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Rasulov Bunyod English 2

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MIRZO ULUG`BEK NOMIDAGI
O`ZBEKISTON MILLIY UNIVERSITETI
FIZIKA FAKULTETI
F1805-guruh talabasi Rasulov Bunyodning Xorojiy til
fanidan tayyorlagan.
MUSTAQIL ISHI
Mavzu: LESSON 2
NAME: Rasulov Bunyod
Lesson 24
Speaking: Famous people of Great Britain and the USA
Reading: Sir Isaac Newton and Alchemy
Writing: Writing a summary of a text.
Grammar: Past Active and Passive
Speaking: 1. Read the text and answer the questions below.
Thomas Edison
Thomas Edison was born in 1847. He first went to school at the age of eight
and a half. But after only three months his teacher called him "stupid" and he came
home crying. From that time his mother taught him at home and he read science
books by himself. He got a job sending telegraph messages. Then he started
inventing things. At the age of 12 he had a job selling newspapers. He made money
in a clever but simple way. He checked the news stories first. When the news was
interesting he took a lot of papers; when it was boring he took only few.
In 1877 he made a "phonograph" — the first ever sound recorder. The
following year he invented the light bulb.
In 1882 New York was the first city in the world with electric lights. In 1889
he made a "kinetoscope". He also made films for his new machine. In 1903 he
made the world's longest film (It was ten minutes long!)
After more than one thousand inventions, Edison died at the age of eightyfour. In his honour they switched off the lights all over America.
Questions:
1. Thomas Edison was born in 1847, wasn't he?
Yes, he was born in 1847.
2. Why did mother teach him at home?
After his teacher called him "stupid".
3. What were his inventions?
In 1877 he made a "phonograph" — the first ever sound recorder. The
following year he invented the light bulb.
In 1882 New York was the first city in the world with electric lights. In 1889
he made a "kinetoscope". He also made films for his new machine. In 1903 he
made the world's longest film (It was ten minutes long!)
4. When did Edison die?
Edison died in 1891 at the age of eighty-four.
5. What did Americans do in his honour?
In his honour they switched off the lights all over America.
Vocabulary:
to check — проверять-tekshirmoq
phonograph — фонограф-fonograf(tovushni yozib oladigan va qayta
eshittiradigan asbob)
kinetoscope — кинескоп –kineskop(televizorning tasvir qabul qilib oladigan va
ko’rsatadigan electron-nur trubkasi)
to switch off — выключать-o’chirmoq
2. Speak about famous scholars of your sphere.
ERNEST RUTHERFORD
Ernest Rutherford went on to become one of the leading scientists of
the twentieth century. He is famous for his model of the atom and for
being the first person from Oceania to become a Nobel laureate by
winning the NOBEL prize in Chemistry in 1908. Ernest Rutherford was
born on August 30, 1871, in Nelson, New Zealand. Ernest received his
early education at Government schools and entered Nelson Collegiate
School at the age of 16. Rutherford married Mary Newton in 1900.
Rutherford’s chief recreations were golf and motoring. He died in
Cambridge, on October 19, 1937. In 1907, when Ernest Rutherford was at
the age of 36, became Professor of Physics at Manchester University.
Rutherford model of atom was instrumental in developing a coherent
base for the development of atomic physics and nuclear physics. Ernest
Rutherford remained in history with his great discoveries in physics and
we still need his scientific theories today.
Interesting facts about Rutherford:
• The dictionary of New Zealand biography: ”the world’s first
successful alchemist”.
• In the words of Einstein: “a second Newton”.
• A crater on the Moon and another on Mars have been named
after Rutherford in his honour.
• Element 104 is named Rutherfordium after him.
• Reading: 1. Read the text and do the tasks below.
Sir Isaac Newton and Alchemy
Sir Isaac Newton is most famous for the quantification of gravitational
attraction, discovering that white light is actually a mixture of immutable spectral
colours, and the formulation of calculus. However it is less well documented that
Newton spent 30 years engaged in the study of the mysterious art of alchemy, or as
it was more commonly known then, chemistry.
Only a tiny fraction of Newton’s work on alchemy has been published but
he wrote around a million words on the subject, including laboratory notes,
indexes of alchemical substances and transcripts from other sources. On his death
in 1727, Newton had over 100 manuscripts filled with alchemical material, sold
by auctioneers Sotheby as part of a larger collection in 1936. This side of Newton
was often an embarrassment to his admirers. His first biographer, John Conduitt,
like many commentators who followed, played down the role of alchemy (and
other pursuits) in Newton’s work, stating;
"When he was tired with his severer studies his only relief and amusement
was going to some other as History and Chronology or Divinity and Chemistry".
Just how important the study of alchemy was to Newton only began to be
recognised in 1947, when John Maynard Keynes, who bought much of the work
from Sotheby, declared in his essay, ‘Newton, the Man’; "Newton was not the first
of the age of reason. He was the last of the magicians".
2. Find Uzbek equivalents of the highlighted words in the text.
quantification – kattalik, miqdor
immutable – o’zgarmas, doimiy
tiny fraction – kichik ulush
indexes - indekslar
substances - moddalar
manuscripts – qo’lyozma, adimiy qo’lyozma
embarrassment – to’siq, xijolat bo’lish, dovdirash
amusement – o’yin-kulgu
3. Find examples of Past Active and Passive from the text and write them
down.
Formulas of Past Active:
𝑆 + 𝑉(𝐼𝐼) + 𝑂 + ⋯
Formulas of Past Passive:
𝑆 + 𝑤𝑎𝑠/𝑤𝑒𝑟𝑒 + 𝑉(𝐼𝐼𝐼) + 𝑂 + ⋯
4. Write a summary of a text in 100-120 words.
SUMMARY
Isaac Newton is the founder of classical physics. His discoveries are still famous
and we use them. His three laws are bases of mechanics. They are:
NEWTON’S FIRST LAW: THE LAW OF INERTIA
An object at rest or in uniform motion will remain at rest or in uniform motion
unless acted on by an external force.
NEWTON’S SECOND LAW
The word equation for Newton’s second law is: Net force is the product of mass
and acceleration.
⃗ = 𝒎𝒂
⃗
𝑭
NEWTON’S THIRD LAW
For every action force on an object (B) due to another object (A), there is a
reaction force, equal in magnitude but opposite in direction, on object A, due to
object B.
FA on B = −F B on A
Newton’s first and second laws are sufficient for explaining and predicting motion
in many situations. However, you will discover that, in some cases, you will need
Newton’s third law.
Newton had always been interested in the problems of light. Many people saw
colours of a rainbow but only Newton showed, by his experiments, that white light
consists of these colours.
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