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Ланчиков-Чужакин Мир перевода-6

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ЕВРОПЕЙСКИЙ ГОД ЯЗЫКОВ
В.Ланчиков, А.Чужакин
Мир перевода - 6
ТРУДНОСТИ ПЕРЕВОДА В ПРИМЕРАХ
ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ
ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ III-IV КУРСОВ
HANDBOOK FOR SIGHT TRANSLATION
Difficult Cases & Pitfalls as Translated into Russian
V. Lanchicov, A. Chuzhakin
For medium and advanced levels
World of Interpreting and Translation
=WIT=
Москва
Р.Валент
2001
Сканирование, распознавание, вычитка:
Корректор, 2004
Только для некоммерческих целей.
ББК81.2Англ. 7я73
Мир перевода -6
Трудности перевода в примерах.
Практическое пособие для студентов III-IV курсов.
Данное пособие предназначено для отработки навыков письменного перевода и перевода с листа (ПСЛ) с английского на русский язык. Несмотря на
кажущуюся легкость ПСЛ по сравнению с устным переводом на слух, на
практике такой перевод часто вызывает наибольшие трудности, что в основном объясняется недостаточным знанием учащимися родного языка, неумением адекватно выразить свои мысли, а также сильным влиянием английского текста, что приводит к калькированию, буквализму, нарушению норм
русского языка.
Материалы пособия можно использовать для перевода на слух и отработке
навыков с применением лексико-грамматических трансформаций.
Трудности перевода. Пособие для студентов III-IV курсов переводческих
факультетов / В.Ланчиков, А.Чужакин. — М.:Р.Валент, 2001. — С. 64 ISBN
5-93439-070-8
Тел./факс издательства: 917 41 53
e-mail: rvalent@online.ru
© В.Ланчиков, А.Чужакин, 2001
© "Р.Валент", 2001
© Концепция, составление, комментарий, обработка текста и эскиз обложки А.П.Чужакин, 2001
ВВЕДЕНИЕ
Данное пособие является практическим пополнением серии "Мир перевода" по углублению практических навыков перевода с листа (ПСЛ) на
русский язык. Парадоксально, что, несмотря на кажущуюся сравнительную
легкость ПСЛ по сравнению с переводом на слух, на практике он часто вызывает наибольшие трудности. Это в основном объясняется недостаточным
знанием учащимися родного языка, неумением адекватно выразить свои
мысли, а также сильным влиянием английского текста в процессе ПСЛ, что
приводит к калькированию, буквализму, нарушению норм русского языка.
Материалы пособия можно использовать, в зависимости от уровня учащихся, для письменного перевода или перевода на слух с применением лексико-грамматических трансформаций.
Примеры в пособии взяты из прессы 1960—1990 годов, а также художественной литературы XX века и дают представление о развитии языка и изменениях значений некоторых слов.
Переводческие трудности выделены полужирным шрифтом. В некоторых разделах даются варианты перевода, не претендующие на совершенство, но указывающие на возможные переводческие решения проблем.
Рекомендуется обратить внимание на передачу сложной модальности,
особенно в случаях may have been, could have done, might as well have said и
др., которые часто вызывают затруднение при переводе (см. разделы: Модальность, Would, Модальные глаголы).
Пособие состоит из двух частей: LEVEL A (Introductory) — начальный
уровень — основные виды трансформаций при переводе, LEVEL В (Advanced) — более сложные случаи переводческих трансформаций и распознавания "ловушек" в процессе как письменного, так и устного перевода с
листа.
В Приложении рассматривается концепция модульного способа обучению устному переводу (Modules of Employable Skills), ориентированного на
практическую деятельность и индивидуальный подход к обучению.
Источники:
Пособие по переводу кафедры перевода английского языка переводческого
факультета МГЛУ (заведующий — В.Ф.Усов), подготовленное проф.
В.Ланчиковым под редакцией Д.Псурцева, а также материалы С.С.Толстого,
Р. Ледерера.
Дополнительная литература:
С.Толстой. Как переводить с английского языка. М., 1960, Изд-во ИНО
R. Lederer. Anguished English. Robson Books. London, 1987
Особенности перевода с листа (ПСЛ) —
(sight translation) на русский язык
Переводящий получает незнакомый текст — иногда времени на подготовку совсем нет, иногда предоставляется немного времени на ознакомление;
затем переводит вслух, — в идеале — быстро, четко и на хорошем русском
языке.
Факторы, усложняющие задачу переводящего при ПСЛ:
Необходимость:
— одновременно читать, переводить и проговаривать свой перевод;
— членить текст или объединять фразы/предложения на такие отрезки,
которые могут быть успешно переведены и лучше восприняты слушателем;
— недостаточная культура языка и речи переводящего.
Факторы, облегчающие задачу ПСЛ:
— возможность получить время для подготовки (не всегда);
— наличие зрительной опоры для уверенного перевода;
— зрительное восприятие прецизионной информации, что значительно
облегчает перевод, делает его более точным;
— другие преимущества восприятия информации не на слух, а зрительно.
Необходимые навыки и умения:
— быстрое переключение на язык перевода при широком использовании
полуавтоматической подстановки готовых соответствий (клише, штампов);
— умение совмещать проговаривание перевода с чтением следующего
отрезка оригинала;
— владение всеми выразительными средствами родного языка и умение
пользоваться ими для достижения максимальной адекватности ПСЛ.
Главные требования к переводящему с листа:
— профессиональное владение родным языком, отвлечение от "давления" оригинала, умелое использование всех видов переводческих
трансформаций.
Методические рекомендации к учебнику
Пособие может быть применяться на начальном этапе обучения
письменному переводу для обработки перевода наиболее сложных
случаев, а также как часть практического курса теории перевода.
NB! ПЕРЕВОДИШЬ С АНГЛИЙСКОГО - ДУМАЙ О РУССКОМ!
LEVEL A (Introductory)
1. Полисемия
А. Многозначные служебные слова: as,
but, but for, either, neither, which.
as может означать: постольку; так как; по мере того, как; что
касается (as to); как; в том виде, как; иногда может переводиться причастным оборотом (... as they took their seats — занимая свои места).
Варианты перевода:
a) As we go further and further to the South it grows warmer and
warmer.
По мере того как мы приближаемся к Югу...
b) As to my mother's health it is much better. Что касается здоровья моей матери...
1.
Members were solemn as they took their seats: The Prime Minister
gave a measured account of interests at stake and events of the past.
Neither pace nor tone altered as he passed on to "what our next
step should be." (" The New York Times")
2.
The Premier's speech followed a weekend of warnings by the Chinese leaders in Peking as celebrations for New China's National Day
got underway. ("Daily Worker")*
3.
The resolution considered it unnecessary — and so that part disappeared from the resolution as adopted. (''Economic Issues")
4.
As stated in the program of the Communist Party of Great Britain,
the aims of the working class are expressed both clearly and pointedly.
5.
As released to the press, the communiqué was as softly toned as just
only possible, but rumour has it that, there had been another communiqué which was withheld at the very last moment. ("DW")
but— означает: лишь; but for — если бы не
6.
He is but a child, do not be angry with him!
7.
But for your help I shouldn't be able to understand
this.
* далее "DW"
7
8.
9.
10.
11.
He is anything but a good poet.
Woods grew on either side of the river.
However tired you are, you must finish your work.
Yesterday my little son went out of the house to play without his overcoat. Now he recovered from pneumonia only a short time ago which
will easily make you understand how anxious I was for him.
12.
Now little David Copperfield saw the young man with his donkey- cart,
now he did not see him, now he caught a glimpse of him, now he lost
him. (Ch. Dickens)
13.
Who will come with me, your brother or your sister? — Neither. They
are both busy.
14.
The weather is very bad today, which prevents us from taking a long
walk.
15.
Where a young bibliographer may make a mistake, a more experienced
one will find the matter easy.
16.
Every student whether of the junior or senior courses must attend the
lectures regularly.
В. Многозначные слова ("ложные друзья переводчика")
1.
The crew of the boat consisted of her husband, his two mates, three
engineers, twelve firemen and ten able-bodied seamen.
2.
The undersecretary was in evening dress.
3.
"Take the chair" — shouted the comrades to comrade Johnson — "and
don't give the floor to anybody for more than ten minutes; we want to
hear your paper at full length."
4.
A physician working with X-rays must be something of a physicist.
5.
The work of a compositor is rather difficult.
6.
The speaker of the House of Commons stops a speaker if he puts
things too bluntly.
The tramp took up some kind of shipment at every port.
The book was edited by a famous scholar.
Mendeleyev was a great student of chemistry.
A librarian must know both Sciences and Arts.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
8
The faculty of the New Orleans University consists of the best scholars, especially in Arts.
12.
I asked the chemist whether they had these preparations at the dispensary, I also asked him for dressing material.
13.
The salesman showed me a number of patterns for various fabrics.
14.
The officers of that company consist of the president, the treasurer, the
counsel, the auditor, etc.
15.
"Look here, officer," said the old woman — "stop the traffic for a moment, so that I might walk over the square to the pavement on the other
side."
16.
Little Oliver Twist was very much afraid of the master in the working
house.
17.
"It is so hot in the stokehold" — said Jackson — "we ought to have
better fans."
Michael Jackson has lost many of his fans after the scandal.
Five papers by excellent scholars were read at the Fuel Conference.
The film has been edited by A.Peterson. He is a very good specialist.
There are many creepers in the conservatory.
18.
19.
20.
21.
2. Неологизмы и эгологизмы
Some of these have been absorbed by the language and are widely
used now.
1.
It was a decorated, becatered and bewaitered table. (B. Tar-
kington)
2.
She displayed wonders of horsemanship and horseman-woman-ship.
(B.Tarkington)
3.
A man doesn't come a thousand and odd miles to be not-at-homed at
the end of it. (Ch. Lever)
4.
There are people who have much and those who have nothing. — Well,
you see. I'm among muchers. (G. Page)
We are the not-wanteds. (R. Aldington)
"We are has-beens now Kelly," said the former policeman to his dog.
Summer at last. You look summary too. (E. Benson)
She did her duty by me completely, but it is clear that there was no
motherhood, no sonship between us. (H. Wells)
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
The white tiled, gleaming-tapped bathroom. (G. Frankau)
10.
A strong northerly wind that found a few weary, half-skeletoned
leaves to play with. (R. Sheriff)
11.
The stage of coccoondom for modern boys is soon gone out of. (A.
Berkeley)
It was a dehumanized apartment. (Я. Wells)
The pill was sugar-coated. (W.Adcock)
1 may platitudinize, but I don't want any Shelleyan talk. (B. Shaw)
Ireland has a right to nationhood.
This man is an escapist from modern society.
Is the child, a mouth-breather? (" Medical Journal")
Modern Italy is an underbathroomed and overmonumented country.
(A. Huxley)
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
They had not so much Herbertian and Martaish in them when they
came home from France. (A. Huxley)
20.
The burstless crests of the waves were coming on and on. (J. Masefield)
21.
She is air-minded.
22.
We have many books for the world-minded in our library.
23. There is after the blinds have been drawn a fine little roulette for every
passenger in the Pullman. (B.Johnson)
24.
To coventrate every town under the sun — such is the wild dream of
the war-mongers — and is there much difference between them and
the brink-mongers? ("DW")
25.
The parassaboteurs are special troops, specially trained, specially
equipped and provided with a special morale to do their task. ("DW")
26.
I do not think a working girl should take her standards from a socialite.
(" DW")
27.
War and Peace filmized is after all not War and Peace as we read it.
28.
Cinemactors and cinemactresses are often chosen for general appeal
rather than for their artistic merits.
29.
Motels are provided all the way down from New York to Chicago; carowners find it most convenient. (E. Randolph)
10
3. Конверсия
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
I papered my room yesterday.
I have watered my flowers.
The hospital houses 500 patients.
The goods have been tabled.
Don't gas so much.
I have a cut on my cheek.
He has a burn on his leg.
The test run of the locomotive was very successful.
There is a give in the beam.
He went through the cold and through the damp, never afraid of catching cold.
The then President of the United States was Lincoln.
Don't syrup water!
Don't water syrup!
The dog spotted the hare.
15.
Jones was one of the best engine-drivers of that line. And Peter who
fired for him was considered a first-rate worker too.
16.
The train steamed out of the station.
17.
He thundered out a command.
