Динамико-системные свойства глаголов коммуникации в

Реклама
98
Å.Â. Ïîíîìàðåíêî,
Ã.À.
Âåñòíèê
ÑàìÃÓ. 2015.
¹Ïàðøóòèíà
1 (123)
ÓÄÊ 811.111
Å.Â. Ïîíîìàðåíêî, Ã.À. Ïàðøóòèíà*
ÄÈÍÀÌÈÊÎ-ÑÈÑÒÅÌÍÛÅ ÑÂÎÉÑÒÂÀ ÃËÀÃÎËÎÂ ÊÎÌÌÓÍÈÊÀÖÈÈ
 ÀÍÃËÈÉÑÊÎÌ ÄÅËÎÂÎÌ ÄÈÑÊÓÐÑÅ
 ñòàòüå ðàññìàòðèâàåòñÿ îäíî èç áàçîâûõ ñâîéñòâ äåëîâîãî äèñêóðñà, ñïîñîáñòâóþùèõ ýâîëþöèè ðå÷è â íàïðàâëåíèè
çàäàííîé êîììóíèêàòèâíîé öåëè, – ñâîéñòâî ôóíêöèîíàëüíîé (ïðàãìà-ñåìàíòè÷åñêîé) ñèñòåìíîñòè. Àíàëèçèðóåòñÿ ðîëü
ãëàãîëîâ êîììóíèêàöèè â îáåñïå÷åíèè äèíàìèêè ýòîãî ñâîéñòâà, êîòîðîå ñïîñîáñòâóåò ïîðîæäåíèþ â äèñêóðñå íîâûõ
ñìûñëîâûõ êîìïîíåíòîâ. Äåëàåòñÿ âûâîä, ÷òî èñïîëüçîâàíèå
äàííûõ ãëàãîëîâ ïîâûøàåò ðèòîðè÷åñêóþ ýôôåêòèâíîñòü äåëîâîãî äèñêóðñà.
Êëþ÷åâûå ñëîâà: àíãëèéñêèé äåëîâîé äèñêóðñ, ãëàãîëû êîììóíèêàöèè, ðèòîðè÷åñêîå âîçäåéñòâèå, ôóíêöèîíàëüíûå ñâîéñòâà ãëàãîëîâ êîììóíèêàöèè, äèíàìè÷åñêàÿ ñèñòåìíîñòü äèñêóðñà.
Òðàíñïîíèðóÿ èçâåñòíîå âûñêàçûâàíèå î äèñêóðñå êàê «ðå÷è, ïîãðóæåííîé â æèçíü»
[1], öåëåñîîáðàçíî ïîíèìàòü äåëîâîé äèñêóðñ êàê ðå÷ü, «ïîãðóæåííóþ» â äåëîâóþ
æèçíü, èëè, èíà÷å, ÿçûê ñîöèàëüíîãî âçàèìîäåéñòâèÿ â óñëîâèÿõ (ëþáîé) ïðîôåññèîíàëüíîé äåÿòåëüíîñòè: social action in business contexts [2] (ñì. òàêæå ðàáîòû Á.Ý. Àçíàóðüÿí, Ô. Áàðãèåëà-×èàïïèíè, Äæ. Ãàðöîíå, Å.Í. Çàðåöêîé, Å.Ï. Êàçàêîâîé, Ì.Â. Êîëòóíîâîé, Ë. Ëóõèàëà-Ñàëìèíåí, Å.Í. Ìàëþãà, Ò.Á. Íàçàðîâîé, Å.Â. Ïîíîìàðåíêî, À.Â. Ðàäþê, À.À. Õàðüêîâñêîé, Ä.Ñ. Õðàì÷åíêî, Ò.À. Øèðÿåâîé è äð.).
Èìåííî ïîòðåáíîñòè ñîöèàëüíîãî âçàèìîäåéñòâèÿ îïðåäåëÿþò ñïåöèôè÷åñêèå õàðàêòåðèñòèêè äåëîâîé êîììóíèêàöèè, êîòîðàÿ òðåáóåò îò ó÷àñòíèêîâ íå òîëüêî ýòèêåòíîãî ñîáëþäåíèÿ óñòàíîâëåííûõ íîðì è ïðàâèë îáùåíèÿ, íî è îïðåäåëåííîãî óðîâíÿ
ðèòîðè÷åñêîé êîìïåòåíòíîñòè, ïîçâîëÿþùåãî îêàçûâàòü âëèÿíèå íà ìíåíèå ïàðòíåðà, êîððåêòèðîâàòü ñîáñòâåííóþ ïîçèöèþ, àäåêâàòíî ðåàãèðîâàòü íà òîò èëè èíîé
ïîâîðîò â ñèòóàöèè îáùåíèÿ è òàêèì ïóòåì óñïåøíî ðåøàòü íàñóùíûå ïðîáëåìû
äåëîâîé æèçíè.  ïðîòèâíîì ñëó÷àå äåëîâîé äèñêóðñ áóäåò íåýôôåêòèâíûì è ñòîÿùèå ïåðåä êîììóíèêàíòàìè ïðîôåññèîíàëüíûå çàäà÷è îñòàíóòñÿ íåâûïîëíåííûìè.
