am. Lnw lNsr. 2002).
't'",,
RESTATEMENT (THrno) oF UNFATR
Cotupertrton
S
3 (Awt. Lnw
lrsr.
1.995).
I
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:"
'When
U.S. SENIEr.rcrNG
Comm'ru 2004).
GUTDELTNES MANUAL
5 2D1.1(c) (U.S. SrnreNctNc
citing to a unifurm act itsel{ and not as thc hw of a particular statc, cite
Indicate the author's name parenthetically. Abbreviatc the
author's namc accorcling to rule 1!.1(c) (institutional authors):
it
as a scparate code.
ir
[,
U.C.C.
UNtF.
S2-314 (Atu. Law lNsr. & UNtF. LAw CoMM'N 1977).
Tnusr Coor 5 105 (Ururr. Lnw
Connrvr'ru
2000).
wlren citing a uniform act to the (lnirttrm laws Anruttated (U.L.A.), provide
the titlc of the act using abbreviations in table T6, the section number, thc year
of amendment or repe:rl (if an1'), the appropriate volumc of the U.L.A., the page
number on which the rclcvant section appears, and the year of publication:
rr
UNtF.
ADoproN Acr 5 ro,9 U.L.A. +S (1988).
Give the -vear in which the uniform act was last rmended, even if the section
ref'errcd to was not amendcd at that time .If a uniform act or section hls been
withclrawn, superseded, or amended, indicate that fact parenthetictlly tccording to rule 12.7:
r,' UNIF. Pnoentr Cooe 5 2-706 (amended zoro), B pt. r U.L.A. z9r
(zor3).
When citing to the law of a particular state, cite
F Oru. Srnr. tit. t2A,S 23t4
as a separate
code:
(zoo+).
If
a code, principle, restatement, standards, or guidelines is a tentative or pro
posed draft, indicate that fact parenthetically as it appears on the publication
and give the draft number (if available) and the year of the draft:
)
Mooel
Lnruo DEv. Cooe 5
2-402(2)
(Arvr.
Lnw lrusr., Proposed Offi-
cial Draft 1975).
)
Resrare nlterur (Secoruo) oF ToRrs 5 8+ZA (Arvr. Lew lHsr., Tentative
Draft No. !7,1974).
If a restatement contains a subtitle, retain the subtitle in the citation:
|> ResreremeNT (THtRD) oF PRop.: Wrr-ls nHo DoHnrrve TnnHsrens
S 2.1 (Am. Lnw trusr. 1999).
Cite GenerallyAcceptedAuditing
Principles as follows:
)
Standards and GenerallyAcceptedAccounting
CoorrrcerroN oF AccouNTtNG STANDARDs eto PnocrouREs, Statement on Auditing Standards No. r, g r5o (Am. Inst. of Certified Pub.
Accountants r97z).
F RrsrnncH AND DEV. Annnleeueurs, Statement of Fin. Accounting
Standards No. 58, 5
lz
(Fin. Accounting Standards Bd. r98z).
Comments, notes, and other addenda should be cited according to
rule 3.4:
>
MoDEL Perual Cooe $ 24.6 note on status of section (Am. Lnw
| rusr., Proposed Offi ciat Draft
ry62).
)
Resrnrrmelr (SecoHo) or CoHrucr or Lnws 5 3o5 cmt. b, iltus. r
(Atu. Lnw lHsr. 1977).
)
Sreronnos
)
Urrronm Pnuoetr Invrsron Acr 5 2 cnnr. (Unrr. Lnw Colrrvr'H
j97:'.
FoR TRAFFIc
Jusrrce $ 4.2 cmt. at g (Arvr. Bnn Ass'rrr
7994\.
)
ResrnreueHr (Srcoruo) or Cournacrs ch. 16, topic a, intro. note
(Aru. Lnw lrrrsr. r98r).
Cite application notes, background commentary, introductory commentary and
appendices to sentencing guidelines as follows:
)
U.S. SErurEncrrue GuroelrruEs MANUAL 5 f Dr.S cmt. n.r (U.S.
Senreucr rrtc Comu'u zoo4).
)
)
)
U.S. SeHrrHcrHc GuroeLrHes MnHuel $ zDr.z cmt. background
(U.S. SEruruNcrtrc Corvrrvr'r.r zoo4).
U.S. SeHrrrcrrue GuroeuHES MANUAL ch. 3, pt. D, introductory cmt.
(U.S. SenreHcrHc Comm'ru zoo4).
U.S. SeHrrHcrHe GuroeutEs MnruunL app. C (U.S.
Cotvttvt'H
zoo4).
Se
HrrHcrHc
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When citing a \.ersion of a code, restatement, or set of stltndards that lus bcen
withclrawn or amendecl, indicate that lnct according to rule 12.7.2 <tr 12.7.3'.
{.' MoDEL Bus. CoRp. Acr 5 z(0 Gq6q) (AM. Bnn Ass'r.r, amended
19n).
ABA Code of Professional Responsibility
Opinions on Ethics
and
12.9.5
Cite thc okl llodel Ctrle rf ProJ'essknnl Responsibilit.l' ut-td thc new ,llrrlel
Rules tl'Professionul Crneltrct rccording to rule 12.9.4:
it'
MoDEL Cooe
or Pnor'l RrspottsrBrLrrY
Canon z (Arrn. Bnn Ass'r.t
rgBo).
r.. MoorL RurEs or
sion Draft 1983).
Pnor'l Cor.roucr t.3.72 (Au. Ban Ass'ru, Discus-
Citc ethical consiclcratior.rs and disciplinirry rules as follows:
ii, MoDEL Coor or PRor'l RrspottsrBrLrry EC736
(Arvr. Bnn
Ass'tt
rgBo).
a, MoorL Cooe or Pnor'r RespottstBtLtrY DR B-ror (Aru. Bnn Ass'tt
r98o).
(litc notcs or other commentary accorditrg to rule 3.4:
,i
MoDEL
Rulrs or Pnor'r Coroucr r. 1.15 cmt. (Attt. Bnn Ass'n t9B3).
Cite firrnral lncl infirrmtl opinions of thc (i)mmittec on lithics and Profl'ssilrnll
Responsibility (or the oldcr Committces on Profcssiotlal Ilthics (l95fJ-1971)
and on Prof'essional lithics atrd Grie vanccs ( I 919- l 95ti)) b,v isstring bodl', <4rinion numbet and vcltr. Abbrcviate rccorclittg to table T6: "American llltrAssocia-
tion" nrll be rbbrcvilted"ABA for thesc ckrcuments:
iu ABA Comm'n on Prof'l Ethics & Grievances, Formal Op. 35 G931).
tu ABA Comm'n on Ethics & Prof'l Responsibility, Informal Op.
r4r4
(tgz8).
'l'hc
sub
l,n"
jcct of thc opinion rnal be givcn pxrcntheticxll].
ABA Comm'n on Ethics & Prof'l Responsibility, Formal Op. ::S
(1974) (discussing the use of credit cards for the payment of legal
services and expenses).
Short Forms for Statutes
(a)Text. In law review text and f(x)tltotc text,tlsc thc firrms listed in thc"'l'cxt"
column ()f thc tablc bekrr.v to rcf'er to statutcs. Proviclc a citation (irl firll or
short firrm rccorcliug to rule 12.10(b)) in an lccor.upant'ing fbotttote u'hen
lppropriatc.
(b) Citations. In hw t'cvicn'citalions,
ttsc an1'of tltc lorrrs listed itl thc"Short
Citation'column ofthe table bekrrv that clelrlv iclcntifics a statutc il thc statutc
has ahcaclv been citccl (in either firll or short firrm. ittcltrcling irl. ) in either the
12.lo
san e footnote or in a manner such that it can be readily found tn one of tbe
preceding fiue footltotes,^g^in including "id." Otherwise, use the "Full Citation"
form.
Full Citation
Iext
Named
Administrative
Statutes
5
Short Citation
the
section 1 of
Procedure Act S r,
Administrative
U.S.C. S 55t (zotz) Procedure Act
section
or
r
U.S.Code +z U.S.C.5 rqSl
Provisions (zotz)
Srare
code
DEL. CoDE ANN.
tit.
4z U.S.C. $
1983
or $ 1983
title 28,
section
ofthe
Provisions 28,$ tTot (t999)
rTor
(numbered
Delaware Code or
section 17o1
codes)
State
Code
Provisions
(named
section
$ 48zzz (West
zoo8)
of the California
Education Code or
codes)
Session
48222
Cnl. Eouc. Cooe
Administrative
qz U.S.C.5
or $ 1983
1
rg8l
tit. 28, 5 7707ol
5 rTor
Eouc. $ 48zzz
section 48222
Laws National
Environmental
Poticy Act of t969,
Pub. L. No. 97-Lgo,
$ roz,83 Stat. 852,
section 1o2 of
Environmental
Policy Act or
5 roz or National
Environmental
Policy Act $ roz
or 5 1o2, 83 Stat.
section roz
at853-54
the National
8sl-st+ (tgzo)
(c) "Section." Note that except when refeming to Unlted States Code ptovisions, the word'section" should be spelled out in law review text and footnote
text, although the symbol "g" may be used in citations.
See
de
6.2(c).
(d) Electronic sources. For materials available on an electronic database, use
the name of the database in constructing a short form:
)
Wrs. Srar. AHn. 5 rg.zr: (West, Westlaw through zooT Actz4z).
becomes: 5
rg.ql
(Westlaw).
For materials available only online, use the normal short form appropriate for
the source. A URL need not be repeated after a frrll citation.
)
Urnx Cooe g 4-30-5 (2o1o),
http://te.utah.gov/xcode/Title+/
Chapte13o/4-3o-S5.html?v=C4-3o-S5_lSooorouSoooror.
becomes: 5 4-lo-S.
I
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$ r or 5 U.S.C.
$ 55r or
Procedure Act S
;
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13
LEGISIATIVE MATERIALS
Ilesides statutes (rule 12), the legislative process generates bills and rcsolutions
(rule 13.2);committee hcarings (rule 13.3);reports, documents, and commit-
tee prints (rule 13.4); flor;r debates lrule 13.5); and, sometimcs, separately
bound legislative histories (rule 13.6). \fhen citing any United Statcs legislative material except debatcs, include the title (if relevant), the abbrcviated name
of the house , the numbcr of thc Congrcss, the numbcr assigned to the material,
and the ycar of publication. State legislativc materials are cited similarly cxcept
when indicated otherwisc. Abbreviations for commonly used words in legislative materials are listed in table T9.
In addition, include parenthctically the scssion number firr House and Senate documents published beforc the (r0th Congress (l90D,House Repofis pttblished bcfore
the 47th Congress (1831), and Senate Reports published before the 40th (,ongrcss
(186D. For House and Scnate materials published after these dates, the session
number can be inferred from the year of publication: First sessions always fall in
odd-numbered years,while sccond sessions always fall in even-numbcred yems. On
rarc occasions,Congress holds
a
third scssion. rJfhcn citing materials pr<lduced dur-
ing a third session, provide this information parenthetically
13.r
Basic Citation Forms
Privacy Protection Act of 1998, H.R. 3224, ro5th
!'ederal bill
(unenactcd)
Cong. $ z(a) (tgg8).
H.R.
Federal resolution
u9, 54th Cong. (rst
H.R.J. Res.
Sess. r896J.
79,to6th Cong. (rgqg).
(unenacted)
slte bill
H,R. r3a,
State resolution
S.J.
r79th Les- rst Spec. Se11. (ea. tl21l.
Res.836, rr8th Leg., 3d Spec. Sess. (Me.
199cD.
Committee hcaring
Background and History of lmpeachment: Heoring
Before the Subcomm. on the Constitution of the
H. Comm. on the Judiciary, to5th Cong. zz-23
(1998) (statement of Rep. Hutchinson, Member, H.
Comm. on the ludiciary).
Federal rcport
H.R. Rrp. No. ror-524, at ro (r99o), reprinted in
r99o U.S.C.C.A.N. 1448, t45r.
Federal document
H.R. Doc. No. roz-399,
Cofimittcc print
Srnrr or H. Coprrvr. oN rHE Juotctnnv, 93o Cottc.,
at3G99z).
COITISTITUTIOI.IAL GROUN DS FOR PRESI DENTIAL
lmpencumrut 38 (Comm. Printryl4).
Congressional
Rec. Hr8r7 (daily ed. Apr. e, ry99)
(statement of ReP. Pease).
debate r45 Cot'tc.
Source reprinted in
S. Corvrrvr. oN LABoR AND PuB. WELTIRE, Leeon-
separately bound
MnruaGervreHr ReponrrHc AND DtscLosuRE
legislative history
1959, 5. Rep. No. 86-787, at 4 (7959), repri nted
in 7959 U.S.C.C.A.N. 2378,2320, ond in 1 NLRB,
Lee tsLnnvr HrsroRy or rHe Lneon-MnlacetritErur
Rrponrrruc lHo DrscLosunr Acr or L959,at397,
400 (1959).
13,2 Bills
Acr oF
and Resolutions
(a) Unenacted federal bills and resolutions. When ciring federal bills,
include the name of the bill (if relevant), the abbreviated name of the house,
the number of the bill, the number of the Congress, the section (if any), and the
year of publication:
)
)
)
)
S. 516, ro5th Cong. S z
(tgg).
H.R.4zz, ro5th Cong. (tggg).
Clear Skies Act, S. 485, ro8th Cong. (zoo3).
Protection from Personal Intrusion Act, H.R. z448,ro5th Cong.5
z(a)
bgg).
A parenthetical indicating the date and stage of the bill may be provided in
order to distinguish among multiple versions of the same bill in the same Congress. Subcommittee and committee names may be abbreviated according to
tables T6, T9, and TlO:
)
)
S.fgf,1o1st
Cong. g z (as passed by Senate, May 3r, 1989).
S.Sgl, rorst
Cong. g z (as reported by S. Comm. on the Judiciary,
May
n,ry89).
Cite resolutions analogously, using the following abbreviations:
House Resolution
Senate Resolution
House Concurrent Resolution
Senate Concurrent Resolution
HouseJoint Resolution
Senate Joint Resolution
Senate Executive Resolution
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
H.R. Res.
S. Res.
H.R. Con. Res.
5. Con. Res.
H.R.J. Res.
S.J. Res.
S. Exec. Res.
Thus:
>
H.R.J. Res.
rz4, ro5th Cong. (1998).
A parallel citation to a published committee hearing, a legislative report, or the
Congressional Record may alsobe provided if it would assist the reader in locating the bill (rules 13.3, 13 .4,and 13.5).
(b) Enacted federal bills and resolutions. Enacted bills and joint resolutions
are statutes (rule 12). They are cited as statutes except when used to document
legislative history, in which case they are cited as unenacted bills.
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Enacted simple resolutions, which bind only onc house of (irngress. ancl
cnacted concurrent resolutions, which bind either onc or both houses of Congress, should be cited as unenacted bills. Llnless otherwise clear in context, thc
fact of enactment should be noted parcnthetically:
h
S. Res. lry,t,lo6th Cong. (rggg) (enacted).
*
H.R. Con. Res. 196,
ro6th Cong. (1999) (enacted).
b' H.R. Res.8n, ro8th Cong. (zoo4) (enacted).
A parallel citation to thc Congressionul Record (for simplc resolntions) or to the
Statutes ot Large (for concurrent resolutions) may be provided if it would assist
the reader in krcating thc cnacted resolution. Because on[1' enacted resolutions
are printed in the Statutes at Large ("Stat."), a parenthctical notin{a cnactment
is not nccessary when a parallel citation to Stat. is given:
*
*
S. Res. zr8, 83d Cong., roo Cor.rc. Rec. 2972
S. Con.
(1950 (enacted).
Res.97,94th Cong.,9o Stat.3oz4Q,976).
(c) State bills and resolutions.
Whcn citing state bills ancl resolutions,
include thc name of the lcgislative bodl', x56..ut^,ed according to tables T6,
T9, and T10, the numbcr of the bill or resolution, thc number of thc lcgislative
body (or, if not numbcrcd, the l'ear of the body), ancl the number or clcsignation
of the lcgislative scssion. Parcnthetically indicate thc name of the state, abbreviirted rccording to table TlO, and the ycar of enactment (for ln enacted bill or
resolntion) or the )rcar of publication (for an unenacted bill or resolution).
b- H.D.636, 1999 Leg.,4r3th Sess. (Md. tqqq).
F
H.R. 189,
r45th Gen. Assemb., Reg. Sess. (Ga. rggg).
A parallcl citation to state scssion laws may be providcd if it woulcl assist thc
reader in krcating an enrctcd resolution.
F
H.R.J. Res.
r, 4oth Leg., zd Spec. Sess., t974Utah Laws 7.
Hearings
(a) Federal committee hearings. Whcn citing fcderal committee hearings,
alwirys include the entirc subject mattcr title as it appcars on thc cove! the
bill mrn"rbcr (if any), thc subcommittcc name (if any), the committec name, the
numbe r of the ()ongrcss, thc page number of the particular material be ing citcd
(if anv), and the year of publication. Subcommittcc ancl committee names may
be abbre viatcd according to tables T6, T9, and T10. (lite as folkrws:
?
Protection from Personal lntrusion Act ond Privacy Protection Act
of t998: Hearing on H.R. z44B and H.R. jzz4 Before the H. Comm.
on the )udiciory, ro5th Cong. S6-Sl GggB) (statement of Richard
Masur, President, Screen Actors Guitd).
>
Copyright Protection for Semiconductor Chips: Hearing on H.R.
rc28 Before the Subcomm. on Courts, Civil Liberties & the Admin.
of Justice of the H. Comm. on the ludiciary, g8th Cong. q OgSl)
(statement of Jon A. Baumgarten, Copyright Counsel, Association
of American Pubtishers).
r3.3
Titles of the individuals providing statements may be abbreviated according to
table T11:
)
)
Tribal Energy Self-Sufficiency Act and the Native American Energy
Development and Self-Determination Act: Heoring on S. 424 and
S. 5zz Before the S. Comm. on lndian Affairs, roSth Cong. r (zoo3)
(statement of Sen. Ben Nighthorse Campbell, Chairman, S. Comm.
on Indian Affairs).
Transforming the Federal Government to Protect America from
Terrorism: Hearing Before the H. Select Comm. on Homeland Sec.,
roTth Cong. z3-25 (zooz) (statement of joh n Ashcroft, Att'y Gen.
ofthe United States).
(b) State committee hearings. When citing state committee hearings,follow
the same form, but also include the number of the legislative session:
)
13.4
Tax Credit for Cost of Providing Commuter Benefits to Employees:
Hearing on H.D.636 Before the H. Comm. on Ways & Means,t999
Leg., 4r3th Sess. 5-8 (Md. 1999) (statement of De[. Paul Carlson,
Member, H. Comm. on Ways & Means).
Reports, Documents, and Committee Prints
(a) Numbered federal reports and documents. Citations to numbered federal
r€ports should include the name of the house, the number of the Congress connected by a hyphen to the number of the r€port, the part and/or page number on
which material being cited appears, and the year of publication. Use large and small
caps for the house, abbreviation ofreport, and abbreviation ofnumber:
)
)
H.R. Rep. No.99-253, pt. 1, at 54 (1985).
S. REp. No.84-2,
at7
G955).
Cite conference reports using the following format:
)
)
H.R. Rep. No.98-ro37, at 3 (1984) (Conf. Rep.).
S. Rep. No. 95-6or, at S
Ggt)
(Conf. Rep.).
Cite numbered federal documents analogously,using the following abbreviations:
Senate Document
)
)
S. Doc. No.
House Miscellaneous Document
F
H.R. Mrsc. Doc. No.
House Document
H.R. Doc. No.
The following citation formats are often used to designate intemational agreements to which the United States is a parry (rule 21.4.5(.3D:
Senat€ Executive Document
SenateTreaty Document
)
)
S. Exrc. Doc. No.
S.
Tnrary Doc. No.
When possible (and particulady for documenrs published after 1974), gSve a
parallel citation to the permanent edition of [Inited, States Code Congressional
andAdministratiue News (de 12.6):
)
S. Rep.
No.gS-lgt,at 4G978),as reprinted in 1978 U.S.C.C.A.N.
926o,9263.
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(b) Titles and authors. Title s of numbe red reports or documcnts may bc indiif the title is given, the author should also bc named (scc rule 15.1(c)
rcgarding institutional authors):
catecl;
Cenlroru Korecr, THE RoAD
8z-563, aI 29-30 1195t.
,'
t
O
a
U.S. lmmrcnAroN CoMM'N, ltvttrntcnnrtoru
6t-758, at 613 (3d Sess. rgrr).
LrctsLnttott, S. Doc. No.
author's namc:
:, Srarr or
S. Coutvt. oN THE JuDtctAny,
Blsr
Coruc., Rep. oN ANTI-
rRUSr LAW r7 (Comm. Print r95o).
If the documcnt or committee print is primarily the work of specilic persons,
that fact mly bc noted parenthctically
(d) Federal legislative agency reports.
Legislative reports, like thosc of
the Oongrcssional Research Service ((lRS) and the (iovcrnment Accountabilitl'
Office (GAO), must be citecl as works of institutional authors (rule 15.1(c));
include the report number (as given by the agency) as part ofthe title:
",
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INDUSTRIAL PEnce, H.R. Doc. No.
(c) Unnumbered federal documents and committee prints. Committee
prints and unnumberecl documents must be citcd as works of institutiontl
iltlthors (rule 15.1(c)). Note that the number of the Congrcss is part of the
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Lours FrsHen, Couc. ReseancH SERV., R131340, MtLtranv Tnteuruals: THE Qutntru PnEcrortr 3o (zooz).
Gov'r AccouNrABrLrrv Orr., GAO-08-751, Fooo nro Dnuc
AoutrutslnnrroN: AppRovAL nruo OvenstcHT oF THE Dnuc Mtrrpnex
U.S.
zz QooS).
(e) Federal legislative iournals. Citc congressionll journals according to the
folkrwing moclel:
'
S. .lounrunl,
z4th Cong., zd Sess. tz3-24 QB36).
(f)
State materials. Citations to statc legislative reports, documents, and similar matcrials must inchldc the name of the lcgislativc bocly abbrcvilted accorcling to tables T6, T9, and T10, the numbcr of the lcgislative body connccted by
a h-vphen to the numbcr of the report or document, the number of the lel4islative session, the part or page number on which the mate rial be ing cited appears,
:rnd the ye irr of publication. tlnle ss it is clcar from thc title or author information
appearing in thc citation, provide the name of the state abbrcviltted accorclintr4
to table Tl0 prrenthetically:
S.
t78-247,1st Sess., aI 4 Qa. ry9Q.
Titles of numbcred reports or documcnts may be indicated; if the title is givcn,
the author should also be named (sec
rule f5.1(c)
regarding institutional
authors):
:.
CoMMoNWEALTH oF Pn.
Dep'r or Acntc., Alluunl Repont or rHe
S. t7B-247,1st Sess., at q Oggu,).
Srnrr Fooo PuncHnsr Pnocnnm,
13.5
Debates
Cite congressional debates after 1873 to the Congressional Record; use the
daily edition only for matter not yet appearing in the pemanent edition. The
primary ways in which the Congressional Record dtffers from the daily edition
are continuous pagination, altered text, and the dropping of the prefixes H, S,
and E before page numbers:
)
)
rz3
Corue . Rec.
q147
r3r
Corue . Rec.
Sn,455-56 (daily ed. Sept. tl,tgSS) (statement of
Q977).
Sen. Watlop).
Cite congressional debates through 1873 according to the following models:
1837-1873 )
1824-1837 )
1789-1824 )
Coruc.
Gloer,36th Cong.,1st
Sess.
t6lz(t86o).
ro REc. Dst..347z (t834).
33AruHnsoFCoNG. 6zt+G8zz).
If the debate occurred in a different year from its publication tn the Congressional Record,cite the year in which the debate was published.
For volume one of the Annak give the name(s) of the editor(s) and year of
publication in parentheses:
) rArnnls
13,6
oF CoNG. +86
(tl8g)
(loseph Gales ed., 1834).
Separately Bound Legislative Histories
The legislative histories of several important acts are published separately (e.g.,
theAdminisrrative ProcedureAcr,titlesvll and IX of the Civil RightsAct of 1964,
the Clean AirAct Amendments of I 970, the Equal Employment Opportunity Act,
the Internal Revenue Acts, the National Labor Relations Act, the Occupational
of 1970, and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934).lf it
would aid the reader in locating the source, a parallel citation may be given
to such a separate publication. Cite these publications according to rule 15
(books, reports, and other nonperiodic materials):
Safety and Health Act
)
at6 Ggq), reprinted in r NLRB, LEclsurrve
HlsroRy or rHe Lneon-Mnlecemenr REurroHs Act, t947, at 292,
H.R. Rrp. No. 8o-245,
zgt
)
Gg+8).
lnternal Revenue Amendments, Pub. L. No. 8l-81q,5 rS(a), 76 Stat.
96o, to4r-42 (rg6z) (codified at t.R.C. 5 rzqS(a) (zooo)), reprinted
lrurentel REVENUE TnxnrroH, 90rH Corue .,
LecrsLnrrvE Hrsrony or rHr lrurrnrunl Reveruue Cooe or 1954.at
rn JorHr Corvrrvr. or,t
4n-74Ge5).
13.7 Electronic Media and Online Sources
(a) Commercial electronic databases. When citing to materials contained
in a commercial electronic database, give the name of the database and any
identiffing codes or numbers that uniquely identifr the material. If the name of
the database is not clear from the database identifier, include it parenthetically
at the end of the citation:
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Federal
bill
H.R. 378r, ro4th Cong. 5 z(b) (rqq6), 1996 CONG US HR
(unenactcd) 378r(Westlaw).
Feder.rl report H.R. Rep. No.9z-98 Q97), reprinted in ry7r
U.S.C.C.A.N.
ro77,197r WL 11312.
Congrcssional 142 CoNG. Rrc. Hrr,46o (daity ed. Sept. z7, 1996)
(statement of Rep. Tanner), 142 Cong Rec H rr45z, at
debate
*Htt,46o (LEXl5).
(b) Internet and online sources. Wherc
a
print vcrsion is accessible, citation
shoulcl be made to thc print source . \il/hcre , howevcr, the
print sourcc is diflicult
or impossible to obtain or thc governing authority h:rs dcsignrtccl thc electronic
sourcc as the ofhcial version, citation should be mlde to the clcctronic source
with consideration of the gcncrirl principles in rule 18 regarcling authentication and preferrcd document formats. The tlRL should be appended to the end
18.2.2(d):
of thc citation in accordancc with
de
Prohibiting Writing a Text Message While Driving, H.R. l+,
2oo9 Sess. (N.H. zoog), http://www.gencourt.state.nh.us/legislation / zoogl H Boo34. html.
S" An Act
Short Forms for Legislative
Materials
13.8
(a) Main text. In law review tcxt, use the forms listecl in thc "'l'cxt" column of
the table below to rcfer to legislative materials. Provide a citatiotr in ftlll or short
form according to rule 13.8(c) in an accompanf ing firotnote whcn appnrpriate.
(b) Footnote text.
Similarly, whcn ref'erring to legislativc matcrials iu law
review footnote tcxt. use the fbrms listed in the "'ltxt" column of thc table
below Provide a citation in full or short firrm according to rule 13.8(c) in an
accompanying citirtion clausc or scntcncc when lppropriatc.
(c) Citations, In law review citations,usc an_v of the forms listecl in the"Short
Citltion"column of the tablc below that clearl.v identifies the lcgislative natcrial
if thc lcgislati!'c material is already citccl (in either firll or short firrm, including
thc samefootnote or in t manner such that it can be readily firund
the preceding Jiue.footnotes. Otherwise , usc the "Full Oitation" firrm.
4.2(a) rcgarding the use of "supra;'
,d) in cither
in one
See
rf
rule
Federal Bill
(uncnactcd)
State
Text
H.R. 3o55, 94th
Cong. (1976)
House Bill
Resollrtion S. Res. zo, 37th
Fedcral Re1;ort
Short Citation
Full Citation
3o55
Leg., zd Sess.
(Okta. tgzg)
Oklahoma
Senate
Resolution zo
H.R. Rrp. No. 9z-
House Report
98 (t9tr)
Fcdcnl
H.R. Doc.
Documcnt
zo\
H.R. 3o55
Okia. S. Res. zo
98
H.R. REp. No.
92-98
No.94-
(r97)
House
H.R. Doc. No.
Document zo8
94-2oB
(d) Electronic sources. For materials lvailable in :tn electronic databasc,
tunique databasc iclcntifier, if onc has
be
cn lssigne
cl.
in constructing
a
use a
short firrm:
)
H.R.
378r, ro4th Cong. $ r (1996), 1996 Cong US HR lZ8t
(Westlaw).
becomes: H.R. 378r $
y 996
Cong US HR 378r (Westlaw).
For materials available only online, use the normal short form appropriate for
the source. A URI need not be repeated after a firll citation.
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ADMINISTRATIVE AIID EXECUTIVE MATERIATS
r4
Administrative agencies and other executive institutions produce a trcmcnoflicial materials. This rulc providcs guidancc for thc most common forms of existing materials. Consult table T1.2 for information regarding
specific fcdcral organizations that use unique citation formats. As with courts,
practitioners should comply with an agcncy's conventions fcrr citation whcn
authoring submissions to that agency, if that convcntion varies fiom the rulc
clous variety of
cstablished hercin. Cite state materials by analogy to thc federal cxamples givcn
in this rule
.
14.r
Basic Citation Foffns
Federal regulation cited to the
Code of Federal Requlatktns
FTC
Credit Practices Rule, 16 C.F.R. 5 +++.t
lotq)'
Federal regulation cited to the
lmportation of Fruits and Vegetables, 6o
[:ederal Register
Fed. Reg. 50,379 (Sept. 29, 1995) (to be
pt. l99l
codifi ed a!
Administrative adiudication
Reichhold Chems., lnc.,9t
1c.F.R.
F.f .C.
246
(tgt8).
Charles P. Ortmeyer, z3 Indus. Arb. z7z
(r98o) (Stern, Arb.).
Arbitration
Rules, Regulations, and Other
Citation of a particular provision of a
Publications
regulation
in the
14.2
Code of Federal
Regulations:
C.F.R.title
-l
7
no.
C.F.R.
t
section symbol and specific section cited
S 379.76 (1999).
abbreviation of set of regulations
cited
date of code edition cited
(a) Final rules and regulations. Whenever possible, cite fedcral rules
and
rcgulations to the Code of Fbderal Regulations (C.F.R.) by title, scction or part,
lnd year:
h" 47 C.F.R. 5
Zl.6og (tggg).
Eaclr title ot the Code of Fbderal Regulations is rcvised at least once a year; cite
the most reccnt edition. Give the name of the rule or regulation only if the rulc
or regulation is commonly cited that way or the infbrmation would otherwise
aid in idcntilication. The abbreviated name of thc issuing body may also bc
included if helpful:
*
FCC
Broadcast Radio Serices, 47 C.F.R. 513.6o9 @ou+).
ts
FTC
Credit Practices Rule, 16 C.F.R. S 444t (zo4).
F
Credit Practices Rule, 16 C.F.R. S 444.t(zotQ.
Certain titles of the Code of Federal Regulations focused on specific subiects
have unique citations. For citation toTitle 26, Treasury Regulations,see table
1.2. Titlc 48,the FederalAcquisition Regulations,may be cited as"FARl'
M FAR 52.249-z(e) (zor+).
The Federal Register (Fed. Reg.) publishes mles and regulations before they
are entered into the Code of Federal Regulottions.Citations to rules or regulations in the Fecleral Regl'sfer should give any commonly used name of the rule
or regulation, the volume and page on which the rule or regnlation (or any
preccding discussion thereof) begins, and the date of the rule or regulation.
Whcn citing a part of t rule or regulation, give both the page on which the rule
or regulation (or preceding discussion) begins and the page(s) on which thc
cited matcrial appears.When the Federal Register indicates where the rule or
regulation will appear in the Code of Federal Regulations,give that information
parenthetically:
ts lmportation of Fruits and Vegetables, 6o Fed. Reg. 5o,379, 5o,38r
(Sept. 29, rqgr) (to be codified at Z C.F.R. pt. 3oo).
h. Federal Acquisition Regulations for NationaI Aeronautics and
Space Administration, 55 Fed. Reg. 52,782 (Dec. zr, r99o) (to be
codified at 48 C.F.R. pt. r).
Prohibitively long titles may be shortened
as
long as the result is unambiguous:
F OrderApproving
NYSE and NASDAQ Proposed Rute Changes
Retating to Equity Compensation Ptans
Not: Self-Regulatory 0rganizations; New York Stock Exchange,
Inc. and NationalAssociation of Securities Dealers, Inc.; Order
Approving NYSE and NASDAQ Proposed Rule Changes and
NASDAQ Amendment No. 1 and Notice of Filing and Order Granting
Acceterated Approval to NYSE Amendments No. :. and z and
NASDAQ Amendments No. z and 3 Thereto Relating to Equity
Compensation Plans
(b) Proposed
des, other notices, and comments.
Administrative notices
that are not transferred to th.. Code of Federal Regulations should be cited t<r
rhe Federal Regl'sfer When citing notices of proposed rules and regulations,follow thc form for linal rules, but add the status to the date parenthetical:
le Control of Air Pollution from New Motor Vehicles and New Motor
Vehicte Engines,56 Fed. Reg.9154 (proposed Mar.7,r99r) (to be
codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 86).
Cite notices pertaining to administrative adjudications according to de 14.3.
Cite othcr administrative noticcs by volume, page, and date. The citation may
begin with a description or a commonly uscd name:
ts Meeting Notice, 65 Fed. Reg. 3415 \an. zt, zooo).
inthe Code of Federal Regulations
19),the originalformof issuance,or
For rules and announccments not appearing
ortheFederalRegister,citeaservice (de
an agency or governmental wcbsite (de 18.2). Whcn citing comments, provide the name of thc commcnter and thc proposed nrle to which the comment
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pertains. Prohibitively krng titlcs may bc shortcned as long as the rcsult is unambignons. Citing to an agcnc,v or governmental website is appropriatc:
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Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America. Comment
Letter on Proposed Rule to Require Registration of Certain
Hedge Fund Advisors Under the Investment Advisors Act of r94o
(5e pt. r5, zoo 4), http: I lwww.sec.gov/rules/ propose d I sl fo q I
d h irsch man no9r5o4. pdf.
(c) Regular reports. Citc in the same manner as periodicals (rule 16). Always
give thc abbreviatccl agcncy name first and thcn usc thc abbreviations fbr periodical namcs given in table T13:
p.
% (1%q.
r-"-
4 NLRB Aru.
w
t'942
'*-
t955-t956 MtcH. Arr'v Grru. Btrrurutal
Arr'y
Re
Geru. Arun. Rep.
zz.
REP.
pt.
\
aI6zr.
(d) Other publications. Cite as a work by an institutional
author (rule
15.1(c)), inclucling a serial numbeq if any (rule 15.7), unless issucd as a congrcssional rkrcument (rule 13.4):
? Orrrce oF MGMr. & Buocrr,
ExEc. Orrrce oFTHE PRESTDENT, OMB
No.99-04. Revrseo SrnrrstrcnL Dertrtrtolts oF METRopoLrrAN Anrns (MAs) AND GUTDANcE oN UsEs or MA Derrrurrrons
Bur-r-.
(rssq.
Gov'r AccouNraerLrry OFFrcE, GAO-O1-1163T, Cotvtturnctnr
Avrnrou: A Fnnmewonr ron CorusroenrNG FEDERAL Fntnructel
:=' U.S.
AssrsrnNce (1998).
+
U.S. Eeunr Ennp. OpponruNrry CoMM'N, EEOCMlA, A Tecnurcnl
AssrsrANcE Mnruel oN THE EMployue rur PnovrsroNS (TrrLE 1) oF
THE AMENDMENTS
tr
wrrH Drsngrrrrres Act lt99z).
U.S. FooD & Dnuc Ass'N, Pnemnnxer AssessuENT oF PEDTATRTc
MEorcnl Devtces: Gutoaxce ron lNoustnv AND FooD nruo Dnuc
Aomrrrsrnnrroru Srnrr (zor4).
When citing an opinion lcttcr, cite as a work by an institutional author in ordinaqr romrn type, including the datc of its publication ancl, if available , its subject
matter:
=
U.S. Equal Emp. Opportunity Comm'n, Opinion Letter on Appticability of Age Discrimination in Employment Act to Appointed State
Court ludges (Apr. Z, t98fl, os reprinted in EEOC Compl. Man.
(BNA) at N:roor n.z.
.a U.5. Dep't of Labor, Wage & Hour Div., Opinion Letter (Sept. r4,
1992).
Administrative Adiudications and Arbitrations
Citations to xdministrutivc cases ancl :trbitrations shoultl conform kr rule 10,
exccpt rs folkrws:
14.3
14.3.1 Names
(a) Administrative adiudications. Cite by the reported name of the firstlisted private party (abbreviated according to
iect-matter title. Omit ail procedural phrases:
)
rule 10.2) or by the offrcial
sub-
Trojan Transp., lnc., 249 N.L.R.B. 642 Q98o).
Not: In the Matterof Trojan Transp., lnc.,z49 N.L.R.B. 6t+z(tg8o).
Not: /n re Trojan Transp.,lnc., 249 N.L.R.B. 5qz 6g8o).
Subiect-matter titles may sometimes indicate the nature and stage of an adjudicatory proceeding. It is permissible to shorten such titles, and, if the nature and
stage of the proceeding are not clear from the context, such information may be
included in a parenthetical phrase at the end of the citation. The parenthetical
phrase may consist of terms such as "notice,' "initiation,' "prelim. neg.," or
"determinationior
may be more elaborate.
> Bottled Green
Olives from Spain, 5o Fed. Reg.28,237 (Dep't of
Commerce luty u, 1985) (final admin. review).
l{ot: Bottled Green Olives from Spain, Final Results of Admin. Review
of Countervailing Duty Order, 5o Fed. Reg. 28,237 (Dep't of
Commerce July rr, 1985).
(b) Arbitrations. Cite
as
court cases if adversary patties are named and as
if they are not. The arbitrator's name should be
administrative adjudications
indicated parenthetically:
)
Kroger Co. v. Amalgamated Meat Cutters, Local 539, 74Lab. Arb.
Rep. (BNA) 785,787 (r98o) (Doering, Arb.).
)
Charles P. Ortmeyer, z3 Indus. Arb. z7z (tg8o) (Stern, Arb.).
L4.3.2 Which Source(s)
to Cite
(a) Official reporters. Cite the offlcial reporter of the agency if the opinion
appears therein:
F Tennessee Intrastate
Rates & Charges, 286 l.C.C. qtQgSz).
For the official reporters of many federal agencies, see
G) Ofncial
table T1.2.
releases and slip opinions. If the opinion does not appear in
an official reporter, cite the offrcial release or slip opinion, Provide the full date,
any helpflrl publication number, and the number of the case or investigation:
)
lron Construction Castings from Brazil, Canada, India, and the
People's Repubtic of China, USITC Pub. t72o,lnv. No. 7or-TA-249
Iune 1985).
If the opinion will later be published in an official bound volume, provide the
volume number and the initial page number, if available; if the initial page number is not available, retain the case number:
)
Rosenberg Library Ass'n, 259 N.L.R.B. No. r97 (Apr. 24, r98Q.
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Whenever possible, append a parallel citation to an unofficial reporte! service,
or othcr source, in that order of preference:
l
Rosenberg Library Ass'n, 269 N.L.R.B. No. r97, 1983-1984 NLRB
Dec. (CCH)
fl:6,48 (Apr.24,r98fi.
Once the ofticial reporter is issued, howevcr, cite only to that reporter:
il
Rosenberg Library Ass'n, 269 N.L.R.B. tt73 $98Q.
(c) Services and electronic databases. Vhere an agency decision is only
available from a service or on the agency's website, cite according to
rule
19
(for services) or rule 18.2 (for Internet sources).
W,
Carr,ltggo-t992 Transfer Binderl Comm. Fut.
zt,,gll
L. Rep. (CCH)
fl
(Oct. z, t99o).
ff' MatchNet PLC v. Gordon, Case No. AF-ooro6o (eResotution Dec. 4,
zoor), http://www.disputes.org/decisions/ro6o.htm.
Many agencies havc adopted unique citation formats for opinions not listed in
oflicial reporters. Consult table T1.2 for agency-specilic citation formats. For a
list of services and service abbreviations. see table T15.
Issuing
Agency
14.3.3
If the name of the issuing agcncy is not apparent from the namc of the source,
includc the name of the agency abbreviirted according to
parenthetical containing the date:
rule l5.l(d) in
the
h" Gen. Dynamics Corp., 5o Fed. Reg. 45,949 (U.S. Dep't of Labor Nov.
5,198il.
Commercial Electronic
Databases
14.4
Iflhen citing to administrntive materials contained in a commercial electronic
database , give the name of the databasc and any identifying cocles or numbers
that uniquely identify the material. If thc name of thc database is not clear from
thc database identifier, include it parenthctically at the end of the citation:
*"
FTC
Credit Practices Rule, 16 C.F.R. S 444t (zooo), WL 16
CFR
5 444.1.
*
Reichhold Chems., Inc., 9r F.T.C. zq6 bgl8), 1978 WL zo6o94.
F' 39 Op.Att'y Gen. q8q Ggqo), r94o US AG LEXIS 16.
w, Rev. Rul.
86-7t,t986-r C.B. roz, 1986 IRB LEXIS r89.
Short Forms for Regulations
(a) Main text. In law revicw tcxt, use the forms listcd in the "Text" column of
the table below to refer to regulations. Provide a citation (in fi.rll or short form
according to rule 14.5(c)) in an accompanying footnote whcn appropriatc.
(b) Footnote text. Similarly, when rcferring to regulations in law review footnote text. use the forms listcd in the "Text" column of the table below. Provide
14.5
a citation (in firll or short form according to rule 14.5(c)) in an accompanying
citation clause or sentence when appropriate.
(c) Citations. In law review citations, use any of the forms listed in the "Short
citation'column of the table below that cleady identifies the regulation if the
regulation is aheady cited (in fi,rll or short form) in either the same footnote
or in a manner such that it can be readily found (including "td.") in one of the
preceding five footnotes or the same general texual discussion. Otherwise, use
the'Full citation" form.
Fu[[ citation
Code of
Federal
Regulations
FTC
Short citation
Credit Practices 16 C.F.R. 5 t+++.t 16 C.F.R. 5 qqq.t
or 9 444.t
Rule, r5
C.F.R.
g 444t (zot4)
Federal
Register lmportation
of Fruits and
Vegetables, 5o
Fed. Reg. 50,379,
5o,38r (Sept.
29, 1995) (to be
codified at 7 C.F.R.
pt. 3oo)
(d) Electronic sources.
See
de
L6.8.
lmportation
of Fruits and
lmportation
of Fruits and
Vegetables
Vegetables,
5o Fed. Reg. at
5o,381
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BOOKS, REPORTS, AND OTHER
NONPERIODIC MATERIATS
15
'l'his rule governs the citation of books, trcatises, reports, white papers, dictionaries, encyckrpedias, and all othcr nonperiodic matcrials.
(litation of
a
particular pagc within thc sixth edition of Francis Olrcy's Organic
Cbemistry:
name
author's full
title of
book
page
Fnlncrs A. Cnnrv, Onennrc CHemtsrnY
eds., 6th
+++
l\\
"editors"
ed.
(Kent A. Peterson et a[.
year of publication
cited
Main Elements:
...
Arrthor
Editor or trlnslator
.
Title , .
310
editor(s) name(s)
2005).
abbreviation edition
for
cited
.
or parugmph
(if onll' part of a work is cited) . .
rule15.1
......rule15.2
......ru1e15.3
Page, secti<ln,
rules 3.2 and J.J
.
Publishcr
......rule15.4
......rtrte15.4
Ihte.
.....
ldition
.
.
.
rule15.4
15.r
Author
'l'he lirst time a work is citcd, always givc the author's full namc ls it appcars
on the publication, including any designation such as "Jn." or "lll" (inserting a
comma beforc the designation only if thc author docs). f)o not include a dcsignation such as"Dr."or"Prof." even if it appears on the title pagc. Ilse large and
small capitals:
r,' HARoLD W. Fusotl,ln., Trrltruc lr Arr: A Lecnl Gutoe ro rHE ExERclsE oF Fner SpeecH 57-58 (rOO).
l single volume
of a multivolume work, givc only tl-rc mthor(s) of
volumc number, if anl', at thc bcginning of the
Includc
the
the volumc cited.
When citing
citation:
,
4 CHnnrrs Alnn WntcHr & ARTHUR R. Mtrrrn, Feornnl Pnncrrcr
AND PRoCEDURE S 1006 (zd ed. ryW).
(a) Two authors. List the authors'names in the ordcr in which they appear on
thc title page, separated by an ampersand:
-
Lro LEvttt & MeyEn KnnnaeR. NEw PRovtsloNS lN THE KETUBAH:A
LEcnl Oprr.rror'r 3-4 G95).
A.
If the title pagc establishes an alternativc relationship between thc two authors,
c.g.,"wlTH"or"AS TOLD TO;'use this phrasc to scpar.lte the authors'names:
r" Ennvm "MAGrc" Jour.rsor't wrrH
WTLLTAM
Novnr, Mv Ltrr 39 119%).
(b) More than two authors. Either
use the first author's name followed by
or list all of the authors'names. The fust method is appropriate where
saving space is desired, including short form citations. The second method is
appropriate when listing all of the authors'names is particulady relevant. When
listing all of the authors'names, separate the names with commas, except the
fnal name,which should be set off with an ampersand (and without a comma).
"ET AL."
)
A. Leo LevrH er AL., DtspurE Resolurroru DevrcEs tN A DEMocRATtc
Socrerv ll Gg95).
)
14 CnnnlEs AlnH Wnre
FEDERAL
xr, AnrHuR
R. MTLLER
& EDwARD H. Cooprn,
Pnncrrce AND PRocEDURES363T (3d ed. t998).
)
RrcHnno H. FALLoN, JR. ET AL., Hnnt nHo Wecnsten's rHe Feoenet
Counrs AND rHE Feoenal Sysrem 33o (6th ed. zoog).
)
Rrcxano H. FALLoN, Jn., JoHr.r F. MatHrHe , DANTEL J. MELTZER &
Dnvro L. Srnprno, Hnnr nuo Wecnslen's rHE FEDERAL Counrs nHo
rHe FeoEnnl Sysrem 33o (6th ed. zoog).
(c) Institutional authors. Citations to works by institutional authors begin
with the author's complete name. Abbreviate according to rule 15.1(d):
)
Crrv or New HavEH, Recvcle Now Nrw HAVEN (1991).
When an individual author is credited on behalf of an institution, use the individual's name and then the institution's name. Only include subdivisions of the
institution if particularly relevant:
)
JuorrH A. LHAMoN, Ner'l Ass'H FoR LAw Pucemenr, A Fern SHnre:
Lnwrul AND EFFECIvE lNrERVtEwtNG Qg8).
)
S. ElrzaeerH GrasoH, FEo. Juorcrnl CrR., CAsE Sruores oF MASS
Tonr LrmrrEo FuHo Cuss Acrroru Serrleuerurs & Bnurnuprcv
I
ReoncerrzerroNS 39-45 (zooo).
Not: S. ElrzeeerH GrasoH, FEo. Juorcral Crn., WonrrHe Gnoup oH
Mnss Tonrs, ClsE Sruoles oF MAss Tonr Lrrulreo FuHo Cuss
AcrroH SErnEmetrs & Bnnrnuprcy REoRGANtzAloNs 39-45
(zooo).
When no individual author is credited, use the smallest subdivision that prepared the work and then the overall body of which that subdivision is a part:
)
Srnrrsrrclr-Arunlysrs Crn., Srnre Cnrme Comm'H, Cnrme nr
GEone rr 4r (r98o).
(d) Abbreviations. Abbreviate the name of an institutional author only if the
result will be completely unambiguous.When abbreviating, use the abbreviations found in tables T6 and TlO. "United States" should be abbreviated to
"U.S.'Omit'lnc.,""Ltd.," and similar terms if the name also contains a word
such as "Ass'n,""Bros.,""Co.," or "Corp.," clearly indicating that the institution
is a business firm:
)
Cor,rsurvren DEpury Pnocnnm, U.S. CoHsumeR PRoD.
Comm'n,
)
CHTLDRETTT's
SlEepwren
Snrerv
I bgl).
Nnr'l MuH. Lencue, A Mooel ELecrrot
Sysrenn
I bgl).
I
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Editor or
Translator
15.2
(a) Basic format. Always give the full name of an editor and/or translator
rule 15.1, followcd by "ed. i'or "trans.;'in that order if both apply,
acconling to
in the parenthetical containing information about the cdition, publisher,
and
date (see rule 15.4). A comma should separate the designation of an editor
and/or translator from other publication information:
F
MTcHEL
Foucnulr,
Dtsctpt-true AND PuNtsH
trans., Vintage Books zd ed.
+
3o-3r (Alan Sheridan
ryg) Ggll).
or ColtsutvtproN: THE Gooo Ltre, Jusrtce, AND GLoBAL
SrEwnnosHtp rr8-r9 (David A. Crocker & Toby Linden eds., r99B).
ErHrcs
3' AIDS AND rHE Lnw (Harlon L. Dalton et al. eds., 1987).
F, KARL Mnnx & FREDERTCH Eucers. Tne Couuut'ttsr MANlFEsro
0oseph Katz ed., SamueI Moore trans., Washington Square Press
tg6+) G8q8).
(b) Institutional editors. Folbw rule 15.1(c), substituting thc name of the
institution for thc namc of the individual editor. Abbreviate the institutionll editor's name according to rule 15.1(d):
:.
THE RoLE oF MEorATroN rr'r DtvoncE
PnocErottcs 33 Ut. Law Sch.
Dispute Resotution Proiect ed., r98Z).
E
Utttrontu Svsrrtu oF CtrATtoN (Columbia Law
Review Ass'n et al. eds., zoth ed. zor5).
THE BLUEBooT: A
(c) No named parties. If
a
work has no named author, editor, or translator,
then the work may be designated by the publisher of thc cdition
Abbreviate thc publisher's name according to rule 15.1(d).
lrule
15.4,l.
Title
15.3
Cite the full main title as it appcars on the title page, but capitalize according to
rule 8 (unless the titlc is not in English, in which case follow rule 2O.2.2(b)).
Give a subtitle only if it is particularly rclevant. Do not abbrcviate words or omit
articlcs in thc title. Use large and small capitals:
ri{,
CAprrAt Frows ttt rHr APEC Recton (Mohsin S. Khan & Carmen M.
Reinhart eds., r995).
iiil' 6 JAMES Wrvr.
Moone
rt
nL., Moone's FEDERAL Pnncrtce
fl l6.to (:d
ed. rggg).
When citing a singlc volume of a multivolume work, give the m:rin title of the
volume cited. If the title of a work ends with a numeral, or if distinguishing
between thc title and page number could othcrwise be confusing, thc page
numbe r should be set off by a comma and the word "at" (sce rule 3.2(a)):
*. J.A.S. GnErvrLLe, THe MnJon lrurrnnnttorunL TREAT|ES, 1914-1'973,
aI n4-t5 Q974).
15.4 Edition, Fublisher, and
I
Date
(a) Editions. Always cite the latest edition of a wor* that supports the point
under discussion, unless an eadier edition would be particularly relevant or
authoritative.
(i) Single edition. When citing a work that has been published in only one edition, indicate the year ofpublication in parentheses. In general, cite by the date
of the edition rather than the date of a particular printing:
)
DeeoneH L. RnooE, Jusrrce AND GENDER S6 GgSg).
>
AIDS AND rHE Law (Harlon L. Dalton et a[. eds., 1987).
If a printing differs in a respect relevant to the purposes of the citation,however,
give the printing designation and the date ofprinting instead:
F
(5th prtg.1980)
If the title of the work incorporates the date of the work, do not omit the date
of publication,even if it is the same date:
)
HultaeH Rre
srs Wnrcn, Wonlo REponr 2004: Humaru Rre xrs nHo
Annnro Corurlrcr
U8 (zoo4).
(ii) Multiple editions by the same publisher. When citing a work that has
been published by the same publisher in more than one edition, indicate the
edition and the year the edition was published. Follow the pubtsher,s terminology when designating an edition (see table Tl4 for a list of publishing
abbreviations):
)
FlenalHc JAMES, JR. er
F
1 Wrr-lrnnn MEnoe FlercHER ET AL., FLETCHER CyctopEorn
LAW oF PRtvArE
nl., Crvrr Pnoceoune g 2.3 (4th ed.g9z).
or rnr
Conponnrrols 5 Z.o5 fuerm. ed., rev. vol. 1999).
l
Lannv Brncen, MnHer Mrsrny, Pnul Rossr, MrcHnel CoLToN &
Aonn Jeo, Up Youn Scone: TxE Unoencnouno Guroe ro rHE SAT
34 (t999-zooo ed. rgg8).
)
Anrsrorrr, Nrcomectenu Erxlcs bk.
lV, at r5-r5 (G.p. Goold ed., H.
Rackham trans., Harvard Univ. Press rev. ed.ryl+) (c. 384 B.C.E.).
(iii) Editions not by the original publisher. $fhen citing a work tlat
has
been published by someone other than the original publisher, indicate the editor andlor translator if any (rule 15.2), the publisher, the edition cited if not the
first, and the date of publication of the edition cited (in that order). Abbreviate
the publisher's name according to
15.1(d). Unless the work is one that is
regularly updated or revised, add a second parenthetical indicating the date of
de
publication of the original edition:
)
)
Cnnnlrs DrcKrHs, BLEAK HousE 49-55 (Norman page ed., penguin
Books rgZr) (r8Sl).
JonH C.H. Wu, THr
(tgz9.
)
Golorl
Ace or Zen zt4-t5 (lmage Books 1996)
SrttnoHe DE BEAUVoIR, THe SEcoHo Sex, at
ed. & trans., Bantam Books 196r) (1949).
xvi-xvii (H.M. parshley
a
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h
THE CHrcAGo MANUAL oF SrYLE
fl 8.r9r (15th ed. 2oo3).
(b) Photoduplicated reprints. Cite photoduplicated reprints to the original,
indicating in parentheses the existence of a rcprint and the datc of the reprint,
folkrwed by the publication date of thc original in separate parentheses:
u
Pnur W. Gnres, Htsronv oF PuBLtc Lnruo Lnw Developuent
(photo. reprint 1979) (1968).
t
(c) Pre-llOO works. Cite works published befbre 1900 to a scholarly modern
rule 15.4(a):
cdition, according to
F
JoHN LocrE, Two
TnEnrtsrs oF GoVERNMENT 87-39 (Peter Lastett
ed., Cambridge Univ. Press rgBB) (16go).
If thcre is no modern cdition, cite the first cdition whcnevcr
possible . When
citing a prc-1900 edition, indicate the place of publication and thc publishcq
separatec[ by a comma:
;'
1 Jnmes Ftrz,nmes SrepHeru, A HtsronY oF rHE CRlMtNar Lnw
Erucuno
$6-j7
or
(London, MacMitlan & Co. 1883).
If the place or date of publication is not available, use thc abbreviation
"no place" or "n.d." for "no date."
"n
'
p. "
for
(d) Supplements. Citc pocket parts and bound supplements according to rule
3.1(c):
:,
4 SvDNEy C. ScHwrtrzen &.losEPH RnscH, Cvct-opEDlA oF TRIAL
Pnncrtce 5 Bqi (zd ed. Supp. 1984).
':
5 SAMUEL
Wtlltsroru & RtcHcno A. Lono, A TnEnrtsr oN
Coxrnncts 5 rr:8 (4th ed. 1993 & Supp. 1999).
Shorter Works in
THE LAW oF
Collection
15.5
(lite essays and articles in collections according to rule 15'5.1.Citc collcctions
of othcr materials, such as letters, speechcs, manuscripts, diaries, debates, newspapef afticles, tracts, etc., according to rile 15.5.2.
Works in Collection Generally
(a) Works by various authors. Tcr cite an individual shorte r work within a volume of collectcd works by various authors, list the author's firll name according
kr rule 15.1 in ordinary roman typc followed by the title of the shorter work
in italics, the word "in" in italics, the volume nttmber, if any (rule 3.1(a)), md
the name of the volume as a whole in largc and small capitals. Always note the
page on which the shorter work begins as well as any pages on which specific
material appears (rule 3.2(a)). Editors, translators, edition, publisher, and date
should be noted parenthetically according to rules 15.2 ancl 15'4:
,i'.
Andrew G. Ferguson, Continuing Seizure: Fourth Amendment
Seizure in Section ry83 Malicious Prosecution Cases, in r5 Nar'l
Lawvens Gutt-o, Ctvtt- RtcHrs LtrtcarloN AND Artonlev Fees
Arruunl HnNoeoor 54-r (Steven Saltzman ed.,r99).
15.5.1
)
Kay Deaux & Brenda Major, A Social-Psychological Model
of
Gender, rn THeonrrrcnl Pensprcttves oH Snxuru DtrreneHce 89,
89 (Deborah L. Rhode ed., r99o).
(b) Vorks by the sarne author. If all the shorter works within a volume are
by the same author, use the same form as above, but print the author's name in
large and small capitals and place the volume number, if any, before the author's
name
(rule 3.1(a)):
)
Orrven Weloeu HolwrEs, Law in Science and Science in Law, in
Couecreo Lecnl Pnpens 2!o,2to Ggzo).
)
AonrrHHe Rtcn,Transcendental Etude, rn Txe Fncr or n Doonrnnne 264, z6l-68 GgSa).
15.5.2 Collected Documents
(a) Documents originally published.
Use the "reprinted rn' form (rule
1.6(aXii)) to cite collected materials that were previously published. As far
as possible, provide a complete citation for the original work followed by
"
reprinted in" and the citation of the volume containing the reprint:
)
Mnneurs
DE CoNDoRCET, Essnv oN rHE AppLrcATroN oF MArHEMArlcs ro rHe THeony or DecrsroH-MerrHc (1785), reprinted in
CoHooncer: Selrcrro WRrrNGs B, 48-49 (Keith M. Baker ed.,
r976)-
O) Documents originally unpublished.
Cite letters, speeches, manuscripts,
diaries, and other similar works that have never been published except in collection as you would any other shorter work in collection (rule 15.5.1), but print
the name or description of the document in ordinary roman type following
date of the particular document or otler identifing information,
if available, may be included in a parenthetical following the document title:
rule 17. The
15,6
)
Letter from Virginia Woolf to Vita Sackvitle-West (Dec. zz,t9z5),
i n 3 I nt LETTERS oF Vr RGr N rA W ooLF, t923-t928, 223, zz4 (Niget
Nicolson & Joanne Trautmann eds., rst Am. ed. ry28) Ggl).
)
John Adams, Argument and Report, in z Lzeat Pnpens or JoHr,r
Aorrvrs z85,3zz-35 (1. Kinvin Wroth & Hiller B. Zobel eds., 1965).
Prefaces, Forewords, Introductions, and Epilogues
Cite a preface, foreword, introduction, or epilogue by someone other than the
author as follows:
)
L. Maria Child,
Lrre
lntroduction to HnnnlEr A. JAcoBs, lHcroerurs
or n SuvE
GrRL 3,
3-4 (1. Maria Child & Jean
F.
rH
rHe
Yellin eds.,
Harvard Univ. Press rg8Z) (186r).
)
Henry M. Hart & Herbert Wechsler, Preface to the First Edition of
Paul M. Bnron Er al., Hnnr eHo Wecnslen's rHE FEDERAL Counrs
AND THE FeoEnnr- Svsrrm, at xxvii, xxx (3d ed. rg88).
Cite to similar material by the author of the work without special designation:
)
JoHH HARr ELy, DEruocnncv nHo
Drsrnusr, at vii (r98o).
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Serial
Number
15.7
(a) Series issued by the author. When citing a publication that is one of
a
scries issued by the author (other than U.N. documents (rule 21.7)), include
the serial number as part of the title. Thc serial number indicator may be abbrcviated according to table T16:
&
or lrrelltcerucE & RESEARCH, U.S. Dep'r or Srnre, Pua.
No.8732, Wonlo SrnrtcrH or rHr Comruuntsr Pnntv Oncnrutzn-
BuREAU
rrorus 65 (1973).
w"
WoMEN's Bunenu, U.S. Drp'r or Lneon, LearLEl No. 55, A
Wonrrruc Woneru's Guloe ro Hrn Joe RrcHrs 4 (r9z8).
(b) Series issued by one other than the author.
To cite a publication that
is one of a series issucd by someone other than the author, indicate the serics
and numbcr parenthcticall)', abbreviating instittltional entities according to rule
r5.1(d):
o
Anne C. Vladeck, Counseling o Plaintiff During Litigation, in
EtvtpLovturnr Lrttcntton 1990, at 77,8o-Bz (PLl Litig. & Admin.
Practice, Course Handbook 5er. No. 386, r99o).
15.8
Special Citation Forms
(a) Frequently cited works. A fcw frequently cited works require spccial
citation forms:
(ld
v
Noscitur o sociis, Bnuenrtrur's Lnw DtcrtoNARY
;.
Good-Faith Bargaining, BLAcK's Lnw Dtcrtonnnv (9th ed. zoog).
r'
88 C.J.S. TrialS ryz
1gs).
'. t7 Au. Jun. 2o Contracts 5lq
ed. rg6g)'
Gg6q).
(b) Star edition. In a very fcw well-known works, the pagc of the original cdition (star page) is indicated, ttsually by an asterisk (*), in either the margin or the
text of all rccent editions. In such cases the date and editi<ln may be omitted and
the citation may be made to the star page , unless the matcrial cited was insertcd
by the editor of the cited edition. There is no spacc between the asterisk and
the page number:
Ir
2 Wl LLIAM
Blncrsro
ru
r,
Cotu
nn
Erurnnt e s *
r5z, * t55-56.
(c) Other named works.
(i) The Federalist. When citinganentire Federalist papr-r,includc the author's
name parcnthetically and do not indicate a specilic edition:
'
Tue Feoennltsr No. z3 (Alexander Hamitton).
(iroup togcther papcrs written by the same author:
F. THE FEDERALTsT Nos. 23, 78 (Alexander Hamilton), Nos. ro, 5r
0ames Madison).
When citing particular material within a papeq howeveq list the usual publication information for the edition cited:
)
at 53 fohn Jay) (Ctinton Rossiter ed., 196r).
THe FeoEnnlrsr No. 5,
(ii) Manual for Complex Litigation. Citarions to the Manual for Complex
Iitigation prepared by the
)
)
Manunl
Federal Judicial Center are as follows:
FoR CoMeLEX
Lrrrcnrron (Txrno) S :f.z (rSSS).
Manunl ron Complex Lrrrcnrrot g z.ro (5th ed. r98z).
However, when citing an edition not prepared by the Federal Judicial Center,
identi!' the source and publication date of the edition cited:
)
Meruunl ron Complex LrrrearroH g 4.52 Q98z) (supplement to
Cxnnles Auru WnrcHr & ARTHUR R. Mlr_lrn, FeoEnnl PnncrrcE lr.ro
Pnocrou ne (tg5g-rg8S)).
(iii) The Bible. Cite the Bible
as
follows:
) zKingsnty
The version may be indicated parenthetically if relevant:
I
Mark 9:zr (King James).
(iv) Shakespeare, A Shakespearean play may be cited
)
Wrlunm SHnrespenne, Tne SecoHo
PART oF
as
follows:
Knc
Heruny rHe
Srxrx
act 2, sc. 2.
To cite particular lines, a specific edition should be indicated according to
rule
15.4.
(v) The Bluebook. Tbe Bluebook is cited
as
follows:
)
THe
)
TxE BluegooK: A UNtFoRM Sysrem oF CtrAloN 293 tbl.T.ro
(Columbia Law Review Ass'n et a[. eds., r5th ed. 9th prtg. t999).
BlueeooK: A UNtFoRM Sysrem or Crrnrrotl R. rS.8(c)(v), at rS5
(Cotumbia Law Review Ass'n et a[. eds., zoth ed. zor5).
L5.9 Electronic Media and Online Sources
(a) Commercial electronic databases. \When citing secondary materials to
provide a complete citation to the document according to de L5
citation to the database. Ifthe database assigns a unique identifier
or code to the document, include that identifier or code to assist the reader in
a database,
as
well
as a
locating the document cited.
When a source is available both in print and in a commercial electronic database, a citation to the database may be supplied:
)
Aeeey G. HnrnsroH, Leave nto Dtsngtrry CoonorrunttoH Hnruoeoor fl uo (zoo9), Westlaw LDCHBK.
)
z5 Arvr. JuR. 2D Elections g roo, Westlaw (database updated May
zot4).
(b) Internet and online sources. Because books found online may differ
in format from the print version, the two sources should not be treated interchangeably unless the online source is an exact copy of the original as dictated
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by rule 1E.2.1(a). If a book or report is only available online, citc to it directly
in accorclance with rule 18.2.2:
ffi" U.S.
Dep'r oF.lusrcE, Lrcnl AurronrlEs SuppoRTrNG rHE Acrtvt-
TIES OF THE NATIONAL SECUN V ACEruCY DTSCNIEEO BY THE PRESI-
DENr 25 (zoo5), http://ftr.fi ndlaw.com/news.fi ndtaw.com/hdocs/
docs/nsa/doinsarrgo6.pdf Ihereinafter NSA WH tre Peern].
n, D cttounnv.cotvt, http: / /dictiona ry. reference.com/
browse/tampoon (tast visited Feb. 8, zor5).
M" La m po o
r
(c) Ebooks. Print versions of b<xrks are authoritativc; ebooks should be citcd
only if they arc the sole media through which thc book is available. Ilccausc
books published as ebooks may differ in format from thc print version, the two
sources should not be treated interchangeably. To inclicatc that an ebook is
bcing cited, place an "ebook" parcntheticrl after the date:
*
ANNE UmLAruo
& Brnrn
HARTZELL,
Ptcesso: THr
Mnrttc
oF CuBtsM
1912-!914, z5 Qot4) (ebook).
If an ebo<lk uscs location numbers rather than page numbers, use "loc." to indicate where thc cited material can be fbund:
.:' RoNALD Corlrns & Dnvto Sroven, WHet MottEv Spenrs loc. z99z
(zor4) (ebook) ("[T]he Buckley wall between contributions and
expenditures. . . has been breached.").
Short Citation
Forms
L5.10
Once a book, report, or other nonperiodic material has bcen cited in {ull in a
law review footnote , a short form cmpkrying either "id. " or " supro" m y lle uscd
to refer to the work in subsequent citations. Never use"lnfro"to refer to thcse
materials. In general, fblbw rule 4 for short citation fbrms; howcveq use rule
15.10.1 when referring to a shorter work in collection or the collection as a
whole
.
Short Forms for Works in Collection
within a volumc of collccted shorter
works when the shorter work has already becn cited in full, yotr may trse "id"'
To citc an cssay, article, or documcnt fbr-rnd
to reftrr to the shorter work if it was cited
as
the immcdiatcly prcceding luthor-
ity within the same footnote or as the solc authority within thc immediately
pre ceding footnotc. l)o not use "id. " to rcfer to thc collection as a wholc whcn
citing another shortcr work within the collection.
llse
form to refer to the collection as a whole. Thc "supro" form
^"supra"
firr the entire volume should include the title of the collecti<ln (rather than
an author) rcgardless of whether the collectcd picces have a single author or
multiplc authors.
tJse a "supro" form to refcr to thc shorter work if it was not cited as thc immediately preceding ailhority in the samc footnote or as the sole authority in the
immediately preceding footnotc. The "supra" form for the individual work
should include the last name of the tuthor or authors, or, if none, thc titlc of
thc shorter work:
15. rO.1
)
1
)
2
Fem r n rsm/Posrtnooenru tsrvr (Linda J. Nicholson ed., t99o); see
also Tnours ScxelltHe, A PRocEss or RestoeHttnt SeenecartoH:
Nete HgonHooo TtPPtNG, reprinted in Ecot'tolttc FouHonrtoHs or
Pnoprnrv Lnw 3o7, 3o8 (Bruce A. Ackerman ed., t97).
Letter from Virginia Wootf to Vita Sackville-West (Dec. zz,t9z5),
in 3Tnt Lrrrens or Vtne tHtn Woolr, t9z3-t928, at 224 (N.
Nicolson & Joanne Trautmann eds., rst Am. ed. r9Z8); cf Judith
Butler, Gender Trouble, Femi n ist Theory, and Psychoanalytic
Discourse, rn FsmtNtstvt/PosrMoDERNtsM,supra note 1, at 324,
324-25iAndreas Huyssen, Mopping the Postmodern, in Femtrtstvt/
PosrnooenrursM, supra note 1, at 44,234-35. Butler does not
think 'woman" can be adequately defined, Butler, supra, at 325,
but Woolf s observations are especia[[y compelling, Letter from
Virginia Woolf to Vita Sackville-West, supro.
)
r A whotly
>
q
I
s
different perspective is presented in Ayn Rand, Ihe
Cashing-ln: The Student "Rebellion," in THe New L*t t3, zo-24
Q97 t). B ut se e H uyssen, su p ra note 2, aI 23 4-35 (q uestion i n g
whether postmodern transformation has generated genuinely new
forms).
E.g., ScHeurr,rc, supra note 1, at 31o.
ld.; see also THr FEoenattsr No. 81, at 393 (Alexander
Hamitton) fierrence Balt ed., zoo3). But see Avru RnHo, Ihe
Comprachicos (arguing that the educational establishment teaches
ideas that destroy children's minds), tn TxE NEw LEFI, suprd note
3, at
t52,2o3.
|
6
See Rand, supra note 3, at 99; Rand, supra note 5, at 2o1.
>
7
4
RTCHARD R.
4t4z
)
8
PowELL,
Powrll
oru Renl
Pnopenrv fl
Sr{ll,
at
(Patrickl. Rohan ed., rggs).
z id.1l zo3, at 2o-L7i see also THr Feoenaltsr No. 5, supra note
V 0ohn Jay).
5, at
For materials available only online, use the normal short form appropriate for
the source. A URI need not be repeated after a full citation.
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16
PERIODICAL MATERIALS
Citation of particular pages within a law review article with parcnthctical information about what appears on those pages:
author's full
name
abbrevlatlon
article
title of
iournal volume
no. ofjournal
\
oaoe on wnlcn
ariicle begins
Charles A. Reich, The New Property, 73 Yntt L.). 733,
737-38 (1964) (discussing the importance of government largess).
span of specific date of
pa9es crreo
publication
Citation of an entirc magazine article
author's full
name
parenthetical describing content of pages cited
:
title of
article
name of magazine
l-tt-rrl
Robert J. Samuelson, A Slow Fix for the Banks, Newsweer,
Feb.18,7997,
/l\
date
of issue
cover
at
55.
separates date first page of article
from page no.
Citation of a signcd newspaper article:
headline
author's full name
Seth Mydans, Los Angeles Police Chief Removed for 6o Doys in
lnquiry on Beoting, N.Y. Ttmrs, Apr. 5, 1991, at A1.
abbreviation of
newspaper
date
of
article
date
no.
separates
from page
page on whrch
article appears
16.r
Basic Citation Forms
Article in
c0nsecutively
Elizabeth F. Emens, lntegroting nrroiioaition,
156 U. PA. L. REV. 839,894 (zoo8).
pasinalf igulal
Article in
nonconsecutively
paginated iournal or
Beniamin Wittes, Without Precedent, ArLANrlc
MonrHr-v, Sept. 2oo5, ar39,4c,.
magazme
*.*rpuf.
Online
newspapcr
Scott Martelle ,lD Low Keeps Nuns, Students from
Polls,L.A. Trues, MaY 7, zoo8, at At4.
Pamela Mendets, A Cose of Spom and Free
Speech at tntel, N.Y. Ttues, Dec. lr, ryg8,http:ll
www.nytimes.com/tibrary/te
ch
lgeln
lcyber
I
cybertaw/ulaw.html.
Note,Judicial Review of
Congressionol Section Five Action: The Fallacy of
Reverse lncorporation, 84 Corun. L. Rrv. 1969,
Signed stndent-written Bradford R. Clark,
law review note
ry86 (tg8a).
Unsigned student-
written comm€nt
Case Comment, Fairness Standards for SEC Approval of Mergers: Collins v. SEC, 9o Hnnv. L. Rrv.
4n
Student-written
book review
Ge76).
Sharon Dolovich, Book Note, Leaving the Law
Behind, zo Hnnv. WomeHb L.J. 313, 329 999) fteviewing Pnrnrcrn J. WrLLrnnlts, THe Roosren's Ecc:
Oru rHr PERSISTENcE or PnrJuorce (ISSS)).
Non-student-written Jane
book
review
Symposium
E. Stroms eth, U n d erstan di n g Co n stitutional
War Powers Todoy: Why Methodology Matters,
106 YALE L.J. 8+S (1996) (reviewing Lours FtsHER,
PnesrorHrrnl WnR powER GSSS)).
Symposium, The Presidency and Congress:
Constitutionally Seporoted and Shared Powers, 68
Wnsn. U. L.Q. +8S, 64o-5t GSSo).
designated John M. Golden, Commentary, "Patent Trolls"
article in consecutively and Patent Remedies, 35 Trx. L. Rev. zttt, ztt3
Specially
paginatedjournal (zoo).
Noncommercially
distributed newsletter
Douglas Gary Lichtman, Patent Holdouts in the
Stan d a rd -S etti n g P ro cess, Aceo. Aovrso nv Co u rrr ctt Bur-r-. (Progress & Freedom Found., D.C.), May
zoo6, aI 4.
de
de
Follow
16.4 or
16.5 to cite articles, essays, cofirmentaries, and all
other materials contained within periodicals. Where the periodical is organized
by volume, and page numbers continue throughout the volume, it is a consecutively paginated periodical and should be cited according to rule l6.4.Where
the periodical is paginated separately for each issue and the first page of every
issue is l, it is a nonconsecutively paginated periodical and should be cited
according to
16.5.
de
Cite newspapers according to
rule
16,6.
Special citation forms for non-student-written book reviews, student-written law
review materials, symposia, colloquia, surveys, commentaries and other special
designations, multipart articles, annotations, proceedings, regular publications
by institutes, ABA Section Reports, and noncommercially distributed periodicals
such as newsletters are given in rule 16.7.
Cite sources in elecffonic media and online sources using
Follow
de
de
L6.8.
16.9 for short citation forms.
Capitalize the titles of works cited according to
de
E(a).
The name of the periodical should appear in large and small capitals whether
it is a journal, m gqzru;rc, or newspapef, and should be abbreviated according
to tables T13 (periodical abbreviations) and T10 (geographic abbreviations).
For purposes of this rule, the date of the publication is the cover date of the
periodical.
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Author
For signed matcrials appcaring in pcriodicals (including sttldcnt-written materills), fbllow rule 15.1, but print in ordinart'roman type . 'l'htts:
i,
Kim Lane Scheppele, Foreword: Telling Stories,8T Mlcn. L. Rrv.
2o73, zoSz (t9B).
tr
Robert P. Inman & MichaetA. Fitts, Political lnstitutions and Fiscal
Policy: Evidence from the U.S. Historical Record,6 J.L. Econ. &
Onc. 79, 79-82 1199c.).
i
PauI Butler et al., Rcce, Low ond Justice: The Rehnquist Court and
the American Dilemma,45 Am. U. L. Rev. 567, 569 $996.
I
Georgette C. Poindexter, LizabethAnn Rogovoy & Susan Wachter,
Selling Municipol Property Tax Receivables: Economics, Privatization, ond Public Policy in an Era of Urbon Distress,30 CoNN. L. REV.
o
o
157 G997).
R. Gregory Cochran, Comment, ls the Shrink's Role Shrinking? The
Ambiguity of Federal Rule of Criminol Procedure n.z Concerning
Government Psychiatric Testimony in Negativing Cases, 47 U. P a.
L. Rev. r4o3 (1999).
O
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16.2
Peter Carlson, Tales Out of Law School; Repeat After Us: lt's
Nothing Like '1.A. Laui,'WnsH. Posr, Juty z, t989, (Magazine), at
wr3.
Title
16.3
Citc the full pcriodical title as it appears on the title pagc, but capitalize accortling to rule 8 (unless thc title is not in English, as dcscribcd in rule 20.2.2(b)).
Do not abbrevirte worcls or omit articlcs in the title . Use italics:
"
Edward B. Rock, The Logic and (Uncertain) Significance of Institu'
tional Shareholder Activism, Tg Gto. L.). r+d,S Oggt).
Cecilia Lacev O'Connell, Comment, The Role of the Obiector and
the Current Circuit Court Confusion Regording Federal Rule of Civil
Should Non-Nomed Shoreholders Be Permitted
Procedure
To Appeol Adverse Judgements?, 48 CArH. U. L. Rrv. 939,98-46
4.r
Ossq.
Whcn the title contains a rcfbrence to material that woulcl be italicizccl whcn
appearing in the main text according to rule 2.2(a), such material should
appear in ordinary roman typc:
'', Nathaniel
A. Vitan, Book Note, Grounded Paratroopers: On Collins
ond Skover's The Death of Discourse, 13 J.L. & Pot' zo7, zto
(rss).
'
Seth F. Kreimer, Does Pro'Choice Mean Pro-Kevorkian? An Essay on
Roe, Casey, and the Right to Die, 44Arvr. U. L. Rev. Bo3, 8rz (t99).
16.4
Consecutively Paginated Journals
Cite works found within periodicals that are consecutively paginated throughout an entire volume by author, title of work, volume number, periodical name,
first page of the work, page or pages on which specific material appears (rule
3.2(a)), and year enclosed in parentheses at the end of the citation. Consult
tables T1O and T13 to abbreviate the names of periodicals:
)
David Rudovsky, Police Abuse: Can the Violence Be Contained?,27
Hnnv. C.R.-C.1. L. REv. 465,5oo (tggz).
)
Richard A. Epstein, The Supreme Court,
ry87 Term-Foreword:
Unconstitutionol Conditions, State Power, and the Limits
Consent,102 HARv. L. Rev.4, qqOg88).
F
of
Kenneth W. Tsang et al.,/ Cluster of Cases of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in Hong Kong,348 NEw Eruc. J. Meo. 977, :,977
(zool).
F
Pauline M. lppotito & Alan D. Mathios, New Food Labeling Regulations and the FIow of Nutrition lnformation to Consumers, tz J.
Pue. PoL'y & MARKETNG r88 (rgg:).
Some iournals maintain separate but consecutive pagination with different page
numbering systems. Cite these iournals as indicated above, but include the spe-
cial numbering:
)
Kenneth R. Feinberg, Mediation-A Preferred Method of Dispute
Resolution, 16 Pepp. L. Rev. 55, Sr4 n.r9 (rg8g).
Some journals publish special annual issues that do not conform to their consecutive pagination system. Cite these as indicated above, but indicate the special
issue designation parenthetically and use the numbering from the special issue:
)
John Ferejohn & Charles Shipan, Congressional lnfluence on
Bureoucrocy,5 J.L. EcoH. & Onc. (Specrnl lssue) t Gggo).
}'
George A. Akertof, Procrastination and Obedience, 8r Awr. EcoH.
Rev. (Pnpens & PRoc.) t Gggi.
Ifthe periodical
has no volume number but is nonetheless consecutively
paginated throughout each volume, use the year of publication as the volume
number and omit the parenthetical reference to the year:
)
Thomas R. McCoy & Barry Friedman, Conditional Spending: Federalism's Troian Horse, 1988 Sue. Cr. Rev. 85, roo.
)
Stephen D. Sugarman, Using Private Schools to Promote Public
Values,t99tU. Cnr. Leenl
16.5
F.
r7r.
Nonconsecutively Paginated Journals and Magazines
Works appearing in periodicals that arc separately paginated within each issue
should be cited by author, title of work, periodical name, date of issue as it
appears on the cover,the word'at"(rule j,2(a)),firstpage of work,and,if appli
cable, page or pages on
which specific material appears. If there is no author
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listed, begin the citation with the title of the piece. Consult tables T10 and T13
to abbreviate the namcs ofperiodicals:
F, Barbara Ward, Progress for a Small Plonet, HARV. Bus. Rev., Sept.Oct. 1979, at 89, 9o.
*,
Barbara Ehrenreich, lranscam: The Real Meaning of Oliver North,
Ms., May g87,atz4,z4.
#
Joan B. Kelly, Mediated and Adversariol Divorce: Respondents'
Perceptions of Their Processes and Outcomes, Meotnroru Q.,
Summer
ry89,at7t.
w Domages for
o Deadly Cloud: The Bhopal Tragedy Will Cost Union
Carbide $qZo Million,Ttme, Feb. 27, t989, at 53.
If no date of issue is available, provide the issue number in its placc, and indicate
the volume numberbefcrrethe title of the periodicalperrule 16.4;alsoinclude
thc ycar and month of copyright, if available:
& Charles
E. Mueller, The American Who Wants to Give Away His
Country but Doesn't Know That's What He's Voting for,34 Anrtrnusr L. & EcoN. REv., no. r,2oo8,atr,7.
16.6
Newspapers
(a) In general.
Matcrials appearing in newspapers arc generally cited in the
same manncr as those found in nonconsccutivell' paginated periodicals (rule
16.5) with three exceptions: (i) whcn appropriate, designatc the work as an
"Editoriatl"'Opinion" or "Letter to the Editor," in ordinary roman rypc, after
thc author's name but beforc thc title , or at thc beginning of the citation if thcrc
is no author; (ii) aftcr the dirte, givc the designation of the section in which the
piccc is found in a parenthetical if necessary to idcntily the pagc unambiguously;and (iii) givc only the first p:rgc of thc piece and do not indic:rte the location of specilic materill. Substitute "Letter to the Editor" or another designation for the titlc whcn no scparate title is provided. Citations to signed articles
should inclucle the author's full name (rule 16.2);citations to unsigned pieces
should begin with the title of the piccc:
*" Ari L. Goldman. O'Connor Worns Politicians Risk Excommunicotion
over Abortion, N.Y. TTMES, lune r5, r99o, at Ar.
':; Cop Shoots Tire, Halts Stolen Car, S.F. CHnon., Oct. ro, 7975, at 43.
:'
Jane Gross, Silent Right: Lawyer Defends Principles from Her Joil
Cell, Cur. Tnre., Mar. 3, lggr, S 6, at 6.
,r" Nancy Reagan, Editoriat, /usf Soy "Whoa,"
Wrll
Sr. J., lan.23,
t996, at M4.
'r. Wittiam
J.
Ctinton, Opinion,AIDS ls Not a Deoth Sentence,N.Y.
TrwrEs, Dec.
t,2oo2,5 4, at
9.
r:
Editorial, Pricing Drugs,Wrsu. Posr, Feb. r7, zoo4, at ArB.
,r
Michaet Harwood, The Ordeal: Life as a Medicol Resident, N.Y.
Ttrues, June 3,7984,5 6 (Magazine), at 38.
(b) Place of publication. Include the place of publication in ordinary roman
tlpe in parentheses following the name of the newspaper if not clear from the
name:
)
Trial Judge
Will Not Give Enquiry Evidence, TtMEs (London), June r3,
Lggo, at3.
)
Nancy Johnson, Letter to the Editor, Cnnon. Hte Hrn Eouc. (D.C.),
Oct. 8, 2oo4, at A55.
(c) Consecutively paginated newspapers. Cite an article in a newspaper
paginated consecutively by volume according to
I
rule 16.4:
New York County Lowyers Association: Edwin M. Otterbourg to
Represent the Association in House of Delegotes of American Bar
Association, rz4 N.Y. L.l. rzzr (rSSo).
(d) Wire services. Articles derived from wire services should be cited to a
print newspaper in which they are published (rule 16.6(a)), a commercial
electronic database (rule 16.6(e)), or a webpage (rule 16.6(f)). Include the
name of the wire service (in large and small caps) only if the citation is to the
wire service itself:
)
Richard Carelli,ludges' Financial Reports Hit Web, AssoctarEo
Pness, June 22,2ooo, zooo WL
)
4358974.
Kevin Drawbaugh, Obama, Edwards Hit Lobbyists on Private Equity
Iax, Reurrns, Oct. 9, zoo7, http://www.reuters.com/articte/
politicsN ews/ id US N o94z zr 9o2oo7 roo9.
)
Record Labels Sue LimeWire for Enobling Music File-Sharing,
FOXN rws.co m, Au g. 6, zoo7, http | | www.foxnews.com /
story I o,2933,2o7 z87,oo.html.
(e) Commercial electronic databases. News reports published in electronic
16,8:
databases may be cited according to
I
lustice Minister Calls for Solving lnternational Legol Conflicts,
JnpnH EcoH. NewswrnE Plus, Apr. 22, tg9!, at r, DIALOG, Fite
No.
)
de
6rz.
lnfoUSA Tells Shareholders to lgnore Hedge Fund, Reurens , May 4,
zoo6, Factiva, Doc. No. LBAoooozoo5 o5o 4e25 4ootvp.
(f) Internet and online
newspapers. Online newspapers may be used in
place of print newspapers. Cite to the online source directly in accordance with
rule 18.2.2. Pagination can be included if available but is not necessary. If the
time of posting is available, include it in the parentheses in accordance with
18.2.2.
de
)
John M. Broder, Geography ls Dividing Democrats over Energy,N.Y.
Trmrs, Jan. 27, zoo9, at At.
becomes: John M. Broder, Geography Is Dividing Democrats
ov e r E n e rg y, N.Y. Tr rvr Es tJan. 27, 2OO9), http: | | www. nyti mes.
com I zoog I ot I z7 | science I ea rth / z Z coa l. h tm l.
o
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Special Citation Forms
16.7
Student-Written Law Review Materials
16.7.r
(a) Signed, student-written materials. Signed and titled notes, comments,
pfoiccts, etc. are cited in the same manner as any other signed article in a law
revicw (rule 16.4), with the author's full name in ordinary roman type at the
bcginning of the citation (rule 16.2), exccpt that the designatkrn of the piccc
should appear beforc the title of the work (rule 16.3) to indicate that it is
student-written.Citc student-written book reviews according to rule 16.7.1(c).
with writing or contributing to the piece anlqrhere within the issue in which the work appearson the lirst pagc of thc piece, at the end of the piece, or in the table of contents.
If a student work is signed only with initials, it is considcred unsigned:
A student work is considcred signed if a student is credited
u, Etlen London, Comment, A Critique of the Strict Liability Standard
for Determining Child Support in Cases of Mole Victims of Sexual
Assault ond Statutory Rape, t5z U. Pn. L. Rev. ry57, t959-63
(zooa).
rr. B. George Baltman, Jr., Note, Amended Rule 6.t: Another Move
Towords Mandatory Pro Bono? ls That What We Wqnt?,7 Gro. J.
Le
.'
cnr ErHrcs tt39, tt6z n.g5 Q99Q.
Barry l. Pershkow, Recent Development, Maryland v.Craig: AChild
Witness Need Not View the Defendant During Testimony in Child
Abuse Cases,65 TuL. L. REV. 935, 938,94t1t99r).
Signed, student-writtcn commentary that is shorter, that falls under a designation such as "Reccnt (,ase," "Recent Statute," "Recent Dccision," "Case Note ,"
"Recent Development," or'Abstract," and that carries no title or merely a digcstlike heading should bc cited by author folbwed by thc dcsignation of the piccc
as provided in thc periodical, both in orclinary roman typc.lVhcn appearing in
the title, a case or strtute citation should bc fbrmatted according to the typeface
conventions in rule 16.3. Thus:
l.
Catherine Hauber, Note,30 U. Kau. L.
'.
Salty Anne Moore, Recent Case, H.L. v. Matheson,
(t99t),5o U. Ctu. L. Rrv. 867, 868 (t98r).
Rrv.6u
(r9Bz).
rct
S. Ct.
tt64
Not: Sally Anne Moore, Recent Case, Constitutional Law-Right of
P riv ocy
- Ab o rti o n - Fam i ly Law - Pare n t o n d Ch i ld - Sta n di n g - As
Applied to Immature, Unemancipoted and Dependent Minors, a
State Stotute Requiring a Physicion To Notify a Pregnant Minor's
Parents Prior to the Performing of an Abortion ls ConstitutionalH.L. v. Matheson, rct S. Ct. tt64 ?g9i, So U. Cru. L. Rev. 867, 858
(rg8r).
(b) Unsigned, student-written materials. Cite unsigned notes, comments, and
shorter commentary by the designation given by the periodical, such as "Note,"
"Comment," "Case Comment," "Project," "Recent Case," "Case Note," ctc.,
in ordinary roman type, followed by the titlc of the piece , if an1', in italics:
ilh
Note,A Bad Man ls Hard to Find,rzT Hnnv. L. Rev. z5zr (zo14).
)
Hnnv. L. Rev.4r9, 425-27
)
)
o
o
Case Comment, Evidentiory Use of a Criminal Defendant's Reoding
Habits and Political Conversotions: United States v. Giese, 93
Ggl).
RecentCase, z4VnHo. L. Rrv.
t48,t5t-52(tglo).
I
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Recent Case, American Civil Liberties Union of lllinois v. Alvarez,
679 F.3d 583 Oth Cir.
zotz),t26
Hanv. L. REv.
u6z (zotl).
When there is no separable designation, italicize the entire title:
)
Developments in the Law-The Law of Cyberspace,tt2 Hanv. L.
Rw. t577, t6z4 n.95 bSgil.
b
The Supreme Court,
ry98 Term
368,378 n.6o (tggg).
-
Leading Cases,
n3
Hnnv. L. REv.
(c) Student-written book reviews. If a review is written and signed by
a
student,include the author's name and the designation"Book Note"(regardless
of the journal's designation) to indicate that it is student-written, followed by
the title, if any. Add a parenthetical indicating the work under review if relevant
to the purpose of the citation and not clear from the surrounding discussion:
)
Wiltiam Dubinsky, Book Note, go MrcH. L. Rev. r5rz (1992)
(reviewing DrNrel A. FeneEn & PHtLtp P. Fnrcrev, Law nHo PueLrc
CrorcE GSSI)).
)
Nathaniel A. Vitan, Book Note, lrons vs. Rehnquist: A Critical
Review ofPeter lrons'Brennan vs. Rehnquisl,12l.L. & Pou r4r
Ggg).
An unsigned, student-written book review should be cited in the same manner
as other unsigned student works, with a parentheticd citing the work under
review ifrelevant:
)
Book Note, letUs ReasonTogether, uz Hnnv. L. Rev. gS8 (rggg)
(reviewing PrEnne ScHue, Tnr ExcHnHrMENr oF RensoH GSSS)).
16.7.2 Non-Student-Written Book Reviews
Give the frrll name of the reviewer according to rule l6.2,alrtd the title of
the reyiew in italics. Include a second parenthetical after the date parenthetical indicating, if relevant to the pulpose of the citation and if not clear from
the surrounding discussion, the author, title, and publication date of the book
reviewed.If it is unnecessary to identify the book under review, simply include
the words'book review" in the second parenthetical:
)
Colin S. Diver, Second Governance and Sound Law,89 MrcH. L.
Rev. 1436 (r99r) (reviewing CHnrsroenEn F. Eolsv, Jn., Aorvrrr.rtsrRATtvE Lnw: RerxtrurtNG JuDtctAL Conrnol or Bunreucnncv
Gsso)).
)
Bruce Ackerman, Robert Bork's Grond lnquisition, gg Yrr-e L.l.
t4t9,
t422-25 (rggo) (book review).
If
a non-student-writt€n review is untitled, cite it by the designation "Book
Review"; it is unnecessary to include a second parenthetical unless there is a
need to identify the book under review:
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" Howard
C.
Westwood, Book Review, 45 U. CHt. L.Rev.255 Q97).
Symposia, Colloquia, and
Surveys
16.7.3
When citing a symposium, colloquium, or colloquy as a unit, do not give any
author, but include "Symposium;'"Colloquium," or "Colloquy" in roman typc
bcfore the title unle ss made cle ar by the title. Cite the first page of the lirst piece:
a- Symposium, Chonging Images of the
State,roT Hnnv.
L.
Rrv. tr79
Gggq).
't* The Brennan Center Symposium on Constitutional Law,87 Cnrtr. L.
Rrv. ro59 (1999).
If an article is part of a survey of the law of onc iurisdiction, thc title of the
article should incorporate the title of the survey as follows:
lp Atain A. Levasseur, Sales, The Work of the Louisiana Appellote
Courts for the ry77-t978 Term, 39 Ln. L. REv. 7o5 Og7).
Cite an individual article within a symposium, colloquium, colkrquy, or survcy
in the same manner as any other article :
F
Eric A. Posner, Law, Economics, and
Rev.
F
lnefficient Norms, t44 U. Pn.
L.
$97 $996).
Kevin R. Vodak, Comment, A Plainly Obvious Need for NewFoshioned Municipal Liability: The Deliberote lndifference Standord and Board of County Commissioners of Bryan County v.
Brown,48 DrPnur- L. Rev. Z8S (rggg).
Commentaries and Other Special
Designations
16.7.4
When citing a "Commentaryj"'Tribute,""ln Memoriam," or other special article designation, the designation should appear in roman type after the author's
name but before the title. If the author is unnamed or if the iournal's editors
are listed as the authors, the designation should appear at the beginning of thc
citation. "Commentary" should not bc confused with "Comment," a term frequently used to describe student-written pieccs (rule 16.7. l,).
+
Alvin C. Warren, Jr., Commentary, Finoncial Controct lnnovation and
lncome Tax Policy,lo7 HARV. L. Rev. 46o (1993).
s
Sandra Day O'Connor, Dedication, Lending Light to Countless
Lamps: A Tribute to Judge Norma Levy Shopiro,152 U. PA. L. Rev. r
(zoo:).
F
Marguerite A. Driessen, Response, Not for the Sake of Punishment Alone: Comments on Viewing the Criminal Sanction Through
Latter-day Saint Thought, zoo3 BYU L. Rev. 94r.
Multipart Articles
To cite an entire articlc that appears in more than one part,identiry the numbers
of the parts in parentheses aftcr the article's main titlc and give the volume
number, first page, and publication ycar for each part:
16.7.5
)
Harlan F. Stone, The Equitoble Rights and Liabilities of Strangers to
a Contract (pts. r & z), r8 Cor-um. L. Rev. z9r (r9r8), r9 Colum. L.
Rev. r77 (r9r9).
If all of the parts appear in one volume, use the shortened form:
)
L.L. Fulter, Legal Fictions (pts.
r-l),
z5
lr-r-. L. Rev.
353, 5l3,,877
Gglo-tglt).
To cite only some parts of a multipart article, indicate which part or parts ar€
cited and give only the volume numbe(s), page number(s), and publication
year(s) of the part(s) cited:
F
L.L. Futter, Legal Fictions (pt. z),25lr-r-. L. Rev.
5t3,5t4993).
16.7.6 Annotations
Cite discussions in selective case reporters (srrch as American law Reports and
Lawyer's Reports Annotated) by the author's full name, followed by the desig-
nation"Annotation"in ordinary roman type and the title of the work in italics:
)
Ctaudia Catalano, Annotation, Unlawful Access lJnder Stored
Communications Act, t8 U.S.C.A. g zTot et seq., r A.L.R. Fed. 3d
Art. r (zor5).
16.7.7 Proceedings, Regular Publications by Institutes,
and ABA Section Reports
Cite
)
)
as
periodicals, abbreviating according to tables
TlO andTl3:
Herbert F. Goodrich, 4 nnual Report of Adviser on Professional Relations, 16 A.L.l. Pnoc. +8 (tglg).
George Vranesh, Water Planning for Municipalities, z4 Rocrv
Mrru. L.
Insr. 865
Mru.
GSZB).