18.
I prefer to pencil that note, because, otherwise, I'll ink my fingers with
your bad penholder.
I don't like his looks. That red in his cheeks speaks of t.b.c.
The cow has been milked.
He clerked at a small factory.
Your hat wants a brush.
It's a mere nothing.
It's a good buy.
I don't like the feel of flannel of my skin.
Give your horse a feed (give a read, give a thought).
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
11
27.
Through London streets yesterday the king's funeral procession
took two-and-half hours to slow-march from Westminster to
Paddington station. ("DW")
28.
We should not porch-porch the idea that this country should
annex Egypt in order to safeguard the communications with India ... so say the Tories now and so they went on saying for years
on end. ("DW")
The die-hards are in fact nothing but have-beens. ("DW")
The whys and wherefores of a war in which children must die
have never been made clear. ("DW")
29.
30.
31.
We must live in the now and pursue a constructive policy. ("The
Times")
32. Hiroshima was atombombed without the slightest mercy.
33. This is a robber budget, that the Tories want to introduce.
("DW")
34. Weigh the fors and the against and the decision will be clear as
daylight. ("DW")
35. She watched her son wolfing his meal. (J. Hanley)
36. We are inching forward to our target yet progressing we are.
("DW")
37. It was a novel experience to find himself head-lined. (J. London)
38. Don't be yanked into war. ("DW")
39. Within the offices were newly plastered, newly painted, newly
papered, newly floorclothed, newly tabled, newly chaired,
newly fitted up in every way with goods that were substantial
and expensive. (Ch. Dickens)
40. How many a time have we mourned over the dead body of Julius
Caeser and to be'd and not to be'd in this very room. (J.Austen)
41. The number of signatures to the Appeal will snowball rapidly.
("DW")
42. The short-time working which began in Lancashire has snowballed into a large-scale slump in the cotton industry. ("Daily
Mirror")
43. Both sides Ink Treaty.
4. Образные выражения
1.
2.
3.
12
He crowded a lot of adventures into his young life.
The invention of the printing press is among the highest points
in the history of education.
This political party contains a new plank in its platform.
4.
His span of life was but short.
5.
The steam drop hammer has a massive frame which takes the punishment from the terrific impact of the ram.
Cast iron proof was given to show that he was guilty.
6.
7.
This was rather an unusual mood for Mr.N. whose mind navigated
rather larger seas than those where his daughter's small barques adventured. (R. William)
8.
In spring plants shoot out rapidly.
9.
Fear dogged in his steps.
10. It was then that I embarked on my study of Shakespeare.
(V.Spurgeon) 11. Time is disjoined and out of frame. (W. Shakespeare)
12. Why should I write down what's riveted, screwed to my memory.
(W. Shakespeare)
13. This alloy is first cousin to another one.
14.
15.
16.
17.
ket,
A number of conferences have been organized at which seasoned
literary critics will discuss and analyze the works of budding authors.
Let us spur the local industry of our country.
England considers Canada as her granary, Australia as her butcher
and New Zealand as her henhouse. ("DW")
Before the war Italy, not wanting to have all her eggs in one bastried alternatively to make friends with all the great powers. ("DW")
5. Газетные заголовки
Part I. Dead serious:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Whither Modern Medicine?
Why Polar Expedition?
Steam Versus Electric Locomotives.
Anglo-French Drive in Egypt Halted.
Stay-in-Strikers at Chicago to Crush Bosses.
1000 British Aircraft Stop Work.
Manchester Ship Canal Reconstruction.
Portrait Exhibition Opening in New Orleans.
Ford Automobile Repair Shop Organization.
13
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
More Arms in Italy's Budget.
Metal Works Reorganization Conference at Montreal.
Physical Conference to Open Tomorrow in Chicago.
Lorry Crushes into Shop-Window.
Australia Adds to Fleet.
Terrible Plight of Unemployed Miner. Family Living in Tent.
Homes Smashed from Bombing Plane.
Rise of Electric Traction. Electric Locomotives Cheaper and More Effective.
Industrial Power Plant Modernization.
Coal Handling Problems at Electric Stations.
Electrical Features of Kansas City Water Works.
Soil Water Supply Important for Subtropical Plants.
Norwegian Tug-Boat on Fire. Crew Saved by Soviet Sporting Yacht.
Maiden Speech of New M.P.Criticizes Premier.
Part II. Have a smile:
Юмористический эффект помимо воли авторов данных газетных заголовков вызывается многозначностью слов (полисемией) и усиливается
из-за особенностей газетного стиля подачи информации в заголовках.
1.
Farmer Bill Dies in House.
2.
Lawyers Give Poor Free Legal Advice.
3.
Lawmen From Mexico Barbecue Guests.
4.
Juvenile Court to Try Shooters.
5.
Defendant, Speech Ends in Long Sentence.
6.
Stolen Painting Found by Tree.
7.
Hitler, Nazi Papers Found in Attic.
8.
Squad Helps Dog Bite Victim.
9.
Asbestos Suit Pressed.
10. Deaf Mute Gets New Hearing in Killing.
11. Men Recommend More Clubs for Wives.
12. Milk Drinkers Are Turning to Powder.
14
Задание: Что означают эти хрестоматийные заголовки?
13.
Big Apple Goes Bananas.
(Нью-Йорк сходит с ума)
14.
Dick Digs Pig Pix.
(Ричард Никсон обожает полицейские фильмы)
6. Полугерундий
1.
The Lebanese crisis ended after all with the American troops going
home. ("DW")
2.
We have not yet heard of a budget being swollen to such an extent —
and all to the detriment of the working masses. ("DW")
3.
Socialism is thrown in at the end, probably as an afterthought, and is
defined as "mutual service"! Not a word about the working class taking over the ownership of the factories, land and wealth of the country.
("DW")
4.
Dr. Adenauer and his Foreign Minister are concerned about Bonn being
cold-shouldered by the three West Powers at the forthcoming Foreign
Ministers' talks in Paris, which West Germany will attend only in a
consultative capacity. ("DW")
5.
Bonn wants the meetings to stop any of the allies drifting towards
dealings with the German Democratic Republic. ("DW")
7. Именительный падеж с инфинитивом
(Nominative with the Infinitive)
1.
Premier Nkrumah of Ghana is expected to visit India in December.
("DW")
2.
French car production this year is expected to hit the million mark.
Exports are expected to top last year's 250,000. ("DW")
3.
In talks with General de Gaulle in Paris yesterday, Mr.Dulles is believed to have urged his closer co-operation with the Western Powers.
The installation of missile bases on French soil was reported to be the
main issue under discussion. ("'DW")
4.
Five British vessels were reported trapped by ice yesterday on the
St.Lawrence River. ("DW")
Poland and the U.S. are understood to have agreed in principle to re
open consular offices. ("DW")
The Brussels exhibition is known to have been visited by 41 million
people. ("DW")
5.
6.
15
7.
The Benelux countries are understood to have put their compromise proposals to their Common Market partners, West Germany
and Italy, after extending them to Britain and other OEEC member
States. ("DW")
8.
The Ghana Government also announced the removal from office of
Mr. S.I.Iddrisu, M.P., who as Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Information is alleged to have written a letter to the company
approving the concession. He was in no way authorized to write any
such letters, the Government said. ("DW")
8. Абсолютный причастный оборот
(the Nominative Absolute)
1.
When the powers of the House of Lords were reduced in 1911, the
maximum duration of Parliament was reduced to five years, because
it was thought that, the effective powers of the House of Commons
having been increased, the majority ought to secure a renewal of its
mandate more often. (J.Jennings)
2.
To the bulk of these people Britain is a strange land, and there are
some who do not speak its language. Many are Maltese of origin,
but strangers in Malta, having spent their whole live in Egypt.
("The Times")
3.
With the North Atlantic Treaty Organization rent with dissension
over Suez, now is the time to get rid of all military pacts and blocs.
("DW")
4.
In many ways it might have been preferable if, the split having
occurred, the party had immediately rallied round Mr. Todd and
confirmed under his leadership. ("The Times")
5.
During the Festival several halls in the Moscow State University
will be taken over for dancing each evening, orchestras of different nations playing in each. ("DW")
6.
Some 3,000 will leave the Electric and Musical Industries works in
September, some of the workers having had 40 years service with
the firm. ("DW")
16
9. Given
Given (в начале предложения) означает учитывая, в случае...
1.
These target figures are not wildly extravagant, given the rate of
development which Russia has already achieved. (" The Times")
2.
Given the present industrial climate, the arrangement which grants
the personnel no voice in determining the modes of payment or in
the management of the enterprise seems to have proven insufficient
to bring about the improvement of labour-management relations
necessary for greater productivity. ("Economic Issues")
3.
Given good weather the campaign should greatly help the supply of
fodder. ("The Times")
10. Пассивная конструкция
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
Such trifles should be put up with.
The drowning man was thrown a rope.
This poor old blind man is never read to.
The ship was lost sight of.
Are we really meant to learn this by heart?
The room could be entered through a massive oak door.
This case of mental illness should be dealt with separately.
Edgar Рое is felt to be of insane mind in his later poems.
Such results are not to be wondered at.
His presence was taken no notice of.
This boy is not spoken to.
I don't understand why I am asked such a question.
John is not to be relied upon.
The bed was not slept in.
The house was not lived in.
17
11. Модальные глаголы
Pay attention to patterns modal verb + Past Participle.
A. Must, can, may, ought, might, to be
1.
His early years are but little known to biographers. Yet, he must
have started studying music at a much earlier age than is generally
presupposed. (Biography)
2.
You must have read about many acts of violence directed against
the negro communists of South Africa. Yet there may and, indeed,
there must have been others which have never reached the columns
of the press.
The Algerians could never have committed the atrocities the bourgeois press alleges they have done. ("DW")
The Costa-Rica Government may have incurred heavier debts than
those officially started. ("The Economist")
3.
4.
5.
War preparations in Germany must have started earlier than was
announced in the newspapers.
6.
Development in India is to proceed at a faster rate than hitherto, the
Indian Times announced yesterday
7.
We are just to start immediately! Please none of your "Just another
minute please". The steamer is leaving and we can't afford to miss
it. (S. Brown)
8.
The relaxation of international tension may yet prove to be a more
potent factor than many continue to think.
9.
What we ought to do with all our might is to put struggle and struggle again against the infiltration of American comics in Great Britain. ("DW")
B. Would
1.
"Chris is a business woman," said Roy Drover and Roy would
know. (S. Lewis)
2.
He wondered what had become of the boys who were his companions; they were nearly thirty now; some would be dead but others
were married and had children. (W.S. Таugham)
18
3.
As World War II also underscored, the Latin American countries control much of the mineral and other natural resources that the U.S. needs
to supplement its own. That would appear a guarantee of instability of
the Western Hemisphere. ("The New York Times")
4.
Some of your remarks about hay fever in your topics of Aug. 6 would
indicate that your knowledge is based upon American experience only.
12. Глагольное подлежащее
1.
2.
3.
4.
Mention has been made of a new material
Application should be made by post.
Use is made of a new machine.
Advantage has been taken of these factors.
13. Эллиптические конструкции
1.
The students have very limited, if any, opportunity to speak Russian
outside of school. ("The Modern Language Journal")
2.
Sacco and Vancetti were electrocuted many years ago. The intervening time has enhanced, if anything, the importance of the
case. ("The Nation")
3.
Harriman, the head of the ticket was, if anything, an even more ardent
upholder of the cold war line than his opponent. ("The Worker)
4.
On the whole, Canada appears to have shown much wisdom in developing its end of the expanding neighbourly relationship with the U.S. Rather than inhibiting Ottawa's world position, the process has, if anything, increased it. ("The New York Times")
5.
I do not believe for one moment that a merger of our armed services
would save the taxpayer one thin dime. If anything, I am sure that merger might bring about greater expenditure.
6.
In general she has changed little, if at all, in the two years of her absence.
The inhabitants of his real saw him, if at all, only in passing.
Some 2 billion people — three quarters of the world's population speak languages that are rarely, if ever, taught in the U.S. ("The Modern
Language Journal")
7.
8.
19
9.
Thus the U.S. was under pressure to come forward with a serious
reply to the Russian proposals — if only for the sake of public opinion in an apprehensive world. ("The New Times")
10.
