# Уточнённая программа курса “Аддитивная комбинаторика

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```Уточнённая программа курса “Аддитивная комбинаторика”.
Лектор А.А. Глибичук
Список необходимых знаний.
&Ccedil;&agrave; &iacute;&aring;&ccedil;&iacute;&agrave;&iacute;&egrave;&aring; любого &egrave;&ccedil; &yacute;&ograve;&egrave;&otilde; &acirc;&icirc;&iuml;&eth;&icirc;&ntilde;&icirc;&acirc; &ntilde;&ograve;&agrave;&acirc;&egrave;&ograve;&ntilde;&yuml; &quot;&iacute;&aring;&oacute;&auml;.(2)&quot;
&ccedil;&agrave; &ccedil;&agrave;&divide;&frac14;&ograve;. &Ccedil;&iacute;&agrave;&iacute;&egrave;&aring; &acirc;&ntilde;&aring;&otilde; &acirc;&icirc;&iuml;&eth;&icirc;&ntilde;&icirc;&acirc; &icirc;&ouml;&aring;&iacute;&ecirc;&oacute; &oacute;&auml;&icirc;&acirc;&euml;.(3) &iacute;&aring;
&atilde;&agrave;&eth;&agrave;&iacute;&ograve;&egrave;&eth;&oacute;&thorn;&ograve;. &Ntilde;&ntilde;&ucirc;&euml;&ecirc;&egrave; &iacute;&agrave; &egrave;&ntilde;&ograve;&icirc;&divide;&iacute;&egrave;&ecirc;&egrave;, &iuml;&icirc; &ecirc;&icirc;&ograve;&icirc;&eth;&ucirc;&igrave; &igrave;&icirc;&aelig;&iacute;&icirc; &oacute;&divide;&egrave;&ograve;&uuml; &ntilde;&icirc;&icirc;&ograve;&acirc;&aring;&ograve;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&oacute;&thorn;&ugrave;&egrave;&aring; &acirc;&icirc;&iuml;&eth;&icirc;&ntilde;&ucirc;, &oacute;&ecirc;&agrave;&ccedil;&agrave;&iacute;&ucirc; &acirc; &iuml;&icirc;&euml;&iacute;&icirc;&igrave;
&ntilde;&iuml;&egrave;&ntilde;&ecirc;&aring;.
1. &Iuml;&icirc;&iacute;&yuml;&ograve;&egrave;&aring; &ntilde;&oacute;&igrave;&igrave;&ucirc; &egrave; &iuml;&eth;&icirc;&egrave;&ccedil;&acirc;&aring;&auml;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&yuml; &igrave;&iacute;&icirc;&aelig;&aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;. &Yacute;&euml;&aring;&igrave;&aring;&iacute;&ograve;&agrave;&eth;&iacute;&ucirc;&aring; &icirc;&ouml;&aring;&iacute;&ecirc;&egrave; &iacute;&agrave; &igrave;&icirc;&ugrave;&iacute;&icirc;&ntilde;&ograve;&uuml; &ntilde;&oacute;&igrave;&igrave;&ucirc; &egrave; &eth;&agrave;&ccedil;&iacute;&icirc;&ntilde;&ograve;&uuml; &auml;&acirc;&oacute;&otilde;
&igrave;&iacute;&icirc;&aelig;&aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;. &Iacute;&aring;&eth;&agrave;&acirc;&aring;&iacute;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&icirc; &ograve;&eth;&aring;&oacute;&atilde;&icirc;&euml;&uuml;&iacute;&egrave;&ecirc;&agrave; &ETH;&oacute;&aelig;&egrave;.
2. &Ocirc;&icirc;&eth;&igrave;&oacute;&euml;&egrave;&eth;&icirc;&acirc;&ecirc;&agrave; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &Iuml;&euml;&thorn;&iacute;&iacute;&aring;&ecirc;&aring;-&ETH;&oacute;&aelig;&egrave;.
3. &Iuml;&icirc;&iacute;&yuml;&ograve;&egrave;&aring; &atilde;&eth;&agrave;&ocirc;&agrave; &Iuml;&euml;&thorn;&iacute;&iacute;&aring;&ecirc;&aring;. &Icirc;&iuml;&eth;&aring;&auml;&aring;&euml;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&aring; &ecirc;&icirc;&yacute;&ocirc;&ocirc;&egrave;&ouml;&egrave;&aring;&iacute;&ograve;&agrave; &eth;&icirc;&ntilde;&ograve;&agrave; (magnication ratio) &acirc; &atilde;&eth;&agrave;&ocirc;&aring;. &Ocirc;&icirc;&eth;&igrave;&oacute;&euml;&egrave;&eth;&icirc;&acirc;&ecirc;&agrave; &igrave;&oacute;&euml;&uuml;&ograve;&egrave;&iuml;&euml;&egrave;&ecirc;&agrave;&ograve;&egrave;&acirc;&iacute;&icirc;&ntilde;&ograve;&egrave; &ecirc;&icirc;&yacute;&ocirc;&ocirc;&egrave;&ouml;&egrave;&aring;&iacute;&ograve;&agrave; &eth;&icirc;&ntilde;&ograve;&agrave;.
4. &Icirc;&iuml;&eth;&aring;&auml;&aring;&euml;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&aring; &agrave;&auml;&auml;&egrave;&ograve;&egrave;&acirc;&iacute;&icirc;&eacute; &yacute;&iacute;&aring;&eth;&atilde;&egrave;&egrave;.
5. &Ocirc;&icirc;&eth;&igrave;&oacute;&euml;&egrave;&eth;&icirc;&acirc;&ecirc;&egrave; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &Ecirc;&icirc;&oslash;&egrave;-&Auml;&agrave;&acirc;&aring;&iacute;&iuml;&icirc;&eth;&ograve;&agrave; &egrave; &Ecirc;&iacute;&aring;&ccedil;&aring;&eth;&agrave;.
6. &Icirc;&iuml;&eth;&aring;&auml;&aring;&euml;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&aring; &divide;&agrave;&ntilde;&ograve;&egrave;&divide;&iacute;&icirc;&eacute; &ntilde;&oacute;&igrave;&igrave;&ucirc; &igrave;&iacute;&icirc;&aelig;&aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;.
7. &Ocirc;&icirc;&eth;&igrave;&oacute;&euml;&egrave;&eth;&icirc;&acirc;&ecirc;&agrave; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &Aacute;&agrave;&euml;&icirc;&atilde;&agrave;-&Ntilde;&aring;&igrave;&aring;&eth;&auml;&egrave;-&Atilde;&agrave;&oacute;&yacute;&eth;&ntilde;&agrave;.
8. &Ocirc;&icirc;&eth;&igrave;&oacute;&euml;&egrave;&eth;&icirc;&acirc;&ecirc;&agrave; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &Aacute;&aring;&eth;&aring;&iacute;&auml;&agrave;.
9. &Icirc;&iuml;&eth;&aring;&auml;&aring;&euml;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&aring; 𝑈2 &iacute;&icirc;&eth;&igrave;&ucirc; &Atilde;&agrave;&oacute;&yacute;&eth;&ntilde;&agrave;.
10. &Iacute;&agrave;&divide;&agrave;&euml;&agrave; &agrave;&iacute;&agrave;&euml;&egrave;&ccedil;&agrave; &Ocirc;&oacute;&eth;&uuml;&aring;. &Iuml;&icirc;&iacute;&yuml;&ograve;&egrave;&aring; &ntilde;&acirc;&frac14;&eth;&ograve;&ecirc;&egrave; &egrave; &iuml;&icirc;&acirc;&aring;&auml;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&aring; &ntilde;&acirc;&frac14;&eth;&ograve;&ecirc;&egrave; &iuml;&icirc; &icirc;&ograve;&iacute;&icirc;&oslash;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&thorn; &ecirc; &acirc;&ccedil;&yuml;&ograve;&egrave;&thorn; &ecirc;&icirc;&yacute;&ocirc;&ocirc;&egrave;&ouml;&egrave;&aring;&iacute;&ograve;&agrave;
&Ocirc;&oacute;&eth;&uuml;&aring;. &Ograve;&icirc;&aelig;&auml;&aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&icirc; &Iuml;&agrave;&eth;&ntilde;&aring;&acirc;&agrave;&euml;&yuml;.
11. &Ocirc;&icirc;&eth;&igrave;&oacute;&euml;&egrave;&eth;&icirc;&acirc;&ecirc;&agrave; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &Iuml;&euml;&thorn;&iacute;&iacute;&aring;&ecirc;&aring;.
12. &Icirc;&iuml;&eth;&aring;&auml;&aring;&euml;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&aring; &igrave;&iacute;&icirc;&atilde;&icirc;&igrave;&aring;&eth;&iacute;&icirc;&eacute; &agrave;&eth;&egrave;&ocirc;&igrave;&aring;&ograve;&egrave;&divide;&aring;&ntilde;&ecirc;&icirc;&eacute; &iuml;&eth;&icirc;&atilde;&eth;&aring;&ntilde;&ntilde;&egrave;&egrave;. &Ocirc;&icirc;&eth;&igrave;&oacute;&euml;&egrave;&eth;&icirc;&acirc;&ecirc;&agrave; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &Ocirc;&eth;&aring;&eacute;&igrave;&agrave;&iacute;&agrave;-&ETH;&oacute;&aelig;&egrave;. &Icirc;&iuml;&eth;&aring;&auml;&aring;&euml;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&aring; &egrave;&ccedil;&icirc;&igrave;&icirc;&eth;&ocirc;&egrave;&ccedil;&igrave;&agrave; &Ocirc;&eth;&aring;&eacute;&igrave;&agrave;&iacute;&agrave;.
