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ÓÄÊ 811.111'36
ÁÁÊ 81.2Àíãë-2
È 75
È 75
Èîíèíà À. À.
Àíãëèéñêàÿ ãðàììàòèêà XXI âåêà: Óíèâåðñàëüíûé ýôôåêòèâíûé êóðñ /
À.À. Èîíèíà, À.Ñ. Ñààêÿí. — Ì. : Ýêñìî, 2012. — 416 ñ. — (Èíîñòðàííûé ÿçûê:
øàã çà øàãîì).
ISBN 978-5-699-51321-5
Ïîñîáèå ïðåäíàçíà÷åíî äëÿ âñåõ æåëàþùèõ îñâîèòü êóðñ áàçîâîé àíãëèéñêîé ãðàììàòèêè è
ðàçîáðàòüñÿ â åå ñëîæíîñòÿõ. Ñáàëàíñèðîâàííûé êóðñ îáó÷åíèÿ âêëþ÷àåò â ñåáÿ ýôôåêòèâíîå
èçó÷åíèå è òðåíèðîâêó ãðàììàòè÷åñêîãî ìàòåðèàëà, à òàêæå îñâîåíèå ñîâðåìåííîé ëåêñèêè. Ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíàÿ ïðîãðàììà êóðñà, åìêèå îáúÿñíåíèÿ, íàãëÿäíûå ïðèìåðû, ñõåìû è òàáëèöû äëÿ
ëó÷øåãî çàïîìèíàíèÿ ïðîéäåííîãî ïîìîãóò ëåãêî óñâîèòü è ñèñòåìàòèçèðîâàòü ìàòåðèàë. Ìíîæåñòâî óïðàæíåíèé — îò ðàçíîîáðàçíûõ òåñòîâûõ çàäàíèé äî ïåðåâîäîâ — íàïðàâëåíî íà òðåíèðîâêó è ïðèìåíåíèå ïîëó÷åííûõ çíàíèé íà ïðàêòèêå. Âñå çàäàíèÿ ïîñòðîåíû íà ñîâðåìåííîé ëåêñèêå.
Ïîñîáèå ñòàíåò ïîëåçíûì äîïîëíåíèåì ê ëþáîìó ó÷åáíèêó, ïîìîæåò áûñòðî è ýôôåêòèâíî ïîäãîòîâèòüñÿ ê ýêçàìåíó, ïîâòîðèòü ãðàììàòè÷åñêèé ìàòåðèàë ïåðåä çàðóáåæíîé êîìàíäèðîâêîé èëè
ñòàæèðîâêîé. Îíî ïðåäíàçíà÷åíî äëÿ âñåõ, êòî èçó÷àåò ÿçûê ñàìîñòîÿòåëüíî, ñ ïðåïîäàâàòåëåì, íà
ÿçûêîâûõ êóðñàõ èëè â ó÷åáíîì çàâåäåíèè.
ÓÄÊ 811.111'36
ÁÁÊ 81.2Àíãë-2
ISBN 978-5-699-51321-5
© Èîíèíà À.À., Ñààêÿí À.Ñ., 2011
© ÎÎÎ «Èçäàòåëüñòâî «Ýêñìî», 2012
Ñîäåðæàíèå
Ïðåäèñëîâèå . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Unit 1. Ìåñòîèìåíèÿ (Pronouns) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Unit 2. Ãëàãîë tî be . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Unit 3. It is — There is . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Unit 4. Èìÿ ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîå (The Noun) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Unit 5. ×èñëî èìåíè ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîãî (Number) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Unit 6. Òèïû âîïðîñîâ ñ ãëàãîëîì to be . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Unit 7. Íåîïðåäåë¸ííûé àðòèêëü (The Indefinite Article) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Unit 8. Íåîïðåäåë¸ííûå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ (Indefinite Pronouns) some, any, no . . . . . . . . 49
Unit 9. Íåîïðåäåë¸ííûå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ a lot of, many, much . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Unit 10. Îïðåäåë¸ííûé àðòèêëü (The Definite Article) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Unit 11. Have/Have got (èìåòü ÷òî-òî, îáëàäàòü ÷åì-òî) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Unit 12. Ïàäåæ èìåíè ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîãî (Ñase) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Unit 13. Ðîä èìåíè ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîãî (Gender) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Unit 14. Ïðîñòîå íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ (Present Simple) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Unit 15. Ïîâåëèòåëüíûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ (Imperative Sentences) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Unit 16. Íàñòîÿùåå ïðîäîëæåííîå âðåìÿ (Present Progressive/Continuous) . . . . . 85
Unit 17. Ïîâòîðåíèå (Revision) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Unit 18. Ïðîñòîå ïðîøåäøåå âðåìÿ (Past Simple) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Unit 19. Ïðîøåäøåå ïðîäîëæåííîå âðåìÿ (Past Progressive/Continuous) . . . . . . . 106