With French consent, the United States was becoming officially involved for the first time in the Algerian question, if only, on its
fringes. ("The New York Times")
11.
Under no circumstances must the Labour movement permit divisions to arise between workers, whatever the colour of their skin. In
strike after strike — with the London bus strike as the most recent
example — the coloured workers have stood firm with their colleagues against the boss.("DW")
12.
Whatever the outcome, the emphasis of both parties is more on
"liberal" candidates. ("The Times")
14. Двузначные глаголы
1.
But the Volga cascade pales into insignificance beside the new
schema for tapping the electric power resources of Russian rivers
like the Ob, the Yenisei, the Angara and others in Siberia. (" DW")
2.
We are not in all truth, big enough or powerful enough to simply
scare the world into adopting our image of what it ought to be. ("
Wall Street Journal")
3.
Anti-labour legislation in California, Ohio, Washington, Idaho, Colorado and Kansas, helped to string Labour into activity in these
and other States but that alone is not the answer. ("DW")
4.
There is danger in the very fact that we are becoming accustomed
to the idea of the bomb. We have lived with it for so long that we
may be lulled into a feeling that there is no harm in living with it
for ever. ("The Times")
15. Распространенные атрибутивные конструкции
1.
From these bases Chiang's U.S.-supplied forces have repeatedly attacked cities on the mainland and Chinese shipping. (Chiang Kaishek — Чан-Кайши)
2.
Mr. Odinga, who is chairman of the African-elected members of the
Legislative Council, is under vicious attack by the European settlers
for his declaration that Jomo Kenyatta and his colleagues now in
prison are regarded by the African as their political leaders. ("DW")
3.
U.S.-shifted UN officials will presumably be obedient tools at the
ready and full command of Mr.Dulles or his lieutenants. ("DW")
20
4.
Time and again USSR-sponsored disarmament proposals have been
killed, thrown into oblivion by some dexterous political combination or turned down to such an extent as to make them lose their
edge and purport completely. ("DW")
5.
The Democrats in Congress now have an overwhelming majority
and don't have to depend on the votes of the Dixie-crats (Southern
Democrats). With so many labour endorsed and negro-supported socalled liberal Democrats the People's Movement will expect the enactment of the program on which they were elected. ("DW")
6.
Responding to the delegate's anti-Tory sentiments by making continual attacks on the Government, Mr. Wilson gave a few details of
the national executive's mild-after-water proposals for remedying
the defects of the economy. ("DW")
16. Изменение порядка слов при переводе
Варианты перевода:
a) A suburban train was derailed in London yesterday. Вчера в
Лондоне с рельсов сошел пригородный поезд.
b) Huge tracts of arable land of nation-wide importance will appear in
the neighbourhood of the canal.
В районе канала появятся огромные участки пахотных угодий
общенационального значения.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
A capacity of 1.4 million kilowatts has been slated for the largest
hydroelectric station in the USA, the Grand Coulee on the Columbia
river.
Other tasks that were then unprecedented for the workers were the
fight for safety and sanitation in the mines. ("DW")
The next five years saw a new mighty upsurge in the culture of People's China. ("DW")
After the Second World war the world saw major changes in the
economic position of all countries. ("The Economist")
This year a considerable increase has been registered in the field of
the crop. ("The Economist")
17. Трудные для перевода слова
1.
2.
He is of a morbid disposition — he only thinks about his illness.
Where was that mysterious treasure they were looking for? It was to
be found in none of the rooms; of course there was some bulk in the
thick walls to be accounted for — but could they have hidden it
there? (E.Poe)
3.
The morning sun had melted all the mist. Only a little whiff of cloud
still clung to one of the summits.
He is a steady worker. He goes on with his work slowly, but assur-
4.
edly.
5.
6.
7.
After having oil's first book accepted one might do anything —
begin dancing in the street, kiss the first passer-by. (H. Walpole)
How did you begin to write? Well, I just sat down and began. (H.
Walpole)
Mother will tuck you up in bed, little Johnnie, and you will be snug
and cosy.
8.
There is nothing like a brisk walk in the bracing August sun and
wind to keep a fellow fit the whole day long!
9.
That little girlie dying of hunger in the middle of the street — the
sight was truly pathetic!
10. 1 wonder and wonder and wonder at all the extraordinary things such
little insects as ants and bees can do and never stop wondering.
11.
12.
13.
We had lost our way in the jungle, we were wet to the skin and
simply dying of hunger — what misery!
A pattern of wild geese stood against the yellow evening sky.
Not a few schools for girl's feature domestic training.
14.
With a paper covering a wide territory there may be a field editor
stationed at each important center throughout the country.
15.
Several members of the faculty complained that they were having
trouble with students who "asked questions out of season."
16.
When the President receives newspaper representatives at the White
House, he sometimes prefaces or supplements a statement by remarking: "This is off the record." That is to say, it is for their private information, and not for publication.
Both secretary and co-secretary are my co-authors.
17.
22
LEVEL B (Advanced)
18. Разное глагольное управление
1.
"Do not reject these changes!" said a white South African businessman whom I genuinely like and respect and expect to have as
a friend.
2.
I remember talking with and being charmed by Che Guevara a
few years ago.
3.
After a quarter century in this city (Washington, D.C.) as editor,
reporter and columnist, he knew, was respected by and had access
to
almost every major figure of our era.
4.
Hated by some, envied by many, feared by his competitors, Dr.
Rosenbach was nevertheless able to exert his charm on all, no matter what their status in society.
5.
Light, colour and significance do not exist in isolation. They modify, or are manifested by objects.
6.
"I'd thought you were a Christian, Charlie Cool. My idea of a Christian does not include laughing at and encouraging a poor mad
woman."
7.
Nothing in his /L. Carroll's/ diaries or his letters suggests that his
interest in the scores of little girls he told stories to, played with at
the seaside, and loved to take very formally to the theatre, when
mothers allowed this, was other than innocent. ("NY")
8.
There was a manly vigour in his tone that convinced me he was
wrestling with, and triumphing over, the great sorrow that had so
nearly wrecked his life. (L. Carroll)
9.
At present nearly 200,000 American engineers and scientists spend
all their time making weapons, which is a comment on, and perhaps explanation for, the usual statement that more scientists are
now alive than since Adam and Eve. (P. Goodman)
10. It is well to remember that Willy Brandt and Georges Pompidou did
not like and trust each other. ("Nsw.")
11. "Oh," she said, "I am so frightened and so sceptical of big
undertakings." (D.H. Lawrence)
12. You'd never had taken him for a little white-headed snipe that the
girls used to order about and make fun of. (0. Henry)
13.
14.
do.
He denied any suggestion that he was connected with, or was responsible for, the absence of the main witness at the trial.
He called for, and got, sympathy in the way most of us could never
25
15.
Au revoir, my dearest. I shall be thinking of and writing to you. .
16.
Of vital importance in communication — understating, speaking,
reading, and writing — are a knowledge of, and a facility with, the
pronunciation and intonation patterns of English.
19. Суффиксальные новообразования
1.
Homer Wells kept his notes in one of Dr. Larch's old medical school
notebooks. Larch had been a cramped, sparse note taker — there
was plenty of room.
2.
Since 1944 there have been only 10 prosecutions under the act. If it
is unenforceable, or at least unenforced, is there any point in replacing it with other legislation?
3.
Yesterday's international plan to set up a science and technology
center in Russia (unemployed and eminently brain-drainable former scientists for the use of) has already been anticipated by free
market- minded men.
4.
Neil Kinnock has made some good conference speeches but today
he needs to make a really special one. Making Labour electable,
which happened fairly regular prior to 1979, is his undeniable
achievement. But party members and electors are entitled to ask a
question: electable to what purpose?
5.
Peregrine Worsthorn, the tower of Kiplingesque conservatism at the
Sunday Telegraph, in London, has taken to zapping his American
neo-conservative cousins on the subject of hawkishness in foreign
policy. ("NYTM")
6.
Why are being asked to read some 1,600 pages from the diary of an
unknown writer? Who cares about Arthur Crew Inman? During the
1920s he published several volumes of forgettable verse, if the experts he quotes in his dairy are any indication. ("NYTBR")
7.
As a pagan, 1 see all life and nature as sacred, yet I live in a society
which views the Earth as a plunderable resource. ("Ind."May 27,
93)
8.
Is Douglas Fairbanks Jr. the most clubable man of the 20th century?
If membership in the world's finest clubs was, by itself, the test of
clubability, then Doug could claim preeminence. Clubability,
however, presumes much more: the ability to tell spellbinding yarns,
to wear suits well, to walk the fine line between being a character
and an eccentric, and, above all else, to possess genuine good humour and bullet-proof equanimity. ("F.")
26
9.
Let us toast Mel Brook's "The Producers", the world's funniest film
about the World worst musical. I sheer quotability "The Producers"
gives "Hamlet" sleepless nights. ("G.")
10.
D.Peploe was not a joiner of clubs or coteries but enjoyed conversations on every imaginable subject, preferably not art.
11.
It is a joy to re-encounter David Levaux's production of "No man's
Land" by H.Pinter. Not even the coughers who haunt West End
first nights can diminish Pinter's twilit masterpiece. ("G.")
12.
In an interview with Ray Connolly in "The Times" tomorrow,
Blunkett explained that at school he became a stirrer for good
causes and led a delegation about the quality of the meals. ("T., "
Jan. 12, 90)
13.
One of the reasons I am so impressed with him is that we parish
pumpkin politicians do a lot of talking and little doing, but David is
a doer and on that account I rate him very high indeed. ("G.")
14.
Other Arab leaders know that a deal crowning the butcher of Baghdad with saviorhood would increase his momentum and whet his
appetite. ("IHT")
He used to buy Arrow shirts, at that time the nec plus ultra
(=super) of shirtdom. ("NYTBR")
15.
20. Коммуникативное членение предложения
1.
Iraq has been surveyed from space by the U.S. spy satellites. Its
missiles sites, its radar and signal intelligence facilities, its communication links, its chemical weapons and nuclear weapons facilities, its navy bases at Basra and Umm Qasr, its seven major military
airfields, its two captured Kuwait airfields and Baghdad and Kuwait
international airports have been measured and assessed.
2.
The Saudi government is cracking down on foreign infractions of
the Saudi laws banning possession of alcoholic beverages and
drugs. The U.S. ambassador has been warned that Americans arrested on alcoholic charges no longer can expect a suspended sentence.
Instead, the punishment of forty lashes will be applied, and at least
six Americans have tasted the rod during the past few weeks.
3.
Very few people in Europe realized that a new epoch was beginning
when the French Estates-General met at Versailles on May 5 1789.
Unbalanced budgets and a bankrupt treasury, an army and navy incompetently led and irregularly paid, a peasantry permanently overtaxed and suffering from the famine caused by a series of ruinous
harvests formed the background to and the reason for the calling of
an assembly that had not met since 1614. (A.L.Morton)
27
4.
It is working people, many of whom cannot afford burglar alarms
and private transport, or who live in rundown estates that are, in the
main, victims of crime.
5.
Nearby, benign in white floppy hat, shorts and sandals, a man stands
with a poster reading: "It's going to get worse." ("G.")
6.
Japan can claim a long interest in robots. Clockwork dolls were developed in the 18th century to ferry cups between guests during tea
ceremonies.
It was autosight... that directed the fire of those mighty guns.
On the afternoon and early evening of December 23, three events
occurred seemingly unconnected, and in distance three thousand
miles apart.
7.
8.
9.
It was Larry who broke away from the pack after years of running...
He was marrying Ellen Fried, a twenty-nine-year-old teacher.
10.
A 24-page booklet which attacks the new BBC television documentary series "The British Empire" is being circulated among
BBC staff.
21. Причина в роли агента действия
1.
A severed telephone cable crippled long-distance phone service Friday to and from the New-York area, halted trading at some financial
markets and delayed hundreds of flights at East Coast airports.
2.
With the end of the Cold War, budgets for military research began
to fall, killing some programs, curtailing others and creating a general sense of foreboding in the military-industrial complex.
The Gulf war has increased sales for all quality newspapers. ("G.")
3.
4.
Failure to destroy Iraq's key military facilities ensure that an early
invasion of Kuwait would be a highly risky venture. ("G." Jan.)
5.
Promoted in 1916, peace would have brought Russian troops home,
saving a year of demoralizing war. ("G.")
6.
