ЗАНЯТИЕ 1 I. Предтекстовые упражнения 1. На примере следующих предложений из текста проанализируйте возможность перевода английских словосочетанийклише с помощью русских словосочетаний-клише, передающих ту же мысль. => ... a sharp-featured woman of almost 40, ... with a talent for dinner-party chatter and high-stakes poker. => After years as a bedridden recluse, the Duchess of Windsor, 89, died in Paris. => She was bom Bessie Wallis Warfield, to a genteel but down-on- its luck Baltimore family. => She made the best-dressed list year after year. 2. Определите значения следующих однокоренных слов с помощью словаря: remember, remembrance, remembrancer. П. Текст AN AFFAIR ТО REMEMBER A duchess’s death ends the love story of the century After years as a bedridden recluse, the Duchess of Windsor, 89, died in Paris - alone, little mourned except by gossip columnists, but, presumably to her satisfaction, far from forgotten and still quite rich. She was bom Bessie Wallis Warfield, to й genteel but down-on-its-luck Baltimore family. When she was 20 she married a handsome, drunken Navy flier; one highlight of the brief marriage was her meeting with the By Jerry Adler and Tony Clifton She was oddly cast as one of the protagonists in the love story of the century: a sharp-featured woman of almost 40, twice married and not yet quite twice divorced, with a talent for dinner-party chatter and highstakes poker. He was the handsome and charming King Edward УШ, newly called to the throne in the portentous year of 1936. If their affair had been merely scandalous, Wallis Warfield Simpson might have long ago been forgiven by the royal family and forgotten by history. Instead, his insistence on seeing her crowned queen provoked a crisis that ended only with his own abdication. Prince of Wales when his ship called at a California naval base. They met again in 1930, when she was married to a wealthy and sociable London businessman, Ernest Simpson. The bachelor prince was captivated by the dark-haired woman with the big blue eyes, and he and the Simpsons soon became a threesome - and then a twosome - in his accustomed round of nightclubbing, up to and even after the death of King George V in early 8 9 1936. It was obvious, eventually even to Edward, that he could not be crowned king and Defender of the Faith (a faith that still frowned on divorce if he married Wallis. His family was violently opposed to her; the government equally so. On Dec. 11, 1936, he made his decision known to the world in a radio speech - that he could not bear his office without “the help and support of the woman I love.” In view of the alacrity with which they both settled into a life of opulent uselessness - and the moral obtuseness that led them to a well-publicized visit to Hitler in 1937 - The Times of London suggested that Simpson may have saved the monarchy by ensuring a different line of succession, through Edward’s respected brother, George VI to his daughter, Queen Elizabeth П. The Windsors lived, except for the war years, in Paris, where they were frequently photographed leaving Maxim's or on their way into the Ritz; the duke died in 1972, leaving her alone except for the kind of people who find the company of a rich, vain, elderly, titled widow irresistible. She never won the cherished title of Her Royal Highness, but she made the best-dressed list year after year, Queen Elizabeth was said to be saddened by her death, probably more so than the Queen Mother, who had maintained a long-running feud with the duchess, believing that the strain of kingship hastened her husband’s death. The duchess had returned to England rarely in life - “I hate that place, I shall hate it to my grave,” she once remarked. But she was buried on the grounds of Windsor Castle, next to the husband she loved, in the land they had both disgraced; Ш. Лексические упражнения русский язык. to put up one’s dukes on all counts cattle (coal, oil, steel, etc.) barons the queen of spades king-size, knight's move 4. Подберите возможные русские соответствия для английской пословицы - Good fame sleeps, bad fame creeps - и определите, какое из этих соответствий ближе всего подходит по смыслу к тексту данного занятия. ЗАНЯТИЕ 2 1. В Англии имеются пять наследственных титулов (степеней сословия пэров). Расположите их от высшей степени сословия к низшей и дайте русские эквиваленты: Earl, Baron, Duke, Viscount, Marquis (Marquess). 2. Вышеназванные титулы являются существительными мужского рода. Образуйте от них соответствующие существительные женского рода и дайте их русские эквиваленты. 3. В следующих словосочетаниях выделенное курсивом слово не означает тот или иной титул. Переведите эти словосочетания на I. Предтекстовые упражнения 1. На примере предложения из текста проанализируйте случай типичного английского преуменьшения и предложите способы его передачи в переводе. => Their private war was not unusual for existing; it was unusual for being made at once so public and so personal. 