Загрузил Victoria Mekhankina

International Relations - Terrorism

1. Terrorism and Conflict Areas
Historical context for the phenomenon of modern-day terrorism adapted from "A Brief History" by
Walter Laqueur1
What is terrorism? There are more than a hundred definitions. The Department of State has one, Title
22 of the U.S. Code Section 2656: "premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against
noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an
audience." However, no all-embracing definition will ever be found for the simple reason that there is not
one terrorism, but there have been many terrorisms, greatly differing in time and space, in motivation, and
in manifestations and aims.
Today, terrorism and al-Qaida, and similar groups motivated by religious fanaticism, have virtually
become synonyms, inevitably, perhaps, because most contemporary terrorism is carried out by their
adherents. But the temptation to equate terrorism with these groups should be resisted for the simple reason
that terrorism antedates militant Islamism by a very long time and, for all one knows, will continue to exist
well after the present protagonists of jihadism have disappeared.
Terrorism is not a political doctrine, even though some have attempted to transform it into an ideology;
it is, instead, one of the oldest forms of violence-even though it goes without saying that not all violence is
terrorism. It probably antedates regular warfare because the fighting of armies involves a certain amount of
organization and sophisticated logistics that primitive man did not have.
Historically, there was no total unanimity, but the majority opinion was that terrorism was permissible
in certain conditions. When a cruel oppressor-a tyrant-being an enemy of all mankind, in violation of the
law of God and human justice, left his victims no other way out of intolerable oppression, commission of a
terrorist act was ultima ratio, the last refuge of the oppressed, all other means having been exhausted.
The High Tide of Terrorism
The high tide of terrorism rose toward the end of the 19th century. Among the main active groups were
the Irish rebels, the Russian Socialist Revolutionaries, and assorted anarchists all over Europe and North
America. But secret societies were also actively engaging in terrorism outside Europe-in Egypt, for instance,
as well as in India and China-aiming at national liberation. Some of these attacks had tragic consequences;
others were more successful in the long, rather than the short, run.
The violence of the 19th century terrorists was notable-they assassinated a Russian tsar (Alexander II),
as well as many ministers, archdukes, and generals; American presidents (William McKinley in 1901 and,
before him in 1881, James Garfield); King Umberto of Italy; an empress of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy;
Sadi Carnot, president of France; Antonio Canovas, the Spanish prime minister-to mention only some of the
most prominent victims. The First World War, of course, was triggered by the murder of Franz Ferdinand,
the Austrian heir to the throne, in Sarajevo in 1914.
It is true, however, that contemporary terrorism differs in some essential respects from that perpetrated
in the 19th century and earlier on. Traditional terrorism had its "code of honour": It targeted kings,
military leaders, ministers, and other leading public figures, but if there were a danger that the wife or the
children of the target would be killed in an attack, terrorists would refrain from striking, even if doing so
endangered their own lives.
Today, indiscriminate terrorism has become the rule; very few leading politicians or generals have been
killed, but very many wholly innocent people have. The term terrorism has, therefore, very negative
connotations, and terrorists now insist on being called by another name. When Boris Savinkov, who headed
the Russian Socialist Revolutionaries before World War I, published his autobiography, he had no hesitation
in giving it the title Memoirs of a Terrorist. Today this would be unthinkable-the modern terrorist wants to
be known as a freedom fighter, a guerrilla, a militant, an insurgent, a rebel, a revolutionary – anything
but a terrorist, a killer of random innocents.
Terrorism has seldom, if ever, occurred in effective dictatorships. In the modern world, it appears,
ironically, that terrorists take advantage of the freedoms of thought, speech, religion, movement, and
assembly offered by democracies. Terrorism is also a problem of failed states in which central power is
weak or nonexistent. There was, for example, virtually no terrorism from the street in Franco's Spain, but
as his dictatorship was dismantled, it appeared on the political scene. In the Middle East, even mildly
authoritarian regimes have put down terrorism without great difficulty-Turkey and Syria in the 1980s,
Algeria and Egypt in the decade thereafter.
Terrorism has sometimes succeeded but, at least equally and probably more often, has failed to attain its
aims. And in some cases, it has resulted in the opposite of what its perpetrators wanted to achieve.
But terrorism is largely a generational phenomenon, and even if defeated, it may recur at a later date.
There is no good reason to expect the disappearance of terrorism in our time. In an age in which large-scale
wars have become too dangerous and expensive, terrorism is the prevailing form of violent conflict. As long
as there are conflicts on Earth, there will be terrorism.
