How to become more creative teacher? The concept of teaching creativity has been around for quite some time. Academics such as E. Paul Torrance, dedicated an entire lifetime to the advancement of creativity in education. Torrance faced much opposition in his day about the nature of creativity. Creativity was considered to be an immeasurable, natural ability. Torrance called for explicit teaching of creativity. He advocated that it was skillspecific, requiring intentional instruction. His life’s work ultimately led to the development of the Torrance tests and gifted programs throughout the world. Most of the practice of creative methods is being done outside the traditional educational institutions by consulting firms and by persons in companies who have been trained in creative problem solving methods. In universities not much has changed since 1950, when the distinguished psychologist J. P. Guilford in his inaugural address as president of the American Psychological Association stated that education’s neglect of the subject of creativity was appalling. What are some ways then, as educators, that we promote creativity in our classrooms? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Embrace creativity as part of learning. Create a classroom that recognizes creativity. You may want to design awards or bulletin boards to showcase different ways of solving a problem, or creative solutions to a real world scenario. Use the most effective strategies. Torrance performed an extensive metaanalysis that considered the most effective ways to teach creativity. He found that the most successful approaches used creative arts, media-oriented programs, or relied on the Osborn-Parnes training program. Programs that incorporated cognitive and emotional functioning were the most successful. Think of creativity as a skill. Much like resourcefulness and inventiveness it is less a trait and more a proficiency that can be taught. If we see it this way, our job as educators becomes to find ways to encourage its use and break it down into smaller skill sets. Psychologists tend to think of creativity as Big-C and Little C. Big C drives big societal ideas, like the Civil Rights movement or a new literary style. Little C is more of a working model of creativity that solves everyday problems. Both concepts can be included in our classrooms to promote creativity in general. Participate in or create a program to develop creative skills.Programs like Odyssey of the Mind and Thinkquest bring together students from around the world to promote creativity, design creative solutions, and bring them to competition. Use emotional connections. Research suggests that the best creativity instruction ties in the emotions of the learner. In the “Odyssey angels” program students can devise a solution to help their local community, such as helping homeless youth. This topic is worthy of more discussion by itself. A blog postby fellow blogger Julie DeNeen gives some valuable information about this type of teaching. 6. Research suggests that the best creativity instruction ties in the emotions of the learner. Use a creativity model. The Osborne-Parnes model is oldest, widely accepted model. It is often used in education and business improvement to promote creativity. Each step involves a divergent thinking pattern to challenge ideas, and then convergent thinking to narrow down exploration. It has six steps:Consider how classroom assignments use divergent and convergent thinking. Standardized tests do a great job of measuring convergent thinking that includes analytical thinking or logical answers with one correct response. Divergent thinking considers how a learner can use different ways to approach a problem. It requires using association and multiplicity of thought. We should design assignments that consider both types of thinking models.Creativity flourishes in a “congenial environment”. Creative thinking needs to be shared and validated by others in a socially supportive atmosphere. Researcher Csikszentmihalyi (1996) coined this term, to explain the importance of reception from others. Others consider how to create social communities that promote creativity to solve problems. o Mess-finding. Identify a goal or objective. o Fact-finding. Gathering data. o Problem-finding. Clarifying the problem o Idea-finding. Generating ideas o Solution-finding. Strengthening & evaluating ideas o Acceptance-finding. Plan of action for Implementing ideas 7. Be aware during discussions. You know that student who often asks the question that goes a bit outside the lecture? Well, engage him. Once a week, intentionally address those questions. Write them down on an assigned space in the board to go back to later. Promote creativity by validating students’ creative thinking. 8. See creativity in a positive light. In his blog in Psychology Today, Eric Jaffe talks about research that suggests see creativity in a negative light. If we are going to promote creativity, we need to embrace it too. Reward students for thinking of problems in varied ways by recognizing their efforts. 9. Try the Incubation Model. E. Paul Torrance designed this model. It involves 3 stages:Use a cultural artifact. Research from experimental social psychology finds that artifacts can enhance insight problem solving. Consider using an ordinary object, such as a light bulb used in the study or a historical artifact to have students think about living in a particular time period.Establish expressive freedom. The classroom environment must be a place where students feel safe to share novel ideas. Allow for flexibility and create norms that promote creativity. 1. Heightening Anticipation: Make connections between the classroom and student’s real lives. “Create the desire to know”. 2. Deepen Expectations: Engage the curriculum in new ways. Brainstorm and create opportunities to solve a novel problem. 3. Keep it going: Continue the thinking beyond the lesson or classroom. Find ways to extend learning opportunities at home or even the community. 10. Be familiar with standards. Knowing the standards inside and out helps find creative solutions in approaching a lesson. Teachers can adapt them and work within the current framework. Some topics allow for flexibility and use of creative approaches. 11. Gather outside resources. There are some great resources to read related to creativity. The University of Georgia, provides an array of amazing resources related to how to promote creativity in practical ways. It also gives a list of programs and organizations that can help with the process. 12. Allow room for mistakes. Sir Ken Robinson said it best when he said, “If you’re not prepared to be wrong, you’ll never come up with anything original.” 13. Allow space for creativity. Design some classroom space for exploration, such as a thinking table, a drama stage, a drawing table, or a space for groups to discuss ideas. 14. Give students time to ask questions. Organizations such as CCE (Creativity, Culture, Education) suggest teachers incorporate opportunities for students to ask questions. Intentionally design lessons that allow for wondering and exploration. 15. Creativity builds confidence. Students take ownership of their own learning. Think of ways where students might design a project. For instance, for the history requirement, I suggested students of both fifth grade classes create an exhibition of their final projects. The students were so proud of their final work and learned from others presentations. Parents and community members were happy to see students take ownership of their learning. 16. Encourage curiosity.Consider what is important to students. Student interest is a great place to start on what drives their own thinking tank. Find inspiration from their world. Creativity is intrinsic in nature. Try to promote creativity by stepping into their viewpoint to find what motivates them. Student interest are a great place to start on what drives their own thinking tank. Find inspiration from their world. 17. Structure is essential. Studies, such as a meta-analysis by Torrance suggest that creativity instruction is best with clear structure. For instance, consider the guidelines of the standard curriculum objectives and add these to the design. For example, reading considers communication, comprehension, listening, writing and reading. 18. Observe a working model of creativity. To get a better idea of how others promote creativity, visit a creative classroom or watch a video about how a creative classroom works. The “Case for Creativity in School” is an excellent video that educators can watch to see how creativity might play out in a classroom. This school adopted a school-wide approach to recognize students. 19. Consider the work of current experts in the field. Sir Ken Robinson is an internationally renowed creativity and innovation expert. His work is used to meet global challenges, renovating education, business, and government organizations to implement his strategies. His books and TED talks are great places to promote creativity in your own teaching. 20. Explore different cultures. Culture is an excellent vehicle for inspiring creative thinking. In Thinking Hats & Coloured Turbans Dr. Kirpal Singhdiscusses how cultural contexts are central to creative endeavors. You can discuss how collaboration between cultures, such as in the space program, produces unique, novel ideas. 21. Find ways to incorporate and integrate art, music and culture. A recent report prepared for the European commission considered that creativity is a central force that shapes our culture. With the changing times we live in, the report suggested that society is enriched by cultural-based creativity. 22. Use a collaborative creative thinking model to solve classroom problems. For instance, read a paragraph and then have groups discuss a list of questions. Collaborative problem solving is catching on quickly. In fact, many business schools have implemented creative thinking models into their curriculum. 23. Design multidisciplinary lessons when possible. When teaching geometry, I designed a lesson called, “Geometry through Art”. It included works of Art to show fifth graders their application to everyday geometric concepts. The result was astounding. I never thought that the subject matter would be so successful. I designed an entire unit that focused on how different concepts rely on geometry. I even asked the Art teacher to help reinforce those concepts in class. 24. Tapping into multiple intelligences is key. Creativity requires us to use different parts of our brain. We often bridge connections between seemingly unrelated areas to make new concepts emerge. Allow students to use their strengths to find new ways of approaching a topic or solving a problem. You might be surprised with what they come up with. 25. Understand that creativity is important to students’ future in the job market. Paul Collard for Creative Partnerships, discusses how 60 % of English students will work in jobs that are not yet created. In today’s market, students must largely be innovative and create their own jobs. Collard suggests teachers focus on teaching particular skills or set of behaviors, rather than preparing students for specific careers. 26. Teach creative skills explicitly. According to Collard, “Creative skills aren’t just about good ideas, they are about having the skills to make good ideas happen.” He suggests creative skills should include 5 major areas: o Imagination o Being disciplined or self-motivated. o Resiliency o Collaboration o Giving responsibility to students. Have them develop their own projects. The creative process requires time and collaboration, so creating time for creative thinking activities is important. Using a flipped classroom approach for example, where learners prepare content and do written exercises preparing for lessons in advance at home, allows teachers to plan for higher-level creative thinking activities during class time. Another approach that helps students to make connections across topic areas and understand the discipline as a whole is spaced delivery of content in lessons. This involves teachers revisiting related subject matter over a long time rather than just teaching each topic as a separate entity. Eight steps to becoming a more creative teacher Step one: become a knowledgeable teacherToday, it's easier than ever before to learn about teaching. There are lots of books, training courses, free online courses, online resources, and university programmes that can help us develop as teachers.Learning about other things is important too. Creative teachers bring more to class than just a knowledge of teaching. They are educated in other areas, and can draw on their experiences and outside interests.I recommend taking up an artistic hobby such as learning to play a musical instrument, or following a drama course. As well as enjoying these things for their own sake, you can use them in your teaching to great effect.Using songs in the classroom, for example, is very motivating for learners and can help them process the language and improve pronunciation. Including drama techniques and integrating them into your syllabus is another great way of allowing a hobby to enrich your teaching. Step two: connect with other teachersAlthough formal training will help you develop as a teacher, it's important to connect with others in your field. Inspiration can come from the big-name speakers and writers, but just as often, it comes from teachers like you and me.It's never been easier to find inspiring teachers to follow on Facebook, Twitter and in the blogosphere. Follow and read their blogs, join a teacher’s association and attend talks and workshops live or online.Inspiration rubs off and will create in you the desire to imitate these teachers in your daily teaching practices. Step three: become a collector of teaching ideasIt doesn't matter if you don’t use the ideas you collect straight away. The important thing is to collect and organise them in a way that makes it easy to try them out when the right opportunity presents itself. It's these ideas that will nudge you along the road to creativity, especially as you begin to adapt and experiment with them.When discovering new ideas online, be sure to use the various bookmarking and curation tools available today, and follow the curated collections or lists of others.Curation will also help you to be more resourceful: you'll have ideas and activities at your fingertips in case things go wrong! Step four: share your learningIn my experience, teachers (like learners) can pick things up from others as they go along, but there comes a point when they find they have to make a commitment or a contribution.If you have training days in your school, offer to lead a session and then research the topic, so that you feel confident about sharing your knowledge with your peers. This can be a daunting but momentous moment in the life of a teacher, and you'll be amazed by how much you learn in the process.Start a teaching journal or a blog. The act of blogging and describing your teaching ideas generates conversations with other teachers, and those conversations stimulate more ideas; they are a great bridge to creative teaching. Step five: remove the blocks to creative thinking. Many people are confident about their creative potential and are not afraid to dip their toes in the pool, but lots of us at various times have felt we cannot do it. In those moments, we might feel we lack the imagination, that we're not clever enough, young enough or talented enough, and so on.No-one can claim that every person has the same skills and abilities as everyone else, but all people have the potential to be creative. Look what we do with language! Using a finite vocabulary, each of us creates original utterances, never articulated in quite the same way before, every time we speak.Work on your self-esteem; be around supportive colleagues who share the same interests and goals and make you feel good about yourself. Step six: practise your creativityJust as athletes maintain their ability through continual training, our brains also benefit from regular exercise. What do you do to exercise your mind? Do you enjoy crosswords, Sudoku or jigsaw puzzles? These and similar 'brain-training' activities have been shown to increase our concentration and boost creativity.We often tell our students that practice makes perfect, but it's important that we apply this to ourselves. Skilled people in all fields, from dancers to chefs to teachers, reach the highest levels through practice – they didn't get there overnight. But practice takes discipline and patience.When practising anything, it's a good idea to set your mind to the process rather than the goal. In other words, take satisfaction in what you're doing in the present moment rather than worry too much about what you have yet to achieve. Step seven: start experimenting and reflecting on your teaching. A sure-fire way to burn out as a teacher is to stick to the same ideas and techniques without trying something new. This approach is bound to demotivate your students at some point too.Learners respond positively to teachers who don’t follow the same old steps in the same old way day in and day out. As much as learners like teachers who are patient, tolerant and able to explain things well, they appreciate teachers whose lessons have surprises and elements of fun.Try out new ideas or adapt old ones, but remember to stop, think and evaluate the experience when done. Learn from your successes and your mistakes, and try to make this a regular part of your teaching. Step eight: make creativity a daily goal. Being creative can help you solve problems. This is useful to teachers because problem-solving is what teachers do every moment of their working day, from deciding on teaching materials, procedures and grades, to adapting an activity that learners are not responding to, and helping individuals who are not progressing as they should.To keep developing these skills, you need to make creativity part of your daily routine rather than an occasional activity. Look at everything you do with a critical eye and consider how your lessons could be made more motivating, productive and interesting for your learners. References 1. https://www.opencolleges.edu.au/informed/features/30-things-you-can-do-to-promotecreativity-in-your-classroom/ 2. http://www.cambridgeinternational.org/images/426483-chapter-4-innovation-and-creativity.pdf 3. https://www.britishcouncil.org/voices-magazine/eight-steps-becoming-more-creative-teacher 4. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1119610.pdf Questions for self-control 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What are some ways then, as educators, that we promote creativity in our classrooms? Creative skills should include 5 major areas. What are they? What should we do to be creative teacher? According to Collard, “Creative skills aren’t just about good ideas, they are about having the skills to make good ideas happen.” Do you agree with this statement? What was designed E. Paul Torrance? Education 4.0 … the future of learning will be dramatically different, in school and throughout life Global connectivity, smart machines, and new media are just some of the drivers reshaping how we think about work, what constitutes work, and how we learn and develop the skills to work in the future. The concept of a “100 year life” becoming the norm, and the majority of that spent studying and working, means that learning will be a lot more important, and different, for the next generations. Most people will have at least 6 different careers, requiring fundamental reeducating, whilst the relentless speed of innovation will constantly demand new skills and knowledge to keep pace, let alone an edge. Educationalists debate the many ways in which the content of education – at all levels – and the process of learning, will need to change over the years ahead. Disruptive innovation guru Clay Christiansen, for example, points to the dramatic unbundling of education from its current forms so that it can be personalised, repackaging, peer to peer and continuous. Whether it is classroom or workplace, online or offline, structured or unstructured, taught or learnt, standardised or not, certificated or not, then learning is likely to break free from our old mindsets in the coming years. “Education 4.0” is my vision for the future of education, which responds to the needs of “industry 4.0” or the fourth industrial revolution, where man and machine align to enable new possibilities harnesses the potential of digital technologies, personalised data, open sourced content, and the new humanity of this globally-connected, technology-fueled world establishes a blueprint for the future of learning – lifelong learning – from childhood schooling, to continuous learning in the workplace, to learning to play a better role in society. “Changing the game” is all about redefining the way an activity works. In general, its about who are the companies right now who are reshaping their industries, challenging the old rules and creating new ones, new ways of working, new ways of winning in my Gamechangers book I explored 100 of them – they are audacious, harnessing the power of ideas and networks to be intelligent, collaborative, and enabling people to achieve more. taking the principles of how these companies change the game – how can we apply that to the world of education? “The future of education” is therefore a new vision for learning, starting right now more important to know why you need something, a knowledge or skill, and then where to find it – rather than cramming your head full … don’t try to learn everything! built around each individual, their personal choice of where and how to learn, and tracking of performance through data-based customisation … whatever sits you learning together and from each other – peer to peer learning will dominate, teachers more as facilitators, of communities built around shared learning and aspiration. Among the many discussions, innovations and general shifts in the world of learning – from school children to business executive – there are 9 trends that stand out: 1. 2. 3. Diverse time and place Students will have more opportunities to learn at different times in different places. eLearning tools facilitate opportunities for remote, self-paced learning. Classrooms will be flipped, which means the theoretical part is learned outside the classroom, whereas the practical part shall be taught face to face, interactively. Personalized learning Students will learn with study tools that adapt to the capabilities of a student. This means above average students shall be challenged with harder tasks and questions when a certain level is achieved. Students who experience difficulties with a subject will get the opportunity to practice more until they reach the required level. Students will be positively reinforced during their individual learning processes. This can result in to positive learning experiences and will diminish the amount of students losing confidence about their academic abilities. Furthermore, teachers will be able to see clearly which students need help in which areas. Free choice Though every subject that is taught aims for the same destination, the road leading towards that destination can vary per student. Similarly to the personalized learning experience, students will be able to modify their learning 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. process with tools they feel are necessary for them. Students will learn with different devices, different programs and techniques based on their own preference. Blended learning, flipped classrooms and BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) form important terminology within this change. Project based As careers are adapting to the future freelance economy, students of today will adapt to project based learning and working. This means they have to learn how to apply their skills in shorter terms to a variety of situations. Students should already get acquainted with project based learning in high school. This is when organizational, collaborative, and time management skills can be taught as basics that every student can use in their further academic careers. Field experience Because technology can facilitate more efficiency in certain domains, curricula will make room for skills that solely require human knowledge and face-to-face interaction. Thus, experience in ‘the field’ will be emphasized within courses. Schools will provide more opportunities for students to obtain realworld skills that are representative to their jobs. This means curricula will create more room for students to fulfill internships, mentoring projects and collaboration projects (e.g.). Data interpretation Though mathematics is considered one of three literacies, it is without a doubt that the manual part of this literacy will become irrelevant in the near future. Computers will soon take care of every statistical analysis, and describe and analyse data and predict future trends. Therefore, the human interpretation of these data will become a much more important part of the future curricula. Applying the theoretical knowledge to numbers, and using human reasoning to infer logic and trends from these data will become a fundamental new aspect of this literacy. Exams will change completely As courseware platforms will assess students capabilities at each step, measuring their competencies through Q&A might become irrelevant, or might not suffice. Many argue that exams are now designed in such a way, that students cram their materials, and forget the next day. Educators worry that exams might not validly measure what students should be capable of when they enter their first job. As the factual knowledge of a student can be measured during their learning process, the application of their knowledge is best tested when they work on projects in the field. Student ownership Students will become more and more involved in forming their curricula. Maintaining a curriculum that is contemporary, up-to-date and useful is only realistic when professionals as well as ‘youngsters’ are involved. Critical input from students on the content and durability of their courses is a must for an allembracing study program. Mentoring will become more important In 20 years, students will incorporate so much independence in to their learning process, that mentoring will become fundamental to student success. Teachers will form a central point in the jungle of information that our students will be paving their way through. Though the future of education seems remote, the teacher and educational institution are vital to academic performance. These are exciting, provocative and potentially far-reaching challenges. For individuals and society, new educational tools and resources hold the promise of empowering individuals to develop a fuller array of competencies, skills and knowledge and of unleashing their creative potential. Indeed, many of the changes underway call to mind the evocative words of Irish poet William Butler Yeats that, “Education is not about filling a bucket but lighting a fire.” Technology has become integrated into virtually every aspect of work. And because we spend so much time working, work really is the place where we most directly feel the impact of developing technologies. From collaboration to productivity; from new ways of approaching workspace design to the increasing ability to work from virtually anywhere; and from hiring and recruitment to new skill set-sit is a time of experimentation for companies and organizations as trends in technology converge to change what it means to work. References 1. https://www.thegeniusworks.com/2017/01/future-education-young-everyone-taught-together/ 2. https://medium.com/learning-re-imagined/education-and-the-fourth-industrial-revolutioncd6bcd7256a3 Questions for self-control 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is it “Education 4.0”? His advantages and disadvantages? What is the new a new vision of teaching? What kind of innovations and general shifts in the world of learning do you know? What do you think about mobility in education? Do you use new educational tools and resources? Innovations that have changed English language teaching English language teaching is evolving all the time, particularly alongside advances in technology. But what changes have had the biggest impact on teachers in recent years? I took the question to my global PLN (personal learning network – see the third point below). Here are what appear to be the top ten innovations for teachers, in no particular order. Recent years have seen a transformation in language learning methodologies. Reasons for this include developments in human sciences, social changes, globalisation, the spectacular growth of intercultural relationships, different ideologies in teaching, the various needs of individuals and societies, and emergent and powerful technology, to name just a few. These factors accompany new styles of learning and teaching languages which we need to adopt, not only to shape these new societal features but also to respond to the needs of today's fast-changing world. All these changes impact the teacher-learner relationship, where the teacher one-sidedly transmits his or her knowledge to the learners. Different resources are at the disposal of learners, mainly as a result of technology, such as new digital learning tools, which make it possible for them to take charge of their own learning (for instance, flipped learning). Learners can also acquire content and language in more than one language (CLIL, multilingualism) and become active members of new scenarios (taskbased methodology). These changes will undoubtedly affect teachers, students and other individuals involved in the learning and teaching of foreign languages. The new era assigns new challenges and duties on the modern teacher. The tradition of English teaching has been drastically changed with the remarkable entry of technology. Technology provides so many options as making teaching interesting and also making teaching more productive in terms of improvements. Technology is one of the most significant drivers of both social and linguistic change. 