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Nation and Memory in
Eastern Europe
Lecture 12
Nation and Music Culture
Week 13, Spring Term
Outline
1. Music Culture and Nation Building
2. National Anthems
3. Poland
4. Ukraine
5. Russia and the Soviet Union
6. Conclusion
What is part of the national
music culture?
Traditional songs of the peasantry – folk
songs
Religious hymns – church songs
“High” music culture: national opera,
national opera house, symphonic music
Patriotic songs
“High” Art Music and National
Operas
 National language – vernacular or church language
 Composers who belong to the nation
 Different to other national operas or to Italian opera/influence
of folk music, popular tunes, church music, choir music
 Story based on crucial events of national history, myths or
fairy tales
 Symphonic music: important landmarks, for example ‘The
Moldau’ by Smetana
Must have something specifically Ukrainian, Polish,
Russian
Ivan Glinka (1804-1857)
A Life for the Tsar, first
performed 1836 in
St.Petersburg
Fyodor Shaljapin as Ivan Susanin
Mykola Lysenko (1842-1912
Stanislaw Moniuszko (18191872)
Outline
1. Music Culture and Nation Building
2. National Anthems
3. Poland
4. Ukraine
5. Russia and the Soviet Union
6. Conclusion
Types
State anthems and national anthems
Marches and prayers
Folk tunes, existing high art compositions or
new compositions
Traditional poems or texts produced
specifically for the anthem
Functions of national anthems and
patriotic songs
 Symbol of the nation
 State anthems represent the nation (sport events, diplomatic
visits)
 Glorify events of national history
 Mobilise the nation
 Singing of national songs in war times by soldiers
 Subversive act of singing the song or even humming the
melody (often forbidden in stateless times, under foreign
occupation or after a revolution)
 Emotional impact
 Act of singing unites (singing revolution in Estonia and Latvia
1989/1990), symbol of national unity
 Act of resistance – act of support
1. Heil dir im Siegerkranz,
Herrscher des Vaterlands!
Heil, Kaiser, dir!
Fühl in des Thrones Glanz
Die hohe Wonne ganz,
Liebling des Volks zu sein!
Heil Kaiser, dir!
1. Hail to thee in victor's crown,
Ruler of the fatherland!
Hail to thee, Kaiser!
Feel in the throne's glow
The high ecstasy in full
To be the darling of thy people!
Hail to thee, Kaiser!
La Marseillaise
Allons enfants de la Patrie,
Le jour de gloire est arrivé !
Contre nous de la tyrannie,
L'étendard sanglant est levé, (bis)
Entendez-vous dans les campagnes
Mugir ces féroces soldats ?
Ils viennent jusque dans vos bras (2)
Égorger vos fils, vos compagnes !
Refrain
Aux armes, citoyens,
Formez vos bataillons,
Marchons, marchons !
Qu'un sang impur
Abreuve nos sillons !
Arise children of the fatherland
The day of glory has arrived
Against us tyranny's
Bloody standard is raised
Listen to the sound in the fields
The howling of these fearsome soldiers
They are coming into our midst
To cut the throats of your sons and
consorts
To arms citizens
Form your battalions
March, march
Let impure blood
Water our furrows
The Departure of the Volunteers
(Sculpture by F. Rude)
François Rude (born in Dijon in 1784 - died in
Paris in 1855), French sculptor of romantic
inspiration: The Departure of the Volunteers,
relief (11.6  6 m) located on the "Arc de
Triomphe de l'Étoile", Paris. Created between
1832 to 1835. Rude depicted the volunteers as
Roman legionaries.
Outline
1. Music Culture and Nation Building
2. National Anthems
3. Poland
4. Ukraine
5. Russia and the Soviet Union
6. Conclusion
Polish patriotic anthems
Bogurodzica (The Mother of God),
religious hymn, 13th c. – sung also in the
19th c. and 20th c.
