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Т. Ю. Дроздова, А. И. Берестова, В. Г. Маилова ENGLISH GRAMMAR REFERENCE & PRACTICE WITH A SEPARATE KEY VOLUME

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ENGLISH
GRAMMAR
REFERENCE & PRACTICE
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Ó÷åáíîå ïîñîáèå äëÿ ó÷àùèõñÿ êëàññîâ
ñ óãëóáëåííûì èçó÷åíèåì àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà
è ñòóäåíòîâ íåÿçûêîâûõ âóçîâ
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WITH A SEPARATE KEY VOLUME
Èçäàíèå îäèííàäöàòîå,
èñïðàâëåííîå
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Т. Ю. Дроздова, А. И. Берестова, В. Г. Маилова
СанктПетербург
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ÁÁÊ 81.2Àíãë-2
Ä75
Ðåöåíçåíò:
Äðîçäîâà Ò. Þ., Áåðåñòîâà À. È., Ìàèëîâà Â. Ã.
English Grammar. Reference and Practice : Ó÷åáíîå ïîñîáèå. – Èçäàíèå îäèííàäöàòîå,
èñïðàâëåííîå. – ÑÏá. : Àíòîëîãèÿ, 2012. – 464 ñ.
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Ä75
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ÎÒ ÀÂÒÎÐÎÂ
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Ïðåäëàãàåìîå âàøåìó âíèìàíèþ ïîñîáèå ñîçäàíî íà îñíîâå ôóíäàìåíòàëüíûõ
êëàññè÷åñêèõ òðóäîâ ïî ãðàììàòèêå àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà, èçäàííûõ â Ðîññèè, à òàêæå
íîâûõ ðàáîò àíãëèéñêèõ è àìåðèêàíñêèõ àâòîðîâ â ðóñëå êîììóíèêàòèâíîé ëèíãâèñòèêè.
Ïîñîáèå ñîñòîèò èç 15 òåìàòè÷åñêèõ ðàçäåëîâ, â êîòîðûõ ïðèâîäÿòñÿ îáùèå ñâåäåíèÿ ïî êàæäîé òåìå è îáúÿñíÿþòñÿ îñîáûå ñëó÷àè óïîòðåáëåíèÿ. Öåëü äàííîãî
ñáîðíèêà – èçëîæèòü è îáúÿñíèòü â äîñòóïíîé ôîðìå ñóùåñòâåííûå ìîðôîëîãè÷åñêèå îñîáåííîñòè ãðàììàòè÷åñêîãî ñòðîÿ àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà, íåîáõîäèìûå äëÿ
ïðàêòè÷åñêîãî èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ.
 îñíîâå ñòðóêòóðû ó÷åáíèêà ëåæèò ïðèíöèï ñîïîñòàâëåíèÿ ìîäåëåé ðîäíîãî è
èçó÷àåìîãî ÿçûêîâ, à òàêæå äèôôåðåíöèàöèÿ ñõîäíûõ (äëÿ íîñèòåëåé ðóññêîãî ÿçûêà), íî ðàçëè÷àþùèõñÿ ïî ñóòè ãðàììàòè÷åñêèõ ñòðóêòóð àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà. Ëó÷øåìó
óñâîåíèþ ìàòåðèàëà äîëæíû ñïîñîáñòâîâàòü òàáëèöû, ñõåìû è ìîäåëè, ñèñòåìàòèçèðóþùèå ìàòåðèàë ðàçäåëîâ.
Äàííîå ïîñîáèå ïðåäíàçíà÷åíî äëÿ ó÷àùèõñÿ øêîë è ãèìíàçèé, à òàêæå äëÿ ñòóäåíòîâ íåÿçûêîâûõ âóçîâ ñ óãëóáëåííûì èçó÷åíèåì àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà. Îíî ìîæåò
áûòü óñïåøíî èñïîëüçîâàíî äëÿ ðàáîòû ñî ñòóäåíòàìè ëþáîé ôîðìû îáó÷åíèÿ è
óðîâíÿ ÿçûêîâîé ïîäãîòîâêè, ïîñêîëüêó äîñòàòî÷íî ïîäðîáíûå îáúÿñíåíèÿ ñíàáæåíû áîëüøèì êîëè÷åñòâîì ïðèìåðîâ, òàáëèö è ìîäåëåé, çàêðåïëÿåìûõ â ðàçíîîáðàçíûõ óïðàæíåíèÿõ. Óïðàæíåíèÿ ïîñòðîåíû ïî ïðèíöèïó íàðàñòàíèÿ ÿçûêîâûõ òðóäíîñòåé. Îíè ïðåäíàçíà÷åíû äëÿ ñòóäåíòîâ íà÷èíàþùèõ (À), ïðîäîëæàþùèõ (Â) è ïðîäâèíóòûõ (Ñ) ãðóïï è èíäåêñèðîâàíû ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèìè îáîçíà÷åíèÿìè.
