Загрузил Skartaer Lafren

Слепович В.С. - Курс перевода (1)

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Óòâåðæäåíî Ìèíèñòåðñòâîì îáðàçîâàíèÿ Ðåñïóáëèêè Áåëàðóñü
â êà÷åñòâå ó÷åáíèêà äëÿ ñòóäåíòîâ âûñøèõ ó÷åáíûõ çàâåäåíèé
ïî ñïåöèàëüíîñòè «Ìèðîâàÿ ýêîíîìèêà»
9-å èçäàíèå
Ìèíñê
«ÒåòðàÑèñòåìñ»
ÓÄÊ [811.111’25=161.1+811.161.1’25=111](075.8)
ÁÁÊ 81.2Àíãë-923
Ñ47
Àâòîð
êàíäèäàò ôèëîëîãè÷åñêèõ íàóê, äîöåíò, çàâ. êàôåäðîé äåëîâîãî àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà Áåëîðóññêîãî ãîñóäàðñòâåííîãî ýêîíîìè÷åñêîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà Â. Ñ. Ñëåïîâè÷
Ð å ö å í ç å í ò û:
êàôåäðà ñîâðåìåííûõ òåõíîëîãèé ïåðåâîäà Ìèíñêîãî ãîñóäàðñòâåííîãî ëèíãâèñòè÷åñêîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà (çàâ. êàôåäðîé – êàíäèäàò ôèëîëîãè÷åñêèõ
íàóê, äîöåíò Ò. È. Ãîëèêîâà); äîêòîð ïåäàãîãè÷åñêèõ íàóê, çàâ. êàôåäðîé àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà ãóìàíèòàðíûõ ôàêóëüòåòîâ Áåëîðóññêîãî ãîñóäàðñòâåííîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà Ë. Â. Õâåä÷åíÿ
Ñ47
Ñëåïîâè÷, Â. Ñ.
Êóðñ ïåðåâîäà (àíãëèéñêèé « ðóññêèé ÿçûê) = Translation Course (English « Russian) : ó÷åá. äëÿ ñòóäåíòîâ âûñø.
ó÷åá. çàâåäåíèé ïî ñïåöèàëüíîñòè «Ìèðîâàÿ ýêîíîìèêà» /
Â. Ñ. Ñëåïîâè÷. – 9-å èçä. – Ìèíñê : ÒåòðàÑèñòåìñ, 2011. –
320 ñ.
ISBN 978-985-536-180-1.
 ó÷åáíèêå èçëîæåíû âîïðîñû òåîðèè è ïðàêòèêè ïåðåâîäà (îáùèå,
ëåêñè÷åñêèå, ãðàììàòè÷åñêèå) â îáëàñòè ýêîíîìèêè, ìåæäóíàðîäíîãî
áèçíåñà, áàíêîâñêîãî äåëà, ôèíàíñîâ è äàåòñÿ ïðàêòèêóì ïåðåâîäà äëÿ
àóäèòîðíîé è ñàìîñòîÿòåëüíîé ðàáîòû.
Ïðåäíàçíà÷åí äëÿ ñòóäåíòîâ-ýêîíîìèñòîâ øèðîêîãî ïðîôèëÿ è âñåõ,
êòî çàíèìàåòñÿ ïðîáëåìàìè ïåðåâîäà ñ àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà íà ðóññêèé è
ñ ðóññêîãî ÿçûêà íà àíãëèéñêèé.
ÓÄÊ [811.111’25=161.1+811.161.1’25=111](075.8)
ÁÁÊ 81.2Àíãë-923
ISBN 978-985-536-180-1
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© Ñëåïîâè÷ Â. Ñ., 2001
© Ñëåïîâè÷ Â. Ñ., 2009, ñ èçìåíåíèÿìè
© Îôîðìëåíèå. ÍÒÎÎÎ «ÒåòðàÑèñòåìñ», 2011
ÂÂÅÄÅÍÈÅ
Îäíèì èç óñòîé÷èâûõ çàáëóæäåíèé ìíîãèõ ïðåïîäàþùèõ è èçó÷àþùèõ àíãëèéñêèé ÿçûê íà ðàçíûõ óðîâíÿõ ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïðåäñòàâëåíèå î òîì, ÷òî óìåíèå ïåðåâîäèòü ïðèõîäèò ñàìî ïî ñåáå êàê ðåçóëüòàò ïåðåõîäà íåêîåãî êîëè÷åñòâà ïðèîáðåòåííûõ íàâûêîâ èíîÿçû÷íîé ðå÷åâîé äåÿòåëüíîñòè â íîâîå êà÷åñòâî. Áîëåå òîãî, ÿâíûì
ïðîòèâîðå÷èåì ñóùåñòâóþùåãî ïîëîæåíèÿ âåùåé ÿâëÿåòñÿ òîò ôàêò,
÷òî áåç ñèñòåìíîãî ïðåïîäàâàíèÿ ïåðåâîäà (çà èñêëþ÷åíèåì øêîë
ñ óãëóáëåííûì èçó÷åíèåì èíîñòðàííîãî ÿçûêà è ëèíãâèñòè÷åñêèõ
âóçîâ è ôàêóëüòåòîâ) çàäàíèÿ ïî ïðîâåðêå íàâûêîâ ïåðåâîäà âêëþ÷åíû â ýêçàìåíû ïðè ïîñòóïëåíèè â âóçû, ìàãèñòðàòóðó è àñïèðàíòóðó.
Ïðåäëàãàåìûé êóðñ ïåðåâîäà ñ àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà íà ðóññêèé
è ñ ðóññêîãî ÿçûêà íà àíãëèéñêèé äëÿ ñòóäåíòîâ-ýêîíîìèñòîâ øèðîêîãî ïðîôèëÿ è âñåõ, êòî çàíèìàåòñÿ ïåðåâîäîì â ó÷åáíîé èëè
ïðîôåññèîíàëüíîé äåÿòåëüíîñòè, ÿâëÿåòñÿ ðåçóëüòàòîì îïûòà ïðåïîäàâàíèÿ ýòîé äèñöèïëèíû íà ôàêóëüòåòå ìåæäóíàðîäíûõ ýêîíîìè÷åñêèõ îòíîøåíèé Áåëîðóññêîãî ãîñóäàðñòâåííîãî ýêîíîìè÷åñêîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà, à òàêæå ïåðåâîä÷åñêîé ïðàêòèêè àâòîðà â ðàáîòå ñ ìàòåðèàëàìè Ìåæäóíàðîäíîãî âàëþòíîãî ôîíäà è Âñåìèðíîãî áàíêà.
Ñòðóêòóðà êóðñà âêëþ÷àåò â ñåáÿ ëåêñè÷åñêèå è ãðàììàòè÷åñêèå âîïðîñû ïåðåâîäà ñ àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà íà ðóññêèé, ïðîáëåìû
ïåðåâîäà ñ ðóññêîãî ÿçûêà íà àíãëèéñêèé è ïðàêòèêóì ïåðåâîäà. Â
ïðàêòè÷åñêîé ÷àñòè êóðñà ðàçáèðàþòñÿ ïðèìåðû íåóäà÷íîãî ïåðåâîäà, ïðèâîäÿòñÿ ñïîñîáû ðåäàêòèðîâàíèÿ è äàþòñÿ âàðèàíòû ïåðåâîäà è çàäàíèÿ ïî ïåðåâîäó ñòàòåé.
Ïðåäëàãàåìûå â êîíöå ðàçäåëîâ êîíòðîëüíûå âîïðîñû ïî ñîäåðæàíèþ êóðñà òåîðèè è ïðàêòèêè ïåðåâîäà â ñî÷åòàíèè ñ ïðàêòè÷åñêèìè çàäàíèÿìè ïî ïåðåâîäó íà óðîâíå ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèé è ïðåäëîæåíèé, à òàêæå òåêñòîâ, ïîìåùåííûõ â «Ïðàêòèêóì ïåðåâîäà»,
äàþò âîçìîæíîñòü çàêðåïèòü ïðîéäåííûé ìàòåðèàë è îáñóäèòü âàðèàíòû ïåðåâîäà ñî ñòóäåíòàìè.
Íà÷èíàÿ ñ 8-ãî èçäàíèÿ Êóðñà, ïîëó÷èâøåãî ãðèô “Ó÷åáíèê”,
â òåêñò êíèãè âíåñåíî çíà÷èòåëüíîå êîëè÷åñòâî óòî÷íåíèé, è ñóùåñòâåííî îáíîâëåíà ÷àñòü V — “Ïðàêòèêóì ïåðåâîäà”, êîòîðàÿ
ïðèâåäåíà â ñîîòâåòñòâèå ñ ñîâðåìåííûìè ðåàëèÿìè.
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Õî÷ó âûðàçèòü èñêðåííþþ áëàãîäàðíîñòü çà ïîìîùü â ðàáîòå
êîëëåãàì ïî êàôåäðå, ñòóäåíòàì ôàêóëüòåòà ìåæäóíàðîäíûõ ýêîíîìè÷åñêèõ îòíîøåíèé ÁÃÝÓ, ðàáîòíèêàì ïðåäñòàâèòåëüñòâ Ìåæäóíàðîäíîãî âàëþòíîãî ôîíäà è Âñåìèðíîãî áàíêà â Ðåñïóáëèêå
Áåëàðóñü.
Îñîáàÿ áëàãîäàðíîñòü — ìîåé ñóïðóãå Èðèíå, êîòîðàÿ ïðåêðàñíî ÷óâñòâóåò ñëîâî, ìíîãî ëåò ïðîðàáîòàâ ðåäàêòîðîì ïåðåâîäíîé ëèòåðàòóðû è èçäàâ â ñâîåì ïåðåâîäå íåñêîëüêî êíèã õóäîæåñòâåííîé ëèòåðàòóðû àíãëèéñêèõ è àìåðèêàíñêèõ àâòîðîâ.
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×àñòü I
¨
ÎÁÙÈÅ ÂÎÏÐÎÑÛ ÏÅÐÅÂÎÄÀ
Ïåðåâîä — âàæíîå âñïîìîãàòåëüíîå ñðåäñòâî, êîòîðîå îáåñïå÷èâàåò âûïîëíåíèå ÿçûêîì åãî ôóíêöèè îáùåíèÿ, êîãäà ëþäè âûðàæàþò ñâîè ìûñëè íà ðàçíûõ ÿçûêàõ. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ñïðàâåäëèâî
òðàêòîâàòü ïåðåâîä êàê à ê ò ì å æ ú ÿ ç û ê î â î é ê î ì ì ó í è ê à ö è è
(Øâåéöåð À.Ä., 1973).
Ïåðåâîä — ýòî ïåðåäà÷à ñìûñëà òîãî, ÷òî ñêàçàíî (íàïèñàíî)
íà îäíîì ÿçûêå (ÿçûêå îðèãèíàëà), ñðåäñòâàìè äðóãîãî ÿçûêà (ÿçûêà
ïåðåâîäà).
Ïðè ïåðåâîäå ïåðåâîä÷èê äîëæåí ðåøèòü äâå çàäà÷è:
1)
ïðàâèëüíî ïîíÿòü ñîäåðæàíèå âûñêàçûâàíèÿ (òåêñòà) íà
ÿçûêå îðèãèíàëà;
2)
ïîëíî è òî÷íî ïåðåäàòü ýòî ñîäåðæàíèå ñðåäñòâàìè ÿçûêà
ïåðåâîäà.
Ïåðåâîä÷èêó íåîáõîäèìî:
1)
èìåòü îïðåäåëåííûé çàïàñ ñëîâ àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà (â òîì
÷èñëå ñïåöèàëüíîé òåðìèíîëîãèè â îïðåäåëåííîé îáëàñòè
çíàíèé);
2)
çíàòü ãðàììàòèêó àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà, èíà÷å ñëîâà îñòàíóòñÿ ëèøü “êèðïè÷àìè”, èç êîòîðûõ íå óäàñòñÿ íè÷åãî
“ïîñòðîèòü”;
3)
âëàäåòü òåõíèêîé ïåðåâîäà è óìåòü ýôôåêòèâíî ïîëüçîâàòüñÿ
ñëîâàðåì (ïðåæäå ÷åì îòêðûâàòü ñëîâàðü, çíàòü ïî ôîðìàëüíûì ïðèçíàêàì, ê êàêîé ÷àñòè ðå÷è îòíîñèòñÿ íåçíàêîìîå ñëîâî; çíàòü âñå îñîáåííîñòè ïîñòðîåíèÿ ñëîâàðÿ);
4)
èìåòü ïðåäñòàâëåíèå îá îáëàñòè çíàíèÿ, ê êîòîðîé îòíîñèòñÿ ïåðåâîäèìûé òåêñò (à â èäåàëå– õîðîøî îðèåíòèðîâàòüñÿ â íåé).
5)
Çíàòü êóëüòóðíûå è èíûå ðåàëèè, êîòîðûìè ïîëüçóþòñÿ
íîñèòåëè ÿçûêà.
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 ïðàêòèêå ïåðåâîäà ìû ÷àùå âñåãî ñòàëêèâàåìñÿ ñ äâóìÿ âèäàìè ïåðåâîäà: äîñëîâíûì è ëèòåðàòóðíûì (íå ïóòàòü ñ õóäîæåñòâåííûì), èëè àäåêâàòíûì.
Äîñëîâíûé ïåðåâîä ìîæíî ñ÷èòàòü ñâîåãî ðîäà çàãîòîâêîé, èëè
“áîëâàíêîé”, êîòîðóþ åùå íåîáõîäèìî îáðàáîòàòü, òî åñòü îòðåäàêòèðîâàòü. Äîñëîâíûé ïåðåâîä ìîæåò íàñ óñòðîèòü â òåõ ñëó÷àÿõ,
êîãäà â ïåðåâîäèìîì ïðèìåðå â îáîèõ ÿçûêàõ îäèíàêîâàÿ ñòðóêòóðà
ïðåäëîæåíèÿ, à ñëîâà â îäíîì ÿçûêå èìåþò îäíîçíà÷íûå ñîîòâåòñòâèÿ â äðóãîì, íàïðèìåð:
America was discovered by Columbus.
Àìåðèêà áûëà îòêðûòà Êîëóìáîì.
Òàêèå ïðèìåðû, îäíàêî, âñòðå÷àþòñÿ äîâîëüíî ðåäêî. ×àùå
âñåãî ñóùåñòâóåò ðàçðûâ ìåæäó ôîðìîé è ñîäåðæàíèåì, õîòÿ ìûñëü
ÿñíà:
To begin with, it was necessary to overcome the crisis.
( äîñëîâíîì ïåðåâîäå Íà÷àòü ñ, ýòî áûëî íåîáõîäèìî
ïðåîäîëåòü êðèçèñ âìåñòî àäåêâàòíîãî Ïðåæäå âñåãî íåîáõîäèìî áûëî ïðåîäîëåòü êðèçèñ.)
Ïîäîáíûìè ïðèìåðàìè íàñ îñîáåííî ÷àñòî «ðàäóåò» àâòîìàòè÷åñêèé ïåðåâîä, êîòîðûé äåëàåò êîìïüþòåð:
New Jersey State University (ïî âåðñèè ïðîãðàììû «Ñîêðàò») — Ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé óíèâåðñèòåò Íîâîãî Ôóôàéêà
(âìåñòî Óíèâåðñèòåò øòàòà Íüþ-Äæåðñè).
I.E. Repin was leaving the country full of hopes (ïî âåðñèè
Stylus3.0.) — È.Å. Ïåðåáóëàâêà îñòàâëÿëà ñòðàíó ïîëíîé
íàäåæäàìè (âìåñòî È.Å. Ðåïèí óåçæàë èç ñòðàíû, ïîëíûé
íàäåæä).
Äëÿ ïåðåäà÷è ñìûñëà ïðåäëîæåíèé ìû ïðèáåãàåì ê ëèòåðàòóðíîìó (àäåêâàòíîìó) ïåðåâîäó, êîòîðûé çàêëþ÷àåòñÿ â ïåðåäà÷å
ñìûñëà èñõîäÿ èç íîðìû ðóññêîãî ÿçûêà.
Ïðè ëèòåðàòóðíîì ïåðåâîäå (à èìåííî îí è ñ÷èòàåòñÿ ïðàâèëüíûì) äëÿ ïåðåäà÷è çíà÷åíèÿ ëåêñè÷åñêèõ åäèíèö èñïîëüçóþòñÿ ýêâèâàëåíòû (ò.å. ïðÿìûå ñîîòâåòñòâèÿ), àíàëîãè (ñëîâà ñèíîíèìè÷åñêîãî ðÿäà) èëè îïèñàòåëüíûå ñðåäñòâà (åñëè íåò ýêâèâàëåíòà èëè
àíàëîãà, íàïðèìåð privacy — ïðàâî íà ÷àñòíóþ æèçíü).
Ïåðåâîä òåêñòà (ñòàòüè), â çàâèñèìîñòè îò ïîñòàâëåííîé öåëè,
ìîæåò áûòü ïîëíûì ïèñüìåííûì, ðåôåðàòèâíûì èëè àííîòàöèîííûì.
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Ïîëíûé ïèñüìåííûé ïåðåâîä íå íóæäàåòñÿ â îïðåäåëåíèè. Çäåñü
âñå ÿñíî èç íàçâàíèÿ.
Ðåôåðàòèâíûé ïåðåâîä òåêñòà ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ñîáîé èçëîæåíèå îñíîâíûõ ìûñëåé îðèãèíàëà íà ÿçûêå ïåðåâîäà. Îáû÷íî çàäàíèå ñäåëàòü ðåôåðàòèâíûé ïåðåâîä ñîïðîâîæäàåòñÿ óêàçàíèåì îáúåìà ïåðåâîäà (íàïðèìåð, îäíà ñòðàíèöà íà êîìïüþòåðå, ðàçìåð øðèôòà
12, èíòåðâàë 1,5).
Àííîòàöèîííûé ïåðåâîä òåêñòà ïî ðàçìåðó íå ïðåâûøàåò îäíîãî
àáçàöà; èíîãäà îí ìîæåò áûòü îãðàíè÷åí äâóìÿ-òðåìÿ ïðåäëîæåíèÿìè. Ýòî ñæàòàÿ ïåðåäà÷à ñìûñëà îðèãèíàëà ñðåäñòâàìè äðóãîãî
ÿçûêà.
Èíîãäà ïðèõîäèòñÿ ñëûøàòü: “Ñëîâà âñå çíàþ, à ïåðåâåñòè íå
ìîãó”. Îäíà èç ïðè÷èí ýòîãî êðîåòñÿ â íåïðàâèëüíîì âûáîðå çíà÷åíèÿ òîãî èëè èíîãî ñëîâà. Íàïðèìåð, ñòàâøèé øèðîêî èçâåñòíûì
òàêîé “ëÿïñóñíûé” ïåðåâîä ïðåäëîæåíèÿ A bare conductor ran on the
wall:
Ïî ñòåíå áåãàë ãîëûé êîíäóêòîð
âìåñòî
Ïî ñòåíå áûë ïðîòÿíóò îãîëåííûé ïðîâîä
Ãëàâíàÿ ïðè÷èíà òàêîãî ÿâëåíèÿ, îäíàêî, çàêëþ÷àåòñÿ â òîì,
÷òî áåðåòñÿ íå òî çíà÷åíèå ñëîâà â ñëîâàðå è â íåóìåíèè óâèäåòü
ñòðóêòóðó àíãëèéñêîãî ïðåäëîæåíèÿ, òî åñòü îïðåäåëèòü, êàêèì ÷ëåíîì ïðåäëîæåíèÿ ÿâëÿåòñÿ òî èëè èíîå ñëîâî è ê êàêîé ÷àñòè ðå÷è
îíî îòíîñèòñÿ.
 ðóññêîì ïðåäëîæåíèè ïîñëåäíåé ïðîáëåìû íå ñóùåñòâóåò,
ïîñêîëüêó ñóôôèêñû è îêîí÷àíèÿ ÷åòêî óêàçûâàþò íà ïðèíàäëåæíîñòü ñëîâà ê ÷àñòè ðå÷è.
Êëàññè÷åñêèì ïðèìåðîì âûøåñêàçàííîãî â ðóññêîì ÿçûêå ÿâëÿåòñÿ àáðàêàäàáðà (ëèøåííîå ñìûñëà ïðåäëîæåíèå), êîòîðóþ ïðèäóìàë àêàäåìèê Ëåâ Âëàäèìèðîâè÷ Ùåðáà:
Ãëîêàÿ êóçäðà øòåêî áóäëàíóëà êóçäðåíêà.
Çäåñü, îäíàêî, âñå ÿñíî ñ ãðàììàòè÷åñêîé òî÷êè çðåíèÿ: “êóçäðà”— èìÿ ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîå æåíñêîãî ðîäà â èìåíèòåëüíîì ïàäåæå, âûïîëíÿþùåå ðîëü ïîäëåæàùåãî; “áóäëàíóëà”— ãëàãîë ïðîøåäøåãî âðåìåíè, ñîâåðøåííîãî âèäà, æåíñêîãî ðîäà â ðîëè ñêàçóåìîãî; “ãëîêàÿ”— ïðèëàãàòåëüíîå æåíñêîãî ðîäà â èìåíèòåëüíîì
ïàäåæå â ðîëè îïðåäåëåíèÿ; “êóçäðåíêà”— óìåíüøèòåëüíî-ëàñêàòåëüíîå ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîå ìóæñêîãî ðîäà â âèíèòåëüíîì ïàäåæå â
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ðîëè ïðÿìîãî äîïîëíåíèÿ; “øòåêî” — íàðå÷èå â ðîëè îáñòîÿòåëüñòâà îáðàçà äåéñòâèÿ.
Òðóäíîñòè âîçíèêàþò èìåííî â àíãëèéñêîì ïðåäëîæåíèè, òàê
êàê îäíî è òî æå ïî ôîðìå ñëîâî (÷àùå âñåãî— ãëàãîë) ìîæåò
îòíîñèòüñÿ ê ðàçíûì ÷àñòÿì ðå÷è, íàïðèìåð:
water (n) — âîäà
water (v) — ïîëèâàòü
closed (v, past simple)— çàêðûë
closed (partici ple II)— çàêðûòûé
empty (adj.) — ïóñòîé
empty (v)— îïîðîæíÿòü
books (n, pl.) — êíèãè
books (v, 3rd person, sg.) — çàêàçûâàåò
cause (n) — ïðè÷èíà
cause (v) — âûçûâàòü, áûòü ïðè÷èíîé
official (a) — îôèöèàëüíûé
official (n) — îôèöèàëüíîå ëèöî
Ñàìîå ïðîñòîå ïðåäëîæåíèå This results in a good effect íóæíî
ïðîàíàëèçèðîâàòü ñ òî÷êè çðåíèÿ åãî ñòðóêòóðû, à íå íà÷èíàòü ïåðåâîäèòü ñ ÿêîáû ïðîñòîãî è î÷åâèäíîãî: “Ýòè ðåçóëüòàòû”, òàê
êàê äàëüøå — òóïèê. Ýòî êàê ðàç òîò ñëó÷àé, êîãäà “âñå ñëîâà çíàþ,
à ïåðåâåñòè íå ìîãó”.
Âî-ïåðâûõ, â äàííîì àíãëèéñêîì ïðåäëîæåíèè “This” — íå
“ýòè”, à “ýòîò”. Òîãäà ïî÷åìó “ðåçóëüòàòû”?  òîì-òî è äåëî, ÷òî
íèêàêèå ýòî íå “ðåçóëüòàòû”. Îñòàåòñÿ îäèí âàðèàíò: “results”— 3-å
ëèöî åäèíñòâåííîãî ÷èñëà ãëàãîëà “result”. Ñëîâàðü äàåò çíà÷åíèå
ãëàãîëà result (in): ïðèâîäèòü (ê).
Òåïåðü âñå âñòàåò íà ñâîè ìåñòà: This results in a good effect—
Ýòî ïðèâîäèò ê ïîëîæèòåëüíîìó ýôôåêòó (ðåçóëüòàòó).
Îñíîâíîé âûâîä èç ïðèâåäåííîãî âûøå ïðèìåðà: ÷òîáû ðàçîáðàòüñÿ â ñòðóêòóðå àíãëèéñêîãî ïðåäëîæåíèÿ, â ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü íåîáõîäèìî íàéòè ñêàçóåìîå. Âñå, ÷òî ñòîèò ñëåâà îò ñêàçóåìîãî, áóäåò
îòíîñèòüñÿ ê ãðóïïå ïîäëåæàùåãî (ýòî ìîæåò áûòü áîëüøå, ÷åì îäíî
èëè äâà ñëîâà), à ñïðàâà îò ñêàçóåìîãî áóäåò ãðóïïà äîïîëíåíèÿ,
çàòåì — îáñòîÿòåëüñòâî (ïîñëåäíåå, â ÷àñòíîñòè, îáñòîÿòåëüñòâî
âðåìåíè, ìîæåò ñòîÿòü â íà÷àëå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ).
È, íàêîíåö, îñíîâíîé âîïðîñ: êàê íàéòè ñêàçóåìîå â àíãëèéñêîì ïðåäëîæåíèè?
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Ñóùåñòâóåò òðè îñíîâíûõ ïðèçíàêà ñêàçóåìîãî àíãëèéñêîãî
ïðåäëîæåíèÿ:
1.
Âñå ôîðìû âñïîìîãàòåëüíûõ (be, do, have) è ìîäàëüíûõ
ãëàãîëîâ (can, may, must, should, etc.) âõîäÿò â ñîñòàâ ñêàçóåìîãî. Ýòî îäíî èç íåìíîãèõ ïðàâèë àíãëèéñêîé ãðàììàòèêè, â êîòîðîì íåò èñêëþ÷åíèé.
2.
Ñóôôèêñ -ed Past Simple, íî: íå ïóòàòü åãî ñ ïðîøåäøèì
ïðè÷àñòèåì (Partici ple II). Òî åñòü îäíà è òà æå ôîðìà, íàïðèìåð, used, ìîæåò ïåðåâîäèòüñÿ êàê èñïîëüçîâàë è èñïîëüçîâàííûé.
 ïðåäëîæåíèè The method used was effective ñêàçóåìûì ÿâëÿåòñÿ
was effective (ñì. 1-é ïðèçíàê). Çíà÷èò, ñëåâà îò íåãî— ãðóïïà ïîäëåæàùåãî, òî åñòü used — ýòî îïðåäåëåíèå ïîäëåæàùåãî method, è îíî
ê òîìó æå ñòîèò ïîñëå îïðåäåëÿåìîãî ñëîâà (â ðóññêîì ÿçûêå ÷àùå
âñåãî íàîáîðîò). Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ïåðåâîä ïðåäëîæåíèÿ ñëåäóþùèé:
“Èñïîëüçîâàííûé ìåòîä áûë ýôôåêòèâíûì”.
3.
Îêîí÷àíèå — s 3-ãî ëèöà åäèíñòâåííîãî ÷èñëà Present Simple
(Indefinite), íî: íå ïóòàòü åãî ñ ìíîæåñòâåííûì ÷èñëîì ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûõ (ôîðìà books ïåðåâîäèòñÿ êàê çàêàçûâàåò
è êíèãè; results — ïðèâîäèò [ê] è ðåçóëüòàòû).
Îäèí èç âàæíûõ ýòàïîâ ïèñüìåííîãî ïåðåâîäà — åãî ðåäàêòèðîâàíèå, òî åñòü ïðèâåäåíèå òåêñòà ïåðåâîäà â ñîîòâåòñòâèå ñ íîðìàìè ðîäíîãî ÿçûêà.
Ïðè ïåðåâîäå àíãëèéñêîãî òåêñòà íå ñëåäóåò ïåðåíîñèòü â ðóññêèé òåêñò ñïåöèôè÷åñêèå ÷åðòû àíãëèéñêîãî îðèãèíàëà:
à) àíãëèéñêèå ëè÷íûå ôîðìû ïåðåäàþòñÿ ðóññêèìè íåîïðåäåëåííî-ëè÷íûìè îáîðîòàìè:
You might ask why the bank has chosen this policy.
Ìîæíî ñïðîñèòü, ïî÷åìó áàíê èçáðàë ýòó ïîëèòèêó.
We know the inflation rate to be directly dependent on increase of price level, wages, and production costs.
Èçâåñòíî, ÷òî óðîâåíü èíôëÿöèè íàïðÿìóþ çàâèñèò îò
ðîñòà öåí, çàðàáîòíîé ïëàòû è çàòðàò íà ïðîèçâîäñòâî.
á) â àíãëèéñêèõ òåêñòàõ íåðåäêî óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ áóäóùåå âðåìÿ äëÿ âûðàæåíèÿ îáû÷íîãî äåéñòâèÿ, ïîýòîìó ïðè ïåðåâîäå ñëåäóåò èñïîëüçîâàòü íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ:
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The exchange rate is determined by demand and supply, which
will be universal economic categories.
Îáìåííûé êóðñ îïðåäåëÿåòñÿ ñïðîñîì è ïðåäëîæåíèåì,
êîòîðûå ÿâëÿþòñÿ óíèâåðñàëüíûìè ýêîíîìè÷åñêèìè êàòåãîðèÿìè.
â) â àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå ôîðìà ïàññèâíîãî çàëîãà èñïîëüçóåòñÿ
ãîðàçäî ÷àùå, ÷åì ñòðàäàòåëüíûé çàëîã â ðóññêîì ÿçûêå, ïîýòîìó
ïðè ïåðåâîäå ñëåäóåò èñïîëüçîâàòü è äðóãèå ñðåäñòâà âûðàæåíèÿ:
This issue was discussed at the board meeting.
Ýòîò âîïðîñ áûë îáñóæäåí íà çàñåäàíèè ñîâåòà.
Ýòîò âîïðîñ îáñóäèëè íà çàñåäàíèè ñîâåòà.
Ýòîò âîïðîñ îáñóæäàëñÿ íà çàñåäàíèè ñîâåòà.
Çàñåäàíèå ñîâåòà îáñóäèëî ýòîò âîïðîñ.
ã) ïîðÿäîê ñëîâ ðóññêîãî ïðåäëîæåíèÿ, â îòëè÷èå îò àíãëèéñêîãî, íåñåò áîëüøóþ ñìûñëîâóþ íàãðóçêó. “Öåíòð òÿæåñòè”, òî
åñòü ãëàâíàÿ ìûñëü â ðóññêîì ïðåäëîæåíèè, â îòëè÷èå îò àíãëèéñêîãî, ÷àñòî ìîæåò íàõîäèòüñÿ â êîíöå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ.
A student has done this research.
Ýòî èññëåäîâàíèå ïðîâåë ñòóäåíò [à íå àññèñòåíò èëè
íàó÷íûé ñîòðóäíèê].
ä) íàêîíåö, íåîáõîäèìî ó÷èòûâàòü ðàçëè÷èÿ êóëüòóð è ðåàëèé ñòðàíû ïðè ïåðåâîäå ñ îäíîãî ÿçûêà íà äðóãîé, èçáåãàòü êàëüêèðîâàíèÿ è áóêâàëüíûõ ïåðåíîñîâ.
Íàïðèìåð, âûðàæåíèå dozens of examples ñëåäóåò ïåðåâåñòè êàê
äåñÿòêè [à íå «äþæèíû»] ïðèìåðîâ, ïîñêîëüêó ó íàñ äåñÿòè÷íàÿ
ñèñòåìà ñ÷åòà. Ñëîâî «äþæèíà» â ïåðåâîäå áóäåò óìåñòíî òîëüêî,
êîãäà ðå÷ü èäåò î ÷èñëå «12».
Åùå îäèí ïðèìåð ðàçëè÷èÿ â ðåàëèÿõ — êîíñòðóêöèÿ îêîí â
Àíãëèè èëè ÑØÀ, îòëè÷àþùàÿñÿ îò êîíñòðóêöèè íàøèõ îêîí òåì,
÷òî èõ ðàìû íóæíî ïîäíÿòü, ÷òîáû îòêðûòü. Èìåííî ïîýòîìó ïðåäëîæåíèå “He came up to the window and raised it” ïåðåâîäèòñÿ «Îí
ïîäîøåë ê îêíó è îòêðûë [à íå ïîäíÿë] åãî».
Äëÿ èçáåæàíèÿ êàëüêèðîâàíèÿ (òî÷íîãî ïîâòîðåíèÿ) ñòðóêòóðû
ïðåäëîæåíèÿ ïðè ïåðåâîäå èíîãäà ëó÷øå âîñïîëüçîâàòüñÿ ìåòîäîì
«îò ïðîòèâíîãî». Íàïðèìåð, ïðåäëîæåíèå “Remember to call her” â
ïåðåâîäå ìîæíî äàòü êàê «Íå çàáóäü ïîçâîíèòü åé».
Òî æå îòíîñèòñÿ ê ñëó÷àÿì ïåðåâîäà, êîãäà «ìèíóñ íà ìèíóñ
äàåò ïëþñ», òî åñòü äâà îòðèöàíèÿ (not uncommon; not until) ïåðå10
âîäÿòñÿ êàê óòâåðæäåíèå (ïîäðîáíåå îá ýòîì ñì. â ðàçäåëå 2.3. «Ëåêñè÷åñêèå òðàíñôîðìàöèè ïðè ïåðåâîäå»):
It’s not uncommon to use this method.
Èñïîëüçîâàíèå ýòîãî ìåòîäà — îáû÷íàÿ ïðàêòèêà.
The credit was not granted until early March.
Êðåäèò áûë âûäàí ëèøü â íà÷àëå ìàðòà.
Íåëèøíå íàïîìíèòü îá ýòèêå ïåðåâîä÷èêà, êîòîðàÿ îñîáåííî
âàæíà ïðè óñòíîì ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíîì ïåðåâîäå.
Ïîñêîëüêó ïåðåâîä÷èê íåñåò îòâåòñòâåííîñòü çà àäåêâàòíîñòü
ïåðåâîäèìîé èíôîðìàöèè, îñíîâíûì ïðàâèëîì ýòèêè ïåðåâîä÷èêà
ÿâëÿåòñÿ íåðàçãëàøåíèå ýòîé èíôîðìàöèè, ñîõðàíåíèå êîíôèäåíöèàëüíîñòè.
Óñòíûé ïåðåâîä÷èê (conference interpreter) äîëæåí ïîìíèòü î
òîì, ÷òî îí ÿâëÿåòñÿ «òåíüþ» ãëàâíûõ ó÷àñòíèêîâ ïåðåãîâîðîâ. À
ýòî çíà÷èò, ÷òî ñîâåðøåííî íåóìåñòíû åãî ñîáñòâåííûå êîììåíòàðèè, ïðèâëå÷åíèå ê ñåáå âíèìàíèÿ, ðåàãèðîâàíèå íà ïåðåâîäèìûå
èì øóòêè è ò.ä. Ëèøü â ñëó÷àå íåîáõîäèìîñòè ìîæíî ïîÿñíèòü îñîáåííîñòè íàöèîíàëüíîãî õàðàêòåðà è ìåíòàëèòåòà, ÷òîáû ñìûñë
âûñêàçûâàíèÿ áûë ÿñíåå.
Ïðåêðàñíî, åñëè ïåðåâîä÷èê íàõîäèò òî÷íîå ñîîòâåòñòâèå ôðàçåîëîãèçìàì è èäèîìàòè÷åñêèì âûðàæåíèÿì â äðóãîì ÿçûêå, íî
ëó÷øå óæ ïðèáåãíóòü ê íåéòðàëüíîé ëåêñèêå ïðè ïåðåâîäå, ÷åì â
ïîãîíå çà «êðàñèâîñòüþ» èñêàçèòü ñìûñë. Èçâåñòíî, ê êàêèì ïîñëåäñòâèÿì â îòíîøåíèÿõ ìåæäó ÑÑÑÐ è ÑØÀ ïðèâåë «âîëüíûé
ïåðåâîä» ôðàçû Í.Ñ. Õðóùåâà «Ìû âàì ïîêàæåì êóçüêèíó ìàòü!»,
ïðîèçíåñåííîé èì íà ñåññèè Ãåíåðàëüíîé Àññàìáëåè ÎÎÍ.  ïåðåâîäå ýòî ïðîçâó÷àëî êàê “We will bury you!” («Ìû âàñ ïîõîðîíèì!»).
