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insight intermediate student's book

Intermediate Student's Book
Jayne Wildman
Cathy Myers
Claire Thacker
Intermediate Student's Book
Jayne Wildman
Cathy Myers
Claire Thacker
The way
we are
A Reading and vocabulary
B Grammar and listening
p4 The art of beauty
p6 Appearance and survival
Reading Ideal beauty
Strategy Guessing the meaning of unknown words
Vocabulary Describing appearance
Grammar Present simple and present continuous
Listening Humans and survival
Vocabulary insight Compound adjectives: appearance
Vocabulary insight 1 p14 Recording vocabulary
Review 1 p15
p16 The power of tourism
p18 Memorable journeys
Reading A road less travelled
Vocabulary insight Compound nouns: travel
Vocabulary Travel
Grammar Narrative tenses
Listening Alternative holidays
Vocabulary insight 2 p26 Using a dictionary: compound nouns
Feeling good
Review 2 p27
p30 Happiness
p32 Healthy bodies, healthy minds?
Reading Is chocolate the answer?
Strategy Identifying main ideas of paragraphs
Vocabulary insight Idioms: happiness and sadness
Vocabulary insight Noun suffixes: -ness, -ity
Grammar Past simple and present perfect
Listening Physical activity in school
Vocabulary insight 3 p40 Building word families through suffixes
A right to fight
Rights and
p44 Action!
Reading Island story
Grammar Expressing the future
Vocabulary The environment
Vocabulary insight Prefixes: semi-, under-, over-, re-, co-, inter-
The senses
Review 4 p53 Cumulative review units 1-4 p54
p58 Natural born liars
Reading The choice
Strategy Using referencing to understand a text
Grammar First and second conditionals
Listening Moral dilemmas
Vocabulary Crime
Vocabulary insight Noun prefixes: mis-, disReview 5 p67
p68 Word on the street
p70 Fairtrade
Reading The influencers
Vocabulary Advertising
Vocabulary insight Collocations: advertising
Grammar The passive
Listening A fair-trade fashion show
Vocabulary insight 6 p78 Using a dictionary: collocations
Review 6 p79
p84 Beyond human senses
Grammar Reported speech
Strategy Understanding the purpose ofa paragraph
Vocabulary insight Perception and observation
Vocabulary insight Adverb-adjective collocations
Listening Dogs to the rescue
Review 8 p105
p96 If they h ad n't...
Grammar Third conditional; /wish and I f only
Listening Help from Heifer
Listening Regrets
Cumulative review units 1-8 p106
p108 A day in the life
p110 Friendships now and then
Grammar Defining relative clauses
Reading A day in the life ofa digital human
Vocabulary insight Phrasal verbs: relationships
Listening Online friendships
Vocabulary insight Words often confused
Vocabulary insight 9 p118 New words
Review 7 p93
Vocabulary Describing jobs
Vocabulary insight Idioms: work
Vocabulary insight 8 p104 Using a dictionary: idioms
Cumulative review units 1-6 p80
p82 Taste
Reading A question of taste
Vocabulary insight 7 p92 Using a dictionary: homonyms and homophones
p94 Think differently
Reading The big question
Listening A Critical Mass bike ride
p56 Teenage gangs
Vocabulary insight 5 p66 Using a dictionary: phrasal verbs
the price
Review 3 p41
p42 Disappearing worlds
Vocabulary insight 4 p52 Word-building: the meaning of prefixes
Cumulative review units 1-2 p28
Review 9 p119
p120 Art is everywhere
p122 Around the world in one dance
Reading The stories behind the names
Strategy Summarizing what you read
Grammar Participle clauses
Listening Singing in the Rain
Vocabulary Abstract nouns: talent
Vocabulary insight Phrases with and
Vocabulary insight 10 p130 Fixed phrases with two key words
Review 10 p131
Cumulative review units 1-10 p132
C Listening, speaking and vocabulary
D Culture, vocabulary and grammar
E Writing
p8 First impressions
Listening First impressions
plO British fashion
Reading Fashion never forgotten
p12 An informal email
Strategy Checking your writing
Vocabulary insight Words often confused:
personality adjectives
Everyday English Speculating
Vocabulary Clothes and fashion
Grammar Verb patterns
Vocabulary Position
Grammar Speculating; looks like, looks as if
Vocabulary bank 1 p134 Describing hair; Clothes
p20 One journey, different travellers
Listening Tourist or traveller?
p22 America on the move
Reading The Mother Road
Strategy Identifying purpose
Vocabulary Types of journey
Everyday English Persuading and negotiating
Vocabulary insight Verbs + prepositions: travel
Grammar used to and would
p24 A story
Strategy Writing opening
Ordering events in a story
Vocabulary bank 2 p135 Types of holiday; Travel and transport
p34 Be a good sport!
Listening Individual and team sports
p36 Fat America
Reading Fat America
Vocabulary Values
Everyday English Giving and reacting to news
Vocabulary insight Adverbs
Grammar Present perfect simple and present perfect
p38 A personal letter
Strategy Showing your attitude
Expressing reason and purpose
Vocabulary bank 3 p136 Feelings: intensity; Health problems
p46 Making our voices heard
Listening An inspiring campaign
Strategy Identifying facts, opinions and speculation
Vocabulary insight Verbs + prepositions
p48 Make a difference
Reading Go the Extra Mile
Vocabulary insight Collocations: charities
Grammar Future perfect and future continuous
Everyday English Asking for and expressing opinions
p50 An opinion essay
Strategy Organizing an opinion
Introducing arguments and giving
Vocabulary bank 4 p137 Global issues; Charities
p60 Sorry is the hardest word
p62 Young people's rights
p64 A letter to a newspaper
Listening Why we don't like to apologize
Vocabulary insight Three-part phrasal verbs with to
and with
Everyday English Apologizing and accepting apologies
Reading Coming of age
Vocabulary insight Synonyms: the law
Grammar Modals of obligation, prohibition and
Strategy Making suggestions and
expressing results
Grammar should and ought to
Vocabulary bank 5 p138 Crime and punishment; Law and order
p72 How to spend it?
Listening Teenagers' spending habits
Strategy Listening for specific information
Vocabulary Describing amounts
p74 Traditional festivals
Reading Traditions for sale
Vocabulary Trade
Grammar h ave/g etsom eth in g done
p76 A formal letter of complaint
Strategy Deciding on register:
formal and informal
Vocabulary Addition and contrast
Everyday English Talking about photos
Vocabulary bank 6 p139 Types of advertising; Consumerism
p86 Don't shout, 1can see!
Listening Teenagers with sensory impairments
Vocabulary insight Noun suffixes: -ion, -sion
Everyday English Complaining and asking people to
do things
p88 A Walk in the Woods (Bill Bryson)
Reading An extract from A Walk in the Woods
p90 A report on survey findings
Strategy Making your writing flow
Vocabulary Sight and sound
Grammar Reported questions and commands
Vocabulary Approximations and
Vocabulary bank7p140 Food texture; Ways of speaking
p98 Important decisions
plOO Do the right thing
pi02 A covering letter
Listening Decisions that made a difference
Strategy Dealing with unknown words while listening
Reading A bus ride to freedom
Vocabulary Conflict
Grammar Speculating about the past
Strategy Avoiding general
Vocabulary Action verbs
Vocabulary Decisions and ideas
Everyday English Giving presentations
Vocabulary bank 8 p141 Gender-neutral job titles; Conflict
p112 Can't live w ithout...
Listening Favourite gadgets
Vocabulary Describing gadgets
Everyday English Asking for instructions,
explanations and clarification
Reading Touchscreen by Marshall Soulful Jones
Strategy Understanding poetry
Vocabulary insight Words with more than one meaning
Grammar Non-defining relative clauses
p116 A for and against essay
Grammar Introductory It
Strategy Making your writing
Vocabulary bank 9 p142 Technology; Poetry
p124 What's the point of art?
Listening Art therapists
Vocabulary Describing art
Everyday English Debating
pi26 On stage
Reading Famous festivals
Vocabulary insight Compound adjectives: describing
Grammar Determiners
Vocabulary bank 10 p143 The arts; Organizing a festival
p!28 A review of an event
Vocabulary insight Synonyms:
evaluative adjectives
Strategy Creating emphasis
The way we are
Reading and vo cab u lary The art of b eauty
SPEAKING Read the things that people do to change
their appearance. Why do they do them? What other
things do they do?
put on weight
w ear make-up
pierce lips, tongues, eyebrows
get a tattoo
shave their heads
stretch their necks with metal rings
have cosm etic surgery
go on a diet
spray themselves w ith fake tan
Read the article about beauty in different cultures.
Which things in exercise 1 are mentioned? Why do
people do them?
Guessing the meaning of unknown words
When you come across a new word, there are several
things that you can do to help you guess the meaning:
Use the context. Looking at words before and after
the unknow n w ord and identifying the part of
speech (noun, verb, etc.) o f the word can help you to
understand the meaning.
Understand a word through its different parts.
You may already kn ow on e or more parts o f the word.
sun + shine = sunshine
Use your own language. Som etim es the English word or
part of the word is similar in your own language.
English = norm
Dutch = norm Czech = norm a
Polish = norm a
Read the strategy. Then guess the meaning of the
underlined words in the text. What helped you to
guess: the context, understanding the different
parts or your own language?
Read the text again and answer the questions.
1 W h at did Happiness Edem w ant to do?
2 W h at kind o f images of beauty do w e see in the media?
3 W h a t is th e traditional im age of Egyptian w om en
in paintings?
4 W h a t significance do tattoos have in Borneo and
N e w Zealand?
5 W h a t d o the people o f M yanm ar consider elegant?
6 W o uld you ever consider doing any o f the things
in the text?
7 W h ich things w ou ld you never d o ? W h y ?
8 W h a t is th e ideal o f beauty in your culture?
Describing appearance
Study the highlighted adjectives in the text. Which
ones have a positive meaning, which a negative one
and which can have both meanings?
The way we are
igerian teenager Happiness F.dem had just one aim
in life: to put on weight. So she spent six months in a
‘fattening room' where her daily routine was to sleep, eat and
grow fat. She went in a trim 60 kg, but came out weighing
twice that. In some parts of Africa, being fat is desirable
because it symbolizes attractiveness in women and power
and prosperity in men. However, in magazines and in the
media we are bombarded with images of slim, blondehaired and sun-tanned women or handsome, blue-eyed and
io broad-shouldered young men. Where are the short-sighted,
middle-aged models? Is one idea of physical beauty really
more attractive than another?
Ideas about physical beauty change over time and different
periods o f history reveal different views of beauty,
is particularly of women. Egyptian paintings often show
slender dark-haired women as the norm, while one of the
earliest representations of women in art in Europe is a
carving of an overweight female. This is the Venus ofHohle
Fels and it is more than 35,000 years old. In the early 1600s,
2 0 artists like Peter Paul Rubens also painted plump, paleskinned women who were thought to be the most stunning
examples of female beauty at that time. In Elizabethan
England, pale skin was still fashionable, but in this period it
was because it was a sign of wealth: the make-up to achieve
2 5 this look was expensive, so only rich people could afford it.
Vocabulary: describing appearance, personality, fashion and style; position
Grammar: present simple and present continuous: speculating: verb patterns
Speaking: discussing ideals of beauty; speculating; discussing
Writing: an informal email
Choose one word that you cannot use to complete
each sentence.
1 Most of m y fem ale friends g o to the gym and keep fit
to look trim / slim / handsom e.
Happiness Edem w en t to a 'fattening room' because
she w anted to be p lu m p / slen d er / overw eig ht.
3 There aren't m any photos of stunning / unattractive /
fat m odels in magazines.
4 Som e cultures m ay find different forms o f body
modification u gly / slender / unattractive.
5 W o m en tend to spend more m oney than men on their
general appearance in order to look o v e rw e ig h t/
beautiful / attractive.
6 M en usually w ear suits because th ey w an t to look
e le g an t / h an d so m e / ugly.
insight Compound adjectives: appearance
W ithin different cultures around the world, there is a
huge variation in what is considered beautiful. Traditional
customs, like tattooing, head-shaving, piercing or other
kinds of body modification can express status, identity
or beliefs. In Borneo, for instance, tattoos are like a diary
because they are a written record of all the important events
and places a man has experienced in his life. For New
Zealand's Maoris they reflect the persons position in society.
In western society, where tattoos used to he considered a
sign o f rebellion, the culture is changing and they are now a
very popular form of body art.
For Europeans, the tradition of using metal rings to stretch
a girl's neck may be shocking, but the Myanmar people
consider women with long, thin necks more elegant. In
Indonesia, the custom of sharpening girls' teeth to points
might seem strange to other cultures, but it is perfectly
acceptable elsewhere to straighten children's teeth with
braces. Body piercing, dieting, cosmetic surgery or the use
of fake tan might be seen as ugly and unattractive by some
cultures, but they are commonplace in many others.
It appears that through the ages and across different cultures,
people have always changed their bodies and faces for a
wide variety of reasons. Does this mean that underneath
the tattoos, rings and piercings, we're all beautiful in our
own way?
Match the words in the circles to make compound
adjectives. Check your answers in the text.
-aged -haired
blue short
pale middle
-eyed -sighted
broad sun
8 How many compound adjectives can you make with
the words below?
dark fair
-sighted -skinned
straight long
blue green far
-haired -eyed
9 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Use the adjectives in
exercises 5,7 and 8 to make sentences about people
you know.
10 SPEAKING Work in groups. Discuss the statements.
1 The W estern ideal of beauty is not beautiful.
2 Our society puts too m uch emphasis on appearance.
Vocabulary bank
Describing hair page 134
The way we are
1 B ■ G ram m ar and listening A ppearance and survival
Today, in the last in our series on wildlife, ’we’re looking at animals and their appearance. Why are polar
bears white? Why do leopards have spots? Why do zebras have stripes? 2lt’s all about survival.
Wild animals spend half their life looking for something to eat and the other half trying not to get eaten!
Life is just one long game of hide-and-seek. Luckily for them, the way they look usually helps them. The
zebra is a very good example.
3Zebras usually travel in large groups. Imagine 4a hundred zebras are moving together across the
savannah. 5The herd is getting bigger and bigger. A lioness is lying under a tree, watching and waiting.
The zebras are getting nearer, but they’re running very close together. 6The lioness sees a big mass of
black and white stripes, so it’s impossible for her to attack a single zebra. She’s very annoyed, but what
can she do? 7The animals on the savannah are always trying to hide from her. Breakfast must wait.
But do zebras’ stripes confuse other zebras like they confuse lions? No, they don’t. Actually, they often
help zebras to recognize each other. Every zebra has a different pattern of stripes and zoologists
believe this is how zebras know who is who in the group. A mother zebra always recognizes her
foal among the crowd because its stripes are just a little different from the others.
Present simple and present continuous
1 SPEAKING Look at the photos and describe the animals.
How can their appearance help them to survive?
Read the text and answer the questions.
1 H o w d o zebras travel?
2 W h y can't th e lioness attack an individual zebra?
3 H o w does a m other zebra recognize her foal?
Study sentences 1-7 in the text. Which ones are in the present simple and which are in the
present continuous? Match sentences 1-7 to rules a-g. Then find more examples in the text.
We use the present simple:
a to talk about routines or habits,
b to talk about facts and general truths.
c with verbs that describe states: believe, have, know, like, need, think, see, seem , want, understand, etc.
We use the present continuous:
d to talk about actions happening now.
e to talk about tem porary situations,
f to talk about changing or developing situations,
g to describe an irritating habit, usually with always.
Time expressions:
Present simple: always, every day, often, regularly, usually, som etim es, hardly ever, n e v e r,. . .
Present continuous: right now , a t the m om ent, this w e e k ,. ..
W e often use the present continuous tense w hen w e describe photos.
Reference and practice 1.1
6 The way we are
W orkbook page 104
Use the prompts to make questions in the present simple or present continuous tense.
Then match questions 1-7 to answers a-g.
1 W h y / le o p a r d s / h a v e / s p o ts
2 W h at / the leopard in the photo / hunt for
3 H o w / a zebra's stripes / help it to survive
4 W h y / p o la r b e a rs / b e c o m e / a n
Because the ice w here th ey live is melting,
It's hunting for its dinner,
So that their enem ies can't see them,
So that the animals th ey are hunting can't
see them coming.
endangered species
e They help to confuse its enemies,
f It's w arning its enem ies that it's dangerous,
g They usually show off their feathers.
5 W h y / a tree frog / bright blue
6 H o w / peacocks / attract / a mate
7 W h y / stick insects / look like / sticks
5 Complete the text with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.
Animal survival is a fascinating and complex subject.
As these photos 1
nature usually 2
(play) tricks
on us. Two insects 3
(sit) on a
flower. They both 4
(look) like
bees, but one of them 5
be) a real bee. It 6
bee in order to protect itself from possible predators.
The real bee on the left7....................................
(have) a sting, which it uses as a weapon to attack
its enemies. However, the hover fly on the right
(not be) dangerous.
It’s completely harmless. This imitation of one
species by another often 9
(happen) in nature and is called mimicry. Animals
(copy) the appearance,
actions or sounds of another animal and this
(help) them to survive.
1.01 Listen to an interview about humans and survival and
answer the questions.
1 H o w does Dr Walker describe the boy's appearance and personality?
2 H o w does Dr Walker describe the girl's appearance and personality?
Listen again and answer the questions.
1 W h at is the boy doing w hile he's walking?
H o w is the girl walking?
3 W h at is she doing w hile she's walking?
H o w do'streetw ise'people usually act?
5 W h at does the girl need to be careful about?
6 W h at does the boy do w hich people m ight find aggressive?
8 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Look at the photo and use the
questions below to describe one person to your partner.
Can your partner identify the person you are describing?
1 W h at does the person look like?
2 W h at are th ey doing?
3 W h at do you think their personality is like?
4 Are th ey streetwise? W h y / w h y not?
1 C * Listening, speaking and vocabulary First impressions
SPEAKING Work in pairs. How important are these
things when you form a first impression?
facial expressions
body language
hair colour and style
tone o f v o ic e : attractiveness
1.02 Listen to an interview with a psychologist.
Which of the things in exercise 1 does she say
influence our first impression of someone?
Listen to the interview again. Are the
sentences true (T) or false (F)? Correct the false ones.
1 It takes a long tim e for th e hum an brain to process a
first impression.
2 In the past, hum ans needed to form first impressions
quickly in order to escape from dangerous situations.
3 W h at a person says has more im pact than a friendly
expression or gesture.
4 W e make assumptions about a person's personality based on
their physical appearance.
5 Handsom e or attractive people always make a g oo d first impression.
6 If you are happy and relaxed, you will usually create a positive first impression
If you look happy, the negative parts o f your character are not so important.
8 People with tattoos and piercings always create a negative impression.
9 A negative first impression is not difficult to change.
10 You need to get to know a person better to ch an g e your first impression.
insight Words often confused: personality adjectives
Study the adjectives from the interview and match them to the definitions.
Which adjective in each pair has a negative meaning?
1 lazy/easy-going
a relaxed and happy to do w hatever people w ant
b not liking to w ork or use energy
2 determ in ed /stu b b orn
a not letting anything stop you doing w hat you've decided to do
b not willing to ch an g e your decision or consider anyone else's opinion
3 m odest / s h y
a not feeling confident in the com p an y o f people you don’t know
b not w anting to talk about the things you d o well
4 sensitive/em otional
a having intense feelings about things and show ing them
b being aware o f your o w n feelings and other people's
5 arrogant/assertive
a thinking you are better and m ore im portant than others
b expressing your opinions and feelings in a confident w ay
5 Complete the sentences with an adjective in exercise 4.
1 Sarah is v e r y .........................She's achieved a lot in her life, but not m any people know about it.
2 I like getting up late at th e w eekend, but that doesn't m ean that I'm
3 Z a c k is s o
- he never listens to anyone's advice.
4 Harriet is very relaxed w ith people she knows, but in a n e w situation she’s v e r y ..........................
5 Je n n y always knows if you're not happy. She’s v e r y .............................. toothers.
6 Frank has a very superior attitude to everyone around him. He's really................................
7 Carl finds academ ic w ork quite difficult, but he w ants to succeed. He's v e r y ................................
8 Je d is very easy to get on w ith and he never worries about anything. He's so
8 The way we are
SPEAKING Work in groups. Prepare four tips on how to make a good first impression.
Then compare your tips with another group and agree on the best three tips.
W 'M
SPEAKING Work in pairs. Look at the photos. Which words in exercise 4 would you use to
describe the people? Why?
1.03 Listen to two dialogues about two of the people in the photos in exercise 7.
Which two people are they talking about?
Complete the phrases from the dialogues. Then listen and check.
Modal verbs
lo o k / lo o k lik e / lo o k a s if
H e 1.................................... be in his thirties.
H e 6....
H e 2................................... understand us better.
S h e 3.................................... be nearly tw o metres tall.
H e 7....................................a typ ica l head
se e m
y o u n g e r than I
she's an
O lym pic athlete.
1.04 Listen to the two people talking about themselves. Which words do they use to
describe themselves?
1.05 Complete the dialogue about another person with the phrases below. Then listen
and check. Which person in the photos are they talking about? Underline two more phrases
for speculating.
he could be th e n e w school secretary then ■ looks nothing like him
than that
But he seems nice
th ey both look happy
this on e looks m uch older
He m ust be our n e w science teacher then
No, he can't be
That m ight be his dad
He looks as if he's a m anager o f a big com p an y
Who's that g u y in the suit talking to Craig?
No, I know Craig's dad. This g u y 2...................................................................
.. It's the on ly teacher w e haven't m et yet.
.The n ew science teacher is in his thirties a n d 5
W e ll,6
No w a y .7...................................................................
I know w h at you m e a n .8
to Craig for quite som e tim e n ow a n d 9
. He's been chatting
12 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Discuss your first impressions of the other people in the photos.
The way we are
1 D ■ Culture, vocabulary and grammar British fashion
SPEAKING Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.
1 W h at influences th e w a y you dress?
brothers and sisters
fashion magazines
the w eath er
2 W h ere d o you buy your clothes? Do you ever make
changes to the things you buy?
3 W hat's your favourite item o f clothing? W h y d o you
like it?
2 What do you know about these fashion styles: mod,
hippie, punk, goth? Read the text and compare your
ideas. Then complete the text with sentences A-F.
There is one sentence that you do not need.
Fashion never forgotten
Can you imagine dressing in exactly the same way as
your parents? 1
The different ‘looks’ were
started by the new rock and pop bands, who often
came from the UK. Four British people remember the
excitement of being part of these fashion movements,
which they still see alive in retro fashion today.
Mod fashion started in the early 1960s. Most mods
were fans of the rock band The Who. They often fought
with ‘rockers’, who were traditional rock and roll fans
with leather jackets and motorbikes.
A I bought ordinary T-shirts, cut holes in them , fastened
them with safety pins and then w rote things on them
using a marker pen.
B And although it's dark, it's a ve ry pretty look, w ith lots
o f lace for the girls.
C W e w ere the first generation that didn't need to do
that, so w e had m oney to spend on stylish clothes.
D It was im portant that the clothes were very
com fortable to d ance in.
E That's w h at happened before the 1960s brought the
a g e o f teen age rebellion and young people started
their o w n innovative and original fashion styles.
F And it wasn't just the girls - the boys liked wearing
pink and purple flow ery designs, too!
Clothes and fashion
Study the highlighted words in the text and in
exercise 2. Then match them to definitions 1-6.
1 used by som eone before
2 using a style from the recent past
‘In the difficult economic times before
the 60s, parents expected teenagers with
jobs to nav ren t.2
The mod look wasn’t
cheap - the classic outfit was a slim-fitting suit with a
shirt and thin tie, and pointy leather shoes. There was
a more casual mod look, too. Although it borrowed
a lot from Italian and French style, we liked to give
it a very British character, with Union Jacks and RAF
emblems. It's a fashion that’ll always be popular with
people who like to dress smartly.’
Alan, the mod
3 com pletely n e w and different.................. , ............
4 fashionable in a w ay that looks exp ensive.............
5 w ith a fam ous nam e
6 a high quality exam ple o f som ething m ade in the
Hippie fashion started in the USA, but in the London of
the late 60s, the designer boutiques of Carnaby Street
and the King's Road made it more chic. It was popular
with fans of the Rolling Stones and The Beatles.
p a s t...............
SPEAKING Work in pairs. Use the adjectives in
exercise 3 to describe the clothes and style of
people you know.
SPEAKING Work in pairs. Answer the questions.
1 H o w did teenagers ch an g e in the 1960s?
2 W h y did mods have m oney to spend on clothes in
th e 1960s?
3 W h ich o f th e fashions m entioned in the text do
you think is the: cheapest? m ost expensive? most
m odern? most old-fashioned?
4 W h ich o f these fashions is your favourite? Are any of
them popular in your country?
5 W h a t fashions have there been since 2000, in your
country, and around the w orld? Are th ey connected
w ith styles of music?
DVD extra
Ju n ky Styling
10 The way we are
‘I sometimes spent a lot on hippie-style
clothes - I had a fabulous purple dress
that cost a fortune! But for the real hippie look, I
bought things in second-hand shops. Long skirts and
flared trousers seemed to be everywhere, in all kinds
of bright colours.3 .......................... I can see a return to
the hippie look in the ‘festival style’ young people
wear to music festivals today.'
Carol, the hippie
Verb patterns
Punk fashion became popular with the
British punk bands of the late 1970s, the
Sex Pistols being the most famous. Punks
were anti-pop music, anti-government, and
... anti-everything. even fashion!
6 Study the rules below. Then add the underlined verbs in the
text and in exercise 2 to 1-4.
1 Verbs + infinitive w ith to: decide, promise, choose,
.................. •.................../...................
2 Verb + infinitive w ithout to: shall, must, could, w ill,.................. ,
3 Verb + -ing: suggest, consider, a d m it,.................. , ...................,
4 Verbs + infinitive or -ing: love,
Reference and practice 1.2
W orkbook page 105
Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to
the first sentence. Use the correct form of the verbs in brackets.
1 a I never thought I w ou ld see so m any punks in Japan!
b I never
‘You might think all punks
were angry and aggressive,
but a lot of us were just having fun and
enioved dressing in ways that would
shock people. We wanted to have a
kind of fashion that was cheap and
‘do-it-yourself, so we avoided buying
things from fashion shops. 4
Piercings became fashionable with punk
and the hair was an important part of the
look. You still often see people with a
Mohican haircut today.'
Jack, the punk
The goth look started with the ‘gothic’ rock
bands of the 80s and 90s, which came out
of the British punk scene. Much of the style
comes from the Victorian period in Britain.
so m any punks in Japan! (expect)
2 a 'Let's go to the festival in Reading,'said Mike.
b Mike
to th e festival in Reading, (suggest)
3 a I'm thinking o f buying that black leather coat.
b I .................................... that black leather coat, (consider)
4 a Looking for vintage clothes is som ething w e enjoy,
b We
for vintage clothes, (love)
5 a M y m um said she'll buy m e som e n e w boots for m y birthday,
b M y m um
m e som e n e w boots for my
birthday, (promise)
6 a It looks like 1980s fashion is popular again.
b 1980s fashion.................................... popular again, (seem)
8 Study sentences 1-5. What is the difference in meaning
between sentences a and b?
1 a I rem em ber wearing flared trousers w hen I was young.
b I rem em bered to w ear flared trousers to the sixties party last
2 a HI never forget seeing that photo of your dad dressed as a punk!
b Don't forget to bring that photo o f your dad dressed as a
punk - I w an t to show it to Mark.
3 a They stopped to look in the shop w indow ,
b They stopped looking in the shop w indow .
4 a I tried changing m y clothes before I w e n t out, but I still wasn’t
b I tried to ch an g e m y clothes before I w en t out, but I didn't
have enough time.
5 a I regret spending all your money.
b I regret to tell you that I spent all your money.
‘It’s easy to say what the
most important thing about
goth fashion is - black! It can be leather
trousers, long dresses, boots or gloves,
but black is the first choice of colour.
You can find some great
goth clothes in vintage shops. I loved
goth culture as a teenager - it’s perfect
tor those times when life seem s sad and
serious. The goth style seem s to be more
and more popular these days, especially
with all the interest in vampire books and
Gemma, the goth
9 SPEAKING Complete the questions with the correct forms
of the verbs in brackets. Then work in pairs and answer the
1 W h y d o you think people w an t
(be) fashionable?
2 Have you ever chosen
(wear) som ething in order to
shock people?
3 Can you im agine e v e r .................. (dress) like your parents?
Do you think you'll n e e d .................. (change) the w ay you dress
w h e n you start work?
5 Are there any colours you avoid
6 Have you ever tried
(have) your hair longer or shorter?
7 W h e re d o you m ost e n jo y .................. (shop) for clothes?
8 W h ich item o f clothing d o you most regret.................. (buy)?
Vocabulary bank
Clothes page 134
The way we are
1 E ■ W riting An informal email
advert and answer the
Link up!
1 Does your school
W e are looking for young people to link up with students
have a partner school?
in our partner school in South Africa. The students are
W h ere is this school?
all aged between sixteen and eighteen and are studying
2 Do you or your friends
for their final exams. They want you to email them, so
email students in other
that they can learn more about your lives, families,
countries? W h a t do
friends and school. If you are interested, come to the
you write about?
meeting in Room 5 after break on Thursday 1 6 * to hear
more about the Link up project.
Checking your writing
When you finish a piece of writing, remember to check your work for mistakes. Always check
the following:
a Punctuation: com m as, full stops, question marks, speech marks, capital letters, exclamation
marks, colons, apostrophes.
Spelling: use a dictionary to check the spelling o f words,
Grammar: check that you have used the correct tenses.
Word order: check that all the words are in the correct order and that the sentences make sense,
Vocabulary: use a dictionary or a thesaurus to check that you have used the correct word. W atch
out for false friends (words that are similar in your ow n language, but m ean som ething different).
Correction marks
Here are som e of the most com m on correction marks:
p = punctuation
sp = spelling
gr = gram m ar
wo = word order
ww = w rong word; vocabulary
Read the strategy. Then correct the sentences. There is one mistake in each sentence.
Match each mistake to a-e in the strategy.
1 I live with m y fam ly in Abingdon, near Oxford.
2 Does your brother like to carry football tops?
3 Im studying for m y final exams.
4 I lives with m y fam ily in the centre of Bristol.
5 On Saturdays, w e go always to the park to play football.
6 W h a t do you like to d o in your free tim e
Read Elise's email for the L in k u p project. Then correct the mistakes.
Read Bert's first L in k u p email and answer the questions.
1 H o w does he start the email?
2 W h at kind o f information does he include in each paragraph?
3 H o w does he sign off?
5 Complete the phrases that Bert uses to identify people in the photo. Then find the phrases in
Bert's email and check your answers.
the b a ck/fro n t
on the rig h t/le ft
front of ■ in the m id d le 3
in the foreground / background
the le ft/rig h t of
the to p / b o tto m / rig h t- h a n d / le ft- h a n d / c o rn e r
Look at the photo. Match Bert's friends to descriptions 1-6.
This perso n is ...
1 to the left of Kara......
4 in the bottom right-hand corner.
in the m iddle o f the to p row.
5 in the top left-hand corner.
in front of El lie...........
6 behind Felix............................
12 The way we are
Hello Adela,
My names Elise and I write to you as part of
the Link up project at my school. I'm your
new e-pal and I'm very excited about writting
to someone in South Africa.
I live in a small flat near the centre of
antwerp with my elders, my brother Johan
► d ? 1 photo attached
and my dog, Max. I enjoy play hockey and
Hi Peter,
I for a local team play and my school team.
My name's Bert and I'm from Belgium. I'm writing
to you as part of the Link up project. I live in
Ghent with my parents and brother. There are 900
students in my school, but only eighteen in my class.
I usually walk to school with my friends.
We're not very good and we're always losing
matches, but we have fun when we play.
I'm ataching a photo of myself and my friends
on our last school trip. I'm the dark-haired girl
in the middle. My best friend Larissa is the tall
one on my right. She wears a white T-shirt
and jeans. She's quite shy, but we get on well
together and she's got a very good sense of
Please email me back and send me a photo.
I enjoy foreign films and I'm a member of a film
club. I'm attaching a photo of me and my friends
from one of our film nights. I'm the dark-haired one
in the middle of the bottom row. The guy in the
top left-hand corner is my friend Yura. The blonde­
haired girl to the right of Yura is Marianne. The
attractive girl behind me is Ellie. She's very clever,
but modest, too. At the back, behind Ellie, is Kara.
The guy in the top right-hand corner is Dirk. He's my
best mate. We always play football together at the
weekend. And my brother Felix is in front of Dirk.
Tell me about your life and your friends.
Can you send me a photo of you and your friends
when you email me back?
Bye for now,
I hope to hear from you soon.
Bye for now,
■ Task Write an informal email in reply to the online
advert below.
■ Plan Follow the plan:
Paragraph 1: Introduction. W rite about yourself and
your family.
Wanted: e-friends
We have a partner school in Rotterdam, Holland. They are
looking for e-friends for their sixteen-year-old students.
They want to email students in different countries to
practise their English and to find out more about life in
other places. Tell them about life in your country, school
and Mends. Please attach photos and describe yourself
and your friends.
Paragraph 2: Describe a photo o f your family or friends.
Paragraph 3: Ask your e-friend to send you a photo.
Paragraph 4: Ask w hen th ey will email you and sign off.
■ Write Write your email. Use the paragraph plan to
help you.
■ Check Check the following points:
■ Have you used the correct email format and register?
■ Have you included all th e information asked for in the
■ Ideas Make notes about:
■ yourself and w here you live.
■ Have you followed the paragraph plan?
■ your family.
■ Have you checked grammar, vocabulary, spelling,
■ w here your friends are in the photo.
punctuation and w ord order?
■ w h at they look like and w h at th ey are wearing.
■ w h at th ey are like: their personalities and w hat they
like doing.
The way we are
Vocabulary insight 1 Recording vocabulary
c w -re
1 Work in pairs. What ways of learning new vocabulary
do you know? Rank them from the most useful to the
least useful. Give reasons for your ranking.
Recording vocabulary: context
W h e n you make your o w n vocabulary records, it is
im portant to w rite w h e n you can use a particular word.
Study vocabulary records A-D and answer the
Som e words have similar meanings, but they are used in
different contexts, for example, formal / informal / neutral
1 W h ich m ethod of recording n ew vocabulary is similar
situations, w hen referring to m en / w om en / children, or
to your ow n m ethod?
w hen show ing a positive or negative attitude.
2 W h ich m ethod do you think is most useful? W h ich is
A g oo d dictionary will tell you about the situations in
least useful? W h y ?
w hich a w ord is typically used. In the O xford Wordpower
Dictionary, notes with the heading 'other words for'
s tu u n in 0 = (translation in y o u r own, lan gu age)
com pare it with words that have a similar meaning. They
also tell you the typical context that the word is found in.
d e o d e r ( a d j ) t h io (in ao a t t r a c t i v e W a y )
slim ( a d j ) th io (io ao a t t r a c t i v e W a y )
s t a t u s ( o ) s o c ia l positioo
s t r e t c h ( v ) m a k e lo o g e r
c tu o o io g ( a d j ) v e r y a t t r a c t iv e
Read the strategy above. Then study the dictionary
entries for th in and fa t. Answer the questions using
the words in bold in the entries.
1 W h ich words w ou ld a doctor use?
2 W h ich word w ould a friend use to pay you a
Twe, IO O ct
stunning (adjective) = (informal) very
A h& ndSoiue.
m ao
a pretty woman
overweight / f a t
slim / t r iM
com plim ent?
3 W h ich word w ould you use to describe a child?
4 W h ich word is an im polite w a y of saying that
som eone is overw eight?
Synonym: beautiful
5 W h ich word is an im polite w a y of saying that
Rosie Huntington-Whiteley is stunning,
som eone is too thin?
(translation in your own language)
Thin is the most general word for describing
people who have very little fat on their bodies.
Slim is used about people who are thin in an
attractive way: You’re so slim! How do you do it?
If you say a person is skinny, you mean that he/
she is too thin and not attractive. Underweight is
a formal word, and is often used in a medical
context: The doctor says I’m underweight.
Recording vocabulary: what to record
It is im portant to keep good records o f n e w vocabulary.
Decide where you will record n ew words, for example, in
a special notebook or in a docum ent on your computer.
Decide w h at information you need to record about
the word. So m e things to record are: part of speech,
pronunciation, synonyms, antonym s or collocations.
You will find all o f this information in a good
It is not polite to describe sb as fat. Large and
overweight are sometimes used instead: She’s a
rather large lady. » I’m a bit overweight. Generally
it is not polite to refer to sb’s weight when you
talk to him/her. Chubby is mainly used to
describe babies and children who are slightly fat
in a pleasant way: a baby with chubby cheeks.
Doctors use the word obese to describe people
who are very fat in a way that is not healthy.
dictionary. Look for other information that tells you
about the typical context in w hich the w ord is used.
For example, th e label inform al tells you that you
should on ly use the w ord with friends and family.
Read the strategy above. Put the information from
vocabulary record D in exercise 2 under the correct
1 w ord
6 Choose the correct answers.
1 He's a very cute and large / chubby baby.
2 The doctor said I w as skinny / underweight and had
2 part of speech
to put m ore w eig h t on.
3 'Look at that man. H e’s so fat / obese.' 'You can't say
4 translation
exam ple
6 use (context)
4 Tom’s very skinny / slim. He doesn't look good.
4 Study the dictionary entry for g o rg e o u s and write
your own vocabulary record. Then compare with a
g o r g e o u s /'gjicitos/ adj (informal) extremely
pleasant or attractive: What gorgeous weather!
* You look gorgeous in that dress. O note at beauti­
ful ►gorgeously adv
14 Vocabulary insight 1
5 Anna is so lovely and underweight / slim.
Find the words below in a dictionary. For each
word, write an example sentence that shows it in its
typical context.
handsom e
Dictionary entries from O xford W ordpow er D ictionary, 4th edition
Review 1
i V . v 7 t* W in
Complete the sentences with the words below.
There is one word that you do not need.
handsom e
overw eight
plum p
5 Complete the sentences with the present simple or
present continuous tense.
1 'Look at that cheetah! H o w fast
(it/run )?' 'Over 110 kphl'
2 'H o w m any hours
1 I think too m uch make-up is a ctu a lly .....................
2 Stylish and
clothes don't need to be
3 'H o w lo n g .................................... (flies / live)?'
'Tw o to three weeks.'
3 Both Robert Pattinson and Taylor Lautner are very
4 'W hich animals eat while
, but w h o is m ore attractive?
5 'Look at that h u m m in g b ird !'!
, with m any being obese.
(fly) backwards!'
5 Most ballerinas are v e r y .............. in order to be light.
6 'M ale m osquitoes n e v e r........................ (bite) humans.'
! In 2012,
7 'Zebras n orm ally.................................... (eat) all day.'
th ey w ere voted the most beautiful in th e world.
8 T h a t lio n .................................... (not hunt). W h y?'
Complete the sentences with compound adjectives.
Use the words in brackets.
1 I'm v e r y ......................I never tan. (pale-)
2 Magazines are full of blonde-haired and
'M ale lio ns.................................... (not usually / hunt).'
change (x2)
3 She had dark hair w h e n she w as younger, but now
Ja k e
M ike
6 I'm n o t ......................I'm only 35! (-aged)
Complete the sentences using the correct adjective
form of six of the nouns below.
m odesty
em otion
Do you see that? W h a t 1
I t 2.................................... co lo u r Oh wow. It was
green. N o w it's purple!
(that cham eleon )?
, so I'll need a bigger jacket, (-shouldered)
5 Y ou 're............... Have you been on holiday? (-tanned)
6 Complete the dialogue. Use the present simple or
present continuous form of the verbs below and the
words in brackets.
models, (blue-)
4 I'm
lie) on their backs?' 'Sea otters!
4 M ore than a billion adults globally are unhealthily
6 It's official: Ukrainian w o m e n are
(pythons /
sleep) every day?' 'Eighteen.'
Ja k e
W h y 3...................................(cham eleons) colour?
M ike
They m ainly use colours to com m unicate.
Ja k e
W h a t m essag e4
M ike
Darker c o lo u rs 6
Ja k e
Well, that c h a m e le o n 7
............ (you) that
us right n ow ?
(usually) it's angry.
angry, It’s n o w black!
1 Luke never works hard. He’s ............................................
M ike
2 Katie hates m eeting n e w people. Sh e's.........................
Oh dear. W e 8
now, OK?
Sorry for bothering you!
3 Mark thinks he's better than everyone else. He's.............
.7 8
4 Jo refuses to change her mind. S h e 's ............................
5 Al always says w h at he wants. He's................................
6 Sofia's very quiet a n d ...................... about her success.
Complete sentence b so that it has a similar meaning
to sentence a.
1 a
Do you w an t to go to th e concert?
b She su g g ested ............................................................
Replace the words in italics with the words below.
2 a
I think I m ight dye m y hair red.
b I'm con sid erin g...........................................................
3 a
Buying these shoes w as a mistake.
b I regret..........................................................................
Trainers are popular because they're both comfortable
and 1
( fashionable ). Converse’s early black and
white design has become a 2
and 3
5 a
( owned before ) Converses sell for lots
Buying designer brands isn't compulsory.
b You don't n e e d ............................................................
of money. Many top fashion houses now sell 4
6 a W h y don't you w ear a belt w ith that?
b T ry .................................................................................
( expensively branded ) ranges. In 2007, American
7 a
(new and
It looks like clothes are getting ch eap er
b Clothes s e e m ...............................................................
different) and created some gold Nikes. They cost
$50,000 - but they do look 6
Packing a swimsuit is essential.
b Don't fo rg et.......................
( vintage ) classic,
retailers decided to do something 5
4 a
8 a
(fashionable and
I'm getting a piercing w h e n I turn 18.
b I d e c id e d ......................................................................
Pronunciation insight 1 Workbook page 124
Review 1
t flfm
Travellers’ tales
Reading and vo cab u lary The pow er of tourism
SPEAKING Work in small groups. What do most
people do on holiday? Agree on the three most
typical activities from the list below.
find out about local com m unities
make n e w friends
use public transport
conservation projects
w ater
learn a n ew
eat local food
buy local crafts
help w ith
relax by the pool
get a goo d suntan
try to save
read a good book
Read the definition of responsible tourism. What
things in exercise 1 would a responsible tourist do?
Then read the text. Why is Guludo Lodge a good
example of'responsible tourism?
Respon sible to u ris m (n) Travel that does not harm
the cultural or natural environment. It can improve the
life of local people and help protect the environment.
Read the text again and put the events in the
correct order.
1 Education and health projects changed people's lives.
2 A charity w as set up to help local people.
3 A m y com pleted her studies at college.
4 She worked in a school for free.
5 A m y and Neal decided to use tourism to help people.
6 Their work w as recognized by the tourist industry.
7 T h ey found a place for their lodge.
8 Jobs w ere created for people in the village.
4 Answer the questions.
1 W h a t gave Am y the idea to help people through
2 W h y did A m y and Neal decide to go to M ozam bique?
3 W h a t helped A m y and Neal to achieve their dream ?
4 In w h at ways did the n e w beach lodge help local
5 H o w can you get to G uludo Lodge?
6 W h a t can you see and do there?
7 W h a t does the word 'nema' m ean?
5 SPEAKING Discuss the questions.
1 W h at d o you think about A m y and Neal's
achievem ents?
2 In w h at other ways can w e be responsible tourists?
Think about:
h o w you get to a holiday destination.
■ w h at you use w h e n you are there,
w h at you d o w hen you are there,
w h a t you leave behind,
w h a t you bring back.
Am y Carter-Jam es is small, blue-eyed and blonde, with a
friendly smile. S h e doesn’t look like she could change the
lives of thousands of people but, remarkably, she has.
It all started when A m y took a gap y e a r in Africa
after she finished university. ‘I spent eight months
volunteering in a very poor rural school in Kenya,’
she says. ‘That w a s the first time I saw poverty, I
w as so young and so easily inspired and I thought,
“ W h y can't tourism do the sam e thing for com m unity
develop m ent?” '
On her return to England, twenty-two-year-old Am y
and her boyfriend Neal decided to take ‘the road less
travelled’. They drove across Mozambique, one of
the poorest countries in Africa, but it w asn't exactly a
holiday. Mozam bique had two qualities which appealed
to them: great potential as a travel destination and
local people w ho desperately needed help. O nce
there, the couple got off the beaten track and headed
for Quirim bas National Park, where they found a tiny
stretch of white sand clo se to a village called Guludo.
Life in Guludo w as hard: there w a s little clean water and
not enough food. Healthcare w as poor and people in
the village had a life expectancy of thirty-eight years.
A m y and Neal had no qualifications in tourism or
healthcare but they had com m on sense, enthusiasm and
determination. T h ey talked to the villagers about their
plan to create a small beach resort which would provide
em ploym ent for people and lift families out of poverty.
‘W e took a translator with us,’ says Amy. ‘Their only
question w as: ‘W h en can you sta rt?’
16 Travellers'tales
Vocabulary: compound nouns: travel; travel; types of journey;
verbs+prepositions: trave
Grammar: narrative tenses; used to and would
Speaking: discussing ideal holidays, memorable journeys; persuading
and negotiating
Writing: a story
insight Compound nouns: travel
The couple set to work on a beach lodge, building beach
huts from local materials and employing people from
6 Match the words in A to the words in B to make
compound nouns. Then check your answers in the
the surrounding area. O n ce the lodge w as complete,
they set up a charitable foundation called N EM A , which
received 5 % of its revenue. This m oney w a s used to
create clean w ater points, fund healthcare projects, build
two primary schools and support conservation projects
- it helped to improve the lives of thousands of people.
‘W e wanted to show the world the pow er of tourism, that
it could be a vehicle for change,' says Amy.
It isn't e a sy to get to Guludo. It’s not a typical package
holiday with airport pick-ups and drop-offs. There’s no
public transport, either. The nearest city is Pem b a and
once there, you have to take a helicopter, a boat or go
on a three-hour ca r journey along bum py roads. But
Guludo Lodge is worth the effort. Today the lodge has
nine ‘bandas’, or beach huts, with beautiful s ea views.
There are no overpriced souvenir shops and other tourist
traps. It’s the perfect place to take time out, escap e
the crow ds and soak up the sun. Visitors can see the
sights - explore Ibo island with a tour guide, go scuba
diving or observe African wildlife at the M ogandula Bush
Lookout. But the highlight for many is getting to know
people in the village, taking part in festivals and learning
about N EM A ’s work. ‘Peop le who stay with us often
com e for the diving or the beach,’ s a ys Amy, ‘but it's the
com m unities that really blow them away.'
Peop le like A m y and Neal believe that the tourist
industry can do much good in the world and Guludo
Lodge is leading the way, winning m any aw ards for
its responsible tourism. B a c k in the village, people are
talking about N EM A. In the local dialect, it's a word with
a special meaning. ‘It’s difficult to explain,' s a ys Amy,
‘but it m eans that kind of hope that accom panies the
end of suffering.'
trap ■ transport
Read the text. Then replace the phrases in italics
with compound nouns in exercise 6.
The world’s highest rubbish dump
It’s one of the most famous places in the world and thousands of
people have been there. But it isn’t a 1place for a holiday by the sea
and you can’t use 2a regular bus or train service to get there. It isn’t
3an organized holiday from a travel agent, with the usual4shops that
sell overpriced souvenirs and the 5person who shows tourists around
will probably be a sherpa! As a 6place for holiday makers, it’s pretty
unusual - it’s Mount Everest.
Everest is part of a 7protected area of land in Nepal. Many
endangered species live there, such as snow leopards and
black bears, but the park and these animals are
suffering. The problem is rubbish.
Every year, hundreds of climbers leave rubbish
on the mountain, everything from food cans to
oxygen cylinders and even fridges! A group
of climbers do regular clean ups, but there
is still more than a hundred tonnes of
waste to collect. Even the world's
highest mountain can't escape the
negative impact of tourism!
T ra v el
8 Complete the descriptions with the correct form of
the verbs below. Then check your answers in the text.
escape ■ g et off
get to know
soak up
take part in
W h e n w e g o away, w e like t o 1................. the beaten
track, aw a y from the usual tourist destinations.That's the
point o fa holiday - t o 2
from the crow ds and
have an adventure!
I like t o 3..................tim e out, lie on th e beach, read a
g oo d book a n d 4.................. the sun. The w eather isn't
great at home, so I never usually sunbathe.
M y fam ily like t o 5................. guided tours and activities
- w e a lw a y s 6
the sights. Last year, I tried
snowboarding w ith m y brother It w as fun because w e
NEM A in num bers
2 new primary schools
150 secondary school scholarships
800 primary school meals
8,000 mosquito nets
Clean water for 15,000 people
7.................. som e local people and m ade n e w friends.
9 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Which description in
exercise 8 is your idea of a good holiday? Give
reasons for your answer.
Vocabulary bank
Types o f holiday page 135
T ra v e lle rs'ta le s
G ram m ar and listening M em orable journeys
^ th e world's toughest
row ing Tace
Apply o n lin e a t w w w . r o w . . .
SPEAKING Read the advert for the Atlantic challenge and discuss the questions.
1 W h at typ e o f even t is it?
2 W h at m ight the challenges be?
3 If you took part in the event, w h o w ou ld you choose as your rowing partner?
your best friend
your m u m / d a d
your teacher
som eone famous
Read part 1 of the story. Who was supposed to be Daniel's rowing partner? What happened?
What do you think happened next?
P a rt 1
’jan Meek usually g o t home from work at 6 o'clock and today was no different. 2She m a d e herself
a cup of tea and lo o k e d out of the kitchen window. 3|f w a s ra in in g and cold outside - not good
weather for building a boat. ]an had an uneasy feeling and decided to check her answering machine.
There was a message from her son, Daniel, and it wasn’t good news. 4At the tim e, 21-year-old Daniel
w a s p r e p a r in g to com pete in the Atlantic challenge with a friend. Unfortunately, his friend had just
called him with some bad news. He didn’t have the tim e to prepare for the race, so Daniel had to
find another partner, som eone with enough free tim e to raise money, build a boat and to train!
5The boat w a s very small and the race was long, so it also had to be someone he could get on with.
6|an phoned her son and asked him what h a d h a p p e n e d . Then 7w hile |an w a s s u g g e s tin g solutions
Daniel in te r r u p te d h e r...
Narrative tenses
Read parti of the story again. Then match sentences 1-7 to rules a-g.
We use the past simple for:
a a past state,
b a past habit.
c a sequence of actions in th e past.
We use the past continuous for:
d background descriptions.
e an action or actions in progress at a specific tim e in the past.
We use the past simple and the past continuous for:
a longer action interrupted by a shorter action.
We use the past perfect for:
g an action or even t that happened before another action in the past.
Reference and practice 2.1
W orkbook page 106
Complete part 2 of the story with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. Then answer the
1 W h o did Daniel ask and w h y?
2 W h y did th ey agree?
3 W h at was goo d / bad about th e journey?
T ra v e lle rs'ta le s
2 B
Pa rt 2
Surprisingly, D a n ie l1........................ (ask) his fifty-year-old mum to be his rowing partner His
mum 2........................ (never / row) in her life, but she was very adventurous. The previous year she
3........................ (study) Chinese in Taiwan, then she had gone backpacking round the world on
her own. )an said 'yes' because she 4........................ (know) that the race was a 'once-in-a-lifetime'
Two years and m any hours of training later Jan and Daniel 5........................ (arrive) in Tenerife. At
last they were ready to take part in the race - they 6........................ (raise) enough money and they
7........................ (build) a good boat. On the boat, there was enough food for 100 days, as well as
books and m usic for entertainm ent. They 8....................... (also / ask) friends to w rite them letters
and poems, so they had som ething to open during the difficult days ahead.
Once the race 9....................... (start), |an and Daniel realized just how hard it was going to
be. The rowing was tiring, they couldn’t wash and they were constantly soaked with salt w ater
There were terrible days when they wanted to give up, but there were also good days. W hile they
10........................ (row), they saw dolphins, whales, and flying fish. They also 11.........................(get)
to know each other extrem ely well.
In the end, the journey 12....................... (take) 101 days - two m onths longer than the winners
of the race. Ian and Daniel thought that everyone 13........................ (forget) about them. But
when they arrived in Barbados, people 14....................... (w ait) on boats to greet them. Everyone
15........................ (cheer) and waving, and there was m usic and fireworks. People wanted to
congratulate them on their amazing achievem ent!
Listen to a radio show about Jan and Daniel. What did they do next?
Listen again. Put the events in the correct order,
then retell their story. Use the words and phrases below.
before (the expedition)
a f t e r i w hile
by the tim e (they arrived)
w hen
in the end
Ja n and Daniel tho ug h t about giving up.
They learned h o w to use a gun.
They w e n t on a course to learn survival skills.
Friends followed their blog posts.
They had a bad accident.
They w ere ready to start the expedition
Jan suffered from frozen hands.
Th ey broke another w orld record.
Choose the correct answers.
1 Jan and Daniel had been / were on an adventure together before the polar challenge.
2 Before they left, th ey were starting / started a blog about their expedition.
3 They w ere well-prepared because th ey had trained / trained for over a year.
4 They took a gun because a polar bear had attacked / attacked another team.
5 O ne o f the tents that th ey brought / had brought burnt dow n.
6 I hey packed up their rem aining tent, then carried on / were carrying on w ith their journey.
7 Halfway through their journey, th ey realized that th ey hadn't packed / didn't pack enough food.
8 By the tim e they reached the pole, th ey had raised / raised a lot o f m on ey for charity.
8 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Ask and answer questions about a memorable journey you have
had. Use the ideas below.
Think about:
w here you went.
w h a t you did / saw on the journey,
w h at you had packed / read / d on e before
h o w you w ere feeling before, during and after,
your journey.
w h at you thought about the journey,
w h o you travelled with.
T ra v e lle rs'ta le s
Listening, speaking and vocabulary One journey, different travellers
SPEAKING Work in pairs. What are the differences between these travellers? Where do they
normally spend their holidays? What are the pros and cons of each type of travel?
arm chair traveller
adventure tourist
globetrotting backpacker
Identifying purpose
When you listen to people talking, try and identify the purpose of the conversation. Listen for:
the context. H o w m any peop le are speaking? W h o are th e y? W h ere are they?
h o w the speakers feel. Are th ey angry, happy, bored, interested, worried?
w h y th ey are speaking: to make an arrangem ent / give an opinion / give instructions / make
suggestions, etc.
1.07 Read the strategy. Listen to the radio show. Which of the travellers in exercise 1are
speaking? Why are they calling in?
3 [aH 1.07
Listen again and match each speaker 1-4 with two sentences a-h.
1 Luca
2 Noah
likes to visit places that aren't popular
says travelling is hard work,
thinks typical tourist holidays are boring,
finds ou t about places on a computer,
3 Katrina
4 Jed
f disapproves o f people on package tours,
g is aw are o f th e environm ental im pact of
h doesn't like to go aw ay for a long time.
likes to tell stories about his / her travels.
Types of journey
Study the highlighted words in sentences 1-7. Then match them to definitions a-g.
1 Last summer, I w e n t on a trek through the Alps.
I also w en t on a ten-day voyage around Antarctica, w hale watching.
I'm not an explorer. I've never been on a polar expedition.
I also prefer short trips or w eekends aw ay to local places.
A flight to Thailand w ould produce a lo to fC O j.
6 They g o on coach tours w hich stop off at popular tourist attractions.
7 They g o on planned excursions to crow ded museums.
A jou rn ey by air.
A long jou rn ey w hich is often scientific
A jou rn ey in a ship o r a spacecraft,
A difficult walk, lasting several days or weeks,
Travelling from place to place w ith an organized group,
A short outing to on e place for pleasure,
A short or long jou rn ey for business or pleasure.
SPEAKING Work in pairs A and B. Choose a role card and prepare a dialogue between a
travel agent and a tourist.
Student A
You a rea travel agent. Think about w hat visitors
T ra v e lle rs'ta le s
You are a tourist. Tell student A w h at you
can see and do in your town. Decide which
w an t from your holiday and w h at typ e of
activities and places would appeal to different
activities you enjoy. Ask them for advice
types of tourist. Listen to Student B, then give
about w hat you can see and do.
advice about w hat they can see and do.
Student B
Persuading and negotiating
SPEAKING Work in pairs. Read the adverts.
Which tour of London would you like to try?
Give reasons for your answer.
City logging Tours
An insider tour of East London.
• colourful street art down tiny
side streets
• fascinating shops, including
London's best record store
• the story behind Brick Lane.
Spital fields Market and more
We guarantee you’ll see loads of
places you'll want to visit again
... and again!
Join us as we guide you through ^
2 000 years of history on London s
most exciting sightseeing tour Our
6 km running tour stops off at many
of London's most famous sights,
such as Trafalgar Square, the London
Eye, Big Ben and the Houses of
Parliament. Experience London in a
memorable and healthy way - book
a City Jogging Tour now!
2 hour tour £8
L o n d o n M o v ie T o u r
V is it
f i l m
d if f e r e n t
l o
t i o
i n
a n d a ro u n d ^ l
1.08 Listen to a dialogue between a tour guide and two tourists. Which tour in exercise 6
are they talking about? How does the tour guide persuade them to join the tour?
8 ^ 1.08 Complete the phrases from the dialogue. Then listen again and check.
Persuading and negotiating
Reaching agreement
If you ..., I'll give you . . . .
Well, y o u 'v e 5.............................. me.
You've g o t 1...................... .......to lose.
OK, let's6.............................. for it.
That so u n d s2................... .......... , b u t . . . .
I'm not s o 3........................ ............ 1still think . . . .
You won't be 4.................. .............
Put the dialogue in the correct order. Then listen and check.
OK, but I still think w e should g o on a tour. Look, here's another one. It's called East End
Explorer and there's a local person as the tour guide.
Hmm, I prefer to explore things on m y own. It's more fun and you get to m eet local people.
W h y don't w e g o on a tour?
W e ’ve g ot a free m orning tom orrow. W h at shall w e do?
Yes, and you can g o shopping, too!
That sounds interesting, but the w eather forecast isn't great and I don't fancy running in
the rain.
M aybe, but w e haven't g ot m uch tim e and a tour is a g oo d w a y to see the sights quickly,
don't you agree? Look, here's a leaflet for a city jogging tour.
OK, you've persuaded me! Let's book it.
Great! You w on't regret it!
So w e w ould g et to know local people.
10 Read the dialogue again. Underline more ways of persuading and negotiating,
and reaching agreement.
SPEAKING Work in pairs A and B. Choose one of the tours in exercise 6 and persuade
your partner to go with you.
Student A
Student B
You are very sporty and like to be active. You
You are really interested in film and think the
also like visiting famous places and ticking
film tour sounds amazing. It's expensive, but
them off your 100-things-to-see-before-you-
you're willing to pay because it's a'once-in-
die' list. You think th e idea of a jogging tour
a-lifetime'experience. Your friend is not that
is great. It's also ch eap and you don't w an t to
interested in film, th ey’d rather go jogging. But
spend loads of money. Persuade your friend.
they do w ant to see the sights. Persuade them.
Culture, vocabulary and grammar America on the move
SPEA K IN G Look at the photos and discuss the
questions. Then read the text and check your ideas.
1 W h at typ e o f places do the photos show ?
2 W h at other things m ight you see along the road?
Think about natural and man-made attractions.
. Road
Read the text again. Are the sentences true (T) or
false (F)? Correct the false ones.
Route 66 connects the East coast of Am erica w ith the
W est coast.
The road m ade life easier for people in big cities.
Unusual w eather conditions caused the great
In the 1930s, it w as easy for farmers to find w ork in
In the 1940s, th e road was given a n e w name.
The road becam e popular because of its tourist
SPEA K IN G Are there any famous routes in your
country? W hat are the most popular tourist
attractions? Are they connected to any historical
insight Verbs + prepositions: travel
Choose the correct prepositions. Then check your
answers in the text.
1 It was getting dark so w e headed with / for the
nearest motel and booked a room for the night.
It's over 4,000 km long and crosses two-thirds of the
USA. It's been called 'The Mother Road' and 'The Main
Street of America'. It's been in films, books and songs
and there's even a piece on display at the Smithsonian
Museum in Washington. W elcom e to Route 66.
Route 66 starts in the hustle and bustle of Chicago.
Outside the city, it cuts through cornfields and the
open plains of the West, into gold mining towns
and ghost towns, over deserts and through valleys,
winding around lakes and mountains, until it arrives in
Los Angeles on the Pacific Ocean. Midwest America
is connected with the West coast, and the past is
connected with the present. Let's go back to the
1920s to see how it all began.
2 W e followed the path and it led us to / for a small
river, d eep in the forest.
3 The interstate highw ay connects to / along Route 66
at Williams, Arizona.
4 W h e n w e cam e to the crossroads, w e decided to
travel around / down the road to California.
5 To get to th e service station, you have to drive
along / with the main road and turn left.
6 The road winds around / for m ountains and lakes.
The views are spectacular.
7 W e w ere late, so w e cu t down / through the park.
DVD extra
C hicago to LA
Study sentences 1-5 in The M other Road. Then
complete the rules with used to, w ould or the past
a W e u s e ........................ o r ........................ for repeated
past actions or habits that do not happen now.
b W e can also u se........................ or the past simple tense
for states (= state verbs) in the past, that have changed
or are different now.
............ or
w hen
som ething on ly happened once.
W e u s e .........................
Reference and practice 2.2
T ra v e lle rs'ta le s
In the early 1920s, life in Midwest America was very
different. ’People didn't use to travel much because
there w ere no highways* near the small towns 2a trip to LA would usually take weeks. But in 1926,
things started to change thanks to a new road called
Route 66. This new road opened up the American
West to hundreds of thousands of people.
Agricultural communities that used to be isolated
started to grow and develop into towns. Farmers
were also able to sell their produce to big cities.
used to and would
c W e can't use.
W orkbook page 107
In the mid-1930s, hard times returned. America was
suffering from the Great Depression and across
the country, millions of peop le were out of work.
In the Midwest, severe drought conditions and
dust storms destroyed farmland and thousands of
families w ere forced to leave their homes. They
headed for California, along Route 66, where
they had heard there were agricultural jobs.
Unfortunately, the mother road led them to shanty
towns* outside towns and cities, where they lived in
terrible poverty. Route 66 becam e associated with
the pain and misery of this great migration.
6 Complete the text with the correct form of the verbs
in brackets and u s e d to or w o u ld . Sometimes both
may be possible.