Ex 1. Match the following terms taken from the text with their definitions below.
1. premeditated
2. non-combatant
3. clandestine
4. indiscriminate
5. jihadism
6. freedom fighter
7. insurgent
8. failed state
a. people who are using physical force in order to cause a change in
the political and or social order
b. not marked by careful distinction: deficient in discernment:
haphazard, random
c. characterized by deliberate purpose and some degree of planning
d. a person who rises in forcible opposition to lawful authority, esp.
a person who engages in armed resistance to a government or to
the execution of its laws; rebel
e. this requires Muslims to "struggle in the way of God" or "to struggle
to improve one's self and/or society"
f. characteristics include a central government so weak or ineffective
that it has little practical control over much of its territory;
non-provision of public services; widespread corruption and
criminality; refugees and involuntary movement of populations;
and sharp economic decline
g. is a military and legal term describing civilians not engaged in
armed fighting
h. characterized by, done in, or executed with secrecy or concealment,
esp. for purposes of subversion or deception
1. Terrorism and Conflict Areas
Language competence practice
Ex 2. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the word in brackets.
1. The president's car cost a fortune as it was armour-plated and almost …
2. One of the most difficult problems faced by the negotiators was the …
of the rebel forces.
3. On three occasions … managed to get across the heavily defended border.
4. The government was surprised by the … of certain more extremist members
of the organisation.
5. The IRA was a … organization, a term which refers to an illegally armed group
with a political purpose.
6. There was increasing worry that the terrorist organisation was using the ceasefire
as a cover for a … drive.
7. The government's crackdown on media and the … of certain rights led to an
increase in support for the guerrillas.
8. The commander demanded … after suffering heavy casualties.
Ex 3. Choose the least appropriate word to fill the spaces in the text below. The first has been done
for you. Thus in (0) the only unsuitable word is 'combatants'
a) soldiers
a) stationed
a) intense
a) total
a) completing
a) majority
a) strong
a) disquiet
a) wasted
b) troops
b) deployed
b) detailed
b) wholesale
b) ending
b) most
b) great
b) resistance
b) placed
c) combatants
c) fighting
c) veiled
c) complete
c) finalising
c) bulk
c) excellent
c) worry
c) disposed
d) forces
d) placed
d) unprecedented
d) extensive
d) realizing
d) major part
d) forceful
d) annoyance
d) invested
Afghanistan surge planned as shift to Kandahar proposed for UK soldiers2
The role of British (0) … in Helmand, the province in southern Afghanistan where they have been (1)
… for four years, is coming under (2) … scrutiny as US commanders draw up plans for what they
hope will be a final and conclusive push against Taliban-led insurgents.
Contingency plans include the possible (3) … withdrawal of the 9,500 British troops from Helmand
to neighbouring Kandahar, the Taliban heartland, where US-led commanders are (4) … plans for the
largest counterinsurgency and "hearts and minds" operation since 2001. Canada, which has provided
the (5) … of Nato troops in Kandahar, says it will withdraw all its forces there next year.
After Barack Obama's surge, there are now more US troops in Helmand than British. But the removal
of British forces from the province, where commanders say they have built (6) … relations with local
governors and tribal elders, will not be popular with UK defence chiefs. "There would be huge (7) …
from the MoD all the way to the chief of defence staff [Air Chief Marshal Sir Jock Stirrup] given there
has been huge British investment in Camp Bastion," a senior and well-placed official told the Guardian.
"A large amount of British blood and treasure has been (8) … in Helmand," another official said.
Give your opinion to the following statement in 240–270 words:
"One man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter."
Below is a possible answer to this comment.
This adage oversimplifies a very complicated issue in relation to defining1
what these terms mean. This is especially true if we consider the many
other options which can be used for these terms, such as militant, insurgent,
guerrilla fighter etc. What is implied in the words used, apart from positive
or negative connotations, is the number of people involved and the actual
tactic employed2. This ultimately leads to the conclusion that there is a
difference in meaning although it may be difficult at times to distinguish one
from another3.
A terrorist implies that the person belongs to a smaller group of people
than many of the other terms employed. Militants, freedom fighters,
insurgents etc. would seem to involve larger forces, perhaps operating on
a larger scale and with a broader scale of command structure. The term
terrorist suggests small secretive cells operating within or across international borders in order to achieve their specific purpose4.
The5 tactic employed, as the name suggests, is one of terror, of creating
fear. This is usually achieved by targeting specific individuals or groups of
people rather than controlling a particular area. Fear is created by making
attacks on a more random basis and frequently means the killing of civilians
and the targeting of non-military personnel. This tactic creates greater,
more generalized fear and thus media impact for their cause, which leads
to their being labelled terrorists and not freedom fighters.