13. &Icirc;&iuml;&eth;&aring;&auml;&aring;&euml;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&aring; &igrave;&iacute;&icirc;&aelig;&aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&agrave; &Aacute;&icirc;&eth;&agrave;. &Ocirc;&icirc;&eth;&igrave;&oacute;&euml;&egrave;&eth;&icirc;&acirc;&ecirc;&agrave; &euml;&aring;&igrave;&igrave;&ucirc; &Aacute;&icirc;&atilde;&icirc;&euml;&thorn;&aacute;&icirc;&acirc;&agrave;.
14. &Atilde;&egrave;&iuml;&icirc;&ograve;&aring;&ccedil;&agrave; &Yacute;&eth;&auml;&frac14;&oslash;&agrave;-&Ntilde;&aring;&igrave;&aring;&eth;&aring;&auml;&egrave;. &Ocirc;&icirc;&eth;&igrave;&oacute;&euml;&egrave;&eth;&icirc;&acirc;&ecirc;&agrave; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &Yacute;&euml;&aring;&ecirc;&aring;&oslash;&agrave; &egrave; &Oslash;&icirc;&euml;&oacute;&igrave;&icirc;&oslash;&egrave;.
15. &Ocirc;&icirc;&eth;&igrave;&oacute;&euml;&egrave;&eth;&icirc;&ecirc;&agrave; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &Ntilde;&aring;&igrave;&aring;&eth;&aring;&auml;&egrave;-&Ograve;&eth;&icirc;&ograve;&ograve;&aring;&eth;&agrave;.
16. &Ocirc;&icirc;&eth;&igrave;&oacute;&euml;&egrave;&eth;&icirc;&acirc;&ecirc;&agrave; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &Ecirc;&agrave;&ouml;&agrave;-&Oslash;&aring;&iacute;&yuml;.
Список вопросов к устному опросу по курсу на &quot;тройку&quot;.
&Ntilde;&ograve;&oacute;&auml;&aring;&iacute;&ograve;, &icirc;&ograve;&acirc;&aring;&ograve;&egrave;&acirc;&oslash;&egrave;&eacute; &acirc;&aring;&eth;&iacute;&icirc; &egrave; &iuml;&icirc;&euml;&iacute;&icirc;&ntilde;&ograve;&uuml;&thorn; &iacute;&agrave; &otilde;&icirc;&ograve;&yuml; &aacute;&ucirc; &ograve;&eth;&egrave; &egrave;&ccedil; &yacute;&ograve;&egrave;&otilde; &acirc;&icirc;&iuml;&eth;&icirc;&ntilde;&icirc;&acirc; &iuml;&icirc;&euml;&oacute;&divide;&agrave;&aring;&ograve; &icirc;&ouml;&aring;&iacute;&ecirc;&oacute; &quot;&oacute;&auml;&icirc;&acirc;&euml;.(3)&quot;&ccedil;&agrave;
&ccedil;&agrave;&divide;&frac14;&ograve;. &Ccedil;&agrave; &iacute;&aring;&acirc;&aring;&eth;&iacute;&ucirc;&aring; &egrave;&euml;&egrave; &iacute;&aring;&iuml;&icirc;&euml;&iacute;&ucirc;&aring; &icirc;&ograve;&acirc;&aring;&ograve;&ucirc; &iacute;&agrave; &auml;&acirc;&agrave; &acirc;&icirc;&iuml;&eth;&icirc;&ntilde;&agrave; &egrave;&ccedil; &ntilde;&iuml;&egrave;&ntilde;&ecirc;&agrave; &ntilde;&ograve;&oacute;&auml;&aring;&iacute;&ograve; &iuml;&icirc;&euml;&oacute;&divide;&agrave;&aring;&ograve; &icirc;&ouml;&aring;&iacute;&ecirc;&oacute; &quot;&iacute;&aring;&oacute;&auml;.(2)&quot;.
&Ntilde;&ntilde;&ucirc;&euml;&ecirc;&egrave; &iacute;&agrave; &egrave;&ntilde;&ograve;&icirc;&divide;&iacute;&egrave;&ecirc;&egrave;, &iuml;&icirc; &ecirc;&icirc;&ograve;&icirc;&eth;&ucirc;&igrave; &igrave;&icirc;&aelig;&iacute;&icirc; &oacute;&divide;&egrave;&ograve;&uuml; &ntilde;&icirc;&icirc;&ograve;&acirc;&aring;&ograve;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&oacute;&thorn;&ugrave;&egrave;&aring; &acirc;&icirc;&iuml;&eth;&icirc;&ntilde;&ucirc;, &oacute;&ecirc;&agrave;&ccedil;&agrave;&iacute;&ucirc; &acirc; &iuml;&icirc;&euml;&iacute;&icirc;&igrave; &ntilde;&iuml;&egrave;&ntilde;&ecirc;&aring;.
1. &Iuml;&icirc;&iacute;&yuml;&ograve;&egrave;&aring; &ntilde;&oacute;&igrave;&igrave;&ucirc; &egrave; &iuml;&eth;&icirc;&egrave;&ccedil;&acirc;&aring;&auml;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&yuml; &igrave;&iacute;&icirc;&aelig;&aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;. &Yacute;&euml;&aring;&igrave;&aring;&iacute;&ograve;&agrave;&eth;&iacute;&ucirc;&aring; &icirc;&ouml;&aring;&iacute;&ecirc;&egrave; &iacute;&agrave; &igrave;&icirc;&ugrave;&iacute;&icirc;&ntilde;&ograve;&uuml; &ntilde;&oacute;&igrave;&igrave;&ucirc; &egrave; &eth;&agrave;&ccedil;&iacute;&icirc;&ntilde;&ograve;&uuml; &auml;&acirc;&oacute;&otilde;
&igrave;&iacute;&icirc;&aelig;&aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;. &Iacute;&aring;&eth;&agrave;&acirc;&aring;&iacute;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&icirc; &ograve;&eth;&aring;&oacute;&atilde;&icirc;&euml;&uuml;&iacute;&egrave;&ecirc;&agrave; &ETH;&oacute;&aelig;&egrave;.
2. &Otilde;&agrave;&eth;&agrave;&ecirc;&ograve;&aring;&eth;&egrave;&ntilde;&ograve;&egrave;&ecirc;&agrave; &ntilde;&euml;&oacute;&divide;&agrave;&aring;&acirc;, &ecirc;&icirc;&atilde;&auml;&agrave; &ntilde;&oacute;&igrave;&igrave;&agrave; &igrave;&iacute;&icirc;&aelig;&aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc; &igrave;&egrave;&iacute;&egrave;&igrave;&agrave;&euml;&uuml;&iacute;&agrave; &egrave; &igrave;&agrave;&ecirc;&ntilde;&egrave;&igrave;&agrave;&euml;&uuml;&iacute;&agrave;.
3. &Yacute;&euml;&aring;&igrave;&aring;&iacute;&ograve;&agrave;&eth;&iacute;&icirc;&aring; &auml;&icirc;&ecirc;&agrave;&ccedil;&agrave;&ograve;&aring;&euml;&uuml;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&icirc; &divide;&agrave;&ntilde;&ograve;&iacute;&icirc;&atilde;&icirc; &ntilde;&euml;&oacute;&divide;&agrave;&yuml; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &Iuml;&euml;&thorn;&iacute;&iacute;&aring;&ecirc;&aring;-&ETH;&oacute;&aelig;&egrave; &auml;&euml;&yuml; &icirc;&auml;&egrave;&iacute;&agrave;&ecirc;&icirc;&acirc;&ucirc;&otilde; &iuml;&icirc;&auml;&igrave;&iacute;&icirc;&aelig;&aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;.
4. &Iuml;&icirc;&iacute;&yuml;&ograve;&egrave;&aring; &atilde;&eth;&agrave;&ocirc;&agrave; &Iuml;&euml;&thorn;&iacute;&iacute;&aring;&ecirc;&aring;. &Icirc;&iuml;&eth;&aring;&auml;&aring;&euml;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&aring; &ecirc;&icirc;&yacute;&ocirc;&ocirc;&egrave;&ouml;&egrave;&aring;&iacute;&ograve;&agrave; &eth;&icirc;&ntilde;&ograve;&agrave; (magnication ratio) &acirc; &atilde;&eth;&agrave;&ocirc;&aring;. &Iuml;&eth;&egrave;&igrave;&aring;&eth;&ucirc;
&atilde;&eth;&agrave;&ocirc;&icirc;&acirc; &Iuml;&euml;&thorn;&iacute;&iacute;&aring;&ecirc;&aring;.
5. &Igrave;&oacute;&euml;&uuml;&ograve;&egrave;&iuml;&euml;&egrave;&ecirc;&agrave;&ograve;&egrave;&acirc;&iacute;&icirc;&ntilde;&ograve;&uuml; &ecirc;&icirc;&yacute;&ocirc;&ocirc;&egrave;&ouml;&egrave;&aring;&iacute;&ograve;&agrave; &eth;&icirc;&ntilde;&ograve;&agrave; &acirc; &iuml;&eth;&icirc;&egrave;&ccedil;&acirc;&icirc;&euml;&uuml;&iacute;&icirc;&igrave; ℎ-&oacute;&eth;&icirc;&acirc;&iacute;&aring;&acirc;&icirc;&igrave; &atilde;&eth;&agrave;&ocirc;&aring;. &Auml;&icirc;&ecirc;&agrave;&ccedil;&agrave;&ograve;&aring;&euml;&uuml;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&icirc; &acirc; &iuml;&eth;&icirc;&ntilde;&ograve;&oacute;&thorn; &ntilde;&ograve;&icirc;&eth;&icirc;&iacute;&oacute;.