Íàâåðíîå, êðàéíåé ñòåïåíüþ óãðîçû ñîâåòñêîãî ðóêîâîäèòåëÿ â
ïåðåâîäå ìîãëà ñòàòü âåðñèÿ “We’ll teach you a lesson” («Ìû ïîêàæåì âàì!» èëè «Ìû ïðîó÷èì âàñ!»).  ñàìîì äåëå, êîìó æå çàõî÷åòñÿ
áûòü ïîõîðîíåííûì çàæèâî? Èçâåñòíî, ÷òî çà ýòèì ïåðåâîä÷åñêèì
ëÿïñóñîì (êñòàòè, ñëîâî ýòî ëàòèíñêîå: lapsus — îøèáêà) ïîñëåäîâàë î÷åðåäíîé âèòîê ãîíêè âîîðóæåíèé.1
Â. Ì. Ñóõîäðåâ â êíèãå ìåìóàðîâ «ßçûê ìîé — äðóã ìîé» (Ì.: Îëèìï; ÎÎÎ
«Ôèðìà “Èçä.-âî ÀÑҔ», 1999) îòìå÷àåò, ïðàâäà, ÷òî Õðóùåâ âêëàäûâàë â
ýòî âûðàæåíèå äðóãîé ñìûñë: «ìîë, ïîêàæåì èì òàêîå, ÷åãî îíè íèêîãäà íå
âèäåëè» (ñ. 87).
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Ïåðåâîä÷èê äîëæåí áûòü êîððåêòíûì, ñîáëþäàòü âûäåðæêó,
îòëè÷àòüñÿ ïóíêòóàëüíîñòüþ è áûòü àêêóðàòíî è ñòðîãî îäåòûì. Ïðè
ðàáîòå â êîìàíäå íåîáõîäèìî òàêòè÷íî ïðèõîäèòü íà ïîìîùü òåì,
êòî õóæå îðèåíòèðóåòñÿ â ñèòóàöèè.
Ïîìíèòå, ÷òî äàëåêî íå êàæäûé, êòî âëàäååò ÿçûêîì, îáëàäàåò
ñïîñîáíîñòüþ èëè íàâûêàìè àäåêâàòíîãî ïåðåâîäà. Ýòîìó ó÷àòñÿ,
ïðè÷åì ïðîöåññ îñâîåíèÿ ìàñòåðñòâîì ïåðåâîäà î÷åíü äëèòåëüíûé.
Òîò, êòî äîñòèã îïðåäåëåííîãî óðîâíÿ, íî íå ðàáîòàåò íàä ñîâåðøåíñòâîâàíèåì íàâûêîâ ïåðåâîäà, ïðîñòî òåðÿåò ýòîò óðîâåíü. Ïåðåâîä÷èêó, êàê ñïîðòñìåíó è ìóçûêàíòó, íåîáõîäèìî ïîñòîÿííî
ïîääåðæèâàòü ôîðìó.
?
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Âîïðîñû äëÿ ñàìîêîíòðîëÿ
1.
×òî òàêîå ïåðåâîä?
2.
×òî íåîáõîäèìî çíàòü ïåðåâîä÷èêó?  ÷åì çàêëþ÷àåòñÿ òåõíèêà ïåðåâîä÷èêà?
3.
Ñ êàêèìè âèäàìè ïåðåâîäà íàì ÷àùå âñåãî ïðèõîäèòñÿ èìåòü
äåëî?
4.
5.
 ÷åì ïðè÷èíà ñèòóàöèè, êîãäà «âñå ñëîâà çíàþ, à ïåðåâåñòè íå ìîãó»?
Êàêîé ÷ëåí ïðåäëîæåíèÿ íåîáõîäèìî óñòàíîâèòü â ïåðâóþ
î÷åðåäü ïðè ïåðåâîäå ñ àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà? Ïî êàêèì ôîðìàëüíûì ïðèçíàêàì åãî ìîæíî íàéòè â ïðåäëîæåíèè?
6.
 ÷åì çàêëþ÷àåòñÿ ïðîöåññ ðåäàêòèðîâàíèÿ ïåðåâîäà?
7.
Êàêîâû òðåáîâàíèÿ ê óñòíîìó ïåðåâîä÷èêó ñ òî÷êè çðåíèÿ
ïðîôåññèîíàëüíîé ýòèêè?
×àñòü II
¨
ËÅÊÑÈ×ÅÑÊÈÅ ÂÎÏÐÎÑÛ ÏÅÐÅÂÎÄÀ
2.1. Ïåðåâîä ñëîâ
2.1.1. Óñòàíîâëåíèå çíà÷åíèÿ ñëîâà
Ïðè ïåðåâîäå ñ àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà íåîáõîäèìî îáíàðóæèòü
ñëîâî â ðîäíîì ÿçûêå, êîòîðîå ÿâëÿåòñÿ áëèçêèì ïî çíà÷åíèþ àíãëèéñêîìó ñëîâó. Òàêîå ñëîâî â òåîðèè ïåðåâîäà íàçûâàåòñÿ ëåêñè÷åñêèì, èëè ñëîâàðíûì, ñîîòâåòñòâèåì.
Äëÿ ïðàâèëüíîãî èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ ëåêñè÷åñêèõ, èëè ñëîâàðíûõ,
ñîîòâåòñòâèé ñëåäóåò ðàçëè÷àòü ñëåäóþùèå òèïû ñìûñëîâûõ îòíîøåíèé ìåæäó ñëîâàìè:
1.
Çíà÷åíèÿ ñëîâ â àíãëèéñêîì è ðóññêîì ÿçûêàõ ïîëíîñòüþ
ñîîòâåòñòâóþò äðóã äðóãó. Íåçàâèñèìî îò êîíòåêñòà, çíà÷åíèå àíãëèéñêîãî ñëîâà ïåðåäàåòñÿ îäíèì è òåì æå ýêâèâàëåíòîì.
Ê òàêèì ñëîâàì (îíè ñîñòàâëÿþò îêîëî 30ïðîöåíòîâ ñëîâàðíîãî ñîñòàâà ÿçûêà) îòíîñÿòñÿ èìåíà ñîáñòâåííûå, ÷èñëèòåëüíûå,
íàçâàíèÿ äíåé íåäåëè è ìåñÿöåâ, ìíîãèå íàó÷íûå è òåõíè÷åñêèå
òåðìèíû, ãåîãðàôè÷åñêèå íàçâàíèÿ è äð.: Canada, twelve, Tuesday,
July, tractor, inflation, the Netherlands, etc.
2.
Åñëè çíà÷åíèþ àíãëèéñêîãî ñëîâà ñîîòâåòñòâóåò íåñêîëüêî
ñëîâ â ðîäíîì ÿçûêå, ìû èìååì äåëî ñ âàðèàíòíûì ñîîòâåòñòâèåì.
Ýòî íàèáîëåå ðàñïðîñòðàíåííûé òèï ñìûñëîâûõ îòíîøåíèé
ìåæäó ñëîâàìè. Çàäà÷à âûáîðà íóæíîãî âàðèàíòà äîâîëüíî ñëîæíàÿ, è ïåðåâîä÷èê äîëæåí ó÷èòûâàòü ðîëü êîíòåêñòà, òî åñòü îêðóæåíèÿ, â êîòîðîì âñòðå÷àåòñÿ äàííîå ñëîâî.
Íàïðèìåð, àíãëèéñêîìó ñëîâó variability â ðóññêîì ÿçûêå ñîîòâåòñòâóþò èçìåí÷èâîñòü, âàðèàòèâíîñòü, íåðîâíîñòü, íåóñòîé÷èâîñòü:
Variability of temper — èçìåí÷èâîñòü íàñòðîåíèÿ
Data variability — âàðèàòèâíîñòü äàííûõ
13
Variability of character — íåðîâíîñòü õàðàêòåðà
Variability of prices — íåóñòîé÷èâîñòü öåí
Èíîãäà àíãëî-ðóññêèé ñëîâàðü äàåò íåñêîëüêî çíà÷åíèé ñëîâà,
ïðè÷åì äàæå ïðàâèëüíî âûáðàííîå çíà÷åíèå óâîäèò íàñ â ñòîðîíó
áóêâàëèçìà (êàëüêèðîâàííîãî ïåðåâîäà) è ïðè ïåðåäà÷å ñìûñëà “çâó÷èò íå ïî-ðóññêè”.
Íàïðèìåð, â ïðåäëîæåíèè I am happy to be involved in this project
èç 7 çíà÷åíèé ãëàãîëà involve ïîäõîäèò òîëüêî âîâëåêàòü. È, òåì íå
ìåíåå, íåëüçÿ ïðèíÿòü êàê óäà÷íûé ïåðåâîä ïðåäëîæåíèÿ ß ñ÷àñòëèâ (ðàä) áûòü âîâëå÷åííûì â ýòîò ïðîåêò. Äðóãèõ âàðèàíòîâ íè
îäèí ñëîâàðü íå äàåò, íî òàê íå ãîâîðÿò ïî-ðóññêè. Êàê íîñèòåëè
ðóññêîãî ÿçûêà, ìû äîëæíû, íàâåðíîå, ñêàçàòü ß ðàä ó÷àñòâîâàòü
â ýòîì ïðîåêòå äëÿ äîñòèæåíèÿ àäåêâàòíîñòè ïåðåâîäà, òî åñòü ïåðåäà÷è ñìûñëà âûñêàçûâàíèÿ.
Àíàëîãè÷íûé ïðèìåð ìîæíî ïðèâåñòè ñî ñëîâîì ambitious, êîòîðîå èìååò çíà÷åíèÿ 1)÷åñòîëþáèâûé, 2)ñòðåìÿùèéñÿ, æàæäóùèé
(of), 3)ïðåòåíöèîçíûé. Îäíàêî â ïðåäëîæåíèè The government is determined to implement its ambitious plans äëÿ àäåêâàòíîñòè ïåðåâîäà ëó÷øå ñêàçàòü Ïðàâèòåëüñòâî íàìåðåíî ïðåòâîðèòü â æèçíü ñìåëûå ïëàíû, õîòÿ òàêîãî çíà÷åíèÿ â ñëîâàðå íåò.
Áåçóñëîâíî, áîëüøèíñòâî ñëîâ àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà ÿâëÿåòñÿ ìíîãîçíà÷íûìè, ïðè÷åì êàæäîìó òàêîìó ñëîâó â ðóññêîì ÿçûêå ñîîòâåòñòâóåò íåñêîëüêî çíà÷åíèé, êîòîðûå (â îòëè÷èå, íàïðèìåð, îò
çíà÷åíèé ñëîâà variability) ñîâåðøåííî îòëè÷íû äðóã îò äðóãà.
×òîáû ïåðåâåñòè ìíîãîçíà÷íîå ñëîâî, ñíà÷àëà íàõîäèòñÿ íóæíîå çíà÷åíèå, à ïîòîì â ïðåäåëàõ ýòîãî çíà÷åíèÿ íàäî îòûñêàòü
ñîîòâåòñòâóþùåå äëÿ äàííîãî êîíòåêñòà âàðèàíòíîå ñîîòâåòñòâèå.
Íàïðèìåð, Áîëüøîé àíãëî-ðóññêèé ñëîâàðü â äâóõ òîìàõ ïîä
ðåäàêöèåé ïðîô. È.Ð. Ãàëüïåðèíà (Ìîñêâà: Ñîâåòñêàÿ Ýíöèêëîïåäèÿ, 1972) äàåò 14 çíà÷åíèé ñëîâà rate.  êàæäîì èç çíà÷åíèé èìååòñÿ íåñêîëüêî âàðèàíòíûõ ñîîòâåòñòâèé, à îíè, â ñâîþ î÷åðåäü
ïîäðàçäåëÿþòñÿ íà åùå áîëåå êîíêðåòíûå âàðèàíòû. Òàê, â ïðåäåëàõ 2-ãî çíà÷åíèÿ ñëîâà rate âûäåëÿþòñÿ:
1)
ñòàâêà, òàðèô; òàêñà; ðàñöåíêà;
2)
ôèí. êóðñ;
3)
4)
öåíà; îöåíêà;
pl æ.-ä. ãðóçîâîé òàðèô.
Äëÿ ïåðåâîäà ñïåöèàëüíîãî òåêñòà ðåêîìåíäóåòñÿ ïîëüçîâàòüñÿ
ñïåöèàëüíûì ñëîâàðåì. Àíãëî-ðóññêèé ñëîâàðü ïî ýêîíîìèêå è
14
ôèíàíñàì ïîä ðåäàêöèåé ïðîô. À.Â.Àíèêèíà (Ñàíêò-Ïåòåðáóðã:
Ýêîíîìè÷åñêàÿ Øêîëà, 1993) ñëîâó rate îòâîäèò 7 (ñåìü!) ñòðàíèö, ãäå äàþòñÿ äåñÿòêè ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèé, â ñîñòàâ êîòîðûõ âõîäèò
ýòî ñëîâî.
Ïîäîáíûé ïðèìåð ìîæíî ïðèâåñòè è ïðè îáðàòíîì ïåðåâîäå.
Òî åñòü ó îäíîãî ðóññêîãî ñëîâà ìîæåò áûòü íåñêîëüêî àíãëèéñêèõ
ñîîòâåòñòâèé, íàïðèìåð:
Îòêðûâàòü:
Ðåöåïò:
open (êíèãó, îêíî è ò.ä.)
discover (íîâûå çåìëè)
reveal (ñåêðåò)
unveil (ïàìÿòíèê)
prescri ption (ìåä.)
reci pe (êóëèíàð.)
formula.
Áîëåå ïîäðîáíî ïðîáëåìû ïåðåâîäà ñ ðóññêîãî ÿçûêà íà àíãëèéñêèé çàòðîíóòû â 4-é ÷àñòè äàííîãî êóðñà.
?
Âîïðîñû äëÿ ñàìîêîíòðîëÿ
1.
×òî òàêîå ñëîâàðíîå ñîîòâåòñòâèå?
2.
Êàêèå ñóùåñòâóþò òèïû ñìûñëîâûõ îòíîøåíèé ìåæäó ñëîâàìè?
3.
4.
×òî òàêîå êîíòåêñò è â ÷åì ñîñòîèò åãî ðîëü ïðè ïåðåâîäå?
Êàêóþ ñëîæíîñòü äëÿ ïåðåâîä÷èêà ïðåäñòàâëÿþò ìíîãîçíà÷íûå ñëîâà? ×òî íåîáõîäèìî äëÿ ïåðåâîäà ìíîãîçíà÷íûõ ñëîâ?
Ïðàêòè÷åñêîå çàäàíèå
Ïåðåâåäèòå ñëåäóþùèå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ, ñîäåðæàùèå ìíîãîçíà÷íûå ñëîâà:
1.
The company’s directing agency is located in Detroit.
2.
This can hardly be treated as a free article. You’ll have to include
the funds for the customs clearing.
3.
Competitive capacity of enterprises is number one issue.
15
4.
The rent and utilities coverage in the country is gradually growing and will reach as much as 80% by this July.
5.
Price gap has become the main reason for many domestic
goods being brought out of the country.
They have been speculating on margin for a couple of years
now.
6.
7.
The new chief executive officer was appointed in May.
8.
The immediate task is to temper the impact of inflation.
2.1.2. Èíòåðíàöèîíàëüíûå ñëîâà è “ëîæíûå äðóçüÿ”
ïåðåâîä÷èêà
Ê èíòåðíàöèîíàëüíûì ñëîâàì (èíòåðíàöèîíàëèçìàì) îòíîñÿòñÿ
ñëîâà, çàèìñòâîâàííûå èç äðóãèõ ÿçûêîâ, — ãðå÷åñêîãî è ëàòèíñêîãî, à òàêæå èç ñîâðåìåííûõ ÿçûêîâ (â îñíîâíîì — ýòî òåðìèíîëîãèÿ: ìóçûêàëüíàÿ èç èòàëüÿíñêîãî, áàëåòíûå òåðìèíû — èç ôðàíöóçñêîãî, êîìïüþòåðíàÿ è áèçíåñ-òåðìèíîëîãèÿ èç àíãëèéñêîãî).
Òàêèå ñëîâà ñõîäíû ïî çâó÷àíèþ, íàïèñàíèþ è çíà÷åíèþ:
contrast — êîíòðàñò
dumping — äåìïèíã
manager — ìåíåäæåð
inflation — èíôëÿöèÿ
philosophy — ôèëîñîôèÿ
television — òåëåâèäåíèå
Ñóùåñòâóåò ãîðàçäî áîëüøå ñëîâ, êîòîðûå ìû íàçûâàåì ïñåâäîèíòåðíàöèîíàëüíûìè, èëè “ëîæíûìè äðóçüÿìè” ïåðåâîä÷èêà (â àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå äëÿ òàêèõ ñëîâ çàèìñòâîâàíî ôðàíöóçñêîå âûðàæåíèå “faux amis” — ëîæíûå äðóçüÿ).  ñîïîñòàâëåíèè ðóññêîãî è àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêîâ ýòè ñëîâà ìîæíî ïîäðàçäåëèòü íà äâå ãðóïïû:
1)
ñëîâà, êîòîðûå èìåþò ñõîäíîå íàïèñàíèå è ïðîèçíîøåíèå, íî
ñîâåðøåííî äðóãîå çíà÷åíèå. Íèæå ïðèâîäèòñÿ êðàòêèé ñïèñîê òàêèõ ñëîâ:
accurate
actual
advocate
aspirant
16
òî÷íûé, à íå àêêóðàòíûé;
äåéñòâèòåëüíûé, à íå àêòóàëüíûé;
ñòîðîííèê, çàùèòíèê, à íå àäâîêàò
ïðåòåíäåíò, à íå àñïèðàíò;
bullion
clay
complexion
compositor
corpse
data
decade
decoration
Dutch
fabric
familiar
fraction
list
invalid
magazine
mayor
physician
princi pal
production
prospect
rapport [rc4p]:]
recei pt [ri4si:t]
replica
resin
therapist
troops
velvet
ñëèòîê (çîëîòà èëè ñåðåáðà), à íå áóëüîí;
ãëèíà, à íå êëåé;
öâåò ëèöà, à íå êîìïëåêöèÿ;
íàáîðùèê, à íå êîìïîçèòîð;
òðóï, à íå êîðïóñ;
äàííûå, à íå äàòà;
äåñÿòèëåòèå, à íå äåêàäà;
çíàê îòëè÷èÿ, óêðàøåíèå, à íå äåêîðà
öèÿ;
ãîëëàíäñêèé, à íå äàòñêèé;
òêàíü, à íå ôàáðèêà;
èçâåñòíûé, çíàêîìûé, à íå ôàìèëèÿ èëè
ôàìèëüÿðíûé;
äðîáü (ìàòåì.), à íå ôðàêöèÿ;
ñïèñîê, à íå ëèñò;
íåäåéñòâèòåëüíûé, à íå èíâàëèä (åñëè
óäàðåíèå íà âòîðîì ñëîãå)
æóðíàë, à íå ìàãàçèí;
ìýð, à íå ìàéîð;
âðà÷-òåðàïåâò, à íå ôèçèê;
îñíîâíîé, à íå ïðèíöèïèàëüíûé;
ïðîèçâîäñòâî, à íå ïðîäóêöèÿ;
ïåðñïåêòèâà, à íå ïðîñïåêò;
äîáðûå îòíîøåíèÿ, à íå ðàïîðò;
êâèòàíöèÿ, ÷åê (èç ìàãàçèíà); ïîëó÷åíèå,
à íå ðåöåïò;
òî÷íàÿ êîïèÿ, à íå ðåïëèêà;
ñìîëà, à íå ðåçèíà;
ïñèõîòåðàïåâò, ïñèõîàíàëèòèê, à íå
“òåðàïåâò”
âîéñêà, à íå òðóïû;
áàðõàò, à íå âåëüâåò
17
2)
ê áîëåå ñëîæíûì ñëó÷àÿì îòíîñÿòñÿ òàêèå «ëîæíûå äðóçüÿ»
ïåðåâîä÷èêà, êîòîðûå ëèøü â îäíîì èëè äâóõ çíà÷åíèÿõ ñîâïàäàþò ñ ðóññêèìè ñëîâàìè, íî ðàñõîäÿòñÿ â îñòàëüíûõ. (Äëÿ
ñïðàâîê ñì.: Â.Â. Àêóëåíêî è äð. Àíãëî-ðóññêèé è ðóññêîàíãëèéñêèé ñëîâàðü «ëîæíûõ äðóçåé ïåðåâîä÷èêà» - Ì.:
Èçäàòåëüñòâî «Ñîâåòñêàÿ Ýíöèêëîïåäèÿ», 1969.)
authority
activity
âëàñòü (ðåæå — àâòîðèòåò);
äåÿòåëüíîñòü, (ðåæå — àêòèâíîñòü);
aggressive
ýíåðãè÷íûé, íàñòîé÷èâûé, à íå òîëüêî
“àãðåññèâíûé”;
ñàëüäî, îñòàòîê, à íå òîëüêî “áàëàíñ”;
balance
cabinet
camera
character
champion
ïåðñîíàæ, à íå òîëüêî “õàðàêòåð”;
áîðåö, ïîáîðíèê, à íå òîëüêî
“÷åìïèîí”;
collect
âçèìàòü, à íå òîëüêî “ñîáèðàòü” èëè
“êîëëåêöèîíèðîâàòü”;
áåòîí, à íå òîëüêî “êîíêðåòíûé”;
concrete
conductor
conference
ïðîâîäíèê; äèðèæåð, à íå òîëüêî
“êîíäóêòîð”;
âñòðå÷à, à íå òîëüêî “êîíôåðåíöèÿ”;
contribution
control
âêëàä (ðåæå — êîíòðèáóöèÿ);
óïðàâëÿòü, à íå òîëüêî
“êîíòðîëèðîâàòü”;
convention
copy
ñúåçä, à íå òîëüêî “êîíâåíöèÿ”;
ýêçåìïëÿð, à íå òîëüêî “êîïèÿ”;
correspondence
ñîîòâåòñòâèå; çàìåòêà â ãàçåòå, à íå òîëü
êî “êîððåñïîíäåíöèÿ” è “ïåðåïèñêà”;
çàñëóãà, à íå òîëüêî “êðåäèò”;
credit
critical
18
ìåáåëüíàÿ ñåêöèÿ, à åñëè è “êàáèíåò”,
òî ìèíèñòðîâ, ò.å. ïðàâèòåëüñòâî;
ôîòîàïïàðàò (ðåæå — êàìåðà);
î÷åíü âàæíûé, à íå òîëüêî
“êðèòè÷åñêèé”;
department
dramatic
element
figure
intelligence
interest
international
leader
legal
liberal
mark
minister
momentum
nation
number
object
officer
original
panel
partisan
óïðàâëåíèå, ôàêóëüòåò (ÑØÀ),
ìèíèñòåðñòâî (ÑØÀ), à íå òîëüêî
“äåïàðòàìåíò”;
ðåøàþùèé, à íå òîëüêî “äðàìàòè÷åñêèé
/äðàìàòè÷íûé”;
ñòèõèÿ, à íå òîëüêî “ýëåìåíò”;
ðèñóíîê, öèôðà, à íå òîëüêî “ôèãóðà”;
ðàçâåäêà, à íå òîëüêî “èíòåëëåêò” è
“óì”;
ïðîöåíò (â áàíêå), à íå òîëüêî
“èíòåðåñ”;
ìåæäóíàðîäíûé, èíîñòðàííûé (ñòóäåíò
â ÑØÀ), à íå òîëüêî “èíòåðíàöèîíàëü
íûé”;
ðóêîâîäèòåëü, à íå òîëüêî “ëèäåð”;
ïðàâîâîé, þðèäè÷åñêèé, à íå òîëüêî
“ëåãàëüíûé”;
ãóìàíèòàðíûé (îá îáðàçîâàíèè), à íå
òîëüêî “ëèáåðàëüíûé”;
ìåòêà, ïÿòíî, ìàðêà (íî íå ïî÷òîâàÿ);
ñâÿùåííèê, à íå òîëüêî “ìèíèñòð”;
èíåðöèÿ, òîë÷îê, à åñëè ìîìåíò, òî
âàæíûé, ïàìÿòíûé;
ñòðàíà, íàðîä (ðåæå — íàöèÿ);
÷èñëî, êîëè÷åñòâî, öèôðà, à íå òîëüêî
“íîìåð”;
öåëü, çàäà÷à, à íå òîëüêî “îáúåêò”;
äîëæíîñòíîå ëèöî, à íå òîëüêî
“îôèöåð”;
ïåðâîíà÷àëüíûé, ïîäëèííûé, à íå
òîëüêî “îðèãèíàëüíûé”;
ñåêöèÿ (íà êîíôåðåíöèè), à íå òîëüêî
“ïàíåëü”;
ñòîðîííèê (ðåæå — ïàðòèçàí);
19
party
position
pretend
public
rally
realize
record
regular
separate
session
solid
speculation
substance
ñòîðîíà (â äîãîâîðå), çâàíûé âå÷åð èëè
âå÷åðèíêà, à íå òîëüêî “ïàðòèÿ”;
äîëæíîñòü, à íå òîëüêî “ïîçèöèÿ”;
ïðèòâîðÿòüñÿ (ðåæå — ïðåòåíäîâàòü);
ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé, îáùåñòâåííûé, à íå
òîëüêî “ïóáëè÷íûé”;
ìèòèíã, à íå òîëüêî “àâòîðàëëè”;
ïîíèìàòü, ïðåäñòàâëÿòü ñåáå
(ðåæå — ðåàëèçîâûâàòü);
çàïèñü, îò÷åò, ïëàñòèíêà, à íå òîëüêî
“ðåêîðä”;
îáû÷íûé, à íå òîëüêî “ðåãóëÿðíûé”;
îòäåëüíûé (ðåæå — ñåïàðàòíûé);
âñòðå÷à, çàíÿòèå, ðåïåòèöèÿ, à íå òîëüêî
“ñåññèÿ”;
òâåðäûé, à íå òîëüêî “ñîëèäíûé”;
ïðåäïîëîæåíèå (ðåæå — ñïåêóëÿöèÿ);
ñóùíîñòü; âåùåñòâî
(ðåæå — ñóáñòàíöèÿ)
Îñîáóþ ãðóïïó ñîñòàâëÿþò ïàðîíèìû — ñëîâà, áëèçêèå (íî íå
èäåíòè÷íûå) ïî íàïèñàíèþ è çâó÷àíèþ è èìåþùèå ðàçíûå çíà÷åíèÿ:
20
accept (v)
except (conj)
access (n)
accession (n)
ïðèíèìàòü
êðîìå (çà èñêëþ÷åíèåì)
äîñòóï (ê ÷åìó-òî)
ïîâûøåíèå (ïî ñëóæáå), âñòóïëåíèå
(â îðãàíèçàöèþ)
adapt (v)
adopt (v)
ïðèñïîñîáèòü
ïðèíèìàòü; óñûíîâëÿòü
addition (n)
edition (n)
äîáàâëåíèå
èçäàíèå
affect (v)
effect (v) (n)
âîçäåéñòâîâàòü, âëèÿòü
ïðîèçâîäèòü, âûïîëíÿòü; ýôôåêò
allusion (n)
illusion (n)
elusion (n)
ññûëêà íà ÷òî-ëèáî
èëëþçèÿ, ñàìîîáìàí
óêëîíåíèå
ante- (prefix)
anti- (prefix)
äî (ðàíåå) è ïåðåä: antechamber
àíòè, ïðîòèâ: anti-war
avoid (v)
evade (v)
èçáåãàòü
óêëîíÿòüñÿ (îò óïëàòû íàëîãîâ)
attain (v)
obtain (v)
äîáèâàòüñÿ, äîñòèãàòü
ïîëó÷àòü, äîñòàâàòü
censor (n)
censure (n) (v)
census (n)
consensus (n)
öåíçîð
æåñòêàÿ êðèòèêà, îáâèíÿòü
ïåðåïèñü
êîíñåíñóñ, ñîãëàñèå
civic (a)
civil (a)
ãðàæäàíñêèé (îá îáùåñòâå)
ãðàæäàíñêèé, (à íå âîåííûé;
à íå óãîëîâíûé)
complement (n) (v)
äîïîëíåíèå, êîìïëåêò;
äîïîëíÿòü
êîìïëèìåíò, ïîõâàëà; âûðàçèòü
êîìïëèìåíò
compliment (n) (v)
conscious (a)
conscientious (a)
ñîçíàþùèé, â ñîçíàíèè
äîáðîñîâåñòíûé
continual (a)
continuous (a)
÷àñòî ïîâòîðÿþùèéñÿ
äëèòåëüíûé, áåñïðåðûâíûé
council (n)
counsel (n)
ñîâåò (ìóíèöèïàëèòåò)
îáñóæäåíèå; àäâîêàò
data (n)
date (n)
äàííûå
äàòà
dawn (n)
down (adv)
ðàññâåò
âíèç
delivery (n)
deliverance (n)
äîñòàâêà (ãðóçà)
èçáàâëåíèå
deprecate (v)
depreciate (v)
âîçðàæàòü
ïàäàòü â öåíå
21
22
draught (n)
drought (n)
draughts (n) (UK)
òÿãà âîçäóõà, ñêâîçíÿê
çàñóõà
øàøêè
economic (a)
economical (a)
ýêîíîìè÷åñêèé
ýêîíîìíûé, áåðåæëèâûé
eminent (a)
imminent (a)
âûäàþùèéñÿ, âèäíûé
íåèçáåæíûé, íàäâèãàþùèéñÿ
expand (v)
expend (v)
ðàñøèðÿòü(ñÿ)
ðàñõîäîâàòü (ñðåäñòâà)
historic (a)
historical (a)
èìåþùèé èñòîðè÷åñêîå çíà÷åíèå
îòíîñÿùèéñÿ ê èñòîðèè
human (a)
humane (a)
÷åëîâå÷åñêèé (àíòðîïîëîã.)
÷åëîâå÷íûé, ãóìàííûé
ingenious (a)
ingenuous (a)
èçîáðåòàòåëüíûé, èñêóñíûé
èñêðåííèé, ïðÿìîé, ïðîñòîé
later (adv)
latter (à)
letter (n)
ïîçæå
ïîñëåäíèé èç ïåðå÷èñëåííûõ
áóêâà, ïèñüìî
lose (v)
loose (a)
òåðÿòü
ñâîáîäíûé, áåç îãðàíè÷åíèé
meter (n)
metre (n) (UK)
ñ÷åò÷èê
ìåòð
moral (a)
morale (n)
ìîðàëüíûé, íðàâñòâåííûé
ìîðàëü, ìîðàëüíîå ñîñòîÿíèå
persecute (v)
prosecute (v)
ïîäâåðãàòü ãîíåíèþ, íàäîåäàòü
ïðåñëåäîâàòü ïî ñóäó
personal (a)
personnel (n)
ëè÷íûé, ïåðñîíàëüíûé
ïåðñîíàë
policy (n)
politics (n)
ïîëèòèêà (êàê ëèíèÿ ïîâåäåíèÿ)
ïîëèòèêà (ðîä çàíÿòèé)
princi pal (a)
princi pal (n)
princi ple (n)
ãëàâíûé, îñíîâíîé
äèðåêòîð øêîëû (U.S.)
ïðèíöèï, ïðàâèëî
quiet (a)
quite (adv)
ñïîêîéíûé, òèõèé
âïîëíå, ñîâñåì, ñîâåðøåííî
raise (v)
rise (v)
ïîäíèìàòü, ïîâûøàòü
ïîäíèìàòüñÿ, âîçðàñòàòü
stationary (a)
stationery (n)
ñòàöèîíàðíûé, íåïîäâèæíûé
êàíöåëÿðñêèå òîâàðû
stri p (n)
stri pe (n)
óçêèé êóñîê, ïîëîñà (çåìëè)
ïîëîñà (íà ôëàãå), íàøèâêà
vacation (n)
vocation (n)
îòïóñê, êàíèêóëû
ïðèçâàíèå, ïðîôåññèÿ
variable (a) (n)
varied (a)
various (a)
vary (v)
èçìåí÷èâûé; ïåðåìåííàÿ
ðàçëè÷íûé
ðàçíîîáðàçíûé
èçìåíÿòüñÿ
?
Âîïðîñû äëÿ ñàìîêîíòðîëÿ
1.
×òî òàêîå èíòåðíàöèîíàëüíûå ñëîâà?
2.
Êàêèå ñëîâà íàçûâàþò “ëîæíûìè äðóçüÿìè” ïåðåâîä÷èêà?
3.
Íà êàêèå ãðóïïû ïîäðàçäåëÿþòñÿ “ëîæíûå äðóçüÿ” ïåðåâîä÷èêà?
Êàêàÿ èç íèõ ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ñîáîé áóëüøóþ òðóäíîñòü?
4.
5.
×òî íóæíî èìåòü â âèäó ïåðåâîä÷èêó ïðè ðàáîòå ñ òàêèìè
ñëîâàìè?
Ïðàêòè÷åñêîå çàäàíèå
Óêàæèòå çíà÷åíèå ñëåäóþùèõ àíãëèéñêèõ ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèé, â
êîòîðûõ èñïîëüçóþòñÿ «ëîæíûå äðóçüÿ» ïåðåâîä÷èêà:
1.
2.
3.
Banking officers
Public debt
Interest rate
23
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Convention of the Entrepreneurs Union
Personnel department
Champion of peace
Ammunition storage
Null document
Legal matters
Accurate data
Title and position
Human values
2.1.3. Íåîëîãèçìû
Ïðîáëåìà ïåðåâîäà íåîëîãèçìîâ (íîâûõ ñëîâ, ïîÿâèâøèõñÿ â
ÿçûêå â ñâÿçè ñ ðàçâèòèåì îáùåñòâà è ïîÿâëåíèåì íîâûõ ïîíÿòèé)
çàíèìàåò îñîáîå ìåñòî â ïåðåâîä÷åñêîé ïðàêòèêå.
Ñàìî ïîíÿòèå “íåîëîãèçì” îòíîñèòåëüíî. Òî, ÷òî áûëî íåîëîãèçìîì ñòî ëåò íàçàä (ñàìîëåò, ëåò÷èê) èëè ïÿòüäåñÿò ëåò íàçàä
(òåëåâèäåíèå, ìå÷åíûé àòîì), óæå íå ÿâëÿåòñÿ òàêîâûì ñåé÷àñ èìåííî â ñèëó ðàçâèòèÿ îáùåñòâà, íàóêè è òåõíèêè, à ñëåäîâàòåëüíî, è
ÿçûêà.
ÑÏÎÑÎÁÛ ÎÁÐÀÇÎÂÀÍÈß ÍÅÎËÎÃÈÇÌÎÂ
Ñóùåñòâóåò íåñêîëüêî ñïîñîáîâ îáðàçîâàíèÿ íåîëîãèçìîâ. Ðàññìîòðèì êàæäûé èç ýòèõ ñïîñîáîâ.
1. Èñïîëüçîâàíèå ñëîâîîáðàçîâàòåëüíûõ ñðåäñòâ (ñóôôèêñîâ,
ïðåôèêñîâ, ñëîâîñëîæåíèÿ)
Ñðåäè ïðîäóêòèâíûõ ñóôôèêñîâ, èñïîëüçóåìûõ äëÿ îáðàçîâàíèÿ íåîëîãèçìîâ, ìîæíî íàçâàòü, íàïðèìåð, - ian; - ation:
ballistician — ñïåöèàëèñò ïî áàëëèñòèêå (ïî îáðàçöó musician, physician);
commodification — èñïîëüçîâàíèå äåíåã â êà÷åñòâå òîâàðà, êîòîðûé ìîæíî ïðîäàâàòü è îáìåíèâàòü íà äðóãîé
(ïî îáðàçöó simplification).