Surely any city which obliges McDonald's to close due to lack of
patronage is an irreproachable candidate for canonization. ("T.")
7.
He was a superb tutor, though he never cared for graduate students.
But he could always fill the largest lecture hall at the most inconvenient hour. ("T.")
28
8.
The desert is an ideal environment for the spy satellite to look
down on. The low humidity and lack of clouds make for clear
images. ("G.")
9.
By and large, the Kremlin's shortage of hard currency and eye
catching goods has deterred most governments from looking to
Russia as a major trading partner. ("Nsw.")
10.
Overcrowding in our prisons is not caused by a shortage of
space, but by an abundance of prisoners. Building more prisons
will no more reduce the crime rate than building more hospitals
will reduce the number of road accidents. ("G.")
11.
Now the nation's (US) huge oil-import bills and smoggy air have
revived interest in electronic vehicles, which emit no pollutants
and can run on the juice from power plants burning American
coal or natural gas. ("Nsw.")
A plan by the Church of Christian Scientists to publish and promote a controversial book on its founder has split the 150,000member sect. ("G.")
His death at the height of his career robs medical statistics of one
of the most talented exponents. ("T.")
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
His house in Chiswick has a lovely atmosphere. There was a cat
asleep on one of the chairs in the sitting room which made me
feel instantly at home. ("T.")
The Soviet rise of global power turned Vladivostok into the
home of the mighty Pacific Fleet and a region into a sealed military camp. ("IНT)
Unexpectedly mild weather has made November gardening a
greater pleasure than usual. ("Ind.")
22. Обстоятельства в роли агента действия
1.
The second half of the 15th century saw wars and conquests in
Morocco and the colonization of Madeira and the Azores. These
islands offer a pleasant climate and fertile land. ("IHT")
2.
Queen Victoria's reign saw rumbustious political rallies in Hyde
Park and Albert's Great Exhibition with Crystal Palace. ("G.")
The postwar years have seen decisive advances in the study of
primates such as chimpanzees and in discovery of fossils of our
ancestors. ("MS")
3.
29
4.
Paradoxically, the ending of the Cold War has not seen a reduction
in either personnel or budget of the secret Intelligence Service.
("Ind")
5.
Brittany's much-forgotten language is getting a new lease of life, as
the firstever Breton dictionary prepares to hit the shelves next year.
Three years of research have produced 1,000 pages containing
10,000 words, a modest feat when compared to the Larousse French
dictionary of 60,000 words. ("G.")
6.
Commonwealth leaders yesterday concluded their biannual summit
with pledges covering topics from South Africa to Cyprus, from
democracy to global trade, but with little clout behind the words.
Five days of talking produced a 17-page communiqué. ("Ind.")
7.
The main block of the boarding school houses the boy's dormitories,
dining rooms, common rooms and exercise room. ("G.")
8.
Built in 1933 as a memorial to Lillie Hitchcock Coit, who left a
third of her fortune to beautify the city, the tower houses 3,691
square feet of murals that portray the life of 1930s California.
("MS")
9.
The Southeast of Turkey harbours a number of ancient and diverse
languages brought in by the different people who, over thousands of
years, settled in this area of mountains and wide open spaces. ("G.")
10.
Archeologists working in Israel's Nahal hemar cave, a Neolithic site
south of Jerusalem, have found pieces of fabric that may be the earliest known example of linen. The cave also has yielded what may
be the oldest known samples of woven baskets in the Middle East.
("NG")
Britain counts only four industries in which it can still be ranked as
of world class: chemical, aerospace, steel and Pharmaceuticals.
("G.")
11.
12.
His school draws about 600 pupils from 13 villages. The last teacher vacancy, for a head of physical education, attracted more than 50
applicants. But attracting queues of parents has proved difficult.
("G")
23. Пассивный залог
1. Six months after he spent six hours talking to Saddam Hussein in
Baghdad and gained the release of 250 American hostages, Jesse
Jackson has still not been interviewed by any major US television
network.
30
2.
An idealist defending his system by the fact that when we sleep we
often believe ourselves awake, was well answered by his plain
neighbour, "Ay, but when awake do we ever believed ourselves
asleep?"
3.
Finally watches were consulted, tunics buttoned, hats donned. (E.E.
Cumтings)
4.
He was accustomed to being showered with praise and affection by
significant figures from his mother to his boss at the Navy Department. (T.Morgan)
5.
During these days she suffered from mental starvation, until she was
rescued by a family friend, Bernard Berenson, who arranged for her
to be tutored in Greek and Latin by a classical scholar. To be taught
so, in the country where earth is saturated with classical myth and
poetry, gave her what she most needed. ("S.R.")
6.
On our arrival to Elevston, she readily adopted my suggestion that
we should walk together; so as soon as our luggage had been duly
taken charge of— hers by the servant who met her at the station,
and mine by one of the porters — we set out together along the familiar lanes. (L. Carroll)
7.
In New York, Dorothy Donohue, the widow of a murdered policeman, finds it incredible that the killer may be spared the electric
chair. ("Nsw.")
8.
And then Waldemar is coaxed and dragged out of bed, yelling and
fighting. (Ch. Isherwood)
9.
If nothing is done, the problem will acquire the momentum it has in
the United States, where senior executives are paid so much more
than workers that fundamental questions of equity and even decency
are being widely discussed. ("G.")
10.
The care of dangerous mentally ill patients should be taken away
from prison officers and given to nurses, an inquiry is expected to
say today. ("G.")
Physically Mr. Clinton is an imposing man. But he was dwarfed by
the huge black chair he sat in. ("Ind.")
In fact, being with them here tonight was really an adventure, and
somehow quite a wonderful adventure. But being an English adventure it was liable to be rained upon; and at this very moment
down the rain came.
He was pitchforked into the post of Minister of Health.
11.
12.
13.
31
14.
"Ready?" said the old gentleman inquiringly, when his guests had been
washed, mended, brushed and brandied.
15. "I think you had better be going back," he said. "It's rather late. They
may be missing you." Maud laughed happily. "I don't mind now what
they do. But I suppose dinners must be dressed for, whatever happens."
16.
"The weather report promises heavy snow moving in from the west," he
said. It will be here by evening, so I'm going to New York today. By
tomorrow we may be snowed in.
17.
What's wrong with the way American students are taught foreign languages? Just about everything, says a report from the American Council of Education.
18.
Ten years ago, government statisticians calculated that one in five children would be affected by the divorce of their parents by the age of 16.
Yesterday they changed that estimate to one child in four.
19.
20.
When she came into the room it was empty and the bed had not been
slept in.
He was elegant, bowler-hatted and umbrellaed.
21.
But I have been trained not to let a man die, if I can help it.
22.
The low square stone house was set upon rocks well above the narrow
beach that was outlined with bent pines.
23.
By 5 p.m. the line of clouds extended from near Mineral Wells to Jemple, and was being watched by radar units at three offices of the National Weather Service.
24.
But then Cambridge was interrupted by three years in a Royal Navy.
25.
All through the nineteenth century, America, Africa, India, Australia
and parts of Europe were being developed largely by British capital,
and British shareholders were thus being enriched by the world's
movement towards industrialization.
26.
No young people were of any importance. Young people's opinions
were not consulted and weren't expected to be given either without being asked for.
24. Однородные члены предложения в
различной сочетаемости
1.
32
Не was wearing gray flannel slacks, a white shirt, a blue cardigan, and
a look of surprise.
2.
There were no women in the firm. That mistake had been made in midseventies, when they recruited the number one grad from Harvard, who
happened to be a she and a wizard at taxation.
3.
One evening, our friends took us to the Pizzeria Sfera, where I ate one
of the best pizza 1 have ever tasted. The pizzeria is a ten-minute walk
from the centre, but worth the effort and the wait while Signor Sfera
cooks.
4.
The windows were high, and many, letting in the light as into a
schoolroom. (D.H. Lawrence)
5.
Like them, you were born poor and on a farm. (N. West)
6.
It reminds me of how when I was a little boy and sleepy my father
carried me from the car into the house at the end of a long trip.
(J.Cheever)
7.
Football and trying to be white to my fellow-men were about the extent of my college curriculum. (0. Henry)
8.
Kim Brandstrup is 31 years old and a choreographer. ("G.")
9.
Like many things created in Japan, this book is sturdy, well-designed
and a good buy. ("NYTBR")
10.
While scathing and dismissive in debate, he had the knack — unusual
in a politician — of winning both the argument and friends. ("G.")
11.
A second Jane Sommers novel "If the God Could..." appeared last June,
again to respectful reviews but meager sales. ("Nsw.")
12.
At present "Scientific technology" occupies a bastard position in the
universities, in funding and in the public mind. (P. Goodman)
13.
Aunt Rosa fetched cold compresses, aspirins and the family doctor,
who after examining the wound prescribed aspirins and cold compresses. (J. Barth)
14.
Spotting a black cab near his home with the keys in the ignition, and
needing to pay off a few household debts, Mr.Wilks jumped in and
drove off. He worked the cab ranks of Victoria on the night shift. But
four days later and £300 the richer, the game was up. ("G.")
15.
The senior airline steward was tired. I had been a hard day looking after
passengers on the British Midland service between Teeside and London
and now all he wanted was a cup of tea and bed. ("T.")
16.
At Corpus Christy College I was welcomed by sally Braithwaite, the
tutorial secretary. She became a good friend — she is expert on the
whereabouts of the tutors and a good provider of tea and conversation.
33
17.
Among other rooms on the second floor is the Petit Bureau, with
a glistening chandelier and a view into the courtyard.
("IHT")
18.
President Virgilio Barco's war on the cocaine barons won praise
abroad and some success at home. ("FT")
19.
The most impressive of all seaside ruins is Dunstanbur Cattle. Its tall
and craggy towers might have been dreamed by Sir Walter Scott. A
clamber to the top of them for the view and a deep lungful of sharp
sea air is more pleasure than effort. ("FT")
20.
Bengt Westerberg, the Liberal Party leader, is the nice guy of Swedish
politics with home-knitted woolly jumpers and progressive views on
human rights that sometimes put him to the left of the Social Democrats. ("G.")
21.
After six months and ten deaths, the IRA hunger strike at the Maze
prison outside Belfast seemed to be crumbling last week. ("Nsw.")
22.
Malcolm Kennedy said after being arrested for drunkenness on the night
of December 23 he was taken to a cell in Hammersmith police station,
where he dozed off. He was later aware of another man, Patric Quin,
aged 55, in cell, and of a fight between him and a policeman. ("G.")
23.
Other projects include the renovation of Barcelona's shabby sea-front to
make a promenade dotted with fanciful lamps and over-style- conscious cafes — an exclusively playful, toytown conception whose
benches gather dust, not strollers. ("G.")
24.
"I'm sorry, Patric," she had said, standing at the door of her flat, her
baggage packed and visible in the hall behind her, keeping him out.
(M. Spark)
25.
On hearing that Mr.Profumo was away with Mr.Keeler, Mr.Ivanov visited Valerie Hobson, Mr.Profumo's actress wife, armed with two bottles of vodka and a determination to discover details of the British
military machine. ("G.")
26.
What present-day reformers really want is a written constitution with
the citizen's rights and obligations clearly stated, and to have it available like the Highway Code, for not more than £1. ("T.")
27.
The operatic works of G.Mahler are few and unimportant. ("T.")
28.
President Bill Clinton arrived in California on Friday for a brief vacation and some advice from former President Ronald Reagan on how to
get things accomplished during his first year in office. ("IHT")
34
29. Although not conventionally handsome, Cornway Twitty had chubby
good looks and a busy publicity team which turned him into one of
the teenage idols of his day. ("T.")
25. Герундий
1.
Hearing them talk about bathing made me want to bath too.
2.
At this moment, the room bore every mark of having been recently
and hurriedly ransacked.
3.
For some months there had been in our front only a small brigade of
undisciplined troops, apparently without a commander, who were useful to us, for not disturbing them we could create an impression of our
weakness.
4.
Having a wife who let people know exactly what she thought was not
always comfortable for him.
5.
He encouraged, he almost compelled her to preserve her childishness.
Keeping her a baby in spite of her age amused her. (A. Huxley)
6.
Satisfying the sweet tooth of weight-conscious Americans hasn't been
easy for the food industry. ("Nsw.")
7.