Unit 20. Ìîäàëüíûå ãëàãîëû can, may . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Unit 21. Ìîäàëüíûå ãëàãîëû must, be to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Unit 22. Ìîäàëüíûå ãëàãîëû have to, should, ought to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Unit 23. Ìîäàëüíûé ãëàãîë need (to) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Unit 24. good — well, bad — badly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Unit 25. Ïîâòîðåíèå (Revision) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Unit 26. Ïðîñòîå áóäóùåå âðåìÿ (Future Simple) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Unit 27. Áóäóùåå ïðîäîëæåííîå âðåìÿ (Future Progressive/Continuous) . . . . . . . 141
Unit 28. Ïðèäàòî÷íûå âðåìåíè è óñëîâèÿ If — When . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Unit 29. tî be exciting — to be excited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Unit 30. Íàñòîÿùåå ñîâåðøåííîå âðåìÿ 1 (Present Perfect 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Unit 31. Íàñòîÿùåå ñîâåðøåííîå âðåìÿ 2 (Present Perfect 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Unit 32. Íàñòîÿùåå ñîâåðøåííîå âðåìÿ 3 (Present Perfect 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Unit 33. have done — did . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
3
Содержание
Unit 34. Íàñòîÿùåå ñîâåðøåííîå ïðîäîëæåííîå âðåìÿ
(Present Perfect Progressive/Continuous) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 35. Èìÿ ïðèëàãàòåëüíîå (The Adjective) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 36. Äâîéíûå ñòåïåíè ñðàâíåíèÿ ïðèëàãàòåëüíûõ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 37. Àðòèêëè ñ ãåîãðàôè÷åñêèìè íàçâàíèÿìè. Ìèðîâàÿ ãåîãðàôèÿ . . . . . . . . .
Unit 38. Àðòèêëè ñ ãåîãðàôè÷åñêèìè íàçâàíèÿìè. Ãîðîäñêàÿ ãåîãðàôèÿ . . . . . . . .
Unit 39. Êîñâåííàÿ ðå÷ü (Reported Speech) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 40. Ïîâòîðåíèå (Revision) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 41. Àðòèêëè â íàçâàíèÿõ íåêîòîðûõ ñòðàí, íàöèîíàëüíîñòåé,
æèòåëåé ñòðàíû è ÿçûêîâ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 42. Ïðîøåäøåå ñîâåðøåííîå âðåìÿ (Past Perfect) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 43. Ïðîøåäøåå ñîâåðøåííîå ïðîäîëæåííîå âðåìÿ
(Past Perfect Progressive/Continuous) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 44. Ñîãëàñîâàíèå âðåì¸í . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 45. Íåñîãëàñîâàíèå âðåì¸í . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 46. Ñòðàäàòåëüíûé çàëîã (The Passive Voice) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 47. Ñâîäíàÿ òàáëèöà ôîðì ñòðàäàòåëüíîãî çàëîãà . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 48. Ïîâòîðåíèå (Revision) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 49. Ïðîáëåìíûå ãëàãîëû (Problem Verbs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 50. ×èñëèòåëüíîå (The Numeral) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 51. (the) other, (the) others, another . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 52. do — make . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 53. Àðòèêëè ñ ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûìè, îáîçíà÷àþùèìè ÷àñòè ñóòîê
è âðåìåíà ãîäà . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 54. Àðòèêëè ñ ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûìè, îáîçíà÷àþùèìè
ïðè¸ìû ïèùè (meals) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 55. Àðòèêëè ñ ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûìè school, bed, town... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 56. Àðòèêëè ñ ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûìè âî ôðàçàõ ñ ïðåäëîãàìè
in, with, like, as . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 57. Àðòèêëè âî ôðàçàõ ñ ïðåäëîãîì of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 58. Àðòèêëè âî ôðàçàõ on foot, at home, by chance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 59. 1. Àðòèêëè ñ óíèêàëüíûìè ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûìè . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. Îáîáùàþùåå (ðîäîâîå) çíà÷åíèå àðòèêëåé; èçîáðåòåíèÿ,