6. &Icirc;&ouml;&aring;&iacute;&ecirc;&egrave; &iacute;&agrave; &acirc;&otilde;&icirc;&auml;&yuml;&ugrave;&egrave;&aring;/&egrave;&ntilde;&otilde;&icirc;&auml;&yuml;&ugrave;&egrave;&aring; &ntilde;&ograve;&aring;&iuml;&aring;&iacute;&egrave; &acirc;&aring;&eth;&oslash;&egrave;&iacute; &acirc; &atilde;&eth;&agrave;&ocirc;&aring; &Iuml;&euml;&thorn;&iacute;&iacute;&aring;&ecirc;&aring;.
7. &Ocirc;&icirc;&eth;&igrave;&oacute;&euml;&egrave;&eth;&icirc;&acirc;&ecirc;&agrave; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &Iuml;&euml;&thorn;&iacute;&iacute;&aring;&ecirc;&aring;. &Ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&agrave; &Iuml;&euml;&thorn;&iacute;&iacute;&aring;&ecirc;&aring;-&ETH;&oacute;&aelig;&egrave; &auml;&euml;&yuml; &ecirc;&eth;&agrave;&ograve;&iacute;&icirc;&eacute; &ntilde;&oacute;&igrave;&igrave;&ucirc;/&eth;&agrave;&ccedil;&iacute;&icirc;&ntilde;&ograve;&egrave; &igrave;&iacute;&icirc;&aelig;&aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&agrave;.
&Acirc;&ucirc;&acirc;&icirc;&auml; &oacute;&ecirc;&agrave;&ccedil;&agrave;&iacute;&iacute;&ucirc;&otilde; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave; &egrave;&ccedil; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &Iuml;&euml;&thorn;&iacute;&iacute;&aring;&ecirc;&aring;.
8. 𝑒-&iuml;&eth;&aring;&icirc;&aacute;&eth;&agrave;&ccedil;&icirc;&acirc;&agrave;&iacute;&egrave;&yuml; &igrave;&iacute;&icirc;&aelig;&aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;. &Ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&agrave; &Ecirc;&icirc;&oslash;&egrave;-&Auml;&agrave;&acirc;&aring;&iacute;&iuml;&icirc;&eth;&ograve;&agrave;.
9. &Agrave;&auml;&auml;&egrave;&ograve;&egrave;&acirc;&iacute;&agrave;&yuml; &yacute;&iacute;&aring;&eth;&atilde;&egrave;&yuml;. &Iacute;&aring;&eth;&agrave;&acirc;&aring;&iacute;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&agrave; &iacute;&agrave; &agrave;&auml;&auml;&egrave;&ograve;&egrave;&acirc;&iacute;&oacute;&thorn; &yacute;&iacute;&aring;&eth;&atilde;&egrave;&thorn;. &Auml;&icirc;&ecirc;&agrave;&ccedil;&agrave;&ograve;&aring;&euml;&uuml;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&icirc; &ograve;&icirc;&atilde;&icirc;, &divide;&ograve;&icirc; &igrave;&iacute;&icirc;&aelig;&aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&agrave; &ntilde; &igrave;&agrave;&euml;&aring;&iacute;&uuml;&ecirc;&icirc;&eacute; &ntilde;&oacute;&igrave;&igrave;&icirc;&eacute; &egrave;&igrave;&aring;&thorn;&ograve; &aacute;&icirc;&euml;&uuml;&oslash;&oacute;&thorn; &agrave;&auml;&auml;&egrave;&ograve;&egrave;&acirc;&iacute;&oacute;&thorn; &yacute;&iacute;&aring;&eth;&atilde;&egrave;&thorn;.
10. &Iuml;&icirc;&iacute;&yuml;&ograve;&egrave;&aring; &divide;&agrave;&ntilde;&ograve;&egrave;&divide;&iacute;&icirc;&eacute; &ntilde;&oacute;&igrave;&igrave;&ucirc; &igrave;&iacute;&icirc;&aelig;&aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;. &Auml;&icirc;&ecirc;&agrave;&ccedil;&agrave;&ograve;&aring;&euml;&uuml;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&icirc; &euml;&aring;&igrave;&igrave;&ucirc; &icirc; &ograve;&icirc;&igrave;, &divide;&ograve;&icirc; &oacute; &igrave;&iacute;&icirc;&aelig;&aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc; &ntilde; &aacute;&icirc;&euml;&uuml;&oslash;&icirc;&eacute; &agrave;&auml;&auml;&egrave;&ograve;&egrave;&acirc;&iacute;&icirc;&eacute; &yacute;&iacute;&aring;&eth;&atilde;&egrave;&aring;&eacute; &aacute;&oacute;&auml;&aring;&ograve; &igrave;&agrave;&euml;&agrave; &divide;&agrave;&ntilde;&ograve;&egrave;&divide;&iacute;&agrave;&yuml; &ntilde;&oacute;&igrave;&igrave;&agrave; &iuml;&icirc; &atilde;&oacute;&ntilde;&ograve;&icirc;&eacute; &ntilde;&aring;&ograve;&ecirc;&aring;. &Ocirc;&icirc;&eth;&igrave;&oacute;&euml;&egrave;&eth;&icirc;&acirc;&ecirc;&agrave; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &Aacute;&agrave;&euml;&icirc;&atilde;&agrave;-&Ntilde;&aring;&igrave;&aring;&eth;&aring;&auml;&egrave;&Atilde;&agrave;&oacute;&yacute;&eth;&ntilde;&agrave;.
11. &Ocirc;&icirc;&eth;&igrave;&oacute;&euml;&egrave;&eth;&icirc;&acirc;&ecirc;&agrave; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &ETH;&icirc;&ograve;&agrave;. &Ocirc;&icirc;&eth;&igrave;&oacute;&euml;&egrave;&eth;&icirc;&acirc;&ecirc;&agrave; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &icirc;&aacute; &eth;&icirc;&ntilde;&ograve;&aring; &iuml;&euml;&icirc;&ograve;&iacute;&icirc;&ntilde;&ograve;&egrave; &acirc; &agrave;&eth;&egrave;&ocirc;&igrave;&aring;&ograve;&egrave;&divide;&aring;&ntilde;&ecirc;&icirc;&eacute; &iuml;&icirc;&auml;&iuml;&eth;&icirc;&atilde;&eth;&aring;&ntilde;&ntilde;&egrave;&egrave; &iuml;&eth;&egrave; &igrave;&agrave;&euml;&icirc;&igrave; &ecirc;&icirc;&euml;&egrave;&divide;&aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&aring; &iuml;&eth;&icirc;&atilde;&eth;&aring;&ntilde;&ntilde;&egrave;&eacute; &auml;&euml;&egrave;&iacute;&ucirc; 3. &Acirc;&ucirc;&acirc;&icirc;&auml; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &ETH;&icirc;&ograve;&agrave; &egrave;&ccedil; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &icirc; &eth;&icirc;&ntilde;&ograve;&aring; &iuml;&euml;&icirc;&ograve;&iacute;&icirc;&ntilde;&ograve;&egrave;.
12. &Ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&agrave; &Aacute;&aring;&eth;&aring;&iacute;&auml;&agrave; - &ocirc;&icirc;&eth;&igrave;&oacute;&euml;&egrave;&eth;&icirc;&acirc;&ecirc;&agrave; &egrave; &auml;&icirc;&ecirc;&agrave;&ccedil;&agrave;&ograve;&aring;&euml;&uuml;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&icirc;.
13. &Iacute;&agrave;&divide;&agrave;&euml;&agrave; &agrave;&iacute;&agrave;&euml;&egrave;&ccedil;&agrave; &Ocirc;&oacute;&eth;&uuml;&aring;. &Iuml;&icirc;&iacute;&yuml;&ograve;&egrave;&aring; &ntilde;&acirc;&frac14;&eth;&ograve;&ecirc;&egrave; &egrave; &iuml;&icirc;&acirc;&aring;&auml;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&aring; &ntilde;&acirc;&frac14;&eth;&ograve;&ecirc;&egrave; &iuml;&icirc; &icirc;&ograve;&iacute;&icirc;&oslash;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&thorn; &ecirc; &acirc;&ccedil;&yuml;&ograve;&egrave;&thorn; &ecirc;&icirc;&yacute;&ocirc;&ocirc;&egrave;&ouml;&egrave;&aring;&iacute;&ograve;&agrave;
&Ocirc;&oacute;&eth;&uuml;&aring;. &Ograve;&icirc;&aelig;&auml;&aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&icirc; &Iuml;&agrave;&eth;&ntilde;&aring;&acirc;&agrave;&euml;&yuml;.
