МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ ФГБОУ ВПО «КЕМЕРОВСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ» E.V. Medvedeva, I.V. Savelyeva English For Philology Students Учебное пособие Кемерово 2012 2 УДК 378.016:811.111’243 ББК Ш143.21я73 М42 Печатается по решению Редакционно-издательского совета ФГБОУ ВПО «Кемеровский государственный университет». Рецензенты: Медведева Е.В., Савельева И.В. М - 42 Английский язык для студентов-филологов: учебное пособие/ ФГБОУ ВПО «Кемеровский государственный университет».Кемерово: Кузбассвузиздат, 2012. – 136 с. ISBN (присваивает редактор) Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов 1 курса факультета филологии и журналистики, обладающих базовыми знаниями по английскому языку и продолжающих его изучение в вузе. Цель пособия – формирование коммуникативных навыков общения на ИЯ в рамках бытовой, учебно-познавательной и социальнокультурной сферы. ISBN (присваивает редактор) ББК Ш 143.21я73 © Медведева Е.В., Савельева И.В., 2012 © ФГБОУ ВПО «Кемеровский государственный университет», 2012 3 INTRODUCTION (ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ) Данное учебное пособие предназначено для студентов 1-го курса факультета филологии и журналистики. Пособие составлено с учетом требований к содержанию подготовки выпускников высшей школы по циклу ГСЭ, в соответствии с ФГОС ВПО по направлению «Отечественная филология» и «Журналистика», а также Рабочей программой по дисциплине «Иностранный язык» (направление «Отечественная филология» и «Журналистика») КемГУ. Основная цель учебного пособия – сформировать коммуникативные навыки, необходимые для общения на ИЯ в рамках бытовой, учебно-познавательной и социально-культурной сферы. При этом особое внимание уделяется развитию навыков чтения во всех его видах, так как профессиональная деятельность будущих филологов и журналистов связана в первую очередь с адекватным восприятием и пониманием текста. Учебное пособие состоит из Вводного (Introductory) и Основного (Main) курса, который, в свою очередь, делится на 3 раздела (Units), а также Приложения (Grammar Support). Вводный курс направлен на повторение и систематизацию базовых знаний по грамматике английского языка, а также формирование представления о странах изучаемого языка через работу над небольшими аутентичными текстами страноведческой направленности. Каждый раздел Основного курса (Unit 1. “Languages. The English Language”, Unit 2. “Universities. Kemerovo State University”, Unit 3. “Higher Education in the English-speaking Countries”) включает в себя следующие компоненты: 1. Reading & Speaking (Чтение и говорение) 2. Conversational Formulas (Формулы речевого этикета) 3. Word formation (Словообразование) 4. Grammar (Грамматика) 5. It’s Interesting to Know (Интересные факты) 6. Independent reading (Домашнее чтение) 7. Translation Practice (Практика перевода) 8. Key vocabulary (Лексика по теме). Лексические упражнения направлены на расширение словарного запаса студентов через ознакомление с основными словообразовательными моделями английского языка. Большое 4 внимание также уделяется явлениям синонимии, антонимии, полисемии и сочетаемости лексических единиц. Грамматический материал подается схематично и сопровождается краткими комментариями. Упражнения носят функциональный характер и построены на лексическом материале раздела. В каждом разделе представлено несколько текстов, объединенных общей тематикой, и предназначенных для развития навыков изучающего, ознакомительного и поискового чтения. Содержание текстов подобрано таким образом, чтобы обеспечить разностороннее освещение рассматриваемой в разделе проблематики, и предоставляет достаточное количество материала, позволяющее организовывать процесс обучения на разных уровнях сложности в зависимости от языковой подготовки студентов. Кроме того, в каждом разделе представлены тексты различного уровня сложности для самостоятельного изучения. Для работы над устной речью в каждый раздел включены задания, направленные на развитие навыков и умений монологической и диалогической речи по теме раздела, а также проектные задания. Помимо всего прочего, каждый раздел содержит разговорные клише, которые используются в ситуациях естественного общения («Формулы речевого этикета») и интересные факты, связанные с темой, освещаемой в разделе. Пособие рассчитано на 70-100 часов аудиторной работы. Acknowledgement Авторы выражают благодарность Надежде Владимировне Колесниковой за идею создания учебного пособия и предоставленные материалы. 5 CONTENTS Introductory Course Main Course Unit 1. LANGUAGES. THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE Reading & Speaking Conversational Formulas Word Formation Grammar It’s Interesting to Know Independent Reading Translation Practice Key Vocabulary 7 26 26 26 41 41 42 44 46 53 54 Unit 2. UNIVERSITIES. KEMEROVO STATE UNIVERSITY 56 Reading & Speaking 56 Conversational Formulas 66 Word Formation 67 Grammar 68 It’s Interesting to know 71 Independent Reading 73 Translation Practice 79 Key Vocabulary 81 Unit 3. HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING COUNTRIES 83 Reading & Speaking 83 Conversational Formulas 95 Word Formation 95 Grammar 96 It’s Interesting to Know 97 Independent Reading 98 Translation Practice 106 Key Vocabulary 107 6 Grammar Support 109 References 137 7 Introductory Course. (Вводный курс) The Noun. Personal, Possessive and Demonstrative Pronouns (Consult Grammar Support) 1. Make these words plural. sister ray foot disco camera box hero story datum window half roof woman person house course 2. Make these phrases plural. This note that result This study that graduate This college that problem This method that verb 3. Make these sentences plural. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 4. This is a camera. This is a student. That is a roof. This isn’t a stranger. Is that an exception? 6. That isn’t a path. 7. The animal is wild. 8. Is the information useful? 9. This money isn’t enough. 10. This man is British. Change the phrases according to the pattern. The hand of the man – the man’s hand 8 The flat of my sister , the son of my mother, the friend of Susan, the patient of the doctor, the form of this verb, the hobby of these gentlemen. The man’s hand – the hand of the man The film’s idea, the man’s child, the student’s book, the parents’ help, these pencils’ length, the man’s face, the manager’s plan, these dresses’ sizes, the students’ books. Personal, Possessive and Demonstrative Pronouns (Consult Grammar Support) 5. Replace the subject with the proper pronoun. Model: My brother is a first year student. – He is a first year student. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 6. Where are the children? The dictionary is on the shelf. Two students are late for the class. John is sitting for an examination. The sentence isn’t long. These buildings are very old. French made a great influence on English. Complete these questions using his, her, your, their. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) My brother is a student.- Oh! What’s___name? My mother is an architect.– Oh! What’s___name? I’ve got two brothers. - Oh! What are___names? I’m a new student. – Oh! What’s___ name? My father is a teacher. – Oh! What’s ___name? My sisters are twins. – Oh! What are ___names? My grandmother is 99. –Oh! What’s ___name? 9 7. Choose the proper pronoun. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 8. They’re my classmates. (They/ Their) names are Nick and Vera. We live in the hall of residence. (Our/ We) room number is 108. Excuse me. What’s (You/ Your) last name again? That’s Mr.de Souza. (He/ His) is in my class. Please call (Me/ My) Liz. That’s Paul’s wife. (His/ Her) name is Francine. Insert the proper form of the possessive pronouns. 1.This is not my car. Mine is a 2010 model. 2. You don’t have enough time to wash … hair! 3. Elizabeth is dressed very well. … clothes were made in Italy. 4. Our house is older than Smiths’. … is smaller though. 5. I managed to keep my books dry but you got … wet, I see. 6. I am sorry, this is not … jacket, … is green. 7. I’m not happy about my new house, but … is just awful. I can’t understand why they’ve bought it. 9. Read and translate these sentences. 1) Stop him. Find her. Take them. Send it. Help us. 2) Plan these tests. Take these data. Open those notes. Study these exceptions. Close those bags. Study these results. Hold these meetings. 3) Try to send it. Try to read it. Try to help them. Try to find her. Try to study it. Try to close it. 4) Help me to hold it. Help them to study it. Help her to make it. Help him to open it. Help us to find him. 5) Give me my pen. Give her her notes. Show him his mistakes. Give us our works. Show them their place. 10. Change there sentences according to the pattern. Model: Show us your method – Show the method to us. Give them that map. 10 Show him your result. Send her that note. Hand him the test. The Verbs Be, Have (Consult Grammar Support) 11. Complete the text with am, is, are. My name ___ Graham and I __a writer. I live in Australia with my wife, Marilyn. I __ English but Marilyn ___Australian. We have one son, Sam. He___twelve. My sister, Jane lives in France. She ___ married to Ricard. Their twins, Jessica and Jason, ___ six and their daughter Sonya ___ one and a half. My parents ___ both English. 12. Use the proper form of be. A: Hi! I … Jack Jones. What … your name? B: I … Marie. A: And what … your last name? B: My last name … Dupont. A: … you from the United States, Marie? B: No, I … from Canada. A: Oh? What city … you from? B: I … from Montreal. 11 A: Really? What …you? B: I … a journalist. What about you? A: I’ .. a teacher. 13. Use the proper form of be in the Past, Present or Future Simple. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) The lecture on the Foreign Literature … at 2 on Wednesday. We’… back in two days. She … in the class now. It … not so easy to learn English. There … a few books in the library yesterday. Next year Jack … on an exchange program. How … your holidays? Did you go anywhere? 14. Change the sentences according to the model. Model: I am a student now. (last year, next year) I was a student last year. I shall be a student next year. I am your teacher now. (next year). You are my students now.(last year). He will be at home tomorrow. (today, yesterday). They are ready. (tomorrow, yesterday). She was ill last week. (now). We are at the University. (yesterday). The lesson is over. (soon). That is a large house. (next year). He is well now. (soon). 15. Give the short answers. 1. Are you at the lesson? (Yes). 2. Is it a lesson in Russian? (No). 3. Is it an English lesson? (Yes). 4. Is Nick in the classroom? (Yes). 5. Was he at the University yesterday? (No). 6. Was he ill? (Yes). 12 7. Was Lena at the University yesterday? (No). 8. Was she ill too? (Yes). 9. Were Ann and Pete late for the English lesson? (No). 10. Are they ready for the lesson? (Yes). 11. Will they be there tomorrow? (Yes). 12. Will the lesson be over soon? (Yes). 16. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Make these sentences negative and interrogative. We are first year students. His specialty is a linguist. The English literature is very old. It’s a necessary word. They were in the class, when the teacher came in. He’s always ready for the seminar. The course will be especially useful for them. 17. Make questions with who and the following phrases. Model: Be fond of literature – Who is fond of literature? 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Be the first year student Be Russian Be from other cities Be 19 in a year Be absent Be good at English Be an attentive listener. 18. Use the proper form of have. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) She … got a headache. We … excellent results for the test. This city … lots of places worth seeing. London … many beautiful parks. Tomorrow my group mates will … an English exam. 13 19. Make these sentences negative and interrogative. Model: They have got a lot of scientific publications. – They haven’t got many scientific publications. – Have they got many scientific publications? 1) She has got her family album. 2) They have many problems with their car. 3) She had a nice weekend. 4) This laboratory has quite modern equipment. 5) We shall have a party next Saturday. 6) The friends had a lot in common. 7) The English language has about 800 000 words and technical terms. 8) They have a credit on Phonetics. 20. Study this family tree. Write the sentences using have, has. Sam + Lisa John + Ron Ann Mary Harry + Polly Jill 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) John and Mary have four children. Sam … two sisters and a brother. Polly … two brothers and a sister. Harry and Polly … two children. Sam and Lisa … no children. Jill … one brother. Den 14 7) Jill … no sisters. 8) John and Mary … two grandchildren. 21. Look at the information and write sentences about Ann, Jim and yourself. Ann (she) a camera a bicycle black hair brothers/ sisters no yes no two brothers Jim (he) yes no no one sister You? ? ? ? ? 1) Ann has got no camera. 2) Jim /have/got/… . 3) Ann /have/got/ … . 4) Jim /have/got/… . 5) Ann /have/got/… . 6) Jim/have/got/… . 7) Ann /have/got/… . 8) Jim/have/got/… . 9) I /have/got/… . 10) I /have/got/… . 11) I /have/got/… . 12) I /have/got/… . The Indefinite Pronouns Some, Any, No (Consult Grammar Support) 22. Translate these sentences into Russian. 1) Would you like some more coffee? 2) He’s lazy. He never does any work. 3) If any letters arrive for me, can you send them to this address? 15 4) 5) 6) 7) Buy some magazines if you see any. Any of these articles will be of great help for you. I don’t have any mistakes in the translation. He left home without any warm coat. 23. Fill in the blanks with some, any, no. 1) I’d like ___ cheese, please. 2) Do you have ____ difficulties in learning these words? 3) I believe this work has ____ time limits. 4) It’s too late. There aren’t _____ people in the streets. 5) There is ____ information on this subject in the library. Consult the Internet. 6) We’ve ___ new English books for you. We know you’re fond of reading. 7) Pour me ___ tea, please. 8) I haven’t ___ money so I can’t go to the café with you. Sentences, introduced by there is/are. Few, little, much, many 24. Translate the following sentences into Russian. 1) There are six departments at the philological faculty. 2) There are a lot of books in the library. 3) There are few students who study French. 4) There are a large number of faculty graduates who work at schools. 5) There is a little information on the history of linguistics. 6) There is an English book and two dictionaries on the table. 7) Are there many mistakes in your work? 8) How many pages are there in this magazine? 9) There are no linguistic journals in this reading hall. 10) Are there any exams at the end of the first semester? 11) There is not any grammar rule in his notebook. 16 25. Use a proper word. Few, many, a few, much, little, a little, a lot of. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) There are … pages in this book. There are … exceptions to the rules in English. There is not … information on this subject in the library. There is … milk in the pot. Add it to your coffee. There are … interesting ideas in his report. There is … sugar in my tea. I’d like some more. 26. Make these sentences negative and interrogative. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) There are several pronunciation mistakes in this work. There are some grammar rules to learn. There is an important article at this page. There is a library in the University. There are many non-residential students in this group. 27. Use the necessary form of there is/are. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) … 50 states in the USA. … a hotel two blocks from here. … no film in the camera. … any concert on TV tonight? … about 800 000 words in English. How many letters … in the English alphabet? How many people … in this country? … no rules for judging when reading a piece of writing. The Adjective. Degrees of Comparison (Consult Grammar Support) 28. Fill in the blanks with the correct comparative and superlative forms. Bad ___________________ __________________ 17 Gentle__________________ __________________ Little___________________ __________________ Clever__________________ __________________ Good__________________ ___________________ Funny_________________ ___________________ Useful_________________ ___________________ Sad___________________ ___________________ Exciting________________ ___________________ 29. Make the sentences as in the example. Model: The red book is as old as the blue book but it isn’t so thick as the blue one. 1) This article is ___(long)__ that one but it isn’t _____(difficult) __ the second article. 2) Paul is ____(tall) ___ Tom but he is_____(heavy) __ Tom. 3) Fiat is _____(comfortable) ___ B.M.W. but it is____ (expensive) ___ B.M.W. 4) The weather in Denmark is ____ (warm) __ in Britain but it is_____(mild) ___ in Britain. 30. Fill in the blanks as in the example. I went on holiday last year but it was a disaster! My hotel room was 1) smaller than (small) the one in the photograph in the brochure. I think it was 2) ______ (small) room ___ the hotel. The weather was terrible too. It was 3)_______ (cold) in England. The beach near the hotel was very dirty – it was 4) ______ (dirty) all the beaches on the island. The food was 5) _____ (expensive) ____ I expected and I didn’t have enough money. One day I went shopping in a big department store and I broke a vase. It was 6)______(expensive) vase _____ the whole shop. But 7)_______ (bad) thing ______ all was that I lost my passport and I 18 couldn’t go back home. It was 8) ______ (horrible) holiday ____ my life. 31. Use very or much. London is becoming a 1) very popular place for American tourists. All the big attractions are now 2)____ busy in summer months. The crowds of tourists around places like Buckingham Palace are 3) _____ bigger than they were a few years ago. Sales of postcards and other souvenirs are 4) ____ higher now than in past years. This is 5) _____ good news for the British tourist industry. 32. Read the extract about Great Britain and talk about its geographical position and main characteristics. Great Britain Great Britain is situated on two large islands, the largest of which is Great Britain, the smaller is Ireland. In addition to these two islands Great Britain includes over five hundred small islands. The country is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea in the north-west and in the west, by the North Sea in the East. It’s separated from the Continent by the English Channel. The island of Great Britain is divided into two parts: mountainous (northern and western parts) and lowland (southern and eastern parts). The Thames is the deepest river and the Severn is the longest one. Due to the influence of the sea Great Britain has rather humid and mild climate. The United Kingdom consists of four parts: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. England is the largest part of Great Britain and occupies the southern part of the island. Wales is a peninsula in the south-west of it. Scotland is the most northern part of Great Britain. Northern Ireland occupies the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland. 33. Find the words which definitions are given below. 1) A piece of land surrounded by water. 2) Having mountains, huge. 3) Live in, be in possession of. 19 4) Divided, not joined or united. 5) Area of land, almost surrounded by water or projecting into the sea. 34. Complete the sentences with the information from the text. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) GB is situated … . It consists of … . It is washed by … . Due to the influence of the sea … . The island of Great Britain is divided … . England occupies … . Wales is a … . 35. Answer the questions: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Where is GB situated? Which island is the largest? What does GB include except the two large islands? What is Great Britain separated from the Continent by? What are the main rivers running through GB? What is its climate? How many parts does the UK consist of? What are they? Which is the largest? 36. Read the short extract about the English climate and say whether it differs from the climate in your native place. British people are used to the cold. They use thick curtains and carpets to keep their houses warm. But a lot of British houses are old and not well-insulated. British people must pay VAT on all gas and electricity, so heating costs are high. Some people can’t afford to heat their homes properly. Every winter about 350 old people die of hypothermia, extreme loss of body heat. Well-insulated – хорошо отапливаются VAT – налог на добавленную стоимость 20 37. Change the words in italics by the words from the text. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) British are accustomed to the cold weather. They try to make their houses warm. The pay for heating is high. They can’t heat their homes as it’s needed. Many old people die of freezing in winter. Present, Past and Future Simple Tense (Consult Grammar Support) 38. Fill in the verbs from the list using their Present Simple forms. vote want win become get be promote Every five years, British people over the age of 18 __ in a general election. People vote for the candidate they __ in their constituency (region). The candidate who __ __ the MP in the House of Commons, even if he or she __ only one vote more than the candidate who __ second. This is called the first past the post system. This system __ the two most powerful parties at the expense of the smaller parties. 39. Change these sentences making them negative and interrogative. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) The British love animals. The Welsh flag shows a dragon. Great Britain includes England, Scotland and Wales. British police sometimes treat people unfairly. Most British people queue. Many counties contain the word shire. 40. Ask questions. 1) 2) 3) 4) They celebrate Saint George’s Day on 23 April. (When …?) People from Wales think of themselves as Welsh. (What …?) England occupies the south of GB. (What part …?) Counties run such areas as education and town planning. (Do …?) 21 5) He sometimes returns earlier than usual. 6) English Queen heads the Parliament. (How often…?) (Who …?) 41. Retell this story using verbs in italics in Past Simple. About AD 790, the Vikings start to invade England. The Norsemen, who come from Norway, mainly settle in Scotland and Ireland. The north and east of England are settled by the Danes. The Vikings are excellent traders and navigators. They trade in silk and furs as far as Russia. In 1016 England becomes part of the Scandinavian Empire under King Cnut. In September, King Harold II marches north to defeat his half-brother, the king of Norway, at the Battle of Stamford Bridge. Just three weeks later, he himself is defeated and killed at Hastings by another invader of Viking origin, William Duke of Normandy, from northern France. 42. Read the text and find the verbs in each sentence. Define their tense form. The Importance of Learning Languages Once a little mouse, who was not on very good term with cats like all mice, decided to give herself a treat of cheese. To do this she had to cross over to the other side of the kitchen where the table was. She knew the cheese was there because she could feel its wonderful smell. But the mouse wasn’t sure if there were any cats in the house. So she sat inside the wall near the mouse hole and listened. It should be mentioned that our mouse was not an ordinary one. She was a sort of gifted and she had some logic. She was taught to think twice before doing something. That was why she didn’t hurry. At last she heard some barking. The mouse thought, ”It must be a dog. Dogs don’t eat mice, and cats don’t usually live where dogs are. It means I can get to the chees safely”. That was absolutely logical. But to the mouse’s great surprise as soon as she got out of the mouse hole she was attacked by a big cat and eaten in some time. The thing is that it was the cat who was barking. “Indeed, knowing foreign languages can 22 open new possibilities and give you a wider picture of the world,” said the cat to himself and made off murmuring a bird’s song. 43. Make questions to the underlined words and phrases. 44. Fill in the blanks using the verbs in Future Simple. be 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) call leave be get go We ___ never ___ late for the classes. I ____you in a couple of days. Tomorrow they _____ for the USA. This winter _____ very cold they say. Next year Michael ____ a Bachelor’s degree. I ___ to the dentist tomorrow morning. 45. Make these sentences negative and interrogative. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) I’ll do the shopping next weekend. The dinner will be ready in a few minutes. The two sisters will enter the same college. She will be a good specialist. Next months they will open a new bookstore. I’ll be back in a week or two. 46. Read the extract about the USA and talk about its geographical position and the political system. The United States of America After its 200th birthday the United States of America still holds the leading position in the western world. A country that inspired many appellations – “Land of Opportunity”, “Melting Pot”, “God’s Country”, is still referred to us as a land of superlatives – “the richest”. “the greatest”, “the most”. 23 What makes the USA the leader of the western world is its economic, political and military dominance over the countries. The United States lies in the central part of the North American Continent between two oceans: the Atlantic Ocean to the East and the Pacific Ocean to the West. Canada to the East and Mexico to the South are the only countries bordering it. The USA consists of three separate parts. These are the Hawaiian Islands, situated in the central part of the Pacific Ocean, Alaska separated by Canada, and the rest of the USA. The states differ very much in size, population and economic development. There are many big cities in the USA: New York, San Francisco, Washington, Chicago, Los Angeles are the biggest. The United States of America is a parliamentary republic. The government is divided into three branches: legislative (the US Congress), executive (The President and his Administration) and judicial (the US Supreme Court). There are two main political parties in the USA: the Democratic (symbolized by a “donkey”) and the Republican (its symbol is “an elephant”). The US President is both head of state and government. He is elected for a four-year term. The Presidency means not only a man: means an institution – “the executive branch” of the government. 