4W h e n the G re a t D ep ressio n ca m e to an e n d after
W o rld W a r II, there w a s a n e w a g e o f optim ism and
thousands m o v e d from East to W est, looking fo r a
better life. P e o p le h ad m o re fre e tim e a n d m any
o w n e d cars, f a m ilie s w o u ld n 't stay at h o m e during
holidays. Instead, th e y w o u ld d rive a lo n g R o u te 66 to
the b e a c h e s o f California, visiting the G ra n d C a n yo n
a n d oth er attractions a lo n g the w ay. It w a s b o o m
Williams, Arizona, on Route 66, is a small town
tim e for the ro a d a n d hundreds of diners, m otels and
50 miles from the Grand Canyon National Park.
s e rv ic e stations lined th e route. Billb o ard s a n d huge
statues te m p te d tourists to sto p at m an-m ade and
Today, the town is a popular tourist attraction, with
natural attractions, such as the giant Blue W h a le in
steam train rides and Houte 66 memorabilia. But in
O k la h o m a or the M e ra m e c C a ve rn s in Missouri. Then
the past, life 1
jazz m usician B o b b y Troupe w ro te the hit s o n g Route
(be) very different in
Williams, Arizona.
66. The m other ro a d h ad a brand n e w im a g e - o n e
of fre e d o m and fun.
In 1882,250 people2
1956-present day
The town had a few dirt streets with log cabins and
(live) in Williams.
tents and everyday life3
A s m o re p e o p le tra v e lle d from East to W e st, a
(be) very
dangerous. Cowboys4
new er, b ig g e r ro a d w a s n e e d e d a n d w o rk b e g a n
(often / have)
‘gunfights’ in the streets and outside the town
on a n atio n al interstate h ighw ay. Sadly, the to w n s
a n d attractions a lo n g R o u te 66 b e g a n to d ie out.
outlaw s5
(often / rob) stagecoach
Then in th e 1990s, p e o p le started c a m p a ig n s to
passengers or travellers on horseback.
p re s e rv e the o ld road, n e w signs w e r e put u p a n d
Day-to-day life was hard, too. Back then, there
tourists b e g a n to tra ve l d o w n it o n c e ag ain.
Today, the m other ro a d still offers an
(not be) a school, so children
am azin g jo u rn e y through the A m erican
(stay) at home. They8
W e s t. W h e th e r y o u w an t the fre e d o m
(help) their parents to milk cows, collect wood
of the o p e n road, a trip into the past,
and grow vegetables. They9
or sim ply a g re a s y b u rg e r from an
play) much because there were so many chores
all-Am erican diner, y o u can still 'g e t
y o u r kicks* on R o u te 66'.
to do. When they did have free time, families
(entertain) themselves with picnics
in the forest, violin music, or simply reading aloud
from a book.
* highways = main roads in America,
usually 8 lanes w id e
* shanty tow ns = areas outside a town
w h e re p o o r p e o p le live in hom es m ade
out of card b oard and w o o d
get yo u r kicks = h a v e a g o o d time
SPEAKING Write sentences using u s e d to or w o u ld
about life in your town in the past.
Think about:
houses and homes,
transport: h o w people g ot around,
free tim e and entertainm ent,
everyday life.
Vocabulary bank
Travel and transport page 135
T ra v e lle rs'ta le s
2 E ■ W riting A story
SPEAKING Work in pairs. Look at the photos
and answer the questions.
1 W h ere are these places?
2 W h at type of traveller w ould g o there?
3 W h a t adjectives w ou ld you use to describe these places?
Read about a competition from a travel magazine. Then read
extracts A-D from four competition entries. Match them to photos 1-4.
Travellers'Tales Writing Competition
This month is all ab out Travellers'Tales. Send in tales of your weird or wonderful journeys an d you might
a p p e a r in next month's magazine. O n e lucky winner will go on the trip of a lifefime - a Greyhound Bus
Tour round the USA!
The Australian Outback is
a very big place. It went on
as far as the eye could see.
I tried to start the car again,
but the engine died. ‘That’s
it,’ said Jez. ‘What do we
do now?’ He was starting to
panic. ‘Ju st wait,’ I replied
calmly. ‘And if nobody
comes? It’s hot out here and
we only have one bottle of
water.’ lo o k ,’ I replied angrily,
‘I don’t know, OK? Let’s just
hope someone comes along.’
That’s when we noticed the
small sign a few hundred
metres down the road. We ran
over to it and read: ‘William’s
Creek 20 km’. ‘W e could walk
I thought.
‘How much?’ I asked,
pointing to the bottle of
water. ‘ 10 rupees’ replied
the street vendor, smiling.
I gave him a couple of
coins, then walked back
towards the platform, just
in tim e to see my train
leave the station. ‘Hey!’
I yelled as I ran after
it, pushing through the
crowds o f people. But it
was too late. By the time
I got to the platform, the
train had gone, along
with my backpack. I had
to think fast - the next
stop was Delhi, at least an
hour away. But how could
I get there in time?
It was raining hard as we drove
along Route 66. It was late and
we were tired and looking for a
place to stop. After a while we
saw some neon lights ahead.
They belonged to a motel, so
we decided to take a break. The
motel cafe was deserted. The
waitress behind the counter
looked up, but she didn't smile.
'We're out of pancakes and
fries,' she said as she handed us
the menu 'but I can do y'all a
hamburger.' We were eating our
hamburgers, when a motorcycle
gang stopped outside. Time to
move on,' I thought, hut the rain
Some time ago, we went
to Guatemala on holiday.
While we were there
we took a trip to tbe
rainforest, to take photos
o f monkeys and exotic
birds. Sounds like a typical
traveller’s tale, doesn’t
it? But it isn’t. At first,
everything went smoothly.
Backpacks were packed,
cameras were ready and
the guide arrived on time.
We ju mped into his jeep
and eventually we were
driving along a narrow
track deep into the forest
that's when we saw it.
was getting worse. Suddenly, the
lights went out.
Starting a story
When you write a story, your opening sentence should grab the reader's attention and get
them interested.
Start with:
1 a quote from a character in the story, that introduces a main event.
2 a description o f the weather, the tim e of day and h ow you w ere feeling. It establishes the atmosphere.
3 a description of the location, especially if it's unusual.
Try not to start with:
4 w h e n the even t happened, like Last summer, A few weeks ago, The year before la s t ... etc. But if you
do, make it interesting by adding som ething surprising.
3 Read the strategy. Then read extracts A-D again and match them to 1-4 in the strategy.
Which story do you think will be the most interesting? Why?
T ra v e lle rs'ta le s
Ordering events in a story
4 Complete 1-4 with the highlighted words and phrases in extracts A-D.
1 Start of a sequence of events: In th e beginning, To start w it h , ....
2 Show how a story moves on: A few minutes later, Just th en .......
3 Show that two events happen at the same time: A s,....
4 End of a sequence of events: In the end, Finally,...
5 Work in pairs. Discuss what happens next in each story A-D.
Read the rest of story A. Were your ideas similar or different?
..................................... we were still walking.
W e carried on walking, but a few kilometres
..... we’d felt confident,
later Je z had had enough. ‘W e’re never
but3.................................... we'd run out of
going to get out of here,’ he complained.
water. Our road trip round Australia was turning
7.................................... we heard a distant
into the holiday from hell. The sun was hot and
buzzing noise. ‘Look!’ I cried excitedly. There
we stopped talking
in the distance was an old red truck, speeding
and just walked. Then5....................................
down the road.8
something hopped onto the road ahead. It
reached us and stopped, and a farmer jumped
was a red kangaroo, about two meters tall.
out. ‘What are you boys doing here?’ he asked.
'Is that your car back there?’ ‘Yes, it is ...' 'Well,
we got closer it didn't
move, it just sat there looking at us. 'Don’t show
you’re lucky,' he interrupted. ‘Don’t use this road
that you're afraid,’ I said, as we carefully took a
much, but we’re looking for a kangaroo, a sick
detour around it. There was something strange
one and nasty - it attacked the dogs on the farm
about it.
this morning.’ I looked at Je z and he looked
at me. 'Get in,’ the farmer added. W e did, of
course. It was a long lime before we visited the
Outback again.
Complete the story in exercise 6 with the words and phrases below. There might be more
than one possible answer.
tw o hours later
at first
after a w hile
just then
■ Task Write your own entry for the travel competition.
■ Ideas Brainstorm ideas for your story. Think of
questions beginning with W ho / W hy / W h a t /
W h ere / W h e n .Then answer them.
Decide how you are going to start your story. Use
the strategy to help you.
Write Write your story. Use the paragraph plan to
help you.
Check Check the following points:
■ Does the story start in an interesting w ay? Is there a
variety o f adjectives and adverbs?
■ Is the story divided into logical paragraphs? Does the
sequence of events make sense?
■ Plan Decide which ideas you are going to use and
match them to these paragraphs.
■ Have you checked grammar, vocabulary, spelling and
Paragraph 1: Begin your story in an interesting way.
Introduce the main character(s), the place
and the typ e o f journey.
Paragraph 2: D evelop the story, describing th e events
in the order that th ey happened. Use the
w ords and phrases in exercise 7 to help
Paragraph 3: Bring your story to an end. Did anything
happen to end your journey? Did
som eone help you continue it? Did
anything funny, strange, scary happen?
T ra v e lle rs'ta le s
Vocabulary insight 2 Using a dictionary: compound nouns
1 Work in pairs. Study the highlighted words in the
extract from the text on page 17. What part of
speech are all the words?
Word order in compound nouns
The first w ord in a com p o u n d noun is like an object, and
it is usually in the singular, even if it has a plural meaning.
It isn't easy to get to Guludo. It's not a typical package holiday
with airport pick-ups and drop-offs. There's no public transport,
For example:
either The nearest city is Pemba and once there, you have to
take a helicopter, a boat or go on a three-hour car journey along
bumpy roads. But Guludo Lodge is worth the effort. Today the
holidays that schools have = school holidays (not schools
lodge has nine 'bandas' or beach huts, with beautiful sea views.
Using a dictionary to find compound words
Read the strategy above. Study the dictionary
entries for r e s o r t and h o lid a y . Then complete the
sentences with the correct singular or plural form of
the compound nouns.
A com pound is a word m ade up o f tw o or more words.
The meaning of the com pound word is different from the
at holid a y ______
meaning of its individual parts. Com pounds can be written
as one word or as separate words (sometimes hyphenated).
for our summer holidays this year. * How much holi­
day do you get a year in your new job? * Mr Phillips
isn’t here this week. He’s away on holiday. ♦ I’m
going to take a week's holiday in May and spend it
at home. ♦the school/Christmas/Easter/summer holi­
days 2 [C] a day of rest when many people do not
are com poun d nouns.Typical com p o u n d noun
com binations are:
1 n o u n + noun
go to work, school, etc. often for religious or nation­
al celebrations: Next Monday is a holiday. ♦ New
2 adjective it noun
Year’s Day is a bank/public holiday in Britain.
3 noun + verb
4 verb + preposition
Read the strategy above. Then match the highlighted
compound nouns in exercise 1to types 1-4 in the
Study the dictionary entry for tour. How many
compound nouns does it list? What types of
compound nouns are they?
that organizes tours) O note at travel 2 [C] a short
visit around a city, famous building, etc: a guided
holidays in the sum m er m onths
4 a holiday during Christmas
5 a resort by the seaside
6 Match the words in A to the words in B to make
compound nouns. Check your answers and the
spelling in a dictionary.
around sth) a journey that you make for pleasure
during which you visit many places: to go on a
ten-day coach tour ol/around Scotland ♦a sightsee­
ing tour ♦ a tour operator (= a person or company
1 resorts on the beach
3 a resort w here skiers go
t o u r /tua(r); t>:(r)/ noun 1 [C] a tour (of/round/
tour round St Paul's Cathedral/
period of rest from work or school (often when you
go and stay away from home): We're going to Italy
The most com m on com pounds in the English language
^ ______ ______ ___
? h o lid a y /'liDladei/ noun 1 (AmE vacation) [C,U] a
A good dictionary will tell you h ow to write them.
re s o r t1 /ri'zo:t/ noun [C] a place where a lot of I
people go to on holiday: a seaside/ski resort O note
places we're travelling to.
last week. Everyone
had a great tim e and w e tried all the rides.
3 T h e ........................ w e booked our holiday w ith
specializes in coach tours abroad.
o f art.
2 W e didn't enjoy the
to read about the
2 M y class w en t to a
1 W e w ere taken on a ....................... around the
m useum and learned a lot about the various pieces
Complete the sentences with the compound nouns
in exercise 5.
1 W e always buy a
4 Complete the sentences with compound nouns
from the dictionary entry in exercise 3.
them e
because w e sat
in on e place for too long and there w as no space to
stretch our legs.
3 During t h e ........................ w e saw th e most
im portant m onum ents in the city.
I can't w ait for t h e ........................ to start. No
hom ew ork for six weeks!
5 I he
w e stayed in last tim e didn't have
an y sports facilities, so w e decided to g o som ewhere
else this year.
4 W e norm ally book our holiday with a
because th ey arrange everything for us.
26 Vocabulary insight 2
Dictionary entries from Oxford Wordpower Dictionary, 4th edition
Review 2
Match the words in A to the words in B to make
compound nouns. Then use the compound nouns to
complete the sentences.
5 Complete the text with the past simple, past
continuous, or past perfect form of the verbs in
brackets. Include a time word where given.
In April 2012, Laura Dekker1........... (become) the youngest person
to sail around the world. Journalists 2
as soon as she 3
1 Thom as Cook invented the first
old 4
w ith travel
(complete) her voyage. The sixteen year
(just / spend) 518 days at sea, so at the time of the
interviews she 5............(feel) quite tired! But she 6 ........... (say) she
and accom m odation in 1841.
was very happy. Just before Laura finished her journey, she 7
2 Disneyland, Paris, is Europe's m ost p o p u lar...............
3 The first kind o f
(hurry) to interview her
(celebrate) her sixteenth birthday - by eating doughnuts for breakfast!
w as the ferry boat.
While she 8
4 Polar bears live in the world's b ig g e st.............. in
(travel), she also 9 .......... (spend) time surfing,
diving, and playing the flute. She explained that the flute was easier to
play than a guitar while strong winds10
5 Before becom ing an author, Jo h n Steinbeck worked
as a ...............
- everything was overpriced.
6 Complete the sentences. Use the past simple, past
continuous or past perfect form of the verbs below.
already leave
2 Complete the collocations with verbs.
3 I love to
clim b
d ow n load
2 This tim e yesterday I
to know the local people.
4 I try to
the crowds and g o som ew here
I like t o ........
on the beach.
It was a place that I
4 The coach
the sights.
5 W e explore the area and
to before.
w hen I arrived.
part in a tour. Then w e w e n t shopping.
6 W h e n the plane landed t h e y .................... to music.
I broke m y leg w hile I .................... the m ountain.
8 She w as upset because she
her passport.
Complete the sentences with the words below. Use
each word only once.
M agellan led the first s e a 1..............round
(m et / m eet)
b I first..................................last summer.
3 a W e w e n t to the beach resort every summer, (u se/
M achu Picchu w as rediscovered. N ow
w ould)
b We
there every year.
every sum m er
4 a The idea of'responsible tourism' is new. (u se/
Roald Am undsen's5.............. reached the
South Pole, using boats, dogs and horses.
in the sea every day.
2 a M y first m eeting w ith Alice happened last summer.
The W right brothers m ade the first
thousands of walkers g o on 4..............s
Complete sentence b so that it has a similar
meaning to sentence a. Use between two and five
words, including o n e of the words in brackets.
b We
Art and history2.............. s o f Europe
3.............. in an aeroplane.
1 a W e had a daily sw im in the sea. (w o u ld / u s e )
becam e fashionable for rich young people.
the world.
the 1700s
1 T h e y ....................maps from th e internet yesterday.
time out from school.
up the sun on the beach.
2 We
not g o
off the beaten track.
1 W e prefer to
I he souvenir shop in the m useum was a real
5 a 2012 was the year o f m y holiday to Peru, (used /w en t)
A short d a y 6.............. from London to
Edinburgh and back takes less than a day.
b The idea of'responsible tourism '...................... exist.
b In 2012.................................... Peru on holiday.
6 a Travelling by coach was a regular habit o f ours.
(w ould / didn't)
Complete the text with the correct prepositions.
7 a
Turn left here and head 1
the road connects5
b I .................................... fam ily holidays.
a valley. Keep going until
8 a W ere you keen on cam ping w h e n you w ere
the B105. Go east here, and
the road will eventually lead you 6
the castle.’
I’v e on ly just started to enjoy fam ily holidays.
(w ould / to)
Ballyrigg. Drive
this road for 10 km. It winds 3
and plains and cu ts4
by coach.
yo u n g ? (u se / u se d )
like cam ping w hen you w ere young?
Pronunciation insight 2 W orkbook page 124
Review 2
Cumulative review Units 1-2
1.10 Listen and match speakers 1-4 to options
A-E. There is one option that you do not need.
Which speaker's holiday:
A did not have good facilities?
B w as quite expensive?............
C did the speaker not book a h e a d ? ............
D w as very relaxing?............
E does the speaker regret taking?
Work in pairs. Look at the photos of different
holiday accommodation. Speculate about where
these places might be, why people might choose
to stay in them and what a stay might be like.
by Annie Toase
Work in pairs and follow the instructions.
1 Each choose a different photo from exercise 2.
Im agine you are planning a holiday with your
partner. Try to persuade h im / h e r to choose your
accom m odation.
2 Negotiate a com prom ise with your partner. Agree a
place to stay, but make sure both of you feel happy!
Complete the text H o u se s w a p p in g with sentences
Firstly, there are the profiles.
They cost a fortune!
Luckily, she seem ed to like w h at w e ’d written, too.
By the tim e m y boyfriend cam e h om e from his
Saturday job, it w as spotless.
Well, yes and no. It isn't for everyone.
A flat above an all-night bar didn't make the list, either.
W h at if they make a mess?
Thanks to them, w e discovered a wonderful jazz cafe and a roller disco!
C u m u lativ e re v ie w U n its 1-2
It w a s th e n ig h t b efore m y holiday a n d I w a s alread y
e x h a u ste d . I’d ju st s p e n t th e w h o le day frantically
cle a n in g th e f la t .1
I ’d ev e n d u s te d th e lights!
M y e a sie r-g o in g o th e r half found m y efforts very
am u sin g . ‘A re n ’t h o lidays m e a n t to b e rela x in g ? ’ he
W e’d jo in ed HouseExchange.com a fe w w e e k s ago,
w h e n w e ’d b e e n s e a rc h in g for c h e a p holidays online.
P a c k a g e h o lidays w e re o u t of th e q u e s tio n .2
I’m a s tu d e n t n u rse a n d M ax is a m usician, so m oney
is tig h t. B ut HouseExchange.com allow s you to sta y
in so m e o n e 's hom e in a b e a u tifu l to u ris t d e stin a tio n
- for free!
So w h a t’s th e ca tc h ? Well, w h ile y o u 're aw ay,
s tra n g e rs w ill b e sta y in g in your h o m e .3
la u g h a t y our b a d ta s te in fu rn itu re? T he w o rries
d o n 't e n d th e re . W hat if you d o n ’t like theii hom e? It's
im p o rta n t to ch o o se your h o u se s w a p w ith care!
HouseExchange.com is a b it like a d a tin g service in
tw o re sp e c ts. 4
E veryone h a s to w rite o n e of
th e s e in o rd er to 'sell' th e ir hom e a n d n eighbourhood.
Secondly, s ite u s e rs are o ften q u ite fussy! A fter all,
fe w of u s w a n t to s w a p w ith ju st ‘a n y o n e ’.
Literature insight 1 W orkbook page 84
Grammar and vocabulary
5 Read the text. Choose the correct answers.
Paris is a ‘dream ’ destination for m any foreign
tourists. Som e love shopping in th e boutiques and
adm iring th e fashions. Parisians are fam ous for
th eir 1
, m odern style and effortless
elegance. O ther tou rists im m ediately 2
for th e m useum s and art, galleries, especially
th e astonishing Louvre. O ther people simply
enjoy spending th eir tim e relaxing and soaking
th e atm osphere. But, like all big
cities, Paris can 4
a lonely place at
times! If you’d like to m eet o th e r travellers during
y our stay, w hy n o t a tte n d o u r ‘Polyglot Picnic’?
We 5
th is free event, every Sunday
a t 3 p.m ., for visitors who 6..........................for
language exchange, food and fun. You can
7..........................th e noise and crow ds in a
beautiful city park n e a r th e university. It’s a
g rea t way to 8
to know people
in th e area and to m ake friends from around
th e world. Everyone is very w elcom e, so
th e re ’s no n e e d to be 9 .....................No one
is a stra n g e r here and you'll quickly feel
welcome. We 10..........................a small group
in th e past, but now h u n d red s of people
join us every sum m er. We hope you'll join
us, too. Please bring a frisbee, badm inton
racket, gam e o r m usic to share. And of
course, a smile!
For th is rea so n , I’m afraid I re je c te d th e h o m e of a
c h a rm in g m id d le-ag ed couple, w h o h a d a ru le s list
th a t w a s th irty p a g e s lo n g ! 5
I ev e n d ism isse d
an e x q u isite h o u s e in th e h e a rt of P aris ‘w h ic h you
c a n s h a re w ith m y p e t s n a k e s ’ - for obvious reaso n s.
1 a chic
2 a
4 a
W ould I reco m m en d it? 8
B eing op en -m in d ed
is a m u st a n d y es, you do h a v e to b e p re p a re d to do
q u ite a b it of h o u se w o rk before you travel! B ut a s a
w a y to tra v e l for virtually noth in g , you c a n 't b e a t it.
to be
5 a are holding
H ow ever, R ika’s Berlin flat looked sty lish a n d clean
in th e p h o to s - a n d Rika h erself s o u n d e d refreshingly
‘n o rm al’! 6
A t lea st, s h e so u n d e d v ery positive!
I th in k th e h o u s e -s w a p w o rk e d o u t w e ll for all of us.
W e a d m ired R ika’s am a z in g collection of a rt a n d sh e
sa id s h e loved o u r sty lish ‘re tro ’ fu rn itu re (I th in k sh e
w a s b e in g kind - w e b o u g h t it se co n d -h a n d b e c a u s e
it w a s cheap!).
A s w ell a s all th e b e n e fits of sta y in g in a hom e-from hom e, h o u se s w a p p in g is a g re a t w a y to feel like
a local on holiday. M any of R ika's n e ig h b o u rs sa id
‘hello’, a n d rec o m m e n d e d p lac e s to v i s i t .7
N eith er w e re m e n tio n e d in th e g u idebook, so w e felt
like real ‘ex p lo re rs’.
3 a with
6 a
like to look
7 a
8 a take
9 a shy
10 a w ere being
m odest
w ould be
are looking
join in
becom e
used to be
Imagine you are joining H o u se E x c h a n g e .c o m . Write
a profile for the website. Include information about:
you (your name, w here you live, your personality and
your hom e (this can be your real h om e or an
im aginary one).
your neighbourhood or tow n and w h at visitors can
see and do there.
your ideal holiday w ith HouseExchange (w here you
w ould like to go and why).
Exam insight 1 Workbook page 94
C u m u la tiv e review U n its 1-2
Feeling good
Reading and vo cab u lary Happiness
SPEAKING Look at the photos. Which of the things
make you happy? What other things make you
Identifying main ideas of paragraphs
A paragraph usually has two types of sentences: a
topic sentence which summarizes what the paragraph
is about and detail sentences which provide more
information, explanations or examples. Identifying
the main ideas of paragraphs will help you to
understand the key points in a text and this will help
you to understand the overall message of the text.
The topic sentence is usually the first, second or last
sentence o f the paragraph.
It is usually more general than the other sentences in
the paragraph.
the a n sw e r /
H ave you ev er w o n d ered w h a t m akes
p eo p le h ap p y ? W hy are som e people
Tin clo u d n in e w h ile o th ers are alw ays
d o w n in the d u m p s? W hat's th e secret?
Is it po ts o f m oney, g o o d h e a lth , lo v in g
re la tio n sh ip s, o w n in g th e latest
g ad g et or sim p ly chocolate?
Identify it, by com paring it to the other sentences.
W h e n you find the topic sentence, turn it into a
question and ch eck if th e other sentences in the
paragraph answ er this question.
Read the strategy. Then read the text and find the
topic sentence in each paragraph. Match headings
1-6 with paragraphs A-D. There are two headings
that you do not need.
1 Recharge your body and m ood
2 Short-lived happiness
3 A natural rem edy
4 Can having more and more make you happy?
5 Help and be helped
6 Do well at school and be happy
Read the topic sentences again and choose the
best summary of the text.
a An opinion about w h at society should do to make
people happy.
b An article about w h at makes people happy,
c A study showing w h y people find it impossible to
be happy.
4 Answer the questions.
1 According to the text, w h at are th e three basic needs
w hich are essential for happiness?
2 W h at kind of happiness d o material objects provide?
3 W h at does the sentence 'Happiness means you have
to give and take' refer to? Give som e examples.
4 W h at effect does exercise have on a person's m ood?
5 According to the text, w h at happens if you d o not get
enough sleep? Is this true in your experience?
6 W h at d o you agree with in the text? Is there anything
you don't agree w ith?
Feeling good
The latest W orld H ap p in ess R eport says th at
pro sp erity is n o t the m ain reason for happiness. If you
suffer real hard sh ip , you are unlikely to be happy, but
once y o u r basic needs are m et, m oney and m aterial
things becom e less o f a necessity. H ap p in ess d e p en d s
m ore on recognizing the things you have and
appreciating them , rath er than getting m ore things.
Yes, m oney can b u y you the latest sm artphone,
tablet o r fashion item , a n d y o u m ig h t g et a kick out
of th e o w n e rsh ip o f these m aterial objects, b u t this
enjoym ent is usually short-lived. R em em ber all those
presents you got for C hristm as w h e n you w ere little?
You w ere over the m oon w hen y o u opened them ,
b u t n ot for long. A m onth later, they w ere lying
ab a n d o n ed a t the b ottom of a d ra w e r A nd have
y o u forgotten those delicious chocolates th a t m ade
y o u feel really h a p p y w h e n y o u w ere eating them ,
b u t ill after y o u 'd finished them all?
It seem s th a t deep , long -lastin g h a p p in e ss com es
from intangible th in g s ra th e r th a n th in g s like
chocolates a n d sm a rtp h o n e s. O n e essential factor is
h u m a n relationships. P eople w h o h a v e th e s u p p o rt
Vocabulary: idioms; suffixes: -ness, -ity; values; adverbs
Grammar: past simple and present perfect; present perfect continuous
Speaking: discussing tips for a happy life; giving and reacting to news
Writing: a personal letter
nsight Idioms: happiness and sadness
o f fam ily m em bers a n d also h a v e stro n g frien d sh ip s
are m ore likely to be happy. Feeling protected and
respected a n d know in g y o u can tru s t in th e p eo p le
a ro u n d y o u is vital. But h a p p in e ss m eans y o u have
to give a n d take. P erfo rm in g acts of k in d n ess and
gen ero sity on a re g u la r basis, for exam ple, listening
to a frien d in n e e d o r carry in g a n e ig h b o u r's
sh o p p in g , w ill m ake y o u feel o n to p o f th e w o rld .
E ven a sim ple sm ile can w o rk w onders. In fact,
they say th a t o n e sm ile m akes a p erso n feel as good
as eatin g 2,000 b ars of chocolate (not all a t once, of
5 An idiom is a group of words which form an
expression. The meaning is different from the
literal meanings of the individual words. Study the
underlined idioms in the text. Which ones are about
happiness and which about sadness?
raa Noun suffixes:
-n ess, -ity
6 Put the noun forms of the words below in the
correct part of the table. Then check your answers in
the text.
It's n o t su rp risin g th a t h ealth is a n o th e r key
c o n trib u to r to h ap p in ess. P oor h e a lth w ill certainly
m ake y o u feel d o w n in th e m o u th . B ut bein g health y
a n d sta y in g h e a lth y req u ires so m e effort. A health y
d iet is crucial a n d so is reg u lar exercise. Laziness will
n o t m ak e you happy. Exercising for tw en ty to thirty
m in u tes a d a y h e lp s to red u c e stress a n d anxiety a n d
m akes y o u feel m ore p o sitiv e a n d optim istic because
it releases e n d o rp h in s (feel-good chem icals). So, if
y o u 'v e been feeling blue a n d w o rry in g too m uch
a b o u t y o u r exam s, g et exercising. You'll also find
th a t y o u sleep better.
Talking o f sleep, d o you o ften w ak e u p feeling
m iserable? If so, it's p robably because y o u h a v e n 't
h a d e n o u g h o f it. Teenagers tend to go to b e d too
late a n d h a v e to g et u p early, so m an y suffer from
a lack of sleep. T iredness w ill certain ly affect your
h a p p in e ss levels a n d p u t y o u in a bad m ood. It also
affects y o u r ab ility to concen trate a n d m ay slow
y o u r grow th. So if yo u w a n t to be h a p p y a n d do
well a t school, try to g et a t least eig h t h o u rs a night.
-n ess
Read the tips and choose the correct answers.
Tips for a happy life
Be ’kind / kind n ess to others. The 2a b le / a b ility
to help som eone will m ake both you and them feel
Offer your tim e to people in need - 3g e n e ro u s /
g e n e ro s ity will make you feel good about yourself!
Try to get up early - 4lazy / laziness will make you
feel 5tire d / tire d n e s s - you will feel more positive
after an early start.
It's not 6n ecessary / n ecessity to have more and
more things. 7P ro sp e ro u s / P ro s p e rity isn't
the key to happiness. Be 8h a p p y / h ap p in ess
w ith w h at you have and w h o you are.
N o w y o u k n o w th e theory, it's tim e to p u t it all into
practice. Sm ile, everyone!
8 SPEAKING Work in groups of three. Prepare a list
of three more tips for a happy life. Then work with
another group and select the top three tips. Present
them to the rest of the class.
Vocabulary bank
Feelings: intensity page 136
Feeling good
G ram m ar and listening H ealthy bodies, h ealthy m inds?
SPEAKING Work in pairs. Which of these things can help you to study better?
listening to m usic
sleeping longer
chatting to friends
doing sport
eating chocolate
exercising before class
1.11 Listen to a radio programme about how fitness helps us to perform better
and answer the questions.
1 W h at tw o experiments are m entioned in the program m e?
2 W h at d o som e students in the USA do before th ey start their lessons?
3 W h at d o som e students have to do during their lessons?
4 W h at are som e o f th e results of introducing physical exercise in school?
5 Did you find any o f the information surprising?
Past simple and present perfect
Read the comments about exercise programmes at school. Which comments are by teachers
and which by students? Match the highlighted verbs in comments 1-7 to rules a-g.
this morning and I'm about to go and
W e've just heard that we'll be sitting
on exercise balls during some of our
just d o n e 'W a k e up
do a test. I feel full of energy!
a n d shake up'.
I've completed a forty-minute workout
W e did the
W e began the programme
one term, but our
I’ve done the
programme for a year
and I’m still attending
students didn’t like it.
all the classes.
among the students.
programme for
a week ago and w e’ve
already seen the benefits
I'm exhausted. I've
I've never done this sort
of thing before, but I'm
really enjoying it.
W e use th e past sim ple:
a to talk about actions that happened at a known tim e in the past,
b to talk about com pleted past actions and states.
W e use th e present perfect:
to talk about experiences in the past, usually with ever or never.
d for recent events or states that have a connection with the present, usually w ith already,ju st or y e t
e to talk about actions and states that started in the past and have not changed, usually w ith for or
to talk about actions that happened during a tim e w hich still continues; usually w ith this morning,
this week, this year.
g to give news.
4 Compare the two sentences. In which sentence is it still morning? Which tense is used?
I’ve completed a forty-minute workout this
morning and I’m about to go and do a test.
Reference and practice 3.1
Feeling good
W orkbook page 108
I com pleted a forty-minute workout
this morning. It was tiring, but I
worked better in my classes after it.
5 Work in pairs. Study the pairs of sentences. Why are different tenses used in
sentences a and b?
1 a
I w as a teacher for three years.
b I've been a teacher for three years.
2 a
Have you ever used an exercise ball in class?
b Did you use an exercise ball in class yesterday?
3 a
I finished m y w orkout before school.
b I haven't finished m y daily w orkout yet.
4 a
I've never played tennis.
b I didn't play tennis last night.
5 a
I didn't speak to Julia at the party last Saturday,
b I haven't spoken to Julia for ages.
6 a
Have you seen Dan this m orning?
b Did you see Dan this m orning?
SPEAKING Complete the sentences with the past simple or the present perfect
form of the verbs in brackets. Then work in pairs and answer the questions.
all your hom ew ork yet? (finish)
your friends after school yesterday? (see)
3 I ...................................
any exercise before class. W h a t about you ? (never do)
y o u ..................... your arm ? (ever break)
y ou
any sport last w eek en d ? (play)
y o u ...................... raw fish? (ever eat)
y o u .................... a com m en t on any blogs this w eek? (post)
8 W h a t ........................ you
in geography last year? (learn)
Complete the interview with the present
perfect or past simple form of the verbs
not learn
not get ■ sign up
start ■ work
The Healthy Schools project
is part of a governm ent
plan to get Britain active. It
1........................ in schools a
few years ago. Last term,
12........................ hard on the
'healthy eating' part, but this
term 13 .......................a lot of
tim e on th e ’physical activity'part.
S o ,w h a t 4
y o u ........................last term for'healthy e a tin g ?
Well, 15
in early each morning for'W ake and shake'classes, then I
a healthy breakfast with a group of friends. Both those things
my concentration in class and 18
tired towards
And w h at classes9
I 10
..........y o u ......................... this term ?
n e v e r........................ a big fan of exercise, but 111
street d ance at lunchtimes. It is a good opportunity to learn som ething new, g et fit
and be w ith friends. It's difficult! 112
all th e moves yet!
And w h a t about getting to school?
Well, I usually get the bus, but this week, I 13
SPEAKING Work in pairs. Interview each other about how healthy you are at school.
What can you do to have a healthy body and a healthy mind?
Feeling good
3 C ■ Listening, speaking and vocabulary Be a good sport!
SPEAKING Work in pairs. Do you agree with the statements?
In team sports, like football:
1 apart from the sport, you also learn life skills.
2 the individual team m em bers are more im portant than th e team.
3 you can make a lot o f friends.
In individual sports, like tennis:
4 you have to rely on your ow n skills.
5 players are m ore likely to b ehave badly.
6 your rivals often becom e your friends.
1.12 Listen to two young sportspeople talking about their
sport. Which opinions in exercise 1 do they agree with?
Listen again and answer the questions.
1 W h e n did Georgina start playing football?
2 W h at is she aware of w hen she scores a goal?
3 W h at does she like most about being in a team ?
4 W h at is the only disadvantage she m entions?
5 W h at is Carl's am bition?
6 H o w does Carl feel w hen he w ins?
7 W h at kind o f stamina d o tennis players need?
8 W h y do som e tennis players throw their rackets and shout?
Study the words below. Which ones do you think refer to team sports, which to individual
sports and which to both? Match the words to sentences 1-9.
com m itm en t
sportsm anship
team spirit
1 I respect myself and am confident about m y abilities.
W e all work together and share the sam e aims.
I have on e aim and I'm determ ined to achieve it.
4 I can keep exercising even if I'm tired.
I give all m y tim e and hard w ork to the team.
I always put th e needs o f the group before m y own.
I have a very strict lifestyle. I alw ays eat healthy food and train regulary.
I don't depend on others, only on myself.
9 I respect m y opponents. I don't behave badly if I lose.
Feeling good
SPEAKING Work in pairs. Your school has received money to start one of the sports in the
photos and it has asked you to choose the sport. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages
of your chosen sport. Then work with two other pairs and decide on one sport that the
school should choose.
Giving and reacting to news
6 SPEAKING Work in pairs.
Discuss the questions.
1 H o w often d o you tell
som eone good or bad news?
H o w d o you react w hen
som eone tells you good
or bad new s?
1.13 Listen to the dialogue.
What good news does Evie have?
What values does she demonstrate?
Listen again and complete phrases 1-5 in
the table.
Giving news
Reacting to bad news
You'll n e v e r1
I've got bad news.
I'm sorry to hear that.
You must be feeling upset.
I've got som e goo d news.
Reacting to good news
Oh no!
You're2....................... !
exciting! W h at rubbish!
T h at's3
H o w awful!
H o w terrible!
H ow
! / fantastic news!
I'm really5
for you.
Congratulations! W ell done!
Put the dialogue in the correct order. Then listen and check.
W h a t rubbish! You love playing rugby.
Nothing really serious, but he says that I'm not disciplined and com m itted enough.
You look upset. What's w rong ?
Yes, I am. I'm going to miss being part o f the team.
C om e on, cheer up. It’s not th e end o f the world. Let's g o and play football.
It will take your mind off it.
Well, yes, but in a way, he's right. I haven't been to all th e training sessions recently.
I missed on e last w eek w h e n I w e n t into tow n w ith Haley, and the w eek before I was too
tired, and th e w eek before that, I had a toothache . . . .
Oily But, still, I don't think it's fair just to throw you out like that. You must be feeling upset.
Sean I've got bad news. The coach has thrown me out o f the rugby team.
Well, try to look on the bright side. At least you'll have more tim e for your friends!
Oh no! I'm sorry to hear that. W h a t did you d o?
Sean Yes, I suppose so.
Read the dialogue in exercise 8 again and underline three more phrases that Oily uses to
make Sean feel better. Which of the exclamations does Oily use?
10 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Give and react to news. Use the ideas below or your own ideas.
You and your fam ily are m oving to another country.
You have just w o n a sports com petition.
You have been chosen to appear on a television programme.
Your youth club has decided to stop the afternoon sport activities.
Feeling good
3D ■ Culture, vocabulary and grammar Fat America
X ~ \
s< L
SPEAKING Complete the factfile with the numbers
below. Then read the text and check your answers.
Did any of the facts surprise you?
2,700 a 12.2 22
In num bers ...
How much do you know about an American teenager’s lifestyle?
Number of overweight teenagers (millions)..................
Percentage of teens living in the suburbs
Number of hours spent in cars per day
Number of hours watching TV per w eek ..................
Percentage of teens who exercise each week
Daily calories consumed by an American tee n *.................
* recommended daily calories for a teenager = 2,000
Read the text again and answer the questions.
1 W h y did Am ericans start living in the suburbs?
C a r cu ltu re
2 W h y d o you need a car in the suburbs?
In th e 1940s, th e population inside cities grew rapidly
a n d A m erican fam ilies started to m ove into the
suburbs. Today, m ore than 50% o f A m erican teenagers
live there. In the suburbs, houses are bigger, gardens
are bigger, a n d teenagers are bigger, too. It’s easy to
see w hy - they go everyw here in cars. Suburbs are a
long way from shopping centres, schools and friends'
houses. They often have no pavem ents, m aking it
23 tim es m ore dangerous to walk o r cycle th an to
drive. As a result, fam ilies sp en d an average o f two
h o u rs a day in th eir cars. A nd, w hen they reach their
destination, d rive-through superm arkets, restaurants
and banks keep them com fortably in th eir seats.
3 W h y don't Am erican teens exercise m uch?
4 W h y does food from fast food restaurants taste g oo d ?
5 W h y w as supersizing introduced?
6 W h at d o you think will happen to overw eight teens
in the future?
SPEAKING Think about your lifestyle. How does it
compare to an American teen's lifestyle? Who has
the healthiest lifestyle and why?
insight Adverbs
Study the highlighted adverbs in the text and
answer the questions.
W hich adverbs are:
1 sentence adverbs (adverbs that introduce a w hole
2 adverbs of m anner (adverbs that describe the w ay
w e d o som ething)?
3 adverbs o f degree (adverbs that make an adjective or
verb stronger or weaker)?
Choose one word that you cannot use to complete
each sentence.
1 .................. , in America, children as young as tw o
suffer from obesity.
b W orryingly
c Surprisingly
2 You can make pizzas at hom e easily a n d ..................
b quickly
The n e w burger restaurant
c com fortably
becam e a big
b rapidly
c quickly
4 Healthy food is ..................expensive com pared to
fast food.
5 Jordan sat d o w n
b extrem ely
c similarly
on the sofa and turned
on the T V
com fortably
b incredibly
c quickly
6 More than 30% of teens in the U SA are overweight.
.................. , 30% of teens in the UK are overweight, too.
A m erica is gettin g fatter. Back in the 1970s only
10% o f teen s w ere overw eigh t, but today, one
in three teenagers (or m ore than 25 m illion )
are overw eigh t or obese. Let’s take a lo o k at the
reason s why.
Feeling good
b Extremely
c W orryingly
A typical A m erican fam ily has th re e T V s a n d th e
average teenager, o r ‘screenager’, w atches 22 h o u rs o f
television every week. By the tim e th ey leave H igh
School, m o st teenagers will have spent m o re tim e in
fro n t o f a T V th an in th e classroom . But it's n o t just
T V th a t m akes kid s extrem ely inactive. T he average
US ho m e has 24 electronic gadgets, including
sm artp h o n es, c o m p u te rs a n d gam es consoles. It's not
su rp risin g th at only 12.2% o f A m erican teenagers
actually exercise each week.
Fast food
Fast food is one o f America's great success stories and
’A m ericans have been eating ham burgers for decades.
The first burger bar opened in 1921, but it wasn't until
the 1950s th at fast food becam e incredibly successful.
W om en started to work, people had less tim e and
restaurants like M cDonald's fed families quickly and
cheaply. Today, 50% o f m eals are eaten outside the
hom e and m ore than three quarters o f Am erican
teenagers eat a fast food m eal at least once a week.
2People have know n about th e problem s o f fast food
for years, b u t they still eat it. W hy? Probably because
the salt, fat and sugar m akes it taste really good.
DVD extra
Live well, play well
Present perfect simple and present
perfect continuous
6 Study the rules. Then match sentences 1-5 in the
text to rules a-e.
W e form the present perfect continuous with
h a v e /h a s + been + -ing form o f the verb.
W e use th e present p e rfect continuous:
a to talk about a situation or action that began in the
past and is still in progress. The emphasis is on the
duration o f the activity. W e can use for and since to
In th e 1960s ju m b o -siz e d p o p c o rn w en t on sale
in a m ovie th eatre in Chicago. The m an ag er
w anted people to sp en d m ore, b u t he noticed
th a t cu sto m e rs only bo u g h t one bag o f p o p co rn
because th e y d id n 't w an t to lo o k greedy. H ow ever,
they d idn't m in d bu y in g a bigger-sized bag.
T he idea o f supersize p o rtio n s was b o rn . In th e
1970s, fast food resta u ra n ts ad o p te d th e sam e
ap proach a n d in tro d u c e d larger fries a n d sodas.
Surprisingly, today's ‘sm all’ fries are th e sam e size
as large fries in 1970. Similarly, th e largest soda
in 1955 w as m u ch sm aller th a n today's child-size
soda. O ver th e last th re e decades th e average
teenager's calorie co n su m p tio n has risen by 25%
to 2,700 a day. W orryingly, that's 700 calories
m o re a day th an th ey need.
So w hat d oes th e fu tu re h o ld for A m erica?
D o cto rs fear an ep idem ic o f illnesses like diabetes,
h e a rt disease a n d cancer. M any th in k th is co u ld be
th e first gen eratio n th a t doesn't outlive its parents.
B ut h ealth centres for obese ch ild ren are startin g
to m ake a difference. A t th e centres are ch ild ren
like 12-year-old C o n ch ita. 3C onchita's tired today
because she's b e e n exercising. 'It's h a rd w ork, but
I'm feeling good,' she says. 4H ow m an y tim es has
she exercised th is week? ‘Three,' she replies, and
5I've given u p fast food, too.' ‘These kids w ant long 70
lives a n d th ey w an t to d o a lot o f things,' explains
a d o c to r at th e centre. ‘Clearly, that's n o t going to
h ap p en unless th ey change th e ir lifestyle.'
show h o w long.
b to talk about a recent activity that explains a present
W e use the present perfect sim ple (not the continuous):
c w hen w e focus on the result of an action or h ow
often it has happened,
d w hen an action is finished and com plete,
e w ith state verbs, for example: be, like, believe, have.
Reference and practice 3.2
W orkbook page 109
C o m p le te th e te x t w ith th e p re s e n t p e rfe c t sim p le
or p re s e n t p e rfe c t c o n tin u o u s fo rm o f th e v e rb s in
17-year-old Austin Walker looks happy. He 1
(play) American football all morning and he 2
(score) two touchdowns. It's pretty good and I tell him
so during the break. 'How long3
(you / be) a
member of the Johnson Eagles football team?' 'Six months,'
says Austin, 'and I'm getting good.' When Austin Walker
joined the school football team he weighed over 120 kilos.
Today, he's a Lot slimmer - he 4
(lose) weight
bit by bit and he's almost reached his goal. He 5
(stop) eating fast food, too. 'It's something I 6
(want) to do for a Long time/ he says. 'I just didn't have
the discipline before.' So what changed his mind? 'Six
months ago my mum was diagnosed with diabetes,' explains
Austin. 'It was a shock, so my family decided to make some
lifestyle changes - we 7
(eat) less food and
exercising more.'
'It 8
(not be) easy,' he adds, 'but I want to be
with my family for as long as I can and that means living
a healthy life.'
SPEAKING Make questions. Use the present perfect
and the present perfect continuous tense. Then
work in pairs and answer the questions.
1 you / e v e r / b e / t o America
how lo n g / s tu d y / E n g lis h
3 how m any tim e s/ e x e rcise / th is w eek
4 how lo n g / k n o w / y o u r best friend
5 y o u / e v e r / e a t / a supersize meal
6 how often / walk / to school / this w eek
Vocabulary bank
Health problems page 1S6
Feelin g g o o d
W riting A personal letter
1 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Answer the questions.
1 W h e n did you last receive a personal letter or an em ail?
W h o w as it from ? W h at was it about?
2 W h e n do you prefer sending a letter or email to texting or phoning?
R e a d Sim o n's le tte r to his frie n d A b b y a n d h e r reply. A n s w e r th e q u estio n s.
W ho:
1 has tried som ething n e w recently?
4 has been worried about other people's feelings?
2 has m ade an im portant decision?
5 is worried about their future?
3 has had a frightening experience?
6 feels optim istic about the future?
Showing your attitude
You ca n sh o w y o u r a ttitu d e o r o p in io n on so m e th in g using a d v e rb s a n d p re p o s itio n a l phrases.
W ith th e s e w o rd s a n d p h rases y o u can, fo r e x a m p le , sh o w th at:
a you did not expect som ething to happen,
b it is not good that som ething happened,
som ething is clear,
d you are saying w hat you really think,
it is good that som ething happened.
R e a d th e strate g y. S tu d y th e h ig h lig h te d w o rd s a n d p h rases in Sim o n's letter. M a tc h th e m
to ca te g o rie s a-e.
R e p la c e th e h ig h lig h te d w o rd s a n d p h rases in Sim o n 's le tte r w ith th e w o rd s a n d p h rases
be lo w .
to m y surprise
R e a d A b b y 's le tte r a g a in a n d c h o o se t h e c o rre c t answ ers.
Expressing reason and purpose
6 Study the four sentences from the letters. Which two sentences express a reason and which
two express a purpose?
1 Felix suggested that I needed to d o som ething different so th a t I can relax.
2 Since everyone's got exam fever, I haven't got m uch else to w rite about.
3 I've got to go n o w b ecause I've g ot a revision class in ten minutes, but w rite soon!
4 M y dad is relieved that he no longer has to wake up at 5 a.m. in order to drive m e to tennis practice.
C o m p le te th e se n te n ce s w ith an a p p ro p ria te reason o r p u rp o se .
1 Sim on has taken up rock climbing, because ...
2 A b b y decided to give up com petitive tennis so t h a t ...
3 Sim on and his friends are studying hard at the m om ent in order to ...
4 Since Abby's dad is h a p p y ,...
5 You have to concentrate very hard w h e n you're clim bing so that you d o n 't ...
6 A b b y is looking forward to the summer, because ...
Feelin g good
Hi Abby,
How are you? I'm sorry I haven't been in touch fo r a
while I can t believe summer is nearly here! How’s the
tennis going? I remember you had a big tournament
in April How did it go?
ve been studying hard fo r my exams and, to be
Hi Simon,
honest, I m getting pretty stressed out about the
Thanks for your letter. I’m really sorry that you’re so worried
results Felix suggested th at I needed to do something
about your results, but the rock climbing sounds great. I’d
d ifferen t so th a t I can relax and forget abocit
love to try it myself one day.
everything, SO I'v e taken Up rock Climbing! I ’m not
Guess what, I’ve decided to give up competitive tennis! I
very sporty, so obviously, the thought of hanging o ff
realized that I didn’t want to make it my whole life; there are
a rock face on the end of a rope was quite scary
too many other things 1want to do. ’Surprisingly / Obviously,
But, surprisingly, I ve been enjoying it and it's helped
experience, the scer\ersj was beautiful and, luckily, I
1 was terrified of telling my parents, because I thought they’d
be disappointed in me. But, 2to be honest / luckily, I knew
I wasn’t committed enough, fortunately / Unfortunately,
haven’t hurt myself. I actually really like it!
they took the news very well. “Sadly / Frankly, I think my dad
me take my mind o ff things I t was also an exciting
Since everyone's got exam fever and all we do is study,
I haven't got much else to w rite about
By the way,
is relieved that he no longer has to wake up at 5 a.m. in order
to drive me to tennis practice or to tournaments around the
Felix says ‘hello' Sadly, he can 't go to the lakes with us
this summer You are coming back to the lakes again
Anyway, I’d better go now - I’ve got to get ready for a party!
with your parents, aren 't you? I'v e got to go now
For years, I haven’t had time to do anything except play
because I ’ve got a revision class in ten minutes, but
w rite soon!
tennis, so I’m enjoying my new social life! 5To be honest /
Take care,
In answer to your question, of course we’re coming to the
Luckily, I still have some friends left.
lakes this year, but it’s a shame 1won’t see Felix.
Write soon!
Love, Abby
T a sk W rite a le tte r to a frien d o r re la tiv e te llin g
W r it e W r ite y o u r letter. U se th e p a ra g ra p h p la n to
h e lp y o u .
Id e a s D e cid e w h o y o u are g o in g to w rite to an d
C h e c k C h e c k th e fo llo w in g points:
m ake n o tes ab o u t:
■ questions you could ask the person.
■ past experiences you could describe
■ recent events you have taken part in.
■ information you could request from the person.
th e m y o u r new s.
P la n D e cid e w h ic h id e as y o u a re g o in g to use an d
m atch th e m to th e s e p a ra g rap h s.
■ Is the tone o f your letter friendly and informal?
■ Have you used the appropriate beginnings and
■ Have you expressed the reason and purpose o f the
actions you describe?
■ Have you checked grammar, vocabulary, spelling and
Pa ra g ra p h 1: Start the letter and ask som e questions
about h o w the person has been.
Pa ra g ra p h 2; Describe a recent past experience and
say h o w you felt about it.
Pa ra g ra p h 3: Describe a recent event you have been to
and its consequences.
Pa ra g ra p h 4: Ask the person you are writing to for
som e information.
Feelin g g o o d
Vocabulary insight 3 Building word families through suffixes
W o rk in pairs. S tu d y th e d ic tio n a ry e n trie s b e lo w .
H o w m a n y d iffe re n t fo rm s o f th e w o rd s a d are
C h o o se th e c o rre c t answ ers.
1 Does great w ealth always bring hap p iness / h ap p y /
th e r e ? W h a t p a rt o f sp e e ch a re th e y ?
hap p ily?
1sad /said/ adj (sadder; saddest) 1 sad (to do sth);
2 M y little sister often plays h ap p iness / h a p p y /
sad (that ...) unhappy or causing sb to feel
unhappy: We are very sad to hear that you are leav­
h ap p ily for hours w ith her toys.
ing. • I'm very sad that you don't trust me. * That's
one of the saddest stories I've ever heard! * a sad
poem/song/film 2 bad or unacceptable: it's a sad
state of affairs when your best friend doesn't trust
you. ►sadden /'sasdn/ verb [T] (formal): The news
of your father's death saddened me greatly. ►jadness noun rc.tJl
1 sadly
3 W e w ere amazed by the b e a u ty / beautifu l /
b eautifu lly of th e countryside.
4 The musician played th e piano b e a u ty / beautiful /
5 She's very g e n e ro sity / g enero us / g en e ro u sly and
adv 1 unfortunately: Sadly, after
eight years of marriage they hod grown apart. 2 in a
w ay that shows unhappiness: She shook her head
sadly. 3 in a w ay that is wrong: If you think that
I've forgotten what you did, you're sadly mistaken.
spends a lot of tim e helping the elderly.
6 Living g e n e ro sity / g enero us / g enero u sly makes
people feel happier.
If necessity / n ecessary / necessarily, I can help you
w ith the shopping on Saturday.
There's no necessity / n ecessary / necessarily to
Word-building: suffixes
give lots and lots o f m oney to charity. Even a small
W ords that have similar forms can be grouped into a
am ount will help.
'family', for example, happy, happily, happiness, unhappy.
Every fam ily is built around a'root'w ord. In this case, it is
C o m p le te th e ta b le w ith th e c o rre c t v e rb form s. U se
a d ic tio n a ry to h e lp y o u . W h a t a re th e ty p ic a l verb
You can form n e w words by adding prefixes (to the
beginning o f th e root word) or suffixes (to the end of
a d je c tiv e
the root word). W h e n you com e across a n e w word, it is
good to record other forms of that w ord as this will help
v e rb
you to d evelop your vocabulary.
m em orable
R e a d th e s tra te g y a b o v e . T h e n use a d ic tio n a ry to
c o m p le te th e ta b le .
a d je c tiv e
a d v e rb
C o m p le te th e se n te n ce s w ith t h e c o rre c t fo rm s of
th e w o rd s in brackets. U se th e suffixes on th is pag e.
1 W e w ere all
(sad) to hear that our
teacher left the school.
It was a very
(m em ory) experience - I’ll
never forget it.
3 M y brother can’t ........................ (different) betw een
red and orange. He always gets them mixed up.
4 S h e ....................... (kind) offered to carry m y bags.
m em orably
I he class w as very
(friend) and kind to
the n e w students.
S tu d y th e suffixes in th e ta b le in exercise 2. T h e n
6 The school is really old, so the classrooms will be
c o m p le te th e rules.
(m odern) next year.
1 Typical noun suffixes are:.................. , ...................,
2 Typical adjective suffixes are:.................. , ...............
U se th e suffixes on th is p a g e to m a k e w o rd fa m ilies
b u ilt a ro u n d th e w o rd s b e lo w . U se a d ic tio n a ry to
h e lp y o u . T h e n w rite y o u r o w n e x a m p le se n te n ce s
3 Typical adverb suffixes are:.................. , ..................
w ith ea ch w o rd .
V o ca b u la ry in sig h t 3
Dictionary entries from Oxford Wordpower Dictionary, 4th edition
Review 3
V o c a b u la r y
G ram m ar
5 Complete the sentences with the past simple or
present perfect simple form of the verbs in brackets.
C o m p le te th e id io m s in th e te x t w ith o n e w o rd in
e a ch gap.
Are you feeling 1
in the mouth? Clothes you
wear can stop you feeling down in the 2
Studies suggest that if you wear colourful clothes, you'll
soon feel on 3
of the world again. Blue is
effective for many, and yellow helps others to feel
the moon. You can be on cloud 5
when you wear red, though some people find it stressful!
Green is a good choice if you're feeling 6
I tried badm inton first, and last w eek I
(try) tw o n e w sports so far this year.
skates for the first time.
I .......................... (w ant) to try skating since February.
(w atch) a really cool skating video on
YouTube back then.
5 1
(find) a skating class last month.
6 The teacher
(win) lots of awards for
skating since she began.
M a rk s
However, m y first lesson
8 In m y first lesson, I
(be) a disaster!
.............................(fall) over a lot.
9 1..........................................(not becom e) an expert yet.
C o m p le te th e se n te n ce s w ith th e c o rre c t fo rm o f th e
10 But I .................................(get) better since m y first try!
w o rd s in brackets.
1 The best gift you can give is ................... (kind)
2 Love is a
for small children, (necessary)
6 Write sentences and questions. Use the past simple
or present perfect simple.
today means hard work tomorrow, (lazy)
4 Don't wait fo r.................. - go and find it. (happy)
1 I/ n e v e r / s w im / in the sea
5 W e should m easu re.................. in friendships, not in
m oney, (prosper)
6 Success is the
2 you / drive / or / w aIk / to school / today ?
to learn from failure, (able)
M ark s
3 s h e / n o t w in / a n y g a m e s / y e t
C o m p le te th e te x t w ith th e w ords.
com m itm en t
4 th ey / beat / our team / in the last match
team spirit
Gym trainer Mart Hardy says, ‘If you really want to get
fit, you need 1
- a determination to succeed.
That means2
, for example, waking up early
I/ n o t d o / a n y sp o rt/last year
6 y o u / e v e r / r id e / a m ountain bike ?
in the morning, so you can exercise. You'll soon build up
, so you can exercise for a long time without
getting tired. Exercising alone demands 4
for you, take up a sport, like basketball. It’s fun and you’ll
of playing with others. Being part
of a winning team boosts your6
C o m p le te th e te x t w ith th e p re se n t p e rfe c t sim p le
or c o n tin u o u s fo rm o f th e v e rb s b e lo w .
you’ve only got yourself to depend on. If the gym isn’t
enjoy the 5
w atch
, so you feel
great about yourself!’
football all day, and I’ve got another
hour to go. I’m exhausted! The whole team
M ark s
around the pitch for hours. I
(just) the Manchester United Youth
team - that’s why I 4
C h o o se th e co rre c t an sw ers.
so intensively. I
(always) of being a famous footballer
one day.
Surfing is an 1extremely / rapidly popular sport,
enjoyed by millions of people. It started in ancient
Hawaii, and 2quickly / worryingly spread worldwide.
For ancient Hawaiians it had religious significance, so
3rapidly / clearly, it wasn’t just a sport. Surfing was
4incredibly / worryingly important, too, as the chief
ruler was usually a 5comfortably / really good surfer.
6Clearly / Surprisingly, Hawaiians who surfed badly
were not as well-respected as good surfers!
Dad 6
my biggest fan ever since I
first kicked a ball. He 7
me to train for
the last 15 years, and he doesn’t show any signs of
stopping! He 8
me train all day today -
he’s still looking at me right now. He 9
(always) in me, even when I doubted myself. He
remembers all my best goals - even the ones I
M ark s
M a rk s
Pronunciation insight 3 W orkbook page 125
R eview 3
A right to fight
Reading and vo cab u lary D isappearing w orlds
SPEAKING Look at the photosand discuss the
questions. Then read the text and compare your ideas.
1 Have you ever visited an island? Can you nam e
som e islands?
2 W h at d o you think life is like on the island in the photos?
Think about the climate, food, work and free time.
Read the text again and choose the correct answers.
1 W h y is Jo h n S a ilik e s a d ?
a He regrets his childhood,
He misses friends from his com m unity,
c He doesn't w an t to leave the island,
'W h e n I w a s a little boy, I lo ved to g o fishing in
d He can't hear the sea at night.
th e s e a with m y spear,' says J o h n Sailike, sadly.
2 W h at d o people do on the island?
a M en and w om en do similar work,
w a v e s a t n ig h t ... I w o n 't h e a r it a n y more.'
I hey have frequent contact with the outside world,
c They use a lot of electricity,
’J o h n is a fish erm an from th e C a rte re t islands in
d They try to provide their ow n food.
th e S o u th Pacific, a n idyllic sem i-circle of w hite
3 W h at first impressions of the island does the writer give?
s a n d , p a lm trees a n d crystal c le a r w aters. E a c h
Life on the island is very simple.
d ay, h e g o e s o u t in a c a n o e to c a t c h fish for
People on the island are unhappy,
his family, w h ile his w ife looks after th e children
Islanders need m ore help from the outside world,
a n d grow s v e g e ta b le s in their g a rd e n .T h e fam ily
d It's difficult for islanders to live there.
4 W hich of these things is not a problem for the islands?
lives in a w o o d huf w ith s a n d floors a n d th e y
d o n 't u s e m u c h electricity, so w h e n th e sun g o e s
Fresh w ater shortages.
d o w n , it is u su ally tim e for b e d . 2This p e a c e fu l,
M ore risk o f illnesses,
u n d e rd e v e lo p e d p la c e h a s a finy p o p u la tio n a n d
c A poor food supply,
d Too m any people.
5 W h at m ight happen w hen the islanders relocate?
o n ly o n e c o n t a c t w ith th e o u tsid e w orld - a ship
w h ic h brings sup p lies from Bou g ainville, a la rg e
islan d 86 km a w a y . But all this is a b o u t to c h a n g e ,
a There won't be enough food and shelter.
b e c a u s e Jo h n , a lo n g with 3,000 o th e r p e o p le , is
le a v in g his island h o m e .T h e q u estio n is, w h y ?
People will forget Carteret traditions,
c They w on't be able to com m unicate,
d They w on’t be able to find work.
6 H o w have people helped the islanders?
a They have built them n e w homes.
They have supported th e younger generation,
c They have tried to protect their traditions,
d They have researched clim ate change.
'W h e n I le a v e th e island, HI lose th e s e a a n d th e
h a p p in e s s of fhis p la c e . I'll miss th e s o u n d of fh e
SPEAKING Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.
1 W h a t did you learn about Carteret culture?
2 Did any of the challenges the islanders face surprise you?
The environment
Study the highlighted words in the text and match
them to definitions 1-9.
1 to stay alive, despite difficult conditions
2 w h e n w ater destroys som ething
3 to m ove to another place
4 to disappear forever
5 to leave a place because o f danger
6 destroying som ething
7 to protect som ething for th e future
8 poisoning and making som ething bad
9 to affect a larger area or a bigger group o f people
42 A right to fight
Take a c lo se r look a f th e islands a n d fh e rea so n
b e c o m e s clear. Th e C a rle re ts a r e th e victim of
g lo b a l w arm in g . High tides often flood across
th e v illa g e s a n d w a s h a w a y p e o p le 's hom es.
3S alt w a te r from th e s e a is overflow ing into
v e g e t a b le g a rd e n s a n d d e v a s ta tin g fruit trees.
It's c o n ta m in a tin g th e fresh w a fe r supply, too.
Islanders a re struggling to survive o n c o c o n u t
milk a n d fish, a n d ch ild ren a re suffering from
Vocabulary: the environment; prefixes: semi-, under-, over-, re-, co-,
inter--, verbs + prepositions; collocations: charities
Gram m ar: expressing the future; future perfect and future continuous
Speaking: discussing cultural identity; comparing types of protest; asking
for and expressing opinions
W riting: an opinion essay
Complete the article about blue gold with the
correct form of the highlighted verbs in Is la n d s to r y .