Ê áîëüøèíñòâó óïðàæíåíèé ïðåäëàãàþòñÿ îòâåòû-êëþ÷è, èçäàííûå îòäåëüíîé êíèãîé “The Keys”. Öèôðîâûå îáîçíà÷åíèÿ â óïðàæíåíèÿõ ñîîòâåòñòâóþò îòâåòàì, ïîìåùåííûì â êíèãå “The Keys”.
 òå÷åíèå íåñêîëüêèõ ëåò ìàòåðèàë ïîñîáèÿ óñïåøíî èñïîëüçîâàëñÿ â ðàçëè÷íûõ
öåëåâûõ ïðîãðàììàõ ïðè îáó÷åíèè ñòóäåíòîâ ñ ðàçíûì óðîâíåì ÿçûêîâîé ïîäãîòîâêè.
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Ò. Þ. Äðîçäîâà
À. È. Áåðåñòîâà
Â. Ã. Ìàèëîâà
CONTENTS
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The Verb “to be” ........................................................................................................................ 9
“There” + “be” Construction ..................................................................................................... 12
The Verb “to have” .................................................................................................................. 14
English Tenses Active ............................................................................................................... 17
The Indefinite (Simple) Forms ................................................................................................. 19
5.1 The Present Indefinite (Simple) Tense ................................................................................... 19
5.2 The Past Indefinite (Simple) Tense ........................................................................................ 21
5.3 The Future Indefinite (Simple) Tense ..................................................................................... 25
6. The Continuous Forms ............................................................................................................. 28
6.1 The Present Continuous Tense .............................................................................................. 28
6.2 The Present Continuous and Present Indefinite (Simple) ....................................................... 32
6.3 The Past Continuous Tense ................................................................................................... 35
6.4 The Past Continuous and Past Indefinite (Simple) ................................................................. 36
6.5 The Future Continuous Tense ............................................................................................... 40
6.6 Revision ................................................................................................................................ 42
7. The Perfect Forms ................................................................................................................... 43
7.1 The Present Perfect Tense .................................................................................................... 43
7.2 The Present Perfect and Past Indefinite (Simple) .................................................................. 48
7.3 The Past Perfect Tense ........................................................................................................ 53
7.4 The Future Perfect Tense ...................................................................................................... 59
8. The Perfect Continuous Forms ............................................................................................... 61
8.1 The Present Perfect Continuous ........................................................................................... 61
8.2 The Present Continuous and Present Perfect Continuous ................................................... 62
8.3 The Present Perfect and Present Perfect Continuous ............................................................ 63
8.4 Revision ................................................................................................................................ 66
8.5 The Past Perfect Continuous ................................................................................................. 68
8.6 The Past Continuous and Past Perfect Continuous ................................................................ 70
8.7 The Future Perfect Continuous ............................................................................................. 72
9. Revision on Tenses .................................................................................................................. 73
10. Tests ........................................................................................................................................ 81
11. Talking about the Future ....................................................................................................... 83
11.1 Present Tenses with a Future Meaning .............................................................................. 83
11.2 “to be going to ...” ........................................................................................................ 85
11.3 The Future Indefinite (Simple) ........................................................................................... 86
11.4 “be to”, “be about to”, “be due to” ................................................................................. 89
11.5 Revision ............................................................................................................................ 89
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THE VERB
THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES
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1. General Rules ........................................................................................................................... 92
2. Revision ..................................................................................................................................... 97
3. Tests .......................................................................................................................................... 98
DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH
1. Indirect Statement ................................................................................................................... 99
2. Indirect Command and Request ............................................................................................ 101
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3. Indirect Questions ..................................................................................................................
3.1 Indirect General Questions ..................................................................................................
3.2 Indirect Special Questions ..................................................................................................
4. Revision ...................................................................................................................................
THE PASSIVE VOICE
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The Formation of the Passive Voice ....................................................................................
Uses of the Passive Voice Peculiar to the English Language ............................................
Revision ...................................................................................................................................
Tests ........................................................................................................................................
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THE USE OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD
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1. Conditional Sentences ...........................................................................................................
1.1 Revision ..............................................................................................................................
1.2 Test ....................................................................................................................................
2. Making a Wish ........................................................................................................................
3. Revision ...................................................................................................................................
4. Tests ........................................................................................................................................
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MODAL VERBS
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1. Definition ...............................................................................................................................
2. Can .........................................................................................................................................
2.1 Revision ..............................................................................................................................
3. May ..........................................................................................................................................
4. Must .........................................................................................................................................
4.1 Revision .............................................................................................................................
5. Should and Ought ..................................................................................................................
6. Need .......................................................................................................................................
7. Revision ..................................................................................................................................
8. Tests .......................................................................................................................................
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THE NOUN
Formation of Nouns ...............................................................................................................
Classification of Nouns .........................................................................................................
The Category of Number ......................................................................................................
The Category of Case ............................................................................................................
Tests ........................................................................................................................................
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THE ARTICLE
1. The Use of Articles with Common Nouns .............................................................................
1.1 The Use of the Indefinite Article (a/an) ................................................................................
