Словесное мышление

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GCB{JVTNHBXTCRBQ
"RPFVTY LKZ
CFVJCNJZNTKMYJUJ
HTITYBZ
HECCRBQ
B/km 2014 ujlf
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv
k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm
'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Cjlth;fybt
B/km 2014 ujlf
Ckjdtcyjt vsiktybt> gbcmvtyyjt pflfybt............................................. 2
Ckjdtcyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk gthdsq........................................................ 4
Ckjdtcyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk dnjhjq.......................................................12
Rjkbxtcndtyyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk gthdsq...........................................20
Rjkbxtcndtyyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk dnjhjq...........................................28
Fyukbqcrbq zpsr> hfpltk gthdsq ..............................................................36
Fyukbqcrbq zpsr> hfpltk dnjhjq ...............................................................44
Лист для написания сочинения..................................................................52
Лист ответов на вопросы разделов множественного выбора.........54
Ghbvths cjxbytybq.........................................................................................55
Rk/x dthys[ jndtnjd......................................................................................61
Dsxbcktybt ghb,kbpbntkmyjq jwtyrb pf 'rpfvty.............................62
Gjckt ghjdtltybz 'rpfvtyf d Bphfbkmcrjv wtynht 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb jceotcndkz/ncz
hfpkbxyst ghjdthrb djghjcjd 'rpfvtyf. Tckb dszcyztncz> xnj jghtltktyysq djghjc yt
cjjndtncndetn ghjatccbjyfkmysv cnfylfhnfv> jy yt drk/xftncz d dsxbcktybt jwtyrb.
D nfrjv ckexft ghjnbd yjvthf djghjcf ,eltn yfgbcfyj% $Lfyysq djghjc yt drk/xty d
dsxbcktybt jwtyrb$.
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv
k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm
'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
1
Ckjdtcyjt vsiktybt> gbcmvtyyjt pflfybt
-2-
B/km 2014 ujlf
Ckjdtcyjt vsiktybt - gbcmvtyyjt
pflfybt
Dhtvz yf dsgjkytybt - 35 vbyen.
Dybvfntkmyj ghjxnbnt pflfybt d hfvrt b yfgbibnt cjxbytybt yf ghtlyfpyfxtyyjv lkz 'njuj
kbcnt.
Nht,etvfz lkbyf cjxbytybz - gj vtymitq vtht> 25 cnhjr. Yt cktletn ds[jlbnm pf ghtltks
cnhjr> j,jpyfxtyys[ yf kbcnt.
Tckb ds ye;lftntcm d xthyjdbrt> bcgjkmpeqnt ghtlyfpyfxtyyjt lkz 'njuj vtcnj d
'rpfvtyfwbjyyjq ,hji/ht !xthyjdbr yt ,eltn [email protected] Ds yt cvj;tnt gjkexbnm
ljgjkybntkmysq kbcn lkz yfgbcfybz cjxbytybz bkb pfvtybnm dslfyysq dfv kbcn. Gbibnt
njkmrj yf heccrjv zpsrt. Cnbkm dfituj cjxbytybz ljk;ty cjjndtncndjdfnm ghbyznjve d
frfltvbxtcrb[ ntrcnf[ cnbk/. J,hfnbnt jcj,jt dybvfybt yf jhufybpfwb/ ntrcnf b yf
ghfdbkmysq b xtnrbq zpsr bpkj;tybz.
Gbibnt cjxbytybt njkmrj rfhfylfijv. Ds nfr;t vj;tnt bcgjkmpjdfnm kfcnbr.
Gbibnt dfit cjxbytybt frrehfnysv b gjyznysv gjxthrjv.
Vyjubt d Bphfbkt vtxnf/n j ;bpyb d ctkmcrjq vtcnyjcnb> gjcrjkmre 'nj
gjpdjkztn jnyjcbntkmyj dscjrjt rfxtcndj ;bpyb> f nfr;t gjnjve xnj jyb
gjkfuf/n> xnj ;bpym d lthtdyt gjpdjkztn yf ghfrnbrt htfkbpjdfnm cjwbfkmyst
b 'rjkjubxtcrbt wtyyjcnb. D yt,jkmib[ ctkmcrb[ gjctktybz[ ktuxt gjcnhjbnm
j,obye> f ,kbpjcnm r ghbhjlt d ctkmcrjq vtcnyjcnb cgjcj,cndetn pf,jnt j
cj[hfytybb jrhe;f/otq chtls. Dvtcnt c ntv> lheubt k/lb cxbnf/n> xnj rfr hfp
ghj;bdfybt d ujhjlt gjpdjkztn kexit htfkbpjdfnm 'nb wtyyjcnb. J,obye vj;yj
gjcnhjbnm b d ujhjlt> b gjvbvj 'njuj> ujhjlcrbt ;bntkb rjynfrnbhe/n c cfvsvb
hfpysvb k/lmvb> b b[ cjwbfkmysq vbh yt juhfybxbdftncz kbim gjlj,ysvb bv>
rfr 'nj xfcnj ,sdftn d lthtdyt. Gjvbvj 'njuj> ujhjlcrjt cnhjbntkmcndj gjpdjkztn
gjctkbnm ,jkmijt xbckj k/ltq yf jnyjcbntkmyj yt,jkmijq gkjoflb b ntv
cfvsv ghtljndhfoftn yfytctybt bpkbiytuj eoth,f ghbhjlt. D jnkbxbt jn 'njuj>
cnhjbntkmcndj d ctkmcrjq vtcnyjcnb dtltncz yf pyfxbntkmys[ gkjoflz[ b gj'njve
yfyjcbn eoth, ptktysv nthhbnjhbzv.
Rfrjq cgjcj, ;bpyb - d ujhjlt bkb d lthtdyt - gj dfitve vytyb/> kexit
cgjcj,cndetn htfkbpfwbb cjwbfkmys[ b 'rjkjubxtcrb[ wtyyjcntq* J,jcyeqnt
cdj/ gjpbwb/^
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ckjdtcyjt vsiktybt> gbcmvtyyjt pflfybt
-3-
B/km 2014 ujlf
Gecnfz cnhfybwf
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ckjdtcyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk gthdsq
-4-
B/km 2014 ujlf
Ckjdtcyjt vsiktybt
D 'njv hfpltkt 20 djghjcjd.
Dhtvz yf htitybt - 20 vbyen.
D 'njv hfpltkt cjlth;fncz djghjcs hfpkbxys[ nbgjd% fyfkjubb> djghjcs yf gjybvfybt b
dsdjl b djghjcs gj jnhsdrfv lkz xntybz. R rf;ljve djghjce ghtlkfuftncz xtnsht dfhbfynf
jndtnf. Dfv cktletn ds,hfnm yfb,jktt gjl[jlzobq lkz rf;ljuj djghjcf jndtn b erfpfnm tuj
yjvth d cjjndtncnde/otv vtcnt yf kbcnt jndtnjd.
Fyfkjubb !djghjcs [email protected]
D rf;ljv djghjct lfyf gfhf dsltktyys[ ;bhysv ihbanjv ckjd. Yfqlbnt cjjnyjitybt vt;le
pyfxtybzvb 'nb[ lde[ ckjd b ds,thbnt bp ghtlkj;tyys[ jndtnjd ne gfhe ckjd> cjjnyjitybt
vt;le rjnjhsvb yfb,jktt gj[j;t yf yfqltyyjt Dfvb cjjnyjitybt.
J,hfnbnt dybvfybt% gjhzljr ckjd d gfht bvttn pyfxtybt.
1.
jlehfxbnm % j,vfyensq -
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
2.
ghtljcnthtuftn % jcnthtufnmcz -
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
3.
ghjrfkbdfnm % ;fh -
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
4.
vfxnf % akjn -
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
5.
lhfrf % elfhs -
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
jghfdlfnm % dbyjdysq
jnkexfnm % ,jqrjnbhetn
j,yf;fnm % jnrhsnsq
bpkfufnm % dsckeibdftn
jltdftn % jltdfnmcz
dslftn % cf;fnm d n/hmve
ghbukfiftn % ghb[jlbnm
bycwtybhetn % cnfdbnm gmtce
elj,hznm % ehj;fq
gbnm % djlf
ghtccjdfnm % lfdktybt
edkf;yznm % ce[jcnm
hexrf % gtyfk
geujdbwf % gtnkz kfwrfy % ufhlthj, rbhgbx % cntyf
gthtgbcrf % gbcmvf
rjyrehtywbz % rjyrehtyns
hfccktljdfybt % ekbrb
njhu % wtys
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ckjdtcyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk gthdsq
B/km 2014 ujlf
-5-
Djghjcs yf gjybvfybt b dsdjl !djghjcs [email protected]
Cktle/obt erfpfybz jnyjczncz r djghjcfv 6-8.
D rf;ljv djghjct lfyj ghtlkj;tybt !bkb ytcrjkmrj ghtlkj;[email protected]> d rjnjhjv yt [dfnftn
ytcrjkmrb[ xfcntq. Pf ybv cktletn xtnsht uheggs ckjd> ljgjkyz/ob[ jncencnde/obt xfcnb.
Dfv cktletn ds,hfnm yfb,jktt gjl[jlzoe/ uhegge ckjd lkz ljgjkytybz lfyyjuj
ghtlkj;tybz.
6.
e Cvbnf ckj;bkfcm htgenfwbz xtkjdtrf> rjnjhsq
j,tofk> xnj ,jkmit yt ghbrjcytncz r cgbhnyjve>
.
cdjt ckjdj> dtlm
jy
(1) Ytzcyj> gjxtve # lth;bn # ghjikj cjdctv ytvyjuj dhtvtyb c nt[ gjh> rfr # lj njuj vjvtynf> rfr tuj edbltkb dsgbdf/obv d ,fht
(2) Yfghfcyj # lth;bn # c njq vbyens> rjulf # jy j,[jlbk ,fh cnjhjyjq
(3) Yt yfghfcyj # yt lth;bn # njn ltym> rjulf # ,sk gjcktlybv lytv> rjulf jy gjctnbk ,fh
(4) Ytzcyj> gjxtve # yt lth;bn # c njuj lyz> rjulf # jy yt gthtcnfdfk gjctofnm ,fh
7.
Egjhzljxtyyfz b ghfdbkmyfz cbcntvf hf,jns gjkbnbxtcrjuj herjdjlcndf
ghbybvftvst htitybz zdkz/ncz celm,jyjcysvb>
htitybt
.
>
(1) zdkztncz bltfkjv> rjnjhsq ytdjpvj;yj htfkbpjdfnm yf ghfrnbrt # b lf;t njulf> rjulf # rf;ljt # ghbybvftncz c cj,k/ltybtv ghfdbkmyjq ghjwtlehs
(2) zdkztncz afynfpbtq ntjhtnbrjd # b ghb 'njv ytdf;yj> yfcrjkmrj # b c rfrjq wtyjq cdzpfyj # jib,jxyjuj [fhfrnthf
(3) ytj,[jlbvf lkz ghfdbkmyjuj aeyrwbjybhjdfybz dkfcnb # jlyfrj rjulf # rf;ljt # ljk;yj ghbybvfnmcz c cj,k/ltybtv ghfdbkmyjq ghjwtlehs
(4) ,skf bplfdyf ghbyznf d yfitq cnhfyt # yj b njulf> rjulf # ythtlrj ckexftncz> xnj # 8.
ghbybvftncz cjukfcyj dctv yjhvfv ghfdbkmyjuj eghfdktybz
Ghtvmth-vbybcnh j,(zdbk xktyfv gfhkfvtynf> xnj tckb ,eltn ghbyzn pfrjy j ptvkz[>
> nj jy ghtlghbvtn ifub lkz ghbyznbz pfrjyf j, bgjntxys[ ccelf[. "nj pfzdktybt
dthjznyjcnm njuj> xnj htpekmnfns ujkjcjdfybz gj pfrjye j ptvkz[ ,elen jndtxfnm
;tkfybzv ghtvmth-vbybcnhf> gjcrjkmre vyjubt xktys gfhkfvtynf
.
(1) ghjnbd rjnjhjuj jy djphf;ftn # evtymiftn # jgfcf/ncz yjdjuj pfrjyf j, bgjntxys[ ccelf[
(2) rjnjhsq jy gsnftncz ghjdtcnb # edtkbxbdftn # yt pfbynthtcjdfys d ghbyznbb yjdjuj pfrjyf j, bgjntxys[ ccelf[
(3) rjnjhsq jy cnfhftncz ghtljndhfnbnm # edtkbxbdftn # jlj,hz/n yjdsq pfrjy j, bgjntxys[ ccelf[
(4) rjnjhsq ghjnbdjhtxbn tuj cjwbfkmyjq ghjuhfvvt # cyb;ftn # ;tkf/n ghjldb;tybz yjdjuj pfrjyf j, bgjntxys[ ccelf[
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ckjdtcyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk gthdsq
B/km 2014 ujlf
-6-
9.
Bpdtcnyj> xnj tcnm k/lb> rjnjhst cnfhit Yflb.
Yb;t ghbdtltys ldf endth;ltybz%
F. Yflz dsit hjcnjv rf;ljuj> rnj cnfhit tt.
<. Yflz cnfhit rf;ljuj> rnj yb;t tt hjcnjv.
Rfrjt bp cktle/ob[ gjkj;tybq zdkztncz dthysv d jnyjitybb 'nb[ endth;ltybq*
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
10.
D yfxfkt ujlf ghjatccjh Rj'y j,(zdbk> xnj d jnkbxbt jn ghtlsleob[ ktn rehc
`Cjwbfkmyst ntjhbb$ ,eltn kturbv. Jlyfrj r tuj elbdktyb/ chtlyzz jwtyrf pf bnjujdsq
'rpfvty gj 'njve rehce yt ,skf ,jktt dscjrjq> xtv d ghtlsleobt ujls. Dcktlcndbt
'njuj ghjatccjh ghbitk r ldev dsdjlfv%
F. Cneltyns> exfcndjdfdibt d rehct d 'njv ujle> zdkz/ncz vtytt cgjcj,ysvb> xtv cneltyns> exfcndjdfdibt d ytv hfymit.
<. Ehjdtym cneltynjd eybdthcbntnf> d rjnjhjv jy ghtgjlftn> cybpbkcz.
Rfrjq bp cktle/ob[ afrnjd vj;tn gjlrhtgbnm dsdjl F> yt gjlrhtgkzz dsdjlf <*
(1) Cneltyns crkjyys ghtyt,ht;bntkmyj jnyjcbnmcz r cdjbv pfyznbzv gj gjlujnjdrt r (2) D 'njv ujle j,ofz chtlyzz jwtyrf gj dctv rehcfv d eybdthcbntnt ,skf yb;t> xtv d 'rpfvtye> tckb rehc ghtlcnfdkztncz bv ckbirjv kturbv.
ghtlsleobt ujls.
(3) Ytcvjnhz yf pfzdktybt ghjatccjhf Rj'yf> j,(zcytybz> rjnjhst jy lfdfk d Bp endth;ltybz F ytghtvtyyj dsntrftn endth;ltybt <.
Bp endth;ltybz < ytghtvtyyj dsntrftn endth;ltybt F.
Lfyyst endth;ltybz ghjnbdjhtxfn lheu lheue.
Lfyyst endth;ltybz hfdyjpyfxys lheu lheue.
felbnjhbb> ,skb cnjkm ;t ckj;ysvb lkz gjybvfybz> xnj b d ghjikjv.
(4) Tckb rehc cxbnftncz kturbv> nj yf ytuj pfgbcsdftncz vyjuj ckf,s[ cneltynjd.
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ckjdtcyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk gthdsq
11.
-7-
B/km 2014 ujlf
Lfys ldf endth;ltybz d jnyjitybb extybrjd irjks `Gjktdst wdtns$%
F. D nhtnmtv rkfcct ytn extybrjd> rjnjhst yt evt/n xbnfnm.
<. Njkmrj d gthdjv rkfcct yt dct extybrb evt/n xbnfnm.
Rfrjt bp cktle/ob[ ghtlkj;tybq zdkztncz dthysv*
(1) Tckb tcnm ht,tyjr> ceotcndjdfybt rjnjhjuj jghjdthuftn endth;ltybt F> (2) Tckb tcnm ht,tyjr> ceotcndjdfybt rjnjhjuj jghjdthuftn endth;ltybt <> nj tuj ceotcndjdfybt ytghtvtyyj jghjdthuftn nfr;t b endth;ltybt <.
nj tuj ceotcndjdfybt ytghtvtyyj jghjdthuftn nfr;t b endth;ltybt F.
(3) Yt vj;tn ,snm> xnj tcnm ht,tyjr> ceotcndjdfybt rjnjhjuj yt jghjdthuftn gj vtymitq vtht jlyj bp 'nb[ endth;ltybq.
(4) Yt vj;tn ,snm> xnj tcnm ht,tyjr> ceotcndjdfybt rjnjhjuj jghjdthuftn j,f 'nb endth;ltybz dvtcnt.
12.
Abkjcja Vfqrk Djkwth endth;lftn> xnj tckb xktys jghtltktyyjq uheggs [jnzn
hfcghtltkbnm vt;le cj,jq rfrbt-kb,j ,kfuf> yfghbvth ltymub bkb ghfdf yf gjkextybt
j,hfpjdfybz> cghfdtlkbdsv j,hfpjv> nj jyb ljk;ys ghblfnm 'nbv ,kfufv cvsck> j,obq
lkz dct[ xktyjd uheggs. Gj tuj ckjdfv> k/lb> yt jnyjczobtcz r uheggt> yt j,zpfntkmyj
cjukfcys c ntv cvsckjv> rjnjhsq ghblf/n lfyysv ,kfufv xktys uheggs. Gj'njve>
gjkfuftn Djkwth> yt cktletn yfdzpsdfnm cbcntve hfcghtltktybz ,kfu> ghbyzne/ d
jghtltktyyjq uheggt> k/lzv> rjnjhst yt ghbyflkt;fn r ytq.
Gjxtve> cjukfcyj Djkwthe> `yt cktletn yfdzpsdfnm cbcntve hfcghtltktybz ,kfu>
ghbyzne/ d jghtltktyyjq uheggt> k/lzv> rjnjhst yt ghbyflkt;fn r ytq$*
(1) Gjnjve xnj njkmrj njn> rnj zdkztncz xktyjv jghtltktyyjq uheggs> pfcke;bdftn>
xnj,s r ytve ghbvtyzkbcm ghbywbgs cghfdtlkbdjuj hfcghtltktybz.
(2) Gjnjve xnj njn> rnj yt zdkztncz xktyjv jghtltktyyjq uheggs> yt pfcke;bdftn
gjkextybz ghbyflkt;fob[ tq ,kfu.
(3) Gjnjve xnj njn> rnj yt zdkztncz xktyjv lfyyjq uheggs> vj;tn ghblfnm byjq cvsck
hfcghtltkztvsv ,kfufv.
(4) Gjnjve xnj k/lb> yt jnyjczobtcz r 'njq uheggt> vjuen yfdzpfnm tq nfrjq dbl
hfcghtltktybz> rjnjhsq ytghbtvktv lkz tt xktyjd.
13.