Blue gold
Did you know that 97% of all the world's water is salt
water? 3% is drinkable, but we can only use 1% of this
because the rest is trapped in glaciers or deep underground.
The bad news is this percentage is getting smaller because
of overpopulation, pollution and climate change.
It's a scary situation: rising sea levels1
homes and sometimes whole islands on one side of the
world. Floods and high tides2
fresh water
and 3
disease. Governments are forced
m alnutrition.The d y in g trees a re h o m e to m osq uitoes
th a t s p re a d d ise ase s, like m a la ria . P e o p le kn ow th a t
life o n th e island is c o m in g to a n e n d .
Experts p re d ict th a t th e C arfere fs will b e u n d e r w a fe r
b y 2015. Before th e n , 'hhe islanders will r e lo c a te to
p la c e s like B o u g a in ville a n d rebuild their lives.This
m o v e will p ro vid e p e o p le with fo o d a n d shelter, but
w h a t will h a p p e n to their c u ltu re ? Th e islanders h a v e
so n g s for different e v e r y d a y activities, a n d traditions
to 4
communities from danger zones and
them to higher ground. But, in other parts
of the world, droughts 6
crops and kill farm
animals. And as people move to other areas in search of
food, traditions and cultures 7
It's a man-made problem, so what's the solution? We
have to learn to 8
this valuable resource. In
2030, almost 50% of the world's population will probably
experience water shortages, and experts predict the first
water wars. Who will be the winners and losers? Will we
the battle for blue gold?
a n d ce le b ra tio n s linked to th e s e a .T h e y a ls o h a v e
their o w n la n g u a g e , c a lle d 'H a lia '. 5lt th e y co-exist
with o th er cultures, this m a y d ie out.
insight Prefixes: se m i-, u n d e r-, o ve r-, re-, co-, in ter-
'W e're losing ou r h o m e , o u r identity, ou r w h o le life,'
sa ys isla n d e r Ursula R a k o v a .'W e h o p e th e world
is listening.' It is. 6O v e r th e last fe w years, article s in
intern a tio n a l n e w s p a p e rs , YouTube vid e o s a n d a n
O s ca r- n o m in a te d d o c u m e n ta r y film c a lle d S u n is Up
h a v e fa lk e d a b o u f fh e C a rte re t islands. P e o p le h a v e
Study sentences 1-6 in Isla n d sto ry . Then match the
underlined prefixes to definitions a-f.
a again or back
b together
c b etw een
d not enough, below
e half, partly
f too much
s u p p o rte d fh e islanders a n d a s a result, th e y h a v e
P e isa ' is a p ro je ct w h ic h is h elp in g to e v a c u a t e
Complete the sentences with the words in brackets
and a prefix in exercise 6.
p e o p le like Ursula. It's also looking for w a y s to
1 The island w a s ......................... Too m any people w ere
fu m e d their a n g e r a n d frustration info actio n .'T u le le
p rese rve their w a y of life a n d re co rd their la n g u a g e
a n d traditions for future generatio n s.
living there, (crowded)
2 O nce the Carterets are under the sea, th ey will never
B a c k o n fh e island, J o h n Sailike is g e ttin g into his
b o a t for th e last tim e. He's s a yin g g o o d b y e to his
3 If the islanders
h o m e a n d to his a n ce sto rs. He d o e s n ot kn ow w h a t
th e future will bring; h e d o e s n o t k n o w if his culture
will survive. He is th e h u m a n f a c e of c lim a fe c h a n g e .
.th e re m ight be
enough food for e v e ry o n e (-operate)
It's difficult t o ........................ w ith people w h o speak
a different language, (act)
5 The fish smelt bad and it w a s ......................... It wasn't
safe to eat. (cooked)
Factfile: Carteret Islands
Location: South Pacific, off the north-east coast
of Papua New Guinea
6 Their n e w hom es on Bougainville w ere
.........................They could only live there for a few
months, (-permanent)
Population: 3,300
total area: 0.6 square km (83 football fields)
Highest point: 1.2 metres above sea level
History: Discovered by Philip Carteret in 1767
SPEAKING Work in pairs. Think about the place
where you live. Choose the things that make up
your cultural identity, then put them in order of
importance. Give reasons for your order.
music (songs and dance)
lan d /g eo g rap h ical features
Vocabulary bank
Global issues page 1S7
A right to fight
4 B ■ G ram m ar and listening Action!
SPEAKING Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.
1 H o w often do you:
send instant messages or chat with a friend on a social
networking site?
post com m ents on other people’s pages?
post a status update on a social networking site?
upload photos or videos?
2 Do you ever use social media for other reasons, for example,
to organize som ething?
Crowd power
- the flashmob
Read the text and answer the questions.
1 W h a t are flashmobs?
2 W h y d o people organize them ?
3 W h y is Jo e l organizing his flashmob?
4 H o w will people find out about it?
Expressing the future
Read the text again. Then match sentences 1-7 in the text
to uses a-g.
Ways of expressing the future:
a present sim ple for scheduled events, timetables
b present continuous for arrangem ents
c will for promises and hopes for th e future (often w ith hope,
prom ise)
will for predictions about the future (often with think probably)
going rofor intentions
going to for predictions based on evidence
m a y /m ig h t for uncertain predictions about the future.
Reference and practice 4.1
W orkbook page 110
Read the sentences and choose the correct answers.
1 I m ight go to the eco festival in the park this weekend,
a I have a definite plan to go to the festival.
b I haven't decided on m y plans yet.
c I probably w on't go.
2 W h a t are you doing tonight?
a I w ant to know about your arrangements for tonight,
b I w ant to know about your activities now.
c I'm asking you to make a prediction about the future.
3 The protest starts at 730 a.m.
a The protest has just started,
b The protest m ight start at that time,
c Fhe protest will definitely start at that time.
I'm m eeting Anna at the cafe to talk about th e protest,
a I m ight m eet Anna in the cafe.
b Anna and I have decided the tim e and place to meet
c I hope I'll see Anna in the cafe.
5 I think that flashmobs will becom e m ore popular
in the future.
a I predict that this will happen,
b This will definitely happen,
c I w an t this to happen.
A right to fight
la sh m o b s are p u b lic p e rfo rm a n c e s g iv en
b y g ro u p s of s tra n g e rs w h o find o u t a b o u t
e v e n ts th ro u g h social m e d ia , n e tw o rk in g sites
a n d tex t m essa g e s. F la sh m o b b e rs m e e t a t a
p recise tim e a n d p e rfo rm a s h o rt a c tio n to g e th e r
w h e n a s ig n a l is giv en . T h e p e rfo rm a n c e
fin ish es su d d e n ly , a t a n a rra n g e d tim e a n d the
p e o p le th e n m o v e a w a y im m ed iately . F o r so m e
p e o p le , fla sh m o b s are a b o u t h a v in g fu n . B ut
fo r o th e rs, th e y 're a w a y of g e ttin g to g e th e r
a g ro u p of p e o p le to m a k e a p o litic a l p o in t.
W e a s k e d Joel to tell u s a b o u t h is n e x t fla sh m o b
Joel is a 19-year-old C a n a d ia n a n d h e 's a
s tro n g a d v o c a te o f recycling. 'O n S atu rd ay ,
’I'm org a n izin g a fla sh m o b e v e n t to p ro m o te
recycling. 2It starts a t ten in th e m o rn in g .
3H o w w ill w e organ ize th e e v e n t? P ro b a b ly
th ro u g h T w itter, F aceb o o k a n d o th e r w eb sites.
A c c o rd in g to th e w e a th e r forecast, 4it's g o in g
to b e re a lly h o t o n S atu rd ay , so 5I h o p e th a t
lo ts o f p e o p le w ill b e there. 6W e're g o in g
to lea v e so m e ru b b is h n e a r a recy clin g b in
a n d th e n w a it in th e p a rk . I h o p e w e 'll look
Complete the text with w ill, g o in g to or m ig h t and the
correct form of the verbs in brackets.
Jason, 21, lives in San Francisco. Tom orrow afternoon, he's
(take part) in a 'carrotm ob'event.
In carrotm ob events, a group of people spend their
m on ey to support a business and in return the business
agrees to d o som ething good for the environm ent. For
tom orrow's event, lots of p e o p le 2
(buy) food at the M iniM art store in Pine Street
b etw een 2 and 3 p.m. In return, the store promises
i t 3.................................... (spend) 50% o f the hour's
revenue on n e w energy-efficient lighting.'Four hundred
people have promised to visit the store tomorrow,'
says Jason, iso i t 4
(be) very busy! I
really hope that m y sister, S ad ie,5....................................
(join) me. She 6
(com e), but
it depends on w hether her teacher lets her leave
early, says Jason.'But, even if she's not there, I think
that w e 7.................................... (have) a lot o f fun
tom orrow !'N ext m onth Ja s o n 8
(organize) another carrotm ob even t at a local
sports ce n tre .9
lots of people
(support) the next e ven t?'! don't
know yet,'says Jaso n.'But it’s a great idea.'
lik e o rd in a ry p e o p le , e n jo y in g a d a y o u t. B ut
e v e ry o n e 's g o in g to s ta rt c la p p in g a n d c h e erin g
a s s o o n a s so m e o n e p ick s u p th e ru b b is h a n d
p u ts it in th e recy clin g bin. S om e p e o p le 7m ay
n o t und erstan d w h a t w e 're d o in g , b u t I th in k
th a t it w ill b e fu n . F la sh m o b b in g is p o ssib le
b e c a u se o f th e w a y th a t p e o p le c o n tin u a lly
s h a re m fo rm a tio n a ro u n d th e w o r ld now . It's
th e fu tu re o f p o litical p ro te s t.'
1.15 Listen to Melanie talking about a Critical Mass
bike ride and answer the questions.
1 W h at is a Critical Mass bike ride?
2 W h at is the aim o f the ride?
1.15 Make sentences about the event. Then listen
and check.
1 M elanie / join / a Critical Mass bike ride
2 The ride / start / eight in the m orning
3 It / be / very busy
4 T h e y / c y c le / th ro u g h the streets
5 People in cars and buses / g et / annoyed
6 They / not be able to m ove fast
Hopefully m ore people / decid e / to hop on a bike
8 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.
1 W h ich o f the three types o f protest (flashmobbing,
carrotmobs, Critical Mass bike rides) will b ecom e m o re/
less popular in the future?
2 W h at other ways o f protesting m ight b ecom e popular?
using Twitter, Facebook
signing petitions
organizing marches
writing letters to th e governm ent
A right to fight
4 C ■ Listening, speaking and vocabulary Making our voices heard
SPEAKING Work in pairs. Look at the
photos and discuss the questions.
1 W h ere do you think this school is?
2 W h y are the students protesting?
3 W h at problem s d o you think students
m ight experience at this school?
Listen to the radio programme
about Attawapiskat Elementary School
and check your ideas. Then answer the
1 W h o w as Shannen Koostachin?
2 W h y is she inspirational?
1.16 Listen to the radio programme again. Are the sentences true (T) or
false (F)? Correct the false ones.
1 Kate thinks that Shannen is very fam ous around th e world.
2 Shannen believed that children needed education as preparation for life.
3 Shannen w rote to children all over Canada and asked them to support her
cam paign.
4 The ann ou ncem ent from the Minister for Aboriginal Affairs in 2008 was
probably very disappointing for Shannen.
5 The Attawapiskat com m unity cancelled the school trip in order to pay for their
representatives to travel to Ottawa.
6 Shannen tho ug h t that the First Nation children had special rights to education.
7 Shannen m oved to N ew Liskeard because the school there had better facilities.
8 The n e w school in Attawapiskat will probably not have a gym or a music studio.
Identifying facts, opinions and speculation
When you listen to people discussing a subject, it is important to identify:
■ facts: The governm ent spent $5 million on the environm ent last year.
opinions: / th in k /1 b e lie v e / In m y o p in io n / It's m y v ie w th a t the governm ent didn't sp end enough
m oney on the environm ent last year.
speculation: The governm ent w ill p r o b a b ly / m ig h t/ m a y focus on the environm ent in the next year.
Perhaps / M a yb e the governm ent w ill sp end m ore m oney on the environm ent next year.
Read the strategy. Then study the statements in exercise 3 again. Are they facts (F),
opinions (O) or speculation (S)?
insight Verbs + prepositions
5 Choose the correct prepositions.
1 to believe in / at / for global w arm ing
2 to protest after / over / against clim ate
3 to belong a b o u t/to /fo r a com m un ity
4 to insist on / at / for freedom o f speech
5 to rely in / on / at the g overnm ent for help
6 to set in /on / up a cam paign
7 to care about / with / after a situation
SPEAKING Discuss the questions.
1 W h at do you think about Shannen's cam paign? W ould you insist on the same facilities
for your school?
2 W h at school facilities do you rely on?
3 W h y m ight you set up a cam paign in your school? Is there anything you m ight protest against?
DVD extra
A right to fight
200 people protest
Plans for a new
basketball court
in North Park have
been cancelled.
Students and teachers at Park
School are horrified at the
decision to shorten summer
holidays to three weeks.
against plans to build a
waste recycling facility
in the skatepark.
Asking for and expressing opinions
SPEAKING Read the newspaper headlines. What do you think about these issues? Which is
the most important? Which is the least important?
Listen and match the dialogue to one of the three headlines in exercise 7.
Complete the phrases from the dialogue. Then listen again and check.
Asking for opinions
Reacting to opinions and suggestions
W h a t d o y o u 1.............................. ?
I'm not s o 6.............................. (it is a bad idea).
W h a t d o y o u 2............................. ?
That's just w h a t 7...............................
That's a 8
Expressing opinions
...................., I think . . . .
As far as I'm 4
a goo d idea to . . . .
10 Add the phrases below to the table in exercise 9.
agree with you about that. ■ I take your point, b u t . . . .
on this?
To tell you the tru th ,. . . .
In m y opinion . . . .
I see w hat you're saying, b u t . . . .
Choose the correct answers. Then listen and check.
I don’t believe this - the council decided not to build th e basketball courts in the park.
, it's probably a good idea. W e already have a football pitch and tennis courts,
so w e don’t need another outdoor facility.2
W hat's your view
If you w an t m y o p in io n ,. . . .
th ey should build a youth club.
.................. , but a basketball court is m uch ch eap er than a youth club.
You're probably right.4........................
H o w about w e organize a protest?
.That sounds very serious. H ow about w e just w rite a letter to th e council?
OK, that's a great idea.
1 a I'm not so sure
2 a That’s just w h at I was thinking
b To tell you the truth
b That’s a great idea
c I take your point
3 a W h at do you reckon?
b As far as I'm concerned
c I see w h at you're saying
4 a I'm not so sure
b W h a t d o you think?
c If you ask me
5 a I'm not so sure
b I agree with you about that
c That's a great idea
c In m y opinion
12 SPEAKING Work in groups of four Choose an issue that you all feel strongly about. Discuss
how you are going to organize a campaign to support your cause. You have a campaign
budget of €150. Use the ideas below or your own ideas.
more cycle paths ■ recycling
more youth facilities
helping the elderly
1 Look at the price list and decide h o w to
spend your budget.
Discuss h ow you will use social media.
3 Discuss other ways o f protesting (for
example, writing letters to the governm ent,
organizing a march, a sit-in, a flashmob).
Campaign price list
Leaflets: € 1 0 for 100 black and
white leaflets or 50 colour leaflets
Posters: € 1 5 for 50 posters
T-shirts: €8 per T-shirt
Advertisement on bus: € 2 5 0
Using a local celebrity: € 1 0 0
YouTube video: € 1 2 0
A right to fight
4 D ■ Culture, vocabulary and grammar Make a difference
i v
s f l
SPEAKING Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.
1 H o w d o you find out about global and local issues from the internet, a new spaper orTV ?
2 H o w can charities make a difference?
Read the text and compare your ideas.
Complete the text with sentences A-G. There is one
sentence that you do not need.
Go the
Extra Mile
London, UK: It’s tw o o'clock in the afternoon and Sophie
A O ther people buy products from their online shops.
Hanson is running a marathon. She’s wearing a T-shirt that
B She can hear her schoolm ates cheering and she
says ‘G o the Extra Mile', but she’s feeling tire d .1
knows she has to finish.
She grabs a bottle o f water; takes a long drink and carries
C They don't make donations because th ey haven't got
5 on. By the time she finishes, she will have raised £200.
m uch money.
D It's cool and clear and M o ham m ed has not been ill
Halfway around the world, in Sierra Leone, Africa,
Moham m ed Korom a is thirsty. It’s 30 degrees outside,
for weeks.
E By the end of this year, people will have com pleted
so he picks up a cup o f w a te r and takes a long drink.
Th e w ater is from a n ew well in his village, so it isn't
m ore than 350 events.
io contam inated.2
F They give up their free tim e and volunteer.
G O ver the next few years, this m on ey will be helping
people like M oham m ed.
H e will be going to school again at
8 am . tom orrow.
Sophie and Moham m ed are tw o teenagers with very
different lives, but their lives are connected through
4 SPEAKING Discuss the questions.
1 W h ich charities are popular in your country?
2 Have you ever been to an even t that supports a good
cause? W h a t w as it? W h a t did the event achieve?
charity. Sophie is taking part in a huge national event
is that raises m oney for people in the U K and abroad - a
sponsored run for Sp ort Relief. Moham m ed’s village has
a n ew well that was paid fo r with m oney from the same
event. Every year, Sp ort Relief and its sister charity, Com ic
insight C o l l o c a t i o n s : c h a r i t i e s
Relief, raise m oney for good causes.3
Find the verbs in the text and write the nouns that
go with them.
These events
20 include marathons and football matches, talent shows and
baking competitions, and w hen they are all completed,
1 take part in ........... ........................./ a m arathon
they will have raised over £50 million.That's enough
2 raise..
m oney to transform the lives o f thousands o f people.
.. /aw areness
3 transform ............. ......................./ a situation
4 d o n a te ................. .................. /clothes
25 According to recent research, the U K is the fifth most
5 vo lu n te e r............. ......................./ help
6 a id ......................... ........... /d e ve lo p in g countries
generous nation in the world. Charities are an important
part o f British society, and some of the w orld ’s biggest
7 address................. .................../ a problem
and most famous organizations, such as Oxfam and Save
8 s u p p o rt................ ................... / a cam paign
the Children, started in the UK.Today, there are over
3o 160,000 charities, and m ore than three quarters (7 9 % )
C o m p l e t e t h e t e x t w i t h v e r b s in e x e r c i s e 5.
o f people donate m oney o r volunteer time every month.
Be humankind
Sin ce the 1960s, charities have put slogans on T-shirts to
awareness of social problems and encourage
people to take action. In the past, these slogans w ere often
about world peace, but today slo g an s2
different issues, such as environmental problems, poverty
and social injustice.
T-shirts with slogans show that w e 3
a charity
or a campaign. Sport Relief slogans like ‘Rise to the
Challenge’ and ‘G o the Extra Mile’ encourage people
to 4
events. Other slogans such as Oxfam’s
‘Change, not Charity’ encourage us to 5
time and not ju s t6
money. And although
slogans don’t 7.................. people’s lives on their own,
they are an important part of the process. In the words
of another Oxfam slogan, they persuade us to ‘Be
A right to fight
Future perfect and future continuous
Study sentences 1-3 from the text and match them
to rules a-c. Then complete the rules.
By the tim e she finishes (the marathon), she w ill have
raised £200.
2 Over the next few years, this m on ey w ill be helping
people like M oham m ed.
3 He w ill be g oing to school again at 8 a.m. tomorrow.
W e use th e future continuous:
a to talk about an action in progress at a definite tim e
in the future.
b to talk about an action in progress over an extended
period o f tim e in the future.
Form: will / won't + be + ....................................
W e use th e future perfect:
c to talk about an action that will be finished before a
definite tim e in th e future.
Form: will / won't + have + ....................................
Reference and practice 4.2
Many people make regular donations to big charities that
aid po o r people in different countries.5
charities, such as sports projects o r hospices, address
W orkbook page 111
8 A school magazine interviewed Sophie before
the race. Complete the interview. Use the future
continuous or the future perfect.
m ore local issues and rely on smaller events, like car boot
sales and fun runs.They also rely on volunteers for the
W h a t1
(you do) at 1 p.m.
on Saturday?
day-to-day running o f these projects.
...............(run) in the
m arathon and hopefully by 6 p.m.
Teenagers play a big role in this culture o f giving. A recent
13.............................. (finish).
W o rld Vision study showed that 6 9 % o f teens are aware of
the needs o f others thanks to the internet and globalization.
H o w fa r4
.......... (you run) by
the end of the race?
And although teens may not have much money to give, they
About 42 km.
Interviewer That’s im pressive.5
often help in other ways.6............In the UK, more than a
third o f teenagers have given time to charities in the last
of p e o p le................. (take part) in the
year In fact, supporting a charity is part o f everyday life, and
event on Saturday?
young people are the new champions o f this culture. 1 feel
good when I do something,’ explains Sophie after the race.
Yes, 16
(not do) it alone.
Hundreds of people will be there.
‘I read about so many problems in the news - at home and
abroad. Often, I feel helpless, I don't have a lot o f money, but
..........(you celebrate) with
your friends after th e event?
then I can volunteer; I can get sponsors and I can make a
difference.’ Back in Sierra Leone, Mohammed is smiling.
Yes, I will. 18
their money, too!
H ow m uch m o n e y 9
(you raise)?
About £200,1hope!
SPEAKING Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.
W h a t w ill you be doing:
1 after school today?
2 at 2 p.m. on Saturday?
3 this tim e next w eek?
4 during the sum m er holidays?
W h a t w ill y o u have done:
Charity in numbers
160,000 charities in the UK raise £37 billion every year
in tw o hours'tim e?
6 by this tim e tom orrow ?
7 by the end of this year?
8 in five years'tim e?
13.2 million people volunteer for chanties.
Charity shops raise £200 million every year
The biggest charities like Oxfam, Cancer Research and the
RSPCA raise more than £10 million a yean
Vocabulary bank
Charities page 137
A right to fight
4 E ■ W riting An opinion essay
1 SPEAKING Read the poster
and answer the questions.
Support our charity!
1 W h y does H epw orth school
This year, Hepworth school w ill
be organizing fundraising events
throughout the school year.
We w an t YOU to help us decide
w hich of th ese tw o charities w e w ill
support w ith our funds this year:
w an t students to choose one
of the charities?
2 Have you heard of these
3 W h ich charity w ould you
choose to support? W h y?
WaterAid works in 26 of the world's
poorest countries. It aims to improve
access to safe, clean drinking w ater for
hundreds of thousands of people.
Read Nick's essay and answer
the questions.
1 According to Nick, w h at is a
basic hum an right?
World W ide Fund for Nature
The World Wide Fund for Nature aims to
protect endangered animals and plants
by conserving their habitats and fighting
against climate change and pollution.
Write an essay to tell us which
charity you w ant to support and why.
2 H o w m any people around
the world cannot g et safe,
clean w ater?
3 H o w does W aterAid help
com m unities to be more
4 W h ich charity is bigger,
W aterAid or W W F ?
Organizing an opinion paragraph
When you write an opinion essay, the main part of it will be paragraphs expressing your
opinion. Each opinion paragraph should include:
1 The m ain point: M y first reason for ch oosing WaterAid is that in m a ny p arts o f the w orld the poorest
p eople don't have taps or even wells.
2 Support: Often their only source o f w ater is dirty a n d dangerous a n d very far from their homes.
3 Specific exam ple: In fact, 884 million p eople d o n o t have access to safe, clean water.
3 Read the strategy. Then study paragraphs C and D in Nick's essay and find examples for
each point 1-3 in the strategy.
Study Nick's essay again. In which paragraph(s) A-E does he do 1-4?
1 Presents an opposing viewpoint.
2 Introduces th e topic and states his opinion.
3 Sum marizes and restates his opinion.
4 Supports his opinion by presenting argum ents and examples.
H epw orth school has asked the stu d ents to choose it s main ch a rity fo r the ye a r. In my opinion, we
should choose W aterA id, because access to s a fe , clean w a te r is a b asic human rig h t.
M y f ir s t reason fo r choosing W aterAid is th a t in many p a rts
o f the w orld the poorest people don t
have tap s o r even w e lls . O fte n th e ir only source o f w a te r is
dangerous because i t ’s d irty and it s .v e r y
fa r fro m th e ir homes. In f a c t , 8 8 4 m illion people do not have acce ss to s a fe , clean w a te r and 5 , 0 0 0
children die each day fro m
w ate r-re late d diseases. 1 am convinced th a t by supporting W a te re d , w e can
help to reduce these num bers.
Another argument fo r donating our
money to W aterA id, is th a t i t helps com m unities
and m aintain th e ir own w a te r and hygiene p ro je c ts. B y doing th is i t educates
com m unities to
to s e t up
people and encourages
look a ft e r th e ir own needs. B e tte r hygiene can reduce childhood deaths by 3 5 % .
D M y fin a l p o int is th a t many people m ight say th a t W aterAid
is a much s e lle r c h a rity than the World
Wide Fund fo r N atu re, so i t
c a n t m ake as much o f a d iffe re n ce as W W F
donations to W W F are nearly
te n tim es the
donations to W aterA id. H ow ever,
can . In f a c t
annual to ta l
th is is w hy 1 fe e l th a t
W aterAid needs our money m ore.
T o conclude, 1 believe th a t H epw orth should choose W aterAid as it s c h a rity , because it helps the poorest
people around the w orld and it w ill really b e n e fit fro m
N ick Jones
A right to fight
our donations.
Introducing arguments and giving opinions
Study the phrases in the table. Then put the highlighted phrases in Nick's letter under the
correct heading in the table.
Introducing arguments
Giving opinions
The main argum ent for / against i s . . . .
M y point o f v ie w is that
First o f all.......
To m y m ind.......
It is also im portant to note t h a t ....
C o m p l e t e M o n ic a 's e s s a y w i t h p h r a s e s in e x e r c i s e 5. S o m e t i m e s m o r e t h a n o n e a n s w e r is p o s s ib le .
Our school wants to choose one charity to
support this y ear.1
should choose the World Wide Fund for
Nature (WWF), because it helps to conserve
the environment and protects animals and
plants, and there is nothing more important
than the future of our planet.
These areas are under threat because
of global warming, deforestation, or
overfishing. If we don’t protect these
places now, it will be too late! That’s why
the W W F’s work is so
supporting the WWF
is that climate change is a major issue for
our planet. The WWF works in many ways
to fight against climate change. It supports
energy efficiency and is promoting a new
international climate agreement.
the WWF protects
a large number of endangered species,
including tigers, rhinos and polar bears.
These beautiful animals share our planet
, it’s our duty
to look after them and to prevent their
donating money to
this charity is that the WWF does a lot of
important work to preserve huge areas, for
example, the Amazon rainforest and the
In conclusion,7
charity for this year should be the WWF
because it is doing the most important
work - protecting life on our planet and
protecting the planet itself.
M o n ic a D u P o n t
T ask Your sc h o o l w a n ts t o g iv e € 5 0 0 to o n e o f th e
P l a n F o llo w t h e p l a n :
t w o c h a r i t i e s b e l o w . F in d o u t m o r e a b o u t b o t h
P a r a g r a p h 1:
ch a ritie s a n d d e c id e w h ich o n e y o u w a n t t o s u p p o rt.
W r it e a n o p i n i o n e s s a y t o e x p l a i n w h y y o u r s c h o o l
W rite an introduction and give a clear
statem ent of your opinion.
P a r a g r a p h s 2 - 4 : Give at least three reasons for your
sh o u ld c h o o s e th is c h a rity
opinion. W rite each reason in a
separate paragraph. Add support and
UNICEF (The United
Nations Children's
F rie n d s o f th e Earth
UNICEF is an international
charity which defends
children's rights. It works
with families, communities
and governments in more
than 190 countries and
aims to protect children
from exploitation, violence
and poverty.
environmental charities
in the world. It fights for
solutions to environmental
Friends of the Earth
is one of the largest
problems, supports fair
trade and campaigns
against climate change,
pollution and genetically
modified crops.
specific examples.
P a r a g r a p h 5:
W rite a conclusion to the essay.
Restate your opinion and summarize
the reasons for it.
W r i t e W r it e a n o p i n i o n e s s a y . U s e t h e p a r a g r a p h
p lan to h e lp you.
C h e c k C h e c k t h e fo llo w in g p o in ts:
■ Have you used a clear paragraph structure?
■ Have you included all argum ents supporting your
Id e a s M ak e n o te s a b o u t:
■ Have you used language for introducing argum ents
■ w h at the charity does.
■ w h y it is an im portant issue.
■ w h y this charity deserves your school’s m on ey more
and giving opinions?
■ Have you checked grammar, vocabulary, spelling and
than an y other charity.
A right to fight
Vocabulary insight 4 Word-building: the meaning of prefixes
1 Work in pairs. Study the dictionary entry for over-.
Then match the words in bold in sentences a-d to
meanings 1-4 in the dictionary entry.
/'auva(r)/ [in com pounds] 1 more than
usual; too much: to oversleep ♦ over-optimistic
* overactive 2 com pletely: overjoyed 3 upper;
outer; extra: overcoat * overtime 4 over; above:
4 A d d t h e p r e f i x e s b e l o w t o c a t e g o r i e s a - d in t h e
stra te g y
maxi-: m on o-i sub-
5 Answer the questions.
1 If a word is a monosyllable, h o w m any syllables has
overcast * to overhang
it got?
2 W hat's bigger - a market, a minimarket or a
a A balloon flew overhead.
b W h e n he heard the goo d news, he got overexcited,
c The train w as overcro w d ed , so I couldn't g et a seat,
3 Is an ex-friend still your friend?
4 W hat's longer - a maxi-dress or a mini-dress?
d I left m y overco at on the bus.
5 W h e re is a subway?
6 H ow m any languages does a trilingual person speak?
Word-building: the meaning of prefixes
M an y words in English are m ade up o fa prefix (e.g. over-)
C o m p l e t e s e n t e n c e b s o t h a t it h a s a s i m il a r m e a n i n g
t o s e n t e n c e a. U se o n e o f t h e p re fix es fro m ex e rcises
and a root w ord (e.g. flow). The prefix + the root word
2 a n d 4 a n d t h e c o r re c t fo rm o f t h e w o r d s belo w .
produce a n e w word (e.g. overflow).
A lot o f prefixes carry meaning. If you understand the
w eekly
m eaning of prefixes, it will help you to understand n ew
1 a The first flight across the Atlantic w as from Canada
words. A good dictionary will have entries for prefixes.
to Ireland in 1919.
Prefixes can be grouped into the following categories:
b The first........................ flight w as from Canada to
a numbers
b tim e
c size
Ireland in 1919.
2 a Although her baby w as born before its expected
time, he is doing well.
d position
b Although her baby w a s ........................ , he is doing
Read the strategy above. Then match the prefixes in
bold to a-d in the strategy.
3 a
1 The transatlantic flight from London to N ew York
4 a W h e n learning vocabulary, it's g oo d to use a
I'm so f u ll- I'v e had too m uch food,
b I'm so f u ll- I'v e .........................
takes six hours.............
dictionary w hich is only in English,
2 There are m any pre-war buildings in m y street.
b W h e n learning vocabulary, it's good to use a
........................ dictionary.
Fhe m inibus picks us up at 7 a.m. every morning.
5 a W e w e n t to a talk given by our former president,
b W e w e n t to a talk given by our
4 A tricycle has three w heels.............
6 a W e have m eetings tw ice a week,
5 In the foreground o f th e picture, you can s e e th e
b W e have
idyllic beach.............
6 W e usually d o our shopping at the superstore on the
outskirts of to w n .............
7 He’s bilingual - he speaks tw o languages fluently.
U se a d ic tio n a r y t o fin d t h r e e w o r d s w ith e a c h o f
t h e p r e f i x e s m ono-, m ulti- a n d sub-. W r it e y o u r o w n
e x a m p le s e n te n c e w ith e a c h n e w w ord.
8 The ex-footballer is giving a talk at our school today.
Match the prefixes in exercise 2 to meanings 1-8.
1 three
2 t w o ...........
3 before
4 small
5 former
6 fro n t............
7 extreme; large............
8 across; through
52 Vocabulary insight 4
Dictionary entries from O xford W ordpow er D ictionary, 4th edition
Review 4
Complete the sentences with the correct form of the
verbs below.
contam inate
die ou t
5 Complete the sentences with the verbs below.
’s going to be
will com e
m aybe
'm speaking
II speak
in the 17th century.
2 You
2 Infected insects can
dangerous diseases.
3 Oil
water, making it dangerous for animals.
4 In 1956, the US governm ent paid Native Americans to
m ay join
right about clim ate change - I'm not sure.
Look at that rain! The river is already full. There
a big risk o f floods tonight.
from the country to th e city.
5 Hurricane Katrina
N ew Orleans in 2005.
th e cam paign. I haven't decided yet.
I promise I
to her about it soon, OK?
6 I think life in th e fu tu re ....................
6 After the 2011 tsunami, Japanese authorities..............
local people to places o f safety.
better than now.
I .....................to the Environm ent Minister at 3.00 p.m.
tom orrow.
8 The lecture on environm entalism
at 11.00.
9 It's possible that co u n trie s................ a w ar over water.
Complete the text with the correct form of the
words in brackets. Add the correct prefixes (co-,
6 Choose the correct answers.
in ter-, o ver-, u n d e r-, re-, se m i-).
Brazilian fave/as, which are poor, 1
Today, 11
(developed) places, are often also 2
kindness’) with a friend. W e made plans last night. W e
(crowded). F a v e la P a in tin g is a charity with 3
(national) support from many countries. It helps
favelas to 4
try doing an RAK ( ‘random act of
at my house this morning. W e 3
to the bus stop and pay for a stranger’s ticket.
According to my timetable, the next bus5
(operate) to create unique designs. In just
one street you can see a fish, a kite, and a half
hour. Alternatively, we 6
moon in a perfect 6
The sky is blue - it 7
be a lovely day. You know
1 a m ight
2 a 'II m eet
3 a w on't
anim als. I believe 2
treating them with respect. That's w hy I
belong 3
an anim al rights charity, the
League Against Cruel Sports. W e protest
b will
c 'm going to
4 a m ight go
b go
5 a is leaving
6 a will pick
b won't leave c m ay leave
b m ight pick c 're picking
8 a is being
c 're going
b m ay
b will be
c m ight
c is
d will go
d leaves
d pick
d will
d m ay not be
an anti-hunting cam paign and
now w e're relying 6
d may
b m eet c 're m eeting d m ight m eet
b m ay c will d 're going to
7 a 's going to
hunting anim als for sport. W e've
s e t5
more fun!
Complete the text with the correct prepositions.
I care 1
in an
up litter in the park.
what? Let’s do that. I think it 8
w hat to do then. W e have a few ideas already. W e
(build) lost hope and pride by
painting their houses. Artists and local people
m ight start
1 I hope the rain ................. soon. M y garden is very dry.
1 The bird called the dodo
will be
your donations for
success. Please help!
Complete the sentences. Use the future perfect or
future continuous form of the verbs in brackets.
1 'W h a t............................ you
at this
tim e tom orrow?' 1............................. at the charity
Complete the sentences with the verbs below. There
is one verb that you do not need.
take part
shop.' (do / volunteer)
2 The anti-war march
that, w e
by 11.00. After
outside the tow n hall,
3 At 6.00 tonight, I ............................. the docum entary
1 O ver 30,000 people
in the Tokyo m arathon
on global w arm in g............................. you
every year.
2 Please
............................. h om e by then? (w atch / get)
for just an hour a w eek to help elderly
3 Live Aid tried to
In a year's time, the city
10,000 more people
awareness of Africa's
here then. But by
the end of this year, the authorities
just 1,000 more homes, (grow / live / build)
4 I know I should
more m oney to charities.
5 W e need t o ............the problem of global warming.
6 Education can
by 50%.
people's lives for the better
Pronunciation insight 4 W orkbook page 125
Review 4 53
Cumulative review Units 1-4
Read the sentences. Are they facts (F), opinions (0)
or speculations (S)?
1 Volunteering w as Alice's o w n idea.
2 Alice thought it w ould help her to get into university.
3 Her w ork m ight help Tanzanian teachers to feel more
enthusiastic about sport.
4 In Alice's opinion, the main benefit o f sport is learning
key life skills.
5 The charity m ay teach martial arts for the first tim e
Going to the gym or the sports centre often feels like a
joyless necessity. The sw eaty rooms and irritating music
seem to be the part of the price you pay for getting fit.
You won't have much fun in the process, perhaps, but
at least you'll be doing something worthwhile. Or so you
next year.
6 Not everyone will be a good volunteer for the charity.
th in k .
1.19 Listen to a radio programme. Are the
sentences in exercise 1true (T) or false (F)? Correct
the false ones.
In actual fact, your exercise routine will have some
devastating side-effects and w e don't just mean aching
muscles! Gym s and sports centres need huge amounts
of energy for lights, air conditioning, heating - and of
course, pools and machines. W hile you've been running,
3 Work in pairs. Take it in turns to give and react to
news. Use the ideas below or your own ideas.
1 You raised lots of m oney in a charity marathon, but
you didn't finish it.
2 Your parents won't let you volunteer at a sports cam p
in Tanzania this sum m er
3 Your local youth centre has offered you a part-time
jo b teaching sport this summer.
4 Work in pairs. Imagine that your class is going
to spend a weekend volunteering. Discuss each
volunteering option below, giving your opinions.
Then decide together what you think the class
should do and why.
your treadmill has been burning as much electricity as
fifteen 75-Watt light bulbs.
C ..................
Luckily, there's now another w ay for people who care
about more than calorie-counting. G r e e n F it n e s s
allows you to exercise in the open air, surrounded by
birdsong, for the fraction of the price of a leisure club
membership. W hat's more, rather than devastating the
planet, you'll be helping to preserve it. How ? B y doing
conservation work in some of the most beautiful parts
of the country.
Click here for locations.
1 helping disabled children to take part in activities on
a sports cam p
2 going on a two-day sponsored walk to raise m oney
for better school facilities
3 cleaning up your local park
Read the text. Then choose the best description of
the text type a-d.
a report making recom m endations
an article prom oting a particular service
a factual description for an encyclopedia
a review o f a service the writer has tried
6 Match headings 1-8 to paragraphs A-F. There are
two headings that you do not need.
1 Introducing a n e w alternative
2 Maximizing your workout
3 An easier, gentler kind o f exercise
4 Skills and personal developm ent
5 An unpleasant chore
6 A jo b well done
7 Studying nature
8 Harm ing the planet
Cumulative review Units 1-4
Literature insight 2 Workbook page 86
Grammar and vocabulary
Read the text. Choose the correct answers.
If you've never done any gardening before, don't worry.
We'll give you all the training you need. Volunteers
cooperate to achieve tasks together, so you won't be on
your own. The team spirit is amazing - something which
People v o lu n te e r fo r d iffe re n t re a so n s, b u t p ro b ab ly
m o st o f u s v o lu n te e r 1
try to im prove life for
o th ers. However, g e n e ro sity b rin g s a rew a rd . I t seem s
t h a t v o lu n te e rs can e x p e c t2
th em selv es as well!
In th e p a s t few y e a rs, s tu d ie s 3
th a t people
w ho v o lu n te e r ty p ic a lly experience g re a te r levels
o f self-esteem th a n th o se w ho d o n 't. 4
, th e ir
overall h e a lth a n d w ell bein g also im proves. People
w ho v o lu n te e r reg u la rly to d ay 5
lo n g er in the
fu tu re , a n d th ey te n d to su ffe r fro m few er d ise a se s a lth o u g h o f c o u rse th ere are no g u aran tees!
Partly, th e se h e a lth benefits a re 6
to th e e x tra
exercise, as v o lu n te e rs are u su a lly fa irly active people.
H elping o th e rs b u rn s calories! W hat's m ore, it seem s
th a t w e g en erally enjoy 7
o th e rs happy, w hich
in tu r n b o o sts o u r energy a n d fitn ess levels. I t is now
g en erally ag reed t h a t being 8
in th e d um ps for
e x te n d e d p e rio d s of tim e is h a d fo r o u r h e a lth , as
d e p re ssio n w eak en s u s p h y sic a lly as w ell as m entally.
So how m uch tim e s h o u ld w e v o lu n te e r for? Some
stu d ie s su g g e st th a t w e 9
v o lu n teer fo r a t lea st
100 h o u rs a y e a r to enjoy th e fu ll ad v an tag es. At th e
e n d o f o u r first y e a r o f v o lu n teerin g , w e 10
ow n lives fo r th e b e tte r, too.
you're never going to find at the gym ! W hat's more,
m any volunteers have reported that taking part in
sessions has boosted their self-esteem and happiness.
Click here for review s.
However, be warned: this is not a 'soft' alternative
and laziness is not an option! An hour's m oderate
gardening is a t least as demanding as a six-kilometre
jog and builds strength and stam ina in all parts of your
body. The only thing you might miss is fast, aerobic
exercise. That's w hy G reen F itn e ss also leads optional
'm ilitary fitness' style runs at the end of each session
for weekend volunteers - for no extra cost.
Click here for prices.
Still not sure? Then think about this. At the end of every
session you'll have achieved something truly special. No,
not just a trim waist or more muscular arms! You'll be
able to see the flowers you've planted, or the walls that
you've repaired and think: 'I did that/ You might leave
covered in mud (sorry!), but you'll also leave feeling on
top of the world. How many gym users can say the sam e?
Click here to j oin!.
1 a
in order to
b because of
2 a
b to benefit
3 a
so that
have been showing
b had shown
have shown
4 a Similarly
b Really
5 a are living
b will live
m ay live
6 a
b due
so as
7 a
b to make
8 a under
b below
d ow n
9 a can
b need to
10 a will be transforming
b are transforming
will have transformed
Read the statement below. Then write an opinion
essay. Use the plan to help you.
'Not all students enjoy school sports lessons. Should
older teenagers have the option of doing volunteer
work in their local communities instead?'
Paragraph 1: Introduce the topic and briefly state your
o w n opinion.
Paragraph 2: Give argum ents to support your opinion.
Use a different paragraph for each main
Paragraph 3: Present an opposing view point and
com m en t on it.
Paragraph 4: Sum marize your opinion, giving reasons.
Exam insight 2 Workbook page 96
Cumulative review Units 1-4 55
Rights and wrongs
Reading and vo cab u lary Teenage gangs
SPEAKING Why do teenagers join gangs? Discuss
the reasons below and add your own ideas. Then
read the text and compare your ideas.
■ to m ake m on ey
because o f peer pressure
■ for the excitem ent ı to have som ew here to hang out
■ to belong to a group
to feel safe
U sing referencing to u n d e rsta n d a text
Reference words link different parts of a text together.
They can refer back to a word, a phrase or a whole
sentence or idea.
pronouns, for example: he, him , it, they, them, that, this,
The choice
these, those
‘They w ere my family, you know, they w ere good to
possessive adjectives, for example: his, its, their, her
m e,' says Jo s h u a Blake, looking down a t th e floor,
relative pronouns, for example: w ho, whose, which
‘but they w e re n ’t good to other people. That w a s the
problem ..., but I w as too scared to leave - once you
Read the strategy. Study the underlined words in
the text. Who or what do they refer to?
5 him (line 31)
in South London. Like m any of his peers, Jo sh u a
2 She (line 10)
6 w hose (line 35)
experienced hard tim es and m isfortune in his early
3 its (line 17)
4 w h o (line 26)
8 them (line 61)
his (line 59)
. The fam ily lived in a one-bedroomed
flat and his m other struggled to pay the bills. S h e
Study the underlined reference words in A-F. Who
or what do you think they refer to? Complete the
article with sentences A-F. There is one sentence
that you do not need.
worked long hours a s a nurse, so after school
Jo s h u a hung out with other boys on th e estate.
‘There w a s nothing to do,’ he rem em bers. ‘They
closed down the youth club years ago, so th ere w as
now here to go except th e streets.’ Jo s h u a b ecam e
part of a gang with its own rules, its own cod es and
jts own h ierarch y.2
. Belonging m ad e him
feel s a fe and gave him a se n se of identity. B u t the
C They w ere easy to get and easy to use.
crim e worried him. T h e re w a s a lot of mugging and
D His father left hom e w hen he was a baby, and Joshua
shoplifting, but it w as th e guns th at really scared
and his sisters were brought up by their mother.
E its m em bers had co d e nam es like P-Man or Stepz,
me. 3................... ’ The older boys in Jo s h u a ’s gang
got into arm ed robbery. Su d d en ly a lot of m oney
w as involved and th e gang b e c a m e very territorial.
and th ey looked after each other.
Th ere w a s a lot of vandalism - graffiti ap p eared on
F That's w hen he m et Ben.
buildings and signs w ere sprayed on shop doors, so
people knew the n a m e s of the gangs w ho controlled
Read the article again and answer the questions.
each area. K nives and guns w ere used to keep out
1 W h at problem s did Joshua's fam ily have w h e n he was
other gangs. Things w ere getting ou t of control.
2 W h at didn't he like about the gang?
3 H o w did Joshua's gang send warnings to other gangs?
4 W h y w as Joshua attacked?
5 H o w did his m um feel w h e n she saw him ? W h y ?
6 In w h at ways was Ben similar to Joshua?
7 H o w did the Youth Inclusion Project help Joshua?
C rim e
5 Study the people below. What are the crimes that
they commit?
m ugger
arm ed robber
■ offender
14-year-old Jo s h u a w a s born on a council e s ta te *
1 That (line 3)
A He w as shot in the arm, but luckily he survived.
B There are 169 gangs there, with more than 5,000
w ere in, you w ere in. I didn't think I had a ch o ice.’
Rights and wrongs
Vocabulary: crime; noun prefixes: mis-, dis--, phrasal verbs with to and with; synonyms: the law
Gram m ar: first and second conditionals; modals of obligation, prohibition and permission;
should and ought to
Speaking: discussing teenage crime; solving moral
dilemmas: apologizing and accepting apologies
W riting: a letter to a newspaper
6 Choose the correct answers.
1 The m u g g e r / shoplifter looked around the store,
then quickly put the w atch into her pocket.
2 A person w h o is charged with a crim e is called
Then, on e day, so m eth ing ch an ged. ‘I w a s w alking
an o ffe n d e r / a thief.
h om e from school w hen a boy rode p ast on a b ike,’
s a ys Jo s h . ‘I didn 't recognize h im , but he called
va n d a ls / m u g g e rs.
ou t m y n am e and w hen I looked round, he pulled
ou t a gun.’ Jo s h u a w as th e victim of a revenge
shooting. 4
Fhe play area in the park has been destroyed by
Last night a sh o p lifter / th ie f broke into our house
and stole the TV.
. The boy on th e bike w as
5 The news headlines w ere all about the th e ft /
from a rival gang, w h o s e le a d e r had been attacked
m ug g in g o f a famous painting from an art gallery.
the day before. ‘M y m um w a s d e va sta te d w hen
6 There was an arm ed ro b b ery / vandalism at our
s h e found o u t,’ s a ys Jo s h u a . ‘S h e kn ew ab o u t my
local supermarket last night. £10,000 w as taken.
m isb eh aviou r a t school, but s h e had no idea about
the gang. S h e ju s t looked a t m e in disbelief, sh e
insight Noun prefixes: m is- and dis-
co u ld n 't stop crying.’
on th e ch o ice s he had m ade. He d e cid ed he w anted
Read the sentences, then match the prefixes m isand d is- to definitions a and b.
a different life, he w anted to c h a n g e .5
1 Joshua experienced hard times and m isfortune in his
Th ree w e e k s in hospital gave Jo s h u a tim e to reflect
early life.
B e n M agoro is a m e n to r* a t a Youth Inclusion
Project, a program m e w hich helps kids e s c a p e from
gan g culture and get b ack into education. B en , like
m any m entors, w a s a gan g m em b e r him self. He w a s
involved in ca r th e ft and h e ’d b een s e n t to prison
for the offence. B e n understood ‘gan g m en tality’.
‘It is like a fam ily,’ s a ys B en , ‘it’s a fam ily w h e re the
It's a family w here crim e and dishonesty are OK.
a th e opposite o f som ething, not b w rong or bad
8 Complete the text with the words in brackets and
mis-or dis-. Then check your answers in Th e ch o ice .
m istreatm en t of “ o u tsid e rs” is OK, but sho w a gang
m em b e r d isre sp ect and you’ll be seriou sly hurt. It’s
The campaigner
a fam ily w h e re crim e and d ish o n esty a re O K and
an y d isa g re e m e n t is solved with a gun. It's a fam ily
th at th in ks com m itting crim e is an a c c e p ta b le w ay
19-year-old Alexander Rose had the
(fortune) to grow up on a
to m ake a living, but belonging to th a t fam ily is a
bad council estate. Whenever there was
big m istake - all it d o e s is destroy your life.'
(agreement) between people,
someone got hurt. School w as impossible The
Pro ject offered
Jo s h u a
w ay ou t a n d gave him th e cou rage to turn hjs life
Projects fo cu s on te e n a g e rs' interests,
such a s m usic, sport or fashion. M en to rs help them
to express th e m se lve s, reflect upon th e ir p ast and
there w as constant3
(behaviour) in
the classroom and 4
(respect) for teachers. Kids that
turned up didn't want to learn. Their lessons were on the street,
and they were lessons in 5
(honesty) and crime.
m ake better life ch o ice s. ‘In th e gan g my ch oice
'A lot of these kids suffered from 6
w a s eith er die young or go to ja il,' s a ys Jo s h u a , ‘B u t
home, so they didn't care about olher people,' says Alex.
now I can ch o o se to get an education, I can choose
Alex tried to ignore the violence until he lost a 16-year-old
a future ... I c a n ch o o se life.’
friend. His first reaction w a s 7
(treatment) at
(belief) - how could
this happen to someone he knew? Then he decided to do
something about it. Alex designed the STOP logo, which
stands for Stop This Ongoing Problem. He printed the logo on
some T-shirts, then sold them to friends to get his message
onto the streets. I'm just one person putting in ten per cent,'
says Alex. 'If everyone put in ten per cent, that really would
bring about change.'
9 SPEAKING Discuss the newspaper headlines. What
do you think are the causes and solutions?
* council estate = an area of houses built
and rented out to people by the local
* mentor = an experienced person in an
educational institution who trains and
advises new students
'A third o f children believe that gangs and knives are a
threat to their safety'
‘Youngsters turning to gangs instead o f parents'
'Make school d ay longer to stop pupils joining gangs'
Vocabulary bank
Crim e and punishm ent page 138
Rights and wrongs
5 B ■ G ram m ar and listening N atural born liars
B tV y rt
Lie, lie, lie!
• 9 8 % of te e n s s a y th e y lie to th e ir
p a re n ts .
• 9 6 % of te e n s s a y t h a t lying is
w ro n g .
• Y o u n g e r t e e n s a r e b e tte r a t lying
th a n o ld e r o n e s.
• 4 0 % of p a re n ts b elieve it is n o rm a l
to s o m e tim e s lie to th e ir ch ild ren .
• 6 5 % of p e o p le th in k it’s O K to lie
in o r d e r n o t to h u rt s o m e o n e 's
fee lin g s.
• M o s t peop le lie t h r e e tim e s in
te n m in u te s of c o n v e rs a tio n .
• M e n a n d w o m e n lie th e s a m e
a m o u n t, b u t a b o u t d iffe re n t thin g s.
• W e lie m o s t fre q u e n tly to th e
p eo p le w e love.
1 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Read the facts about lying. Which facts surprise you and why?
Which one is not true?
1.20 Listen to three teenagers talking about lies. Match statements 1-6 to
Charlie (C), Sean (S) and Elly (E).
1 If m y best friend asks m e if I like her n e w haircut tom orrow, HI say yes.
If they didn't ask so m any questions, I w ouldn't tell so m any lies.
3 If he ever found out, he'd be really furious.
4 If I said w h at I really thought, th ey m ight get upset.
5 If you tell th e truth all th e time, you ’ll offend people.
6 Unless she learns that lying is wrong, she m ight b ecom e a com pulsive liar.
Listen again. What are Charlie's, Sean's and Elly's opinions on telling lies?
First and second conditionals
Study sentences 1-6 in exercise 2 and decide which ones talk about situations likely to
happen and which ones talk about situations unlikely to happen. Then answer the questions.
1 W h ich conditional talks about a real or very likely situation in the present or the future?
2 W h ich conditional talks about an im aginary or unlikely situation in th e present or the future?
3 W h at tenses d o w e use to form each conditional?
4 W h at does unless m ean in sentence 6? H o w can you rephrase this sentence using if?
Reference and practice 5.1
W orkbook page 112
5 Complete the questions with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. Then work in pairs
and answer the questions.
1 If you
(realize) your friend w as shoplifting, w ould you tell anyone?
2 W h at w ould you do if y o u .................................... (see) som e people vandalizing your local park?
3 If y o u .................................... (go out) this evening, w hat tim e will you co m e hom e?
4 W h a t .................................... (your parents / do) if you co m e h om e later than you should?
5 If s o m e o n e .................................. (ask) your friends if you w ere an honest person, w hat might
th ey say?
6 W h at
Rights and wrongs
(you / do) if it rains a lot this w eekend?
Read the text H o w to s p o t a lia r about lie detection
and complete the conditional sentences.
How to spot a liar
If we 1
(not lie), we 2
be) human. But how can you tell if a person is lying?
Only about one in a thousand people can spot a really
good liar and many of these so-called 'deception wizards'
work for the police. So, what signs 3
look for), if you 4
(you /
(be) a deception wizard?
Firstly, there are many common beliefs about liars that
aren't true. For example, 'liars never look you in the eye'.
When you're talking to someone, if they 5
(not look) you in the eye, it ju s t 6
that they're shy, not that they're lying. Liars are clever
and they know that if they 7
eye contact, people 8
(not make)
(suspect) them, so
they make sure they do.
If you 13
you 14
(train) to be a deception wizard,
(learn) to watch for other important
clues, too: the number of times a person blinks, touches
The way we tell stories can also give a lot of clues. If
their face, scratches their head or moves their hands. The
you 9
tone of voice can also be a sign. Speaking in a higher
(invent) a story about why you
haven't done your homework today, i t 10
voice than usual can indicate a lie. Imagine your mother
(be) short, in the right order and w ithout much detail.
asked, 'Did you break this cup?’ If you 15
Surprisingly, a true story won't be in the correct order
(be) guilty, you 16
and will have lots of corrections and contradictions. A
break it!' in a very high tone. If you 17
lia r 11
innocent, you 18
(need to) learn these things if they
(want) to convince a deception wizard.
(shout), 'No, I didn't
(answer) just, 'No', in your
natural voice.
Listen to two stories. What lies did Jody and Simon tell?
8 Complete the questions with the correct second conditional form of the verbs in brackets.
Then work in pairs and answer the questions. Give reasons for your answers.
1 If y o u ........................ (be) Jody, h o w ......................... (you / feel) about your m other changing her
m ind?
2 If y o u ........................ (be) Louise,......................... (you / tell) your m other about Jo d y ?
3 If Jody's m other
If Sim on
(find out) about the lie, h o w
(offer) you a m em ory stick,
(she / react)?
(you / take) it?
5 If S im o n ........................ (find out) that Ja ck knows the truth, w h a t ......................... (he / do)?
6 If Jack
(tell) his classmates about Simon, w hat
9 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Read situations 1-4 and discuss what you would do. Think of at
least three possible options for each situation. Then compare your ideas with another pair.
1 You see your older brother or sister stealing som e m oney from your mother's purse.
2 You are at a friend's house. By accident, you break a very expensive porcelain vase, but nobody
sees you do it.
3 You are taking an exam. Your friend is having problems and asks you to tell h im / h e r th e answers
to som e of the questions.
4 Your friend has given you a birthday present. You op en it in front of him / her and you see a
horrible jumper.
Rights and wrongs
5 C ■ Listening, speaking and vocabulary S o rry is th e hardest word
1.22 SPEAKING Work in pairs.
Do you agree with the statements
about apologizing? Listen to the
introduction to a radio show and
choose the things that they
1 It's a sign o f weakness to
apologize to people.
2 Saying sorry can be difficult for
som e people.
3 M en apologize more than w om en.
4 So m e people are worried about
apologizing in case the ap olo g y is not
5 Accepting an apology is difficult for som e people.
Listen to the whole radio show and choose the correct answers.
1 The presenter says that
4 Avoiding situations w here you have to
som e people never make mistakes,
he never makes mistakes,
is not realistic at all.
everybody makes mistakes and no on e is
is easy to achieve,
is possible in childhood.
People often don't like apologizing because
5 If peop le decided not to apologize,
a they don't like dealing w ith other people's
th ey don't like saying th ey are wrong,
th ey don't like rejecting other people.
nothing w ou ld happen.
th ey w ouldn't trust each o th er
c th ey w ou ld still have lots of friends.
6 According to the psychologist, it's more
3 For som e people, not apologizing is a sign of
im portant to
a weakness.
make things right than to be right,
be right than to lose friends,
p o w er
have lots o f friends than to keep
Three-part phrasal verbs with to and w ith
SPEAKING Study the highlighted phrasal verbs in questions 1-8. Match them to meanings
a-h. Then work in pairs and answer the questions.
1 If you make a mistake, d o you always ow n up to it im m ediately?
2 Have you fallen out with anyone recently? W h o w as it and w h y?
3 Have you ever had to co m e up w ith an excuse for not doing som ething?
4 Do you think you live up to your parents'expectations?
5 Are you goo d at putting up w ith situations that you don't like?
6 If you have a lot of hom ework, d o you g et round to doing it straight aw ay or do you leave it until
the night before it's due?
7 Can som e people get aw ay w ith telling lies more than others?
8 If you don't d o well at som ething, d o you put it d o w n to lack of experience?
tolerate som eone or som ething that is unpleasant w ithout com plaining
adm it you are responsible for som ething bad or w rong
to understand that som ething is caused by som ething else
d o as well or be as good as other people expect
d o som ething w rong and not be punished for it
find th e tim e to d o som ething
have an argum ent with som eone, so you are not friendly w ith them any more
to think o f an idea, suggestion
4 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Discuss the questions below.
1 Is it easy or difficult for you to apologize to people?
2 W h o d o you apologize to most often? W h at for?
Rights and wrongs
5 SPEAKING When might you make
a formal apology and when might
you make an informal one? When
might you hear a formal apology?
1.24 Listen to dialogues 1-6
and match them to speakers a-f:
a teacher and a parent
a parent and a child
a shop assistant and a custom er
a teacher and a student
tw o friends
train station announcer
1.24 Read the phrases in the table. Then listen to
dialogues 1-6 again. Which of the phrases in the table do you
In which dialogues do the people make formal apologies?
Accepting apologies
Informal apologies
Accepting informal apologies
I’m very / so / really sorry.
That’s OK.
I'm sorry. I didn't m ean to.
It (really) doesn't matter.
Don't w orry about it.
Formal apologies
I (do) apologize f o r . . . .
Never mind.
I'd like to apologize f o r . . . .
Accepting formal apologies
Please accept our apologies.
That's quite all right.
W e regret to inform you t h a t . . . .
Let's say no more about it.
It was very inconsiderate o f me.
Showing the speaker you are not happy
Don't let it happen again.
You’ve really let m e down.
1.25 Complete the dialogue with phrases a - f. There is one phrase that you do not need.
How does Ben feel? Then listen to a different version of the dialogue. How does Ben feel now?
a I regret to inform you
b I didn't expect that from you.
c I'm really sorry,
d Please forgive me.
e you've really let m e down,
f I feel really bad about it.
Hi, Kate. I'm really looking forward to Saturday. W h at tim e did w e say we'd m eet?
Saturday? W e didn't arrange to m eet on Saturday, did w e?
Don't you rem em ber? You said you'd help me choose a suit for m y brother's wedding.
Oh, no! I'd com pletely forgotten, B e n .1
..................... but I've m ade other plans.
I'm going to visit m y cousins in Oxford. Perhaps w e could g o the following Saturday?
No, that will be too late. The wedding's next w eekend. I can't believe you forgot.
Well, you should b e ca u se 3
...................You kn ow I’ve g ot an awful memory.
Yes, I know, b u t 5...........................................
SPEAKING Work in pairs, A and B. Choose a situation and prepare a dialogue. Student A
explains the situation and apologizes, student B listens and accepts or does not accept the
apology. Then swap roles and choose a new situation.
1 You borrowed your friend's jacket for a party. You ripped it.
2 You w ere using your dad's laptop to do som e hom ew ork w hen you spilt som e tea on it.
3 You w ork in a shop. A custom er brings back som e n e w jeans he / she bought at th e weekend.
There is a problem w ith them.
4 You broke on e o f the pictures in the school corridor w hile you w ere playing w ith a ball during the
Rights and wrongs
5D ■ Culture, vocabulary and grammar Young people’s rights
SPEAKING Discuss the questions. Then
read the text and check at what age
people in Britain can do these things.
1 In your country, at w h at age can you do
th e things in th e photos?
2 W h ich o f these things can you do now ?
W h ich of th e things w ould you like to do?
Read the text again. Which paragraph A-F mentions
the things in 1-7? There is one thing that you do not
1 The age of criminal responsibility.
2 The kind of part-time jobs young teenagers often do
in the UK.
3 The age British teenagers have to be to drive a car.
4 The rights o f a child if th ey break the law.
5 The im pact o f adults'decisions on children.
6 The m ove from being a child to an adult.
7 Voting rights.
insight Synonyms: the law
Study the highlighted adjectives in the text. Then
replace the adjectives in italics in sentences 1-6 with
the correct words.
1 M an y laws are lim iting for teenagers and don't give
them enough freedom.
2 School uniforms are com pulsory in a lot of schools in
th e UK, but m any students w ou ld prefer to choose
o f age
A Some laws make sense. O thers d o n ’t. In Britain, for
example, the law states that you can get m arried
at the age o f sixteen (with your parents’ approval),
but you may not have a tattoo.You can choose
your life partner, but not a piece o f body art.
Age limits vary hugely around the world due to
different historical, political, social and cultural
factors. Here, we examine some rules, regulations
and prohibited activities in the U K and explore
where childhood ends and adulthood begins in
different areas o f life.
T he law
B T h e U nited N ations C onvention on the Rights o f
the C hild says that children have the right to help
from a lawyer and a fair trial that takes account o f
their age or situation.
w h at th ey wear.
3 According to law, every person has the right to a ju st
trial, no m atter w hat th ey've done.
4 Som e people in England say that it should be illegal
for teenagers to use tanning beds.
5 W earing seat belts in the back seat o f a car is
voluntary in m any countries, so people can decid e if
th ey w an t to do it or not.
6 In USA, teenagers under 16 can't live on their own. Is
this allow ed (b yla w ) in your country?
4 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.
1 W h a t similarities and differences are there in the laws
for the things m entioned in the text in your country?
2 W h a t d o you think an appropriate age for criminal
responsibility should be? W h y ?