Ñðåäñòâà è ñïîñîáû ïîâûøåíèÿ êîììóíèêàòèâíî-ðèòîðè÷åñêîé ýôôåêòèâíîñòè
ðå÷è âñåãäà ñòîÿëè â ðÿäó ïðèîðèòåòíûõ âîïðîñîâ ôèëîëîãè÷åñêèõ èçûñêàíèé.
 ÷àñòíîñòè, íåèçìåííî èíòåðåñóþùåé ó÷åíûõ îñòàåòñÿ ïðîáëåìàòèêà ôóíêöèîíèðîâàíèÿ ãëàãîëîâ êàê îðãàíèçóþùåãî öåíòðà – «íåðâà» âûñêàçûâàíèÿ. Ñðåäè íèõ îñîáîå ìåñòî çàíèìàþò ãëàãîëû êîììóíèêàöèè, òàê êàê äëÿ íèõ âåäóùåé ôóíêöèåé
ÿâëÿåòñÿ ðåãóëèðîâàíèå êîììóíèêàòèâíîãî âçàèìîäåéñòâèÿ äèñêóðñèâíûõ (ïîä)ñèñòåì ïàðòíåðîâ ìåæäó ñîáîé è îïòèìèçàöèÿ âçàèìîäåéñòâèÿ ýëåìåíòîâ âíóòðè êàæäîé
èç ýòèõ (ïîä)ñèñòåì.
Öåëü äàííîé ñòàòüè ñîñòîèò â òîì, ÷òîáû íà ïðèìåðå èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ àíãëèéñêèõ
ãëàãîëîâ êîììóíèêàöèè ðàññìîòðåòü îäíî èç áàçîâûõ ñâîéñòâ äèñêóðñà, ñïîñîáñòâó* Ó Ïîíîìàðåíêî Å.Â., Ïàðøóòèíà Ã.À., 2015
Ïîíîìàðåíêî Åâãåíèÿ Âèòàëüåâíà ([email protected]), Ïàðøóòèíà Ãàëèíà Àëåêñååâíà
([email protected]), êàôåäðà àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà ¹ 5, Ìîñêîâñêèé ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé èíñòèòóò ìåæäóíàðîäíûõ îòíîøåíèé (Óíèâåðñèòåò) ÌÈÄ Ðîññèè, 119454, Ðîññèéñêàÿ
Ôåäåðàöèÿ, ã. Ìîñêâà, ïð. Âåðíàäñêîãî, 76.
Äèíàìèêî-ñèñòåìíûå ñâîéñòâà ãëàãîëîâ êîììóíèêàöèè
â àíãëèéñêîì äåëîâîì äèñêóðñå
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þùèõ îïòèìàëüíîìó âûñòðàèâàíèþ ðå÷è â íàïðàâëåíèè çàäàííîé êîììóíèêàòèâíîé
öåëè, – ñâîéñòâî ôóíêöèîíàëüíîé (ïðàãìà-ñåìàíòè÷åñêîé) ñèñòåìíîñòè, à òàêæå òîé
ðîëè, êîòîðóþ èãðàþò íàçâàííûå ãëàãîëû â îáåñïå÷åíèè ïîäâèæíîñòè ýòîãî ñâîéñòâà.
Âîïðîñû ñèñòåìíîñòè äèñêóðñà ñòàëè àêòóàëüíûìè äëÿ ÿçûêîâåäåíèÿ ñ òåõ ïîð,
êàê ó÷åíûå ïðèçíàëè, ÷òî íå òîëüêî ÿçûê, íî è ðå÷ü ÿâëÿåòñÿ ñèñòåìîé (ñ ó÷åòîì
íåêîòîðûõ îòëè÷èé â ïîíèìàíèè ýòîãî ôåíîìåíà ïðèìåíèòåëüíî ê ÿçûêó è ê ðå÷è).