Ïîñëåäíèé ïðèìåð áóäåò íàãëÿäíåå ïðåäñòàâèòü â êîíòåêñòå:
For the past five years banking talk has been dominated by
three ghastly -ations: globalization, securitization and
24
commodification. These trends — of a worldwide market, of
borrowers shifting from loans to securities, of money becoming more like a commodity — have indeed been strong. (The
Economist)
Ïðîäóêòèâíûìè ñóôôèêñàìè äëÿ îáðàçîâàíèÿ íåîëîãèçìîâ
òàêæå ÿâëÿþòñÿ:
- ship
- dom
- ize
brinkmanshi p — áàëàíñèðîâàíèå íà ãðàíè
âîéíû craftsmanshi p — èñêóññòâî âîçäåéñòâèÿ íà ìàññû showmanshi p — óìåíèå ïîêàçàòü òîâàð ëèöîì; ïóñòèòü ïûëü â ãëàçà
bangdom — îðãàíèçîâàííûé áàíäèòèçì
bogdom — æèçíåííûé òóïèê
suckerdom — òóíåÿäåö
itemize — ðàññìàòðèâàòü ïî ïóíêòàì
institutionalize — óçàêîíèâàòü
unionize — áûòü ÷ëåíîì ïðîôñîþçà
 àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå ïîñòîÿííî ïîÿâëÿþòñÿ íåîëîãèçìû, îáðàçîâàííûå ïóòåì ñëîâîñëîæåíèÿ:
laptop (= notebook)
ïåðåíîñíîé êîìïüþòåð (äîñëîâíî —
êîìïüþòåð, êîòîðûé äåðæàò íà
êîëåíÿõ èëè â âèäå áëîêíîòà)
know-how
stay-in
sit-in
buy-in
íîó-õàó, òåõíîëîãèÿ
ïèêåòèðîâàíèå
ñèäÿ÷àÿ çàáàñòîâêà
âûãîäíàÿ ñäåëêà (ïîêðûòèå ðàñõîäîâ
çà ñ÷åò ïðîäàâöà íà áèðæå)
shut-down
brain-drain
çàêðûòèå, ëèêâèäàöèÿ (çàâîäà)
óòå÷êà ìîçãîâ
has-been
ïîëèòè÷åñêèé äåÿòåëü, óòðàòèâøèé
ñâîå âëèÿíèå
Íåêîòîðûå íåîëîãèçìû, îáðàçîâàííûå ïóòåì ñëîâîñëîæåíèÿ,
âîçíèêëè â àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå èñêóññòâåííûì ïóòåì, ïðè÷åì ïðèäóìàëè èõ âîâñå íå íîñèòåëè àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà. Òàê, íàïðèìåð,
áëàãîäàðÿ èçâåñòíîé ÿïîíñêîé êîðïîðàöèè “Ñîíè” ïîÿâèëèñü òàêèå ñëîâà, êàê “walkman” è “discman”, êîòîðûå ïî-ðóññêè ïåðåäàþòñÿ ñëîâîì “ïëååð” (ñîîòâåòñòâåííî äëÿ àóäèîêàññåò è êîìïàêò25
äèñêîâ), õîòÿ ðóññêîå ñëîâî “ïðîèãðûâàòåëü” åùå ñîâñåì íåäàâíî
áûëî â õîäó.
2. Ïåðåîñìûñëåíèå ñóùåñòâóþùèõ â ÿçûêå ñëîâ
Äàííûé âèä îáðàçîâàíèÿ íåîëîãèçìîâ çàêëþ÷àåòñÿ â ïðèäàíèè
èçâåñòíûì ñëîâàì íîâûõ çíà÷åíèé. Òàê, âî âðåìÿ âîéíû ñëîâî egg
(ÿéöî) ïðèîáðåëî ñïåöèàëüíîå çíà÷åíèå — àâèàáîìáà, ïîñêîëüêó
ïîñëåäíÿÿ ïî ôîðìå íàïîìèíàëà ÿéöî, à ñëîâî summit (âåðøèíà,
âûñøàÿ òî÷êà) â ñåìèäåñÿòûå ãîäû 20-ãî âåêà ïðèîáðåëî çíà÷åíèå
âñòðå÷à íà âûñøåì óðîâíå, âñòðå÷à ðóêîâîäèòåëåé ãîñóäàðñòâ.
Åùå îäèí ïðèìåð. Ìåäèöèíñêèé òåðìèí domino îáîçíà÷àåò òàêóþ îïåðàöèþ ïî ïåðåñàäêå îðãàíîâ, âî âðåìÿ êîòîðîé ïàöèåíòó À
ïåðåñàæèâàþò íîâîå ñåðäöå è ëåãêèå îò ïîëó÷èâøåãî êðîâîèçëèÿíèå â ìîçã äîíîðà, à ïàöèåíòó Á ïåðåñàæèâàþò ñòàðîå ñåðäöå ïàöèåíòà À. Ïîÿâëåíèå ýòîãî íåîëîãèçìà â 80-õ ãîäàõ ñâÿçàíî ñ ïåðåîñìûñëåíèåì íàçâàíèÿ èãðû äîìèíî, ãäå êàæäàÿ êîñòü ðàçäåëåíà íà äâå
ðàâíûå ÷àñòè:
“There’s such a shortage of organs here“, says Julieta Gonzalez,
spokeswoman for the university medical centre in Tucson, Arizona, where the country’s fifth domino was carried out last month.
The Sunday Times
Èíòåðåñíûì ïðèìåðîì ïîÿâëåíèÿ íåîëîãèçìà â ðåçóëüòàòå ïåðåîñìûñëåíèÿ ÿâëÿåòñÿ ñëîâî colour-blind (adj.). Ïåðâîíà÷àëüíîå çíà÷åíèå ýòîãî ñëîâà — ÷åëîâåê, íå ðàçëè÷àþùèé öâåòà, äàëüòîíèê. Â
ïîñëåäíåé ÷åòâåðòè 20-ãî âåêà îíî ïðèîáðåëî çíà÷åíèå ÷åëîâåê,
êîòîðûé íå ðàçäåëÿåò ëþäåé ïî ðàñîâîé è íàöèîíàëüíîé (ýòíè÷åñêîé)
ïðèíàäëåæíîñòè.
Ê ïîäîáíûì ïðèìåðàì îáðàçîâàíèÿ íîâûõ ñëîâ íà îñíîâå ïåðåîñìûñëåíèÿ ìîæíî òàêæå îòíåñòè ñëîâî shuttle (îò ïåðâîíà÷àëüíîãî çíà÷åíèÿ ÷åëíîê êàê äåòàëü øâåéíîé ìàøèíû) — êîñìè÷åñêèé
êîðàáëü ìíîãîðàçîâîãî èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ (shuttle spaceshi p); òîðãîâåö,
ñîâåðøàþùèé ðåéñû çà òîâàðàìè â ñîñåäíèå ñòðàíû è ïîëó÷àþùèé
ïðèáûëü íà ðàçíèöå â öåíå (shuttle trader) è ò.ä.
Íàêîíåö, áîëüøîå ÷èñëî íåîëîãèçìîâ, îáðàçîâàííûõ çà ñ÷åò
ïåðåîñìûñëåíèÿ, ïîÿâèëîñü â êîìïüþòåðíîé òåðìèíîëîãèè, íàïðèìåð:web — âñåìèðíàÿ ïàóòèíà (Èíòåðíåò), mouse — ìûøü,
site — ñàéò (ñòðàíèöà â Èíòåðíåòå, îò ïåðâîíà÷àëüíîãî çíà÷åíèÿ
âèä), browser — áðàóçåð (îò ãëàãîëà browse - áëóæäàòü), ñåðâåð (îò
ãëàãîëà serve — îáñëóæèâàòü) è ò.ä.
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3. Çàèìñòâîâàíèÿ èç äðóãèõ ÿçûêîâ
Íåñìîòðÿ íà ïðåîáëàäàíèå çàèìñòâîâàííûõ èç àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà ñëîâ è òåðìèíîâ â äðóãèõ ÿçûêàõ (íàïðèìåð, â îáëàñòè áèçíåñà è
ôèíàíñîâ: ëàã < lag — çàïàçäûâàíèå; ìàðêåòèíã < marketing; äèëåð
< dealer è ò.ä.), â àíãëèéñêèé ÿçûê òàêæå âîøëî (ïðàâäà, çíà÷èòåëüíî ìåíüøåå) êîëè÷åñòâî ñëîâ èç äðóãèõ ÿçûêîâ.
Íåêîòîðûå èç çàèìñòâîâàíèé óæå çàêðåïëåíû â êà÷åñòâå ñëîâàðíûõ ñòàòåé:
Khozraschot noun [a conflation of the Russian phrase
khozyaistvenny raschot, meaning ‘self-supporting running’] —
(in the Soviet Union) economic accountability; the notion
that industrial and other undertakings should be responsible
for their own finances, and not depend on the state subsidies
(John Ayto. The Longman Register of New Words. Special
Edition. — Longman, 1989, p. 216).
Khozraschot [sic] means the end of huge subsidies to inefficient enterprises, which will result in closures and lay-offs.
The Daily Telegraph
Íàðÿäó ñî ñëîâîì khozraschot, â Ñëîâàðå íîâûõ ñëîâ àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà ôèãóðèðóþò òàêèå íåîëîãèçìû-çàèìñòâîâàíèÿ èç ðóññêîãî, êàê glasnost è perestroika ñî ññûëêîé íà èõ àâòîðà Ì.Ñ. Ãîðáà÷åâà. Êñòàòè, åùå îäèí íåîëîãèçì-çàèìñòâîâàíèå â àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå, íà ýòîò ðàç ñ êèòàéñêîãî, ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ñîáîé ñèíîíèì ñëîâà
perestroika. Ýòî ñëîâî gai-ge, êîòîðîå òîæå ïîäðàçóìåâàåò ðåôîðìó (â
ÊÍÐ), íî áîëåå ðàäèêàëüíóþ, ÷åì ïåðåñòðîéêà â ÑÑÑÐ. Êàê ïèñàëà “Äåéëè Òåëåãðàô”, “Perestroika has a slight suggestion of moving
things about. Gai-ge is stronger: it means getting rid of things as well as
changing them by radical reform”.
Ñëîâî tranche (òðàíø) — ïðèìåð çàèìñòâîâàíèÿ èç ôðàíöóçñêîãî ÿçûêà. Îíî îáîçíà÷àåò íåêîòîðîå êîëè÷åñòâî ñåãìåíòîâ, íà
êîòîðîå äåëèòñÿ öåëîå; ÷àñòü êðåäèòíîé ëèíèè èëè çàéìà. Îáû÷íî
çàéìû Ìåæäóíàðîäíîãî âàëþòíîãî ôîíäà è Âñåìèðíîãî áàíêà âûäåëÿþòñÿ òðàíøàìè.
Åùå îäèí ïðèìåð çàèìñòâîâàíèÿ èç ôðàíöóçñêîãî ÿçûêà - òåðìèí laissez-faire — ïîëèòèêà íåâìåøàòåëüñòâà, ñâîáîäà äåéñòâèé â
ñôåðå áèçíåñà.
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4. Ñîêðàùåíèÿ (àááðåâèàòóðû è àêðîíèìû)
Àááðåâèàòóðà — ñîêðàùåíèå, êîòîðîå ïðîèçíîñèòñÿ ïî áóêâàì: PC [pi: si:] — personal computer (ïåðñîíàëüíûé êîìïüþòåð);
aka — also known as (èçâåñòíûé òàêæå êàê).
Àêðîíèì — ñîêðàùåíèå, ôîíåòè÷åñêàÿ ñòðóêòóðà êîòîðîãî ñîâïàäàåò ñ ôîíåòè÷åñêîé ñòðóêòóðîé îáùåóïîòðåáèòåëüíûõ ñëîâ. Â
êà÷åñòâå ïðèìåðà àêðîíèìîâ ìîæíî ïðèâåñòè íàçâàíèÿ àëãîðèòìè÷åñêèõ ÿçûêîâ:
ALGOL (Algorithmic Language)
LISP (List Processing)
FORTRAN (Formula Translation)
Àëãîë
Ëèñï
Ôîðòðàí
Èíîãäà, áëàãîäàðÿ ðàçâèòèþ ÿçûêà àááðåâèàòóðà ìîæåò òðàíñôîðìèðîâàòüñÿ â àêðîíèì: PR (public relations) — ïèàð.
Íåîëîãèçìû, îáðàçîâàííûå ïóòåì ñîêðàùåíèé ñëîâ èëè ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèé, ïîñòîÿííî ïîÿâëÿþòñÿ â àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå, ïðè÷åì
âíîâü îáðàçîâàííîå ñëîâî (òåðìèí), ïðåäñòàâëÿÿ ñîáîé àêðîíèì,
÷àñòî äàæå íå âîñïðèíèìàåòñÿ êàê ñîêðàùåíèå.
Íàïðèìåð, scuba (ñêóáà, äûõàòåëüíûé àïïàðàò äëÿ ïëàâàíèÿ
ïîä âîäîé, àêâàëàíã) — ýòî ñîêðàùåíèå îò self-contained underwater
breathing apparatus. SARS — severe acute respiratory syndrome (ÑÀÐÑ,
àòèïè÷íàÿ ïíåâìîíèÿ).
Íàçâàíèå ðàäèîëîêàöèîííîé óñòàíîâêè ðàäàð (radar) — ýòî ñîêðàùåíèå îò radio detecting and ranging.
Óïîòðåáëÿÿ ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèÿ «ëàçåðíûé ëó÷» èëè «ëó÷ ëàçåðà»,
ìû âðÿä ëè çàäóìûâàåìñÿ íàä òåì, ÷òî ñëîâî ëàçåð — ýòî òîæå
ñîêðàùåíèå: (laser — light amplification [by] stimulated emission [of]
radiation).
Øèðîêî ïðèìåíÿåìûé â áàíêîâñêîé ñôåðå òåðìèí ÑÂÈÔÒ
(S.W.I.F.T.) — ýòî ñîêðàùåíèå îò The Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications.
Ïðèìåíÿþòñÿ ñîêðàùåíèÿ è â èäèîìàòè÷åñêèõ âûðàæåíèÿõ,
íàïðèìåð: to TCB (U.S.) — ïðåóñïåâàòü â áèçíåñå (ñîêðàùåíèå îò
take care of business).
Ïðèâåäåííûå âûøå ïðèìåðû íåîëîãèçìîâ îáðàçîâàíû â îñíîâíîì îò áóêâåííûõ ñîêðàùåíèé ñëîâ (çà èñêëþ÷åíèåì íàçâàíèé
àëãîðèòìè÷åñêèõ ÿçûêîâ).
Åñòü è äðóãèå âèäû ñîêðàùåíèé, êîãäà ñîêðàùàþòñÿ ÷àñòè ñëîâ
è îáðàçóþòñÿ ñëîãîâûå ñðàùåíèÿ èëè óñå÷åííûå ñëîâà. Íàêîíåö, åñòü
ñìåøàííûå ñîêðàùåíèÿ, ñîñòîÿùèå èç áóêâ, ñëîãîâ, öèôð è ñëîâ.
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Èçâåñòíûå ïðèìåðû ñëîãîâîãî ñðàùåíèÿ — Benelux (Áåíèëþêñ)
îò Belgium, Netherlands, Luxemburg è Hi-Fi (Õàé-Ôàé) îò High Fidelity.
 ïîÿâèâøåìñÿ â êîíöå 80-õ ãîäîâ ýêîíîìè÷åñêîì íåîëîãèçìå
mesoeconomic (ìåçîýêîíîìè÷åñêèé) ñîåäèíåíû ïåðâûé ñëîã îò medium-sized è ñëîâî economic, è îáîçíà÷àåò îí ïðîìåæóòî÷íîå ñîñòîÿíèå ìåæäó macroeconomic è microeconomic. Àâòîð ýòîãî íåîëîãèçìà èçâåñòåí. Ýòî àíãëèéñêèé ýêîíîìèñò Ñòþàðò Õîëëàíä (Stuart
Holland), êîòîðûé â 1988 ã. óïîòðåáèë åãî â êíèãå Towards a New
Political Economy (Vol. I: The Market Economy: from micro to
mesoeconomics; Vol. II: The Global Economy: from meso to macroeconomics).
Èçâåñòíûé ïðèìåð íåîëîãèçìà, îáðàçîâàííîãî ïóòåì óñå÷åíèÿ
äâóõ ñëîâ, ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ñëîâî stagflation. Îíî îáðàçîâàëîñü îò íà÷àëà
stagnation (ñòàãíàöèÿ, çàñòîé) è êîíöà inflation (èíôëÿöèÿ).
Åùå îäèí ïðèìåð íåîëîãèçìà — óñå÷åííîãî ñëîâà — infomercial.
Ýòî ñëîâî îáðàçîâàëîñü îò ñîåäèíåíèÿ íà÷àëüíîé ÷àñòè information
(èíôîðìàöèÿ) è êîíå÷íîé ÷àñòè commercial (òåëåðåêëàìà). Ýòîò òåðìèí â Ñëîâàðå íîâûõ ñëîâ àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà îïðåäåëÿåòñÿ êàê “a
short film produced by an advertiser giving information about goods
which it has for sale, to be shown on television” (p. 206).
Ïîäîáíûì ñïîñîáîì îáðàçîâàí íåîëîãèçì èç ñôåðû áèçíåñà
promotools (n., pl.) îò promotional tools (íàãëÿäíûå ìàòåðèàëû, èñïîëüçóåìûå â ðåêëàìíûõ öåëÿõ). Èíîãäà â òàêèõ ñëîâàõ óìûøëåííî
ìåíÿþò òå èëè èíûå áóêâû äëÿ ïðèâëå÷åíèÿ âíèìàíèÿ, íàïðèìåð:
showbiz îò show business (øîó áèçíåñ).
Ãîâîðÿ î ñîêðàùåíèÿõ, ñòîèò òàêæå óïîìÿíóòü
à) èñïîëüçîâàíèå ñîãëàñíûõ (ïåðâîé è ïîñëåäíåé èëè ïåðâîé,
ñðåäèííîé è ïîñëåäíåé) äëÿ êðàòêîñòè çàïèñè ñëîâà:
ctr (centre); fwd (forward); jr (junior); shtg (shortage); rqs
(requirements); ppd (prepaid).
á)
èñïîëüçîâàíèå íà÷àëüíûõ ñëîãîâ:
libs (liberals) — ëèáåðàëû; dept (department) — äåïàðòàìåíò; nukes (nuclear weapons) — ÿäåðíîå îðóæèå.
â)
ñìåøàííûå ñîêðàùåíèÿ:
ALGOL (Algorithmic Language) — àëãîë (àëãîðèòìè÷åñêèé
ÿçûê)
ATM (automated teller machine) — áàíêîìàò
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E-mail (Electronic mail) — ýëåêòðîííàÿ ïî÷òà
M-way (Motorway) — àâòîäîðîãà
X-rays — ðåíòãåíîâñêèå ëó÷è
Áóêâû â êà÷åñòâå ñîñòàâíûõ ÷àñòåé íåîëîãèçìîâ ìîãóò è íå
áûòü ñîêðàùåíèåì. Îíè ñàìè ïî ñåáå ÷òî-òî îáîçíà÷àþò:
H-bomb (Hydrogene bomb) — âîäîðîäíàÿ áîìáà
T-shirt — ôóòáîëêà ñ êîðîòêèìè ðóêàâàìè â ôîðìå
áóêâû Ò
U-turn — ðàçâîðîò ìàøèíû íà 180 ãðàäóñîâ, òî åñòü â
ôîðìå áóêâû U
Y-intersection — ïåðåêðåñòîê äîðîã â âèäå áóêâû Y
X-ing (Crossing) — ïåðåõîä
ìåð:
Ñîêðàùåíèÿìè òàêæå ïîëüçóþòñÿ â äåëîâîé ïåðåïèñêå, íàïðè-
cc (carbon copy — êîïèÿ);
RSVP (àááðåâèàòóðà ôðàíöóçñêîé ôðàçû répondez s’il vous
plait — ïðîøó îòâåòèòü);
ASAP (as soon as possible — êàê ìîæíî ñêîðåå).
Íàêîíåö, ñîêðàùåíèÿ èç áóêâ è öèôð ñòàëè èñïîëüçîâàòü äëÿ
âûðàæåíèÿ ñëîâ è äàæå öåëûõ ôðàç, ñîâïàäàþùèõ ïî çâó÷àíèþ ñ
íàçâàíèåì áóêâ è öèôð:
IOU
U2
R
4U
8
2B
YU?
B4
U1
B2B
B4U
ICQ
4X
B&B
30
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
I owe you
you too
are
for you
ate
to be
why you?
before
you won
business to business
before you
I seek you
forex (foreign exchange)
bed and breakfast
 êàæäîé ñôåðå äåÿòåëüíîñòè ñóùåñòâóþò ñâîè ñîêðàùåíèÿ. Ïåðåâîä÷èê, êîòîðûé ñïåöèàëèçèðóåòñÿ â òîé èëè èíîé îáëàñòè, äîëæåí ñëåäèòü çà ïîÿâëåíèåì íîâûõ ñîêðàùåíèé è îáíîâëåíèåì ñâîåãî àêòèâíîãî ñëîâàðÿ àááðåâèàòóð. Íàïðèìåð, ê ñôåðå ìåæäóíàðîäíûõ ôèíàíñîâûõ èíñòèòóòîâ îòíîñÿòñÿ òàêèå ñîêðàùåíèÿ, êàê:
BOP
CCFF
CPI
EFTA
EMS
IBRD
IMF
OECD
SDR
SNA
VAT
VER
– Balance of Payments (Ïëàòåæíûé áàëàíñ)
– Compensatory and Contingency Financing
Facility (Ìåõàíèçì êîìïåíñàöèîííîãî è
÷ðåçâû÷àéíîãî ôèíàíñèðîâàíèÿ, ÑÑÔÔ)
– Consumer Price Index (Èíäåêñ
ïîòðåáèòåëüñêèõ öåí, ÈÏÖ)
– European Free Trade Association (Åâðîïåéñêàÿ
àññîöèàöèÿ ñâîáîäíîé òîðãîâëè, ÅÀÑÒ)
– European Monetary System (Åâðîïåéñêàÿ
âàëþòíàÿ ñèñòåìà, ÅÂÑ)
– International Bank for Reconstruction and
Development (Ìåæäóíàðîäíûé Áàíê
Ðåêîíñòðóêöèè è Ðàçâèòèÿ, Âñåìèðíûé
Áàíê)
– International Monetary Fund (Ìåæäóíàðîäíûé
âàëþòíûé ôîíä, ÌÂÔ)
– Organisation for Economic Cooperation and
Development (Îðãàíèçàöèÿ Ýêîíîìè÷åñêîãî
Ñîòðóäíè÷åñòâà è Ðàçâèòèÿ, ÎÝÑÐ)
– Special Drawing Rights (ìåæäóíàðîäíàÿ
ðàñ÷åòíàÿ åäèíèöà ÑÄÐ)
– System of National Accounts (Ñèñòåìà
íàöèîíàëüíûõ ñ÷åòîâ, ÑÍÑ)
– Value Added Tax (Íàëîã íà äîáàâëåííóþ
ñòîèìîñòü, ÍÄÑ)
– Voluntary Export Restraints (Äîáðîâîëüíîå
îãðàíè÷åíèå ýêñïîðòà)
Èñòî÷íèê: Ãëîññàðèé ÌÂÔ.
5. Êîíâåðñèÿ
Âåñüìà ðàñïðîñòðàíåííûì ñïîñîáîì îáðàçîâàíèÿ íåîëîãèçìîâ
ÿâëÿåòñÿ êîíâåðñèÿ, òî åñòü îáðàçîâàíèå îäíîé ÷àñòè ðå÷è îò äðó31
ãîé, íàïðèìåð, ãëàãîëîâ îò èìåí ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûõ, îáîçíà÷àþùèõ
îïðåäåëåííîå äåéñòâèå. Ñëîâàðü íå âñåãäà ôèêñèðóåò ýòè ñëîâà, íî
îá èõ çíà÷åíèè ìîæíî äîãàäàòüñÿ ïî êîíòåêñòó ïóòåì ñîïîñòàâëåíèÿ ñî çíà÷åíèåì èñõîäíîãî ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîãî è òîé ôóíêöèè,
êîòîðóþ âûïîëíÿåò ïðåäìåò, âûðàæåííûé ýòèì ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûì:
The gap is to be bridged in the near future.
Ýòîò ðàçðûâ íóæíî ïðåîäîëåòü â áëèæàéøåì áóäóùåì.
(bridge — ìîñò)
The new system test might trigger an arms race.
Èñïûòàíèå íîâîé ñèñòåìû ìîæåò âûçâàòü ãîíêó âîîðóæåíèé. (trigger — êóðîê â îãíåñòðåëüíîì îðóæèè)
Programs involved in teaching English as a foreign languages
mushroomed in the 60-ies in the United States.
Êîëè÷åñòâî ïðîãðàìì îáó÷åíèÿ àíãëèéñêîìó ÿçûêó êàê
èíîñòðàííîìó ðåçêî âîçðîñëî (äîñëîâíî: ñòàëè ðàñòè, êàê
ãðèáû).
The unemployment rate sky-rocketed in 1994.
Óðîâåíü áåçðàáîòèöû ðåçêî óâåëè÷èëñÿ â 1994 ãîäó (äîñëîâíî — âçëåòåë êàê ðàêåòà).
The wages have plummeted (plummet — ñâèíöîâàÿ ãèðÿ).
Çàðàáîòíàÿ ïëàòà ðåçêî ñîêðàòèëàñü (óïàëà ñî ñêîðîñòüþ
ñâèíöîâîé ãèðè).
Torpedo the talks.
Ñîðâàòü ïðîâåäåíèå ïåðåãîâîðîâ.
Îáðàòíûé ïðèìåð êîíâåðñèè — îáðàçîâàíèå èìåíè ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîãî îò ãëàãîëà:
Spend (n) — an amount (to be) spent (êîëè÷åñòâî ïîòðà÷åííûõ äåíåã), êàê â ñëåäóþùåì ñëó÷àå:
It is also believed the winning agency could benefit from an
increased spend on the account of up to 1.5 million.
6. Çâóêîâîå ïîäîáèå
Çâóêîâîå ïîäîáèå êàê ñïîñîá îáðàçîâàíèÿ íåîëîãèçìîâ ñòàâèò
ñâîåé öåëüþ ïðèâëå÷ü âíèìàíèå ïîëüçîâàòåëåé ÿçûêà íîâîé ôîðìîé ñëîâà, ïåðâîíà÷àëüíîå çíà÷åíèå êîòîðîãî ó âñåõ íà ñëóõó. Â
êà÷åñòâå ìîæíî ïðèâåñòè ñëîâî Dellionaire (çâóêîâîå ïîäîáèå ñ mil32
lionaire, billionaire) — áîãàòûé ÷åëîâåê, ñîñòîÿíèå êîòîðîãî îñíîâàíî
íà âëàäåíèè àêöèÿìè êîìïüþòåðíîé êîðïîðàöèè Dell:
“[Michael Dell] made his money by grafting an old idea to a
new business: he eliminated the middlemen (and avoided the
inventory costs of his rivals) by building computers to order and
selling them direct to customers. That simple scheme made millionaires of many of Mr. Dell’s early employees, even secretaries
and clerks, and it made billionaires of some.
Soon all of
Austin was gossiping about the new ‘Dellionaires’.” (R.W. Apple
Jr. “Booming In Size and Brio”, The New York Times, April 28,
2000).
Åùå îäíèì ïðèìåðîì íåîëîãèçìà, îáðàçîâàííîãî ñ ïîìîùüþ
çâóêîâîãî ïîäîáèÿ ÿâëÿåòñÿ Baby Bills (õîòÿ çäåñü òàêæå ìîæíî óñìîòðåòü ýâôåìèçì, ò.å. ñëîâî, óïîòðåáëÿåìîå äëÿ íå ïðÿìîãî, ïðèêðûòîãî çíà÷åíèÿ ïðåäìåòà, ëèöà èëè ÿâëåíèÿ). Íà÷íåì ñ òîãî, ÷òî
ïîäîáíûì ïî çâó÷àíèþ òåðìèíîì Baby Bells ñòàëè íàçûâàòü êîìïàíèè, ñîçäàííûå ïîñëå ðàñïàäà Ýé-Òè-ýíä-Òè (AT&T), òåëåôîííîé
ìîíîïîëèè ÑØÀ. ×òî êàñàåòñÿ Baby Bills, òî çäåñü èìååòñÿ òàêæå
çâóêîâîå ïîäîáèå ñ èìåíåì ìèëëèàðäåðà Áèëëà Ãåéòñà. Ýòîò òåðìèí
çàêðåïèëñÿ äëÿ íàèìåíîâàíèÿ òåõ êîìïàíèé, êîòîðûå áû îáðàçîâàëèñü â ñëó÷àå, åñëè áû Ìèíèñòåðñòâî Þñòèöèè ÑØÀ ïðèíÿëî ðåøåíèå î äðîáëåíèè äåòèùà Áèëëà Ãåéòñà — êîìïàíèè Ìàéêðîñîôò
(íèæå — ïðèìåð èç ðåäàêöèîííîé ñòàòüè â ãàçåòå «Ëîñ Àíäæåëåñ
Òàéìñ»):
“If Microsoft does not compromise, the Justice Department might
be forced to embrace a heavy-handed solution such regulating
Microsoft as a utility (deeming Windows the modern equivalent
of railroad terminal) or breaking the company up into Baby
Bills.”
7. Ôðàçåîëîãèçìû
Ðàçëè÷íîãî ðîäà ôðàçåîëîãè÷åñêèå ñî÷åòàíèÿ èäèîìàòè÷åñêèå
âûðàæåíèÿ òàêæå ìîãóò áûòü èñòî÷íèêîì îáðàçîâàíèÿ íåîëîãèçìîâ. Äëÿ ïåðåâîä÷èêà ýòî, íàâåðíîå, ñàìûé ñëîæíûé ñëó÷àé, ïîñêîëüêó îí òðåáóåò ãëóáîêîãî çíàíèÿ ðåàëèé ñòðàíû, ñ ÿçûêà êîòîðîé äåëàåòñÿ ïåðåâîä. Ïîìîùíèêàìè çäåñü ìîãóò áûòü ñëîâàðè èäèîì àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà. Ê àíãëèéñêèì íåîëîãèçìàì â îáëàñòè áèçíåñà, êîòîðûå îáðàçîâàíû ýòèì ñïîñîáîì, ìîæíî îòíåñòè ñëåäóþùèå ïðèìåðû:
33
debtnocrat — áàíêîâñêèé ñëóæàùèé, ñïåöèàëèçèðóþùèéñÿ íà âûäà÷å êðåäèòîâ âûñîêîãî óðîâíÿ (ïîä ãàðàíòèþ
ïðàâèòåëüñòâà, îáû÷íî ñòðàí òðåòüåãî ìèðà);
dead-cat bounce (äîñëîâíî: îòñêîê äîõëîé êîøêè) — îáìàí÷èâîå âðåìåííîå âîññòàíîâëåíèå öåí íà àêöèè íà áèðæåâîì ðûíêå, ãäå îáû÷íî óðîâåíü öåí äîñòàòî÷íî íèçêèé (èìååòñÿ â âèäó, ÷òî äàæå äîõëàÿ êîøêà îòñêî÷èò îò
çåìëè, åñëè åå ñáðîñèòü ñ áîëüøîé âûñîòû);
Dutch bargain (äîñëîâíî: ãîëëàíäñêàÿ ñäåëêà) — ñäåëêà, â
ðåçóëüòàòå êîòîðîé âñå ïðåèìóùåñòâà ïîëó÷àåò ëèøü îäíà
ñòîðîíà;
marzipan layer (äîñëîâíî: ìàðöèïàíîâûé ñëîé) — ñðåäíåå
çâåíî óïðàâëåíèÿ êîìïàíèè, êîòîðîå ñ÷èòàåòñÿ ëèøíèì
è íå ïðèíîñÿùèì åé ïîëüçó;
silver wheelchair (äîñëîâíî: ñåðåáðÿíàÿ èíâàëèäíàÿ êîëÿñêà) — êðóïíàÿ ñóììà äåíåã, âûäåëåííàÿ ÷ëåíó âûñøåãî ðóêîâîäñòâà êîìïàíèè êàê êîìïåíñàöèÿ çà óòðàòó
äîëæíîñòè (â ðåçóëüòàòå ïîãëîùåíèÿ åå áîëåå êðóïíîé
êîìïàíèåé);
sucker list — ñïèñîê ïîòåíöèàëüíûõ êëèåíòîâ (ïîêóïàòåëåé);
think tank (äîñëîâíî: ìîçãîâîé ðåçåðâóàð) — ìîçãîâîé
öåíòð, ò.å. ãðóïïà ýêñïåðòîâ, ðàçðàáàòûâàþùèõ ïëàíû èëè
ðåêîìåíäàöèè;
windfall (äîñëîâíî: ñáèòûé âåòðîì ïëîä) — íåîæèäàííàÿ
ïðèáûëü.
Èñòî÷íèê: Á. Õîøîâñêàÿ. Èäèîìàòè÷åñêèå âûðàæåíèÿ â äåëîâîì àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå. — ÑÏá.: Ëàíü, 1997.
8. Ïîëèòè÷åñêè êîððåêòíûå ýâôåìèçìû1
Ãîâîðÿ î ïîëèòè÷åñêè êîððåêòíûõ ýâôåìèçìàõ êàê èñòî÷íèêå
îáðàçîâàíèÿ íåîëîãèçìîâ, íåîáõîäèìî ïîä÷åðêíóòü, ÷òî îíè, â
îòëè÷èå îò äðóãèõ ýâôåìèçìîâ, ïîÿâèëèñü ñîâñåì íåäàâíî. Òåì íå
1
Ýâôåìèçì — îò ãðå÷åñêîãî euphemeo — ãîâîðþ âåæëèâî. Ýòî ñëîâî èëè âûðàæåíèå, óïîòðåáëÿåìîå äëÿ íå ïðÿìîãî, ïðèêðûòîãî îáîçíà÷åíèÿ ïðåäìåòà, ÷åëîâåêà èëè ÿâëåíèÿ, íàçûâàòü êîòîðîå ïðÿìî íå ïðèíÿòî èëè íåóäîáíî â äàííîé
ñèòóàöèè, íàïðèìåð Gosh âìåñòî God. Ýâôåìèçìû åñòü â ëþáîì ÿçûêå, îíè
÷àùå âñåãî çàìåíÿþò ñîáîé âóëüãàðèçìû, íî íå òîëüêî (â ðóññêîì ÿçûêå —
ïîëíûé âìåñòî òîëñòûé, â ïîëîæåíèè âìåñòî áåðåìåííà).
34
ìåíåå, îíè çàíÿëè îïðåäåëåííóþ íèøó â ñîâðåìåííîì ñëîâàðå àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà. Íèæå ïðèâîäÿòñÿ ïðèìåðû ïîëèòè÷åñêè êîððåêòíûõ ñëîâ è âûðàæåíèé ñ ïåðåâîäîì íà ðóññêèé ÿçûê è àíãëèéñêèìè ýêâèâàëåíòàìè èç íåäàâíåãî ïðîøëîãî. Ñëåäóåò îãîâîðèòüñÿ, ÷òî
íåêîòîðûå èç íèõ óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ ñ èðîíèåé, ïîýòîìó äëÿ îáû÷íîãî, íåéòðàëüíîãî ðàçãîâîðà îíè íå õàðàêòåðíû:
developmentally challenged — ñ îòêëîíåíèÿìè â óìñòâåííîì ðàçâèòèè (mentally retarded);
intellectually disadvantaged — ñ íèçêèì èíòåëëåêòîì (low
IQ, stupid) [IQ — intelligence quotient — “àé-êüþ”, êîýôôèöèåíò óìñòâåííîãî ðàçâèòèÿ];
voluntarily leisured — áåçðàáîòíûé (unemployed);
technologically challenged — ñ îòñóòñòâèåì òåõíè÷åñêèõ íàâûêîâ (unable to deal with technical appliances).
Ê äðóãèì íåîëîãèçìàì, îáðàçîâàííûì ñ ïîìîùüþ ïîëèòêîððåêòíûõ ýâôåìèçìîâ, ìîæíî îòíåñòè ñëåäóþùèå:
Afro-Americans — àôðîàìåðèêàíöû (Blacks, Negroes);
Native Americans — êîðåííûå àìåðèêàíöû (Indians);
academic dishonesty — ñïèñûâàíèå íà óðîêàõ (cheating in
schools);
international students — èíîñòðàííûå ñòóäåíòû (foreign
students);
gender — ãåíäåðíàÿ, ïîëîâàÿ ïðèíàäëåæíîñòü (sex);
flight attendant — áîðòïðîâîäíèê/áîðòïðîâîäíèöà (steward /stewardess);
visually challenged — ñëåïîé èëè ñëàáîâèäÿùèé (blind);
?
Âîïðîñû äëÿ ñàìîêîíòðîëÿ
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Êàêèå ñëîâà íàçûâàþòñÿ íåîëîãèçìàìè?
Êàêèå ñïîñîáû îáðàçîâàíèÿ íåîëîãèçìîâ âàì èçâåñòíû?
×òî òàêîå ïåðåîñìûñëåíèå ñëîâ â ÿçûêå?
Êàêîâà ðîëü çàèìñòâîâàíèé â îáðàçîâàíèè íåîëîãèçìîâ?
Êàêèå âèäû ñîêðàùåíèé âû çíàåòå? Ïðèâåäèòå ïðèìåðû.
×òî òàêîå êîíâåðñèÿ?
Íà ÷åì îñíîâàí ñïîñîá çâóêîâîãî ïîäîáèÿ?
 ÷åì òðóäíîñòü ïåðåâîäà íåîëîãèçìîâ, îáðàçîâàííûõ ïóòåì êîíâåðñèè è ñ èñïîëüçîâàíèåì ôðàçåîëîãèçìîâ?