2. Переведите на русский язык следующие словосочетания: burning desire for smth., poor judgment, to rise above the petty, subliminal message, to drive it home to smb. 3. Определите значения следующих однокоренных слов с помощью словаря: problem, problematic(al), problematically, problematics. П. Текст DIANA’S POINT: THE WINDSORS ARE THE PROBLEM By Jim Hoagland Diana Spencer’s death at 36 leaves an important international political story untold. The British people will now have to imagine what impact she would have had through her sons on their tattered royal family, which seems to have lost the will to reign. The woman known irrevocably as Princess Di seemed to want to destroy the monarchy at times; at others, to force it to modernize and survive so that her son could be king. She died without achieving either goal. 10 11 In the hothouse exile of celebrity, glamour and good works that she chose, Diana frequently let show the burning desire for revenge on her ex-husband. Diana and Charles at their worst epitomized the British adage that the natural weapon of a woman in affairs of the heart is revenge, that of a man, indifference. Their private war was not unusual for existing; it was unusual for being made at once so public and so personal. The Windsors have had the misfortune to reign in a time without causes that they could latch onto. Until the tragedy of Diana’s death, their family tales of alcoholism, philandering, excessive libido and poor judgment did not rise above the petty. That is where Diana alive trumped them, driving home one essential subliminal message: The British problem is not with monarchy but with this family. Some dismiss this monarchy, and others, as “merely symbolic.” But symbols are important in governance, as in life. Effective European monarchies have evolved into political guardrails, signifying public acceptance of national tradition and a universality that is above factional politics. The British failure is partly a failure of mechanisms. Charles grew into adulthood and middle age with nothing serious to do but wait for his mother to die. She could not abdicate. He could not disappear. Diana could not save this royal family. Death is the great leveller Ш. Лексические упражнения 1. Дайте русские эквиваленты и подробное толкование следующих английских реалий: the Windsors, Windsor Castle, Windsor chair, Windsor soap, Windsor tie. 2. Как передаются при переводе на русский язык следующие английские формы титулования? Your (His/Her) Majesty, Their Majesties, Your (His/Her) Royal Highness, Lord, Lady, the Honourable, Sir, Dame, Your Excellency. 3. Прочтите английскую пословицу, а также ее варианты и синонимы и подберите несколько синонимичных русских соответствий. Var.: Death levels all men. Syn.: Death ends all things. Death squares all accounts. 12 ЗАНЯТИЕ 3 I. Предтекстовые упражнения 1. Проанализируйте следующее предложение из текста как пример английской каузативной конструкция с точки зрения ее состава, значения и способов перевода на русский язык. => They believed he had a rare knack for “getting people to follow him where he wanted to go.” 2. Переведите на русский язык следующие словосочетания: presidential performance, the next-to-last group, to be outranked by smb., a new era of prosperity, a crushing 91.8% of historians. 3. Определите значения следующих однокоренных слов с помощью словаря: link, link-up, linkage, linking, linked. П. Текст WHAT LINKS THESE SIX? By Hugh Sidey Ronald Reagan may still be a triumphant and beloved figure to the American people, but the historians who evaluate presidential performance have consigned him to the cellar, In the first significant measure of his standing, scholars have rated Reagan “below average” down with five other mediocrities such as Millard Fillmore and Franklin Pierce. Nearly 500 of America’s top history professors responded to the MurrayBlessing update survey on presidential performance. With six categories available, ranging from “great” (Lincoln, Washington, Jefferson, Roosevelt) to “failure” (Andrew Johnson, Buchanan, Nixon, Grant, Harding), Reagan was placed in the next-to-last group. Reagan was outranked by Jimmy Carter and Jerry Ford (“average”) and topped only Nixon of the modem Presidents. The rating of Presidents has been serious business since Harvard’s Arthur Schlesinger Sr. made an informal tally among 50 colleagues in 1948. In 1981 Robert Murray (now retired) and Tim Blessing of Pennsylvania State University took up where Schlesinger left off. This week Blessing will walk bravely into a Kentucky meeting of the Organization of American Historians and deliver a paper on the new poll results. Reagan partisans will start to climb the walls. The historians gave Reagan low marks on nearly everything, from his mind (92% said he did not have the right intellect for the job) to Administration corruption (exceeded only by Nixon’s government). He got little credit for ushering in a new era of prosperity but received most of the blame for the deficits and the 1981-82 recession. On foreign affairs, the rating was mixed. The scholars found Reagan’s Middle East policy “a record of ineptitude” but applauded his handling of relations with the Soviet Union. Oddly, the academics approved of Reagan’s style of management and believed he had a rare knack for “getting people to follow him where he wanted to go.” Plainly, few of the professors liked where he went. Such a harsh and inclusive indictment will raise further questions about the partisanship and competence of the historians as well as about Reagan. Their judgments are strikingly out of phase with those of the electorate. “A crushing 91.8% of historians believe that the American people have overestimated Mr. Reagan,” writes Blessing. Put another way, the scholars think that the plain folks did not quite understand what was going on. Ш. Лексические упражнения 1. Дайте русские эквиваленты словосочетаний с существительным rating: accuracy credit financial high low naval 4. ratine octane power J 14 2. Переведите на русский язык предложения с глаголом to rate: => That player is rated among the very best. => This restaurant is rated very highly. => The wine rates as excellent. => She really rates with them. =» The shop was rated at five hundred pounds a year. 3. Определите, какая из следующих четырех английских пословиц соответствует русской пословице Не за свое дело не берись => Не needs a long spoon that sups with the devil. => He laughs best who laughs last. => He works best who knows his trade. => He smells best that smells of nothing. 