47. Answer the questions: 1) What does the USA consist of? 2) Where is it situated? 3) What oceans and seas is it washed by? 4) What are its biggest cities? 5) What does the American government consist of? 6) What are the two main political parties in the USA and their symbols? 48. Correct the mistakes when reading this extract. We had a great vacation in California! We start our trip in San Francisco. We ridden the cable cars, saw Chinatown and Fisherman’s Wharf, and tooc a cruise around san Francisco Bay. After San Francisco 24 we went in Los Angeles. We loved Hollywood and Universal studios, but I didn’t care much for the city itself. Than we rented a car and droven to Palm Springs. It’s about three hour from Los Angeles. We played golf there and took a tour. From Palm Springs I went to San Diego. These is a beautiful city, and the Zoo are really interesting. Well, that’s about all for now. I’ll tell to you about the rest of my trip when I get back. Wharf – верфь Conversational formulas Meeting people Good morning (afternoon, evening)! – Доброе утро (день, вечер)! Hello! – Здравствуйте! Hi! – Привет! Nice to see you!/glad to see you! – Рад увидеться! How are you?/ How’s life? – Как дела? Как жизнь? How are you getting on? – Как живешь? Fine, thanks! – Спасибо, хорошо! Not too (so) bad. – Неплохо. Can’t complain. – Не могу пожаловаться. So so. – Так себе. Pretty bad. – Очень плохо. Could be better. – Могло быть и лучше. Let’s go somewhere together. – Давай сходим куда-нибудь вместе. I don’t mind but now I’m – Я не против, но сейчас я спешу. in a hurry! – Good-bye! – До свидания! Bye-bye! – Пока! So long. – Пока. See you soon. До скорого. I hope we’ll meet soon. – Надеюсь, скоро увидимся. Good luck to you. – Удачи тебе. I wish you success. – Желаю успеха. All the best. – Всего наилучшего. The same to you. – Тебе тоже. 25 Please, remember me to … Пожалуйста, напомни мне … Have a nice holiday Приятного отпуска (выходных, (weekend, journey) – путешествия) Call me some time. – Позвони мне как-нибудь. 49. Study the dialogue and act it out. Hello, Mike! Nice to see you! Hello, Sam! How are you? I’m fine, thanks. And you? Thank you. Not so bad. Can’t complain. Let’s go somewhere together. I don’t mind, but now I’m in a hurry. Call me some time. Sure. Remember me to your sister. Ok. I hope we’ll meet soon. Bye-bye. Good bye! 50. Make similar dialogues of your own with the help of the phrases given above. 26 Main Course Unit 1 Languages. The English Language 1. Before reading the text answer the questions: a) What are the most common languages spoken in the world today? b) What languages do we use travelling abroad? Read the text and compare your answers with the information in it. Imagine a meeting between two people from different parts of the world – Russia and Mexico, let’s say, or Japan and Brazil – when neither speaks the other’s native language. How do they communicate? Nowadays, they would certainly use English. Unofficially, English has become the international language of travel and tourism, technology and computers, business, medicine and so on. Officially, it is the international language of air traffic control and shipping. Also, in countries with several tribal or ethnic groups speaking different languages, English has often been chosen as the official language of government, as in Nigeria, India and Papua New Guinea. Noun(s) + Noun Two (or more) nouns are often used together to mean one thing, person, idea etc. For example, world literature – мировая литература, book shop - книжный магазин, spelling system - система правописания, science fiction writer - писатель-фантаст. The first noun is like an adjective – it tells what kind of thing, person, idea, etc: London teacher – a teacher from London; Language problems – problems of the language. 27 2. Translate the following sentences into Russian. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) She has written a lot of business letters. We met on a summer day. English is spoken as a mother tongue in England. English has become a world language. 5.60 per cent of the world’s telephone calls are in English. This reference book for students is interesting. Emphatic construction It is (was) … that (who, which, where, etc.) … It is (was) not until (till) … that … We use the emphatic construction to emphasize some part of the sentence. It is translated into Russian with the help of the following words: именно…, лишь …, как раз …, только …, и только после …, только в …, только тогда, когда … . It was A. Pushkin who created the literary Russian language. – Именно А. Пушкин создал литературный русский язык. It was not until 1997 that this theory was developed. – Только в 1997 году разработали эту теорию. 3. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the emphatic construction “It is… that”. 1) It was on Sunday that he arrived. 2) It was he who helped us. 3) It was on Saturday when we went to the theatre. 4) It is the great growth of the population in the USA that has given English its present standing. 5) It was Mr. White who initiated the work in this field. 6) It is for educational purposes that I study English. 7) It was not until I finished my work that I could go home. 8) It was not until 1997 that his poem was published. 9) It was not until 2 o’clock in the morning that he arrived. 28 10) It was not till 1982 that this writer won the Nobel Prize for Literature. 4. Read the text and translate it into Russian. Consult Key Vocabulary if necessary. English as a World Language English is spoken as a mother tongue in England, the USA, Canada, Australia, India. Today, when English is one of the major languages in the world, it requires an effort of the imagination to realize that this is a relatively recent thing – in Shakespeare’s time, for example, only a few million people spoke English. English has become a world language because of its establishment1 as a mother tongue outside England, in all the continents of the world. This exporting of English began in the seventeenth century, with the first settlements in North America. Above all, it is the great growth of population in the United States, assisted by massive immigration in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, that has given English its present standing in the world. Geographically, English is the most widespread language on Earth, second only to Chinese in the number of people who speak it. It is the language of business, technology, sport, and aviation. People who speak English fall into one of three groups: those who have learned it as their native language; those who have learned it as a second language in a society that is mainly bilingual; and those who are forced to use it for a practical purpose – administrative, professional or educational. One person in seven of the world’s entire population belongs to one of these three groups. Incredibly enough, 75 per cent of the world’s mail and 60 per cent of the world’s telephone calls are in English. Basic characteristics of English are simplicity of form, flexibility and openness of vocabulary. Old English, like modern German, French, Russian and Greek, had many inflections to show singular and plural, tense, person, etc., but over the centuries words have been simplified. Verbs now have very few inflections, and adjectives do not change according to the noun. 29 As a result of the loss of inflections, English has become, over the past centuries, a very flexible language. Without inflections, the same word can operate as different parts of speech. Many nouns and verbs have the same form, for example, walk, look, smile. We can talk about water to drink and to water the flowers; a paper to read and to paper a bedroom. Adjectives can be used as verbs. We warm our hands in front of a fire; if clothes are dirtied they need to be cleaned and dried. Sometimes even prepositions can operate as verbs. A sixty-year old man is nearing retirement2; we can talk about a round of golf, cards, or drinks. Openness of vocabulary involves the free admission of words3 from other languages and the easy creation of compounds and derivatives. Most world languages have contributed some words to English at some time, and the process is now being reversed. Purists of the French, Russian and Japanese languages are resisting the arrival of English in their vocabulary. Notes: 1. because of its establishment... – потому, что он утвердился... 2. is nearing retirement – приближается к пенсионному возрасту 3. this involves the free admission of words это подразумевает свободное проникновение слов 5. Give the English for: Один из основных языков, требуется усилие, родной язык, двуязычное общество, простота форм, окончание, множественное число, открытость, гибкость, предлог, лицо, одно и то же слово, исключение из правила, производные слова, широкораспространенный. 6. Match the synonyms from different columns. A 1) native language B a) to function 30 2) inflection 3) to print 4) word 5) to exceed 6) exception 7) to simplify 8) to operate 9) admission 10)creation b) formation c) mother tongue d) acceptance e) exclusion f) term g) to issue h) to surpass i) ending j) to reduce 7. Complete the following sentences inserting the proper prepositions or adverbs. 1) Many people study foreign languages to read books ___ the original. 2) English is the language ___ diplomacy. 3) This book is written ___ English. 4) Many people use English ___ a second language. 5) It is a necessity ___ any scientist to study a foreign language. 6) In English there is a large number ___ exceptions ___ any rule. 7) ___ the centuries the palace has been ruined. 8) In Russian adjectives change according ___ the noun. 8. Answer the following questions: 1) In which countries is English spoken as a mother tongue? 2) Why has English become one of the major languages in the world? 3) When did the exporting of English begin? 4) Why do people study English? 5) Which of the three groups of English speakers do you belong to? 6) What is your reason for learning English? 7) What are basic characteristics of English? 8) What does the term “flexibility” mean? 9) What role does openness of vocabulary play in the English language? 10) What spheres is English used in as an international language? 31 9. Agree or disagree. Use the conversational formulas of agreement/ disagreement. Agreement I (quite) agree with you – (Полностью) с вами согласен. So do (am/ have/ can) I – И я тоже. I suppose so – Мне так кажется. I think so – Я так полагаю. Fully agree with you – Совершенно с вами согласен. Naturally – Естественно. Exactly – Совершенно верно. Surely – Конечно. Quite so – Именно так. Right you are – Вы правы. That’s right – Правильно. Disagreement I don’t think so – I don’t agree/ disagree – I can’t agree – I am afraid that it is not so – I think you are wrong – Certainly not/ Surely not - 1) 2) 3) 4) Я думаю, что нет. Я так не считаю. Я не могу согласиться. Боюсь, что это не так. Думаю, Вы не правы. Конечно, нет. People in our country study foreign languages to read books. English is the major language of diplomacy. English is spoken as a second language in Germany. A lot of educated people all over the world want to know as many foreign languages as possible. 5) It is necessary for any good specialist to study a foreign language. 6) English came from Denmark. 7) English is a difficult language to learn. 8) Modern English like modern German, Russian, French and Greek has many inflections to show singular and plural, tense, person, etc. 32 9) There are some Roman words in English from the time when England was a part of the Roman Empire. 10. Read the text and find the answers for the following questions: a) What is the origin of the English language? b) What Anglo-Saxon words can you find in modern English? What kind of things do they denote? c) How did English get words of Latin origin? d) What is the difference in meaning between the words of Latin and Germanic origin? e) Why do the names of meat and animals differ in the English language? The Germanic and French Influence The Anglo-Saxons, who invaded England in AD350, came from Germany, Denmark and Holland. They spoke a Germanic language which became the basis of Old English. Even today, words used in modern English for ordinary objects are mostly Anglo-Saxon, or Germanic, in origin. Germanic languages, such as Danish, German, Norwegian and Swedish, have very similar words for the objects mentioned below. Words of Germanic origin are usually short (often just one syllable) and tend to be informal in modern English: shoe, clothes, earth, sun, moon, day, man, wife, child, friend, house, food, water, sleep, love, say, live, have, be, work. English also has many similarities with Romance languages, whose origin is Latin. The words below came to England with the Frenchspeaking Normans. Notice that the words are associated with power: Norman-French was used as the language of government. Words of Latin origin are usually longer than words of Germanic origin and often have a more formal meaning in English than in the original Romance language: government, parliament, judge, court, legal, military, army, crown, nation, state, country, power, authority, people. 33 Norman-French words did not enter English immediately. When the Normans invaded in 1066, ordinary people still spoke Old English. Imagine a Norman feast. The English would look after the animals and cook the meat, still calling the animals by their Old English names. The Normans, when they saw the cooked meat arrive at the table, would use French ones. This explains why The English language now has different words for animals and meats. ANIMAL Anglo-Saxon Modern English pigga pig scep sheep cu cow MEAT French porc mouton boeuf Modern English pork mutton beef 11. Read the texts and answer the following questions: a) b) c) d) e) How many varieties of English can you spot? What is “good” English? What kind of people speak it? What are the differences between varieties of English? Does your native language have the same varieties? What is Good English? There are different kinds of English, ranging from the formal to1 the colloquial. The kind of English we use2 may depend on the occasion we use it, the person we are addressing or the type of writing we are engaged on. Thus, good English is correct English appropriate to a certain level of communication. Different degrees of education and different social situations produce different levels of usage. They are classified as standard English, non-standard English, colloquial English and differ in constructions, pronunciation and vocabulary. One might even say that there is no difference in factual meaning between “He took his sister to the pictures” and “He taken his sister to the pictures”, but we 34 recognize the first sentence as standard English, and the second as non-standard, incorrect English. Non-standard English is the English used by the people with little or no education, it is nearly always spoken, seldom written, except in fiction which reproduces this type of speech. It is characterized by the misuse of words, the use of non-standard words, and the corruption of what is now considered a correct or conventional grammatical form. Another characteristic of non-standard English is its limited vocabulary. Slang is an important part of non-standard English and, indeed, of language in general. Most slang is, however, by its very nature3, short-lived. Within the area of standard English three levels are generally recognized now: they are called formal English, informal English and colloquial English. Formal English is the English, more often written than spoken, used by highly educated people in formal situations. One finds examples of formal English in scholarly articles and theses, in formal letters and public addresses4, and poetry. Contractions and colloquial expressions are avoided in formal style, grammar and usage are generally conservative. A wide and exact vocabulary is an important characteristic of formal English. Informal English is the English most commonly written or spoken by educated people. Lectures for unspecialized audiences, informal essays, business letters and most current novels, short stories and plays are written in informal English. In vocabulary and sentence style informal English is less formal and elaborate than formal English, its sentences being shorter and simpler. Colloquial English is conversational English, more often spoken than written. It has short sentences and casual constructions and vocabulary of the everyday relaxed speech of educated people. Colloquial English is personal and familiar in tone. Notes: 1.ranging from ... to – от ... до 2.English we use – английский язык, которым мы пользуемся 3.by its very nature – по самой своей природе 4.public addresses – публичные выступления 35 Varieties of English English is not a single language, it varies according to forms of communication (spoken or written), speech situations (formal – informal), functional styles (language of science – literary language), geographical areas (British English (BE) – American English (AE)). In writing we usually have time to plan our message, to think about it carefully and revise it if necessary. The language of science belongs mostly to formal written communication, it is usually objective1, precise and unemotional. Some of the common features of the language of science are passive constructions, sentences beginning with introductory “it” (e.g. It is important to remember.) Formal language is the type of language we use publicly for some serious purpose, for example, in official reports and business letters. Informal language is the language of private conversation, of popular newspapers, of personal letters. In English there are many differences of vocabulary between formal and informal language. Much of the vocabulary of formal English is of French, Latin and Greek origin. Many phrasal and prepositional verbs are characteristic of informal style: находить, открывать записывать исследовать to discover/to find out to write/to put down to investigate/to look into English is spoken as a native language by nearly three hundred million people. The varieties of English used in the USA and Great Britain are the most important in terms of2 population and influence. The British first came to the American continent at the beginning of the 17-th century. As time went on Americans began to use different English words for the same things. For example, instead of “petrol” Americans use “gas”, instead of “child” they use “kid”. One of the differences is the spelling of words. Americans stopped using “u” in words like “colour”, “honour”, but the British kept using it. The grammatical differences between two varieties of English are not very great. Here is one example: 36 I have got a sister. – BE Have you got a sister? - BE Do you have a sister? - AE There are many suggestions to simplify English by changing the spelling system. But people think that there are too many problems connected with the change of the spelling rules. Notes: 1.it (the language of science) is objective – он (язык науки) беспристрастен 2.in terms of – с точки зрения 12. Read the text and name all the differences between British and American English. Some Specific Features of American English The pronunciation of American English and the pronunciation of British English are similar. The general impression of American English pronunciation is as follows: American English intonation does not rise or fall as much as that of British English, it sounds more monotonous. American voices usually have a higher pitch. That is why American English often seems too emphatic and American voices seem louder than those of British speakers. American pronunciation is more nasalized. There are certain differences in the pronunciation of vowels and consonants. Though British and American spelling is the same in most cases, it differs in a few details, which sometimes leads an unexperienced student to failures in his attempts to find some unknown words in the dictionary. If a student looks for the word “reflexion” in a small dictionary, he may be unable to identify the word, unless he recollects that there may be some differences in spelling, and that the American “exion” looks “ection” in the British usage. 37 The changes introduced into the American variety of English are to be found in grammar and structure as well, but they are especially evident in the vocabulary. Some English words have developed new meanings, and many of these are traceable to the development of American institutions and American ways of life. Yet the striking feature of American English innovations is their close correspondence to characteristics of the temperament and the ways of life of the people who developed them. British English minister car secondary school biscuits flat form (school) lift post pavement lorry tram petrol wash up wash your hands American English secretary automobile high school cookies apartment grade elevator mail sidewalk truck street-car gasoline (gas) do the dishes wash up There are many lists of equivalent British and American words, but they must not be taken too seriously. On the American side of the page will be many words and phrases perfectly well understood, many of them in use, in Britain. Thus, most of them would not cause any serious confusion on either side. Americans do not usually say “first floor” for “second floor”, they do not call a “trillion” a “billion”. But most educated Americans are quite aware of the British equivalents. Valid differences in the use of words are not really very numerous or very significant. 38 13. Look through the day descriptions by an American and a British girl, spot all the differences in the language used. Judith (USA) I got up at seven-thirty. I put on my bath robe, went into the bathroom and turned on the bath-tub faucets. After my bath I ate breakfast with my parents on the deck. Our apartment’s on the fifteenth floor, so the view’s terrific. At eight o’clock my mom and I took the elevator to the parking lot underneath our apartment block. First we stopped for gas, then she drove me to school. The freeway was really busy – automobiles everywhere. When I got to school it was raining. Luckily I’d brought my galoshes and an umbrella, so I didn’t get wet. School was OK except that we had a math test before recess. I think I flunked it. Anyway, after school I took a bus downtown to meet my sister, Susan. She became a grade school teacher after she left college last year. We ate out at a Chinese restaurant. Personally I don’t like rice, so I ordered French-fries instead. Susan disapproved. After dessert and coffee we paid the check and left. It had stopped raining, but the sidewalks were still wet. Susan gave me a ride home, then I did a history assignment for the next day, watched a movie on TV and went to bed around 11:30. I was pooped! Kathy (Great Britain) I got up at half past seven. I put on my dressing gown, went into the bathroom and turned on the bath taps. After my bath I had breakfast with my parents on the terrace. Our flat’s on the fifteenth floor, so the view’s terrific. At eight o’clock my mum and I took the lift to the car park under our block of flats. First we stopped for petrol, then she drove me to school. The motorway was really busy – cars everywhere. When I got to school it was raining. Luckily, I’d brought my Wellington boots and an umbrella, so I didn’t get wet. School was OK, except that we had a maths exam before break. I think I failed it. Anyway, after school I took a bus to the city centre to meet my sister, Susan. She became a primary school teacher after she left university last year. We went out for dinner to a Chinese restaurant. Personally I don’t like rice, so I ordered chips instead. Susan disapproved. After sweet and coffee we paid the bill and left. It had 39 stopped raining but the pavements were still wet. Susan gave me a lift home, then I did some history homework for the next day, watched a film on the TV and went to bed at about half past eleven. I was really tired. 14. Choose any point of the following and speak on it. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) English as a worldwide language. The origin and history of the English language. Basic characteristics of English. Varieties of English. The necessity for studying English and problems of learning it. 15. Read the text and translate it into Russian. Choose one passage to translate it in writing. Dialects of English A nasty shock awaits many visitors to Britain. Imagine that you have learnt English for years, you can read newspapers and you have no problem following the television, but when you go into a fish and chip shop in Newcastle, you can not understand a word they are saying. The language has been standardized for a very long time, and regional dialects in Britain have largely died out – far more so than in Italy or Germany, for example. That is to say, the vocabulary of the dialects has died out, but the accents and a few bits of distinctive grammar remain. It is the accent which gives the visitor a problem in the fish and chip shop. Some accents are so strong that they present problems for British people, too. Variations within Britain are so great that accents from New York or Texas are often easier to follow than ones from Liverpool or Glasgow. It is mostly the vowels which differ from one dialect to another. In Manchester, shut rhymes with put, and in the south it rhymes with but. Intonation patterns also differ between regions. There is a kind of standard British English pronunciation, based in a confusing way on class and geography. It is the accent of the south-east, but not that of London itself. It could be said that the upper classes have 40 the dialect of their own, with a pronunciation known as RP (Received Pronunciation). The majority of middle-class people speak a sort of classless, democratic version of RP, with a slight admixture of the local regional accents. People’s attitudes to the various regional accents depend on a whole range of historical and social factors. The Birmingham accent is considered ugly, cockney is associated with criminals, Scottish is thought of as serious and sensible, Irish as poetic. An interesting case is that of the so-called Westcountry accent. This comes from the south and west, which is the least industrial region; consequently the accent is identified with farm-workers, sometimes considered stupid by city folk. While all other varieties of English have been increasingly accepted on mainstream television and radio, Westcountry remains the Cinderella among accents, confined to comedy and gardening programmes. To see the likely direction of change for the future, we need to look at the speech of young people. Here we find several interesting developments. One is a spread of a light London accent over much of the country – especially in areas like the West Country where it replaces the low-prestige local accent. Another is an openness, through the media, to American and Australian influences. The Australian effect is quite recent, and results from the huge popularity of Australian TV soap operas Neighbours and Home and Away. Strangely enough, this does not usually mean the adoption of vocabulary: nobody says sidewalk instead of pavement, or gas instead of petrol, however many American films they watch. It is rather the phrases, idioms and grammatical forms which are contagious. No way has caught on, as in the form: “No way am I going to go out with him”. The use of the word like as a sentence-filler has become very common: “She was like really upset, and she just like walked out”. Americans and Australians sometimes use a rising, question-type intonation on statements, often in the middle or at the end of sentences: “I spoke with my teacher (rising intonation), and he said I had to redo the test”. This is used to engage the attention of the listener; it means “Do you remember my teacher?” or “Are you listening?” To the great dismay of the older generation, this intonation is becoming very popular in Britain. 