If the volumes are unnumbered, use either the number of the institute (or proceedings) or the year of publication as a volume number; in the latter case omit
the parenthetical reference to the year:
P
David J. Beck, Crude Oil lssues, 30 lNsr. oN OtL & Gns L. & Tnx'ru
(tgtd.
)
)
Jutius L. Sackman, Landmark Cases on Landmark Law, t979
oN PLAN. ZoHrtlc & Eturnet,tr Dottnrru z4r.
lnst.
Wiltiam J. Curtin, Reverse Discrimination and Affirmative Action:
Practical Considerations for the Utilties lndustry, 1978 A.B.A. Sec.
Pue. UrrL. L. REp. 26.
Ifthe publication
is organized by paragraph or section numbers, use those num-
bers in citations:
)
r
Max Gutierrez,lr., Estote Planning forthe lJnmarried Cohabitant,
13 lrusr. ou Esr. Pur.r. fl t6oo (t979).
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To cite part of an article identificd by paragraph or section number, cite both
the Iirst paragraph or section number ofthe article and the paragrlph or scction
numbe r(s) where the relevant material appears. Add a page citation if necessary
for ftlrther identification (see
9
rule 3.3):
Watter F.O'Connor, Toxotion of Foreign lnvestors,33 lNsr. oN FED.
Tu'ru $ zz.ot, 5 22.04, at zz-to (t98o).
Newsletters and Other Noncommercially
Distributed Periodicals
16.7.8
Materials appearing in newsletters and other similar periodicals not commercially distributcd should be citcd in the same manner as nonconsecutively pagi
nated iournals and magazines (rule 16.5), except that a parenthctical shotlld
follow the titlc of the publication indicating the issuing group or organization
and its location. Abbreviate the name of the periodical according to tables T10
and T13 and abbreviate the name of the issuing institution according to rule
15.1(d):
? lndictment
of Pregnant Woman for Drug Use Dismissed, REPRoD.
Rrs. Uponre (ACLU/Reprod. Freedom Project, NewYork, N.Y.), Oct.
26, t99o, at 5.
'€'
Recent Grants, FCD Uponrg (Found. for Child Dev., New York, N.Y.),
Dec. r99o, at r, Z.
Electronic Media and Online Sources
L6.8
(a) Commercial electronic databases. When citing periodical materials to
a datlbase,
provide a complete citation to thc document according to rule 16
and a citation to the database. If the database assigns a unique identilier or code
to each document within the database, include that identifier or code to assist
the rcader in locating the document cited.
Some sources are available in two forms, electronic and papcr. To facilitate
, it is permissible to include a direct citation to a commer-
access to the source
cial electronic database:
F
T.R. Fehrenbach,TV's Alomo Tale Fairly Accurate, Snu Anroruto
Expnrss-NEws, Mar.
b'.
q,
ry96, at At, t996WL 2824823.
Justice Minister Calls for Solving International Legol Conflicts,
Jnpnru Ecor.r. Npwswtnr Prus, Apr. 22,7997, at r, D|ALOG, Fite
No. 6rz.
(b) Internet and online sources. Where
a
print version is accessible , citlttion
shoulcl be made to the print source.Where, however, the print source is diflicult
or inpossible to obtain or the governing authority has designated the electronic
source as the oflicial version, citation should be madc to the electronic sourcc
with consideration of rule 18's principles on authentication. If a periodical
sourcc is only lvailable online, cite to it directly in accordance with
rule 18.2.2,
L6.9 Short Citation Forms
Once a work in a periodical has been cited in fi.rll,use"id." ot"supra"to refer to
it in subsequent citations.
(a) Id. lf the work cited is the same as the immediately preceding authority
within the same footnote or as the sole authority within the immediately preceding footnote, use'id." and indicate any difference in page number:
)
)
)
)
)
1
Lynn Hirschberg, The Misfit, Vnrrry Flrn, Apr.
2
See id.; Recent Case,z4VeHo. L. Rev.
ry94at58.
r48, t48Q97o).
generally Abram S. Benenson etal., Reporting the Results
of Human lmmunodeficiency Virus Testing, z6z IAMA3$5 O98g)
(stating that actual laboratory results are often obscured by incorrect information).
3 See
+
ld. at3437.
s
See, e.9., Bruce Ackerman, Robert Bork's Grand lnquisition, gg
L.J. t4t9 Q99o) (book review). Compare rd. (arguing against
constitutionaI transformation by iudicial appointment) , with Book
Note, Monual Labor, Chicago Style, rct Hnnv. L. Rev. r3z3 (t988)
(arguing against stytistic transformation by self-appointment).
Ynrr
b)
Supra, Include the author's last name before "supra"; when there is no
author, use the title of the piece, or, if listed before or instead of a title, the designation of the piece . However, if the first citation to the work gives a hereinafter
form (rule 4.2(b)), use the hereinafter form in place of the author's name, the
title, or the designation. Give the footnote in which the firll citation appears
unless the full citation is in the same footnote, in which case"supro" may be
used without a footnote reference. In lus]filg a"supra" form, always indicate the
page or pages cited except when citing the work in its entirety:
)
Ackerman , supro note 5, att42'i see also New york County
Lawyers Association: Edwin M. Otterbourg To Represent the Association in House of Delegates of American Bor Association, tz4N.y.
6
L.l.tzzt
(r95o) [hereinafler Otterbourg To Represenf] (describing
internal politics) Note, Ihe Deoth ofa Lawyer,56 Colunn. L. Rrv.
6o6,5ot Ggs6).
)
7
Recent Case,supra note 2, at t5o. Butsee Randy E. Barnett,A
t Th e o ry o f Co nt ra ct, S6 Co lu rvr. L. Rev. 259, z7 5 Q9B6)
(noting circularity of reliance theory ofcontract); Jennifer Roback,
Southern Labor Law in the lim Crow Era: Exploitotive or Competitive?,5t U. Cxr. L. Rev. n6r, n64-65 (1984) (describing the importance of interaction between a competitive market and a racially
biased government).
Co n se n
)
8 Cf,
David Margotick,4t fh e Bar: Elitist yale Breaks precedent and
lnvites a Symbol of Populism to Preside at a Legal Rite, N.Y. Tlmrs,
Apr. rz, t99r,at 816 (describingthe reaction to students'decision
to invite Judge Wapner to preside over a mock-trial competition
at Yate). See generally Roback, supro note 7, at fl63(outlining
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four basic types of tegislation that aided enforcement of the labormarket cartel under Jim Crow laws).
O
)
a
b 10 Otterbourg to Represent, supra note 6; see o/so Note, supro note
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See Book Note, supra nole 5, for a cogent analysis ofthe more
significant flaws in the competing theory.
e
6 (discussing problems that arise upon the death of a lawyer). But
see Cop ShootsTire, Halts Stolen Cor, S.F. CHnon., Oct. ro, r975,at
43 (discussing the tegal ramifications of the officer's action).
For materials available only online, use the normal short form appropriate for
the source. A URL need not be rcoeated after a short citation.
T7
I]I\PTTBTISHED AND FORTHCOMING SOI]RCES
l7.l
Basic Citation Forms
Unpublished
manuscript
Jennifer Arlen, Public Versus Private Enforcement of
Unpublished
student work
Alexander J. Blenkinsopp, Honesty vs. Expedience: The
Deficient Jurisprudence of Punishment and the Legal
Labeling Game (Nov. r, zoo5) (unpubtished A.B. thesis,
Harvard University) (on fite with the Harvard University
Library system).
Securities Fraud n-t9 [une zz, zooT) (unpubtished
manuscript) (on fite with the Columbia Law Review).
Letter,
Memorandum from President Franklin Roosevelt to
memorandum, Attorney Gen. Robert H. Jackson 0uly r, rglg) (on file
or press release with the Harvard Law School Library).
E-mail
E-mail from Makau Mutua, Chairman, Kenya Human
correspondence Rights Comm'n, to author (Dec. 28, zoo5, r5:r8 EST)
(on fite with author).
Forthcoming
Eduardo Pehatver, Land Virtues, 94 ConHeu L. Rev.
(forthcoming May zoog).
publication
Vorking paper Dan Black et al., Demographics
of the Goy and
Lesbian Population in the United States: Evidence
from Available Systemic Date Sources 9 (Ctr. for Poticy
Research, Working Paper No. tz,t999).
17.2 Unpublished Materials
In general, cite unpublished materials not scheduled for publication by author;
title or description; page or pages, if applicable; the most precise writing date
available; and, if possible, information as to where the work can be located. Use
ordinary roman type. Refer to
10.8.1 when citing pending and unreported
cases and
source.
de
de
L2.6 when citing statutes too recent to appear in any published
If unpublished materials are subsequently collected and published, cite
according to
rule 15.5.2(b).
L7.2.1 Manuscripts
Cite unpublished (or not formally published) manuscripts not scheduled for
publication in ordinary roman type, beginning with the author's ftrll name (rule
16.2). The title of the work as ir appears on the ritle page should follow, capitalized according to de 8(a) (unless the title is not in English, in which case
follow rule 20.2.2(b)).Provide a subtitle only if it is particulady relevant. Do
not abbreviate words or omit articles in the title. The fi.rll date of the manuscript
should be enclosed in parentheses after the title of the work or the pincite.
Append parentheticals indicating that rhe work is unpublished and describing
where it can be found:
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h Anatoliy Bizhko,
Capitatism and Democracy zS (Feb. zg,zooo)
(unpublished manuscript) (on fite with author).
Also use this format for studcnt-written comments and notes written under faculty supervision for a law iournal, but not selccted for publication, with the
second parcnthetical indicating the type ofwork:
tu Victoria
E. Anderson, Company Outing: How Consensuat Retationship Agreements Adversely Affect Homosexual Employees rz (Mar.
t5, zoo4) (unpubtished comment) (on fite with the University of
Pennsylvania JournaI of Labor and Employment Law).
Dissertations and
Theses
17.2.2
Cite unpublished student-written materials, such as dissertations and thcses, in
the same manner as other unpublished manuscripts (rule 17.2.1), but add a
parenthetical after the date to indicate the t).pe of work and the institution that
awarded the degree:
tu Barbara G. Ryder, Incremental Data Flow Analysis Based on a
Unified Modet of Elimination Algorithms (Aug. r5, r98z) (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Rutgers University) (on file with author).
*'
Ambrogino Guisti, The Green Press: Mass Media and the U.S. Envi-
ronmental Movement ry45-1975 Gug.8, zooz) (unpublished B.A.
thesis, University of Washington) (on fite with the Suzzatlo and
Allen Libraries, University of Washington).
Letters, Memoranda, and Press Releases
17.2.3
lvhen citing unpublished letters, memoranda, and press telcases, identilv the
nature of the document and give the writer and addressee (if any) by name, titlc,
and institutional afliliation. Abbreviate title and institutional afliliation according ro tables T6 and T10:
r*' Letter from Michael Qin, Exec. Editor, Harvard Law Review, to Alexandra Zabierek, Exec. Editor, Harvard Law Review (Oct. r, zor4) (on
fite with the Harvard Law Schoot Library).
r'" Memorandum from the Ad Hoc Comm. on Women & Clerkships to
the Faculty of Yale Law Sch. r4 (Feb. u, r99r) (on fite with author).
$" Press Release, Screen Actors Guild, Screen Actors Guitd Haits
Passage of California Privacy Law (Sept. 3o, r99B) (on fite with
author).
TO
cite a letter written to the author of the work in which the letter is bcing
cited. omit the addressee's name and use "to author":
tr
Letter from Katie McCarthy, Exec. Editor, Harvard Law Review, to
author (May 4 zot4) (on fite with author).
E-mail Correspondence and Listserv Postings
When citing personal e-mail mcssages, analogize to unpublished letters (rule
17 .2.5). 'l'hc date of the message and the time stamp may be nceded for spccilic
17.2.4
@
identification of the message. Archival information may be included parentheti
cally and is recommended. The e-mail addresses of the sender and recipient are
not required, although they may be included if there is a neason for doing so:
)
E-mail from Mary Miles Prince, Assoc. Dir., Vanderbilt Law Library,
to Edward C. Brewer, lll, Assistant Professor of Law, Salmon
P.
Chase Coll. of Law (Sept. 26, t999, o6:15 CST) (on file with author).
Postings to listservs should follow a similar format,
author's e-mail address and the address of the listserv:
)
but should include the
When citing an in-person or telephone interview, include the name, title, and
institutional affiliation (if any) of the interviewee and the date of the interview.
For an in-person interview, provide the location of the interyiew before the
date. Abbreviate title, institutional affiliation, and location according to tables
T6 and T1O.
)
Telephone Interview with John J. Farretl, Senior Partner, Hildebrand,
McLeod & Nelson (Nov. u, 1999).
)
Interview with Aisha Rich, Managing Editor, Harvard Law Review, in
Cambridge, Mass. (Mar. 2,2ot4).
When the author has not personally conducted the intewiew, provide the name
of the interviewer:
Interview by Lauren Brook Eisen with Shane Spradlin, CEO, Nextel
Commc'ns, in Potomac, Md. (Mar. r, zooo).
17.2.6 Speeches and Addresses
When citing speeches and addresses (including those made at panels and conference presentations), identify the speaker by name. Add the speaker's title
and institutional aff,liation if they are included in the description or transcript
of the document,or if they would be particularly helpfrrl to the reader. The title
of the speech or address, pincite where available, and date of the speech should
follow. Abbreviate the speaker's title and institutional afiliation according to
tables T6 and TlO
)
Bradley Smith, Chairman, Fed. Election Comm'n, Keynote Address
at the University of Pennsylvania Law Review Symposium: The Law
of Democracy (Feb. 6, zoozr).
If the speech or address does not have
identifying information:
F
a
formal title, provide a description
with
Senator Hubert Humphrey, Address at the Harvard Law Review
Annual Banquet (Mar. 29, t958).
If the speech or
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Posting of Anastasia Pastan, apastan@act.org, to cara[l-talk@
yahoogroups.com (July 2t,2ot2) (on file with author).
17.2.5 Interviews
)
t
address has been transcribed but not published, include the
location of the transcript in a second parenthetical:
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ts Herbert Wechsler, Remarks at the Meeting of the Bar of the
Supreme Court of the United States in Memory of Chief Justice
Stone 5 (Nov. rz, 1947) (transcript available in the Columbia Law
Schoot Library).
lfthe speech or address has been published, citc using
rules 1.6(aXi) and 15.5.2(b):
an "in"
form according to
ts James A. Baker lll, U.5. Sec'y of State, Principles and Pragmatism:
American Policy Toward the Arab-lsraeli Conftict, Address Before
the American lsrael Public Affairs Committee (May zz, t989), in
Dep'r Sr. Bulr., Juty 1989,at24,24-25.
Forthcoming
Publications
17.3
Cite a book, article , or other work scheduled for publication in the same manner as thc published piecc would be cited, with the same typefaces, cxcept: (i)
do not include a pincite following the title of the journal or book; (ii) add the
designation "forthcoming" in thc date pare nthetical; and (iii) include thc month
of publication, if available, in addition to the year in thc date parenthetical:
lw Sarah Greenberger, Comment, Enforceable Rights, No Child Left
Behind, and Political Patriotism: A Case for Open-Minded Section
ry83 Jurisprudence, t5) U. Pa. L. Rrv. (forthcoming lan. zoo5).
tu SrnnH BnnntHcen Gonoon. THE TwtN Rrrtcs or Bnnenntsrvl (forthcoming zoor).
To cite a particular page of a forthcoming publication, add a second parenthetical with the manuscript page cite and a third with the krcation of the forthcom-
ing document. Omit volume number if not yet available
:
e F. Brandon
Baer & James M. Fetdman, We're Low on Vermouth: The
Trials ond Tribulations of Two SummerAssociates, r J.L. & OppnEs-
sroN (forthcoming zoor) (manuscript at 3) (on fite with authors).
17.4
Working Papers
When citing an unpublished work designated as a working paper, provide a
parenthctical indicating the name of thc sponsoring organization, thc working
paper designation and numbeq and thc year Abbreviate institutional entities
according to rule 15.1(d):
k' Alan J. Auerbach & Laurence
J. Kottikoff, National Savings,
Economic Welfare, and the Structure of Taxation z4-33 (Nat't
Bureau of Econ. Research, Working Paper No. 729, t98t).
F. Richard Briffautt, The Political Porties and Campaign Finance
Reform 16-17 (Cotumbia Law Sch. Pub. Law & LegalTheory
Working Paper Grp., Paper No. 72,2ooo), http://papers.ssrn.com/
sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id :2237 29.
When
ing to
a
work is designated
rule 17.2.1.
as a
working pape r, but is not numbcred, cite accord-
I7.5
Electronic Media and Online Sources
(a) Commercial electronic databases. When citing unpublished and forthcoming materials to a database, provide a complete citation to the document
according to rule l7,md a citation to the database. If the database assigns a
unique identifer or code to each document within the database, include that
identifer or code to assist the reader in locating the document cited.
)
Barbara G. Ryder, Incremental Data Flow Analysis Based on a
Unified Modet of Elimination Atgorithms (Aug. t5, t98z) (unpubtished Ph.D. dissertation, Rutgers University), zIPQDT St+61.
Some sources are available in two forms, electronic and paper. To facilitate
access to the source, it is permissible to include a parallel citation to a cofilmercial electronic database :
)
Cass R. Sunstein, Clear Statement Principles and National Security: Hamdan and Beyond,2006 SuP. Cr. Rev. (forthcoming zooT)
(manuscript at
q), http: I I ssrn.com/absllast
-iQ:)zz \06.
(b) Internet and online sources. When citing to
citation should be made according to
)
de
an
electronic source directly,
18.2.2.
See Press Release, Nancy Pelosi, Speaker, House of Representatives Pelosi Statement on Hate Crimes Legislation (Dec. 6, zooT),
http : / /spea ker. gov/ newsroom / pressre leas es?id: o 432.
17.6 Short Citation
Forms
Use the "id." and"supra" forms in the same manner as they are employed
for materials appearing in periodicals 1de 16.9) and non-periodicals (rule
15.10), substituting the name of the source in place of an author when no
author is listed, and enclosing a page citation to the manuscript version of a
forthcoming publication in parentheses:
)
l lnterview with Frank Van Dusen, President, Van Dusen Indus., Inc.,
in Rye, N.Y. (Feb. 15, zooo).
)
2
)
3SeeOetken, supranote z (manuscriptatr5); Davis, supranote2,
at rz; Press Release, Children's Def. Fund, 2.8 Million Children of
Mexican Heritage Are Among Nearly 4 Million Latino Children Living
in Poverty in the United States (May 5, zoo4) (on fite with author).
)
@
ld.; see also J. Paul Oetken, Note, Form and Substance in Critical
Legal Studies, roo Yete L.J. (forthcoming May zoor) (manuscript at
rz) (on file with author). Oetken points out inherent contradictions
in CLS rhetoric. See id. (manuscript at ro-rz); see also Adrienne
D. Davis, African American Literature and the Law: Revising and
Revisiting Freedom l-+ (Dec. rg8g) (unpublished manuscript) (on
fite with The Yale Law Journal) (describing depiction of the law in
slave literature).
Interview with Frank Van Dusen, supra note r; see Letter from
Asma Hasan to Michael Cannon z (Mar. 15, zooo) (on file with
4
author).
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$. 5 5ee Letter from Asma Hasan to Michael Cannon, supro note 4,
ar 3.
F.
6
See Press Release, Children's Def. Fund, supro nole 3.
For materials avlilable only online, usc thc normal short lbrm appropriate ftrr
thc sourcc. A URI need not be reoeated after a short citation.
1E
TIIE INTERNET, ETECTRONIC MEDIA, AI\ID OTHER
NOI\IPRINT RESOT]RCES
This rule covers citation of information found on the lnternet (rule LE.2);
widely used commercial databases such as Westlaw and LEtrS (rule 18.3);CDROMs (rule 1E.4); microform (rule f8.5); films, broadcasts, and noncommercial video materials (rule 18.6);and audio recordings (rule 18.7).
18.1
Basic Citation Forrns
(a) Internet Sources (rule 1E.2)
Authenticated or
official documents
Orrrcg or Mcmr. & Buocer, A New Enn or
REspoNstBtLtry: RENEwtNG Annenrcn's Pnomtse
(zoog).
Unaltered scanned
copies ofprint soufces
United States v. Grigg, qg8F.ldto7o,ro72-73
9th Cir. zooZ).
Documents for
Conference Report, German Soc'y for
ContemporaryTheatre and Drama in English,
which print copy is
practically unavailable
Mediated Drama/Dramatized Media: From
Boards to Screens to Cyberspace [une t7-zo,
t99), http: | | www p h ilh ist. u n i-au gsbu rg.de/
cdelconf 1ry99.
Electronic version
Slnra MoHtcl, Cll., MuH. Cooe ch. 3.zo
improvingreader (tgl6), http://qcode.us/codes/santamonica/.
acc€ss to source also
available in
print
Onlineonly sowces
Beru & Jennv's Homemnoe lce Cnennn, http:ll
www.benierry.com ([ast visited Oct. 6, zoo8).
Subheadings linked
David S. Cloud, Gafes Budget Eyes Next
Gen. Warfare, PoLrnco (Apr. e, zoo9,
: :S+ PM), http://www.politico.com/news/
from main page of
website
stories/o4o9lzuz3.html.
Dynamic webpages,
such as blogs
Asahi Shimbun, A-Bomb Disease
Ruling, JnpnnEse L. Br-oc (Mar.z7,zoo9,
9 :29 PM), http : //ja pa n ese law.blo gs pot.com
search?q=A-Bomb+Disease+Rulin g.
/
Driving Directions from N.Y.C. to New Haven,
Cl
Online sources
requiring form,query
or unwieldy URI
Gooe lE Mnps, http://maps.google.com
Online sources that
preserve original
pagination, such as a
Kenneth W Simons, Retributivists Need Not and
Should Not Endorse the Subjectivist Account
of Punishmenf, ro9 Cot-utvt. L. Rev. Storenn r,
PDF
I (zoog), http://columbialawreview.org/wpcontent/uploa ds I zoog I ol I t_Simons.pdf.
(follow
"Directions" hyperlink; then search starting point
field for "NewYork, NY" and search destination
field for "New Haven, CT"
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Dynamic websites,
such as blogs, within
larger websites
Vanessa Wiltiams, "The Cosby Show" and
the Black American Dream, WnsH. Posr:
SHe rHE People (Oct. rz, zor4), http://www.
washin gtonpost.com/blogs/she-the-peopte/
wp I
zot4l to I tz/the-cosby-show-and-the-btack.
american-dream.
Social media posts
b i n (@J effreyToo b i n), Tw rrre n (Au g.
30, 2074, 6:ro AM), https://twitter.com/
JeffreyToobin/status/ 5o57o 4t45o35 4688oo.
Archivcd sources
Rocio Gonzalez, Puerto Rico's Status Debate
Continues os Island Marks 6t Yeors as a
Commonwealth, Hurrrncron Posr (July 25,
2ot3, gioo AM), http: //www. h uffi n gtonpost.
com I zot3 | o7 I z5 I puerto-rico-statusdebate_n_365r75 5.html
Jeff rey Too
Ihttp://perma.cclC6UP-96H N].
(b) Non-Internet Electronic Sources (rules 18.3-.7)
Commercial electronic
databases
Bissinger v. City of New York, Nos. o6 Civ.
z3z5(WHP), o6 Civ.4z6(W HP), zooT WL
zszltS!, at*3 (S.D.N.Y. Sept. z+,3oo),
Electronic storage
media
46 C.F.R. 5 SZ.roS(a) (Westlaw Desk Code of
Federal Regutations CD-ROM, current through
luly t, 1999).
Microform collections
Petition for Writ of Certiorari for DefendantAppetlant, Cosman v. United States, 47tU.S.
uoz (1985) (No. 8+-rSBS), microformed on tJ.S.
Supreme Court Records and Briefs (Microform,
ln
Films and
broadcasts
Commercial audio
llcgdinss
c.).
THr GoornrHen (Paramount Pictures r97z).
BEyoNcE, DnrucrnousLv tN LovE (Cotumbia
Records zoo3).
Videotape: Andrew Haber Monologue Series
(Scarsdale A/V Services zooS) (on fite with
Non-commercial
recordings
author).
This American Life: Mistokes Were Made,
CHrcnco Puelrc Reoro (Apr. r3, zoog)
(downloaded using iTunes).
Podcasts
The Internet
r8.2
Tbe Bluebook requires the use and citation of traditional printed sources when
available, unless there is a digital copy
ticated, official,
14.2.1.
of the source available that is authenas described in rule
or an exact copy of the printed sourcc,
The
des
that follow offer guidance in formatting Inte rnet citations. Rule 1E.2.1
lays out general principles applicable to all Internet citations. Rule 18.2.2 sets
out rules for direct citations to Internet sources. E-mails should be treated as
unpublished letters per rwle 17.2.4.
18.2.1 General Internet Citation Principles
(a) Sources that can be cited as if to the original print source.
When
an authenticated, oflicial, or exact copy of a source is available onlin€, citation can be made as if to the original print source (without any URL information appended). Many states have begun to discontinue printed official legal
resourccs, instead relying on online versions as the oflicial resourceS for administrutive or legislative documents. The federal govemment is also moving toward
increasing access to online versions of legal documcnts, though it continues to
publish official print versions.
(i) Authenticated documents. When citing to such materials,Tbe Bluebook
encourages citation to "authenticated" sources: those that use an encryptionbased authentication method, such as a digital signature or public key infrastructure, to ensure the accuracy of the online source. Generally, an authenticated
document will have a certiicate or logo indicating that a government entity
verilied that the document is complete and unaltered.
(ii) Official versions.
Some states have designated, either by legislation or
other oflicial mechanism, that the online source is the "oflicial" source for a
particular legal document. Some online publishers similarly make a distinction
as to whether the document has been approved by, contributed by, or harvested
from an official source by the content orilainator, designating such a document
"oflicial." Generally, The Bluebook prefers citation to an authcnticated source,
or, if none is available, to the "official" source
.
(iii) Exact copies. An exact copy is one that is an unaltered copy ofthe printed
source in a widely used format that preserves pagination and other attributes of
the printed work (such as Adobe's portable document format, or "PDF").
(b) Sources where the URL should be appended.
(i) Obscure sources. If the cited information is available in a traditional source
but such source is so obscure as to be practically unavailable, or if a parallel
citation to an Internet source will substantially improve access to the source
cited, citation should be made both to the traditional source and to the Int€rnet
source by appending the URL directly to the end of the citation.
(ii) Online sources with print characteristics. If an online source
shares
the characteristics of a print source such that it could be fully cited according
to another nl/le in Tbe Bluebook, the citation should be made as if to the print
source and the URt appended directly to the end of the citation, even if it is
unknown whether the cited information is available in print.
b
FED.
Tneoe Courvr'r.r. Cor.rsumen Fnnuo rH THE UNTTED Srnres
tz (zoo7), http://www.ftc.gov/sites/default/fi les/documents/
n ited-states-second-federat-trademission-survey-staff-report-federat-trade/fraud.pdf.
reports/consu mer-fraud-u
com
F Tim Ganser & Stan Veuger, Strategic Voting in Proportional
Representation Systems 28-29 (Am. Enter. Inst., Working
Paper No. 2ot4-o2, zot 4), http: I lwww.aei.org/wp-content/
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To share the characteristics of a print source, an onlinc source must be I version pcrmanently divided into page s with permanent plge numbers, as in a PDI
and h:rve the elements that charactcrize a given print source, such as a volume
number (for law review articles lnd the like) or publication dtte (f<rr maglzine
articlcs and the likc).
If an online source can be firrmattcd in full compliance with another rr.rle in ?"/:e
Bluebook,for purposes of citation style it does not matter whether that source
has in fact bcen published in print. As noted above, traditional printed sotltccs
or authenticated digital copies arc required as a matter of authoritv; this does
not, however, affect the cit:ttion rules for print-like online sourccs.
(c) Order of authorities and parentheticals. A citation to an onlinc sottrce
that shares the charncteristics of a print sourcc such that it could bc fully cited
according to another rulc in The Rluebook docs not affcct thc order of authorities under rule 1.4. The source is ordcrcd in thc same waY that the traditional
printed sourcc would be:
b, See Marce{ Kahan & Edward B. Rock, Corporate Constitutionalism:
Antitakeover Chorter Provisions os Pre'Commitment, r5z U. Pn. L.
Rrv. (forthcoming Dec. zoo3), http://ssrn.com/abstract=416605
Interview with Morris Kramer, Partner, Skadden, Arps, State,
Meagher & Ftom, in N.Y.C., N.Y. (Mar. 4, 1997) (discussing the
limitations of shareholder rights ptans).
O
o
ploads/2o14/oz /-veuger-strategic-votin g-econ-working-
paper_o853o77 49t77.pdf
;
V/hen such a citation requires multiplc parentheticals, place them in the
order indicatcd in rule 1.5(b). Thus, the URL of a source cited in lccorclance
with rule 18.2.1(b) should follow format-related parentl'tctical infbrmation
(such as "on file with author," "unpublished manuscript," or "cmphasis added")
and rclated authority parenthcticals (such
explanatory parentheticals:
s
as
"citing" or "quoting"), but prccede
Poltv l. Price, Precedent and Judicial Power After the Founding,
4zB.C. L. REV. 81, 84 (zooo) (emphasis added) (citing Gutoo
Lnw ron rHE AGE oF SrArurES 4
CALABRESI. A Commoru
(rq8z)), http://lawdigitatcommons.bc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.
cgi?articte:2166&context:bclr (discussing precedent in the
context of statutory construction).
(d) Archival. Archiving of Intcrnet sources is encouraged, but only when
a
reliable archival tool is availablc. For citations to Internet sotlrces, append the
archive URL to thc ftrll citation in brackets:
lo Tom Goldstein, Somewhat Significont Settlement, SCOTUSeLoc
(Feb. z, zoo5, 8:5 4 PM), http: / /www.scotusblo g.com I zoo5 | oz I
somewhat-si gnifi cant-settlement Ihttp: / /web.archive.org/
web/ zoo5ozoSoBrgzz/www.scotusblog.com /movabtetypel.
p. Letter from Rose M. Oswald Poels, President/CEO, Wis. Bankers
Ass'n, to Elizabeth M. Murphy, Sec'y, SEC (Sept. r7, zor3), http://
www.sec.gov/comments/s7 -o3'q I s7 o3t3-r78.pdf Ihttp: I I perma.
cclBtZtDgDl\
18,2.2 Cftanons to Internet Sources
An Internet source that cannot be cited according to another rule n Tbe Bluebook rs stated in accordance with rule 18.2.1(bxii), should be cited as if
to the original print source in accordance with rule 1E.2.1(a) or according
to this rule. AII efforts should be made to cite ro the most stable electronic
location available. The Internet citation should include information designed to
facilitate the clearest path of access to the cited reference, including the title,
pagination, and publication date as they appear on the webpage. The Internet
URL should be separated by a comma and appended to the end of the citation.
(a) Author. When available,provide author information in ordinary roman type.
When no author is cleady announced,omit author information from the citation
unless there is a clear institutional owner of the domain. Abbreviate the name of
an institutional author according to rule 15.1(d):
F
Eric Posner, More on Section Z of the Torture Convention, VolorH
CoHsprnncv ()an. 29, 2oo9, 10:04 AM), http://www.volokh.com/
posts I tz33z4r45 8.shtm t.
)
Povement Plonning New Album Release, Guoe Mnc. (Nov.
6, zoog), http: / /www. glidemagazine. com | 48o7 I
pavement-planning-new-album-release.
If domain ownership is clear from the website's title, omit the name of the
institutiond author:
l
Durrrru' DoHurs, http://www.dunkindonuts.com (last visited Feb.
t,
>
zoog).
Butterfly Conseruatory,Aaa. MusEurvr Ner. Hrsr., http://www.
amn h.org/exhibitions/current-exhibitions/the-butterfly-conservatory. ([astvisited Nov. z5,zoo9).
The
For postings and comments, cite using the usemame of the poster. Comments
should include the author of the comment when available but need not include
the author of the original post:
)
Martinned, Comment to More on Section 7 of the Torture Convenfion, Vo Lo K H Co H s p r nncy (an. 29, 2oo9, rt:oz AM), http: / /www.
volokh.com/p osts | 1233247458.shtm1.
For social media feeds, provide the author's name if discernible and verifed.
If the author uses a username or handle on the social media platform, include
the username or handle in parentheses after the name or, if the name is not
discernible and verified, use only the username or handle. After author information, include the title of the post if applicable and the name of the social media
platform:
)
November Project, The Bubble ls GONE!, Faceeoox (Mar. t9, zot4),
https: //www.facebook.com / med ialset/?s et= a5$5 46258 4438to
.to7 37 4t983.2 46 449ot5 4635
3
7&type:r.
)
Wendy Davis (@wendydavistexas), lusncnnm, http://instagram.
com/wendydavistexas (tast visited May zo, zot4).
)
@LegatRebels, TwtrrER (Mar,24, zor4, ro:35 AM),
com /
LegalRebels/status/44 8t5t433zzzo6zo8o.
https://twitter.
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(b) Titles. Titles should bc used to indicate the location of the pagc being
vicwed in relation to the rest of thc site. Titles should be takcn either from the
"title bar" at the top of thc browser or from any clearly announced heading
identiffing thc pag€ as it appears in the browser. All efforts should bc made to
include a title that sufliciently identi-fies the pagc but that is not unwieldy, krng,
uninformativc, or confusing. Do not italicize descriptivc titles.
? Weird
and Dumb lnternationol Laws, JusrtcEDetrY.cotvt, http://
www.iusticedaily.com/weird/partz.htmt (tast visited May zr,
zoo4).
Not; Weird Law and Dumb Law-Legal Jokes, Lawyer Jokes, Humor,
Laur, J usrrce DAr Ly.coM, http ://www.lusticedaily.com I weird I partz.
htmt (last visited May zyzoo4).
(i) Main page titles. The citation should always include the homepagc or
domain namc of which the particular citation is a part, rcferred to here irs a
"main page title." Thc website 's main pagc title should be citcd using large and
small caps. Capitalization should conform to the title as it appears on the site.
Main page titles should be abbreviated in accordance with tables T10 and T13:
p Dntv
Kos, Hrrp://www.DAtLYKos.com
(nsr
vtslrED Jnru. 19, 2009).
(ii) Titles for pages other than the main page. The titlc of the spccilic
pages within the domain name and linked from thc main page, for example
postings or comments to postings, should also be included whcre relevant.
Titles to subheadings should appear in italics. Follow standard rules for capitalizing the titles of sources in accordancc with rule 8, even if the title bar uses
nonstandard capitalization. Wherc appropriate, subheadings should include language indicating the page's relation to the page to which it rcsponds:
*'
h
David Waldman, This Week in Congress, DntlY Kos
(an. r9, 2oo9, 68oio4AM), http: //www.dailykos.com
sto ryo n ly/ z oo 9 | t I $ I 45zzl I d,8g I 681 | 68S8oz.
/
Packerland Progressive, How ls Sec n5 Constitutional Under
INS v. Chadha?, Comment to This Week in Congress, Dew
Kos (.lan. 19, 2oog, 9: zo AM), http: / /www.dai lykos.com /
sto ryon lyl zoo 9 I r I 18 I 45zzl I q8g | 681 I 68 S8oz.
(iii) Titles for blogs contained within a larger wetrsite. If the cited source
is published under the name of I blog that hits its own content and presence
within a larger website, both the namc of the site and the name of thc blog
should be included:
qp
Emmarie Huetteman, zot6 Republican Prospects
Spor Over Llkraine, N.Y. Tttvtrs: Tue Cnucus (Mar. 9,
2074, 2i57 PM), http://thecaucus.blogs.nytimes.
com I zot4l oj I o9 | zo6-republican'prospects-spar-over-ukraine.
F Andrew Morse. Credif 5uisse
Is Lotest Swiss Bank Humbled by
Wnlr Sr. J.: L. Broc (May ry, zot4,
:o4 PM), http:// bto gs.wsi.com /[aw/ zo U I os I tg I cr edit-suisseis-tatest-swiss-ban k-humbled-bv-u-s-tax-evasion-crackdown.
IJ.S. Tax Evosion Crackdown,
5
(iv) Descriptive titles. If the page's headings are not su-fficiently clear,
a
descriptive title can be used:
)
Archive of Columns by Wiltiam Safire, N.Y. Ttmes, http://www.
nytimes.com/top/opinion/editorialsandoped/oped/columnists/
williamsafi re (last visited Jan. V, zoo4).
)
Review of The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy: Collector's Edition,
N Torvrnroes, http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/hitchhikers_guide-to-the-galaxy-the-collectors-edition (last visited
lan.6, zoot+).
Rorre
(v) Titles for social media posts. If the content is contained on a social media
website , place titles, if applicable, between the author information and the plat-
form identi.fication. Only include a title if one is cleady intended and conveyed;
otherwise omit:
)
November Proiect, The Bubble is GONE!,Fncrsoor (Mar. t9, zot4),
https: / /www.facebook.com /media/set/?set = a.5$6 46258 4438to
.to7 37 4t983.2 +6 ++gotS +615
)
Ted Cruz (@SenTedCruz),
)
Eugene Volokh, LrHxeorr,
37&type=r.
Twtrren (Mar.z7,zot4,935 AM),
https://twitter.com /SenTedCruz/statuses | 4492232o9o5833267 z.
http://www.tinkedin.com/pub/eugenevotokh/9alSbb/boz (last visited Mar. 27, zot4).
(c) Date and time. The date should be provided
as
it appears on the Intemet
site. Use only dates that refer clearly to the material cited. The date should be
Ashby Jones, Activists, Research Facilities Taking Disclosure Battles to Court, Wnu Sr. J.: L. Bloe (Feb. 26, zoo9,
9:+o AM), http://btogs.wsj.com/law/zo og I oz I z6 |
activists-research-facilities-taking-disclosure-battles-to-the-courts.
If there is no date
associated with the specific subiect matter of the citation,
"last updated"or"last modified"dates should be supplied in a parenthetical aft€r
the URL "Last updated" or "last modified" dates or copyright designations that
refer to a site as a whole should not be used for dynamic sites that are updated
regularly:
)
Date Fast, History of Biology and Medicine, SruHr )GvreR U.,
http://
faculty.sxu.ed u/ -fast/generat_biotogy/history.htm (last updated
Oct. 3r, zoor).
When material is otherwise undated, the date that the website was last visited
should be placed in a parenthetical after the URI:
)
YnHoo!, http://www.yahoo.com (last visited Dec. r5, zoo4).
If an archival tool that indicates when a sorrce was archived is utilized, it is not
necessary to include
a
o
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indicated after the main page title and any pinpoint citation:
)
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"last visited" parenthetical after the uRL.
Blogs and other dynamic sites that are updated frequently should include a timestamp whenever possible. Especially when the citation is for a comment to a
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posting or is othcrwise easily idcntifiable by the time of its posting, the timestamp listcd on the subhcading should be included with the date
F
:
Donn Zaretsky, Ruling ls a Setbock for Sports Artist, Anr L. Bloc
(Aug. 25, 2oo9, 10:51 AM), http://theartlawblog.btogspot.com'
(d) The URL. A site 's Internet address, or URL, shoulcl point reaclers directly
to the source cited rathcr than to an intervening page of links. If thc tlRL is
straightforw'ard, thcn citc the entirc tlRL as it appcars in the addrcss bar of thc
browser:
k
stanley Kubrick Biography, MDB, http://www.imdb.com/name/
nmooooo4o/?ref-:nv-sr-2 (last visited Feb. zB, zor5).
Not: Stanley Kubrick Biography, IMDB, http://imdb.com (search in
search bar for "stanley Kubrick"; then follow "Biography" hyper[ink under "Quick Links") (last visited Feb. 28, zor5).
Alternativcly, thc root URL of thc site from which information is accessecl may
bc used if (l) the URL is long, unwieldl', or full of nontcxtual chamctcrs (such
as question marks, percentage signs, or ampersands); or (2) the source may only
be obtained by submitting a form or query. If thc root URL is used and the site's
format is not clear from the rest of the citation, a clarifring pare nthetical should
be addcd to explain how to access the specilic information to which the cita-
tion refers:
$e
http://fjsrc.urban.org/noframe/wqs/q-data-l.htm#zoor (foltow
"zoor: A0USC out" hyperlink; then foltow "Offenses: TTSECMO"
hypertink).
Not: http://fisrc. urban.org/noframe/wqs/q-e.cfm?cat=3&year=2oo1
&agency:AOU SC&saf:out&varr:TTS ECMSO.
Notc that some LIRLs arc case sensitive , so cite URLs
net browscr.
as tl-ley
appear in the Inter-
(e) Multiple URLs. Somc popular sites are scrved by more than one [lRL. In
these cases, a proper citation should use thc primary IJRL rather thm a IIRL that
links to an alternate server:
fi' MAcy's, http://www.macys.com (last visited
Feb. 28, zo15).
Not: Macv's, http://wwwr.macys.com (tast visited Feb. 28, zor5).
(f) Document format.
If a documcnt is avaihblc both in HTML formlt and in
widely used format that prescrves pagination and other attributes of printed
work (such as Adobe's portable documcnt format, or "PDF"), the latter should
alwal's be cited in lieu of an HTML document:
a
e" Etizabeth McNichot & lris J. Lav, New FiscalYear Brings No Relief
from lJnprecedented State Budget Problems, Crn. or BUDGET &
PoL'v Pntontrtes r (Sept. 3, zoog), http://www'cbpp.org/g-B'
oBsfp.pdf.
Not: Etizabeth McNichot & lris J. Lav, New FiscalYear Brings No Relief
from Llnprecedented State Budget Problelns' CENTER on Buoqrr
& Pot-'v Pntontrtes r (Sept. 3, zoog), http://www.cbpp.org/9-8o8sfo.htm.
(g) Pinpoint citations. If the cited document is rendered in a format that preserves t]le pagination of a print version (such as a PDF fite), pinpoint citations
should be provided where appropriate. Page numbers should always refer to
the numbers that appear on the document itself. Do not use "screen numbers,,
or other numbers that may appear in a software viewing window or scroll baf.
When there is pagination information available, it should be included between
the domain name and the date or URI,whichever comes fust.
fE.3
Commercial Electronic Databases
of the reliability and authoritativeness of LDilS,Westlaw, Bloomberg
and other commercial electronic databases such as Dialog, cite such
sources,ifavailable,inpreferencetotheothersourcescoveredbyrule lS.Citations to these electronic databases should be consistent with this present de
regardless ofwhether the databases are accessed through proprietary software
Because
Iaq
or through a website such as http://www.westlaw.com or http://www.lexis.
com. For guidance as to the specific use of commercial electronic databases, see
the following rules:
Cases..
Constitutions
Statutes.
Irgislative Materials.
Regulations
.rulelo.8,l
....dell
. tule 12.5
..... de
13.7
.....ru1e14.4
Books, Reports, and Other Nonperiodic Materials. . . . . . . . . . .
PeriodicalMaterials...
rule 15.9
... rule 16.g
r8.4 CD-ROM and Other Electronic Storage Media
(a) Print form preferred. lnformation found on CD-ROM or other medium
of electronic distribution (flash drive, etc.) is usually available in print form, and
citation to the print form is preferred. If the information is accessed by electronic storage medium, however, it should be cited to that medium.
(b) Citation forrnat. When citing CDROM or other similar media, include the
title of the material, the publisher of the CDROM, the version searched, and the
date of the material, if available, or the date of the version searched. The information may be provided in a sourcedate parenthetical or, if the information is
voluminous, as related authority (de 1.6):
)
Coluen oN BANKRUpTcy fl Zoo.o2 (Matthew
Bender Authority Bankruptcy Law CD-ROM, rel. 13, Aug. 1999).
7 Lnwneruce P. Krr.tc,
1E.5 Microform
1E.5.1 Microform Collections Reproducing preexisting Materials
In general, when a document is reproduced in microform, it is not necessary
to indicate this fact unless it would otherwise be diffcult for a reader to identify and obtain the source.When citing material as,,microformed on,, a service, provide a complete citation to the original document and a citation to the
microform in accordance with de 1.6 regarding citations to related authority.
If the microform service assigns a unique identifier or code to each document
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rcproduccd, include that identifier to assist the reader in bcating the documcnt
cited. Includc the name of thc publisher of the microform serics in parenthes€s,
abbreviated according to rule 15.1(d):
tit. 26,$ 4-263r(g) (Barctay's r99o), microformed
on Cal. Code of Reg. r99o Revised Format, Fiche r43 (Univ. Micro-
fe' Cnr-. Cooe REGs.
forms Int't).
B' AppLrcATroN oF EMployER Snrcrtots ro LoNGSHoRE Wonr, H.R.
Rep. No. ror-zo8 Q989), microformed on CIS No. 89-H523-r7
(Cong. Info. Serv.).
$F S.
1237,991h Cong. 5 sos (rg8s), microformed on Sup. Docs. No. Y
(U.S. Gov't Printing Office).
r.4lt:99-t237
Microform Collections Containing Original Materials
18.5.2
When a microform collection contains matcrials original to that collection,identi$ the microform set and its publisher, and use the publisher's system for identifying intlividual forms within the set. Use rule 18.5.1 as a guidc.
Films, Broadcasts, and Noncommercial Video
Materials
Cite lilms in large and small capitals, and television or radio broadcasts in italics, by title, episode namc (if available), and exact date (if available). Include thc
name of the company or network that produced thc lilm or broadcast. If there
is no information as to the producer of the broadcast, include the name of the
company or network that aired the broadcast:
"
ArnplnruE! (Paramount Pictures r98o).
p
Low & Order: Tobula Rasa (NBC television broadcast Apr.
zt,t99).
(lite video materials containing images that havc not been commercially displayed or broadcast by the medium of the material, the title of the video or DVI)
(if any), the name of the person or institution that produced thc video, and thc
year of production. Timestamps may bc used for designating pinpoint citations,
but they are not required:
;* Videotape: Installing Your CLS-zoo9 (Emity Weiss Etectric Co.t995)
(on file with the Arlington Pubtic Library).
F
DVD: 2oo4 Yale Law Revue (Yate Media Services zoo4) (on file with
author).
When a television broadcast is also available online, a citation to the online
source is acceptable in accordance with rule 1a.2.2.
If the video was originally broadcast online, cite per rule 18.2.2 for dynamic
with the gener.rl principles of this rule , all efforts should
be macle to cite to the distinct URL for the specific video. Use the creator of
the vidco as thc author if available; otherwise treat thc person who posted thc
video as the author.When the site indicates that thc video contains contents
from another source, use an explanatory parcnthetical to indicatc that sourcc:
websites. Consistent
+
Periodicvid eos, Chocolate and Roses (version i - Periodic Table of
Videos,YouTu er (Feb. ro, zoog), htlp: I I www.youtube.com /watch
?v:3ALAZdsguOB&feature:dir.
18.6
t
lE.7 Audio Recordings
18.7.1 Commercial Recordings
Cite commercial recordings by artist and album title or record title, providing
the name of the recording company and the date of release (if available):
F
MC HnmmEn, Plense Hntrmen
1990).
F
Benrles, Scr. PeppEn's LoHely HEanrs CLua BnNo (Capitot
Records rygo) Gg6).
Don'r Hunr'Em (Capitot Records
THe
If a particular song or musical work is referred to, cite it by analogy to shorter
works in a collection according to rule 15,5.1. Timestamps may be used for
designating pinpoint citations, but they are not required:
)
EnnrH, Wrr'ro & Ftr., September, onf ue BEsr
Frnr, Vol. 1. (Am. Recording Co. r97B).
or
EARTH, WtND
&
18.7.2 Noncommercial Recordings
If the recording referred to is not commercially available, use ordinary roman
tJpe and indicate parenthetically where a copy may be obtained. Timestamps
may be used for designating pinpoint citations, but they are not required:
)
Audio tape: Conference on Business Opportunities in Space, held
by the Center for Space Policy, lnc., and the Commonwealth of
Massachusetts (Mar. 3-5, rg86) (on file with author).
1E.7.3 Podcasts and Recordings Available Online
If the audio recording was accessed online or is available only online, it should
be cited using the principles of rule 18,2.2. If there is no stable URI available
to facilitate acc€ss to the source, an explanatory parenthetical should be added
explaining how the source should be accessed. Timestamps may be used for
designating pinpoint citations, but they are not required:
)
War
of Words: ludith Thurmon Discusses Scrabble, Both Online and
New Yonrrn (Jan. r9, zoog),http:l lwww.newyorker.com/
Off,Inr
on li
)
n
e/zoo9/o
rI
g
I ogottgon_a ud io_th
u
rma n.
Splitting Verbs, Grammor Girl's Quick and Dirty Tips for Better
Writing (Feb. 26, zoog) (downloaded using iTunes).
r8.8 Short Citation Forms
(a) Internet, When citing to a previously referenced lnternet site, us€ a,,supra,'
form with the last name of the author, if any, or the ritle or descriprion of the
document. "/d. " may also be used in accordance with rule 4. If various subsections of a website with no author are cited or if more than one posting by a
given author is cited, include the subsection title. A URI need not be reoeated
after a full citation:
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1See Dougtas Gantenbein, Mad Cows Come Home, Smre (Jan.
5,
2oo4, 72iro PM), http://www.slate.com/articles/news-and-poli-
tics/the_best_policy I zoo
4I
orl mad_cows-come-home.htm
b 2 Prrzrn, luc., http://www.pfizer.com
r*,
3
(tast visited lan.
q,
[.
zoo4).
Gantenbein, supro note 1; PFtzER, lttc., suprc note z.
(b) Commercial electronic databases. For mlterials availablc on an electronic thtabase, use a unique databasc identilier, if onc has becn assigncd, in
constructing a short form:
.r'"
Int'l Snowmobile Mfrs. Ass'n v. Norton, No. oo-CV-zz9-B, zoo4 WL
2337372, at *3 (D. Wyo. Oct. t4,zoo4).
beco mes :
I
n t' I S n
owm
o b i Ie,
zoo 4 W L 2337 37 z, at * 3.
?' Chavez v. Metro. Dist. Comm'n, No. 3:ozCV458(MRK), zoo4 U.S.
Dist. LEXIS ttz66,at *5 n.3 (D. Conn.lune yzoo4).
becomes: Chavez, zoo4 U.S. Dist. LEXIS
uz66,at*5n3.
(c) CD-ROM and microform. When citing a separltcly published docttment
avlilablc on CD-ROM or microfirrm, use the short form appropriatc f<rr tltc originll document; it is not ncccssary to inclicate the source oncc it has bcen given
in the Iirst ftlll cit:rtion.
(d) Films, broadcasts, and audio recordings.
rnd auclio recordings,"id.
" and
"supro"
n-ray
Whe n
citing films, broaclcasts,
be used according to
rule
4:
t, Nightline: Microsoft Monopoly
(ABC television broadcast Apr. 3,
2ooo) (transcript on file with the Columbia Law Review).
I+
p-- 5
ld.
:,= 6
See rd.; Menr Loar, For Crying Out Loud, on Bar Our oF HELL
(Epic Records 1977).
c / MEAr Loer, supra
note 6; see also Nightline: Microsoft Monopoly,
(describing
Microsoft's response to the court ruting).
note
supro
4
rg
SERVICES
Cases, administrative materials, and
brief commentaries are often published
unofficially in topical compilations called'services," which appear in looseleaf
form initially and are sometimes published later as bound volumes. Consult
Legal Looseleafs in Print,wfuch is updated annually, for a comprehensive listing ofservices. Rule 19.1 provides rules for citing services. Some services are
no longer published in print or ane otherwise available online.
l9.l
Citation Form for Services
Cite services by volume, abbreviated title in ordinary roman type, publisher,
subdMsion, and date. If the source is a case, include the abbreviated name of
the court in the same parenthetical as the date, as you would under rule 10.4.
Consult table T15 for service and publisher abbreviations; if a service is not
listed, refer to table T13 to abbreviate the words that make up its title:
)
)
/n re Smithfield Estates, Inc., [t985-r986 Transfer Binder] Bankr. L.
Rep. (CCH) Iito,7o7 (Bankr. D.R.l. Aug.9, 1985).
SEC v. Tex.
Int'lAirlines, z9 Fed.
R.
Serv. zd (West) +o8 (D.D.C.
197il.
)
Kovacsv. Comm'r, 74A.F.f .R.zd (RtA) 354
6thCr.Lg9d.
When citing looseleaf material that will eventually be bound, add the name of
the bound form in parentheses if it is different from the name of the looseleaf
form;include the volume of the bound form if available:
)
Marietta Concrete Co., 3 Lab. Rel. Rep. (BNA) (8+ Lab. Arb. Rep.
(BNA)) n58 (May 7, 1985).
When citing to services found on a commercial electronic database, provide a
parallel citation to the database, including the database identifier and any codes
or numbers that identify the information.
)
Dynda Thomas, Conflict Minerals - You Have More to Worry About
than lust the SEC,38 Chem. Reg. Rep. (BNA) 186, l8 CRR 186 (BL)
(Feb. ro, zor4).
(a) Volurne. The volume designation of a service may be a number, ayear,a
descriptive subtitle from the volume's spine, or a combination of these. If the
volume designation includes words or a year, use brackets to avoid confusion:
a transfer binder, the volume designation should indicate the years
material included in that binder:
o
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) 5 Trade Reg. Rep.
) r979-t Trade Cas.
) [Current Developments] Hous. & Dev. Rep.
) lt979l8 Stand. Fed. Tax Rep.
) [z Wages-Hours] Lab. L. Rep.
) [r Estate & Gift] U.S. Tax Rep.
ln citing
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*
See
[t994-t995 Transfer Binder] Fed. Sec.
generally
L. Rep.
rule 3.1(a) (designation of volumes
and use of brackets).
a servicc, whether looseleaf or bound, must
indicatc the publisher Enclose an abbreviation of the publisher's name in parentheses following the service 's title . Consult table T15 for a list of service pub
lisher abbreviations; if a publisher is not listed, abbreviatc according to rule
(b) Publisher. Every citation to
15.1(d).
r
4 Lab. L. Rep. (CCH) Ilgoq6.
*. Ir982] rz Envtl.
L. Rep. (Envtl. Law Inst.).
services by paragraph or section number if possible,
otherwise by page number. See generally ru.le 3.2 (pages, footnotes, endnotes,
and graphical materials) and rule 3.3 (sections and paragraphs). Additionally,
a report number may be given if it will assist the reader in locating the cited
(c) Subdivision. Cite
material:
lslond Insurance Agents Agree Not to Rig Bids, [Jan.-June]
Antitrust & Trade Reg. Rep. (BNA) No. 967,at D-rr (June 5, r98o).
L* Rhode
w Domination of Markets, AMA Report Finds Consumers Have Few
Options, [Jan.-Feb.]Antitrust & Trade Reg. Rep. (BNA) No. 96, at 88
(zoo8).
a case reported in a scrvice, give the exact datc (for
looselcaf services) or year (for bound serviccs) of the casc (rule 10.5):
(d) Date. When citing
F
Defenders of Witdtife, lnc. v. Watt, ltgSzltz Envtl. L. Rep. (Envtt.
Law lnst.) zo,zro (D.D.C. May zB, r98r).
When citing a statute or regulation, give the exact date of its enactment or
promulgation unless thc exact date is indicated elsewhere in the citation:
tr ActofSept. z6,t9}o,
Food DrugCosm. L. Rep. (CCH)
fl5ff.
Citations to other material (such as articles or commcntary) should give the
exact date, if available.When citing otherwise undated material in a looselefi
service , give the date of the page on which the material is printed or the datc of
the subsection in which it is printed:
F ERl54 Preemption
Bills Draw Praise from Labor and Criticism from
Business, [Aug. r99r-June ry93lPens. Plan Guide (CCH) 1126,263,
a|27,o37-40 (Aug. z, r99r).
Short Citation Forms
(a) Cases. For cases, usc short citation fbrms as provided by rule 10.9. Include
the complete volume designation for the service bindcr and substitute paragraph or section numbers for page numbers where appropriate. If a case has
page numbers as well as paragraph or section numbers, you may cite individual
pages insteacl of the paragraph or section number in the short form to idcntif
specilic material. To cite the entire case in short form,givc the paragraph or section number of the case or the lirst pagc number of the case,without using"at":
rg.2
I
a
ln re Looney,1t987-r989 Transfer Binderl Bankr. L. Rep. (CCH) fl
72,447,at93,590 (Bankr. W.D. Va. Sept.9, 1988).
>
2ld.
)
)
t ld. at93,591.
a
Defenders of Witdtife, Inc. v. Watt, ltgSzlrz Envtl. L. Rep. (Envtt.
Inst) 2o,2to, zo,zu (D.D.C. May 28, r98r).
Law
|
5
)
6
ln re Looney,[t987-r989 Transfer Binded Bankr. L. Rep. (CCH) at
93,597.
Defenders of Wildlife,lrySzltz Envtt. L. Rep. (Envtl. Law Inst.) at
20,2t2.
)
zThis was the approach taken in Looney. Seelt987-r989 Transfer
Binderl Bankr. L. Rep. (CCH) [i72,447.
(b) Other materials. Short form citations for other materials found in services,
such as statutes, regulations, articles, and commentary, should follow the relevant citation rules as described elsewhere in Tbe Bluebook.
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20
FOREIGN MATERIALS
Table T2 contains iuriscliction-spccific citation examplcs
ar-rd
is thc primlrv
source fbr the citation of firreign materials. For source s not pre scnt in table T2,
follow the respectivc cotntry's own citation rttles for the sources as modificd
by thcse gencral ntles.
2O.l
Jurisdiction
When citing an,v non-U.S. source, whether in English or in ltnother langulge,
indiclte ptrcntheticall)r thc iurisdiction issuing tl-re source, abbreviated according to table T10, unless the jurisdiction is othcrwise clear from thc other clements of thc citation:
,-3
Chase v. Campbelt, [rg6z] S.C.R. 425 (Can.).
+
Berry v Dorsey
$97) rct ALR ls
(Austl.).
This parenthctical may bc omitted if the iurisdiction is clear from the context:
tu"
.
Spain has enacted a separate code governing legat procedure in
employment cases.'
I Labor Procedure Law (R.C.L. r99o,9zz).
The plrenthetical is locatcd at the end of the citation but bcfirre any parallel
citations. unlcss otherwisc indicated in table T2:
o
Canada Act, t9Bz,
(Can.).
c.u
(U.K.), reprinted /n R.S.C. r985, app
ll' no
5
h, Control of Fishing for Salmon Order zoo8 (S.1. 9Blzoo8) (lr.)'
http: / /www.attorneygenerat.ie/esi/ zoo8/ Bz6o6r. pdf.
Non-English-Language Documents
Documents Appearing in More than One Language
20.2
20.2.1
by the citltion, always citc thc most oflicial or
authoritativc version of the document. '[he documcnt itself should clitrify
which version(s) is authoritativc. For documents publishccl in mtrltiple languages, use the English-languagc vcrsitln whencver it is as luthoritative as (or
Unlcss otherwisc rcquircd
morc authoritative than) other vcrsions. If the docume nt is sile nt on the issttc of
authorit)', always cite thc English-language version unlcss thc purpose servcd bv
thc t itation rcquircs otltcrwisc.
Titles and Names of Documents in Languages
Other than English
a document in I lantitle or namc in the
givc
full
doctlment's
the
guugc othcr than English, always
thc tlriginal-lanlf
desircd,
is
cited.
nt
the
docume
thc
first
time
language
original
guagc title mal'be fbllowcd b1'brackets containing its shortened or full-lcngth
English title in thc same typeface as thc original:
(a) Original language and translation. \ffhen citing
20.2.2
)
Verdrag tot het Vermiiden van Dubbele Belasting [Agreement for
the Avoidance of Double Taxationl
(b) Capitalization. Capitalize names and titles in languages other than English
as
20.2.3
they appear on the page. Capitalize translations according to
rule 8.
Abbreviations in Languages Other than English
The abbreviations of reporters, codes, statutes, statutory collections, constiiltions, and periodicals in languages other than English may be unfamiliar to the
reader. Therefore, the fiilI form should be given the first time the source is cited,
and the abbreviation should be given in brackets. Thereafter for the whole
piece, the abbreviated form may be used without crosyreference.
Abbreviations for many legal materials in languages other than English are given
in table T2 ; for periodicals, see rule 20.6 . When abbreviating foreign legal materials for which an abbreviation is not provided, follow the usage of the source.
l'
)
l BUncenucHEs
2
GESETZBUcH IBGB] [Crvrr-
Cooe] art. 13 (Ger.).
Bundesgerichtshof IBG H] [ Federat Court of J ustice] Apr. 16, zoo8,
14o ENTSCHETDUNGEN DEs BuruoeseenrcHTsHoFEs rN ZrvtLsAcHEN
IBGHZI 245 (Ger.).
>
3 BGB
art. rz (Ger.); see also BGH Mar. 3,2oo9, t4rBGHZ zqS QSo)
(Ger.).
20.2.4 L^ngrages That Do Not Use the Roman Alphabet
Transliterate all titles, names, or words cited that are not in the Roman alphabet,
using a standard transliteration system (for example, the ALA-LC Romanization
Tables).
(a) Languages generally. For instructions regarding transliteration that are
specifc to particular countries, check the relevant entries in table T2.
(b) Chinese language.
(i) Chinese language romanization. For citations to
Chinese language
sources,regardless ofiurisdiction or place ofpublication,always provide romanization as instructed here.Whenever possible, also provide Chinese characters
for authors. titles. and case names. Do not use Chinese characters without
accompanying romanization, as some publishers or databases may drop them
from citations. Use simplified or traditional characters to reflect the usage of
the source. Generally, add an English translation or shortened form in English as
provided nru.le 2O.2.2.Do not cite a Chinese language source in English only.
For romanization of Chinese language citations, use the Pinyin romanization
system as set forth in the international srandard,Harryu Pinyin Fang'an (1958),
and related documents. Do not include tone marks. Do not use "v" to represent
"ii.'Competing standards exist for word division in Pinyin. Follow commonly
accepted guidelines for word dMsion in scholady publications as summarized
in the examples below and in table T2. Note that the Pinyin standard used in
many libraries differs with regard to word division and separates most syllables,
so when searching for sources in library catalogs, it may be necessary to break
up compound words into sep,rate syllables.
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For capitalization in Pinyin romanization, folkrw
Do not capitalize thc possessivc -de"
X[4.
*
rule 8
and related guidelines.
tf!).
Deng Xiaoping
\.ltffr.At4'ffiAiFfr'll
DuiwaiMaoyiJingjiHezuoBu
tt&li"
6i*ilir!
Xngzhengyuan
4+.teh#ui,
Taibei Difang Faluan
Xanggang Fali
(ii) Chinese personal names. rJfhen citing a Chinese author or editor's name,
regardfess of iurisdiction or place of publication, follow rules l5.l and 16.2,
giving the full name in the order it appears on the document. Repeat the full
name in subsequent short citations to the source. For Chinese personal names
in case citations, follow rule 10.2.1(g).
(A) Chinese language sources. In Chinese language texts the surname
is
always given lirst. Transcribe authors and editors of Chinese texts in Pinyin,ioin-
ing multiple syllables of surname andlor forename without hyphens or commas.
F
Chen Hongyi
tr'l
E
([f;9A&), Fazhi Qimeng yu Xiandai
Fa de
Jingshen
(i*
* 5I[f ti* tt *#lF) Gsse).
b" Wang Taisheng
('E*+),
Taiwan Falii de Duanlie yu Lianxu
(friqif
fF F! Hf tgF+i€ lr€) Qooz).
(B) English language sources. Chinese names in English texts may follow
either Chincse (surname first) or English (surname last) word order. They also
may or may not bc spelled according to the Pinyin system and may vary in
fullness. Transcribe the full name in the order and in the spelling in which it
appears on the document.
F
ALBERT Hur.rc-vEe CnEru, AH
rHr PropLt's
h
RepueLrc
TAy-sHENG WnHc,
or
lr.ttnooucltott ro tHe LecnL SvsrEtu or
CHtrun
Lecnl Reronu
bd
ed. LexisNexis zoo4) (1992).
rN TATwAN Uruoen
JnentesE CoLo-
NIAL RULE (zooo).
8-r3 (zoor).
F
ZHu SnnzHu, Secuntrtes
F
Guanghua Yu, Towards a Market Economy: Security Devices in
China,S Pnc. Rttvt L. & Pol'v l.r(tggg).
Rrculettotrt
tN CHTNA
Citations to Translations of Non-English-Language Documerfis 20.2.5
If desired, a work that conve niently reprints the primary authority in translation
may be cited when referring to a foreignJanguafie source that is not widely
available to researchers in the United States. In such cases, provide the citation
to the original source in accordance with rules 2O and2l,and' provide a parallel citation to the translated version, according to rule 1.6(a), introduced by
"tronslated in":
*"
Ley Federal de Derechos de Autor [LFDA], Diario Oficial de la Feder-
aci6n IDOF] 2t-tz-t963 (Mex.), transloted in CopvntcHr LAWS AND
5zr (U.N. Educ., Scientific & Culturat Org.
et al. eds., r99z).
TREATES oF rHE WoRLD
2O.3
Cases
Cite foreign cases according to
rule
1O as modified by the
following instructions.
20.3.1 Common Law Cases
Ifthe reporter does not clearly indicate the court deciding the case,indicate the
court parenthetically:
F
R
v. LockwoodQZSz) 99 Eng.Rep. rZg (K.8.).
But ifthe couft involved is the highest court in the jurisdiction, only the jurisdiction needs to be identified unless the iurisdiction is otherwise clear from
context:
)
Cite cases from non-common law countries according to table T2 as
modified by the following instructions.
(a) Name of the court. Identii/ courts as indicated in rule 20.1. If not
otherwise clear from the context, include an English translation of the court
designation:
Bundesgerichtshof IBG H] [Federal Court of J ustic ej Apr. 7, zoo3,
r54 ErurscterouNGEN DEs BuHoEsetntcnTsHoFEs tN ZtvtLsAcHEN
lBGHZls: (rz6) (Ger.).
Source. Cite the sources listed, with their abbreviations, in table T2. As
required by rule 20.2.3,gSve the full form the first time a source is cited, indicating in brackets the abbreviation that will be used subsequently.
O)
Many civil law decisions do not appear in official reporters. If a case cited does
not appear in an official source, cite a journal or periodical, issued within the
jurisdiction if possible, or a reprint or translation of the decision according to
rules 1.6(a) or 2O.2.5 respectively.
(c) Jurisdiction. If the national iurisdiction is not evident from the citation
or the context, include the iurisdiction, abbreviated according to table T1O, in
parentheses at the end of the citation, as required by
rule
2O,1..
(d) Annotations. Annotations to civil law cases are cited according to rule 3.4:
F
Cour de cassation [Cass.][supreme court for judicial matters] re
civ., Dec. t4,:,982, Bull. civ. l, No. 36o note (Fr.) (note of Ayn€s).
2O.4 Constitutions
Cite all foreign constitutions by name . If the nature of the document is not otherwise clear from the context, include "Constitution" in brackets following the
document name or abbreviation in the first citation. Successive citations may
exclude this note. If the country is unclear from the title of the constitution,
include the country abbreviation in a parenthetical at the end of the citation.
)
oesvrnFAssu
z9 (Switz.).
Bu
N
NG
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t
o
Chase v. Campbet[, [rg5z] S.C.R. +zS (Can.).
20.3.2 Civil Law and Other Non-Common Law Cases
)
I
IBV] [CoHsrrrurroH] Apr. 18, t99g,SR
ror, art.
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20.5
Statutes
Statutes in Common Law
Systems
20.5.1
(lite like [J.S. statutcs (rule 12) if the iurisdiction's statutes appear in a codification or othcr compilrtion:
&',.
Extradition Law,57t4-t95+, B LSI
44 $953-t95+)
(lsr.).
s of the lJnite d Kingdom (table T2.42 United Kingdom), noting thc iurisdiction parenthctically at the end of thc citation if n(x
otherwise clcar from thc context:
Othcrwise , cite likc statute
.!. Emergency Powers Act (Act No.
l/rgz6)
(lr.).
Statutes in Civil Law and Other Non-Common
Law
20.5.2
Jurisdictions
Oite generally according to rules found in table T2.When citing a codc,d<r
not indicatc the year of the code unless citing a versitln no longer in forcc. In
accordance with rule 20.2.3, usc the ftrll publication name tlte lirst time thc
publication is cited, indicating in brackcts the abbreviation that will be usc<l
subsequently. Thcrcafter,the abbreviatcd form may bc used:
|n- CoDE
crvrr IC. crv.] [Crvrr- Cooe] art.
mz
(Fr.).
(iivc the pr.rblishcr or editor and date of privately published sources onll' when
citinfi an annotation rather than thc codc itself:
s'
CoDE crvrr IC. crv.][Ctvtt-
Cooe]art.ro98 (6+th ed. Petits Codes
Dattoz 1965) (Fr.).
Non-English-Language and Foreign Periodicals
(a) In general. For all fbreign perioclicals, including both Iinglish- and nonEnglishJanguagc sources, abbrcviate thc periodical namc according to table
Tl3.
Include thc country oforigin in
a
parenthctical if not othcrwise clear liom
thc contcxt.
fm'
Catherine Labrusse-Riou , La filiotion et la mddecine moderne,33
REvur lrurrnnnroNALE DE DRotr Corvrpnni IR.l.D.C.] 4t9 $986)
(Fr.).
For foreign newspapers, cite according to
b
rule
16.6.
Marianne Kearney, Indonesia Risks Becoming Like Balkans: Mega,
Srnnrrs Trmes (Sing.), Oct.29,2oo1, at 3.
(b) Foreign-language sourc€s. Cite foreignJanguagc periodicals according to
16, as modilied by rule 20.2. Givc the author;titlc in the original langulge,
folkrwcd by a translation or shortened name in English, if de sircd (rule 20.2.2);
the r-olumenumberof thcperiodicalif appropriate(rule L6.4);thefirll namcof
thc periodical, if it is being cited for the lirst timc, folkrwed by the oflicial abbrcviation in brackets (rule 2U.2,3):the page number(s);the year (rules 16.4 and
rule
20.6
16.5);and the abbreviation of the country of publication, if not otherwise clear
from the context. A hereinafter form,provided in brackets at the end of the citation, may be given if desired.
)
1
Marie-Th6rdse Meutders-Klein, te droit de l'enfont face au droit
d I'enfant et les procrdations mddicalement assistdeslThe Right
of a Child Versus the Right to Have o Child and Medically Assisted
Procreationl,8T Revue TRtMEsTRtELLE
Dn. Ctv.l645, 5sz (1988) (Fr.).
)
2
>
4
DE
DRotr Crvrr- [Rev. Tnrntt.
Aktuelle Fragen der Schutzbereichsbestimmung im deutschen
und europiiischen PotentrechtlCurrent lssues in ldentifying the
Scope of Protection in German and European Patent Lawl, zoo3
GewensLrcFtsn REctrsscHurz uHo UnHEeennecHr [GRUR] 9o5
(Ger.) [hereinafter Scope of Protectionl.
Scope of Protection,supranotez,at9o6;see also Benjamin
Taibleson & Rebecca Krauss, Embracing Convergence: FortyCountries in Comparative Perspective, rc6 REv. TRtM. Dn. Clv. n9 (zoo7)
(Fr.).
20.7
Short Citation Forms
(a) Cases. For common law citations, use short forms analogous to those pre
vided in rule 10.9, when permitted. For civil law citation forms, the short form
should include enough information to uniquely identi$ the original source and
any additional information that would be helpfirl to the reader:
>
1
Corte Suprema de Justicia de la Naci6n ICSJN][National Supreme
Court ofJusticel, t8l 7 l zoot, "Frenquel, Adolfo c. Centro de
Ortopedias / recurso extraordinario," La Ley [1.1.] (zoor-D-zz)
(Arg.). But see Corte Suprema de Justicia [C.S.J.][Supreme Court],
:.5 noviembre t954,"Sulrez, Alfredo c. Perez, Estela," Rolde [a
causa:. t24-2oo8 s., divorcio, REVIsrA Gncere Juniorcl [R.G.J.] No.
tgo p.t45 (Chite).
>
t8l7lzoot,
"Frenque[, Adolfo," L.L. (zoor-D-z3). But see
C.S.J., rS noviembre t954,"Sulrez, Alfredo," R.G.J. No. r9o p. t46.
'?
CSJN,
(b) Constitutions. Do not use a short form, other than'id.,'for constitutions.
(c) Statutes. Use short forms analogous to those provided in rule 12.10,
when permitted. Otherwise, include enough information to uniquely identiff
the original source and any additional information that would be helpfrrl to the
reader. The iurisdiction parenthetical may be included in the short form if it is
not evident from either the elements of the short form citation or the context:
)
Loi 85-599 du m juitlet 1985 tendant i la constitution d'archives
audiovisuelles de la justice ILaw 85-699 of July u, 1985 for the
Formation of Audiovisual Archives of the Judiciaryl, JoURNAL
Orrrcrer oE Ln REpust-teuE FRANCAtse [J.O.][Orrrcrel Gnzerrr or
Fnlrcel, July tz, t985, p. 2885.
1
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ts
2 Ley No.
zr7, z May ry96, Ley General del Medio Ambiente y los
Recursos Naturales ILey det Medio Ambiente] [Environmentat
and Natural Resources Law] tit. lll, ch. ll, sec. l, Le Gecern, Dtnnto
Orrcrer- [1.G.], 6 June t996 (Nicar.).
ts 3 Law 8s-6gg of July rr, 1985, art. 4 (Fr.); Environmental and Natural
Resources Law, tit. lll, ch. ll, sec. ll (Nicar.).
(d) Periodicals. tJse short forms analogous to those provided in rule 16.9.
2l
INTTRNATIONAI MATERIAI,S
21.1
Basic Citation Forms
(a) Treaties and other international agreements. (rale 21.4)
Bilateral
Trcaty
Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation, JapanU.S., art. X, Apr. z, L953,4 U.S.T. 2o63.
Agreement Concerning Payments for Certain Losses
Suffered During World War ll, Fr.-U.S., Jan. r8, zoor,
Temp. State Dep't No. or-35, zoor WL 4t6455.
Treaty of
Ne
utra [ity,
Hun
g.-Tu
rk., Jan. 5, t929, too
L.N.T.S. r37.
Multilateral
Treaty
Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of
Prisoners of War art. 3, Aug. 12, Lg4g,5 U.S.T. 3316,75
U.N.T.S. 135.
lnter-American Police Convention, Feb. 29, tg2o, r27
L.N.T.S. 433.
North American Free Trade Agreement, Can.-Mex.-U.S.,
Dec. t7, t992, 32 l.L.M. 289 (1993).
(b) International law cases. (rule 21.5)
lntemational
Court ofJustice
Military and Paramilitary Activities in and Against
Nicaragua (Nicar. v. U.S.), Judgment, 1986 l.C.J.
z).
4
0une
Fisheries Jurisdiction (U.K. v. lce.), Interim Protection
Order, t97z l.C.J. tz (Aug. rZ).
Diversion of Water from Meuse (Neth. v. Betg.),
Judgment, ry37 P.C.l.l. (ser. A/B) No. 7o, at 7 flune z8).
Reservations to Convention on Prevention and
Punishment of Crime of Genocide, Advisory Opinion,
r95tl.C.l. r5 (May z8).
Court ofJustice Case C-zgl89, The Queen v. Sec'y of State for Transp.
of the European ex parte Factortame Ltd., r99o E.C.R. l-2433.
Union
European
Court
:f
Y*Rishs
Kampanis v. Greece, 3r8 Eur. Ct. H.R. 29,35 G9g).
lreland v. United Kingdo m, z3 Eur.Ct. H.R. (ser. B) at z3
(rgz6).
Inter-American Tortrino
on
v.
Argentina, Case n.597,Inter-Am. Comm'n
7/98, OEA/5er.L./V/11.98, doc. 7 rev. Il
Commission
H.R., Report No.
Human Rights 15 $99).
Inter-American Restrictions to the Death Penalty (Arts. zr(z) and +(4)
Court of Human American Convention on Human Rights), Advisory
opinion OC-ll8l,Inter-Am. Ct. H.R. (ser. A) No. 3,li7o
Rights
(Sept. 8, 1983).
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a
International M/V Saiga (No. z) (St. Vincent
Tribunal fbr
the
Law of the Sea
International Prosecutorv.
Criminal
Court
I
I
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Prosecuto r v. Kata n ga, ICC- ot I o 4- ot I o7 3 436- Anxll,
Concurring opinion ofludges Diarra and Cotte, 11 5
(Mar. j, zorl, http: I I www.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/doc/
docr748ro5. pdf.
International
Criminal
Tribunals
I
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Prosecutor v. Tadid, Case No. fi-94-t1, Decision on
Defence Motion for lntertocutory AppeaI on Jurisdiction,
fl zo (lnt'l Crim. Trib. for the Former Yugoslavia Oct. z,
rye).
Prosecutor v. Kayishema, Case No. ICTR 95-t-T,
Judgment, 1l rz6 (May zr,r99).
(c) International arbitrations. (rule 21.6)
I
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Dyilo, ICC-otlo4-otlo6-z84z,ludgment
pursuant to Art.74 of the Statute, fl ro7 (Mar.
r 4, zotz.), http : / /www. icc-cpi. i n t/ iccd o cs I do c I
docr37983B.pdf.
I
o
v. Guinea), Case No. z,
Order of Jan. 2o, t998, z ITLOS Rep. 4, 5.
Amoco Int't Fin. Corp. v. lran, 15 lran-U.S. Cl. Trib. Rep.
rB9 Q98).
Savarkar (Fr. v. Gr. Brit.), Hague Ct. Rep. (Scott) 275
(Perm. Ct. Arb. rgrr).
(d) United Nations sources. (rule 21.7)
Verhrtinr rntl
Strmmarv
Meetilg Recorcls
I.l.N.
Charter
Resolutiorrs
U.N. GAOR, 57th Sess.,4zd plen. mtg. at 3, U.N. Doc.
Al Sl lPY.+z (Nov. t, zooz).
U.N. Charter art. z, fl r.
G.A. Res.
G.A. Res.
Reports
B;z
(lX), at
47l1,llz
r9 (Oct. zt,t95Q.
(Sept. zz,t99z).
U.N. Secretary-General, An Agenda for Peoce:
Preventive Diplomacy, Peocemaking ond PeaceKeeping: Rep. ofthe Secretary-Generol,llt4, U.N. Doc.
Al +t I zzt's I z4tr (June q, t99z).
(e) European Union materials. (rule 21.9)
Council Directive zootlrS,zoor O.J. (L ro6) r (EC).
(0 Wortif."ae Organization. (rule
Pancl
2l.ll)
decisions Panel Report, Llnited Stotes-Sections 3ot-3to ofthe
Trade Act
z7
of 1974, WTO Doc. WT/DSrf z/R (adopted lan.
, zooo).
Appellate
Body Appeltate Body Report, Brazil-Export
decisions
Founding
Agreements
Ministerial
Marrakesh Agreement Estabtishing the World Trade
Organization, Apr. r5, t994, t867 U.N.T.S. r54.
World Trade Organization, Ministerial Declaration of r4
November zoor, WTO Doc. WT/MlN(oilDEC|t,4r t.L.M.
It+6 (zooz).
documents
21.2
Financing
Programme for Aircraft,ll rg, WTO Doc. WT/DS+6/AB/R
(adopted Aug. zo, t999).
Non-English-Language Documents
For non-English-language documents, see
rule 20.2.
21.3 Jurisdiction Not Evident from Context
When citing a non-U.S. source, whether in English or another language, indicate parenthetically the jurisdiction issuing the source, abbreviated according to
tables T3 and T10, unless the iurisdiction is otherwise clear from the context
or other elements of the citation:
)
21.4
Council Directive 66lqS art. ry, ry65-t966 O.J. Spec. Eo. zG5, z68
(Euratom).
Citation of a treaty between two parties:
name of agreemenl
Convention for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the
Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with Respect to Taxes on Estates,
f nheritances, and Gifts,* Fr.-U.S.,* Nov. 24, !978,*J2 U.S.T. 1935.
fagreementL___l__r
signing
Citation of
name of
a
date of
L___l__-_______J
one
U.S.
treaty source
treaty among more than two parties:
agreement subdivision
cited
I'
date of
signing
one
U.S.
treaty source
North Atlantic Treaty*sft. 5,* Apr. 4,1949,* 63 9tat.2247,"
34 U.N.T.S.243.
L___r___J
one international treaty source
Citation of a convention published by an intemational organization:
)
Organization of American States, American Convention on Human
Rights, Nov. 22,t969, O.A.S.T.S. No.36, u44 U.N.T.S. rz3.
)
United Nations Convention on the Law ofthe Sea, Dec. to, 1982,
1833 U.N.T.S.397.
Citation
of a founding document creating a new international court or
organization:
I
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I
Treaties and Other International Agreements
abbreviated names of parties to
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*
*
U.N. Charter art. 94, fl r.
Covenant ofthe League of Nations art. 16.
A citation of a trcary or other international agreement-other than the U.N.
Charter and the Covenant of the League of Nations-should include the agreement's name (rde 2L.4.1); the state parties, if applicable (rule 21.4.2); the
subdivision referred to, if applicablc (rule 21.4.3); the date of signing (de
21.4.4):and the source(s) in which thc trcaty can bc found (tule 21.4,5):
ts Statute ofthe International Tribunal for the Law ofthe Sea art.
z, Dec. ro, ry82,t833 U.N.T.S.56r.
Name of the
1,
fl
Agreement
21.4.1
Use the English-languagc version of a trcaty namc whenever possible. See
rule
2O.2.2 regar<Jing thc treatment of treaties whosc names are not in English.
(a) First citation. Thc lirst citation of a treaty should contain its full name,
including both its form (rule 21.4.1(a)(i)) and its subject matter (rule
2r.4.r(a)(ii)):
*" Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft,
Dec. 16, 7970,22 U.S.T. 164r, 86o U.N.T.S. ro5.
(i) Form of agreement. The title of the treaty should indicate the form of the
agreement (c.g., Agreement, Convention, Memorand um, Protocol, Treaty,
Understanding). Usc only the lirst form designation that appears on the title
page, unless doing so would create ambiguity:
F
Convention
Not: Convention & Supplementary ProtocoI
Cite lesser-included documents
as
subdivisions
(rde
21.4.3).
(ii) Subiect matter. tjse the subiect-matter description that appears
as
part of
the title of the agreement:
#' Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention
on
Climate Change
(b) Subsequent citations. If a treaty's name is very long, or if the treaty is
commonly known by a popular name, the lirst citation of the treaty should end
with a bracketed "hereinafter" short-form citation (rule 4.2(b)) to be used in
all subsequent citations. The short-form citation must be in the same rypeface
as
the original:
=
-
1
ProtocoI for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating,
Poisonous or Other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of
Warfare, June r7, t925, z6 U.S.T. 57r Ihereinafter Geneva Protocot].
3
Geneva Protocol, supro note
!, aI 572.
Parties to the Agreement
When citinfi an agree ment be twccn two parties, indicate both parties, abbreviating their names according to table Tl0:
2L.4.2
@
)
)
I
Japan-U.S.
Fr.-Ger.
Parties'names should appear in alphabetical order:
)
North American Free Trade Agreement, Can.-Mex.-U.5.,Dec. t7,
!992, 32 l.L.M. z8g (rggl).
2r.4.3 Subdivisions
When citing only part of an agreement, or when citing an appended document,
give the subdivision or appended document:
)
Treaty on Commerce and Navigation, lraq-U.S., art. lll, fl z,Dec.3,
1938,54 Stat. r79o.
)
Declaration on the Neutrality of Laos, Protocol, )uly
U.S.T. no4,456 U.N.T.5. 3or.
4,
t952, t4
When citing a subdivision, it is not necessary to include a pincite for the treaty
series because the article, paragraph, or section number is sufficient. For a dis
cussion of citations to subdivisions and appendices, see des 3.3 and 3,4.
2r.4.4 Date of Signing
Give the exact date of signing:
)
Protocol to Amend the Convention for the Suppression of the
Traffic in Women and Children, Nov. rz, ry47,53 U.N.T.S. 13.
\ffhen multiple dates of signing are given for an agreement or exchange of notes
between two parties, give the first and last dates of signing:
F Agreement on Weather Stations, Colom.-U.S.,
Apr. z7-May
g,
t954, t5 U.S.T. r355.
If a treaty is not signed on a single date , use the date on which the treaty was
opened for signature, approved, ratified, or adopted, and indicate the signfficance of the date in italics:
)
Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuctear Weapons, opened for
signatureJulyt,tg6S, zr U.S.T. 483,729 U.N.T.S. r5r.
The date on which a treaty entered into force or other such date may be added
parenthetically at the end of the citation if it is relevant:
)
U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea, opened for signature Dec.
to,tg8z, 1833 U.N.T.S.397 (entered into force Nov. 16, 1994).
For abbreviations of the months of the vear. see table T12.
21.4.5
Tte*y
Sources
See table T4 for a list of international reaty sources. Treaty sources of some
foreign states are listed with the other materials of those states in table T2.
(a) Agreements to which the United States is a
pffty.
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(i) Bilateral treaties. For agreements betwecn the tlnited States and another
party, cite one of the following sourccs, in the fblkrwing order of preferencc:
U.S.T. (orStat.);T.l.A.S. (orT.5.,or E.A.S.); U.N.T.S.;Senate TreatyDocuments
or Senate Executive Documents;the I)e prrtment of Statc Dispatch; Department
of State Press Releases. If the agrecncnt has not appearcd in one of these oflicial
sources, cite an unofficial trerty sourcc
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Treaty on the Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems, U.S.U.S.S.R., May 26, 1972,23 U.S.T. 3435.
F Agreement on Defense and Economic Cooperation,
Greece-U.S., at
4, Sept. 8, 1983, T.l.A.S. No. ro,Br4.
*n Tax Convention, Fin.-U.S., Sept.
zr, 1989, S. Tnrntv Doc. No. ror-rr
(rggo).
h' Memorandum of Understanding Regarding BitateraI Verifi cation
Experiment and Data Exchange Related to Prohibition of Chemical
Weapons, U.S.-U.S.S.R., art. V(r), Sept. 23, 1989, Dre'r Sr. Burl.,
Nov. 1989, at rB Ihereinafter ChemicaI Weapons MOU].
I
]
lrule 21.4.5(c)):
s" Cuban-American Treaty, Cuba-U.S., art. l, Feb.
6-23,t9o3,
T.S. No.
tt8.
F Agreement Regarding MutualAssistance Between Their Customs
Administrations, lr.-U.S., art. 3, Sept. 16,t996, zr4r U.N.T.S. 5t.
(ii) Multilateral treaties. For
agrccmcnts among three or morc parties to
which the United States is a parq', citc onc of the [J.S. dome stic sources liste d in
rule 21.4.5@)(i), if thcrein. Additionally, a p:rrallel citation may be added liom
onc source publishe<I by an international organization (e.g., U.N.T.S., L.N.T.S.,
O.A.S.T.S., Pan-Am. T.S., O.j., E.T.S., or C.E.T.S.), if thercin:
u' North Atlantic Treaty art. 5, Apr. 4, 1949,6jStaI. zz4t,:+ U.N.T.S.
243.
lf none of these ofhcial sources can be obtained, citc rn unofficial treaty source
(rule 21.4.5(c)) or another reliablc source wherc
tl-tc
trerty can be found.
(b) Agreements to which the United States is not a party. Cite one sourcc
publishe d by an international orglnizittion lrde 2l.4.5@)(ii)), if therein:
F Treaty of Neutrality, Hung.-Turk., Jan.5,t9z9, roo
*
L.N.T.S. 137.
Agreement for the Avoidance of Doubte Taxation, Neth.-Swed., art.
4, Apr.z5,t95z,t63 U.N.T.S. r3r.
If not, cite the official sourcc of onc signatory., if therein, indicating parcnthetically thc jurisdiction whosc sourcc is citcd according to rule 21.3 if it is not
clear from the context. If the trcaty is not found in a signator,v's treaq' sotlrce,
citc an unoflicial treaty source (rule Zt.4.5kD:
&"
Agreement on Trade, Economic, and Technical Cooperation, Austl.Oman, Oct. 20, 1987, Irg8z] A.T.S. +.
(c) Unofficial treaty sources. Vhcn
a treaty does
not appear in a required
source listed in rule 2t.4.5@)G) or 21.4.5b)Gi), cite International Legal
Materials (l.L.M.), if therein:
)
Feb. r8,
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Olivos Protocol for the Settlement of Disputes in Mercosur art. 6,
2oo2,42l.L.M.
a treaty is not found
2.
in l.L.M., cite another unofficial treaty
source. These
sources include the websites of governments and intergovernmental oryaniza-
tions, electronic databases, and sources such as the Foreign Relations of the
United States series, Parry's ConsolidatedTreaty Series, Hein's microfiche treaty
service, and Martens Nouveau Recueil:
)
Agreement Concerning Payments for Certain Losses Suffered
During World War ll, Fr.-U.S., Jan. 18, 2oo1, Temp. State Dep't No.
t
ot36,2ootWL 4t6465.
If no other citation is available, you
may cite a book
(rule
15) or periodical
(rule 16).
21.5 InternationalLa'gg
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Cases
Cite according to rule 10 as modifed by the following instructions. If no
authofitative EnglishJanguage source is available, cite foreign-language sources
according to ntJ.e 2O.2.
The standard citation for an international law case includes: (l) the name of the
case;(2) the case number;(3) the reporter (ifany);(4) the characterization ofthe
decision (udgment, provisional measures, etc.); (5) a pincite (using paragraph
numbers, if available, rather than page numbers); and (6) a parenthetical with
the date , prefaced by name of court if not otherwise evident from the citation.
o
For onlineonly decisions, refer readers to the court or tribunal's website (preferably to the specifc webpage or PDF that includes the court or tribunal's
decision).
21.5.1 The International Court of Justice and the Permanent Court
International Justice
The International Court of Justice (l.C.J.), also known as the ttr/odd Court,
replaced the Permanent Court of lntemational Justice (P.C.|.J.)
in 1946.
Cite a case before the lnternational Court of Justice or the Permanent Court
of lnternational Justice by: (l) the case name (rule 21.5.1(a,\); (2) the parties' names, if any (rule 21.5.1O)); (3) the characterizarion of the decision
(Preliminary Obiection, Provisional Measure, Advisory Opinion, J udgment,
etc.), if relevant; (4) the volume and name of the publication in which the decision is found (rule 21.5.1(c)); (5) the page or case number (rule 21.5.f(d));
(6) the pincite, if any, with preference for paragraph number when available
(indicated by the pilcrow symbol "lT"); and (7) the date (rule 21.5.f (e)):
)
Mititary and Paramilitary Activities in and Against Nicaragua (Nicar.
v. U.S.), Judgment, 1986 l.C.l. Rep. r4, tl r9o (une z7).
)
Reservations to Convention on Prevention and Punishment of
Crime of Genocide, Advisory Opinion, r95r l.C.J. Rep. r5 (May z8).
)
Diversion of Water from Meuse (Neth. v. Betg), ludgment, 1937
P.C.|.J. (ser. A/B) No. 70, at7 0une z8).
of
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Delimitation of Maritime Boundary in Gulf of Maine Area
(Can./U.S.), Judgment, ry8zl.C.). Rep. 56o, fl zz (Nov. 5).
$(ihen citing a separate opinion of a iudgment in a published report, include
the lirst page of the judgment and a pincite for the separate opinion. Include a
parenthetical identi$ing the author of the separate opinion:
b Military
and Paramilitary Activities in and Against Nicaragua (Nicar.
v. U.S.), Judgment, rg86 l.C.J. Rep. r4, r8r, fl 3 \une z7) (separate
opinion by Ago, l.).
f)o not include the iirst page of the iudgment when short citing:
!r
Nicar. v. U.S., 1986 l.C.,|. at
r8r.
rule 21.5.1(f) and court rules and acts according
to rule 21.5.1(g). If necessary cite yearbooks and annual reports of the World
Cite pleadings according to
Court according to
rules 21.7.8 and2l.l5.
(a) Case name. Give the case name as found on the first page of the report.
Omit the word "Case." Omit articles, such as "the." Do not abbreviate the names
of countries wherc thcy appear in case namcs:
r
Continental Shelf
Not: Case Concerning the Continental Shelf
Note that an application may appear as the case name:
b Application
of Convention on Prevention and Punishment of Crime
of Genocide (Bosn. & Herz. v. Serb. & Montenegro), tgg6l.C.l. SgS,
fl 3r (July u).
(b) Parties' names. Give the
names of the parties involved in a parenthetical
phrase immediately following the case name . Abbreviate the names of countries
according to table Tl0.When a dispute is brought by a unilateral application
of one country against another, the countries' names are separated by "v' " If the
case is brought on the basis of a special agreement between two countries, the
names of the parties are separated by a slash:
F
(Nicar. v. U.S.)
b
(lndon./Matay.)
In advisory opinions, no parties arc listed:
F lnterpretation
of Peace Treaties with Butgaria, Hungary and
Romania, Advisory Opinion, 195o l.C.J. 5S (Mar. lo).
F
Potish Postal Service in Danzig, Advisory Opinion, r9z5 P.C.l..l. (ser.
B) No. u, at 6 (May 16).
(c) Volume number and name of publication. IdentiS the volume by the
rule 3.1(a). The International Court of Justice publishes
its opinions in Reports of Judgments, Aduisory Opinbns and Orders (l.C.l.):
date, as required by
F r95o
l.C.J. 65
Decisions and other documents of the PC.IJ. were published in seven series
(lettered A through f; including ffi). Indicate the series in citations to PC.IJ.
documents:
)
t9z5 P.C.|.J. (ser. B) No.
;
u
(d) Page or case number. Cite LCJ. cases to the page on which they begin.
Cite cases of the PC.IJ. by number:
)
I
zoo6l.C.).to7
r93z
P.C.l.J. (ser.
A/B) No. Zo
Use pincites to ref€r to specific paragraphs,
if available, or pages:
) 1985 l.C.J. r+, llrS
) tgll P.C.|.J. (ser. C) No. 52, at rz
See
rule 3.3 for more information about paragraph numbers.
(e) Date. Provide the month and day:
)
Nuclear Tests (N.2. v. Fr.), lnterim Protection Order, 973l.C.J.
0une zz).
rlS
(f) Separately published pleadings. Cite separately published pleadings by
the designation given in the document itself, followed by the name of the case
21.5.1(a)); the names of the parties in a parenthetical
21.5.1(b));
the volume number and name of the publication (rule 21.5.1(c)); and the
full date of the pleading. Separately published pleadings before the I.CJ. are
published in Ple ad.ings, Oral Arguments, Documents (1. C. J. Plead i n gs), while
PC.IJ. rules and acts were published in P.C.l.J.:
(de
(de
)
Memorial of United Kingdom, Corfu Channel (U.K. v. Atb.), rq+q
l.C.J. Pteadings r9 (Sept. 3c,194).
)
Memorial of Denmark, Legal Status of Eastern Greenland (Den. v.
Nor.), 1933 P.C.l.J. (ser. C) No. 62, at rz (Oct. 3t, t93t).
(g) Court
des
and acts. Cite court rules and acts by title, volume number
and name of publication, and page or document number. I.CJ. rules and acts are
published inActs and Documents Concerning tbe Organization of tbe Court
(abbreviated l.C.J. Acts & Docs.), while those adiudicated by the PC.IJ. were
published in P.C.|.J.:
)
Travel and Subsistence Regulations ofthe InternationaI Court of
Justice, ry+Z I.C.J. Acts & Docs. 94.
)'
Revised Rules of the Court,tgz6 P.C.l.J. (ser. D) No. r, at 33.