15 ЗАНЯТИЕ 4 I. Предтекстовые упражнения 1. Проанализируйте следующее предложение из текста как пример английской абсолютной номинативной конструкции с предлогом with с точки зрения ее состава, значения и способов перевода на русский язык. Не formed the youngest ever administration in the 20-century US, with most of his ministers boasting past war experience. 2. Сравните следующее предложение с предложением предыдущего упражнения с точки зрения значений и, соответственно, способов перевода абсолютной номинативной конструкции в зависимости от того, какую позицию - препозитивную или постпозитивную - она занимает относительно главного состава предложения. => With the Government doing its utmost to keep wages down, the standard of living in this country would be given an extremely serious setback. 3. Переведите на русский язык следующие словосочетания: to declare a state of emergency, to shape one’s personality, to be entitled to smth., to advertise smb. as a hero. 4. Определите значения следующих однокоренных слов с помощью словаря: command, commander, commanding, commandment, commando. II. Текст THE COMMANDER OF THE IT 109 TORPEDO BOAT (Pages from John F. Kennedy’s war record) On November 22, 1963 at 13:34 John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the 35 th President of the United States of America, died in a Dallas hospital at the 16 17 age of 46. Already at 15:20, the White House staff getting the place ready to welcome Lyndon B.Johnson, the country’s new president, removed from Kennedy’s desk the model torpedo boat sporting the number PT 109 on its sides. As for the feature film, a screen version of Robert Donovan’s book on the PT 109 boat, it was on for a long time yet, all over the US. What is that PT 109, then? By the spring of 1941, the Second World War had been raging over most of Europe. The United States declared British interests vital for its national defence and began sending military supplies to that country. German submarines waged unrestrained underwater warfare in the Atlantic and managed to sink a number of US ships. President Franklin D.Roosevelt responded by declaring a state of emergency. The country was teetering on the brink of another world war. John hurried to the nearest draft office, but they did not pass him for health reasons. The matter was that John had a spine problem. Besides he frequently suffered from unaccountable attacks of pain and allergy which doctors had failed to diagnose. Yet his father was too ambitious to admit that John was seriously ill and invariably encouraged him to ignore and overcome his bouts of pain. This kind of upbringing by a father who desired to see his sons succeed him in his political activity had largely shaped John’s personality and future successes in contesting the top post in the country. Among John’s favourite sports was American football which he practised both as the Choate private school and at Harvard. The Kennedy family were also fond of water sports, which was one of the reasons for John’s love of the sea. Eunice, one of John’s sisters, later recalled that when they were six or seven, their Dad made them swim races - he always said it was a disgrace to come second. The main thing, he used to tell them, was to win, to be not a runner-up, or third in the race, but to win. Why did Admiral Nelson never lose? he would ask and answer himself, didactically: Because he always came fifteen minutes early. It is not to be wondered, then, that John, brought up by his father in that spirit, spent five months after being turned down by the draft people training flat out to be up to the army fitness standards. Towards the end of summer he had got under his father’s skin with his talk of military service. So much so, in fact, that the old man eventually wrote a letter to Captain Alan Kirk, who was head of the Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI) at the time, about his son’s intention. At long last they agreed to accept John on the strength of a health certificate signed by the family doctors. On October 1, 1942, John arrived at the Melville torpedo boat training school in Rhode Island. In Narraganset Bay, where young John and his brothers and sisters had gone yachting once, he learned to navigate torpedo boats. He did so well at school that after completing the course there he was given the rank of Lieutenant Junior Grade and offered a job of instructor. John was furious and expressed his indignation to Admiral Harlee. Finally, on March 6, 1943, Lieutenant J.G.John Kennedy, in the company of 1,500 other men, sailed to his new place of service in the South Pacific on board the transport Rocheambeau. That was the base where, on April 23, John Kennedy took on a torpedo boat numbered PT 109. In the summer of 1943, the 3rd Fleet started offensive operations. On July 19, the PT 109 had its baptism of fire at last. After a Japanese air raid, three members of the boat crew were wounded by bomb splinters, while the commander was saved by the skin of his teeth under the protection of the armoured captain's bridge. On the eve of the new year 1945, Lieutenant John Kennedy was demobilised for health reasons. He refused to draw disability pension, but accepted the $ 10,000 he was entitled to as a war veteran in accordance with the Soldiers’ Bill of Rights passed by the Congress. January 20, 1961 was Inauguration Day of America’s 35 th President, John F.Kennedy. The parade in his honour involved 32,000 people and 40 bands, as well as 275 horses, 22 mules, cowboys and 40 flatcars that carried a variety of allegoric