Freedom fighters tend to belong to more open organizations, and are
often people who have left the city to fight from outside, possibly with
quite large support among the population. Their tactics are more focused
on specific military or political targets as well as infrastructure, rather than
on the average population where they gather support6.
As a result of these two, perhaps subtle, differences in terms of size and
tactics, terrorists should not be equated with freedom fighters7.
1 The writer begins by defining,
or in this case explaining the
problem with defining the
key term.
2 The writer introduces the two
main ideas in this paragraph
that will be developed in the
body-size and tactics in this
3 Notice that the writer takes a
clear position in the opening
paragraph – that there is a
difference between the two
4 The first paragraph attempts
to define this problematic
term, and establishes that
size is a key component
5 This paragraph develops the
second characteristic to be
discussed, tactics.
6 This paragraph focuses on
the freedom fighter and
develops the difference in
terms of size and tactic.
7 This conclusion reiterates
the introduction, ie the main
idea/argument presented.
1. Terrorism and Conflict Areas
Now write your opinion in 240–270 words to the following statement.
The best way to deal with terrorists is to bring them to the negotiating table.
Translate the following text into English.
Nem küldenek amerikai csapatokat Jemenbe
Barack Obama nem tervezi, hogy amerikai katonákat küldjön Jemenbe vagy Szomáliába. Az amerikai elnök ezt a People magazinnak adott interjújában jelentette ki, ahol az al-Kaida terjeszkedésérõl kérdezték.
Obama ugyanakkor hozzátette: „A mai komplex világban semmilyen lehetõséget nem lehet kizárni.”
Az elnök egyetértett azzal, hogy a terrorszervezet jemeni és szomáliai jelenléte komoly problémát jelent,
és megerõsítette a korábbi híreket, miszerint az Egyesült Államok segítséget nyújt a szanaa-i vezetésnek a
szélsõségesek kifüstölésében. Obama viszont továbbra is elsõdlegesen a nemzetközi összefogást tartja a legjárhatóbb útnak afelé, hogy stabilizálják a veszélyeztetett országokat.
Az interjúban az amerikai elnök hangsúlyozta, hogy napjaink konfliktusait a hagyományos háborúktól
eltérõen kell szemlélni, szerinte ugyanis a fenyegetések nem egy központból erednek, hanem inkább olyan
hálózatokhoz hasonlítanak, amelyek a kibertéren keresztül kapcsolódnak egymáshoz. Ezért az Egyesült Államok számára kiemelt fontosságú, hogy a bezárkózás és a fegyverek ereje helyett inkább a szélsõségesekkel szimpatizáló átlagemberek támogatásának megnyerésére hagyatkozzon, hogy ezáltal elszigetelje a terroristákat.
www.kitekinto.hu, 2010. január 11.
1094 n
Presentation Questions
Plan a short 4-5 minute presentation outlining your view or the main issues involved in the following
topics. Try to bring in key terms and relevant facts to support your presentation. The presentation
may be expressed as a question or as a statement. There is no correct position related to these issues
and candidates are not expected to agree or disagree with statements, and may seek to clarify or
define the key terms or refute the underlying assumption in a statement but may wish to take a clear
position and support their argument with examples. Some of the possible issues or directions that
you might wish to consider are given in italics below.
How can terrorism be stopped?
(Issues which might be considered: to what extent can terrorism ever be stopped, can it be limited
or made irrelevant? At what point is it necessary to listen and take note of legitimate grievances,
how does one target the origin of the support that the terrorist organisation possibly enjoys?)
What legitimate reasons do any terrorist organizations have?
(territorial, historical, political, emotional, rhetorical?)
What is being done to prevent terrorism?
(greater transparency on bank transactions, greater invasiveness of security cameras, longer keeping
of data and information in general, better coordination between security organisations, data
exchange between nations, more information on identity documents, all with what cost to civil
What role does/should international law play?
(what measures are acceptable to prevent or terrorists or terrorist actions from occurring, should
all states recognise a supranational authority, what happens when some do and some don't?)
How should terrorists be treated when captured?
(Is detention as in Guantanamo acceptable, is torture ever permissible, what is torture, what is
legitimate treatment in order to save lives, what should be done to those found guilty?)
1. Terrorism and Conflict Areas
All mediation exercises can be found on the cd which comes with this book. We would
suggest you listen, maybe take notes, and then give a summary/translation of what you hear
after the pause on the audio recording. (If you wish to check what you have heard, you can find
the tapescript of the dialogue in the KEY.)