41 Conversational formulas Opinion I believe (think) that … - Я полагаю (думаю), что … In my opinion … – По моему мнению … I am convinced that … - Я убежден, что … It seems to me that … - Мне кажется, что … There’s no doubt that … - Нет сомнения, что … I’d like to point out that … - Хотелось бы отметить, что … 16. Interview your partner and find out: a) about his/ her way of learning languages; b) about his/ her suggestions for effective learning; c) about the most important things in his/ her learning English. 17. Discuss the similarities and differences in grammar of the Russian and English languages. 18. Give a talk on the topic “The English We Learn”. Word Formation The most common word suffixes to form nouns are the following: Verb Noun - er (or) – someone or something that does (is doing)something; - ation (ion) – the act, result or state of doing something; - ment – the act, cause, means, or result of doing something; Adjective Noun - ity (ty) – the quality or an example of being…; - ness – the condition, quality, or degree of being …; 42 19. Make the derivatives from the following words. Translate them into Russian. Agree, require, argue, improve, enlarge, teach, edit, educate, familiar, rich, possible, popular, regular, individual, pure, clean, bright, open, happy, flexible, polite, write, report, observe, speak, indicate, collect, admire, associate, examine, organize, discuss, impress, narrate, graduate, compose. Grammar Simple Tenses 20. Define the tense form of the verbs and translate the following sentences into Russian. (Consult the Grammar Support if you have any difficulties). 1. She studies foreign literature. 2. English is spoken by lots of people. 3. He went to Australia on holiday. 4. She will take part in the discussion, won’t she? 5. All the lectures are given in English. 6. When will the novel be published? 7. His poetry was much spoken about. 8. He doesn’t usually listen to the lectures attentively. 9. Are these scholars invited to the conference? 10. Special attention will be focused on the history of the Russian language. 11. We don’t analyse these literary works. 12. This article was written in Japanese. 13. They read a book on folklore last time, didn’t they? 14. Does he study drama or poetry? 15. Were the magazines taken from him? 16. She is usually listened to with great interest. 21. Translate the following sentences paying special attention to the prepositions. 1. They had left before the hour of the next meeting was agreed upon. 2. She was laughed at by everybody. 3. They were listened to with great surprise. 4. Tell him he is waited for. 5. He was smiled at by the girls. 6. This article was often referred to. 7. This novel is much spoken about. 8. At last an agreement was arrived at. 43 22. Make the following sentences passive. 1. Someone wrote this romance in the 19th century. 2. People speak English all over the world. 3. He gave me the textbook. 4. We will borrow the book from the library. 5. He published this story last year. 6. People admire such pictures. 7. She will write essays for this magazine. 8. She introduced her friend to her parents. 9. Everybody likes her. 10. They spoke much about this novel. 23. Open the brackets putting the verbs into the correct form. 1. When Gogol (to write) his tales, he used popular legends. 2. I (to read) this essay yesterday. 3. Special subjects (to study) next year. 4. He (to become) a good journalist in the future. 5. He (to know) many poems by heart in his childhood. 6. She (to be) five years younger than her sister. 7. A very interesting article (to bring) to me yesterday. 8. I (to finish) my work tomorrow. 9. The students (not to pay) money for education some years ago. 10. Books by this author (to sell) in great amounts. 24. Translate the following sentences into English. 1. Студенты изучают английский язык. 2. Эта история была рассказана мне моей бабушкой. 3. Он навестит вас завтра. 4. Эту картину купили вчера. 5. Он говорит на английском и французском языках. 6. Он учит английские слова каждый день. 7. Это выражение редко используется в письмах. 8. Статья будет переведена в понедельник. 9. Вчера утром он ушел из дома в 8 часов. 10. Это текст был написан в 16-м веке. 44 It’s Interesting to Know Dying Languages There are approximately 6,000 languages spoken in the world today, but many of these are quickly dying out. (A language is described as “dead” when there are no native speakers left.) On the island of New Guinea, 3 million people speak a total of 740 languages between them. Even more amazingly, there are perhaps 260 Australian Aborigine languages, spoken by a total of only 450,000 people. Most of these languages are spoken by no more than a few hundred people, and with each generation the number of speakers decreases. Sadly, some Papuan and Aborigine languages may already be dead, and others will certainly die soon. Map of UK Accents Different places in the UK have different accents. Look through the examples to get familiar with some of them. 1. Place: Dundee Accent: Dundonian Example: “Am awa up the street fur the messages.” Translation: “I’m going down the road to buy some food.” Example: “I dinna ken.” Translation: “I don’t know” 2. Place: Glasgow Accent: Glaswegian Example: “Aye nae bother.” Translation: “It’s not a problem/ Don’t worry about it.” Example: Dae ye wanna swallay?” Translation: “Would you like a drink?” 3. Place: Newcastle + Tyneside Accent: Geordie 45 Example: “Whey aye man! I’m clamming for a drink n it’s almost hoyin’ oot time.” Translation: “Hi! I really need a drink and it’s almost time for last orders.” 4. Place: Manchester Accent: Mancunian Example: “I went on t’internet and got meself some gig tickets. After we went on the razz n got tanked up. Was a right proper top night.” Translation: “I got myself some tickets for a concert. After the concert we went out drinking and got very drunk. It was a great night.” 5. Place: Liverpool Accent: Scouse/ Liverpudlian Example: “Ah, me ma had a right cob on when I went home cos me pa forgot to pay the lecky.” Translation: “My mother was angry when I went home because my father had forgotten to pay the electricity bill.” 6. Place: Birmingham Accent: Brummie Example: “Oy kwoyt loik it.” Translation: “I quite like it.” 7. Place: Rhonda Accent: Welsh Example: “Y’not from round hyer?” Translation: “You’re not from around here, are you?” Example: “Right, I’ll be there in a minute like.” Translation: “I’ll be there in a minute.” 8. Place: London Accent: Cockney Example: “Oi mate, have a butchers at the barnet on ‘erl!” Translation: “Look at that girl’s hair!” 46 Independent Reading 25. Read the following text, divide it into parts and entitle each of them. Write a short summary. The English language Where did English come from? The obvious answer is England. However, in the past two thousand years very many people came to England and changed the language. Perhaps most of the language comes from the Anglo-Saxons who came to England in the fifth to the seventh centuries. But there are also Roman words from the time when England was a part of the Roman Empire: the ending – “chester” in the name of an English town comes from the Latin word “castra” and shows that there was a Roman town there. The Vikings brought many words with them, such as “they” and “their”; the Normans governed England for many years and brought French words with them. Then the English brought many words from different countries – “kangaroo” from Australia, “pyjamas” from India, and “anorak” from Canada. But what is English now? It is no longer spoken just in England and there are many different kinds of English in different parts of the world. In a book, Peter Strevens gives the following diagram: Standard English American English Family United States Canada British English Family West Indies Britain Australasia Africa He says that there are two main families of Standard English, the American and the British. American English is spoken in the USA and in Canada. British English is spoken in the West Indies, Britain, Australasia, and Africa. However, many other parts of the world also use English. In India English is an official language still and there is a special kind of Indian English. In several African countries, such as Nigeria and Ghana, English is spoken in schools and colleges. In many sciences English is the language of communication. There are about 300 47 million people who speak English as a first language, and there are another 300 million who use it as a second language. So English is now an international language and is useful to people who never go to England. 26. Read the following text, divide it into parts and entitle each of them. Write a short summary. The Origins of English English is basically a Germanic language with a lot of Latin words in it. In simple terms, that means that the grammar and many of the most frequent words are Germanic, and the more formal or technical vocabulary is Latinate. There is much of this Latinate vocabulary that English is sometimes called a semi-Romance language. This linguistic mixture is a result of historical events. But the simple historical facts appear not to explain everything about the development of the language. One interesting question is why did the British not learn Latin from the Romans? After all, France, Spain, Portugal and Romania all kept the imperial language after the end of the Roman Empire. The answer may be the distance from Rome; the province of Britannia was on the wild and uncooperative margins of Europe. Although the Romans were here for 400 years, they did not leave very much behind them. It is hard to know how much the Celtic language of the Britons took on a Latin flavour. Actually its living descendant, Welsh, has a lot of Latin roots in it, so perhaps in the 3rd and 4th centuries AD they were on their way to creating another great Romance language. But it was not to be. The Anglo-Saxons who took over from the Romans in Britain were relatively untouched by Latin influences, so Celtic was replaced by Germanic, and the British romance with Romance was, temporarily, over. In 1066, the French-speaking Normans invaded England. Over the next 300 years, their French merged with Anglo-Saxon to create a new language: the writing of Chaucer (1343-1400) is not very far from modern English. As in the rest of Europe, Latin, especially in its written form, remained for a long time the language of science, philosophy and the Church. But English was growing stronger; it was soon not only the 48 language of everyday life but also that of a flowering literature. Caxton introduced printing into the country in 1476, and that did much to standardize forms – spelling was very inconsistent at that time. Latin and Greek classics and the Bible were translated into English. By the time of Shakespeare (1564-1616), the language was highly developed. 27. Read the text carefully, identify key points. Express your opinion on the problem in English or in Russian when being tested on your progress in independent reading. Britain’s Languages The Celtic peoples who gave way to the Anglo-Saxons did not disappear – they moved north and west, and their descendants live today in Scotland, Ireland, Wales, the Isle of Man and Cornwall. They went on speaking their Celtic languages, but of course shared the islands with a very dominant majority culture. From the 17th century onwards, the English imposed their language on huge areas of the world, from the north of Canada to the south of New Zealand, so the chances of the Celtic language surviving in Wales were pretty slim. In fact, it is the Welsh who have preserved their linguistic identity more than any of the other Celtic peoples. The last native speaker of Cornish died in 1777 and of Manx (the language of the Isle of Man) in 1974. Gaelic in Scotland is spoken by no more than 80,000 people, mostly in the islands off the north-west coast; the only monolingual speakers are young children who have not yet been exposed to English. Irish Gaelic has about 100,000 speakers confined to small areas on the west coast. The Welsh language, by contrast, has a solid heartland in the north-west of the country and is spoken by half a million people: there is a TV channel and a lot of radio in Welsh, it is taught in schools and used by the nationalist political party, Plaid Cymru. It is hard to find evidence that the English actually tried to kill off the Celtic languages in a systematic way – to commit linguicide. Their decline has been more a result of indifference from London, and a lack of will to preserve them on the part of the Celtic speakers themselves. But there have been abuses. In the 19th century, the English education system was imposed, and children were not allowed to speak Welsh at 49 school: if they did, they were forced to wear a wooden board across their shoulders. Echoing this, a Welsh nationalist wrote: ”Dy iaitb ar ein bysgwyddau megis pwn” (“Your language is like a burden on our shoulders”). 28. Read the text carefully, identify key points. Express your opinion on the problem in English or in Russian when being tested on your progress in independent reading. ENGLISH The World’s Biggest Brand Imagine a brand bigger than Nike, bigger than Gap, bigger than CocaCola. Imagine a brand used by 1.5 billion people the world over. The brand is English. How did English achieve global dominance? And what does it mean for the future of English and the rest of the world’s languages? Past Why English became the number 1 language: 1. Empire At its height, the British Empire included over one quarter of the world’s population and landmass. “Britain’s colonial expansion established the preconditions for the global use of English, taking the language from its island birthplace to settlements around the world,” says David Graddol, author and Open University lecturer. 2. Adaptibility “We don’t just borrow words,” says writer James D. Nicoll. “On occasion, English has pursued other languages down alleyways to beat them unconscious and rifle their pockets for new vocabulary.” The fact that it came into contact with a multitude of other languages turned it into a kind of linguistic mongrel. English “borrowed” (some say stole) words from over 350 other languages, making it richer and more adaptable than other well-established tongues. 50 3. America Even as the British Empire declined, the rise of the U.S. as a global superpower ensured that the English language continued on its path to world domination. TV, Hollywood, rock ‘n’ roll, and now the Internet are all foot soldiers in the march of the new lingua franca. Present Why English is still number 1: 1. It’s the language of technology As the old joke goes, the international language of technology is “broken English”. And it’s true that technology plays an important role in the language’s continuing dominance. 80% of electronically stored information in the world is in English. According to the British Council, 66% of the world’s scientists read in English; and, of course, it’s the language of international air traffic control. 2. It’s the language of business Whether you’re a Japanese executive on business in Brazil, a Mexican computer scientist at a conference in India, or a Norwegian tourist haggling in a Moroccan street market, you’re probably speaking English. There’s never before been a language that’s been spoken by more people as a second than a first language,” says English-language expert David Crystal, author of English as a Global Language. 3. It’s a big business Britain alone boasts a 1.3 billion pounds English Language Teaching industry. It is predicted that by 2020 it will be the UK’s biggest export, earning 20 billion pounds a year. One of the fastest expanding markets is China. Although Chinese is the world’s top language in terms of the number of native speakers, the Chinese themselves are gripped by English Fever – they even have their own term for it: Yingwen re. “Crazy English” – a method developed by ex-newsreader, Li Yang – is taught in huge sports stadiums to classes of thousands. As one 12- 51 year-old Chinese student puts it: “If you can’t speak English, it’s like you’re deaf and dumb.” Future Two future consequences of English being the number 1 language: 1. The impact on other languages “While there are obvious benefits in terms of global intelligibility,” says David Crystal, “on the other side of the coin, when you have one language that is so dominant, the other six and a half thousand languages in the world will naturally feel under threat.” Crystal has little sympathy for the anti-English sentiments of alreadyhealthy languages such as French, Spanish and German, which are worried about the influx of English words into their lexicons. After all, openness to foreign-language influences is one of the factors that has resulted in English’s amazing growth. However, the threat of extinction is very real for other languages. “Something like half the languages of the world are so seriously endangered that they are almost certainly going to die out in the course of the present century,” warns Crystal. These languages must be protected for the same reasons we protect endangered animal species. 2. The impact on English itself As for native speakers of English, their mother tongue has ceased to be under their control. Three quarters of English speakers are nonnative, and that proportion is growing. “The population growth in countries where it is a mother tongue, like Britain, America and Australia, is about a third of the rate of the population growth in countries where it is a second language, like India, Ghana and Nigeria,” Crystal points out. The result of this is hard to predict, but it seems clear that these new English speakers are not simply learning the language – they are shaping it. If some Asians have trouble making that “th” sound, why spend hours trying to master it when they will be perfectly well understood saying “one, two, tree”? If you keep forgetting to add “s” in the third person, why not dispense with it altogether? Nobody is going to misunderstand 52 you if you say: “My mother work in an office” – indeed, leaving out the “s” is perfectly well acceptable in the grammar of Jamaican patois. So does this mean that the next time you get your English homework back and it’s covered in red-pen corrections, you can explain to your teacher that you didn’t actually make any mistakes – that, as a nonnative speaker of global English, you were shaping the language? We wouldn’t recommend it. But it is true that the international language belongs to you as much as anyone else. English is yours to keep. Try not to break it! 29. Read the text and render it in Russian or in English. Tireless Champion of American English The most famous of all American dictionary-makers, Noah Webster was as influential in the history of American English as George Washington in the American Revolution. From his Dissertations on the English Language in 1789 to his great monument of 1828, an American Dictionary of the English language (referred to simply as “Webster’s”), his work is a real landmark in American history. Webster was born in Hartford, Connecticut, and, like many of the American revolutionaries, turned from law to teaching as a means of making his living. It was one of those career changes that transforms a man’s life. Britain was at war with the colonies, and schoolbooks, traditionally imported from London, were in short supply. Besides, in Webster’s view, they were unsatisfactory. So, very much in the spirit of the New World, he set about filling the gap. Between 1783 and 1785 while still in his twenties, Webster published three elementary books in English, a speller, a grammar and a reader. The American Speller turned out to be a runaway bestseller, selling over 80 million copies in Webster’s lifetime (second only to the Bible). The success of the American Speller gave Webster more than enough to live on, and he now devoted the rest of his life to the championing of the cause of the American language, its spelling, its grammar and its pronunciation. He wrote: “Our honor requires us to have a system of our own, in language as well as in government.” An old printer, recalling his apprenticeship, told the story of the day when a little pale-faced man 53 came into the office and handed him a printed slip, saying, “My lad, when you use these words, please oblige me by spelling them as here: theater, center, etc.” It was Noah Webster travelling about the printing offices and persuading people to follow his “improved” conventions. In 1806, Webster published his first Dictionary, the next step in his program to standardize the American language, and continued to call for the “detachment” from English literary models. From 1812 to 1822 Webster lived in Amherst, Massachusetts, where he helped to found Amherst College. In 1825, having devoted more than twenty years to the study of the English language and having travelled in both England and France, Webster returned to new Haven to complete the work of his life. The culmination of Webster’s efforts came with the publication of his American Dictionary of the English Language in 1828, larger than Samuel Johnson’s by about a third and containing much American usage. But Webster’s importance does not rest only upon the size of his book. His precise definitions are models of lexicography style. Also, by the inclusion of thousands of technical and scientific terms, Webster laid the groundwork for the modern comprehensive dictionary. Despite its now honored place in the history of American English, the first Webster’s sold only 2,500 copies and he was forced to mortgage his home to bring out a second edition. The rest of his life was dogged by debt and he died in New Haven, Connecticut, in 1848 with much of his effort unrecognized and unapplauded. In retrospect, Webster’s influence on American spelling was enormous. It is to him that Americans owe “color”, for “colour”, “fiber” for “fibre”, “tire” for British “tyre”, etc. Webster’s dictionaries had a great influence on American Speech rhythms and resulted in the remarkable uniformity of much American speech. Translation Practice 30. Translate the text into English. Миллиард людей говорит на английском, две трети ученых всего мира пишут на английском и около 80% электронной информации хранится на английском языке. Одним из последствий этого стало 54 то, что британцы ужасно ленивы в том, что касается изучения других языков. Самый важный фактор при изучении языка – это мотивация, а у жителей Великобритании ее просто нет. Однако это вовсе не означает, что они самодовольно наслаждаются всемирным статусом своего языка. Большинство британцев прекрасно понимают, что сегодня он вышел из-под их контроля: причины популярности английского либо затерялись в истории, либо больше связаны с мощью и силой по другую сторону Атлантики. Key Vocabulary Accent – произношение, акцент Regional dialects – местные наречия, говоры Foreign languages – иностранные языки Major – основной Vocabulary – словарь Widespread – широко распространенный Approximately – приблизительно Intellectual vitality – интеллектуальная жизнеспособность By no means – никоим образом Pronunciation – произношение Exception – исключение Tense system – система времен Idiomatic – богатый идиомами Inflection – флексия (окончание) Simplicity – простота Flexibility – гибкость Openness – открытость According to – в соответствии Restricted – специальный, для ограниченной сферы использования Noun – существительное Verb – глагол To operate – действовать Singular – единственное число Plural – множественное число Preposition – предлог 55 Adjective – прилагательное Admission – принятие To contribute to – делать вклад в Mother tongue – родной язык To require – требовать Effort – усилие To realize – представлять себе, осознавать Relatively – относительно, сравнительно Recent – недавний, новый Outside – за пределами Above all – прежде всего To fall into – относиться к Compound – сложное слово To reverse – изменять (в обратном порядке) Derivative – производное слово To resist – сопротивляться Origin – происхождение Colloquial – разговорный Associated with – связанный с Similarity – сходство To simplify – упрощать To avoid – избегать Formal – официальный To engage – заниматься (чем-либо) Appropriate – соответствующий Standard – стандартный, общепринятый Nearly – почти Misuse – неправильное употребление Scholarly – научный 56 UNIT 2 Universities. Kemerovo State University 1. Before reading the text answer the questions: b. What is the main purpose of universities? c. What kind of education do young people need nowadays? Read the text and compare your answers with the information in it. What Are Universities For? The primary and central purpose of the university is the search for knowledge and fundamental understanding in all intellectual disciplines and the transmission of that knowledge and understanding. It has also been a function of universities to give to young people from a relatively narrow age group (say 17-24) an education designed to develop their capacities, more particularly their intellectual capacities, that is, the ability to judge evidence critically, to develop independence of mind, the ability to communicate, curiosity, reasoning power and factual accuracy. The important thing on the one hand is to educate intellectually mobile specialists capable of renewing and endlessly adapting themselves to new problems and, on the other hand, to organize cooperation on specific problems between specialists. To meet these varying needs, most universities divide their training into two parts: the first three years are devoted to basic education of a rather general and fundamental nature, and the last two years to specific research work, together with the preparation of a diploma paper. The Indefinite Pronoun “one” as a Subject The subject of an English sentence is often expressed by the indefinite pronoun “one”. These sentences are translated into Russian by impersonal sentences: 57 One sees other people’s faults sooner than one’s own. – Ошибки других людей видишь скорее, чем свои. When one doesn’t know grammar, one often makes mistakes. – Когда не знаешь грамматики, часто делаешь ошибки. One should remember this rule. – Следует помнить это правило. One must not do that. – Нельзя этого делать. Note: One says – говорят; one can – можно; one may – можно; one never knows – никогда не знаешь; one must – нужно; one need not – не надо; one must not – нельзя, не надо. 2 . Translate the following sentences into Russian. 