Mazurka Dabrowski (National Anthem)
National Anthem: "Mazurek Dabrowskiego" (Dabrowski's Mazurka)
Words by: Jozef Wybicki 1795 in Reggio Emilia, Italy
Music by: traditional
Adopted: 1927 http://www.mazurekdabrowskiego.pl/muzyka.html
1. Jeszcze Polska nie zginela,
Kiedy my zyjemy.
Co nam obca przemoc wziela,
Szabla odbierzemy.
CHORUS:
Marsz, marsz, Dabrowski,
Z ziemi wloskiej do Polski,
Za twoim przewodem
Zlaczym sie z narodem.
1. Poland is not yet lost
while we live
We will fight (with swords) for all
That our enemies had taken from us.
Refrain:
March, march Dabrowski
from Italy to Poland
Under your command
we will reunite with the nation.
2. Przejdziem Wisle, przejdziem
Warte,
Bedziem Polakami,
Dal nam przyklad Bonaparte,
Jak zwyciezac mamy.
CHORUS
2. We will cross the Vistula and Warta,
we will be Poles,
Bonaparte showed us
how to win.
Refrain: March, march...
3. Jak Czarniecki do Poznania
Po szwedzkim zaborze,
Dla ojczyzny ratowania
Wracal sie przez morze.
CHORUS
3. Like Czarniecki to Poznan,
after Swedish annexation,
We will come back across the sea
to save our motherland
Refrain: March, march...
4. Juz tam ojciec do swej Basi
mowi zaplakany:
"Sluchaj jeno,
pono nasi bija w tarabany!"
CHORUS
4. Father, in tears,
says to his Basia:
"Just listen,
It seems that our people are beating the
drums."
Refrain: March, march...
Przejdziem Wisłę, przejdziem Wartę,
Jeszcze Polska nie zginęła / kiedy my żyjemy
będziem Polakami
co nam obca przemoc wzięła / szablą odbierzemy.
Dał nam przykład Bonaparte
jak zwyciężać mamy.
Paintings by Juliusz Kossak (1900)
Bogurodzica (The Mother of God),
religious hymn, 13th c. – sung also in the
19th c. and 20th c.
Mazurka Dabrowski (National Anthem)
1797
 Boże coś Polskę 1816
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jsoj_8Fp1qA
Boże coś Polskę (extract) (God save Poland)
Words by Alojzy Felinski (1816)
Changes by Antoni Gorecki (1817)
Music (different versions), final version taken from a Cracow song “Hail to you,
Blessed Virgin Mary” 1861
O, God who, through so many centuries,
surrounded Poland
with the brilliance of power and glory,
who has protected it
with the shield of your defence,
against the disasters that
were meant to defeat it.
Refrain:
To your altars we carry a prayer:
Save our King, Lord ! (1816)
Return our Homeland to us, Lord ! (1830)
Bless our Homeland and freedom, Lord ! (1989)
Bless our free Homeland, Lord ! (1996)
Polish patriotic anthems
Bogurodzica (The Mother of God),
religious hymn, 13th c. – sung also in the
19th c. and 20th c.
Mazurka Dabrowski (National Anthem)
1797
Boże coś Polskę (God save Poland) 1816
Choral - Z dymem pożarów (With the
smoke of fires) 1846
Rota 1908-1910
Rota
Words by Maria Konopnicka 1908
Music by Feliks Nowowiejski, Cracow 1910
Nie rzucim ziemi, skąd nasz ród.
Nie damy pogrześć mowy.
Polski my naród, polski lud,
Królewski szczep Piastowy.
Nie damy, by nas zgnębił wróg.
We will not abandon the land of our clan.
We will not allow our language to be buried.
We are the Polish nation, the Polish people,
The royal tribe of the Piasts.
We will not allow the enemy to repress us.
Tak nam dopomóż Bóg!
Tak nam dopomóż Bóg
So help us God!
So help us God
Do krwi ostatniej kropli z żył
Bronić bedziemy ducha,
Aż się rozpadnie w proch i w pył
Krzyżacka zawierucha.