1. Digital platforms When we discuss innovation, we often immediately think of the internet and what we can now do online. Facebook and especially Edmodo, which creates a safe online environment for teachers, students and parents to connect, are popular with teachers. Cloud-based tools like Google Docs have also become indispensable. For teacher Tyson Seburn, it’s 'where I've moved so much of individual and (because of its functionality) collaborative writing with students...' The list of digital platforms is extensive and growing all the time. A multimedia manual like Digital Video by Nik Peachey (nominated for an ELTons award for innovations in teacher resources) can help teachers navigate the complicated, and sometimes overwhelming, world of digital resources, enabling teachers to create activities, lessons and courses from a range of digital tools. 2. Online corpora The use of corpora – large text collections used for studying linguistic structures, frequencies, etc. – used to be the privilege of lexicographers. But with most corpora now available online, and quite a few for free, teachers now have access to information about the way language is used in authentic texts and speech. Teachers no longer have to panic when students ask them about the difference between ‘trouble’ and ‘problem’. And it's not just teachers who benefit. To find out if more people say ‘sleepwalked’ or ‘sleptwalk’ (for example), students can simply search the words on Google, which uses the internet as its corpus. 3. Online CPD (continuous professional development) and the global staffroom The advent of the internet and the growth of social media have certainly allowed teachers of English from all over the world to form online communities that act like a huge global staffroom. Twitter and ELT blogging, for example, have 'opened up a network of people who can offer advice, support and ideas’, says Sandy Millin. Participants who are generous with their time, ideas, and contacts find they receive much in return. 4. Mobile learning and BYOD (bring your own device) The development of mobile technology and the proliferation of smart phones have enabled many of us to access the internet and a huge variety of apps on the go. Learners benefit too, from apps like WIBBU, and podcasts like Luke’s English Podcast – Learn British English with Luke Thompson – nominated for an ELTons award in the category of digital innovation. Teachers are also able to build on their teaching knowledge and skills by listening to podcasts like The TEFL Commute or join 50,000 teachers from more than 200 countries and watch webinars or archived videos of talks by TEFL teachers on EFL Talks. Both are nominated for an ELTons for innovation in teacher resources. And if teachers and students are gaining so much from their mobile devices, why ban them from classrooms? It seems that getting students to bring their own devices to class is fast becoming a game-changer in ELT practice. For teacher Ceri Jones, tools like WhatsApp and Padlet help build channels of communication beyond the classroom. She says: 'I often don’t have the hardware or the connectivity in teen classes to use internet, so students using their own devices is great – and it means they have a record of the resources we've used to check back on after class...' 5. Communicating with people online The ability to communicate online with people outside the classroom via Skype and similar tools has enabled students to meet and interact with others in English. In monolingual classes (i.e., most English classrooms around the world), this could give much-needed motivation to students who otherwise might not have the opportunity to interact with anyone in English. And as for teachers, the ability to converse with students face-to-face online has opened up a whole new market for Skype lessons and online classes. 6. Online authentic materials One of the biggest benefits of the internet for language learners is the sudden widespread availability of authentic resources. As David Deubelbeiss points out, this enables teachers to use 'content with messages students want to hear'. We can now access the daily news, watch trending videos on YouTube, read the latest tips on TripAdvisor… the possibilities are endless. But with so much content available to us, choosing the right online materials is crucial for efficient and effective learning. Keynote by National Geographic Learning, makes use of TED talks to develop a pedagogically sound approach to language learning, while Language Learning with Digital Video (Cambridge University Press) looks at how teachers can use online documentaries and YouTube videos to create effective lessons. Both resources are nominated for this year's ELTons awards. 7. The IWB (interactive white board) The IWB started appearing in classrooms in the early parts of this century and has now become a staple of many classrooms in Britain and around the world. It allows us to save and print notes written on the board, control the classroom computer from the whiteboard, play listening activities on the sound system, use the screen as a slide for presentations, access the internet, and so on. The possibilities seem endless. But the addition of an IWB to a classroom does not automatically make for a better learning experience. Indeed, unless teachers use them skilfully to complement teaching and learning, they are little more than a distraction. As teacher David Dodgson explains, some people 'love the shiny stuff', believing that simply standing in front of an IWB is effective integration of education technology. It's not. 8. Dogme (or materials-light teaching) For teachers like Matthew Noble, discovering the Dogme approach to language teaching was 'galvanising'. A communicative approach that eschews published textbooks in favour of conversational communication between learners and teacher, Dogme signals a departure from a one-size-fits-all approach to classroom materials. For many teachers, this 'unplugged' approach represents a new way of looking at the lesson content, and the chance to break free from self-contained language points and give more time to student-generated language. 9. Students steering their own learning Over the last couple of decades, learning has gradually been moving from a teachercentred top-down approach to a student-centred, bottom-up one. The trend has accelerated rapidly in recent years with the growing quantity and quality of information on the internet. In many respects, this has changed the teacher's role from that of knowledge-transmitter to consultant, guide, coach, and/or facilitator. One example is the 'negotiated syllabus', previously the domain of the business English teacher, who would conduct a needs analysis before tailoring a course to suit the participants. But we've come to recognise that there is nothing general about the general English learner either, and increasingly, teachers involve students in decisions about what to do in the classroom. The ELTons-nominated Connections E-textbook (a project by Zayed University in the UAE) takes this a step further and involves the students in the design of their etextbook, allowing them to make decisions on page layout and the clarity of task instructions. 10. Teaching soft skills and critical thinking skills As English cements its position as the world’s lingua franca, many of our students are now learning English to oil the wheels of communication in the worlds of business, trade, education, and tourism. To enable our students to become better communicators, we should perhaps go beyond grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation, and look at helping them communicate effectively in international settings. Learner resources nominated for an ELTons award this year include Richmond Business Theories (Richmond ELT), which features online resources that help teachers and students with soft skills like problem-solving, presentation skills, time management and decision-making. Academic Presenting and Presentations (Levrai and Bolster) looks specifically at the communication skills needed when making a presentation at college or university. Another ELTons nominee is The Thinking Train (Helbling Languages), which believes in starting young. It helps children develop critical thinking skills that could support them not just in their English learning but in the learning of other subjects and life skills. And perhaps it is this ability to think and reflect that will enable us as teachers and learners to take any innovation out there and make it work in our context for our students. After all, as a wise teacher of mine used to say, 'It’s never the tool, but the user that makes the difference.' Teachers are starting to create materials in ways that would have been impossible some years ago. Nearly every student now carries a powerful mini-computer, video camera and audio recorder in their pocket (otherwise known as a mobile phone) and teachers are finding new ways to use this technology in the classroom for learning English. Teachers and their students have a lot to look forward to. What has inspired your teaching and teacher development this year? Chia Suan Chong, who will be blogging from the livestreamed ELTons awards on 18 June 2018, lists her top ten. Blended learning As teachers combine digital media with more traditional forms of teaching, their course materials and resources reflect the trend. The Combined Pre-Sessional Course offered by King’s English Language Centre (King’s College London) combines face-to-face teaching and online lessons. For teachers who want to pepper their everyday teaching with practical online activities, Lindsay Clandfield and Jill Hadfield’s Interaction Online - creative activities for blended learning emphasises the interaction between teachers and learners. Mobile learning Online resources are more accessible with a mobile app or a mobile-friendly version. Wordable (Playlingo Ltd. with Cambridge University Press) turns vocabulary-learning into a fun, competitive game you could play with your friends. It has built-in, spaced repetition and active-recall learning to make new words stick. Essential English (Oxford University Press) uses mobile technology to provide free resources for teachers and students, including flashcards, phrasebooks, lesson plans and activities. Meanwhile, Tri Pro English Website and Mobile Apps helps learners to practise their listening through free, high-quality recordings divided into levels and coupled with comprehension questions. Gamification Appealing to football-lovers, LearnMatch (VE Vision Education GmbH) uses training sessions, friendly matches, leagues and cup games to make vocabulary learning fun for young learners. Get Set, Go! Phonics (Oxford University Press) uses chants, songs and games to help develop pre-school children’s phonological awareness. On an even more immersive scale, Learn Languages with Ruby Rei (Wibbu) plunges the learners into an interactive adventure game. They have to use their language skills to negotiate, collaborate and build friendships in order to escape from a forgotten planet at the edge of the universe. Any learning that takes place is incidental. Embodied learning Embodied learning is based on the idea that learning is not just about remembering. It involves using the mind and the body, collaborating, discussing and exploring. Learners need to be emotionally, intellectually, physically and socially engaged. Courses such as Doodle Town (Macmillan Education) use visual, audio and hands-on activities to stimulate and inspire learning, getting young learners to draw, create, and be inquisitive. Orbit (Richmond) develops the young learners’ socio-emotional and cognitive skills through a language course that follows the story of a ferret and children who go on adventures in multicultural environments. Inquiry-based learning (or: 'learning in a complex world') The scenarios that teachers come across in some course materials can seem simplified and unrealistic, leading us to wonder if we are adequately training our learners for real life in the 21st century. Courses like Fast Track 5 (EF Education First Ltd) and Wider World (Pearson with the BBC) use authentic video and audio content to bring the real world to teenage learners. They encourage teenagers to practise the soft skills and communication skills needed to take part in the global communities of the 21st century. Aimed at the adult learner, Perspectives (National Geographic) uses real-life stories and TED talks to motivate learners to think critically and creatively. Danny Norrington-Davies’s Teaching Grammar: From Rules to Reasons (Pavilion Publishing) is an alternative approach to teaching grammar. Teachers and learners discover how writers and speakers use grammar to express themselves in real life. Hugh Dellar and Andrew Walkley’s Teaching Lexically (Delta Publishing) combines the teaching of grammar and lexis for more effective classroom practice, rather than over-simplifying language into a more traditional ‘grammar + words’ view. English as a lingua franca (ELF) When the concept of English as a lingua franca was first discussed by teachers, academics, writers and trainers, it was controversial. Many refused to consider how the concept of English as an international language might fit into course materials and language teaching. Today, we see resource materials like PronPack 1-4 (Mark Hancock) taking a non-prescriptive approach to accent and instead focusing on increased intelligibility as the objective. Using elements of blended learning and gamification, this pronunciation course doesn’t help the learner sound British or American, but instead prepares the learner to use English in the global arena. Multi-literacies and trans-languaging In global communities where English is a common language of communication alongside other languages, knowledge of other languages is an asset. Rather than diminish the learners’ first language (also known as subtractive bilingualism), teachers are encouraging learners to use their own languages. This requires complex social and cognitive skills. In contrast, strict English-only classrooms are slowly becoming a thing of the past. Such linguistic diversity is celebrated in courses like the Family Skills Toolkit(Learning Unlimited Ltd) that encourages parents and carers of children learning English to see their bilingualism as a benefit. Supporting learners of specific needs As globalisation takes hold, 'glocalisation' (adapting an international product to match what people want in their particular country or culture) becomes necessary. The more we understand individual learners' needs, the more we can tailor our lessons to suit them. Ros Wright’s book Learning English: English for Health and Social Care Workers(Pavilion Publishing) provides learners not just with medical terms, but also knowledge of policies and procedures in the medical and care industry. Study Legal English – the world’s first legal English podcast includes online learning materials and quizzes to gamify learning. However, catering to learners with specific needs does not only mean English for Specific Purposes (ESP). Imagine! (Silva Education Ltd) caters to Brazilian learners from low-income families. EAP for Syrian Academics Projects provides online EAP lessons and material support for Syrian academics exiled across Turkey. Supporting Learners with Dyslexia in the ELT classroom is a teacher resource providing teachers with both theory and practical ideas of how to ‘reach and teach’ students with dyslexia. Creating and sharing content While there’s much online content already out there for learners, some programmes and apps allow learners to produce their own content and share what they have created with others. Popular online sites like Quizizz and Socrative allow both teachers and students to create online games and play games that are shared by users from around the world. Websites like Canva allow teachers and learners to express their creativity through posters, social media memes and banners. Then there are mindmapping sites, comic-strip creation sites and movie-editing/movie-making sites. Using content-creation tools like these allow learners to use language creatively, and turn language practice into a fun and engaging activity. ELTons finalist Brick by Brick(StandFor/ FTD Educaçāo) is one such course for younger learners that has them creating and embarking on hands-on projects as they learn. Learning and teaching management platforms Learning management platforms (LMSs) like Edmodo are increasingly popular. They give learners an online way to find handouts, continue classroom discussions and submit homework. Now, online platforms are also used to communicate with parents and other stakeholders, give teachers and administrators a better overview of the curriculum, and help manage lesson plans and materials. The Royal ABC (Prosper Education Pte Ltd) curriculum for four-to-six year olds comes with a teacher platform that allows teachers to manage lesson planning, complete administration, schedule homework and report to parents. This gives teachers more time to work with children in the classroom. References 1. https://www.britishcouncil.org/voices-magazine/ten-innovations-have-changed-englishlanguage-teaching 2. https://www.britishcouncil.org/voices-magazine/whats-new-english-language-teaching 3. https://www.britishcouncil.org/voices-magazine/ten-trends-innovations-english-languageteaching-2018 4. Ertmer, P and Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A (2010) Teacher technology change: How knowledge, confidence, beliefs, and culture intersect. Journal of Research on Technology in Education 42/3: 255–284. Questions for self-control 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. what kind of inventions do you use in your classroom? What is Gamification? Do you use this activity? What has inspired your teaching and teacher development this year? What kind of conceptual do you use from list? What is Embodied learning? The benefits of new technology in language learning. Just as technology plays a significant role in the advancement of medicine, business, and in every aspect of our everyday lives, it also plays an equally significant role in education. A variety of e-learning technologies is now available for use in educational programs, as schools constantly improve their pedagogical process by exhausting all forms of technology and incorporating them into the curriculum to meet the demands and keep up with the ever-changing world. These bring about endless benefits that help boost and maximize the whole teaching and learning the process, for both students and teachers. This is also helpful in achieving a school-life balance because students can choose other options that might work better for them. Students with an over packed schedule but still want to learn more about a certain language or enhance their native language may prefer mobile applications or online learning than enroll in a traditional class. In studying languages, for instance, technology fosters learning and provides positive effects What can put teachers off using technology. What is still sometimes an issue is the reliability of these technologies for classroom use. This can discourage teachers from making use of technology as often as they would want to. It's compounded by the fact that, if these teachers are working in schools, they are faced with classes of learners who may, on the surface at least, appear to be more digitally competent than their teachers are. Learners can therefore challenge their teachers, in ways that put the latter off using the technologies that could potentially make such a difference to what happens in the classroom. The benefits of technology in language learning that is integrated with project work 1. Easy and unlimited access to education Students can have unlimited access to technology nowadays from computers to handheld devices whether at home or in school, making it an important tool in the learning process. The Internet provides a hundred of different options to students who want to either enhance their native language or learn other foreign languages. Students will get to enjoy the flexibility to learn languages when they want and where they want and to get the immediate response or instant feedback anytime they need it. Organizations and educational institutions take to Internet different approaches to learning languages by means of online classes or free instructional videos uploaded on their sites, Youtube, and the likes. Programs that enhance literacy skills are also made available to students through webbased and mobile applications and software such as: Rosetta Stone - One of the earliest computer-assisted languages learning software that uses images, texts, and speech exercises to teach basic grammar, reading and writing proficiency of a chosen foreign language. Duolingo and Memrise - Duolingo and Memrise are mobile applications that students can download in order to learn a foreign language whenever and wherever they may be. These free language-learning platforms aim to teach foreign language effectively by using images, text, and speech exercises in a repetitive manner until mastery is achieved. These practical tools are not restricted to any age groups and support learning from the early stages to advance language training. Taking advantage of these tools will enable them to manage their own learning by accessing online resources that teachers may not be able to provide all the time. 2. Interactive and “blended” learning Learning is an active process, and interactive learning is crucial and probably the best way to study languages. Integration of technology in classrooms allows combination or “blended” learning, which means that lectures are combined with technology to facilitate learning, making it more efficient, effective and engaging to students. Teaching and learning extend beyond the classroom, removing limitations that used to hinder or delay the learning process. Teachers are now adapting to new technologies to better equip themselves in teaching students new approaches to language learning. Information Communications Technology (ICT) ICT seems to be an indispensable part of the modern and contemporary learning environment. It offers new opportunities to promote the quality and effectiveness of foreign language teaching. The utilization of ICT provides students more opportunities to communicate with other learners in real time, work on projects and participate in blog discussions while they improve their independent learning. Digital games-based language learning Digital games-based language learning creates language-learning opportunities through the use of computer games within an educational context, which young students may find more enjoyable. Interactive fiction reading is a great example of this where students get to participate in the storytelling process by playing the roles of the characters as they directly influence the story by choosing how it will unfold. This motivates students to read, which leads to better literacy results. Practice of reading and writing through software Early readers get to practice reading in a non-threatening, supportive environment and get quality feedback that is beneficial in learning. People who are perpetually hungry for knowledge or books can exploit the internet and use it as a “virtual library” rich in valuable resources from around the world. Budding writers can utilize web-based applications, sites, and software to enhance their writing skills. Distance learning programs Technology allows distance-learning programs that provide teacher-student exchange regardless of where they live. 3. Increased motivation The interactive learning in classrooms also increases motivation among students by being competitive as they participate in fun and games that help foster a more positive attitude towards learning and a more effective knowledge retention. For those who do not have enough funds for language courses will be motivated to learn through various free online resources and other platforms. 4. Support from teachers and peers Although most students prefer studying with a partner or a group over working alone with a computer, collaboration and communication in learning activities can also be done online. Technology allows people to connect and communicate online, which also provide a venue for teachers and learners to get support from each other. 5. Opportunities to connect with locals and gain cultural appreciation Language schools that offer online courses also provide students the chance to connect with native speakers or locals by means of video chat or simply by trying to immerse them in the community without the need to travel. Long distance exchanges through e-mails, chats, or web-based conferencing allow students to share cultural experiences especially those who might have few other opportunities for authentic language learning in a cost-effective way. It destroys barriers and bridges the gap in language learning world by creating an online community of people wanting to learn the same language. According to research, students who are able to have an authentic exchange using oral language with the native speakers are more confident and appreciative of cultural diversity. They grow up keen to global issues and with instilled enthusiasm to travel and discover other cultures. The range of technologies now available for teachers and students are great tools that can support learning languages in the variety of ways both in the classroom and home environment. Technological advancements have made everything better especially in the educational sector. Various innovative developments lead to a better language learning process for all people of any age. The role of technology in language learning is crucial but should never be the goal. Schools, teachers, and students should treat it as a valuable tool in learning languages but should not rely solely on technology programs. Analyzing Advantages and Disadvantages Most of the above studies showed technology’s positive effects on language learning, which answered the first question:Do we really need technology in language classrooms? The answer, of course, is yes we do. First, the advantages of using new technology in language classrooms can be interpreted in light of the changing goals of language education and the shifting conditions in our postindustrial society (Warschauer and Meskill 2000).New technology was part of the social fabric at the turn of the century. So while we taught foreign language studentsto write essays and read magazines a generation ago, we must now teach them to write e-mail and conduct onlineresearch. Thus, integrating technology into language classrooms is inevitable. Second, technology integration in foreign language teaching demonstrates the shift in educational paradigms froma behavioral to a constructivist learning approach. Language is a living thing, so the best way to learn a language isin interactive, authentic environments. Computer technologies and the Internet are powerful tools for assisting theseapproaches to language teaching. Even though constructivism is not a theory associated with using technology, constructivistassumptions are guideposts for developing a vision for integrating technology into the language curriculum. The following are summaries of these assumptions: Another area that technology supports very effectively is project work. We have always tried to encourage learners to learn about things through language. Getting learners to do work about topics that are of interest to them, or topics that are taught in other parts of the curriculum (sometimes called Content and Language Integrated Learning or CLIL is a great way to improve their skills. Technology makes this possible wherever you are in the world. Teachers and learners can go online to read or listen to material about different areas of interest, and can then write or speak about what they have discovered, telling others in the class or other classes elsewhere in the world. We can definitely agree that technology has done a great job in helping language learning, but this is just thebeginning of the age of technology-enhanced education. In the future, wireless networks, videoconferencing andother multimedia-enhanced communication methods will be more popular in the language classroom. However,teachers should always remember that technology is just a tool, and students’ learning achievement relies on appropriateand creative instruction. If you are aware of the pitfalls of using technology to design creative activities, technologywill work harder and better for foreign language education. The teaching strategies based on educational technology can be described as ethical practices that facilitate the students’ learning and boost their capacity, productivity, and performance. Technology integration in education inspires positive changes in teaching methods on an international level. Are you still wondering whether or not you should start relying on different apps and tools? The following list of benefits will help you come to a final conclusion. 