Ðàíåå ìû îòìå÷àëè, ÷òî âíå ñèñòåìíîñòè ëþáîå íîâîå âûñêàçûâàíèå ñîçäàâàëîñü áû
áåç ó÷åòà îáúåêòèâíûõ çàêîíîìåðíîñòåé ðå÷åïðîèçâîäñòâà è ðå÷åâîñïðèÿòèÿ è âçàèìîïîíèìàíèå ìåæäó ëþäüìè áûëî áû íåâîçìîæíî [3]. Î÷åâèäíî, ÷òî â îòíîøåíèè
äåëîâîãî îáùåíèÿ íåîáõîäèìîñòü äîñòèæåíèÿ âçàèìîïîíèìàíèÿ ñòàíîâèòñÿ ÷ðåçâû÷àéíî âàæíîé. Ïîýòîìó ñïîñîáíîñòü êîììóíèêàíòîâ ôîðìèðîâàòü ñèñòåìíîñòü äèñêóðñà ïðè÷èñëÿåòñÿ ê ïðîôåññèîíàëüíî çíà÷èìûì êîìïåòåíöèÿì ó÷àñòíèêîâ äåëîâîãî îáùåíèÿ è èçó÷àåòñÿ âñå àêòèâíåå, îñîáåííî â àíãëèñòèêå [4–7].
Ïðèìåíèòåëüíî ê ðå÷è/äèñêóðñó ñèñòåìíîñòü ïîíèìàåòñÿ êàê îáóñëîâëåííîñòü
ðå÷è ýêñòðàëèíãâèñòè÷åñêèìè ôàêòîðàìè, êîòîðûå îïðåäåëÿþòñÿ, ñ îäíîé ñòîðîíû,
ñóáúåêòèâíûìè èíòåíöèÿìè êîììóíèêàíòîâ (âêëþ÷àÿ êîììóíèêàòèâíûé çàìûñåë è
öåëü îáùåíèÿ), ñ äðóãîé – ñóùåñòâîâàíèåì òåõ âåðáàëüíûõ ôîðì, êîòîðûå ñîöèàëüíî ïðèåìëåìû â ðàìêàõ êîíêðåòíûõ âèäîâ äåÿòåëüíîñòè è ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèõ ñôåð
îáùåíèÿ (Ì.Í. Êîæèíà, Ç.È. Êîìàðîâà, Í.À. Êóïèíà, Å.Í. Ìàëþãà, Ò.Â. Ìàòâååâà,
Å.Â. Ïîíîìàðåíêî, Ò.Ñ. Ñàìîõèíà, À.À. Õàðüêîâñêàÿ, Ä.Ñ. Õðàì÷åíêî è äð.) [8–10].
Ãëàãîëû êîììóíèêàöèè àêòóàëèçèðóþò äàííîå ñâîéñòâî ðå÷è è â îïðåäåëåííîé ìåðå
ñïîñîáñòâóþò ñîçäàíèþ òîãî èëè èíîãî ïðàãìàòè÷åñêîãî ýôôåêòà. Ñîâîêóïíîñòü èõ
ïðàãìà-ñåìàíòè÷åñêèõ õàðàêòåðèñòèê óïîðÿäî÷èâàåò êîììóíèêàòèâíûé àêò, óäåðæèâàÿ ôóíêöèîíàëüíóþ ïåðñïåêòèâó äèñêóðñà â îòíîñèòåëüíî ôèêñèðîâàííûõ ðàìêàõ
êîíòàêòîóñòàíàâëèâàþùåé (ôàòè÷åñêîé) ôóíêöèè è ïàðàëëåëüíî – ôóíêöèè âîçäåéñòâèÿ, ïîñêîëüêó â ñèëó ñâîåé ñåìàíòèêè äàþò âîçìîæíîñòü íåíàâÿç÷èâî, íî íàñòîé÷èâî àêöåíòèðîâàòü íóæíûé ñìûñëîâîé êîìïîíåíò.
Íàïðèìåð, ñåêðåòàðèàò Ïðåçèäåíòà ÑØÀ â ðàññûëêå, àäðåñîâàííîé ãðàæäàíàì ñòðàíû, ïðåäâàðÿåò îáçîð ïîëó÷åííîé îò íèõ êîððåñïîíäåíöèè ñëåäóþùèì ïàññàæåì:
Two weeks ago, President Obama asked you to write and tell him how you’re doing. And
I can tell you, as one of the people who helps sort through the mail here at the White
House, that a lot of you answered.
You told us how you’re feeling about your family, your community, and our country. You
shared stories about what’s been going well, and what you wish was better. So if you were
wondering if those letters actually get read, the answer is yes [11].