14. &Acirc;&ucirc;&eth;&agrave;&aelig;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&aring; &ccedil;&iacute;&agrave;&divide;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&yuml; 𝑈2 &iacute;&icirc;&eth;&igrave;&ucirc; &Atilde;&agrave;&oacute;&yacute;&eth;&ntilde;&agrave; &ocirc;&oacute;&iacute;&ecirc;&ouml;&egrave;&egrave; &divide;&aring;&eth;&aring;&ccedil; &ccedil;&iacute;&agrave;&divide;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&yuml; &ecirc;&icirc;&yacute;&ocirc;&ocirc;&egrave;&ouml;&egrave;&aring;&iacute;&ograve;&icirc;&acirc; &Ocirc;&oacute;&eth;&uuml;&aring; &yacute;&ograve;&icirc;&eacute; &ocirc;&oacute;&iacute;&ecirc;&ouml;&egrave;&egrave;.
15. &Ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&agrave; &ETH;&oacute;&aelig;&egrave; - &agrave;&iacute;&agrave;&euml;&icirc;&atilde; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &Ocirc;&eth;&aring;&eacute;&igrave;&agrave;&iacute;&agrave;-&ETH;&oacute;&aelig;&egrave; &auml;&euml;&yuml; &atilde;&eth;&oacute;&iuml;&iuml;&ucirc; F∞
2 .
16. &Icirc;&iuml;&eth;&aring;&auml;&aring;&euml;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&aring; &igrave;&iacute;&icirc;&atilde;&icirc;&igrave;&aring;&eth;&iacute;&icirc;&eacute; &agrave;&eth;&egrave;&ocirc;&igrave;&aring;&ograve;&egrave;&divide;&aring;&ntilde;&ecirc;&icirc;&eacute; &iuml;&eth;&icirc;&atilde;&eth;&aring;&ntilde;&ntilde;&egrave;&egrave;. &Ocirc;&icirc;&eth;&igrave;&oacute;&euml;&egrave;&eth;&icirc;&acirc;&ecirc;&agrave; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &Ocirc;&eth;&aring;&eacute;&igrave;&agrave;&iacute;&agrave;-&ETH;&oacute;&aelig;&egrave;. &Icirc;&iuml;&eth;&aring;&auml;&aring;&euml;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&aring; &egrave;&ccedil;&icirc;&igrave;&icirc;&eth;&ocirc;&egrave;&ccedil;&igrave;&agrave; &Ocirc;&eth;&aring;&eacute;&igrave;&agrave;&iacute;&agrave;.
17. &Atilde;&egrave;&iuml;&icirc;&ograve;&aring;&ccedil;&agrave; &Yacute;&eth;&auml;&frac14;&oslash;&agrave;-&Ntilde;&aring;&igrave;&aring;&eth;&aring;&auml;&egrave;. &Ocirc;&icirc;&eth;&igrave;&oacute;&euml;&egrave;&eth;&icirc;&acirc;&ecirc;&agrave; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &Yacute;&euml;&aring;&ecirc;&aring;&oslash;&agrave; &egrave; &Oslash;&icirc;&euml;&oacute;&igrave;&icirc;&oslash;&egrave;. &Icirc;&iuml;&eth;&aring;&auml;&aring;&euml;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&aring; &divide;&egrave;&ntilde;&euml;&agrave; &ntilde;&ecirc;&eth;&aring;&ugrave;&egrave;&acirc;&agrave;&iacute;&egrave;&eacute; &atilde;&eth;&agrave;&ocirc;&agrave;. &Iacute;&egrave;&aelig;&iacute;&yuml;&yuml; &icirc;&ouml;&aring;&iacute;&ecirc;&agrave; &iacute;&agrave; &divide;&egrave;&ntilde;&euml;&icirc; &ntilde;&ecirc;&eth;&aring;&ugrave;&egrave;&acirc;&agrave;&iacute;&egrave;&eacute;.
18. &Ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&agrave; &Ntilde;&aring;&igrave;&aring;&eth;&aring;&auml;&egrave;-&Ograve;&eth;&icirc;&ograve;&ograve;&aring;&eth;&agrave;.
19. &Auml;&icirc;&ecirc;&agrave;&ccedil;&agrave;&ograve;&aring;&euml;&uuml;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&icirc; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &Yacute;&euml;&aring;&ecirc;&aring;&oslash;&agrave;.
Полный список вопросов к устному опросу по курсу.
1. &Iuml;&icirc;&iacute;&yuml;&ograve;&egrave;&aring; &ntilde;&oacute;&igrave;&igrave;&ucirc; &egrave; &iuml;&eth;&icirc;&egrave;&ccedil;&acirc;&aring;&auml;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&yuml; &igrave;&iacute;&icirc;&aelig;&aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;. &Yacute;&euml;&aring;&igrave;&aring;&iacute;&ograve;&agrave;&eth;&iacute;&ucirc;&aring; &icirc;&ouml;&aring;&iacute;&ecirc;&egrave; &iacute;&agrave; &igrave;&icirc;&ugrave;&iacute;&icirc;&ntilde;&ograve;&uuml; &ntilde;&oacute;&igrave;&igrave;&ucirc; &egrave; &eth;&agrave;&ccedil;&iacute;&icirc;&ntilde;&ograve;&uuml; &auml;&acirc;&oacute;&otilde;
&igrave;&iacute;&icirc;&aelig;&aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;. &Iacute;&aring;&eth;&agrave;&acirc;&aring;&iacute;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&icirc; &ograve;&eth;&aring;&oacute;&atilde;&icirc;&euml;&uuml;&iacute;&egrave;&ecirc;&agrave; &ETH;&oacute;&aelig;&egrave;. (2.1 &ecirc;&iacute;&egrave;&atilde;&egrave; [3])
2. &Otilde;&agrave;&eth;&agrave;&ecirc;&ograve;&aring;&eth;&egrave;&ntilde;&ograve;&egrave;&ecirc;&agrave; &ntilde;&euml;&oacute;&divide;&agrave;&aring;&acirc;, &ecirc;&icirc;&atilde;&auml;&agrave; &ntilde;&oacute;&igrave;&igrave;&agrave; &igrave;&iacute;&icirc;&aelig;&aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc; &igrave;&egrave;&iacute;&egrave;&igrave;&agrave;&euml;&uuml;&iacute;&agrave; &egrave; &igrave;&agrave;&ecirc;&ntilde;&egrave;&igrave;&agrave;&euml;&uuml;&iacute;&agrave;. (2.1 &ecirc;&iacute;&egrave;&atilde;&egrave; [3]).
3. &Yacute;&euml;&aring;&igrave;&aring;&iacute;&ograve;&agrave;&eth;&iacute;&icirc;&aring; &auml;&icirc;&ecirc;&agrave;&ccedil;&agrave;&ograve;&aring;&euml;&uuml;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&icirc; &divide;&agrave;&ntilde;&ograve;&iacute;&icirc;&atilde;&icirc; &ntilde;&euml;&oacute;&divide;&agrave;&yuml; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &Iuml;&euml;&thorn;&iacute;&iacute;&aring;&ecirc;&aring;-&ETH;&oacute;&aelig;&egrave; &auml;&euml;&yuml; &icirc;&auml;&egrave;&iacute;&agrave;&ecirc;&icirc;&acirc;&ucirc;&otilde; &iuml;&icirc;&auml;&igrave;&iacute;&icirc;&aelig;&aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;
(&ntilde;&ograve;&agrave;&ograve;&uuml;&yuml; &Iuml;&aring;&ograve;&eth;&egrave;&auml;&egrave;&ntilde;&agrave;, [2]).
4. &Iuml;&icirc;&iacute;&yuml;&ograve;&egrave;&aring; &atilde;&eth;&agrave;&ocirc;&agrave; &Iuml;&euml;&thorn;&iacute;&iacute;&aring;&ecirc;&aring;. &Icirc;&iuml;&eth;&aring;&auml;&aring;&euml;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&aring; &ecirc;&icirc;&yacute;&ocirc;&ocirc;&egrave;&ouml;&egrave;&aring;&iacute;&ograve;&agrave; &eth;&icirc;&ntilde;&ograve;&agrave; (magnication ratio) &acirc; &atilde;&eth;&agrave;&ocirc;&aring;. &Iuml;&eth;&egrave;&igrave;&aring;&eth;&ucirc;
&atilde;&eth;&agrave;&ocirc;&icirc;&acirc; &Iuml;&euml;&thorn;&iacute;&iacute;&aring;&ecirc;&aring;. (7.1-7.2 &ecirc;&iacute;&egrave;&atilde;&egrave; [1]).
5. &Igrave;&oacute;&euml;&uuml;&ograve;&egrave;&iuml;&euml;&egrave;&ecirc;&agrave;&ograve;&egrave;&acirc;&iacute;&icirc;&ntilde;&ograve;&uuml; &ecirc;&icirc;&yacute;&ocirc;&ocirc;&egrave;&ouml;&egrave;&aring;&iacute;&ograve;&agrave; &eth;&icirc;&ntilde;&ograve;&agrave; &acirc; &iuml;&eth;&icirc;&egrave;&ccedil;&acirc;&icirc;&euml;&uuml;&iacute;&icirc;&igrave; ℎ-&oacute;&eth;&icirc;&acirc;&iacute;&aring;&acirc;&icirc;&igrave; &atilde;&eth;&agrave;&ocirc;&aring;. (7.3 &ecirc;&iacute;&egrave;&atilde;&egrave; [1]).