Riding in Hyde park has been in decline since the war, and there are
now only two riding stables left serving the park. ("G.")
8.
It was no explanation of the old woman's having eluded us to say that
she lived abroad, for our research had again and again taken us (not only by correspondence but by personal inquiry) to France, to Germany,
to Italy. (H.James)
Going to concerts was about the only thing he thoroughly enjoyed.
9.
10.
You have no one, but yourself to blame for not having asked for more
detailed information.
11.
Perhaps he simply couldn't bear not being the centre of attention.
12.
And there was one thing Reilly could not stand, he could not stand being embarrassed. And he could not stand being made a fool of.
13.
He had the sense — as he had at their first meeting — of never being
able to recognize her or forgetting what she looked like when she was
out of sight.
In seeing to whether Fleur was asleep he might wake her up.
On being carefully inspected the coat showed evident signs of having
been worn on the preceding night.
14.
15.
35
16.
Parents who want the very best for their children usually expect the best
from them. By knowing what to expect, but not expecting more
than the possible, parents can help their children.
17.
He, after bowing, smiling, frowning, shaking his hand in an amazingly rapid succession, walked away to eat a whole plateful of sandwiches, wash them down with beer and talk to five people at once with
his mouth full.
18.
These circumstances taken together prevented his seeing the matter in
its proper light.
19.
"Are you hinting that Joe had secret life?" said Donalson. "No. But I am
hinting that he could have had a secret life without any of us knowing
about it."
20.
All the evidence of past words and deeds is against such an agreement
being possible.
26. Определения, образованные соположением
1.
President Chirac prepared yesterday to fly to France's Mururoa nuclear test atoll in the Pacific.
2.
I believe that TV is the least effective war reporting media because it
presents images rather than a whole story.
3.
Worried councillors in North Wales have called a public meeting to
discuss the extent of radioactive pollution from Sellafield along the
coast. The meeting was called by Gwynned county council's public
protection committee after councillors heard reports of the high risk of
radioactivity in the Irish sea. ("MS")
4.
The Evening Star's aggressive salesmen gobbled up more than half of
the burgeoning metropolitan area's lucrative newspaper advertising
market. ("Nsw.")
5.
Scepticism is growing in Europe over the feasibility of meeting the Soviet Union's huge food aid request, given disarray in the economy and
the transfer of power to the republics. ("G.")
6.
His school draws about 600 day pupils from 13 villages. Many of his
boarders are service children, sometimes two of the same family. Their
costs are covered by the Ministry of Defense's boarding school allowances. ("G.")
7.
The British Pest Control Association warned in a report that pests
carried a "devastating range of diseases," but hospital pest control
budgets were being squeezed. ("MS")
36
8.
A crisis meeting is being held in London next Monday between
secretaries of the printing trade unions and the proprietors of the
Daily Sketch.
9.
Glasgow faces evening paper closure crisis, their guessed, but unknown perils.
10.
A Government bid to attract more fast-spending foreign tourists to
Britain by improving hotels was revealed in the Commons yesterday
in the second day of the four-day Budget debate. A new countrywide scheme of grants for hotel extensions and improvements
was
announced.
27. Придаточные в функции
одного из членов предложения
1.
Getting into medical school involves convincing five different
groups of people that you have what it takes to become a good doctor.
2.
It is beguiling that the humble pen — one of the oldest tools of
communication — has inspired what may prove to be the next leap
forward in computer technology. Pen-based computers enable users
to enter or manipulate data using an electronic pen, or stylus instead
of a keyboard.
3.
Month after month last year the money poured out of a small neighbourhood bank here in what its president depicted as a legitimate series of loans totalling $13 million. The only trouble, investigators
have now found, is that the 128 people and businesses listed as loan
recipients neither applied for nor received any of the money
4.
A police traffic motorcyclist stopped a man he believed to be a disqualified driver in what was probably a stolen car. ("MS")
5.
Younger Koreans worry about what they consider to be Korea's increasing dependence on Japanese capital, technology and industrial
goods. ("Nsw.")
6.
There were ten guards in what could only be described as paramilitary uniform belonging to no recognizable army. (R. Ludlum)
1. Both composers vastly increased the definition of what is a respectable
piece of music nowadays. ("Nsw.")
8. Convoys of lorries laden with food donated by German families and
charted by the Red Cross and other aid organizations are to set off
before the weekend on the long road to Moscow and other Soviet
37
cities to relieve the threat of hunger in what the United Nations believe will be
the severest winter since the war. ("G.")
9.
For some time now UNESCO, the educational branch of the United
Nations, has been protesting against what it sees as Western bias in international news. ("Nsw.")
10.
Foreign investors are prohibited from buying more than 25 per cent of
the stock of any U.S. airline or from having what in effect could be
considered control over such carrier. ("IHT")
11.
Over the course of the seven-year conflict in. Afghanistan, some 10,000
Soviet soldiers have been killed and 20,000 wounded and there is little
doubt that Moscow is eager to extricate itself from what has clearly become a no-win military situation. ("Nsw.")
12.
At dawn, I returned to what was once my house. All now a mass of
ashes. ("RD")
13.
Astronomers Bradford Smith of the University of Arizona and Richard
Terrile of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory took stunning photographs of what might be planets forming around the star. ("Nsw.")
14.
The veil, which shrouded her whole face, was too thick for me to see
more than the glitter of bright eyes and the hazy outline of what might
be a lovely face, but might also, unfortunately, be an equally unlovely
one. (L. Carroll)
15.
Ever since July 1, when President George Bush announced his intention
to nominate U.S. Court of Appeals Judge Clarence Thomas to the Supreme Court, the judge's detractors and supporters have labored mightily to invest him with characteristics intended to advance their own political and ideological objectives. Much of what has been said about
him, by those on both sides, has added little to what was already
known when the Senate conformed Clarence Thomas less than two
years ago to his current judicial appointment. ("IHT")
16.
A judge complained yesterday he was not allowed to detain a schoolboy who carved his initial in another boy's back while torturing him.
Judge Bruce Laughland told the Old Bailey: "Parliament has deprived
the courts of any power of detention of a person of his age, or of what
many people might think was any effective punishment." ("G.")
17.
With what felt like a roar, but must really have been a pigsqueal, I
leapt at the nearest boy and hit him squarely on the nose. (W. Golding)
38
28. Каузативные конструкции типа
"to have/get smth done"
1.
Italy's rap star Jovanotti had his fans worried recently, when he
started to sing about the rain forest, the fight against drugs and the
sorry state of Italian politics.
2.
Lloyd George was believed to have had the beer deluded in pubs
near centres of ammunition production during the first world war, in
order to keep the wheels of the home front turning without a hiccup.
3.
Mr. Herbane had got his face scratched and his finger bitten by
the cat, trying to catch her for a second experience in killing and
bringing to life. (Th.L Peacock)
4.
The congressman from our district, General Fulgham, assured me
some days ago that he would use his influence to get my book published at an early date. (O. Henry)
5.
Nearly 1,600 birds died, 25 crofts had their vegetables condemned
and 2,000 sheep were moved from affected grazing areas as a result
of the Braer tank (oil spill) disaster in Shetland, the House of Lords
was told yesterday. ("G.")
6.
A technical dispute between big brewers and Customs and Excise
could have beer and lager drinkers foaming at the mouth: the
alcoholic strengths of many brands are to be cut while the prices —
already too high for many — remain the same. ("Ind.")
7.
Alan Clark, the colourful former defense minister, had his career
"destroyed by woman," his wife Janice claims in a documentary
to be shown at the weekend. ("T.")
8.
At the Old Courthouse he was booed by a large crowd of farmers
and their wives. "Have those damned oafs moved on," he snarled
at Sir Giles. "I will not be subject to hooliganism." (T.Sharpe)
29. Комплексные синтаксические перестройки
1.
2.
A hundred civilian jobs are likely to be lost following the announcement yesterday of a number of US military base closures as
part of the accelerating strategic withdrawal that has followed the
end of the Cold War.
The veil, which shrouded her whole face, was too thick for me to
see more than the glitter of bright eyes and the hazy outline of what
might be lovely face, but might also, unfortunately, be an equally
unlovely one.
39
3.
A New York State trooper just finishing his night shift at 3 a.m. fled
when his car flipped over after he fell asleep at the wheel.
4.
Officials are considering making more prison cells available by
making greater use of gymnasiums and other temporary space in
jails, temporary conversion of underused young offenders institutions and increasing the number of prisoners sharing cells.
5.
In the spring of 1880 he died alone in a furnished room in Washington. Died, neglected and despised by those who had filched millions
from his land.
6.
But there was no progress on the basic issues of Israel's refusal to
withdraw to its 1967 borders or to accept an independent Palestinian
state on the West Bank.
7.
French officials sources in Paris have said that it is not until next
year that the pensioners will receive the increase provided for in
the Budget.
8.
Shortly thereafter, Bender flew to Los Angeles to observe Tailer as
he put the finishing touches on his album.
9.
He was solicitous during the pregnancy, he wanted to bring her
spare ribs late at night, run out for ice cream, but she had none of
these cliche whims, so he often brought her flowers instead, which
before this he would have considered excessively romantic.
10.
She stood there: slender, dark-haired, fair-skinned, and lovely in a
peach-colored night robe whose high collar and decorous lines still
set off her figure to advantage.
11.
It was the first snow of the season and a decorative one, unlikely to
last long enough to create the problems that arrived with every winter in the mountains.
30. Модальность
Обратите внимание на перевод конструкции: modal
verb + have done
1.
When father gave me the money and tried to talk me out
of the thought of marriage, I would not listen.
2.
She offended people right and left, made silly mistakes and wouldn't let herself be told.
3.
"What's happened to sister Agatha?" I asked my nurse when she
came in. — "Can't say," — "Won't say," I said. No answer.
40
4.
6.
"We can as well stay here for the night." — "We could."
"You are so careless. You might have broken the cup."
7.
When Mini unleashed her frustration in a rage, demanding an
explanation for the way she was being treated, the woman paid
no heed, and might well have been deaf and mute.
8.
She must not expect to do two jobs well, to be a good mother
and a good novelist.
9.
Somebody had to be controlled more or less; and I pulled myself
together.
10.
It was to be expected that something would happen to Sir
George. But who could have guessed what?
11.
I do not claim I can tell a story as it ought to be told. I only
claim I know how a story ought to be told, for I have been almost daily in the company of the most expert story-tellers for
many years.
12.
"Why do you live in the woods if you belong to the squadron?"
the chaplain inquired curiously. "I have to live in the woods",
the captain replied crabbily, as though the chaplain ought to
know.
13.
"It's my fault — it's my fault!" Doris suddenly sobbed out. "I
shouldn't have loved you; I oughtn't to have let you love me."
14.
Lyn Siddon's case should — and must — increase the gathering
momentum for reform.
When I was in concentration camp, I resolved that, if I was to
live through the horrors of that experience, I would never again
shed one tear of regret for whatever Fate gave me.
When it has seemed that drinking is becoming too much of a
habit I have given it up for a few months — if only to check that
one can. One can.
15.
16.
31. Конструкции и комплексы с инфинитивом
1.
2.
3.
Mrs. June Makin woke early to find two burglars carrying her
TV set from her home.
New steps to fight pollution of rivers have been announced in
Wales and Scotland.
The boy, believed to have been kidnapped, came home after
missing for two days.
41
4.
The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization was said to
be concerned that many countries had been turning to bread where
it had not previously figured in their diet.
5.
I woke one morning to find myself famous.
6.
Each time the door opened Martin looked round, only to see the
Mounteneyes enter, then the Puchweins.
The light died down to leave the room darker than before.
7.
8.
Yesterday's Cabinet was the first of a series which are concentrating
on deciding the amount of money to be allocated to the various
Government departments for the financial year starting in April.
9.
When I returned to Berlin, in the autumn of 1932, I duly rang Bernhard up, only to be told that he was away, on business, in Hamburg.
(Ch. Isherwood)
10.
She was still I felt my anger leave me, to be replaced by an absorbing depression. (А. Мыто)
11.
Dozing in his chair, he woke up, stiff and cold, to find himself
drained dry, as it were, of every emotion. (A. Huxley)
12.
Dick burst into the room, to be received with a hug which nearly
cracked his ribs, as Torpenhow dragged him into the light and spoke
of twenty different things in the same breath. (R. Kipling)
13.