Security staff are meeting about a planned visit by the president of their country to officially open a
new wing to the university building promoting cultural ties with Hungary.
Consider the differences between the following people. What do they depend on, what aspects are
attributed to them, what connotation do they have, in what context do they appear?
Give an oral summary of thefollowing text in English.
Újrakezdõdtek a palesztin-izraeli tárgyalások
Az amerikai külügyminisztérium vasárnap bejelentette, hogy befejezõdött az Izrael és a Palesztin Hatóság közötti közvetett tárgyalások elsõ köre, és hogy Izrael és a palesztinok egyaránt lépéseket tettek a tárgyalások sikerét elõsegítõ pozitív légkör kialakítása érdekében - adta hírül a Háárec izraeli napilap. A következõ négy hónapban George Mitchell közel-keleti fõmegbízott fog közvetíteni a felek között. Az amerikai szenátor mindkét fél figyelmét felhívta a haladás fontosságára annak érdekében, hogy idõvel tovább tudjanak
majd lépni a közvetlen tárgyalásokra, amelyek végül a palesztin-izraeli konfliktus megoldását eredményezhetik, a „két állam” elve alapján.
A The New York Times amerikai napilap szerint arra nemigen lehet számítani, hogy hamar áttörést hoznak majd a megbeszélések. Netanjahu már többször is kijelentette, hogy a közvetlen tárgyalások híve és reméli, hogy a közvetett megbeszélések csupán ügyrendi kérdésekre fognak korlátozódni. Ezzel szemben a palesztinok azt szeretnék, ha a palesztin-izraeli konfliktus lényeges kérdései is terítékre kerülnének, továbbá
visszautasították a közvetlen tárgyalások lehetõségét mindaddig, amíg Izrael teljeskörûen be nem fagyasztja a nyugati parti (ciszjordániai) és a kelet-jeruzsálemi zsidó telepek bõvítését.
Jasszer Abed Rabbo, a Palesztin Felszabadítási Szervezet (PFSZ) egyik tisztségviselõje szombaton úgy
nyilatkozott, hogy a palesztinokat biztosították afelõl, hogy minden sarkalatos kérdés sorra kerül majd az
„indirekt” tárgyalásokon, beleértve Jeruzsálem jövõjét, az 1948-as palesztin menekültek és leszármazottaik
sorsát, a határokat és a biztonságot. Izrael pedig beleegyezett abba, hogy elõzetes megbeszélések szintjén a
leglényegesebb kérdések is elõkerülhetnek majd.
www.kitekinto.hu, 2010.05.10
1560 n
2. Diplomacy
Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of groups or states.
It usually refers to international diplomacy, the conduct of international relations through the intercession
of professional diplomats with regard to issues of peace-making, trade, war, economics and culture.
International treaties are usually negotiated by diplomats prior to endorsement by national politicians.
In an informal or social sense, diplomacy is the employment of tact to gain strategic advantage or to
find mutually acceptable solutions to a common challenge, one set of tools being the phrasing of statements
in a non-confrontational, or polite manner. The science of diplomatics, dealing with the study of old
documents, also owes its name to the above, but its present meaning is completely distinct from that of
Diplomatic strategy
Real world diplomatic negotiations are very different from intellectual debates in a university where an
issue is decided on the merit of the arguments and negotiators make a deal by splitting the difference.
Though diplomatic agreements can sometimes be reached among liberal democratic nations by appealing
to higher principles, most real world diplomacy has traditionally been heavily influenced by hard power.
The interaction of strength and diplomacy can be illustrated by a comparison to labor negotiations. If a
labor union is not willing to strike, then the union is not going anywhere because management has absolutely
no incentive to agree to union demands. On the other hand, if management is not willing to take a strike,
then the company will be walked all over by the labor union, and management will be forced to agree to any
demand the union makes. The same concept applies to diplomatic negotiations.
There are also incentives in diplomacy to act reasonably, especially if the support of other actors is needed.
The gain from winning one negotiation can be much less than the increased hostility from other parts. This
is also called soft power.
Many situations in modern diplomacy are also rules based. When for instance two WTO countries have
trade disputes, it is in the interest of both to limit the spill over damage to other areas by following some
agreed-upon rules.