6. &Ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&agrave; &Igrave;&aring;&iacute;&atilde;&aring;&eth;&agrave; (&aacute;/&auml;). &Icirc;&ouml;&aring;&iacute;&ecirc;&egrave; &iacute;&agrave; &acirc;&otilde;&icirc;&auml;&yuml;&ugrave;&egrave;&aring;/&egrave;&ntilde;&otilde;&icirc;&auml;&yuml;&ugrave;&egrave;&aring; &ntilde;&ograve;&aring;&iuml;&aring;&iacute;&egrave; &acirc;&aring;&eth;&oslash;&egrave;&iacute; &acirc; &atilde;&eth;&agrave;&ocirc;&aring; &Iuml;&euml;&thorn;&iacute;&iacute;&aring;&ecirc;&aring;. &Oacute;&ograve;&acirc;&aring;&eth;&aelig;&auml;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&aring; &icirc; &divide;&egrave;&ntilde;&euml;&aring; &iuml;&icirc;&iuml;&agrave;&eth;&iacute;&icirc; &iacute;&aring;&iuml;&aring;&eth;&aring;&ntilde;&aring;&ecirc;&agrave;&thorn;&ugrave;&egrave;&otilde;&ntilde;&yuml; &iuml;&oacute;&ograve;&aring;&eacute; &acirc; ℎ-&oacute;&eth;&icirc;&acirc;&iacute;&aring;&acirc;&icirc;&igrave; &atilde;&eth;&agrave;&ocirc;&aring; &Iuml;&euml;&thorn;&iacute;&iacute;&aring;&ecirc;&aring; &ntilde; 𝐷ℎ &gt; 1. &Auml;&icirc;&ecirc;&agrave;&ccedil;&agrave;&ograve;&aring;&euml;&uuml;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&icirc;
&ograve;&icirc;&atilde;&icirc;, &divide;&ograve;&icirc; 𝐷𝑖 &gt; 1 &auml;&euml;&yuml; &euml;&thorn;&aacute;&icirc;&atilde;&icirc; 𝑖 = 1, 2, . . . , ℎ, &aring;&ntilde;&euml;&egrave; &acirc; ℎ-&oacute;&eth;&icirc;&acirc;&iacute;&aring;&acirc;&icirc;&igrave; &atilde;&eth;&agrave;&ocirc;&aring; &Iuml;&euml;&thorn;&iacute;&iacute;&aring;&ecirc;&aring; 𝐷ℎ &gt; 1. (7.4, &agrave; &ograve;&agrave;&ecirc;&aelig;&aring;
&euml;&aring;&igrave;&igrave;&ucirc; 7.1,7.2,7.3 7.5 &ecirc;&iacute;&egrave;&atilde;&egrave; [1]).
7. &Auml;&icirc;&ecirc;&agrave;&ccedil;&agrave;&ograve;&aring;&euml;&uuml;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&icirc; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &Iuml;&euml;&thorn;&iacute;&iacute;&aring;&ecirc;&aring; &aacute;&aring;&ccedil; &acirc;&ntilde;&iuml;&icirc;&igrave;&icirc;&atilde;&agrave;&ograve;&aring;&euml;&uuml;&iacute;&ucirc;&otilde; &oacute;&ograve;&acirc;&aring;&eth;&aelig;&auml;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&eacute;. &Ntilde;&euml;&aring;&auml;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&egrave;&yuml; &egrave;&ccedil; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &Iuml;&euml;&thorn;&iacute;&iacute;&aring;&ecirc;&aring;. &Ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&agrave; &Iuml;&euml;&thorn;&iacute;&iacute;&aring;&ecirc;&aring;-&ETH;&oacute;&aelig;&egrave; &auml;&euml;&yuml; &ecirc;&eth;&agrave;&ograve;&iacute;&icirc;&eacute; &ntilde;&oacute;&igrave;&igrave;&ucirc;/&eth;&agrave;&ccedil;&iacute;&icirc;&ntilde;&ograve;&egrave; &igrave;&iacute;&icirc;&aelig;&aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&agrave;. (&Ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&agrave; 7.4 7.5, &agrave; &ograve;&agrave;&ecirc;&aelig;&aring;
7.6 &ecirc;&iacute;&egrave;&atilde;&egrave; [1]).
8. &Acirc;&ucirc;&acirc;&icirc;&auml; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &Iuml;&euml;&thorn;&iacute;&iacute;&aring;&ecirc;&aring;-&ETH;&oacute;&aelig;&egrave; &acirc; &iacute;&agrave;&egrave;&aacute;&icirc;&euml;&aring;&aring; &icirc;&aacute;&ugrave;&aring;&eacute; &iuml;&icirc;&ntilde;&ograve;&agrave;&iacute;&icirc;&acirc;&ecirc;&aring;. (&Igrave;&icirc;&egrave; &ccedil;&agrave;&igrave;&aring;&ograve;&ecirc;&egrave;, &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; 2 &egrave; 3).
9. 𝑒-&iuml;&eth;&aring;&icirc;&aacute;&eth;&agrave;&ccedil;&icirc;&acirc;&agrave;&iacute;&egrave;&yuml; &igrave;&iacute;&icirc;&aelig;&aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;. &Ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&agrave; &Ecirc;&icirc;&oslash;&egrave;-&Auml;&agrave;&acirc;&aring;&iacute;&iuml;&icirc;&eth;&ograve;&agrave;. &Ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&agrave; &Ecirc;&iacute;&aring;&ccedil;&aring;&eth;&agrave;. (5.1 &egrave;&ccedil; &ecirc;&iacute;&egrave;&atilde;&egrave; [3]).
10. &Agrave;&auml;&auml;&egrave;&ograve;&egrave;&acirc;&iacute;&agrave;&yuml; &yacute;&iacute;&aring;&eth;&atilde;&egrave;&yuml;. &Iacute;&aring;&eth;&agrave;&acirc;&aring;&iacute;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&agrave; &iacute;&agrave; &agrave;&auml;&auml;&egrave;&ograve;&egrave;&acirc;&iacute;&oacute;&thorn; &yacute;&iacute;&aring;&eth;&atilde;&egrave;&thorn;. &Auml;&icirc;&ecirc;&agrave;&ccedil;&agrave;&ograve;&aring;&euml;&uuml;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&icirc; &ograve;&icirc;&atilde;&icirc;, &divide;&ograve;&icirc; &igrave;&iacute;&icirc;&aelig;&aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&agrave; &ntilde; &igrave;&agrave;&euml;&aring;&iacute;&uuml;&ecirc;&icirc;&eacute; &ntilde;&oacute;&igrave;&igrave;&icirc;&eacute; &egrave;&igrave;&aring;&thorn;&ograve; &aacute;&icirc;&euml;&uuml;&oslash;&oacute;&thorn; &agrave;&auml;&auml;&egrave;&ograve;&egrave;&acirc;&iacute;&oacute;&thorn; &yacute;&iacute;&aring;&eth;&atilde;&egrave;&thorn;. (2.5 &egrave;&ccedil; &ecirc;&iacute;&egrave;&atilde;&egrave; [3]).
11. &Iuml;&eth;&egrave;&igrave;&aring;&eth;, &iuml;&icirc;&ecirc;&agrave;&ccedil;&ucirc;&acirc;&agrave;&thorn;&ugrave;&egrave;&eacute;, &divide;&ograve;&icirc; &aacute;&icirc;&euml;&uuml;&oslash;&agrave;&yuml; &agrave;&auml;&auml;&egrave;&ograve;&egrave;&acirc;&iacute;&agrave;&yuml; &yacute;&iacute;&aring;&eth;&atilde;&egrave;&yuml; &iacute;&aring; &icirc;&aacute;&yuml;&ccedil;&agrave;&ograve;&aring;&euml;&uuml;&iacute;&icirc; &icirc;&ccedil;&iacute;&agrave;&divide;&agrave;&aring;&ograve;, &divide;&ograve;&icirc; &ntilde;&oacute;&igrave;&igrave;&agrave; &igrave;&iacute;&icirc;&aelig;&aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc; &igrave;&agrave;&euml;&agrave;.(&ntilde;&igrave;. &ccedil;&agrave;&auml;&agrave;&divide;&oacute; 3 &auml;&icirc;&igrave;&agrave;&oslash;&iacute;&aring;&atilde;&icirc; &ccedil;&agrave;&auml;&agrave;&iacute;&egrave;&yuml; 2).
12. &Iuml;&icirc;&iacute;&yuml;&ograve;&egrave;&aring; &divide;&agrave;&ntilde;&ograve;&egrave;&divide;&iacute;&icirc;&eacute; &ntilde;&oacute;&igrave;&igrave;&ucirc; &igrave;&iacute;&icirc;&aelig;&aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;. &Auml;&icirc;&ecirc;&agrave;&ccedil;&agrave;&ograve;&aring;&euml;&uuml;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&icirc; &euml;&aring;&igrave;&igrave;&ucirc; &icirc; &ograve;&icirc;&igrave;, &divide;&ograve;&icirc; &oacute; &igrave;&iacute;&icirc;&aelig;&aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc; &ntilde; &aacute;&icirc;&euml;&uuml;&oslash;&icirc;&eacute; &agrave;&auml;&auml;&egrave;&ograve;&egrave;&acirc;&iacute;&icirc;&eacute; &yacute;&iacute;&aring;&eth;&atilde;&egrave;&aring;&eacute; &aacute;&oacute;&auml;&aring;&ograve; &igrave;&agrave;&euml;&agrave; &divide;&agrave;&ntilde;&ograve;&egrave;&divide;&iacute;&agrave;&yuml; &ntilde;&oacute;&igrave;&igrave;&agrave; &iuml;&icirc; &atilde;&oacute;&ntilde;&ograve;&icirc;&eacute; &ntilde;&aring;&ograve;&ecirc;&aring;. &Ocirc;&icirc;&eth;&igrave;&oacute;&euml;&egrave;&eth;&icirc;&acirc;&ecirc;&agrave; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &Aacute;&agrave;&euml;&icirc;&atilde;&agrave;-&Ntilde;&aring;&igrave;&aring;&eth;&aring;&auml;&egrave;&Atilde;&agrave;&oacute;&yacute;&eth;&ntilde;&agrave;. (2.5 &egrave;&ccedil; &ecirc;&iacute;&egrave;&atilde;&egrave; [3]).