3 W h y d o you think a g e limits are necessary?
DVD extra
U KYouth Parliament
Rights and wrongs
C T h e age o f crim inal responsibility is ten years old
in England,Wales and N orthern Ireland and in
Scotland it is twelve. Some people believe that a
low age o f responsibility acts as a deterrent and
stops young people from com m itting crimes.
However, there is concern about how children
betw een the ages o f eight and twelve can fully
understand the consequences o f their actions.
R ecen t research has shown that the age o f ten is
probably too low because the part o f the brain
that has to make decisions and judgem ents is still
D However, there is one area where teenagers' decisions
and opinions are taken into account and that is
voting. In the UK, voting is optional and it is not a
legal duty.Teenagers do not have the right to vote
until the age o f eighteen, but even then they don’t
have to vote in any election if they don't want to.
Modals of obligation, prohibition
and permission
Study the underlined modal verbs in the text and
answer the questions.
W h ic h m od al verb s m ean:
it is necessary to d o th is ?............, ............
2 you are allow ed to d o th is ?............, .............
3 it is not necessary to d o this, but you can if you w ant
4 you are not allow ed to do this?
, ............,
W e usually use m ust w hen the speaker has decided that
som ething is important and have to w hen som eone
else has decided this. However, in m any situations, w e
can use m ust and have to in the same way.
Reference and practice 5.2
W orkbook page 113
6 Study the sentences. What is the difference in
meaning between sentences a and b?
1 a
I have to w ear a school uniform.
b I must buy a n e w school uniform because this
on e is too small.
2 a You don't have to tell anyone about this,
b You mustn't tell anyone about this.
For many, this is a waste o f a vote and a lot o f U K
teenagers feel voting should become obligatory so
that it has more value.They feel they must take more
responsibility if they want things to change and
voting is an effective way to do this.
E British law authorizes sixteen-year-old Britons to
ride m opeds w ith a small engine and quad bikes
off road, but they can’t drive a car o r a quad bike
on the road until the age o f seventeen. Although
Britain has some o f the safest roads in the world,
car accidents are the biggest cause o f death o f
young people betw een the ages o f seventeen and
twenty-one. For this reason m any people feel that
tw enty-one is a m ore appropriate age to hold a
driving licence.
3 a You can't w alk on the grass.
b You must not w alk on th e grass.
4 a You can leave your bike here,
b You m ay leave your bike here.
Rewrite the sentences using the words in brackets
so that they have a similar meaning. Do not change
the given words.
It is com pulsory at m y school to stand u p w hen a
teacher walks into the classroom, (have to)
2 You are allow ed to fly a plane with a pilot's licence,
3 During a trial, witnesses are not allow ed to tell lies,
4 You do not have permission to leave the exam room
before you finish, (m ay not)
Education and work
F Com pulsory education in Britain continues until
a child is sixteen and all students have to stay in
full o r part-tim e education until then, but this will
probably soon increase to eighteen. Some schoolleavers continue to w ork in jobs that they were
doing part-tim e w hile they were at school.Young
workers may start a part-tim e jo b at the age o f
thirteen in Britain and the m ost com m on jobs are
babysitting and doing paper rounds.Young people
m ustn't work for more than two hours on a school
day o r a Sunday and they can’t work for more
than twelve hours during a school w eek.There is a
view that such laws are restrictive and that younger
children need to be encouraged to work more,
especially if they are willing and able.
ih e bus leaves at 6.30 a.m. It is essential that you
arrive by 6.25 a.m. or the bus will leave w ithout you.
6 It is not necessary to w ear a helm et w hen you ride a
bike in England, (don’t have to)
8 SPEAKING Which of these things is it necessary /
not necessary for you to do? Which of them are you
allowed / not allowed to do?
have a credit card
buy a pet
leave h om e
open a bank account
give blood
choose your o w n doctor
buy a lottery ticket
Vocabulary bank
fly a plane
g o to school
Law and order page 138
Rights and wrongs
5 E ■ W riting A letter to a new spaper
Local police announced yesterday that they
are planning to introduce a curfew scheme
during the school summer holiday period.
Under this scheme, anyone under the age of
sixteen will have to be home by 9 p.m.
According to the police, the aim of the scheme
is to cut the risk of teens becoming victims
of crime or becoming offenders themselves.
'If we see teenagers on the streets after this
time, w e'll take them hom e,' said PC Davis.
'M ost teenage crime takes place early in the
evening and this scheme will certainly help
to stop it. If it's successful, we'll introduce it
into other parts of the country.'
1 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Answer the questions.
1 W h y do people w rite to newspapers?
2 If you w rote a letter to your local newspaper, w h at w ould you w rite about?
Read the newspaper article and answer the questions.
1 W h at is the main aim o f the curfew schem e?
2 W h at do you think about the schem e?
3 Do you think it will be effective? W h y / w h y not?
Making suggestions and expressing results
When you write a letter to a newspaper, you might have to make suggestions and express results.
In order to do this, you need to:
understand the problem and its cause.
prepare suggestions on h o w to solve the problem.
support th e suggestions w ith possible results.
use specific phrases to introduce the suggestions and results.
Read the strategy. Then read the letter that Jon wrote in response to the article and answer
the questions.
1 W h at problem is he writing about?
2 W h at does he think about th e schem e?
3 W h at suggestions does he make?
4 W h at possible results does he m ention?
Study sentences 1-8 in the letter. Which ones make suggestions and which express results?
Rights and wrongs
Dear Sir/M adam ,
I am writing to express my views on the proposed curfew
scheme reported in your newspaper last week. I am
strongly against this scheme and I believe it will cause
more harm than good.
Police say that the scheme will help to protect teenagers
and also reduce crime. But what about those teenagers
who never get into trouble? A curfew would punish us and
some could react in a negative way, which would make the
problem worse.
II recommend that they focus on the people that commit
crime, rather than all teenagers. 2This would mean that a
lot o f innocent teenagers would not feel like they are being
punished for things they have not done.
3Another good idea would be to talk with us and our
families. Many young offenders have difficult home lives or
parents who do not look after them properly. Social services
should give these families more support. 4In this way, they
would be able to identify the reasons some teenagers break
the law and deal with the root of the problem. 5If they did
this, it would help to solve the problem in the long term.
6Another suggestion would be to organize activities for us,
rather than lock us up at home. 7If we had more worthwhile
things to do, we would not be causing problems. Nobody
can deny that there is nothing for us lo do in our town,
except hang out on the streets. The local council ought to
provide some places for us to meet. 8Perhaps they could
offer free activities for us to do in the afternoons and al
I look forward to hearing the opinions of your other
Yours faithfully,
Jon Rogers
should and ought to
W e use should and ou gh t to w hen w e w a n t to say that som ething is right or the best thing to do. They
express a mild obligation. O ught to is more formal than should.
Reference and practice 5.3
W orkbook page 113
5 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Discuss the possible results of the alternatives to the curfew
scheme below. Use the expressions for making suggestions and expressing results.
have regular discussions b etw een young people, the council and the police
set up sports activities and arts program m es
install m ore security cam eras and em p loy people to w atch them
have more police officers on the streets
Task Write a letter to the newspaper expressing
your views on the proposed scheme below.
Plan Decide which ideas you are going to use and
match them to these paragraphs:
Paragraph 1: Say w h y you are writing and express your
The local council is planning to create ‘dispersal zones’ in
certain areas of the city to try to reduce street fighting.
opinion on dispersal zones.
Paragraph 2: Explain the reason for your opinion and
Under this scheme, if the police see a group of more
show you understand the problem and
than two young people in the street, they can ask them
to separate and move. They can also remove people
who do not live in the area and arrest them if they return
within 24 hours.
its cause.
Paragraph 3: Present the first suggestion and result.
Paragraph 4: M ake another suggestion and a possible
Paragraph 5: Add a final point.
■ Ideas Make notes about:
1 H o w you feel about the proposed schem e. Do you
Write Write your letter. Use the paragraph plan to
help you.
agree or disagree with it?
2 Things you w an t to include. Think about:
■ the causes o f street violence.
■ alternatives to the dispersal zones.
■ possible results.
■ w hat should happen to people that d o not live in
the area.
Check Check the following points:
■ Have you included all the information from your
■ Have you used a variety of phrases for making
suggestions and expressing results?
■ Have you checked grammar, vocabulary, spelling
and punctuation?
Rights and wrongs
Vocabulary insight 5 Using a dictionary: phrasal verbs
Read part of the listening extract from unit 3C and
find six phrasal verbs. What do they mean?
Choose the two sentences that are incorrect. Why
are they incorrect?
1 T h ey have fallen out.
For som e people it’s all about power and being in
control. They think that if they apologize they will lose
that. Som etim es issues with apologizing can be put
down to experiences in a person's childhood: perhaps
a child w as criticized a lot by their parents while
they were growing up and felt they never lived up to
their parents’ expectations. As they get older they can
take two approaches to this to avoid all the negative
associations from childhood. O ne is to try and avoid
situations where they may end up having to apologize
at all. This is a very difficult strategy to get away
with because it is com pletely unrealistic. The other,
sim pler approach, is to avoid adm itting they have m ade
m istakes or come up with excuses tim e after tim e not
to apologize.
2 They fell ou t with each other.
3 Luke fell out with.
4 She fell ou t w ith her best friend.
5 He has fallen his m other out.
6 W h y have th ey fallen out?
Study the dictionary entries for phrasal verbs
with p u t. Which ones are separable and which
inseparable? Match sentences 1-4 to a-d to make
mini dialogues.
put sb up to give sb food and a place to stay: She
had missed the last train home, so I offered to put her
up for the night.
put sth up 1 to lift or hold sth up: Put your hand up
if you know the answer. 2 to build sth: to put up a
fence/tent 3 to fix sth to a w all, etc. so that everyone
can see it: to put up a notice 4 to increase sth: Some
shops put up their prices just before Christmas.
put up sth to try to stop sb attacking you: The old
lady put up a struggle against her attacker
put up with sb/sth to suffer sb/sth unpleasant and
not com plain about it: I don't know how they put up
with this noise.
T h e g ra m m a r o f phrasal verb s
A phrasal verb is a com bination of tw o or three words:
a verb and at least on e particle (a preposition or an
1 Can you put us up for a night w hen we're in N ew York?
adverb). The particle changes the m eaning o f the verb.
2 The school is putting up th e price o f school lunches.
There are three main types o f phrasal verbs:
3 I'm going to put up that painting.
1 Intransitive - these verbs d o not need an object.
2 Transitive, separable - these phrasal verbs can be
separated by an object (in a dictionary, there is usually
s b / sth betw een the tw o parts o f the phrasal verb).
3 Transitive, inseparable - these phrasal verbs cannot be
separated by an object (in a dictionary, there is usually
I can't put up w ith his behaviour.
But they're already so expensive!
I know. He’s very unpleasant,
Let m e help you w ith that - I'll make sure it's straight,
Sure. You can stay for as long as you need.
sb / sth after the phrasal verb).Three-part phrasal
verbs cannot be separated.
Read the strategy above. Study the dictionary
entries for phrasal verbs with fa ll. Match them to
categories 1-3 in the strategy.
1 have / fall / 1/ a problem / W h e n e ve r / can / back /
a lw a y s / 1 / m y m um
fall apart to break (into pieces): My car is
falling apart.
fall back on sb/sth to use sb/sth w hen you are in
difficulty: When the electricity was cut off we fell back
on candles.
fall for sb ( informal) to be strongly attracted to sb;
2 a fight / She / the attacker / put / against
3 bus tickets / They've / the price / of / put
to fall in love w ith sb
4 f e ll/ M a g g ie / w it h / h e r sister
fall for sth (informal) to be tricked into believing sth
that is not true: He makes excuses and she falls for
them every time.
fall out (with sb) (BrE) to argue and stop being
friendly (w ith sb)
fall through to fail or not happen:
5 c a n 't/ I / p u t / th a t noise / w ith
Our trip to japan
6 h o lid a y / fa lle n / O u r/ h a v e / p la n s
has fallen through.
1 fall a p a rt............
2 fall back on s b / s th
3 fall for sb
4 fall for sth
5 fallou t
Put the words in the correct order to make
sentences. Write two sentences if more than one
order is possible. Add a particle to every sentence.
Use a dictionary to find the phrasal verbs below.
Check if they are transitive or intransitive, and
separable or inseparable. Then write your own
example sentence with each phrasal verb.
6 fall out with s b ............
g et aw ay
7 fall th ro u g h ............
g et d ow n to sth
66 Vocabulary insight 5
g et aw a y w ith sth
g et round sb
get sb d ow n
g et round to sth
Dictionary entries from O xford W ordpow er D ictionary, 4th edition
Review 5
C o m p le te th e se n te n ce s w ith t h e c o rre c t fo rm o f th e
w o rd s in brackets.
5 Complete the first and second conditional sentences
with the correct form of the verbs below.
is a big problem in m any cities, (thief)
2 Graffiti isn't art, it's..................... (vandal)
not tell
not send
3 T h e .................... stole a T-shirt, (shoplift)
If y o u .............. a friend stealing, would you tell anyone?
4 They sent t h e .................... to prison, (offend)
If you d o som e volunteering, you
5 They used guns during t h e ..................... (rob)
3 M y parents will help m e if I
I he
took her mobile phone and watch, (mug)
M ark s
If I ruled the country, I
U se a w o rd w ith a n e g a tiv e prefix fo r e a ch
7 1
d e fin itio n .
agreem ent
into trouble.
som e n e w laws!
any lies.
for help today, w h at will you say?
any shoplifters to prison if 1w ere a judge.
8 If you tell m e your secret, I
5 Life w ould be easier if w e
6 If Jo
not laugh
at you, I promise.
M arks
1 the feeling o f not believing in something:
c o n d i t i o n a l f o r m o f t h e v e r b s in b r a c k e t s .
2 the act of showing that you don’t think som eone is
1 Girl: I .................................... on holiday if I .....................
im portan t:....................
.......................................................the lottery, (g o / w in )
3 bad luck:....................
2 Shoplifter: If I
4 the act of not telling th e truth:
som ething I like,
I .................................... it. (see / take)
5 the act of behaving b a d ly:....................
3 Sh o p ow ner: If w e
6 a refusal to agree:....................
M ark s
C o m p le te t h e s e n te n c e s w ith t h e first o r s e c o n d
shoplifting, w e .............................. the police, (see / call)
4 Teacher: I
.......................cheating in exams
illegal if I .................................... the world, (make / rule)
C o m p le te th e p h rasal v e rb s in th e te x t w ith o ne
w o rd in ea ch gap.
Politician: The streets
safe if w e
............................................crime, (not be / not reduce)
6 G oo d liar: M y m um
Dear Agon'j tone.
Help! I've fallen 1
the dog broke it. (believe / say)
with my mum after an
argument. She's always criticizing me and I never live
up 2
a policem an,
8 Friend: I .........................................for your coffee if you
to tidying my room, but I do it every year! She
............................................................ me. (pay / forgive)
reu se s for avoiding
9 S tu p id thief: I
housework, but I'm allergic to cleaning products! Of
a palace if I
............................................ the M ona Lisa, (buy / steal)
course, 1 know I'm not perfect, but t always own 5
10 Ju d g e : If people
to my mistakes. Well, eventually, anyway.
I can't p u t6
Elderly m an: If I
I ......................................to be an athlete, (not be / like)
her expectations. She says l never qet
says l'rn always corninq up 4
m e if I
an y crime,
I ........................................... an easy life, (not d o / have)
with the situation any more. What
should l do?
M ark s
7 6
Complete sentence b so that it has a similar meaning
to sentence a. Use the words in brackets.
1 a It's com pulsory for students to w ear a tie.
R e p la ce th e w o rd s in ita lics w ith th e w o rd s below .
S tu d e n ts .......................................................... (must)
2 a Joining after-school clubs is optional.
b Students
.........................................(don't have to)
3 a W e insist that students arrive on time.
There are lots of rules about driving in the UK,
saying what is 1
(law ful) and what isn't.
It is 2
(illegal) to hold a mobile phone
while driving. Wearing a seat belt is also 3
( compulsory). Drivers also need to obey strict speed
limits. Some people complain that speed cameras
are not 4
(just), and that the maximum speed
limits in the UK are too 5
(limiting). However,
the police argue that staying safe should not be
M arks
b Students ..................................................... (have to)
4 a W e allow students to bring in m obile phones.
b S tu d e n ts .............................................................. (can)
5 a Making calls in lessons is prohibited.
b S tu d e n ts ................................................(mustn't)
6 a Having school lunches isn't compulsory.
b Students
. (don't have to)
7 a Students aren't perm itted to eat in class.
b S tu d e n ts ..................................................... (m ay not)
8 a Students have permission to w ear rings.
b Stu d en ts............................................................... (can)
Pronunciation insight 5 W orkbook page 126
Review 5 67
Paying the price
Reading and vo cab u lary W ord on th e street
SPE A K IN G W h i c h o f t h e s e t h i n g s m i g h t i n f l u e n c e
y o u t o b u y a p r o d u c t ? P u t t h e m in o r d e r f r o m 1-5.
a TV advertisem ent
a celebrity
a friend’s recom m endation
a special offer
a review on a blog
R ead th e te x t a n d ch o o s e th e co rre c t an sw ers.
1 The girl in the cafe
a is being sold something,
b has th e same conversation w ith a different boy.
c is working w ith the boy.
d will probably buy the com puter game.
2 The tourist in th e street wants
som eone to help them.
b to help someone,
to advertise something,
d to give som ething away.
3 Stealth marketing is
a marketing through personal recom m endation,
b advertising in magazines,
marketing by teenagers,
expensive and difficult to do.
4 W h e n com panies use stealth marketing, they
a sell their product in an illegal way.
b give aw ay their product for custom ers to try.
Im agine this: you a re in a c a fe w hen you h e a r a
te e n a g e boy talking about a n ew c o m p u te r g am e. H e ’s
explaining its am azing fe a tu re s to a girl and th e girl
w a n ts to know w h e re sh e can buy it. Nothing unusual,
s you m ight say, until a fte r fifteen m inutes, the boy
and girl m ove to a n o th er c a fe and have an identical
co n versation. On your w a y hom e, a ‘to u rist’ in the
s tr e e t a sk s you to take a photo with th e ir c a m e ra .
You do and, a fte rw a rd s, th ey tell you h ow th ey bought
io th e c a m e ra rece n tly and h ow it’s on special offer.
c use people that custom ers'trust'to sell something,
N e w friend o r fra u d ? W e lc o m e to the w orld of stealth
d only use people on the streets to sell their products.
m arketing. You m a y say you h aven ’t m e t a stealth
5 W h a t does Tanya say about stealth marketing?
a It makes her feel uncomfortable.
b She often has to pay for products,
c She enjoys making videos o f shopping trips,
d It makes her feel better than her friends.
The influencers
S P E A K IN G W o rk in pairs. A n s w e r th e q u estio n s.
1 W h a t exam ples o f stealth marketing are there in the
2 W h at d o you think about stealth m arketing? Is it
dishonest? W h at if the product is genuinely g oo d ?
3 W o uld you like to be a stealth marketer?
W h y / w h y not?
m a rk e te r yet, but th a t’s the point. The c h a n c e s a re
th a t you have.
is S te a lth * o r ‘w ord of m ou th ’ m arketing isn’t like norm al
advertising. W e can recognize a d v e rts on billboards
o r in glossy m agazines, but it’s difficult to sp ot stealth
m arketing - it ju st trick s us. S tu d ie s have show n th a t
people a re m ore likely to tru s t a person on the street,
20 w ho they think is giving fre e advice, r a th e r th an an
ad vert. In fact, in a re c e n t poll of te e n a g e rs, only 5 %
believed ad ve rts, co m p a red with 5 2 % w ho tru sted
th e ir peers.
M o re than $ 5 0 0 billion a y e a r is sp en t on advertising
25 worldwide, but com p ared with conventional advertising
cam paigns, stealth m arketing is ch eap and effective.
S o how does it w o rk ? W e ll, let's look a t com pany X.
A d v e rtisin g
S t u d y t h e u n d e r l i n e d w o r d s in t h e t e x t .
T h e n m a t c h t h e m t o d e f in itio n s 1-8.
1 to talk som eone into doing som ething
2 to study som ething in m ore detail
3 to lie to som eone
4 to have an effect on someone's ideas
and choices
5 to advertise som ething for the first time
6 to show som ething, so people can
look at it
7 to advertise a product and encourage
people to buy it
8 to aim som ething at som eone
Paying the price
C om pany X w a n ts to launch a n ew product for teens.
They need their product to look ‘cool1 and interesting,
3o so th ey decide to pay young people to talk about it.
Vocabulary: advertising; describing amounts; trade; addition and contrast
Grammar: the passive; have/get something done
Speaking: discussing stealth marketing; discussing fair trade; talking
about photos
Writing: a formal letter of complaint
C o m p le te th e te x t w ith th e c o rre c t fo rm o f th e
w o rd s in exercise 4.
T h e se
m a rk e te rs
a re
com pany X re s e a rc h e s teen w eb sites and ta rg e ts the
Spend, spend, spend
m o st popular people or 'tre n d s e tte rs ’. Th ese teen s
then persuade th e ir p e e rs to buy the cool n ew product.
Seventeen-year-old Tanya Fulham is one of them .
Every c o m p a n y w a n ts to 1
u s th a t w e n e e d
th e ir p ro d u c t, so b efore t h e y 2
it a n d p re s e n t it
to th e w o rld , t h e y 3
th e ir m a rk e t carefully, so
th ey k n o w h o w th e ir c u sto m e rs think.
Tanya Fu lham is beautiful, sp o rty and clever. S h e ’s
in terested in fashion, loves shopping, and listens to
th e la te s t pop m usic. S h e h as m ore than 1 5 0 friends
on h er social m edia page and sh e often influences
th e ir ch o ices and opinions. S h e ’s th e la te s t re c ru it
u n d erco ver
m arketing
Peop le
As a result, adv ertisin g c a m p a ig n s ap p e a l to o u r
e m o tio n s ra th e r th a n give us facts - th ey c a n even
so m e tim e s 4
us into buying a p ro d u c t w ith false
p ro m ises. So, a sp o t cre a m will give y o u a b e tte r social
life, or a p a ir o f je a n s will m ak e everyone th in k you
are ‘cool! They u se o th e r tricks too - h u g e billboards
m ay5
celeb rities w h o 6
p ro d u c ts w hich
th ey ’ve n e v e r u s e d before. A m ag a z in e ad v e rt m ight
sh o w p h o to s h o p p e d m odels, w ho look th in n e r or
m o re y o u th fu l th a n th e y actually are.
Tanya prom ote b ran ds in blogs and on social m edia
w e b site s. ‘P ro d u c ts w hich a re fashionable o r have
a strong brand
im age a re
e a sy to sell,’ explains
Tanya. 'I can usually g e t people to buy everything 45
from make-up to luxury goods, like d esig n er je a n s .’
O th e r tee n m a rk e te rs upload videos of th em selves,
w hich d e scrib e re c e n t shopping trip s and display th e ir
‘h auls’*. They sho w people h ow a p rod uct w o rks or
w h a t it looks like up close.
A nd a d v e rts love to 7
te e n a g e rs a n d en c o u ra g e
th e m to s p e n d . W hy? Well, th ey have m o n e y a n d they
can 8
th e ir p a re n ts ’ choices. C o m p a n ie s w a n t
to e n c o u ra g e as m a n y p e o p le as p o ssib le to b u y th eir
b ra n d .
‘It’s g re a t getting fre e s a m p le s of cool, n ew prod ucts
th a t m y friends h aven ’t h eard about,' ad d s Tanya.
'It m akes m e feel im p o rta n t b e ca u se I have insider
knowledge.' B u t do h e r friends know th a t s h e is paid
to prom ote t h e m ? 'No, th ey don’t ,’ sh e adm its. ‘B u t
I don’t think it's dishonest. If I find som ething I like, I
talk about it. It d o e sn ’t m ake any difference w h e th e r
insight C o l l o c a t i o n s : a d v e r t i s i n g
I’m paid o r n o t.’
P e rh a p s Tanya is right. Lots of people tell o th e rs about
th e n ew book they’re reading, a n ew place they’ve eo
or a
r e p l a c e t h e p h r a s e s in ita lic s in s e n t e n c e s 1 - 8 w i t h
cool gadget they've just bought.
t h e c o r re c t co llo c a tio n s.
W e 'r e also a 2 4 / 7 generation and see m ore than
1 M any people can't afford products that are unnecessary
3 , 0 0 0 ad s a day, so w h a t difference d o es it m a k e ?
o th er people
a re
w orried.
S t u d y t h e h i g h l i g h t e d c o l l o c a t i o n s in t h e t e x t . T h e n
a n d very expensive, like diam ond jewellery.
‘You think a
person is being helpful,1 s a ys retail psychologist David 65
G reen , 'but th at's ve ry different from som eone telling
us som ething b e ca u se th ey a re getting paid for it. You
3 The billboards a n d m agazine advert for th e n ew
don’t know w ho to tru s t or w ho to listen to anym ore.'
trainers w ere a big success. Lots o f people bought
W e have a lread y m e t the stealth m a rk e te rs and they
a re ju st like us.
I bought the jeans because th ey w ere cheaper than
them .
4 Most of the models in weekly fashion publications are
* hauls = large amounts of goods
really too thin.
* stealth = the act of doing something wrongfully or secretly
5 Stealth marketers often have more inform ation abou t
a pro du ct than other people.
6 The co m p an y that develops ideas for adverts cam e up
w ith a great idea for a shop w in d o w display.
7 Som e com panies give peop le exam ples o f their
pro du ct that they don't have to p a y for.
8 Nike is a successful sports com p an y w ith a very
strong idea associated w ith its nam e.
S P E A K IN G W o rk in g ro u p s o f th re e . D iscuss th e
sta te m e n ts . D o y o u a g re e o r d is a g re e w ith th e m ?
W h y / w h y n o t?
1 'Stealth marketers like Tanya create problem s for
teens w h o can’t afford designer goods.'
2 'All advertising cam paigns are dishonest, not just
stealth marketing ones.'
Vocabulary bank
Types o f advertising page 139
Paying the price
6 B ■ G r a m m a r a n d lis t e n in g
F a ir t r a d e
SPEAKING Work in pairs. Lookatthe photos. What do you think'fairtrade'is? Who does it
benefit? Then read the text and check your answers.
' Cotton has been grown hi Mali for hundreds of years and the
crops have been harvested by people like Makandianfing Keita for
generations. In th e past, life on the cotton plantations was difficult
and while 2big profits were being made by the major companies,
the workers were badly paid and the living conditions were very
poor. ‘In the past, children had to walk 10 km to the nearest school
and we had no access to healthcare,’ explains Makandianfing. ‘But,
then, in 2005, 3a co-operative fair-trade farm was established by
the farmers hi the village. When a farm becomes a fair-trade farm,
there is a guarantee that 4all the farmers will be paid a fair price and
5nail: of the profit, from selling t hem products is spent, on improving
them living conditions.' In Makandianfing's village, this meant that a
hospital and a school were built for the workers and their families.
Although 6efforl.s to start fair trade had been made after Iho Second
World War, the fair-trade movement really started in 1988 with the
launch of the first, Fairtrade label. At first, fair-trade goods were
available in specialist, shops only, bu t by the 1990s, fair-trade products,
like coffee, tea and bananas were being sold in major supermarkets.
Now, 7many different products and clothes with Fairtrade labels are
being produced and sold by multinational companies, like Nestle.
This is all great news for people like Makandianfing. ‘Fairtrade has
really changed the life of my community. I feel as though I have a
future, which I didn't before,' he says.
The passive
Study sentences a-g. What tense is used in each sentence? Read the text again and match
the passive sentences 1-7 in the text to the active sentences a-g.
a They spend part of the profit from selling their products on improving their living conditions,
b Multinational com panies, like Nestle, are producing and selling m any different products and
clothes w ith Fairtrade labels.
c They have grown cotton in Mali for hundreds of years,
d The major com panies w ere making big profits,
e They had m ade efforts to start fair trade after the Second W orld War.
The farmers in the village established a co-operative fair-trade farm,
g They will pay all the farmers a fair price.
Study the passive sentences in the text again. Then answer the questions.
1 W h e n do w e use the passive?
2 H o w d o w e form the passive for each tense in exercise 2?
3 W h at word d o w e use w hen w e w an t to say w h o or w h at does the action?
Reference and practice 6.1
W orkbook page 114
Rewrite the active sentences using the passive.
1 They are creating farmers'co-operatives to sell the products.
2 The big com panies weren't paying the farmers a d ecen t wage.
3 Poverty has forced m any farmers to leave the land and w ork in cities.
4 British supermarkets sold on ly three fair-trade products in 1994.
5 They sell over 3,000 fair-trade products today.
6 Seventy per cent of British households buy fair-trade products.
7 They didn't produce fair-trade cotton until 2005.
8 Shops will sell m ore fair-trade clothing next year.
Paying the price
5 Complete the text with the correct passive form of the verbs in brackets.
E thical Fashion Show
With fair trade growing in popularity, this year's
Ethical Fashion Show in Paris 1
(expect) to be a big success.
The show 2
(hold) every year in Paris
since 2000, with the aim of promoting fair-trade
clothing. The show 3
(start) after
increasing numbers of media reports about, poor
working conditions in developing countries. Europeans
discovered that their clothes 4
by people who 5
(not pay) fairly for
working very long hours.
Since then, ethical working methods 6
only clothes that
(made) according to fair-trade rules
(use) at the show. At first, only a few
designers were interested, but now fair-trade clothes
(design) by some of the big names in
the fashion world. Fair-trade groups hope that more
ethical fashion shows 10
(run) in other
European cities in the future.
SPEAKING Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.
1 Are there m any supermarkets or shops that sell fair-trade products in your country?
Do you buy fair-trade products? W h at products d o you buy?
Read W hy b u y fa ir-tra d e clo th e s ? . Then listen to a radio interview at a fashion show.
Which points from the leaflet are mentioned in the interview?
Why tay fair-trade
* The d e sig n er s are b e in g paid a fair salary.
* C otton is grow n on fair-trade farms.
* You can b u y beau tifu l c lo th e s and h elp p eop le
in poorer countries.
* Fair-trade w orkers are ta u g h t to sew .
[jtjD 2.01 Listen again and match 1-6 to a - f Then use the information to make sentences in
the passive.
1 The cotton in the wom an's dress
2 On fair-trade farms, the people
3 The cloth
Fair-trade clothes
5 W h en M ahesh w as eight years old,
6 Mahesh's life
sell all over the world
pay a d ecen t w ag e
ch an g e by fair trade
pay a low salary
g row on fair-trade farms
cu t and sew into a lovely dress
SPEAKING Work in pairs. Make a list of the items below. Then discuss questions 1-4.
on e item o f your clothing
a food product that you often eat ■ on e o f your possessions
1 W h ere w as each thing produced?
H o w d o you think it was m ade?
3 W h ere w as it sold?
Is it a fair-trade product?
DVD extra
Paying the price
6 C ■ L is t e n in g , s p e a k i n g a n d v o c a b u l a r y
H o w t o s p e n d it ?
2.02 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. Then listen to part one of a radio
programme and compare your ideas.
1 H o w m uch m on ey does the average teen ag er in the UK spend per year?
2 W h ere d o th ey get their m on ey from ?
3 W h at do teenagers in the UK spend their m oney on?
4 Do boys and girls spend their m oney in different ways?
5 Do teenagers in the UK like buying big nam e brands?
SPEAKING Work in small groups. Discuss the questions.
1 Do an y of the facts from the radio program m e surprise you?
2 Do you think teenagers in the UK spend more per year than teenagers in your country?
3 Do you think boys and girls in your country are different in h o w th ey spend m oney?
4 W h ich brands are popular w ith teenagers in your country?
Listening for specific information
Before listening:
1 Think about the typ e of information that you need. Is it a date, an am ount, a m easurement, a
time, a place, a specific part of speech (noun / verb / adjective / adverb / preposition)?
2 Try to predict the information you will need to com plete the gaps.
While listening:
3 Listen for words or phrases that indicate that im portant information is com ing, for example:
tell us a b o u t . . . .
an interesting fact i s . . . .
Read the strategy. Then read the notes about teenage spending. What information do you
think you will need for each gap in the notes?
Listen to part two of the radio interview and complete the notes.
How do te e n a g e rs Spend t h e ir m oney?
1 Onlioe. vs high stre e t
Shopping online is 1
Pfeople Spend 2
times wore oo the high s tre e t thao online.
2 Payment
Teenagers in the U K Must be 3
Teenaap.rs use 4
years old to
credit cards o r 5
W hat do they buy?
U k teenagers sp&rA More, on 6
Over 7
than other
o f Ifr-IB-yc&r-olds have a 8
h o n 't often 9
- usually scod texts,
check email, post and browse online.
Lpcod 10
per year on train ers.
5 5^1 2.03 Listen to part two of the radio programme
again. Are the sentences true (T) or false (F)?
Correct the false ones.
1 Nina spends a lot o f m oney on fashion and make-up.
2 Nina doesn't think teens are influenced by advertising.
3 Nina buys online and in shops.
4 Cindy says that most people shop online.
5 British teens spend a lot of m on ey on music.
6 Julian only uses his phone to make calls.
7 Julian doesn't spend m uch m on ey on clothes.
Paying the price
a credit card.
Describing amounts
Study the highlighted phrases in sentences 1-8 from the recording. Then put them into the
correct part of the table.
1 Teenagers spend an overw helm ing £2,000 per year
I spend a great part of my allow ance on clothes.
3 I get a m odest £5 a w eek pocket money.
4 Online shopping represents a tiny minority o f total sales.
5 I spend a significant am ount of m y m on ey on music downloads.
6 A large proportion of m y m on ey goes on m y mobile.
7 A vast majority, actually, a massive 8 0 % of 16- to 18-year-olds in the UK o w n a m obile phone.
8 The average UK teenager spends a w h o p p in g £250 per year on trainers.
Very small
Very big
SPEAKING Work in small groups. Prepare a short survey on your
classmates'spending habits. Use the questions below and add your
own questions. Then present the results to the rest of the class.
1 W h ere d o you g et your m oney from?
2 W h at do you spend it on?
3 Do you buy things online or in high street shops?
Talking about photos
8 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Look at the photos and
discuss the questions.
1 W h ich shops do you think look interesting / unusual /
old-fashioned / expensive / boring?
2 W h at kinds o f peop le probably visit th e different shops?
3 W h ich o f the shops w ould you most / least like to visit?
2.04 Listen to Karen talking about the photos and
answer the questions.
1 W h at does she think about each shop?
2 W h ere does she normally g o shopping?
3 W h e re w ould she like to g o shopping?
4 W h e re is she unlikely to g o shopping soon?
2.04 Listen again and complete the phrases in the box.
Expressing contrast
Making contrasts between two points in the same sentence:
... shoppers have more c h o ice ,1
you have to decide ....
... it m ight be quite expensive,2
the other shops look cheaper.
3....................... the shop . . . , I prefer the shops in photo tw o because . . . .
Starting sentences or making a contrast with a sentence before:
I shop in places like in the third p h o to ;4............, it's good to ....
, if I w ere buying a p re s en t . .. .
The shops in photo tw o look quite cheap. In contrast, the shop in photo on e looks expensive.
11 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Imagine it is your
friend's birthday and you want to buy them
some music. Look at the photos and select one
place where you would buy the present. You
have €25 to spend. Explain why you chose this
place and why you rejected the other ones.
Paying the price
6D ■ Culture, vocabulary and grammar Traditional festivals
SPEAKING Work in pairs. Which of these festivals
do you celebrate in your country? Which is your
favourite and why?
H alloween
Valentine's Day
Mother's / Father's Day
Read the text and choose the best title for it. Give
reasons for your answer.
Unwrapped: the origins o f popular traditions
For sale: our traditions!
Traditions today: will th ey survive?
Big business: is it good for our traditions?
Read the text again. Are the sentences true (T) or
false (F)? Correct the false ones.
1 A prisoner's letter m ay have started a tradition that
has lasted for centuries.
2 In the past, people sent love letters, but not presents.
3 Advertisem ents for Valentine's Day gifts start
appearing on 14 February.
4 The first people to celebrate the beginning of winter
w ere American.
5 A British supermarket w anted to cop y the success of
Am erican shops.
6 The supermarket advertising cam paign increased
sales of H alloween products.
7 Christmas trees w ere first used in pagan celebrations.
4 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.
1 W h ich o f th e traditions m entioned in the text are
similar to those in your country?
2 Are there any other festivals that you celebrate in
your cou n try? W h a t is their origin?
3 D o any o fth e m encourage people to spend a lot of
m oney?
Study the highlighted words in the text. Then
complete the sentences with the correct form of the
are people w h o buy things and use
2 W h e n you make a .................. , you sell som ething
for m ore m on ey than it cost you to make or buy it
3 W e call the pattern on a product t h e ...................
4 W h e n you
something, you make it
using machines.
5 A person or com pan y w h o sells goods to
people in a shop is called a ..................
6 W e use the w o rd '.................. 't o
describe com panies or events that
m ake a profit.
7 All the businesses that produce
goods and services of the same
kind f o r m ..................
8 A
...........is a general change
or developm ent.
Paying the price
Big businesses know th at popular festivals are
a great opportunity for making a profit. Some
popular celebrations are promoted a ll over the
world. Where do these 'global' celebrations
come from and w hat do they mean to us today?
Valentine's Day
Sixteen-year-old James has been shopping. He's had
his hair cut, he's bought a card with a heart-shaped
design and he's got some chocolates for his girlfriend.
Today is 14 February or St Valentine's Day - a day
when romance and love is celebrated around the
world. Nobody knows exactly who St Valentine was,
but according to the legend, he was killed by the
Romans because he refused to give up his religion.
Thousands of people were killed by the Romans, so
why do we remember him more than others? The
answer lies in the love letter he wrote to the jailer's
daughter on the day of his death, 14 February 269 AD.
He signed it, 'from your Valentine'.
Whether this story is true or a myth, St Valentine's
message of love has become the basis for a
multimillion-dollar industry. Lovers originally
celebrated this day by sending romantic messages to
each other, but today, sending a card isn't enough.
Businesses advertise flowers, perfume, jewellery and
romantic dinners for two in the weeks before
14 February, and millions of gifts are manufactured.
James may have only spent 12 euros on his
chocolates, but globally, consumers spend 11 million
30 euros every year!
6 Choose the correct answers.
1 Commercials / Consumers spend m ore at Christmas than at
'I'm wearing my costume from last year/ says 'trick
or treater' Ellen McDonald. 'It was ripped,' so I got it
repaired, but I've bought a new mask/ All over the
country, people are spending millions of pounds on
one of Britain's newest festivals - Halloween.
The origins of modern-day Halloween can be found in
an ancient Celtic celebration of Samhain or Summer's
End, which marked the beginning of winter. The
festival was very popular in Ireland and gradually
became All Hallows Eve (the evening of the dead
on 1st November). In the mid-19th century, Irish
immigrants made the festival popular in America,
helping it become the big commercial event we know
as Halloween today.
In Britain, Halloween was hardly celebrated until
recently. Most people preferred Bonfire Night*
on 5 November. However, one of Britain's biggest
supermarkets realised that they could make a lot
of money from the event. They decided to go into
partnership with an American retailer and together
they created a huge advertising campaign. The adverts
showed American kids trick or treating and having fun
at horror parties. They were a big success and sales of
Halloween products rose dramatically. Today, Halloween
is the third most popular festival in Britain, after
Christmas and Easter.
2 The factory manufactures / advertises H allow een costumes.
any other tim e o f the year.
Lots o f people from the tow n work there.
3 The music industry / retailer is very com petitive at Christmas.
Lots of pop groups com pete to be num ber one.
4 The greetings card com p an y m ade a £50 million profit /
trend last year
5 People aren't spending m uch this year, so m any consumers /
retailers are going out o f business.
6 A pink heart surrounded by flowers is a very traditional trend /
design for a Valentine's card.
7 People don't w an t to m ake m on ey from the Christmas party.
It isn't a profit / commercial event.
8 Recently, there's been a trend / design in advertising to use
shocking or surprising images.
have / get something done
Study the sentences from the text. When do we use h a v e /
g e t s o m e th in g d o n e ?
He's had his haircut.
2 I g ot m y costum e repaired.
Reference and practice 6.2
W orkbook page 115
8 Complete the dialogue with the correct form of the words
in brackets.
Carl is a m anager at Bluewater, on e o f the biggest shopping
centres in the UK. W e interview ed him a few weeks before
On 1 December in Trafalgar Square in London,
hundreds of lights on a huge tree are lit. In high
streets and homes across the world, lights on billions
of other trees are lit by people, too.
Christmas Day is not until 25 December, but in
recent years, customers have started to shop weeks
in advance. Because of this trend, people in the
UK now start thinking of Christmas presents about
eleven weeks before the day! The Christmas tree is
often used in advertisements because it's the place
where families gather and where presents are left.
These decorated trees became popular in England in
the mid-19th century, but they originally came from
Germany. Other Christmas customs like gift-giving and
feasts have their origins in pagan celebrations.
Today, big brands have turned Christmas into a global
event, and Christmas products and decorations are
made and sold all over the world. In fact no other
holiday has the same global influence. Why? Well,
Christmas celebrates good will and generosity, and
everyone likes to be generous, no matter what their
culture or religious beliefs are.
* Bonfire Night = a night of fireworks to
celebrate a historic event
Is everything prepared? Have you 1
(have / the decorations / put up)?
Yes, w e have. W e 2........................(h a v e / th e
shopping centre / decorate) last weekend.
There are 15,000 lights and th ey look fantastic.
And the Christmas tree? Have y o u 3
(have / it / deliver) yet?
W e4
(have / it / put up) yesterday,
and w e 5....................... (g e t/ th e lig h ts/sw itch
on ) by Father Christmas tom orrow. Children can
(h a v e / th e ir p h o to / ta k e ) w ith
him afterwards.
And have y o u 7........................ (get / a carol
con cert / organize) for this year?
Yes, there'll be a fam ily concert this weekend.
Interviewer Well, it sounds like Christmas has arrived!
That's true. W e 8
(have /lo ts of
posters / put up) recently, advertising special
offers, so everyone will be here.
9 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Choose a situation from below
and discuss what you will do or what you will need to have
done. Use the dialogue in exercise 8 to help you.
St Valentine's d ay ■ a holiday ■ decorating your bedroom
a Christmas party
Vocabulary bank
Consum erism page 139
Paying the price
6 E ■ W riting A formal letter of complaint
SPEAKING Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.
1 Have you ever bought something and then returned it?
2 W h at was the problem ?
3 W h at happened w hen you returned the item?
4 Did you get your m oney back?
Study the letter extracts. Which are examples from informal letters and which are from
formal letters? What features do they have that helped you to decide?
D ear M r Bridges
I am writing to com plain about the
Hi Sam
* M re a lly n o t happy a b o u t
The guy w h o came round to fix the T V was a nightmare!
T h e com puter w a s n o t rep aired properly a n d w e w ere
very dissatisfied w ith th e a ttitu d e of th e technician.
H e cost loads, too - £50!
Furthermore, I was horrified to discover that
A fter try in g to tra n sfe r th e files, w h ich
w as im p o ssib le, th e b a tte ry ra n o u t
My mum washed my favourite jean s and
th ey shrank// dan you believe It?
I w o u ld e ith e r like to sp ea k to an a d v is o r
Anyway - give me a call and let me know what you think
I look forward to hearing from you.
Speak soon,
Yours sincerely,
James Peachey
Deciding on register: formal and informal
When we write formal letters, we:
1 address the sender as M r / Mrs / M s +
surnam e or Sir / M adam .
When we write informal letters, we:
7 address the sender by their first name.
8 often use the active form.
often write longer, m ore com plex sentences.
9 often w rite shorter, m ore sim ple sentences.
10 use contracted forms {I'm, He's, etc.).
use formal linking words, e.g. however,
11 use colloquial language.
furtherm ore, whereas.
12 use informal punctuation (exclamation marks,
often use th e passive form.
5 use full forms, e.g. 1am w ritin g . . . ,H e h a s
n o t re p lie d ....
6 end the letter with Yours sincerely (if w e know
the receiver's nam e) or Yours faithfully (if w e
13 can use idioms.
14 end the letter w ith informal phrases, e.g. Speak
soon and our first name.
don’t kn ow the receiver's nam e) and our
full name.
3 Read the strategy and check your answers in exercise 2. Then match 1-14 to letter extracts A-J.
Sometimes more than one answer may be possible.
Read the letter of complaint A. Is it a formal or informal letter? Underline the parts of the
letter that help you to decide.
Read the letter again andmatch descriptions 1-6 to the parts of the letter a - f.
1 w h at action is expected
2 a rem inder that a reply is expected
3 the date
4 details o f th e com plaint about the product
5 an outline of th e com plaint
6 details o f th e com plaint about the service
6 Read letter B. Underline the sentences where the writer has used the wrong register Then
rewrite the sentences using the correct register.
Paying the price
25 April 2014
Dear Sir / Madam,
I am writing to complain about the Dubny MP3 player purchased from your online store last Thursday, 18 April.
Although the player was charged for eight hours, as recommended in the instructions, the battery only lasted for
half an hour. Furthermore, when the MP3 player was connected to my computer, it was impossible to transfer any
audio files across onto the player. I am extremely disappointed with this purchase. It was an expensive item which
was advertised as a high-quality product, but in fact, has failed to work properly.
In addition, when l called your helpline last Saturday to complain about this item, the helpline advisor was
extremely unhelpful and, what is more, didn't even seem to understand how to operate the MP3 player himself
I would either like to speak to an advisor who can advise on how to operate the product properly or receive a full
I look forward to hearing from you.
Yours faithfully,
Sava4 (ZfaaAdtrti,
Dear Mr Smithers,
Sarah Chisholm
I’m writing to complain about the jeans that I bought
from your store last week.
Addition and contrast
They were on special offer for £85, reduced from
Study the highlighted words and phrases in both letters.
Then put them into the correct part of the table.
£250 (which was a total bargain!!!) and they were
advertised as 'designer’. Anyway, when I put the
jeans on at home, I noticed that a button was
missing. To add to this, when I washed them, they
shrank. I'm a small guy and I like my jeans to fit
tightly. However, these are now really small © . While
Rewrite the sentences using the correct words or phrases in
I can understand that a button can fall off, I really
don't understand how they could get so sm all!?!?
1 The helpline advisor didn't know h ow the product worked. He was
very rude, (although / besides this)
Besides this, I actually don’t like them.
I'm really not happy with the poor quality of these
2 The shop gives out a lot o f free samples. I never buy anything
jeans, which cost me soooo much money. Could I
have my money back?
because everything is very expensive, (w hile / w h at is more)
3 W h e n you shop online, you can't touch the products. You can't
I look forward to hearing from you.
try anything on. (in addition / however)
4 W h e n I received the dress it looked nothing like the photo on your
Speak soon,
website. It was com pletely the w rong size, (but / to add to this)
5 I enjoy shopping in your store. I will not be returning because the
Henry Fleder
sales assistants are very rude, (although / furthermore)
6 The technician explained h o w to co n n ect the laptop.
He offered to send m e a manual, (h ow ever / w h at is more)
■ Task Write a letter of complaint about one of these
1 You bought a laptop from a com puter shop. W h en
you tried to use it, there w ere the following problems:
■ the battery did not last.
■ you could not transfer your old files on to your n ew
■ you did not like the attitude o f the telephone
helpline advisor.
2 You ordered an expensive coat from an online clothes
store last week. W h e n the coat w as delivered, you
discovered that:
■ tw o buttons w ere missing.
■ it w as dirty inside.
■ the coat w as not the size that you had ordered.
■ Ideas Make notes about:
■ W h e th e r you have already contacted the store by
phone or in person to com plain. If so, h o w did they
■ W h a t you w an t the recipient o f your letter to do.
■ Plan Follow the plan:
Paragraph 1: Explain briefly w h y you are complaining.
Paragraph 2: G ive more details about the complaint.
Paragraph 3: State clearly w h at you expect the store to
do about it.
■ Write Write a formal letter of complaint. Use the
paragraph plan to help you.
■ Check Check the following points:
■ Have you included all the information from your notes?
■ Have you used the correct register?
■ Have you checked grammar, vocabulary, spelling and
Paying the price
Vocabulary insight 6 Using a dictionary: collocations
make when you sell sth for more than it cost you:
Did you m a k e a p r o f i t o n your house when you sold
it? * I'm hoping to sell my shares a t a p r o f i t . r«TiT3 loss
W h en you learn n ew vocabulary, it is useful to also learn
the most com m on collocations of that word. Collocations
are groups o f words w hich are usually used together.
com m on collocations o fa word. So m e entries also have
lists o f collocations. Learning collocations will help you to
I c a m p a ig n 1/kaem'pein/ noun [C] 1 a plan to do
a number of things in order to achieve a special aim:
develop your vocabulary and will make you sound more
to launch an advertising/election campaign* a cam-_
paign to reduce road accidents.
Read the strategy above. Study the dictionary entry
for b u s in e s s . Then complete the collocations below.
ˈ£ s a m p le /'sa:mpl/ noun [C] 1 a small number or
amount of sb/sth that is looked at, tested, examined,
etc. to find out what the rest is like: The interviews
were given to a r a n d o m s a m p l e of shoppers. * !o take
a blood sample • a free sample of shampoo O look at
1 b u sin e ss /'biznas/ noun
►trade 1 [U] buying and selling as a w ay of earning
money: She's planning to s e t u p i n b u s in e s s as a hair­
la u n c h 2 /b:ntj/ noun [C] 1 [usually sing] the act
of launching a ship, spacecraft (= a vehicle that
travels in space), new product, etc: The official
launch date for our newest product is 10 May. 2 a
large motorboat
Example sentences in a dictionary entry show the most
p r o fit 1 /'profit/ noun [C,U] the money that you
1 a ship
dresser • I'm going to g o i n t o b u s in e s s with my
brother » They are very easy to d o b u s in e s s w it h .
►w o r k 2 [U] the work that you do as your job: The
manager will be away o n b u s in e s s next week. * a
business trip
►custom ers 5 [U] the number of customers that a
person or company has had: Business has been good
for the time of year
►co m pany 4 [C] a firm, a shop, a factory, etc. which
produces or sells goods or provides a service: She
aims to s t a r t a b u s in e s s other own. * Small businesses
are finding it hard to survive at the moment.
/ a product
of life / m a k e a ............................/
a b ig .............................. to
3 launch a .............................. / a n advertising
.............................. / a n e le c tio n ...............................
a fre e ............................ / a ran d o m ............................ of
5 make a.
/at a
6 e a rn .............................. / c o s t ............................... /
s a v e .............................. / m a k e ............................... /
p o ck e t..............................
1 set u p ........... business
2 g o ............business
4 Complete the sentences with the correct forms of
the collocations in exercise 3.
3 d o b u sin e ss ...........
4 be a w a y ............business
1 The com p an y decided t o ........................ the n ew
5 start............business
product before Christmas t o ........................ a bigger
Complete the sentences with the correct forms of
the collocations in exercise 1.
2 A
sample of students took part in the
1 M y dad isn't at hom e at the m om ent - he's
3 The advertising
the co m p an y m ade a ........................ o f £100,000.
2 Ron has ju s t ....................... as an architect.
3 Our co m p an y
wasn't successful and
other com panies from
4 W h e n he left, it was a big
to the
all over the world.
5 The shop w as giving aw ay free
4 M y sister had quit her jo b in a big firm and
perfume, but nobody w as buying it because it
of her own.
5 Kath's decided to
with her sister and
........................ a lot of money.
6 She d o e sn 't........................ any m oney because she
invest som e m oney in it.
spends it all on bills, shopping and going out.
Study the dictionary entries for the words below.
Then complete each line with one of the words.
m oney
cam paign
7 Students from our school are helping ou t with the
local e le c tio n .........................
8 She buys second-hand products and then sells them
at a .........................
m oney
/ W m / n o u n [U] the means of paying for
sth or buying sth (= coins or notes): W ill y o u e a r n
m o r e m o n e y in y o u r n e w j o b ? * T h e n e w r o a d w i l l c o s t
a lo t o f m o n e y . » I f w e d o t h e w o r k o u r s e lv e s w e w ill
sa v e m o n ey. • The g o ve rn m e n t m a k e a h u g e a m o u n t
o f m o n e y o u t o f to b a c c o ta x . O
pocket money
note at pay O look at
loss /Ids/ noun 1 [C,U] (a) loss (of sth) the state of
no longer having sth or not having as much as
before; the act of losing sth: loss of biood/sleep
5 Which of the nouns in exercise 3 [m o n e y , lo ss, p ro fit,
la u n c h , c a m p a ig n , s a m p le ) have the same verb
forms? Use a dictionary to complete the collocations
below with these verbs. Then write your own
example sentences.
1 t o ........................ from som ething
2 to
som ething on to th e market
3 t o ........................ against or for som ething
4 t o ........................ som ething
Vocabulary insight 6
Dictionary entries from Oxford Wordpower Dictionary, 4th edition
Review 6
Complete the sentences with the correct form of the
verbs below.
prom ote
Right now, millions of jeans 1
(manufacture), and
by the end of tomorrow, thousands 2
(sell). Every
year, over 450 million pairs 3
(purchase) in the USA
alone. Fashions come and go, but it seems jeans 4
(not forgot) anytime soon.
1 Toy co m p a n ie s ............adverts at small children.
2 Com panies ..........their brands on Facebook.
3 Shops
key products near the entrance.
4 Adverts
people to buy things th e y don't need.
5 He signed copies of his book at the
The first jeans 5
(produce) in the USA in the late
19in century. Denim cloth 6
(use) since at least the
17tn century. In the early 20th century, jeans 7
mainly as cheap work clothes. In the 1950s, they 8
(buy) by rebellious teenagers and became cool. Now, jeans
(wear) by everyone, including the rich. It's hard
to think of a celebrity who 10
(not photograph) in a
pair of jeans.
6 Advertisers try t o ............us with dishonest claims.
Match the words in A to the words in B to make
compound nouns. Then complete the sentences.
a g e n cy
cam paign
im age
Complete the text with the correct passive form of
the verbs in brackets.
know ledge
Medicines aren’t 1
, like designer watches or
perfume, but they are a multi-million pound business.
Each drug com pany has a 2
their products and developing th e ir3
Rather than having a large 4
Rewrite the sentences without changing the
in charge of promoting
with 6
They'll sell more fair-trade clothes in the future.
M ore fair-trade..................................................................
or reputation.
2 Factory workers aren't being paid enough.
in the media, agencies
M anufacturers..................................................................
often sell directly to doctors and they em ploy medical
experts for th e ir5
.They try to persuade doctors
Fair-trade products are prom oted by celebrities.
C elebrities.........................................................................
and presents. But is it ethical?
People have grow n coffee in Africa for centuries.
C offee................................................................................
5 Today, most o f the world's coffee is produced in Brazil.
Today, Brazil.......................................................................
Complete the sentences with the words below.
m odest
6 People in Oxford in the UK started the charity'Oxfam'.
The charity'O xfam '...........................................................
w hopping
7 A century ago, m any factories w ere still em ploying
O ur c la ss Survey showed t h a t a large 1
A century ago, ch ild re n ...................................................
stu d e n ts have p a rt-tim e jo b s . M ost earn a 2...............
8 'Unfair trade' hasn't been stopped yet.
£10-20 a week, which is considered t o be ju s t enough.
S tu d e n ts spend th e 3
W e ......................................................................................
o f th e ir income on
m usic, books and gam es (.around b0%)J and a 4
amounv on Socializing (up t o 35%). Only a 5
m /nonty o f stu d e n ts Spend money on cinema tic k e ts ,
Complete the sentences with the correct form of
h a v e / g e t so m e th in g d o n e and the verbs.
however (Z%). One stu d e n t Said, ‘ cinem a tic k e ts c o s t
a 6
08.50 each/ It 's to o expensive.'
cu t
Match definitions 1-6 to trade words a -f
I can't talk. I ........................ (have / m y photo)!
2 We
(get / the car) yesterday. It was very
3 M y m um
1 to make som ething using machines
(h a v e / e y e s) tw ic e a year
(not g et / m y com puter) yet. It still
doesn’t work.
2 a person or com pan y that sells som ething
5 T h e y ........................ (get / their house) pink last week.
3 co n n ected with buying or selling
6 I ........................ (not have / m y hair) w hen I'm older.
4 a person that buys som ething
G rey hair looks good!
5 a popular developm ent
6 m on ey from selling som ething for more than it cost
8 1
a profit
b retailer
c consum er
d com m ercial
e m anufacture
f trend
Right now, I
(h a v e / m y hair) short.
(get / m y exam results) to m y home,
because I couldn't collect them from school.
Pronunciation insight 6 W orkbook page 126
Review 6 79
Cumulative review Units 1-6
You are going to listen to people talking in five
different situations. Read the questions and answers
a-c. For each question, decide if you need to listen
for specific information (S) or general opinions and
attitudes (G).
1 Listen to a store manager. In w h at w a y is he critical of
teen age shoppers?
a He doesn't think th ey spend enough,
b He’s worried that th ey m ight steal,
He thinks that th ey’re too noisy.
2 Listen to a radio caller. W h y has Paul phoned the
radio station?
a To com plain about the shopping centre,
b To express support for the shopping centre,
To offer suggestions for the shopping centre.
3 Listen to tw o friends. Katie borrowed an item of
clothing from Josie. W h y is Katie apologizing?
She dropped food on it.
b She tore it.
She lost it.
4 Listen to an announcem ent. W h a t are shoppers
unable to buy in-store today?
a com p u ter gam es
b T-shirts
5 Listen to part o f a radio discussion. W h o does the
w om an criticize for being lazy?
a teenagers
b shoppers
2.05 Now listen to the five recordings. Choose
the correct answers in exercise 1.
3 Work in pairs. Describe each photo A, B and C and
make comparisons.
4 Work in pairs. Imagine it is the last day of your
holiday Decide where you are going to buy your
souvenirs: place A, B or C. Give opinions and explain
your reasons.
5 Complete the text A n ti-te e n d isc rim in a tio n ? with
sentences A-H.
But their argum ent is factually incorrect.
Its other, m ore im portant du ty is to report the truth.
But this low figure is one which little interests the media.
They frequently describe yo u n g people as being lazy,
arrogant and stupid.
E Som e go further, and actively seek to restrict their
F That question is even more ridiculous than the
previous one.
G But sadly these aren't the only forms o f unfair
treatm ent in society.
H It's so unpleasant, that most quickly m ove on!
Cumulative review Units 1-6
Literature insight 3 Workbook page 88
Grammar and vocabulary
A M I-T 1 IX
d is c r im in a t io n
Complete the text. Write one word in each gap.
While you've been looking at a book, newspaper or glossy
Today, nearly everyone agrees that it is wrong to treat someone
1.....................................in a shop, have you ever taken a photo
differently because of their race or background. 1
with your phone 2
that you could look
against teenagers is both widespread and largely ignored.
at it later? Perhaps you spotted someone with a stylish haircut, and
Journalists and news editors have given teenagers a very bad image.
thought 'I'd like to 3
Many also present teenagers as dangerous! One survey
think I'll show this to my hairdresser next week.' It seems an innocent
found that over 70% of news articles about young people were
enough action, but if you are caught, you might be asked to leave the
critical, and a third of these stories related to crimes
store. What is4
As a result, it's not surprising that many older people mistrust
my hair cut like that. I
, you might even be arrested
the police!
'Digital shoplifting' is a crime, although it's one that few people
For instance, retailers may put up notices saying
'maximum of two students permitted at any one time.' If they wrote
realize they're committing. Officially, you 6
'pensioners' or 'women' instead, they'd be asked to remove the signs
always get permission before sharing other people's photos That's the
law. But how many of us ever get round 7
To justify their actions, shop owners claim that teenagers are more
likely to shoplift. 4
In reality, around three quarters of
shoplifters are adults. Should we ban over-eighteen-year-olds from
stores instead?
doing that?
8.................................... 'digital shoplifting', because they believe
it's cheating them out of valuable sales. 9
you go on to buy the publication you've photographed, they won't
In some countries, shops and businesses are allowed to use 'mosquitos'
make any profit. Unfortunately, most of us tend to leave it on the shelf
in front of their buildings These are small, electronic gadgets which
So, be careful the next time you think about using your cameraphone
make a high sound that only young people can hear.5
of the mosquito claim that it reduces anti-social behavior. But why
in a bookshop or newsagent's. You can never tell - someone
be watching you ...
shouldn't teenagers be allowed to talk to their friends? We shouldn't
punish people for crimes they haven't committed!
In reality, only around 10-20% of crimes are committed by young
offenders. 6
Why? Perhaps it's because editors have other
numbers to think of, such as profit margins Bad news sells. Headlines
like 'over 40% of teenagers support charities' simply aren't as exciting I
On the other hand, the media is not just a commercial interest.
Journalists need to raise awareness of different aspects of
teenagers' lives - and politicians, businesses, teachers and parents
need to listen.
Are all blue-eyed people the same? Of course not. If 10% of blue-eyed
people break the law, then should we stop trusting everyone with blue
So why do we assume that all young people are 'bad',
just because a few misbehave? It's time to start treating teenagers the
way they deserve. Not as a 'problem' group, but as individuals.
Your town council is planning to install 'mosquito'
devices in the main shopping district. They hope
that this will stop groups of teenagers hanging out
around shops and other buildings. Write a letter
to a local newspaper expressing your views. Think
current concerns about crim e and safety,
possible effects of installing the devices (for retailers
and teenagers).
possible alternatives to installing the device,
w hat you think should happen next.
Exam insight 3 Workbook page 98
Cumulative review Units 1-6 81
The senses
Reading and vo cab u lary Taste
SPEAKING Look at the photos. What are the people
doing? Which senses are they using? Which sense do
you think is the most important?
2 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Read the statements and
decide which ones are true. Then read the text and
check your answers.
A question
of taste
1 O u r taste buds are fully developed w h e n w e are born.
2 W e can only identify four tastes.
3 Boys like different flavours from girls.
4 Our noses can smell 10,000 different scents.
5 W h e n hot food gets colder, it tastes better.
6 The look and feel o f food can m ake us like it more
or less.
Understanding the purpose o fa paragraph
Each paragraph in a text usually deals with a different
aspect of the topic.
The first paragraph norm ally introduces the general
topic or explains the purpose o f the text.
The other paragraphs d evelop the topic and give more
The final paragraph gives a sum m ary or a conclusion.
Read the strategy. Then match paragraphs A-F in
the text to purposes 1-6.
1 It provides further information about the four tastes.
2 It explains th e connection betw een smell and taste.
3 It briefly summarizes th e argum ent o f the text.
4 It explains th e connection betw een texture and
5 It states the topic o f the text and gives some
background information.