Bccktljdfntkb hfpkbxf/n ldf nbgf gfvznb% 'gbpjlbxtcre/ gfvznm b ctvfynbxtcre/
gfvznm. "gbpjlbxtcrfz gfvznm - 'nj gfvznm yf ltnfkb byajhvfwbb> cdzpfyyst c
kbxysvb gtht;bdfybzvb bkb rjyrhtnysvb cj,snbzvb> d [jlt rjnjhs[ ,skf gjkextyf
lfyyfz byajhvfwbz. Gj'njve> lkz njuj xnj,s bpdktxm bp gfvznb 'nb ltnfkb> ytj,[jlbvj
dcgjvybnm gtht;bdfybt bkb cj,snbt> c rjnjhsv jyb cdzpfys. D jnkbxbt jn ytt>
ctvfynbxtcrfz gfvznm - 'nj gfvznm j, byajhvfwbb> rjnjhe/ xtkjdtr pfgjvbyftn gjckt
vyjujrhfnys[ rjynfrnjd c ytq d hfpkbxys[ rjyntrcnf[. Gj'njve lkz bpdktxtybz
byajhvfwbb bp ctvfynbxtcrjq gfvznb ytn ytj,[jlbvjcnb dcgjvbyfnm rjyntrcn> d
rjnjhjv jyf ,skf gjkextyf.
Jnyjcbntkmyj rfrjuj bp cktle/ob[ djghjcjd vs vj;tv c yfb,jkmitq ljktq
dthjznyjcnb pfrk/xbnm> xnj> lkz njuj xnj,s jndtnbnm yf ytuj> xtkjdtre gjnht,etncz
bpdktxm byajhvfwb/ bp 'gbpjlbxtcrjq gfvznb*
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Rfr dfv cktletn jltnmcz lkz jabwbfkmyjuj e;byf*
Ult ds jcnfdbkb cdj/ vfibye yf cnjzyrt*
Rfr ujnjdzn ndjhj;ysq gbhju*
Rnj zdkztncz ghtpbltynjv cnhfys*
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ckjdtcyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk gthdsq
-8-
B/km 2014 ujlf
14.
Vepsrjdtl Yfanfkb Dfuyth% `D ldflwfnjv dtrt ghjbpjikj cyb;tybt ehjdyz
f,cnhfrnyjcnb vepsrb. Djpvj;yj> xnj 'nj ljdjkmyj ytj;blfyyjt dscrfpsdfybt> gjnjve
xnj ,jkmibycndj bp yfc djcghbybvftn cjdhtvtyye/ vepsre rfr zdktybt> fyfkjubxyjt
cjdhtvtyyjq ;bdjgbcb$.
Rfrjt bp cktle/ob[ endth;ltybq cktletn bp ckjd Dfuythf*
(1) Cjdhtvtyyfz vepsrf ,jktt f,cnhfrnyf> xtv cjdhtvtyyfz ;bdjgbcm.
(2) Cjdhtvtyyfz ;bdjgbcm ,jktt f,cnhfrnyf> xtv ;bdjgbcm d gthbjl> ghtlitcndjdfdibq
cjdhtvtyyjq 'gj[t.
(3) Bcgjkmpjdfybt vepsrfynfvb bltq bp j,kfcnb ;bdjgbcb ghbdtkj r njve> xnj vepsrf
cnfkf vtytt f,cnhfrnyjq.
(4) Nhelyj chfdybdfnm cjdhtvtyye/ vepsre c cjdhtvtyyjq ;bdjgbcm/ bp-pf njuj> xnj jyb
j,kflf/n hfpkbxysvb ehjdyzvb f,cnhfrnyjcnb.
Jnhsdjr lkz xntybz !djghjcs [email protected]
Dybvfntkmyj ghjxnbnt cktle/obq jnhsdjr b jndtnmnt yf cktle/obt pf ybv djghjcs.
(1)Tot
(5) (10) jrjkj cnf ktn yfpfl Dctktyye/ hfccvfnhbdfkb d dblt cdjtuj hjlf xfcjd> rf;ljt
rjktcbrj rjnjhs[ dhfoftncz b ltqcndetn c htuekzhyjq gthbjlbxyjcnm/. Yferf
ghtntyljdfkf yf njxyjt ghtlcrfpfybt ghbhjlys[ zdktybq d cjjndtncndbb c pfrjyfvb b
ajhvekfvb. Tckb d [jlt bpvthtybz ghbhjlys[ zdktybq gjkexfkb ytj,sxyjt lfyyjt>
ds[jlbditt pf hfvrb bpdtcnys[ ajhvek> tuj cxbnfkb jib,rjq b jghtltkzkb d rfxtcndt
$ytceotcndtyyjuj$ !lheubvb ckjdfvb> lfyyjuj> rjnjhsv vj;yj ghtyt,[email protected] Gjyznbt
$ytceotcndtyyjt$ dgkjnm lj ctujlyziytuj lyz hfcghjcnhfytyj d tcntcndtyys[ yferf[ b
yf[jlbn dshf;tybt> d xfcnyjcnb> d $jrheuktybb$ xbctk d [jlt hfpkbxys[ dsxbcktybq.
Jlyfrj tot d rjywt 19-uj dtrf extyst pfvtnbkb> xnj dsxbcktybz> jgbhf/obtcz yf
ghbyznst ghfdbkf b ghtyt,htuf/obt $ytceotcndtyysvb$ afrnjhfvb> yt ufhfynbhe/n
ecgtiyjuj ghjuyjpbhjdfybz% afrnjh> cxbnf/obqcz ytceotcndtyysv> vj;tn dspsdfnm
htpekmnfns> yb d rjtv ckexft yt zdkz/obtcz ytceotcndtyysvb. Ghbpyfybt 'njuj afrnf
kt;fkj d jcyjdt hfphf,jnrb $ntjhbb [fjcf$ !$[fjc$ yf lhtdytuhtxtcrjv zpsrt jpyfxftn
,[email protected]
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ckjdtcyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk gthdsq
(15)
(20)
(25)
(30)
(35)
(40)
(45)
(50)
-9-
B/km 2014 ujlf
Bcnjhbz bpextybz Cjkytxyjq cbcntvs vj;tn ghjbkk/cnhbhjdfnm ukfdyst 'nfgs
ajhvbhjdfybz bltq> kt;fob[ d jcyjdt ntjhbb [fjcf. Cjkytxyfz cbcntvf cjlth;bn ntkf>
nfrbt rfr gkfytns b fcnthjbls !vfktymrbt [email protected]> rjnjhst dhfof/ncz djrheu
Cjkywf> f ytrjnjhst bp yb[ - nfr;t djrheu lheub[ ntk d cbcntvt. Lkz njuj xnj,s gjyznm
rfr ltqcndetn 'nf cbcntvf> d ghjikjv abpbrb dsxbckzkb jh,bns hfpkbxys[ ntk> ghbxtv
rf;lfz jh,bnf dsxbckzkfcm d jnltkmyjcnb. Rf;ljt gjlj,yjt dsxbcktybt jcyjdsdfkjcm
bcrk/xbntkmyj yf cbkt ghbnz;tybz> ltqcnde/otq vt;le ldevz ntkfvb% ntkjv>
ldb;eobvcz gj rheujdjq jh,bnt> b ntkjv d wtynht 'njq jh,bns. Extyst ghtyt,htufkb
yf,k/ltybzvb> cdbltntkmcndjdfdibvb j ytnjxyjcnb ghjuyjpf> jlyfrj c ntxtybtv
dhtvtyb dszcybkjcm> xnj d ytrjnjhs[ ckexfz[ 'nf ytnjxyjcnm yt vj;tn cxbnfnmcz
ytceotcndtyyjq. Yfghbvth> extyst yt cvjukb ghtlcrfpfnm cj,snbt> d hfvrf[
rjnjhjuj fcnthjbl dsitk bp Cjkytxyjq cbcntvs - $ytegjhzljxtyyjt zdktybt$> rjnjhjt
,skj htpekmnfnjv njuj> xnj jh,bnf fcnthjblf pfdbctkf yt njkmrj jn cbks ghbnz;tybz>
ltqcndjdfditq vt;le ybv b Cjkywtv> yj b jn djpltqcndbz cbks> ltqcndjdfditq vt;le
ldevz 'nbvb ntkfvb b gkfytnjq ?gbnth> cfvjq ,jkmijq gkfytnjq Cjkytxyjq cbcntvs.
Ckj;yst dsxbcktybz dpfbvyjuj dkbzybz gkfytn lheu yf lheuf gjkexbkb yfpdfybt
$pflfxb nht[ ntk$. Hfcghjcnhfytyysq cgjcj, htitybz pflfxb nht[ ntk pfrk/xfkcz d
dsxbcktybb ght;lt dctuj jh,bns jghtltktyyjuj ntkf Cjkytxyjq cbcntvs d cjjndtncndbb
c ntv> rfr 'nj ,skj ghbyznj ltkfnm hfytt. Pfntv ghbybvfkb dj dybvfybt jnrkjytybz jn
jh,bns> cdzpfyyst c gjvt[fvb> rjnjhst cjplfdfkb lheubt ntkf> b dyjcbkb bpvtytybz d
gthdjyfxfkmyst dsxbcktybz. Dvtcnt c ntv> lfyysq gjl[jl yt dtltn r gjybvfyb/ cgjcj,f
ltqcndbz dct[ 'ktvtynjd pflfxb yf ghjnz;tybb dhtvtyb. Lf;t tckb c gjvjom/
dsxbcktybq j,yfhe;bdf/n yt,jkmijt jnrkjytybt> djpybrf/ott gjl djpltqcndbtv
rfrjuj-kb,j nhtnmtuj afrnjhf> yt ghtlcnfdkztncz djpvj;ysv dsxbckbnm dct
,tcrjytxyst bpvtytybz 'njuj jnrkjytybz yf ghjnz;tybb dhtvtyb b dpfbvyst
djpltqcndbz vt;le ybv b lheubvb cbkfvb d cbcntvt. Ghjwtcc edtkbxtybz jnrkjytybq c
ntxtybtv dhtvtyb yfpsdf/n $wbrkjv j,hfnyjq cdzpb$. Lheujq ghbvth wbrkf j,hfnyjq
cdzpb pyfrjv yfv bp gjdctlytdyjq ;bpyb% ghb ghb,kb;tybb vbrhjajyf r lbyfvbre
ckf,st ajyjdst ievs djcghbybvf/ncz vbrhjajyjv> ecbkbdf/ncz> ds[jlzn bp
lbyfvbrf> f pfntv dyjdm djcghbybvf/ncz> ecbkbdf/ncz> ds[jlzn bp lbyfvbrf b nfr lfktt>
dgkjnm lj jukeibntkmyjuj crht;tnf.
D 'nb[ ckexfz[ ctujlyz extyst bcgjkmpe/n gjl[jl ntjhbb [fjcf. Djcghbznbt cbcntvs
d rfxtcndt [fjnbxtcrjq jpyfxftn ght;lt dctuj djcghbznbt dct[ ltqcnde/ob[ d ytq
afrnjhjd rfr tlbyjuj wtkjuj b jcjpyfybt juhfybxtybq> cktle/ob[ bp xfcnbxys[
dsxbcktybq. Afrnjhs> yt ghbybvftvst dj dybvfybt> vjuen dspdfnm bpvtytybt> rjnjhjt>
[jnz b zdkztncz yt,jkmibv> d ntxtybt rjhjnrjuj dhtvtyb cgjcj,yj bpvtybnm rfhnbye d
wtkjv. Cntgtym ytnjxyjcnb edtkbxbdftncz> xtv ,jktt jnlfktyyjuj ,eleotuj rfcftncz
ghjuyjp> b gj'njve ghjuyjps zdkz/ncz lkz yfc ghbtvktvsv ghb,kb;tybtv kbim yf
rjhjnrbt gthbjls dhtvtyb. Yfghbvth> d vtntjhjkjubb htxm bltn yt ,jktt xtv j gthbjlt
d nhb lyz.
Djghjcs
15. Njn afrn> xnj `dsxbcktybz> jgbhf/obtcz yf ghbyznst ghfdbkf ... yt ufhfynbhe/n
ecgtiyjuj ghjuyjpbhjdfybz$ !cnhjrb [email protected] jpyfxftn> xnj byjulf gjlj,yst dsxbcktybz - (1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
zdkz/ncz lkbyysvb b pfgenfyysvb
ghjnbdjhtxfn bpdtcnysv pfrjyfv ghbhjls
dtlen r ghjuyjpe> rjnjhsq yt cjjndtncndetn ltqcndbntkmyjcnb ckbirjv cjchtljnjxtys yf afrnjhf[> cxbnf/ob[cz ytceotcndtyysvb
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ckjdtcyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk gthdsq
B/km 2014 ujlf
- 10 -
16. Cjukfcyj dnjhjve f,pfwe> gjxtve d ghjikjv abpbrfv yt elfkjcm ghtlcrfpfnm cj,snbt> d
htpekmnfnt rjnjhjuj fcnthjbl dsitk bp Cjkytxyjq cbcntvs*
(1) Gjnjve xnj jyb yt dsxbckbkb cbke> ltqcnde/oe/ vt;le fcnthjbljv b Cjkywtv.
(2) Gjnjve xnj jyb gjkfufkb> xnj fcnthjbl dhfoftncz djrheu Cjkywf> jlyfrj yf cfvjv ltkt jy dhfofkcz djrheu lheujuj ntkf d Cjkytxyjq cbcntvt. (3) Gjnjve xnj jyb gjkfufkb> xnj d ldb;tybb gkfytn jncencndetn pfrjyjvthyjcnm> b jyj zdkztncz ytegjhzljxtysv.
(4) Gjnjve xnj d cdjb[ dsxbcktybz[ jyb ghbybvfkb dj dybvfybt njkmrj ntkj> yf[jlzottcz d wtynht rheujdjq jh,bns> b ntkj> rjnjhjt ldb;tncz djrheu ytuj.
17. Dsxbcktybt jh,bns jghtltktyyjq gkfytns> dhfof/otqcz djrheu lheujq gkfytns>
cjukfcyj vtnjle> egjvzyenjve d cnhjrf[ 31-35> d jnkbxbt jn tt dsxbcktybz cjukfcyj
ghbyznjve hfytt vtnjle> (1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
yt drk/xftn dsxbcktybt jh,bns rf;ljq gkfytns d jnltkmyjcnb
ghbybvftn dj dybvfybt djpltqcndbt lheub[ gkfytn cbcntvs gjldjlbn bnju dctv dpfbvysv djpltqcndbzv gkfytn lheu yf lheuf
ghbybvftn dj dybvfybt ceotcndjdfybt wbrkjd j,hfnyjq cdzpb ghb ldb;tybb gkfytn
18. Ghbvth d rjywt nhtnmtuj f,pfwf ghbdjlbncz lkz njuj> xnj,s ghjbkk/cnhbhjdfnm - (1) ghtdhfotybt cj,snbz> rjnjhjt vj;tn cxbnfnmcz ytceotcndtyysv> d (2) htuekzhye/ gthbjlbxyjcnm
(3) cgjcj,> dtleobq r ytelfxyjve ghjuyjpbhjdfyb/
(4) ytj,sxyjt cj,snbt> rjnjhjt yt gjllftncz ghjuyjpbhjdfyb/
pyfxbntkmyjt zdktybt
19. Cjukfcyj jnhsdre> gjxtve ytnjxyjcnm edtkbxbdftncz> xtv ,jktt jnlfktyyjuj ,eleotuj
rfcftncz ghjuyjp*
(1) Bp-pf ghjwtccf edtkbxtybz jnrkjytybq c ntxtybtv dhtvtyb.
(2) Gjnjve xnj c ntxtybtv dhtvtyb cbcntvs cnfyjdzncz dct vtytt b vtytt 20.
[fjnbxtcrbvb.
(3) Gjnjve xnj vs yt cgjcj,ys jwtybnm> zdkztncz jnrkjytybt ytceotcndtyysv bkb ytn.
(4) Gjnjve xnj jghtltktybt [fjcf bvttn cbke njkmrj ghb ghjuyjpbhjdfybb d rhfnrjchjxys[ cbcntvf[.
Djghjc
yt bcgj
kmpetnc
z lkz ds
xbcktyb
z jwtyr
b.
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ckjdtcyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk gthdsq
- 11 -
B/km 2014 ujlf
Gecnfz cnhfybwf
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ckjdtcyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk dnjhjq
- 12 -
B/km 2014 ujlf
Ckjdtcyjt vsiktybt
D 'njv hfpltkt 20 djghjcjd.
Dhtvz yf htitybt - 20 vbyen.
D 'njv hfpltkt cjlth;fncz djghjcs hfpkbxys[ nbgjd% fyfkjubb> djghjcs yf gjybvfybt b
dsdjl b djghjcs gj jnhsdrfv lkz xntybz. R rf;ljve djghjce ghtlkfuftncz xtnsht dfhbfynf
jndtnf. Dfv cktletn ds,hfnm yfb,jktt gjl[jlzobq lkz rf;ljuj djghjcf jndtn b erfpfnm tuj
yjvth d cjjndtncnde/otv vtcnt yf kbcnt jndtnjd.
Fyfkjubb !djghjcs [email protected]
D rf;ljv djghjct lfyf gfhf dsltktyys[ ;bhysv ihbanjv ckjd. Yfqlbnt cjjnyjitybt vt;le
pyfxtybzvb 'nb[ lde[ ckjd b ds,thbnt bp ghtlkj;tyys[ jndtnjd ne gfhe ckjd> cjjnyjitybt
vt;le rjnjhsvb yfb,jktt gj[j;t yf yfqltyyjt Dfvb cjjnyjitybt.
J,hfnbnt dybvfybt% gjhzljr ckjd d gfht bvttn pyfxtybt.
1.
ukjnjr % gbnm -
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
2.
bpevkztncz % elbdbntkmysq -
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
3.
ht;bccth % 'rhfy -
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
4.
,ke;lfnm % kf,bhbyn -
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
cjy % cgfnm
rjkt,fybt % htibnm
rybuf % xbnfnm
ifu % [jlbnm
buyjhbhetn % pfvtxftn
pyfrjvbncz % bpdtcnty
,jbncz % geuftn [jxtn % pfbynthtcjdfy
gjdfh % htwtgn
gjdfh % nfhtkrf
gjdfh % cgtwbz
gjdfh % tljr
hsnm % jrjg
d[jlbnm % pfuhf;ltybt
jhbtynbhjdfnmcz % rjvgfc
crfnsdfnmcz % crkjy
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ckjdtcyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk dnjhjq
5.
gj[eltk % dtc -
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
- 13 -
B/km 2014 ujlf
evbhjndjhbk % uytd
pfrfkbkcz % ezpdbvjcnm
jghfdlsdfkcz % dbyf
ytljevtdfk % gjybvfybt
Djghjcs yf gjybvfybt b dsdjl !djghjcs [email protected]
Cktle/obt erfpfybz jnyjczncz r djghjcfv 6-8.
D rf;ljv djghjct lfyj ghtlkj;tybt !bkb ytcrjkmrj ghtlkj;[email protected]> d rjnjhjv yt [dfnftn
ytcrjkmrb[ xfcntq. Pf ybv cktletn xtnsht uheggs ckjd> ljgjkyz/ob[ jncencnde/obt xfcnb.
Dfv cktletn ds,hfnm yfb,jktt gjl[jlzoe/ uhegge ckjd lkz ljgjkytybz lfyyjuj
ghtlkj;tybz.
6.