Diplomatic immunity
The sanctity of diplomats has long been observed. This sanctity has come to be known as diplomatic
immunity. While there have been a number of cases where diplomats have been killed, this is normally
viewed as a great breach of honour. Diplomatic rights were established in the mid-seventeenth century in
Europe and have spread throughout the world. These rights were formalized by the 1961 Vienna Convention
on Diplomatic Relations, which protects diplomats from being persecuted or prosecuted while on a
diplomatic mission. If a diplomat does commit a serious crime while in a host country he may be declared
as persona non grata (unwanted person). Such diplomats are then often tried for the crime in their
homeland. In times of hostility, diplomats are often withdrawn for reasons of personal safety, as well as in
some cases when the host country is friendly but there is a perceived threat from internal dissidents.
Ambassadors and other diplomats are sometimes recalled temporarily by their home countries as a way to
express displeasure with the host country. In both cases, lower-level employees still remain to actually do
the business of diplomacy.
Diplomatic resolution of problems
Various processes and procedures have evolved over time for handling diplomatic issues and disputes.
Arbitration and mediations - Nations sometimes resort to international arbitration when faced with a
specific question or point of contention in need of resolution. For most of history, there were no official or
formal procedures for such proceedings. They were generally accepted to abide by general principles and
protocols related to international law and justice. Sometimes these took the form of formal arbitrations
and mediations. In such cases a commission of diplomats might be convened to hear all sides of an issue,
and to come some sort of ruling based on international law.
Diplomatic recognition - Diplomatic recognition is an important factor in determining whether a
nation is an independent state. Receiving recognition is often difficult, even for countries which are fully
sovereign. Currently, the United States and other nations maintain informal relations through de facto
embassies, with names such as the American Institute in Taiwan. Similarly, Taiwan's de facto embassies
abroad are known by names such as the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office. This was not
always the case, with the US maintaining official diplomatic ties with the ROC, recognizing it as the sole and
legitimate government of all of China until 1979, when these relations were broken off as a condition for
establishing official relations with Communist China.
Informal diplomacy - Informal diplomacy (sometimes called Track II diplomacy) has been used for
centuries to communicate between powers. Most diplomats work to recruit figures in other nations who
might be able to give informal access to a country's leadership. In some situations, such as between the
United States and the People's Republic of China a large amount of diplomacy is done through semi-formal
channels using interlocutors such as academic members of thinktanks. This occurs in situations where
governments wish to express intentions or to suggest methods of resolving a diplomatic situation, but do
not wish to express a formal position.
Track II diplomacy is a specific kind of informal diplomacy, in which non-officials (academic scholars,
retired civil and military officials, public figures, social activists) engage in dialogue, with the aim of conflict
resolution, or confidence-building. Sometimes governments may fund such Track II exchanges. Sometimes
the exchanges may have no connection at all with governments, or may even act in defiance of governments;
such exchanges are called Track III.
Small state diplomacy - Small state diplomacy is receiving increasing attention in diplomatic studies
and international relations. Small states are particularly affected by developments which are determined
beyond their borders such as climate change, water security and shifts in the global economy. Diplomacy
is the main vehicle by which small states are able to ensure that their goals are addressed in the global arena.
These factors mean that small states have strong incentives to support international cooperation. But with
limited resources at their disposal, conducting effective diplomacy poses unique challenges for small states.
2. Diplomacy
Ex 1. Match the following words taken form the text above with their definitions below.
1. intercession
2. hard power
3. soft power
4. incentives
5. strategic advantage
6. arbitration
7. resolution
8. interlocutors
a. form of alternative dispute resolution (ADR), is a legal technique
for the resolution of disputes outside the courts, wherein the
parties to a dispute refer it to one or more persons, by whose
decision (the "award") they agree to be bound
b. someone who informally explains the views of a government
and also can relay messages back to a government
c. a nation or political body's ability to use economic incentives or
military strength to influence other actors' behaviours
d. a written motion adopted by a deliberative body
e. the actions taken by one person on behalf of another
f. the overall relative power relationship of opponents that
enables one nation or group of nations effectively to control the
course of a military or political situation
g. is any factor (financial or non-financial) that enables or motivates
a particular course of action, or counts as a reason for preferring
one choice to the alternatives
h. the ability to obtain what you want through co-option and
Language competence practice
Ex 2. Complete the text with the following words. Use each word once only. There are two extra
words. The first has been done for you.
BEIJING - Greeting the Japanese emperor at Tokyo's Imperial Palace last weekend, President Barack
Obama (0) … bowed … so low that he was looking (1) … at the stone floor. The next day, Obama
shook hands with the prime minister of (2) … Myanmar during a group meeting. The day after that,
the president held a "town hall" with Chinese university students who had been selected by the
The images from the president's journey through Asia carried a (3) … symbolism that has riled critics
back home. One conservative website called the episodes "Obamateurism." Former Vice President
Dick Cheney told POLITICO that Obama was advertising "weakness."