1. One can say that there is no difference between these two sentences. 2. One must say that you are not right in this case. 3. One can get any foreign book in the reading hall of this library. 4. One cannot say that this reporter’s is elegant. 5. One could not forget this festival. 6. One does not know how to act in such circumstances. 7. One should keep fit to look attractive. 8. Duty is what one expects from others. 3 . Read the text and answer the questions: a) What does any university need of their students? b) Is a learning power just an inborn ability? c) Can a teacher make all the students achieve great results in learning? Needs of Universities Today, the first need among universities everywhere (though it has been less talked about and perhaps less thought about in America than in Europe), is learning power, which is native ability plus the will to learn. An able person, intellectually inquiring, reflective and industrious – with learning power can make himself educated, cultivated, and wise in this era of free public libraries, museums, and archives. A great teacher can 58 speed the process. But if learning power is not there, the greatest teaching is only of partial value. A student cannot be lifted beyond the limits of his/ her ability. A great teacher may, and often does, inspire an individual student who has lacked the will or full opportunity to learn, and so sets his student on the road to education. But if large numbers of students arrive at the university without a solid academic foundation on which to build, the quality of university education must suffer. 4 . Answer the questions: 1) What made you choose University rather than another higher educational institution? 2) What subjects are included in the first-year curriculum at the Faculty of Philology and Journalism? 3) What subject is the most interesting; the least interesting; the one you think the most important; the one you find the most difficult? 4) Was it easy for you to get accustomed to the University system of lectures and seminars after the school system of classes and home tasks? 5) Which are more useful in your opinion – lectures or seminars? 6) Do you have to work much after your lectures and seminars are over? 5 . Read the text and translate it into Russian. Kemerovo State University Universities have long been sources of scientific knowledge and culture. Kemerovo State University is one of them. It was founded in 1974. Twelve faculties of our University train more than twenty thousand students of day and correspondence departments. It trains highly qualified specialists in physics, mathematics, history, the Russian language and literature, biology, chemistry, foreign languages, economics, law, sports, psychology and sociology both for research work and teaching. 59 The students are admitted to the University on the basis of their results in National Unified Examinations. Usually there are several applicants for every place at the University. The exams are often stiff and competitive. The academic year is divided into 2 terms. The students have end-ofterm tests and examinations. Marks are entered into students' recordbooks. We have a lecture system at the University. The students take down the notes of lectures. The lectures are delivered by the highly qualified teachers. They usually combine teaching with research work. The students also have practical studies and seminars, carry out laboratory tests and experiments. On the ground floor of the main building there are several lecture rooms. We have a number of laboratories specially designed and equipped for practical work and conducting experiments. Students are also trained in handling computers. On the campus there are sports grounds and playing fields. The main building of the University contains a library with a large reading-room, a large hall for meetings, debates and concerts, a dining hall with a coffee bar and other rooms for recreational purposes. Students on contract basis have to pay for their training. But for the most of students tuition is free of charge. The students do not pay for using books, for laboratory work, teaching aid. The majority of students in day department receive stipends. There are special higher stipends for honour students. Non-resident students are usually given accommodation in halls of residence. Studies are divided into years. Normally it takes 4-6 years to graduate from the University. When the course of studies is completed and final examinations are successfully passed the graduates are awarded a diploma. The best students who show great abilities for scientific work are left at the University after graduation to continue their studies as postgraduates. 6 . Give the English for the following Russian words and word combinations. Образование и культура, высококвалифицированные преподаватели, научные конференции, абитуриенты, учебные 60 материалы, принимать в университет, условия для учебы и отдыха, аспирант, научно-исследовательская работа, конкурсные экзамены, большинство студентов, отличник, обучение, повышенная стипендия, практические занятия и семинары, получать зачеты, спортивный зал, учебный год, платить за обучение. 7 . Match the synonyms from different columns. A 1) stipend 2) source 3) student 4) to train 5) to carry out 6) to divide 7) examination 8) stiff 9) study 10)teaching B a) hard b) to fulfil c) origin d) scholarship e) learning f) test g) undergraduate h) tuition i) to teach j) to part 8 . Match the word with its definition. a) a place of education at the highest level, where degrees are given; b) a place from which something comes; means of supply; c) to spend time in learning; d) a special ability to do something well, especially as gained by learning and practice; e) a group of similar subject departments in a university; f) to permit to enter; let in; g) a person who makes a request for entrance to a school or university; h) a person who has completed a university degree course; i) a long talk given to a group of people on a particular subject, especially as a method of teaching at universities; 61 j) a building belonging to a college or university where many students live. 1) applicant; 2) source; 3) university; 4) hall of residence; 5) study; 6) lecture; 7) skill; 8) faculty; 9) graduate; 10) admit. 9 . Complete the following word combinations inserting the proper prepositions. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) source ____ scientific knowledge; was founded ___ 1974; train students ___ research work; are admitted ___ the University ___ the basis; several applicants ___ every place; is divided ___ 2 terms; are delivered ___ highly qualified teachers; great abilities ___ scientific work; are left ___ the University ___ graduation; 10.Agree or disagree with the following statements. Support your judgement. 1) Kemerovo State University was founded in 1754. 2) There are six faculties at Kemerovo State University. 3) The students are admitted to the University without any examinations. 4) The students have end-of-term tests and examinations. 5) All students pay for tuition. 6) The students have good facilities for studies and rest. 7) It takes three years to graduate from the University. 8) The last two years of studies are devoted to general education. 9) Every student can take a postgraduate course at the University. 10) There is no library at the University. 11.Answer the following questions: 1) When was Kemerovo State University founded? 62 2) How many faculties are there in the University? What are they? 3) How are the students admitted to the University? 4) What is the system of training at the University? 5) Do students have to pay for their tuition? 6) What facilities for studies and rest do students have? 7) Where do non-resident students live? 8) What students can continue their studies as postgraduates? 9) Are there any traditions at the University? What are they? 10) When is a graduate awarded a diploma? 12.Read the text and complete the sentences with the appropriate English words. St. Petersburg University It was … in 1724 by Peter the Great. Mikhail Lomonosov was the university rector from 1758 to 1760. In the 18 th century several hundreds of students … from the university with degrees in history, philology, philosophy, physics, mathematics and oriental languages. There are 17,000 full-time … at the university now. They do not pay for the … . There are 16 … at the University, the most popular among them are General Psychology (7.7 … per vacancy), Politics (7.3… per vacancy), Law (5.8… per vacancy). 13.Choose one of the following points and speak on it. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) The history of KemSU. Purpose and function of the universities. Entering the University. Course of studies. (duration, division, result). Daily routine. (types of lessons, subjects, teachers). Facilities for studies and rest. Traditions. (festivals, conferences etc.) Sport. 63 14.Read the text and translate it into Russian. The Faculty of Philology and Journalism The history of the Faculty of Philology and Journalism is directly connected with that of the University. In 1953 the Philology Department was set up within the Faculty of History and Philology at Kemerovo Pedagogical Institute. Then, with the increase of the number of teaching staff and students, a separate Faculty of the Russian language and Literature was established. In 1974 it was renamed into the Faculty of Philology. Since 1993 it has been named the Faculty of Philology and Journalism. The Dean of the Faculty is responsible for the general management of the affairs at the Faculty of Philology and Journalism. He is assisted by three Sub-Deans who are responsible for the day-today running of academic and student affairs at the Faculty. Numerous researches, serious scientific achievements at the Faculty of Philology and Journalism caused its considerable development and expansion. The number of chairs raised according to the variety of aspects investigated. Now there are seven chairs at the Faculty that provide broad theoretical and practical training both for the students of Philology and Journalism departments. They are: 1) The Chair of Russian Language; 2) The Chair of the Theory of Literature and the History of Foreign Literature; 3) The Chair of Russian Literature and Folklore; 4) The Chair of Stylistics and Rhetoric; 5) The Chair of Journalism and the Russian Literature of the 20 th century; 6) The Chair of General Linguistics and Slavonic Languages; 7) The Chair of Language Theory and Slavic-Russian Linguistics. The Faculty of Philology and Journalism is famous for its distinguished staff. Professor L. A. Arayeva, Antipov, Golev, Katyshev, N. B. Lebedeva, M. V. Pimenova and L. Yu. Fukson are among them. The staff is engaged in various scientific projects. Almost all the teachers at the Faculty of Philology and Journalism have made an important contribution to the development of different branches of 64 philology. They also give the students the firm basis for their independent research activity in the area of professional interest. The Faculty of Philology and Journalism organizes a wide range of lectures, seminars, laboratory classes and optional specialized courses. Thus the students of the Faculty of Philology and Journalism can specialize not only in “Russian Language and Literature”, “Periodical Press” and “Television” but also in “Philological Provision of Office Management”, “Philological Provision of Advertising” and “Legal Linguistics”. The third year students are to choose a particular scientific field to specialize in. They are attached to the respective chair to work on an individual subject under the direction of a supervisor. The graduates of the Faculty of Philology and Journalism teach Russian and Literature at educational institutions of different level, such as schools, colleges, institutes, universities etc. They may also work for newspapers, magazines, radio, television, advertising agencies etc. So, the Faculty of Philology and Journalism gives good opportunities to apply for an interesting job after graduation from the University. 15.Divide into groups of 2 or 3, choose one of the topics below and make a presentation on it. a) Dean’s office (staff, location, functions and responsibilities, etc.); b) a Chair (staff, location, brief history, trends of research, subjects taught, awards and prizes, etc.). 16.Read the advertisements of two universities, divide them into logical parts and entitle them. Then make an advertisement of Kemerovo State University according to your outline. Believe It You Can Achieve It Welcome to Your Future University College Birmingham (previously known as Birmingham College of Food, Tourism & Creative Studies) is a provider of specialist courses at both degree and postgraduate level. Our History can be traced 65 back over 100 years. The College is focused on the Tourism, Hospitality, Sport, Education, and Culinary Arts Management sectors. As specialists our faculties, equipment, staffing and reputation are second to none. One measure of the quality of our programmes is our status as an accredited college of the University of Birmingham – which awards all our degree and postgraduate degree programmes. A perfect student city, Birmingham by day is bustling with shops, cafes, and attractions. By night, the atmosphere buzzes, in its so many bars and restaurants. It’s a city with a diverse collection of cultures and religions representing every corner of the world and a truly cosmopolitan environment in which to live and study. We welcome applications from international students and we currently have 900 students from 65 countries studying at the College. If your first language is not English, we can provide intensive English language programmes which prepare students for studying at Higher Education. In addition we also provide Language Support (free of charge) to ensure that you achieve the standard of English required by your programme. It is arranged to suit your individual needs, ranging from academic writing and study skills to an assignment and dissertation checking service. Our student halls of residence are excellent, providing a high quality, safe, affordable and happy environment for both academic and social life. Both halls of residence are within 10 minutes walk from the College and the city’s main entertainment and shopping quarter. Accommodation is self catering and ranges from 70 – 83 pounds per week. We have a long established relationships with Bellnor Ltd, they can be contacted on: Tel: +7 (812) 312-96-84, +7 (904) 637-36-36 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org If you would like further information please visit our website at www.ucb.ac.uk and www.bellnor.ru, www.bellnor.eu. Both… and… - как… так и …; Second to none – на первом месте; 66 Study High World Technologies in Russia St. Petersburg State University of Information Technology, Mechanics and Optics – A leader in the field of Computer Science and Optical technology with over a hundred years of experience. The St. Petersburg University of Information Technology, Mechanics and Optics is one of the leading universities in the country thanks to the selection of courses on offer and the training given to young gifted programmers. In 1996 a team from our university became the first in Russia to win an award for programming. In 1999, 2001, 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2007 we won the gold medal in the ACM International Collegiate Programming Contest, ACM-ICPC organized by the Association for Computing Machinery, and sponsored by IBM. In 2004 a team from our university became the world champions in programming. You probably decided some time ago that you’re worth the best education you can lay your hands on; in which case, you’re probably planning to go and study at the St. Petersburg State University ITMO. If so, you’ll need to know a little about our pre-university preparation courses, and the Unified State Exam system. You should note though, that they aren’t just any old preparatory courses – they’re set up and run based on the license and registration charter issued to ITMO by the Ministry Of Education of the Russian Federation. Conversational Formulas Requests Could you/ would you…? – Не могли бы вы …? Excuse me, may I speak to you? – Простите, можно к вам обратиться? Excuse me, could you tell me …? – Простите, не скажите ли вы мне …? 67 I wonder if he/ she could/ would …? – Интересно, не мог(ла) бы он (она) …? Possible replies Yes?/ Well? – Да? Что? Certainly/ Sure/ Yes, of course – Конечно. With pleasure – С удовольствием. All right – Хорошо. I’m afraid, I can’t – Боюсь, что не могу. I’m sorry, I can’t – Сожалею, не могу. 17.Interview your partner and find out: a) about his/ her school education; b) about his/ her university experience. 18.Make a Role Play. Role 1 – “You are a reporter. You are to write an article about the Faculty of Philology and Journalism. You have a meeting with the students and graduates of the faculty”. Role 2 – “You are a first-year student. You want to tell the reporter about your studies at the faculty”. Role 3 - “You are a third-year student. You want to tell the reporter about your research work”. Role 4 – “You are a University graduate. You work at school (or University). You want to tell the reporter about your work”. 19.Give a talk on the topic “Kemerovo State University. The Faculty of Philology and Journalism”. Word Formation The most common suffixes to form the verbs from nouns and adjectives are: 68 -ize – to cause to be (more) …; to become (a) …; to put into the stated place; -ify (-fy) – to make or become …; to fill with …; 20.Make the derivatives from the following words. Translate them into Russian. Class, just, intense, code, false, fort, real, simple, standard, modern, popular. Grammar Progressive Tenses 21.Translate the following sentences into Russian. 1.Margaret is reading a newspaper now. 2. Her research work is being discussed at the moment. 3. He will be preparing for the seminar on folklore at 3 tomorrow. 4. A scientific article is being written by him at the moment. 5. She will be interviewed at 5 tomorrow. 6. Is he still being asked by the teacher? 7. What is he being asked about? 8. Was her research being discussed when you came? 9. I believe you were not being given a lecture at 8 yesterday. 10. They will be discussing methods of teaching from two to four tomorrow. 11. At 3 o’clock we’ll be writing a semester test. Don’t call me, please. 12. Will you be studying if I come at 6 p.m.? 22.Choose the proper tense form. Consult the Grammar Support if necessary. 1. She speaks/is speaking five languages. 2. Look at that man. He wears/is wearing such a funny hat. 3. Don't take that book back to the library. I am reading/ read it. 4. They have/are having two daughters and two sons. 5. Do you understand/are you understanding Spanish? 6. We think/are thinking opera is boring. 7. Be quiet! I am watching/watch my favourite program. 8. We don't enjoy/aren't enjoying this party at all. The music is too loud. But we are enjoying/enjoy going to big parties. 9. Alec and Mary are Scottish. They come/are coming from Glasgow. They'll be here very soon. They come/are coming by car. 10. Lisa can't 69 answer the phone. She has/is having a bath. 11. Every hour the Planet Earth travels/is travelling 66,620 miles around the Sun. 12. Where is Jane? She listens/is listening to a French song but she doesn't understand what it is meaning/means. 13. See you in the morning. I leave/I'm leaving now. 14. I can't stand horror films. I think/am thinking they are really silly. 15. Excuse me, does this bus stop/is this bus stopping outside the Post Office? 23.Put the words in the correct order to make sentences. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) talking/ phone/ not/ is/ he/ the/ on. an /they/ watching/ English/ now/ are/ film. taking/ lecture/ the/ of/ notes/ students/ are/ the/ now. where/ your/ staying/ are/ friends? not/ I/ to/ am/ you/ now/ listening. text/ he/ the/ is/now/ retelling? 24.Match the questions with the answers. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) What is she writing?.............................. . What are you doing?.............................. . What are they discussing?...................... . Who is he talking to?............................. . Are you leaving now?............................ . a) b) c) d) e) The dean. Yes, I am. A course paper. I’m translating the article. The system of universities in Russia. 25.Answer the questions using the Past Progressive and the Future Progressive Tenses. 1.Were you doing your homework at six o’clock yesterday? 2. What were you doing then? 3. What will you be doing at three o’clock tomorrow? 4. Will you be hurrying home after classes? 5. What was your mother doing when you got home yesterday? 6. Do you know when you will be taking your English exam this year? 7. Where will you 70 be going for your holidays this year? 8. What will you be doing this weekend? 9. Were you having a party when I called you yesterday? 10. Were you talking to the Dean when I passed by the hall the other day? 11. Will you be doing a report tomorrow? 12. Will you be studying if I come at 4 tomorrow? 26.Complete the following sentences using the Future Progressive Tense according to the model. Model: Don’t leave (we, to have supper, in about 10 minutes). – Don’t leave, we’ll be having supper in about 10 minutes. 1. Is there anything you’d like to tell her? (I, see her, at the party today) 2. Don’t wait for me (I catch up with you, in a minute) 3. We must leave immediately (they expect us, out there before noon) 4. Don’t worry (I write shortly) 5. We needn’t trouble to send him the book (he, come, to see us, soon) 6. I can buy the medicine for you (I pass, by the chemist’s) 7. I don’t think it’s wise to wait for him (he, get home late, this evening). 27.Match column A with column B 1. While I was driving home, 2. We were watching the children 3. He cut his finger 4. At eight o’clock yesterday morning 5. As she was crossing the street, 6. While they were talking, a. as he was chopping wood. b. he was sleeping in his bed. c. while they were playing. d. she slipped and fell. e. I ran out of petrol. f. the doorbell rang. 71 28.Join the sentences using as, when, or while, as in the example. Tina was cooking. She burnt herself. When Tina was cooking she burnt herself. 1) 2) 3) 4) Laura was listening to the lecturer. She got a call. Mrs. Jason was sitting in the garden. It started raining. Peter was entering the university. He met his group mate. She was making a report. One of the students went out. 29.Correct the mistakes. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) We looking for a new article. Aren’t he having his exam now? What are you do? Look! The bus is come! You isn’t listening to the teacher. 30.Make these sentences passive. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) She is still cleaning the room. Is anybody serving you, madam? The father is giving a birthday present to his son at the moment. She is telling a funny story to the colleagues now. The government is planning the city budget these days. They are waiting for Mr. Miller at the moment. His scientific supervisor is consulting him at the moment. It’s Interesting to Know Campus Fashion Students are known for a lot of things, but fashion isn’t one of them. However, if you walk through any UK university campus you definitely notice that there is a sense of fashion on campus. For most people university is the first time that you can wear what you want – there aren’t really any rules (although turning up in fancy dresses 72 or in your pyjamas is not really advisable!). No more dull school uniforms and no more parents telling you that “midriff is showing” or saying “isn’t that a bit revealing?” It’s when you can finally wear what you want every day of the week. The Scruffy Look This generally means jeans, a t-shirt and a hoody. Or just whatever falls out of your wardrobe in the morning and smells clean. It’s the stereotypical student look. It’s for those who know that in a lecture noone cares how you look – the task in hand is to stay awake! The Business or Management Student Somehow you can always tell business students a mile off – they are the guys who always look like they’re going to an interview. They’re in suits and their best shirts. They’re dressed up to the nines and look rather out-of-place in the student union holding a pint. The Arts Student Arts students have a certain look about them – they know their style and stick to it. It tends to be a bit off-the-wall but it works for them. They generally avoid the high street trends, trying to be individual. They go for one of five looks: the scruffy look, the punk look, the goth look, the skater look or the intellectual look. The Goths and the Punks There tend not to be very extreme punks or goths in universities. Goths seem to have somehow got a bad reputation as being rather reclusive, introvert and dark. They usually have dyed black hair (sometimes red) and are dressed in black. Some just look like all the other goths, but some make it into a sophisticated look. Punks’ hair is also often dyed (red, pink, blue or green), sometimes spiky, occasionally a mohican. They wear DocMartins or Converses and vintage or skinny jeans, often accompanied by a band T-shirt. The Skater Look This means baggy or sometimes flared trousers, hoodies, ska or punk band t-shirts and often dyed hair. Accompanied by lots of beaded bracelets and skater trainers such as Vans. The Intellectual Look They tend to be smart-casual and look extremely intelligent. It’s the corduroy waistcoats, the scarves, fitted jeans and often some sort of hat. The “Too Cool for School” Look 73 In almost every lecture you see one guy who tries to look like they’ve just walked out of downtown New York into the lecture theatre. They have baseball caps on backwards, oversized headphones around their ears and a certain swagger about their walk. The High-Street Fashion Gurus There are some students who, despite the lack of cash, manage to always stick to the latest trends, no matter how short-lived they are. Admittedly, whatever the fashion is, it always seems to work on them, but you start to wonder how big their wardrobes and wallets are. The “Can’t Live Without the Label” Look These are the designer addicts. They are few and far between on a university campus but they do exist. Whatever they wear, it has to have a name on it somewhere, whether big or small. They’re the people who wouldn’t be seen dead in Topshop, let alone a charity shop. The Sports Student These people live in trackies. They tend to walk around with their name written on their back as one of the members of the university team and are never seen in anything else. Often seen with an extremely large bag. Imagine a younger version of your school PE teacher, but one who does sport. The First Year Student Ok so this isn’t really a fashion statement, but you can spot a fresher a mile off. They are the ones who take any of the above styles to the extreme. They haven’t yet realized just how little a student loan buys you and are still in brand new clobber. They have a lost look on their faces for at least two months while they try and figure everything out and a hint of anticipation as they wonder what they’ve let themselves in for. Ah, bless! Independent Reading 31.Read the texts and answer the following questions: a) b) c) d) When and where did the first universities appear? How many faculties did a university have? What were they? When were the first universities in Britain founded? What was the attitude to the books at those times? 74 e) What subjects are taught and studied in Oxford nowadays? f) Was Cambridge University open for women? The First Universities Before the 12th century most people were illiterate. Reading and writing skills were not considered important or necessary. Monasteries were centres of education and, and priests and monks were the most educated people. But with the development of such sciences as medicine and law, organizations of general study called universities appeared in Italy and France. A university had four faculties: Theology (the study of religion), Canon Law (church laws), Medicine and Art, which included Latin grammar, rhetoric (the art of making speeches), logic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and music. In the middle of the 12th century a group of professors from France came to Britain and founded schools in the town of Oxford in 1168. It was the beginning of the first English university. A second university was formed in 1209 in Cambridge. Towards the end of the 13 th century colleges appeared around the universities, where other subjects were studied. Getting an education in those times was very difficult. Printing had not yet been invented, and all the books were hand-written. That’s why books were rare and very expensive. Only the richest people could afford buying books. If a man had twenty or thirty books, people said that he had a great library. Special rules existed for handling books. You were not to touch the books with dirty hands or put them on the table at meal times. In almost any monastery you could find one or two or more monks spending hours every day copying books. Oxford The first written record of the town of Oxford dates back to the year 912. Oxford University, the oldest and most famous university in Britain, was founded in the middle of the 12th century, and by 1300 there 75 were already 1,500 students. At that time Oxford was a wealthy town, but by the middle of the 14th century it was poorer, because of the decline in trade and because of the terrible plague, which killed many people in England. The relations between the students and the townspeople were very unfriendly, and there was often fighting in the streets. Nowadays there are about 12,000 students in Oxford and over 1000 teachers. Outstanding scientists work in numerous colleges of the University, teaching and doing research work in physics, chemistry, mathematics, cybernetics, literature, modern and ancient languages, art and music, philosophy, psychology. Oxford University has a reputation of a privileged school. Many prominent political figures of the past and present times got their education at Oxford. Cambridge Cambridge is one of the best-known towns in the world, and the principal reason for its fame is its University, the second oldest university of Britain, which was founded in the 13th century. Today there are more than twenty colleges in Cambridge University. The oldest college is Peterhouse, which was founded in 1284, and the most recent is Robinson College, which was opened in 1977. The most famous is probably King’s College, because of its magnificent chapel. Its choir of boys and undergraduates is also well known. The university was only for men until 1871. In 1871 the first women’s college was opened. Another was opened two years later and a third in 1954. In the 1970s, most colleges opened their doors to both men and women. Nowadays almost all colleges are mixed. 32.Read the text carefully, identify key points. Express your opinion on the problem in English or in Russian when being tested on your progress in independent reading. 76 British Universities British universities are not open to everyone. To get a place, you normally apply in your last year at school, before you have taken you’re a levels. The university makes you an offer; for example, it will give you a place if you get at least one grade A and two Bs in you’re a levels. The offer depends on market forces; for popular, high-prestige courses, the university will ask for very good A level results. The number of students on a particular course (for example, Economics at Cardiff University) is strictly limited. The system does not allow students to follow full-time courses in a casual way, having a job or living in another town as they study. Students are quite closely monitored, and have to see their teachers regularly. Consequently, dropout and failure rates are low. The negative side of the system was that, compared with other countries, a rather small percentage of British school-leavers actually went on to university. But there has been a dramatic improvement; the numbers have doubled over the last 20 years. One explanation of this is that in the 1980s many polytechnics and higher education colleges were given university status. As a result, many cities now have two universities – an old one and a new one. For example, in Bristol there is Bristol University and the University of the West of England; in Oxford there is Oxford University and Oxford Brookes University. Officially, all universities in the country are equal in status. But they differ greatly in reputation and public image. In general, the older a university is, the higher its status. So the most prestigious are the ancient ones – Oxford and Cambridge – followed by long-established ones such as London, Manchester and Edinburgh. Some of this is just based on tradition and snobbery. In fact, each university has strengths and weaknesses, and sensible students make their choices according to their own particular needs and priorities. About half of British students go away to university, rather than attend the one closest to home. This is an expensive thing to do; the government used to give grants (money to live on during studies), whereas now students have to borrow money or get their parents to pay. But still many students find that combining study and family life is impossible. 77 British universities are very popular with overseas students. There are about 70,000 – mostly from Africa, the Arab world and Far Eastern countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia. The Erasmus programme arranges exchanges (from three months to one year) for students and teachers between universities in 24 countries including all the members of the European Union. In fact, the UK is the most popular destination, receiving over 25 percent of all Erasmus students. 33.Read the text and answer the questions: a) b) c) d) What kind of teachers does the author describe in the text? How does the author describe the task of a school teacher? How is the task of a university teacher described? What qualities are necessary for either work? Would you Like to Be a Teacher? There are two distinct kinds of teachers. The kind which springs to the mind more readily is the school-teacher, whose duty is to give pupils a certain, clearly-defined quantity of knowledge - this knowledge consists of the basic facts forming the foundation on which further specialization can be built. The teacher of children has the power to mould1 the development of young minds, of individual characters. A good teacher will also take pleasure in creating a thirst2 for knowledge in the child, inspiring an appreciation of education and desire for self-fulfillment. The teaching of younger children is undoubtedly a vocation3 requiring patience and dedication. The second kind is University teaching, which, under the English system bears little or no resemblance to school teaching. The function of a lecturer in an English University is not, first and foremost 4, to give knowledge in the form of facts; it is rather to provide guide-lines along which students may direct their individual duty, to provide the student with the main tools of analysis for his particular specialty, to arouse the student’s interest in particular aspects of his subject for further research work after graduation. The lecturer is allowed more free time in which to conduct his individual research, thereby being 78 able to make a positive contribution and keep up with current ideas in his subject. Thus, under the English system of education, school teaching is the field of those people whose interests and talents lie in giving knowledge, while lecturing requires some original contributions to the subject on the part of the lecturer and also requires a desire to encourage an interest in a special sphere in future teachers and research-workers. Notes: 1.mould - формировать 2.a thirst - жажда 3.vocation - призвание 4.first and foremost - прежде всего 34.Read the text and render it in Russian or in English. Alcot University Guide for International Students Welcome to the University of Alcot. We hope very much that your time here will be both highly productive and highly enjoyable, but we do recognize that it is not always easy for students from other countries to adapt to campus life in Britain. For this reason, we have produced this small factsheet which may make your first few days here a little easier. Your Hall of Residence contains twelve rooms, all like yours. The kitchen and bathrooms are communal. In the interests of hygiene and respect for your flatmates, we would ask you to keep these shared facilities as clean and tidy as possible. These rooms will be cleaned by a member of the cleaning staff once a day (Monday to Friday). However, they are not expected to do your washing-up or tidy away your things. Please be polite and respectful to your cleaners – they have a difficult and unpleasant job to do. Your Hall Tutor will introduce himself or herself to you over the next few days. If you have any problems with anything to do with your life on campus, they are there to help you. Student social life revolves around the Student Union, which is the large yellow building opposite the library. Inside, you will find a number 79 of shops, bars and food outlets, as well as a launderette, two banks and a travel agent’s. As a student at Alcot, you are automatically a member of the Union. This entitles you to use all the facilities and to vote in all Union elections and meetings. In addition, you are free to join any of the university clubs and societies and attend Union-organized events such as pop concerts and discos. See The Alcot Excalibur, the free weekly student newspaper, for further information regarding upcoming Union events. Regarding your course of studies, you will receive a letter in the next couple of days from your Head of Department inviting you to attend a welcome meeting for new students. You will be given further information concerning your course at this meeting. Generally, your course will consist of lectures, seminars and regular meetings with your Personal Tutor. He or she will be able to deal with any academic problems or questions you may have. As an international student, you may have some questions that neither your hall Tutor nor your Personal Tutor are able to answer. If you have any problems, issues or concerns directly related to that fact that you are a non-British citizen, these can be referred to the International Office. Situated next to the Arts Building, the International Office is staffed by one permanent Welfare Officer and a body of trained student volunteers. They are experienced in handling issues related to visas, immigration and police registration. A confidential counseling service is also available. Further information regarding other university facilities, such as the medical centre, sports centre, arts centre and library, can be found in the accompanying Alcot Guide for Undergraduates. This also contains useful phone numbers and a map of the campus. Translation Practice 35.Translate this text in writing from Russian into English. Какова студенческая жизнь? Это не только учеба, а и веселые встречи друзей, дискотеки, спортивные соревнования. Все помнят свои студенческие годы, как важный период жизни каждого, кому выпало счастье поступить в вуз. 80 Студенческая жизнь – это сессии, посвящение в первокурсники, студенческий клуб, общежитие. Но высшей школа - прежде всего образование и наука, и поэтому главной задачей студента является получение образования. На достижение этой задачи необходимо отдать все силы. Студенческая жизнь довольно сильно отличается от школьной, хоть и различия на первый взгляд небольшие. Студенческая жизнь это следующий шаг в получении образования, который через лекции, семинары, практикумы, лабораторные работы, курсовые работы, научно-исследовательскую деятельность приводит к основам профессионализма и мастерства. 36.Render this text into English. Международный день студента Этот праздник был учрежден в 1941 году в Лондоне на международной встрече студентов, боровшихся против фашизма, а установлен в память о расправе со студенческой демонстрацией в оккупированной немцами Праге в 1939 году. День студента ассоциируется с молодостью, романтикой и весельем. Но история его, начавшаяся в Чехословакии во время Второй Мировой войны, имеет кровавое и печальное начало. 17 ноября 1939 года многие руководители Союза студентов Чехословакии были арестованы фашистскими властями и расстреляны. Более тысячи студентов и преподавателей были отправлены в концлагеря, университеты были закрыты. 37.Render this extract from “Komsomol’skaya Pravda” into English, using key vocabulary. Тульские студенты получат потанинскую стипендию Каждый год в Туле проводится конкурс на получение стипендии благотворительного фонда Потанина. В результате самые умные и креативные студенты имеют возможность получить финансовую 81 помощь на ближайший год. Как пишет газета «Комсомольская правда», стипендия Потанина в 2011-2012 годах составляет 4 000 рублей в месяц. Стипендиатами программы станут 1 200 студентов из 58 ведущих государственных вузов. В конкурсе на получение стипендии могут принять участие студенты и магистранты, сдавшие на «отлично» две последние сессии. Проще говоря, пропуском в первый тур является зачетка с отметками «отлично». Конкурсный отбор, как правило, проходит в три этапа — тестирование, деловые игры, финальные мероприятия. Key Vocabulary Philology – филология Journalism – журналистика Department – отделение, кафедра Theory – теория To pay attention to – уделять внимание Folklore – фольклор Enrolled – зачисленный To devote to – посвящать Speciality – специальность Creative – творческий Graduation – окончание (вуза) To graduate from – оканчивать (вуз) To major in – специализироваться To require – требовать Accommodation – размещение, жилье To assist smb in smth – помогать кому-то в чем-то Faculty Board – совет факультета Dean’s Office – деканат Teaching assistant (instructor) – ассистент Senior teacher – старший преподаватель Assistant professor – доцент First-year student (freshman) – первокурсник 82 Second-year student (sophomore) – второкурсник Third-year student (junior) – третьекурсник Fourth-year student (senior) – четверокурсник Teaching staff – преподавательский состав (коллектив) To head – возглавлять To be responsible for – отвечать за General management – общее руководство To preside at – председательствовать на To carry out decisions (reccomendations/ directions) – выполнять решения (рекомендации/ указания) To approve the plan – утверждать план To hear reports of – заслушать отчеты To award – присуждать, награждать Eligible – имеющий право Day-to-day running of – повседневное управление, руководство To work out study programmes – разрабатывать учебные программы To teach related subjects – преподавать смежные дисциплины To give (deliver) lectures (seminar classes) – читать (проводить) лекции (семинары) To combine teaching with research – сочетать преподавание с исследовательской деятельностью To set (give) study material for homework – определять (выдавать) учебный материал для домашней работы To supervise yearly essays (diploma papers/ graduation papers, essays) – руководить курсовыми (дипломными/ выпускными) работами To take exams (sit for exams) – сдавать экзамены To pass exams – сдать экзамены To drop out of the university – отчислиться из университета To miss lectures (classes) – пропускать лекции (занятия) To be admitted to – быть принятым в Hall of residence – общежитие Applicant – абитуриент Students’ record books – студенческие зачетные книжки End-of-term test – зачет за семестр 83 Unit 3. Higher Education in the English-speaking Countries 1. Before reading the text answer the questions: a) How do you understand a term “higher education”? b) Why is it necessary for a person to be educated? Read the text and think over the question asked in the title. Is Higher Education Right For You? Higher education could boost your career prospects and earning potential, while giving you the chance to immerse yourself in a subject that really interests you - and get involved in lots of other activities. Higher education is about taking your education to the next level: learning new things and getting to where you want to be. A higher education qualification could help you take charge of your future by developing skills and confidence and opening up new opportunities whatever stage of life you're at. Even if no one else you know is thinking about going into higher education, it could still be the right choice for you. There are currently over two million higher education students in the UK. Higher education courses are offered at around 130 universities and higher education colleges, and many further education colleges. With more than 50,000 courses in a variety of academic and workrelated subjects - including many that let you combine more than one subject - there's bound to be one that suits you. 2. Practice reading these words, mind the stress, translate them using a dictionary. Higher, education, career, boost, earn, potential, immerse, involve, qualification, charge, confidence, currently, bound, suit. 3. Consult the EE dictionary and explain the meaning of underlined words. 84 4. Paraphrase these sentences with the underlined words. 1) Would you leave the next piece of information in your message, please? 2) There is a wide range of different special courses at the faculty of Philology and Journalism. 3) You may attend lectures as well as seminars. 4) Learning foreign languages can strengthen your confidence and career prospects. 5) At universities most students are usually engaged into different activities. 6) He has devoted all his free time to studying English Literature of the 20th century. 7) Getting a Master’s degree is the next stage of higher learning. 8) Discussing literary works improves your ability to analyse literature. 9) You’ll have to take responsibility of meeting the foreign guests. 10) This size of the uniform is just for you. 11) As our mother is a housewife the father works much to get enough money. 12) If you want to become a reporter you’ll have to take certain training. Correlative Conjunctions Either … or… Neither … nor … Both … and … - либо … либо … - ни … ни … - как … так и … e.g. 1) He is either a teacher or a writer. – Он либо преподаватель, либо писатель. 2) He is neither a teacher nor a writer. – Он ни преподаватель, ни писатель. 3) He is both a teacher and a writer. – Он как преподаватель, так и писатель. 85 5. Translate the following sentences into Russian paying special attention to correlative conjunctions. 1) Both Nick and Ann were late. 2) I was both hungry and tired when I arrived home. 3) Neither Liz nor Mary came to the party. 4) She said that she would contact me but she neither wrote nor phoned. 5) I am not sure where he is from. He is either Spanish or Italian. 6) Either you apologise or I’ll never speak to you again. 7) He neither smokes nor drinks. 8) The film was both long and boring. 9) That man’s name is either Richard or Robert. 10) We can leave either today or tomorrow. 11) I’ve got neither time nor money to go on holiday. 12) The cat is either in the kitchen or in the hall. 13) She speaks neither French nor German. 14) He reads either The Times or The Guardian. 15) She likes both science fiction and detective stories. 16) They have been both to England and America. 6. Read the text and translate it into Russian. Higher Education in Great Britain Higher education is provided at universities and polytechnics and other establishments of higher and further education. Polytechnics prepare students for particular jobs in science and industry. Today there are more than forty universities in Britain. The two oldest universities in England are Oxford and Cambridge. These date from the Middle Ages. Oxford is the oldest of these two universities. It pays more attention to philosophy, classical languages and literature. The history of Oxford began in 1249, that of Cambridge – in 1348. Among the English universities Oxford and Cambridge have a special eminence. All British universities are private institutions. Every university is independent, and responsible to its own governing council. Although they all receive financial support from the state, the Department of 86 education and science has no control over their regulations, curriculum, examinations, appointment of staff, or the way they spend money. Each university decides every year how many students it supposes to admit. Most British universities have no special entrance examinations now. Students are accepted on the basis of their result of General Certificate of Secondary Education at ordinary (0) level or advanced (A) level. Minimum entrance requirements for British universities are 5 passes at “0”level and two passes at “A” level. The students receive grants from public and private funds, which provide for the payment of their tuition fees and other expenses. Most students take jobs in summer for about six weeks, but they do not do outside work during academic session. Normally it takes 3 or 4 years to graduate from the university. About a quarter of students read science, about a fifth read arts subjects and social studies, a slightly smaller proportion – engineering, medicine and dentistry. Students have lectures and tutorials. Each student has a tutor who is responsible for the student’s progress. Students of the first, second and third years of study are called undergraduates. Those students who pass examinations at the end of their third or fourth year get Bachelor’s degree. Generally, the B.A. degree is regarded as a preparation for further graduate or professional study. The B.Sc. is regarded as a preparation for immediate professional work. After graduation any student (he is called a graduate then) may get a Master’s degree. This degree is conferred for a thesis based on at least one year’s full time work. But it is necessary for a postgraduate to spend three years carrying out research and writing thesis for getting the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. The universities have their own traditions, which they preserve carefully. A student must wear a cap and a gown. It is a custom from the time when students were clergymen. Students correctly dressed have their meals in the college dining room and mustn’t be late for dinner. Sporting activities are very popular. Many great men studied at Cambridge and Oxford. Among them is Bacon, the philosopher, Milton, the poet, Newton, the scientist, John Galsworthy, the writer. Many prominent Conservative and Labour leaders and ministers, members of the Royal family studied there too. 87 7. Translate the following words into Russian. Provide, polytechnics, further, industry, philosophy, among, science, curriculum, special, requirements, quarter, slightly, tutor, bachelor, generally, confer, carefully, wear, gown, clergyman, preserve, wear. 8. Give other words of the same root. Depend, response, govern, exam, appoint, pay, normal, dentist, graduate, prepare, read, establish, general, slight, act. 9. Give the English for. Высшее образование, общественные фонды, выдающиеся лидеры, сдать экзамен, учебный план университета, научноисследовательский центр, получать стипендию, степень бакалавра, среди них, основать, контроль над правилами, назначение штата сотрудников, тратить деньги, требовать, написать диссертацию, королевская семья, удовлетворительная оценка, магистр искусств, получить степень магистра естественных наук, выполнять исследовательскую работу, аспирант, присуждать звание, сохранять традиции, носить шапочку и мантию, вступительные экзамены, изучать гуманитарные науки, быть ответственным за, получать финансовую поддержку, плата за обучение. 