Загрузил Aiym Sarkitbekova

Development in pharmaceutical dosage design

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DEVELOPMENT IN
PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE
FORM DESIGN


DOSAGE FORM
When a drug is prepared in a form suitable for
administration, it is called a Dosage form or a drug
product or, in a modern term, a Drug delivery system

PRE-HISTORIC PERIODS
• Chewing leaves and roots of medicinal plants
• Inhaling soot from the burning of medicinal
substances
• Primitive extracts from plants and animals

GENERATION BASED CLASSIFICATION
First Generation DDS
 Second Generation DDS
 Third Generation DDS
 Fourth Generation DDS
 Fifth Generation DDS


FIRST GENERATION DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
Appeared toward the end of the nineteenth century
and in the twentieth century
 Conventional and still very popular
 Having consistency and uniformity
 Tablets, capsules, elixirs, syrups, suspensions, emulsions,
solutions and topical administration of ointments, lotions
and creams, suppositories or injection of suspensions and
solution


SECOND GENERATION DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
Modification of the conventional dosage forms
 Protect drugs against hostile conditions along the
gastrointestinal tract,
 Prolong action
 Improve bioavailability
 Repeat action, prolonged action, timed release, delayed
release, enteric coated solid dosage forms.


THIRD GENERATION DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM


Controlled drug delivery-a new concept introduced in
1960’s
“Refers to the precise control of the rate at which a drug
dosage is released from a delivery system, ideally in a
constant or near constant manner over a longer period of
time”

Objectives
 Reduced
dosing frequency
 Improving patient compliance
 Increase duration of effect
 Maintain constant drug level in blood
 Reducing side effect by lowering Cmax

Classified as
 Osmotic
controlled DDS
 Swelling Controlled DDS
 Magnetically Controlled DDS
Chemically controlled DDS
 Electrically controlled DDS
 Diffusion controlled DDS


Fourth Generation Drug Delivery System

Based on
Delivering drug that could exercise control on the time of
availability and localization of the drug in the body.

Classified as
 Targeted
or site specific drug delivery system such as
GI targeting of peptide and protein
 Immunotherapy such as Monoclonal antibodies, Antisense
Compounds, Recombinant vaccines and angiogenesis inhibitors.

 Plulsatile
or modulated drug delivery system – also termed
as chronotherapeutics i.e. delivering drug based on
chronobiology or science of biological rhythm.
 Self regulated or Feedback Controlled Drug delivery system
Biosensor pump combinations
 Closed loop based on self regulating system
 Closed loop based on microencapsulated secretory cells


Fifth Generation Drug Delivery System

Based on
 Treating

the cause of disease rather than symptoms.
Types are
 Gene
Therapy-Redesign of cells by introducing the
therapeutic genes into genetically disabled cells to deliver
therapeutic agents made by gene.
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