æàíðû, òåðìèíû . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 60. Àðòèêëè ñ ëè÷íûìè èìåíàìè (èìåíà è ôàìèëèè ëþäåé) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 61. Àðòèêëè ñ íàçâàíèÿìè áîëåçíåé . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 62. Àðòèêëè ñ ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûìè â ôóíêöèè ïðèëîæåíèÿ
è ïðåäèêàòèâà (÷àñòè ñîñòàâíîãî èìåííîãî ñêàçóåìîãî) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 63. Àðòèêëè ñ ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûì fruit / fish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 64. Ïîâòîðåíèå (Revision) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 65. Âîçâðàòíûå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ (myself, yourself...) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 66. Ñîñëàãàòåëüíîå íàêëîíåíèå (The Subjunctive Mood,
The Conditional Mood) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 67. I wish... (Âûðàæåíèå íåðåàëüíûõ ïîæåëàíèé) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 68. Ïîâòîðåíèå (Revision) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 69. Èíôèíèòèâ (The Infinitive) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 70. Ñëîæíîå äîïîëíåíèå ( The Complex Object) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 71. Ãåðóíäèé (The Gerund) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
169
173
180
185
190
198
205
213
217
224
227
232
236
241
245
252
256
261
265
268
272
276
279
282
285
288
289
293
296
300
303
307
314
318
324
330
338
344
349
Содержание
Unit 72. Èíôèíèòèâ è ãåðóíäèé (The Infinitive and the Gerund) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 73. Ïðè÷àñòèå I, II (Participle I, II) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 74. Ïîâòîðåíèå (Revision) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 75. Ïðåäëîãè (Prepositions). Ïðåäëîãè, âûðàæàþùèå ïðîñòðàíñòâåííûå
îòíîøåíèÿ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 76. Ïðåäëîãè above/below, over/under; between/among. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 77. Ïðåäëîãè, âûðàæàþùèå âðåìåííûå îòíîøåíèÿ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 78. be on/in time, arrive in/at, at, in the end . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 79. Ïîâòîðåíèå (Ïðåäëîãè). Revision Prepositions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unit 80. Ïðîâåðüòå ñåáÿ (Tests) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ïðèëîæåíèå 1. Ïðàâèëüíûå ãëàãîëû, ïðåäñòàâëÿþùèå îðôîãðàôè÷åñêèå
òðóäíîñòè . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ïðèëîæåíèå 2. Ïîëíûé ñïèñîê íåïðàâèëüíûõ ãëàãîëîâ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
354
359
365
371
375
378
382
385
392
400
402
Ïðåäèñëîâèå
Ïðåäëàãàåìîå âàøåìó âíèìàíèþ ó÷åáíîå ïîñîáèå «Àíãëèéñêàÿ ãðàììàòèêà XXI âåêà» ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ñîáîé ñèñòåìàòè÷åñêèé êóðñ ãðàììàòèêè àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà, ïðåäíàçíà÷åííûé
äëÿ ñòàðøåêëàññíèêîâ, æåëàþùèõ ïîâòîðèòü, çàêðåïèòü è ðàñøèðèòü òå áàçîâûå çíàíèÿ â àíãëèéñêîé ãðàììàòèêå, êîòîðûå
îíè ïîëó÷èëè â ñðåäíåé øêîëå. Îíî ìîæåò áûòü óñïåøíî èñïîëüçîâàíî ñòóäåíòàìè, îáó÷àþùèìèñÿ ïî íàïðàâëåíèþ ïîäãîòîâêè «Ëèíãâèñòèêà» (áàêàëàâðèàò), à òàêæå øèðîêèì êðóãîì
ëèö, èçó÷àþùèõ àíãëèéñêèé ÿçûê ñàìîñòîÿòåëüíî. Áîëüøóþ
ïîìîùü êíèãà ìîæåò îêàçàòü ó÷èòåëÿì ñðåäíèõ øêîë, ãèìíàçèé, ðàçëè÷íûõ ïîäãîòîâèòåëüíûõ êóðñîâ. Ïðèíöèï ïîñòðîåíèÿ
ó÷åáíèêà äåëàåò åãî ìàêñèìàëüíî óäîáíûì â ó÷åáíîì ïðîöåññå,
òàê êàê íàëè÷èå òåîðåòè÷åñêîãî ìàòåðèàëà â äîñòóïíîé ôîðìå è îáøèðíîãî ëèíãâèñòè÷åñêîãî ìàòåðèàëà ïîçâîëÿåò ñäåëàòü
ïðîöåññ îáó÷åíèÿ ÿçûêó îäíîâðåìåííî èíòåðåñíûì è ýôôåêòèâíûì. Íå áóäó÷è óâÿçàííûì íè ñ îäíèì ó÷åáíèêîì, äàííîå
ïîñîáèå ìîæåò ãèáêî ñî÷åòàòüñÿ ñ ëþáûì áàçèñíûì êóðñîì àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà.