Lbhtrnjh abhvs gj htrkfvt endth;lfk> xnj vfhrtnbyujdfz rfvgfybz> ghjdtltyyfz tuj
abhvjq> gjvj;tn njdfhe pfdjtdfnm ljk/ hsyrf lheujuj njdfhf> ,jktt rfxtcndtyyjuj>
xtv 'njn njdfh. Tuj endth;ltybt
gjckt njuj rfr j,(tv ghjlf; vj/otuj chtlcndf
`<ktcr$> rfxtcndj rjnjhjuj
rfxtcndf vj/otuj chtlcndf `Cytu$> dgthdst
j,(tv ghjlf; `Cytuf$>
htrkfvbhjdfkf tuj abhvf.
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(4)
7.
Ghjatccjh {j[,thu gjkfuftn> xnj njn afrn> xnj yf Pfgflt tcnm vjkjlst k/lb> rjnjhs[
edktrf/n hfpkbxyst vbcnbxtcrbt ctrns>
j njv> xnj pfgflyfz rekmnehf ljk;yf
bpvtybnm cdjt hfwbjyfkbcnbxtcrjt vbhjdjpphtybt>
j
'nb[ vjkjls[ k/ltq
> xnj dsntrftn bp 'njuj vbhjdjpphtybz.
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gjkexbkj gjlrhtgktybt # dsit # ghtdscbk # nfr rfr dnjhjt chtlcndj
gjkexbkj gjlrhtgktybt # yb;t # ghtdscbk # ghbxtv gthdjt chtlcndj
,skj jckf,ktyj # yb;t # ghtdpjitk # [jnz gthdjt chtlcndj
,skj jckf,ktyj # dsit # jrfpfkcz vtymit> xtv # nfr rfr dnjhjt chtlcndj
cdbltntkmcndetn yt # f # ujnjdyjcnb # ghbyznm dct nj
cdbltntkmcndetn # f nfr;t # ujnjdyjcnb # ghbyznm dct nj
cdbltntkmcndetn yt # f # ytcgjcj,yjcnb # cghfdbnmcz cj dctv ntv
cdbltntkmcndetn # f nfr;t # ytcgjcj,yjcnb # yt dthbnm dj dct nj
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ckjdtcyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk dnjhjq
8.
- 14 -
B/km 2014 ujlf
E vtyz ytn cjvytybq d njv> xnj gtnbwbz> c bybwbfnbdjq rjnjhjq dscnegbk gbfybcn b
rjnjhfz ghbpsdfkf djlbntkz jhrtcnhf
cdjq ds[jl yf gtycb/>
lbhb;the
jhrtcnhf> dtlm lbhb;th ghtlgjxkf ,s> xnj,s djlbntkm
dsgjkyznm cdjb aeyrwbb>
ltkftn 'nj [jhjij.
(1) jnkj;bnm # yt zdkztncz cj cnjhjys gbfybcnf gjgsnrjq eujlbnm # yt ghjljk;bk # nfr rfr jyf dscnegfkf ghjnbd hfcghjcnhfytyyjuj vytybz> d cjjndtncndbb c rjnjhsv jy
(2) ecrjhbnm # zdkztncz cj cnjhjys gbfybcnf ybxtv bysv> rfr gjgsnrjq yfytcnb elfh
gj # ghjljk;bk # ytcvjnhz yf tt cjukfcbt c hfcghjcnhfytyysv vytybtv> d cjjndtncndbb c rjnjhsv jy rfr hfp
(3) ecrjhbnm # zdkztncz cj cnjhjys gbfybcnf gjgsnrjq eujlbnm # ghjljk;bk # [jnz dctv zcyj> xnj jy yt
(4) ecrjhbnm # zdkztncz cj cnjhjys gbfybcnf gjgsnrjq yfytcnb elfh gj # yt ghjljk;bk # dcktlcndbt tt edthtyyjcnb d njv> xnj jy yt
9.
Dszcybkjcm> xnj xbckj phbntktq ntktghjuhfvv cj cwtyfvb yfcbkbz dsit> xtv xbckj
phbntktq ntktghjuhfvv ,tp cwty yfcbkbz. Dcktlcndbt 'njuj cgtwbfkbcn gj htrkfvt
L;trcjy htibk ghtrhfnbnm ckexfqysq ds,jh ghjuhfvv> d rjnjhs[ ,elen
htrkfvbhjdfnmcz tuj njdfhs. Jy htibk htrkfvbhjdfnm cdjb njdfhs njkmrj d
ntktghjuhfvvf[ cj cwtyfvb yfcbkbz> yt bpvtyzz ghb 'njv j,otq ghjljk;bntkmyjcnb
htrkfvs. Jlyfrj> r tuj elbdktyb/> bpvtytybt cgjcj,f htrkfvs dspdfkj evtymitybt
j,(tvf ghjlf;.
Rfrjq bp cktle/ob[ afrnjd vj;tn j,(zcybnm gjcktlcndbz 'njuj bpvtytybz*
(1) Cnjbvjcnm htrkfvs d ntktghjuhfvvt dsxbckztncz d cjjndtncndbb c gjgekzhyjcnm/ (2) Djcghbznbt yjdjq byajhvfwbb yfheiftncz dcktlcndbt ghjcvjnhf ghjuhfvv cj cwtyfvb yfcbkbz. (3) Cjcnfd ge,kbrb> rjnjhfz cvjnhbn ghjuhfvvs cj cwtyfvb yfcbkbz> fyfkjubxty lfyyjq ghjuhfvvs.
cjcnfde ge,kbrb> rjnjhfz cvjnhbn ghjuhfvvs ,tp cwty yfcbkbz.
(4) K/lb ghtlgjxbnf/n ghjcvjnh ghjuhfvv ,tp cwty yfcbkbz gj[jle pf gjregrfvb.
10. Uhbif crfpfk Fyt> xnj tuj elbdkztn> xnj Vfif gjkexftn eljdjkmcndbt jn cdjtq hf,jns>
nfr rfr tt hf,jnf zdkztncz nhelyjq> f gkfnf pf ytt - ybprjq.
Fyz jndtnbkf tve% `Dczrbq uecm zdkztncz kt,tltv d ukfpf[ njuj> rnj tuj k/,bn$.
Fyz chfdybkf -
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eljdjkmcndbt jn hf,jns c kt,tltv
gkfne c k/,jdm/ hf,jne Vfib c uectv
elbdktybt Uhbib c uectv
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ckjdtcyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk dnjhjq
- 15 -
B/km 2014 ujlf
11. D irjkt `?yjcnm$ t;tujlyj ghjdjlbncz cjhtdyjdfybt gj ,tue vt;le rkfccfvb. Rf;lsq
rkfcc gjcskftn lkz exfcnbz d cjhtdyjdfybz[ rjvfyle bp gznb extybrjd. Exbntkmybwf
abprekmnehs xfcnj ujdjhbn% `D 'njv cjhtdyjdfybb rf;lfz rjvfylf yfgjvbyftn wtgm>
ghjxyjcnm rjnjhjq d njxyjcnb cjjndtncndetn ghjxyjcnb tt cfvjuj ckf,juj pdtyf$.
C extnjv 'nb[ ckjd exbntkmybws rfrjq bp cktle/ob[ dfhbfynjd cnhernehs cjhtdyjdfybz
zdkztncz yfb,jktt dthjznysv*
(1) Dct exfcnybrb cnfhne/n jlyjdhtvtyyj> b gj,tlbntkmybwtq cxbnftncz gthdfz rjvfylf> dct xktys rjnjhjq ljcnbukb abybiyjq xthns pf,tuf.
(2) Dct exfcnybrb cnfhne/n jlyjdhtvtyyj> b gj,tlbntkmybwtq cxbnftncz rjvfylf njuj extybrf> rjnjhsq gthdsv ljcnbu abybiyjq xthns pf,tuf.
(3) Xktys rf;ljq rjvfyls ,tuen lheu pf lheujv d [jlt 'cnfatns> b gj,tlbntkmybwtq cxbnftncz nf rjvfylf> cevvf dhtvty pf,tujd dct[ xktyjd rjnjhjq ,eltn yfbvtymitq.
(4) Ghjdjlzn gznm vfks[ cjhtdyjdfybq> d rf;ljv bp rjnjhs[ exfcndetn gj jlyjve
ghtlcnfdbntk/ jn rf;ljq rjvfyls> nfrbv j,hfpjv xnj rf;lsq exfcnybr cjdthiftn pf,tu d hfvrf[ jlyjuj vfkjuj cjhtdyjdfybz. Rjvfyljq-gj,tlbntkmybwtq cxbnftncz rjvfylf> xktys rjnjhjq dsbuhfkb yfb,jkmitt xbckj vfks[ cjhtdyjdfybq.
12. D ghjwtcct cke[jdjuj djcghbznbz vjpu djcghbybvftn cbuyfks> rjnjhst gthtlftn tve
cke[jdjq ythd> b ghtj,hfpetn b[ d nj> xnj vs joeoftv d rfxtcndt pderjd. Xnj dspsdftn
lfyysq ghjwtcc* Rjulf pderjdfz djkyf gjgflftn d eiye/ hfrjdbye> jyf ldb;tncz lfktt>
d cke[jdjq rfyfk> b dspsdftn rjkt,fybz ,fhf,fyyjq gthtgjyrb> rjnjhst ghbdjlzn r
db,hfwbb cke[jds[ rjcntq. D htpekmnfnt 'njuj djpybrf/n rjkt,fybz d ;blrjcnb>
hfcgjkj;tyyjq dj dyenhtyytv e[t. "nb rjkt,fybz djp,e;lf/n cke[jdjq ythd> b jy
yfxbyftn gjcskfnm ythdyst cbuyfks.
Rfrfz bp cktle/ob[ c[tv cfvsv njxysv j,hfpjv jgbcsdftn ghjwtcc> rjnjhsq
gjpdjkztn yfv cksifnm pderb*
(1) Eiyfz hfrjdbyf djcghbybvftn pderjde/ djkye → djkyf gtht[jlbn d cke[jdjq
rfyfk → cke[jdst rjcnb db,hbhe/n b dspsdf/n db,hfwb/ ,fhf,fyyjq
gthtgjyrb → djpybrf/n rjkt,fybz d ;blrjcnb> hfcgjkj;tyyjq dj dyenhtyytv
e[t> → djp,e;ltybt> djpybrf/ott d cke[jdjv ythdt> gthtlftncz d vjpu
(2) Djpybrftn pderjdfz djkyf → djkyf ghj[jlbn xthtp eiye/ hfrjdbye b cke[jdjq
rfyfk → djkyf dspsdftn db,hfwb/ ,fhf,fyyjq gthtgjyrb b cke[jds[ rjcntq →
;blrjcnm ghjybrftn dj dyenhtyytt e[j → cke[jdjq ythd gjcskftn ythdyst cbuyfks
d vjpu
(3) Pderjdfz djkyf gjcnegftn xthtp eiye/ hfrjdbye d cke[jdjq rfyfk → ,fhf,fyyfz
gthtgjyrf db,hbhetn b dspsdftn db,hfwb/ cke[jds[ rjcntq → ;blrjcnm dj
dyenhtyytv e[t ldb;tncz → cke[jdjq ythd gjcskftn ythdyst cbuyfks → cbuyfks
djcghbybvf/ncz vjpujv
(4) Pderjdfz djkyf gjcnegftn d cke[jdjq ythd xthtp eiye/ hfrjdbye b cke[jdjq
rfyfk → cke[jdjq ythd dspsdftn db,hfwb/ ,fhf,fyyjq gthtgjyrb b cke[jds[
rjcntq → djpybrftn ldb;tybt ;blrjcnb dj dyenhtyytv e[t → vjpu djcghbybvftn
'ne djkye d rfxtcndt pderf
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ckjdtcyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk dnjhjq
- 16 -
B/km 2014 ujlf
13. D rybut j Chtlytdtrjdmt ujdjhbncz%
`Bpexf/obt Chtlytdrjdmt bcnjhbrb> rjnjhst ghtlgjxbnf/n xthgfnm byajhvfwb/ bp
jabwbfkmys[ ljrevtynjd dcktlcndbt ytyflt;yjcnb [hjybr njuj dhtvtyb> vjuen
ljgecnbnm cthmtpye/ jib,re> nfr rfr gj cdjtq ghbhjlt jabwbfkmyst ljrevtyns
cgjcj,ys hfccrfpfnm jxtym ytvyjuj j hfpkbxbz[ vt;le rhfcrfvb b pderfvb d yfib lyb b
rhfcrfvb b pderfvb d ne 'gj[e> b nfrbv j,hfpjv yt gjpdjkz/n yfv edbltnm dj dctq
zhrjcnb rfhnbye Chtlyb[ dtrjd$.
Rfrjt bp cktle/ob[ endth;ltybq zdkztncz dthysv d jnyjitybb lfyyjuj jnhsdrf*
(1) Jib,f/ncz nt> rnj gjkfuftn> xnj chtlytdtrjdst [hjybrb vtytt yflt;ys> xtv
jabwbfkmyst ljrevtyns njq 'gj[b.
(2) Chtlytdtrjdst [hjybrb yt jnhf;f/n zhrjcnb rfhnbys njq 'gj[b b hfpkbxbq vt;le
ytq b yfibv dhtvtytv.
(3) Jabwbfkmyst ljrevtyns 'gj[b Chtlytdtrjdmz> ltqcndbntkmyj> ,jktt yflt;ys> xtv
[hjybrb> jlyfrj jyb lf/n ytgjkye/ b ,tlye/ rfhnbye njuj dhtvtyb.
(4) Bccktljdfntkb jgbhf/ncz yf jabwbfkmyst ljrevtyns 'gj[b Chtlytdtrjdmz> nfr rfr
[jnzn jckf,bnm zhrjcnm rfhnbys njq 'gj[b b kbibnm tt eybrfkmys[ xthn.
14. Gjlj,yj yfert> vbcnbrf> d jcyjdt rjnjhjq kt;fn ghjhjxtcndf bkb jpfhtybz
ytvyjujxbcktyys[ bylbdbleevjd> nfr;t bcgjkmpetn hfwbjyfkmysq zpsr. Vbcnbrb>
gtht;bdibt vbcnbxtcrbq jgsn> [jntkb gthtlfnm pyfybz ntv> rnj yt gtht;bk tuj> b
gj'njve ljk;ys ,skb bcgjkmpjdfnm ljcnegyst gjyznbz b zpsr> nj tcnm zpsr>
gjlxbyz/obqcz ghbywbgfv kjubrb. Ytcvjnhz yf 'nj> [jnz j,f 'nb[ vbhf - vbcnbrf b
yferf - bcgjkmpe/n hfwbjyfkmyjt vsiktybt b kjubre> jyb rjhtyysv j,hfpjv
jnkbxf/ncz lheu jn lheuf b j,kflf/n hfpkbxysvb `ghfdbkfvb buhs$. Gj'njve j,vty
bltzvb b gjyznbzvb vt;le ybvb ytdjpvj;ty> gjlj,yj njve rfr ytdjpvj;yj buhfnm d
if[vfns gj ghfdbkfv buhs d yfhls.
Rfrjt bp cktle/ob[ endth;ltybq yt cktletn bp ghbdtltyyjuj dsit jnhsdrf*
(1) Hfpkbxbz vt;le yferjq b vbcnbrjq vj;yj egjlj,bnm hfpkbxbzv vt;le yfcnjkmysvb
buhfvb.
(2) Bcgjkmpjdfybt hfwbjyfkmyjuj vsiktybz b kjubrb d vbht vbcnbrb dsntrftn bp
;tkfybz bylbdbleevjd> gtht;bdib[ vbcnbxtcrbq jgsn> gthtlfnm tuj lheubv
k/lzv.
(3) J,obv lkz yferb b vbcnbrb zdkztncz bcgjkmpjdfybt bvb zpsrf> jcyjdfyyjuj yf
ghbywbgf[ kjubrb.
(4) C[jlcndj vt;le vbcnbrjq b yferjq pfrk/xftncz d njv> xnj d b[ jcyjdt kt;bn
bylbdblefkmysq jgsn jnltkmys[ k/ltq> rjnjhst [jnzn gjltkbnmcz bv c lheubvb
k/lmvb.
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ckjdtcyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk dnjhjq
- 17 -
B/km 2014 ujlf
Jnhsdjr lkz xntybz !djghjcs [email protected]
Dybvfntkmyj ghjxnbnt cktle/obq jnhsdjr b jndtnmnt yf cktle/obt pf ybv djghjcs.
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D 1895 ujle ,skf jge,kbrjdfyf yjdfnjhcrfz rybuf ahfywepcrjuj bccktljdfntkz
U/cnfdf Kt,jyf `Gcb[jkjubz vfcc$> pfkj;bdifz jcyjds yjdjq j,kfcnb bccktljdfybq>
cdzpfyyjq c gjdtltybtv vfcc. {jnz e Kt,jyf ,skb ghtlitcndtyybrb> erfpsdfdibt yf
hfpkbxbz vt;le gjdtltybtv bylbdbleevjd d eprb[ cjwbfkmys[ hfvrf[ b b[
gjdtltybtv ghb vfccjds[ cj,hfybz[> jlyfrj b[ ubgjntps cjjndtncndjdfkb xbcnj
rhbvbyjkjubxtcrjve gjl[jle> dbltditve d vfccf[ ghbvbnbdye/ b ;tcnjre/ uhegge.
Kt,jy> cj cdjtq cnjhjys> gjkexbk bpdtcnyjcnm d rfxtcndt xtkjdtrf> rjnjhsq> ytcvjnhz yf
cdjq cnhf[ b jndhfotybt gthtl vfccfvb> dbltk ckj;yjcnm b[ htfrwbq> zdkz/ob[cz yt
njkmrj jgfcysv jnrkjytybtv jn cjwbfkmys[ yjhv> yj b df;ysv xtkjdtxtcrbv jgsnjv>
cgjcj,ysv cjltqcndjdfnm htfkbpfwbb gjpbnbdys[ bltq b wtyyjcntq.
Gj vytyb/ Kt,jyf> vfccjdjt cj,hfybt cfvj gj ct,t ghbdjlbn e k/ltq d ltqcndbt
gcb[jkjubxtcrbt vt[fybpvs> dhtvtyyj jnvtyz/obt b[ cj,cndtyyjt cfvjcjpyfybt b
rhbnbxtcrjt jnyjitybt r cdjtq chtlt. Bylbdbleevf gjukjoftn ytxnj dhjlt
ubgyjnbxtcrjuj cjcnjzybz> gfhfkbpe/otuj tuj rjynhjkmyst vt[fybpvs b
byntkktrnefkmyst cgjcj,yjcnb. Kt,jy j,(zcyzk 'nj zdktybt> gjp;t gjkexbditt
yfpdfybt `ltbylbdblefkbpfwbz$> ght;lt dctuj joeotybtv vjueotcndf> rjnjhjt
bcgsnsdftn bylbdbleev> jrhe;tyysq ,jkmijq uheggjq k/ltq. "nj joeotybt
dscdj,j;lftn rjvgktrc fuhtccbdys[ bycnbyrnjd> rjnjhst ghb j,sxys[
j,cnjzntkmcndf[ gjlfdkz/ncz xtkjdtrjv. Ljgjkybntkmyfz ghbxbyf 'njuj zdktybz
pfrk/xftncz d joeotybb fyjybvyjcnb> rjnjhjt j[dfnsdftn bylbdbleevf> jrhe;tyyjuj
xtkjdtxtcrbv vjhtv> b kbiftn tuj xedcndf jndtncndtyyjcnb pf cdjb gjcnegrb. Kt,jy
ghtlgjkj;bk> xnj ytcvjnhz yf bycnbyrnbdyst> kbityyst rjynhjkz ltqcndbz> rjnjhst
ghj,e;lftn ghbyflkt;yjcnm r vfcct> d vfcct nfr;t pfkj;tyf crkjyyjcnm r jcnjhj;yjve
rjycthdfnbpve> cdzpfyyfz c ,fpbcysv ;tkfybtv cj[hfybnm ceotcnde/ott gjkj;tybt ltk.