1.2 The Use of the Definite Article (the) .....................................................................................
1.3 The Zero Article ..................................................................................................................
1.4 Revision ..............................................................................................................................
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2. The Use of Articles with Nouns of Material and Abstract Nouns .......................................
3. The Use of Articles with Proper Nouns ...............................................................................
3.1 Geographical Names ..........................................................................................................
3.2 Names of Persons ...............................................................................................................
3.3 The Use of Articles in the Names of Places, Some Buildings,
Public Organizations, etc ....................................................................................................
3.4 Revision ..............................................................................................................................
4. Special Difficulties in the Use of Articles ............................................................................
5. The Use of Articles with Nouns in Some Set Expressions ..................................................
6. Tests ........................................................................................................................................
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THE PRONOUN
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1. Classification of Pronouns ..................................................................................................... 210
1.1 Personal and Possessive Pronouns ..................................................................................... 210
1.2 Reflexive Pronouns ............................................................................................................ 213
1.3 Demostrative Pronouns ...................................................................................................... 216
1.4 Interrogative Pronouns ........................................................................................................ 217
1.5 Defining Pronouns ............................................................................................................. 218
1.6 Indefinite and Negative Pronouns ...................................................................................... 225
1.7 “Much/many”, “little/few”, “a little/a few” .................................................................. 232
2. Tests ........................................................................................................................................ 235
THE ADJECTIVE
THE ADVERB
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Formation of Adjectives .........................................................................................................
Word Order: adjective + noun ..............................................................................................
The Comparison of Adjectives ..............................................................................................
Tests ........................................................................................................................................
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1. Definition and Forms .............................................................................................................. 251
2. Classification of Adverbs ....................................................................................................... 255
2.1 Adverbs of Manner ............................................................................................................. 255
2.2 Adverbs of Time ................................................................................................................... 257
2.3 Adverbs of Frequency ......................................................................................................... 259
2.4 Adverbs of Place and Direction ........................................................................................... 260
2.5 Adverbs of Degree, Measure and Quantity .......................................................................... 261
2.6 Viewpoint Adverbs ............................................................................................................... 267
3. Revision ................................................................................................................................... 269
4. Tests ......................................................................................................................................... 271
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THE VERBALS (the Non-Finite Forms of the Verb)
1. The Gerund .............................................................................................................................. 273
1.1 Forms. Tense/Voice Distinctions ........................................................................................... 273
1.2 The Use of the Gerund ........................................................................................................ 274
1.3 Verbs Used with the Gerund and the Infinitive ..................................................................... 282
1.4 The Gerundial Construction ................................................................................................ 286
1.5 The Gerund and the Verbal Noun ....................................................................................... 288
1.6 Revision .............................................................................................................................. 290
1.7 Tests .................................................................................................................................. 292
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2. The Infinitive ...........................................................................................................................
2.1 Forms. Tense/Voice Distinctions ..........................................................................................
2.2 The Use of the Infinitive without the Particle “to” ..................................................................
2.3 The Functions of the Infinitive in the Sentence ....................................................................
2.3.1 Revision .....................................................................................................................
2.4 The Infinitive Constructions .................................................................................................
2.4.1 The Complex Object ...................................................................................................
2.4.2 The Complex Subject .................................................................................................
2.4.3 The For-to-Infinitive Construction ................................................................................
2.5 Revision ..............................................................................................................................
2.6 Tests ..................................................................................................................................
3. The Participle ........................................................................................................................
3.1 Forms and Functions ...........................................................................................................
3.2 The Functions of the Participle in a Sentence .....................................................................
3.3 Russian Equivalents of Participles Used as Attributes ............................................................
3.4 Russian Equivalents of Participles Used as Adverbial Modifiers .............................................
3.5 Have Something Done .......................................................................................................
3.6 The Absolute Participial Construction ...................................................................................
3.7 Revision ..............................................................................................................................
3.8 Tests ..................................................................................................................................
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PREPOSITION
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1. Definition .................................................................................................................................
2. Prepositions of Place .............................................................................................................
2.1 Preposition of Place At, In, On .............................................................................................
3. Prepositions of Direction ......................................................................................................
3.1 Moving in Space ................................................................................................................
4. Some Prepositions Confused .................................................................................................
5. Revision ...................................................................................................................................
6. Prepositions with Forms of Transport ...................................................................................
7. The Prepositions of Time .......................................................................................................
7.1 Prepositions For, During, While ............................................................................................
7.2 Prepositions Before, Till/Until, By .........................................................................................
7.3 Prepositions Since, From, In time/On time ...........................................................................
8. Prepositions Expressing Abstract Relations ........................................................................
8.1 Prepositions By, With ...........................................................................................................
8.2 As and Like .........................................................................................................................
8.3 About, On ...........................................................................................................................
9. Composite Prepositions .........................................................................................................
10. Revision .................................................................................................................................