(h) Online materials. I.CJ. materials that have not been published may be
cited to International Legal Materials (l.L.M.) lrule 21.4.5(c)) or to the I.CJ.
website (http://www.icj-cij.org) (rule f 8. 1):
)
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Maritime Delimitation in Black Sea (Rom. v. Ukr.), ludgment, Jl 5
(Feb. I, zoog), http : I lwww. icj-ci j.org/docket/fi tes I qz I t4987.pdf .
For oral pleadings, the date parenthetical should include the specific date and
session time:
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tlfl l.r-l.rg (Nov. r4,
2ooo, 3 p.m.), http://www.icl-cii.org/docket/fi les/ro+ | +66l.pdt.
LaGrand Case (Ger. v. U.S.), Verbatim Record,
2r.5.2
European Union Courts
Cite a case before the Court of Justicc of the European Union (formerly the
Court of Justice of the European (bmmunities) or the Gencral Court (formerly
thc Court of First Instance) by case number; the names of the parties, abbrcviated according to rule 10.2 and table T6;and the official reports of the Court,
incltrding the 1'ear of decision (rule 21.5.2(a)). A parallcl citation to a private
scrvice may be made , if nccessary (rule 21.5.2(b)).
For cases lodged beforc the Court ofJusticc sincc 1989, the case number will
contain the prelix "C"; older cases will not have a prelix. Cascs lodged before the
Cencral Court, created in 1989, will carry the prelix "T." Where the Commission, Council, or Parliame nt of the European Union is onc of the partie s, givc its
name
as
"Com mission,""Council," or " ParliamenU'rcspectively:
ts Case I-ryBlgB, Micro Leader Bus. v. Comm'n, ry99 E.C.R. ll-3989.
ts Case C-zglBg,The Queen v. Sec'y of State forTransp. ex parte
Factortame Ltd., r99o E.C.R. l-2433.
ts Case S8l6g,Elz v. Comm'n, ry7oE.C.R.5o7.
Cases on European Union law are often dccided in thc courts of member states.
These cases should be citcd to the reporters of thc particular member state. If
necessary, such cases may also be cited to onc of the unofficial reporters col-
lecting materials regarding the Europcan Union (see rule 21.5.8).When citinfi
such a case to European lJnion materials, indicatc the court and lurisdiction if
not clear from the context, as providcd by rule 20.1.
(a) Official reports. For pre-1990 cases, cite th"'- Reports of Cases Before
tbe Court rf Justice of tbe European Cunmunities (E.C.R.). For posrl990
cite rhe Reqorts r{ Cases BeJire the Currt of Justice and tbe Court of
First Instance (also abbreviatcd E.C.R.). Place the ycar designation before thc
reporter abbreviation. Startinll in 1990, page numbers in the E.C.R. begin with
cases,
a"1,""1ll'or"l||":
tr
Case
C-z86lot, Comm'n v. France, 2oo2
*
Case
3ol79,Land Berlin v. Wigei, rg8o
&. Joined Cases 56
&
E.C.R. l-S+61.
E.C.R.
r5r.
SBl6/+, Etablissements Consten, 5.A.R.1. v.
Comm'n, ry66E.C.R.299.
If an official report is not available in print, cite the oflicial website of the Court
ofJustice of the European Union (http://curia.europa.cu) (for cases beforeJune,
1997 http://old eur-lcx.europa.eu) (rule 18.1), an electronic database (rule
18.3), or a private service (rule 21.5.2(b)):
*o Case C-2791o6, CEPSAv. LVTobar, zooS EUR-LexCELEX LEXIS
zo99 (Sept. rr, zooS).
(b) Private services. If necessary, pr<tvidc a parallel citation to one of the private services providing selected reports of thc court's opinions. Contmon Mar'
ket Ldw Reports (C.M.L.R.) is prcfi:rrecl. Vhen citing volumes through 1973,
include the fi.rll volume number; when citing volumes 1974 and later, include
the issue number to reflect cessation of continuous issue numbering. Otherwise,
vse Cornmon Market Reporter (Common Mkt. Rep. (CCH) (through 1988) or
European Community Cases (CEC (CCH). See rule 19 for treatment of CCH
looseleaf services:
)
Case 48178, Pubblico Ministero v. Ratti, 1979 E.C.R. t629,
C.M.L.R. g5 (rg8o).
)
Case +Sl6g,lmperial Chem. Indus. v. Comm'n, r8 E.C.R. 6t9,lt97t1973 Transfer BinderlCommon Mkt. Rep. (CCH) 8t6t(tglz).
t
f
21.5.3 European Court of Human Rights
Cite cases before the European Court of Human Rights to European Court of
Human Rigbts, Reports of JudgnenK and Decisions (Eur. Ct. H.R.).Cite cases
before the court by case name (abbreviated according to rule 10.2); volume
number; reporte\ page number, where applicable; and year. Recent volumes are
numbered by year ofpublication and do not require a separate reference to the
year. Older decisions may also be cited to Publicatiolts of the European Court
of Human Rlgbrs, which was issued in multiple series (e.g., Eur. Ct. H.R. (ser.
A)) or Yearbook of tbe European Conuention on Human Rights (Y.8. Eur.
Conv. on H.R.):
)
)
Papon v. France (No. z), zoor-Xll Eur. Ct. H.R. 235.
Kampanis v. Greece, 3r8 Eur. Ct. H.R. 29,35 G99).
Recent volumes contain several cases, but some earlier volumes contain only
one case.Where a volume conBins only one case, citing a beginning page is
unnecessary and all page numbers may be indicated directly by"at":
)
lreland v. United Kingdom, z3 Eur. Ct. H.R. (ser. B) at zZ Ggt6).
Until 1999, cases were also heard before the nowdefunct European Commis
sion on Human Rights. These cases should be cited to Collections of Decisions
of tbe European Commission on Human Rigbts (Eur. Comm'n H.R. Dec. &
Rep.) orY.B. Eur. Conv. on H.R.,if therern.lf.not,cite European Human Rigbts
Reports (Eur. H.R. Rep.).When citing Y.B. Eur. Conv. on H.R.,indicate paren-
thetically whether the case was before the Commission or the Court. lndicate
both the parties and the application number for the case:
)
Y. v. Netherlands,
Rep.
)
App. No.7z45l3z,3zEur. Comm'n H.R. Dec. &
345,358 (1982).
Smith v. Belgium, App. No. 1;24176,8 Eur. H.R. Rep.445,478
(tg9z).
)
If
lversen v. Norway, App. No. t458162, 1953 Y.B. Eur. Conv. on H.R.
278 (Eur. Comm'n on H.R.).
a case before the European Court is not available in print, you may cite an
unofficial printed sorrce or the Court's official website, HUDOC (http://www.
echr.coe.int) (rule 18. L).
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Inter-American Commission on
Cite cases before the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights to the
Annual Report of tbe Inter-American Commission on Human Rtgrts (lnter
Am. Comm'n H.R.). l'he citation should include the case name ; the case number; the volume name ; the report numbeq which includcs the ycar of the decision; the series and docket numbers; the pamgrnph number,
if applicable;
and
the year of the reporter:
Argentina, Case n.597,Inter-Am. Comm'n H.R., Report
No.t lg8, OEA/Ser.L./V/ll.9B, doc. 7 rev. fl 15 G99).
i*" Tortrino v.
t'
Calde16n v. Colombia, Case ro.454, Inter-Am. Comm'n H.R., Report
No. 3z I 92, OEA/Ser.L./V/ | 1.83, doc.
Q99z-t993).
4
Cite the English version whencvcr possiblc. If an official report is not yet available , cite the Commission's oflicial website (http://www.cidh.org) (rule 18.1).
Inter-American Court of Human Rights
For case s bcfore the Inte r-American (i)urt of Human Rights, cite the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Decisktns andJudgme,?ts (lnterAm. Ct. H.R.).
The citation should include thc case name : the volumc number: the series: the
case number;the page number, if nceded;antl thc date. Cite the English vcrsion
whenever possible
.
(a) Advisory Opinions. Cite Atlvisory Opinions by the name of thc opinion;
"Advisory Opinion" and opinion code ; the rcport and volume number; the pincite, if an1'; and the date . Cite to SericsA:
:,. Restrictions to the Death Penatty (Arts. +(z) and 4(4) American
Convention on Human Rights), Advisory Opinion OC-3/83, InterAm. Ct. H.R. (ser. A) No. l, 'tl zo (Sept. 8, 1983).
(b) Contentious Cases. Cite Contcntious
Cascs by the name of thc case; the
matter of decision; the typc of opinion; the rcport and volume numbcr; the pincite, if any; and thc date. Cite to Series (l:
i,
Batdeon-Garcia v. Peru, Merits, Reparations, and Costs, Judgment,
lnter-Am. Ct. H.R. (ser. C) No. r47,fl169 (Apr.6, zoo6).
(c) Provisional Measures. Citc Provisionrl Mcasures by the namc of the case
or matter;"Provisional Measures"; and the typc of opinion.When citing the
print reports, cite Serics E with thc volume number and the lirst page of the
decision; the section name in qurtes; the pincite, if any; and the date.When
citing an online version, citc the section namc in quotes; the pincite, if any; the
court and the date:and the wcbsite IJRI- (rule 18.1):
=
86maca Vel6zquez v. Guatemala, Provisional Measures, Order
of the Court, Inter-Am. Ct. H.R. (ser. E) No. 4, at r, "Decides," 11 2
(Sept. 5, zoor).
=
Mendoza Prisons Regarding Argentina, Provisional Measures,
Order of the President of the Court, "Having Seen," fl zr (lnter-Am.
Ct. H.R. Aug. zz, 2oo7), www.corteidh.or.cr/docs/medidas/penitenciariamendoza_se_o4_in g. pdf.
2r.5.5
(d) Compliances with Judgment. Cite Compliances with Judgment by the
name of the case; "Monitoring Compliance with Judgment'; and the type
of opinion.When citing the print reports, cite the volume number, the report
name, and the first page of the decision;the section name in quotes; the pincite,
if any; and the date.When citing an online version, cite to the section name in
quotes; the pincite, if any; the court and date; and the website URt (rule 18.1):
)
)
Genie Lacayo v. Nicaragua, Monitoring Compliance with Judgment,
Order of the Court, 1998 Rep. Inter-Am. Ct. H.R. 335, "Resolves," fl
r (Aug. 29, 1998).
Baena Ricardo et al. v. Panama, Monitoring Compliance with Judgment, Order ofthe President ofthe Court, "Considering," tl r4
(lnter-Am. Ct. H.R. Feb. u, zooS), www.corteidh.or.cr/docs/supervisio n es/ baena_rr_oz_o8_i n g. pdf.
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21.5.6 lnternational Tribunal for the Law of the Sea
Cite cases of the International Tribunal for the law of the Sea to the lntemationalTribunalfor tbe Law of tbe Sea Reports of Judgments,Ad.aisory Opinions and Orders (|TLOS Rep.). Cite cases before theTribunal by the case name
and the names of the parti€s in a parenthetical, abbreviated according to table
Tlo;the case number;the type of ruling and date;the volume number,the name
of the publication, and the page number; and the pincite, if any, with preference
for paragraph numbers where available:
)
M/V Saiga (No. z) (St. Vincent v. Guinea), Case No. z, Order of Jan.
2o,t998, z ITLOS Rep.4, 5.
When print reports are unavailable, cite to theTribunal's official website (trttp://
www.itlos.org) (rule 16. 1):
)
M/V Louisa (St. Vincent v. Spain), Case No. r8, Order
zonltof
lan.
!2, 2ou, http://www.itlos.org/index.php?id=r48.
2r.5.7 lntenational Criminal Court and Other Tribunals
Cite cases of international criminal tribunals (e.g., the International Criminal
Court, the Intemational CriminalTribunal for the FormerYugoslavia, the Interna-
tional CriminalTribunal for Rwanda, the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts
of Cambodia, the Special Court for Sierra kone, and the Special Tribunal for
Lebanon) as follows: l) case name (include only one party on each side of the
"v." and include only the last name of individuals); 2) case number; 3) type of
ruling (include only the last name of judges); 4) paragraph number, if necessary;
and 5) date. If the tribunal's name is not contained in the case number, add the
ribunal's name before the date:
)
Prosec uto r v. Kata
)
Prosecutor v. Tadi€, Case No. lT-94-t-|, Decision on Defence Motion
for Interlocutory Appeal on lurisdiction, f Zo (lnt't Crim. Trib. for
the Former Yugoslavia Oct. z, t995).
n ga, ICC- ot I o 4- ot I 07 3 436- Anxl, Mi no rity
Opinion of Judge Wyngaert, fl 3zo (Mar. 7,zot4).
|'
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Many cases can be found on ofhcial websites and should be cited pursuant to
rule 18.1:
F. Prosecutor v. Gombo, Case No. ICC-or/o5-or/o8, Warrant of
Arrest, 1l zz (May 23, zoo9), http://www.icc-cpi.int/iccdo cs I doc I
doc535163.pdf.
F
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Prosecutor v. Kayishema, Case No. ICTR 95-t T, ludgment,
(May zu tggg).
Prosecutor v. Simba, Case No. ICTR-or-76-T, Judgement and
Sentence, fl z3 (Dec. g, zoo5),http://www.unictr.org/sites/
unictr.org/fi les/case-documents/ictr-or-26/trial-iudgements/
en
/o5rz13.pdf
# Prosecutor
v. Lukid, Case No. lT-98-32/t-T, Order to Disclose
Portions of the Transcript (lnt't Crim. Trib. for the Former Yugoslavia Jan. zz, zoog), http : //www.icty.org/x/cases/mitan lukicsredoje_lu kic/tord /en /o9orz z.pdf.
Other International Courts
2r.5.8
When citing other international courts, analogizc the citation format to the format used for citing the courts dcscribcd above in rule 21.5.7. An international
court citation will gener.rlly contain the following information:(l) the parties to
the case, if adversarial; (2) the court-assigncd case number, if any; (3) the official
reporter in which the case is published, with pincitcs, if the reporter has numbered pages and/or paragmphs; (4) the type of dccision; (5) thc court name, if
not obvious from other ptrts of the citati<tn, ((r) the datc of the decision; and (7)
a web link, if an1,:
c' Dabalorivhuwa Patriotic
Front v. South Africa, Communication
335lzoo6, African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights [Afr.
Comm'n H.P.R.l, fl rs (Apr. 23, zot3), http://www.achpr.org/fites/
sessions/53rd/comunication s I i3s.o6 | achpr5S-335-o6-eng.pdf.
ooz/zorr, Decision, African Court on
Human and Peoples' Rights [Afr. Ct. H.P.R.], fl 6 (Sept. z,zott),
http ://www.african-co urt-cases-experts.org/ uptoads/ me dia I oo7
+- Ababou v. Morocco, No.
-
zon_decision.pdf.
If cases cannot be found in oflicial reports, cite thc International I'aw Reports
(l.L.R.) (1950-present) or Annual Digest and Reports of Public International
Lau Cases (Ann. Dig.) (1919-49).V<rlume numbers, rather than years, should
be used. Eady volumes of theAnnual I)igcst havc been renumbered according to
tables appearing in all volumes after volume 25.Include thc name of the court
and the year of the decision in a parcnthetical:
F' Loomba v. Food & Agric. Org. of the United Nations, 47 l.L.R. 3Bz
(lnt't Lab. Org. Admin. Trib. r97o).
F
Mayras v. Secretary-General ofthe League of Nations, 13 Ann. Dig.
r99 (Admin. Trib. of the League of Nations 1946).
21.5.9 International Cases in National Courts
If an international case is decided by a national court whose reporter is not indicated in table T2, cite l.L.R., Ann. Dig., C.M.L.R., Common Mkt. Rep. (CCH),
a yearbook (rule 21.15),ot an online source (rule 18.1). Indicate the country
and coun of origin parenthetically if not otherwise clear from the citation:
)
Abdul Ghani v. Subedar Shoedar Khan,38 l.L.R.
196D.
)
Ko Maung Tin v. U Gon Man, 14 Ann. Dig. 233 (High Ct. 1947)
I
(W. Pak. High Ct.
(Burma).
21.6 International Arbitrations and Claims
Commissions
Cite arbitral decisions and claims commission decisions by analogy to rule
21.5, modifed as follows. If adversarial parties are named, name as you would
fot a court case:
)
able, if not otherwise evident:
N.
Atl. Coast Fisheries (U.K. v. U.S.),
u
R.|.A.A.
167,t96 (Perm. Ct.
Arb. rgro).
Cite arbitration awards to the official source, if possible, unless that source is a
pamphlet containing only a single judgment. Consult table T5 for frequently
cited arbitral reporters and claims commissions. Indicate the court or tribunal
unless it is identified in the name of the reporter:
F Amoco Int'l Fin. Corp. v. lran, r5 lran-U.S.
Ct.
Trib. Rep. r89 GgB).
)
Massaut v. Stupp, 9 Trib. Arb. Mixtes 3r5 (Ger.-Belg. r9z9).
F
Savarkar (Fr. v. Gr. Brit.), Hague Ct. Rep. (Scott) zZS (Perm. Ct. Arb.
)
Case No. 5428 of :.988, r4Y.B. Comm. Arb.
t9n).
46(lCC lnt'l Ct. Arb.).
For International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) awards,
include the frrll diplomatic names for each country involved, where relevant.
After the case number, include a description of the type of decision or ruling,
when relevant:
)
Soci6t6 G6n6rale de Surveillance S.A. v. Republic of the Phit., lCSlD
Case No. ARB I oz | 6, Obiections to J urisd iction, fl t5 4 (an. 29,
zoof,8 ICSID Rep. 5r8 (zoo5).
When decisions do not appear in a traditional printed source, an lnternet source
may be used pursuant to rule 1E.1:
)
/n re Account ofGafner, Case No. CY96-4849, Certified Award, at z
(Ctaims Resolution Trib. zoo6), http://www.crt-ii.org/_awards/_
a
pd fs /
G
afn
e
r_E tisa beth.
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;
Massaut v. Stupp
Otherwise, cite by the name of the fust-party plaintiff or by the subject matter
if no name is given. lndicate parenthetically the countries involved, when avail-
>
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pdf.
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United Nations
Sources
21.7
The Official Records are the preferred sourcc for United Nations citations, but
masthead documents and documents drawn from U.N. websites are acceptable
Press releases, salcs documents, yearbooks, and periodicals should be cited only
when preferrecl sources arc unavailablc.
.
Whenever possiblc, paragraph and article numbers, rather than page numbers
of the Oflicial Rccords, should be uscd for pincites. Some documents utilize
both unnumbered and numbered paragraphs, referred to as preambular and
operative paragmphs, respectively; cite language in preambular paragraphs b-v
page number and language in operative paragxaphs by paragmph number. For
GeneralAssembly and Security Council resolutions, cite the Ofhcial Records and
provide a parallel citation for the individual resolution.
This section covers the principal organs of the United Nations and scveral subsidiaries of the Gencral Assembly. Subsidiaries of organs or committccs should
be included in citations whenever appropriate. Other organs and committees
not specifically covered by this section should be cited anakrgously to the
examples in this rule. If a committec is known by an abbreviittion, write out
the committee's full name and includc an abbreviation in bmckcts if useful for
subsequent citations.
Verbatim and Summary
Records
21.7.1
The GeneralAssembly, the Securiry Council, and the Economic and Social Council have Official Records. All citations to verbatim and summary records should
be to the Oflicial Records whenever possible
.
Include the Oflicial Records title; thc subdivision of the organ, if nccessary; the
if necessary; thc [1.N. ckrcument sym-
session and meetinfi number; the pincite,
bol; and the date:
:''
U.N. GAOR, 56th Sess., 1st plen. mtg. at 3, U.N. Doc.
Als6lPY't
(Sept. rz, zoor).
,
U.N. SCoR,59th Sess.,4893d mtg. at 2, U.N. Doc. S/PV.4893
[an.
75,2OOq.
Resolutions and Decisrons
Authorized versions of resolutions appear in the Official Records. It has become
customary, however, to cite elcctronic versions or resolutions found in the Official Document Systcm (ODS) of the United Nations using resolution symbols.
For pincites to material within a resoltttion, use paragraph or article numbers.
(a) General Assembly. After lgT6,GeneralAssembly resolution symbols are
designated as scssion numberAesolution number. The first resolution adopted
during the forty-sevcnth GeneralAssembly would thus be G.A. Res. 47 lr'
Prior to l976,the resolution symbols continued increasing from year to year
and the session number was indicated as a Roman numerrl in parentheses after
th€ resolution number
21.7.2
(i) General Assembly resolutions. GeneralAssembly resolutions are cited by
resolution number and date.
)
)
G.A. Res.
8lz
G.A. Res.
47ltq,
(lX), at 19 (Oct.
fl S (Dec.
zt, t954).
$,t992).
(ii) General Assembly decisions.
General Assembly decisions are cired by
resolution number and date.
)
G.A. Dec.
6zlSSt, U.N. Doc. Al6llqg (Vot. lil), at 106 (Sept.15,
zoo8).
(iii) General Assembly resolutions known by a popular narne. For GeneralAssembly resolutions known by a specific title (e.g., the Universal Declaration of Human Rights), or for resolutions whose title is important in the context
cited, insert the title after the resolution number Note that some documents
or statements, such as the last of the three below, are included as annexes to
resolutions and need to be identified as such:
)
)
)
zt7 (lll) A, Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Dec.
to, t948).
G.A. Res.
G.A. Res.
6olt,zoo5 World Summit Outcome (Sept.
16, zoo5).
lri5, annex, Declaration on the Rights of Persons
Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities
G.A. Res. 47
(Dec. r8, r99z).
(b) Security Council resolutions.
Security Council resolutions and state-
ments of the Security Council president are cited by resolution number and
date.
)
)
)
S.C. Res.5o8, fl 3
S.C. Res.
[une 5, r98z).
B25,1i8 (Oct.3r, zooo).
5.C. Pres. Statement
zoo8l48 (Dec. zz, zoo8).
(c) Resolutions issued by other org:rns. Resolutions issued by other
U.N.
organs should be cited analogously to GeneralAssembly and Security Council
resolutions. List the title of the U.N. organ first.
F
Economic and Social Council Res. ry9ol z6 (May 24, t99o).
)
Trusteeship Council Res. zor4 (XXV|), at z (June .'ry6o).
(d) Resolutions by subsidiary bodies. Resolutioos by subsidiary bodies of
the principal U.N. organs should be cited by rhe name of the subsidiary body
and resolution number; the U.N. document symbol; the pincite, if any; and the
date:
)
Human Rights Council Res. 5/r, U.N. Doc.
zooT).
Al6zlSl,
at 48 (June 18,
(e) Short form. Resolutions can subsequently be cited in short form, with
"supra" and
a
pincite:
)
S.C. Res. 5o8,supra note
>
H.R.C.
r, fl z.
Res.5/r, supranotez,flt,
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2r.7.t
U.N. Reports
(a) In general. Rcports from U.N. organs, committees, or the Secre tariat should
include the name of the body and the subcommittee (both abbrcviated according to rule 15.f(d)), if any; the title of the report; the pincite, if any; the document symbol; and the date. If a personal author is given, that person should bc
named as the author, with official role noted in parentheses if relevant (e.g.,
Maurice Kamto (Speciat Rapporteur)).
(b) Reports of subsidiary bodies to parent organs. Reports of subsidiary
bodies to parcnt organs are usually part of the Official Records of thc parent
orfaan, as are the reports of the principal organs to the GeneralAssembly. Include
the title of the report; the name of the body; the session number; the dates of
the session;the pincite , if any;the docttment symbol;the Ofhcial ltccord supplement number; and the date of publication:
Al6llz
F
Rep.
=
Comm. on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, Rep. of the Legal
Subcomm. on lts Fiftv-Third Session, U.N. Doc. Al AC.roSlro6l
ofthe S.C., at16-17, U.N. Doc.
(zoo8).
(zot|.
& Int'[ Law Comm'n,
U.N. Doc.
Rep. on the Work of lts Sixty-Fourth Session,
Al6llro,aI 46-5r(zorz).
+' Rep. of the Group of Experts on C6te d'lvoire (zoo6), transmitted
by Letter Dated 17 October zooT from the Chairman of the Security
CouncitComm. Estabtished Pursuant to Resolution $72 (zoo4)
Concerning C6te d'lvoire Addressed to the President ofthe Security Councit, 1]fl 6r-8o, U.N. Doc. SlzooT l6u (Oct. r8, zooT).
(c) Reports from the Secretary-General or other officials. When citing a
report published by the Secretary-General, or anyone acting in an oflicial capacity as a committee chair, representative, envoy, etc., include in the citation: the
author of the report; the title of the report; thc pincite, if any; the body to which
the document is delivered, if needed; the document symbol; and the date . If a
personal author is given, that person should be named as authoq with his or her
official role noted in parentheses if relevant:
A n Agendo for Peace: Preventive Diplomacy, Peacemaking and Peoce-Keeping,lt14, U.N. Doc. Al q
a,' U.N. Secretary-General,
lzll-
SIz4rrtluneq,t99z).
=
*
Executive Chairman of the U.N. Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Comm'n (UNMOVIC), 8th Quarterly Rep. of the Executive
Chairman, UN Doc. Slzoozltg5, annex (Feb. z6,zooz).
Maurice Kamto (Special Rapporteur on the Expulsion of Aliens),
Fourth Rep. on the Expulsion of Aliens, U.N. Doc. A/CN.z+/Sg+ (Mar.
24, zooS).
(d) Reports from conferences. If a rcport is the product of a conference
or a series of conferences, include in the citation: the confcrcnce name; the
report title; the pincite, if any; the document symbol, if available; and the official document date. Do not include the location and dates of confbrences if
listed separately on the title page of the document. Do not include dates if
they are integrated into the title of the documenr (e.g.,"Report of High-Level
Conference of May zotz Concerning Rights of Indigenous Peoples."):
)
Wortd Conference on Human Rights,Vienna Declaration and
Programme of Action, fl lZ, U.N. Doc. A/CONF.r57 lz3 gune 25,
19%).
)
U.N. Conference on Environment and Development, Rio Declaration
on Environment and Development, U.N. Doc. A/C0NF.r5r/26/Rev.r
(Vol. l), annex | (Aug.tz,t99z).
(e) Short forms. For reports v/ith long names, it is appropriate to list a short
form in brackets at the end ofthe firll citation (rule 4.2(b)).
21.7.4 Masthead Documents
Most U.N. documents are issued as masthead documents. Some documents
originally published in masthead form, such as General Assembly and Security
Council resolutions, are subsequently issued in the Off,cial Records. Cite the
Official Record when possible. Masthead documents should be cited by the
name of the institutional author, if any (rule 21.7.4(a)); the title of the document (rule 21.7 .4(b));pincite, if any; the document symbol (de 21.7.4(c));
and the date ofpublication.
)
U.N. Secretary-General, Letter dated Mar. z, zoo6 from the Secretary-General addressed to the President of the GeneraI Assembly,
Al6oltoS (Mar.3, zoo6).
U.N. Doc.
)
)
)
)
9, zooS from the president ofthe Security Council to the Secretary-General, U.N. Doc.
SlzooSlZSt (Dec. 9, zoo8).
U.N. President of the S.C., Letter dated Dec.
Prevention Through Education, Ministerial Declaration of the rst
Meeting of the Ministers of Health and Education to Stop HIV/AIDS
and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Latin America and the Caribbean, in letter dated Aug. r5, 2oo8 from the Charg6 d'affaires a.i. of
the Permanent Mission of Mexico to the United Nations addressed
to the Secretary-General, U.N. Doc. Al6lllol (Aug. r9, zooS).
Permanent Rep. of Somalia to the U.N., Letter dated May rz,
2oo8 from the Permanent Rep. of Somalia to the United Nations
addressed to the President ofthe Security Council, U.N. Doc.
Slzoo8l34 (May r4, zoo8).
U.N. Secretariat, Expulsion of Aliens, Memorandum by the Secretariat, flfl 702-44,Int'l Law Comm'n, U.N. Doc. A/CN.4/565 fluly
ro, zoo5).
(a) Author. Include the
name of the author, as listed on the cover page
of
the document:
)
U.N. Secretary-General, Letter dated Mar. z, zoo6 from the Secre-
tary-General addressed to the President ofthe General Assembly,
U.N. Doc.
>
Al6olto6 (Mar.3, zoo5).
U.N., Econ. & Soc. Council, Comm. on Arrangements for Consultation with Non-Governmental Orgs., Dev. of Tourism on the African
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Continent, Statement Submitted by the Int'l Union of Official Travel
Orgs., U.N. Doc. ElC.zlS6z (t96o).
(b) Title. Crpitalize thc title in accordance with rule 8
(c) United Nations document symbol. Include the fl.N. documcnt symbol
(rule 21.7.1), if
available
.
U.N. Press Releases and
Memoranda
Cite U.N. press rcleases and memomnda according to
include thc U.N. prcss releasc symbol:
21.7.5
rule
17.2.3, but also
jr' Press Release, Security Counci[, Security CouncitTakes Up Report
on Diamonds, Arms in Sierra Leone; Expert Panel Says Council
Sanctions Broken'with lmpunity,' U.N. Press Release SCl6997
()an. zS, zoot).
Adjudicatory Bodies Established by the United Nations
2r.7.6
The International CriminalTribunals for thc Forme rYugoslavia and Rwanda, the
Special Court for Sierra Leonc, and othcr ad hoc and regional tribunals should
be cited according to rule 21.5-7.l'hc tl.N. AdministrativeTtibund should
be cited t<tJudgments of tbe (l.N.Administratiue Tribunal (iudgments U.N.
Admin. Trib.) by judgment number:
,
Etdridge v. Secretary-General of the United Nations, .ludgments
U.N. Admin. Trib., No. 32, at 44 U.N. Doc. AI I DEC I lz (rgs).
2r.7 .7
Sales Publications
Numerous tl.N. agcncies publish rcports, studies, proceedings, and other docttments for sale . Citation of sales publications should include thc author and title
(rule 21.7.7G)); the page(s) or par.rgr.rph(s) (rule 21.7.7(b)); the [1.N. docu-
ment symbol, if available (rde 21.7.7k)); the sales nunbcr lrule 21.7.7(d));
and the year lrule 21.7.7(e)).
Author and title. Include the author ancl title according to rules I 5. I and
15.3. Inch-rdc the name of the author if it is not apparcnt from the titlc of the
document:
(a)
De p'r oF lNr'L Ecou. & Soc. Arratns, U.N. Mooel DoueLe
Tnxnttott Converultot,t Berwre lt DeveropEo AND DEVELoPING
CouHrntes, at 243, U.N. Doc. ST/ESA/roz, U.N. Sales No. E'Bo.
XVl.; (rg8o).
U.N.
U.N.
FoR DEV. Portcv,
Deveropeo Coururnv Cnrrconv: Incru-
Drp'r oF EcoN. & Soc. Arrntns, CoMM.
HnNosoor oN
THE LEAST
sroru, GnnounloN AND
No. E.o7.ll.A.9 (zoo8).
Sprctnl Supponr
MEASUREs, U.N. Sates
(b) Pages or paragraphs. The volumc and subdivision dcsignations should be
followed by the pagc(s) or paraggaph(s) to which referencc is made . Introdttcc
page numbers with the word"at."
(c) United Nations docurnent symbol. tnclude the
(rule 2 1.7. f ), if available.
(d) United Nations sales number. Include the U.N.
)
U.N. document symbol
sales number:
U.N. Dep'r oF INT'L EcoH. & Soc. Arrnrns, Wonlo EcoHollrc
Sunvrv t977,at l-r9, U.N. Doc. ST/ESA/82, U.N. Sales No. E.78.
tt.C.tGgt).
(e) Year. Give the year ofpublication.
21.7.E Yeatbooks and Periodicals
United Nations yearbooks and periodicals collect summaries of the work of
subsidiary organizations and related documents. Citations should include the
author andlor title of the document or separately designated article (if any);
the name of the yearbook or periodical (abbreviated according to rule 1.6.4);
and the U.N. document symbol (ruIe 21.7 .l) or, if none, the U.N. sales number
(rute 21.7.7(d)):
)
Summory Records of the 447th Meeting,[tglll:. Y.B. Int'[ L.
Comm'n r75, U.N. Doc. A/CN.+/SER.AIrytZ.
)
Human Rights in the Union of Burma in
U.N. Sales No. t955.XlV.r.
)
)
r98r U.N. Jurid. Y.B.4t, U.N. Doc. ST/LEG/SER.C/r9.
1985 U.N.Y.B.
ry5j, r953 Y.B.
on H.R. 31,
r39r, U.N. Sales No. E.84.1.r.
Matefial reprinted in yearbooks from other U.N. documents should be cited to
the original source or to the official records of a U.N. organ:
)
Report of the lnternationol Law Commission to the General
Assembly, 19 U.N. GAOR Supp. No. 9, at r, U.N. Doc. AlSSog Gg6l),
reprinted inltgglz Y.B. Int'l L. Comm'n r87, U.N. Doc. A/CN.+/
SER.A/1963lAdd.r.
2r.7.9 Regional Organi zation Documents
Resolutions, reports, and other similar documents produced by regional organizations, such as the Organization ofAmerican States or theAfrican Union, should
be cited analogously to U.N. materials with pincites, if the reporter has numbered pages and/or paragraphs.
2r.7.ro U.N.
See
Charter
de
)
21.4:
U.N. Charter art. 43, fl
r.
2r.7.rr U.N. Internet Materials
You may cite a website URI for materials without document or press release
symbols. United Nations websites are preferable to all other websites. Cite materials in accordance with rule 21.7.4 and format them pursuant to rule lg.l:
o
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F
U.N. Secretary-Generat, High-Levet Event on the Miltennium
Development Goals z5 September zoo8: Committing to Action:
Achieving the Miltennium Devetopment Goats: Background Note
by the Secretary-General 0uty zl, 2oo8), http://www.un.org/
m ilten n iu mgoats/zoo8h igh tevet/pdf/com miting. pdf.
F
*
Letter from the President ofthe G.A. to all Permanent Representatives and Permanent Observers to the U.N. (Dec. 4, zoo8), http://
www. un.org/ga/president/63 / letters/ udhrprogram me4rzo8. pdf.
U.N. President of the G.A.. Remarks on the Work to Date of the
Sixty-Third Session of the U.N. G.A. (Dec. z3,zoo8), http://www.
un.org/ga/president/63/statements/gaz3rzoB.shtmt.
League of
Nations
Cite the League of Nations Covenant
*
21.8
as:
League of Nations Covenant art. 16.
Cite conventions and treaties promulgated by the League of Nations according
to rule 21.4.
Cite other League of Nations materials by issuing body
title); title; document number; and ycar:
4
(if not included in the
Reports Presented by the Comm. of Technical Experts on Double
Taxotion and Tax Evasion, League of Nations Doc. C.zt6M.85 r9z7
ll (tgzt).
European Union
(a) Acts
of the Council and Commission.
(i) Sources. Cite publications of the (iruncil and Commission published beginning February 1, 2003, to the Official Journal of tbe Europedn Uion (O.1.).
Cite documents published between Janurry 1,1973, and January 31, 2003, to
the Official Journal of tbe European Communities (also abbreviated 0..1.).
Cite documents published before January 1,1973,to the Special Edition of the
Official Journal of the European Communities (O.J. Spec. Eo.), if available;
otherwise citc to theJournal Officiel des Communautds Eurolfiennes (1.O.).
Beginning with thc 1998 editions, the O.l. is available at the European Union's
official website, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/enlindex.htm. The online editions
may be cited as oflicial editions and should generally include the same information as citltions to paper versions.
.1.O. volumes publlshcd prior to 1968
were numbercd in a single series. Since 196u, O.J. and J.O. havc bcen published
in parallel scries, paginated separately by issue. Legislative acts appear in the " 1"
series, while other documents appear in the "C" series. Citations to J.O. before
1968 must include the issue number,while citations to O'J. and J.O. since 1968
must include both the series and the issue numbcr:
Cite volumes of O.J. and J.O. by ycar.
* t97tJ.O. (L zo) r.
* t975o.1.(Llt)t.
2r.g
)
tg6t+1.O.(zld
S.
Citations to the O.J. Sprc. Eo. must indicate the period covered by the issue:
)
t965-t965
O.J. SpEc.
Eo.265.
(ii) Legislative acts of the Council and Commission. Cite
Regulations,
Directives, and Decisions of the Council and Commission by the issuing institution, type of legislation, number, and subdivision (if applicable). If it is unclear
from the contefi that the source is a European Union (EU) or European Community (EC) act, indicate this with a parenthetical at the end of the citation
(de
20.1).If the act was not issued under theTreaty on the Functioning of the
European Union, indicate the authority for the promulgation of the act:
)
)
)
Cou ncil Directive go I t+l
6, art. 5, tggo O.l. (L 266) r, z (EC).
Council Directive 55145,
(Euratom).
art.5, r965-t965
Commission Regulation 7251 67, 1967 l.O.
O.J. Spec.
Eo.265,258
(zS) t.
The full name of the legislation may also be provided, with or without the date:
)
Commission Regulation z75tl9o of Sept.26,t99o, Fixingthe
lmport Levies on Compound Feeding Stuffs, annex, r99o O.l. (L
z6+) lz, t8.
)
Directive zootltS, of the European Parliament and of the Council
of rz March 2oo1 on the Deliberate Release into the Environment
of Genetically Modified Organisms and Repealing Council Directive
zolzzolEEC, zoor
O..1. (L
ro5) r, 3.
(iii) Other publications of the Council and Commission. Cite proposed
Regulations, Directives, Decisions, Conclusions, Resolutions, and other notices
of the Council and Commission by issuhg institution and title, as given at the
beginning of the item.
For Common Positions, the complete date and the complete or short form
title
may be included:
l'
Council Common Position (EC) No. 57 lzoo3 of z5 June 2oo3, art. 2,
zoo3O.l.(C277) t,z.
)
Administrative Commission on Social Security for Migrant Workers,
zoog O.J. (C zr3) 6,8.
(iv) COM and SEC documents. "COM" documents are proposed legislation
and other Commission communications to other European institutions, and the
Commission's preparatory papers.'SEC" documents are intemal documents of
the SecretariatGeneral concerning the operations of Commission departments.
Cite'COM" and "SEC" documents by the issuing body (unless clear from the
title); the title; the pincite, if any; the 'COM" or "SEC" number, which includes
the year of publication in parentheses and the running number assigned to the
document; the word "final" (unless the version cited is not final); and the date:
)
Commission Proposol for a Directive of the European Parlioment
and of the Council to Establish a New Financial Seruices Committee
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
a
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
a
",,
Proposol for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the
Council Concerning the Registrotion, Evaluation, Authorisation ond
Registration of Chemicals (Reoch), C0M (zoo:) 644frnal (Oct. z9'
2oo3).
(b) Documents of the European Parliament.
(i) Debates. Debates of thc Europcan Parliament are bound and published
in ihe European Parliamentary Debates (Eun. Pnnl. DEe.). Thc debates arc
also published in thc annex to the Of|icial tournal of tbe Huntpean (/nion.
It is acceptablc to cite debates to the Ofticial Journal (O.J.) befbre they are
bound. Include in thc citation thc name of the speakcr, the document number,
the full date, and rclevant information, including the name of the speakcr, in
pafcntheticals:
.
:
Eur. Parl. Deb.
(;28) 4(May 24, 1989) (remarks of Mr. Kuijpers).
l975 O.l. (Annex ry3)
n3 \uly g, tgl9
(remarks of President
Ortoti).
(ii) Documents. Cite documcnts to liuropean Pailiament Session Documents
(EuR. PARL. Doc.) (entitled European ParliamentWtrking Documents prictr
to 1988), if therein; otherwisc cite Pailement Europden Documents de Sdance
(PARL. EuR. Doc.). Include the &rcument numbcr:
,
Eun. Pnnr. Doc. (COM zs8) S
Ggt).
Pnnr. Eun. Doc. (SEC 6a) 6 (1.g6t.
The namc may be included
as
wcll:
Resolution on Action Required Internationatly to Provide Effective Protection for Indigenous Peoples, Eun. Pnnl. Doc. PV SB(ll)
(tgsd.
(c) Founding treaties. Cite founding treaties according to rule 21'4.5:
'
Treaty of Lisbon Amendingthe Treaty on European Union and the
Treaty Establishin g the European Comm unity, Dec. r3, 2oo7, 2oo7
O.J. (C ;o6) r Ihereinafter Treaty of Lisbon].
,
Consotidated Version ofthe Treaty on the Functioning ofthe European Union art. r5, May 9, zoo9, zoo8 O.J. (C
+z [hereinafter
n)
TFEU].
i,
Treaty of Amsterdam Amending the Treaty on European Union,
the Treaties Estabtishing the European Communities and Certain
Retated Acts, Oct. 2,1997,1997 O.l. (C l+o) r.
Subsequent citations should ttsc the appropriatc short fcrrm:
f FEU art.
q7.
',
Treaty of Lisbon arts. 4-5.
.
Euratom Treaty art.4.
The Treaty of Lisbon rename d the Treaty Establishing the European Community
(EC Treaty) to theTreaty on the Funcrioning ofthe European Union (|FEU) and
renumbered its articles. For cuffent references to the founding treaty, cite the
TFEU according to its renumbered articles. To cite previous versions ofthe EU's
founding treaty, cite the name of the treaty, the article, the date (in parentheses),
and the current number of the article as found in the fiEU (in parentheses), if
still active:
)
)
EC
)
EEC
EC
Treaty art. 49 (as in effect zoo5) (now TFEU art. 56).
Treaty art.
Amsterdam).
5:
(as in effect 1994) (repealed by the Treaty
of
Treaty art. 3o (as in effect rgS8) (now TFEU art. l+).
(e) Reports, Green Papers, and Vhite Papers. Cite reports from institutions and working groups within the European Union or European Communities according t o n;Jre 2l .7 .3 .lnclude in the citation of reports the issuing body
and the committee, dMsion, or group that produced the report, if applicable . If
a repoft is not given a document number, provide enough information to locate
the document:
I
Commission White Paper on European Governance, at r7, COM
(zoot) 482 finat(luty z5,zoot).
)
lnitial Report of the Committee of Wise Men on the Regulation of
European Securities Morkets, at+ (Nov. 9, zooo), http://ec.europa.
eu/internal_market/securities/docs/lamfalussy/wisemen/
in
itia l-report-wise-men_en.pdf.
White Papers, Green Prpers, comments, notices, opinions, and proposals should
also be cited as reports:
)
Opinion of the Committee of the Regions on the "CoR proposals for
the lntergovernmentol Conference," zoo4 O.J. (Clz) t, z.
If
a source takes a form analogous to othef reports and is not given the type of
document number that Commission and Council acts are given (e.g., Council
Directive (EC) No. z5o4l9o),then it should be cited as a report.
(f) Press releases, Presidency Conclusions, and memoranda. European
Union and European Community press releases and memoranda should be cited
by source (with an indication of the status of the press release,including a number if applicable); the title; and the date in parentheses:
)
European Commission Press Release lplUl6So,The Commission,
the CounciI and the Parliament Debate the Future ofthe European
Union with Religious Leaders (June ro, zor4).
Treat Presidency Conclusions of the Council like press releases and include the
exact date as well as the meeting place of the Council:
)
Presidency Conclusions, Brussels European Counci[ (Dec. rz,
zoo3).
(g) European Court ofJustice materials. Cite European Court ofJustice
materials according to rwle 21.5.2.
o
t
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
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o
o
o
o
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o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
a
Council of
2l.l0
Europe
Cite debatcs of the Padiamentary Assembly, formerly the Consultative Assembly,
to the oflicial reports:
H, EuR. CoNSULT.
Ass. DEe. roth Sess.639 (Oct. 16, r95B).
h EuR. PARL. Ass. Dee. z3d Sess. +gg (Sept.3o,
(lite documents
+
as
r98o).
follows:
Eur. ConsulI. Ass., Reply of the Comm. of
Doc. No. ttz6 (t96o).
Ministers,l2th Sess.,
Reccnt (louncil of Europe materials can bc found on the Council of Europe's
oflicial website (http://assembly.coe .int) (and should be cited according to rule
r8.l).
2l.tl
World Trade Organization
a citation refbrs to a W'TO or GA|T documcnt, explain the reference in a parcnthctical following the citation.
If it is unclcar from the context that
(a) WTO panel and Appellate Body materials. Cite rcports of WTO prncls
and the Appellate Body by their official documcnt symbol:
'
Panel Report, lJnited States-Sections 3ot-3to ofthe Trode Act of
ry74,Wf O Doc. WT/DSr5z/R (adopted )an. 25, zooo) [hereinafter
Section 3or Panet Reportl.
,
Appettate Body Report, Brozil-Export Financing Progromme for
Aircraft, fl r9, WTO Doc. WT/DSa6/AB/R (adopted Aug.
(lite communications of panels and thc Appellate
Body, as
zo'r99).
well ls membcrs'
commllnications to panels and the Appe llate Bocly, in a like format:
o' Preliminary Ruting by the Panel, Canada-Measures Relating to
Exports of Wheat and Treatment of lmported Groin,ll23, WTO Doc.
WI lDSzt6ltz 0uty zr, zoo3).
Request for Consultations by the United States, European Communities- Measures Affecting the Approval and Marketing of Biotech
Products, WTO Doc. WI lDSzgtlr (May zo, zoo3).
,
Request for the Establishment ofa Panel by Brazit, United Stotes(Feb. Z'
Subsidies on uplond Cotton, WTO Doc. WI lDSz6l
ll
2oot.
A member's written submissions and oral statements to panels and the Appellrte Body are made public at the cliscretion of the individual member. Becluse
thcse documents are not normally publicly available, include precise information regarding their location:
r, First Written Submission of the United States, United StatesSubsidies on lJpland Cotton,tNI lDSz6l 0uly rr, zoo3),
untriesTozoRegions/africa/agreements/pdfs/dispute-setttement/
dsz67 I asset-u pload-fi ler4B-5 598.pdf.
(b) General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) panel decisions.
Cite Basic Instrumen* and Selected Documents (B.|.S.D.), if therein. Include
the title; case number, if listed; th€ document date; the ordinal number of the
supplement (annual volume); the page; and the year of publication:
)
Report of the Panel, /ap an
-
Restrictions on lmports of Certain AgriGATT BtSD (f Sth
culturalProducts,{l5.z.z,Ll6zSZ (Feb. z, rg88),
Supp.), at $3, zz9 Q989).
b
Netherlands Measure of Suspension of Obligations to the united
Sfafes (Nov. 8,tgSz), GATT BISD (rst Supp.),
GgSl).
aty
(c) Reports. Cite reports from the WTO Secretariat and other bodies as you
would those from the United Nations (rule 21.7.3):
)
Council forTrade-Related Aspects oflntellectual Property Rights,
Note by the Secretoriot: Available lnformotion on the Existence of
Patents in Regard to the Diseases Referred to in the Declaration
on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, WTO Doc. lp lClW
0une u, zooz).
ly8
F
Speciat Session of the Council for Trade in Services, Guidelines and
Procedures for the Negotiations on Trade in Seruices, WTO Doc.
SlLlgl (Mar.29, zoor).
>
GATT Secretariat,An Analysis ofthe Proposed llruguay Round
Agreement, with Particular Emphosis on Aspects of tnterest to
Developing Countries, GATT Doc. MTN.TNC/W/rzz (Nov. 29,t993).
(d) Founding agreements. Cite founding agreements
according to rule
2r.4.5:
)
)
Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, Apr. $, 1994, 1857 U.N.T.S. r54 [hereinafter Marrakesh
Agreementl.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Oct. 3o,
A-u, 55 U.N.T.5. r94 [hereinafter
t947,(rrStat.
GATT].
The MarrakeshAgreement concluded the Uruguay Round, which resulted in a
set of agreements and appended annexes,some of which constitute agrcements
on separate trade issues. Indicate the part(s) of the agreement(s) rhey attach to,
if any:
l
Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Setttement
of Disputes art. 1, Apr. 15, t994, Marrakesh Agreement Estabtishing
the Wortd Trade Organization, Annex z, t8G9 U.N.T.S. 4ot Iherein-
after DSUI.
GATT<ra side agreements should be cited to an unoffrcial treaw source. such
as
B.l.S.D.:
)
Agreement Regarding International Trade in Textiles, Dec. zo, t973,
GATT B.|.S.D. (zrst Supp.), at 4 Gg7).
Subsequent citations should use the appropriate short form, citing only to articles or paragraphs:
I
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o
o
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o
o
o
a
I
o
F, Marrakesh Agreement fl 5.
'dj. DSU
art. 3.7.
(e) Ministerial docurnents. Cite ministerial documents by name of
issr,ring
body, documcnt number, and to an unoflicial source, such as Intcrnational Legal
Materials, if therein:
.+
Wortd Trade Organization, Ministerial Declaration of r4 November
2oo1, WTO Doc. WT/M
I
N
(ot) I DEC I t,
4t ILM 7 46 (zooz) [hereinafter
Doha Declarationl.
(f) Other
documents.
(i) Arbitration documents. Cite ICSID arbitration documcnts according
rule 21.6.
t<-)
(ii) Press releases. Cite press releases according to rwle 17.2.3.
(iii) WTO website. Some documents may be found on theWTO's website, and
should be cited in accordance with rule 18.1.
International Monetary Fund
(a) Reports. When citing
21.12
IMF Annual Reports, Regional Economic Reports,
Vorld Economic Outlook Reports, Gbbal Financial Stability Reports,
Fiscal
Monitors, or any other repons published by the IMB cite them as you would
those from tlre tlnited Nations (according to nrJe 21.7.3):
*
lMF, Promoting a More Secure and Stable Global Economy, AnnuaI
Report zor3 (Apr. zor3).
i*
lMF, Building Momentum in o Multi-Speed World, Regional
Economic Outlook: Sub-Saharan Africa (May zor3).
w lWt, Hopes, Realities, and Risks, World Economic Outtook (Apr.
zoB).
*' lMF,Tronsition
Chollenges to Stability, Globat Financiat Stability
Report (Oct. zor3).
Executive Board documents. Executive Board documents are oflicial papers
for circulation to the Executive Board, the Executive Board's Committees, and
thc staff. The citation should include the name of the body (abbreviated according to rule 15.1(d)); the title of the rcport; the pinpoint cite, if any; thc document symbol;and thc date:
F Committee on
Rules for the Regular Election of Executive Directors,
Report ofthe Executive Directors to the Board ofGovernors on the
Fifth Regular Election of Executive Directors, EB/CREED/S4lr Supp.
t
Quly t5, 1954).
'# Committee on the Budget, Notice and Agenda of Meeting gS/l,EBl
CB I Al gs I I Qune 26, t995).
ls,
Committee of the Whole for the zoo6 Annual Report, zoo6 Annual
Report, First Draft-lnstallment r, EB/CW/AR/o6lr 0uly rB, zoo6).
Institutional archives. lnstitutional
archives are departmental archives and
other collections. The holdings come in a range of formats including manuscripts, digital records, photographs, audio recordings, and multimedia. Cite
these sources in accordance with the rule that governs the format of the
document.
Founding agfeements. Cite sources
)
as
indicated in
rule 21.4.5:
Articles of Agreement of the lMF, Art. 8, S 3, 6o Stat. !4o1.,2
U.N.T.S.lg.
21,13 Other Intergovernmental Organizations
Cite documents by other international organizations in the same manner as
United Nations documents (rule 21.7) or the forms in des 2t.8-21.l2.Citation should generally include: (t) the full name of the author or organization
(including an abbreviation from table T3 in brackets); (2) rhe ritle; (3) a pincite,
if available; (4) a document number, if available; (!) the frrll date in parentheses;
and (6) a web link or other information essential for locating the document:
)
lnt'l Atomic Energy Agency llAEAl, Supply Agreement for a Research
Reactorin Romania, at 3, IAEA Doc. INFCIRC/zo6 (June 72,r974).
)
lnt't CivilAviation Org. llCAOl, Manualof All-Weother Operations,
at z-2, ICAO Doc. gl5S-AN/gro (ld ed. zor3), http://www.caa.md/
files I zot3_tz | 5 43. pd f.
)
)
Org. of African Unity [OAU] Charter art. 3, fl z.
Decision on the Report of the African Committee of Experts on the
Rights and the Wellbeing of lnfants, Executive Counci[, Seventeenth Ordinary Session, EX.CL/Dec. S6g(XVll) [uly r9, zoro).
> AMISOM in Action, ArnrceH UtroH MrssroN
LETTER,
)
)
)
Pact
tN SoMALIA NEws-
lssue r, Aug. zoo8, at ro.
ofthe League ofArab States [LAS] art. ro.
Ass'n of Southeast Asian Nations [ASEAN] Charter art. 6, 1l z(a).
Agreement on the Use and Maintenance of the Premises of the
ASEAN Secretariat, art. z, fl 3 (Nov. z5,r98t), http://agreement.
asean.org/media/downtoad I zot4o4t6t5z5o4.pdf.
)
Moazzam Ali et al., A Global Research Agenda for Family Planning,
92 BULLEnN oF rHE WoRLD Hellrt OnGnHrzerroH [WHO] gf, gS
(zor:), http://www.who.int/bu[[etin/volum
es | 9z I z I
g-tzzz4z.
pdf.
)
Christopher Dye et al., THr Wonlo HenlrH REpoRr 2013, Wonlo
H Enlrn ORenH rznrror'r [WHO] (zorl), http://apps.who.int/iris/bitst
ream | rc665 | 8Sl 6t I z I gt8gz4o59o837_eng.pdf.
Cite resolutions in similar fashion to U.N. ftneralAssembly and Security Coun-
cil resolutions (rule 21.7.2),listing the organization, the document number,
and the date:
o
I
o
o
I
o
I
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a
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a
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o
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I
o
s, Int'lAtomic Energy Agency IIAEA], General Conference
Res. 434, at
z, IAEA Doc. GC(XXVIll) lRESlLtl/'t (Sept. zB, tg8+).
M Int'lAtomic Energy Agency IIAEA], Assembly Res. Ar5-7 (tg6+) (no
longer in force, in Assembly Resolutions in Force, at l-zr, ICAO Doc.
gSog (tg86).
If useful, provide the title of a rcsolution or regulation. As with U.N. resolutions,
the title comes after the resolution or regulation number:
F lnt'l Atomic Energy
Agency IIAEA], Assembty Res. Ar5-7, Condemnotion of the Policies of Apartheid and Racial Discrimination of South
Africa Gg6r',) (no longer in force), in Assembly Resotutions in Force,
at l-zr, |CAO Doc. 95o9 (1986).
ts Int'l Tetecomm. Union flTUl, Reg. 4.2, Geographical Distribution
ond Gender Distribution, rn General Secretariat of the International
Telecommunication Union, Staff Regutations and Staff Rules, at 3z
(zor3).
A citation of a source that is diflicult to find cxccpt online should include information indicating the online location, preferably citing to an oflicial database
of sources:
s
lnt'[ Maritime Org. IlMO], A. S8S (r+), Provision of Facilities in Ports
forthe Reception of OilyWastesfrom Ships (Nov. zo,r98S), http://
www.imo.org/KnowledgeCentre/lndexoflMOResolutions/Pages/
Assem bly-%z 8 Ao/o2).aspx.
International Non-Govemmental Organizations (NGOs) 21.14
Cite materials from international NGOs anakrgously to Unitcd Nations materials
in rule 21.7. Include the name of the organization, including the appropriate
abbreviation according to rule 21.13;the title ofthe document;thc document
number, if any;and the date:
tu Amnesty lnt'l, Sierra Leone: Ending lmpunity an Opportunity Not to
Be Missed,Al IndexAFR 5tl6olzooo (uty 26, zooo).
Yearbooks
21.15
Cite United Nations yearbooks according to rule 21.7.8. Cite other intcrnational ),earbooks or annual reports as periodicals (rule 16). Italicize article titles,
but do not italicize the names of materials not ordinarily italicized (such as casc
names in footnotes). Give thc ycarbook titlc in the original language (abbreviated according to tables T3 and T13, and rule 20.2.3) and, if not obvious, the
name of the issuing organization. For example
:
f'
Ronatd Graveson, The lnequality of the Applicable Law, r98o Bntr.
Y.B. lrr'r L.2jr,233.
tu, Revised
Staff Regutations,7922-1925 P.C.l.J.
Ar.rr.r.
Rep. (ser. E) No.
y at8a (r9z).
ei" X.
v. Belgium, 196r Y.B. Eun. Cottv. or'r H.R. (Eur. Comm'n of H.R.)
221!.
)
Jean Boulouis, Cour de lustice des Communaut€s Europdennes,
1955 AHHurrne FneHgars oe Dnorr lrurEnHarrorunl (Centre National
de [a Recherche Scientifique) 333.
b
Recommendations of the Customs Co-Operotion Council on the
Customs Treatment of Products lmported forTesting, t97zEun.
Y.B. (Council of Eur.) 429.
21.16 Digests
Citations to digests should be avoided whenever a more official source is
available.
(a) Annual digests. Since 1973, the United States Department of State has published an annual Digest of United States Practice in lntemational Law Provide
the title for the subsection, the year, the title of digest, the chapter and subsection number, and a pincite if available:
)> U.N. Plan for Namibian Independence, tgSg-go DrcEsr or Ururrro
Srnres PRAclcE rrrr lrurent'trrrornl LAw, ch. 7, SA(r) at r98.
(b) Named digests.
Eady digests were multi-volume sets edited by a single
editor and known by that editor's name. For these digests, provide the title of
the section (including subtitles, if relevant, as under de 15.3), the volume
cited, the editor's name followed by the word Drcrsr, the s€ction number, and
the page reference, if any:
)
Access to Courts, 8 WHrremat Dre
esr, ch.4, $7, at 4o8.
(c) Foreign digests. When citing digests of another country cite analogously
to those published in the United States. If the digest is published as an annual
series, cite according to rule 21.1.6(a). If the digest is identified by its editor's
name, cite according to rule 21.16(b). The fust time a foreign digest is cited,
always provide the firl title ,followed by the abbreviation in brackets if useftrl for
subsequent citations, similar to
de
2O.2.5.
(d) Digests published as periodical sections. When
a digest appears as an
annual or periodical section of a journal, cite the digest as an article under de
16. Otherwise, cite the particular section in question as included in a larger
wor-k:
)
John R. Crook, Contemporary Practice of the United States Relating
to lnternotional Law, ro4 Arvr. J. Inr'l L. q89 (zoro).
21.17 Short Citation Forms
(a) Treaties and other international agreements. Subsequent citations to
treaties and other international agreements may use both"id." and"supra,"Prc
vide the name of the treaty, followed by "supral'and the pages on which the
cited material appears:
)
Convention for the Avoidance of Doubte Taxation, supra note 6,
a|25.
)
Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, suprd note 1,
zr U.S.T. at 486, 729 U.N.T.S. at t67
I
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If the first citation contains a "hereinafter" short title,
use that short title in
subsequent "su p ro" cites.
(b) International law cases and arbitrations.
those provided in rule 10.).
[Jse short forms analogous
to
(c) United Nations and other intergovernmental organizations materials. Subsequent citations to materials of intcrgovernmental organizations may
use both "id. " and" supra"
:
:*
G.A. Res. t962, supra note 4, at 22.
+
Permanent Missions to the United Nations: Report of the SecretaryGeneral, supra note 6, at r8.
If the first citation contains
a
"hereinafter" short title, use the short title in sub-
sequent "Suprd" cites:
ir, Completing the Internal Market, supro nole 72, at9.
(d) Yearbooks and digests. Subsequent citations to articles in yearbooks and
digests should follow the short forms for periodicals lrule 16.9). Subsequent
citations may use both"id." and"supro)'
@
I
\ti!{..r"r Iiifli${f {{ ( i{!{}\
o
o
o
T1
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Tl.L
t
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I
The abbreviations and citation conventions listed in this table, except as noted,
are primarily intended to serve a national audience. Practitioners should also
adhere to local citation rules (see Bluepages table BT2). The preferred sources
ofcitation are suggested when relevant. In the absence of such preference, the
user may cite to any listed sources, as appropriate. ln general, when citing to
online sources, be sure to cite to stable tlRls of the specilic provision cited in
accordance with the principle s of rule 18.
Supreme Court (U.5.): Cite to U.S., if therein; otherwise, cite to S. Ct., L. Ed.,
or U.S,L.W., in that order of preference.
o United States Reports
o
a
o
o
o
o
I
u
9t
1875-date
u.s.
r
r
Wallace
1863-1874
e.g., 68 U.S. (t Watt.)
Black
186l-1862
e.g., 66 U.S. (r Btack)
Howard
1843,1860
Peters
rJ(/h€aton
1828-1842
e.g., 42 U.S. (r How.)
e.g., z5 U.5. (r Pet.)
!
I
O
t
Federal Judicial and Legislative Materials
For more information about the federal court system, including a list of the
disrict courts and the teritorial lurisdiction of the courts of appeals, access
http ://www.uscourts. gov.
o
a
I
TJNTTED STATES JURTSDTCTTONS
,
U.S. to date
Cranch
l8l6- 1827
l80l-18r5
Dallas
e.g.,
r4 U.S. (r Wheat.)
1790-1800
e.g., 5 U.S. (r Cranch)
e.g., r U.5. (r Datl.)
b Supreme Court Reporter
1882-date
s. ct.
e United States Supreme Court
1790-date
L. Ed., L. Ed. zd
1933-datc
u.s.L.w.
'
r
R€ports, Lawyers' Edition
o United States
Law\feek
Circuit Justices (e.g., Rehnquist, Circuit Justice): Cite to U.S., if therein;
otherwise, cite to S. Ct., L. Ed., or U,S.L.W., if thercin, in that orderof preference
1893-date
1893-date
Supreme Court 1790-date
r
United States Reports
U.S.
'
,
Supreme Court Reporter
S. Ct.
United Stares
Reports, Lawyers' Edition
L. Ed., L. Ed. Zd
I
tlnited States law
Week
1933-date
.
u.5.1.W.
Some cases presided over by CircuitJustices are found in other reporters and
should be cited
as
follows:
M Halperin v. Kissinger, 8o7 F.zd 18o (Scalia, Circuit Justice, D.C' Cir.
1986).
|'
United Statesv. Benson, 3tF.896 (Fietd, CircuitJustice, C.C.D. Cal.
1887).
I
Unitecl States Jurisclicti*ns
Courts of Appeals (e.g., zd Cir., D.C. Cir.), previously Circuit Courts
of Appeals (e.g., zd Cir.), and Court of Appeals offor the District of
Columbia (D.C. Cir.): cite to F., F.zd, or F.3d, if therein.
> Federal Reporter
1891-date
F., F.zd, F.3d
> Federal Appendix
2001-date
F.
Circuit Courts
or
App'x
(e.9., C.C.S.D.N.Y., C.C.D. Cal.) (abolished
19l2): Cite to
F.
F. Cas.
> Federal
1880-1912
1789-1880
Reporter
> Federal Cases
F.
F. Cas.
Citations to F. Cas. should give the case number parenthetically.
)" Oelrich v. Pittsburgh, r8 F. Cas. 598 (C.C.W.D.
Pa. rSSg) (No.
70'444).
Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals (Iemp. Emer. Ct. App.) (created
1971, abolished 199r, Emergency Court of Appeds (Emer. Ct. App.)
(created 1942, abolished 1961), and Commerce Court (Comm. Ct.) (created
1910, abolished l9l3): Cite to F. or F.zd.
r9ro-r993
> Federal Reporter
F.,F.zd
United States Court ofAppeals for the Federal Circuit (Fed. Cir.) (created
l!82), successor to the United States Court of Customs and Patent
Appeals (C.C.P.A.) (previously the Court of Customs Appeals (Ct. Cust.
App.)) and the appellate jurisdiction of the Court of Claims (Ct. Cl.): Cite to
F., F.zd, or F.3d, if therein; otherwise, cite to the respective official reporter.
1910-date
1956-1982
; Court ofCustoms and Patent 1929-1982
> Federal Reporter
F., F.zd, F.3d
> Court of Claims Reports
Ct. Cl.
C.C.P.A.
Appeals Reports
> Court of Customs Appeals
ReDorts
r9ro-r929
Ct. Cust.
United States Court of Federal Claims (Fed. Cl.) (created 1992), formerly
United States Claims Court (Cl. Ct.) (created 1982), and successor to
the original iurisdiction of the Court of Claims (Ct. Cl.): Cite to one of the
following reporters:
> Federal Claims
Reporter
> United States Claims
Court
1992-date
1983-1992
ct. ct.
r93o-r932
F.zd
> Federal Supplement
> Court of Claims Reports
(created
United States Customs Court (Cust. Ct.) (created 1926):
Cite to the official reporters, if possible; if unavailable, cite to F. Supp., F.
Supp. zd, or F. Supp. 3d to Cust. B. & Dec. (an official publication), or to
1980), formerly
l.T.R.D. (BNA), in that order ofpreference.
I
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1960-1982 F.zd
1932-1960 F. Supp.
1863-1982 Ct. Ct.
United States Court of International Trade (Ct. Int'l Trade)
t
I
Fed. Ct.
Reporter
> Federal Reporter
o
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Court of International Trade
Reports
1980-date
ts
Customs Couft Reports
l9l8-
r
Federal Supplement
1980-date
Ct.
lnt'l Trade
1980
F.
Supp., F. Supp. zd,
F. Supp. 3d
F Customs
Bulletin and Decisions 1967-date
'InternationalTradeReporter
1980-date
Cust. B. & Dec.
r.T.R.D. (BNA)
Decisions
District Courts (e.9., D. Mass., S.D.N.Y.): For cases after 1932, cite to
F.
Supp., F. Supp. zd, F.Supp.3d, F.R.D., or 8.R., if therein; otherwise, cite to
Fed. R. Serv., Fed. R. Serv. zd, or Fed. R. Serv. 3d. For prior cases, cite to F.,
F.zd, or F. Cas., if therein.
a Federal Supplement
1932-<Jate
F.
Supp., F. Supp. zd,
F. Supp. 3d
.
Decisions
= West's Bankruptcy Reporter
" Federal Rules Service
Federal Rules
1938-date
F.R.D.
1979-dtte
B.R.
1938-date
Fed. R. Serv. (Caltaghan),
Fed. R. Serv. zd
(Caltaghan),
Fed. R. Serv.
e Federal Reporter
1880- 1932
F., F.zd
.
1789-1880
F. Cas.
Fedeml Cases
ld
(West)
Citations to F. Cas. should give the case number parenthetically.
*
Ex
porte McKean, 16 F. Cas. 186 (E.D. Va. 1878) (No. 88t+8).
Bankruptcy Courts (e.g., Bankr. N.D. Ca[.) and Bankruptcy Appellate
Panels (e.g., B.A.P. rst Cir.): Cite to 8.R., if therein; otherwise, cite to a
service (rule 1!).
F Bankruptcy Reporter
1979-dxte
B.R.
Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation 0.P.M.1.) (created 1968)
and
Special Court, Regional Rail Reorganization Act (Reg't Rail Reorg. Ct.)
(created 1973): cite to F.5upp., F. Supp. zd., or F. Supp. 3d.
r
Fedeml Supplement
1958-datc
F.
Supp., F.Supp. zd,
Supp. 3d
F.
Tax Court (T.C.) (created 1942), previously Board of Tax Appeals (B.T.A.):
Cite to T.C. or B.T.A., if therein; otherwise , cite to T.C.M. (CCH), T.C.M. (P-H),
T.C.M. (RlA), or B.T.A.M. (P-H)
=
United
Stat€s Tax Court Reports
+ Reports of the United States
1942-date
T.C.
t924-1942
B.T.A.
1942-date
r.c.M. (ccH)
1942-r991
1991 -date
t928-1942
T.C.M. (P-H)
T.C.M. (RrA)
Board of Tax Appeals
s Tax Couft Memorandum
Decisions
r
Board of Tax Appeals
Memorandum Decisions
B.T.A.M. (P-H)
United States Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims (Vet. App.),
previously
United States Court of Veterans Appeals (Vet. App.) (created
1988): Cite to Vet. App., if therein.
United
State.s
I
I
Jurisdictitns
> West's Veterans Appeals
1990-date
Vet. App.
Reporter
United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces (C.A.A.F.),
previously United States Court of Military Appeals (C.M.A.): Cite to
> Decisions of the United States
Court of MilitaryAppeals
> rvest's MilitaryJustic€ Reporter
> Court Martial Reports
r95r-r975
C.M.A.
1978-date
L95r-r975
C.M.R.
M.J.
Military Senice Courts of Criminal Appeals (A. Ct. Crim. App.,
A.F. Ct.
Crim. App., C.G. Ct. Crim. App., N-M. Ct. Crim. App.), previously Courts
of Military Review (e.g., A.C.M.R.), previously Boards of Review (e.g.,
A.B.R.): For cases after 1950, cite to M.J. or C.M.R. For earlier cases, cite to
the official r€porter.
> Sfest's
>
MilitaryJustice
coufr Marrial
Reporter
Reports
1975-date
195l-1975
M.J.
Statutory compilations: Cite to U.S.C., if therein.
<tit. no.> U,S.C. 5 x (,year,)
> United States Code Annotated
<tit. no.> U.S.C.A. $ x (West
> United States Code Service
.tit.
> Gould's United States Code Unannotated
<tit. no., U.S.C.U. 5 x
(Goutd .year,)
.yearr)
no.> U.5.C.5. 5 x
(LexisNexis ,year')
Session laws
United States Statutes at large
<vol. no.> Stat. (page
no., (.yearr)
(Cite public laws before 1957 by chapter number; cite subsequent acts by
lic law number.)
Tl.2
pub
Federal Administrative and Executive Materials
The following is a noncxclusive table of administrative agency and executive
materials, with an emphasis on citation forms that vary from rule 14. Ifhere
an agency entry only lists that agency's official publications, no unique citation
format is used and agency materials can be cited following rule 14.
Armed Services Board of Contract Appeals (ASBCA)
Decisions: Cite decisions as: <case name), ASBCA No. ,decision number),
(citation to service,. Note that in citations to the Board of Contract Appeak
Decisiorx (BCA), published by Commerce Clearing House, the publisher is not
indicated and the volume number serves to indicate the year of the decision.
>
KAMP Sys., Inc., ASBCA No. 55317, o8-1 BCA 1133,148.
t
t
O
C.M.R.
> United States Code
(26 U.S.C. may be abbreviated as l.R.C.)
l
o
I
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C.M.A., if therein.
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Civilian Board of Contract Appeals (CBCA)
Decisions: Cite in the same manner
as
decisions of the Armed Services Board
of Contract Appeals, but include the opposing agency in the case name. Cite
decisions ofits predecessors, the Board ofContract Appeals for the f)epartment
of Agriculture, Energy, Housing and Urban Development, Interior, Labor,
Transportation, Veteran Affairs, and the General Services Administration, in
the same manner.
)
Ftathead Contractors, LLC v. Dep't of Agric., CBCA u8-R, oZ-2 BCA
fl 33,688.
Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFIC)
Decisions: Cite as: ,case name'. CFTC No. ,docket number>. ,citation to
secondary source if avai163ls, (date').
)
*
a
Conway Family Trust v. Dorman Trading, LLC, CFTC No. rz-Rooz,
zor4 WL 2ooto47 (May 9, zor4).
ln re J.P. Morgan Sec. LLC, CFTC No. t4-19,20:^4 WL 18rZ86S fluty
29, zot4).
Interpretive Letters, No-Action Letters, and Exemptive Letters: Cite a
service (rule 19) or an electronic database (de 18.3), if therein. Include the
full name of the correspondent, if available, the CFTC docket number, and the
full date on which the letter became publically availablc.
)
>
Kenneth M. Rosenzweig, CFTC No-Action Letter, CFTCLTR No.
13-54,2o13WL 5488947 (Sept. 27, zor3).
CFTC
(CCH)
No-Action Letter, CFTCLTR No. 94-7o, Comm. Fut. L. Rep.
fl 26,t59 (May 23, t994).
Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB)
Decisions: Cite decisions as: <case name>, CFPB No. ,decision number'
,citation to secondary source if available, (,date').
F
ACE Cash Express, Inc., CFPB No. zor4-CFPB-ooo8.
Departrnent of Agriculture (USDA)
Decisions: Cite to the Agriculture Decisions (Agric. Dec.).
|"
Western Cattle Co., 47 Agric. Dec.99z,1o52 (U.S.D.A. 1988)
0uly 8, zorz+).
Directives: Numerous organizations within the USDA issue directivcs. These
should be cited as: ,issuing agency abbreviated according to tabte below,
Directive ,directive number,, ,directive titte, (U.S.D.A. ,year,).
>
FSlS Directive
7$o3,
Advanced Meat Recovery Using Beef
Vertebral Raw Materials (U.S.D.A. zooz).
>
Agricultural Marketing
'Agricultural Research
Service
Servicc
Service
and Promotion
AMs
ARS
s Animal and Plant Health Inspection
APHIS
> Center for Nutrition Policy
CNPP
t
United States J urisdictions
> Cooperative State Research, Education, and
Extension Service
C5REE5
> Economic Research Service
ERS
)
FSA
Fann Service Agency
> Food and Nutrition Service
FNS
> Food Safety and
FSrS
Inspection Service
> Forcign Agricultural Service
o
I
o
FAS
> Forest Service
FS
> Grain
GIPSA
Inspection, Packers, and Stocklards
Administration
> National
Agricultural Ubrary
NAL
> National
Agricultural Statistics Service
NASS
> National Institute of Food and Agriculture
I
NIFA
> National Resources Conservation Service
NRCS
> Risk Management Agency
RMA
> Rural Business Cooperative Service
RBCS
> Rural Development
RD
> Rural Housing Service
RHS
> Rural
RUS
Utilities Service
Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration (NOAA)
Decisions in Consistency Appeals Under the Coastal Zone Management
Act: Cite decisions of the Secretary of Commerce under the Coastal Zone
Management Act as: Decision and Findings in the Consistency Appeal
of <party name,, from an objection bV ,state or relevant state agency's
n36g, (Sec'y of Commerce ,date'). To date these decisions are not published
in an official reporter; indicate the source where the decision is located.
)
Decision and Findings in the Consistency Appeal of the Va. Elec.
and Power Co., from an objection by the N.C. Dep't of Envtl.,
Health and Natural Res. (Sec'y of Commerce May r9, 994),htt1l
coast.noaa.gov/czm /consistency/appeals/fcappealdecisions/
I
mediadecisions/virgin iaelectric.pdf.
Other NOAA Decisions: Cite decisions of administrative law iudges in
civil administrative law cases to the Ocean Resources and Wildlife Reporter
(O.R.W.), if therein. Otherwise cite to an appropriate secondary source
)
)
J.H.
Miles & Co.,4 O.R.W. zz3 (NOM rgSS).
Rio San Marcos, Inc., zoo8 WL64zo99
Decisions of tbe Ad.ministratorfor Appeals
)
.
(NOM Feb. n,zoo8).
(NOM App.; should
so speclff.
Lars Vinierud Fisheries, Inc., 5 O.R.W. zro (NOM App. 1990).
Department of Commerce, Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO)
Decisions: Cite decisions of the Commissioner of Patents to Decisions of tbe
Commissioner of Petents (Dec. Comm'r Pat.) following rule 14.3, except
that if the party name includes a procedural phrase, it should be included.
>
Ex
parte Latimer, 1889 Dec. Comm'r Pat. rz3.
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l*ltlli
liIrilrr*, llrr il*{tic {[lr'rir'
Cite decisions by the Patent Trial and Appeal Board (P.T.A.B.) as: <case name),
No. ,docket number>, (citation to secondary source if availabte, (P.T.A.B.
,date'). Cite decisions of its predecessor, the Board of Patent Appeals and
Interferences (B.P.A.|.) as: (case name,, No. ,docket number>, ,citation to
secondary source if avaitabte> (B.P.A.l. ,date,).
b
SAP Am., Inc. v. Versata Dev, Grp., Inc., No.
(P.T.A.B. June
CBMzorz-oooor
u, zor3).
W Ex parte Baggett, No. zooT-2548 (B.P.A.l. Mar. ro, zoo8).
W
Exporte Fallaux, No. zoo8-zz5r, zooS WL z463ot4 (B.P.A.l. June
t7, zooS).
Cite decisions of the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board (T.T.A.B.) as: <case
name>, <citation to secondary source> (T.T.A.B. <year>).
s" Bos. Red Sox Baseball Ctub, Ltd. v. Sherman, 88 U.S.P.Q.zd (BNA)
r58r (T.T.A.B. zooS).
Patents: Cite the patent number. The date the patent was filed may be included
if relevant.
M' U.S. Patent
No.4,4o5,829 (filed Dec. !4,tg77).
The patent name andlor issuing date may be included if relevant.
ts Cryptographic Commc'ns Sys. & Method, U.S. Patent No.
4,4o5,829 (filed Dec. U,1977) (issued Sept. zo, 1983).
To cite a specffic field ofthe title page, include the field code in brackets.
p
U.S. Patent No. 4,4o5,829, at [ZS] (fited Dec.
U,197:).
Cite a specific portion of patent text, a patent figure, or an item within
according to the following examples:
a
ligure
M U.S. Patent No. 4,4o5,829 col. z [. lo (fited Dec.4, t977).
p, U.S. Patent No. 4,4o5,829 fi9.3 (fited Dec. 14, t977).
b U.S. Patent
No.4,4o5,829 fig.3, item zz (filed Dec.4,t977).
The short form for a patent includes an apostrophe followed by the last three
digits of the patent number.
F '829
Patent.
Trademarks: Cite registered trademarks
tion No. ,registration number,.
Ah,
as: ,TRADEMARK NAME,,
Registra-
INTERNATIONAL WALKIE TALKIE, Registration No. 3,o16,449.
Vhere the trademark is unnamed. the description filed with the Trademark
Office may be used.
ts The mark consists ofa stylized representation ofa peacock, Regis-
tration No. L,93t,255.
Cite tradcmarks that have been filed, but not approved, as: U.S. Trademark
Application Serial No. ,SeriaI Numbel, (filed .date,).
h
U.S. Trademark Apptication Serial
zooT).
No.77l34t,9ro (filed Dec. t,
tJnited States Jurisdictions
Official Publications:
>
Official Gazette of the United States Patent
Office (1872-1971)
> Official Gazette of the United States Patent and
Trademark Office
> Trademark Manual
> Manual
ofExarnining Procedure
of Patent Examining Procedure
Off. Gaz. Pat. Office
Off. Gaz. Pat. & Trademark
Office
TMEP (Sth ed. Sept. zooT)
MPEP (8th ed. Rev. 7, Sept.
2oo8)
> Trademark
Trial and Appeal Board Manual of
Procedure
TBMP Gd ed. Rev. z, June
zo'3)
Department of Education
Reports: Cite reports of tlJLe lrxtitution of Education Scimces as: Institute of
Education Sciences, <title, (page, (,date,).
)
Institute of Education Sciences, Evaluation of the Personnel Development Program to lmprove Services and Results for Chitdren with
Disabilities p (2o14).
Proceedings: Cite federal student aid proceedings as: <case name), U.S.
Dep't of Educ., No. ,docket number) (,date').
)
Va. Potytechnic Inst. & State Univ., U.S. Dep't of Educ., No.
rr-3o-SF (Mar. 29, zotz).
Deparhnent of Homeland Security, Bureau of Customs and Border
Protection
The Bureau of Customs and Border Protection and its predecessors have
two official reporters: Administratiue Decisions Under Immigration and
Nationality Laws (1. & N. Dec.; and the Customs Bulletin and Decisions
(Cust. B. & Dec.).
Department of Justice
Advisory Opinions: Cite published, formal advisory opinions in the
same
manner as adjudications under rule 14.3. Cite Attomey General opinions
to Opinions of tbe Attornq)s General (Op. Att'y Gen.) and opinions from
the Office of Irgal Counsel to Opinions of tbe Offi.ce of Legal Counsel of tbe
Departtnent of Justice (Op. O.L.C.).
)
Legality of Revised Phila. Plan, 42 Op. Att'y Gen. 4o5 Og6g).
F Applicability of Exec. Order No. 12,674to Pers. of Reg'I Fishery
Mgmt. Councils, r7 Op.0.L.C. 15o, t54Gg%).
Department of Labor
Decisions in Petition for Modification Cases Under Section lol.(c) of the
Mine Act, 30 U.S.C. $ E11(c): At the time of publication, rhese decisions were
not reported in any official reporterorservice. Cite as: ,description ofdecision,,
(case name), Docket No. .docket number) (Dep't of Labor.date,).
)
Administrator's Proposed Decision and Order, RAG Emerald Res.,
Docket No. zooz-MSA-3 (Dep't ofLaborAug. 6,zooz).
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F
'lrit*' { :ht;<{*::r tlu"isr{i{
t i,rmq;
ALJ's Decision and Order, RAG Emerald Res., Docket No. zooz-
MSA-3 (Dep't of Labor May r5, zoo3).
Decisions in Enforcement Actions Brought by the Office of Federal
Contract Compliance Programs: At the time of publication, these decisions
were not reported in any official reporter or service. Cite as: ,case name>,
,docket number', ,description of decision, (Dep't of Labor ,dateD.
b
OFCCPv. Greenwood Mills, Inc.,8g-OFC-lg, Secretary's Decision
and Order of Remand (Dep't of Labor Nov. zo, t995).
s'
v. S. Pac. Transp. Co., 79-OFC-roA, ALJ's Recommended
Decision (Dep't of Labor Nov. 9,1982).
OFCCP
Decisions by the Benefits Review Board: Cite to
a service
following rule
19.
>
P.M.N. v. Bajkowski CoalCo., 33 Black Lung Rep. 0uris)
Rev. Bd. zoog).
h
T.M. v. Reinhalter Shipping Co.,44 Ben. Rev. Bd. Serv. (MB) zr, z3
r-ro (Ben.
(zoo9).
Department of the Interior
Cite agency decisions to Interior Decisktns (lnterior Dec.) or Interior and
General Land Office Cases Relating to Public Lands (Pub. Lands Dec.;, if
published therein,
as
per
rule
14.3.
Where a board within the agency issues the opinion, note the board in the same
parenthetical as the date, using the abbreviations below:
ts Fortune Oil Co., 90 Interior Dec. 84 (IBLA rg8f).
InteriorBoardoflandAppeals
' InteriorBoardof IndianAppeals
,
IBLA
lBlA
Department of State
Reports: The Department of State publishes reports of the Bureau of
Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Cite as: U.5. Dep't of State, Bureau of
Democracy, H.R. and Lab., ,title, <page> (<date>).
b
U.5. Dep't of State, Bureau of Democracy, H.R. and Lab., International Retigious Freedom Report 13 (zop).
Department of the Treasury
Regulations: Although Department of Treasury regulations are published
under title 26 of the C.F.R., cite as ,Treas. Reg.,. pe1 unamended regulations,
cite to the year of promulgation. If the regulation is a temporary regulation,
indicate such:
F Treas.
Reg. $ r.7z-r6(a)
F Temp. Treas.
Reg. 5
(tg5:).
r.ff8-4T(k) (rg8S).
Citations to specilic questions and answers should be cited
tu Treas. Reg. 5 r.7z-r6(a), Q&A
as:
(r)(a) (rg6:).
If any subsection of the cited section has been amended or for some other
reason appears in substantially different versions, give the year of the last
I
tinitcd States J urisdictitns
amendment. Follow this form even if the particular subsection cited has never
been amended.
)
Treas. Reg. $ r.6r-z(c) (as amended in
rggl).
When the source of the amendment is relevant, indicate it.
)
Treas. Reg. 5 r.6r-z(c) (as amended by T.D. 85o7,
tgg536
l.R.B.8).
Cite proposed Treasury regulations to the Federal Register.
)
Prop. Treas. Reg. $
t.7o4-t,48
Fed. Reg.
987r, 9872 (Mar.9, 1983).
Treasury Determinations: Cite Revenue Rulings, Revenue Procedures, and
Treasury Decisions to the Cumulatiue Bulletin (C.8,) or its advance sheet, the
Intemal Reuenue Bulletin (l.R.B.), or to Treaswy Decisions Under Internal
Reaenue Laws ([reas. Dec. Int. Rev.), in that order ofpreference.
)
)
)
Rev. Rul.
Rev.
83-t37,t983-zC.B.4t.
Proc.85-47,198537 l.R.B. ro.
T.D.2747,20 Treas. Dec. Int. Rev. 457 (r9r8).
The Cumulatiue Bulletin has been numbered in three series: by volume
number from l9l9 to 1921, by volume number and part number from l92l to
1936, and by year and part number from 1937 to date.
>
T.B.R. 29,
)
)
T.D.
I C.B. zlo Ggrg).
l.T.2624, u-r C.B. rzz Q93z).
7
5zz, r978-r C.B. 59.
The abbreviations used in the above examples and other abbreviations are
explained in the introductory page s of each volum e of the Cumulatiue Bulletin .
Private Letter Rulings: Cite by number and the date issued, if available.
>
1.R.5. Priv. Ltr.
Rul.86-or-orz (Sept. 3o, 1985).
Technical Advice Memoranda: Cite by number and the date issued,
if
available.
>
f
.R.S. Tech. Adv.
Mem.85-o4-ooS (Sept. 28,t984).
General Counsel Memoranda: Cite by number and the date on which the
memorandum was approved.
>
l.R.S. Gen. Couns. Mem.39,417 (Sept. 3o, 1985).
Other Treasury Determinations: Cite all other Treasury materials, including
Delegation Orders (Deleg. Order), Treasury Orders (Treas. Order), Treasury
Directives (Ireas. Dir.), Notices, Announcements, and News Releases to the
Cumulatiue Bulletin, Internal Reaenue Bulletln, or Intemal Reuenue Manual
(lRM), if therein. Otherwise cite by number and date issued.
>
>
>
1.R.5. Deleg. Order
f
.R.S. Notice 84-9,
r-35 (Rev.
r), IRM r.z.4o.r7 0une r9, zoo8).
1984-tC.8.341.
l.R.S. News Release
lR-84-ur (Oct. r9, 1984).
Cases: Cite the names of Tax Court and Board of Tax Appeals decisions
those of a court
10.2), not as those of an agency.
(de
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Benson v. Comm'r,8o T.C. 789 (rS8f).
h' Price v. Comm'r, +6 T.C.M. (CCH) 6SZ (rS8f).
If the Commissioner of the Internal Revenue Service has published an
acquiescence (acq.), acquiescence in result only (acq. in result), or
nonacquiescence (nonacq.) in a decision of the Tax Court or Board of Tax
Appeals, that fact may be indicated in the citation of the case.
b N.M. Bancorp. v. Comm'r, 74T.C.g4z
(r98o), ocq. in result,
t983-zC.B.t.
Similarly, an action on decision (action on dec.) may be cited as subsequent
history by appending its identilying number, if any, and its full date.
p Keller v. Comm'r, 79T.C.7 (1982), action on dec., t984-q7
4,1984.
See generally de 1O.7 (prior and subsequent history of cases).
(Apr.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Decisions: Cite decisions to Enuironmental Administratiue Decisions
(E.A.D.), if therein. Indicate whether the Environmental Appcals Board (EAB)
law ludge made the decision, if not obvious from the
:j;;:Jdrnt"O,rative
W
Solutia, Inc., ro E.A.D. r93, zr4 (EAB zoor).
P' Geron Furniture,
lnc.,t994 EPAALJ
LEXIS 53.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
Decisions: Most EEOC decisions do not have readily identifiable titles, and
should therefore be cited using the decision number in place of the title, and
otherwise per
rule 14.3.
h EEOC Decision
No.7t-24444,4 Fair Empt. Prac. Cas. (BNA) t8
(tgtt).
EEOC Federal Sector decisions have party names and should therefore be
in accordance with
cited
rule 14.3.
Executive Office ofthe President
Executive Orders, Presidential Proclamations, and Reorganization
Plans: Cite by section number to 3 C.F.R. as per rule 14.2 except that,
because all executive orders are not reprinted in successive years
ofthe
C.F.R.,
thc original year of promulgation, rather than the most recent edition of the
C.F.R., must be cited. Append a parallel citation to the U.S.C. if also therein.
h Exec. Order No. tt,6o9,3 C.F.R. S 585 GgltrgT5), reprinted as
amended in 3 U.S.C. $ 3or app. at 4o4-o7 (zoo6).
Cite to the Federal Register
if the material is not in the
C.F.R.
&' Proclamation No.5366,5o Fed. Reg.37,635 (Sept. r+, rg8S).
A parallel citation to th.. Statutes at Large may also be givcn.
F. Reorganization Plan No. r of1978,3 C.F.R. lzt(tgZ8),reprinted in
5 U.S.C. app. at 866 (zoo5), and in 9z Stat. 378r OglS).
o
United States Jurisdictions
Other Presidential Papers: Cite to the Public Papers of tbe Presidents
n
the Pub lic P apers, cite
of Presidential Documents (WEEKLY Coltp. Pnes.
(Pu B. PAP E Rs), if therein. For material not recorded
the Weekly Compilation
Doc.), published from 1965 to January 29,2009, the Dai.ly Compilation of
Presidential Docurnents (Detlv Cotrle. Pnes. Doc.;, published fromJanuary
29,2009 to date, or the U.t Code Congressional and Administratiue News
(U.S.C.C.A.N.) (rule 12.6).
)
Memorandum on New Tools to Help Parents Balance Work and
Family, r Pue. Pnpens 84r (May 24,t999).
)
Presidential Statement on Signing the Consolidated Appropriations Resolution 2oo3, 39 Weerlv Comp. Pnes. Doc, zz5 (Feb. zo,
zoo3).
)
Remarks on the National Economy, 2oo9
z (Feb. +, zoog).
DATLY Conap.
PnEs. Doc.
Budgets: Cite govemmental budgets as books (rule 15).
)
Orrrce oF MGMr. & Buoe Er, Exrc. Orrtce oF THE PRESIDENT,
Buoeer or rHe UHtteo Sreres GovtnNMENt, FtscelYenn zoo3
(zooz).
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
Decisions: Cite decisions of administrative law iudges in civil penalty
enforcement matters adjudicated under 14 C.F.R. Part 13, Section 13.16 and
subpart G, as slip opinions following ntle 14.3.2(b).
)
Siddall, Docket No. CPo5WPoor6 (FM Oct. 7, zoo8).
Decisions of the Administrator or his delegate are cited using an order number
rather than a docket number.
)
Alaska Airlines, Inc., FM Order No. zoo4-8, zoo4 WL 3r98zo (Oct.
4,
ZOO4),
Decisions
of the Office of Dispute Resolution for Acquisition
(ODRA)
adludicated under 14 C.F.R. Part 17 should incorporate the rype of dispute in
the citation.
)> Protest ofthe United Parcel Service, Docket No. o8-ODRA-o4oo
(Sept. rz, 1999).
Citations to other FAA decisions and orders should indicate the nature of the
decision preceding the date.
)
Paul D. Asmus & P.D. Aviation Consulting v. Haw. Dep't of Transp.,
Docket No. 16-o5-u, Determination of the Director of Compliance
and Fietd operations (Apr. rz, zoo6).
)
Steere v. County of San Diego, FM Docket No. 16-99-15, Final
Agency Decision (Dec. Z, zoo4).
Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
to the Federal Communications Commission Reports (F.C.C., F.C.C.zd),
published 1934-1985, or the Federal Communications Commission Record
Cite
(FCC Rcd.), published since 1986.
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[,ni€*.rei ],i{ntr"r
$rm
rnrliq
f
!*r*s
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC)
Cite decisions tothe Federal Energ) Guidelines: FERC Reports (FERC).
Federal Labor Relations Authority (FIRA)
Cite decisions to the Decisions of the Federal Labor Relations Authority
(F.L.R.A.).
Federal Mine Safety and Health Review Commission (FMSHRC)
Cite decisions to rhe l-ederal Mine Safety and Health Reuieu Commission
Decisions (FMSHRO.
Federal Reserve System
Enforcement Actions: Cite writtcn agrcemcnts resulting ftom cnforcement
actions as: Written Agreement Between (private bank name, and ,Federal
Reserve Bank name,. Docket No. ,docket number> (,dateD.
F Written Agreement Between Ridgedate State Bank and Federal
Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, Docket No. o3-oz4-WA/RB-SM (July
29,2oo3).
Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
Cite decisions to th-. Federal Trade Commission (F.I .C.).
Government Accountability Office (GAO)
Bid Protest Decisions: Cite to Decisbns of tbe Comptroller General of the
(lnited States (Comp. Gen.), if therein.
ts Astrophysics Research Corp., 66 Comp. Gen. 2!1 (198).
Cite unpublished decisions to a readily accessible sourcc, as follows:
.protesting party', <docket number', <volume number or year' <source>
,location within source volume or year) (Comp. Gen. ,date'). Note that
when citing these cases to the Comptroller General's Procurement Decisions,
published by West, the publisher is not indicated:
9* Def. Sys. Group,
B-z4oz95,tggowLz9396 (Comp'
Gen. Nov.6,
1990).
$" f nfo. Ventures, lnc.,B-232o94, 88-z CPD tl
++l
(Comp. Gen' Nov'
4, 1988).
Where a decision resolves multiple bid protests, each of which has its own
docket number, indicate this by inserting "et at." after the docket number.
ts Midtand Supply, lnc.,B-z987zo et al., 2oo7 CPD
Nov. 29, zoo5).
1l
z (Comp. Gen.
International Trade Commission (USITC)
Publications: For investigations, cite as: ,title or case name)' Inv. No.
<number>, USITC Pub. <number) (,date,) (,statusD. where a single decision
contains multiple investigation numbers, this should be indicated. For other
publications, omit investigation number and status.
ts Certain Tissue Paper Prods. from China, Inv. No.73r-TA-ro7oB,
USITC Pub. 3ZS8 (Mar. 25, zoo5) (Finat).
o
United States Jurisdictions
)
Grain-0riented Elec. Steelfrom lt. & Japan, Inv. Nos. 7ot-TA355,
z3t-T A-659 -660, US ITC Pub. 3396 (Feb. 7, zoor) (Prelim i nary).
Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB)
Cite decisions to the Deckions of tbe tJnited States Merit Systems Protection
Board (M.S.P.B.).
National Labor Relations Board (NIRB)
Cite decisions and orders to the Decisions and Orders of tbe National Labor
Relations Board (N. L. R. B.).
National Mediation Board (NMB)
Cite decisions to the Decisions of tbe National Mediation Board (N.M.B.).
National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB)
to the National Transportation Safety Board Decisions
Cite decisions
(N.T. S. B.), published ftom 1967 - 1977, if therein.
Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)
totheNuclear Regul.atoty
Commission Issuances (N.R.C.). Cite decisions of its predecessor, the Atomic
Energy Commission (1955-1975) to the Atomic Energlt Commission Reports
(A.E.C.).
Cite decisions of the NuclearRegulatory Commission
Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission (OSHRC)
Decisions: Cite commission decisions reported in a service as: (party name>,
<service volume number> .publisher, <service, abbreviated as below>
,page/paragraph number, (No. ,docket number>, <yearr.
F
Burkes Mech., lnc., 21 BNA OSHC z136 (No. o4-o475, zooT).
or: Burkes Mech., Inc., zooT CCH OSHD
zooT).
11
32,922 (No. o4-o475,
Where an administrative law judge, rather than the commission itself, issued the
decision, indicate this parenthetically at the end of the citation.
)
Pike Elec., lnc., zt BNA OSHC zr53 (No. o6-ot66, zooz) (ALJ).
OSHRC uses abbreviations
for services reporting its decisions that vary from
table T15:
> Occupational Safety
& Health
> Occupational SafeW
& Health Decisions
'Where
a
osHc
Cases @NA)
OSHD
decision is not cited in any service or database, it may be cited
opinion using
de
as a
slip
14.5.2.1}o).
> Z & P Builders, No. o8-o93o
(OSHRC Dec. r9, zoo8).
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
Interpretive lretters, No-Action Letters, and Exemptive Letters: Cite a
service
(rule
19) or an electronic database
(de
18.3). Include the full name
of the correspondent and the full date on which rhe lettef became publicly
available.