Twierdzą nam będzie każdy próg.
To the last drop of blood in our veins
We will defend our soul
Until into ashes and dust
The Teutonic storm collapses.
Every doorstep shall be our fortress.
Tak nam dopomóż Bóg!
Tak nam dopomóż Bóg
So help us God!
So help us God
Nie będzie Niemiec pluł nam w twarz
Ni dzieci nam germanił,
Orężny wstanie hufiec nasz,
Duch będzie nam hetmanił.
Pójdziem, gdy zabrzmi złoty róg.
The German will not spit in our face,
Nor will he Germanize our children,
Our battalion will armed arise,
And the spirit will be our commander.
We will go when the golden horn calls.
Tak nam dopomóż Bóg!
Tak nam dopomóż Bóg
So help us God!
So help us God
Outline
1. Music Culture and Nation Building
2. National Anthems
3. Poland
4. Ukraine
5. Russia and the Soviet Union
6. Conclusion
National anthem (today only the first 6 lines) "Shche ne vmerla Ukraina" (Ukraine's Glory Has Not
Perished)
Words by: Paul Chubynskyi (1862)
Music by: Mikhail Verbytskyi
Adopted: 1917, abolished 1920, restored 1991
Ще не вмерла Україна, і слава, і воля,
Ще нам, браття молодії, усміхнеться доля.
Згинуть наші вороженьки, як роса на сонці,
Запануєм і ми, браття, у своїй сторонці.
CHORUS
Приспів Душу, тіло ми положим за нашу свободу.
І покажем, що ми, браття, козацького роду.
Станем, браття, в бій кровавий від Сяну до Дону
В ріднім краю панувати не дамо нікому;Чорне
море ще всміхнеться, дід Дніпро зрадіє, Ще у
нашій Україні доленька наспіє.
CHORUS
Приспів завзяття, праця щира свого ще докаже,
Ще ся волі в Україні піснь гучна розляже, За
Карпати відоб’ється, згомонить степами, України
слава стане поміж народами.
CHORUS
Ukraine has not perished, neither her glory, nor freedom,
Upon us, fellow--Ukrainians, fate shall smile once more.
Our enemies will vanish, like dew in the morning sun,
And we too shall dwell, brothers, in a free land of our own.
CHORUS:
We'll lay down our souls and bodies to attain our freedom,
And we'll show that we, brothers, are of the Cossack nation.
We'll stand together for freedom, from the Sian to the Don,
We will not allow others to rule in our motherland.
The Black Sea will smile and grandfather Dnipro will
rejoice,
For in our own Ukraine fortune shall flourish again.
CHORUS
Our persistence and our sincere toils will be rewarded,
And freedom's song will resound throughout all of Ukraine.
Echoing off the Carpathians, and rumbling across the
steppes,
Ukraine's fame and glory will be known among all nations.
CHORUS
1st line (before 2003): Shche ne vmerla Ukrajina, ny slava, ny volja,
1st line (after 2003): Shche ne vmerla Ukrajini, ny slava, ny volja ,
Anthem of Soviet Ukraine (1949-1991)
Words by Pavel Tychina and Mikola Bazhan (1948?), changed in 1978 (2nd
stanza to remove mention of Stalin)
Music by Anton Dmitrievich Lyebyedinyec (1948?)
1. Live, Ukraine, beautiful and mighty, In the Soviet Union you have found happiness.
Equal between the equal ones (other republics), free between the free ones,
Under the sunrays of freedom you have bloomed as a flower.
CHORUS:
Glory to the Soviet Union, Glory!
Glory to the Motherland in the eternity!
Live, Ukraine, Soviet power,
In the united homeland of fraternal nations.
2. In battles for people’s fate
Russian people were always our friend and brother.
Lenin led us in a victorious campaign
Under October’s banner to brilliant heights.