11. The Use of Prepositions in Set Expressions ......................................................................
12. Tests ......................................................................................................................................
THE COMPOUND SENTENCE
AND THE COMPLEX SENTENCE
The Compound Sentence ............................................................................................................
The Complex Sentence ...............................................................................................................
1. Subject Clauses ......................................................................................................................
2. Predicative Clauses ................................................................................................................
3. Object Clauses ........................................................................................................................
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The Emphatic Do ....................................................................................................................
Double Negation ....................................................................................................................
The Emphatic Construction “It is ... that/which/who/whom” ............................................
The Emphatic Construction “It is not until ... that” ............................................................
The Emphatic “Not ... till/until” ...........................................................................................
Translate these Complex Sentences into Russian .......................................................................
Tests .........................................................................................................................................
Appendix
Appendix
Appendix
Appendix
11.
12.
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415
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List of Irregular Verbs .................................................................................... 419
Irregular and Regular Verbs: Difficult Cases ............................................... 423
Regular Verbs: Spelling Rules ...................................................................... 424
List of Adverbs and Adverbial Phrases ......................................................... 425
Place of Adverbs ........................................................................................... 431
Verbs Followed by the Infinitive ................................................................... 432
American English ............................................................................................ 438
List of Grammar Terms and Key Words ........................................................ 439
Punctuation .................................................................................................... 443
Prepositions and Homonymous Adverbs.
The Meaning and Use .................................................................................... 447
Some Verbs Used with Prepositions ............................................................ 450
The List of Verbs Used with Prepositions .................................................... 457
The Compound Sentence. Conjunctions and Connectives ......................... 461
The Complex Sentence. Conjunctions and Connectives ............................ 462
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Appendix
Appendix
Appendix
Appendix
Appendix
Appendix
Appendix
Appendix
Appendix
Appendix
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EMPHASIS
Literature ................................................................................................................................ 464
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4. Attributive Clauses .................................................................................................................
4.1 Defining and Non-Defining Relative Clauses ......................................................................
4.2 Subject and Object Relative Clauses ...................................................................................
4.3 Which Referring to the Whole Sentence ..............................................................................
4.4 Clauses Introduced by What, That, Which .............................................................................
Revision ..............................................................................................................................
5. Adverbial Clauses ...................................................................................................................
5.1 Time Clauses ......................................................................................................................
5.2 Adverbial Clauses of Place ..................................................................................................
5.3 Adverbial Clauses of Manner ..............................................................................................
5.4 Purpose and Reason Clauses .............................................................................................
5.5 As and Since in the Clauses of Time and Cause (Reason) ....................................................
Revision ..............................................................................................................................
5.6 Contrast Clauses .................................................................................................................
Revision ..............................................................................................................................
Tests ...................................................................................................................................
THE VERB
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1. THE VERB “TO BE”
THE VERB “TO BE” IN THE PRESENT INDEFINITE TENSE
POSITIVE FORM
I
You
NEGATIVE FORM
QUESTIONS
am (I’m)
I
am not (I’m not)
Am I?
are (you’re)
You
are not (you’re not or you aren’t)
Are you?
He
She
It
is
is
is
(he’s)
(she’s)
(it’s)
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He
is
She is
It
is
We are (we’re)
You are (you’re)
They are (they’re)
not (he’s not or he isn’t)
not (she’s not or she isn’t)
not (it’s not or it isn’t)
We
are not (we’re not or we aren’t)
You are not (you’re not or you aren’t)
They are not (they’re not or they aren’t)
Is
Is
Is
he?
she?
it?
Are we?
Are you?
Are they?
q I’m small but I’m not helpless.
q Where are you from?
q How much are these stamps?
EXERCISES (A)
Ex. 1
5. I am not ______________
6. you are not ___________
II. Write the full forms (she is/we are, etc.).
9. you’re __________________
7. we aren’t we are not
8. I’m _________________
10. they aren’t _____________
11. it isn’t _______________
12. she’s _______________
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Ex. 2. Put in am, is or are.
н
I. Write short forms (she’s/we’re, etc.).
he’s
3. she is not _______________
1. he is
2. they are _____________
4. it is not _________________
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1. The sky is very blue today. 2. I ________ not tired. 3. This shelf __________ very heavy.
4. These shelves _______ very heavy. 5. The child ________ asleep. 6. Look ! This ________
Mabel. 7. I _____ cold. Can you shut the window, please? 8. The castle _____ one thousand
years old. 9. My brother and I _____ good tennis players. 10. Amy _____ at home but her
parents _____in church. 11. I _____ a student. 12. My sister ______ an archeologist.
Ex. 3. Write full sentences. Use am/is/are each time.
1. (my grandparents very old) My grandparents are very old.
2. (my desk very comfortable) ____________________________________________________
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(your spectacles in your bag) __________________________________________________
(I not very clever today) _______________________________________________________
(this house very expensive) ____________________________________________________
(the shops not open today) ____________________________________________________
(Mr Wren's grandson six years old) _____________________________________________
(the houses in this street very big) _____________________________________________
(the examination not difficult) ___________________________________________________
(those flowers very beautiful) __________________________________________________
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3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Ex. 4. Write positive or negative sentences. Use am/am not/is/isn’t/are/aren’t.