1. Technology makes teaching easy! Aren’t you tired of giving theoretical explanations your students cannot understand? You simply cannot discover a way of presenting tough concepts that makes the concept clear for each and every student in the class. Technology has that power! Thanks to audio-visual presentations, your students will understand exactly how the knowledge is applied in practice. You can use projectors and computer presentations to deliver any type of lesson or instruction and improve the level of comprehension within the class. 2. Technology helps you track students’ progress! You are no longer limited to a plain-old diary and notes about every student. That would only get you confused. Today, you can rely on platforms and tools that enable you to keep track of the individual achievements of your students. MyStudentsProgress and theTeacherCloud Progress Tracker are great online tools that enable you to do that, but your school can also develop personalized software that would serve that purpose. 3. Educational technology is good to the environment! Can you imagine the amount of paper and number of trees that would be saved if every school decided to introduce digital textbooks? Of course, that goal is far from realistic at this point, but you can make a change when you start from your own class. For example, you can instruct your students to take online tests and submit their papers and homework through email. You can also encourage them to use eReaders to go through the literature you assign. 4. Thanks to technology, students enjoy learning! Students are addicted to Facebook, Pinterest, Instagram, Digg, and other websites from a very early age. The internet can distract them from the learning process, but you can also use their inclination to spend time online for a good purpose: Making learning enjoyable. Use touch-screen technology and online presentations to make the classes more interactive. You can also rely on technology when you want your students to take part in discussions. Set up a private Facebook group for your class and inspire constructive conversations! 5. Technology makes distance learning more accessible than ever! Without the wonders of the internet, people wouldn’t be able to get access to any type of information at the very moment they think of it. Today, distance learning is one of the most trending learning methods. Virtual lessons are slowly taking the place of traditional lectures. Students can organize their time in a way that works for them, and they can easily gain the knowledge they are interested in. For example, let’s say one of your students shows great interest in Astronomy, but the traditional curriculum does nothing to feed that hunger for knowledge. You can recommend him/her to take beginner’s course at Coursera, Udemy, or any other online service that offers highquality virtual lectures. 6. Students and teachers can access information at any time! This is possibly the most obvious benefit of technology. When old-school teachers were students, they had to spend hours in the library looking for the information they needed. Today, technology integration makes everything different and simpler. Students can easily access newspapers, scientific articles, studies, and any other type of content online. They can write better, deeper academic papers because they can support their arguments with more evidence. When you give a lecture the students don’t understand, they can find simpler instructions and information with a single Google search. 7. Technology makes collaboration more effective! Think about the way collaboration looks like in a traditional classroom setting. You organize groups, assign the projects, and suddenly the class becomes a complete mess. Some students express their opinions too loudly and firmly, while others don’t get an opportunity to be heard. Online tools and apps offer a unique setting for students to engage in a group project. They can do the work from home; the team is connected through the Internet and everyone is inspired by the focused environment. Despite these advantages, potential drawbacks of using technology always exist.Some of the main disadvantagesregarding technology integration in language classrooms include: A few common pitfalls of Internet use include objectionable materials, predators, copyright violations andplagiarism, viruses and hacking, netiquette behavior, and privacy issues. Teachers must be prepared to dealwith these issues as they use technology in their classrooms. Startup costs, which include hardware, software, staffing and training, are expensive. Warschauer andMeskill (2000) indicate that intelligent use of new technologies usually involves allocations of about athird each for hardware, software, and staff support and training. It is often the case in poorly funded languageprograms that the hardware itself comes in via a one-time grant (or through hand-me-downs fromscience departments), with little funding left for staff training, maintenance or software. Technology may not be good for every language at all levels. For logographic languages, computer typingmay not help improve efficiency in composition, especially with lowerlevel learners. It also takes a longtime for students to become familiar with computer typing; therefore, teachers should creatively use technologybut not rely on it alone. Spending too much time on computers is considered harmful to a child’s development of relationshipsand social skills (Roblyer 2003). The American Academy of Pediatricians calls for limiting children’s use ofmedia to only one to two hours per day. In 2018, almost all students (at least at the high school and college level in the US) carry a smartphone with them at all times. Recording and storing speaking practice with a smartphone (either individual or in dialogues) only requires unlocking a small screen and taping a few times on it. The latest technological innovation for smartphones, the mobile apps, further accentuate the obsolescence of language labs as speaking practice places. Extempore, for example, a recently developed learning app specifically designed for foreign language educators, is unsettling the industry of technology-mediated speaking practice by offering ease of use and real portability at a fraction of the cost of a traditional lab. What 100 years of technology in foreign language education tell us is: that technology is an ever-present and powerful learning aid, that there will always be change-resistant voices warning against the “ineffectiveness” of any new developments, and that the success or failure of a particular new tool depends much on the way instructors and students use it to serve their teaching and learning needs. As a final point, it is possible to say that technology is not a purpose but only a tool for all humanistic necessities. References 1. https://www.britishcouncil.org/voices-magazine/the-benefits-new-technology-languagelearning 2. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/suren-ramasubbu/how-technology-can-helpl_b_7489002.html 3. https://www.emergingedtech.com/2018/01/100-years-of-new-technologies-foreign-language/ 4. Pegrum, M. (2014). Mobile learning: Languages, literacies, and cultures. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan Questions for Self-Control 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is e-learning technologies? Do you use it? And how often? What benefits have technology got? Some of the main disadvantages regarding technology integration in language classrooms include....What are they? Technology makes collaboration more effective. Do you agree? Is it true? Can we increase motivation among students by using technology? Language Portfolio. What is Portfolio? Language Portfolio as an innovative way of stimulating students to learning foreign languages: the problems and perspectives. What is an assessment portfolio? An assessment portfolio is the systematic collection and evaluation of student work measured against predetermined scoring criteria, such as scoring guides, rubrics, checklists, or rating scales. Because the contents of portfolios are scored using specific criteria, the use of assessment portfolios is considered criterion-referenced assessment. Portfolios can provide a continuous picture of student progress, rather than a 3 snapshot of student achievement that single-occasion tests provide. Depending on school or district requirements, portfolios can include performancebased assessments, such as writing samples that illustrate different genres; solutions to math problems that show problem-solving ability; lab reports demonstrating an understanding of a scientific approach; or social studies research reports demonstrating the ability to use multiple sources. In some cases, multiple drafts of student work showing improvements are included. Portfolios can also contain information about students’ educational backgrounds. In addition, portfolios might include scores on commercially-developed, nationally normreferenced tests, such as the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) and the California Test of Basic Skills (CTBS). Portfolios may also include results of criterion-referenced measures such as the Maryland School Performance Assessment Program (MSPAP). Language Portfolio. What is Portfolio? * a purposeful collection of student’s work that shows and demonstrates the efforts or achievements in one or more areas * a record of the child's process of learning: what the child has learned and how he has gone about learning; how he thinks, asks questions, analyzes, synthesizes, produces, creates; and how he interacts – intellectually, emotionally and socially-with others * a container of collected evidence with a purpose. Evidence is documentations that can be used by one person or group of persons to infer another person’s knowledge, skill, and/or disposition * a fusion of process and product. It is the process of reflection, selection, rationalization, and evaluation, together with the product of those processes * systematic, purposeful, and meaningful collections of students’ work in one or more subject areas * the assessment of some data about students’ skills in one or more areas in a certain time period, regular collection of his studies and performances according to predetermined criteria. Portfolio assessment method also has many benefits for teacher, parents and students. * Portfolio provides multiple ways of assessing students’ learning over time * It provides for a more realistic evaluation of academic content than pencil-and paper tests. * It allows students, parent, teacher and staff to evaluate the students’ strength and weakness. * It provides multiple opportunities for observation and assessment * It provides an opportunity for students to demonstrate his/her strengths as well as weakness. The purpose of portfolio * to improve the students’ learning and to diagnose his/her learning needs * to assess the student progress over an extended period of time, and to provide evidence for grades * to strike a balance between product and process Comparing to Portfolio Assessment with Standardized Testing Portfolio Assessment Occurs in the child’s natural environment * is an unnatural event * provides an opportunity for student to demonstrate his/her strengths as well as weaknesses * gives hands-on information to the teacher on the spot * allows the child, parent, teacher, staff to evaluate the child’s strengths and weakness * is on-going, proving multiple opportunities for observation and assessment * assesses realistic and meaningful daily literacy tasks * invites the child to be reflective about his/her work * invites the parents to be reflective of child’s work and knowledge encourages teacher-student conferencing informs instruction and curriculum; places child at centre of the educational process. Standardized Testing * provides a summary of child’s filatures on certain tasks * provides little diagnostic information * provides ranking information * is an one-time “snapshot” of a student’s abilities on a particular task * assesses artificial task, which may not be meaningful to the child and knowledge * asks child to provide a singular desired response * provide parents with essentially meaningless and often frightening numerical data * forces teacher-administration conferencing reinforces idea that the curriculum is the centre of the educational process Types of portfolios: * Personal portfolio * Record-keeping portfolio * Group portfolio * Thematic portfolio * Electronic portfolio * Multiyear portfolio Three parts identified in a language portfolio: 1. The Language Passport section provides an overview of the individual’s proficiency in different languages at a given point in time; the overview is defined in terms of skills and the common reference levels in the Common European Framework; it records formal qualifications and describes language competencies and significant language and intercultural learning experiences; it includes information on partial and specific competence; it allows for selfassessment, teacher assessment and assessment by educational institutions and examinations boards; it requires that information entered in the Passport states 2. 3. on what basis, when and by whom the assessment was carried out. To facilitate panEuropean recognition and mobility a standard presentation of a Passport Summary is promoted by the Council of Europe for ELPs for adults. The Language Biography facilitates the learner’s involvement in planning, reflecting upon and assessing his or her learning process and progress; it encourages the learner to state what he/she can do in each language and to include information on linguistic and cultural experiences gained in and outside formal educational contexts; it is organized to promote plurilingualism, i.e. the development of competencies in a number of languages. The Dossier offers the learner the opportunity to select materials to document and illustrate achievements or experiences recorded in the Language Biography or Passport. The Language passport * Describes language competence in terms of Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) levels * Records formal qualifications and intercultural learning experiences * Allows for self- and teacher-assessment The Language Biography * Enables learners to plan and assess their learning * Gives learners a chance to state what they can do The Dossier * Offers learners the opportunity to select written work (including projects) and recorded materials (audio, video) to illustrate their achievements Functions of Language Portfolio and their content: * Function of gathering (накопичувальна) – gives a possibility to create a collection of the best student’s works * Function of modeling (моделююча) – is a way of forming the student’s individual plan of learning * Reflexive and creative function (рефлексивно-креативна) – gives the students a possibility of planning strategies and ways of their own learning activity The strategy of six steps (after O. Karpjuk) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Forming the reflexive skills. Getting acquainted with ELP. Forming the skills of formulating the aim. Forming the abilities and skills of student’s planning the individual learning plan Providing the self-evaluation step-by-step The support of student’s work over the ELP. What are the challenges of using assessment portfolios with English language learners? Assessment portfolio systems have lower reliability and comparability than norm-referenced tests. Assessment portfolios are not without challenges as school- or districtwide assessment tools. First, state education agencies (SEAs) report that there is general public resistance to performance-based testing, because it is perceived to diminish the accountability of schools and districts. The public has become accustomed to single scores, like those used to describe the results of standardized, norm-referenced tests, such as the CTBS. Single scores are comparable across schools and districts, and from one year to the next. However, many performance-based tests, including some portfolio systems, do not easily or meaningfully translate into a single score or set of scores that can be readily compared. Because some schools and districts report the results of performance-based tests descriptively, using words rather than a numerical score, stakeholders sometimes feel that the school system is less accountable for individual students. Furthermore, it is difficult to implement assessment portfolio systems to meet the reliability requirements that many school systems want. Achieving a certain degree of reliability among raters or test evaluators (for example, .7 agreement or better) is important, according to researchers at the National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing. If high inter-rater reliability figures are not reached, the usefulness of the scores as an accountability tool diminishes, because the results cannot be used to compare scores reliably between schools and districts, or over time. However, assessment portfolio systems can also be designed with the single-score requirement in mind. For example, inter-rater agreement on Vermont’s writing portfolios improved when scores on five writing subsections were averaged into a single score . When assessment portfolio results are translated into numerical scores, the benefit of richer information about student learning is lost. References 1. http://www.languagelearningportal.com 2. http://edglossary.org/portfolio/ 3. https://www.brown.edu/academics/education-alliance/sites/brown.edu.academics.educationalliance/files/publications/ass_port_ell.pdf 4. http://www.oup.hu/NEFportfolio_elem.pdf Questions for Self-Control. 1. 2. 3. Language Portfolio. What is Portfolio? What are the challenges of using assessment portfolios with English language learners? Three parts identified in a language portfolio. What are they? 4. 5. What kind of benefits portfolio has got? Comparing to Portfolio Assessment with Standardized Testing. Which one is better and why? Project work Project work challenges students to think beyond the boundaries of the classroom, helping them develop the skills, behaviors, and confidence necessary for success in the 21st-century. Designing learning environments that help students question, analyze, evaluate, and extrapolate their plans, conclusions, and ideas, leading them to higher-order thinking, requires feedback and evaluation that goes beyond a letter or number grade. The term “authentic assessment” is used to describe assessment that evaluates content knowledge as well as additional skills like creativity, collaboration, problem-solving, and innovation. Project work creates connections between the foreign language and the learner’s own world. It encourages the use of a wide range of communicative skills, enables learners to exploit other fields of knowledge, and provides opportunities for them to write about the things that are important in their own lives. Project work allows students to consolidate the language that they have learnt and encourages them to acquire new vocabulary and expressions. In addition, it gives learners integrated skills practice. Throughout project work students have extensive practice of the skills of reading, writing, listening and speaking. Using projects with classes provides excellent opportunities for cross-curricular work. The topics should be carefully chosen and have to be presented in a lively and up-to-date manner. It is important to present a new project in an enthusiastic way and encourage the class activity in a discussion about the key topic. The more students are engaged in to a project, the more likely that the project will be a success. We know that the worldwide interest in getting of competent knowledge of the English language is growing. Language is the most recognized means of communication. The life and the development of any human society are based on communication through language. The vision of the world of a nation is conveyed by its language, which reflects the moral code, relations between people. So language is the main tool in acquiring other peoples’ lives, traditions. Language use is creative. The learners use language to express what they think and what they want to say. To communicate better in a foreign language they should have the ability to use language appropriate to a context. Planning the project Opening To give learners an idea of what projects are and what they should be aiming to produce, it is good to have examples of past projects: a photocopy of a previous group newspaper or a photograph of a wall display. Proposing After explaining the idea behind the project I ask learners to propose a scheme of work: o What they want to include in the project o What form it will take o Who will be responsible for what o An idea of the time it will take to produce each part of the project o Any material or resources they might need I would then sit down with each group for 10 minutes to discuss their proposals (a copy of which both I and the learner would keep to refer to as the project develops). At this point the evaluation procedures would also be explained. Time Allocate an agreed amount of time for the project. For a summer 60 hour course of 3 hours a day I would dedicate 5 hours to project work so approx. 6 sessions of 45 minutes each with a round up session at the end. I would also have the sessions on the same day each week - Wednesday, and Friday, for example, so learners know to bring materials to class on that day. Space Show the learners the space they will have for the project, it could be wall space or a corner of the classroom, so they have some idea how much material they should produce and can plan the layout. Materials and resources Provide the learners with materials they might need: card, scissors glue, paper etc. It is fairly common now for learners to want to use the Internet to find information for their projects. Encourage a keen student with Internet to do this at home! If there is time and Internet available in the school make sure the students have informed you of exactly what they're looking for - photos- or that they have prepared a list of information they want to find. Simply giving the learners time on the computers can lead to them aimlessly surfing the net. If the facility is available learners often like to write finished drafts of their work on the computer. Presentation Projects need to be seen, read and admired so schedule the last project session as a presentation. Ask the group to prepare a task for the others in the class to do connected to the project: it could be a quiz with questions for a wall display, a crossword using vocabulary for the project or comprehension questions for a video that learners have made. Evaluation As with any piece of work a project needs to be acknowledged and evaluated. It's not enough to just say 'that's great' after all the work learners have put in. I use a simple project evaluation report, which comments on aspects of the project such as content, design, language work and also evaluates the oral presentation stage of the project. Some possible drawbacks to project work Learners using their own language If the class are monolingual they may use their L1 a lot (it often happens anyway in YL classes) so you should decide whether the benefits of doing project work outweigh this factor. Some learners doing nothing By giving more freedom to the learners you may also be giving them the freedom to do nothing! If the project is planned carefully and roles decided at the proposal stage this is less likely to happen. Groups working at different speeds One group may have 'finished' the project after a couple of hours and say they have nothing to do. Remind them it is their responsibility to fill the time allocated to project work and discuss ways they could extend the work they have already completed. The teacher tries to encourage learners to think of their own ideas, to produce something new of their own. Before setting up a project it is essential to explain the final outcome, this will help them to understand what they are doing and why. The teacher explains the students that at the end of the project they will write or design a small leaflet on the topic, a wall display, a poster... There are some stages in presenting a project: – Initial discussion of the idea. – Decide a form of the project. – Practicing language skills. – Collecting information. – Displaying the result of the research. The project work “Countries, I’d like to visit” was done by the students of the Intermediate Level. The students gathered information about different countries, prepared video slides about the country they would like to visit, prepared role plays, songs, costumes. Their reports were informative and creative, because information was taken from different sources: Encyclopedia, Internet, magazines. Then all groups worked on the “Question Quiz” “Countries and Cities”. (4) The song “It’s a Small World” was performed by the whole class. So by this kind of activity we may say that project work is a kind of investigation, active participation, which is held instead of passive listening and memorizing. The role of a teacher becomes that of a facilitator, provider of a feedback. The students of the Upper Intermediate Level prepared the project “Space? What is it?” The class was divided into two groups. They described their imaginary journeys to different planets, named the planets, wrote about the adventures happened during their trips. (3) The second group presented their report about the moon. They made a video film about the moon, the role play about the adventures of the girl who “was caught by the alien”. Others described their trips to the planet of dreams, showed slides of these planets. The models of the spaceships by which they could travel to other planets were done by them. Project work is also used to increase motivation and retention, to help students develop a positive image, to develop critical thinking and problem — solving, it develops fluency in the use of language features that they have learned. Some advantages of project work are: Increased motivation – learners become personally involved in the project. All four skills, reading, writing, listening and speaking are integrated. Autonomous learning is promoted as learners become more responsible for their own learning. There are learning outcomes – learners have an end product. Authentic tasks and therefore the language input are more authentic. Interpersonal relations are developed through working as a group. Content and methodology can be decided between the learners and the teacher and within the group themselves so it is more learner centred. Learners often get help from parents for project work thus involving the parent more in the child's learning. If the project is also displayed parents can see it at open days or when they pick the child up from the school. A break from routine and the chance to do something different. A context is established which balances the need for fluency and accuracy. Students really benefit from being given a model for the different structural elements of a project. A basic structure is reflects the design cycle itself: plan, research, develop, review. You may want to add in further elements as you see fit. Wellproduced dissertations, for example, typically include an abstract, introduction, literature review, discussion and conclusion. Students may not be aware of what counts as a good model for structure; timely advice from the supervisor can really help them with the process. For example In my experience, most students are more comfortable writing about what other people think, and they tend to be nervous about putting forward their own opinions. I explain, though, that their project should contain their own ideas: they need to argue for their own point of view. Once they have got past the research stage, I sometimes use an interview, which could be a peer-interview, to help them work out their own ideas. What is the central question in their project? What different answers do people give? What is their point of view? How would they argue for it? Does the research evidence support their viewpoint? What do they think is the strongest argument against their view, and how would they answer it? The disadvantages of project work are the noise which is made during the class, also projects are time-consuming and the students use their mother tongue too much, the weaker students are lost and not able to cope with the task and the assessment of projects is very difficult. However, every type of project can be held without any difficulties and so with every advantage possible. The types of projects are information and research projects, survey projects, production projects and performance and organizational projects which can be performed differently as in reports, displays, wall newspapers, parties, plays, etc. Though projectwork may notbe the easiest instructional approach to implement, the potential pay-offs are many. At the very least, with the project approach, teachers can break with routine by spending a week or more doing something besides grammar drills and technical reading. The organization of project work may seem difficult but if we do it step by step it should be easy. We should define a theme, determine the final outcome, structure the project, identify language skills and strategies, gather information, compile and analyse the information, present the final product and finally evaluate the project. Project work demands a lot of hard work from the teacher and the students, nevertheless, the final outcome is worth the effort. References 1. 