Загрузил Anti Jacov

Английский язык. Ганц, Лихоманова

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Федеральное государственно образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«СЕВЕРО-ЗАПАДНАЯ АКАДЕМИЯ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЙ
СЛУЖБЫ»
Н. В. Ганц
Л. Ф. Лихоманова
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
для студентов факультета
международных отношений
Часть 2
Санкт-Петербург
2010
ББК Ш143.21-923
Печатается по решению
редакционно-издательского совета СЗАГС
Ганц Н. В., Лихоманова Л. Ф. Английский язык для студентов
факультета международных отношений: Учебное пособие: Ч. 2. –
СПб.: Изд-во СЗАГС, 2010, – 312 с.
ISBN 978-5-89781-342-1
Рецензенты:
Т. П. Третьякова – доктор филологических наук, профессор
кафедры английской филологии и перевода (Санкт-Петербургский
государственный университет).
Т. В. Вдовенко – доктор педагогических наук, профессор кафедры
иностранных языков (Северо-Западная академия государственной
службы).
Настоящее пособие предназначено для студентов факультета международных отношений, а также для всех
тех, кто интересуется политическими институтами, деятельностью международных организаций, актуальными
вопросами международного права, межкультурной коммуникации и глобализации.
Цель пособия – развитие профессионально-ориентированных навыков устной речи, умений вести беседы и дискуссии по актуальным вопросам современности. Тексты
пособия составлены на основе аутентичных материалов
и снабжены системой лексических упражнений. Приложение содержит оригинальные тексты для перевода
и rendering. В пособии активно использовались материалы соответствующих сайтов интернета.
© СЗАГС, 2010
© Ганц Н. В., 2010: текст
© Лихоманова Л. Ф., 2010: текст
ISBN 978-5-89781-342-1 © ООО «БизнесОстов», 2010: оформление
CONTENTS
HUMAN RIGHTS .............................................................................6
Unit 1. History.............................................................................6
Unit 2. International Humanitarian Law............................... . 12
Unit 3. International Human Rights Law................................ 17
Unit 4. United Nations..............................................................24
Unit 5. Human Rights Violations.............................................30
INTERNATIONAL LAW................................................................37
Unit 1. Historical Development................................................37
Unit 2. Sources of International Law.......................................41
Unit 3. States in International Law.........................................46
Unit 4. Disputes Between States ..............................................50
Unit 5. International cooperation........................................... . 55
THE UNITED NATIONS ................................................................61
Unit 1. History and Development .............................................61
Unit 2. Principal Organs (1)......................................................65
Unit 3. Principal Organs (2)......................................................71
Unit 4. Maintenance of International Peace and Security. .... 79
Unit 5. Social Welfare аnd Cooperation ..................................91
Unit 6. Economic Welfare аnd Cooperation...........................102
Unit 7. Development оf International Law. ...........................104
Unit 8. Reform of the UN........................................................106
Unit 9 Test. ..............................................................................110
THE ЕUROPEAN UNION. ...........................................................113
Unit 1. History of European Integration................................113
Unit 2. The Maastricht Treaty................................................116
Unit 3. Evolution of the European Union...............................119
Unit 4. Institutions of the EU.................................................122
Unit 5. The policies of the European Union............................137
GLOBALIZATION. .......................................................................153
Unit 1. History.........................................................................153
Unit 2. Definitions of Globalization/......................................156
Unit 3. The Major characteristics of Globalization ...............160
Unit 4. Globalization Theorem/..............................................163
Unit 5. Positive Effects of Globalization.
Pro- globalization .......................................................166
Unit 6. Negative Effects of Globalization.
Anti-globalization ......................................................170
Translation exercises..............................................................174
CROSS CULTURAL COMMUNICATION ...................................180
Unit 1. Theoretical Background. Generic, Economic,
and Cultural Determinism..........................................180
Unit 2. Components of Culture. Metaphors for "Culture".....186
Unit 3. Cultural Diversity.
High and Low Context (Part I) ...................................195
Unit 4. Globalizing Cultures. High Context versus
Low Context (Part 2.)...................................................199
Unit 5. Intercultural Communication Principles.
Stereotypes vs. Cultural Generalizations...................203
Unit 6. Cultural pluralism.
Intercultural competence.
Breaking the Barriers of Intercultural Communication.
Overcoming the Language Barrier..............................209
Unit 7. Cultural Awareness: The Importance of Curiosity.
The Benefits of Intercultural Awareness.
Working Across Cultures...........................................216
Excercises................................................................................223
Translation Exercises .............................................................225
TEST..............................................................................................235
Quiz on Intercultural Competence. ........................................235
Case study analysis. ................................................................255
APPENDIX....................................................................................261
Effective Presentation..................................................261
Texts for Translation....................................................275
Texts for Rendering. ....................................................288
LITERATURE...............................................................................310
HUMAN RIGHTS
Human rights refer to the basic rights and freedoms to which all
humans are entitled. These rights include civil and political rights,
such as the right to life and liberty, freedom of expression, and
equality before the law; and social, cultural and economic rights,
including the right to participate in culture, the right to food,
the right to work, and the right to education. Under contemporary
international law, human rights are subdivided into three classifications: «first, second and third generation» rights. Civil and
political rights constitute the «first generation» rights; economic,
social and cultural rights, - the «second generation». The concept
of the third generation of solidarity rights originated in the 1970s.
The primary protagonists of this concept were the developing
states. Of the six rights in this group, three reflect the emergence
of «Third World» nationalism and its «revolution of rising expectation» — i.e., its demand for a global redistribution of power, wealth,
and other important goods and benefits: the right to political, economic, social, and cultural self-determination; the right to participate in and benefit from «the common heritage of mankind».
UNIT
1.
History
The history of human rights covers thousands of years and draws
upon religious, cultural, philosophical and legal developments
throughout recorded history. Several ancient documents and later
religions and philosophies included a variety of concepts that may
be considered to be human rights. The Hindu Vedas, the Babylonian
Code of Hammurabi, the Bible, the Quran and the Analects of Confucius are five of the oldest written sources which address questions
of people’s duties, rights, and responsibilities. The English Magna
Carta of 1215 is particularly significant in the history of English
law, and is hence significant in international law and constitutional
law today.
Much of modern human rights law and the basis of most modern interpretations of human rights can be traced back to relatively
6
recent history. The British Bill of Rights of 1689 made illegal a range
of oppressive governmental actions in the United Kingdom. Two major revolutions occurred during the 18th century, in the United States
(1776) and in France (1789), leading to the adoption of the United
States Declaration of Independence and the French Declaration
of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen respectively, both of which
established certain rights.
These were followed by developments in philosophy of human
rights by philosophers such as, John Locke, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and G. W. F. Hegel during the 18th
and 19th centuries. Many groups and movements have managed
to achieve profound social changes over the course of the 20th century in the name of human rights. In Western Europe and North
America, labour unions brought about laws granting workers
the right to strike, establishing minimum work conditions and forbidding or regulating child labour. The women's rights movement
succeeded in gaining for many women the right to vote. National liberation movements in many countries succeeded in driving out colonial powers. Movements by long - oppressed racial and religious minorities succeeded in many parts of the world, among them the civil
rights movement.
The establishment of the International Committee of the Red
Cross, the 1864 Lieber Code and the first of the Geneva Conventions
in 1864 laid the foundations of International humanitarian law,
to be further developed following the two World Wars.
The World Wars, and the huge losses of life and gross abuses
of human rights that took place during them were a driving force
behind the development of modern human rights instruments.
The League of Nations was established in 1919 at the negotiations
over the Treaty of Versailles following the end of World War I.
The League's goals included disarmament, preventing war through
collective security, settling disputes between countries through negotiation, diplomacy and improving global welfare. Enshrined in its
Charter was a mandate to promote many of the rights which were
later included in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
At the 1945 Yalta Conference, the Allied Powers agreed to create a new body to supplant the League's role. This body was to be
the United Nations. The United Nations has played an important
role in international human rights law since its creation. Following
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the World Wars the United Nations and its members developed much
of the discourse and the bodies of law which now make up international humanitarian law and international human rights law.
Comprehension
1.
2.
3.
4.
What does the term «human rights» refer to?
What groups are human rights subdivided into?
What sources does the concept of human rights draw upon?
What are the oldest written sources addressing issues of human
rights?
5. What historical documents are considered to be the basis of modern human rights law?
6. Whose works contributed to the development of philosophy
of human rights?
7. What social and political movements have managed to achieve
profound social changes?
8. What events laid the foundation of international Humanitarian
law?
9. What was a driving force behind the development of modern human rights instruments?
10. What goals did the League of Nations include?
11. What mandate was enshrined in Charter of the League
of Nations?
12. What body has played an important role in international human
rights law?
Words to be memorized
to be entitled to –
bring about –
strike –
address –
protagonist–
abuse –
enshrine –
trace back to –
8
иметь право на …
приводить к …
забастовка, бастовать
обратиться к проблеме, рассматривать,
заниматься (проблемой)
поборник, сторонник
злоупотреблять, злоупотребление
закреплять в документе
восходить к…
Vocabulary work
I.
Consult
English - Russian Dictionary of Diplomacy
for the meaning of the following words with prefix “de-“. Make
sentences with them.
Declassify, decrown, decrypt, deduce, defamation, default, defeasance, defeasible, defensive, defy, defiance, deforestation, defuse, delinquency, demarcation, denigrate, denomination, denounce,
denunciation, denuclearized, deportation, derogate, derogation, deter, deterrence, detrimental, deviate.
II. Form collocations and make sentences with them
address
enshrine
abuse
an issue
one’s power
the problem
trust
freedoms
a meeting
assembly
human rights
a mandate
III. Complete the sentences
1. Many problems can be … to childhood experiences.
2. The people who are … to vote should be aware of that fact.
3. These fundamental freedoms are … in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
4. France is a strong … of European Union.
5. Governments have been slow to … the problem of global
warming.
6. Those with access to private information must not … that
trust.
7. Nowadays we are witnessing social changes that have been …
by new technology.
8. The … are in protest at the planned introduction of performance-related pay.
9
IV. Translate the following from Russian into English
1. Каждый человек имеет право на такие основные права
и свободы, как право на жизнь и свободу, свободу выражения мнения и равенство перед законом, а также право
на работу и образование.
2. Концепция прав человека развивалась на протяжении нескольких тысячелетий.
3. Такие документы, как Великая Хартия Вольностей
и Билль о Правах заложили основу современной интерпретации прав человека.
4. Декларация Независимости США и Декларация Прав Человека и Гражданина, принятая во Франции, определили
основные права человека.
5. В 18–19 веках французские и немецкие философы
способствовали развитию концепции прав человека.
6. Профсоюзы в Западной Европе и Америке добились принятия законов, которые предоставляли рабочим право на забастовки, устанавливали минимальные условия труда и запрещали использование детского труда.
7. Движение за права женщин привело к тому, что многие
женщины получили право голосовать.
8. Национально-освободительные движения во многих странах добились независимости от колониальных держав.
9. Образование Международного Комитета Красного Креста
и Женевская Конвенция 1864 года заложили основы международного гуманитарного права.
10. Огромные человеческие жертвы и грубое нарушение прав
человека во время I и II мировых войн явились движущей
силой для развития инструментов прав человека.
11. Устав Лиги Наций закреплял полномочия организации
содействовать продвижению многих прав, которые позднее были включены в Универсальную Декларацию Прав
Человека.
12. ООН сыграла важную роль в разработке международного гуманитарного права и нормативных актов по правам
человека.
Speaking point: Speak about history of human rights
10
Translation
Концепция прав человека является результатом развития цивилизации и культуры общества. Возникновение концепции прав
человека берет начало в античности, в древних полисах (Афинах
и Риме). В античности были заложены идеи прав и свобод, основы
разделения властей, естественное право.
В средние века права и свободы имели ограниченный характер. Однако, прогрессивным этапом в развитии прав и свобод было
принятие Великой хартии вольностей.
Дальнейшее развитие идеалы свободы и прав человека нашли
в эпоху ранних буржуазных революций. Идеологической основой
прав и свобод человека явилась естественно-правовая доктрина,
выдвинувшая положение о естественных правах человека, которые государство должно охранять и которые оно не может ни ограничивать, ни отменять, ни нарушать. По мере своего развития
естественно-правовая доктрина приобрела различное звучание
у различных ее представителей – Руссо, Монтескье, Локка, Гоббса
и др., однако принцип неотъемлемости прав человека остается
неизменным, создавая простор для развития индивидуальности,
для самоопределения личности, ее автономии и свободы, для обеспечения устойчивости общества, предотвращения социальных
взрывов и конфликтов.
Актуальность, значимость, необходимость естественных
прав для самого человека в современном обществе заключается в том, что они положили конец всевластию государства,
рассматривающего человека как подданного и послушного исполнителя государственных команд и приказов. Установление равенства между гражданином и властью, вытекающего
из принципов прав человека, предотвращает политические и социальные противоречия, способствует развитию общества.
Права человека являются высшей ценностью, которой должно
руководствоваться государство. Обеспечение прав человека существует как обязанность законодательной, исполнительной и судебной власти. Если эта обязанность соблюдается, то общество может
быть охарактеризовано как стабильное и устойчивое, если государство нарушает ее, в обществе возникают произвол и насилие.
11
UNIT
2.
International Humanitarian law
International humanitarian law (IHL), often referred to as the
laws of war, the laws and customs of war or the law of armed conflict, is the legal corpus «comprised of the Geneva Conventions and
the Hague Conventions, as well as subsequent treaties, case law, and
customary international law». It defines the conduct and responsibilities of belligerent nations, neutral nations and individuals engaged in warfare, in relation to each other and to protected persons,
usually meaning civilians. The law is mandatory for nations bound
by the appropriate treaties.
The Geneva Conventions came into being between 1864 and 1949
as a result of efforts by Henry Dunant, the founder of the International Committee of the Red Cross. The conventions safeguard
the human rights of individuals involved in armed conflict, and build
on the 1899 and 1907 Hague Conventions, the international community's first attempt to formalize the laws of war and war crimes
in the nascent body of secular international law. The conventions
were revised as a result of World War II and readopted by the international community in 1949.
Basic rules of IHL
1. Persons hors de combat and those not taking part in hostilities
shall be protected and treated humanely.
2. It is forbidden to kill or injure an enemy who surrenders or who
is hors de combat.
3. The wounded and sick shall be cared for and protected by the party to the conflict which has them in its power. The emblem
of the red cross or the red crescent must be respected as the sign
of protection.
4. Captured combatants and civilians must be protected against
acts of violence and reprisals. They shall have the right to correspond with their families and to receive relief.
5. No one shall be subjected to torture, corporal punishment or cruel or degrading treatment.
12
6. Parties to a conflict and members of their armed forces do not
have an unlimited choice of methods and means of warfare.
7. Parties to a conflict shall at all times distinguish between the civilian population and combatants. Attacks shall be directed
solely against military objectives.
Well-known examples of such rules include the prohibition on attacking doctors or ambulances displaying a Red Cross. It is also prohibited to fire at a person or vehicle bearing a white flag, since that
indicates an intent to surrender or a desire to communicate. In either case, the persons protected by the Red Cross or white flag are
expected to maintain neutrality, and may not engage in warlike acts;
in fact, engaging in war activities under a white flag or red cross is
itself a violation of the laws of war.
The International Committee of the Red Cross ( ICRC) is the only
institution explicitly named under international humanitarian law
as a controlling authority. The legal mandate of the ICRC stems from
the four Geneva Conventions of 1949, as well as its own Statutes.
During conflict, punishment for violating the laws of war may
consist of a specific, deliberate and limited violation of the laws
of war in reprisal.
Soldiers who break specific provisions of the laws of war lose
the protections and status afforded as prisoners of war but only after facing a «competent tribunal». At that point they become an unlawful combatant but they must still be «treated with humanity and,
in case of trial, shall not be deprived of the rights of fair and regular
trial». Spies and «terrorists» are only protected by the laws of war
if the power which holds them is in a state of armed conflict or war
and until they are found to be an unlawful combatant. Depending
on the circumstances, they may be subject to civilian law or military
tribunal for their acts and in practice have been subjected to torture
and/or execution. The laws of war neither approve nor condemn
such acts, which fall outside their scope. Countries that have signed
the UN Convention Against Torture have committed themselves not
to use torture on anyone for any reason.
After a conflict has ended, persons who have committed any
breach of the laws of war, and especially atrocities, may be held individually accountable for war crimes through process of law.
13
Comprehension
1. What is International Humanitarian law?
2. What does it define?
3. Due to whose efforts did the Geneva Conventions come into
being?
4. Whose rights do the Geneva Conventions safeguard?
5. What is the historic role of the Hague conventions?
6. What is prohibited under IHL?
7. Who must be protected during a conflict?
8. What are the other rules of IHL?
9. What institution is a controlling authority under IHL?
10. What punishment awaits soldiers who violate the laws of war?
11. Under what circumstances are spies and terrorists protected
by the laws of war?
12. What have spies and terrorists been subjected to in practice?
Words to be memorized
Combat –
torture –
prohibit –
mandatory –
commit oneself –
subsequent –
belligerent –
come into being –
stem from –
hors de combat –
safeguard –
secular –
hostilities –
surrender –
crescent –
reprisals –
corporal punishment –
explicitly –
execution –
atrocity –
14
сражаться
пытать, пытки
запрещать
обязательный
принять на себя обязательства
последующий
воюющий
возникнуть
происходить от
вышедший из строя
охранять
светский
военные действия
сдаваться, отказаться
полумесяц
репрессалии
физическое наказание
ясно, точно
казнь
жестокость, злодеяние
Vocabulary work
I.
Form collocations and make sentences with them
prohibit
commit
safeguard
surrender
combat
an offence
one’s office
suicide
independence
murder
peace
drugs
a crime
an aggression
discrimination
weapons
adultery
security
rights
powers
racism
violence
II. Consult English – Russian Dictionary of Diplomacy for the
meaning of the following words with prefix «dis-». Make
sentences with them.
Disaccord, disavow, disband, discharge, discontent, discontinuance, discredit, discrepancy, discretion, disfranchise, disintegration,
dismantle, dismiss, disparity, dispense with, dispensable, disperse,
displace, display, dispossession, disregard, disrupt, disruption, disseminate, dissent, dissident, distort.
III. Complete the sentences
1. Many of the prisoners have been … .
2. A new tax system will soon become … .
3. The defendant is accused of committing … during the war.
4. The League of Nations came into … in 1919.
5. There have been no … in this state for almost 15 years.
6. Many of her problems … from her family.
7. Under the basic rules of IHL no one shall be submitted
to torture or … .
8. Nothing in the contract says … how its terms will be enforced.
15
9. The emblem of the red cross or the red … must be respected
as the sign of protection.
10. Every tenth person in the village was shot in … for the deaths
of the two soldiers.
IV. Match adjectives and nouns to form collocations and translate them
subsequent
belligerent
mandatory
rights
hostilities
events
measures
behavior
reprisals
atrocities
states
decisions
powers
Speaking point: Speak about International Humanitarian Law
Translation
Начало развития международного гуманитарного права, как
правило, связывают с принятием 22 августа 1864 г. на дипломатической конференции в Женеве Конвенции об улучшении участи
раненых и больных воинов во время сухопутной войны (далее —
Женевская конвенция 1864 г.).
Неоценимая роль в работе по подготовке и принятию Конвенции 1864 г. принадлежит швейцарскому предпринимателю
Анри Дюнану, свидетелю страданий и мук раненых и умирающих французских и австрийских солдат после битвы между
австрийскими и франко-итальянскими войсками в 1859 г. при
Сольферино, во время войны в Италии. По предложению Анри
Дюнана был создан комитет, состоявший из единомышленников Дюнана, так называемый «Комитет пяти», одной из основных целей которого была разработка международных гуманитарных принципов.
Важнейшим нововведением в международное право, внесенным Женевской конвенцией 1864 г., было понятие нейтральности
в том виде, в котором его предложил Дюнан. Врачи и другой
16
медперсонал не должны считаться принимающими участие
в военных действиях и не подлежат захвату в плен.
В Конвенции оговаривалось, что всегда и везде раненым
должно оказываться уважение и проводиться одинаковое лечение, независимо от того, на чьей стороне они сражались.
В Женевской конвенции 1864 г. содержалось всего 10 статей,
но они заложили фундамент, который послужил основой для
дальнейшего развития международного гуманитарного права.
Сегодня трудно себе представить, какое огромное влияние
оказала Женевская конвенция 1864 г. на развитие права наций.
Впервые в истории государства приняли официальный постоянно действующий документ, содержащий ограничения их могущества в интересах отдельных людей и человеколюбия.
В 1867 г. почти все ведущие державы ратифицировали Женевскую конвенцию 1864 г., кроме Соединенных Штатов, которые
сделали это в 1882 г. С этого времени Конвенция приобрела всеобщий характер, что было весьма важно для ее авторитета.
UNIT
3.
International human rights law
International human rights law is a system of laws, both domestic, regional and international, designed to promote human rights.
The basis for subsequent international human rights instruments
that form binding international human rights law has been provided by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) adopted
by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948.
The UDHR urges member nations to promote a number of human, civil, economic and social rights, asserting these rights are
part of the «foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world».
The Declaration incorporated the most important traditional political and civil rights of national constitutions and legal systems,
including equality before the law; protection against arbitrary arrest; the right to a fair trial; the right to own property; freedom
of thought, conscience, and religion; freedom of opinion and expression; and freedom of peaceful assembly and association. It also
enumerated such economic, social, and cultural rights as the right
17
to work, the right to form and join trade unions, the right to rest and
leisure, and the right to education.
The declaration was the first international legal effort to limit
the behavior of states and press upon them duties to their citizens
following the model of the rights-duty duality.
The UDHR was framed by members of the Human Rights Commission, with former First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt as Chair, who
began to discuss an International Bill of Rights in 1947. Some
of the UDHR was researched and written by a committee of international experts from many different cultures and traditions,
including a US Roman Catholic, a Chinese Confucian philosopher, a French Zionist and a representative from the Arab League.
The inclusion of both civil and political rights and economic, social and cultural rights was based on the assumption that basic human rights are indivisible and that the different types of rights
listed are inextricably linked. This principle was not then opposed
by any member states (the declaration was adopted unanimously,
with the abstention of the Eastern Bloc, Apartheid South Africa
and Saudi Arabia), however this principle was later subject to significant challenges.
Western States then fought for, and obtained, a division into
two covenants. There was wide agreement and clear recognition
that the means required to enforce or induce compliance with socioeconomic undertakings were different from the means required for
civil-political rights.
In 1966, the International Covenant on Civil and Political
Rights (ICCPR) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) were adopted by the United Nations, thus making the rights contained in the UDHR binding on all
states that have signed this treaty, creating human rights law.
The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights incorporate almost all the rights proclaimed in the Universal Declaration, though not the right to own property and the right to asylum. The Covenant also designates several rights that are not listed
in the Universal Declaration, among them the right of all peoples to
self - determination, and the right of ethnic, religious, or linguistic
minorities to enjoy their own culture, to profess and practice their
own religion, and to use their own language.
18
The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural
Rights elaborates upon most of the economic, social, and cultural
rights set forth in the Universal Declaration.
Since then numerous other treaties have been offered at the international level. They are generally known as human rights instruments. Some of the most significant are:
•
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD) (adopted 1966, entry into force: 1969
•
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (entry into force: 1981)
•
United Nations Convention Against Torture (CAT) (adopted
1984, entry into force: 1984
•
Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) (adopted 1989,
entry into force: 1989)
•
International Convention on the Protection of the Rights
of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families
(ICRMW) (adopted 1990, entry into force: 2003).
Besides international human rights instruments there are also
three principal regional human rights instruments: the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights, the American Convention on Human
Rights (the Americas) and the European Convention on Human Rights.
The enforcement of international human rights law is the responsibility of the nation state, and it is the primary responsibility
of the state to make human rights a reality.
Comprehension
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
What is International Human Rights Law?
When was the Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted?
Why is it considered of critical importance in international law?
What does the UDHR urge member nations to do?
What political and civil rights did the Declaration incorporate?
What economic, social and cultural rights did the Declaration
enumerate?
7. What is the historic role of the Declaration?
8. Who was the UDHR framed by?
9. Who else participated in drawing up the Declaration?
10. What was the inclusion of both civil and political rights and economic, social and cultural rights based on?
19
11. Why did Western States fight for division of the Universal Declaration into two covenants?
12. When were two covenants adopted by the UN?
13. What is the difference between the International Covenant on
Civil and Political Rights and the Universal Declaration?
14. What are the most significant human rights instruments?
15. What are the principal regional Human Rights instruments?
Words to be memorized
invoke –
abstain from –
urge –
assert –
frame –
draw on –
assumption –
on the assumption of –
indivisible –
inextricable –
inextricably –
compliance –
comply with –
instrument –
ссылаться на, использовать
воздерживаться от …
побуждать
утверждать, отстаивать
вырабатывать, составлять
использовать, опираться
предположение, предпосылка,
принятие на себя обязательства
при условии, исходя из …
неделимый
безвыходный
неразрывно
соблюдение, выполнение
исполнять, соблюдать,
подчиняться
средство, орудие, документ
Vocabulary work
I.
Form collocations and make sentences with them
invoke
draw on
comply with
20
an obligation
a right
a resolution
principle
the rules
the reserve
life experience
a request
II. Consult English – Russian Dictionary of Diplomacy for the
meaning of the following words. Make sentences with them.
Non-binding; nonviolence; non-alignment; non-belligerency;
non-classified; non-combatants; non-compliance; vote of non-confidence; non-interference; nonwaste, non-committal, non-communication, non-dissemination, non-nuclear, non-fulfilment, non-observance, non-partisan, non-punitive, non-use.
III. Match the words in the left column with their synonyms
in the right and translate them:
prohibit
safeguard
secular
hostilities
assert
frame
comply with
fighting
develop
obey
temporal
state
forbid
protect
IV. Complete the following sentences:
1. The government has a number of policy… it can use for this
purpose.
2. The governor … that no more money would be available.
3. In extreme situations, the police chief may … emergency
powers.
4. Many people were involved in … these proposals.
5. You are legally obliged to … with the resolution.
6. Your body … on its reserves of fat when you are fasting.
7. In her mind, the two ideas are …linked.
8. The UN … them to honour the peace treaty.
9. Your argument is based on a completely wrong ….
10. They agreed to … from any actions that might endanger
the peace process.
V. Translate the following sentences into English:
1. Всеобщая Декларация Прав Человека считается основным компонентом международного обычного права, которое может быть использовано при соответствующих
обстоятельствах.
21
2. Декларация прав человека была первой международной
правовой попыткой ограничить действия правительств
и заставить их осознать свои обязанности по отношению
к своим гражданам.
3. Декларация прав человека была разработана Комиссией
по правам человека, возглавляемой Э. Рузвельт.
4. В разработке Декларации также принимал участие комитет международных экспертов по правам человека, включая представителей всех континентов и всех основных
религий.
5. Всеобщая Декларация Прав Человека включала как гражданские и политические, так и экономические, социальные
и культурные права, исходя из того, что основные права человека неделимы и неразрывно связаны между собой.
6. Западные государства добились разделения Всеобщей Декларации на два пакта: Международный Пакт по гражданским и политическим правам и Международный Пакт
по экономическим, социальным и культурным правам.
7. Наиболее значительными документами по правам человека являются:
•
Конвенция об уничтожении всех форм расовой дискриминации;
•
Конвенция об уничтожении всех форм дискриминации прав женщин;
•
Конвенция ООН против применения пыток; Конвенция по правам ребёнка и Международная Конвенция
по защите прав рабочих-мигрантов и членов их семей.
8. Осуществление прав человека является обязанностью национального государства.
Speaking point: Speak about International Human Rights Law
Work in pairs.
On p. 288 you will read the text about Regional Human Rights
systems. Decide between yourselves which region you would prefer
to speak about. Read your part of the text. Tell the group about Human Rights system in the region you have chosen.
22
Translation
10 декабря 1948 года в Париже была принята Всеобщая декларация прав человека.
Этот день - 10 декабря - ежегодно отмечается во всем мире как
день прав человека.
Всеобщая Декларация была принята в виде резолюции Генеральной Ассамблеи ООН, и поэтому она носит рекомендательный
характер. Она принималась скорее как программный, политический документ, однако ее авторитет и значимость переросли замыслы создателей. Этот документ заложил основу всей системы
международной защиты прав и свобод человека. По своему влиянию на международные и внутригосударственные правовые системы и общественные процессы Декларация представляет собой
«документ величайшего значения, выступающий в своей сфере как
совесть мира и эталон, на основе которого могут быть изменены позиции обществ и государств».
В настоящее время можно утверждать, что нормы Декларации
в связи с их постоянным и широким применением приобрели характер обычных норм (обычая) и из рекомендательных фактически превратились в юридически обязательные.
Принятие Декларации явилось отправной точкой, с которой
началось развитие системы универсальных международных актов по правам человека. На основе Декларации было принято более 50 многосторонних договоров по правам человека.
Положения Декларации включены в Конституции или оказали влияние на их создание более чем в 90 странах мира.
Конституция России 1993 г. признала естественный характер
прав человека, закрепив положение о том, что «основные права и свободы человека неотчуждаемы и принадлежат каждому
от рождения». Конституция закрепила также практически весь
комплекс прав и свобод человека, содержащихся во Всеобщей декларации и обоих Пактах о правах человека.
23
UNIT
4.
The United Nations
The UN General Assembly
The United Nations (UN) is the only multilateral governmental agency with universally accepted international jurisdiction for
universal human rights legislation. Human rights are primarily
governed by the United Nations Security Council and the United
Nations Human Rights Council, and there are numerous committees within the UN with responsibilities for safeguarding different
human rights treaties. The most senior body of the UN with regard
to human rights is the Office of the High Commissioner for Human
Rights.
The United Nations Human Rights Council, created at the
2005 World Summit to replace the United Nations Commission on
Human Rights, has a mandate to investigate violations of human
rights. The Human Rights Council is a subsidiary body of the General Assembly and reports directly to it. It ranks below the Security Council, which is the final authority for the interpretation of
the United Nations Charter. Forty-seven of the one hundred ninety-one member states sit on the council, elected by simple majority
in a secret ballot of the United Nations General Assembly. Members serve a maximum of six years and may have their membership
suspended for gross human rights abuses. The Council is based in
Geneva, and meets three times a year; with additional meetings to
respond to urgent situations.
Independent experts (rapporteurs) are retained by the Council
to investigate alleged human rights abuses and to provide the Council with reports.
The Human Rights Council may request that the Security Council take action when human rights violations occur. This action may
be direct actions, may involve sanctions, and the Security Council may also refer cases to the International Criminal Court (ICC)
even if the issue being referred is outside the normal jurisdiction
of the ICC.
24
Security Council
The UN Charter gives the Security Council the power to:
•
Investigate any situation threatening international peace;
•
Recommend procedures for peaceful resolution of a dispute;
•
Call upon other member nations to completely or partially
interrupt economic relations as well as sea, air, postal, and
radio communications, or to sever diplomatic relations; and
•
Enforce its decisions militarily, if necessary.
The Security Council hears reports from all organs of the United
Nations, and can take action over any issue which it feels threatens
peace and security, including human rights issues. It has at times
been criticized for failing to take action to prevent human rights
abuses, including the Darfur crisis, the Srebrenica massacre and
the Rwandan Genocide.
Comprehension
1. What is the status of the United Nations?
2. What bodies are human rights primarily governed by?
3. What is the most senior body of the UN with regard to human
rights?
4. 4. What mandate has he Human Rights Council ? When was
the Council created?
5. What body does the Human Rights Council report directly to?
6. What is the final authority for the interpretation of the UN
Charter?
7. How many member states sit on the Council?
8. Where is the Human rights Council based?
9. Who are rapporteurs?
10. What are the functions of the rapporteurs?
11. What powers are given to the Security Council by the UN
Charter?
12. What has the Security Council been at times criticized for?
Words to be memorized
High Commissioner – Верховный Комиссар
subsidiary –
вспомогательный
rank –
звание, должность, классифицировать
25
rapporteur –
investigate –
retain –
massacre –
allege –
allegation –
allegedly –
request –
sever –
независимый эксперт
расследовать, проверять
нанимать, приглашать
резня, бойня; устраивать резню
утверждать, заявлять (голословно),
ссылаться
голословное утверждение, заявление
по утверждению
просить, требовать
разрывать, разъединять
Vocabulary work
I.
Match the words in the left column with their synonyms and
translate them
1. request
2. hostilities
3. assert
4. primarily
5. agency
6. retain
7. achieve
a. secure
b. state
c. body
d. fighting
e. mainly
f. employ
g. ask
II. Complete the underlined words with appropriate prefixes
Under- ; over- ; de-; re-; multi-; pre-; para-; uni-; bi-; super
1. An army withdrawal is a … condition for peace talks.
2. Enforcement of the Security Council resolutions was placed into
the hands of international …visory authority.
3. Two belligerent countries eventually agreed to sign a …lateral
peace treaty.
4. Their big mistake was to …estimate their opponents’ skill in handling the mass media.
5. Such …lateral action violates international trade rules.
6. The chief executive office is sure to …ride his commission.
7. Before signing a treaty the president held …lateral
consultations.
8. American trade policies have been …nounced by some European
governments.
26
9. Many ambitious people aspire to get …political jobs.
10. Because of the economic recession many parties will face …alignment of the electorate.
III. Form collocations and translate them. Make sentences with
them
subsequent
belligerent
mandatory
rights
hostilities
events
measures
behavior
reprisals
atrocities
states
decisions
powers
IV. Complete the following sentences:
1. He is …to have ordered the murder of a US citizen.
2. The defendant was accused of the … of unarmed civilians.
3. The Human Rights Council is a … organ of the General
Assembly.
4. This must … as one of the most violent fights ever seen on TV.
5. The rebels have … all contacts with the government.
6. To investigate alleged human rights abuses the HRC employs ….
7. Three banks have already refused his … for a loan.
8. It will cost 2,500 pounds to … a good lawyer.
9. … heads the Office which is the most senior body of the UN with regard to the human rights.
10. She was thoroughly … by the FBI before being offered a job.
Speaking point: Speak about the role of the UN with regard to human rights
Work in pairs
Read the text below. One of you is a proponent and the other is an opponent of Humanitarian Intervention. Present your
arguments.
27
Humanitarian Intervention.
There is much disagreement about when and to what extent
outside countries can engage in humanitarian intervention. More specifically, there is debate about the efficacy of using military force
to protect the human rights of individuals in other nations. This sort
of debate stems largely from a tension between state sovereignty and
the rights of individuals.
Some defend the principles of state sovereignty and nonintervention, and argue that other states must be permitted to determine
their own course. It is thought that states have diverse conceptions
of justice, and international coexistence depends on a pluralist ethic whereby each state can uphold its own conception of the good.
Among many, there is «a profound skepticism about the possibilities of realizing notions of universal justice». States that presume
to judge what counts as a violation of human rights in another nation interfere with that nation's right to self-determination. In addition, requiring some country to respect human rights is liable
to cause friction and can lead to far-reaching disagreements. Thus,
acts of intervention may disrupt interstate order and lead to further conflict.
Others think, «Only the vigilant eye of the international community can ensure the proper observance of international standards, in the interest not of one state or another but of the individuals themselves». They maintain that massive violations of human
rights, such as genocide and crimes against humanity, warrant intervention, even if it causes some tension or disagreement. Certain
rights are inalienable and universal, and «taking basic rights seriously means taking responsibility for their protection everywhere».
If, through its atrocious actions, a state destroys the lives and rights
of its citizens, it temporarily forfeits its claims to legitimacy and
sovereignty. Outside governments then have a positive duty to take
steps to protect human rights and preserve life. In addition, it is
thought that political systems that protect human rights reduce
the threat of world conflict. Thus, intervention might also be justified on the ground of preserving international security.
Nevertheless, governments are often reluctant to commit military forces and resources to defend human rights in other states.
In addition, the use of violence to end human rights violations poses
a moral dilemma insofar as such interventions may lead to further
28
loss of innocent lives. It is imperative that the least amount of force
necessary to achieve humanitarian objectives be used, and that intervention not do more harm than good. Lastly, there is a need to ensure
that intervention is legitimate, and motivated by genuine humanitarian concerns. The purposes of intervention must be apolitical and
disinterested. However, if risks and costs of intervention are high,
it is unlikely that states will intervene unless their direct interests
are involved.
Translation
Во Всеобщей декларации прав человека, принятой Генеральной Ассамблеей в 1948 году, провозглашены основные права и свободы, которыми обладают все мужчины и женщины, в том числе
право на жизнь, свободу и гражданство, право на свободу мысли,
совести и религии, право на труд, образование, право на пищу
и жилище и право на участие в управлении.
Юридически обязательный характер этим правам придают два
международных пакта, участниками которых является большинство государств. Один пакт посвящен экономическим, социальным
и культурным правам, другой — гражданским и политическим
правам. Вместе с Декларацией они составляют Международный
билль о правах человека.
Декларация заложила фундамент для подготовки примерно
80 конвенций и деклараций по правам человека, включая два
международных пакта; конвенции о ликвидации расовой дискриминации и дискриминации в отношении женщин; конвенции
о правах ребенка, против пыток и других жестоких или унижающих достоинство видов обращения и наказания, о статусе беженцев и предупреждении преступления геноцида и наказании за
него; и декларации о правах лиц, принадлежащих к национальным или этническим, религиозным и языковым меньшинствам,
праве на развитие и правах лиц, занимающихся защитой прав
человека.
Сейчас, когда нормотворческая деятельность близка к завершению, Организация Объединенных Наций в своих усилиях
в области прав человека переносит акцент на практическое осуществление установленных норм. Верховный комиссар по правам человека, координирующий правозащитную деятельность
29
системы Организации Объединенных Наций, сотрудничает
с правительствами с целью обеспечить более эффективное соблюдение ими прав человека, добиваясь предотвращения нарушений, и тесно взаимодействует с правозащитными механизмами
Организации Объединенных Наций. Совет по правам человека,
представляющий собой межправительственный орган, проводит
открытые заседания в целях рассмотрения вопроса соблюдения
прав человека государствами, принятия новых стандартов и поощрения прав человека по всему миру. Совет также назначает независимых экспертов — «специальных докладчиков» — для представления докладов о конкретных нарушениях прав человека или
для изучения положения в области прав человека в отдельных
странах.
Органы Организации Объединенных Наций по правам человека содействуют усилиям по раннему предупреждению
и предотвращению конфликтов, а также усилиям, направленным на устранение коренных причин конфликтов. Ряд миссий
Организации Объединенных Наций по поддержанию мира имеет
в своем составе компонент по правам человека. В целом мероприятия Организации Объединенных Наций в области прав человека осуществляются в настоящее время на местах в 30 странах
и территориях.
UNIT
5.
Human rights violations
Human rights violations occur when any state or non-state actor
breaches any part of the UDHR treaty or other international human
rights or humanitarian law. In regard to human rights violations
of United Nations laws Article 39 of the United Nations Charter designates the UN Security Council (or an appointed authority) as the
only tribunal that may determine UN human rights violations.
Human rights abuses are monitored by United Nations committees, national institutions and governments and by many independent non-governmental organizations, such as Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, World Organization Against Torture,
30
Breakthrough (human rights) and many others. These organizations
collect evidence and documentation of alleged human rights abuses
and apply pressure to enforce human rights laws.
Some of the gravest violations of the right to life are massacres,
the starvation of entire populations, and genocide. Genocide is commonly understood as the intentional extermination of a single ethnic, racial, or religious group. Killing group members, causing them
serious bodily or mental harm, imposing measures to prevent birth,
or forcibly transferring children are all ways to bring about the destruction of a group. Genocide is often regarded as the most offensive crime against humanity.
For a long time, the international community has failed to address the problem of sexual violence during armed conflict. However,
sexual assaults, which often involve sexual mutilation, sexual humiliation, and forced pregnancy, are quite common. Such crimes are motivated in part by the long-held view that women are the "spoils"
of war to which soldiers are entitled. Trafficking in women is a form
of sexual slavery in which women are transported across national
borders and marketed for prostitution. These so-called "comfort
women" are another example of institutionalized sexual violence
against women during wartime. Sexual violence is sometimes viewed
as a way to destroy male and community pride or humiliate men who
cannot "protect" their women. It is also used to silence women who
are politically active, or simply inflict terror upon the population
at large. Mass rapes may also form part of a genocidal strategy, designed to impose conditions that lead to the destruction of an entire
group of people.
Rather than simply killing off whole populations, government
forces may carry out programs of torture. Torture can be either
physical or psychological, and aims at the «humiliation or annihilation of the dignity of the person». Physical torture might include
mutilation, beatings, and electric shocks to lips, gums, and genitals. In psychological torture, detainees are sometimes deprived
of food and water for long periods, kept standing upright for hours,
deprived of sleep, or tormented by high-level noise. Torture is used
in some cases as a way to carry out interrogations and extract confessions or information. Today, it is increasingly used as a means
of suppressing political and ideological dissent, or for punishing political opponents who do not share the ideology of the ruling group.
31
In addition to torture, tens of thousands of people detained
in connection with conflicts «disappear» each year, and are usually
killed and buried in secret. Government forces «take people into custody, hold them in secret, and then refuse to acknowledge responsibility for their whereabouts or fate». This abduction of persons is
typically intended to secure information and spread terror. In most
cases, interrogations involve threats and torture, and those who are
arrested are subsequently killed. Corpses are buried in unmarked
graves or left at dumpsites in an attempt to conceal acts of torture
and summary execution of those in custody.
Various lesser forms of political oppression are often enacted as
well. Individuals who pose a threat to those in power or do not share
their political views may be arbitrarily imprisoned, and either never
brought to trial or subject to grossly unfair trial procedures. Mass
groups of people may be denied the right to vote or excluded from all
forms of political participation. Or, measures restricting people's
freedom of movement may be enforced. These include forcible relocations, mass expulsions, and denials of the right to seek asylum or
return to one's home.
Although sovereign states retain a primary responsibility for
implementing internationally recognized human rights in their territories, they no longer enjoy the protections of discrete diplomatic
silence. Quite the contrary, persistent human rights violators increasingly must act in the light of international publicity mobilized
by public and private groups. Global, regional, national, and transnational actors have created a web of pressures that make it almost
impossible today for states to avoid a public accounting of their human rights practices.
Comprehension
1. What organizations are human rights abuses monitored by?
2. In what way do these organizations help enforce human rights
laws?
3. What human rights organizations are there in Russia?
4. What do you know about their activity?
5. What are the greatest violations of the right to life?
6. What is genocide?
32
7. What form does sexual violence against women take during
armed conflict?
8. What is sexual violence motivated by? How is it sometimes
viewed?
9. What kinds of torture may be used?
10. What is the aim of torture?
11. Under what circumstances is torture used today?
12. What happens to people detained in connection with conflicts?
13. What measures may be taken against those individuals who pose
a threat to those in power?
14. Why is it almost impossible today for states to avoid a public accounting of their human rights violations?
Words to be memorized
monitor –
exterminate –
pillage –
hostage –
mutilate –
humiliate –
inflict –
abduct –
relocate –
asylum –
detain –
annihilate –
interrogate –
extract –
suppress –
dissent –
custody –
corpse –
compare: corps
expulsion–
summary execution –
контролировать
истреблять, уничтожать
грабeж, мародeрство
заложник
наносить увечья
унижать
наносить, причинять
похищать
переселять
политическое убежище
задерживать, арестовывать
уничтожать
допрашивать
получить, добыть
подавлять; запрещать, скрывать
расхождение во взглядах;
несогласие
арест, стража; охрана
труп
исключение; изгнание
суммарная казнь
(в упрощeнном порядке)
33
Vocabulary work
I.
Form nouns based on the following verbs and translate them.
Make sentences of your own.
Exterminate, mutilate, humiliate,
abduct,
annihilate,
interrogate.
II. Form collocations and make sentences with them
exterminate
inflict
abduct
annihilate
extract
suppress
monitor
damage
a person
dissent
a prisoner
people
information
an ethnic group
dignity
a detainee
rebellion
terror
confession
III. Complete the underlined words with appropriate suffixes and
prefixes.
1. The authorities have … located thousands of families from
the flooded areas.
2. The President is making every effort to obtain the release
of the host…
3. To secure information and spread terror government forces
sometimes use abduct… of people.
4. Torture is aimed at the humiliat… or annihilat… of the dignity of the person.
5. Detain… was subjected to both physical and psychological
torture.
6. The government retaliated with the expul… of twenty
diplomats.
7. Biological experiments and the pill… or purposeless destruction of property are also considered war crimes.
34
IV. Complete the sentences and translate them
1. Soldiers were accused of…executions of civilians.
2. … were left at dumpsites in an attempt to conceal acts
of torture.
3. The number of refugees seeking political … has risen recently.
4. Suspects can be kept in police … for up to 48 hours.
5. The dictator banned political parties and crashed … .
6. It is not easy to … information from the Minister.
7. Today, torture has been increasingly used as a means of … political and ideological dissent.
8. Intentional … of a single ethnic, racial, or religious group is
defined as genocide.
9. Many of the bodies had been badly burned or … .
10. Police had to admit using torture during … .
Speaking point: Speak about different types of human rights
violations.
Sum up the text on p. 293
Translation
Amnesty International - это крупнейшая международная независимая правозащитная организация, объединяющая свыше
2,2 млн активистов и сторонников в более чем 150 странах мира.
Amnesty International - это беспристрастная организация. AI
не поддерживает и не находится в оппозиции ни к одной из политических систем или национальных правительств. AI действует
в защиту прав человека во всём мире, в том числе и в тех случаях,
когда организация не разделяет убеждения человека, права которого были нарушены.
Amnesty International защищает права человека, в частности:
право на физическую и психическую неприкосновенность,
добиваясь:
•
недопущения пыток;
•
отмены смертной казни во всём мире;
•
прекращения «исчезновений» и внесудебных казней;
•
свободу совести и самовыражения, требуя:
•
безусловного освобождения всех узников совести;
35
•
проведения справедливых и безотлагательных судебных
слушаний по делам политических заключенных;
•
свободу от дискриминации по любым мотивам:
•
в том числе дискриминации на основании пола, языка, религии, политических, либо иных убеждений, расового, национального или социального происхождения, экономического положения и других признаков.
В ходе вооружённых конфликтов AI не принимает чью-либо
сторону и одинаково осуждает нарушения прав человека, допускаемые любой из противодействующих сил. AI выступает против нарушения прав человека, совершаемых как правительственными
силами, так и вооружёнными политическими формированиями
(например, захват заложников, пытки и внесудебные расправы).
AI выступает в защиту прав гражданского населения в зоне вооружённых конфликтов, а также беженцев и просителей убежища.
Get ready for the role play. Use information from the sites:
http://www.amnesty.org/en/who
http://asiapacific.amnesty.org/pages/faq-eng
Read the interview on p. 296
Role-play the interview. 2 - 3 of you are the reporters from a Russian magazine for students who want to acquaint their readers with
the activity of Amnesty International. The others are members of
the International Executive Committee of Amnesty International.
36
INTERNATIONAL LAW
UNIT
1.
Historical Development
International law is the body of legal rules, norms and standards
that apply between sovereign states and other entities that are legally recognized as international actors such as international organizations and some individuals. The term «International law» can
refer to two distinct legal disciplines:1) Public International Law
which concerns itself with the structure and conduct of states, international organizations, and, to a certain degree, also multinational corporations and individuals, and 2) Private International Law
which deals with controversies between private persons arising out
of situations relating to more than one nation.
International law has existed throughout the ages in one form
or another. There are references to treaties between Egyptian Pharaohs and the neighboring kings dating as far back as 1400 B. C. But
it is to India that we must turn for precisely formulated rules of international law. India was the first to develop shipping on a scientific and international basis. Modest at the beginning and embracing limited number of rules commonly recognized by the states
in their intercourse , international law developed to a considerable
degree in the Middle Eastern empires with their practice of treaties, diplomatic representation and with a common diplomatic language – Babylonian.
The long and rich cultural traditions of ancient Israel and China
were also vital in the development of international law. The ancient
Greek city-states contributed significantly to the evolution of the international legal system by providing basic notions of governance,
political relations, and the interaction of independent units. Many
of the concepts that today underpin the international legal order
were established during the Roman Empire.
In the Middle Ages the first treatise on international law (the Introduction to the Law of Nations) followed by other legal treatises was written at the end of the 8th century by an Arab scholar.
37
The works were concerned with a number of modern international
law topics, including the law of treaties; the treatment of diplomats,
hostages, refugees and prisoners of war; the right of asylum; conduct
on the battlefield; protection of women, children and non-combatant
civilians; contracts across the lines of battle; the use of poisonous
weapons; and devastation of enemy territory.
The essential structure of international law was mapped out during the European Renaissance thanks to the works by Italian and
Spanish scholars but mostly to the works by Hugo Grotius who has
influenced the development of international law to the extent unequaled by any other theorist.
In the 20th century, the two World Wars and the formation
of the League of Nations had a great impact on the development of international law and established much of the foundations of modern
public international law. After World War II, the League of Nations
was replaced by the United Nations, setting a basis for much international law to follow.
Having become geographically international through the colonial expansion of the European powers , international law became
truly international in the first decades after World War II, when
scores of independent states were established through decolonization. The varying political and economic interests and needs
of these states, along with their diverse cultures, infused the hitherto European-dominated principles and practices of international
law with new influences.
Since the 1980s, globalization has increased the number and
sphere of influence of international and regional organizations and
required the expansion of international law to cover the rights and
obligations of these actors.
Comprehension
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
38
What is International Law?
What disciplines does the term «international law» refer to?
What does Public International law concern itself with?
What does Private International Law deal with?
What are the oldest documents in international law?
What countries contributed most to the development of international law?
7. Where were the rules of international law precisely formulated?
8. In what way did the Greek city-states contribute to the development of the international legal system?
9. What issues were the Arab Middle Ages treaties on international
law concerned with?
10. Whose works have greatly influenced the development of international law in the Renaissance?
11. What factors had a great impact on modern international law?
12. What required the expansion of international law?
Words to be memorized
entity –
conduct –
controversy –
precisely –
intercourse –
map out –
notion –
governance –
underpin –
treatise –
devastate –
along with –
common notion –
субъект
поведение
спор
четко
сношение (между странами)
планировать
понятие, представление
управление
поддерживать
трактат
опустошать
наряду с, вместе
общепринятая точка зрения
Vocabulary work
I.
Consult the English – Russian Dictionary of Diplomacy for the
meaning of the words with prefix “im-“. Make sentences with
them
Imbalance, immunity, impair, impartial, impede, impediment, impending, imminent, impetus, implicate, implication, implicit, impose, imposition, imprint, imprisonment, impromptu,
impunity.
39
II. Form collocations and make sentences of your own.
international
wrong
juridical
fundamental
private
fraudulent
commercial
diplomatic
effective
entity
conduct
intercourse
governance
notion
III. Complete the underlined words with appropriate suffixes
-ive,
-ible,
-al,
-ent,
-ory
1. The UK has played a decis… role in these negotiations.
2. The new government turned out to be respons… to the challenges
of the global crisis.
3. It was never proved that he was respons… for the massacre.
4. During the negotiations both parties tried to avoid discussing divis… issues.
5. This leader has been notoriously known for his belliger…
behavior.
6. The trial judge imposed the mandat… sentence of life
imprisonment.
7. The president’s wife was a powerful and controversi… figure.
IV. Complete the sentences and translate them
1. Thanks to the works by H.Grotius the essential structure of international law was….
2. The first … on international law was written by an Arab scholar.
3. The two countries fought for the right to become separate ….
4. The … date and place of his birth are unknown.
5. Employment decisions should not be placed on misconceived
….about ages.
6. Western India was … by a huge earthquake.
7. The ancient Greek city-states provided basic notions of … and
political relations.
8. It is through culture that people develop assumptions and beliefs
that … their whole lives.
40
9. The countries decided on restoring their diplomatic ….
10. The election ended in … , with allegations of widespread voterigging.
Speaking point: Speak about history of international law
UNIT
2.
Sources of International Law
Article 38 of the International Court of Justice statute identifies three sources of international law: treaties, custom, and general
principles.
Treaties are known by a variety of terms – conventions, agreements, pacts, general acts, charters, and covenants – all of which
signify written instruments in which the participants agree to be
bound by the negotiated terms.
Treaties may be bilateral or multilateral. Treaties with a number
of parties are more likely to have international significance. A number of contemporary treaties, such as the Geneva conventions (1949)
and the Law of the Sea Treaty (1982), have more than 150 parties,
reflecting both their importance and the evolution of the treaty as
a method of general legislation in international law. Other significant treaties are the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment
of the Crime of Genocide (1948), the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations (1961), the Antarctica Treaty (1959), and the Rome
Statute establishing the International Criminal Court (1998). Treaties may create international organizations and provide their constitutions (e.g., the UN Charter of 1945), but they also deal with more
mundane issues, such as visa regulations, travel arrangements, and
bilateral economic assistance.
A treaty is based on the consent of the parties to it, is binding,
and must be executed in good faith. The concept known by the formula pacta sunt servanda (Latin: «agreements must be kept») is arguably the oldest and most important principle of international law.
Without such a rule, no international agreement would be binding
or enforceable.
41
There is no prescribed form or procedure for making or concluding treaties. They may be drafted between heads of state or between
government departments. The most crucial element in the conclusion of a treaty is the signaling of the state's consent, which may be
done by signature, an exchange of instruments, ratification, or accession. Ratification is the usual method of declaring consent–unless
the agreement is a low-level one, in which case a signature is usually
sufficient. Ratification procedures vary, depending on the country's constitutional structure.
Custom. The ICJ's statute refers to «international custom, as
evidence of a general practice accepted as law» as a second source
of international law. Custom, whose importance reflects the decentralized nature of the international system, involves two fundamental elements: the actual practice of states and the acceptance
by states of that practice as law. The actual practice of states
(termed the «material fact») covers various elements, including
the duration, consistency, repetition, and generality of a particular kind of behaviour by states. All such elements are relevant
in determining whether a practice may form the basis of a binding
international custom. The ICJ has required that practices amount
to a «constant and uniform usage» or be «extensive and virtually
uniform» to be considered binding. Although all states may contribute to the development of a new or modified custom, they are not all
equal in the process. The major states generally possess a greater
significance in the establishment of customs. In the development
of customs relating to space law, for example, the United States
and the Soviet Union played a far more crucial role than the states
that had little or no practice in this area. Once a practice becomes
a custom, all states are bound by it whether or not individual states
have expressly consented.