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Itillrr.il''"Irurrr
{l
ts Union Carbide Corp., 5EC No-Action Letter, [1994-1995 Transfer
Binderl Fed. Sec. L. Rep. (CCH) 1176,gtt (Apr. 15, 1994).
L
Squadron, Ettenoff, Plesent & Lehrer, SEC Interpretive Letter,1992
WL 55818 (Feb. 28, r99z).
Releases: Cite the Federal Register, SEC Docket, or a service (rule 19). If
the release has a subiect-matter title, it may be presented in a shortened form.
Include the act under which the release was issued, the release number, and
the full date.
h' Customer Limit Orders, Exchange Act Release No.34,79,1t9941995 Transfer Binderl Fed.Sec. L. Rep. (CCH) Ii8S,+l+ (Sept. 29,
199d.
F Regulation of Securityholder Communications, Exchange Act
Release No.29,315, +gSEC Docket U7 \uneq,r99t).
If the release is an adiudication, abbreviate the parties' names accorcling to
rule 14.3.L(a).
M'
Am. KioskCorp., Exchange Act Release No. 585o4, zooS WL
2574438 (une 27, zooS).
If the adtudication occurred before an administrative law iudge, indicate this
fact in the date parenthetical.
h
Am. Kiosk Corp., Exchange Act Release No. 57866, zoo8 WL
zzz9644 (ALJ May 3o, zoo8) (default order).
If a particular release is issued undcr the Securities Act, the Exchange Act, or
the Investment Company Act, a parallel citation should be given in that order.
M lmolementation of Standards of Professional Conduct for Attorneys, Securities Act Release No. 8r5o, Exchange Act Release No'
46,868,Investment Company Act Release No. 25,829, 67 Fed. Reg.
7r,67 o (proposed Dec. 2, 2oo2).
Staff Interpretations: Cite 5EC Staff Accounting Butletins, Staff Legat
Bulletins, and Telephone Interpretations
as
follows:
F' SEC StaffAccounting Bulletin No.56,49 Fed. Reg.4936 (May
zl'
1980.
SEC Filings: For annual reports, proxy statements, and other company filings
required under federal securities laws, provide the name of the company
(abbreviated according to rule f5.1(d)), thc title as given in the document,
the form type in parentheses, thc page number if applicable, and the full date
of filing with the SEC.
s' Coca-Co[a Co., Annual Report (Form ro-K) (Feb. z7,zoo4).
0,,
Sony Music Entm't Inc., Statement of Changes in Beneficial Owner-
ship (Form +/A) (Jan. z3,zoo4).
If citing annual reports, prory statements, or othef documents in a form other
than that filed with the SEC, treat as books under rule 15.
F. Cocr-Cor-a Co.,
zoo3 Suwtnanv AHHUAL REPoRT
I
Qoot+).
[Jnited $tates Jurisdi*tions
Small Business Administration (SBA)
Decisions: Cite decisions as: (party name), SBA No. .docket number)
(dateD.
)
Ace Technical, LLC, SBA No. SDBA-r78 (Apr. 17, zoo8).
The docket number indicates the type of decision:
> Economically Disadvantaged Women
Owned
EDWOSB
Business development program
> Service disabled veteran
> Size
BDP
owned business
VET
stz
determination
> Small disadvantaged business
SDBA
>
North American Industry Classification System
NAICS
>
Women Owned Small Business Program
WOSB
Social Security Administration (SSA)
Rulings and Acquiescence Rulings: Cite to the Social Securitjt Rulings,
Cumulatiue Edition (S.S.R. Cum. Ed.), if therein. If not located therein, cite to
another official source, such as the Cod,e ofFederal Regulations ot the Federal
Register. Otherwise, cite a commercial database or other readily available
source. Cite Social Security Rulings as SSR and Social Security Acquiescence
Rulings as SSAR.
>
SSAR gz-z(6), 57 Fed. Reg.
)
SSR oo-4p, 2ooo WL
9z6z (Mar.
q,
r99z).
r8987o4 (Dec.4, zooo).
Surface Transportation Board (STB)
to the Surface
Transportation Board Reporter (S.T.B.). Cite materials from its predecessor,
the Intefstate Commerce Commission (lCC), to the Interstate Commerce
Commission Reporter (|.C.C., l.C.C. zd).
Cite materials from the Surface Transportation Board
For unpublished decisions, the official date is the date on which the STB (or
ICC) served the decision on the parties or otherwise liled it, not the date ofthe
decision itself.
Tt.3
States and the
District of Columbia
Alabama (Na.)
//www .ju dicial. alab ama. gov
http / / alisondb. legislature. state. al.us/acaslACASloginMac. asp
http
:
:
Supreme Court (Ala.): Cire to 5o., So. zd, or 5o. 3d, if therein.
1886-date
r84o-r975
1834-1839
Ata.
> Stewart and Porter
l83r-r834
Stew. &
> Stewart
1827-1831 Stew.
1820-1826 Minor
> Southern Reporter
>
Alabama Reports
>
Pofter
>
Minor
o
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Small Business
)
I
I
So., So. zd, So.3d
Port.
P.
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\
Court of Civil Appeals (Ata. Civ. App.) and Court of Criminal Appeals
(Ata. Crim. App.), before 1969 Court of Appeals (Ata. Ct. App.): Cite to So.,
So. zd, or 5o. 3d, if therein.
'
Southem
Reporter
Courts
h Alabama Appellate
191
So., So. zd, So.3d
l-date
l9ll-1974
Ata. App.
Reports
Statutory compilations: Cite to ALA. Coor lpublished by l[est), if thcrein
r Code ofAlabama, 1975 0vest)
ALA. CoDE 5 x-x-x (yeap)
,
Ala. Cooe $ x-x-x
Michie's Alabama Code, 1975 (LexisNexis)
(LexisNexis.yean)
Session laws: Cite to Ala. Laws, if therein
,year, Ala. Laws < page no.>
,year, Ala. Legis. Serv.
,page no.' (West)
"
r
Alabama Laws
r
Michie's Alabama Code <year> Advance
Legislative Service (lexisNexis)
West's Alabama Legislative Service
,year,-, pamph. no.' Ala.
Adv. Legis. Serv. (page
no.' (LexisNexis)
Administrative compilation
r Alabama Administrative Code
Au. Aowrrr'r. Coog
(yeap)
r. x-x-x.x
Administrative register
"
,vol. no.' Ala. Admin.
Monthty <page no.>
( month day, year,)
Alabama Administrative Monthly
Alaska (Alaska)
http ://www. courts.
alaska. laov
hnp://w3.legis.state.ak.
r,rs/
Supreme Court (Alaska): Cite to P.zd or P.3d.
"
Pacilic
Reporter
l9(r0-date
P.zd, P.3d
Court of Appeals (ALAsKA Cr. APP.): Cite to P.2o or P.3o
'
Pacific Reporter
l9{i0-date
District Courts of Naska (D. Alaska):
P.zd, P.3d
These courts had local iurisdiction
from l8tl4 to 1959. Cite to F. Supp., F., or F.zd, if therein; otherwise, cite to
Ausre or ALnsrn Feo., in that order of preference .
Supp.
w Fcderal Supplement
tL)46-1919
r
Federal Repofter
l
8n6- 1 932
F., F.zd
ts
Alaska Reports
1887-1958
Alaska
"
Alaska Federal Reports
1869-1937
Alaska Fed.
F.
United States District Courts for California and Oregon, and District
Courts of Washington (D. Cat., D. Or., D. Wash.;: These courts had local
iurisdiction in Alaska until 1884. Cite to F. or F. Cas.
"
Federal Reporter
1880-1884
F.
a
United States Jurisdictions
> Fedeial Cases
F. Cas.
(Citations to F. Cas. should give the case number parenthetically, e.g., The
Ocean Spray, r8 F. Cas. 558 (D. Or. r8Z5) (No. ro,4rz).;
> Alaska Federal Reports
1869-1937 Alaska Fed.
o
Statutory compilations: Cite to ALASKA Snr., if therein.
> Alaska Statutes (rxisNexis)
Ausxa Srar. $ x.x,x
GYear,)
> $[est's Alaska Statutes Annotated
Ansra Srnr. AHl.
$ x.x.x
(West <yean)
Session laws: Cite to ALASKA Srss. Lnws, if therein.
> Session Iaws of Alaska
.year, Alaska Sess. Laws
> Alaska Statutes <year> Advance Legislative
,year,.pamph. no.,
<Page nO.)
Service
(rxisNexis)
Alaska Adv. Legis. Serv.
{ page no.) (LexisNexis)
> West's Alaska Legislative Service
,year, Alaska Legis. Serv.
,page no., (West)
Administrative compilation
Ausre
> Alaska
Administrative Code
(IexisNexis)
g x.x
Aoltnrr. Cooe tit. x,
(year,)
P., P.zd, P.3d
Court of Appeals (Ariz. Ct. App.): Cite to P.zd or P.3d, if therein.
> Arizona Appeals Reports
1965-date P.zd, P.3d
1976-date Ariz.
196r-1977 Ariz. App.
t
Tax Court (Ariz. Tax Ct.): Cite to P.2d or P.3d, if therein.
> Pacific Reporter
1988-date
P.zd, P.3d
Statutory compilations: Cite to Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann., if therein.
> Arizona Revised StatutesAnnotated (West)
ARrz. REv.
Srar.
Att.
$ x-x
(.year')
> Arizona Revised Statutes
(IrxisNexis)
Anrz. Rev.Snr. $ x-x
(LexisNexis ,year,)
Session laws: Cite to Ariz. Sess. Laws. if therein
> Session
lrws, Arizona
o
I
I
> Arizona Reports
> Pacffic Reporter
t
t
Supreme Court (Ariz.): Cite to P., P.zd, or P.3d, if therein.
> Arizona Reports
o
o
http://www.az.courts. gov
http ://www .azleg.gov / ArizonaRevisedStatutes.asp
1883-date
I
I
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Arizona (Ariz.)
> Pacific Reporter
I
I
,year, Ariz. Sess. Laws
(page no.)
I
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,year' Ariz. Legis. Serv.
,page no., (West)
Arizona Legislative Service
CWest)
Administrative compilation
r
Anrz. Aorvrtt't. Cooe $ x-x-x
Arizona Administrative Code
(year,;
Adrninistrative register
<vol. no.) Ariz. Admin. Reg.
<page no.>
o Arizona Administrative Register
(month day, year,)
etL""""r
t*t.f
http,//www. courts. arkansas. gov
hnp ://www. arkleg.state. ar.us
Arkansas has adopted a public domain
r February 13, 2OO9 . The format is:
Public domain citation format:
citation format for cases
F
afte
Smith v. Hickman, 2oo9 Ark. t2, at t,
ztl
S.W.ld 34o, 343.
h' Doe v. State, zoog Ark. App. 3t8, at 7, zoog WL z4o6t3, at * 8.
For additional instruction, consult Arkansas Supreme Court Rule 5-2.
Supreme Court (Ark.): Cite to S.W., S.W.zd, or S.W.3d, if therein.
"
"
South Westem Reporter
Arkansas Reports
1886-date
r837-2oo9
S.W., S.W.zd, or S.W.3d
Ark.
Court of Appeals (Ark. Ct. App.): Cite to 5.W.2d or S.W.3d, if therein
o South lffestem Reoorter
r979-rJrte
S.W.zd,5.W.3d
bArkansasAppellateReports 1981-2009 Ark.App.
I
Arkansas R€pofts
Statutory compilations: Cite to Anr. CoDE ANN. (published by LexisNexis),
if therein.
,
Arkansas Code of 1987 Annotated (LexisNexis)
* lwest's Arkansas Code Annotated
Anx. Cooe AHru. $
x-x-x (,yearr)
Anr. Cooe Ann.
$
x-x-x (West,year,)
Session laws: Cite to Ark. Acts, if therein.
" Acts of Arkansas 0Vest)
'
Arkansas Code
of 1987 Annotated.yeaP
Advance Legislative Service (LexisNexis)
,year> Ark. Acts (page no.>
,year,-,pamph. no., Ark.
Adv. Legis.
Serv..page
no.' (LexisNexis)
* West's Arkansas Legislative Service
,year, Ark. Legis. Serv.
,page no., (West)
Administrative compilation
"
Code of Arkansas Rules
(LexisNexis)
x-x-x Anr. CooE R. 5 x
(LexisNexis ,year')
a
United States Jurisdictions
Administrative registers: Cite to Ark. Reg., if therein.
{vol. no.} Ark. Reg. <page
no., (.month year,)
,iss. no., Ark. Gov't Reg.
> Arkansas Register
> Arkansas Govefirment Register
(page no.) (LexisNexis
<
month year>)
California (Cal.)
http ://www.courts. ca. gov
http ://www.legislature.ca. gov
Supreme Court (Cal.): Cite to P., P.zd, or P.3d, if therein.
> Califomia Reports
1883-date
1850-date
> West's
1959-date
Cal. Rptr., Cal. Rptr. zd, Cal.
Rptr. 3d
1855-1910
Cal. Unrep.
> Pacific Reporter
P., P.zd, P.3d
Cal., Cal. zd, Cal.3d, Cal.
4th
Califomia Reporter
> Califomia Unreported Cases
Court of Apped (Cal. Ct. App.;, previously District Court of Appeal (Cal.
Dist. Ct. App.): Cite to P. or P.zd @efore 1960) or Cal. Rptr., Cal. Rptr. zd
(after 1959), or Ca[. Rptr. 3d, if therein.
> West's Califomia Reporter
1959-date
Cal. Rptr., Cat. Rptr. zd, Cat.
> Pacific Reporter
1905-1959
P., P.zd
> California Appellate Reports
1905-date
Cat. App., Cal. App. zd, Cal.
App.td, Cal. App. 4th
Rptr.3d
Appellate Divisions of the Superior Court (Cal. App. Dep't Super. Ct.):
Cite to P. or P.zd Gefore 1960) or to Cal. Rptr., Ca[. Rptr. zd (after 1959), or
Cal. Rptr.3d, if therein.
> West's Califomia Reporter
1959-date
Cat. Rptr., Cat. Rptr. zd, Cat.
> Pacific Reporter
1929-1959
P., P.zd
> Califomia App€llate R€ports
Supplement (bound with Cal.
1929-d^te
Cal. App. Supp., Cat. App.
zd Supp., Cal. App. 3d
Supp., Cal. App. 4th Supp.
Rptr.3d
App.)
Statutory compilations: Cite to either the West or the Deering subiect-matter
code, if therein.
!
West's Annotated Califomia Codes
CnL..SusJEcr, Cooe 5 x
(West,yeap)
Clr. ,Sus,ecr' CooE $ x
> Deering's Califomia Codes,
>
Annotated (LexisNexis)
(renamed .Food
Agricultural
n
(Deering <year')
and Agricultural'
Acnrc.
1972)
> Business and Professions
Bus. & Pnor.
> Civil
Crv.
> Civil Procedure
Crv. PRoc.
r
Cowr.
Commercial
t
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Conp.
'
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Education
Eouc.
Elections
Er-Ec.
Evidence
Evro.
r Family
Fnu.
,
Financial
Frr.r.
"
Fish and Game
FlsH & GAME
r Food and Agricultural (formerly "Agricultural")
FooD & AGRrc.
h (iOvemment
Gov'r
,
Harbors and Navigation
HARB.
'
Health and Safety
Henlrn & Snrerv
Insufance
I
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& NAV.
Ns.
" Labor
Lne.
'
MrL. & VEr.
Military and Veterans
PeHnr
'Penal
'Prob:rte
Pnoe.
r Pnblic Contract
PuB. CoNT.
u Public Resources
Pue. Res.
e Public
Pue. UrrL.
Utilities
r Rcvcnuc and Taxation
Rev. &
F Streets
srs. & HrcH.
rnd Highways
Trx.
r Unemployment Insurance
Uremp. lHs.
'Vehiclc
Vex.
'
Wer:n
Water
r Welfare and Institutions
WELF.
& lNsr.
Session laws: Cite to Cal. Stat., if therein.
e Statutes
of California
h
lfest's California Legislative Service
'
I)eering's California Advance Legislative Service
(LexisNexis)
,yean Ca[. Stat. ,page no.'
,year' Cal. Legis. Serv.
,page no., (West)
<year'-,pamph, no.' Cal.
Adv. Legis. Serv. .page
ns.' (LexisNexis)
Administrative compilation
* (lalifornia Code of Regulations (West)
CAL. CoDE REGs.
tit. x, 5 x
l,yearD
Administrative register
,iss. no., Ca[. Regulatory
Notice Reg. <page no.>
(,month day, year,)
o (lalifornia Regulatory Notice Register
Colorado (Colo.)
http ://www.coufis. state.co. Lls
http://www.tornado.state.co.us,/gov-dir /leg_<Lir / olls/sessionlaws_of-colorado.htm
Public domain citation format: Colorado has adopted
citation format for cases
afte r
January , 2012. The format is:
1
a public domain
Ufl
I
ited States Jurisdictiorrs
)
lannone v. Callahan, zotz CO 22,
F
Ca[[ahan v. lannone, zor5 COA r4,
ll
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L3.
!|fl 8-12
For additional information, consult Rules of the Supreme Court
Colorado, Chief Justice Directive 12-01.
of
Supreme Court (Colo.): Cite to P., P.zd, or P.3d, if therein; orherwise, cite
to Colo., if therein, orto Colo. Law. or Brief Times Rptr.
> Pacific Reporter
> Colorado Reports
> Colorado Lawyer
> Brief Times Reporter
> ColoradoJournal
>
Iaw Week Colorado
1883-date
1864-1980
1972-date
1977-1996
1996-2002
Colo. Law.
z0Oz-da,te
L. Week Colo.
P., P.zd, P.3d
Colo.
BriefTimesRptr.
Coto.
J.
Court of Appeals (Colo. App.): Cite to P., P.zd, or P.3d, if therein; otherwise,
cite to Colo. App., if therein, or else to one of the other reporters listed below.
1970-date
> Pacific Reporter
> Colorado Court
r9r2-r9r5
ofAppeals
Repofts
> Colorado
lawyer
> Brief Times Reporter
>
ColoradoJoumal
> Law Week Colorado
189l-1905
1891-1905
1912-l9rt
1970-1980
1972-date
1977-1996
1996-2002
2002-date
P.zd, P.3d
P.
P.
Coto. App.
Coto. App.
Colo. App.
Colo. Law.
Brief Times Rptr.
Coto.j.
L.
Week Colo.
Statutory compilations: Cite to CoLo. REv. Srer., if therein.
> Colorado Revis€d Statutes (rnsNexis)
Colo. Rrv. Srar. $ x-x-x
(.year)
> West's Colorado Revised Statutes Annotated
Cot-o. Rev. Srar. Atr,r. 5
x-x-x (West <year)
Session laws: Cite to Colo. Sess. Laws. if therein
> Session
laws of Colorado (rxisNexis)
> Colorado Legislative Service (West)
.year, Colo. Sess. Laws
(page no.)
.yean Colo. Legis. Serv.
<page no., (West)
Administrative compilations: Cite to CoLo. Cooe Rees.. if rherein.
> Colorado Code
ofRegulations
Cor-o. Cooe Rees, $ x-x
l,yearD
> Code
of Colorado Regulations (IrxisNexis)
<vol. no.> CoLo. Cooe Rees.
$ x-x (LexisNexis ,year')
Administrative register
> Colorado Register
.iss. no,> Colo. Reg. <page
no., (.month year)
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Connecticut (Conn.)
http :,//www. jucl. state. ct. us
hnp ://www. cga. ct. gov/current/ pult /titles. htm
Supreme Court (Conn.), previously Supreme Court of Errors (Conn.): Cite
to A., A.zd, or A.3d, if therein.
Reporter
Repofts
a
Atlantic
'
Connecticut
Day
F Root
r Kirby
*
1885-date
A., A.zd, A.3d
l8l4-date
Conn.
1802-1813
Day
1789-1798
Root
1785-1789
Kirby
Appellate Court (Conn. App. Ct.): Cite to A.zd or A.3d, if therein.
" Atlantic
'
1983-date
Reporter
Connecticut Appellate
Repofts 1983-date
A.zd, A'3d
Conn. App'
Superior Court (Conn. Super. Ct.) and Court of Common Pleas (Conn.
C.P.): Cite to A.zd or A.3d, if therein; othcrwise, cite to Conn. Supp., if
therein, or else to one of the other reporters listed below.
F
Atlantic Reporter
1954-<late
A.zd, A.3d
ts
Connecticut Supplement
Conn.5upp.
F
Connecticut Law Reporter
19.t5-datc
1990-date
1986-1994
Conn. Super. Ct.
+
Connccticut Superior
Court
Conn. L. Rptr.
Reports
Circuit Court (Conn. Cir. Ct.): Cite to A.zd or A.3d, if therein
l
Atlantic Reporter
p
Connecticut Circuit Couft
196r-1974
196l-1974
A.zd, A.3d
Conn. Cir. Ct.
Reports
Statutory compilations: Cite to CoNN. Grn. Srnr., if therein.
ConH. Geru. Srnr. $ x-x
" General Statutes of Connecticut
(,year')
>
Connccticut General Statutes Annotated (West)
Cor'rr. Gen. Snr. Artt. 5
x-x (West ,year)
Session laws: Citc to Conn. Acts. Conn. Pub. Acts. or Conn. spec. Acts,
if
therein.
" Connecticut Public & Special
1650-197r
,year, Conn. Acts <page
no., (lReg. or 5pec.l Sess.)
.year, Conn. Pub. Acts
r789-197r
,year, Conn. Spec. Acts
1972-da,tc
Acts
* Connecticut Public Acts
<page
" Connecticut Special Acts
no.'
<page no.)
titles-i.e., Resolves & Private Laws, Private & Special
& Private Acts, Resolutions & Private Acts, Private
Resolves
Laws, Special Laws,
(published under various
Acts & Resolutions, and Special Acts & Resolutions-and with various volume
designations-i.e ., by year or volume number)
a
United States J trrisdicticns
>
Connecticut Legislative Service (West)
<year) Conn. Legis, Serv.
,page no., (West)
Administrative compilation
> Regulations of
Connecticut State Agencies
CoHr. AeeHcres REGs. 5
x-x-x ((year,
Administrative registers: Cite to Conn.
1.J.,
if therein.
>
Connecticut Law Joumal
<vol. no.> Conn. L.J. <page
>
Connecticut Govemment Register (IrxisNexis)
no., ((month day, year)
,iss. no., Conn. Gov't Reg.
<page no.> (LexisNexis
,month year)
D"h*;
Suprerne Court (Det.), previously Court of Errors and Appeals (Del.): Cite
to A., A.zd, or A.3d, if therein.
Atlantic Repoftef
1886-date
A., A.zd, A.3d
3l
r9r9-1966
Det.
> Boyce
1909-1920
e.g., z4 Del. (r Boyce)
>
1897-1909
e.g., r7 Del. (r Penne)
> Marvel
1893-1897
> Houston
r85r-1893
e.g., r5 Del. (r Marv.)
e.g.,6 Del. (r Houst.)
>
1832-1855
e.9., 1 De[.
1792-1830
Del. Cas.
Del. ro 59 Del.
Pennewill
Haffington
> Delaware Cases
(r Harr.)
Court of Chancery (Del. Ch.): Cite to A., A.zd, or A.3d, if therein.
>
1886-date
Atlantic Reporter
> Delaware Chancery
Repons f814-1968
1792-1830
> Delaware Cases
Det. Ch.
Del. Cas.
Superior Court (Det. Super. Ct.), previously Superior Court and Orphans'
(Det).
Atlantic Reporter
1957-date
A.zd, A.3d
Family Court (De[. Fam. Ct.): Cite to A.zd or A.3d
>
Atlantic Reporter
1977-date
A.zd,A.3d
Statutory compilations: Cite to Del. Cooe ArH., if therein
> Delaware Code
Annotated
(I€xisNexis)
>
West's Delaware Code Annotated
Del. Cooe
Arr. tit. x, 5 x
(,year)
DEL. CoDE
Ant. tit. x,
(West <year>)
t
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A., A.zd, A.3d
Court (Det. Super. Ct. & Orphans' Ct.): Cite to A.zd or A.3d, if therein;
otherwise, cite to one of the official reporters fisted under Supreme Court
>
I
I
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> Delaware Reports
>
o
I
@;i:)
http://www. courts. state. de. us
http ://www. delcode. delaware. gov
>
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Session laws: Cite to De1. Laws, if therein.
<vol.
"
laws of Dclawarc
"
Delaware Code Annotated <year>
Advance Legislative Service (LexisNexis)
no.' Del. Laws.page
n6., (year')
,year>-, pamph. no., Del.
Code. Ann. Adv. Legis.
Serv.,page no.,
(LexisNexis)
<year> Del. Legis. Serv.
F West's Dehwarc Legislative
.page no.' (West)
Service
Administrative compilations: Cite to Del. AoutH.
CoDE, if therein.
r
Delaware Administrative Code
x-x-x DEL. Aorutru. Cooe $ x
'
Code of Delaware Regulations (LexisNexis)
x-x-x DEL. Cooe REcs. 5 x
(,year,)
(LexisNexis,yean)
Administrative registers: Cite to Del. Reg. Regs., if therein
.
Delaware Register of Regulations
<vol. no., Del. Reg. Regs.
<page no.) (month day,
r
Delaware (iovemmcnt Register (LexisNexis)
,iss. no., Del Gov't Reg.
Yeaf')
<page no.) (LexisNexis
(month year>)
District of Columbia (D.C.)
http ://www.clccourts.gov
http :,//www. clccouncil.washington.dc. us/dcoffi calcocle
Court of Appeals (D.C.), previously Municipal Court of Appeals (D.C.)
Cite to A.zd or A.3d
1943-dtte
" Atlantic Reporter
A.zd, A.3d
United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit
(D.C. Cir.), previously Court of Appeals of/for the District of Columbia
(D.C. Cir.), prcviously Supreme Court of the Distriat of Columbia (D.C.):
Cite ro F., F.zd, or F.3d, if therein.
1919-date
F., F.zd, F.3d
(burtofAppeals
1941-date
U.S. App. D.C.
of
1897-1941
App. D.C.
11192-1893
zr D.C. (Tuck. &
18ti0-1892
n Federal Reporter
"
UnitedStates
Reports
" Appeal
Cases, District
Columbia
b District of Columbia Reports
r
Tucker and
+
Mackey
Clephane
Ct.)
aMacArthurandMackey
1879-1880
72-2c'D.C. (Mackey r-9)
e.g., 12 D.C. (r Mackey)
rr D.C. (MacArth. & M.)
" MacArthur
1873-1879
8-ro
1863-1872
e.g.,8 D.C. (r MacArth.)
6-7 D.C.
p District of oolumbia
Reports
(reported by Mackey)
D.C. (MacArth.
e.g., 5 D.C.
r-3)
o
United States J urisrlictions
> Hayward & Hazleton, Circuit
I
I
1-2 Hay. & Haz.
Court (Circuit Court Reports,
vols. 6-7)
e.g., 1Hay.&Haz.
> Cranch, Circuit Court
r-5
D.C. (Cranch r-5)
e.g., z D.C. (z Cranch)
1801-1840
Superior Court (D.C. Super. Ct.), previously Municipal Court (D.C. Mun.
Ct.): Cite to Daily Wash. L. Rptr.
> Daily Washington Law
Reporter l97l-date
Statutory compilations: Cite to D.C. Cooe, if therein.
> District of Columbia Offrcial Code
> rVest's District of Columbia Code
QrxisNexis)
Annorated
(West)
x-x (year,)
D.C. Code Ann, $ x-x (West
D.C. Cooe g
<tear>)
Session laws: Cite to Stat., D.C. Reg., or D.C. Code Adv. Leg. Serv., if therein.
> United States Statutes
atlatge
<vol. no.) Stat. <page no.,
<vol. no.> D.C. Reg. <page
(month day, year,)
no.>
> District of Columbia Official Code
Legislative Service
kxis
Advance <year)<pamph. no.> D.C.
Code Adv. Leg. Serv.
(page no.)
> District of Columbia Session
law
Service West
,yean
D.C. Sess. L. Serv.
,page no.> (West)
Municipal regulations: Cite to
D.C.
Mun. Regs., if therein.
> Code of D.C. Municipal Regulations
D.C. Mun. Regs.
tit. x, $ x
(ryear,)
> Code of District of Columbia
Muni
cipal Regulations (LexisNexis)
D.C. Code Mun. Regs. tit. x
$ x (LexisNexis <year,)
Administrative register
> District of Columbia Register
(month day, year,)
Florida (Fla.)
http ://www.fl courts. org
http ://www. laws. fl rules. org
Supreme Court (Fla.): Cite to So., 5o. zd, or 5o. 3d, if therein
> Southem Reponer
> Florida Reports
> Florida
IawWeekly
1886-date So., So. zd, So.3d
1846-1948 Fla.
1978-date Fta. L. Weekly
District Court of Appeal (Fla. Dist. Ct. App.;:
Cite to So. zd or So. 3d,
therein.
> Southern Reporter
7957-drte
So. zd, So. 3d
> Florida
1978-date
Fta. L. Weekly
law Weekly
I
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no.>
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(,yeap)
> District of Columbia Register
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Circuit Court (Fla. Cir. Ct.), County Court (e.g., Fla. Orange County Ct.),
Public Service Commission (Fta. P.S,C.), and other lower courts of record:
Cite to Fla. Supp. or Fla. Supp. 2d, if therein.
'
r
Florida Lrw weekly Suppleme
nt
Fta.
Fta. L. Weekty 5upp.
Statutory compilations: Cite to
t
Florida Statutes
"
west's Florida Statutes Annotated
* LexisNexis Florida
5upp., Fta.5upp. zd
1950- 1991
1992-d^te
Florida Supplement
FLA,
Srnr., if therein
FLA.5rAr. 5 x.x (year,)
FLA. 5rAr. ArH. $ x.x (West
,yearr)
SrAr. Arn. 5 x.x
(LexisNexis,year,)
Statutes Annotated
FLA.
Session laws: Cite to Fla. Laws, if therein
r
,yean Fla. Laws,page no,'
Laws of Florida
,year' Fla. Sess. Law Serv.
,page no.' (West)
e West's Florida Session Law Service
Administrative compilation
r Florida Administrative Code Annotat€d
Cooe Arun. r.
x-x.x (,year')
FLA. ADMTN.
(LexisNexis)
Administrative register: Cite to
Fla.
Admin. Reg., if th€rein.
> FloridaAdminisrative
Register 2012-<late
<vol. no.> Fla. Admin. Reg.
<page no'> ('month day'
e Florida Administrative
Veekly 1996-2012
<vol. no., Fta. Admin.
Weekly <page no.>
Year')
(LexisNexis)
(,month day, year,)
Georgia (Ga.)
http :,//www.€aeorgiac()urts. orll
hnp ://www. legis. ga. gov,/Legislation/en-tJS/default. aspx
Supreme Court (Ga.): Cite to S.E. or S.E.zd, if therein.
r
r
South Eastern Reporter
Georgia Repons
1887-date
1846-date
S.E.,5.E.zd
Ga.
Court of Appeals (Ga. Ct. App.): Cite to S.E. or S.E.zd, if therein
'
'
South Eastem Reporter
Georgia Appeals Reports
1907-date
1907-date
5.E., S.E.zd
Ga. App.
Statutory compilations: Cite to Gr. Cooe AHru. (published by LexisNexis),
if therein.
,
Oflicial Code of Georgia Annotated
(LexisNexis)
,
West's Code of Georgia Annotated
Ge. Cooe
Arn.
$ x-x-x
(.yearD
Gr. Cooe AHru. $ x-x-x
(West,year,)
United States Jurisdictiorrs
Session laws: Cite to Ga. Laws, if therein.
> Georyia Laws
<year) Ga. Laws.page no.>
> Georgia,yean Advance legislative Service
,year,*pamph.
(LexisNexis)
no.> Ga.
Code Ann. Adv. Legis.
Serv.,page no.,
(LexisNexis)
> West's Georgia
{year) Ga. Code Ann. Adv.
legislative Service
Legis. Serv, (page no.)
(West)
Administrative cornpilation
> Official Compilation Rules and
Regulations of the State of Georgia
Gn, Corvrp, R. & Ree s. x-x-
x.x (year,)
Administrative register
> Georgia Govemment Register (LexisNexis)
<iss, no., Ga. Gov't Reg.
<page no.> (LexisNexis
<month year,)
Hawaii (Haw.)
hnp://www. courts. state.hi.us
http://www.capitol.hawaii.gov,/docs/HRS. htm
Supreme Court (Haw.): Cite to P.2d or P.3d, if therein.
r9t9-d^te
> Pacific Reporter
> West's Hawaii Reports
P.zd, P.3d
(begins 1994-dAte
Haw.
vol. 1847-1994
Haw.
with vol. 76)
> Hawaii Repors (ends
with
75)
Intermediate Court of Appeals (Haw. Ct. App.): Cite to P.zd or P.3d, if
therein.
> Pacific Reporter
1980-date
P.zd, P.3d
> $[est's Hawaii Reports (begins
1994-drte
Haw,
1980-1994
Haw. App.
with vol. 76)
> Hawaii Appellate Reports
Statutory compilations: Cite to Hew. Rev. Srnr., if therein.
> Hawaii Revised Statutes
Hnw. REv. Srnr. 5 x-x
(.Year')
> Michie's Hawaii Revised Statutes Annotated
Hnw. Rev.5rrr. AnH. $ x-x
(LexisNexis <year>)
(kxisNexis)
> West's
Hawai'i Revised Statutes Annotated
Hnw. Rev. Srer. Atr,r. 5 x-x
(west.year')
Session laws: Cite to Haw. Sess. Laws, if therein.
> S€ssion laws of Hawaii
<year> Haw. Sess. Laws
> Michie's Hawaii Revised Statutes Annotated
Advance Legislative Service (LexisNexis)
(page no.)
<year>-(pamph, no.) Haw.
Rev. Stat. Ann. Adv.
Legis. Serv. <page no.)
(LexisNexis)
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Vest's Hawai'i Legislative Service
,page no.> (West)
Administrative compilation
+ Code
Haw. Cooe R. $ x-x-x
(LexisNexis ,year,)
of Hawaii Rules (LexisNexis)
Administrative register
'
,iss. no., Haw. Gov't Reg.
Hawaii Government Register
(LexisNexis)
<page no.> (LexisNexis
,month year)
Idaho (Idaho)
http://www.isc.idaho.gov
http ://legislature. idaho. govlstzltutesmles. htm
Supreme Court (ldaho): Cite to P., P.zd, or P.3d, if therein
r Pacilic Reporter
F
Idaho Reports
l88J-date
1tt66-date
P., P.zd, P.3d
ldaho
Court of Appeals (ldaho Ct. App.): Cite to P.zd or P.3d, if therein
L Pacilic Reporter
r Idaho Reports
1982-date
1982-dare
P.zd, P.3d
ldaho
Statutory compilations: Cite to IDAHo CoDE (published by LexisNexis), if
therein.
'
Idaho Code (LexisNexis)
P
West's Idaho Code Annotated
lonHo Cooe $ x-x (,year,)
loano Cooe AHru. $ x-x
(West ,year')
Session laws: Cite to ldaho Sess. Laws, if therein.
p Idaho Session Laws
.year, ldaho Sess. Laws
<page no.>
r Idaho
Code Annotated Advance Legislative
Service (LexisNexis)
,
West's ldaho Lcgislative Service
(yearr-(pamph. no.'
ldaho Code Ann. Adv.
Legis. Serv. <page no.)
(LexisNexis)
.year, ldaho Legis. Serv.
,page no., (West)
Administrative compilation: http://adminrules.gov/rules/current/
u Idaho
Administrative Code
lonno AomtH. Cooe r.
x.x.x.x (,yearr)
Administrative register
'
Idaho Administrativ€ Bulletin
<vol. no.) ldaho Admin.
Bull. .page no., (.month
day, year,)
o
United Statcs J urisrlictions
Illinois (Ill.)
http ://www. state. il. us/court
http://www .lIga.gov /Iegislation/ilcs. asp
Public domain format: Illinois has adopted
for cases afterJune
)
)
3l,20ll.
Loup v. Dube,
a
public domain citation format
The format is:
zor4 lL rorz35, tl
5.
Dubev. Loup, zor5 lLApp (rst) !o!2r4,1l1lzo-zz,
For additional instruction, consult lllinois Supreme Court Rule 6.
Supreme Court (lll.): Cite to N.E., N.E.zd, or N.E.3d, if therein.
>
North Eastem Reporter
1884-date
N.E., N.E.zd, N.E.3d
>
Illinois Official Reports
2Dll-d^te
,year, lL,docket no.,
>
Illinois Reports
1849-2011
111.,
1844-1849
>
u
l1[.
to date
> Scammon
1832-1843
e.9.,6 ltl. (r Gilm.)
e.g., z ll1. (r Scam.)
> Breese
18r9-1831
r
1976-dtte
Itt. Dec.
> Gilman
>
l1l. zd
West's Illinois Decisions
ll1. (Breese)
Appellate Court (lll. App. Ct.): Cite to N.E.zd or N.E.3d, if therein.
>
North Eastem Reporter
>
Illinois Official Reports
>
lllinoisAppellate Court Reports
r936-date
zoll-date
1877-20rr
N.E.zd, N.E.3d
ryear) lL <docket no.)
ltl. App., ltl. App. zd, lll.
App.td
>
West's Illinois Decisions
Illinois Circuit Court (lll.
Cite to
>
1976-date
Itt. Dec.
Cir. Ct.), previously Court
of Claims (lll. Ct. Cl.):
lll. Ct. Cl., if therein.
Illinois Coun of Claims
Reports
1889-date
Itt. ct. ct.
Statutory compilations: Cite to lLL. COMp. Srer., if therein.
>
Illinois Compiled Statutes
.ch. no.,lLt. CoMp.
SrAT. <act no., / ,sec.
>
Sfest's Smith-Hurd Illinois Compiled Statutes
Annotated
,ch. no.>
Illinois Compiled Statutes AnnoBted
<ch.
ns. > (<year>)
Art.
Comp. Srar.
<act no.> / .sec. no.>
lr-r-.
(West,year)
>
(kxisNexis)
no.,lt-t-. Cotrirp. Srer.
AttN.
<aCt
nO,'/
,SeC.
ns., (lexisNexi5,year)
Session laws: Cite to ll[. Laws. if therein.
> Laws of
>
Illinois
Illinois kgislative Service ($(est)
<year,
lll. Laws (page no.)
<year>
ll[. Legis. Serv. ,page
no.> (West)
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Legislative Service (LexisNexis)
Administrative compilations: Cite to
lt-t-.
,year.,pamph. no., l[[.
Comp. Stat. Ann. Adv.
Legis. Serv. <page no.)
(LexisNexis)
AomtH. CoDE, if therein
r Illinois Administrative Code
It-t-. Aot'nrr,r. CoDE
tit. x,
S
x
(<year>)
r Code of Illinois
,vo[. no.r lt-t-. Cooe R. ,rule
ne., (LexisNexis <year,
Rules (LexisNexis)
Administrative register
ll[. Reg. ,page
no., (,month day, year,)
<vo[. no.)
o lllinois Register
Indiana (Ind.)
http ://www. in. gov/judiciary
https ://iga. in. gov,/legislat iv e / law s/ 2014 / ic
Supreme Court (lnd.): Cite to N.E., N.E.zd, or N.E.3d, if therein.
F North Eastem Reporter
* Indiana Reports
r BlacKord
l8U5-date
N.E., N.E.zd, N.E.3d
1848-1981
1817-1847
Ind.
Btackf.
Court of Appeals (lnd. Ct. App.), previously Appellate Court (lnd' App'):
Cite to N.E., N.E.zd, or N.E.3d, if therein.
" North Eastem Reporter
'
Indiana Court of Appeals
Reports (prior to 1972,
Indiana Appellate Court
Reports)
1891-date
N.E., N.E.zd, N.E.3d
t890-t979
Ind. App.
Tax Court (lnd. T.C.): Cite to N.E.zd or N.E.3d, if therein.
* North Eastem Repofter
1986-date
N.E., N.E.zd, N.E.3d
Statutory compilations: Cite to ltto. Cooe, if therein.
lND. CoDE $ x-x-x-x (,year)
r Indiana Code
F
west's Annotated Indiana Code
lND. CoDE Attru. $ x-x-x-x
(west ,year')
* Bums Indiana Statutes Annotated (LexisNexis)
Ir,ro. Cooe AHx. S x-x-x-x
(LexisNexis ,year')
Session laws: Cite to lnd. Acts, if therein.
s Acts, Indiana
" West
s Indiana Lcgislative Servicc
<year' Ind. Acts ,page no.
,year' Ind. Legis. Serv.
,page no.' (West)
'
Bums Indiana Statutes Annotated
Advance Legislative Service (LexisNcxis)
.year,-,pamph. no.' Ind.
Stat. Ann. Adv.
Legis. Serv. <page no.'
(LexisNexis)
I
United States Jurisdictions
Administrative compilations: Cite to
> Indiana
>
lND. Aomtn. Cooe, if therein.
<tit. no.> ltrto. Aotvtttt.
COoe ,rUle nO., (<yearr)
Administrative Code
West's Indiana Administrative code
<tit. no,> lt'to. AowttH.
CoDE ,rule no.,
(West.year')
Administrative register
,vol. no., Ind. Reg. .page
no., (.month day, year)
> Indiana Register
Iowa (Iowa)
http ://www.iowacourts. gov
http ://www. legis. iowa. gov
Supreme Court (lowa): Cite to N.W. or N.W.zd, if therein.
>
>
North Vestem Reporter
Iowa Reports (cite to
published by Clarke for vols.
1879-date
edition 1855-1968
N.W., N.W.2d
lowa
l-8.)
> Greene
>
Moris
> Bradford
1847-1854 Greene
1839-1846 Morris
1838-1841 Bradf.
Court of Appeds (lowa Ct. App.): Cite to N.W.zd.
>
North Westem Reporter
1977-date
N.W.2d
Statutory compilations: Cite to lowA Coor, if therein.
> Code
lown Cooe 5 x.x (<year,)
lown Cooe Arr. 5 x.x
of Iowa
> West's
Iowa Code Annotated
(West,year)
Session laws: Cite to lowa Acts. if therein
>
Acts of the State of Iowa
>
Iowa Legislative Service (West)
.page no.,
,year, lowa Legis. Serv.
<year> lowa Acts
,page no.' (West)
Administrative compilation
> Iowa
lowl
Administrative Code
Aorrlrr,r. Cooe r.
x-x.x
(.yearr;
Administrative register
> Iowa
,vo[. no.r lowa Admin.
Bull. (page ns.) (<month
day, year,)
Administrative Bulletin
http ://wvw. kscourts. org
http ://www. kslegislature. org
Supreme Court (Kan.): Cite to P., P.zd, or P.3d, if therein.
> Pacific Reporter
> Kansas Reports
l88J-date
Il62-dare
P., P.zd, P.3d
Kan.
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1858-1868
McCahon
Court of Appeals (Kan. Ct. App.): Cite to P., P.zd, or P.3d, if therein
,
'
Paci-fic Reporter
1895- 1901
P.
1977 -<1:xe
P.zd, P.3d
Kan. App.
Kan. App. zd
Kansas Court ofAppeals Reports 1895-1901
1977-date
Statutory compilations: Cite to KAN.5TAT. ANN., if therein
Ken. Srnr. AruH, $ x-x
w Kansas Statutes Annotated
(Year')
p West's Kansas Statutes Annotated
Karu.
,
Srer. Arun. 5 x-x (West
yearr)
Session laws: Cite to Kan. Sess. Laws. if therein.
p Session laws of Kansas
<year, Kan. Sess. Laws
(page no.>
9 West's Kansas Legislative Service
,year, Kan. Legis. Serv.
,page no.' (West)
Administrative compilation
r
Kansas Administrative Regulations (updated by
Karu. Aotvttru. Rees. $ x-x-x
(,year,)
supplements)
Administrative register
"
.Vol. nO., Kan. Reg.,page
ns.' (month day, year,)
Kansas Register
Kentucky (Ky.)
http'//www.courts.ky.gov
http ://www. lrc. ky. govlstatutes/index. aspx
Supreme Court (Ky.): before 1976 the Court of Appeals (Ky.) was the
highest state court. Cite to S.W., S.W.zd, or 5.W.3d, if therein.
s South Westem Reporter
e Kentucky R€ports
r
1879-1951
Ky.
Bush
1866-r879
Duvall
1863-1866
Metcalf
1858-1863
e.g.,64Ky. (r Bush)
e.g.,6zKy. (r Duv.)
e.g., 58 Ky. (r Met.)
e.g., 40 Ky. (r B. Mon.)
e.9., 31 Ky. (r Dana)
78 Kt. to 3r4 Ky.
"
"
!
* Monroe, Ben
1840-1857
F Dana
1833- 1840
"
"
Marshall, JJ.
1829-t832
e.g., z4 Ky. (r J.J. Marsh.)
Monroe, T.B.
1824-1828
e.g., r7 Ky. (r T.B. Mon.)
1822-1821
e.g.,
1795-r82r
e
.g., 16 Ky.
l
e
.g.,
'
'
Littell
"
"
Marshall, A.K.
1817- 182
Littell's Selected
Cases
u
Ky. (r Litt.)
(r Litt. Set. Cas.)
8 Ky. (r A.K. Marsh.)
Bibb
1808-1817
e.s,4 Ky. (t Bibb)
n Hardin
1ft05-1808
= Sneed
1801
.
1785- 1801
3 Ky. (Hard.)
z Ky. (Sneed)
r Ky. (Hughes)
Hughes
-1805
United States Jurisdictions
Opinions
rKentuclrylawReport€r
> Kentucky
> Kentucky Appellate
Reporter
Memo
Summary
> KentuckyAttomeys
> Kentucky
taw
lf64-t886
Kv.op.
1880-1908
Ky. L. Rptr.
1994-2N0
200l-2007
Kv.App.
196-date
Ky. L. Summ.
Ky.
Att'y Memo
Court of Appeals (Ky. Ct. App.) (for decisions before 1976, see Kentucky
Supreme Court): Cite to S.W.zd or 5.W.3d, if therein.
> South Westem Reporter
1976-date
S.W.zd, S.W.3d
KentuckyAppellateReporter 1994-2OOO Ky.App.
2OO1-2OO7 Ky. Att'y Memo
KentuckyAttomeys Memo
1966-date Ky. L. Summ.
Kentucky law Summarv
o
Statutory compilations: Cite to one of the following codes.
!
Baldwin's Kentucky Revised Statutes
(West)
> Michie's Kentucky Revised Statutes
Annotated Kv. Rev. Srar. Ann.
Annotated
(LexisNexis)
$ x.x
(West,year>)
Kv. Rev. Srnr. Arun. 5 x.x
(LexisNexis ,year,)
Session laws: Cite to Ky. Acts, if therein.
> Acts of Kentucky
Kentucky Revised Statutes and Rules Service
(West)
> Michie's Kentucky Revised Statutes Advance
Legislative Service (rxisNexis)
<year> Ky. Acts <page no.)
<year> Ky. Rev.
Stat. &
R.
Serv. ,page no., (West)
(year)-<pamph. no., Ky.
Rev. Stat. Adv. Legis. Serv.
<
page no.) (LexisNexis)
Administrative compilation
> Kentucky Administrative Regulations Service
<tit. no.' KY. ADMTN.
ReeS. ,rule nO., (.yearr)
Administrative register
'
Administrative Register of Kentucky
<vo[. no.> Ky. Admin. Reg.
<Page no.> ('month Year>)
Louisiana (La.)
http://www.lasc.org
http //www. legis. la. govllegis,/LawSearch. aspx
:
Public domain citation format:
Louisiana has adopted a public domain
citation format for cases after December 31,1993. The format is:
)
)
State v.Ray,97-to9: (La. App. lCn.zlr+lg8); 7o5 So. 2dt295.
State v. Ray, 97-ro93, p. z (La. App. 3 Cir. zlr+lg8);7o5So. zd
7295,7296.
)
I
I
I
I
I
State v. Fleury, zoor-o87t, p. 5 (La. rc | $ | o)i 7gg So. zd 468,
472.
For additional information, consult Rules of the Supreme Court of Louisiana,
part G, section 8.
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Supreme Court (La.), before 1813 the Superior Court of Louisiana (La.)
Superior Court of the Territory of Odeans (Orleans): Cite to So.,
So. zd, or So. 3d, if therein.
and the
p Southem
Reporter
1886-date
So., So. zd, So.3d
il Louisiana Reports
190l-1972
La.
*LouisianaAnnualReports
1846-1900
La. Ann.
r Robinson
1841-1846
Rob.
l
Louisiana
1830-1841
'
Maftin (LouisianaTerm Reports) 1809-1t|30
Reports
La.
Mart. (o.s.), Mart. (n.s.)
Court of Appeal (La. Ct. App.): Cite to 5o., 5o. zd, or So. 3d, if therein.
r
Southem Reporter
n Louisiana Court of Appcals
Reports
1928-date
1924-1932
So., So. zd, So.3d
Pett.
La. App.
ts
Peltier's Decisions, Parish at
Orleans
1917-1924
I
Teissief, Orleans Court of
Appeals
1903-1977
"
Gunby's Reports
r885
Gunby
McGloin
1881 - 1884
McGl.
,
Statutory compilations: Cite to one of the following codes.
e West's Louisiana Statutes Annotated
l
Wcst's Louisiana Children's Code
Annotated
La. Srnr. Arur. $ x:x (year)
Ln. Cutt-o. Cooe Al1,|. art. x
(yearD
,
West's Louisiana Civil Code Annotated
Lr. Crv. Cooe ANN. art. x
y west's Louisiana Code of Civil Procedure
Annotated
Lr. Cooe Crv. Pnoc. ArH.
art. x (,year,
b West's Louisiana Code of Criminal Procedure
Ln. Cooe Cnrm. Pnoc.
(.yearD
Arn.
"
Annotated
rvest's Louisiana Code of Evidence Annotated
art. x (year,)
Ln. CooE EvrD. ANN. art. x
,
West's Louisiana Constitution Annotated
Ln. CoHsr. ANN. art. x
(.year')
(Year')
Session laws: Cite to La. Acts, if therein.
'
State of Louisiana: Acts of the Legislature
<year, La. Acts,page no.'
"
West's Louisiana Session Law Service
,yean La. Sess. Law Serv.
,page no., (West)
Administrative compilation
"
Lonisiana Administntive Code
La. Aowrrr.r. CoDE
tit. x, 5 x
(.year';
Administrative register
* Louisiana Register
<vol. no.> La. Reg. ,page
no.' (,month day, yearD
o
United States Jurisdictions
Maine (Me.)
http / / www. courts. state. me. us
http ://www. mainelegislature. orgllegis/statutes
:
Public domain citation format: Maine has adopted a public domain citation
format for cases after Decembet 31,1996. The format is:
)
)
Bangor Publ'g Co. v. Union St. Mkt., 1998 ME 37,7c,6 A.zd S9S.
Bangor Publ'g Co. v. Union St. Mkt., 1998 ME 37,Ii3,7c,6 A.2d
595,595.
For additional information, consult Administrative Order of the Supreme
Judicial
Court-New Citation Form (Aug. 20,
1995).
Supreme Judicial Court (Me.): Cite to A., A.zd or A.3d, if therein.
1885-date
> Atlantic Reporter
A., A.zd, A.3d
> Maine Reports
Statutory compilations: Cite to ME. Stat., if therein
> West's Maine Statutes
> Maine Revised Statutes Annotated (West)
ME. SrAr. tit. x, 5 x (,year,)
ME. REv. Srnr. AHr. tit. x, $
x (year,)
Session laws: Cite to Me. Laws, if therein.
> Iaws of the State of Maine
,yean Me. Laws.page no.,
> Maine Legislative Service (West)
<year> Me. Legis. Serv.
<page no., (West)
Administrative compilation
> Code of Maine Rules (LexisNexis)
x-x-x Me. Cooe R. $ x
(LexisNexis ,year,)
Administrative register
> Maine Govemment Register
(rxisNexis)
<iss. no,> Me. Gov't Reg,
(page no.) (LexisNexis
,month year,)
Maryland (Md.)
http ://www.courts.state.md.us
http / / mgaleg. maryland. govlwebm ga,/frmStatutes. aspx
:
Court of Appeals (Md.): Cire to A., A.zd or A.3d, if therein.
> Maryland Repons
1885-date
1851-date
!
1843-r8rr
>
Atlantic Reporter
Gill
> GiIl andJohnson
> Harris and Gill
> Harris andJohnson
> Harris and McHenry
1829-1842
1826-1829
1800-1826
1770-1774
17ffi-1799
A., A.zd, A.3d
Md.
Gilt
G. &J.
H. & G.
H. &J.
H. & McH.
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Court of Special Appeals (Md. Ct. Spec. App.): Cite to A.zd or A.3d, if
therein.
* Atlantic
F
Reporter
Reports
Maryland Appcllate
1967-d^te
A.zd, A.3d
7967-<lxe
Md. App.
Statutory compilations: Cite by sublect to either Michie's Mo. CooE At'ttt. or
west's Mo. CooE Aruru., if therein.
F Michie 's Annotated Code
of Maryland
(LexisNexis)
!
W€st's Annotated Code of Maryland
ts
Occupations and Professions
r
Business Regulation
"
Commercial
I:w
'Constitutions
Corporations and Associations
'
Mo. Coor Ar.rr.r., ,subiect, $
x-x (West <year,
Acnrc.
Agriculture
F tsusiness
Mo. Coor ArH., .subiect'5
x-x (LexisNexis,year')
Bus. Occ. & Pnor.
Bus. Ree.
Llw
Cowr,
CoHsr.
Conps. & Ass'r,rs
* Correctional Services
* Courts and Judicial Proceedings
Conn. 5envs.
* Criminal Law
CRrM. LAw
r Criminal Procedure
CRrM. PRoc.
Crs. & Juo. Pnoc.
'
Economic Development
EcoN. DEv.
"
Education
Eouc.
> Election
lrw
ELEC. LAw
) Environment
Eruvrn.
* Estates and Trusts
Esr. & TRUsrs
F Family Law
FAM. LAw
* Financial Institutions
FrN.
:
Health-General
H
'
'
'
Health Occupations
lNsr.
ellru-Geru.
Heelrn Occ.
Housinli and Community Development
Hous. & CMrY. DEv.
Human Services
Huru. Senvs.
F Insurance
lNs.
Lae. & EMpL.
'
Labor and Employment
b Land Use
LAND U5E
ts
Local Government
.
Natural Rcsources
Locnl Gov'r
Nnr. Res.
Slrerv
n Public Safety
Pue.
r
Pue. UrrL.
Public
Utilig
> Real Property
t
State Finance and Procurement
F State
Govemment
Renl Pnop.
Srarr FtH, & Pnoc.
Srnrr Gov'r
b State Personnel and Pensions
Srnre Pens. & Pens.
t. Tax-Cieneral
Trx-Geru.
l
Tax-Property
TAX-PRoP.
.
Transportation
TRANSP.
LTn
ited Statcs J urisdictions
Session laws: Cite to Md. Laws, if therein.
>
.year' Md, Laws ,page no.'
Iaws of Maryland
> Michie's Annotated Code
of Maryland Advance
Ifgislative Service (rxisNexis)
l
<year><pamph. no.>
Md. Code Ann. Adv.
Legis. Serv. <page no.>
(LexisNexis)
<year>
Md, Legis. Serv.
,page no., (West)
West's Maryland Legislative Service
Administrative compilation
> Code
of Maryland Regulations
Mo. Cooe Rees. <reg. n6., (,year)
Administrative register
> Maryland Register
<v6l. no.) Md. Reg. (page no.)
(,month day, year')
Massachusetts (Mass.)
http ://www. mass. gov/courts
http ://www.malegislature .gov /Law s/ Generallaws
SupremeJudicial Court (Mass.): Cite to N.E., N.E.zd, or N.E.3d, if therein.
>
North Eastern Reporter
l88t-date
N.E., N.E.zd, N.E.3d
> Massachusetts Reports
>
97 Mass. to date
> Allen
1867-dzte
Mass.
l86r-1867
e.g., 83 Mass. (r Atten)
,
r854-1860
e.g., 67 Mass. (r Gray)
> Cushing
1848- 1853
>
Metcalf
1840-1847
e.9., 55 Mass. (r Cush.)
e.g., 4z Mass. (r Met.)
> Pickering
1822-1839
r Tyng
Villiams
1805-1822
Gray
1804-r805
>
(r Pick.)
e.9., 2 Mass. (r Tynd
r Mass. (r WiltJ
e.g., 18 Mass.
Appeals Court (Mass. App. Ct.): Cite to N.E.zd or N.E.3d, if therein.
>
North Eastern Reponer
197Z-da:te
:MassachusettsAppealsCourt 1972-date
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Mass. App. Ct.
Reports
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Appellate Division Advance
Sheets
r975-1979
,year, Mass. App. Div. Adv.
5h. <page no.)
Statutory compilations: Cite to MAss. GEN. LAws, if therein.
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West)
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o Massachusetts General Laws Annotated CWest)
Mess. Gen. Lnws AHn. ch.
* Annotated Laws of Massachusetts @exisNexis)
MAss. ANN. Lnws ch. x, 5 x
(LexisNexis ,year')
x,$x(West,year')
Session laws: Cite to Mass. Acts, if therein.
.year> Mass. Acts ,page
r Acts and Resolves of Massachusetts
no.>
Massachusetts Legislative Service (West)
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,yean Mass. Legis. Serv.
,page no. (West)
'
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no. (LexisNexis)
'
Administrative compilations: Cite to official Mess. Cooe Rees., if therein.
> Code
of Massachusetts Regulations
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u Code
of Massachusetts Regulations (LexisNexis)
,tit. no.' MAss. CoDE REGs.
R6GS. .Sec.
n9., (,year,)
<sec. no.> (LexisNexis
,year')
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'
,iss. no.' Mass. Reg. ,page
no.'(,month day, year)
Massachusetts Register
Michigan (Mich.)
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Supreme Court (Mich.): Cite to N.W. or N.W.zd, if thercin.
r North Vestem
Report€r
* Michigan Reports
t
Douglass
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l8-9-tlatc
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Doug.
opinions 1836-1843
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1805-1836
N.W., N.W.zd
Btume Unrep. Op.
Blume 5up. Ct. Trans.
Transactions
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l
Nofth Western Reporter
1965-date
N.W.zd
I
Michigan Appeals Reports
r965-drte
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1939-1942 Mich. Ct.
Cl.
Reports
Statutory compilations: Cite to MtcH. Co|tp. Lnws, if therein.
$ Michigan Compiled Laws (1979)
Mtcn. Cot'rtp. Lnws $ x.x
(,year')
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tlrritecl States J urisdictions
> Michigan Compiled
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Mrcn. Cotrap. Lnws ArH. 5
x.x (West (year,
(rxisNexis)
Mrcx. Coanp. Lnws Senv. 5
x.x (LexisNexis (year,
laws Annotated
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Session laws: Cite to Mich. Pub. Acts, if therein.
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<page no,)
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North Westem Reporter
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Regster
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nq., (<month day, year)
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hnp://www.courts.ms.gov
hnp ://www.sos. state. ms. us,/ecl-pubs,/rnscode/
has adopted a public domain
July | , 1997 . The format is:
Public domain citation format: Mississippi
citation format for
case s afte r
M Pro-Choice Miss. v. Fordice, 95-CA-oo96o-SCT (Miss. rgg8).
b Pro-Choice Miss. v. Fordice, 95-CA-oo95o-SCT (fl 1) (Miss. rgg8).
For additional information, consult Mississippi Rules of Appellate Procedure,
Rule 2fi(O.
Supreme Court (Miss.): Cite to So., So. zd, or So. 3d, if therein.
1886-date 5o., So. zd, So.3d
" Southem Reporter
p Mississippi Reports
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23 Miss. to 254 Miss.
l85l-1966
r
Smedes and Marshall
r843- r850
Miss.
e.g.,9 Miss. (t 5. & M.)
r
Howard
1834-1843
e.g., z Miss. (r Howard)
Valker
l8l8-
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1832
1820- I 885
Miss. Dec.
Court of Appeals (Miss. Ct. App.): Cite to So. zd or 5o. 3d
"
Southem Reporter
1991-date
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General Laws of Mississippi
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a
United States lurisdictions
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Supreme Court (Mo.): Cite to S.W., S.W.zd, or 5.W.3d, if therein.
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Court of Appeals (Mo. Ct. App.): Cite to S.W., S.W.zd, or S.W.3d, if therein.
)
South rvestern Reporter
l902-date
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)
Mont. Envtl. Info. Ctr. v. Dep't of Envtl. Quatity, 1999 MT 248,296
Mont. zo7, 988 P.zd t236.
)
Mont. Envtl. Info. Ctr. v. Dep't of Envtl. Quality, t999 MT
296 Mont. 2o7,988P.2d t236,
248,ll2t,
For additional instruction, consult Order In /e: Opinion Forms and Citation
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Supreme Court (Mont.): Cire to P., P.zd, or P.3d, if therein.
> Montana Reports
> State Reporter
1883-date
1868-date
1945-da;te
P., P.zd, P.3d
Mont.
State Rptr.
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> Pacific Reporter
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Monr. Coor
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AHru. $
x-x-x (.yearr)
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Administrative compilation
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Morr.
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Administrative register
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.iss. no.' Mont. Admin. Reg.
Montana Administrative Register
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Nebraska (Neb.)
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North Westem Reporter
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Nebraska Repons
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Statutory compilations: Cite to NEB. Rev. Srnr., if therein.
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laws of Nebraska
rffest's Nebraska Legislative Service
"
,year, Neb. Laws,page no.t
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Administrative compilation
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o
United States Jurisrlictions
I
Nevada (Nev.)
http ://www.nevadajudiciary.us
hnp ://www. leg.state. nv.us/law1.cfm
t
Supreme Court (Nev.): Cite to P., P.zd, or P.3d, if therein.
> Pacific Reporter
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1883-date
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P., P.zd, P.3d
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o
Statutory compilations: Cite to Nev. REv. STAT., if therein
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D
<year, Nev. Legis, Serv.
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no.>
Administrative compilation
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Supreme Court (N.H.): Cite to A., A.zd, or A.3d, if therein
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Statutory compilations: Cite to N.H. Rev. Srar. AHl. (published by West),
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> New Hampshire Legislative Service (West)
<year) N.H. Laws ,page no.>
<year) N.H. Legis. Serv.
<page no.>
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(l,exisNexis)
<year)-(pamph. no., N.H.
Rev. Stat. Ann. Adv.
Legis. Serv. (page no.)
(LexisNexis)
Administrative compilations: Cite to N.H. Coor AomtH.
,
New Hampshire Code of Administrative
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Ar.rn.
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R.
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ne.' (,year')
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name as abbreviated
in Rutes' .rule
nq.' (lexisNexis <year>)
Administrative registers: Citc to N.H. Rulemaking Reg., if thcrein
.
New Hampshire Rulemaking Registcr
.
New Hampshirc (iovernment Register
(LexisNexis)
<vol. no.) N.H. Rulemaking
Reg. .page no.' (,month
day, year')
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<page no.> (LexisNexis
<month Yearr)
NewJersey (NJ.)
hnp ://www. jr.r clicia ry. statc. nj. Lls
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Supreme Court (N.1.), previously Court of Errors and Appeals (N.J.): Cite
to A., A.zd, or A.3d, if therein
Iti85-clate
A., A.zd, A.3d
o NewJersey Reports
194tt-date
N.J.
,
.
NewJersey Law Reports
1790-1948
N.l.L.
NewJersey Equity Rcports
l
'
NewJersey Miscellaneous
Reports
1923-1918
e
Atlantic Reporter
815- l 948
N.j. Eq.
N.J. Misc.
Superior Court (N.J. Super. Ct. App. Div., N.J. Super. Ct. Ch. Div., N.J.
Super. Ct. Law Div.), previously Court of Chancery (N.J' Ch.), Supreme
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:
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A., A.zd, A.3d
1948-date
N.l. 5uper.
u NewJersey Law Reports
7790-t94t)
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N.J. Eq.
t
192J-1948
N.J. Misc.
Atlantic Reporter
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Reports
New Jersey Miscellaneous
Reports
County Court (c.g., Essex County Ct.) and other lower courts: Cite to A.zd,
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Tax Court (N.1. Tax Ct.): Cite to
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" NewJerseyTax(i)urtReports 1979-date
N.l. Tax
o
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Statutory compilations: Cite to N.J. Srar. Anr., if therein.
N.,. SrAr. Arr,r. 5 x:x (West
> NewJersey Statutes Annotated (West)
(year,
> NewJersey Revised Statutes (2013)
N.J. REv.
Srnr. $ x:x (,year,)
Session laws: Cite to N.J. Laws, if therein.
>
<year) N.j. Laws ,page no.r
Iaws of NewJersey
> NewJersey Session
law
(year) N.J. Sess. Law Serv.
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(West)
Administrative compilation
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Administrative register
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<vol. no,> N.J, Reg, <page
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Administrative report
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Jersey
Administrative
1979-date
N.J.
Admin., N.J. Admin. zd
Reports
N;; M&;; (n.il.i
http ://www. nmcourts. gov
http ://www. nmonesource. com,/nmnxtadmin/nmpublic. aspx
Public domain citation forrnaft New Mexico has adopted
citation format for cases effectiveJuly l,2Ol3. The format is:
a
public domain
)
Atlixco Coa[. v. Maggiore, 1998-NMCA-r34, 125 N.M. 786,965 P.2d
370.
)
Atlixco Coal. v. Maggiore, 1998-NMCA-134,11!4,125 N.M. 796, 965
P.zd 37o.
For additional information, consult New Mexico Supreme Court Rule 23-l 12
(effective June 4, 2004) and New Mexico Supreme Court Order No. 13€30G
013 (May 13,20lr.
Supreme Court (N.M.): Cite to P., P.zd, or P.3d, if therein.
> Pacific Reporter
> New
Mexico Reports
1883-date
1852-2012
P., P.zd, P.3d
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Court of Appeals (N.M. Ct. App.): Cite to P.zd or P.3d, if therein.
> Pacific Reporter
r967-date
P.zd, P.3d
>
1967-2012
N.M.
NewMexicoReports
Statutory compilations: Cite to N.M. Srnr. AHt., if therein.
>
New Mexico Statut€s Annotated 1978
(Conway
Greene)
> West's New
N.M. Srnr. Aun. $ x-x-x
(.yearr)
Mexico Statutes Annotated
N.M. Srnr. ArH. 5 x-x-x
(West,yearr)
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'l.l
N.M. Srnr. Arur. $ x-x-x
(LexisNexis ,year')
Session laws: Cite to N.M. Laws, if therein.
" Laws of the State of New Mexico
(year> N.M. Laws,page no.,
,
,year, N.M. Adv. Legis.
New MexicoAdvance Legislative Service
(Conway Green)
=
Serv. ,page no.'
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N(est's New Mexico Legislative Service
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Administrative compilation
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N.M. Cooe R. $ x.x.x.x
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Administrative register
,
<Vol.
New Mexico Regist€r
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no.' (,month day, year')
New York (N.Y.)
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http :/,/assembly. state. ny. us/leg,/
Court of Appeals (N.Y.) after ltt47: Cite to N.E., N.E.zd, or N.E.3d, if therein
=
North Eastem Reporter
l8tl5-datc
1847-date
- west's New York Supplement 1956-datc
= New
York Reports
N.E., N.E.zd, N.E.3d
N.Y., N.Y.zd
N.Y.S.zd
(The first series of N.Y. is reprinted in N.Y.S. and N.Y.S.zd without separate
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Court for the Correction of Errors (N.Y.) and Supreme Court of
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. Lockwood's Revemed
'
Cases
Denio's Reports
1799-1847
l
845-
18411
Lock. Rev. Cas.
Denio
" Hill and Denio Supplement
1842-1844
Hilt & Den.
" Hill's Repofts
1841-1844
Hitt
'
1831-1853
Edm. Sel. Cas.
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1809
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1828-
(Lalor)
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Edmond's Select Cases
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Cain€s'Reports
* Caines'Cases
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,
Coleman's Cases
1807-l85I
l84l
Ant. N.P. Cas.
Wend.
1823-1829
Cow.
1806-1821
lohns.
1803- 1805
Cai.
1796-1805
Cai. Cas.
t794-1805
Cole. & Cai. Cas.
1799-r80)
lohns. Cas.
t79t - I 800
Cole. Cas.
t
Urrited States Jtuisdictions
Court ofChancery (N.Y. Ch.) (righest state court ofequity before 1848): Cite
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Reports
> Barbour's Chancery Reports
> Edwards' Chancery
l83l-1850
1845-1848
Barb. Ch.
Reports
1843-1847
Sand. Ch.
> Saratoga Chancery
Sentinel
Reports
> Clarke's Chancery R€ports
184l-1847
Sarat. Ch. Sent.
> Paige's Chancery
1828-1845
Paige Ch.
l8l9-1841
cl. ch.
> Sandford's Chancery
) Hoffman s Chancery Reports l8J9-1840
>Hopkins'ChanceryReports 1823-1825
> Lansing's Chancery
Repofts
o
I
Hoff. Ch.
Hopk. Ch.
1824-1826
Lans. Ch.
>Johnson'sChanceryReports
1814-1823
>NewYorkChanceryReports
1814-1847
Johns. Ch.
N.Y. Ch. Ann.
a
Annotated
Supreme Court, Appellate Division (N.Y. App. Div.), previously Supreme
Court, General Term (N.Y. Gen. Term): Cite to N.Y.S. or N.Y.S.zd, if therein.
> \ttrest's New
> Appellate
York
Supplement
Division Reports
> Supreme Court Reports
> Iansing's Reports
> Barbour's Supreme Court
1888-date N.Y.S., N.Y.S,zd
1896-date A.D., A.D.zd, A.D.3d
r814-1896 N.Y. Sup. Ct.
1869-1873
1847-1877
Lans.
Barb.
Reports
Other lower courts (e.9., N.Y. App. Term, N.Y. Sup. Ct., N.Y. Ct. Cl., N.Y.
Civ. Ct., N.Y. Crim. Ct., N.Y, Fam. Ct.): Cite to N.Y.S. or N.Y.S.zd, if therein.
>
west's New York
Supplement
> New York Miscellaneous Reports
1888-date
1892-date
N.Y.S., N.Y.S.zd
Misc., Misc. zd
Other lower courts before 1888: Cite to one of the following reporters.
1876-1894
>
Abbott's New
>
Abbott's Practice Reports
I8t4-r875
Abb. N. Cas.
Abb. Pr., Abb. Pr. (n.s.)
> Howard's Practic€ Reports
1844-1886
How. Pr., How. Pr. (n.s.)
Cases
Statutory compilations: Cite to one of the following sources, if therein.
> McKinney's Consolidated Laws of
N.Y. ,susjscr> Lnw 5 x
New York Annotated (lfesD
(McKinney ,year,)
> New
York Consolidated Laws
Service @exisNexis)
> New
York Consolidated laws Unannotated
(LexisNexis)
N.Y, <sueJEcr) Lew 5 x
(Consol..yearr)
N.Y.
,suelecr' Llw
ABAND. PRoP.
'
Agncult ural Conservation
Aenrc. Consenv.
>
Agnculture and Markets
AGRrc. & MKTs.
>
Alcoholic Beverage Control
ALco. BEV. CoNT.
> Alternative County
5x
(LexisNexis ,year,)
> Abandoned Property
Govemment
Alr, Courrv Gov'r
> Arts and Cultural Affairs
ARrs & Culr. Arr.
> Banking
Blrrrre
> Benevolent Orders
Brr.
> Business Corporation
Bus. CoRP.
Ono.
t
I
Edw. Ch.
I
t
t
I
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o
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lririr,.lsf h{lre*s
.}mn i
utiir'lt
r
Canal
Cnnnl
'
Civil Practice Law and Rules
N.Y. C.P.L.R. <rule no,)
(McKtnuev .year,)
or:
N.Y. C.P.L.R, <rule no.)
(Cor,lsot-. ,year,)
.
Civil Rights
Rtcrrs
Ctv.
" Civil Service
" Commerce
" Cooperative Corporations
Crv.5env.
F
Connecr.
Correction
Cotvt.
Coop. Conp.
* Countl
Counrv
o Criminal Procedure
Cnrm. Pnoc.
r Debtor ancl Creditor
DEBr. & CRED.
e Domestic Relations
Doru. Rel.
"
Economic Development
EcoN. DEV.
" Education
n Elder
Eouc.
6 Election
ELEc.
.
Ervr.
Eminent Domain Procetlure
Eloen
Dom. Pnoc.
" Employers'tiabiliry
EwtpL'ns Ltne.
h Energy
Eu
n Environmental Conservation
Ervrl. Consenv.
!
Esr. Powens & TRUsrs
Estates, Powers and Tnrsts
e
nev
Exec.
F Executive
s Financial Services
Frn. Senv.
"
General Associations
GrH. Ass'Hs
"
r
General Business
Gen. Bus.
General City
Geru. CrrY
,
General (i)nstruction
GEt't. Corusrn.
,
General Municipal
Grn. Mutt.
"
Gencral Obligations
GeN. OeLtc.
'
Highway
HrcH.
.
Insurance
* Indian
INDIAN
ft
I
Ns.
JUD.
" Judiciary
Judiciary (lourt Acts
luo. Cr. Acrs
* Labor
LAB.
-
LEGrs.
Legislative
F Lien
Lr eru
F
Limited Liability Company
r
Local Finance
"
Mental Hygiene
Lro. Lree. Co.
Loclt- Ftu.
Msrurel Hve.
F
Military
Mrr-.
'
Multiple Dwelling
- Multiple
'
Residence
Municipal Home Rule and Statute of Local
Governments
Mulr. Dwru.
MULT. REsrD.
Mur.r. Home Rule
l.Jnited Stntes J uristlictions
> Navigation
NAV.
> Not-for-Profrt Corporation
Nor-ron-Pnonr CoRP.
> Optional County Govemment
Opr. Crv. Gov'r
Prnrs Rrc. & Hrsr.
> Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation
Pnesenv.
> Partnership
P'sHtp
> Penal
PENAL
> Personal Prop€rty
PERs. PRoP.
> Private Housing Finance
Pnrv. Hous. Frr.
> Public Authorities
PUB. AUTH.
> Public Buildings
Pue. BLoes.
> Public Health
PUB. HEALTH
> Public Housing
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Pue. Orr.
> Public Service
Pua.Senv.
> Racing, Pari-Mutuel Wagering and Breeding
RAc. PARI-MUT. WAG. &
BREED.
> Railroad
'
R.R.
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> Red Property
REAr PRoP.
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Reel Pnop. Acrs.
Real Pnop. Tlx
> Religious Corpofations
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> Second Class Cities
Sgcot'ro
> Social Services
Soc.5env.
> Soil and Water Conservation Districts
Sorr & WArER Corsenv.
Drsr.
Cnss Crrres
> State
STATE
> State Administrative Procedure Act
A.P.A.
> State Finance
Srarr Frr.
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Srnre Pnrrr. & PuB. Docs.
> State Technology
SrATE TECH.
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Srnr.
> Surrogate's Court Procedure Act
Sunn. Cr. PRoc. Acr
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Tnx
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Towr
>
Tnarsp.
Transportation
> Transportation Corporations
TnnHsp. Conp.
> Unconsolidated
UNcoNsot.
> Uniform Commercial Code
u.c.c.
> Vehicle and
VEH. & TRAT.
Traffic
> Village
Vrlue
> Volunteer Ambu.lance rVorkers'
VoL. AMBUL. WoarEns'
Benefit
e
Ber,
>
Volunteer Firefighters' Benefit
Vol.
>
Workers' Compensation
WonxEns'Comp.
Frne.
Ber.
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I ili;',t
Uncompiled lawsr Cite to one of the following sources, if therein. For the
user's convenience, the McKinney's volume in which the law appears is
indicated parenthetically below.
s McKinney's Consolidated Laws
N.Y..Lrw, 5 x (McKinney
* Consolidated
N.Y.,Lnw>5x(Consot.
,year')
Laws Service
<Year'J
" New York Consolidated
N.Y.,Lnw, 5 x (LexisNexis
,year,)
I-aws Unannotated
n New York City Civil Court Act (29A)
Crrv Crv. Cr. Acr
;
Crrv Cnrn. Cr. Acr
New York City Criminal Court Act (294)
o Code of (lriminal Procedure (1 1A)
Cooe Cntm. Pnoc.
' Court of Claims Act (29A)
. Family Court Act (29A)
Cr.
w
CL.
Acr
Fem. Cr. Acr
UNTFoRM Crrv Cr.
Uniform City Court Act (29A)
Acr
" Uniform District Court Act (294)
UHrronm Dtsr. Cr. Acr
n Uniform Justice Court Act (29A)
Unrronm lusr. Cr. Acr
Session laws: Cite to official N.Y. Laws, if therein; otherwise, cite to N'Y'
Sess. Laws, if therein.
,year' N.Y. Laws ,page no.'
r Laws of New York
-
McKinney's Session Laws
of
New York
(West)
,year, N.Y. SeSS. LawS
<page no.>
(McKinney)
* Ncw York Consolidated laws Service
<year>-<pamPh. no.' N.Y.
Consol. Laws Adv.
Legis. Serv. <page no.>
Advance Legislative Service (LexisNexis)
(LexisNexis)
Administrative compilation
" Official Compilation of Codes,
N.Y. Cotvtp. Cooes R. &
Rules
& Regulations of the State of New York ovest)
Administrative register
- New York State Register
Rees.
tit. x, $ x (year,)
.vo[. no.' N.Y. Reg. ,page
no.' (.month day, year')
North Carolina (N.C.)
http://www.nccourts.org
http ://www. ncleg. net/gascripts,/sta
tu
tes/statutes. asp
Supreme Court (N.C.): Cite to S.E. or S.E.zd, if therein.
,
South Eastern Reporter
1887-date
" North Carolina Reports
, 63 N.c. to date
S.E., S.E.zd
1868-date
N.C.
- Phillips'Equity
- Phillips'taw
1866- 1868
6z N.C. (Phit. Eq.)
1866-1868
6r N.C. (Phit.)
,
1863-1864
6o N.C. (Win.)
1853- 1863
e
Winston
" Jones' Equity (54-59)
' Jones' Law (46-53)
1853-1862
.g., 54 N.C. (r Jones Eq.)
e.g., 46 N.C. (r Jones)
Uilited States Jurisdictions
> Busbee's Equity
r8t2-1853
ql
> Busbee's Law
1852-1853
++ N.C. (Busb.)
1840-1852
1834-1839
e.9.,36 N.C. (r lred. Eq.)
e.9., 23 N.C. (r lred.)
€.g., 21 N.C. (r Dev. & Bat.
r834-1839
e.9., 20 N.C.
> Iredell's Equity
> Iredell's
)
(36-43)
law (23-35)
1840-1852
Devereux & Battle's Equity
(21-22)
Eq')
> Devereux & Battl€'s Law
(r8-20)
(l
& 4 Dev. &
Bat.)
(16-17)
Iaw (12-15)
> Hawks (8-11)
> Murphey (5-7)
> Devereux's Equiry
1826-1834
> Devereux's
1826-1834
> Taylor's
N.C. (Busb. Eq.)
North Carolina Term
1820-1826
(r Dev. Eg.)
(r Dev.)
e.g.,8 N.C. (r Hawks)
e.9., 16 N.C.
e.g.,
rz
N.C.
r804-r813
r8l8-1819
e.g., 5 N.C. (r Mur.)
1816-1818
+ N.C. Oaylor)
r8r3-r816
1800-1804
4 N.C. (Car. L. Rep.)
e.g., z N.C. (r Hayw.)
r N.C. (Cam. & Nor.)
r798-1802
r778-r797
r
r
Repons
> Carolina Law Repository
> Haywood
(2-3)
1789-1806
> Conference by Cameron
&
Norwood
>
Taylor
>
Martin
N.C. (Tay.)
N.C. (Mart.)
Court of Appeals (N.C. Ct. App.): Cite to S.E.zd, if therein.
> South Eastern Reporter
> North Carolina Court
ofAppeals
1968-date
1968-date
S.E.zd
N.C. App.
Reports
Statutory compilations: Cite to N.C. GEN. SrAT. (published by LexisNexis),
if therein.
> General Statutes of North Carolina OrxisNexis)
N.C. Grn.
Srer. 5 x-x
(Year')
> West's
North Carolina General Statutes
Grr. Srar.
(West,year,)
N.C.
Annotated
Arr.
$ x-x
Session laws: Cite to N.C. Sess. Laws. if therein.
> Session laws of North Carolina
<year> N.C.Sess. Laws
> North Carolina <year> Advance Legislative
S€rvice (IrxisNexis)
,yearr-,pamph. no.> N.C,
r
,year, N.C. Legis. Serv.
,page no., (West)
<page no.)
Nonh Carolina kgislative Service (West)
Adv. Legis. Serv. <page
no., (LexisNexis)
Administrative compilation
> Nonh Carolina Administrative Code (\Ufest)
<tit. no,> N,C, ADMTN.
COoe,rule n9.' (year,)
Administrative register
> North Carolina Register (l.rxisNexis)
,vo[. no., N.C. Reg. <page
no., (,month day, year')
a
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North Dakota (N.D.)
http ://www. nclcou rts. g()v
hnp://www.legis.ncl. gov
Public Domain Citation Format: North Dakota has adopted a public domain
citation format for cases after Dccember 31,l()()6. The format is:
*
Kautzman v. Kautzman, zoo3 ND r4o,668 N.W.zd 59.
s
Kautzman v. Kautzman, zoo3 ND t4o,1'9,558 N.W.zd Sg,61.
For additional information, consult North Dakota Rule s of Court, Rule 1 1.6.
Supreme Court (N.D.): Citc to N.W. or N.W.zd, if thcrein.
1890-date
1n90-1953
* North Westem Reporter
!
North Dakota Reports
N.W., N.W.zd
N.D.
Suprerne Court of Dakota (Dakota): Citc to N.W., if therein.
'
Nofth western Reporter
"
Dakota Reports
IU79-18ri9
1tt67-l8tt9
N.W.
Dakota
Court of Appeals of North Dakota (N.D. Ct. App.): Cite to N.W.zd.
l9tt7-date N.W.zd
" North West€rn Reporter
Statutory cornpilations: Cite to N.D. CEnr. Cooe, if therein
.
North Dakota Century Code (LexisNexis)
N.D. CeHr. Cooe $ x-x-x
(<year>)
(lode Annotated
=. West's North Dakota Century
N.D. CeHr. Cooe AruH. 5
x-x-x (West,year')
Session laws: Cite to N.D. Laws, if therein.
> Laws of North Dakota
? North Dakota Century Code <year> Advance
Legislative Service (LexisNexis)
,year, N.D. Laws ,page no.,
,year,-,pamph. no.,
N.D. Cent. Code Adv.
Legis. Serv. <page no.'
(LexisNexis)
!
West's Nofth Dakota Legislative Service
,yean N.D. Legis. Serv.
,page no., (West)
Administrative compilation
F
North Dakota Administrative Codc
N.D. ADMTN. Cooe ,rute
no., (,year,)
Ohio (Ohio)
http ://www. sconet.state.
()h. Lls
ht tp:,/, t'odcs.oh io. gov,/ort
Public Domain Citation Format: Ohio has adopted a public domain citation
format for cases decided after April 30, 2002. The format is:
*
State v. Lynch, 98 Ohio St. 3d 5r4, 2oo3-Ohio-2284,781 N.E.zd
1185.
tlnited Sfatcs J uri*dictions
)
State v. Lynch,98 Ohio St.3d 5r4, zoo3'Ohio-2284,787 N.E.zd
u85, at tl3.
For additional information, consult the Suprenxe Court of Ohio Writing
Manual (2ded.20lT.
Supreme Court (Ohio): Cite to N.E., N.E.zd, or N.E.3d, if therein.
>
North Eastem Reporter
1885-dat€
N.E., N.E.zd, N.E.3d
>
ohio state Reports
1852-d^te
Ohio St., Ohio St. zd, Ohio
>
Ohio Reports
1821-l8tl
Ohio
> Vilcox's Condensed Reports
r u(rright
1821-1831
Wilc. Cond. Rep.
r83r-r834
Wright
>
1809-1899
Ohio Unrep. Cas.
ld
5t.
Ohio Unreported
Cases
Court of Appeds (Ohio Ct. App.): Cite to N.E., N.E.zd, or N.E.3d, if therein.
> Ohio Appellate Reports
1926-date
19r3-date
>
Ohio Circuit Court Reports
r9r4-r917
>
Ohio Courts of Appeals Reports
1916-1922
>
North Eastem Reporter
N.E., N.E.zd, N.E.3d
Ohio App., Ohio App. zd,
Ohio App. 3d
Ohio C.C.
Ohio Ct. App.
Other law courts: Cite to N.E., N.E.zd, or N.E.3d, if therein; otherwise, cite
to another reporter in the following order of preference.
r926-date
Reports l%2-2012
I
North Eastern Reporter
N.E., N.E.zd, N.E.3d
>
ohio Miscellaneous
Ohio Misc., Ohio Misc. zd
>
Ohio Bar Reports
Ohio Opinions
1982-1987
1934-1982
Ohio B.
F
>
Ohio Law Abstract
1922-1954
Ohio Law Abs.
Ohio Op., Ohio Op. zd, Ohio
op.ld
>
Ohio Nisi Prius Reports
1903-1934
>
Ohio Decisions
1894-r92r
Ohio N.P., Ohio N.P. (n.s.)
Ohio Dec.
>
Ohio Decisions, Reprint
1840-1893
Ohio Dec. Reprint
>
Ohio Circuit Decisions
1885-1923
Ohio Cir. Dec.
>
Ohio Circuit Court Decisions
r90r-1923
e.g.,t3-23 Ohio C.C. Dec.
r Ohio Circuit
1885-1901
Ohio C.C.
>
Ohio Law Bulletin
r876-192r
>
Ohio Circuit Court Reports,
New Series
1903-1917
Ohio L. Butl.
Ohio C.C. (n.s.)
>
Ohio Law Reporter
Court Reports
1903-1934
Ohio L.R.
> Tappen's Reports
l8l6-1819
Tapp. Rep.
> Anderson's
1990
Ohio App. Unrep.
Unreported Ohio
Appellate Cases
Statutory compilations: Cite to one of the following codes.
> Page's
Ohio Revised Code Annotated
(LexisNexis)
> Baldwin's
(west)
Ohio Revised Code Annotated
OHro REV. Cooe AHr. 5 x.x
(LexisNexis .year,)
OHro REv. Cooe AHn. 5 x.x
(West,year)
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o
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Session laws: Cite to Ohio Laws, if therein.
r
State of Ohio: Legislative Acts Passed and Joint
,year, Ohio Laws .page no.,
Resolutions Adopted
'
Page's Ohio Legislative Bulletin (LexisNexis)
,year' Ohio Legis. Butt.
<page no.
" Baldwin's Ohio Legislative
Service Annotated
OVest)
>
(LexisNexis)
,year, Ohio Legis. Serv.
Ann. ,page 6s., (West)
Administrative compilation
* Baldwin's Ohio Administrative Code Cwest)
Onro AornrH. CooE .rute
n6., (,ygarr)
Administrative and executive registers: Cite to one of the following registers.
n Baldwin's Ohio Monthly
Record
r
C)hio Government
b
ohio Department Reports
Reports
1977-date
Ohio Monthty Rec. <page
no.> (<month year))
1965-lL)76
Ohio Gov't <page no.>
(.month day, year)
19t4-1964
Ohio Dep't <page no.'
(,month day, year,)
Oklahoma (Okla.)
http://www.oscn.net
hnp ://www. oklegislature. govlosstatuestitle.html
Public domain citation format: Oklahoma has adopted a public domain
citation format for cases after May l,lL)97. The format is:
F Herbertv.
Okla. Christian Coa[., 1999 OK9o,99zP.zd3zz.
cr Herbertv. Okta. Christian Coal.,t999 OKgo, fl 2,992P.2d322,
325.
For additional information, consult Oklahoma Supreme Court Rule 1.200(e) and
Oklahoma Criminal Appeals Rule 3.5(c).
Supreme Court (Okla.): Cite to P., P.zd, or P.3d, if therein.
Itt90-date
Iu90-1953
'Pacilic Reporter
r
Oklahoma Repons
P., P.zd, P.3d
Okta.
Court of Appeals of Indian Territory(lndian Terr.): Cite to S'W., if therein
'
.
South Wcst€m Reporter
Indian Territory Repofts
1896-1907
1896-1907
S.W.
Indian Terr.
Court of Criminal Appeals (Okla. Crim. App.;, before 1959 Crirninal Court
of Appeals (Okla. Crim. App.): Cite to P., P.zd, or P.3d, if therein.
'
'
Pacilic Reporter
Oklahoma Criminal
1908-date
Reports l90ti-1953
P., P.zd, P.3d
Okta. Crim.
Court of Civil Appeals (Okla. Civ. App.): Cite to P.zd or P.3d.
,
Pacilic Reporter
l97l-dare
P.zd, P.3d
Statutory compilations: Cite to OKLA. Sur., if therein
o
United States Jurisdictions
)
Oru. Srer. tit. x, $ x
Oklahoma Statutes (West)
(.year')
> Oklahoma Statutes Annotated (West)
Oxu. Srnr. Anr. tit. x,
5x
(West,year')
Session lawsl Cite to Okla. Sess. Laws, if therein.
> Oklahoma Session
(West)
laws
Oklahoma Session Law Service Of/est)
.yean Okla. Sess. Laws
<page no')
<year' Okla. Sess. Law Serv.
<page no., (West)
Administrative cornpilation
> Oklahoma
Oru.
Administrative Code
Aotrittr. Cooe $ x:x-
x-x (,year')
Administrative registers: Cite to one of the following
> Oklahoma Register
sources.
1983-date
<vol. no.) Okla. Reg. <page
1962-1983
<vol. no,) Okla. Gaz. ,page
no., (,month day, year')
l
Oklahoma Gazette
no.> (<month day, year,)
http ://www. courts.oregon. govlOJD
http://www.oregonlegislature.govlbills laws/Pages
Supreme Court (Or.): Cite to P., P.zd, or P.3d, if therein.
1883-date
1853-date
> Pacific Reporter
> Oregon Reports
P., P.zd, P.3d
Or.
Court of Appeals (Or. Ct. App.): Cite to P.zd or P.3d, if therein.
> Pacifrc Reporter
> Oregon Reports, Court
of
r969-date
r969-drte
P.zd, P.3d
Or. App.
Appeals
Tax Court (Or. T.C.): Cite to Or. Tax.
> Oregon Tax
Reports
1962-drte
Or. Tax
Statutory compilations: Cite to On. Rrv. Srrr., if therein.
> Oregon Revised Statutes
r
West's Oregon Revised Statutes Annotated
On. Rev. Srar. 5 x.x (,year')
On. Rrv. Srar. AHr,r. S x.x
(West ,year)
Session laws: Cite to Or, Laws, if therein. When citing statutes repealed during
or after 1953, indicate parenthetically the former Or. Rev. Stat. sections.
> Oregon Laws and Resolutions
.yean Or. Laws <page no.,
,year> Or. Laws Spec,
sess. ,page no.,
<year> Or. Laws Adv. Sh.
:
Vest's Oregon Legislative Service
No. x, ,page no.>
.yean Or. Legis. Serv.
.page no.' (West)
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Administrative compilation
On. Aot'rttt't. R., rule
" Oregon Administrative Rules
ns.' (,year')
Administrative register
.
(vo[. no.> Or. Bull. ,page
no., (,month day, year,)
Orecon Bulletin
Pennsylvania (Pa.)
https :,/u jsportal. pacourts. us/
http,//www.
legis. state. pa. us/cfckrcs/legis/l
i/public
Supreme Court (Pa.): Cite to A., A.zd, or A.3d, if therein.
- Atlantic Reporter
u Pennsylvania state
.
Monaghan
,
Sadler
Reports
1885-tl:rte A., A.zd,
1845-date Pa.
1888-1890 Monag.
1885-1889 Sadter
1885
A.3d
Walk.
" Walker
1855-
i
1881-1884
Pennyp.
, Grint
l8l4-1863
Grant
" watts and Scrgeant
184r-1845
Watts & Serg.
Pennypacker
l84l
,
,
,
Wharton
1835-
Watts
1832,-1840
Rawlc
'
,
Penrose and Watts
1828-1835 Rawle
1829-1832 Pen. & W.
1814-1828 Serg. & Rawle
1799-1814 Binn.
Sergeant and Rawlc
h Binncy
r
Yeates
"
Addison
,
Dallas
'
Alden
l79l-1808
r19r-r799
Whart.
Watts
Yeates
Add.
1754-1806 Dalt.
1754-1814 Ald.
Superior Court (Pa. Super. Ct.): Cite to A., A.zd, or A.3d, if therein. For
cases dccided
after December 31, 1998, use the following public domain
citation format:
tr
Rapagnani v. Judas Co.,t999 PA Super zo3.
F
Atlantic Reporter
'
Pennsylvania Superior
Reports
l9J I -dare
Court 1895-1997
A., A.zd, A.3d
Pa. Super.
Commonwealth Court (Pa. Commw. Ct.): Cite to A.zd or A.3d, if thercin.
" Atlantic Reporter
r
Pennsylvania Commonwealth
Court Reports
r97o-<Jtre A.zd, A.3d
1970-1994 Pa. Commw.
Other lower courts: Cite to Pa. D. & C., Pa. D. & C.zd, Pa. D. & C'3d, Pa.
D. & C.+th, or Pa. D. & C.5th, if thcrein. Not all lower court decisions
are reproduced in the reporters listed below, and it nray be necessary, on
occasion, to cite to the legal reporter for an individual county, if availablc. For
a comprehcnsive list of Pennsylvania county collrt reports, consult chaptef
United litates Jurisdictions
seven, appendix four, Fnam Y. I,ru rr ar., PrNnsvrvewn l"EcAI RrsrmcH
(2008).
> Pennsylvania District and County
l9l8-date
Pa. D. & C., Pa. D. & C.zd,
Pa. D. & C.3d, Pa. D. &
C.4th, Pa. D. & C.5th
1892-r92r
Pa. D.
r870-r92r
Pa. C.
Reports
> Pennsylvania
District Reports
> Pennsylvania County Court
llmnnoor
Reports
Statutory compilations: Cite to Pl. CoHs. Srlr. (79 titles), if therein. These
publications should not be confused with Pa. Cooe, which is a code of regula'
tions, not of legislation.
> Pennsfvania Consolidated Statutes
> Purdon's Pennsylvania Statutes and Consolidated
Statutes Annotated ($/est)
<tit. no.' PA. CoNs. Srnr. $
x (yearr)
(tit. no.) Pe. Srlr. nro
CoHs. Srer. ArH. 5 x
(West.year')
> Purdon's Pennsylvania Statutes and Consolidated
Statutes (West)
<tit, no.) Pn,
Srlr. lno
Cors. Srnr. Arr.r, 5 x
(West,year,)
Session laws: Cite to Pa. Laws. if therein.
> Iaws of Pennsylvania
> Purdon's Pennsylvania Irgislative Service
(West)
,year> Pa. Laws <page no.>
<year, Pa. Legis, Serv.
<page no., (West)
Administrative compilation
> Pennsylvania Code (Fry Communications)
<tit. no.r Pa. Coor 5 x.x
(.year';
Administrative register
> Pennsylvania Bulletin (Fry Communications)
.vol, no., Pa. Bull. <page
ne.' (month day, year,)
Rhode Island (R.I.)
https://www.courts. ri. gov
http :,/webserver. rilin. state. ri. us/Statutes
Supreme Court (R.1.): Cite to A., A.zd, or A.3d, if therein.