13. &Euml;&aring;&igrave;&igrave;&agrave; &icirc; &divide;&egrave;&ntilde;&euml;&aring; &iuml;&oacute;&ograve;&aring;&eacute; &auml;&euml;&egrave;&iacute;&ucirc; 2 &acirc; &auml;&acirc;&oacute;&auml;&icirc;&euml;&uuml;&iacute;&icirc;&igrave; &atilde;&eth;&agrave;&ocirc;&aring; &ntilde; &aacute;&icirc;&euml;&uuml;&oslash;&egrave;&igrave; &divide;&egrave;&ntilde;&euml;&icirc;&igrave; &eth;&frac14;&aacute;&aring;&eth;. (&euml;&aring;&igrave;&igrave;&agrave; 2.5 &ntilde;&ograve;&agrave;&ograve;&uuml;&egrave; [4],
&euml;&aring;&igrave;&igrave;&agrave; 6.18 6.4 &egrave;&ccedil; &ecirc;&iacute;&egrave;&atilde;&egrave; [3]).
14. &Euml;&aring;&igrave;&igrave;&agrave; &icirc; &divide;&egrave;&ntilde;&euml;&aring; &iuml;&oacute;&ograve;&aring;&eacute; &auml;&euml;&egrave;&iacute;&ucirc; 3 &acirc; &auml;&acirc;&oacute;&auml;&icirc;&euml;&uuml;&iacute;&icirc;&igrave; &atilde;&eth;&agrave;&ocirc;&aring; &ntilde; &aacute;&icirc;&euml;&uuml;&oslash;&egrave;&igrave; &divide;&egrave;&ntilde;&euml;&icirc;&igrave; &eth;&frac14;&aacute;&aring;&eth;. (2.4 &ntilde;&ograve;&agrave;&ograve;&uuml;&egrave; [4], &ntilde;&euml;&aring;&auml;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&egrave;&aring;
6.19 6.4 &egrave;&ccedil; &ecirc;&iacute;&egrave;&atilde;&egrave; [3]).
15. &Auml;&icirc;&ecirc;&agrave;&ccedil;&agrave;&ograve;&aring;&euml;&uuml;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&icirc; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &Aacute;&agrave;&euml;&icirc;&atilde;&agrave;-&Ntilde;&aring;&igrave;&aring;&eth;&aring;&auml;&egrave;-&Atilde;&agrave;&oacute;&yacute;&eth;&ntilde;&agrave;. (6.4 &egrave;&ccedil; &ecirc;&iacute;&egrave;&atilde;&egrave; [3]).
16. &Ocirc;&icirc;&eth;&igrave;&oacute;&euml;&egrave;&eth;&icirc;&acirc;&ecirc;&agrave; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &ETH;&icirc;&ograve;&agrave;. &Ocirc;&icirc;&eth;&igrave;&oacute;&euml;&egrave;&eth;&icirc;&acirc;&ecirc;&agrave; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &icirc;&aacute; &eth;&icirc;&ntilde;&ograve;&aring; &iuml;&euml;&icirc;&ograve;&iacute;&icirc;&ntilde;&ograve;&egrave; &acirc; &agrave;&eth;&egrave;&ocirc;&igrave;&aring;&ograve;&egrave;&divide;&aring;&ntilde;&ecirc;&icirc;&eacute; &iuml;&icirc;&auml;&iuml;&eth;&icirc;&atilde;&eth;&aring;&ntilde;&ntilde;&egrave;&egrave; &iuml;&eth;&egrave; &igrave;&agrave;&euml;&icirc;&igrave; &ecirc;&icirc;&euml;&egrave;&divide;&aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&aring; &iuml;&eth;&icirc;&atilde;&eth;&aring;&ntilde;&ntilde;&egrave;&eacute; &auml;&euml;&egrave;&iacute;&ucirc; 3. &Acirc;&ucirc;&acirc;&icirc;&auml; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &ETH;&icirc;&ograve;&agrave; &egrave;&ccedil; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &icirc; &eth;&icirc;&ntilde;&ograve;&aring; &iuml;&euml;&icirc;&ograve;&iacute;&icirc;&ntilde;&ograve;&egrave;.(&Ccedil;&agrave;&igrave;&aring;&ograve;&ecirc;&egrave; &Ograve;&agrave;&igrave;&agrave;&eth; &Ouml;&egrave;&atilde;&euml;&aring;&eth;, &iuml;&eth;&aring;&auml;&euml;&icirc;&aelig;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&aring; 2.2, &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&agrave; 2.1 &egrave; &ccedil;&agrave;&igrave;&aring;&divide;&agrave;&iacute;&egrave;&aring; 2.3).
17. &Ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&agrave; &Aacute;&aring;&eth;&aring;&iacute;&auml;&agrave; - &ocirc;&icirc;&eth;&igrave;&oacute;&euml;&egrave;&eth;&icirc;&acirc;&ecirc;&agrave; &egrave; &auml;&icirc;&ecirc;&agrave;&ccedil;&agrave;&ograve;&aring;&euml;&uuml;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&icirc;. (&ccedil;&agrave;&igrave;&aring;&ograve;&ecirc;&egrave; &Ograve;&agrave;&igrave;&agrave;&eth; &Ouml;&egrave;&atilde;&euml;&aring;&eth;, &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&agrave; 2.14).
18. &Iacute;&egrave;&aelig;&iacute;&yuml;&yuml; &icirc;&ouml;&aring;&iacute;&ecirc;&agrave; &iacute;&agrave; &oacute;&ntilde;&eth;&aring;&auml;&iacute;&frac14;&iacute;&iacute;&icirc;&aring; &divide;&egrave;&ntilde;&euml;&icirc; &agrave;&eth;&egrave;&ocirc;&igrave;&aring;&ograve;&egrave;&divide;&aring;&ntilde;&ecirc;&egrave;&otilde; &iuml;&eth;&icirc;&atilde;&eth;&aring;&ntilde;&ntilde;&egrave;&eacute;, &acirc;&ucirc;&ograve;&aring;&ecirc;&agrave;&thorn;&ugrave;&agrave;&yuml; &egrave;&ccedil; &iuml;&eth;&aring;&auml;&iuml;&icirc;&euml;&icirc;&aelig;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&yuml;, &divide;&ograve;&icirc;
3-&divide;&euml;&aring;&iacute;&iacute;&ucirc;&otilde; &agrave;&eth;&egrave;&ocirc;&igrave;&aring;&ograve;&egrave;&divide;&aring;&ntilde;&ecirc;&egrave;&otilde; &iuml;&eth;&icirc;&atilde;&eth;&aring;&ntilde;&ntilde;&egrave;&eacute; &igrave;&agrave;&euml;&icirc;.(&Ccedil;&agrave;&igrave;&aring;&ograve;&ecirc;&egrave; &Ograve;&agrave;&igrave;&agrave;&eth; &Ouml;&egrave;&atilde;&euml;&aring;&eth;, &ntilde;&euml;&aring;&auml;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&egrave;&aring; 2.4 &ntilde; &auml;&icirc;&ecirc;&agrave;&ccedil;&agrave;&ograve;&aring;&euml;&uuml;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&icirc;&igrave;).
19. &Icirc;&iuml;&eth;&aring;&auml;&aring;&euml;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&aring; 𝑈2 &iacute;&icirc;&eth;&igrave;&ucirc; &Atilde;&agrave;&oacute;&yacute;&eth;&ntilde;&agrave;. &Icirc;&ouml;&aring;&iacute;&ecirc;&agrave; &icirc;&aacute;&icirc;&ugrave;&aring;&iacute;&iacute;&icirc;&atilde;&icirc; &ntilde;&eth;&aring;&auml;&iacute;&aring;&atilde;&icirc; &divide;&egrave;&ntilde;&euml;&agrave; &iuml;&eth;&icirc;&atilde;&eth;&aring;&ntilde;&ntilde;&egrave;&eacute; &auml;&euml;&egrave;&iacute;&ucirc; 3 &ntilde;&acirc;&aring;&eth;&otilde;&oacute; &divide;&aring;&eth;&aring;&ccedil;
𝑈2 &iacute;&icirc;&eth;&igrave;&oacute; &Atilde;&agrave;&oacute;&yacute;&eth;&ntilde;&agrave;. (&Ccedil;&agrave;&igrave;&aring;&ograve;&ecirc;&egrave; &Ograve;&agrave;&igrave;&agrave;&eth; &Ouml;&egrave;&atilde;&euml;&aring;&eth;, &euml;&aring;&igrave;&igrave;&agrave; 2.7, &ntilde;&euml;&aring;&auml;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&egrave;&aring; 2.8).