General principles of law. A third source of international law
identified by the ICJ's statute is «the general principles of law
recognized by civilized nations». The most important principle
of international law is good faith, which governs the creation and
performance of legal obligations and is the foundation of treaty
law. Another important general principle is equity, which permits
international law to have some flexibility in its application and
enforcement.
42
Other sources. Article 38 of the ICJ's statute also recognizes judicial decisions and scholarly writings as subsidiary means for the determination of the law. Both municipal and international judicial
decisions can serve to establish new principles and rules.
Comprehension
1. What are the sources of international law?
2. What kind of documents are treaties? What types of treaties are there?
3. What treaties have more international significance?
4. What are the most significant multilateral treaties?
5. What issues do treaties deal with?
6. What is a treaty based on?
7. What is the oldest and most important concept of international law?
8. In what way may treaties be made?
9. Which is the most crucial element in the conclusion of a treaty?
10. What is the usual method of declaring consent?
11. What fundamental elements does custom involve?
12. What does the actual practice of states cover?
13. 1What is necessary for the practice to be considered binding?
14. What states generally play more important role in the establishment of customs?
15. What are the most important general principles of international law?
16. What are subsidiary means for the determination of the law?
Words to be memorized
inevitable –
arguable –
arguablymundane –
enforceable –
consent –
in good faith –
accession –
equity –
instrument –
consistency –
неизбежный
спорный, доказуемый
возможно
рутинный, обыденный
обеспеченный правовой санкцией,
осуществимый
согласие, давать согласие
добросовестно
полное присоединение к договору
справедливость
орудие, средство, документ
последовательность, логичность
43
Vocabulary work
I.
Consult the English – Russian Dictionary of Diplomacy for
the meaning of the following words with prefix «in – ». Make
sentences with them.
Inalienable, inappropriate, incentive, incitement, incompatibility, inconsistent, inconsistency, incumbent, indict, indictment,
indisputable, inequity, inevitable, insinuation, instigate, insufficiency, insurrection.
II. Form the collocations and translate them. Make sentences of
your own.
inevitable
arguable
enforceable
case
treaty
law
conflict
result
consequences
agreement
III. Use the words in capitals to form a word that completes
the sentence
1. There is no … in the way they deal with offenders
CONSISTENT
2. Along with other issues G8 discussed China’s… to
the World Trade Organization.
ACCESS
3. No international agreement would be...without the
concept known by the formula pacta sunt servanda.
ENFORCE
4. The judge held that there was an… case of libel.
ARGUE
5. Being a man of vision he realized the…of the armed
conflict.
INEVITABLE
IV. Complete the following sentences
1. Principle of … permits international law to have some flexibility
in its application.
2. Treaties may deal with …issues, such as travel arrangements.
3. The foundation of treaty law is the principle of ….
44
4. The signaling of the state’s … may be done by signature or
ratification.
5. Confusion is the … consequence of all these changes in policy.
Speaking point:
Speak about sources of international law
Translation
При анализе понятия «источники международного права» обращаются прежде всего к ст. 38 Статута Международного Суда
ООН, которая содержит перечень источников международного
права, применяемых Судом при решении споров, переданных ему
на рассмотрение. К ним относятся:
а) международные конвенции - как общие, так и специальные,
устанавливающие правила, определенно признанные спорящими
государствами;
б) международный обычай как доказательство общей практики, признанной в качестве правовой нормы;
в) общие принципы права, признанные цивилизованными
нациями;
г) судебные решения и доктрины наиболее квалифицированных специалистов по публичному праву различных наций в качестве вспомогательного средства для определения правовых норм.
Общие международные конвенции (договоры) - это соглашения,
которые касаются кодификации и прогрессивного развития международного права, объект и цели которых представляют интерес
для международного сообщества в целом. К ним относятся конвенции и договоры по обеспечению мира и безопасности, а также
те, которые кодифицируют международное право, например Венская конвенция о дипломатических сношениях 1961 г., Венская
конвенция о праве международных договоров 1969 г., Конвенция
ООН по морскому праву 1982 г. Общие международные соглашения открыты для всеобщего участия. Часто в международноправовой литературе общие международные соглашения также
именуются универсальными.
Международным обычаем признается такое правило поведения субъектов международного права, которое появилось в силу
частой повторяемости однотипных действий и признания за ними
нормы права.
45
Однако могут иметь место случаи, когда вначале разрабатывается договорная норма, которая впоследствии перерастает в международный обычай. Так, сначала появилась договорная норма о недопустимости национального присвоения космического пространства,
включая Луну и другие небесные тела, а потом на ее основе сформировался аналогичный международный обычай. Обычные нормы
обладают такой же юридической силой, что и договорные.
UNIT
3.
States in international law
Although states are not the only entities with international legal
standing and are not the only international actors, they are the primary subjects of international law, and they possess the greatest
range of rights and obligations.
Creation of states. The process of creating new states is a mixture of fact and law, involving the establishment of particular factual conditions and compliance with relevant rules. The accepted
criteria of statehood were laid down in the Montevideo Convention
(1933), which provided that a state must possess a permanent population, a defined territory, a government, and the capacity to conduct international relations.
States may become extinct through merger (North and South
Yemen in 1990); absorption (the accession of the Lander [states]
of the German Democratic Republic into the Federal Republic of
Germany in 1990); dissolution and reestablishment as new and
separate states (the creation of separate Czech and Slovak republics from Czechoslovakia in 1993); limited dismemberment, with
a territorially smaller state continuing the identity of the larger
state coupled with the emergence of new states from part of the territory of the latter (the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991);
or, historically, annexation (Nazi Germany's Anschluss of Austria
in 1938).
Recognition. Recognition is a process whereby certain
facts are accepted and endowed with a certain legal status, such
as statehood. The process of recognizing a new entity as a state
46
is a political one, each country deciding for itself whether to extend
such acknowledgment.
Before granting recognition, states may require the fulfillment
of additional conditions. In 1991, for example, the European Community issued declarations on the new states that were then forming
in eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, and Yugoslavia that required respect for minority rights, the inviolability of frontiers, and
disarmament and nuclear nonproliferation agreements.
The responsibility of states. The rights accorded to states under
international law imply responsibilities. States are liable for breaches of their obligations, provided that the breach is attributable
to the state itself. A state is responsible for direct violations of international law e.g., the breach of a treaty or the violation of another
state's territory.
A state is not internationally responsible if its conduct was required by a peremptory norm of general international law, if it was
taken in conformity with the right to self-defense under the UN Charter, if it constituted a legitimate measure to pressure another state
to comply with its international obligations, if it could not reasonably be avoided in order to save a life or lives, or if it constituted the
only means of safeguarding an essential interest of the state against
a grave and imminent peril, where no essential interest of the states
toward which the obligation exists (or of the international community) was impaired.
States must make full reparation for any injury caused by an illegal act for which they are internationally responsible. Reparation
consists of restitution of the original situation if possible, compensation where this is not possible, or satisfaction (i.e.acknowledgment
of and apology for the breach) if neither is possible.
Comprehension
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
What is the status of states regarding international law?
What are the accepted criteria of statehood?
In what ways may states become extinct?
What may states require before granting recognition of a state?
What did the European Community declaration on the forming
new states require?
6. What are states liable for?
47
7. Under what conditions is a state not
responsible?
8. What must states make full reparation for?
9. What does reparation consist of?
internationally
Words to be memorized
extinct state –
attribute –
seize –
dismemberment –
endow with –
inviolable –
dissolution –
accord –
accord with –
restitution –
peremptory –
to be liable for –
conform –
in conformity with –
imminent –
peril –
impair –
reparation –
lay down –
государство, прекратившее своё
существование
приписывать
завладевать, захватить
расчленение
наделять
неприкосновенный, незыблемый
разрыв, расторжение; распад
предоставлять
согласовываться, соответствовать
возврат незаконно присвоенного
категоричный, безапелляционный
нести ответственность
соответствовать, подчиняться
в соответствии с …
неминуемый
опасность, риск
нанести ущерб, нарушить
возмещение
устанавливать, формулировать
Vocabulary work
I.
48
Complete the underlined words with appropriate suffixes and
prefixes. Translate the sentences.
1. He found it very hard not to … form with the accepted view.
2. State X. refused to sign treaty on …proliferat… of nuclear
weapons.
3. Members of delegations enjoy …violabil… of the person.
4. The opposition party has been …membered.
5. The former minister denied allega… of fraud and corruption.
6. National laws must be brought in compli… with EU laws.
7. …coloniza… resulted in emergence of a number of independent states.
8. He made every effort to vindicate his assert ….
9. The law works on the assumpt … that it is preferable for children to be with their mothers.
10. 10. It was proved that no essential interest of the states
was … paired.
II. Form collocations and translate them. Make sentences of
your own
accord
endow with
seize
conform to
impair
power
prospects
dignity
the standards
permission
threat
privileges
to the stereotype
a right
status
III. Complete the following sentences and translate them
1. Some countries were … with a status of statehood though
they did not meet the effective government criterion.
2. The staff of the diplomatic corps were … privileges and
immunities.
3. Many jobs have become … with the advent of computers.
4. The head of the delegation was held … for failure of the
talks.
5. … means … of the original situation if possible, or compensation where it is not possible.
6. Irresponsible policy of state X. lead to the … of nuclear war.
7. The nation’s generals … power in a coup.
8. The government expressed its protest in … terms.
9. The experts warned the world leaders about the … of global
crisis long ago.
10. The presidents of both states confirmed the … of frontiers.
Speaking point: Speak about states in international law
49
Translation
Признание государства в международном праве – совокупность норм, регулирующих процесс вступления на международную арену новых государств как субъектов международноправовых отношений. Основные виды признания – признания
новых государств и новых правительств, пришедших к власти
т. н. «неконституционным путeм» (в результате революции,
гражданской войны или государственного переворота). Видами признания являются также признания органов национального освобождения, организаций сопротивления и воюющей
стороны.
Признание нового государства со стороны уже существующих
государств состоит в том, что последние прямо заявляют или
иным образом показывают, что они считают новое государственное образование независимым и суверенным государством, полноправным участником международного общения. Признание
нового правительства со стороны других государств означает, что
старое правительство уже не представляет данное государство
и что только новое правительство, по мнению признающих государств, способно его представлять в международном общении.
Признание может быть прямо выраженным, когда признаваемой стороне направляется специальный документ о признании
или подразумеваемым, когда последствия признания реализуются фактически. Установление дипломатических отношений всегда
является свидетельством полного и окончательного признания.
UNIT
4.
Disputes Between States
Peaceful settlement. International law provides a variety
of methods for settling disputes peacefully. Nonbinding mechanisms include direct negotiations between the parties and the involvement of third parties through good offices, mediation, inquiry, and conciliation. The involvement of regional and global
international organizations has increased dramatically since
50
the end of World War II, as many of them contain specific peaceful settlement mechanisms concerning disputes between members.
The UN may be utilized at several levels. The secretary-general, for
example, may use his good offices to suggest the terms of a settlement, and the General Assembly may recommend particular solutions. Similarly, the Security Council may recommend solutions
or–if there is a threat to or a breach of international peace and security or an act of aggressionissue binding decisions to impose economic sanctions or to authorize the use of military force.
Additional methods of binding dispute resolution include arbitration and judicial settlement. Arbitration occurs when the disputing states place their conflict before a binding tribunal. In a judicial settlement, a dispute is placed before an existing independent
court. The most important and comprehensive of these courts is the
International Court of Justice (ICJ). Established by the UN Charter
as the UN's principal judicial organ, the ICJ consists of 15 judges
who represent the main forms of civilization and principal legal systems in the world. They are elected by the General Assembly and Security Council for nine-year terms.
The ICJ, whose decisions are binding and extremely influential,
possesses both contentious and advisory jurisdiction. Contentious
jurisdiction enables the court to hear cases between states, provided that the states concerned have given their consent. The ICJ's
advisory jurisdiction enables it to give opinions on legal questions
put to it by any body authorized by or acting in accordance with
the UN Charter.
Other important international judicial bodies are the European
Court of Human Rights and the International Tribunal for the Law
of the Sea, set up under the Law of the Sea Treaty.
Use of force. The UN Charter prohibits the threat or the use
of force against the territorial integrity or political independence
of states or in any other manner inconsistent with the purposes
of the Charter. Force may be used by states only for self-defense
or pursuant to a UN Security Council decision giving appropriate
authorization. The right of self-defense exists in customary international law and permits states to resort to force if there is an instant and overwhelming need to act, but the use of such force must
be proportionate to the threat. The Security Council, in a series
of binding resolutions adopted after the terrorist attacks against
51
the United States in September 2001, emphasized that the right to
self-defense also applies in cases of international terrorism. Preemptive strikes by countries that reasonably believe that an attack
upon them is imminent are controversial but permissible under international law, provided that the criteria of necessity and proportionality are present.
It has been argued that force may be used without prior UN
authorization in cases of extreme domestic human rights abuses.
Nonetheless, humanitarian interventions are deeply controversial,
because they contradict the principle of nonintervention in the domestic affairs of other states.
Comprehension
1. What nonbinding methods for settling disputes peacefully does
international law provide?
2. In what ways can the UN be utilized in settling disputes
peacefully?
3. What are additional methods of binding dispute resolution?
4. What is the UN’s principal judicial organ ? What is specific
about it?
5. What types of jurisdiction does ICJ possess?
6. What are other important international judicial bodies?
7. What does the UN Charter prohibit?
8. Under what circumstances may force be used?
9. When may the state resort to force?
10. Under what conditions are preemptive strikes permissible?
11. Why are humanitarian interventions controversial?
Words to be memorized
good offices –
in accordance with –
conciliate –
contentious jurisdiction –
advisory jurisdiction –
preemptive –
mediate –
52
добрые услуги, посредничество
в соответствии с
примирять, согласовывать
юрисдикция по спорам между
сторонами
консультативная юрисдикция
упреждающий
посредничать
integrity –
pursuant to –
resort to –
authorize –
неприкосновенность
в соответствии с
прибегать к
санкционировать, уполномочивать
Vocabulary work
I.
Form nouns from the following verbs and translate them
devastate
allege
prohibit
assert
assume
conform
conciliate
comply
endow
accord
seize
impair
mediate
authorize
II. Consult the English – Russian Dictionary of Diplomacy for
the meaning of the following words with prefix «un - ». Make
sentences with them
Unalienable, unambiguous, unamendable, unamended, unassailable, unappeasable, unavoidable, unbiased, unchallengeable, unclassified, uncommitted, uncomplying, unconditional, unconstrained,
uncontained
III. Form collocations, translate them and make sentences of
your own
mediate
conciliate
resort to
a settlement
contradictory points of view
compulsion
differences
force
a suspension of hostilities
IV. Complete the following sentences and translate them
1. … … … the UN Charter the threat or the use of force against
the territorial integrity of states is prohibited.
2. … strikes are controversial but permissible under international law.
53
3. The UN Secretary General may use his … … to suggest
the terms of a settlement.
4. The action was taken without the … of the leadership .
5. Sex education in schools remains a highly … issue.
6. They … territorial disputes between neighbouring nations.
7. The state had to … to force as there was an instant and overwhelming need to act.
8. Force may be used by states … to a UN Security Council
decision.
9. The treaty signed by the heads of two states guarantees
the territorial … of an emergent nation.
10. The main purpose of this summit was to … contradictory
points of view.
Speaking point: Speak about different methods of settling disputes
between states
Translation
Возрастающая демократизация международных отношений
с неизбежностью приводит к все более возрастающему использованию принципа ограничения применения силы и угрозы силой. Впервые эта объективная закономерность была закреплена
в качестве принципа международного права в Уставе ООН. Впоследствии приведенная формула Устава была конкретизирована
в документах, принятых в форме резолюций ООН. Обязанность
неприменения силы носит универсальный характер. Она распространяется на все государства, поскольку необходимость поддержания международного мира и безопасности требует, чтобы все
государства, а не только члены ООН, придерживались в отношениях друг с другом указанного принципа.
Согласно Уставу ООН запрещается не только применение
вооруженной силы, но и невооруженное насилие, которое носит
характер противоправного применения силы. Однако следует
обратить особенное внимание на концепцию «законного применения вооруженной силы». Устав ООН предусматривает два
случая правомерного применения вооруженной силы: в целях
самообороны и по решению Совета Безопасности ООН в случае
угрозы миру, нарушения мира или акта агрессии.
54
В статьях 41 и 50 Устава ООН содержатся положения, разрешающие законное применение невооруженной силы. К подобного рода мерам относятся «полный или частичный перерыв
экономических отношений, железнодорожных, морских, воздушных, почтовых, телеграфных, радио - или других средств сообщения, а также разрыв дипломатических отношений».
Применение вооруженной силы в порядке самообороны правомерно в случае, если произойдет вооруженное нападение на государство. Статья 51 Устава ООН прямо исключает применение
вооруженной силы одним государством против другого в случае
принятия последним мер экономического или политического порядка. В подобных ситуациях или даже если налицо угроза нападения, страна может прибегнуть к ответным мерам лишь при
соблюдении принципа соразмерности.
В структуре ООН одним из главных органов, отвечающих за
поддержание международного мира и безопасности, является
Совет Безопасности, который в случае, если рекомендованные
для разрешения конфликтов меры невооруженного характера посчитает недостаточными, «уполномочивается принять такие действия воздушными, морскими или сухопутными силами, какие
окажутся необходимыми для поддержания или восстановления
международного мира и безопасности».
UNIT
5.
International cooperation
States have opted to cooperate in a number of areas.
High seas and seabed. The high seas are open to all states, with
each state possessing the freedoms of navigation and overflight and
the freedom to lay submarine cables and pipelines, to conduct scientific research, and to fish. On ships on the high seas, jurisdiction
is exercised by the flag state (i.e., the state whose flag is flown by
the ship). Nevertheless, warships have the right to board a ship that
is suspected of engaging in piracy, the slave trade, or unauthorized
broadcasting.
55
The international seabed, parts of which are believed to be rich
in minerals, is not subject to national appropriation and has been
designated a «common heritage of mankind» by the Declaration
of Principles Governing the Seabed (1970) and the Law of the Sea
Treaty. Activities in the international seabed are expected to be carried out in the collective interests of all states, and benefits are to be
shared equitably.
Outer space. Outer space lies beyond the currently undefined
upper limit of a state's sovereign airspace. It was declared free for
exploration and use by all states and incapable of national appropriation by a 1963 UN General Assembly resolution. The Outer Space
Treaty (1967) reiterated these principles and provided that the exploration and use of outer space should be carried out for the benefit of all countries. The Moon Treaty (1979) provided for the demilitarization of the moon and other celestial bodies and declared
the Moon and its resources to be a «common heritage of mankind».
A number of agreements concerning space objects (1972 and 1974)
and the rescue of astronauts (1968) also have been signed. Antarctica. The Antarctica Treaty (1959) prevents militarization of the
Antarctic continent and suspends territorial claims by states for
the life of the treaty.
Protection of the environment. Because the rules of state responsibility require attributions of wrongful acts to particular states –
something difficult to prove conclusively in cases of harm to the environmentit was recognized that protecting the environment would
have to be accomplished by means other than individual state responsibility. Instead, a cooperative approach has been adopted. One
example of this approach is the use of treaties whereby states agree
to progressively reduced limits on their emission of various pollutants. The Stockholm Declaration (1972) and the Rio Declaration
(1992), which was issued by the UN Conference on Environment and
Development, declared that states must ensure that activities within
their jurisdiction do not cause environmental damage to other states
or areas. Other agreements have addressed the need for early consultation on potential environmental problems, notification of existing problems, and wider use of environmental-impact assessments.
Supervisory and monitoring mechanisms also have been established
by several of these agreements, including the Law of the Sea Treaty
(1982), the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer
56
(1985), the Convention on Biological Diversity (1992), the United
Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992), and
the Kyoto Protocol (1997).
The rules of international law are rarely enforced by military
means or even by the use of economic sanctions. Instead, the system is sustained by reciprocity or a sense of enlightened self-interest.
States that breach international rules suffer a decline in credibility
that may prejudice them in future relations with other states. Thus
a violation of a treaty by one state to its advantage may induce other
states to breach other treaties and thereby cause harm to the original
violator. Furthermore, there is a general realization that the benefits created by the system of international law, including a sense
of certainty, predictability, and common purpose in international
affaires, would be jeopardized by consistent rule violations.
Comprehension
1. What are the rights of states in relation to the high seas?
2. Under what circumstances do the warships have the right
to board a ship?
3. Under international law, what is the status of the international
seabed rich in minerals?
4. In what way are activities in the international seabed to be carried out?
5. What do the international treaties on the use of outer space provide for?
6. What are the main provisions of the Antarctic Treaty?
7. What approach to protection of environment has been adopted?
Why?
8. What are the Stockholm and Rio Declarations concerned about?
9. What environmental issues did other agreements address?
10. What are the most significant agreements on supervisory and
monitoring mechanisms?
Words to be memorized
opt for –
the high seas –
seabed –
делать выбор
открытое море
морское дно
57
sustain –
sustainable –
prejudice –
current –
celestial –
emission–
notify –
detain –
to be subject to –
subject to –
поддержать, поддерживать существование
устойчивый
нанести ущерб
текущий, современный
небесный
выделение
извещать, уведомлять
задерживать, арестовывать
подлежать
при условии, если
Vocabulary work
I.
Match the words in the left column with their synonyms and
translate them.
1. accord
2. extract
3. primarily
4. exterminate
5. assert
6.mandatory
7. imply
8. mundane
9. peril
10. abduct
a. suggest
b. mainly
c. obligatory
d. kidnap
e. obtain
f. kill
g. state
h. danger
i. agreement
j. ordinary
II. Complete the underlined words with appropriate suffixes and
prefixes. Translate them.
1. The delegation was charged with conciliat… mission.
2. Under international law … emptive strikes are permissible,
provided that the criteria of necessity and proportionality are
present.
3. We obtained this information from depend… source.
4. He had acquired the skills essent… to his later success
in politics.
5. You must face the … evitable and try to deal with it.
6. Your pay is depend… on your work experience.
7. The government pledged to pursue a consist… policy.
58
III. Complete the following sentences
1. The cases involving ships are submitted to the … court.
2. The international law provides for the demilitarization of all
…bodies.
3. New regulations are aimed at reducing vehicle ….
4. Nowadays some married couples … to be taxed as two single
persons.
5. The … beyond the limits of national jurisdiction is termed
the international … .
6. A young man suspected of murder was … for questioning.
7. All government expenditures are ... to tight controle
by parlament.
8. In accordance with international law the … … are open to all
states.
9. There are several reasons for the … political situation.
10. We’ve … our policyholders of the changes affecting their
policies.
Speaking point: Speak about international law on protection of the
high seas/outer space/environment
Translation
В рациональном использовании природной среды заинтересовано все мировое сообщество, но охрана окружающей среды
исключительно усилиями отдельных государств неэффективна,
положительные результаты могут быть достигнуты лишь при сочетании национальных мер с международными.
Международное право охраны окружающей среды (международное право окружающей среды, международное экологическое
право) – это совокупность норм и принципов, призванных регулировать международные отношения в сфере защиты окружающей
среды в целях охраны и рационального использования природных ресурсов.
К объектам международно-правовой охраны относят: водные
ресурсы, атмосферу, экосистемы, Антарктику и почву.
Первым историческим документом в области международноправовой охраны животного мира принято считать Парижскую
Конвенцию 1902 года, посвященную проблеме охраны птиц,
59
полезных для сельского хозяйства. Современная система международной охраны окружающей среды зародилась в 1972 г. на Конференции ООН, прошедшей в Стокгольме, некоторые международные экологические соглашений, в частности, по загрязнению
морской среды, были подписаны еще до этой конференции.
«Стокгольмская конференция привела к созданию ЮНЕП
(Программа ООН по окружающей среде). Сегодня эта организация
выполняет административные функции по семи крупным конвенциям, а также множеству региональных соглашений. Зачастую ее
называют «экологической совестью» ООН.
В 1985 г. ООН создала Всемирную комиссию по окружающей
среде и развитию, которая в 1987 г. издала доклад «Наше общее
будущее», где впервые сформулирована концепция устойчивого
развития, целью которого является улучшение условий жизни
человека, достигаемое в гармонии с природой.
60
THE UNITED NATIONS
UNIT
1.
History and Development
The United Nations is an international organization that aims
at facilitating co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, and social equity. The United Nations
was the second multi-purpose international organization established
in the 20th century that was worldwide in scope and membership.
Its predecessor, the League of Nations, was created by the Treaty
of Versailles in 1919 and disbanded in 1946.
Despite the problems encountered by the League of Nations in
arbitrating conflict and ensuring international peace and security
prior to World War П, the major Allied powers agreed during the
war to establish a new global organization to help manage international affairs. This agreement was first articulated when U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston
Churchill signed the Atlantic Charter in August 1941. The name
United Nations was originally used to denote the countries allied
against Germany, Italy, and Japan. On Jan. 1, 1942, 26 countries
signed the Declaration by United Nations, which set forth the war
aims of the Allied powers. The United States, the United Kingdom,
and the Soviet Union took the lead in designing the new organization and determining its decision-making structure and functions.
The idea for the UN was elaborated in declarations signed at the
wartime Allied conferences in Moscow, Cairo, and Tehran in 1943.
The first major step toward the formation of the United Nations was taken in 1944, at the Dumbarton Oaks Conference,
a meeting of the diplomatic experts of the Big Three powers plus
China (a group often designated the «Big Four»). Although the
four countries agreed on the general purpose, structure, and function of a new world organization, the conference ended amid continuing disagreement over membership and voting. At the Yalta
Conference, a meeting of the Big Three in a Crimean resort city in
February 1945, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin laid the basis for
61
charter provisions delimiting the authority of the Security Council.
Moreover, they reached a tentative accord on the number of Soviet
republics to be granted independent memberships in the UN. The
United Nations came into existence on October 24, 1945, after the
Charter had been ratified by the five permanent members of the
Security Council – Republic of China, France, the Soviet Union,
United Kingdom, and the United states – and by a majority of the
other 46 signatories.
The purposes, principles, and organization of the United Nations are outlined in the Charter. The essential principles underlying the purposes and functions of the organization are listed in Article 2 and include the following: the UN is based on the sovereign
equality of its members; disputes are to be settled by peaceful means;
members are to refrain from the threat or use of force in contravention of the purposes of the UN; each member must assist the organization in any enforcement actions it takes under the Charter;
and states that are not members of the organization are required
to act in accordance with these principles insofar as it is necessary
to maintain international peace and security.
Comprehension
1. What does the United Nations aim at?
2. What organization was the predecessor of the United Nations?
3. When did the idea of establishing a new global organization
originate?
4. When was this idea first articulated?
5. What countries did the name United Nations originally denote?
6. When was the Declaration by UN signed? How many countries
signed it?
7. What was the role of the USA, UK, and the USSR in establishing
the UN?
8. What was the first major step toward the formation of the United Nations?
9. What did the four countries agree on?
10. What did they disagree over?
11. What was the role of the Yalta Conference in establishing UN?
12. What do the essential principles of the Charter include?
62
Vocabulary Work
I.
Consult English – Russian Dictionary of Diplomacy for the
following words with prefix «contra»- and «counter-» Make
sentences with them.
Contradict, contraposition, contravention, contraceptive, counteract, counterbalance, counter- deterrence, counterforce, counterinsurgency, counterpart, counterproductive, counter-reprisal,
counterpoint.
II. Give synonyms to the following words
allocate
comprise
compose
implement
assess
obvious
securities
interest rate
abolish
set up
III. Translate the following sentences
1. Основная задача ООН - обеспечить международный мир
и безопасность.
2. Странам удалось добиться соглашения по структуре
и основным функциям новой организации.
3. У участников конференции имелись разногласия по способу урегулирования конфликта.
4. Лидеры Большой Тройки заложили основу положений Устава ООН, определяющих полномочия Совета Безопасности.
5. Белоруссии и Украине было предоставлено независимое
членство в ООН.
6. Основные принципы, лежащие в основе целей и функций
ООН, содержатся в статье 2 Устава ООН.
7. ООН основана на суверенном равенстве всех её членов.
8. Члены ООН должны воздерживаться от угрозы силой или
её применения в нарушение целей ООН.
9. Каждый член ООН дожжен оказывать помощь организации в любых принудительных действиях, которые она
предпринимает в соответствии с Уставом ООН.
63
10. Все страны должны действовать в соответствии с принципами Устава ООН, в той степени, в которой это необходимо
для поддержания международного мира и безопасности.
Speaking point: Speak about history and development of the UN.
Translation:
В годы войны главные союзные державы – США, Великобритания, Советский Союз, Франция и Китай – предприняли шаги на
пути к созданию новой международной организации, основанной на
платформе их противостояния державам «оси» – Германии, Италии
и Японии. Принятая 12 июня 1941 г., в разгар войны, Межсоюзническая декларация призывала к послевоенному международному
сотрудничеству. Атлантическая хартия, подписанная 14 августа
1941 г. президентом США Ф. Рузвельтом и премьер-министром Великобритании У.Черчиллем, явилась первым признаком намерений
Великобритании и США создать сразу после восстановления мира
новую международную организацию. Термин «объединенные нации» впервые появился 1 января 1942 г. в Декларации Объединенных Наций, подписанной 26 представителями государств в Вашингтоне. Московская и Тегеранская конференции в октябре и декабре
1943 г. заложили фундамент этой новой организации, а конференция в Вашингтоне на вилле Думбартон-Окс (21 августа – 7 октября
1944 г.) явилась первой встречей, специально организованной для
обсуждения ее структуры.
ООН официально учреждена на Конференции по международной организации, состоявшейся 25 апреля – 26 июня 1945 г. в СанФранциско. 26 июня представители 50 стран единогласно приняли
Устав Организации Объединенных Наций. Устав вступил в силу
24 октября, после того как большинство представителей подписавших его стран подтвердили свои полномочия ратифицировать
данный документ; с тех пор эта дата ежегодно отмечается как День
Организации Объединенных Наций.
Устав ООН предполагал превратить эту организацию в «центр
для согласования действий наций» на пути достижения международного мира. Ее члены обязались поддерживать ООН в любой
предпринимаемой ею акции и воздерживаться от применения силы
против других наций, за исключением случаев самозащиты.
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UNIT
2.
Principal Organs (1)
The United Nations has six principal organs: the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council,
the Trusteeship Council, the International Court of Justice, and
the Secretariat.
General Assembly.
The only body in which all UN members are represented,
the General Assembly exercises deliberative, supervisory, financial, and elective functions relating to any matter within the scope
of the UN Charter. Its primary role, however, is to discuss issues
and make recommendations, though it has no power to enforce its
resolutions or to compel state action. Other functions include admitting new members; selecting members of the Economic and Social
Council, the nonpermanent members of the Security Council, and
the Trusteeship Council; supervising the activities of the other UN
organs from which the Assembly receives reports: and participating
in the election of judges to the International Court of Justice and
the selection of the secretary-general.
The Assembly convenes annually and in special sessions, electing a new president each year from among five regional groups of
states. At the beginning of each regular session, the Assembly also
holds a general debate, in which all members may participate and
raise any issue of international concern. Most work, however, is delegated to six main committees: (1) Disarmament and International
Security, (2) Economic and Financial, (3) Social, Humanitarian, and
Cultural, (4) Special Political and Decolonization, (5) Administrative and Budgetary, and (6) Legal.
The General Assembly has debated issues that other organs
of the UN have either overlooked or avoided, including decolonization, the independence of Namibia, apartheid in South Africa, terrorism, and the AIDS epidemic. The number of resolutions passed
by the Assembly each year has climbed to more than 350, and many
65
resolutions are adopted without opposition. Nevertheless, there
have been sharp disagreements among members on several issues,
such as those relating to the Cold War, the Arab-Israeli conflict, and
human rights. The General Assembly has drawn public attention
to major issues, thereby forcing member governments to develop
positions on them, and it has helped to organize ad hoc bodies and
conferences to deal with important global problems.
Comprehension
1.
2.
3.
4.
How many principal organs does the UN have? What are they?
What functions does the General Assembly exercise?
What is the primary role of the General Assembly?
Does the General Assembly have power to enforce its results
or to compel state action?
5. How often does the Assembly convene? How often is a new president elected?
6. What is usually held at the beginning of each session? What is
the purpose of this debate?
7. Where is the bulk of work carried out?
8. What issues has the General Assembly debated?
9. How many resolutions are passed annually?
10. What issues have caused sharp disagreements?
11. Why is it important to draw public attention to major issues?
12. What issues are being currently debated in the General
Assembly?
Security Council.
The UN Charter assigns to the Security Council primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security.
The Security Council originally consisted of 11 members – five permanent and six nonpermanent – elected by the General Assembly
for two-year terms. From the beginning, nonpermanent members
of the Security Council were elected to give representation to certain regions or groups of states. As membership increased, however,
this practice ran into difficulty. An amendment to the UN Charter
in 1965 increased the council's membership to 15, including the original five permanent members plus 10 nonpermanent members.
66
Among the permanent members, the People's Republic of China
replaced the Republic of China (Taiwan) in 1971, and the Russian
Federation succeeded the Soviet Union in 1991. After the unification of Germany, debate over the council's composition again
arose, and Germany, India, and Japan each applied for permanent
council seats.
Any country – even if it is not a member of the UN – may bring
a dispute to which it is a party to the attention of the Security Council. When there is a complaint, the council first explores the possibility of a peaceful resolution. International peacekeeping forces may
be authorized to keep warring parties apart pending further negotiations. If the council finds that there is a real threat to the peace,
a breach of the peace, or an act of aggression it may call upon UN
members to apply diplomatic or economic sanctions. If these methods prove inadequate, the UN Charter allows the Security Council
to take military action against the offending country.
Since the late 1980s the council's power and prestige have grown.
Between 1987 and 2000 it authorized more peacekeeping operations
than at any previous time. The use of the veto has declined dramatically, and, to achieve consensus, comparatively informal meetings
are held in private among the council's permanent members. These
practices often have been criticized by nonpermanent members
of the Security Council.
Comprehension
1. What body is primarily responsible for the maintenance of international peace and security?
2. What is the membership of the Security Council? What countries are the permanent members of the Security Council?
3. What countries applied for permanent Council seats?
4. What principle are the nonpermanent members of the Security
Council elected on?
5. What country may bring a dispute to the attention of the Security Council?
6. How does the Security Council begin the procedure of the dealing
with a dispute?
7. What is the role of the international peacekeeping forces?
67
8. What measures can the Security Council take if it finds that
there is a real threat to the peace or an act of aggression?
9. What measures can be taken by the Security Council if diplomatic or economic sanctions fail?
10. What have been the latest resolutions of the Security Council?
Vocabulary work
I.
Give synonyms to the following words
treaty
compel
pass
opinion
disagreement
sanction,v
fighting
breach
talks
perform
II. Consult English – Russian Dictionary of Diplomacy for
the following words with the prefix «over»- .
Overclassify, overdraft, overdue, overestimate, overflight, overhours, overlapping, over-production, override, overrule, oversight,
overture, overtone.
III. Translate the following sentences focusing on different
meanings of «resolution» and «position»
1. The United Nations General Assembly passed a resolution
condemning the executions.
2. Both countries called for the peaceful resolution of the border conflict.
3. He is full of resolution to execute his ambitious plans.
4. Diplomats are hoping for a speedy resolution to the crisis.
5. Position the microphone as close as possible to the source
of sound.
6. Research can help a company to position its product
in the market.
7. A further injection of capital strengthened the company’s
position.
8. I’m not in a position to say who my sources are.
9. There are 12 women in management positions within
the company.
68
10. Do you expect the government to take a position one way
or another on this legislation?
IV. Translate the sentences from Russian into English
1. Генеральная Ассамблея ООН может обсудить любой вопрос
в рамках Устава ООН.
2. Все члены ООН имеют право принимать участие в общих
прениях и поднять любой вопрос, имеющий международное значение.
3. Многие резолюции, принятые Генеральной Ассамблеей,
утверждаются без возражений.
4. Генеральная Ассамблея привлекает общественное внимание к таким вопросам, которые были упущены из виду другими органами ООН.
5. Если вопрос обсуждается Генеральной Ассамблеей, то правительства стран участниц ООН вынуждены выработать
свою позицию по отношению к этому вопросу.
6. Любая страна имеет право представить на рассмотрение
Совета Безопасности любой спорный вопрос, участником
которого она является.
7. Международным миротворческим силам может быть поручено разъединить воюющие стороны до дальнейших
переговоров.
8. Совет Безопасности решил использовать своё право применить экономические санкции.
9. Совет Безопасности санкционировал миротворческую операцию в этом регионе, чтобы предупредить угрозу миру.
10. Если политические или экономические меры оказываются
недостаточными, Совет Безопасности имеет право предпринять военные действия против нарушителя.
Work in pairs: Tell your partner about the role of the General Assembly/ the Security Council
Translation
Генеральная Ассамблея задумывалась как форум, на котором нациям мира должна быть предоставлена широкая возможность «обсуждать любые вопросы или дела в пределах Устава».
69
Это крупнейший и наиболее представительный, но не самый
полновластный орган ООН, поскольку Ассамблея не имеет полномочий заставить провести в жизнь свои решения. Принятые
Ассамблеей резолюции, в отличие от решений СБ, не имеют обязательной силы, при этом ни одна из наций не может наложить
на них вето.
Генеральная Ассамблея контролирует деятельность Экономического и Социального совета, Совета по опеке, а также специальных учреждений; на нее возлагаются также ключевые
электоральные обязанности. Совместно с Советом Безопасности
Ассамблея избирает генерального секретаря и судей Международного суда; она же принимает решения о приеме в ООН новых
членов. Ассамблея избирает 10 также непостоянных членов. Наконец, она определяет размеры взноса каждого государства – члена ООН в бюджет Организации.
Помимо регулярных сессий, Генеральная Ассамблея ведет работу через использование сложной структуры комитетов и региональных групп; это позволяет различным правительствам быть
уверенными, что их интересы и приоритеты их регионов адекватно представлены в ООН. Эти группы принимают участие также
в отборе государств, которые в соответствии с процедурой ротации должны будут войти в Совет Безопасности.
***
Совет Безопасности организован так, чтобы он мог функционировать непрерывно, а представитель каждого из его членов должен постоянно находиться в штаб-квартире ООН. Председательство в Совете предоставляется каждому члену в течение одного
месяца, ротация председателей происходит в соответствии с расположением их имен по английскому алфавиту.
Создатели Устава рассматривали Совет Безопасности как
ключевой элемент организации. В военное время Большая пятерка трансформировалась в Совет постоянных членов, известный
в кругах ООН как Постоянная пятерка, которая обладает широкими полномочиями по сохранению мира и безопасности. В других положениях Устава утверждается, что только резолюции СБ
являются обязательными; решения всех других органов ООН носят лишь рекомендательный характер. Совет может организовывать дискуссии и предлагать средства обеспечения его решений
70
мирным путем или же имеет право прибегать к применению
разнообразных санкций – от свертывания дипломатических отношений до применения коллективных военных мер.
По сложившимся нормам вмешательство миротворческих сил
ООН требует предварительного согласия тех государств, куда они
должны быть направлены. Подобные операции планируются на
основе уважения национальных и территориальных прав государств – членов ООН. Хотя эти ограничения иногда препятствуют более эффективным действиям ООН, с другой стороны, они
гарантируют соблюдение государственных интересов членов ООН.
В 1991 Франция внесла на рассмотрение концепцию «гуманитарного вмешательства», предполагавшего сценарий, в ходе которого, при условии принятия соответствующих решений, военные
действия могут осуществляться вопреки желаниям правительств.
Особого одобрения эта инициатива не получила, а многие правительства выразили убеждение, что такого рода действия могут
усилить разногласия внутри ООН.
Помимо контроля за миротворческими силами, Совет Безопасности дает рекомендации Генеральной Ассамблее относительно
назначения нового генерального секретаря. Совет должен рассматривать также все предложения о приеме новых членов ООН.
UNIT
3.
Principal Оrgans (2)
Economic and Social Council.
Designed to be the UN's main venue for the discussion of international economic and social issues, the Economic and Social Council
(ECOSOC) directs and coordinates the economic, social, humanitarian, and cultural activities of the UN and its specialized agencies. Established by the UN Charter, ECOSOC is empowered to recommend
international action on economic and social issues; promote universal
respect for human rights; and work for global cooperation on health,
education, and cultural and related areas. ECOSOC conducts studies;
formulates resolutions, recommendations, and conventions for consideration by the General Assembly; and coordinates the activities
71
of various UN programs and specialized agencies. Most of ECOSOC's
work is performed in functional commissions on topics such as human rights, narcotics, population, social development, statistics,
the status of women, and science and technology.
Originally, ECOSOC consisted of representatives from 18 countries, but the Charter was amended in 1965 and in 1974 to increase
the number of members to 54. Members are elected for three-year
terms by the General Assembly. Four of the five permanent members of the Security Council – the United States, United Kingdom,
Soviet Union (Russia), and France – have been reelected continually
because they provide funding for most of ECOSOC's budget, which
is the largest of any UN subsidiary body. Decisions are taken by simple majority vote.
Trusteeship Council. The Trusteeship Council was designed
to supervise the government of trust territories and to lead them
to self-government or independence. The trusteeship system, like
the mandate system under the League of Nations, was established
on the premise that colonial territories taken from countries defeated in war should not be annexed by the victorious powers but should
be administered by a trust country under international supervision
until their future status was determined. With the independence
of Palau, the last remaining trust territory, in 1994, the council terminated its operations. Since 1994 new roles for the council
have been proposed, including administering the global commons
(e.g., the seabed and outer space) and serving as a forum for minority
and indigenous peoples.
International Court of Justice. The International Court of Justice, commonly known as the World Court, is the principal judicial
organ of the United Nations, though the court's origins predate the
League of Nations. The idea for the creation of an international court
to arbitrate international disputes arose during an international conference held at The Hague in 1899. This institution was subsumed
under the League of Nations in 1919 as the Permanent Court of International Justice and adopted its present name with the founding
of the UN in 1945.
The court's decisions are binding, and its broad jurisdiction encompasses «all cases which the parties refer to it and all matters specially provided for in the Charter of the United Nations or in treaties
and conventions in force». The Court may give advisory opinions
72
at the request of the General Assembly or the Security Council or
at the request of other organs and specialized agencies authorized
by the General Assembly.
The 15 judges of the court are elected by the General Assembly and the Security Council voting independently. No two judges
may be nationals of the same state, and the judges are to represent
a cross section of the major legal systems of the world. Judges serve
nine-year terms and are eligible for reelection. The seat of the World
Court is The Hague.
Comprehension
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
What are the main functions of ECOSOC?
What are the powers of ECOSOC?
What work does ECOSOC conduct?
Where is most of ECOSOC’s work performed?
How many members does ECOSOC consist of?
Why have 4 of the 5 permanent members of the Security Council
been reelected continually?
7. What was the purpose of designing the Trusteeship Council?
8. What premise was the trusteeship system established on?
9. When did the Council terminate its operations?
10. What new roles have been proposed for the organization?
11. What is the principal judicial organ of the UN?
12. When did the idea of an international court arise?
13. When was the Court established?
14. What is the jurisdiction of International Court of Justice?
15. What do you know about the International Criminal Court?
What case is being heard now in the ICC?
Secretariat.
The Secretary-General, the principal administrative officer
of the United Nations, is elected for a five-year renewable term by
a two-thirds vote of the General Assembly and by the recommendation of the Security Council and the approval of its permanent
members. Secretaries-general usually have come from small, neutral countries. The secretary-general serves as the chief administrative officer at all meetings and carries out any functions that
73
those organs entrust to the Secretariat; he also oversees the preparation of the UN's budget. The secretary-general has important
political functions, being charged with bringing before the organization any matter that threatens international peace and security.
Both the chief spokesperson for the UN and the UN's most visible
and authoritative figure in world affairs, the secretary -general often serves as a high-level negotiator. Attesting to the importance
of the post, two secretaries-general have been awarded the Nobel
Prize for Peace: Dag Hammarskjold in 1961 and Kofi Annan, corecipient with the UN, in 2001.
The Secretariat influences the work of the United Nations
to a much greater degree than indicated in the UN Charter. It is
responsible for preparing numerous reports, studies, and investigations, in addition to the major tasks of translating, interpreting,
providing services for large numbers of meetings, and other work.
The influence of the Secretariat can be attributed to the fact
that some 9,000 people on its staff are permanent experts and international civil servants rather than political appointees of member
states.
Specialized agencies. The United Nations network also includes
autonomous specialized agencies. The specialized agencies report
annually to ECOSOC and often cooperate with each other and with
various UN organs. Major specialized agencies and related organs of
the UN include the International Labour Organization, the Food and
Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO), the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), and the
World Health Organization (WHO). Two of the most powerful specialized agencies, which also are the most independent with respect
to UN decision making, are the World Bank and the International
Monetary Bank (IMF). The United Nations, along with its specialized agencies, is often referred to collectively as the United Nations
system.
Comprehension
1. What is the procedure of electing the Secretary General of the
UN?
2. What countries have secretaries – generals usually come from?
3. What are the functions of the secretary-general?
74
4. For what services to the international community have two secretaries-general been awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace?
5. What is the Secretariat responsible for?
6. What major specialized agencies does the UN system include?
7. What do you know about International Labour Organization?
FAO/UNESCO?
8. What are the most powerful and the most independent specialized agencies?
Words to be memorized
tentative –
ad hoc –
ad hoc body –
deliberative –
overlook –
insofar as –
with respect to –
refrain from –
contravention –
venue –
empower –
trust territory –
indigenous –
premise –
national –
terminate –
encompass –
biennial –
Compare: biannual –
предварительный
на данный случай
специальный/ временный орган
совещательный
игнорировать, не обращать внимания
настолько, в такой степени, что …
что касается
воздерживаться
нарушение
место проведения мероприятия
уполномочивать, доверять
подопечная территория
местный, коренной
предпосылка
гражданин, подданный
прекратить, расторгнуть
заключать (в себе), включать
случающееся раз в два года
случающееся два раза в год
Vocabulary work
I.
Consult English – Russian Dictionary of Diplomacy for the
following words with suffix “sub-”. Make sentences with them
Subdue, subjection, subjugation, submerge, submit, submission,
subordinate, subpoena, subsequent, subside, subsidiary, subsistence,
substitute, substitute, subterranean, subversive
75
II. Form collocations and make sentences with them
contentious
preemptive
conciliatory
inviolable
peremptory
imminent
ad hoc
consistent
tentative
deliberative
course
body
law
committee
agreement
issue
strike
peril
terms
mission
III. Complete the following sentences
1. Non-member states of the UN are supposed to act in accordance with the principles of the UN … as it is necessary
to maintain international peace and security.
2. The leaders reached a … agreement on measures to reduce
the risk of the outbreak of nuclear war.
3. Members of the committee are elected on the … … basis.
4. Nowadays the Trusteeship Council serves as a forum for minority and…peoples.
5. The conclusions in the report were based on a false ….
6. The coming debates will … a range of subjects.
7. The General Assembly sometimes debates the issues that other organs of the UN have ….
8. Members of the UN are to … … the threat or the use of force
in …of the purposes of the UN.
9. Liberal approach to human rights remains a … issue.
10. The delegations couldn’t agree on the … of the next round
of negotiations.
Work in pairs: Sum up the information about ECOSOC/ICJ/Secretariat/Specialized Agencies and present your version to the partner.
Translation
Состав Экономического и социального совета (ЭКОСОС –
ECOSOS) сначала ограничивался 18 членами. В 1966 их число увеличилось до 27, а позже достигло 54. Члены Совета избираются
76
Генеральной Ассамблеей сроком на три года. Ежегодно его состав
обновляется на треть. Хотя в Уставе данный вопрос не оговаривается, фактически постоянные члены СБ сохраняют постоянное
членство и в ЭКОСОС.
ЭКОСОС несет ответственность перед Генеральной Ассамблеей
и часто выступает в качестве комитета Ассамблеи со специальными функциями. Его задача – изучение путей развития международного сотрудничества в экономической и социальной сферах.
С этой целью он составляет проекты соглашений для представления Ассамблее и готовит международные конференции. ЭКОСОС
также дает рекомендации Ассамблее по экономическим и социальным программам, заслуживающим рассмотрения ООН.
ЭКОСОС служит связующим звеном между ООН и большим
числом сотрудничающих с ней неправительственных организаций (НПО – NGO), которые ведут особенно активную деятельность
в таких сферах, как защита окружающей среды, положение женщин и права беженцев.
***
Международный суд создан в 1945 как часть системы ООН. Суд
сменил Постоянную палату международного правосудия Лиги
наций, в создании которой значительную роль сыграла Россия.
Старый Всемирный суд был одним из наиболее успешно действующих институтов Лиги. За 18 лет своей работы он вынес приговоры
по 32 крупным делам и представил 27 консультативных заключений. Новый Международный суд, как и его предшественник,
учрежден и располагается в Гааге (Нидерланды).
Международный суд состоит из 15 судей, избираемых на девятилетний срок Генеральной Ассамблеей и Советом Безопасности.
Право вето Большой пятерки в нем не предусматривается. Статут
Суда утверждает, что судьи избираются «из числа лиц с высокими
морально-этическими характеристиками, обладающими... общепризнанной компетенцией в международном праве» и представляют «основные формы цивилизации и основополагающие юридические системы мира». Судьи должны представлять различные
географические регионы, в составе Суда не может быть двух
граждан одного и того же государства. Предполагалось, что эти
положения будут гарантировать беспристрастность Суда и превратят его в объективный международный трибунал. Вместе с тем
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страна-истец имеет право при рассмотрении конкретного дела
ввести в состав Суда дополнительного судью, своего представителя, если такового не имеется среди постоянных членов Суда.
На протяжении многих лет одним из судей является представитель России.
***
Секретариат. Поскольку ООН стремилась стать нечто большим,
чем просто группой представителей, отстаивающих интересы собственных наций, в рамках ООН был создан Секретариат во главе
с Генеральным секретарем ООН – особый штат служащих, которые, как предполагалось, должны были подходить к проблемам
мирового сообщества с той же мерой ответственности, что и к национальным проблемам.
Во главе Секретариата стоит генеральный секретарь – высшее должностное лицо ООН. Генеральный секретарь назначается Генеральной Ассамблеей по рекомендации СБ на пятилетний
срок с правом переизбрания. Его назначение требует одобрения
всех пяти постоянных членов и большинства в две трети членов
Генеральной ассамблеи. Генеральный секретарь действует как
главное административное должностное лицо на заседаниях
Генеральной ассамблеи, Экономического и социального совета
и Совета по опеке.
Основатели ООН наделили Генерального секретаря, как политическими, так и административными полномочиями. Он более
чем кто-либо иной, считается представителем ООН как единого
целого. Устав наделяет Генерального секретаря правом привлекать внимание Совета Безопасности к любому явлению, создающему угрозу международному миру и безопасности.
Генеральный секретарь назначает штат постоянных служащих, или Секретариат. Важные группы штата ООН размещены
в Риме, Париже, Женеве и Вене, а также в штаб-квартире ООН
в Нью-Йорке. В 1992 насчитывалось около 25 тысяч членов Секретариата, отделения которого созданы по всему миру.
Секретариат осуществляет множество функций, включая организацию конференций, сбор информации и ее анализ, а также
публикацию ежегодника. Во всех этих видах деятельности его сотрудники должны проявлять взвешенность и объективность, чтобы не вызывать недовольства со стороны любого правительства
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государства – члена ООН. Должностной статус члена Секретариата определяется 101-й статьей Устава, где оговорены и требования к сотрудникам – эффективность, компетентность и честность.
Еще одно неукоснительное требование – подбор служащих штата
на возможно более широкой географической основе. Как только
представитель того или иного государства – члена ООН входит
в состав Секретариата, он должен дать клятву на верность ООН
и обязаться не отстаивать интересы того или иного конкретного
правительства.
UNIT
4.
Maintenance of International Peace and Security
The main function of the United Nations is to preserve international peace and security. Chapter 6 of the Charter provides
for the pacific settlement of disputes, through the intervention
of the Security Council, by means such as negotiation, mediation, arbitration, and judicial decisions. Since 1945, the United Nations has
made 172 peaceful settlements that have ended regional conflicts.
The Charter grants the Security Council the power to order
coercive measures – ranging from diplomatic, economic, and military sanctions to the use of armed force – in cases where attempts
at a peaceful settlement have failed.
Notwithstanding the primary role of the Security Council,
the UN Charter provides for the participation of the General Assembly and nonmember states in security issues. Although the Charter
grants the General Assembly a broad secondary role, the Security
Council can make decisions that bind all members, whereas the General Assembly can make only recommendations.
Peacekeeping, peacemaking, and peace building.
International armed forces were first used in 1948 to observe cease-fires in Kashmir and Palestine. Although not specifically mentioned in the UN Charter, the use of such forces
as a buffer between warring parties pending troop withdrawals
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and negotiations – a practice known as peacekeeping – was formalized in 1956 during the Suez Crisis between Egypt, Israel, France,
and the United Kingdom. Peacekeeping missions have taken many
forms, though they have in common the fact that they are designed
to be peaceful, that they involve military troops from several countries, and that the troops serve under the authority of the UN Security Council. In 1988 the UN Peacekeeping Forces were awarded
the Nobel Prize for Peace.
During the Cold War, so-called first-generation, or «classic»,
peacekeeping was used m conflicts in the Middle East and Africa
and in conflicts stemming from decolonization in Asia. Between
1948 and 1988 the UN undertook 13 peacekeeping missions involving generally lightly armed troops from neutral countries other than
the permanent members of the Security Council – most often Canada,
Sweden, Norway, Finland, India, Ireland, and Italy. Troops in these
missions, the so-called «Blue Helmets», were allowed to use force
only in self-defense. The missions were given and enjoyed the consent of the parties to the conflict and the support of the Security
Council and the troop-contributing countries.
