I. Reported speech Если глагол главного предложения стоит в одном из времен группы Present, то глагол придаточного предложения может употребляться в любом времени, которое требуется по смыслу. Direct speech Reported speech She says: “I phone my She says (that) she friends every day”. phones her friends every day. She says: “I will phone She says (that) she will phone me tomorrow. you tomorrow”. She says (that) she She says: “I phoned phoned me an hour you an hour ago”. ago. He asks what the He asks: “What is the problem is. problem?” He says to Lena, “I see my friends every day”. He says to Lena that he sees his friends every day. Carrie tells her mother: “Everyone will laugh.” Carrie tells her mother that everyone will laugh. She says: “I am busy.” She says that she is busy. He tells them, “I don’t like poetry.” He tells them that he doesn’t like poetry. II. Reported speech Если глагол главного предложения выражен одним из прошедших времен Past Simple, Past Continuous or Past Perfect (чаще Past Simple), то глагол придаточного предложения подчиняется правилу согласования времен. Sequence of Tenses Direct speech Reported speech Главное предложение Придаточное предложение 1. Present Simple 1. Past Simple 2. Present Continuous 2. Past Continuous 3. Present Perfect 3. Past Perfect 4. Present Perfect Continuous 4. Past Perfect Continuous 5. Past Simple 6. Future Past Simple or Past Continuous or Past Perfect 5. Past Perfect 6. Future-in-the-Past 7. Past Continuous 7. Past Continuous 8. Past Perfect 8. Past Perfect 9. Past Perfect Continuous 9. Past Perfect Continuous She said: Past Simple She said: Past Simple She said: Past Simple He said: Past Simple He said: Past Simple He said: Past Simple “I phone my friends every day”. Present Simple “I will phone you”. Future Simple “I phoned you yesterday”. Past Simple “I can solve this problem”. Present Simple “We may go there”. Present Simple “I must leave”. Present Simple She said (that) Past Simple She said (that) Past Simple She said (that) Past Simple He said (that) Past Simple He said (that) Past Simple He said (that) Past Simple she phoned her friends every day”. Past Simple she would phone me. Future-in-the-Past she had phoned the day before. Past Perfect he could solve this problem Past Simple they might go there. Past Simple He had to leave. Past Simple The mother said: “It is a special party.” The mother said it was a special party. She told Carrie: “I haven’t seen you for a long time.” He told Carrie that he hadn’t seen her for a long time. She said: “Kate, your grandmother gave you a velvet dress for your birthday.” She said to Kate that her grandmother had given her a velvet dress for her birthday. He said: “Everyone will laugh.” He said that everyone would laugh. Changes to time words and phrases Direct speech today Reported speech that day tonight yesterday tomorrow that night the day before next day (a week) ago last year next year (a week) before the year before the following year this evening now that evening then Changes to demonstrative pronouns Direct speech these this Reported speech those that here there General questions She said: Past Simple She said: Past Simple She said: Past Simple She said: Past Simple “Are you a good driver?” Present Simple “Does your sister like jogging?” Present Simple “Will you come to the party?” Future Simple “Have you met before?” Present Perfect She asked me if Past Simple I was a good driver. Past Simple She wanted to know if my sister liked jogging. Past Simple She wondered if Past Simple She asked if Past Simple Past Simple I would come to the party. Future-in-the-Past we had met before. Past Perfect Wh-questions He asked: “What is the problem?” Past Simple He said: Past Simple He said: Past Simple He said: Past Simple He said: Past Simple Present Simple “How did you get here tonight?” Past Simple “What subjects do you like?” Present Simple “What are you doing now?” Present Continuous “Why is you cousin sad today?” Present Simple He asked Past Simple what the problem was. Past Simple He wanted to know how I had got there that night. Past Simple He asked me Past Simple He wondered Past Simple He asked Past Simple Past Perfect what subjects I liked. Past Simple what I was doing then. Past Continuous why my cousin was sad that day. Past Simple He says, “Did they write anything interesting?” He asks if they wrote anything interesting. She says to Gregory, “Where do you go every week?” She asks where he goes every week. He says, “Who likes pop music?” He asks who likes pop music. He said, “What time does the match start?” He asked what time the match started. I. When does he come home? – When he comes home. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Why did she call? Where has he been? When will they arrive? How long have you known him? Where does your friend work? When was he sick? How much sugar is there in the bowl? What was built in your street last year? Why was he angry with Jane? How far is it from here? II. Did he study English last year? – He studied English last year. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Will he be here tomorrow? Have you seen this film? Does he know this man? Did the police warn you? Will there be any tests next week? Was he late? Am I right? Are they from England? Was there any news from him? Has he seen her this week? Измените в вопросах обратный порядок слов на прямой. Complete the sentences as in the example. “What time does the match start please” (I/a policeman) I asked a policeman what time the match started. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. “Where are you going to spend the holiday?” (Joy/Mary) “Why are the tickets so expensive?” (Everybody/us) “How old are Mary’s children?” (Frank/his wife) “Who’s going to buy your house?” (Mrs Jones/ her neighbour) “When are you planning to come to Colchester?” (Bill/his friend) “Where can I get the bus to Liverpool?” (Peter/ a policeman) Orders. Requests. “Give up fast food,” the doctor said. The doctor advised her to give up fast food. “Don’t be late!” said the teacher. The teacher warned us not to be late. My mother said to me, “Try to be flexible.” My mother advised me to try to be flexible. My best friend said, “Don’t decide what I should do. ” My best friend told me not to decide what she should do. ask smb. + to – просить tell smb. + to – велеть don’t not to He says to Jane, “Give me your hand, please.” He asks Jane to give him her hand. Nick says, “Mary, bring me some milk from the kitchen.” Nick tells Mary to bring some milk from the kitchen. They tell Lena, “Please don’t come home late” They ask Lena not to come home late. The teacher says to children: “Don’t open your books.” The teacher tells the children not to open books. To report suggestions we use: • suggest + V+ing • suggest + that sb (should) + V Other reporting verbs used in this way are: insist, recommend, and demand. I suggested going to the cinema. I suggested that we should go to the cinema. I suggested that we go to the cinema. say to smb. tell smb. + (that) + Subject + Verb + Objects Обратите внимание на глаголы, вводящие повествовательные предложения. She admits that she was wrong. Она признает, что была неправа. to admit – признавать to promise – обещать to complain – жаловаться to remind – напоминать to decide – решить to reply – ответить to deny – отрицать to warn – предупредить to explain – объяснять to wonder – интересоваться to offer – предлагать Если в прямой речи было Present Simple или Present Continuous и при переводе в косвенную речь они были изменены на Past Simple или Past Continuous, то такие предложения следует переводить на русский язык глаголами в настоящем времени. He said, “I know Mary”. He said that he knew – Он сказал: «Я знаю Mary. – Он сказал, что Мэри». он знает Мэри. She said, “They are having dinner.” – Она сказала: «Они обедают». She said that they were having dinner. – Она сказала, что они обедают.