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How to write a Summary of a scientific article.
Реферирование научных статей на английском языке – важный навык, необходимый любому
современному инженеру. Суть реферирования можно свести к анализу прочитанной англоязычной
работы, с выделением её главной идеи, описанием перечисленных автором фактов и доводов и
подведением итогов. С этой целью можно использовать ряд вводных языковых конструкций.
Клише для реферирования научной статьи
1. Название статьи, автор, стиль.
The article I’m going to give a review of is taken from… – Статья, которую я сейчас хочу
проанализировать из…
The headline of the article is – Заголовок статьи…
The author of the article is… – Автор статьи…
It is written by – Она написана (кем)…
The headline foreshadows… – Заголовок приоткрывает
2. Тема. Логические части.
The topic of the article is… – Тема статьи это…
The key issue of the article is… – Ключевым вопросом в статье является…
The article is devoted to the problem of… –Cтатья посвящена проблеме…
The author in the article touches upon the problem of… – В статье автор затрагивает проблему….
I’d like to comment on the problem of… – Я бы хотел(а) прокомментировать проблему…
The article may be divided into several logical parts which are… – Статья может быть разделена на
несколько логически взаимосвязанных частей, таких как…
3. Краткое содержание.
• At the beginning of the article its author… – В начале статьи автор…
…describes – описывает
…touches upon – затрагивает
…explains – объясняет
…introduces – знакомит
…mentions – упоминает
• The article begins (opens) with a (the)… – Статья начинается…
…description of – описанием
…statement – заявлением
…introduction of – представлением
…the analysis of / a summary of – кратким анализом
…the characterization of – характеристикой
…(author’s) opinion of – мнением автора
• In conclusion the author – в заключение автор
…points out – указывает на
…generalizes – обобщает
4. Отношение автора к отдельным моментам.
• The author outlines… – Автор описывает…
• The article contains the following facts…./ describes in details… – Статья содержит следующие
факты …. / подробно описывает…
• The author starts with the statement of the problem and then logically passes over to its possible
solutions. – Автор начинает с постановки задачи, а затем логически переходит к ее возможным
• The author states that… – Автор утверждает, что …
• The underlines that… – Автор подчеркивает…
• Let me give an example… – Позвольте мне привести пример…
• For example… - Например.
5. Вывод автора.
• In conclusion the author says that… – В заключение автор говорит …
• At the end of the article author sums it all up by saying … – В конце статьи автор подводит итог
всего этого, говоря…
• The author comes to the conclusion that… – В заключение автор делает вывод, что…
6. Ваш вывод.
• The main idea of the article is… – Основная идея статьи
• In addition… … – Кроме того…
• On the one hand…, but on the other hand… – С одной стороны …, но с другой стороны…
• In conclusion I’d like to… – В заключение я хотел(а) бы…
• From my point of view… – С моей точки зрения…
• My own attitude to this article is… – Мое личное отношение к этой статье...
• I fully agree with… / I don’t agree with… – Я полностью согласен / не согласен с…
• I have found the article dull / important / interesting /of great value – Я нахожу статью скучной /
важной / интересной/ имеющей большое значение (ценность)
Read, translate and write a summary of the scientific article given below:
Pike R. Chemistry, Energy and Climate Change // Royal Society of Chemistry,
Tuesday 8 December, 2009, Burlington House
Climate change - the big picture
Climate change is connected with both science and geography, but nowadays people are not encouraged to
see the 'big picture'. Citizens must be aware of the links between the different aspects of climate change.
The big picture.
Climate change is not new. Over billions of years, the energy reaching the Earth from the Sun has varied,
and the composition of the atmosphere has changed, so that the overall climate and local weather patterns
have changed.
It is connected with cyclical variations in the Earth's orbit around the Sun; changes in inclination; and energy
output from the Sun itself. On Earth, geological and biological activity has led to marked changes over time
in the proportions of nitrogen, oxygen, water and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, as well as the
temperature distribution.
Although the variations have been significant in terms of their upper and lower extremes, these have taken
place typically over thousands of years. What is remarkable about the recent rise in the mean temperature of
the air at the Earth's surface, is that if changes in the CO2 content are ignored, no other mechanism can
explain the rapid rate of increase. Computer-based mathematical models show reasonable agreement with
observations over the past two hundred years. During this time, the concentration of this gas has risen from
pre-industrial levels of 270 parts per million (ppm) to the present 380 ppm.
Natural 'greenhouse effect'
Together, both water vapor and carbon dioxide play an important role in absorbing infra-red radiation
emitted from the Earth's surface in response to receiving energy from the Sun. Without this, the
thermodynamic balance between the Earth and the Sun would lead to a mean surface temperature of -18 ⁰C.
The natural 'greenhouse effect' of these components in the atmosphere increases this by 33 degrees to 15 ⁰C.
However, computer modeling based on the work of the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change
(IPCC) predicts that over the next two decades there will be a warming of 0.2 ⁰C per decade, due to increase
in the CO2 content of the atmosphere.
The principal reason for this change is that of all the energy used in the world, for power, heating and
transport, 80 per cent still comes from fossil fuels. They are made up of oil (34 per cent), coal (25 per cent)
and gas (21 per cent), most of which will be carbon.
The remaining 20 per cent of energy provision is from nuclear (7 per cent), combustible renewables such as
wood, agricultural waste and small quantities of liquid biofuels (10 per cent), and renewables which
generate electricity directly, such as hydro, wind, tidal, wave and geothermal (3 per cent).
Challenge for future chemists
The challenge facing chemists is how to address solutions that fall between two extremes. We could achieve
a 'green' economy by capturing and storing all the CO2 from the continuing use of fossil fuels. This would
involve centralised power generation and hydrogen production (by reforming), with an economy driven
almost exclusively by electricity and hydrogen. On the other hand, we could replace fossil fuels by wider
use of nuclear, biofuels, solar devices, concentrated solar power and the other renewables.
The way ahead will be to optimise the position for each country between these extremes, and focus on
developing the science base to support changes in emphasis over time. This will require international
leadership to establish the coordinated financial and regulatory frameworks, and ensure the use of plans that
minimize tensions over the next 100 years.
Hometask: реферирование статьи с использованием клише. Письменно в тетради.