Kt,jy yf[jlbk gjllth;re lfyyjuj ntpbcf d ;f;lt gjhzlrf> rjnjhfz yf,k/lftncz e vfcc
gjckt bcrk/xbntkmys[ cj,snbq> dhjlt ,eynf.
Cjukfcyj bcnjhbre Ikjvj Pfyle> [jnz rybuf `Gcb[jkjubz vfcc$ ghtntyletn yf
j,(trnbdysq b vtnjlbxtcrbq fyfkbp bhhfwbjyfkmyjuj fcgtrnf> [fhfrnthbpe/otuj
gjdtltybt vfcc> pfvtnyj> xnj jyf yfgbcfyf vsckbntktv> xmt ,fpbcyjt jnyjitybt r
vfccfv zdkztncz jnhbwfntkmysv. Pfyl cltkfk dsdjl j njv> xnj d cdjtv bccktljdfybb
vfccjdjuj gjdtltybz Kt,jy gj cenb herjdjlcndjdfkcz cnhtvktybtv pfobnbnm rekmnehe
dscituj rkfccf> r rjnjhjve jy ghbyflkt;fk> jn hfcneotuj dkbzybz `yjds[ dfhdfhjd$>
ghbitlib[ bp ybpib[ rkfccjd. Tckb xbnfnm rybue Kt,jyf nfr> rfr ghtlkfuftn Pfyl> nj
vj;yj dbltnm d ytq herjdjlcndj lkz kblthjd yjds[ ltvjrhfnbq> djpybrib[ d
ltdznyflwfnjv dtrt> rjnjhjt byajhvbhetn b[ j ghbhjlt vfcc b ghtlkfuftn bv cgjcj,s
yfghfdktybz b[ gjnht,yjcntq b ytqnhfkbpfwbb b[ dkbzybz. Bp [fhfrnthyjq lkz
gjdtltybz vfcc bhhfwbjyfkmyjcnb Kt,jy ltkftn dsdjl j njv> xnj cgjcj,yjcnm herjdjlbnm
vfccjq pfdbcbn jn bcgjkmpjdfybz chtlcnd> rjnjhst yt fgtkkbhe/n r xtkjdtxtcrjve
hfpeve. D 'njv le[t jy endth;lftn% `Yt ckbirjv df;yj> rfrbt bltb ghtlkfuf/ncz
vfccfv. Df;ytqibv afrnjhjv b[ ghtdhfotybz d ujcgjlcnde/obt bltb zdkztncz b[
ghtlcnfdktybt d cfvjq ghjcnjq ajhvt b b[ cgjcj,yjcnm jcnfdfnmcz d cjpyfybb k/ltq d
rfxtcndt j,hfpjd. Ytn ytj,[jlbvjcnb> xnj,s vt;le 'nbvb `bltzvb-j,hfpfvb$
ceotcndjdfkf rfrfz-kb,j kjubxtcrfz cdzpm> fccjwbfnbdyfz bkb ytghthsdyfz... B[ vj;yj
vtyznm gjlj,yj rfhnbyrfv d `djkit,yjv ajyfht$> rjnjhst tuj dkfltktw xthtletn
ckexfqysv j,hfpjv> yt dkbzz rfr-kb,j yf nj> rfr 'nb rfhnbyrb djcghbybvf/ncz
phbntkzvb$.
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ckjdtcyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk dnjhjq
B/km 2014 ujlf
- 18 -
Djghjcs
15. Cjukfcyj gthdjve f,pfwe> gjlj,yj Kt,jye> tuj ghtlitcndtyybrb nfr;t -
(1) erfpsdfkb yf hfpkbxbz vt;le gjkj;bntkmysvb cnjhjyfvb vfccjds[ cj,hfybq b b[ jnhbwfntkmysvb cnjhjyfvb
(2) pfybvfkbcm gjkj;bntkmysvb fcgtrnfvb vfccjds[ cj,hfybq (3) dbltkb ckj;yjcnm htfrwbq vfccs c njxrb phtybz rhbvbyjkjubb
(4) bpexfkb gjdtltybt bylbdbleevf rfr xfcnb vfccs gj chfdytyb/ c gjdtltybtv bylbdbleevf rfr xfcnb juhfybxtyyjq uheggs
16. Ltbylbdblefkbpfwbz - 'nj gjyznbt> jgbcsdf/ott (1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
gjnht,yjcnm vfcc d cj[hfytybb ceotcnde/otuj gjhzlrf
cjcnjzybt> [fhfrnthyjt lkz bylbdbleevf d cjcnfdt vfccs
rjynhjkmyst vt[fybpvs bylbdbleevf d cjcnfdt vfccs
cjghjnbdktybt bylbdbleevf ghbyflkt;yjcnb vfcct
17. Rfrjt bp cktle/ob[ dscrfpsdfybq cdbltntkmcndetn j njv> xnj Kt,jy dbltk d htfrwbb
vfcc yt njkmrj jnrkjytybt jn j,otcndtyys[ yjhv*
(1) Kt,jy ghtjljktk cdjq cnhf[ b jndhfotybt gthtl gjdtltybtv vfcc.
(2) Kt,jy endth;lfk> xnj gjdtltybt bylbdbleevf> zdkz/otujcz xfcnm/ vfccs> jnkbxftncz jn tuj gjdtltybz d lheub[ cbnefwbz[.
(3) Kt,jy cnhtvbkcz pfobnbnm rekmnehe> r rjnjhjq jy ghbyflkt;fk> jn hfcneotuj dkbzybz `yjds[ dfhdfhjd$.
(4) Kt,jy erfpfk yf nj> xnj dcktlcndbt bcrk/xbntkmys[ cj,snbq> dhjlt ,eynf> d vfccf[ pfvtnyf ;f;lf gjhzlrf.
18. Gjl `chtlcndfvb$ !cnhjrf [email protected] gjybvf/n (1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
ghtlcnfdktybt bltq d ckexfqyjv gjhzlrt
ghtlcnfdktybt ujcgjlcnde/ob[ bltq
ghjcnjt b ljcnegyjt ghtlcnfdktybt bltq
ytghthsdyjt ghtlcnfdktybt bltq
19. Cjukfcyj jnhsdre> bcgjkmpjdfybt `'nb[ `bltq-j,hfpjd$$ !cnhjrf [email protected] - (1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
dhtlbn vfccfv
j,hfoftn d cdj/ gjkmpe bhhfwbjyfkbpv> [fhfrnthysq lkz gjdtltybz vfcc
kbityj cvsckf ljk;yj jceotcndkznmcz nfrbv j,hfpjv> rjnjhsq gjpdjkztn ecnfyjdbnm ytghthsdye/ kjubxtcre/ cdzpm vt;le ybvb
20. Ikjvj Pfyl endth;lftn> xnj> gj cenb> Kt,jy (1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
dbltk d htfrwbb vfcc pyfxbntkmysq xtkjdtxtcrbq jgsn
jnyjcbkcz r gjdtltyb/ vfcc ytj,(trnbdysv j,hfpjv
yt gjlxthrbdfk bhhfwbjyfkmyjcnm vfcc
ghblfdfk xhtpvthyjt pyfxtybt dkbzyb/ vfcc
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ckjdtcyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk dnjhjq
- 19 -
B/km 2014 ujlf
Gecnfz cnhfybwf
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
B/km 2014 ujlf
- 20 -
Rjkbxtcndtyyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk gthdsq
Rjkbxtcndtyyjt vsiktybt
D 'njv hfpltkt 20 djghjcjd.
Dhtvz yf htitybt - 20 vbyen.
"njn hfpltk drk/xftn djghjcs b pflfxb> lkz htitybz rjnjhs[ nht,etncz ghbvtytybt rjkbxtcndtyyjuj vsiktybz. R
rf;ljve djghjce ghtlkfuf/ncz xtnsht dfhbfynf jndtnf. Cktletn ds,hfnm ghfdbkmysq dfhbfyn jndtnf b jnvtnbnm tuj
yjvth d cjjndtncnde/otv vtcnt yf kbcnt jndtnjd.
J,obt pfvtxfybz
* Xthnt;b> ghbkfuftvst r ytrjnjhsv djghjcfv> ghtlyfpyfxtys lkz njuj> xnj,s gjvjxm d b[ htitybb> yj jyb yt
j,zpfntkmyj yfxthxtys d cjjndtncnde/ob[ vfcinf,f[. Yt cktletn ltkfnm dsdjls j lkbyt jnhtprf> dtkbxbyt eukf b
b
n. l. kbim yf jcyjdfybb xthnt;tq.
b
* Tckb kbybz> bpj,hf;tyyfz yf hbceyrt> ghtlcnfdkztncz ghzvjq> nj vj;yj ghtlgjkj;bnm> xnj jyf ltqcndbntkmyj
b
h
zdkztncz ghzvjq.
h
* Tckb d djghjct d rfxtcndt jlyjuj bp lfyys[ ghbdtlty utjvtnhbxtcrbq nthvby !ht,hj> hflbec> gkjoflm> j,(tv b [email protected]>
ha
nj gjlhfpevtdftncz> xnj tuj pyfxtybt ,jkmit yjkz !d ghjnbdyjv ckexft ,elen lfys lheubt [email protected] a
* Tckb d djghjct erfpfy a (a > 0)> nj bvttncz d dble
a gjkj;bntkmysq rjhtym a.
* 0 yt zdkztncz yb gjkj;bntkmysv xbckjv> yb jnhbwfntkmysv xbckjv.
* 0 zdkztncz xtnysv xbckjv.
* 1 yt zdkztncz ghjcnsv xbckjv.
r
x°
r
r
x°
r
Ajhveks
r
r
a $x
1. Ghjwtyns% a% jn x - 'nj 100
2. Cntgtyb% lkz k/,juj xbckf a, yt hfdyjuj 0, b k/,s[
wtks[ n b m f. a n = 1n a
,. am + n = am · an
d. a m = _m a i (a > 0, m > 0)
u. an · m = (an)m
n
b
10. Gkjoflm nhfgtwbb> lkbyf jlyjuj
jcyjdfybz rjnjhjq a, f lkbyf
h
lheujuj jcyjdfybz b b ]
a + bg $ h
lkbyf dscjns h, hfdyf
2
c
a
b
11. Dyenhtyybt euks vyjujeujkmybrf a
b
!n - xbckj cnjhjy [email protected]%
f. Cevvf dyenhtyyb[ eukjd vyjujeujkmybrf h
hfdyf (180n – 360) uhflecjd.
r
,. D ghfdbkmyjv vyjujeujkmybrt dtkbxbyf a
b x°
rf;ljuj dyenhtyytuj eukf hfdyf h
r
k a 180nn− 360 k uhflecjd. r h
a180 − 360
n =
b
c
c b
b
a
a
−
n
h
h
r
r
3. Ajhveks cjrhfotyyjuj evyj;tybz%
(a ± b)2 = a2 ± 2ab + b2
b
(a + b)(a – b) = a2 – b2
4. Pflfxb yf ghjqltyysq genm% crjhjcnm = hfccnjzybt
dhtvz
hh
hf,jnf
5. Pflfxb yf vjoyjcnm% vjoyjcnm =
dhtvz
12. Rheu> jrhe;yjcnm%
ha
r
f. Gkjoflm rheuf hflbecjv r
h x°
c
2
r
a
hfdyf πr (π = 3.14...)
b
aa
,. Lkbyf jrhe;yjcnb hfdyf 2πr
h
d. Gkjoflm ctrnjhf rheuf> j,hfpjdfyyjuj
r
x°
x
2
wtynhfkmysv eukjv x°> hfdyf πr $
c
r
360 r
r b
a x° r
h
13. Ghzvjeujkmysq gfhfkktktgbgtl> re,%
r x°
r r
f. J,(tv ghzvjeujkmyjuj
A
D
gfhfkktktgbgtlf> lkbyf
B
E
c
rjnjhjuj a, ibhbyf b b
b
dscjnf c, hfdty a · b · c
C
Fa
ch
,. Gkjoflm gjdth[yjcnb ghzvjeujkmyjuj c b
a r
b
gfhfkktktgbgtlf hfdyf 2ab + 2bc + 2ac a
h
d. D re,t a = b = c
rr
6. Afrnjhbfk% n! = n(n – 1)(n – 2) · ... · 2 · 1
7. Ghjgjhwbz% Tckb AD || BE || CF ,
nj AB = BC , f nfr;t AB = DE
DE EF
AC DF
‫רוסית‬
‫רוסית‬
‫ס‬
ot
en
us a
a
ateto
C
C
AA
BB
‫משולב‬
rfntn
B
ep
f
rfntn
B
C
d.
D
C
rfntn
F
F
h
‫רוסית‬
‫צרפתית‬
,. Ntjhtvf Gbafujhf%
d ghzvjeujkmyjv
A
A
hi
ip
p o yf
ot
nhteujkmybrt
!nhteujkmybr
ABC
ten
en
A u
A
A h
us
h
cateto
cateto
us
b
y
y
g
xthnt;[email protected]
dctulf
cj,k/lftncz
A u
A
A h po
a
po
a
j
n
h
té
bg
ten
yp 2
yp
t
2
2
n
y
côté
oté +
leg otB ghfdbkj%
rfntn jn epf cktle/ott
us e BC
B AB
CAC =
C
se
ty
en ucateto
cateto
n
côté
us
us
e
e
B
B
C
C
côté euks
leg
ghzvjeujkmyjv
nhteujkmybrt>
B
B
C
C
côté
leg
leg
‫איטלקית‬
‫ניצב‬B
‫ניצב‬
B
‫ספרדית‬
9. Gkjoflm ghzvjeujkmybrf lkbyjq a b
ibhbyjq b hfdyf a · b
ip
cateto
‫איטלקית‬
B
ot
A
en
us
cateto
A
hi
cateto
a
C
‫ספרדית‬
B
po
ten
B
b
b
us
cateto
A
h
h
a
a
A u
bg
A
rfntn
A
rjnjhjuj hfdys 30°, 60° b 90°,
lkbyf rfntnf> kt;fotuj ghjnbd eukf d 30°>
hfdyf gjkjdbyt lkbys ubgjntyeps.
A
D
D
E
E
CC
8. Nhteujkmybr%
f. Gkjoflm nhteujkmybrf> lkbyf
jcyjdfybz rjnjhjuj a, b lkbyf dscjns r
‫איטלקית‬
‫ספרדית‬
a$h
lfyyjve‫משולב‬
jcyjdfyb/ h, hfdyf‫צרפתית‬
2
x°
jn
ty
‫תר‬
‫י‬
‫תר‬
ep
f
C
‫י‬
rfntn
C
‫ניצב‬
‫ניצב‬
a
a
C
‫רוסית‬
A
rfntn
a
C
h
Wbkbylh%
14.‫משולב‬
‫צרפתית‬
r
a
f. Gkjoflm ,jrjdjq gjdth[yjcnb
r
h
wbkbylhf> hflbec jcyjdfybz
h
A
A
A hyrjnjhjuj hfdty Ar> fhy dscjnf h>
rh
po
po
‫وﺗﺮ‬
‫תר‬
A r
D
tén
ten
A hfdyf
2
π
r
·
h
‫י‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻢ‬
leg A
côté
‫ניצב‬
u
u
se
B
E
‫ وﺗﺮ‬se
r
‫ﺗﺮ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻢ‬B ,. Gkjoflm
gjkyjq
gjdth[yjcnb
B
B
B
C
F
‫ ניצב‬C C
côté
‫ ﻗﺎﺋﻢ‬leg ‫ و‬C
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻢ‬
2
wbkbylhf
hfdyf 2πr + 2πr · h = 2πr(r + h)
B
C
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻢ‬
B
C
h
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻢ‬
d. J,(tv
wbkbylhf hfdty πr 2· h
15. J,(tv rjyecf> hflbec jcyjdfybz b
πr 2 $ h
‫משולב‬
‫צרפתית‬
rjnjhjuj
r> f dscjnf h> hfdty
3
16. J,(tv gbhfvbls> gkjoflm jcyjdfybz
A hS $ h
ub rjnjhjqA Shyfp dscjnf h > hfdty
yp
gj
o3
ote
nt
tén
y
n
leg
ep
f
‫רוסית‬
B
rfntn
A
C
us
‫משולב‬
B
A
leg
côté
e
C
‫צרפתית‬
B
côté
A
us
e
C
A
B
a
C
D
h r E
h h
F
ar
A
BA
CA
‫ניצב‬
BA
B
B
C
C
C
r
D
A
E
h‫ יתר‬DF
D
E
a
E
‫ניצב‬F
F
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻢ‬
C
B
A
A
‫وﺗﺮ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻢ‬
ub
hy
hi
hy
ip
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv
b jwtyrb.
po
gj
po
po
o t wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd
‫وﺗﺮ‬
‫ר‬h‫ת‬
nt
ten
en
tén
ten
‫י‬
yebkb rjgbhjdfyb/
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻢ‬
ubp
cateto
cateto
côté
leg
‫ ניצב‬k/,s[
rfntn
u s hfcghjcnhfytyb/
us
us
s a ytuj yt
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb
gjlkt;fn
k/,sv
cgjcj,jv
b
c
bcgjkmpjdfybtv
chtlcnd
,tp
pf
‫רוסית‬
‫משולב‬
‫צרפתית‬
e
a
e
‫איטלקית‬
‫ספרדית‬
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys
Bphfbkmcrjuj
wtynhf C'rpfvtyjd
jwtyrb.CNfr;tBpfghtoftncz
bkbBbtuj axfcnzv
B
B
B
B b rfntn
C
C j,exfnmB'njve 'rpfvtye
C
Cd jncencndbt
h
cateto
cateto
‫ניצב‬
côté
leg
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻢ‬
ha
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys
Bphfbkmcrjuj
‫ רוסית‬b jwtyrb.
‫משולב‬
‫צרפתית‬
‫איטלקית‬
‫ספרדית‬wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd
‫איטלקית‬
A
i
A‫ספרדית‬
h
‫רוסית‬
A
ub
‫משולב‬
A
h
A ‫צרפתית‬
h
A
a
a
A
Rjkbxtcndtyyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk gthdsq
- 21 -
B/km 2014 ujlf
Djghjcs b pflfxb !djghjcs [email protected]
1.
Fynjy rf;lsq ltym gjregftn Rfnt z,kjrb. Rf;lsq ltym rjkbxtcndj z,kjr> rjnjhst jy
gjregftn> yf 3 ,jkmit> xtv rjkbxtcndj z,kjr> rjnjhsq jy regbk d ghtlsleobq ltym.
Tckb d djcrhtctymt Fynjy regbk Rfnt 6 z,kjr> nj crjkmrj z,kjr jy regbn tq d gznybwe yf
njq ;t cfvjq ytltkt*
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
2.