With the end of the Cold War, the challenges of peacekeeping became more complex. In order to respond to situations in which internal order had broken down and the civilian population was suffering,
«second-generation» peacekeeping was developed to achieve multiple
political and social objectives. Unlike first-generation peacekeeping,
second-generation peacekeeping often involves civilian experts and
relief specialists as well as soldiers. Another difference between second-generation and first-generation peacekeeping is that soldiers in
some second - generation missions are authorized to employ force for
reasons other than self-defense. Because of that and because sometimes the UN took sides in domestic disputes much controversy has
accompanied the use of troops in such missions.
Between 1988 and 2000 more than 30 peacekeeping efforts were
authorized, and at their peak in 1993 more than 80,000 peacekeeping troops representing 77 countries were deployed on missions
throughout the world. In the first years of the 21st century, annual
UN expenditures on peacekeeping operations exceeded $2 billion.
In addition to traditional peacekeeping and preventive diplomacy, in the post-Cold War era the functions of UN forces were
expanded considerably to include peacemaking and peace building.
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For example, since 1990 UN forces have supervised elections in many
parts of the world, including Nicaragua, Eritrea, and Cambodia; encouraged peace negotiations in El Salvador, Angola, and Western
Sahara; and distributed food in Somalia. In 1992 the UN created the
Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO), which provides
administrative and technical support for political and humanitarian missions and coordinates all mine-clearing activities conducted
under UN auspices. The United Nations is leading an international
effort to clear land mines from former battlefields in Afghanistan,
Angola, Cambodia, El Salvador, Mozambique, Rwanda and Somalia
that still kill and maim thousands of innocent people every year.
The UN's peacekeeping, peacemaking, and peace-building activities have suffered from serious logistical and financial difficulties.
As more missions are undertaken, the costs and controversies associated with them have multiplied dramatically. Although the UN reimburses countries for the use of equipment, these payments have
been limited because of the failure of many member states to pay
their UN dues.
Comprehension
1.
2.
3.
4.
What is the main function of the UN?
What does Chapter 6 of the UN Charter provide for?
What power does the Chapter grant the Security Council ?
What is the difference between the role of the Security Council
and the General Assembly in security issues?
5. When were international forces first used?
6. What is the role of international forces?
7. What do all peacekeeping missions have in common?
8. What prize were the UN Peacekeeping Forces awarded?
9. How many peacekeeping missions did the UN undertake between
1948 and 1988?
10. What troops were involved in such missions?
11. In what situation were these troops allowed to use force?
12. Why was “second generation” peacekeeping developed?
13. In what way is second generation peacekeeping different from
the first generation?
14. What were the UN peacekeeping activities between 1988 and
2000?
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15. In what way were the functions of the UN forces expanded
in the post-Cold War era?
16. What are the current peace-keeping missions of the UN?
17. Why have the UN’s peacekeeping activities suffered from serious financial difficulties?
Speaking point: Speak about peacekeeping activities of the UN
Sanctions and militaiy actions.
By subscribing to the Charter, all members undertake to place
at the disposal of the Security Council armed forces and facilities
for military sanctions against aggressors or disturbers of the peace.
During the Cold War the Security Council authorized the use of force
only three times.
The Security Council again voted to use UN armed forces to repel
an aggressor following the August 1990 invasion of Kuwait by Iraq.
After condemning the aggression and imposing economic sanctions
on Iraq, the council authorized member states to use «all necessary
means» to restore «peace and security» to Kuwait. The resulting Persian Gulf War lasted six weeks, until Iraq agreed to comply with UN
resolutions and withdraw from Kuwait. The UN continued to monitor Iraq's compliance with its resolutions, which included the demand
that Iraq eliminate its weapons of mass destruction. In accordance
with this resolution, the Security Council established a UN Special
Mission (UNSCOM) to inspect and verify Iraq's implеmentation of
the cease-fire terms. The United States, however, continued to bomb
Iraqi weapons installations from time to time.
The continued US bombing of Iraq subsequent to the Gulf War
created further controversy about whether the raids were justified
under previous UN Security Council resolutions and about whether the United States was entitled to undertake military actions in
the name of collective security without the explicit approval and cooperation of the UN. In order to assess the UN’s expanded role in ensuring international peace and security comprehensive review of UN
Peace Operations was undertaken. The resulting Brahimi Report issued in 2000 outlined the need for strengthening the UN’s capacity
to undertake a wide variety of missions. Among the many recommendations of the report was that the UN maintain brigade-size forces
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of 5,000 troops that would be ready to deploy in 30 to 90 days and
that UN headquarters be staffed with trained military professionals
able to use advanced information technologies and to plan operations
with a UN team including political, development, and human rights
experts.
Comprehension
1. By subscribing to the UN Charter, what do all members of the
UN undertake to do?
2. What measures did the Security Council take when Iraq invaded
Kuwait?
3. What was the outcome of the Persian Gulf War?
4. What was the purpose of establishing a UN Special Mission?
5. What controversy did the continued US bombing of Iraq create?
6. Why was a comprehensive review of UN Peace Operations
undertaken?
7. What were the recommendations of the report?
8. What have been the latest UN sanctions and military actions ?
Arms control and disarmament.
The UN's founders hoped that the maintenance of international
peace and security would lead to the control and eventual reduction
of weapons.
Because of the enormous destructive power realized with
the development and use of the atomic bomb during World War П,
the General Assembly in 1946 created the Atomic Energy Commission to assist in the urgent consideration of the control of atomic
energy and in the reduction of atomic weapons. The United Nations,
through the International Atomic Energy Agency, has helped minimize the threat of a nuclear war by inspecting nuclear reactors in
90 countries to ensure that nuclear materials are not used for military purposes.
The United States promoted the Baruch Plan, which proposed
the elimination of existing stockpiles of atomic bombs only after
a system of international control was established and prohibited
veto power in the Security Council on the commission's decisions.
The Soviet Union, proposing the Gromyko Plan, wanted to ensure
83
the destruction of stockpiles before agreeing to an international supervisory scheme and wanted to retain Security Council veto power
over the commission. The conflicting positions of the two superpowers prevented agreement on the international control of atomic
weapons and energy.
In 1961 the General Assembly adopted a resolution declaring
the use of nuclear or thermonuclear weapons to be contrary to international law, to the UN Charter, and to the laws of humanity. Two
years later, on Aug. 5, 1963, the Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty was signed
by the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
The treaty – to which more than 150 states later adhered – prohibited nuclear tests or explosions in the atmosphere, in outer space, and
underwater. In 1966 the General Assembly unanimously approved
a treaty prohibiting the placement of weapons of mass destruction
in orbit, on the Moon, or on other celestial bodies and recognizing
the use of outer space exclusively for peaceful purposes.
In June 1968 the Assembly approved the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, which banned the spread of nuclear
weapons from nuclear to nonnuclear powers.
In 1993 the Chemical Weapons Convention, which prohibited
the development, production, stockpiling, and use of chemical
weapons and called for the destruction of existing stockpiles within 10 years, was opened for signature. In 1996 the Comprehensive
Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty, which prohibited the testing of nuclear
weapons, was signed – though it has not yet entered into force – and
two years later a treaty banning the production and export of antipersonnel land mines was concluded. Despite international pressure,
the United States refused to sign both the test ban and the land mine
agreements.
Comprehension
1. What did the founders of the UN hope for?
2. What factor prompted creation of the Atomic Energy
Commission?
3. What is the purpose of the AEC?
4. What did the Baruch plan propose?
5. How was the Gromyko Plan different from that of Baruch?
6. What resolution did the General Assembly adopt in 1961?
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7. What counties signed the Nuclear Test - Ban Treaty?
8. What did the Treaty prohibit?
9. What treaty was unanimously approved by the General Assembly in 1966?
10. What treaty did the Assembly approve in 1968?
11. When was the treaty banning the production and export
of antipersonnel land mines concluded?
12. What position did the US adopt regarding the test ban and
the land mine agreement?
Work in pairs: Develop your version of the role of the UN in maintaining international peace and security and present it to your
partner.
Words to be memorized
pacific –
antipersonnel land mine –
other than –
consent –
subscribe to –
relief –
maim–
subsequent –
subsequent to –
under auspices –
reimburse –
condemn –
stockpile –
adhere to –
мирный, миролюбивый
противопехотная наземная мина
помимо, исключая
согласие
присоединиться
помощь
калечить, увечить
последующий
вслед за, после
под эгидой
возмещать, возвращать
осуждать, порицать
запас, создавать запас
придерживаться, соблюдать
Vocabulary work
I.
Consult English – Russian Dictionary of Diplomacy
for the following words with prefix «en – »
Enact, enclosure, endeavour, endenizen, enduring, engagement,
enhance, ensuing, entangle, entrench, entrust, encompass, , encode,
encourage, encroach, endanger, endorse, enforce, enforceable, enshrine, entitle, entitlement
85
II. Form collocations and make sentences with them
refrain from
subscribe to
condemn
adhere to
overlook
policy
a proposal
an agreement
a treaty
a problem
arguments
use of force
III. Give synonyms to the following words. Translate them
avoid
originate
ensure
lay down
advantageous
merit
spectrum
underpin
fundamental
domestic
IV. Complete the following sentences
1. In some second-generation missions soldiers are authorized
to employ force for reasons … … self-defense.
2. The treaty was avoided by mutual ….
3. Second generation peacekeeping involves … experts and …
specialists.
4. The parties are bound to …to the terms of the cease-fire.
5. … to the earthquake in Haiti the UN sent … supplies to this
country.
6. Global Conference on the environment has been conducted
under … of the UN.
7. The Chemical Weapons Convention called for the destruction of existing ….
8. The company agreed to … him for his travelling expenses.
9. Many people had been … in a train crash.
10. They had no choice but to … to a proposal.
Summing up in English: Before you start reading the text below decide with your partner which region you would prefer to speak about.
Read your part of the text. Take some time to sum it up in English.
Present your summary to the group.
86
Деятельность ООН по обеспечению мира
В Африке
На протяжении многих лет усилия Организации Объединенных
Наций по обеспечению мира осуществлялись в самых различных
формах, включая длительную кампанию по борьбе против апартеида в Южной Африке, активную поддержку процессу перехода
Намибии к независимости, ряд миссий по оказанию поддержки
в проведении выборов и около 23 операций по поддержанию мира.
Самые последние операции были развернуты в Либерии (2003 г.),
Кот-д'Ивуаре и Бурунди (2004 г.), а недавно создана Миссия Организации Объединенных Наций в Судане (март 2005 г.).
Конечно, Организация Объединенных Наций уже действовала
в Судане, стремясь урегулировать ситуацию, которую Координатор чрезвычайной помощи Организации Объединенных Наций
назвал самым острым бедствием. Мировые гуманитарные организации, включая Организацию Объединенных Наций, неправительственные организации и систему организаций Красного
Креста и Красного Полумесяца, уже отправили на места 9 тысяч
работников по оказанию помощи, причем около 1 тысячи из них
были набраны на международной основе. В марте 2005 г., принимая меры в связи с сообщениями о массовых нарушениях прав
человека, Совет Безопасности передал вопрос о ситуации, существующей в регионе Дарфур в Судане с 1 июля 2002 г., на рассмотрение Прокурору Международного уголовного суда.
Организация Объединенных Наций предприняла также активные дипломатические усилия для восстановления мира в районе
Великих озер и оказывает помощь в подготовке к проведению референдума по вопросу о будущем Западной Сахары. Что касается
других стран Африки, то полевые миссии Организации Объединенных Наций продолжают свою деятельность по миростроительству в Гвинее-Бисау, Сомали, Центральноафриканской Республике
и в Западноафриканском регионе.
В Азиатско-Тихоокеанском регионе
С 2002 г. Миссия Организации Объединенных Наций по содействию Афганистану работает в целях оказания содействия
87
национальному примирению и выполнения задач, возложенных
на Организацию Объединенных Наций в Боннском соглашении
2001 г., включая такие области, как права человека, верховенство права и обеспечение равенства полов, а также организации
всей деятельности Организации Объединенных Наций по оказанию гуманитарной и чрезвычайной помощи, восстановлению
и реконструкции в Афганистане в координации с правительством этой страны.
МООНСА осуществляет весь комплекс мероприятий Организации Объединенных Наций в Афганистане, включая деятельность 16 учреждений Организации Объединенных Наций, и работает в тесном контакте со своими партнерами в правительстве
Афганистана и с национальными и международными неправительственными организациями.
После того как миротворческая миссия в Таджикистане завершила в 2000 г. свою работу, было открыто отделение Организации Объединенных Наций в целях обеспечения политических
рамок и руководства в отношении различных мероприятий,
связанных с миростроительством. Военные наблюдатели Организации Объединенных Наций продолжали следить за линией
прекращения огня между Индией и Пакистаном в штате Джамму и Кашмир.
В Восточном Тиморе переговоры между Индией и Португалией под эгидой Организации Объединенных Наций завершились
в мае 1999 г. принятием соглашения, которое открыло путь к проведению всенародного опроса по вопросу о статусе этой территории. Благодаря регистрации под наблюдением Организации Объединенных Наций лиц, которые должны были принять участие
в опросе, в августе 1999 г. удалось провести голосование, в ходе
которого 78 процентов жителей Восточного Тимора высказались
за независимость, и в итоге 20 мая 2002 г. было создано независимое государство Тимор-Лешти. Миссия Организации Объединенных Наций по поддержке в Восточном Тиморе (МООНПВТ)
остается в стране для оказания помощи в создании основных административных структур, включая систему отправления правосудия и правоохранительные органы, и одновременно содействует
поддержанию стабильности и безопасности.
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На Американском континенте
Миротворческая деятельность Организации Объединенных
Наций и ее усилия по поддержанию мира сыграли свою роль
в урегулировании затяжных конфликтов в Центральной Америке. В 1989 г. в Никарагуа благодаря миротворческим усилиям
была обеспечена добровольная демобилизация сил движения сопротивления, участники которого сдали свое оружие Организации Объединенных Наций. В 1990 г. миссия Организации Объединенных Наций наблюдала за выборами в Никарагуа – это
были первые проходившие под наблюдением Организации Объединенных Наций выборы в независимой стране. В Сальвадоре
мирные переговоры при посредничестве Генерального секретаря
положили конец продолжавшимся 12 лет боевым действиям, и
миссия Организации Объединенных Наций по поддержанию
мира обеспечила проверку осуществления всех соглашений. А
в Гватемале организованные при содействии Организации Объединенных Наций переговоры остановили 35-летнюю гражданскую войну.
После отъезда из Гаити 29 февраля 2004 г. президента ЖанаБертрана Аристида Совет Безопасности в ответ на просьбу временного президента Гаити санкционировал немедленное развертывание многонациональных сил для поддержания мирного
и конституционного процесса в стране в безопасной и стабильной
обстановке. Позднее Совет учредил миссию Организации Объединенных Наций по стабилизации в Гаити, которая в июне 2004 г.
приняла на себя обязанности многонациональных сил. Миссия
Организации Объединенных Наций работала над созданием условий для проведения выборов в 2005 г. и передачи власти избранному президенту 7 февраля 2006 г.
На Ближнем Востоке
На протяжении почти шести десятилетий, в течение которых пять раз вспыхивали полномасштабные войны, Организация Объединенных Наций уделяет самое пристальное внимание
арабо-израильскому конфликту. Организация Объединенных Наций выработала принципы установления справедливого и прочного мира, изложенные, в частности, в двух базовых резолюциях
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Совета Безопасности – 242 (1967 г.) и 338 (1973 г.), – которые остаются основой для всеобъемлющего урегулирования.
Организация Объединенных Наций поддерживала и другие
инициативы, направленные на урегулирование лежащих в основе конфликта политических проблем, и направляла в этот регион
ряд миротворческих миссий. Первая группа военных наблюдателей Организации Объединенных Наций, созданная в 1948 г., сохраняет свое присутствие в регионе и сегодня. Здесь же в 1956 г. во
время Суэцкого кризиса были созданы первые силы Организации
Объединенных Наций по поддержанию мира. В настоящее время
в регионе развернуты две миссии по поддержанию мира. Одна из
них, созданная в 1974 г., контролирует зону разъединения между
израильскими и сирийскими войсками на Голанских высотах.
Другая, созданная в 1978 г., способствует поддержанию стабильности в южной части Ливана, а в 2000 г. осуществила проверку
вывода израильских сил из этого района.
На дипломатическом фронте Организация Объединенных
Наций как член «четверки», в которую входят Организация
Объединенных Наций, Соединенные Штаты, Европейский союз
и Российская Федерация, принимает активное участие в усилиях, направленных на достижение решения путем переговоров.
В 2003 г. обе стороны приняли «дорожную карту», которая была
представлена «четверкой» и которая может привести к окончательному решению о существовании двух государств, но она еще
не выполнена. Между тем Организация Объединенных Наций
с помощью мер, принимаемых Советом Безопасности и другими
органами, а также Генеральным секретарем и его Специальным
координатором по ближневосточному мирному процессу, продолжает содействовать мирному урегулированию ситуации.
В Ираке после наиболее активного этапа войны в этом регионе
Совет Безопасности 14 августа 2003 г. учредил Миссию Организации Объединенных Наций по оказанию содействия Ираку (МООНСИ). Ее цель заключалась в координации гуманитарной помощи
и помощи в деле восстановления, а также в оказании содействия
политическим процессам, направленным на формирование международно признанного суверенного правительства Ирака. Через
несколько дней, 19 августа, штаб-квартира Организации Объединенных Наций в Багдаде подверглась террористическому нападению, в результате которого 22 человека погибли, в том числе
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и глава миссии Сержиу Виейра ди Меллу, а более 150 человек получили ранения. После этого нападения Генеральный секретарь
вывел большую часть международного персонала.
UNIT
5.
Social Welfare and Cooperation
The United Nations has been always concerned with issues of social welfare and cooperation. In the 1990s, despite severe strains on
the resources of UN development programs and agencies resulting
from massive refugee movements and humanitarian crises, the UN
increased its emphasis on social development.
Refugees.
After World War II the International Refugee Organization
successfully resettled, repatriated, transported, and maintained
more than one million European and Asian refugees. It was abolished in 1952 and replaced by a new international refugee structure. In 1951 ECOSOC drew up, and the General Assembly approved, a Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees. The
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) was
then appointed and directed to act under this convention, and
ECOSOC appointed an Advisory Commission to assist the high
commissioner.
The work of the UNHCR has become increasingly important
since the late 1980s, involving major relief operations in Africa,
Asia (particularly Southeast and Central Asia), Central America, western and central Europe, and the Balkans. At the end of
the 1990s approximately 20 million people had been forced to migrate or had fled oppression, violence, and starvation. Conflicts
and natural disasters continue to drive civilians from their homes.
By the end of 2006, some 12.8 million people were displaced within
their own countries and another 9.9 million people had become refugees by fleeing across international borders. The UNHCR works in
more than 120 countries and cooperates with more than 450 NGOs
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to provide relief and to aid in resettlement. For its services on behalf of refugees, the Office of the UNHCR was awarded the Nobel
Prize for Peace in 1954 and 1981.
Humanitarian operations.
Since it first coordinated humanitarian relief operations in Europe following the devastation and massive displacement of people
in the Second World War, the United Nations has been relied on by
the international community to respond to natural and man-made
disasters that are beyond the capacity of national authorities alone.
Today, the UN is a major provider of emergency relief and longerterm assistance, a catalyst for action by governments and relief agencies, and an advocate on behalf of people struck by emergencies.
Conflicts and natural disasters continue to drive civilians from
their homes. By the end of 2006, some 12.8 million people were displaced within their own countries and another 9.9 million people had
become refugees by fleeing across international borders. Natural disasters, mostly weather-related, affect more than 200 million people
every year. Confronted with conflict and the escalating human and
financial costs of natural disasters, the United Nations engages on
two fronts. On one hand, it brings immediate relief to the victims,
primarily through its operational agencies; on the other hand, it
seeks more effective strategies to prevent emergencies.
When disaster strikes, the UN and its agencies rush to deliver
humanitarian assistance. For example, in 2006, the World Food Programme (WFP) fed nearly 88 million people in 78 countries, including most of the world's refugees and internally displaced persons
(IDPs).
Comprehension
1. What was the role of the International Refugee Organization after WWII?
2. What Convention was approved by the General Assembly
in 1951?
3. What appointments followed adoption of the Convention?
4. Since when has the work of the UNHCR become increasingly
important?
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5. How many people were forced to become refugees at the end
of the 1990s?
6. How many countries does the UNHCR work in?
7. How many people were displaced and how many people had become refugees by the end of 2006?
8. What has the internazional community expected from the UN
in case of disaster?
9. What is the role of the UN in cases of emergency?
10. How many people do natural disasters affect every year?
11. What actions does the UN undertake when natural disaster
strikes?
12. How many people did the World Food Program feed in 2006?
13. What have been the latest UN humanitarian operations?
Work in pairs: Tell your partner about the work of the UNHCR/UN
humanitarian operations
Human rights.
Unlike the League of Nations, the United Nations incorporated
the principle of respect for human rights into its Charter, affirming
respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without regard to race, sex, language, or religion. According to the Charter, the General Assembly is charged with initiating studies and
making recommendations, and ECOSOC is responsible for establishing commissions to fulfill this purpose. Human rights violations are
investigated by the UN Human Rights Council, the subsidiary body
of the General Assembly.
A long-term objective of the United Nations has been to improve
the lives of women and to allow women to have greater control over
their lives. The UN Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) and
the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW) have supported programmes and projects to improve the quality of life for women in over 100 countries.
The rights of some 370 million indigenous peoples around
the world is also a focus for the UN, with a Declaration on the Rights
of Indigenous Peoples being approved by the General Assembly in
2007. The declaration outlines the individual and collective rights
to culture, language, education, identity, employment and health,
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thereby addressing post-colonial issues which had confronted indigenous peoples for centuries. The declaration aims to maintain,
strengthen and encourage the growth of indigenous institutions,
cultures and traditions. It also prohibits discrimination against indigenous peoples and promotes their active participation in matters
which concern their past, present and future.
The UN, through special rapporteurs and working groups, monitors compliance with human rights standards. In 1993 the General
Assembly established the post of United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR), which is the focal point within
the UN Secretariat for human rights activity.
Comprehension
1. What does the UN Charter affirm?
2. According to the Charter, what are the General Assembly and
ECOSOC responsible for?
3. What body investigates human rights violations?
4. What has been done by the UN to improve the quality of life for
women?
5. What does the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
outline?
6. What is the Declaration aimed at?
7. In what way does the UN monitor compliance with human rights
standards?
8. What post did the General Assembly establish in 1993?
Health and welfare issues.
Some of the UN’s greatest achievements have been in the area
of improving health and welfare of the world’s population through
the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the World Health
Organization (WHO). UNICEF, originally called the UN International Children's Emergency Fund, was established by the General
Assembly in December 1946 to provide for the needs of children in
areas devastated by World War П. UNICEF was made a permanent UN organization in 1953. Financed largely by the contributions of member states, it has helped feed children in more than 100
countries.
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Through water, sanitation and various health and nutrition measures undertaken by UN agencies, child mortality rates in the developing countries have been halved since 1960, increasing the life
expectancy from 37 to 67 years. In 1974, only 5 per cent of children
in developing countries were immunized against polio, tetanus, measles, whooping cough, diphtheria and tuberculosis. Today, as a result
of the efforts of UNICEF and WHO, there is an 80 per cent immunization rate, saving the lives of more than 3 million children each year.
UNICEF spends more than $800 million a year, primarily on immunization, health care, nutrition and basic education in 138 countries.
A 13-year effort by the World Health Organization (WHO)
resulted in the complete eradication of smallpox from the planet in 1980. WHO also helped wipe out polio from the Western
hemisphere, with global eradication expected by the first decade
of the 21st century.
Comprehension
1. In what area have the greatest achievements of the UN been made?
2. What organizations does the UN work with to improve health
and welfare conditions around the world?
3. What was the original purpose of establishing UNICEF?
4. How is UNICEF financed?
5. Due to what measures has child mortality been halved?
6. How many children do immunizations save each year?
7. What does UNICEF spend primarily money on?
8. What disease was completely eradicated thanks to the efforts
by WHO?
9. What disease has WHO helped wipe out from the Western
hemisphere?
10. What have been the major initiatives of WHO?
Work in pairs: Tell your partner about the role of the UN in promoting human rights/improving healthcare
The environment.
In response to growing worldwide concern with environmental issues, the General Assembly organized the United Nations
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Conference on the Human Environment, which was held in Stockholm in 1972 and led to the creation of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in the same year. UNEP has attempted
to find solutions to various environmental problems, including
pollution in the Mediterranean Sea; the threat to aquatic resources
posed by human economic activity; deforestation, desertification,
and drought; the depletion of the Earth's ozone layer by human-produced chemicals; and global - warming.
Much disagreement has arisen regarding the question of how
to combine the goals of environmental protection and development. Although both developed and developing countries recognize
the need to preserve natural resources, developing countries often
charge that the environment has been despoiled primarily by the
advanced industrialized states, whose belated environmental consciousness now hampers development for other countries. In other
instances, developed countries have objected to the imposition of environmental standards, fearing that such regulations will hamper
economic growth and erode their standard of living.
UNEP succeeded in establishing, through the General Assembly, a World Commission on Environment and Development
and in 1988 outlined an environmental program to set priorities
for the 1990–95 period. International conferences, such as the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (the «Earth
Summit»), held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, have continued to focus attention on environmental issues. The Earth Summit incorporated input from numerous NGOs. It produced a Declaration of
principles (the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development),
a plan for the sustainable development of the Earth's resources into
the 21st century, and guidelines for the management, conservation,
and sustainable development of forests. Subsequent UN conferences
on social issues continued to incorporate sustainable development
policies into their programs.
Comprehension
1. What did the UN Conference on the Human Environment lead
to?
2. What environmental problems has UNEP attempted to find solutions to?
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3. What issue has caused much disagreement?
4. What is the position of the developing countries regarding environmental problems?
5. What have developed countries objected to? Why?
6. What did UNEP succeed in?
7. What Declaration did the Earth Summit produce?
Speaking point: speak about the role of the UN in protecting the
environment.
Words to be memorized
social welfare –
eradicate –
strain –
resettle –
erode –
charge–
on behalf of –
unlike –
incorporate –
affirm –
without regard to –
in this regard –
compliance with –
hamper –
социальное обеспечение
искоренять, уничтожать
напряженность, злоупотребление;
напрягать, злоупотреблять
переселять (ся )
разрушать (изнутри)
обвинять
в интересах к.-л.
в отличие от
включать в состав
утверждать, подтверждать
без различия
в этом отношении
выполнение
препятствовать, мешать
Vocabulary work
I.
Form nouns from the following verbs and translate them
oversee
provide
repatriate
affirm
hamper
strain
resettle
erode
condemn
adhere
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II. Consult English – Russian Dictionary of Diplomacy
for the following words with prefix «conConcede, conceive, concept, concerned, concerning, concerted, concession, conciliate, conclave, concoct, concoction,
concomitant, concord, , concurrently, condemn, condemnation, condolence, confer, confession, conformism, confusing,
confused, conscription, containment, convergence, congruence,
consistency, consolidate, consort, constrain, contend, contending, contention, contentious.
III. Form collocations and make sentences with them
erode
strain
hamper
incorporate
eradicate
one’s power
the alliance
negotiations
amendment
poverty
sovereignty
a principle
unemployment
one’s authority
trade
IV. Complete the following sentences
1. The UNHCR cooperates with many NGOs to provide aid in ….
2. The developing countries accuse the advanced industrial countries of having … the environment.
3. Every new government pledges to … unemployment.
4. Thousands of refugees had … across the border.
5. Political instability in the region … negotiations.
6. Prime Minister was indicted on having … his authority.
7. The parties to the accord promised to deliberate on some ... provisions but made no efforts in this respect.
8. Amnesty International is known to have been working on …
of prisoners of conscience.
9. The ad hoc committee was set up to check up on Iran’s ... with the
UN resolution.
10. The government … this principle into the law.
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Work in pairs: Develop your version of the role of the UN in the
sphere of social welfare and cooperation and present it to your
partner.
Translation
Управление Верховного комиссара ООН по делам беженцев (УВКБ) предоставляет защиту и помощь беженцам во всем
мире. Это Агентство со штаб-квартирой в Женеве (Швейцария)
было создано по решению Генеральной Ассамблеи ООН и начало свою деятельность в 1951 г. В самом начале УВКБ ООН оказало помощь более 1 миллиону беженцев в Европе после Второй
Мировой войны. В течение последующих десятилетий и в связи с увеличением числа беженцев во всем мире, мандат УВКБ
ООН продлевался каждые последующие пять лет. В декабре
2003 г. Генеральная Ассамблея ООН приняла решение о снятии
временных ограничений на мандат УВКБ ООН. В 2005 г. количество лиц, попадающих в сферу деятельности УВКБ ООН, достигло 19,2 млн человек.
Начиная с 1970-х гг., УВКБ ООН участвовало в более чем
30 операциях, в том числе в Тиморе, Косово, Колумбии, Афганистане и совсем недавно – в суданской провинции Дарфур. За свою
историю УВКБ ООН помогло более 50 миллионам человек успешно
начать новую жизнь, за что дважды удостаивалось Нобелевской
премии мира – в 1954 и 1981 гг.
В настоящее время Верховным комиссаром ООН по делам
беженцев является Антониу Гутерриш – бывший Премьерминистр Португалии, который вступил в должность 15 июня
2005 г. Он является 10-м по счету Верховным комиссаром ООН
по делам беженцев. Верховный комиссар представляет Экономическому и Социальному Совету ООН устный доклад о координационных аспектах работы Агентства, а Генеральной Ассамблее
ООН – ежегодный письменный доклад о результатах деятельности УВКБ ООН.
Организация содействует заключению международных соглашений, касающихся беженцев, следит за соблюдением правительствами соответствующих международных правовых норм,
а также предоставляет гражданскому населению, вынужденному
покинуть места своего постоянного проживания, материальную
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помощь, включая продукты питания, питьевую воду, временное
жилье и медицинское обслуживание.
Гуманитарные катастрофы могут произойти в любом месте
и в любое время. Какой бы ни была их причина – наводнение, засуха, землетрясение или конфликт, – они всегда ведут к гибели
людей, перемещению населения, потере общинами способности
своими силами обеспечивать свое существование и приносят
огромные страдания.
В условиях таких катастроф организации системы Организации Объединённых Наций поставляют жертвам – в большинстве
своем детям, женщинам и пожилым людям – продовольствие
и медикаменты, дают им убежище и обеспечивают материальнотехническую поддержку.
Для покрытия расходов, связанных с предоставлением этой
помощи нуждающимся, Организация Объединённых Наций
мобилизовала у международных доноров средства на миллиарды долларов. Только в 2003 г. Управление по координации
гуманитарной деятельности выступило с 22 призывами, собрав
около 3,4 млрд долларов США для оказания помощи 67,8 миллиона человек в 22 странах и регионах. Управление возглавляет
Координатор чрезвычайной помощи Организации Объединённых
Наций, который занимает также должность заместителя Генерального секретаря по гуманитарным вопросам.
В связи с предоставлением гуманитарной помощи Организации Объединённых Наций приходится преодолевать серьезные
проблемы материально-технического снабжения и обеспечения
безопасности на местах. Гуманитарному персоналу не дают доступа к нуждающимся, а конфликтующие стороны умышленно
наносят удары по мирным жителям и работникам, занимающимся предоставлением помощи. За период с 1992 г. в составе
гуманитарных операций погибли около 220 гражданских сотрудников Организации Объединённых Наций. В течение года,
закончившегося 30 июня 2004 г., было совершено более 120 нападений на сотрудников Организации Объединённых Наций,
включая 10 случаев изнасилований и сексуального насилия,
а также 139 случаев домогательств. Было совершено семь нападений с применением насилия на комплексы и конвои Организации Объединённых Наций и 52 насильственных вторжения
на территорию комплексов Организации Объединённых Наций.
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Около 90 сотрудников миссии ООН погибли во время землетрясения на Гаити.
***
Во Всеобщей декларации прав человека, принятой Генеральной Ассамблеей в 1948 г., провозглашены основные права
и свободы, которыми обладают все мужчины и женщины, в том
числе право на жизнь, свободу и гражданство, право на свободу
мысли, совести и религии, право на труд, образование, право на
пищу и жилище и право на участие в управлении.
Сейчас, когда нормотворческая деятельность близка к завершению, Организация Объединенных Наций в своих усилиях
в области прав человека переносит акцент на практическое осуществление установленных норм. Верховный комиссар по правам
человека, координирующий правозащитную деятельность системы Организации Объединенных Наций, сотрудничает с правительствами с целью обеспечить более эффективное соблюдение
ими прав человека, добиваясь предотвращения нарушений, и тесно взаимодействует с правозащитными механизмами Организации Объединенных Наций. Совет Организации Объединенных
Наций по правам человека, представляющий собой межправительственный орган, проводит открытые заседания в целях рассмотрения вопроса соблюдения прав человека государствами,
принятия новых стандартов и поощрения прав человека по всему
миру. Комитет также назначает независимых экспертов – «специальных докладчиков» – для представления докладов о конкретных нарушениях прав человека или для изучения положения
в области прав человека в отдельных странах.
ООН стремится ликвидировать все формы расизма, расовой
дискриминации и апартеида, рассматривая их как вопиющее нарушение принципов Устава ООН.
В 1945 г. только в 30-ти странах из 51-ой, первыми подписавших Устав ООН, женщины обладали избирательным правом.
Было также ограничено их право занимать официальные должности. В 1952 г. Генеральная Ассамблея приняла Конвенцию
о политических правах женщин, в которой декларировалось
право женщин участвовать в выборах наравне с мужчинами.
К 1977 г. из общего числа 149 государств-членов - 141 государство признало для женщин право голоса. В числе 8 стран, где это
101
право не признано в полной мере, – Бахрейн, Кувейт, Нигерия (в
шести штатах), Оман, Катар, Саудовская Аравия, Объединенные
Арабские Эмираты и Йемен.
UNIT
6.
Economic Welfare and Cooperation
The General Assembly, ECOSOC, the Secretariat, and many
of the subsidiary organs and specialized agencies are responsible
for promoting economic welfare and cooperation in areas such
as postwar reconstruction, technical assistance, and trade and
development.
Economic reconstruction. The devastation of large areas
of the world and the disruption of economic relations during World
War II resulted in the establishment of the United Nations Relief and
Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) in 1943. The UNRRA was
succeeded by the International Refugee Organization, which operated from 1947 to 1951. The major work of economic reconstruction,
however, was delegated to the International Bank for Reconstruction
and Development (World Bank), one of the major financial institutions created in 1944. Although the World Bank is formally autonomous from the UN, it reports to ECOSOC as one of the UN's specialized agencies. The World Bank works closely with donor countries,
UN programs, and other specialized agencies.
Financing economic development. The World Bank is also primarily responsible for financing economic development. In 1956
the International Finance Corporation was created as an arm of
the World Bank specifically to stimulate private investment flows.
The corporation has the authority to make direct loans to private
enterprises without government guarantees and is allowed to make
loans for other than fixed returns.
The UN itself has played a more limited role in financing economic development. The General Assembly provides direction and
supervision for economic activities, and ECOSOC coordinates different agencies and programs. UN-sponsored technical assistance programs, funded from 1965 through the United Nations Development
102
Programme (UNDP), provide systematic assistance in fields essential to technical, economic, and social development of less - developed countries. Resident representatives of the UNDP in recipient
countries assess local needs and priorities and administer UN development programs.
Trade and development. After the massive decolonization of
the 1950s and early 1960s, less-developed countries became much
more numerous, organized, and powerful in the General Assembly,
and they began to create organs to address the problems of development and diversification in developing economies. Because the international trading system and the General Agreements on Tariffs and
Trade dealt primarily with the promotion of trade between advanced
industrialized countries, in 1964 the General Assembly established
the United Nations Conference on trade and Development (UNCTAD)
to address issues of concern to developing countries. Toward that
end, UNCTAD and the Group of 77 less-developed countries that promoted its establishment tried to codify principles of international
trade and arrange agreements to stabilize commodity prices.
UNCTAD discussions resulted in agreements on a Generalized
System of Preferences, providing for lower tariff rates for some
exports of poorer countries. The less developed countries attempted a more concerted and wide-raging effort to redistribute wealth
and economic opportunities through demands for a New International Economic Order, made in 1974 by the Group of 77 (which
had become a permanent group representing the interests of lessdeveloped states in the UN and eventually came to include more
than 120 states). Following the East Asian crisis of the late 1990s
, UNCTAD and other UN agencies took part in discussions aimed at
cresting a new international financial architecture designed to control short-term capital flows.
Comprehension
1. What bodies are responsible for promoting economic welfare and
cooperation?
2. What factors prompted the establishment of the UN Relief and
Rehabilitation Administration?
3. What organization was the successor of the UNRRA? How long
did it operate?
103
4. What institution was the major work of reconstruction delegated to?
5. What is another primary responsibility of the World Bank?
6. What is the role of the main bodies of the UN in economic
development?
7. What are the responsibilities of the resident representatives
of the UNDP?
8. How did the situation in the UN change after the massive decolonization of the 1950s and early 1960s?
9. What was the purpose of the UN Conference on Trade and
Development?
10. 1What did the UNCTD result in? What other issues has UNCTD
discussed?
Work in pairs: Tell your partner about the role of the UN in economic reconstruction/financing economic development/trade
development
UNIT
7.
Development of International Law
The United Nations, like the League of Nations, has - played
a major role in defining, codifying, and expanding the realm of international law. The International Law Commission, established by
the General Assembly in 1947, is the primary institution responsible for these activities. The Legal Committee of the General Assembly receives the commission's reports and debates its recommendations; it may then either convene an international conference to
draw up formal conventions based on the draft or merely recommend
the draft to states. The International Court of Justice reinforces legal norms through its judgments. The commission and the committee have influenced international law in several important domains,
including the laws of war, the law of the sea, human rights, and international terrorism.
The work of the UN on developing and codifying laws of war was
built on the previous accomplishments of the Hague Conventions
104
(1899-1907), and the League of Nations. The organization's first
concern after World War II was the punishment of suspected Nazi
war criminals. In 1950 the commission submitted its formulation
of the Nurnberg principles, which covered crimes against peace, war
crimes, and crimes against humanity.
The UN also took up the problem of defining aggression, a task
attempted unsuccessfully by the League of Nations. The definition of aggression, which passed without dissent, included launching military attacks, sending armed mercenaries against another
state, and allowing one's territory to be used for perpetrating an act
of aggression against another state. In 1987 the General Assembly
adopted a series of resolutions to strengthen legal norms in favour
of the peaceful resolution of disputes and against the use of force.
The UN has made considerable progress in developing and codifying the law of the sea as well. The UN Convention on the Law
of the Sea, which came into force in 1994, is a global agreement for
the protection, preservation and peaceful development of the oceans.
It lays down rules for the determination of national maritime jurisdiction, navigation on the high seas, rights and duties of coastal and
other states, obligation to protect and preserve the marine environment, cooperation in the conduct of marine scientific research and
preservation of living resources.
In 1992 the General Assembly directed the International Law
Commission to prepare a draft statute for an International Criminal
Court (ICC). The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court
was adopted in July 1998 and later signed by more than 120 countries. The ICC, which is located at the Hague has jurisdiction over
crimes against humanity, crimes of genocide, war crimes, and crimes
of aggression, pending an acceptable definition of that term. Under
the terms of the convention, no person age 18 years or older is immune from prosecution, including presidents or heads of state.
Since 1963 the United Nations has been active in developing a legal framework for combating international terrorism. The General
Assembly and specialized agencies such as the International Civil
Aviation Organization and the International Atomic Energy Agency established conventions on issues such as offenses committed on
aircraft, acts jeopardizing the safety of civil aviation, the unlawful
taking of hostages, and the theft or illegal transfer of nuclear weapons technology. In 2001, in the wake of devastating terrorist attacks
105
that killed thousands in the United States, the General Assembly's
Ad Hoc Committee on Terrorism continued work on a comprehensive
convention for the suppression of terrorism.
Comprehension
1. What is the role of the UN in the sphere of international law?
2. What institution is responsible for these activities?
3. What steps may the Legal Committee of the General Assembly
undertake on receiving the Commission’s report?
4. In what domains have the Commission and the Committee influenced International law?
5. What was the work of the UN on codifying and developing laws
of war built on ?
6. What was the first concern of the UN after the WWII?
7. What issues did the Nurnberg principles cover?
8. What tasks attempted unsuccessfully by the League of Nations
did the UN take up?
9. What is the definition of aggression as formulated by the UN?
10. What sort of agreement is the UN Convention on the Law
of the SEA?
11. What rules does it lay down?
12. What statute was adopted in 1998 in Rome?
13. What jurisdiction does the International Criminal Court have?
14. What issues did the General Assembly, International Civil Aviation Organization and the International Atomic Energy Agency
establish conventions on?
Speaking point: Speak about the UN role in development of International law
UNIT
8.
Reform of the UN
Since its founding, there have been many calls for reform
of the United Nations, although little consensus on how to do so.
106
Some want the UN to play a greater or more effective role in world
affairs, while others want its role reduced to humanitarian work.
The UN has also been accused of bureaucratic inefficiency and waste.
During the 1990s the United States withheld dues citing inefficiency, and only started repayment on the condition that a major reforms
initiative was introduced. In 1994, the Office of Internal Oversight
Services was established by the General Assembly to serve as an efficiency watchdog.
An official reform programme was begun by Kofi Annan in 1997.
Reforms mentioned include changing the permanent membership
of the Security Council (which currently reflects the power relations of 1945), making the bureaucracy more transparent, accountable and efficient, turning the UN into a more democratic and better
equipped at facing 21st century challenges organization.
In September 2005, the UN convened a World Summit that
brought together the heads of most member states. The result of the
summit was a compromise text agreed on by world leaders which included the creation of a Peacebuilding Commission to help countries
emerging from conflict, and a Human Rights Council, a clear and
unambiguous condemnation of terrorism «in all its forms and manifestations», an agreement to devote more resources to the Office of
Internal Oversight Services (OIOS) and an agreement that the international community has a «responsibility to protect» – the duty
to intervene in when national governments fail to fulfill their responsibility to protect their citizens from atrocious crimes.
To improve the oversight and auditing capabilities
of the General Assembly, an Independent Audit Advisory Committee (IAAC) is being created. An ethics office was established
in 2006, responsible for administering new financial disclosure
and whistleblower protection policies. Working with the OIOS,
the ethics office also plans to implement a policy to avoid fraud
and corruption.
Comprehension
1.
2.
3.
4.
What controversies arise regarding reforms in the UN?
When and by whom was the reform programme begun?
What measures do the reforms deal with?
What items did the World Summit of 2005 include?
107
5. Why was it decided to create an Independent Audit Advisory
Committee?
6. What is an Ethics Office responsible for?
7. What policy is the Ethics Office planning to implement?
Words to be memorized
realm –
domain –
mercenary –
dissent –
whistleblower –
due –
watchdog –
unambiguous –
perpetrate –
область, сфера(знаний)
сфера(деятельности), владения
наемник
разногласие; расходиться во мнении
лицо, совершающее служебное
разоблачение
взносы
контролер
недвусмысленный
совершать (преступление)
Vocabulary work
I.
Give synonyms to the following words
convene
contravene
protagonist
deliberative
perpetrate
dissent
realm
contentious
pacific
adhere to
strain
charge,v
II. Complete the following sentences and translate them
1. Sending armed … is incorporated into the definition of
aggression.
2. An inquiry has been set up in the … of the financial crsis.
3. The UN expanded the… of international law.
4. This document is an explicit and … declaration of intentions.
5. The Bill drafted by the Government passed without ….
6. The country which allowed its territory to be used for …
an act of aggression was condemned by the international
community.
108
7. Although the UN reimburses the countries for the use
of equipment, these payments have been limited because
of the failure of many member states to pay their UN ….
8. This is a subject that has now moved into the political ….
III. Translate the following sentences focusing on different
meanings of the underlined words
1. The General Assembly took a decision to debate a situation
in Congo and to this end convened a special session.
2. The world leaders met to discuss the causes of the global
crisis.
3. Campaigners hope that people will be sympathetic to their
cause.
4. We have no cause to question his integrity.
5. He has championed the cause of renewable energy since
the mid-1970s.
6. They had instilled in him a respect for his traditional
culture.
7. In this respect, we are no different from other people.
8. The two groups are very similar with respect to age.
9. T he government tried to play down the extent of corruption
in the country.
10. 1A child’s values come from its parents and, to a lesser extent, from its schooling.
11. The prisoners are not due for release until next year.
12. The committee reached its decision after giving due consideration to the views of public.
13. We need to ensure teaching they receive is appropriate
to their needs.
14. resident Sarkozi promised to appropriate money for
education.
15. Disarmament must be carried out under appropriate international observation.
Summing up in English: Scan the text on p. 300. Decide with your
partner what sphere of the UN reforms you would like to speak about.
Take some time to sum up your part of the text. Present the summary to your partner
109
UNIT
9.
Test
Complete the words using appropriate suffixes and prefixes.
Translate the sentences
1. The primary …tagonists of the concept of “third generation” human rights are the developing countries.
2. The Charter of the League of Nations …shrined a mandate to
promote many of the rights which were later included in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
3. In some European countries we can witness growing …gonism
towards immigrants.
4. International Humanitarian law is comprised of the Geneva
Conventions and the Hague Conventions, as well as …sequent
treaties.
5. The …sequence of such policies will …evitably be higher taxes.
6. The International Committee of the Red Cross is the only institution …plicitly named as a controlling authority.
7. His suggestion may be seen as an …plicit criticism of Government policy.
8. Without the formula “pacta sunt servanda” no international
agreement would be …force….
9. The International Court of Justice possesses both contenti… and
advis… jurisdiction.
10. …emptive strikes by countries that reasonably believe that an
attack upon them is ...minent are …versial.
11. Each UN member state must assist the organization in any …
force… actions it takes under the Charter.
12. The General Assembly exercises deliberat…, supervis…, financial, and elect… functions.
13. The General Assembly selects members of the Economic and
Social Council, and the …permanent members of the Security
Council.
14. The General Assembly …venes annually and in special sessions.
15. The Russian Federation …ceeded the Soviet Union in 1991.
110
16. International peacekeeping forces may be author… to keep war…
parties apart pend… further negotiations.
17. ECOSOC is …powered to recommend international action on economic and social issues.
18. Jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice …compasses
all cases which the parties refer to it.
19. They have acted in …vention of the terms of the treaty.
20. One of the functions of the Secretariat is to …see the preparation
of the UN’s budget.
21. Subsequent UN conferences on social issues …corporate sustain…
development policies into their programs.
22. The League of Nations was the first …purpose international organization established in the 20th century.
23. The secretary- general must submit a …enniel budget to the General Assembly for its approval.
24. The global community …scribed to the UN appeal to render assistance to Haiti.
25. The UN, through special rapporteurs and working groups, monitors compli… with humanitarian rights standards.
26. The definition of aggression passed without …sent.
27. The …pact was ended by mutual …sent.
28. Such issues as apartheid in South Africa, terrorism, the AIDS
epidemic have been …looked by the Security Council, and
ECOSOC.
29. Many of the concepts that today …pin the international legal order were established during the Roman Empire.
30. Torture can be either physical or psychological, and aims at
the humiliation or …nihilation of the dignity of the person.
Speaking point: What do you know about Model UN?
For more information go to the sites:
http://www.modelun
http:// www.modelunnetwork.org/network
111
Role play: MODEL UN
BODY
ISSUE
General Assembly
UN achievements and strengthening its role in
international community
Economic and Social
Council
International Cooperation in prevention of
people abduction/human trafficking
Human Rights Council
Prevention of genocide
VI Committee of GA
Humanitarian Intervention and state
sovereignty
Choose the body you would like to work in and the issue to debate. Research the issue you have chosen. Convene the session. Debate, deliberate, consult each other and finally develop solution to
the problem.
112
THE EUROPEAN UNION
UNIT
1.
History of European Integration
The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union
of 27 states, located primarily in Europe. With a population of almost 500 million, the European Union generates an estimated 30%
share of the nominal gross world product. As an international organisation, the EU operates through a hybrid system of supranationalism and
intergovernmentalism. In certain areas, decisions are made through
negotiation between member states, while in others, independent
supranational institutions are responsible without a requirement
for unanimity between member states.
Historical factors are very important in explaining the creation
and evolution of the EU. First, there is the need to understand
the specific historical context in which European integration began. When European governance structures were being rebuilt after
the Second World War, this had to be done in very difficult circumstances. The war had devastated the European economy and caused all
European countries to lose their «Great Power» status. The two new
superpowers of the world (the United States and the Soviet Union)
literally divided Europe between them at the Yalta summit of 1945.
The scale of the challenges facing European leaders was enormous, and cooperation was required if they were to be met. The European leaders realized the necessity of integration. A key figure
at this stage was Jean Monnet who consistently pushed a sort of «domino theory» of European integration. This approach to European cooperation held that the United Europe could be built gradually, by
working in first one sector of policy and then moving on to others as
Europeans got used to the idea of collaboration with each other and
also realized that cooperation in any given sector could only work
effectively if the other policy areas to which it was linked also became subject to collaboration at European level. This approach thus
saw European integration to be rather like dominos lined up on their
113
edges; knocking the first of them over would eventually bring all
the others down too.
With statements such as Winston Churchill's 1946 call for a «United States of Europe» becoming louder, in 1949 the Council of Europe
was established as the first pan-European organisation. In the year
following, on 9 May 1950, the then French Foreign Minister Robert
Schuman made a declaration in which he proposed a community
to integrate the coal and steel industries of Europe. The declaration's goal was for France, Italy, West Germany, and the Benelux
countries to share strategic resources in order to 'make war not
only unthinkable but materially impossible' and to build a lasting
peace in Europe. On the basis of that speech six countries signed
the Treaty of Paris (1951) creating the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), first of the European Communities and predecessor
of the European Union.
In 1957 the Treaty of Rome was signed which established the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). In 1965 an agreement was reached
to merge the three communities under a single set of institutions,
and hence the Merger Treaty was signed in Brussels and came into
force on 1 July 1967 creating the European Communities. After much
negotiation Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom eventually joined the European Communities on 1 January 1973. This was
the first of several enlargements which has become a major policy
area of the Union. A further enlargement took place in 1981 with
Greece joining on 1 January. Spain and Portugal joined on 1 January 1986 in the third enlargement.
In February 1986 the Single European Act was signed by the leaders. The text dealt with institutional reform, including extension
of community powers - in particular in regarding foreign policy.
With a wave of new enlargements on the way, the Maastricht Treaty
was signed on 7 February 1992 which established the European
Union.
Comprehension
1. What is the EU?
2. Why did the European leaders realize the necessity of integration after the Second World War?
114
3. What was the approach to the European co-operation advocated
by J. Monnet?
4. What was the main idea of the Schuman Declaration?
5. What was its goal?
6. When and under what document was the European Coal and
Steel Community created?
7. What Communities were established under the Treaty of Rome?
8. What agreement was reached in 1965?
9. When did the first enlargement take place?
10. What did the Single European Act deal with? When was it
signed?
Sum up the information about the process of European integration
before the Maastricht Treaty.
Translation
Идея создания единой Европы имеет многовековую историю.
Однако, именно Вторая мировая война и ее разрушительные последствия создали реальную основу для европейской интеграции.
Уроки войны привели к возрождению идей пацифизма и пониманию необходимости не допустить рост национализма в послевоенном мире. Другой реальностью, заложившей основу процесса европейской интеграции, стало стремление стран Западной
Европы восстановить пошатнувшиеся в результате войны экономические позиции. Для стран, потерпевших поражение в войне
(прежде всего Германии, разделенной на несколько оккупационных зон), насущной потребностью являлось восстановление собственных политических позиций и международного авторитета.
В связи с началом холодной войны, сплочение рассматривалось
и как важный шаг в сдерживании советского влияния в Западной
Европе.
К окончанию Второй мировой войны сформировались два
принципиальных подхода к европейской интеграции: федералистский и конфедеративный. Сторонники первого пути стремились к построению наднациональной Европейской федерации или
Соединенных Штатов Европы, т. е. к интеграции всего комплекса
общественной жизни, вплоть до введения единого гражданства.
115
Второй подход предусматривал ограниченную интеграцию, основанную на принципах межгосударственного согласия, с сохранением суверенитета стран-участниц. Для сторонников этого подхода процесс объединения сводился к тесному экономическому
и политическому союзу при сохранении своих правительств, органов власти и вооруженных сил. Весь ход европейской интеграции
представляет собой постоянную борьбу этих двух концепций.
UNIT
2.
The Maastricht Treaty
The Maastricht Treaty (The Treaty on European Union) represented a new stage in European integration since it opened the way
to political integration. With the Treaty of Maastricht, the Community clearly went beyond its original economic objective, i.e.
creation of a common market, and its political ambitions came to
the fore.
The Maastricht Treaty created the European Union, which comprised three pillars: the European Communities, Common Foreign
and Security Policy and the Justice and Home Affairs pillar.
The first, The European Communities pillar was “supranation member states were no longer independent. The process known
as the Community method was applied in this connection, i.e. a proposal is submitted by the European Commission, adopted by the
Council and the European Parliament, its compliance with Community law being monitored by the Court of Justice.
The second pillar established common foreign and security policy (CFSP), which allowed Member States to take joint action in the
field of foreign policy. This pillar involved an intergovernmental decision-making process which largely relied on unanimity. The third
pillar concerned cooperation in the field of justice and home affairs
(JHA). The decision-making process was also intergovernmental.
The Treaty created a co-decision procedure which allowed the
European Parliament to adopt acts in conjunction with the Council. The role played by the European political parties in European
116
integration was recognized. They contribute to forming a European
awareness and to expressing the political will of the Europeans.
The Treaty established the Economic and Monetory Union (EMU)
which put the finishing touches to the single market. The objective
of monetary policy was to create a single currency and to ensure this
currency's stability thanks to price stability and respect for the market economy. The Treaty provided for the establishment of a single
currency in three successive stages.