But White House aides say the approach is (4) … - part of Obama's determination to deliver on his
campaign promise of directly engaging friends and enemies alike, giving America a less belligerent
posture abroad.
"I think it's very important for the United States not to assume that what is good for us is automatically good for somebody else," Obama told the students at the town hall, in Shanghai. "And we
have to have some (5) … about our attitudes towards other countries."
President George W. Bush was accused of practicing "cowboy diplomacy," with an emphasis on
American power and (6) … that came off to many people as jingoism.
On his maiden Asia swing, Obama has made a vivid (7) … of his own trademark style - the diplomacy
of (8) … .
Downplaying bald assertions of American self-interest, Obama in his speeches has emphasized the
(9) … of enlightened shared interests with other nations. The approach also invests deep faith in the
power of Obama's personal presence-a belief that a calm and reasonable style will summon calm and
reasonable (10) … around the world.3
Reading comprehension
Eastern Europeans crave power in EU diplomatic service4
EUOBSERVER / BRUSSELS - The EU's newest member states are under-represented in the bloc's
diplomatic service and among senior EU commission officials, Estonian president Toomas Ilves has said,
urging the union's new leadership to alter the situation.
"So as not to be subjective, let's look at the figures. Out of 158 so-called European Union embassies, only
one is headed by a diplomat from a new member state," Mr Ilves said in an interview with Polish daily
Gazeta Wyborcza on Monday (14 December).
Mr Ilves was referring to Herman Janos, the head of the EU's delegation to Norway since spring this year.
The 57-year old is a Hungarian diplomat who studied in Budapest and in the Soviet Union, graduating in
1975 from the Moscow State University for International Relations.
The rest of the EU's top diplomats around the world come primarily from France, Germany, the UK and
Spain. A pattern is visible so that EU delegations in former French colonies such as the Ivory Coast or
Algeria are headed by French nationals, while Spaniards are sent to Latin American countries such as
Venezuela and Colombia.
The EU's new rules, in force since 1 December, create an External Action Service, or diplomatic service,
designed to give its external policy more coherence.
To date, the European Commission has had delegations in third countries. These have now been turned
into embassies by the Lisbon Treaty. Meanwhile, recruitment for the new diplomatic corps will also come
from national diplomatic services, which are likely to be predominant in the external action service in terms
of personnel.
Within the commission itself, each member state has its own representative, in charge of a specific
dossier, such as enlargement or trade. But in the top ranks of the so-called directorates, the units dealing
with these policies on a day-to-day level, eastern Europeans are again under-represented, as Mr Ilves
pointed out.
"There are 41 directorates-general in the EU. We're in our sixth year of membership, and none of them
is headed by a director from a new member state. These are figures, not back-chat," he said.
2. Diplomacy
The Estonian president called on the bloc's new leadership to change the situation. "Mister Van Rompuy,
please explain this to me, I'm begging you! Why is it like this? I don't understand," he said.
Herman Van Rompuy, a former Belgian premier, will from 1 January chair all meetings of EU leaders as
president of the European Council.
Estonia joined the EU in 2004, together with the Czech Republic, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia
and Slovenia. Cyprus and Malta also joined that year. In 2007, other two former communist countries,
Bulgaria and Romania, also became members.
Ex 3. On the basis of the text finish the sentences.
There is hope that recent changes in the European Union will …
The European Union representative to Norway is the …
It seems EU ambassadors are chosen on the basis of …
Each state has a commissioner who also …
The problem with the directorates is that …
The situation has not improved since …
The Estonian president stresses that his main point is …
The hope is now that …
MEPs to call for EU diplomatic college5
EUOBSERVER / BRUSSELS - The European Parliament is later this morning set to call for the establishment of a European diplomatic college as the EU looks to firm up its presence on the international stage with
a more coherent foreign policy.
The proposal, contained in a parliament report on the current negotiations to establish a European
diplomatic service, suggests such a college would provide "appropriate training" in consular procedures,
diplomacy and international relations "including knowledge and the history and workings of the European
European external relations commissioner Benita Ferrero Waldner called it a "promising idea" as
members of the fledgling diplomatic service, at least a third of whom will be directly seconded from national
ministries, should "think European."
"We need to create a European diplomatic culture and an esprit de corps," said the commissioner, while
debating the report with MEPs on Wednesday (21 October).
