Uploaded by Daler Rustamov

15 Ecological global problems

Author: Maxmudova I.
“For Whom the Bell Tolls?”
• Our environment faces several problems, and many of these
seem to be worsening with time, bringing us into a time of a
true environmental crisis. It is therefore becoming
increasingly important to raise awareness of the existence of
these issues, as well as what can be done to reduce their
negative impact. Some of the key issues are:
• 1) Pollution
• Pollution of the air, water and soil caused by toxins such as
plastics, heavy metals and nitrates, caused by factors such as
toxins and gases released by factories, combustion of fossil
fuels, acid rain, oil spill and industrial waste.
• 2) Global warming
• The emission of greenhouse gases due to human activity
causes global warming, which in turn causes an increase in
temperature that then leads to rising sea levels, melting of
polar ice caps, flash floods and desertification.
• 3) Overpopulation
• We are facing a shortage of resources such as food, water and
fuel to sustain the rising global population, particularly in
developing countries. Intensive agriculture attempting to
lessen the problem actually leads to more damage through
the use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides.
• 4) Waste disposal
• An excessive amount of waste is produced and dumped in the
oceans. Nuclear waste is particularly dangerous, as well as
plastics and electronic waste.
• 5) Ocean acidification
• The increase in the production of carbon dioxide by humans
causes the oceans’ acidity to rise, which has a negative impact
on marine life.
• 6) Loss of biodiversity
• Species and habitats are becoming extinct due to human activity. This
causes an imbalance in natural processes like pollination and poses a
threat to ecosystems – coral reef destruction is particularly affected.
• 7) Deforestation
• Loss of trees in order to make space for residential, industrial or
commercial projects means that less oxygen is produced, and
temperature and rainfall are affected.
• 8) Ozone layer depletion
• Pollution caused by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in the air creates a hole in
the ozone layer, which protects the earth from harmful UV radiation.
• 9) Acid rain
• Pollutants in the atmosphere such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides
cause acid rain, which has negative consequences for humans, wildlife
and aquatic species.
• 10) Public health issues
• Lack of clean water is one of the leading environmental problems
currently. Pollutants in the air also cause issues such as respiratory
disease and cardiovascular disease.
Our planet is wonderful, isn’t it?
There are many fantastic plants and
unique animals and birds.
But is it still the world we live in?
Who is in charge of it?
We will do our project to decide:
• Is it possible for us to live without nature?
• What way does our lifestyle influence the
global environmental changes?
• What should we do to save the
At this project you will know:
• about the difference between ‘ecosystem’ and
• why the problem of global warming is one of
the most urgent
• what results deforestation can lead to
• what animals are under threat of extinction
• about the types of pollution
Working with us you will be able to:
• to speak English up to
the topic
• to use the Internet
• to make Power Point
• to present your work
before the audience
• to publish your reports
Ocean Protection
• Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries
– Extended environmental protection to the oceans.
– Requires a permit for dumping wastes and other
foreign materials into ocean waters.
– Establishes marine sanctuaries in ocean waters
and in the Great Lakes and their connecting
Oil Spills
• Oil Pollution Act of 1990 requires oil industry to
adopt procedures and contingency plans.
• The Clean Water Act authorizes the U.S. government
to clean up oil spills and spills of other hazardous
substances in ocean waters.
– The government can recover cleanup costs from
responsible parties.
Toxic Substances
• Chemicals used for agricultural, industrial, and
mining uses that cause injury to humans, birds,
animals, fish, and vegetation.
• Key federal laws:
– Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act of
1947 (as amended in 1972)
– Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976
Hazardous Waste
• Hazardous Waste
– Solid waste that may cause or significantly
contribute to an increase in mortality or serious
illness or pose a hazard to human health or the
environment if improperly managed
• Land Pollution
– Pollution of the land that is generally caused by
hazardous waste being disposed of in an improper
Toxic Substances Control Act
• Requires manufacturers and processors
to test new chemicals to determine their
effect on human health and the
environment before the EPA will allow
them to be marketed.
• EPA establishes standards.
• Requires stationary sources to control
• EPA can limit or prohibit manufacture
and sale, or remove it from commerce.