35
9.
×òî òàêîå ýâôåìèçìû è â ÷åì îñîáåííîñòü ïîëèòè÷åñêè
êîððåêòíûõ ýâôåìèçìîâ?
Ïðàêòè÷åñêîå çàäàíèå
À.
Ïåðåâåäèòå ñëåäóþùèå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ, ñîäåðæàùèå ñëîâà-íåîëîãèçìû, è óñòàíîâèòå ñïîñîá èõ îáðàçîâàíèÿ. Äëÿ ðàáîòû íàä
ïåðåâîäîì ìîæíî èñïîëüçîâàòü Ñëîâàðü íîâûõ ñëîâ àíãëèéñêîãî
ÿçûêà Äæ. Ýéòî (Ìîñêâà: Ðóññêèé ÿçûê, 1990):
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
About 65 Amerasians arrived in Thailand yesterday with their
relatives on their way to their new homes in the United States.
The first generation of baby-boomers in Britain and the U.S. was
born in late forties-early fifties.
Slowly, and unevenly, a ‘can-do’ attitude is beginning to replace the inertia in the trade unions.
Capital flight is now becoming less accessible from foreign creditors.
If the merger boom is now nearing a close, will it be followed
by a demerger boom?
E-commerce has become wide spread in the U.S.
The companies are now joining their forces because the potential synergy is evident.
If an insurance company wishes you a happy birthday, take it as
a sure sign that they view you as a target for a touch of crossmarketing. In other words, having sold to you once or twice
before, they would like to do it over and over again.
Á.
Íà îñíîâå ïðèâåäåííûõ íèæå íåîëîãèçìîâ è èõ îïðåäåëåíèé,
äàííûõ íà àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå, óñòàíîâèòå, êàêîé èç ñåìè ñïîñîáîâ
îáðàçîâàíèÿ íåîëîãèçìîâ ïîñëóæèë îñíîâîé äëÿ èõ ïîÿâëåíèÿ;
ïîïûòàéòåñü èõ ïåðåâåñòè èçîëèðîâàííî è â ïðåäëîæåíèÿõ.
1.
DENGLISH — speech or text that uses a mixture of German
and English words (from Deutsch and English).
E.g.: Many billboards have slogans in Denglish — a mix of English and
German. Ad posters for sleeveless jumpers call them ‘tanktops’. And Berlin’s
36
road sweepers are promoted under the slogan ‘We Kehr For You’ —
kehr means to sweep.”
2.
GOOMBY — a person who hopes for the removal of some dangerous or unpleasant feature from his or her neighborhood (based
on the phrase Get Out of My Back Yard). GOOMBYism — the
attitude of such a person.
E.g.: The city is trying to raise taxes The appeliate judge coined a new
phrase to describe what council members are doing: GOOMBYism. He
refers to NIMBYism — the Not in My Back Yard sentiment that drives
many political decisions. “The present case may be described as
GOOMBYism for ‘get out of my back yard,’ or at least ‘ if you stay here,
you’re going to pay for it,” (The Orange County Register).
3.
LULU — a real estate development or other construction to
which the local residents are opposed (based on the phrase
“locally unwanted land use,”)
4.
METROSEXUAL — a dandyish narcissist in love not only with
himself, but also his urban lifestyle.
5.
NARCO-TOURIST — a person who travels to a foreigh country
to sample the local drugs or the indigenous narcotic plants.
6.
NEWATER — exceptionally pure water recycled from waste
water generated by showers, sinks, and toilets (also: NEWater).
E.g.: “ As part of the campaign to win public acceptance, the government [of Malaysia] has begun calling the recycled waste “newater” and
has handled out more than 650,000 bottles. (The New York Times).
7.
P2P — (1) person to person (describes a payment service
that enables one individual to pay another for an online
transaction — such as an auction sale); (2) path to profitability (the strategy a company plans to implement to become profitable); (3) peer-to-peer (describes an Internet system that
enables users to trade files directly without requiring a central
database or server).
8.
W2K — shortened form of Windows 2000, an operating system
from Microsoft (cf. Y2K)
9.
WARMEDY — a comedy that features warm-hearted, familyoriented content.
10. WEBLISH (n) — a form of English peculiar to some online
documents and communication, the characteristics of which
include the use of all lowercase letters, errors in spelling and
37
grammar, and informal tone.
E.g.: “The popularity of e-mail is destroying the normal rules of spelling
and grammar leading to ‘weblish’, a lower case global language littered
with mistakes” (The Daily Telegraph).
11. WI-FI — wireless fidelity, a networking scheme that creates a
wireless connection between a device and a network or the Internet
(cf. Hi-Fi)
12. BEEPER-SITTER — a person who assumes responsibility for
recording another person’s beeper (= pager) messages.
13. BRANDALISM — the defacement of public buildings and spaces
by corporate ads, logos, and other forms of branding (brand +
vandalism).
14. DADROCK — music performed by aging rock stars; also music
that is strongly influenced by groups from the 60’s and 70’s.
15. HOSPITALIST — a doctor who practices only in a hospital.
16. WEARABLE (n) — a computer designed to be worn as an
item of clothing or as a wardrobe accessory.
17. WORDROBE — the words and phrases that comprise a person’s
vocabulary.
18. BRAIN GAIN — an increase in the number of highly skilled
intellectual and technical workers (cf. Brain drain).
E.g.: “Another example of Canada’s ‘brain drain’ to the South? Just the
opposite. Mr. Kaplan is an American who came the other way — part of
this country’s often-overlooked ‘brain gain.’” (J. Lewington. “Is Canada
really losing its brains?,” The Globe and Mail)
19. 9/11 — September 11, 2001, the date of the terrorist attack on
the World Trade Center in New York and Pentagon in Washington.
20. AOS — from All Options Stink — a situation in which there is no
optimum or ideal course of action.
21. C2C — consumer — to — consumer — describes a transaction in
which a consumer sells a service or product directly to another
consumer.
22. CAMOUFLANGUAGE — language that uses jargon, euphemisms, and other devices to hide the true meaning of what is
being said.
38
2.1.4. Ìíîãîôóíêöèîíàëüíûå ñëîâà
 àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå ñóùåñòâóåò öåëûé ðÿä ñëîâ, âûïîëíÿþùèõ
ðàçíûå ôóíêöèè â ïðåäëîæåíèè. Ê íèì îòíîñÿòñÿ íåêîòîðûå ñîþçû, ïðåäëîãè, ìåñòîèìåíèÿ, ñëîâà-çàìåñòèòåëè è äð. Îíè èíîãäà
ïðåäñòàâëÿþò òðóäíîñòü äëÿ íà÷èíàþùåãî ïåðåâîä÷èêà:
There
1) êîíñòðóêöèÿ there is/are ïåðåâîäèòñÿ êàê åñòü, ñóùåñòâóåò,
íàõîäèòñÿ, à ïåðåâîä ïðåäëîæåíèÿ ñ òàêîé êîíñòðóêöèåé íà÷èíàþò ñ îáñòîÿòåëüñòâà ìåñòà:
There is some discrepancy in the results obtained.
 ïîëó÷åííûõ ðåçóëüòàòàõ åñòü ðàñõîæäåíèÿ.
Âìåñòî ôîðìû be ìîæåò ñòîÿòü ãëàãîë exist:
There exist different ways to solve this problem.
Ñóùåñòâóþò ðàçíûå ñïîñîáû ðåøåíèÿ ýòîé çàäà÷è.
Ñî÷åòàíèå there is no question of çíà÷èò “íå ìîæåò áûòü è
ðå÷è î ...”.
Âûðàæåíèå there is no doubt about it ïåðåâîäèòñÿ “â ýòîì íåò
ñîìíåíèÿ”.
2) ìåñòîèìåíèå òàì, òóäà:
Leave the letter there.
I’ll go there myself.
Îñòàâü ïèñüìî òàì.
ß ïîåäó ñàì òóäà.
3) ìåæäîìåòèÿ íó âîò, âîò òàê, áóäåò òåáå è äð.:
There you go!
There, there. Stop crying!
Âîò ìîëîäåö! (Âîò òàê!)
Áóäåò òåáå, õâàòèò ïëàêàòü!
Ïðàêòè÷åñêîå çàäàíèå
Ïåðåâåäèòå ñëåäóþùèå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ:
1.
There is a certain rule to be used in this case.
2.
3.
4.
5.
There are many options to choose from here.
There is no question of printing empty money.
There has been recently developed a new approach to this.
There exist more than one possibility for attracting investments.
39
6.
7.
8.
There seems to be another solution to the problem.
There must be a new instrument to deal with this issue.
There are a few things I want to make clear.
It
1) ëè÷íîå ìåñòîèìåíèå (â èìåíèòåëüíîì èëè êîñâåííîì ïàäåæå):
I have heard the news and find it very important.
ß óæå ñëûøàë íîâîñòü è ñ÷èòàþ åå î÷åíü âàæíîé.
2) óêàçàòåëüíîå ìåñòîèìåíèå:
It’s today’s newspaper. It’s interesting.
Ýòî ñåãîäíÿøíÿÿ ãàçåòà. Îíà èíòåðåñíàÿ.
3) ìåñòîèìåíèå, çàìåíÿþùåå âñå ïðåäøåñòâóþùåå âûñêàçûâàíèå, ïåðåâîäèìîå êàê ýòî:
The price rise is inevitable. It means that
Ðîñò öåí íåèçáåæåí. Ýòî îçíà÷àåò, ÷òî
4) ôîðìàëüíîå ïîäëåæàùåå, êîòîðîå íå ïåðåâîäèòñÿ, ïîñêîëüêó
â ðóññêîì ÿçûêå, â îòëè÷èå îò àíãëèéñêîãî, ñóùåñòâóþò áåçëè÷íûå
ïðåäëîæåíèÿ:
It is necessary to think it over.
Íåîáõîäèìî ýòî îáäóìàòü.
In ancient times it was believed that the Earth was flat.
 äðåâíîñòè äóìàëè (ñ÷èòàëè), ÷òî çåìëÿ ïëîñêàÿ.
he
It seems that
Ïî-âèäèìîìó
It is known that
It’s common knowledge that
Èçâåñòíî, ÷òî
Îáùåèçâåñòíî, ÷òî
It was observed that
Áûëî îòìå÷åíî, ÷òî
5) ôîðìàëüíîå ïîäëåæàùåå â óñèëèòåëüíîé êîíñòðóêöèè it was
who ñ ïåðåâîäîì “èìåííî ”:
It was Lomonosov who founded Moscow University.
Èìåííî Ëîìîíîñîâ îñíîâàë Ìîñêîâñêèé óíèâåðñèòåò.
6) ôîðìàëüíîå äîïîëíåíèå, êîòîðîå íå ïåðåâîäèòñÿ.
I find it hard to understand him.
Ìíå òðóäíî åãî ïîíÿòü.
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This method makes it possible to obtain reliable data.
Ýòîò ìåòîä äàåò âîçìîæíîñòü ïîëó÷èòü äîñòîâåðíûå äàííûå.
Ïðàêòè÷åñêîå çàäàíèå
Ïåðåâåäèòå ñëåäóþùèå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
It is worth while discussing this matter.
Take it seriously. It might help.
It is not at all easy to put it into practice.
It will be of no use to transfer more money than needed.
It is thought that this approach will be more helpful.
We hope this decision will make it only difficult to attract the
savings of the population.
In our case it is a usual procedure.
It was the first price rise that emptied the shops’ counters back
in 1991.
That
1) óêàçàòåëüíîå ìåñòîèìåíèå (ý)òîò, (ý)òà, (ý)òî:
Show me that magazine please.
Ïîêàæèòå ìíå, ïîæàëóéñòà, òîò æóðíàë.
That’s just what I was going to say.
Ýòî êàê ðàç òî, ÷òî ÿ ñîáèðàëñÿ ñêàçàòü.
2) ôîðìàëüíîå ïîäëåæàùåå, êîòîðîå íå ïåðåâîäèòñÿ:
That will do.
That’s quite right.
Äîñòàòî÷íî. (Õâàòèò.)
Ñîâåðøåííî âåðíî.
3) ñîþç that êàê ïîäëåæàùåå òî, ÷òî:
That they have prepaid for the delivery of goods was part of
the contract.
Òî, ÷òî îíè ïðîèçâåëè ïðåäîïëàòó çà äîñòàâêó òîâàðîâ,
áûëî îãîâîðåíî â êîíòðàêòå.
4) ïîä÷èíèòåëüíûé ñîþç ÷òî; òî, ÷òî:
They believe that there will be no problem with payment.
Îíè ïîëàãàþò, ÷òî ñ îïëàòîé ïðîáëåì íå áóäåò.
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The advantage of this method is that it has been tested.
Ïðåèìóùåñòâî ýòîãî ìåòîäà â òîì, ÷òî îí óæå ïðîâåðåí.
5) îòíîñèòåëüíîå ìåñòîèìåíèå êîòîðûé (-àÿ, -îå):
It’s a problem that needs to be discussed in detail.
Ýòî ïðîáëåìà, êîòîðóþ íåîáõîäèìî ïîäðîáíî îáñóäèòü.
6) ñëîâî-çàìåñòèòåëü (çàìåùàåò ðàíåå ñòîÿùåå ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîå è ïåðåâîäèòñÿ òåì æå ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûì èëè îïóñêàåòñÿ ïðè
ïåðåâîäå):
The inflation rate in October was higher than that in September.
Óðîâåíü èíôëÿöèè â îêòÿáðå áûë âûøå, ÷åì (óðîâåíü
èíôëÿöèè) â ñåíòÿáðå.
7) ñîþç ÷òîáû (êîãäà îí âõîäèò â ñîñòàâíîé ñîþç in order —
äëÿ òîãî ÷òîáû):
I’ll leave the paper with you in order that you (should) read it.
ß îñòàâëþ òåáå ñòàòüþ, ÷òîáû òû åå ïðî÷èòàë.
8) ÷àñòü óñèëèòåëüíîãî îáîðîòà (èìåííî):
It was our strong will that helped find the solution to the
problem.
Èìåííî íàøà ñèëüíàÿ âîëÿ ïîìîãëà íàéòè ðåøåíèå ýòîé
ïðîáëåìû.
9) ìåñòîèìåíèå òàêîé (-àÿ, -îå), òàê:
It wasn’t that bad
Áûëî íå òàê óæ ïëîõî
10)
ìåñòîèìåíèå êîãäà ïîñëå íàðå÷èÿ now:
Now that we have a choice, it is easier to make it.
Òåïåðü, êîãäà ó íàñ åñòü âûáîð, åãî ëåã÷å ñäåëàòü.
Ïðàêòè÷åñêîå çàäàíèå
Ïåðåâåäèòå ñëåäóþùèå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ:
1.
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The idea that was put forward by the managing director did not
seem to be right.
2.
The suggestion was made that all the departments were represented on an equal basis.
3.
Their wages were so low that there was no use to start this
campaign.
That the commercial would do no harm was obvious.
4.
5.
The idea behind it is that we might reduce the time for this
operation.
6.
It was not until the Euro was introduced that the EU countries
harmonized mutual settlements.
7.
The paper that was presented by a visiting lecturer from the UK
aroused great interest.
8.
The dollar value of wages in the Baltics is higher than that in
the other former Soviet Union republics.
Which
1) îòíîñèòåëüíîå ìåñòîèìåíèå êîòîðûé:
The speed at which the car was moving was too high.
Ñêîðîñòü, ñ êîòîðîé äâèãàëàñü ìàøèíà, áûëà ñëèøêîì
âûñîêîé.
2) îòíîñèòåëüíîå ìåñòîèìåíèå ÷òî â ôóíêöèè ïîäëåæàùåãî â
ïðèäàòî÷íîì ïðåäëîæåíèè:
The minimum wage will be increased, which will cause the
price rise.
Ìèíèìàëüíàÿ çàðïëàòà áóäåò óâåëè÷åíà, ÷òî âûçîâåò ðîñò
öåí.
3) äðóãèå ñëó÷àè:
They were doing research of unemployment, in which case
both official and hidden unemployment was studied.
Îíè çàíèìàëèñü èññëåäîâàíèåì áåçðàáîòèöû, è â ýòîì
ñëó÷àå èçó÷àëàñü êàê îôèöèàëüíàÿ, òàê è ñêðûòàÿ áåçðàáîòèöà.
For which reason — è ïî ýòîé ïðè÷èíå;
For which purpose — è äëÿ ýòîãî;
The manner in which — òî, êàê
The extent to which — òî, íàñêîëüêî
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Ïðàêòè÷åñêîå çàäàíèå
Ïåðåâåäèòå ñëåäóþùèå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ:
1.
The extent to which all the components are involved depends
on the situation.
2.
Pierre and Marie Curie were mostly engaged in researching
radioactive elements, in which field they made most essential
discoveries.
Factors are investigated which play an important role in the
process under study.
3.
4.
The economic growth was substantial, which is due to the production volume.
5.
The way in which this was achieved is not exactly what we have
in mind.
What
1) âîïðîñèòåëüíîå ñëîâî ÷òî:
What do you mean?
×òî òû èìååøü â âèäó?
2) âîïðîñèòåëüíîå ñëîâî êàêîé:
What size do you wear?
Êàêîé ðàçìåð âû íîñèòå?
3) îòíîñèòåëüíîå ìåñòîèìåíèå òî, ÷òî; ÷òî:
We accept what you offer us.
Ìû ïðèíèìàåì òî, ÷òî âû íàì ïðåäëàãàåòå.
They wanted to know what had happened.
Îíè õîòåëè çíàòü, ÷òî ïðîèçîøëî.
4) îòíîñèòåëüíîå ìåñòîèìåíèå â ôóíêöèè ôîðìàëüíîãî ïîäëåæàùåãî òî, ÷òî (÷àñòî íå ïåðåâîäèòñÿ):
What he said may have been true.
Òî, ÷òî îí ñêàçàë, âîçìîæíî, áûëî ïðàâäîé.
What happened was that they were late.
Ñëó÷èëîñü òàê, ÷òî îíè îïîçäàëè.
What I mean (What I want to say) is that we must go there
anyway.
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ß èìåþ â âèäó (ß õî÷ó ñêàçàòü), ÷òî íàì íóæíî òóäà
ïîåõàòü â ëþáîì ñëó÷àå.
5) îòíîñèòåëüíîå ìåñòîèìåíèå â ôóíêöèè îïðåäåëåíèÿ òî,
êàêîé:
What technique is to be used should be coordinated with
your research supervisor.
Íåîáõîäèìî ñîãëàñîâàòü ñ âàøèì íàó÷íûì ðóêîâîäèòåëåì, êàêîé ìåòîä ñëåäóåò èñïîëüçîâàòü.
6) îñîáûå ñëó÷àè:
– çàìåíà äîñëîâíîãî ïåðåâîäà àäåêâàòíûì:
A price rise is what followed after that.
Âìåñòî “Ðîñò öåí — òî, ÷òî ïîñëåäîâàëî çà ýòèì” ëó÷øå
ïåðåâåñòè “Çà ýòèì ïîñëåäîâàë ðîñò öåí”.
– âûðàæåíèÿ:
What about?
What does it matter?
In what follows
What for?
Êàê íàñ÷åò?
Êàêîå ýòî èìååò çíà÷åíèå?
 äàëüíåéøåì
Çà÷åì?
Ïðàêòè÷åñêîå çàäàíèå
Ïåðåâåäèòå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ ñî ñëîâîì what.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
What I have tried to do is to give an analysis of the situation.
What really matters is the attitude to the problem.
What approach is the best should be decided in advance.
We didn’t know what the nature of this phenomenon was.
What was the formula you used in your calculation?
The answer will depend on what you decide.
If this is the norm, what about the other cases?
What followed was the study of possible solutions.
Like
1) íàðå÷èå êàê, ïîäîáíî:
Orders and requests are written like any other business letters.
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Çàêàçû è ïðîñüáû îôîðìëÿþòñÿ ïîäîáíî ëþáûì äðóãèì
äåëîâûì ïèñüìàì.
2) ïðèëàãàòåëüíîå ïîõîæèé, ïîäîáíûé, ñõîæèé:
These substances have like properties.
Ó ýòèõ âåùåñòâ ñõîæèå ñâîéñòâà.
3) ãëàãîë íðàâèòüñÿ:
I like this design.
Ìíå íðàâèòñÿ ýòà êîíñòðóêöèÿ.
For
1) ïðåäëîã äëÿ, çà:
Nobody will do this for you.
Íèêòî íå ñäåëàåò ýòî çà òåáÿ.
There is a package left for you here.
Çäåñü äëÿ âàñ îñòàâëåí ïàêåò.
2) íåïåðåâîäèìûé ïðåäëîã ïîñëå ãëàãîëà wait:
Who are you waiting for?
Êîãî òû æäåøü?
3) ïðåäëîã â òå÷åíèå:
We’ve been working on this project for half a year.
Ìû ðàáîòàåì íàä ýòèì ïðîåêòîì â òå÷åíèå ïîëóãîäà.
(Èëè: óæå ïîëãîäà)
4) ïîä÷èíèòåëüíûé ñîþç ïîñêîëüêó, òàê êàê, ïîòîìó ÷òî, èáî:
It was necessary to introduce a system of rationing, for the
shortage of food was high enough.
Íåîáõîäèìî áûëî ââåñòè êàðòî÷íóþ ñèñòåìó, òàê êàê
äåôèöèò ïðîäóêòîâ ïèòàíèÿ áûë äîñòàòî÷íî áîëüøèì.
As
1) ïîä÷èíèòåëüíûé ñîþç òàê êàê, èáî:
They were not ready to discuss this problem as nobody had
informed them about it.
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Îíè áûëè íå ãîòîâû îáñóæäàòü ýòó ïðîáëåìó, ò.ê. èì
íèêòî îá ýòîì íå ñîîáùèë.
2) íàðå÷èå êàê:
This form needs to be filled in as required by the consulate.
Ýòó àíêåòó íåîáõîäèìî çàïîëíèòü, êàê òðåáóåòñÿ êîíñóëüñòâîì.
3) ïîä÷èíèòåëüíûé ñîþç âðåìåíè ïî ìåðå òîãî êàê, êîãäà, â
òî âðåìÿ êàê:
The inflation rate grows as credit emission increases.
Óðîâåíü èíôëÿöèè ðàñòåò ïî ìåðå òîãî êàê óâåëè÷èâàåòñÿ îáúåì êðåäèòíîé ýìèññèè.
4)
â óñòîé÷èâûõ âûðàæåíèÿõ:
As far as I know
Íàñêîëüêî ÿ çíàþ
Only
1) íàðå÷èå òîëüêî:
Only he was able to help us.
Òîëüêî îí ìîã ïîìî÷ü íàì.
2) ïðèëàãàòåëüíîå åäèíñòâåííûé (ñ àðòèêëåì èëè ïðèòÿæàòåëüíûì ìåñòîèìåíèåì):
The only thing that could help them was time.
Åäèíñòâåííîå, ÷òî ìîãëî èì ïîìî÷ü, áûëî âðåìÿ.
His only book was printed after his death.
Åãî åäèíñòâåííàÿ êíèãà âûøëà ïîñëå åãî ñìåðòè.
Íî: åäèíñòâåííûé ðåáåíîê â ñåìüå — an only child.
3) ïðîòèâèòåëüíûé ñîþç íî:
They were prepared to do it, only they were never asked.
Îíè áûëè ãîòîâû ýòî ñäåëàòü, íî èõ òàê è íå ïîïðîñèëè.
Since
1) ïðåäëîã âðåìåíè (íà÷èíàÿ) ñ, ïîñëå:
47
We haven’t talked since Monday.
Ìû íå ðàçãîâàðèâàëè ñ ïîíåäåëüíèêà.
2) íàðå÷èå âðåìåíè ñ òåõ ïîð:
I haven’t seen her since.
ß íå âèäåë åå ñ òåõ ïîð.
3) ïîä÷èíèòåëüíûé ñîþç ñ òåõ ïîð, êàê:
He hasn’t written since he left.
Îí íå íàïèñàë ñ òåõ ïîð, êàê óåõàë.
4) ïîä÷èíèòåëüíûé ñîþç òàê êàê, ïîñêîëüêó:
Since everything was ready, we didn’t want to waste time.
Òàê êàê âñå áûëî ãîòîâî, ìû íå õîòåëè òåðÿòü âðåìÿ.
Ïðàêòè÷åñêîå çàäàíèå
Ïåðåâåäèòå ñëåäóþùèå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ ñ ìíîãîôóíêöèîíàëüíûìè ñëîâàìè.
1.
In the short period since the collapse of the USSR, there have
been formed new relations in the region.
2.
The only legal place available for gambling is a casino.
3.
4.
As the time passed, we were able to see the changes.
It is difficult to believe it, for so many attempts have been
made.
5.
It was their only chance to be involved in the project.
6.
As we are to take four exams in this coming session, I don’t
think I’ll be able to join you.
7.
8.
Both these countries have like tendencies of development.
Macroeconomic stabilization is necessary, since it is the only
way to market reforms.
 «Ïðàêòèêóìå ïåðåâîäà» ïåðåâåäèòå ñòàòüþ, ïîìåùåííóþ â
çàäàíèè 10 ðàçäåëà 5.1.1. («Ïåðåâîä áðèòàíñêèõ èñòî÷íèêîâ»), îáðàùàÿ âíèìàíèå íà ìíîãîçíà÷íûå ñëóæåáíûå ñëîâà.
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2.1.5. Ïåðåäà÷à èìåí ñîáñòâåííûõ è íàçâàíèé
(òðàíñêðèïöèÿ, òðàíñëèòåðàöèÿ, ïåðåâîä)
 ñâÿçè ñ òåì, ÷òî àíãëèéñêèé ÿçûê èñïîëüçóåò ëàòèíñêèé àëôàâèò, à ðóññêèé — êèðèëëèöó, ïðè ïèñüìåííîì ïåðåâîäå ñ àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà âîçíèêàþò òðóäíîñòè, ñâÿçàííûå ñ ïåðåäà÷åé èìåí
ñîáñòâåííûõ è íàçâàíèé.
Íàáëþäàòåëüíûé ÷èòàòåëü îáðàùàåò âíèìàíèå íà òî, ÷òî îäíî
è òî æå àíãëèéñêîå èìÿ ñîáñòâåííîå ïî-ðàçíîìó ïåðåäàåòñÿ íà ðóññêèé ÿçûê. Íàïðèìåð, Âèëüÿì è Óèëüÿì (William), Ãåêñëè è Õàêñëè (Huxley), Âàòñîí è Óîòñîí (Watson).
Îäíî è òî æå èìÿ Charles, åñëè îíî îòíîñèòñÿ ê àíãëèéñêèì
êîðîëÿì äèíàñòèè Ñòþàðòîâ, ïåðåäàåòñÿ êàê Êàðë (íàïðèìåð, Êàðë
I, êîòîðûé áûë êàçíåí â õîäå Àíãëèéñêîé áóðæóàçíîé ðåâîëþöèè
17-ãî âåêà), à â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ (äàæå åñëè ýòî íàñëåäíèê àíãëèéñêîãî ïðåñòîëà) — êàê ×àðëüç. Ïî÷åìó òàê ïðîèñõîäèò? Çíà÷èò ëè
ýòî, ÷òî íå ñóùåñòâóåò ÷åòêèõ ïðàâèë äëÿ ïåðåäà÷è èìåí ñîáñòâåííûõ?
Âñå äåëî â òîì, ÷òî àíãëèéñêèå èìåíà ñîáñòâåííûå ðàíüøå
ïåðåäàâàëèñü ñ ïîìîùüþ òðàíñëèòåðàöèè, òî åñòü ïåðåäà÷è ãðàôè÷åñêîé, áóêâåííîé, ôîðìû ñëîâà (äîñëîâíî ñ ëàòèíñêîãî: trans
littera — ÷åðåç áóêâó) áåç ó÷åòà ôîíåòè÷åñêîé òðàíñêðèïöèè. Îòñþäà åùå ó Ëîìîíîñîâà ⠓Îäå íà âîñøåñòâèå íà ïðåñòîë Åëèçàâåòû
Ïåòðîâíû” ìû ÷èòàåì, ÷òî
Ìîæåò ñîáñòâåííûõ Ïëàòîíîâ
È áóéíûõ ðàçóìîì Íåâòîíîâ
Çåìëÿ Ðîññèéñêàÿ ðîæäàòü.
Èìåííî òàêèì îáðàçîì íà ðóññêèé ÿçûê ïåðåäàâàëàñü ôàìèëèÿ
èçâåñòíîãî àíãëèéñêîãî ó÷åíîãî Èñààêà Íüþòîíà (Isaac Newton). Ñ
òå÷åíèåì âðåìåíè ñòàëà ïðåîáëàäàòü òðàíñêðèïöèÿ, òî åñòü ôîíåòè÷åñêèé (çâóêîâîé) ñïîñîá ïåðåäà÷è àíãëèéñêèõ èìåí ðóññêèìè
áóêâàìè. Õîòÿ ïî òðàäèöèè îñòàëèñü ñëó÷àè ïîëíîé òðàíñëèòåðàöèè
(íàïðèìåð, àíãëèéñêèå êîðîëè James — ßêîâ; GeorgeV — ÃåîðãV;
William the Conqueror — Âèëüãåëüì Çàâîåâàòåëü).
Êñòàòè, â ñëó÷àå ñ Íüþòîíîì âåäü òîëüêî ôàìèëèÿ òåïåðü ïåðåäàåòñÿ ïóòåì òðàíñêðèïöèè, à èìÿ Èñààê ïî-ïðåæíåìó îñòàëîñü
â òðàíñëèòåðàöèîííîé ïåðåäà÷å. Çàòî èìÿ åãî òåçêè, èçâåñòíîãî
àìåðèêàíñêîãî ïèñàòåëÿ-ôàíòàñòà Àéçåêà Àçèìîâà (Isaac Asimov),
óæå ïåðåäàíî ñ ïîìîùüþ òðàíñêðèïöèè (õîòÿ ïîâîäîâ îñòàòüñÿ
Èñààêîì ó Àçèìîâà áûëî áîëüøå, ÷åì ó Íüþòîíà, ïîñêîëüêó îí
ðîäèëñÿ â Ðîññèè).
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Èòàê, ïóòåì òðàíñëèòåðàöèè èìåíà ñîáñòâåííûå ïåðåäàþòñÿ
èñòîðè÷åñêè èëè òðàäèöèîííî: äîêòîð Âàòñîí (à íå Óîòñîí) ó Êîíàí Äîéëÿ, ïîñêîëüêó êíèãå î Øåðëîêå Õîëìñå óæå áîëåå ñòà ëåò;
Ãðèíâè÷ñêèé ìåðèäèàí (õîòÿ îí ïðîõîäèò ÷åðåç ãîðîä, íàçâàíèå
êîòîðîãî ïðîèçíîñèòñÿ Ãðèíè÷) è äð.
Èìåþòñÿ è äðóãèå ñëó÷àè äâóõ âàðèàíòîâ ïåðåäà÷è èìåíè (ôàìèëèè). Êðîìå Èñààêà (Àéçåêà), ìîæíî ïðèâåñòè ïðèìåð ñ ôàìèëèåé Huxley. Ýòî Ãåêñëè, ôèçèê-åñòåñòâîèñïûòàòåëü 19-ãî âåêà, è
Õàêñëè, àíãëèéñêèé ïèñàòåëü 20-ãî âåêà (ïðèìåð Í.Á. Àðèñòîâà).
Âñå äðóãèå ïîïûòêè ïîëüçîâàòüñÿ òîëüêî òðàíñëèòåðàöèåé ïðè
ïåðåäà÷å èìåí ñîáñòâåííûõ âìåñòî òðàíñêðèïöèè, ãäå ýòî âîçìîæíî, ïðåäñòàâëÿþò ñîáîé íàðóøåíèå óñòàíîâëåííîé íîðìû. Åñëè ýòî
ïî-ïðåæíåìó èìååò ìåñòî, òî äî íàñ äîõîäèò èñêàæåííîå èìÿ ñîáñòâåííîå.
ßðêèì ïðèìåðîì òàêîãî èñêàæåíèÿ ñòàëà ôàìèëèÿ èçâåñòíîãî
ïèàíèñòà, ëàóðåàòà Ìåæäóíàðîäíîãî êîíêóðñà èì. Ï.È. ×àéêîâñêîãî
â Ìîñêâå â 1958 ã. Èç Âýíà Êëàéáåðíà (Van Cliburn) îí áëàãîäàðÿ
íå î÷åíü ãðàìîòíîìó ðàáîòíèêó êîíñóëüñêîãî îòäåëà ïîñîëüñòâà
ÑÑÑÐ â ÑØÀ, âûäàâøåìó åìó âèçó, ïðåâðàòèëñÿ â Âàíà Êëèáåðíà
(èìåííî ïîä ýòèì èìåíåì îí è ñòàë èçâåñòåí â ÑÑÑÐ, õîòÿ óæå â
Ñîâåòñêîì Ýíöèêëîïåäè÷åñêîì Ñëîâàðå 1982 ã. ýòà îøèáêà èñïðàâëåíà).
 ýòîé æå ñâÿçè íåïîñëåäîâàòåëüíî âûãëÿäèò è íàïèñàíèå ôàìèëèè èçâåñòíîãî àìåðèêàíñêîãî àêòåðà Ñèëüâåñòðà Ñòàëëîíå íà
èòàëüÿíñêèé ìàíåð. Ó íåãî äåéñòâèòåëüíî èòàëüÿíñêèå êîðíè, íî
îí, ÷òî íàçûâàåòñÿ, íàòóðàëèçîâàííûé àìåðèêàíåö, è ôàìèëèÿ
Stallone ïî-àíãëèéñêè ÷èòàåòñÿ Ñòàëëîóí. Î÷åâèäíî, ñëåäîâàëî åå
èìåííî òàê è ïåðåäàòü ïî-ðóññêè.
Âîîáùå æå ñ ïåðåäà÷åé èìåí ñîáñòâåííûõ àíãëè÷àí è àìåðèêàíöåâ, ó êîòîðûõ íå àíãëî-ñàêñîíñêèå êîðíè, âîçíèêàþò áîëüøèå ïðîáëåìû èìåííî ó òåõ, êòî çíàåò, êàê îíè ïðîèçíîñÿòñÿ íà
ÿçûêå îðèãèíàëà. Äëÿ óìåþùèõ ÷èòàòü ïî-ïîëüñêè ôàìèëèþ
Rzeczycki íåñëîæíî ïðî÷èòàòü ïðàâèëüíî: Æý÷ûöêè, íî åñëè àìåðèêàíåö ïîëüñêîãî ïðîèñõîæäåíèÿ, íå çíàþùèé ÿçûêà ñâîèõ ïðåäêîâ, óæå äàâíî ïðîèçíîñèò åå Ðåçèñêè, òî, ñëåäóÿ ïðàâèëàì ïåðåäà÷è èìåí ñîáñòâåííûõ íà ðóññêèé ÿçûê, åå èìåííî òàê è òðàíñêðèáèðóþò, ïðè ýòîì îíà ïåðåñòàåò ñêëîíÿòüñÿ ïî ïàäåæàì.
Äîâîëüíî ÷àñòî ïðè òðàíñêðèáèðîâàíèè îäíîâðåìåííî ó÷èòûâàåòñÿ è îðôîãðàôèÿ. Íàïðèìåð, íåêîòîðûå ñîãëàñíûå àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà, êîòîðûå íå ïðîèçíîñÿòñÿ, â ðóññêîì âàðèàíòå, òåì íå
ìåíåå, îòðàæàþòñÿ:
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Campbell
Folkstone
Malcolm
Palm
Robert
Whistle
Êýìïáåëë
Ôîëüêñòîí
Màëüêîëüì
Ïàëì
Ðîáåðò
Óèñòë
Ó÷èòûâàÿ òî, ÷òî â ðóññêîì ÿçûêå îòñóòñòâóþò íåêîòîðûå çâóêè àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà, íàïðèìåð, [õ], [w], [æ], [ð] è äð., ìû ïðîñòî âûíóæäåíû ïðèáåãàòü ê ñî÷åòàíèþ òðàíñêðèïöèè è òðàíñëèòåðàöèè.