compositions. There was also a lorry with a torpedo boat marked PT 109 and John Kennedy’s former comrades-in- arms saluting him from the deck. John’s war record stood him in good stead during the election campaign. Thus, in the course of the election in West Virginia the local media advertised Kennedy as a hero of the Pacific War, giving a plainly inflated account of his battle exploits, while television ran a documentary about him that opened with the picture of torpedo boat scudding on a dark night across the dark expanse of the sea. After his election to the top post in the country, John did not forget his friends and fellow-seamen. He formed the youngest ever administration in the 20-century US, with most of his ministers boasting past war experience. | 1»к 18 III. Лексические упражнения 1. Дайте русские соответствия офицерских званий Армии, ВВС, ВМС и Морской пехоты США. Army Air Force Navy Marine Corps Second Lieutenant First Lieutenant Second Lieutenant First Lieutenant Ensign Lieutenant Junior Grade Second Lieutenant First Lieutenant Captain Major Lieutenant Colonel Colonel Brigadier General Major General Lieutenant General General General of the Army Captain Major Lieutenant Colonel Colonel Brigadier General Major General Lieutenant General General General of the Air Force Lieutenant Lieutenant Commander Commander Captain Commodore Rear Admiral Vice Admiral Admiral Fleet Admiral Captain Major Lieutenant Colonel Colonel Brigadier General Major General Lieutenant General General (none) 2. Расположите русские соответствия по степени близости их содержания к английской пословице Where there’s a will, there’s a way =» Была бы охота - заладится любая работа. => Как человек чего захочет, так он о том и похлопочет. => Где хотенье, там и уменье. I 19 ЗАНЯТИЕ 5 I. Предтекстовые упражнения 1. Прочтите следующие предложения из текста и предложите возможные варианты передачи на русский язык использованных в нем метонимий (сохранение их в переводе, необходимость пояснений или замен). => Ted had Joe, John and Robert all lined up ahead of him to fulfill his father‟s ambition to put a son in the White House. => But with only a few hours1 sleep, he is on time for his business on the Hill in Washington. => If it had not been for alcohol, Chappaquiddick almost surely would never have happened. 2. Переведите на русский язык следующие словосочетания: lengthy/healthy relationship, powerful myth, to escape. the responsibility, superb staff, to range in age from ... to .., to serve as an exemplar/a warning. 3. Определите значения следующих однокоренных слов с помощью словаря: trouble, troubled, troublous, troublesome. II. Текст THE TROUBLE WITH TEDDY By Lance Morrow It is not entirely a nasty delight in gossip that makes people wonder about the character of Ted Kennedy. The curiosity' goes deeper than that. Kennedy somehow calls forth nagging mysteries of American politics and psychology. He is a lightning rod with strange electricities still firing in the air around him - passions that are not always his responsibility but may emanate from psychic disturbances in the country itself. America does not have a completely healthy relationship with the Kennedys. 20 21 Ernest Hemingway wrote: “The most complicated subject that I know, since I am a man, is a man‟s life.” Ted Kennedy is a complicated man. The picture of him as Palm Beach boozer, lout and tabloid grotesque is one version. He has other versions - more interesting selves. Alcohol, or some other compulsion, may drive him now and then to bizarre and almost infantile behavior. But Ted Kennedy also is a remarkable and serious figure. Perhaps his life was cracked after Bobby died, and Teddy found he was on his own and began to cross over from the powerful myth of his family into real time, which is intolerant of the bright and ideal. The serious lawmaker in Ted Kennedy would turn now and then into a drunken, overage, frat-house boor, the statesman into a party animal, the romance of the Kennedys into a smelly, toxic mess. The family patriarch, the oldest surviving Kennedy male, would revert to fat, sloppy baby. The question is, Why? Was all this unhappy transformation the influence of metaphysics? Or was it alcohol? In any case, the shadow fell. Consider a string of hypotheses: > If it had not been for alcohol, Chappaquiddick almost surely would never have happened: Ted Kennedy, that is, would not have driven off the Dike Bridge on Martha‟s Vineyard, Massachusetts, in the middle of one night in the summer of 1969, drowning a young campaign worker named Mary Jo Kopechne. > Without Chappaquiddick, Teddy Kennedy would naturally have taken his place as leader of the Democratic Party, succeeding his assassinated brothers. > In that case Teddy would probably have run for President against Richard Nixon in 1972. Kennedy might have lost that year (the incumbent has the advantage). But Ted would probably have run again in 1976 and won, then run for re-election in 1980 and served another four years. > An eight-year Kennedy presidency might have run Ronald Reagan off the political road. Therefore no Reagan „80s. At least, one can make that case. Reagan in 1984 might have mobilized a conservative reaction against the liberal eight-year Kennedy regime and won. If... If... If... The exercise is fanciful. Maybe some other logic entirely was at work. Perhaps Ted did not want to run for President. As the youngest in an enormous family, Ted had Joe, John and Robert all lined up ahead of him to fulfill his father‟s ambition to put a son in the White House. Then, quite suddenly, he found himself at the head of the line. Maybe the man prone to accidents and to drinking too much wad trying to escape the responsibility - to immunize himself from it by making a mess of his life. But if Kennedy were to retire now, his accomplishment would be memorable. Almost all the major pieces of social legislation bear his fingerprints. He has been the nation‟s leading advocate for the disabled, the aged, the less privileged. He has promoted the Voting Rights Act and its extensions, the Freedom of Information Act, the Occupational Safety and Health Act, the Eighteen-Year-Old Vote law, the Age Discrimination Act, the Americans with Disabilities Act, and the Act for Better Child Care, among others. Ted Kennedy is the heart and conscience of traditional American liberalism, even in its present wan and dormant state. Judith Lichtman, president of the Women‟s Legal Defense Fund, has worked with Kennedy for 25 years on civil rights, sex discrimination, health care and child care. Says Lichtman: “He‟s the best legislator I know. He‟s up early, works all day and calls in the middle of the night to make sure he‟s got it right.” Kennedy has a superb staff of some 100 people who organize his ideas and initiatives. Those who watch Kennedy at work on Capitol Hill observe a stamina, energy, attention to detail and intellectual alertness that contradict the image of Kennedy as a feckless drinker. Ted Kennedy is unpretentious. His capacity for friendship is large and warm. He is deeply involved in his children‟s lives. In many respects they are his best and closest friends. The tabloid Kennedy chases women half his age. In fact, in the past few years he has had several lengthy relationships with women who range in age from the mid-30s to 42 to a bit over 50. All are women of brains and professional stature, not bimbos. At the start of every year Kennedy goes on a liquid diet to shed excess weight. Aside from consomme and diet sodas, his meals consist of diet shakes. During the six-to-seven-week period, which usually ends on his birthday, Feb. 22, after a loss of 14 to 18 kg, he avoids alcohol. Kennedy does drink a lot when he is drinking. He has a considerable capacity for booze. But he also possesses amazing stamina and resiliency for a man his age. He may drink far into the evening. But with only a few 22 hours‟ sleep, he is on time for his morning tennis game at the Cape (usually 9 a.m.) or for his business on the Hill in Washington. The portrait of Ted Kennedy or not a coherent picture but has a shattered or kaleidoscopic quality. Or perhaps, like many public figures, he has arranged his life in compartments, some sealed off from the others. Like other Kennedys, Ted may have a strange capacity to serve as both an exemplar and a warning. He has some of the best and worst qualities of the country. III. Лексические упражнения 1. Существительное trouble сочетается со многими глаголами. Ниже приведены некоторые из этих сочетаний. Дайте их русские эквиваленты. make/cause/give start/stir up invite/look for have/be in to < get into get out of go to avoid/steer clear of > trouble 2. Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения: They got him out of trouble. He was in trouble with the police. It's no trouble to call them. She's always making trouble for her friends. Did the work give you much trouble? We have had many troubles. 3. Сравните дословный перевод английской пословицы Extremes meet с ее возможными русскими соответствиями. 23 ЗАНЯТИЕ 6 I. Предтекстовые упражнения 1. На примере следующего предложения из текста дайте возможные варианты перевода на русский язык модального глагола may, его формы might и перфектной формы инфинитива после may. => But then again Johnson may have realized that, in the end, history might reward him. 2. Переведите на русский язык следующие словосочетания: personal aide, public outrage, public image. 3. Определите значения следующих однокоренных слов с помощью словаря: secrecy, secret, secretive, secretiveness, secretly. II. Текст THE JOHNSON TAPES By Michael R. Beschloss As Lyndon Johnson was dying of heart disease in January 1973, he reminded his personal aide, Mildred Stegall, to safeguard the cache of tape recordings of his private presidential conversations. He wanted them kept secret for at least another 50 years, and some of them, he instructed, should never be made public. We will probably never again get such an intimate glimpse of a presidency from beginning to end. Roosevelt and Eisenhower taped a few of their conversations, Kennedy more, and Nixon recorded about half of his White House years - until he was found out. But only Johson kept the secret tape recorders running from the first hour of his presidency to the end. “Johnson was obsessed with recording everything,” said Richard Nixon. “We know what my problems were with that crap, but ... Johson worshipped it.” The news that Nixon had 24 bugged the Oval Office caused such public outrage that no president today would even dream of systematically recording his private conversations. Why did LBJ tape people without their knowledge? Certainly he wished to harvest heroic quotations for his memoirs. He also wanted leverage in dealing with people like Nixon, Bobby Kennedy, George Wallace, Martin Luther King Jr. and J. Edgar Hoover - an undeniable record of what they had confided and promised him. Johnson originally planned to choose which conversations would be taped or not, but it soon proved difficult for the hurried president to remember when to turn the recorder off. In his speeches and press conferences, Johnson strained to sound statesmanlike. The tapes reveal him as the far more mesmerizing man he really was - earthy, vulnerable, suspicious, affectionate, devious, explosive, funny and domineering. For someone so concerned about his public image, it is curious