Óïîòðåáëåíèå ãëàãîëîâ êîììóíèêàöèè â êàæäîì ïðåäëîæåíèè ýòîãî îòðûâêà îêàçûâàåò âïîëíå îïðåäåëåííûé ýôôåêò: ñîîáùåíèå ñîçäàåò îùóùåíèå ïðî÷íîé ñâÿçè
ìåæäó ãðàæäàíàìè è ðóêîâîäñòâîì ñòðàíû, ïîä÷åðêèâàåò, âî-ïåðâûõ, ãîòîâíîñòü ê
äèàëîãó è âíèìàòåëüíîå îòíîøåíèå Ïðåçèäåíòà ê ìíåíèþ ãðàæäàí, âî-âòîðûõ – èõ
àêòèâíîñòü ïðè îáùåíèè ñ íèì è, ñëåäîâàòåëüíî, äîâåðèå ê Ïðåçèäåíòó ïî ëþáûì
âîïðîñàì æèçíè îáùåñòâà. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ìíîãîêðàòíîå è ñèñòåìíîå èñïîëüçîâàíèå
ãëàãîëîâ êîììóíèêàöèè â äàííîì äèñêóðñå ôîðìèðóåò óñòîé÷èâûé ïðàãìàòè÷åñêèé
ýôôåêò ïîñòîÿííîãî âçàèìîäåéñòâèÿ è åäèíñòâà èíòåðåñîâ íàñåëåíèÿ è âëàñòè. Êàê
âèäèì, ñèñòåìíîñòü çäåñü ïîäðàçóìåâàåò íå òîëüêî ñèñòåìàòè÷íîñòü (÷àñòîòíîñòü èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ), íî è öåëåíàïðàâëåííîñòü âûñòðîåííîé ôóíêöèîíàëüíîé ïåðñïåêòèâû
äèñêóðñà, ñîãëàñîâàííîñòü äâèæåíèÿ âñåõ åãî êîìïîíåíòîâ ê çàäàííîé êîììóíèêàòèâíîé öåëè è ðåãóëÿòèâíóþ ðîëü ãëàãîëîâ êîììóíèêàöèè â ýòîì äâèæåíèè.
Ñëåäóåò êîñíóòüñÿ åùå îäíîãî âåñüìà ñóùåñòâåííîãî àñïåêòà ïðîáëåìû ñèñòåìíîñòè ðå÷è/äèñêóðñà. Èçâåñòíî, ÷òî ïðåäñòàâëåíèÿ î ñèñòåìíîñòè ÿçûêà, ñûãðàâ âàæ-
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Å.Â. Ïîíîìàðåíêî, Ã.À. Ïàðøóòèíà
íåéøóþ ðîëü â ñòðóêòóðíîé ëèíãâèñòèêå, ñòàëè â òðóäàõ ðÿäà ó÷åíûõ ïðèîáðåòàòü
èçëèøíþþ êàòåãîðè÷íîñòü (â ïðîòèâîâåñ àñèñòåìíîñòè ðå÷è) è òîðìîçèòü ðàçâèòèå
ó÷åíèÿ î ÿçûêå êàê öåëîñòíîì è óïîðÿäî÷åííîì, íî â òî æå âðåìÿ «æèâîì» è ôóíêöèîíèðóùåì îáúåêòå.  íàøåé îòå÷åñòâåííîé íàóêå îáû÷íî êðèòèêîâàëàñü àáñîëþòèçàöèÿ ýòîãî ôàêòîðà ÿçûêà (÷òî íàáëþäàëîñü, íàïðèìåð, ó Ç. Õýððèñà, Í. Õîìñêîãî)
è äîñòàòî÷íî øèðîêî ðàñïðîñòðàíåííûì áûëî ïîíèìàíèå ïîäâèæíîñòè ñèñòåìû ÿçûêà, íåâîçìîæíîñòè æåñòêîé äåòåðìèíèðîâàííîñòè ïðîèñõîäÿùèõ â íåì ïðîöåññîâ è
ÿâëåíèé. Îòñþäà è òà îòíîñèòåëüíàÿ ëåãêîñòü, ñ êîòîðîé íàøà ëèíãâèñòèêà ïðèíÿëà
äèàëåêòè÷åñêèé ïîäõîä â ìåòîäîëîãèè è, â ÷àñòíîñòè, èäåþ äèíàìè÷åñêîé ñèñòåìíîñòè (íåîáÿçàòåëüíî èìåííî â òàêîé òåðìèíîëîãèè) íå òîëüêî ðå÷è, íî è ÿçûêà â
öåëîì, êîòîðàÿ ðàçâèâàëàñü åùå â òðóäàõ êëàññèêîâ îòå÷åñòâåííîé íàóêè (È.À. Áîäóýíà äå Êóðòåíý, Â.Â. Âèíîãðàäîâà, Í.È. Æèíêèíà, Â.À. Çâåãèíöåâà, Ñ.Í. Òðóáåöêîãî, Ë.Â. Ùåðáû). Ñî÷åòàíèå «äèíàìè÷åñêàÿ ñèñòåìíîñòü» íå íåñåò â ñåáå íèêàêîãî
ïðîòèâîðå÷èÿ. Íàïðîòèâ, îíî âïîëíå îðãàíè÷íî èíêîðïîðèðóåò äâà áàçîâûõ ïðèçíàêà ðå÷åâîé äåÿòåëüíîñòè – íåîòúåìëåìîå ñâîéñòâî ñèñòåìíîé îáóñëîâëåííîñòè è âçàèìîçàâèñèìîñòè âñåõ ýëåìåíòîâ è ÷àñòåé ñèñòåìû ÿçûêà è âàðèàòèâíîñòü èõ ôóíêöèîíèðîâàíèÿ â ðåàëüíîì ðå÷åóïîòðåáëåíèè. Òàêèì îáðàçîì äîñòèãàåòñÿ åäèíñòâî ñèñòåìíî-ñòðóêòóðíîãî è ôóíêöèîíàëüíîãî (â øèðîêîì ñìûñëå) ïîäõîäîâ ê ÿçûêó.