10. Suggest the Russian equivalents for the following. Particular job, to date from the Middle ages, to pay attention to philosophy, in 1849, special eminence, although, financial support, to spend money, at ordinary level, to receive grants, to study art subjects, to confer a degree, to carry out research, to write thesis, to preserve traditions, to have meals, correctly dressed, five passes. 11. Agree or disagree with the following statements. Support your judgement. 1.Polytechnics prepare students for social work. 2.The two oldest universities of Great Britain are the universities of London and Manchester. 3.Oxford pays much attention to art subjects. 4.All British universities receive financial support from the state. 5. Three passes at 88 “O” level and two passes at ”A” level are necessary to enter the university. 6.students receive grants from public to private funds. 7. It is necessary to write a thesis to get the Bachelor of art degree. 8. The degree of Doctor of Philosophy is conferred after the graduation from the university. 9. Oxford students must wear casual clothes at the university. 10. All members of the royal family studied at Cambridge. 12. Fill in the missing words. Universities and polytechnics and … provide higher education in Great Britain. Today there are … forty universities in Britain. Oxford …philosophy, classical languages and literature. Every university is independent, and responsible to its own … . Students are accepted … their result of GCSE at ordinary (0) level or advanced (A) level. As a rule, it takes 3 or 4 years … the university. All students have tutors who are responsible for the student’s … . Students … at the end of their third or fourth year and get Bachelor’s degree. 13. Answer the following questions: 1.How many universities are there in Great Britain? 2. What are the oldest British universities? 3. What universities have a special eminence among the English universities? 4. British universities are private institutions, aren’t they? 5. How long do studies at the university last? 6. What university degrees can graduates be awarded? 7. When is the Bachelor’s degree awarded? 8. When is the Master of Art degree conferred? 9. When is the doctor of Philosophy degree awarded? 10. What are the special traditions in Oxbridge? 11. What are the famous alumni of these two universities? 14. Translate these sentences into English. 1.В Британии высшее образование можно получить в университетах и политехнических вузах. 2. Старейшие университеты Великобритании, история которых началась в 13-14 веках, Оксфорд и Кембридж. 3. Они имеют особый статус среди всех британских вузов. 4. Каждый университет является независимым учреждением. 5. Все вузы получают финансовую поддержку от государства, но они сами распоряжаются своими 89 финансами. 6. Министерство образования и науки не может контролировать их деятельность. 7. Каждый университет сам решает сколько студентов он набирает. 8. Студентов принимают в зависимости от баллов в их аттестате о среднем образовании. 9. В университете учатся 3 - 4 года. 10. По окончании выпускники получают степень бакалавра. 11. После получения степени бакалавра выпускник может получить степень магистра. 12. Он должен минимум в течение 1 года заниматься научной деятельностью. 13. Такие знаменитые англичане как Исаак Ньютон, Джон Милтон, Джон Голсуорси и многие другие были выпускниками Оксфорда и Кембриджа. 15. When reading the text about further education in Great Britain answer the following questions: a) Where can one apply after finishing secondary school? b) How is the academic year in British universities divided? c) What marks are necessary to get a place at the university? Are they enough to be admitted? d) In which areas do British universities differ from each other? Further Education in Great Britain After finishing secondary school or college you can apply to a university, polytechnic, college of education or you can continue to study in a college of further education. The academic year in Britain's universities, Polytechnics, Colleges of education is divided into 3 terms, which usually run from the beginning of October to the middle of December, the middle of January to the end of March, from the middle of April to the end of June or the beginning of July. There are 46 universities in Britain. The oldest and best-known universities are located in Oxford, Cambridge, London, Leeds, Manchester, Liverpool, Edinburgh, Southampton, Cardiff, Bristol and Birmingham. Good Alevel results in at least 2 subjects are necessary to get a place at a university. However, good exam passes alone are not enough. Universities choose their students after interviews. For all British citizens a place at a university brings with it a grant from their local 90 education authority. English universities greatly differ from each other. They differ in date of foundation, size, history, tradition, general organization, methods of instruction, the way of students’ life. 16. Read the first part of the text about institutions of higher learning in Great Britain. Guess the name of the person in whose honour the most well-known scholarship for students is awarded in Europe nowadays. Higher Educational Institutions of Great Britain After three years of study a university graduate will leave with the Degree of Bachelor of Arts, Science, Engineering, Medicine, etc. Later he may continue to take Master's Degree and then a Doctor's Degree. It goes without saying it that research is an important feature of university work. The 2 intellectual eyes of Britain - Oxford & Cambridge Universities - date from the 12 & 13 centuries. They are known for all over the world and are the oldest and most prestigious universities in Britain. They are often called collectively Oxbridge, but both of them are completely independent. Only education elite go to Oxford and Cambridge, most of their students are former public leavers. The normal length of the degree course is 3 years, after which the students take the Degree of Bachelor of Arts or B.A. Some courses, such as languages and medicine, may be one or two years longer. The students may work for other degrees as well. The degrees are awarded at public degree ceremonies. Oxbridge cling to their traditions, such as the use of Latin at degree ceremonies. Full academic dress is worn at examinations. Oxbridge universities consist of a number of colleges. Each college is different, but in many ways they are alike, each has its name, its coat of arms, each is governed by a Master and offers teaching in a wide range of subjects. The largest ones have more than 400 members, the smallest ones-less than 30. Within the college one will normally find a chapel, a dining hall, a library, rooms for undergraduates, fellows, the Master and teaching purposes. Oxford is one of the oldest universities in Europe- the second largest in Britain, after London. The town of Oxford is first mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 911 AD and it was popular with the early English kings. The university's earlier charter is dated to 1213. There are now 24 colleges for men, five for women and another 91 five both for men and women. Among the oldest colleges are University College (founded in 1249), All Souls(1438), Christ Church(1525). Cambridge University started during the 13th century and was grown until today. Now there are more than 30 colleges. They line the right bank of the Cam. There are beautiful college gardens with green lawns and lines of tall trees. The oldest college is Peter house (1284) and the most recent is Robinson College (1977), the most famous is King's College. The University was only for men until 1871, when the first women's college was opened. That was the first time in Britain woman could get good education officially. In the 1970s, most colleges opened their doors to both men and women. Almost all colleges are now mixed. Many great men studied at Cambridge, among them Desiderius Erasmus (1469-1536), the great Dutch scholar, Roger Bacon(1214-1292), the philosopher, Milton, the poet Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658), the soldier, Newton, the scientist, and Kapitsa, the famous Russian physicist. The universities have over a hundred societies and clubs, enough for every interest one could imagine. Sport is a part of students' life at Oxbridge, the most popular ones are rowing and punting. 17. Match the definitions with the underlined words from the text. 1) Holder of the second university degree; 2) A person who has already finished his studies and got a diploma; 3) A scientific, educational and cultural centre, as a rule it gives higher education to the citizens; 4) Senior students that haven’t got a diploma yet; 5) Having a lot of similar features; 6) A sport which is done on the boats moved by the use of oars; 7) A group in society considered to be superior; 8) To resist stopping the tradition; 9) Producing respect and influence; 10) Holder of the first university degree; 11) Person who has received the highest university degree; 12) Written or printed statement of rights. 18. Divide the text into logical parts, giving a title to each one. 92 19. Answer the questions: 1) What are the leading British Universities? 2) How long should you study to get a Bachelor’s degree? 3) What is one of the important features of university study? 4) What do these universities tend to do? 5) Who studies at Oxbridge? 6) What are the departments where you should study longer? 7) What is specific about colleges of Oxbridge? 8) What can one find within each college? 9) When is the town of Oxford mentioned first? 10) Who were its first students? 11) How many mixed colleges were there in Oxford in the past? 12) Did the situation change these days? 13) When was Cambridge University founded? 14) What is the most famous college of Cambridge? 15) What can you see inside the College’s campus? 16) What happened in 1871? 17) Name those famous men who are the alumni of these universities. 20. As far as you know there are over forty universities in Great Britain. This extract is about other British universities. What groups of the universities can you distinguish? The Scottish universities of St. Andrews, Glasgow, Aberdeen & Edinburgh date from the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. In the nineteenth and the early part of the twentieth centuries the so-called redbrick universities were founded. These include London, Manchester, Leeds, Liverpool, Sheffield, and Birmingham. During the late sixties and early seventies some 20 'new' universities were set up. Sometimes they are called 'concrete and glass' universities. Among them are the universities of Sussex, York, East Anglia and some others. During these years the government set up 30 Polytechnics. The Polytechnics, like the universities, offer first and higher degrees. Some of them offer full-time and sandwich courses (for working students). Colleges of Education provide two-year courses in teacher education or sometimes three years if the graduate specializes in some particular subjects. Some of them 93 who decide to leave school at the age of 16 may go to a further education college where they can follow a course in typing, engineering, town planning, cooking, or hairdressing, full-time or part-time. Further education colleges have strong ties with commerce and industry. There's an interesting form of studies which is called the Open University. It's intended for people who study in their own free time and who 'attend' lectures by watching TV and listening to the radio. They keep in touch by phone and letter with their tutors and attend summer schools. The Open University students have no formal qualifications and would be unable to enter ordinary universities. Some 80,000 overseas students study at British universities or further education colleges or train in nursing, law, banking or in industry. 21. Complete these sentences using the information from the extract above. Translate them into Russian. 1) … ,… ,… , ... are the most famous Scottish universities. 2) …, …, … are called “The Redbrick universities”. 3) They were founded in …. 4) … were set up during the late sixties and early seventies. 5) The new universities are also called … or … . 6) The government … 30 Polytechnics. 7) The … offer first and higher … . 8) Colleges of Education usually provide … in teacher education. 9) If you decide to leave school at the age of 16 you may go to … . 10) There you may follow a course in …, …, …, …, or … . 11) … have strong ties with commerce and industry. 12) One of the interesting forms of studies is called … . 13) The students of this university … … by watching TV and listening to the radio. 14) They have no …. . That’s why they are … to enter ordinary universities. 15) 80,000 … … study at British universities. 94 22. Apart from schools and universities there is another sector, which often gets forgotten – a sort of Cinderella of education system. Read this extract from “British Life and Institutions” and say what sort of learning these establishments give to students. Is there a system similar to the English FE colleges in your country? Further Education Colleges In fact, there are almost as many students at further education colleges as at university, and these colleges perform some very important functions. Some pupils from school prefer not to stay there to do their A levels, but to move to a nearby FE college. Going there has two main attractions. First, there is a wider choice of A level subjects, including Law, Computing and Sociology; and second, there is a much freer, more adult atmosphere than at school. Another group of pupils – those who are not happy with the academic study involved at A levels, who want to do a vocational course which leads quickly to a job. FE colleges offer all sorts of work-related courses, from Car Mechanics to Dental Nursing, which give students NVQs (National Vocational Qualifications). Then there are those who leave school at age 16 and go straight into a job, but later on realize that they need higher qualifications. Quite a lot of people in their mid-20s or older come back into education at an FE college and take a one-year Access course; this gets them into university, where they often more successful than younger students because they are more serious and focused. FE colleges also offer English-language courses to foreign visitors; in some ways they are a better learning environment than specialized language schools, as the visitors mix with all the British students around them. 23. Speak on the topic “Higher education in Great Britain”. 24. Make a project about the system of higher education in the USA. 95 Conversational Formulas Discussion Shall we start? – Начнем? Ladies and gentlemen, I think we should begin. – Дамы и господа, я думаю мы можем начать. First …, second …, third … - Во-первых, … во-вторых, … в-третьих. Let’s move on – Давайте продолжим. Shall we continue – Продолжим? May I interrupt you to say that … - Разрешите мне прервать вас и сказать, что … . I am afraid I don’t get the point. – Боюсь, что я не понимаю сути дела. With all due respect I have to contradict. – При всем уважении я должен возразить. I greatly appreciate your advice. – Я высоко ценю ваш совет. To present a paper/ report on the subject … – представить доклад на тему … . My report deals with … – мое сообщение касается … . To come to a conclusion – прийти к выводу. 25. Make a report on British, Russian or American system of higher education. 26. Divide into groups of 3-4 people. Discuss different systems of higher education (American, British, Russian) and be ready to speak about their differences and similarities. 27. Arrange a conference to discuss specific features of different educational systems. Word Formation The most common suffixes to form the adjectives from nouns and verbs are: -y (-ly) – full of or covered with…; tending to…; like o typical of …; 96 -ic (-ical) – of, like or connected with …; -ful – full of …; having the quality of …; causing …; -less – without …; -able – having the stated quality or condition; 28. Make the derivatives from the following words. Translate them into Russian. Academy, success, end, symbol, fear, optimist, sun, base, month, care, word, dirt, enjoy, remark. Grammar Perfect Tenses 29. Translate the following sentences into Russian. 1. She has had much work this week. 2. He has written his test paper well. 3. Have you ever read English books in the original? 4. Have you already answered these questions? 5. Many new novels have been translated into English. 6. The newspaper will have been delivered by 6 a.m. 7. How long have you been learning Arabic? 8. The problem of folklore festivals has not been touched upon yet. 9. The report had been written before the arrival of the chief. 10. The student will have passed the exam in the History of Linguistics by the end of the week. 11. He had left the city by that time. 12. Has she been to any book exhibition this year? 13. The experiment had been completed by that time yesterday. 14. The lecturer has been listened to inattentively. 15. This magazine will have been returned by this time tomorrow. 16. Will the work have been finished by September? 30. Choose the correct form of the verbs in brackets and translate the sentences. Consult the Grammar Support if necessary. 1. He (has, have been, will have) read the book on poetry by the end of the next week. 2. By the time he was 25 he (had, has, will have) become a Doctor of Philosophy. 3. The room (has, had, will have) not been slept 97 in for many years. 4. Many new interesting magazines (has been, have been, will have) published by now. 5. The lecture (have, have been, will have been) delivered by this time tomorrow. 6. Their test (has been, had been, will have) written by 2 o’clock yesterday. 31. Make the sentences passive. 1. Your friends have invited you to dinner. 2. Someone has given me this book. 3. They have staged Shakespeare’s plays. 4. He has put the clock on the shelf. 5. She has lost her dictionary. 6. Nobody has ever written about her. 7. They had sent for the doctor by 4 p.m. 8. We had passed exams before he arrived. 9. By this time I will have received the letter. 10. It surprised me that they had completed their research. 32. Translate the sentences into English. 1. Вы уже перевели текст? 2. Я видел этот фильм недавно. 3. Он когда-нибудь бывал в Англии? 4. С тех пор она не была в Америке. 5. Мне только что задали этот вопрос. 6. Этот клуб уже посетили многие журналисты. It’s Interesting to Know Degrees Degrees are higher education qualifications that help you develop a thorough understanding of a subject. There are several different types and a vast number of subjects to choose from. Bachelors degrees. A bachelor’s degree (sometimes known as an 'ordinary' or 'first' degree) can lead to a qualification such as a bachelor of arts (BA), bachelor of science (BSc), or bachelor of medicine (MB). Depending on the subject you choose, it normally takes three or four years to complete full-time. Foundation Degrees. Foundation Degrees combine academic study with work-place learning. They are broadly equivalent to the first two 98 years of a bachelors degree. They provide a route into university or college for a broad range of students from many different backgrounds. Higher degrees. Higher (also called postgraduate) degrees, diplomas and certificates usually require that you already have a bachelors degree. They lead to qualifications such as master of arts (MA) and master of science (MSc). Higher National Certificates (HNCs) and Higher National Diplomas (HNDs). HNCs and HNDs are work-related courses provided by higher education colleges and further education colleges. They are available in a wide range of subjects from accounting to video production. Higher education diplomas and certificates. As well as HNCs and HNDs, you can study for a range of higher education diplomas in subjects as varied as accounting, construction, engineering, nursing, science, technology and textile design. They usually take two years. You can normally convert your higher education diploma to a degree with an extra year of study. Certificates of higher education are academic, rather than vocational qualifications. There are broadly equivalent to an HNC, and usually take a year of full-time study to complete. Independent Reading 33. Read the text and answer the following questions: a) What opportunities does higher education give to you? b) What difficulties do you come across while getting higher education? What Is Higher Education All About? Higher education means a lot more than just getting a qualification. It also offers you the chance to meet new people and take advantage of new opportunities. Unlike school, you're at university or college because you want to be, learning more about a subject or job you're really into. You'll have more control over how and when you study - though it’s up to you to make the most of it. You'll find higher education challenging - getting 99 used to new ways of learning and thinking may take time - but you'll have a lot of fun along the way. You’ll also have lots of opportunities to experience new things and meet new people. Studying and Social Life Higher education is a very different experience to school or further education. You are expected to do far more work for yourself. Lectures and seminars will provide guidance, but you’ll need to widen your knowledge through background reading. Subject staff will offer lots of advice to help you get used to this new way of working. Library staff will be able to help you find the materials you need, and advise on referencing and avoiding plagiarism when it comes to writing essays. Making new friends is a key part of the higher education experience. If you’re worried about fitting in, remember that students from all backgrounds and of all ages go to university and college. One way to form friendships is through student societies or sports. It’s always easier to bond with someone if you share a common interest. There will probably be a full list of societies available on your students' union website, and you’ll have an opportunity to join up to most at the ‘Freshers’ fair’. Most institutions have a sports centre of their own or an arrangement with the local centre. As a student you’re likely to have access to sports facilities, and you may get a discount on gym membership. Most universities and colleges run open days. They’re generally held two or three times a year, allowing members of the public to look around the institution and see what's on offer. Many institutions also offer short courses over the summer period, giving prospective students the chance to get a taste of higher education. At these events you’ll be able to find out from lecturers and students all the good and bad points of university life, take a tour of the campus and sit in on lectures and seminars. The Bright knowledge resource library has information about higher education, money and careers. 