that he didn’t simply destroy the tapes. But then again Johnson may have realized that, in the end, history might reward him. III. Лексические упражнения 1. Переведите на русский язык выдержки из статьи Eugene Robinson “Who Bugged Charles and Di?” Washington Post Service The government angrily denies doing it. The tabloid newspapers say they are not the ones. But there were new assertions that someone, somewhere, had been eavesdropping on the British royals on a regular basis. A controversy over the alleged bugging erupted when The Sun, Britian’s largest-selling tabloid, published a transcript of what it said was a conversation between the Prince and Princess of Wales at Highgrove. The newspaper claimed to have evidence that the conversation was taped by MI5, Britain’s domestic intelligence service. Home Secretary Kenneth Clarke, who oversees MI5 and the other security agencies immediately branded The Sun’s allegations about official bugging as “nonsense.” But James Whitaker, who writes about the royals for a rival tabloid, The Mirror, said he would reveal in his book that the British security forces “routinely” bug the royals. “I have evidence that this bugging has been going on for years,” Mr. Whitaker said. “They have literally hundreds of hours of transcript. Even the queen is bugged.” 2. Русская пословица «И стены имеют уши» является полным эквивалентом английской пословицы - Walls have ears - 25 Подберите другой русский значение, но иную образность. эквивалент, имеющий то же 26 ЗАНЯТИЕ 7 I. Предтекстовые упражнения 1. В английской и американской прессе часто встречаются прозвища и сокращения имен и фамилий государственных деятелей. Текст данного урока является яркой иллюстрацией этого явления. Проанализируйте все прозвища и сокращенные имена, которые употребляет автор в своей статье, и прокомментируйте способы их передачи на русский язык. the Golden Greek, the Olympian Frenchman. JFK, Slick Willie, Mrs. Teflon, the Steel Magnolia, Lady Macbeth. 2. Переведите на русский язык следующие словосочетания: telegenic image, false sincerity, overriding ambition, feminine instinct, to stay on the sidelines (to stay away from the limelight, to remain behind the scenes, to take a back seat), to have a label. 3. Определите значения следующих однокоренных слов с помощью словаря: issue, issuable, issueless,-issuer. II. Текст SKIRTING THE POLITICAL ISSUES Taki Theodoracopulos assesses female powers behind the US presidential throne When Jack Kennedy went to Paris on an official visit during his second year in office, he introduced himself to a packed National Assembly as the man who brought Jackie Kennedy to France. As they say in Hollywood, it brought down the house. Jackie was the first president’s wife to become a superstar-cummedia darling, and all because of a telegenic image and a rare gift for making the right career move at the right time. Her looks, of course, helped. 27 Although Jackie was vilified by the press after her marriage to Aristotle Onassis, until she married the Golden Greek she was the original Mrs Teflon. Many hacks knew that behind her shy smile hid a character of steel, dedicated to having it all. During the 1960 presidential campaign, it had emerged that the Bouvier aristocratic label was a fraud, as was the fact that her mother, claiming to be a Lee from Virginia, was an Irish workman’s daughter. This was not a sin in itself, but the pretentiousness of it was. An enamoured-with-Jackie media remained silent. Only De Gaulle got her right. Flying back to France after JFK’s funeral, one that Jackie had organised as an exact repeat of Abraham Lincoln's, the Olympian Frenchman listened while Andr-Malraux, his arts minister, told him how magnificent Jackie had been. “Bah,” said De Gaulle, “she will end up on some oilman’s yacht in five years.” De Gaulle wasn’t being cruel. He was smart enough to spot the false sincerity, the overriding ambition. And he turned out to be right, almost to the day. Ironically, Jackie left a legacy that no president’s wife has managed to equal, or even come near to. Jackie was the greatest of assets to her husband because she was unwilling to take a back seat, yet her feminine instinct guided her as to when to hold back. When she spent millions redecorating the White House, the consensus was that she was right. America had to stand tall, and it couldn’t stand too tall if the wallpaper was coming off and the curtains were tatty. Twenty years later Nancy Reagan tried the same trick, with disastrous results. Jackie changed the image people had of the wives of their presidents. Without going back to Woodrow Wilson’s little woman, who in effect ran the country while Wilson was dying, post-war wives tried to stay on the sidelines, basically because no woman - not Nancy Reagan - was as hated as Eleanor Roosevelt. We now know that Roosevelt was a lesbian who satisfied her sexuality by acting the surrogate president, and establishing causes of her own, such as civil rights. Although Rooselvelt meant well, Americans were outraged. The press kept her secret (her own son, Franklin Jr, revealed his mother's lesbianism in a memoir). So when Bess Truman suddenly became numero uno, she stayed away from the limelight as if she were a vampire. (Her daughter Margaret did not, and was vilified). Then came eight years of Eisenhower, a military man who did not exactly see women as equals. Mamie Eisenhower was a crushed flower, remaining behind the scenes, mostly too drunk to notice. The press, as always, kept the secret. Lady Bird Johnson was a Rose Kennedy with a Texas drawl. Being married to a man with more ambition than it is possible to imagine does not an extrovert 28 make. What it does is make