I arrived in town and had a most affecting interview with my mother who only recovered from her swoon at my return to go into hysterics at the beautiful shawls I had brought her. (E. Bulwer-Lytton)
14.
British officials have pronounced the IRA dead before, only to have
it come back to haunt them. ("Nsw.")
15.
I once travelled over miles of snow-covered roads in search of an
isolated farmhouse only to be greeted by a pack of wolfhounds
waiting to devour me if I opened my car door. ("IHT")
16.
Since the October War of 1973, Hosni Mubarak has been Anwar
Sadat's most loyal follower. For years he sat in obscurity at his President's side, quietly taking notes. Henry Kissinger once assumed he
was a junior aide, only to learn later that he was the Vice President
of Egypt. ("Nsw.")
Susan sought for something nasty to say to Reg. (A. Wilson)
17.
18.
"That's all right," Wilbourne said. "Two many people have already
seen the telegram for it to be private." (W. Faulkner)
19.
I have treasured the painting ever since. For it to be stolen from me
was an extreme shock as it was of great sentimental value. ("G.")
42
20.
I also feel tempted to say that novelists are the only group of people
who should write a column. Their interests are large, if shallow,
their habits are sufficiently unreliable for them to find something
new to say quite often, and in most other respects they are more
columnistic than the columnists. (N. Mailer)
21.
Community, church and civic organizations offer opportunities for
Americans to transcend personal interests in order to see the shining dream of freedom and hope for all America's people become a
complete, unabridged reality. ("IHT" Jan. 8, 91)
22.
You went suddenly after lunch, leaving one of your most offensive
letters behind with the butler to be handed to me after your departure. (0. Wilde)
23.
"Oh, she's upset all right," the Judge said with a certain contentment. "But Verena's not a woman to come down with anything an
aspirin could not fix." (T. Capote)
24.
The Chairman of Nottingham Trades Council is to ask his council
to vigorously protest that public money is used to condition British people to accept the idea of war through "almost Goebbels-type
propaganda." (" VS," Oct. 81)
25.
Authorities in Germany's North Rhine-Westphalia state are seeking
new uses for the secret bomb shelters built after the Cuban missile
crisis. The bunkers, intended for government officials, are air- conditioned and large enough for 120 people to live in. ("IHT,"
Jan. 14,93)
From the outside, the squat flat-roofed buildings of Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology are nothing much to
look at. ("G.," Oct. 1,91)
They squat and somehow live on the roofs of their destroyed homes,
but in some place there aren't any roofs to squat on. (" G.,
"Sept. 20, 91)
"In any event the system of governance in Europe is going to have
to change to accommodate the new realities if we are to keep faith
with our democracies," one senior EC Commissioner commented in
the European parliament in Strasbourg yesterday. ("G.," April 8,92)
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
Driving over she passed by Zapf's Used Books and was alarmed to
find a pile of charred rubble where the bookstore only a week ago
stood. (T. Pynchon)
In those days art critics in London with a knowledge of Australian
art were hard to come by. ("T.," May 24,93)
43
31.
In his forthcoming book "The Intellectuals and the Masses",
John Carley, Professor of English at Oxford, makes a devastating
case that throughout this century the intellectual elite — people
like Forster, Lawrence, Pound, Virginia Woolf, Wyndham Lewis
— entertained such a profound fear and revulsion against the
masses that they created a culture to exclude them. ("G.")
32. Абсолютная номинативная конструкция
с предлогом with (причинно-сопутствующие
обстоятельства)
В начале предложения with переводится: по причине, из-за,
ввиду; в середине предложения — причем (сопутствующие
обстоятельства).
Варианты перевода:
a) With heavy seas in the North Atlantic, fishing boats stay in harbour. Рыбачьи лодки не вышли в море из-за (по причине)
шторма...
b) With air control staff out for the second day, Air France cancelled
24 flights.
По.причине (ввиду) забастовки воздушных диспетчеров.
c) As late as 1990, there were more than 2,000 people on the general
surgery waiting list with more than 60 waiting over a year. (G.)
... причём более 60 человек ждут больше года.
1.
It was pretty depressing out in the street, with a gusty wind
throwing handfuls of light drizzle in your face.
2.
With the lower purchasing power of the ruble reducing the
farmer's willingness to sell to the government, state procurements of grain are likely to amount to only 40 million tons this
year, suggesting the need to double imports. ("G.")
3.
Is nothing sacred? Certainly not the dollar bill; with state-of-theart counterfeiting soon to be as available as the nearest office
copier, the greenback is scheduled for a major overhaul — the
first since the bill was reduced to its current size in 1929.
("Nsw.")
4.
With an estimated 500 million children threatened to death by
starvation and more than 1 billion undernourished, it was terrible
to hear that much of the public thought you were referring to
space UFOs when you mentioned the Third World. ("MS")
44
5.
Clean across the space of grass, with a crowed screaming and scampering at his heels, went a huge gray elephant at an awful stride, with his
trunk thrown out as rigid as a ship's bowsprit, and trumpeting like the
trumpet of doom. (G.K. Chesterton)
6.
"I knew I could knock at the door downstairs till doomsday and you
would never hear me with this music going on." (C.McCallers)
7.
The Gaucho had been promising them a riot for two months now, but
the time was not yet favorable: things were quiet in Caracas, with only
a few small skirmishes going on in the jungles. (Th. Pynchon)
8.
The story of modern family is a story of disconnections. While the social fabric becomes increasingly fragmented, families are becoming
more and more dislocated with a record number of single parents, children running away from home, communities geographically and culturally separating. ("G.")
9.
With more young black men destined to enter jail than college, this city
(Milwaukee) has opted for a radical experiment in education and socialization: public schools designed specifically for black males.
33. Глаголы в адвербиальной функции
(каузативные конструкции)
1.
Aunt Alexandra stared him to silence.
2.
She had tended them, mothered them into life.
3.
Then there came a resounding knock on the door. For a short space
Mary was shocked into immobility by the sudden tumult of the knock.
4.
A group of 16 United Technologies Corporation employees have filed a
suit charging that the company tried to intimidate them into abandoning their plan to form a union. ("Nsw.")
5.
We're told one minute we may be blown up in a nuclear war unless
we're taxed out of our homes to pay for bigger bombs.
6.
Bobby had a vivid imagination. He had always thought that it was one
of his best qualities. But he could not simply imagine his way out of
this mess. (D. Koontz)
7.
The Welsh actor nearly drunk himself out of a career during the 1970s,
after which he struggled back to sobriety and stardom. ("FT')
She had ricocheted through three teen-age marriages, the first at 14 or
15.
8.
45
9.
10.
A small clique of powerful people run this country and swindle their
way through a general election, saying anything to hang on to
power. ("G.")
When playing chess you see a good move, the great Dr.Tarrasch
advised, sit on your hands and look for a better one. That may be
right for grandmaster but as every club player knows, a good move
should be played quickly before you think yourself out of it.
("Ind.")
11.
An electronic device used by anglers to shock worms to the soil's
surface for bait is being recalled because 30 people have been electrocuted by similar instruments. ("IHT')
12.
The very kindest of popes, Gregory the Great, while forbidding torture and persecution of Jews, was not above bribing them into
baptism. Any Jew in Rome who converted had his rent reduced by
one-third. (P.de Rosa)
13.
Why do Russians have such awful taste in rock music? Hard on the
heels of the news that Boris Yeltsin listened to Elvis singing "Are
You Lonesome Tonight?" during the coup, comes the news that Uncle Bob Geldof is being wheeled out to hear a television concert for
Russia from Paris tomorrow. If the coup leaders had thought of using Bob, they might have bored the Russian parliament into submission. ("G.")
14.
In wanton disregard of its own precedents, the U.S. Supreme Court
has announced that the wrongful use of a coerced confession at a
criminal trial need not automatically require the reversal of a conviction. Even if the accused was clubbed into confessing, the prosecution's use of that confession can be deemed "harmless error", a
minor flaw in an otherwise fair trial. ("IHT")
15.
When they go to the polls next week, Norwegians are expected to
vote out of office the socialist government that has presided over
Norway's improving fortunes and put in its place a conservative
coalition that offers little by way of substantive change. ("Nsw.")
16.
The ticket touts are having a rough time. The latest plan is to starve
them out of business. The burger bars, sandwich seller and tea ladies at the stadium have been asked not to serve suspicious-looking
men who have a pocketful of tickets. ("T.")
17.
A year ago the British Government legislated the death penalty off
the statute books of Anguilla, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Monserrat and Turks and Caicos Islands. ("G. ")
46
34. Слова-заместители
(to do, to have; one, that; will)
1.
"When I came here," she explained to Mary, "nobody took any notice
of me, so I thought." "Well, I'll jolly well make them notice me; I'll be
mad." "So I was, and they did."
2.
British expenditure on health lags behind that of other advanced countries, the Office of Health Economics estimates.
3.
The only imaginable settlement in Vietnam is one that would lead to
return to the 1954 Geneva agreements.
4.
Immediately there was a burst of applause from all parts of the audience. Never in my lifetime has applause done me the good that did.
5.
The real fool is he who does not know himself. I was such a one too
long. You have been such a one too long. Be no more. (O. Wilde)
6.
We (Democrats) must always be the party committed to caring, fairness
and helping hand for the disadvantaged. But our compassion must be
tempered with an awareness of the limitations of the government to
solve every problem. Limitations exist, people know it, and they will
not believe political leaders who don't. ("Nsw.")
7.
He believed the war made a stronger man as well — deepened his
commitment to God and Christianity and helped him through prayer to
master the fears he sensed in himself and saw in other men. "I asked
Him not to let me be a coward," Roger says, and God did not.
("Nsw.")
8.
As the economy shows signs of improvement, so too will the Government's standing in the opinion polls. ("FT"')
9.
I am here for having tried to put your father into prison. My attempt
failed. Your father completely turned the tables on me, and had me in
prison, has me there still. (0. Wilde)
10.
St. Louis was never what it thinks it was. But old cities, like old families, sustain themselves on dreams of vanished grandeur. ("HM")
11.
As the assistant secretary of state for international narcotic matters,
Melvin Levitsky, told a House task force in July, "Let me be clear: It is
not our policy to fight someone else's drug war. We never have, nor
will we ever, force military assistance on any of the drug-producing
countries." ("IHT")
47
12.
While a return to totalitarianism in Moscow now seemed out of the
question, several European ministers remarked, civil strife and repression of ethnic minorities by new national states was not, as some constituent republics in the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia wrested sovereignty from the wreckage of communism. ("IHT")
13.
Two elegant rowing skiffs, the Liberté and the Egalité, kept up with us
for longer than they could have done we had a favourable wind. ("G.")
14.
The Catholic schools of New York educate as many pupils as the
schools board of Washington, DC, but do so with almost exactly 1 per
cent of DC's administration. ("G.")
15.
Bertrand Russel said that whenever he talked to another savant, he became convinced that happiness was not possible for humans: when he
talked to his gardener, he was sure that it was. ("T.")
16.
When it has seemed that drinking is becoming too much of a habit I
have given it up for a few months — if only to check that one can. One
can. ("T.")
17.
Today's conference speech by Neil Kinnock is the last set-piece occasion before the election campaign begins for Labour to state its own
agenda and communicate its distinctive vision of society — for Labour
to prove that it deserves to be elected not simply because the Tories
don't, not just because we could manage things better than they have.
("G.")
18.
There is something about the world of business which can (and often
does) defeat television producers. Normal routines of business involving documents, highly technical negotiations and accounts are hardly
the stuff that attracts a mainstream audience, ("Ind.")
35. Замена частей речи
1.
You give me food and drink and I'll tell you how to sail the ship.
2.
"Possibly the most frequent criticism we get in letters from the public is
about keeping lights burning all night," a senior U.N. official said
this week.
3.
At the age of eighteen, George earned an honest living.
4.
There was universal relief at the safe return of the three U.S. astronauts from their epic voyage to the Moon.
5.
Abstentions on, and even votes against, the coming anti-union Bill are
certain in the Commons.
48
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
There were singing and storytelling and jokes and riddles around
the fire as well as long conversations about business and politics.
She had a quick cigarette to steady her nerves.
The beer for lunch made him sleepy.
I can't afford foreign holidays.
He is an accomplished television performer.
That branch of the family had been reckless marriers.