 îòíîøåíèè äèñêóðñà ïîíÿòèå äèíàìè÷åñêîé ñèñòåìíîñòè ïðåäïîëàãàåò, ÷òî íàïðàâëåííîñòü êîìïîíåíòîâ ðå÷è ê ðåàëèçàöèè êîììóíèêàòèâíîãî çàìûñëà èçíà÷àëüíî ôîðìèðóåòñÿ â çàäàííîì ñìûñëîâîì äèàïàçîíå, íî ïî ìåðå ðàçâèòèÿ ñèòóàöèè
îáùåíèÿ â ðàçâåðòûâàíèè ðå÷åâîé öåïè âîçíèêàþò êàêèå-òî èçìåíåíèÿ, âûçâàííûå
ðàçëè÷íûìè ïðè÷èíàìè, íåèçáåæíûìè â æèâîì îáùåíèè (íàïðèìåð, ïîâåäåíèåì
ïàðòíåðà èëè ïîÿâëåíèåì â äèñêóðñå íîâûõ ñìûñëîâûõ êîìïîíåíòîâ, èëè íåäîñòàòî÷íîé àêòóàëèçàöèåé æåëàåìûõ ïðàãìàòè÷åñêèõ ýôôåêòîâ, èëè íåàäåêâàòíûì âîñïðèÿòèåì ðå÷è ñî ñòîðîíû àäðåñàòà, èëè ñòðåìëåíèåì ñêðûòü ìîòèâû ñâîåãî ïîâåäåíèÿ è ò. ä. è ò. ï.). Òî åñòü äëÿ ñèñòåìíîãî ïðîäâèæåíèÿ äèñêóðñà ê öåëè òðåáóåòñÿ
ñâîåãî ðîäà ðåãóëèðîâàíèå ÷åðåç äîïîëíèòåëüíûå ñìûñëîâûå ïðèðàùåíèÿ, è ýòîò
ñïîñîá ïîâûøåíèÿ ðèòîðè÷åñêîé ýôôåêòèâíîñòè äèñêóðñà ïðèãîäåí êàê äëÿ ñïîíòàííîãî îáùåíèÿ, òàê è äëÿ çàïëàíèðîâàííûõ àêòîâ êîììóíèêàöèè (â òîì ÷èñëå ïèñüìåííûõ).
 ýòîì ïëàíå ãëàãîëû êîììóíèêàöèè òàêæå äåìîíñòðèðóþò ñâîé áîãàòûé ïðàãìàòè÷åñêèé ïîòåíöèàë, èáî àäåêâàòíîå èñïîëüçîâàíèå ýòèõ ãëàãîëîâ ñïîñîáñòâóåò âçàèìîïîíèìàíèþ ïàðòíåðîâ; ñîîòâåòñòâåííî, íåàäåêâàòíîå – ìîæåò íàðóøèòü (à â õóäøåì ñëó÷àå è ðàçðóøèòü) êîììóíèêàöèþ. Ñðàâíèì ñëåäóþùèå âûñêàçûâàíèÿ: ïðèìåð (1) – öèòàòà èç âûñòóïëåíèÿ Ïðåçèäåíòà ÑØÀ Á. Îáàìû íà îäíîì èç àâòîçàâîäîâ êîìïàíèè «Ôîðä Ìîòîð»; ïðèìåð (2) – îòðûâîê èç äåëîâîãî ïèñüìà, ïðèâåäåííîãî â çíàìåíèòîé êíèãå Ä. Êàðíåãè «How to Win Friends and Influence People».