Ñóùåñòâóþò îïðåäåëåííûå ðóññêèå áóêâåííûå ñîîòâåòñòâèÿ àíãëèéñêèì çâóêàì:
[æ]
ïåðåäàåòñÿ áóêâàìè “ý” èëè “à”, íàïðèìåð:
Bradley — Áðýäëè
Stanford — Ñòýíôîðä
[e]
ïåðåäàåòñÿ áóêâàìè “ý” èëè “å”, íàïðèìåð:
Elliot — Ýëëèîò
Coen — Êîýí
Essex — Ýññåêñ
[ ž]
Ben — Áåí
Betty — Áåòòè
Evans — Ýâàíñ
ïåðåäàåòñÿ áóêâîé “à” èëè èñòîðè÷åñêè — “ó”:
Huntly — Õàíòëè
Hudson — Ãóäçîí
[ç:]
Allan — Àëëàí
Graham — Ãðýì
Shuttle — Øàòòë
Dublin — Äóáëèí
ïåðåäàåòñÿ áóêâîé “å” (ðåæå — “ý”, íî íå “¸”):
Burns — Áåðíñ (à íå Á¸ðíñ!)
Turner — Òåðíåð
Bird — Áýðä
Bernard — Áåðíàðä
Surbiton — Ñåðáèòîí
Ðåäóöèðîâàííûå ãëàñíûå ïåðåäàþòñÿ ñ ïîìîùüþ îðôîãðàôèè,
ò.å. òðàíñëèòåðèðóþòñÿ:
Boston
Chester
íî: Plymouth
Áîñòîí
×åñòåð
Ïëèìóò
Àíãëèéñêèå äèôòîíãè è òðèôòîíãè, ïîñëå êîòîðûõ ñëåäóåò áóêâà r, îáû÷íî ïåðåäàþòñÿ ðóññêîé ãëàñíîé (â ñëó÷àå òðèôòîíãà
âîçìîæåí âàðèàíò ñ äâóìÿ ãëàñíûìè) è áóêâîé ð:
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Moor — Ìóð
Tower — Òàóýð
[r]
Blair — Áëýð
Clear — Êëèð
ïåðåäàåòñÿ áóêâîé “ð”, äàæå åñëè îí íå ïðîèçíîñèòñÿ:
Harper — Õàðïåð
Darwin — Äàðâèí
Richard — Ðè÷àðä
Charlotte — Øàðëîòòà
(â ïîñëåäíåå âðåìÿ áóêâà “ð” èíîãäà îïóñêàåòñÿ:
Anderground — Àíäåãðàóíä)
[ð]
ïåðåäàåòñÿ áóêâîé “ç”:
Warner Brothers — Óîðíåð Áðàçåðç
[› ]
ïåðåäàåòñÿ áóêâîé “ò”:
Smith — Ñìèò
Thorn — Òîðí
Thatcher — Òýò÷åð
Hathaway — Õàòàóýé
Íî: Labour Monthly — Ëåéáîð Ìàíñëè
[õ ]
ïåðåäàåòñÿ áóêâîñî÷åòàíèåì “íã”:
Morning — Ìîðíèíã
Strong — Ñòðîíã
[w ]
Singer — Ñèíãåð
Ringî — Ðèíãî
ïåðåäàåòñÿ áóêâîé “ó” âî âñåõ ñëó÷àÿõ, êðîìå îäíîãî:
êîãäà îí ñòîèò ïåðåä çâóêîì [u], òî ïåðåäàåòñÿ áóêâîé “â”:
Wolfenson — Âóëüôåíñîí
Worcester — Âóñòåð
Wilde — Óàéëüä
West — Óýñò
Queen — Êóèí
Wood — Âóä
Woopie — Âóïè
Windsor — Óèíäçîð
William — Óèëüÿì
Quarter — Êóîðòåð
Âñå, ÷òî íå ñîîòâåòñòâóåò äàííîìó ïðàâèëó, — ðåçóëüòàò èñòîðè÷åñêîãî èëè òðàäèöèîííîãî íàïèñàíèÿ, íàïðèìåð: Âàéîìèíã,
Âàøèíãòîí, ä-ð Âàòñîí, Âèííè Ïóõ, Âèëüÿì Øåêñïèð.
[ h]
ïåðåäàåòñÿ áóêâîé “õ” èëè òðàäèöèîííî “ã”:
Horton — Õîðòîí
Harrow — Õàððîó
Henry — Ãåíðè
Hastings — Ãàñòèíãñ
Áîëåå ïîäðîáíàÿ òàáëèöà ðóññêèõ áóêâåííûõ ñîîòâåòñòâèé àíãëèéñêèì çâóêàì ïðèâåäåíà â êíèãå Ä.È Åðìîëîâè÷à “Èìåíà ñîáñòâåííûå. Òåîðèÿ è ïðàêòèêà ìåæúÿçûêîâîé ïåðåäà÷è.” (Ì.: Èçäàòåëüñòâî Ð. Âàëåíò, 2005)
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Ïðè ïåðåäà÷å óäâîåííûõ àíãëèéñêèõ ñîãëàñíûõ â èìåíàõ ñîáñòâåííûõ ñëåäóåò ñîõðàíÿòü èõ â ðóññêîì âàðèàíòå, åñëè çà íèìè íå
ñëåäóåò åùå îäèí ñîãëàñíûé:
Betty — Áåòòè
Wittaker — Óèòòàêåð
Morris — Ìîððèñ
Churchill — ×åð÷èëëü
Íî:
Benneton — Áåííåòîí
Lizzie — Ëèççè
Bess — Áåññ
Ferry — Ôåððè
Ãðàôñòâî Ìèäëñåêñ (Middlesex) â Àíãëèè
Ãîðîä Ïèòñáóðã (Pittsburg) â ÑØÀ
Ãîðîä Ñèýòë (Seattle) â ÑØÀ
Åñòåñòâåííî, äëÿ òîãî ÷òîáû ïðàâèëüíî ïåðåäàòü íà ðóññêîì
ÿçûêå àíãëèéñêîå èìÿ ñîáñòâåííîå, íóæíî óìåòü ïðàâèëüíî åãî ïðî÷èòàòü. Ýòî, êàçàëîñü áû, ñàìî ñîáîé ðàçóìååòñÿ, íî èìåííî èç-çà
íåóìåíèÿ ïðî÷èòàòü èìÿ ñîáñòâåííîå ïðîèñõîäÿò îøèáêè â ïåðåäà÷å èõ ïî-ðóññêè (âû çàìåòèëè, ÷òî íè ðàçó íå áûëî óïîòðåáëåíî
ñëîâî “ïåðåâîä”, ïîñêîëüêó èìåíà íå ïåðåâîäÿòñÿ).
Îäíà èç òàêèõ îøèáîê óæå áûëà óïîìÿíóòà: Êëèáåðí âìåñòî
Êëàéáåðíà. Ñëåäóåò ïîä÷åðêíóòü, ÷òî ðå÷ü èäåò èìåííî îá àíãëèéñêèõ èìåíàõ ñîáñòâåííûõ, à íå îáî âñåõ, âñòðå÷àþùèõñÿ â àíãëèéñêîì òåêñòå (íàïðèìåð, ôðàíöóçñêèõ, èòàëüÿíñêèõ è äð.).
Îáðàòèòå âíèìàíèå íà ÷àñòî âñòðå÷àþùèåñÿ îøèáêè:
Graham — Ãðàõàì (ïðàâèëüíî — Ãðýì)
Heather — Õåòåð èëè Õèçåð (ïðàâèëüíî — Õåçåð)
Keath — Êèñ èëè Êåéò (ïðàâèëüíî — Êèò)
Stephen — Ñòåôåí (ïðàâèëüíî — Ñòèâåí)
Sean — Ñåàí (ïðàâèëüíî — Øîí)
Walles — Âàëëåñ (ïðàâèëüíî — Óîëëåñ)
Steinberg — Øòåéíáåðã (ïðàâèëüíî — Ñòàéíáåðã, åñëè
ýòî íå íåìåö, à àíãëè÷àíèí èëè àìåðèêàíåö)
Walter — Âàëüòåð (ïðàâèëüíî — Óîëòåð)
Ïåðåâîä÷èê äîëæåí çíàòü ïðàâèëà ïåðåäà÷è íà ðóññêèé ÿçûê è
äðóãèõ èìåí ñîáñòâåííûõ, â ÷àñòíîñòè, íàçâàíèé êîìïàíèé, ïàðòèé, ãàçåò, ãåîãðàôè÷åñêèõ íàçâàíèé è ò.ä.
Ãåîãðàôè÷åñêèå íàçâàíèÿ:
à) ïåðåâîäÿòñÿ: Lake Superior — Îçåðî Âåðõíåå; the Pacific
Ocean — Òèõèé îêåàí; Cape of Good Hope — Ìûñ Äîáðîé Íàäåæ53
äû); Prince Edward Island — Îñòðîâ Ïðèíöà Ýäóàðäà, îäíà èç äåñÿòè ïðîâèíöèé Êàíàäû; Rocky Mountains — Ñêàëèñòûå ãîðû;
á) òðàíñêðèáèðóþòñÿ (ïåðåäàþòñÿ ïóòåì òðàíñêðèïöèè): Newfoundland — Íüþôàóíäëåíä, à íå “Âíîâü íàéäåííàÿ çåìëÿ (îñòðîâ è
ïðîâèíöèÿ â Êàíàäå); New Mexico — Íüþ-Ìåêñèêî, à íå “Íîâàÿ
Ìåêñèêà” (øòàò íà þãå ÑØÀ); Salt Lake City — Ñîëò-Ëåéê-Ñèòè,
à íå “Ãîðîä ñîëåíîãî îçåðà” (ãîðîä â àìåðèêàíñêîì øòàòå Þòà);
Anchorage — Àíêîðèäæ, à íå “ßêîðíàÿ ñòîÿíêà” èëè “ßêîðü ñïàñåíèÿ” (ãîðîä â àìåðèêàíñêîì øòàòå Àëÿñêà); Pearl Harbor — Ïåðë
Õàðáîð, à íå “Æåì÷óæíàÿ Áóõòà” (âîåííî-ìîðñêàÿ áàçà ÑØÀ íà
îñòðîâå Îàõó, îäíîì èç ãàâàéñêèõ îñòðîâîâ, êóäà â 1941 ã. âòîðãëèñü ÿïîíöû, âòÿíóâøèå Ñîåäèíåííûå Øòàòû âî âòîðóþ ìèðîâóþ âîéíó).
 íåêîòîðûõ ñëó÷àÿõ ñîõðàíÿåòñÿ òðàäèöèîííàÿ, õîòÿ è èñêàæåííàÿ òðàíñêðèïöèÿ: Texas — Òåõàñ (à íå Òåêñàñ); Derby — Äåðáè
(à íå Äàðáè), Arkansas — Àðêàíçàñ (à íå Àðêàíñî).
â) ïåðåäàþòñÿ ñìåøàííûì ñïîñîáîì: North Dakota — Ñåâåðíàÿ
Äàêîòà; New Zealand — Íîâàÿ Çåëàíäèÿ.
Ïðè ïåðåâîäå ñ àíãëèéñêîãî èíîÿçû÷íûõ íàçâàíèé (íåìåöêèõ,
ôðàíöóçñêèõ è äð.) ñîõðàíÿåòñÿ óñòîÿâøàÿñÿ òðàäèöèîííàÿ ôîðìà:
Mexico City — Ìåõèêî; Munich — Ìþíõåí; Venice — Âåíåöèÿ;
Nice — Íèööà.
Íàçâàíèÿ êîìïàíèé ïåðåäàþòñÿ ñ ïîìîùüþ òðàíñêðèïöèè:
Paramount Pictures
BBC
CNN
General Electric Corp.
Levi Strauss & Co.
Johnson & Johnson Inc.
Ïàðàìàóíò Ïèê÷åðç
Áè-Áè-Ñè
Ñè-Ýí-Ýí
Äæåíåðàë Ýëåêòðèê
Êîðïîðåéøí
Ëèâàé Ñòðîññ ýíä êîìïàíè
Äæîíñîí-ýíä-Äæîíñîí
èíêîðïîðåéòåä
Íàçâàíèÿ ïåðèîäè÷åñêèõ èçäàíèé, êîðàáëåé, óëèö, ïëîùàäåé,
òåàòðîâ è ìóçûêàëüíûõ ãðóïï òàêæå òðàíñêðèáèðóþòñÿ:
The Wall Street Journal
Agricultural Engineering
Journal of Economics
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Óîëë Ñòðèò Äæîðíýë
(àðòèêëü îïóñêàåòñÿ)
Ýãðèêàë÷óðàë Ýíäæèíèðèíã
Äæîðíýë îô Ýêîíîìèêñ
“Queen Elizabeth”
“Mayflower”
“Êóèí Ýëèçàáåò”
“Ìýéôëàóýð”
Downing Street
Piccadilly Circus
Bedford Square
Madison Avenue
Äàóíèíã ñòðèò
Ïèêêàäèëëè Ñåðêóñ
Áåäôîðä Ñêâåð
Ìýäèñîí Àâåíþ
íî: Trafalgar Square
Òðàôàëüãàðñêàÿ ïëîùàäü
Covent Garden
Metropolitan Opera
Êîâåíò Ãàðäåí
Ìåòðîïîëèòýí Îïåðà
Deep Purple
The Rolling Stones
Spice Girls
Äèï Ïåðïë
Ðîëëèíã Ñòîóíç
Ñïàéñ Ãåðëç
Ê ñîæàëåíèþ, ìíîãèå æóðíàëèñòû â ïîñëåäíåå âðåìÿ íå óòðóæäàþò ñåáÿ ïåðåäà÷åé ïî-ðóññêè íàçâàíèé ôèðì, ãàçåò è ò.ä., â
ðåçóëüòàòå ÷åãî â ðóññêîì òåêñòå ñïëîøü è ðÿäîì ñëåäóþò àíãëèéñêèå íàçâàíèÿ, íàïðèìåð:
McDonald’s
The Financial Times
âìåñòî
âìåñòî
Ìàêäîíàëüäñ
Ôàéíýíøåë Òàéìñ
Èíîãäà óìóäðÿþòñÿ îäíî íàçâàíèå íàïèñàòü èñïîëüçóÿ äâà àëôàâèòà: Êèíîñòóäèÿ “XX âåê Fox”, FM-ñòàíöèÿ (FM — ñîêðàùåíèå îò ðàäèîòåðìèíîâ frequency modulated — ÷àñòîòíî-ìîäóëèðîâàííûé è frequency modulation — ÷àñòîòíàÿ ìîäóëÿöèÿ).
Åñëè â ïðåññå âñòðå÷àåòñÿ ôðàçà “Ïî ñîîáùåíèþ ÂÂє, òî
äàæå âëàäåþùèé àíãëèéñêèì ÿçûêîì ÷èòàòåëü (à æóðíàëèñò íå äîëæåí äåëàòü ñòàâêó íà òàêîãî ÷èòàòåëÿ) ïðåæäå âñåãî ìîæåò ïîäóìàòü î ðóññêîì ñîêðàùåíèè ÂÂÑ îò Âîåííî-Âîçäóøíûõ Ñèë, à íå î
Áè-áè-ñè.
 ðóññêîì òåêñòå íåîáõîäèìî âñå ïèñàòü ïî-ðóññêè. Äîïóñêàåòñÿ
ëèøü (è òî íåîáÿçàòåëüíî) â ñêîáêàõ óêàçàòü îðôîãðàôèþ îðèãèíàëà.
Íàçâàíèÿ ïàðòèé, ìåæäóíàðîäíûõ îðãàíèçàöèé è ãîñóäàðñòâåííûõ ñëóæá, êàê ïðàâèëî, ïåðåâîäÿòñÿ:
Conservative Party
Security Council
House of Representatives
U.S. Department of State
Êîíñåðâàòèâíàÿ ïàðòèÿ
Ñîâåò áåçîïàñíîñòè
Ïàëàòà ïðåäñòàâèòåëåé
Ãîñäåïàðòàìåíò ÑØÀ
55
Îäíàêî è çäåñü åñòü ñâîè èñêëþ÷åíèÿ:
Labour Party — Ëåéáîðèñòñêàÿ (à íå Òðóäîâàÿ) ïàðòèÿ.
Scotland Yard — Ñêîòëàíä ßðä (à íå Øîòëàíäñêèé Äâîð)
— óïðàâëåíèå ëîíäîíñêîé ïîëèöèè.
Foreign Office — Ôîðèí Îôèñ (à íå èíîñòðàííàÿ êîíòîðà) — ÌÈÄ Ñîåäèíåííîãî Êîðîëåâñòâà.
Intelligence Service — Èíòåëëèäæåíñ ñåðâèñ (à íå ñëóæáà
ðàçâåäêè) — ðàçâåäóïðàâëåíèå Âåëèêîáðèòàíèè.
?
Âîïðîñû äëÿ ñàìîêîíòðîëÿ
1.
Êàê ïåðåäàþòñÿ íà ðóññêèé ÿçûê àíãëèéñêèå èìåíà ñîáñòâåííûå è ñëîâà-íàçâàíèÿ?
2.
×åì îòëè÷àåòñÿ òðàíñëèòåðàöèÿ îò òðàíñêðèïöèè?
3.
Êàê âëèÿåò ÿçûêîâàÿ òðàäèöèÿ íà ñïîñîáû ïåðåäà÷è àíãëèéñêèõ èìåí ñîáñòâåííûõ íà ðóññêèé ÿçûê?
 êàêèõ ñëó÷àÿõ èìåíà ñîáñòâåííûå è íàçâàíèÿ ïåðåâîäÿòñÿ?
4.
5.
Êàê ïåðåäàþòñÿ íà ðóññêèé ÿçûê àíãëèéñêèå èìåíà è íàçâàíèÿ, â ñîñòàâ êîòîðûõ âõîäèò íåñêîëüêî ñîñòàâíûõ ýëåìåíòîâ?
6.
 êàêîì ñëó÷àå â ðóññêîì òåêñòå äîïóñêàåòñÿ ñîõðàíåíèå
íàïèñàíèÿ àíãëèéñêîãî èìåíè ñîáñòâåííîãî èëè íàçâàíèÿ
â îðèãèíàëå?
Ïðàêòè÷åñêîå çàäàíèå
À. Íàïèøèòå ïî-ðóññêè ñëåäóþùèå àíãëèéñêèå èìåíà ñîáñòâåííûå ñ ó÷åòîì ïðàâèë òðàíñêðèïöèè è òðàíñëèòåðàöèè:
James Madison
John Quincy Adams
William Henry Harrison
John Tyler
Zachary Taylor
Millard Fillmore
56
James Garfield
Chester Arthur
Grover Cleveland
William McKinley
Woodrow Wilson
Calvin Coolidge
Franklin Pierce
James Buchanan
Dwight Eisenhower
William Howard Taft
Âñå 16 èìåí è ôàìèëèé, êîòîðûå âû òîëüêî ÷òî íàïèñàëè ïîðóññêè, ïðèíàäëåæàò ïðåçèäåíòàì Ñîåäèíåííûõ Øòàòîâ Àìåðèêè.
À òåïåðü ïîóïðàæíÿéòåñü â ïåðåäà÷å äðóãèõ èìåí ñîáñòâåííûõ:
Phili p Riley
Joshua Myers
Morris Woodley
George Ogden
Alan Headbloom
David Banks
Ian Abercrombie
Walter Dyer
Joan Morley
Walter Hartright
Á.
1.
John Swales
Dudley-Evans
Lynne Wright
Jim Caswell
Heather Griswold
Cheryl Hymes
Dorothy McNeil
Todd Lawrence
Garry Sweeney
Eugene O’Neil
Ïåðåäàéòå ïî-ðóññêè ñëåäóþùèå íàçâàíèÿ:
Ïåðèîäè÷åñêèå èçäàíèÿ:
Los Angeles Times
Daily Telegraph
The Christian Science Monitor
U.S. News and World Report
The Herald Tribune
Finance and Development
Political Affairs
The Independent
2.
Daily Mirror
The Guardian
Reader’s Digest
Fortune
Journal of Psychology
Business Central Europe
The Observer
Automotive World
Àýðîïîðòû è âîêçàëû:
Heathrow
Newark
Waterloo Station
Union Station
3.
Merrill Bloor
Brian Cohen
Iris Murdock
Gene Flowers
Stephen Swan
Sheila Stone
Maxwell Burt
Sam Oakland
J. Middleton
Hugh Cotter
Gatwick
J.F. Kennedy Int’l
Paddington
Euston
Êîìïàíèè è îðãàíèçàöèè:
General Motors Corporation
AT&T
The World Health Organization
Chase Manhattan Corporation
British Petroleum Company
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The UN General Assembly
General Electric
Ford Union
The House of Commons
Waterhouse Corporation
The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
Crysler Corp.
Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS)
British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)
Thomas Cook & Bros.
Kentucky Fried Chicken Corp. (KFC)
4.
Ãåîãðàôè÷åñêèå íàçâàíèÿ:
Milwaukee
Dorsetshire
New Jersey
Nova Scotia
Gulf of Mexico
Ulster
Wyoming
Halifax
Iowa
Bath
5.
Freetown
South Carolina
Hudson Bay
New Brunswick
Mediterranean Sea
Cardiff
Hampton Court
New Hampshire
Utah
Pebble Beach
St. Lawrence River
Sutherland
Greenwich
North Yorkshire
Delaware
Pacific Grove
Easter Island
Rhode Island
Birmingham
Ivory Coast
Íàçâàíèÿ óëèö è ïëîùàäåé:
Regent Street
Lincoln Square
Cromwell Road
Wigmore Street
Sloane Square
Â.
íèå 1).
The Strand
Taft Avenue
Cherry Lane
Whitehall
Thayer Street
Pall Mall
Wellington Terrace
Charing Cross Rd.
Fleet Street
East Lake Drive
Ïåðåâåäèòå ñòàòüþ èç “Ïðàêòèêóìà ïåðåâîäà” (5.1.2., çàäà-
2.1.6. Àìåðèêàíèçìû
Îäíîé èç ðàñõîæèõ ôðàç îá îòëè÷èè àìåðèêàíñêîãî îò áðèòàíñêîãî âàðèàíòîâ àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà ÿâëÿåòñÿ óòâåðæäåíèå î òîì,
÷òî ýòî îäèí ÿçûê, ðàçäåëÿþùèé äâà íàðîäà (English is one language
that separates two nations).
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Ðàçëè÷èÿ áðèòàíñêîãî è àìåðèêàíñêîãî àíãëèéñêîãî î÷åâèäíû
â ïðîèçíîøåíèè, îðôîãðàôèè, ãðàììàòèêå, ñëîâàðíîì çàïàñå,
èäèîìàòè÷åñêèõ âûðàæåíèÿõ è äàæå ïóíêòóàöèè.
Äëÿ ïèñüìåííîãî ïåðåâîäà íà ðóññêèé ÿçûê íàèáîëüøåå çíà÷åíèå ïðèîáðåòàåò çíàíèå àìåðèêàíèçìîâ. Îíè, áåçóñëîâíî, íå ìåíÿþò îñíîâû àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà (ãðàììàòè÷åñêîãî ñòðîÿ è îñíîâíîãî
ñëîâàðíîãî çàïàñà), íî èõ íåîáõîäèìî ó÷èòûâàòü ïåðåâîä÷èêó.
 ãðàììàòèêå àìåðèêàíèçìû ïðîÿâëÿþòñÿ â ñëåäóþùåì:
1. Âìåñòî ôîðìû Present Perfect èñïîëüçóåòñÿ Past Simple (Indefinite):
They just left âìåñòî They have just left.
The President addressed the nation âìåñòî The President has
addressed the nation (ïðè îòñóòñòâèè îáñòîÿòåëüñòâà âðåìåíè, íàïðèìåð, last week)
 ýòîì ñëó÷àå âîçìîæíî äâîå÷òåíèå ñî ñëîâîì never, òàê êàê â
ïðåäëîæåíèè ñ Present Perfect îíî çíà÷èò íèêîãäà, à ñ Past Simple —
òàê è íå:
He never thought about it â àìåðèêàíñêîì âàðèàíòå ìîæåò áûòü êàê
Îí íèêîãäà íå äóìàë îá ýòîì, òàê è Îí òàê è íå ïîäóìàë
îá ýòîì.
2.
Èñïîëüçîâàíèå Past Simple âìåñòî Past Perfect:
After he came back home he ate dinner (âìåñòî After he had
come )
3. Â àìåðèêàíñêîì âàðèàíòå íàáëþäàåòñÿ ÿâíàÿ òåíäåíöèÿ íåñîáëþäåíèÿ ïðàâèëà ñîãëàñîâàíèÿ âðåìåí:
He said he is feeling bad.
She thought it is Monday today.
4.
Ðàçëè÷íîå óïîòðåáëåíèå ãëàãîëîâ:
Did he use to smoke? (U.S.)
Used he to smoke? (UK)
Îí ðàíüøå êóðèë?
Let’s not do it (U.S.)
Don’t let us do it (UK)
Äàâàé íå áóäåì ýòîãî äåëàòü.
5.  ñòðóêòóðå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ â àìåðèêàíñêîì âàðèàíòå íàáëþäàåòñÿ äðóãîé ïîðÿäîê ñëîâ, íàïðèìåð, íàðå÷èÿ ÷àñòî ñëåäóþò ïåðåä
ãëàãîëîì:
He then asked for another appointment.
59
6. Îïóùåíèå ÷àñòè ïàññèâíîãî èíôèíèòèâà â êîíñòðóêöèè
“Complex Object”:
He ordered the money [to be] withdrawn immediately.
Îí ïîòðåáîâàë íåìåäëåííî ñíÿòü ñî ñ÷åòà äåíüãè.
7. “Ýêîíîìèÿ” ñëîâ ïðîÿâëÿåòñÿ è â îïóùåíèè should â ïðèäàòî÷íûõ äîïîëíèòåëüíûõ:
They suggested that I [should] do it myself.
It is important that they [should] correct this mistake.
 ýòîì ñëó÷àå ïåðåâîä÷èêó íóæíî áûòü îñîáåííî âíèìàòåëüíûì ê êîíòåêñòó, ÷òîáû ïîíÿòü ñìûñë ïðåäëîæåíèÿ, ò.ê. îäíî è òî
æå ïðåäëîæåíèå ìîæåò èìåòü äâà çíà÷åíèÿ:
It is important that we do it regularly.
Âàæíî, ÷òî ìû äåëàåì ýòî ðåãóëÿðíî.
Âàæíî, ÷òîáû ìû äåëàëè ýòî ðåãóëÿðíî.
8. Îïóñêàåòñÿ ñëîâî that â ñîþçå so that, ÷òî òàêæå ìîæåò ïðèâåñòè ê äâîå÷òåíèþ áåç ó÷åòà êîíòåêñòà:
We invited him so [that] he could see it for himself.
Ìû ïðèãëàñèëè åãî, ÷òîáû îí ñàì ìîã óâèäåòü ýòî.
Ìû ïðèãëàñèëè åãî, ïîýòîìó îí ñàì ìîã âñå óâèäåòü.
Çàïÿòàÿ ïåðåä so äåëàåò âîçìîæíûì ëèøü âòîðîé âàðèàíò ïåðåâîäà.
9. Ê àìåðèêàíèçìàì â ãðàììàòèêå ìîæíî îòíåñòè è óïîòðåáëåíèå ïðåäëîãîâ è àðòèêëåé, îòëè÷àþùååñÿ îò áðèòàíñêîãî âàðèàíòà; íàëè÷èå èëè îòñóòñòâèå òî÷åê â àááðåâèàòóðàõ — ïðèìåð ðàçëè÷èÿ àìåðèêàíñêîé è áðèòàíñêîé ïóíêòóàöèè.
Ïðåäëîãè:
on the street (U.S.)
fill out a form (U.S.)
be oriented at (U.S.)
on weekends (U.S.)
do over (U.S.)
in the street (UK)
fill in a form (UK)
be oriented to (UK)
at weekends (UK)
do up (UK)
íà óëèöå
çàïîëíèòü àíêåòó
îðèåíòèðîâàòüñÿ íà
â âûõîäíûå
ïåðåäåëàòü
Àðòèêëè:
one thing or the other (U.S.)
go to the hospital (U.S.)
60
one or other thing (UK)
go to hospital (UK)
in the hospital (U.S.)
all morning (U.S.)
in hospital (UK)
all the morning (UK)
10. Íàêîíåö, ê ãðàììàòè÷åñêèì ðàçëè÷èÿì àìåðèêàíñêîãî è
áðèòàíñêîãî âàðèàíòîâ àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà îòíîñÿòñÿ ðàçíûå ôîðìû
ïðîøåäøåãî ïðè÷àñòèÿ:
gotten (U.S.)
proved and proven (U.S.)
stricken (U.S.)
learned (U.S.)
smelled (U.S.)
got (UK)
proved (UK)
struck (UK)
learnt (UK)
smelt (UK)
 îðôîãðàôèè àìåðèêàíèçìû îòëè÷àþòñÿ «ýêîíîìèåé» áóêâ èëè
áîëåå ðàöèîíàëüíûì, ïî ìíåíèþ àìåðèêàíöåâ, èõ èñïîëüçîâàíèåì
è ðàñïîëîæåíèåì:
Áðèòàíñêèé âàðèàíò
Àìåðèêàíñêèé âàðèàíò
aluminium
aneamia
catalogue
centre
cheque
defence
dialogue
judgement
labour
licence
likeable
moustache
organisation
programme
sizeable
sulphur
travelling
tyre
aluminum
anemia
catalog
center
check
defense
dialog
judgment
labor
license
likable
mustache
organization
program
sizable
sulfur
traveling
tire
 ëåêñè÷åñêîì ñîñòàâå ìû íàõîäèì çíà÷èòåëüíîå êîëè÷åñòâî
ðàñõîæäåíèé ìåæäó àìåðèêàíñêèì è áðèòàíñêèì âàðèàíòàìè àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà. Íèæå ïðèâîäèòñÿ äàëåêî íå ïîëíûé ñïèñîê ðàñõî61
æäåíèé â ñëîâàðíîì ôîíäå äàííûõ âàðèàíòîâ àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà,
êîòîðûå ñëåäóåò çíàòü ïåðåâîä÷èêó:
Áðèòàíñêèé
âàðèàíò
Àìåðèêàíñêèé
âàðèàíò
Çíà÷åíèå
ñëîâà
accumulator
adopt
battery
nominate
aerial (TV)
air hostess
anti-clockwise
ñòðåëêè
aubergine
autumn
banknote
barrister
antenna
flight attendant
counterclockwise
àêêóìóëÿòîð
âûäâèãàòü
(êàíäèäàòà)
àíòåíà
ñòþàðäåññà
ïðîòèâ ÷àñîâîé
barrow
beetroot
bill
booking office
biscuit
blinds
(for windows)
braces
car boot
car pack
carriage
cash dispenser
cashier
centre of the city
chemist’s
cinema
clever
coach
company
conceal
corn
country
62
eggplant
fall
bill
trial lawyer,
attorney (at law)
pushcart
beet
check
ticket office
cookie
shades
áàêëàæàí
îñåíü
áàíêíîòà
àäâîêàò
òà÷êà
ñâåêëà
ñ÷åò
æ.-ä. êàññà
ïå÷åíüå
øòîðû
suspenders
trunk
parking lot
car
ATM
teller
downtown
drugstore
movies
smart
bus
corporation
hold up
wheat
nation
ïîäòÿæêè
áàãàæíèê
ñòîÿíêà
æ.-ä. âàãîí
áàíêîìàò
êàññèð
öåíòð ãîðîäà
àïòåêà
êèíîòåàòð
óìíûé
àâòîáóñ
êîìïàíèÿ
ñêðûâàòü
ïøåíèöà
ñòðàíà
cram
crossroads
cupboard
cutting
diary (record)
dinner jacket
district
district
doctor
draughts
dressing gown
dust-bin
engage
flat
form
frontier
full stop
give way
government
ground floor
high street
on holiday
lent
lift
liquidiser
lorry
Ltd.
main road
minced meat
pavement
petrol
porridge
railway
relax
bone up
intersection
closet
cli pping
journal
toxedo
neighborhood
section
physician
checkers
bathrobe
garbage can
hire
appartment
grade
border
period
yield
administration
first floor
main street
on vacation
loaned
elevator
blender
truck
Inc.
highway
ground meat
sidewalk
gasoline, gas
oatmeal
railroad
let up
ring road
shop
beltway
store
çóáðèòü
ïåðååçä
êëàäîâêà
âûðåçêà èç ãàçåòû
äíåâíèê
ñìîêèíã
æèëîé ðàéîí
ðàéîí ãîðîäà
âðà÷
øàøêè
õàëàò
ÿùèê äëÿ ìóñîðà
íàíèìàòü
êâàðòèðà
êëàññ (â øêîëå)
ãðàíèöà, ðóáåæ1
òî÷êà
óñòóïàòü
ïðàâèòåëüñòâî
ïåðâûé ýòàæ
öåíòðàëüíàÿ óëèöà
â îòïóñêå
äàë âçàéìû
ëèôò
ìèêñåð
ãðóçîâèê
ÎÎÎ
øîññå
ôàðø
òðîòóàð
áåíçèí
îâñÿíàÿ êàøà
æåëåçíàÿ äîðîãà
îòäîõíóòü,
ðàññëàáèòüñÿ
êîëüöåâàÿ äîðîãà
ìàãàçèí
1
 àìåðèêàíñêîì âàðèàíòå frontier îçíà÷àåò ðàéîí, ïðèìûêàþùèé ê ãðàíèöå ïåðåäâèæåíèÿ ïåðâûõ ïîñåëåíöåâ; îêðàèíà Ñîåäèíåííûõ Øòàòîâ.
63
sleepers
stocks
subway
tap
timber
toilet
tram
trousers
twin-town
underground
(tube)
work out
(a problem)
railroad ties
øïàëû
inventory
èíâåíòàðü
pedestrian underpass ïîäçåìíûé
ïåðåõîä
faucet
êðàí
lumber
äðåâåñèíà
restroom, washroom òóàëåò
street car
òðàìâàé
pants or slacks
áðþêè
sister-city
ãîðîä-ïîáðàòèì
subway
ìåòðî
figure out
ðåøàòü
Êàê âèäíî èç ïðèâåäåííîãî âûøå êðàòêîãî ñïèñêà, óïîòðåáëåíèå ìíîãèõ ñëîâ ðàçëè÷íî â áðèòàíñêîì è àìåðèêàíñêîì âàðèàíòàõ
àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà. Èãíîðèðîâàíèå ýòîãî ïðèâîäèò ê îøèáêàì â
“ñ÷èòûâàíèè” èíôîðìàöèè. Íàïðèìåð, ñëîâî homely îáîçíà÷àåò
ïðîñòîé, íåïðèíóæäåííûé â áðèòàíñêîì âàðèàíòå, íî ïðîñòîâàòûé,
íåïðèâëåêàòåëüíûé â àìåðèêàíñêîì.
Åùå â áîëüøåé ñòåïåíè ýòî îòíîñèòñÿ ê ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèÿì, êîòîðûå ìû îòíîñèì ê ôðàçåîëîãèçìàì (ïîäðîáíåå îá ýòîì â ðàçäåëå
2.2.2.) Òàê, âûðàæåíèå It went like a bomb â áðèòàíñêîì âàðèàíòå
îáîçíà÷àåò, ÷òî óñïåõ áûë îãðîìíûé.  òî æå âðåìÿ, â àìåðèêàíñêîì
âàðèàíòå ýòî âûðàæåíèå (òî÷íåå, it bombed) çíà÷èò, ÷òî âñå áûëî
óæàñíî.
Âîò åùå îäèí ïðèìåð. Âûðàæåíèå óäîâîëüñòâèÿ, ñ÷àñòüÿ è óäîâëåòâîðåíèÿ ó àìåðèêàíöåâ çâó÷èò “I’m as happy as a clam in high
waters” (äîñëîâíî: “ß äîâîëåí èëè ñ÷àñòëèâ, êàê ìèäèÿ âî âðåìÿ
ïðèëèâà”), à ó áðèòàíöå⠗ “I’m as happy as a lark high up in the sky”
(äîñëîâíî: “êàê æàâîðîíîê âûñîêî â íåáå”). Íàâåðíîå, â ðóññêîì
ïåðåâîäå, â çàâèñèìîñòè îò ñèòóàöèè, ìîæíî ñêàçàòü, ÷òî ÷åëîâåê
áûë î÷åíü äîâîëåí èëè äîâîëåí, êàê ðåáåíîê.
Íèæå äàåòñÿ êðàòêèé ñïèñîê ðàçëè÷èé ìåæäó ôðàçåîëîãèçìàìè
â áðèòàíñêîì è àìåðèêàíñêîì âàðèàíòàõ àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà.