Serious-faced James Howden entered the high-ceilinged, beigecarpeted Privy Council chamber.
13.
Of course Washington was immediately recognizable because of
his white mount and his customary blue and buff.
14.
The BBC television comedy series "Yes Minister" has proved to be
more than a delight. It has also been an eye-opener.
15.
The shops were opening now and the fruitier on the opposite side of
the street was putting up his sun-blind in anticipation of a fine day.
36. Различные средства выражения эмфазы
(изменение порядка слов)
1.
Up goes unemployment, up go prices, and down tumbles the Labour vote.
2.
Indeed, there has been an increase in the bombing since the Paris
meeting started. It is bombs, not U Thant's words which are sabotaging the talks.
Ulanova bid more than embellish the art of dance.
His audience last night may also have been less than enthusiastic
about the Prime Minister's attitude towards Government spending.
The sun was shining and the Mediterranean was at its bluest.
Hard is the path of sportsmen chosen to represent Britain at the
Olympic Games. They have to contend with a Government to mean
to finance a team.
It was one of London's most famous citizens, Dr. Samuel Johnson,
who said: "When a man is tired of London he is tired of life."
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
His chef was as good as any in Paris and you could be sure at his
table of having set before you the earliest delicacies of the season.
49
37. A Semihumorous Glimpse at Grammar Gaffes
from Anguished English by Prof. R. Lederer
Mangling modifiers, или "Подъезжая к станции, у меня
слетела шляпа"
While grading a student essay on John Steinbeck's The Grapes of
Wrath, I was startled to read this sentence: "Having killed a man and
served four years in prison, I feel that Tom Joad is ripe to get into trouble."
Who had killed and done time (отсидеть) — the student or Tom
Joad?
Later in the same book report, the student explored the ending of the
novel, in which Rose of Sharon Joad, having lost a still-born baby, offers
her milk-laden breast to a starving migrant worker for nourishment. Steinbeck's closing sentence reads: "She looked up and across the bar, and her
lips came together and smiled mysteriously." Here is what my student
wrote: "Rose of Sharon now starts to reach out to others, and the book
closes with her feeding a starving man, smiling mysteriously."
Ever since, the look on that fellow's face has remained in my mind's
eye.
My student's two botched sentences are superb examples of the
scalding (hot) water writers can get themselves into when they misplace
modifier. Many of the most amusing grammatical errors occur when ambiguous phrases and clauses end up in the wrong part of the sentence.
Here is an array of adult examples:
— Yoko Ono will talk about her husband, John Lennon, who was killed in
an interview with Barbara Walters.
— Please take time to look over the brochure that is enclosed with your
family.
— Calf born to farmer with two heards.
— Some sources said shortly after his death Mao Tse Tung had expressed
a wish that his body by cremated.
— Two cards were reported stolen by Groveton police yesterday.
— A 30-year old St. Petersburg man was found murdered by his parents
in his home late Saturday.
— The judge sentenced the killer to die in the electric chair for the second
time.
50
— Here are some suggestions for handling obscene phone calls from New
England Telephone Company.
— About two years ago, a wart (бородавка) appeared on my left hand, which
I wanted removed.
— On the floor above him lived a redheaded instructor in physical education,
whose muscular calves he admired when they nodded to each other by the
mailbox.
— Do not park your car at the taxi stand or it will be towed away.
— "He's the horse of a lifetime," said trainer Packy Lawrence. He'll retire
after today's race and be shipped to Kentucky, where he'll begin a career as
stud (жеребец).
— The French government is preparing commercials encouraging the use of
condoms which are blunt enough to shock even liberal Americans.
— People who use birth control methods that smoke a lot are in danger of
having retarded children.
References wanted or ambiguous meaning: a lesson
from history
Croesus, the last king of Lydia and the fellow we all want to be richer
than*, decided in 546 BC to make a war on Persia. Being a careful man Croesus sought advice from the oracle at Delphi. Should he invade Persia, or
shouldn't he?
According to the legend the oracle answered, "If you cross the river
Halys, you will destroy a mighty empire."
Croesus interpreted this sentence as a good omen and proceeded to attack
Persia. But after many setbacks, the king was taken prisoner at Sardis.
The oracle had been right. By waging war on Persia, Croesus did destroy
a mighty empire — his own.
King Croesus was a victim of an ambiguous reference. The oracle's
prophecy contained the phrase "a mighty empire" which could have referred
either to Lydia or to Persia. Because Croesus failed to analyze the sentence,
his kingdom Lydia ceased to exist.
*As rich as Croesus — богат как Крёз.
51
Reference problems are mostly caused by the ambiguous use
of pronouns:
Examples:
Guilt and bitterness can be emotionally destructive to you and your children.
You must get rid of them (of who or that?)
Laffing at misspellings or ubiquities Miss Print
— Floods from the Mississippi may be prevented by putting big dames an
the river. (dams)
— Four coarse meals. (course)
— Today's special: barely soup. (barley)
— Man arrested for possession of Heroine. (heroin)
— Panel agree to much sex on television. (too)
— Mr. and Mrs. Garth Robinson request the honor of your presents at the
marriage of their daughter Holly to Mr. James Stockman. (presence)
52
Приложение
"Модульный" способ обучения переводу
(по методике Международной организации труда
(МОТ)) Этапы формирования программы
анализ профессиональной деятельности
определение целей обучения составление учебной программы проведение
обучения оценка обучения
(см. материалы Е. Шутовой, Институт иностранных языков
(С.-Петербург))
Структура учебного модуля и учебного элемента
Учебный модуль
1.
2.
3.
Тактическая цель
Содержание обучения (комплект учебных элементов)
Практический тест
Учебный элемент
1.
2.
3.
Оперативная цель
Содержание обучения (текст)
Оценка результатов (тест проверки достижения целей)
Когнитивные умения
Стратегические умения
Механические умения
Проблемы
Решения
1.
2.
Протокол
Типы переводческих ситуаций и дискурсов
53
3.
4.
5.
Переводческая нотация
Профессиональная этика
Методы подготовки к переводу
Лексические проблемы
1.
Перевод прецизионной информации
2.
Перевод культурологической лексики
3.
Перевод фразеологизмов (устойчивых словосочетаний и
клише)
4.
Перевод неологизмов
5.
Перевод "ложных друзей переводчика"
Грамматические проблемы
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Артикли / система времен
Залог/модальность
Абсолютная конструкция
Инфинитив
Побудительные конструкции/обороты, не свойственные
русскому языку
Стилистические проблемы
1.
2.
3.
4.
Перевод метафор
Передача юмора / жаргонизмов
Перевод цитат и аллюзий
Функциональный стиль
Переводческие приемы
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
54
Перестановка компонентов
Функциональная замена
Антонимический перевод
Нулевой перевод
Развертывание/сужение
Описательный перевод
Расщепление / объединение
8.
9.
Добавление / опущение
Прочие лексико-грамматические трансформации
***
1.
Реакция / концентрация внимания
2.
Переключение внимания
3.
Оперативная память
4.
Навыки речепорождения — правильность речи на русском
языке
5.
Синтез информации
6.
Компрессия информации / развертывание информации
7.
Скорость речи и артикуляция
8.
Вероятностное прогнозирование
9.
Тембр, звучание речи
10. Манера презентации перевода
11. Внешний вид
12.
Хладнокровие, спокойствие, уверенность в себе (позитивная
установка на успех)
***
1.
Больше теоретической информации, тест на понимание —
вопросник.
2.
Способы решения проблемы, примеры, проверка умения вы
брать нужную стратегию на практическом тесте — тексте,
содержащем трудности.
3.
Определение и указание на роль навыка в переводческой
деятельности, набор упражнений, способствующих выработке и за креплению навыка, проверка на практических
упражнениях того же типа.
СКОРОПИСЬ,
УСТНЫЙ ПЕРЕВОД
Контактный телефон 936 0479
55
Пример строения учебного элемента по переводу
фразеологических единиц (ФЕ)
I. Цели обучения
Цели
Изучив данный учебный элемент, вы сможете:
1. Распознавать фразеологизм в тексте
2. Определять стратегию, необходимую для перевода ФЕ
Ресурсы и средства обучения
1. Словарь фразеологизмов
2. Набор примерных текстов
Необходимая подготовка
Учебные элементы
1. Описательный перевод
2. Калькирование как переводческий метод
3. Лекционный курс лексикологии
II. Содержание
Фразеологизмы — это связные, устойчивые словосочетания, иногда даже целые предложения, которые, как правило, обладают либо полностью, либо частично переносным значением.
Основная особенность — несоответствие плана содержания плану
выражения, что определяет его специфику, придает гибкость и
глубину значению.
Фразеологизм — замкнутый микроконтекст, в котором реализуются не только формальные связи между планом выражения и
планом содержания такого знака, но и ассоциативносемантические, причем не обязательно логически выводимые из
самого микроконтекста.
Умение распознавать в тексте.
Умение анализировать речевые функции фразеологизмов.
Национально-культурные различия.
56
Стратегия перевода:
1. Поиск идентичной фразеологической единицы в языке перевода
— оптимальное решение. Число таких соответствий весьма ограничено.
2. Поиск аналогичной фразеологической единицы, имеющей общее с
исходным значением, но построенной на иной словесно-образной
основе. Нередко сходные по значению, но разные по форме ФЕ в раз
ных языках имеют различную эмоционально-ассоциативную окраску
и не всегда взаимозаменяемы.
3. Калькирование, или пословный перевод. Применяется чаще всего
по отношению к третьим источникам, например, так нередко перево
дятся ФЕ, ведущие происхождение из античной культуры, религиоз
но-библейских или иных широко известных источников.
4. Двойной, параллельный перевод ФЕ, когда в одной фразе сочетают ся ФЕ (переведенная, например, посредством калькирования) и
объяс нение ее переносного значения в возможно более кратком виде.
5. Перевод-объяснение, т.е. перевод посредством трансформации ус
тойчивого словосочетания в свободное.
Упражнения
Упражнение на выделение ФЕ в тексте (письменном, потом в устном).
Упражнение на устный перевод отдельных фраз с ФЕ.
Упражнение на перевод текста, содержащего ФЕ.
III. Оценка достижения целей (обсуждение)
57
Литература об устном переводе
WIT (World of Interpreting and Translation) Series
Серия включает в себя следующие издания:
— А.Чужакин, П.Палажченко "Мир перевода-1. Introduction to interpreting"
— А.Чужакин "Мир перевода-2. Practicum"
— А.Чужакин "Мир перевода-3. Practicum Plus"
— К.Петренко, А.Чужакин "Мир перевода-4. Top Translators Talk on
Tape"
— А.Чужакин "Мир перевода-5. Ас-2000"
В них вы найдете:
— упражнения и тексты по отработке навыков устного перевода по
темам: международная политика; макроэкономика (бизнес, финан сы,
банковское дело); проблемы современного общества; наука и тех ника; право; подробные комментарии;
— переводческая скоропись (УПС) — теория и практика;
— ответы на вопросы о видах перевода, их особенностях и практиче
ском применении;
— списки и таблицы терминов, поговорок и пословиц, идиом и клише;
— упражнения по расширению вашего словаря (запаса слов и выра
жений);
— о международном протоколе, деловом этикете и правилах хороше
го тона;
— специальный раздел "Ступени карьеры": о поиске работы, о кор
поративной культуре, об отношениях с работодателями;
— поучительные и забавные случаи, а также многое другое.
П.Палажченко. "Все познается в сравнении, или Несистематический
словарь трудностей, тонкостей и премудростей английского языка в
сопоставлении с русским"
Автор этой книги — многолетний сотрудник ООН, дипломат,
журналист, переводчик М.Горбачева, Э.Шеварднадзе — делится секретами профессионального мастерства. В словаре не только новые
значения слов, фразеологизмов, "ложных друзей переводчика" безэквивалентной лексики, но и материал "для общего развития": библейская лексика, иноязычные вкрапления, шекспиризмы и многое другое.
Словарь содержит сведения лексикологического, лексикографического и культурно-лингвистического характера.
58
Содержание
ВВЕДЕНИЕ
Особенности перевода с листа (ПСЛ) —
(sight translation) на русский язык
3
LEVEL A (Introductory)
1., Полисемия
2.
Неологизмы и эгологизмы
3.
Конверсия
4.
Образные выражения
5.