Lfyj% B < 0 < A
18
21
28
36
A + |B |
A−B = ?
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
3.
Pfhgkfnf Lbys d 3 hfpf ,jkmit pfhgkfns Bjcbaf.
Chtlytt pyfxtybt pfhgkfn Lbys b Bjcbaf -
1
-1
A
A+1
1
(1) d 1 2 hfpf ,jkmit pfhgkfns Bjcbaf
(2) d 2 hfpf ,jkmit pfhgkfns Bjcbaf
1
(3) hfdyj 2 pfhgkfns Lbys
1
(4) hfdyj 3 pfhgkfns Lbys
4.
A b B - wtkst xbckf.
AB ytghtvtyyj zdkztncz xtnysv> tckb -
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
A b B - gjkj;bntkmyst xbckf
A - gjkj;bntkmyjt xbckj> f B - xtnyjt xbckj
A - xtnyjt xbckj> f B - gjkj;bntkmyjt xbckj
A - xtnyjt xbckj> f B - jnhbwfntkmyjt xbckj
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
? A
B/km 2014 ujlf
- 22 -
Rjkbxtcndtyyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk gthdsq
5.
Lfy wbkbylh> hflbec jcyjdfybz rjnjhjuj r> f dscjnf h. Gjdth[yjcnm 'njuj 64°
wbkbylhf
B yf xthnt;t.
D
C
hfpkj;bkb yf gkjcrjcnb> b j,hfpjdfkfcm abuehf> bpj,hf;tyyfz
Rfrjdf gkjoflm pfrhfityyjq abuehs*
(1) rh
(2) 2prh
πr
(3)
h
_ r2 + h2 ih
(4)
2
6.
Lfyj%
x=?
O1
r
O2
2
r
2
1
44 − 3 x = 4 x
25
A
26 11
12
24
13
23
14
22
15
B
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
7.
Fdnjvfn gj ghjlf;t yfgbnrjd ghbybvftn njkmrj vjytns ljcnjbycndjv
d 3 uhjif>
α
d 6 uhjitq
b d 12 uhjitq.
E
24
36
48
56
21
F
16
20
17
19 18
A
A
5072
Rfrjt rjkbxtcndj uhjitq yt vj;tn yf[jlbnmcz d rfcct fdnjvfnf gj jrjyxfybb hf,jxtuj
O
lyz* ? A
B
?
(1) 18
(2) 32
(3) 69
(4) 123
64°
Cjukfcyj 'njve lfyyjve b lfyysv xthnt;f>
b=?
B
r
α+β
(1) 180° −
‫רוסית‬
y
O2
(3) 30°
A
A
H
C ‫ ס"מ‬3
‫ ס"מ‬6
B
G
B
α
D
α
C
y
A (0 , 2 · a)
A(0 ; 2 · a)
(4) rytdjpvj;yj ecnfyjdbnm yf jcyjdfybb bvt/ob[cz lfyys[
O
x
O
x
5 cv
26 11
24
A
E
D
H
B (a , -1)
B (a ; -1)
12
13
14
23
B
G
r cv
α
F
O
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz
pf Bphfbkmcrbv
C 3 cv
15 wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
6 cv
22
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
21
16
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz
yf nj cj cnjhjys
Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
17 cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
20
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz
yf nj cj
19 18
F
O3
2
(2) 90° – a
D
β
F
O1
‫ ס"מ‬5
E
A
25
F
C
8. B Lfyj%DD - cthtlbyf
cnjhjys BC.
C
B
Rjkbxtcndtyyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk gthdsq
B/km 2014 ujlf
- 23 -
Dsdjls bp lbfuhfvvs !djghjcs [email protected]
Dybvfntkmyj hfccvjnhbnt ghbdtltyye/ lbfuhfvve b jndtnmnt yf xtnsht cktle/ob[ pf ytq
djghjcf.
D cktle/otq nf,kbwt ghbdtltys lfyyst 3 rjcvbxtcrb[ rjhf,ktq% `"rcrfkbdth$> `<ktql
Hfyyth$ b `Ujybc$. Lkz rf;ljuj bp rjcvbxtcrb[ rjhf,ktq erfpfys lfyyst> rfcf/obtcz b[
gjktnjd c Ptvkb r 4 hfpkbxysv pdtplfv% Fkmaf> <tnf> Ufvvf b Ltkmnf.
Yfghbvth% gjktn yf rjhf,kt `"rcrfkbdth$ r pdtplt Fkmaf ghjljk;ftncz 300 xfcjd> pf dhtvz
gjktnf rjhf,km hfc[jletn 220 000 kbnhjd njgkbdf> b cnjbvjcnm gjktnf hfdyf 500 000 ljkkfhjd.
`Ujybc$
`<ktql Hfyyth$
`"rcrfkbdth$
Hfccnjzybt
lj geyrnf
Geyrn
Rjhf,km
yfpyfxtybz
yfpyfxtybz
!d nsczxf[
[email protected]
Ghjljk;bntkmyjcnm
Xbckj
gjktnf lj geyrnf
xktyjd
yfpyfxtybz
'rbgf;f
!d xfcf[@
Hfc[jl
njgkbdf
!d nsczxf[
[email protected]
Cnjbvjcnm
gjktnf !d
nsczxf[
[email protected]
Fkmaf
700
300
5
220
500
<tnf
850
450
6
275
600
Ufvvf
900
500
6
280
700
Ltkmnf
950
550
6
305
750
Fkmaf
700
250
4
185
650
<tnf
850
400
4
230
700
Ufvvf
900
450
5
245
750
Ltkmnf
950
500
6
260
850
Fkmaf
700
175
3
350
750
<tnf
850
250
6
425
850
Ufvvf
900
300
5
450
900
Ltkmnf
950
350
6
475
950
J,hfnbnt dybvfybt% ghb jndtnt yf rf;lsq djghjc yt cktletn ghbybvfnm dj dybvfybt lfyyst>
ghbdtltyyst d lheub[ djghjcf[.
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Rjkbxtcndtyyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk gthdsq
- 24 -
B/km 2014 ujlf
Djghjcs
9.
`"rcrfkbdth$ b `<ktql Hfyyth$ dsktntkb d jlyj b nj ;t dhtvz. `"rcrfkbdth$ gjktntk r
pdtplt Ltkmnf> f `<ktql Hfyyth$ gjktntk r pdtplt Fkmaf.
Rfrjdf hfpybwf vt;le dhtvtytv b[ ghb,snbz d geyrn yfpyfxtybz !d xfcf[@*
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
10.
Rjvgfybb `Cnfh Fg$ nht,etncz gjktntnm d ldf hfpkbxys[ geyrnf yfpyfxtybz% r Fkmaf b
r <tnf.
150
250
300
400
Ghb rfrjv bp cktle/ob[ dfhbfynjd j,ofz cnjbvjcnm gjktnjd ,eltn yfbvtymitq*
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
gjktn r pdtplt Fkmaf yf `"rcrfkbdtht$ b gjktn r pdtplt <tnf yf `Ujybct$
gjktn r pdtplt Fkmaf yf `"rcrfkbdtht$ b gjktn r pdtplt <tnf yf `<ktql Hfyytht$
gjktn r pdtplt Fkmaf yf `<ktql Hfyytht$ b gjktn r pdtplt <tnf yf `Ujybct$
gjktn r pdtplt Fkmaf yf `Ujybct$ b gjktn r pdtplt <tnf yf `<ktql Hfyytht$
11.
Rfrjq rjhf,km hfc[jletn yfbvtymitt rjkbxtcndj njgkbdf ghb gjktnt r pdtplt Fkmaf> b
cnjbvjcnm tuj gjktnf r 'njq pdtplt zdkztncz cfvjq ybprjq*
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
12.
Cnjbvjcnm gjlujnjdrb jlyjuj xktyf 'rbgf;f rjcvbxtcrjuj rjhf,kz cjcnfdkztn
100 000 ljkkfhjd.
`"rcrfkbdth$
`<ktql Hfyyth$
`Ujybc$
nfrjuj rjhf,kz yt ceotcndetn
Lkz rfrjuj bp rjhf,ktq j,ofz cnjbvjcnm gjktnf r pdtplt <tnf b gjlujnjdrb xktyjd
'rbgf;f ,eltn cfvjq ybprjq*
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
`"rcrfkbdth$
`<ktql Hfyyth$
`Ujybc$
cnjbvjcnm lkz `"rcrfkbdthf$ b `<ktql Hfyythf$ jlbyfrjdf b zdkztncz cfvjq ybprjq
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
B/km 2014 ujlf
- 25 -
Rjkbxtcndtyyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk gthdsq
64°
B
D
C
A
Djghjcs b pflfxb !djghjcs [email protected]
13.
β
1
Rfrjq ghjwtyn cjcnfdkztn 4 ytrjnjhjuj xbckf jn 125% njuj ;t xbckf*
O1
r
(1) 15%
14.
α
ABCD b EFGH - ldt hfdyj,tlhtyyst b rjyuhe'ynystOnhfgtwbb.
2
B
Ldt 'nb nhfgtwbb kt;fn lheu yf lheut nfrbv j,hfpjv> xnj j,hfpe/ncz nhfgtwbz ABGH
b
nhfgtwbz EFCD !pfrhfityyfz [email protected]
r
Cjukfcyj 'nbv lfyysv b lfyysv
xthnt;f>
Gkjoflm pfrhfityyjq abuehs =?
26 11
Gkjoflm nhfgtwbb25ABGH
12
(2) 20%
24
3
5
2
(2)
5
1
(3) 3
4
(4) 11
(1)
O3(4) 50%
(3) 25%
5 cv
A
E
23
14
22
15
21
B
F
H
C
6 cv
G
3 cv
16
20
17
19 18
A
α
A
E
‫ ﺳﻢ‬5
D
E
Lfyj% 0 < yx < 1 , y > 0
O
? A
Rfrjt bp cktle/ob[
ytghtvtyyj
zdkztncz
B dthysv*
B endth;ltybq
?
(1) x > 1
F
H
C ‫ ﺳﻢ‬3
‫ ﺳﻢ‬6
5
G
C
(2) y > 1
(3) y-x > 1
(4) y-x < 1
A
‫ ס"מ‬5
DB
E
64°
HD
5 cm
C
A
E
D
H
Yf ghbdtltyyjv xthnt;t 3 rfcf/obtcz lheu lheuf jrhe;yjcnb c wtynhfvb O1, O2 b O3 .
Lfyj% hflbec jrhe;yjcnb c wtynhjv O1 hfdty 1 cv.
HflbecBjrhe;yjcnb c wtynhjv O2 hfdty
G 2 cv. B
F
Hflbec jrhe;yjcnb
c‫ס"מ‬
wtynhjv
O
hfdty
3 cv.
C ‫ס"מ‬
6
r3 3
Rfrjdf gkjiflm pfrhfityyjq abuehs !d rd. [email protected]*
(1)
1
5π
(2)
1
6π
(3)
1
3π
(4)
D
13
15.
16.
D
1
4π
‫רוסית‬
y
F
O
6 1cm
C
G
3 cm
O3
y
O2
B
α
A (0 , 2 · a)
A(0 ; 2 · a)
r
O
O
x
B (a ; -1)
25
24
26 11
5 cv
A
12
13
23
14
22
15
21
x
E
D
H
B (a , -1)
B
F
6 cv
C
G
3 cv
16
17
20
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
19 18
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
A
Rjkbxtcndtyyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk gthdsq
17.
B/km 2014 ujlf
- 26 -
Ltqcndbt $ ,skj pflfyj lkz rf;ls[ lde[ xbctk x b y> jnkbxys[ jn yjkz> cktle/obv
j,hfpjv%
x y
$ (x , y) = y + x
$($(a,b) , $(b,a)) = ?
18.
(1) 1
(2) 2
O2
r
a b b - xbckf> jnkbxyst jn yjkz.
25
O1
r
26 11
12
24
a+b
(4)
2
23
(3) a ∙ b
13
14
B
15
22
Ghjbpdjlbntkmyjcnm 3 jgsnys[ hf,jxb[ !hf,jnf/ob[ c gjcnjzyyjq
21 b jlbyfrjdjq
16
crjhjcnm/@ d 3 hfpf dsit ghjbpdjlbntkmyjcnb 4 yfxbyf/ob[ hf,jxb[
c
17
20 !hf,jnf/ob[
19 18
gjcnjzyyjq b jlbyfrjdjq crjhjcnm/@.
Ghjbpdjlbntkmyjcnm jgsnyjuj hf,jxtuj
=?
Ghjbpdjlbntkmyjcnm yfxbyf/otuj hf,jxtuj
A
α
(1)
19.
Jkmuf ghbukfcbkf r ct,t ljvjq cdjb[ gjlheu Lfye b Bhe b pfhfytt ghbujnjdkf lkz yb[
4 gfrtnf c c/hghbpfvb% 2 gfrtnf cj ;dfxrjq b 2 gfrtnf c djpleiysvb ifhbrfvb.
Lfyf ghbikf gthdjq b gjkexbkf 2 ckexfqyj ds,hfyys[ gfrtnf bp 4 gfrtnjd.
6
(2) 12
(3) 3
(4) 4
B
O
?
B
C
‫ ס"מ‬5
E
A
D
Rfrjdf dthjznyjcnm njuj> xnj jyf gjkexbkf ldf gfrtnf c djpleiysvb ifhbrfvb*
(1)
1
1
6
(2) 2
20.
Yf xthnt;t O - njxrf yfxfkf rjjhlbyfn.
Lfyj% AO = BO
a=?
(1) 1
(2) 2
(3)
2
(4)
2
2
(3)
1
3
H
1
B
(4)F 4
‫ ס"מ‬6
C ‫ ס"מ‬3
B
G
‫רוסית‬
y
y
A (0 , 2 · a
A(0 ; 2 · a)
O
x
O
B (a ; -1)
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
B (a
Rjkbxtcndtyyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk gthdsq
- 27 -
B/km 2014 ujlf
Gecnfz cnhfybwf
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
B/km 2014 ujlf
- 28 -
Rjkbxtcndtyyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk dnjhjq
Rjkbxtcndtyyjt vsiktybt
D 'njv hfpltkt 20 djghjcjd.
Dhtvz yf htitybt - 20 vbyen.
"njn hfpltk drk/xftn djghjcs b pflfxb> lkz htitybz rjnjhs[ nht,etncz ghbvtytybt rjkbxtcndtyyjuj vsiktybz. R
rf;ljve djghjce ghtlkfuf/ncz xtnsht dfhbfynf jndtnf. Cktletn ds,hfnm ghfdbkmysq dfhbfyn jndtnf b jnvtnbnm tuj
yjvth d cjjndtncnde/otv vtcnt yf kbcnt jndtnjd.
J,obt pfvtxfybz
* Xthnt;b> ghbkfuftvst r ytrjnjhsv djghjcfv> ghtlyfpyfxtys lkz njuj> xnj,s gjvjxm d b[ htitybb> yj jyb yt
j,zpfntkmyj yfxthxtys d cjjndtncnde/ob[ vfcinf,f[. Yt cktletn ltkfnm dsdjls j lkbyt jnhtprf> dtkbxbyt eukf b
b
n. l. kbim yf jcyjdfybb xthnt;tq.
b
* Tckb kbybz> bpj,hf;tyyfz yf hbceyrt> ghtlcnfdkztncz ghzvjq> nj vj;yj ghtlgjkj;bnm> xnj jyf ltqcndbntkmyj
b
h
zdkztncz ghzvjq.
h
* Tckb d djghjct d rfxtcndt jlyjuj bp lfyys[ ghbdtlty utjvtnhbxtcrbq nthvby !ht,hj> hflbec> gkjoflm> j,(tv b [email protected]>
ha
nj gjlhfpevtdftncz> xnj tuj pyfxtybt ,jkmit yjkz
!d ghjnbdyjv ckexft ,elen lfys lheubt [email protected] a
* Tckb d djghjct erfpfy a (a > 0)> nj bvttncz d dble
a gjkj;bntkmysq rjhtym a.
* 0 yt zdkztncz yb gjkj;bntkmysv xbckjv> yb jnhbwfntkmysv xbckjv.
* 0 zdkztncz xtnysv xbckjv.
* 1 yt zdkztncz ghjcnsv xbckjv.
r
x°
r
r
x°
r
Ajhveks
a $x
1. Ghjwtyns% a% jn x - 'nj 100
r
r
10. Gkjoflm nhfgtwbb> lkbyf jlyjuj
jcyjdfybz rjnjhjq a, f lkbyf
lheujuj jcyjdfybz b b ]
a + bg $ h
lkbyf dscjns h, hfdyf
2
2. Cntgtyb% lkz k/,juj xbckf a, yt hfdyjuj 0, b k/,s[
wtks[ n b m f. a n = 1n a
,. am + n = am · an
d. a m = _m a i (a > 0, m > 0)
u. an · m = (an)m
n
c
c b
b
a
a
−
3. Ajhveks cjrhfotyyjuj evyj;tybz%
(a ± b)2 = a2 ± 2ab + b2
h
h
dhtvz
rr
6. Afrnjhbfk% n! = n(n – 1)(n – 2) · ... · 2 · 1
‫רוסית‬
‫רוסית‬
‫ס‬
ot
en
us
a
a
ateto
teto
C
C
AA
BB
‫משולב‬
rfntn
B
B
ep
f
rfntn
leg
h
‫רוסית‬
us
côté
e
us
‫ניצב‬B
‫ניצב‬
e
‫איטלקית‬
‫ספרדית‬
9. Gkjoflm ghzvjeujkmybrf lkbyjq a b
ibhbyjq b hfdyf a · b
A
ip
cateto
ot
A
en
‫איטלקית‬
B
A
us
cateto
ip
ot
cateto
a
C
po
ten
‫ספרדית‬
B
A
en
hi
po
ten
B
b
b
us
cateto
hi
B
gj
nt
ye
‫תר‬
‫י ר‬
pf
‫ת‬
C
‫י‬
rfntn
C
‫ניצב‬
‫ניצב‬
a
a
C
‫רוסית‬
A
rfntn
a
C
h
14.‫משולב‬
Wbkbylh%
‫צרפתית‬
r
a
f. Gkjoflm ,jrjdjq gjdth[yjcnb
r
h
wbkbylhf> hflbec jcyjdfybz
h
A
A
A hyrjnjhjuj hfdty Ar> fhy dscjnf h>
rh
po
po
‫وﺗﺮ‬
r
‫ר‬
A
D
‫ית‬
tén
ten
A hfdyf
2
π
r
·
h
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻢ‬
leg A
côté
‫ניצב‬
us
B
E
‫وﺗﺮ‬use
e
r
‫ﺗﺮ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻢ‬B ,. Gkjoflm
gjkyjq
gjdth[yjcnb
B
B
B
C
F
‫ ניצב‬C C
côté
‫ ﻗﺎﺋﻢ‬leg ‫ و‬C
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻢ‬
wbkbylhf
hfdyf 2πr2 + 2πr · h = 2πr(r + h)
C
B
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻢ‬
B
C
h
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻢ‬
d. J,(tv
wbkbylhf hfdty πr 2· h
h
h
a
a
A u
b
A
rfntn
A
B
B
C
C
côté euks
leg
ghzvjeujkmyjv
nhteujkmybrt>
B
B
C
C
C
rfntn
côté
leg
rjnjhjuj hfdys 30°, 60° b 90°,
lkbyf rfntnf> kt;fotuj ghjnbd eukf d 30°>
hfdyf gjkjdbyt lkbys ubgjntyeps.