(Brussels...the capital of Belgium) Brussels is the capital of Belgium.
(I...interested in hockey) I am not interested in hockey.
(I...angry) ____________________________________________________________________
(It...cold today) _______________________________________________________________
(The Hague...in Switzerland) ____________________________________________________
(I...afraid of dogs) ____________________________________________________________
(My hands...dirty) _____________________________________________________________
(Russia...a very big country) ___________________________________________________
(The Amur...in Europe) ________________________________________________________
(Diamonds...cheap) ___________________________________________________________
(Motor-racing...a dangerous sport) _____________________________________________
(Squirrels...big animals) ________________________________________________________
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Ex. 5. Write questions with What/Who/How/Where/Why...? Use am/is/are.
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(What colour your house?) What colour is your house?
(Where my key?) ___________________________________________________________
(Where my trousers?) _______________________________________________________
(How old your grandmother?) ________________________________________________
(What colour his hair?) ______________________________________________________
(How much these shoes?) ___________________________________________________
(Who your favourite actor?) __________________________________________________
(Why you always late?) ______________________________________________________
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
10
(his name?) What’s his name?
(single or married?) Are you single or married?
(British?)
(where / from?)
(how old?)
(a student?)
(your mother a teacher?)
(where / from?)
(her name?)
(how old?)
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Ex. 6. Ask questions. (Read the answers to the questions first.)
Robert.
I’m single.
No, I’m not.
From Australia.
I’m 18.
No, I’m a secretary.
No, she’s a lawyer.
She’s Italian.
Rachel.
She’s 40.
Ex. 7. Write positive and negative short answers (Yes, I am./No, he isn’t, etc.)
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Are you married? No, I’m not.
Is she tall? Yes, she is.
Is it cold today? _____________________
Are you an engineer? ________________
Are you hungry? _____________________
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Is it light now?_____________________
Are your hands warm? _____________
Are you thirsty? ___________________
Is your father tall? _________________
Is it sunny? _______________________
Ex. 8. Translate into English.
THE VERB “TO BE” IN THE PAST INDEFINITE TENSE
POSITIVE FORM
NEGATIVE FORM
I
You
He
She
It
was
were
was
was
was
I
You
He
She
It
We
You
They
were
were
were
were not
We
You were not
They were not
not
not
not
not
not
Was
Were
Was
Was
Was
I?
you?
he?
she?
it?
Were we?
Were you?
Were they?
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was
were
was
was
was
QUESTIONS
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1. Òâîé áðàò äîìà? 2. Ñêîëüêî ñòîÿò ýòè îòêðûòêè? 3. Ýòà ãîñòèíèöà î÷åíü äîðîãàÿ.
4. ß èíòåðåñóþñü èñêóññòâîì. 5. Âñå ìàãàçèíû ñåãîäíÿ îòêðûòû. 6. Ìóçåé ñåãîäíÿ
îòêðûò? 7. Ìíå æàðêî. 8. Ìîÿ ñåñòðà àðõèòåêòîð. 9. ß íå óñòàëà. 10. Îòêóäà ðîäîì åå
ìóæ? 11. Îíè íå ñòóäåíòû, îíè âðà÷è. 12. Òåáå èíòåðåñíû èíîñòðàííûå ÿçûêè?
was not = wasn’t
were not = weren’t
q I was tired last night.
q The weather was good when we were on holiday.
q The hotel wasn’t very expensive.
q Where were you at 5 o'clock yesterday?
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EXERCISES (A)
Ex. 9. Put in am/is/are/was/were. Some sentences are present and some are past.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Last year their son was 26, so he is 27 now.
Today the weather_________ nice, but yesterday it _________ cold.
I ______ cold. Can I have something hot to drink?
I ______ hungry last night, so I had something to eat.
Where _______ you at 10 o’clock last Sunday morning?
Don't buy those shoes. They ________ too expensive.
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Why ________ you so tired yesterday?
We must go now. It _______ very late.
This time last year I _______ in England.
We _______ tired when we arrived home, so we went to bed.
Anton Chekhov died in 1904. He _______ a famous Russian writer.
“Where _______ the dogs?” – “I don't know. They _______ in the garden ten minutes ago.”
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7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Ex. 10. Put in was/wasn’t/were/weren’t .
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
We didn’t like that house. It was very old and it wasn’t large enough.
Helen got married when she ________ 21 years old.
I called you yesterday evening but you ________ at home. Where __________ you?
My son ________ at work last week because he ________ ill. He’s better now.
The shops ________ open yesterday because it _________ a public holiday.
“__________ you at home at 9.30?” – “No, I ________. I _________ at work.”
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
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Ex. 11. Translate into English.
Ãäå îíè áûëè â÷åðà âå÷åðîì?