6 It explains h o w our m ouths work.
4 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Answer the questions.
1 W h y d o som e young people not like vegetables?
2 W h e re does our love of sw eet things originate from ?
3 W h y does cooked food not taste so good w hen
it is cold?
4 H o w are smell and taste con n ected ?
5 H o w does saliva help w h e n w e eat?
T h e se n se s
They're often green, they can be crunchy, soft, cooked
or raw and food experts insist they're highly beneficial
to your health. What are they? Vegetables. If you're
not entirely convinced by what they say, don't worry.
There's a good reason for this: according to scientists,
young people's taste buds, the small points on your
tongue that detect the taste of food, are not ready
for the bitter taste of some vegetables. Our taste buds
develop as we get older meaning that we might view
cabbage and spinach more favourably, but young
people's mouths prefer sweet food. In fact, it's not just
young people that like sweet-tasting food. Most of us
do, just like our prehistoric ancestors.They ate a lot of
sweet fruit because it was widely available and easy
to notice on trees and bushes, and it was a good
source of energy. They also realized that they had to
be exceptionally careful with plants that had a bitter
taste, since they were often poisonous.
So, apart from bitter and sweet, what other tastes can
we detect? You might be surprised to learn that our
taste buds can only distinguish two more: salty and sour.
When we reach our early teens, we start to prefer sour
things to sweet things. However recent studies have
shown that girls and boys experience taste in
different ways. Girls have more sensitive
taste buds and can differentiate
flavours more easily, especially sweet
and sour while boys prefer stronger
more extreme flavours.
For everyone, though, food has
to be wet for it to be tasty. When
we smell food, our mouths produce
saliva and when we eat it, the saliva
transports its taste to our
taste buds. Without saliva,
some food would have
Vocabulary: perception and observation: adverb-adjective collocations;
noun suffixes: ition, -sion; approximations and fractions
Gram m ar: reported statements, questions and commands
Speaking: discussing the role of the senses; interviewing; complaining
and asking people to do things
W riting: a report on survey findings
insight Perception and observation
5 Study the highlighted verbs in the text. Match them
to definitions 1-7.
notice or discover som ething that can be difficult to
see or feel
2 think about som ething carefully before making a
3 see, hear or recognize w ith effort
becom e aw are o f som ething
5 think about som ething in a particular w ay
6 see how things are different
7 know or understand som ething that is true
6 Choose the correct answers.
1 I couldn't detect / distinguish the writing on the
board because it was too far away.
no taste at all. If you dry your tongue with a cloth and
then put some food on it, you'll find it fairly tasteless.
Fortunately, our mouths produce enough saliva every
year to fill a bath, so it's unlikely this will ever happen!
We don't just taste with our mouths, we also use our
noses! Our nose can detect 10.000 different smells
and when food is cooked, it produces aromas that
make us hungry. When we put food in our mouths, our
taste buds and noses work together to decide what
flavour the food has. Have you ever noticed that food
which has been cooked doesn't taste as good when
it goes cold? When the cooking smells disappears,
so does some of the taste. You can do a simple
experiment to test this. Close your eyes and pinch your
nose between your fingers.Then ask someone to put a
small piece of food in your mouth and try to identify it.
Without any smell to help you, it's somewhat difficult!
Finally, the texture of food on our tongue is also
important in our perception of its taste. Some people
consider slimy, lumpy, thick or creamy foods utterly
repulsive, however it tastes.This is because our brain
perceives the look or feel of something and sends a
message to our tongue telling it not to like that food.
So. if you really don't like the look, feel or taste of those
vegetables on your plate, you can now claim that
there is a universally accepted scientific explanation
for this. However, don't tell your parents everything that
you have read in this article because they might tell
you to hold your nose and dry your tongue before
serving you a big plate of vegetables!
2 A lot o f peop le consider / differentiate fresh
vegetables healthier than frozen ones, but scientists
say that there is no difference in nutrition b etw een
th e two.
3 A two-week old baby can differentiate / realize
b etw een sweet, sour and bitter tastes, but they can't
view / detect th e taste of salt until th ey reach four
He on ly considered / noticed that the soup w as very
hot, once he had a spoonful in his mouth. It's also
then that he distinguished / realized that it w as too
thick and lumpy.
5 M any parents view / detect marketing junk food to
children as unethical and feel it shouldn't be allowed.
nsight Adverb-adjective collocations
Study the underlined collocations in the text. Then
replace the words in italics with the collocations.
Processed foods are m ore possible to get in
supermarkets n o w than th ey w ere tw en ty years ago.
2 It's n o t very easy to taste food if you can’t smell it.
3 You must be full o f extrem e care w h e n you eat wild
m ushrooms because th ey m ight be poisonous.
4 A lot of food can be w ithout m uch taste w ithout salt.
5 Five portions of fruit and vegetables a d ay are very
g o od for y o u for your health.
6 The connection b etw een sw eet things and obesity is
generally believed.
7 Som e people find the taste o f raw fish very unpleasant.
8 A lot o f teenagers are not com pletely certain that
eating vegetables is goo d for you.
SPEAKING Work in groups. Discuss the statements.
1 Teenagers dislike most vegetables.
2 Cooked food always tastes better than raw food.
3 Parents should force children to eat healthy food they
do not like.
Vocabulary bank
Food texture page 140
The senses
7 B ■ G ram m ar and listening Beyond hum an senses
SPEAKING Look at the photos. What do these dogs have in common?
What senses are they using?
Listen to a radio news report. What happened? How many people are missing?
Read the newspaper article about the avalanche. What happened to Charles Grimaldi?
Dogs to the rescue
■ B y Paul Wittens
Charles G rim aldi, the experienced ski instructor
w ho spent an hour buried under tons o f snow
after this m orning's avalanche, is recovering from
his injuries at the Sainte Pauline hospital. H e spoke
to m e from his hospital bed earlier and said that he
w as still feeling very w eak and couldn't stand up
on his ow n. H e told m e that he had w orked as an
instructor on those slopes for 15 years. H e pointed
out th at he'd set o u t because the w eather reports
h a d n 't show n any indication of avalanches and
explained that the w eather had been good on the
m ountain. However, w hile he w as w aiting for his
group to arrive, he heard a loud rum bling noise
and saw a wall of snow heading tow ards him.
W ithin seconds he w as blinded and everything
turned white. Then, there w as a deafening silence.
He adm itted that w ith tem peratures well below
freezing, he had soon started to panic and added
that he had begun to lose the feeling in his arm s
and legs. After w hat seem ed like hours, he heard
barking and realized that the specially-trained
m ountain rescue dogs had found him using their
incredible sense of smell. Charles prom ised that he
w ould thank the dogs and their handler in person
as soon as he w as well enough to leave hospital
and he agreed that he w as a very lucky man.
Reported speech
Read the sentences. Underline the parts of the text that match them.
1 'I'm a very lucky man.’
2 I'm still feeling very weak.'
3 T h e w eather w as good on the mountain.'
4 'I've w orked as an instructor on these slopes for 15 years.'
5 'The w eather reports hadn't shown any indication o f avalanches.'
6 'I can't stand up on m y own.'
7 Til thank the dogs and their handler in person.'
Compare the sentences in exercise 4 with the parts of the text that you underlined.
Then complete the table.
Direct speech
1 present simple
2 present continuous
3 past simple
4 present perfect
5 past perfect
6 can
7 will
84 The senses
Reported speech
W h e n you ch an g e direct speech to reported speech, rem em ber to also change:
1 pronouns: /- h e / she-, w e - th e y , etc.
2 possessive adjectives: m y - h is / h e r, o u r - th eir, etc.
3 tim e expressions: t o d a y - th a t d a y ; la s t w e e k - th e w e e k b e fo re ; y e s te r d a y
- th e d a y b e fo re ;
t o m o r r o w - th e n e x t d a y , etc.
h e re - th e re ; th is
th a t; th e s e - th o se
Reference and practice 7.1
W orkbook page 116
Find more sentences in reported speech in the newspaper article. What reporting verbs are
used in the article?
Rewrite the sentences in reported speech.
1 'Today has been the worst d ay of m y life,'admitted Ella.
T h e rescue dogs live here in the winter,'said the rescue team leader.
1 spent an hour buried under the snow yesterday,'Gunter told us.
'I can't feel m y fingers or m y toes,’G unter added.
'We'll find your brother,'the rescue team promised.
6 'We're waiting for the rescue dogs to arrive,'explained th e search leader.
7 'W e had a lucky escape today,’the cou p le agreed.
8 'Before th e avalanche began, w e heard a rum bling noise.'the skiers pointed out.
8 Complete the newspaper article with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.
Dolphins save surfer
from shark attack
B y Emma W ilson
N e w Z e a la n d teenager, D an Sibley, ow es
his life to a g ro u p o f d o lp h in s a fte r being
attack ed by a sh ark . H e explained th a t he
(be) still v ery shocked a n d
th a t he 2
(can't) believe th at
H e sa id th a t h e 4
in th e w a te r for o n ly a few m in u tes w hen
so m e th in g
board. T hen, he 6
a h u g e shark. H ow ever, a g ro u p o f d o lp h in s
h a d sen sed th e d a n g e r a n d com e to his rescue.
D an ex p lain ed th a t th ey 7.......................................
(stay) w ith him u n til th ey w ere su re h e w as
safe. D an a d d e d th a t h e 8
(have) a n asty w o u n d on his a rm a n d th at his
back 9
(is) still v e ry painful,
b u t th a t he 10
(get) b e tte r
W h en I interv iew ed him , he said th a t the
in cid e n t 11
(not stop) him
from su rfin g a n d th a t he 12
(plan) his next s u rf trip - a lth o u g h he a d m itte d
th a t his p a re n ts 13
(not like)
th a t idea.
SPEAKING Work in pairs, A and B. Student A is Dan Sibley and Student B a news reporter.
Interview Dan about the incident. Use the article in exercise 8 to help you.
DVD extra
The Blue Cross
The senses
7 C ■ Listening, speaking and vocabulary D on't shout, I can see!
SPEAKING Discuss the questions. Then listen to the
first part of a radio interview with two teenagers with hearing
and sight impairments and compare your ideas.
1 W h at do you think blind people can see?
2 W h a t d o you think deaf people can hear?
2.08 Listen to the rest of the interview. Are the sentences true (T),
false (F) or not given (NG)?
1 People don't treat Emily an y differently w hen th ey discover she's deaf.
2 Nick com plains that people in the street never help him.
3 Em ily often has to remind teachers to face her w hen th ey speak.
4 Em ily doesn’t like being in a large group of people.
5 Blind people are often goo d linguists.
6 Music is not an im portant part o f Emily's life.
7 Nick enjoys spending tim e outside.
8 Em ily finds being in a laboratory relaxing.
insight Noun suffixes: -tio n , -sion
Read the sentences. Who said them, Emily (E) or Nick (N)?
What are the verb forms of the highlighted words? Complete
rules a-d about forming nouns.
I've had similar reactions.
Most deaf people can hear som ething, depending on the situation.
I can interpret their feelings from their facial expressions.
I haven't m ade a decision about m y future yet.
With some verbs that end in:
-t, a d d ...................
-e, rem ove t h e .................. and a d d ....................
-ss, a d d ...................
-d or -de, rem ove th e
o r .................. and add.
Complete the text with the correct forms of the words below. Decide if you need a verb or
a noun. There are two words that you do not need.
decid e
The Deaf Youth Orchestra
N ex t w eek sees the start o f the D e a f Youth Orchestra's to u r The orchestra helps to em pow er
deaf teenagers and allows them to 1
themselves through music. I met Sophie W ilson,
one o f the musicians in the orchestra. She is a talented sixteen-year-old and is almost completely
deaf. She explained that people's 2
are ve ry different when she tells them she plays in a
deaf orchestra, but most are ve ry surprised. She started to learn the piano at the age o f five and
realized that she could feel the 3.................. o f the notes in her arms and could sense the difference
between them. She told me that joining the orchestra had been the b e s t4................. o f her life.
saw the orchestra rehearsing and it w as an amazing sight to see the conductor using sign language
to communicate with the musicians. I saw the orchestra rehearsing the piece that Sophie will play
as the 5................. o f their concert. It was amazing, so don’t miss the opportunity to see them in
action.They’re sure to leave a lasting 6
SPEAKING Discuss the questions.
1 Do you kn ow anyone with a hearing or sight im pairm ent? If so, are their experiences similar to
Nick's and Emily's?
2 W h at have you learned from listening to Nick and Em ily? Did anything surprise you?
3 W h ich do you think is your strongest sense and w hich is your weakest? G ive reasons for your
86 The senses
Complaining and asking people to do things
Read complaints 1-5. Where do you think each
situation is taking place? In which situation
would you complain? Match responses a-e to
the complaints.
1 T h e people behind m e are talking all the time
and making a lot o f noise.'
2 'It's so loud. I can hear every single thing they're
saying and I'm trying to g et som e sleep.'
3 Tve been waiting here for nearly an hour.'
4 T h e chips are cold and som e of them are burned.'
5 'I can't read your handwriting on the board.'
a 1 don't think he will be m uch longer.'
'OK, let m e ch an g e this for you.'
c 'Sorry, I'll turn it down.'
d I'll speak to them and see w h at I can do.’
e I'm so sorry. I’ll make it bigger'
2.09 Listen to dialogues A-C and match
them to one of the situations 1-5 in exercise 6.
Then answer the questions.
In which dialogue A, B or C:
1 can the person not w ait long?
2 does th e person g et a replacem ent?
3 is the person not able to hear the com plaint?
4 does th e person not know if the situation will be fixed?
5 does th e person repeat th e com plaint?
6 does th e person not receive an apology?
2.09 Complete the phrases in the table. Then listen to the dialogues again and check.
Asking people to do things
4 .......................possibly ... ?
........... to bother you, b u t . . . .
2........................ there's a slight problem.
Do y o u 5........................ (it -ing ) ... ?
3........................ me, I've been waiting
W ould y o u 6........................ (+ -ing ) ... ?
I'm really not happy a b o u t ....
7....................... you ... ?
I'm not satisfied w ith ....
I w o n d e r if you could ... ?
2.10 Put the dialogue in the correct order. Listen and check. Then underline two more
ways of making complaints and asking people to do things.
Well, I'd be grateful if you could tell them to leave if they don't stop. I can't w atch
the film and I paid £6.40 for m y ticket.
OK. That sounds good.
W h e re are they sitting and what's th e problem ?
Oh, dear. HI go and speak to them.
Yes, can I help you?
I'm sorry. C om e and show me w h o th ey are and I'll speak to them and see w h at I
can do.
I'm sitting in row E and the peop le behind me are talking all the tim e and making a
lot o f noise.
I’d like to make a com plaint about the people sitting near me.
10 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Choose one of the situations below and prepare a dialogue.
1 The classroom next door is really noisy. You are taking a test.
2 You and your friends have been overcharged in a pizzeria.
3 You bought a n e w phone and it's not w orking properly. Take it back to the shop.
4 You are at a concert and som e people are jum ping up and d o w n in front o f you.
You can't see anything.
The senses
7D ■ Culture, vocabulary and grammar A W alk in th e W oods
SPEAKING Discuss the questions.
1 Have you ever been cam ping or slept
Bill Bryson is a famous American
author. H e has w ritten books
about life in the UK, the USA and
Australia. This extract is from A
W a lk in th e W o o d s and describes
Bill’s adventures w ith hts m en
Stephen Katz w hen they hiked
along the Appalachian Trail. The
trail is 3,540 km long aild Stret^
along the east coast o f the USA,
passing through some o f the most
beautiful landscapes m the country.
outdoors? If so, w here did you g o ? W h o
did you go w ith?
2 W h at noises can you hear w h e n you are
3 W h a t kinds of smells d o you notice?
Look at the cover of A W alk in th e W ood s.
What do you think the book is about?
Read the information about it and
compare your ideas.
Read the extract from A W alk in th e W ood s.
Then answer the questions.
1 W h at happened to Bill and Stephen?
2 H o w w ou ld you react if there was a wild
extract, Bill describes w hat happene
strange noises outside his tent one night.
animal outside your tent? W o uld you be
m ore like Bill or more like Stephen?
3 W o uld you like to read the rest of A Walk in the
W oods ? W h y / w h y not?
4 W h at d o you think happened next?
S ig h t a n d so u n d
Study the highlighted words in the book extract.
Which words are connected to sight and which to
sound? Match them to definitions 1-6.
1 to look at som ebody or som ething for a long time
2 to look closely or carefully at som ething w hen you
can't see it clearly
3 to speak very quietly
4 to op en and shut your eyes ve ry quickly
5 to breathe noisily w hile you are asleep
6 to breathe noisily w h e n smelling som ething (usually
in relation to animals)
Complete the text with the correct form of the verbs
in exercise 4.
Last summer, I went camping with my friend Elka.
O ne evening, after a long day's walk, Elka was so
exhausted that she fell asleep straight away and
started 1
very loudly as I was trying to cook
dinner! She could sleep through anything. Later, after
I'd eaten and gone to sleep, a strange noise outside
woke me up. Som ething that sounded like an animal
noisily around our tent. 13
to Elka, but she carried on sleeping, so I pushed her
hard. She sat up and ju s t 4
never seen me before. Then she 5
at me as if she'd
her eyes
a few tim es and went back to sleep. I opened the
front of our tent and 6
out. Imagine my
horror when I saw a huge black bull calmly eating
the grass in front of our tent. He looked at me, as
if to say, 'H ow dare you disturb my m eal!' Then, he
turned around slowly and wandered off to the grass
in front of the next tent.
88 The senses
It was perfect sleeping w eather, cool eno u g h
to n eed a bag, b u t w arm en o u g h to sleep in
yo u r underw ear, and I was looking forw ard
to having a long n ig h t’s rest, w hich is w hat
I was d o in g w h en , at som e point during
the night, I heard a sound nearby that m ade
m y eyes fly open. N orm ally, I slept through
everything — th ro u g h th u n d ersto rm s, and
th ro u g h K atz’s snoring, so som ething big
eno u g h to w ake m e was u n u su al.T h e re was
a sound o f u n d erg ro w th being disturbed - a
click o f breaking branches, a w eighty pushing
th ro u g h low foliage - and th en a kind o f
large, vaguely irritable snuffling noise.
I sat b o lt u p rig h t. Instantly, every neuron
in m y brain was aw ake and dashing around
frantically, like ants w h en you disturb their
nest. I reach instinctively for m y knife, then
realized I had left it in m y pack, ju s t outside
the tent. (...)
T h e re was an o th er noise, quite near.
‘S tephen, you awake?’ I w hispered.
‘Yup,’ he replied in a w eary but norm al voice.
‘W h a t was that?’
‘H ow should I know ?’
‘It sounded big.’
‘E verything sounds big in the w oods.’
T his was true. (...)
I shuffled o n my knees to the fo o t o f the
ten t, cautiously unzipped the m esh and peered
out, b u t it was p itch black. (...)
Carefully, very carefully, 1 clim bed from
the te n t and p u t o n th e torch. S om ething
about 15 or 20 feet away looked up at me.
I co u ld n ’t sec anything at all o f its shape or
size - only tw o shining eyes. It w ent silent,
w h atev er it was, and stared back at me.
‘S te p h e n / I w hispered at his ten t, ‘did you
pack a knife?’
‘N o.’
‘H ave you g o t anything sharp at all?’
H e th o u g h t for a m o m en t. ‘N ail clippers.’
I nervously th rew a stick at th e anim al, and
it d id n ’t m ove, w h atev er it was. A d eer w ould
have bo lted . T his thin g ju s t blinked once and
kept staring.
I rep o rted this to K atz.
‘Probably a buck. T h e y ’re n o t that timid.
Try sh o u tin g at it.’
I cautiously sho u ted at it: ‘Hey! You there!’
T h e creature blinked again, singularly
unm oved. ‘You shout,’ I said.
‘O h , you b ru te, go away!’ K atz shouted in
m erciless im itation. (...)
I p eered and peered , b u t I co u ld n ’t sec
anything b u t those tw o w id e-set eyes staring
from th e n ear distance like eyes in a cartoon.
‘W h a t are you doing, Bryson? Ju st leave it
alone and it will go away.’
‘H o w can you b e so calm ?’
‘W h a t do you w an t m e to do? You’re
hysterical en o u g h for b o th o f us. (...)
‘W ell, I’m going back to sleep/ Katz
‘W h a t are you talking about? You c a n ’t go
to sleep.’
‘Sure I can. I’ve d o n e it lots o f times.’T h ere
was th e sound o f him rolling over and a
series o f snuffling noises, n o t unlike those o f
th e creature outside.
‘S tephen, you can ’t go to sleep/ I ordered.
B ut he could and he did, w ith am azing
T h e creature - creatures, now - resum ed
d rinking w ith heavy lapping noises. I co u ld n ’t
find any replacem ent batteries, so 1 flung the
to rch aside and p u t m y m in er’s lam p on my
head, m ade sure it w orked, th en sw itched
it off. T h en I sat for ages o n m y knees,
facing the front o f th e ten t, listening keenly,
g ripping m y w alking stick like a club, ready
to beat back an attack, and w ith m y knife
open and at hand as a last line o f defence.
T h e bears - animals, w hatever they w ere —
drank for perhaps tw en ty m inutes m ore, then
quietly departed th e way they had com e. It
was a joyous m o m en t - b u t I kn ew from my
reading th at they w ould be likely to retu rn . 1
listened and listened, b u t th e forest returned
to silence and stayed there.
Reported questions and commands
6 Which sentences 1-5 are reported questions and
which are reported commands? Underline the parts
of the text that match them.
Bill asked Stephen w h eth er he had packed a knife.
Bill asked Stephen if he had anything sharp at all.
3 Stephen told the bear to g o away.
4 Stephen told Bill to just leave it alone.
5 Bill asked Stephen h o w he could be so calm.
Choose the correct answers in rules 1-3. Then find
more questions and commands in the text and
rewrite them as reported questions and commands.
1 W h e n w e report yes / no questions, w e use if or th a t/
w hether.
In reported questions, the subject com es before /
after the verb.
3 W h e n w e report com m ands, w e use reporting verb +
o b je ct / sub ject it to + infinitive.
4 W h e n w e report negative com m ands, w e use
verb + object + n o t + t o + infinitive.
Reference and practice 7.2
W orkbook page 117
8 You are going on a night hike with your teacher.
Report the teacher's questions and commands.
1 'Is anyone really frightened o f the dark?'
2 'W h a t sights and sounds do you think you'll see?'
3 'Put your torches away. You don't need them.'
4 'Don't speak or whisper because you'll frighten the
5 'Go to your tents w hen I ask you to.'
6 'Don't w ander off alone.'
7 'Does anyone recognize the smell? It’s a fox.'
8 'Did you hear the ow l hooting?'
9 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Imagine you are walking in
the woods with a friend. Prepare a dialogue that you
have with your friend. Include statements, questions
and commands. Talk about: the noises, the smells,
how you feel, what you decide to do. Then report
your conversation to another pair.
Vocabulary bank
W ays o f speaking page 140
The senses
7 E ■ W riting A rep ort on su rvey findings
1 SPEAKING Are there any problems with noise at your school? Do the survey in pairs.
Compare your results with another pair.
Noise at school
1 Do you like the sound of the school bell?
2 Is the canteen too noisy?
3 Should there be a separate quiet room for eating?
4 Would you like to have background music in
the library?
5 Can you always hear what your teacher is saying
in class?
6 Does the noise from the playground and sports
fields distract you during lessons?
Read the report and put paragraphs A-E in the correct order. Are the findings similar or
different to your answers to the survey in exercise 1?
An analysis of noise at school
A ...................
Moving on to the second question about the noise in the canteen, well over a quarter of the students thought it was too
noisy and would like a separate quiet room. However, just over half of the students said they didn't mind the noise. The
other students had no strong feelings on the matter.
With regard to music or silence in the library, well under half of the students said they would prefer background music
in the library, while approximately a third of students said they preferred to work in silence. The remaining students
expressed no opinion at all on this question.
B ...................
In conclusion, it appears that there are some noise issues in the school. Most students complain about the sound of the
school bell and I therefore recommend that the school should change it. Additionally, it is not clear whether students
would prefer to have background music in the library, so I suggest we try it out for a period of one month.
C ...................
The purpose of this report is to present the findings of a survey into students' views on noise in school due to recent
complaints from some students. The survey was conducted among sixty students in Years 10 and 11.
D ...................
Regarding noise in the classroom, just under three quarters of students agreed that they had no problems hearing
what their teacher was saying, while about a quarter of students admitted that they would prefer their teacher to use a
microphone. Turning to the final question, well over three quarters of the students replied that they were not distracted by
noise from the playground and sports fields, but just under 20% of the students said it did bother them.
As far as the first question about the sound of the school bell is concerned, nearly all the students said they disliked the
loud ring and would prefer a different noise. Some of them said that they would like popular mobile phone ringtones
instead of a bell. Only two students said they didn't notice the bell.
3 Match headings 1-6 to paragraphs A-E. There is one heading that you do not need.
The aim o f the report
Noise in the playground
6 Noise during lessons
1 Noise inside the school
90 The senses
Conclusion and recom m endations
The bell
Making your writing flow
When you write a report, use phrases to make your report flow smoothly and to make it easier
for the reader to follow your points. The most common phrases used in reports are:
A s far a s . . . is concerned , ....
As f o r . . . .
R eg a rd in g . . . .
■ M oving o n t o . . . .
Read the strategy. Find more phrases that make your writing flow smoothly in the model
Approximations and fractions
5 Study the highlighted words in the report. Match them to meanings and percentages 1-9.
1 a bit more than
6 31%
2 a bit less than
7 74%
8 8 l%
9 99%
3 a lot m ore than
4 a lot less than
5 24%
Study the information in the pie chart.
Are the sentences true (T) or false (F)?
Correct the false ones.
Year 9 taste preferences
1 Just under half of students in Year 9
like sweet things.
2 Just over a third of the students like
the taste of spicy food.
3 Well over half o f students like sour
4 Around a third o f the students like
the taste o f sw eet things.
5 Alm ost everyone likes the taste of
bitter food.
6 Approxim ately a quarter of the
students enjoy salty tastes.
salty: 24%
sweet: 3 0 %
bitter: 1%
sour: 10%
spicy: 35%
Task Do a survey and write a report on the findings.
■ Write Write a report on your survey results.
Ideas Think about your survey:
■ Check Check the following points:
1 D ecide w h at your survey will be about. Use the ideas
below or your o w n ideas.
■ food and tastes people like / d o not like
■ music and sounds people like / do not like
2 M ake notes about:
■ Have you explained the purpose of the survey?
■ Have you grouped similar ideas in the same
■ Have you used a variety o f phrases to help your
writing flow?
■ w h o the survey is aim ed at.
■ Have you used approximations and fractions?
■ w hat you w an t to find out by doing the survey.
■ Have you written a conclusion and m ade a
■ the num ber and typ e of questions you w an t to ask.
recom m endation?
■ Have you checked grammar, vocabulary, spelling and
Plan Follow the plan:
1 Prepare your survey.
2 Do your survey.
3 Collect and analyze the results.
4 W rite your report.
The senses
Vocabulary insight 7 Using a dictionary: homonyms and homophones
3 The notice on the door said that the restaurant had
been closed.
a to see and becom e conscious o f som ething
Hom onym s are words that have the same spelling and
b a piece of paper or a sign giving information, a
pronunciation, but different meanings. In the Oxford
warning, etc.
W ordpower Dictionary, the different m eanings are
I didn't notice you the other day.
num bered within the entry. For example, view has tw o
a to see and becom e conscious of som ething
b a piece o f paper or a sign giving information, a
warning, etc.
I view2/vju:/ verb [T] 1 view sb/sth (as sth) to think
about sb/sth in a particular way: She viewed holidays
as a waste of time. 2 to watch or look at sth: Viewed
5 It was very foggy, so w e couldn't distinguish the
writing on the sign.
from this angle, the building iooks much taller than it
really is.
a to recognize th e difference b etw een tw o things or
Som etim es, if a w ord has m ore than on e part of speech,
b to see, hear, or recognize with effort
there will be a small num ber next to th e headword:
6 She can't distinguish b etw een th e twins.
view1/vju:/ noun 1 [C] a view
(about/on sth) an
a to recognize th e difference b etw een tw o things or
b to see, hear, or recognize w ith effort
Read the strategy above. Study the dictionary
entries for v ie w and answer the questions.
%view1/vju:/ noun 1 [C]
a view (about/on sth) an
opinion or a particular way of thinking about sth: He
expressed the view that standards were falling. * In
m y v ie w , she has done nothing wrong. ♦ She has
s t r o n g v ie w s on the subject. 2 [U,sing] the ability to
see sth or to be seen from a particular place: The
garden was hidden from view behind a high wall.
* to come into view * to disappear from view 3 [C]
what you can see from a particular place: There are
b r e a t h t a k i n g v ie w s from the top of the mountain. ♦a
room with a s e a v i e w O note at scenery
H om ophones are words that have the same
pronunciation, but different meanings. They can be
spelled the same w ay (so are then also hom onym s), or
th ey can have different spellings.
? view2/vju:/ verb [T] 1 view sb/sth (as sth) to think
about sb/sth in a particular way: She viewed holidays
as a waste of time. 2 to watch or look at sth: Viewed
Read the strategy above. Then study the dictionary
entries for peer and p ie r. Are the sentences true (T)
or false (F)?
peer1 /pia(r)/ noun [C] 1 a
from this angle, the building looks much taller than it
really is.
person w ho is of the
same age or position in society as you: Children hate
to look stupid in front of their peers. 2 (in Britain) a
member of the nobility (= people of the highest
social class, w ho have special titles)
1 H o w m any entries are there for view?
2 H o w m any different parts of speech are there?
peer2/pia(r)/ verb [I] peer (a t sb/sth) to look close­
3 H o w m any m eanings are there of the noun view?
ly or carefully at sb/sth, for example because you
cannot see very w ell: He peered at the photo, but it
4 H o w m any m eanings are there of the verb view ?
was blurred.
/pra(r)/ noun [C] 1 a large wooden or metal
structure that is built out into the sea in holiday
towns, where people can walk 2 a large wooden
or metal structure that is built out into the sea from
the land. Boats can stop at piers so that people or
goods can be taken on o r off.
Study the dictionary entries in exercise 1 again.
Write the entry number and the meaning number of
the underlined words in the sentences.
1 View ed from the to p of the hill, the boats looked tiny.
2 She view ed health foods as very expensive.
1 Peer and p ie r are homonyms.
2 Peer and p ie r are hom ophones.
3 As soon as w e turned the corner, the palace cam e to
3 The noun and verb forms of peer are homonyms.
vie w ..........................
4 The noun and verb forms of peer are hom ophones.
4 W e booked a room with a sea vie w ..........................
5 In m y view, vegetables are horrible...........................
Choose the correct meaning of the underlined
words. Use a dictionary to help you.
1 I didn't realize that you w ere such a goo d cook.
a to know and understand that som ething is true
b to make som ething that you im agined b ecom e
2 He realized his dream and becam e a fam ous author,
Use a dictionary to find homonyms or homophones
of the words below. Then write your own example
sentence with each word.
1 ................................................................................
3 ...........................................................................................
a to know and understand that som ething is true
b to make som ething that you im agined becom e
92 Vocabulary insight 7
Dictionary entries from Oxford Wordpower Dictionary, 4th edition
Review 7
Replace the words in italics with the correct form of
the verbs below.
vie w
5 Complete the text with the correct reported speech
form of the verbs below.
not find
1 This is tasty! I d id n 't............ {know) you could cook.
After the fire, Ada said that she 1
lucky to
be alive. She told reporters that her c a t 2
her up after he 3
the smoke. She explained
that cats 4
a powerful sense of smell,
adding that they 5
smell ten tim es better
than humans. She also said that hen cat 6
sleep in her room in future! The police said that
they 7
the cause of the fire. They told us
that they 8
any evidence yet.
2 I've a lw a y s ............{thought of) health food as boring,
but this has changed m y mind.
3 The students w ere listening carefully, but th ey couldn't
........... {hearproperly) w hat the teacher was saying.
4 H u m a n s ............(discover ) different tastes w ith taste
buds on their tongues.
5 I never
( was aw are of) the different flavours in
this dish until I cooked it myself.
6 Our school d o e sn 't............ (treat differently) betw een
an y groups o f students. W e treat everyone the same.
6 Complete sentence b so that it has a similar
meaning to sentence a.
Complete the text using the correct adjective or
adverb form of the words below.
1 a 'I've never been so frightened,' Ada admitted.
w id e
b Ada a d m itte d .............................................................
2 a 'I'm proud o f m y cat,' she told reporters.
Eating in the dark makes food tastier! If you aren’t
convinced, try it! ‘Dining in the dark’ experiences
are now 2
available in many cities. You need to be
exceptionally 3
with your knife and fork, to avoid
accidents! At first, eating can be somewhat 4
, but
after a while, you’ll notice that even fairly 5
, boring
foods become more interesting. Unfortunately, foods you
don’t like may seem 6
b She told reporters.......................................................
3 a She explained that her cat had smelled the fire.
b '..........................................................(s h e explained.
4 a She added that she didn't feel safe there.
b '................................................................. (sh e ad d e d .
5 a 'I'll sleep in a hotel tonight,' she told us.
b She told u s ...................................................................
6 a The police said they w ere interviewing witnesses,
b '..........................................................,'t h e police said.
7 a A girl said she had seen a man outside.
b '................................................................... (said a girl.
Complete the text with the correct form of the verbs
in brackets.
8 a 'W e can't say if it's im portant yet,'the police warned,
b The police w arned that
W hen a baby elephant is in a dangerous 1
(situate), th e m other’s firs t2
(react) is to
stam p her feet. People u sed to think this w as an
(express) of anger, to frighten enem ies and
give th e baby 4
(protect). But scientists have
come to th e 5
(conclude) th a t foot-stam ping is
a w arning signal. 6
(vibrate) from th e m other's
feet can travel for miles, alerting other elephants to
Complete the sentences with the correct form of the
verbs below.
Rewrite questions and commands 1-10 in reported
Ben:'’Stop!' Anna:' ^ h y have w e stopped?’ Ben:'3Look
ahead.4Can you see th e bear?'Anna:'5Don't be stupid.'
Ben :'6Will you just trust me, for on ce? 7Don't argue with
me.' AnnafOw! 8Let go of m y arm! ®Why are you pulling
m e back?'Ben:'10Do you w ant to go ahead and get eaten?'
Ben t o ld ............................................................................
2 Anna asked B e n ...............................................................
Ben t o ld ............................................................................
He aske d ...........................................................................
5 Anna t o ld ..........................................................................
6 Ben a s k e d ........................................................., for once.
1 Sleeping on your side can help to re d u c e .............
2 During m y presentation, most students w e r e .............
3 W e could hear some animals
outside our hut.
4 1
at m y friend's notes, but couldn't read his
8 Anna said'O w l'Then she told
He t o ld ..............................................................................
9 She aske d .........................................................................
Ben aske d .........................................................................
5 I had som ething in m y eye and couldn't stop
6 The animals
at me for a very long tim e and
didn't w an t to move.
Pronunciation insight 7 W orkbook page 127
Review 7 93
D e c is io n s
Reading and vo cab u lary Think d ifferen tly
SPEAKING Think about your future job and put the
ideas below in order of importance. Compare your
list with other people in the class. Then read the text.
Which ideas are mentioned?
■ have the same job for a long time ■ make a lot o f m oney
work outside
do m any different things every day
do the same thing every day
make your ow n decisions
help other people
work with a variety of people
Read the text again. Are the sentences true (T),
false (F) or not given (NG)?
1 Children are more sure about their passions than adults.
2 Sean earned m on ey for the jobs he did.
3 His first jo b w as with a national newspaper.
4 Sean found ou t that he was a good com m unicator.
5 The yoga class taught Sean the value of making excuses.
6 The teachers in Idaho enjoyed teaching their students.
7 Sean's experiences have helped him to find a career he
8 He believes that most jobs are for life.
SPEAKING Answer the questions.
1 The text m entions ten of th e jobs Sean tried. Do any
o f them appeal to you ? W h y / w h y not?
2 W h a t are your talents? W h a t is your passion?
Describing jobs
Study the highlighted adjectives in the text. Then
match them to job descriptions 1-9.
1 I left because there was no ch an ce o f m oving to a
higher position.
2 It requires a lot o f training or practice.
3 So m any things w ere n e w and difficult. It forced me
to make a lot o f effort.
4 It's extrem ely well paid and offers plenty o f chances
for promotion.
5 It's a lot m ore exciting or attractive than ordinary jobs.
6 It's not that difficult - the same tasks are repeated
m any times.
7 You will need to be able to co p e well under pressure.
8 It's an enjoyable and interesting career and w ell w orth
th e effort.
9 Every day is different, dealing with different tasks and
different people.
The big question
What do you want to be when you grow up? An actor? An
astronaut? A famous sportsperson? Most children know the
answer to this question, and so did a schoolboy called Sean
Aiken. He wanted to be a famous basketball player. But then
he grew up and, all of a sudden, like many adults, he didn't
know the answer any more.
His dad said, ‘Sean, it doesn’t matter what you do, just make
sure it is something you are passionate about.' The problem
was that Sean didn’t know what he was passionate about and
he was scared of making the wrong choice, so he decided to
go on a journey and gain some experience. His journey took
him across Canada and America, trying out fifty-two different
jobs in as many weeks: from a highly-skilled tattoo artist to a
high-flying stockbroker, and from a glamorous fashion buyer
to a not-so-glamorous cat tail picker*! In the process, he
learned some valuable lessons.
#1 Create opportunity
‘It’s okay not to know what you want to do, but it’s not okay
to do nothing,’ says Sean. Doing fifty-two jobs in a year
and writing a blog about them was his plan of action. An
interview with a national newspaper started the ball rolling,
and the one-week job offers began to arrive. Sean had a lot
on his plate - doing different jobs meant developing different
skills. It was hard work, but it also created opportunities for
Sean to find his natural talent.
# 2 Find your natural talent
There were plenty of jobs Sean liked and plenty he hated.
Working in an office was boring and repetitive - a real deadend job, he thought. Selling T-shirts at the Toronto film festival
was more varied with different tasks, but it was stressful, too.
He had three different bosses and no time to put his feet u p
and relax. But there were other things he loved. ‘The dairy
farm was cool,' he said, because he enjoyed working outside.
As Sean went from job to job, good or bad, a pattern started to
emerge. He discovered he was great with people - he could
get on with almost anyone. Perhaps this was his natural talent?
Vocabulary: describing jobs; idioms: work; decisions and ideas; conflict; Speaking: discussing ambitions and decisions: expressing regrets;
action verbs
giving presentations
Gram m ar: third conditional; /wish and If only; speculating about the past W riting: a covering letter
5 Complete the text with adjectives in exercise 4.
Follow your dream ...
#3 Be flexible and have the right
You have to be flexible to be a yoga instructor. You also need
the right attitude. When Sean was asked to teach a yoga class,
he felt he’d been thrown in at the deep end. Td never even
stepped inside a yoga studio before, so I immediately began to
think of excuses (not to teach),’ he admitted. Luckily for Sean,
an instructor took time out to show him the ropes. That and
his positive attitude helped him to rise to the challenge and
within a few days, he was ready to teach the class.
#4 Find your passion
Sean didn’t find his perfect job, but he did find his 'passion'.
In Idaho, he spent a week as a pre-school teacher, which
taught him the value of helping others. A week as a fundraiser for cancer research confirmed this. For Sean, the
bottom line was doing something meaningful and worthwhile,
something that made a difference to other people’s lives.
Fifty-two weeks la te r... Sean’s journey has turned into his
career. He has written a book about career choice and spoken
to college students about where their talents lie. He’s realized
his passion to help others, but he also knows that people's
passions and talents change. No job is forever and what is
challenging and new today might not be so interesting in five
years’ time. ‘The reality is that I’m going to have five or six
different careers in my life,’ says Sean, ‘but instead of being
bothered by that, now I’m excited by it.’
* cat tail picker = agricultural worker who collects cat tails (a type of
plant you can eat) in swamps and wetlands.
M a tt d id n 't hate school, but he found the lessons b o rin g a nd
1...................... , often le a rn in g the sam e o ld things over and
o ve r a g a in . H e loved d ra w in g , though, so he constantly d re w
cartoons. It kept him out o f trouble.
M a t! w a s v e ry im a g in a tive , so e very p icture w a s d iffe re n t - the
subjects w e re 2......................a n d often funny. But d ra w in g w a sn
easy; it w a s a 3......................a ctivity w h ic h required practice.
M a tl d id practise a n d soon he b eca m e so g o o d that he could
d ra w w ilh o u l lo o k in g (and pretend he w a s p a y in g attention in
class!). It m a d e a ll the e ffo rt 4........................
W h e n M a tt d e c id e d to b e co m e a cartoonist, his parents a nd
teachers d is c o u ra g e d him . They thought if w a s a 5......................
career, g o in g n ow he re . It w a s much better to w o rk a s a w ellp a id c o m p a n y executive. Thai w a s their id e a o f a glam orous,
6...................... jo b . But M a tt w a s n 't interested in th a t type of
jo b . H e k n e w the constant pressure w o u ld b e c h a lle n g in g a nd
7......................'I k n e w it w a s n 't g o in g Io w o rk for m e. I k n e w I
w a s g o in g fo b e d ra w in g ca rtoo n s forever.’
Luckily, M a lt d id n 't listen to his parents
o r teachers, because if he h a d , he
w o u ld n ’t h ave re a lize d his dream .
Today, M a tt G ro e n in g has o ne
o f the most e xcitin g jobs in TV he's the cre a to r o f The Simpsonsl
insight Idioms: work
6 Study the underlined idioms in the text. Then match
them to definitions 1-7.
1 take a break and relax
2 begin a p roject or start an idea
3 teach som eone n ew h o w to do som ething correctly
put in a n ew and difficult situation w ith o u t any help
5 have a lot o f w ork and responsibilities
6 th e m ost im portant reason for som ething
7 try your best to d o som ething difficult and be
SPEAKING Work in small groups. Discuss the
1 M an y people w an t a high-flying jo b that pays lots
o f m oney. But if you love w hat you do, m oney isn't
im portant.
2 You should listen to your parents and your teachers.
They have experience and can show you th e ropes.
Vocabulary bank
Gender-neutral jo b titles page 141
8 B ■ G ram m ar and listening If th e y hadn’t
SPEAKING You are going to read a text about how a goat changed a girl's life.
Before you read, discuss the questions.
1 H o w do you think the goat changed the girl's life?
In w hich country do you think this took place?
3 W h a t d o you think the girl does now ?
2 Read the text and compare your ideas in exercise 1.
If they hadn't owned a goat...
W hen w e think about w ho has had the biggest im pact on our lives so far, m any o f us would
probably say parents, friends o r teachers. For Beatrice Biira it is ... a goat.
Beatrice, her m other and her seven brothers and sisters lived in a small village in U ganda. They
were very poor and basic necessities were a luxury, ’if her family had had $20, they w ould have paid
for Beatrice to go to school, but they d id n 't have this kind of money. W hen Beatrice w as nine, a lifechanging event happened to them. The family w as given a goat by a small charity called Heifer International.
W ithin three m onths of receiving the goat, Beatrice and her family had raised enough m oney from the sale of the goat's
milk to send Beatrice to school. A lthough she w as m uch older than the other children in her class, she did well, studied
hard and soon w on a scholarship to a school in M assachusetts, USA. From there, she w ent on to Connecticut College and
then finally studied for a M aster's Degree.
Beatrice has m any people to thank for their su p p o rt and encouragem ent along the way. But m ost of all, sh e's grateful to
that first goat- 2If they h ad n 't received the goat, they w o u ld n 't have had the m oney to allow Beatrice to get an education.
3If she had stayed in the village, her life w ould have been com pletely different.
Beatrice now w orks as an am bassador for Heifer. It's a very m eaningful and w orthw hile job - she is happy to help other
children like her and to return the gift of hope that Heifer gave her w hen she w as nine years old.
Read sentences 1-3 from the text and choose the correct answers in a-b.
1 If her fam ily had had $20, th ey w ould have paid for Beatrice to g o to school,
a The family had / didn't have $20.
b They paid / didn't pay for Beatrice to go to school.
2 If they hadn't received the goat, th ey w ouldn't have had the m oney to allow
Beatrice to get an education.
a They received / didn't receive the goat.
b They had / didn't have enough m oney to allow Beatrice to g et an education.
3 If she had stayed in th e village, her life w ou ld have been com p letely different,
a Her life was / wasn't com pletely different.
b She stayed / didn't stay in the village.
Third conditional
Study the sentences and the answers in exercise 3 and choose the correct answers.
The third conditional:
a refers to events in the future / past,
b talks about real / imaginary events,
c talks about possible / impossible conditions,
d talks about possible / impossible results.
W e form the third conditional with:
I f + subject + past perfect, subject + w o u ld / c o u ld / m ight + have + past participle.
Reference and practice 8.1
W orkbook page 118
Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. Use the third conditional.
1 If Beatrice’s fam ily
(have) $20, t h e y .................. (can afford) to pay her school fees.
2 T h e y ..................(be) too poor to send her to school if t h e y ................... (not earn) m on ey from the
goat's milk.
3 If B ea trice .................. (not look after) the goat, it ................... (m ight not produce) so m uch m ilk
4 B ea trice .................. (not get) a degree from an Am erican college if s h e ................... (stay) in her
5 She
(not learn) skills to help other people if Heifer
(not help) her w hen she
was young.
6 Her life
(m ight be) com p letely different if her parents
(not be) so poor.
2.11 Listen to a story about another
family who were helped by Heifer. Match
sentences 1-5 to a-e.Then make sentences
using the third conditional.
1 They didn't have m uch money.
They drank the milk.
They earned som e m on ey from the milk sales.
They used the milk m oney to buy materials.
So m eo n e gave them a cow.
Their situation wasn’t difficult,
They could rebuild their house,
Their lives changed,
They becam e strong and healthy,
They couldn't afford m uch food.
SPEAKING Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.
1 Heifer's policy of'Passing the gift on'encourages
people w h o benefit from a gift of a c o w or
a goat to pass on the benefits. H o w did Beatrice and Daniel d o this?
2 Heifer donates co w s and goats to people in poor areas. Do you think this is more helpful than
donating food or m oney? W h y / w h y not?
3 Can you think of other useful, life-changing things w hich charities like Heifer could donate?
w is h
If o n ly
Listen to three people talking about their regrets. Match speakers 1-3 to regrets a-c.
a accepting a jo b offer
b listening to parents
c leaving a team
S tu d y t h e se n te n c e s fro m th e liste n in g . For ea ch se n te n c e c h o o se t h e c o rre c t a n s w e r a or b.
T h e n c o m p le te th e rules.
1 I wish I was there w ith him.
I'm there w ith him now.
b I'm not there w ith him now.
If only I hadn't left Susie,
I left Susie.
b I didn't leave Susie.
Which sentence refers to the past and which to the present?
W e use / wish and I f only +
to express w ishes about the present.
W e use / wish and I f only +
to express regrets about the past.
Reference and practice 8.2
W orkbook page 118
2.12 Listen again. Are the sentences true (T) or false (F)? Rewrite the sentences to
express wishes and regrets.
1 Speaker 1 followed his teacher's advice.
He decided to d o more athletics.
He's still in con tact w ith his friend.
Speaker 2 missed a great opportunity.
She needed to make money.
6 She'd like to be working w ith Susie now.
7 Speaker 3 experienced problems at school.
8 He had a serious disagreem ent w ith his parents.
S P E A K IN G W o rk in pairs. Tell y o u r p a rtn e r ab o u t:
three decisions w hich you made, but now regret,
three things you w an t to change about your life.
8 C ■ Listening, speaking and vocabulary Im portant decisions
r v sc l
The Walkman was
the first sm a ll p o rta b le
, Reuters is the n a m e o f
a world famous media
co m p a n y , w h a t does
m u sic p la y er. W h ich
W hat is the n a m e of
W alt Disney's most
famous cartoon mouse?
How many McDonald's
restaurants w e re there
in 1968?
it do?
m a jo r te c h n o lo g y
company p ro d u c e d it?
SPEAKING Work in pairs. Answer the questions in the quiz.
D ealin g w ith u n k n o w n w o rd s w h ile listening
When you listen to a text, you might not understand every word that you hear.
Do not panic! You d o not have to understand every w ord in order to make sense o f the text.
Use the words that you d o know to create a fram ew ork - a basic understanding o f the text.
■ Do not try to translate the text into your ow n language.
If possible, listen o n ce for general understanding and again to find ou t the details.
Read the strategy. Then listen to a short extract from a talk and follow the steps
1 W h ile you listen, w rite d ow n the key w ords that you understand.
2 W ork in pairs. Com pare your notes and try to retell the listening text.
3 W h a t is the main idea o f the text?
4 Did you have to understand every w ord in order to understand the text?
Listen to the whole talk and check your answers to the quiz in exercise 1.
Listen again and choose the correct answers.
1 W h at kind o f market research did Akio Morita do for the W alkm an?
He asked lots of young people for their opinions,
c He talked to people in his com p an y about th e idea.
2 W h e n did the first W alkm an com e onto the market?
a 1978
b 1979
c 1995
3 W h ere was Julius Reuter originally from ?
a England
b Belgium
c Germ any
4 Reuter pioneered the use o f carrier pigeons to transport news
a from on e country to another.
b around the country ve ry quickly,
to th e financial markets.
5 W h at jo b w as Ray Kroc doing in the 1950s?
a paper cup salesman
b restaurant m anager
c milkshake m achine agent
6 W h y did Kroc decide to visit the restaurant in California?
a Because it had ordered a lot o f milkshake machines.
b Because he w anted to pick up som e milkshake m achines from them,
Because he w as impressed by their cheap, fast food.
Decisions and ideas
Study the phrases from the listening text. Put them into the correct category
create something
decide something
com e up with a schem e
go ahead with a plan
dream up an idea
think again about something
change your m ind
reconsider a decision
conceive an idea
make a decision
have second thoughts
make up one's mind
6 Choose the correct answers.
1 I've d ream ed up / co m e up an idea for a n e w typ e o f m obile phone.
2 The judges liked your plan originally, but they've now reconsidered / ch an g e d their mind.
3 M y brother has co m e up / m a d e up w ith a schem e for making a lot money.
M y parents have m a d e / co n ceived a decision. W e are m oving to France.
5 I like your plan, so now I think you should dream up / go ahead with it.
6 Charlie's not sure w hich university to go to. He can’t m ake up / have second th o u g h ts his mind.
SPEAKING Which decision in the listening do you think was the most important? What are
the most important decisions that you have made in your life?
Giving presentations
2.15 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Complete the tips with Do or Don't. Then listen to eight
speakers. Match each speaker 1-8 to a tip a-j. There are two tips that you do not need.
How to give a
successful presentation
tell th e listeners a t th e beginning
w h a t you are going to talk about.
r e a d your talk
out from a prepared script.
m ake and follow a
c ............ speak very fast.
plan for your talk.
a l l O W t ilT i e for questions at
the end of the talk.
.... use hum our or personal anecdotes
to make your talk more i n t e r e s t i n g .
g .................use some ViSUdl didS,
for example, pictures, graphs or slides.
................talk in a flat, m onotonous
remind people what you have told them at the
end of the presentation.
................. hand out lots of i n f o r m a t i o n at
the beginning of the talk.
2.16 Read the speaker's plan and then listen to the presentation. Which two things in
the plan does the speaker not mention?
introduce topic / give a n outline of th e talk
personal experience
H ealth b e n efits
• good exercise, doesn't put
too much stre ss on body
• good way to lose weight
• works all th e muscles
• develops stam in a
Social b e n efits
• m e e t d iffe re n t types o f new people
• com peting is a n opportunity to
• fun activity fo r holidays
Conclusion, b e n efits Encourage audience to join local pool
Listen to the presentation again and complete the phrases in the box.
Introducing a topic
Giving an example
I'd lik e 1.................. a b o u t . . . .
T o 5................. e x a m p le . . . .
I'm g o in g 2..................briefly a t . . . .
To illustrate this p o i n t . . . .
In this presentation, m y subject will be . . . .
A g oo d exam ple o f this i s . . . .
Sequencing events
So, t o 6
telling you . . . .
on to . . . .
Let's begin by ....
Finally, to sum up . . . .
In conclusion . . . .
N o w let's look a t ....
11 SPEAKING Prepare and give a presentation on the following topic:
'What is your passion in life?'
8D ■ Culture, vocabulary and grammar Do the right thing
SPEAKING Work in pairs. What would you do if the
things below became the law in your country? How
would you feel?
1 Teenage boys and girls must travel on separate buses.
I he m inim um a g e for having a m obile phone is
3 All clothes w orn by teenagers must be approved by
On 1 December 1955, Rosa Parks had just finished
4 Under-eighteens m ay only use the internet for study
work at a departm ent store in Montgomery, Alabama.
She had a job as a seamstress there, and was making
Read the article about Rosa Parks. What happened
to her? What did she do?
Read the article again. In which paragraph A-F is
information 1-7 stated? There is one statement that
you do not need.
1 W h a t w ou ld have happened if Rosa hadn't protested.
2 W h e re African Am ericans could sit on buses.
her w ay home to help with a NAACP* youth meeting.
There w ere a lot of people at the bus stop that
evening, so Rosa did some shopping, then caught the
next bus home. Luckily, she found a seat at the back,
but after a few stops, more passengers got on, so the
driver told Rosa to stand up. W hy? Because the new
passengers were white and Rosa was black. African
Americans could only sit on the back seats of the bus
3 H o w Martin Luther King reacted to violence.
and when the bus was full, they had to give up their
4 H o w the driver on Rosa's bus felt.
seats to white people.
5 W h y Rosa adm ired Martin Luther King.
In the 1950s, African Americans were treated like
6 H o w Rosa's actions im proved everyday life for African
second-class citizens. Segregation laws separated
7 H o w people show ed their support for Rosa.
people of different races and m eant that inequality
was present everywhere - on buses, in restaurants,
in cinem as and in shops. Even schools were divided
SPEAKING Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.
up according to the colour of people’s skin. Back
1 If you had been in the same situation as Rosa Parks
on the bus, the driver shouted at Rosa to stand up
on that bus, w h at w ou ld you have said and done?
2 W h ich present-day issues w ould you like to protest
abou t? W h y ? W h at w ould you do?
again. She wasn’t tired and her feet didn’t hurt, but
she didn’t move. By now, the driver was furious and
told Rosa he would get the police. ‘You may go and
do so,’ she calm ly replied. The police arrived and
P I Conflict
Rosa was arrested. ' She must have felt humiliated
as she was driven to jail, but she didn’t back down.
Read the text. Then replace the words and phrases
in italics with the correct form of the highlighted
words in the article about Rosa Parks.
She didn’t know it at the time, but her simple act of
opposition would change the course of history and
end segregation in America.
Martin Luther King was an American clergyman,
Nobel Peace Prize winner and one of the most
famous leaders of the civil rights movement.
Dr King first achieved national fame when
he helped people organize a 1re fu s a l to
u se a p r o d u c t o r s e r v ic e in Montgomery
in 1955. People refused to use the buses
in support of Rosa Parks. After his success
in Montgomery, he went on to organize
a 2p u b lic p r o t e s t a g a in st s o m e th in g in
Birmingham, Alabama, where there was violent
Resistance to the black civil rights movement. Civil
rights protesters received 4w a rn in g s o f an in te n tio n to
h u rt s o m e o n e and some were attacked. Dr King was arrested,
although the protest was non-violent.
Dr King carried on the 5d iffic u lt fig h t against 6th e tre a tm e n t o f
o n e g ro u p o f p e o p le w o r s e than o th e r s b e c a u s e th e y a re d iffe r e n t
and joined a huge civil rights 7w a lk to p r o t e s t a g a in st s o m e th in g
in Washington. It was there, in August 1963, that he delivered
his famous T have a dream' speech. In his speech, he predicted a
day when social 8u n fa irn e ss would end, and freedom and equality
would become a reality for everyone in America. Unfortunately,
he didn't live to see that day. On 4 April 1968, Martin Luther King
was assassinated during a visit to Memphis, Tennessee.
Speculating about the past
The next day, news of Rosa’s arrest spread rapidly
and use other means of transport. They wanted
6 Study sentences 1-4 in the article about Rosa Parks.
Then answer questions 1-3 and complete rules a-c.
the bus com pany to stop discrimination against
1 W h ich sentence talks about things w e are certain
through the city. People decided to boycott the buses
black passengers. In fact, 75% of the bus company's
happened in the past?
2 W h ich sentence talks about things w e are certain did
passengers were African Americans, so surely they
not happen in the past?
would listen? They didn't, so on Monday 5 December,
3 W h ich sentences talk about things w e are not sure
thousands of people walked, shared cars, rode bicycles
happened in the past?
and even rode mules to get to work. 2lt can’t have been
easy but everyone was united in a common struggle.
a W e use
In the end, the boycott lasted 381 days. During that
it have it past
participle to talk about things w e are certain
time, protestors received threatening phone calls and
happened in the past.
homes were vandalized. A young pastor at the local
church called Martin Luther King led the boycott and
W e u s e .................................. it have + past
participle to talk about things that w e are certain
his hom e was attacked, too. People were ready to
did not happen in the past.
fight back, but Dr King made them stop and think.
c W e u s e ..................................o r ..................................
‘We cannot solve this problem with violence,' he
+ have it past participle to talk about things w e are
said. ‘W e must meet violence with non-violence.' The
not sure happened in the past.
attacks and threats failed to scare off supporters. In
fact, they united people and taught everyone the
Reference and practice 8.3
W orkbook page 119
value of peaceful opposition.
Then, finally, on 13 November 1956, the Supreme Court
Look at the photo. Then answer the questions using
the modal verbs in exercise 6.
ruled that segregation on buses in Alabama was illegal.
The next day, Rosa Parks, along with Martin Luther
King, got on a city bus. Proudly, she took a seat right at
the front. Rosa had shown how one person's decision
could make a huge difference. She showed that civil
disobedience was a powerful way to protest and she
inspired the civil rights movement. Across America, more
and more people took part in public demonstrations
and went on marches. Now they were fighting against
segregation and injustice in all areas of society.
‘When I declined to give up my seat, it was not
because of that day or bus in particular,’ Rosa said
1 Do you think this took place recently? W h y / w h y not?
2 In w hich country did this happen? H ow do you
later. T just wanted to be free, like everybody else.’
But what would have happened if Rosa Parks hadn’t
refused to stand up on the bus that day? 3Another
3 W h a t could have happened to cause this situation?
African American passenger might have done the
same soon afterwards. On the other hand, they might
5 W h a t m ight have happened afterwards? W h y ?
not have. Without Rosa’s brave protest, 4searegation
could have lasted for longer than it d id .
H o w do you think th e students must have felt?
2.17 Listen to the recording and compare your
ideas in exercise 7.
SPEAKING Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.
1 Could you have d o n e w h at the Little Rock Nine did?
W h y / w h y not?
2 At that time, w h at could teenagers have d on e to help
to end segregation and discrimination? Discuss the
ideas b elow and your ow n ideas.
boycott school
civil disobedience (school sit-ins)
3 Do you think a situation like the on e in Little Rock
could ever have happened in your cou n try? W h y /
w h y not?
* NAACP = The National Association for the Advancement
of Colored People, founded in 1909
Vocabulary bank
DVD extra
Conflict: phrasal verbs page 141
8 E ■ W riting A covering letter
G u ildford L ibrary h a s a s u m m e r vacancy
National Su m m e r Cam p is looking for
young, enthusiastic people to help with
teaching, food preparation and evening
entertainm ent a t our su m m er cam ps
for seven- to fourteen-year-olds.
for a h a rd -w o rk in g s tu d e n t w ho has
W e a re looking for people who:
★ enjoy working with children
★ have experience in teaching sports,
a rts and crafts or music.
• d e a lin g w ith c u s to m e r e n q u irie s a n d
excellen t IT skills a n d is o rg an iz ed a n d
efficient. D aily tasks w ill inclu d e:
• so rtin g boo k s
h e lp in g to p ro m o te th e lib rary
• sc a n n in g a n d filing d o c u m e n ts.
1 SPEAKING Read the job advertisements and answer the questions.
1 W h ich job:
requires com puter skills?
b expects candidates to help in educational activities?
c will probably be m ainly outdoors?
d will probably be m ainly indoors?
2 W h ich job w ou ld you prefer to d o?
A void ing g en eral statem en ts
A covering letter for a job application should include detailed information which is relevant to
the employer and the job.
1 Use facts, dates and numbers.
/Ve g o t a tennis co achin g qualification.
—» In July 2.01Z, I received a Level 2 tennis coaching certificate.
2 Avoid quantifiers, like som e, a lo t of, m any . . . .
d id som e work in a shop.
—►I worked for Hegarty's Pie Place for three months in ZOli.
3 Give specific exam ples o f h ow your experience and skills m atch the employer's requirements.
I'm hard-working a n d reliable.
—>I had the opportunity to develop my customer service skills during my work experience with Pocket
Records in August.
Read the strategy and the covering letter. Find examples of 1-3 in the strategy in the
covering letter.
Rewrite the general sentences using your own ideas. Add details and specific examples.
1 I worked for a children’s after-school club.
2 I'm efficient and organized.
3 I like working w ith animals.
4 I've got a sw im m ing qualification.
5 Last year I did a com puter course.
6 I passed a few exams at school.
Read the covering letter again. Then match headings 1-5 to parts of the letter A-E.
1 Achievem ents
2 W h y you are writing
3 Experience
4 Signing off formally
5 W h a t you are doing now
Dear Ms Frank,
Re: Library Assistant position
I am writing to apply for the above post, which was advertised in yesterday's D a ily
R eview . Please find my CV enclosed.
I am currently studying English and Drama af Walworth Sixth Form and feel fhat my
love of books and literature would make me a very good candidate for this job.
As you will see from my CV, I achieved excellent grades in my GCSE exams, and
also received the ECDL computer certificate in May 2013. Furthermore, for the last
two years, I have held the role of library assistant at my school and have gained
some useful experience in sorting books. In this role, I have also developed an
online catalogue and coordinated training for the students.
Last year, as part of my work experience at the local sports centre, I advised
customers about fhe services there and assisted with filing and scanning documents.
I also designed a new leaflet for the centre advertising its tennis coaching scheme,
and arranged an Open Day for new customers. This experience has given me a good
understanding of dealing with customers and helping to promote services.
I am available for interview immediately and look forward to hearing from you.
Yours sincerely,
Jonathan Bartholomew
Action verbs
Study the highlighted verbs in the covering letter. Match them to meanings 1-3.