20. &Iacute;&agrave;&divide;&agrave;&euml;&agrave; &agrave;&iacute;&agrave;&euml;&egrave;&ccedil;&agrave; &Ocirc;&oacute;&eth;&uuml;&aring;. &Iuml;&icirc;&iacute;&yuml;&ograve;&egrave;&aring; &ntilde;&acirc;&frac14;&eth;&ograve;&ecirc;&egrave; &egrave; &iuml;&icirc;&acirc;&aring;&auml;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&aring; &ntilde;&acirc;&frac14;&eth;&ograve;&ecirc;&egrave; &iuml;&icirc; &icirc;&ograve;&iacute;&icirc;&oslash;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&thorn; &ecirc; &acirc;&ccedil;&yuml;&ograve;&egrave;&thorn; &ecirc;&icirc;&yacute;&ocirc;&ocirc;&egrave;&ouml;&egrave;&aring;&iacute;&ograve;&agrave;
&Ocirc;&oacute;&eth;&uuml;&aring;. &Ograve;&icirc;&aelig;&auml;&aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&icirc; &Iuml;&agrave;&eth;&ntilde;&aring;&acirc;&agrave;&euml;&yuml;. (&Ccedil;&agrave;&igrave;&aring;&ograve;&ecirc;&egrave; &Ograve;&agrave;&igrave;&agrave;&eth; &Ouml;&egrave;&atilde;&euml;&aring;&eth;, &euml;&aring;&igrave;&igrave;&agrave; 2.9).
21. &Acirc;&ucirc;&eth;&agrave;&aelig;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&aring; &ccedil;&iacute;&agrave;&divide;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&yuml; 𝑈2 &iacute;&icirc;&eth;&igrave;&ucirc; &Atilde;&agrave;&oacute;&yacute;&eth;&ntilde;&agrave; &ocirc;&oacute;&iacute;&ecirc;&ouml;&egrave;&egrave; &divide;&aring;&eth;&aring;&ccedil; &ccedil;&iacute;&agrave;&divide;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&yuml; &ecirc;&icirc;&yacute;&ocirc;&ocirc;&egrave;&ouml;&egrave;&aring;&iacute;&ograve;&icirc;&acirc; &Ocirc;&oacute;&eth;&uuml;&aring; &yacute;&ograve;&icirc;&eacute; &ocirc;&oacute;&iacute;&ecirc;&ouml;&egrave;&egrave;.(&Ccedil;&agrave;&igrave;&aring;&ograve;&ecirc;&egrave; &Ograve;&agrave;&igrave;&agrave;&eth; &Ouml;&egrave;&atilde;&euml;&aring;&eth;, &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&agrave; 2.10, &ntilde;&euml;&aring;&auml;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&egrave;&aring; 2.11).
22. &Acirc;&ucirc;&acirc;&icirc;&auml; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &icirc;&aacute; &oacute;&acirc;&aring;&euml;&egrave;&divide;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&egrave; &iuml;&euml;&icirc;&ograve;&iacute;&icirc;&ntilde;&ograve;&egrave; &acirc; &agrave;&eth;&egrave;&ocirc;&igrave;&aring;&ograve;&egrave;&divide;&aring;&ntilde;&ecirc;&icirc;&eacute; &iuml;&icirc;&auml;&iuml;&eth;&icirc;&atilde;&eth;&aring;&ntilde;&ntilde;&egrave;&egrave; &iuml;&eth;&egrave; &igrave;&agrave;&euml;&icirc;&igrave; &ecirc;&icirc;&euml;&egrave;&divide;&aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&aring; &iuml;&eth;&icirc;&atilde;&eth;&aring;&ntilde;&ntilde;&egrave;&eacute; &auml;&euml;&egrave;&iacute;&ucirc; 3 &egrave;&ccedil; &eth;&agrave;&iacute;&aring;&aring; &auml;&icirc;&ecirc;&agrave;&ccedil;&agrave;&iacute;&iacute;&icirc;&atilde;&icirc; &ocirc;&agrave;&ecirc;&ograve;&agrave;, &divide;&ograve;&icirc; &aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&uuml; &aacute;&icirc;&euml;&uuml;&oslash;&icirc;&eacute; &ecirc;&icirc;&yacute;&ocirc;&ocirc;&egrave;&ouml;&egrave;&aring;&iacute;&ograve; &Ocirc;&oacute;&eth;&uuml;&aring; &oacute; &ntilde;&aacute;&agrave;&euml;&agrave;&iacute;&ntilde;&egrave;&eth;&icirc;&acirc;&agrave;&iacute;&iacute;&icirc;&eacute; &otilde;&agrave;&eth;&agrave;&ecirc;&ograve;&aring;&eth;&egrave;&ntilde;&ograve;&egrave;&divide;&aring;&ntilde;&ecirc;&icirc;&eacute; &ocirc;&oacute;&iacute;&ecirc;&ouml;&egrave;&egrave;. (&Ccedil;&agrave;&igrave;&aring;&ograve;&ecirc;&egrave; &Ograve;&agrave;&igrave;&agrave;&eth; &Ouml;&egrave;&atilde;&euml;&aring;&eth;, &ntilde;&ograve;&eth;. 5-6, &euml;&aring;&igrave;&igrave;&ucirc; 2.12 &egrave; 2.13).
23. &Ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&agrave; &ETH;&oacute;&aelig;&egrave; - &agrave;&iacute;&agrave;&euml;&icirc;&atilde; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &Ocirc;&eth;&aring;&eacute;&igrave;&agrave;&iacute;&agrave;-&ETH;&oacute;&aelig;&egrave; &auml;&euml;&yuml; &atilde;&eth;&oacute;&iuml;&iuml;&ucirc; F∞
2 . (&ccedil;&agrave;&igrave;&aring;&ograve;&ecirc;&egrave; &Ograve;&agrave;&igrave;&agrave;&eth; &Ouml;&egrave;&atilde;&euml;&aring;&eth;, &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&agrave;
4.1).
24. &Icirc;&iuml;&eth;&aring;&auml;&aring;&euml;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&aring; &igrave;&iacute;&icirc;&atilde;&icirc;&igrave;&aring;&eth;&iacute;&icirc;&eacute; &agrave;&eth;&egrave;&ocirc;&igrave;&aring;&ograve;&egrave;&divide;&aring;&ntilde;&ecirc;&icirc;&eacute; &iuml;&eth;&icirc;&atilde;&eth;&aring;&ntilde;&ntilde;&egrave;&egrave;. &Ocirc;&icirc;&eth;&igrave;&oacute;&euml;&egrave;&eth;&icirc;&acirc;&ecirc;&agrave; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &Ocirc;&eth;&aring;&eacute;&igrave;&agrave;&iacute;&agrave;-&ETH;&oacute;&aelig;&egrave;. &Icirc;&iuml;&eth;&aring;&auml;&aring;&euml;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&aring; &egrave;&ccedil;&icirc;&igrave;&icirc;&eth;&ocirc;&egrave;&ccedil;&igrave;&agrave; &Ocirc;&eth;&aring;&eacute;&igrave;&agrave;&iacute;&agrave;. (&ccedil;&agrave;&igrave;&aring;&ograve;&ecirc;&egrave; &Ograve;&agrave;&igrave;&agrave;&eth; &Ouml;&egrave;&atilde;&euml;&aring;&eth;, &ntilde;&ograve;&eth;. 11 12, 8.1 - &iacute;&agrave;&divide;&agrave;&euml;&icirc; 8.2 &ecirc;&iacute;&egrave;&atilde;&egrave; [1]).
25. &Auml;&icirc;&ecirc;&agrave;&ccedil;&agrave;&ograve;&aring;&euml;&uuml;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&icirc; &ograve;&icirc;&atilde;&icirc;, &divide;&ograve;&icirc; &auml;&euml;&yuml; &euml;&thorn;&aacute;&icirc;&atilde;&icirc; &iuml;&icirc;&auml;&igrave;&iacute;&icirc;&aelig;&aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&agrave; &iacute;&agrave;&ograve;&oacute;&eth;&agrave;&euml;&uuml;&iacute;&ucirc;&otilde; &divide;&egrave;&ntilde;&aring;&euml; &igrave;&icirc;&aelig;&iacute;&icirc; &iacute;&agrave;&eacute;&ograve;&egrave; &aacute;&icirc;&euml;&uuml;&oslash;&icirc;&aring; &iuml;&icirc;&auml;&igrave;&iacute;&icirc;&aelig;&aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&icirc;, 8-&egrave;&ccedil;&igrave;&icirc;&eth;&icirc;&ocirc;&iacute;&icirc;&aring; &iuml;&icirc; &Ocirc;&eth;&aring;&eacute;&igrave;&agrave;&iacute;&oacute; &iuml;&icirc;&auml;&igrave;&iacute;&icirc;&aelig;&aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&oacute; F𝑝 . (&ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&agrave; 8.4 8.4 &ecirc;&iacute;&egrave;&atilde;&egrave; [1], &ccedil;&agrave;&igrave;&aring;&ograve;&ecirc;&egrave; &Ograve;&agrave;&igrave;&agrave;&eth;
&Ouml;&egrave;&atilde;&euml;&aring;&eth;, &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&agrave; 4.5 &egrave; 4.6).
26. &Icirc;&iuml;&eth;&aring;&auml;&aring;&euml;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&aring; &igrave;&iacute;&icirc;&aelig;&aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&agrave; &Aacute;&icirc;&eth;&agrave;. &Euml;&aring;&igrave;&igrave;&agrave; &Aacute;&icirc;&atilde;&icirc;&euml;&thorn;&aacute;&icirc;&acirc;&agrave;. (&ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&agrave; 8.6 8.3 &ecirc;&iacute;&egrave;&atilde;&egrave; [1], &ccedil;&agrave;&igrave;&aring;&ograve;&ecirc;&egrave; &Ograve;&agrave;&igrave;&agrave;&eth; &Ouml;&egrave;&atilde;&euml;&aring;&eth;,
&ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&agrave; 4.7).