One of the major innovations established by the Treaty was
the creation of European citizenship over and above national citizenship. Every citizen who is a national of a Member State is also a citizen
of the Union. This citizenship vested new rights in Europeans, viz.:
•
the right to circulate and reside freely in the Community;
•
the right to vote and to stand as a candidate for European and
municipal elections in the State in which he or she resides;
•
the right to protection by the diplomatic or consular authorities of a Member State;
•
the right to petition the European Parliament and to submit
a complaint to the Ombudsman.
The Treaty on European Union has established the principle
of subsidiarity, i.e. the principle of the separation of powers between
different levels of government.
The Maastricht Treaty represented a key stage in European construction. By establishing the European Union, by creating an economic and monetary union and by extending European integration
to new areas, the Community has acquired a political dimension.
Comprehension
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
What is the historical significance of the Maastricht Treaty?
What were the three “pillars” of the EU?
What kind of procedure is the Community method?
What is the role of the European political parties?
What was the objective of the EU monetary policy?
What was one of the major innovations established
by the Treaty?
7. What new rights did European citizenship vest in Europeans?
8. What does the principle of subsidiarity mean?
117
Speakng point: Speak about the role of the Maastricht Treaty in
European integration
Translation
Столкновение двух подходов к европейскому строительству достигло своего апогея в конце 1965 – начале 1966, вылившись в так
называемый «Кризис пустого стула». Тогда президент Шарль
де Голль отозвал французских представителей из органов ЕЭС
и несколько месяцев блокировал их работу до тех пор, пока партнеры по Сообществу не пошли на так называемый «Люксембургский компромисс». Он предусматривал сохранение за Францией
права накладывать вето при принятии важнейших решений шестью членами ЕЭС как гарантию сохранения государственного
контроля над развитием ЕЭС.
Несмотря на сопротивление противников углубления интеграции, идеи федерализма получили дальнейшее развитие. Так,
в 1967 было проведено слияние высших органов трех Сообществ
(ЕОУС, ЕЭС, Евратома) в единый Совет и Комиссию, которые вместе с Европейским парламентом и Судом ЕС (изначально занимавшимися вопросами всех трех Сообществ) образовали общую институциональную структуру. В 1974 был создан новый институт
Сообщества – Европейский совет на уровне глав государств и правительств, а в 1979 – проведены первые прямые выборы в Европейский парламент.
Достижения интеграции в социально-экономической области,
а также глобальные изменения в мировой экономике и политике требовали создания более тесных форм взаимодействия интегрирующихся государств. Это было отражено в ряде инициатив
1980-х, главной из которых стало принятие Единого европейского
акта 1987 (ЕЕА).
ЕЕА провозгласил начало нового этапа европейской интеграции – создание Европейского Союза на основе существующих
Сообществ и углубление компетенции ЕС в области координации
экономической, валютной, социальной политики, социальноэкономического сплочения, исследований и технологического
развития, защиты окружающей среды, а также развитие европейского сотрудничества в области внешней политики.
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Подписание Договора о Европейском Союзе в 1992 в Маастрихте (Нидерланды) дало Европейским сообществам не только
новое официальное название – ЕС, но законодательно закрепило
озвученные в ЕЕА цели. Им также было введено общее гражданство Союза.
UNIT
3.
Evolution of the European Union
Towards the end of the 20th century, it became clear for a large
number of European leaders that the EU required a refoundation
and renovation. The Treaty of Amsterdam signed in 1997 intensified
European integration, creating a basis for a common policy on freedom, security and justice and adding new domains to the Community
scope. It also paved the way for a reform of the European institutions, in particular with a view to enhancing the role of the European
Parliament.
This reform of the institutions, necessary in the run-up to the biggest enlargement in the history of the Union to embrace the countries of eastern Europe, was fleshed out by the Treaty of Nice signed
in 2001. The Treaty of Nice opened the door for a process of institutional reform which had become essential.
In 2001 the European Council established the European Convention on the Future of Europe to prepare the reform and make proposals. The choice of a Convention represented a significant departure
from previous treaty revision procedures, reflecting the desire to do
away with meetings of government leaders held behind closed doors.
The Convention, which brought together representatives of the Member States, European Parliament, national parliaments and Commission, debated in public between February 2002 and July 2003 and
eventually produced a draft constitution for the EU, which failed
due to rejection by French and Dutch voters.
Next year the Intergovernmental Congress (IGC) was convened
which reached a consensus on the Treaty establishing a Constitution
for Europe. This Constitutional Treaty was adopted by the Heads
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of State and Government at the Brussels European Council in June
2004. To enter into force, the Treaty establishing the Constitution
had to be ratified by all the Member States in accordance with each
one's constitutional rules, namely either parliamentary ratification
or referendum. Following the difficulties in ratifying the Treaty in
some Member States, the Heads of State and Government decided,
at the European Council meeting in June 2005, to launch a "period of reflection" on the future of Europe. At the European Council
meeting in June 2007, European leaders reached a compromise and
agreed to convene an IGC to finalize and adopt, not a Constitution,
but a «reform treaty» for the European Union.
In December 2007 the Treaty of Lisbon was signed and on 1 December 2009 it entered into force. The Lisbon Treaty introduced
many changes into the EU. The pillar structure was abolished and
the EU obtained the consolidated legal personality.The LisbonTreaty
provided for the distribution of competences in various policy areas
between member states and the Union into exclusive, shared and
supporting competences. Under the Lisbon Treaty co-decision became the «ordinary legislative procedure», i.e. what used to be the
exception in decision-making has become the norm for most policy
areas. It is based on the principle of parity and means that neither
institution (European Parliament or Council) may adopt legislation
without the other's assent. Other prominent changes included more
qualified majority voting in the EU Council, increased involvement
of the European Parliament in the legislative process through extended codecision with the EU Council, and the creation of a President of the European Union and a High Representative for Foreign
Affairs to present a united position on EU policies.
The main objectives of the Treaty of Lisbon are to make the EU
more democratic, meeting the European citizens’ expectations for
high standards of accountability, openness, transparency and participation; and to make the EU more efficient and able to tackle today's
global challenges such as global economic crisis, climate change, security and sustainable development.
Comprehension
1. What is the significance of the Treaty of Amsterdam?
2. What process did the Treaty of Nice start?
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3. Why did the European Council establish the European
Convention?
4. Whom did the Convention bring together?
5. What was the outcome of the debates in the Convention?
6. Why did the constitution draft fail?
7. What consensus did the Intergovernmental Congress reach?
8. Why did the Heads of State decide to lauch a ‘period
of reflection”?
9. What changes did he Treaty of Lisbon propose?
10. Who has become the first President of the EU?
11. Who has become the first EU High Representative for Foreign
Affairs?
12. What are the main objectives of the Treaty of Lisbon?
Speak about evolution of the EU after the Maastricht Treaty.
Work in pairs: Sum up the information about the evolution of the EU.
Present your version to the partner.
Discussion point: Do you believe that Russia should join the European Union? Give your arguments.
Translation
Европейский Союз – уникальное международное образование,
которое сочетает признаки международной организации и государства, однако формально не является ни тем, ни другим. Союз
не является субъектом международного публичного права, однако имеет полномочия на участие в международных отношениях
и играет в них немалую роль. ЕС на протяжении почти десяти лет
пытался разработать программу реформирования своих основных институтов. По замыслу авторов документа, прописанные
в Лиссабонском договоре, реформы позволят трансформировать
громоздкий Евросоюз в более эффективную структуру.
По словам представителей Европейской Комиссии, Лиссабонский договор – важный шаг в европейской интеграции, который
поможет объединенной Европе решить задачи XXI века и откроет
возможности для глобализации. Объединенная Европа сможет выступать единым фронтом на международной арене и станет более
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последовательной в разных направлениях внешней политики, таких как дипломатия, безопасность, торговля и гуманитарная помощь. ЕС сможет лучше соответствовать ожиданиям в области
энергетики, изменения климата, трансграничных преступлений
и иммиграции. Комиссия также считает, что новый Договор предоставляет значительные преимущества гражданам и поможет
разрешить институциональные споры в ближайшем будущем.
«Из старого континента родилась новая Европа. Лиссабонский
договор представляет собой поворотный пункт в истории европейской интеграции, который ставит граждан в центр европейского
проекта, - пояснил Председатель Европейской Комиссии Жозе
Мануэль Баррозу. - После шести долгих лет переговоров мы можем отложить разрешение институциональных вопросов и сосредоточиться на том, чтобы граждане получили преимущества от
политических достижений».
UNIT
4.
Institutions of the EU.
The European Council
The basic institutional framework of the European Union comprises: the European Council, the European Parliament , the Council
of Ministers (referred to as the «Council»), the European Commission and the Court of Justice of the European Union .
The European Council (referred to as a European Summit)
is the highest political body of the European Union. It comprises the heads of state or government of the Union's member
states along with its President and the President of the European
Commission.
Under the Treaty of Lisbon: «The European Council shall provide
the Union with the necessary impetus for its development and shall
define the general political directions and priorities thereof». As regards the Union's external action, the Constitution stipulates that
the European Council will identify the strategic interests and objectives of the Union. However, the practical implementation of policies
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is the responsibility of the other institutions (Commission, European Parliament, Council). The Council meets at least twice every
six months, usually at the Justis Lipsius building, the headquartes
of the Council of the EU of Brussels.
The European Council takes such decisions as those relating
to the composition of the European Parliament, the system of equal
rotation for the composition of the Commission, the suspension
of the rights of a Member State in the event of a serious and persistent breach of the values of the Union and the changeover from a legal basis of unanimous voting to qualified majority voting. The European Council does not exercise legislative functions. All European
laws must be adopted by the Council of Ministers, in most cases
jointly with the European Parliament.
The Lisbon Treaty established a permanent President of the European Council, who took on the work previously assigned to rotating Presidencies. He/she is elected by qualified majority, for a term
of two and a half years, renewable once.
Comprehension
1. What institutions does the basic institutional framework
of the EU comprise?
2. What kind of institution is the European Council?
3. What is the role of the European Council?
4. What decisions are taken by the European Council?
5. What innovation regarding Presidency of the European Council
does the Treaty of Lisbon introduce?
6. Who is the current President of the European Council?
Sum up the information about the European Council
Translation
Европейский Совет (European Council) образован в 1974 г.,
а с 1986 г. его статус был официально закреплен в Едином европейском акте. В его состав входят главы государств и правительств стран - членов ЕС, а также председатель Европейской комиссии. По регламенту, Европейский совет заседает дважды в год,
а фактически – четыре раза в год. В ходе этих встреч обсуждаются общая ситуация и важнейшие политические проблемы Союза,
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а также состояние мировой экономики и международных отношений, определяются приоритетные направления деятельности,
принимаются программы и решения стратегического характера. В случае необходимости созываются также внеплановые
заседания, посвященные, как правило, одному крупному вопросу, требующему принятия политического решения. Итоги дискуссий и принятые решения доводятся до всеобщего сведения
в виде соответствующих политических заключений председательствующей стороны (Presidency conclusions). Формально, это
политический документ, который в последующем трансформируется в правовые акты и решения, принимаемые соответствующими институтами ЕС.
The European Parliament
The European Parliament is the EU’s only institution members of which are directly elected by EU citizens every five years.
Although Members of European Parliament are elected on a national basis, they sit according to political groups rather than
their nationality. The Treaty of Lisbon lays down that the maximum number of seats is 750. The minimum number of seats per
Member State is to be six, in order to make sure that, even in the
least populous Member States, all the major shades of political
opinion have a chance of being represented in the European Parliament. The maximum number of seats, which is 96, is also laid
down in the Constitutional Treaty for the first time. To prevent
overly long negotiations on the distribution of seats at the Parliament between the Member States, the Treaty of Lisbon establishes an allocation rule which states that representation of citizens
is degressively proportional.
With each reform of the treaties, the European Parliament's
role in the Union's decision-making procedure has been enhanced.
The Treaty extends the codecision procedure, called now the «ordinary legislative procedure», to a large number of articles. The
Parliament therefore becomes co-legislator in almost all cases. The
Treaty jointly vests the Parliament and the Council of Ministers
with the legislative and budgetary functions. In the budgetary procedure the Parliament has enhanced its powers, since the budgetary
procedure now belongs to the ordinary legislative procedure, with
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a single reading and conciliation between Parliament and Council.
Hence the Parliament is put on an equal footing with the Council
of Ministers as regards these two functions. The European Parliament also acts as «supervisor» of the Commission, particularly with
regard to how the Commission has spent the EU budget.
The European Parliament works primarily through its various committees, all of which include members the different party
groups and member states. EP committees focus on a particular issue area – for example, social policy, or fisheries policy. Because the
Treaty gives the EP more power in certain policy areas than in others, there is an informal hierarchy of committees in the EP, which
makes membership of those committees that correspond to the areas
in which the EP has been given greatest powers highly sought-after.
For example, membership of the Committee on the Environment,
Consumer Protection and Public Health might be seen as more advantageous or prestigious than membership of the Committee on
Fisheries. Plenary sessions, in which the MEPs formally vote on
the EP's position on policy issues, occur in Brussels and Strasbourg.
Most of the EP's work, however, is done in Brussels.
Comprehension
1. How are Members of the European Parliament elected and how
do they sit?
2. What is the minimum and the maximum number of seats per
Member state stipulated in the Constitutional Treaty?
3. What does an allocation rule state?
4. In what ways has the European Parliament’s role been enhanced
in the Treaty of Lisbon?
5. How does the European Parliament work?
6. What makes membership of some committees highly sought
for?
7. Which Committees seem to be more prestigious?
Sum up the information about the European Parliament
Work in pairs: Tell your partner about the European Council/the
European Parliament
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Translation
Европейский парламент – консультативно-законодательный
орган ЕС, состоит из представителей государств-членов, избираемых прямым голосованием в этих странах.
Функции. Осуществляет функции консультаций и контроля;
утверждает бюджет и заключает межгосударственные соглашения; одобряет или вносит поправки в принимаемые правовые
акты и бюджет ЕС.
Полномочия в области контроля. Комиссия подотчетна Парламенту. Парламент может принимать санкции в отношении Комиссии, например, вынести ей вотум недоверия, заставить ее уйти
в отставку.
Парламенту отведена ведущая роль при назначении председателя и членов Комиссии. Парламент контролирует деятельность
Совета посредством рассмотрения программ и отчетов председательствующего в Совете государства-члена.
Законодательные полномочия. Римский договор 1957 отводил Парламенту исключительно консультативную роль. С течением времени его полномочия были значительно расширены.
Современный процесс законотворчества в ЕС предусматривает участие Европарламента в законодательном процессе через
обязательные процедуры взаимодействия Комиссии и Совета
с Парламентом
Полномочия в области бюджета. Процедура принятия бюджета, предусматривающая два чтения в Парламенте, позволяет
ему вносить поправки в разработанный Советом проект. В исключительных случаях Парламент, если его мнение не было принято
в расчет, может отклонить бюджет в целом. Он дает заключение
о деятельности Комиссии, связанные с выполнением бюджета (на
основе выводов Палаты аудиторов).
Организационная структура. В Европарламенте представлены как европейские партии, так и парламентские фракции, представляющие собою политические альянсы менее крупных партий.
В политическом спектре Евросоюза выделяются два крыла: «Правые» – христианко-демократические партии, консерваторы, либералы и националисты и «Левые» - социалисты, объединенные
левые и «зеленые».
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The Council of the European Union
The Council of the European Union, otherwise known as the Council of Ministers or simply «the Council,» is a body holding legislative and executive powers. It represents the member governments,
and no EU legislation is possible without the Council’s agreement. The Council is also, together with the European Parliament,
the EU’s budgetary authority.
The membership of the Council changes according to the issue
at hand. Thus, if the issue is fixing subsidies to farmers, the Council will consist of national agriculture ministers and will be known
as the «Agriculture Council»; if the issue is the struggle against air
pollution, the Council will consist of national environment ministers
and be known as the «Environment Council».
The Treaty of Lisbon reorganizes the work of the Council.
The Treaty states that the Council shall meet in different configurations, which corresponds to existing practice but has never before
been written down in the Treaties. Two Council configurations are
specifically mentioned in the Treaty: the General Affairs Council and the Foreign Affairs Council. The Treaty makes the General
Affairs Council responsible for ensuring consistency in the work
of the various Council configurations. When meeting in this configuration, the Council prepares and ensures follow-up to meetings
of the European Council. The Foreign Affairs Council elaborates
the Union's external action on the basis of strategic guidelines laid
down by the European Council and ensures that the Union's action
is consistent.
The Lisbon Treaty created a 'High Representative of the Union
for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy' to coordinate the Union's
foreign policy with greater consistency. The new High Representative would also become a Vice-President of the Commission, the
administrator of the European Defence Agency and the SecretaryGeneral of the Council. He or she would also get an External Action
Service and a right to propose defence or security missions.
The Treaty set out a new system for adopting acts by qualified majority applicable from 1 November 2009 under which 55%
of the Member States representing 65 % of the population will constitute a qualified majority. Qualified majority voting in the Council
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of Ministers is extended to cover around 20 existing and 20 new legal
bases.
The Treaty requires the Council to meet in public when it deliberates and votes on a draft legislative act. It also requires each Council
meeting to be divided into two parts, dealing respectively with deliberations on Union legislative acts and non-legislative activities.
This means the Council's legislative and executive functions are
more clearly separated, and its work is rendered more transparent.
Comprehesion
1. What powers does the Council of the European Union possess?
2. How is the membership of the Council of ministers formed?
3. What Council configurations are specifically mentioned
in the Treaty?
4. What is the General Affairs Council responsible for?
5. What is the duty of the Foreign Affairs Council?
6. What is the main responsibility of the High Representative
for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy?
7. What new system for adopting acts did the Treaty set out?
8. What are the requirements of the Treaty regarding the work
of the Council?
Sum up the information about the EU Council of Ministers
Translation
Совет Министров наделен рядом функций как исполнительной,
так и законодательной власти, а потому нередко рассматривается
как ключевой институт в процессе принятия решений на уровне
Европейского союза. Был создан в 1952 г. и призван был уравновесить Европейскую Комиссию. Однако, компетенции этих органов
четко поделены. Если Европейская комиссия играет в большей
мере административную роль, то Совет Министров ЕС осуществляет политическое лидерство. Совет играет ключевую роль в тех
областях европейской интеграции, где принятие решений происходит на межправительственном уровне.
В Совет входят министры иностранных дел государств-членов
Европейского союза. Однако получила развитие практика созыва
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Совета в составе иных, отраслевых министров: экономики и финансов, юстиции и внутренних дел, сельского хозяйства и т. д.
Решения Совета имеют одинаковую силу вне зависимости от конкретного состава, принявшего решение.
В первые периоды существования Европейского сообщества
большинство решений Совета требовали единогласного решения.
Постепенно все большее применение приобретает способ принятия решений квалифицированным большинством голосов.
Под эгидой Совета действуют многочисленные рабочие группы
по конкретным вопросам. Их задача – готовить решения Совета
и контролировать Еврокомиссию в случае, если ей делегированы
определённые полномочия Совета.
Начиная с Парижского договора, существует тенденция селективного делегирования полномочий от национальных государств
(напрямую или через Совет Министров) к Еврокомиссии. Подписание новых «пакетных» соглашений добавляли новые компетенции Евросоюзу, что влекло за собой делегирования больших
исполнительских полномочий Еврокомиссии. Однако, Еврокомиссия не свободна в осуществлении политики, в определённых
сферах национальные правительства имеют инструменты контроля над её деятельностью.
The European Commission
The European Commission acts as the EU's executive arm. It is
also responsible for drafting all law of the European Union and has
a monopoly over legislative initiative. It also deals with the day-today running of the Union and has a duty to uphold the law and treaties (in this role it is known as the «Guardian of the Treaties»). It is
intended to act solely in the interest of the EU as a whole, as opposed
to the Council which consists of leaders of member states who reflect
national interests.
The Lisbon Treaty clarifies that the Commission represents
the Union externally, except in the case of the common foreign and
security policy, and that it initiates the Union's annual and multiannual programming. The Treaty also reaffirms the principle of
collective accountability and of responsibility to the Parliament. Finally, the Treaty provides that the Commission is always appointed
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for a five-year term of office and must be completely independent in
carrying out its responsibilities.
The Commission is currently composed of 27 commissioners for
different areas of policy, one from each member state. The term
"Commission" can mean either the 27 Commissioners themselves
(known as the College of Commissioners), or the larger institution
that also includes the administrative body of about 25,000 European
civil servants who are split into departments. The internal working
languages are English, French and German.
According to the Treaty of Lisbon the President of the Commission is elected by the European Parliament by a majority of its members, acting on a proposal from the European Council . This proposal
has to take into account the results of the European elections. The
purpose of this amendment is to enhance the importance of the European elections and of the Parliament and clearly highlights the responsibility of the President of the Commission.
Comprehension
1. What are the responsibilities of the Commission?
2. Whose interests is the European Commission intended
to reflect?
3. What can the term “Commission” mean?
4. What is the procedure of electing the President of the Commission?
5. Who is the current Commission President?
Sum up the information about the European Commission
Work in pairs: Tell your partner about the Council of the EU/
the European Commission
Translation
Европейская комиссия (European Commission) – исполнительный орган ЕС, обладающий одновременно правом законодательной инициативы.
Функции. Комиссии принадлежит право законодательной
инициативы: она разрабатывает законодательные предложения
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и направляет их в Совет, контролирует дальнейший процесс законотворчества; следит за применением законодательных актов, принятых Советом. В случаях нарушений может прибегнуть к санкциям, – например, передать дело в Суд. Она вправе принимать
самостоятельные решения в таких сферах как сельское хозяйство,
торговля, конкуренция, транспорт, функционирование единого внутреннего рынка, защита окружающей среды и др.; исполняет бюджет и управляет фондами ЕС. Кроме того, Европейская
комиссия выполняет дипломатические функции ЕС за рубежом,
располагая сетью представительств (в том числе и в Москве).
Организационная структура. Комиссия состоит из 26 генеральных директоратов (Directorate-General), ведающих отдельными направлениями деятельности ЕС, включая отношения
с третьими странами. Например, Генеральный директорат XVI
занимается вопросами проведения политики сплочения, Генеральный директорат VIII – вопросами развития сотрудничества
с государствами АКТ (Государства Африки, Карибского моря
и Тихоокеанского региона). Комиссия собирается один раз в неделю в Брюсселе.
The European Court if Justice
The European Court of Justice (ECJ, the Court) is the final major institution of the EU. It has no direct role to play in the process
of making EU policy, but its powers to interpret the treaties have
allowed it to make decisions which have, in some cases, had a telling
impact on the way the EU as a whole has developed. The ECJ sits
in Luxembourg, and consists of one Judge per member State, along
with eight Advocates General, whose task is to present independent
opinions on all cases brought before the Court.
The ECJ hears cases which concern either adjudication or interpretation. The Court's adjudication role requires it to judge whether
particular acts or proposals are illegal, because they overstep the limits of power granted by the treaties, or whether member states are
at fault for incorrect or incomplete implementation of agreed policy.
The Court's interpretation function requires it to rule on the precise
meaning of the treaties, assisting the courts of the member states in
the correct application of EC law. The ECJ has been assisted by a Court
of First Instance (CFI) since 1998. The CFI is perhaps best considered
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as a junior chamber of the EC, it reduces the volume of cases that the
ECJ must hear and specializes in actions brought by private actors
(such as individuals or companies) against acts of the EU institutions.
The European Central Bank
The European Central Bank (ECB) is the newest EU institution.
It came into being in 1998 as part of the preparations for the launch
of the European single currency, the euro. The ECB is an unusual
EU institution in two ways. First, it is completely independent of
the 'political' institutions (Council, Commission, Parliament). This
is to ensure that EU monetary policy is seen to be free from political manoeuvring. Second, it is based not in Brussels, but in Frankfurt. The ECB has a narrow, but vital, task: to ensure that the single
currency functions well. The Treaty gives it one principal method
of meeting this duty - to ensure that inflation remains very low in
the euro-zone, i.e. the countries which have adopted the euro.
The ECB also co-operates with the central banks of those countries which are member states of the EU, but which have not adopted the euro-either because they do not wish to, or because they do
not yet meet the criteria for membership. This co-operation takes
place within the European System of Central Banks (ESCB), which
brings together the governors of the central banks of each member
state of the EU. Those from outside the euro-zone have no right to
vote on matters of single currency monetary policy. However, the
ESCB is a useful forum in which to address issues which affect all
member states of the EU, whether they have adopted the euro or
not.
Comprehension
1. What allowed the European Court of Justice to make a considerable impact on the development of the European Union?
2. What is the structure of the European Court of Justice?
3. What cases does the Court hear?
4. What does the Court’s adjudication role require?
5. What does the Court’s interpretation function require?
6. Whan did the European Central Bank come into being?
7. In what ways is the ECB an unusual institution?
132
8. What is the main duty of the ECB?
Work in pairs: Tell your partner about the European Court of Justice / the European Central Bank
Translation
Европейский суд проводит свои заседания в Люксембурге и является судебным органом ЕС высшей инстанции.
Суд регулирует разногласия между государствами-членами;
между государствами-членами и самим Европейским союзом;
между институтами ЕС; между ЕС и физическими либо юридическими лицами, включая сотрудников его органов (для этой
функции недавно был создан Трибунал гражданской службы).
Суд дает заключения по международным соглашениям; он также выносит предварительные (преюдициальные) постановления
по запросам национальных судов о толковании учредительных
договоров и нормативно-правовых актов ЕС. Решения Суда ЕС
обязательны для исполнения на территории ЕС. По общему правилу юрисдикция Суда ЕС распространяется на сферы компетенции ЕС.
В соответствии с Маастрихтским договором Суду предоставлено право налагать штрафы на государства-члены, не выполняющие его постановления.
Суд состоит из 27 судей (по одному от каждого из государствчленов) и восьми генеральных адвокатов. Они назначаются
на шестилетний срок, который может быть продлен. Каждые три
года обновляется половина состава судей.
Суд сыграл огромную роль в становлении и развитии права ЕС.
Многие, даже основополагающие принципы правопорядка Союза
основаны не на международных договорах, а на прецедентных решениях Суда.
Other Institutions
Other institutions and bodies of the EU include the Court of Auditors, the Ombudsman, the Economic and Social Committee (ESC)
and the Committee of the Regions (CoR).
The Court or Auditors acts as the EU's independent financial watchdog. It reports on the propriety of how the EU runs its
133
finances, and can be extremely influential given the importance
of honest financial management. It was the Court of Auditors' report on the 1996 budget, which was highly critical, that led to the
resignation of the Commission in 1999 (in order to avoid being dismissed by the EP).
The position of EU Ombudsman was established in the Maastricht Treaty. The Ombudsman is appointed by the EP, and is tasked
with ensuring that the EU is properly administered. The Ombudsman can respond to complaints from citizens, or investigate issues
under his/her own initiative. In its short history to date, the office of Ombudsman has had an impact on the policy-making process by promoting further transparency and defending citizens' interests. However, because the Ombudsman has no power to impose
a settlement on an erring institution, but must rather negotiate
a settlement, the impact of the office has so far been less extensive
than it might otherwise be.
The ESC and CoR are 'advisory committees', created to give
specialist advice to the policy-making institutions (Council, EP,
Commission) on legislative proposals. The ESC was established
at the outset of European integration and brings together the
'social partners' (employers and trades unions) plus other representatives of civil society; the CoR was set up by the Maastricht
Treaty, and brings together representatives of regional and local
governments from the member states. Although both these bodies
can have an impact on policy made at EU level, this is not usually
extensive.
Comprehension
1.
2.
3.
4.
What is the role of the Court of Auditors?
What historical fact demonstrates the importance of this body?
What are the responsibilities of Ombudsman?
In what way has the office of Ombudsman had an impact on
the policy-making process?
5. Why has the impact of the office so far been less extensive than
it might be?
6. Why were the ESC and CoR created?
7. Whom do the ESC and CoR bring together?
134
Words to be memorized
monitor –
successive –
run-up, n –
transparent –
tackle –
tackle a problem –
challenge v., n. –
to face a challenge –
challenge smth –
sustain –
sustained –
ombudsman –
lay down –
as regards –
hierarchy –
correspond to –
as opposed to –
solely –
clarify –
watchdog –
контролировать
последовательный, последующий
подготовка, подготовительное
мероприятие
ясный, понятный, прозрачный
заниматься, решать
биться над решением проблемы
вызов, угроза, испытание; бросать вызов
стоять перед проблемой
ставить что-л. под сомнение
переносить, претерпевать
устойчивый, непрерывный
омбудсмен
устанавливать (нормы) , формулировать
(в законе)
что касается
иерархия
соответствовать, согласовываться
по сравнению с, в противоположность
только, исключительно
вносить ясность
контролирующий орган
Vocabulary work
I.
Form nouns from the following verbs and translate them
suspend
assess
detain
implicate
govern
initiate
clarify
assert
assume
comply
conciliate
elaborate
deliberate
perceive
stipulate
135
II. Form collocations, translate them. Make sentences of your own
monitor
tackle
sustain
clarify
lay down
III. Use the words in
the sentence
a provision
life
a point
growth
the rules
budget
the law
activities
unemployment
capitals to form a word that completes
1.
The members of the Commission asked to
write … into the draft bill.
2. Mr. Borrosa was elected President of the EU
Commission for the second … term.
3. All these reforms are aimed at making the
activities of government more ….
4. An organization in which differences in
status are considered to be very important is
called ….
5. Analysts believe present economic growth
can be ….without inflation.
6. The EU has … … tough standards for water
quality.
7. He found the post of Ombudsman to be a …
and rewarding job.
CLARIFY
SUCCESSION
TRANSPARENCY
HIERARCHY
SUSTAIN
LAY DOWN
CHALLENGE
IV. Complete the sentences and translate them
1. A number of consultations were held in the …to the summit.
2. The conference was devoted to …development in the area.
3. They were interested … in the schemes that would make a lot
of money.
4. The European Commission acts solely in the interest of
the EU as a whole … … to the Council which reflects national
interests.
5. … … the legislative and budgetary functions, the Parliament
and the Council of Ministers are on an equal footing.
136
6. The main responsibility of the … is to ensure that the EU is
properly administered.
7. There is an informal hierarchy of committees in the EP,
which makes membership of those committees that … to the
areas in which the EP has been given greatest powers highly
sought after.
Sum up the information about the European Court if Justice/the
European Central Bank and other institutions
UNIT
5.
The policies оf the European Union
Economic and monetary policy
Two of the original core objectives of the European Economic
Community were the development of a common market, subsequently renamed the single market, and a customs union between its member states. The single market involves the free circulation of goods,
capital, people and services within the EU, and the customs union
involves the application of a common external tariff on all goods entering the market. Once goods have been admitted into the market
they can not be subjected to customs duties, discriminatory taxes or
import quotas, as they travel internally.
The free movement of persons means citizens can move freely between member states to live, work, study or retire in another country. This required the lowering of administrative formalities and
recognition of professional qualifications of other states.
The free movement of services allows self-employed persons to
move between member states in order to provide services on a temporary or permanent basis. While services account for between sixty
and seventy percent of GDP, legislation in the area is not as developed as in other areas. This lacuna has been addressed by the recently
passed Directive on services in the internal market which aims to
liberalise the cross border provision of services.
The creation of a European single currency became an official objective of the EU in 1969. However, it was only with the advent of
137
the Maastricht Treaty in 1993 that member states were legally bound
to start the monetary union no later than 1 January 1999. On this
date the euro was duly launched by eleven of the then fifteen member
states of the EU. It remained an accounting currency until 1 January
2002, when euro notes and coins were issued and national currencies
began to phase out in the eurozone, which by then consisted of twelve
member states. The eurozone has since grown to sixteen countries.
The euro is designed to help build a single market by, for example: easing travel of citizens and goods, eliminating exchange
rate problems, providing price transparency, creating a single financial market, price stability and low interest rates, and providing
a currency used internationally and protected against shocks by the
large amount of internal trade within the eurozone. It is also intended as a political symbol of integration and stimulus for more.
The euro, and the monetary policies of those who have adopted it
in agreement with the EU, are under the control of the European Central Bank (ECB). There are eleven other currencies used in the EU.
The EU operates a competition policy intended to ensure undistorted competition within the single market. The Commission as
the competition regulator for the single market is responsible for
antitrust issues, approving mergers, breaking up cartels, working
for economic liberalisation and preventing state aid. The Competition Commissioner is one of the most powerful positions in the Commission, notable for the ability to affect the commercial interests of
trans-national corporations.
Considered as a single economy, the EU generated an estimated nominal gross domestic product (GDP) of US$18.39 trillion in
2008, amounting to over 22 % of the world's total economic output
in terms of purchasing power parity, which makes it the largest
economy in the world by nominal. It is also the largest exporter of
goods, the second largest importer, and the biggest trading partner
to several large countries such as India and China. 170 of the top 500
largest corporations measured by revenue (Fortune Global 500) have
their headquarters in the EU.
Comprehension
1. What were the original core objectives of the European Economic Community?
138
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
What do the single market and the customs union involve?
What does the free movement of persons mean?
What did it require?
What does the free movement of services allow?
When did the creation of a single European currency become an
official objective of the EU?
7. When was the euro launched?
8. How many countries use the euro currently?
9. How does the euro help build a single market?
10. Whose control are the euro and the monetary policies of the eurozone countries under?
11. What competition policy does the EU operate?
12. What is the European Commission as the competition regulator
responsible for?
13. Why is the Competition Commissioner position one of the most
powerful?
14. What GDP did the EU generate last year?
15. What are the other economic characteristics of the EU?
Sum up the information about economic and monetary policy
of the EU.
Translation
До создания Экономического и валютного союза (ЭВС) взаимовлияние на экономическую политику стран-членов осуществлялось в основном с помощью инструментов торговой и структурной
политики (общеевропейские транспортные проекты, экология, содействие науке и исследованиям и т. д.) или микроэкономического
регулирования (регулирование отдельных аспектов деятельности
предприятий, например – в области охраны труда). В 1990-х гг.
по решению Маастрихтского договора впервые был задействован
весь комплекс средств, включая инструментарий макроэкономического регулирования.
Маастрихтским договором 1992 г. были установлены жесткие
критерии конвергенции, необходимые для введения единой валюты – евро: инфляции, темпы которой не должны превышать более
чем на 1,5% средний показатель в странах-членах с наименьшим
ростом цен; дефицит госбюджета не должен быть более 3% ВВП;
139
государственный долг не должен быть более 60% ВВП; в течение
двух лет валюта не должна девальвироваться и ее обменный курс
не должен выходить за пределы колебаний, установленные Европейской валютной системой.
Пакт стабильности и роста 1997 г. , заключенный по настоянию правительства ФРГ, обеспечил гарантии исполнения маастрихтских критериев. Формирование ЭВС происходило в три
этапа и завершилось введением единой европейской валюты,
которая постепенно заменила национальные денежные знаки.
С введением евро у Евросоюза появилось больше возможностей
проводить независимую от США экономическую и валютную
политику.
Внутри ЭВС экономический и валютный элементы интеграции
органически связаны и не могут существовать отдельно. Так, общая экономическая политика нужна, чтобы сформировать на территории всех стран-членов единое экономическое пространство,
а валютный союз, обслуживая это пространство, не может функционировать при существенно различающихся национальных
темпах инфляции, процентных ставках, уровнях государственной задолженности и т. п.
Common Foreign and Security Policy
Foreign policy cooperation between member states dates from the
establishment of the Community in 1957, when member states negotiated as a bloc in international trade negotiations under the Common Commercial Policy. Steps for a more wide ranging coordination
in foreign relations began in 1970 with the establishment of European Political Cooperation which created an informal consultation
process between member states with the aim of forming common foreign policies. It was not, however, until 1987 when European Political Cooperation was introduced on a formal basis by the Single European Act. EPC was renamed as the Common Foreign and Security
Policy (CFSP) by the Maastricht Treaty.
The Maastricht Treaty gave the CFSP the aims of promoting
both the EU's own interests and those of the international community as a whole. This includes promoting international co-operation,
respect for human rights, democracy, and the rule of law.
140
The Amsterdam Treaty created the office of the High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy to co-ordinate
the EU's foreign policy. Under the Treaty of Lisbon this function is
performed by the Foreign Affairs Minister.
The EU also has its own representation in international organisations. This is primarily through the European Commissioner for External Relations, who works alongside the High Representative. In
the UN, as an observer and working together, the EU has gained influence in areas such as aid due to its large contributions in that field.
The European Community Humanitarian Aid Office, or «ECHO»,
provides humanitarian aid from the EU to developing countries.
In 2006 its budget amounted to €671 million, 48% of which went
to the African, Caribbean and Pacific countries. Counting the EU's
own contributions and those of its member states together, the EU is
the largest aid donor in the world.
In the G8, the EU has rights of membership besides chairing/
hosting summit meetings and is represented at meetings by the
presidents of the Commission and the Council. In the World Trade
Organisation (WTO), where all 27 member states are represented,
the EU as a body is represented by a Trade Commissioner.
Comprehension
1. What does foreign policy cooperation between member states
date from?
2. What did European Political Cooperation (EPC) create?
3. When was EPC introduced on a formal basis?
4. What was EPC renamed by the Maastricht treaty?
5. What is the Common Foreign and Security Policy aimed at?
6. What is the function of the High Represesntative for the
CFSP?
7. In what international organizations does the EU have its
representation?
8. Why has the EU gained influence in aid area?
9. What rights does the EU have in the G8?
Sum up the information about Common Foreign and Security Policy of the EU
141
Translation
Общая внешняя политика и политика безопасности относится к сфере межгосударственного сотрудничества и не регулируется системой права Сообщества, хотя формально в Маастрихстком
договоре и записано, что «Союз определяет и осуществляет общую
внешнюю политику и политику безопасности, которая охватывает все области внешней политики и политики безопасности...».
Первые внешнеполитические цели Сообщества были закреплены Римским договором 1957. Они носили декларативный характер и сводились к двум положениям: заявлению
о солидарности с бывшими колониальными странами и желание
обеспечения их процветания в соответствии с принципами Устава ООН; призыву к другим европейским народам к участию в европейской интеграции.
В 1970-х гг. тема развития сотрудничества в военно-политической области вновь приобрела актуальность. На Люксембургской сессии министров иностранных дел государств-членов
(27 октября 1970 г.) была учреждена система Европейского политического сотрудничества (ЕПС). Она представляла собой
межгосударственный механизм взаимного обмена информацией
и политических консультаций на уровне министров иностранных дел. Но длительное время эта система существовала неформально, не будучи включенной в договорное право Сообщества
из-за разногласий в вопросе о разграничении полномочий между
национальными правительствами и руководящими органами
Сообщества.
Компромиссное решение было найдено лишь в конце 1980-х гг.
Принятый в 1987 г. Единый европейский акт включил раздел
Положения о европейском сотрудничестве в области внешней
политики, означавшим включение внешнеполитической сферы
в договорное право Сообщества. Тема военно-политического сотрудничества получила продолжение в форме Общей внешней политики и общей политики безопасности (ОВПБ) ЕС, закрепленной
в Маастрихтском договоре 1992. Она включала в себя «возможное оформление в дальнейшем общей оборонительной политики,
которая могла бы привести со временем к созданию общих сил
обороны».
142
Среди основных целей ОВПБ были названы: защита общих ценностей, основных интересов, независимости и целостности Союза
в соответствии с принципами Устава ООН; всемерное укрепление
безопасности Союза; сохранение мира и укрепление международной безопасности в соответствии с принципами Устава ООН, равно
как и принципами Хельсинского Заключительного акта и целями Парижской хартии (Совета Европы); развитие международного сотрудничества; развитие демократии и закон-ности, уважение
прав человека и основных свобод.
В отличие от ЕПС, ОВПБ предложила не только обмен информацией и взаимные консультации, но и выработку на межправительственной основе общей позиции ЕС по важнейшим
вопросам и осуществление совместных действий, обязательных
для государств-членов.
Common Security and Defence Policy
Since 1999 Common Security and Defence Policy has become a significant part of the Common Foreign and Security Policy.
The EU itself has limited military capability and member states are
responsible for their own territorial defence. Many EU members are
also members of NATO although some member states follow policies
of neutrality.
The Western European Union (WEU) was a European security
organisation related to the EU. In 1992, the WEU's relationship with
the EU was defined, when the EU assigned it the «Petersberg tasks»
(humanitarian missions such as peacekeeping and crisis management). These tasks were later transferred from the WEU to the EU
by the Amsterdam Treaty and now form part of the Common Foreign
and Security Policy.
At the 1996 NATO ministerial meeting in Berlin, it was agreed
that the Western European Union would oversee the creation
of a European Security and Defence Identity (ESDI) within NATO
structures. The ESDI was to create a European 'pillar' within NATO,
partly to allow European countries to act militarily where NATO
wished not to, and partly to alleviate the United States' financial
burden of maintaining military bases in Europe, which it had done
since the Cold War. The Berlin agreement allowed European countries (through the WEU) to use NATO assets if it so wished (this
143
agreement was later amended to allow the European Union to conduct such missions, the so-called Berlin-plus arrangement).
The European Union made its first concrete step to enhance military capabilities, in line with the ESDP, in 1999 when its member
states signed the Helsinki Headline Goal. After much discussion,
the most concrete result was the EU Battlegroups initiative, each of
which is planned to be able to deploy quickly about 1500 men. EU
forces have been deployed on peacekeeping missions from Africa to
the former Yugoslavia and the Middle East. EU military operations
are supported by a number of bodies, including the European Defence Agency, satellite centre and the military staff.
The policy document that guides the European Union's international security strategy is the European Security Strategy. It
argues that in order to ensure security for Europe in a globalising world, multilateral cooperation within Europe and abroad is
to be the imperative, because «no single nation is able to tackle
today's complex challenges». As such the ESS identifies a string
of key threats Europe needs to deal with: terrorism, proliferation
of weapons of mass destruction, regional conflict, failed states,
and organised crime.
Comprehension
1. Who is responsible for the territorial defence of the EU member
states?
2. What kind of organization was the Western European Union?
3. What tasks were assigned to the WEU by the EU?
4. What organization were these tasks transferred to by the Amsterdam Treaty?
5. What was agreed at the NATO ministerial meeting in Berlin in 1996?
6. What was the main task of the European Security and Defence
Identity?
7. What did the Berlin agreement allow Europeean countries to do?
8. What was the concrete result of the Helsinki Headline Goal?
9. What EU peacekeeping missions could you name?
10. What does the European Security Strategy argue?
11. What are the key threats to Europe?
12. Why is multilateral cooperation to be imperative?
144
Sum up the information about Europen Security and Defence
Policy
Translation
Амстердамский договор 1997 г. расширил и конкретизировал
механизмы осуществления ОВПБ, согласно которому она охватывает все области внешней политики и политики безопасности путем: определения принципов и основных ориентиров ОВПБ; принятия решений по общей стратегии; усиления систематического
сотрудничества между государствами-членами в проведении их
политики.
Общая оборонная политика предусматривала постепенное
включение в рамки Европейского Союза оперативных структур
Западноевропейского союза (ЗЕС).
Механизм системы ОВПБ был существенно усилен. ЕС приступил к выработке «общих стратегий», принимаемых Европейским
советом, в числе которых были приняты общие стратегии ЕС в отношении России (1999 г.), Украины (1999 г.), стран Средиземноморья (2000 г.).
Для принятия решений о совместных действиях и общих позициях ЕС, а также других решений, основанных на общей стратегии, был введен принцип квалифицированного большинства,
а не единогласия. Это повысило действенность данного органа,
в первую очередь за счет придания ему способности преодолевать
вето отдельных недовольных участников, тормозивших принятие решений.
Для обеспечения успешного функционирования и координации системы ОВПБ введен пост Генерального секретаря Европейского совета – Высокого представителя по ОВПБ. В его функции
входит ведение переговоров с третьими сторонами от имени Европейского совета. Европейский совет наделяется правом заключать международные договоры в рамках компетенции ОВПБ на
основе единогласия государств-членов. При этом он руководствуется рекомендациями председательствующего государства. Отказ Великобритании осенью 1998 от своего оппозиционного курса
в отношении европейского военно-политического сотрудничества
открыл путь для интеграции ЗЕС в ЕС и развития Европейской
политики безопасности и обороны (ЕПБО).
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The Common Agricultural Policy
The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is one of the oldest policies of the EU and was the great early success story of the EU. Established to ensure an adequate food supply for the member states and to
protect EU farmers from overseas competition, it was operated, intil
recently, by a system of subsidies and market intervention which resulted in considerable overproduction. Essentially, the CAP guarantees farmers that the price paid for their produce will not fall below an
agreed level, even if the world market price falls below it. Thus, farmers' incomes are subsidised, helping maintain a farming community
in the Union and thereby guaranteeing that the EU can feed itself.
However, the CAP has become increasingly controversial,
for a number of reasons. The first, perhaps, is its existence outside the normal EU approach of allowing market forces to rule;
those operating in other sectors of the economy, and subject to
the full forces of competition, increasingly fail to see why farmers should not face the same treatment. Those representing consumers argue that the CAP keeps prices artificially high because
it shields the EU from global markets and cheaper food imports.
The overproduction has also been criticized by environmental
groups for encouraging environmentally unfriendly intensive
farming methods. The US, the developing world and the WTO
complain that the CAP discriminates against non-EU products –
a wrong which undercuts farmers in the developing world. Still
others point out that the CAP takes up almost half the EU budget;
if the CAP were abolished, that money could be spent on other
policies, such as regional cohesion or development. Thus, pressures for reform have been growing, and successive changes have
been made to the CAP in the last decade or so.
Comprehension
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
What is the main objective of the CAP?
How was the CAP operated until recently?
What does the CAP guarantee farmers?
What is the first reason for criticising the CAP?
What is the argument of consumers?
Why has the overproduction been criticized by environmentalists?
146
7. Why do the developing countries and WTO criticize the CAP?
8. What part of the EU annual budget does the CAP take up?
Sum up the information
Policy.
about the EU Common Agricultural
Translation
Совет министров по вопросам сельского хозяйства и рыболовства ЕС одобрил пакет законодательства по реформированию
Общей сельскохозяйственной политики. Соответствующее решение было утверждено 19 января 2009 г. на заседании Совета
в Брюсселе.
Законодательный пакет предусматривает, в частности, увеличение отчислений от фермеров, которые получают помощь из
бюджета ЕС более чем на 5 тыс евро ежегодно, в фонды сельского
развития с нынешних 5% до 7% от суммы помощи с 2010 г. и дальнейшим ростом на 1% до 10% – с 2013 г.
Кроме того, новое законодательство предусматривает возможность для стран-членов ЕС использовать до 10% ассигнований на
поддержку фермеров на специальные цели, которыми могут быть
улучшение защиты окружающей среды при сельскохозяйственной
деятельности, улучшение качества продовольствия, улучшение
размещения продовольствия на рынках, на содействие развитию
животноводства в отдельных экономически сложных регионах.
Полученные дополнительные средства местными фондами
сельского развития должны использоваться на борьбу с климатическими изменениями, возобновляемую энергетику, управление
водными ресурсами и поддержание биологического разнообразия.
Согласно законодательному пакету, начиная с 2009 г. до 2013 г.
будут возрастать ежегодно на 1% квоты на производство молока
фермерами ЕС для подготовки к отмене квот, запланированной на
2015 г. Единственным исключением станет Италия, которой будет
разрешено с 2009 г. поднять квоты на молоко на 5%.
Regional policy.
Regional policy was established in order to help economically
backward regions of the member states to develop. It is a further
147
indicator of the EU's unique successes in developing as a political
system, because it allows the transfer of resources between the member states on the ground that they have an obligation to reduce the
gaps between the richer and poorer regions of the single market. Regional policy owes its place in the set of EU policies to three major
factors. Two of these are ideological; one is hard -nosed national interest. On the ideological side, there are two key issues. First, the
need to mitigate the impact of competition policy on regional development, because the EU's competition policy made state aids to such
regions either difficult or impossible. Second, there is a perceived
need to help even out the development potential of the Union's richer
and poorer regions in order to gain optimal benefit from the single
market. This kind of thinking encouraged the EU to develop a mechanism to transfer resources to its economically weakest regions - the
'cohesion policy'. On the national interest side, there is a 'compensation logic' in evidence. Member states which did not receive large
payments under the CAP regime sought a means to demonstrate
to their publics that membership of the EU had financial benefits
and not just costs; they thus promoted the idea of regional policy
as a 'juste retour' (or 'fair return') on the costs of EU membership.
This double rationale for EU regional policy has made its evolution difficult, because it has never been clear whether the policy is
really about regional development in the EU’s truly poorest areas or
about allowing each member state a slice of the regional budget pie.
Nonetheless, a clear principle has been established in order to promote the involvement of actors from regional/local government and
civil society in the formation and implementation of regional policy
('partnership’).
There is no doubt that EU money has been a key factor in the success of many regeneration projects in the member states. But although the proportion of the EU budget that is devoted to regional
policy has been growing, the actual sums of money involved remain
inadequate, given the small size of the EU budget itself. Thus,
the ability of EU regional policy to transform the developmental potential of its poorest regions must be open to question. This has recently become even clearer as the pre-2004 member states have so far
refused both to increase their contributions to the EU budget and to
share regional policy money fairly with the 2004 entrants.
148
Comprehension
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Why was Regional policy established?
What does regional policy allow?
What is the first ideological factor of EU reginal policy?
What is the second ideological factor?
What is the national interest factor?
What principle has been established in the formation and implementation of regional policy?
7. What has been a key factor in the success of many regeneration
projects?
8. Why do the actual sums of money involved in regional policy remain inadequate?
9. When did the limited ability of EU regional policy to transform
its poorest regions become even clearer?
Sum up the information about the EU regional policy
Translation
Пример региональной политики (РП), пожалуй, наиболее ярко
демонстрирует характерные черты подхода Европейского Союза
к формированию направлений своей политики, его гибкость и оперативность, когда изменение ситуации влечет за собой едва ли не
мгновенную реакцию. Зародившись в послевоенные годы в форму
мероприятий чрезвычайного характера, сегодня РП превратилась
в постоянно действующий фактор, без которого, очевидно, немыслима полноценная интеграция.
История формирования РП Европейского Союза крайне насыщена и напряжена, хотя и не слишком длинна: фактически активная РП начала проводиться с середины 70-х гг.
Реформа Структурных фондов 1989 г. предусматривала резкое
увеличение выделения финансовых средств на мероприятия РП
(фактически их удвоение); были выделены основные типы регионов, получающих помощь через СФ (так называемое Objectives).
Несколько позже Маастрихтский договор предусмотрел создание
нового фонда – Фонда Сплочения (Cohesion Fund) – специально
для «подтягивания» четырех беднейших стран – Испании, Португалии, Греции и Ирландии.
149
Новые вызовы ставит перед РП глобализация экономики. В новом глобальном контексте РП ставится задача не просто искать
и мобилизовать внутренние ресурсы региона для повышения его
конкурентоспособности в масштабах Союза, но о конкурентоспособности этого региона в мировом масштабе.
В самое последнее время можно отметить и новые тенденции.
Прежде всего, это резкое повышение внимания к роли и границам применения принципа субсидиарности. Будучи на поверхности простым, этот принцип тем не менее пока не поддается
однозначной трактовке, таким образом и ЕС, и страны-участницы,
и регионы имеют свое представление о принципе субсидиарности,
и приведению этих представлений к некоему общему знаменателю посвящены сегодня самые горячие дебаты.
Далее можно заметить, что в текстах ЕС РП все чаще заменяется понятием политики сплочения (cohesion policy). Таким образом,
на наших глазах происходит изменение понятийного аппарата:
фактически политика сплочения означает переплетение РП и социальной политики, когда они уже не рассматриваются изолированно друг от друга. Политика сплочения предполагает одновременное сплочение по горизонтали (между регионами – РП) и по
вертикали (между слоями общества – социальная политика).
Представляется, что прекрасным итогом истории развития РП
в Союзе, результаты которого мы оценим лишь в будущем, это изменение самого подхода к РП, осознание приоритетности ее задач
для успехов интеграционных процессов в целом. Изменение подхода к РП ощущается, прежде всего, в резком увеличении выделения финансовых средств (в настоящее время расходы на проведение РП в бюджете Союза уступают лишь расходам на проведение
общей сельскохозяйственной политики); диверсификации форм
и методов РП; попытки ЕС заняться «профилактикой», то есть
уже на этапе выработки решений принять во внимание их влияние на региональное развитие.
Words to be memorized
revenue –
host,v. –
assign –
150
доходы, прибыль
принимать гостей
назначать (срок ), определять (границы);
ассигновать, предназначать
oversee –
alleviate –
cohesion –
economic cohesion –
rationale –
proliferation –
failed –
failed state –
mitigate –
even out –
shield –
осуществлять надзор, курировать
ослаблять,смягчать
сплочённость, согласие
экономическая интеграция
основание, логическое обоснование
распространение, количественный рост
неудавшийся, провалившийся,
обанкротившийся
недееспособное государство, государствобанкрот
смягчать, уменьшать, облегчать
выравнивать, сглаживать
защищать, прикрывать
Vocabulary work
I.
Form nouns from the following verbs and translate them
host
assign
oversee
alleviate
deploy
proliferate
mitigate
shield
II. Find synonyms to the words in the left column and translate
them
aim
impact
contentious
liable
estrablish
exercise
secure
monitor
deliberate
impetus
controversial
use
achieve
influence
intentional
objective
responsible
set up
incentive
check
151
III. Make collocations and translate them. Make sentences of your
own
host
assign
alleviate
mitigate
proliferate
pollution
poverty
damage
G8 summit
nuclear weapons
the mission
unemployment
IV. Complete the following sentences
1. St. Petersburg … the G8 summit in 2008.
2. The company saw oversea growth as a way to … swings in the
UK market.
3. It has been decided to set up an independent body to … the
work of the Commission.
4. One of the threats the world community faces to-day is … of
weapons of mass destruction.
5. The company has been losing … for months.
6. During his election campaign B.Obama sharply criticized
President Bush for his failed policy.
7. Only international cooperation can …environmental damage.
8. One of the reasons the CAP was established was to … EU
farmers from overseas competition.