1 helped:
2 created:
3 organized:
6 Choose the correct answers.
1 During th e holidays, I organized / d e v e lo p e d several activities for children in the local park.
Last summer, I h elp ed / coo rd in ated th e m anager w ith handing ou t leaflets around town.
3 W e created / assisted custom ers with enquiries about the course.
4 As part o f m y coursework, I d esig ned / advised a n e w schem e for attracting tourists to the shop.
5 W h ile I was at school, I assisted / d e v e lo p e d an international exchange program m e b etw een our
school and a school in Spain.
6 In the past, I advised / arran g ed several training sessions for students at m y school.
■ Task Write a covering letter in response to the
advert for a Summer Camp Counsellor.
Paragraph 4: M ention any other experience from
school, part-time w ork or voluntary work
w hich m ight be relevant to the job.
■ Ideas Make notes about:
Paragraph 5: Request an interview and say w h e n you
■ the qualifications you have.
are available.
■ the experience you can offer.
■ w h y you w an t this job.
Write Write your covering letter. Use the paragraph
plan to help you.
■ Plan Follow the plan:
Paragraph 1: Explain w here you saw the job
advertisem ent and m ention that you are
attaching yourCV.
Paragraph 2: Give reasons for your interest in this job /
com pany.
Paragraph 3: Refer the em ployer to specific
information in your CV and show how
Check Check the following points:
■ Have you used a clear paragraph structure and
■ Have you used a variety of action verbs and avoided
general statem ents?
■ Have you checked grammar, vocabulary, spelling and
this relates to the job.
V o c a b u l a r y in s ig h t 8 U s in g a d i c t i o n a r y : id io m s
Work in pairs. Study the highlighted idioms in the
extract from the text on page 95. Are they the same
in your own language?
stand on your own (two) feet to take care of your­
self without help; to be independent
under your feet in the way; stopping you from
working, etc: Would somebody get these children
out from under my feet and take them to the park?
Luckily for Sean, an instructor took time out to show him the
ropes. That and his positive attitude helped him to rise to the
challenge and by Friday, he was ready to teach the class.
1 If you have som ething under your feet, there's
som ething in your way.
2 W h e n you put your foot down, you relax.
3 If you get off on the right foot with somebody, you
start your relationship in a g oo d way.
4 W h e n you stand on your own two feet, you're
Finding idioms in a dictionary
An idiom is a phrase w ith an overall m eaning that is
5 W h e n you're rushed off your feet, you’re very busy.
different from the m eanings of the individual words in it.
6 If you land on your feet, you get yourself out of a
Dictionaries do not always put idioms in the same place,
difficult situation.
so you need to read the introduction to your dictionary
7 W h e n you put your feet up, you say that som ething
to find ou t w here th ey are. In the O xford Wordpower
shouldn't happen.
Dictionary, idioms are explained after the symbol nan.
W h en you w an t to find an idiom in a dictionary, search
for it under the first meaningful w ord in the idiom (verb,
5 Complete the sentences with the correct forms of
the idioms in exercise 3.
1 I w as so tired w hen I got home, I just w anted to
noun, adjective, etc.). If there is a very co m m o n verb in
the idiom {be, have, go, start, etc.), you m ight have to
2 After looking for a jo b for so long, I finally
search for it under the second m eaningful word.
w h e n I g ot this one.
3 I don’t think m y boss likes m e - w e didn't
Read the strategy above. Which word in each idiom
in exercise 1 would you look up in a dictionary to
find the meaning of the idiom? Use a dictionary to
check your answers.
w h e n I first joined th e com pany.
4 I'm really
these days. There's so m uch
to do - I have no tim e to sit d o w n and relax.
5 It's tim e you m oved out o f your parents' house and
You need to be more independent.
Read the idioms below. Underline the word that you
would look up in a dictionary to find the meaning of
each idiom.
1 be rushed off your feet
6 Our boss has
2 fa ll/la n d on your feet
3 g et off on the w rong foot (with som ebody)
4 put your feet up
Find the idioms below in a dictionary. Then use
the idioms to rewrite the underlined parts of the
sentences. Make any other changes if necessary.
on end
5 put your foot dow n
at a loose end
com e to an end
6 stand on your o w n tw o feet
and says w e can’t make
personal phone calls at work.
make ends meet
in the end
at the end of your tether
1 I've been w aiting so long to hear if I got the
7 under your feet
scholarship - I can't deal w ith it an y m ore.
4 Study the dictionary entries for idioms with fo o t.
Are the sentences true (T) or false (F)? Correct the
false ones.
3 W h e n m y grandparents w ere young, they didn't have
ˈ£ fo o t1/fot/ noun (pi feet /fi:t/)
m uch m oney and found it difficult to b u v th e things
llrMI be rushed/run off your feet to be extremely
busy; to have too many things to do: Over Christmas
we were rushed off our feet at work.
fall/land on your feet to be lucky in finding your­
self in a good situation, or in getting out of a difficult
situation: / realty landed on my feet getting such a
good job with so little experience.
2 She keeps talking about her n e w jo b all the tim e.
they n eed ed .
4 I regret not going to university after school. I n ow
have nothing to d o .
get/start off on the right/wrong foot (with sb) I
(informal) to start a relationship well/badly: I seem to
_ have got off on the wrong foot with the new boss. _ I
put your feet up to sit down and relax, especially
with your feet off the floor and supported: I'm so
5 After applying to m any colleges, she finally got a
place in the on e she w anted to attend the most.
6 Her career as a singer is about to finish.
tired that i just want to go home and put my feet up.
put your foot down ( informal) to say firmly that sth
must (not) happen: I put my foot down and told
Andy he couldn't use our car any more.
104 Vocabulary insight 8
Dictionary entries from Oxford Wordpower Dictionary, 4th edition
Review 8
Complete the text with the correct adjective form of
the words below.
glam our
Rewrite the sentences using the third conditional.
1 Mark Zuckerberg did w ell at school, so he w e n t to
If ............................. , h e ..............................to university.
2 The university didn't have a social networking site, so
I n my d re a m future, I 'd love to b e eith er a
Hollywood a ctress, o r a wealthy, high2
businesswoman I w a n t to do 3
work, trying d iffe re n t things every week A jab
th a t's q u ite 4
is OK, but n o t so difficult
t h a t it becom es 5
. But on th e o th e r hand,
I also d on't w a n t to do anything t h a t ’s so
it's boring Sounds easy, doesn’t it?
Mark invented one.
M a rk .........................................a social netw orking site
3 Facem ash wasn't a success because the university
didn't approve of it.
If ...............................o f it, Fa ce m a sh ................................
a success.
4 Mark invented Thefacebook because he wasn't happy
w ith the university's decision.
M a rk ............................ Thefacebook if .............................
th e university's decision.
5 Thefacebook becam e so popular that thousands of
Complete the idioms with one word in each gap.
Harvard students joined it.
1 'Is it your first d ay in the office? W ow , you've been
throw n in at the
end, haven't you?'
2 'Don't worry, I'll
............ .thousands o f Harvard students
you the ropes and explain
6 Facebook op en ed to the public in 2006, becom ing the
w h at to do.'
biggest social networking site in the world.
3 'Let’s start t h e .............. rolling. You organize these
If ................................in 2006, it ................................. the
files, w hile I make coffee.'
biggest social networking site in the world
4 'More work. I know it's hard, but I'm sure you'll
to the challenge.'
5 'I've got a
on m y plate at th e m om ent. Could
you d o m y paperwork, too?'
6 Tm going to
m y feet u p for a break. Training
you has tired m e out!'
6 Imagine you are Mark Zuckerberg's former college
friend. Express the ideas in brackets as wishes or
regrets using / w ish or I f o n ly .
1 (I didn't invent Facebook.) I .............................................
2 (I don't have as m uch m oney as Mark.) If.........................
3 (I w ork in a boring office job.) If ......................................
Complete the text with one word in each gap.
4 (I didn't work hard at university.). I .................................
5 (I spent most of m y tim e socializing.) If .........................
My mid-morning coffee can be very inspiring! At ıı
6 (I'm not a com puter genius.) I ........................................
a.m. today 1 1
7 (I thought programming was boring.) If
up with a brilliant scheme to
8 (I laughed at Mark.) If .......................................................
raise more money for the charity, but then 1had second
and changed my
9 (Mark and I aren't friends today.) I ..................................
.1 then dreamed
10 (I'm addicted to Facebook now!) If ................................
several more great ideas, but it was so hard to
choose. 1 couldn't
up my mind! My boss liked
my original plan best, so now we're going 6
that. And now l need another coffee ...
Complete the sentences with one of the modal verbs
in brackets and the correct form of the verbs below.
■ struggle
dem onstration
1 S h e .................................... terrible w hen she failed her
the bus.'
(can't /m ig h t)
3 'I saw him yesterday."You.................................... him.
He’s still in Tokyo!' (must / can't)
W e must end prejudice and racial.............
4 Y o u .................................... th e tim e of your life in
Protesters held a n o isy............inside the tow n hall.
Africa. I'm jealous! (m ight / must)
'You’ll be arrested!"ls that a ............ ?'
5 'W h y didn’t he co m e to m y party?"H e
o f th e unethical
.................................. about it. He never misses a
5 The animal rights
kn ow
2 'W h y is she late?''She
W e took part in a
exam, that's for sure, (must / may)
Complete the sentences with the words below.
party!’ (ca n 't/m u st)
was four kilometres long.
6 We're fighting for equal rights, but it's a
Pronunciation insight 8 Workbook page 127
Review 8 105
Cumulative review Units 1-8
3 W h y w as Mellie a concern for m useum staff?
a She tried to touch the exhibits.
2.18 Read the advertisement. Then listen to
four extracts from job interviews. Make short notes
of all the key words and ideas you hear.
b Staff didn't trust her to ob ey the rules,
c Other visitors tried to cop y her behaviour,
d She took part in an organized protest.
4 W h a t does M ellie tell us about the N e w York
Scope, the biggest disability charity in the UK, is
m useum ?
looking for volunteers to raise funds, help to organize
a It has copied ideas from other museums,
campaigns and deal with enquiries. Could this be you?
b It doesn't offer any printed literature for the blind,
c There's a special exhibition featuring touch and
Listen again. Match speakers 1-4 to options
A-E. There is one option that you do not need.
d Visitors m ay touch any object in the museum.
5 W h a t d o w e learn about Art Education for the Blind?
a Its main focus is to organize protests.
W hich speaker:
b It teaches blind people how to paint,
A has a disability?..................
B enjoys telephone w o rk ? ..................
c Volunteers cooperate w ith m useum staff,
d It doesn't give any m oney to others.
C had second thoughts about applying?
D has had previous experience of volunteering?
E hopes that the w ork w on't be repetitive?
Work in pairs. Tell each other what your dream job is
and why.
In pairs, take it in turns to interview each other for
your dream job. The interviewer should ask at least
three questions. Use the ideas below or your own
Let's begin by ...
I'd like to ask you a b o u t ...
W o uld you mind telling m e ... ?
Student B: job applicant
w ou ld describe myself a s ...
■ A goo d exam ple o f this i s ...
As far as I'm concerned, I'd be the ideal candidate for
this jo b because ...
Read the blog and choose the correct answers.
1 W h at does Mellie tell us about disabled m useum
visitors in the first paragraph?
a M any people find th e appearance of disabled
visitors in m useum s shocking,
b Access to m useum s is still very poor for people
w ith all kinds o f disabilities,
c Access is generally excellent for people w ith
hearing problems.
d People w h o can't see well are n o w visiting
m useum s more frequently.
2 W h a t happened w h e n Mellie w e n t into a m useum in
Los Angeles?
a The em ployees w ere alarmed,
b She got lost.
c Assistants refused to help her.
artist and blogger. She also happens to be
M onday 11 A p ril
Museums for the blind
listen now
Student A: interviewer
About Me: Mellie Vickers is a history-lover,
The greater part of the population may view, enjoy,
or even be shocked by museum exhibits whenever
they choose. For disabled visitors, it can be more
difficult. Nevertheless, facilities for wheelchair
users have greatly improved in recent years, and
tours for the deaf are now more widely available
(although we still have some way to go). However,
the treatment of blind and partially-sighted people
lags far behind, despite growing admission figures
from this minority group.
Last Saturday I visited a museum in Los Angeles. I
sensed an air of panic among the staff as soon as
they noticed my white stick. One even asked me if I
was lost! Don’t get me wrong, the curators couldn’t
have been more courteous in assisting me with
directions, but I got the impression that I shouldn’t
really have been there. I wasn’t so much a valued
guest as a potential problem.
I’m not unsympathetic to their concerns. After all,
the first law of most museums is ‘Don’t Touch’! I
can barely see more than a few centimetres in front
of me, so I have to peer closely at displays. But
each time I did so, an assistant waited anxiously
behind me, terrified that I might commit an act
of disobedience, or perhaps set some sort of
bad example to other museum-goers (neither
happened!). I soon felt so uncomfortable that I left boycotting the gift shop in an ineffectual protest!
d She w as asked to leave.
106 Cumulative review Units 1-8
Literature insight 4 W orkbook page 90
Complete the second sentence so that it has a
similar meaning to the first sentence. Write between
three and five words, including the given word. Do
not change the given word.
1 W elco m ing disabled visitors w ould be a g oo d idea for
all museums, (ought)
All m useu m s..................................................... disabled
2 'W h a t skills can you offer u s?'th ey asked me. (I)
They asked m e w h at s k ills..............................................
3 I regret not volunteering last year, (wish)
I .......................................................................... last year.
4 Giving up w as an option I chose not to take, (could)
I ........................................................., but I chose not to.
5 Thousands o f people visit the m useum every year,
....................................................... thousands o f people
every year
6 I started volunteering in 2011. (volunteer)
I'v e ..............................................................................2011.
I leave college at the end o f July, (will)
By August,...........................................................college.
8 'You've show n lots o f com m itm ent,’ m y em ployer said
to me. (I)
M y em ployer t o ld .............................................................
lots of com m itm ent.
9 I'm passionate about transforming people's lives,
I really w a n t ....................................................................
to people's lives.
10 I hope to hear from you soon, (look)
It doesn't have to be this way. I wish more
m useum s could be like the Metropolitan Museum
of Ait in N ew York. Not only is there a choice
of Braille guides to read, but there's an utterly
unm issable ‘Touch Collection'. This allows you
to explore objects using your fingers, while
sim ultaneously listening to detailed descriptions.
I ............................................................... from you soon.
Read the job advertisement. Then write a covering
letter in response to the advertisement.
Of course, more fragile items have to be excluded
from the programme, but even so, the range is
I’d like to visit m o re m useum s like this! Do any of
my blog visitors have any recom m endations?
The British Museum,
W e are looking for summer volunteers to welcom e
and assist international visitors. W e will provide free
Thanks for an interesting post, Mellie. I’m sorry
to hear about your experience in Los Angeles
You might be interested in a charity I volunteer
accommodation. Please apply to the manager,
Mr Bolton, including the following information:
• W h y are you interested in applying?
for: Art Education for the Blind. Rather than
protesting against discrimination, w e usually try
• Do you have any useful experience?
to work with m useum s to develop educational
• W hat languages have you studied? Do you have
programmes for people with sight disabilities.
W e also support visually-impaired artists who
any other useful skills?
• W hen will you be available in the summer?
want to exhibit, although w e ’re unable to offer
as much financial aid as w e ’d like. If you're
interested, I'll send details!
B ru n o D a viz, 12 A p ril
Exam insight 4 W orkbook page 100
Cumulative review Units 1-8 107
Digital humans
Reading and vo cab u lary A day in th e life
SPEAKING Imagine you are sitting next to a
stranger on a train. Discuss the things you might
show them or talk to them about.
m personal photos ■ personal text messages
your age
w here you live
w h o your friends are
w hat you are interested in
w h at you w ere doing
last weekend
A s part o f o u r week on d ig ita l hum ans, we
a sk ed teenager Issy T y le r to keep a ‘d ig ita l’
SPEAKING Discuss the questions. Then read the
article from a science magazine and compare your
1 W h at are th e advantages and disadvantages of
sharing information on a social m edia w ebsite?
2 Is it easier to be mean to people in the digital w orld?
Complete the article with sentences A-G. There is
one sentence that you do not need.
A I didn't kn ow on e of them , but that's w h y Facebook is
so exciting.
diary. P sy ch o lo g ist Mia Graham an a lysed
the resu lts.
7.30 a.m.
I’m usually on Facebook first thing and today was
no different. I actually logged in w hile I w as still
in bed, ju st to see w hat m y friends had posted
the night before and to catch up w ith the gossip.
O ve r breakfast, I did a status update and within
thirty m inutes, I had five likes and tw o com m ents.
Nothing special about that - it w as ju st another
ordinary day.
B Issy enjoys being part o fa com m unity.
C I talked to m y friend about the nasty com m en t and
she apologized.
D However, friends can com prom ise this im age by
tagging you in photos, saying w here you've been or
w h at you've said.
E He left his m obile in class today and I found it.
F Issy did th e right thing w hen she deleted the
com m ent.
G I looked absolutely awful so I clicked 'untag'.
insight P h ra s a l ve rb s : re la tio n s h ip s
Mia: It’s natural and hum an to share experiences
and open up to people. 1
. She likes it when
people from this com m unity com m ent on her
8.45 a.m.
On the school bus, I noticed that I’d been tagged
in a picture. 2.............It’s stressed me out, so
I’m currently checking the latest updates again.
Hopefully, no one realized it w as me!
Mia: On Facebook, Issy is alw ays on disp lay and
she feels the pressure to consistently Took good’.
Study the highlighted phrasal verbs in the text.
In a recent survey, 41% o f teens said their online
T h e n re p la c e th e p h ra ses in italics w ith th e co rrect
im age w as extrem ely im portant, consequently, they
form of the phrasal verbs.
made an effort to look ‘cooler than th ey really are’.
1 Jo h n hasn't returned to his usual se lf after our
argum ent. He refuses to be friends with me.
2 W h e n e ve r Peter w as bullied at school, he usually lost
control o f his feelings and cried.
3 I called an old friend today and w e brought each other
up-to-date on our news. W e hadn't spoken to each
other for a while.
4 W e unexpectedly m et our teacher w hile w e w ere
walking around the museum.
5 Isabel is very shy. She doesn't usually talk freely about
her feelings.
6 You should always su pp ort a n d defend your friends
w h e n som eone is m ean to them.
7 W h e n Ciaran m et m y sister, th ey liked each other
immediately. They w ere both obsessed w ith W orld of
8 People w h o are horrible o r nasty to other people are
called bullies.
Digital humans
. You might not like it, but you can’t stop
friends sharing inform ation about you.
Vocabulary: phrasal verbs: relationships; words often confused;
describing gadgets: words with more than one meaning
Grammar: defining and non-defining relative clauses; introductory It
Speaking: discussing social media; analyzing real life and online life; asking
for instructions, explanations and clarification
Writing: a for and against essay
insight Words often confused
5 Study the underlined words in the text. Then match
each word in 1-5 to definitions a-b.
1 actu ally/cu rrently
4 sym p athetic/friend ly
a happily
a really, in fact
b at the present time,
com m unicating
at the m om ent
w ith som eone
b show ing that
a final, com ing after
you understand
people's feelings
all others
b the most recent
and feeling sorry
3 co n seq u ently/
for them
5 even tu ally/p o ssib ly
12.30 p.m.
a as a result, because
At lunchtim e, a friend posted quite a nasty
b in the end, finally
of this
com m ent about ano th er friend on m y profile. The
a perhaps, m aybe
b regularly, constantly
tw o girls recently had a row, but th ey need to get
over it and make up w ith each other. I deleted the
com m ent because I don’t w an t to get involved.
Choose the correct answers.
1 It took a long time, but I eventually / possibly
Mia: It's easy to pick on people in the digital world.
uploaded a video on m y Facebook page.
Cyberhullies can post an unflattering picture or a
nasty com m ent and reach a wide audience. And in
Issy had a n e w friend request today. She didn't
actually / currently know w h o the person was.
an online world, you can't see people break down in
3 I know how the victims of cyberbullies feel. I was bullied
myself at school, so I am totally sym pathetic /friendly.
tears. As a result, you're less sym pathetic and less
likely to stick up for them. 4
4 W e w aited a long tim e for Max. H e w as the last /
5.30 p.m.
latest person to arrive.
5 Beth did consequently / consistently w ell in class, so
At hom e, I w rote a post about a boy I quite like.
5............. It w as nice to talk to him, he w as friendly
everyone w as surprised w h e n she failed her exam.
and w e had a lot in com m on - w e really hit it off!
6 Last week, w e learned about com puter program m ing
and w e are actually / currently studying the
Mia: Like so m any of us, Issy shares intimate details
problems of privacy on Facebook.
of her life online. The problem is, these details stay
7 I get the last / latest stories in m y newsfeed on
on the web forever and are easy to dig up again. In a
recent survey, 40% of teens said they were concerned
8 M y sister forgot to post th e party invitation on
about who was view ing their online activities.
T h ey also worried about how these activities might
Facebook. Consequently / Consistently, no one
eventually be perceived by parents, teachers, future
turned up.
9 Troy was sym pathetic / friendly and pleasant, but he
em ployers or their peers. T h ey are right to be
wasn't a good friend w hen it really mattered.
concerned about who is watching. The internet never
10 Are you playing football this w eekend? Eventually /
forgets, so Issy needs to think before she posts.
Possibly, unless it rains.
11.00 p.m.
My last status update before I go to bed and I had
tw o friend requests, w hich I accepted. 6
SPEAKING Discuss the questions.
can chat with people w ho you possibly w ouldn't
run into in yo u r everyd a y life and you can contact
people w ho you haven't seen for years ...
Mia: Issy's right - it's good to talk, but she needs to
Have you got a social m edia account? H o w often do
you use it? W h at do you actually use it for?
Do you think everyone will eventually have a social
media account? W h y / w h y not?
3 In the future, will w e possibly be interacting more
be extrem ely careful about who she talks to. The
w ith m achines than w ith people? W h at effect might
average teen has 237 ‘friends', however, th ey have
this have?
talked to only a fraction o f these people in real life.
Essen tially it's a question o f trust, so before you
Vocabulary bank
Technology page 142
accept a friend request, consider this: w ho is this
person and do I really w an t them to read m y posts?
Don't forget, there are people behind the machines.
Digital humans
9 B ■ G r a m m a r a n d lis t e n in g
F r ie n d s h ip s n o w a n d th e n
SPEAKING Look at the photo of two friends, Maggie and Tessa. Answer the questions.
Then read the text and check your answers.
1 W h ere are th e w o m e n from?
2 H o w did they m eet?
3 H o w long have they known each other?
4 H o w d o th ey usually com m unicate?
T e &
s d :
a, la#ti4tg jrLenJvUviyp
We live in a w orld w here instant com m unication is
possible. W ith access to the internet, we can make
friendships w ith people thousands of miles away. But
Maggie and Tessa, now b oth in their seventies, form ed
their long-distance friendship nearly sixty years ago,
using only pen and paper.
'M aggie was an English girl w ho
“ h er w hen they
A m erican girl w ho
first letter from Tessa,' explains Maggie. ‘I joined
r p e n 1pal d u b w hich was set up to encourage f
Maggie and Tessa w q u ,o each g , e r for
came to England on a family holiday an ^
“ X ever
(his tall biorK)e w om an w hose eyes were
proper letters!' laughs Tessa. ‘They keep in touch on Facebook.
Defining relative clauses
Study sentences 1-3 and the highlighted relative pronouns in the text. Complete rules a-e.
The underlined clauses are defining relative clauses. They com e im m ediately after a noun and they
give essential information about the noun. Relative pronouns introduce the clause.
We use:
or that for people.
b .................................... o r .................................................. for things.
for possessions,
for places,
for time.
Study sentences 1 and 3 in the text again and answer the questions.
1 In w hich sentence is the relative pronoun the subject o f the verb in th e relative clause and in
w hich is it the object of the verb?
2 In w hich sentence can w e leave out the relative pronoun? W h y?
Reference and practice 9.1
W orkbook page 120
Read the text again and find more examples of defining relative clauses.
Digital humans
5 Complete the text with relative pronouns.
Although m any people use email to
are interested in the program m e can register
com m unicate long distance, there are still some
their class on the database. S tu d e n ts7
traditional penfriend organizations1
apply for details of possible penfriends also
popular around the world. O ne of the biggest
receive a g u id e 8
shows them h o w to
and best known is the Student Letter Exchange,
w rite letters and also gives advice and ideas,
w hich was started in 1936. The Exchange is a
penfriend projects and postage rates.
p ro g ram m e 2............links 500,000 students in
over 100 countries. It was first sta rte d 3
a teacher w anted
to encourage his
students to learn more
about other countries
and cultures. It has a
database of students
have registered
with the organization
because they w an t to find
penfriends. Any English-speaking
s tu d e n t5 ..........is aged b etw een
eight and twenty-three years old
can join. Teachers6
Combine the sentences to make one sentence. Use a defining relative clause. Use a pronoun
only where necessary
1 Steph is m y friend. Her fam ily m oved to another country.
Steph is m y frie n d ...................
It w as last year. Her dad got a n e w jo b and th ey all left.
It w as last y e a r ...................
3 In prim ary school in London. W e m et there ten years ago.
It w as in prim ary sc h o o l...................
4 W e were both six years old. Our teacher introduced us.
They w ere both six years o ld ...................
5 These are the emails. W e w rite them to each other.
These are the e m a ils ..................
6 Email is the main form of com m unication. It helps us to stay in touch.
Email is the main form of c o m m u n ica tio n ...................
Listen to a radio programme and match 1-8 to a-h. Then make full sentences with
w ho, w ho se, w hich, th a t o r w here.
are specifically about corn snakes,
3 Screen Friends is a novel
4 Are w e losing the friends
5 W e have another place
6 I can find three or four websites
w e kn ow in real life?
7 N o w I'm talking to people
g is about an online friendship,
h w e m eet online?
1 Can w e trust the people
2 Julia Price is a psychologist
8 That's som ething
interests are th e same as mine,
w e can m eet n e w people,
w ou ld be very difficult to d o in real life,
has just written Screen Friends,
SPEAKING Work in groups. Discuss the questions.
1 H o w m any online friends have you g ot? H o w did you m eet them ?
H o w m any real friends have you g ot? H ow did you m eet them ?
3 Do your online friends know you as w ell as your real friends?
4 Is your personality the same w hen you are online and w hen you talk to friends face-to-face?
W h y / w h y not?
Digital humans
9 C ■ Listening, speaking and vocabulary Can't live w ith o u t...
SPEAKING Look at the photos and put them in order from 1-5 (1 = most important in your
life, 5 = least important). Then work in small groups and compare your ideas.
2.20 Listen to four people talking about their favourite gadgets. Match the speakers to
the gadgets A-E in exercise 1. Which gadget is not mentioned?
Listen again and answer the questions.
1 W h o uses a gadget w hen driving?
2 W h o talks about a friend w h o broke his gadget?
3 W h o talks about the size of a gadget?
.........., .............
4 W h o says that a gadg et is not very n ew ?
5 W h o uses a gadget to help with their coursework?
6 W h o makes calls with a gadget?
Speakers ........... , .............
7 W h o talks about accessories for a gadget?
Speakers ........... , .............., ............
8 W h o talks about the cost of a gadget?
1 1 Describing gadgets
4 Which gadgets in exercise 1 are sentences 1-7 about? What other gadgets could they describe?
1 It's extremely convenient and easy to use.
2 It w as very expensive, actually, so I'm careful w ith it.
3 I used to have a walkm an, but that's so out-of-date now.
4 It's a really old car, w ith just an inexpensive radio.
5 M y favourite gadget is so efficient - it does everything and it's really fast.
6 It’s a bit fragile, but I bought a durable cover, so I'm not w orried that som ething will happen to it.
7 It's not very reliable n ow and there are all sorts of problem s with it.
SPEAKING Work in pairs. Think of a gadget and describe it to your partner. Use the highlighted
words in exercise 4. Your partner needs to guess the gadget that you are describing.
DVD extra
Asking for instructions, explanations and clarification
6 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Do you always read the
instructions for a new gadget before you use it?
Read opinions 1-4. Which opinions do you agree /
disagree with?
1 1 never read instructions! I prefer to experim ent and
try out lots o f different things. If you're careful, you
won't d o any dam age and you'll learn a lot about
your n e w gadget.’
2 1 usually read the most basic instructions - the
'Quick Set-up' page that com es with most new
gadgets. After that, I w ork stuff ou t for myself.'
3 'If I have a problem, I don't read the manual; I
usually go online and d o a search. It’s quicker!'
4 1 always read all the instructions before I
start to use something. It takes time, but
afterwards I know exactly w h at I'm doing!’
Digital humans
Listen to the dialogue and answer the questions.
W h y is the w om an phoning the helpline?
W h ich button does the w om an press first?
W h at does the 'hom e' button look like?
W h at does the helpline advisor tell the w om an to d o w ith the icons on th e screen?
W h y is there nothing on the phone screen?
Complete the phrases from the dialogue. Then listen again and check.
Asking for instructions
H o w do I 1
Giving clarification
Let m e 6
H o w does it w ork?
W h at I m ean i s . . . .
W h a t d o I d o next?
Checking that the listener
Giving instructions
Could y o u 2.................................... , please?
N o w 3.................................... the'settings’option.
Do you s e e 7.................................... ?
Is everything clear so far?
First, switch it on.
Then, choose . . . .
Confirming understanding
Asking for repetition or clarification
Right, I've got that.
you, but
again, please?
d o n 't5.................................you.
I'm not quite sure . . . .
I'm sorry, I didn't quite catch that.
2.22 Complete the dialogue with phrases in exercise 8. Then listen and check.
like this camera, but it does look quite com p licated .1....................................................
It's sim ple.2.............................................................. That's the 'on' button there. Then
choose 'autom atic' or 'manual'.
3............................................................. h o w to d o that.
It's this button here. Just turn it to'au to m atic'o r to'manual'.
. I've selected 'manual'.
N o w press th e 'AV' button for th e picture exposure.
You press the 'AV' button for the picture exposure.
Picture exposure?
................... you press the 'AV' button to make th e picture
lighter or darker.7............................................................ ?
Yes, th at’s quite clear, thanks.8
......................... ?
Point the cam era and press the black button on the top.
Well, that's easy. Thank you.
10 Read the dialogue in exercise 9 again and find three more phrases to add to the table in
exercise 8.
SPEAKING Work in pairs. Choose one of the situations and prepare a dialogue.
S itu a tio n 1: Gam es console
Student A (customer)
You have bought a new games console, but
• you can’t see a picture on the TV screen.
• the controller doesn't work.
Student B (helpline advisor)
Check that the customer
. has connected the games console to the TV.
• has put batteries in the controller.
Situation 2: MP3 player
Student A (customer)
You are trying to use your MP3 player, but
• the screen won’t come on.
• there's no sound.
Student B (helpline advisor)
Check that the customer
• has switched the machine on.
• has connected the player to the speakers.
Digital humans
9D ■ Culture, vocabulary and grammar iPeople
2.23 SPEAKING Use the ideas below to
discusss the ways you communicate with friends.
Then read and listen to a 'slam' poem. Which ideas
does the author mention?
text message
posting on Facebook
■ face-to-face talking
instant messaging
■ talking on the phone ■ sending an email
2.23 SPEAKING Read and listen to the poem
again. Then discuss the questions.
1 W h o is the Apple iPerson? W h at does the poet think
has happened to people?
2 W h y does he spend tim e on Facebook rather than
reading or m eeting friends?
3 H o w m any friends has he got in the digital world
and in th e real world?
4 Does the poet think w e have evolved? W h y / w hy
5 In line 42, the poet says 'it's scary'. W h at is he referring
6 W h a t is th e poet's hope for the future?
U n d e rsta n d in g poetry
When you read a poem, notice the techniques the
poet uses.
1 Repeating a key w ord or a phrase.
2 Rhym ing words.
3 Using words with more than on e meaning.
Read the strategy. Then find examples of 1-3 in the
poem. Some words and phrases may be used more
than once.
insight Words with more than one meaning
Study the highlighted words in the poem. Complete
the gaps in 1-3 with the meanings below. Then think
of two meanings for the other highlighted words.
What effect does this word play have?
a round, flat object you put into a com puter
■ to m ake an arrangem ent ■ the front part o f your head
1 face
a ......................................................
b to be opposite som ething, looking at it
2 book
a a w ritten w ork on printed pages
3 disc
b a thing betw een th e bones in your back
SPEAKING What type of poetry is popular with
young people in your country?
114 Digital humans
by Marshall Soulful Jones
Non-defining relative clauses
6 Read the text. What is the difference between slam
poetry and rap music?
Introducing the new Apple iPerson complete with multitouch
doesn't it feel good to touch?
doesn't it feel good to touch?
compatible with your iPod and your iPad
doesn't it feel good to touch?
doesn't it feel good to touch?
no friends, there’s an app for that
no life, there’s an app for that
you’re a complete loser, there's an app for that
doesn't it feel good to touch?
doesn't it feel good to touch?
doesn't it feel good to touch?
my world, my world has become so digital
I have forgotten what that feels like
It was difficult to connect when friends formed cliques*
now it’s even more difficult to connect
now that clicks form friends
But who am I to judge
I face Facebook more than books face me
hoping to book face-to-faces
I update my status 420 spaces
to prove I’m still breathing
failure to do this daily
means my whole web wide world will forget that I exist
but with 3,000 friends online
and only five I can count in real life
why wouldn't I spend more time in a world where there are
more people that ‘like’ me
Wouldn’t you?
You would need Blueray to read what is really me
but I’m not that focused ten tabs open hoping
my problems are resolved with a 1500 by 1600 resolution
provin' we might have missed a step in this evolution
doubted over we used to sit in treetops
till we swung down to stand upright
then someone slipped a disc
now we’re doubled over at desktops from the garden of Eden
to the branches of Macintosh
apple picking has always come at a great cost
iPod iMac iPhone iChat
I can do all of these things without making eye contact
We used to sprint* to pick and store blackberries
now we run to the Sprint store* and pick Blackberries
it’s scary
can’t hear the sound of mother nature speaking over all this
and our ability to feel along with it is fleeting
so when my phone goes off in my hip iTouch and iTouch
and iTouch and iTouch and iTouch because in a world
Where laughter is never heard
And voices are only read
we are so desperate to feel
that we hope our Technologic can reverse* the universe
until the screen touches us back
and maybe one day it will
when our technology is advanced enough ...
to make us human again.
Slam poetry became popular in Chicago in
1986. The first slam poems were performed in
a club called the Greenmill Lounge, ’where jazz
musicians usually played. This poetry, 2which can
be performed by anyone, provided a new w a y for
people to get their message across. It encouraged
ordinary people, 3w ho weren’t used to expressing
themselves publicly, to tell their stories or talk
about social issues. In fact, slam poetry is very
similar to rap. Both are examples o f performance
poetry, 4whose aim is to tell a story. The difference
is that rap uses music, whereas slam poetry relies
on the power o f the spoken word.
Study non-defining relative clauses 1-4 in the text in
exercise 6. Then answer the questions.
Does the text make sense w ithout th e clauses?
2 Do the clauses add essential or extra information?
3 W h e re can the clauses g o in a sentence?
4 W h ich words are used at the beginning of the
5 Can the clauses begin w ith that instead o f w hich ?
Non-defining relative clauses always start w ith a
com m a.
Reference and practice 9.2
W orkbook page 121
8 Combine the sentences to make one sentence. Use a
non-defining relative clause.
1 Marshall Soulful Jon es cam e second in the National
Poetry Slam in Boston. His p oem was about
2 I posted a photo o f m y dog on Facebook. It w as very
3 M y com puter broke dow n. It had all m y friends'
con tact details in it.
4 M y brother Seth w ants to be a famous jazz musician.
He plays the saxophone.
5 W e som etim es go to Jam aica. M y grandparents live
6 That's Cafe Europa. I often m eet m y friends there.
7 M y friend Ja d e writes rap songs. Her sister is in my
Vocabulary bank
Poetry page 142
'cliques = small groups of people with the same interests
•sprint = to run a short distance very quickly
*Sprint store = a mobile phone shop
‘ reverse = to return to what existed before
Digital humans
9 E ■ W riting A for and against essay
1 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Answer the questions.
1 W h e n w as the last tim e that you did the things b elow ?
checked your emails
w rote a le tte r: bought som ething online
looked for information online
looked for information in a book
bought som ething at a shop
read the new s online
read a newspaper
2 Do you switch your phone off w h e n you g o to bed?
3 H o w soon after you w ake up in the m orning do you g o online or ch eck your text messages?
Read the statement. Think of two advantages and two disadvantages of constant
connection. Then read the model essay and see if any of your ideas are mentioned.
With modern technology, we can be connected to the web 24 hours a day.The advantages of
constant connection are greater than the disadvantages. Discuss.
The advotvvfct0es chad disadvcin+ci0es of constant connec-Hon
A W ith sm artphones and com puters, 'it is o fte n said th a t we a re ra re ly m ore th an a fe w m inutes away
fro m our em ails, updates fro m friend s or global and local news. However, 2it could be claimed th a t we
have become too re lia n t on technology. Does th is make our lives b e tte r or m ore stressful? I n th is essay,
I will discuss th e advantages and disadvantages o f being constantly connected.
B One advantage is th a t people can -find im portant inform ation very quickly and they don’t have to go to the
lib rary or read bocks fo r research. Another point is th a t people can buy m any things online. This is useful
fo r people who have mobility problems. 3I t may also be argued th a t people a re sa fe r because they know
th a t they can instantly get help if th ere is an emergency. Furtherm ore, photographs, videos and news can
be shared online, so people can always catch up w ith friend s who live on the other side o f the world.
C However, th ere a re also some disadvantages to constant connection. Firstly, although people can access a
lot of inform ation Online, some Claim th a t the inform ation is o fte n misleading or inaccurate. Anyone can
put inform ation onto a webpage and, as a result, it can be difficult to check the source. Secondly, 4it seems
evident th a t some shops on th e high stre e t are now struggling due to the rise in online shopping. Many
shops a re being closed down. Thirdly, although th ere are people who feel sa fe r because o f mobile phones,
others would argue th a t th ere a re new dangers like cyberbullying. sI t is tru e th a t constant connection
helps us to keep in touch w ith friend s, but it can be very stressful when people expect in stan t responses.
D I n conclusion, I believe th a t although th ere are m any advantages to constant connection, we should also
switch o ff our phones sometimes, walk away fro m our computers and talk to some real people.
Match the descriptions to paragraphs A-D.
1 Conclusion and statem ent o f writer's ow n opinion
2 Introduction of topic
3 Argum ents against the statem ent
4 Argum ents for the statem ent
4 Answer the questions.
1 According to the writer, w h o can benefit from shopping online?
2 H o w can w e m aintain contact with friends w h o live far aw ay?
3 W h y can there be problems with using online information?
4 W h at can make people feel stressed?
5 W h at advice does the author give at the end?
Introductory It
Study sentences 1-5 in the model essay. Then put them into the correct part of the table.
I t + th e passive
I t + the passive (with modal verbs)
I t + is / se e m s + adjective
Digital humans
Rewrite the sentences using the introductory I t and the words in brackets.
1 There is no real privacy in today's world, (said)
2 Com puters are getting smaller, faster and cheaper, (could argue)
3 People have forgotten h o w to think for themselves, (m ay claim)
I he internet has changed the w a y that w e d o our research, (obvious)
5 Students are able to access m ore information about their subject, (clear)
6 Constant connection is a normal part of our lives, (seems evident)
Making your writing neutral
When you write a for and against essay, you should avoid using phrases, like / b e lie v e or / th in k
until the conclusion. You should use impersonal language to express different opinions.
The most common impersonal structures are:
1 Introductory It
2 The passive
3 So m e / O ther people:
Som e p eople claim / believe / s a y . . . .
There are those w ho say th a t . . . .
O ther people (would) argue t h a t . . . .
Read the strategy. Underline examples of impersonal structures in the model essay.
8 Use the strategy to make the sentences more neutral. Use as many different structures as
you can.
1 I think that children should read books rather than play com p u ter games.
2 In m y vie w children's attention spans are getting shorter.
3 I think w e need to change our teaching methods.
4 In m y opinion com puter gam es d evelop im portant skills.
5 I believe that young people’s brains are developing differently.
6 The internet is a ve ry im portant tool in language developm ent.
■ Task Choose one of the statements and write
a for and against essay about it.
1 W e are losing our social skills in real life d ue to the
am ount o f tim e w e spend online. Discuss.
■ Plan Follow the plan:
Paragraph 1: W rite an introduction w ith a clear outline
o f the topic.
Paragraph 2: Present the argum ents in favour o f the
2 M odern tech no logy has m ade life m uch better for
m ost people in th e developed world. Discuss.
■ Ideas Make notes about:
Essay 1
Paragraph 3: Present the argum ents against the
Paragraph 4: W rite a conclusion to the essay. Include
your ow n opinion.
■ the im portance of body language and facial
■ telling the truth online.
■ Write Write your essay. Use the paragraph plan to
help you.
■ ways of sharing our interests with people.
■ ways of finding ou t about different cultures and
Essay 2
■ h o w m odern tech no logy can help people w ith poor
■ the am ount o f free tim e w e have now.
■ the am ount o f stress in our lives.
■ Check Check the following points:
■ Have you used a clear paragraph structure?
■ Have you included all your points for and against the
statem ent?
■ Have you used neutral language?
■ Have you checked grammar, vocabulary, spelling and
■ h o w m odern tech no logy develops our skills.
Digital humans
Vocabulary insight 9 New words
U n d e rsta n d in g n ew w o rd s
N ew words appear frequently in English, often to
Match the words in A to the words in B to make the
underlined new words in exercise 2.
existing words) together to make a n ew word.
2 Loaning - borrowing a word from another language.
3 Conversion - form ing a w ord from an existing
identical w ord (for example, using a noun as a verb).
1 Read the strategy above. Study the dictionary
entries below and match them to ways of forming
new words 1-3 in the strategy.
text2 /tekst/ (also
text-message) v e r b [T,l] to send
sb a written message using a mobile phone: / t e x t e d
h i m t o s a y w e w e r e h o m e . O look at SMS O note at
mobile phone
'snail m ail
n o u n [U] ( i n f o r m a l ) used by people
who use email to describe the system of sending
letters by ordinary post
forming n e w words include:
1 Blending - putting tw o existing words (or parts of
electronic ■ cam era ■ internet
describe n e w technology. Recognizing h o w words are
form ed will help you to understand a n e w word. W ays of
w ebsite
m onologue
log phobia
4 ............................................................................................
5 .......................................................................................
7 .......................................................................................
8 ................................................................................
4 Match the words in A to the words in B to make new
words for definitions 1-5. Use a dictionary to help you.
em ote
w are
b etw een icon
1 a m achine that is easy to use
2 a person b etw een 8-12 years o ld ........................
3 a symbol o fa facial expression........................
karaoke /.kaeri'auki/ noun [U] a type of entertain­
ment in which a machine plays only the music of
popular songs so that people can sing the words
4 software that you d o not have to pay for
5 tech no log y that allows you to g o online wirelessly
2 Match the underlined words in sentences 1-8 to
definitions a-h.
1 M y m um hates walking around shops, so she buys
m ost things from the teleshopping channel.
5 Complete the sentences with words in exercises 3
and 4.
1 I didn't have an y problems w ith this m achine - it's
v e r y .........................
2 During m y trip around Asia, I w rote a travelogue.
3 M an y o f m y friends co m m e n t on posts on m y b lo a.
2 M a n y ........................ c a m e to th e C a r ly Rae Jepsen
4 W h e n w e g o on holiday, w e usually take our
cam corder to film all the w onderful places w e visit.
3 A big publisher w ants to publish my
about m y experiences in South America.
5 M y dad is a huge tech no p ho b e - he hates everything
4 I don't like
buying things online.
6 W e rarely talk to each other - all com m unication is
d on e bv em ail.
5 You need to protect your com puter against
as it can d o a lot o f damage.
7 The program that I dow n loaded online cam e w ith a
lot of m alware.
6 You can g et online anyw here in th e city centre n ow
because there is free
8 M any people are rude on message boards - they
don't know the netiquette.
a a book, film or lecture about places visited by a
channels, but I don't mind
7 I hate w h e n people use lots of
o f words in their emails.
8 M an y com puter magazines add CDs with
b buying products advertised on a television shopping
c an electronic device used for recording videos and
d messages sent electronically
e com puter programs designed to dam ag e a com puter
6 Work in pairs. Invent a new word using each of the
ways below. Write a definition and an example
1 ..............................................................................
f th e rules people should use w h e n th ey are posting
on forums or chatting on the internet
g a person w h o does not like or use technology
an online personal journal
118 Vocabulary insight 9
Dictionary entries from Oxford Wordpower Dictionary, 4th edition
Review 9
Complete the phrasal verbs with one word.
Complete the sentences with w ho, w hich, w hen,
w h ere or w ho se.
1 Xing is a friend
I met Tom at a party and we hit it 1
immediately. I then ran 2
2 W e m et
him in the
park the next day! After that, we met often. He was
the first person I ever really 3
5 Xing's show ed m e photos of th e tow n
, 1was so
lives in China.
over it, of course, and we’re
still friends. W e 6
gam ing skills are even
4 G a m e rs.................. play TERA live all over the world.
- I used to tell him everything. When he moved to
upset! 15
He’s the on ly friend
better than mine!
up to
New York, I almost broke 4
I m et o n lin e
w e w ere playing TERA.
6 It's a country
I'd love to visit.
up with news over
Skype now.
Read the sentences in exercise 5 again. In which
sentences could you:
.............. , ............... a n d .................
Complete the sentences with the words below.
replace th e relative pronoun or adverb w ith th a t ?
2 om it the relative pronoun or adverb ?
sym pathetic
1 I used to date Zoe, but I’m
2 He’s a
7 Combine the key information in the sentences using
, sociable person, and talks a lot!
3 W h e n I w as ill, Fay w as v e r y .................... and kind.
a defining relative clause.
4 You're late! You're t h e .....................person to arrive.
1 Galileo w as the astronomer. He invented the word
5 It looks w arm outside, but it's.....................cold.
'telescope'(but not the instrument!).
6 He always buys t h e .....................gadgets.
2 Alexander Graham Bell is the Scot. His invention
connected the world.
Complete the sentences about six gadgets. There is
one adjective that you do not need.
3 The U SA w as the place. Credit cards w ere first used
4 Space Invaders was th e com puter game. It first made
1 This radio is strong and
gam ing really popular.
2 These batteries are good value. They're quite
3 Don't drop m y camera. It's rath er...................................
4 This w atch is always correct - it's...................................
5 1978 was the year. G P S m ade navigation easier
5 The cam ping stove cooks food quickly. It's...................
6 T h is s a tn a v is ......................................The maps are old.
4 Write one word that matches both definitions.
She hasn't got a mobile.
activity of posting messages on Twitter.
8 Combine sentences 1-5 and the sentences below.
Use a non-defining relative clause.
Her dad is a gam es programmer.
is a noise that birds make AN D the
It's bright.
I bought it a fe w years ago.
M an y software millionaires live there.
is a com puter brand AN D a fruit.
............. means (noun) the front part o f your
1 M y grandm other hates technology.
head OR (verb) be in front o f som ething or someone.
2 In sum m er I can't see m y com puter screen.
..........means {verb) m ake an arrangem ent
OR {noun) pages of writing joined inside a cover.
5 A
is som ething that you have
3 Life is expensive in 'Silicon Valley'.
betw een the bones in your back OR a round, flat
object that you can use to record, read or play
4 M y laptop is quite old now.
material in a com p u ter
6 A ...........................is a brand o f m obile phone OR a
5 Isla's dad is famous.
small, soft black fruit.
Pronunciation insight 9 W orkbook page 128 I
Review 9 119
Reading and vo cab u lary A rt is everyw h ere
SPEAKING Answer the questions.
1 W h ich artists do the photos show ? W h a t w ere
th ey fam ous for?
2 W h ich artist's w ork m ight appear
on a T-shirt?
as a ringtone?
on a postcard?
Summarizing what you read
The stories behind
You m ig h t see a Picasso p a in tin g p rin te d on aT-shirt
o r h e a r M o z a r t’s Piano So n a ta m u sic played as a
rin g to n e on a p h o n e , b u t h o w m u c h d o you k n o w
a b o u t th e s e a rtis ts ? Picasso and M o z a r t w e r e b oth
When you summarize a text, it is important to focus on
the main ideas and describe them in your own words.
ch ild geniuses, b u t w ith v e r y d iffe re n t sto rie s ...
To summarize a text:
Pablo Picasso (1881-1973)
underline the m ain ideas or facts (dates, people, places,
etc.) in the paragraph.
paraphrase the information that you have chosen,
using your o w n words. Try to use synonyms,
use linking words to co n n ect the information.
Read the strategy. Work in pairs. Student A read
about Picasso and student B read about Mozart.
Underline the main ideas, then complete the chart.
Tell your partner about the person you read about.
W h e n / W h e re born
W h e n Picasso was born in
Malaga,Spain in 18 8 1,the
midwife thought he was
stillborn. Luckily the doctor,
w ho was smoking a cigar,
blew some smoke into the
baby's face and Pablo started
screaming. Picasso was alive
and well, to everyone’s relief!
Pablo Picasso was a born artist and to prove it, his
first w ord was piz, short for lapiz (pencil in Spanish).
His father Ruiz, w ho was an art professor, recognized
W h e n first created art
W h a t created
C h ildh oo d activities
his son’s talent and taught him from the age of seven.
Picasso completed his first painting when he was nine
(Le Picador).
Between 1892 and 1897, Picasso studied art in
G reatest ach ievem en ts
Madrid and Barcelona. His w ork showed a brilliance
M o st surprising fact
and maturity that was years ahead of his classmates, but
Picasso was not a good student. He was sick and tired of
school, so he didn't listen to his teachers. As punishment
Read about the other artist and answer the questions.
According to the texts, which artist:
1 surprised people w hen he w as born?
2 could create n ew work w hile he was doing
som ething else?
3 didn't mind being punished at school?
4 travelled a lot w hen he w as very young?
5 offended people with their work?
6 experienced financial problems?
7 w as interrogated about a crim e?
8 didn't com plete his final work?
he was put in a room on his own.‘I took along a sketch
pad and drew ...,' said Picasso later.‘I could have stayed
there forever, drawing without stopping.'
Eventually Picasso left art school and went to Paris,
where he met a painter and sculptor called Georges
Braque. Picasso began to experiment and through trial
and error produced many different styles. One of these
styles was Cubism, which grew into an a rt movement
founded by Picasso and Braque. Braque and Picasso
used squares and triangles in their paintings and
showed the front and side view of people at the same
time. Picasso used this technique in his most famous
works, such as Les Demoiselles d’Avignon ( 1907) and
4 SPEAKING Answer the questions.
1 W h a t are th e similarities and differences betw een
Mozart and Picasso?
2 H o w d o you think their teachers and classmates
felt about them ?
Guernica ( 1937). Many people found the style shocking
and controversial, but others recognized his genius.
W h ile he was in Paris, Picasso also made friends with
the poet Apollinaire, w ho sometimes bought stolen
paintings. In I9 I I,w hen the Mona Lisa was stolen
3 W h at d o you think are the advantages and
from the Louvre, the police arrested Apollinaire and
disadvantages o f being a child genius?
questioned Picasso. Fortunately, both w ere released,
and the Mona Lisa turned up in Italy tw o years later.
Picasso enjoyed much success in his life and could
pick and choose what he painted, but he never stopped
experimenting.That's why he is known as El Maestro
(or the master) of M odem Art.
Vocabulary: abstract nouns: talent; phrases with and; describing
art; compound adjectives: describing events; synonyms: evaluative
Grammar: participle clauses; determiners
Speaking: discussing art; summarizing the main points ofa film; debating
Writing: a review of an event
Abstract nouns: talent
the names
5 Study the highlighted words in the text. Then match
them to definitions 1-8.
1 the quality o f being n e w and interesting
2 a picture in your imagination
3 doing w ell and becom ing rich and famous
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
4 very great and unusual intelligence or ability
5 the w a y som ething is d on e or made
6 being fully developed
Like Picasso, Mozart was a child genius - he w rote
7 a quality that gives pleasure to the senses
musical notes before he could write words and began
8 giving all o f your tim e and energy to som ething
composing music when he was only four years old.
O ne day, his father came home from church and found
Wolfgang at his desk.There were bits and pieces of
C o m p le te th e se n te n ce s w ith th e w o rd s in exercise 5.
1 Although Mozart w as very young, he show ed a lot of
paper everywhere and at first his father was angry.
w hen he performed in front of princes and kings.
Then he realized that the child had written a sonata
for the piano.When he commented that it was difficult
2 There is m uch
to play, little Wolfgang replied,‘not with some practice,'
and began to play the piece himself Mozart went on to
3 I was impressed by t h e ............and charm of Leonardo
w rite his first symphony at the age of nine.
da Vinci's M ona Lisa. She was a very attractive lady.
The Mozart family were very talented and his sister,
4 M ichelango showed a lot of
Maria Anna, was also a brilliant musician.The family
5 Michelangelo's L a s: Ju dg em ent shows the artist’s ............
toured Europe several times, travelling far and wide.
o f heaven and hell.
Unfortunately, the children often fell ill. But thanks to his
6 The artist Andy W arhol founded Pop Art, a ............ of art
travels, Mozart learned fifteen different languages.
popular in the 1960s.
During Mozart's life, many people admired the
7 Albert Einstein w as a n a tu r a l........... in mathematics. It
beauty and originality of his music.Young Mozart
helped him develop the Theory o f Relativity.
could compose anything, anywhere - during meals,
8 The Harry Potter series has been a g re a t............. More
while talking to friends, or while travelling on a coach.
than 500,000 books have been sold.
He composed very quickly and w rote huge amounts
of music - more than 600 pieces in all, including
insight Phrases with a n d
symphonies, piano concertos and fine Kleine Nachtmusik.
despite this hard w ork and dedication his life had many
ups and downs. Mozart spent money faster than he
made it. He loved the high life, including fancy clothes
and servants and was often anxious about his finances.
In July 17 9 1, a stranger wearing dark clothes and a
hood came to Mozart's house, asking him to compose
a Requiem o r a Mass for the Dead. Mozart was ill, but
w hen he painted the
Sistine Chapel. He worked 16-18 hours a day for four years!
lived in Austria, but the two children and their father
He also gave music lessons and played at concerts. But
in Picasso's paintings. His ideas
w ere often exciting and new.
Match the words in A to the words in B. Check your
answers in the text.
dow ns
w id e
Replace the words in italics with phrases in exercise 7.
1 At university you can freely select which subjects you'd like
to study.
needed the money, so he agreed to do the work. As
Mozart composed the piece, he had a vision that he
2 M y grandparents are both still living a n d healthy.
was writing music for his own funeral. In fact, he died
3 I'm fed up with the weather. It's always raining!
before the Requiem was finished. Mozart was 35 years
4 I m anaged to find the right key to the door through
old and had so little money that he was buried in an
unmarked grave.
trying repeatedly for success.
Dave had his g o o d times an d b a d times, but despite this
he w as happy w ith his life.
6 W e looked everywhere for our lost cat, but w e couldn't
find it.
9 SPEAKING Work in small groups. Imagine you could
choose to be the best in one skill or ability. Which one
would you choose and why?
playing an instrument
playing chess
DVD extra
Art is everyw here
Vocabulary bank
com posing
solving m athem atical problems
playing a sport
Th e arts page 143
1 0 B ■ G ram m ar and listening Around th e w orld in one dance
s rv
SPEAKING Look at the photos and answer the questions. Then read the text
and compare your answers to questions 1 and 2.
1 W h at is happening in the photos?
2 W h y are they doing this?
3 W h at are the most popular dances in your country?
4 Do you enjoy dancing? Are you g oo d at it?
Dancing badly around the world
In 2003, M a tt H arding, a video g a m e d e s ig n e r w orking in A ustralia,
d ec id e d to leave his jo b a n d tra v e l a ro u n d S o u th e a st Asia w ith his
frien d Brad. Like m o s t p e o p le trav e llin g fro m place to,place, th e y took
p h o to s a n d film ed s h o r t v id eo clips o f t h e p lace s th e y visited. One
d ay in Hanoi, Brad s u g g e s te d t h a t M a tt d id a silly d a n c e in fro n t o f
th e ca m e ra . M att, th in k in g th e idea w as g r e a t fun, a g re e d a n d from
th e re , t h e idea grew. M a tt m a d e a v id eo sho w in g his silly d a n c e s all
a ro u n d th e w orld a n d p u t it o n to his blog. Gradually, m o re a n d m ore
p eo p le b e g a n to talk a b o u t him . M att's 'b a d d a n c in g ' video, w a tc h e d by
m illions o f people, b e c a m e a n in te rn e t se n sa tio n . M a tt w as c o n ta c te d
by a ch e w in g g u m com pany. They loved his clips a n d w a n te d him to
m ak e a v id eo fo r th e m . In 2006, M a tt m a d e a ro u n d -th e -w o rld to u r
sp o n so red by th e com pany. B ut th is tim e , so m e th in g c h a n g e d . M att
p e rfo rm e d h is silly d a n c e in R w anda. He in sp ired so m e R w andan
o rp h a n s w a tc h in g him to d an c e, too. Suddenly, M a tt h a d a n ew m ission
He d id n 't w a n t to d a n c e a ro u n d th e w orld, h e w a n te d to d a n c e w ith
th e w orld. M att's n ew videos, m a d e in 2008 a n d 2012, h av e a se n se o f
i s - ''
joy an d co m m u n ity . T hey show crow ds o f p eo p le d a n c in g a n d lau g h in g
to g e th e r: In e a c h place, h e trie d to le a rn n ew danc&s a n d p e rsu a d e
p eo p le to jo in in w ith him . M a tt says, 'It h elp s to re m in d p eo p le th a t
w e're all t h e s a m e a n d w e d o n 't n e e d to b e so afraid o f e a c h other.'
SPEAKING What do you think about Matt Harding's 'bad dancing' project?
Discuss the quotes. Which do you agree / disagree with?
1 'It’s just a really silly idea and a w aste o f time. H e should get a proper job.'
2 T h e videos are fun, but he's never going to change the world.’
3 'Projects like this are great because th ey make us m ore aw are of th e different cultures and people
around the world.'
Participle clauses
Underline sentences in the text that have a similar meaning to sentences 1-6.
1 M att Harding, a video g am e designer w h o was working in Australia, decided to leave his job.
2 M att's'bad dancing'video, w hich was w atched by millions of people, becam e an internet
3 Like most people w h o travel from place to place th ey took photos and filmed short video clips of
the places th ey visited.
4 Matt, w h o tho ugh t the idea w as great fun, agreed and from there, the idea grew.
5 M att inspired some Rw andan orphans w h o w ere w atching him to dance, too.
6 They show crowds o f people w h o are dancing and laughing together.
Compare sentences 1-6 in exercise 3 with the sentences in the text. Then choose the correct
1 W e use the present participle (-ing form) to replace relative clauses containing active / passive
2 W e use the past participle (-e d form) to replace relative clauses containing active / passive verbs.
Reference and practice 10.1
W orkbook page 122
Rewrite the phrases in brackets using participle clauses.
D iversity, a street d ance troupe from London 1
(w hich was
form ed) in 2006, is now one'of the m ost successful d ance groups-in the UK.
The eleven young men, 2
(w ho perform ) as D iversity are a
mix, of ages, heights, and backgrounds, but they all share a passion for street
dance. Their d ance routines,3
(w hich sh o w ) their incredible
skills, becam e fam ous w hen they w on Britain’s G o t Talent in 2009. The show,
(w hich w as w atch ed) by over 17 million viewers, had an
almost instant effect. Suddenly everyone wanted to learn street dance. The
month after D iversity’s win, 850 extra students applied to take street dance
classes 5
(w hich are run) by P ineap p le D a n ce S tu d io s
in London. S o w hat is street d a n c e ? It started on the streets of N ew York
and Los Angeles in the'1970s and included m oves 6
(w hich w ere im p ro vised ) by the dancers as they performed. R ecent television
advertisem ents 7
(w hich u se ) street d ance m oves have
helped to popularize street dance\, while making the advertised products
seem cool and desirable. N ow m any schools in the U K run street dance
classes, 8
(w hich en co u ra ge) young people to exercise
and stay healthy.
2.24 Look at the photo from a famous
film. What type of film do you think it is? Listen
to an interview and compare your answer.
2.24 Make participle clauses with the
verbs in A and phrases in B below. Then listen
and check your answers.
from the sky
w orry
about Kelly
fifty or sixty years
the role o f a th e d ance ■ that the scene
by G en e Kelly
1 Even p e o p le .................................... after this film
w as m ade w ou ld probably know the song.
2 G ene Kelly is the a c to r......................................
3 The director,.................................... because he
w as ill, didn't w an t to shoot the scene.
4 Kelly,
had taken a long tim e
to prepare, didn't w an t to stop.
5 In this fam ous scene, w e see Kelly
Don Lockwood.
6 The d a n ce ,....................................its on e o f the most
iconic dances in m ovie history.
7 The rain,.................................... , w as m ade from milk mixed w ith water.
8 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Read the notes about a famous classic film R e d S h o e s .
Use the information to describe the film using participle clauses.
* Red Shoes-, a classic
film made in 1948
* stars Moira Shearer
as victoria Page
* story is based on fairy tale by
Hans Christian Andersen
* famous dance sequence
lasts 15 minutes
* ballet dancer wears red ballet shoes
1 0 C ■ Listening, speaking and vocabulary W h a t’s th e point of a rt?
SPEAKING Look at the doodles. What sort of people do you think drew each one? Think
about age, personality and profession.
2.25 Listen to an expert talking about doodles. Match the personality descriptions a-e
with doodles 1-5.
a is em otional and perhaps romantic
b has physical or creative energy
c w ants to d evelop as a person
d is practical and needs security
e likes to play and have fun
Describing art
3 Match the words below with meanings 1-8. Then use the words to describe doodles 1-5.
original ■ flowing
rom antic
com ical
dram atic
5 making you feel very sad or sym pathetic
1 com plicated and detailed
2 appearing to be real
6 funny in a strange or silly w ay
3 sm ooth and continuous
4 full o f action and m ovem ent
7 making you feel strong em otions o f love
8 n e w and interesting
4 Complete the sentences with words in exercise 3.
1 Sylvia paints v e r y .................................... pictures, but m ine are m uch simpler.
2 Picasso's powerful a n d .................................... Guernica shows the horrors o f war.
3 It's a h ig h ly.............
piece o f work. N obody has created anything like that before.
paintings can be of couples in love, or lovely natural scenes.
5 A
style o f draw ing has confident, unbroken lines.