Ïîñîáèå ñîñòîèò èç 80 óðîêîâ, âêëþ÷àþùèõ òåîðåòè÷åñêèé
ìàòåðèàë è óïðàæíåíèÿ ðàçíîîáðàçíîãî õàðàêòåðà. Áîëüøîå
÷èñëî êîììóíèêàòèâíî îðèåíòèðîâàííûõ çàäàíèé äà¸ò âîçìîæíîñòü âûâåñòè â ðå÷ü ïîëó÷åííûå çíàíèÿ è íàâûêè. Ïîñîáèåì
ìîæíî ïîëüçîâàòüñÿ êàê ñèñòåìàòè÷åñêèì êóðñîì, òàê êàê ìåòîäè÷åñêè îíî ïîñòðîåíî ïî ïðèíöèïó îò ïðîñòîãî ê ñëîæíîìó è
îáåñïå÷èâàåò ïîâòîðÿåìîñòü ïðîéäåííîãî ìàòåðèàëà. Îäíàêî ïðè
æåëàíèè èì ìîæíî ïîëüçîâàòüñÿ âûáîðî÷íî äëÿ ñíÿòèÿ òåõ èëè
èíûõ òðóäíîñòåé. Ïîñëå ïðîõîæäåíèÿ îïðåäåë¸ííûõ ãðàììàòè6
Предисловие
÷åñêèõ òåì äà¸òñÿ óðîê íà ïîâòîðåíèå, êîòîðûé ó÷èòåëü ìîæåò
äàâàòü â âèäå òåñòîâ.  ïîñîáèè îòðàæåíû èçìåíåíèÿ è òåíäåíöèè â àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå ïîñëåäíèõ äåñÿòèëåòèé. Ëåêñè÷åñêèé
ìàòåðèàë óïðàæíåíèé è òåêñòîâ èìååò ñîâðåìåííîå çâó÷àíèå.
Îí îñíîâàí íà ðåàëèÿõ íàøåé æèçíè, ôèëüìàõ, êíèãàõ, ïîïóëÿðíûõ ó ìîëîä¸æè.  ïîñîáèè (óìûøëåííî) íå äàíû êëþ÷è, òàê
êàê ýòî ÷àñòî óìåíüøàåò ïðàêòè÷åñêóþ ïîëåçíîñòü ó÷åáíèêîâ.
Íàëè÷èå òåîðèè è ïîÿñíåíèé ïîçâîëèò ó÷àùèìñÿ îñóùåñòâèòü
ñàìîêîíòðîëü è ñàìîêîððåêöèþ ïîëó÷åííûõ çíàíèé.
Íàäååìñÿ, ÷òî ðàáîòà ïî äàííîìó ïîñîáèþ áóäåò äëÿ âàñ ïîëåçíîé è ïðèÿòíîé.
Àâòîðû
Uni
Unit
U
n
nit
iitt 1
Ìåñòîèìåíèÿ
Pronouns
Ëè÷íûå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ
Personal Pronouns
Единственное число
Множественное число
I
you
he, she, it
we
you
they
1-е лицо
2-е лицо
3-е лицо
8
Именительный падеж
The Nominative Case
Объектный падеж
The Objective Case
I
you
he
she
it
we
they
me
you
him
her
it
us
them
Местоимения
Продолжение табл.
Именительный падеж
The Nominative Case
Объектный падеж
The Objective Case
Give the disc to me.
Listen to her.
We know him.
They often meet them.
I have a new disc.
She sings well.
He works every day.
They have a lot of friends.
Ïðèòÿæàòåëüíûå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ
Possessive Pronouns
Притяжательные местоимения
Личные
местоимения
I
you
he
she
it
we
they
I have a bike.
They built a house.
She has a friend.
It is a big city.
He wrote a text.
Совмещенная форма
Местоимение +
существительное
Абсолютная форма
Местоимение
без существительного
my
your
his
her
its
our
their
mine
yours
his
hers
—
ours
theirs
It’s my bike.
It is their house.
Tim is her friend.
Its history is interesting.
His mark was good.
The bike is mine.
This house isn’t theirs.
Tim is a friend of hers.