100 34. Read the text and make a table of similarities and differences in higher education of different countries. Get ready to speak about different systems of higher education. Higher education is any of various types of education given in postsecondary institutions of learning and usually affording, at the end of a course of study, a named degree, diploma, or certificate of higher studies. Higher-educational institutions include not only universities and colleges but also various professional schools that provide preparation in such fields as law, theology, medicine, business, music, and art. Higher education also includes teacher-training schools, junior colleges, and institutes of technology. The basic entrance requirement for most highereducational institutions is the completion of secondary education, and the usual entrance age is about 18 years. The system of higher education had its origin in Europe of the Middle Ages, when the first universities were established. In modern times the nature of higher education around the world has been largely determined by the models established in influential countries such as France, Germany, Great Britain, and the United States. Both France and Germany have systems of higher education that are basically administered by state agencies. Entrance requirements for students are also similar in both countries. In France an examination called the baccalauréat is given at the end of secondary education. Higher education in France is free and open to all students who have passed this examination. A passing mark admits students to a preparatory first year at a university, which terminates in another, more rigorous examination. Success in this examination allows students to attend universities for another three or four years until they have attained the first university degree, called a licence in France. Basic differences, however, distinguish these two countries' systems. French educational districts, called académies, are under the direction of a rector, an appointee of the national government who also is in charge of the university in each district. The uniformity in curriculum throughout the country leaves each university with little to distinguish itself. Hence, many students prefer to go to Paris, where there are better accommodations and more cultural amenities for students. Another difference is the existence in France of higher-educational institutions known as grandes écoles, which provide advanced professional and 101 technical training. Most of these schools are not affiliated with the universities, although they too recruit their students by giving competitive examinations to candidates who possess a baccalauréat. The various grandes écoles provide a rigorous training in all branches of applied science and technology, and their diplomas have a somewhat higher standing than that of the ordinary licence. In Germany, a country made up of what were once strong principalities, the regional universities have autonomy in determining their curriculum under the direction of rectors elected from within. Students in Germany change universities according to their interests and the strengths of each university. In fact, it is a custom for students to attend two, three, or even four different universities in the course of their undergraduate studies, and the majority of professors at a particular university may have taught in four or five others. This marked degree of mobility means that schemes of study and examination are marked by a freedom and individuality unknown in France. Each of these countries has influenced higher education in other nations. The French, either through colonial influence or through the work of missionaries, introduced many aspects of their system in North and West Africa, the Caribbean, and the Far East. In the 1870s Japan's growing university system was remodeled along French lines. France's grandes écoles have been especially copied as models of technical schools. German influence has come about through philosophical concepts regarding the role of universities. The Germans were the first to stress the importance of universities as research facilities, and they also created a sense of them as emblems of a national mind. The doctoral degree, or Ph.D., invented in Germany, has gained popularity in systems around the world. The autonomy of higher-educational institutions is strikingly pronounced in Great Britain. Its universities enjoy almost complete autonomy from national or local government in their administration and the determination of their curricula, despite the fact that the schools receive nearly all of their funding from the state. Entry requirements for British universities are rather complicated. A student must secure a General Certificate of Education (corresponding to the French baccalauréat) by taking examinations in various subjects and receiving passing marks in them. The greater the number of “advanced level” 102 passes, rather than “ordinary level” passes, that a student acquires, the better his chances are of entering the university of his choice. (Britain has a centralized admissions bureau to which candidates for admission are able to give their choice of universities in an order of preference.) This selective admission to universities, combined with the close supervision of students through a tutorial system, makes it possible for most British undergraduates to complete a degree course in three years rather than the standard four years. Great Britain's academic programs are more highly specialized than their European continental counterparts. Most undergraduates follow an “honours” course (leading to an honours degree) in one or, at the most, two subjects, while the remaining minority of students take “pass” courses that cover a variety of subjects. Great Britain's model of higher education has been copied to varying degrees in Canada, Australia, India, South Africa, New Zealand, and other former British colonial territories in Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific. The system of higher education in the United States differs from its counterparts in Europe in certain ways. In the United States, there is a nationwide assumption that students who have completed secondary school should have at least two years of university education. Hence, a great number of “junior colleges” and “community colleges” have sprung up to provide two years of undergraduate study, in contrast to the traditional universities and colleges, where a majority of students complete four years of study for a degree and where substantial numbers go on for one to three years of postgraduate study in a “graduate school.” Universities that provide four-year study courses are either privately funded foundations or are state or city foundations that depend heavily on the government for financial support. Private universities and colleges depend largely on tuition charges levied on students. The individual state governments fund the nation's highly developed system of state universities, which ensure the provision of higher education for the vast majority of those willing and academically qualified to receive such education. In the American system, the four-year, or “bachelor's,” degree is ordinarily obtained not by passing a “finals” examination but rather by the accumulation of course “credits,” or hours of classroom study. The quality of work done in these courses is assessed by means of a 103 continuous record of marks and grades in a course transcript. The completion of a certain number (and variety) of courses with passing grades leads to the “bachelor's” degree. The first two years of a student's studies are generally taken up with prescribed courses in a broad range of subject areas, along with some “elective” courses selected by the student. In the third and fourth years of study, the student specializes in one or perhaps two subject fields. Postgraduate students can pursue either advanced studies or research in one of the many graduate schools, which are usually specialized institutions. At these schools students work toward either a “master's” degree (which involves one to two years of postgraduate study) or a doctoral degree (which involves two to four years of study and other requirements). A marked feature of American education that derives from the German model is the de-emphasis on lecture and examination. In both of these countries, students are evaluated according to their performance in individual courses where discussion and written essays figure importantly. The American model of higher learning was adopted wholesale by the Philippines and influenced the educational systems of Japan and Taiwan after World War II. 35. Read the text carefully, identify key points. Choose one passage to translate it in writing. Express your opinion on the problem in English or in Russian when being tested on your progress in independent reading. Universities in Transition By David Riesman The following text is taken from an essay in the Wilson Quarterly which deals with some fundamental changes at American universities during the 1970s. Although the explosive activism on university campuses during the 1960s gave that decade the greatest press coverage, Professor Riesman claims that the 1970s have brought about a more significant change in higher education. He sees the reasons for this in the large-scale tuition subsidies granted by Congress in 1972 and the active recruitment of blacks and other minorities which have brought 104 eleven million students of all races and social backgrounds into U.S. universities. The sheer diversity of American higher education, so baffling to foreigners baffles many Americans as well. There were, at last official count, 3,075 accredited colleges and universities in the United States. Many of them have their own separate lobbies in Washington: the community colleges, the land-grant schools and other state universities, the former teachers’ colleges and regional state universities, the predominantly black schools, the private colleges. Not to mention women’s schools and Catholic schools, and schools affiliated with dozens of other religious denominations. At the end of World War II, approximately half of the 1.5 million college and university students in the united states were educated in private institutions, the other half in state or locally supported schools. Today, private colleges educate barely one-fifth of the 11 million American students. … it is not simply tuition that has taken private schools out of the market, for inflation spreads on penalties – and windfalls – all too evenly. There are still millions of Americans who have enough, could save enough, or could safely borrow enough to send their children even to the most expensive private college… At the heart of the problem is the fact that, as our culture becomes ”democratized”, the idea of attending a private school has come to seem unnatural and anachronistic to many people. … Among one group of victims of this egalitarianism – the exclusively private single-sex colleges – panic has been spreading since the late 1950s. … It has become an increasingly idiosyncratic choice to attend the few single-sex schools that remain. One element of American diversity is thus being lost – as is an opportunity for some young people who would benefit, for a time, from not having to compete with or for the opposite sex. Yet opportunity to choose is supposed to be one of the very essentials of democratization. … Advocates of public higher education claim that there is virtually no innovation to be found in the private sector that cannot also be duplicated in the public sector. And, indeed, the public schools are often less monolithic than is often thought… The University of California, 105 with its eight campuses, offers students everything from small-college clusters in rural settings of great natural beauty (Santa Cruz) to large urban universities (Los Angeles). And Evergreen State College, begun 10 years ago in Olympia, Washington, is more avowedly experimental than most private colleges. Yet an important difference remains: private colleges, and (with such exceptions as Northeastern and New York University) most private universities as well, are on average far smaller than public ones. And while small size is not necessarily a virtue, it often is, particularly insofar as it continually reminds the sprawling public campuses that “giantism” may itself be a deformity. I am inclined to believe that, in the absence of the private model, state colleges and universities would never have sought to create enclaves of smallness. … … private schools were the first actively to seek recruitment of minority students. Private colleges have also in fact (though by no means universally) possessed a somewhat greater degree of academic freedom and autonomy than public ones. Sheltered from the whims of angry governors and legislators, they set a standard for academic freedom and non-interference that the public institutions can – and do – use in defending themselves. State university officials recognize the importance of maintaining a private sector. State pride is a factor here. The state universities of Michigan and Texas, of Illinois and Indiana, Virginia and North Carolina, Washington and California all want to be world-class institutions on a level with private universities like Stanford, Chicago and Yale, and they use these private models as spurs to their legislative supporters and beneficent graduates. They have even been able to maintain some selectivity, shunting those students with less demonstrable ability to the growing regional branches of central state universities. These regional state colleges and universities are now large and well established. Given the general egalitarian temper of the times, these schools have no qualms about competing for state money with the older, more prestigious parent campuses. The ineluctable, if not immediately perceptible, consequence is that of “leveling”. 106 Translation Practice 36. Translate the text into English. Не все студенты учатся на дневном отделении в университете или колледже. Многие люди сочетают обучение с работой. Некоторые компании освобождают своих работников для обучения на одиндва дня в неделю или на два месяца в год. Крупные компании часто имеют свои собственные внутренние программы обучения. Британское правительство с энтузиазмом приветствует такие схемы обучения, особенно потому, что таким образом меньше людей пойдут в университеты. Если вы безработный, то для вас есть две формы обучения: профессиональная подготовка для людей, которые не имеют работы долгое время и молодежная программа обучения для выпускников школ, которые не могут найти работу. 37. Render this extract into English. Дистанционное образование Большинство современных молодых людей предпочитают получить работу и создать семью, а образование получить позже. Каждому хочется поскорее стать финансово независимым, построить дом, посадить дерево и родить ребенка. Работа занимает все основное время, ребенок все свободное, а когда же учиться? Каждый из нас знает, как сегодня важно получить высшее образование, чтобы не только иметь постоянную работу, но и получить в перспективе более высокую должность. Сегодня, благодаря современным достижениям в области образования, появилась дистанционная форма обучения. Никаких записей лекций и аудиторий, не надо отпрашиваться с работы на сессию. При этом Вы сможете общаться с преподавателем посредством чатов, форумов или веб-конференций. В первую очередь дистанционное обучение выгодно работающим людям, которым необходима специализированная информация для дальнейшего успешного карьерного роста. Независимо от местонахождения и рода занятий Вы будете в любое удобное для 107 Вас время получать необходимые знания. Для успешного обучения Вам понадобится всего лишь компьютер, веб-камера, подключение к Интернету и желание учиться. Учебные заведения ведут прием студентов круглогодично, то есть Вы поступаете в институт тогда, когда у Вас появится желание. Срок обучения по дистанционной форме такой же, как и на других формах обучения. Во многих городах зачастую нет необходимых нам учебных заведений, а ездить в другой город нет возможности. Дистанционное образование позволяет не ехать в институт для написания заявления о приеме. Документы в ВУЗ высылаются по почте, а сдача вступительных экзаменов происходит в режиме онлайн. Так же нет необходимости приезжать на сессию, сдача экзаменов происходит через Интернет. После поступления каждому студенту предоставляется доступ к СДО, где в личном кабинете Вы найдете все необходимое для учебы: видео лекции, электронные учебники и свою электронную зачетную книжку. Благодаря дистанционному образованию учеба перестает быть проблемой, она не мешает работе и семье. Вы развиваетесь, успевая делать много полезного и интересного. Key Vocabulary Academic – учебный, академический Bachelor’s degree – степень бакалавра Baccalauréat – бакалавриат Certificate - аттестат Clergyman – священнослужитель Date from – вести начало Eminence – высокое положение Establishment – учреждение Evaluate - оценивать Governing council – управляющий совет Gown – (зд.) мантия Higher education/higher learning – высшее образование Independent – независимый 108 Master’s degree – степень магистра Private – частный Postgraduate – аспирант Preserve – сохранять Prominent - выдающийся Provide – обеспечивать Public – государственный Qualification – квалификация, специальность Recruitment – найм Responsible (for) – ответственный Staff – штат сотрудников Take advantage – иметь преимущество Undergraduate – студент 109 Grammar Support 1. Существительное (The Noun) Английское существительное имеет грамматические категории числа, падежа и, как правило, употребляется с артиклем. Существуют различные классификации существительных. Вот некоторые из них: Имена нарицательные – имена собственные Common Nouns – Proper Nouns a computer Mrs. Smith a city Michael a boy London love the Thames happiness the United States grief the Alps Конкретные, абстрактные, собирательные существительные Concrete Nouns – Abstract Nouns – Collective Nouns A glass – glass freedom a family An iron – iron cleverness government Исчисляемые – неисчисляемые существительные Countable Nouns – Uncountable Nouns a pen news a child freedom an apple information a car work a penny literature Примечание: Если существительное – исчисляемое, оно согласуется с глаголом в единственном и множественном числе и может употребляться с неопределенным артиклем. С такими существительными используются местоимения many, (a) few. This is a red apple. – These are red apples. I’ve got a few English books, but many books on Russian literature. Если существительное – неисчисляемое, оно согласуется только с глаголом в единственном числе, не употребляется с 110 неопределенным артиклем, перед ним могут стоять местоимения much, (a) little). The news is great. I have much work today. Английские исчисляемые существительные имеют два числа – единственное и множественное. Правила образования множественного числа английских исчисляемых существительных. Singular (единственное число) N student paper N(-y) dictionary copy N(-s,-ss,-sh,-ch,-o,-x) address branch hero xerox N(-f,-fe) life leaf wolf Exceptions: roof chief N 1 man woman child fish foot sheep deer Plural (множественное число) N+s students N(-i)+es dictionaries copies N+es addresses branches xeroxes N(-v)+es lives leaves wolves roofs chiefs N men women children fish feet sheep deer papers heroes 2 1. Для образования множественного числа к существительным добавляется окончание –s, к существительным, 111 оканчивающимся на (t)ch, s, ss, sh, x, z, добавляется окончание -es. an hour – hours a watch – watches a life - lives a month – months a fox – foxes a wolf – wolves a year - years a bus – buses a leaf – leaves НО: a chief – chiefs, a handkerchief – handkerchiefs. Примечание: Если существительное оканчивается на –o, перед которым стоит согласный, множественное число образуется добавлением –es. hero – heroes НО: piano – pianos potato – potatoes photo – photos volcano – volcanoes stereo – stereos tomato – tomatoes kilo – kilos echo – echoes radio – radios 2. Некоторые английские существительные образуют множественное число чередованием гласного в корне. a man – men a foot – feet a mouse – mice a woman – women a goose – geese a child – children a tooth – teeth a louse – lice an ox – oxen 3. Есть также слова, у которых форма единственного и множественного числа совпадают. a deer – deer a fruit – fruit (fruits = kinds of fruit) a sheep – sheep a fish – fish (fishes = kinds of fish) a swine – swine a salmon – salmon an aircraft – aircraft a cod – cod a means – means a series – series a species – species a carp – carp Примечание: Форма множественного числа английского существительного fishes обозначает разные виды рыб и довольно редко используется. Например: The fishes of the Atlantic. 4. Существительные латинского и греческого происхождения имеют особые формы единственного и множественного числа. datum – data phenomenon - phenomena 112 basis – bases formula - formulae / formulas crisis – crises memorandum - memoranda / memoranthesis – theses dums criterion – criteria 5. Множественное число сложных существительных образуется прибавлением окончания –(e)s ко второму элементу. a grown-up – grown-ups a boyfriend – boyfriends an office-block – office-blocks a forget-me-not – forget-me-nots a manservant – menservants Но есть следующие исключения: a passer-by – passers-by, a daughter-in-law – daughters-in-law. 6. Некоторые английские существительные всегда используются либо только в единственном, либо только во множественном числе. Среди них: Singular Plural information music clothes pants advice death contents scales money luggage sweepings people news knowledge glasses police progress trouble odds arms furniture luck ends holidays work equipment greens stairs yeast traffic customs wages cream hair goods jury ink wood shorts poultry linen sand trousers binoculars rubbish accommodation jeans slums leafage business scissors sights weather machinery tights outskirts Примечание: Первая категория согласуется с глаголами в единственном числе, вторая – с глаголами во множественном числе. It is hitting news. That was good advice. Jeans are casual clothes. These glasses are from Check Republic. 113 Притяжательный падеж существительных Английское существительное имеет два падежа – общий и притяжательный (The Common Case and the Possessive Case). Притяжательный падеж обычно употребляется с одушевленными существительными. a boy’s leg – the leg of the table a man’s foot – the foot of a mountain Притяжательный падеж английских существительных обычно образуется следующими способами: 1. Добавлением ‘s к существительному в единственном числе a man’s hand, Mary’s letter Если существительное в единственном числе оканчивается на –s и является односложным, оно также образует форму притяжательного падежа прибавлением ‘s: the bus’s tires, the boss’s order 2. Добавлением только ’ к существительному во множественном числе. students’ life, employees’ bonuses 3. Добавлением ‘ или ‘s к именам собственным, оканчивающимся на –s. Эти окончания как правило произносятся [ız]. Max’[ız] ideas, little Bess’[ız] dress, Keats’[ız] poems 4. Добавлением ‘s к последнему элементу сложного существительного: my mother-in-law’s house, sisters-in-law’s sons Примечание: Если два существительных соединены союзами and, but, or, ‘s обычно добавляется к последнему слову: Jack and Mary’s father, John and Geoffrey’s teacher 5. Формы притяжательного падежа также употребляются в выражениях, обозначающих: а) пространственно-временные отношения one mile’s drive, fortnight’s holiday, tomorrow’s party б) времена года, месяцы, дни недели summer’s morning, July’s heat, Saturday’s programme в) страны, города 114 London’s buses, England’s future, France’s policy г) в выражениях со словами the world, the sun, the moon, the earth, water, river и названиями планет the river’s bottom, the world’s history, the moon’s light д) с названиями плавательных средств the boat’s sail, the shop’s crew е) в некоторых устойчивых сочетаниях for friendship’s sake, at arm’s reach, at the razor’s edge, in the mind’s eye. 2. Местоимение (The Pronoun) Местоимение обычно определяет предметы и качества, конкретно не называя их. Таким образом, в предложении местоимения используются в функции существительного либо прилагательного. В английском языке выделяют следующие местоимения: 1. Личные местоимения (Personal Pronouns) употребляются в двух падежах – именительном и объектном: the Nominative Case and the Objective Case I me he him she her it it we us you you they them You are taller than her. He is as intelligent as she is. Who found the key? –She did. It’s up to her to decide. Give the check to them. 2. Притяжательные местоимения (Possessive Pronouns) имеют две формы: the Conjoint form and the Absolute form 115 my mine his his her hers its its our ours your ours their theirs Первая форма всегда употребляется вместе существительным. Сравните: Her idea is interesting. – Whose idea is it? –It’s hers. That’s their car. – Whose car is it? – It’s theirs. с 3. Указательные местоимения (Demonstrative Pronouns) имеют формы единственного и множественного числа: the Singular and the Plural this these that those Они обозначают расположение объекта в пространстве и времени (отдаленное или близкое). Show me the dress, please. – Which one? – That blue one. And those jeans, please. This dictionary is older than that one. These exercises are quite difficult. Personal Possessive Pronouns Demonstrative Pronouns Pronouns Nomin Objectiv Conjoint Absolute Singular Plural ative e Case Form Form употребляется с употребляется Case сущестбез сущестI he she it we you they me him her it us you them вительным вительного my his her its our your their mine his hers its ours yours theirs this that these those 116 4. Неопределенные местоимения (Indefinite Pronouns) обозначают неопределенное количество или качество. а) Местоимение some в основном используется в утвердительных предложениях. В отрицательных и вопросительных предложениях используются местоимения any, no. You must think of some plan. – You don’t have to think of any plan. There were some magazines on the desk. There were no magazines on the desk, only newspapers. Однако местоимение some употребляется в вопросах, которые представляют собой просьбу или предложение May I offer you some tea? Can I have some milk? б) Местоимение аny употребляется в отрицаниях и вопросах в значении some. В утвердительных предложениях оно соответствует русским местоимениям любой, всякий, какой угодно. You can do that work any day you like. What books shall I give you? – Any will do. в) Местоимение оne употребляется только с исчисляемыми существительными, имеет форму множественного числа ones, а также форму притяжательного падежа – one’s. Оно используется в качестве слова-заменителя существительного, упомянутого ранее во избежание повтора, а также с в значении любой (каждый) человек. One can learn a foreign language. To express some vague time: One day I’ll tell you the truth. To avoid the repetition of the same noun: My office is the first one on the left. With the meaning of only and single: This is the one way out. 117 5. Местоимения Much и Many, Little и Few. Much и Many обозначают большое количество, первое употребляется с неисчисляемыми существительными. второе – с исчисляемыми. You needn’t take much aspirin. There were so many questions to ask. Much и Many чаще встречаются в отрицательных и вопросительных предложениях, а также в придаточных, вводимых союзами if или whether. There aren’t many people in the street. I wonder if much money is needed. В утверждениях Much и Many можно использовать в следующих случаях: Much depends on what you will say. My father meant so much to me. We’ve got too many things to do today. Вместе с этими местоимениями возможно употребление выражений a lot of, lots of, plenty of, a great deal of, a large number of. Они также обозначают определенное количество. A lot of interesting articles were published in the last issue. There was a lot of snow in the streets of Helsinki. Much и Many имеют степени сравнения: much more the most many I’ve got more good marks for this semester than for the previous one. Местоимения little и few обозначают небольшое количество, little употребляется с неисчисляемыми, few с исчисляемыми существительными. I have little news for you. At the conference we met few familiar people. НО: выражениe a little имеет значение немного, a few – несколько. He brought a few oranges and a big melon. Do you have any sugar? – Yes, a little. Сравните: 118 I know little about fine arts. I know a little about fine arts. There is little money in my wallet today. There is a little money in my wallet today. Эти местоимения также имеют степени сравнения: little less the least few There were less mistakes in your last test. Today there are fewer people in the Internet Hall. Past Simple Present affirmative Simple sentences interrogati ve sentences Present Simple negative sentences Present Simple affirmative sentences Употребление местоимений much, many, little, few в составе оборота there is/ are. There is a book in the library. There are many/few books in the library. There is much/little information in this reference book. There isn’t a/any book on the shelf. There aren’t many/any books on the topic in the library. There isn’t much/any information in this reference book. Is there a/any book on the shelf? Are there many/any books on the topic in the library? Is there much/any information in this reference book? There was a book in the library. There were many/few books in the library. There was much/little information in this reference book. Future Simple interrogative sentences Future Simple negative sentences Future Simple affirmative sentences Past Simple Past Simple interrogative negative sentences sentences 119 There wasn’t a book on the shelf. There weren’t many/ any books on the topic in the library. There wasn’t much/ any information in this reference book. Was there a/any book on the shelf? Were there many/ any books on this topic in the library? Was there much/ any information in this reference book? There will be a book in the library. There will be many/ few books in the library. There will be much/little information in this reference book. There won’t be a/ any book in the library. There won’t be many/ any books in the library. There won’t be much/ any information in this reference book. Will there be a/ any book on the shelf? Will there be many/any books on the shelf? Will there be much/any information in this reference book? 3. Прилагательное (The Adjective) Английское прилагательное не имеет категории рода, числа и падежа. Все прилагательные, как правило, делятся на opinion adjectives (выражают мнение говорящего о ком-то или чем-то: great, 120 good, beautiful) и fact adjectives (характеризующие возраст, размер, цвет и т.