His Life and Works Руководитель проекта: Карзанова Анжелика Петровна, заместитель директора ГУ «Централизованная система детских библиотек» Автор: Бич Станислав, ученик 8 класса, Гимназия №12 г. Минска Actor, poet, playwright (драматург) Wrote 37 plays Wrote over 150 sonnets William Shakespeare was born in Stratford-uponAvon. It is a very interesting town in the central part of England. Around Stratford there are beautiful forests, green fields (поля) and a little river – Avon. William was born on April,23, 1564. His mother, Mary Arden, was a daughter of a farmer. His father, John, was a glover (перчаточник) who had an office in Stratford. Shakespeare was the 3rd of 8 children The house where Shakespeare was born The backyard (задний двор) of the house The small room where Shakespeare was born John Shakespeare’s workroom (рабочая комната) 1571 – Shakespeare probably (вероятно) began attending (начал посещать) the King's New School, a grammar school of good quality in Stratford By modern standards (по современным меркам) school would have been routine and dull (скучной). Students spent 9 hours a day at school. Pupils studied all year round, except (кроме) for 3 brief holidays (короткие праздники). Studies were mainly (в основном) in Latin. Latin was at the heart of the curriculum (учебный план) and the method of learning was to memorise long passages (отрывки) of Latin prose and poetry. William would also have been drilled (практиковался) in grammar, logic, rhetoric, arithmetic and astronomy. Music was also on the curriculum. When he was fourteen Shakespeare’s father somehow (как-то) fell from favour (впал в немилость) and his sons had to leave school. We lose track (потеряли след) of William at this point (момент) and don’t see him again until his wedding day (свадьба). We can be sure that he didn’t just sit around doing nothing, though (хотя): he would have had to work, particularly (особенно) as his father was having difficulty in supporting (трудности в поддержке) the family. We don’t know what he did, although his plays show a great deal (много) of knowledge about Elizabethan common occupations such as cobbling (починка обуви), baking (выпечка), farming (сельское хозяйство) and so on. 1582 – Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway – he was 18, she was 26. She gave birth (родить) to a daughter the next year 1585 - Judith and Hamnet, twins (близнецы), are born Family photo (reconstruction) 1585 Shakespeare goes to London and starts his theatrical career. There is a story that Shakespeare’s first work in London was holding (присмотр) a rich men’s horses at the theatre door. But nobody (никто) can say whether this story is true. Later Shakespeare became an actor and a member of one of the big acting companies. Soon he began to write plays for this company and in a few years became a well-known author. 1592 – First evidence (доказательства) that Shakespeare had moved to London and was working in the theater 1592-1594 – outbreak of plague (вспышка чумы) closed the London theaters, so….. Shakespeare began to write poetry Became well known for a 14 line poem called a sonnet The theater in the days of Shakespeare didn’t look like our modern (современный) theatres. It was a high round building (высокое круглое здание) without any roof (крыша) except over the stage (сцена). In winter the theatres were closed. The actors were often partners (партнёры) in the theatre business. Shakespeare was one of the partners in the theatre where he acted (действовать) and for which he wrote his dramas. It was the famous Globe. 1594 – Shakespeare was part of a group that founded (основать) the company of players (игроки) called Lord Chamberlain's Men (later called the King's Men (королевская рать)) Lord Chamberlain's Men was a very successful (успешный) company of players (actors) – by the turn of the century (рубеж века), they had the: best actor, Richard Burbage best theater, The Globe best playwright, W. Shakespeare The Globe Theatre: • Open ceiling (открытый потолок) • Three stories high (три этажа) • No artificial lighting (искусственное освещение) • Plays were shown during daylight hours only Wealthy (богатые) people got to sit on benches (скамейки) The poor (бедняки) (called “groundlings” (невзыскательный зритель)) had to stand and watch from the courtyard (внутренний двор) There was much more (намного больше) audience participation than today Types of Plays Only men and boys Young boys whose voices had not changed played the women’s roles It would have been indecent (неприлично) for a woman to appear (появляться) on stage Acting (актер) was not considered (подходящей) a respectable profession by the English Puritans •Shakespeare wrote: •Comedies - light and amusing (забавный), usually with a happy ending •Tragedies –serious dramas with disastrous (гибельный) endings •Histories – involve events or persons from history W. Shakespeare knew the stage and that helped him to write the most wonderful plays ever written. Shakespeare wrote 37 plays. Among them are tragedies such as Hamlet, King Lear, Othello, Macbeth, comedies such as All’s Well that Ends Well, the Twelfth Night, Much Ado About Nothing, historical dramas such as Henry IV, Richard III. Shakespeare’s signatures William Shakespeare died in Stratford on 23 April 1616. In Stratford there is a church where Shakespeare was buried (похоронен). It is Holy Trinity Church (Церковь Святой Троицы) On the stone of Shakespeare’s grave are the lines written by Shakespeare himself. «Добрый человек, ради Господа Бога не тревожь прах, покоящийся здесь, ибо он благословен и оберегаем этими камнями. И проклят будет тот, кто прикоснется к мощаМосква» СПИСОК ИСПОЛЬЗОВАННЫХ ИСТОЧНИКОВ: Баландин, Р. К. Шекспир // Баландин, Р.К. Сто великих гениев/ Р.К.Баландин. - Москва, 2006. - С.213 - 217. – (100 великих). Ионина, Н. А. Где похоронен Шекспир? // 100 великих некрополей. - Москва, 2004. - с.271 - 277. – (100 великих). Козминиус, О. Шекспир. Тайная история / О. Козминиус, О. Мелехций. – Санкт-Петербург : Нева, 2003. – (Тайны великих). Мидлтон, Хайдн. Уильям Шекспир. Гениальный драматург / Х. Мидлтон; ил. Дж. Болла. - Оксфорд : Oxford University Press, 1997, 1998. – (Великие имена). Мусский, С. А. Уильям Шекспир // Мусский, С. А. Сто великих людей-2. - Москва, 2005. - С. 54 - 59. – (100 великих). Шекспир Уильям // Всё обо всех: Т. 2. - Москва, 1997. - С.402-406. Шекспир Уильям // Что такое. Кто такой. Т. 3 : Энциклопедия в 3 т. - 4-е изд., перераб. - Москва, 1999. - С. 283 - 284. Шекспир: энциклопедия / автор-сост., [вступ. ст., именной указатель] В. Д. Николаев. - Москва : Алгоритм : ЭКСМО, 2007. Шекспир // 100 великих имён в литературе. - Москва, 1998. - С. 516 – 525. Спасибо за внимание!