Газетные заголовки
6.
Полугерундий
7.
Именительный падеж с инфинитивом
(Nominative with the Infinitive)
8.
Абсолютный причастный оборот
(the Nominative Absolute)
9.
Given
10. Пассивная конструкция
11. Модальные глаголы
12. Глагольное подлежащее
13. Эллиптические конструкции
14. Двузначные глаголы
15. Распространенные атрибутивные конструкции
16. Изменение порядка слов при переводе
17. Трудные для перевода слова
7
9
10
12
13
15
15
16
16
17
18
19
19
20
20
21
21
LEVEL В (Advanced)
18.
19.
Разное глагольное управление
Суффиксальные новообразования
25
26
59
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
Коммуникативное членение предложения
27
Причина в роли агента действия
28
Обстоятельства в роли агента действия
29
Пассивный залог
30
Однородные члены предложения в различной сочетаемости
32
Герундий
35
Определения, образованные соположением
36
Придаточные в функции одного из членов предложения 37
Каузативные конструкции типа
"to have/get smth done"
39
Комплексные синтаксические перестройки
39
Модальность
40
Конструкции и комплексы с инфинитивом
41
Абсолютная номинативная конструкция с предлогом with
(причинно-сопутствующие обстоятельства)
44
Глаголы в адвербиальной функции
(каузативные конструкции)
45
Слова-заместители
(to do, to have; one, that; will)
47
Замена частей речи
48
Различные средства выражения эмфазы
(изменение порядка слов)
49
A Semihumorous Glimpse at Grammar Gaffes
from Anguished English by Prof. R. Lederer
50
Приложение
"Модульный" способ обучения переводу (по методике
Международной организации труда (МОТ))
53
Литература об устном переводе
58
60
Издательство "Р.Валент" предлагает:
Серия "Мир перевода". Все книги серии ("Мир перевода-1", "Мирперевода-2", "Мир перевода-3" и "Мир перевода-5") выдержали неоднократные переиздания, были дополнены и расширены. В них вы
найдете: упражнения и тексты для устного перевода; ответы на вопросы
о видах перевода, их особенностях и практическом применении; списки
и таблицы терминов, поговорок и пословиц, идиом и клише; упражнения
по расширению вашего словаря (запаса слов и выражений); материалы о
международном протоколе, деловом этикете и правилах хорошего тона;
международной политике, макроэкономике (бизнес, финансы, банковское дело); проблемах современного общества, науке и технике, праву;
упражнения и тексты, подробные комментарии, переводческая скоропись; о поисках работы, о корпоративной культуре, об отношениях с
работодателями; поучительные и забавные случаи и многое другое.
"Мир пе-ревода-4" — состоит из двух учебных брошюр (учебное пособие плюс ключи) и двух аудиокассет (длительность звучания — 120
мин.). В учебном пособии помещены статьи, выступления, интервью на
различные темы для двустороннего перевода; тексты расположены по
мере нарастания сложности. Живые беседы с ведущими специалистами,
свидетелями ярких событий последних десятилетий, вызывают большой
интерес у обучающихся, способствуют развитию эрудиции и памяти,
способности к аудированию, обогащают активный словарь и тренируют
навыки перевода под запись или на слух.
Линн Виссон. "Синхронный перевод с русского языка на английский" (авторизованный перевод с английского). 3-е изд. Предназначено
для старшекурсников и преподавателей языковых факультетов и вузов, а
также для всех тех, кто самостоятельно и серьезно изучает английский
язык. Переработано и дополнено для русских читателей. Автор — американка русского происхождения, родилась и живет в Нью-Йорке. Получила докторскую степень в Гарвардском университете, профессор Колумбийского и др. университетов. Много лет работает синхронным переводчиком в ООН, участвует в сложнейших политических переговорах,
автор целого ряда учебников и книг о разных аспектах жизни в нашей
стране. Этот учебник — обобщение переводческого опыта автора. Это
не теоретическое исследование, а целостный набор практических
средств для овладения переводческим мастерством.
Линн Виссон. Практикум по синхронному переводу с русского языка на английский (с аудиоприложением). 2-е изд. Рассчитано на начинающих переводчиков с хорошим знанием английской грамматики. Этот
сборник представляет собой единую по содержанию, но смешанную по
форме — письменную и устную — композицию, условно может быть
поделен на три части: 1) русские тексты: речи и заявления на заседаниях
ООН и др. международных организаций, выступления ораторов в различных аудиториях, интервью и др. материалы на самые разные темы,
среди которых — вопросы политики, экономики, экологии, медицины,
искусства и др.; 2) переводы на английский язык, причем в двух вариантах: опытном и окончательном; здесь же даются объяснения и комментарии к текстам, слова и выражения, представляющие для переводчика
наибольшую трудность; грамматические и синтаксические приемы перевода одних и тех же выражений разными способами; стилистические
варианты подачи материала и их анализ; 3) 4 кассеты, где записаны тексты в их окончательном варианте и русские и английские тексты произносят носители языка в различном темпе, с разными акцентами. Учебный комплект является самостоятельным изданием, но в то же время
способен выполнить роль приложения к учебнику "Синхронный перевод
с русского языка на английский"
П.Р.Палажченко. "Всё познается в сравнении, или Несистематический словарь трудностей, тонкостей и премудростей английского
языка в сопоставлении с русским". 3-е изд. В словаре вы найдете не
только новые значения тех или иных слов, перевод фразеологизмов,
"ложных друзей переводчика", безэквивалентной лексики, но и материал
для повышения эрудиции: библейскую лексику, иноязычные вкрапления, шекспиризмы и многое др. Словарь содержит сведения лексикологического, лексикографического и культурно-лингвистического характера, готовится русско-английская часть словаря. Как написал "МК", "Альтернативы этой работе... нет. Книга нужна тем, кто уже знает язык, вернее, считает, что знает. Потому что даже опытные переводчики частенько садятся в лужу, столкнувшись с самыми обычными для американцев
и англичан словами и конструкциями... Сплошные трудности и премудрости... Но для тех, кто в состоянии их оценить, словарь окажется не
только полезным, но и в высшей степени увлекательным чтением".
Э.П.Ельникова, З.А.Зарубина, Л.Ф.Кудрявцева, М.Ф.Ширманова. "Совершенствуйте свой английский" и "Продолжайте совершенствовать свой английский".
(3-е. изд.) Пособия ставят своей целью развитие навыков диалогической
и монологической речи и обучение ведению дискуссий и полемики в
процессе бытового и делового общения; систематизацию и расширение
словарного запаса, характерного для разговорной речи и делового общения; систематизацию и закрепление грамматических структур, необходимых для активного владения устной речью, включая публичные выступления; обучение речевым моделям современной английской и американской художественной литературы, разговорной речи и публичных
выступлений. Тематика пособий имеет страноведческую и социальную
направленность и охватывает такие темы, как ТВ, кино, театр, музыка,
живопись, литература, образование, спорт, ораторское искусство. Пособия построены по принципу ситуативно-коммуникативного обучения
иностранному языку и содержат краткий курс грамматики в системе
таблиц, составленный с учетом функциональных факторов общения, и
поурочный словарь сочетаемости лексических единиц, отобранный по
принципу частотности употребления в разговорной речи, публичных
выступлениях и деловых беседах. Пособия были апробированы и отредактированы в Англии и США. По своей структуре и комплексному
подходу к обучению устной речи пособия не имеют аналогов ни в нашей
стране, ни за рубежом.
Тесты по иностранным языкам (английский, немецкий,
французский, испанский) и Ключи к тестам. Тесты подготовлены институтом иностранного языка Государственной академии
управления и предназначены для старшеклассников, абитуриентов, слушателей курсов и факультетов иностранного языка.
А.В.Кузнецов. "Испанско-русский словарь терминологии Международного валютного фонда". Словарь-справочник содержит общепринятые термины банковского, финансового и макроэкономического характера и сугубо специальные термины МВФ. Составлен на основе выборки, сделанной испанским отделом переводов МВФ.
С.И.Шкаровский. "Финансово-экономический итальяно-русский
словарь-справочник". Словарь включает терминологию в области финансов, банков, бирж и экономики, а также слова и выражения из сфер
страхования и бизнеса. В словарь включены два приложения — список
наиболее употребительных сокращений и классификатор валют.
В.П.Комин. "Глоссарий по валюте евро: англо-русский, русско-английский;
немецко-русский, русско-немецкий; французско-русский, русско-французский".
Д.И.Ермолович. "Имена собственные на стыке языков и культур" (Заимствование и передача имен собственных с точки зрения лингвистики и теории перевода).
Содержит сведения лексикологического, лексикографического и культурно-лингвистического характера. Издание посвящено проблеме передачи имен собственных в межъязыковой и межкультурной коммуникации. В книге ставится задача вооружить читателей не только общетеоретическими, но и конкретными практическими знаниями. Работа построена на материале русского и английского языков, однако в полной мере
учитывается и подчеркивается тот факт, что читатель может иметь дело
с именами собственными, происходящими из самых разных языков. В
приложениях — указания по регулярной практической транскрипции
(транслитерации) собственных имен английского языка на русский и с
русского на английский, а также с основных европейских языков и некоторых азиатских (турецкого, китайского, японского). В систематическом
виде сведения, изложенные в этой книге, публикуются впервые.
И.Г.Башина. "Русско-английский словарь глагольных эквивалентов". Уникальность данного издания в том, что автор, проанализировав
множество глаголов, сумел отобрать для своего издания именно те ряды
семантически недифференцированных русских глаголов и их семантически дифференцированных английских эквивалентов, незнание и неверное употребление которых чаще всего приводит к ошибкам при переводе с русского на английский. В приложение к словарю включены
упражнения на перевод и употребление глаголов и лингвокультурологические комментарии об особенностях их семантики и картины мира русского и английского языка.
ГОТОВИТСЯ К ПЕЧАТИ
Т.А.Беляк. "Русско-английский полезный словарь терминов:
Аудит, бухгалтерские операции, бухучет, коммерческая деятельность, налогообложение, сделки с недвижимостью". Содержит слова
и выражения, наиболее часто употребляемые в аудиторской, банковской,
бухгалтерской, коммерческой деятельности, налогообложении и работе
с наличностью. Кроме терминов, употребляемых повсеместно в англоговорящих странах, в словаре также приводятся особые лексические единицы, характерные только для Великобритании или США, и некоторые
латинские слова и выражения. К словарю даются два приложения: 1) с
сокращениями по тематике словаря; 2) с названиями некоторых бухгалтерских счетов.
А.В.Кузнецов. "Глоссарий по валюте евро: испанско-русский,
испанский; португальско-русский, русско-португальский".
Отдел маркетинга издательства
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русско-
В.Ланчиков, А.Чужакин
Мир перевода-6
ТРУДНОСТИ ПЕРЕВОДА В ПРИМЕРАХ
ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ
ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ III-IV КУРСОВ
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Корректор
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Н. Г. Богомолова,
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П.А.Осипов
А.В.Иванова
ЛР № 066590 от 18.05.99 г. Государственный комитет РФ по
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Подписано в печать 16.12.2001 г. Формат 60x84/16. Бумага офсетная.
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Отпечатано с готовых диапозитивов
в РГУП "Чебоксарская типография №1"
428019, г.Чебоксары, пр. И.Яковлева, 15
Ланчиков Виктор Константинович.
Окончил
переводческий
факультет
МГПИИЯ им.М.Тореза. Преподает на
кафедре перевода английского языка
МГЛУ. Кандидат филологических наук,
профессор. Автор ряда теоретических
работ. Мастер художественного перевода. (Дж. Фаулз, Г.К. Честертон, Д.Г. Лоуренс, Д. Томас, П. Вудхаус, В. Найпол,
К. Воннегут, Т. Шарп, Т. Прэтчетт и др.)
Чужакин Андрей Павлович. Выпускник
МГПИИЯ им. М.Тореза и Академии общественных наук, консультант ряда политических и финансовых структур.
Преподает в Лингвистическом университете. Долгое время работал в Международном отделе ЦК КПСС, занимался
проблемами развивающихся стран. Автор
многочисленных публикаций на русском,
английском и португальском языках.
Handbook for Sight Translation — Difficult
Cases and Translator's Pitfalls as Translated into Russian
• For medium and advanced level students of
interpreting and translation.
• Practical Exercises — Serious and Humorous
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