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Áðèòàíñêèé
âàðèàíò
Àìåðèêàíñêèé
âàðèàíò
Çíà÷åíèå
èäèîìû
cheese off
get one’s cards
tick off
get a pink sli p
íàäîåñòü
áûòü óâîëåííûì
in top gear
to cut the long
story short
small hours
devil of work
in high gear
to make a long
story short
wee hours
working devil
get out of bed
the wrong side
get up on the
wrong side
íà âñåé ñêîðîñòè
êîðî÷å ãîâîðÿ
âðåìÿ äî ðàññâåòà
òðóäîëþáèâûé
÷åëîâåê
âñòàòü ñ ëåâîé íîãè
Ñëåäóåò îòìåòèòü, ÷òî ñóùåñòâóåò ðÿä ôðàçåîëîãè÷åñêèõ ñî÷åòàíèé è èäèîìàòè÷åñêèõ âûðàæåíèé, êîòîðûå óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ òîëüêî
â áðèòàíñêîì èëè àìåðèêàíñêîì âàðèàíòå àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà. Ýòî
òàêæå íåîáõîäèìî ó÷èòûâàòü ïðè ïåðåâîäå.
Ôðàçåîëîãèçìû, êîòîðûå õàðàêòåðíû òîëüêî äëÿ áðèòàíñêîãî âàðèàíòà è ïî÷òè ÍÅ óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ â àìåðèêàíñêîì âàðèàíòå àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà:
Dutch courage
ïüÿíàÿ óäàëü
be mean with money
áûòü æàäíûì
(we) cannot run to it
ìû íå ìîæåì ñåáå ýòî
ïîçâîëèòü
carry the can
âçÿòü íà ñåáÿ âñþ
îòâåòñòâåííîñòü
come to a sticky end
ïëîõî çàêîí÷èòü
get the push
áûòü óâîëåííûì
higgledy-piggledy
òÿï-ëÿï
send someone away with
ïðîó÷èòü
a flea in his ear
Ôðàçåîëîãèçìû, êîòîðûå õàðàêòåðíû òîëüêî äëÿ àìåðèêàíñêîãî âàðèàíòà è ïî÷òè ÍÅ óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ â áðèòàíñêîì âàðèàíòå àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà:
beat one’s brains out
be from Missouri
chew the fat
do a land-office business
drop the ball
feel like two cents
Johnny-on-the-spot
Lately-come-lately
ëîìàòü ãîëîâó íàä ÷åì-ë.
áûòü ñêåïòèêîì
ñïëåòíè÷àòü
èìåòü ìíîãî êëèåíòîâ
ñîâåðøèòü ãëóïóþ îøèáêó
ïëîõî ñåáÿ ÷óâñòâîâàòü
ìàëü÷èê íà ïîáåãóøêàõ
íîâè÷îê
65
live high off the hog
rest on one’s ores
to snow someone
æèòü â ðîñêîøè
ñäåëàòü ïåðåäûøêó
áëåôîâàòü ïåðåä êåì-ëèáî
Äëÿ àäåêâàòíîãî ïåðåâîäà òåêñòîâ èç àìåðèêàíñêèõ èñòî÷íèêîâ ðåêîìåíäóåòñÿ, íàðÿäó ñ äâóÿçû÷íûìè ñëîâàðÿìè, îáðàùàòüñÿ
ê àíãëî-àíãëèéñêèì (òîëêîâûì) ñëîâàðÿì ÑØÀ, íàïðèìåð,
Webster’s New International Dictionary, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language è äð.
?
Âîïðîñû äëÿ ñàìîêîíòðîëÿ
1.
 ÷åì ïðîÿâëÿåòñÿ ðàçëè÷èå ìåæäó áðèòàíñêèì è àìåðèêàíñêèì âàðèàíòàìè àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà?
Êàêèå ðàçëè÷èÿ â áðèòàíñêîì è àìåðèêàíñêîì âàðèàíòàõ
àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà íàèáîëåå âàæíî çíàòü ïåðåâîä÷èêó?
2.
Ïðàêòè÷åñêîå çàäàíèå
A.
Ïåðåâåäèòå ñëåäóþùèå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ íà ðóññêèé ÿçûê, îáðàùàÿ âíèìàíèå íà àìåðèêàíèçìû:
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1.
The clause was stricken out.
2.
I visited with my family after doing all the errands in the
3.
West.
The university faculty were invited to attend a meeting with the
delegation of Detroit’s sister-city.
4.
This offer will sure be of interest to career officers.
5.
The baggage claim area was right under the main hall of the
airport.
6.
7.
The performance lasted for two hours without intermission.
He got the extension of his program through March 1st.
8.
Hope you’ll be able to let up after everybody fills out their
forms and leaves.
9.
The frontier days attract a lot of visitors in Wyoming and
Colorado.
10. Boning up on foreign languages is inevitable at the initial
stage of studies.
11. He updated me on the recent events.
12. The unemployment has sky-rocketed in the country due to recession.
Á.
Âûïîëíèòå ïåðåâîä ñòàòåé èç ãàçåòû «Óîëë Ñòðèò Äæîðíåë»,
ïîìåùåííûõ â ÷àñòè 5 «Ïðàêòèêóì ïåðåâîäà» (ðàçäåë 5.1.2.).
2.2.
Ïåðåâîä ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèé
2.2.1. Ñâîáîäíûå ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèÿ
 ñâîáîäíûõ ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèÿõ ñëîâà ñîõðàíÿþò ñâîè çíà÷åíèÿ,
ïîýòîìó ïðè ïåðåâîäå òàêèõ ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèé âàæíî çíàòü ïåðåâîä
ñîñòàâëÿþùèõ èõ êîìïîíåíòîâ.
 òåõ ñëó÷àÿõ, êîãäà â ðóññêîì ÿçûêå íåò íåïîñðåäñòâåííîãî
ñîîòâåòñòâèÿ ÿçûêîâûõ åäèíèö àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà, ïðè ïåðåâîäå
ïðèìåíÿåòñÿ ïðèåì, êîòîðûé íàçûâàåòñÿ êàëüêèðîâàíèå, ïðè êîòîðîì ïîëíîñòüþ (áåç êàêèõ-ëèáî èçìåíåíèé) âîñïðîèçâîäÿòñÿ âñå ñîñòàâíûå ÷àñòè ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèÿ. Èìåííî áëàãîäàðÿ êàëüêèðîâàíèþ â
ÿçûêàõ ñóùåñòâóåò áîëüøîå ÷èñëî çàèìñòâîâàíèé è èíòåðíàöèîíàëüíûõ ïîíÿòèé è íàçâàíèé, êîòîðûå ïðåäñòàâëÿþò ñîáîé øèðîêî óïîòðåáëÿåìûå ñëîâà è ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèÿ, íàïðèìåð:
shuttle diplomacy
vicious circle
head of the government
free economic zone
maldistribution of costs
÷åëíî÷íàÿ äèïëîìàòèÿ
ïîðî÷íûé êðóã
ãëàâà ïðàâèòåëüñòâà
ñâîáîäíàÿ ýêîíîìè÷åñêàÿ çîíà
íåïðàâèëüíîå ðàñïðåäåëåíèå
çàòðàò
Êàê âèäíî èç ïîñëåäíèõ äâóõ ïðèìåðîâ, êàëüêèðîâàíèå ïðèìåíÿåòñÿ ïðè ïåðåâîäå òåðìèíîâ. Ïîñêîëüêó èõ êîëè÷åñòâî ïîñòîÿííî
óâåëè÷èâàåòñÿ â ñâÿçè ñ ðàçâèòèåì âñåõ ñôåð æèçíè è íàó÷íî-òåõíè÷åñêèì ïðîãðåññîì, ðàñòåò è ÷èñëî êàëüêèðîâàííûõ òåðìèíîâ.
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Ñëåäóåò ïîä÷åðêíóòü, îäíàêî, ÷òî ïåðåâîä ñâîáîäíûõ ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèé âîâñå íå ñâîäèòñÿ ê ìåõàíè÷åñêîé ïåðåäà÷å çíà÷åíèÿ âõîäÿùèõ â íèõ ñëîâ. Ýòè ñëîâà ÷àñòî íàõîäÿòñÿ â ñëîæíûõ îòíîøåíèÿõ
äðóã ñ äðóãîì.
Äàæå ñàìûå ïðîñòûå àòðèáóòèâíûå ãðóïïû, òî åñòü òàêèå, êîòîðûå ïî ñòðóêòóðå ñîâïàäàþò ñ ðóññêèìè ñî÷åòàíèÿìè “ïðèëàãàòåëüíîå + ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîå” (A+N: Àdjective+Noun), èìåþò ñâîè
ñëîæíîñòè ïðè ïåðåâîäå:
1) îäíî è òî æå àíãëèéñêîå ñëîâî (ïðèëàãàòåëüíîå â ôóíêöèè
îïðåäåëåíèÿ) ïåðåâîäèòñÿ ïî-ðàçíîìó â çàâèñèìîñòè îò çíà÷åíèÿ
ñëåäóþùåãî çà íèì îïðåäåëÿåìîãî ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîãî:
public opinion
public debt
public scandal
îáùåñòâåííîå ìíåíèå
ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé äîëã
ïóáëè÷íûé ñêàíäàë
2) ïîÿâëÿåòñÿ ïðåäëîã â ðóññêîì âàðèàíòå:
European security
stateless citizen
terrorist trial
commercial revolution
áåçîïàñíîñòü â Åâðîïå
÷åëîâåê áåç ãðàæäàíñòâà
ñóä íàä òåððîðèñòàìè
ðåâîëþöèÿ â ñôåðå ðûíêà
3) ïåðåñòàâëÿþòñÿ ÷ëåíû àòðèáóòèâíîé ãðóïïû:
working expectancy
îæèäàåìàÿ ïðîäîëæèòåëüíîñòü
òðóäîâîé äåÿòåëüíîñòè
administrative efficiency óìåëîå ðóêîâîäñòâî
4) â ïåðåâîäå èñïîëüçóþòñÿ ãëàãîëû è íàðå÷èÿ:
I hope you had a good time (sleep).
Íàäåþñü, âû õîðîøî ïðîâåëè âðåìÿ (âûñïàëèñü).
5)
âîäó:
ïåðåâîä÷èê âûíóæäåí ïðèáåãàòü ê îïèñàòåëüíîìó ïåðå-
jet lag (äîñëîâíî: ðåàêòèâíîå îòñòàâàíèå) — íàðóøåíèå
ñóòî÷íîãî ðèòìà îðãàíèçìà, ðàññòðîéñòâî áèîðèòìîâ â
ñâÿçè ñ ïåðåëåòîì (îòñþäà â ýòîì ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèè ñëîâî
jet — ðåàêòèâíûé ñàìîëåò) ÷åðåç íåñêîëüêî ÷àñîâûõ ïîÿñîâ.
 ïðåäëîæåíèè ýòî ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèå, åñòåñòâåííî, ìîæíî ïåðåâåñòè ãîðàçäî êîðî÷å ñ ó÷åòîì êîíòåêñòà:
68
On the third day of my stay in California, I still had a jet lag.
Íà òðåòèé äåíü ïðåáûâàíèÿ â Êàëèôîðíèè ÿ ïî-ïðåæíåìó îùóùàë ðàçíèöó âî âðåìåíè. (Ýòà ðàçíèöà ñîñòàâëÿåò
10 ÷àñîâ ìåæäó Áåëàðóñüþ è Òèõîîêåàíñêèì ïîáåðåæüåì
ÑØÀ.)
 àíãëèéñêèõ ïðåäëîæåíèÿõ âñòðå÷àþòñÿ îïðåäåëåíèÿ, âûðàæåííûå öåëîé ãðóïïîé ñëîâ, ïðåäñòàâëÿþùèõ ñîáîé çàêîí÷åííóþ
ìûñëü:
The president pursued his better-late-than-never courtshi p of
the Congress.
 ýòîì ïðåäëîæåíèè ïîãîâîðêà better late than never (ëó÷øå ïîçäíî, ÷åì íèêîãäà) ñòàëà îïðåäåëåíèåì ê ñëîâó courtship. Òàêèå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ ïðè ïåðåâîäå ïîëíîñòüþ ìåíÿþò ñâîþ ñòðóêòóðó:
Ïðåçèäåíò íà÷àë îáõàæèâàòü êîíãðåññ, èñõîäÿ èç òîãî,
÷òî ëó÷øå ïîçäíî, ÷åì íèêîãäà.
Íàèáîëüøàÿ øèðîòà ñìûñëîâûõ ñâÿçåé ïðîñëåæèâàåòñÿ â ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèÿõ, îáðàçîâàííûõ èç äâóõ èëè áîëåå ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûõ
(N+N: Noun+Noun — stone wall) èëè ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûõ, ïåðåä êîòîðûìè ñòîèò ìíîãî÷ëåííîå ñî÷åòàíèå â ðîëè îïðåäåëåíèÿ (ñì.
ïîñëåäíèé ïðèìåð).  òàêèõ ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèÿõ ãëàâíûì ñëîâîì ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïîñëåäíåå ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîå, à ïðåäøåñòâóþùèå ñëîâà ÷àùå âñåãî âûïîëíÿþò ôóíêöèþ îïðåäåëåíèÿ:
stone wall — ñòåíà (êàêàÿ?) èç êàìíÿ èëè êàìåííàÿ
shuttle di plomacy — ÷åëíî÷íàÿ äèïëîìàòèÿ
top trade union leaders (UK)/top labor union leaders
(U.S.) — ëèäåðû (êàêèå? ÷åãî?) ñîþçîâ (êàêèõ?) ïðîôåññèîíàëüíûõ (êàêèå ëèäåðû ïðîôñîþçîâ?) âûñøèå => âûñøåå ðóêîâîäñòâî ïðîôñîþçîâ
Èíîãäà ïåðâîå ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîå â ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèè N+N âûñòóïàåò â ðîëè (à) îáñòîÿòåëüñòâà èëè (á) äîïîëíåíèÿ:
(à) weekend rally
seashore bike ride
(á) space programme
corruption struggle
ìèòèíã â êîíöå íåäåëè
âåëîñèïåäíàÿ ïðîãóëêà ïî áåðåãó
ìîðÿ
ïðîãðàììà êîñìè÷åñêèõ
èññëåäîâàíèé
áîðüáà ñ êîððóïöèåé
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Ìíîãî÷ëåííûå ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèÿ ïðè ïåðåâîäå íåîáõîäèìî ïîíÿòü
ñ òî÷êè çðåíèÿ ñìûñëîâîé ñâÿçè ñîñòàâëÿþùèõ èõ êîìïîíåíòîâ,
ïðè ýòîì îñíîâíûì èëè îïîðíûì ñëîâîì âñå ðàâíî áóäåò ïîñëåäíåå:
most-favoured-nation trading status — ñòàòóñ íàèáîëüøåãî
áëàãîïðèÿòñòâîâàíèÿ â òîðãîâëå
?
Âîïðîñû äëÿ ñàìîêîíòðîëÿ
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
×òî òàêîå ñâîáîäíîå ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèå?
 ÷åì çàêëþ÷àåòñÿ ñóòü êàëüêèðîâàííîãî ïåðåâîäà ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèé?
Êàêîâû îñîáåííîñòè ïåðåâîäà ñëîâà â ñîñòàâå íàèáîëåå
ïðîñòûõ ñâîáîäíûõ ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèé A+N?
 êàêèõ ñâîáîäíûõ ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèÿõ íàèáîëåå øèðîêî ïðîÿâëÿþòñÿ ñåìàíòè÷åñêèå (ñìûñëîâûå) ñâÿçè?
Êàê ïåðåâîäÿòñÿ àòðèáóòèâíûå ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèÿ òèïà N+N?
×òî íåîáõîäèìî ïîíÿòü ïåðåâîä÷èêó ïðè ïåðåâîäå ìíîãî÷ëåííûõ ñâîáîäíûõ ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèé?
 êàêîé ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíîñòè ïåðåâîäÿòñÿ òàêèå ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèÿ?
Ïðàêòè÷åñêîå çàäàíèå
À. Ïåðåâåäèòå ñëåäóþùèå ñâîáîäíûå ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèÿ íà ðóññêèé ÿçûê:
iron curtain
Energy Department spokesman
mountain war
exchange rate policy
perfect murder
perfect stranger
dog-eat-dog rules
reception hall
behind-the-scenes decision
70
non-for-profit institution
UN Security Council resolutions
structural reorganisation goals
Ford Union assembly plant
Freedom Support Act
market reform development scenarios
join-the-solidarity-movement march
no-more-war-actions call
a new space satellite communications system
business communication workshop
Statistics and Analysis State Committee
non-taxable income
Parliament civil rights representative
University students association’s rally
“Change-the-attitude-to-minorities” conference
Á. Ïåðåâåäèòå ñëåäóþùèå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ, ñîäåðæàùèå àòðèáóòèâíûå ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèÿ N+N:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
The IMF experts have recommended to raise cost recovery ratios in communal services to 50%.
Growing inter-enterprise indebtedness may maintain production levels for some time.
Consumer goods shortages become widespread, as price distortions encourage the informal export of food products to neighboring countries.
The street market exchange rate depreciates in line with inflation
increase.
Money supply growth falls when the budgetary policy remains
tight.
Full exchange rate liberalization is another market reform target.
The Payments Operations Division of the Central Bank is responsible for conducting clearing and settlements.
Interest rate subsidies are envisaged by the government.
2.2.2. Ñâÿçàííûå (ôðàçåîëîãè÷åñêèå) ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèÿ
Ôðàçåîëîãè÷åñêèå ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèÿ ïðåäñòàâëÿþò ñîáîé áîëåå èëè
ìåíåå óñòîé÷èâûå ëåêñè÷åñêèå ñî÷åòàíèÿ, çíà÷åíèå êîòîðûõ îïðåäå71
ëÿåòñÿ èç öåëîãî âûðàæåíèÿ, à íå èç ñîñòàâëÿþùèõ èõ êîìïîíåíòîâ, íàïðèìåð:
it’s high time — äàâíî ïîðà (à íå “âûñîêîå âðåìÿ”)
take your time — íå òîðîïèñü ( à íå “áåðè ñâîå âðåìÿ”)
help yourself — óãîùàéñÿ (à íå “ïîìîãàé ñåáå”)
Ñ òî÷êè çðåíèÿ ñòåïåíè ñìûñëîâîé ñâÿçàííîñòè êîìïîíåíòîâ ôðàçåîëîãèçìû äåëÿòñÿ íà íåîáðàçíûå è îáðàçíûå.
Íåîáðàçíûå ôðàçåîëîãèçìû èíà÷å íàçûâàþò ôðàçåîëîãè÷åñêèìè
ñî÷åòàíèÿìè.  íèõ ñîñòàâëÿþùèå ýëåìåíòû ñîõðàíÿþò ñâîå çíà÷åíèå, íî ñî÷åòàþòñÿ òîëüêî ñ îïðåäåëåííûìè ñëîâàìè, ïîýòîìó èõ
íåëüçÿ ïðîèçâîëüíî ìåíÿòü:
Ýòî íå èìååò çíà÷åíèÿ (à íå èãðàåò).
Ýòî íå èãðàåò ðîëè (à íå èìååò).
 àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå ñóùåñòâóåò áîëüøîå ÷èñëî òàêèõ óñòîé÷èâûõ (ñâÿçàííûõ, ôðàçåîëîãè÷åñêèõ) ñî÷åòàíèé:
to take measures — ïðèíèìàòü (à íå áðàòü) ìåðû
to make a decision — ïðèíèìàòü (à íå äåëàòü) ðåøåíèå
 òàêèõ ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèÿõ èíîãäà äîïóñêàåòñÿ ñèíîíèìè÷åñêàÿ
çàìåíà, íàïðèìåð: to take a decision.
Ýòî ñâèäåòåëüñòâóåò î òîì, ÷òî ôðàçåîëîãè÷åñêèå ñî÷åòàíèÿ íå
ÿâëÿþòñÿ çàñòûâøèì êîìïëåêñîì:
to achieve results — äîáèòüñÿ ðåçóëüòàòîâ
to accomplish results — -”Íî ÷àùå âñåãî îíè ÿâëÿþòñÿ èìåííî óñòîé÷èâûìè ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèÿìè:
pay attention — îáðàùàòü (à íå ïëàòèòü) âíèìàíèå [ñâîå]
draw (smb’s) attention — îáðàùàòü âíèìàíèå [÷üå-òî]
Ïåðåâîä íåîáðàçíûõ ôðàçåîëîãèçìîâ îñóùåñòâëÿåòñÿ äâóìÿ ñïîñîáàìè:
1) îäíèì ñëîâîì íà îñíîâå ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîãî óñòîé÷èâîãî àíãëèéñêîãî ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèÿ:
to take a chance
to have a rest
to take offence
to take a nap
72
ðèñêîâàòü
îòäûõàòü
îáèäåòüñÿ
âçäðåìíóòü
2) ýêâèâàëåíòíûìè ñî÷åòàíèÿìè (àáñîëþòíûìè è îòíîñèòåëüíûìè):
à)
àáñîëþòíûå ýêâèâàëåíòû:
shadow cabinet
to hit the target
golden share
to put an end to
the root of the trouble
to read between lines
á)
òåíåâîé êàáèíåò
ïîïàñòü â öåëü
çîëîòàÿ àêöèÿ
ïîëîæèòü êîíåö, ïðåîäîëåòü
êîðåíü çëà
÷èòàòü ìåæäó ñòðîê
îòíîñèòåëüíûå ýêâèâàëåíòû:
to take into account
to make a point
to jump at conclusions
moment of silence
ups-and-downs
trouble shooter
at the world’s end
think tank
token strike
ïðèíèìàòü âî âíèìàíèå
îáðàòèòü îñîáîå âíèìàíèå
äåëàòü ïîñïåøíûå âûâîäû
ìèíóòà ìîë÷àíèÿ
âçëåòû è ïàäåíèÿ
ñïåöèàëèñò ïî ðàçðåøåíèþ
êîíôëèêòíûõ ñèòóàöèé
íà êðàþ ñâåòà
ìîçãîâîé öåíòð
ïðåäóïðåäèòåëüíàÿ çàáàñòîâêà
(token — çíàê)
Ôðàçåîëîãè÷åñêèå åäèíñòâà (ñî÷åòàíèÿ) ÿâëÿþòñÿ íåîòúåìëåìîé ÷àñòüþ àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà, è çíàíèå ýòèõ ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèé —
çàëîã àäåêâàòíîãî ïåðåâîäà âñåãî âûñêàçûâàíèÿ.
Íèæå ïðèâîäèòñÿ êðàòêèé ñïèñîê íàèáîëåå ÷àñòî âñòðå÷àþùèõñÿ óñòîé÷èâûõ ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèé ñ ïðåäëîãàìè, êîòîðûå îòíîñÿòñÿ ê íåîáðàçíîé ôðàçåîëîãèè:
in accordance with
on account of
in addition to
at any rate
on behalf of
on the basis of
for the benefit of
by and large
in charge of
in connection with
â ñîîòâåòñòâèè ñ
íà îñíîâàíèè
â äîáàâëåíèå ê
âî âñÿêîì ñëó÷àå
îò èìåíè
íà îñíîâå
íà áëàãî
â öåëîì
îòâå÷àþùèé çà
â ñâÿçè ñ
73
in contrast to/with
in the course of
as early as
with the exception of
at the expense of
with an eye to
(= with the intention of)
by force of
in lieu of (= instead of)
as a matter of fact (= in fact)
on the occasion of
off and on = on and off
on and on
in opposition to
over and over (again)
on the part of
for the purpose of
at the rate of
by reason of
in recognition of
with/in reference to
in relation to
in response to
in return for
for the sake of
in search of
in spite of (= despite)
on the strength of
(= relying on)
to and fro = up and down
in token of (= as a sign of)
by virtue of (= because of)
in the wake of (= following)
â îòëè÷èå
â õîäå
åùå â
çà èñêëþ÷åíèåì
çà ñ÷åò
ñ íàìåðåíèåì
â ñèëó
âìåñòî
íà ñàìîì äåëå
ïî ñëó÷àþ
íåðåãóëÿðíî
íåïðåðûâíî
â ïðîòèâîâåñ
ñíîâà è ñíîâà
ñî ñòîðîíû (êîãî-òî)
ñ öåëüþ
ñî ñêîðîñòüþ; ïðè êóðñå
(ñòàâêå)
ïî ïðè÷èíå
â ïðèçíàíèå
èñõîäÿ èç
îòíîñèòåëüíî
â îòâåò
âçàìåí íà
ðàäè
â ïîèñêàõ
âìåñòî
ïîëàãàÿñü íà
òóäà-íàçàä (ìíîãî ðàç)
â çíàê
ïî ïðè÷èíå
âñëåä çà
Íåêîòîðûå ñõîæèå àíãëèéñêèå ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèÿ ÷àñòî ïóòàþò
èç-çà íàëè÷èÿ/îòñóòñòâèÿ àðòèêëÿ èëè çàìåíû ïðåäëîãà. Îáðàòèòå
âíèìàíèå íà òàêèå ïàðû:
in case of
in the case of
74
â ñëó÷àå
÷òî êàñàåòñÿ
in (the) face of
on the face of
in favour of
in favour with
for fear of
in fear of
by the name of
in the name of
at the point of
on the point of
in possession of
in the possession of
in/with regard to
out of regard for
in respect of
with respect to
at the sight of
in the sight of
at the same time
in the same time
at the time of
in time of
in time
on time
â ïðèñóòñòâèè
ñóäÿ ïî
â ïîëüçó
îäîáðåíèå (÷üå-ë.)
÷òîáû íå
â ñòðàõå çà
ïî èìåíè
âî èìÿ
íà ãðàíè
ïåðåä (êàêèì-ë. äåéñòâèåì)
âëàäåòü (ôàêòàìè)
âëàäåòü (ñîñòîÿíèåì)
îòíîñèòåëüíî (÷åãî-ë.)
ïî ïðè÷èíå
÷òî êàñàåòñÿ
îòíîñèòåëüíî (÷åãî-ë.)
ïðè âèäå
ñ òî÷êè çðåíèÿ
â òî æå âðåìÿ
çà îäíî è òî æå âðåìÿ
âî âðåìÿ (ñîáûòèÿ)
âî âðåìåíà
âîâðåìÿ (êî âðåìåíè);
ñî âðåìåíåì
âîâðåìÿ (ïóíêòóàëüíî)
Êàêîâà áû íè áûëà ñòåïåíü ñâÿçàííîñòè êîìïîíåíòîâ ôðàçåîëîãè÷åñêîãî åäèíñòâà, ãëàâíûì ïðàâèëîì ïðè ïåðåâîäå îñòàåòñÿ
ñîáëþäåíèå íîðì ðóññêîãî ÿçûêà, òî åñòü íåäîïóùåíèå áóêâàëèçìîâ è íàðóøåíèÿ óñòîÿâøèõñÿ ñî÷åòàíèé ñëîâ â ðóññêîì ÿçûêå.
Îáðàçíûå ôðàçåîëîãèçìû, èëè ôðàçåîëîãè÷åñêèå ñðàùåíèÿ, èçâåñòíû ïîä íàçâàíèåì èäèîìû.
Èäèîìà — ýòî çàñòûâøåå ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèå (ðå÷åâîé îáîðîò), îáùèé ñìûñë êîòîðîãî íå ÿâëÿåòñÿ ñóììîé çíà÷åíèé ñîñòàâëÿþùèõ
åãî êîìïîíåíòîâ. Â ðóññêîì ÿçûêå, íàïðèìåð, ê èäèîìàì îòíîñÿòñÿ
òàêèå âûðàæåíèÿ, êàê:
ïîãíàòüñÿ çà äâóìÿ çàéöàìè
ïîïàñòü êàê êóð â îùèï
Äàìîêëîâ ìå÷
êèøêà òîíêà
75
 àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå, êàê è â ëþáîì äðóãîì, òàêæå èñïîëüçóåòñÿ áîëüøîå êîëè÷åñòâî èäèîì. Èõ êîìïîíåíòû óòðàòèëè ñâîé ïåðâîíà÷àëüíûé ñìûñë è íå âîñïðèíèìàþòñÿ ïî îòäåëüíîñòè:
through thick and thin
tooth and nail
it’s raining cats and dogs
to be caught red-handed
âî ÷òî áû òî íè ñòàëî
íå æàëåÿ ñèë, çàñó÷èâ ðóêàâà
äîæäü ëüåò êàê èç âåäðà
áûòü ïîéìàííûì íà ìåñòå
ïðåñòóïëåíèÿ
Ïðè ïåðåâîäå àíãëèéñêèõ èäèîìàòè÷åñêèõ âûðàæåíèé èñïîëüçóþòñÿ èõ ñîîòâåòñòâèÿ â ðóññêîì ÿçûêå. Îíè ìîãóò áûòü âûðàæåíû ñëåäóþùèìè ñïîñîáàìè:
1) àáñîëþòíûìè ýêâèâàëåíòàìè â òåõ ñëó÷àÿõ, êîãäà ýòè âûðàæåíèÿ ÿâëÿþòñÿ èíòåðíàöèîíàëüíûìè:
to shed crocodile tears
to sugar the pill
lion’s share
to play with fire
ëèòü êðîêîäèëîâû ñëåçû
ïîäñëàñòèòü ïèëþëþ
ëüâèíàÿ äîëÿ
èãðàòü ñ îãíåì
2) îòíîñèòåëüíûìè ýêâèâàëåíòàìè â òåõ ñëó÷àÿõ, êîãäà ïðè
ñîõðàíåíèè çíà÷åíèÿ àíãëèéñêîãî âûðàæåíèÿ â ðóññêîì âàðèàíòå
èìåþòñÿ íåêîòîðûå îòëè÷èÿ:
the sword of Damocles
to show one’s teeth
to start business from scratch
whi p-and-carrot policy
äàìîêëîâ ìå÷
îãðûçàòüñÿ
íà÷àòü ñ íóëÿ
ïîëèòèêà êíóòà è ïðÿíèêà
3) ñîâåðøåííî äðóãèìè ëåêñè÷åñêèìè ñðåäñòâàìè, êîòîðûå
íàçûâàþòñÿ ôðàçåîëîãè÷åñêèìè àíàëîãàìè:
a)
ïðè ïåðåâîäå ïîñëîâèö:
East or West — home is best.
 ãîñòÿõ õîðîøî, à äîìà ëó÷øå.
Make hay while the sun shines.
Êóé æåëåçî, ïîêà ãîðÿ÷î.
You can’t eat your cake and have it.
Íåëüçÿ ñîâìåñòèòü íåñîâìåñòèìîå. (Íà åëêó âëåçòü è íå
óêîëîòüñÿ.)
A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.
Ëó÷øå ñèíèöà â ðóêå, ÷åì æóðàâëü â íåáå.
76
á)
ïðè ïåðåâîäå îáðàçíûõ âûðàæåíèé:
to make a mountain out of a molehill — äåëàòü èç ìóõè ñëîíà
(molehill — êðîòîâèíà)
by hook or by crook — íå ìûòüåì, òàê êàòàíüåì
to hit the nail on the head — ïîïàñòü â òî÷êó (íå â áðîâü,
à â ãëàç)
to beat about the bush — õîäèòü âîêðóã äà îêîëî
to bark on the moon — ëîìèòüñÿ â îòêðûòóþ äâåðü
4) ñ ïîìîùüþ îïèñàòåëüíîãî ïåðåâîäà, êîãäà â ðóññêîì ÿçûêå íåò ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèõ ýêâèâàëåíòîâ èëè àíàëîãîâ:
to show the white feather — ïðîÿâèòü ìàëîäóøèå, òðóñîñòü
(âûðàæåíèå ïîêàçàòü áåëîå ïåðî íè÷åãî íå ãîâîðèò íîñèòåëþ ðóññêîãî ÿçûêà)
to have a skeleton in the cupboard (closet) — èìåòü ëè÷íóþ
èëè ñåìåéíóþ òàéíó, ñêðûâàåìóþ îò ïîñòîðîííèõ (â ðóññêîì ÿçûêå íåò àíàëîãà âûðàæåíèÿ “èìåòü ñêåëåò â øêàôó”).
Ïðèâåäåííûå âûøå ïðèìåðû îòíîñÿòñÿ ê ñôåðå îáùåãî óïîòðåáëåíèÿ àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà. Áåçóñëîâíî, â êàæäîé ïðîôåññèîíàëüíîé ñôåðå èñïîëüçóåòñÿ ìíîæåñòâî èäèîì, ïðè ïåðåäà÷å ñìûñëà
êîòîðûõ òàêæå ïðèõîäèòñÿ ïðèáåãàòü ê îïèñàòåëüíîìó ïåðåâîäó.
Íàïðèìåð, â ñôåðå ôèíàíñîâ è áèçíåñà ê òàêèì ôðàçåîëîãèçìàì
îòíîñÿòñÿ:
creeping
tape dancing (U.S.)
tri ple witching hour
takeover ïîñòåïåííàÿ ñêóïêà àêöèé êîìïàíèè ó èíäèâèäóàëüíûõ
àêöèîíåðîâ äî òîãî ìîìåíòà,
ïîêà íå íàáåðåòñÿ äîñòàòî÷íîå
êîëè÷åñòâî äëÿ âëàäåíèÿ êîíòðîëüíûì ïàêåòîì àêöèé
ìåòîä ìàíèïóëèðîâàíèÿ öåíàìè
àêöèé, ïðè êîòîðîì áðîêåð
âêëþ÷àåò â íèõ ñâîè êîìèññèîííûå, òåì ñàìûì ïîâûøàÿ öåíó
àêöèé
îäíà èç ÷åòûðåõ ïÿòíèö â ãîäó,
êîãäà èñòåêàþò ñðîêè îïöèîííûõ
è ôüþ÷åðñíûõ êîíòðàêòîâ
77
Èíîãäà ôðàçåîëîãè÷åñêèå ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèÿ ïîëíîñòüþ ñîâïàäàþò ïî ñîñòàâó ñî ñâîáîäíûìè ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèÿìè, ïîýòîìó ïåðåâîä÷èêó íåîáõîäèìî îïèðàòüñÿ íà êîíòåêñò äëÿ èõ ðàñïîçíàâàíèÿ è
àäåêâàòíîãî ïåðåâîäà:
to sit on the fence
red tape
yellow pages
red herring
ñèäåòü íà çàáîðå, à òàêæå âûæèäàòü
êðàñíàÿ òåñüìà, à òàêæå âîëîêèòà, áþðîêðàòèÿ
æåëòûå ñòðàíèöû, à òàêæå æåëòûå
ñòðàíèöû êàê ÷àñòü òåëåôîííîãî
ñïðàâî÷íèêà ñ èíôîðìàöèåé îá
îðãàíèçàöèÿõ
êîï÷åíàÿ ñåëåäêà, à òàêæå îòâëåêàþùèé ìàíåâð (to draw a red
herring across the path — îòâëåêàòü
âíèìàíèå)
 ñâÿçè ñ òåìîé ôðàçåîëîãèè ñòîèò òàêæå îòìåòèòü, ÷òî èíîãäà
ïåðåâîä÷èê ñòàëêèâàåòñÿ ñ ïåðåâîäîì ñïåöèôè÷åñêè íàöèîíàëüíûõ
èäèîì.
Äîñëîâíûé ïåðåâîä çäåñü óìåñòåí òîëüêî â ñëó÷àå, åñëè çíà÷åíèå àíãëèéñêîé èäèîìû íàì õîðîøî èçâåñòíî, íàïðèìåð, to carry
coal to Newcastle — âîçèòü óãîëü â Íüþêàñë (Íüþêàñë — öåíòð óãëåäîáûâàþùåé ïðîìûøëåííîñòè Àíãëèè).  îñòàëüíûõ ñëó÷àÿõ (î÷åâèäíî, èõ áóäåò áîëüøå), ñëåäóåò ïîäûñêàòü íåéòðàëüíûé èëè ðàçãîâîðíûé (â çàâèñèìîñòè îò ñòèëÿ) ðóññêèé ýêâèâàëåíò è èçáåãàòü
íàöèîíàëüíî îêðàøåííûõ ðóññêèõ âûðàæåíèé. Íà ïðèâåäåííîì
ïðèìåðå ñ óãëåì íå íóæíî ïðè ïåðåâîäå èñïîëüçîâàòü ïîãîâîðêó
“åçäèòü â Òóëó ñî ñâîèì ñàìîâàðîì”.
