Загрузил Анастасия Скотневская


 Epilepsy is a central nervous system (neurological)
disorder in which brain activity becomes abnormal,
causing seizures or periods of unusual behavior,
sensations and sometimes loss of awareness.
 Vocabulary:
 Seizures – припадки
 Behavior – поведение
 Seizure symptoms can vary widely. Some people with
 Sensations – ощущения
epilepsy simply stare blankly for a few seconds during
a seizure, while others repeatedly twitch their arms
or legs. Having a single seizure doesn't mean you
have epilepsy. At least two seizures without a known
trigger (unprovoked seizures) that happen at least 24
hours apart are generally required for an epilepsy
 Awareness – осознание
 Vary widely – широко варьироваться
Stare blankly – смотреть тупо
 Repeatedly twitch – многократно дергаться
 Characteristics of seizures vary and depend on
where in the brain the disturbance first starts, and
how far it spreads. Temporary symptoms occur, such
as loss of awareness or consciousness, and
disturbances of movement, sensation (including
vision, hearing and taste), mood, or other cognitive
 Depend on – зависит
 Disturbance – нарушение
 Temporary symptoms occur – возникают
временные симптомы
 Consciousness – сознание
 Movement – движение
 People with epilepsy tend to have more physical
problems (such as fractures and bruising from injuries
related to seizures), as well as higher rates of
psychological conditions, including anxiety and
depression. Similarly, the risk of premature death in
people with epilepsy is up to three times higher than in
the general population, with the highest rates of
premature mortality found in low- and middle-income
countries and in rural areas.
 A great proportion of the causes of death related to
epilepsy, especially in low- and middle-income countries
are potentially preventable, such as falls, drowning,
burns and prolonged seizures.A great proportion of
the causes of death related to epilepsy, especially in
low- and middle-income countries are potentially
preventable, such as falls, drowning, burns and
prolonged seizures.
Tend to have – как правило, имеют
Fractures – переломы
Bruising – синяк
Injures – травма
Higher rates – высокие показатели
Premature death – преждевременная смерть
Mortality found - обнаружена
 Epilepsy is not contagious. Although many underlying disease
mechanisms can lead to epilepsy, the cause of the disease is
still unknown in about 50% of cases globally. The causes of
epilepsy are divided into the following categories: structural,
genetic, infectious, metabolic, immune and unknown.
Examples include:
 brain damage from prenatal or perinatal causes (e.g. a loss of
oxygen or trauma during birth, low birth weight);
 congenital abnormalities or genetic conditions with
associated brain malformations;
 Although – несмотря на
 Underlying – лежащий в основе
 Lead – привести
 Congenital abnormalities – генетические аномалии
 Associated – сопутствующие
 Brain malformations – пороки развития головного
 Severe – тяжелая форма
 a severe head injury;
 Stкoke – инсульт
 a stroke that restricts the amount of oxygen to the brain;
 Restricts – ограничивает
 an infection of the brain such as meningitis, encephalitis or
 Amount – количество
 certain genetic syndromes; and
 a brain tumour.
 A generalized seizure starts when all areas of the brain are
affected by an abnormal electrical impulse.
 There are different types of generalized seizures, including:
 Absence seizures (petit mal seizures)
 Myoclonic seizures
 Clonic seizures
 Tonic seizures
 Tonic-clonic seizures (grand mal seizures)
 Atonic seizures (drop attacks)
In some cases, the seizure may begin as a partial, or focal, seizure.
These seizures may affect only part of the body. Then they may
progress to a generalized seizure, which affects the whole body.
 Patients experiencing a generalized seizure will often lose
 Absence seizures (petit mal seizures) – малые
 Blank out – терять сознание, отключиться
 Absence seizure - blank out or stare into space for a
few seconds.
 Myoclonic seizures - brief shock-like jerks of a muscle
or group of muscles.
 Clonic seizures - sustained rhythmical jerking
 Tonic-clonic seizures (grand mal seizures) - auses violent
muscle contractions and loss of consciousness
 Atonic seizures (drop attacks) - sudden loss of muscle
 Stare into space – уходить в себя, выпадать из
 brief shock-like jerks – короткие шоковые конвульсии
 sustained rhythmical jerking – устойчивые
(постоянные) ритмичные конвульсии
 Auses – вызывает
 Violent muscle contractions – сильные мышечные
 sudden loss of muscle strength – внезапная потеря
мышечной силы
Symptoms of a generalized seizure can vary depending on the
type of seizure. Symptoms may include:
 Stiff muscles
 Loss of consciousness
 A cry or groan
 Jerking of the arms or legs
 Stiff muscles – зажатые мышцы
 Loss of bladder or bowel control
 loss of bladder or bowel control - потеря контроля
 Limited or even stopped breathing
 Blue lips
 Loss of muscle tone
 Sudden collapse
Most generalized seizures typically last between one to three
minutes. Tonic-clonic seizures can last up to five minutes and
may need emergency medical attention/
над мочевым пузырем или кишечником
 When an epileptic seizure starts in one side of the brain, it’s called a focal onset seizure or a focal seizure. Both
terms mean the same thing. Until recently these seizures were called partial seizures.
 Focal aware seizures - the person is conscious (aware and
alert) and will usually know that something is happening
and will remember the seizure afterwards. Some people
find their focal aware seizures hard to put into words.
During the seizure they may feel ‘strange’ but not able to
describe the feeling afterwards. This may be upsetting or
frustrating for them.
 Focal impaired awareness seizures - affect a bigger part
of one hemisphere (side) of the brain than focal aware
seizures. The person's consciousness is affected and they
may be confused. They might be able to hear you, but not
fully understand what you say or be able to respond to
 Focal aware seizures- фокальные судороги в
 Focal impaired awareness seizures - очаговые
приступы нарушения сознания
 Hemisphere – полушарие
 Focal motor seizures - will affect muscle activity,
causing jerking movements of a foot, the face, an arm
or another part of the body. Physicians can diagnose
which side of the brain is affected by observing
which side of the body experiences symptoms, since
the left brain controls the right side of the body and
the right brain controls the left.
 Focal non-motor seizures - can cause changes in any
one of the senses. Generally, a person experiencing a
Focal Onset Non-Motor Seizure remains alert and
able to interact, and these types of seizures generally
last seconds to less than two minutes.
 Focal motor seizures – фокальные моторные
 Interact – взаимодействовать
Seizures can be controlled. Up to 70% of people living with
epilepsy could become seizure free with appropriate use of
antiseizure medicines. Treatments include:
 medicines called anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs)
 surgery to remove a small part of the brain that's causing the
 a procedure to put a small electrical device inside the body
that can help control seizures
 a special diet (ketogenic diet) that can help control seizures