>
Atlantic
Reporter
Reports
1885-date
1828-1980
> Rhode Island
A., A.zd, A.3d
R.l.
Statutory compilations: Cite to R.l. Get. Laws, if therein.
> General Laws of Rhode Island
> rJi'est's General
(LexisNexis)
<tit, no.> R.l. Gen. Lnws 5
x-x-x (Year')
laws of Rhode Island Annotated (tit. no., R.l. GEN. LAws
Atr,r. 5 x-x-x (West.yearr)
Session laws: Cite to R.l. Pub. Laws, if therein.
> Public laws ofRhode Island and
Plantations
Providence
<year, R.l. Pub. Laws {page
no.)
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.
Acts and Resolves of Rhodc Island and
Providence Plantations
<year> R.l. Acts
Rhode Island Advance Legishtive Service
(LexisNexis)
,year,-,pamph. no., R.l.
West's Rhode Island Advancc Legislativc Service
<year> R.l. Adv. Legis. Serv.
(page
& Resolves
nO.>
Adv. Legis. Serv. ,page
no.' (LexisNexis)
,page no.' (West)
Administrative compilation
,
no.>-<ch. no.' R.l. Cooe
$ x (LexisNexis ,year>)
Code ofRhode Island Rules (LexisNexis)
Administrative register
'
Rhode Island Government Register (LexisNexis)
,iss. no., R.l. Gov't Reg.
<page no.> (LexisNexis
<month Year,)
South Carolina (S.C.)
http://www. jr-rclicial.state.sc. r-rs
hnp ://www. scstatelx)use. g<>v/c<>cle,/statrnast. php
Supreme Court after 1868 (S.C.): Cite to 5.E. or S.E.zd, if thercin.
- South Eastem Reporter
l8tt7-date S.E.,5.E.zd
.
186{i-date
South Carolina Reports
5.C.
Court of Appeals (5.C. Ct. App.): Citc to S.E.zd. if
the re in.
-
South Eastem Reporter
l9ti3-date
S.E.zd
'
South Carolina Reports
1983-datc
S.C.
Courts of law before 1868: Citc t<l S.C.L.
South Crrolina Law Reports
' tuchardson (J7-4,
' Strobhart (32-a6)
. Richardson (30-31)
. Speers (28-2D
' McMullan (26-27)
,Cheves
,Rice
" Dudley
,' Riley
Hill (19-21)
' Bailey (17-lti)
'Harper
McCord (12-15)
.NottandMcCord(10-ll)
. Mill ((ionstitutional)
(6-7)
Brevard (3-1)
. Bav (l-2)
Treadwav
(8-9)
ltt50-lU6u
lu46-1850
c.g., 37 5.C.1. (f Rich.)
e.g., 32 5.C.1. (r Strob.)
(t
1841-ltl46
e.g., 3o S.C.L.
ltl42-11144
e.g., z8 S.C.L. (r Speers)
1840-1t142
c.9., 26 5.C.1. (r McMut.)
18J9-lti40
l|Stt-1839
zS S.C.L. (Chev.)
lU37-1818
zl
l{136-ltt37
1833-1U37
zz S.C.L. (Rit.)
e.g., r9 S.C.L. (r Hilt)
lU28-1832
e
ltl23-1824
1tt21-l|2u
16 S.C.L. (Harp.)
e.9., 12 5.C.1. (r McCord)
1817-1820
e.g., 10 5.C.1. (1 Nott & McC.)
1til7-llll8
1tt12-lttl6
e.e.,8 S.C.L. (t Milt)
e .g., 5 S.C.L. (r Tread.)
1793-1u16
e.g., 3 S.C.L.
1783-ltl04
e.g., r S.C.L. (r Bay)
Rich.)
zzr S.C.L. (Rice)
S.C.L. (Dud.)
.g., 17 S.C.L.
(t Bail.)
(r Brev.)
U
o
nitcd States Jurisdictiorrs
t
Courts of equity before 1868: Cite to S.C. Eq.
> South Carolina Equity Repofts
(24-35)
1850-1868
e.g., z4 S.C. Eq.
>stfobharr'sEquifi(20-2T
1846-1850
e.g., 20 S.C. Eq. (r Strob.
Eq.)
1844-1846
e.g.,
r
Richardson's Eqtity
> Richardson's Equity
(18-19)
Speers'Equity
> McMullan's Equity
> Cheves'Equity
> Rice's Equity
> Dudley's Equity
> Riley's Chancery
>
1842-1844
1840-1842
1839-1840
1838-1839
1837-1838
(r
Rich. Eq.)
r8 S.C. Eq. (r Rich. Eq.)
r7 S.C. Eq. (Speers Eq.)
16 S.C. Eq. (McMul. Eq.)
r5 S.C. Eq. (Chev. Eq.)
r4 S.C. Eq. (Rice Eq.)
r3 S.C. Eq. (Dud. Eq.)
1836-1837
rz S.C. Eq. (Ril. Eq.)
>Hill'sChancery(10-ll)
1833-1837
e.g., ro 5.C. Eq. (r Hitl Eq.)
> Richardson's
Cases
Equity
> McCord's Chancery (6-7)
183l-1832
> Bailey's
1830-1831
9 5.C. Eq. (Rich. Cas.)
8 S.C. Eq. (Bail. Eq.)
> Harper's
Equity
l Desaussure's
Equity
(1-4)
1825-1827
e.g., 6 S.C. Eg. (r McCord
Eq.)
1824
5 S.C. Eq. (Harp. Eq.)
1784-1817
e
.9., 1 S.C. Eq.
t
I
I
(r Des. Eq.)
Statutory compilation
> Code of l"aws of South Carolina 1976
Annotated S.C. Cooe Ant. g x-x-x
t
(,yearr)
Session laws
> Acts
andJoint Resolutions, South Carolina
<year) S.C. Acts rpage no.,
Administrative compilation: Administrative regulations appear in volumes
1-10 of S.C. CooE ArH. This publicarion should not be confused with the
statutory compilation of the same name, which also contains volumes l-10.
> Code ofLaws ofSouth Carolina
Code of Regulations
lgT6Annotated: S.C. Cooe ANN. REGs..reg
no.) (<year))
(West)
Administrative register
> South Carolina State Register
<vol. no.) 5.C. Reg. <page
nq.) (<month day, year,)
South Dakota (S.D.)
http ://www.ujs.sd.gov
http ://www. legis. sd. govlStatutes/Codifi ed_Laws
Public domain citation format: South Dakota has adopted
a
pubtc domain
citation format for cases after December 31,1996. The format is:
D Wutf v. Senst, zoo3
)
SD
ro5, 569 N.W.zd r35.
Wulf v. Senst, 2oo3 SD ro5, 1,t4,669 N.W.zd
t3S,r4t.
For additional information, consult South Dakota Rules of Civil procedure
15-26A49.1.
Supreme Court (5.D.): Cite ro N.W. or N.W.zd, if therein.
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N.W., N.W.zd
e South l)akota Reports
s.D.
Supreme Court of Dakota (Dakota): Cite to N.W., if therein.
s North Westem Reporter
1879-1889
N.W.
r
Iti67-ltt89
Dakota
Dakota Reports
Statutory compilation
South l)akota Codified Laws (West)
'
(,year')
Session laws: Cite to S.D. Sess. Laws. if thcrein.
n Session Laws
x'
<page no.>
Administrative compilation
.
Administrative Rules of South Dakota
S,D. Aotvtu.t. R. ,rule
p9.
(,year,)
'
Administrative register
<vol. no.' S.D. Reg. .page
" South Dakota Register
no., (,month day, yearD
Tennessee (Tenn.)
http :,//www.tnc()Llrts.laov
http :,//www. lexisnexis. c<>m/hr>ttopics/tnct>cle
Supreme Court (Tenn.): Oite to 5.W., S.W.zd, or 5.W.3d, if thercin.
o Sonth Western Rcporter
.
60 Tenn. to zz5 Tenn.
" Heiskell
- Coldwell
S.W., S.W.zd, S.W.3d
1a72-r972
Tenn.
1870-1874
c.g., 48 Tenn. (r Heisk.)
e .g., 41 Tenn. (r Cotd.)
1860-r870
Head
1ti5tt- I ti60
> Sneed
1853- l 858
* Swan
l85l - l ri53
* Humphreys
rri39- 1u5I
o Meigs
1
'
838- 1 u39
e.g., 38 Tenn. (r Head)
e.g., 33 Tenn. (r Sneed)
e.g., 3r Tenn. (r Swan)
e.g., zo Tenn. (r Hum.)
19 Tenn. (Meigs)
181{l- 1837
e.g., 9 Tenn. (1 Yer.)
s Martin & Yerger
1825-r82tl
8 Tenn. (Mart. & Yer.)
n Peck
1821-1824
z Tenn. (Peck)
,
l8l6-ltrltt
e.g., 4 Tenn.
" Cooke
181 1-1814
3 Tenn. (Cooke)
s Overton
r
'
I
I
Itl8(r-datc
Tennessee Reports
|
o
o
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,year, S.D. Sess. Laws
of South Dakotr
,ch. x 5
I
I
t
S.D. Coorrreo Lnws $ x-x-x
Yerger
Haywood
79l - 1815
e.g.,
(r Hayw.)
r Tenn. (r Overt.)
Court of Appeals (Tenn. Ct. App.): Cite to S.W.zd or S.W.3d, if thcrein
"
South rvestem Reporter
r'Iennessee Appeals
Reports
l()J2-dnte
S.W.zd, 5.W.3d
1925-1971
Tenn. App.
Court of Criminal Appeals (Tenn. Crim. App.): cite to S.W.zd or S.W.3d, if
therein.
Urrited Statcs Juriscl iction.s
>
SouthVestem
Reponer
Appeals
> Tennessee Criminal
1967-date
5.W.zd,5.W.3d
1967-1971
Tenn. Crim. App.
Reports
Statutory compilations: Cite to Tetr. Cooe
Art.
(published by IrxisNexis),
if therein.
> Tennessee Code Annotated
orxisNexis)
TEHI. Cooe
Arr.
$ x-x-x
Atn.
$ x-x-x
(,yearr)
> West's Tennessee Code Annotated
TErH. Cooe
(West,year,)
Session laws: Cite to Tenn. Pub. Acts or Tenn. Priv. Acts, if therein.
> Public Acts
> Private Acts
of the State of Tennessee
of the State of Tennessee
> Tennessee Code Annotated Advance Legislative
Service
>
(rxisNexis)
Vest's Tennessee legislative Service
<year) Tenn. Pub. Acts
<Page nO.)
(year> Tenn. Priv. Acts
<page no.)
<year)-(pamph. no.> Tenn.
Code Ann. Adv. Legis.
Serv. <page no.>
(LexisNexis)
(year) Tenn. Legis. Serv.
,page no.' (West)
Adrninistrative compilation
>
Official Compilation Rules & Regulations of the
State of Tennessee
TeHr. Coanp. R. &
ReeS. ,rule ns.' (.year')
Adrninistrative register
> Tennessee
Administrative Register
<vol. no.) Tenn. Admin. Reg.
<Page no.>
(,month Year)
Texas (Tex.)
http ://www. txcourts. gov
http://www.statutes.legis.state.tx.us
Supreme Court (Iex.): Cite to S.W., S.W.zd, or 5.W.3d, if therein.
> South
Vestern Reporter
> Texas Reports
of
> Synopses
ofthe Decisions
the Supreme Court ofTexas
Arising from Restraints by
1886-date
5.W.,S.W.zd,5.W.3d
1846-1962
Tex.
1862-1865
Robards (no vot. number)
1845-1846
1840-1844
65 Tex. L. Rev. [e.g., Lamar
v. Houston (Iex. 1845),65
Tex. L. Rev.38z (Paulsen
rep. 1986)l
Dallam (no vol. number)
1957-date
Tex. Sup. Cr.
Conscript and Other Military
Authorities @obards)
> Texas
Iaw Review (containing
previously unpublished cases
from the 1845 term)
> Digest
ofthe Laws ofTexas
(Dallam's Opinions)
> Texas Supreme
CounJoumal
J.
Court of Criminal Appeals (Iex. Crim. App.), previously Courrt of Appeals
(Iex. Ct. App.): Cite to S.W., S.W.zd, or 5.W.3d, if therein.
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" Texas Criminal Repons
' Texas court ofAppeals Reports
* Condensed Reports of
Decisions in Civil Causes in
1892-date
5.W.,5.W.zd, S.W.3d
1892-1962
Tex. Crim.
1876-1892
Tex. Ct. App.
1876-1883
1883-1892
White & W.
Witlson
the Court of Appeals (V/hite &
lVillson vol. l) (Willson vols.
2-4)
Commission of Appeals (Tex. Comm'n App.): Cite to S.W. or S.W.zd, if
therein.
-
.
1886- 1892
South Vestem Reporter
Texas Reports
s.w.
1918-1941
5.W.zd
r879-1892
Tex.
19r8-1945
" Texas Unreported Cases (Posey) r879-1884
" Condensed Reports of Decisions 1879-1883
in Civil Causes in the Court
Appeals (\X/hite & Villson)
Posey
White & W.
of
Officially published opinions of the Commission of Appeals from 1879 to
1892 were adopted by thc Supreme Court and should be cited as opinions
of the Supreme Court. Opinions of the Commission of Appeals from l9l8 to
1945 have a notation from the Supreme Court that usually appears in the linal
paragraph of the opinion, e.g., "opinion adopted," "holding approved," or
"iudgment adopted." Commission opinions that were adopted by the Supreme
Court should be cited as opinions of the Supreme Court. "Holding approved"
and "iudgment adopted" opinions are cited by using "holding approved" or
"iudgm't adopted," e.g., Savage v. Cowen, 33 S.W.2d 433 (Tex. Comm'n
App. r93o, judgm't adopted).
Courts of Appeals flex. App.;, previously Courts of Civil Appeals (Tex.
Civ. App.l: Cite to S.W., 5.W.zd, or 5.W.3d, if therein.
* South Vestem Reporter
r Texas CMI Appeals Reports
1892-date
S.W., S.W.zd, S.W.3d
ltl92-1911
Tex. Civ. App.
For additional information on the history and structure of Tcxas courts and on
local citation rule s, the following sources are sugge sted: TExAs l-{'w Rll'IEv Ass'N,
THe GnErr,rsoor: Tnxes Rurrs op Fonlt (12th ed. 2010); Lvon M.V. BneNlr, Trx,ts
Lsc,rl Rlsnencu (1995); and A Rtntnnut;r Gtnot ro Tnxm l-tw,wl LEc,tr Htstonv
(Karl T. Gruben &James E. Hambleton eds., 2d ed. 1987).
Statutory compilations: Texas is nearing the completion of a recodification
of its laws. Cite to the new subiect-matter TEx. Cooe AHH', if therein;
otherwise, cite to TEx. Rev. Ctv. Srnr. Arn. or to one ofthe independent
codes contained in the seies Vernon's Texas Ciuil Statutes or Vernon's Texas
Statutes Annota.ted. Note that the indcpendent codes are not part of the ncw
subiect-matter TEx. CoDE ANN.
(west)
" Vernon's Texas Codes Annotated
Vernon's Texas Revised Civil Statutes Annotated
(west)
Tex. .SuglEcp Cooe Anru.
x (west .year,
TEx. REV. Crv. Srnr. AnH.
art. x, S x (West ,yearD
5
I
tJrrited States Jurisdictions
> Vernon's Texas Business
Tex. Bus. CoRP. AcrANN.
art. x (West (year,)
Corporation Act
Annotated (West)
>
Vemon's Texas Code of Criminal Procedure
Annotated (West)
r
l
Tex, Cooe Cnrm. Pnoc. AtH.
art, x (West (year,
lrs,
Vemon's Texas lnsufanc€ Code Annotated
(West)
Tex.
Vemon's Texas Probate Code Annotated (West)
TEx. PRoB. Cooe
CooE Arirru. art. x
(West.year,)
AtH. 5
x (West <year>)
>
Agficulture
Ae nrc,
>
Alcoholic Beverage
Arco. BEV.
Bus, & Cowr.
> Business and Commerce
> Business Organizations (effective
Jan.
l,
Crv.
> Education
EDUc.
> Election
ErEc.
> Estates
EST.
PRAC.
& REM.
> Family
Fnru.
> Finance
FrH.
> Govemment
> Health and Safety
Gov'r
Henlrx & Sarew
> Human Resources
HuM. REs.
> Insurance
lNs.
>
LAB.
Iabor
> Iocal Government
Loc. Gov'r
> Natural Resources
Nrr.
> Occupations
Occ.
> Parks and
l/ildlife
> Penal
PARKs & WtrD.
PElrnl
Pnop.
'
Spec. Drsrs.
Special District Local Laws
> Tax
Tex
>
TnnHsp.
Transportation
>
utilities
> water
Urr
l.
I
Weten
Session laws: Cite to Tex. Gen. Laws, if therein.
> General and Special Laws of the State of Texas
<year> Tex. Gen. Laws <page
> Vemon's Texas Session Law Servic€ (West)
<year> Tex. Sess. Law Serv.
> Laws
(year> Repub. Tex. Laws
<page no.>
no.>
<page no.r (West)
ofthe Republic ofTexas
Session laws passed before 1941 must be cited according to the exact
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> Property
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> Civil Practice and Remedies
I
title, e.g.,
Tex. Loc. & Spec. Laws, Tex. Gen. & Spec. Laws, andTex. Gen. Laws. The
Revised Statutes were enacted and published separately in 1879, 189j, l9ll,
and 1925 and should be cited as <year) Tex. Rev. Civ. Stat. xxx. The Code of
Criminal Procedure and Penal Code were enacted and published separately in
1856,1879,1895, l9ll, and 1925 and should be cited 25 <!€ilr> Tex. Crim.
Stat. xxx.
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,
,tit. no.' Tex. Aotvttt't, Cooe
Texas Aclministrative (lode (West)
5 x.x (,yearD
Administrative register
no., Tex. Reg. .page
(month day, year')
Texas Register (LexisNexis)
'
Ut"ft fUi"f,l
http :/,/www. Lltc()Lllts. g()v
http,//rvww.
le.
utah.gov,/l ltahCocle/title. jsp
has adopted a public domain citation
format for cases after December 31, 199tt. The format is:
Public domain citation format: lJtah
F. Wickham v. Galetka, 2oo2 UT
7z,6tP3d 979.
ts Gittey v. Blackstock, zooz UT App 4r4, fl ro, 6t
P
3d 3o5.
For additionat information, consult tltah Supreme Coun Standing Orde r Nt'r. 4
(effective Jan. 1tt, 2000).
Supreme Court (Utah): Citc to P., P.zd, or P.3d, if thcrcin.
r
Pacific Rcporter
Itttil -date
P., P.zd, P.3d
'
tltah Rcports
t87a-1971
Utah, Utah zd
Court of Appeals (Utah Ct. App.): Cite to P.zd or P.3d, if therein
* Pacific Reporter
l9tl7-date P.zd, P.3d
Statutory compilations: Cite to one of the folkrwing codes, if thcrein
'
Iltah Code Annotated
'
West's lltah Code Annotated
(LcxisNexis)
Urru Cooe Anru. $ x-x-x
(LexisNexis ,year,)
Unu Cooe
AruH. $ x-x-x
(West.year)
Session laws: Citc to Utah Laws, if thcrcin.
r
Laws of Utah
> tltah (irdc
<year> Advance Legislative Service
(LexisNexis)
r
Utah Legislative Servicc (West)
<year' Utah Laws,page no.
.year,-,pamph. no., Utah
Adv. Legis. Serv. ,page
no., (LexisNexis)
,year, Utah. Legis. Serv.
.page no., (West)
Administrative compilation
" tltah Administrative (i)de
Urex Aomtn. Cooe r. x-x-x
IyearD
Administrative register
" lltth
State Bulletin
,iss. no., Utah Bu[t.,page
no., (,month day, year,)
o
United States Jurisdictions
t
Vermont (Vt.)
http ://www.vermontjudiciary. org
http / / Ie gislatu re. ve rmont. gov,/statutes
:
Public domain citation format: Vermont
has adopted a public domain
citation format for cases after December 31,2002. The format is:
)
Charbonneau v. Gorczyk, zoo3 W 1o5, fl 3,
A.zd tr7.
t76Yt.t4o,838
For additional information, consult Vt. R.App. P.28,2.
Supreme Court (Vt.): Cite to A., A.zd, or A.3d, if therein.
> Chipman, D.
1885-date
1826-date
1825-1828
1789-1824
> Brayton
l8l5-1819
Brayt.
> Tyler
1800-1803
Tyl.
> Chipman, N.
t789-r79r
N. Chip.
>
Atlantic Reporter
>
Vermont Reports
> Aikens
Statutory compilations: Cite to Vr. Srnr.
A., A.zd, A.3d
Vt.
Aik.
D. Chip.
Atl.
(published by lrxisNexis),
if therein.
> Vermont Statutes Annotated (LexisNeds)
Vr. Srar. AHH. tit. x, 5 x
> \Vest's
Vr. Srar.
(.year';
Vemont Statutes Annotated
Atr. tit. x, 5 x
(West,year')
Session laws: Cite to Vt. Acts & Resolves, if therein.
> Acts and Resolves
ofVermont
,yean Vt. Acts & Resolves
<page no.)
> Vermont <yean Advance lrgislative Service
(lfxisNexis)
> $[est's
Vermont Legislative Service
<year>.pamph. no.) Vt.
Adv. Legis. Serv. ,page
no., (LexisNexis)
(year) Vt. Legis. Serv. <page
nq., (West)
Administrative compilation
> Code ofVermont Rules (LexisNexis)
<tit. no.>-<ch. no.) Vr. CoDE
R. $
x (year,)
Adrninistrative and executive register
>
Vermont Govemment Register QrxisNexis)
,iss. no., Vt. Gov't Reg.
<page no,) (LexisNexis
<month year))
Virginia (Va.)
http ://www.courts.state.va. us
http://lis.virginia. govl000/src. htm
Supreme Court (Va.), previously Supreme Court of Appeals (Va.): Cite to
S.E. or S.E.zd, if therein.
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IUttT-date
5.E., S.E.zd
75 Va. to date
Ittti0-drte
Va.
Grattan
1841- 1880
Robinson
1812-1811
e.!t., 42 va. (r Gratt.)
e.i.., 40 va. (r Rob.)
Lciglt
t829-t842
e
.!{., 28 Va.
Randolph
IU2 I - 1828
Gilmer
I
ti20- I ttzI
Munfortl
I
til 0- 1820
Hening & Munford
1806- r810
Call
1179-t825
(r Leigh)
e.g,.,22Va. (r Rand.)
zr Va. (Gitmer)
c.g., 15 Va. (r Munf.)
e.g., 11 Va. (r Hen. & M.)
e.s., 5 Va. (r Catt)
1789- 1826
e
.g., 3 Va. (r Va. Cas.)
1790-t796
c.!1.,
South Eastcrn Reporter
Virginia Reports
Virginia
Oases, Crimitral
Washin!lton
1va. (r wash.)
Court of Appeals (Va. Ct. App.): citc to S.E.zd, if therein
South Eastern Reponer
Virginia (irurt of Appeds
l9tt5-date
l9tt5-datc
S.E.zd
Va. APP.
Reports
Circuit Court (Va. Cir. Ct.): Cite to Va. Cir.
Virginia Oircuit (irurt Opinions 1957-date
Va. Cir.
Statutory compilations: (lite to VA. CoDE At'ttt. (pnblished by LcxisNexis),
if thcrcin.
Code of Virginia I 950 Annotated (LexisNcxis)
Va. Cooe
Ar'rru. $
x-x
(,year,)
West's Annotated Code of Virginia
VA. CoDE Attn. S x-x (West
<Yeaf
'>J
Session laws: Cite to Va. Acts, if therein.
Acts of the (ieneral Assembly of the
Commonwealth of Virginia
<year> Va. Acts ,Page
Virginia ,r'ear Advance Legislative Service
,year,-,pamph. no., Va.
Adv. Legis. Serv..page
ns.' (lsxisNexis)
.year' Va. Legis. Serv.
,page no., (West)
(LexisNexis)
West's Virginia Legislative Service
no.'
Administrative compilation
Virginia Aclministrative (i)de (West)
,tit.
no.> VA. ADMtN. CoDE
$ x-x-x (,year')
Administrative register
Virginia Rcgister of Regtrlations (LexisNcxis)
<vo[. no.> Va. Reg. Regs.
<Page no.>
Year))
('month day,
I
United States Jurisdictions
o
Washington (Wash.)
http://www.courts.wa.gov
I
http / / app.leg.wa. govlrcw
:
t
Supreme Court OVash.): Cit€ to P., P.zd, or P.3d, if therein.
r Pacifrc Reporter
) Washington Reports
>
!flashington Temitory
1880-date
1889-date
Reports 1854-1888
P., P.zd, P.3d
Wash., Wash. zd
Wash. Terr.
Court of Appeals (Wash. Ct. App.): Cite to P.zd or P.3d, if therein.
1969-date
> Pacific Reporter
> Washington Appellate
Reports 1969-date
P.zd, P.3d
Wash. App.
Statutory cornpilations: Cite to WASH. Rev. Cooe, if therein.
> Revised Code of$fashington
WAsH. REv. Coos $ x.x.x
(,yearr)
> West's Revised Code of rvashington Annotated
WAsH. REV. CooE Arrir, 5
x.x.x (West <year>)
> Annotated Revised Code
Washington
of
WAsH. REV. Cooe
(rxisNexis)
Arn.
5
x.x.x (LexisNexi5 <year>)
Session laws: Cite to Wash. Sess. Laws, if therein.
:
,year, Wash. Sess. Laws
Session laws of Washington
<page no.>
> West's Washington Legislative Service
.year, Wash. Legis. 5erv.
,page no.' (West)
Administrative compilation
> rVashington
Administrative Code
Wasr. Aomrru. Cooe $ x-x-x
0yearD
Administrative register
> rVashington State Register
,iss. no.> Wash. Reg. <page
no., (,month day, year,)
West Virginia (W. Va.)
http //www. courtswv. gov
hnp ://www.legis. state.wv.us/wvcode,/code.cfm
:
Supreme Court of Appeds (W. Va.): Cite to 5.E. or 5.E.zd, if therein.
F South Eastem Reporter
> West
Virginia Reports
1886-date
1864-date
S.E., S.E.zd
W. Va.
Statutory compilations: Cite to W. Vn. Coor, if therein.
> West
Virginia Code
> Michie's
W. Va. Cooe $ x-x-x
Vest Virginia Code Annotated
(LexisNexis)
> West's Annotated Code of West
(year,)
W. Va. Cooe AHr. $ x-x-x
(LexisNexis ,year,)
Virginia
Session laws: Cite to W. Va. Acts. if therein
W. Ve. CooE Atttt. $ x-x-x
(West <year,)
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<year>-<PamPh. no.' W. Va.
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no., (LexisNexis)
(LexisNexis)
I
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.yean W. Va. Acts ,page
no,>
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<year> W. Va. Legis. Serv.
<page no.>
Administrative compilation
West Virginia (lode of State Rules
'
W. VA. CoDE R. 5 x-x-x
(,yearr)
Administrative regist€r
<vot. no.> W. Va. Reg. .page
West Virginia Register
'
no.> (<month day, year')
Wisconsin (Wis.)
http :/,/www.wicoLlrts. gov
http ://www. legis.wisconsin. gov/r'sl>,/stats.html
Public domain citation format: Wisconsin has adopted
a
public domain
citation format for cases decided after December 31, 7999. The format is:
F- Glaeske v. Shaw,
*
zoo3 Wl App 7r, z6r Wis. 2d 549,66tN.W.2d 72.
Glaeskev. Shaw, 2oo3 Wl App 7r,ll9,z6tWis. zd 549, 661
N.W.zd 72.
For additional information, consult Wisconsin Supreme Court Rulc 80.
Supreme Court (Wis.): Cite to N.W. or N.W.zd, if thcrein.
s North western Repofter
'
Wisconsin Reports
" Pinney
e Chandler
F
Bumett
u Burnett (bound
with
lr.l-9-date
l85J-datc
N.W., N.W.zd
Wis., Wis. zd
Iti39-1u52
Pin.
1819-1812
Chand.
1tt42-184j
session 1841
Bur.
Bur.
laws for Dec. 1ti41)
Court of Appeals (Wis. Ct. App.): Citc to N.W'zd, if thcrcin
u North Wcstern Reporter
= Wisconsin Reports
l97tt-date
l97u-clate
N.W.2d
Wis. zd
Statutory compilations: Cite to Wts. Srnr., if therein
n Wisconsin Statutes
h N0est's Wisconsin Statutes Annotated
Wts. SrAr. $ x.x (year,)
Wrs. Srar. Ar.rn. S x.x (West
<year>)
Session laws: Cite to Wis.Sess. Laws, if therein
,yean Wis. Sess. Laws
Wisconsin Scssion Laws
.
<page no.>
F
Vest's Wisconsin Lcgislative Service
,yeal
Wis. Legis. Serv.
,page no.' (West)
I
[.inited States Jurisdictions
Administrative compilation
> ufisconsin
Wrs. AonnlH. Cooe .agency
Administrative Code
abbreviation, g x-x
(,year)
Administrative register
r Wisconsin Administrative Register
(iss. no.> Wis. Admin. Reg.
<Page no.) (,month day,
Year')
Wyoming (Wyo.)
http://www. courts. state.wy.us
http ://legisweb. state.wy. us/LSOVEB/wySrarutes. aspx
Public domain citation format: rVyoming
has adopted a public domain
citation format for cases decided after December 31,2003. The format is:
)
)
z,8zP3d rz35 (Wyo. zoo4).
CLC v.
Wyoming, zoo4 WY
CLC v.
Wyoming, zoo4 WY 2,]i
4,82P3d t235, rz36
(Wyo. zoo4).
For additional information, consult OrderAmending Citation Format (Aug. 19,
2OO5).
Supreme Court (!Vyo.): Cite to P., P.zd, or P.3d, if therein.
>
Pacifc Reporter
>
$fyoming Repofts
1883-date
1870-1959
Statutory cornpilations: Cite to Wyo.
5rlr.
P., P.zd, P.3d
Wyo.
AHH.lpublished by LexisNexis),
if therein.
r Wyoming Statutes Annotated (LexisNexis)
WYo. SrAT.
Arirr,r. 5
x-x-x
(,year)
> West's
Vyoming Statutes Annoarcd
WYo. SrAT. AHw. $ x-x-x
(West.year)
Session laws: Cite to Vyo. Sess. Laws, if therein.
> Session
laws of t0fyoming
<year>
wyo. sess. Laws
<page no.>
>
West's $fyoming l€gislative Service
<year, Wyo. Legis. Serv.
(page no.> (West)
Administrative compilation
> Code of
I7yoming Rules QrxisNexis)
<tit. no.r-,ch. no.> Wyo.
CooeR.$x(LexisNexis
<year>)
Administrative register
>
Wyoming Govemment Register QrxisNexis)
,iss. no., Wyo. Gov't Reg.
<page no.) (LexisNexis
,month year)
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Other United States Jurisdictions
American Samoa
http:,//www.asl>ar.org
High Court of American Samoa (Am. Samoa):
Cite to Am. Samoa, Am.
Samoa zd, or Am. Samoa 3d.
. American
Samoa
Reports
19o0-date
Am. Samoa, Am. Samoa zd,
Am. Samoa 3d
Statutory compilation
. American
AM. SAMoA Cooe Arun. 5 x
Samoa Code Annotated
0Year')
Administrative compilation
,.
Samor Aot'ntH. Cooe $
x (,year,)
American Samoa Administrative Code
A'\n.
CanalZone (C.2.)
(now part of Panama)
United States District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana (E.D'
La.): This court has iurisdiction over litigation pending as ofApr. 1, 1982, in the
United States District Court for the District of the Canal Zone. Cite to F' Supp.
1982-1983
" Federal Supplement
F. Supp.
United States District Court for the District of the Canal Zone (D.C.Z.):
This coun ceased to exist on Mar. 31, 1982. Cite to F. 5upp.
'
1946-1982
Federal Supplement
F.5upp.
Statutory compilation
"
C.Z. Cooe
Panama Canal Code
tit. x, 5 x ('year')
(enacted as Canal Zone Code, Pub. L. No. 8l'8+5,764 Stat' t (t962), and
reclesignated ancl continued pafiiarlly in force by the Panama Canal Act of
1979,Pub. L. No.96-7o, 5
llol0),93
Stat. 452,49r.
Guam (Guam)
http :/,/guamsupremecourt. com
Guam cases that cannot be located in paper form may be available at one of the
following locations:
' http://www.lurispacilic.com
'
http://guamsupremecourt.com/supreme.html
Supreme Court of Guam (Guam): Cite using the following pr.rblic domain
format:
"* Adamsv. Duenas, 1998 Guam r5.
-
Adams v. Duenas, 1998 Guam r5 fl z.
tirrited States
Ju
I
risdirtions
District Court of Guam (D. Guam): Cite to
F.
Supp., F. Supp. zd, or
o
F.
Supp.3d, if therein.
> Federal
Supplement
l95l-date
F.
Supp., F. Supp. zd,
F.
Supp. 3d
>
r95r-r9ao
Guam Reports
Guam
Statutory compilation
>
<tit. no.> Guam Cooe At'tt. 5
x (,yearr)
Guam Code Annotated
Session laws
>
Guam Pub. L. ,law no.t
(,yearr)
Guam Session laws
Administrative compilation
>
Adminisu?tive Rules & Regulations of the
Govemment ofGuam
(tit. no.> GUAM
ADMTN. R.
&
REes. 5 x (,year,)
Navajo Nation
http ://www. navajocou rts. org>
Supreme Court (Navaio), previously Court of Appeals (Navaio): Cite to
Navaio Rptr.
>
1969-drte
Navajo Reporter
Navajo Rptr.
District Court (Navajo D. Ct.): Cite to Navajo Rptr.
>
1969-date
Navajo Reporter
Navajo Rptr.
Statutory compilation
>
Navajo Nation Code Annotated (West)
Nevnjo Nnrror Cooe AHx.
tit.x,$x(<year,)
Northern Mariana l"l;;d" (N:'M";. i:)
http ://www. cnmilaw. org
Public domain citation format: The Commonwealth of the Northem
Mariana Islands has adopted a public domain citation format for cases after
June 15, 1996. The format is:
>
Lifoifoi v. Lifoifoi-Alda n, tgg6 MP t4.
Suprerne Court (N. Mar. l.): Cite to N. Mar. l.
>
Northem Mariana
Islands 1989-date
N. Mar. l.
Reporter
District Court for the Northern Mariana Islands, Trial and Appellate
Divisions (D. N. Mar. l. and D. N. Mar. l. App. Div.), and Cornmonwealth
Superior Court (N. Mar. L Commw. Super. Ct.), previously Commonwealth
Trial Court (N. Mar. l. Commw. Trial Ct.): Cite to F. Supp., F. Supp. zd, or
F. Supp.3d, if therein.
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Supplement
Supplement
:= Northern
N<rrthern
Mariana Islands
Islands
1979-cltte
1979-date
Supp., F. Supp. zd,
Supp. 3d
N. Mar. l. Commw.
F.
F.
(lommonwealth Reporter
Statutory compilation
* Northern Mariana Islands (lommonwcalth
(irde (LexisNexis)
,tit. no., N. Mnn. l. Cooe
x (year')
5
Session laws
* Northern Mariana Islands Session Laws
Administrativ€ compilation
- Northern Mariana Islands Administrative
,yean N. Mar. l. Pub.
,law no,,
L.
.tit. no., N. Mnn. l. Aoltttt.
(irclc
Cooe 5 x (,yearD
Administrative register
'
Northern Mariana Islands Commonwealth
<vo[. no.> N. Mar. l.
Reg.,page no., (,month
Rcgister
day, year,)
Oklahoma Native Americans
Tribal Courts, Courts of Indian Offenses (Appellate Division), Courts of
Indian Appeals, and Courts of Indian Offenses: Cite to Okla. Trib.
r ()klahoma Tribal (lourt
1979-dtte
Okla. Trib.
Reports
Puerto Rico (P.R.)
hnp://w-ww.ramajuclicial.pr (in Spanish)
Public domain citation format: Pucrto Rico has adopted a public domain
citation format for cascs de cided after De cembcr 31, 1997 Tl-rc format is:
+
Spanish: Guzman Rosario v. Departamento de Hacienda, 98
TSPR
ra8.
u' English: Guzman Rosario v. Departamento de Hacienda,98
PRSC r+8.
Supreme Court (P.R.): Cite to P.R. or P.R. Offic. Trans., if therein; otherwise
citc to P.R. Dec. or P.R. Sent.. in that order of Dreference.
" Puerto Rico Reports
, Official Translations ofthe
1978
197|-date
lri99-
P.R.
P.R. Offic. Trans.
()pinions of thc Supreme
(irun of Puerto Ric<r
" l)ecisiones de Puerto Rico
" Sentencias del Tribunal
Supremo de Ptrcno Rict>
1899-date
P.R. Dec.
1899-1902
P.R.Sent.
,
[,hitr{l
$tat.cs
Jurisdictitlns
Circuit Court of Appeals (P.R. Cir.): Cite to T.C.A.
> Decisiones
del Tribunal
de 7995-date
T.C,A.
Circuito de Apelaciones de
Puerto Rico
Statutory compilation
> Laws
of Puerto Rico Annotated @exisNexis) P.R. Laws Ar.rt. tit. x, 5 x
(year)
> Leyes de
Puerto Rico Anotadas @exisNexis) P.R. Leves At. tit. x, $ x
(,year,)
Session laws
> Laws
of Puefto Rico
Puerto Rico (LexisNexis)
> Leyes de
(year) P.R. Laws,page no.>
<year' P.R. Leyes,page no.'
Virgin Islands (V.I.)
http :,//www.visupremecourt. org
All courts:
Cite to V.l.
Virgin Islands Reports
l9l7-date
v.t.
Statutory compilation
t Virgin Islands Code
1962-date
V.l. CoDE ANN.
x, S x-x (year)
>
Annotated (kxisNexis)
tit.
Session laws: Cite to V.l. Sess. Laws. if therein.
> Session Iaws of the Virgin Islands
<year) V,l. Sess. Laws (page
no.)
>
Virgin Islands Code Annotated Advance
kgislative Service @exisNexis)
<year,-< pamph.
no.' V.l.
Code Ann. Adv.
Legis, Serv. (page no.)
(LexisNexis)
Adrninistrative cornpilation
> Code of U.S. Virgin Islands Rules
(IrxisNexis)
,tit.
no,>-<ch. no., V.l, CoDE
R. $ x-x (LexisNexis,year,)
Administrative register
>
Virgin Islands Govemment Register
(LexisNexis)
<iss. no., V.l. Gov't Reg.
<page no.) (LexisNexis
<month year)
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FORETGNJURTSDTCTTONS
T2.l
Argentine Republic
(Civil l.rru )
Cases
(litation lirrmat: .court name' [.court abbreviation'] [,Engtish translation
of court name,l, .date in day/month/year format', ".6s5s name) / <type
of case'," ,name of publication, [,abbreviation of publication>] (<year>.volume'-,page number') (.country abbreviation if not evident from
context, ).
The
partl namcs are scparatcd b)"'c.,' rvlrich refers to "contra," thc
transhtion
of
Sllanish
versus.'
"* Corte Suprema de Justicia de [a Naci6n [CSIN][National Supreme
Court ofJustice]t,$lllzoor, "Frenquet, Adolfo c. Centro de Ortopedias / recurso extraordinario," La Ley [1.1.] (zoor-D-zz) (Arg.).
feJerat
l".i"ai.ti""
Corte Suprema de Justicia de la Naci6n (CSlN) (Nationd Snprctrtc (br.rrt
ofJnsticc: hillhest court on constituti(xr:rl lnd fccleral nrattcrs): (litc to Fallos,
if tlrcrcin: othenvisc cite to 1.1., E.D., orJ.A.: Cimara Nacional de Casaci6n
Penal (C.N.C.P.) (Nationul (ilt- rt of Appcul on Criminal Nhtters: I-tigltcsl li'clcrll
court on criminal matters): (lite to 1.1., E.D.. or l.A.; Cimara Federal de
Apelaciones (CFed.) (lctlcnrl courts ofxppeals) andJuzgado Federal (Juzg.
Fed.) (krwcr f'ederal courts): (lite to 1.L., E.D., or J.A., rppending thc specific
iurisdiction to thc court nlme lncl coun ltbbreviatirtn.
.
Suprcma 186 i-clate
dc la Naci<in
Rcvista.luridica Argct.ttiua- 19.16-clate
Falkrs rlc la Corte
e.g., Fattos (t997 - 299
-t4z)
clc.f ustici:r
'
l.1r
.
El
e.g.. L.L. (t985-E-z9z)
Lcy
I)clccllr
' Jurispruclencia Arllcl-rtiul
I
9(r2-clate
I
9I
tl-date
c.g.. E.D. (t972- 4z-934)
es.l.A. (t96t-Yl-Zlz)
Ordinary iurisdiction
Provincial courts: Corte de Justicia (CJ) ((lotrrt of.Justice:
highest
pnx'ir-rcirl court in the provinces of (.atamarca (Cat.), Sllta (Sta.). uncl San
(irurt ol .fttstice
Juan (Sln.)), Corte Suprema de Justicia (CSl) (Supreme
highest provincial court in the provinces of Srnta lrc (SFe.) and'l'ucttm:in
(Tuc.)). Superior Tribunal de Justicia (STJ) (Superior Tribunal of .lustice:
highest provincial court in the provinccs of Chrco (Cha.). Chubut (Cht.),
Corrientes (Ctes.), Entrc Rios (ERs.), Irormosa (For.), Juiuv (lui.), l.ir Pampr
(LPa.), Misiones (Mis.), llio Negro (RNg.), San Luis (51s.), Smtiago clel Estero
:
(5go.). ancl Tierra clel I'uego (TFg.)), Suprema Corte de Justicia
(SCJ)
(lourt of .Justicc: highest provincirl court ill the provittccs of llucnos
Aires (BAs.) and llcr.rckrza (Mza.)), Tribunal Superior de Justicia (Trib.
Sup.) (Supcrkrr'Iribunltl of Justicc: Itighcst provir-rcill cotttl in thc provinccs
of Crirclobrr (Cba.), La Rioia (LRi.), NcucFr6n (Nqn.). ancl Santa (lruz (SCz.)),
(Supre mc
ilrr
rli'i]
ol
Foreign Jurisdictions: Argentirre Republic
Cirnan de Apelaciones en lo Civil y Comercial
(CApel.CC) (provincial
courts of app€als in civil and commercial matters), Cimara de Apelaciones
en lo Penal (CApel. Penal) (provincial courts of appeals in criminal matters),
Cimara del Trabaio (CTrab.) (provincial courts of appeals in labor matters),
Juzgado de Primera Instancia (1a Inst.) (provincial lower courts
of ordinary iurisdiction): Cite to 1.1., E.D., or J.A., adding the name of the
and
province or region when the report is local.
Append the specific province to the court name and court abbreviation. Include
the sala (section or panel), if applicable, after the court and province name.
>
Civ. y Com. Mendoza, sala 4a,
l4,l4lt98o,
Rep. LL XL-r724, n. 50.
Courts with iurisdiction over the federal district of Buenos Aires:
Cirnara Nacional de Apelaciones en lo Civil de la Capital Federal
(CNCiv.) (National Court of Civil Appeals of the Federal Capital: court of
appeals in civil matters, divided into sections A, B, C, etc.), Cfunara
Nacional
de Apelaciones en lo Comercial de la Capitd Federal (CNCom.) (National
Court of Commercial Appeals of the Federal Capital: court of appeals in
commercial matters, dMded into sections A, B, C, etc.), Cimara Nacional de
Apelaciones Especial Civil y Cometcial de la Capital Federal (CNEspecial
Civ. y Com.) (National Court of Special Civil and Commercial Appeals of the
Federal Capital: court of appeals in civil and commercial matters), Cirnata
Nacional de Apelaciones en lo Penal Econ6mico de la Capital Federal
(CNPenal Econ6mico) (National Court of Economic Criminal Appeals of
the Federal Capital: court of appeals in economic criminal matters), Ciman
Nacional de Apelaciones del Trabajo de la Capital Federal (CNTrab.)
(National Court oflaborAppeals ofthe Federal Capital: court ofappeals in labor
matters), Cimara Nacional de Apelaciones en lo Federal y Contencioso
Administrativo de la Capital Federal (CNFed.) (National Court of Appeals
in Federal and Administrative Litigation of the Federal Capital: court of appeals
in administrative matters), andJuzgado Nacional de Primera Instancia (ra
Inst.) (ower courts of ordinary jurisdiction): Cite to 1.1., E.D., or J.A.
>
Corsr. Nrc.
Art. 4, Consrrrucr6r'r Necrotal [CoHsr. Nnc.] (Arg.).
Codes
> C6Drco
Cn'r (Civil Code)
(Commercial Code)
> C6orco Prner (Criminal Code)
Cnrr y ColrrncIel DE r.{
' C6DIGo Pnocrsar
NAcI6N (Civil and Commercial Procedure
Code)
> C6orc,o oe CoMERcro
> C6otc,o PRocEsAL PENer
or L{ NAcr6N
(Criminal Procedure Code)
C6o. Crv.
C6o. Com.
C6o. Per.
C6o. Pnoc. Crv.
Coltl.
C6o. Pnoc.
Psr,r.
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Constitution
> CoNst:ttucr6N NAcToNAL
r1
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Irlw"r'l:;rl .Irrl itr{lr { !lrt,rt: ,\l"t;r titi!rl{. ${('1}tii}ftr
Include publication information for the version cited, if available:
+ C6orco
PeHnr-[C6o. Peru.] [CntmtHeL CoDE] art. zz (Abetedo Perrot,
Buenos Aires, rgZr) (Arg.).
Statutes and decrees
Citation frrrmat: Law No. ,law number,, ,province abbreviation, if relevant,,
.promulgation date', [,volume number,] <reporter abbreviation,,fi rst
page' (country abbreviation if not evident from context').
=
Law No. 23o98,
oct. r9, rq8q, [XLIV-D]A.D.L.A. 3zl3 @tc.).
(;ite to onc of the following.
BoLItriN ()HCIAL
'
* Anells l)lt
B.O.
A.D.L.A.
LECIST"{CIoN AR(iENTINA
= EL DEREcrro-LsctstN;ttiN ARGENTINA
E.D.L.A.
.
A.L.l.A.
ANTJART() r)E LEGISIACI6N
(fttusnnutxru<re
A(;ENt tNA)
Periodicals
.
Rsrrsr,rJunilrtcA LA
LEY
L.
L.
" JuRIspRr rr)EN(itA AR(iBNt lNA
l.A.
r
E.D.
EL DERE(:tto
lnternet sourc€s
http://wnry.boletinoficial.gob.ar (Official
Gazette; paid subscription and
free access to cuffent issue)
http://www.diarioiudicial,com.ar (legal portal with free subscription)
http://www.boletinofi cial. gob. ar (paid subscription)
http://www.abeledoperrot.corn (paid subscription)
(database of the Ministry of Justice; free
subscription includes national, provincial, and municipal legislation, court
decisions, and scholarly sources)
http://www.infoius.gob.ar
http://rqry.infoleg.gob.ar (Ministry
of Economy Database of legislation in
PDF format; free access)
http://www.diputados.gob.arlindex'html
access
(National Congress portal; frce
to legislation since 1983, Decrees of the Executive Power since 1993,
and bills since 1862)
(database of the Supreme Court; free access to full
text of Supreme Court decisions from 1994 to present; summaries of Supreme
http://t ww.csin.gob.ar
Court decisions from 1863 to S€ptember 2012)
http://www.iieditores.com.ar (Law Library Online; paid subscription with
daily updates; free newsletter)
http ://www. nyulawglobal. o r g/ glob alex/ ar gentina I htm#-ProvincialJudicial-Power (free research guide to the Argentine Legal System written
in English)
.
Foreign Juristlictions: Australia
T2.2 Australia
(Common Law)
Cases
Reported decisions
Citation format: <case name, in italics, (,year
of publication, when
different from volume number,),volume number, <reporter
abbreviation,,first page,,,page(s) of specific material, if
desired, (,country abbreviation if not evident from context').
Or: <case name, in italics> [.year of volume, if it constitutes volume
number'] ,part number, if applicable' ,reporter abbreviation, ,first page,,
.page(s) of specific material, if desired, (,country abbreviation if not
evident from context,).
Only the name of the first plaintiff and first defendant should be cited. Where
there are multiple proceedings between the same parties, the number of the
decision, if included in the case name itself, should be indicated in square
brackets. For example:
> Mabo v Queenslond
[No. z] (t992) r75 CLR r, 5 (Austt.).
Note that all case names are in italics, and the abbreviation "v" for "versus" is
not followed by a period. Case names may be abbreviated according to tables
T6 and TlO but should also not include periods. For example:
>
GA v Dep' t of Educ
& Training [zoo+] NSWADT z (Austt.).
Where the Commonwealth of Australia is aparty, retain only "Commonwealth"
as the party name. Where a state or territory is a party, omit ,,State of, or
"Teritory of' and retain only the state or teffitory name as the party name
(for example, "Queensland" rarher than "State of eueensland,,). I?here an
Attorney-Gene ral is a patty, cite as "A-G." Where the Department of public
Prosecutions is a party, cite as "DPP." Both "A-G" and "DPP" should be followed
by the relevant iurisdiction short abbreviation in parentheses. For example:
> Silbert
v DPP (WA) Izoo+l HCA 9 (Austt.).
Jurisdiction short abbreviations are as follows: Commonwealth (Cth), New
South Wales (NSW), Victoria (Vic), South Australia (SA), Western
Australia (WA), Tasmania (Tas), Queensland (Qld), Northern Temitory
(NT1, and Australian Capital Territory (ACT). The Crown is abbreviated as
"R" except as a respondent, when it is cited as either "The Queen,, or ,,The
King." For example:
>
Dickson v The Queen (zoto) z4t CLR 49r (Austl.).
In some reporters, the year acts
as the volume number, so there is no separate
volume number and parentheses should not be placed around the year. When
the year is the volume number, the year is cited in square brackets. The volume
year should be cited even when it differs from the year of the decision. When
more than one part is issued per volume, the part number is cited after the
volume number. For example:
>
Perini Corp v Commonwealth1196912 NSWLR 53o (Austt.).
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In somc instances, a reporter uses parlgraph rcfcrcnces or othcr indicia r:Lther
In such instances, citc to thc subdivisiott refcrcnce rtsed
thar-r page numbers.
l'rr,the repurtcr. For examplc:
.
Hart v HerronlryS4lAust Torts Report fl1l 8o-zor (Austl.)'
'fhe bcst availablc rcport of a casc shortld bc citctl. Vhen availablc, an ofhcilrl
reporter should bc citcd. A gencrtlist reportcr is prcfcrretl to a subjcct spccific
reportcr. lVhcn inclucling morc than onc citatiotl. citc the official reporter lirst.
Thc corrcct lbbrcviation firr a reporter will be inclucled in the front of thc
reportcrs. Official rcporters include thc Cttrnnumu,calth I'au Relxrrl.s (CLR).
the F'ecleral Court Reports (FCR), the Victoriurt R('P()rts (VR), rtnd thc Nea'
South Wales Lau,Reltorts (NSWLR).
If relevant. thc court mrv bc citcd in ptrcnthescs sttbscqucnt to a citlttiott. For
example
,
:
Aldrickv EM lnvs (QId) Pty Ltdl2oool2 Qd R f+6 (Court of Appeat)
(Austt.).
Courts
High Court of Australia (the tirul court of lppeal rlith botlr original ltltl
appellate iuriscliction sincc l90l): Citc to CLR, if thcrein. An aventtc of lppcal
to thc Privy Council (PC) was previously pcrmittecl, but limitetl il-r l96U ancl
abolishcd in 1975. All appcals fiom state and tcrritory cotlrts to tlte P(l wcrc
abolished in thc 1980s. Iror Privl Cortncil dccisions, cite to a rc1-rot'tcr listecl
rrnrler table T2.42 \Jnited Kingdom. if the
Austr:rlirur reportef
re
in; othe rwise , citc to an olhcial
.
Federal Court of Australia (cstablished in 197(r, sits in cach state and it.t
thc Australian (iapital 'l'erritorv and thc Northertr Tcrritory', rvitlt original
juriscliction and lppellatc juriscliction liom single iuclges of the Fctlcral (irttrt.
dccisions (otlrer than familv law decisions) of the Fcdcrll (lirctrit (lotrrt, and
some clecisions of State and I'erriton, Sultrcme Cortrts): (litc to FCR, if thercin.
Family Court of Australia (established in 19'5, with original ancl appcllatc
t
jurisdiction rcgurding famil.v and chilcl support disptltcrs (other than in Vcstcrt-t
Australia); heurs mainh' complcx cascs and appells): (litc to Fam LR, if therein.
I
that rcgularl-v conducts regional circtlits; proviclcs an ltccessiblc alternative to
litigxtion in thc F'ccleral (lourt of Atlstrltlia and Irlmilv Court of Attstralir' with
which it broadl-v sharcs jurisdiction): Cite to FCR, if therein.
o
o
o
o
Federal Circuit Court of Australia (lormerll thc Federal Magistrates
Court. which wus estublishect in 2000) (cstablishctl iu 201.1. sits in each
stxtc cnllitul and othcr maior regional centers and is the onll' fcderal cottrt
There are sevcrll luthorizccl f'ederal Iltw rcports in Austrllix, atlcl a nttnrber
of aclclitional subjeclspccific rcpol'ts that ma.v itlstl llc rtsetl. Sonre law sclrool
wchsites list various lltw rcports lnd their abbreviltions, including:
.
The Univcrsirv of Melbournc.
http://unimelb.libguides.com/
authorised-law-reports.
. l'lre []niversitv
of Adclaicle
,
http://t,try.adelaide.edu.au/libtary/abott/
lib r arie s / law / res e arch/cases.
. l'hc I
nivcrsity of Westem Austrxlit, http://guides.is.uwa.edu' au/
case law.
I
a
Irnrcign Juri.srlicionsl Artstrill ia
The following are malor Australian federal law reports (* indicates an authorized
reporter):
>
Commonwealth law Reports'
>
Federal Court Reports*
) Family Law Reports*
l Australian Argus Law Reports
(previously the Argus law Reports
Oic) (1895-1959) (AlR) and continues
as Australian Law Reports (ALR))
) Australian Law Reports
> F€deral Irw Reports
L Australian Law Journal Reports
l Administrative Law Decisions
> Australian Criminal Reports
> Commonwealth Arbitration Reports
> Commonwealth Public Service
Arbitration Reports
> Australian Company l-aw Reports
> Australian Corporations and Securities
l9O3-date CLR
1984-date FCR
1976-date Fam LR
1960-1973
AALR
1973-dare
1956-<lare
ALR
r927-d^te
1976-date
1979-<hte
1905-1994
r92r-r984
o
FLR
ALJR
ALD
A Crim
R
CAR
CPSAR
1974-1989
1989-date
ACLR
1928-1964
ABC
ACSR
Reports
Australian Bankruptcy Cases
Intellectual Property Reports
> Industrial Reports
> Australasian Tax Reports
> Australian Tax Reports
! Australian and New Zealtnd Income Tax
>
>
1982-date
1981-date
IPR
lR
1970-1990
ATR
l99o-date
ATR
1940-1969
AITR
Reports
Australian Tax Cases
r Commonwealth Taxation Board of
Review Decisions
> Decisions of the Income Tax Board of
Review, Commonwealth
> Decisions of the Board of Review,
Commonwealth Taxation Board of
Review Decisions
>
1969-date
r950-r9a6
ATC
CTBR (NS)
1925-1937
CTBR
1937-1950
CTBR
Unreported decisions
When the court has adopted an unreported case, cite in medium neutral
format as: (case name, in italics, [,year'] ,unique court identifier) <case
number or reference assigned by the court; if none assigned, then court
n6ms' (date of judgment in day month year format') <page(s) of specific
materia[, if desired, (,country abbreviation if not evident from context,).
>
SZQM v Minister for lmmigration and
January
zor:)
Citizenshiplzogl
I
I
FCA S (rS
(Austt.).
otherwise, cite unreported decisions as: <case name, in italics' (Unreported,
<court name>, <name of judge,, date of iudgment in day month year
format,) ,page(s) of specific material, if desired, (.country abbreviation
if not evident from context,).
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l:."i
'.:1ir 1i:r:r'.r
Browne v Dunne (Unreported, Supreme Court of Queensland,
Btand J, 22luly 1999) z (Austt.).
References to fudicial officers
Abbreviations are
as f<rlkrws.
(lhiefJustice
=
c,
r Acting Chief Justice
ACJ
o
i Justice(s)
t,I
! Acting Justice
AJ
" Judlte
Judge
O
,
Justice(s) of Appeal
,A,
=
Magistfate
e
Master
Magistrate
Master
'
Presidcnt
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P
VP
" Vicc-Presiclent
Constitution
The enacting legislation fcrr the Australian Constitution is thc Commonwealth
of Australia Act, rgoo (lmp), 63 & 54 Victoria,c. rz, S S (U.K.). Citation may
bc madc directly to the Australian (lonstittltion. For example
*
:
Austrolian Constitution s 5t.
Constitutions of Australian states should be cited
as
<lrdinary statutes
Statutes and regulations
(litation formirt fbr statutes: ,short title of the act, in itatics' <year of
passage, in italics, (,jurisdiction short abbreviation') 'subdivision, if
relevant> (.country abbreviation if not evident from contextD.
(Statutes of the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory were
refcrred to as ordinances prior to self-government.)
The short title of an act is found within the text of the act. When an act does
not have a short title, thc long title should be used. For example:
w
Trode Practices Act
tgz4 (Cth) s z (Austt.).
Subclivisions of acts and corresponding abbreviations include the following:
. chapter(s)
ch, chs
. scction(s)
s, ss
* schedule(s)
" part(s)
sch, schs
pt, pts
" division(s)
div, divs
'subdivision(s)
sub-div,
u
sub-divs
para, paras
paragraph(s)
rWhcre multiple abbreviations and numbers are necded, no comma should bc
used bctween them (e .g., Pt
III div 7\
i:,i1\.
t
l.,1tal I tiiii.{
Acts cited are pr€sumed to be as amended. Anending acts do not need to bc
cited unless the amending statute is being directly cited. Ref'erence to the year
should be to the year the act wls originally passecl, not thc ycar of ame ndmcnt.
Citation format fbr delegated legislation (regulations, orders, etc.): (name of
delegated legislation, in italics' <year of passage, in italics, (,iurisdiction
short abbreviation') .subdivision, if relevant, (country abbreviation if
not evident from context,).
w Family Low Regulations ry84 Qth) reg zo$) (Austt.).
Pnrvisions within a rcgulation are simply rcfcrred to ls regulations. Subdivisions
with corresponding abbreviations include the folkrwing:
rcgulation(s)
chapter(s)
ch, chs
ordcr
o
reg, regs
mle(s)
sub-regulation(s)
r,
ll
sub-reg,
suD-regs
sub-r, sub-rr
strb-rule(s)
(iitation format for bills: ,bitI name> (year of submission, (,jurisdiction
short abbreviation,) .subdivision, if relevant> (,country abbreviation
if not evident from context,). Note that the titles of bills arc not italicized.
Provisions within a bill are usually ref'erred to as clauses (cl or cls) or schedules
(sch or schs). Provisions within
*
a
table or schedulc
Migration Amendment Bill zor3
ma_v
be rcf'errcd to as items.
(Cth) sch 1 item 9 (Austl.).
Copies of bills arc available fiorn thc relcvant parliament's website. For
cxample, (lommonwealth bills are available at http://wr.w.aph.gov.au/
Padiamentary Business/Bills_Legislation.
for cxplanatory memoranda of bills: Explanatory
.bill name, <year of submission' (.lurisdiction short
abbreviation,) ,page(s) of specific material, if desired, (country
(;itation format
Memorandum,
abbreviation if not evident from context,).
e' Explanatory Memorandum, Clean Energy Legistation (Carbon Tax
Repeat) Bit[ zor3 (Cth) z (Austt.).
Citation lbrmat frrr parliamcntary dcbates (Hansard): .jurisdiction fu[[ name',
Parliamentory Debafes,, legislative chamber,,,date of debate in day month
year format>, ,page(s) of specific materia[, if desired'
(fu[[ name of
speaker and position if appticable,) (country abbreviation if not evident
from context,).
=
Commonwealth, Parliomentary Debates, House of Representatives, z5 June zoo8, 5823 (Robert McCtettand, Attorney-Generat)
(Austt.).
Oopies of parliamentary debates are availablc from thc relevant padiament's
website. F'or cxamplc, copics of Commonwcalth parliament dcbatcs arc
availablc at http ://www.aph. gov.au/parliamentary_business/hansard.
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Treaties
(litation firrmat for trcaties in the Austrtlian Trcaty Serics: .treaty name, in
italics,, signed ,date of conclusion in day month year format,, [,year,]
ATS,reference number' (status and date, if appticable,),articte number,.
r'
Treaty on Judiciol Assistance in Civil ond Commercial Matters
Between Australia and the Republic of Korea, signed r7 September
1999, [zooo] ATS 5 (entered into force 16 lanuary 2ooo) art 9.
Citation Guide
'l'hc most recent guicle to legal citation in Artstralia is the 2010 second ccliticxr
of the Australietrt Guitle to Lega! Cittrtintr,lvailable at http://www.law.
unimelb.edu.aw/ files/ dmfile /FinalOnlinePDF-20 1 2Reprint.pdf
.
Internet sources
There arc scveral lice Internet sourccs for pdmitn legal materiltls.
(loml.aw is mlnagecl bl the Ofhce of Parliamentan Cottttscl irtlcl is itrtenclctl ttt
provide low or no-c<lst access to the larv. (lolttllrv incluclcs Cot.t-tt.uonrvealth
primary legislation (and lr-rcillttry docttmcrtts) :tncl thc l:ctlcritl llcgistcr of
Lcgislative Instmments (F'RLI) (establishecl inJar-ruaq' 2(X)5 uncler the Legislativc
Instrumcnts i\ct 2(X)3). (,ontlaw llso contains tll Cornmotrlvealth (iazcttc
Notices publisl-red since Jull' l, 2011; copics of (ieneral and Spccial Noticcs
publishcd bctween October t, 20l2 rtnclJtrnc 10, 201J; and PDF versions of
Gxzettes publishcd bctweenJull' 1, 2(X)2 ancl Decenrber.ll, 2012. (lrtzettes itre
no longer printed.
The PI)F vcrsiotts of all legislativc instrunrcnts itncl mlnv Acts ott (lomLaw
arc authoritativc. Authoritative text is stlmpccl \\'ith the clocttnlent's tttticlttc
identificr on cvcq' page ancl rclcvant rccorcls are markccl with one of two
variations tlf a "tick" krgo. This logo clisph.vs a mall of Artstrlrlirr in bluc ovcrlaitl
with a rcd check mark. (irml-aw is rtccessiblc at http://tryw.comlaw.gov.au.
Austlll, the Austrahsiun Legal lnfirflnation Institutc, is I joint flcilitl of thc
ljnivcrsity of 'l'echnology Svdney and tl-tc Ljniversit'l' of New South Wales.
Austl.II contains primary and scconclary nuterials, irlclutling (irmmonwcalth
and state ancl tcrritory legisllttirxt lncl case lar'. i\r,rstlll is not an authoritltivc
source. It clocs not alwa,vs contain the rnost ttp-to-clittc legishtion, altl-rotrgh it
usually contains thc most recent cases as well its <>ral argument transcrillts fi<lm
the High (lourt of Australil. AustLII is rrvnilable at http://wqrw.austlii.edu.au.
All Australian strtes and territories publish their statutcs on thc Intcrnct'
as
indicatcd below. Not all clatabases are comprchensive.
http://vqrw.legislation.act.gov.au (Australian Cirpital
'l'e
rritory- Legislrttion
Registcr)
http://wv.'w.padiament.nsw . gov.at / pr od/padment/nswbills.nsV
V3BillsHome (Ncw South \Walcs Bills lnd Exphnatory Notcs)
http://r"wry.legislation.nsw.gov.au (Ncw
Sotrth Wltlcs lcgisllttion)
http://www.legislation.qld.gov.auloQPChome.htm
(Quecnslancl
lcgislation and bills)
http://www.parliament.
Pages/default.aspx
sa.
gov.
aullegislation/BillsMotions/SALT/
(Soutl-r Australia
bills)
Foreign Jurisdictions: Australian $tates and Tcrritcries
http://www.legislation.sa.gov.au/index.aspx (South Austratia bills since
2005 and legislation)
http ://www. parliament.tas. gov. aulbills,/billssearch.htm
Clasmania bills)
http://www.thelaw.tas.gov.aulindex.w3p (current Tasmania legislation)
http://www.legislation.vic.gov.au (Victoria legislation
and bills)
http ://www. slp.wa. gov. au,/legislation /statutes.nsf/default.htunl
(Western Australia legislation and bills)
http://www.nt.gov.au/dcmAegislation/current.html (Northem Territory
legislation)
http://www.nt .gov.au/ dcmAegislation /register.html (l.,lorthern
Territory bills)
http://www.norfolkisland.gov.nf (Norfolk Island legislation and bills)
Some Australian courts also publish fudgments on the Int€met (sometimes via
AustLII). Databases may not be comprehensive . For example:
http:/ /urww.iade.barnet.com.au/ (udgments and Decisions Enhanced
database)
http:/ /www.austlii.edu.aulau/cases/ 6h/HCA (High Court of Australia)
http://www.fedcourt.gov.au (Federal Court of Australia)
http://wnrw.supremecourt.justice.nsw.gov.au
(Supreme Court of New
South lflales)
http://www.supremecourt.vic.gov.au (Supreme Court of Victoria)
http://www.supremecourt.tas,gov.au
(Supreme Court of Tasmania)
http://www.supremecourt.wa.gov.au
(Supreme Court of Westem
Australia)
http://www.sclqld.org.au (Supreme Court of Queensland)
http://www.supremecourt.nt.gov.au (Supreme Court of the Northem
Teffitory)
http://www.courts,act.gov.au/supreme/ (Supreme Court of the
Australian Capital Territory since 2002)
Guides to online resources for Australian law are available at the following
website:
http://www,
aph. gov. au,/About-Parliament/ParliarnentaryDepartments/Parliamentary_Libtary / Browse_by_Topic,/
Auslaw (Federal Parliament's Parliamentary Library)
Other legal materials, including various secondary sources, are available
from commercial publishers, including Thomson Reuters (includes Westlaw
Australia), CCH Australia, and LexisNexis Australia.
T2,2.1 Australian States
and
Cases
Australian Capital Territory
Australian Capital Tenitory Law Reports
2008-date
o
I
o
a
I
t
Teritories
Cite to a reporter below, in the following order of preference:
>
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ACTLR
o
o
o
t
o
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l;nli'i11lr -!ttc i e{lt:t
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iirll};
.-1..iir*t
l; rii,;n ir{;rlr"
Teffitory Reports
",
,$1{(i.
tr
t i f,;i,r}r'ir':.
r973-2008
ACTR
1970-date
NSWLR
New South Wales
" New South Wales [.aw Reports
:
New South Wales Reports
1960-1970
NSWR
.
Statc Rcports, Ncw South Wales
1901-r970
sR (Nsw)
18ri0- l 900
LR (NSW)
New South Wales Supreme Court Reports,
Equity
1862-r876
NSWSCR (Eq)
" New South Walcs Supreme Court Reports,
1862-r879
NSWSCR (L)
1825- 1879
NSWSCR NS
1881- 1970
WN (NSW)
1902-l9l I
AR (NSW)
n New South Wales Law Reports
'
Law
= New South Wales Supremc Court Reports,
New Series
r Weekly Notes
r Industrial Arbitration Rcports, New South
l9t2-1926
Wales
1927-d^te
" New
!
South lvales Industrial Gazette
New South Wales Local Government Reports
* Land Appeal Court Cases
* Lancl:rnd Valuations Court Reports, New
South Valcs
New South Vales Workers' Compensation
Reports
'
9I
1
2-date
NSW lndus Gaz
191 1- 1956
LGR (NSW)
1890-1921
LACC
1922-r970
NSW LVR
1926- 19fi0
WCR (NSW)
Northern Temitory
* Northem Territory Law Rcports
I 99
l
r979-r99r
NTR
958-date
QdR
Northern Territory Reports
Queensland
r Queensland Reports
r Queensland
I
1
-date
NTLR
1902-1957
SR (Qd)
Queensland LawJournal Reports
" Queensland Law Reports by Ileor
. Queensland Supreme Court Reports
1881-1901
QLI
1876-r878
QLR (Beor)
1ni9-
QSCR
r Quecnsland Law]'er, Repofts
1973-date
'. Queensland Justice of thc Peacc and Local
7907
State Reports
,
Authorities' Journal, Rcports
r Queensland Land (;ourt Reports
1tt81
-1972
Qtd Lawyer Rep
QJP Rep
1971-date
QLCR
18i9- 1973
CL (Q)
" South Australian Strte Reports
State Rcports S<-ruth Austmlir
1927 -d^te
SASR
t92l-1950
SRSA
n South Australian Law Reports
r
865- ltt92
SALR
" Crown Lands Law Report, Queensland Land
(lourt
South Australia
1899-l
i
South Austrxlian Industrial Reports
I9I
92 I
6-date
SAIR
Tasmania
!
Tasmanian Reports
1
p
Tasmanian State Reports
l9/tl-1918
!-
Tasmanian Law Rcports
l
979-date
905- 1940
Tas
R
Tas SR
Tas
LR
I
Victoria
'Victorian Reports
1957-datc
! Victorian Law Rcports
r Victorian Law Rcports, Equit,y
1875-1956 VLR
1875-1881 VLR (E)
187i-1881 VLR (l)
'
Victorian Lirw Rcports, Insolvencl', Probate
VR
and Matrimonial (lauses
i Victorian Llw Repons, Iaw
Victorian Law Rcports, Mining
, Australian Jurist Reports Oictoria)
h
1875-1tlu1
1875-188.i
Iu70-1u7.1
VLR (L)
1960-datc
WAR
VLR (M)
A Jur Rep
Western Australia
Western Australian Reports
West Australian
Llw Reports
1898-
r
958
WALR
1979-d:rte
State Rcports, Wcstcrn Australia
SR (WA)
(Civil Lalv)
Cases
(litation format firr first citati<ln of decisions of courts of last resort: ,court
name, [,court abbreviation'][.English transtation of court name'] ,date of
decision,,,docket number', <volume number, if desired' (reporter name>
[,reporter abbreviation,] No. ,case number> (,country abbreviation if not
evident from context,),
?. Oberster Gerichtshof [OGH] [Supreme Court] Jan. 15, zoot, 4 Ob
3rt I ooi, 74 Erurscner ou NGEN DES 6srennercHrscH EN OBERSTEN
GrnrcHrsHores rN ZrvrLsAcHeu ISZ] No. 5 (Austria).
Oberster Gerichtshof IOGH] [Supreme Court] Jan. 27, 2ot4,
t6 Ok tt I g, https : / / www. ris. bka. gv.at / Do ku m e nte /,1 ust iz /
lR _zor 4o tz7_OG H oooz_or6oO Kooou_r3 ooooo_oo3 /
llR _zor 4otz7 _OG H oooz_or6oO Kooou_r3ooooo_oo3. htm l.
Citation of krwer court case to a spccial subiect collection of dccisions:
i' Landesgericht
fi.ir Zivitrechtssachen ILGZ] Wien, Apr. z, zooz, 4z
R 382 I otz, 39 EH e- u N D FAM I Lr EN REcHTLTcH E ErrscH er ou r'r c Er'r
IEF-Sr-c] No. roz.649 (Austria).
Citation formtt fbr cor.rrt decision in collection of dccisions in a pcriodical:
,court abbreviation,,,date of decision,,,docket number,, .name of
collection of decisions' [,abbreviation of cotlection of decisions']
,case number within coltection,, rn ,volume number' ,periodical name,
,first page,, ,page(s) of specific material, if desired, (,year') (.country
abbreviation if not evident from context,).
F
OGH, Nov.26,
rE LETSCH
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2oo2,7Obz68lozx, EvroEr{zelntt
DU r'rCe r.r I
EVBr-] Zocf. I 53,
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T2.3 Austria, Republic of
e
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luntsreru-Zerruruc z6o (zoo3) (Austria).
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Ordinary iurisdiction
Oberster Gerichtshof (OGH) (Suprenre (irurt): (lite to SZ lirr civil nrttters
antl to 5St firr criminrl mattcrs, or to a pcriodictl. specill srtltiect rcporlcr.
or elcctronic sourcc: Oberlandesgericht (OLG) (higher rcgionrtl cortrt fi)r
appcals fionr a Llnclesgericht), Landesgericht (LG) (regionlrl trial cottrts ancl
courts <>f appcals fionr a l3czirksgcricht), lr-rtl Bezirksgericht (BG) (locrrl tli:rl
courts): (litc to lnv itvailablc sortrce, nltnring thc cotlrt's locatiou (e.g.. OLG
Wien or LG Satzburgl. In Wicn untl (ifitz, the Lantlesgcricltt is split irlto lt cotlrt
tirr civil matters (LGZ) (c.g., LGZ Wien) lntl onc firr crinitltl cases (LGSt).
'
Il\Ts(.ngu)r Nct,N l)t-rs ()s'r'r,rtRtttcttts(.ttEx 19l9-19J8 SZ
()BljRS'lt\ (irtur.tLtsttort,s tl Ztttt.:.tt.tlt,\
l()t(r-d:tte
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Ihls<:rtt:lotrlt<;llN r)Its
l92l-l9.ltt
(;rRt(.rrr.Str()I,;s lN
l9 i()-dlrtc
()tltittslliN
SrgAt,sActljN
SSr
Special iurisdiction
Arbeits-und Sozialgericht (ASG) (tritl court fi)r labor aucl sociul insufiurcc
matters): Citc to AneRSLG fi>r hbor nritttcrs. and SVSrc f<rr sociltl itrstlrancc
mattcrs. if thcrein; Handelsgericht (HG) (triil cotrrt ancl cottrt of rtppcals lirr
commcrcial matters): (lite to HS, if thcrcin; Kartellobergericht (OGH as
KOG) (clivision of Suprcnte (.ottrt firr antitrtlst nlatters) lrncl Kartellgericht
(KartG) (trill cuurt firr alttitrgst mttters): Cite to the sotlrcc wherc t|c dccisigu
is rcprintecl.
SAt'tNfl
.t
5( )ZlAl.\
ENt
s(
t.lcllllll
rN(; ARlllirrstiliclLl
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l9l5-tl:rte
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|9J9-tltte
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lltslcHIltt N( isltF(.1 ITI-l(.1
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\<'t,l
Constitutional iurisdiction
Verfassungsgerichtshof (VfGH) ((i)nstittltiorlal Oorrrt): oitc to VrSlc. if
thcrein.
llr{KI,\rr\rsst' I \D Ilt-.s(tttl.fssl,
VERt,,\ssl N(;s(;trtilcil l st
r
t(
I)l,s
)trhs
l92l-l9lJ.
I
VrSlc
916-prcscllt
Verfassungsgerichtshof [VfGH] [ConstitutionaI Court], Oct. r5,
2OO4, ERKENNTNISSE UND BeSCHt-0SSe DES vERFASSUNGSGERICHTSHoFEs [VFSLG] No.
17339lzoo4 (Austria).
Administrative jurisdiction
Irt>rnlt for first citution of Atlmitristrativc (lottrt of .lusticc clecision: <court
name, [,court abbreviation'][, Engtish transtation of court name'] 'date of
decision,, ,docket number>, <votume number' (reporter name, [.reporter
abbreviation,l (case number within cottection, (,country abbreviation if
not evident from context').
= Verwaltungsgerichtshof
[VwGH] [Administrative Court of Justice]
June 29, zooo, 96 I ot I to7 1, 55 Enreru rurru tsse u ND BEScHLUSSE
DES VERWALTUNGSGERICTHSHOFES
[VwSLc] 15 444 A (Austria).
ADMINISTRATIVRECHTLICHER TEIL
i 1:ri1 r.l: , i1ltl'r!irr'1rii'rf
r'
o
rl'{!lrll
Verwattu n gsgerichtshof [VwG H ] [Ad m inistrative Court of J ustice]
lan. 25, t98o, t753179, 35 EnrrnrurrrssE UND BescHlUssE oes
VrnwnlruHesGERrcHTsHoFEs FrNANzREcHrr-rcHrn TetL [VwSt-c]
54:.l F ltgSo (Austria).
Verwaltungsgerichtshof (VwGH) (Administrative Court of Justice): Cite
to VwSt-c, distinguishing betwcen administrative and liscal decisions by the
letters A or
F
after the case number.
I][sclil.lissE
rfsr IoFls
AonrNtstn,rlvnn<:rnr-t<;r ten Tsrr-
ERKINNTNTSSE r rND
1916-d^re
VwSr-c
1946-date
VwSle
Ixs Vlnwe.l.TuN(isc[Rr(]l
ERKFTNN'I
NIssE t rNI) Btisct ILUSSE
r)ES VER'JrAI-I t
rN(;scERIcl rrst
IOtTES
Electronic citations
citation format: ,court name, [,court abbreviation'] [,court name in
translation,l, <f,61s', <dock€t number,, .URL-tink to BKA/RlS, (,country
abbreviation if not evident from context,).
Verfassungsgerichtshof [VfGH] [Constitutional Court], Sept. 28,
zoo 4, Bzgz I o4, https: / /www.ris.bka. gv.ati Doku mente/Vfgh /
IFR_o99 59o7 z *o 4Boo2gz _z_or/J FR_o99
5g
07
2
_o
4Boo2g2 _2 _ot.
pdf (Austria).
Constitution
(litation format: .constitution name' [.constitution abbreviation']
ICorusrtrurtoll] .federal law gazette abbreviation' No., num ber,/.year'
,"as amended" or "as last amended by" and citation of amending [aw,
if pertinent,, .article number, if desired,, .paragraph, if desired,, ,[ink to
consolidated version in BKA/R15, if available, (,country abbreviation if
not evident from context').
,''
ors-VrRFAssu NGscEserz IB-VG] [Corusrrrurroru] BGBr- No.
as last amended by Bundesverfassungsgesetz
IBVG] BGBL I No. z/zoo8, art. t47,1l z, http://www.ris.bka.gv.atl
GeltendeFassun g.wxe?Abfrage=Bundesnormen&Gesetzesnu
m mer=1oooo138 (Austria).
Buru
tlt93o,
(lite fecleral statutes of constitutional rank and constitutional provisions in
f'cderal statutcs and treaties of international law according to the format for
these enactments.
"" Br rxot:s-VnnressuN(;sclisE
.
i
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FrN,ruznncr rrr.r<;rrrn T'trr-
.
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Menschenrechtskonvention (European C(tlvention on
Human Rights)
st.ratsgrunclllesetz iiber die allgemcinen Rechte cler
Staatsbiirger (fecleral bill of rights)
B-VG
MRK
SIGG
Codes
(litation format:,name of code' [,abbreviation of code,] [,Engtish
transtation of name of code'] .section, if desired',paragraph, if
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desired', ,link to consolidated version in BKA/RlS, if available, (,country
abbreviation if not evident from context').
'
BURGERLTCHES GESETZBUcH [ABGB] [Crvlr- Coor] 5
84r, http: / /www.ris.bka.gv.at/GettendeFassun g.wxe?Abfrage= Bu
AlLcrturtrurs
nd
esn
o rm e n &G
Ar_r_(;tlN,tUNrjs
FI
esetzes
n u
m m er =
Biln(;ERl.tcilrs (;r,sEtZril rcII
tooot622 (Austria).
(()vlt. (lol)ti)
ABGB
Nr)r,r.s(;risrtfztlt IcH ((,()MN4lit{cIAl- (l()l)t1)
STr{Ar,(;Eslr'r'zBI rct t
(PLN,u
(i
S'I'RA.l,pROZltss()Rt>NttNt; (Ci<lt>tt
Ztvtt.pnoz|ss<tttt)NI jN(;
HGB
SrGB
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of
(lRIMlNAL Ptt<><:ntlt lttr)
(()\4t. PR(x.Et)tllili
Sl A l til
SrPO
l)
zPo
Statutes and regulations
(litarion format: .futI or short name' [,abbreviation, if it exists,] [,Engtish
translation of name'l ,date of promutgation (optional), .gazette of
promulgation> [<gazette abbreviation'] No.,number'/'year', "'as
amended," if appticable', ,section, paragraph, or other subdivision, if
desired'. ,link to consolidated version in BKA/RlS, if available' (,country
abbreviation if not evident from context,).
'
RecHrsnnwALrsoRDNuNG IRAO] [Acr oN ArroRNEYs] RetcHsg61t868, as amended, 5 r fl z tetter D'
https: / /www.ris.bka. gv.at/Gettende Fassun g.wxe?Abfrage= Bunde
snormen &Gesetzesn um mer=70007673 (Austria).
GESETZBLATT [RGBr-] No.
',
SrnnrsonucKEREtGESErz l996lAcr on
or
799618u
tt
https: / /www.ris.bka.
sno
rm
e n
& Ge
s
etze
rsr Stnts PntHrtt.te Orrtce
IBG BL] No. t I t997, as amended,
gv.at/Geltende Fassun g.wxe?Abfrage= Bunde
oEse rs Erze
Lnrr
snum m er=
7oo o 6 67 5 (Au st
r
i
a).
'fhe date of enactmettt is not rcquircd. Tl-rc clate of promulllatiou also is not
rcquircd, unless it is pertincnt. Thc law or rcgulation bccomes cff'ectivc on thc
dirl'after promulgation in thc gazctte , rtnless otherwisc spccified
r Bundesvcrfassungsgesetz (BVG) (fcderal statute of constittttional
rank), Bundesgcsetz (BG) (fedcral stittlrtc), or Vcrordnung (V) (regtrlation)
to Btrntlesgesetzblatt (BGBI). (lite their prcdecessors, a l{cichsgesctz (RG)
or Clcsctz (G), to Reichgesetzblatt (RGBL) <x deutscbes Reichsgesetzblall
(DRGBL), or a Staatsgcsctz (StG) or (lesetz (G) to St.talgesetzblotl (STGBL).
(lite
Since 1997, thc RLtnelesgesetzbltttt is publishecl in thrce pans: Tcil I (statutes)'
Ill (treatics). For 1940-1945, thc deutscbes
Teil II (regulations), and'feil
Reicbsgesetzblat, cotlsists of two plrts: Teil I (stirtutcs and regulations)
anrl Teil II (treatics). Since January l, 2001, tlle elcctronic version of tlrc
Ilunclcsgesctzbtatt, whicll is avrilable at http://wv"ry.ris.bka.gv.atlBund, is
the tuthofitativc version. llsing the elcctfollic version of this sortrce docs t.tot
change thc format or the citatiul.
BuNtxs<;rsritzBtafl I
Bt:xoesr;r,s[tzttt-ltt lI
Rr Nr)Es(;tisBt
zrlrAfi III
B( rNDEs(;ltsFirzllr.A
rr
DEr',tsclIlts Rt,t<.tIst;t:st'tzgt.'rL'T I
1997-date
1997-tlatc
1997-dlte
t915-t996
1940-1915
BGBI-
|
BGBL ll
BGBt-
lll
BGBL
oRGBt-
|
Forcign
J
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urisdictinns: rtrustriit
> DEUTSCHEs RErcHscEsETzBlATr
II
oRGBL ll
1938-1940
GgLO
GrsErzsLerr
>
Busorscpserznu.T-r
r92o-r938
BGBI-
>
StaatscEsetznLlt-r
1918-1920
STGBI
> REIcHScEsE TZBLATT
r849-r9r9
RGBL
FUR DAs
l,\ND OsrennetcH
r94o-r945
>
Periodicals
> Eltt>mqznler.t DER Rt<THTsMITTELENTScHEIDUN()EN IN
EvBr-
OstmnrrcHrscHE JtrFJsrENzErruNG
>JunrstscHr BrltTrER
JBr
> OsmnnrrcHrscut Junrsruru-Zrrrunc
6Jz
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RoW
OsrunnucHrscsrs Rrcut nm rVntscH,ut
> OsrunnucHrscHrs B,lxr-Ancnrv
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> DER GESELISCHAFTER
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Ztn'scHrum'
FUR VERvALTTJNG
0zw
GesRZ
ZN
Legislative materials
Citation format: ,legislative body name, [,legislative body abbreviation,]
[,Engtish translation of name,] ,legislative period) [,legislative period
abbreviation'l,legislative period number>,materia[s name, [.materials
abbreviation,l No. .document number>,,link
to
parliamentary
material, (.country abbreviation if not evident from context,).
>
Nationalrat INR] [National CounciU Gesetzgebungsperiode IGP] z+
Beilage IBlS] No. 168o 446, http://www.parlament.gv.atlPAKT/
VHG/XXIV/l / l_or68o/index.shtmt (Austria).
Internet sorrces
The Austrian Bundeskanzleramt (Federal Chancellery) maintains Rechtsinformationssystem (BKA/RIS), a free electronic legal database available at http://www.
ris.bka.gv.at. BKA/RJS contains the federal statutory gazettebackto 1848 and
links to earlier collections of laws as provided by the Austrian National Library.
BKA,/RIS also provides a consolidated version of federal laws as currently in effect,
texts of the decisions of the courts, legislation of the I;inder (states), some trarc
lations of federal laws, and some administrative directives and draft legislation.
The decisions of the Landesverwaltungsgerichte are available
at
Bundeskanzleramt Rechtsinformationssystem @KA/RIS), https://www.ris.bka.
gv.atlLvwg; the decisions of the Bundesverwaltungsgericht are available at
https://www.ris.bka.gv.atlBr.vrg; and the decisions of the Bundesfinanzgericht
are available at https://findok.bmf.gv.atlfindok?execution=e
1s1&BFG_Suche=1,
a website of the Federal Ministry of Finance.
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,
;
T2.3.1 Austrian Linder
Cases
All courts are f'cderal courts, listccl above
Constitutions
.
L\NI)ltsVERFAsstiN(;
LVG
Citirrion formrr: LnruoesvenressuHc ILVG] [Srarr ConsrrrurroN],
,article number, if desired, (,name of state') .tink to BKA/RlS, if
availabte, (,country abbreviation if not evident from context').
t"
LANDESVERFASsUNG ILVG][SrnrE Corsrrrurron], art. 3 (Kiirnten),
https: / /www.ris.bka. gv.at/Gettende Fassun g.wxe?Abfrage= LrK&G
esetzesn um mer=roooozoS (Austria).
Statutes and regulations
(litc l
Landcsverfassungsgesetz (LVG)
(strte constitutional
statutc),
Landesgesctz (LG) (statc statute), or Verordnung (V) (administrative regulation)
to [.andesgesetzblatt (LGBL). Oite by numbcr/ycar.
LANr )tis(irisr-tf
T2.4
zrlrAt'r'
LGBt
Belgium, Kingdom of
(Civil Law)
All f'ederal lnd regional statutcs and legislative matcrials have official vcrsions
in French (thc language in Wallonia) and l)utch (the languagc in Flanclers).
The same lpplies to thc case law of the two highest courts in Bclgium, thottgh
dccisions of lower courts are issucd in one language <tnh'. Furthermore, thc
namcs of all Bclgiln courts exist in two languages. It is customarv in llelgian
legal publishing to cite to the vcrsion that is in thc same language that one is
writing in, eithcr l)utch or Frcncl.r. I3elgian citation rtrles and customs diffcr
slightlv bctween the Frcnch- and Dutch-spcaking parts of the countn'.
Cases
citation firmrat: ,court name' [,court abbreviation'] [,Engtish translation
of court name'l ,city, if applicabte', ,chamber, if appticable' ,date of
decision, ,reporter or journaI name' [,reporter or journal abbreviation,]
(year of publication,, <part number, if applicabte>, <case number, if
applicable', ,first page,, ,author of case note, if applicabte' (country
abbreviation if not evident from context,).
r" Tribunal de Premi6re Instance [Civ.][Tribunal of First Instance]
Charleroi, 2e ch. Apr. g,2oo3, Revue oe Dnotr oe u Sanr€ [Rev.
dr.sant6l zoo3, 768 (Betg.).
r'
Tribunal de Commerce [Comm.][Commerce Tribunat] Ostende, R6f,
Oct. rz, 1987, Revue oe Dnort CotvtturnctaL Belcr IRDC] 1988, 268,
note Verougstraete (Betg.).
t
Foreign Juristlittions: Belgiunr
>
Hofvan Beroep IHvB] [Court ofAppeaU Antwerpen, Feb. 18, zoo3,
RecHrsruNote WEEKBLAD IRW] zoog, s84 (BelS.).
Ordinary iurisdiction
Court of Cassation: Cour de Cassation (Cass.)/Hofvan Cassatie (Cass.):
Cite to PAs., or to ARR.CASS., if therein; oth€rwise, cite to the official online
version, giving the date and docket number only, or cite to another Belgian
law review.
> PAsrcRrsrE
Brrcs (French)
Hor V.tN
> ARRESTEN vAN HET
CASSATIE
l79l-d?;te
Pns.
1937-date
ARR.CASS.
(Dutch)
Prior to 2003, the Pasicrlsie was published in three parts: Part I, the Cour de
Cassation decisions; Partll, a selection of courts of appeal cases; and Part III,
a selection of lower court cases. ln 2OO3, the publisher decided to maintain
only Part I.
>
Hof van Cassatie [Cass.] [Court of Cassation], Dec. 24,1993, ARR.
Cnss. 1993, nrZ (Betg.).
>
Cour de Cassation [Cass.] [Court of Cassation], Oct. 3, 1985, Pns.
rg87, l, No. 64, 886 (Belg.).
>
Hof van Cassatie [Cass.] [Court of Cassation], Mar. r5, zoo7, AR
Fo5oo49N, http://www.cass.be (Belg.).
Cours d'Appel (CA)/Hoven van Beroep (HvB) (Courts ofAppeal). There
of appeal: Anvers/Antwerpen and Gand/Gent in Flanders, Lieg€/
Luik and Mons8ergen in Wallonia, and Bruxelles in the bilingual capital region
are five courts
Brussels.
Cour du Travail (Cour. Trav.)/Arbeidshof (Arbh.) (Labor Court: hears
appeals in social law matters).
Cour d'Assises (Cour. Ass.)/IIof van Assisen (Assisen) (Coun of Assizes:
court of original iurisdiction for very serious crimes; the only Belgian court
with a iury).
Tribunaux de Premiire Instance/Rechtbanken van Eerste Aanleg
(tribunals of first instance: ordinary courts of original iurisdiction, either in
civil matters (Civ./Rb.); in commercial matters as Tribunaux de Commerce
(Comm.)/Rechtbanken van Koophandel (Kh.) (commerce tribunals);
in criminal matters as Tribunaux Correctionels (Corr,)/Correctionele
Rechtbanken (Corr.) (criminal tribunals); or in social iustice matters as
Tribunaux du Travail Gri b. Trav.)/Arbeidsrechtbanken (Arbrb.) (labor
tribunals)).
Tribunaux desJuges de Paix 0.P.)/Vredegerechten (Vred.) (Justices ofthe
Peace : hear
civil and commercial low-value claims).
Tribunaux de Police (Pol.)/Politierechtbanken (Pol.) (Police Courts:
deal
with minor offenses).
Journals
Belgian law reviews are either in French, in Dutch, or bilingual. Most journals
publish case law, and they are the main source for lower courts' case law. All
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types of cases are reported in thesc journals, and thcre is no preferred citation.
Several iournals and their abbreviations follow. For a full list of abbrcviations,
see
http://www.law.kuleuven .be/rechtsaf /
+
JouRNAr- oes TmsuNeux
.
RE\.IJE
"
NrEtrv Jumnrs<Lr Wuernra.D
s
AI-GEMEEN JuRtDIs<:tt TtJDs<:Hnn-I
- RwUr
1882-date
1947-dare
2002-.J^te
1994-2002
1987-date
Crur'tqtrr DEJtJRIspRIrDENc[ BELGE
r)EJuRrspRUlxN(;E Ds
.
Lrict, MoNs
jT
RCJB
NJW
A'T
ILMB
BRTJXII,I,ES
'
JLrRrsPRtrr)ENcE
D[ LticE
*
RTCHTSPRAAK ANTVERpEN BRUssrt. GENT
.
TrJos<:Hntrr v<ton IJrtc;ts<:tt HeNorlsnr<:trt-
Rr\.r;n
'
DE
Dnort (irtrturn<rAl
RE\.riE GENERAT.
l)[ I)Rorr
JL
TBH-RDC
1987-d^te
TBBR-RGDC
RABG
BBLcE
Cn'rt. l]Rt-<;r-
Ttlosr;tnrn"l vooR IlRrcts<:n
RE(rrr
1888-1987
2003-date
1968-date
BtiRCERLIIK
Administrative iurisdiction
Citation format for highest administrative court: (court name, [,court
abbreviation,] [.Engtish translation of court name>] ,date of decision,,
(names of parties,, <case number>, <reporter name or website, [,reporter
abbreviation,l, <year of publication,, (page, (<country abbreviation if not
evident from context').
Conseil d'ftat (CE)/naad van State (RvS) (Council of State): Cite to RACE
or Arr.RvS fur cases decided prior to lL)94; cite to the official publicatkrn
on the website of the Council for cases decided 'tfter 1994, using the date ,
names of parties, and docket number. The Council of State is the highest
administrative court in Belgium and seryes as a court of first instance for iudicial
review of administrative acts and as a court of appeal for various administrative
commissions.
"
REc(IltrL Dls ARREIs r)rj C()NSEIt- l)'ETA]'
1948-1991
RACE
1948-1994
Arr.RvS
(French)
p VRR7.\NIELIN(; v,rN Annsstnr veN
vAN STA'Ir (l)utch)
=
tx Rr,tr
Conseil d'Etat [CE] [Councit of State] June 3, r975,Beeckman,
No. r7.o55, REcuet DEs ARRCTs DU CoNSEIL o'Ernr IRACE], r975
(Belg.).
e" Raad van State IRvS] [Councit of State] Nov. 4, 1985, Vtaamse
Gemeenschap, No. z5.797,VEnzamrLtHc vAN ARRESTEN vAN DE
Rnno
r'
vnr Srare [Arr.RvS], rgSf
(BetS.).
Conseil d'Etat[CE][Councit of State] Nov. 25, 2oo4, Ingrosso, No.
t37.642, http: / /www.conseildetat.be (BelS.).
Constitutional f urisdiction
Citation format: ,court name' [,court abbreviation,] [,English translation
of court name,] ,case number,, (date of decision,, ,reporter name'
[,reporter abbreviation'][,Engtish translation of reporter name,], ,date of
publication', ,page' (,country abbreviation if not evident from context,).
l oreign J urisdictions:
giuttr
Rel
Cour Constitutionnelle (CC)/Grondwettelifk Hof (GwH) (Constitutional
Court (Cour d'arbitrage/Arbitragehof prior to 200D): Cite to M.B. or 8.S.,
if therein; otherwise, cite to the court's website, giving the date and docket
number only.
}
MoNITEIJR BErcE/BnrcrsCu STMTSBI-{D
(Official Gazette of Belgium, case
extracts only)
> Rrcunn DEs ARRtTs or r-l Coun
CoNs'nrti'noNNEIE/ARRESTEN
1845-2003
M.B./8.S.
(print)
1997-date
(online)
1985-drte ACC/Arr.GwH
GnoNnwttruJr Hor (complete official
versions of cases)
>
Cour Constitutionnette ICC] [ConstitutionalCourt] decision no
t44lzoo8, Oct. 3o, 2oo8, MoNTTEUR BELGE IMB] [Officiat Gazette of
Belgiuml, Nov. zo, 2oo8, 61,692 (Belg.).
