Uploaded by Альона Вікторівна Шуневич

Practice 11. )

Practice 11. The Nervous System_11p.
Topic 16. Brain and Nerves
Aim: to study the vocabulary on the topic;
to improve reading, writing and speaking skills.
to review Sequence of Tenses
Recommendations: use the dictionary if needed.
Dear students!
After this lesson you will be able to speak about the nervous System, know words and
expressionhs on the topic.
Форма подання відповідей: виконані завдання, файл із виконаним завданням до
Практичного заняття (у форматі Word), виконані завдання до Самостійної роботи (у
форматі Word)
Task 1 Read the text 1 and translate sentences after it.
Text 1 The Nervous System. Brain and Nerves
1. Nerves lead from the spinal cord or from the brain to each part of the body. Then they lead from
each part of the body back to the brain or spinal cord. The brain and spinal cord are the centres of
this system of nerves.
2. All parts of your body are connected by nerves. The nerve cells with their fibres make up the
nervous system. When we study one nerve cell, we see that it has a long fibre at one end and short
fibres at the other. The nerve cells send impulses to each other by means of the fibres at their ends.
These fibres do not actually touch but are so close to each other that an impulse can travel from one
fibre to another. Physical agents become stimuli for nerve terminals by transferring energy from
the external world to the nerve terminals.
3. Thus all nerve cells connect with each other. There are millions of these connecting nerve cells.
Thus a stimulus from any part of the body can reach any other part of it. In the spinal cord and brain,
the nerve cells connect with each other by their connecting fibres. Outside the spinal cord and brain,
certain long fibres are grouped together forming nerves. Each nerve is made up of thousands of
nerve fibres together in a bundle, as a cable is made up of separate wires.
Головний і спинний мозок є центрами системи нервів.
Всі частини вашого тіла з'єднані нервами
Нервові клітини з їх волокнами складають нервову систему
Фізичні фактори стають стимуляторами для нервових закінчень, передаючи енергію із
зовнішнього світу до нервових закінчень.
Кожен нерв складається з тисяч нервових волокон, з'єднаних в пучок
Task 2. Read text 2 and write summery of the text
The Brain Centre of the Nervous System
4. We know the nerves to carry impulses to the brain. We know that the brain sends these impulses
along so that they go to the right place. The brain is made up of three parts. The cerebrum sits like a
cap on the cerebellum. And the medulla is that long portion connecting the brain with the spinal cord.
The cerebrum, has certain parts that do certain work. Studying human beings with accidental injuries
of brains helped scientists to get informants about these areas. For instance they have discovered
that the part for thought, memory, and feeling is found in the front of the cerebrum. The part for
hearing is found at the side of the cerebrum, and the part for sight in the back of the cerebrum.
5. Many experiments have shown that the brain is the centre of feeling and understanding. The
nerve cells in the brain can be «put to sleep» with ether or other anesthetics. Then the brain does
not feel any impulses from the part being operated on. Sometimes the nerve cells near the part of
our body being treated may be deadened by novocaine, as when the dentist pulls a tooth. What the
novocaine does is preventing the impulses from getting to the brain from the nerve in the tooth.
6. The cerebellum is the centre for making your muscles work as a team. The medulla is the centre
of certain of our most important acts: breathing and heartbeat, on which life itself depends. The
medulla is also capable of controlling acts such as swallowing and yawning.