CHORUS
3. We fame our mighty Fatherland with labour,
Affirm the truth of immortal ideas.
To the shining communism – the great future Lenin’s party wisely leads us.
CHORUS
Outline
1. Music Culture and Nation Building
2. National Anthems
3. Poland
4. Ukraine
5. Russia and the Soviet Union
6. Conclusion
Hymn of the Russian Empire 1815-1833
Music by Henry Carey (1743)
Words by V.A. Zhukovsky (1815)
God, save the Czar!
Long days to the glorious
Give on the earth!
To the humbler of the proud,
To the keeper of the weak,
To the comforter of everyone –
Grant ye him all!
Land of the first throne,
Orthodox Rus,
God, save her!
Harmonious reign for her,
Calm in strength!
Everything unworthy
Drive away!
O, Providence!
Blessing
Grant us!
Towards good aspiration,
Humility in happiness,
Endurance in sorrow
Give us on earth!
Hymn of the Russian Empire 1833-1917 (The Russian prayer)
Music by A.F. L’vov (1833)
Words by V.A. Zhukovsky (1833)
Боже, Царя храни!
Сильный, Державный,
Царствуй на славу нам,
Царствуй на страх врагам,
Царь Православный!
Боже, Царя храни!
O God, save thou the Tsar!
Strong and majestic,
Reign he in glory, in our glory!
Dread of his enemies,
The Orthodox Tsar,
God save the Tsar,
The Internationale, Soviet Anthem 1917-1944
Music by Pierre Degeyter (1888)
Words by Eugène Pottier (1871)
1. Arise, ye workers from your slumber,
Arise, ye prisoners of want.
For reason in revolt now thunders,
and at last ends the age of cant!
Away with all your superstitions,
Servile masses, arise, arise!
We'll change henceforth the old tradition,
And spurn the dust to win the prize!
2. No more deluded by reaction,
On tyrants only we'll make war!
The soldiers too will take strike action,
They'll break ranks and fight no more!
And if those cannibals keep trying,
To sacrifice us to their pride,
They soon shall hear the bullets flying,
We'll shoot the generals on our own side.
CHORUS
CHORUS
So comrades, come rally,
And the last fight let us face.
The Internationale,
Unites the human race.
So comrades, come rally,
And the last fight let us face.
The Internationale,
Unites the human race.
3. No saviour from on high delivers,
No faith have we in prince or peer.
Our own right hand the chains must shiver,
Chains of hatred, greed and fear.
E'er the thieves will out with their booty,
And give to all a happier lot.
Each at the forge must do their duty,
And we'll strike while the iron is hot.
CHORUS
The Hymn of the Soviet Union 1944-1977 (1955-1977 performed
without words)
Music by Aleksander Aleksandrov (1943)
Words by Sergey Mikhalkov (1943)
1. United forever in friendship and labour,
Our mighty republics will ever endure.
The great Soviet Union will live through the ages.
The dream of a People their fortress secure.
Refrain
Long live our Soviet Motherland, built by the People's mighty hand.
Long live our People, united and free.
Strong in our friendship tried by fire. Long may our crimson flag inspire,
Shining in glory for all men to see.
Through days dark and stormy where great Lenin led us
Our eyes saw the bright sun of freedom above
and Stalin our leader with faith in the People,
Inspired us to build up the land that we Love.
Refrain
We fought for the future, destroyed the invader,
and brought to our Homeland the laurels of fame.
Our glory will live in the memory of nations
and all generations will honour her name.
Refrain
The Hymn of the Soviet Union 1977-1991
Music by Aleksander Aleksandrov (1943)
Words by Sergey Mikhalkov and Gabriel El-Registan(1977)
Unbreakable union of freeborn republics,
Great Rus' has welded forever to stand.
Created in struggle by will of the people,
United and mighty, our Soviet land!
CHORUS:
Sing to the Motherland, home of the free,
Bulwark of peoples in brotherhood strong.
O Party of Lenin, the strength of the people,
To Communism's triumph lead us on!