9. The … policy means that EU resources are transferred to its
economically weakest regions.
Speaking point: What do you know about the EU energy
policy,environmental policy, educational policy, youth policy and
scientific development policy?
Work in pairs: Develop your version of presentation on the EU policies. Present it to your partner
152
GLOBALIZATION
UNIT
1.
History
Globalization (or globalisation) describes an ongoing process
by which regional economies, societies, and cultures have become
integrated through a globe-spanning network of communication
and execution. The term is sometimes used to refer specifically
to economic globalization: the integration of national economies
into the international economy through trade, foreign direct investment, capital flows, migration, and the spread of technology.
However, globalization is usually recognized as being driven by
a combination of economic, technological, sociocultural, political, and biological factors. The term can also refer to the transnational circulation of ideas, languages, or popular culture through
acculturation.
The historical origins of globalization are the subject of on-going debate. Though some scholars situate the origins of globalization in the modern era, others regard it as a phenomenon with a long
history.
The most extreme proponent of a deep historical origin for globalization Andre Gunder Frank argued that a form of globalization
has been in existence since the rise of trade links between Sumer and
the Indus Valley Civilization in the third millennium B.C. An early
form of globalized economics and culture existed during the Hellenistic Age, when commercialized urban centers were focused around
the axis of Greek culture over a wide range that stretched from India
to Spain, with such cities as Alexandria, Athens, and Antioch at its
center. Trade was widespread during that period, and it is the first
time the idea of a cosmopolitan culture (from Greek «Cosmopolis»,
meaning «world city») emerged.
Others have perceived an early form of globalization in the trade
links between the Roman Empire and the Han Dynasty. The increasing articulation of commercial links between these powers inspired
the development of the Silk Road, which started in western China,
153
reached the boundaries of the Parthian empire, and continued onwards towards Rome.
The Islamic Golden Age was also an important early stage of globalization, when Jewish and Muslim traders and explorers established a sustained economy across the Old World resulting in a globalization of crops, trade, knowledge and technology. Globally
significant crops such as sugar and cotton became widely cultivated
across the Muslim world in this period.
The advent of the Mongol Empire, though destabilizing
to the commercial centers of the Middle East and China, greatly
facilitated travel along the Silk Road. This permitted travelers and
missionaries such as Marco Polo to journey successfully (and profitably) from one end of Eurasia to the other. That period witnessed the
creation of the first international postal service, as well as the rapid transmission of epidemic diseases such as bubonic plague across
the newly unified regions of Central Asia. These pre-modern phases
of global or hemispheric exchange are sometimes known as archaic
globalization. Up to the sixteenth century, however, even the largest
systems of international exchange were limited to the Old World.
The Age of Discovery brought a broad change in globalization,
being the first period in which Eurasia and Africa engaged in substantial cultural, material and biologic exchange with the New
World. It began in the late 15th century, when the two Kingdoms
of the Iberian Peninsula Portugal and Castile-sent the first exploratory voyages around the Horn of Africa and to the Americas, «discovered» in 1492 by Christopher Columbus. Shortly before the turn
of the 16th century, Portuguese started establishing trading posts
(factories) from Africa to Asia and Brazil, to deal with the trade of
local products like gold, spices and timber, introducing an international business center under a royal monopoly, the House of India. Global integration continued with the European colonization
of the Americas initiating the Columbian Exchange, the enormous
widespread exchange of plants, animals, foods, human populations
(including slaves), communicable diseases, and culture between the
Eastern and Western hemispheres. It was one of the most significant global events concerning ecology, agriculture, and culture in
history.
This phase is sometimes known as proto-globalization. It was
characterized by the rise of maritime European empires, in the 16th
154
and 17th centuries, first the Portuguese and Spanish Empires, and
later the Dutch and British Empires. In the 17th century, globalization became also a private business phenomenon when chartered
companies like British East India Company (founded in 1600), often
described as the first multinational corporation, as well as the Dutch
East India Company (founded in 1602) were established. Because
of the large investment and financing needs and high risks involved
in international trade, the British East India Company became
the first company in the world to share risk and enable joint ownership of companies through the issuance of shares of stock: an important driver for globalization.
The 19th century witnessed the advent of globalization approaching its modern form. Industrialization allowed cheap production of household items using economies of scale, while rapid
population growth created sustained demand for commodities. Globalization in this period was decisively shaped by nineteenth-century imperialism. After the Opium Wars and the completion of British
conquest of India, vast populations of these regions became ready
consumers of European exports. It was in this period that areas of
sub-Saharan Africa and the Pacific islands were incorporated into
the world system. Meanwhile, the conquest of new parts of the globe,
notably sub-Saharan Africa, by Europeans yielded valuable natural
resources such as rubber, diamonds and coal and helped fuel trade
and investment between the European imperial powers, their colonies, and the United States.
The first phase of «modern globalization» began to break down
at the beginning of the 20th century, with the first world war.
The novelist VM Yeates criticised the financial forces of globalisation as a factor in creating World War I. In the middle decades of
the twentieth century globalization was largely driven by the global
expansion of multinational corporations based in the United States
and Europe, and worldwide exchange of new developments in science, technology and products, with most significant inventions
of this time having their origins in the Western world. Worldwide
export of western culture went through the new mass media: film,
radio and television and recorded music. Development and growth
of international transport and telecommunication played a decisive
role in modern globalization.
155
In late 2000s, much of the industrialized world entered into
a deep recession. Some analysts say the world is going through a period of deglobalization after years of increasing economic integration. Up to 45% of global wealth had been destroyed by the global
financial crisis in little less than a year and a half.
Answer these questions:
1. What does the term globalization refer to?
2. What are the two approaches to situating the origins
of globalization?
3. What origins of globalizations can be traced in ancient Greece
and Rome?
4. What is the role of the Islamic Golden Age in the development of
globalization?
5. What developments are typical of the pre-modern, hemispheric
stage of globalization?
6. What are the major achievements of the age of discovery?
7. What are the most remarkable developments in the field of commerce of the proto-globalization period?
8. What are the main features of the 19th century globalization?
9. What was the driving force of “modern globalization”?
10. What were the major globalization tools?
11. What was deglobalization caused by according to some
analysts?
UNIT
2.
Definitions of Globalization
Gobalization has become a buzzword used to denote both good and
bad things. For some, globalization is synonymous with the spread
of free market capitalism. For others, it is the source of economic
domination and oppression of poor nations by rich ones. What both
advocates and adversaries of globalization share is a focus on economic aspects.
156
For politicians and sociologists, this focus on economics is too
narrow. Globalization has economic, political, social, cultural and
ideological aspects that we will outline below.
But first, how do we define globalization? Below are the definitions coined by the major globalization theorists and summarized by
Manfred Steger (2003).
«Globalization as deterritorialization or (…) the growth of ‘supraterritorial’ relations between people. (…) Globalization refers to a farreaching change in the nature of social space» (Scholte, 2000: 46).
«All those processes by which the peoples of the world are incorporated into a single society, global society» (Albrow, 1990: 9).
«Globalization as a concept refers both to the compression
of the world and the intensification of consciousness of the world as
a whole… both concrete global interdependence and consciousness
of the global whole» (Robertson, 1992:8).
«Globalization can thus be defined as the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that
local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away
and vice versa» (Giddens, 1990: 64).
«Globalization is a social process in which the constraints of geography on economic, political, social and cultural arrangements recede, in which people become increasingly aware that they are receding and in which people act accordingly».
«Globalization can be thought of a process (or set of processes)
which embodies a transformation in the spatial organization of social relations and transactions – assessed in terms of their extensity, intensity, velocity and impact – generating transcontinental
or interregional flows and networks of activity, interaction, and
the exercise of power».
Saskia Sassen writes that «a good part of globalization consists
of an enormous variety of micro-processes that begin to denationalize what had been constructed as national — whether policies, capital,
political subjectivities, urban spaces, temporal frames, or any other
of a variety of dynamics and domains».
Tom G. Palmer of the Cato Institute defines globalization as «the
diminution or elimination of state-enforced restrictions on exchanges across borders and the increasingly integrated and complex global
system of production and exchange that has emerged as a result».
157
Thomas L. Friedman has examined the impact of the «flattening» of the world, and argues that globalized trade, outsourcing,
supply chaining, and political forces have changed the world permanently, for both better and worse. He also argues that the pace
of globalization is quickening and will continue to have a growing
impact on business organization and practice.
Noam Chomsky argues that the word globalization is also used,
in a doctrinal sense, to describe the neoliberal form of economic
globalization.
Herman E. Daly argues that sometimes the terms internationalization and globalization are used interchangeably but there is
a significant formal difference. The term «internationalization» (or
internationalisation) refers to the importance of international trade,
relations, treaties etc. owing to the (hypothetical) immobility of labor and capital between or among nations.
Finally, Takis Fotopoulos argues that globalisation is the result
of systemic trends manifesting the market economy's grow-or-die
dynamic, following the rapid expansion of transnational corporations. Because these trends have not been offset effectively by counter-tendencies that could have emanated from trade-union action
and other forms of political activity, the outcome has been globalisation. This is a multi-faceted and irreversible phenomenon within
the system of the market economy and it is expressed as: economic
globalisation, namely, the opening and deregulation of commodity,
capital and labour markets which led to the present form of neoliberal globalisation; political globalisation, i.e., the emergence of
a transnational elite and the phasing out of the all powerful-nation
state of the statist period; cultural globalisation, i.e., the worldwide
homogenisation of culture; ideological globalisation; technological
globalisation; social globalisation.
Taken together, these definitions give us a good summary of the
major characteristics of globalization.
Answer these questions:
1. How is the term globalization currently perceived by the public?
2. What do both opponents and supporters of globalization focus on
when discussing this phenomenon?
158
3. What are the major definitions of globalization? What is their
major focus? How can they be compared?
4. Which definition of globalization sounds the most comprehensive / useful to you?
5. What definitions of globalization are the most relevant to your
field of study?
Measuring globalization
Looking specifically at economic globalization, demonstrates
that it can be measured in different ways. These center around the
four main economic flows that characterize globalization:
•
Goods and services, e.g., exports plus imports as a proportion
of national income or per capita of population
•
Labor/people, e.g., net migration rates; inward or outward migration flows, weighted by population
•
Capital, e.g., inward or outward direct investment as a proportion of national income or per head of population
•
Technology, e.g., international research & development flows;
proportion of populations (and rates of change thereof) using
particular inventions (especially 'factor-neutral' technological
advances such as the telephone, motorcar, etc.)
As globalization is not only an economic phenomenon, a multivariate approach to measuring globalization is the recent index calculated by the Swiss think tank KOF. The index measures the three
main dimensions of globalization: economic, social, and political.
In addition to three indices measuring these dimensions, an overall
index of globalization and sub-indices referring to actual economic
flows, economic restrictions, data on personal contact, data on information flows, and data on cultural proximity is calculated. Data is
available on a yearly basis for 122 countries.
According to the index, the world's most globalized country is Belgium, followed by Austria, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. The least globalized countries according to the KOF-index
are Haiti, Myanmar, the Central African Republic and Burundi.
According to another Globalization Index, Singapore, Ireland,
Switzerland, the Netherlands, Canada and Denmark are the most
globalized, while Indonesia, India and Iran are the least globalized
among countries listed.
159
Answer these questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
What economic flows characterize globalization?
What technique was developed to measure globalization?
Whom was the technique developed by?
What are the three main dimensions of globalization?
How many countries are involved in the analysis?
What are the most important findings of the research?
UNIT
3.
The Major characteristics of Globalization.
•
Globalization is a set of processes of social change.
A process can be defined simply as a series of developing changes.
In this sense, globalization is the process of becoming global, but
not yet complete. In other words, there is so far no globality, that
is, the condition of being global. There is no global society. There
are, however, processes that point in that direction. These processes
are multiple and cover most areas of social life and human relations
such as economy, polity, culture, ideology, religion. Since globalization is a work-in-progress, the end result – what a global society
would look like – is yet undetermined. What is obvious though, is
that globalization involves changes in conceptions of space as part
social relations.
•
One of such processes central to globalization is
deterritorialization.
This concept conveys the idea that, under conditions of globalization, territory becomes less relevant to human relations. For
instance, thanks to information technology, anyone in the United
States equipped with a computer and an internet connection can play
the stock market in Tokyo, chat online with friends in Canada, upload or download all sorts of information and data from any place
in the world from other individuals similarly equipped. Territories
and borders have become irrelevant to such interactions that are
therefore global in nature.
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The process of deterritorialization makes globalization different
from any other processes of social change in human history. Some
researchers described this process as time-space compression. When
an individual exchanges instant messages with someone in another
country, this instantaneous interaction erases distance and occurs
as if these two individuals were in the same place, a virtual space.
Time and space have therefore been compressed through the technological creation of a virtual space of interaction unaffected by distance. The real physical distance between these two individuals is
covered, literally, in no time.
Practically every phenomenon that we can think of has acquired
such supraterritorial (above space) qualities: electronic communications, environmental degradation, terrorism, religious fundamentalism, financial flows, health threats, etc. All these areas
of human life are being globalized, as they are no longer attached to
specific territories but develop and affect us at a transnational level.
The process of globalization, as deterritorialization, turns the world
into a single space.
•
Globalization involves a process of stretching or extension of
human activities, relations and networks across the globe
Events taking place in one part of the world have an impact for
other people in distant locations. For instance, the Al Qaeda terrorist network has no known central headquarter located in a specific
territory but is a global network that has conducted terrorist activities in many different countries. Less devastating is the extension
of economic activities and financial transactions on a worldwide
scale.
•
Globalization involves a process of intensification of human
activities and relations
Intensification refers to the magnitude of existing global relations. More and more aspects of our lives are tied, in one form or
another, to locations and peoples in other parts of the world. Most of
our consumer goods were manufactured and assembled in different
places. We are also more intensively connected to the whole world
through a growing number of treaties and agreements that cover
practically every area of social relations, from human rights to environmental statutes to the production and sale of weapons of mass
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destruction. In a sense, we are all embedded in an increasingly dense
global network of global regulations.
•
Globalization involves a process of speeding up, or increasing
velocity, of human activities and relations
Developments in technologies of transportation and communication have accelerated the speed of social interactions as well as the
diffusion of material goods and ideas, money and people.
•
Globalization involves specific impacts on different societies
This refers to the way globalization constrains choices that can
be made by governments, corporations, households or individuals.
For instance, a government might hesitate to impose an increase in
minimum wage if it is faced with the relocation of jobs in areas where
labor costs are cheaper. Impact also refers to the way the effects of
globalization are felt differently by different categories of people.
If Ford decides to close a plant in Michigan and open one in Mexico,
American workers, shareholders and Mexican workers will all experience different effects, which leads us to the next characteristic
of globalization.
•
Globalization produces winners and losers
Globalization produces new patterns of inequalities. Some
categories of people benefit from it, but others are hurt. In this
sense, globalization involves interconnectedness, more than interdependence. Interdependence conveys a sense of equality (I depend
on you, you depend on me). In the case of contemporary globalization, there is no such equality. Global relations are asymmetrical.
Certain parties are dominant (Western countries, multinational
corporations), others are subordinate (indigenous populations,
women). As a result, globalization has become a heavily contested
process, with its supporters and adversaries. Different groups and
organizations try to influence governments and corporations as
well as other powerful institutions to shape globalization according to their conception and values. As a result, global ideologies
have emerged to provide intellectual underpinnings to such social
movements. Two major such ideologies – globalism and alter-globalism – are developed below.
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•
Globalization involves the growing awareness of living in
a single global space
People are more and more aware that many phenomena that affect our lives have global ramifications. For instance, most of us
are aware of the dangers of global climate change or the depletion
of the ozone layer. Such environmental consciousness is global by
definition because it involves the realization that we are all interconnected on «spaceship Earth» and have no other place to go. In
other words, people of the world, irrespective of their differences,
share a community of fate.
As a result, more and more people realize that «we’re all in this
together» and that the promotion of narrow self-interest (such as
the enormous consumption of natural resources by Western countries) is ultimately putting the entire planet at risk.
Answer these questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
What are the indicators of the approaching global society?
Why does territory become less relevant under globalization?
What does deterritorialization result in?
What examples of stretching and extending human activities
can you provide?
How are human activities intensified under globalization?
How are human activities affected by globalization?
In what way does globalization constrain the decisions of
governments?
Could you give the examples of winners and losers produced by
globalization?
How are the people made aware of belonging to the single global
space?
UNIT
4.
Globalization Theorem
According to Malcolm Waters (2001), there are three types of human
exchanges that can be more easily globalized, that is, deterritorialized:
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Material exchanges refer to any interaction involving the transmission of material items, such as factory work, trade in goods,
tenancy. Material exchanges tend to be localized in spaces. Raw
materials – agricultural goods, petroleum – are extracted from
specific locations. Factories are located where labor is available
and cheap. Manufactured goods are transported to western markets for sale and consumption.
•
Power exchanges refer to the exercise of leadership through coercion or legislation, for instance. By definition, the exercise
of power applies to territories but also to international relations,
that is, relations between nation-states, such as war, diplomacy
or alliances. Power exchanges therefore extend internationally
across territories.
•
Symbolic exchanges refer to any form of communication, exchange of information or data. This includes the mass media,
the entertainment industry, advertisement and propaganda,
etc. Symbolic exchanges involve the transmission of signs and
symbols. Because technology makes it possible to disseminate
symbols rapidly and widely, symbolic exchanges can be easily
detached from territories and therefore, globalized.
Based on these forms of exchange, Waters proposes a globalization theorem (a proposition that can be demonstrated as true):
«Material exchanges localize; political exchanges internationalize; and symbolic exchanges globalize» (Waters, 2001: 20).
Accordingly, globalization will be more advanced in a post-industrial context than in an agricultural society since the former is
mostly based on symbolic exchanges whereas the latter is based on
material exchanges. This is why globalization is an uneven and unequal process: post-industrial societies are more advanced and benefit more from globalization while remaining pastoral / horticultural
and agricultural societies figure among the losing parties. This theorem also explains why full-blown globalization could only emerge
at the historical juncture of the post-industrial age, where symbolic
exchanges predominate.
•
Modern globalization
Globalization, since World War II, is largely the result of
planning by politicians to break down borders hampering trade to
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increase prosperity and interdependence thereby decreasing the
chance of future war. Their work led to the Bretton Woods conference, an agreement by the world's leading politicians to lay down the
framework for international commerce and finance, and the founding of several international institutions intended to oversee the processes of globalization.
These institutions include the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (the World Bank), and the International
Monetary Fund. Globalization has been facilitated by advances in
technology which have reduced the costs of trade, and trade negotiation rounds, originally under the auspices of the General Agreement
on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which led to a series of agreements
to remove restrictions on free trade.
Since World War II, barriers to international trade have been
considerably lowered through international agreements — GATT.
Particular initiatives carried out as a result of GATT and the World
Trade Organization (WTO), for which GATT is the foundation, have
included:
•
Promotion of free trade:
•
Еlimination of tariffs; creation of free trade zones with small or
no tariffs.
•
Reduced transportation costs, especially resulting from development of containerization for ocean shipping.
•
Reduction or elimination of capital controls.
•
Reduction, elimination, or harmonization of subsidies for local
businesses.
•
Creation of subsidies for global corporations.
•
Harmonization of intellectual property laws across the majority
of states, with morerestrictions.
•
Supranational recognition of intellectual property restrictions
(e.g. patents granted byChina would be recognized in the United
States).
Cultural globalization, driven by communication technology and
the worldwide marketing of Western cultural industries, was understood at first as a process of homogenization, as the global domination
of American culture at the expense of traditional diversity. However,
a contrasting trend soon became evident in the emergence of movements protesting against globalization and giving new momentum
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to the defense of local uniqueness, individuality, and identity, but
largely without success.
The Uruguay Round (1986 to 1994) led to a treaty to create
the WTO to mediate trade disputes and set up a uniform platform
of trading. Other bilateral and multilateral trade agreements, including sections of Europe's Maastricht Treaty and the North
American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) have also been signed in
pursuit of the goal of reducing tariffs and barriers to trade.
Answer these questions:
1. What are the objects and the characteristics of material
exchanges?
2. What is the area and the scope of power exchanges?
3. What do symbolic relations involve? Why can they be
globalized?
4. What is the exact wording of a globalization theorem?
5. What conclusions can be drawn building on the theorem?
6. What was the focus of the post-war modern globalization?
7. What international institutions were set up to oversee the process of globalization?
8. What did these organizations’ activities and international agreements result in ?
9. What have been the results of cultural globalization?
10. What movements are opposed to the process of cultural
homogenization?
UNIT
5.
Positive Effects of Globalization.
Pro-globalization
Globalization has various aspects which affect the world in several different ways such as:
•
Industrial - emergence of worldwide production markets and
broader access to a range of foreign products for consumers and
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
companies. Particularly movement of material and goods between
and within national boundaries. International trade in manufactured goods increased more than 100 times (from $95 billion
to $12 trillion) in the 50 years since 1955.
Financial - emergence of worldwide financial markets and better access to external financing for borrowers. By the early part
of the 21st century more than $1.5 trillion in national currencies were traded daily to support the expanded levels of trade and
investment. As these worldwide structures grew more quickly
than any transnational regulatory regime, the instability of the
global financial infrastructure dramatically increased, as evidenced by the financial crisis of 2007–2009.
Economic - realization of a global common market, based on
the freedom of exchange of goods and capital. The interconnectedness of these markets, however meant that an economic collapse in any one given country could not be contained.
Health Policy - On the global scale, health becomes a commodity.
Global health policy makers have shifted during the 1990s from
United Nations players to financial institutions. The result of
this power transition is an increase in privatization in the health
sector. Influenced by global trade and global economy, health
policy is directed by technological advances and innovative medical trade. Global priorities, in this situation, are sometimes at
odds with national priorities where increased health infrastructure and basic primary care are of more value to the public than
privatized care for the wealthy.
Political - some use "globalization" to mean the creation
of a world government which regulates the relationships among
governments and guarantees the rights arising from social and
economic globalization.
Informational - increase in information flows between geographically remote locations. Arguably this is a technological change
with the advent of fibre optic communications, satellites, and increased availability of telephone and Internet.
Language - the most popular language is Mandarin (845 million
speakers) followed by Spanish (329 million speakers) and English
(328 million speakers).
About 35% of the world's mail, telexes, and cables are in
English.
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•
Approximately 40% of the world's radio programs are in
English.
• About 50% of all Internet traffic uses English.
•
Competition - Survival in the new global business market calls
for improved productivity and increased competition. Due to
the market becoming worldwide, companies in various industries have to upgrade their products and use technology skillfully
in order to face increased competition.
•
Ecological - the advent of global environmental challenges
that might be solved with international cooperation, such as
climate change, cross-boundary water and air pollution, overfishing of the ocean, etc. Since many factories are built in developing countries with less environmental regulation, globalism and free trade may increase pollution. On the other hand,
economic development historically required a «dirty» industrial stage, and it is argued that developing countries should
not, via regulation, be prohibited from increasing their standard of living.
•
Cultural - growth of cross-cultural contacts; advent of new categories of consciousness and identities which embodies cultural
diffusion, the desire to increase one's standard of living and enjoy foreign products and ideas, adopt new technology and practices, and participate in a «world culture».
Spreading of multiculturalism, and better individual access to
cultural diversity. Some consider such «imported» culture a danger, since it may supplant the local culture, causing reduction in
diversity or even assimilation. Others consider multiculturalism
to promote peace and understanding between peoples. A third position gaining popularity is the notion that multiculturalism to a new
form of monoculture in which no distinctions exist and everyone just
shift between various lifestyles in terms of music, cloth and other
aspects once more firmly attached to a single culture.
•
Social - development of the system of non-governmental organisations as main agents of global public policy, including humanitarian aid and developmental efforts.
•
Technical Development - of a Global Information System, global
telecommunications infrastructureand greater trans-border data
flow, using such technologies as the Internet, communication
satellites, submarine fiber optic cable, and wireless telephones
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Increase - in the number of standards applied globally; e.g., copyright laws, patents andworld trade agreements.
•
Legal/Ethical
•
The creation of the international criminal court and international justice movements.
•
Crime importation and raising awareness of global crime-fighting efforts and cooperation.
•
The emergence of Global administrative law.
•
Religious
The spread and increased interrelations of various religious
groups, ideas, and practices and their ideas of the meanings and values of particular spaces.
Give a concise account of all the positive effects of globalization.
Arrange these effects in the order of importance.
•
Pro-globalization (globalism)
Supporters of free trade claim that it increases economic prosperity as well as opportunity, especially among developing nations,
enhances civil liberties and leads to a more efficient allocation of resources. Economic theories of comparative advantage suggest that
free trade leads to a more efficient allocation of resources, with all
countries involved in the trade benefiting. In general, this leads to
lower prices, more employment, higher output and a higher standard
of living for those in developing countries.
Proponents of laissez-faire capitalism, and some libertarians, say
that higher degrees of political and economic freedom in the form of
democracy and capitalism in the developed world are ends in themselves and also produce higher levels of material wealth. They see
globalization as the beneficial spread of liberty and capitalism.
Supporters of democratic globalization are sometimes called proglobalists. They believe that the first phase of globalization, which
was market-oriented, should be followed by a phase of building global political institutions representing the will of world citizens. The
difference from other globalists is that they do not define in advance
any ideology to orient this will, but would leave it to the free choice
of those citizens via a democratic process.
Some, simply view globalization as inevitable and advocate
creating institutions such as a directly-elected United Nations
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Parliamentary Assembly to exercise oversight over unelected international bodies.
Present the major arguments of pro-globalists in support of
globalization.
Which argument sounds the strongest?
UNIT
6.
Negative Effects of Globalization
Globalization has been one of the most hotly debated topics in
international economics over the past few years. Globalization has
also generated significant international opposition over concerns
that it has increased inequality and environmental degradation.
Critiques of the current wave of economic globalization typically look at both the damage to the planet, in terms of the perceived
unsustainable harm done to the biosphere, as well as the perceived
human costs, such as poverty, inequality, injustice and the erosion
of traditional culture which, the critics contend, all occur as a result of the economic transformations related to globalization.
Some opponents of globalization see the phenomenon as the promotion of corporatist interests. They also claim that the increasing
autonomy and strength of corporate entities shapes the political policy of countries.
Critics argue that:
•
Poorer countries suffering disadvantages: While it is true that
globalization encourages freetrade among countries, there are
also negative consequences because some countries try to save
their national markets. The main export of poorer countries is
usually agricultural goods. Larger countries often subsidize
their farmers (like the EU Common Agricultural Policy), which
lowers the market price for the poor farmer's crops compared to
what it would be under free trade.
•
Exploitation of foreign impoverished workers: Where a country
has little material or physical product harvested or mined from
its own soil, large corporations see an opportunity to take advantage of the «export poverty» of such a nation.
170
One example is the use of sweatshops by manufacturers. The deterioration of protections for weaker nations by stronger industrialized powers has resulted in the exploitation of the people in those
nations to become cheap labor. Due to the lack of protections, companies from powerful industrialized nations are able to offer workers
enough salary to entice them to endure extremely long hours and
unsafe working conditions.
•
The shift to outsourcing: The low cost of offshore workers have
enticed corporations to buy goods and services from foreign
countries. The laid off manufacturing sector workers are forced
into the service sector where wages and benefits are low, but
turnover is high .
Families that were once part of the middle class are forced into
lower positions by massive layoffs and outsourcing to another country. This also means that people in the lower class have a much harder time climbing out of poverty because of the absence of the middle
class as a stepping stone.
•
Increase exploitation of child labor: for example, a country that
experiencing increases in labor demand because of globalization
and an increase the demand for goods produced by children, will
experience greater a demand for child labor. This can be «hazardous» or «exploitive», e.g., quarrying, salvage, cash cropping
but also includes the trafficking of children, children in bondage or forced labor, prostitution, pornography and other illicit
activities.
Globalization, the flow of information, goods, capital and people
across political and geographic boundaries, has also helped to spread
some of the deadliest infectious diseases known to humans. Modern
modes of transportation allow more people and products to travel around the world at a faster pace, they also open the airways
to the transcontinental movement of infectious disease vectors. One
example of this occurring is AIDS/HIV.
Opportunities in richer countries drives talent away, leading to
brain drains. Brain drain has cost the African continent over $4 billion in the employment of 150,000 expatriate professionals annually. Indian students going abroad for their higher studies costs India
a foreign exchange outflow of $10 billion annually.
A study by the World Institute for Development Economics Research at United Nations University reports that the richest 1%
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of adults alone owned 40% of global assets in the year 2000. The
three richest people possess more financial assets than the poorest
10% of the world's population, combined. The combined wealth of
the 10 million millionaires grew to nearly $41 trillion in 2008. In
2001, 46.4% of people in sub-Saharan Africa were living in extreme
poverty. Nearly half of all Indian children are undernourished.
The head of the International Food Policy Research Institute,
stated in 2008 that the gradual change in diet among newly prosperous populations is the most important factor underpinning the
rise in global food prices. From 1950 to 1984, as the Green Revolution transformed agriculture around the world, grain production increased by over 250%. The world population has grown by
about 4 billion since the beginning of the Green Revolution and
most believe that, without the Revolution, there would be greater
famine and malnutrition than the UN presently documents (approximately 850 million people suffering from chronic malnutrition in 2005).
It is becoming increasingly difficult to maintain food security
in a world beset by a confluence of «peak» phenomena, namely peak
oil, peak water, peak phosphorus, peak grain and peak fish. Growing
populations, falling energy sources and food shortages will create
the «perfect storm» by 2030, according to the UK government chief
scientist. He said food reserves are at a 50-year low but the world
requires 50 % more energy, food and water by 2030.
The global drug trade generates more than $320 billion a year in
revenues. Worldwide, the UN estimates there are more than 50 million regular users of heroin, cocaine and synthetic drugs. The international trade of endangered species is second only to drug trafficking. Traditional Chinese medicine often incorporates ingredients
from all parts of plants, the leaf, stem, flower, root, and also ingredients from animals and minerals. The use of parts of endangered species (such as seahorses, rhinoceros horns, and tiger bones and claws)
has created controversy and resulted in a black market of poachers
who hunt restricted animals.
Sum up the negative effects of globalization. Point out the major
threats resulting from global changes.
172
Anti-globalization
The «anti-globalization movement» is a term used to describe
the political group who oppose the neoliberal version of globalization, while criticisms of globalization are some of the reasons used
to justify this group's stance.
«Anti-globalization» may also involve the process or actions taken by a state or its people in order to demonstrate its sovereignty
and practice democratic decision-making. Anti-globalization may
occur in order to maintain barriers to the international transfer of
people, goods and beliefs, particularly free market deregulation,
encouraged by organizations such as the International Monetary
Fund or the World Trade Organization. Moreover, anti- globalism
can denote either a single social movement or an umbrella term that
encompasses a number of separate social movements such as nationalists and socialists. In either case, participants stand in opposition
to the unregulated political power of large, multi-national corporations, as the corporations exercise power through leveraging trade
agreements which in some instances damage the democratic rights
of citizens, the environment particularly air quality index and rain
forests, as well as national government's sovereignty to determine
labor rights, including the right to form a union, and health and
safety legislation, or laws as they may otherwise infringe on cultural
practices and traditions of developing countries.
The movement is very broad, including church groups, national
liberation factions, peasant unionists, intellectuals, artists, protectionists, anarchists, those in support of relocalization and others.
Some are reformist, (arguing for a more moderate form of capitalism) while others are more revolutionary (arguing for what they believe is a more humane system than capitalism) and others are reactionary, believing globalization destroys national industry and jobs.
Answer these questions:
1. What does the term anti-globalization involve?
2. What organizations and individuals participate in this
movement?
Organize a dispute between globalists and anti-globalists.
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Translation exercises
I.
Translate this text from Russian into English
Глобализация — процесс всемирной экономической, политической и культурной интеграции и унификации. Основным
следствием этого является мировое разделение труда, миграция
в масштабах всей планеты капитала, человеческих и производственных ресурсов, стандартизация законодательства,
экономических и технологических процессов, а также сближение и слияние культур разных стран. Это объективный процесс,
который носит системный характер, то есть охватывает все сферы жизни общества. В результате глобализации мир становится
более связанным и более зависимым от всех его субъектов. Происходит как увеличение количества общих для групп государств
проблем, так и расширение числа и типов интегрирующихся
субъектов.
II. Translate this text from Russian into English
Глобализация в политике
В политике глобализация заключается в ослабевании национальных государств. Глобализация способствует изменению
и сокращению суверенитета государств. С одной стороны, это
происходит из-за того, что современные государства делегируют
все больше полномочий влиятельным международным организациям, таким как Организация Объединённых Наций, Всемирная торговая организация, Европейский союз, НАТО, МВФ
и Мировой Банк. С другой стороны, за счет сокращения государственного вмешательства в экономику и снижения налогов
увеличивается политическое влияние предприятий (особенно
крупных транснациональных корпораций). Из-за более легкой
миграции людей и свободного перемещения капиталов за границу также уменьшается власть государств по отношению к своим
гражданам.
III. Translate this text from Russian into English
Американизация
Глобализация нередко отождествляется с американизацией.
Это связано с усилившимся в XX веке значением США в мире.
Американский Голливуд выпускает бо льшую часть фильмов
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для мирового проката. Именно в США берут свое начало такие мировые корпорации, как Microsoft, Intel, AMD, Coca-Cola,
Procter&Gamble и многие другие. Американская сеть быстрого
питания McDonald's из-за своей распространённости в мире стала
своеобразным символом глобализации. Сравнивая цены в разных
странах на бутерброд BigMac из местного ресторана McDonald’s,
британский журнал The Economist даже анализирует покупательную способность разных валют (Индекс Биг-Мака).
IV. Translate this text from Russian into English
Глобализация в культуре
Для культурной глобализации характерно сближение деловой и потребительской культуры между разными странами мира
и рост международного общения. С одной стороны, это приводит
к популяризации отдельных видов национальной культуры по
всему миру. С другой стороны, популярные международные культурные явления могут вытеснять национальные или превращать
их в интернациональные. Многие это расценивают, как утрату национальных культурных ценностей и борются за возрождение национальной культуры.
V. Translate this text from Russian into English
Глобализация в экономике
Для экономических аспектов глобализации характерны свободная торговля, свободное движение капитала, снижение налогов на прибыль предприятий, простота перемещения отраслей
промышленности между различными государствами в интересах
уменьшения издержек на труд и природные ресурсы, а также:
•
Развитые и развивающиеся страны неуклонно сближаются по уровню зарплат, цен на товары и прибыльности
предприятий;
•
Растет число и размер слияний компаний внутри стран
и на транснациональном уровне, которые сопровождаются
радикальной реструктуризацией и уменьшением количества занятой рабочей силы;
VI. Translate these sentences from Russian into English
1. Глобализация - по Р. Робертсону – процесс возрастающего
воздействия на социальную действительность отдельных
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2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
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стран различных факторов международного значения: экономических и политических связей, культурного и информационного обмена и т. п.
Глобализм - в политике - принцип подхода к формированию, организации, функционированию и развитию мира
как целостной экономической, социокультурной и политической суперсистемы.
Концепция глобализации - теория, согласно которой
эволюция финансовых рынков и учреждений приводит
к такому состоянию, когда географические границы не могут ограничивать проведение сделок или другие действия.
Обычно термин «глобализация» относится к растущему
международному характеру деятельности банков и других
институтов.
Основные предпосылки глобализации: - дерегулирование
финансовых рынков и связанной с ними деятельности; технологический прогресс, позволяющий осуществлять
в мировом масштабе (а) мониторинг финансовых рынков,
(б) проведение финансовых операций, (в) анализ ситуации
и (г) анализ возможных рисков.
Необходимо отказаться от попыток навязать глобализацию
методами, напоминающими шоковую терапию. Чтобы глобализация работала эффективно, нужно соблюдать определенные нормы международного поведения.
В разные времена считалось, что страны смогут обеспечить
своим гражданам лучшую жизнь, изолировав национальные хозяйства и поддерживая лишь минимальные экономические контакты с другими государствами, особенно
если они придерживались иных социальных и политических ценностей.
После второй мировой войны страны постепенно вступали
на путь все большей открытости в сфере экономических
отношений, которая в настоящее время достигла высокой степени для всех национальных экономик. Решение
задач технологического развития заставляет государства объединять свои усилия в общий процесс, в рамках
которого тесное взаимодействие становится абсолютно
необходимым.
8. Поскольку многие страны находятся на разной стадии
экономического развития, имеют отличные по характеру
институты, приоритеты и пр., они не могут и не должны
осуществлять политику открытых дверей все сразу и в равной мере. Вместе с тем нельзя бесконечно сопротивляться
силам глобализации, необходимо постепенно научиться
управлять этим процессом, направляя экономику в его
русло.
9. Техническими
аспектами
перехода
к
глобализации являются компьютеры, телекоммуникационное
оборудование, телекоммуникационная инфраструктура,
информационные потоки, возросшая скорость передвижения (например, с помощью реактивных самолетов), распространение знаний в результате научного или других видов
интеллектуального взаимообмена.
10. Подобные технические возможности были немыслимы еще
50 лет назад. Поэтому планирование послевоенного экономического развития как внутри отдельных стран, так
и в международном масштабе осуществлялось совершенно
другими путями.
11. Какие же факторы способствуют продвижению в сторону
глобализации? Проанализируем явление глобализации
с точки зрения следующих ключевых процессов:
•
движение товаров между странами и секторами
экономики;
•
движение услуг между странами и секторами
экономики;
•
движение финансового капитала между странами;
•
передвижение людей между странами, вызванное потребностями осуществления экономических функций;
•
валютные операции на международных валютных
рынках;
•
движение интеллектуальной продукции и идей между
исследовательскими и учебными центрами.
VII.
Translate these sentences from Russian into English
Как сто и двести лет назад, конец века ознаменован новым научнотехническим переворотом. Интеллект, знания, технологии становятся важнейшими экономическими активами. Информационная
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революция, базирующаяся на соединении компьютера с телекоммуникационными сетями, коренным образом преобразует человеческое бытие. Она сжимает время и пространство, открывает границы, позволяет устанавливать контакты в любой точке земного
шара. Она превращает индивидов в граждан мира. И если раньше
связь с людьми из других стран была возможна только с помощью
телефонов, писем, телеграмм и т. д., то теперь благодаря интернету общение стало возможным и в режиме «реального времени». Все
это стало возможным благодаря процессу глобализации.
Появление термина «глобализация» связывают с именем американского социолога Р. Робертсона, который в 1985 г. дал толкование понятию «глобализация». А в 1992 г. изложил основы своей
концепции в книге «Что же такое глобализация»?
Глобализация – это процесс всевозрастающего воздействия
различных факторов международного значения (например, тесных экономических и политических связей, культурного и информационного обмена) на социальную действительность в отдельных странах.
Самый мощный фактор глобализации – экономический, проявляющийся в наличии транснациональных корпораций, действующих одновременно во многих странах и использующих новые
исторические условия в своих интересах. Но не нужно полагать,
что глобализация – это своего рода гигантизация или смесь разнородных процессов. Глобализация - это объективный процесс,
который определяет качественные изменения в глобальном пространстве, возрастание взаимосвязанности и уникальности отдельных людей или цивилизаций в целом.
Центральная идея, лежащая в основе глобализации, заключается в том, что многие проблемы невозможно адекватно оценить
и изучить на уровне национального государства, т. е. на уровне
отдельной страны и ее международных отношений с другими
странами. Вместо этого их необходимо формулировать с точки
зрения глобальных процессов. Некоторые исследователи зашли
в этом настолько далеко, что они предсказывают, что глобальные силы (под которыми имеются в виду транснациональные
компании, другие глобальные экономические образования, глобальная культура или различные глобализирующие идеологии)
становятся настолько сильными, что ставится под вопрос дальнейшее существование отдельных национальных государств.
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Одни возлагают на глобализацию огромные надежды как на
панацею от различных перекосов экономики. А другие - антиглобалисты - люто ненавидят и всячески ругают все, что связано
с ней. Предметом оживленных дебатов служит буквально все - что
такое глобализация, когда она началась: существуют различные
точки зрения и на то, является ли глобализация феноменом нескольких последних десятилетий, или же о глобализации можно
было говорить уже тогда, когда один народ мог устанавливать контакты с другими народами, находящимися на противоположной
стороне земного шара. Как глобализация соотносится с другими
процессами в общественной жизни, каковы ее ближайшие и отдаленные последствия. И что же можно назвать глобализацией,
а что нет. Обилие мнений, подходов, оценок само по себе, не гарантирует основательной проработки темы. Глобализация оказалась
трудным вопросом не только для массового сознания, но и для научного анализа.
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CROSS CULTURAL COMMUNICATION
UNIT
1.
Theoretical Background.
What Is Culture Definition
Culture is the entire way of life of a society as well as all its products. Society is then composed of individuals who share a culture.
This has several implications.
Culture is Shared
To be a member of society means sharing a culture. In this sense,
a society is more than the sum of its members. Membership in a society necessarily involves sharing a way of life, engaging in similar
patterns of thought and behavior, such as celebrating Thanksgiving
in comparable fashion, overspending before Christmas or spending
years in school.
Culture is Learned
Human beings are not born with cultural patterns encoded into
their DNA. No one is born Christian, English-speaker, and MP3 files
user. All such patterns of behavior have to be learned, and the more
complex the society one lives in, the longer it takes to learn the necessary skills needed for competent social participation. Accordingly,
most members of postindustrial societies spend long years in the educational system whereas member of the few remaining hunting and
gathering societies have no need for formal education and rely rather
on informal training. But however such learning takes place, informally with a relative or in a formal setting such as a school, it is vital
for individuals to be able to become true members of society.
Culture is Nonmaterial
Nonmaterial culture comprises the software of society: specific shared ways of thinking shared by members of society such
as language, beliefs systems, customs, myths, music, scientific
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knowledge or political ideas. And as mentioned above, culture also
involves shared ways of behaving, such as participating in religious
rituals or organized sports. These shared modes of thinking and behaving all constitute non-material or intangible culture.
Culture is Material
Material culture also comprises all the hardware of social life,
that is, all the material and physical products of society: buildings,
computers, IPods, bows and arrows, DVDs and DVD players and all
forms of technology. Technology consists in the material application
of knowledge, scientific or other.
Meanings of Culture
1. National / ethnic culture:
The group assumed to be site of child's primary socialization –
«THE Latvian culture», «THE African-American culture».
2. Secondary or subgroup culture: Cultural groups we've been socialized into: Organizational culture, professional culture, manager culture, peer culture, prison culture, and so on.
3. Culture in the anthropological sense:
The meanings and behaviors groups of people develop and share
over time.
4. Capital C Culture:
The high arts of theater, painting, music, etc., or a superior
upbringing.
Definitions of National Culture.
Culture is sometimes perceived as the acquired knowledge people
use to interpret experience and generate behavior.
According to a very simplified approach culture is a certain
model, a template.
Culture is also understood as the medium we live in, like the air
we breathe.
Some experts believe that culture is innate but learned, i.e. we
are born with the physical necessity and capacity to specialize our
bodies, brains, hearts in line with cultural patterns.
Culture is thought to be a living, interlocking system. If you
touch one part, the rest moves.
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According to communication experts culture is shared, it is created and maintained through relationship.
Culture is a shared system of symbols, beliefs, attitudes, values,
expectations, and norms of behaviour. It refers to coherent groups
of people whether resident wholly or partly within state territories,
or existing without residence in any particular territory.
Text II.
Generic, Economic, and Cultural Determinism
The influence of different cultures on human behavior has been
considerably downplayed since positivism substantially took over
the social sciences in American universities in the 1950s. Cultural
diversity (cross-cultural issues) was depicted as a «soft» subject—
based on uncertain knowledge, unscientific, anecdotal, itself culturebound. The study of culture depended on historical evidence and reasoning that might be ambiguous, era-affected, and hard to unearth.
It became fashionable, in the closed world of academia, to seek an
explanation of human behavior in two more «reliable» theories: genetic determinism and economic determinism. The dictionary defines determinism as «the philosophical doctrine that every event,
act, and decision is the inevitable consequence of antecedents, such
as physical, psychological, or environmental conditions that are independent of the human will».
To begin with the former, during the last decades of the twentieth
century Homo sapiens was assumed to possess over 100,000 genesin
fact some quoted precisely a figure of 142,634. This was considered
a sufficiently large number to account for the great complexity of
human characteristics around the globe as opposed to the relative
physiological (and psychological) simplicity of other living creatures.
In other words, the complicated variety of human comportment could
be explained by the richness of our genetic makeup, unmatched by
any other species.
Then on February 12,2001 (Darwin's birthday, incidentally), genetic determinism received a deadly blow. Two groups of researchers
released the formal report of data for the human genome, revealing
that we humans possess only around 30,000 genes, merely twice as
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many as the fruit fly (approximately 14,000). Furthermore, all humans, with all their evident diversity, were found to share 99.9 percent of their genes. According to this finding, all human beings
should be extraordinarily alike, if genetic code determines behavior.
But we are not alike. Certain cultural characteristics are universal,
such as love of one's children, a desire to belong to a group, the wish
for acceptance or popularity, gratitude for help, anger at injustice,
and a strong survival instinct. Such commonalities are, however,
vastly outnumbered by hundreds of visible and invisible differences
of national or regional origin, even between close neighbors such as
Americans and Canadians or Norwegians and Swedes. Whence, then,
the diversity?
The economic determinists — liberal and Marxist thinkers,
market economists — had an answer: man is an economic animal. According to this theory, economic change generates social change
and political progress. Market economists, especially in the period
from 1950 to 1980, saw economic theory as dominating the «antecedents» and «environmental conditions». Culture was hardly mentioned — it might have been considered racist or, at best, ephemeral.
When the world was decolonized in the mid-twentieth century,
backwardness was considered a product of colonialism. The former
colonies that possessed strong indigenous cultures buttressed by
written languages and written knowledge progressed, according to
the economists' theories, in a relatively satisfactory manner: the Indian subcontinent, Singapore, Malaysia, Hong Kong, and the former
European and U.S. enclaves in Shanghai have all gone forward. Indonesia, Myanmar, and the Indo-Chinese trio — Vietnam, Cambodia,
Laos — have development problems, but their cultures and future
orientation remain intact. It has been a different story in Africa.
The Africans had their historical cultures all right, with complex codes of ritual and well-established core beliefs and values, not
to mention substantial artistic sophistication. Unfortunately, Africans lacked, in almost all areas, written language and written knowledge. The sudden dismantling of the colonial system and the rapid
departure of the colonizers left Africans in a cultural wasteland. Because of deficiencies in the transition mechanism, Africans had little
familiarity with Western cultural and administrative strengths; failure by the West to sufficiently encourage the Africans to resuscitate
their own rich (but tenuously oral) cultures left them floundering.
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Social and political violence and chaos ensued, economies collapsed,
and educational systems and public health rapidly deteriorated and
were quickly devastated. Incompetence, expedient exploitation,
commerce in weapons, agricultural ruin — all run unchecked up to the
present day. The absence of a strong, culturally based society is a very
serious matter.
This leads us to a third recourse: cultural determinism. Lawrence Harrison and Samuel Huntington in Culture Matters: How
Values Shape Human Progress (2001) reiterate assertions made by
Edward T. Hall, Geert Hofstede, and me in my earlier work When Cultures Collide (2000) — namely, culture counts most in economic development (not the other way around).
How can theorists or earnest researchers remain blind to the
reality of culture-bound behavior? Can one not point to a cultural
development emerging from Classical Greece and Rome, the Christian religion, and the European Renaissance without being accused
of denigrating other cultures? Can the momentum of 2000 years be
stopped that easily? Unbroken cultures have strongly defined modern humanity in China, India, France, Spain, Japan, and elsewhere.
Cultures are especially resilient at the national level. Although culture is passed on to individuals from a number of sources — parents,
peers, social institutions — governments have a vested interest in
their citizens sharing cultural values in order to reduce the potential for cultural conflicts. Government-directed social institutions,
such as schools, are therefore particularly important in transmitting culture.
Large numbers of young, receptive students are introduced simultaneously to the same information, values, and concepts, conveyed in
the same language. History is taught thoughtfully, often being «remodeled» in a concern for the consolidation of shared values and myths.
Figures such as Napoleon, George Washington, Queen Elizabeth I,
and Abraham Lincoln are depicted, often in a favorable light, as part
of the cultural heritage. The significance of controlled public schooling is evident when there may be societal disagreement as to how
to treat certain historical events.
Controversial issues such as wars, monarchies, revolutions, and
past presidents can be presented in many different lights. Such interpretations are all part of the ongoing process of defining a national
identity and refining a nation's culture.
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A nation's culture is its blueprint for survival and, hopefully,
success. It is an all-embracing pattern of a group's entire way of life,
including a shared system of values, social meanings, and agendas
passed on from generation to generation. Bold is the child who challenges the assumptions of parents, teachers, and peers! Culture incorporates such distinguishable attributes as language, attitudes,
religion, artifacts, dress, beliefs, music and dance, art, sport, tools,
etiquette, values, behaviors, food, and other material and nonmaterial components. Some of these attributes are subject to change, but
the cultural framework generally endures. The younger generation,
particularly, indulges in experimentation with different lifestyles
and trends (often temporary), but a national or regional silent agenda or stability underlies such digression.
Today the process of globalization is creating more economic and
political links among countries, regions, and cultures, but cross-century conflicts in Serbia, Kosovo, Chechnya, the Middle East, and Timor
(and other parts of Indonesia) as well as India's and Pakistan's long
- lived conflict over Kashmir show how regional cultural identities resist erosion. The concept of a global village sharing a global culture is
a cozy one, and the twenty-first century, with its galloping information facilities and trade links, would seem a suitable time frame for
its realization. However, cultural barriers, though frequently permeable, are formidable. In subsequent chapters I attempt to examine and
quantify some of these barriers, to trace the links from past to present and future cultural development, and to give some predictions as
to the direction cultural trends will take in the coming decades.
Answer these questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
What was the academic attitude to culture in the 1950s?
How is determinism generally defined?
What does the concept of genetic determinism consist in?
What discovery inflicted genetic determinism a deadly blow?
What are some universal cultural characteristics?
Are there more commonalities or differences in the humankind?
What did economic determinists think of culture?
What was the focus of their theory?
8. What problems did the former colonies face?
How are these problems related to cultural issues?
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9. What do the founders of cultural determinists claim?
10. How are cultures passed on to individuals?
11. Why are governments interested in preserving and supporting
national cultures? What are the major governmental institutions of transmitting cultures?
12. Why is history often remodeled and taught thoughtfully in
schools?
13. 1What is the reason for interpreting controversial international
issues and depicting famous political and public figures in various ways?
14. How does the author define culture and what attributes of culture does he identify?
15. What is the author’s vision of the impact of globalization on cultural barriers?
UNIT
2.
Text I.
Components оf Culture
All cultures comprise different components that are necessary
for members of society to competently participate in social life and
interactions. First, culture provides a stock of knowledge - a cognitive component - that is a basic foundation for social behavior. Culture also comprises elements necessary for the maintenance of integration and conformity in society - a normative component that is,
ways of specifying the correct ways of thinking and behaving and
of defining morality.
Cognitive culture
Symbols
A symbol is anything that represents something else. It can
be either a material object (a flag, a cross) or a non-material element (a sound, a gesture). As members of a culture, we are constantly and thoroughly surrounded by symbols: when we stop at
186
the red light, we obey a symbolic command. Symbols carry shared
meanings among people and they can be used to produce loyalty or
hostility.
When Americans pledge allegiance to the flag, they symbolically display their patriotism. When crowds in parts of the Middle East burn the American flag, they symbolically display their
hostility toward the United States. For one category of people,
the flag represents national pride and is object of some degree
of devotion whereas for other categories of people, it represents
evil and imperialism. The fact that symbolic meaning is shared
is crucial: when Americans witness Middle Eastern crowds burning the American flag on CNN, they have no difficulty understanding the meaning of such actions. The symbolic meaning is
obvious and powerful. In other words, the meaning of a symbol
may depend on the users.
Answer these questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
What are the two basic components of culture?
How can a symbol be defined?
What are symbols represented by?
What is the function of symbols?
What example of sharing symbolic meaning does the author
provide?
Language
A major symbolic system in use in all human societies is language. Human language has to be learned and is variable (thousands
of different human languages exist in the world), flexible (there is
significant linguistic variation over time) and generative (humans
can create linguistic forms, such as sign or computer languages, literature and poetry).
Human language comprises two basic components: vocabulary
(list of all existing words) and grammar (rules of combination). These
two components are the basic tools that can then be used by any competent member of society to produce a wide range of expressions.
Without language, there would be no culture. It is through
language that we are able to create, share, preserve and transmit
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cultural meanings such as complex (and uniquely human) patterns
of emotion, thought, knowledge and beliefs. In this sense, language
gives us a sense of history and contributes to social evolution as each
new generation does not have to reinvent the wheel but can count on
an already available stock of knowledge and ideas and build on it.
Language is essential to give members of society a sense of identity. For many years, people living in the Canadian province of Quebec have asserted their distinctive national identity through the
use of French throughout the province. Linguistic diversity is also
considered part of humanity's heritage. In 2001, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
promulgated a Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity that
incorporates the preservation of linguistic diversity in the face
of disappearing languages. Half of the world's 6,000 languages are
considered endangered and on an average, one language disappears
every two weeks as the numbers of their speakers dwindle.
We commonly think of language as a tool through which we
communicate but it is more than that. Edward Sapir and Benjamin
Whorf through what became known as the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis,
posited the language we speak determines the way we think, perceive
and interpret the world around us. We would not be able to make
sense of all the sensory information (sounds, sights, tastes, etc.) we
constantly receive if language didn't classify that information into
concepts and thereby turn it into meaningful information. A classical illustration of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis is the fact that the Eskimo have over twenty words for snow but have no strict equivalent
of the word «snow» as a general category. These fine distinctions
between more than twenty types of snow result from the Eskimo's
environmental conditions in the Arctic region. When snow is such
an important part of your natural environment, you learn to distinguish between different types. As a result, Eskimo learn to truly see
more than twenty types of snow that a non-native would not be able
to discern. Lacking the linguistic categories to do so, non-Eskimo
simply do not see twenty types of snow.