> Grondwettelijk
Hof IGwH][Constitutionat Court] decision no
n3 | 2oo7, luly 26, zoo7, http: | | www. grondwettetii khof.be (Be lS.).
Constitution
}
I-A
CONSTITTITION
COIST.
Citation format: (year) Corusr. <article, (,country abbreviation
evident from context,).
if
not
The original 1831 constitution was amended on numerous occasions. The most
recent version was published in 1994. If desired, cite by date:
>
t994 CoHsr. art. r (Betg.).
Codes
Ciration format: ,code name, l.code abbreviation,] (article> (.country
abbreviation if not evident from context,).
>
CooE Crvrr- [C.Crv.]
art.235 (BelS.).
> CODE Cnll/BuncsRrrJx WE-rBoex
C.Ctv./BW
> Coos DE
C.Corvrrvr./WKn
Coulrrn<;o/ktnoEK vAN KoopnalrDEr
> CoDE D'INSTRUc'r'roN CTMTNELr-E/WETBOEK vAN
C.l.Cn./Sv.
StnervomrnrNc
> CoDE JuDrcrArna/GrmcurEr-rJr
> CoDE PENAT"/STRAFVETBoEK
Wrrsorr
C.Juo./Gen.W.
C.PEn./Sw.
Statutes and decrees
Citation format: <statute or decree name, [.English translation of statute or
decree namer] of .date of enactment', ,"MoNlrEUR Belce" or "BELGtscH
Sralrsglro", [,"M.B." or "B.S.",] [Officiat Gazette of Belgium], .date of
publication,, ,edition if applicable,, ,first page, if not citing the online
version> (country abbreviation if not evident from context,).
>
i
[a responsabitit6 du fait des produits d6fectueux
LiabitityAct]
of Feb. 25, r99r, Morurreun Belee [M.B.]
IProduct
Loi relative
[Official Gazette of Belgium], Mar.22, t99t,5884.
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r:riir i;1:r:ih. l;i ij-'.iiir,:
u- Wet houdende diverse bepalingen ILaw Concerning Diverse
Dispositionsl of Dec.z7,2006, BELGTscH Srnnrseuo IB.S.]
[Official Gazette of Betgium], Dec. 28, 2006,3d ed., http://www.
staatsblad.be.
" MoNrr'rl
rR
Brx;l/Bgt.<
;
tst
;r
t ST,\AI
rn45-2oo.l
sBLAI)
M.B./8.5.
(print)
(0fficial Gazette of Bctgium)
1997-date
(online)
!
Ilul-r-EtrN ()r,lrr;rEr- l)l]s L()ts ur AnRfi|]s
R()YAtrx l)E BEl.(;relrI
178u-ltt45
Butt.Off.
Treaties and conventions
Citation format: ,name of law ratifying the treaty, [,Engtish translation
of law name,] of ,date of [aw,,,"Montteun Btlce" or "BelctscH
SranrseLaD", [,"M.B." or "8.S.",] [Official Gazette of Betgium], .date
of publication,, ,first page, (,country abbreviation if not evident from
context').
e
i
Loi portant assentiment [a Convention de Budapest retative
au contrat de transport de merchandises en navigation int6rieure (CMNI), faite Budapest le 22 juin zoor ILaw Ratifying the
Budapest Convention on the Contract for the Carriage of Goods
by lntand Waterway (CMNI), Done at Budapest on June zz, zootl
i
of June 29, zoo8, MoHtreuR BELGE IM.8.][Officiat Gazette
Belgiuml, Oct. 10, zoo8,54,229.
of
Internet sources
http://www.belgiumlex.be
(acccss to the constittlti(x-I, cocles, official
gazette, consolidated legislation, court dccisions, and othcr official
publications)
http://wwv.iust.fgov.be (Ministry
of Justice)
http://w*ry.lachambre.be (House of Representatives, providing
acccss to
recent legislirti(n)
http:,/www.senaat.be (the Federal
Senate, providing acccss to rccent
lcgislation)
http://wvw.vlaamspadement.be (Flemish Parlirmcnt)
http:,7w"sry.parlement-wallon.be (Vdloon Parliamcnt)
http://wrv,pcf.be
(French Community Parliantent)
http:/,/tr*ry.padbruparl.irisnet.be (llrussels Parliament)
http://u"ww.furidat.be (thc Judicial Powcr, providing
a free searchablc
database of case law)
http://www.councilofstate.be (Council of
State, providing access to a
database of its iudgnrents)
http://wwry.constitutionalcourt.be (Constittrtional Court, provicling
access to a database of its judgments)
http://r.wry.ejustice.just.fg ov.be/ cgi/ w elcome.pl (olIicial Gazcttc,
provicling acccss to back issues (2002-datc))
o
Foreign J lrrisd.ictions: llraeil
http://www.eiustice.iust.fgov.be4oi4oi.htm (consolidated legislation,
providing access to federal and regional materials)
o
http://www.fisconet.fgov.be (federal tax legislation)
http://wallex.wallonie.be
Cfly'alloon legislation)
I
http://www.gallilex.be (French Community legislation)
http://www.codex,vlaanderen.be
(Flemish legislation)
Most important commercial databases including books and joumals:
http://www.iura.be (books
and loumals from Kluwer publisher)
http://www.furisquare.be (books
and ioumals from Intersentia, die Keure,
Anthemis and other publishers)
http://www.stradalex.com @ooks and joumals from Larcier publisher)
T2.5 Btazil,
Federative Republic
of
(Civil Law)
Cases
Citation format: .court abbreviation'-,chamber/region number,, .docket
number,, Relator: <relator name), .judgment date in day.month.year
format,, <volume number,, <reporter name> [<reporter abbreviation,],
,publication date in day.month.year format,, ,first page,, ,page(s) of
specific materia[, if desired, (country abbreviation if not evident from
>
TRF-2, Ap. Crim. No. r99o.5r.or.043265-8, Relator: Des. Fernando
Marques, L4.!r.2oo8,232, DrARro oa Jusrt$ [D.J.], z8.u.zoo8, r3
(Braz.).
>
T.,.M.G., Ap. Civ. No. r.ooz4.o8.r5853o-9/oor Belo Horizonte,
Relator: Des. Fernando Caldeira Brant,z6.tt.zoo8, 136, Di6rio do
(Braz.).
J ud ici6rio Eletrdn ico I D.J.e.], og.t2.zoo8, t47
Official gazettes
> DLiRro
Orrcnr o,r Ur.leo (federal laws and cases from
D.O.U.
oeJusrq.r (righer court cases)
laws and cases)
D.J.
s.T.F.)
> DrARro
> Dr,iRro OFrcrAL Dos Esreoos (state
> e.g., Rio deJaneiro
> e.g.,
D.O.E.
D.O.E.R.J.
Slo Paulo
D.O.E.S.P.
> e.g., Minas Gerais
D.O.E.M.G.
Higher courts
Supremo Tribunal Federal (5.T. F.) (highest coun of appeals on constitutional
matters): Cite to R.T.J., R.S.T.F., or S.T.F.J., if therein.
Rrttstl Tnrurstner nr JunrsenuD€NclA
19t7-d^te
e.g., R.T.l.
> RrvtsrA oo Supneuo TnrsuNAL Frorner
1914-1956
R.S.T.F.
>
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Fronnat.Juntsrntll)ENcll
h SripREMo TnrnttN.Lt
(available at http://w.ww.stf.jus.br)
S.T,F.|.
Superior Tribunal de Justiga (S.T.J.) Gighest court of appeals on all nonconstitutional mattcrs): Cite to R.S.T.l., S.T.J.l., or R.T., if therein.
,
R[vrsrA
*
SrrpsRr()R TruRrrNe.l Dri JIISTIQA
Jt
lo
Srn'Entott TntsuN'\t- l)F]
R.S.T.|.
s'T'J'J'
jRISPRrjDliNclA
(available at
"
Itrsrl(tA 1989-datc
http://wwv.stj.jus.br)
1912-clxe
RIVISI'A nr>s Tttu]uNAls
R.T.
Tribunal Superior do Trabalho (T.S,T.) (highest court of appeals on labor
law): Cite to R.T.S.T. or T.S.T.|., if therein.
" Rrvrst.r oo Tnrrulln. Sttprnlon no Tn,ttte.uto 1946-date
R.T.S.T.
r
T.S.T.'.
TnrsuneL SupEtu()lt D() TRAItAr.tto
Jt TRISPRTJT)ENctA
(availablc at
http://www.tst.jus.br)
Tribunal Superior Eleitoral (T.5. E.) (highest court of appcals on electoral
law): Citc to T.S.E.J.. if the rcin.
p 'l'rr.rsurl,u SupriRroR Et.lrtott,LlJttnlst'ntrtriN<;lq. (available
at
T.S.E.J.
http://www.tse. jus.br)
Superior Tribunal Militar (S.T.M.) (highcst court of appeals on militar)'
law): (lite to S.T.M.l., if th(rcin.
TnllrN.,lr. Mmrln Jr;ntsrntrl)iiNctA (available
http ://wwry. stm.ius.br)
F SrlpEriroR
at
5.T.M.J.
Federal coutts
Tribunal Regional Federal (TRF',region number>, e.g., TRF-r) (regional
fedcral court of appeals on matters of federal intercst): Cite to R.T.R.F', if
therein.
o Rr'.vrsre. lo'I'nlRtrN.q.L RE(iloNAL Ft,osnnL (regiclns
vary)
R.T.R.F.
Yara da Justiga Federal 0.F.) (federal district courts on mattcrs of fcderal
intcrest): Indicate number and city.
State courts
Tribunais de Justiqa dos Estados O.l. ,state initials,,
Minas Gerais) (higher state coufis of appcals): Cite
e
.9., T.J.M'G. for
to D.J..state initials'
(e .9.,
D.J.M.G. for Minas Gerais), if therein.
o ST.IL'n'sJlor<;rARy GAzETlu
;
Rgvtst.r uos Tntgutl,Lls
> ItNrs'rA FonrNsn
(regions vary)
c.g.. D.l.M.G.
1912-date R.T.
1904-date R.F.
C"""tit"ti""
.
(l()Nsttrt:tei()
Ft:rxnhL
C.F.
s" CoNsrrurqAo Feoennl [C.F.][Cor.rsrrrurtoN] art. 3 (Braz.).
t
.F'oreign Jurisdictions : tsrazil
c;i;;
>
C6orco on Acu,rs
C.ae
>
C6orco Cnrl
c.c.
>
C6Drco Counncrer (Pt. I revoked, recodified in Civil
Code. 2002)
C.Cotvt.
>
CdDrco
c.E.
>
C6orco FLoRxsrAL
C.rlon.
>
C6Drco
C.mrn.
>
CoNsouoecAo oes Lrrs no Tn.nsAulo
c.L.T.
>
C6mco Pouer
c.P.
> C6or<;o
>
C6nrco
ELETToML
DE
MNAS
Pexlr Mnrten
DE PRocEsso
c.P.M.
c.P.c.
Cn'L
c.P.P.
> C6orc,o os PRocrsso PnNAr
> C6orc,o DE PRopRTEDADE
C6uco or Pnottqeo n Dnrrse Do
C6uco TRTBUTARTo N.lcror.rAr
>
C6orco Bmsrlrtno
CoNSUMIDoR
Prnat Mlrrren
c.B.T.
c.P.P.M.
C.ce.
DE CAQA
BRAsTLETRo
c.D.c.
c.T.N.
DE TELECoi\4uNrcAqoES
> C6Drc,o DE PRocEsso
} C6DIGo
> C6uco
c.P.t.
hqnusrru,u
>
>
.
or ArnoN.(rntce
c.B.A.
>
C6orco or TniNsrto Bnesnerno
c.T.B.
>
Este,I.uto oe CnreNqe
E.C.A.
B
no AoorrscBr,rte
Statutes
> ESTATUTo DA ADvoc-{cIA E DA ORDEM Dos ADvocADos Do
E.O.A.B.
Bnrsrl
> ESTATUTo
oe Croeor
> EsrAT'uro
oe Cruerqe
>
E.Cro.
E
Do ADoLEScENTE
EsrAT!'ro or Drrrse oo ToncBoon
E.C.A.
E.D.T.
> ESTATUTo Do DESARMAMEI.TTo
E.Des.
> ESTATUTO Do ESTRANGEIRo
E.Esr.
> ESTATUTo Do
IDoso
E.lDs.
Estenro ne Icueroeor Recnr
Estltuto no iNoro
> Eretuto neJwrnruor
>
E.l.Rnc.
>
E.IND.
>
EsrAT!'ro oos Mrrtanrs
> EsrA'r'uro nos
>
E.luv.
Es'rLrtiro NecroueL oe MtcnonupnrsA
Pequeruo
E.Mtt-.
Musrus
E.Mus.
E DA EMpREsA DE
E.M.EMP,
Ponrr
> ESTATUTo Dos RTFUGIADoS
E.Rera.
> EsrAT'uro DA TERRA
E.Trn.
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Statutes and decrees
Citation format: <statute/decree number', de <date of promutgation in
Portuguese,, ,official gazette name' [,official gazette uO5r"ulu1isn,] de
,date of publication in day.month.year format' (country abbreviation if
not evident from context,).
Or: ,statute/decree number', de ,date of promulgation in Portuguese',
,reporter name' [,reporter abbreviation,],,volume number, (,number,,
t. ,tomo number'): ,page(s)' de ,date of publication in day.month.year
format, (,country abbreviation if not evident from context,).
Usc "t." to rcf'er to "tomo," which is Portuguesc for "volume."
Official
1ti62-clate D.O.U.
u.q. tlrvrAo (available at
}rtl.p:/ /portaL in.gov.br) (fedcral laws)
- I)rAnr<> OFr(.rAr- <of state name> (state larvs,
e.g.. D.O.E.R.J.
regions vary)
"
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DrAnro Or,r<;rel
$' Decreto No. 6.626, de 3 de Novembro de zoo8, DrAnro Orrcrnl on
UnrAo ID.O.U.] de 4.n.zoo8 (Braz.).
{s"
Decreto No. 4r.565, de z7 de Novembro de zoo8, DtAnto Ortctnl
Do Rro DE Jarurrno ID.O.E.R.J.] de z8.n.zoo8 (Braz.).
Alternate sources
Citation format: ,statute/decree number', de .date of promulgation in
Portuguese',,publication name, [,publication abbreviation'],,date of
publication, (,country abbreviation if not evident from context').
Or: ,statute/decree number,, de ,date of promulgation in Portuguese',
.reporter abbreviation,,,vOlume number, (,nUmber,, t.,tomo number,):
,page(s),, ,date
of pubtication in month year format,
(,country
abbreviation if not evident from context').
e ILFJ,/tsiA LItx
Lex
b (l()LE(.Ao l)AS Ltits
Cot. Leis Rep.
Fed. Brasil
*'
Lei No.
BRAsrL,
9.zt5,de zz de Dezembro de 1995,Cor. LErs
t87 Gz, t.r): S388, Dezembro r995 (Braz.).
REP. FED.
Treaties and conv€ntions
'
(.olcr,'lio tle Att.rs Inlernlcionais
l92
t--1964
Co[. Atos
I
nternacionais,
No. ,treaty
number'
Ministry of Forcign Affairs:
http://www2,mre.gov.br/dai,/bilaterais.htm (intcrnttional bilateral
mcnts
b1,
agree.
country)
http:/ / www2.mre.gov.brldailquadros.htm (international bihterll
mcnts by topic and international multilateral agreements)
agrec-
Foreiglr
J
I
I
uri*dir:tinns: fl alrada
Internet soufces
Presid6ncia da Repfblica
http://www4.planalto.gov.brflegislacao (Website of the Brazilian
Presidency that provides free acc€ss to the Constitution, laws, codes, statutes,
provisional measures, decrees, and historical legislation.)
Senado Federal
http://egis.senado.gov.br/sicon/ (website of the Brazilian Federal Senate that
provides free access to laws and bills and is searchable by topic.)
Cimara dos Deputados
(Iris do Imp6rio):
Irnperial laws
http / / www 2.camara.leg.br /atividade-legi slativ
|
aAe glslacao
/
publicacoes,/doimperio (Website of the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies that
provides free access to the laws in force in the country between 1808 and
1889.)
Republican Laws
hW
/
(tris
de Repriblica) (until the year 2000):
wyw 2.canata.leg.bt /atividadeJegislativalegislacao/
publicacoes/republica (Website of the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies that
provides free access to the laws in force in the county between 1890 and
2000.)
Legislation (Legislaqlo):
httpf /www2.carnan.leg.br/atividade-legislativaflegislacao
(\0?ebsite
of
the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies that provides free access to laws and bills
and is searchable by topic.)
Previous Constitutions (Constituig6es Anteriores):
http':/ / www 2.camara.leg.br / atividade-legi slativ a/legislacao /
Constituicoes-Brasileiras/anteriores.htrnl (Website of the Brazilian
Chamber of Deputies that provides free access to the previous Btazllnn
constitutions.)
T2.6
Canada
(Common Law and Civil Law (Qu6bec))
Cases
Privy Council (P.C.) (criminal appeals until 1935, civil appeals until 1949):
T2,42UnrtedKingdom if therein; otherwise
Cite to reports listed undertable
cite to Olms.
l Great Britain priry
council iudicial committee, decisions Olms.
relating to the British North American Act, 1867, and
the Canadian Constitution 1867 -19t4, arranged by
Richard A. Olmsted
Supreme Court of Canada (S.C.C.): Cite to S.C.R. if therein; otherwise cite
to D.L.R.
> Canada: Supreme Court Reports
1876-date
5.C.R.
a
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i r't r !;:: l:,:;
":,:-ilr
i
l9l2-date
Dominion Law Reports
i,::tt.
l...tri..-:J:t
D.L.R.
Federal Court (Fed. Ct.) (formedy the Exchequer Court): Cite to F.C. or Ex.
C.R. if thereinl otherwise cite
to D.L.R.
" Federal Corrt Reports
Exchequer Court Repons
'
1971-dlte
1875-1971
F.C.
Ex. C.R.
Tax Court of Canada (Can. Tax Ct.): Cite to C.T.C. or Tax A.B.C. if therein;
otherwise cite to D.T.C. or D,L.R.
P Canada
.
Tax Cases
Canada Tax Appeal Board Cascs
* I)ominion Tax Cases
1985-date
1915-r972
1920-date
C.T.C.
TaxA.B.C.
D.T.C.
There are six main citation stylcs used by Canadian case reporters:
1) Reporters for which the year constitutes the volume number. The following
reporters lit this description during the specilied year ranges:
" Supreme (lourt Reports
* Federal Court Reports
i ()ntario Reports
1923-1974
S.C.R.
r97r-1973
193r-1962
0.R.
F.C.
Citation formar: ,case name>, [,year of report>] ,abbreviation of report'
,first page, (country abbreviation' ,province abbreviation, if applicabte'
,court abbreviation, if appticable').
*
Chase v. Campbe[1, [rg6z]5.C.R. +zs (Can.).
+
Rom6o Lafrance c. H6pitat St-Luc et Commission des affaires
sociates, Irg8o]C.A. +gZ (Can. Que.).
Always include the province abbreviation for decisions of provincial courts.
Only include the court abbreviation when it is not apparent from the rcporter.
When citing French translations of Canadian cases, the party names are
separatcd by "c.," which refers to "contre," the French translation of "versus."
2) Reporters that begin at volume one each year, and are thus organized by year
first, then volume number. The following reporters lit this description during
the specified year ranges:
" Supr€me (louft Reports
b Fedefal Oourt Reports
b Federal
Court Reports
" Ontario Reports
N
Dominion Law Reports
1975-tlate
1974-2003
2o04-d:nte
1963-1973
1923-1955
S.C.R.
F.C.
F.C.R.
0.R.
D.L.R.
Omit the year of decision when it is the same as the reporter year:
Citation format: <case name>, [,reporter year>] <vo[ume number> <reporter
abbreviation',fi rst page, (country abbreviation,,province abbreviation,
if applicabte, <court abbreviation, if applicabte').
F
R.
+
Brockville Hotel Co. v. Aga Heat (Can.) Ltd., Itgt++lz D.L.R. 698
v. Morgentater, [1993] 3 S.C.R. +6f (Can.).
(Can. Ont. C.A.).
Includc the vear of decision when it is diffcrent fiom the reDorter vear:
citatbn fixmat: <case name> ((year of decision'), [,reporter year'] 'volume
number,,reporter abbreviation,,first page' (,country abbreviation,
,province abbreviation, if appticable, ,court abbreviation, if appticabte').
e
Swiss Bank Corp. v. Air Can. (rq8z), [rg88] tF.C.7t (Can. C.A.).
l)
Reporters that are dividccl into series, and are thus organized by series lirst,
then volume numbcr. The folkrwing reporters lit this description during the
spccilicd )'ear ranges:
" ()ntarir> Rcports (2d, .ld)
1971-datc
O.R. zd, O.R.
1956-date
D.L.R. zd,
D.L.R. 3d,
D.L.R. 4th
3d
l)ominion Law Reports (2d, 3d, 4th)
Many other Canadian casc reporters lit this dcscription. In addition, some
Canadian and provincial ldministrative tribunal reporters sttch as I'abour
Arbitratktn
Casc.s
(L.A.C.) lit this description.
Ciration fbrmat: ,case name> (<year of decision,), <volume number>
,reporter abbreviation' <series>,first page' (,country abbreviation'
,province abbreviation, if appticable' ,court abbreviation, if appticabte,).
Weberv. Ont. Hydro Gggz),g8 D.L.R.4th 3z (Can. Ont. C.A.).
*. DeTorzi Estate
v. Read (zoo8),
l8
E.T.R. 3d
3r8 (Can. Ont. Sup.
ct. J.).
M Ferrelv. Ontario (Att'y Gen.) (tgg8),42 o.R. 3d 97 (Can. Ont. c.A.).
w Westfair Foods Ltd. v. U.F.C.W., Local r4oo (zoo8), r75 L.A.C. 4th r
(Can. Ont.).
4) Reportcrs that are organized by volume onl,v . The following rcporters fit this
description during the speciliecl year rxnges:
'
t876-r922
1977 -d:tte
r882-1901
r90l-
Supremc C()urt Reports
" Albcna Repons
()ntario Reports
| ()ntario Law Reports
5
S.C.R.
f)ominion Law Reports
t9r2-1922
'
Saskatchcwan Ileports
u
Exchequcr Coun of(lanada Report
1979-date
1875-1922
0.R.
D.L.R.
R.
Ex. C.R.
In addition, some Canadian ar-rd provincial administrative tribunal rcporters
such as the Ontario Securities Commission Bulletin (O.S.C. Bu[[.) and the
Carutdian. Human Rigbts Reporter (C.H.R.R.) lit this description.
Citation fbrmat: .case name' (,year of decision,), ,volume number'
<reporter abbreviation,,fi rst page' (,country abbreviation',province
abbreviation, if applicable' <court abbreviation, if applicable').
p R. v. Chehimi
n'
R.
(1.Y.)
(zooz), 4r9 A.R.
l:6
(Can. Atta. Q.B).
v. Moolla (M.) (zoo8), 3ro Sask. R. 254 (Can. Sask. C.A.).
n* Falconer v. The Queen (r88q), z Ex. C.R. 8z (Can.).
o
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o.L.R.
Sask.
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A.R.
t%o/19J1
F
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F' Leamy v. The King bgt6), st+ 5.C.R. r43 (Can.).
* 5t. John (Re) (tgg8), zr O.S.C. Butt. 385r (Can. Ont. Sec. Com.).
* Corren v. B.C. (Ministry of Educ.) (No. z) (zooS), SS C.H.R.R. D/26
(Can. B.C. H.R.T.).
5) Ncutral citltions.
Sincc l99it. nrany Canadiun cor-lrts and administrativc lribuuals haye
adoptecl ncutral citations. 'l'hc ncutral citation is applicd to the casc prior to
clisseminltion ancl tl.rus ciurnot be changccl. A ner.rtlal citution is denotccl bv trvo
r.nain characteristics: the vcar of decisiorr witlxrut brackcts or parcnthescs. irnd
the court abbreviation, not sepxrated by pcriods. Ncutrll citations are prefc'rrecl
over other citations. A ne utral citalion shoukl ltlwl1's be placcd bctirrc l parellcl
case
citlrtion.
(litation lirrmar: ,case name>, ,year of decision, .neutral citation court
abbreviation, .document number',,paratleI citation, if desired, (country
abbreviation
a
if not evident from context' (province abbreviation, if
pplicable,).
*
MacDonald v. Taubner, zoo6 ABQB r38 (Can.).
e R. v. Fuhrer, zooTABQB 58, 4t3A.R. l8S
:"
R.
(Can.).
v. Mann, zoo4 SCC 5z,lzoo4l3 S.C.R. sg (Can.).
@ L. v. Fraser-Cascade Sch. Dist. No. 78, 2oo4 BCHRT
zl6
(Can.).
I\rr furthcr infirrmation, see (lanacliin (litation (irmmission, Tlrc Preparation,
(litation and Distribution of Clnacliun l)ecisions, u'hich is available mhttpsz//
lexum.com/cc c-ccr / pr epar ation/en.
6) (lasc citxtions to clectronic systcms.
'l'he two main clcctronic lcgal research systems fix (lanadl are Westluw Canadu
(WL) rnd Quicklaw (QL). Each systcm assigns its own citations to clecisiorrs that
it collccts. WL citations are normallr,dcnotetl by two rlain characteristics: thc
(x pltrcntlrcses, ancl the clectronic reportcr
_vear of dccision without brackets
name that includcs thc word 'Carswell.' QL citations arc norrnalll denotecl
thrce urain chlracteristics: the 1'ear of dccision in brackets, the clectronic
fcportcr irbbrcviation thirt includcs thc letter "l," ancl tl.rc documcnt number
precedecl by "No." A ncutral citation or a citation to r printed rcportcr is
ll'
prefL'rred.
WL citation format: ,case name', <year of decision, <online reporter name>
,document number> (.country abbreviation,,province abbreviation, if
applicable' <court abbreviation, if appticabte') (WL).
,'
Appte Computer Inc. v. Mackintosh Computers Ltd., 1987
CarswetlNat 675 (Can. F.T.C.D.) (WL).
decision,] ,online reporter name,
No,,document number, (country abbreviation,,province abbreviation,
if appticable' ,court abbreviation, if applicabteD (QL).
QL citrtion format: .case name), [<year of
i
Victorov v. Davison, [rg88l O..|. No. r9o (Can. Ont. H.C.J.) (QL).
(lanl.ll is a free collcction of (lanadiln cases. tribunal clccisions. and law. (lanl.ll
provicles its orvn citation systefi, clenotccl bv tlrrcc
mlin cltlractc|istics: thc
Forcign Jurisdictiuns: Citnrcla
year of decision without brackets or parentheses, CanLII as the reporter name,
and the document number applied by CanLII.
CanUI citation format: ,case name>, (year of decision, CanLll .document
number) (,country abbreviation' <province abbreviation, if applicable,
(court abbreviation, if applicable,).
>
Doug Burns Excavation Contracting Ltd. v. Int'l Union of Operating
Eng'rs, Local 721, L999 CanLll ro8r (Can. N'S. 5.C.).
Pinpoint citations
Generally, it is appropriate to provide a pinpoint citation to a specific page in
the print€d reporter, especially for cases published prior to 2002. For SCC cases
published after 1996, and other cases published fiter 2OO2, provide a pinpoint
citation to the specific p ragr ph, if available. Pinciting to a paragraph is also
appropriate when referring to content from an online legal research service'
>
Chase v. Campbell,
hg6zlS.C.R. 425,426 (Can.).
> Brown v. Lefebvre (zoo7),4r9 A.R. 347, para, z+ (Can. Alta' Q.B.).
> Bank of N.S. v. Visentin, [rqg6] O.J. No. 4563, para.2 (Can. Ont.
Gen. Div.) (QL).
>
L. v. Fraser-Cascade Sch. Dist. No. 28, zoo4 BCH RT 276, para. 4
(Can.).
Order of rqrorters
Neutral citations and citations to official and semiofficial reporters are preferred
over all other citations. Dominion Lau Reports is the preferred unofficial
reporter. Printed reporters are preferred over electronic reporters.
Official reporters
> Canada Supreme
> Canada
Court
Reports
law Reports: Supreme Court
1876-1922
of 1923-1969
S.C.R.
S.C.R.
Court Reports
Exchequer Court of Canada Report
> Canada Federal Court Reports
>
797o-drte
r87t-r970
S.C.R.
Ex. C.R.
197r-2003 F.C.
2004-d^te F.C.R.
Case reporters from the provinces and temitories
*denotes a reporter that is published under the auspices of a law Society
>
1976-date
>
1908-1932/1933 Atta. L.R.
British
) Brirish
> British
r British
1977-1992
1992-2002
2o02-date
l%7-1947
1977-1986
1986-1995
1995-2002
2o02-d^te
*Alberta Reports
*Alberta Law Reports
> Alberta law Reports (2d)
>Alberta lrw Reports (3d)
>Alberta Iaw Reports (4th)
> *British Columbia Reports
>
Reports
columbia Irw Repofts (2d)
Columbia Law Reports (3d)
Columbia Iaw Reports (4th)
Columbia Iaw
A.R.
Alta. L.R. zd
Alta. L.R. 3d
Atta. L.R.4th
B.C.R.
B.C.L.R.
B.C.L.R. zd
B.C.L.R.
o
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Cxtada
> Canada Supreme
I
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ld
B.C.L.R.4th
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! Manitoba Law Reports
1875- 1883
Man. L.R.
l88l-r961
".Manitoba Reports
. Manitoba Reports (2d)
1979-date
* Maritime Provinces Reports: Cases
1929-1968
decided in the Supreme (lourts of Ncw
Bmnswick, Newfoundlancl, Nova Scotia
and Prince Edward Island
Man.
" New Brunswick Repofts
*New Bmnswick Reports (2d)
'
1825-1929
N.B.R.
1969-date
N.B.R. zd
" Newf<>undland Law Reports
7817 -1946
Nfld. L.R.
o
197 l -date
Nftd. &
19ti3- 1998
N.W.T.R.
78a4-1929
N.S,R.
*Newfoundland & Prince Edward Island
R.
Man. R. zd
M.P.R.
P.E.t.R.
Reports
' *Northwest Territories Reports
,.Nova Scotia Rcports
1()65-1969
n
*Nova Scotia Reports (2d)
' ()ntario Appeals Reports
()ntario Appcal Cases
"
. *()ntario Law Reports
1970-date
N.5.R. zd
1876-1900
o.A.R.
l9tt4-date
o.A.c.
1901-1931
o.L.R.
7909-1962
o.w.N.
*Ontrrio Weekly Notes
, ()ntario Reports
18ft2-
l90l
o.R.
* *Ontario Rep(xts
19Jr-1973
o.R.
- *Ontario Reports (2d)
* *Onrario Reports (3d)
r974-1991
O.R. zd
1991 -clate
O.R. 3d
1986-date
R.J.Q.
1970- l 985
c.A.
1892-1969
970- 1 985
c.s.
1975-
L.t
n
n
,
*Recueils de jurispmdence du
Qtt€bec
(continues (1.A., C.S., C.P., C.S.P., TJ.)
*Recueils de
du
Qu€bcc:
iurispmdencc
Cour d'appel
- *Rapports jucliciaires officiels cle Qu€bec:
Cour supdrieure
*Recueils cle jurispruclence clu
Qu6bec:
"
Cour provinciale
o *Recueils de ltrrispruclencc du Qu6bec:
Cour tles Sessions dc la paix
*Recueils de jurisprudence du
Quebec:
"
Tribunal de la ieunesse
* *Rapports ludiciaires officicls cle Qu€bec:
Cour dr.r Banc dc la Reine/du Itoi
* *Recueils de jurispruclence du Qu€bcc:
Cr>ur du bicn-€trc socia
r Qu6bec Appeals Oascs
, *Saskatchewan Law Rcports
, Saskatchewan Reports
'
"
*Territorics Law Reports
*Yukon Reports
r
1
985
.
r975-1985
c.s.P.
r975-t98t
T.J.
1892-1969
B.R.
r975-198t
c.B.E.S.
1987 -1995
1907-1931
1980-date
Itt85-1907
1987- l9ft9
Q.A.C.
Sask. L.R.
Sask.
R.
Terr. L.R.
Y. R.
Other commonly cited reporters
. Atlantic
Provinces Reports
' Dominion Law Reports
* Dominion Law Reports (2cl)
1975-date
19r2-r9t5
1956-l96u
A.P.R.
D.L.R.
D.L.R.2d
{;rr: lli;l
' Dominion Law Repons (Jd)
F
f)ominion Law Reports (4th)
n
Eastem Law Reporter
" Maritime Provinces Reports
e National Reporter
F \trestern Law Reporter
r Western Weekly Reports
1969-1984
l9tt4-date
1906-1911
1929-1968
1974-dxe
1905-1916
1911-date
D.L.R.3d
D.L.R.4th
E.L.R.
M.P.R.
N.R.
W.L.R.
W.W.R.
Only some commonly citcd reporters are listed here. For a ftlll list of reporters
fbr Canada, see McGnt- L,twJot;nx.rt., C,tN,lnleN Gttltt ro Ulltrtxll
app. ti (6th ed. 2006).
Lr<;,tt-
Ctt,nox
Constitutions
Canada's constitution consists of a series of Unitecl Kingdom cnactments
reprinted in the appendix to the Reuised Statutes of Cdn(tda (R.S.C.). Cite to
the U.K. statute followingtable T2.42 United Kingdom and, if desired, the
relcvant rcprint in the R.S.C.
> Constitution Act,t867,3o
& 31 Vict., c a (U.K.), reprinted,n R.S.C.
1985, app ll, no 5 (Can.).
p
Canada Act, 1982, c
(Can.).
r. Constitution
c
r'
rr
(U.K.), reprinted in R.5.C. 1985, app
ll, no 44
Act, 1982, being Schedule B to the Canada Act, 1982,
u (U.K.).
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Part I ofthe Constitution Act, t982, being Schedule B to the Canada Act, :,982, c tl
(u.K.).
Statutes
Consolidated statutes
Current consolidated fedcral statutes are available onlinc through the Justice
Laws Consolidated Acts collection: http://laws.justice.gc.caleng/acts.
Current consolidated Ontario statutes are available online through E-Laws:
http ://www. e-laws. gov. on. c a / nav igation?fi le=browseStatutes&reset=y
es&menu=browse&lang=s1. Other provincial online consolidations may also
be available. Cite cuffent consolidated statutes using the citation provided. If thc
consolidated statute appcared in the last Reuision (R.S.C. 1985; RSO r99o;,
and has not been repcaled, it will be cited to thc rcvision. If the consolidatccl
statute was enacted after the btst Reuision, it will be cited using the Session Law
citation (S.C., S.O.). (lite statutes appcaring in historical federal or provincial
Reuisions (alphabetical consolidation of acts in forcc) analogously to codilied
United States statutes (rule L2.3). Note that thc chapter numbers fbr federal
statutes in thc R.S.C. are labeled using a letter and a numbcr (L-2), and the
chapter numbcrs for C)ntario statutes in the R.S.O. are labeled using a lctter and
a number (P.3o). Inclividurl provinces may have similar variations.
s Canada LabourCode, R.S.C. t985,cL-2.
p Province of Ontario Savings Office Act, R.S.O. r99o, c. P.3o (Can.).
o
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I :r
',i:
Code of Civil Procedure, R.S.Q., c C-25 (Can.).
Alwll's provide thc country abbrcvirttion unlcss it is clcar from thc contcxt.
Ahvals provide a proviuce al'rbreviation unlcss the provittce ol'origin is made
clelr in the title of the act of thc oublicrtion lbbreviation.
Session laws
'lir citc
a statute rs cnrctecl, cite to the lnnual.t/a/ules of Cuttuclu. or provincial
statutcs to their xnnurl volnmcs (firr cxamplc, Stdlules of-Albarta,.\tttttrlcs ttf
Qrldbac). in a manner similar to tlut usccl for I lnitccl Stltcs scssion lltws (rule
12.4):
,
Antarctic EnvironmentaI Protection Act, S.C. 2ooj,c zo (Can.).
,'
Civit Code of Qu6bec, S.Q.
r99r, c 64, arI2 (Can.).
Iror Qudbec codes, include ir pinpoint citution to the
tnicle nurrbcr.
Wl'rcn citing an act appcaring in the current Rettisiotr lts u'ell ls thc act's
subsetluent nmentlment, the name of the amcndment ncctl not l)c lliven:
.
Freehotd Mineral Rights Tax Act, R.S.A. 2ooo, c F-26, amended by
S.A. zoo6, c
zr
(Can. Alta.).
Regulations
(lurrcr.rt consoliduted federal regulations arc avuilable onlinc througll the
.lusticc l.nws (lonsoliclatccl l{cgLrlations collecti<xr: http:/,/www.laws-lois.
justice.gc.ca/eng/regulations. (lurrcnt consolidatctl Ontario rcgulations
lure ar,uilable onlitrc thnrugh E-l.as,s: http://www.e-laws.gov.on.ca/. other
pror,irrcial online consolidations mxv also bc ttvailablc. Cite current consolithtecl
rcgulutions using thc citutittn proviclecl. lf tl-tc consoliclatecl regtrlatiotr aplteitred
irr thc last print l{evision/(bnsolidatir>n (C.R.C. r978; R.R.O. r99o). antl
hls not beeu rcpcalcd, it will bc citccl to thc Rcvision/(lonsolidation. lf the
consolidation regulation $Ixs enxcted:rfter thc last Rcvision, it will be citecl
tusing thc rergulation numbcr as rcgistcrccl (S.O.R.; O. Reg.).
Fcclcrtl rcgulations, as rcgistcrc(l citatiort: (name), SOR/,year'-,number> or
Sl/,year'-,document number,.
'
Additionat Legislative Powers Designation Order, C.R.C., c rz35
(Can.).
,
Passenger Information Regulations (Preclearance Act), SOR/zooz-
u+l (Can.).
I)rovincial reguhtions havc thcir own lirrm of citation:
.
,.
Speed Limits, O. Reg.
l8llo8
(Can.).
Nova Scotia Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Regulations, N.S. Reg.
tg (Can.).
8+l
-
Hatching Eggs Regutation, Alta. Reg. z8ol1997 (Can.).
Statutory and regulatory compilations
Federal
Revisccl Statulcs
oi (,anada
(lorrsolidatcd llcgulatious of (lanacla
R.S.C.
c.R.c.
,,,i1
o
Foreign Jurisdictions: Canada
Provincial
Revised Statutes of Alberta
R.S.A.
>
Revised Statutes of British Columbia
R.S.B.C.
>
Revised Statutes of Manitoba
>
R.S.M.
Continuing Consolidation of the Statutes of Manitoba
> Revised Statutes of New Brunswick
> Revised Statutes of Newfoundland and Labrador
> Consolidated New{oundland and labrador Regulations
> Revised Statutes of the Nonhwest Teffitories
> Revised Regulations of the Northwest Territories
> Revised Statutes of Nova Scotia
> Revised Statutes of Ontario
> Revised Regulations of Ontario
Revised Statutes of Prince Edward Island
Revised Regulations of Prince Edward Island
> Revised Statutes of Qu€bec
> Compilation of Qudbec laws and Regulations
> Revised Regulations of Qu€bec
> Revised Statutes of Saskatchewan
> Revised Regulations of Saskatchewan
>
>
Revised Statutes
ofYukon
c.c.s.M.
R.S.N.B.
R.S.N.L.
c.N.L.R.
R.S.N.W.T.
R.R.N.W.T.
R.S.N.S.
R.S.O.
R.R.O.
R.5.P.E.r.
R.R.P.E,I.
R.s.Q.
c.Q.L.R.
R.R.Q.
R.S.S.
R.R.S.
R.S.Y.
Federal
>
Statutes of Canada
s.c.
>
Statutes of the Province of Canada
S. Prov. C.
>
Canada Gazette
C. Gaz.
o
I
I
t
I
o
I
;
Provincial
Statutes of Alberta
Albefta Gazette
' Bfitish columbia statutes
> British Columbia Gazette
> Statutes of Manitoba
t Manitoba Gazette
> Statutes of New Brunswick
> The Royal Gazette New Brunswick
> Statutes of Newfoundland (before December 21,2OOl)
> Newfoundland Gazette (before December 21, 2OOl')
>
s.A.
>
A. Gaz.
5.8.C.
B.C. Gaz.
s.M.
M. Gaz.
s.N.B.
N.B. Gaz.
S. Nfld.
N. Gaz.
>
Statutes of Ne*{oundland and Labrador (after
s.N.L.
>
December 21,2OOl)
Newfoundland and labrador G^zette (after
N.L. Gaz.
December
21.2001)
Ordinances of the Northwest Teritories
> Statut€s of Nova Scotia
> The Royal Gazette Nova Scotia
> Statutes of Nunavut
I
t
t
Session laws and regulations
>
I
o.N.w.T.
s.N.s.
N.S. Gaz.
5. Nu.
I
o
a
I
t
o
a
I
a
o
o
a
o
o
o
t
o
o
o
a
o
o
o
a
o
a
o
o
o
r rt, il.r' :'li,
,{rr 1i',1,1 n /"il'
'
Nunavut Gazette
Stntutcs of ()ntario
3 ()ntari() Oazette
Nu. Gaz.
F
5.O.
Statutcs of Qu€bcc
s.Q.
ts
O. Gaz.
(iazette ollicicllc clu Qudbcc
- Statutes of Saskatchewan
1
G.O.Q.
s.s.
S. Gaz.
t
Sxskatchewan Gazettc
Statutes of Yukon
n
Yukon ()azette
Y. Gaz.
F
5.Y.
Treaties
+ (lanacla
Trcaty Series
I
<year> Can. T.S. No.
925-date
(treaty number>
Internet sources
http://www.lo c.gov /law /help/ guide / nations/canada.html (Library of
Congrcss Guicle to Law Online : Canada)
http://www.llrx.com/features/ca.htm (law and
techrlokrg-v resourccs for
legal prof'cssionals)
http:/ /legakesearch.orgl (guide to Canadian legal rcsearch)
T2.7
Catholic Church
Codes before 1917: Cite by the ttirme of thc individual docuncnt or frai{ment,
as in thc examples bekrw, not by the title of a collection that it-tclttcles thc
materirl. For other examplcs, see lhe Bulletirt of Medieuul Canon Lar.
" (;ratian
c. 1 140
e 9., D.33 c.r (d.a.)
c.g., C.9 q.3 c.r
e,g., De colrs. D.z c.84
Part I
l'art
2
Part 3
" I)ecrctals <>f Grcgory IX
E l)ecrctals of Bonifacc \IIII
' (lonstitutions of Clement V
! Extravagants of.fohn )O(II
" (lommon Extravagants
l2a1
l29U
lJlT
e.g.,X3.z4.z
e.g., Vl r.rr.r
e.g.. Crrm. 3.5.7
1al6-1334 e.g., Exrnnv. Jo.1,4.3
126l-1181 e.g., Exrnnv. Cowr. 2.1.1
Codes after 1917: Citc to either the 1917 or 19tt3 Codex Iuris Canonici.
r (loclcx Iuris Canonici (1917)
'(lodcx
Iuris Canonici
(19UJ)
1917-1983 e.g,.,7977 Cooe c'430,
S 1
1981-date e.g.,1983 Cooe c.515,5
3
T2.8 Chile, Republic of
(Civil Law)
Cases
(litation fornat: .court name, [,court abbreviation,] [,English translation
of court name'1, ,date of decision in Spanish, in day month year format>,
",case name'," Rot de [a causa: <case number>, <cds€ type,, .publication
nsms' [,publication abbreviation'],publication votume and/or number,
Foreign
J
I
urisdictions: Chilc
p.,first page) (<country abbreviation if not evident from context,).
Note that many reporters depart from this format,
as
detailed below.
In the case name, use "c." between the party names, which refers to "contra,"
Spanish for "versus."
>
Corte Suprema de Justicia [C.S.i.] lSupreme Court], 15 noviembre
tg14,"Suerez, Alfredo c. Perez, Estela," Rot de ta causa: 124-2oo8
s., divorcio, Revtsra Gncern junfotcr IR.G.i.] No. r9o p.rqS (Chile).
National iurisdiction
Corte Suprema de Justicia (C.S.J.) (Supreme Court) and Tribunal
Constitucional (I.C.) (Constitutional Court) (ltighest court on constitutional
matters).
Appellate couds
Corte de Apelaciones (C. Apet.) (courts of appeals): Cite to R.D.J., G.T.,
or F. oel M.
Lower courts
Tribunales de Juicio Oral en lo Penal O.J.O.P.) (criminal trial courts),
Juzgados de Garantia 0.G.) (criminal courts), Juzgados de Familia 0.F.)
(family courts), Juzgados de Cobranza Laboral y Previsional 0.C.1.P.)
(abor and social security courts), Juzgados Civiles (,|. Civ.; (civil courts),
Juzgados del Crimen 0. Cri.) (criminal courts), Juzgados de Menores (.
Men.) (iuvenile courts), Juzgados del Trabaio (.T.) (labor couru), Juzgados
Mixtos 0. Mix.), andJuzgados de Letras 0.1.) (small claims courts).
Reporters
Generally follow the examples below when citing to the volumes andl
or numbers of these reporters. Note that "t." refers to "tomo," Spanish for
"volume."
> FArLos osr
>
MEs
GAcErAJuRiDtcA
> GAcE-rA nn r-os
TnrsuNlr-Es
Drnrclro v
Jtntslnuorrucn Y CrcNcns
Socnrm
> RsvrsrA no
> RE!'rsrA DE DERECHo
JuruspRUDENcrA
ros Tnrsur.rAr.ss
y
1958-date
e.g., F. oel M. vol.37 No.
Sentencia 86(1995)
1976-date
r, p.z5 Q976)
vol.44z, p.lo83 (r8Sr)
e.g., R.D.J. vot. XLVI No. r & z,
e.c., G.,. t.
1850-1950
e.9., G.T.
1908-1951
p.5 Ge4e)
v Gacn-ra oE
(merged)
1951-date
e.g., R.D.J. & G.T. vol. XCV No, r,
p,37 (Enero-Abril 1988)
c;;;iit"ti;;
>
CoNsntucr6N PoLiTrcA nr Lr Rnpdsuc,{ or
> CoHslrrucr6r'r Polirrca
CHrrr
C.P.
DE LA REp0BLrcA DE CHrLE [C.P.]
b;d;;
>C6orco Cml (Civil Code)
C6orco or Conrnclo (Commercial Code)
>
C6o. Crv.
C6o. Corvr.
art. f
.
e
t
o
I
I
t
I
I
I
I
t
o
a
o
I
o
o
a
o
I
t
o
o
t
a
o
o
o
o
o
o
e
I {ifi
" (la)rlt<io
PTINAL
, CtiDr<;o I)[
((lriminal (irde)
PR(x]l,DIMiliNTO Cnrt.
Coo.
(Civil Procedure
Peru.
C6o. Pnoc. Crv.
C6o. Pnoc. Per.
Code)
, C6l)r(;o
()ncANr<;o
ol
TruttuN.
tls (fucliciary
C6D. ORG. TRIB.
Code)
Mrlrrrrn (Military Jtrstice
n
Criorrxr
Code)
$
C6r)rco r>ll.'Ihnn,rlo (Labor Codc)
r>r JusL r<;r.L
C6o. Jus. Mrr-.
C6o. Tnna.
" CoDr<;o'I'tttsu'r'ARr() (Revcnue and Taxation
C6o. Tnte.
Qrde)
! C(il)r(;() rrr, Ac;lLs (Water Oode)
. C<ir>r<;o SANIrARro (Hcalth Code)
C6o. Acuns
r C(ir)r(x) l)r
C6o. Mrru.
MrNrir{iA.
C6o. Snrurr.
(Mining Cocle)
;' Conr<;o AriRoNArrrrc()
(Aeronautics (irde)
C6o. Aen.
n C(rDl<;O t)r: D[RttcH()
Iu,fennx;ronAL PRIVAD()/
(ltiorc;o Brisl,rlre.N'Lr, (Conflict of Laws Cocle)
il;d;;il
C6o. Den. lNr. PRrv.
4".."""
Citarion f<rrmat: Law No. ,number of law,, .title of the [aw, if available',
,promulgation date in Spanish in month day, year format,, <reporter
name' [, reporter abbreviation,] (,country abbreviation if not evident from
context').
e
Law No.
F DtARIo
t9496art.1, Febrero 7,tgg7, Dtnnto OrtctnlID'O.] (Chite)'
()l,I6rAL
D.O.
t
F
JrlRlspRul)EN(r,r
t
.
Rrivrs'rA r)E DERtcH() yJttRISpRtlt)tiN(lA
TRtsuN,\r-ns
o
I
o
a
a
o
.l u lq:
Code)
* C6or<;o PRocESAr. Prru,rr- (Criminal Procedure
'G,r<;ntrJrrnill<;.r
o
!.
!
REpTRT()rrr()
l)l
G.j.
LEcrsrACr(iN y.luRlspRtJr)tlN(]t.q
CHtt.ttN,ts
Rep. Leg. lurisp.
Periodicals
,ll Die
. fu,vrste (ltflt.aN,r
F RDVIsTA r>r
t>r l)eRE<:ltt,
DtntcHo
l.D.
v GA(.ltlA l)li
L()s
R.D.vJ.vG.T.
R.CH. D.
R.D.
Internet sources
http://www.legalpublishing.cl (legal publishing company offering
jurispmdence, cloctrinc, and legislation online; paid subscription)
http://wn'w.diariodigital.cl (official
digest, paid sttbscription for full tcxt,
fiee summaries)
http//*nryt.bcn.cl
(clatabase of the Library of thc National Oongress, frce
access)
http ://wv.'w.lexadin.nl,/wlg/legis/nofr/oeur/lxwechl.htm (unofficial
sourcc for legislation, free access)
http:/,/www.loc.gov /law / new s/ glin/ (Gkrbal Lcgal Information Network,
database of laws, rcgulations, and other complementary legal sources)
a
l'creign J urisdictions: China
http://www.tribunalconstitucional.cl (the official website of the
Constitutional Court; complete free access to its decisions)
access to the law ioumals Ias et Praxis
(Universidad de Talca), Reuista Cbilena de Derecbo Clniversidad Cat6lica
de Chile), Reuista de Derecbo Cjniversidad Austral de Chile), and Reuista de
Derecbo (Jniversidad Cat6lica de Valparaiso))
http://www.scielo.cl (free
oe -gov flaw /help/ gfide/
Congress Guide to Law Online: Chile)
http://www.l
T2.9
nations/chile.html (Library of
China, People's Republic of
(Civil Law)
Jurisdictional note
Apply these guidelines to sources related to the People's Republic of China.
I7hen citing sources related to the Republic of China betwe en 1912 and 1949,
see the guidelines for table T2.41Taiwa+ Republic of China. For sources
prior to the founding of the Republic of China n L912, adapt these guidelines
as necessary.
Romanization
For romanization of Chinese language citations, follow the instructions in
de
20.2.4.
Translated sources
For citations to translated or bilingual sources, choose one of the following
options:
1) Follow
and
a
de
20.2.5, giving parallel citations to the original language source
translated version;
2) Where the original is diff,cult or impossible to veriry, cite to the translated
source without reference to the original language version. In this case, it is not
necessary to preface the source with"translated in."
>
Law on Guarding State Secrets (promulgated by the Standing
Comm. Nat'l People's Cong., Sept. 5, 1988, rev'd Apr. 29,2oro,
effective Oct. r, zoro), art. 11, 2o1o P.R.C. Laws Zt.lS (China).
Abbreviations
Regardless of the language of the document being cited, cite to official or wellknown English equivalents where possible and abbreviate according to tables
T6,T7,TIO, and T13. If no such abbreviation is available, use any abbreviated
Chinese form in common use, or use the full form the first time and use an
appropriate "hereinafter' reference for subsequent citations. For example:
> Zuigao Renmin Fayuan
Sup. People's Ct.
> Shanghai
Shanghai lnterm. People's Ct.
>
>
Zhongji Renmin Fayuan
Guowulrran
Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui
Changwu Weiyrranhui
> Zhongguo Fali.i Nianlian
St. Councit
Standing Comm. Nat't People's
Cong.
LAw Y.B. CHINA
o
o
o
o
o
o
t
t)
o
o
I
?
t
a
o
o
o
o
o
o
I
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
t
o
o
o
?
Choice of authorities
Chincse laws are not codilietl (though somc publications call themselvcs
"codcs"). and case repofts are not s,vstematicttllv ptrblished. Whcre not specilictl
othcrwisc hcrein, prcf-er sourccs publisl-rccl or compiled b.v the legislatil'c dlltirs
division of the National People's Oongrcss or the State (louncil, a !{ovcrnmcnt
agenc\'. or a court (inclucling Sovernnlent antl court rvcbsites) ovcl' other
sources. Chincsc sourccs arc alwafs mofc ttuthoritativc thall tritnslations, btlt
somctimcs it rna.v be appropriate to cite k) I translation wherc availlble
.
Cases
Citation firrmat: ,romanized Chinese case name> (.Chinese case name')
[,English transtation of case name>], <source> (.court abbreviation, ,date
of decision, fottowing rute 10.5t (.country abbreviation if not evident
from context,).
nanrecl bclow. if thercin lnd irv:rilablc. Othcnvise. citc to t
source publishcrl bt' or with the c(x)pcratiotl ol I court or govcrnment agcncv
(inclucling agenc)' ol court wcbsitcs), if therein and lrvailnble, tltctt itttv sottl'cc.
(lite ttl sourccs
,
Ztrign<t
Fa,vuan
(iongbao
Sup. People's Cr. Gnz'
Sup. PEoPLE'S PRoc.
(SupremePeople'sProcuratorltte
Cowtwtul'ttQur
(lommunicuc)
Anli Xtr:rn (Selectecl
(lascs fi'om the Pcoplc's (l()urts)
" Rennrin ljal'u:ur
RENMIN FAYUAN ANLI XUAN
r, Wei Qiniian
Su Zhongbao Caichan Baoxian Youxian Gongsi
Taishan Shi Zhigongsi, Zhongguo Nongye Yinhang Taishan Shi
Zhihang Xiachuan Yingyesuo CIFI{OiF' I 'iti[XFiir]hfilll{ 2: t'J i.i
t
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
ltcnmin
(Suprcrnc People's Oottrt (iazette)
, Zuign<> llcnmin.fiancha-vuitn (iongbao
rlril..
f 2;''1 '
,l.tFl&)lL+Rf
r'firlrrli{lr'
l''JIlHtlltlrli; lweiQiniian
v. PICC P&C Ltd., Taishan Branch & China Agric. Bank, Taishan
Branch, Xiachuan Operation Officel, 1991 SuP. People's Cr. Gnz.
ror (Sup. People's
"
Ct.
zoor) (China).
China Nat'l Technicat lmp./Exp. Corp. v. Indus. Res. Co., CHtun L. &
Pnac., Aug. zz, t988, at z6 (Shanghai Interm. People's Ct. May n,
rg88).
c"""tit"ii""t
6itxlion lbrmrt: Xrnrurn .article,, ,section, (year,) (country abbreviation
if not evident from context,).
(iivc thc promulgation 1'ear of the version citccl. Abbreviltte thc subclivisions ol'
constitr(io1s, such
to table T16.
as
article :tnct clattse, trsing Elglish a|fireviations. accgrding
Zhonghtra llcnmin (krngheguo
r
XIANFA
Xianf:r
Xtnrurn
art.35,5 r (rg8z) (China).
Laws
(litxtion format: <romanized Chinese law name' (,Chinese [aw name,.)
[,Engtish translation of law name or shortened n3ms'] (promutgated by
O
<enacting/adopting authority,, .promulgation date>, effective,effective
date,) ,volume number' <source> ,first page,, .page(s) of specific
materia[, if desired, (country abbreviation if not evident from context,).
Cite to sources namecl below, if therein and available . Otherwisc, citc to a
source published or compiled by the Legislative Affairs Commission of the
Standing Committec of the Nationrl People's Congress (hcrcinafter "NPC
Legislative Commission"), Legislative Affairs Oflice of the State Council
(hereinafter "State Council Legislative Office"), a govemment agency, or a
court (including government or court websites), if therein ancl available, thcn
any soufce.
Quangrxr Rcnmin l)aibiao I)ahui
Changwu Weiyuanhui (iongbacr
Srnnorruc CoMM. NAT'L
Zhonghua Renmin (iongheguo Falii
l luibian (compilecl by NPt) Lcgislativc
FALIi HurBrAN
Peoprr's CoNG. GAz.
()<rmmission)
Zhonghua Renmin (krngheguo Fagui
I{uibian (compiled by State Council
Fne
ur Hurarnr,r
Legislative Oflice)
Zhonghua llenmilr Gongheguo Xin
Fagr.ri Hr.ribian (compilcd by Statc
Council Legislative 0lhce)
Zhonghua Renmin (iongheguo Fadian
Laws of thc Pcople 's I{epublic of
China (compiled by NPC l-egislative
(lommission, in English)
*
Xrru Fne ur HurB|AN
Fnorar
P.R.C. Lnws
Lifa Fa ( nti/:/l) lLaw on Legistationl (promutgated by the
Standing Comm. Nat'l People's Cong., Mar. 15, 2ooo, effective July
1, 2ooo) 2ooo STANDTNG CoMM. Nnr'l PeoplE's CoNG. Gaz. nz
(China).
m Shiyou Tianranqi Guandao Baohu Fa (-/iiiltXf\"irii'E1til+F)*)
ILaw on the Protection of Petroteum and NaturaI Gas Pipelines]
(promulgated by the Standing Comm. Nat'l Peopte's Cong., June
25,2oto, effective Oct. r, zoro), art. 10, 2o1o FnlU Hurararu ro5,
rcT,tronslated in zoto P.R.C. Laws 7o9,773.
;.
Chuiing Rujing Guanli Fa
(iliFliAi'iiii;tll1iX)
[Exit and Entry
Administration Lawl (promutgated by the Standing Comm. Nat'I
Peopte's Cong., June 3c,2072, effective Juty r, zor3), art. 47,2or2
Fncur HurernN 283,29r,
r.g"f"ti""t
(lncluding xingzl.reng tagui it'!4ilr*L, and bumen guizhang illll'J*L'"1.)
Citation format: <romanized Chinese regulation or rule name> (,Chinese
regulation or rule name,) [.Engtish translation of regulation or rute name
or shortened name'l (promulgated by .enacting/adopting authority>,
,promulgation date,, effective .effective date') <source',,publication
611s', at ,first page,, .page(s) of specific material, if desired' (country
abbreviation if not evident from context').
o
o
o
o
o
o
t
o
o
o
?
e
o
o
t
t
o
o
o
lo
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
I
Lo
(litc to the source bclow, if thercin. Otherwisc, cite to it sottrcc publishetl or
compilcd bl the Nl'C Lcgislative (lommission, Statc (lourrcil Legishtive Ollicc,
ir govcrnment rllcl"rcy, of a court (includit-tg governntent of cotlrt wcbsitcs), if
avlilablc, thcn an)' s0urcc.
(iuowu\rtalt (iongba<r
Sr. Courucrr Gaz.
Fneur HutgtnN
Zhonghua ltenmin (iongheguo Iragtti
Htribian (compiled l)) Stlrte (ilrncil
I-cgislativc Ofhce)
Zl'ronghua l{cnnrin (i0nghcgtto Xin lragui Xtru Fncut HulBlAN
Iluibian (compilecl l),v State (irtrncil
Lcgislativc Ollicc)
Yaopin Jiandu Xingzheng Chufa Chengxu Guiding t4 i'ollf ff lt'
i'tA;T,f?IilM,ii) [Provisions on Procedures for Administrative
Penalties of Drug Supervisionl (promulgated by the St. Food
& Drug Admin., Apr. 28, 2oo3, effective luly 2, 2oo3; rev'd by
the Ministry of Health, Oct. r7, 2072) Sr. Coutlctt- Gnz., Mar. ro,
2073, at 7, http: / /en gtishr.en gtish.gov.cn / offi ciat/ zot3-o3 I tt I
content 45t6 44.htm (Ch ina).
Note that many' (ihincsc clatahases clo uot provicle scarchltblc cttcles
t>r
nttnrllers
Lrniquclv iclcntilj'ing a case, rcgulatiolt, ctc.
"
Regutation on the Administration of Tourism in Beiiing Municipatity (promutgated by the Standing Comm. People's Cong.
Beiiing Municipatity, 5ept. ro, 2oo4, effective Dec' 1, 2oo4),
CLl.to.567 4z(EN) (Lawinfochina).
Local regulations, regulations of autonomous regions, and
special des
(tr.rclucling difangxing tagui ll!/i1ul,#r*L, zizhiqu zizhi tiaoli 1'liiilx.
rncl drnxing tiaoli tsl t'ilflll.)
l',1
iii
tirl'
(lite to thc l4lzette of the standing conmiltce of the corrcspontlit-tg locltl or
rcgional governntent, if thcrcin rnd avltilablc, thcn an'f' sourcc (irrcluclitrg thc
lot ltl
l.l0r
crrttttcrtt
rr
cbritt
s.).
f."uti.r' and conventions
(iitation ol'a bihteral trcat\'. convcntioll. or intcnlatitltrltl lgrccnrcnt: 'treaty
name), ,date of signing', ,subdivision,, ,abbreviated names of parties
to agreement', ,treaty source, (country abbreviation if not evident from
context,).
(litatirxr 0f u multihterltl trcatv, convcntion, or intcrnational ltgrccnle tlt: 'treaty
name', ,date of signing,, ,subdivision,, ,one Chinese treaty source', 'one
internationaI treaty source, if applicabte' (country abbreviation if not
evident from context').
(lite t0 one tlf thc sources bckrrl', if thcrein. Othcr$,isc. cite to a soufcc pLrlllishcd
l-rr'or with the c(npcrxtion ol a cottt't or llovcrnmcnt agency (incltrtling ll8enc!
or corlrt rvcbsitcs), thcn anv sourcc.
(iuowr.rvu:tt-t ( iongltao
Sr. Cour,rctr Gnz.
Foreign
J
urisdictions: China
Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo Tiaoy'ue
Ji
> Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo
Duobian TiaonreJi
>
Sources
> China law and Practice
>
China Patents & Trademarks
>
Code of the People's Republic of China
TraovuE lr
DuoaraN TreoYur
Jt
Cnrrn L. &
PRAC.
Cnru Prr.
& TRADEMARKS
(+E$trlRffi{*)
FADIAN
(++,l.R+ffitr)*4)
(4fu+2\R)
>
Duobian TiaolueJi
>
Fagui Huibian
(l**fl,ttffi)
(Y*ee+)
>
Falii Quanshu
>
Guowuluan Gongbao
>
Law Year Book of China
Fee
(trf [ftL\#)
Jr
ur HursrnN
FelU Quarsuu
5r. Courrrc[ Gaz.
Lnw Y.B. Cnrre
<f E€fUr:dfnt
>
Duoernl Trnovue
Iaws and Regulations of the People's
Republic of China
> Laws of the People 's Republic of China
> Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui
Changwu Weiyuanhui Gongbao
P.R.C. Lnws & REes
P.R.C. Laws
Srluorre
Coturu.
Nnr'l
People's Core. Gez.
(Atr/\R,ft*X+H+4fr
>
Renmin Falrran Anli Xuan
(u\Ri*[i
^+e)
Rerrtarn
FlYuar Anlr Xuen
*Frltfr)
>Xin Fagui Huibian
>
Ji
>
(ffi\**fl)lffi>
Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo Tiaoy'ue
Xrru
Fleur Hureralr
Treovur
Jr
(++/\R+f!E+r!R)
Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo Xianfa
XIANFA
(++,\R+ffitr8)*)
>
Zt]igao Renmin Fayuan Gongbao
( qr
>
Sup. People's Cr. Gaz.
+y'. R+ru Efr H,,\ R)*[ia\ffi )
Zuigao Renmin Jianchayuan Gongbao
(&ft/\R&R[ta\ffi)
O
5up. People's Pnoc,
Cowrtvturteue
Internet sorrces
hltpl / / ov ersea.cnki.netlkns 55 /btief/ rcsttlt.aspx?dbPrefix=CJFD
AcademicJoumals
(China
+trHalAtryffitr (cAD
http:,/www.wanfangdata.com/COJ/intr.asp
ffi+l?Hltl+X&+8tr (coD
(China Online Joumals
http:/ /iovnaLchinalawinfo.com (Chinalaw Joumals i*+Hflj (Chinal. J.))
http://chinalawinfo.com (Chinalawinfo 1Llti*1*'fF,E ffi)
http://www.isinolaw.com (Isinolaw +l+)*f+li{)
http://www.lawinfochina.com Qawinfochina iLt /f i#4{FiJ)
http://www.lawyee.net (Lawyee Jt ti*H)
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$"r.t r.'!1."r
http:,rywww.lexiscn.com (Lcxis China 9n16.
http://www.wanfangdata.
co
m/ ploc/
_l
rr
li
rr:$
{11fl,'iliiJ
ii i lnqc:
t
.r
il*lllill
r
(IEXIS China Online))
intr.asp (Policics & Laws of (lhina
(PLOC))
http://westlawchina.com flVestlaw China ]r1Jl (Westlaw China))
T2.lO
Colombia, Republic of
(Civil Law)
C""""
Citarion format: <court name> [<court abbreviation'] [,English translation
of court name>1, ,chamber, if applicable, ,date of decision in Spanish,,
<writer of ruting if applicabte,, ,decision number,, .publication name,
[,publication abbreviation'] (,pubtication volume and/or number>, p.
.page number,) (country abbreviation if not evident from context,).
"
Corte Suprema de Justicia [C.S.J.][Supreme Court], Sala. Lab.
febrero g, 1994, M.P: E. Ramirez, Expediente ry94-oooz346,
Gaceta ,udiciat[G.J.] (No. 10, p. 120) (Cotom.).
w' Corte Constitucionat [C.C.] [Constitutional Court], noviembre 15,
r995, SentenciaC-zz5l95, Gaceta de la Corte Constitucional
lG.C.c.l(vot.4, p. rg) (Cotom.).
Ordinary jurisdiction (particular disputes and crime, including family law,
civil law, commercial law, and lal'nr law)
Corte Suprema de Justicia (C.S.J.) (Supremc (lourt of Jttstice: dividecl into
threc chambers: (livil, Criminal, and Labor), Tribunales Superiores 1T. Sup.)
(appellate courts: clividcd into three chambers: Civil, Criminal, :rnd Labor),
Juzgados de Circuito (uzg. Circ.) (circuit courts: labor, civil, and criminal
jurisdiction), andJuzgados Municipales (Juz. Mun.) (lower courts: civil antl
criminrl lurisdiction).
Constitutional iurisdiction (all Cokrmbian Courts have juriscliction to rulc
on constitutional matters through Acciones de hiela (actiorls ir-r clef'ensc of
consritutional fights))
Corte Constitucional (C.C,) (Highest (lourt ()n (lonstitutional N'latters: rulcs
on thc constitutionality of laws, codes, and dccrces with force of la$' ancl is
the lrighcst court of rcview on Acciones de Tutela) and Consejo de Estado
(C,E.) (tlighest (lourt on Aclministrative Law: rules on the cotlstitutionalit-Y of
decrees).
Administrative jurisdiction
Consejo de Estado (C.E.) (Ilighest (i)urt on Administrativc Law: divided into
five chambers: Ceneral Mattcrs; Labor; Public (bntracts, Arbitrltion Control
&'l'orts; Taxes; and Elcctoral), Tribunales Administrativos (T. Admtivos.)
(administrativc superior courts: dividecl into fttur chamtrcrs: General
Matters; Lubor; Public (i)ntracts, Arbitration Control & ltrrts; antl'l'axes), and
Juzgados Adrninistrativos (J. Admtivos.) (administrative circuit courts).
Reporters
Generally follow the examples below when citing to thc volumcs and/or
numbcrs of thcsc rcportcrs. whcre appropriate, ttsc "t." to rcfcr to "tomo," thc
Spanish word for "volume."
'
GACLfA Dn r,r
1992-(lme
CtxL[ (]ONstttrt<;l<>s,rl
e.g., G.C. t. r,
p'704
" GAcrilAJrn)I(rrAr.
AleL|s
DEr.
1tt87-date
e.g., G.l. vol. ro,
l9l5-date
c.g., An.C.E. t.
10, p. 13
p.74
(krNsryo l)E EsrADc)
Therc is no comprehcnsive oflicial or unofiicial rcgtrlar publication of appellate
or lower court opinions. Son-re of the lorver cout'ts havc thcir own l<lttrnlls:
A.5.
Arrros Y SEN]LN(:L\S
'InrBUN,rt Sl:l,ER()R os Mrr>st-t-iN
"
* (;A(ili|A
Ar)MTNTsTRATIVA
T,S.M.
(civil cases)
c.c.,.
(administrative cases)
G.A.
(1,\s()s ()vrr.Es JriRrsPRrrDrNcr..\
Constitution
,
(l()Ns'l rTU(ir(iN P()LiilcA l)Ij (]or.()rlBIA
iF
CoNsrrucr6r Porirrcn
c.P.
DE CoLoMBTA [C.P.]
art.
O
l.
Codes
=
'
(16l)r(;() Crvrr- (Oivil Oode)
C(ir)r(i() r)r (i)MER(.ro (Commercial
c.c.
(lode)
C. Cotvt.
: (kiolr;o Plr,u. (Criminal (lode)
C. PEN.
()vu. (Civil Proceclure oode)
'Ctir>lco
* C()l)r(x) r)r. PR(xLl)tMtENt{) PENAI- (Criminal Procedure
c.P.c.
r)ri PR()cu)lMlENro
;
Cocle)
(l()r)r(;() C()N'r'r,Ncros() ADN'ltNISl'R,utv() (Administrativc
c.P.P.
c.c.A.
l-itilaation Code)
' Cool;o
rrn r,r Ii.r'-r.N<;re.
y I"\ Al)or.EsoEN<r,r (Chilclhoocl and
Coo. lrur. Aoor-.
Adolescencc Code)
- Ci;pr<;i1 StistANtrvo
onr.
fh,rs.{o (I_abor Oodc)
Cripr<;o PRocrisAr. orL'fnrn,r.Jo (Labor Proccclure Code)
c.P.T.
"
C(ilx;() NActoN,u. oe t.Os Rt:<;uRsos N.Llrner.ss
Coo. Nec. Rec.
Nnr. Y Pnor.
PR()t E(]cl6x
,c,r-
MuDto ,A,vBtENl
E
llENovABl-Es
(Natural Resources
and Environmcntal Protection (lode)
Mro.
Atvrg.
C<jor<;<> SANI'I-ARro
(Hcalth Cocle)
C6o. Snurr.
C(iDr(;cl oe Mrr.ls
(Mining Code)
Coo. Mrt't.
Statutes and decrees
Citation format: L. ,law number>, <promulgation date in Spanish,, [,volume
number, if applicable'] <reporter name, [.reporter abbreviation'] .page, if
desired, (,country abbreviation if not evident from context,).
tu L. 50l9c., marzo 7,1990, DtARto Ortctal ID.O.] (Cotom.).
I)rARr() ()r,rclAl.
I864-date
D.O.
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Periodicals
DiA
l,n<;rsr,rr;t<iru
"
' Rrivrsr.\JriRrspRrr)F.N(irA y I)oc'r'RIN,\
, RFrvrslA rx l)snx.uo l)tuv,tt.ro
s RlrvrslA ns l)Enx;tto PrNAl. y (lnrvtroltx;i,t
e
Jrlrtrsl,Rur)tsN(.lA AL
J.D.
REVtsrA
R. Leg.
R.J.
y
D.
R.D,P.
R.D.P.C.
or Denl.cIto Y (lttN<:t,ts P<xiLt<;.rs R.F.D.C.P.
(l Iniversidad Pontilicia Bolivariana, Medellin)
n Rrvrs'r',r l)E I-A FA(;Lrt.lAD
ts
JtjRlsplu rDRN(.u PuNet-
* Rti\'IstA l)rns<LIo
l.P.
R.D,E.
DEL ES'I'AD()
Internet sources
http://wwry.ramajudicial.gov.co (oflicial
site of the iudiciarv; frce acccss
to court clecisions)
http://wv.'w.secretariasenado.gov.co (oflicial site of thc Colombian
Congrcss; frcc access to legislation since 1992 and bills sinceJuly 2000)
http://www.lexadtn.nl/ wlg/legis/nofr/oeur/lxwecol.htm
(unof licial
site; free acccss to legislation)
http://www.todoelderecho.com/Colombia (unofficial site for lcgal
information; partially paid subscription)
llrttpz//cienciasjuridicas.javeriana.edu.co/publicaciones (free access to
selccted law iournals of the Ponti-ficia lJniversidad Javeriana in llogtxii)
http ://nw. gacetaconstitucional. com.pe/constitucion al -gaceta
/
gc.php (frcc access to thc Gaccta (lonstitucional)
http://www.legismovil.com (legal information online; Private publishing
compan)'; paid subscription)
http://w*v.imprenta.gov.co
(pnrvides the Diario O1icia[ and Gaceta dcl
Congreso; paid subscription)
http://www.coljuristas.org (oflicial site of the (lolombian (lommission of
Jurists; fiee access to legal information on humln rigl-rts)
http://www.jurisprudenciaaldia.com (court
clecisions of thc
Constitutional Court, Supreme Court, and Council ofStatc; paid sttbscription)
http://w"srw.notinet.com.co (legal ncws, legislation, and court decisions;
paid subscription)
http://www.corteconstitucional.gov.co/secretaria (free
access to
Constitutional Court tlecisions in Spanish, ancl summaries of main decisions of
thc Constitutional Court in English)
T2.ll
Czech Republic
(Civil Law)
Cases
Citation format: ,court' .date of adoption of decision in day.month'year
format' (,court abbreviation, if avaitable) [.Engtish translation,], .docket
identification and number, pub[. in: (reporter name, if the decision is
l-oreign Jurisdictions: Czech Reputrlic
reported>, ,subdivisions, if desired, ((country abbreviation if not evident
from context,).
>
Rozsudek Kraisk6ho soudu v Plzni ze dne r4.u.zoo5 (KS) [Decision of the Circuit Court in Plzei of Nov. t4, zoo6l, sp.zn. 3r Odo
5olzoo4 (Czech).
>
Rozsudek Nejvy55iho soudu ze dne 3o.m.r99g (NS) [Decision of
the Supreme Court of Nov. 3o, tg99l, sp.zn. 20 Cdo 16orlt998
(Czech).
>
Rozsudek Nejvy55iho spr5vniho soudu ze dne z7.9.zoo7 (NSS)
IDecision of the Supreme Administrative Court of Sept. 27, zoo7l,
ti. t+ Azs 3tl zooT-58 (Czech).
>
N6lez Ostavniho soudu ze dne 29.o5.1992 (05) [Decision ofthe
Constitutionat Courtof May 29,t997l,sp.zn. lll. tsylgl pubt. in:
Sbfrka n6lezfr a usneseni 0S, sv. e, i. 65 (Czech), abbreviated cita-
tion: lll
US
3rl97 Snu.
'When citing to a reporter, cite to Sbirka rozbodnuti Nejuyttibo sprdun{ho
soudu (Collection of Court Decisions of the Supreme Administrative Court),
in which selected decisions of Nejry55i sprlvni soudeesk6 republiky (NSS)
and lower courts are reported. Note, however, that apart from decisions of
the Constitutional Court (0S), court decisions are not systematically reported
by any published court reporter. All decisions of the N5 (Supreme Court),
NSS (Supreme Administrative Court), and
05 (Constitutional Court)
are
systematically published in Czech on the coults' resp€ctiv€ websites.
Ordinary iurisdiction
Nejvy5Si soudCesk€ republiky (NS) (Supreme Court), Vrchni soud
05)
(high courts), Kraiskf soud (KS) (circuit courts), MEstskf soud (MS)
(Circuit Court in the City of Prague and District Court in the Cify of Brno),
Okresni soud (district courts), and Obvodni soud (District Court in the City
ofPrague): Cite using the docket identification "sp.zn.'
Administrative iurisdiction
Kraiskf soud
(KS) (Circuit Court), M6stskf soud
v
Praze (MS) (Circuit
Court in the City ofPrague), NejvySSi spr6vni soud Cesk6 republiky (NSS)
(Supreme Administrative Court): Cite using the docket identilication "ii."
Constitutional iurisdiction
fstavni soud Cesk6 republiky (05) (constitutional court): Cite by identifying the court, the date on which the decision was adopted, the docket
identi-fication "sp.zn.," and, optionally, the court reporter Sbirka ndlezh
a usnesenl tstauntbo soudu (Collection of Constitutional Court Rulings
and Opinions). Cite as "Usn" for nalez (judgment) and "Usu' for usneseni
(opinion).
Constitution
Czech law reflects the following hierarchical order: The Constitution, European
Union legislation, constitutional laws, codes, ordinary laws, and other legal acts.
There are several laws that are considered to be ofconstitutional importance in
o
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Czech llw. Oitc accorcling to thc format fi)r statutes. appentling the tlcscription
of the l;rw if desircd:
"
0stavniz5kon
t. tl9935b.,
0stavaCesk6 Republiky IConstitution
ofthe Czech Repubticl.
Statutes and regulations
Citc a zikon (statute), ristavni z6kon (constitutionll statutc). or vyhldika
(rcgulation)
t<t
Sbirku ziikortti (Sb.) ((i)llection of Lrws (Cott.)).
Citation lirrmat: ,titte' [,English transtation,],,type of act,,number of
publication',abbreviation of pubtication' (,country abbreviation if not
evident from context,).
"
Vodny z6l<on [Water Act], Z5l<on t.364lzoo4 Sb. (Czech).
Ooclcs complisc a s1-rccific crtegory of laws t.hat provi(le comprchensivc
regrrlatrrry coverage of a legal liclcl. Nlajor c<>dcs inchrcle : obdansky zikonik
((livil (irdc). obchodni zikonik ((.ommercial (ircle). obtansky soudni i6d
((livil l)nrcedurc (lotle ), trestni zdkon (Oriminal (irdc), trestni idd (Criminal
Procetlure Ooclc),
sprivni i6d
(Administrxtivc Procedure Cocle), zdkonik
prdce (Labor Ooclc), ancl daiovy i6d (Tax Cocle). oocles are citccl bv their
title an(l tlrc law that prontulgutecl them.
,'
(
4olzoog Sb. (Czech).
l'here are two t.ypes of lclministrativc rulcs: naiizeni (clccrec issued b.v thc
vlida Cesk6 republiky (cabinet)) ancl ryhliika (rcguhtion issuecl cither bv
ir ministerstvo (ministry') or xnothcr ristredni orgin stitni sprdvy (ccntrll
Trestniz5konil<, Z6kon
administrativc agcncv)).
*
*
Naifzenid.3c31ry95 Sb. (Czech).
Vyht.
(.39lzotz
Sb. (Czech).
Treaties
(lite intcrnatior-rll trcxties promulgatcd through 1999 to Sbirku zdkon.it (Sb.)
(oollection of [.aws (Cott.)). Citc irltcrnrtionll trc:rties promnlgutecl since
20(X) t<r Sbirku nrczinlixtcluich.t'71771y1, (Sb.m.S.) ((iollcction t>f Intcrnutionirl
'l'reatics) using the slme firrnlt as lor luws.
Internet sources
http://www.nsoud.cz (Sr4rrcmc (lourt of the
Ozech Republic)
http:,(w\trv.nssoud.cz (Suprentc Adninistrativc
l{e
Clourt of the (lzcclt
public)
http://ww.usoud.cz/en
((,onstitr.rtional (lourt of thc Ozcch Republic)
For Ihrlianlent:
http:,ryw\'!'w.psp.cz/sqw,/hp.sqw (Poshuccki sni'movnit Iohambcr of
I)cputicsl
)
http://v.ww.s efiat.cz (Sen:it
I
Senatel )
http://www.psp.czlsq/hp.sqw?k=
l)cfiutics)
183 (docufl cnls ol' the Chambcl ol
http://wwrr.sbirka.cz (Sbirka piedpisir, ofhcial collection of government
regulations)
http://www.mv cr.czf claneldsbirka-zakonu.aspx (Ministry of the
Interior: provides access to archived issttcs of the Collection of Laws (Coll.)
from 1945, but not updatcd frccluently)
http://w"w'w.s tgit.cz/ pages/zakony.asp (fice access to legislation and
treaties published in the (lollection of Laws (Coll.) from 1993 to date)
http://w*v.lexdata.cz
(searchable database of case law and legislation
avail:rble upon subscription; mainttined by lleck publishing)
http://www.lexgalaxy.cz (scarchable
database of clse law and legislation
available upon subscription)
ht/.{,t//www.zakonynawebu.cz (onlinc datablsc of curtcnt and histotic
Czech legislation; maintained by Woltcrs Kluwcr)
http://r'*w.justice.cz (Intertret portal fbr thc Czcch national iudiciary)
T2.12 Egypt, Arab Republic of
(Civill,aw)
Egypt is a civil law iurisdiction. Article 2 of the 201'1 tsgyptian (lonstitution
stirtes that the principles of lslamic Sharia arc thc main source of legisllttion.
Romanization
llse the ALA-LC Rrnnanizotion Tables: Transliteration
Scbemes
fitr
Non-
Runun.trzrpf.s, approvecl b1' thc Librlry of Oongrcss and the Anrerican Library
Association, available at
http://www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/romanization/
arabic.pdf.
Cases
Judicial power is vcstcd in threc scparate court systems: the Suprem€
Constitutional Court with iuriscliction ovcr constitutional matters; the State
Council with juriscliction over aclministrativc cases; and the rcgular court
s_vstem with jurisdiction over civil ancl criminal mattcrs. In addition, the military
has its
own corlrt systcm with iurisdiction pcrtaining to military criminal affairs.
Citation format: <court name> [,English translation of court name>1, <region
if appticabte,, <number of decision, case, or petition,, session of ,date
of session in day month year format', ,pubtication name and volume
number, if applicable,, year ,iudicial year number>, p. .page number if
desired' (country abbreviation if not evident from context,).
*,' at-Mahkamah at-ldariyahat-'U tya [Supreme Ad min istrative Cou rt],
session of 21 Dec. 7987, yeat zz, p. 852 (Egypt).
e" al-Mahkamah at-Dusturiyah al-'Ulya [Supreme Constitutional
Courtl, case no. 10, session of 29 June r974,yea( 4.
n'"
Mahkamat at-Naqd [Court of Cassation], session of
yea( 32, p.277.
q
Feb. ry72,
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
a
o
t
t
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s" Mahkamat at-Naqfl [Court of Cassation], petition no.7042, session
of zz Feb. r99o, MalmU'at Ahkamat-Naqd ICompitation of Cassation Decisionsl vot. r (part r), year 58, p. 855.
". Mahkamat al-lsti'naf [Court ofAppeal], session of n Apr. ry23,
Muhamah IPractice of Law] vol. z3 (part 4), p. 30.
Constitutions
= CorusrrrurroN
oF THE Anae REpueLrc
or Ecvpr, r8 Jan. zor4.
a series of w-rittcn corlstitutional docuntettts. beginning with the
l92J fixurdrtional instmment. Thc ditltrent constitutions must be cited to a
consoliclatccl tcxt incorporating thc revisions rtnd substantial relbrrns adopted.
Forexrmple,CoNslnr;ftoNor,tttlArutrRlptrttt.tt; ot,EctYp't, II Sept. 1971,a.s
untettded,22 \'1.t1 1981), 25 I'lat'2005, 26 Mrr. 2007.
lg1'pt hls h:rrl
An ur-urfficill English trunslation of the current Constittttion, enlctecl inJanttan
20 1,1, is
rvaihble rt http://wwv.sis.gov.eglNewvr/Dustor-en001.pdf.
Codes, statutes, and decrees
Citatiorl firrnrat: <Law, Act, or Decision number, of ,year of enactment'
(subject matter of code, statute, or decree, if available,),,name of
publication in itatics', vot,.number of volume, if known',,date of
enactment in day month year format,, .page(s) or articte(s) of specific
materiat, if desired, (,country abbreviation if not evident from context,).
".
Law No. 88 of zoo3 (Law ofthe Central Bank, the Banking Sector,
and Monetary Poticy), ol-Jartdah al-Rosmiyah, vot. z4 (Dupticate),
r5 lune zoo3 (Egypt).
+
Law No.
=
Law No.
tt7 of t983 (Law on the Protection ofAntiquities), al-Jortdah al-Rasmlyah,vol. 3z bis, rr Aug. rg8l (Egypt).
l8tof
1948 (Civit Code),
ol-Waqa'i'ol-Miirtyoh,vot. ro8
bis (a), zg Juty 1948, arts. 4r8-8r (sates) (Egypt).
:
of t937 (Criminat Code), al-Waqa'i'ol-Miiriyah,vol.
August
rgfZ (Egypt).
7r, 5
''
Act No. 8t of t996 (To Amend Provisions of the Code of Civit
and Commercial Procedure, Law No. r3 of t968), ol-Joridah
al-Rosmiyah, vot. 19 bis, zz May ry96, pp.z-t (Egypt).
"
President ofthe Repubtic of Egypt Decision No. 3z of zoor (Ratification of the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the
Child), ol-Jarldoh al-Rosmtyoh,vol. 44, z8 Oct.2oo4, pp.2447-71
Law No. 58
(Egypt).
Subsecprent reft'rcnces
m:tl cite onh the n:tme
t>f
the
h*
ltucl
thc rclcvant
provision(s). For example:
',
CivitCode, att. j73 (Egypt).
The Ofificial Gazette
'l'lrc Ofhcial G'rz,ctte (al-larldah al-Rasniyah) ancl its lccomprtnling pr.rblicltion
(al-Waqa'i' al-Miirlyah; ltrc thc ituthoritativc sor.rrces firr laws antl presitlcntial
I
iirj. r',iiii ;i(ii'r'*; t r,!iii:1.'
I l:lIri;rl
rnd rrrinisterial decrees. Earlier laws should be citcd to the relevlnt government
newspaper of the time ,
.
al-Waqa'
as
folkrws:
i' al-Miirlyah
, lournal oficiel du gouvernement
O
Dec. 5, 1828-Feb. 22, 1958
1873- 1958
igyptien
(French-language edition of al-Waqa'
i'
o
al-Miirlyah)
,
Mar. 1958-Aug. l97l
al- I arldah al- Rasmiyah (al-f umhuriyah
t
o
t
al-'Arabiyah al-Muttatridah IUnited Arab
Republicl)
* al-Jarldah al-Rasmlyah (Jum.hlriyat Mi.sr
Sept.9, l97l-date
al-'Arabiyah, Riynsat al- jum.hniyah IArab
Republic of Egypt, the Presidency of the
Republicl)
Internet sources
http://wwrv.padiament.gov.eg (parliamcntary infbrmation)
http:,rywww.cc.gov.eg (access to Eglptian laws and Court of Cassation
dccisions)
http://www.sis.gov.eglEn/Default.aspx
(St:rte Information Selvice
ofhcill
website)
htlp:/ / www.arablegalportal.orglegyptverdicts/home.aspx
(websitc
nuintaincd by the Ministry ofJusticc, the IINDP, and other national
organizations; provicles copies of l mlmbcr of Egyptian laws)
ia, com/ index.html (A[ Amiria Printing llouse websitc,
|
containing an intlcx of nl-laridah al-Rasmlyah tnd al-Waqa'i' al-Miiriyah;
hW / / wwwalamfu
http:,4www.mohamoon-montada.com ('l'hc Arab Lawycrs' Forum,
containing a number of Eg.vptian laws)
T2.13
(
France, Republic of
(livil Llrv )
Cases
(litation lbrmat: ,court name' [.court abbreviation'] [,Engtish translation
of court name,l ,city, if appticable,, .chamber, if applicabte,, .date of
decision in month day, year format>, <case number, if available,. <reporter
or iournat abbreviation, if avaitable' <year of publication, if applicabte,,
<section of journat, if applicable,, <page on which decision appears, or
decision number, if appticabte,, <author of case observation or note, if
applicabte,l (country abbreviation if not evident from context,).
i*
w
Cour d'appet ICA] [regional court of appeat] Limoges, civ., Oct. r,
2072,771 07c,87.
CE
Ass., Nov. 8, 1974, 9o368, Rec. Lebon 54r.
'When
citing to a rcportcr or journ:rl. fbllorv thc pulticulal firrnats bckrw u'herc
thcv dille r from the {:cncral format above
.
o
o
o
o
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[i*t r"igrl -lrrr"iadi,-'tiu{tq; f]r:!*:r i
:* Tribunal de grande instance ITGl]lordinary court of original lurisdictionl Nice, May 3e,7990,D. t99t Somm. rr3, obs.
F.
Derrida
tr r,.,,
p
Cour d'appel [CA] [regionat court of appeal] Paris, re ch., Dec. zo,
t994, jCP t994,11,222jo, note Neirinck (Fr.).
Ordinary jurisdiction
Cour de cassation (Cass.) (Suprcme Court forJudicial Mattcrs (Tribunal
de cassation prior to 1804)): highest court of ordinary iurisdiction. It
ordinarily sits in scparate chambers (called "sections" prior to 1826), which
:rre abbrcviatcd as folkrws:
s
Assembl6e plenidre
" Chambres r€unics
" Chambre mixte
F Premiare chambre civile
r Deuxicme char.nbre civile
r Troisiime chambre civilc
r Chambre criminclle
p
Chambre cornnterciale ct fin:rnciare
u
Chambre socialc
* Chambre clcs recFr€tcs
r Chambres tcmporaires cles
l97tJ-date
ass. p[6n.
1790-1978
1976-date
ch. mixte
ch. r6uns.
1790-date
1952-clate
1952-date
1790-date
1947-d^te
re civ.
193tJ-ctate
1790-1917
1964-1967
soc.
2e civ.
3e civ.
crim.
com.
req.
chs. exprops.
cxpropriations
(lour de cassrtioll decisiot"ts are publishcd in an oflicial reporter set in two
scrics:
i llulletin
1792-clate
Bul[. civ.
n
179tt-date
Bull. crim.
dcs arr€ts cle la (lotrr dc
clrssation renclus cn matieri, civilc
Bulletin cles arr€ts cle la Cotrr cle
crssation rendus en matiera. crimitrelle
Cite to Bull. civ. or Bu[[. crim., as appropriate, if thcrein, indicating part and
case number. Otherwise cite to one of thc legal rel'icws listcd below if possible
Thc parts for the Iive civil chan-rbers arc as frrllows:
.
. le civ.
Butl. civ.
r 2e civ.
r le civ.
Bul[. civ. ll
F COm.
Butt. civ. lV
;
Bull. civ. V
Bult. civ. lll
s()c.
e
'-
I
Cour de cassation [Cass.] [supreme court for iudiciat matters] 2e
civ., Mar. 76,2ooo, Bull. civ. ll, No. z+6 (Fr.).
Cour de cassation lCass.][supreme court for judicial matters] soc.,
luly tg8l, Bul[. civ. V, No. 433 (Fr.).
l,
h' Cour de cassation [Cass.] [supreme court for iudicia[ matters]
crim., lan. !6,zoot, Bul[. crim., No. r+ (Fr.).
Cours d'appel (CA) (rcgional courts of appeal), Tribunaux de grande
instance (TGl) (orclinary courts of original jurisdiction (Tribunaux de
Foreign
J
urisdictions: France
premiere instance (IPl) prior to 1958)), Cours d'assises (do not abbreviate)
(courts of original jurisdiction for very serious crimes), and Tribunaux
d'instance (Irib. inst.) (courts of petry jurisdiction Quges de paix (P) prior
to 1958)): All cites should include the city and the chamber, if any.
There are no official reporters for lower judicial court decisions. They are
reported in general and specialized commercial legal ioumals or reviews. The
editorial boards of these ioumals choose what to report and to includ€ either
the frilItext or a summary of a decision. Lower court decisions are also reported
in commercial databases or on govemment w€bsites.
The following legal reviews are among the best known. Some of them
have changed name andlor format through the years. They usually contain
several parts. The full text of a court decision is generally under the heading
"
jurisprudence, " while summaries are under'sommaires" or "panorama. "
>
Recueil Dalloz
>
Formerly
1965-1996
Dalloz-Sirey
Actualit6 Jurisprudentielle 2007-date
>
e.g., D. .year> A.i.
(page)
Informations Rapides
1965-2007
196t-2oo7
e.g., D. <year>, <page>
>
>
Sommaires Commentds
l96t-2OO7
e.g., D. <year> Somm.
<page)
1945-1964
D. Jur.
>
Jurisprudence
e.g., D. <year> inf. rap.
,page,
>
>
Juri sprude n ce
Analytique, /z risprudence
Dalloz,
Cfitique, J uri spru d e n c e
P6riodique et critique
> Cour de cassation
>
>
r94r-r944
r94r-r944
D.A. Jur.
D.C. Jur.
1825-1940
D.P.
Cours royales, cours
I
D.P. tl
impdriales, cours d'appel
>
> Conseil d'6tat
D.P. ill
Recueil Sirev (entitled Recueil Gdndral des Lois et des ArrOrs
>
1956-1964
Sirey,Jurtsprudence
until 1950)
S. Jur.
r79r-1955
>
Cour de cassation
5. Jur.
I
>
Other coufts
S. Jur.
ll
5. lur.
lll
Jurisprudence administrative
> Gazette du Palais
>Jurisprudence
>
>
1881-date
e.g., Gaz. Pal. <year>,
2, <page)
Sommaires des cours et tribunaux
e.g., Gaz. Pal. ,year,,
Somm. <page>
>
Juris.Classeur P€riodique
> Edition G€neral (Ia
Semaine
Juridique)
>Jurisprudence
>
Panorama
de
1942-date
e.g., JCP <year'
Jurisprudence
ll
<number)
e.g., ICP (year) lV
<number)
o
o
o
t
o
a
o
I
I
o
o
I
I
I
a
o
I
I
o
o
o
!t
llullctinJoly
c.g., Bult. Joly .year,,
(page>
llLrllctin Joly
-_
Periocliquc
uc
Juris-Classeur Periocliq
I.. g.li,krn
otrri..,
Eclitkrn Entrcprisc .,
et Af'faircs
Ilt
I
c.g...lCP E. ,year,,
<numoer>
" Eclition Notarialc et Immobiliere
t.i.';'rll.l,'uttt"
.
e
Eclitkrn
sociale
.g., JCP
5. ,year"
'number'
-
"
.Jurist)xta
c.g., JurisData
.number'
1|,
It
Administrative iurisdiction
Tribunal des conflits (TC) (reconciles disl;utcs betwccn cassation rcndus
cn marieri), Conseil d'Etat (CE) (highest administmtive court: sits in sub-
I
d'appel (CAA) iregional atlministrativc courts ol'appcal), and Tribunaux
scction (CE), section (CE Sect.), or asscrnbl)'(CE Ass.)), Cour administrative
administratifs (TA) (regional aclministrative courts of lirst irrstance): If
possible , citc
tt
-
to Rec. Lebon or to onc of thc legal rcviews listed
r Recucil clcs rt'rtts tltr (lonscil
tl'lltet
1tt2
I
-clatc
'-
CE
Sect., Mar.5,1943,, Rec. Lebon 6z
"
CE
Ass., Nov. 8, 1974, 9o.368, Rec. Lebon 54r
t
=
CAA
-
'
TAAmiens, Apr. ro, 1973,Rec. Lebon 78o
-
f
l!-
r-
tt-
t
I
\t-
-
o
.
Douai,3e ch.,Aug. 7,2c73,72DAo1725
Constitutional jurisdiction
(tirarion firrmat: Conseil constitutionnet ICC] [Constitutionat Court]
decision No. .decision number,.category of decision,, ,date of decision in
month day, year format,, .publication abbreviation> 'first page', 'page(s)
of specific materiat, if desired, (,cou ntry abbreviation if not evident fro m
contextt.