2. 3. Snow, C. and Wong-Filmore, L. (in press). What teachers need to know about language. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics. https://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/project-work-teenagers http://project-work-in-english-teaching.blogspot.com/ Questions for Self-Control 1. 2. 3. 4. What projects are and what they should be? Some advantages of project work are...? What is the strongest argument agains of Project? What should we do for planning the project? Total physical response TPR THEORY 1) TPR is based on the theory that the memory is enhanced through association with physical movement. 2) It is also closely associated with theories of mother tongue language acquisition in very young children, where they respond physically to parental commands, such as "Pick it up" and "Put it down". TPR as an approach to teaching a second language is based, first and foremost, on listening and this is linked to physical actions which are designed to reinforce comprehension of particular basic items. 3) TPR is also based on the premise that the human brain has a biological program for acquiring any natural language on earth – including the sign language of the deaf. The process is visible when we observe how infants internalise their first language. The secret is a unique "conversation" between the parent and infant. For example, the first conversation is a parent saying, "Look at daddy. Look at daddy." The infant's face turns in the direction of the voice and daddy exclaims, "She's looking at me! She's looking at me!" Dr. Asher calls this "a language-body conversation" because the parent speaks and the infant answers with a physical response such as looking, smiling, laughing, turning, walking, reaching, grasping, holding, sitting, running, and so forth. Notice that these "conversations" continue for many many months before the child utters anything more intelligible than "mommy" or "daddy." Although the infant is not yet speaking, the child is imprinting a linguistic map of how the language works. Silently, the child is internalising the patterns and sounds of the target language. When the child has decoded enough of the target language, speaking appears spontaneously. The infant's speech will not be perfect, but gradually, the child's utterances will approximate more and more that of a native speaker. Children and adults experience the thrill of immediate understanding when you apply this powerful concept in your classroom. Benefits: Successful with children and adults learning any language. It works, because... 1) It imitates the way a baby learns its first language. (hours of listening, decoding through body movements, delayed speech, no formal grammar) 2) The language enters the brain through the right hemisphere where understanding of language is stored. (Speaking is stored in the left hemisphere) 3) It is low stress All language input is immediately comprehensible, often hands-on, and allows students to pass through a silent period whereby they build a comprehension base before ever being asked to speak. Once language is internalised, production emerges, thus setting TPR apart from traditional "listen-and-repeat" methods. In a TPR lesson, teachers model actions which students then mimic as they simultaneously hear vocabulary words and commands in the target language. As a particular action is associated with each vocabulary word or phrase, students rapidly and naturally acquire language while establishing long-lasting associations between the brain and the muscles. There are 2 phases in the TPR learning process. 1) Modelling by the instructor 2) Demonstration by the learner Weaknesses The above examples, however, also illustrate some of the potential weaknesses inherent in the approach. Firstly, from a purely practical point of view, it is highly unlikely that even the most skilled and inventive teacher could sustain a lesson stage involving commands and physical responses for more than a few minutes before the activity became repetitious for the learners, although the use of situational role-play could provide a range of contexts for practising a wider range of lexis. Secondly, it is fairly difficult to give instructions without using imperatives, so the language input is basically restricted to this single form. Thirdly, it is quite difficult to see how this approach could extend beyond beginner level. Fourthly, the relevance of some of the language used in TPR activities to real-world learner needs is questionable. Finally, moving from the listening and responding stage to oral production might be workable in a small group of learners but it would appear to be problematic when applied to a class of 30 students, for example. Variations of TPR : TPR-B, TPR-O, TPR-P, TPRS So the basic idea of TPR is that a language learner hears something in the language and physically responds to it. However, TPR is not just limited to whole body commands such as walking, turning around, and pointing to your nose. In fact, there are four major types of activities that can be done using the TPR mindset. I like to refer to them as TPR-B, TPR-O, TPR-P, and TPRS. (TPRS is the only one of these expressions that is widely known, the others are terms I've made up.) I refer to TPR-B for "TPR with body", which includes everything that can be done with general body movement: stand up, sit down, turn around, turn right, turn left, lift up your arm, touch your nose, etc. This is best done in a room with some space to move around. TPR-O stands for "TPR with objects". This is best done sitting a table that has some objects on it. For example, one day you could raid the produce stand and then sit down with your Turkish friend to a table of fruit. That day you could not only learn the words for "apple", "banana", "orange", and so on, but also, "give me", "take", "put", "smell", "bite", "roll", "peel", and "show me". For this activity, your friend could start off with: "This is an apple. This is an orange. This is an apple. This is an orange. Where is the apple? (You would point) Where is the orange?" Once again new words can be fairly quickly built up one at a time. TPR-P stands for "TPR with pictures". Pictures are extremely effective language learning tools. Let's say that you're actually living in England and have gone around and taken 150 or so pictures of people doing different things and then arranged these pictures in an album. Your English friend could go through and say "This is a man. This is a boy. This is a man. This is a boy. Where is the man? Where is the boy?" Gradually both background and foreground objects in the pictures could be learned, as well as verbs: "The carpenter is hitting the nail with a hammer," leading to requests such as "show me the man who is hitting something". Even verb tenses can be incorporated by asking your friend (or tutor or teacher) to talk about all of the pictures as if they happened last week, or now, or next week. The actual physical response with pictures is fairly basic–pointing at something–but the opportunity for vocabulary acquisition is a broad as the types of pictures you can use. In addition to taking your own pictures, you can probably find some children's picture or story books that are also useful for this kind of learning. Newspaper and magazine pictures work well too. TPR-S -was developed by Blaine Ray and is being used in classrooms throughout the United States. It involves the teacher (and eventually the students) acting out simple stories as a means of understanding the story and internalising vocabulary. The last section of this article gives an internet link for more information about this approach. You'll find more information at: http://www.tprstorytelling.com/story.htm What about Speaking? If you are just starting your language learning and are using TPR, at some point you are (hopefully!) going to feel the urge to start speaking. Don't push it, but at some point you can begin saying things for your friend/tutor to do, from "stand up" to "turn the volume down" to "show me the man who ate fish yesterday". You can also speak about a table of objects: "This is a ball. This is a key. This is a book. The pen is on the book." And finally, you can describe pictures in any tense: "The man ate fish. The boy read a book." Assessing and Testing TPR Assessment is constant. You don’t move on to the next step until you know that most of your students understand the current commands. For formal assessments, ….. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Matching pictures with statements Match actions with commands. You say a command and either you or another person acts out a command. If the action matches the words, the students check YES or RIGHT on an answer sheet. You say a command and the students write it out in English. (Asher said that this type of assessment produces lower results) You say a command and the students draw it out. You say a command and the students act it out. (This is time consuming) Logical/Illogical sentences: You say a command and the students need to determine if the command is logical or not, i.e. Turn the blackboard around. (This one my students find extremely difficult.) References 1. http://www2.vobs.at/ludescher/Ludescher/LAcquisition/total_physical_response.htm 2. https://www.fluentu.com/blog/educator/total-physical-response/ Questions for self-control 3. What is TPR? There are 2 phases in the TPR learning process. Wht are they? Some Benefits and Weaknesses of these methods are? 4. 5. How often do you use it? What are the formal assessments of this method? 1. 2. The communicative approach The term "Communicative Language Teaching" (CLT) means different things to different teachers. To some teachers, it simply means a greater emphasis on the use of the target language in the classroom, and in particular, a greater emphasis on orality. To other teachers, communication entails the exchange of unknown information between interlocutors. And finally, some teachers understand communication in the most global, anthropological terms, that is, as a culturalbond system for making meaning. Despite their various definitions of CLT, all the module instructors seem to advocate for a communicative approach. W hat Is The Communicative Approach? The Communicative Approach is an idea that to learn English successfully, you have to communicate in the language, in meaningful situations, in order to see the value of your work. The communicative approach is a tried and test method for helping a student to acquire valuable communicative English skills, which they see true value in. When a student is involved with real life communication, which is also meaningful to them, they see value in their work. This can help a student to develop a natural approach to language learning and vocabulary acquisition moving forward, outside of the classroom. The communicative approach is not just limited to real life verbal communication. It is an approach to language learning in general. For example, a class utilizing the communicative approach could also include the study of “authentic texts” – texts written in the target language for a purpose other than your language studies. By adopting the communicative approach in your English studies, you will be able to improve on your fluency, enabling you to be more confident when interacting in English. The Communicative Approach is not new, it is said to have originated in Britain in the 1960s. So, with more than 50 years of usage as a tried and tested approach to language learning, the Communicative Approach is a proven success. Example Practising question forms by asking learners to find out personal information about their colleagues is an example of the communicative approach, as it involves meaningful communication. In the classroom Classroom activities guided by the communicative approach are characterised by trying to produce meaningful and real communication, at all levels. As a result there may be more emphasis on skills than systems, lessons are more learner-centred, and there may be use of authentic materials. What Is Communicative Language Teaching? Communicative Language Teaching adopts the communicative approach in order to educate a student with real meaning. Communicative Language Teaching allows learners to get involved with real communication, which will benefit their natural approach to learning a language. Communicative Language teaching has a very important role. This approach to language learning enables a student to use their newfound skills in a meaningful way, showing value from what they are learning. When teaching communicative English, teachers can get rather creative with their approach. This is an excellent way of learning as it makes for more exciting classes, a nice change from the typical classroom and textbooks. For example, a teacher might give you an activity where the class has to come up with a role play scenario between two people. This is great because not only does it help to improve your English with creativity, but also puts pressure on you to have a real time conversation with each other in English. The quality of Communicative Language Teaching is all dependent on the teacher. A teacher will need to make their material as motivating and as creative as they can, so that learners find their tasks meaningful, and see the value. Another way in which a teacher might try to use the communicative approach within their classes is via cultural understanding. Having the right knowledge of a culture for the countries where your target language is being used is key to communicative language teaching. Make sure that you cover different, important cultural factors that are essential to communicating in English speaking countries. For example, in England, many people are taught to be polite and courteous, and even sometimes apologize when they are in the right, in certain situations. Knowing details like this will make it much easier to communicate with a native English speaker, or another learner also studying the language. PRINCIPLES OF THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH: 1. Language learning is learning to communicate using the target language. The language used to communicate must be appropriate to the situation, the roles of the speakers, the setting and the register. The learner needs to differentiate between a formal and an informal style. 3. Communicative activities are essential. Activities should be presented in a situation or context and have a communicative purpose. Typical activities of this approach are: games, problem-solving tasks, and role-play. There should be information gap, choice and feedback involved in the activities. 4. Learners must have constant interaction with and exposure to the target language. 5. Development of the four macroskills – speaking, listening, reading and writing – is integrated from the beginning, since communication integrates the different skills. 6. The topics are selected and graded regarding age, needs, level, and students’ interest. 7. Motivation is central. Teachers should raise students’ interest from the beginning of the lesson. 8. The role of the teacher is that of a guide, a facilitator or an instructor. 9. Trial and error is considered part of the learning process. 10. Evaluation concerns not only the learners’ accuracy but also their fluency. 2. COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING Main Features and Techniques: Meaning is paramount. Dialogues, if used, enter around communicative functions and are not normally memorized. 3. Contextualization is a basic premise. (Meaning cannot be understood out of context. Teachers using this approach will present a grammar topic in a meaningful context. Example: If the new topic to teach is Present Continuous, the teacher will not mime the action of ‘walking’ and ask: What am I doing? I am walking. Instead, the teacher will show, say, pictures of her last trip and tell the students something like: I have pictures of my vacation. Look, in this picture I am with my friends. We are having lunch at a very expensive restaurant. In this other picture, we are swimming at the beach. 4. Language learning is learning to communicate and effective communication is sought. (When learners are involved in real communication, their natural strategies for language acquisition will be used, and this will allow them to learn to use the language.) 5. Drilling may occur, but peripherally. 6. Comprehensible pronunciation is sought. 7. Translation may be used where students need or benefit from it. 8. Reading and writing can start from the first day. 9. Communicative competence is the desired goal (i.e., the ability to use the linguistic system effectively and appropriately). 10. Teachers help learners in any way that motivates them to work with the language. 1. 2. 11. Students are expected to interact with other people, either in the flesh, through pair and group work, or in their writings. Why Is Communicative English Necessary? If you have already been exposed to the communicative approach, then it is likely you already know the benefits this approach can have on your English language studies, and the value it can provide. Communicative English is important as it can help a student to see value in their studies, in a meaningful way. Strengthening your communication skills in English is necessary, and is a powerful tool that can be used for business, travel or simply to have a conversation in a different country. By improving on your communicative English, you are enabling yourself to not only hold a conversation in your target language, but you are also developing the required skills to go forth and develop a natural approach to language learning and vocabulary acquisition moving forward, on your own. With more than 1.5 billion people speaking English as either their native or second language, we will leave it up to you to decide whether communicative English is really necessary. A Communicative Approach opens up a wider perspective on language. In particular, it makes us consider language not only in terms of structures (grammar and vocabulary), but also in terms of the communicative function that it performs. In other words, we begin to look not only at language forms, but also at what people do with these forms when they want to communicate with each other. For example, the form'Why don't you close the door?' might be used for a number of communicative purposes, such as asking a question, making a suggestion or issuing an order. Communicative Approach makesus awarethat it is not enoughto teachlearners to manipulate the structures of the language. They mustalsodevelop strategies forrelating these structures to their communicative functions in realsituations and real time . In the language classroom, the language teacher as Littlewood(1981:xi) suggests must provide learners with ample opportunities to use thelanguage themselves for communicative purposes. We must remember that we are ultimately concerned with the learners' ability totake partinthe process ofcommunicating through lan guage, ratherthanwith their perfect mastery ofindividual structures (though this may still be a useful step towards the broader goal). Hence, with this approach, it is possible to provide language students with meaningful task practices, to improve their motivation in language learning, to encouragenatural learningin the language environment, and to create a context that supports learning. As Maurice puts it : If communication is to be the product of language teaching, then it seems reason able that it needs to be included in the process as well. To avoid doing this, is to surrender before the battle, to withdraw from a solid approach before even giving it a try. References 1. https://ontesol.com/communicative-approach/ 2. https://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/communicative-approach 3. https://blog.tjtaylor.net/method-communicative/ Questions for sel-control 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What Is The Communicative Approach? What Is Communicative Language Teaching? Why Is Communicative English Necessary? What are Main Features and Techniques? Typical activities of this approach are? Grammar Translation Method In the Western world, “foreign” language learning in schools was synonymous with the learning of Latin or Greek. Latin, thought to promote intellectuality through “mental gymnastics”, was only until relatively recently held to be indispensable to an adequate higher education. Latin was taught by means of what has been called the Classical Method: focus on grammatical rules, memorization of vocabulary and of various declensions and conjugations translation of texts, doing written exercises. As other languages began to be taught in educational institutions in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the Classical Method was adopted as the chief means for teaching foreign languages. Little thought was given to teaching oral use of languages. After all, languages were not being taught primarily to learn oral/aural communication but to learn for the sake of being “scholarly” or, in some instances, for gaining a reading proficiency in a foreign language. Since there was little if any theoretical research on second language acquisition in general, or on the acquisition of reading proficiency, foreign languages were taught as any other skill was taught. In the nineteenth century, the Classical Method came to be known as the Grammar Translation Method. Grammar-Translation Method began in Germany, or more accurately, Prussia, at the end of the eighteenth century and established an almost impregnable position as the favored methodology of the Prussia Gymnasien after their expansion in the early years of the nineteenth century. The origins of the method do not lie in an attempt to teach languages by grammar and translation, these were taken for granted anyway. The original motivation was reformist, the traditional scholastic approach among individual learners in the eighteenth century had been to acquire learners a reading knowledge of foreign languages by studying a grammar and applying this knowledge to the interpretation of texts with the use of a dictionary. Most of them were highly educated men and women who were trained in classical grammar and knew how to apply the familiar categories to new languages. However scholastic methods of this kind were not well suited to the capabilities of younger school pupils and, moreover, they were self-study methods which were inappropriate for group teaching in the classroom. The Grammar-Translation Method was an attempt to adapt these traditions to the circumstances and requirements of schools. Its principal aim was to make language learning easier. The central feature was the replacement of traditional texts by exemplary sentences. Grammar-Translation was the offspring of German scholarship, the object of which, according to one of its less charitable critics, was “to know everything about something rather than the thing itself” . At the height of the Communicative Approach to language learning in the 1980s and early 1990s it became fashionable in some quarters to deride so-called "oldfashioned" methods and, in particular, something broadly labelled "Grammar Translation". There were numerous reasons for this but principally it was felt that translation itself was an academic exercise rather than one which would actually help learners to use language, and an overt focus on grammar was to learn about the target language rather than to learn it. As with many other methods and approaches, Grammar Translation tended to be referred to in the past tense as if it no longer existed and had died out to be replaced world-wide by the fun and motivation of the communicative classroom. If we examine the principal features of Grammar Translation, however, we will see that not only has it not disappeared but that many of its characteristics have been central to language teaching throughout the ages and are still valid today. The Grammar Translation method embraces a wide range of approaches but, broadly speaking, foreign language study is seen as a mental discipline, the goal of which may be to read literature in its original form or simply to be a form of intellectual development. The basic approach is to analyze and study the grammatical rules of the language, usually in an order roughly matching the traditional order of the grammar of Latin, and then to practise manipulating grammatical structures through the means of translation both into and from the mother tongue. The method is very much based on the written word and texts are widely in evidence. A typical approach would be to present the rules of a particular item of grammar, illustrate its use by including the item several times in a text, and practise using the item through writing sentences and translating it into the mother tongue. The text is often accompanied by a vocabulary list consisting of new lexical items used in the text together with the mother tongue translation. Accurate use of language items is central to this approach. Generally speaking, the medium of instruction is the mother tongue, which is used to explain conceptual problems and to discuss the use of a particular grammatical structure. It all sounds rather dull but it can be argued that the Grammar Translation method has over the years had a remarkable success. Millions of people have successfully learnt foreign languages to a high degree of proficiency and, in numerous cases, without any contact whatsoever with native speakers of the language (as was the case in the former Soviet Union, for example). There are certain types of learner who respond very positively to a grammatical syllabus as it can give them both a set of clear objectives and a clear sense of achievement. Other learners need the security of the mother tongue and the opportunity to relate grammatical structures to mother tongue equivalents. Above all, this type of approach can give learners a basic foundation upon which they can then build their communicative skills. Applied wholesale of course, it can also be boring for many learners and a quick look at foreign language course books from the 1950s and 1960s, for example, will soon reveal the non-communicative nature of the language used. Using the more enlightened principles of the Communicative Approach, however, and combining these with the systematic approach of Grammar Translation, may well be the perfect combination for many learners. On the one hand they have motivating communicative activities that help to promote their fluency and, on the other, they gradually acquire a sound and accurate basis in the grammar of the language. This combined approach is reflected in many of the EFL course books currently being published and, amongst other things, suggests that the Grammar Translation method, far from being dead, is very much alive and kicking as we enter the 21st century. Without a sound knowledge of the grammatical basis of the language it can be argued that the learner is in possession of nothing more than a selection of communicative phrases which are perfectly adequate for basic communication but which will be found wanting when the learner is required to perform any kind of sophisticated linguistic task. The positive and negative views on the Grammar Translation Method Duff, unlike the behaviorists, has a positive view of the role of the learner’s mother tongue in second language acquisition. He says that our first language forms our way of thinking and, to some extent, shapes our use of the foreign language (choice of words, word order, sentence structure, etc.). Translation helps us understand the influence of one language on the other, e.g., areas of potential errors caused by negative transfer from the first language. Fully aware of the interference, students will try to avoid making such errors when performing in the second language. When errors do occur, the students will be able to explain why and try not to make the same mistakes again. There are also disadvantages of this method. The first disadvantage is less participation from the pupils. This method is teacher-oriented. The teacher has the full authority to control the class. So, the inputs of the learning are given by the teacher from the beginning of the lesson until the end. The pupils' job in the class is to hear to the teacher's instruction without questioning anything. They are like silent learners. There is no discussion or sharing opinion occurs during the lesson. As a result, the pupils' cognitive skill and critical and creative thinking will not develop. Not only that, the teacher also is the one to decide whether the pupils' answers are correct or not. If the pupils do not manage to get the correct answers, the teacher will give the correct answers to the pupils. The teacher does not even try to give the pupils another chance to answer to the questions. They will not become autonomous learner. This is one of the teacher-centred methods in the learning process. These skills are required for the pupils to develop so that they will be able to understand their learning better and manage to do well in their study. Not only that, the other disadvantage is little or no attention given to the speaking skill. According to Brown (2001), it does virtually nothing to enhance a student's communication ability in the language. This is because they only do the reading and writing during the class. The pupils are not exposed to any other skills in learning like listening, speaking and writing. These skills are vital for the pupils in their learning. By learning a lesson with these skills, they will be able to understand the lesson and manage to complete all the works given by the teacher. If this situation continuously happens, it will promote to the boredom to the pupils. This is because they keep on doing the same thing during the lesson. Primary school children always like to have fun and doing fun things. When they are doing the same thing during the lesson, the tendency for them to withdraw from the lesson is higher. As a result, the lesson process will not progress well. The disturbance that occurs will interrupt the learning process. They will also disrupt other students who wanted to learn. 