Answer these questions:
1. What are some requirements to a human language?
2. What are the components of a human language?
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3. What is the role of language in developing culture?
4. What is the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity aimed at?
5. What is the role of language apart from its being a communication tool?
Normative Culture
Values
Values are general abstract moral principles defining what
is right or wrong, good or evil, desirable or undesirable. In other words, values often come in pairs of positive and negative
terms: we value freedom and dislike oppression, we value education and dislike ignorance or we value individualism and fear
collectivism.
Values define general moral qualities of behavior expected
from members of society, such as honesty, patriotism, or commitment to freedom. Values are part of the standards we use to
evaluate the moral properties of our or other people's views and
actions and they constitute the unspoken background of our moral
preferences.
Because individuals feel strongly about values as define moral
behavior through them, we tend to defend them vigorously when
confronted with different value systems held by other people. In
other words, complex societies do not necessarily have a consensus
in values as different categories of people develop very different experiences that shape their moral standards.
Answer these questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
How could values be defined?
How are values usually perceived and interpreted by people?
What are values used for?
Why do not complex societies have a single set of values?
Norms, Folkways, Mores
As mentioned before, norms are specific guidelines for behavior
based on values. They are rules and instructions specifying what are
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expected of us in different situations. Norms can be prescriptive defining how one ought to behave in given situations - or prescriptive-defining how one ought NOT to behave.
Researchers distinguish between two types of norms: folkways
and mores. Folkways are conventions of everyday life that members
of society are expected to follow but whose violation is not considered
serious. On the other hand, mores are norms which reflect stronglyheld values and whose violation involves a strong negative societal
reaction, such as incarceration or even death.
For instance, in India, patriarchy (men's social dominance over
women) is a common value and it is incarnated in the practice of dowry (wealth that is offered by the bride's family to the groom's family). When the dowry is deemed insufficient by the groom's family,
the groom is traditionally entitled to set his bride on fire, a practice
known as bride-burning. Every year, Indian police receive more than
2,500 reports of such practices. Because normative expectations are
so strong regarding dowry, the societal reaction to what is perceived
as a violation is brutal.
In some societies, some norms are considered so important that
they are put in writing and some categories of people are put in
charge of their enforcement and specific punishment is imposed on
violators. Such norms are laws. Laws are sometimes based on traditional mores.
Enforcing Normative Culture: Sanctions
The previous section makes it clear that normative culture involves social control - the different processes through which society
enforces conformity to the norms. Such processes are also called social sanctions, that is, social reactions to either conformity (positive
sanctions) or violation (negative sanctions) of the norms. Sanctions
can also be informal - administered by any individual in any setting –
or formal – specified by some social procedure and administered by
specific public officials.
Answer these questions:
1. What are norms based on and how can they be classified?
2. How are norms perceived by societies?
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3. What norms are called laws?
4. What does social control consist in?
5. What social sanction does the author mention?
Text II
Metaphors for «Culture»
Here are a few of the metaphors that have made their way into
popular usage in the field of intercultural communication:
DOLLS AND EXOTIC NATIVES
The stock metaphor for culture in popular culture is pictures
(usually of women) or of dolls dressed in festive native costume.
Think of Disney's «It's a small world after all» or the decades
of National Geographic covers. When we speak of «the Germans»
or «the Russians» we call up these visual metaphors which equate
culture with national identity, and imply that culture is relatively uniform and unchanging. These photos and dolls simplify and
essentialize the «Other». They are usually cute, young, timeless,
unthreatening.
CULTURE SHOCK
Scholars popularize this medical/psychological metaphor for
the difficulties of adapting to an unfamiliar culture (innoculation
achieved through intercultural training...).
The ICEBERG
The Iceberg metaphor for culture shows a cruise ship sailing close
to the iceberg . Part of the iceberg is immediately visible; part of it
emerges and submerges with the tides, and its foundations go deep
beneath the surface.
Above water line: Aspects of culture that are explicit, visible,
taught.
Below the water line: «Hidden» culture: the habits, assumptions,
understandings, values, judgments ... that we know but do not or cannot articulate. Usually these aspects are not taught directly.
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The popular iceberg metaphor illustrates «hidden culture»:
the world of assumptions, habits, beliefs that may not be consciously
articulated or taught. The metaphor implies danger, the necessity
of having a skilled pilot, and justifies the use of cultural experts as
there is much more to culture than meets the eye.
AROUND THE CAMPFIRE: Recounting tribal heroic myths
The metaphor implies that culture is "primitive", powerful,
timeless, and that a strong head man can reshape it.
COMPASS or X mark: YOU ARE HERE!
The metaphor is geographic--it locates cultures on a two-dimensional line--and scientific, in that it measures data and produces a numeric, presumably reproducible, location for each given culture. The metaphor is useful because it is easy to grasp, does
not value one orientation over another, outlines key differences
in culture that affect business, and eases anxieties by giving people the satisfaction of knowing how they measure up, where cultures are situated.
MELTING POTS & SALAD BOWLS
Popular metaphors for the relationship of immigrant cultures
within a larger nation or dominant culture have shifted from
the melting pot to the salad bowl. In the latter, immigrant cultures
maintain their original integrity in the new national salad.
MIND MAPS
There are two maps here-the geographic one represents the internal maps people have of their cultural terrain, knowing that «the map
is NOT the territory» that reality is always vastly more complex
than our mental renderings of it. The other is a mind-map, which depicts the network of associative links in our minds - knowledge triggered by a single word, for example, or the feelings and meanings we
associate with a particular behavior. These associations are partly
personal, partly collective. Culture in this metaphor is the map of
a group's shared meanings and connections.
ORGANISM
This biological metaphor sees culture as living, organic, in motion.
There are boundaries between internal and external; the organism
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(and culture) survive by controlling that boundary - allowing nutrients and waste to pass the boundaries, but keeping out foreign intrusions. Within a culture there will be different functions and roles,
yet there is a common being-ness.
CHAOS
Culture is too complex to «manage», should be looked at with
awe. One can strive to understand main loops of cause and effect,
but realize that you are only capturing a simple version of the mathematically chaotic whole, and that one cannot predict all the effects
your actions will create throughout the system.
Culture as an Ecosystem
Interdependence, change:
Ecosystems and cultures are always dynamic, and contain a vast
network of interdependent elements. Press one spot and the movement is felt throughout the system; the system presses back. Cause
and effect are often too complex to map out, much less deliberately
influence.
Diverse elements:
Many different animals and plants exist within an ecosystem =
culture comprises diverse peoples, elements, subcultures. Members
of a culture are not uniform; they may not even be similar to each
other.
System:
Individual plants or animals do not have their own ecosystem =
people do not have individual culture, they are unique beings embedded in a larger reality.
Climate and environment:
People are generally adapted to their own culture's «climate»
and may have difficulty transplanting to another environment or
ecosystem. One cannot grow an oak tree or raise tropical fish in the
desert without constant care.
Native and outsiders:
New species to the new ecosystem will either die away, adapt, or
invade and crowd out «native» species. «Outsiders» to a culture may
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not last long, may adapt, or may take over--those risks can make
both sides nervous.
Dependence and contribution:
Plants and animals that depend on a particular ecosystem for
survival, also contribute essential ingredients to their environment. A tree's roots draw nutrients from the soil and water, but
then contribute fallen leaves for next year's soil. In this way, culture helps people survive and determines what kind of human beings they will become; yet each person also actively recreates and
contributes to the content of the culture. Thus ecosystems and
cultures are always in motion, never the same, yet have continuity over time.
Every metaphor has its uses and limits. Note that the ecosystem
metaphor implies that culture is «natural» instead of human-constructed. That in turn leads to the anti-diversity argument, «Hey we
can't afford the water to keep that oak tree moist, let's get another
olive tree that's just like us». «Our system is in balance now, new elements might destabilize our organization». The culture or climate is
taken as a given, the outsider is an invasive species or someone who
had better adapt or they won't survive.
Culture as a Toolbox
Every situation, every person is different. For culture to endure,
it must be flexible enough to accommodate many different circumstances. One useful metaphor for culture is the toolbox--one that
comes with a stack of reference manuals. Instead of saying «in this
culture we make tables THAT way, we raise children or cook a meal
THIS way», we acknowledge that culture gives us a set of tools for
the task, along with a guide book that suggests how we might use
those tools and what the results should look like.
Culture as Set of Options.
More broadly, one can think of culture in mathematical terms as
a set that contains accepted options, tools, and reference books.
This way of conceptualizing culture helps to account for many
differences within a culture. Context, personality, and subcultures
will affect which options people perceive and carry out, while still
maintaining group boundaries about what is normal and acceptable.
This metaphor also helps to explain why culture endures, because
options that prove satisfactory will continue to be selected and reinforced by a variety of people in many contexts over time. «Sets
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of options» also gives intercultural trainers a way of talking about
cultural patterns that avoids the simplistic «THE Chinese do it THIS
way» stereotype while still giving foreigners guidance about typical
or workable options.
Choose a certain cultural metaphor, introduce it to the class,
comment on its strong and weak points, compare it with the other
metaphors.
UNIT
3.
Text I.
Cultural Diversity
Cultural diversity is the variety of human societies or cultures
in a specific region, or in the world as a whole. There is a general
consensus among mainstream anthropologists that humans first
emerged in Africa about two million years ago. Since then they have
spread throughout the world, successfully adapting to widely differing conditions and to periodic cataclysmic changes in local and
global climate. The many separate societies that emerged around
the globe differed markedly from each other, and many of these
differences persist to this day.
As well as the more obvious cultural differences that exist between people, such as language, dress and traditions, there are also
significant variations in the way societies organize themselves, in
their shared conception of morality, and in the ways they interact
with their environment.
By analogy with biodiversity, which is thought to be essential to
the long-term survival of life on earth, it can be argued that cultural
diversity may be vital for the long-term survival of humanity; and
that the conservation of indigenous cultures may be as important
to humankind as the conservation of species and ecosystems is to life
in general. The General Conference of UNESCO took this position in
2001, asserting in Article 1 of the Universal Declaration on Cultural
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Diversity that «...cultural diversity is as necessary for humankind as
biodiversity is for nature».
Cultural diversity and cultural heritage
The Universal Declaration of UNESCO on Cultural Diversity
of 2001 is regarded as a legal instrument recognizing for the first
time, cultural diversity as «common heritage of humanity» and considers its safeguarding to be a concrete and ethical imperative inseparable from respect for human dignity.
The Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural
Heritage ratified in June 20, 2007 by 78 States said:
«The intangible cultural heritage, transmitted from generation
to generation is constantly recreated by communities and groups
in response to their environment, their interaction with nature and
their history, and gives them a sense of identity and continuity, thus
promoting respect for cultural diversity and human creativity».
Cultural diversity was also promoted by the Montreal Declaration of 2007, and by the European Union. The idea of a global multicultural heritage covers several ideas, which are not exclusive. See
multiculturalism. In addition to language, diversity can also include
religious or traditional practice.
Defense or promotion of cultural diversity
•
•
•
The «defense of cultural diversity» can take several meanings:
A balance to be achieved: thus, the idea of defense of cultural
diversity through the promotion of actions in favor of «cultural
minorities» said to be disadvantaged;
Preservation of «cultural minorities» thought to be
endangered;
In other cases, one speaks of «cultural protection», which refers to the concept of «cultural exception», which is mainly
used in France under the title «French exception». This makes
the link between the social vision of culture and vision of its
commercial release. The cultural exception highlights the
specificity of cultural products and services, including special recognition by the European Union in its Declaration on
Cultural Diversity. In this context, the objective is to defend
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•
against what is seen as a «commodification» - considered
harmful to a «disadvantaged» culture, supporting its development (through grants, promotion operations), also known as
cultural protectionism.
This defense may also refer to incorporating «cultural rights»
provisions, conducted unsuccessfully in the early 1990s in Europe, into a layer of human rights.
Cultural diversity and cultural uniformity
Cultural diversity is presented as the antithesis of «cultural
uniformity».
Some (including Unesco) fear this hypothesis of a trend towards
cultural uniformity. To support this argument they emphasize different aspects:
•
The disappearance of many languages and dialects, regarding
for example the languages of France, without legal status or protection (Basque, Breton, Corsican, Occitan, Catalan, Alsatian,
Flemish, Poitou, Saintonge, etc.).
• Anxiety of people on the preservation of their traditions as
in New Zealand, coastal regions in Australia, North America,
Central America;
•
Increasing the cultural preeminence of the United States through
the distribution of its products in film, television, music, clothing and nutritional products promoted in audio-visual media,
consumer products virtually standardized on the planet (pizza,
restaurants, fast food, etc.).
There are several international organizations that work towards
protecting threatened societies and cultures, including Survival
International and UNESCO. The UNESCO Universal Declaration
on Cultural Diversity, adopted by 185 Member States in 2001, represents the first international standard-setting instrument aimed
at preserving and promoting cultural diversity and intercultural
dialogue.
Answer these questions:
1. What are the major indicators of approaching cultural
uniformity?
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2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
What organizations preserve and promote cultural diversity?
Where did the humans first emerge?
In what ways do cultures differ?
Why is cultural diversity vital for the survival of humanity?
What international organizations asserted the importance of cultural diversity and cultural heritage?
7. What does the defense of cultural diversity involve?
8. How are the concepts of cultural diversity and cultural
exception?
Text II.
High and Low Context (Part I)
The general terms «high context» and «low context» are used to
describe broad-brush cultural differences between societies.
High Context (Asian, Latin-American, South-European
countries)
The most distinguished features of high context cultures are:
•
Less verbally explicit communication, less written/formal
information.
•
More internalized understandings of what is communicated.
•
Multiple cross-cutting ties and intersections with others.
•
Long term relationships.
•
Strong boundaries- who is accepted as belonging vs who is considered an «outsider».
•
Knowledge is situational, relational.
•
Decisions and activities focus around personal face-to-face relationships, often around a central person who has authority.
Low Context (West-European, North-European, NorthAmerican countries)
The most distinguished features of high context cultures are:
•
Rule oriented, people play by external rules.
•
More knowledge is codified, public, external, and accessible.
•
Sequencing, separation - of time, of space, of activities, of
relationships.
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•
•
•
More interpersonal connections of shorter duration.
Knowledge is more often transferable.
Task-centered. Decisions and activities focus around what needs
to be done, division of responsibilities.
Ways that High and Low Context Differ
1.
The Structure of Relationships
1. High:
Dense,
intersecting
networks
and
long-term
relationships, strong boundaries, relationship more
important than task.
2. Low:
Loose, wide networks, shorter term, compartmentalized
relationships, task more important than relationship.
2. Main Type of Cultural Knowledge
1. High:
More knowledge is below the waterline - implicit, patterns
that are not fully conscious, hard to explain even if you are
a member of that culture.
2. Low:
More knowledge is above the waterline - explicit,
consciously organized.
UNIT
4.
Text I.
Globalizing Cultures:
The Question of Cultural Diversity
The key issue that arises regarding the connections between culture and globalization relates to the fate of cultural diversity, that
is the existence of many different cultures around the world. Is cultural diversity threatened by globalization? Are we going to end up
with a single global culture?
What is the main issue regarding the connections between
culture and globalization?
199
Cultural Differentialism
On the functionalist side, cultural diversity is understood as
cultural differentialism. Cultural differentialism defines culture
as a clearly bound entity with a specific geographical location. From
this perspective, global cultural diversity takes the form of cultural
mosaic with a multiplicity of diverse cultures clearly delimited and
with strict boundaries between them so that observers can identify
«French culture» or «Chinese culture» where each culture is clearly
distinct from the other. In a sense, our initial description of culture
and its components fall into that perspective. Each culture has its
own language, values, norms, symbols, etc. If a society is not entirely homogenous, it comprises a few subcultures and countercultures
that can be sanctioned should they become too disruptive to the cultural system.
What matters for the cultural differentialist perspective is
that culture is clearly territorially bound. Culture is long lasting and changes only very slowly as it adapts to its environment.
In this context, cultural globalization is seen as a disruption as
it involves ignoring borders and boundaries as well as outside
cultural influences creating imbalances into any cultural system
that receives it.
From this perspective, cultures cannot easily mix without causing disruption. This approach implies a notion of cultural purity that
globalization threatens. This is the position taken by anti - globalization activists advocating that native tribes living in the Rainforest
of the Amazonian region be left alone and their way of life preserved
as it is in a sort of «natural museum».
Cultural Imperialism
Regarding the question of globalizing culture and cultural diversity, the conflict perspective states that cultural globalization is
a threat to indigenous cultures as these are progressively brought
into contact with the global economy. Western powers extend their
grip over the world not only politically and economically, but also
culturally, by flooding other societies with their own cultural products (movies, television programs, and music), technology and values
(individualism, consumption). Cultural imperialism is the practice
200
of imposing one's cultural products and values onto other societies,
whether they want it or not, destroying native cultures in the process. The ultimate result is to create a culturally homogenous world
of consumers for global capitalism. Cultural imperialism eliminates
global diversity.
Answer this question:
1. What are the priorities of cultural differentialism perspective?
2. What does the concept of cultural imperialism consist in?
Text II.
High Context versus Low Context (Part 2.)
In order to communicate successfully you have to consider the cultural differences and the predominating communication process in
individualistic and collectivistic cultures. It is best to explain these
differences in terms of low - and high - context communication. Context has to do with how much you have to know before you can communicate effectively.
When workers from high-context and low-context cultures have
to work together often problems occur by the exchange of information. These problems can be categorized as differences in «direction»,
«quantity» and «quality». At differences in direction employees from
high - context cultures like China and France adapt to their good
friends, families and also to close colleagues (in - group members).
They communicate with them intensively (quantity difference) and
exchange specific/detailed information about many different topics.
The result is that every in-group member is constantly upт - to - date
with the facts around the business.
In comparison to high - context cultures low-context cultures
like USA and Germany orientate on many people of their daily life
because they don't differentiate as much as high - context cultures between in - and out - groups. So their direction of communication is orientated on personal characters and referred to situations (direction difference). They mostly communicate within
their out - groups in a broad and diffuse way (quantity difference).
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Within communication they exchange information just to the necessary extent so that work can be done and they don't discuss or
exchange information constantly in their work environment and
colleagues (quality difference).
In China communication tends to be very efficient because
of their information - flow at work and in privacy. They discuss everything in advance and consider meetings as an official «ceremony»
where the already commonly agreed decision will be announced. This
is important in the way of «giving and keeping face». The Americans and Germans in contrast inform the participating attendants in
a meeting about the hard and necessary facts. The decision-making
process takes place within the meeting. To French it is similar with
their Asian counterparts. They are also well informed before they
meet each other. Much explicit and detailed discussions would probably seen as an insult because everything is already clear.
High - context means that «most of the information is either in
the physical context or initialized in the person, while very little is
in the coded, explicit, transmitted part of the message». In comparison to the meaning of low-context communication is «the mass of
information is vested in the explicit code».
To understand what someone really meant in a conversation and
to avoid misunderstandings it is important to realize «how» it was
said. In high - context systems people expect from their interlocutor that he or she knows what the message of the communication
was. This can be done without that it was specifically told Chinese
and French use a high - context communication. They place great
importance on ambience, decorum, the relative status of the participants in a communication and the manner of massage's delivery.
In France it might be hard to feel fully accepted for outsiders within
their culture because of their big diffuse connections. In comparison members of individualistic cultures using low - context communication like Germans, Americans and Finns sometimes ignore
those differences from high - context countries cultures. In case
of a meeting where those countries from low - and high - context
cultures would have to work and discuss the French and especially
the Chinese would not interact and express their disagreement or
reservations. For Chinese issues, circumstances and relationships
are as important as work so they would comment only in a more
private or appropriate occasion.
202
Chinese people tend to be reserved which is considered as active
behaviour in collectivistic cultures. They first need to build up an
interpersonal relationship - a foundation where it is possible to find
the right level of context. In contrast low-context cultures they argue about each other's opinion within the decision-making process
and take discussions in their own hands to come to an agreement.
Within this process members of low - context tend to be precise and
provide just the required information and in case of silence it has
to be filled. but this is just a generic statement. In contrast the Finns
regarding to silence have a different cultural behaviour. Silence is
seen as polite and doesn't have to be replaced with communication.
In this point they differ immensely from the Americans who are seen
as the characteristic low-context country. They need to know what is
going on and have to be provided with detailed background information. Information is freely available in an American company.
In contrast the Germans try to hide information which is sacrificed even within a company or department. French are a high - context culture. They assume that the listener knows everything. It can
happen that the «French will think the Americans think they are
stupid because they start explaining everything, and vice versa».
When dealing with different people from high - and low-context
cultures you always have to be aware of your interlocutor's cultural
origin. This helps to avoid misunderstandings and creates a better
basis for further discussions.
Produce the list of typical features of high and low context
cultures.
Point out the major areas high and low context cultures differ
in.
UNIT
5.
Text I.
Intercultural Communication Principles
Intercultural communication principles guide the process of exchanging meaningful information across cultural boundaries, in
203
a way that preserves mutual respect and minimizes antagonism.
Two factors have raised the importance of this topic:
•
Improvements in communication and transportation technology
have made it possible for previously stable cultures to meet in
unstructured situations, e.g. the internet opens lines of communication without mediation, while budget airlines transplant
ordinary citizens into unfamiliar milieux.
•
Some groups believe that the phenomenon of globalisation has
reduced cultural diversity and so reduced the opportunity for
misunderstandings, but characterising people as a homogeneous
market is simplistic.
What can go wrong?
People from different cultures encode and decode messages differently, increasing the chances of misunderstanding,
so the safety-first consequence of recognizing cultural differences should be to assume that everyone's thoughts and actions are
not just like ours. Such assumptions stem from potentially devastating ignorance and can lead to much frustration for members
of both cultures. Entering a culture with this type of ethnocentrism, the assumption your own culture is correct, is another byproduct of ignorance and cultural misunderstanding. Main types
of misunderstanding are:
Rights, values, and needs
Some cultural characteristics will be easy to identify, e.g.
whether people are conscious of status or make displays of material wealth. But many rights are assumed, values are implied,
and needs are unspoken, (e.g. for safety, security, love, a sense of
belonging to a group, self - esteem, and the ability to attain one's
goals).
For example, there may be problems of respect when a person
from a rigidly class-based culture meets a meritocrat, or where
there is racism, sexism or religious intolerance in play. The relationships between racial or ethnic groups may be affected by economic jealousy. Nations may assert that their political systems
are superior. Such conflicts are difficult to resolve because no-one
wants to be the loser, and few are willing to share the winnings.
204
Stereotyping can aggravate these problems and prevent people
from realising that there is another way to interpret a situation, or
that other groups may define their rights in a different way. Hence,
what may appear just or fair to one group can often seem unjust to
an opposing group.
Assumptions
People may misinterpret each other's motives. For example, one
group may assume that they are simply exchanging information
about what they believe, but the other believes that they are negotiating a change in behavior. Clarifying the purpose of the interaction
is essential to eliminating confusion, particularly if vested interests
are involved.
The situation
If time is not a factor and those interacting approach their
meetings with good will and patience, effective communication is
more likely. But, if the parties are under pressure, emotions may
colour the exchange. Prejudice is a short-cut decision-making tool.
In a crisis, fear and anger may trigger more aggressive tactics, particularly if the meeting is being staged under the gaze of the news
media.
Improving Intercultural Communication
It is essential that people research the cultures and communication conventions of those whom they propose to meet. This will minimise the risk of making the elementary mistakes. It is also prudent
to set a clear agenda so that everyone understands the nature and
purpose of the interaction. When language skills are unequal, clarifying one's meaning in five ways will improve communication:
1. avoid using slang and idioms, choosing words that will convey
only the most specific denotative meaning;
2. listen carefully and, if in doubt, ask for confirmation of understanding (particularly important if local accents and pronunciation are a problem);
3. recognise that accenting and intonation can cause meaning to
vary significantly;
205
4. respect the local communication formalities and styles, and
watch for any changes in body language.
5. investigate their culture's perception of your culture by reading
literature about your culture through their eyes before entering
into communication with them. This will allow you to prepare
yourself for projected views of your culture you will be bearing
as a visitor in their culture.
If it is not possible to learn the other's language, it is expedient
to show some respect by learning a few words. In all important exchanges, a translator can convey the message.
When writing, the choice of words represent the relationship
between the reader and the writer so more thought and care should
be invested in the text since it may well be thoroughly analysed by
the recipient.
Answer these questions:
1. What factors contribute to the importance of establishing the
principles of intercultural communication?
2. What are the main reasons for cultural misunderstandings and
clashes?
3. What are the types of cultural misunderstandings?
4. What recommendations does the author give to improve effective cross - cultural communication?
Text II.
Stereotypes vs. Cultural Generalizations
A stereotype is a belief that all people from a culture behave a certain way. It is an opinion based on one's own cultural values and prejudices and on little information about the other culture. For example,
a woman from a culture that values hard work looks at a people from
a fictional land called Zibi. In Zibi, people work at their jobs about
five hours a day. So, the woman says, «People from Zibi are lazy».
This is a stereotype because she states that every per - son from Zibi
is the same and it is an opinion based more on the woman's own values
than on any thoughtful observation of Zibian values or lifestyle.
206
In this book, we talk about different ways of doing business. We
make cultural generalizations about different styles of business.
This does not mean that every person who lives in a particular culture will do business in a way that fits the generalization. Within
each culture there are many choices. There is, however, in every culture
a standard way of doing things. The cultural generalizations describe
those standards and the values that guide those standards. For example, one could make a generalization about Zibians and say, «People
in Zibi usually work about five hours a day. They spend the rest of the
day taking care of family and farming. Family life is highly valued».
A generalization is based on observation, not prejudice. It explains
the standard practices of a culture but does not determine how every
person in that culture behaves.
Applying Your Knowledge
With a partner, discuss the difference between a stereotype and
a cultural generalization. Then read the following statements about
the fictional country called Zibi. Decide which are stereo- types (S) and
which are cultural generalizations (G). Circle the language that makes
some of the statements stereotypes.
____________________1. Zibians are selfish.
____________________2. In Zibi gifts are often presented at the
end of a negotiation.
____________________3. It may take two or three days to get an
appointment with a Zibian.
____________________4. Zibians never let you know what they
are thinking about. They always try to
confuse you.
____________________5. In Zibi, many businesspeople invite
their colleagues to their homes for dinner to talk about work.
____________________6. Arriving on time in Zibi usually means
arriving ten minutes after the agreed
time.
____________________7. In Zibi nothing runs on time.
____________________8. It is common in Zibi to discuss every
detail of an agreement before signing a
contract.
207
____________________9. In Zibi, all the power in a corporation
stays at the top. You can never get a
middle manager to make an independent
decision.
___________________10. Zibians spend too much time eating.
Responding to Stereotypes
There are many ways of responding to stereotypes. The
following Asian-American encounter illustrates that.
An American man attending an international relations banquet
was sitting across from a man who looked Asian.
He wanted to start a conversation so he asked the man loudly and
in very simple English, «Like food?». The man politely nodded yes,
but said nothing.
During the dinner program, the master of ceremony introduced
the Asian-looking man as an award winning professor of economics
at an important university. The professor was invited to give a short
talk about world trade issues. After a short discussion in perfect
English the professor sat down. He then looked across to his neighbor and asked loudly and in very simple English, «Like talk?».
Discussion
Answer the following questions and share your answers in
groups.
1. What stereotype did the American have about the Asian looking
man?
2. How did the Asian-looking man respond to the stereotype?
3. Do you like the way he responded to the stereotype? Why or why
not?
4. Have you ever been faced with stereotypes? How have you
responded?
a. with anger at the person;
b. with anger at the stereotype;
c. with a joke;
d. with an explanation of why the stereotype is wrong;
e. with silence;
f. ______________________________
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UNIT
6.
Text I.
Cultural pluralism
Cultural pluralism is a term used when smaller groups within
a larger society maintain their unique cultural identities, and whose
values and practices are accepted by the wider culture.
One example is Lebanon where 18 different religious communities co - exist on a land of 10,452 km2. In a pluralist culture,
unique groups not only co - exist side by side, but also consider
qualities of other groups as traits worth having in the dominant
culture.
The current contemporary art world in the 21st century is an
example of cultural pluralism. For another example, a community
center in the United States may offer classes in Indian yoga, Chinese
calligraphy, and Latin salsa dancing. That community may also have
one or more synagogues, mosques, and/or Buddhist temples, as well
as several churches of various Christian denominations.
The existence of such institutions and practices are possible if
the cultural communities responsible for them are protected by law
and/or accepted by the larger society in a pluralist culture.
Interculturalism
Interculturalism is the philosophy of exchanges between cultural groups within a society. Various states have intercultural policies which seek to encourage the socialization of citizens of different
origins. These policies are often ostensibly used as an instrument to
fight racism.
Interculturalism requires an inherent openness to be exposed to
the culture of the «other». Once a person is exposed to an element
of a different culture, a dialogue will ensue, where everyone embarks upon understanding the culture of the other, and usually this
involves comparisons. Thus, interculturalism breeds dialogue, in
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order to be able to look for commonalities between that element of
one's culture and the culture of the other.
Interculturalism seeks to enhance fusion by looking for commonalities. Hence, various cultures merge. The differences that remain
make up the subcultures of the world.
Interculturalism vs Multiculturalism
Within a country, a distinction can be drawn between interculturalism and multiculturalism. Indeed, multiculturalism is the ideology that postulates that all cultures and civilizations are of equal
value and should be treated and promoted equally within the same
nation. It is often confused with political pluralism, and with ethnic
and linguistic diversity, or with interculturalism.
Interculturalism is a political ideology. Its main objective is
rather to develop a common civic culture based on the values of freedom and liberty, and of human rights, as derived from the Western
civilization, while encouraging interaction between the communities living in the same country. As such, Interculturalism requries
democracy and full respect for universal human rights (whereas
multiculturalism explicitly doesn't know this requirement).
Interculturalism promotes individual rights for everyone,
with no discrimination. This means, in particular, that people
have the right to maintain an affiliation with one's ethnic group
and the right for cultural and religious differences to be displayed
in the public domain. However, the entire society must adhere
to the same constitution of fundamental rights and obligations,
with no exception. It does not accept that cultural differences are
used as an excuse to reduce the rights of certain groups. This approach leads to an ethics of maximum tolerance for an individual's choices and of minimum tolerance for totalitarian and theocratic systems of ideas that could undermine the very foundations
of a democratic society.
Answer these questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
What does the term cultural pluralism denote?
What example of cultural pluralism can be given?
What does interculturalism mean?
What does interculturalism require, encourage and seek?
What do interculturalism and multiculturalism differ in?
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Text II.
Intercultural competence
Intercultural competence is the ability of successful communication with people of other cultures.
A person who is interculturally competent captures and understands, in interaction with people from foreign cultures, their specific concepts in perception, thinking, feeling and acting. Earlier experiences are considered, free from prejudices; there is an interest
and motivation to continue learning.
Cultural differences
Cultural characteristics can be differentiated between several dimensions and aspects (the ability to perceive them and to cope with
them is one of the bases of intercultural competence), Geert Hofstede
has developed a Cultural Orientation Model which classifies cultures
based on where they fall on several continuums such as:
•
Collectivist and individualist cultures;
•
Masculine and feminine cultures;
•
Uncertainty avoidance;
•
Power distance;
•
Chronemics: Monochrone (time-fixed, «one after the other») and
polychrone (many things at the same time, «multi-tasking»);
•
Short - term vs. long-term;
•
Dominant values (What are the dominant values? Assertiveness?
Money? Job satisfaction?).
Structural characteristics: e. g. basic personality, value orientation, experience of time and space, selective perception, nonverbal
communication, patterns of behavior.
Cultures can be different not only between continents or nations,
but also within the same company or even family. (geographical, ethnical, moral, ethical, religious, political, historical) resp. cultural
affiliation or cultural identity.
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Requirements
Basic needs are sensitivity and self-consciousness: the understanding of other behaviors and ways of thinking as well as
the ability to express one’s own point of view in a transparent way
with the aim to be understood and respected by staying flexible
where this is possible, and being clear where this is necessary.
It is a balance, situatively adapted, between three parts:
1. knowledge (about other cultures, people, nations, behaviors…);
2. empathy (understanding feelings and needs of other people),
and;
3. self-confidence (knowing what I want, my strengths and weaknesses, emotional stability). Expand.
Answer these questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
What skills does intercultural competence involve?
What are the dimensions of cultural differences?
What are the basic structural characteristics?
What features are required to achieve effective intercultural
communication?
Text III.
Breaking the Barriers of Intercultural
Communication
We live in an increasingly complex world. One element of this
complexity is the mixing of different cultures, languages and faiths.
Within the business world intercultural communication is vital for
success. Effective communication between colleagues from different cultural backgrounds ensures a team is working harmoniously.
The six steps to intercultural communication are basic pointers
that all working in intercultural teams should be aware of to ensure
culture becomes a vehicle for positive advancement rather than
a barrier.
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1. Break Assumptions
Everyone makes or has assumptions about others. Assumptions
are beliefs rather than objective truth and are usually influenced by
a number of subjective factors.
For intercultural communication to truly work, people need to assess their assumptions and ask themselves why they hold those ideas
or beliefs. By doing so and even openly examining them with others,
the initial barrier to intercultural communication is overcome.
2. Empathise
In order to come to appreciate and understand people from different cultures, empathy is vital. Through putting yourself in someone else's shoes you come to see or appreciate their point of view.
3. Involve
Involving others in tasks or decision making empowers and
builds strong relationships. Using intercultural diversity is in essence a more creative approach to problem solving as it incorporates
different points of view.
Discourage Herd Mentality
Herd mentality refers to a closed and one dimensional approach.
Such a way of thinking curbs creativity, innovation and advancement as people are restricted in how to think, approach and engage
with people or challenges.
Intercultural communication can only flourish and therefore
contribute if people are encouraged to think as individuals, bring
their cultural influences to the table and share ideas that may be
outside the box.
4. Shun Insensitive Behaviour
People can and do behave in culturally insensitive ways. By attacking someone's person, you attack their culture and therefore
their dignity. This can only be divisive.
Intercultural communication is based upon people thinking
through words and actions to ensure they do not act inappropriately.
When insensitive behaviour is witnessed it is the responsibility of all
to shun it and ensure it remains unacceptable.
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5. Be Wise
Wisdom is not called wisdom for nothing. People need to be aware
how to interact with people with respect and knowledge. Intercultural communication is essentially founded upon wisdom, i.e. showing maturity of thought and action in dealing with people. Through
thinking things out and have background knowledge to intercultural
differences much of the communication problems witnessed within
business could be avoided.
Answer these questions:
1. Which of these six steps to intercultural communication do you
find the most /the least useful?
2. Can you think of any others barriers of intercultural
communication?
Text IV.
Overcoming the Language Barrier
Cross cultural communication is not the sole reserve of the business world. In fact, all of us in one form or another come across situations that require some kind of cross cultural communication and
understanding.
One such situation is when communicating with foreigners. We
all encounter people at work, on holiday or elsewhere who do not
share the same language as us. Although we consider language the
main means of communicating, language only represents 7% of what
we communicate. There are many ways of overcoming the language
barrier to allow for some cross cultural communication.
When faced with a situation in which there is no common language these points may help you to get your message across:
Say it without words
Use hands, arms, legs, gestures, facial expressions and everything else your charades experience has taught you.
Use emotions
Even in our own language and culture we do not always use language to express fright, frustration, anger or joy. Emotions transcend linguistic barriers.
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Try out words
Sometimes we share common words and we do not know it. Additionally people from different cultures will have a passive knowledge
of English gained through the media. Try saying the word slowly or
with a different pronunciation.
Draw it
If you really cannot explain «milk» to the Greek shop owner draw
the cow, the udders and the milk. Pictures speak louder than words.
Most cultures will be able to spot what you are getting at straight
away.
Ask for help
If there are others around you do not be shy to ask for their assistance. It is often possible to find a willing translator.
Confirm meanings
If you are unsure whether the message has been understood confirm meanings. When doing so do not ask, «Do you understand?»
as the answer will often be «yes» even if it is «no». Try re-phrasing
what you have agreed or discussed.
Be patient
The key to overcoming the language barrier is to exercise patience. It is not your fault or the other person"s that you cannot
speak each others language.
The above points will help you to overcome cross cultural communication problems and ensure you manage to get your message
across in one form or another.
Answer these questions:
1. Do you believe the language barrier to be the most significant obstacle in cross-cultural communication?
2. What is your personal experience in overcoming the language
barrier?
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UNIT
7.
Text I
Cultural Awareness: The Importance of Curiosity
Old sayings demonstrate outdated thinking. Curiosity is an important and over overlooked trait that builds bridges across cultures
and communities.
As children, curiosity was our primary learning tool. It made
us wiggle our toes and experiment with our voices. It inspired us to
mimic the sounds we heard around us and explore the boundaries of
our cribs, then rooms, then neighborhoods. When we accidentally
discovered orange by mixing red and yellow, curiosity sent us on an
excited finger painting frenzy to try all possible color combinations.
Somewhere along this great learning curve, many people stop
their curiosity and much of its associated learning. Often, this is because of a bad experience, a sense of fear, or warnings from authority figures.
In fact, many adults have lost touch with the feeling that curiosity brings: an epiphany of discovery, a sense of excitement, a drive
to learn. Instead, we find familiarity and comfort in the routine
and familiar, and prefer the status quo to the world of change and
uncertainty in which curiosity resides. For many, curiosity has almost garnered a negative connotation. Like idealism, some people
look down on curiosity as if it were a sign of naïveteé or infantile
development.
This couldn't be further from the truth. Curiosity has been the
driving force behind most inventions, discoveries, and adventures
in the history of mankind. Were it not for the curiosity of Christopher Columbus, Lewis and Clark, and countless others, there would
be no United States of America, let alone cars, electricity, phones, or
computers. Trying to separate curiosity from inventions and discoveries is futile. They are part and parcel.
Use curiosity to build cultural awareness
Sayings like, Curiosity killed the cat demonstrate the apprehension some hold toward curiosity. It's important to note something
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here. It wasn't curiosity itself that killed the proverbial cat. What
really got him in trouble was his inability to deal with the new situation he was in. And when it comes to learning about new environments, curiosity is key.
Curiosity creates an interest in learning and helps break down
barriers between cultures and their differences. Curiosity asks important how and why questions:
•
How are we different?
•
How are we alike?
•
How do we work effectively together, knowing our similarities
and differences?
•
How can we communicate more clearly together?
•
Why do we have misunderstandings?
•
Why do we have these different customs and viewpoints?
Curiosity, in this sense, is an essential stepping stone toward
building awareness, appreciation, and understanding of other cultures. Through curiosity, people can gain new perspectives, unparalleled learning and growth, and a chance for interesting conversation
and reflection at every interaction.
As a child, my grandmother, an incredibly gifted, creative, if
not eccentric woman, imparted me with these simple but powerful
words. She said:
«To be interesting, Kate, you have to be interested».
Curiosity not only makes the world interesting, it makes you interesting. Embrace it.
Quotes from Curious Minded People.
• «Everyone and everything around you is your teacher» - Ken
Keyes;
• «...there is nothing in the world as interesting as people, and one
can never study them enough» - Vincent Van Gogh;
• «Once you can see the boundaries of your environment, they
are no longer the boundaries of your environment» - Marshall
McLuhan;
• «The possession of knowledge does not kill the sense of wonder
and mystery. There is always more mystery» - Anais Nin;
•
Nothing in life is to be feared. It is only to be understood - Marie
Curie;
• «We have a hunger of the mind which asks for knowledge of
all around us, and the more we gain, the more is our desire;
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the more we see, the more we are capable of seeing» - Maria
Mitchell;
• «It takes a lot of courage to release the familiar and seemingly secure, to embrace the new. But there is no real security in what is
no longer meaningful. There is more security in the adventurous
and exciting, for in movement there is life, and in change there
is power». - Alan Cohen.
History of the Saying: Curiosity Killed the Cat
«The saying suggests people should mind their own business.
This expression apparently first appeared in print in an O. Henry
story in the early 1900s».
Answer these questions:
1. What is the role of curiosity in building cultural awareness?
2. Why is cultural awareness important?
3. What other questions can we ask ourselves about other
cultures?
4. What important skills and knowledge does one acquire when answering these questions?
5. Which of the quotes presented do you find the most relevant to
the subject of cultural awareness?
Text II
The Benefits of Intercultural Awareness
Intercultural skills improve communication abilities, social benefits, job opportunities and job stability.
Intercultural awareness is an enriching lifestyle and mindset,
not an obligation or one-time training.
Job Opportunities
Being able to work and communicate with people from different
backgrounds and cultures is essential in today's world and workplace. A global skill set ensures a bright future and an interesting
and more enriching life path.
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To work internationally today, an understanding of other cultures is essential. So is an ability to effectively communicate and
work with people from these cultures. Without intercultural competence, the chances of landing and keeping a job internationally
are slim to none.
Not to mention that we live in a constantly globalizing world and
in a diverse country with a diverse population. Increasingly, these
days, cultural competence is essential to work within the U.S.
A decade ago, an understanding of computers was a highly marketable skill as business and computer technologies became highly
interdependent. In the 2000s, it's not an understanding of computers (now commonplace), but an understanding of how to work with
people from different backgrounds that is essential for most jobs
today.
Job Stability
You may still be able to land a job without demonstrating cultural competence for a small time in the future, but keeping it is another story.
People who know about other cultures are more able and adept at
working in today's world. People who know how to work across cultures can turn differences into opportunities and can find success
in situations where others find only failure. They can communicate
effectively, solve problems creatively, and keep an open mind when
others shut down. This means a job well done.
Social Benefits
Interculturally aware people are interesting. They engage in
compelling conversations in a wider variety of settings, take advantage of opportunities that others shy away from, and think with an
adventurous and open mindset that enriches their lives and life experiences. They have interesting things to say and can express themselves well.
Ongoing Rewards
Intercultural awareness is an enriching lifestyle and mindset, not
an obligation or one-time training. It adds colors to your life, opens
doors of opportunity, and leads to extensive, dynamic growth.
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Answer these questions:
1. What jobs require intercultural awareness?
2. In what ways does intercultural awareness enrich one’s lifestyle?
3. What opportunities does this awareness provide?
Text III
Working Across Cultures
Working across cultures requires a diverse skill set and a different approach from business in general. Regardless of which cultures
are being bridged, certain strategies are crucial to international
business success. Here are our top ten strategies for interacting with
people from different cultures.
1. Learn about the business beforehand
This general business strategy becomes increasingly important
when dealing with businesses across cultures. Get on their website, check out their promotional material. Get a feel for the
atmosphere, attitude, and angle that the business has. Many
cultural factors are passed down from the societal level to businesses. However, each organization will have its own culture,
personality, and way of doing things.
2. Observe
Because your mind is processing a lot of information in new environments, your observation skills when working across cultures
may be flooded or unfocused. Keep your observation skills engaged and alert to elements that will help you do business. Notice how people act, dress, and treat each other. Especially if
you come from a culture that emphasizes verbal communication,
make a point of looking for messages that are conveyed without
being said. Being able to read a situation will greatly improve
your ability to have a successful meeting.
3. Ask questions
Many people don't want to reveal how little they know about other cultures, so they don't ask questions. Ultimately, they limit
their ability to work in other cultures. Questions show you are
interested in your colleague's culture. This interest and consideration helps build your relationship, which is especially important
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4.
5.
6.
7.
if your culture has a reputation for trying to culturally dominate
others (e.g. the U.S.). Demonstrate that you are working to create synergy between your cultures with questions. In doing so,
you create room for the mistakes you may make; people are more
willing to look past cultural blunders if they know you are trying
to learn.
Stay aware of yourself
Some people feel like they have somewhat of an out-of-body experience when in cross-cultural situations because they are focused on everything new outside of themselves. There can be so
much going on around you that you forget to focus on yourself as
well. Take advantage of down time (and make time for it) so you
can get in touch with your body and feelings. What's your gut
feeling? Where is it coming from? This process can help you feel
more grounded and secure in your experience abroad.
Allow for more time
Working across cultures takes more time. Communication may
be slowed and logistics may be different. You may be working
with a culture with a different concept of time altogether. Expect most things to take longer than they would when dealing
with a business from your same culture or country. Also give
yourself more time to process all the information before making
decisions.
Look for individual differences
Overviews of cultures are meant to be guidelines only. Individuals may have values and behaviors that vary greatly from those
of their native culture. Many people make the mistake of trying
to fit people they are working with into cultural molds, when often they don't fit. People's values and behaviors are influenced
in part by their culture, but also by their background, experiences, and personality. Be careful not to attribute too much of
what you observe to a cultural difference.
Find the humor
Humor heals and helps you through difficult situations. Travel
can be stressful, as can new environments and change in general. This stress can limit both your flexibility and your ability to
handle cross-cultural situations. Combat stress with humor. Be
able to step away (at least mentally) from situations and find the
humor in them.
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8. Learn to tolerate uncertainty
This is an essential skill, and one that can be extremely difficult
for people from some cultures where directness and exactness
are valued (e.g. Germany, the U.S.). There will be a great deal of
unknowns when doing business across cultures. Definitive, concrete answers may not always be given, especially if you are working with a culture with a high tolerance for uncertainty. Focus
on what you can determine and try to let go of minor details that
are unclear. (Similarly, if you come from a culture that doesn't
place a high value on exactness and are working with someone
from a culture that does, try to provide clarification and details
when possible.)
9. Go early
If your meeting is face-to-face and you'll be traveling abroad, go
at least two days before your scheduled meeting. Give yourself
time to adjust; you will have to deal with physical adjustments
(jet lag, different foods) as well as a number of cultural adjustments as well. These changes can be overwhelming and should
be spread out to make them manageable. Give yourself time to
adjust physically and then your mind will be better able to make
cultural adjustments that are essential for success.
10. Build your intercultural skills
When working with people from different cultures, you need
a solid understanding of the norms of that culture. You also need
communication skills and business strategies that can be applied
across cultures. The items listed above reflect some of the necessary skills for intercultural work in general. However, individuals should develop a list of skills they need to develop to further
their intercultural communication skills based on their own situations and needs.
To determine these skills, reflect on past intercultural experiences (for people with limited experience abroad, think of experiences
working and interacting with people and groups different from you).
When do you become uncomfortable, rigid, or shut down? What mistakes have you made in the past? Commit yourself to continually
developing the skills that will help you in similar situations in the
future.
View your experiences with different cultures as a trajectory,
rather than a string of individual experiences. Link the different
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experiences you have and you can link the personal development and
learning that comes with them.
Answer this question:
1. Which of these ten strategies for working across cultures do you
find the most effective?
Give your reasons.
Excersises
Excersise I
Negotiating styles
When you're negotiating with people from other cultures, it's
important to think about whatthey consider as 'normal' behaviour.
You'll need to think about the following:
• body language
• conversational rules
• hierarchy
• physical contact
• relationship building
• attitudes to time
Mr A is in another country in order to try and get a multi-million
dollar order from Mr B and his assistant, Mr C. Put each problem that
occurs in their meeting under one or more of the headings above.
Which cultures do Mr. A, Mr. Mr. B and Mr.C belong to?
1. Mr A wanted to start the negotiations immediately, but Mr B
suggested a sightseeing tour of the city and a game of golf the
next day.
2. Mr B started asking Mr A about his wife, home and family.
3. When Mr C made an important point, Mr A was silent for two
minutes before replying. This made Mr C very nervous.
4. When talking, Mr B looked directly at Mr A and his two assistants in turn, giving them equal attention. Mr A started to look
annoyed.
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5. During a break for coffee, Mr B put his arm around Mr As shoulders in order to be friendly.
6. When Mr A was talking, Mr C frequently interrupted him.
Excersise II
Here are some areas of potential cultural misunderstanding:
a. a distance when talking to people: what is comfortable?
b. b eye contact: how much of the time do people look directly at
each other?
c. c gesture: do people make lots of facial gestures? How much do
they move theirarms and hands?
d. d greetings/goodbyes: do people shake hands every time? Are
there fixed phrases to say?
e. ehumour: is this a good way of relaxing people? Or is it out of
place in some contexts?
f. f physical contact: how much do people touch each other?
g. g presents: when should you give them? When should you open
them? What should yousay when you receive one?
h. h rules of conversation and the role of silence: how long can people be silent before theyfeel uncomfortable? Is it acceptable to
interrupt when others are speaking?
Which points in the text above are referred to in this story?
Try to guess which cultures the individuals mentioned belong to.
Sally, a student, is working for a company abroad for work experience. The company has employees from all over the world. The
head of the company, Henrik, invites Sally to a barbecue for his employees at his home, at 3 pm on Saturday.
She is the first to arrive, at exactly 3 o'clock. When the others
arrive, some shake hands with each other. Some kiss on one cheek,
others on both cheeks. Others arrive and say hello without kissing
or shaking hands. (1...) Some bring wine or flowers, which the host
does not open and puts to one side. Others bring nothing. (2...)
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In conversations, some people move their arms around a lot and
seem to make signs with their hands, others keep their hands by their
sides. (3...) Some people do not let others finish what they are saying,
and others say almost nothing; the people with them seem upset and
move away when they can. (4...) Some people look directly at the person they are talking to. Others look away more. (5...) Some touch the
arm of the other person whenever they are speaking to them. (6...) She
notices that some people seem to be slowly moving backwards across
the garden as the conversation goes on, while the person with them is
moving forward. (7...)
Later, somebody makes a joke but nobody laughs. Everyone goes
quiet. (8...)
People start saying goodbye and leaving.
Translation Exercises
I.
Translate these sentences from Russian into English:
1. Стереотип отличается от обобщенного представления об
определенной национальной культуре. Стереотипы часто
вредны и вводят в заблуждение.
2. Устанавливая деловые отношения с представителями других культур, мы должны узнать как можно больше об их
традициях, обычаях и привычках.
3. Представители культур высокого контекста считают, что
в начале переговоров следует установить дружеские отношения с партнерами, а лишь после этого переходить к делу.
4. Навыки эффективной межкультурной коммуникации
жизненно важны для предпринимателей в условиях
глобализации.
5. Национальная культура оказывает значительное влияние
на некоторые элементы невербальной коммуникации.
6. Представители англо-американской культуры считают
время одним из важных материальных активов. Они измеряют, продают и покупают время.
7. Пунктуальность воспринимается во многих европейских
странах как нечто естественное и само собой разумеющееся.
8. Во многих странах Востока не уважают людей, которые быстро принимают решения. Считается, что нужно принять
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9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
во внимание все обстоятельства, а лишь затем принимать
взвешенное решение.
В Японии и Китае люди приветствуют друг друга поклоном,
а не рукопожатием.
Представители латино-американской культуры очень эмоциональны. При встрече они могут обнять и расцеловать
своего делового партнера. Такое поведение часто раздражает их гостей из Северной Европы.
Японцы не любят жесткие эмоциональные переговоры
и стараются избегать их.
Осознавая разнообразие культур, мы должны в то же время чувствовать нашу принадлежность к международному
сообществу.
Во время переговоров представители Западной Европы никогда не перебивают своих партнеров.
Под коммуникативной компетенцией понимается знание
используемых при коммуникации символьных систем
и правил их функционирования, а также принципов коммуникативного взаимодействия.
II. Translate this text from Russian into English
Межкультурная коммуникация была вызвана к жизни практическими потребностями послевоенного мира. Эти потребности возникли вследствие бурного экономического развития
многих стран и регионов, революционных изменений в технологии, связанной с этим глобализации экономической деятельности. В результате мир стал значительно меньше – интенсивность продолжительных контактов между представителями
разных культур очень выросли и продолжают увеличиваться.
Помимо экономики важнейшими зонами профессиональной и
социальной межкультурной коммуникации стали образование,
туризм, наука.
III. Translate this text from Russian into English
Признание абсолютной ценности разнообразия мировых культур, отказ от колонизаторской культурной политики, осознание
хрупкости существования и угрозы уничтожения огромного большинства традиционных культур и языков привели к тому, что
теория и практика кросс-культурной коммуникации стали бурно
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развиваться, опираясь на новый в истории человечества феномен
интереса народов Земли друг к другу.
IV. Translate this text from Russian into English
Изучение межкультурной коммуникации предполагает знакомство со следующими явлениями и понятиями: принципы
коммуникации, основные функции культуры, влияние культуры
на восприятие и коммуникацию в ее различных сферах и видах,
параметры для описания влияния культуры на человеческую
деятельность.
V. Translate this text from Russian into English
Эдвард Холл в своих книгах описал разные параметры культурно обусловленных коммуникативных различий. Так, в частности, им было введено различение высоко - и низкоконтекстных
культур, проявляющееся в количестве информации, эксплицитно выражаемой в сообщении.
VI. Translate this text from Russian into English
Известный социолог и специалист по теории управления Гирт
Хофстеде в результате проведенного им в конце 1970-х гг. обширного исследования сумел сформулировать четыре признака, которые могут описывать национальные культуры. Исследование состояло в анкетировании большого числа сотрудников (более 1000)
транснациональной корпорации в более чем ста странах на предмет их отношения к работе и поведения на рабочем месте. Получившиеся в результате статистической обработки кластеры признаков позволили сформулировать следующие оси культурных
противопоставлений.
Дистанция власти. Степень, в которой общество приемлет неравномерное распределение власти между его членами. В культурах с низкой дистанцией власти (например, в Скандинавии) коммуникативный стиль политиков заметно отличен от, например,
Турции, где политик должен излучать значительность, властность и могущество.
Индивидуализм. Степень, в которой общество согласно с тем, что
взгляды и поступки отдельной личности могут быть независимы от
коллективных или групповых убеждений и действий. Так, в США
успех формулируется в терминах индивидуальных достижений
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и подчеркивается индивидуальная ответственность за поступки.
Коллективизм, наоборот, означает, что люди должны увязывать
свои воззрения и поступки с тем, что считает группа (семья, организация, партия). В таких культурах (Латинская Америка, арабский
Восток, Юго-Восточная Азия) в выборе, который совершает индивидуум, очень велика роль группы – например, семьи.