Ïî÷åìó òû â÷åðà îïîçäàë?
Åãî â÷åðà íå áûëî â èíñòèòóòå.
Ìåíÿ òàì íå áûëî.
Åå íå áûëî äîìà â 5 ÷àñîâ.
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2. “THERE” + “BE” CONSTRUCTION
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We use “there” + “be” constructions talking about the existence of people, things, etc.
These constructions have the meaning “åñòü”, “èìååòñÿ”, “íàõîäèòñÿ”, “ñóùåñòâóåò”.
The verb “to be” in such constructions can be used in different tense forms:
there is/are
there was/were
there will be
there has/have been
there had been
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q There are manó French books in this library.
q There was a meeting at the club yesterday.
q There will be a good crop in this region this year.
q There hasn’t been any rain for some days.
WORD ORDER
“there” + “be” + subject +
adverbial modifier of place
adverbial modifier of time
The corresponding Russian sentences begin with adverbial modifiers.
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Russian
English
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 ìîåé êîìíàòå åñòü (èìååòñÿ) òåëåôîí. There is à telephone in my room.
There are many apple-trees in the garden.
B÷åpa â èíñòèòóòå áûëî ñîáðàíèå.
There was a meeting at the Institute yesterday.
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 ñàäó (èìååòñÿ) ìíîãî ÿáëîíü.
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The verb “to be” in such constructions can be used with modal verbs (can, may, must,
ought to):
q There must be a dictionary on the shelf.
q There can be no doubt about it.
q There ought to be more books on the subject in our library.
We can also use some other verbs after “there” – to live, to exist, to stand, to lie, etc.:
q There lived an old doctor in the village.
q There exist different opinions on this problem.
If the subjects are of different number the predicate agrees with the subject that stands first:
q There is a table and six chairs in the room.
q There were some books and a dictionary on the table.
INTERROGATIVE AND NEGATIVE FORMS
– No, there isn’t.
No, there is no telephone in my room.
q Was there a meeting at the lnstitute? – No, there wasn’t.
q Will there be many people there?
– No, there won’t.
No, there won’t be any people there.
н
q Is there a telephone in your room?
EXERCISES
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Mind that the sentences: “There is a book on the table” and “The book is on the table” have
different meaning. The first one shows that there is something (“a book”) in that place, the
second one shows that the object (“the book”) we now are speaking about or looking for is
in that place (“on the table”).
Ex. 1. (A, Â) Use “there” + “be” construction in the necessary tense form.
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1. Look! __________ their telephone number in the letter. 2. Chichester is a very old town.
__________ many old buildings there. 3. Excuse me, __________ a restaurant near here?
4. How many students __________ in your group? 5. I was hungry but __________ anything
to eat. 6. _________ a football match on TV last night. 7. ____________ manó people at the
meeting? 8. Look! ___________ an accident. Call the ambulance! 9. ___________ 24 hours
in a day. 10. This box is empty. ____________ nothing in it. 11. __________ somebody at
the airport to meet you when you arrive tomorrow. 12. When we arrived at the cinema
__________ a long queue outside.
Ex. 2. (A, Â) Ask questions to the following statements, then answer them according
to the pattern.
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Pattern: There is a good programme on TV tonight.
– Is there a good programme on TV tonight?
– Yes, there is.
There aren’t any theatres in my town.
– Are there any theatres in your town?
– No, there are not/there aren’t.
1. There is a cat in the window. 2. There are a few changes in the text. 3. There are plenty of
glasses in the cupboard. 4. There were a lot of people at the stadium. 5. There isn’t anything on
the plate. 6. There wasn’t anybody in the room. 7. There are difficult exercises in this book.
8. There is something on the shelf. 9. There will be some interesting programmes on TV tomorrow. 10. There are several empty seats in the room. 11. There weren’t any pears on the plate.
Ex. 3. (A, Â) Translate into English.
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A
1. Â ýòîì æóðíàëå ìíîãî èíòåðåñíûõ ñòàòåé. 2. Â íàøåì ãîðîäå ìíîãî ìóçååâ è
òåàòðîâ. 3.  ýòîé êîìíàòå åñòü òåëåôîí? 4.  ýòîé êîìíàòå äâà îêíà. 5.  ÷àøêå íå
áûëî ÷àÿ. 6. Ñêîëüêî ñòàòåé áûëî â ýòîì æóðíàëå? – Òàì áûëî íåñêîëüêî ñòàòåé.
7. Ñêîëüêî ñòóäåíòîâ â àóäèòîðèè? – Äâàäöàòü. 8. Ðÿäîì ñ íàøèì äîìîì áóäåò ïàðê.
9. Íà ýòîé óëèöå áûëà øêîëà? 10. Íà ñòîëå ëåæèò íåñêîëüêî êíèã.
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Â
1. Ðÿäîì ñ íàøèì äîìîì åñòü øêîëà. Øêîëà íàõîäèòñÿ ðÿäîì ñ íàøèì äîìîì.