'
O
al'rove
Rec. Lebon
Conseil constitutionnet [CC] [Constitutional Court] decision No.
8z-t54DC,Dec.29,1982, Rec.8o (Fr.).
Conseil constitutionnel (CC) ((bnstitutional (i)urt): Citc to J.O. or Rec., if
thcrcin. Thc Conscil constitutionnel revicws the constitutionllit,v ol laws befirrc
the_v are promulg:ltecl. Mrcn it finds a provision unconstitutiortal, the provisiotl
is not promulgatccl.
'['hcrc arc sevcml catcgorics of clecisions. I)6chration clc conlirrmit(' (DC),
which revicws the coltstitr.ltionality of laws lnd pitrliantcntxq standing orders.
is thc catcgon,citccl most ofien,
' .fournal ()fhcicl de la Ri'ptrbliclue
l|70-datc
Frangaise (()fhcial (;azettc ofFr:rncc)
- Jottrnal ()flicial clc l'Ernpitc
" Mtrnitcur llliverscl
. (;xzettc Nari()nalc
'
lltrlletir-r des
I-ois
liranc-ais
lu52-18r0
lull-ltt52
lr89-1ttl0
1r9l-l9jl
J.O.
I
I
Fnreign Jurisdictions: France
> Recueil des
d€cisions du Conseil
1960-date
Rec.
constitutionnel
Constitution
Colsr.
CoNsrruroN
> I-A
Citation format: .year, CoHSr. (article, (,country abbreviation
evident from context,).
France has had fifteen different constitutions since its first
if
not
in 1791. The current
constitution was adopted in 1958.
Codes
Citation format: <code name> [,code abbreviation'][.English translation
of
code name,] ,article, (country abbreviation if not evident from context,).
>
Cooe crvrr- [C. crv.][Ctvtt- Cooe] art.
zl
Gr.).
> CoDE ADMINISTRATIF (ADMINISTMTI\T CODE)
>
Coos cML
(Cnt
C. ADM.
C. crv.
Coor)
> Coon os coMMERCE (CoMMERcIAT CoDE)
C. com.
}
C. p€H.
CoDE PENAL
(Pnur
COOE)
> CoDE DE pRocEDURE pfNAr.E (CRIMINAL PRoCEDURE CoDE)
C. pn. pEH.
Colr ou rneven (L,uon Cou)
} CoDE DE PRocfDURE CMLE (CML Pnocpotlnr Coog)
C.
>
rnnv.
c.P.c.
Statutes and decrees
Citation format for a French law or decree: Loi (or D€cret),[aw or decree
number, du ,date in French of law or decree, .[aw or decree name,
[,Engtish translation of law or decree number, date, and name)], <reporter
or iournaI n3ms) [,reporter or journal abbreviation,][,English translation
of reporter or iournal,], .date of publication,, p. ,page number, (country
abbreviation if not evident from context').
>
Loi zooS-776 du 4 ao0t zoo8 de modernisation de l'6conomie
lLaw zooS-776 ofAugust 4,zoo8 on the Modernization ofthe
Economy], JounHnl OrrrcrEt DE LA R€puBLtoue FneHqntse [J.O.]
lOrrrcrnr Gnzerre oF FRANcE], Aug. 5, 2oo8,p.7247t,
>
Loi 85-699 du u iuiltet 1985 tendant i la constitution d'archives
audiovisuelles de la iustice ILaw 8S-6gg of July u, 1985 for the
Formation of Audiovisual Archives of the Judiciaryl, Ln Semrtrue
f unroreuE [JCP] [Junrotcal Wesrlv] lll,No.57447.
Cite to the J,O., if therein; otherwise, cite to one of the following:
>JoURNAL
OFFTCTEL
DE r-{
J.O.
fu6runuqur Fnenqersr
> REcuErL DALLoz
>
D,rrroz-Srnw,
>
D,lrroz,
LEGrst"4TIoN
LEGTSLATTqN
> ANALYflQUE, LEGISLATI9N
1965-1996 D.S.L.
1945-1964 D.L.
1941-1944 D.A.L.
o
o
o
a
I
I
a
o
t
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o
o
o
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(lRn ()Urr, LiG tsL{'r'toN
P6R()lx)rn
rl
cRIIrer
rr:
D.C.L.
1848- l9,10
1821-1817
D.P. IV
D.P. ilt
o BULI-utIN t.6(;lsLA.TIt, I)Al.r.()z
1918- I 982
B.L.D.
!
1983- r 99>
A.L.D.
1912-2004
l92J-dafe
c.9., ICP lll, No.
<nu mber>
17ri8- 1949
Duv. & Boc.
Ac'I t tAlfl
E
LE(;tst
{l tv!:
I)ALL( )z
" L{
SENIATN[ JtrRl)tet]rl
(Jr rRrs-(lLASS[r]R PFnror>rqt j|1)
r
191r-1911
Cor.r.tscnoN <;ol.tt,Lit't l, I)tlcRlrs,
()Rr)oNNAN(;lis, ttii(il-EMBN'lS bT AVIS l)LI
C()NSfil- o'Er',rr' (I)UvencilrR
& BoceuEl')
Treaties and conventions
Citation format: ,treaty or convention name>,,date of signing>,
,abbreviated names of parties', Jounrunl OrrtctEt- DE LA REPUBLTQUE
Fnengetse [J.O.] [Orrrcrnl Gnzerre oF FRANcEI, ,date of publication,, p.
,page number, (,country abbreviation if not evident from context').
u
u, Tourism Accord, Oct.z6,rg79,Fr.-Mex., Jounlnl Orrtctel oe
RipueLreue FnnHqntse [J.O.][Orrtctnl Gnzrrre oF FRANcE], June
15,
t98o, p.1478.
Citc to the J.O., if thcrein; otherwise , cite to onc of the following:
" R[ct]t]il. or's trurrLfs tir
Acc()Rl)s Dli
1961-clate e.g., <year, Recuttt
LA
DES TRAITES, NO.
<numDer>
Fn,tn<:r:
u Rt:<;t:llt. Drs'|RAITES Ite
lir
l7l3-1906 e.g.,,votume,
FR,rNc:E
Recuttr oes
TRATTES <page>
Internet sources
http://wrry.legifrance.gouv.fr (govcmment portal to Frcnch law: providcs
constitution; codes (somc translatecl into English); ofhcial gazettcs
since 1990; treaties; recent decisions from the Cour clc cassation, (lonscil tl'Etat,
and Cor-rscil constitutionnel; and links to European laws)
access to the
http://r.wry.assemblee-nationale.fr
(National Assembly)
http ://www.f ournal-offi ciel. gouv.fr (Ofhcial Gazettc)
http://www.senat.fr
(Senatc)
http://nqrw.courdecassation.fr (Grur dc clssation)
http://www.conseil-etat.fr (ConsciI d
Etat)
http://wwv.conseil-constitutionnel.fr (Conseil constittttionnel)
http://www.loc.govllafhelp/ guide / nations/france.php
Congrcss Guide to I;rw Onlinc: Frtnce)
(Librrtry of
Federal Republic
of
Cases
oitation format: ,court name, [,court abbreviation'] [.English translation
of court name'l ,date of decision', .volume number, if applicable,
,reporter or periodical name, [,reporter or periodical abbreviation,]
.first page' (,page(s) of specific materiat, if desired'), ,for periodicals,
year of publication of volume' (,country abbreviation if not evident from
context,).
+
Bundesgerichtshof IBGH] [Federat Court of Justice]Apr. 16,
zoo8, Nrur lunrsrrscHr WocHeHscHntrr INJW] 2455, zoo8 (Ger.).
Format for subsequent citations: ,votume number, if appticable, .reporter
or periodical abbreviation' ,first page, (.page(s) of specific material, if
desired') (,country abbreviation if not evident from context,).
e
154 BGHZ 37o (371)
Citation format fbr unpublishcd decisions: <court or court abbreviation,
,date,, .docket number,, ,link to online version (optional),.
*"
BG H Fe b. t4, 2014, Xll ZB 6o7 I tz, http: / /ju ris.bundesgerichtshof.
de/cgi-bin/rechtsprechung/document.py?Gericht=bgh&Art=en&
Datu m = zor4&n r= 56934&po 5= 2297s7= 3t6.
Ordinary jurisdiction
Bundesgerichtshof (BGH) (Fcderal Court of Justice (previously
Reichsgericht (RG)): court of last resort for civil and criminal matters): Cite
civil matters to BGHZ or RGZ. and criminal mattcrs to BGHSr or RGSI. or to
oeri<ldical or electronic sotrrcc.
ENts<ltul>uN<;nN
ols
Bt JNI)Es(; ERIcILI
SI
t()FIis
1950-datc
BGHZ
1879-1945
RGZ
a
rN ZIvtLSACltuN
ENtsctIetorrN<;nl pls Rlitct Is(;tiRr(:trls lN
Ztv[-sA(.llLN
ENl scHEIr)rrN(;r.N
Dr-.s
Bt;nt >ls<;trltt<;Ht
stt<
lpns
1
950-date
BGHSr
IN STRA[SACIIEh.
ENls<ttntnr rl<;tlt ot:s RIitclIs(;LRI(:tils lN
Sln q.ns.l<.r rnN
18110-
1944
RGSr
Obedandesgericht (OLG) (in most states, Higher Regional Court): Citc
civil matters to OLGZ, and criminal mattcrs to OLGST, or to a periodical or
electronic source; Bayerisches Oberstes Landesgericht (BayObLG)
(Bavarian Higher Regional Coun): Citc civil matters to BIYOeLGZ and criminal
mltte$ to BIYOaLGST, or to a periodical or elcctronic source; Landgericht
(LG) (regional courts): Cite to periodicals.
RE(:HTSPRE(;nr JN(; DB8 ()Bgnlq.N ut,st;Rnt<;t
ttn
1965-1994
OLGZ
It]j
l9ttl-date
OLGSI
rx Zrvtt.s,qcsr,N
RE<.il'rspne<;Ht iN<; I>nn OBERT.ANT)tis(;IRI(.r
IN s'IRAFSACIII.]N
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liNtscHtiil)tiN(;EN l)tis IlAYuRIsclII]N
Our,rrs'r'r,x L\NDIts(;Erucn'ls IN Zntt.srcttttli
. lllL sr.sr,r uL t.tt ;lir\ )ts IJ
|
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BAYOBLGZ
l9i0-2(D6
BnvOeLGSr
t t,;',1
Constitutional jurisdiction
Bundesverfassungsgericht (BVerfG) (Iederal (lonstittrtional Court): Citc ttr
BVEnTGE, if thcrcin; if unpublishecl, cite by dltc and docket ttuntber lncl link
to online sourcc. if avlilable
1951-dnte
EN'fscHIilt)r.tN( ;tiN t)lts
BVenrGE
Bl \t)lis\ tRI',\ssl N(;s(;trt{lctt'rs
"'
BVerfG, z BvR z7z8 I t3, lan. q, 2014, https://www.
bu ndesverfassu ngsge richt.de/entscheidu ngen /
rc2o74o774 zbvrzTz8r3en.htmt.
Administrative iurisdiction
Bundesverwaltungsgericht (BVerwG) (Fcclerrrl Aclnillistrrtlilc Court):
(lite to BVenwGE. if thercin; Oberverwaltungsgericht (OVG) or
Verwaltungsgerichtshof (VGH) (Higher Admiuistrativc Courts): Clitc to
thc litrtscheitltrrrga, (case rcporter) of thc cottrt; Verwaltungsgericht (VG)
(udministrativc triul courts): Cite to perioclicals. lf unpublishctl. citc
(k)ckct number and link to onliue sourcc, il ltvailablc:
bl
clatc and
:= BVerwG, Oct. 24, 2ot3, 7 C 36.tt,http://www.bverwg.de/
entscheid u ngen /entscheid u ng. ph p?ent=z 41o73U7C36.71'o.
Et]] scttt:lot N(ilt\ t)Fts
IJI rNI)lisvftlwAl- tl rN(;s(;Eltl( tH'l
I95,i-datc
BVenwGE
s
Special jurisdiction
Bundesfinanzhof (BFH) (Fctlerirl Financc Court): Citc to BFHE, if tlrercin;
Finanzgericht (FG) (tirx courts): Citc t<> EFG, if thereirl; Bundesarbeitsgericht
(BAG) (Fcderlrl L:rbor (lourt): (lite to BAGE, if thcrein: Landesarbeitsgerichte
(LAG) (Highcr Labor (iourts): Oite to perioclicals: Bundessozialgericht (BSG)
(Feclcral Sociul Court): Cite to BSGE, if thcrein; Landessozialgericht (LSG)
(Highcr Social Courts): Cite to pcrioclicals; Bundespatentgericht (BPatG)
(Feclcral Patcnt Coun): Cite t() BPnrGE. if therein.
O
o
vliRts(l I t,N
( )t jtittsl t,N I"\NDlis(; FllilcH'l s tN S t Rrr|srt<:t
1950-2(X)6
lc I)tR liNts(;ttEIl)t'\(;tr\ t \l)
(;(rrAcHt'IjN o|s BUxDnst'tx,txzttot's
S,tltttt.t
,
EN'ts<:tttitolx<;tiN DnR FINANZ(;ltRI(tttrtl
"
'
ENis<:rrr:tot NGtiN I)us
EN
llt
NI)tls'\llBlilfs(;l,Rl(lllls
tscltitDt N(;r,x tttts Bt lttl.ss()zlAl.(;llRl(.lrls
ENisciltiIDt
),,J(itr\ l)Tts
Bt sot
sp,q.l'llN
ft;tlttt<:lfls
1952-clttc
l95J-ilate
l95l-date
1955-date
1962-clatc
BFHE
EFG
BAGE
BSGE
BPITGE
Constitution
'
(ittulvlrt;tst;tz
l,t'rR I)ltt BtiNDl:sttlil>l
I)r,r'r s(.ilt.,\NI) (Brst<, L't$)
'l'hc Ba.sic
lrra'
is subclivided into
III-IK
lnicles
(rRt rNIXI IiSlrTT
GG
'When
citing rln.. Bdsic Lau for the first time within a work, provide thc link to
the up{o-drtc vernacular text or to a recent translation as providcd by Gesetze
im lntemet, http://www.gesetze-im-intemet.dcl.
s
GRUNDGESETz [GG][Brsrc Lnw], translotion at http://www.
gesetze-im-internet.de/en glisch_gg/index.htmt.
Cite amencling laws to the Basic Luw like statutes:
p' Gesetz zurAnderung des Grundgesetzes ILawAmending Basic
Lawl, June 28,!993, BGBt. I at rooz (Ger.).
Codes
Citation format: ,code name' [,code abbreviation,] [,Engtish translation
of code name,l, ."as amended," or amending law with citation, if
applicabte,, ,relevant subdivisions, if desired, ,online version in German
or English, if available, (,country abbreviation if not evident from
context,).
It is possible to citc to
sentence number.
r"
a sentence or clause
within the section, paragraph, or
(lite thc section before paragraphs or sentence numbers.
BURGERLTcHES GEsErzBUcn IBGB] [Crvrr- Coor], g 793, para. z,
sentence z, translation af http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/
englisch_bgb/index.htmt (Ger.).
*
HnroelscesErzBUcH IHGB] [CowrueRctAL CoDE], 5 8, http://www.
gesetze-im-internet.de/ hgb/_8. htm t.
I]trR(;ERLt( )rIES G rlsrt z-Br,<;r r
Hrnrxr.sr;r:srilzrlr
;cr r
((lrvr. C()D|)
BGB
((loMr,lFR(ir,u Oorrr)
SozrAr.(;ESt'-fzllu(.H (So(
rL\1.
Sr'tu\F(;r,sEIZBr rcr r (PE\,\L
S'TRAFpROZESS()RIrNt,N<;
HGB
C()Df.)
SGB
(i)r)r.)
StGB
(C()r>r ol, CnrutN.tt. PR(xiED( rRlt)
ZrvllpRozlssotttNuNc (C()l)E or. Crvlr. PR(xrn){ltB)
stPo
zPo
The Sctzialgesctzbuch (SGB) (Social Oode) is subdividcd into twelve books
th:tt are described by a Roman numcral. For instance, Sozialgesetzbuch V
Gesetzliche k'ankenr.tersicberunp deals with social health insurance.
Statutes and decrees
Citirtion format: <statute or decree futl name or, if available and part of
the statutory titte, short title' [,abbreviated statute or decree name,
if availabte,l [,Engtish translation of short titte>], <date of enactment',
,name of gazette of promulgation, [,abbreviation of gazette of
promulgation'] at ,volume, page, and/or sentence number of gazette, if
desired', ,"as amended," or amending law with citation, if applicable,,
,relevant subdivisions, if desired, (,country abbreviation if not evident
from context').
n Finanzmarktstabilisierungsfonds-Verordnung
IFMStFV] [Financiat
Markets Stabilization Regutationl, Oct. zo, 2oo8, ELEKTRoNtscHER
BuHoesnnzercen IeBAruz] at e3 zooS Vl (Ger.).
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Subsequcnt citution
mly be made to the lbbrcviution of the glzctte, rxther than
the lirll r.ramc of thc publication.
.
Waffengesetz [WaffG][Weapons Act], Oct. tt,2oo2, BGBr. I at
39to,g r
.
(Ger.).
Bundes-Bodenschutz-und AltlastenverordnungIBBodSchV]
IFederat SoiI Protection and Contaminated Sites Ordinance], Juty 7,
1999, BGBr- | at r554, $ z, no. 6 (Ger.).
'.' Einfuhrliste IList of lmport Restrictions], Dec. t5, 2oo3, BArz at
26,87 (Beilage no. z43a) (Ger.).
Statutcs lre oftcn amcnclecl b1' subsequent lcgishtion. and cititlg tlle originltl
cnactment ckles not indicate what ltmendmcuts havc sincc occttrtecl. Acld "as
amended," or citc a particular amctrding law. Aclcl t trlnshtiot.t of thc stltttttc
namc if hclpfirl, rLud cite an English translation of thc stltttlte if avaihble , or
provide a link to the consr>lid:ttcd onlinc vcrsion, if avlilaltlc.
u
Aktiengesetz [Al<tG][Stocl< Corporation Act], Sept. 6, 1965, BGBtI at ro89, last amended by Gesetz [G], AJuty 23,2073 BG Bl I at
2586, art. z6 (Ger.), http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/aktg/
BJN Roro89o965. htm t.
\{anl larvs arc repromulgatcd vcars lfter thcir cnlctment to provide ln officiallv
uptlated text. Cite such luws witl-r thcir latcst rcpromttlgation dlttc, or ii the
fbrnrcr vcrsion is dso pertinent, citc the first cnltctme nt, firll<xvecl lly the clate
and citation of the pcrtincnt reprontulgrtion.
.'
Bundesnotarordnung IFederaI Act on Notaries Pubtic], Feb. 13,
1937, RGBr- ll at r9r, repromulgated Feb.24, 196r, BGBI I at 97
(Ger.).
(litc a Gesetz (G) (f'cderll statute) or Verordnung (V) (rcgulittion) to the
feclcral law glzettc whcre it u'as promulgated, cither tlle BGBt- or the RGBt-. or,
in the cuse of some regulations, BAttz or e BAnz. When the BGBr or RGBt- is
divided into'l'cil I and'l'eil II, tkrmestic lcgislltion is in thc Iirst volttmc.
1951-clate
1951-clxte
lfl-l- 1921
192'2-t945
1922-t915
1919-clate
. Ii rNl)tis(;Frslilzlll.A ft,'l'eil I
Ii Nl)ris(;r'srtlztl.,r'n,'l'cil II
' RI't(-ils(;Lsti't zBL\t-t.
' Ilr'r<tts<;esr,r'zBr.,r't"r,'l'eil I
' lilirclrs(irsrir'7lll.A'ff,'l'cil II
, I} rNI)l,sANZLI(;tiR
BGBI
I
BGBt- ll
RGBr-
RGBr
I
RGBt-
ll
e.g.. BAnz at
<page number,
(Beitage no.
,numberr)
Lt.tiKt tt<txtsr.gt,n Bt
lltt
s,rlzt,tt;t,R
2(X).1-tlate
e
.g.. EBANz at
<oocu menl
numbert
Legislative materials
'Ihcre lre trvo f'ederal lcgisl:ttivc
(Fcclenrl Parliament) antl thc
botlics: the Deutscher Bundestag (BT)
Deutscher Bundesrat (BR) (Fcclcrll (inncil).
Cite publishccl Drucksachen
(litcrlrlll ptrblicltions,
i.c., leg,islative nratedrtls)
t
F'nreign Jurisdictions: Gerrrran.v
by legislative period and number for BT and by number and last two digits
year for BR (optionally add link to online version).
of
>
Regierun gsentwurf [Cabinet Draft ], Deurscn r n Bu ru orsrae:
DnucrsacxrH lBTltl I rlt+zl, http://dipzr.bundestag.de I dipzrl
btd I tt I gq I qU+zl.pdf (Ger.).
>
Regierungsentwurf [Cabinet Draft], ButrloEsnnt Dnucrsncxel IBR]
zst lo6 (Ger.).
o
Treaties and conventions
Cite treaties and conventions to BGBt- ll. and use the citation
fomat for statutes.
Internet sources
Free websites
Up-to-date consolidated versions of German laws are available on many
websites, some published by German agencies and offering reliable uPtGdate
versions of numerous laws.
Gesetze im Internet, http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de, published by the
Federal Ministry ofJustice in partnership with;unrs, provides the up-todate text
of most laws and regulations.
>
Gesetz Uber Urheberrecht und verwandte Schutzrechte IUrheberrechtsgesetzlIUrhG][Copyright Act], Sept. 9, 1965, BGBt- | atp73
(Ger.), http: //www.gesetze-im-internet.de.
Statutes provided on this site are usually updated
I
I
I
within one month. Unless
indicated by the text, a citation of the amended status is not typically necessary.
For some statutes, translations are also available.
Other Resources
http://www.cgedi.orglindex.php?id=61 (translation of selected laws and
court decisions provided by the Centre for German kgal Information)
https ://www.bundesanzeig er. de / ebanmtww / wexsservlet (regulations
published in the electronic Bundesanzeiger (rBANz))
The federal courts have websites that make their decisions available:
www.bundesverfassungs gericht. de (Bundesverfassungsgericht)
httpr//
http ://www.bvger.ch @undesverwaltungsgericht)
Federal legislative materials:
http://dip.bundestag.de @undestag)
http://www.parlamentsspiegel.de (Bundesrat)
Commercial services
Germany's comprehensive legal database, .Junrs, is authoritative but not the
primary official source. The online, fee-based subscription service offers more
than forty online libraries including the text of federal statutes (Bundesrecht),
reported cases (Rechtsprechung), the laws of several states, tax regulations
and dings, and bibliographic references to the legal literature. All materials
quoted from .Junrs should be cited according to the established format for
printed materials. In addition, a parallel reference to the JURIS source may be
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given. For court dccisions fiom an clectronic source that may not as.vct have
becn rcportecl elscwhcrc, also cite the ckrcket numbcr.
I
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;,
i.
Produkthaftungsgesetz IProdhaftG] [Products Liabitity Act], Dec.
t5,t989, BGBr- lat zr98 (Ger.), available of ,uRts bysubscription.
Bverfc, Mar. q, 2oo4,
bscription.
t
BvR tz65 I oo (Ger.), av ai la ble at t u nts by
su
In atldition to
Jt Rrs,
Oermln legal publishcrs offtr ntlmcrotls clcctrolric
lrroducts, including commcrcial CD-llOMs.
T2.l4.l
German Linder
Cases
In thc intcgntcd (ierman court s\,stcm, thc tri;tl and irppellate cotlrts ltre state
courts, and the courts ()flast rcsort are l'cdcral cotlrts. Thesc courts acl,udicate
mattcrs of f'edcral irncl statc law.
Constitutional jurisdiction
Staatsgerichtshof (StG H) or Verfassungsgerichtshof (c.g., BayVerfG H fbr
Ilavaria) (constitutionitl court tllat adjuclicates nlatters rehting to the state s
constitution): (litc to the of ficial reporter, a pcriodicltl, or a wcbsite.
=
BayVerfGH Juty r9,
zoo7,6o Sntutvtlut',lc voru EnrscHrtDUNGEN
DEs
BavrnrscHen VERwALTUNGsGERtcHTsHoFS Mlr ENTScHEIDUNGEN
DEs BAyERrscHrn VenrassuttGscERlcHrsHors IBavVGH (NF)I tSt
(Bavaria) (Ger.).
b.""tit"iir"t
(lonstitutions (Verfassung) of the (ierman statcs (l.intlcr) are clcsignatcd
such, folkrwcd by the namc of the statc in clttestion:
"
Vrirrr,ASsrrN(; ll,\\'riRN
as
Venr BnY
Statutes and decrees
Oitc a Landesgesetz (LG) (sttte statutc) or Landesverordnung (LVO) (statc
administflrtivc rcgulation) to thc law gazettc (GVBt-.) of the inclividull statc.
a, Bayerisches Verfassungsschutzgesetz, repromulgated Apr. ro,
1997, BAyERtscHES GESETz- uno VenonoruuNGsBLArr IBnv GVBL]
zo (Bavaria) (Ger.).
B,tt
titttsr
:rtls (lt,st,'tz- t :xlt Vttttttullt'tl< ;sgl-t l'r
Bav GVBr
lnternet sources
I-indcr ltws lnd regulations, :ts well as clccisions of the L:inclcr cotlrts, are
lvlihblc on their official rvcbsites. For instancc, in thc Land of North llhincWestphalil, the Ministn of .lusticc pt'ovides I legal liblan'that contains thc
court clecisions of North ltl-rinc-\i/cstphalil as wcll lts thc most important laws
of the licclcration ancl the othcr Llinclcr. 'l'he ltort:tl is avrilablc in tinglish at
http://www.justiz.nrw.de/WebPortal-en/legal
are in (iermln.
library. bttt tl.tc sottrccs
For additionrl electronic sources, see table T2.14 Germany, Federal
Republic of.
T2.15
Greece
(Civil Law)
Cases
(litation format: .court name, [.court abbreviation,] [,Engtish translation
of court name'] .case number, f ,year,, p.,fi rst page,, .page(s) of specifi c
materia[, if desired, (country abbreviation if not evident from context,).
r, Areios
Pagos [A.P.] [Supreme Courr]355 | zoo4, p. 3 (Greece).
o Symboulion
Epikrateias [S.E.] [Supreme Administrative Court]
n5o1ry95, p.8 (Greece).
Areios Pagos (A.P.)
(Sr.rpreme Court), Symboulion Epikrateias (S.E.)
(Supreme Administrative Court), Eirinidokeia (Erin.) (courts of peace),
Protodikeia (Monomele-Polymelc) (Mon. Pr. or Po[. Pr.) (district courts),
and Epheteia (Ephet.) (courts ofappeals): Oite to various lcgal journals. There
are no oflicial reporters for court dccisior-rs.
Constitution
(litation format;,ysar, SyNTAcmn ISvr.] [CoNsilTUTro
(.country abbreviation if not evident from context,).
t'
N
],section
n
um
ber'
t975 Svr'rrne nn [Svru.][Cousrtrurroru] 6 (Greece).
Codes
Citation format: <code name> [,code abbreviation,][,English translation
of
code name,] ,chapter number':,article number, (country abbreviation if
not evident from context,).
E-
AsnKos Koorrns [A.K.]
As'r-rK()s
[Crvrr-
Coor] r:r (Greece).
Kor)rKAs ((lrvlL (i)r)r,)
A.K.
PorNlxos Koorx,c.s (CRtMrNAr. C()DL)
Kot)IKAs
P.K.
(MILII ARy (lRIMt NAL (l()Dli)
STRAI t()TlKOs P()rNIKOs Kr>urriris
lrto'nroU N,Lutrr<o| l)tr,rtott ((irDE ot,
MARlllMl
KIND
PRIVA'rE
LA,t(,)
EMporilK()s Kor)rK{s (Ooumrncnr. (irDB)
K()r)IKA.S Pol.t'rKEs I)IK()N()MrAs (Cor>n op
Kot)tKAS PoINKrs l)rxor.krl.rr,rs
Pno<:r:t>r
Srn.P.K.
(Corx
EK
()vlL
PR(xtH)uRFt)
<lt, (lRlr'IINAL
KPol.D.
KPor.D.
rnt)
K()t)IKAS t'()N I)raM()sr()N Yler.lur.oN
KODtx,ts BLLINtxr.:s lttt,l<;rNrr.q.s
((irol
((itrrr or
ot, Ctvtr SnnvlN'rs) KDY
GRtjEK Cl'l tzliNSI
Ip)
l)AsrK()s K()l)rKAs (F'oR[st C()r)r)
Kor xx.l s SyMvot"\(x;RAptt<>x
((i rur
KEI
DK
()N N(
l;\Rllts)
Kot)IKAS I)t()tKI'ilKtis Dr,urrKAsr,rs ((l()r)r, ()r, Ar)MrNls'fRAftvtl
PROC.lit)t rRt)
KS
K.D.Drno.
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l:lr r':,1ri .1r!!':.,t!!i
K()DTKAS l)rorKlrrKrrs DrKoN()MrAs
Jtrt)tcl{t.
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i1!r't\' {ri{','{ { tj
((l()Dr oF ADMrNrsrRATrvr K.D.DtK.
Pno<:rt>r rnr)
Stafutes and decrees
Citation format for statutes: Nomos (,year,:,taw number>) ,Statute name,
[,Engtish transtation of statute name>], ,publication n6ms, [,publication
abbreviation,l <year>, <part>:<issue number, (country abbreviation if not
evident from context,).
ts Nomos (zot3:4t64) Symplerose ton Diatakseon Peri Ethnikou
ktematotogiou kai Alles Rythmiseis ICompletion of Provisions
on National Registry and Other Regulationsl, EpHervtents rrs
KvvrnrEseos rES HELLENTKEs DEMoKRATtAs IE.K.E.D.] zot3, Ai756
(Greece).
Citation format fbr decrces: Diatagma (,year,:.law number,) ,decree name,
[,English translation of decree name,], ,publication name, [,pubtication
abbreviation'] ,year>, ,part,:,issue number, (,country abbreviation if not
evident from context).
h' Diatagma (zor4:8) Epharmoge tes Apophasis t9z9 (zoto) toy
Symvouliou Asfaleias tou Organismou Enomenon Ethnon (O.H.E.)
Ilmplementation of Decision ry29 (zoto) of the United Nations
(U.N.)1, EpHeruEnrs Tes KvvrnruesEos TEs HelLeHlres DEruornnrrns IE.K.E.D.] zot4, B:t3 (Greece).
t
a
{
Periodicals
Citation f<rrmat: ,author name', ,title in transliterated form, [,English
translation of title,] ,volume number' ,periodical 66ms, [,periodical
abbreviation,], No.,number,,,fi rst page,,,page(s) of specific material,
if desired' (,year,) (,country abbreviation if not evident from context,).
+
Kostas Mpeis, He Anogkastike Ektelese Enantion Allodapou
us Kata to H e lle n i ko D i koi o lE n fo rce me nt Proceed i n g s
Against a Foreign State According to Greek Lawl5z Nomtron
K rato
VErvrn
[N.V.l, No. 4, 558 (zoo4) (Greece).
The lirllowing arc thc most common journlls:
o
FlAIlMENoPotr.os
" Drxr
n
HARM.
(Tur.lr-)
Dn.tlo
ER(;Ar-rKl,s
D.
N()MolttlstAs (Btit-lr,'nr
()F L,uloR
LAv)
, Drr.r'ro PHottot.o<;tKrs N()\'to]il[st^s (BUI-I-jj]'IN ol'T.'txtttoN)
*EptluE()rursusDluosr<lrKAIDt()tKtilK()r.tI)tr'rtottV
(founN,u
'
()r, Pt10t.ft; ANr) Ar)MrNrsrRArrvr
EprfuE()rtEsrrs
Stx-lu.
Dtrltol
INst rruN<:n
D.Pn.N.
E,D.D.D.
l"rw)
K()rN()NIKES Aspttet.tsttcts
(lttt'nr.u.
<tt'
E.D.K.A.
l,lw)
h EprrlrE()REsrs En<;,q.Trxorr
F EpnriNrERrs Er.r-sN()N
D,E.N.
l)rr,lrol
(JolttNAL oF LAB()R
NoNtKoN (Jo{rRN,\t.
o Epr|ssonus|s Eltponrrorr
IA$,)
ol (inttt:xJtrnls'ts)
l)rti\rotr (lot:nxxt.
()F
(loMllltRctAl
E.ERG,D.
E,E.N.
E.Etvtp,D.
L,rw)
Tnrsr
RurtiNtt)
Vl]NrA (I-E(;AI-'l
Koorx,rs Ntlnrx.or VIr't,rtrrs ((,()r)1, ()l Lnt;'rt. 'l'tttnr Nt,)
NtxrrroN
N.V.
K.N.V.
o
:; ii:i:1,:
" T() SYNTAGMI (THr' CoNsl'rlUTloN)
. l)tKAt(xr^t'A T<lu ANt Rttopou (Revrcw ot, Hrrv,rN
To S.
fur;Hrs)
D.T.A.
Treaties
Cite treaties to the O.fficiat Gdzette of Greece: ,title', ,parties,, ,date of
signature, IEeHemenrs rEs KyvERNEsEos rEs Hellentres Dttuoxnnrtns]
IE.K.E.D.], <part>:<issue number>,,date of pubtication, (,country
abbreviation if not evident from context').
,h'
Agreement on Double Taxation, Greece-U.S., Oct. zz, t96o
IEeH ervr rnts rEs KyvE RN EsEos rES H E t-t-E ru t rES Detvto rnnrtas]
IE.K.E.D.], A:28, Oct. 28, t96o (Greece).
Internet soufces
http://n'rw.et .gr
(OfJicial Gdzette of Greece, availablc lirr frec)
http://www.dsanet.gr (lsokratis (Athens l]ar Association))
http: / / last db.intrasoft net.com (NOMOS)
http://r.wry.l oc.gov /law /help/ gtide/ nations/greece.html (Library of
(irngress (iuide to Law Online: Greecc)
http://wrw.ministryofi ustice.gr / site (Ministry of Justice,
Transpareucy.
and Human Rights)
http://n'nv.hellenicpadiament. gr (Hellcnic Parliament)
T2.16 Hong Kong
(Cornmon Lalv)
Chinese and English language sources
Hong Kong has two oflicial languages: English ancl Chincse . Where a sourcc is
available in both languages, generall,v cite to the Englislr source, unless therc
is a specilic rcason to citc to the Cl"rincse version. When citing an English
language primary source, it is not necessary to preface thc source with the
w <trc\s " t ra n slate d i n."
Romanization
For romanizatior-r of Chinese language citations, fblkrw instructions in rule
20.2.4(b).
English abbreviations
Follow abbreviatbn guidelines for U.S. matcrirls, using tables T6 and T1O,
unless an exccption is providecl in table T2.42 United Kingdom. Render
"Hong Kong Special Administrative Region" or "HKSAR'' as "Hong Kong.'
Cases
Citation format: .caSe name>, [,year of decision'] ,volume number or
part, <reporter abbreviation' .first page,, ,page(s) of specific materiat, if
desired' (court abbreviation') (iurisdiction abbreviation if not evident
from context,).
I
t
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
I
o
o
o
o
o
I
o
o
O
o
a
o
o
o
I
o
a
o
!"
Law Soc'y of H.K. v. Brook,
Hong Kong v. Chan Hing Hung, I1998]+ H.K.C. +81, t+88C (C.F.l.).
b,'
Tong Ping-chuen v. AG, [r9go] r H.K.L.R. 55r, 559E (H.C.).
Priry Council (P.C.) (all criminal
and civil linal appeals untilJuly
to reports listed under table T2.42 United Kingdom.
1997): Cite
1,1997): Cite to H.K.C.F.A.R., H.K.C., or Lega[ Reference System, if therein.
ts
Hong Kong Court of Final
Appeal
1997
/l99tl-date H.K.C.F.A.R.
Reports
o
It){6-dile
1997-date
Hong Kong Cases
" Legal Reference Systcm
H.K.C.
LegalReference
System
Court of Appeal of the High Court (C.A.): Cite to H.K.L.R.D., H.K.L.R.,
H.K.C., or LegaI Reference System, in that order of preference.
"'Ihe Authorized Hong Kong
Law
r997-dxe
H.K.L.R.D.
r9o5 / 1906- 1996
H. K. L. R.
Reports and Digest
I
District Court (D.C.): For
'
,
Hong Kong Oases
Legal Ref'erence System
1946-date
1946-d:tte
H.K.C.
LegaI Reference
SYstem
Court of First Instance of the High Court (C.F.l.) (High Court ofJustice
(H.C.) from 1975 t<t 1998): Cite to H.K.L.R.D., H.K.L.R., H.K.C., or Legal
Reference System. if thcrein.
an online source, cite using application number,
abbreviation, and date as provided in the fudgment. Citc to D.C.L.R. or Legal
Reference System, if thercin. Provide a parallel print source citation where
available.
'
District (lourt Law Reports
(Supplement to Hong Kong Law
l9ri-1996
D.C,L.R.
Reports)
Legal Reference System
O
o
o
o
o
o
l,
Court of Final Appeal (C.F.A.) (all criminal and civil linal appeals afterJuly
I
I
o
o
H.K.C.F.A.R. 228,237D
s
" Hong Konfi Law Reports
o
[r997-t998lt
(c.F.r.).
m"
196tt-date
Legal Reference
System
Ward v. Harting (HK) Ltd., DCCJ zlt++lzoo4 (D.C. Dec. t4, zoo5)
(Legal Reference System) (H.K.).
Family Court (F.C.): Cite using application number, abbreviatkrn, and date
pnrvided in the iudgment. Cite to Legal Reference System. Provide
print source citation wherc available .
=
Lcgal Ref'erence
!*-
System
1972-dtte
a
as
parallcl
Legal Reference
System
c v. L, lzoo4lz H.K.L.R.D. r, FCMC 7268l2ooo (F.C. Jan. tS,zooz)
(Legal Reference System) (H.K.).
Lands Tribunal (L.D,): Cite using application number, abbreviation, and year
provided in the iudgment. Cite to Legal Reference System.
as
o
Foreign -[urisdictions: [{ong Knng
> Legal Reference
>
System
I
Legal Reference
System
1970-date
o
Naylor v. Konmill Ltd., LDNT 6tlzoo4 (1.D. f uly 27, 2oo4) (Legal
Reference System) (H.K.).
Constitution
See also listing under
>
tableT2.9 China, People's Republic of
The Basic law of the Hong Kong Special
Administrative Region of the People's Republic of
China
>
XIANGGANG JreeN Fn
art.24,
S
XrnHeenNe f reeH
FA
t
t (H.K.).
Laws and ordinances
Cite to one or more of the following sources, if therein and available. Provide
parallel citation where available.
The Iaws of Hong r""g t6ffi,*fr-d>
> Ordinances of the Hong Kong Special
Administrative Region for the year
<year> (Irgal Supplement No. I to The
Government of the Hong Kong Special
Administrative Region Gazette)
> Bilingual laws Information System
>
l99l-date
1855-date
O.H.K.
1997-date
BLIS
a
L.H.K.
Citation format for The Laws of Hong Kozg: <statute or ordinance name),
(.edition year,) Cap. <chapter number,, ,page number,, $ ,section'
(,jurisdiction abbreviation if not evident from context,).
Proceedings and Property Ordinance, Q99o) Cap. ry2,
r, $ r(r) (H.K.).
Citation format for the Ordinances of the Hong Kong Special Adrninistratiue
Region: (statute or ordinance name), No. ,ordinance number,, (,year of
publication,) <volume> O.H.K., 5 ,section, (,jurisdiction abbreviation if
not evident from context').
>
Hong Kong Reunification Ordinance, No. 11o,
(tggil I
O.H.K.,
zg(r).
Regulations
Cite to one or more of the following sources, if therein and available
The Laws of Hong ro"g fAHi*1Fdl
Regulations of the Hong Kong Special
Administrative Region for the year
<year) (Legal Supplement No. 2 to The
Government of the Hong Kong Special
Administrative Region Gazette)
> Bilingual Laws Information System
>
>
(ry-#lt(nJlfft+#ffi)
l99l-date
1948-date
L.H.K.
R.H.K.
I
o
I
I
(rye9;EVrl/Htr+#frfi)
> Matrimonial
I
I
.
S
t
I
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1997-date
BLIS
I
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o
o
O
o
a
o
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o
o
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a
o
O
o
t
o
o
o
Internet sources
http://vqrw.basiclaw.gov.hk (The Basic Law of Hong Kong)
http://www.legislation.gov.hk/eng/index.htm (Bilingual Laws
Information system,
ry;*#lrll'ft't+*ffi tsrts)
http://www.gld.gov.hk/egazette (The Govemment of the Hong Kong
Spccial Administrative Region Gazette (Hoxc KoNc Gaz.))
http://www.hklii.org
(Hong Kong Legal Information Institute (HKLII))
lntlp?//leg bef.judiciary.gov.hk
(Legal Reference Systcm of the Hong Kong
Judiciary)
http://nnrw.doj.gov.hk/eng/laws/treaties.html (Treaties
and
Intemational Agreements (In Force and Applicable to the Hong Kong SAR)
(HK TIA))
http://www.hku.hk/ccpl/hkfie ty/ d^tabase.html
(Hong Kong Treaty
Database)
T2.17 Hungary, Republic of
(CivilLaw)
Cases
Citation fomat: <court name) (court abbreviation, if appticabte,) ['Engtish
translation of court name,l ,fu[[ date of iudgment, if avaitable,, ,gazette
abbreviation, if citing to a gazette,..case number, or if none avaitable,
docket number> (.country abbreviation if not evident from context')'
-
Kriria [Curia of Hungaryj Kfv.lll.37 512/2012/9 (Hun9.).
+- K[ria [Curia of Hungary)Ptu.Y.20.125/2013/5 (Hung.).
*
>
F6vdrosi lt6l6tebla lBudapest-Capital Regional Court of Appeal]
March 4, 2014,9.Pf .20.408/2013/10 (Hung.).
DebreceniTorv6nysz6k [Debrecen Regional Court] July 4, 20'l 3,
1 0.P.20.07 5 / 20 1 3 / 22 (Hung.).
Constitutional and civil law courts
Alkotmrinybir6sdg (AB) (Constitutional Court): Cite to MK or AK, if
therein; Kriria (Curia of Hungary): Cite to BH, if therein; Szegedi it6l6tibla,
P6csi it6l6t{bta, Gy6ri it6l6t6bla, Debreceni it6lti,t6bla, and F6v6rosi
itel6t6bla (regional court of appeal and the Budapest-Capital Regional
Court of Appeal; adjudicates civil and criminal matters as a second- or thirdinstance forum and other cases referred to its jurisdiction); Tiirv6nysz6k
6s F6virosi Ttirvdnyszdk (regional court and Budapest-Capital Regional
Court) and f6r6sbir6s6g or keriileti bir6s6g (district court): Cite to BH,
if therein; Kdzigazgatfusi 6s munkaiigyi bir6s6g (administrative and labor
court).
Major gazettes
" Magyar Krizl<iny (Official Gazette of
Hungary)
MK
I
Foreign Jurirdictions: Hurrgary
>
Alkotmdnybir6s6g Hatdrozatai (Decisions of the
Constitutional Court: Official Gazette of the
Constitutional Court)
> Kririai Drint6sek: Bir6srlgi Hatirozatok (Resolutions of the
Curia: Court Cases)
> It€l6t{blai Hat6rozatok (Cases ofthe Courts ofAppeal)
> Alkotm6nybir6s6gi Szemle (Constitutional Court Review)
>
Bir6s6gi D<int6sek T6ra (Reports ofCourt Resolutions)
> K<izigazgat6si-Gazdasrigi
D6ntv6nyt6r (Court Decisions on
AK
BH
IH
BDT
KGD
Public Administration and Economy)
> Bir6sigi Kiizldny (Official Journal of the National Offrce for
the Iudiciary)
Law journals
>
Magyar Jog (Hungarian Law)
MJ
fogtudom6nyi Krizl6ny (Gazette ofLegal Science)
> Eur6pai |og (European Law)
>
>
IK
Acta Humana: Emberi fogi K<izleminyek (Human Rights
Bulletin)
Acta Juridica Hungarica
r Csalidi log (Family Law)
>
>
>
Infokommunik6ci6 6s fog (Infocommunications and Law)
Kiizjogi Szemle (Public Law Journal)
Constitution
ts MAGvARoRSZAG ALApTORV€Hve [Tre FuNolrvrsrral Llw or
HuHcanv], Aupr0nv€rv.
Statutes and decfees
Where available, cite statutes to Magtar Kdzliiny (MK) (Official Gazette of
Hungary) and decrees to the specific ministerial gazette, e.g., Honvidelmi
Kdzl1ny (HK) (Gazette of National Defense).
Citation format for tiirv6ny(ek) (act(s)): (year of issuance,. <number of
the act within that year). <scope of regulation, (Engtish translation of
the name ofthe act,) (,country abbreviation ifnot evident from context,).
> 2ot2.6vi XXXVI. t0rv6ny
az
Orsz5ggyfl6sr6l (Act XXXVI of 2ot2 on
the Parliament) (Hung.).
>
2ot3.6vi V. tiirv6ny a Polg6ri Ttirv6nyk6nyvr6t (Act V of 2013 on
the Civil Code) (Hung.).
Citation format for decrees: ,decree number>/<year of issuancer.
(,month of issuance, in roman numerals>.(day'.) ,abbreviation of
issuer' ,abbreviation of type of decree> <scope of regulation) (.English
translation of the name of the decree,) (,country abbreviation if not
evident from context,).
When following the format above, use "Korm." (Govemment), 'FVM" (Minister
of Agriculture and Rural Development), " EUM " (Minister of Health), and so on.
For govemmental and ministerial decrees, use "r.' for "rendelet" (decree); for
municipal decrees, use "6r," for "rinkorminyzati rendelet."
t
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o
a
T
o
o
o
a
o
o
o
o
I ,i;'t'ir;:l Nl'r'rsrilr iitrr;r: iiiil;:;'Ll
*
+
3o3l2oto. (Xll. zf.) Korm. r. a Nemzeti Innov6ci6s Hivatalr6l
(Governmental Decree No. 3o3/zoro (Xll.z:.) on the National
Innovation Offi ce) (Hung.).
a 3rlzoo8. (Xll. fr.)
IRM r. az igazs6gtigyi szak6rt5i mukiid6srol
(Decree of the Minister of Law and Law Enforcement on the Operation of Forensic Experts) (Hung.).
Codes
Polgdri Torv6nykonlv (Civil Code)
Biintet6 Tcirv6nyk<inyv (Criminal Code)
'
'
Prr.
BrK.
" Polgiiri perrendtartis (Civil Procedure Code)
* Bintet6eljrirrisi torv6ny (Criminal Procedure Code)
Pp.
, K<izigazgatrlsi elj6rds16l
KEr.
sz616 t<irv6ny
(Administrative
Be.
Procedure Act)
'
Munka Torv6nykonlve (Labor Code)
MUNKA TV
t6rsas6gokr6l sz616 t<irv6ny (Company Law)
Kereskedelmi Torv6ny (Commercial Law)
GT
e Gazdasiigi
'
" C6gtcirv6ny (Act on Company Registration Procedure)
befektet6seir6l (Law
" T<irvdny a ki.ilfcildiek magyarorsziigi
on Investments of Foreigners in Hungary)
" Bir6s6gi T<irv6ny (Law on the Organization ofthe Courts)
KERTV
CTV
Bszr.
Internet sources
http://www.mkab.hu/dokumentumoVab-kozlony (Alkotminybir6sdLg
Hatirozrtai-Decisions of the Constitutional Court: Official Gazette of the
Constitutional Court)
http ://www. mkab.hu/ugyek-stat/kiadvanyok /abh-eves-kotetek
(Annual Collection of Alkotminybir6sig Httirozatai-Decisions of the
Constitutional Court)
http://kozlony .magyxrorczag.hu (Magyar Kdzlony-Oflicial
Gazette
of
Hungary)
http://www.kozlonyok.hu/kozlonyok/valaszt.htm (current official
gazettes)
http ://birosag.hu/ugyfelkapcsolati-porta/anonim-hatar ozatok-tat a
(Bir6sigi Hatirozatok Gytiltem€nye-full text database of court cases and
decisions)
http ://www.birosag.hu/enlszakmai-informaciok/birosagi-kozlony
(Bir6slgi Kozlony-Official Joumal of the National Officc for the Judiciary)
http://www.kormany.hu/download/
a/
2l /OOOOO/
Magy arotszo/oC}%Al g,a/o20 Napf/oC5o/oB6rf/oC3%A9nye.pdf (thc
fundamental law of Hungary in Hungarian)
http ://www.kormany.hu/dow rioad'/ e / O2 / OOOOO/The%2 0Newo/o2 0
Fundamental%20Lawa/o20oP/o2oHungary.pdf (the fu ndamental law of
Hungary in English)
hw
/ net.joctar.hu (Hatllyos Jogszab'lyok Gyrijtemdnye-database of valid
statutes, decrees, free access)
Ircreigtr Juristlictions: lrrcli*
http://nit.hu (NemzetiJogszab6ll,tfu-database of valid
statutes, decrees and
intemational treaties, free access)
(ftirv6nyek
http://www.complex.hdexternal.php?url=l
6s OGY
hrttrrozatok-padiamentary acts and resolutions by year, free access)
o
http://bdt.complex.hu Gir6sigi Dont6sek Tira-Reports of Court
Resolutions. fee-based)
http://kgd.complex.hu
D<inw6nltlr-Court
(Kozigazgatlsi-Gazdastrgi
I
I
I
Decisions on Public Administration and Economy, fee-based)
http://kuriadontesek.hu (Kirriai Dont6sek-Resolutions of the Curia,
fee-based)
T2.18 India
(Common Law)
English is the primary language ofthe legal system oflndia. Publication ofcases,
laws, regulations, and reporting systems are all in English.
Cases
Citation format: <case name>, (,year of reporter,) .volume number)
(reporter abbreviation) .first page, (,year of decision if different from the
year of reporter,) (,country abbreviation if not evident from context,).
Note that many reporters depart from this format,
as
detailed below.
>
Charan Lal Sahu v. Union Carbide, (rg8g) r SCC674 (lndia).
>
Singh v. Punjab, (tg8o) zSCl 475,524 (lndia).
> labalpur
v. Shukla, AIR 1976 SCrzoT (lndia).
Citeto Pri,y Council Reports (lnd. App.), tndian Appeals (lA), Supreme Court
Reports (SCR) or Suprenxe CourtJournal (SCD, or Alt India Reporter (AlR).
Indian law Reporls is the offlcial law reporter for each High Court. Preference
should be given to this reporter for High Court decisions.
Privy Council (PC) (appeals until 1949): Cite to lA, Ind. App., AlR, or Ind.
Cas.,
in that order of preference.
>
Indian Appeals
) Law Reports, Prilry Council
>
r873-1950
IA
1836-1872 Ind. App.
(year,) AIR <volume>
AII India Reporter
L9l4-date
e.g.,
lndian Cases
1909-1947
lnd. Cas.
PC
<page'
Supreme Court (lndia) (Federal Court (lndia Fed.) from 1937 to 1950):
Cite to 5.C.R. if therein; otherwise cit€ to one of the reporters below in the
following order of preference:
>
Supreme Court Reports
1950-date e.g., (year') ,volume,
SCR <page>
>
All India Reporter
l9l4-drte
e.g., federal courts:
AIR <year> SC,page'
state courts: AIR ,vear>
<state> <page>
I
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a
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o
o
o
a
o
a
I
o
o
o
o
o
I
o
o
Ilu
i:'"ali{
{i*nr:
irtt{,u;l
=
Supreme CourtJoufnal
1936-date
scJ
+
Supreme Court Cases
1969-date
e.g., (,yearD <volume)
" UnreportedJudgments
1969-dlte
e.g., Unreported ludgments
1979-date
e.9., <year> SCALE (Page,
" Federal Oourt Reports
o Federal l^awJournal
1939-1950
FCR
1937-1949
FLI
r Indian Cases
" Accidents Claims Joumal
1909-1941
lnd. Cas.
1966-date
e.g.,
SCC
<year>, <page>
Supreme Cottrt Almanac
'
,page,
(,year) .votume,
ACJ
,page, (,year of
decision,)
F
Criminal Law Journal
1904-date
(,year) <volume> Crim
(,"5C" or "HC",) <page>
(.date of decision)
e.g.,
L!
'All
19tt3-date
e.g., (Year,) ,volume' Crim
L Rptr. (<"SC" or "HC"')
* Election Law Reports
1945-d^te
e.g.,
India Criminal Law
Reporter
(,i3ts of decision)
(,year) <volume> ELR
,page>
(,"5C" or "HC"') ,page,
(,date of decisionD
'Indian Factories & Labor
1960-date
Labor & Industrial Cases
(year)
<volume> FLR
(,"SC" or "HC",) ,page'
(,date of decision,)
Repofts
'
e.g.,
1968-date
e.g., (,year,) <volume, LIC
(,"SC" or "HC",) ,page'
I Labor
e Sales
Law Journal
Tax Cases
(date of decision)
(,year) ,volume'
1957-d:rte
e.g.,
1970-date
(,"SC" or "HC",) .page'
(date of decision')
e.g., (Year,) <volume' STC
(,"SC" or "HC",) ,page,
(,date of decision')
LLI
High Courts (e .g., Madras HC) (highest state courts (Supreme Courts (e.g.,
Catcutta 5C) prior to 1860)) and Courts of the Judicial Commissioner (e .9.,
CJC Manipur) (Sadar Dewani Adalats (e.g., SDA Agra) prior to 1860): Cite
to AlR, lndian Dec., or lLR, in that order of prefercncc. When citing to AIR or
to lLR, give the state or regional jurisdiction parenthetically
tu tg54AlR z+ (Det.)
a'
ILR 53 (Cal.)
zrs
r8z
, AII Inclia Reporter (different
l9l1-date
AIR
series for each state)
'Indian Decisions
r Indian Law Repofts (different
series for each region)
1774-date lndian Dec.
1876-date ILR
Cr"rtit"iirt
In citing the Constitution and its amendments the following form may be used:
Foreign Jurisclictions: India
>
f
Horr Corsr. art. 1, 5 9, c1,.2.
> rora Corsr. aft,269, amended byThe
f
Constitution (Eightieth
Amendment) Act, zooo.
Statutes
Codes
A govemment publication is preferred over other sources. Tlrc India Code,
a statutory compilation of all laws of India, must be the primary source of
citation. Absent an update, cite to the,4ll India Reporter Manual (6thed.) and
then update by the session law volume and the individual amending act fot
^
subsequent amendment.
>
>
>
Banking Regulation Act, No. to of
t949,lrorl
India
Code
INDIA CoDE
Procedure
Procedure
> Hindu Code
> Indian Penal Code
> General Statutory Rules and Orders
r Code ofCivil
> Code
>
Cooe (tggl),vol. r5.
lndustrial Disputes Act, No. t4of t947,Inorn Coor (tggl),vol. r3.
Cooe Ctv, Pnoc.
of Criminal
A.I.R. Manual: Unrepealed Central Acts (5th
Cooe Cntm. Pnoc.
Htttou Cooe
PEN. CoDE
GEN, S, R. & O.
ed.)
A.l.R.
Mnrunl
Session laws
Session laws of India are published annually in a consolidated form under the
titleActs of Parliarnent. Citationformat: <act name), No. <act numbert,Acts
of Parliament, ,year of volume' (,country abbreviation if not evident from
context,).
> Copyright (Amendment)
Act,
t992, No.
13, Acts
of Parliament, r99z
(lndia).
At times, year<nd enactments are published in the subsequent year.
>
Taxation Laws (Amendment) Act, 2ooo, No. r, Acts of Parliament,
zoor (lndia).
Altemative statutory sources:
> Subsidiary
India Subs. Leg.
>
cts
Legislation
Current Indian Statutes
> Cuffent Centfal kgislation
Indian Curr. Cen. Leg.
Regulations
General Statutory Rules and. Orders (Gen.S. R. & O.) is the official publication
for rules and orders issued under acts, but the compilation is not very crrfrent.
'When
the govemment publication does not include a rule or order, a reference
may be made to any commercial publication, for example, Current Ind.ian
Statutes (ClS), which is generally more up to date . In addition, regulations
are also published in the govefiiment gazettes on a weekly basis. Rules may be
found in part II, section 3G) of the Gazette of Ind.ia.
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llrt
Citation format: .regutation name), <year of enactment,, <volume number>
,pubtication abbreviation',page(s) of specific materia[' (.country
abbreviation if not evident from context,).
u. Beedi Workers Welfare Cess Rules, 1977,22 Gen.5. R. & O.7r9
(lndia).
n*
Indian Post Office (rst Amendment) Rules, t996, t997 CIS r35
(lndia).
e. Indian Medical Counci[ (Profession Conduct, Etiquette and Ethics)
Regulations, 2oo2, Gazette oflndia, pt. lll sec. 4(Apr.6,zooz).
Internet sources
Parliamentary bills, including texts, and other enactments may also be searched
and located on the website of the Govemment of India at http://indiacode.
nic.in. The site provides information from the India
publication, and provides
e
a
Code, an official
wide variety of other information.
The Indian MajorityAct, No. 9 of 1875, lHotnCooe (1993), vot. z,
http://indiacode.nic.in.
Parliamentary bills and Acts can also be found in the Gazette of India, which
is available online at http://t'nw.egazette.nic.in. Bills crn be found in the
Gazette in pa;rt II, section 2 and Acts, Ordinances and Regulations can be found
in part II, section l.
The latest status of court cases that are eithcr pending or disposcd of by
the Supreme Court or any other High Court can be found at http://nurw
.courtnic.nic.in.
Other resources
http://www.l oc.gov/law ftrelp/ gdde/ nations/india.html (Library of
Congress Guide to Law Onlinc: India)
http://judis.nic.in/supremecourt/chejudis.asp (udgment Information
System of the Supreme Court of India: frec access to all the judgments of the
Supreme Court and certain High Courts, as well as the SCR iournal from 1950
to pfesent)
http:,rywww.manupatra.com (subscription database that includes the latest
acts, rcgulations, rules and amendments made by the Parliament and the state
lcgislature s, as well as ludgments of the Supreme Court and the High Courts
from 1950 to present)
T2.19 Iran, Islamic Republic of
(Civil Lawllslamic Law)
Cases
three-tiered couft system, but since the 1979 Revolution, lower-court
not been reportcd, and the only Supreme Court cases reported
have been unification cases (cases taken to resolve split decisions by differcnt
branches of the Supreme Court or by lower courts). Such cases trom 1944
Iran has
a
cascs have
!'oreign Jurisdictions: I ran
2OO2 are contained in a one-volume reporter issued by the law Research
Dkectorate of the President's Office in 2003. It organizes cases chronologically
by subiect. The title of this volume is as follows:
to
>
MAIM0'AH-|ARA'-| VA.HDAT-I RAWAH-| DivAN-r 'ALl-t Ktsxvln
[Comerurror oF THE UNrFrcATroN DEcrsroNs oF THE SueREME CoURT].
citation format: ,serial number, <court name) [.Engtish translation of
the court name,l <case number,-,date on lranian calendar in month/
day/year format' l,date on Gregorian calendar in month/day/year
format,l ,first page,, (page(s) of specific material, if desired' (,country
abbreviation if not evident from context).
> t7 Marja'-i
to Hear
Rasidagi bih'Amr-i Taba'iyat [Court Having Jurisdiction
a Citizenship Casel
Zor-orlzol13Srltlzolzoo3ll3Tz
(lran).
Historically, following the dissolution of the Islamic religious courts,
introduction of the European legal system, and formation of what was then
called 'Adliyah-i ladid New Justice) in kan n 1927 , it was not the practice to
report court decisions. In 1954, the decisions ofthe then-eight chambers ofthe
Supreme Court, as well as the decisions made at the general meetings (the court
sitting en banc) of the Supreme Court from 1932 tol954, were published. This
serial collection continued its publication annually, with a change of publisher
and format in 1964, until the 1979 Revolution.
>
MAruo'eH-r RAvtyAH -r QaZE't [Com
pr
LAno N o r
J u n rs
enu
o e rce].
Court of Administrative Justice: Article 173 of the 1979 Constitution
established th€ Court of Administrative Justice in order to investigate
complaints and grievances conceming civil servants, organs, or state agencies
and regulations. Currently, the Court has ten chambers. The Official Gazette
of
the Islamic Republic of Iran regularly publishes the decisions of the Court. The
Court also provides a database of all its authoritative decisions.
Citation format: ,date on lranian calendar in year/month/day format, [.date
on Gregorian calendar,l, File No. .file number,, (case name) [,English
translation of the case name'] (,country abbreviation if not evident from
context,).
> tZBzlglzl [Dec.9, zoo4], File No. 446179, Raye Heyati
Umoomii
Divani ldaalati ldari IRuling of the General Meeting of the Adminis-
trative Justice Tribunatl (lran).
Constitutions
Iran has had two constitutions, as indicated below. Cite by the name of the
constitution or amendment, followed by an English ffanslation in brackets, and
the year of the constitution or amendment (either in the Iranian calendar with
the Gregorian equivalent in brackets, or in the Gregorian calendar without
brackets). To refer to a particular passage, include the article number.
> QnNurrAssessr
Jumnunrr lsumnr Inaru [Tre CorusrrrurroH or rne
lsun,trc REpuBLrc or Inntl 1358 [r98o].
>
ISLAHAT VA TAeyyRATr Vn TntnnrtrnlH
ro
rHE
CoNsrrunoNl
Qetulr Asslssr [Arraetometr
1368 [1989] (lran).
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l':rr'q
hb QANUNT
:tir -!lrlio,rli+ ili+rtqr
f r "r'r
AssAAssr InnN ilnanrnru CorsrrrurtoH] r9o5.
According to the Constitution of 1980, the Guardian Council ensures that thc
House of Representatives passes no law inconsistent with Islamic law or the
constitution. The decisions of the (luarclian Council are published under the
following title:
w Maimuahi Nazariati Shurai Nigahban [Compilation of the Opinions
of the Guardian Councitl Tehrcnr99z.
Codes
Citation format: <name of the code, [,English translation of the name of the
code,l[,abbreviation for the code, if appticable,] .year of publication' [,if
the year has been given in the lranian calendar, then append the date
from the Gregorian calendar in brackets,], ,article number(s), (,country
abbreviation if not evident from context').
F
QANUNT
Maoenr lCrvrr- Cooe]Tehran 1314 lrglS], arts. 6s6-Bl
(lran).
F" AlNr DADRAssT MADANT
ICrvt Pnoceoune Coor]Tehrant3lg
lzoool (lran).
F" MAJMUAHT Klnn[r QnveNrNr VA MUQARRATI BAZERGANt Vn TtJlnt
[Cooe or rHE CoMMERcTAL LAws AND REGuLArtoHs] Tehran r37o
lrggol (lran).
e. MAIMuAHt QnvnHtHt lnznr [Cooe oF CRIMINAL Lnws]Tehran r38r
lzoozl (lran).
F
MAIMUAHt QeveHtNt Ntnunet MussnLnstJutuHuntt lsLAMll IRAN
[CorrapturtoH or rxE Laws or tHE Anmeo Foncrs or tHe lsLemtc
RrpueLrc or InaHl Tehran 116+ [rg8S].
e
MA,MUAHT
Qnvnltrr Seert ILnHo REctstnnttott Lnws] Tehran r38z
lzoo3l (lran).
si"tut"t
""J
t"g"i"iit"i
Citation format: ,statute or regulation name, of ,date of enactment in day
month year format' (,country abbreviation if not evident from context,).
or: .type of [aw' of ,date of enactment in day month year format'(subject
of law,) (,country abbreviation if not evident from context).
+
State Monetary and Banking Law of9 July t972, amended 1975
(lran).
*
Law of
e^
Act of r9 Feb. 1988 (Direct Taxation) (lran).
rz/r3
May r98z (Nationalization of Foreign Trade) (lran).
g' Regulations of z June 1984 (Establishment, Operation, and Dissolution of Representative Offices of Foreign Banks) (lran).
Gazette
The Official Gazette is published daily. Its supplement is nominally publishcd
on a weekly basis, but in reality publications are irregular. The Iranian Ministry
ofJustice publishes thcse publications and the annual compilation.
Citation format for an lranian gazettc RuzrunrutEnt Rnsmt JutuHunl lsLAMl
Innru [TxE Orrrcrnl GnzErtE oF rHE lsLAMtc REpuBLtc oF IRAN], (statute
or regulation citation,, ,serial number' ,first page', ,page(s) of specific
material, if desired, (,country abbreviation if not evident from contextD.
Or: Zarrarmexr RuzHervreHr Rnsmr [Suppr-EMENT To rHE OFFTcTAL Gnzrrre
oF THE lsLAMrc RepuaLtc or Inen], .statute or regulation citation', .serial
number' ,first page', ,page(s) of specific materiat, if desired, (,country
abbreviation if not evident from context,).
or: Mnlnulur Qnvnlrru Snuuer [Ant.tunl CotvtptlartoH or
Laws],
<statute or regulation citation,, .first page,, ,page(s) of specific materia[,
if desired' (,country abbreviation if not evident from context,).
Citation for the 1945-1979 OfJicial Gazette: RuzruntvteHt Rnswtt KtsuvaRt
SHcHeNsHnHr [THe lrueenrnL IRANTAN Orrtctnl Gnzerre], <statute or
regulation citation,, ,seriaI number, ,first page', .page(s) of specific
material, if desired' (,country abbreviation if not evident from context).
Internet sources
http://www.rooznamehrasmi.ir
(R.uznamahi Rasmi Qranian Official
Journal))
http://n'rw.lo c.gov /bw /7relp / g\ide/ nations/iran.html
(Library of
Congress Guide to Law Online: Iran)
T2.2O lraq, Republic of
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(Civil Law)
Romanization
Use the ALA-LC Romanization Tables: Transliteration Scbemes for NonRoman Scripts, approved by the Library of Congress and the American Library
Association, available at
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http://w.srw.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/tomanization/
arabic.pdf.
Cases
Citation format: ,name of court, [,short name of court,] [,name of court
and/or chamber in English,l [,short name of court in Engtish'], ,region if
applicable', ,decision number, if availabte, of ,date of decision, spetled
out,, <reporter or journa[' [,name of reporter or journaI in Engtish'],
(volume of lournal, if appticabte', .year of publication,, .first page,
(,country abbreviation if not evident from context,).
n' Mahkamat al-Tamyiz [Tamyiz] [Court of Cassation] [Cassation],
decision No. r4z8 of March 6, r974, Al-Nashra a[-Qa.
da'iyah [Judicial Report], vo[. r, year 5, p. r5r (lraq).
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Courts
Iraqi courts whose decisions are normally cited are: Ma[rkamat alTamyrz (Tamyiz) (Court of Cassation: highest court of ordinary jurisdiction,
sits only in the capital and has several chambers). Citation is sufficiently
recognized by referring to this court as "Ma[rkamat al-Tamyiz" or simply
"Tamyiz."
!'
Tamyiz [Cassation, civiI chamber], decision No. r5o9 of March r8,
1974, a[-Nashrah at-Qa'd'iyah, vo[. r, year 5, p. :.r (lraq).
Mahkamat al-Isti'naf (lsti'nafl (Court of Appeal: general court of second
instance). Cite with the name followed by the geographic area.
t*"
lsti'ndf Baghdad [Court of Appeal, Baghdadl, decision No. 48 of
September 1985, Majm0'at at-Al;rkam al-'Adliyah [Compilation of
Judiciat Decisionsl, issues 3 and 4 of 1985, p. r4r (lraq).
Sources
Cite to the following publications of the lraqi Gove mment:
"
aI-N ashrah al-Qa' a'iyah
*. Tamyiz [Cassation], decision No. 9or of ry73, a[-Nashrah
at-Qadd'iyah, vol. 1, year 5,p.247 (lraq).
, Majmu' at
v
al- Afukdm al-'
Adliy ah
lsti'n6f Baghdad [Court of Appeat, Baghdad], decision No. r87z of
1979, Malmrj'at at-Ahkam a[-'Adliyah, vo[. 4, year 5, p. nz (lraq).
Statutes, codes, and decrees
Citation format: ,name and number of the taw' of .year, ('country
abbreviation if not evident from context,).
or: .subiect of the law' lsvv sf .ys3r' (,country abbreviation if not evident
from context').
Or: ,name or subject of the law' (,country abbreviation if not evident
from context,).
r* Residency of Foreigners Law No. u8 of 1987 (lraq).
l"
Weapons Law of r99z (lraq).
w Civil Procedures Law (lraq).
Official Gazette
The official g zette of Iraq is called al-Waqa'i'al-'lraqryah and is published
periodically by the Iraqi government. Cite by the issue number and date of
publication.
,title of the Iaw,, a1-Waq6'i' at-'lrdqiyah Ilraqi
Official Gazettel ,issue number, of ,date of issue' 'page number, if
desired' (country abbreviation if not evident from context').
Citation format:
o
Constitutions
'World
War I. If
Iraq has had sevcrll constitutions since its crcation atter
referring to a particular provision, provide the articlc and scction number
beforc the name.
u Article rz,
al-Qanr.rn al-Asasi al-'lraqi [The
OrganicLawlof r9z4
(lraq).
'
a[-Dustlr al-'lraql al-Mu'aqqat [The Interim lraqi Constitution] of
1958.
', a[-Dust0r al-'lraqi at-Mu'aqqat
[The Interim lraqi Constitution] of
7964.
M at-Dust0r at-'lrdqi al-Mu'aqqat [The Interim lraqi
Constitution]of
t968.
i'. a[-Dust0r at-'lraqi al-Mu'aqqat [The Interim lraqi Constitution]of
1970.
,
Article 4, Section z, Dustur Jumlluriyat al-'lraq [The Constitution of
the Repubtic of lraql of zoo5.
Internet sources
http://www.parliament.iq (Iraqi Parliament website with a number of laws
rnd proposcd draft laws)
http://www.moj.gov.iq,/tmeez
(Iracli Ministry ofJustice wcbsite; inclucles
limited number of Court of Cassation clccisions)
http://www.m oi.gov.iq/ facts (lraqi
offi
cirl gazette)
(Cornrn<ln Law)
Cases
Citation fbrmat: ,case name, [.year,] .volume number, if one exists'
,neutraI citations, if applicable' .reporter/publication abbreviation, if
avaitable, and unreported cases, ,first page of case, or opinion number
in that calendar year for neutral citations and unreported cases, (,court
abbreviation, untess citing to the highest court or indicated by neutral
citation, ,year of decision if not already provided) (.country abbreviation
if not evident from context,).
[rg6f ] lR 294 (n).
KSK Enters. Ltd. v. An Bord Plean6la
DPPv. Carolan
lryg8lz
ILRM
zrz
lrygqjz
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T2.21 Ireland (nire), Republic of
Ryan v. Att'y Gen.
I
lR
rz8, r35 (lr.).
(H. Ct.) (lr.).
Gittigan v. Special Criminal Court Izoo5] IESC 85 [zoo5] z lR 4o6
(lr.).
The Irislr Legal Information Initiativc, http://www.ucc.ie/law/irlii/index.
php, can help to dctermine whcther a neutral citation numbcr l-ras been issued
for a case.
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Ilrr'irtiilf t{ii}\t l$t'i,{ii{i
Supreme Court of Eire (SC), High Court (H. Ct.), and Court of Criminal
Appeal (CCA): Cite to lR, if therein; otherwise, cite to one of the reporters
below:
1990-date
Employment Law Reports
'Irish Company Law Repons
F Irish Reports
" Irish l^aw Times Reports
r Irish Law Reports Monthly
* Irish Law Reports
'
o Irish
+
o
Jurist Reports
ELR
196r3-rt)97
1868-clate
1866-1980
ICLR
1976-tlate
1838-19r2
19i5-1966
ILRM
lR
ILTR
ILR
lr. lur. Rep.
1849-1866
1922-1927
1924-1989
Irish Tax Reports
Ffewen
ITR
Frewen
Constitution
Citation format: Constitution of lreland 1937 aft.,article number). c)r:
Constitution of the lrish Free State 7922 art. <article number).
tg37 aft. z, http://www.irishstatutebook.
ie/en/constitution / index.htmt.
n- Constitution of lreland
F-
Constitution of the lrish Free State 7922 aft. 5.
e C()NSTlrrrnoN oF IREr.\ND (BuNRFAcHi
,
uEtnmnn)
(loNsrrrirrr()N
NA
St,lts
1922
()F ruE IRrsrI Fnt:e
(SA()RSrAr Eu$euN) A<':r
Constitution of lretand 1937.
Constitution ofthe lrish Free
State 1922.
Statutory compilations and session laws
citation fomat: <short titte, including year if in title' ('Act No'' or if before
t938, Pub. Stat. No.,/,year,) (.gsun11y abbreviation if not evident from
context').
Online references should be to the lrisb Statute Bor.rk, where available
.
+
Control of Exports Act zooS (Act No. r/zoo8) (lr.), http://www.
irishstatutebook.ie/zoo8/eni act/ pub/ooor/index.htmt.
p
Dublin Transport Authority Act zoo8 (Act No. r5lzoo8) (lr.), http://
www.irishstatutebook.ie/zoo8/en /act/ pu b/oor5.
Ac'l s ()r' TIIE OrRIAclt'LAs
Acls
1937 -date
oF lHIr OIRF,rcttrAS (SAoRs'L('l' ErnenNn) 1922- 1917
Administrative materials
Citation format: ,short name of instrument or
order' (Sl ,number'/,year')
(.country abbreviation if not evident from context').
Or: .short name of instrument or order, (SR & O ,number' of ,year,)
(.country abbreviation if not evident from context').
Online rcfcrences should be to the
lzsl: Statute Book, where
available.
Foreign
>
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*risdir:fions: ncland
tr
t
t
Control of Fishing for Salmon Order zoo8 (Sl g8lzoo8)
(lr.), hnp://www.irishstatutebook.ie/zoo8/en/si/oo98.htm1.
> rish Nationality
f
and Citizenship Regulations zooS (Sl rlzoo5)
(lr.), http: / /www.irishstatutebook.ie/zoo5 /en/si/ooor.html.
>
Eggs (Regulation of Export to Germany) Order 1936 (5R & O 8g
rgl5)
(f
of
r.), http://www.irishstatutebook.ie | ry16 | en lsiloo89
.htmt.
>
Stennonv
INsTRUMENTS
> STAT'r-rroRY RuEs eNo Onorns
1947-date
5l
1922-1947
SR
&
O
Padiamentary debates
Citation format: ,volume number, ,publication abbreviation, (.date,) col.
(column number' (,country abbreviation if not evident from context,).
> 8l D6il Deb. (Feb. L7,1g7g) col. ss5 (lr.).
> 87 Seanad Deb. (Mar. zt, 1977) col. 97o (lr.).
>
>
Parliamentary Debates, Diil Debates
Padiamentary Debates. Seanad Debates
1922-d^te
D6il Deb.
1922-date
Seanad Deb.
Citation format for debates that occured prior to the availability of the print
version: ,volume and number as given by the online source> .printed
publication abbreviation,, (section of the debate being cited, (.date,)
(,country abbreviation if not evident from context,), ,URL'.
>
212 No.9 Seanad Deb., Business of Seanad (Jan.
u, zorz) (lr.).
c;;tt;; ;; .;;i;;i;; "6;;;
,author name', ,title, (,Parliament number if available,,
Citation format:
,year of publication if available') (,country abbreviation if not evident
from context).
> Gov'r
oF lR., INTER-DEIARTMENTAL WonrrHe Gnoup oH Agoertoit,
GnrrH Pepen oN ABoRrroN (rggg), http://www.taoiseach.ie
/attached_fi les/ PdP/ozofi les/Green Pa perOnAbortio n. pdf.
Treaties
Citation format: .treaty name), ITS No. .treaty number,l,year, (,country
abbreviation if not evident from context').
>
Agreement Between the Government of lreland and the
Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
lreland, ITS No. tlzooS (lr.), https://www.dfa.ielmedia
/dfalalldfawebsitemedia/treatyseries/uploads/documents
/
tegaldivisiondocuments/treatyserieszooS/ no.-r-of-zoo8. pdf.
> IREIj.ND TREATY SERIES
1930-date
Internet sources
http://www.bailii.org (British and Irish lrgal Information Institute)
http://www.irishstatutebook.ie (Irish
Statute Book)
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http://www.irishlaw.org, http://w"ww.u cc.ie/law /irishlaw (trish
Law
Site at thc University College Cork (hosted by the University Coltege Cork law
facult'))
http://www.attorneygeneral. ie (Oflice of the Attorney General)
http://wqry.l oc.gov /law /help/ guide/ nations/ireland.html (tibrary of
Congress Guide to Law Online: Ireland)
T2.22 Israel
(
Mixccl Juriscliction)
Cases
Supreme Court (functions both as a Court of Appeals, hearing civil appcals
(CA), administrative appeals (AdminA), and criminal appeals (CrimA) from thc
district courts, and as a High Court of Justice (HCJ), sitting as a court of fust
instance in constitutional and some administrative cases): Cite to Piske Din
(PD, sometimes referred to as lsrSC), which contains reports of dccisions of
the Supreme Court oflsrael from 1948 to date.
Citation format: ,court abbreviation, <case number) (case name> (volume
number>(<part number>) <reporter abbreviation, ,first page,, ,page(s) of
specific material, if desired, (,year of decision,) (.csun1ry abbreviation if
not evident from context').
> CAt48zl9z
Hager v. Hager
47Q)
PD
lgZ (rgg:) (lsr.).
c" HCJ 8Sz186 Aloniv. Minister of Justice 4r(z) PD r, S (rg8Z) (tsr.).
District Courts (DC) (hear civil appeals (CA) and criminal appcals (CrimA) from
the magistrate courts, original matters in civil cases (CC), somc administrative
cases (AdminC), and severe criminal cases (CrimC), in six judicial districtsJcmsalem (er), Tel-Aviv-Jaffa OA), Haifa (Hi), Be'cr-Sheva (BS), Nazareth (Nz),
and Ccntral District (CT)): Cite to Psakim Mehoziim (PM), which contains
reports ofdccisions ofthe district courts oflsrael, from 1949 to datc.
Citation format: ,court abbreviation' (,locationD <case number' (case
name>, <reporter abbreviation, ,Hebrew calendar year of volume' (,part
number').first page',,page(s) of specific material, if desired' (,Gregorian
calendar year of decision) (,country abbreviation if not evident from
context').
u" CrimC
ffA) 5ztl9r Ben Moshe Kokhavi
57fi@) 267 Q9y) (tsr.).
v. State of lsraet, PM
Religious Courts
For recognized communities, religkrus courts generally have jurisdiction in
matters of marriage and divorce, with the Sharia courts having jurisdiction
in all personal status mattefs. Some decisions of the rabbinical courts tre
periodicafly published in Piske din sbel batei ba-din ba-rabaniyim be-Yisrael
(PDR). To distinguish between lirst-instance cases and ctses on appcal, note
the location of the lirst-instance courts in order to be consistent with citation
of the decisions of the district court.
Citation format: File No. ,file number, ,court name/details, (,tocation,),
(case name', (votume number, <reporter abbreviation' ,first page',
,page(s) of specific material, if desired' (.country abbreviation if not
evident from contextD.
*" File No. 6S6llS Rabbinical Court
cipalAshkenazi City Rabbi,
u
(PT), A v. Electing Body
for Prin-
PDR 97 (lsr.).
Electronic databases
Many reported and unreported decisions-particulady of special coutts such as
the rabbinical and military courts, but also of the general courts-are available
on widely used electronic databases such as thc Nevo Legal Database athttp://
www.nevo.co.il or the Takdin Legal Database at http://wtw.takdin.co.il
(both by subscription, in Hebrew).
(litation format: Fi[e No. .fi le number, .court name> (,tocation,),,case
name, (,date of decision,), ,database n6ms' (by subscription, in Hebrew)
(.country abbreviation if not evident from context).
Or: Mi[. Appeat ,military appeal number, ,court name, (,location)), .case
name, (,date of decision,), ,database n6ms, (by subscription, in Hebrew)
(country abbreviation if not evident from context).
a
File No. 3437-21-l- Rabbinical Court (Netanya), Anonymous v.
Anonymous (Oct. 25, zooS), Nevo Legal Database (by subscription, in Hebrew) (lsr.).
+ Mil. Appeat t+g8l lo8 Mititary
Court of Appeals (Judea & Samaria),
Hasin Nafa v. Military Prosecution (Nov. r3, zoo8), Nevo Legal
Database (by subscription, in Hebrew) (lsr.).
Statutes
Cite to L(tus of tbe State of Israel (LSl), which contains the authorized English
translation of legislativc enactmcnts from 1949 rc 1989. (litation to LS I is use ful
for English readers for laws enacted prior to 1989 and for thc original text of
legislati<ln that has since bcen amended.
Citation fbrmat: ,statute name,, ,Hebrew calendar year of enactment).Gregorian catendar year of enactment (except for Basic Laws) ,section,
',
if desired', ,volume number' ,compitation abbreviation, ,first page,,
(.coverage date range of volume,) ("as amended," if retevant,) (,country
abbreviation if not evident from contextD.
u. Extrad itio n Law,
(lsr.).
57
r 4-t9 5 4, 5 2, t 44, Gg
Sl-tS t+) (as
a
mend
ed)
If citation to the LSI is impossiblc (for example, if the translation is partial or
is not availablc), citc to Sefer HaHukim (5H), which contains the legislativc
enactments of the Knesset (the Israeli parliamer-rt) from 1949 to date .
Citation format: .statute name', .Hebrew calendar year,-,Gregorian
calendar year', ,publication abbreviation, ,issue number, p. .page(s) of
specific material, if desired' (,country abbreviation if not evident from
context').
n" Protection of Witnesses Law,5769-zoo8, SH No. 2!92 p. g8 (lsr.).
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Legislative history
For draft bills from 1949 to 2002 cite to Hatza'ot Hok (HH). Starting in 200J,
for
draft bills submitted by the Govemment cite to HH (Gov.); for those submitted
by the Knesset (Israel's parliament) cite to HH (Knesset). Private membcr
bills are only availablc on the Knesset website, at http://www.knesset,gov.
il/ priv atelaw / Plaw_display. asp?lawtp= 1. Identiff such bills as private
member bills and cite to the Knesset website
.
Citation format' ,proposed Statute name), ,Hebrew calendar year,.Gregorian calendar year,, <publication abbreviation with identification
of generat, government, Knesset, or private member bilt, as appropriate,
,issue numbep, p. ,page(s) of specific materiat, if desired, (,country
abbreviation if not evident from context,).
>
Draft Bill Amending the Income Tax Order, 5773-1974, HH No. rr49
p. +++t+ (lsr.).
>
Draft Bitt for Replacement of the Term Employer (Legistative
Amendments) ,5774-20:.4, HH (Knesset) No. 535 p. 44 (lsr.).
+
Draft Bill for Minimizing the Deficit and for Changing the Tax
Burden (Legislative Amendments) ,5774-2or4, HH (Gov.) No. 83o
p. zzo (lsr.).
p
Draft Bi[[ for Prevention of Sex Offenses in Minors (Legislative
Amendments), 577 4-2or4 (Private Mem ber Bitt), http: / /www.
knesset.gov.il/ privatetaw/ Ptaw-display.asp?lawtp=1 (scrolt down
to relevant text) (lsr.).
For protocols
1949 to date.
of Knesset proceedings, cfte to Diurei HaKnesset (DK) from
Citation format: .series abbreviation' (,Gregorian catendar year of
proceedings,) ,first page,, ,page(s) of specific materia[,
if desired'
(.country abbreviation if not evident from context').
=- DK (1965) zo85 (lsr.).
Regulations
Cite to Kol,etz HaTakanot (KT), which contains regulations of the State of
Israel from 1949
to date.
Citation format: ,subsidiary [egislation name>, ,Hebrew calendar
year,-,Gregorian calendar year,,,publication abbreviation,,issue
number, p. ,first page>, <page(s) of specific materia[, (,country
abbreviation if not evident from context').
F
Knesset Election (lnstructions regarding Voting Procedures by
Soliders, Employees and Persons under Military Custody),5773-
2otz,KI
7196
p.l5z
(lsr.).
Treaties
Cite to Kituei Ama.na (KA), which contains treaties and conventions signed
bv Isracl.
I
I;nreign J urisclir:tions: ltalv
citation format: <treaty name), (volume number) (series abbreviation,
,issue number, p. ,first page,, ,page(s) of specific material, if desired,
(,Gregorian calendar year of pubtication,) (.country abbreviation if not
evident from context,).
>
Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism, 5o
KA
r4or p. r (zoo+) (lsr.).
Internet sources
http://www.knesset.gov.il (Ihe
Knesset
(padiamen)
http://www.court.gov.il CIhe State of Israel: the Judicial Authority-in
Hebrew); http:/ / elyonL court.gov.il,/eng/home/index.html (in English).
http://www.pmo.gov.i/english,/Pages/default.aspx (fhe Prime
Minister's Office)
http://www.mfa.gov.iVMFA,/Pages/default.aspx
(Ministry of Foreign
Atrairs)
http://www.rb c,gov.il/P ages/default.aspx (Rabbinical courts)
http://www.nevo.co.il (Nevo
Legal Database, by subscription, in Hebrew)
http://www.takdin.co.il (Iakdin Legal Database, by subscription, in
Hebrew)
http://www.l oc.gov/law /help/guide/nations/israel.htrnl (Library of
Congress Guide to Law Online: Israel)
http://www.llrx.com,/features/israel3.htm (Israeli Law Guide by Ruth
Lelush via LLRD
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T2.23 Italy, Republic of
(Civil Law)
Cases
Citation format: <court name), (court session, for the Supreme Court
only',
,date of decision in ltalian, in day month year format>, n. (case number,
for the Supreme Court only', ,lspertsr or iournal abbreviation, <year of
publication of decision,, ,part of reporter>, ,session number), <page or
column number) (,country abbreviation if not evident from context,).
Cass., sez. un.,17 novembre 1975,n.3852, Giur.
it.t977,1,1.,t32
(tt.).
Ordinary jurisdiction
Corte Costituzionale (Corte Cost.) (Constitutional Cout): Cite to Racc. uff.
corte cost., Foro it., or Giur. it., if therein.
e
1956-date
Ufficiale delle Sentenze
Ordinanze delle Corte Costituzionale
> Foro Italiano (indicate section)
1876-date
> Giurisprudenzaltalianr (indicate section) 1849-date
> Raccolta
I
o
http://www.gov.tl/ firstgov / english (main government portal)
>
I
Racc, uff. corte
cost.
e.g., Foro
e.g., Giur.
it, I
it. ll
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Corte di cassazione (Cass.) (court oflast appcal on issues oflaw in civil
(as
Cassazione Sezione Civile (Cass.)) and criminal (as Cassazione Sezione
Penale (Cass. Pen.)) matters): Citc to Foro it. or Giur. it., if therein; Corte
di Appello (App.) (orclinary courts of appcal): Oite to Foro it' or Giur. it', if
thercin, firllowcd by the krcation of the court; Corte di Assise di Appello
(Ass. App.) (extraordinary court of appcal): Cite to Foro it. or Giur. it.' if
thcrein; Tribunale (Trib.) (ordinary courts of lirst instancc): Cite to Foro
it. or Giur. it., if thercin, fbllowecl by the krcation of the court ar-rd tl-re clate;
Corte di Assise (Corte d'Ass.) (court of original iurisdiction for very serious
crimcs): (litc to Foro it. or Giur. it., if therein; Pretore (Pret.) (abolished alter
1999). Giudice Conciliatore (Concit.) (abolishcd atter 1991) (courts ofpetty
iurisdiction), and Giudice di Pace (Giud. Pace): Citc to Foro it. or Giur. it.,
if thcrein.
Itt76-clate
Foro Italiano
, (lorte Cost., (,ass.
" (lriminal cases
Foro
" Administrative cascs
Foro
.
it.
I
Foro it. ll
Foro
EllC and foreign cases
, Misccllaneous
it. lll
it. lV
Foro it. V
Giurisprudcnza Italiana (indicate scction)
(iir.rrisprudenza complcta della Suprema
(i)rte di (lirssazione
Iu49-date
e.g., Giur.
1941-t955
Giur. comp[.
Cass. civ. or
Giur. compt.
Cass. pen.
Giurisprudenza delle imposte I)irette di
rcgistro c di ncgoziazionc
Giustizia civilc (inclicate section)
1928-date
Giur. imp. reg.
negoz.
1951-datc
e.g., Giust.
(iiustizia penalc (indicate section)
Itt95-date
e.g., Giust.
Pen. I
it. ll
Civ. ll
Administrative urisdiction
f
di Stato (Cons. Stato) (court of last appeal in administrativc
Tribunale amministrativo regionale OAR) (regional itdministrative
court of lirst instance), Corte dei conti (Corte conti) (high cout'l fbr liscrl
matters), Giunta provinciale amministrativa (Giun. pro. ammin.) (formerly
the a<lministrative court of lirst instancc), and Consiglio di giustizia
amministrativa per la Regione siciliana (Cons. gius. ammin. reg. sic.)
(adn.rinistrative judicial body fbr the region of Sicily): (lite to Foro amm. or
Giur. it.. if thercin.
Consiglio
matters),
F()ro Amministrativo
(indicatc section)
e.g., Foro amm
ill
(iiurispmdenza Italiana (indicate secti()n)
Constitution
. (i)stituzione
i! Art. 2 Costituzione
[Cost.] (lt.).
1849-date
e.g., Giur.
it. ll
Foreign
J
I
urisclicti*rns: Italy
o
Codes
Codice civile
> Codice di commercio
(merged with Codice civile in 1942)
> Codice della navigazione
> Codice penale
> Codice di procedura civile
> Codice di procedura penale
>
t
C.c.
C. comm.
a
o
C. nav.
C.p.
c.p.c.
c.p.p.
Statutes and decrees
Citation format: <type of law, (date in ltalian, in day month year format,,
n. ,law number,, in ,publication abbreviation, <publication date), n.
,publication number, (,country abbreviation if not evident from context,).
>
Legge
zr novembre t99t,nA74, G.U. Nov. 27,t99r, n.zZ8 (lt.).
Short form citation format: ,abbreviation
of type of law, n. ,law
number,/,year, (,country abbreviation if not evident from context,).
> L.n.lt4lr9gr
(lt.).
Types of laws and abbreviations:
I€gge
Decreto l€gge
> Decreto kgislativo
> Decreto Ministeriale
> Decreto Presidente della Repubblica
> Decreto Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
> Legge regionale
> Decreto Luogotenenziale (prior to 1942 only)
> Regio Decreto (prior to 1942only)
>
L,
>
D.L.
D.Lgs.
D.M.
D.P.R.
D.P.C.M.
L. Reg.,region,
D.LCt.
R.D.
Cite to Racc. Uff. or G.U., or, if appropriate, to the official reporter for an
autonomous region; if available, give a parallel citation to Lex, Leggi, or Legisl.
Gazzettx Uffrciale della Repubblica
G.U.
Raccolta Ufficiale degli Atti Normativi
della Repubblica Italiana
> Raccolta Ufficiale delle Leggi e dei
Decreti della Repubblica Italiana
> Bollettino Ufficiale della Sardegna
1987-date
Racc. Uff. or
R.U.
1946-1987
Racc. Uff. or
R.U.
Botl. Uff. Reg.
Sardegna
>
Gazzetta Ufficiale della Sicilia
G.U. Reg. Sic.
>
Lex: Legislazione Italiana (Utet)
Lex
>
Le Leggi (Sefi)
Leggi
>
Ia Legislazione ltaliana (Giuffre)
Legist. ital.
(indicate section)
National legislation
Legist. ital.
o
I
o
(indicate section)
>
I
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Italiana
>
o
o
ital.
>
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Legisl. ital. ll
Parliamentary reports
Legist. itat. lll
'Regional lcgislation
Treaties and conventions
Current treaties are printed in Gazzeta Ufficiale and Raccolta (lfJiciale when
they are promulgated in the form of a law incorporating the t€xt of the treaty.
Cite older treaties according to rule 21.4, followed by a cite to either G.U. or
Racc. Uff., using the format below:
n
Trattati e Convenzioni fra L'Italia e
Altri
Stati
gli
186I-1915
,votume,
Trattati e
Convenzioni
.first page'
Internet sources
http://www.l oc.gov /law /help/ gaide/ nations/italy.html (Library of
Congress Guide to l^aw Online : Itall)
http://www.norlllLattiva.it/ (Normattiva
is a public, online publication
of
statutory authorities in Italy)
http:,/www.altalex.com/ (Altalex is a privately run online
encompassing statutory
as
well
as
database
doctrinal materials)
T2.24 lapan
(Civil Law)
Romanization
For romanization, word division, and capitalization of Japanese words, apply
the rules of the American Library Association and the Library of Congress:
Use the modilied Hepbr-rrn romanization system adopted by Japancse-English
dictionaries, such as Klnrv0snr\
sHIN
Wl-Et
l,rtlrtn
(KTNKYOSHA's Nnw
J.tt'.lxrst,
EN<;r-rsrr Dr<;lon,ltv). Indicate krng vowels with a macron as in "horei" or
"hanreishu." Add an apostrophe between 'n' and a vowel, and 'n' and 'y' as
in "gen'in," or "kin'yu," to clariff the meaning of words. For details, see the
Library of Congress ALA-LC Romanization Tables at http:/,/www.loc.gov/
catdir / cp s o / t oman. html.
Cases
Citation format: ,court name, [,English abbreviated translation of court
name'] ,date of decision,, <case number), (volume number> (reporter
or periodical name, [,reporter or periodical abbreviation'] ,first page',
,page(s) of specific material, if desired' (,country abbreviation if not
evident from context').
u. Saiko Saibansho [Sup. Ct.] Dec. 4, zoo7, Hei r8 (kyo) no. 45,
6r Setro SnteeNsHo MtNJt HANREtsn0 [Mrr'rsHu] 3245,3252 (Japan).
p" TOkyO ChihO Saibansho
[Tokyo Dist. Ct.]
no.29850,1221
HANRET
lune 8, zoo6, Hei r5 (wa)
rAlMUzu IHnrra] t83,zot (Japan).
Foreign Jurisdictions: Japart
Intemet and database citations: when citing to electronic resources, follow
de
18.
Citation format (if source is available only in electronic format, or printed
format is difficult to obtain): <court name) [.Engtish abbreviated translation
of court name,] ,date of decision,, .case number,, ,database name,
[,database abbreviation,] ,first page', ,page(s) of specific material, if
desired,,.URL' (.country abbreviation if not evident from context,).
>
Citation format (parallel citation, if source is available in printed and electronic
formats): <court name> [,English abbreviated translation of court
namerl ,date of decisionr,,case numberr, ,volume number, <reporter
or periodical name, [.reporter or periodical abbreviation,] ,first
if
not evident from context,), available at ,database name' ,database case
number'.
>
Yamaguchi Chiho Saibansho [Yamaguchi Dist. Ct.] Mar. t3, zot3,
Hei zr (wa 7) no, tg7, roTo Roo0 umnrt [ROHm] 6, ro [apan),
available at LEX/DB 255oo464.
When unclear, append a case ID letter inJapanese Hiragana or Katakana to the
case number, as shown above: Hei 2l (wa V) no.197.
Cases under the
Constitution of 1946
Saiko Saibansho &H#.t#tjffi (Supreme Court: court of last appeal in all
matters): Cite to reporters below, if therein; otherwise, cite to periodicals.