There is also a call to let EU commission delegations, which will become union embassies under the
Lisbon Treaty, provide consular services for EU citizens in third countries - something one EU analyst noted
may become popular as member states scale back their consular services abroad due to costs.
The wider report by German centre-right MEP Elmar Brok anticipates the internal institutional problems
of the EU that could be created by the diplomatic service, a part of the new Lisbon Treaty, and makes a series
of demands including that the service be a part of the European commission and part of the EU budget,
moves that would automatically grant MEPs greater scrutiny rights.
While the Swedish EU presidency as well as commissioner Ferrero-Waldner were careful to point to the
importance of democratic oversight and close cooperation with the parliament, they shied away from
committing the new set-up to being part of the general EU budget.
The idea is deeply unpopular with member states who fear that their exclusive powers in foreign policy
will be eroded.
For her part Swedish EU minister Cecilia Malmstrom said that Stockholm will be ready to present a series
of "very useful ideas" on the service to a meeting of EU leaders in Brussels next week. Giving a few details of
the ongoing negotiations between member states about what the service should look like, she said the
commission would maintain "overall responsibility" for trade, aid and enlargement issues.
The Lisbon Treaty is unclear on the scope of the service and the foreign minister. This has prompted fears
that the commission will be weakened as its experts leave to fill the ranks of the diplomatic service and it is
stripped of its powers in key external policy areas such as trade.
The service, which member states are hoping to have set up by April next year, has prompted job fears
among commission staff, 400 of whom attended a talk last week by the commission's secretary general on
the issue.
"The career path in the commission is quite clear," an official in the external relations unit told
EUobserver adding "but no one is sure what a transfer to the service will mean."
The setting up of the diplomatic service could imply a change to the staff regulations, the rules governing
internal management of the EU institutions including the choosing of staff and the creation of new jobs. This
would be something that would need to be decided with the European Parliament, opening a new point of
leverage for deputies trying to shape the service.
While the majority of deputies spoke out in favour of the report during Wednesday's debate, some
deputies said the diplomatic service will mean foreign policy is gradually taken away from member states.
Ex 4. Answer the following questions on the basis of the text above.
1. Why does the EU see a need for a new diplomatic college?
2. What changes will the Lisbon Treaty bring in?
3. What safeguards are being planned in setting up the diplomatic college?
4. What has the EU presidency so far avoided?
5. What concerns have so far arisen within the Commission?
6. What problems are there within the Lisbon Treaty?
7. What form of control will the EU parliament possibly have when setting up the new service?
8. What concerns do a minority of deputies have?
2. Diplomacy
Sample Commentary
The best way to deal with rogue states is to use hard power negotiation tactics.
Dealing with rogue states has always been problematic since by their
nature they are less vulnerable than normal states to outside influence.
States such as Iran, North Korea1, perhaps Venezuela have little changed
as a result of outside (often American) pressure, perhaps the time for a
more nuanced approach is at hand2.
Hard power bargaining has achieved little. Massive militarisation on
the border between North and South Korea, or NATO military forces in
Iran's neighbour Iraq have achieved no noticeable results. Indeed N.
Korea continues to hold and test fire nuclear weapons and Iran progresses
with their enrichment of uranium. (American) sanctions, rhetoric and
other aggressive posturing shows no signs of success, and has indeed
frequently resulted in these rogue states becoming even more stubborn
and intransigent3.
For this reason a more nuanced approach is now needed. Perhaps a
more open approach to China, one that seeks to work with the Chinese, as
opposed to against, might bare fruit in relation to China then applying
pressure on its secretive friend, N. Korea. Similarly building a better
relationship within the Middle East, especially with Syria, and being more
open to the needs of the Iranian people might pay dividends4.
A more subtle approach is needed, an approach that seeks to engage and
not just criticise and punish might therefore be the best way forward and
lead to significant gains for all5.
1 Th writer defines rogue states
by exemplifying them.
2 The final sentence makes the
writer's position clear namely that a more subtle
approach is needed.
3 This paragraph acknowledges
that hard power has not been
very successful.
4 This paragraph defends the
writer's idea of a more subtle
5 The conclusion merely
restates the writer's central
Now write a commentary of 240–270 words in response to the following statement.
More power needs to be invested in supranational organisations like the United Nations.
Translate the following text into English.
Hamburger diplomácia
Elõször volt hivatalos a Fehér Házba Dmitrij Medvegyev orosz elnök, noha ez volt már a hetedik találkozója amerikai kollégájával, Barack Obamával.
A kétoldalú megbeszélések végén mindkét fél elégedett lehet. Moszkva határozott választ kapott tervezett WTO tagsága kapcsán. Obama elnök kijelentette, hogy kormánya támogatni fogja Moszkva felvételi kérelmét.