Through tempests the sunrays of freedom have cheered us,
Along the new path where great Lenin did lead.
To a righteous cause he raised up the peoples,
Inspired them to labour and valorous deed.
CHORUS
In the victory of Communism's deathless ideal,
We see the future of our dear land.
And to her fluttering scarlet banner,
Selflessly true we always shall stand!
CHORUS
The Patriotic Song ("Патриотическая Песня") National Anthem of Russia 1991
– 2001 (1991-1999 without words)
Music by Mikhail Glinka (first half of 19th c.)
Lyrics by Viktor Radugin (1999)
Славься, славься, родина-Россия!
Сквозь века и грозы ты прошла
И сияет солнце над тобою
И судьба твоя светла.
Be glorious, be glorious, homeland-Russia!
You passed through the centuries and the
thunderstorms
And the sun shines above you
And your destiny is bright.
Над старинным московским Кремлем
Вьется знамя с двуглавым орлом
И звучат священные слова:
Славься, Русь -- Отчизна моя!
Above the ancient Moscow Kremlin
Waves the banner with the two-headed eagle
And the sacred words resound:
Be glorious, Russia -- my fatherland!
National Anthem of the Russian Federation (today)
Music by Aleksander Aleksandrov (1943)
Words by Sergey Mikhalkov (2000)
1. O Russia, for ever you're strong, sacred country!
O Russia, for ever the land that we love!
The glory that's great and the will that is mighty So be they thy virtue for ages to come.
CHORUS
Praised be the Fatherland, cherishing home of ours Centuries-old union of peoples in free,
Popular wisdom given us by forefathers.
Praised be our country! And we're proud of thee!
2. From seas in the South and up to polar border
Our woods and our meadows have stretched far away.
Alone in the whole world, you stand one and only!
By God saved as ever our dear native land.
CHORUS
3. For generous dreaming, for living and longing
The years approaching give us ample scope.
With faith in our Homeland we are getting stronger.
It was so, it is so and it will be so!
Patriotic song (Second
World War) Священная
война - Holy war
Music by Aleksander
Aleksandrov (1941)
Words by Vasily LebedevKumach(1941)
Вставай, страна огромная,
Вставай на смертный бой
С фашистской силой темною,
С проклятою ордой.
Припев:
Пусть ярость благородная
Вскипает, как волна, —
Идет война народная,
Священная война!
Как два различных полюса,
Во всем враждебны мы.
За свет и мир мы боремся,
Они — за царство тьмы.
Припев.
Дадим отпор душителям
Всех пламенных идей,
Насильникам, грабителям,
Мучителям людей!
Припев.
Не смеют крылья черные
Над Родиной летать,
Поля ее просторные
Не смеет враг топтать!
Припев.
Гнилой фашистской нечисти
Загоним пулю в лоб,
Отребью человечества
Сколотим крепкий гроб!
Припев.
Пойдем ломить всей силою,
Всем сердцем, всей душой
За землю нашу милую,
За наш Союз большой!
Arise huge country
arise to the mortal fight
With the dark fascist force
with the damned horde
Refrain
Let noble fury
boil up in a wave
There is a national holy war (2x)
…
Refrain
We shall repulse the suffocaters
of all ardent ideas
Those tyrants, robbers,
torturers of peoples
…
Refrain
The dark wings dare not fly
over our native land
The enemy dare not
trample her spacious fields
Refrain
The rotten fascist unclean
we will drive out with a bullet to the forehead
United with mankind
we will hammer out a mighty coffin
Outline
1. Music Culture and Nation Building
2. National Anthems
3. Poland
4. Ukraine
5. Russia and the Soviet Union
6. Conclusion
Conclusion
Folk songs – ‘spirit of the nation’ (low culture)
National opera, symphonies, national composers
(high culture) – national topic, national language,
folk tunes
Anthems – symbols of the nation
Patriotic songs (often marches) – mobilising
effect
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