> 5,1116 SelneNsHo MrNlr
ruutusn0
1947-date
Mrrsnu
1947-date
Krrsn0
1947-date
Sersn0 nrr,rjr
1947-date
Snrsn0 rerjr
1948-dare
SaUt
1947-l9rl
Sntmtt
ftra-#+UrfRS+IJ{t{€
> Slrxd SersANsHo KErlr HANRETsH0
&H&+tJrfifr1l++tJFrl€
>
Slrxo SersANsHo
sATBANSH0 MrNfr
frF,'fi+t]rF&+l+R+
> Slrxo SlrsANsuo
slrnlrsu0 xrrtr
fri-=,**+riFf#t+\+-frl+
> Sernerssno rrn6
e+|jFfB+#
>
Srrro SrrsANsHo MrNlr seunpr
roruHd
ftH#-i+UFfR++lfrrJffi+E
>
Slrro
S.lrsANsHo KEilr HANKETsU roKUHo
1947-19t0
louo
#+rJB[fr+tfrd'l€#
(available at http://www.courts.go.jp)
Snrrer
HANTOKU
RH#+|]Fftr|J++Unf++fi
> SetgeNsHo setneNnrr
HANToKU
1947-date
SareaNsHo
WEB
t
I
o
Chiteki Zaisan Koto Saibansho Ilntellectual Prop. High Ct.] Nov.
rorrz, SltenHsxo sAtBANREt ,0H0
[Snr aaHsxo wee] r, 8, http://www.courts.go.jp (apan).
13, 2oo8, Hei zo (gyo ke) no.
page,, ,page(s) of specific materia[, if desired, (,country abbreviation
o
o
I
o
I
I
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t
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o
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o
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i;
'
SArKO SATBANSHo
HANRETsH0
1917-dfie
it'.";&'t1Di111r{k
SetenNsHo
wEB
(available at http://wwry.courts.go.jp)
Koto Saibansho il;iSlitlltll:Ji (high courts: regional coufts of appeal for
Chiho Saibansho iU,bJii
(district courts: courts of original jurisdiction in gencral civil and criminirl
cases, which hear appcals from summlry courts), Katei Saibansho jflilik
ril|.Jiii (family courts: courts of original
iurisdiction in domcstic rclations and
jrrvenile dclinqucncy cases), Kan'i Saibansho ffiiD)liJ:lrt (summary courts:
courts of petty jurisdiction in minor civil and criminal cases), and Chiteki
Zaisan Koto Saibansho l'n i(lMli. r,H it i.Ji+ll t h 0ntcllcctual Property High
Court: herrs appeals pertaining to intellcctual property and suits against
appcals from clistrict, family, and summary courts),
'FlJtli
decisions made by theJapan Patent Oflice. A branch ofthe Tok-yo High Court):
Cite to reporters below,
if therein; otherwise, cite to topical
reportcrs or
periodicals.
REISHa
f)errssurN xerlr sAIBAN
ffi
'
195tt
lssHtu rersnu
1959-196ti
Knxersxu
1950-1981
Kenrusnu
2o02-cltte
SarenNsHo
Ei )lt)'F );\:l'')lh141p
Kervu serseNsHo KEIIt sarsaN nersH0
+
l',i* *l ft] t lillU *t &'llU ird
Knrvu sAtBANsHo MrNlr sAtBAN
F
,
;f{.t*'Fti r,i I t *: &+11
RUsHU
IttlK
Kexvu sArBANsHo ueunttstt0
WEB
Ft)lf:/c'fltfi1'tlltrlf"
(available at http://8"$"w.courts.go.jp)
cnllo
'
KelJr sarRan
.
fl,lj'FiJi+rlJl fli
Koro serg,\r,rsuo
Ei'.';
*t
+lJ
HANREISHU
di'11 J frrl
1969-l9tl6
Kersnreeppdv
1947-d^te
SnrenNsHo
WEB
4:
(availablc at http://rrryw.courts.go.ip)
" K6rO
e-; ^.+
"
if
Kdrd
llirlrltlijt{
F
Koro
rtt;l
rl
r1i
Jf
1950-1956
7()17-2oo2
KErJr sATBAN
I'lriiti
KoxersnU
tr
soKUHOsHt l9tl1-datc
rJtiii'Fljj8+|,iq:
trl.l.*
sATBANSHo MrNlr
Korer
HANTOKU
HaNnrtsH0
SATBANSHO KErrr SATBAN
rj i,ild'l
toruHo
R ,lli+li
rjt-'+rl {tJ
ik*tlitti.lt'tl
KdTo sAiBANSHo
,H ^$
.
/,k Yrl DiJf rl -{1.+rl
K6 r0 sereeNsHo
rfr
"
sArBANsHo KErlr HANKEISu
roKUHd
Korer
sArsoKUsHU
1951-l9ttl
Koret sltroxu
tii
slwnnrsHu
1917-2002 Kottrtsnu
l,tl*
l;i if l"L ttl F,f l t' I|11I
o S,uR,ulsno sATBANRET l6Ho
19.i7-datc
wEB
rrril:t'Frlitrjtr5tli
'
f'l'ljrj
(available at http://ll.qrw.courts.go.jp)
Toxvo Kord Slrsersso uaNrnrsu lrsd (rr:rlr)
4r }i- rri' 4j: rSi.Ftl r ii+11
'
i^ [+,liR (]ru
T6xvo K6ro SlrseNsHo
{ fi rij !i. l}'p11
1
!}iJ1J
rl
HANKETsu
r.?
tH
(
SAIBANSHo
lgil-datc
Toro Jrso rrrlr
l95l-date
Toro llH6
F.)
lnro (urNlr)
l1'li-)
rvrrutr
o
Foreign Jurisdictions: J;rpan
Kdro SlrseNsno xuII neNrEtsu
> Tdxvo
FH
H
S#
+rJ
ErilU S:+|l
IIuO
1951-1953
Toroxer lrno
rtf+#
Topical rqrorters
>
Currrrr Zlrslr,r K6r6 SernersHo sAIBANREI 2004-date
Cxrznt rosat
WEB
KENSAKU
#
tn Ht Ff E H S & +tl Ffi ffi+tJ FrS&
(available at http://www.ip.courts.go.ipl
search,/jihp0o10)
I
CHrrEKr zArsAN s.qIn,rN
nrIsn0
1965-d*e
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(available
at http:,7www,courts.go.fp)
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ftr\91**.YtlFrl€
> Grospr rrKEN sATBAN
>
nnrsnu
Gr6slr rrxrN slrslN
1950-1997
1969-date
(available at
SareeHsHo
WEB
11Ws1+ffi+tF,tR
httpf /www.courts.go.jp)
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Itw&+tiBw
> Gvosrr
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1948-1950
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ZATSANKEN KANKu
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z
> ROD6 KANKET MrNJr JrKEN
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1949-1950
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1950-1997
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1984-date
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1953-dxe
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1967-1975
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> Rooo HlNnsr IiNARU
jil$1'tJll\) r
tv
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JAHnnu
o R6no uonrrsu lur.lpo/RoluN
1949-drte
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1984-date
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> Ssdsrsseso Nyusu
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1962-1995 SHurorrnu
* SHutotsnu
t = 14 :L/v
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SAtrtf"i4RA
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u Brss,lrsu cHUo RoDO lrH6
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1949-date
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1959-date
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(available at
http://web.churoi.go.jp)
Kokuzei Futuku Shinpanjo Elfi,4iflliEsilFf (Decisions of the National Tax
Tribunal)
r Serrsrsu
lrRErsH0
1&:{\+lrlk
1970-dtte
Snrxersu lrner
t
F'oreign J urisdictions: JaPan
1992-date
ltntl
> KoHv6 setrErsu
Sntrersu Jtnet
DB
lA#.&*sFrl
(available at http f / www.kfs'
go.ipl
service/JPlindex.html)
Kosei Torihiki rinkai
AEF4I*HA
(Decisions and orders of the Fair
Trade Commission)
> KosEr ToRIHIKI IINKAI SHINKETSUSHU
aEnBr+tr+#R+
r
K6sel TonrHtrt
ltxxu Hetlo trlrtnrtsu0
> Koser ToRrHrKt ltNrlt srltNrursu
oirenEsu sHIsurEMU
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(available at
ro
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1947-dte
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1962-date
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1962-da'te
K6rontr
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ffi;f€+tr€f;H, Industrial Property Digital Library (PDL) Appeal & Trial
Decision Search,
> SHrNrnrsu
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rono
DB
6itA#
DB,
> SHtNxersu roRtxssHr sosHo HeNretsusH0
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1997-1999
HANKETSU
http:,/wwwl. ipdt.inpit. go.iplPDF/
Sonota/sinketu/index.htrnl
Cases under
the Constitution of 1889
t#ffi
(C.""t Court of Judicature; court of last
appeal for civil and criminal matters, and the only court concerning matters
of the imperial household and insurrection against the state): Cite to reporters
below, if therein; otherwise, cite to newsPaPers or periodicals. Append the
Daishin'in or Taishin'in
version or publisher, such as T6ky6 Hogakuin
Ctt"o Daigaku
EF, Sttitrosho
>
F,F.i*+pi,
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Daishin'in [Great Ct. of Jud.] Jan. 29, 7g25,Tai
Sanwa Shobo
or H6s6kai
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1875-r92r
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1875-r92r
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1885-1887
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rl (re) no. 2077, v. 4,
no. 1 DArsHrN'rN KEtJt HANREtsHU IDAtHAN KEIsHU] (Hdsokai) zr, z4
0apan).
> DltsHrN'rN urNJr HANKETsuRoKU
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MrN)r HANKETsu sHdRoKU
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> D,q.TSgIN,IN KEIJI HANKETSU SHOROKU
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M|r.rsHonoru
189l-1921
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trative cases): Cite to the folkrwing source
.
1922-lL)46
Gv6srr SetnlNsHo HANKETSURoKU
:
1890-1947 Gy6noru
lirtf**rIliYrli^f*
Newspapers and periodicals
Daishin'in or Taishin'in J'.;*iljr. (Creat (i)urt of Judicaturc), Kosoin tti/t
Ifi (court of Appeal), Chiho Saibansho fti;l.t+tlii,ri (Disrict Court), and Ku
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1924-1944
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1891-192)
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Legislative materials
iti t
lii
!i-,
Cite from authoritative sources, such as Kanpd 'l\'+V, Horei zensho
L fl A
Genko hoki saran 8,1 rll,filfit\H (oalcni Hoki), Genko Nihon hoki
Guhikaku), and various tsutatsushar r.lll
illF. (cyosei), Rippo zensho
S€, if therein. When citing to Internet sources, follow rule 18.
r.'iltB
Constitutions
Citation format:,Constitution name' [.Constitution abbreviation']
[CoHsrtrurtoH], art.,article,, para. <paragraph, (,6eun11y abbreviation
if not evident from context,).
b" NtHoNKoKU Ker.rpo [Krr.rpo] [Corusrrrurroru] , art. g, para. z flapan).
" NrsoNroru KsNpo (1946)
tr.4l El;tiits
Krnpo
o
Der NruoN Tnrroru KrNro (1889)
/'.
E
t
Mrrlr KeHp0
Z'ffiLr'lr.*i/,
Codes
Citation format: ,code name' [,code abbreviation, if different from full
name'] [,Engtish translation of code abbreviation or name,] <year of
enactment, if not evident>, <article, paragraph, number, if applicable,
(.country abbreviation if not evident from context').
e
MlNpo lMrrrrpo] [Crv. C.]
art.398-zo, para.
1, no.
r (Japan).
i," MtNJr sosHoHo [Mrr.tsoHo] [C. Crv. Pno.] 1996, art. 4, para.6 (Japan).
Mrwro (Clvu- Com)
Mrnpo (Crv. C.)
f(/*
Su6uo
(Coul,trncrll Coor)
Srdxd
MrNlr sosHoHO (Coor oE Crvrl Pnoctouna)
Lt
MrNsoHo
(C. Ctv. Pno.)
sili;Ai/:
KrrHo
(Cotvrtvt.
c.)
d,iilr',
(Prul
Coor)
KeuO (PrH. C.)
fri)l*
Ku;r sosuoHd (Coor on Cnrnrt.lnr Pnocnounl)
KErsoHo
(C. Cnrm. Pno.)
frtJSi;6;1\i/:
Statutes, regulations, and orders
The following citation format applics to horitsu l*1*
(statutes),
kisoku lfl
4
fllJ (rules and regulations), chokurei A/.ti (imperial orders), seirei
(cabinct orders), furei fi11) (Prime Minisrer's Office orders), shorei 'd'
(ministry ordinances), kuffei elll) (instrucrions), kokuiifr',r. (norifications
i
i
or notices), and
tsitatsu :$E
(circulars).
Citation format: ,taw name, [,taw abbreviation, if different from full name,]
[,Engtish transtation of law abbreviation or name'1, ,number, of ,year',
,article, paragraph, number, if applicable, (,country abbreviation if not
evident from context,).
= Hakai katsud6 boshih6 [Haboh6] [Subversive Activities
Prevention Actl, Law No.240 of 1952, art.4, para.
m"
1 (Japan).
Sh6nen shinpan kisoku [Rules of Juvenile Proceedings], Sup.
Ct. Rule No. 33 of 1948, art.26 (Japan).
Citation format in electronic sources: ,law name, [.law abbreviation, if
different from fu[[ name'] [.Engtish translation of law abbreviation or
name,], ,number, of .year,, ,article, paragraph, number, if appticable,
(,database name' [,database abbreviation']),,URL, (,country
abbreviation if not evident from context').
+ Hojinzeih6 [Corporate Taxation Act], Law No. 34 of 1965, art.
6-2 (H6rei teikyd dCta shisutemu [Horei DB]), http://law.e-gov.
gojp/cg i'bin/idxsearch.cgi
(Japa n).
When citing a translation, include the translation sourcc in addition to thc
original version, fbllowing rule 2O.2.5.
I
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KankyO kihonhO [Basic Environmental Act], Law No.91 of
1993, art.37 (.Japan). translated in 7 EHS Law Bull. Ser. no. 7800
(1 ee6).
t
*
I
I
a
I
o
t
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I
I
o
t
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Shohisha kyoiku no suishin ni kansuru h6ritsu [Sh6hisha
ky6ikusuishinh6l [Act on Promotion of Consumer Education],
Law No. 61 of 2012, aft.7, translated in (Japanese Law Trans-
lation ULT DSI), http://wwwjapaneselawtranslation.gojp
(Japan).
i;;il;;;
.""r""tt"""
For citation of treaties and other intcrnational rgreemcnts, follow rule 21.4.
Cite to trcaty se ts publishetl by the Ministry of Fore ign Affairs, 'l'rcaties Bureau,
if therein; otherwise, cite to other authoritative sources suchas H|rei zensho lL
or KanpOEf:H. (see the Legislative Materials section above).
iA#
- |6YexusHu
1922-1961
Jovrxusxu
t964-2001
Ntroruren
l6vnru
1964-2001
TaroxuxnH
+frt+
'
J0verusu0:
NTKoKUKAN IoYAKU
*K't4=, .lrlFi^fr'r
'
Jor',rrusuu: TAs0KoKUKAN
*k't
'
,
IoYAKU
t6vnru
t'&lglfi+t{J
G,rruusso J6veru orr,t
KENSAKU
2002-date
Jovnxu wee
9li4$Kfti?*rFtd:
e" Nihonkoku to Ch0ka Jinmin KyOwakoku to no aida no heiwa
y0k0 jOyaku IHeiwa y0k0 iOyaku] [Treaty of Peace and Friendship
Between Japan and the Peopte's Republic of Chinal, Japan-China,
Aug. rz, 1978, Treaty No. r9, 1978 Nikokukan ioyaku, 323,i27
0apan).
Internet sources
Governmental (Cases)
http://www.courts.go.jp
(S,o.rneNsuo wEB)
(Saibansho Sanbanrei Joho +'t+llFf /*Ji)Flllt{'f6+R
Courts inJapan: cases fiom all courts under the (bnstitution
of 1946)
Governmental (Legislative materials and court rules)
http:/ / l^w.e- gov. go. jp (e-Gov Horei tcikyo dcta shisutemu t/: t fir fJt i*
F 'z z7 J' (H6nsr DB) (Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications
Administrative Management Bureau: constitutions, statutes, orders, ntles,
regulations, and ordinances))
http://w"wr.e-gov.go.ipllinVordinance.html (c-(iov &,ll'.1 d) ;i,A A *. n
4 * )J 1 (Ministry of Inte rnal Affairs and Communications, Aclministrative
Managemcnt Bureau: statutes, orders, rules, regulations, ordinances,
noti-fications, circulars, and bills of all Ministries and Agencies))
http://hourei.ndl.go.iplSearchSys (National Diet Library Nihon horei
sakuin lrl
,).trltlXEffii ilAiEA?-Cl
(Honnr sexurN) (lndex toJapanese
I
foreign J urisdictions: lienya
legislative materials: pending bills; statutes, orders, rules, regulations, and
ordinances in force and repealed; treaties in force, lapsed and terminated))
http://dl.ndl.go,ip/ *kanpo (National Diet Library Digital Collections Elf
EAB€AHi, F tv= V ) v a >Effi (Krrpo) (official gazette from 1883
through 1952, and in English from 1945 through 1952))
http://kanpou.npb.go.ip Gnternet Kanpo .l >
,*4y
l-
ffiE"+R (KeNn6)
(National Printing Bureau: Official gazette))
http ://www.shugiin. go.iplinternet/itdb_housei. nsf/htnVhousei,/
menu.htm (Shngiin seitei horitsu *#Wfti/lBlta4+ (Surrr uonrrsu) (House of
Representatives: Session laws))
http,//w**3.mofa.go.iplm ofal/ garko/treatylindex.php
Joyaku d€ta kensaku
4HE**3i*,
trAR
(Gaimusho
(6vmu wrn) (Ministry of
Foreign Affairs: Treaties and other intemational agreements))
http://www.courts.go.fp/kisokusl,u (Courts in Japan, Saibansho
kisokushu ff+lffiffi,FU+ (SeruNsHo rrsoru wrn) (Supreme Court ofJapan:
Supreme Court rules))
http://www.iapaneselawtranslation.go.ip (apanese law Translation
Database System in English (LT DS) Ministry ofJustice: Constitution, stanrtes,
regulations, orders, ordinances, and notifications)
Commercial, mostly free (Legislative materials)
http://www.houko.com (Hoko l*ffi )
Commercial, paid subscription (Cases and legislative materials)
http://www.tkc
includes LEX/DB
materials)
html (TKC Law Library:
cases and Gyosei's Super
Horei Web for legislative
http://www.d1-law.com @lJaw.com: includes Hanrei taikei YlJIftJffF' ana
Genko hoki frTt$*fr. (Daiichi H6ki ffi-if*F,)
https:,/www.hanreihisho.netlindexip.htrnl (tLIlDB Hanrei Hisho
Intemet +JFrlME4 >, *4 y l. (Irgal Information center))
https ://www. lexis-asone.iplacllogin. aspx?ReturnUrl=%2f (Lexis AS
ONE/IrxisNensJP)
https://go.westlawiapan.con/ wlip/ app/ signon /display (Westlaw
Japan)
T2.25
Kenya
(Common Law)
Cases
Citation formar: ,case name> (<year decision
reported) <volume number)
(reporter abbreviation> ,first page', ,page(s) of specific materia[, if
desired' (.court name, if in reporter,) (,country abbreviation if not
evident from context).
> Alla Rakha
v. Mohamed Ahmed GgS6) zg L.R.K.6 (Kenya).
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F'oreign Jurisdictions: lietrya
>
E. N. Wainaina v. Franz Haas (1986) 2 K.A.R. 79 (C.A.K.) (Kenya).
Priry Council
(P.C.) (all final appeals until 1964): Cite to reports listed under
tableT2.42 United Kingdom, or citc to L.R.K. or
> Law Reports
E.A.
ofKenya
L.R.K.
African Law Repofts
> East
E.A.
Supreme Court of Kenya (S.C.K.) (establishcd in 2011 undcr the 2010
Oonstitution); Court of Appeal for Kenya (C.A.K.) (superior coLrrt of record,
formerly the East African (lourt of Appeal from 1 897 to 1979); High Court of
Kenya (H.C.K.). Cite to a reporter listed below.
(* denotes an oflicial reporter)
> Law
1897-r9t6
L.R.K.
> Law
1934-1975
E.A.
)
200 I -date
Reports ofKenya*
Reports of the Coun of Appcal firr
Eastem Africa
East Afiican Iaw Reports
Kenva Law Reoorts*
I
976-date
K.L.R.
1976-r991
> Kenyan Appcal Reports
>
LawAfrica Law Reports (onlinc)
1982-1992
K,A.R.
1999-date
L.L. R.
High Court-Milimani Commercial Courts of Kenya (C.C.K.): Cite to
a
reporter listcd below.
>
1999-date L.L.R.
1976-date E.A.
1897-1956 L.R.K.
LawAfrica l-aw Reports (online)
> East African Law Reports
> I-aw
Reports of Kenya*
Industrial Court of Kenya (l.C.K.): (lite to L.L.R., if thcrein
Constitution
Give the article number, section (if applicable), and promulgation year of the
version cited.
> Cor'rsflrurroN
art. 12 (zoro) (Kenya).
Legislation
.title' (.revised edition year,) Cap. <number'
(country abbreviation if not evident from context,).
Ciration format:
or: ,title,, No. ,number, (,year,) ,KEruYn Gnzerre/KeHYA GAzErrE
SuppLemEnr' No.,supplement number, <section' (country abbreviation
if not evident from context,).
>
The Advocates Act (zorz) Cap.
>
The Finance Act, No. 38 (zor3) KeHYn GnzerrE SUPPLEMENT No.
14J5 4.
r5 5 r+ (Kenya).
For legislation, cite to Tbe Laws of Kenya and provide the date of the revised
edition, or cite to the OfJicial Gazette. The ref'crencc to laws irs chapters
(Caps.) and to the dates of revised editions is only for those laws that make up
part of the consolidatcd materials.
Foreign Jurisdictions: Lebanon
>
Tnr
Le.ws oF KENvA, Rsvrsro
Eornox
>THr Orrrcrer Gaztrru oF THE EAsr
em Ucervol Pnorncronerns
>
THr Orrrcret GlzEmr or
PnotsctoRAtr
> Oprrcnr GezrrrE oF
tur
ATFJCA
Eest Arnrc,r
K
>THs KENvA GAZETTE [RtpuBuc on
Kxrwe
1908-1920 Vols. fl-zz
Vols. z3-58
T.IYA
1957-1963 Vots.59-55
>KENYA GAZETTE
>
1899-1908 Vols. r-ro
192r-1956
THE CoLoNIy
AND PROTECToRATT oF
1924-date
Knm]
G r-ZEfiT' SupprnunNt
1964-dtte Vols.66-current
1931-date
Internet soufces
http://www.kenyalaw.org (official source for judgments, dings, and
opinions of the superior courts of record, statutes, the Kenya Gazette, bills,
and parliamentary proceedings)
http://www.lo c.gov /lav /help/ gfide/ nations/kenya.html (tibrary of
Congress Guide to Law Online: Kenya)
T2.26
Lebanon, Republic
Romanization
Use the ALA-IC Romanization Tables: Transliteration Schemes for NonRoman Scripts, apptoved by the Library of Congress and the American Library
Association, available at http: / / www.loc. gov / catdrr/ epso/ rctnanization/
arabic.pdf.
Cases
Citation format: (court name, [,court abbreviation,][,English translation of
court name>], <region if applicable,, (number and/or date of decision in
day month year format>, (reporter or journa[ 6srng, [.reporter or journal
abbreviation,l, (section of lournal if applicable,, ,year of publication>, p.
,first page, (.country abbreviation if not evident from context).
I kamat al-Tamyiz [Tamyiz] [Cou rt of Cassation ], to
Majm0'at Biz IBdz], t962, p.73 (Leb.).
Ma
t
o
t
o
I
I
of
(Civil Law)
>
o
e
o
o
D
ec.
t962,
Courts
Lebanon has different categories of courts, including religious courts dealing
mainly with family law matters. The most commonly cited courts are as follows:
Ma[rkamat al-Tamyiz (Tamyiz) (C,ourt of Cassation: highest coun of ordinary
jurisdiction). This coun sits only in the capital and has several chambers
referred to generally by numbers (Chamber 1,2, and so forth). Citation is
sufflciently recognized by refering to this court only as "Tamyiz" or "Qar6r
(decision) Tamyiz."
Malkamat al-Isti'naf (lsti'ndD (courts of appeals: general courts of second
instance). Lebanon is divided into a number of appellate jurisdictions. Citarion
o
I
o
I
I
o
o
t
a
t
a
o
I
o
a
t
t
I
o
o
o
o
o
I
l:*rciglt .lurirdir'{ ionr: l.ehatton
is sufliciently recognized by rcferring to this court as "lsti'naf" or "Qarar
lsti'naf," folkrwed by the namc of its gcographic jurisdiction.
Malrkamat al-Darajat al-Ula lCourts of First Instance). This court is
composed of two sections, thc section of the "Qidi Munfarid" Qrrdge of Irirst
h.rstance), and the "Ghurfat MaIkamat at-Daraiat al-Uta' (Chamber of First
Instance). Lcbanon is divicled into a large number of first instance jurisdictions. Decisions of lirst instance are seldom published or citcd. (litations are
sufliciently rccognized by refcrring to the section (ludgc or chambcr of lirst
instancc) or to the "hukm" (iudgment) of such sections firllowed by the nlme
of its geographic jurisdiction.
Sources for cases
Case citations can be made to the
Al-Nashrah al-Qafla'iyah (a[-Nashrah), an oflicial publicrtion of thc Lebancse
Ministry of Justice containing firll texts of court decisions.
a private publicrtion issucd on a ycarly brsis containing
the lcgal reasoning of the Court of Cassation decisions.
Majmil'at Baz (.Baz),
Majmu'at'dtim (Hatim),
I
o
o
o
o
a
privrte publication identiiicd by its consecutive
issue numbcrs containing selected portions of court decisions.
Majallat al-'Adl ('Adl or at-'Adl), an ofhcial publication of the lleimt Bar. lt
is
publishcd quarterly and has a section fbr court cascs.
Statutes and decrees
(litation format: ,statute or decree name or number> of ,date in day
month year format' (translation of subject matter of the law, if desired,)
(.country abbreviation if not evident from context,).
>
t
o
o
folbwing publications:
Legislative Decree r38 of 7 5ept.
e' Decree Law 44 of
rg8:
(Leb.).
12 June 1959 (Taxation on Natural and Juridicat
Persons) (Leb.).
b
Decree 2,385 of the French High Commissioner of
q
Jan.
gz4
(Leb.).
p
Lawof r7 Sept.t96z (Taxation on Structures Builton Land) (Leb.).
Two compilations of Lebanese legislation currently in forcc (in Arabic),
published in Beirut are:
Mlluu'er,orL-TlsHnr .qr-LueNANi
r QawaNiN LusNAN: MAIMU'Ar AL-NUSU$ el-Tasuni'iven
'
wl-er-TauziuiveH
ornli"i
Gazette
Thc Oflicial G^zette, al-laridah al-Rasmiyah, is publishcd weekly and clividcd
into two parts. The lirst contains laws, decree-laws, lnd clccrees and dccisions
by ministries. The second part contains official notices ancl announcemcnts.
o
Foreign Jurisdictions: Mexico
Internet sources
http://www.lp.gov.lb (site of the
Lebanese Padiament where the
constitution and electofal laws are posted)
http://www.l oc.gov /law /'help/ gude/ nations/ebanon.php (tibrary of
Congress Guide to Law Online: Lebanon)
http://www. law. cornell. edu,/wodd,/mideast.html#lebanon (online
guide to legal materials and other information about Lebanon)
http://www.pcrn. gov.lb/arabic/index.aspx? pageid=S (website of the
Presidency of the Council of Ministers where issues of the official gazette
since 20O6 are posted)
T2.27 Mexico
(Civil Law)
b;;;;
Mexico does not have an official system of citation for cases decided by courts
at the federal level. It is customary to cite federal cases in the following fonnat:
Citation format for cases decided by the Mexican Supreme Court and
the Tribunales Colegiados de Circuito: (rubro>, <court name> [,court
abbreviation'l ,reporter name, ,6poca (time period),, tomo .volume
number, <month and year of reporter' (number of decision in reporter'
(case number' P6gina .first page of decision, (,country abbreviation if
not evident from context').
)
Personalidad. En contra de [a resoluci6n que dirime esta cuesti6n,
previamente a[ fondo, procede el amparo indirecto, Pleno de la
Suprema Corte de Justicia [SCJN], Semanario Judicial de la Federaci6n y su Gaceta, Novena Epoca, tomo Xlll, Enero de zoor, Tesis
P-ll.4lzoor, PSgina u (Mex.).
The "rubro," or "case title" in English, is a short statement prepared by a
court on the topic and issue discussed in the case. "Iipocas" or "time periods"
in English, are periods of time detennined by the Supreme Court of Mexico in
order to organize cases by chronological order. As of 201 1, the Supreme Court
was in the tenth 6poca. The first four 6pocas are no longer in force. The last
six €pocas (from the fifth through the tenth) include cases that are curently
in force. All cases decided by federal courts indicate the 6poca in which the
case was decided.
Federal couft structure
The Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Naci6n (SCJN) is the highest court of
constitutional and federal jurisdiction io Mexico and sits as a firll couft (pleno) or
in chambers. The Tribunales Colegiados de Circuito (ICC) are the equivalents,
to some extent, of the U.S. federal courts of appeals.
>Juzgado de Distrito (District Coufts)
>
Suprema Corte deJusticia de la Naci6n (Supreme Court
Justice of the Nation)
JD
of
scJN
t
I
o
I
I
o
a
o
o
o
o
t
I
o
a
a
o
t
o
o
o
o
t
o
t
o
o
o
o
o
Irortign urisclic:tiolrs: iltexico
_f
;TribunalAgrarios (Agrarian
o
o
t
t
o
o
o
o
o
a
TA
Court)
TC
>Tribunales Colegiados de Circuito (Full-Fanel Circuit
Courts)
>Tribunal Electoml del PoderJudicial de la Federaci6n
al Coun of the Judiciary of the Federation)
(Elector- TEPIF
of
Tribunal Federal de Conciliaci6n yArbitraje (Federal Court
>
TCC
TFCA
Conciliation and Arbitration)
>Tribunal Fedeml Elcctoral (Federal Electoral
TFE
Court)
(Federal TFJFA
>Tribunal Fedeml deJusticia Fiscal yAdministrativa
Court of Fiscal and Administrative Justice)
>Tribunal SuperiorAgrario (SuperiorAgrarian
Court)
TSA
'TribunalesUnitariosAgmrios(One-JudgeAgrarianCourts)
Tribunales Unitarios de Circuito (One-Judge Circuit
>
Courts)
TUA
TUC
Case law publications
by federal coufts in Mexico are currently published in the
SemanarioJudicial de la Federaci6n y su Gaceta (SIFG) (Judicial Veekly of
Cases decided
Federation). Only cases decided by SCJN and the TCC are published in the
The SJFG volumes are published monthly.
rAnalesdeJurisprudencia(AnnalsofJurisprudence)
>Ap6ndice al SemanarioJudicial de la Federaci6n (Appendix
the Federal Judicial \fleekly Report)
>
>
,
Courts)
rTribunal Colegiado (Three-JudgeAppellate
to
Boletin Judicial (fudicial Bulletin)
Boletin de Informaci6n Judicial (tsulletin of Judicial Informa-
SJFG.
AJ
ASJF
BJ
BU
tion)
Boletin del Semanario Judicial de la Federaci6n (Bulletin of
the Fedeml Judicial Weekly Report)
r Informe de la Suprema Corte de Justicia @eport of the Supreme Court ofJustice)
>
rJurisprudencia por Contrndicci6n deTesis (urisprudence
Contradiction)
>Juzgados de Distrito (District Coufts)
>
Precedcntes
Relevantes
by
BSIF
lnfo.
ICT
JD
PR
> Semanario Judicial de la Federaci6n (Federal Judicial
\i(ieekly
Si F
Report)
r SemanarioJudicial de la Feder.rci6n y su Gaceta @ederalJudi- SIFG or GSIF
cial \,Xreekly Report and Its Gazette); or Gaceta del Semanario
Judicial de la Feder.rci6n (Gazette of the Federal Judicial
Weekly Report)
TFE
>Tribunal Federal Electoral (Federal Electoral court)
(Tax
TFF
Federation)
Court
ofthe
de
la
Federaci6n
Fiscal
'Tribunal
>
Tribunal Federal de Justicia Fiscal y Adminisrativa
Court of Fiscal and Administrative Justice)
(Fed€ral
TFJ FyA
b""rtit"ti""
>
Constituci6n Politica de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos
CP or CPEUM
Citation format: <constitution name, [(constitution abbreviation'], .specific
provision(s) cited, if appticabte', Diario Oficial de [a Federaci6n [DOF]
,date of original publication', ,date of latest revision, if appticabte,
(,country abbreviation if not evident from context'),
Foreign Jurisdictions: Mexico
)
Constituci6n Polftica de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos, CP, Diario
Oficial de la Federaci6n IDOF] oS-oz-r9r7, riltimas reformas DOF
ro-o2-2ot4 (Mex.).
)
Constituci6n Politica de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos, CPEUM,
Diario Oficial de la Federaci6n IDOF] o5-oz-7g77,0ttimas reformas
DOF
ro-oz-zor+ (Mex.).
il;
Citation format: <code name, [,code abbreviation,], (specific provision(s)
cited, if applicable', Diario Oficial de la Federaci6n [DOF] ,originaldate of
publication', ,date of latest revision, if applicable, (,country abbreviation
if not evident from context,).
)
C6digo Civit[CC], Diario Oficialde [a Federaci6n [DOF] 74-o5-:,928,
0ltimas reformas DOF z4-tz-zog (Mex.).
)
C6digo Civil [CC], aft.2r4, Diario Oficial de la Federaci6n IDOF]
t4-o5-t928, rlltimas reformas DQF z4-tz-zog (Mex.).
cc
>C6digo Civil Federal (Federal Civil Code)
>
C6digo Aduanero (Customs Code)
CA
>
Codigo Agfario (Agmrian Code)
CAgr
) C6digo Contencioso Administrativo (Administrative Action
Code)
ccA
>C6digo de Comercio (Commercial Code)
CCom
C6digo de Justicia Militar (Military Justice Code)
> C6digo Federal de Institutciones y Procedimientos Electorales
(Federal Code of Electoral lnstitutions and Procedures)
CFIPE
>
>
C6digo Federal de Procedimientos Civiles (Federal Code
Civil Procedures)
of
>C6digo Federal de Procedimientos Penales (Federal Code
Criminal Procedures)
) C6digo Fiscal de la Federaci6n (FederalTax Code)
>
C6digo Penal Federal (Federal Criminal Code)
>C6digo Sanitario (Health Code)
of
CJM
CFPC
CFPP
CFF
CPF
CS
The Mexican govefirment publishes legislative and executive materials in
the Diario Oficial de la Federaci6n, which is the official gazette of the federal
govemment in Mexico. The DOF provides ready access to the official text of
federal laws, presidential documents, administrative regulations and notices,
treaties, and descriptions of federal organizations, programs, and activities.
Some administrztive orders issued by the Supreme Court are published in the
DOF as well. Cite to DOF for all federal legislation.
Subdivisions
>ap6ndice (appendix)
ap6nd.
r articulo (article)
art
capitulo (chapter)
>coleccion (collection)
cap.
>
>
columna (column)
edici6n (edition)
> fracci6nlesl (sectionlsl)
>
colecc.
col.
ed.
frac., fracc,
o
o
?
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
t
t
I
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
I
O
o
I
I
o
o
o
o
I
o
o
o
o
a
c
o
!:or-t'ign
.f
rrtisriirl ionsl
p., pp.
plgina[sl (pagels])
>
r pirrzLfcr (pamgraph)
Pfo.
r parte (paft)
pt.
r reglamcnto (regulation)
reg.
r sccci<in (section)
srU)lement0 (supplement)
sec.
supl.
'
(title)
' titulo
tit.
t.
n tomo (tome)
r volimen (volume)
vo[.
Statutes
(liration format:,statute name, [,statute abbreviation,],specific
provision(s) cited, if appticable,, Diario Oficial de [a Federaci6n IDOF]
.original date of publication,, .date of latest revision, if appticabte'
(country abbreviation if not evident from context').
ts
Ley Aduanera ILAD], Diario Oficiat de [a Federaci6n IDOF] 15-rz-
r995, 0ttimas reformas DOF og'tz-zora (Mex.).
l.cyAduancm ((lustoms Law)
'
LAD
r [.cyAgraria (Agr.lrian Law)
r t.e_v de Migracirin (Immigration law)
LAG
LM
Adquisiciones y Obras Pirblicas (Acquisitk)ns and
Public Vorks Litw)
LAOP
> l.ey dc
(Airport Law)
r l-ev
de Aeropucrtos
r Lcy
de Aguas Nacionales
Ahorro
Credit)
> Ley dc
.v
LA
(NationalWater Law)
Cr6dito Itrpular
(hw
LAN
on Savings and Popular
r l.ey de Amnistia (Amnesty Law)
r lrl'dcAmpanr, Reglamentaria de losArticulos lt)3 y 107
LACP
LAM
<Ie
LARACPEUM
la Constituciirn Politica de los Estados Llnidos Mexicanos
(Constitutional Law, RcgulatingArticles 103 and 107 ofthe
Political Constitution of the Mexican I Inited Statcs)
r Lcy dc Asccnsos de la Armada de M6xico (Promotions l-aw of
the Navy of Mexico)
r Ley de Ascensos y Recompensas del Eie;rcito y lucrza At'rea
Mexicanos (Promotions and Salary l.aw of thcArmy andAir
LAAM
LAREFAM
Force)
'
>
Ley de Asistencia Social (Social Assistancc Law)
LAS
Lcy de Asociaciones Rcligiosas y Culto I'ilblico (Law of Relipiions Associations and Public Vorship)
LARCP
Le1' dcAvicacitin Civil (CivilAviation Law)
r Ley de Cimaras Emprcsariales y Sus Confedentcioncs (Law ot
Chamtrers of Commerce and'I'heir (irnfbderations)
>
Puentcs yAr.ttotransporte F'cderal (l.aw
Fedcral Roads, Bridges and Autotransportation)
> l-ey de Caminos,
of
r Lo'de Ciencia yTecnologia (Law of Sciencc andTechnology)
Law)
(Bankruptcy Llw)
r Ley dc Comercio Exterior (Foreign Commerce
, Ley dc Concursos Mcrcantiles
Le-v dc Cooperaci6n Internacional para el Desarollo (Law
"
International Ooopcration firr Devekrpment)
* Ley de Coordinaci<in lriscal (Iriscal
(ilordination
Law)
LAC
LCEC
LCPAF
LCT
LCE
LCM
on
LCID
LCF
Foreign Jurisdictions: Mexico
>
ky
de Desarrollo Rural Sustenable (.aw of Rural Sustainable
LDRS
Development)
>
Iry
de Disciplina del Ei6rcito y FuerzaA6rea Mexicanos
@is
LDEFA
ciplinary Law of the MexicanAfmy andAir Force)
Disciplina para el Personal de laArmada de Mdxico
(Disciplinary Law for Personnel of the Nary of Mexico)
> Ley de
> Ley de
LDPAM
Educaci6n Militar del Ejdrcito y FuerzaAerea Mexicalaw of the Army andAir Force)
LEMAFAM
nos (Military Education
> Ley
>
ky
>
ky
de Expropiaci6n (Expropriation
law)
LE
de Extradici6n Internacional (International Extradition
Law)
de Fondos de Inversi6n (Investment Funds Law)
LEI
LFI
> Ley de
Ingresos de la Federaci6n para el Ejercicio Fiscal de
2Ol4 (law ofFederal Revenue for the FiscalYear of 2Ol4)
LI FEF
de Inspecci6n de Contratos y Obras Priblicas (Contract
Inspection and PublicWor{<s law)
> ky de Instituciones de Cr€dito (Credit Institutions Law)
LICOP
> Ley
de Instituciones de Seguros y de Fianzas (Law of Insurance Institutions and Surety)
> Ley
>
>
ky
ky
de Inversi6n Extranjera (Foreign Investment Law)
de la Casa de Moneda de M6xico
LISF
LIEX
(aw of Mexico Mint)
LCMM
of
LCNBV
de la Comisi6n Nacional Bancaria y deValores (Law
the National Banking and Securities Comrnission)
> Ley
> Ley de la
Lrc
Comisi6n Nacional de los Derechos Humanos (Law
LCNDH
of the National Commission of Human Rights)
la Comisi6n Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos LCNDPI
Indigenas (aw of the National Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples)
> I,ey de
> Ley
>
ky
de la Policia Federal (Federal Police Law)
de la Propiedad
LPF
Indusrial (aw of Industrial property)
los Derechos de las PersonasAdultas Mayores @aw
the Rights of the Elderly)
> Ley de
LPI
of
de los Impuestos Generales de Importaci6n y de Exportaci6n (GeneralTax Law of Importation and Exponation)
> Ley
> Ley de los
Institutos Nacionales de Salud (Iaw of the Nationd
LDPAM
LIGIE
LINS
Institut€s of Health)
>
ky
de los Sistemas deAhorro para el Retiro (Savings Iaw for
Retirement)
r tey de Nacionalidad (Nationality Iaw)
>
LN
ky
de Navegaci6n y Comercio Maritimos (Navigation Law
and Maritime Commerce)
de Obras Pfblicas y Servicios Relacionados con las
mas (Law of Public rvorks and Related Services)
> Ley
>
lry
Mi]
de Petr6leos M€dcanos (Iaw of Mexican Petroleums)
> Ley de
Planeaci6n @anning Law)
de Productos Orginicos (Organic Products
> Ley
de Protecci6n alAhorro Bancario (Law on the Protection
>
ky
Savings
LNCM
LOPSRM
LPM
LP
> Ley
of Bank
LSAR
law)
LPO
LPAB
Accounts)
de Protecci6n al Comercio y la Inversi6n de Normas Extranieras que Contravengan el Derecho Internacional (Iaw
on Protection ofTrade and Foreign Investments thatViolate
lnternational Law)
LPCI NECDI
o
o
o
o
o
o
t
t
o
o
o
I
o
t
o
I
o
o
O
c
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
a
o
o
o
*ilrrtig;'l "f trrirdict ilrns: Melilq.t
r Ley de Protecci6n y Defensa al Usuario de Servicios Financieros (Law on thc Protection and Dcfcnse of F'inancial
LPDUSF
Services Users)
r Ley de Puertos (Law of Scaports)
> Lc1' de Responsabilidad Civil por l)aios Nucleares (Iaw of
Oivil Liability for Nuclear Damages)
LP
r Ley de Seguridad Nacional (National Security Law)
LSN
;
l.ey de Sistemas de Pagos (Payments Systcms Law)
LSP
'
I-ev de Sociedades de Responsabilidad l.imitada de Inter€s
Pirblico (l.aw on Limited Liability Companies of Public Inter-
LSRLI P
LRCDN
est)
r Lev deTransparencia y dc Fomento a la (iompetencia en el
(lrddito (;arantizado ('l r.rnsparencyAct lnd Promotion of
(i)mpetition in the Credit Guar.rntec)
* Lcy de IJniones cle Cr€dito (Crcdit tInions Law)
r Le1'deVias Gener.rles dc (lomunicacitjn (Cieneral Law of
LTFCCG
LUC
LVGC
Means of Comnrunications)
r Lcy deVivicnda (llousing Law)
LV
r Ley tlel Banco de Mdxico (Mexican Bank Law)
LBM
r Lcy del Diario Oficial de la Fedcraci6n y Gacetas Gubernamentales (Law of the Official l)ai\' and Govcrnmcnt
(;azettcs)
LDOFGG
>
Lo,del Impuesto alValorAgregado (AdcledValue'lhx Law)
r Ley del Impuesto tsspecial Sobre Producci6n y Scrvicit>s
LIVA
LI
EPS
(Special'thx Law on Prodttction and Services)
r Lcy clel Impuesto Sobre la Rentt (IncomcTax l.aw)
del Instituto del Fondo Nacional dc laViviencla para los
'lrubajackrres (Law of the Institute of the National Housing
> Le.v
LIR
LI FNVT
liund firrWorkers)
>
Lcl del lnstituto Nacional de las Muiercs (Law of the National
LINM
Institute forWtrmen)
>
l.o'del Mcrcado deValores (Stock Market Law)
LMV
> Lcy del llcgistro Nacionll de Dat<-rs dc Personls Extraviadas
o Desaparecidas (taw on thc National Rcgistcr of Pcrsonal
I)ata on Missing Persons or l)isappeared Persons)
LRN DPED
r Lcy dcl llcgistro Pirblico Vchictrlar (Law of thc Vchicttlar
LRPV
Public Registrl')
r l.ey del Scguro Social (Social Security l.aw)
r Le-v del Scrvicio de Administracitin Tributaria (l.aw of thc Tax
LSS
LSAT
Administration Service)
r l.cy del Servicio dcTesoreria de la Fedcraciirn (Scrvice Llw of
LSTF
the Federal Treasur) )
r l.cy dcl Scrvicio Exterior Mexicano (Mcxican lroreign Scrvicc
LSEM
L:rw)
> Ley
del Servicio Militar (Military Service Law)
> Ley del Servicio Postal Mexicano (Mexican Postal Service
l.aw)
; Lc1' Federal Anticorrupci6n en (;ontratacioncs Pirblicas (Fed-
LSM
LSPM
LFACP
cml (irrruption Law in Public Procurement)
r l.cy Fcdcral Contra la Delincuencia Organizacla (Fcdcral Law
LFDO
Against Organized Crimc)
r Lev Fetlcral
de Archivos (Federal Archivcs Law)
LFA
Foreign Jurisdictions: Mexico
deArmas de Fuego y Explosivos (Federal law
Firearms and Explosives)
> Ley Federal
> Ley Federal
of
de Competencia Econ6mica (FederalAntitrust
LFAFE
LFCE
Law)
r Ley Federal de Correduria Pfblica (Federal law on Public
LFCP
Brokerage)
>
Ley Federal de Defensoria
Pfblica (Federal Public Defender
LFDP
Iaw)
>
Ley Federal de Derechos (Federal Rights
law)
LFD
>LeyFederal de Derechos deAutor (Authors'Rights Law)
>
LFDA
Ley Federal de Instituciones de Fianza (Federal Law for Bond
LIF
Institutions)
>
Ley Federal de Justicia para Adolescentes (Federal Justice
LFJA
Iaw forAdolescents)
>
Ley Federal de las Entidades Faraestatales (Federal Law
of
LFEP
Public Entities)
>
Ley Federal de los Derechos del Contribuyente (Federal
Iaw
LFDC
ofTaxpayers Rights)
>
>
ky
LFTSE
Ley Federal de Presupuesto y Responsabilidad Hacendaria
(Federal Budget and Fiscal Responsibility law)
LFPRH
Federal de los Trabaiadores al Servicio del Estado (Federal Civil Sewice Law)
> Ley Federal de
ProcedimientoAdministrativo (FederalAdmin-
LFPA
istrative Procedure Law)
Procedimineto ContenciosoAdmilistrativo
(Federal law of Administrative Disputes Procedures)
> Ley Federal de
>
ky
Federal de Protecci6n al Consumidor (Federal Consumer
LFPCA
LPC
Protection Law)
de Proteccion de Datos Personales en Posesion
de los Particulares (Federal law on the Protection of Personal Data in Possession of Individuals)
> Ley Federal
>Ley Federal de RadioyTelevisi6n (FederalLawof Radio
Television)
>
Ley Federal de ResponsabilidadAmbiental (Federal Law
LFPDPP
and
LFRT
on
LFRA
Environrnental Responsibility)
ResponsabilidadesAdministrativas de los Servi LFRASP
dores Pfblicos (Federal Law ofAdministrativ€ Responsibilities of Public Sef!?nts)
> Ley Federal de
r Ley Federal de Seguridad Privada (Federal [aw on
Private
LFS P
Security)
> Ley Federal de
Telecomunicaciones @ederal Telecommunica- LFT
tions Law)
>
Ley Federal deTransparencia yAcceso a la
Informaci6n
LFTAIPG
Publica Gubernamental (Federal law ofTransparency and
Access to Public Government Information)
>
>
lry
Federal del Derecho
deAutor (Fed€ral Copyright
Ley Federal del Impuesto Sobre Autom6viles Nuevos
Tax Law on NewAutomobiles)
taw)
LFDA
(Federal
LFIAN
(FederallawoftheSeas)
(Federallaborlaw)
Para laAdministraci6n y Enaienaci6n de Bienes
>LeyFederaldelMar
LFM
>LeyFederaldelTrabajo
LFT
> Ley Federal
LFAEBSP
del Sector Priblico (Federal Law for theAdministration and
Disposition ofAssets ofthe Public Sector)
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
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|:rltrign .f urisllitliots: \{ex ir. o
r Ley Fccleral pam h Prevenci6n e ldentificaci6n dc
Operacio-
LFPIORPI
nes con Recursos de Procedencia Ilicita (Federal l.aw on
the Prevcntion and Identilication of Operations IJsing Illicit
Resources)
r Ley Fcderal para la Protecci(in a Personas quc Intcrvienen en
el Proccdimicnto Penal (Federll Law for the Protection of
Pcrsons'lestiffing in (iriminal Matters)
LFPPIPP
F-ederal Para Prevenir y Eliminar la Discriminaci<in (Fed- LFPED
eral Law for the Prevcntion and Elimination of DiscriminatlonJ
, l.ey
(Fcdenl Law
for the Prevcntion and Punishment of'Ibrture)
* Ley Federal Sobre Monumentos y Zonas Arqueologicas (Fctl* Le1'Federal Para Prevenir y Sancionar [aT<rrtum
LFPST
LMZAA
cral Law fcrr Monuments and Archacoklgical Areas)
r l-ey Firma ElectronicaAvanzada (Advanced Illectronic Signature Law)
LFEA
* Ley (iencral de Acceso cle las Mujercs a [Jna Vida Librc de
Violencia ((iencral Law of aWoman's Right to a Life Free
LGAMVLV
of
Violence)
r Ley Gencral de Asentamientos Ilumanos (Generll Law on
Population (lentcrs)
LAH
General dc Bibliotecas (Gcneral Law of Libraries)
LGB
> l.e_v
: Ley (ieneml de Bicnes Nackrnales (General Law on National
LGBN
Property)
'
Le1'Gencral de Cambio
Change)
Climitico ((iencral Law on Climatc
* Ley Gencral cle Contabiliclad Ciubernamental (Gcneral Ac-
LGCC
LGCG
counting Law)
n
Lc1 Gencral dc De rcchos Ling,iiisticos dc los l)ueblrs lltdigenas (General Law of the Linguistic Rights of Indigenous
LGDLP
Pcople)
r Ley Gencral dc Desarrollo Forestal Sustentable ((ieneral Law
for Sustainrble Forest Dcvekrpment)
LGDFS
r Ley General de Dcsarrollo Social ((iencral Law firr Social
LGDS
Dcvekrpmcnt)
r Ley General de Deudit Pfiblica (General Law of the Public
LGDP
Dcbt)
rLey General dc Eclucaci6n (Gener,rl Education Law)
LGEEPA
r Ley Gencral de Instituciones y Socicdades Mutualistas de
Segur0s (Oeneral Law oflnstitutions and Mutud Insurance
LGISMS
y.
Protecci6n
LGE
Ambiente
r Lcy Gencral de Equilibrio Ecoltigico
((ieneral Environmcnt Law)
al
(irmpanies)
r Lcy Gencral dc Organizaciones y Activitladcs Attxiliares
de Cr6dito (General Law ofOrganizations andActivities
LGOC
Related to Credit)
oLey General de
lbblaci6n (Gencral Population Law)
Ley General de Prest:tci6n de Servicios para la Atencidn,
"
Cuidado v Deslrrollo Integral Infirntil (Children Iaw for the
Delivery of Crre and Integral Devclopment of Infants)
>Ley General de Protecci<in
Law)
Civil ((iencral Civil Protection
r Ley General de Salud (General Health Law)
LGP
LGPSACDII
LGPC
LG5
Foreign Jurisdictions: Mexico
>LeyGeneraldesociedadesCooperativas
(Generallawfor
LGSC
Cooperative Associations)
>
ky
for
LGSM
>
Iry
(General
LGTOC
>
Ley General de Tirrismo (Gene ral Tourism
General de Sociedades Mercantiles (General law
Cofimercial Corporations)
General de Titulos y operaciones de Cr€dito
Law for Securities and Credit Operations)
>ky
>
ky
>
Iry
law)
ofvictims)
(General Iaw ofVildlife)
LGT
General devictimas (General Iaw
LGV
C'eneral deVida Silvestre
LGVS
General del Equilibrio Ecol6gico y la Protecci6n alAmbi- LGEPA
ente (General law of Ecological Equilibrium and Environ-
mentd Protection)
en
>ky
General del Sistema de Medios de Impugnaci6n
Materia Electoral (General Law of the System of Electoral
Challenges)
>
Ley General del Sistema Nacional de Seguridad Priblica
eral law ofthe National System ofPublic Security)
(Gen-
the
Iry
General Para el Control delTabaco (General law for
Conuol ofTobacco)
> ky General Para la lgualdad Entre Mujeres y Hombres (General Iaw for Equality BetweenVomen and Men)
>
>
Ley General para la Prevenci6n Social de laViolencia y la
Delincuencia (General Law for Social Prevention ofVio
lence and Delinquency)
>ley Minera (Mining law)
LGSMIME
LGSNSP
LGCT
LGMIH
LGPSVD
LMin
Ley Monetaria de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos (Monetary
law of the United Mexican States)
LM
Ley Orginica de laAdministraci6n Pfblica Federal (Organic
Iaw of Federal Public Administration)
LOAPF
>
ky
LOA
>
ky
>
Ley Orgdnica de la Procuraduria e la Defensa del
>
>
Orginica de laArmada de M6xico (Organic law of the
Nary of Mexico)
Orginica de la loteria Nacional para laAsistencia Pfblica LOLNAP
(Organic law of the National Iottery for PublicAssistance)
Con-
LOPDC
tribuyente (Organic Iaw of the Office of theAdvocate for
Taxpayer)
>
Repfblica
Ley Orginica de la Procuraduria General de la
(Organic Law of the Attorney General's Ofifice)
>LeyOrg6nicadelosTribunalesAgrarios
Ag,rarian
>
>
(Organiclawof
LOPGR
LOTA
Couru)
Ley Orginica de Sociedad Hipotecaria Federal (Organic
of the Federal Mortgage Corporation)
law
LOTM
try Orginica
law
LOSH F
de Sociedad Hipotecaria Federal (Organic
of the Federal Mortgage Corporation)
>ley Orginica del Banco delAhorro Nacional y
Servicios
LOBNSF
Financieros (Organic law of the National Savings Bank and
Financial Services)
>
Ley Orginica del Banco Nacional de Comercio Exterior
ganic Law of the National Bank for ForeignTrade)
>
Ley Orginica del Banco Nacional de Obras y Servicios
(Or-
Pfbli-
cos (Organic Law of the National Bank for Public Works
and Services)
LOBNCE
LOBNOS
o
o
a
o
o
o
o
o
o
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Forcign Jrrrisd ietions: Mcxic<r
>
>
>
Ley Orginica del Congreso General de los Estados lJnidos
Mexicanos (Organic l^aw of the Congress of the United
Mexican States)
LOCEUM
Ley Orginica del Poder Judicial de la Federaci6n (Enabling
Law for the Federal Judiciary)
LOPJF
Ley Orginica delTribunal de los ContencioAdministrativo
LOTCA
(Enabling Law for theAdministrative Disputes Court)
Ley Orginica del Tribunal Federal de Justicia Fiscal yAdministmtiva (Organic Law of the Federal Court for Fiscal and
>
LOTFJFA
Administrative Justice)
Ley Orginica del Tribunal Fiscal de la Federacion (Enabling
Law for thc Federal Fiscal Court)
>
LOTFF
Pais (National Neutml-
LCNP
r Ley Fara el Aprovechamiento Sustentable de la Energia (Law
for the Sustainable Use of Energy)
> Ley Para el Desarrollo de la Competitividad de la Micro,
Pequefra y Mediana Empresa (Iaw for the Development of
the Competitiveness of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises)
LASE
r Ley Para la Depuraci6n y Liquidaci6n de Cuentas de la Hacienda Priblica Federal Qaw for the Elimination and Settlement ofAccounts of the FederalTreasury)
LDLCHPF
r Ley Para la Protecci<in de los Derechos de Niflas, Ninos yAdc
lescentes (Iaw for the Protection of the Rights of Children
and Adolescents)
LPDNNA
r Ley Para laTransparencia y Ordenamiento de los Servicios
Financieros (Iaw for the Transparency and Regulation of
the Financial Services)
r Lcy Para Promover la Inversi6n Mexicana yVigilar la Inversi6n Extranjera (Iaw to Promote Mexican Investments and
Monitor Foreign Investments)
LTOSF
Lcy Pir.l Conservar la Neutralidad
>
de I
ify Iaw)
>
Ley Fma Regular las Sociedades de Informaci6n Crediticia
(Law to Regulate Credit Information Companies)
r Ley Sobre Delitos de Imprenta (Law on Publishing Crimes)
>
(law
r Ley Sobre la Aprobaci6n deTratados Internacionales en
Materia Econ6mica (law on the Adoption of International
Economic Treaties)
Ley Sobre la Celebraci6n de Tratados (I-aw ofTreaties)
>
LIE
LRSIC
LDI
LSCS
Ley Sobre el Contrato de Seguro
> Ley Sobre el Escudo, la Bandera y el Himno Nacionales
on the Coat of Arms, Flag and NationalAnthem)
'
LDCMPME
Ley de Impuestos sobre Ingresos Mercantiles (Tax Law on
LEBHN
LATIME
LCT
LIIM
Commercial Income)
>
Ley del Impuesto a los Dep6sitos en Efectivo (Thx
Cash Deposits)
law on
r Ley clel Impuesto Empresarial aTasa Llnica (Law of the Ftat
Tax for Corporations)
Ley del Impuesto sobreTenecia o Uso deVehiculos (Tax Law
'
>
LIDE
LIETU
LISTUV
ofVehicles or Use ofVehicles)
Ley del Servicio de Inspecci6n Fiscal
tions Service)
(Iaw of theTax Inspec-
LS IF
o
Foreign Jurisdictions: Mexico
Administrative and executive materials
Citation format: ,document titl€', ,document number, if applicable,,
,specific provision(s) cited, if applicable,, Diario Oficial de [a Federaci6n
IDOF] ,e1i91nal date of publication,, ,date of latest revision, if
applicable,(country abbreviation if not evident from context,).
)
Decreto de Promulgaci6n de la Convenci6n de Viena, sobre el
Derecho de los Tratados entre Estados y Organizaci6n Internacionales, Diario Oficiatde la Federaci6n lDOFlz4-tz-rggz (Mex.).
)
Norma Oficial Mexicana, NOM-oor-SESH-zor4, Plantas de distibuci6n de Gas L.P. Disefro, construcci6n y condiciones seguras en su
operaci6n, Diario Oficial de [a Federaci6n IDOF] 22-Lo-2oL4 (Mex.).
Regulations
Citation format:,regulation name, [.regulation abbreviation'],,specifi c
provision(s) cited, if applicable,, Diario Oficial de la Federaci6n IDOF]
,originaI date of publication,, ,date of latest revision, if applicable'
(,country abbreviation if not evidence from context').
)
Reglamento de la Ley Aduanera IRLA], Diario Oficial de la Federaci6n IDOF] o6-o6-1996, frltimas reformas DOF z8-ro-zool (Mex.).
>ReglamentodeA-flliaci6n(lncorporationRegulations)
>
Reglamento de Financiamiento Priblico @ublic
Regulations)
Finance
>Reglamento de Ingenieria Sanitaria Relativo a Edificios
ing Health Regulations)
>
(Build-
hw)
RCD
Customs
RLA
>Reglamento delaLey Agrariaen Materia de Certificaci6n de
Derechos Ejidales yTitulaci6n de Solares (Regulations of the
law onAgrarian Matters of Certification of Eiido Rights and
Titling of Iots)
>
>
RISRE
the
Reglamento de la Cimam de Diputados @egulations of
House ofDeputies)
) Reglamento de la LeyAduanera @egulations of the
RA
RFP
Reglamento de la kyAgraria en Materia de Ordenamiento de
la Propiedad Rural @egulations of the law on Iand Management of Rural Property)
RLAMCDETS
RLAMOPR
Reglamento de la LeyAgraria Para Fomentaf la Organiztci6n RLAFOyDMCR
y Desarrollo de la Mujer Campesina @egulation of LandAct
for Promoting the Organization and Development of Rural
Vomen)
r Reglamento de la ky de Adquisiciones, Arendamientos y
Servicios del Sector Priblico @egulations of the Law of
Acquisitions, Leases and Services of the Public Sector)
>Reglamento de la Ley deAeropuertos (Regulations ofthe
RLMSSP
law
RLA
ofAirports)
>
Reglamento de la ley deAguas Nacionales (R.egulations of
the
RLAN
Nationalvater law)
>
Reglamento de la Ley deAscensos de laArmada de M€xico
(R€gulations ofthe law on Promotion ofthe Nalry of
Mexico)
RLMM
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Forcign "f urir<lictic:lls: llk xi*.o
r Reglamento de la Ley de Ascensos y Recompcnsas del Efercito y Fucrza A6rea Mexicanos (Regulations of the Law fbr
Promotion and Pay of the Mexican Army an<I Air Force)
RLAREFAM
r Reglamcnto dc la Lcy de Asociaciones Plblico Privadas (Regttlations ofthc Law on Public-Private Pannerships)
RLAPP
r Reglamento de la Ley tle Asociacioncs Re ligiosas y Culto
P[rblico (Regulations of the Law of Rcligious Associations
RLARCP
and Pr.rblicV<rrship)
Reglamento de la Ley de Aviaci6n Civil (Regulations of thc
Irw of CivilAviation)
>
RLAC
r Reglamento de la Ley de Bioscguridad dc Organismos Gen6ticrmente Modilicados (Regulations of the Law on lliosatet)'
of Gcnetically Modificd Orgmisms)
RLBOGM
Reglamento de la Ley de Ciimarrs Empresariales y Stts Confedcraciones (Regulations of thc Law of Commcrcial Chambers
andTheir Confedemtions)
r Rcglamento de la ky de (lomcrcio Exterior (Regulations of
thc Foreign'Ira<Ie Law)
Reglamcnto dc la Ley de Energia Para el Oampo (Regulations
RLCEyC
>
'
RLCE
RLEC
of the Energ-v Law f<lr the Countryside)
>
Reglamento de la Ley de Informaci6n Estadisticl y GeograIica (Regulations of the Law on Statistical and (ieographic
RLIEG
Information)
r Reglamento dc la Ley dc Inversi6n Extranjera -Y dcl Registro
Nacional de Inversiones Extmnjeras (Regulittions ofthe Law
on Foreign Investment and National Register of Forcign
Invcstment)
r Rcglamento de la Ley de la Policia l'ederal (Rcgulations of the
law of the Iredcrnl Police)
. Reglamento de la Ley de la Propiedad Industrial (Regulations
RLIERN IE
RLPF
RLPI
of the Law of Intellcctual Property)
r Reglamento de la Ley de los Siste mas de Ahorro Par.l el Retiro
(Regulations of the Law on Saving Systems for Retirement)
RLSAR
r Reglamento dc la Ley dc Migraci<in (Regulations of the Immigration Law)
r Reglamento de la Ley dc Nacionalidad (ltegulations of thc
Nationality Law)
RLM
Reglamento de la Ley dc Navegaci6n (Regulations of thc taw
of Navigation)
> Repy'amcnto cle la Lcy de Obras l'riblicas y Scrvicios Rclacitr
nados (lon las Mismas (Regulations of the Law of Public
Works and Related Matters)
RLN
de h Ley de Organizacioncs Ganaclcras (Regulations of thc Law of Livestock Organizations)
r Reglamcnto de la Ley dc Pcsca (Rcgulations of the Fishing
RLOG
>
> Reglametrto
RLNac
RLOPSRM
RLP
Law)
r Reglamcnto de la Ley dc Petrdleos Mexicanos (Regulations of
thc Law of Mexican Petroleum)
r Reglamento de la Ley de Productos Orginicos (Regulations of
RLPM
RLPO
thc Law of Organic Products)
* I{eglamento de la Ley de Pnrmoci6n y
l)esarrollo de krs Bio-
encrgeticas (Regulations of the Ltw t>n the Promotion and
Devek)pment of Ili0energy)
RLPyDB
Foreign Jurisdictions: Mexico
>
Reglamento de la Ley de Puertos @egulations of the Law
Ports)
of
RLP
Reglamento de la ky de Sociedades Cooperativas (Cooperative Law Regulations)
RLSC
>
Reglamento de la Ley del Impuesto alValorAgregado (Regulations of the Added Value Tax Law)
RLIVA
>
Reglamento de la Ley del Impuesto Especial Sobre Producci6n y Servicios Gegulations of the Law on SpecialTaxation
on Production and Services)
RLIEPS
>
Reglamento de la Ley del Impuesto Sobre la Renta (Regulations of the IncomeTax Law)
RSIR
>
Reglamento de la Ley del Registro PriblicoVehicular (Regulations of the law of the Public Register ofVehicles)
RLRPV
>
Reglamento de la Ley del Servicio deTesoreria de la Federaci6n @egulations of the Law of Service of theTreasury of
the Federation)
RLSTF
>
Reglamento de la Ley del Servicio Exterior Mexicano @egulations of the Law of the Mexican Foreign Service)
RLSEM
Reglamento de la Ley Federal deArmas de Fuego y Explosivos
@egulations of the Federal Law on Firearms and Explosives)
> Reglamento de la Ley Federal de Competencia Econ6mica
@egulations of the Federal law on Economic Competition)
RLFAFE
>
Reglamento de la Ley Federal de Correduria Publica @egulations ofthe Federal Law ofPublic Brokerage)
RLFCP
>
Reglamento de la Ley Federal de Juegos y Sorteos (Regulations of the Federal Law of Games and Sweepstakes)
RLFJS
ky Federal de las Entidades Paraestatales
@egulations of the Federal Iaw on the Parastate Entities)
> Reglamento de la ky Federal de Presupuesto y Responsabilidad Hacendaria @egulations of the Federal Law on the
Budget and Responsibility of theTreasury)
RLFEP
Reglamento de la Ley Federal de Protecci6nAl Consumidor
S.egulations of the Federal Law of Consumer Protection_;
> Reglamento de la Ley Federal de Protecci6n de Datos Personales en Posesi6n de los Particulares @egulations of the
Federal Law on the Protection ofPersonal Data in Held bv
Pri!?te Farties)
RLFPC
Reglamento de la Ley Federal de Seguridad Privada S.egulations of the Federal Law on Private Secudty)
RLFSP
Reglamento de la lry Federal deTransparencia yAcceso a
la Informaci6n Pfiblica Gubemamental (Regulations of the
Federal Law ofTransparency andAccess to Public Government Information)
RLFTAIPG
>
>
>
Reglamento de la
>
>
>
>
Reglamento de la
Federal
ky
Federal deTurismo (Regulations of the
RLFCE
RLFPRH
RLFPDPPP
RLFT
law onTourism)
>
Reglamento de la Ley Federal del Derecho deAutor (R.egulations of the Federal Copyright Law)
RLFDA
>
Reglamento de la Ley Federal Para la Prevenci6n e ldenti6caci6n de Operaciones Con Recursos de Procedencia Ilicita
@egulations of the Federal law for the Prevention and
Identification of Operations with Illicit Resources)
RLFPIORPI
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o
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lrorcign Jurisdictions:
r Reglamento de la Ley Fedcral Sobre Monumentos y Zonas
Me
xico
RLFSMZAAH
Arqucol<igicas,Artisticos E Hist6ricos (Rcgulations of thc
Fedcral law on Monumcnts and Archaeological Zr>nes,
Artistic and Historical)
>
Reglanento de la Ley Gencral de Acceso de las Mujeres a llna
Vida Libre de Violencia (Regulations of the General Act on
Access ofVomcn to a Lifc Frce FromViolcnce)
r Reglamcnto de la Ley General de (lultura Fisica y
l)eporte
RLGAMVLV
RLGCFD
(Rcgulxtion of the Gencral Law on Physical Culture and
Sports)
>
>
Reglamcnto dc la Ley General de l)esarrollo Forestal Sustentable (Regulations of the General Law for Sustainable
Forestry I)evelopment)
Reglamcnto dc la Ley Gcncral de Desarrollo Social (Regula- RLGDS
tions of the Gcncr.rl Law on Social Deve krpment)
de la Ley General dc l'oblacitin (Regulations
the (ieneral Law on P<4rulation)
> Reglamcntt.r
>
>
>
RLGDFS
of
Reglamento de la Lcy Gcneml dc Salud cn Materia de
Prestacion de Scrvicios de Atcrlci6n M€dica (Rcgulations of
the (ieneral IJealth Law Responsible for Prol'iding Healthcare Scrvice)
RLGP
RLGSMPSAM
Reglamcnto de la Ley General de Sah:d en Materia de Protec- RLGSMPSS
ci6n Social cn Salud (Rcgulations of thc (ieneral llealth l-ew
Regarding Social Protection)
Reglamcnto de la Ley Gcncral de Salud en Materia dc hrblici- RLGSMP
dad (Regulations of the Gener.tl l;tw of Health in Relation to
Advertising)
r Reglamento de la l.ey Gcneral dc Salud en Materia de Sanidad RLGSMSI
Internacional (Regulations of thc Gencr:tl Law of Health
Regarcling International Health)
r Reglamento de la Ley Gcneral dcVida Silvestre
(Rcgulations
RLGVS
of the General Law on Wildlilc)
'
'
"
Reglamento de la Ley General del Equilibrio Ecokrgico y la
Protecci6n al Ambiente en Materia de Arcas Naturales Protegidas @egulations of the Ge ncr.rl Law of thc Ecological
Balance and Protection ofthe Environmcnt on Matters of
Protccted NaturalArcas)
RLGEEPAMAN P
Reglamcnto dc la Ley General del Equilibrio Ecoltigico y l"
Protcccion el Ambirntc rn Matcria dcAutorregulation y
Auditorias Ambientalcs (Regulations of the Gcncral Law of
Ecological tsalance and Environmental Protection in thc
Field of Environmental Audits and Self-Regulation)
RLGEEyPA
Reglamento de la Ley Gencral del Equilibrio Ecokigico y
la Protecci6n alAmbiente en Materia de Evaluaci6n del
Impacto Ambiental (Regulations of thc (ieneral [.aw of Ecological Balance and Environmental Protection in the F'icld of
Environmental Impact Assessment)
RLGEEyPAMEIA
, Reglamcnto dc la Ley (ieneral del Equilibrio Ecokigico y
la
Protecci6n alAmbiente en Materia dc Registro de Emisioncs
yTransfere ncia de Contaminantes @egulations of the
General Law on the Ecological Balancc and Environmental
Protection in Matters of Registering Pollutant Release and
Transfcr)
de la Ley Ocneral Ihra el Control dclTabaco
(Regulations of the General Iaw for the Contnrl ofTobacco)
. Reglamento
MyAA
RLGEEPAMRETC
RLGCT
Forelgn J urisdictions: Mexico
>Reglamento de la Ley General Fara la Prevenci6n y Gestion
Integral de los Residuos @egulations of the General Iaw on
the Prevention and Integral Management ofVastes)
RLGPGIR
Reglamento de la try General Fara la Inclusion de las Perso
nas Con Discapacidad @egulations of the General Law for
the Inclusion of Persons with Disabilities)
> Reglamento de la Ley Minera @egulations of the Mining Law)
RLGIPD
>Reglamento de la ky Orginica de la Fracci6n I delArticulo
27 Constitucional @egulations of the Organic law of Faragra.ph I ofArticle 27 of the Constitution)
RLOFRI
>Reglamento de la Ley Orginica de la Procuraduria General
de la Repriblica (Regulations of the Organic Lav/ of the Attorney General of the Republic)
RLOPGR
>
>
Reglamento de la Ley Para el Desarrollo de la Competitividad
de la Micro,Pequefra y Mediana Empresa (Regulations of
the Law to Develop Competitiveness of Micro, Small and
Medium Enterprises)
>Reglamento de la Ley Para la Protecci6n de Personas Defensoras de Derechos Humanos y Periodistas @egulations of
the Law for the Protection ofHuman RightsAdvocates and
Joumalists)
>Reglamento de la lry Para Promover la Inversi6n Mexicana
y Regular la Extranlera @egulations of the l,aw to Promote
Mexican Investment and Regulate Foreign Investment)
>
Reglamento de la Ley Que Crea El Fondo de Gara'nti?- y
Fomento Para laAgriculture, Ganaderia yAvicultura (Regulations of the Law Establishing the Guarantee Fund and Development forAgriculture, Livestock and Poultry)
RLM
RLDCMPME
RPPPDDHYP
RIMRE
RLCFGFAGA
>Reglarnento de la Ley Reglamentaria delArticulo 27 Constitucional en el Ramo del Petr6leo (Regulations ofthe Regulatory Law of ConstitutionalArticle 27 Relating to Petroleum)
> Reglamento de la lry Sobre Produccitin. Certificaci6n y Cc
mercio de Semillas @egulations of the law on Production,
Certification and Seed Trade)
RLRACRP
>Reglamento de la Ley Sobre Refugiados y Protecci6n
Complementaria (Regulations of the law on Refugees and
Complementary Protections)
RLRPC
Reglamento del Articulo 122 de la, ky Federal de Protecci6n
al Consumidor (Regulations of futicle 122 of the Federal
Consumer Protection law)
> Reglamento del C6digo Fiscal de la Federacion (Regulations
of the FederalTax Code)
RALFPC
>Reglamento del Impuesto Sobre la Renta (IncomeTax Regula-
RISR
>
RSPCCS
RCFF
tions)
>Reglamento del Registro Federal de Contribuyentes @egulations of the Federal Register ofTaxpayers)
RRFC
Reglamento del Registro Nacional de Inversiones Extranieras
(R.egulations of the National Registry of Foreign Investments)
> Reglamento del Senado de la Repfblica (Regulations of the
Senate of the Republic)
>Reglamento Interior de la Secretgia de Hacienda y Cr€ditos
Pdblicos (Regulations of the Department ofTreasury and
Public Credit)
RRNIE
>
RSR
RISH
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l:ol'rigrr _f llritdir Iiurrs: lllricrr
N
Rcglamcnto Para el (lobierno Interior del Oongreso General
de los Estldos IJnidos Mexicanos (lnternal Regulations for
the Clovcrnmcnt of thc Congless of the tlnitcd Mexican
statcs)
r Reglamento del la Lcy General del Equilibrio Ecol6gico y
la Protecciirn rlAmbiente cn Materia de Ordenamiento
Ecokigico (Regulations of the ()eneral Law of thc Ecokrgi
cal Balance and Environmcntal Protection in the Fielcl of
Ecologl)
! Reglamento de la Ley dcl Impuesto sobre la Renta (lncome
RGICG
LGEEPAMOE
RLI R
Tax Regulations)
r Rcglanrentos dcl Cirdigo Fiscal dc [a Fedcraci<-rn y de la Ley
del Impuesto al Activo (Regulations of the Fedeml Tax Fiscal
(irde ancl theAssetTax Law)
RCFFLIA
State materials
It is common to cite local materials analogously to thc federal examples given
in the above table.
Statc governments have websites where local statutes and codes are often
availablc. A comprehensive list of state govemment oflicial websites is provided
in the fcderal government's onlinc lcgal repository, which is maintaincd by the
Mcxican Department of the Interior, at http://ETv.ordenjuridico.gob.mx.
Links to state materials can also be found at
http://www.mexlaw.com/best_
w€bsites/appendix3.html.
Periodicals
Citation format: ,last name of author', <first name of author', ",title
of article"', <name of periodicat' [.periodicaI abbreviation,], ,votume
number>, ,issue number,, ,date,, p. .page number).
tr Acosto Romero, Miguet, "Derecho bancario," Boletin Mexicano de
Derecho Comparado [BMDC], vo[. 151, nlm.24,29 de agosto de
2o13, p.1o5.
r Anuario Mcxicano cle Historia deI Derechcr
(Mexican Yearbook of Legal History)
Anu. Mex. Hist.
Derecho
sBoletin del Instituto de l)erecho Comparado lL)48-1967
de M€xico (Bulletin of the Institute of
Comparatir.e Law of Mexico)
BIDCM
Mcxicano dc Derecho Comparaclo 1968-date
(Nlcxican Bulletin of (lomparative Law)
' lloletill
"
Boletin Oticial (Ofticial Bulletin)
BMDC
BO
r Criminalia (Criminologr"'Periodical")
r I)iario del (iobierno de los Estados Unidos
Mexicanos (l)aily Journal of the Government of the United Mexican States)
'
Diario Ofit'ial de la Fedcracitin
Fedcrd DailyJournal)
t
()fficial
DG
|
9
|
6-datc
DOF
!. Grceta de Tribunales (Gazette of the (iourts)
; Gaceta del Foro (Bar (;azette)
(;aceta del Gobierno ((;ovcrnmcnt (;azette)
GT
'
GG
r (laceta Olicial (Oflicial Gazctt€)
GO
GF
I
Foreign Jurisdictions: Mexico
BI
Juridica Boletin de Informaci6n Juridica,
6rgano del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro
Social (lrgal Informational Bulletin, Pub
lication of the Mexican lnstitute of Social
S€curity)
> Revista Compromiso (Commitment Joumal)
>
>
Revista Critica de Derecho Inmobiliario
(Critical Joumal of Real Estate law)
) Revista de DerechoAdministrativo Qournal
RC
l36ldate
RCDI
1989-date
RDA
ofAdministrative law)
>Revista de Derecho Mercantil (ournal
Commercial Iaw)
of
RM
Revista de Derecho Mexicano flournal
of
RDM
>
Mexican
>
law)
Revista de Derecho Notarios (|ournal
Notary
of
1955-1968
RDN
of
199O-dalte
RDP
of
1945-date
RDPP
law)
>Revista de Derecho Privado Qournal
Private Law)
>Revista de Derecho Priblico (ournal
Public Law)
Revista de Derecho y Ciencias Sociales Jus
(oumal of taw and Social Science)
Jus
> Revista de Investigaciones Juridicas (ournal
RIJ
>
of
kgal Studies)
>
Revista de la Escuela Nacional de Jurisprudencia de M€xico Sournal ofthe National
>
Revista de la Facultad de Derecho de Mexico
(oumal of the Law Faculty of Mexico)
School
RENJM
oflaw ofMexico)
1951-200t
>Revista de la Facultad deJurisprudencia
flournal of the Faculty ofJurisprudence)
>
Revista del lnstituto de laJudicatura Federal
Qoumd of the Institute of the Federal
>
Revista del Instituto Federal de Defensoria
Priblica (ournal of the Federal Institute of
>
Revista delTribunal Fiscal de la Federaci6n
RDFM
RFJ
RUF
Judiciary)
RIFDP
Public Defenders)
RTFF
(oumal ofthe FederalTax Court)
>
Revista General de Derecho yJurisprudencia (General Journal of Iaw and Jurispru-
RGDJ
dence)
>
Revista General de Legislacion yJuris.
19261930
RGLJ
prudencia (ournal of Legislation and
Jurisprudence)
) Revista Investigaci6n Fiscal (ournal of Fiscal
RIF
Research)
>
Revista Juridica (Iaw Journal)
R'
>
Revista Mexicana de la Propiedad Industrial
RMPIA
yArtistica (Mexican Journal of Industrial
andArtistic Property)
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noott
Citationformat: ,last name of author>,,first name of author,,,title of book',
.edition,, ,[ocation of publication,: ,pubtisher', ,year of publication,,
,volume/ tome number or name of series or collection, if applicable',
p..page number>.
)
o
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I
Acosta Romero, Miguel, Teoria general delderecho administrativo,
r7a. ed., M6xico: Porr0a, zoo4, vo1. 4,p.32!.
To cite a chapter in a book, insert the title of the chapter and "en" before the
title of the book.
)
Acosta Romero, Miguel, Titulos valores, en: Derecho bancario,
M6xico, Porr0a, 2ot3,p 2t9.
If a book has four or more authors. olace "et al." after the name of the first
author.
)
If
a
Acosta Romero, Miguel, et al., Tratado de sociedades mercantiles con 6nfasis en la sociedad anSnima: M6xico, za ed., M6xico,
Porr0a, zoo4,p.t69.
book has been translated, place the name of the translator after the edition.
)
Acosta Romero, Miguet, Teoria general del derecho administrativo, r7!. ed., trad. de lorge Ochoa Tena, M6xico: Porrtia, zoo4,
p.32t.
Intemet sources
When citing any source that is found online, it is necessary to include the type
of electronic format of the source . the URI, and the date of the last time the
source was viewed.
)
Constituci6n Politica de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos, CP, Diario
Oficiat de la Federaci6n IDOF] o5-oz-r9r7, tittimas reformas DOF
to-o2-2or4 (Mex.), formato HTML, http: //www.diputados.gob.mx/
LeyesBibtio/htm/r.htm (consultada el z7 de febrero de zor4).
)
C6digo Civil [CC], Diario Oficialde la Federaci6n IDOF] t4-o5-t928,
frttimas reformas DQF z4-rz-zotl (Mex.), formato PDF, http:/i
wwwdiputados.gob.mx/LeyesBibtio/ pdf/ z-z4rzt3.pdf (consul-
o
I
I
reign Juris*lictions: illexico
tada e[ z7 de febrero de zor4).
)'
Ley Aduanera ILAD], Diario Oficial de la Federaci6n IDOF] t5-rz1995, riltimas reformas DOF o9-tz-zog (Mex.), formato HTML,
http://www.dof.gob.mx/nota-detalle.php?codigo=532494r&f
echa:ogltzlzor3 (consultada e[ z7 de febrero de zor5) (Mex.).
Offi cial government websites:
http ://www. diputados. gob. mx,/inicio.htm
http://www.senado. gob.mVindex.php
http ://www. normateca. gob. mx,/NF-Disposiciones' php?Status=
http: / / dof .terra.
com.
mV
I
o
o
Foreign Jurisdictions: Nethedands
http://www.dof. gob.mx/
http ://www.
scf n.
gob.m/Paginasflnicio. aspx
I
The following websites provide links to the law and codes of Mexico:
http://www.
loc.
govfafhelp/guide/nations/mexico.php
http ://www.iuridicas.unam.
t
mV
http ://eyco. orglindex.html
I
I
http://mexico.iustia. com/
http://www.mexicanlaws. com,/
http ://www.woddlii.orglcatal
ogt/ 2O7 6.htrnl
http ://biblioteca.itesm. mx,/proyecto/
T2.28 Nethedands, Kingdom of the
(Civil Law)
Cases
citation format: <court abbreviation, .city (except when citing HR),
,date of decision in Dutch,, (reporter abbreviation, ,publication year',
,publication number, m.nt. ,initials or name of annotator) (,plaintiff
name'/.defendant name) (.country abbreviation if not evident from
context).
>
HR 30
>
Hof 's-Grave nhage z7 mei zoo4, JOR zoo4, 206 m.nt. Van Ravels
en Van Andel (Vie d'Or/Stichting Pensioen- en Verzekeringskamer
en Staat) (Neth.).
januari 1959,
NJ
t959,548 m.nt.
DJV
(Quint/fe Poel) (Neth.).
Until June 28, 2013, many court decisions published in the Netherlands
received a National Reports Number (LJN), consisting of two letters and four
digits. After that date, decisions are to have a European Case Law Identifier
(ECLD, a standard that was adopted in late 2010. For purposes of conversion
into ECLI coding, the LJN is included in the final (numeric) part of
ECLI,
e.g., ECLI:NL:GHAMS:2014:555, where NL is for Netherlands and GHAMS is
Gerechtshof Amsterdam. A search for cases on websites such as Rechtspraak.
nl, http://www.rechtspraak.n/Uitspraken-en-Registers/Uitspraken/
Pages/ECll.aspx, can be done using the identifier.
Ordinary iurisdiction
Hoge Raad der Nederlanden (HR) (Supreme Court of the Netherlands),
Gerechtshof (Ho$ (ordinary courts of appeals), Hoog Militair Gerechtshof
(HMG) (Military Court of Appeals) (abolished in 1991), and Kriigsraad (Kr.)
(Court Martial) (no longer in existence): Cite to N, or W, if therein.
Prior to 2002, there were two courts of first instance: Arrondissementsrechtbank (Rb.) (ordinary court of first instance and court of appeals to the
Kantongerecht) and Kantongerecht (Ktg.) (court of first instance for labor,
rent, and misdemeanor cases). In 2002, these two courts merged, eliminating
the latt€r court as a sepamte court (instead, it is now a subdivision ofthe former
court). Crurently, labor, rent, and small claims (rather than misdemeanor) cases
are still decided by a different kind of judge-the Kantonrechter (Ktr.)-than
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[:ore i gn -f * ri sel.ict irx-ls: & {.'t.trtrla rrds
arc other civil cases. Becausc of thc merger, the Arrondissementsrechtbank
(Rb.) is no krnger a court of appcals to the Kantongerecht (Ktg.). After the
merger, those specific types of cases should be cited to thc Kantonrechter
(Ktr.) instead of the Kantongerecht (Ktg.), following the form mcntioncd
above. (lite to Prg. or NJF, if therein.
Reporters
a
Nederlandse Jurisprudentie
r weekblad van het Rccht (by issuc
l9l3-date
NJ
1819-1913
W
number)
Kon (ieding
* Kort (ieding Kort
r Rechtspraak van de Week
, Administratiefiechteliike bcslissingen
r Beslissingen in belastingzaken
v
l9ril-2003 KG
1981-2ool KGK
1939-datc RvdW
l9tt5-date AB
r9r0-1953 B.
1953-date
BNB
Practijkgids
196.1-datc
Prg.
Nedcrlanclse iurisprudentie
2003-datc
NjF
2005-date
NIFS
F
Ileslissingcn in belastingzaken /
Nederlandse Bclastingrcchtspraak
'
>
Feitenrechtspraak
r Nederlandse jurispntdentie
Feitcnrechtspraak Strafzaken
>
Jurisprudcntie bestuursrecht
>
Belastingblad
urisprudentie ()ndememing
!?eekblad voor Fiscaal Recht
t.J
e
1994-date lB
19tt2-datc BB
cn Recht 199(r-date JOR
1955-date WvFR
Special jurisdiction
Afdeling Bestuursrechtspraak van de Raad van State
(ABRvS)
(Administrative (burt of Highest Instance (Afdeling Rechtspraak van de
Raad van State (ARRvS) prior to 791)4)), Centrale Raad van Beroep (CRvB)
((lcntral Council ofAppeal), and College van Beroep voor het Bedriifsleven
(CBB) (Administrative Court for Tradc and Industry): (lite to AB, if thcrein.
Constitutions
(liration f<rrmat: SrAtuur Neo [Charter] art. <article number'.
Or: GW [Constitution] art. ,article number,, sub. ,subdivision number'
> Srnruur Neo [Charter] art.9r.
> Gw. [Constitution] art. 6, sub. r.
>
'
Belastingrechtspraakstatuut v<>or hct Koninkriik
der Ncderlanden (Charter ofthe Kingdom ofthc
Netherlands)
(;rondwet voor hct Koninkrilk der Nederlanden
(Constitution of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
Sraruur
Gw.
NEo
Foreign Jur:isdictions: Nethedands
Codes
Citation format: Art. (or ArtikeD ,book number if multiple books':,article
number, para. (or lid) ,paragraph/tid number, ,code abbreviation,
(country abbreviation if not evident from context,).
> Art.3:65 para. r BW.
> Artikel 3o, lid z, Sv.
> Artikel l6e
tid z Sn (ouo).
Burgediik Wetboek (Civil Code) (established in 1992)
> Wetboek van Burgediike Rechtsvordering (Code of Civil
Procedure)
> Wetboek van Koophandel (Commercial Code)
> Wetboek van Strafrecht (Criminal Code)
>
>
Vetboek van Strafrordering (Code of Criminal
enacted
in 1992,
Rv
WvK
5n
Sv
Procedure)
> Faillisementswet (Bankruptcy Code)
> wet op de Rechterlijke organisatie @aw onJudicial
Organization)
> Burger$k Wetboek van f 838 (Civil Code of 1838)
(in force until 1992)
The Algemene Wet
BW
Fw
Wer RO
BW (ouo)
Bestuursrecht (Awb.) (General Administrative Law Act),
is not technically a code, but it provides a general foundational
framework for Dutch administrative law.
Statutes and decrees
Citation format: ,law or decree, ,date',,gazette abbreviation> <year), <page
number) (country abbreviation if not evident from context,).
>
Wet van 4 februari 1994, Stb.
>
>
Besluit van 20 mei 1982, Stb. t987,278.
t994,99.
Regeling risicobeoordeling nieuwe stoffen Wms, Stcrt. 1994,L33.
The Staatsblad uan bet KoninkriJk der Nederlanden (Stb., sometimes cited
official gazette of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is the offlcial
source for finding and citing the authoritative text of all codes, laws, general
administrative measures, and royal decrees.
as S.) is the
Tlte Nederlandse Staatscourant (Stcrt.) is an offlcial daily joumal used for the
publication of some royal decrees, ministerial decrees, ministerial circulars, and
other offlcial statements.
A parallet citation to Nedersanfue Staatsuetten (Schuurman & Jordens) or
Nederlandse Wetgeuing (Cremers) may be given.
> Staatsblad van het
Koninkriik der Nederlanden
stb./s.
> Staatscourant
Stcrt.
> Nederlandse Staatswetten (edited by L.N.
Schuurman and P.H. Jordens)
Schuurman & Jordens
> Nederlandse
Wetgeving (edited by Cremers)
Cremers
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Itoreign J urisclictions: Netherlands
P;;;i;"i;
>
>
Militair-rechteliik tiidschrift
Tiidschrift voor rechtsgeschiedenis
1905-date
191
8-date
MRT
TvR
(availablc online)
>
Nederlands Juristenblad
1925-<late
>
Ars Aequi
I 95
>
Weekblad voor Privaatrecht. Notariaat
1870-date
WPNR
1870-date
Hand, NIV
1
-date
NJB
M
en Registratie
Handelingen - Nederlandse Juristen
Vereniging electroning
>
-
t Advocatenblad
1
9 I
8-date
Adv.bl.
>
Rechtsgeleerd Magaziin Themis
1839-date
RM Themis
>
Justitiele verkenningen
1956-date
JV
>
Nederlands Tiidschrift voor Burgediik
Recht
>
Ondememingsrecht
1999-rlate
Onderneming-
) Delikt en delinkwent
1970-date
DD
NTBR
srecht
>
Netherlands International Law Review
(available online by subscriptbn)
1910-2012
NILR
>
Weekblad voor Fiscaal Recht
1955-date
WFR
* Maandblad Ilelastingbeschouwingen
r Tijdschrift voor privaatrecht (available
online by subscription)
1958-date
BB
1964-<iate
TPR
> s.E.\(l'.
7975-d^te
SEW
t\) / / -(laae
TvCr
1979-date
FJR
1986-date
NCJM-Butletin
>
>
Tiidschrift voor Criminologie
Tijdschrift voor Familie- en Jeugdrecht
Bulletin (Nederlands Juristen
Comit6 voor de Mensenrechten)
> NCJM
>
>
Tiidschrift voor Civiele Rechtspleging
Tijdschrift voor Bouwrecht (available
1993-date
TCR
2008-date
TBR
7987 -date
NTB
1995-tlate
MenR
1977 -<Jxe
AMI
online)
r Nederlands Tiidschrift voor
Bestuursrecht
>
Milieu & Recht
r AMI: Tiidschrifrt voor Auteurs-,
Media- & Informatierecht
>Journaal LuchtRecht
2002-date
JLR
>
School en Wet
2OO2-d^te
School en Wet
>
Utrecht Law Review (available online)
2005-date
ULR
Treaties and conventions
Citation format: ,Treaty
title'; .city (if provided)', ,date
in day-month-year
format' Trb.,year,, <number> (country abbreviation if not evident from
context>).
o
o
l'oreign Jurisdictions: Nethedands
>
Verdrag inzake de heffing van rechten voor het gebruik van
bepaatde wegen door zware vrachtwagens; Brussel, 9 februari
ry94 Trb. zot4, tz6.
>
Het Verdrag van Straatsburg, Straatsburg; 8 november ry9o Trb.
O
7990,772.
>
Tractatenblad van het Koninkriik
Nederlanden
der 1950-date Trb.
Internet sources
Legislation passed since January I, 1995 that has been published in the
Staatbl.ad ot the Staatscouranl is available on the govemment's website
at http://www.overheid.nl. Treaties and Parliamentary Papers are also
available from this site. This site gives further access to all Ministries and other
govemment ofganizations.
The de Rechtspraak website, available
provides free access to cases.
athttpt/ /www.rechtspraak.nl,
Decisions of the Administrative Court of Highest Instance are searchable and
available in full text at
http://*Trw.raadvanstate.n/uitspraken.html.
t
Parliamentary documents from 1814-1995 for both houses of the Dutch
Padiament (Staten-Generaal) are available on its website, at Staten-Generaal
Digitaal, http://www.statengeneraaldigita l$l/.
The website of the Eerste Kamer (First Chamber of the Parliament) ishttp:./
/
www. eerstekamer.nVhome.
The website of the Tweede Kamer (Second Chamber of the Parliament) is
http ://www.tweedekamer.nV.
Comprehensive online access to legislation may be obtained through a paid
subscription to the SDU online database , http://www.sdu.nl, or to the
Lexplicatie database offered by Kluwer, http://www.lexplicatie.n/.
The general government website, http://www.governrnent.nV, provides
links to the individual ministries and includes more than two hundred
documents and publications, among other features.
The website of the Ministry of Security and Justice is
http://www.
governrnent.nl,/ministries/ven!.
The online portal Boom Legal (BoomJuridische, or BJu) Publishers has
articles from twenty€ight Dutch law joumals, available by paid subscription
to one or more, and five open access joumals: BJu Tijdschriften,htfryr//
www.biutiidsdrrift en.n/paginalinformatie.
The commercial website Dutch Civil Law (DCL) provides "free information
online in English on the principles and provisions of Dutch Civil law,
the Dutch legal order and the rules of private intemational law of the
Nethedands," http://www.dutchcivillaw.com,/. The website's translations
are done by DCL unless otherwise noted and are not offtcial.
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The Advisory Administrative Law Foundation (Stichting Advicsgroep
Bestuursrecht, S!AB) has a wcbsite devoted to laws on social security, with
view to providing frcc legal assistance, http:/fu'*w.st-ab.nVindex.html.
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T2.29 New Zealand
(Cornmon I-au')
Cases
Medium-neutral citations
In 2005, the Supreme (lourt of New Zealand acloptcd a medium-ne utral citati0n
format. The Court of Appcal adopted this fbrmat in 2007, and some other courts
followed later. A large numbcr of tribunals has also adopted neutral citation
fbrmats since 2010. If a medium-neutral citation has been assigned b_v thc court
it should be used to cite the case. If thc case has also been reportcd, cite the
medium-ncutral citation followcd by thc citation to the report, separatcd by a
comma. Do not givc the court identifier at the end of the tlecision, as this is
evident from the neutral citation.
(litation format: <case name> [,yeg1'] ,mgflium-neutraI court abbreviation>
(case reference number> at ,paragraph number in brackets or page
number,
if
desired, per ,iudge identifier,
if
appticable' (,country
abbreviation if not evident from