Washington is elérte célját, Moszkva feloldotta az amerikai szárnyashús beviteli tilalmát és támogatja a
fontosabb kérdésekben.
Így egyetértés van az Észak-Korea és Irán körül kialakult helyzet kapcsán, mint ahogy Medvegyev üdvözölte az Egyesült Államok Afganisztánban tett erõfeszítéseit az ország újjáépítése és a kábítószer termesztés
felszámolása terén, egyben megállapodva az afganisztáni együttmûködés bõvítésében.
Az elnökök deklarálták, hogy törekednek a vízumrendszer enyhítésére és a kétoldalú gazdasági kapcsolatok fejlesztésére. Ugyan a kétoldalú kereskedelem volumene az elmúlt két évtizedben az ötszörösére emelkedett, az évi 24 milliárd dollár mégis eltörpül az országok potenciálja mellett.
A megbeszélések egyik színfoltja volt, hogy Obama hamburgerezni vitte el Medvegyevet, az ottaniak nem
kis meglepetésére.
www.posztinfo.hu, 2010.06.25.
1038 n
2. Diplomacy
Presentation Questions
What is the best way to deal with rogue states?
(build up military forces on their borders, seek allies against them, build alliances, isolate them,
blockade them economically, apply targeted sanctions, open negotiations, finance the opposition
in the country or a fifth column in the country, use propaganda, open up markets and the internet
and allow globalisation to open minds)
To what extent is a nuclear free world a pipedream?
(movements have been in existence since the beginning to 'ban the bomb', the Ukraine gave up its
nuclear arsenal, countries like the Uk are finding it difficult to finance a nuclear option, is there
really a first strike option, does terrorism make it impossible to give up a retaliatory option?)
When is it legitimate to use both hard and soft power negotiating tactics?
(good cop, bad cop, options as diplomatic tools, hard is bullying but can be effective or can increase
opposition, some cultures may be more open to one type than another)
All mediation exercises can be found on the cd which comes with this book. We would
suggest you listen, maybe take notes, and then give a summary/translation of what you hear
after the pause on the audio recording. (If you wish to check what you have heard, you can find
the tapescript of the dialogue in the KEY.)
The Prime Minister of Hungary is meeting the Ambassador of a neighbouring country after a spying
scandal involving a junior diplomat.
Give an oral summary of thefollowing text in English.
Elfogadta az Európai Parlament az Európai Külügyi Szolgálat
létrehozásával kapcsolatos ajánlásokat
Elfogadta az Európai Parlament (EP) csütörtökön Strasbourgban az Európai Külügyi Szolgálat (EKSZ)
felállításáról szóló elsõ olyan elõterjesztést, mely az európai uniós intézmények közötti megegyezés alapján
Az Európai Unió új diplomáciai testületének kialakítása körüli vita a Lisszaboni Szerzõdés tavaly decemberi hatályba lépése óta húzódott a parlament, a legfõbb uniós végrehajtó testületet jelentõ Európai Bizottság, a tagállamok kormányait képviselõ tanács, illetve Catherine Ashton külügyi fõképviselõ között.
Gál Kinga és Schöpflin György fideszes EP-képviselõ közös közleményben szögezte le: Magyarországnak
is elemi érdeke, hogy az Európai Külügyi Szolgálat még az idén ténylegesen megkezdje mûködését.
Az európai diplomáciai szervezet körüli vita fõbb kérdései az új intézmény politikai elszámoltathatóságára, demokratikus ellenõrzésére, költségvetési felügyeletére, valamint átláthatóságára vonatkoznak.
Schöpflin György a téma kapcsán kiemelte: fideszes képviselõtársainak is köszönhetõ, hogy az uniós diplomáciában a tagállamok arányos képviseletére, azaz a földrajzi egyensúly elvére való hivatkozás végül bekerült a dokumentumba.
Schöpflin szerint a korábbi egyeztetések során a Bajnai-kormány a földrajzi egyensúly elvét passzivitásával elmulasztotta hangsúlyozni. “Az arányos képviselet elvének alkalmazásával a magyar külpolitika súlyának megfelelõen járulhat hozzá a közös európai külkapcsolatok formálásához” - vélekedett.
Gál Kinga üdvözölte, hogy az elõterjesztésnek köszönhetõen az emberi jogok érvényesítése kiemelt helyen szerepel az Európai Külügyi Szolgálat feladatkörében.
MTI, 2010. 07.08.
1524 n