3 Compelling Reasons Why the Grammar-translation Method Still Deserves a Place in Your Classroom? 1.It’s a good starter kit for language learning For all its admitted limitations, the grammar-translation method is still a good way to start the journey of any language learner. Why? Because of its central casting of the learning of vocabulary. 2. It takes out the guessing game The good thing about grammar rules is that they can be applied to a whole array of contexts and situations. Sure, there are exceptions, but the rules allow you to see the bigger picture. The grammar-translation method, because of its focus on the rules, takes much of the trial-and-error out of learning. Instead of needing to be divined from numerous and varied contexts, the regulations are placed on a silver platter, where they await application. They stare your students in the face and let them know if an error has been committed, allowing them to immediately self-correct. Knowing the rules provides a certain rationale for your students of why this word form and not the other one is used. 3. It supports that all-important reading skill The slide of the grammar-translation method has to a certain extent had a negative effect on the view educators and students hold of reading and writing in the target language. Speaking and conversation skills have more often received the attention they deserve, but sometimes this has been to the detriment of engaging with a language’s written form. To be able to converse in a language is definitely important, no question about that. But the ability to read and comprehend its written form is just as imperative – especially in today’s world. Having that ability just makes everything easier. Imagine a tourist pushing to no avail a door that clearly says, “Pull.” But written language isn’t just for tourists who need to look at road signs or scan a menu, it’s for every language learner. The most relevant principles of this method can be summarized as follows: – It emphasizes the study and translation of the written language, as it is considered superior to spoken language. – Reading and writing are the main language skills. – The student's native language is the medium of instruction and used as well to compare with the language studied. – The structural patterns of two languages are compared and this comparison makes learning more clear and firm. – The fundamental principle of proceeding from known to unknown is followed throughout. – Successful learners are those who translate each language into the other, though they cannot communicate orally. – Students have to know verb conjugations and other grammatical paradigms. – The knowledge of rules helps the learners to avoid any types of mistakes. – Teachers play an authoritarian role in the classroom and the predominant interaction is between teacher-student. The Grammar-Translation Method focuses on the teaching of the foreign language grammar through the presentation of rules together with some exceptions and lists of vocabulary translated into the mother tongue. Translation is considered to be the most important classroom activity. The main procedure of an ordinary lesson follows this plan: a presentation of a grammatical rule followed by a list of vocabulary and, finally, translation exercises from selected texts. Other activities and procedures can be the following: answering comprehension questions on the text; students find antonyms and synonyms words in the text; vocabulary is selected from the reading texts and memorized; sentences are formed using new words; fill-in-the-blank exercises; writing compositions on the topic. This method has a number of advantages given below: 1. By telling the meaning of the word or sentence in mother tongue, the teacher can at once make the students understand. 2. The students are able to learn many items of English by comparison with mother tongue. 3. The comprehension of the students can be tested very easily. 4. Knowledge is acquired gradually, by traversing the facts of language and the syntactic mechanisms, going from simplest to the most complex. 5. Learning grammar, the students examine the texts developing awareness that language constitutes a system which can be analyzed. There are some very obvious disadvantages of this method: 1. No account of present-day language usage is presented. Norms are imposed from the great literary authors. 2. Secondary grammatical points, lists of forms and examples receive a lot of attention; some definitions and explanations are often incoherent because of their heterogeneous criteria. Thus, facts about the language are confusing for the students. 3. It gives a predominant place to morphology but neglects syntax. Therefore, rules enabling the learners to construct systematically correct complex sentences are not presented. 4. Translations are often unsatisfactory as they are done word by word. 5. Students have to learn a lot of grammatical terms and too much weight falls on their memories. Frustration on the part of students and lack of demands on teachers are the effects of this method. References 1. http://www.onestopenglish.com/methodology/methodology/teaching-approaches/teachingapproaches-the-grammar-translation-method/146493.article 2. https://www.ukessays.com/essays/english-language/the-grammar-translation-methodcommunity-language-learning-english-language-essay.php 3. https://www.talktocanada.com/blog/tag/grammar-translation/ Questions for self-control 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Why the Grammar-translation Method Still Deserves a Place in Your Classroom? The positive and negative views on the Grammar Translation Method are? This method has a number of advantages there are... The most relevant principles of this method can be.... What is the background of this method? Teaching Listening skills The importance of listening in language learning can hardly be overestimated. Through reception, we internalize linguistic information without which we could not produce language. In classrooms, students always do more listening than speaking. Listening competence is universally "larger" than speaking competence. So, the teachers consider some specific questions about listening comprehension: What are listeners "doing" when they listen? What factors affect good listening? What are the characteristics of "real-life" listening? What are the many things listeners listen for? What are some principles of designing listening techniques? A. The Importance of Listening 1. Listening is the most common communicative activity in daily life: "we can expect to listen twice as much as we speak, four times more than we read, and five times more than we write." (Morley, 1991, p. 82) 2. Listening is also important for obtaining comprehensible input that is necessary for language development. B. What is involved in listening comprehension? speech perception (e.g., sound discrimination, recognize stress patterns, intonation, pauses, etc.) word recognition (e.g., recognize the sound pattern as a word, locate the word in the lexicon, retrieve lexical, grammatical and semantic inforamtion about the word, etc.) sentence processing (parsing; e.g., detect sentence constituents, building a structure frame, etc.) construct the literal meaning of the sentence (select the relevant meaning in case of ambiguous word) hold the inforamtion in short-term memory recognize cohesive devices in discourse infer the implied meaning and intention (speech act) predict what is to be said decide how to respond Conclusion: listening is not a passive process. It involves both bottom-up and topdown processes and requires the use of non-linguistic as well as linguistic knowledge. C. Principles of Teaching Listening 1. Listening should receive primary attention in the early stage of ESL instruction. 2. Maximize the use of material that is relevant to students' real life. 3. Maximize the use of authentic language. 4. Vary the materials in terms of speakers' gender, age, dialect, accent, topic, speed, noice level, genre, 5. Always ask students to listen with a purpose and allow them to show their comprehension in a task. 6. Language material intended to be used for training listening comprehension should never be presented visually first. A. Listening and Performing Actions and Operations 1. drawing a picture, figure, or design 2. locating routes of specific points on a map 3. selecting or identifying a picture of a person, place, or thing from description 4. performing hand or body movements as in songs and games such as "Simon Says" or "Hokey Pokey" 5. operating a piece of equipment, such as a camera, a recorder, a microwave oven, a pencil sharpener 6. carrying out steps in a process, such as steps solving a math problems, a science experiment, a cooking sequence. B. Listening and Transferring Information 1. listening and taking a telephone or in-person message by either transcribing the entire message word-for-word or by writing down notes on the important items 2. listening and filling in blanks in a gapped story game (in order to complete the story) 3. listening and completing a form or chart 4. listening and summarizing the gist of a short story, report, or talk 5. listening to a "how to" talk and writing an outline of the steps in a sequence (e.g., how to cook something, how to run a piece of equipment, how to play a game) 6. listening to a talk or lecture and taking notes C. Listening and Solving Problems 1. word games in which the answers must be derived from verbal clues 2. number games and oral story arithmetic problems 3. asking questions in order to identify something, as in Twenty Questions 4. classroom versions of password, jeopardy, twenty questions in which careful listening is critical to questions and answers or answers and questions 5. "minute mysteries" in which a paragraph-length mystery story is given by the teacher (or a tape), followed by small group work in which students formulate solutions 6. a jigsaw mystery in which each group listens to a tape with some of the clues, then shares information in order to solve the mystery 7. riddles, logic puzzles, intellectual problem-solving D. Listening, Evaluation, and Manipulating Information 1. writing information received and reviewing it in order to answer questions or to solve a problem 2. evaluating information in order to make a decision or construct a plan of action 3. evaluating arguments in order to develop a position for or against 4. evaluating cause-and-effect information 5. projecting from information received and making predictions 6. summarizing or "gistizing" information received 7. evaluating and combining information 8. evaluating and condensing information 9. evaluating and elaborating or extending information 10. organizing unordered information received into a pattern of orderly relationship – chronological sequencing, spatial relationships, cause-and-effect, problem-solution E. Interactive Listening and Negotiating Meaning Through Questioning/Answering Routines Question Types 1. Repetition: Could you repeat the part about ...? 2. Paraphrase: Could you say that again? I don't understand what you mean by... 3. Verification: Did I understand you to say that...? In other words you mean.... Do you mean ...? 4. Clarification: Could you tell me what you mean by ...? Could you explain...? Could you give us an example of ...? 5. Elaboration: What about ...? How is this related to...? 6. Challenge: What did you base ... on? How did you reach...? Why did you...? F. Listening for Enjoyment, Pleasure, and Sociability listening to songs, stories, plays, poems, jokes, anecdotes, teacher chat. Developing Listening Skills The aim of listening comprehension activities is to enable learners to understand natural speech. Spoken language differs in a number of respects from written language: there is greater redundancy; it is more repetitious (a feature of interactional type speech in particular); it contains more fillers; there is usually less cognitive content than in a similar passage of written discourse (although there may be considerable interactive and attitudinal content); the discourse is less structured, (e.g. discontinuous and fragmented structures, changes of direction); cohesive devices are more difficult to identify, there may be ungrammatical forms and unimportant words may be slurred or dropped. Difficulties may also be caused by such features as the rate of delivery, unfamiliar rhythm and stress patterns, the number of speakers, different registers, strong regional accents, poor articulation, overlapping speech, emotional speech and background noise. Some Listening Activities While teaching listening comprehension the following well-known activities are illustrated as follows: Pre listening activities While-listening activities Post-listening activities. While-listening activities These activities are carried out right at the time of listening to the text. Some are summarised and illustrated as follows: 1. questioning 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. recognising matching following instructions note-taking using a transcript interpreting completing. The Tape Gallery It is a variation of jigsaw listening. Find about ten interesting short jokes, stories, advertisements or poems (not more than a minute long) and record yourself reading them, each onto a different cassette or CD. Borrow two or three extra tape recorders/CD players and place them at different locations around the room. Put two or three of your cassettes/CDs next to each machine. Make sure learners know how to operate the machines. Then invite learners to wander freely around the different places, changing tape/CD or location at will, with the aim of choosing their favourite recording. Live listening One activity that has grown in popularity in recent years is ‘live listening’. The basic idea is straightforward: students get to listen to real people speaking in class, rather than to recordings. Here's a way of trying this: When you find that your course book has a fairly dull listening text coming up, instead of using the recording, invite a colleague with a spare five minutes to come into your class. Make sure the class has a clear task while listening, e.g. to note down the main points that each speaker makes. Sit in front of the learners and have a live ‘ordinary’ conversation on the same topic as the book. Guest stars Prepare notes for a short monologue in character. In class, announce that a guest star is coming today, but don't say who is. Go out of the room and return 'in character' (or invite another colleague in). The 'guest' then chats naturally for a minute or two in character, about her/his life, a typical day, feelingss, etc.The learners should listen to and not shout out who they think he/she is, but instead write down their guess. At the end of the monologue let them compare their guesses in small groups (giving reasons) and then check with you. When they know who the guest is, they could briefly ask a few more interview questions to the character. Repeat the activity with different ‘guests’ as a regular slot in your lessons (Maybe students could play the ‘guest’, too). References 1. http://www.auburn.edu/~nunnath/engl6240/tlisten.html 2. http://www.tesol.org/docs/books/bk_ELTD_Listening_004 3. https://busyteacher.org/14411-how-to-teach-listening-skills-best-practices.html Questions for self-control 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is involved in listening comprehension? What are some principles of designing listening techniques? What are Principles of Teaching Listening? The aim of listening comprehension activities is.... What kind of problems can listeners have? 1. Teaching Speaking Skills Teaching Speaking Skills Communication involves the use of four language skills: listening and speaking in oral communication reading and writing in written communication. The sender of the message uses speaking or writing skills to communicate ideas, the receiver uses listening or reading skills to interpret the massage. The skills used by the sender areproductive and those used by the receiver are receptive (or interpretive). Developing Oral Communication Skills Developing oral communication skills attention should be concentrated on the following main problems: syllabus requirements language and speech physiological and linguistic characteristics of speech ways of creating situations prepared, unprepared and inner speech types of exercises. Language and Speech Language refers to the linguistic system. It is a system of forms, which any speaker possesses. It enables him to produce meaningful sentences. Speech is the activity of using a language system for communicative purposes in real situation. We should seek methods of teaching not language so much, as communication through the language. Psychological Characteristics of Speech Speech must be motivated. The speaker should have inner motivation, a desire, a necessity to say sth. to someone. Motive is the factor, which incites a person’s will to do or say sth. When we speak we want either to say sth to someone or get information from someone about sth. important. Pupils should have a necessity, desire to express their thoughts and feelings, to inform the hearer of sth. Interesting, important or to get information. Their speech should be stimulated (by the teacher). Speech is always addressed to an interlocutor. We don’t speak when there is no one to address the speech. Teaching oral language pupils should address, speak to someone, to their classmates, to the class, to the teacher. They should interact. Linguistic Characteristics of Speech Oral language as compared to written language is more flexible. It is relatively free and is characterized by some peculiarities in vocabulary and grammar. We don’t teach pupils colloquial English. That’s why oral language taught in schools is close to written language standards and especially its monologic forms. Linguistic peculiarities of dialogue are as follows: The use of incomplete sentences (ellipses) in response: e.g. Where do you live? - In Yerevan. How many books do you have? – One. The use of contracted forms: doesn’t. won’t, haven’t, can’t The use of some abbreviations: lab, bike, math’s, fridge, comp, etc. The use of conversational tags. These are the words the speaker uses when he/she wishes to speak without saying anything: e.g of course, perhaps, surely, etc. Prepared and Unprepared Speech Pupils’ speech whether it is a monologue or dialogue may be of 2 kinds: prepared and unprepared. When the pupils are given enough time to think over the content and form of his speech. it is prepared speech. He can speak on the subject following the plan made either independently at home or in class under the teacher’s supervision. His speech will be more or less correct and sufficiently fluent since plenty of preliminary exercises had been done before. When the pupil speaks without any previous preparation, his speech is unprepared and he can: speak on a subject suggested by the teacher speak on the text read (summarize or give content) discuss problems touched upon in the text read or heard help a “foreigner”, e.g. to find the way to some place. 1. Principles for Designing Speaking Techniques 2. Techniques should be intrinsically motivating. 3. Provide appropriate feedback and correction. 4. Capitalize on the natural link between speaking and listening. 5. Give students opportunities to initiate oral communication. 6. Encourage the development of speaking strategies. Types of Classroom Speaking Performance 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Imitative Intensive Responsive Transactional (dialogue) Interpersonal (dialogue) Teaching Two Forms of Speaking There exist two forms of speaking: monologue and dialogue: Each form has its peculiarities, which should be taken into consideration. In teaching monologue 3 stages are distinguished: 1. The statement level The smallest speech unit is sentence. No speech is possible until pupils learn how to make up sentences in the foreign language and how to make statements on the topic or situation suggested.Pupils are given sentence patterns to assimilate. The sentence pattern is filled with different words, so that pupil assimilates it:e.g. I can see a … (blackboard picture) I am fond of… (the pupils repeat + music) Teaching Dialogue Dialogue is a conversation between 2 interlocutors. It is always situational and emotionally coloured. Dialogue is generally unprepared. Sometimes it can be both prepared and planned as well. To carry on a dialogue pupils need words and phrases to start a conversation, to join it, to confirm, to argue, to reject, to invite, to comment and so on:I’d like to tell you; and what about; I hope; I mean to say; thank you; I’m sorry; don’t mention it; good luck etc. – These phrases make dialogues more lively and emotional. 2. Organizing Communicative Activities One virtual component of communicative ability is strategic competence, which requires suitable classroom activities. The activities should be developed in situation where the learner must whish and be able to engage in communication. Real satisfaction and confidence are achieved through successful communication. So the learners must be involved in tasks suited to their interest and linguistic development. and facilitated by the proper game activities. A variety of activities to promote the development of speaking skills: dialogues, role play, simulation, the learner can speak personally in the classroom situation, to know each other better. They exchange information, express feelings and values through interviews, surveys, games etc and this way they become involved in discussions, story telling and different projects. Here are examples of some popular general types of communicative activities. In every case, we are primarily concerned with enabling and encouraging communication. 3. Picture difference tasks In pairs, one student is given picture A, one picture B. Without looking at the other picture, they have to find the differences (i.e. by describing the pictures to each other). Group planning tasks The first example is 'planning a holiday'. Collect together a number of advertisements or brochures advertising a holiday. Explain to the students that they can all go on holiday together, but they must all agree on where they want to go. Divide the students into groups of three and give each group a selection of this material. Their task is to plan a holiday for the whole group (within a fixed budget per person). Allow them a good amount of time to read and select a holiday and then to prepare a presentation in which they attempt to persuade the rest of the class that they should choose this holiday. When they are ready, each group makes their presentation and the class discusses and chooses a holiday. List sequencing tasks (also known as 'Ranking tasks’) Prepare a list of items that learners can discuss and place in a particular order according to their opinions, e.g. What's the most useful invention? What's the best improvement that could be made to our town? What are the worst programmes on TV? Who's the most important person of the last 100 years? What are the qualities of a good language course? Pyramid discussion A Pyramid discussion is an organizational technique that works particularly well with simple problem-based discussions and especially with item-selection tasks, e.g. 'What are the four most useful things to have with you if you are shipwrecked on a desert island?', or list sequencing tasks, e.g. 'Put these items in order of importance'. Here's how to do it: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Introduce the problem, probably using a list on the board or on handouts. Start with individual reflection – learners each decide what they think might be a solution. Combine individuals to make pairs, who now discuss and come to an agreement or compromise. If you demand that there must be an agreed compromise solution before you move on to the next stage, it will significantly help to focus the task. Combine the pairs to make fours; again, they need to reach an agreement. Join each four with another four or – in a smaller class – with all the others. Role Play, Real Play and Simulation The term "Role play" is generally used to refer to a wide range of practice and communicative activities. Some of the controlled or guided dialogues, especially cued dialogues, might be considered as an introduction to role play These prepare learners to take part in role play activities which require greater spontaneity and fluency. Role play activities vary in the degree of control over how learners act and speak. The interaction may be controlled by cues or guided by a description of a situation and a task to be accomplished. The result may be very predictable or an open-ended scenario may allow learners to negotiate the outcome in the course of the activity. Simulations may involve learners in imaginative activities, for example how to survive on a desert island in the face of various dangers and difficulties, or, more realistically, in accomplishing a task such as preparing the front page of a newspaper, a publicity campaign, or a radio/TV programme. Participants may also be placed in a situation of conflict where teams take on roles to defend or oppose a proposal before a decision is taken, e.g. whether or not to build a nuclear power plant, to abolish beauty contests, and so on. Real-play. In this case, situations and one or more of the characters are drawn not from cards, but from a participant's own life and world. Typically, one of the learners plays him/herself. This person explains a context (e.g. from his/her work life) to other learners, and then together they recreate the situation in class. The real-play technique allows learners to practise language they need in their own life References 1. https://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/teaching-speaking-skills-1 2. Gudu, O. Benter, (2010). A study of The 2002 Integrated Approach to Instruction of Speaking Skills in English: A Case of Secondary Schools in Eldoret Municipality- Kenya. Unpublished Masters Thesis, Moi University Press. 3. A. Heba, (2015). Improving Students’ English Speaking Proficiency in Saudi Public Schools. International Journal of Instruction Vol. 8, No. 1 Jan 2015. Teaching Reading Skills What is reading? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_MS-5k-yj2w Reading is one of the main skills that a pupil must acquire in the process of mastering a foreign language in school. Reading is about understanding written texts. It is a complex activity that involves both perception and thought. Reading consists of two related processes: word recognition and comprehension. Word recognition refers to the process of perceiving how written symbols correspond to one’s spoken language. Comprehension is the process of making sense of words, sentences and connected text. Readers typically make use of background knowledge, vocabulary, grammatical knowledge, experience with text and other strategies to help them understand written text. Through reading in a foreign language the pupil enriches his knowledge, of the world around him. He gets acquainted with the countries where the target language is spoken. Teaching reading is very important, because it helps to develop others skills: speaking and writing. This theme is very relevant, because sometimes in school teachers don’t develop this skill right way, and spare a little time for. How to Teach Reading Comprehension – Video & Lesson Transcript | Study.com The content of teaching reading. Reading is a complex process of language activity. As it is closely connected with the comprehension of what is read, reading is a complicated intellectual work. It requires the ability on the part of the reader to carry out a number of mental operations: analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, comparison. Reading in the classroom has the following stages: Pre-reading to activate their knowledge; While-reading to develop their strategies such as deducing meaning, locating specific information, understanding relations between sentences; Post-reading to check comprehension. The following are some of the many uses of pre-reading activities: Motivating and setting purposes for reading; Activating and building background knowledge; Relating the reading to students’ lives; Pre-teaching vocabulary and concepts; Pre-questioning, predicting, and direction setting. Sample pre-reading activities: Brainstorm (When? Where? Who? What? Why?) Discuss the type of text (if it is a newspaper article, spend considerable time discussing facts and opinions) Predict based on the title, later confirming their guesses during the while stages of reading Read the first line of each paragraph and try to predict a title or theme for each one Ask students to relate the phenomenon to their personal lives, to provide examples activating personal knowledge Activating prior knowledge on news consumption habits in the form of a class discussion or group work. Sample beginning questions: How do you get the news – from radio, TV, newspaper, Internet? Predicting what the text is about according to the external text features: the picture, the title in the bold, the subtitle, the type of the text. Using the title, subtitles, and divisions within the text to predict content and organization or sequence of information. Looking at pictures, maps, diagrams, or graphs and their captions Talking about the author’s background and usual topics Skimming to find the theme or main idea and eliciting related prior knowledge Reviewing vocabulary or grammatical structure Reading over the comprehension questions to focus attention on finding that information while reading. Pupil’s mistakes and ways how to correct them. In teaching pupils to read the teacher must do his best to prevent mistakes. We may, however, be certain that in spite of much work done by the teacher, pupils will make mistakes in reading. The question is who corrects their mistakes, how they should be corrected, when they must be corrected. Our opinion is that the pupil who has made a mistake must try to correct it himself. If he cannot do it, his classmates correct his mistake. If they cannot do so the teacher corrects the mistake. The following techniques may be suggested: 1. The teacher writes a word (e. g., black) on the blackboard. He underlines ck in it and asks the pupil to say what sound these two letters convey. If the pupil cannot answer the question, the teacher asks some of his classmates. They help the pupil to correct his mistake and he reads the word. 2. One of the pupils asks: What is the English for “черный”? If the pupil repeats the mistake, the "corrector" pronounces the word properly and explains the rule the pupil has forgotten. The pupil now reads the word correctly. 