2. Â ãîðîäå íåñêîëüêî òåàòðîâ. Òåàòðû íàõîäÿòñÿ â öåíòðå ãîðîäà. 3. Â âàçå ñòîÿëè
öâåòû. Öâåòû ñòîÿëè â êðàñèâîé âàçå. 4.  òåàòðå ìíîãî äåòåé. Äåòè ñåé÷àñ â òåàòðå.
5. Ñóùåñòâóåò íåñêîëüêî ñïîñîáîâ ðåøåíèÿ ýòîé çàäà÷è. Ñïîñîáû ðåøåíèÿ ýòîé
çàäà÷è ïðèâåäåíû íà ñòðàíèöå 5.
3. THE VERB “TO HAVE”
THE VERB “TO HAVE” IN THE PRESENT INDEFINITE TENSE
POSITIVE FORM
have (got) (I’ve got)
QUESTIONS
I
have not got
Have
I
got?
You have (got) (you’ve got)
You
have not got
Have
you
got?
He has
She has
It
has
He
She
It
has
has
has
Has
Has
Has
he
she
it
got?
got?
got?
Have
Have
Have
we
got?
you got?
they got?
(got) (he’s got)
(got) (she’s got)
(got) (it’s got)
We have (got) (we’ve got)
You have (got) (you’ve got)
They have (got) (they’ve got)
not got
not got
not got
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I
NEGATIVE FORM
We have not got
You have not got
They have not got
have not got = haven’t got
has not got = hasn’t got
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q I’ve got a cat but I haven’t got a dog.
q What have you got in your bag?
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In negatives and questions you can also use do/does + have (see the chart on p. 19):
q They don’t have any children. (= They haven’t got any children.)
q It’s a nice house but it doesn’t have a garden. (= it hasn’t got a garden.)
q Does Ann have a car? (= Has Ann got a car?)
q How much money do you have? (= How much money have you got?)
When the verb to have is used in the following expressions:
– to have dinner /breakfast
– îáåäàòü, çàâòðàêàòü
– to have tea/coffee, etc.
– ïèòü ÷àé, êîôå è ò.ä.
– to have a bath/a shower
– ïðèíÿòü âàííó, äóø
– to have a shave/a wash
– ïîáðèòüñÿ, ïîìûòüñÿ
– to have a rest/a sleep/a dream, etc. – îòäîõíóòü, ïîñïàòü, ïîìå÷òàòü è ò.ä.
– to have a holiday/a good time, etc.
– îòäîõíóòü, õîðîøî ïðîâåñòè âðåìÿ è ò.ä.
in negative and interrogative forms it takes the auxiliary verb to do:
q Do you have tea or coffee for breakfast?
q Where does he have dinner?
Note that have stresses the idea of regularity, have got is linked with “now” and means a
particular thing. In spoken English the form I’ve got is used almost universally for I have in
the sense of “I own (possess)”.
q I have a cup of tea for breakfast in the morning (usually).
q I haven’t got tea for breakfast this morning.
The past of have is had. In negatives and questions we use did + have.
EXERCISES
Did I have?
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I did not have
I didn’t have
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I had
Ex. 1. (A) Write the short form (we’ve got/he hasn’t got, etc.).
1. we have got we’ve got
2. he has got ____________
Ex. 2. (A) Write questions.
5. it has got ____________
6. I have not got ________
(you/a bicycle?) Have you got a bicycle?
(you/a VCR?) ______________________________________________________________
(your father/a car?) _________________________________________________________
(Carol/many friends?) _______________________________________________________
(Mr and Mrs Lewis/any children?) ____________________________________________
(how much money/you?) ____________________________________________________
(what kind of car/John?) _____________________________________________________
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
3. they have got _______________
4. she has not got _____________
?
?
?
?
?
?
15
Ex. 3. (A) What have Alice and Keith got? What have you got? Look at the information and
write sentences about Alice, Keith and yourself.
no
yes
no
two brothers
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a camera
a car
black hair
brothers/sisters
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Alice (she)
Keith (he)
you
yes
no
no
one sister
?
?
?
?
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1. (Keith/a camera) Keith has got a camera. 7. (Alice/black hair) _____________________
2. (I/black hair)
l’ve got black hair. 8. (Alice/two brothers) __________________
(or: I haven’t got black hair.) 9. (Keith/black hair) ____________________
3. (Alice/a camera) Alice ________________ 10.(Alice/a car) ________________________
4. (I/a camera) I ________________________ 11.(Keith/a sister) ______________________
5. (I/a car) _____________________________ 12.(I/brothers/sisters) __________________
6. (Keith/a car) _________________________
___________________________________
They like flowers. They’ve got a lot of roses in their garden.
Jane hasn’t got a car. She goes everywhere by bicycle.
Everybody likes Tom. He ________________ a lot of friends.
Mr and Mrs Eastwood _______________ two children, a boy and a girl.
This insect ________________ six legs.
I can’t open the door. I ________________ a key.