6 It’s m eant to be a serious w ork of art, but m any people find it ......................................
7 The photo is v e r y .................................... and it makes m any people cry.
8 It w as such a .................................... sculpture that on e tourist said 'have a nice d a y 'to it.
2.26 Listen to an interview with an art therapist. Then choose the best description of an
art therapist's job.
a Art therapists teach people h o w to understand their ow n drawings, sculptures and paintings,
b Art therapists analyze people's draw ings and encourage people to express their feelings
through art.
c Art therapists look at famous works o f art and use them to discuss feelings and em otions
with people.
Listen again. Are the sentences true (T), false (F) or not given (NG)?
1 Art therapists on ly work with children or sick people.
2 It's im portant to look at all th e small details in a doodle, not just at the main picture.
3 Frank usually asks people to talk about their doodles.
4 So m e patients don't w an t to talk about their drawings.
5 Drawing or doodling is a goo d w ay o f using both th e left and th e right sides o f the brain.
6 Frank thinks it's im portant to help people im prove their technique.
7 Doodles o f Happiness includes m any examples o f different types o f doodles.
8 Frank thinks it's useful to know w hen and w here people d rew their doodles.
SPEAKING Answer the questions.
1 W h e n d o you doodle? W h y ?
2 W h at kind o f doodles do you do?
3 W h at m ight your doodles say about you?
124 Creativity
SPEAKING. You are going to listen to a debate on: A r t c la s s e s a re a n im p o rta n t p a r t o f th e
s c h o o l c u rric u lu m . Read the arguments below. Add two more ideas for and against art classes.
A rt c la s s e s are. an itupor-fanf p u rt o £ The. School curriculum
Require experts/ve m aterials
Teach Impor-fanf skills,
e.g. perce.pt/on.,
co-ordiHa-kion, plamtmg
Too p erso n al - c a n 'F beTaugh-f u t School
Help as t o undisrs+und o th e r
people's view o£ th e World
Mot useful -for g e ttin g a job
Encourage, creativ ity and
Listen to the debate. Number the arguments in exercise 8 in the order you hear them.
Listen again and complete the phrases in the box.
think (Jessica) is 1
agree w ith (Jessica).
That's a 2
Could 15
Can 16
Sorry to interrupt, b u t ....
That's so true.
En co u rag in g
Tracy,7................................... add anything?
That's not a lw a y s 3.....................................
Do you have anything to say about this?
14.................................... with Tracy a b o u t . . . .
I'd say the exact opposite.
Not necessarily.
SPEAKING Work in small groups and hold a debate on: S tu d e n ts s h o u ld b e a b le to c h o o s e the
s u b je c ts th e y s tu d y a t s c h o o l. No su b je c ts s h o u ld b e o b lig a to ry . Follow the instructions.
Select a chairperson for the debate.This person will introduce the debate and make sure that
everyone gets an opportunity to speak.
M ake a list o f argum ents for and against the statement.
Hold the debate. Try to m ention all the argum ents in your list and use the phrases in exercise 10.
1 0 D ■ Culture, vocabulary and grammar On stage
SPEAKING Look at the photosand discuss the
questions. Then read the article and compare your
1 W h at kinds of festivals are they?
2 W h y d o people go there?
2 Read the article again and choose the correct
1 The main purpose of The Utah Film Festival w as to
W h a t have Ste ve n Soderbergh ( O cea n 's Eleven ) and
Quentin Tarantino ( Pulp Fiction) g ot in co m m o n ? W ell,
a attract Hollyw ood stars.
th e y're both w orld-fam ous directors, but th e y 're also
b show popular Hollyw ood films,
independent film-m akers w h o got th e ir 'big break' at
c encourage people to visit Utah,
the S u n d a n ce Film Fe stiv a l.
d show films by n e w film makers.
W h e n the film festival first started in 1978, its aim
2 The main purpose o f The Sundance Festival is to
make m on ey for big companies.
b attract celebrity endorsements,
w as to attrac t tourists to U tah, a little-known state
in M id w est A m erica. Back then, th e festival w as
called The U tah Film F e stiv a l and it show ed m ostly
c support and encourage independent film-makers,
retrospectives o f old films. It w a sn 't a popular even t
d screen popular, well-known films.
and as a result m ade little m oney. Then, in 1981,
3 People m ainly g o back to the festival every year
H ollyw ood star Robert Redford g ot involved and
founded the S u n d a n ce In stitu te. Th e purpose o f the
a they m ight see a famous person,
festival changed and a com p etition fo r independent
b they enjoy the stories that th e film-makers tell,
film-makers becam e the m ain focus. Redford w anted
c th ey on ly w ant to w atch 'classic' movies,
to bring exciting n ew films, m ade outside the
d th ey w an t to enter their o w n film.
4 W O M A D gives people th e opportunity to
a get to know music from their o w n culture,
b listen to well-known bands,
c enjoy traditional music from other countries,
record their o w n music.
5 Peter Gabriel created W O M A D in order to
a teach people about other cultures and w ays o f life,
H ollyw ood system , to a w id e r audience.
During the 1980s and 1990s the even t g rew in size
and film studios b ecam e interested. U nfortunately,
celeb rity actors and paparazzi started to appear on the
scene, too. Big com panies began paying a fe w o f the
celebrities to endorse products th at had nothing to do
w ith film, taking attention a w a y from th e independent
directors. Festival organizers responded w ith a Focus
b provide entertainm ent for families,
on Film cam paign, urging people to rem e m b e r the
real purpose of S u n d a n ce. 'It w as never intended to be
c help unknow n musicians make money,
com m ercial. It w as intended to be a place o f discovery,'
d find n e w musicians for a record label.
said Redford. L u c k ily th e cam paign w orked and to d ay
6 W O M A D festivals d o n ’t include
m ost of the 50,000 festival-goers com e to see the new
a educational classes.
directors, rath er than fam o us film stars.
b entertainm ent for children,
Today, Su n d a n ce is one o f the m ost eagerly-aw aited
c open-air cinema,
film festivals in A m erica. The com p etition includes
d places to try n e w food.
feature-length films, short films, thought-provoking
docum entaries and dram a, but there are fe w fam ous
SPEAKING Answer the questions.
nam es, because m ost entries are from first-time
1 D o any of the festivals appeal to you ? W h y / w h y not?
directors. S o m e of these film s m a y be controversial and
2 W h at typ e o f festivals do
cutting-edge, but th e y all tell a good story. 'Sto ryte lle rs
people hold in your
cou n try? W h at do
th ey celebrate?
3 W h a t can you learn
about another culture
through its music?
126 Creativity
broaden our m inds,' says Ro b ert Redford. 'T h ey
engage, provoke, inspire, and ultim ately, connect us.'
And it's th at inspiration th a t keeps people going to
Su n d a n ce, y e ar afte r year.
Compound adjectives: describing events
4 Complete the text about the Glastonbury festival. Then
find the compound adjectives in the article.
w orld
One of the m ost1
-awaited festivals in England is the
Glastonbury Festival. This festival is known for its contemporary music,
which includes2
-famous acts, as well a s 3
-known singers and bands. However Glastonbury is not just about
music. It also features dance, comedy, experimental4
-edge theatre, as well as fairground rides in the 5.................. -oriented
'kidzfield' area.
-air event takes place over three days in June, and
most people camp in the surrounding fields. Besides the acts the most
-about thing is the weather, because it usually rains!
But despite the weather, 200,000 people attend the festival every
year. However, in 2006 there was no festival, so a 8
documentary was made about Glastonbury. It was a 9
-provoking film which showed the best and worst of the festival. If
you're a 10 ............... -time festival-goer, it's well worth watching 1
WOMAD (World of Music,
Arts & Dance)
In 1982, th e world w as a ve ry different place.
tho ug h t
Bands like The Rolling S to n e s or A erosm ith
dom inated the music scene, and people didn't
kn ow m uch about traditional m usicians from other
cultures. N o one had heard o f th e D rum m ers o f
B urundi orYoussou N 'D o u r from Senegal, but then
W O M A D cam e along and things started to change.
5 Study the highlighted words in the article and answer
the questions.
Th ese artists n o w had an international stage
W h ich w ord s can you use:
w h e re th e y could show off th e ir t a le n t ... and their
a before countable nouns? b before uncountable nouns?
c before both countable and uncountable nouns?
W O M A D w as originally the vision of a British rock
star called Peter Gabriel, w h o w an te d to bring
Every is used before a singular noun. A ll is used before
traditional music to the world. As well as a festival,
uncountable and plural countable nouns. W e can use it
he founded a record label called R e a l W orld, so
before the, w ith or w ithout of.
artists could reach audiences in oth er countries.
In 1982, w hen th e first W O M A D took place in
Reference and practice 10.2
W orkbook page 123
England, m any o f the perform ers w e re unknown,
but th e festival w as still a huge success. 'M u sic is
6 Choose the correct answers.
a universal language th a t brings people together/
said G abriel later, 'and each festival allow s m any
different audiences to gain an insight into cultures
o th er th an their ow n.' T h a t w as th e purpose of
W O M A D - it cham pioned diversity and difference,
w hile a t th e sam e tim e celebrating everyone's
com m on hum anity. People w e re united through
Since then, W O M A D has held m ore than 160
I've been to the Glastonbury festival ’much / many times, and I
know that 2most / most of the days if rains, so pack 3some / some of
wellies and a waterproof mac. I usually go with a big group of
friends and 4all / every of us camp in tents. It can be 5a little /
a few cold at night, so if you're camping, remember to take 6a little /
a few blankets. You'll k n o w 7a little / most of the musical acts at
Glastonbury, because 8much / many of them are famous, but at the
festival there is music everywhere, not just on stage. Put the Shazam
app onto your mobile, then 9each / some time you walk past a tent or
a food stall, and hear something you like, just hold your phone up to
festivals in 27 different countries. M o st of the
festivals are open-air events w ith a little of
everything - live music, ethnic m arkets w ith som e
traditional food and artefacts, and fam ily-oriented
M in i-g u id e t o G la s to n b u r y
the music, and it'll text you the song and the artist!
zones w ith a fe w w orkshops teach ing dance,
m usic and art. W O M A D elaide in Australia is a good
exam ple. It's the m ost talked-about m usic festival
in the country and brings to g e th e r som e o f the
best traditional artists in the world. W O M A D elaide
proves th a t the purpose o f the festival is still going
strong. 'If th e world w as ju st like a big version of
W O M A D ela id e,' co m m en ted one perform er, 'it
w ou ld be a better place.'
SPEAKING Work in pairs. You are going to Glastonbury
festival and can fit four more things in your rucksack.
Agree on four things from the list below.
a few jum pers ■ a little sun cream a some blankets
a few plastic bags
some insect repellent
a few bottles of water
Vocabulary bank
a torch
a hairdryer
a pair of wellies
some shampoo
Organizing a festival page 143
1 0 E ■ W riting A review of an event
1 SPEAKING Look at the photo and answer the questions.
1 W h at kind o f festival d o you think this is?
2 W h at kinds o f events do you think there might be at this festival?
3 Have you ever m et any o f your favourite authors?
4 W ould you like to listen to your favourite author talk about their books?
Read the review of the Hay-on-Wye Literary Festival and answer the questions.
1 Did the writer enjoy th e festival? W h ich words tell you ?
2 W h ich of these art forms is not m entioned in the review: film, illustration, dance, music,
com edy, poetry?
3 W h y do you think the writer included a quote from Sir Terry Pratchett in th e review?
3 Which of these things are mentioned in the review? Put them in the correct order.
information about the organizers
detailed information about w h at happened at the event
sum m ary and recom m endation
technical details about the event
background information (nam e o f the event, w here and w h e n it w as organized, etc.)
description o f w h at the author liked most
Hay-on-Wye Literary Festival
E v e ry s u m m e r, th e e a g e rly -a w a ite d H ay-on-W ye L ite ra ry
F e s tiv a l w e lc o m e s in te r n a tio n a lly a c c la im e d w r ite r s ,
c o m e d ia n s , p o e ts a n d a c to r s f o r a w e e k o f d is c u s s io n ,
r e a d in g s a n d p e rfo rm a n c e s in a m u d d y field in W ales.
T h is y ear, i t w a s s u c h a n a m a z in g fe s tiv a l t h a t book
lo v e rs o f a ll a g e s h a d p le n ty to e n te r ta in th e m . F o r
th e y o u n g e s t b o o k fa n s , ill u s tr a t o r A xel S ch effler d re w
p ic tu r e s a n d to ld s to r ie s fro m h is n e w b o o k fo r 3 -5 -y e a ro ld s , Pip and Posy. I t w a s so c a p tiv a tin g t h a t even th e
th re e -y e a r-o ld s w e re in te r e s te d . C o m e d ia n B ill B ailey
gave a h ila r io u s t a lk in w h ic h h e c o v e re d a r a n g e of
to p ic s , fro m p o litic s to s o c ia l m e d ia , p o p u la r fic tio n a n d
th e e n d o f th e w o rld .
W h a t is f a s c in a tin g a b o u t th e H ay-on-W ye L ite r a r y F e s tiv a l is t h a t it's n o t j u s t a b o u t b o o k s. T h e re w e re
c o n c e rts fro m fo lk s in g e r s , h ip h o p a r t i s t s , ja z z b a n d s a n d s tr in g q u a r te ts . P o e try r e c ita ls , s c re e n in g s
o f B o lly w o o d film s, c a rto o n s , a n d in te r v ie w s w ith d e s ig n e rs , a c to r s , s p o rts p e o p le a n d p o litic ia n s w e re
a ls o o n offer.
W h a t m a d e th e b ig g e s t im p r e s s io n on m e w a s th e a p p e a r a n c e o f S ir T e rry P r a tc h e tt o n th e fin a l day. T he
re n o w n e d a u th o r o f m o re th a n 50 co m ic f a n ta s y n o v e ls c o lle c te d h is W o d e h o u se C om ic F ic tio n a w a rd .
'H o w do y o u w r ite f a n ta s y ? ' a s k e d o n e fan . 'D o n 't s it a ro u n d lis te n in g to m e ,' re p lie d a n a m u s in g Sir
T erry, 'y o u s h o u ld b e a t h o m e ty p in g !'
S eein g s u c h r e m a rk a b le a r t i s t s a n d e x p e rie n c in g e v e ry th in g t h a t th e lite r a r y w o r ld h a s to o ffe r in one
p la c e , m a d e t h is a n u n f o r g e tta b le e x p e rie n c e . T he w h o le fe s tiv a l w a s o r g a n iz e d so w e ll t h a t I c a n o n ly
re c o m m e n d i t to a ll th e lite r a tu r e f a n s o u t th e re .
insight Synonyms: evaluative adjectives
4 Study the highlighted adjectives in the review. Who or what do they describe? Match two
adjectives to each of the words below.
1 wonderful
2 interesting
3 famous
4 funny
C reating em p h asis
When you write a review of an event, you may want to put emphasis on particular information
to indicate what is most important or to show how you feel.
Ways of creating emphasis:
1 Nom inal clauses
■ W hat it clause it be
The appearance o f Sir Terry Pratchett m ade the biggest impression on me.
W hat made the biggest impression on me was the appearance o f Sir Terry Pratchett.
2 so and such
b e + so + adjective
It w as so captivating t h a t ...
s o it adverb
The w h o le festival was organized so w ell t h a t ...
such + adjective it plural noun / uncountable noun
Seeing such remarkable a rtists. . . .
■ su ch + a / an + adjective + noun
This year, it was such an amazing festival.
5 Read the strategy and study the underlined examples in the review. Then complete the
second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence.
1 It w as such an expensive festival that m any people couldn't afford to buy tickets.
The festival.............................. that m any people couldn't afford to buy tickets.
2 I really liked that the festival w as family-oriented.
W h a t .............................. that the festival was family-oriented.
3 They w ere such w onderful dancers and g ave a m oving performance.
The dancers
and gave a m oving performance.
4 Her sculptures are so elaborate that it's not surprising that she w o n the award.
She makes
that it's not surprising that she w on the award.
5 The children's orchestra m oved m e the most.
W h a t .............................. the children's orchestra.
6 The talk w as so boring that I left early.
I t .............................. that I left early.
■ Task Write a review of an event for a popular
entertainment magazine.
■ Plan Follow the plan:
Paragraph 1: G ive th e background details about the
event: typ e of event, w here and w h e n it
■ Ideas Make notes about:
■ the nam e o f the event, typ e o f event, w here and
Paragraph 2: G ive details about the performances and
w h e n it is organized.
■ details about w h at happened at the event, w h o
include an y quotes.
Paragraph 3: W rite w h at you enjoyed / did not enjoy
■ com m ents about the quality of the performances.
Paragraph 4: Finish your review with a sum m ary or a
■ w h at you enjoyed / did not enjoy the most.
recom m endation.
■ an y quotes you w ould like to include.
■ w ou ld you recom m end the event to others?
■ Write Write your review. Use the paragraph plan to
help you.
■ Check Check the following points:
■ Have you used a clear paragraph structure and the
correct register?
■ Have you used a variety of evaluative adjectives and
■ Have you checked grammar, vocabulary, spelling and
Vocabulary insight 10 Fixed phrases with two key words
Fixed p h rases w ith
Fixed p h rases w ith
b y, fo ra
There are a lot of fixed phrases in English that consist of
So m e fixed phrases w ith tw o key words in English can
tw o w ords joined w ith and, for example, alive a n d well.
be joined by other words, for example, by, for and or. You
The order of these words cannot be changed. There are
can find them in a dictionary in the same w ay as phrases
three main types of phrases w ith and:
w ith and.
1 W ords that have a similar meaning.
2 W ords that are opposites.
3 W ords that often g o together.
w ith t h e fix e d p h r a s e s in t h e e n tr ie s .
To find these phrases in the dictionary, find the first word
in the phrase. T h ey can often be found in the idioms
word for word 1 repeating sth exactly: Sharon
repeated word for word what he had told her.
section near the end o f the entry.
sooner or later at some time in the future; one day
Read the strategy above. Complete the phrases with
the words below. Then match them to types 1-3 in
the strategy. Use a dictionary to help you.
R e a d t h e s t r a t e g y a b o v e . S tu d y t h e e n t r i e s b e lo w .
T h e n r e p la c e t h e w o r d s in ita lic s in s e n t e n c e s 1 -4
more or less approximately; almost: We are
more or less the same age.
w hite
step by step (used for talking about a series of
actions) moving slowly and gradually from one
action or stage to the next: dear step-by-step instruc­
1 sick and
2 trial and
3 black a n d ........................
1 The jou rn ey to the festival will take approxim ately an
4 fish and
5 bright a n d ........................
6 peace and
If you follow the instructions slow ly a n d carefully, you
w on't have any problem s making the plane.
7 prosand
3 Jo d ie repeated every single thing w h at I had told her.
8 safe and
one day.
2 Match the phrases in exercise 1to definitions 1-8.
1 positive and negative sid e s........................
2 trying repeatedly for success........................
If you w ork ve ry hard, you'll w in the cham pionships
Find fixed phrases with the words below in a
dictionary. Then complete the sentences.
3 fed up w it h ........................
4 in writing
5 early in the m orning
............ b y ......................... , she m anaged to
finish her sculpture in tim e for the exhibition.
6 not hurt
2 After sitting on the plane for nine hours, I had
7 a typical English dish
........................ a n d ......................... in m y legs.
8 a calm and silent e n viro n m en t........................
3 W e forgot s o m e ........................ an d .........................
w hen w e w en t cam ping, but w e m anaged to get
Complete the sentences with the phrases in exercise 1.
1 I'm not going to believe you until I see the agreem ent
i n .........................
2 Before w e decide w h at to do, w e need to look at the
of each possible solution.
everything in the local shop.
4 W a lk in g ........................ a n d ......................... to school
every day takes m e about an hour.
5 His room is a lw a y s ....................... a n d .....................
Everything has its o w n place.
3 Inventing the m achine involved some
4 Our train leaves at 7 a.m., so w e need to g et up
5 W h e n I got to Paris I phoned m y parents to let them
1 ...............................................................................
kn ow I w a s .........................
6 I don't like the noise o f the city, but really enjoy the
having to ask you.
8 W h e n w e w ere in England, w e h a d .................
several times.
130 Vocabulary insight 10
3 ...............................................................................
of th e countryside.
7 G o and tidy your room now! I'm
6 Write your own example sentences with the fixed
phrases in exercise 5.
4 ........................................................................................
5 .................................................................................
Review 10
Complete the sentences about six talented people.
m aturity
Rewrite the phrases in brackets as participle clauses.
1 Cannes is a film festival
held) in France.
1 Sergey Karjakin achieved
aged twelve,
2 Cleopatra, w h o w as fam ous for her glamorous
o f horror
The Palm e d'Or is the most fam ous prize,
( which is given) to the best film.
writing is still popular, learnt to read aged two.
4 Steffi Graf began playing tennis aged 4. Her
In 1960, th e Film Market opened,
(w hich grew) rapidly in the following years.
m ade her famous.
5 Doctor Akrit Jasw al started treating patients aged
seven, displaying t h e ............of som eone m uch older.
6 Before he becam e fam ous for his
Film s.......................................... (which are show n) here
often becom e famous.
, b ecam e queen as a teen ag er
3 HP. Lovecraft, w hose dram atic
It's an international festival,.............................................
(w hich celebrates) all cultures.
becom ing a chess Grandmaster.
o f equality,
Martin Luther King excelled at school.
( which is
Thousands arrive every year,
(w hich triples) Cannes' population.
7 W ealth y g u e s ts ........................................ (w ho arrive) in
yachts are a frequent sight.
8 Last year, they used 2 km o f red c a rp e t..........................
(w hich was changed) three tim es a day.
9 Unfortunately, film fans
Complete the phrases with one word.
hope) to attend m ay be disappointed.
10 Tickets.......................................... (w hich are sent) out in
S tu d y tip s
advance, are to selected guests only.
Pick and
your best subjects.
Solve problems through trial and
Search far and
Don't get
There will be times of ups and.................Don't let
this demotivate you.
Stay healthy and alive and
6 Complete the text. Use the words below.
for information.
and tired of studying!
Complete the sentences. Replace the definitions in
italics with six of the adjectives.
com ical
dram atic
flow ing
m oving
1 Albrecht Durer’s art is often very
2 Bunuel's films w ere very
often sad and
(realistic ).
{new a n d interesting).
3 Charlie Chaplin's films are
{funny), but also
(em otionally affecting).
m any
T he M etropolitan M useum of A rt (MOMA)
h a s 1................... fam ous w orks of art. I go th e re
tim e I’m in N e w York a n d I still
h a v e n ’t s e e n 3................... of it! I usually sp en d
tim e (hours a n d hours!) looking a t th e
p ain tin g s u p stairs. I also try to sp e n d a 5...................
tim e in th e garden, w h e re th e re are a 6..................
sculptures. I do n ’t s p e n d 7................... tim e in th e
photo g rap h y section - 1 like 8................... photos,
b u t I prefer p a in tin g s .9.................. of th e other
p aintings are as in te restin g as Van G ogh’s S ta r r y
Night-it d o e sn ’t ha v e 10................... rivals for th e
b e s t p ain tin g of all.
4 T h e ............ (sm ooth a n d continuous) lines in Van
Gogh's art also have a ............ (strong, exciting) effect.
T o ta l
/ 50
• Match the words in A to the words in B to make
compound adjectives. Then complete the text.
fam ily
The Edinburgh Festival Fringe is perhaps the most
cultural event in Britain. Acts include
stars, as well as 3
performers hoping for success. Visitors can see
new ,4
comedy acts and plays. There are
indoor shows and 5
events, and many
performances for children.
Pronunciation insight 10 W orkbook page 128 I
Review 10 131
Cumulative review Units 1-10
2.28 Listen to part of a radio programme about
superheroes. Choose the correct answers.
1 According to the speaker, h o w are th e earliest com ics
Read the text about C om ic-C on In te rn a tio n a l. Then
complete the summary. Use the clues to help you.
Comic-Con is a n 1
(h ow often ?) even t held
similar to today's com ics?
e v e ry 2
a They shared similar concerns about the world,
3........................ (city ?),4......................... (country?). Over
b The appearance of th e heroes hasn't changed
5........................ (how many?) people attended this year,
(w h at time o f year?) in
of w h o m a ro u n d 6
Their scientific background remains relevant today,
w ere female.Tickets will c o s t7 ....................... (how
d They both primarily reflect Am erican interests.
2 W h a t w as life like in 1930s Am erica?
............(w hatpercentage?)
m uch?). In this article,
(how many?) people give their opinions
a M any people w ere enjoying wealthier lifestyles,
of the event, w hich celebrates com ic books, fantasy
b Fe w people w ere interested in superheroes,
films and related popular culture.
c People w anted to forget about their troubles,
The governm ent had lots of support.
3 W h at d o w e learn about the popularity o f superhero
a They have m ade com ic book superheroes
b They are not as popular as comedies,
c They are m ainly popular with young people,
d They are not taken ve ry seriously.
4 In the speaker's opinion, w h y d o people like Batm an?
a He has a m ore stylish image.
Some of this year's attendees give their
views ... and criticisms.
b He seems m ore similar to us.
He is stronger than other heroes,
d He is perfect in every way.
5 W h a t criticism does the speaker make of CGI
(computer-generated images)?
The Tokyo com ic convention is bigger, but S a n D iego
They don't look realistic,
hosts the largest A m erican event, w hich is p rob ab ly
b They are quite expensive,
c They aren't used often enough,
how they get a w a y with robbing us with w hopping
d They don’t surprise us.
ticket prices each summer. I stay to the end to justify
6 W h at does the speaker think about the future of
love the film preview s and 'm eet and greets', but let's
superhero films?
the cost, but really three d ays w ould be enough. I
have few er a ca d e m ic lectures, please! Despite writers'
They'll g row in popularity,
b They'll disappear forever,
attempts to g ive us dram atic 'm essages', com ics are
c They'll be more innovative,
hard ly w orks of philosophy, a re they? That isn't to say
d They'll change completely.
I'm not a huge fan of larger-than-life heroes. I've even
com e dressed as Storm from the X-Men\ If a n y of the
cast a re here, it'll absolutely m ake my day. N o rm a lly
people w ould stare at my outfit. That's w h a t I love
Read the sentences from the radio programme.
What do y o u think? Think of two or three ideas to
support your opinion.
about Comic-Con, though. H ere everyone's paying
more attention to having fun.
1 Technology is getting ou t o f control.
2 W h e n life is hard, people turn to fantasy.
3 W e treat heroes with respect.
Thursday to S u n d ay is a short time in w hich to pack
4 Batm an is better than Superman.
a lot in. But if it w e re extended, I'd p ro b a b ly go
5 There's too m uch violence in films.
slightly m ad! Around 1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 people try to get
6 Teenagers get bored very easily.
tickets e v e ry year, and over 1 3 0 ,0 0 0 a re successful.
Am ongst those crowds, smaller artists like me struggle
3 Work in pairs and discuss each of the sentences
in exercise 2. Do you agree or disagree with each
to get noticed. M y modest profit makes my attendance
w orthw hile, however, despite not making a fortune.
M o v ie actors a re the main d raw , although that's not an
enthusiasm I particularly share. I once im agined that
g rap h ic novels w ou ld be the art of our times, offering
n ew visions. I still think they could be. So it's a shame
132 Cumulative review Units 1-10
Literature insight 5 W orkbook page 92
Read the text again and answer the questions.
W ho:
1 w ould like to stay longer at the festival?
is excited about m eeting film stars?
3 gets a lot of attention at the event?
4 is critical of superheroes?
5 believes that com ics can say som ething im portant?
6 isn't sure that the even t is goo d value?
Grammar and vocabulary
Choose the correct answers.
What’s in a name? Well, having the right name
can 1
quite a lot, in some cases!
To 2
an example, consider graphic novels.
W hen they 3
as 'comics', they received little
respect. The greater 4
of the adult population
used to question the m aturity of comics, claiming that they
were just picture books for children. Nowadays, these
'picture books' are 5
available in libraries. So
w hy did the comic-book critics 6
their minds?
In the 1970s and 1980s, some longer comics were
published under the description 'graphic novels', which
sounded much more respectable. Art Spiegelman,
graphic novel M aus w on the 1986 Pulitzer
Prize, also popularized the term. This was a huge boost to
the genre's credibility. One critic said that M a u s w as the best
w ork about the Holocaust she 8
in any genre.
Today, fans of the genre argue that graphic novels ideally
to be taught in schools and universities as
part of literature courses, if the genre hadn't changed its
name, this recent developm ent10
today's com ic artists still choose to restrict themselves
to crime-fighters in costume. I know - I need to get
over it!
that, rather than rising to that challenge, most of
I put on special effects at the events - robots, lights,
b experience c d epend d argue
b argue c give d put
b describe c w ere described
have been described
c am ount d m any
b utterly c w id ely d highly
transform b m ove c consider d change
w ho
b who's c that d w hose
had read
b reads c has read d w as reading
must b should c ought d can
will not happen
b m ight not have happened
had not happened d did not happen
b part
the works. N o one could claim they aren't getting a
lot for their $ 1 7 5 . As a fem ale technician, I seem to
be something of an attraction myself. About four in
ten ticket-holders a re w om en, a n d they're often keen
to chat. A n d some men im agine I'd be an ideal geek
girlfriend! I meet a lot of renow ned stars day-to-day
on film sets, so that's less of a big deal for me. It's the
atm osphere at Comic-Con that I love. People are so
friendly that the end a lw a y s comes too soon. I have a
confession, though. Although I don't mind Sp id erm a n
a n d Batm an, it's romantic classics like C a sa b la n c a
w hich really speak to my heart. But don't breathe a
w ord to anyo ne ...
Choose one of the statements below and write a for
and against essay about it. Use the paragraph plan
to help you.
1 To encourage teenagers to read more, w e should teach
graphic novels instead of classic literature in schools.
2 W e d o not need superheroes today.
Paragraph 1: Give a general introduction to the topic
Paragraph 2: Give argum ents for th e topic.
Paragraph 3: G ive argum ents a g a in sttb e topic.
Paragraph 4: Give a conclusion, including your ow n
Exam insights
Workbook page 102
Cumulative review Units 1-10 133
Vocabulary b an kl
Describing hair
Label the photos with the words below.
■ a bob
a bun ■ cropped hair
dyed hair
spiky hair
a plait
curly hair
a ponytail
Match the words below to definitions 1-12.
Berm udas
a shaved head
h oody
polo shirt
straight h a ir: w avy hair
camisole top
com b at trousers
maxi dress
mini skirt
tracksuit bottoms
1 a sweatshirt w ith a hood
2 a very short skirt
3 a sleeveless top for men
4 a long dress w hich reaches the ankles
5 a long-sleeved top m ade of soft w arm material
6 an informal pair of trousers often w orn for sports
loose informal trousers w ith large pockets on the legs
8 shorts that com e d ow n to just ab ove the knees
9 a sum m er top for w om en w hich is held up by straps
10 an informal T-shirt w ith a collar
11 wom en's trousers that fit tightly around the legs
12 a to p m ade of w ool w ith buttons d o w n the front
2 Label items 1-12 with words in exercise 1.
Complete the sentences with the hairstyles in
exercise 1.
1 Her hair is quite short and is the same length all
around. She's g o t .........................
2 His hair is in sharp points all over his head. He's got
3 She divides her hair into three parts and joins them
together. She's g o t .........................
4 His hair is bright blue with green stripes! He's got
5 His hair isn't very easy to control. He's g o t ....................
6 She hasn't got an y curls. She's g o t .........................
7 His hair is twisted into long thick pieces w hich hang
d o w n from his head. He's g o t .........................
8 All of her hair is together at the back of her head.
She's g o t ........................
9 The hairdresser cut his hair very short with a machine.
He's g o t .........................
10 She wears her long hair in a ball on top of her head.
She's g o t .........................
11 The hairdresser cut his hair very short with a pair of
scissors. He's g o t .........................
12 Her hair is slightly curly. She's got
3 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Think of people you know
with the hairstyles in exercise 1.
134 Vocabulary bankl
3 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Which clothes do you
usually wear in warm weather? Which clothes do
you usually wear in cool weather?
Vocabulary bank 2
Types of holiday
Travel and transport
Match the types of holiday to sentences 1-12.
adventure holiday
coach tour
DIY holiday
package holiday
backpacking holiday
city break
honeym oon
self-catering holiday
Complete the mind map with the words below.
Some can be used more than once.
house swap
m otorw ay
working holiday
runw ay
1 'W e travelled around Europe carrying our clothes and
our sleeping bags w ith us.'
buffet car ı cabin
overhead locker
seat belt
get on
g et off
go ashore
slow d o w n ■ speed up
2 'W e spent the w eekend exploring Paris.’
luggage rack
set sail
take off
3 'W e spent a fortnight in Mexico after our wedding.’
4 'The journey from on e place to the next took ages
and w e w ere sitting d o w n all the time.'
5 'W e got a fixed price for the flight, the hotel and all
our meals.'
6 T h e re were lots o f different extrem e sports to try.'
7 T h e y took us to see all the m onum ents in Rome.'
8 'W e spent a m onth cleaning a polluted river.'
9 'W e organized our o w n holiday last year.'
10 'W e lent our flat to an Am erican family w hile w e
stayed at their place in N ew York.'
11 'W e didn't go away, but w e did som e day trips.'
12 'W e cooked all our o w n meals.'
2 Complete the text with the types of holiday in
exercise 1.
People choose a particular type of holiday for different
reasons. A 1
is for those who prefer to
have everything organized and paid for before they
leave. Those who book a 2
want to
be taken in a comfortable bus to visit a number of
different places. Time is also an important factor Busy
executives often book a 3
to Amsterdam
or Berlin for the weekend, while students have the
summer to spend three months on a 4
Couples who have just got married can have two weeks
to enjoy their 5
.......... Then, there are holidays
that offer different activities. A 6
is for
those who enjoy visiting landmarks, while those who
prefer more action can book an 7
... There
are even people who go on a 8
they want to make a difference to the world. But the
most important question is often money. Some people
save money by planning their own 9
the internet. Others book a 10
to save
on food while even bigger savings can be made on
accommodation if you do a 11
and stay
in somebody else’s house while they live in yours. A
where you stay at home is another
option for a nice, cheap holiday.
There was no one left on the 1........................ when
the train left the station. There were a lot of passengers
without seats, and some of them were standing in the
2........................ of o u r3.......................... W e put our bags
in the 4........................ and I went to the 5......................... to
get some sandwiches. After we came back, the train began to
6 .......................Eventually it stopped, and we had to wait for
someone to clean the leaves off the 7.........................
I’d never been on a 1
before, so I was
really excited when we got to the 2
and saw
the ship. W e went out on the 3
when we
........ , so we saw the land slowly disappear from view.
The 5........................ from Southampton to Dublin was very rough
because of a storm, I was desperate to 6
we reached Ireland and I had no idea how I was going to survive
the rest of the 7........................ !
The coach was already at the 1
SPEAKING Work in pairs. Which types of holiday
would you like to go on? Which ones wouldn't you
like to go on?
when we
arrived, so we put our luggage in the 2
3......................... I had only just put my 4..........................on
when the driver started the engine and we set off. Some of the
cars on the 5
were going very slowly, so the
driver 6
to overtake them. W e arrived very early,
so there was nobody waiting for us when we 7
Complete the texts with the correct form of the
words in exercise 1.
W e didn’t have to wait long at the 1
for our
to be announced. I only had a small suitcase, so
I took it in the 3........................ of the plane with me and put it in
the 4.........................Then we sat on the 5......................... for
nearly an hour before we 6.........................W e 7.........................
very late, so I went straight home to bed.
SPEAKING Work in pairs. Tell your partner about
the last long journey you went on.
Vocabulary bank 2 135
Vocabulary bank 3
Health problems
Complete the table with the feelings below. Which
word is the strongest in each category?
Complete the table with the symptoms below.
a h e a d a c h e * num b
sadness ■ anger
a stom ach ache
a rash
a runny nose
■ backache
2 ..................
3 ..................
4 .................
5 ..................
6 .................
2 Which adjectives in exercise 1 can go with a b it / v e ry
and which with a b s o lu te ly ? Complete 1 and 2 with
the words in each category.
Complete the dialogues with words in exercise 1.
1 a b it / v e r y .........................................................................
Complete the sentences with adjectives in exercise 1.
Sometimes more than one answer is possible.
1 She w as a b so lu tely........................................... w hen
by the joke
on m y neck and
shoulders. And now it's spreading d ow n to
found out that he had won. He couldn't believe it!
m y back. It's really3
4 M y sister's a b so lu tely........................................of
it can't
stop scratching.
spiders. She can't be in the same room as one.
that you didn't
call, but I understood w hen you told m e why.
6 I'm absolutely
H o w long has it been hurting?
Since yesterday, i had som e seafood for
have a 2
w hen he
5 I was a bit
............ I think it
lunch and it started right after that. I also
because th ey felt it w as inappropriate.
3 He w as absolutely
I’v e got a te rrib le 1
could be som ething I ate.
she failed her exams. She really w anted to go to
2 They w ere a bit
Hello, what's the matter?
with m y n ew
Have you taken anything for this?
No, nothing.
OK, let’s take a closer look ... This could be
a food allergy, I'm going to prescribe an
tablet. It's exactly w h at I wanted!
antihistamine. You should also have some
tests d o n e ...
4 SPEAKING Work in pairs. Ask and answer questions
about the feelings in exercise 1.
What makes you
feel annoyed?
I feel annoyed when my
friends are late.
G ood morning. What's the problem ?
I w as playing basketball this m orning and
fell and did som ething to m y ankle.
Oh, yes, I can see. It's v e r y 4
Yes, it's tw ice the size o f m y other ankle.
Does it hurt w h e n you walk?
Yes, it's v e r y 5
and I can’t
feel m y toes - they're com pletely
OK, this looks very serious. W e ll have to
take an X-ray...
136 Vocabulary bank 3
Work in pairs A and B. Student A is a doctor and
Student B is a patient. Use the phrases in exercise 1
and the dialogues in exercise 2 to act out your own
dialogue at the doctor's. Then change roles.
Vocabulary bank 4
Global issues
Label the photos with the words below.
clim ate ch an g e
fam ine
unem ploym ent
volcanic eruptions
Complete the table with the verb forms. Which two
verbs have the same noun form?
3 ................. for charity
cam paigner
(charity) worker
com petitor
prom oter
Complete the definitions with the nouns in exercise 1.
1 A
makes a gift of m on ey to a charity.
2 An
3 A
arranges for som ething to happen.
does a jo b in an organization that helps
other people.
4 A .................. tries to persuade others about the
im portance o f something.
5 A
takes part in a sporting event, like a race.
6 A
collects m oney fo ra charity or an
7 A
takes part in an activity.
8 A
gives som ebody m oney for charity
if that person succeeds in com pleting a particular
9 A .................. does work w ithout being paid for it.
10 A .................. leads or takes part in a campaign.
11 A
Match the global issues in exercise 1to the headlines.
12 A .................supplies products to different areas.
1 Village under water
E xtrem e w eath er continues
Millions with no money for food
Thousands o f people flocking to the city
Ash cloud stops flights
B u ild in g s f a ll a s g ro u n d m o v e s
Jobless rate highest in 20 years
10 M assive oil spill o ff the coast
Amazon trees used for packaging
shows that they agree w ith an
Complete the text with the correct forms of the
verbs or nouns in exercise 1.
The charity Oxfam has been around for over seventy
years now. Oxfam G B employs a number of paid
, but most of its helpers are unpaid
2 ................... 3
of Oxfam help
the organization in many ways. Some of them
money regularly to the charity while
others 5
fund-raising events, such
as sponsored head shaves. This is a fun activity for
everyone who 6
, from the person who
has their head shaved to th e 7
give their money. On a larger scale is the London
Marathon. Many 8
do this race to
money for charity. Oxfam uses the
money it receives to 10
against poverty
all over the world and 11
rights. The organization is also often the first to
aid in emergency situations.
Vocabulary bank 4 137
Vocabulary bank 5
Crime and punishment
Law and order
Match the compound nouns below to definitions
1- 12.
arm ed robbery
com m u n ity service
Complete the table with the prepositions below.
f o r a from
death penalty
1 - - - -
have the right
rob som ebody
sentence som ebody
take account
2 being killed for a crime
3 ..................
gang violence
knife crim e
speeding fine
house arrest
life sentence
internet fraud
petty theft
prison term
traffic offence
1 com m itting crimes using physical force in a group
3 being a prisoner in the place w here you live
be responsible
deter som ebody
4 breaking the rules w hen you're driving
blam e som ebody
prohibit som ebody
5 having to help others in a particular area
punish som ebody
release som ebody
6 using a gun to steal som ething
7 carrying a sharp w eapon to threaten people
8 having to pay m oney for driving too fast
Match the verbs and prepositions in exercise 1to
definitions 1-12.
9 a period o f tim e in jail
10 cheating som ebody online to get m oney or goods
2 to say that som ething is som ebody's fault
11 having to stay in prison until death
3 to let som eb od y co m e ou t o f a place
12 stealing som ething minor
4 to think that som ething is good
1 to steal som ething
5 to cause som ething
Complete the table with the words in exercise 1.
6 to consider the facts w hen making a decision
7 to say that you have d on e som ething wrong
8 to give a punishm ent officially in court
9 to make som ebody suffer because th ey have done
som ething w rong
10 to be able to do som ething by law
11 to use authority to stop som ething being done
12 to make som ebody decide not to d o som ething
Match the compound nouns in exercise 1to the
Three months for vandals who destroyed museum
Murderer to be executed for his crimes
C a r d rive rs to pay € 5 00 fo r going o ve r th e lim it
S e r ia l o ffe n d e r to s p e n d th e re s t o fh is d a y s in j a i l
Hlega^amings^enM o^^
M a n tric k e d into postin g b an k d eta ils on w ebsite
M odel s e n te n c e d t o p ick up ru b b ish fo r 1 0 4 h o u rs
Teenager stabbed on crowded city street
Opposition leader told to stay at home
10 Bank clerk held at gunpoint
while safe is emptied
Group of teenag ers terrorize
own neighbourhood
Youth grabs small change from
supermarket till
138 Vocabulary bank 5
Complete the text with the correct prepositions.
Police have found the man they believe is responsible
the car thefts in Ivybridge, Devon. They
think that the suspect, 18-year-old Larry Anderson, has
robbed at least ten of the villagers 2
their cars in the last three months. Anderson was
caught breaking into an Audi last night. He admitted
the crime on the spot, although police
told him he had the rig h t4
remain silent.
Many of the residents of the village blame the
boy's parents 5
his crimes. Anderson's
father was recently released 6
after serving a long sentence for armed robbery. His
mother has been repeatedly punished 7
shoplifting. It is said that both parents approved
their son's life of crime and they never
prohibited him 9
taking other people's
property, even when he was a child.
Residents know that the court may take account
Anderson's situation, but they hope
thatthejudge will sentence him 11
a long
term in prison, which will deter him 12
stealing in the future.
Vocabulary bank 6
Types of advertising
Match the words below to definitions 1-12.
endorsem ent
slogan ı spam
classified ad
flyer ı jingle
Complete the sentences with the nouns below.
com m ercial
pop-up ad
stealth marketing
1 They'll put the n e w product on th e
1 a short piece o f music used in an advert
2 TV can have an
2 a very large board used for advertising
3 There's a discount if you m ake a
3 a phrase that is easy to rem em ber
on children's behaviour.
to th e
value of €50 or more.
4 a strategy in w hich people d o not realize a product is
being advertised
I took the shoes back and th ey g a ve me a
5 You never g ive m e a
on m y birthday.
5 a statem ent by a famous person about a product
6 They're d o in g som e
into n e w materials.
6 a long, narrow advertisem ent on a website
7 a small piece o f paper used for advertising
with a product
don't buy it again.
8 an advertisem ent on the radio or on television
8 I didn't tak e a
9 a small advertisem ent in a newspaper
.........- 1tried it on first.
9 Adverts often m ake a
10 unw anted advertising material sent by email
11 an advert on a w ebsite that opens in a n e w w in d o w
12 a design used by a com pan y to identify it
People w h o h ave a bad
they can't keep.
10 I he n e w fashions are put on
2 Complete the text with the correct form of the
by the door.
Complete the table with the verb phrases in exercise 1.
words in exercise 1.
The first advertisements were pictures on large boards
advertising the profession of a tradesman.These
1..................... were hung outside houses in the
Middle Ages. After the invention of printing, adverts
were printed on 2
to be handed out in
the street. With the emergence of newspapers, the first
3..................... appeared, listing houses and goods
for sale.The nineteenth century saw the formation of
companies and in 1876 a British drinks manufacturer
registered the first4..................... : a red triangle.The
first celebrity 5..................... occurred around this time
with a famous actress advertising the products of a soap
manufacturer The 1920s brought the invention of the
radio and soon the first6.....................appeared.These
were often accom panied by a catch y 7..................... ,
which people associated with the product. In the 1950s
television began and TV advertising followed soon
afterwards. Some adverts included phrases, such as 'Put
a tiger in your tank', a 8
used by a petrol
company. Advertising spread to the internet in the 1990s
and companies paid for9
to appear
down the side of web pages and 10
flash up on the screen. At the same time, people started
receiving 11
in their email accounts.The
latest strategy is 12
which targets people
without them realizing it. Who knows what advertisers will
think up next?
Rewrite the sentences so that the second sentence
has a similar meaning to the first one. Use the
phrases in exercise 2.
1 They’ll sho w the n e w products in the shop w indow .
They’l l ........................................... in the shop window.
2 Their most loyal custom ers receive a gift every year.
Every year, t h e y ......................................... to their most
loyal customers.
3 They tested it before th ey started selling it.
They tested it before t h e y ...............................................
They’re looking into colours.
T h e y 'r e ....................................................... into colours.
5 Som ething bad happened in that restaurant.
I ........................................................... in that restaurant.
6 W e bought som ething in th e sales.
W e ................................................................ in the sales.
7 I got m y m on ey back for the tickets.
T h e y ......................................................... for the tickets.
8 She’s putting her life in danger by driving fast.
She’s .........................................................by driving fast.
9 She said that she w ou ld call every day.
S h e ....................................................... to call every day.
10 W eather often affects sales figures.
W e a th e r.................................................on sales figures.
SPEAKING Work in pairs. Which type of adverts do
you come across on a typical day and where do you
see them?
I see a banner as soon as I turn on my computer.
Vocabulary bank 6
Vocabulary bank 7
Food texture
Read the text. Find twelve adjectives that describe
the texture of food.
Ways of speaking
Read what the people say. Match phrases a-h to
verbs 1-8.
M y fav o u rite sta rte r is
viehyssoise. T h is is a c o ld
so u p m ad e o f leeks, p o tato es
a n d o n io n s. It isn 't lu m p y
b ecau se th e vegetables arc
p u re e d to m ak e it sm o o th .
T h e re are m o re vegetables
th a n liq u id , so th e so u p isn’t
ru n n y a n d it's n ic e a n d cream y because it's
m ade w ith cream .
‘(je t
( & o a .I ! ’
o u t!'
No, it isn't!
You're wrong1
I p refe r m e a t to
fish a n d there's
n o th in g b e tte r th an
a b ig ju ic y steak
th a t m elts in y o u r
m o u th — I hate
th e m w h e n they're
chew y. Steaks
so m e tim e s c o m e w ith salad, b u t I like th e m best
w ith a plate o f h o t c ru n c h y ch ip s - th ey d o n 't
taste so g o o d i f th e chips arc oily.
‘ We.'re. b o re d !
Shhh ... i t 's
A ,re we ither-e y e t/”
a se cre t.'
‘UhjXf CL
ogeat uhzaS
M y fav o u rite dessert is a
p iece o f c h o c o la te b ro w n ie
w ith th ic k c h o c o la te sauce.
If th e b ro w n ie isn 't fresh, it
can b e crum bly, w h ic h isn't
so g o o d . T h e best b ro w n ies
are soft a n d m o ist a n d this
dessert really is th e b est w ay
to finish o f f a m eal.
'I d-d-don't
1 argue
2 cheer
3 exclaim
4 shout
5 sigh
6 stam m er
7 w hine
8 whisper
Match the verbs in exercise 1to definitions 1-8.
Match the adjectives in exercise 1 to definitions 1-12.
1 say in a loud voice
1 making a sound w hen you bite it
2 say very quietly so that o th er people cannot hear
2 containing a lot o fju ice and goo d to eat
3 say w ith difficulty, repeating sounds or words
3 having more liquid than is usual
4 say in an annoying, com plaining voice
4 that easily breaks into ve ry small pieces
5 say loudly to show support
5 a liquid that doesn't flow very easily
6 say w hile letting ou t a long d eep breath
6 a mixture w ithout any lumps
7 say suddenly and loudly
7 a liquid containing pieces that are solid
8 say angrily w h e n you don't agree
8 slightly w et
10 containing cream so that it is thick and smooth
SPEAKING Work in pairs. Think of another phrase
for each of the verbs in exercise 1.
11 needing to be ch ew e d a lot before it can be
Stop!' he shouted.
9 changing shape easily w hen pressed
12 containing a lot o f oil
Work in pairs. Think of more food items for each
of the adjectives in exercise 1 and write a sentence
about them.
Mashed potato can be lumpy if you don't make it properly.
140 Vocabulary bank7
Vocabulary bank 8
Gender-neutral job titles
Label the photos with the words below.
■ actress
postm an
h ea d m a ste r*p o lice w o m a n
Read the text and find ten phrasal verbs related to
sportswom an
■ stewardess
Aung San Suu Kyi w as born in Myanmar in 1945,
but she and her m other w ent to live in India when
she w as fifteen. She didn't return to her homeland
until 1988, when her m other was ve ry ill. A t the time
the people o f Myanmar w e re taking on the country’s
ruler because they w anted political reforms. O n her
return, Ms Suu Kyi became their leader and together,
they stepped up the campaign. Like Martin Luther King,
Ms Suu Kyi encouraged her supporters to engage in a
non-violent campaign. However, the authorities fought
back hard and in the end, the arm y gained powenThey
held elections in 1990, which Ms Suu Kyi's party won.
But the army refused to give in to public opinion and
they put Ms Suu Kyi under house arrest. In 1999, she
rejected the offer to visit her sick husband in the UK,
because she thought the governm ent might throw her
out o f M yanm ar Ms Suu Kyi was under house arrest
fo r fifteen years, but she didn't back down on her
ideas. People abroad stood up for her throughout her
arrest and, eventually, the governm ent eased off the
restrictions.W hen n ew elections w e re held in 2010
Ms Suu Kyi's party w on again, but this time, the army
had to face up to her popularity. Ms Suu Kyi is now a
free w om an and she is finally able to participate in the
politics o f h er country.
Match the gender-neutral words below to the jobs
in exercise 1.
flight attendant
police officer
postal worker
h ead teach er
shop assistant
Match the phrasal verbs in exercise 1 to definitions
1- 10.
1 to adm it that you have been defeated
2 to attack som ebody w h o has attacked you
3 to take back an opinion that people are strongly
opposed to
Complete the sentences with the correct form of the
gender-neutral job titles in exercise 2.
4 to support or defend som ething
5 to accept and deal w ith som ething difficult
6 to force som ebody to leave a place
1 .............................. are investigating the crime.
7 to fight against som ebody
2 T h e .............................. forgot her lines during the play.
8 to increase the am ount o f som ething
3 W e asked t h e .............................. w h at tim e the plane
9 to take part in som ething
w ou ld arrive.
10 to becom e or make som ething less strong
4 The student was sent to see t h e ...............................
5 They interviewed t h e ............................. after she w o r
the race.
6 A
m ade a statem ent on behalf of
the com pany.
7 W e asked a .............................. the price o f the phone.
3 Think of a conflict that you know about. Write
sentences about it using the phrasal verbs in
exercise 2.
Students are taking on the government over cuts in
..... rescued five people from the
9 I asked t h e .............................. if he had any letters for
Vocabulary bank 8 141
Vocabulary bank 9
Choose the word that cannot be used with the verbs.
1 attach
im agery
a a docu m en t
b a file
c a folder
rhym e
d a session
2 click on
a a button b a com puter
a an account
c an im age
d a link
sym bol
them e
1 a piece of writing arranged in short lines
b a button
2 a group of lines that form a unit of a poem
c a com m ent
3 a regular repeated pattern o f sound
d an email
4 a word that has th e same sound as another
4 d o w n lo ad
b a g am e
c an im age
5 the subject o fa piece of writing
d a router
6 an object that represents something
5 install
a a com m en t
b a firewall
7 the practice o f giving hum an qualities to an animal,
c a program
object or thing
d software
8 a phrase used in an im aginative w a y to show that
6 log into
a an account
b a mistake
c a router
one thing has the same qualities as another
d a website
9 a phrase that com pares on e thing to another using
7 log o u t of
a a com puter
b a g am e
the words'like'or'as'.
c a message
10 language that produces pictures in the minds o f the
d a session
person reading
8 post
a a com m en t
b a message
11 writing arranged in lines that have a definite rhythm
c a program
and often finish w ith the same sound
d a photo
12 ordinary language used in speech or writing
9 share
a an article
b a firewall
a photo
d a video
10 update
a an app
b your profile
John Keats is one of the most famous
figures in English literature. Unlike
11 u pload
a an account
b a picture
c a song
d a video
authors like Charles Dickens whose
major works were in 1........................
, Keats w as a poet and so he wrote in
12 u ndo
a an action
Complete the text with the correct form of the
words in exercise 1.
c a mistake
d your status
m etaphor
3 d e le te
a a film
Match the words below to definitions 1-12.
b a change
c a post
d a picture
2.......................... The 3..........................
To A u tu m n is probably one of his
greatest works. It has three 4
of eleven lines and each line has a regular 5.......................
Complete the text with the verbs in exercise 1.
The first thing I do every m orning is turn on my
com puter and check my emails. 11
the ones that I don’t need to keep and reply to those
that need dealing with. W hen people ask m e for
docum ents, I open a window, 2
file a n d 3
the docum ent to an email.
W hen I’ve dealt with my emails, 14
my favourite social networking website to see what
my friends are up to. 15
my status
and then I look at my wall. I often 6
com m ents on my friends' walls but I sometimes
spell som ething wrong. W hen that happens, I
the post and start again. W henever I
take photos, 18
them onto my profile
and 9
them with my friends. I'm quite
security-conscious about using the internet, so I
always 10
the site before I start work.
1 11
quite a lot of games and videos,
so last year, I decided to 12
a better
firewall on my computer.
. The 6
schem e is variable, although the
final words of the first and third lines and the second and
fourth lines always have the sam e sound.
The 7........................ of To A u tu m n is the end of life and
Keats uses the season of winter as a 8
death itself. He uses 9
in nearly every line
to fill the reader’s mind with pictures of the four seasons.
The most obvious example is the 10........................ of
autumn as a goddess who helps the trees grow and fills
them with fruit. There are numerous 11........................ ,
for example the mention of lambs in spring to represent
life, and at the end of the second verse, Keats uses a
12........................ to com pare autumn to a kind of farm
Match the words in exercise 1to examples 1-6.
1 Her hom e w as a prison.
2 The m oon shone like a bright light.
3 The guitar w as playing its o w n tune.
4 Tiger, tiger, burning bright
In the forests of the night.
SPEAKING Work in pairs. Which websites do you
use most often? How do you use them?
5 It was a bright, cold day in April and the clocks w ere
I use a social networking site to chat with my friends. I log
in to the site every morning ...
6 A black bird flew above m y head.
142 Vocabulary bank 9
striking thirteen.
Vocabulary bank 10
The arts
Organizing a festival
Complete the table with the people below.
an actor
an artist / a painter
a com poser ■ a designer
a playwright
a poet
a biographer
a musician
a novelist
a scriptwriter
a sculptor
a singer
Match the verbs in A to the words in B to make
collocations related to organizing a festival. Then
match the collocations to the definitions.
a venue
a perform ance
a stall
writes plays / com edies / tragedies.
an event
writes poem s / poetry.
a catering service
writes scripts for films.
to an audience
on stage
writes biographies.
writes novels /fiction.
Performing arts
stars / has a role in a film / play.
com poses / writes music.
a g oo d vantag e point
m anage
a festival
plays an instrument.
gives a perform ance / a recital.
1 arrange a public occasion
performs / sings a song / an aria.
2 search for a place to hold an event
Visual arts
11 ...............
3 perform in front o f people
paints a picture / a painting / a portrait,
be th e main performer at an event
d ra w s / d o e s a sketch.
interest people
creates / does a sculpture,
6 find a place w here you can see everything
sculpts a work.
7 carry out procedures that keep people safe
carves objects out o f w o o d / stone,
8 find people to d o unpaid work
shapes figures ou t o f clay.
9 sell things from a table or a small shop
designs dresses / furniture / posters.
10 be present at a play or a concert
11 happen
Complete the headlines with the activities in exercise 1.
Sometimes more than one answer is possible.
12 sell food and drinks at an event
Complete the text with the collocations in exercise 1.
in London’s West End
The organizers of a music festival have a lot to think about
for Olympic Games
before they1......................... First o f all, they have to fix the
date when they want the festival to 2........................ Then
for film soundtrack
they have to 3........................ that suits the season they have
chosen: indoor for the winter outdoor for the summer Next,
M usician
in underground
about plane crash
they have to speak to the bands they want to 4.........................
They need to book groups who 5........................ forthe
P a in te r
Biog rapher
S c u lp t o r
festival to be a success, but the big acts who 6.......................
can sometimes be expensive.They also need to take into
o f Q ueen
consideration how many people will 7........................ o f the
bands. In a crowd, it can be impossible to 8.......................
of fam o us a cto r
o u t o f ic e
to see the stage. In addition, they may need to contract a
company to 9....................... , so that people do not enter
without a ticket.They will need to contract another company
for Avatar sequel
to 10........................ with food and refreshments forthe
ticket holders. A cheaper option is to 11.......................
for millionaire’s wife
from the organizers'families and friends.These people can
12........................ that offers sandwiches and soft drinks.
N o v e lis t
se t o n p la n et M a rs
on balcony of hotel
SPEAKING Work in pairs. Think of examples forthe
people in exercise 1.Tell a partner.
SPEAKING Work in pairs. Tell a partner about a
festival that is held in your city or country.
I attended the performance of the Stone Roses in Heaton
Park last month.
Alfred Ainqer was a famous English biographer.
Vocabulary bank 10 143
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G r a m m a r r e f e r e n c e a n d p r a c t ic e 1
1.1 Present sim ple and present
Complete the sentences. Use the present
continuous form of the verb in brackets.
1 Right now, I ........................
Present simple
in the Clock
Cafe, (sit)
2 Som e wild an im a ls..........................................more
A f fir m a tiv e
base form o f verb (+ -s / -es for third
used to people, (becom e)
person singular)
N e g a t iv e
don't / doesn't -t- infinitive
Q u e s t io n s
do / does it subject it infinitive
3 Ollie
4 W h a t m u s ic .......................................... to on your
p h one? (you / listen)
5 I .......................................... anything im portant right
He always wears designer clothes.
Fashions and customs don't always stay the same.
Po you like tattoos? Yes, I do. / No, l don't.
now. (not do)
6 W e .......................................... w ith our grandparents
this w eek because o f the bad weather, (not stay)
very hot in here, isn't it?
8 M agazines...........................................us w ith images
habits and everyday routines,
o f beautiful young people, (always / bom bard)
facts and general truths.
Choose the correct sentence endings.
1 He annoys m e because he
a is always looking at his mobile,
W e use the following tim e expressions with the present
b alw ays looks at his mobile.
simple: always, everyday, often, regularly, usually, sometimes,
2 The text is in Germ an, so I
hardly ever, never.
W e use the present sim ple to talk about:
states. Som e verbs that describe states are believe, hate,
have, know, like, need, prefer, see, seem, think understand,
about his girlfriend.
It's really annoying, (alw ays/talk)
a don't understand it.
b am not understanding it.
Choose the correct answers.
1 At w h at tem perature is / does w ater freeze?
3 Ju lie loves make-up. In fact, she
a is wearing it every day.
2 I'm n o t / don 't like the idea o f cosm etic surgery.
3 Paul don 't / d oesn't always do his homework.
4 Helen and Rosie w a tc h / w atch es a lot o f television.
b wears it every day.
4 I'd love to help you, but
a I'm making lunch at the m om ent,
5 M y m um goes / g o to th e gym every Friday.
6 W e hardly n e ve r / e ve r take the train.
b I make lunch at th e m om ent.
5 W h e n w ild animals are ill or injured, they
a alw ays look for a hidden place to rest.
Present continuous
b are always looking for a hidden place to rest.
I he sum m er is nearly finished and
A f fir m a tiv e
is / are i t -ing form
a it's getting dark earlier.
N e g a t iv e
isn't / aren't + -ing form
b it gets dark earlier.
Q u e s t io n s
is / are + subject + -ing form
The grass in the garden is getting very long.
I'm not wearing my hair in a ponytail today.
Are you lookinq for a particular type of jacket?
Yes, l am. / No, I'm not.
W e use the present continuous to talk about:
4 Rewrite the sentences that are incorrect.
1 G oo d morning. I look for a chic scarf as a present for
m y sister.
2 School finishes early on the last d ay o f term.
3 Ja ck and Chris are always playing that silly com puter
actions that are happening now, or around now.
I'm looking for a vintage dress,
4 W e plan a party at the moment.
tem porary situations.
I'm staying with my aunt and uncle at the moment.
5 T h ey don’t think that it's a very good idea.
changing or developing situations.
More and more people are becoming overweight,
irritating habits, often with always.
He's always playing that awful music.
6 Right now, I w atch a really interesting program m e
about teenagers in Nigeria.
7 W h y are you buying tw o skirts that are the same?
W e use the following tim e expressions with the present
continuous: right now, at the moment, nowadays, today.
104 Grammar reference and practice 1
8 He's usually seem ing very friendly and confident.
1.2 Verb patterns
W h e n tw o verbs appear together in a sentence, the first
Complete the sentences. Use the infinitive form of
the verbs in brackets, either with or without to.
on e can be followed by the infinitive (with or w ithout to)
1 W e c o u ld n 't.................................... for very long, (wait)
or th e -ing form o f the second.
2 W h e n I left, I promised
It is im portant to rem em ber the pattern for each verb.
B elow are som e of the most com m on ones.
in touch,
3 W h a t will w e
Verb it infinitive with to (decide, expect, prom ise, choose,
w ithout a
goalkeeper in our team ? (do)
seem , need, want)
4 Has Sam decided
We decided to meet outside the block Lafe.
5 You m u s t.................................... tim e to exercise every
Verb + infinitive w ithout to (shall, m ust, could, will,
our club? (join)
day. (find)
6 Charles didn't expect
You should eat less junk food.
so many
w ild animals in on e place, (see)
Verb + -ing (suggest, consider, adm it, enjoy, avoid,
I enjoyed listening to Dan's music.
Verb + infinitive or -ing (like, love, prefer)
Faula doesn't like staying up late.