3. The teacher or one of the pupils says: Find the word ”черный” and read it. The pupil finds the word and reads it either without any mistake if his first mistake was due to his carelessness, or he repeats the mistake. The teacher then tells him to recollect the rule and read the word correctly. 4. The teacher corrects the mistake himself. The pupil reads the word correctly. The teacher asks the pupil to explain to the class how to read ck. 5. The teacher tells the pupil to write the word black and underline ck. Then he says how the word is read. 6. There are some other ways of correcting pupils' mistakes. The teacher should use them reasonably and choose the one most suitable for the case. 7. Another question arises: whether we should correct a mistake in the process of reading a passage or after finishing it. Both ways are possible. The mistake should be corrected at once while the pupil reads the text if he has made it in a word which will occur two or more times in the text. If the word does not appear again, it is better to let the pupil read the paragraph to the end. Then the mistake is corrected. 8. A teacher should always be on the alert for the pupils' mistakes, follow their reading and mark their mistakes in pencil. 9. Silent reading. In learning to read pupils widen their eyespan. They can see more than a word, a phrase, a sentence. The eye can move faster than the reader is able to pronounce what he sees. Thus reading aloud becomes an obstacle for perception. It hinders the pupil's comprehension of the text. It is necessary that the pupil should read silently. Special exercises may be suggested to develop pupils' skills in silent reading. For instance, "Look and say, read and look up." (M. West) To perform this type of exercises pupils should read a sentence silently, grasp it, and reproduce it without looking into the text. At first they perform such exercises slowly. Gradually the teacher limits the- time for the pupils' doing the exercises. Assessment of classroom reading and writing skills 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Understand validity, reliability, and normative comparisons in test design and selection Identify varied purposes and forms of assessment (e.g., group comparison, measurement of progress, program evaluation, informing classroom instruction, individual diagnostic assessment) Interpret grade equivalents, percentile ranks, normal curve equivalents, and standard scores Administer several kinds of valid instrumentsInterpret student responses in comparison to benchmark cognitive and linguistic skills appropriate for age and grade a. graded word lists for word recognition b. phoneme awareness and phonic word attack inventories c. a qualitative spelling inventory d. measures of fluency and accuracy of oral and silent reading e. a structured writing sample f. inventories of graded paragraphs for comprehension Use information for instructional planning and classroom grouping. Use several kinds of assessment to measure change over time. Conclusion 1: Successful beginning readers possess a set of foundational skills that enable them not only to continue growing as readers but also to progress in all academic subjects. A variety of instructional approaches that address these foundational skills can be effective when used by teachers who have a grounding in the foundational elements and the theory on which they are based. The importance of those foundational skills supports conclusions about what is most important in the preparation of teachers of reading: Conclusion 2: It is plausible that preparation in the nature of the foundational reading skills and research-based instructional approaches would improve teachers’ practice to a degree that would be evident in learning outcomes for their students. However, there is currently no clear evidence that such preparation does indeed improve teacher effectiveness or about how such preparation should be carried out. Conclusion 3: There are very few systematic data about the nature of the preparation in reading that prospective teachers receive across the nation. The limited information that exists suggests that the nature of preparation of prospective teachers for reading instruction is widely variable both across and within states. Conclusion4: Little is known about the best ways to prepare prospective teachers to teach reading. Systematic data are needed on the nature and content of the coursework and other experiences that constitute teacher preparation in reading. Systematic data would make it possible to monitor and evaluate teacher preparation in reading and to conduct research on the relative effectiveness of different preparation approaches. The kind of data collection and effectiveness research we envision would be focused in particular on preparation related to the foundational reading skills and the instructional approaches that have been shown to be effective in teaching reading. Examples of the sorts of research that are most needed include Suggested Citation: investigations of the development of teachers’ knowledge and skills as they progress from novices to accomplished reading teachers; expansion of the array of tools for investigating the relationship between features of teacher education and teachers’ preparedness to teach; efficacy studies and scale-up studies that use experimental or quasi-experimental methods and measures; and investigations of outcomes for teachers exposed to particular coursework and fieldwork. References 1. 2. 3. 4. http://www.readingrockets.org/article/knowledge-and-skills-teaching-reading https://www.nap.edu/read/12882/chapter/7#101 https://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/unit-4-reading-skills Camborne, B. (2000). Conditions for Literacy Learning – Turning Learning Theory into Classroom Instruction: A Mini Case Study. The Reading Teacher, 54, 4, 41–417. 5. Keehn, S., Harmon, J., & Shoho, A. (2008). A study of readers theater in eighth grade: Issues of fluency, comprehension, and vocabulary. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 24(4), 335–362. 6. Young, C. J. (2013). Repeated readings through readers theater. In Rasinski, T., & Padak, N (Eds.). From fluency to comprehension: Powerful instruction through authentic reading. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Questions for self-control 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. How can divelope and improve reading skills? What is it reading? Pupil’s mistakes and ways how to correct them. In a few words how we can do it? How to reach good reading comprehension? Your ideas... How we should assessment of classroom reading and writing skills? Teaching Writing Skills Writing is becoming an increasingly important skill in today’s world. Good writing conveys a meaningful message and uses English well, but the message is more important than correct presentation. If you can understand the message or even part of it, your student has succeeded in communicating on paper and should be praised for that. For many adult ESL learners, writing skills will not be used much outside your class. This doesn't mean that they shouldn't be challenged to write, but you should consider their needs and balance your class time appropriately. Many adults who do not need to write will enjoy it for the purpose of sharing their thoughts and personal stories, and they appreciate a format where they can revise their work into better English than if they shared the same information orally. Two writing strategies you may want to use in your lessons are free writing and revised writing. Free writing directs students to simply get their ideas onto paper without worrying much about grammar, spelling, or other English mechanics. In fact, the teacher can choose not to even look at free writing pieces. To practice free writing, give students 5 minutes in class to write about a certain topic, or ask them to write weekly in a journal. You can try a dialog journal where students write a journal entry and then give the journal to a partner or the teacher, who writes another entry in response. The journals may be exchanged during class, but journal writing usually is done at home. The main characteristic of free writing is that few (if any) errors are corrected by the teacher, which relieves students of the pressure to perform and allows them to express themselves more freely. Revised writing, also called extended or process writing, is a more formal activity in which students must write a first draft, then revise and edit it to a final polished version, and often the finished product is shared publicly. You may need several class sessions to accomplish this. Begin with a pre-writing task such as free writing, brainstorming, listing, discussion of a topic, making a timeline, or making an outline. Pairs or small groups often work well for pre-writing tasks. Then give the students clear instructions and ample time to write the assignment. In a class, you can circulate from person to person asking, "Do you have any questions?" Many students will ask a question when approached but otherwise would not have raised a hand to call your attention. Make yourself available during the writing activity; don't sit at a desk working on your next lesson plan. Once a rough draft is completed, the students can hand in their papers for written comment, discuss them with you face to face, or share them with a partner, all for the purpose of receiving constructive feedback. Make sure ideas and content are addressed first; correcting the English should be secondary. Finally, ask students to rewrite the piece. They should use the feedback they received to revise and edit it into a piece they feel good about. Such finished pieces are often shared with the class or posted publicly, and depending on the assignment, you may even choose to 'publish' everyone's writing into a class booklet. Tactful correction of student writing is essential. Written correction is potentially damaging to confidence because it's very visible and permanent on the page. Always make positive comments and respond to the content, not just the language. Focus on helping the student clarify the meaning of the writing. Especially at lower levels, choose selectively what to correct and what to ignore. Spelling should be a low priority as long as words are recognizable. To reduce ink on the page, don't correct all errors or rewrite sentences for the student. Make a mark where the error is and let the student figure out what's wrong and how to fix it. At higher levels you can tell students ahead of time exactly what kinds of errors (verbs, punctuation, spelling, word choice) you will correct and ignore other errors. If possible, in addition to any written feedback you provide, try to respond orally to your student's writing, making comments on the introduction, overall clarity, organization, and any unnecessary information. Consider the following ideas for your writing lessons. Types of Tasks. Here are some ideas for the types of writing you can ask your students to do. Format – clarify the format. For an essay, you may specify that you want an introduction, main ideas, support, and a conclusion. For a poem, story, list, etc., the format will vary accordingly, but make sure your students know what you expect. Copying text word for word Writing what you dictate Imitating a model Filling in blanks in sentences or paragraphs Taking a paragraph and transforming certain language, for example changing all verbs and time references to past tense Summarizing a story text, video, or listening clip (you can guide with questions or keywords) Making lists of items, ideas, reasons, etc. (words or sentences depending on level) Writing what your students want to learn in English and why Writing letters (complaint, friend, advice) – give blank post cards or note cards or stationery to add interest; you can also use this to teach how to address an envelope Organizing information, for example making a grid of survey results or writing directions to a location using a map Reacting to a text, object, picture, etc. – can be a word or whole written piece Model – Provide a model of the type of writing you want your students to do, especially for beginners. Editing – Consider giving students a checklist of points to look for when editing their own work. Include such things as clear topic sentences, introduction and conclusion, verb tenses, spelling, capitalization, etc. Correction – Minimize the threatening appearance of correction. Instead of a red pen, use green or blue or even pencil, as long as it's different from what the student used. Explain to the students that you will use certain symbols such as VT for verb tense or WO for word order, and be very clear whether a mark (check mark, X, star, circle) means correct or incorrect as this varies among cultures. Check out these tips and ideas to encourage your teenage learners to improve their writing skills. Before writing. Having something to say Writing in any language is so much easier if you have something to say. When it comes to getting our teens writing, that means helping them to think of ideas and shape these ideas into a plan before they begin writing. Here are a few activities to help your learners come up with ideas before they write. Roleplay Before starting a piece of writing such as an opinion essay or a ‘For and against’ essay, it can be useful for learners to argue different points of view about the topic. Learners work in two groups (a ‘for’ group and an ‘against’ group) and come up with a list of reasons for or against a particular topic in their respective groups. Then, in pairs, they talk to someone from the other group and try and convince them of their opinions. In this case, they may be putting forward opinions they don’t necessarily share, but this will help them think of both sides of the argument and produce a more balanced piece of writing. Roleplay is also effective before story writing. Learners act out a roleplay between two or more of the characters from the story. This will help them to shape the character, think of details about their situation, opinions and what happens to them in the story Speedwriting Speedwriting helps learners jot down all the ideas and information they have about a subject. They write continuously about a certain topic for three minutes. The aim is to get ideas down on paper, rather than worrying about the accuracy of their writing. After three minutes, learners stop writing, read what they have written and summarise it in one sentence. This helps them think about how to write topic sentences. A topic sentence is the first sentence in a paragraph that introduces the main idea of that paragraph. Chatroom An alternative speedwriting task is the ‘Chatroom’. Learners work in pairs and write to each other as if they were chatting online about a certain topic. They write a line or two of text on a piece of paper and when they’ve finished they say ‘Send!’ and hold it up in the air. The teacher then ‘delivers’ it to their partner who then responds by writing a response on the same piece of paper and then says ‘Send!’ and sends their response to their partner via the teacher. The process is repeated as often as necessary for a few minutes. Then learners stop chatting and read through their dialogue together. They should have generated ideas between them and then they can read through again and focus on their accuracy. In a big class, a more practical way of carrying out the activity is for each learner to write to someone sitting near them and they ‘deliver’ their own dialogue to the person they’re chatting to. Images Images can help learners think of ideas for different kinds of writing tasks. If learners are going to write a story, images can help them think about the setting and the characters as well as the storyline. Learners work in pairs to describe pictures using as much variety of language as possible. To encourage them to think of related words and synonyms, one learner says a sentence to describe the picture and their partner has to say the same thing in a different way or has to add extra detail to the sentence. Perhaps the image represents two of the characters in the story. Learners could imagine the conversation between the characters and begin their story with the dialogue or build it into the story. Images can help learners think of ideas for an opinion or a ‘for and against’ essay. As well as thinking about vocabulary related to the image, learners could think of all the good and bad points about a situation in a certain image or series of images. A story mountain Before writing a story it is useful for learners to plan their storyline. A story mountain can help them do this by giving them a basic story structure. Find an example of a story mountain here:http://www.brainpop.co.uk/uk/new_common_images/files/11/112523_GO_STO RY_MOUNTAIN-UK.pdf At the beginning of the story they set the scene and introduce the main characters. Then, there’s a problem and tension builds up gradually until the story reaches a key moment. This key moment should be full of suspense and excitement and is followed by a solution to the problem. The solution will take things back to how they were at the beginning of the story and the experience may have taught the main characters important lessons. Improving writing One of the best ways for learners to improve their writing and make it more interesting to read is to use a wider range of lexis. Here are a few ways of extending their vocabulary. Madlibs Madlibs is a fun activity you can use to extend learners’ vocabulary and also heighten their awareness of parts of speech and syntax. First elicit lists of different types of parts of speech such as nouns, adjectives, verbs and adverbs. Take some words out of a short text and number and categorise the gaps in the text, for example 1 = noun, 2 = adjective, 3 = verb, etc. or you may need to be more specific and say what kind of noun or adjective is missing, for example 4 = body part (plural), 5 = colour. When learners have completed their lists, they read the short text and complete the gaps with their selection of words. The results are often very comical. You can also focus on the word order, for example the position of the adjective in the sentence etc. Learners can compare their completed texts with their peers’ and decide which one works best or is the funniest. Synonyms/antonyms page Encourage your learners to keep a synonyms/antonyms page in their notebooks and to add to it regularly. For example, adjectives of personality could be recorded as opposites to help learners remember the meaning: generous – mean sociable – shy talkative – quiet hardworking – lazy Word cards Word cards are a great way of building up and recycling vocabulary in class. All you need is some small index cards and a bag. On one side of the card learners write the new word and part of speech, e.g. waiter (n), and on the other side they write a definition or draw a picture, e.g. It’s a person who works in a restaurant and brings the food to your table. Word cards can be used to play lots of games in class to recycle vocabulary such as pictionary, charades or taboo. Find our more here: http://learnenglishteens.britishcouncil.org/exams/grammar-and-vocabularyexams/word-cards Dictogloss Dictogloss can also be used in class to help teens improve the quality of their writing as it encourages them to focus on communicating key ideas clearly and accurately. The teacher dictates a text and the learners write down key words and information as they listen (not every word!). Then, in groups, they reconstruct the text so that the meaning is the same as the original text. Find our more here: http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/knowledge-database/dictogloss As the reconstructed text doesn’t have to be the same as the original text, but should express the same key ideas, dictogloss helps learners to develop their paraphrasing skills and extend their vocabulary. Use short texts with familiar language on a topic the learners are later going to write about. So, for example, before they write an opinion essay about advertising, you could do a dictogloss activity based on a short text about advertising. After writing Having an audience – reader response Learners will be more motivated to write interesting content and think about accuracy if they know their writing is going to be read by someone other than their English teacher. In my experience they enjoy reading their peers’ writing and I encourage them to write comments as if they were leaving comments on a blog or other social networking site. They rarely leave accuracy-related comments, but give a reader response to the content. It’s motivating for the teacher to give learners feedback as a reader too, not just focus on accuracy. Correction codes This is by no means a new idea, but I find it very effective with teens, particularly as they often have to write in exams and need to be able to evaluate their own writing and correct their own mistakes. Learners become more conscious of the mistakes they make if they correct their own. There are various ways of using correction codes, but I find the following to be the most effective. Learners make a glossary of the correction codes you use in their notebooks (sp = spelling, wo = word order, vf = verb form, p = punctuation, etc.). They also assign a section of their notebook to track the mistakes they make in each piece of writing. This way, they can see which mistakes they regularly make and consciously look out for these particular mistakes when reviewing their work. I indicate the part of the text where the mistake has been made and use the code to categorise the type of mistake. I give the learners time in class to correct their mistakes, either individually or in pairs, and I monitor and check their corrections. If their corrections are still wrong I usually correct it for them, or give them a lot more guidance to correct the problem. I also correct any mistakes made which I think they won’t be able to correct themselves. However, with higher level learners you may decide to simply indicate the sentence which contains the mistake and see if the learner is capable of identifying and categorising the mistake themselves. Oh, and it’s always motivating to give positive feedback on language the learners have used well. If they know the language they’ve used is good, they’re more likely to use it again. Spelling Many of us with English as our first language will remember doing spelling tests at school, going home with a list of words to memorise. I find this an effective technique, especially for commonly misspelt words with my teenage learners. You can also select misspelt words from their assignments, and memorising a few words each week on a regular basis can really help improve their spelling. Instead of traditional spelling tests you can play games such as spelling tennis or a class spelling bee. Learners work in pairs to play spelling tennis. The teacher says a word and they take turns to say one letter each until they spell the whole word correctly. A spelling bee is a class spelling competition where learners take turns to spell complete words correctly and win points. Also, learners could make wordsearches or write anagrams for each other. References. 1. 2. 3. Alison Baverstock, Publicity, Newsletters, and Press Releases, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002, pp.96, ISBN 0198603843. How to generate publicity and promotional materials through effective writing. Covers email, letters, press releases, newsletters, and company reports. Bailey. S. 2015. Academic Writing : A Handbook for International Students. London and New York: Routledge. Murray, N. 2012. Writing Essays in English Language and Linguistics, Cambridge University Press. 4. http://www.humanities.manchester.ac.uk/humnet/our-services/postgraduateresearch/researcher-development/resources/ Questions for self-control 1. 2. 3. 4. What does it mean good writing skill? What is it Correction codes? How students can divelope writing skills? What does it mean Dictogloss? Advantages and disadvantages of using games in language teaching Teaching is the most important thing in learning process. Through teaching a teacher can help the students to understand about the lesson given. The word “teaching” according to Brown is “showing or helping someone to learn how to do something, giving instruction, guiding in the study of something, providing with knowledge causing to know or understand” The use of games in teaching English is not, however, appropriate at all times. Using various games can help students memorize vocabulary or grammar; it can eliminate the anxiety aroused from using a foreign language or uncertainty about the correctness of the output. As Demes da Cruz also states: ‘While playing language games, students can be exposed to the target structures. However, because this is done in a context of a game, they relax and forget that they are being watched. They often become so involved in the game that they stop feeling anxious about their mistakes.’ At the same time overuse of games may take away the time the students can use to be working individually, having the matter explained properly or simply working with the language seriously. It can also create the overall class atmosphere in such a way that it is not a real learning, making it more difficult to concentrate on studying for serious purposes, like exams. The last consequence of overuse of games in language teaching to be mentioned here is the fact that the students might get bored with all the play. The reason is that students, especially students of higher secondary schools or adults, usually do not like to be treated like little children. The teacher must place challenge before them too, they need to have the feeling of having accomplished something more difficult than a good game result. Having said the above, experience, however, confirms that abandoning games in the classes of the older group age would deprive the teaching-learning process of enjoyment, which enriches and motivates the students. To be complete, it is also necessary to mention the teachers’ need to enjoy their work, enjoy the classes and activities realized. ‘ Games have been applied broadly in instructing English, especially in teaching grammar. When conducting grammar lessons, teachers utilize games or gamelike activities to develop students‟ motivation and make the learners relaxed and eager to take part in the lessons. The advantages of games in teaching grammar have been demonstrated in several previous studies. Furthermore, there are many articles which supply adequate games and activities that can be taken into consideration when instructing grammar. This research will continue studying about four innovatory reasons of using games in teaching grammar. First of all, games provide good opportunities for students to use target language in real life contexts. According to Yolageldili & Arikan students are engaged to the learning environment of target language when participating in games. The students tend to use various language sources to complete the given tasks, for instance, solving a problem. Moreover, games are often designed within certain real life situations. It is true that when teachers hold whatever games with clear objectives, students are able to get many advantages. Firstyear students are not confident enough to communicate or express ideas in English. They are accustomed to do exercises and take note when teachers are giving instructions. Therefore, using games is a good solution to provide students real life contexts in which they have to interact with others in English. By this way, teachers can use games to engage students in implementing the target language within all skills like speaking, reading, listening and writing. Games can be easily applied whenever necessary and appropriate, for example games can be used for warming up, instructing new structures or revising previous language points, and even using as follow-up activities to end a lesson. This implement supports students a lot in learning like memorizing new words, or practicing new grammar structures effectively in class. Games or game-like activities build up interpersonal relations among students. According to Lee, games promote more interaction and group work not only among students, but also between the teacher and students. As a matter of fact, most classes are often divided into small groups or pairs when teachers conduct whatever games. In this way, students have many chances to communicate with others naturally in order to finish the games. Hence, students‟ social and emotional development may be encouraged in the light of such positive collaboration and companionship. Games are a great way to practice new vocabulary. They provide students a great context in which to use their target vocabulary. Instead of going home and memorizing word lists, they actually get to use them, which, in turn, helps them remember more. Games help students get rid of inhibitions when it comes to actually speaking the language, which is a problem for many students. They find it hard to communicate even though they know a language well enough. Games help them be more creative and spontaneous when using the language, helping them overcome shyness. Games help students enhance their communication skills in general. Communication is at the core of games. Many people think that adult students especially should have much less trouble communicating when compared to children, but that isn’t really the case. In facts, in many cases adults are even more nervous to children when it comes to communication and trying new things. In a friendly competitive environment, they become less afraid to ask questions or reframe their own thoughts. As a result, games help them better convey their thoughts and intentions to their teammates. Games help keep up the levels of energy and motivation. Learning isn’t all about learning new grammar and vocabulary, then trying to quietly decipher the meaning of a new text. Playing a game is a nice break from that routine. The competition boosts energy levels and sort of pushes students to make a cognitive effort in the spirit of winning without them realizing it. Although games are a great tool in improving oral communication skills, there may also be some disadvantages to this method of learning. The first thing to remember is that games should be fun, controlled fun, to be exact. The instructor should be monitoring the progress of the game carefully in order to ensure that the students are indeed getting all the benefits intended by the game. Otherwise, it can become simply horseplay – too noisy and out of control. Another thing to consider is that some students may not like games at all and prefer other activities instead. It’s the instructor’s job to take into account the student preferences and choose games that will benefit all participants. So, there are many advantages of using games in the classroom’: Games are a welcome break from the usual routine of the language class. They are motivating and challenging. Learning a language requires a great deal of effort. Games help students to make and sustain the effort of learning. Games provide language practice in the various skills – speaking, writing, listening and reading. They encourage students to interact and communicate. They create a meaningful context for language use. Through fun and apparently less demanding practice, ames increase learners‘ motivation and promote learning Group and peer work may induce teamwork and enable successful interaction By lowering the affective filter, games provide favourable conditions for effective language acquisition Through a meaningful context, students are provided with a comprehensible input Let's classify the benefits as follows: Affective: games lower the affective filter they encourage creative and spontaneous use of language they also promote communicative competence games are both motivating and fun Cognitive: games reinforce learning they both review and extend learning games focus on grammar in a communicative manner Class Dynamics: games are extremely student centered the teacher acts only as facilitator games build class cohesion they can foster whole class participation games promote healthy competition Adaptability: games can be easily adjusted for age, level, and interests they utilize all four skills games require minimum preparation after the initial development stage However, some of the disadvantages may be: 1) discipline issues, learners may get excessively noisy 2) straying away from the basic purpose of the game-play activity, perhaps, due to inadequate rules instruction, resulting in playing too much and the lack of learning 3) if games are already familiar or boring, students might not get equally involved 4) some learners, especially teenagers, may find games unnecessary and childish Games can be a very worthwhile teaching element. A successful game is successful because for the reason that it is based on specific time allocation, it has clear relevance to the material, there is appropriateness to all members of the class, and ultimately, the enjoyment of the learners is increased through their actively engaging with the language. References: 1. Brown, H. Douglas. 2000. Principle of Language Teaching and Learning. New York: Pearson Education. 2. Riedle C. Web 2.0: helping reinvent education / C.Riedle, 2008. – Available at: http://www.thejournal.com/articles/21907. 3. https://www.quora.com/Which-are-the-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-using-games-todevelop-oral-communicative-skills Questions for self-control 1. 2. 3. 4. The disadvantages of using games are....? The advantages of using games are....? How can we adapt games at our class? What kind of games can help for memorizing vocabulary or grammar theory? Listening games Listening games These types of games concentrate on one of the crucial and most difficult parts of language learning. Listening is usually viewed as a passive part of the lesson. In fact, it is quite the contrary. Listening requires being very attentive and active, should it bring the desired result. In schools, listening is often carried out in a boring and uninteresting way, using only the exercises offered by the book. To make students enjoy listening, the teacher needs to bring it closer to them. A good way is choosing a topic they would like to listen about or a song they like. We can use many activities using listening not as an aim of lesson, which makes it always more stressful, but as a means to accomplish a different task, be it completing the lyrics of a song, getting correct instructions for playing a computer game or obtaining information about interesting people or places. In a similar way, listening games can be used in order to maintain the students’ attention and interest. To ensure the effort put into the listening is exploited in full, the teacher can partner the listening game with consequent postactivities. There are hereby enclosed two examples of games aimed at improving listening skills. Make a story This game is best suited to small groups. While sitting in a small circle, participants are asked to construct a story by each participant adding one line at a time (e.g. As he got off his horse, he saw a big rabbit). This continues with each additional participant adding another line until everyone has contributed at least two lines. There are many variations to this game but it highlights the value of listening to others. Blockbusters (from http://www.eflclub.com/elvin/publications/highmotivationlistening.html) Draw the grid on the chalkboard (as shown on the picture above). The best way to do this quickly is to draw the five columns of horizontal lines first, and then the vertical zigzags. Then write a different letter of the alphabet in each hexagon. Divide your class into two teams and nominate a student to choose a letter. From a previously prepared word list, choose a word whose first letter matches the student's choice, and explain this word to your class. The first team to guess the word correctly claims the hexagon and chooses to continue either vertically or horizontally. (Mark the hexagon with a squiggle of colored chalk corresponding to the team's color). One team must go horizontally and the other team must go vertically. To win the game, a team must connect all the way from top to bottom, or from side to side. The ensuing conflict as teams vie for a winning route is what makes the game so fun and exciting. Customized lists of words can be used; textbook words from present and previous years, words that students have written and passed to the teacher, incidental words that have come up during class and topical or useful words that may be fun to use. If an end-of-term test is drawing near, the present textbook words can be used, because this is most useful for review. This list also includes a reference to the unit from which the word was taken, as occasionally students may to scan their textbooks for the answer. This is good reading practice, it helps students remember and relate to the word, and it helps the teacher get a feel of where more review might be needed. English Whispers Age/Level: Any Time: 20 minutes Players: Equal teams Preparation: A written conversation for each team Aim: To listen and repeat sentences This is an adapted version of the classic game 'Chinese Whispers'. You can use this listening game to teach a variety of vocabulary, language structures and topics. This game also helps to improve your students' listening skills. Procedure Put the students into equal sized teams and have each team sit down in a row. The students sat at the back of each row are given a different conversation. The students at the back whisper the first sentence of their conversation to the student in front of them. That student then whispers the sentence to the next student, and so on down the line. When the sentence reaches the person at the front, they stand up and write the sentence on the board. If the sentence is incorrect, the sentence is whispered down the line again. The game continues until one team has written all the sentences on the board correctly. The student at the back of each row chooses when to whisper the next sentence. He or she could say each sentence quickly or wait until the sentence has been written on the board. Try to make sure that the conversations are of equal length. Five to eight sentences are ideal. For younger learners, you can play this listening game using individual words. It's not Musical Chairs Age/Level: Any Time: 20 minutes Players: Individual Preparation: Audio conversations, scripts and prepared questions Aim: To listen for the answer to a question For this listening game, you will need some audio conversations, audio scripts and some prepared questions about the conversations. The conversations can come from the course book you use in class. You may wish to use one long conversation or several short ones. This game is similar to musical chairs. Procedure Organize the chairs into a circle. There should be one less chair than there are students in the class. To begin the game, ask the students a question. Then start playing the audio conversation. The students walk around the chairs listening to the conversation.When a student hears the answer to the question on the audio, they sit down. There may be one or several students who sit down. At this point, pause the audio. If it is just one student who sits down, ask them for the answer to the question. If it is a few students who sit down, ask them to whisper the answer to you individually. If a student's answer is correct, they remain seated. Next, ask another question that can be answered in the next part of the audio conversation. The students who have remained standing start walking around the chairs again until they hear the answer to your new question on the audio. Carry on like this until there is one student left standing. That student is out of the game. Remove a chair from the circle. Everyone stands up and the game continues until there are only two students competing for one chair to become the ultimate winner. Odd One Out Age/Level: Young learners Time: 10 minutes Players: Individual Preparation: None Aim: To listen for words that don't belong and review vocabulary You can use this fun listening game to practice a variety of vocabulary. Procedure Ask the students to stand in a circle. Explain to the students that you are going to say lexical sets of words. If they hear a word that does not belong to that set, they must stop what they are doing. Ask all the students to do an animal action, e.g. hop like a frog, dance like a monkey, jump like a kangaroo, etc. As the students are doing the action, they listen to you call out sets of words, e.g. run, speak, hear, read, look, banana. When the students hear a word that doesn't belong to the set, they stop doing the action, so all the students should stop when they hear the word 'banana'. The last person to stop is out of the game.If a student stops on the wrong word, they are also out of the game. Repeat with different lexical sets, e.g. nouns, adjectives, prepositions, etc. The last student left standing wins the game. It is a good idea to play an example round with the students before they begin the game. To make the game harder, you can use similar sounding words. You could also ask the students why the word doesn't belong to the lexical set when everyone has stopped, e.g. Banana is a fruit. The other words are verbs. Throw a Question Age/Level: Any Time: 15 minutes Players: Individual Preparation: A ball Aim: To listen and answer questions This is an enjoyable listening and speaking game. You can use this game for lower-level students as practice or with higher-level students as a review. For lower-level students, you might want to cover the questions and answers before you play the game. For more advanced students, this game can be used as a review of what they have studied in past lessons. You will need a ball for this game. Procedure Sit the students in a circle. Tell the students that they are going to practice some questions and answers they have been studying in class. Start by throwing the ball to a student. When the student catches the ball, ask him or her a question. The person who catches the ball must answer the question appropriately. Then, that student throws the ball and you ask another question to someone else, and so on. This game helps students with their listening skills, because they are always in suspense not knowing who will go next. Therefore, they have to pay attention and listen to each question. References 1. 2. 3. 4. http://education.seattlepi.com/games-listening-skills-3321.html http://lucysanctuary.com/16-games-to-encourage-attention-and-listening-skills https://plentifun.com/listening-games-for-adults https://www.teach-this.com/esl-games/listening-games Questions for self-control 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What two ways are there for improving listening skills? What kind of games do you use? Which activity is the best ? The aim of listening comprehension activities is.... What kind of problems can listeners have? Kinetic games Kinect is a motion sensing input device used in the Xbox 360 console consisting of four major components: an RGB camera, 3D depth sensors, a multi-array microphone, and built-in processing cores (Kinect for Windows, 2014). Users can employ gestures or voice commands to operate the Xbox system interface without having to use a handheld remote or pedal controllers. In recent years, Kinect has been applied in numerous fields such as elderly care (Ejupi, et al., 2015; Erdoan, & Ekenel, 2015; Doyle, Caprani, & Bond, 2015; Ofli, et al., 2016; Zhang, Conly, & Athitsos, 2015; Zhao, Lun, Espy, & Reinthal, 2014; Zhao, & Lun, 2016), digital learning (Chye, & Nakajima, 2012; Lee, et al., 2012; Yang, et al., 2014), etc. By applying Kinect to digital learning, Too, et al. (2016) proposed an alternative learning method via Microsoft Kinect. The framework proposed by them included new alternative method of delivering subjects to physically disabled students rather than the current method. Tsai, Kuo, Chu, and Yen (2015) focus on developing the Kinect sensorassisted gamebased learning system with ARCS model to provide kinesthetic pedagogical practices for learning spatial skills, motivating students, and enhancing students’ effectiveness. They conclude that the Kinect sensor-assisted learning system promotes the development of students’ spatial visualization skills and encourages them to become active learners. Cheong, Yap, Logeswaran, and Chai (2012) designed a cost-effective technology (including a multi-touch interactive whiteboard and a teaching station) to enhance the learning environment of a classroom. Their innovative use of a Kinect camera was based on Kinect’s ability to send a fixed speckle pattern to a plane, track the reflected infrared light sources, and carry out the necessary processing to achieve an interactive multi-touch surface. Preliminary test results of the system indicated superior operability and interactivity compared with those of traditional computers. Kinetic games are very popular among all age groups. They provide for refreshment in the class and teaching-learning process, especially at times when students are getting tired and find it difficult to concentrate. Certainly the kinetic games need always be joined with another activity too, be it reading, listening or speaking. Create environments in which learners are encouraged to discover and explore concepts and skills; Adopt an approach which recognises the need for cognitive development, through encouraging thinking, problem solving, fantasy and creativity; Accept that learners are all different, that they prefer a variety of ways of learning and expressing themselves, and that merely listening to the teacher does not work for many learners; Develop ways for learners to be active, physically, cognitively and emotionally by creating activities that are fun, challenging and relevant to their lives in the real world outside of the classroom; Encourage motivation in learners through their own enthusiasm and involvement, and through creating activities which are naturally engaging. Let's look some of them: Jumping onto sheets of paper This game can serve as practice opportunity of various pieces of vocabulary. In its simplest form the students may jump on coloured sheets of paper according to the colour the teacher shouts out. It may however practice more advanced parts of language – spelling of letters with letters written on the sheets, words if pictures are used, or even phrases if pictures of situations when the phrases are used are printed on the sheets. Pictures on the walls The teacher places pictures on the walls; each picture has also a letter on it. The class is broken into small groups, each of which receives a sheet of paper with brief descriptions of pictures which bear letters needed for completion of a word they need to practice. To make the activity straightforward, the descriptions are in the same order as the letters in the target word. However, they may also be in random order to create more of a challenge for the students. In such case, though, they should receive more information about the target word, to be able to complete it. Each group completes a different word so their actions do not interfere. Nevertheless, they use the same pictures if they are looking for the same letter. The game may be adapted by using the whole words instead of letters, in which case the aim is to complete a sentence or a phrase. Another rule which may make the activity more difficult might be, that each team has its assigned base with a sheet of paper and they may not take it with them, they have to remember all they need. For children, also real items with a letter stuck on it may be used, making it more ‘hands on’ and fun. It may help if they are in boxes so they are not seen from afar. This game is not only kinetic, it practices reading at a large degree, vocabulary and communicative skills. AFFORDANCES OF KINECT IN THE CLASSROOM Though it has the potential to facilitate natural interactions, Kinect needs to be situated in combination with software and other hardware in order to fabricate meaningful classroom interactions. Compared with IWBs (price ranges from about US $800 to US $2,500), Kinect is relatively cheap as it costs around US $149. If the classroom is equipped with a projector and a computer, Kinect can be regarded as an inexpensive add-on. So far the applications for Kinect in education are still in a developmental stage. Recently, a German company, Evoluce, utilizes Kinect depth sensor and develops a software program, WinandI, to enable gesture control over Windows 7 desktop, browsers, Microsoft Office and other applications. With WinandI, teachers are flexible in terms of their positions to computers because Kinect can actively track their movements and gestures within four meters to the screen. If WinandI or similar software programs can be made easily accessible, most things that can be done with IWBs can essentially be done with Kinect. However, similar to the case of IWBs, the facilities of Kinect are largely dependent upon the software used. So far there have been few handy software programs for teachers to create Kinectenabled contents. If Kinect comes with software for teachers to design the control over computers, it would surely become a powerful interactive educational technology. Based upon its facilities and preliminary applications, the following analysis intends to depict Kinect‟s potential in two broad categories: a tool to enhance teaching and a tool to support learning. A Tool for Learning As a tool to support learning, the affordances of Kinect can be analyzed in three major aspects. First, it is a stimulating tool. One major advantage claimed in the IWB literature concerning the benefits of learning is motivation and affect . Kinect can be integrated into simulated environments and greatly enhance their verisimilitude. If lesson plans and interactions are carefully designed, the Kinect-enabled classroom should have the affordances to create enjoyable and interesting interaction types to boost student motivation. Second, another feature of Kinect to promote learning is its multimedia and multi-sensory capacity. Kinect facilitates kinesthetic interactions and is able to coordinate with visual and auditory information to reinforce student learning. they are able to interact with contents physically, students can make use of kinesthetic memory to assist recall. Not only does more information become available, the ideas and concepts become more tangible and easier to grasp. Third, Kinect can be used with software programs to enhance its role as a learning tool. The idea of a learning tool aligns with constructivism, which emphasizes building external, sharable artifacts and personal relationship with knowledge in the process of learning , . Educational software is designed to promote the construction of personal representations of knowledge. Due to the fact that Kinect can gather information from users, students can add creativity to their multimedia works by feeding the information into the programs. In this way, Kinect can extend the varieties of interaction types supported by the software programs and bring new features to the multimedia works created by students. Two creativity tools, Scratch and Mikumikudance, are demonstrated in regard to their application of Kinect. Conclusion The above analysis suggests that Kinect has great potential to enhance classroom interactions and to ignite student creativity. Kinect technology, however, can not stand alone in the classroom setting but needs to be integrated with a computer, projector and software. Customized software to facilitate classroom interactions and to create Kinect-enabled contents seems to be missing in the picture of current technology integration. Therefore, the evaluation of Kinect as the focal classroom technology largely depends on the future development of Kinect software. Software needs to incorporate the design of interactive pedagogy in order to exploit its technical interactivity. Judging from the preliminary applications, Kinect is capable of being a tool to enhance teaching and a tool to support learning. This paper draws the connections between Kinect and IWBs and believes that Kinect can provide better interaction types and fulfill most of the facilities offered by IWBs. One advantage that is absent in IWB literature is that Kinect has the facility to gather information, which can later be fed, into student creativity tools. Its application in Scratch and MMD serves to diversify student representations of International Journal of Information and Education Technology, Vol. 1, No. 5, December 2011 369 knowledge. Future studies are needed to address student creativity enabled by Kinect. In addition, due to the fact that researchers are not yet clear about how the application of haptics and gesturebased computing improves learning, Kinect needs strong empirical evidences to support its legitimacy as an adequate classroom technology. References 1. 2. 3. 4. http://www.ijiet.org/papers/59-R025.pdf Alhazbi, S. (2015). ARCS-based tactics to improve students’ motivation in computer programming course. 10th International Conference on Computer Science and Education, ICCSE 2015, 317–321, September 9. Chang, Y. H., Lin, Y. K., Fang, R. J, & Lu, Y. T. (2017). A Situated Cultural Festival Learning System Based on Motion Sensing. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 13 (3), 571–588. Chao, K. J., Huang, H. W., Fang, W. C., & Chen, N. S. (2013). Embodied play to learn: exploring Kinect-facilitated memory performance. British Journal of Education technology, 44 (5), E151–E155. Questions for self-control 1. 2. 3. 