Quick! Hurry! We ___________________ much time.
“What’s wrong?” – “I _________________ something in my eye”.
Ben doesn’t read much. He __________________ many books.
lt’s a nice town. It ________________ a very nice shopping centre.
Mother is going to the dentist. She _________________ a toothache.
“Where’s my newspaper?” – “I don’t know. I _____________________ it.”
Julia wants to go on holiday but she ___________________ any money.
I’m not going to work today. I _____________________ a bad cold.
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Ex. 5. (B, C) Extend the sentences according to the pattern.
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Pattern: I always have sandals in the summer. (this summer)
I haven’t got any sandals this summer.
1. They have seminars every month. (this month)
2. They have a lot of flowers in their garden every summer. (this summer)
3. We have a letter from home every week. (this week)
4. He often has a sore throat. (today)
5. I usually have warm shoes in the winter. (this winter)
6. She has a new dress every summer. (this summer)
7. They always have a light supper. (tonight)
8. I often have a headache in the evening. (tonight)
9. I often have fish for dinner. (today)
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Ex. 4. (A, B) Put in have got (’ve got), has got (’s got), haven’t got or hasn’t got.
Ex. 6. (B, C) Translate into English.
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Ó íèõ åñòü òðè ñîáàêè è òðè êîøêè.
Ó íåå áîëüøèå çåëåíûå ãëàçà.
Ó ìîåãî áðàòà ãîëóáàÿ ìàøèíà.
Ñêîëüêî ó âàñ çåìëè?
Ó íàñ íå áûëî ìàøèíû â ïðîøëîì ãîäó.
Ó ìåíÿ â÷åðà áîëåëà ãîëîâà.
Êîãäà âû ïüåòå ÷àé?
Ìû õîðîøî ïðîâåëè âðåìÿ â÷åðà.
Îíà õîðîøî ïðîâåëà îòïóñê íà þãå.
Ó âàñ åñòü êíèãè ïî èñòîðèè Àíãëèè?
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
4. ENGLISH TENSES ACTIVE
The category of tense denotes the relation of the action either to the moment of speaking
or to some definite moment in the past or future. The category of tense and the category of
aspect are intermingled.
The category of aspect shows the way in which the action develops, whether it is in progress
or completed, etc. There are four groups of tenses: Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect, Perfect Continuous. The Indefinite form has no aspect characteristics whatever, the Continuous, Perfect and Perfect Continuous forms denote both time and aspect relations.
PRESENT
CONTINUOUS
shows an action
as a process
PRESENT
PAST
FUTURE
PERFECT
shows an action
completed before
a definite moment,
connected with it
PRESENT
PERFECT
CONTINUOUS
shows an action
in progress, whose
duration before a definite
moment is expressed
PAST
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FUTURE
verb
н
INDEFINITE
shows an action
as a fact (customary,
repeated)
PAST
to be + -ing
to have + Participle II
ин
FUTURE
PRESENT
PAST
to have been + -ing
FUTURE
17
ENGLISH TENSES (ACTIVE)
н
asking
*Action (process) going
on at the present moment.
usually/generally
always/never
often/seldom
sometimes/every day
*Fact.
*Future action (to
a timetable, schedule).
now,
at present,
at the moment
Look! Listen!
*Future action planned
before.
asked
took
was
were
asking
PERFECT
CONTINUOUS
have
+ Past Participle
have been + -ing
have
has
asked
*Action (process) which
began in the past and
is still going on now.
for a month/a long time
since 5 o'clock
how long/since when
had asked
had been asking
*Action (process) which
began before a definite
moment in the past and
was still going at that
moment.
He had been working
for 2 hours, when my
brother came.
*Action completed
before a certain
moment in the past.
yesterday
last week
3 days ago
in 2005
at 5 yesterday
from 5 to 6 yesterday
all day long/the whole day
when we came
by 5 o’clock yesterday
before he came
by the end of last
year
*At sequence of tenses.
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*Action (process) taking
place at a given moment/
period of time in the past.
PAST
have
been asking
has
*Completed action
whose result is visible
in the present.
ever/never
just/already/yet
lately/recently
this week/today
by now
for
since
*Action (succession
of actions) in the past.
will be asking
will have asked
will have been asking
*Future action.
*Action (process) taking
place at a given moment/
period of time in the
future.
*Action completed
before a definite
moment in the future.
tomorrow
next week
in 3 days
in 2025
at 5 tomorrow
from 5 to 6 tomorrow
all day long tomorrow
when he comes
by 5 o'clock tomorrow
when he comes
by next summer
*Action (process) which will
begin before a definite
moment in the future
and will be going on
at that moment.
When you come, I'll have
been working
for 2 hours.
ин
will ask
FUTURE
am
is
are
*Repeated,
customary action.
ин
PRESENT
ask(s)
be + -ing
PERFECT
н
verb
18
CONTINUOUS
те к н и
рн ж
ет н ы
-м й
аг
аз
и
INDEFINITE
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