Raula doesn't like to stay up late.
Complete the sentences. Use either the infinitive it
to or the -ing form of the verbs in brackets. If both
the infinitive and the -in g form are possible, write
both forms.
1 They always avoid
by train if
possible, (travel)
Som e verbs ch an g e their m eaning depending on w hether
2 I su g g ested .................................... fo ra walk, but then
th ey are followed by infinitive + to or verb + -ing.
it started to rain, (go)
These include: remember, forget, stop, try, regret.
3 Eddie loves
rem em ber + infinitive w ith to: to rem em ber that you
dinner for
everyone, (make)
need to d o something.
4 Don't f o r g e t ....................................som e milk later,
I remembered to buy milk.
will you? (buy)
rem em ber + -ing: to have a m em ory of doing something.
5 He a d m itte d .................................. the m oney, but
I remember buying milk, but l don't remember picking
up my purse in the shop.
not the jewellery, (take)
6 I can't im agine
forget it infinitive w ith to: w e forget before the action.
dinner in an
expensive restaurant, (have)
We forgot to buy a cake for Martha's birthday.
7 Jo an n a doesn't rem em ber
forget + -ing: often in the phrase will never forget, to talk
all those years ago. (m eet)
about a m em orable experience.
8 D o you catch the bus into tow n, or d o you prefer
I'll never forget spending that week in Pome.
? (walk)
stop + infinitive with to: to stop in order to do
She stopped to look in the shop window.
stop + -ing: to end an action.
She stopped looking in the window and walked off
towards the station.
fry + infinitive with to: to do your best.
I'm trying to do my homework, so can you please make
less noise?
try it -ing: to d o som ething that m ight solve a problem.
Complete the sentences. Use either the -ing form or
the infinitive form of the verbs below.
w ork
m ention
w ear
lo c k * sleep
1 I im m ediately reg retted....................................
her mistake, and I apologized.
2 Dad som etim es forgets
the door at night, so M u m always checks it.
We've tried putting oil in the lock, but we still can't open
the door.
3 Please t r y ......................................
regret + infinitive w ith to: a formal w ay o f giving bad
4 At five o'clock exactly, everyone at the factory stops
You'll be very tired tom orrow if you don't.
and goes home.
We regret to inform you that the l4.05 train to York is
5 I hope Fiona rem e m b e red ....................................
regret it -ing: to feel sorry about som ething that you did
6 W e worked in the garden all morning, and stopped
in the past.
Kate really regrets saying those things to Suzy.
the m eat ou t of the freezer last night.
....................................lunch at on e o'clock.
7 I'll never forget
such a
w onderful sum m er at Ryan's house in Canada.
8 If your feet are hurting, you should try
different shoes.
Grammar reference and practice 1 105
Grammar reference and practice 2
Past perfect
N arrative tenses
Past simple
verb + - e d /- d
didn't + infinitive
d id it subject + infinitive
h a d + past participle
hadn't + past participle
h a d + subject it past participle
Sue had remembered to brinq a torch.
I hadn't been on a coach tour before.
Had you tried a house-swap before this summer?
Yes, 1 had. / No, I hadn't.
She described the holiday in detail.
They didn't see the sights.
Pid you go backpacking? Yes, we did. / No, we didn't.
M any verbs have irregular past simple forms, e.g.
h a v e -*h a d , se e -* sa w , b u y-*b o u g h t.
W e use the past perfect to talk about:
an action or even t that happened before another action
in th e past.
W e use the past simple to talk about:
com pleted past actions or past states.
They had saved up a lot of money before they went on
the cruise.
We visited several important sites during the week,
to talk about tw o com pleted past actions, introduced
a sequence o f actions in the past.
by w hen or offer. The past perfect always refers to the
I tried to ask the man for directions in French. He
smiled at me and replied in perfect English,
action that happened first.
When / After we had checked into the hotel, we found
our room and went to bed.
past habits.
Before he bought a car, John travelled everywhere by
This is quite similar to w hen + past sim ple + past simple,
but the use of the past perfect generally suggests a longer
W e use when + past simple + past sim ple to talk about tw o
period o f tim e b etw een th e tw o actions.
co n n ected actions that happen at around the same time.
When / After Rosa had read P-achel's note, she started
When Rosa read P-ache\'s note, she started laughing.
When can appear in the middle o f the sentence, w ithout a
com m a.
Rosa started laughing when she read P-achel's note.
Choose the correct sentence in each pair.
1 a W ere you finding your w atch w hen you tidied up?
b Did you find your w atch while you w ere tidying up?
Past continuous
2 a I saw a big spider in m y sleeping bag w hen I
op en ed it.
was / were + -ing form
wasn't / weren't + -ing form
was / were + subject + -ing form
b I was seeing a big spider in m y sleeping bag w hen
I op en ed it.
3 a It was eight o'clock. The sun was setting and
people w ere enjoying the w arm evening air.
b It was eight o'clock. The sun set and people
It was raining when we arrived.
We weren't cycling very fast.
Were you waitinq very long for the coach?
Yes, we were. / No, we weren't.
enjoyed the w arm evening air.
4 a W h ile you w ere putting your bag in the overhead
locker, som ething fell out.
b W h ile you put your bag in the overhead locker,
som ething fell out.
5 a W e discussed our holiday destination w hen Sharon
W e use the past continuous to talk about:
had a great idea.
background descriptions.
The sun was shining and everyone was smiling and
Sharon had a great idea.
6 a Matilda's shoe broke w hile she w as walking around
actions in progress at a specific tim e in the past.
I was talking to a very interesting person this afternoon,
tow n, so she bought a n e w pair,
b Matilda's shoe w as breaking w hile she was walking
longer actions interrupted by shorter actions.
I was putting my bag in the luggage rack when
my phone.
b W e w ere discussing our holiday destination w hen
around tow n, so she bought a n e w pair.
7 a O n ce the plane was starting its engines, Kieran
realized that he w as very nervous,
W e use while to introduce an action in the past continuous.
While isn’t followed by the past simple.
While you were talking to Denise, Jack phoned.
W e don't use the past continuous with state verbs, e.g.
believe, need etc.
106 Grammar reference and practice 2
b O nce the plane started its engines, Kieran realized
that he w as very nervous.
One of the verbs in each sentence is wrong. Rewrite
one of the verbs in each sentence in the correct
form. Use the past simple, past continuous or past
Mum used to work as a tour guide.
It didn't use to be o r a t o r y to wear a seatbelt.
Did your grandparents use to go on a working holiday every
year? Yes, they did. / No, they didn't.
1 Dina felt disappointed w ith th e result because she
W e can use w ould + infinitive in th e same w a y as used to to
never failed an exam in her life.
talk about past habits and repeated actions.
2 The driver stopped the bus and had opened a map.
Som eo ne asked him if he w as lost.
As children, they used to play together for hours.
As children, they would play toqether for hours.
However, w ould is not used to describe past states.
3 The trip w en t really well and everyone w as having a
goo d time. Suddenly, the tour guide announced that
NOT Lranddad would be a postman when he wao younger.
W h e n w e are talking about past habits, w e generally use
w ould on ly in the affirmative.
there was a problem.
4 W h ile Em m a had taken Sam m y back to the campsite,
w e stayed on the beach and played volleyball.
5 W h e n w e arrived at the hotel, we'd decided not to
NOT We wouldn't go on holiday to the same place every year
when I was little.
NOT Would you go on holiday to the s ame place every year
when you were little?
Although w ould and used to are very similar, used to simply
expresses a fact, w hile w ould emphasizes that the action is
stay there.
typical o fa person o r a situation.
6 W h e n I cam e into the bedroom last night, you talked
in your sleep.
Complete the sentences with the correct form
of the verbs in brackets. Use the past simple,
past continuous or past perfect. If two tenses are
possible, write both forms.
When we were little, it used to rain on the first day of the
When we were little, it would always rain on the first day of
the holidays.
1 M y granny says that people
1 Ja n e .................................... (knew) the area well
because she
2 Everyone
Complete the sentences with the correct form of
u s e d to or w o u ld . If both u s e d to and w o u ld are
correct, write both forms.
be happier in the past.
(go) the year before.
(turn round) w hen
s h e .................................... (walk) into the room.
3 I rem em ber the w a y that D a d ..............................
3 W hile y o u ................................... (enjoy) your holiday,
pretend to be a tour guide w hen ever w e visited
w e .....................................(have to) look after the house.
4 S h e .................................... (speak) Spanish very well
considering s h e ....................... e v e r ..........................
(not have) any classes.
(get) to know the
Every evening at exactly seven o'clock, w e
6 In the past, m any fam ilies..............................
spend every sum m er holiday in th e same small hotel.
6 T an ia.................................... (leave) but w e
.................................... (m anage) to persuade her to
7 W h e n the traffic.................................... (move), our
tax i.................................... (speed up).
2 .2
share a bedroom with
find our cat sitting on our doorstep.
town, h e .................................... (feel) m uch safer
after w e
both your sisters?
5 W h e n Pete
8 We
I .............................. like seafood, but I eat it all the
tim e now.
(decide) to g o for a walk
Rewrite the sentences in the past. Use the correct
form of u s e d to or w o u ld . If both u s e d to and w o u ld
are possible, write both forms.
Fiona has four pairs o f sunglasses.
Leo doesn't use his m obile much.
................................. (eat).
u s e d to a n d w o u ld
3 Paul gets really scared w hen boarding a plane.
W e use used to + infinitive to talk about:
past habits that do not happen now.
When I was younq, I used to walk £ km to school
every day.
My family used to stay at the same campsite every year.
4 On long car journeys, m y little sister always says'Are
w e nearly there yet?'
5 Ja ck and Kim live in th e same street.
W e don't use used to for single actions.
My family used to stay at the same campsite every year.
NOT My family used to stay at the came campsite last July.
6 Do you and Lisa know each other?
Grammar reference and practice 2 107
Grammar reference and practice 3
3.1 Past sim ple and present
P a st sim ple
P re s e n t p e rfe c t
Note that it is possible to use H o w long with a past simple
verb and for, but w e can't use since in the past simple
How long did Tom have the rash for? (Tom no longer has
the rash.)
For actions that happened
For actions that happened
at a specific point in the
at som e point in the past;
He had it for a month.
NOT He had it since February.
past, usually with a tim e
the tim e is unknow n or
The verb g o has tw o past participle forms: been and gone.
Lee went to Fortugal last
Larrie has stayed at that
hotel twice.
W e use been w hen w e know that som eone has returned
For situations that
For actions or states that
happened in a period of
began in the past and
tim e that has ended.
that continue up to the
I lived in Germany from
present, usually w ith for or
2002 to ZOOle.
Freda has worked here for
several years.
Jim has been a teacher
since 2.0I0.
from a trip. W e use g one w hen th ey have not returned.
Josh has been to India. (= He is back now.)
Josh has gone to India. (= He is still in India.)
In the past simple, there is only on e form for the past
o f go: went.
Josh went to India last year. (W e don't know if he cam e
back, or if he is still there.)
W e can use the past sim ple or the present perfect with time
expressions, such as: today, this morning, this evening, this
W ith past tim e references,
W ith ever, never, already,
w eek this year, etc. Com pare th e sentences:
such as yesterday, la s t. . .
ju s t and yet.
I wrote three emails this morning. (The speaker is talking in
and ... ago.
Have you ever been here
No. I've never been here in
my life.
Have the girls arrived yet?
Isabel has already arrived.
Kirsty has iust got here, but
Suzy hasn't arrived yet.
the evening, so the period o f tim e has ended.)
We finished our exams last
Karen started her new
school a few days ago.
W ith tim e references such
W ith tim e references such
as this m orning, today and
as this m orning, today and
this w eek to talk about
this week to talk about the
som ething that happened
w h o le of that period of
in a part o f that period that
tim e up to now.
is finished.
I saw Fred this morning.
I haven't seen Fred this
morning. (It is still the
(The m orning is finished.)
Pid Laura phone today?
Has Laura phoned today?
(It is n ow the evening, so
(It is still the daytime.)
I've written three emails this morning. (The speaker is
talking in the morning, so the period o f tim e continues.)
Choose the correct sentence endings.
1 It's tw o o'clock in the afternoon. Leo usually phones
at ten o'clock
a but he didn't phone me this morning,
b but he hasn't phoned m e this morning.
I'm trying to con tact m y old penfriend but
a she m oved to a n e w city.
b she has m oved to a n e w city.
3 They keep getting lost because
a th ey haven't been here before,
b th ey didn't go here before.
I've stopped going skating because
a I've broken m y leg the last tim e I went,
b I broke m y leg the last tim e I went.
5 She didn't buy a coat in the market because
the main part of'today'is
a she didn't find anything suitable there.
b she hasn't found anything suitable there.
W ith the question form
W ith the question form
H o w long a g o . . . ?
H ow lo n g . . . ? and w ith for
How long ago did Tom
break his leg?
He broke it two years ago.
or since.
How long have you had
that rash?
I've had it for a month /
since February.
108 Grammar reference and practice 3
6 It's strange. I can't find Simon, but he
a was here a fe w minutes ago.
b has been here a few minutes ago.
Complete the sentences. Use the present perfect or
past simple form of the verbs below.
n o te a t
com e
1 I know you live in England now, but h o w long
........................ y o u ......................... in Ireland for?
2 The Ro m an s........................ to Britain over tw o
can som etim es be used w ith little difference in meaning,
especially w ith verbs that express a continuous action such
as w ait, live, w ork + for or since.
He's waited a long time for this moment.
He's been waiting a long time for this moment.
However, the present perfect can tell us that an action finished
recently, while the present perfect continuous emphasizes the
thousand years ago.
3 Grandad
4 Harry
The present perfect and the present perfect continuous
in hospital since last week.
every m orning for a year, and he
isn't going to stop now.
5 H o w long ag o
your parents
....................... married?
I've done my homework. (I recently finished my homework.)
I've been doing my homework. (That is h ow I’ve spent my
tim e until just now.)
The present perfect continuous can't be used w ith state
6 M y aunt and uncle
to India for six
months. They gave m e this lovely souvenir.
7 H o w long
activity itself.
y o u ........................ your pet
verbs, e.g. be, like, believe, have.
I've been a teacher since ZOOB.
NOT I've been being a teacher since 2.0 0 &.
The present perfect continuous isn't used to say h o w often
8 W e had a sandwich last night but w e ........................
som ething happened.
They've visited us many times.
NOT They've been visiting us many times:
since then.
3.2 ■Present p erfect continuous
Affirmative and negative
Complete the sentences using the present perfect
continuous form of the verbs below.
w ait
not study
at this bus stop for half
an hour.
haven't been
have been
2 You're soaking wet! W h a t .............................. you
.............................. 7
watching T V
3 M a rc ia .......................................... to her friend
has been
on the phone since 530.
hasn't been
4 M a rk .......................................... very hard for his exam.
5 W e ........................................ extra lessons to
Questions and short answers
help us w ith our maths.
Yes, 1have.
No, 1haven't.
been w atching
Yes, he has.
No, she hasn't.
fatter over
th e past few decades.
I he population
Choose the correct sentence. Sometimes, both are
1 a W e're late because w e've been helping Dad clean
th e garage.
b We're late because w e've helped Dad d e a n the
W e use the present perfect continuous to talk about:
a situation or action that began in the past and is still in
progress. The emphasis is on th e duration of the activity.
W e can use for and since to show how long.
You've been writing that letter for three hours,
an action that has happened repeatedly in the past and
that is still happening now.
Pan's been taking guitar lessons,
a very recent action w hich has either just finished or
w hich has just been interrupted; the present perfect
continuous often introduces a reason or explanation.
Kate and Lucy have been playing tennis.
I'm tired because I've been working all day.
2 a The Fielding fam ily have lived in this area for at
least a century.
b The Fielding family have been living in this area for
at least a century.
3 a I've had a headache since lunchtime.
b I've been having a headache since lunchtime.
4 a Ben's been writing a science fiction story. In fact,
he's nearly finished it.
b Ben's w ritten a science fiction story. In fact, he's
nearly finished it.
5 a It's been raining, so the grass is quite wet.
b It's rained, so the grass is quite wet.
6 a The reason I'm covered in flour is because I've
m ade biscuits.
b The reason I'm covered in flour is because I've
been making biscuits.
Grammar reference and practice 3 109
Grammar reference and practice 4
4.1 Expressing th e future
Present simple
g o in g to
W e use be + going to to talk about:
Ben's going to join a qym.
W e use the present simple to talk about future events that
are fixed because th ey are based on a schedule, calendar or
predictions about the future based on som ething w e
can see in the present.
Rete's flight lands at It.oo tomorrow morning.
What time does the film start?
Present continuous
W e use the present continuous to talk about personal
Look at the sky. It's going to be a beautiful day.
Com pare:
g oin g to
They aren't going to stay very long.
(That is their intention.)
w ill/ won't They won't stay very long. (I predict this.)
arrangem ents for a future day or date.
I'm meetinq up with Olivia tonight.
I'm not doing anything later.
the present continuous w hen talking about the future.
Choose the correct words.
We're goinq to have a party next weekend.
We're having a party next weekend.
1 W e h ave / are having a m eeting tom orrow to discuss
W e use the present continuous to talk about a definite plan
h o w to raise funds.
2 According to the timetable, the drama group
rehearses / is rehearsing at six o'clock.
3 W h at d o you d o / a r e you doing later?
4 D oes e v e ry o n e g o / Is e ve ry o n e going to Luke's
party on Saturday?
Som etim es there is little difference b etw een g oin g to and
for w hich the arrangem ents have been made. And w e use
g oin g to to show that the plan is only an intention.
m ay
/ m ig h t
W e use m ay or m ight w h e n w e are less certain about the
future. Although m ay is considered to be m ore definite
5 They d on 't h old / aren't holding a m eeting this week.
than m ight, there is, in fact, very little difference in m eaning
6 The football m atch ends / is en d in g at 7.00, so w e
b etw een the tw o words.
can w atch the film afterwards.
Rewrite the sentences. Use the present simple or the
present continuous form of the verbs in brackets.
1 Ja n and Kim have decided to go to Amy's party on
not g o
fall: not take
1 I hope th is ........................ a long time. I'm very busy.
Saturday, (go)
It is clear that further drought
serious problems in the area.
2 Sarah has just bought a plane ticket for a flight to
3 Look at that man! H e ........................ off the roof!
Madrid next Tuesday, (fly)
4 We
to the m eeting. W e've g ot too
m uch work to do.
3 The plane's departure tim e is 0920. (leave)
5 Clean w a te r........................ p rob ab ly.........................
the biggest difference to the people in the village.
4 The sum m er lecture program m e is scheduled to
6 They
begin on 15 June, (start)
5 M att and Jam ie have booked a badm inton court for
Complete the sentences with the correct form of w ill
or b e g o in g to and one of the verbs below.
a cam paign to help prom ote the
Match 1-8 to a-h to make sentences.
later, (play)
1 I’v e g ot a cold, so I probably
2 Sarah and I w on't be at the picnic, but w e
w ill
3 It's great news. We're
W e use will and w o n t to talk about:
promises and hopes for the future, often with verbs like
hope, expect or prom ise + that (you can om it that).
hope (that) you'll be very happy here.
W e can also use the infinitive w ith to after these verbs.
We hope to arrange another meeting soon,
predictions, often after / think or /don't th in k or future
facts that w e are certain about.
I don't think it will be difficult to pass this exam.
That plant won't survive for long without water,
future facts that w e are less certain about, w ith probably.
We will probably go to the park, but it depends on the
110 Grammar reference and practice 4
4 G ood luck. I hope I
5 Mike isn't sure, but he thinks
I he tem perature is dropping. It
7 Carla isn't certain, but she
8 They intended to join us on the protest, but they
m ight m eet us later
aren’t going to com e now.
w on't g o sw im m ing later,
the jou rn ey will take about three hours,
going to g et a dog, at last,
m ay see you at Jack's party,
g 'll see you again soon,
h 's going to be very cold tonight.
4.2 Future p erfect and future
Future continuous
Affirmative and negative
Future perfect
Affirmative and negative
H e / S h e / It
will be
w on't be
H e / S h e / It
will have
w on't have
helping m any people.
helped m any people.
Questions and short answers
Questions and short answers
h e / s h e / it
h e / s h e / it
have helped
m any people?
No, they
Yes, you
be helping
m any
Yes, you
No, they
w o n ’t.
W e use the future continuous with a future tim e expression
to talk about actions that will be in progress at a definite
tim e in the future.
W e use the future perfect to talk about:
I'll be travelling to Africa this time next week.
an action that will be com pleted before a definite time
in the future.
It is not always necessary to use a future tim e expression,
particularly if the tim efram e is clear from the context.
W e often use by + a tim e expression to say w hen the action
Will you be helping out at the event? (som e tim e betw een
will be finished.
the start and the end o f the event)
The traffic situation will have improved by eleven o'clock,
ball Lh ris tomorrow. He'll have had more time to think
about the idea by then.
W e can also use before it tim e expression.
1 a The concert finishes at 9.00.
Lhris won't have made his decision before tomorrow.
A tim e expression is not always necessary, however.
b At 8.59, the c o n c e rt..................................................
2 a W e leave school at 3.45.
I hope that we won't have done all that hard work for
The campaign will raise awareness of the issue, but in the
end, what will it have achieved?
Complete sentence b so that it has a similar
meaning to sentence a. Use the future perfect or
future continuous tense.
Complete the sentences with the future perfect
form of the verbs in brackets.
1 By four o'clock this afternoon, Olivia
b B y 4.00,1.
................... school.
3 a Nick is going to arrive hom e later than 12.00.
b Nick
h om e by 11.55.
4 a It's eleven o'clock. At eleven o'clock tom orrow, she's
flying to Lisbon.
b This tim e tom orrow s h e ...........................................
to Lisbon.
5 a The package will take several weeks to arrive,
....................................her driving test, (take)
b The p a c k a g e .................................................by
2 W ait until tom orrow to speak to Mark. He
.................................... his mind up before then, (not
make up)
6 a The protest begins tom orrow m orning at 9 a.m.
and continues all day.
3 By this tim e tom orrow, Mr R e e d ....................................
b By 9.30 tom orrow, the protest
across th e English Channel, (swim)
4 By the end o f this essay, I .................................... over
tw o thousand words, (write)
your exam results
by this tim e tom orrow ? (receive)
6 By this tim e on Friday, I ..................................
this film
six times, (see)
Grammar reference and practice 4
Grammar reference and practice 5
5.1 First and second conditionals
Second conditional
W e use the second conditional to talk about an im aginary
First conditional
or unlikely situation and its im agined result.They can
W e use the first conditional to talk about a real or very likely
describe present and future situations. The past forms are
action or situation and its probable result in the present or
used to show the situation is different from reality.
If you apologized to Laura,
she would forgive you.
If you lie a lot,
he will never believe you.
If + past simple,
w ould (or W) + infinitive
If t- present simple,
w ill it infinitive
If l lived in Africa,
my life would be different.
W e can put th e condition clause first. There is no comma.
In the same w a y as for first conditional sentences, the result
He will never believe you
can com e first.
if you lie a lot.
My life would be different
if I lived in Africa.
w ill + infinitive
if+ present simple
w ould (o r 'd) it infinitive
if+ past simple
Remember: in the condition clause, i f is followed by the
present simple, even though the verb can refer to the
It is possible to use other modals in the result clause.
If l said what I really thought, they might get offended.
If we miss the train, well be late for school.
NOT If we'll miss the train ...
W e can also use unless in second conditional sentences.
In the result clause, w e can use other modal verbs apart
from will.
If you tell the truth all the time, you might offend people.
W e can use were instead o f was, especially in formal style.
1 wouldn't say that if it wasn't / weren't true.
It is possible to use a negative verb in either or both parts of
Make second conditional sentences using the
correct form of the verbs in brackets.
a conditional sentence.
1 If t h e y .................................................(have) more
If you don't arrive on time, l won't wait for you.
money, t h e y .................................................(spend)
more on the campaign.
Instead o f if, w e can use unless. Unless means if som ething
2 T e d .................................................(be) happier if he
does n o t happen.
.................................................(live) in a hot country.
If shops don't do something to stop shoplifting, we will all
have to pay higher prices.
Unless shops do something to stop shoplifting, we will all
have to pay higher prices.
If C laire .................................................(work) harder,
s h e .................................................(do) better in her
If I .................................................(not w ant) to com e, I
.................................................(tell) you.
5 E v a n .............................................. (not accuse) her
Choose the correct sentence endings.
unless h e .................................................(have) a good
1 If w e leave now,
a w e be in tim e for the bus.
b w e ll be in tim e for the bus.
6 W e ................................................. (walk) there if it
................................................ (not be) so far.
2 If you don't study for these exams,
a you m ight pass them .
b you m ight not pass them .
3 You'll need to have a good reason
a if you accuse som eone o f something,
b if you'd accuse som eone of something.
Rewrite the first and second conditional sentences
that are incorrect. In the incorrect sentences, only
one verb is wrong.
1 If you told David the truth, he w ouldn't believe it.
4 Unless w e do something,
a the thief will g et aw a y with it.
b the thief won't get aw a y with it.
2 If w e have tim e on our trip next week, w e visit the
fam ous castle.
5 I’ll call Lucy at three o'clock
a unless she'll call m e before then,
b unless she calls m e before then.
6 If he continues to behave like this,
a his friends won't put up w ith it.
b his friends wouldn't put up with it.
3 You w ouldn't like it if I tell you lies.
4 If you see Rachel, you’ll notice that there is som ething
different about her.
5 It will be a great end to the even t unless som ething
will g o wrong.
Grammar reference and practice 5
5.2 M odals of obligation,
prohibition and perm ission
W e use the m odal verbs can (can't), m a y (m ay not), m ust
Rewrite the sentences. Use m u st, m u stn 't, h a v e to
or d o n 't h a v e to . If more than one answer is correct,
write both forms.
(mustn't) and have to (don't have to) to talk about obligation,
Y o u .................................... w ait for Lizzie.
prohibition and permission.
ca n
I think it is necessary that you w ait for Lizzie.
and m a y
It isn’t necessary that you eat all your lunch.
Y o u .................................... eat all your lunch.
3 Our teacher thinks it is necessary that w e speak to the
W e can use the modal verbs can and m ay to give som eone
police officer.
permission to d o som ething or to say w h at is allow ed in
W e .....................................speak to the police officer.
general. M a y is more formal than can.
When you reach the aqe of eighteen, you can / may vote.
It is against the law for people to cross the road here.
It is a rule that everyone is quiet in a library.
P e o p le .................................... cross the road here.
c a n 't
and m a y n o t
Ev e ry o n e .................................... be quiet in a library.
W e use the negative forms can't and m ay n o t to refuse
6 It's O K if I don’t g o to bed early on a Friday.
som eone permission or to say w h at is not allowed.
I .................................... g o to bed early on a Friday.
In the UK, people may not / can't get married until the age
of sixteen.
It's really im portant that I'm not late hom e today.
I .................................... be late h om e today.
m u st
and m u s tn 't
8 It's com pulsory for children to do sport three times a
w eek at school.
W e use m u st to talk about a rule, or som ething that is
C h ild ren ..................................do sport three
necessary to do.
times a w eek at school.
You must be more careful with your things.
W e use mustn't to talk about som ething that people are not
allow ed to do.
People mustn't park their cars here. There's a car park
around the corner.
h a v e to
and d o n 't h a v e
W e can use have to in a similar w ay to must.
You have to ask permission to leave the room during lesson
W e use don't have to to talk about som ething that isn’t
necessary for people to do. However, th ey can do it if they
w an t to.
s h o u ld
best thing to do. They express a mild obligation.
You should apologize to your sister after shouting at her
like that.
You really ought to save more and spend less.
Complete the sentences with the correct form of the
modal verbs below. If two answers are possible for
the same sentence, give both verbs.
(But some people do.)
ought to
som ething is im portant, and have to w h e n som eone else
thinks it is. However, it is fairly com m on to use have to
instead of m u st w hen talking about an obligation that
com es from the speaker
Choose the correct words.
1 N obody can / must borrow these books w ithout
2 Visitors mustn't / don't have to feed th e animals in
the zoo, as this m ay harm the animals.
3 Students must / may bring a small bottle o f water
into the exam, if th ey wish.
4 Drivers may / must stop at a red traffic light.
o u g h t to
W e use should and o u g h t to to say that som ething is the
You don't have to carry your identity card everywhere you go.
W e norm ally use m u st w h e n the speaker thinks that
m ay not
have to
don't have to
1 The police ...................................do som ething
about the crim e in this area. After all, it's their job.
2 Miss Clark says w e
g o on the
school trip, but that w e will learn a lot if w e do go.
3 If you're in the football team, you
.................................... g o to football practice every
lunchtime. It's a bit annoying.
4 Y o u .................................... borrow up to four books
at the library, so I've borrow ed four.
5 Y o u .................................. w ear dirty trainers
in the sports hall.
6 People
. eat their ow n food
in this cafe. O nly food that is bought in the cafe
can be eaten here.
5 According to th e map, w e have to / can walk as far as
the river, but not beyond that.
6 You must not / don't have to take an y photos inside
the art gallery. However, there are postcards available
o f all the paintings.
Grammar reference and practice 5 113
Grammar reference and practice 6
6.1 The passive
Past simple passive
The passive is form ed with the verb b e + past participle of
- was / were + past participle
the main verb.
This commercial was created by a famous advertising
The advertising campaign wasn't considered a success.
We weren't given anything to eat.
Was the school built on time?
W e use the passive:
w h e n w e are m ore interested in the action than in the
person w h o performs the action,
w h e n w e don't know w h o performs the action, or w hen
it is clear from the context w h o performs the action.
Present perfect passive
Passive verbs have the same tenses as active verbs, and the
= has / have been + past participle
rules for tense usage are the same.
A lot of articles have been published about this.
The campaign hasn't been seen as an overwhelming success,
but we hope this will change.
Has the campaign been criticized?
Have the clothes been hung up?
W h e n w e w an t to say w h o performs an action in a passive
sentence, w e use the preposition by.
Unemployed members of the community started the
PASSIVE The business was started by unemployed members
Present simple passive
Complete the sentences using the correct past
simple passive or present perfect passive form of
the verbs in brackets.
= am , is, are + past participle
1 Max
of the community.
Some of the profit is spent on improving living conditions.
Cotton isn't grown in the UK-
(ask) to speak in
front of the w h o le school. He's really excited about it.
2 W e .................................................(not invite) to the
Are farmers paid a fair price for their produce?
end-of-year party yet.
Present continuous passive
3 The railway station
- a m / is / are being + past participle
Stealth marketing is being used more and more as a way to
sell products and services.
The profits aren't being passed on to the people who make
these goods.
Are these measures being introduced in every country?
Complete the present simple passive and present
continuous passive sentences.
1 I keep seeing the same person behind m e...................
I .................. followed?
2 Glossy m agazines.................................... com m only
used to prom ote luxury goods.
3 Brand im age is very im portant, and
....................................usually developed by experts at
a marketing agency.
our car
(m anufacture) in the UK?
5 W h e n you asked about John, w h a t ..............................
y o u .............................. (tell)?
you e v e r ..............................(hurt)
in an accident?
Past continuous passive
= was / were being + past participle
Several desiqns were being considered at one time.
There was confusion because people weren't being given the
right information.
Was research being carried out at that time?
Past perfect passive
= h a d been it past participle
4 The n e w advertising ca m p a ig n ....................................
launched yet.
5 Generally speaking, o n ce the decision
.................................... ann ou nced publicly, there is
nothing anyone can do about it.
6 It is im portant to always take account o f the
consum er w hile the p ro d u cts....................................
7 The bread
(build) ten years before the tow n hall.
baked in the oven
right now, and will be ready in about ten minutes.
8 During a marketing cam paign, free samples o fa
p ro d u c t.................................... offered to people
in the industry.
114 Grammar reference and practice 6
The sisters were happy because they'd been given the chance
to set up their own business.
Many people were anqry that they hadn't been given the
chance to give their views.
Had you been promised a refund on a previous occasion?
Complete the past continuous passive and past
perfect passive sentences with h a d (or h a d n 't) b e e n ,
w a s (or w a sn 't) b e in g , w e re (or w eren 't) b e in g .
The verb have can be used in the passive structure have
1 The man looked thin because h e ..................................
to do som ething for you. Have can be used in any tense, but
h ave
e t s o m e t h in g d o n e
som ething done, w hich m eans to arrange for another person
in this structure, it is always follow ed by an object it past
held prisoner for several months.
2 W h e n w e cam e ou t o f the shop, w e realized that our
I'm having my hair cut later. (Another person is cutting my
b ik e s ....................................stolen.
3 The workers didn't have any m oney because they
We've had our house professionally cleaned.
4 Helen listened politely, but she had the feeling that
s h e .................................... told the truth.
W e can use have som ething done in the negative and in
5 It w as obvious that the le tt e r ...................................
w ritten a long tim e ago.
questions. In th e present sim ple form, w e use d o n 't/d o e sn 't
have (not haven't / hasn't got).
She doesn't have her food delivered. She buys it at the
supermarket herself
6 W h a t w ere you doing w hile Anna
chased by that dog?
Future passive
In informal and spoken English it is possible to use get
= will be + past participle
instead o f have in this structure [get som ething done). Get
The campaiqn will be extended to other countries.
The report won't be finished until November.
Will the clothes be sold here?
can also be used in different tenses.
We'll get a key made for you.
I got my shoes repaired last week.
Complete the sentences using the future passive
form of the verbs below.
■ not start
not make
Complete the sentences with the correct form of
h a v e s o m e th in g d o n e .
1 Everyone w h o com es into this building
Paul w en t to the garage yesterday.
H e .......................................... his m otorbike repaired
to show their identity card.
2 In a few days, this in cid e n t.................................... and
everything will carry on as normal.
3 Ja n e and Liz have d on e som ething ve ry patriotic.
T h e y .......................................... their nails painted in
3 Tom orrow afternoon, y o u .................................... on a
tour o f th e old town.
red, w h ite and blue.
4 Carla's husband had asked th e hotel to put flowers
4 A decision on th e school's future
and chocolates in the room before their arrival.
until next year.
5 W hat
Lucy's at the optician at the moment.
She ........................................ her eyes tested.
Carla's husband
all the m on ey w e collected
.................................... on?
5 So m eo n e will be painting our fence later.
6 At the end o f the com petition, a prize
W e ..........................................our fence painted
for the best design.
7 W ork on the n e w building
and chocolates put in the room before their arrival.
later on.
another six months.
6 Is the house being professionally cleaned?
8 Don't w orry about th e money. O nce w e count it, it
the house
professionally cleaned?
in a safe place.
Rewrite the active sentences in the passive. Use b y if
1 Som eo ne was ringing the church bells.
2 Has som eone fed the cat today?
3 Charleston United have beaten Sunderland City.
4 First, you mix together th e tw o paints.
5 Jo e started the argument.
6 W e had already introduced Kate and Archie.
Grammar reference and practice 6 115
Grammar reference and practice 7
Reported speech
W e use reported speech w hen w e w an t to tell som eone
about som ething that another person said. Tenses and
pronouns ch an g e in reported speech if the tim e and the
speaker change. The tense of th e main verb changes in the
W e can use the verb tell instead o f soy to report w hat
som eone says.
If w e use tell, w e must follow it w ith a personal pronoun,
theo told me that he had a plan.
NOT Theo told that he had a plan.
However, w e never use a personal pronoun after say.
following ways:
NOT Theo said me that ...
Direct speech
Present simple
She said: Tan snores
very loudly.'
Present continuous
Reported speech
There are other reporting verbs that w e can use apart from
Past simple
sa y and tell, e.g. add, adm it, agree, explain, p o in t out, promise,
She said that lan snored
very loudly.
reply, warn. O f the verbs in this list, on ly prom ise and warn
Past continuous
'May's listening to
music,' 1 said.
Present perfect
l said that May was
listening to music.
are followed by a personal pronoun.
1 'W e can't g o together,' said Pete.
Pete said that w e .................................... together.
Past perfect
Tve made my decision/
she said.
Past simple
2 'Marina and Dan haven't eaten anything,’said Phil.
She said that she had
made her decision.
Phil said that Marina and D a n ....................................
Past perfect
'We waited a long time/
Liiles said.
Past perfect
3 'I finished the crossword,'said Grandma.
Liiles said that they had
waited a long time.
Grandm a said that s h e ................................. the
Past perfect
'I'd already seen the
film,' said Mari.
'You can try again,' he
He said that 1 could try
4 'They're always playing com puter games,'said Mum.
Mari said she'd already
seen the film.
M um said that t h e y .................................... com puter
5 T h e sunset will be beautiful,'said Ellen.
Ellen said that the sunset
6 'Dad is a really good cook,'said David.
w ould
They said: 'Well think
about it.'
David said that Dad
They said that they would
think about it.
It is usually necessary to change pronouns and possessive
adjectives, too:
'My dog isn't very well,' Harry said. -> Harry said that his
dog wasn't very well.
'I'm buying a present for my dad/ she said. -> She said that
she was buying a present for her dad.
Complete the sentences in reported speech.
a really
good cook.
Complete the sentences with the correct pronouns
or possessive forms. Sometimes no change is
1 'Colin can't find his dog,'said Ewan.
Ew an said that Colin couldn't find
2 'M um is annoyed w ith both o f you,'said Debbie.
Debbie said that M u m was annoyed with both of
W e also change references to tim e and place.
3 'W e aren't going on the school trip today,'said Wend>
then / a t that m om ent
that day
this w eek
that w eek
last w eek
the w eek before
the day before
tom orrow
the next / following day
a m inute ago
a m inute earlier / before
next w eek
the following w eek
school trip that day.
4 'You will love your present,' m y brothers told me.
M y brothers told m e that
116 Grammar reference and practice 7
w ou ld love
5 'I know your sister,' Ian said.
Ian said t h a t ............... k n e w .................sister.
6 'I really like Carol and her brother,' said Steve.
Steve said th a t ............... really liked Carol and
............... brother
W e n d y said th a t................weren't going on the
Choose the correct words.
1 He prom ised / w a rn e d that I m ight be in a
dangerous situation.
Choose the correct sentence endings. Sometimes
both are correct.
1 The police officer asked me
a w h at w as I doing?
2 I thought w e w ou ld be late, but Sarah agreed /
b w h at I w as doing.
p o in ted o u t that the train wasn't d ue to leave for
another hour.
3 Jack w a rn e d / explained that he was at hom e
Nina asked her m um
if she could go into tow n to m eet a friend,
b w h eth er could she g o into to w n to m eet a friend.
because the school w as closed.
4 Although she denied it at first,Thea eventually
a d m itted / prom ised that she had lost the book.
I spotted Tim and asked him
a if he w anted to play football in the park,
b if he wants to play football in the park.
5 Ken explain ed / a d m itted that he w ouldn't tell
anyone m y secret.
4 Our neighbours asked us
6 At first, Diana said I w as wrong, but in the end, she
a if w e had seen their dog.
b w hether w e had seen their dog.
prom ised / agreed that it w ou ld be better to do
things m y way.
5 The m odel plane that Grandad m ade was amazing,
and I asked
7.2 Reported questions and
com m ands
6 A tourist stopped us in the street and asked us
a w here w as he.
W e report questions with the verb ask. Ask can be followed
b w here he was.
by a personal pronoun, or can be used w ithout one.
7 W e asked our teacher
To report a yes/no question, w e use the structure ask
a w h e n w ou ld start th e exams,
(it object) it if. The w ord order is the same as in an
b w hen the exams w ould start.
affirmative sentence. This means that the subject com es
8 Richard cam e over and asked
before the verb.
John asked if I was feeling all right.
John asked me if I was feeling all right.
NOT John as ked me if was I feeling all right.
W e can use w hether instead o f //.There is no difference in
Max asked if we wanted to 90 to the cinema,
or Max asked whether we wanted to 90 to the cinema.
him h o w he had m ade it.
b did it take long to make it.
me if th e news w as true.
b if the news w as true.
Write the active questions and commands as
reported questions and commands. Use the correct
form of the reporting verbs te ll and a sk .
1 'W ait here for m e,’ said Luke.
2 'W h ere does Paul live?'asked Mum.
To report a wh- question, w e use a wh- word followed by an
affirmative w ord order.
3 H o w ’s your toe?'asked Nancy.
She asked (Fiona) what the time was.
NOT Sh e-as ked (F iona) what was the time.
4 'Give m e the torch,' she said.
W e report orders and com m ands w ith the verb tell. W e use
5 'Don't do anything until next week,' Mr Carr said.
th e structure tell + personal pronoun + infinitive with to.
They told us to stand in the queue.
6 'Have you been ill?’asked Kevin.
To report an order not to d o som ething, w e put n o t before
th e infinitive with to.
7 'Don't play your music so loud, you two,' said Dad.
She told me not to worry.
8 'Are you Ted Fielding's n e p h e w ?1asked the man.
Rem em ber that it is still necessary to follow the rules about
changing tenses, pronouns and possessive forms, as w ell as
references to place and time.
'Lome back here tomorrow evening,' he said. —> He told me
to 90 back there the next / following evening.
Grammar reference and practice 7 117
Grammar reference and practice 8
8.1 Third conditional
W e use the third conditional to talk about unreal situations
in the past.The condition is impossible, because w e cannot
Complete the third conditional sentences with the
correct form of the verbs in brackets.
1 If y o u .................................... (listen) m ore closely, you
.................................... (know) w h at to do.
ch an g e w h at happened. Consequently, the result is also
If you had studied,
you would have passed the exam.
If t- past perfect,
w ould {'d) have + past participle
I .................................... (play) in the m atch if I
(bring) m y football boots.
3 We
(not say) anything if w e
............................... (realize) the trouble it w ou ld cause.
If h e .................................... (not ask) for directions, he
..................................... (not arrive) on time.
In the sam e w a y as for other conditional sentences, the
5 If Jessica
result can com e first.
You would have passed
the exam
. .
. .
if you had studied.
It is possible to use other modals in the result clause.
If you'd mentioned it earlier, l might have been able to do
something about it.
If we hadn't taken the wrong road, we could have got there
(be) w orried about us,
s h e .....................................(phone) us.
6 M y b ro th er.................................... (win) the race if he
..................................... (not fall).
If t h e y .................................... (w ant) to com e along,
.................................t h e y ...................................(tell) us?
8 Y o u .................................... (not) fail your exams if you
..................................... (do) more studying!
Unless is never used in third conditional sentences.
8.2 ■/ w
Choose the correct third conditional sentences.
I wish
1 a If he had known the risks, he w ou ld change his
W e use wish + past simple to say that w e w ould like a
b If he had known the risks, he w ou ld have changed
his mind.
2 a W e w ou ld have enjoyed ourselves more if our
teacher hadn't been there,
b W e w ou ld enjoyed ourselves more if our teacher
hadn't been there.
3 a Unless I had organized th e demonstration, I would
have d on e it differently.
b If I had organized the dem onstration, I w ou ld have
d on e it differently.
4 a If she w ould understand the question, she might
have got th e answ er right,
b If she had understood the question, she m ight
have got the answer right.
5 a I w ould have backed d o w n if I had been in his
b I w ould have backed d o w n if I w ould have been in
his position.
6 a If som eone had shown us the ropes, w e would
have known w h at to do.
b If som eone w ould have shown us the ropes, w e
had known w hat to do.
7 a G ary didn't throw the papers ou t if he realized that
th ey w ere important.
b G ary w ouldn't have thrown the papers out if he'd
realized that th ey w ere important.
8 a W e could have bought a nice souvenir if w e had
had m ore money.
b W e w ou ld have bought a nice souvenir if w e could
have more money.
Grammar reference and practice 8
is h
i f o n ly
present situation to be different.
I wish we had a dog. (I w ould like to have a dog, but I
haven't got one.)
Sam wishes he lived in America. (Sam w ou ld like to live in
America, but he doesn't.)
W e can use wish followed by a negative verb.
I wish l didn't have such a complicated life! (I w ould like my
life to be easier, but it isn't.)
As with the second conditional, w e can use were instead of
I wish Joe was / were here. Do you wish Joe were here?
W e don't use w ould to express a wish about the present.
NOT I wish Jo e would be her e.
To say that w e regret som ething that happened in the past,
w e use wish + past perfect.
Karina wishes she had come on the trip with us. (She didn't
co m e w ith us, and she n o w regrets that.)
I wish l hadn't said all those things.
I f only
It is also possible to use I f only + past perfect to express a
regret about som ething that happened in the past.
If only we hadn't missed our bus.
If only + past simple is also used to express a wish for things
to be different in the present. However, it is stronger than
If only l was / were taller.
If only I didn't have such short legs!
8.3 Speculating about th e past
Complete the second sentences using w ish it a
negative or affirmative verb.
W e use the following forms to speculate about the past:
1 Jam es doesn't live in the countryside.
m ay have, co u ld have, m ight have, m u st have, can't have.
Ja m e s .......................................... in the countryside.
They are all follow ed by a past participle.
2 Tamsin leads a stressful life.
W e use m ay have, co u ld have and m ight have to talk about
a stressful life.
things that possibly happened in the past.
3 Sarah isn't here with me.
R aul's late. He may have / could have / m ight have got lost.
I ........................................... here with me.
4 W e gave aw a y Dad's watch.
I ........................................... Dad’s watch.
M ust have and can't have have opposite m eanings to each
other. W e use m u st have to speculate about things that w e
5 They didn't ask m e to be in the team.
are certain w ere true or happened in the past. W e use can't
I .......................................... to be in the team.
have to speculate about things that w e are alm ost certain
6 You and Ian w ere late for the meal last night.
late for the meal last night.
w ere not true or did not happen in the past.
J u lie isn 't h ere. S h e m u st have left early.
Choose the correct sentence endings.
J a c k h a s b een at hom e all day. You can 't have see n him in
1 I've spent all m y money. If only
Note that it is not possible to use m ustn't have to speculate
I saved it.
about the past.
b I'd saved it.
NOT You m u stn 't have see n h im in tow n.
2 M olly arrived late at school. If only
a she didn't miss her train.
b she hadn't missed her train.
3 I always speak to m y French friend in English. If only
Choose the correct words.
N obody has seen Jackie for about an hour. She
must / might have left.
I w ould speak French.
b I spoke French.
Paula alw ays gets top marks in maths. She mustn't /
can't have failed her maths exam.
4 Mark didn't see his favourite band because they
cancelled the concert. If only
Donna's been at h om e all morning. You can't / could
have seen her in tow n earlier.
a th ey hadn't cancelled the concert,
b th ey didn't cancel the concert.
I may / must have spoken to your Aunt Jane, but I'm
It might / must have rained during the night, as all
5 Our tw o dogs wake m e up early every day. If only
not sure.
a th ey hadn't been so excitable.
the roads are wet.
b th ey weren't so excitable.
6 I don’t know w hen Sam visited our house. It can't /
6 Caroline had a big lunch and couldn’t g o swimming.
If only
could have been Tuesday, because M u m w as at
a she hadn't had so m uch to eat.
hom e fo rth e w h o le day, and she didn't see him.
b she didn't have so m uch to eat.
Complete the sentences with h a d n 't, d id n 't or
w o u ld n 't.
1 If w e
told you about Nick,
y o u .................................... have found out.
Complete the sentences with m a y h a v e , m ig h t h a v e ,
c o u ld h a v e , m u st h a v e or ca n 't h a v e , and the past
participle of the verbs in brackets. If more than one
answer is possible, give all the answers.
1 Our dog ran aw a y only a m inute ago, so he
2 I wish M ik e ................................... bought m e such
an expensive present. I feel a bit embarrassed.
3 Z o e som etim es wishes she
a twin sister. It can be confusing for other people.
4 I'm thinking of buying this jacket, but I'm not sure.
If on ly it
have those plastic
(go) far.
I asked so m any peop le to com e to the party,
I suppose I .................................................(invite)
Ben and A n d y as well.
3 After Holly left David's house, she looked really upset.
H e .................................................(say) som ething
awful to her.
5 M y dad
. have m et m y m um if
4 The eclipse happened earlier this morning. W e
h e .....................................started learning Germ an
at evening classes.
(miss) it.
5 Any pupils w h o w ere in or near the building at the
6 If on ly y o u .................................... told Clare
about m y problem. N o w everyone knows.
7 If I...................................... seen the evidence, I
...................................have believed it.
8 Do you som etim es wish com puters
t im e .................................................(see) th e burglars.
If that's the case, please speak to a teacher
6 W h e n I heard that we'd w on the lottery I thought that
s o m e o n e .................................................(make)
a mistake.
Grammar reference and practice 8 119
Grammar reference and practice 9
D efining relative clauses
Put the words in order to make sentences.
1 places / w here / used to / several /There w ere / meet,
W e use relative clauses to connect tw o ideas. A relative
clause com es im m ediately after a noun.
/w e
Defining relative clauses g ive essential information about
the noun. If w e took ou t the relative clause, the sentence
has left. / you / arrived w ith / boy / that /T he
w ou ld not make sense. Relative clauses are introduced by
3 an anim al / quite fast. / is / w hich / elephant / can run
relative pronouns and adverbs.
The relative pronoun that can refer back to a person or a
thing. Who refers to a person, and w hich refers to a thing,
Tweetinq is an activity which / that didn't exist ten years aqo.
My sister is a person who / that is always sympathetic.
4 w hich / a tow n / cinemas. / Bordley / is / tw o / has
5 recently? / Is that / w o n / a prize / girl / w h o / the
W h e n com bining tw o sentences, w e d o not repeat the
subject or object o f the relative pronoun.
There is the castle. 1 was telling you about it earlier.
-> There is the castle that 1 was telling you about earlier.
NOT Ther e is the castle that I was telling you about it earlier.
6 I'd / sho w you / like to / live. / w here w e / the street
Complete the sentences with w h ic h , w h o , w h e re ,
w h e n o r w h o se .
It is possible to leave ou t the relative pronoun w ho, which
1 The p e o p le ........................ w e com plained to w ere
or that w hen it refers to the object o f the relative clause, but
very sympathetic.
not w hen it is the subject of th e relative clause.
2 I w anted to buy a la p to p ........................ was reliable
need a laptop (which / that) l can carry around easily.
BUT l need a laptop which / that is light but durable.
and inexpensive.
3 The man
The relative pronoun w hom can be used instead o f w ho in
door w e first knocked on
wasn't very helpful.
formal contexts to talk about a person w h e n the person is
the object of the relative clause.
I need to find a shop
th ey sell gadgets
and digital equipm ent.
The man who / whom they arrested is one of my
5 He's really looking forward to the d a y ........................
W e use the relative pronoun w hose to refer back to a person
6 I'd like to introduce you to the man
he learns to drive a car.
or anim al that possesses som ething, or for a relationship
story I'm writing.
b etw een tw o people.
I'd like to meet the man whose phone l found.
Is she the girl whose brother is a doctor?
Choose the correct sentence in each pair. In two
cases, both are correct.
1 a W h a t did you do w ith the m on ey that w as in your
It is possible to use the relative adverbs when and where to
link ideas.
W e use when to refer to a tim e at w hich som ething
Do you remember the time when we all went on holiday
W e use where to refer to a place in w hich som ething took
b W h at did you do w ith the m on ey w hich w as in
your bag?
2 a I can't rem em ber the nam e of the boy w hose idea
it was.
b I can’t rem em ber the nam e o f the boy that idea it
3 a Provincetow n is the place w here arrived th e first
This is the shop where I bouqht my mobile.
Note that th e relative pronoun whose, and th e adverbs
w hen and where, can’t be followed directly by a verb.
ships from England.
b Provincetow n is the place w here the first ships
from England arrived.
4 a This morning, I ran into som eone I hadn't seen for
a long time.
b This morning, I ran into som eone that I hadn't seen
fo ra long time.
5 a The file w hich w as attached to Jody's email
contained a virus.
b The file w as attached to Jody's email contained a
6 a Did you speak to the neighbour w hich took your
b Did you speak to the neighbour w h o took your ball?
G ra m m a r re fe re n ce an d p ractice 9
9.2 Non-defining relative
Choose the correct answers.
I've got a lot in com m on w ith Jed,
a w h o he is a friend from Facebook.
Non-defining relative clauses also com bine tw o ideas, but in
b w h o is a friend from Facebook.
a different way.
2 W e w e n t to a market in Langton,
David and Lh ris have known each other since they started
school. They are on the same course.
-> Oavid and Lh ris, who have known each other since they
started school, are on the same course.
a w hich isn't very far from Sam's home,
b that isn't very far from Sam's home.
3 W e ’re going to Joe's flat,............
a w here is on the fifteenth floor,
Here, the relative clause, w hich is introduced by w ho, is
b w hich is on the fifteenth floor
betw een com m as. The com m as have a similar function to
brackets.The non-defining relative clause gives additional
Dan's friend William,
w ants to becom e an
information about the subject, rather than essential
a w hose dad is a postman,
information. If the relative clause were taken out, the
b w h o his dad is a postman,
sentence w ould still make sense.
5 M y great-grandmother,
David and Lh ris [...] are on the same course.
was an amazing
a w h o I m et her on ly once,
W e can use w hich, w hen, where and w hose in non-defining
b w h o I m et on ly once,
relative clauses.
6 This football g ro u n d ,............is being be sold.
Just as for defining relative clauses, w e d o not repeat the
a w here Darnholm United have played since 1901,
subject or object w h e n w e com bine tw o sentences.
b that Darnholm United have played since 1901,
I bought my mobile two years ago. It is already out of date.
-> My mobile, which l bouqht two years ago, is already out
of date.
NOT My mobile, which I bought it two years ago ...
Everyone had a fantastic tim e at Nick's party,
a his parents paid for.
b w hich his parents paid for.
8 Two hundred years ago,
W e can't use th a t in non-defining relative clauses.
this area was full of
NOT My mobile, that I bought two years aqo, is already out-
a w here this area w as in the m iddle o f the Industrial
of- date.
b w hen this country w as in the middle of the
A non-defining relative clause does not have to com e
Industrial Revolution,
betw een tw o other clauses. It can be followed simply by a
full stop if it com es at the end o fa sentence.
More details about the book are available from the
publisher, whose website includes lots of interesting links.
Defining relative clauses are m ore com m on in spoken
Combine both sentences to make a non-defining
relative clause. Use a suitable relative pronoun or
relative adverb.
David is a person you can trust com pletely. I've
known him since w e w ere at primary school.
language, whilst non-defining relative clauses are more
com m on in written language. W h e n w e speak, w e usually
i hat’s Leanne. She is in m y class at school.
pause before and after a non-defining relative clause.
My best friend, (pause) who moved to Canada last year,
(pause) is coming over to visit me next month.
3 Jake got som e n e w trainers.They w ere given to him
for his birthday.
I'm m eeting Charlotte N ew ton. Her brother Henry is
th e top scorer in the football team.
5 W e w e n t to M aynardale and had a picnic. There's a
fam ous waterfall at Maynardale.
6 M y m um recently bought herself an e-book reader
An e-book reader is more convenient than paper
G ra m m a r re fe re n ce an d p ractice 9
Grammar reference and practice 10
Particip le clauses
Instead o f using a full relative clause (defining or non-
Choose the correct sentence. Sometimes, both
options are correct.
defining) to con n ect ideas, w e can use a clause introduced
1 a M y brother, appearing on stage for th e first tim e
by a participle. The participle can be an -ing form or an -ed
w ith his band, looked nervous.
b M y brother, appeared on stage for the first tim e
form .These participles are known as present participles
(-ing form) and past participles (-ed form).
with his band, looked nervous.
2 a The cat, w hich looking very hungry, cam e to us.
b The cat, looking ve ry hungry, cam e to us.
A present participle replaces an active verb in the present.
I need to get a message to someone who is getting on the
I need to get a message to someone getting on the plane.
3 a The people w h o attended the even t arrived from
W e can also use the present participle to replace an active
4 a The even t taking place on stage at the m om ent is
far and wide.
b The people attending the event arrived from far
and wide.
verb in th e past.
really comical.
Oliver, who was worrying about his exam results, didn't
notice that his bus had just left.
Oliver, worrying about his exam results, didn't notice that
his bus had just left.
b The even t that is taking place on stage at the
m om ent is really comical.
5 a David, not looking very interested, asked m e if it
w as tim e to leave yet.
b David, not looked very interested, asked m e if it
The participle can on ly replace a relative pronoun w hen it
refers to the subject o f the relative clause, not the object.
was tim e to leave yet.
Oliver, who I was worrying about, ...
NOT Oliver, I worrying about, ...
The participle can replace that, w hich and w ho, but not
6 a The clouds w hich w ere forming looked threatening,
b The clouds form ed looked threatening.
w hen, where or whose.
The police stopped a small car that / which was carryinq ten
The police stopped a small car carrying ten people.
Replace the underlined words with the correct
active or passive participle form.
1 The film, w hich w as described bv the director as a
product o f trial and error, was a huge success.
2 The person w h o was chosen to olav the m ain role in
A past participle replaces a passive verb, w hich can be in
the film w as a little-known actor.
the present or past.
3 T he catering service w hich provided th e food was a
Bags of rubbish which are left on the pavement are causing
Bags of rubbish left on the pavement are causing problems.
The book, which was bought online, was torn when 1
received it.
The book, bought online, was torn when l received it.
local one.
People that teach very young children have a difficult
and im portant job.
5 The words that w ere spoken by the actor w ere not
the ones in th e script.
6 Music festivals, w hich are n o w held all over the world,
offer the ch ance to see world-famous performers on
If the relative clause includes a negative verb, w e simply put
'not'in front of the participle, w h eth er an active o r a passive
Oliver, who wasn't thinking about anything in particular, ...
-> Oliver, not thinking about anything in particular, ...
The book, which wasn't bought in a shop, ...
-> The book, not bought in a shop, ...
Rewrite the sentences using the correct participle
1 The man w h o is training m y sister used to be a worldfamous swimmer.
2 Som e children w h o w ere standing nearby started
3 The event, w hich w as attended by nearly tw o
thousand people, will be held again next year.
4 The dram a com p an y w hich is based in Shoreditch is
called the Black Box com pany.
5 I he tree that was cut d o w n by the council recently
was over tw o hundred years old.
Grammar reference and practice 10
D eterm iners
W e use the following determiners to talk about quantity:
(a) little, (a) few, som e, any, m uch, m any, a lo t of, m ost, all, no,
W e use som e and any before uncountable nouns or plural
countable nouns to mean a num ber o f or an am ou n t of.
Each m eans every single. It is used before a singular noun.
She wore four earrings in each ear.
Every has a similar m eaning to each, and is also used before
a singular noun.
My brother's been to four festivals this year. He said that
every festival was great.
W e use som e in affirmative sentences or in questions
w h e n making an offer.
We've got some apples but we need some juice.
Would you like some coffee?
W e use a n y in negative sentences and in questions.
Did the supermarket have any chicken? No, and we
haven't got any meat in the fridge either.
W e use m uch and m a ny in negatives and questions to talk
about large quantities.
W e use m u ch with uncountable nouns.
Have you got much rice? - No, and I haven't got much
milk, either.
W e use m a ny with plural countable nouns.
Are there many glasses in the cupboard? - Yes, but
there aren't many plates.
W e generally use a lot o f to talk about large quantities in
affirmatives, for both uncountable and plural countable
nouns. It is also possible to use a lo t o f in negatives and
Except for a lo t o f and all, th e determiners listed above
can't be used im m ediately before an article, pronoun or
determ iner such as:
a, an, the; my, your, his; this, these, those;you, it, them , etc.
Instead, w e add of. W e use it to talk about a particular item
or items.
Some of those people look younger than sixteen, (some
people in a particular group)
Some people look younger than sixteen, (people in general)
No can't be followed by of. Instead, w e use none (= not one)
+ of.
None of my friends wanted to go and see the band.
NOT No-of-my -friends -■
Every can't be followed by of.
NOT Every of my brothers and s isters was born in May or
Choose the correct words.
1 It's very sad; few / a few people are interested in our
in questions.
particular charity.
Ollie eats a lot of fruit and vegetables.
2 W e 've got few / a few pounds b etw een us, so w e can
buy a sandwich and a drink each.
M o st means the m ajority of. It can be used before
uncountable and plural countable nouns.
The course w as goo d but unfortunately there was
Most meat is eaten on Sundays.
Most children prefer to start and finish school early.
4 I think there's little / a little milk left in the fridge if
a little / little opportunity to practise our n e w skills.
you'd like a cup of tea.
W e use a little and a few in negatives and questions to talk
5 For this trip, all / each student will receive a study pack.
about very small quantities.
nervous before th ey g o on stage.
W e use a little with uncountable nouns.
We only need a little pasta as we already have half a
W e use a fe w with plural countable nouns.
This meal would be healthier if you added a few
W h e n little and few are used w ithout a, this often gives a
negative impression.
The concert didn't go ahead because few people bought
tickets, (few = not enough)
A few people asked me where they could buy tickets for the
concert, (a few - several)
The meeting went on so long that there was little time for
questions at the end. (little = not enough)
There was a little time at the end of the meeting for
questions, (a little = some)
W e use all and no before uncountable and plural countable
The director said that many / much actors get
Complete the sentences with the determiners
below. There are two words that you do not need.
m uch
1 W e haven't g ot
m any
a lot of
ice cream so Angela
has g on e out to the shop.
2 I'd like you
to m e e t........................ friends from my
3 I phoned Cathy but there w a s ........................ news
about her sister's condition.
time I try to call her, her phone is
switched off.
5 Sorry, I didn't have
tim e so I couldn't
get everything on the list.
6 Nadia said that
people didn't
recognize her w hen she w ore a hat.
verbs. W e can use all before the, either w ith or w ithout of.
All dancers have to look after their feet very carefully.
All (of) the dancers were very good.
No is followed by the noun, not by the.
No tea or coffee was available.
Grammar reference and practice 10
A thought-provoking course that
challenges students to reach their
full potential.
Challenge ■D evelop ■Inspire
Insight into the world: Topics th at inspire students to think
Stimulating topics and information rich texts inspire discussion >page 68
Culture texts in every unit and related DVD material >page 100
L ite ra tu re in s ig h t introduces students to classic English literature >Workbook
Insight into learning: Strategies that develop lifelong learning
S tra te g y b o x e s improve key skills >page 56
W ritin g g u id e s foster good writing habits > page 39
P ro g re ss c h e c k s encourage students to reflect on their learning >Workbook
Insight into language: A syllabus th at challenges students to go deeper
V o c a b u la ry in s ig h t sections give students a deeper understanding of language > page 43
V o c a b u la ry in s ig h t pages develop dictionary skills > page 26
The dictionary-style wordlist gives more information about core vocabulary >Workbook
Student's Book
W orkbook
Class A udio CDs
Test Bank MultiROM
Teacher's Book and
Teacher's Resource Dis!
learning together
ISBN 978-0-19-401560-8
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