one very strong, if silent. Lady Bird took a back seat, but exercised her influence in the manner all backseat wives do, the Latin way. Not Pat Nixon. In my not so humble opinion, she was the best. Pat stayed out of Richard Nixon’s way, lived in a world of her own, and suffered in silence. She was the last of the old school, as they say. I imagine her British equivalent being Harold Wilson’s wife. By the time Jimmy Carter made it to 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, pollsters and media experts had devised a new gimmick: wives of candidates had to have a label. The Steel Magnolia, as Rosalynn Carter was dubbed, sat in on cabinet meetings and advised on foreign policy. Feminism was coming into is own, so for a while people ignored the fact that she had neither been voted into office, nor was qualified to give advice. In the end, her presence worked against the peanut farmer, although years later, while giving a two-minute speech for about 20 of us at a private dinner, he still managed to mention his wife and daughter at least five times. Nancy Reagan, for her label, had to be anti-drug, forcing Barbara Bush to be the education wife. La Clinton decided on the strong concerned-for-children’s-rights label. Long before Slick Willie began his run for the White House, Hillary had spotted his potential to be all things to all men. She- is not called Lady Macbeth for nothing by insiders. It was the most powerful influence by a wife in the history of the US. III. Лексические упражнения 1. Определите, кому принадлежат следующие прозвища: Tricky Dicky, Ike, Teddy, FDR, RFK, LBJ, the Iron Chancellor, the Iron Duke, the Iron Lady (La Dame de Fer), the Iron Butterfly, Old Harry, Old Noll. 2. Переведите на русский язык следующие высказывания известных людей: => Of all the home remedies, a good wife is best. Kin Hubbard => Wives are young men’s mistresses, companions for middle age, and old men’s nurses. Francis Bacon => Some people say that a wife can ruin her husband if she doesn’t give him 29 stability in the home. Eleonor Roosevelt => Well-married, a man is winged; ill-matched, he is shackled. Henry Beecher 3. Подберите русские соответствия для английской пословицы Marriages are made in heaven Var.: Marriage comes by destiny. 30 ЗАНЯТИЕ 8 I. Предтекстовые упражнения 1. Определите, какое значение имеет оговорка if ever в следующем предложении и переведите это предложение на русский язык. Вспомните другие подобные эллиптические конструкции, характерные для английского языка. => It seems that they were rarely, if ever, shown to Hitler. 2. 3. Переведите на русский язык следующие словосочетания: dangerous undertaking, startling intimacy, to take action, unsolicited correspondence. Определите значения следующих однокорениых слов с помощью словаря: 31 Documents reproduced in the book include a letter from the Chancellery to the police president of Berlin in 1940 asking for action over Anna W. who was “not entirely normal” and was pestering the Fiihrer. Evidently she was given a warning but then started to write under another name. By 1942, the Chancellery asked the security police to silence the woman and she was due to be sent to a concentration camp but was spared by some bureaucratic accident. The letters and documents were found by an American soldier who was stationed in Berlin in 1946. Hitler’s unsolicited correspondence was dealt with in different ways. Birthday wishes were rewarded with printed acknowledgments; the letters which suggested ways to win the war were answered. Only the love letters remained unanswered. III. Лексические упражнения 1. blind deep/profound free platonic sincere/true undying unrequited attract, attractable, attraction, attractive, attractiveness. II. Текст LOVE LETTER TO HITLER COULD TURN INTO FATAL ATTRACTION By Roger Boyes Falling to love with Adolf Hitler was a dangerous undertaking. That much is plain from a collection of love letters to the Nazi leader to be published next week. Hundreds of German and Austrian women wrote to Hitler every day, addressing him in the most intimate terms. “My hotly loved sweetheart,” begins one, addressed to the Chancellery in Berlin. Others, dedicated to “dear Adi” were sent to his eastern headquarters in the Mazurian Lakes. The letters were conscientiously stored by the clerks in the Chancellery and it seems that they were rarely, if ever, shown to Hitler. The letters are full of the mundane facts of wartime existence such as: Imagine, Adolf, the shops are demanding 72 Reichsmark for an ordinary chair!” but laced with sudden and startling intimacy. “My love, listen to me now: Fm preparing a copy of my house key and the key to my room. Adolf, you will get the house key in the next letter.” Another woman - Friedel S. from Hartmannsdorf - was even more direct. “Herr Fiihrer Adolf Hitler, a Saxon woman would like to bear your child ...” Luise G. from Hof, wrote: “Please dear Fiihrer, let me come alone to you..." Hitler's ofFicials took action as soon as a writer became too persistent. Дайте русские эквиваленты наиболее употребительных английских прилагательных, сочетающихся в существительным love: 2. r love Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на контекстуальное значение слова love. => I’ll never stop loving you. => Will you come with me? - I’d love to. => He is hopelessly in love with my sister. => Come here, my love. => There’s no love lost between them. 32 3. Определите, какая из следующих русских пословиц может в некоторых случаях (если позволяет контекст) являться эквивалентом английской пословицы Love is blind => Для милого дружка семь верст - не околица. => Любовь зла - полюбишь и козла. => Хоть битой быть, да молодца любить. => Для любви нет преград. 