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Реферат по английскому языкуThe similarities and differences between ancient and modern physics

Министерство науки и высшего образования Российской Федерации
Федеральное государственное автономное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«Уральский федеральный университет имени первого Президента России
The similarities and differences between ancient and modern
What physics is?
Physics is a science which tries to describe the
environment and phenomena in it. It has a huge story of
formation, so the concepts of physics in the ancient and
the modern worlds are quite different. Anyway, they also have
some similarities.
First attempts
First attempts to describe the world were undertaken in
such ancient civilizations as Ancient Egypt, Ancient China and
Ancient India. Actually, in those times there wasn't such a term
as physics, but there was natural philosophy, because most of
the descriptions of the world were metaphysical. Due to the
fact that math theory wasn’t advanced enough, it was hard to
build reasonable mathematical-physical model which could be
well-connected with the real world, so people often described
some phenomena as something mysterious and religious.
For example lightning was described as a demonstration of
fury by Gods and Solar eclipse as intrigues of a dragon.
However, some astronomical and optical phenomena were
described quite accurate for those times. According to the fact
that ancient people could build such great monuments such as
Egypt’s Pyramids, we can say that ancient people actively used
leaver arms, crossbars etc., which means that they knew some
basics of applied physics. Anyway, although they could use it, it
doesn’t mean they had theory of it.
Antique physics
Antique world has a special place in the formation of
physics. As we know, philosophers of Ancient Greece founded
great system of mathematical knowledge of algebra and
geometry. The Pythagorean were the first who manifested
conception, which stated that all nature phenomena can be
described mathematically. It had a great influence on physics in
general, because even nowadays it is impossible to understand
physics clearly without knowing some important parts of math.
Although this idea led to some really important results, there
still were some metaphysical attempts of describing the nature.
Most of them were wrong; however, some of them were right.
(For example: atomistic idea about substance).
Classic and modern physics
Extremely important discoveries in physics, which became
a forerunner of classic and modern physics, were made in the
renaissance. It led to great advancement in such parts of
physics as mechanics, astronomy, optics etc. All of it was
caused by an extremely important revolution in physics which
put experiment in that science in the first place. Over time, new
sections of physics and phenomena were discovered; theory of
math was being advancing a lot, which helped to build new
theoretical-physical models (e.g. vector differential algebra in
theory of electricity and magnetism, or linear algebra in
quantum physics). Over time scientists were making more and
more difficult experiments from some classical experiments,
such as experiments with mathematical pendulum, to
extremely difficult experiments with modern technically
advanced equipment which involves a participation of many
Nowadays, science of physics has been changed. If earlier
scientists tried to find the root cause of the universe, then now
technological discoveries, which could make routine life easier,
are more in demand.
Similarities and differences
All in all, we can say that the ancient and the modern
physics are quite different. If ancient scientists tried to describe
the world by metaphysical reflections, then nowadays modern
scientists mostly rely on mathematical calculations and
reasonable mathematical-physical models. If the ancient
physics tried to find out the root cause of everything, then the
modern physics has become the tool of technological progress,
which helps only to describe some difficult phenomena.
Anyway, the modern and the ancient physics both were
intended for exploring the world.