3 rd Made by: year students, group Filol-2018-3 Nykyforets Denis Shansherova Anastasia Causes of the American Civil War • Political controversy • Economic disagreements • Attitude towards slavery The first stage of the war (1861-1863) Fighting began on April 12, 1861, with the Confederate capture of Fort Sumter in South Carolina. In the first phase of the war, the northerners suffered many setbacks. The Federation took advantage of the respite given to it and developed the Anaconda plan. In the spring of 1862, the northerners attempted to strike at the heart of the Confederacy - to capture Richmond. But the Confederate capital was surrounded by powerful engineering fortifications, which General McClellan's army never managed to occupy. Military setbacks negatively affected the prestige of Abraham Lincoln. The citizens condemned him for his indecision and weakness. Under pressure from the public, the President and Congress decided to move to drastic measures to combat the rebels. Second stage of the war (1863-1865) In early 1863, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, according to which all slaves in the Southern States were declared free. From 1 to 3 July 1863, the famous Battle of Gettysburg took place. The battle was extremely fierce - the Southerners sought to win the final victory, and the Northerners fought for the first time on their land. At the same time, on the western front, Federation troops won another important victory: they managed to capture the Vicksburg fortress in Louisiana. The North now controlled the entire Mississippi Valley, and the Confederation was split in two. In 1864, Ulysses Grant, Commander in Chief of the US Army, devised a plan for the final defeat of the Confederation. The first blow was to be delivered by General William Sherman: he entered Georgia, and regardless of losses, destroying everything in its path, moved to the Atlantic Ocean. Grant himself with a 118,000strong army attacked in the east, meeting with enemy troops in the Wilderness forest. The main outcome of the war was the famous 13th Amendment to the US Constitution, which abolished slavery throughout the country. It was a major step towards equality in American society. Despite all the dire consequences, the American Civil War brought a number of positive changes: • The government managed to preserve the integrity of the country. • The abolition of slavery was the first step towards equalizing the rights of the white and black population. • The centralization of power and the strengthening of the domestic market subsequently made the United States one of the most developed countries in the world. • The war tempered the American army and promoted the development of military affairs.