д.: woolen, wooden, golden, white). Сравните: Rainy weather makes me feel miserable. This gold watch is a piece of art. Если перед существительным стоит артикль, то при наличии прилагательного, артикль ставится перед прилагательным. We saw a house. We saw a little house. После глаголов be, look, smell, taste т.д., прилагательное может употребляться без существительного. This man is not tall. He looks sad. Когда существительное описывается двумя или более прилагательными, они обычно следуют в таком порядке: Size Age Shape Colour Origin Material a small old square blue Thai silk scarf Однако такой длинный ряд прилагательных редко употребляется. Английские прилагательные имеют две степени сравнения: сравнительную (comparative degree) и превосходную (superlative degree). Сравнительная степень + than употребляется для сравнения двух людей, предметов и т.п. Mary is shorter than Jill. My car is more expensive than yours. The + превосходная степень + of/in употребляется для указания на преобладание признака у человека, предмета и т.п., принадлежащих к одной и той же группе. This was the most expensive of all the cars. She is the most beautiful woman in the world. Правила образования степеней сравнения прилагательных. 1. Односложные и двусложные прилагательные образуют сравнительную степень путем прибавления –er , превосходную – путем прибавления – est. Если прилагательное оканчивается на ударный слог с кратким 121 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. гласным между двумя согласными, конечный согласный удваивается, если прилагательное оканчивается на –y, при образовании сравнительной и превосходной степени оно меняется на –i: hot – hotter – hottest big – bigger – biggest heavy – heavier – the heaviest Прилагательные, имеющие больше двух слогов, образуют сравнительную степень с помощью more , превосходную – с помощью most. difficult – more difficult – most difficult curious – more curious – most curious Некоторые двусложные прилагательные (clever, stupid, friendly, narrow, gentle и т.д.) могут образовывать степени сравнения обоими способами. narrow – narrower – narrowest/narrow – more narrow – most narrow Некоторые прилагательные (absolute adjectives) не имеют степеней сравнения по причине своего значения. Они всегда употребляются только в положительной степени. middle, dead, pregnant, round, full, left, perfect, empty, unique, medical, supreme и т.д. Прилагательные good, bad, little, many/much имеют особые формы в сравнительной и превосходной степени. good – better – best bad – worse – worst little – less – least many/much – more – most All the examples are good, but I think that the first one is the best. Такие прилагательные как far, old, near, late имеют двойные формы для сравнительной и превосходной степени. 1st variant far old near late farther – farthest older – oldest (если nearer – nearest later – latest (если указывает на указывает на (если указывает на (временная расстояние) возраст) расстояние) отнесенность) 2nd variant 122 further – furthest (если указывает на расстояние или последовательность) elder – eldest (если nearer – next (time), указывает на the next order, next отношения в year, the next step семье) the latter (the former)– last(time), the last (order) 7. В английском языке сравнение может также осуществляться при помощи сравнительных оборотов: as + positive degree + as not so/as + positive degree + as She is as old as I am. He is not so rich as he is said to be. This book is as valuable as that one. 4. Глагол (The Verb) В зависимости от значения и функции в предложении английские глаголы делятся на смысловые и служебные. Смысловые всегда наделены лексическим значением в составе предложения. We lived in a small town. Служебные глаголы не имеют собственного лексического значения в предложении и часто тесно связаны с каким-либо словом, образуя единую структуру. He is afraid of snakes. - (глагол-связка) I have never been there. – (вспомогательный глагол) He didn’t come in time. – (вспомогательный глагол) Спряжение глаголов BE, HAVE Present Simple Past Tense Tense The Verb BE Positive I am He, is she, it You, we, they are Simple Future Simple Tense I , he, she, it I, was shall be we You, we, they He, she, it, you, we, they were will be 123 Negative I am not He, it is not she, I , he, she, it I, was not shall not be we You, we, they He, she, it, you, we, they were not will not be Interrogative Negative Positive Interrogative You, we, they are not Am I ? Was I, he, she, Shall I, we be? it? Is he, she, it? Will he, she, it, you, they be? Were you, we, Are you, we, they? they? The Verb HAVE I, you, we, I, you, he, she, they have it, we, they had He, she, it has I, you, we, I, you, he, she, they have it, we, they not/ don’t had not/ didn’t have have I, we shall have you, he, she, it, they will have I, we shall not have you, he, she, it, they will not have He, she, it has not/ doesn’t have have? Do I, you, we, Did I, you, he, Shall I, we they have? she, it, we, they Will you, he, she, it, they have? Does he, she, it have? have? 124 Система времен английского глагола Настоящее простое время. (The Present Simple Tense). Настоящее простое время образуется с помощью подлежащего (существительного или местоимения в именительном падеже) и смыслового глагола. В утвердительных предложениях к смысловому глаголу в 3-м лице единственного числа прибавляется окончание –s. I attend lectures at the university every day. She attends lectures at the university every day. В вопросительных и отрицательных предложениях с местоимениями I, you, we, they используется вспомогательный глагол do/don’t, а с местоимениями he, she, it – does/doesn’t. Если смысловой глагол используется с does/doesn’t, окочание –s к нему не прибавляется. Do you attend lectures at the university? I do not/ don’t attend all the lectures. Правила правописания и произношения глаголов в 3-м лице единственного числа. 1. К глаголам, оканчивающимся на –ss, -sh, –ch, -x, -o, прибавляется –es. I kiss – she kisses, I brush – she brushes, I go – she goes, I do – she does. 2. В глаголах, оканчивающихся на согласный + y, опускается у и прибавляется –ies. I study – she studies, I marry – she marries, I worry – she worries. 3. К глаголам, оканчивающимся на гласный + у, прибавляется окончание –s. I play – she plays, I stay – she stays. 4. Окончание глаголов 3-го лица единственного числа произносится так: - /s/, если глагол оканчивается на глухой согласный: laughs, drinks, sleeps, hates; - /ız/, если глагол оканчивается на звуки /s/, /∫ /, /t∫/, / / или /z/: 125 misses, wishes, matches, arranges, rises; - /z/, если глагол оканчивается на другие звуки: attends, dreams, stays, begins, stands, saves. Настоящее простое время используется для выражения - постоянных состояний, He works at a library. - повторяющихся и повседневных действий, He consults a lot of students every day. - непреложных истин и законов природы, It often rains in summer. - действий, происходящих по программе или по расписанию (движение поездов, автобусов и т.д., расписание телепередач), а также в спортивных комментариях, обзорах, повествованиях. The train to Manchester leaves at 5.00 p.m. Reilly kicks the ball and passes it to Mason. Следующие выражения являются маркерами настоящего простого времени: always, usually, often, seldom, rarely, sometimes, never every day/ week/month/year/summer on Mondays/ Tuesdays, in the morning, at night, at the weekend Примеры: The classes usually start at 8.00 a.m. They go to their country house every weekend. Sometimes he comes home earlier than usual. You don’t often discuss these issues at your seminars, do you? Does he often call you during a week? Простое прошедшее время (The Past Simple Tense) Простое прошедшее время правильных глаголов образуется путем прибавления –ed смысловому глаголу. Например: She watched TV last night. Вопросы и отрицания строятся с помощью вспомогательного глагола did/did not (didn’t) и смыслового глагола без –ed. Например: Did she watch TV last night? 126 She did not didn’t watch TV last night. Правила правописания и произношения окончания правильных глаголов в простом прошедшем времени. –ed 1. К глаголам, оканчивающимся на –e прибавляется только –d. dance – danced, decide – decided, create – created. 2. В глаголах, оканчивающихся на согласную + у, опускается у и прибавляется –ied. try – tried, study – studied, fancy – fancied. 3. К глаголам, оканчивающимся на гласную + у, прибавляется – ed. stay – stayed, play – played. 4. В глаголах, оканчивающихся на ударный слог с кратким гласным между двумя согласными, конечная согласная буква удваивается и прибавляется –ed. plan – planned, refer - referred НО: open – opened. 5. В глаголах, оканчивающихся на –l, эта буква удваивается и прибавляется –ed. travel – travelled, quarrel – quarreled. 6. Окончание –ed произносится следующим образом: - /id/, если глаголы оканчиваются на звуки /t/ или /d/, posted, succeeded. - /t/, если глаголы оканчиваются на глухой согласный, cooked, touched, wished, laughed, stepped. - /d/, если глаголы оканчиваются на другие звуки, arrived, prepared, showed, robbed. Простое прошедшее время неправильных глаголов требует использования особой формы прошедшего времени данных глаголов, которая иногда называется «Вторая форма неправильных глаголов». Например: I leave. (Present Simple) – I left. (Past Simple) I go. (Present Simple) – I went. (Past Simple) Вопросы и отрицания строятся с помощью прошедшего времени вспомогательного глагола do – did/did not (didn’t) I do not/ don’t go. (Present Simple) – I did not/ didn’t go. (Past Simple) 127 Do you go? (Present Simple) – Did you go? (Past Simple) Простое прошедшее время употребляется для выражения: - действий, произошедших в прошлом в определенное указанное время, то есть нам известно, когда эти действия произошли. He finished his article three days ago. - повторяющихся в прошлом действий, которые более не происходят. В этом случае возможно использование наречий always, often, usually. She always travelled, when she was young. - действий, следовавших непосредственно одно за другим в прошлом. First she opened the windows and then watered the plants. Следующие выражения являются маркерами простого прошедшего времени: yesterday, last night/month/year/Monday, etc., two days/weeks/ months, etc. ago, then, when, How long ago…? in 1992/ 1845, etc. Примеры: She wrote her first novel in 1970. When did you last visit your parents? They borrowed some books in the library two days ago. Будущее простое время (The Future Simple Tense) Будущее простое время образуется с помощью will и инфинитива без частицы to. Will используется в качестве вспомогательного глагола для всех лиц. She will come to the office at 8.00 tomorrow. Вопросы образуются путем постановки will перед подлежащим. Например: Will she come tomorrow? В отрицаниях после will ставится частица not. Например: He will not/won’t pay the bill. Будущее простое время употребляется: - для обозначения будущих действий, которые, возможно, произойдут, а возможно, и нет: 128 He’ll become a famous writer one day. - для предсказания будущих событий (predictions): Our life will be much better fifty years from now. - для выражения угроз или предупреждений: I’ll shoot if you move. - для выражения обещаний (promises) и решений, принятых в момент речи (on-the-spot decisions): Ok, I’ll take this dress. - с глаголами hope, think, believe, expect и т.п., с выражениями I’m sure, I’m afraid и т.п., а также с наречиями probably, perhaps и т.п. I think he will find the answer. He will probably get lost in the city. Следующие выражения являются маркерами будущего простого времени: tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, next week/ month/ year, tonight, soon, in a week/ month/ year и т.д. Мы употребляем глаголы will/ shall также когда: - просим что-либо сделать для нас (request): Will you bring a chair for me, please? - предлагаем сделать что-либо для кого-то (offer) Shall I help you? - предлагаем кому-то сделать что-либо вместе (suggestion): Shall we go to the theatre tonight? Будущее простое время не употребляется в придаточных предложениях условия и времени после таких союзов как while, before, until, as soon as, after, if, when.В них, как правило, используется настоящее простое время. Но в главном предложении используется будущее простое время. I’ll call you if I need your advice. Please, phone me when you finish your work. Примеры: Perhaps, she’ll finish her work in a week. Will your parents agree to help you? No, I don’t think Mary will enter the college. Shall I make you some tea? 129 Настоящее продолженное время (The Present Progressive Tense) Настоящее продолженное время образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола to be и смыслового глагола, к которому добавляется окончание –ing (эта форма глагола называется Participle 1). They are listening to the lecturer at the moment. Who are you listening to? They are not/aren’t listening at the moment. Правила правописания Причастия 1 1. В глаголах, оканчивающихся на –e, обычно опускается –e и прибавляется –ing. dance – dancing НО: agree – agreeing 2. В глаголах, оканчивающихся на ударный слог с кратким гласным между двумя согласными, конечная согласная буква удваивается и прибавляется –ing. refer – referring run – running get – getting НО: open – opening 3. В глаголах, оканчивающихся на –l, эта буква l удваивается и прибавляется –ing. travel – travelling 4. В глаголах, оканчивающихся на –ie, опускается –ie и прибавляется –у + -ing. lie – lying, die – dying Настоящее продолженное время употребляется для выражения: - действий, происходящих в момент речи, He is reading a newspaper at the moment. - врéменных действий, происходящих в настоящий период времени, но не обязательно в момент речи, He is preparing for an exam these days. - действий, происходящих слишком часто и по поводу которых мы хотим высказать раздражение или критику (обычно с наречием always) You’re always coming late! 130 - действий, заранее запланированных на будущее. They are flying to Thai next week. Следующие выражения являются маркерами настоящего продолженного времени: now, at the moment, these days, at present, always, tonight, still и т.д. Примеры: The students are taking part in the discussion now. What is happening? – The new boat is taking off. What are you doing these days? – Are you working on your new project? – No, I’m not. I’m carrying out an experiment. Прошедшее продолженное время (The Past Progressive Tense) Прошедшее продолженное время образуется с помощью форм прошедшего времени глагола to be - was/were и смыслового глагола, к которому добавляется –ing. В вопросах was/ were ставятся перед подлежащим. В отрицаниях not следует после was/were. She was watering the roses when they came. She was not/ wasn’t working in the library at 5 o’clock yesterday. What was she doing at 5 o’clock yesterday? Прошедшее продолженное употребляется для выражения: - врéменного действия, продолжавшегося в прошлом в момент, о котором мы говорим. Мы не знаем, когда началось и когда закончилось это действие, At three o’clock yesterday afternoon the Masons were watching the tennis match. - врéменного действия, продолжавшегося в прошлом в момент, когда произошло другое действие. Для выражения второго действия мы употребляем прошедшее простое. He was writing a letter when his friend phoned. двух и более врéменных действий, одновременно продолжавшихся в прошлом. While John was speaking the classmates were taking notes. 131 - прошедшее продолженное время употребляется также для описания обстановки, на фоне которой происходили события рассказа (повествования). The sun was shining and the birds were singing. She was making her way through the deep woods. Следующие выражения являются маркерами прошедшего продолженного времени: while, when, as, all day/ night/ morning и т.д., а также when/ while/ as + past progressive (longer action) when + past simple (shorter action) Примеры: At eight o’clock yesterday morning she was sitting in the reading hall and writing an essay. As she was crossing the street she slipped and fell. Were you listening to me while I was explaining the rule? While the children were playing with the ball their mother was talking to her neighbor. Будущее продолженное время (The Future Progressive Tense) Будущее продолженное время образуется с помощью will be и смыслового глагола с окончанием –ing ( Participle 1). В вопросах глагол will выносится перед подлежащим, для образования отрицания к нему прибавляется not. They will be sleeping when you come back. Будущее продолженное время употребляется для выражения временных действий, которые будут происходить в определенный момент в будущем, как правило, эти действия незавершенные. Например: She will be cooking dinner at five o’clock today’s afternoon. Tomorrow at four a.m. they will be flying to Honolulu. Tomorrow we’ll be listening to Dr. Richard’s lecturers on American literature all day. Настоящее совершенное время (The Present Perfect Tense) 132 Настоящее совершенное время образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола have/ has и причастия прошедшего времени (Past Participle/ Participle 2). Причастие прошедшего времени правильных глаголов образуется путем добавления к глаголу окончания –ed. Например: play – played. Причастие прошедшего времени неправильных глаголов имеет особую форму. Например: go – gone. Вопросы строятся путем постановки have/has перед подлежащим. Отрицания строятся путем постановки not после вспомогательного глагола. Например: I have just read the book. Have you read the book? He has not/ hasn’t read the book yet. Настоящее совершенное время употребляется для выражения: - действий, которые произошли в прошлом в неопределенное время. Конкретное время действия не важно, важен результат, They have passed their final exams. - действий, которые начались в прошлом и все еще продолжаются в настоящем, He has worked for this company since 1990. - действий, которые завершились совсем недавно и их результаты все еще ощущаются в настоящем. They have come back today’s morning. Настоящее совершенное употребляется также со словами “today”, this morning/ afternoon” и т.д., когда обозначенное ими время в момент речи еще не истекло. Следующие выражения являются маркерами настоящего совершенного времени: for, since, already, just, always, recently, ever, how long, yet, lately, never, so far, today, this morning/ afternoon/ week/ month/ year и т.д. Примеры: I have known him for four years. She’s been a teacher since 2001. We have already eaten our lunch. I have just sent the letter to my parents. She has always wanted to become a scientist. 133 Have you ever been to the United States? How long have you lived here? Has she left yet? I haven’t talked to him for two weeks. I haven’t seen him lately. Прошедшее совершенное время (The Past Perfect Tense) Прошедшее продолженное время образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола have в форме прошедшего времени had и причастия прошедшего времени. В вопросах had ставится перед подлежащим. В отрицательных предложениях после вспомогательного глагола ставится not. She had left the house before I came. Had she left the house? She had not/ hadn’t left the house before I came. Прошедшее совершенное время употребляется: - для того, чтобы показать, что одно действие произошло раньше другого в прошлом. При этом то действие, которое произошло раньше, выражается прошедшим совершенным (Past Perfect), а случившееся позже – прошедшим простым (Past Simple). They had finished repairing the car before the owner came. - для выражения действий, которые произошли до указанного момента в прошлом, She watered all the flowers by six o’clock in the afternoon. - как эквивалент настоящего совершенного в прошлом, т.е. в повествованиях. Charlie wasn’t at home. He had gone out. Следующие выражения являются маркерами прошедшего совершенного: before, after, already, just, till/ until, when, by, by the time и т.д. Примеры: The actress gave an interview after she had won the prize. He came into the hall. Everyone had already left it. The robbers had run away when the police arrived. When Sue had packed her suitcase, she called a taxi. Будущее совершенное время (The Future Perfect Tense) 134 Будущее совершенное время образуется с помощью вспомогательных глаголов will have и причастия прошедшего времени смыслового глагола. В вопросах will выносится перед подлежащим, в отрицаниях к will прибавляется not (will not/ won’t). I will have bought all I need by Monday. Will she have arrived by Tuesday? She will not/ won’t have arrived by tomorrow evening. Будущее совершенное время употребляется для выражения действий, которые завершатся к определенному моменту в будущем, поэтому маркерами данного времени обычно служат такие выражения, как: by the time…, by tomorrow morning/ evening, by Tuesday и т.д. Страдательный залог (The Passive Voice) Страдательный залог образуется с помощью глагола to be и причастия прошедшего времени (Past Participle) смыслового глагола. be read – быть прочитанным be passed – быть сданным be decided – быть решенным Временные формы страдательного залога: Present Simple am/ is/ are + Past Participle The lectures are delivered by Professor Thomson. – Лекции читает профессор Томсон. Past Simple was/ were + Past Participle The Museum was built in 1880. – Музей был построен в 1880 году. Future Simple will be + Past Participle The office will be cleaned tomorrow morning. – Офис уберут завтра утром. Present Progressive am/ is/ are being + Past Participle The house is being renovated now. – Дом сейчас ремонтируют. Past Progressive was/ were being + Past Participle The house was being painted when they came. – Дом красили, когда они пришли. Present Perfect have/ has been + Past Participle 135 The office has not been cleaned yet. – В офисе еще не убрались. Past Perfect had been + Past Participle The children had been brought home by three o’clock. – Детей привели домой к трем часам. Мы употребляем страдательный залог, когда хотим показать, что само действие важнее, чем лицо, которое его совершает. Лицо, совершающее действие («агент» действия), вводится предлогом byи упоминается лишь тогда, когда это необходимо. Например: The printing press was invented by Johannes Gutenberg. Если же агент действия неизвестен, не важен или же он очевиден, он не упоминается. New supermarket was opened yesterday. Olive oil is made in Greece. Примеры преобразования действительного залога в страдательный She types the letters. – The letters are typed (by her). These students attend the Reading Hall every day. – The Reading Hall is attended by the students every day. They started a new epoch in the development of literature. – The new epoch in the development of literature was started. The author has just finished his new novel. – The new novel has just been finished. Такие слова, как people, one, someone/ somebody, they, he и т.п. в качестве «агента» действия в страдательном обороте обычно не употребляются. Например: Someone has broken the vase. – The vase has been broken. При преобразовании действительного оборота в страдательные личные местоимения в объектном падеже (me, him, you и т.д.) заменяются личными местоимениями в именительном падеже (I, you, he и т.д.). Например: He gave me a dollar. – I was given a dollar. Если в действительном залоге после глагола следует предлог, этот предлог употребляется непосредственно после смыслового глагола и в страдательном залоге. Например: They often speak about this author. – This author is often spoken about. 136 C глаголами, допускающими два дополнения, ask, bring, tell,send, show, teach, promise, offer, give, pay, lend и т.п. страдательный оборот может образовываться двумя способами. Например: Active: Someone brought me a new film. Passive: a) I was brought a new film. b) A new film was brought to me. Примеры: He was sent for. – За ним отправили. She is looked at. – На нее смотрят. He is laughed at. – Над ним смеются. This article is referred to. – На эту статью ссылаются. I was waited for. – Меня ждали. The child is cared for. – За этим ребенком присматривают. They are listened to. – Их слушают. 137 References 1. Нестерчук Г. В., Иванова В. М. США и американцы. – Мн.: ВШ, 1999. 2. Dooley J., Evans V. Grammarway 2. - Express Publishing, 2001. 3. Farrell M. British Life and Institutions. - Chancerel International Publishers Ltd, 2000. 4. Fiedler E., Jansen R., Norman-Risch M. America in close-up. Longman Group UK Limited, 2004. 5. Vaughan-Rees M., Bystrom P., Bateman S. In Britain. - Chancerel International Publishers Ltd, 1997. 6. Cool English. – Eclectic Publishing East Europe LLC, 2008. - #38. 7. Cool English. – Eclectic Publishing East Europe LLC, 2008. - #39. 8. Current. – London: Mary Glasgow Magazines, 2006. - #3. 9. Britannica 2007. Мультимедийная энциклопедия. 10. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. Словарь современного английского языка: в 2-х т. – М: Рус. яз., 1992. 11. http://en.wikipedia.org 12. https://www.gov.uk 13. http://www.ucheba.ru 14. http://www.merriam-webster.com 138 Медведева Елена Валерьевна, Савельева Ирина Викторовна English for Philology Students Учебное пособие Редактор З.А.Кунашева Подписано в печать 09.2012. Формат 64х84 1/16.Бумага офсетная № 1. Печать ротапринтная. Печ.л.____ Уч.-изд.л____. Тираж 100 экз. Заказ №___. ФГБОУ ВПО «Кемеровский государственный университет». 650043, Кемерово, ул. Красная,6. Отпечатано в типографии «Кузбассвузиздат». 650043, Кемерово, ул. Ермака, 7.