(1) So I want to say thank you for building my car. But I also came here to talk about
what’s got to be the number-one priority in this country, and that is growing our economy
[12].
(2) May we ask that, on days on which you ship the volume, which was received on the
above date, effort be made either to get the truck here earlier or to deliver us part of the
freight during the morning? [13].
 ïåðâîì ñëó÷àå ðå÷ü áûëà ïðèíÿòà àóäèòîðèåé ñ âîñòîðãîì. Âî âòîðîì – êàê
ñâèäåòåëüñòâóåò Ä. Êàðíåãè, àäðåñàò áûë â ðàçäðàæåíèè, ÷òî àâòîð ïèñüìà ñ÷åë âîçìîæíûì ñðàçó îáðàòèòüñÿ ñ íåóìåñòíîé ïðîñüáîé âìåñòî òîãî, ÷òîáû ñíà÷àëà âûÿñíèòü óñëîâèÿ îñóùåñòâëåíèÿ ñîòðóäíè÷åñòâà, ïðèåìëåìûå äëÿ îáåèõ ñòîðîí. Êàê
âèäèì, âûáîð ãëàãîëîâ êîììóíèêàöèè, ñ îäíîé ñòîðîíû, ñòðóêòóðèðóåò êàíàë âçàèìîäåéñòâèÿ ìåæäó ïàðòíåðàìè, ñ äðóãîé – â êàêîé-òî ñòåïåíè ïðåäîïðåäåëÿåò ôóíêöèîíàëüíóþ (ïðàãìà-ñåìàíòè÷åñêóþ) ýôôåêòèâíîñòü äèñêóðñà.
Äèíàìèêî-ñèñòåìíûå ñâîéñòâà ãëàãîëîâ êîììóíèêàöèè
â àíãëèéñêîì äåëîâîì äèñêóðñå
101
Òàêèì îáðàçîì, â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ îáùåïðèçíàííîé ÿâëÿåòñÿ òðàêòîâêà ÿçûêà/
ðå÷è/äèñêóðñà êàê ñèñòåìû ïîäâèæíîé, ýâîëþöèîíèðóþùåé, àäàïòèâíîé. Áëàãîäàðÿ
ñâîåé ïðÿìîé ôóíêöèè ââîäèòü âûñêàçûâàíèå â îáùåå ïðîñòðàíñòâî êîììóíèêàöèè
ãëàãîëû ãîâîðåíèÿ äàþò âîçìîæíîñòü ïîâûøàòü èëè ñíèæàòü ñòåïåíü âûðàæåííîñòè
òåõ èëè èíûõ êîìïîíåíòîâ ñìûñëà, äåëàÿ î÷åâèäíûìè èëè, íàîáîðîò, ìàñêèðóÿ èíòåíöèè ó÷àñòíèêîâ îáùåíèÿ. Ñïåöèôè÷åñêàÿ ñåìàíòèêà ãëàãîëîâ êîììóíèêàöèè îáåñïå÷èâàåò èõ ìîäåëèðóþùóþ ðîëü íà ýòàïå âîñïðèÿòèÿ ðå÷è.