Избегание неопределенности. Степень, в которой члены общества чувствуют себя неуверенно в неопределенных, заранее не
структурированных ситуациях и пытаются избежать их, вырабатывая правила, формулы и ритуалы и отказываясь мириться
с поведением, отклоняющимся от стандарта. Общества с высокой
степенью избегания неопределенности боятся инноваций, приветствуют поиски абсолютной истины.
Соревновательность. Степень, в которой общество ориентировано на достижение успеха, напористость, решение задач,
приобретение вещей. Это противопоставлено идеям качества
жизни – заботе о других, солидарности с группой, помощи менее удачливым. Высокосоревновательные культуры отчетливо
противопоставляют традиционные мужские и женские социальные роли. Успех – в том числе и для женщин – ассоциируется
с проявлением «мужских» качеств. К высоко соревновательным культурам в равной степени относятся противопоставленные во многих других отношениях США и Япония. К низкосоревновательным – скандинавские страны. В работах Хофстеде
1980-х гг. этот параметр имел другое название «маскулинность»
(masculinity/femininity dimension). Позднее во многих работах
проявления этого параметра стали называться ориентацией общества на соревнование.
VII.
Translate this text from Russian into English
Прикладной аспект межкультурной коммуникации. С самого начала межкультурная коммуникация имела ярко выраженную прикладную ориентацию. Это не только наука, но и набор
навыков, которыми можно и нужно владеть. В первую, очередь
эти навыки необходимы тем, чья профессиональная деятельность связана с взаимодействием между культурами, когда ошибки и коммуникативные неудачи приводят к другим провалам –
в переговорах, к неэффективной работе коллектива, к социальной
напряженности.
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VIII. Translate this text from Russian into English
Культура оказывает всепроникающее и глубокое влияние на
процессы вербального и невербального кодирования и декодирования. Культура оказывает глубокое влияние на вербальный
язык.
Культура также влияет на многие невербальные действия.
Хотя кросс-культурные исследования показали, что мимические
выражения гнева, презрения, отвращения, страха, счастья, печали и удивления являются пан - культурными, мы также знаем,
что культуры разнятся в правилах проявления чувств, которые
определяют использование этих универсальных выражений. Кроме того, мы знаем, что существует множество культурных различий в жестах, взгляде и визуальном внимании, межличностном
пространстве, позах тела, а также в голосовых интонациях и речевых характеристиках.
IX. Translate this text from Russian into English
Во многих контекстах термин кросс-культурная коммуникация используется как синоним термина межкультурная коммуникация. В контексте коммуникации разницы между этими
терминами нет; однако имеется важное различие между кросскультурным и межкультурным исследованием. Кросс-культурное
исследование относится к сравнению двух или более культур по
некоторой интересующей переменной (например, выясняются
различия между культурами А и В в выражении эмоций). Межкультурное исследование имеет отношение к изучению интеракции между представителями двух конкретных культур (например, выясняются различия в том, как представители культур А
и В выражают эмоции, когда общаются соответственно с людьми
из культур В и Л).
X. Translate this text from Russian into English
Межкультурная коммуникация и конфликт
Во время межкультурных встреч велика вероятность того, что
поведение людей не будет соответствовать нашим ожиданиям.
Мы часто интерпретируем такое поведение как поползновение на
нашу систему ценностей и мораль. Оно вызывает негативные эмоции, которые расшатывают нашу Я - концепцию. Эти конфликты
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возникают в межкультурном общении человека не только с людьми, но также с другими агентами культурной системы (такими,
как общественный транспорт, почта, торговля, бизнес).
XI. Translate this text from Russian into English
Конфликт при межкультурном общении неизбежен. Поскольку участники интеракции не могут послать или принять сигналы
однозначным образом, как они привыкли это делать во внутрикультурных ситуациях, эпизод межкультурной коммуникации
может вызывать у нас фрустрацию или испытывать наше терпение. В подобных ситуациях легко выйти из себя, и люди могут
быстро расстроиться или потерять интерес к подобным интеракциям из-за тех дополнительных усилий, которых они требуют. Даже если участники интеракции добиваются определенного успеха в декодировании сигналов, интерпретация сообщений
может оказаться частичной, двусмысленной или ошибочной.
Возможно, сообщения не удастся расшифровать в соответствии
с первоначальным намерением отправителя, что ведет к коммуникативным оплошностям и проблемам в последующем общении.
XII.
Translate this text from Russian into English
Эффективность межкультурной коммуникации
Варна выделил шесть основных препятствий, или «камней преткновения», мешающих эффективной межкультурной
коммуникации.
1. Допущение сходств. Одной из причин непонимания при межкультурной коммуникации становится то, что люди наивно
предполагают, будто все они одинаковы или, по крайней мере, достаточно схожи для того, чтобы легко общаться друг с другом.
Однако коммуникация - это уникальная человеческая особенность, которую формируют специфические культуры и общества.
Действительно, коммуникация представляет собой продукт
культуры.
2. Языковые различия. Когда люди пытаются общаться на
языке, который знают не в совершенстве, они часто полагают,
что слово, фраза или предложение имеют одно и только одно значение – то, которое они намерены передать. Делать такое допущение – значит игнорировать все остальные возможные источники
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сигналов и сообщений, включая невербальную экспрессию, интонацию голоса, позу, жесты и действия.
3. Ошибочные невербальные интерпретации. В любой культуре невербальное поведение составляет большую часть коммуникативных сообщений. Но очень трудно полностью понимать невербальный язык культуры, не являющейся вашей собственной.
Неправильная интерпретация невербального поведения может
легко привести к конфликтам или конфронтации, которые нарушают коммуникативный процесс.
4. Предубеждения и стереотипы. Как говорилось ранее, стереотипы и предубеждения в отношении людей - естественные и неизбежные психологические процессы, которые влияют на все наши
восприятия и коммуникативные контакты. Излишняя опора на
стереотипы может помешать нам объективно посмотреть на других людей и их сообщения и найти подсказки, которые помогут
проинтерпретировать эти сообщения в том ключе, в котором нам
намеревались их передать
5. Стремление оценивать. Культурные ценности также влияют
на нашу оценку других людей и окружающего нас мира. Различные ценности могут вызывать негативные оценки, которые становятся еще одним камнем преткновения на пути к эффективной
межкультурной коммуникации.
6. Повышенная тревога или напряжение. Эпизоды межкультурной коммуникации часто связаны с большей тревогой и стрессом, чем знакомые ситуации внутрикультурной коммуникации.
XIII. Translate this text from Russian into English
В международном бизнесе, в борьбе за рынки сбыта и сферы
влияния преимущество будет иметь тот, кто преуспеет в понимании культуры конкурентов и партнеров по бизнесу, их слабых
и сильных сторон, кто проявит гибкость, позволяющую завоевать
доверие. Расширение кросс -культурного информационного запаса, повышение кросс-культурной компетентности современного
менеджера – требование эпохи.
Что такое кросс-культурная коммуникация, и как она влияет
на нашу деловую и повседневную жизнь?
Одной из самых известных организаций, занимающихся обучением менеджеров искусству делового общения с иностранными
партнерами и формированию международных команд является
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Институт языкового и кросс-культурного тренинга (Великобритания). Руководитель представительства этого института в России
Александр Косов взял интервью у основателя института и президента компании «Ричард Льюис Коммьюникейшнз» господина
Льюиса.
XIV. Translate this text from Russian into English
– Господин Льюис, существует множество трактовок термина «культура» и несколько методик обучения кросс-культурной
(транскультурной, межкультурной, интеркультурной) коммуникации. Как Вы понимаете слово «культура», и в чем заключается
суть модели обучения Ричарда Льюиса?
– Культурой я называю коллективное программирование мышления группы людей, которое оказывает влияние на поведение
человека и той общности, к которой он принадлежит. Культура –
продукт миллионов разумов, представленный в виде устойчивых
ценностей, верований и моделей общения. Зная особенности этого программирования, можно построить коммуникационную
модель, которая позволит успешно общаться с представителями
других культур.
Моя модель предполагает 5 этапов последовательных
действий:
1. Изучите особенности программирования различных культур, включая свою собственную.
2. Разграничьте кажущиеся и действительные характеристики (избавьтесь от ложных стереотипов).
3. Посмотрите, как культуры подразделяются на 3 группы,
и установите, какая из групп вам ближе (определите свой
культурный профиль).
4. Проанализируйте, как те или иные культуры функционируют в различных ситуациях.
5. Сравните культуры, выделите у них общие черты и на их
основе постройте алгоритм достижения взаимопонимания
(эмпатии).
XV.
Translate this text from Russian into English
– Г-н Льюис, Вы занимаетесь вопросами кросс-культурной
коммуникации более 20 лет. Растет ли интерес к кросс-культуре
в наше время?
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– Конечно. Кросс-культура сейчас гораздо популярней, чем
20 лет назад. Это вызвано процессом глобализации, повлекшим
резкое увеличение деловых контактов во всех сферах бизнеса, особенно в торговле.
– Какие страны проявляют наибольший интерес к кросскультурному обучению, и готова ли Россия к широкомасштабной
программе повышения своей грамотности в этом направлении?
– Наибольший интерес к кросс - культуре проявляют экономически развитые, но небольшие европейские страны: Финляндия,
Голландия, Дания, Швейцария и Швеция. Они активно расширяют торговлю со своими более крупными соседями. Много семинаров по кросс -культурным тематикам проводится в Германии,
Великобритании, США. Хотя в Соединённых Штатах семинары чаще всего касаются расовых проблем. В Италии, Испании
и Франции к этим проблемам проявляют слабый интерес. Что
касается России, то я считаю, что она вполне готова к такого рода
обучающим программам, т. к. по мере расширения контактов
с Западом возникает необходимость в общении с иностранными
деловыми партнерами, а следовательно, и необходимость в изучении особенностей модели их поведения.
XVI. Translate this text from Russian into English
– Вы делите все мировые культуры на 3 большие группы: моноактивные, полиактивные и реактивные. Не является ли такая
классификация слишком упрощенной?
– Эта классификация проста в применении и хорошо работает. Она прошла проверку временем и одобрена многими крупными компаниями Запада и Востока, а также рядом университетов.
К странам со смешанными культурами (например, Филиппины
и Индонезия) я применяю дополнительные характеристики для
классификации.
– Г-н Льюис, Вы говорите о необходимости культурной адаптации. Означает ли это, что все народы должны стремиться к тому,
чтобы их поведение и мышление были одинаковыми?
– Мышление и поведение разных народов никогда не станут
одинаковыми. Однако небольшая адаптация к другой культуре
поможет избежать непреднамеренных оскорблений и возможных
конфликтов. При этом нужно знать меру и не стараться скрывать
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свои национальные особенности. От англичанина ожидают поведения по-английски, а от русского – по-русски.
XVII. Translate this text from Russian into English
– Какое влияние на культуру народа оказывает религия, и что
Вы думаете по поводу так называемой «исламской экспансии»?
– Этот вопрос затрагивает очень большую и важную тему.
Подробный ответ на него можно найти в моей новой книге «The
cultural imperative».
В своей новой книге Ричард Льюис указывает на 4 фактора, влияющие на формирование культуры народа: климат и окружающая
среда, язык, религия и история, отводя религии ведущую роль.
XVIII. Translate this text from Russian into English
– Не кажется ли Вам, что политика Евросоюза в отношении
России свидетельствует о нехватке кросс-культурных знаний
о россиянах в этой международной организации?
– Евросоюз и Россия пока ещё не совсем понимают друг друга.
Семинары, направленные на повышение кросс-культурной компетентности, могут оказать помощь в поисках компромиссных
решений.
XIX. Translate this text from Russian into English
– Современному мировому сообществу угрожает терроризм.
Однако мне кажется, что мы больше боремся с его последствиями и мало уделяем внимания выявлению причин этой чумы ХХI
века. Вы согласны, что кросс - культурная компетентность может
служить профилактике терроризма?
– Конечно. Кросс-культурные семинары и тренинги учат народы понимать и уважать культурные особенности друг друга, а значит, давать меньше поводов для конфликтов, порождающих, в конечном счете террор.
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TESTS
Quiz on Intercultural Competence
Test Your Cultural Awareness beforeTraveling on Business
Working with different cultures requires sensitivity to cultural
differences. Test your knowledge of cultural differences before leaving on international business travel.
If your job requires international business travel, it is important to understand cultural differences. Many misunderstandings
can happen due to the superimposition of North American cultural
norms to other cultures. Stereotypes aside, there are some cultural
differences that require awareness before an international business
meeting or business social event.
Test your intercultural competence by answering true or false
to each of the following statements:
1. A «thumbs up» in some Islamic countries is a rude sexual signtrue or false?
2. Forming an «O» with the thumb and the forefinger in Japan
means that we can now discuss money-true or false?
3. Scandinavians are more tolerant to silent breaks in conversations-true or false?
4. Laughter in Japan can be a sign of confusion, insecurity or embarrassment-true or false?
5. In the UK, to compromise is seen as a positive sign of both parties
wining-true or false?
6. Wearing gloves in Russia when shaking hands is considered polite-rue or false?
7. Leaving right after dinner in Central America is considered wellmannered as it means you've been well fed - true or false?
8. In Sub-Saharan Africa it is normal to arrive half an hour late for
dinner-true or false?
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9. If you tell your female friend from Africa that she's put on
weight during her holiday, it means she's had a good holiday and
is physically healthier than when she left-true or false?
10. In Brazil, flicking your fingers under your chin is a sign of disgust-true or false?
11. Keeping your hands in your pockets while negotiating in Russia
is rude -true or false?
12. It is seen as polite to not accept an offer of food or drink in Persia
immediately on being offered it, instead you should refuse a few
times before accepting the gift-true or false?
13. In France, dinner is commonly served at 5 pm-true or false?
14. In Brazil, purple flowers are a symbol of friendship-true or
false?
15. In Mediterranean cultures, being boisterous in the streets and
public places is widely accepted-true or false?
16. In Australia, a single male passenger should sit in the back seattrue or false?
Gaptest questions
1. The seasonal wind that typically brings heavy rainfall to South
Asia is known as
A. tsunami
B. typhoon
C. hurricane
D. monsoon
2. The «copperbelt» is a mineral-rich region that spans this southcentral African country.
A. Namibia
B. Botswana
C. Zambia
D. Zimbabwe
3. Much of the prime farmland in the United States is being lost to
A. pests
B. illegal immigrants
C. cattle pastures
D. creeping suburbanization
4. In which country can the largest tract of rain forest be found?
A. Colombia
236
B. Peru
C. Brazil
D. Ecuador
5. Which strategic waterway between the Arabian Desert and the
Sinai Peninsula is used to transport oil out of the Middle East
region?
A. he Arabian (Persian) Gulf
B. the Gulf of 'Aqaba
C. the Strait of Hormuz
D. the Suez Canal
6. Because of the abundance and low cost of this fuel, Eastern Europe
faces a grave air pollution problem.
A. natural gas
B. coal
C. uranium
D. oil
7. The world's most popular sport is
A. basketball
B. baseball
C. football
D. soccer
8. The Pacific Rim is often called the "Ring of Fire" because of
A. many active volcanoes
B. nuclear testing
C. ethnic fighting
D. capitalist expansion
9. By far the largest and most diverse region of coastal commercial
devel-opment is located among the twelve countries in this region of Africa.
A. Southern Africa
B. North Africa
C. East Africa
D. West Africa
10. Which country is the world's leading producer of chlorofluorocarbons that contribute to the depletion of the ozone layer?
A. United States
B. Mexico
C. Canada
D. Russia
237
11. Who suffers immediately from the degradation of the rain
forests?
A. cancer patients
B. environmentalists
C. everyone equally
D. the inhabitants
12. Most of the region of the Middle East can be referred to as
A. tropical
B. savannah
C. fertile farmland
D. semiarid and desert
13. 13. Which region of the former Soviet Union now faces exploitation of itsvast, unspoiled forests by Asian firms?
A. Kazakhstan
B. Ukraine
C. Moscow
D. Siberia
14. The world's population in 1999 was estimated to be
A. 3.7 billion
B. 1.2 billion
C. 5.9 billion
D. 12.1 billion
15. In 1991, the volcanic eruption of Mount Pinatubo was the world's
larg - est in more than a half a century. In which country did it
occur?
A. Indonesia
B. Philippines
C. Japan
D. Guatemala
16. Which of the following animals is not native to the African
continent?
A. elephant
B. tiger
C. lion
D. kudu
17. In North America, what is considered to be the greatest environmental danger associated with nuclear power?
A. meltdowns
B. water radiation contamination
238
C. limited uranium supply
D. disposal of the nuclear waste by-product
18. A common farming technique in South America that leads directly todeforestation is
A. irrigation
B. cooperative farming
C. commercial farming
D. slash and burn
19. The scarcest commodity in the Middle East is
A. fresh water
B. electricity
C. fresh food
D. private land
20. 20. Which of these European countries has the largest oil reserves in the region?
A. England
B. Germany
C. Russia
D. Italy
21. During 1999, in which country were the majority of the world's
ten largest banks to be found?
A. Japan
B. Germany
C. United States
D. Switzerland
22. The Republic of China (ROC) refers to
A. Taiwan
B. China
C. Hong Kong
D. Singapore
23. Which of the following is the only multinational political organization in Africa?
A. African National Congress
B. Committee for African Development
C. Organization for African Unity
D. Congress for African Nationalism
24. In 1997, which Caribbean island did not possess statehood, yet
had a representative in the Congress of the United States?
A. Cuba
239
B. Dominican Republic
C. Haiti
D. Puerto Rico
25. Known as the father of South American independence, this man
lived to see almost all of South America gain its independence
from Spain.
A. Justo Rufinio Barrios
B. Simon Bolivar
C. Juan Peron
D. Vasco Nunez de Balboa
26. What is the name of the country that controls the Suez Canal?
A. Saudi Arabia
B. Syria
C. United Arab Emirates
D. Egypt
27. What is the name of the fifteen-member European economic
bloc?
A. Union of European Economies
B. Mobilization for European Unification
C. European Union
D. European Economic Commonwealth
28. Which of the following religious leaders lived first?
A. Jesus Christ
B. Mohammed
C. Confucius
D. Martin Luther
29. The Four Little Tigers of Asia refer to which four?
A. Jiang Zemin, Suharto, Morihiro Hosokawa, Marshal Kim II
Sung
B. South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong
C. Bengal, White, Reticulated, and Spotted Tigers
D. none of the above
30. Which of the following did not actively participate in the political pro- cess to end apartheid in South Africa?
A. Broederbond
B. Azanian People's Movement
C. African National Congress
D. Inkatha Freedom Fighters
31. Which of the following cities is the capital of Canada?
240
A. Quebec
B. Montreal
C. Ottawa
D. Toronto
32. What is the name of the regional agency for cooperation among
the countries of North America, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean?
A. Organization of American States
B. American Unity Cooperation
C. NAFTA
D. Regional Defense and Development Council
33. What organization, led by Chairman Yasir Arafat, promotes the
libera- tion of the Palestinian people from the political control
of Israel?
A. Organization for Palestinian Liberation
B. Palestinian Peace Initiative
C. Palestinian Liberation Front
D. Palestine Liberation Organization
34. What is the international defense organization of which Western Europe is a part?
A. Northern European Defense Initiative
B. North Atlantic Treaty Organization
C. European Conflict Resolution Committee
D. Western European Regional Defense Pact
35. Which of the following terms describes a systematic destruction
of people based on their cultural or ethnic identity?
A. genocide
B. ethnic cleansing
C. shoah
D. all of the above
36. North Vietnam and South Vietnam were both once a part of
A. Vietnam Unified Republic
B. French colony of Indochina
C. China
D. East Asian Republic
37. The modern boundaries of all African countries closely resemble
those that
A. existed prior to colonization
B. have existed since colonization ended
241
C. are based on linguistic homogeneity
D. exist along divisions of traditional tribal groups
38. In 1838 a forced march of over fifteen thousand Cherokee Native Ameri- cans from the State of Georgia to «Indian Territory»
in what is now Oklahoma was called
A. Wounded Knee
B. Broken Horse
C. Trail of Tears
D. none of the above
39. In 1903, the United States acquired strategic geographic rights
in which one of these countries?
A. Guatemala
B. Mexico
C. Colombia
D. Panama
40. The famous Camp David Accords, which were brokered in the
United States by President Jimmy Carter, initiated the peace
process between which two countries?
A. Syria and Egypt
B. Syria and Israel
C. Lebanon and Israel
D. Israel and Egypt
41. Clasnost was a term used by Mikhail Gorbachev, then premier of
the Soviet Union, to signify
A. openness and the loosening of government control
B. economic boom resulting from a new glass industry
C. exportation of Russian oil reserves
D. ethnic cleansing in Bosnia
42. Of the following four women, who was not an elected official?
A. Margaret Thatcher
B. Indira Gandhi
C. Corazon C. Aquino
D. Winnie Mandela
43. The Portuguese agreed in 1987 to return this Asian colony to its
original sovereign owner in 1999.
A. Hong Kong
B. Taiwan
C. Manila
D. Macau
242
44. The Horn of Africa is a geographical feature located in which
region of the continent?
A. northwest Africa
B. southern tip of Africa
C. central highlands
D. northeast Africa
45. The Gulf of California is the body of water that separates which
of the following?
A. Catalina Island and California
B. Baja California and Mexico
C. Seattle and Vancouver
D. San Jose and San Francisco
46. Which of the following is the longest river in South America?
A. Amazon River
B. Parana River
C. Orinoco River
D. Sao Francisco River
47. The Tigris-Euphrates River empties into which body of water?
A. Red Sea
B. Arabian (Persian) Gulf
C. Gulf of Oman
D. Gulf of 'Aqaba
48. The Strait of Gibraltar separates
A. Europe and Africa
B. England and Europe
C. Scandinavia and Europe
D. Ireland and Britain
49. The world's largest city (with over 28 million people in 1999) is
A. Mexico City
B. Tokyo-Yokohama
C. Los Angeles
D. Cairo
50. Tokyo is located on which of Japan's four major islands?
A. Hokkaido
B. Honshu
C. Shikoku
D. Kyushu
51. Mt. Kilimanjaro is a famous volcano in which African country?
A. Ghana
243
B. South Africa
C. Kenya
D. Tanzania
52. The Arctic Archipelago refers to which geographic region
in Canada?
A. frozen region of the Yukon
B. cluster of islands north of the Northwest Territories
C. a series of canals that links each of the provinces
D. chain of volcanoes along the Canadian Rockies
53. Which of the following would best define the geographic characteris- tics of the Antilles?
A. chain of volcanoes
B. cluster of navigable lakes
C. network of navigable rivers in the Amazon Basin
D. chain of islands in the Caribbean
54. The Sinai Desert is flanked by which two bodies of water?
A. Arabian (Persian) Gulf and the Red Sea
B. Mediterranean Sea and the Persian Gulf
C. Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of 'Aqaba
D. Gulf of Oman and the Red Sea
55. Which of the following is part of the United Kingdom?
A. Denmark
B. Irish Republic
C. Scotland
D. Netherlands
56. What international organization monitors human rights abuses
around the world?
A. Amnesty International
B. Habitat for Humanity
C. Greenpeace
D. all of the above
57. The Changjiang (Yangtze River) is the longest river in which
Asian country?
A. Vietnam
B. Indonesia
C. Japan
D. China
58. A system of geological troughs running six thousand miles from
the Red Sea to South Africa is known as
244
A. Sahel
B. Serengeti Plain
C. Central Plateau
D. Rift Valley
59. Which two Central American countries border Mexico?
A. Cuba and Costa Rica
B. Guatemala and Brazil
C. Guatemala and Belize
D. Venezuela and Chile
60. What is the name of the largest mountain range in South
America?
A. Machu Picchu Range
B. Andes
C. Guiana Highlands
D. Tierra del Fuego
61. Beirut is the capital of which country?
A. Jordan
B. Syria
C. Lebanon
D. Palestine
62. The Scandinavian peninsula consists of which two countries?
A. Denmark and Sweden
B. Sweden and Norway
C. Finland and Denmark
D. Norway and Denmark
63. As of 1999, how many nations were members of the United
Nations?
A. 50
B. 185
C. 303
D. 1004
64. The goal of achieving the status of «Enlightened One», summarized in the «Four Noble Truths», reflects the values of which
religion?
A. Shintoism
B. Buddhism
C. Hinduism
D. Islam
245
65. In Africa, circumcision of boys and girls between the ages of
eleven and sixteen is characteristic of which initiation process?
A. rite of passage
B. marriage
C. dedication
D. baptism
66. Why did most of the early religious groups come to what later
became the United States?
A. to evangelize the natives
B. to live in an isolated environment
C. to escape persecution
D. to become rich
67. What group often assisted missionaries in introducing Christianity to South America?
A. the Sandinistas
B. the Spanish conquistadores
C. the Boleros
D. there is no Christianity in South America
68. Which city is considered holy by Christians, Jews, and
Muslims?
A. Rome
B. Cairo
C. Jerusalem
D. Carthage
69. The movement which came to be known as the «Protestant Reformation» sprang up in which country?
A. Switzerland
B. Italy
C. England
D. Germany
70. The World Health Organization, International Labor Organization, and International Board for Reconstruction and Development are agencies of which organization?
A. U. S. government
B. United Nations
C. International Finance Corporation
D. World Trade Center
71. Shinto is the name given to a conglomeration of ancient religious
practices originating in which country?
246
A. Japan
B. Korea
C. India
D. China
72. Islam was introduced to sub-Saharan Africa by
A. journey of Mohammed in a. d. 400
B. Arab merchants
C. jihad ordered by Muammar al-Qaddafi
D. no one; Africa is predominantly Christian
73. In Christianity, what is the practice of Lent?
A. forty - day period of fasting and penitence before Easter
B. period of celebration leading up to Christmas
C. two-week period following Easter, characterized by sorrowful reflection on the death of Christ
D. period of instruction prior to being administered the sacrament of baptism
74. The name of a people who worshipped Viracocha as creator and
ruler of all living things and whose empire once stretched from
Northern Argentina to Ecuador is
A. Inca
B. Aztec
C. Apache
D. mestizo
75. The Islamic jihad can be compared with which Christian
activity?
A. the Inquisition
B. the Spanish Conquest
C. the Crusades
D. evangelism
76. King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain defeated which occupying peoples in the late fifteenth century?
A. Protestants
B. Gauls
C. Celts
D. Moors
77. The emergence of a global lifestyle has been facilitated by
A. international trade
B. global travel
247
C. television and film
D. all of the above
78. Vedas, Upanishads and Bhagavad-Gita are writings of which
religion?
A. Buddhism
B. Islam
C. Hinduism
D. Eastern Orthodox
79. Most traditional African religions teach that death is
A. the end of life
B. the transition to the spirit world
C. the beginning of life in heaven
D. the beginning of life as a god
80. In Mexico, all church/religious property is
A. neutral ground
B. privately owned
C. owned by the state
D. used by the members of the church for any purpose
81. A theological movement originating within the Catholic Church
in South America that encourages the struggle against social
and economic in- justice is called
A. Freedom Foundation
B. Esperanto
C. Liberation Theology
D. Dignidad
82. Where is the holiest of geographic locations that every practicing Mus- lim attempts to visit once in his or her life?
A. Ganges River
B. Vatican City
C. Mecca
D. Istanbul
83. The distinctive use of icons as a medium for worship is true of
which Eastern European religion?
A. Catholicism
B. Quaker
C. Eastern Orthodox
D. neo-Celtic Christianity
84. Y2K is the term used for
A. the technical identity for the Stealth Bomber
248
B. a mechanical character in Star Wars
C. fears about the possibility that computers may crash in the
year 2000
D. the Russian space station
85. What does a junk refer to?
A. polluted water following the monsoon
B. ox-drawn cart used by peasants
C. Chinese sailing vessel
D. festival that celebrates the end of the monsoon
86. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates this geographical area to have the greatest cumulative HIV infections
in adults.
A. North America
B. South and Southeast Asia
C. sub-Saharan Africa
D. Latin America and the Caribbean
87. Most of the migrant farm labor in the United States consists of
A. illegal aliens
B. resident aliens
C. U. S. citizens
D. none of the above
88. Primarily because of extreme poverty, between eight and ten
million children make their living on the streets in this South
American country.
A. Brazil
B. Mexico
C. Venezuela
D. Peru
89. What is the name of the economic center of the towns and cities
in the Middle East?
A. central business district
B. mosque
C. bazaar
D. central market
90. An itinerant people from southern and eastern Europe who are
generally poor and the object of prejudice and discrimination are
known as
A. nomadic tribesmen
B. Romany
249
C. refugees
D. displaced peoples
91. In India a Brahmin would never take a job as a barber because
A. Brahmin is a breed of cattle
B. there is no such thing as a Brahmin in India
C. Brahmins are part of a priestly caste
D. most Indians prefer to let their hair grow long for religious
purposes
92. The majority of crop production in Africa is a result of
A. commercial farming
B. subsistence farming
C. hunger relief
D. importation
93. 93. Which is the most populous city in North America?
A. Los Angeles
B. Mexico City
C. New York
D. Chicago
94. Which country is the only South American member of OPEC?
A. Argentina
B. Brazil
C. Venezuela
D. Chile
95. Shekels is the name for notes of monetary transfer in which Middle Eastern country?
A. Israel
B. Egypt
C. Jordan
D. Iraq
96. In which country have immigration policies resulted in a resurgence of racist extremism?
A. England
B. Spain
C. Germany
D. France
97. In mountainous regions of Asia, agriculture has been practiced
for millennia by employing this environmentally sustainable
method.
A. rice paddies
250
B. flood irrigation
C. crop rotation
D. terraced farming
98. In Africa, the lack of attention to rural development and the
growing gap in the standard of living between city dwellers and
villagers encourages which kind of activity?
A. urban migration
B. emigration
C. higher education
D. greater specialization
99. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was passed
in 1993 to
A. open trade between North America and the rest of the world
B. open the borders to unrestricted immigration of farm
laborers
C. reduce the price of goods imported from Europe
D. reduce the barriers to trade within the North American
region
100.
Farmers who raise coca for the production of cocaine consider it to be
A. a cash crop
B. harmless
C. cattle fodder
D. a source to supply their habit
101.
What is the major international organization of countries in
the Middle East?
A. Islamic Economic Foundation
B. Union of Eastern Oil Producing Countries
C. League of Arab States
D. Community of Oil Producing Nations
102.
Because of the especially large numbers of small, familyowned farms in this country, the farmers have continually and
vigorously opposed the WTO talks for fear they will not be able
to compete with low-priced foreign products.
A. Netherlands
B. Germany
C. Spain
D. France
251
103. A unique relationship between cattle and people can best be
observed in this South Asian country.
A. Indonesia
B. Pakistan
C. Bangladesh
D. India
104.
In rural Africa it is not uncommon to see men holding hands
with
A. their wives
B. other men who are friends
C. single women
D. their gay partners
105.
Of the millions of immigrants to North America, which
group includes many who did not come voluntarily?
A. Vietnamese
B. Jews
C. Africans
D. Chinese
106.
What is the traditional family system in South America?
A. nuclear family
B. extended family
C. burgher clan
D. tribal
107.
What must Muslim women in fundamentalist Islamic societies wear when they go out in public?
A. shawl
B. special shoes
C. veil
D. heirloom jewelry
108.
In spite of advances in international transportation and mass
communication in Europe, it can be said that
A. national language patterns remain intact
B. European countries are isolationist
C. European countries maintain closed borders
D. Europeans cannot find much in common with each other
109.
The competitive success of Japanese businesses can be partially attributed to which of the following?
A. there is little else to do but work in Japan
B. people enjoy getting out of their overcrowded homes
252
C.
D.
110.
A.
B.
C.
the Japanese have a strong work ethic
people are punished if they don't work hard enough
Which of the following statements is true about Africa?
the origins of humankind are believed to have been in Africa
the Ashanti, Zulu, and Ganda once ruled great kingdoms
it was not until the arrival of missionaries and colonial governments that order was established
D. statements A and B are true; C is false
111.
Which of the following words, historically, best describes
the American ideal?
A. liberty
B. theocracy
C. democratic socialism
D. capitalism
112.
Which group of people consisting of mixed Native American and European descent numbers nearly five million in Latin
America?
A. Native Americans
B. mestizo
C. mulatto
D. Zambo
113.
The tribe of nomadic camel herders of the Arabian Peninsula
is known as
A. Tuareg
B. Berbers
C. Kurds
D. Bedouins
114.
Which of the following is a common Teutonic language?
A. Italian
B. German
C. Arabic
D. Spanish
115.
What are the Chinese astrological symbols?
A. mythological people
B. divine beings
C. animals
D. spiritual images
116.
Which of the following languages, of African and Arabic origin, is used for trade in much of East Africa?
253
A. Somali
B. Bantu
C. Swahili
D. Kikuyu
117.
What is the only semiautonomous francophone region in
North America?
A. New Orleans
B. Quebec
C. Labrador
D. Bahamas
118.
In the mid-sixteenth century this indigenous empire in the
Americas stretched two thousand miles and contained six million people.
A. Mesoamerica
B. Inca
C. Cherokee
D. Cheyenne
119.
The greatest changes that have occurred in the Middle East
have come as a result of what foreign influence?
A. science and technology
B. demand for oil
C. colonization
D. Western market
120.
Neapolitan opera originated in which European city?
A. London, England
B. Paris, France
C. Berlin, Germany
D. Naples, Italy
254
Case Study Analysis
The Barbecue
Problem
Wherever they were in the world, Koji Fukuhara and his
British wife Judith always gave a summer barbecue party. Koji's
job-working for a multinational company meant that they had never
stayed in one country for long, so the barbecue had always been an
excellent way for them to mix socially with Koji's colleagues.
Now that Koji was in his first year as managing director of the
company's Spanish subsidiary, the barbecue party had taken on an
extra meaning. Managing people from twelve different nationalities was no easy task, but he was sure that the party would bring his
whole team together. At least, that's what he hoped.
Koji and Judith Fukuhara
request the pleasure of your company at a barbecue
lunch
on Sunday 3 June, at LOOat Calle Gardenia 7, Sevilla
RSVP
255
Here are two accounts of what happened at the party:
Etienne Briand (29 years old,
French, in his second year as a
middle manager in the Spanish
office)
That new American guy is unbelievable! He
arrived
Mr and Mrs Fukuhara’s party an hour late-wearing a pair of bright green shorts, a running vest and
a baseball cap! Can you imagine it? As far as I’m
concerned, he made all of us managers look ridiculs.
You could tell that the secretaries and the junior
staff were laughing at him behind his back. I don’t
know he expects us to command their respect, if he
behaves so stupidly. Unfortunately, that wasn’t the
end of it. At about 2.45, Mr. Fukuhara was standing
by his pool, discussing one of the new projects with a
few of us, when Alan came over and said, “Can I get
anyone a drink from the fridge?”
It was extraordinary! Can you imagine offering
people something from someone else’s fridge – particularly when that person is your boss! Well, we all
just stopped talking and waited to see how Mr. Fukuhara was going to handle the situation...’
256
Alan McDyre (32 years old,
American, a middle manager who
has recently been transferred
from the Los Angeles office)
‘When I got there, the party was in full swing.
Koji and Judith had invited everyone from the office,
which meant I got the chance to meet all the people
that I wouldn’t normally speak to - you know, like …
the admin staff and the secretaries, even the cleaner! Of course, I realised immediately that I wasn’t
dressed quite right - the other guys were all in ties
and blazers - but it was a Sunday and I thought,
“Hey — they’ll just have to take me as I am”. Anyway,
after a while I walked over to join Koji and a group
of managers who were chatting by the pool. I noticed
that they didn’t have any drinks, so I said, “C an I get
anyone a drink from the fridge?”.
It was weird. For some reason, they all stopped
talking and stared at me -like I’d committed some
awful crime. Well, I didn’t think I’d done anything
wrong, so I just looked at Koji and waited for him to
say ... something...’
Free discussion
If you were in Koji Fukuhara’s situation,
how would you respond to Alan’s offer?
257
Analysis
What's it for?
Read the first two paragraphs and then choose the best answer to
this question: What's the purpose of this barbecue party?
a. To celebrate Koji Fukuhara's new job.
b. To improve his career prospects.
c. To mix socially with his colleagues.
d. To bring his team together.
e. To maintain a tradition.
1.
2.
3.
4.
The invitation
Look at the invitation and discuss these questions:
Do you need to reply formally to the invitation?
Should you take anything to the party?
How would you dress for a party like this?
What time would you arrive?
The two accounts: what's wrong?
Read the two accounts of the party and then try this activity:
Do you think that Alan has done anything wrong? If your answer is 'No', relax! If your answer is 'Yes', make a list of the things
that you think he has done wrong and compare your list with the
lists of your colleagues.
The two accounts: a cross-cultural reading
Here are four ways in which cultures may differ from each other. In
small groups, discuss each of these points, with reference to Alan and
Etienne, producing evidence to support your answers:
1. Specific v Diffuse
'Specific' cultures make a very clear distinction between working
life and personal life; in 'diffuse' cultures these two areas of life are
mixed up. Which character takes a more 'diffuse' view of life?
2. The individual v The group
In some cultures, the interests of the group are more important
than the interests of the individual; other cultures place far more
emphasis on individual rights and responsibilities. Which character is more individualistic?
258
3. Power distance
Cultures with a 'high power distance' place a great deal of
importance on rank and status in organisations. Relationships
in cultures with a 'low power distance' are much more equal.
Which character seems to come from a 'high power distance'
culture?
4. Private and public space
Different cultures have different attitudes towards privacy.
Who shows more respect for private space?
A conclusion
Does this cross-cultural reading help to explain Alan's behaviour and Etienne's response to it?
Is culture relevant?
Now discuss these points:
1. Would Alan's behaviour be normal in an American context?
2. Is Etienne right to disapprove of Alan's behaviour?
3. Do you think that individual personality is more important
than national culture in determining how Alan and Etienne behave at the barbecue?
When you've analysed both sides of the story, move on to the 'Decision time' section and decide what sort of action Koji Fukuhara
should take.
Decision time
How should Koji Fukuhara respond to Alan McDyre's
behaviour?
Note: As a Japanese, Koji Fukuhara must have his own cultural perspective on the events at the barbecue. However, as
a manager in a multi-cultural environment, he should be aware
of the cultural backgrounds of his staff and be able to reach
a fair, balanced decision.
259
The decision
1
Thanks Alan, that would be great.
Another drink for everyone.
2
3
Come with me. I think we
should have a word in private.
How dare you? You should know...
4
Thank you for offering, Alan,
but I think I'll get the drinks.
WHAT HE COULD SAY...
Here are four things that he could say to Alan:
Discuss these two questions:
1. Which response would Alan expect?
2. Which response would Etienne want Koji to make?
WHAT SHOULD HE SAY?
Now decide!
What course of action should Koji Fukuhara take?
260
Appendix
Effective Presentation
General Recommendations:
Remember your audience
Establish clear objectives in the introduction
Meet audience expectations with relevant content
Create interest and promote involvement
Organize the information
Design an overall structure which is clear
Ensure the introduction and ending have maximum impact:
Link the different sections together
Communicate using the allotted time
Use visuals effectively
Use clear and simple messages
Create impact
Handle aids and equipment professionally
Be prepared to provide handouts
Communicate with body language
Maintain relaxed attitude remain confident: and positive
Use eye contact to engage your audience
Focus meaning by movement or gesture'
Avoid distracting mannerisms
Deliver your message
Use your voice effectively volume, rhythm and pause
Adjust complexity / formality of language to the audience
Prepare thoroughly
Write brief notes to assist. Practice before the real thing
Golden rules
Practise and rehearse key English phrases from your Minimax.
261
DO
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establish a dear objective.
talk about what your audience expect you to talk about.
organize the information.
use notes or key words to assist.
have a strong opening and close.
make it interesting.
use your voice for effect.
keep it simple.
use visuals which improve impact and clarity.
handle equipment professionally.
speak with sufficient volume and intonation.
use summaries to link the parts,
think about the cultural environment.
dress for the occasion.
prepare and practice beforehand.
be confident and relaxed.
balance spontaneity against preparation.
handle questions positively.
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make assumptions about the venue and facilities-check.
present information which is too complex for the audience.
talk for too long.
tell irrelevant anecdotes or inappropriate jokes.
speak too quickly.
use too many visuals.
photocopy small text onto an overhead.
read from a scripted text or visuals.
block your audience's view of a visual.
talk with your back to the audience.
use distracting mannerisms.
forget to summarize at the end.
DON'T
Classic presentation organization
Greet – Introduce self – Introduce presentation – Explain
structure of presentation – Present main body (Points I,II,III) –
Conclude – Summarize – Take questions
262
Starting
Key Language for Introductions
Greeting
Good morning / afternoon / evening, ladies and gentlemen. Welcome to NWAPA.
Hello / Hi everyone
Name and position
Let me just start by introducing myself.
My name is Peter Alexandrov.
As some / most of you already know,
I am Peter Alexandrov
I'm in charge of / responsible for the research and development
projects.
I'm the new researcher.
Title / subject
The title/subject/ topic of today's presentation /talk is....
Today. I'd like to speak about...
What I'd like to talk about is...
Objective
The objective of this presentation is to present...
This talk will act as a springboard for discussion.
The aim today is to give some background about...
Main parts / outline
I've 'divided / split my talk into four main parts / sections.
Firstly, what I want to do is give you some background ...
Secondly / Thirdly, we will look at / move on to ...
Then / Next / After that /Finally. I will speak about /examine ...
Visuals
I will be using the whiteboard and flipchart.
I will be using the overhead projector.
263
Timing
The presentation will take / last about ... minutes.
I will speak for about... minutest.
I plan to be brief. About... minutes.
Questions
If you have any questions, please feel free to interrupt.
Please interrupt me as we go along if you have any questions.
I'd be glad to take any questions at the end of my presentation.
Audience
I know that you have all travelled a long way
I'm very grateful that you could come today.
It's nice to see so many faces.
I look forward to your comments on this.
Link to start
OK. Let's start with the first point which is...
Right. We can begin by looking at...
Signalling - linking the parts
Sequencing ideas
Firstly / Secondly / Thirdly / Then / Next / Finally...
The first / second / third / final point is...
Ending a section
Right / So / Well / OK..
That's all I wanted to say about...
I think that covers everything on ...
I think that deals with ...
To summarize,...
Intermediate questions
Are there any questions or comments on that?
Would anyone like to ask a question at this stage?
264
Opening a new section
Let's now look at...
Now I want to turn to ...
This brings me to the third and final
point which is ...
Exploring a list of points
In relation to ....
Regarding ...
Concerning ...
With respect to ...
Adding ideas
In addition to this... / Moreover...
However .../ Despite this ...
So .../ Therefore ...
Digressing
If I could just digress for a second,...
I would like to look at... in passing.
By the way ... / Incidentally ...
Going back
Let me now return to ...
Let me now come back to ...
Highlighting and emphasizing
Focusing
I'd like to emphasize ...
I'd like to stress ...
I should reiterate / repeat ...
It is critical / essential to understand ...
'What'
What we can't do is ...
What I'd like to do is ...
What we have been able to do is ...
What is really important is ...
265
Repetition
This is a very, very difficult problem.
We thought for a long, long time about this.
We need to do something and
we need to do it now.
Simplifying
To be honest, ... / Frankly speaking, ...
Basically, ... / To put it simply, ...
Believe me, ...
Analysing
Let's look at this more closely.
What does this mean exactly?
In other words, ...
Articulation - stressing
Auxiliary verbs - do / does / did
We did achieve many things last year.
It does seem to be the best solution.
We did think very carefully about this.
Key words
I agree, it is important
We have tried repeatedly, believe me.
There is a lot of room for improvement.
Dramatic language
A total / absolute / complete disaster
A great / outstanding / remarkable success
Totally unacceptable / Quite brilliant
Contrast
Actually ... / In fact ... /In reality ... /
The truth is that ...
Yesterday it was easy. Today it is far more difficult.
266
Engaging your audience
Rhetorical questions
How can we explain this?
is there anything we can do about this?
How will this affect our company?
What will be the result?
Offer clarification
Is that clear?
Are there any questions on that?
I'm sure some of you want to take me up on this.
Directing questions
George, I know you have a lei of experience.
Could you comment?
Perhaps, I can ask Peter to answer that question?
Peter?
I'd like to try an experiment.
Could you ask your neighbor ...?
Can I ask for a show of hands?
How many people ...?
How many people here have ever ... ?
Creating rapport
We need to ...
We don't need to spend time on this.
I know what you are thinking.
I'm sure everyone in this room ...
Interesting facts
Did you know that ...?
According to a recent study ...
I read somewhere that ...
Statistics show that ...
Interesting examples
For example ...
For instance ...
267
As an example ...
Acknowledge
I'm sure you don't need me to tell you that ...
I realize you all know ...
Diplomacy - softening
I tend to think that ....
It seems to me that ...
It may be a little / bit difficult
Introducing the visual
OK. Let’s take a look at
I have a transparency to show you
The first / second / next / final slide is
Check with the audience
Is that clear for everyone?
Is that in focus?
Can everybody see that?
Meaning of the visual
This shows / illustrates / demonstrates / refers to ...
This is a graph / an organigram which shows ...
As you can see. this is ...
Here we can see ...
Focusing attention
I’d like to draw your attention to ...
One of the most important aspects or this is ...
At first glance it seems ... but ...
268
Visual aids - describing charts
Describing change
Up
rocket
up
To go up
To increase
To rise
To grow
To improve
an increase
a rise
a growth
an improvement
To get better
To recover
To rocket
a recovery
a rocket
Down
slump
down
To go down
To decrease
To fall
To drop
To deteriorate
a decrease
a fal
a drop
a deterioration
To get worse
To slump
a worsening
a slump
Other
peak
fluctuate
To remain stable
To level out
To reach a peak
To peak
To fluctuate
To bottom out
To reach a low
point
To hit a low
a peak
a fluctuation
a low
Speed of change
Rapid
Rapidly
Steady - Steadily
Gradual - Gradually
Slow
Slowly
Sales rose rapidly.
There was a rapid rise
in sales.
269
Degree of change
Dramatic - Dramatically
Significant - Significantly
Moderate - Moderately
Slight - Sliqhtly
Sales rose
dramatically.
There was a dramatic
rise in sales.
Prepositions
To stand at ...
From ... to ...
By ...
An increase of ...
Sales rose from 3
million to 7 million.
Sales rose by 4 million.
There was an increase
of 4 million over last
year.
Sales stood at 3
million in January.
Closing a presentation
Signalling the end
OK. That brings me to the end of my presentation.
Right That covers everything I wanted to say about...
So. that's all I have to say.
Summarizing
To sum up then, ...
In brief...
Before I finish, let me just go over
If I can briefly summarize,
Concluding
To conclude, I'd like to say that
I'd like to finish by saying
In conclusion...
Final recommendation
It seems to me, then. that we should .
I would therefore recommend / advise that
Support
I have prepared some handouts which I will pass round
I'll give you my e-mail address in case you want to follow up
something I said
270
Closing
Thank you for listening so attentively.
Thank you for your attention.
I hope that this has been useful.
Inviting questions
I'd be glad to answer any questions.
So. do you have any questions?
Are there any questions?
OK. I think that brings me to the end of the presentation
Are there any questions?
Yes, the gentleman / lady sitting there [points]
Presentation tip
Prepare answers to
questions which you
expect.
Handling questions
Questions for
the presenter
Are
you saying
that...?
Could
you go over that
again, please?
It wasn't very clear for me.
What
did you mean when
you said?
Could you say a little
bit more about?
Don't you think
that ...?
Positive response
That's a good / difficult / complex / an interesting question
Thank you for asking that question.
I'm glad someone asked that question. It allows me to say
271
Check your answer
Does that answer your question? / Is that OK?
Is that clear now? / Can we move on?
Clarify
If I understand you correctly, you want to know
You're asking me about... Is that right?
Sorry, I didn't follow / catch the question
Could you repeat for me, please?
In other words, you're asking .. .
Refer back
As I said earlier, in the first section / at the end of the second
section
Yes, I mentioned in the introduction .
Accept criticism
I accept that. / That's a fair point. / I agree with what you're
saying
Up to a point, I agree.
Referring back to the presentation
As I said / pointed out / explained earlier,......
I think / already made it clear that ......
Avoiding:
1. Wrong person
I'm afraid I can't really answer that.
That's not really my area / field, I'm afraid.
I don't have the figures with me.
2. Wrong topic
I'm afraid that question goes beyond the subject of today's
presentation
I'm afraid that's confidential. / I'm not at liberty to give you
that information.
I'd be glad to discuss that with you personally after the
presentation.
272
Visual aids - design and type
273
Presenting at a glance
Introduction
Good morning,
Welcome to ...
Greet
OK. To begin
I'd like to look at...
Link
The objective of my
presentation today is...
My name is...
Introduce yourself
Feel free
to interrupt.
Questions
State objective
I will take
15 minutes
I've divided the talk
into five sections
Timing
Outline structure
Main Body
So, the first part of my
presentation is...
Part one
So, that's all I have
to say on the first point,
Any questions on that?
Closing first part
Opening part two
Here, I would like
to highlight two
items.
OK. That's everything
on Part Two...,I will now
move on to Part Three.
There are two
questions to look at
here› firstly ...
Highlighting
Closing / moving
Sequencing
As you can see on
this chart...
Using a visual
on
I would suggest ...
Could I digress
for a second?
Recommending
Digressing
OK, that's all I wanted
to say on Part Three.
Let me now
return to ...
Closing
274
OK, let's move on to the
second section which
I have called...
Returning
Ending
That brings me to the
end of my presentation.
Signal end
If there are no
more questions,
I'll finish there
Closing
To sum up ...
Summarize
In conclusion,
I would like to say ...
Conclude
That's a good
question.
Are thereany
questions?
Handle
questions
positively
Invite questions
Texts For Translation
Liberté: civil and political rights. The first generation of civil and
political rights derives primarily from the 17th - and 18th-century reformist theories noted above i.e., those associated with the English,
American, and French revolutions. Infused with the political philosophy of liberal individualism and the related economic and social doctrine of laissez - faire, the first generation conceives of human rights
more in negative («freedoms from») than positive («rights to») terms;
it favours the abstention over the intervention of government in
the quest for human dignity. Belonging to this first generation, thus,
are rights such as those set forth in Articles 2 - 21 of the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights, including freedom from gender, racial,
and equivalent forms of discrimination; the right to life, liberty, and
the security of the person; freedom from slavery or involuntary servitude; freedom from torture and from cruel, inhuman, or degrading
treatment or punishment; freedom from arbitrary arrest, detention,
or exile; the right to a fair and public trial; freedom from interference
in privacy and correspondence; freedom of movement and residence;
the right to asylum from persecution; freedom of thought, conscience,
and religion; freedom of opinion and expression; freedom of peaceful
assembly and association; and the right to participate in government,
directly or through free elections. Also included are the right to own
property and the right not to be deprived of it arbitrarily, which were
275
fundamental to the interests fought for in the American and French
revolutions and to the rise of capitalism.
It should be noted that these and other first-generation rights
do not correspond completely to the idea of «negative» rights. The
right to security of the person, to a fair and public trial, to asylum
from persecution, and to free elections, for example, manifestly cannot be assured without some affirmative government action. What is
constant in this first-generation conception is the notion of liberty,
a shield that safeguards the individual – alone and in association with
others – against the abuse of political authority. This is the core value. Featured in the constitution of almost every country in the world
and dominating the majority of international declarations and covenants adopted since World War II, this essentially Western liberal
conception of human rights is sometimes romanticized as a triumph
of Hobbesian-Lockean individualism over Hegelian statism.
***
Egalité: economic, social, and cultural rights. The second generation of economic, social, and cultural rights finds its origins primarily in the socialist tradition that was foreshadowed among the Saint –
Simonians of early 19th - century France and variously promoted by
revolutionary struggles and welfare movements that have taken place
since. In large part, it is a response to the abuses of capitalist development and its underlying, essentially uncritical, conception of individual liberty that tolerated, even legitimated, the exploitation of
working classes and colonial peoples. Historically, it is a counterpoint
to the first generation of civil and political rights, with human rights
conceived more in positive than in negative terms and requiring more
the intervention than the abstention of the state for the purpose of
assuring equitable distribution of the goods and benefits involved. Illustrative are some of the rights set forth in Articles 22 - 27 of the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, such as the right to social
security; the right to work and to protection against unemployment;
the right to rest and leisure, including periodic holidays with pay; the
right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of
self and family; the right to education; and the right to the protection
of one's scientific, literary, and artistic production.
But in the same way that all the rights embraced by the first generation of civil and political rights cannot properly be designated
276
«negative rights», so all the rights embraced by the second generation
of economic, social, and cultural rights cannot properly be labeled
«positive rights». For example, the right to free choice of employment, the right to form and to join trade unions, and the right freely
to participate in the cultural life of the community (found in Articles
23 and 27) do not inherently require affirmative state action to ensure
their enjoyment. Nevertheless, most of the second-generation rights
do necessitate state intervention because they subsume demands
more for material than for intangible goods and benefits. Secondgeneration rights are, fundamentally, claims to social equality. Partly because of the comparatively late arrival of socialist-communist
and compatible «Third World» influence in the normative domain
of international affairs, however, the internationalization of these
rights has been relatively slow in coming; and with free-market capitalism in ascendancy under the banner of «globalization» at the turn
of the 21st century, it is not likely that these rights will come of age
any time soon. On the other hand, as the social inequities created by
unregulated capitalism become more and more evident over time and
are not accounted for by sex or race discrimination, it is probable that
the struggle for second-generation rights will grow and mature. This
tendency is already apparent in the evolving European Union.
***
The liberty - equality and individualist-collectivist debate, it
must be added, was especially evident during the Cold War, reflecting the tensions that then existed between Liberal and Marxist conceptions of sovereign public order. Different conceptions of rights
contain the potential for challenging the legitimacy and supremacy
not only of one another but, more importantly, of the sociopolitical
systems with which they are most intimately associated.
With the end of the Cold War, however, the debate took on a more
North-South character and was supplemented by a cultural - relativist critique that eschewed the universality of human rights doctrines,
principles, and rules on the grounds that they were Western in origin and therefore of limited relevance in non-Western settings.