C
rfntnd. D
F
F
‫צרפתית‬
,. Ntjhtvf Gbafujhf%
d ghzvjeujkmyjv
A
A
hi
ip
p o yf
ot
nhteujkmybrt
!nhteujkmybr
ABC
ten
e
A u
A
A h
n
u
h
cateto
us
bgj
sa
yp
yp
xthnt;[email protected]
dctulf
cj,k/lftncz
A u
A cateto
A
a
ot e
hy oté
hy
nt
bg
2 AB
p 2nu
yep
n
leg potB ghfdbkj%
rfntn jn + BCC2
B otécateto
CACcôté=
se
ty
en ucateto
f cktle/ott
n se
D
D
E
CC
8. Nhteujkmybr%
f. Gkjoflm nhteujkmybrf> lkbyf
jcyjdfybz rjnjhjuj a, b lkbyf dscjns r
‫איטלקית‬
‫ספרדית‬
a$h
lfyyjve‫משולב‬
jcyjdfyb/ h, hfdyf‫צרפתית‬
2
a
b
4. Pflfxb yf ghjqltyysq genm% crjhjcnm = hfccnjzybt
dhtvz
hh
hf,jnf
5. Pflfxb yf vjoyjcnm% vjoyjcnm =
7. Ghjgjhwbz% Tckb AD || BE || CF ,
nj AB = BC , f nfr;t AB = DE
DE EF
AC DF
h
c
12. Rheu> jrhe;yjcnm%
ha
r
f. Gkjoflm rheuf hflbecjv r
h x°
c
2
a r
hfdyf πr (π = 3.14...)
b
aa
,. Lkbyf jrhe;yjcnb hfdyf 2πr
h
d. Gkjoflm ctrnjhf rheuf> j,hfpjdfyyjuj
r
x°
x
2
wtynhfkmysv eukjv x°> hfdyf πr $
c
360 r r r b
a x° r
h
13. Ghzvjeujkmysq gfhfkktktgbgtl> re,%
r x°
r r
f. J,(tv ghzvjeujkmyjuj
A
D
gfhfkktktgbgtlf> lkbyf
B
E
c
rjnjhjuj a, ibhbyf b b
b
dscjnf c, hfdty a · b · c
C
Fa
ch
,. Gkjoflm gjdth[yjcnb ghzvjeujkmyjuj c b
a r
b
gfhfkktktgbgtlf hfdyf 2ab + 2bc + 2ac a
h
d. D re,t a = b = c
(a + b)(a – b) = a2 – b2
b
b
11. Dyenhtyybt euks vyjujeujkmybrf a
b
!n - xbckj cnjhjy [email protected]%
f. Cevvf dyenhtyyb[ eukjd vyjujeujkmybrf h
hfdyf (180n – 360) uhflecjd.
r
,. D ghfdbkmyjv vyjujeujkmybrt dtkbxbyf a
b x°
rf;ljuj dyenhtyytuj eukf hfdyf h
r
k a 180nn− 360 k uhflecjd. r h
a180 − 360
n =
b
n
r
r
x°
‫רוסית‬
15. J,(tv rjyecf> hflbec jcyjdfybz b
πr 2 $ h
‫משולב‬
‫צרפתית‬
rjnjhjuj
r> f dscjnf h> hfdty
3
16. J,(tv gbhfvbls> gkjoflm jcyjdfybz
A hS $ h
ub rjnjhjqA Shyfp dscjnf h > hfdty
yp
gj
o3
ote
nt
tén
y
n
leg
ep
f
B
rfntn
A u
bg
C
‫משולב‬
B
A
jn
us
leg
hy
po
ten
côté
e
C
us
‫צרפתית‬
B
côté
A h
yp
e
C
A
B
a
C
D
h r E
h h
F
ar
A
BA
A
B
B
B
C
C
C
‫ניצב‬
A
r
D
A
E
h‫ יתר‬DF
D
E
a
E
‫ניצב‬F
F
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻢ‬
B
C
A
A
oté
C
‫ר‬h‫ת‬
‫وﺗﺮ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻢ‬
‫وﺗﺮ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻢ‬
côté
‫ניצב‬
us
a
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv
f
‫רוסית‬
‫משולב‬
‫ צרפתית‬use
e
‫ איטלקית‬wtynhjv
b ah
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
C
C
C
C
C
C
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb
bp
ytuj
yt
gjlkt;fn
hfcghjcnhfytyb/
bkb
rjgbhjdfyb/
k/,sv
cgjcj,jv
b
c
bcgjkmpjdfybtv
k/,s[
chtlcnd
,tp
cateto
cateto
rfntn
‫ניצב‬
côté
leg
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻢ‬
ha
‫ רוסית‬b jwtyrb. Nfr;t‫משולב‬
‫' צרפתית‬rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys
Bphfbkmcrjuj
pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve
d
jncencndbt
‫איטלקית‬
‫ספרדית‬wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd
a
‫רוסית‬
‫משולב‬
‫צרפתית‬
‫איטלקית‬
‫ספרדית‬
A
A
A
A u jwtyrb.
A
A h
A
a
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys
Bphfbkmcrjuj
h i wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b
hy
ip
bg
yp
p
p
o
‫ﺮ‬
cateto
te
nu
us
cateto
u sb
'rpfvtyjd
a
‫ספרדית‬
ot
en
jwtyrb.rfntn
jn
ty
ty
ep
leg
ote
n
oté
n
n
‫י‬
‫תר‬
‫י‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻢ‬
‫وﺗ‬
Rjkbxtcndtyyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk dnjhjq
- 29 -
B/km 2014 ujlf
Djghjcs b pflfxb !djghjcs [email protected]
1.
Fgntrfhm t;tlytdyj ghjlftn 20 egfrjdjr gj 25 nf,ktnjr b 5 egfrjdjr gj 100 nf,ktnjr.
Pf crjkmrj lytq fgntrfhm ghjlfcn 10000 nf,ktnjr*
(1) 10
(2) 20
(3) 25
(4) 7 2
2.
A b B - ,erds> cjjndtncnde/obt wbahfv d bynthdfkt jn 0 lj 9.
1
Lfyj% + A1A
1A1
111B
A+B=?
(1) 8
(2) 9
(3) 11
(4) 12
3.
Lfyj% a> b b c - gjcktljdfntkmyst xbckf> a > b > c > 0.
b−c
x = c−a
x = ?
(1) 1
(2) 2
1
(3) - 2
(4) -1
4.
Lfys 3 hfpkbxyst ghzvst yf gkjcrjcnb% a, b b c.
Lfyj% a ⊥ c , b ⊥ c
Rfrjt bp cktle/ob[ endth;ltybq zdkztncz ytghtvtyyj dthysv*
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
1
a⊥b
a || b
a b b gthtctrf/n c d jlyjq b njq ;t njxrt
yb jlyj bp ghbdtltyys[ dsit endth;ltybq yt zdkztncz ytghtvtyyj dthysv
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
5082
Rjkbxtcndtyyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk dnjhjq
b
5.
Rfrjt bp cktle/ob[ xbctk zdkztncz yfb,jkmibv*
1
(1) b 2 l
1
(2) b 2 l
4
2
1
2
1
-2
1
(3) b 2 l
4
h
6
8
8
h
7
-2
1
(4) b 2 l
6.
D cktle/ob[ nhteujkmybrf[ lkbys cnjhjy lfys d cfynbvtnhf[.
D rfrjv bp 'nb[ nhteujkmybrjd lkbyf dscjns> j,jpyfxtyyjq h> cjcnfdkztn wtkjt xbckj
cfynbvtnhjd*
(1)
C
B/km 2014 ujlf
- 30 -
4
h 4
5
4
8
5
h
8
h
8
(2)
4
h
4
6
7
Q
5
(3)
h
5
4
(4)
h 4
4
8
7.
4 ,hfnmtd gjkexbkb vtijr rjyatn. Jyb gjgsnfkbcm hfpltkbnm rjyatns bp vtirf vt;le
cj,jq gjhjdye> yj yt cvjukb cltkfnm 'nj. Rjulf r ybv ghbcjtlbybkfcm b[ ldj/hjlyfz
ctcnhf> jyb cvjukb hfpltkbnm rjyatns gjhjdye vt;le
gznm/ exfcnybrfvb.
A
Rfrjt bp cktle/ob[ xbctk yt vj;tn
,snm rjkbxtcndjv rjyatn d vtirt*
a
b
4
h
6
4
α
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
20
25
30
35
5
10°
50°
O
B
α
h
8
5
b
4
?
O
C
h 4
4
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
B/km 2014 ujlf
- 31 -
Rjkbxtcndtyyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk dnjhjq
Dsdjls bp lbfuhfvvs !djghjcs [email protected]
Dybvfntkmyj hfccvjnhbnt ghbdtltyye/ lbfuhfvve b jndtnmnt yf xtnsht cktle/ob[ pf ytq
djghjcf.
Cktle/ofz lbfuhfvvf bpj,hf;ftn cjhtdyjdfybz gj gjldjlyjve gkfdfyb/ vt;le xtnshmvz
exfcnybrfvb% Fylhttv> <tkjq> Ufktq b Lfdbljv !cv. j,[email protected] Dct jyb yfxbyf/n ldb;tybt
bp jlyjq b njq ;t njxrb.
Lbfuhfvvf cjlth;bn lfyyst> rfcf/obtcz pfgksdf rf;ljuj bp exfcnybrjd% uke,bye> yf
rjnjhe/ gjuhepbkcz exfcnybr& ujhbpjynfkmyjt hfccnjzybt> rjnjhjt jy ghjgksk&
ghjljk;bntkmyjcnm dhtvtyb c yfxfkf pfgksdf lj ljcnb;tybz exfcnybrjv njxrb> j,jpyfxtyyjq
rhe;rjv !wbahf dyenhb rhe;rf jpyfxftn ghjljk;bntkmyjcnm dhtvtyb d vbyenf[@.
Lkz dsxbcktybz rjkbxtcndf ,fkkjd> yf,hfyyjuj rf;lsv exfcnybrjv> evyj;f/n rf;ljt
pyfxtybt uke,bys> yf rjnjhe/ jgecnbkcz exfcnybr> yf hfccnjzybt> rjnjhjt jy ghjgksk yf 'njq
uke,byt> b crkflsdf/n gjkextyyst htpekmnfns. Gj,tlbntktv cjhtdyjdfybz cxbnftncz
exfcnybr> yf,hfdibq yfb,jkmie/ cevve ,fkkjd.
‫תחרות‬
Yfghbvth% Lfdbl ljcnbu uke,bys d 24 vtnhf xthtp ldt vbyens gjckt njuj> rfr yfxfk pfgksd.
Yf 'njq uke,byt jy yf[jlbkcz jlye !ljgjkybntkmye/@ vbyene> yf ghjnz;tybb rjnjhjq jy
ghjgksk 15 vtnhjd. Ghjldb;tybt yf 'nj hfccnjzybt lfkj tve 360 ,fkkjd !15 x [email protected] Lfdbl
pfrjyxbk pfgksd cgecnz tot jlye vbyene.
Yfxfkmyfz
njxrf
5
4
{
Gjdth[yjcnm
0
djls
10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
4
3
Hfccnjzybt
!d vtnhf[@
4
2
4
J,jpyfxtybz%
6
8
Fylhtq
3
10
<tkf
2
12
Ufkz
Lfdbl
14
2
16
3
18
2
20
22
24
3
2
Uke,byf !d vtnhf[@
J,hfnbnt dybvfybt% ghb jndtnt yf rf;lsq djghjc yt cktletn ghbybvfnm dj dybvfybt lfyyst>
J,jpyfxtybz%
ghbdtltyyst d lheub[ djghjcf[.
Fylhtq
<tkf
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv
2
3
4
4 b jwtyrb.
2
3'rpfvtyjd
0
0
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
Dhtvz
Dhtvzbkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf
pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye
4 nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t
4
!d vbyenf[@
!d vbyenf[@
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf
'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
8
8
Rjkbxtcndtyyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk dnjhjq
Djghjcs
8.
Yfxfkmyfz
njxrf
5
‫תחרות‬
B/km 2014 ujlf
- 32 -
10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
Hfccnjzybt
djls
0
{
Rnj bp exfcnybrjd ghtjljktk yfb,jkmitt ujhbpjynfkmyjt hfccnjzybt
xthtp 4 vbyens
!d vtnhf[@
4
gjckt
yfxfkf
pfgksdf*
3
4
4
Gjdth[yjcnm
2
(2) <tkf
(1) Fylhtq
9.
Rnj bp exfcnybrjd pfrjyxbk cdjq pfgksd pf cfvjt rjhjnrjt dhtvz* J,jpyfxtybz%
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
10.
(3) Ufkz
(4) Lfdbl
4
6
Fylhtq
<tkf
Ufkz
Lfdbl
8
Fylhtq
3
10
<tkf
2
12
Ufkz
Lfdbl
14
2
3
Rnj bp exfcnybrjd
yf,hfk yfb,jkmitt rjkbxtcndj
,fkkjd cgecnz 2 vbyens gjckt yfxfkf
16
cjhtdyjdfybz*
18
2
Lfdbl
20
Fylhtq b Ufkz yf,hfkb jlbyfrjdjt rjkbxtcndj ,fkkjd> b jyj ,skj yfb,jkmibv
22
<tkf
3
2
Fylhtq b <tkf
24 yf,hfkb jlbyfrjdjt rjkbxtcndj ,fkkjd> b jyj ,skj yfb,jkmibv
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
11.
Rfrjq bp cktle/ob[ uhfabrjd vj;tn jgbcsdfnm cdzpm vt;le uke,byjq> yf rjnjhjq
Uke,byf !d vtnhf[@
gkfdfkb Fylhtq b <tkf> b ghjljk;bntkmyjcnm/ b[ pfgksdf*
J,jpyfxtybz%
Fylhtq
(1) 0
2
3
4
<tkf
(2)
Dhtvz
!d vbyenf[@
4
8
12
16
16
8
2
3
4
Dhtvz
!d vbyenf[@
(4)
0
4
8
12
12
16
16
Uke,byf
!d vtnhf[@
4
Dhtvz
!d vbyenf[@
Uke,byf
!d vtnhf[@
(3) 4
3
8
12
0
2
4
Uke,byf
!d vtnhf[@
0
2
3
4
Dhtvz
!d vbyenf[@
Uke,byf
!d vtnhf[@
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
O1
r
Rjkbxtcndtyyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk dnjhjq
B/km 2014 ujlf
- 33 -
O2
Djghjcs b pflfxb !djghjcs [email protected]
r
12.
Chtlytt pyfxtybt x, y b z hfdyj chtlytve pyfxtyb/ x b y.
Rfrjt bp cktle/ob[ ghtlkj;tybq zdkztncz ytghtvtyyj dthysv*
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
25
12
24
x hfdyj y
z hfdyj 0
23
z hfdyj chtlytve pyfxtyb/ x b y
22
yb jlby bp ghbdtltyys[ dsit dfhbfynjd jndtnf yt zdkztncz dthysv
21
20
13.
26 11
Yf cktle/otv xthnt;t bpj,hf;tyf jrhe;yjcnm c wtynhjv O.
AB - rfcfntkmyfz r jrhe;yjcnb d njxrt B.
Cjukfcyj 'nbv lfyysv b lfyysv xthnt;f>
«OBC = ?
(1) a
(2)
(3) 90c − α
(4) 45c − α
13
14
16
17
19 18
A
α
B
O
?
C
2
‫ ס"מ‬5
E
A
D
14.
E ytrjnjhjuj ;bdjnyjuj bvttncz x yju (x > 1). D jlyjv cnflt 'nb[ ;bdjnys[
yfcxbnsdftncz 42 yjub> f d lheujv cnflt 'nb[ ;bdjnys[ yfcxbnsdftncz 91 yjuf.
Xtve hfdty x*
(1) 13
(2) 7
‫רוסית‬
(3) 3
y
(4) yb jlby bp ghbdtltyys[ dsit dfhbfynjd jndtnf yt zdkztncz dthysv
A(0 ; 2 · a)
15.
B
a
2
B
F
‫ ס"מ‬6
Cevvf wbah nht[pyfxyjuj xbckf ljk;yf ,snm ,jkmit bkb hfdyjq
O
hfdyjq
.
b vtymit bkb
x
16.
6 cnekmtd hfccnfdktys gj rheue. Yf nht[ bp yb[ cblzn 3 xtkjdtrf> b vt;le rf;lsvb
2 k/lmvb bvttncz gecnjq cnek. 3 lheub[ xtkjdtrf [jnzn ctcnm yf gecnst cnekmz.
Crjkmrj djpvj;yjcntq hfccflrb ceotcndetn e 'nb[ 3 k/ltq*
(1) 12
C ‫ ס"מ‬3
B
G
A (0 , 2 ·
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
1 ; 27
1 ; 20
3 ; 27
3 ; 20
H
y
B
15
O
B (a ; -1)
(2) 2
(3) 3
(4) 6
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
B(
Rjkbxtcndtyyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk dnjhjq
B
- 34 -
17.
Hfdyjcnjhjyybq nhteujkmybr dgbcfy d rheu hflbecjv r cv.
Rfrjdf lkbyf cnjhjys 'njuj nhteujkmybrf !d [email protected]*
(1)
3r
(2) 2r
(3)
4x
3x
C
B/km 2014 ujlf
P
8
r
2
Q
5
2r
(4)
18.
Yf ghbdtltyyjv xthnt;t K - lkbyf dscjns r cnjhjyt a> f L - lkbyf dscjns r cnjhjyt b.
a
Lfyj% b = 4
K
K
L =?
b
L
ab
2
(1)
(2) 2
(3)
(4) 4
1
ab
4
a
1
4
8
19.
3
4 he,fitr d irfae - ptktyst.
4
Yf 5 he,fitr d irfae tcnm geujdbws.
3
5 he,fitr d irfae - ptktyst> b yf yb[ tcnm geujdbws.
h
8
h
4
6
7
Rjkbxtcndj ptktys[ he,fitr> yf rjnjhs[ ytn geujdbw
=?
Rjkbxtcndj he,fitr c geujdbwfvb> yt zdkz/ob[cz ptktysvb
1
(1) 2
20.
Lfyj% x(y + x) = y(x – y)
x=?
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(2) 2
(3)
3
2
3
(4) 4
1
y–1
y+1
0
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5
Rjkbxtcndtyyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk dnjhjq
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Gecnfz cnhfybwf
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Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
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B/km 2014 ujlf
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ENGLISH
This section contains 22 questions.
The time allotted is 20 minutes.
The following section contains three types of questions: Sentence Completion, Restatement
and Reading Comprehension. Each question is followed by four possible responses. Choose
the response which best answers the question and mark its number in the appropriate place
on the answer sheet.
Sentence Completions (Questions 1-8)
This part consists of sentences with a word or words missing in each. For each question,
choose the answer which best completes the sentence.
1. "Victorian" architecture was named for Queen Victoria, but it was
her husband,
Albert, who made the style popular.
(1)actually
(2)extremely
(3)presently
(4)hopefully
2. Many people in ancient Egypt kept tame monkeys as
.