Ïðàãìàòèêà äåëîâîãî äèñêóðñà ïî îïðåäåëåíèþ äîëæíà áûòü íàïðàâëåíà íà ïðîäóêòèâíîå ñîòðóäíè÷åñòâî, óëó÷øåíèå ïàðòíåðñêèõ îòíîøåíèé, ñáëèæåíèå öåëåé è
ïîçèöèé [14; 15], ÷òî çàäàåò îïðåäåëåííóþ ëèíãâîêîãíèòèâíóþ ìîäåëü ïîâåäåíèÿ
ëþäåé è íåïðåìåííî äîëæíî ó÷èòûâàòüñÿ â ïðîöåññå ÿçûêîâîé ïîäãîòîâêè ïðåäñòàâèòåëåé äåëîâûõ êðóãîâ. Êàê âèäíî èç ïðèâåäåííûõ ïðèìåðîâ, äëÿ ðåàëèçàöèè êîììóíèêàòèâíîãî çàìûñëà ó÷àñòíèêàì äåëîâûõ îòíîøåíèé íåîáõîäèìî ðàöèîíàëüíî
ïîäîáðàòü è ðàñïðåäåëèòü â äèñêóðñå ðå÷åâûå ñðåäñòâà òàêèì îáðàçîì, ÷òîáû âñå
òðàåêòîðèè ðå÷åìûñëèòåëüíîãî ïðîöåññà âî âðåìÿ îáùåíèÿ áûëè íàïðàâëåíû íà äîñòèæåíèå íàìå÷åííûõ öåëåé. Ýòî òðåáóåò îïðåäåëåííîé òîíêîñòè â âûñòðàèâàíèè èíôîðìàöèîííîé ñòðóêòóðû äèñêóðñà, â ðåçóëüòàòå ÷åãî îáùåå ôóíêöèîíàëüíîå ïðîñòðàíñòâî òåêñòà äîïîëíÿåòñÿ ïîÿñíèòåëüíûìè êîìïîíåíòàìè, êîòîðûå îñîáåííî ýôôåêòèâíû â ïîçèöèè ñòðóêòóðíî-ñåìàíòè÷åñêèõ äóáëèêàòîâ [16]. Íàïðèìåð, â âûñêàçûâàíèè «He must talk to someone, lay bare his sole» [17] äâîéíàÿ íîìèíàöèÿ àêòà
âûñêàçûâàíèÿ ïîìîãàåò êîíêðåòèçèðîâàòü åãî õàðàêòåðèñòèêó íå òîëüêî êàê äåéñòâèÿ,
íî è êàê ýìîöèîíàëüíîãî ñîñòîÿíèÿ. Íåñîìíåííî, òàêèå ïðèðàùåíèÿ ïðàãìà-ñåìàíòè÷åñêèõ êîìïîíåíòîâ â îòíîñèòåëüíî êîìïàêòíûõ ôîðìàõ ïðèäàþò äèñêóðñó ìíîãîïëàíîâîñòü è ðèòîðè÷åñêóþ ýôôåêòèâíîñòü.
Òàêèì îáðàçîì, àíãëèéñêèå ãëàãîëû êîììóíèêàöèè àêòóàëèçèðóþò îäíî èç îñíîâîïîëàãàþùèõ ñâîéñòâ ðå÷è – äèíàìè÷åñêóþ ñèñòåìíîñòü äèñêóðñà – ïðè âûïîëíåíèè ðàçëè÷íûõ êîììóíèêàòèâíûõ ôóíêöèé, è ýòî ñâîéñòâî ãëàãîëîâ äàííîé ãðóïïû
çàñëóæèâàåò äàëüíåéøåãî èçó÷åíèÿ íà ìàòåðèàëå ëþáûõ âèäîâ äèñêóðñà, îñîáåííî
èíñòèòóöèîíàëüíîãî.
Áèáëèîãðàôè÷åñêèé ñïèñîê
1. Àðóòþíîâà Í.Ä. Äèñêóðñ // Ëèíãâèñòè÷åñêèé ýíöèêëîïåäè÷åñêèé ñëîâàðü. Ì., 1990.
Ñ. 136-137.
2. Bargiela-Chiappini Fr., Nickerson C., Planken B. Business Discourse. N.Y.: Palgrave
Macmillan, 2007. 282 p.
3. Ïîíîìàðåíêî Å.Â. Ñèñòåìíûé ïîäõîä êàê ìåòîäîëîãè÷åñêàÿ îñíîâà èçó÷åíèÿ ðå÷åâîé
äåÿòåëüíîñòè // Âåñòíèê Ñàìàðñêîãî ãîñóäàðñòâåííîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà. Ãóìàíèòàðíàÿ ñåðèÿ.
2006. ¹ 1 (41). Ñ. 134–138.
4. Õàðüêîâñêàÿ À.À. Business English: ó÷åá. ïîñîáèå äëÿ èíäèâèäóàëüíîé ðàáîòû ïî äåëîâîìó àíãëèéñêîìó ÿçûêó ñòóäåíòîâ 4 êóðñà ñïåöèàëüíîñòè «Àíãë. ôèëîëîãèÿ». Ñàìàðà, 2004.
62 ñ.
5. Õàðüêîâñêàÿ À.À. Äèñêóðñèâíûé ìèð àíãëîÿçû÷íûõ è ðóññêîÿçû÷íûõ áåñòñåëëåðîâ //
Âîïðîñû ïðèêëàäíîé ëèíãâèñòèêè. 2013. ¹ 10. Ñ. 75–88.
6. Õðàì÷åíêî Ä.Ñ. Àíãëèéñêèé äåëîâîé äèñêóðñ â ðàçâèòèè: ôóíêöèîíàëüíî-ñèíåðãåòè÷åñêèå àñïåêòû. Òóëà: Èçä-âî ÒÃÏÓ èì. Ë.Í. Òîëñòîãî, 2014. 272 ñ.