The viewpoint underlying this assertion – that the scope of human rights in any given society is fundamentally determined by local,
national, or regional customs and traditions – may seem problematic,
especially when one considers that the idea of human rights and many
277
of its precepts are found in all the great philosophical and religious
traditions. Nevertheless, the historical development of human rights
demonstrates that it cannot be wholly mistaken. Nor is it surprising
that it should emerge soon after the end of the Cold War. First prominently expressed at an Asian preparatory meeting to the second UN
World Conference on Human Rights convened in Vienna in June
1993, it reflected the end of a bipolar system of alliances that had discouraged independent foreign policies and minimized cultural and
political differences among countries allied to the same superpower.
Against the backdrop of increasing human rights interventionism on
the part of the UN, regional organizations, and deputized coalitions
of states (as in Bosnia - Herzegovina, Somalia, Liberia, Rwanda, and
Haiti, for example), the viewpoint served as a functional equivalent
of the doctrine of respect for national sovereignty and territorial integrity, a doctrine whose influence had been declining not only in human rights affairs but also in affairs related to national security, economics, and the environment. As a consequence, there remains sharp
disagreement about the legitimate scope of human rights and about
the priorities that are claimed among them.
Inherent risks of the debate. On final analysis, however, this
legitimacy-priority debate can be misleading. Although useful for
pointing out how notions of liberty and individualism have been used
to rationalize the abuses of capitalism and how notions of equality,
collectivism, and culture have been alibis for authoritarian governance, in the end it risks obscuring at least three essential truths
that must be taken into account if the contemporary worldwide human rights movement is to be objectively understood.
***
Traditionally, states were the main subject of international law. Increasingly, individuals and non - state international organizations have
also become subject to international regulation. The law of nations is a
part of the law of the United States unless there is some statute or treaty to the contrary. International law is a part of the law of the United
States only for the application of its principles on questions of international rights and duties. It does not restrict the United States or any
other nation from making laws governing its own territory. A State of
the United States is not a «state» under international law, since the Constitution does not vest it with a capacity to conduct foreign relations.
278
International law imposes upon the nations certain duties with
respect to individuals. It is a violation of international law to treat
an alien in a manner which does not satisfy the international standard of justice. However in the absence of a specific agreement an
individual cannot bring the compliant. Only the state of which he is
a national can complain of such a violation before an international
tribunal. The state of nationality usually is not obligated to exercise
this right and can decide whether to enforce it.
International organizations play increasingly important role in
the relationships between nations. An international organization is
one that created by international agreement or which has membership consisting primary of nations. To vitalize the status of international organization of which United States is a member and facilitate
their activities Congress has enacted the International Organization
Immunities Act, which among other provisions defines the capacity
of such organizations.
The idea of developing international law through the restatement of existing rules or through the formulation of new rules is not
of recent origin. In the last quarter of the eighteenth century Jeremy Bentham proposed a codification of the whole of international
law, though in a utopian spirit. Since his time, numerous attempts
at codification have been made by private individuals, by learned societies and by Governments.
While it is true that only concrete texts accepted by Governments
can directly constitute a body of written international law, private
codification efforts, that is, the research and proposals put forward
by various societies, institutions and individual writers, have also
had a considerable effect on the development of international law.
Particularly noteworthy are the various draft codes and proposals
prepared by the Institut de Droit International, the International
Law Association (both founded in 1873) and the Harvard Research
in International Law (established in 1927), which have facilitated
the work of various diplomatic conferences convened to adopt general multilateral conventions of a law-making nature.
Intergovernmental regulation of legal questions of general and
permanent interest may be said to have originated at the Congress of
Vienna (1814 - 15), where provisions relating to the regime of international rivers, the abolition of the slave trade and the rank of diplomatic agents were adopted by the signatory Powers of the Treaty of Paris
279
of 1814. Since then, international legal rules have been developed at
diplomatic conferences on many other subjects, such as the laws of
war on both land and sea, the pacific settlement of international disputes, the unification of private international law, the protection of
intellectual property, the regulation of postal services and telecommunications, the regulation of maritime and aerial navigation and
various other social and economic questions of international concern.
Although many of these conventions were isolated events dealing with particular problems and in some cases applied only to certain geographic regions, a substantial number of them resulted
from a sustained effort of Governments to develop international
law by means of multilateral conventions at successive international
conferences.
The Hague Peace Conferences of 1899 and 1907, drawing upon
the work and experience of preceding conferences on the laws of
war and upon the previous practice of some Governments regarding the pacific settlement of international disputes, reached agreement on several important conventions and thus greatly stimulated
the movement in favour of codifying international law. The Second
Peace Conference of 1907, however, feeling the lack of adequate
preparation for its deliberations, proposed that some two years before the probable date of the Third Peace Conference, a preparatory
committee should be established «with the tasks of collecting the
various proposals to be submitted to the conference, of ascertaining
what subjects are ripe for embodiment in an international regulation, and of preparing a programme which the Governments should
decide upon in sufficient time to enable it to be carefully examined
by the countries interested». Arrangements for the Third Peace Conference were being made when the First World War broke out.
***
Article 1of the Statute of the International Law Commission provides that the «Commission shall have for its object the promotion
of the progressive development of international law and its codification». Article 15 of the Statute makes a distinction «for convenience»
between progressive development as meaning «the preparation of
draft conventions on subjects which have not yet been regulated
by international law or in regard to which the law has not yet been
sufficiently developed in the practice of States» and codification
280
as meaning «the more precise formulation and systematization of
rules of international law in fields where there already has been
extensive State practice, precedent and doctrine». In practice, the
Commission’s work on a topic usually involves some aspects of the
progressive development as well as the codification of international
law, with the balance between the two varying depending on the particular topic. Although the drafters of the Statute envisaged that
somewhat different methods would be used in regard to progressive
development, on the one hand, and codification, on the other, they
thought it desirable to entrust both tasks to a single commission.
Furthermore, they did not favour proposals for the setting up of separate commissions for public, for private and for penal international
law. Thus article 1of the Statute states that the Commission «shall
concern itself primarily with public international law, but is not
precluded from entering the field of private international law». For
more than fifty years, however, the Commission has worked almost
exclusively in the field of public international law. In 1996, the Commission noted that in recent years it had not entered the field of private international law, except incidentally and in the course of work
on subjects of public international law; moreover, it seemed unlikely
that the Commission would be called upon to do so having regard to
the work of bodies such as uncitral and the Hague Conference on Private International Law. In contrast, the Commission has worked extensively in the field of international criminal law, beginning with
the formulation of the Nürnberg principles and the consideration of
the question of international criminal jurisdiction at its first session, in 1949, and culminating in the completion of the draft Statute for an International Criminal Court at its forty-sixth session, in
1994, and the draft Code of Crimes against the Peace and Security of
Mankind at its forty-eighth session, in 1996.
***
When emergencies strike, Canadians dial 911. But in countries
racked by crisis, such a call for help by civilians or government officials is out of the question. So conflicts escalate, wounded and traumatized people go untreated and the survivors wait agonizing weeks
or months for aid and shelter, as happened in strife-torn Darfur.
A group of academics, former officials and security experts are tabling a proposal to create an international rapid reaction force that
281
could be deployed within 48 hours of a green light from the United
Nations.
Composed of up to 15,000 military, police and civilian staff,
including medics and conflict transformation experts, it would be
recruited from professionals hired by the UN from many countries,
and based at designated UN sites. Its actions would be authorized by
the UN Security Council.
The idea of a UN emergency force first surfaced after World War
II, when hopes for an activist world body were at their highest. But
it wasn't until 1994, in the aftermath of the Rwanda genocide, that
it was considered seriously. At that time, the United States worried
that it would become an out-of-control «UN army», and developing countries felt threatened by what they saw as an interventionist force directed by the West. A combination of lack of enthusiasm
from the rich and opposition from poor countries resulted in the
shelving of the project. Wealthy countries were also reluctant to
commit their resources to an emergency force, and funding of peacekeeping operations was already lagging.
But reservations could now be overcome: the emergency peace
service would be a professional force that would not sap national
military resources, or leave countries in doubt about how long their
troops might be involved in new conflicts. And a UN force could help
to head off horrendous massacres such as the Rwanda genocide and
the current crisis in Darfur. It would also counter the widespread
belief that «too little too late has become the rule, not the exception»
for international peacekeeping. «The international community could
prevent many of these crimes if it would act quickly and send a professional security force to enforce the law».
With an independent force at their disposal, and no obligation
to send in their own troops, the Security Council's often squabbling
members would have less reason to drag out debates about when to
intervene in crises. The new emergency force could cost $2 billion to
establish, much less than the costly wars that have flared across Africa and Asia in recent years. It would complement the UN's recently
endorsed «responsibility to protect», a Canadian-backed doctrine
that makes the world body's members responsible for intervening
when a conflict threatens the lives of civilians.
The proposed force would have UN - designated bases, with
mobile field headquarters staffed by personnel with a wide range
282
of professional training. A UN agency would for the first time in
history offer a rapid, comprehensive, internationally legitimate response to crisis, enabling it to save hundreds of thousands of lives
and billions of dollars through early and often preventive action.
Peacekeeping professionals are in favour of the rapid reaction proposal in principle. But, they say, there are hurdles to surmount before such a force could be viable.
In spite of difficulties, a UN emergency force would give people in
crisis new hope and help to re-establish the UN's credibility. «There
are too many looming challenges in the world for us to continue as
we have. If we don't get around to better ways of co - operating we as
a species will be challenged», commented one of the experts.
***
The full implications of the current global financial crisis are
hard to assess at the present juncture, whether in relation to our
economies or with regard to wider political dynamics. However,
three striking developments are already discernible. First, the crisis
demonstrates the stark reality of global interdependence in the 21st
century. The suggestion that global economic growth - particularly
among emerging markets - had somehow been «decoupled» from
the health of the American economy has been proven hollow. Instead,
barely any nation has remained untouched by the crisis in the inadequately regulated global financial system.
Second, the crisis has exposed the fragility of globalisation.
As sources of financing dry up, we are witnessing a dramatic fall
in world trade, with drastic effects on big exporting nations such
as China, Germany and Japan. No longer willing to accept large
emerging market risk exposures, banks are pulling in their horns to
domestic markets. Rescue packages aimed at European and US industries threaten to reverse decades of hard-won multilateral trade
liberalisation. All over the world there is a perceptible increase in
anti-immigrant feeling. Indeed, several observers are already talking about evidence of de - globalisation.
Third, the neo - liberal faith in laissez-faire as the dominant
guiding principle for the organisation of markets has been shattered. The crisis has glaringly exposed the limits of excessive market liberalisation: left to their own devices, markets cannot be guaranteed to serve the public interest. In a similar fashion to the radical
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ideological shifts which took place at the end of the 1970s, we are
currently witnessing the demolition of the political foundations of
neo-liberalism and the irrefutable ending of its intellectual hegemony in the western hemisphere.
These developments have huge implications. First and foremost,
they pres - building an international economic and financial order at a
time when the tendency is to focus on state - level solutions. Importantly, this challenge concerns developing and developed countries alike.
Globalisation must remain the key framework for thinking about progressive politics; otherwise we risk undermining the progress made
so far, including the creation of unprecedented levels of wealth which
helped lift millions out of poverty around the world.
At the same time, as faith in unregulated markets crumbles, progressives urgently need to fill an ideological vacuum which risks being taken over by populists. Yet the «end of neo-liberal hegemony»
is interpreted differently by people in different societies, depending
on their prior conceptions and experiences of markets. The result
is vastly different views on the needed reforms, including the viability and effects of global stimulus plans, the benefits and scope
of increased financial regulation, or the measures needed to correct
global economic imbalances.
In short, the challenges ahead carry a great opportunity for progressives but also a risk. On the one hand, the strength of modern
social-democratic politics has always been to recognise and come to
terms with new realities. On the other hand, this «progressive moment» will requires a fundamental overhaul of centre-left policies,
recognising not only the urgency and severity of the current crisis,
but also the complex relationship between the quest for social justice,
the need for economic dynamism and sustainable development in the
global age. If the centre-left fails to present a credible alternative
which can actually serve the population at large, it will risk fading
into political irrelevance and further aggravating the crisis.
The intellectual challenge we face therefore encompasses two dimensions: Internationally, the task will be to devise a more equitable
and sustainable system for international cooperation, regulation and
intervention which addresses the diverse needs of industrialised, developing and the least developed nations, as well as the emergence of
a global society exposed to common risks. Domestically, it is about
rethinking a modern role for the nation state in shaping a more
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stable economy which combines economic dynamism and growth
with a more equal distribution of wealth and life-chances. Meeting
this challenge will require a critical but forward-looking debate on
the issues and options available for reform.
***
The ‘Community method’ of functional integration advocated
by Jean Monnet was an ingenuous device; crucially it enabled the
founding fathers of European integration to side-step the politically intractable barrier of national sovereignty. Then, as now, there
was no consensus over the precise form that European co-operation
should take. The founding Treaties of the European Communities
did not resolve this issue; rather they represented an ambiguous
compromise between intergovernmentalists and European federalists involved in the post-war debate on European co-operation. The
former viewed the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), the
European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) created by the Treaties, as functional
agencies charged only with the coordination of national, economic
strategies in designated sectors. However, European federalists
hoped that these agencies would, over time, provide the basis for a
more comprehensive kind of political integration. The institutional
arrangement created by the founding Treaties reflected this ambiguity. On the one hand, the European Commission and the European
Court of Justice provided for a supranational European executive
and legal authority. On the other hand, however, national governments, represented in the Community’s Council of Ministers, enjoyed important legislative and executive powers with regard to
the adoption and implementation of EC policies. This uncertainty
regarding the proper status and ultimate objectives of European
integration left open the question of the future development of the
European Community.
In the absence of a clear blueprint or constitution, the process of
European integration has been uneven and the institutional architecture of the Union has become increasingly cumbersome. Nationalism, economic recession, piecemeal EU enlargement, increasing
Euro-scepticism and the growing importance of the Council of Ministers within the Union’s decision-making system have at various
times impeded European policy-making and the process of European
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integration. Nevertheless, since 1957, the legal basis, institutional
framework and policy competence of the EC has gradually been consolidated and extended way beyond the provisions of the original
Treaties. Three key turning points in this respect were the 1986 Single European Act (SEA), the 1992 Maastricht Treaty and the 1997
Amsterdam Treaty, each of which introduced significant amendments to the founding Treaties. The cumulative impact of these
changes has been the creation of a unique system of European governance, albeit an incomplete one.
***
Precisely what kind of ‘state’ the EU is - or is likely to become
- is, however, far from clear. It would be naive to assume that the
EU is an embryonic Westphalian state. Moreover, there may be no
single answer to this question. In order to accommodate the increasingly diverse interests and needs of an expanding community, member states have accepted the need for compromise and adaptation.
The abandonment in the 1992 TEU of the two ‘holy cows’ of European integration - preservation of the acquis communautaire and,
within the acquis, the constitutional framework of the Community
- was a watershed. These changes ushered in a new, era of ‘flexible’
integration, characterised by the resort to intergovernmental cooperation in certain areas and the acceptance of ‘opt-outs’ for some
countries from particular Community obligations. In consequence,
the EU now resembles the proverbial curate’s egg: in certain areas it
is a supranational, legal order; in other policy areas integration is for the moment at least - based upon voluntary co-operation between
sovereign states.
The immediate origins of European unification lie in the economic and political problems confronting European countries, notably France and Germany, in the immediate aftermath of the Second World War. The war had devastated European economies, and
national governments in 1945 were forced to address the task of
economic reconstruction. The establishment of the three European
Communities during the 1950s offered a solution to this problem.
European integration was also a response to the political legacy of
the Second World War. Of crucial importance in this respect was
the urgent need - given the onset of the Cold War - to anchor West
Germany into the Western alliance system. However, before this
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could be achieved, French fears about the threat posed to France by
an economically powerful West Germany would have to be allayed.
The Schuman Plan, which formed the basis of the ECSC, was specifically designed to reassure French policymakers on this point. The
post-war debate on the future of European co-operation was thus
clearly an issue of ‘high politics’. As such, it was dominated by intense, intergovern-mental negotiations between national politicoadministrative elites, whose support for European integration can
be explained primarily in terms of perceived national interest. However, the experience of war had also created widespread revulsion towards nationalism and given fresh impetus to federalist movements,
which argued that the nation-state system was a primary cause of
international conflict. Between 1945 and 1955 European federalist movements constituted an important ‘advocacy coalition’ which
pushed the issue of European integration to the forefront of political
agendas throughout Western Europe, and whose vision of Europe inspired key policy-makers such as Jean Monnet and Robert Schuman.
***
The founders of the EC had intended that the European Commission would become a supranational European executive, embodying
the European General Will. Between 1957 and 1965 an assertive
Commission set about realising this aim. However, the Treaties were
ambiguous in this respect and in 1965, the Commission’s authority
was seriously challenged by the French President, General de Gaulle.
Elected in 1958, De Gaulle immediately made clear his opposition to
European supranationalism, which contradicted his certaine id e of
France, based upon a powerful sovereign state, nationalism and an
independent foreign and defence policy. De Gaulle’s election marked
an important turning point in the development of the EC: the political consensus in favour of European integration disappeared, and
with it the agreement on the existing institutional balance of power
within the Community. In 1961, De Gaulle launched his intergovernmental alternative to the EC, the so-called Fouchet Plan which
sought to establish a ‘union of states’ to coexist with the existing
Community in a number of areas, most notably foreign policy, defence and culture. When this initiative failed, de Gaulle scorned the
existing Community, declaring at a press conference in May 1961,
that ‘there is and can be no Europe other than a Europe of States
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- except of course a Europe of myths, fictions and pageants’. Thereafter, de Gaulle’s strategy was to exploit the EC in defense of French
national interests – a strategy reflected in the priority accorded by
France to the establishment of the CAP.
De Gaulle’s antagonism towards the Community culminated in
the so-called ‘empty chair’ crisis, which lasted from July to December
1965. During this period French ministers refused to attend meetings of the Council of Ministers and the French permanent representative was withdrawn from Brussels. The crisis was triggered by
French opposition to the Commission’s proposals for financing the
Common Agricultural Policy, the introduction of the Community’s
‘own resources’, the granting of more extensive budgetary powers
to the European Parliament and, in particular, the introduction of
majority voting into the Council of Ministers. Such developments wholly consistent with the neo-functionalist concept of ‘spillover’ were anathema to de Gaulle. The crisis was resolved in January 1966
by the Luxemburg Compromise, which shifted the institutional balance of power away from the Commission in favour of the Council of
Ministers. While the Commission’s right to initiate policy was confirmed by this document, it was agreed that the Commission should,
in future, consult more closely with member governments before issuing new proposals. Moreover, with regard to majority voting in
the Council of Ministers, the Luxemburg Compromise stated that
where ‘issues very important to one or more member countries are
at stake ministers will seek to reach solutions with which all can be
comfortable’. The Luxemburg Compromise effectively confirmed
the right of member states to veto EC legislative proposals, thereby
reversing the federalist ambitions of the Commission.
Texts For Rendering
Regional human rights systems
Africa
The African Union (AU) is a supranational union consisting of
fifty-three African states. Established in 2001, the AU's purpose is
to help secure Africa's democracy, human rights, and a sustainable
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economy, especially by bringing an end to intra-African conflict and
creating an effective common market.
The African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights is the
regions principal human rights instrument and emerged under
the aegis of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) (since replaced by the African Union). The intention to draw up the African
Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights was announced in 1979 and
the Charter was unanimously approved at the OAU's 1981 Assembly. Pursuant to its Article 63, the African Charter on Human and
Peoples' Rights came into effect on 21 October 1986 – in honour of
which 21st of October was declared «African Human Rights Day».
The African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights (ACHPR)
is a quasi-judicial organ of the African Union tasked with promoting and protecting human rights and collective (peoples') rights
throughout the African continent as well as interpreting the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights and considering individual complaints of violations of the Charter. The Commission has
three broad areas of responsibility:
•
Promoting human and peoples' rights.
•
Protecting human and peoples' rights.
•
Interpreting the African Charter on Human and Peoples'
Rights.
In pursuit of these goals, the Commission is mandated to «collect
documents, undertake studies and researches on African problems
in the field of human and peoples, rights, organise seminars, symposia and conferences, disseminate information, encourage national
and local institutions concerned with human and peoples' rights and,
should the case arise, give its views or make recommendations to
governments».
With the creation of the African Court on Human and Peoples'
Rights, the Commission will have the additional task of preparing
cases for submission to the Court's jurisdiction. In a July 2004 decision, the AU Assembly resolved that the future Court on Human
and Peoples' Rights would be integrated with the African Court of
Justice.
The Court of Justice of the African Union is intended to be
the «principal judicial organ of the Union». Although it has not yet
been established, it is intended to take over the duties of the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, as well as act as the
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supreme court of the African Union, interpreting all necessary laws
and treaties. The Protocol establishing the African Court on Human
and Peoples' Rights entered into force in January 2004 but its merging with the Court of Justice has delayed its establishment. The Protocol establishing the Court of Justice will come into force when ratified by 15 countries.
Americas
The Organization of American States (OAS) is an international
organization, headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States.
Its members are the thirty-five independent states of the Americas.
Over the course of the 1990s, with the end of the Cold War, the return to democracy in Latin America, and the thrust toward globalization, the OAS made major efforts to reinvent itself to fit the new
context. Its stated priorities now include the following:
•
Strengthening democracy.
•
Working for peace.
•
Protecting human rights.
•
Combating corruption.
•
The rights of Indigenous Peoples.
•
Promoting sustainable development.
The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (the IACHR)
is an autonomous organ of the Organization of American States, also
based in Washington, D.C. Along with the Inter - American Court
of Human Rights, based in San Jos , Costa Rica, it is one of the bodies that comprise the inter-American system for the promotion and
protection of human rights. The IACHR is a permanent body which
meets in regular and special sessions several times a year to examine
allegations of human rights violations in the hemisphere. Its human
rights duties stem from three documents:
•
the OAS Charter.
•
the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man.
•
the American Convention on Human Rights.
The Inter-American Court of Human Rights was established in
1979 with the purpose of enforcing and interpreting the provisions
of the American Convention on Human Rights. Its two main functions are thus adjudicatory and advisory. Under the former, it hears
and rules on the specific cases of human rights violations referred to
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it. Under the latter, it issues opinions on matters of legal interpretation brought to its attention by other OAS bodies or member states
Many countries in the Americas, such as the United States, Colombia, Cuba, and Venezuela, have been accused of human rights
violations.
Asia
Membership and expansion of the Asia Cooperation Dialogue.
Note that the Republic of China (Taiwan) is recognised or acknowledged by the member states as part of the People's Republic of China
(PRC), but de facto does not have any representation.
There are no Asia-wide organisations or conventions to promote
or protect human rights. Countries vary widely in their approach to
human rights and their record of human rights protection.
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN is a geopolitical and economic organization of 10 countries located in
Southeast Asia, which was formed in 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia,
the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. The organisation now
also includes Brunei, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar and Cambodiaю Its
aims include the acceleration of economic growth, social progress,
cultural development among its members, and the promotion of regional peace.
The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)
is an economic and political organization of eight countries in Southern Asia, representing almost 1.5 billion people. It was established
in 1985 by India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Maldives
and Bhutan. In April 2007, at the Association's 14th summit, Afghanistan became its eighth member.
The Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (CCASG)
is a trade bloc involving the seven Arab states of the Persian Gulf,
with many economic and social objectives. Created in 1981, the
Council comprises the Persian Gulf states of Yemen Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates
The Asia Cooperation Dialogue (ACD) is a body created in 2002
to promote Asian cooperation at a continental level, helping to integrate the previously separate regional organizations of political
or economical cooperation. The main objectives of the ACD are as
follows:
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•
To promote interdependence among Asian countries in all areas of cooperation by identifying Asia's common strengths
and opportunities which will help reduce poverty and improve
the quality of life for Asian people whilst developing a knowledge-based society within Asia and enhancing community and
people empowerment;
•
To expand the trade and financial market within Asia and increase the bargaining power of Asian countries in lieu of competition and, in turn, enhance Asia's economic competitiveness in
the global market;
•
To serve as the missing link in Asian cooperation by building
upon Asia's potentials and strengths through supplementing
and complementing existing cooperative frameworks so as to become a viable partner for other regions;
•
To ultimately transform the Asian continent into an Asian Community, capable of interacting with the rest of the world on a
more equal footing and contributing more positively towards
mutual peace and prosperity.
None of the above organisations have a specific mandate to promote or protect human rights, but each has some human rights related economic, social and cultural objectives[40][39].
A number of Asian countries are accused of serious human
rights abuses by the international community and human rights
organizations.
Europe
The Council of Europe, founded in 1949, is the oldest organisation working for European integration. It is an international organisation with legal personality recognised under public international
law and has observer status with the United Nations. The seat of the
Council of Europe is in Strasbourg in France. The Council of Europe
is responsible for both the European Convention on Human Rights
and the European Court of Human Rights. These institutions bind
the Council's members to a code of human rights which, though
strict, are more lenient than those of the United Nations charter
on human rights. The Council also promotes the European Charter
for Regional or Minority Languages and the European Social Charter. Membership is open to all European states which seek European
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integration, accept the principle of the rule of law and are able and
willing to guarantee democracy, fundamental human rights and
freedoms.
The Council of Europe is separate from the European Union, but
the latter is expected to accede to the European Convention and potentially the Council itself. The EU also has a separate human rights document; the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.
The European Convention on Human Rights defines and guarantees since 1950 human rights and fundamental freedoms in Europe. All 47 member states of the Council of Europe have signed this
Convention and are therefore under the jurisdiction of the European
Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg. In order to prevent torture
and inhuman or degrading treatment , the Committee for the Prevention of Torture was established.
The European Court of Human Rights is the only international
court with jurisdiction to deal with cases brought by individuals
(rather than states).
Saudi Arabia:
Dire human rights record exacerbated by counter-terrorism
measures
The Saudi Arabian authorities have launched a sustained assault on human rights in the name of security and fighting terrorism. Thousands of people have been arrested and detained in virtual
secrecy; others have been killed in uncertain circumstances in what
the authorities say were clashes with the security forces. Hundreds
face secret and summary trials and possible execution.
Anti-terrorism measures adopted by the government since
the attacks in the USA on 11 September 2001 have exacerbated longstanding patterns of human rights abuse.
Arbitrary arrest and prolonged detention of political and security
suspects without trial and without access to lawyers are long-standing human rights concerns in Saudi Arabia. However, the number
of people being detained arbitrarily in Saudi Arabia has risen from
hundreds to thousands since 2001. Those arrested include Saudi
Arabians and foreign nationals. In July 2007, the Interior Minister
reported that 9,000 security suspects had been detained between
2003 and 2007 and that 3,106 of them remained held.
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The detainees are held with no idea of what is going to happen to
them. Most have been held for years without trial and have not been
allowed access to lawyers and the courts to challenge the legality of
their detention. They have invariably been held incommunicado following arrest and throughout the period of interrogation, which can
last for years, before they are allowed family visits.
Many are reported to have been tortured or otherwise ill treated,
in order to extract confessions or as punishment after conviction.
Reported methods of torture and other ill-treatment include severe
beatings with sticks, punching, suspension from the ceiling, use of
electric shocks, sleep deprivation, as well as flogging which is imposed as a legal punishment by itself or in addition to imprisonment,
and can involve sentences of thousands of lashes.
Dr Saud al-Hashimi, a prisoner of conscience, is reported to have
been subjected to torture and other ill-treatment several times since
his arrest in February 2007. He and at least six other prisoners of
conscience were targeted by the authorities for calling for political
reform; discussing a proposal to establish an independent human
rights organization in Saudi Arabia; and calling for an end to impunity for human rights violations committed by Ministry of Interior
officials.
The Ministry of Interior says they were arrested for collecting
money to support terrorism, but the detainees strongly deny this.
Since their arrest, they have been detained without charge or trial
and held in solitary confinement, and they remain at risk of torture
and other ill - treatment.
In October 2008, the government announced that a special criminal court was being established to try some 991 detainees accused
of capital offences but did not disclose the identities or any other
details of the defendants or indicate whether they would have access to defense lawyers. This is especially worrying because trials of
political or security detainees in Saudi Arabia invariably fail to meet
international standards of fairness.
Court hearings are often held in secret and defendants are rarely
permitted legal assistance or legal representation by a lawyer. In
March 2009, the government said that the trials had begun, but
again provided no further information. In many cases defendants
and their families are not informed of the progress of legal proceedings against them. The trials of the 991 detainees appear to follow
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the long-standing pattern of extreme secrecy and summary trials
and denial of any legal assistance at any stage of the trial process.
Abdul Rahman al-Sudais, a 48-year-old Saudi Arabian lecturer at Um al-Qura University in Makkah, was arrested in 2003.
The government said that he was arrested with a cell of «terrorists»
but his trial was held in secret and he was not allowed any legal assistance or representation. The UN Working Group on Arbitrary
Detention found the detention of Abdul Rahman al-Sudais to be in
contravention of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and
said that «the fight against terrorism threats cannot justify undermining due process rights afforded to all accused…». In at least
one other case the defendants were executed and their bodies were
crucified.
The government of Saudi Arabia spares no effort in trying to
hide these gross human rights violations. It does so in a number of
ways, two of which are of particular importance: secrecy and clout.
Secrecy, as already shown above, is a routine practice with detainees
throughout their period of detention or imprisonment, but it does
not finish there. When released, detainees are often required to
promise not to speak about their ordeals in detention or face arrest
and detention again.
It is also a regular practice faced by relatives of the detainees,
who are often left in the dark about the fate of their loved ones. Those
who try to challenge such secrecy can expect threats such as «if you
don’t keep quiet you will never see your relative again» or «you will
be at risk of detention yourself».
Such threats can invoke scary television images of bodies of alleged terrorists killed by security forces, crucified bodies of people executed after secret and summary trials on alleged terrorist
offences, and images of people confessing during their incommunicado detention to having been terrorists and seeking forgiveness.
Relatives of detainees often urge Amnesty International and other
human rights organizations not to take up the cases of their family
members, fearing for their lives.
The country’s huge oil resources and the privilege of being a focal
point for over a billion Muslims around the world as the birthplace of
Islam’s prophet provides the government with significant power and
influence in world affairs, which it has consistently deployed to quell
attempts to scrutinize its human rights record. This is particularly
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the case with regard to human rights violations against political opponents and suspected terrorists.
The latest example of this has been the failure of the UN Human
Rights Council to engage the government of Saudi Arabia substantively on the gross human rights abuses it is committing in the name
of security and fighting terrorism.
« Международная Амнистия»
Кем финансируется «Международная Амнистия»?
С целью укрепления собственной независимости, МА не обращается с просьбой о финансовой поддержке и не принимает финансовую помощь от национальных правительств, политических
партий, религиозных и других организаций. МА финансируется
за счет взносов членов организации, добровольных пожертвований и сборов от благотворительных мероприятий.
Размер ежегодного членского взноса в разных странах варьируется и, в среднем, составляет 15-25$. Российские члены в настоящее время от уплаты взносов освобождены.
Как и когда возникла организация?
МА начала свою деятельность в 1961 г., когда британский юрист
Питер Бененсон прочитал в газете о двух португальских студентах, которых приговорили к семилетнему заключению за то, что
они подняли тост за свободу, и обратился через прессу с просьбой
о поддержке «узников совести» (статья называлась «Забытые заключенные»). Поступило свыше тысячи откликов с предложением конкретной помощи. За 12 месяцев небольшая группа добровольцев из Лондона сумела послать делегации в четыре страны
мира, чтобы представлять интересы узников совести на местах,
и расследовала 210 случаев нарушения прав человека. В тот же
год филиалы организации появились в семи других странах.
Практика оказания давления на власти с помощью писем от
обеспокоенных сограждан и граждан других государств – это
своеобразное «ноу-хау» МА. «Амнистия» – первая НПО, которая крупномасштабно применила этот метод защиты прав
296
человека. С момента основания МА и по сей день, письма остаются основным и наиболее действенным способом восстановления
справедливости.
С самого начала в основу МА был положен принцип международной солидарности. Организация защищает права людей во
всех странах мира; при этом, в целях личной безопасности активистов, члены МА (с некоторыми ограничениями) не работают по
своей стране – за них это делают члены из других стран.
Какими методами пользуется «Международная Амнистия»?
Основной метод работы МА – это привлечение внимания общественности к фактам нарушения прав человека и оказание давления на властей потоком обращений от частных лиц (писем, факсов, открыток, электронных сообщений).
Прежде чем предпринять какие-либо шаги, МА проводит самостоятельное расследование поступивших сообщений о нарушении
прав человека. Эффективность МА зависит от репутации организации, поэтому расследования проводятся с особой тщательностью и беспристрастностью. В результате нашим заключениям
доверяют; более того, за консультацией к МА часто обращаются
ученые, журналисты, правительственные и неправительственные организации.
Как устроена «Международная Амнистия»?
В состав МА входят более 50 национальных секций и свыше 7,5
тысяч местных групп. Кроме того, МА насчитывает значительное
количество индивидуальных членов в более чем 150 странах мира.
МА по своему устройству демократична. Представители организации со всего мира на съезде Международного Совета выбирают Международный Исполнительный Комитет (из 8 человек),
который, в свою очередь, назначает Генерального Секретаря. Генеральный Секретарь (в настоящее время – Айрин Кан) выступает
от лица всей организации, а также решает повседневные административные вопросы.
Центральный офис МА (Международный секретариат) расположен в Лондоне. В секретариате работают 320 постоянных
297
сотрудников и около 100 добровольцев. Штатные сотрудники
расследуют сообщения о нарушении прав человека, работают с общественностью и СМИ, организуют сбор средств и т. д.
МА выпускает периодические издания («The Wire», «Вестник»
и другие), печатает учебные пособия по правам человека, другую
правозащитную литературу, ведет электронные рассылки и поддерживает веб -сайты на многих языках. В изданиях МА приводятся случаи нарушения прав человека в мире; читателям предлагают отправить письма в защиту пострадавших.
Активно действует сеть срочной помощи, члены которой организуют плотный поток писем в поддержку людей, которым
угрожает смертная казнь или пытки в заключении. Оперативные меры дают положительный результат примерно в 40%
случаев.
Индивидуальные члены помогают успешно лоббировать правительства, собирать пожертвования, проводить кампанию по
мобилизации общественности.
Местные группы несут основную нагрузку по подготовке и проведению акций. Они не только пишут письма, но и устраивают
общественно-значимые мероприятия, такие как пикеты у посольств, передвижные выставки и сборы подписей под петициями,
благотворительные концерты и распродажи сувениров, и многое,
многое другое!
Члены сети срочной помощи (ССП) немедленно реагируют по
факсу, электронной почте, с помощью SMS (реже – телеграммой)
в тех случаях, когда необходимо срочное вмешательство (например, поступили сведения о том, что человеку грозит смертная
казнь, пытки, либо «исчезновение»).
Акции кризисного реагирования проводятся в случае массового нарушения прав человека, например, с началом вооружённых
конфликтов. Такие акции узконаправленны и проводятся тогда,
когда МА вместе с другими правозащитными организациями может добиться решения конкретного вопроса (например, приема
беженцев).
Профессиональные сети объединяют журналистов, юристов,
медицинских работников, деловых людей, членов профсоюзов,
учителей. Кроме того, существуют объединения представителей
сексуальных меньшинств. Вклад членов профессиональных сетей
особенно заметен при проведении кампаний на близкую им тему.
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И, наконец, существуют школьные (11 - 18 лет) и молодежные
сети МА (последние объединяют, в основном, студентов из разных
стран).
Что такое «кампания»?
Кампании – это серии мероприятий, нацеленных на решение
конкретных проблем по определённой теме (например, кампания по защите женщин от домашнего насилия или кампания за
отмену смертной казни). Обычно кампании длятся более одного
года.
В рамках кампании МА мобилизует общественное мнение
с помощью публикаций в прессе, радио и телепередач; кроме того,
члены «Амнистии» и сочувствующие лица оказывают давление
на власть путем прямых обращений, направляя ответственным
чиновникам вежливые и настойчивые письма с выражением своей озабоченности.
Делегаты МА встречаются с дипломатами в посольствах разрабатываемой страны, чтобы сообщить правительству позицию организации. Миссии МА посещают другие страны для проведения
расследований на местах; делегаты также выступают наблюдателями на судебных заседаниях и встречаются с ответственными
чиновниками напрямую.
Секции, группы и члены МА могут лоббировать правительства
своих стран, чтобы оказать давление на власти разрабатываемой
страны.
МА активно сотрудничает с другими общественными институтами, такими как профсоюзы, женские и религиозные организации, объединения учителей, а также с другими правозащитными
организациями.
В ходе кампаний МА устраивает символические события,
которые привлекают общественное внимание. Например, пикеты, демонстрации, поэтические вечера, рок-концерты, благотворительные обеды, уличные театральные постановки и кинофестивали, автопробеги, выставки плакатов и художественные
экспозиции.
Наконец, в рамках кампаний обязательно проводится сбор
средств для финансирования организации и покрытия административных расходов. Это необходимо для того, чтобы «Амнистия»
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сохранила свою независимость без оглядки на правительства, различные фонды и лобби.
Насколько «Международная Амнистия» эффективна?
Ежегодно МА проводит свыше 300 новых акций срочной помощи. Около 40 % из них приводят к положительным результатам.
В 2006 г. члены «Амнистии» отправили письма в поддержку примерно 5000 конкретных людей, чьи права были грубо нарушены.
За свою более чем 40-летнюю историю, организация добилась
впечатляющих результатов. Привлечения внимания международного сообщества оказывалось достаточно, чтобы условия содержания заключённых улучшались, наблюдателям предоставлялся
доступ к закрытым судебным процессам, вынесенный смертный
приговор заменялся более мягким, а в отношении нарушителей
прав человека возбуждались уголовные дела. С 1961 г., тысячи политических заключённых были досрочно освобождены благодаря
вмешательству «Международной Амнистии».
В 1977 г. МА получила Нобелевскую премию мира, а в 1978 –
Премию ООН за вклад в защиту прав человека. МА поддерживает
официальные отношения с ЮНЕСКО, Советом Европы и другими
межправительственными организациями.
The renewed UN
In January 2008, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon outlined
the broad fronts on which the United Nations needs to advance if it
is to meet the challenges facing the Member States and their peoples
in the 21st Century.
Strengthening UN efforts to maintain peace and security
The Secretary-General has expressed his resolve to strengthen
the United Nations ability to play its role to the fullest extent in conflict prevention, peacemaking, peacekeeping and peacebuilding.
To help meet these unprecedented challenges, the General Assembly approved the Secretary-General’s proposal to restructure the Department of Peacekeeping Operations creating a Department of Field
Support (DFS) to consolidate the support functions of recruitment
for field personnel, including senior appointments, procurement
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and financial management. The Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) will focus on providing effective mission management,
strategic planning and policy guidance and will foster partnerships
with UN and non-UN actors, including maintaining close liaison
with regional organizations.
The Department of Field Support will allow the system to provide more effective logistical, personnel, financial and communications and information technology support to the UN’s missions
in the field. Through the establishment of Integrated Operational
Teams (IOTs) the two Departments will work as one to ensure maximum efficiency, promote both accountability and transparency,
and maintain clear reporting lines to facilitate the overall harmonization of efforts.
The United Nations needs to strengthen its capacity not only to
stabilize situations through the deployment of forces after peace
agreements are reached, but also to prevent and resolve conflict
through political means. The Secretary-General wants to better
equip and better position the United Nations to prevent and resolve
conflicts at an early stage, before they escalate into larger and costlier tragedies.
To this end, the Secretary-General unveiled in November 2007
a proposal to strengthen and restructure the Department of Political Affairs to transform it into a more mobile and field-oriented
structure, allowing for more proactive and effective use of the tools
of preventive diplomacy, including mediation and the good offices of
the Secretary-General.
A Mediation Support Unit within the Department of Political Affairs is already working with regional desks to assist UN peace envoys in the field as they try to prevent and resolve conflicts. A fulltime UN «stand-by» mediation team became operational in March
2008, and will provide urgent expert advice to mediation efforts
around the world.
In order to assist countries emerging from conflict and to prevent them sliding back into instability or war, the Peacebuilding
Commission (PBC), its Support Office, and the Peacebuilding Fund
were established based on the recommendations of Member States
at the 2005 World Summit, and reflected the Organization’s belief that peacebuilding is a solid way to consolidate peace and put
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in place building blocks for governance and development, advancing
long - term stability.
The UN Democracy Fund (UNDEF), awards grants to projects
that aim to promote and consolidate new and restored democracies.
The Fund, with some $62 million to disburse, provides assistance
to governmental, non-governmental, national, regional, and international organizations, including relevant United Nations departments, offices, funds, programmes and agencies.
While terrorism has been on the agenda of the United Nations
for decades, in September 2006 for the first time in history, all UN
Member States agreed to a common strategic and operational approach to fight terrorism, adopting by consensus in the General Assembly the UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy (Strategy).
The Strategy spells out concrete measures for Member States
to take individually, as well as collectively to address the conditions conducive to the spread of terrorism, prevent and combat
terrorism and strengthen their individual and collective capacity to do so, and protect human rights and uphold the rule of law
while countering terrorism. UN departments, programmes, funds
and agencies have been taking actions in a number of areas in line
with the strategy both in their individual capacity and through
joint efforts in the framework of the Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force.
Strengthening Humanitarian Actions
Humanitarianism is a universal concept that applies to all people
at all times, rooted in the core principles of humanity, impartiality
and neutrality. However, the demands of modern humanitarianism require us to improve upon our efforts so that aid is provided in
a more accountable, transparent, predictable and coordinated manner – one that enables the most lives to be saved whenever and wherever there are people in need of emergency assistance.
To better meet these objectives, the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), has launched several initiatives designed to strengthen global humanitarian response.
These efforts fall into three principal categories: more predictable funding, as well as new and broader funding sources and
funding mechanisms; better sectoral coordination to improve coherence and minimize gaps and duplication; and ensuring better
302
qualified and trained UN humanitarian coordinators and resident
coordinators.
In addition, OCHA is firmly committed to improving its global
humanitarian partnerships with both UN and non-UN actors acting
on an equal basis. In 2007, OCHA convened the first-ever Global Humanitarian Platform, an initiative that brought together some 40
NGOs, Red Crescent/Red Cross societies and UN agencies as equal
partners seeking to improve cooperation and communication based
on mutually agreed upon principles.
Initiatives to strengthen humanitarian financing include the
Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF), Emergency Response
Funds (ERFs), Pooled Funding and the Good Humanitarian Donorship initiative (GHD). Since its launch in March 2006, the new Central Emergency Response Fund has transformed the UN’s ability to
respond quickly and more equitably to sudden emergencies as well
as chronically under-funded cries. The General Assembly had called
for contributions to the CERF to reach $500 million by 2008. With
over 90 donors, and over $400 million in pledged and received funds,
the CERF has already been put to use to save lives. More needs to be
done, however, to fully achieve the funding targets.
Extreme weather events associated with the effects of climate
change are on the rise, and ever greater numbers of people are now
living in harm’s way. Given this context, disaster risk reduction
and preparedness efforts are all the more vital. OCHA is seeking
to strengthen its collaboration with regional and national actors
through joint training on disaster preparedness and response, contingency planning, and other efforts. The humanitarian community
is also seeking to focus greater awareness on the potentially devastating humanitarian effects of climate change for the world’s most
vulnerable populations.
Reforming management
The Secretary-General has expressed his commitment to an Organization that delivers more effectively.
The Secretary-General is committed to strengthening accountability, transparency and performance through consultation, teamwork and mutual support. A tangible manifestation of his commitment has been seen in his launching a consultative process with
senior managers to sign annual Performance Compacts with each
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of them. Following this precedent, the Deputy Secretary-General is
engaged in consultations with senior managers to track annual performance management.
The Secretary - General has made recommendations to Member
States to strengthen the Secretariat’s accountability through an
overarching Accountability Architecture that focuses on achievement of results and management of risks.
The Secretary-General intends to strengthen accountability by
clearly assigning responsibility to individuals for achieving specific
results and for identifying and managing risks.
The UN is upgrading its accounting processes by adopting the International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS) aimed at
improving the quality and transparency of financial reporting.
Preparations have already begun, and the UN is expected to be IPSAS-compliant in 2010.
The overhaul of UN procurement practices is well under way.
Vigorous efforts are being made to implement strict controls and
guidelines. Professionalism is being enhanced through intensified
training and better use of technology, with strengthened emphasis
on ethics and transparency.
The General Assembly will be assisted in its oversight governance
functions by the Independent Audit Advisory Committee (IAAC),
a new body which started functioning in January 2008. The IAAC
will provide advice on audit and oversight functions of several investigative and audit bodies such as the Office of Internal Oversight
Services (OIOS) and the Board of Auditors.
An independent Ethics Office was established in January 2006.
The Ethics Office provides confidential advice to staff on ethics and
integrity matters, administers the financial disclosure programme
and implements the policy on protection against retaliation for reporting wrongdoing or for cooperating with duly authorized audits or
investigations, often referred to as protection for «whistle-blowers».
All staff are required to take ethics training. A system-wide code of
ethics for all personnel of the United Nations is being developed.
In the interests of oversight and transparency, a summary of any
cases referred to the Chair of the Ethics Committee, by a staff member of a Fund or Programme, must be included in the Annual Report
to the General Assembly of the UN Ethics Office. The Ethics Committee began its work in January 2008.
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Information and Communication Technology (ICT) will be a critical instrument for modernizing the United Nations and supporting
management reform processes. One key element will be the introduction of an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system. By integrating globally all information on human, financial and physical resources of the Organization, such a system will enable more efficient
and effective management, better reporting and more streamlined
and automated processes. The UN’s first Chief Information Technology Officer assumed his new functions in August 2007.
The Secretary-General has highlighted the need for the UN development system to «deliver as one» integrated entity. To accomplish this, system - wide coherence throughout the processes of management and policy development is essential. The UN system must
also work together more effectively to support national efforts to
achieve the internationally agreed development goals, including the
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
The «One UN» pilot programme launched in eight countries
will attempt to test how the greater UN family can ensure efficient
and more effective development operations, while aiming to speed
up activities to help achieve the Millennium Development Goals
(MDGs). Countries rich and poor will benefit if the United Nations
can make the delivery of its operations in the fields of development,
humanitarian assistance and the environment more streamlined and
efficient.
European integration
The basis of the post-war European federalist movement was
the belief that the establishment of a federal European government
would put an end to the long-established pattern of wars between
European sovereign nation-states. The idea was not a new one. In
the aftermath of the First World War the idea of a 'United States of
Europe' had been propounded by the Austrian Count KoudenhoveKalergi, founder of the Pan-Europa movement, established in 1923.
Despite the fact that by the end of the 1920s, this movement contained prominent economists, lawyers, educationalists, journalists
and politicians, it had nevertheless failed to win the support of the
general public, who remained wedded to the concept (and reality) of
national sovereignty. However, the experience of the Second World
War gave fresh impetus to the debate on federalism. After 1939,
305
federalist movements and publications proliferated, especially within resistance movements throughout Europe.
The immediate post-war period witnessed a fresh upsurge of
public opinion in favour of European integration. From the outset,
however, the debate was ambiguous and vague with regard to detail:
though the general idea of European co-operation attracted widespread support, no such consensus existed regarding the precise
nature of any such arrangement. In September 1946, for instance,
the former British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, declared
that 'We must build a kind of United States of Europe' to counter
the Soviet threat. The impact of this speech was enormous. It gave
important credibility to European federalist movements, despite
the fact that Churchill was opposed to both federalism and British
participation in any system of European co - operation. There were
also important divisions between the plethora of 'European' movements established during this period. By far the largest and most
prominent of these competing advocacy coalitions was the European Union of Federalists (UEF). This was established in 1946 and
comprised some sixty, affiliated, national groups and over 100,000
members. Significantly, however, not all movements shared the
federalist aspirations of the UEF. For example, the United Europe Movement, founded in 1947 by Winston Churchill, and the
European League for Economic Co-operation, presided over by the
Dutch ex-prime minister, Paul van Zeeland, advocated European
cooperation rather than federalism.
The momentum created by the post-war advocacy coalition in favour of (some form of) European integration culminated in the European Congress held in The Hague in May 1948, organised jointly by
the above associations. The Congress brought together 713 delegates
from thirteen countries. On the key issue of what kind of European
design should be created there emerged at the Hague Congress a clear
divide between the federalist UEF and the more moderate United Europe Movement which, backed by other conservative groups, advocated a confederal association. In the event, the latter view prevailed. The
Congress approved a vaguely worded communique demanding the creation of 'a United Europe throughout whose area the free movement
of persons, ideas and goods is restored', a Charter of Human Rights,
a Court of Justice and a 'European Assembly, where the live forces of
all our nations shall be represented'. In October 1948 the broad-based
306
European Movement was established to implement the recommendations of the Hague Congress. Subsequent negotiations were marked
by a cleavage between the French, Italian and Belgian governments,
who wanted to establish a supranational European organisation, and
the British government (backed by the Scandinavian governments),
who favoured an intergovernmental arrangement. The federalists
were defeated. The Council of Europe, established in May 1949, provided a forum for voluntary co-operation between sovereign, national
governments in the Committee of Ministers and between members of
national parliaments in the Consultative Assembly.
Undeterred, the European federalists launched a further attempt in 1952 to establish a supranational European Political Community (EPC) as part of a proposal for a European Defence Community (EDC). The EDC idea was the French government's response
to US demands that West Germany be permitted to rearm in order
that it might contribute to the defence of Western Europe. Though
it enjoyed the support of both the West German Chancellor, Konrad
Adenauer and the US government, the EDC project collapsed in August 1954 with the refusal of the French National Assembly to ratify
the so-called Pleven Plan. The failure of the EDC project marked an
important turning point within the post - war debate on European
integration. In the immediate post-war period, the social, economic
and political situation in Western Europe was so fluid, and external
pressures so favourable, that it was just conceivable that the radical federalist strategy advocated by the UEF might just have succeeded. Yet, despite the popularity of the federal idea in European
countries and the important 'policy entrepreneur' role played by the
federalist movements, the resilience of nationalism and the structures of the nation-states constituted an insurmountable barrier to
such a development.
Federalist ideas nevertheless continued to exert a powerful influence upon national policymakers seeking political solutions
to the economic and security problems facing Western Europe.
The founding fathers of the European Community - Jean Monnet,
the French Planning Commissariat, and Robert Schuman, French
Foreign Minister - were essentially pragmatic federalists. Though
they shared the ideals of the so-called radical federalists, they disagreed with their head-on approach, believing instead that the only
way to achieve European integration was by small, incremental steps
307
in sectors where the issue of national sovereignty was less contentious than in 'high politics' areas such as defence and foreign policy.
This 'Community method' of functional integration underpinned the
Schuman Plan, drawn up in April 1950 by the French Foreign Minister, Robert Schuman, at the request of Jean Monnet. The Plan was
presented to the French government as a European solution to the
urgent need to find a new structure to contain the resurgent heavy
industries of the Ruhr. It proposed that French and German coal and
steel production should be 'pooled' and placed under a common, supranational authority, the High Authority, which would be responsible for establishing a common market for coal and steel among the
member states. European regulation of these industries would also
facilitate economic reconstruction. Six countries - Belgium, The
Netherlands, Italy, Luxemburg, West Germany and France - signed
the Paris Treaty in April 1951, establishing the ECSC. Significantly, the British government refused to join the ECSC. Three reasons
help to explain the British aloofness from Europe during this period.
First, the British wartime experience had strengthened rather than
weakened national sentiments. Second, as Churchill had made clear
in his 1946 Zurich speech, the Primary British obligation at this
time was to another 'natural grouping', the Commonwealth. Hence
his remark during this speech that 'We are with Europe, but not of it.
We are linked, but not comprised. We are interested and associated,
but not absorbed'. Third, Labour and Conservative politicians alike
were united in their ideological opposition to a supranational European authority which they believed would constrain national policymakers and undermine the sovereignty of Parliament.
The ECSC was followed by the creation in 1957 of two new
communities: the EURATOM, intended to faciliate co-operation
between member states in the development of nuclear technology
for peaceful purposes; and the EEC. The EEC proposal came from
the Benelux governments (inspired by the Benelux customs union
established in 1944) and was supported by the powerful Action
Committee for the United States of Europe, a non-governmental
organisation formed in 1955 by Monnet. The EEC marked an important departure in the sense that it was not another sectoral
community. The integrative impact of the EEC was potentially
far-reaching: it sought to establish both a customs union and
a common market. Moreover, the means by which the EEC was to
308
achieve these aims, together with a precise timetable, were clearly specified in the Treaty. Finally, while the customs union lay at
the heart of the EEC Treaty, it also provided for a number of common policies in areas such as agriculture, transport and competition policy. Social policy was also included, in the sense of policy
relating to employment. A Social Fund and an Investment Bank
were established and the policies were to be financed by a Community budget, whose income would eventually come from its 'own
resources'. Once again, the British government remained aloof
from the integration process. Indeed, the British government
representative had withdrawn from the negotiations at the first
mention of supranational institutions.
Several factors facilitated the establishment of the European
Communities: the pressing need to achieve Franco - German conciliation; the post-war economic situation and the wider political environment (notably the onset of the Cold War) all served to focus the
minds of European policy-makers upon the problem of European cooperation. The particular solution adopted reflected the influence
of competing advocacy coalitions (pro-and anti-European federalism), the pivotal role played by individuals such as Jean Monnet and
Robert Schuman, and the political commitment of the six member
governments to European integration. Thus, in Kingdon's terms,
there had existed an important 'window of opportunity'. In the early
1960s, support for the EEC (which quickly established itself as the
most important of the three Communities) increased among member
governments, business and agricultural interests. Rapid economic
growth rates in the EEC were attributed, in part at least, to the removal of internal tariffs.
309
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3. Corbitt, J. N. Global Awareness Profile. – Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press, 1998.
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Ганц Наталья Всеволодовна,
Лихоманова Людмила Федоровна
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
для студентов факультета
международных отношений
Часть 2
Учебное пособие
Зав. редакционно-издательским отделом
Востряков Л. Е.
Редактор Измайлов А. Ф.
Корректор Канев Ю. А.
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