(1)pets
(2)pages
(3)plates
(4)points
3. Believing it would lead him to lands full of gold, Columbus
a southern route for
his third voyage to the Americas.
(1)offended
(2)imprisoned
(3)selected
(4)tightened
4. its name, the tough string known as "catgut" is made from the intestines of sheep
and sometimes horses, but never cats.
(1)Without
(2)Beyond
(3) Since
(4)Despite
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5. "Lepidoptery" is the scientific
- 37 -
for the study of butterflies.
(1)scale
(2)worth
(3)term
(4)fate
6. In the recent elections in France, more than 80 percent of those
to vote did so.
(1)defiant
(2)eligible
(3)lucid
(4)forlorn
7. The rhinoceros
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for its poor eyesight by using its keen senses of smell and hearing.
(1)compensates
(2)consumes
(3)converses
(4)compromises
8. Austrian physicist Lise Meitner
her early interest in science to the intellectual
atmosphere of her parents' home.
(1)nominated
(2)endorsed
(3)attributed
(4)prescribed
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Restatements (Questions 9-12)
This part consists of several sentences, each followed by four possible ways of restating the
main idea of that sentence in different words. For each question, choose the one restatement
which best expresses the meaning of the original sentence.
9. The giraffe towers over all other animals.
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
No other animal is as tall as the giraffe.
Many animals are afraid of giraffes.
The giraffe is stronger than most other animals.
Giraffes are among the fastest animals.
10. According to one assessment, a single truck carrying a 38-ton load causes more
extensive damage to both roads and the environment than do one hundred thousand
cars.
(1) It is difficult to estimate the extent of the damage caused to roads and the
environment by large numbers of heavy trucks and cars.
(2) It has been estimated that the damage caused to roads and the environment by one
truck carrying a 38-ton load is greater than that caused by one hundred thousand
cars.
(3) It has been shown that the damage caused to the environment and roads by one
hundred thousand cars is equal to that caused by a truck weighing 38 tons.
(4) While heavy trucks cause major damage to roads, it is claimed that cars are more
harmful to the environment.
11. As the population of China grows, the amount of land available for farming decreases.
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
As the number of people in China grows, more land is needed for farming.
Although there are more people in China than ever before, there are fewer farmers.
China does not have enough land to produce food for its growing population.
The more people there are in China, the less land there is to farm.
12. The full significance of Primo Levi's first book only became apparent with the
appearance of his last, The Drowned and the Saved.
(1) The most significant themes of Primo Levi's first book appear again in his last, The
Drowned and the Saved.
(2) Primo Levi's first novel appeared only after the publication of his last, The Drowned
and the Saved.
(3) Not until the publication of Primo Levi's last book, The Drowned and the Saved, did
people recognize the true meaning of his first book.
(4) The full significance of Primo Levi's The Drowned and the Saved becomes apparent
only after reading his first book.
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Reading Comprehension
This part consists of two passages, each followed by several related questions. For each
question, choose the most appropriate answer based on the text.
Text I (Questions 13-17)
(1) Many
kinds of pollution have a negative effect on our quality of life. There is
increasing public awareness of air, water and soil pollution. Noise pollution, however,
has attracted less attention even though it is just as harmful.
Research has shown that loud noise may interfere with children's ability to learn.
(5)
An experiment showed that children in schools near noisy airports scored lower on
problem-solving tests than children who studied in quieter areas. The children's scores
rose once steps were taken to lower the noise level.
Based on experiments of this kind, scientists have linked loud noise to a condition
called "learned helplessness." Learned helplessness affects children who, for various
(10) reasons, cannot concentrate. As a result, they perform poorly in school. This makes
them feel that they will never be able to succeed and therefore stop trying to learn.
Because noise makes it difficult for children to concentrate, it is a major cause of
learned helplessness.
In addition to noise from outside the school, noise can originate inside the school
(15) itself. Internal sources of noise may include loud voices, bells, and even the heating
system. Experts suggest that schools install carpets and special tiles that help absorb
loud noises. These steps can help control noise pollution and so make it easier for
children to learn.
Questions
13. The main purpose of the text is to (1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
compare different kinds of pollution
describe sources of noise in schools
discuss how noise can interfere with children's ability to learn
explain how children's test scores can be improved
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B/km 2014 ujlf
14. The second paragraph mainly describes (1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
an experiment about noise and learning
ways to control noise
noise at airports
the noise level in schools
15. According to the third paragraph, which of the following cannot be said about children
with learned helplessness?
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
They cannot concentrate.
They perform poorly in school.
They are not affected by noise.
They stop trying to learn.
16. In the last paragraph, bells are mentioned as an example of something that (1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
should be made out of special tiles
controls noise pollution
causes noise in schools
makes it easier for children to learn
17. In line 16, "install" means (1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
find out
learn about
go around
put in
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Fyukbqcrbq zpsr> hfpltk gthdsq
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B/km 2014 ujlf
Text II (Questions 18-22)
(1)
(5)
One historian called him the world's first individualist. Sigmund Freud speculated
that he had taught monotheism to Moses. If recent research makes less exaggerated
claims for Pharaoh Amenhotep IV, who reigned from 1378 to 1362 B.C.E., he continues
to hold his place as an artistic and religious revolutionary. He turned his back on the
pantheon of Egyptian gods to worship only one of them: Aten, the life-giving sun. To
signify his new allegiance, he changed his name to Akhenaten and built himself a new
city, known today as Tel El Amarna, where he ruled with his queen, Nefertiti.
Equally untraditional is the shocking manner in which artists portrayed Akhenaten
and his family. Egyptian rulers had always been depicted as physically perfect, but
(10) Akhenaten's artists showed their subject as almost grotesque, with a long, haggard face;
slanting eyes; thick lips; and a soft, effeminate body. As a result, there has long been
speculation that Akhenaten suffered from a rare disease.
But now some Egyptologists are wondering: did Akhenaten really look like that?
Or do we need to look at his picture in a different way? In other words, these experts
(15) are suggesting that ancient Egyptian art was not intended to be representational. It was
meant to be symbolic, to give expression to the subject's characteristics, not to create an
accurate likeness. The scholars argue that the "grotesqueness" of the portraits serves to
convey the royal family's individuality.
To support their claim, they point out that there is a history of similarly "ugly"
(20) portraits in earlier Egyptian art. Those portraits depicted foreigners, servants and
people considered abnormal, on the fringes of society. The experts believe that
Akhenaten ordered his artists to adopt these conventions to show that the king and his
family were not like other human beings: just as their god was unique, so were they.
Questions
18. It can be inferred from the first paragraph that Amenhotep changed his name to
Akhenaten in order to (1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
show that he worshipped only the sun
signify his new allegiance to Nefertiti
persuade the people of Tel El Amarna to worship Aten
place himself in the pantheon of Egyptian gods
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19. The second paragraph contrasts portraits of Akhenaten (1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
with those of his family
that show him as grotesque with those that show him as physically perfect
that were made by his artists with those that were made by other artists
with those of earlier rulers
20. It can be inferred that the Egyptologists mentioned in line 13 believe that (1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Akhenaten did not actually have a long, haggard face and slanting eyes
ancient Egyptians did not think thick lips were grotesque
ancient Egyptian art was intended to be representational
Akhenaten suffered from a rare disease
21. The main purpose of the last paragraph is to support the claim that - (1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Akhenaten was not considered a human being but a god
Akhenaten was actually a foreigner
Akhenaten's artists thought he was ugly
Akhenaten's artists were trying to emphasize the pharaoh's specialness
22. An appropriate title for the text would be (1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
The Ugly Pharaoh: New Ideas about the Depiction of Akhenaten
Akhenaten: Diseased or Just Grotesque?
Akhenaten and Nefertiti: Religious Revolutionaries
Egyptian Art: From the Symbolic to the Representational
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- 43 -
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Gecnfz cnhfybwf
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ENGLISH
B/km 2014 ujlf
- 44 -
This section contains 22 questions.
The time allotted is 20 minutes.
The following section contains three types of questions: Sentence Completion, Restatement
and Reading Comprehension. Each question is followed by four possible responses. Choose
the response which best answers the question and mark its number in the appropriate place
on the answer sheet.
Sentence Completions (Questions 1-8)
This part consists of sentences with a word or words missing in each. For each question,
choose the answer which best completes the sentence.
1. In 1932, Amelia Earhart became the first woman pilot to make a solo
across the
Atlantic Ocean.
(1)flight
(2)heroine
(3)apology
(4)guard
2.
Though their countries were bitter enemies, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev
President John F. Kennedy for his intelligence and courage.
(1)softened
(2)reviewed
(3)admired
(4)instructed
3.
Most scholars consider Beowulf, an 8th-century epic poem, to be the most important
work of Old English
.
(1)opposition
(2)tolerance
(3)literature
(4)dismissal
4.
Horse racing is a popular sport in England, and many people there
horses every week.
(1) slip on
(2) lock up
(3) bet on
(4) differ from
U.S.
their favourite
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B/km 2014 ujlf
- 45 -
5.
, thousands of people must undergo treatment for rabies because it cannot be
ascertained whether the animal that bit them had the disease.
(1)Previously
(2)Comparatively
(3)Alternately
(4)Unfortunately
6. It is believed that Abraham Lincoln suffered from Marfan's syndrome, an inherited
that causes arms and legs to grow to abnormal lengths.
(1) disorder
(2) accusation
(3) whisper
(4)preposition
7. The sloth bear is hunted for its gallbladder and other organs, which are highly
in
Asia for their medicinal qualities.
(1)prized
(2)pleased
(3)promised
(4)prepared
8. The American secretary of state is the
of the Israeli foreign minister.
(1)transaction
(2)predicament
(3)counterpart
(4)ingredient
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B/km 2014 ujlf
Restatements (Questions 9-12)
This part consists of several sentences, each followed by four possible ways of restating the
main idea of that sentence in different words. For each question, choose the one restatement
which best expresses the meaning of the original sentence.
9. The only reptile in Ireland is the lizard.
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Most of the reptiles found in Ireland are lizards.
There are no lizards in Ireland.
Many reptiles, including lizards, live in Ireland.
In Ireland there is just one reptile – the lizard.
10. Czar Peter the Great of Russia introduced many Western ideas and technologies to his
country.
(1) Peter the Great introduced many Russian ideas and technologies to the West.
(2) Peter the Great did not allow the Russian people to learn about Western ideas or
technologies.
(3) Many Western ideas and technologies were brought to Russia by Peter the Great.
(4) Czar Peter the Great of Russia was not interested in any Western ideas or
technologies.
11. Since many countries do not have sufficient agricultural output to meet domestic demand,
they are forced to import foodstuffs from other countries.
(1) Many countries are dissatisfied with the quality of their agricultural products and,
therefore, import certain foods from other places.
(2) Many countries must import food because their agricultural production levels are
not high enough to satisfy domestic needs.
(3) Even when their agricultural output is insufficient, many countries prefer not to
import foodstuffs from other countries.
(4) In many countries, domestic demand dictates which foods are grown locally and
which agricultural products are imported.
12. Students at Cornell University have concocted a baked apple dessert filled with ice
cream, which can be microwaved without liquefying the filling.
(1) An ice-cream-filled baked apple dessert that can be heated in a microwave oven
without melting the ice cream has been created by students at Cornell University.
(2) Students at Cornell University have developed an improved microwave oven that
can heat up a baked apple dessert filled with ice cream without melting the ice
cream.
(3) Students at Cornell University have been trying to develop an ice cream substitute
that will not melt when microwaved, for use in baked apple desserts.
(4) A new method of heating an ice-cream-filled baked apple dessert without using a
microwave oven is being researched by students at Cornell University.
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Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Fyukbqcrbq zpsr> hfpltk dnjhjq
- 47 -
B/km 2014 ujlf
Reading Comprehension
This part consists of two passages, each followed by several related questions. For each
question, choose the most appropriate answer based on the text.
Text I (Questions 13-17)
(1)
One of the oldest animals on the face of the planet is undoubtedly one of the oddest.
The armadillo evolved 50 million years ago and has survived with few changes ever
since. It seems to have been cobbled together from parts of many different animals,
with a shell like a turtle's, a nose like an anteater's and a head like a rabbit's.
(5)
(10)
The most obvious feature of the armadillo is also the most bizarre: unlike any other
mammal, it is covered by a carapace, or shell. This carapace is made up of some 2,500
plates that resemble human fingernails. Unlike a turtle's, the armadillo's shell is quite
thin and smooth. This smoothness serves a protective function. When the armadillo
hides in a hole, it is difficult for an attacker to get a good grip on its armored back. The
carapace also allows armadillos to slip easily through dense, thorny thickets, enabling
the animal to evade pursuers who are protected only by skin and fur.
Surprisingly, considering its short legs and squat shape, the armadillo can run
extremely quickly. It is also a remarkable jumper, able to leap more than a meter into
the air when startled. In contrast to the armadillo's impressive physical abilities,
(15) however, the animal's intelligence appears to be limited. In proportion to its body size,
its brain is among the smallest of any mammal.
According to Eleanor Storrs, a biology professor and leading armadillo expert, this
is the main reason why armadillos adapt so easily to captivity. In addition, they are not
picky about their diet and show few signs of distress when kept in a home or cage.
(20) Nevertheless, Storrs does not recommend trying to keep them as pets. If let loose in the
house, armadillos spend all their time digging noisily in cupboards and underneath
furniture. And though they are docile and harmless, Storrs says they are incapable of
forming emotional attachments to other species. Sue McPhee, the proud owner of eight
pet armadillos, disagrees.
Questions
13. The main purpose of the text is to (1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
explain how the armadillo evolved over millions of years
compare the armadillo with other animals
discuss the unusual characteristics of the armadillo
present the findings of a leading armadillo expert
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Fyukbqcrbq zpsr> hfpltk dnjhjq
- 48 -
B/km 2014 ujlf
14. In line 3, "cobbled together" could be replaced by (1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
observed
constructed
evolved
survived
15. In lines 8-11 ("When . . . fur"), the text lists two (1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
reasons why armadillos hide in holes
difficulties faced by armadillos when they are chased
ways in which the carapace helps the armadillo
advantages for the armadillo of living in dense thickets
16. The main purpose of the third paragraph is to (1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
discuss the abilities and limitations of armadillos
compare the armadillo to other mammals
explain how the armadillo's shape affects its speed
show that armadillos have impressive physical strength
17. According to the text, Eleanor Storrs believes that armadillos adapt to captivity because
they (1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
are not very intelligent
have a protective carapace
are used to living in small spaces
like to dig in cupboards and underneath furniture
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Fyukbqcrbq zpsr> hfpltk dnjhjq
- 49 -
B/km 2014 ujlf
Text II (Questions 18-22)
(1)
(5)
Women struggling to put food on the table are more likely to be overweight than
those whose refrigerators are always full, according to Marilyn Townsend of the
University of California. She analyzed a U.S. government survey of the food intake of
almost 10,000 Americans nationwide and found that the prevalence of obesity increases
among women as their household income nears the poverty line. More than half of the
women who reported not having enough to eat were overweight, compared to 34% of
food-secure women. The paradoxical idea that food shortages could cause weight gain
was first proposed in the mid-1990s but was not investigated seriously by researchers
until now.
(10)
(15)
Moira Tidball, a nutritionist in Washington, D.C., agrees that hunger and obesity
often go together. She characterizes the problem facing many poor Americans as
"malnutrition of a different sort." Tidball explains: "People who stretch their dollars to
buy food often buy the wrong kind. Because poor neighborhoods often lack large
grocery stores, people – especially those without cars – are forced to shop at small,
local stores which stock little fresh fruit or vegetables but plenty of high-fat, high-starch
processed food." She adds that "even when they have a broader selection of foods to
buy, many poor people do not have the nutritional knowledge to make better choices."
Indeed, Townsend's study found that obesity and lack of education were strongly
correlated.
(20)
(25)
Townsend thinks there is an additional reason why obesity strikes many poor people.
Americans who rely on government food programs receive food vouchers once a month.
If they run out of vouchers in the last week of one month, they may overeat rich foods at
the beginning of the next. Over time, such binge eating can lead to obesity.
Furthermore, notes Christine Olson, a Cornell University researcher, women often
deprive themselves to feed the rest of the family, making them more vulnerable to the
famine-feast cycle of eating. She has documented this behavior through interviews with
food-insecure women. With obesity and diet-related diseases, such as diabetes, on the
rise, "we need more research on the health consequences of food insecurity," says
Olson.
Questions
18. Another way the author describes "those whose refrigerators are always full" (line 2) is (1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
struggling
paradoxical
overweight
food-secure
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Fyukbqcrbq zpsr> hfpltk dnjhjq
- 50 -
B/km 2014 ujlf
19. According to the first paragraph, what did Townsend's analysis show?
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Poor women are less likely to be overweight than rich women.
Most poor people in America do not have enough to eat.
The poorest women are the most likely to be overweight.
Obesity is a serious problem for poor men as well as women.
20. The main purpose of the second paragraph is to (1) discuss Tidball's explanation of Townsend's findings
(2) explain why many Americans are stretching their dollars to buy food
(3) discuss Tidball's disagreement with Townsend
(4) explain why many poor people lack knowledge about nutrition
21. Why is it significant that "Townsend's study found that obesity and lack of education
were strongly correlated" (lines 18-19)?
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
It suggests that many poor people do not know which foods are healthy.
It proves that hunger and obesity often go together.
It explains why poor women are less likely to be well educated.
It indicates that the real problem is poverty, not obesity.