27. &Ntilde;&oacute;&ugrave;&aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&icirc;&acirc;&agrave;&iacute;&egrave;&aring; &aacute;&icirc;&euml;&uuml;&oslash;&egrave;&otilde; &icirc;&aacute;&icirc;&aacute;&ugrave;&frac14;&iacute;&iacute;&ucirc;&otilde; &agrave;&eth;&egrave;&ocirc;&igrave;&aring;&ograve;&egrave;&divide;&aring;&ntilde;&ecirc;&egrave;&otilde; &iuml;&eth;&icirc;&atilde;&eth;&aring;&ntilde;&ntilde;&egrave;&eacute; &acirc; &iacute;&aring;&ecirc;&icirc;&ograve;&icirc;&eth;&ucirc;&otilde; &igrave;&iacute;&icirc;&aelig;&aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&agrave;&otilde; &Aacute;&icirc;&eth;&agrave;. (&ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&agrave; 8.7 8.3 &ecirc;&iacute;&egrave;&atilde;&egrave; [1], &ccedil;&agrave;&igrave;&aring;&ograve;&ecirc;&egrave; &Ograve;&agrave;&igrave;&agrave;&eth; &Ouml;&egrave;&atilde;&euml;&aring;&eth;, &ntilde;&euml;&aring;&auml;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&egrave;&aring; 4.11).
28. &Ccedil;&agrave;&acirc;&aring;&eth;&oslash;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&aring; &auml;&icirc;&ecirc;&agrave;&ccedil;&agrave;&ograve;&aring;&euml;&uuml;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&agrave; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &Ocirc;&eth;&aring;&eacute;&igrave;&agrave;&iacute;&agrave;-&ETH;&oacute;&aelig;&egrave;. (&ccedil;&agrave;&igrave;&aring;&ograve;&ecirc;&egrave; &Ograve;&agrave;&igrave;&agrave;&eth; &Ouml;&egrave;&atilde;&euml;&aring;&eth;, &ntilde;&ograve;&eth;. 19, &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&agrave; 8.10
8.4 &ecirc;&iacute;&egrave;&atilde;&egrave; [1]).
29. &Atilde;&egrave;&iuml;&icirc;&ograve;&aring;&ccedil;&agrave; &Yacute;&eth;&auml;&frac14;&oslash;&agrave;-&Ntilde;&aring;&igrave;&aring;&eth;&aring;&auml;&egrave;. &Ocirc;&icirc;&eth;&igrave;&oacute;&euml;&egrave;&eth;&icirc;&acirc;&ecirc;&agrave; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &Yacute;&euml;&aring;&ecirc;&aring;&oslash;&agrave; &egrave; &Oslash;&icirc;&euml;&oacute;&igrave;&icirc;&oslash;&egrave;. &Icirc;&iuml;&eth;&aring;&auml;&aring;&euml;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&aring; &divide;&egrave;&ntilde;&euml;&agrave; &ntilde;&ecirc;&eth;&aring;&ugrave;&egrave;&acirc;&agrave;&iacute;&egrave;&eacute; &atilde;&eth;&agrave;&ocirc;&agrave;. &Iacute;&egrave;&aelig;&iacute;&yuml;&yuml; &icirc;&ouml;&aring;&iacute;&ecirc;&agrave; &iacute;&agrave; &divide;&egrave;&ntilde;&euml;&icirc; &ntilde;&ecirc;&eth;&aring;&ugrave;&egrave;&acirc;&agrave;&iacute;&egrave;&eacute;. (&Atilde;&aring;&icirc;&igrave;&aring;&ograve;&eth;&egrave;&yuml; &egrave;&iacute;&ouml;&egrave;&auml;&aring;&iacute;&ouml;&egrave;&eacute;, 8.1).
30. &Ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&agrave; &Ntilde;&aring;&igrave;&aring;&eth;&aring;&auml;&egrave;-&Ograve;&eth;&icirc;&ograve;&ograve;&aring;&eth;&agrave;. (&Atilde;&aring;&icirc;&igrave;&aring;&ograve;&eth;&egrave;&yuml; &egrave;&iacute;&ouml;&egrave;&auml;&aring;&iacute;&ouml;&egrave;&eacute;, &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&agrave; 8.3).
31. &Auml;&icirc;&ecirc;&agrave;&ccedil;&agrave;&ograve;&aring;&euml;&uuml;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&icirc; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &Yacute;&euml;&aring;&ecirc;&aring;&oslash;&agrave;. ([4], &ntilde;&ograve;&eth; 54).
32. &Ocirc;&icirc;&eth;&igrave;&oacute;&euml;&egrave;&eth;&icirc;&acirc;&ecirc;&agrave; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &Ecirc;&agrave;&ouml;&agrave;-&Oslash;&aring;&iacute;&yuml;. &Igrave;&iacute;&icirc;&aelig;&aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&icirc; 𝑄[𝐴, 𝐵]. &Euml;&aring;&igrave;&igrave;&agrave; &icirc; &ntilde;&oacute;&igrave;&igrave;&aring; &igrave;&iacute;&icirc;&aelig;&aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&agrave; &ntilde;&icirc; &ntilde;&acirc;&icirc;&egrave;&igrave; &ntilde;&auml;&acirc;&egrave;&atilde;&icirc;&igrave;.
(&icirc;&iuml;&eth;&aring;&auml;&aring;&euml;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&aring; 2.49 &egrave; &euml;&aring;&igrave;&igrave;&agrave; 2.50 2.8 &ecirc;&iacute;&egrave;&atilde;&egrave; [3], &euml;&aring;&igrave;&igrave;&agrave; 1.1 &ntilde;&ograve;&agrave;&ograve;&uuml;&egrave; [5]).
33. &Acirc;&agrave;&eth;&egrave;&agrave;&iacute;&ograve; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &Iuml;&euml;&thorn;&iacute;&iacute;&aring;&ecirc;&aring;-&ETH;&oacute;&aelig;&egrave;, &acirc; &ecirc;&icirc;&ograve;&icirc;&eth;&icirc;&eacute; &ntilde;&ograve;&eth;&icirc;&egrave;&ograve;&ntilde;&yuml; &iuml;&icirc;&auml;&igrave;&iacute;&icirc;&aelig;&aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&icirc; &ecirc;&icirc;&iacute;&ograve;&eth;&icirc;&euml;&egrave;&eth;&oacute;&aring;&igrave;&icirc;&eacute; &igrave;&icirc;&ugrave;&iacute;&icirc;&ntilde;&ograve;&egrave;. (&igrave;&icirc;&egrave;
&ccedil;&agrave;&igrave;&aring;&ograve;&ecirc;&egrave;, &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&agrave; 4, &ntilde;&euml;&aring;&auml;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&egrave;&aring; 1.5 &ntilde;&ograve;&agrave;&ograve;&uuml;&egrave; [5]).
34. &Auml;&icirc;&ecirc;&agrave;&ccedil;&agrave;&ograve;&aring;&euml;&uuml;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc;&icirc; &ograve;&aring;&icirc;&eth;&aring;&igrave;&ucirc; &Ecirc;&agrave;&ouml;&agrave;-&Oslash;&aring;&iacute;&yuml;. (&ntilde;&ograve;&agrave;&ograve;&uuml;&yuml; [5], &ntilde;&ograve;&eth;. 4-6).
Список литературы
[1] M. Nathanson, Additive number theory. Inverse problems and Geometry of Sumsets, Springer, Graduate Texts
in Mathematics, Vol. 165, 1996.
[2] G. Petridis, New Proofs of
http://arxiv.org/abs/1101.3507, 2011.
Pl
unnecke-type
Estimates
for
Product
Sets
in
Groups,
[3] T. Tao, V.H. Vu, Additive combinatorics, Cambridge University Press, 2010.
[4] &Igrave;.&Ccedil;. &Atilde;&agrave;&eth;&agrave;&aring;&acirc;, &Ntilde;&oacute;&igrave;&igrave;&ucirc; &egrave; &iuml;&eth;&icirc;&egrave;&ccedil;&acirc;&aring;&auml;&aring;&iacute;&egrave;&yuml; &igrave;&iacute;&icirc;&aelig;&aring;&ntilde;&ograve;&acirc; &egrave; &icirc;&ouml;&aring;&iacute;&ecirc;&egrave; &eth;&agrave;&ouml;&egrave;&icirc;&iacute;&agrave;&euml;&uuml;&iacute;&ucirc;&otilde; &ograve;&eth;&egrave;&atilde;&icirc;&iacute;&icirc;&igrave;&aring;&ograve;&eth;&egrave;&divide;&aring;&ntilde;&ecirc;&egrave;&otilde; &ntilde;&oacute;&igrave;&igrave; &acirc; &iuml;&icirc;&euml;&yuml;&otilde;
&iuml;&eth;&icirc;&ntilde;&ograve;&icirc;&atilde;&icirc; &iuml;&icirc;&eth;&yuml;&auml;&ecirc;&agrave;, &Oacute;&Igrave;&Iacute;, 2010, &ograve;&icirc;&igrave; 65, &acirc;&ucirc;&iuml;&oacute;&ntilde;&ecirc; 4(394), 566.
[5] N.H.
Katz,
C.-Y.
Shen,
A
slight
http://arxiv.org/abs/math/0703614, 2007.
improvement
to
Garaev's
sum-product
estimate,
```