4. What kind of kinetic games do you like? What kind of tools should we use? Are there any disadvantages? Are there any benefits? Speaking games Speaking games Used as a follow-up to the previous listening, it is an excellent way to re-enforce vocabulary and expressions heard earlier. However, speaking games can be used at any time. The teacher must, nevertheless, make sure that a form of game is maintained. That means, the main focus is not put on the grammar (at the same time, it is an opportunity for the teacher to gather information about what parts of grammar the students have not acquired so far), the main aim is to make speaking and expressing ideas orally enjoyable and stress free. Once students get familiar with the principle of speaking games, it facilitates for ability to speak also in other parts of the lesson. As with the listening games, also in speaking ones, the teacher should concentrate on topics which are close to the students, their environment or interests. For instance, it serves its purpose well if the teacher avoids making students describe what they had for breakfast or describing a person without putting it into a game-like context. Taboo Taboo is a word game, in which one player gets the other(s) guess a certain word using verbal explanation; there may also be a list of other words which the “explainer” must not mention. For example, “ladder” might be the word to describe, but without saying “climb, rungs, or fire truck” or any forms of those words. Having such a list of words makes the game more difficult, therefore such a restriction would be used in more advanced classes. Much like with crossword puzzles, students get practice explaining words in different ways, and the taboo words make it more challenging and interesting. It is also easy to incorporate an element of competition, though it may be wise to do some kind of trial run to see how your students do; I’ve found that even relatively easy words often defy time limits, even with more advanced students. And it can of course be de-motivating for students to keep missing the time limit. A method of two teams working at once can be used, seeing how many words they can get through in a set time period, rather than, say, one minute for one person to explain. Find someone who https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vCWhIgKrpfM This is a well known language learning game where students mingle and ask each other questions to find for which person the fact they have on their worksheet is true. This activity is good for waking students up by getting them out of their chairs and is also good practice for “Nice to meet you” and introductions. It can be done with real information, or, if the students know everything about each other already, the teacher will need to give each person a role-play card with some personal information about their “new” self, plus one worksheet with the information they should be searching for. The ‘Find Someone Who’ worksheets can be the same for each student or different for each person. They then stand up and go round the class asking questions until they find out that this person is Chilean, this person is 79 years old, this person is a seven year old film star etc, then sit down when they think they have found all the information. As can be seen from these examples, it is possible to add a little humour by the choice of role- play sentences. More speaking can be added to the game by students passing on all the information they have found out so far to the person they are speaking to. Descriptive Drawing Activity https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8yGhNwDMT-g Pair up the students and give them each a picture face down. They must describe the picture for their partner to draw. "Secret" Word Students are given a random topic, and a random word completely unrelated to the topic. The student must hide the word in their speech, without the other students in the class guessing their "secret" word. The other students in the class must listen carefully to the speech, in an attempt to discover the secret word. Debates Give each student a piece of paper with “agree” written on one side, and “disagree” on the other side. Read aloud a controversial statement, and have each students hold up his/her paper stating whether they agree or disagree. Choose one student from each side to explain his/her position and participate in a short debate. Storytelling Activity Bring four students to the front of the classroom. Three students should sit down in a row, and one of the students should stand behind them acting as a controller. The controller should have a stack of cards in his hand containing nouns. The controller will hand a noun to one of the three students who will start to tell a story. The student will continue telling the story until the controller decides to hand another noun to another student who will then take over the story. Face Game If your students do not know already then first teach them the following parts of the face: forehead, chin, ear, eye, nose, mouth. Now, ask the students to make fists with both hands and touch their ears. On the first round, you play the role of the leader and say: ear, ear, ear – forehead (or a different part of the face from the list above). The third time that you say ear, say it more slowly, so that other players know that you are about to switch. When the new part is called out (in this example, forehead), everyone must quickly move both of their fists from ear to forehead at the same time. If anyone, including the leader, touches any part of the face other than the forehead is the loser and takes over as the new leader. As punishment, the loser must share their views on any subject of your choosing with the class. Fast Food Role Play This role-playing exercise requires two students. Ask for volunteers or select from the class. One student will act as the manager of a fast food restaurant. The other will act as a student looking for a part-time job. The restaurant has advertised a part-time vacancy, so the student has come for an interview. The two should try to develop a lively yet formal conversation of the job duties, employee benefits, and the student’s qualifications and experience before the manager reaches his/her decision. Some useful supplementary vocabulary includes: wages, salary, personality, official duties, and position in a job. TV Discussion Panel Role Play This role-playing exercise requires any number of students. Ask for volunteers or select from the class. Each student will select and play the role of a current or historical political figure such as: Barack Obama, Abraham Lincoln, the Dalai Lama, John Lennon, Arnold Schwarzenegger, etc. You will acts as the host of a TV discussion panel in which each of the famous political personalities participate. Begin the discussion by asking one of the students what they think about the future of America. After the first student has answered, each of the other students can give their opinions. The students should try to enliven their answers by using the person’s typical mannerisms and accent if possible. Some useful supplementary vocabulary includes: improve, capitalism, free market economy, thoughts, peace, and get along with one another. Piece Together a Narrative Copy each sentence below on a card, and give each student one or two cards in random order. The students must memorize the sentence on their card(s) and then hand the cards back to you. The students take turns to recite their sentence(s) to the class. After all students have spoken, the whole class must work out the correct sentence order to make the completed narrative. Everyone says exercise is good for your health, but I really don’t like doing exercise. No matter if it’s basketball or football, all types of ball sports are just running around a field. Think about it, after every time you run and jump, don’t you feel hot and thirsty?! I also don’t understand why so many people like watching sports games. Besides, does it really matter who wins and who loses! There’s also swimming. Of course, you won’t get hot from swimming, but as soon as you’re not careful then you could swallow water. The conditions aren’t good and you could die! Perhaps it’s only dancing that’s good. You can listen to a good song and dance at the same time; If you want to go fast then go fast, if you want to go slow then go slow, it’s so much better! Shorten or lengthen the narrative according to the number of students you have in your class. Celebrity Name Game Before class, prepare cards with names of well-known celebrities on them, one per student. The names should be easily recognizable to the students. Give each student a card and ask them to describe the person on his/her card to the class. Ask the students to add humor to their description by using the celebrity’s mannerisms. Their description may begin with statements such as: I’m male and over 6 feet tall. I have blonde hair. I recently married a famous singer. The rest of the class will guess the person’s identity. Split the class into two teams to add some healthy competition. Some useful supplementary vocabulary includes: bald, belly, blonde-haired and blue eyed, and wear glasses. References 1. http://www.tefllogue.com/in-the-classroom/tefl-word-game-courtesy-of-hasbro.html 2. http://edition.tefl.net/ideas/games/speaking-games-false-beginners/ 3. https://www.edutopia.org/discussion/12-fun-speaking-games-language-learners Questions for self-control 1. 2. 3. 4. What kind of speaking games do you know? What is it TV Discussion Panel Role Play? Are there any disadvantages? Do you use Storytelling Activities? Experiential Learning Universities and colleges are undergoing an era of unprecedented change. Students are dissatisfied with the old lecture style of teaching; they are the interactive generation, used to games which require high engagement levels. Students want an interactive, online and experiential education, one in which they can engage their curiosity and receive feedback as to their progress. Traditionally in institutions of higher education, learning consisted of lectures and application of knowledge through assignments or activities. In organizational training, seminars and modular learning components were the norm. However, we are seeing a game change occurring, today’s generation is more experiential in their learning approach, they are used to learning in virtual learning environments whether it be in a video game or working with others online. There are several learning approaches that align with today’s need for experiential learning such as active learning, problem based learning, informed learning, discovery learning, group learning, and collaborative learning. Games and simulations are the natural way for humans to learn, children learn through games and so do adults. Games provide students with an irresistible appeal to engage with the game, to strive to improve and to desire to learn. When the game element is included in a simulation, engagement rates of students increase. Traditionally the closest we had to experiential learning in schools of business were business cases. The Use of Cases In schools of business cases are widely used, cases have two major issues: most cases only have 1 decision point, in other words, students read the case and make recommendations and then, perhaps, the professor discusses the results. Cases do not have a series of decisions that need to be made with a learning cycle between each decision. Where each decision impacts the decision possibilities in the next decision turn. A learning cycle between each decision increases the students learning level. As well, students quickly learn that traditional cases do not have – a correct answer – thus making grading of the case problematic for the professor as students can argue that their suggested answer is as valid as the one recommended by the case author. Simulations can be considered as the 21st century case approach. Simulations can have multiple decision rounds with a learning cycle between each decision round. And decisions impacted by prior decisions. In addition, simulations have metrics that can quantifiably measure student results providing a definitive grade. The simulation metrics can be compared with other student results providing information as to student ability on a global scale, thus providing professors the ability to create a world class learning environment and distinguish their courses. This provides a clear link between learning objectives and metrics to grade student accomplishments. Games and Simulations? They align with learning objectives, They have quantifiable learning accomplishments, They increase engagement and desire to learn, They provide the environment to see theory in practice, They give students the ability to be recognized for achievement on a world basis thus providing critical personal resume content, They can require little or no effort additional effort by the instructor, and, Today’s generation is already tuned to learning by playing. What is experiential learning? Broadly speaking, experiential learning is learning through doing – the learner is an active participant in the educational process, not a passive witness to it. The content, idea or concept being pursued must be largely relevant to the learner, which is why English teachers argue for hours over which novels will be best for their individual mix of students. Any activity must also invoke a strong emotional reaction on the part of the learner (how strong must the emotions be for a child who finally commits to falling off their bike another 20 times so they finally ‘get it’?). This whole process then prompts reflection, change and action - in the form of new skills, attitudes, mindsets or practices. By nature, experiential learning can happen everywhere, but is perhaps most recognisable to parents of young children. This might be in the form of a tour through a national park or zoo, a science centre or library with a hands-on section or time spent with a grandparent in the garden. All of which are experiences we have all connected our children with, and through which action prompts the acquisition of skills, knowledge and emotions. Experiential learning activities can help students: Remain focused — Students who are engaged and learning actively are less likely to become bored and disinterested. Learn differently — When students are involved in the learning process they are more engaged emotionally, helping them experience learning in a dynamic, new way. Learn faster — Learning firsthand requires deep problem-solving and critical thinking. These processes boost student engagement, accelerating learning and improving content retention. Traditional learning activities Experiential learning activities Teacher-centered/focused Student-centered/focused Learning outcomes are prescribed to a fixed rubric or scoring system Learning outcomes are flexible and op Aim to explain knowledge and/or skills by transferring information Aim to develop knowledge and skills through experience Fixed structure, high degree of facilitation Flexible structure, minimal facilitatio How can schools promote experiential learning? There are many ways in which schools promote intellectual change by having students engaged in hands-on learning: Mock-trials or debates Organising business internships School camps or a boarding component to campus life; here, students are responsible for some aspects of their daily life such as cleaning, time management and study 4. Undertaking drills to develop specific physical skills in PDHPE (Personal Development, Health and Physical Education) 5. Community service opportunities, such as work trips to support disadvantaged communities 6. Study tours to international universities where students experience on-campus life and undertake undergraduate study 7. Every film or novel study in English, where a student enters the world of the story and lingers on the complexities of the perspective of the protagonist 8. Simulations, such as in a Business Studies class examining the factors behind stock market fluctuations 9. Scientific experiments or open-ended inquiries to determine cause and effect 10. Case studies of urban development in Geography 11. Role-playing influential historical figures in order to understand personal motivations in a History class 12. Interactive classroom games, such as Kahoot or Socrative 1. 2. 3. How to tell if experiential learning is being applied Next time you’re visiting your child’s school or classroom, or are simply talking with them about their learning while doing some homework, take a few minutes to really observe what is happening. You may even want to use the points below as a checklist. You’ll be surprised to see how intrinsic this approach is in what a teacher actually does: Has an environment been created which is safe and comfortable, where a learner can be confident to take bold intellectual risks in the pursuit of self-directed discovery? 2. Are students encouraged to make discoveries for themselves? 3. Are students challenged to take responsibility for their own learning? 4. Is feedback to teachers encouraged? 5. Do students understand why the lesson is beneficial to their personal lives? 6. Are extensions of both content and process sought? 7. Are the chosen learning activities relevant to the interests, lives, values, perspectives and experiences of the individuals? 8. Is there a sense of connectedness between the classroom and the global community? 9. Are opportunities for quiet, contemplative reflection, where students can muse self-criticism of one’s own learning, available? 10. Can learners be emotionally invested in what they are doing? 11. Are the learners extended beyond their personal comfort zones, whether they be physical, social or cultural? 12. What is the class’s attitude towards intellectual risk-taking? Is failure seen as an important part of the learning process? 1. Educators have long known that formal learning can often evoke limited emotional investment in a learner, and that learning is a deeply personal experience. What takes one learner a lesson to figure can take another an entire week to come to terms with – or longer, depending upon the complexity of the content being taught. Coupled with the need to prepare students to be part of a highly global workforce, good schools will instruct students through hands-on learning activities which allow them to develop their physical, social, cognitive, imaginative and emotional capacities. References 1. http://www.experiential-learning-games.com/successfulexamples.html 2. http://www.queensu.ca/teachingandlearning/modules/active/12_exmples_of_active_learning_ activities.html 3. https://www.tsc.nsw.edu.au/tscnews/how-is-experiential-learning-applied-in-the-classroom Questions for self-control 1. 2. What is it Experiential Learning? What kind of Experiential Learning do you use? 3. 4. 5. How Experiential learning activities can help students? Do students understand why the lesson is beneficial to their personal lives? How to tell if experiential learning is being applied? Various types of games in language teaching Almost everybody loves playing whether they are young or old. From early childhood playing is an enormous part of most children‟s lives and it plays a big part of their development as well. Children start playing as early as infancy but as they develop throughout their childhood they keep playing, and as they grow up and mature the nature of their play changes. When children enter middle childhood (6–12) their play starts to change into games which are different from play in the sense that they are more organized and planned, and they usually include a variation of rules and a specific objective (Rixon. 1981. p. 3). When playing most games participants are almost forced into communicating with each other in order for the game to work. The need for communication during games, and the informal setting games provide encourages students to be unafraid to talk, which practices their fluency, a valuable communication skill. The national curriculum for foreign languages in Iceland emphasizes the importance of learning languages and especially the importance of communication. Because of this fact it is vitally important for teachers to create a positive learning environment, and to try to spark interest amongst their students both in the foreign language and culture because that is important to a successful language learning process. Games help achieve these goals as they help satisfy the requirement of the national curriculum that language learning should be enjoyable for students. Various types of games in language teaching There are many types of games the teacher may make use of. They are aimed to train different kinds of skills desired for students to be acquired. Over the time, it is profitable to keep changing the types of games to ensure the novelty and a surprise effect for the students. This way it is ensured that the outcome will have the highest possible impact. An experienced teacher is also able to recognize situation when a game is needed to be introduced to change the classroom atmosphere, therefore has several games on hand at all times. There are many types of games the teacher can make use of. In the following part, some of the types will be introduced, coupled with examples of games, using the particular type of activity. However, it needs to be mentioned that no game uses only one type of activity or practices only one skill. There are make a story, blockbusters, taboo, Find someone who, Shouting dictations, Role-play discussion, Memory training and etc. It is advisable to distinguish between classes we cater for when using games. Each and every class is very specific and the teacher needs to take its characteristics into consideration when preparing and realizing a game, in the same way the whole teaching process is (or should be) tailored to a specific group of learners. However, it is impossible to reflect on all existing classes; therefore we will take a closer look at using games in different types of classes, based on several criteria – language level, age group and class size. Using games in the process of teaching languages is not restricted for any language level classes. It is a great tool for all levels, though it may serve different purposes and may be used in different ways. As seen in above paragraphs, games will always help students of all levels to feel comfortable and therefore more confident in the process of acquiring a new language. Language learning is a difficult task and requires adopting various skills. Games are a priceless support which a teacher may take an opportunity to use in order to help the students to succeed. Classification of the games: Movement games: the type of game when learners are physically active (e.g. Find your partner). All children can be involved and the teacher usually just monitors the game. Movement games have clearly given rules and they can be either competitive or cooperative; it depends on the concrete game or how the teacher designs it. It is the same with the materials, for example you do not need any material for movement game called “Direction game” (one child tells a blindfold child how to get to a specific place). Whereas the game “Find your partner” (see page 24) requires prepared cards. While playing movement games children practise all skills. Board games: games played on the board in this case (e.g. Hangman). Teacher needs whatever kind of boards (black, white or interactive board). They can be played in all types of grouping and teacher needs to prepare some material in most of board games. Learners can practise all language skills and they are expected to obey given rules. This type of the game can be either competitive or cooperative; it deals with the type of grouping. Teacher can operate as a controller, organizer, participant and facilitator. Guessing games: based on the principle when one holds the information and another tries to guess it (e.g. Back writing). There exists a wide variety of guessing games with teacher as a participant or facilitator. Teacher needs to prepare none or some material and learners practise their speaking and listening skills while cooperating. Learners follow given instruction and rules which do not have to be strict. Matching games: games involve matching correct pairs (e.g. Vocabulary Scramble). They need to have material prepared. Learners cooperate to reach the goal of the game. The goal of the game and the type of grouping can make the game cooperative (learner in pair, learners of one group, whole class) or competitive (pair/group vs. pair/group). Reading and speaking games are practiced the most. The teacher’s role is to be a facilitator. Card games: familiar game with board game. The cards have an important value in the game (e.g. What is that card?) so material is required in this case. Desk games: these games can be played as an individual work game (e.g. puzzle) or pair and group game (e.g. scrabble). Desk games need material and they can work both competitively and cooperatively. For example scrabble or memory game (pexeso) are competitive games whereas puzzle is cooperative game. It can be the competitive game thus (the rule for puzzle as a competitive game is: the winner is who finishes the puzzle first). Teacher can be a controller and facilitator. Role-play games: it can be either the game itself or an element of other games. It needs active performing of the learner (e.g. At the shop) cooperating in pairs or smaller groups. Material is not necessary but can be useful. The teacher is a controller and facilitator, he gives the instruction but strict rules are not necessary. They practise speaking writing and listening skills. Task-based games: belongs to popular games nowadays, especially because of its connection with cooperative schooling. Usually pairs or groups work on meaningful task in the way they enjoy. Learners obey clear rules and they have got a chance to practise all language skills. Teacher is an organizer and facilitator. Teacher pre-prepares material for the game or learners prepare it themselves later. Computer games are a very popular type of the games nowadays. It can be played either at school or at home. It requires individual or pair work and learners practise their reading and writing skills. The teacher can be tutor or play none role. There are usually given clear rules and the computer is necessary here. When using games, teacher performs in different roles then. Each teacher has an opportunity to involve games into their lesson and find out how it works. They can experience pros and cons of various types of games and try out various roles of their profession as a teacher. Using games is a difficult task but teachers could feel it like a challenge. 1. Video example / Board Race Why use it? Revising vocabulary; grammar Who it's best for: Appropriate for all levels and ages How to play: First, watch this helpful video of real teachers using this game in the classroom by BridgeTEFL: This is best played with 6 students or more – the more, the better. I’ve used it in classes ranging from 7–25 years of age and it’s worked well in all age groups. Here's a step by step explanation: Split the class into two teams and give each team a colored marker. If you have a very large class, it may be better to split the students into teams of 3 or 4. Draw a line down the middle of the board and write a topic at the top. The students must then write as many words as you require related to the topic in the form of a relay race. Each team wins one point for each correct word. Any words that are unreadable or misspelled are not counted. The positive influence of the games on learning language skills is well documented. The advantage of the game is that it can focus on more than one aspect of language. Games can focus either on grammar, speaking, listening, and pronunciation, vocabulary, etc. or complex of them. Philips says that “the focus should continue to be on language as a vehicle of communication and not on the grammar….You can give them tasks in which they discover for themselves simple grammatical rules, or you can focus their attention on the structure of the language in order to help them formulate an ‘internal grammar’ of their own.” Both McCallum and Lindsay and Knight grasp the benefit of games when talking about their usefulness because of their ability to liven up a lesson. McCallum also highlights the informal atmosphere as one of the advantages of using game when he says: “Students, in the informal atmosphere of game play, are less self-conscious and therefore more apt to experiment and freely participate in using the foreign language.” Wright, Betteridge and Buckby support the advantage of using games with their opinion that “the essential ingredient of a game is challenge.” Krystýnková points out another important fact; children enjoy playing games and they do not have to notice that they clear a difficulty during playing. Kožuchová and Korčáková emphasize the game as an element of socialization. Children have to obey the rules; they can find their own abilities during the work on the game and compare them with other learners what helps children with self-appraisal. Let's summarized the advantages of using games as follows: “Games add variety to range of learning situations. Games can maintain motivation. Games can refresh learners during formal learning. Games can encourage an interest of those students whose feel intimidated by formal classroom situations. Games can make a teacher-student distance less marginal. Games give an opportunity for student-student communication and can reduce more usual student-teacher communication. Games can act as a testing mechanism, in the sense that they will expose areas of weakness.” Group games An example of a group game is the game “Fruit basket” which emphasizes listening, memory and reflexes, all of which are good and necessary skills to possess. The rules of this game are that participants sit in a circle and they all get a name of a certain fruit to “be”. One participant does not have a chair and has to stand in the middle. He then calls out a name of a fruit, for example an orange, and then all the students who are oranges have to stand up and switch seats. The one in the middle has to try and “steal” a seat while the others are switching and if he succeeds someone else will be left alone in the middle and gets the task of calling out the name of a new fruit (Ingvar Sigurgeirsson. 1995. p. 38). This game could easily be augmented to suit different situations or to train some other vocabulary just by using other categories of words, for example clothes, names of relatives, or different types of food instead of fruits. Physical games An example of a physical game is “Walking the line” where participants have to walk a line and perform various types of tasks at the same time, for example walking backwards, or balancing a book on their heads. In order to make this game more fitting in a language classroom the teacher should give the instructions in the target language, for example “everybody has to walk backwards”. Another example of a physical game could be the game “Simon says”, where someone plays Simon and gives the others orders, for example “Simon says jump” or “Simon says clap your hands”. I categorize this game as a physical game because of the fact that the Simon‟s orders are usually physical. Scavenger hunt games Savage hunt games are especially fitting in the language classroom because the clues can be written in the target language, which forces the participants to read and fellow team members to listen and test their understanding. Also within the scavenger hunt could be puzzles, which the students would have to solve, such as crossword puzzles, word searches and/or questions. The possibilities are almost endless and teachers are only bound by the limits of their own creativity. Educational games The “mail game” where participants have to deliver “mail” and make sure it gets to the right places works as an excellent example of an educational game. For languages a good idea would be to work around a theme of a certain place, such as the home. The first thing the teacher has to do is to make the envelopes and the “mail”. The envelopes should be labeled with a specific genre, which in this example would be “kitchen”, “bedroom”, “bathroom” etc. The mail should then be letters with words on them that fit into specific envelopes, for example the word “knife” or the word “refrigerator” would match the envelope labeled “kitchen”. Each student should then get a certain amount of “mail” that he has to write his name on and then get to work delivering. The first one to deliver all of his mail would win if it turned out he delivered correctly References 1. Bransford, J. D., Brown, A. L., & Cocking, R. R. (Eds.). (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school. Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. 2. Ellis, R. (2005). Principles of instructed language learning. Asian EFL Journal, 7 (3), 9–24. Retrieved February 12, 2006 3. Ersoz, A. (2000, June). Six games for EFL/ESL classroom. The Internet TESL Journal, 6 (6), retrieved February 11, 2005 from http://iteslj.org/Lessons/Ersoz-Games.html 4. https://www.gooverseas.com/blog/10-best-games-esl-teachers Questions for self-control 1. 2. 3. 4. What kind of Group games do you know? Classification of the games are...? Educational games are...? Name some types of games in language teaching....?