7. Õðàì÷åíêî Ä.Ñ. Ê âîïðîñó î ôîðìèðîâàíèè àðñåíàëà ëåêñè÷åñêèõ ñðåäñòâ â àíãëèéñêîì äåëîâîì äèñêóðñå // Âîïðîñû ïðèêëàäíîé ëèíãâèñòèêè. 2012. ¹ 6. Ñ. 72–75.
8. Êîæèíà Ì.Í. Ðå÷åâåäåíèå è ôóíêöèîíàëüíàÿ ñòèëèñòèêà: âîïðîñû òåîðèè. Èçáðàííûå òðóäû. Ïåðìü: ÏÃÓ: ÏÑÈ: ÏÑÑÃÊ, 2002. 475 ñ.
9. Êîìàðîâà Ç.È. Ìåòîäîëîãèÿ, ìåòîä, ìåòîäèêà è òåõíîëîãèÿ íàó÷íûõ èññëåäîâàíèé â
ëèíãâèñòèêå: ó÷åáíîå ïîñîáèå. Ì.: Ôëèíòà: Íàóêà, 2013. 818 ñ.
102
Å.Â. Ïîíîìàðåíêî, Ã.À. Ïàðøóòèíà
10. Êóïèíà Í.À., Ìàòâååâà Ò.Â. Ñòèëèñòèêà ñîâðåìåííîãî ðóññêîãî ÿçûêà. Ì.: Þðàéò,
2012. 416 ñ.
11. Reeves F. What You Wrote the President // The White House blog. July 09, 2014. URL:
http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2014/07/09/what-you-wrote-president?utm_source=
email&utm_medium=email&utm_content=email351-text1&utm_campaign=dayinthelife.
12. Remarks by the President on the Economy – Kansas City, MO. // The White House. Office
of the Press Secretary. September 20, 2013. URL: http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/
2013/09/20/remarks-president-economy-kansas-city-mo .
13. Carnegie D. How to Win Friends and Influence People. Bombay: D.B. Taraporevala Sons&
Co. Private Ltd., 1979. 242 p.
14. Ïîëüñêàÿ Ñ.Ñ. Ñòðóêòóðà è ôóíêöèîíèðîâàíèå ïðîôåññèîíàëüíîãî ñîöèîëåêòà (íà
ìàòåðèàëå àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà): äèñ. ... êàíä. ôèëîë. íàóê. Ì., 2011. 231 ñ.
15. Êèñåëåâà À.Â. Ñîâðåìåííîå ÿçûêîâîå îáðàçîâàíèå: ñòðóêòóðà, ôóíêöèè è îñíîâíûå
êîìïîíåíòû // Ôèëîëîãè÷åñêèå íàóêè â ÌÃÈÌÎ. Ì.: ÌÃÈÌÎ (Ó) ÌÈÄ Ðîññèè, 2007.
Ñ. 171–179.
16. Ïîíîìàðåíêî Å.Â. Ïîÿñíåíèå êàê ÿçûêîâàÿ åäèíèöà (ê âîïðîñó î ôóíêöèîíàëüíûõ
ñâÿçÿõ äèñêóðñà): ìîíîãðàôèÿ. Ì., 1999.
17. Fowles J. The French Lieutenant’s Woman. London, etc: Triad/Granada, 1980. 470 p.
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Äèíàìèêî-ñèñòåìíûå ñâîéñòâà ãëàãîëîâ êîììóíèêàöèè
â àíãëèéñêîì äåëîâîì äèñêóðñå
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E.V. Ponomarenko, G.A. Parshutina*
DYNAMIC AND SYSTEM PROPERTIES OF VERBS OF COMMUNICATION
IN ENGLISH BUSINESS DISCOURSE
The article considers one of the basic properties of business
discourse which promotes evolution of speech in the direction of
the given communicative purpose, i.e. the property of functional
(pragmatic and semantic) systemacity. The role of verbs of
communication in this process is under analysis in terms of new
sense components genesis. The authors come to the conclusion
that the use of the verbs in question enhances business discourse
rhetoric effectiveness.
Key words: business English discourse, verbs of communication,
rhetoric impact, functional properties of verbs of communication,
dynamic systemacity of discourse.
Ñòàòüÿ ïîñòóïèëà â ðåäàêöèþ 10/I/2015.
The article received 10/I/2015.
* Ponomarenko Evgenia Vitalievna ([email protected]), Parshutina Galina Alexeevna
([email protected]), Department of English Language ¹ 5, MGIMO, Moscow, 119454,
Russian Federation.
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