22. It can be inferred that the "vouchers" mentioned in line 21 (1) can only be used once a month
(2) cannot be used to buy rich foods
(3) can be used instead of money to buy food
(4) cannot be used at the end of the month
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Fyukbqcrbq zpsr> hfpltk dnjhjq
- 51 -
B/km 2014 ujlf
Gecnfz cnhfybwf
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Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
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gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
‫שם משפחה ושם פרטי‬
‫מרכז ארצי לבחינות ולהערכה‬
‫اﳌﺮﻛـﺰ‬
‫اﻟﻘﻄــﺮي‬
‫מיסודן‬
‫של‬
‫שפה‬
‫اﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻼﻣﺘﺤــﺎﻧﺎت‬
‫‪LANGUAGE‬‬
‫رﻗﻢ اﻟﻬﻮﻳﺔ‬
‫מס' זיהוי‬
‫)ע"ר(‬
‫‪NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR TESTING & EVALUATION‬‬
‫האוניברסיטאות‬
‫اﺳﻢ اﻟﻌﺎﺋﻠﺔ واﻻﺳﻢ اﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫‪NAME‬‬
‫‪B‬‬
‫‪I.D. No.‬‬
‫واﻟﺘّﻘﻴﻴـﻢ‬
‫בישראל‬
‫תאריך‬
‫ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ‬
‫‪DATE‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
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‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪TURN OVER TO CONTINUE‬‬
‫ﻟﻺﻛﻤﺎل ‪ -‬اﻗﻠﺐ اﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬
‫אין לכתוב משמאל לקו זה‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻜﺘﺐ ﻋﻦ ﻳﺴﺎر ﻫﺬا اﳋﻂ‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪DO NOT WRITE TO THE LEFT OF THIS LINE‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫להמשך ‪ -‬הפכו את הדף‬
‫לשימוש משרדי‬
‫ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﳌﻜﺘﺒﻲ‬
‫‪FOR OFFICE USE‬‬
‫‪52‬‬
‫أﻛﻤﻞ‬
‫המשך‬
‫אין לכתוב מימין לקו זה‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻜﺘﺐ ﻋﻦ ﳝﲔ ﻫﺬا اﳋﻂ‬
‫‪25‬‬
‫‪25‬‬
‫‪30‬‬
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‫‪35‬‬
‫‪35‬‬
‫‪40‬‬
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‫‪45‬‬
‫‪45‬‬
‫‪DO NOT WRITE TO THE RIGHT OF THIS LINE‬‬
‫אין לכתוב משמאל לקו זה‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻜﺘﺐ ﻋﻦ ﻳﺴﺎر ﻫﺬا اﳋﻂ‬
‫‪DO NOT WRITE TO THE LEFT OF THIS LINE‬‬
‫‪50‬‬
‫‪50‬‬
‫‪CONTINUE HERE‬‬
‫‪53‬‬
‫‪B‬‬
‫‪B‬‬
‫‪B‬‬
‫‪B‬‬
‫‪B‬‬
‫‪B‬‬
‫‪B‬‬
‫‪B‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
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‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
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‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
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‫‪3‬‬
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‫‪3‬‬
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‫‪3‬‬
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‫‪3‬‬
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‫‪3‬‬
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‫‪3‬‬
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‫‪3‬‬
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‫‪3‬‬
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‫‪3‬‬
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‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪7‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫**‬
‫*‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻜﺘﺐ ﻋﻦ ﳝﲔ ﻫﺬا اﳋﻂ‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫אין לכתוב מימין לקו זה‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪SECTION‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪SECTION‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
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‫‪C‬‬
‫‪ADDRESS‬‬
‫‪9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30‬‬
‫‪BOOKLET No.‬‬
‫כתובת ‪ /‬اﻟﻌﻨﻮان‬
‫‪DO NOT WRITE TO THE RIGHT OF THIS LINE‬‬
‫פרק ‪ /‬ﻓﺼﻞ ‪8‬‬
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‫‪SECTION‬‬
‫اﳌﺮﻛـﺰ‬
‫מיסודן‬
‫ﻟﻼﻣﺘﺤــﺎﻧﺎت‬
‫פרק ‪ /‬ﻓﺼﻞ ‪6‬‬
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‫בישראל‬
‫האוניברסיטאות‬
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‫פרק ‪ /‬ﻓﺼﻞ ‪5‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
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‫‪1‬‬
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‫פרק ‪ /‬ﻓﺼﻞ ‪4‬‬
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‫פרק ‪ /‬ﻓﺼﻞ ‪3‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
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‫פרק ‪ /‬ﻓﺼﻞ ‪2‬‬
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‫פרק ‪ /‬ﻓﺼﻞ ‪1‬‬
‫‪SAMPLE‬‬
‫‪QUESTIONS‬‬
‫ﳕﺎذج أﺳﺌﻠﺔ‬
‫שאלות‬
‫לדוגמה‬
‫إﺑﺪأ ﻫﻨﺎ‬
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‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪SECTION‬‬
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‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
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‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪SECTION‬‬
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‫‪SECTION‬‬
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‫‪2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
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‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪SECTION‬‬
‫‪FOR OFFICE USE‬‬
‫ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﳌﻜﺘﺒﻲ‬
‫‪START HERE‬‬
‫התחל כאן‬
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‫‪1‬‬
‫واﻟ ّﺘﻘﻴﻴـﻢ‬
‫של‬
‫לשימוש משרדי‬
‫מס' חוברת ‪ /‬رﻗﻢ اﻟﻜ ّﺮاس‬
‫‪NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR TESTING & EVALUATION‬‬
‫اﻟﻘﻄــﺮي‬
‫תאריך‬
‫שפה‬
‫)ע"ר(‬
‫מרכז ארצי לבחינות ולהערכה‬
‫ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ‬
‫‪LANGUAGE‬‬
‫‪B‬‬
‫מס' זיהוי ‪ /‬رﻗﻢ اﻟﻬﻮﻳﺔ‬
‫‪DATE‬‬
‫اﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫שם משפחה ושם פרטי ‪ /‬اﺳﻢ اﻟﻌﺎﺋﻠﺔ واﻻﺳﻢ اﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ‬
‫‪I.D. No.‬‬
‫‪9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫‪NAME‬‬
‫‪54‬‬
B/km 2014 ujlf
Ghbvth cjxbytybz dscjrjuj ehjdyz
1
В последнее время многие жители Израиля задаются
вопросом - а не стоит ли начать жизнь в сельской местности?
Для многих подобная перспектива кажется привлекательной по ряду причин, но существуют также противники подобных
5
утверждений. Чье мнение можно считать более верным, и
существует ли в принципе правильный ответ на данный
вопрос?
Прежде всего личный взгляд каждого человека всегда
сугубо индивидуален, и зависит от ряда причин. Это и
10
особенности воспитания, и личностные предпочтения.
Жизнь в сельской местности, безусловно, более благотворна
с экологической точки зрения, но далеко все социальные и
карьерные амбиции можно реализовать, проживая вдали от
больших городов.
15
С другой стороны, если человек вполне доволен
перспективами, которые открывает перед ним жизнь в
деревне, значит и сомнений быть не должно. Самым
правильным критерием при решении данного вопроса
должны быть личные пожелания, ибо душевный комфорт
20
является отправной точкой дальнейшего успеха.
В Израиле не настолько актуальна проблема боль-
ших расстояний, но далеко не во всех селах хорошо развита
транспортная инфраструктура, и не все жители имеют возможность постоянно использовать автомобиль. Это возвра25
щает нас к вопросу о том, что если человек заинтересован в
карьерном росте, при этом работая в городе, это может стать
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
55
B/km 2014 ujlf
препятствием, и едва ли позволит в полной мере реализовать
все амбиции, явно влияя на его социальную роль в обществе. По моему мнению, проживание в городе кажется мне
30
более привлекательным, и я не вижу никаких препятствий
для полноты осуществления как социальных, так и экологических ценностей. В случае, если возникает необходимость
так называемого "общения с природой" вполне можно воспользоваться ближайшим отпуском, и провести его в сель-
35
ской местности, отдыхая, дыша свежим воздухом и укрепляя
контакты с семьей. Я уверена, что компромисс в любом случае может быть найден, и прежде всего надо ориентироваться на личностные приоритеты и моральный комфорт, дабы
ошибочные решения в дальнейшем не приводили к не самым
40
приятным последствиям.
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
56
B/km 2014 ujlf
Ghbvth cjxbytybz gjchtlcndtyyjuj ehjdyz
1
Многие в Израиле мечтают о жизни в сельской местности,
их можно понять. Жизнь в сельской местности намного
спокойнее и тише, чем жизнь в большом городе. К тому же
жизнь в сельской местности, по моему мнению, лучше
5
способствует реализации социальных и экологических
ценностей.
Во первых, неоспоримым фактом является то, что города
загрязняют окружающиюсреду, в то время как деревни, села
и кибуцы стараются облагорозить ее. Следует отметить, что
10
население в сельских местностях очень небольшое
(относительно населения в городах) поэтому жители
деревень и сел знают друг друга очень хорошо, что лишь
способствует реализации социальных ценностей.
С другой стороны, как было сказано выше, развитие городов
15
пагубно сказывается на экологические ценности, так как
происходит вырубка лесов, уничтожение мест обитания
зверей и птиц, к тому же, воздух загрязняется из-за
выхлопных газов автотранспорта, заводов и фабрик. Но
вместе с этим города способствуют развитию экономики, а
20
как известно экономика базируется на деловых связях
которые отражаются также и в социальной сфере. Стоит
отметить, что население городов огромно, из-за этого люди
живущие в городах постоянно знакомятся с новыми людьми,
поэтому их социальный мир разнообразен.
25
Подводя итог вышесказанного, я считаю, что жизнь в
сельской местности лучше способствует реализации
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
57
B/km 2014 ujlf
социальных ценностей. Да, у жителей деревень социальный
круг куда менее разнообразен, но он основан на более
крепких и теплых взаимоотношениях, а это на мой взгляд
30
куда важнее. В добавок нет смысла спорить с тем, что
экология в селах развита куда лучше, чем в городах, так как в
селах люди стараются жить в гармонии с природой.
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
Ntrcn yfcnjzotuj 'rpfvtyf bkb dslth;rb bp ytuj yt gjlkt;fn hfcghjcnhfytyb/ bkb rjgbhjdfyb/ k/,sv cgjcj,jv b c bcgjkmpjdfybtv k/,s[ chtlcnd ,tp
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
58
B/km 2014 ujlf
Ghbvth cjxbytybz ybprjuj ehjdyz
1
Демократия которая предназначена на сегодняшнее
поколение просто нео...емлима, и восхитительна по своим
качествам. Человек должен ценить, то что это у него есть.
Ведь ..., например в Советском Союзе, при временах Сталина
5
и Ленина была жесткая диктатура и человек невправе был
выбирать, как сегодня в Израиле каждый гражданин в праве
решить способ своей жизни и путь ее реализации. Есть два
основных, и самых обширных способов жизни, первый это
городской, а второй сельскохозяйственный. Ни один из двух
10
не может состоять друг без друга. Однако есть споры по
поводу приоритетов реализации в социальном и
экологическом вопросе, между двумя сферами.
Самореализация в городских условиях жизни имеет
исключительные приоритеты, экологического плана. Это
15
является предотвращение излишнего урона, вреда зеленым
территориям. Ведь в городе можно поместить гораздо
большее кол-во людей, на определенном участке местности.
Но что касается социального плана, создание общин в городе
гораздо сложнее, чем это происходит в сельской местности,
20
но обсолютно не невозможно. Но и Сельскохозяйственный
образ реализации, по сравнению с городским имеет
обширный приоритет в создании общин, тоесть в
социологическом плане. Ведь люди города взаимосвязаны
друг с другом, что значительно влияет Но также у деревни
25
есть и свои минус, это захват зеленых территорий, во благо
своей реализации. Ведь сельско хозяйственная деятельность
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gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
59
B/km 2014 ujlf
влияет на вырубку лесов, в целях создания полей, или
выращивания каково либо сель-хоз. продукта.
Я лично придерживаюсь городского способа реализации. Так
30
как это служит сохранению зеленого участка, и может
потому что это моя привычка и я так привык. Хотя иногда в
кругу многих людей чувствуешь себя одиноким. Но все
равно общества хватает.
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gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb. Nfr;t pfghtoftncz j,exfnm 'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt
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60
Rk/x dthys[ jndtnjd
B/km 2014 ujlf
Ckjdtcyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk gthdsq
Yjvth djghjcf
1
2
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Dthysq jndtn
3
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3
1
1
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4
3
4
1
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2
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2
1
1
-
Ckjdtcyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk dnjhjq
Yjvth djghjcf
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Dthysq jndtn
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3
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2
2
Rjkbxtcndtyyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk gthdsq
Yjvth djghjcf
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Dthysq jndtn
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2
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1
1
Rjkbxtcndtyyjt vsiktybt> hfpltk dnjhjq
Yjvth djghjcf
1
2
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8
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Dthysq jndtn
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2
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1
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Fyukbqcrbq zpsr> hfpltk gthdsq
Yjvth djghjcf
1
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Dthysq jndtn
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1
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1
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1
3
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1
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1
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1
Fyukbqcrbq zpsr> hfpltk dnjhjq
Yjvth djghjcf
1
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6
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Dthysq jndtn
1
3
3
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4
1
1
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3
1
1
4
3
1
1
3
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
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'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
61
Dsxbcktybt ghb,kbpbntkmyjq
jwtyrb pf 'rpfvty
B/km 2014 ujlf
Ниже приводится объяснение и демонстрация способа вычисления приблизительных оценок за
публикуемый экзамен.
Вы сможете вычислить приблизительную оценку за каждую из областей экзамена (словесное
мышление, количественное мышление и английский язык), а также приблизительные оценки за
экзамен в целом, которые вычисляются на основании оценок за три вышеупомянутые области.
Вычисление предварительных оценок за области экзамена
За каждый правильный ответ начисляется один балл. Для вычисления предварительной оценки
следует сложить баллы, набранные вами в каждой из трех областей, входящих в экзамен (каждая
область - количественное мышление, словесное мышление и английский язык - состоит из двух
разделов). В результате будут получены три предварительные оценки: предварительная оценка за
область словесного мышления, предварительная оценка за область количественного мышления,
предварительная оценка за область английского языка.
Вычисление оценок за области экзамена
Каждой предварительной оценке соответствует оценка по единой шкале, на которую не влияют
различия в вариантах, языках и датах экзамена.
Вы сможете определить ваши оценки, воспользовавшись приведенной ниже таблицей перехода
от предварительных оценок к оценкам за экзамен по единой шкале.
По окончании данного этапа вы получите приблизительные оценки за три области экзамена
(от 50 до 150):
оценку за область словесного мышления
(V)
оценку за область количественного мышления
(Q)
оценку за область английского языка
(Е)
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62
Таблица перехода от предварительных оценок к оценкам по единой
шкале во всех областях экзамена
Оценки по единой шкале
Предварительная
оценка Словес- Количест- Английное
венное
ский
Оценки по единой шкале
Предварительная
оценка Словес- Количест- Английное
венное
ский
Оценки по единой шкале
Предварительная
оценка Словес- Количест- Английное
венное
ский
0
50
50
50
17
88
93
76
34
134
135
117
1
52
52
51
18
91
96
78
35
137
137
120
2
54
54
52
19
93
98
81
36
140
140
123
3
56
57
53
20
96
100
83
37
143
142
125
4
58
60
54
21
99
103
85
38
146
145
128
5
60
63
55
22
101
105
88
39
150
147
130
6
62
66
56
23
104
108
90
40
150
133
7
64
68
57
24
106
110
93
41
137
8
66
71
59
25
109
113
95
42
141
9
68
73
61
26
112
115
97
43
145
10
70
76
63
27
114
118
100
44
150
11
73
79
65
28
117
120
102
12
75
81
66
29
119
123
105
13
78
84
68
30
122
125
107
14
80
86
69
31
125
127
110
15
83
89
71
32
128
130
112
16
86
91
73
33
131
132
115
Вычисление приблизительных общих оценок, подробно представленное ниже, не принимает во внимание оценку
за письменное задание. Вычисление базируется на предположении, что уровень способностей абитуриента,
проявленный им в сочинении, соответствует уровню его способностей, продемонстрированных им в вопросах
множественного выбора в области словесного мышления.
© Dct ghfdf cj[hfyz/ncz pf Bphfbkmcrbv wtynhjv 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
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'njve 'rpfvtye bkb tuj xfcnzv d jncencndbt gbcmvtyyjuj hfphtitybz yf nj cj cnjhjys Bphfbkmcrjuj wtynhf 'rpfvtyjd b jwtyrb.
63
Вычисление приблизительных общих оценок за экзамен
Для того чтобы приблизительно определить ваши общие оценки, вам следует сначала
вычислить взвешенные средние оценки.
При вычислении общей междисциплинарной оценки удельный вес оценок за области
словесного мышления и количественного мышления вдвое превышает удельный вес
оценки за область английского языка.
Таким образом, взвешенная средняя оценка вычисляется по формуле: 2V + 2Q + E
5
При вычислении общей оценки словесного профиля удельный вес оценки за область
словесного мышления в три раза превышает удельный вес оценки за другие области.
Таким образом, взвешенная средняя оценка вычисляется по формуле: 3V + Q + E
5
При вычислении общей оценки количественного профиля удельный вес оценки за
область количественного мышления в три раза превышает удельный вес оценки за
другие области.
Таким образом, взвешенная средняя оценка вычисляется по формуле: 3Q +5V + E
Для вычисления приблизительной общей оценки вам следует воспользоваться таблицей
перехода от взвешенной средней оценки к общей оценке, которая приведена ниже. Данные
таблицы сгруппированы по интервалам.
Таблица перехода от взвешенной средней оценки к
приблизительной общей оценке
Взвешенная
средняя
оценка
Приблизительная
общая оценка
Взвешенная
средняя
оценка
Приблизительная
общая оценка
50
200
101-105
504-531
51-55
221-248
106-110
532-559
56-60
249-276
111-115
560-587
61-65
277-304
116-120
588-616
66-70
305-333
121 -125
617-644
71-75
334-361
126-130
645-672
76-80
362-389
131-135
673-701
81-85
390-418
136-140
702-729
86-90
419-446
141-145
730-761
91-95
447-474
146-149
762-795
96-100
475-503
150
800
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64
Образец вычисления приблизительной оценки
Предположим, что вы получили следующие предварительные оценки за области экзамена:
30 правильных ответов в области словесного мышления (в обоих разделах).
26 правильных ответов в области количественного мышления (в обоих разделах).
25 правильный ответ в области английского языка (в обоих разделах).
На основании таблицы на предыдущей странице:
ваша приблизительная оценка за область словесного мышления равна V=122
Ваша приблизительная оценка за область количественного мышления равна Q = 115
Ваша приблизительная оценка за область английского языка равна Е = 95
Вычисление взвешенных средних оценок показано в рамке ниже.
Взвешенная средняя междисциплинарная оценка составляет:
^2 $ 122h + ^2 $ 115h + 95
5
= 114
В приведенной на предыдущей странице таблице эта оценка располагается в интервале
111-115.
Таким образом, соответствующая ей общая оценка находится в интервале 560-587.
Взвешенная средняя оценка словесного профиля составляет:
^3 $ 122h + 115 + 95
5
= 115
В приведенной на предыдущей странице таблице эта оценка располагается в интервале
116-120.
Таким образом, соответствующая ей общая оценка находится в интервале 588-616.
^
h
Взвешенная средняя оценка количественного профиля составляет: 3 $ 115 + 122 + 95 = 112
5
В приведенной на предыдущей странице таблице эта оценка располагается в интервале
111-115.
Таким образом, соответствующая ей общая оценка находится в интервале 560-587.
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65
Перевод оценки в проценты
Приведенная ниже таблица перевода интервалов в проценты поможет вам понять значение
полученных вами оценок. Данные этой таблицы распределены по 17 категориям. Каждая
категория соответствует определенному интервалу оценок. Для каждого интервала оценок
приведен процент экзаменовавшихся, получивших более низкую оценку, процент получивших
оценку в пределах данного интервала и процент получивших более высокую оценку. Например,
общая оценка за экзамен 518 находится в интервале 500-524. Около 40% экзаменовавшихся
получили оценку ниже данного интервала оценок, около 7% - оценку в пределах данного
интервала, а около 53% - более высокую оценку.
Деление на категории было произведено только для большей наглядности, и оно не отражает
принципов приема студентов в какое-либо учебное заведение.
Перевод оценки в проценты основывается на результатах всех людей, сдававших психометрический
экзамен в последние годы.
Таблица перевода интервалов оценок в проценты
Интервал оценок
Процент экзаменовавшихся,
чья оценка находится:
ниже
интервала
в пределах
интервала
выше
интервала
200-349
0
6
94
350-374
6
4
90
375-399
10
5
85
400-424
15
5
80
425-449
20
6
74
450-474
26
7
67
475-499
33
7
60
500-524
40
7
53
525-549
47
7
46
550-574
54
7
39
575-599
61
7
32
600-624
68
8
24
625-649
76
7
17
650-674
83
6
11
675-699
89
5
6
700-724
94
3
3
725-800
97
3
0
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66
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