Ñïåöèôè÷åñêè íàöèîíàëüíûå èäèîìû ïåðåâîäÿòñÿ êàê íåéòðàëüíîé ëåêñèêîé, òàê è óñòîé÷èâûìè âûðàæåíèÿìè ðóññêîãî
ÿçûêà:
to be from Missouri
to grin like a Cheshire cat
he will not set the Thames
on fire
áûòü ñêåïòèêîì
óëûáàòüñÿ âî âåñü ðîò
îí ïîðîõà íå âûäóìàåò =
îí çâåçä ñ íåáà íå õâàòàåò
Íàèáîëåå ïîëíûì ñïðàâî÷íûì ïîñîáèåì ïî ïåðåâîäó ôðàçåîëîãè÷åñêèõ ñî÷åòàíèé, åäèíñòâ è èäèîì ÿâëÿåòñÿ: Êóíèí À.Â. Ôðàçåîëîãè÷åñêèé ñëîâàðü àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà. — Ìîñêâà: Ðóññêèé ÿçûê,
1984.
78
?
Âîïðîñû äëÿ ñàìîêîíòðîëÿ
1.
2.
Êàêèå ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèÿ íàçûâàþòñÿ ôðàçåîëîãèçìàìè è êàê
îíè êëàññèôèöèðóþòñÿ ñ òî÷êè çðåíèÿ ñòåïåíè ñìûñëîâîé ñâÿçàííîñòè?
Êàêîâà ðîëü êîìïîíåíòîâ, âõîäÿùèõ â ôðàçåîëîãè÷åñêèå
ñî÷åòàíèÿ?
3.
Êàêîé ïðèçíàê ñâèäåòåëüñòâóåò î òîì, ÷òî ôðàçåîëîãè÷åñêîå ñî÷åòàíèå ìîæåò íå áûòü çàñòûâøèì êîìïëåêñîì?
4.
Êàêèå ñïîñîáû ïåðåâîäà èñïîëüçóþòñÿ ïðè ïåðåâîäå àíãëèéñêèõ íåîáðàçíûõ ôðàçåîëîãèçìîâ?
 ÷åì ðàçëè÷èå ìåæäó àáñîëþòíûìè è îòíîñèòåëüíûìè ýêâèâàëåíòàìè?
5.
6.
×òî òàêîå èäèîìà?
7.
Êàêèå ñïîñîáû ïåðåâîäà àíãëèéñêèõ èäèîì âû çíàåòå?
8.
 êàêèõ ñëó÷àÿõ èñïîëüçóåòñÿ îïèñàòåëüíûé ïåðåâîä?
9.
 ÷åì çàêëþ÷àåòñÿ ðîëü êîíòåêñòà ïðè ïåðåâîäå ôðàçåîëîãèçìîâ?
10. Êàêîâû îñîáåííîñòè ïåðåâîäà ñïåöèôè÷åñêè íàöèîíàëüíûõ èäèîì?
Ïðàêòè÷åñêîå çàäàíèå
À. Ïåðåâåäèòå ñëåäóþùèå ôðàçåîëîãèçìû èç ñôåðû îáùåãî
óïîòðåáëåíèÿ àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà, îòìå÷àÿ ïðè ýòîì ñïîñîá ïåðåâîäà (àáñîëþòíûé èëè îòíîñèòåëüíûé ýêâèâàëåíò, àíàëîã, îïèñàòåëüíûé ïåðåâîä):
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
out of the blue
to spread like wildfire
to turn back the clock
Caesar’s wife is above suspicion
to leave much to be desired
to work one’s fingers to the bone
a hard nut to crack
a storm in a tea-cup
to bite the hand that feeds you
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10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
80
to go from one extreme to the other
to fall between two stools
to come off with flying colours
a blind date
a burning question
to put (something) by for a rainy day
to bark up the wrong tree
to buy a pig in a poke
an apple of discord
a bed of roses
a feather in one’s cap
a Jack of all trades
elbow room
by fair means or foul
to sleep like a log
a fly in the ointment
a mare’s nest
a snake in the grass
when in Rome, do as the Romans do
a rolling stone gathers no moss
the proof of the pudding is in the eating
never look a gift horse into the mouth
if you lose, don’t lose the lesson
let sleeping dogs lie
don’t cross the bridge until you come to it
at a snail’s pace
a small fry
to win with a narrow margin
to keep a low profile
an old battle axe
to kick the bucket
Queen Anne is dead!
to put the cart before the horse
to kill two birds with one stone
to talk shop
let by gones be by gones
time and again
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
double Dutch
(to give somebody) the cold shoulder
the small hours
to keep one’s fingers crossed
on the face of it
Can the leopard change his spots?
a sli p of the tongue
in the nick of time
a lame duck
Break a leg!
Alpha and Omega
to keep an eye on something
the black sheep (of the family)
to make (both) ends meet
Á. Ïåðåâåäèòå ñëåäóþùèå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ, ñîäåðæàùèå àíãëèéñêèå ôðàçåîëîãè÷åñêèå ñî÷åòàíèÿ èç ñôåðû áèçíåñà è ôèíàíñîâ,
èñïîëüçóÿ äëÿ ñïðàâîê îïðåäåëåíèÿ âûäåëåííûõ êóðñèâîì âûðàæåíèé (èñòî÷íèê: Á.Õîøîâñêàÿ. Èäèîìàòè÷åñêèå âûðàæåíèÿ â äåëîâîì àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå. — ÑÏá.: Ëàíü, 1997):
1.
The proposal went over big with big business. [to go over big —
to succeed; to be approved of] [big business — the world of
large, powerful business organizations]
2.
In the times of stagflation many overseas companies pulled over,
but somehow we managed to buck the trend. [stagflation — stagnation and inflation] [to pull over — to withdraw from (a business)] [to buck the trend — to do well when other business are
doing badly]
3.
Let’s deal him in and give him a piece of the cake. [to deal smb
in — to include smb in an activity or business] [to give smb a
piece of cake — to share or divide profits with another person]
4.
The manager has put our project into cold storage, so it is still
up in the air. [to put smth (usu. a plan or a project) into a cold
storage — to put off for consideration at a later date] [up in the
air — unsettled]
Lots of hot money is being transferred to Switzerland which has
always been the tax haven for Europe’s wealthy. [hot money —
money attracted from abroad by high interest rates or brought
to a relatively safe place in a time of political trouble or moved
5.
81
6.
rapidly from one country to another to take advantage of changes
of short-term interest rates or to avoid devaluation of a currency
or stolen money] [tax haven = shelter — a country where there’s
little or no taxation or currency control]
All we understood from his double-dutch was that it was supposed to be a Dutch party. [double-dutch — speech (or writing)
that sounds meaningless and cannot be understood] [a Dutch
party = meal — the one at each everybody pays for himself]
7.
The company has gone on the hook recently. [to go on the hook —
to start having debts]
8.
If you think he is a soft touch, you have another guess coming; he
is just a loan shark, something of a shylock. [a soft touch — a
person who freely lends money or grants favours] [to have another guess coming - to be mistaken] [shylock / Shylock — a
greedy person who obtains money from people by trickery (from
Shakespeare’s “The Merchant of Venice”]
9.
The turnover has increased considerably before the triple witching hour. [triple witching hour - one of the four Fridays in each
year on which the options and futures contracts expire]
10. The business is slack, and our sales level hardly reaches the
break-even point. [break-even point - a point at which sales cover
costs but do not show profits]
2.2.3. Ïåðåâîä çàãîëîâêîâ
Äàííûé ïîäðàçäåë âêëþ÷åí â êóðñ ïåðåâîäà, ïîñêîëüêó çàãîëîâêè ñòàòåé â àíãëîÿçû÷íîé ïðåññå òàêæå ÿâëÿþòñÿ ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèÿìè, ïðè÷åì â ñèëó òîãî, ÷òî èõ îñíîâíàÿ ôóíêöèÿ — ïðèâëå÷ü
âíèìàíèå ÷èòàòåëÿ, ñòîèò îñòàíîâèòüñÿ íà îñîáåííîñòè èõ ñòðóêòóðû äëÿ ïðàâèëüíîãî ïîíèìàíèÿ è àäåêâàòíîãî ïåðåâîäà.
Òðóäíîñòü ïîíèìàíèÿ ãàçåòíûõ è æóðíàëüíûõ çàãîëîâêîâ îáóñëîâëåíà äâóìÿ ïðè÷èíàìè:
– òåì, ÷òî â íèõ äîïóñêàåòñÿ íàðóøåíèå ÿçûêîâûõ íîðì (ñîêðàùåíèå ñòðóêòóðû ïðåäëîæåíèÿ, îòñóòñòâèå àðòèêëåé, ãëàãîëîâñâÿçîê è äàæå ñìûñëîâûõ ãëàãîëîâ, äðóãèå îñîáåííîñòè ñèíòàêñèñà, ïîðÿäêà ñëîâ è ïóíêòóàöèè);
– íåäîñòàòî÷íî ïîëíûì è ãëóáîêèì çíàíèåì ðåàëèé è êóëüòóðû ñòðàíû èçó÷àåìîãî ÿçûêà, à òàêæå ïðîáåëàìè â çíàíèè ôðàçåîëîãèè.
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Êàê ïðàâèëî, çà ïåðåâîä çàãîëîâêà ñëåäóåò ïðèíèìàòüñÿ ïîñëå
ïðî÷òåíèÿ âñåé ñòàòüè. Ýòî îáëåã÷àåò ïîíèìàíèå ñîäåðæàíèÿ çàãîëîâêà, åñëè îíî íå ÿñíî.
Ñëåäóåò èìåòü â âèäó ñëåäóþùèå îñîáåííîñòè çàãîëîâêîâ:
1. Ïîëíûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ â êà÷åñòâå çàãîëîâêîâ (áåç ïðîïóñêîâ ñëóæåáíûõ ñëîâ, àðòèêëåé è ïðåäëîãîâ) âñòðå÷àþòñÿ íå òàê óæ
÷àñòî. Çäåñü, êîíå÷íî, âàæíî ïðàâèëüíî ïîíÿòü çàãîëîâîê-ïðåäëîæåíèå è ñäåëàòü åãî àäåêâàòíûé ïåðåâîä. (Ïðèìåðû çàãîëîâêîâ ñòàòåé âçÿòû èç ãàçåòû “The Financial Times” è æóðíàëî⠓Business Week”
è “The Economist”.  çàãîëîâêàõ âñå ñëîâà ìîãóò áûòü íàïèñàíû ñ
çàãëàâíîé áóêâû.)
Small Investments That Make A Big Difference — Íåáîëüøèå èíâåñòèöèè, èãðàþùèå áîëüøóþ ðîëü.
Czechs pay a heavy price for bank sell-offs — ×åõè ïëàòÿò
äîðîãóþ öåíó çà ðàñïðîäàæó áàíêîâ.
2. ×àùå âñåãî ïîëíûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ â êà÷åñòâå çàãîëîâêîâ îòëè÷àþòñÿ ïðîïóñêîì àðòèêëåé:
Italy’s bank governor paints [a] black picture — Ïðåäñåäàòåëü ïðàâëåíèÿ èòàëüÿíñêîãî áàíêà ðèñóåò êàðòèíó â ÷åðíûõ òîíàõ.
3. Äàæå åñëè çàãîëîâîê ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ñîáîé ïîëíîå ïî ñòðóêòóðå ïðåäëîæåíèå, äëÿ åãî ïåðåâîäà íåîáõîäèìî èíîãäà ïðî÷èòàòü
ñòàòüþ èëè õîòÿ áû ïåðâûé àáçàö, ÷òîáû ïîíÿòü ñìûñë:
Euro rises on talk of ECB intervention — Åâðî ðàñòåò áëàãîäàðÿ èíòåðâåíöèÿì ÅÖÁ (Åâðîïåéñêîãî Öåíòðàëüíîãî
áàíêà).
BMW plans Rolls-Royce plant in south of England — Êîìïàíèÿ ÁÌ ïëàíèðóåò íà÷àòü ñáîðêó àâòîìîáèëåé ÐîëëñÐîéñ íà íîâîì çàâîäå íà þãå Àíãëèè.
4. Ïîñëåäíèå äâà ïðèìåðà ïðåäñòàâëÿþò ñîáîé åùå îäíó îñîáåííîñòü çàãîëîâêî⠗ íàëè÷èå âñÿêîãî ðîäà ñîêðàùåíèé (áóêâåííûõ, ñëîãîâûõ è äð.) Îáû÷íî áóêâåííûå ñîêðàùåíèÿ îáúÿñíÿþòñÿ
â ïåðâîì æå àáçàöå:
Handspring reduces IPO price range — Êîìïàíèÿ Õýíäñïðèíã ñîêðàùàåò äèàïàçîí ïðåäëàãàåìûõ ñòàðòîâûõ öåí.
( ïåðâîì àáçàöå ñòàòüè îáúÿñíÿåòñÿ çíà÷åíèå àááðåâèàòóðû IPO — Initial Public Offering.)
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NASDAQ and Dow soar on tech buying [NASDAQ — National Association of Securities Dealers automated quotations — ñèñòåìà àâòîìàòè÷åñêîé êîòèðîâêè Íàöèîíàëüíîé àññîöèàöèè áèðæåâûõ äèëåðîâ; Dow — Dow Jones
index — èíäåêñ Äîó Äæîíñà Íüþ-Éîðêñêîé ôîíäîâîé
áèðæè; tech — high technology — çä. àêöèè âûñîêîòåõíîëîãè÷íûõ êîìïàíèé] — Èíäåêñû ÍÀÑÄÀÊ è Äîó Äæîíñà ðåçêî ïîâûñèëèñü íà ïðèîáðåòåíèè àêöèé âûñîêîòåõíîëîãè÷íûõ êîìïàíèé.
5. Çàãîëîâêè ïî ñâîåé ñòðóêòóðå ÷àñòî ïðåäñòàâëÿþò ñîáîé
ýëëèïñèñ, òî åñòü ïðåäëîæåíèå, â êîòîðîì ñ öåëüþ ïðèâëå÷åíèÿ
âíèìàíèÿ îïóñêàþòñÿ òå èëè èíûå ñëîâà. Íàðÿäó ñ àðòèêëÿìè, ïðèòÿæàòåëüíûìè ìåñòîèìåíèÿìè è äðóãèìè ñëóæåáíûìè ñëîâàìè, ÷àñòî îïóñêàþòñÿ ôîðìû ãëàãîëà to be, íàïðèìåð:
Sara Lee [is] to refocus [its] activities — Êîìïàíèÿ “Ñàðà
Ëè” ñîáèðàåòñÿ ñäåëàòü íîâûé àêöåíò â ñâîåé äåÿòåëüíîñòè.
OAS [is] divided on [the] Peru action — ÎÀà (Îðãàíèçàöèÿ
àìåðèêàíñêèõ ãîñóäàðñòâ) ðàçäåëèëàñü â ìíåíèÿõ ïî âîïðîñó î äåéñòâèÿõ Ïåðó.
6. Èíîãäà â çàãîëîâêàõ îïóñêàþòñÿ ñìûñëîâûå ãëàãîëû è
äðóãèå ñëîâà, î êîòîðûõ ìîæíî äîãàäàòüñÿ ëèøü ïîñëå ïðîñìîòðà ñòàòüè:
California [‘s voters stand] for GOP — Âûáîðùèêè (ïðåäñòàâèòåëè èçáèðàòåëåé) äåëàþò âûáîð â ïîëüçó ðåñïóáëèêàíöåâ (GOP — Grand Old Party, òðàäèöèîííîå íàçâàíèå Ðåñïóáëèêàíñêîé ïàðòèè â ÑØÀ).
Israeli and Palestine envoys [are heading] for talks — Ïîñëàííèêè Èçðàèëÿ è Ïàëåñòèíû íàïðàâëÿþòñÿ íà ïåðåãîâîðû.
7. Ðàñïðîñòðàíåííîé ôîðìîé àíãëèéñêîãî çàãîëîâêà ÿâëÿåòñÿ íîìèíàòèâíîå (íàçûâíîå) ïðåäëîæåíèå (êàê îäíîñîñòàâíîå, òàê
è ñîñòîÿùåå èç äâóõ èëè íåñêîëüêèõ ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûõ ïî òèïó N+N):
A Brave New Economy for Singapore — Ñìåëàÿ íîâàÿ ýêîíîìèêà äëÿ Ñèíãàïóðà.
DT incentives for retail buyer — Ñòèìóëû êîìïàíèè Äîé÷å Òåëåêîì â ðàáîòå ñ èíäèâèäóàëüíûìè (ðîçíè÷íûìè)
çàêàç÷èêàìè.
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IMF loan accord delay — Çàäåðæêà ñîãëàøåíèÿ î êðåäèòå
ÌÂÔ.
8. Àíãëèéñêèå çàãîëîâêè ìîãóò áûòü ïðåäñòàâëåíû ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèåì ñ ïðè÷àñòèåì èëè ãåðóíäèåì:
Muddying the waters —  ìóòíîé âîäå (äîñëîâíûé ïåðåâîä
“ìóòÿ âîäó” ÿâíî áûë áû íåóäà÷íûì).
Keeping up the pace — Ñîõðàíÿÿ òåìï.
9. Äëÿ ïðèâëå÷åíèÿ âíèìàíèÿ â çàãîëîâêàõ èñïîëüçóþòñÿ äâîåòî÷èÿ è âîïðîñèòåëüíûå çíàêè:
Laptops: Do we need that speed? — Ïîðòàòèâíûé êîìïüþòåð: Åñòü ëè íåîáõîäèìîñòü â òàêîé ñêîðîñòè?
Is the weak euro making Germany complacent? — Èãðàåò ëè
íà ðóêó Ãåðìàíèè ïàäåíèå åâðî?
10.
Âîïðîñ â çàãîëîâêå ìîæåò áûòü êîñâåííûì:
Why Big Tobacco Can’t Be Killed — Ïî÷åìó íåëüçÿ ëèêâèäèðîâàòü òàáà÷íóþ ïðîìûøëåííîñòü.
What’s wrong with paying off the national debt —  ÷åì
çàêëþ÷àþòñÿ ïðîáëåìû ñ âûïëàòîé ãîñóäàðñòâåííîãî
äîëãà.
11. Óïîòðåáëåíèå â çàãîëîâêàõ ðàçãîâîðíûõ ôîðì è ñëåíãà òàêæå ñëóæèò ñðåäñòâîì ïðèâëå÷åíèÿ âíèìàíèÿ ÷èòàòåëÿ:
Web Lotto: It ain’t pretty — Òîòàëèçàòîð â Èíòåðíåòå: íå
áîëüíî îí õîðîø.
Hey, wanna buy some used mortgages? — Íå õîòèòå ëè ïðèîáðåñòè ïîäåðæàííóþ èïîòåêó? (Ðå÷ü èäåò î òîì, ÷òî êèòàéñêèå áàíêè äëÿ ïîëó÷åíèÿ íàëè÷íîñòè ïåðåïðîäàþò
âíóòðåííèå êðåäèòû.)
Coke: Say good-bye to the good ol’ boy culture — ÊîêàÊîëà: Ïðîùàé, ñòàðîå äîáðîå âðåìÿ.
12. Íàèáîëüøóþ ñëîæíîñòü ïðè ïåðåâîäå, î÷åâèäíî, ïðåäñòàâëÿåò èñïîëüçîâàíèå â çàãîëîâêàõ ôðàçåîëîãèçìîâ, èãðû ñëîâ è
óìûøëåííî èçìåíåííûõ óñòîé÷èâûõ âûðàæåíèé, ñìûñë êîòîðûõ
ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïðîçðà÷íûì ëèøü äëÿ òåõ, êòî õîðîøî çíàåò êóëüòóðó àíãëîÿçû÷íûõ ñòðàí:
85
Has Ford backed Detroit into corner? (back into corner —
çàãoíÿòü â óãîë; ãîëîâíîå ïðåäïðèÿòèå “Ôîðä” íàõîäèòñÿ â Äåòðîéòå, ÑØÀ)
To save or not to save? (àëëþçèÿ íà øåêñïèðîâñêîå “To
be or not to be?” — “Áûòü èëè íå áûòü?”)
Much ado about lending (àëëþçèÿ íà øåêñïèðîâñêîå
“Much ado about nothing” — “Ìíîãî øóìà èç íè÷åãî”)
North Korea: Why it’s suddenly ready to come in from the
cold (ÿâíî ïåðåêëèêàåòñÿ ñ íàçâàíèåì ñàìîãî èçâåñòíîãî
ðîìàíà àíãëèéñêîãî ïèñàòåëÿ Äæîíà Ëå Êàððå “Øïèîí,
êîòîðûé ïðèøåë ñ õîëîäà” — John Le Carre “The Spy
Who Came in from the Cold”)
Ready, steady, go — Íà ñòàðò, âíèìàíèå, ìàðø!
(èñïîëüçîâàíèå ñïîðòèâíîãî æàðãîíà)
Suddenly Goldman is less golden.
Çäåñü èãðà ñëîâ (ïî-àíãëèéñêè pun; play on words) ñîçäàåòñÿ çà
ñ÷åò ñî÷åòàíèÿ íàçâàíèÿ êîìïàíèè Goldman, Sachs & Co. è ñëîâà
golden — çîëîòîé â ñâÿçè ñ êðèòèêîé, êîòîðàÿ îáðóøèëàñü íà êîìïàíèþ âñëåäñòâèå ñîìíèòåëüíûõ îïåðàöèé.
Èìåííî èãðà ñëîâ (êàëàìáóð) ÷àùå âñåãî ÿâëÿåòñÿ êàìíåì ïðåòêíîâåíèÿ ïðè ïåðåâîäå âîîáùå1 è, â ÷àñòíîñòè, ïðè ïåðåâîäå çàãîëîâêîâ.
Âûõîä èç ïîëîæåíèÿ — â îïèñàòåëüíîì íåéòðàëüíîì ïåðåâîäå, íàïðèìåð: Íåîæèäàííûå ïðîáëåìû ó êîìïàíèè “Ãîëüäìàí, Çàêñ
è Êî.”.
Îáû÷íî ñëåäóþùåå ïîñëå çàãîëîâêà ïðåäëîæåíèå-àííîòàöèÿ îáúÿñíÿåò çíà÷åíèå èãðû ñëîâ èëè äàåò ïðåäñòàâëåíèå î òîì, ÷òî êðîåòñÿ çà âûðàæåíèåì, ïðåäñòàâëåííîì â çàãîëîâêå. Íàïðèìåð, ïîñëåäíèé çàãîëîâîê ñòàíîâèòñÿ ïîíÿòíûì áëàãîäàðÿ ñëåäóþùåìó
ïîñëå íåãî àííîòàöèîííîìó ïðåäëîæåíèþ:
After a string of troubled deals, the firm [Goldman, Sachs &
Co.] is facing criticism.
Ïîñëå ðÿäà ñîìíèòåëüíûõ ñäåëîê ôèðìà [Ãîëüäìàí, Çàêñ
è Êî.] ïîäâåðãàåòñÿ íàïàäêàì (êðèòèêå).
2
Êðîìå èãðû ñëîâ, êîòîðàÿ íå ïîääàåòñÿ ïåðåâîäó, îïðåäåëåííûå ïðîáëåìû
âîçíèêàþò ïðè ïåðåâîäå ýâôåìèçìîâ, î êîòîðûõ ìû ãîâîðèëè âûøå êàê î ñïîñîáå îáðàçîâàíèÿ íåîëîãèçìîâ (ñì. 2.1.3. «Íåîëîãèçìû»).
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Ïîñêîëüêó èãðà ñëîâ ïîñòðîåíà íà äâîéíîì çíà÷åíèè êàêîãî-òî
ñëîâà, ïðè÷åì âòîðîå åãî çíà÷åíèå ÷àùå âñåãî ñëåíãîâîå, ïåðåâîä÷èê èíîãäà âïðàâå ïðîñòî äàòü êîììåíòàðèé èëè îáúÿñíåíèå ê
äàííîìó âûðàæåíèþ, ïîñêîëüêó ïåðåâîä â ïðèíöèïå íåâîçìîæåí.
Âîò ïðèìåð èãðû ñëîâ, îñíîâàííîé íà äâóõ çíà÷åíèÿõ ñëîâà grand:
1) âåëèêîëåïíûé, âîñõèòèòåëüíûé; 2) ñëåíã: òûñÿ÷à äîëëàðîâ. Åñòåñòâåííî, ÷òî èãðà ñëîâ íåïåðåâîäèìà, åå ìîæíî ëèøü îáúÿñíèòü:
Love is grand.
Divorce is a hundred grand.
Âåðíåìñÿ ê çàãîëîâêàì, êîòîðûå ìîæíî ïîíÿòü, ëèøü çíàÿ
ðåàëèè è êóëüòóðó ñòðàíû. Ïîíèìàíèþ òàêèõ çàãîëîâêîâ ñïîñîáñòâóåò êîíòåêñò. Îáðàòèòå âíèìàíèå íà ñëåäóþùèå çàãîëîâêè, â êîòîðûõ èñïîëüçóþòñÿ èçâåñòíûå óñòîé÷èâûå âûðàæåíèÿ, êîíòåêñòîì
äëÿ ïîíèìàíèÿ ñìûñëà êîòîðûõ ñëóæàò ïðåäëîæåíèÿ-àííîòàöèè,
ïîìåùåííûå ñðàçó ïîä çàãîëîâêàìè:
Rich man, poor man — Áîãà÷, áåäíÿê (íàçâàíèå èçâåñòíîãî ðîìàíà Èðâèíà Ñòîóíà).
Ïðåäëîæåíèå-àííîòàöèÿ: The gap between high earners and
the lowest paid has widened.
Keep the hive humming — Ïóñòü óëåé æóææèò.
Ïðåäëîæåíèå-àííîòàöèÿ: Immigrants may prevent the
economy from overheating.
Òåïåðü ñòàíîâèòñÿ ïîíÿòíûì ñìûñë çàãîëîâêà: èììèãðàíòû, ðàáîòàþùèå íà ìíîãèõ ìàëîîïëà÷èâàåìûõ ðàáîòàõ,
çàïîëíÿþò ðûíîê òðóäà è äàþò âîçìîæíîñòü ýêîíîìèêå
äèíàìè÷íî ðàçâèâàòüñÿ.
That sinking feeling — Îùóùåíèå èäóùåãî íà äíî (îáûãðûâàåòñÿ ïðÿìîå è ïåðåíîñíîå çíà÷åíèå ãëàãîëà to sink — òîíóòü, èäòè íà äíî è ïîòåðïåòü ôèàñêî).
Ïðåäëîæåíèå-àííîòàöèÿ: Once a sure way to make a fortune, the personal-computer business is an even surer way
to lose one.
?
Âîïðîñû äëÿ ñàìîêîíòðîëÿ
1.
 ÷åì çàêëþ÷àåòñÿ îñíîâíàÿ ôóíêöèÿ çàãîëîâêà?
2.
 ÷åì ñîñòîèò òðóäíîñòü ïåðåâîäà ãàçåòíûõ è æóðíàëüíûõ
çàãîëîâêîâ?
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3.
Ïî÷åìó çàãîëîâîê îáû÷íî ïåðåâîäÿò â êîíöå ðàáîòû íàä
ïåðåâîäîì ñòàòüè?
4.
Íàçîâèòå îñîáåííîñòè ñèíòàêñè÷åñêîé ñòðóêòóðû àíãëèéñêèõ çàãîëîâêîâ.
Êàêèå äðóãèå îñîáåííîñòè àíãëèéñêèõ çàãîëîâêîâ ñëåäóåò
èìåòü â âèäó äëÿ èõ àäåêâàòíîãî ïåðåâîäà?
5.
6.
×òî ïîìîãàåò ïîíÿòü ñìûñë çàãîëîâêîâ â ïðåññå Âåëèêîáðèòàíèè è ÑØÀ?
7.
×òî âûçûâàåò íàèáîëüøèå òðóäíîñòè ïðè ïåðåâîäå çàãîëîâêîâ?
Åñòü ëè ñõîäñòâî ìåæäó àíãëèéñêèìè è ðóññêèìè çàãîëîâêàìè?
8.
Ïðàêòè÷åñêîå çàäàíèå
Ïåðåâåäèòå ñëåäóþùèå çàãîëîâêè èç ãàçåòû “The Financial
Times” è æóðíàëî⠓Business Week” è “The Economist”. Ïðè ïåðåâîäå îòìåòüòå óêàçàííûå âûøå îñîáåííîñòè çàãîëîâêîâ.
1.
Is This Deal Really Dead?
2.
3.
China Trade: Will the U.S. Pull It Off?
Ford: A Comeback In Europe Is Job One
4.
Brussels Plan Aims To Boost Cross-Border Investment
5.
Fed Plans Disclosure System For Banks
6.
Israeli High-Tech Companies Need More Promising Land
7.
8.
Hyundai Founder Steps Down In Concession To Reform Plans
Maybe What’s Good For GM Is Good For Ford
9.
Globalization: What Americans Are Worried About
10. Remember Interactive TV? It’s Active Again
11. The Struggle Against Red Tape
12. A Difficult Meeting Of Cultures
13. A Cap on Bank Deposit Rates?
14. Did NAFTA Backers Bamboozle America?
15. A Nation of Risk-Takers
16. Come See My Movie — Please!
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17.
Iran: Don’t Write Off the Reformers Yet
18. Slowdown In Sales
19. Give Me That Old-Time Economy
20. California: ‘Public School System To The World?’
21. The Recovery: So Far, So Good
22. New Tact[ics] But US-EU Trade Disputes Remain
23. OECD Is Warning Of Inflation And Further Rate Rises
24. Unfriendly Skies For An Airline Merger
25. Is The Market Too High Or Too Low? Maybe A Little Of Both
2.2.4. Ïåðåâîä çàèìñòâîâàíèé
Ñðàçó îãîâîðèìñÿ, ÷òî â äàííîì ïîäðàçäåëå ðå÷ü èäåò òîëüêî î
òåõ çàèìñòâîâàíèÿõ, êîòîðûå âîøëè â àíãëèéñêèé ÿçûê èìåííî â
òîì âèäå, â êîòîðîì îíè óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ íà ÿçûêå îðèãèíàëà, ïîëüçóþùèìñÿ ëàòèíñêèì àëôàâèòîì (åñëè çàèìñòâîâàíèå èç ÿçûêà ñ
äðóãèì àëôàâèòîì, òî âñå ðàâíî îíî äîëæíî áûòü èçîáðàæåíî ëàòèíèöåé, íàïðèìåð, judo — äçþäî, Toyota — Òîéîòà èç ÿïîíñêîãî
ÿçûêà).
Âûøå ìû ðàññìàòðèâàëè çàèìñòâîâàíèÿ êàê ñïîñîá îáðàçîâàíèÿ íåîëîãèçìîâ (ñì. 2.1.3. Íåîëîãèçìû). Íà ñàìîì äåëå çàèìñòâîâàíèé â ëþáîì ÿçûêå íåìàëî, è àíãëèéñêèé çäåñü íå ÿâëÿåòñÿ èñêëþ÷åíèåì.
Áîëüøå ïîëîâèíû ñëîâ àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà èìååò ôðàíöóçñêîå
ïðîèñõîæäåíèå êàê ðåçóëüòàò íîðìàííñêîãî çàâîåâàíèÿ (1066 ã.).
Ëþáîïûòíî, ÷òî âñå íàçâàíèÿ æèâîòíûõ — èñêîííî àíãëèéñêèå
ñëîâà, à ìÿñî ýòèõ æèâîòíûõ — ôðàíöóçñêèå çàèìñòâîâàíèÿ, íàïðèìåð: cow — beef (êîðîâà — ãîâÿäèíà), pig — pork (ñâèíüÿ —
ñâèíèíà), deer — venison (îëåíü — îëåíèíà), sheep — mutton (îâöà —
áàðàíèíà).
Ôðàíöóçñêèå çàèìñòâîâàíèÿ â àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ, êàê ïðàâèëî, äëÿ äîñòèæåíèÿ áîëüøåé îôèöèàëüíîñòè, íàïðèìåð: commence âìåñòî begin, to be content âìåñòî to be glad.
Ïðèâåäåííûå âûøå ñëîâà (ê íèì ìîæíî äîáàâèòü è îáùåóïîòðåáèòåëüíûå — òàêèå, êàê composition, continue, frequency è äð.), ÿâëÿÿñü ôðàíöóçñêèìè çàèìñòâîâàíèÿìè, ïðîèçíîñÿòñÿ ïî-àíãëèéñêè. Íàñ æå â äàííîì ñëó÷àå èíòåðåñóþò òå ôðàíöóçñêèå âûðàæåíèÿ, êîòîðûå âîøëè â àíãëèéñêèé ÿçûê áåç êàêèõ-ëèáî èçìåíåíèé, íàïðèìåð:
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Bon appetit! [áîí àïåòè1] — Ïðèÿòíîãî àïïåòèòà!
Bon voyage! [áîí âóàÿæ] — Ñ÷àñòëèâîãî ïóòè!
Carte blanche [êàðò áëàíø] — êàðò áëàíø , ñâîáîäà äåéñòâèé
Tête-a-tête [òýò-à-òýò] — òåò-à-òåò, íàåäèíå.
Vis-à-vis [âèçàâè] — ñèäÿùèé íàïðîòèâ, ñîáåñåäíèê; ëèöîì ê ëèöó.
R é sumé [ðåçþìå] — êðàòêàÿ áèîãðàôèÿ â ôîðìàòå «ðåçþìå».
RSVP — Répondez s’il vous plait [ðýïîíäý ñèëü âó ïëå] —
ïîæàëóéñòà, îòâåòüòå (â äåëîâîé ïåðåïèñêå).
Ïåðåâîä÷èê, âñòðå÷àÿ â àíãëèéñêîì òåêñòå ñëîâà è ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèÿ èíîñòðàííîãî ïðîèñõîæäåíèÿ, äîëæåí îáðàòèòüñÿ ê àíãëîàíãëèéñêîìó (òîëêîâîìó) ñëîâàðþ, ãäå äàåòñÿ èõ ðàçúÿñíåíèå, èëè
ê ñîîòâåòñòâóþùåìó äâóÿçû÷íîìó ñëîâàðþ, íàïðèìåð:
Blitzkrieg (íåì.) — ìîëíèåíîñíàÿ âîéíà
Dolce vita (èòàë.) — ñëàäêàÿ æèçíü
Buena vista (èñï.) — õîðîøèé âèä.
Áîëüøîå ÷èñëî çàèìñòâîâàíèé èìååòñÿ â àìåðèêàíñêîì âàðèàíòå àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà â ñèëó òîãî, ÷òî Ñîåäèíåííûå Øòàòû, êàê
èçâåñòíî, íå çðÿ íàçûâàþò ïëàâèëüíûì êîòëîì íàöèé.
Ìíîãèå ãåîãðàôè÷åñêèå íàçâàíèÿ â ÑØÀ ïèøóòñÿ è ïðîèçíîñÿòñÿ ïî-èñïàíñêè, íàïðèìåð, ãîðîäà San Francisco, San Diego, La
Jolla [ëà õîéÿ], San Antonio, Sacramento, ðåêà Rio Grande, óëèöà Rio
Vista è ò.ä. Êàê ìû óæå çíàåì (ñì. 2.1.5. «Ïåðåäà÷à èìåí ñîáñòâåííûõ
è íàçâàíèé»), ýòè íàçâàíèÿ ïåðåäàþòñÿ ïî-ðóññêè ïóòåì çâóêîâîãî
âîñïðîèçâåäåíèÿ, ò.å. òðàíñêðèïöèè, íàïðèìåð: óëèöà Ðèî Âèñòà (à
íå «âèä íà ðåêó»).
Áîëüøîå êîëè÷åñòâî èñïàíñêèõ ñëîâ è âûðàæåíèé óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ íà þãî-çàïàäå ÑØÀ áëàãîäàðÿ êîâáîÿì, îñâîèâøèì ýòè çåìëè
â ñåðåäèíå 19-ãî âåêà. Àìåðèêàíöû óñâîèëè èõ îò æèòåëåé Ìåêñèêè: rodeo, ranch (èñï. — rancho) è ò.ä.
 ðåçóëüòàòå ôðàíöóçñêîé êîëîíèçàöèè ïîÿâèëèñü òàêèå íàçâà-
1
 ôðàíöóçñêèõ ñëîâàõ êîíå÷íàÿ t íå ïðîèçíîñèòñÿ: buffet, ballet, gourmet.
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íèÿ, íàïðèìåð, êàê ðåêà Cache la Poudre [êàø ëÿ ïóäð] («ñïðÿ÷ü
ïîðîõ») â øòàòå Êîëîðàäî, ãîðîä Des Moines [Äå Ìîéí], ñòîëèöà
øòàòà Àéîâà (ïðàâäà, â äàííîì ñëó÷àå ïðîèçíîøåíèå íàçâàíèÿ ãîðîäà ñîõðàíèëîñü íå ïîëíîñòüþ â ôðàíöóçñêîì âàðèàíòå).