33 ЗАНЯТИЕ 9 I. Предтекстовые упражнения 1. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, учитывая, что в английском предложении, в отличие от русского, может быть только одно отрицание, относящееся к предложению в целом, а не к отдельным его членам. => When people meet on the street they have no idea which Saddam they are talking to. => Nobody knows when it will be ready. => We’re tired of taking on a bunch of disguised Iraqi wimps who do nothing but lie to the United Nations. 2. Переведите на русский язык следующие словосочетания: to tell one from another, to come up with the idea, to have no idea, to be well aware. 3. Определите значения следующих однокоренных слов с помощью словаря: tough, toughen, toughie, toughish, toughly, toughness. II. Текст A TOUGH CHOICE By Art Buchwald During Desert Storm I was one of the few reporters to reveal why the United States could not knock off Saddam Hussein of Iraq. The explanation was that everyone in Iraq looked like Saddam, and we couldn’t tell one from another. At the beginning of his regime Saddam was concerned about assassination so he came up with the idea that every male citizen in the country had to look exactly like him. This included the mustache, the haircut and the black beret. 34 People who did not resemble Saddam to the secret police’s satisfaction were arrested and sent to work as slave labor in a poison gas factory. Thus started a long line of Saddam Hussein look-alikes who have been driving the CIA and everyone else crazy. What makes the story more interesting is that when two people meet on the street they have no idea which Saddam they are talking to. One could be a citrus grower from Baghdad and the other the leader of the country. This has been the problem for the United States from the start. If you are going to cut off the head of a snake, which snake are we talking about? Recently they tell the story of the real Saddam Hussein and an impostor at a people’s rally. The fake Saddam had medals all over his chest. The real Saddam was covered with flies. The people went crazy for the false one and ignored the real one. Concerned by this, Saddam’s advisers suggested they have a mustache measuring contest, and the one who was wearing real hair on his lip would be declared the leader. Both men showed up on the platform, and Iraqi barbers took the measurements. The real Saddam won by a hair, and the people burned the false Saddam in effigy. The question arises, if all the men in Iraq look like Saddam, how do we knock off our Saddam? It’s as if everyone in World War II in Germany looked like Adolf Hitler and everyone in Japan looked like Emperor Hirohito. It is still a secret, but the air force is now developing a smart bomb that can tell the difference between a real Saddam Hussein and a false one. It is heat-seeking and explodes when the real dictator is lying. Nobody knows when it will be ready, but intelligence forces are well aware that there is no sense bombing the hell out of Iraq as long as the real Saddam keeps walking around free and the ersatz ones are hiding in the bunkers. The United States is impatient to find a Saddam who must be punished. We’re tired of taking on a bunch of disguised Iraqi wimps who do nothing but lie to the United Nations. III. Лексические упражнения 1. Переведите на русский язык примеры описания внешности, взятые из произведений английских и американских авторов. => Не was a lean, fair-bearded man of very ordinary appearance. (G.K.Chesterton) => At that moment there walked into the room, supporting himself by a thick 35 stick, a stout old gentleman. (Ch.Dickens) => She had faded red hair done into a careless knot at the back of her neck. (T.Driser) => She had a charming profile, and nothing of her father in her face save a decided chin. (J. Galsworthy) => He wondered if there was soul in those steel-gray eyes that were often quite blue of color. (J.London) => He was handsome in a way, with curly hair and pink-and-white cheeks. Women thought a lot of him. ( W. S.Maugham) => He was a man in his late thirties, and he wore a small Hitler-style moustache. (W.Saroyan) => My father was of a dark complexion, with a very great forehead and dark hazel eyes, overhung by eyebrows which remained black long after his hair was white. (W.M. Thackeray) => The man in the doorway struck a match and lit his cigar. The light showed a pale, square-jawed face with keen eyes, and a little white scar near his right eyebrow. (O.Hemy) Mr. Mayheme was a small man, precise in manner, neatly, not to say foppishly dressed, with a pair of very shrewd and piercing gray eyes. (A.Christie) 36 => Elizabeth was very beautiful, more beautiful perhaps than he had ever realized. Her straight clean hair was shining. Her face was softer, glowing and serene. (C.McCullers) => The eyes of the old men were blue. Their thin white hair and drooping skin, ... the huddling bones of their bodies had come to winter. Their hands tottered, their lips were wet and dribbling. (H.E.Bates). 2. Переведите на русский язык вопросы What does he look like? What is he like? How does he look? и объясните, какую информацию предполагается получить при ответе на них. 3. Дайте русские эквиваленты следующих английских выражений: => As tall as a bean-pole. => As thin as a rake. => As like as two peas. 4. Найдите соответствующие друг другу по смыслу английские и русские пословицы. Не с лица воду пить. Личиком гладок, да делами гадок. The face is the index of the mind. По одежке встречают, по уму провожают. A fair face may hide a foul heart (soul). Глаза (лицо) - зеркало души. Clothes do not make a man. Наружность обманчива. Appearances are deceptive. Beauty is only skin deep.