Ñëîâà, îáîçíà÷àþùèå áëþäà èòàëüÿíñêîé êóõíè, òàêæå âîøëè â àíãëèéñêèé ÿçûê (ñ èòàëüÿíñêèì ïðàâîïèñàíèåì è ïðîèçíîøåíèåì), íàïðèìåð, lasagna [ëàçàíüÿ], ravioli [ðàâèîëè], pasta [ïàñòà], spaghetti [ñïàãåòòè]. Òî æå ìîæíî ñêàçàòü î íàçâàíèÿõ áëþä åâðåéñêîé êóõíè, êîòîðûå â àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå ïîÿâèëèñü èç ÿçûêà
èäèø, íàïðèìåð, latkes [ëàòêåñ] — êàðòîôåëüíûå îëàäüè, blintzes
[áëèíöåñ] — áëèí÷èêè, gefilte fish [ãåôèëòý ôèø] — ôàðøèðîâàííàÿ
ðûáà.
Ñïèñîê çàèìñòâîâàíèé â àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå ìîæíî áûëî áû
ïðîäîëæèòü.
 àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå (êàê â ïèñüìåííîé, òàê è â óñòíîé ôîðìå)
èñïîëüçóåòñÿ áîëüøîå êîëè÷åñòâî ñëîâ, ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèé è ñîêðàùåíèé èç ëàòèíñêîãî ÿçûêà.
×àñòü ëàòèíèçìîâ âîøëà â îáùåóïîòðåáèòåëüíóþ ëåêñèêó, íàïðèìåð, at 5 ÀM — â 5 ÷àñîâ óòðà èëè vice versa — íàîáîðîò. Â
îñíîâíîì æå ëàòèíñêèå âûðàæåíèÿ õàðàêòåðíû äëÿ ïèñüìåííîé
ôîðìû àêàäåìè÷åñêîãî, îôèöèàëüíîãî ñòèëÿ. Ïîýòîìó èõ ñëåäóåò
çíàòü òåì, êòî ÷èòàåò àíãëèéñêóþ íàó÷íóþ ëèòåðàòóðó èëè èñïîëüçóåò àíãëèéñêèé ÿçûê â àêàäåìè÷åñêèõ öåëÿõ.
Íèæå ïðèâîäÿòñÿ íàèáîëåå ðàñïðîñòðàíåííûå ëàòèíèçìû:
Ëàòèíñêèå âûðàæåíèÿ, èñïîëüçóåìûå â àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå
Ïåðåâîä íà ðóññêèé ÿçûê
A.D. (Anno Domini)
íàøåé ýðû (áóêâ. ãîäà ãîñïîäíÿ)
ad hoc
äëÿ äàííîãî ñëó÷àÿ
ad valorem
ñîîáðàçíî öåíå
alma mater
àëüìà ìàòåð (áóêâ.: ìàòü- êîðìèëèöà) — î âûñøåì ó÷åáíîì çàâåäåíèè, ãäå ó÷èëñÿ ãîâîðÿùèé
AM = am = ante meridiem
äî ïîëóäíÿ
a priori
àïðèîðè, ïðèíÿòîå çàðàíåå äåäóêòèâíîå óìîçàêëþ÷åíèå îò ïðè÷èíû ê ñëåäñòâèþ
bona fide
÷èñòîñåðäå÷íî, èñêðåííå
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Ëàòèíñêèå âûðàæåíèÿ, èñïîëüçóåìûå â àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå
Ïåðåâîä íà ðóññêèé ÿçûê
cf. = confer
ñðàâíè
circa
ïðèáëèçèòåëüíî
ceteris paribus
ïðè ïðî÷èõ ðàâíûõ (óñëîâèÿõ)
cum laude
ñ îòëè÷èåì
curriculum vitae
æèçíåîïèñàíèå, áèîãðàôèÿ
et al. = et alii
è äðóãèå (åñëè íåñêîëüêî àâòîðîâ)
etc. = et cetera
è òàê äàëåå
e.g. = exempli gratia
íàïðèìåð
errata
òèïîãðàôñêèå îøèáêè
de facto
äå ôàêòî = ôàêòè÷åñêè
de jure
äå þðå = þðèäè÷åñêè
ibid. = ibidem
òàì æå
i.e. = id est
òî åñòü
In memoriam
â ïàìÿòü î
inter alia
ñðåäè ïðî÷èõ
N.B. = nota bene
îáðàòèòü âíèìàíèå
op. cit. = opere citato
â öèòèðóåìîé ðàáîòå
PM = pm = post meridiem
ïîñëå ïîëóäíÿ
per capita
íà äóøó íàñåëåíèÿ
per se
ñàì ïî ñåáå, ïî ñóùåñòâó
P.S. = post scri ptum
ïîñòñêðèïòóì, áóêâ. ïîñëå íàïèñàííîãî; ïðèïèñêà ê ïèñüìó
quasi
êâàçè, ÿêîáû, ìíèìûé
qui pro quo
áóêâ. îäíî âìåñòî äðóãîãî; ïóòàíèöà, íåäîðàçóìåíèå
sic
áóêâ. òàê; îáðàùåíèå âíèìàíèÿ íà
îøèáêó â öèòàòå
vice versa
íàîáîðîò
vs = versus
ïðîòèâ, â ñðàâíåíèè ñ
viz. = videlicet
à èìåííî
92
?
Âîïðîñû äëÿ ñàìîêîíòðîëÿ
1.
2.
Êàêèå ñëîâà è âûðàæåíèÿ íàçûâàþòñÿ çàèìñòâîâàíèÿìè?
×åì âûçâàíî áîëüøîå êîëè÷åñòâî çàèìñòâîâàíèé â àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå èç ôðàíöóçñêîãî?
Ñðàâíèòå çàèìñòâîâàíèÿ èç ëàòûíè â àíãëèéñêîì è ðóññêîì ÿçûêàõ. Ïðåîáëàäàþò ëè îíè â îäíîì èç íèõ?
Äëÿ êàêîãî ñòèëÿ ðå÷è ëàòèíñêèå âûðàæåíèÿ áîëåå õàðàêòåðíû — íåïðèíóæäåííîãî, íåéòðàëüíîãî, îôèöèàëüíîãî
(àêàäåìè÷åñêîãî)?
3.
4.
Ïðàêòè÷åñêîå çàäàíèå
À. Ïåðåâåäèòå ñëåäóþùèå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ ñ ëàòèíñêèìè âûðàæåíèÿìè:
1.
2.
Market research per se is an essential part of any business.
The average per capita income in the country has grown by 12
per cent.
3.
This subject has been investigated by a number of scholars (e.g.,
Thomson 1999, Lowson et al. 2001, etc.).
4.
Dr. Jones discloses the nature of this very unique phenomenon
and, inter alia, finds the evidence of its being related to UFO.
5.
For the first time in 35 years, in 1999 there was a surplus in the
U.S. budget, i.e. the revenues exceeded the expenditures.
Á. Íàéäèòå ñâîè ïðèìåðû ñ çàèìñòâîâàíèÿìè â àíãëèéñêîì
ÿçûêå â òåêñòàõ ïî èçó÷àåìîé ñïåöèàëüíîñòè.
2.3.
Ëåêñè÷åñêèå òðàíñôîðìàöèè ïðè ïåðåâîäå
Ëåêñè÷åñêèå òðàíñôîðìàöèè (äîáàâëåíèÿ, îïóùåíèÿ, çàìåíû)
ÿâëÿþòñÿ ÷àñòüþ ïåðåâîä÷åñêîé ïðàêòèêè â ñèëó ðàçíîé ñòðóêòóðû
àíãëèéñêîãî è ðóññêîãî ïðåäëîæåíèé èëè íåâîçìîæíîñòè íàéòè
ýêâèâàëåíò ñëîâà èëè åãî ñîîòâåòñòâèå.
Äîáàâëåíèÿ. Ýòîò ïðèåì ïåðåâîäà ñâÿçàí ñ òåì, ÷òî àíãëèéñêèì ïðåäëîæåíèÿì ñâîéñòâåííà êîìïðåññèÿ. Òî, ÷òî ÿñíî íîñèòå93
ëþ àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà, òðåáóåò äîáàâëåíèÿ â ðóññêîì âàðèàíòå,
÷òîáû íå âûéòè çà ðàìêè íîðìû ðóññêîãî ÿçûêà. Ðå÷ü èäåò, áåçóñëîâíî, î ñëîâàõ, êîòîðûå íå íîñÿò õàðàêòåð ñìûñëîâîãî äîáàâëåíèÿ, íàïðèìåð:
I saw a face watching me out of one of the upper windows. —
ß óâèäåë ëèöî ÷åëîâåêà, íàáëþäàâøåãî çà ìíîé èç îäíîãî èç âåðõíèõ îêîí.
 âûøåïðèâåäåííîì ïðèìåðå ÷èòàòåëþ ÿñíî, ÷òî íàáëþäàòü
ìîæåò ÷åëîâåê, à íå ëèöî. Ïîýòîìó ïðè ïåðåâîäå ïðèøëîñü ñäåëàòü
äîáàâëåíèå. Àíàëîãè÷íûé ïðèåì èñïîëüçîâàí â ñëåäóþùèõ ïðèìåðàõ:
The IMF mission is to arrive in Minsk on May 20. The staff
will focus on the general macroeconomic indicators. — 20 ìàÿ
â Ìèíñê äîëæíà ïðèáûòü ìèññèÿ ÌÂÔ. Ñîòðóäíèêè ôîíäà
ñîñðåäîòî÷àò âíèìàíèå íà îáùèõ ìàêðîýêîíîìè÷åñêèõ ïîêàçàòåëÿõ.
“Jupiter” is 40 percent owned by individual shareholders.
Êîìïàíèÿ “Þïèòåð” íà 40 ïðîöåíòîâ ïðèíàäëåæèò èíäèâèäóàëüíûì àêöèîíåðàì.
125 passengers and 5 crew — 125 ïàññàæèðîâ è 5 ÷ëåíîâ
ýêèïàæà.
Îïóùåíèÿ. Ýòîò ïðèåì ïåðåâîäà èñïîëüçóåòñÿ â ñëó÷àå èçáûòî÷íîñòè èíôîðìàöèè, êîòîðàÿ ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ñîáîé íàðóøåíèå íîðì
ðóññêîãî ÿçûêà. Íàïðèìåð, He leaned forward to take the paper. — Îí
íàêëîíèëñÿ, ÷òîáû âçÿòü áóìàãó. Ïîíÿòíî, ÷òî îí íàêëîíèëñÿ âïåðåä, ïîýòîìó ýòî ñëîâî ìîæíî îïóñòèòü ïðè ïåðåâîäå.
Èíîãäà îïóùåíèÿ ïðè ïåðåâîäå âûçâàíû ðàçëè÷èÿìè â ñòðóêòóðå àíãëèéñêîãî è ðóññêîãî ïðåäëîæåíèé.  ðóññêîì ÿçûêå íåò íåîáõîäèìîñòè â ïîëíîì íàáîðå âñåõ ÷ëåíîâ ïðåäëîæåíèÿ:
The first thing I did was to give her a call. — Ïåðâîå, ÷òî ÿ
ñäåëàë, ïîçâîíèë åé.
×àñòî îïóñêàþòñÿ ïðèòÿæàòåëüíûå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ, êîòîðûå â ðóññêîì ïåðåâîäå ÿâëÿþòñÿ èçáûòî÷íûìè:
He took his bag in his right hand. — Îí âçÿë ñóìêó â ïðàâóþ
ðóêó.
Îïóñêàåòñÿ ïðè ïåðåâîäå òàêæå îäèí èç ïàðíûõ (ðàâíîçíà÷íûõ) ñèíîíèìîâ, êîòîðûå äîâîëüíî ÷àñòî âñòðå÷àþòñÿ â àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå:
94
The town we stayed in was very nice and attractive. — Ãîðîä,
â êîòîðîì ìû îñòàíîâèëèñü, áûë î÷åíü óþòíûì.
The treaty was pronounced null and void. — Äîãîâîð áûë
ïðèçíàí íåäåéñòâèòåëüíûì.
Èñïîëüçóÿ ïðèåì îïóùåíèÿ, íåîáõîäèìî ïîìíèòü, ÷òî ýòî íå
ëàçåéêà äëÿ ïðîïóñêà òðóäíûõ ìåñò ïðè ïåðåâîäå. Ñìûñë ïðåäëîæåíèÿ íå äîëæåí áûòü èñêàæåí.
Çàìåíû. Äàííûé ïðèåì äîâîëüíî øèðîêî èñïîëüçóåòñÿ ïðè ïåðåâîäå â òåõ ñëó÷àÿõ, êîãäà îòñóòñòâóþò ïðÿìûå ñëîâàðíûå ñîîòâåòñòâèÿ.  ýòîì ñëó÷àå íåîáõîäèìî íàéòè âàðèàíò ïåðåâîäà, êîòîðûé
ïîäõîäèò äëÿ äàííîãî êîíòåêñòà, íàïðèìåð:
Privacy was impossible. — Áûëî íåâîçìîæíî ïîáûòü îäíîìó.
Invasion of one’s privacy — âìåøàòåëüñòâî â ÷üþ-ë. ëè÷íóþ æèçíü.
Êîíòåêñòóàëüíàÿ çàìåíà êàê âèä ëåêñè÷åñêîé òðàíñôîðìàöèè
èñïîëüçóåòñÿ â òåõ ñëó÷àÿõ, êîãäà íåîáõîäèìî ñäåëàòü óòî÷íåíèå
(êîíêðåòèçàöèþ), îáîáùåíèå (ãåíåðàëèçàöèþ), à òàêæå çàìåíèòü
îòðèöàòåëüíóþ êîíñòðóêöèþ íà óòâåðäèòåëüíóþ èëè íàîáîðîò (àíòîíèìè÷åñêèé ïåðåâîä) èëè ïîëíîñòüþ ïåðåîñìûñëèòü âûñêàçûâàíèå
(íàïðèìåð, ïðè ïåðåâîäå ôðàçåîëîãèçìîâ).
Ïðèìåðû ðàçëè÷íûõ âèäîâ çàìåí:
Êîíêðåòèçàöèÿ (èñïîëüçîâàíèå ïðè ïåðåâîäå ñëîâà ñ áîëåå óçêèì çíà÷åíèåì, ÷åì ñëîâî â îðèãèíàëå):
The curtain went up. — Çàíàâåñ ïîäíÿëñÿ.
The facilities were downstairs. — Óäîáñòâà íàõîäèëèñü âíèçó.
Put him on the phone please. — Ïîçîâè åãî, ïîæàëóéñòà, ê
òåëåôîíó.
Ãåíåðàëèçàöèÿ (èñïîëüçîâàíèå ïðè ïåðåâîäå ñëîâà ñ áîëåå øèðîêèì çíà÷åíèåì, ÷åì â îðèãèíàëå):
She was killed in a car accident. — Îíà ïîãèáëà â àâòîêàòàñòðîôå.
To the last ounce of effort — èç ïîñëåäíèõ ñèë.
Àíòîíèìè÷åñêèé ïåðåâîä (çàìåíà äâóõ îòðèöàòåëüíûõ ôîðì íà
îäíó óòâåðäèòåëüíóþ, êîãäà “ìèíóñ íà ìèíóñ äàåò ïëþñ”, è íàîáîðîò, óòâåðäèòåëüíîãî ñëîâà íà îòðèöàíèå ñ òåì æå çíà÷åíèåì):
95
It’s not uncommon for families in rural areas to have three
and more children. —  ñåëüñêîé ìåñòíîñòè â ñåìüÿõ îáû÷íî áûâàåò ïî òðîå è áîëåå äåòåé.
Remember to wake me up at 7 a.m. — Íå çàáóäü ðàçáóäèòü
ìåíÿ â 7 óòðà.
They never found out until afterward what he had to go
through. — Îíè ëèøü âïîñëåäñòâèè óçíàëè, ÷òî åìó ïðèøëîñü ïåðåæèòü.
Èíîãäà àíòîíèìè÷åñêèé ïåðåâîä ÿâëÿåòñÿ åäèíñòâåííî âîçìîæíûì ñðåäñòâîì äëÿ äîñòèæåíèÿ àäåêâàòíîãî ïåðåâîäà:
The last thing I would like to do is to spoil our relationshi ps.—
Ìíå áû î÷åíü íå õîòåëîñü èñïîðòèòü íàøè îòíîøåíèÿ.
The inferiority of the enemy — Ïðåâîñõîäñòâî íàøèõ âîéñê.
Öåëîñòíîå ïåðåîñìûñëåíèå — íàèáîëåå òðóäíûé âèä êîíòåêñòóàëüíîé çàìåíû ïðè ïåðåâîäå. Îíî çàêëþ÷àåòñÿ â ïîíèìàíèè àíãëèéñêîãî óñòîé÷èâîãî ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèÿ (ôðàçåîëîãèçìà) è ïåðåäà÷å
åãî ïî-ðóññêè ñîâåðøåííî äðóãèìè ëåêñè÷åñêèìè ñðåäñòâàìè:
To be an albatross
(around one’s neck)
Work and pleasure
No way!
Stretch one’s leg
Jack of all trades
Still waters run deep
In the nick of time
?
96
Áûòü îáóçîé (ÿðìîì)
Ïîëåçíîå ñ ïðèÿòíûì
Íè çà ÷òî! (Íè â êîåì ñëó÷àå!)
Ðàçìÿòüñÿ
Ìàñòåð íà âñå ðóêè
 òèõîì îìóòå ÷åðòè âîäÿòñÿ
 ïîñëåäíèé ìîìåíò
Âîïðîñû äëÿ ñàìîêîíòðîëÿ
1.
×åì âûçâàíî èñïîëüçîâàíèå ëåêñè÷åñêèõ òðàíñôîðìàöèé
êàê ñïîñîáà ïåðåâîäà?
2.
Êàêèå âèäû ëåêñè÷åñêèõ òðàíñôîðìàöèé íàèáîëåå ÷àñòî
èñïîëüçóþòñÿ ïðè ïåðåâîäå?
3.
 êàêèõ ñëó÷àÿõ ïðè ïåðåâîäå èñïîëüçóåòñÿ äîáàâëåíèå?
4.
Êîãäà ïðè ïåðåâîäå ïðèìåíÿåòñÿ îïóùåíèå?
5.
Êàêèå âàì èçâåñòíû íàèáîëåå ðàñïðîñòðàíåííûå ïðèìåðû
îïóùåíèÿ ñëîâ ïðè ïåðåâîäå?
Î ÷åì íåîáõîäèìî ïîìíèòü ïðè èñïîëüçîâàíèè ïðèåìà îïóùåíèÿ?
6.
7.
 êàêèõ ñëó÷àÿõ ïðè ïåðåâîäå èñïîëüçóåòñÿ ïðèåì çàìåíû?
8.
Êàêèå âèäû çàìåí âñòðå÷àþòñÿ íàèáîëåå ÷àñòî?
9.
Ïîÿñíèòå çíà÷åíèå êàæäîãî âèäà çàìåíû.
Ïðàêòè÷åñêîå çàäàíèå
À. Ïåðåâåäèòå ñëåäóþùèå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ è ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèÿ,
ïðèìåíÿÿ ðàçíûå âèäû ëåêñè÷åñêèõ òðàíñôîðìàöèé.
1) Äîáàâëåíèÿ:
The flowers carpeted the hills and fields.
She has never travelled internationally.
They watched the criminal out of the court room.
Professionally, he can be completely relied on.
According to the company’s president, the reorganization is
inevitable.
There were no villagers nearby to ask the way.
This problem is becoming increasingly relevant.
2) Îïóùåíèÿ:
He jumped to his feet and ran after them.
Why scratching your left ear with your right hand?
The invaders came to kill and murder civil population.
Working men and women deserve a better life.
We were sick and tired of waiting for hours and hours.
3) Êîíòåêñòóàëüíûå çàìåíû:
à)
êîíêðåòèçàöèÿ:
Things look promising.
The meal was served at 6 p.m.
97
It will take me about an hour to drive there.
All the hotels in the city provide parking facilities.
á)
ãåíåðàëèçàöèÿ:
Two persons were reported shot.
The dog sniffed every inch of the ground.
A 120-voice choir was performing in the open air.
The five-minute meeting with reporters was over.
â) àíòîíèìè÷åñêèé ïåðåâîä:
Their attitude was not unfriendly.
She had not left the reception until after her driver came to
pick her up.
They had little to say to each other.
The permission is not given unless authorized by the dean.
Her name does not sound unfamiliar to me.
ã) öåëîñòíîå ïåðåîñìûñëåíèå:
Sleep on it, tomorrow is a new day.
Robbing Peter to pay Tom.
It’s easy to be wise after the event.
No gain without pain.
Do as you would be done by.
Black sheep.
Re-inventing the wheel.
When in Rome, do as the Romans do.
Á. Ïåðåâåäèòå ñëåäóþùèå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ, èñïîëüçóÿ ìåòîä ëåêñè÷åñêîé òðàíñôîðìàöèè.  êàæäîì èç ñëó÷àåâ óêàæèòå, êàêàÿ èç
ðàçíîâèäíîñòåé ëåêñè÷åñêîé òðàíñôîðìàöèè èñïîëüçîâàíà âàìè.
1.
2.
3.
4.
98
Price rise is not unlikely to remain in the forthcoming
period.
The U.S. and EU remain split over the OECD chief.
I can read you like a book.
Faithful to their plan, the members of the crew dressed
themselves in their oldest uniforms.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
The operation was carried out neatly and smartly.
The final result was a minor matter for him.
In the country of one-eyed be one-eyed.
Meeting such results is vital for the company’s development.
Andrew Rose, an economist at the University of California, says that being a member of the WTO makes no
difference to how much countries trade with each other.
They also have committed themselves to reforming the
costly agricultural policy.
The EU newcomers must attract a new wave of foreign
direct investment to remain competitive.
Decision-making in Brussels, already slow and complex,
will be more difficult with 25 members at the table.
The one-minute shock was over, and all returned to their
duties.
That’s a 25% jump over the year-earlier period.
The models of development are now struggling.
A year or two ago, the bank would have granted a loan
without a second thought.
Most of the company’s output is sold domestically.
All of the company’s offices around the world are staffed
with locals.
Two dozen countries that kiss the Caribbean Sea seem to
be a dream.
When it comes to the environment, big American companies like to appear green.
The UN Center for Economic and Social Information
in Geneva publishes “Development Forum Business Edition”, a biweekly newspaper.
Actually the decision had been taken hours before the
Intel news went public.
It’ll be a good thing if they are able to stabilize the situation.
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×àñòü III
¨
ÃÐÀÌÌÀÒÈ×ÅÑÊÈÅ ÂÎÏÐÎÑÛ
ÏÅÐÅÂÎÄÀ
Äëÿ àäåêâàòíîãî ïåðåâîäà àíãëèéñêîãî òåêñòà ïåðåâîä÷èê íå
ìîæåò íå ó÷èòûâàòü ãðàììàòè÷åñêîãî çíà÷åíèÿ ôîðì àíãëèéñêîãî
ïðåäëîæåíèÿ. Íåâåðíàÿ ïåðåäà÷à çíà÷åíèÿ àíãëèéñêèõ ãðàììàòè÷åñêèõ ôîðì è êîíñòðóêöèé ïðèâîäèò ê èñêàæåíèþ ñìûñëà îðèãèíàëà.  ïðàêòèêå ïåðåâîäà íåîáõîäèìî îäíîâðåìåííî ó÷èòûâàòü çíà÷åíèå ëåêñèêè è îñîáåííîñòè ãðàììàòèêè. Èíûìè ñëîâàìè, ïåðåâîä÷èê âñåãäà èìååò äåëî ñ ëåêñèêî-ãðàììàòè÷åñêèìè ñîîòâåòñòâèÿìè.
3.1.
Èçìåíåíèå ñòðóêòóðû ïðåäëîæåíèÿ
ïðè ïåðåâîäå
Äàëåêî íå âñåãäà ïåðåâîä àíãëèéñêîãî ïðåäëîæåíèÿ çàêëþ÷àåòñÿ â äîñëîâíîé ïåðåäà÷å çíà÷åíèÿ êàæäîãî ñëîâà (ñì. “Îáùèå âîïðîñû ïåðåâîäà”). ×àùå âñåãî ïðè ïåðåâîäå ñ àíãëèéñêîãî ïðèõîäèòñÿ ìåíÿòü ñòðóêòóðó ïðåäëîæåíèÿ, ïîðÿäîê ñëîâ, ðàçáèâàòü îäíî
ïðåäëîæåíèå íà äâà èëè îáúåäèíÿòü äâà ïðåäëîæåíèÿ â îäíî.
Ïðè÷èíàìè òàêèõ èçìåíåíèé ìîãóò áûòü îòñóòñòâèå ñîîòâåòñòâóþùåãî ãðàììàòè÷åñêîãî ÿâëåíèÿ â ðóññêîì ÿçûêå, à òàêæå íåñîâïàäåíèå ñòèëèñòè÷åñêèõ îñîáåííîñòåé ãðàììàòè÷åñêèõ êîíñòðóêöèé è ñìûñëîâîé ñòðóêòóðû àíãëèéñêîãî è ðóññêîãî ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèÿ, íàïðèìåð:
It being very dry, forest fires were common. — Òàê êàê áûëî
î÷åíü ñóõî, ÷àñòî âîçíèêàëè ëåñíûå ïîæàðû.
Had he come earlier, he would have helped us. — Ïðèäè îí
(åñëè áû îí ïðèøåë) ðàíüøå, îí áû íàì ïîìîã.
What I mean is that it needs to be done right now. — ß èìåþ
â âèäó, ÷òî ýòî íóæíî ñäåëàòü ïðÿìî ñåé÷àñ.
Ïðè âûáîðå ïîðÿäêà ñëîâ â ïðîöåññå ïåðåâîäà íà ðóññêèé
ÿçûê íåîáõîäèìî ðàññìàòðèâàòü äâà òèïà àíãëèéñêèõ ïðåäëîæå100
íèé: (1) ñ ïðÿìûì ïîðÿäêîì ñëîâ è (2) ñ èíâåðñèåé, òî åñòü íàðóøåíèåì îáû÷íîãî ïîðÿäêà ñëîâ.
(1)  ðóññêîì ÿçûêå, â îòëè÷èå îò àíãëèéñêîãî, ñìûñëîâîé
öåíòð âûñêàçûâàíèÿ (“öåíòð òÿæåñòè”) ÷àñòî íàõîäèòñÿ â êîíöå
ïðåäëîæåíèÿ:
Winter came. — Íàñòóïèëà çèìà.
New books were brought. — Ïðèâåçëè íîâûå êíèãè.
Ïðè ïåðåâîäå àíãëèéñêîãî ïðåäëîæåíèÿ ñ ïðÿìûì ïîðÿäêîì
ñëîâ íåîáõîäèìî îïðåäåëèòü åãî ñìûñëîâîé öåíòð, ÷òîáû òî÷íî
ïåðåäàòü ñìûñë.  êîíåö ðóññêîãî ïðåäëîæåíèÿ îáû÷íî ñòàâèòñÿ
ñëîâî, êîòîðîå âûðàæàåò íîâóþ èíôîðìàöèþ â àíãëèéñêîì ïîâåñòâîâàòåëüíîì ïðåäëîæåíèè áåç ýìôàçû (ëîãè÷åñêîãî âûäåëåíèÿ):
An old man was slowly walking along the road.
Ïî äîðîãå ìåäëåííî øåë ñòàðèê.
Ñðàâíèòå ñ ýìôàòè÷åñêèì ïðåäëîæåíèåì:
It was Lomonosov that founded Moscow University.
Èìåííî Ëîìîíîñîâ îñíîâàë Ìîñêîâñêèé óíèâåðñèòåò.
(2) Àíãëèéñêèå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ ñ èíâåðñèåé ïåðåäàþòñÿ íà ðóññêèé ÿçûê ïðåäëîæåíèÿìè, â êîòîðûõ òàêæå íàðóøåí îáû÷íûé
ïîðÿäîê ñëîâ (çà èñêëþ÷åíèåì ñëó÷àåâ ãðàììàòè÷åñêîé èíâåðñèè,
ò.å. èçìåíåíèÿ ïîðÿäêà ñëîâ â âîïðîñèòåëüíûõ è ïîâåëèòåëüíûõ
ïðåäëîæåíèé):
Mine is a totally different approach. — Ïîäõîä ìîé ñîâåðøåííî äðóãîé.
Ideas he had plenty. — Èäåé ó íåãî áûëî ìàññà.
Äëÿ äîñòèæåíèÿ àäåêâàòíîñòè ïåðåâîäà ÷àñòî ïðèõîäèòñÿ ìåíÿòü ÷ëåíû ïðåäëîæåíèÿ èç-çà íåñîâïàäåíèÿ ñìûñëîâîé ñòðóêòóðû
àíãëèéñêèõ è ðóññêèõ ñëîâîñî÷åòàíèé è ïðåäëîæåíèé, íàïðèìåð:
I am confident he will benefit from partici pating in this research programme both personally and professionally.
ß óâåðåí, ÷òî îí ïîëó÷èò ïîëüçó îò ó÷àñòèÿ â ýòîé íàó÷íî-èññëåäîâàòåëüñêîé ïðîãðàììå êàê â ëè÷íîì, òàê è ïðîôåññèîíàëüíîì ïëàíå.
Ïåðåâîä÷èê èìååò ïðàâî ïðèáåãàòü ê èçìåíåíèþ ñòðóêòóðû ïðåäëîæåíèÿ (ìåíÿòü ïðîñòîå ïðåäëîæåíèå íà ñëîæíîïîä÷èíåííîå èëè
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ñëîæíîñî÷èíåííîå, ðàçáèâàòü îäíî ïðåäëîæåíèå íà äâà èëè îáúåäèíÿòü äâà ïðåäëîæåíèÿ â îäíî), åñëè ýòî íåîáõîäèìî äëÿ ïåðåäà÷è ñìûñëà, íàïðèìåð:
They didn’t expect us to come back soon.
Îíè íå îæèäàëè, ÷òî ìû ñêîðî âåðíåìñÿ.
Inflation remains high, it being somewhat lower over time.
Èíôëÿöèÿ îñòàåòñÿ âûñîêîé, õîòÿ ïðè ýòîì îíà íåñêîëüêî ñíèæàåòñÿ ñî âðåìåíåì.
A three-day conference on Chernobyl issues gathered as many
as five hundred delegates from all over the world in late March.
 êîíöå ìàðòà ñîñòîÿëàñü òðåõäíåâíàÿ êîíôåðåíöèÿ ïî
ïðîáëåìàì ×åðíîáûëÿ.  íåé ïðèíÿëè ó÷àñòèå íå ìåíåå
ïÿòèñîò äåëåãàòîâ èç âñåõ óãîëêîâ çåìíîãî øàðà.
The opening ceremony was delayed. The guests didn’t mind
though.
Öåðåìîíèÿ îòêðûòèÿ çàäåðæèâàëàñü; îäíàêî, ãîñòè íå
âûñêàçûâàëè íåäîâîëüñòâà.
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Âîïðîñû äëÿ ñàìîêîíòðîëÿ
1.
 ÷åì çàêëþ÷àþòñÿ îñíîâíûå ïðè÷èíû èçìåíåíèÿ ñòðóêòóðû ïðåäëîæåíèÿ ïðè ïåðåâîäå ñ àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà íà ðóññêèé?
2.
Êàêèå âèäû èçìåíåíèé ñòðóêòóðû ïðåäëîæåíèÿ ïðè ïåðåâîäå ÿâëÿþòñÿ íàèáîëåå ðàñïðîñòðàíåííûìè?
3.
Ñðàâíèòå ïîðÿäîê ñëîâ â àíãëèéñêîì è ðóññêîì ïðåäëîæåíèÿõ.
×òî ïîíèìàåòñÿ ïîä ñìûñëîâûì öåíòðîì âûñêàçûâàíèÿ?
4.
5.
Ãäå â ðóññêîì ïðåäëîæåíèè ìîæåò íàõîäèòüñÿ ñëîâî, êîòîðîå â îáû÷íîì àíãëèéñêîì ïîâåñòâîâàòåëüíîì ïðåäëîæåíèè âûðàæàåò íîâóþ èíôîðìàöèþ?
6.
Êàê ïåðåäàåòñÿ ýìôàçà àíãëèéñêîãî ïðåäëîæåíèÿ ïðè ïåðåâîäå íà ðóññêèé ÿçûê?
×òî òàêîå èíâåðñèÿ è êàê îíà ïåðåäàåòñÿ ïðè ïåðåâîäå íà
ðóññêèé ÿçûê?
7.
8.
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 êàêèõ ñëó÷àÿõ è ñ êàêîé öåëüþ ïðè ïåðåâîäå ïðîèçâîäèòñÿ çàìåíà ÷ëåíîâ ïðåäëîæåíèÿ?
9.
 ÷åì çàêëþ÷àåòñÿ èçìåíåíèå ñòðóêòóðû ïðè ïåðåâîäå ñ
àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà íà ðóññêèé?
10.  êàêèõ ñëó÷àÿõ ïðè ïåðåâîäå ïðèìåíÿþòñÿ ïðèåìû ÷ëåíåíèÿ è îáúåäèíåíèÿ ïðåäëîæåíèé?
3.2.
Ïåðåäà÷à àðòèêëÿ
Àðòèêëü (íåîïðåäåëåííûé, îïðåäåëåííûé è “íóëåâîé”, ò.å. åãî
çíà÷èìîå îòñóòñòâèå) ÿâëÿåòñÿ îïðåäåëèòåëåì ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîãî â
àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå.  ðóññêîì ÿçûêå àðòèêëÿ â ÷èñòîì âèäå íåò. Èìåþòñÿ ëèøü íåêîòîðûå åãî ñîîòâåòñòâèÿ, íàïðèìåð:
 òåàòðå êî ìíå îáðàòèëàñü îäíà äåâóøêà ñ ïðîñüáîé ïîìåíÿòüñÿ ìåñòàìè. Ýòà äåâóøêà õîòåëà ñèäåòü ðÿäîì ñ
ïîäðóãîé.
 ýòîì ïðèìåðå ñîâåðøåííî î÷åâèäíî, ÷òî îäíà — îïðåäåëèòåëü ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîãî äåâóøêà, à íå ÷èñëèòåëüíîå “îäèí”, òî åñòü
ýòî ñëîâî ñîîòâåòñòâóåò íåîïðåäåëåííîìó àðòèêëþ (a girl). Óêàçàòåëüíîå ìåñòîèìåíèå ýòà ñîîòâåòñòâóåò îïðåäåëåííîìó àðòèêëþ (the girl).
×àùå âñåãî àðòèêëü ïðè ïåðåâîäå îïóñêàåòñÿ. Îäíàêî íåêîòîðûå çíà÷åíèÿ àðòèêëÿ â àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå òðåáóþò ïåðåäà÷è ïðè
ïåðåâîäå íà ðóññêèé ÿçûê, â ÷àñòíîñòè, êîãäà àðòèêëü èñïîëüçóåòñÿ êàê:
1) ñðåäñòâî âûäåëåíèÿ ñìûñëîâîãî öåíòðà âûñêàçûâàíèÿ, ïðè
ýòîì íåîïðåäåëåííûé àðòèêëü (îñîáåííî ïåðåä ïîäëåæàùèì) óêàçûâàåò íà íîâóþ èíôîðìàöèþ, ò.å. ïðè ïåðåâîäå íà ðóññêèé ÿçûê ïîäëåæàùåå ñòàâèòñÿ â êîíåö ïðåäëîæåíèÿ (À table was brought. — Ïðèíåñëè ñòîë.), à îïðåäåëåííûé àðòèêëü óêàçûâàåò íà òî, ÷òî íîâàÿ
èíôîðìàöèÿ ñîäåðæèòñÿ â äðóãîì ìåñòå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ (The table was
put in the middle of the room. — Ñòîë ïîñòàâèëè ïîñåðåäèíå êîìíàòû.);
2) íåîïðåäåëåííîå ìåñòîèìåíèå (íåêèé, êàêîé-òî, îäèí), íàïðèìåð:
À passenger was looking for a place to put his bag.
Êàêîé-òî ïàññàæèð èñêàë ìåñòî, êóäà ïîñòàâèòü ñóìêó.
I have found a fellow-student who agreed to help me.
ß íàøåë îäíîãî ñîêóðñíèêà, êîòîðûé ñîãëàñèëñÿ ìíå ïîìî÷ü.
A Mr. Brown has left a message for you.
Âàì îñòàâèë ñîîáùåíèå íåêèé (êàêîé-òî) ã-í Áðàóí.
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3) ÷èñëèòåëüíîå ìåñòîèìåíèå îäèí:
Babies normally gain a kilogram a month.
Ãðóäíûå äå&ogr