—
The best test was his.
9
UNIT 1
1.1. Употребите необходимые по смыслу личные местоимения.
A. 1. ................. do my work well. 2. ................. seldom water your
flowers. 3. ...................... likes his job. 4. ...................... checks her e-mail
regularly. 5. ...................... know our duties. 6. Do ...................... cook your
own meals? 7. ................... often visit their relatives. 8. Do ......................
call your parents every day? 9. ...................... washes his car every
week. 10. Is ................... sorry for her friends? 11. I like English, but
I find ...................... difficult.
B. 1. I love ................... family. 2. You love .................. friends. 3. He
loves ................. girl. 4. She cares for .................... boyfriend. 5. We must
look after ...................... children. 6. They are worried about ..................
future. 7. You can leave .................. things here. 8. It’s a very old
theatre. .................. history is very interesting. 9. I read this book,
but I don’t remember .................. author. 10. It’s a good dictionary,
but .................. price is very high. 11. Mind ................... own business.
1.2. Употребите необходимые по смыслу личные местоимения.
1. Mrs. Grant is our teacher. ...................... is very competent. 2. Denis
has a new bike. ...................... is cool. ...................... is happy. 3. Fred and I
are cousins. ...................... are good friends. 4. The pupils are in class
now. ...................... are taking a test. 5. My name is Victor. ......................
am your new manager. 6. I came to Moscow at five o’clock. My
friends met ...................... at the station. 7. He loves you. Do you
love ...................... ? 8. My Granny likes to come to our place. She
spends ...................... weekends with ...................... . 9. Nobody knows
these people. Do you know ...................... ? 10. Children should obey
...................... parents. Did you obey ...................... parents? 11. I am a
good pupil. ...................... marks are excellent. 12. Martin hopes that
...................... life will be happy. 13. Nina spends ...................... holidays
in the South. 14. Would you like ...................... to help you?......................
am ready to do ...................... . 15. — Where is ...................... travel card,
Miss? — I’ve lost ...................... .
1.3. Употребите необходимые по смыслу личные местоимения.
1. Íå wanted her to go to a movie with ................................ . 2. Sveta
loves ............................ dog. ...................... name is Rex. 3. The secret is
10
Местоимения
between you and ...................... . 4. His boss considered ......................
the best worker. 5. They are nice people. I like ............................. .
6. He ate an apple. ............................ was tasty. 7. I wonder whose
file ............................. is? 8. I would like you to give ...................... phone
number. 9. ...................... is five o’clock now. 10. Whose fax is
...................... ? 11. When you see Susan, give ...................... my best
regards. 12. The cat ate ...................... food happily. 13. That’s
............................ e-mail. I have to read .................................. . 14. Your bag is
beautiful. Is ...................... new? 15. I must hurry. ............................... friend
is waiting for ............................... . 16. They may be late. Don’t wait for
...................... . 17. Let ...................... go to the cinema, shall ...................... ?
18. She invited us to ...................... party. ...................... were happy about
it. 19. They called ...................... yesterday. I talked to ...................... with
pleasure. 20. I lost ........................... keys. I hope I left .......................... at
the office.
Личные
Именительный
падеж
I
you
he
she
it
we
you
they
Притяжательные
Объектный
падеж
me
you
him
her
it
us
you
them
Совмещенная
форма
my
your
his
her
its
our
your
their
Абсолютная
форма
mine
yours
his
hers
—
ours
yours
theirs
They told them (their friends) that their house was not theirs. It was
their grandfather’s.
He asked him (Max) to take his car, because his was out of order.
11
UNIT 1
Óêàçàòåëüíûå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ
Demonstrative Pronouns
Ед.
число
this (этот, эта, это)
this week, this year, this file,
this method, this child
that (тот, та, то)
that week, that year, that file,
that method, that child
Мн.
число
these (эти)
these weeks, these years, these
files, these methods, these
children
those (те)
those weeks, those years, those
files, those methods, those
children
Обозначают то, что ближе
к говорящему во времени
и пространстве
Обозначают то, что дальше
от говорящего во времени
и пространстве
This is our new building.
This way please.
I’m sorry to trouble you. — That’s all right.
Are you Mr. Grant? — Yes, that’s right.
Hello, this is Olga. Is this Julia? (в телефонных разговорах)
one of these days («на днях» в отношении будущего)
1.4. Употребите нужную форму притяжательных местоимений.
1. This computer belongs to me. It’s ...................... . 2. Is this umbrella
_____, Helen? — Yes, it’s ...................... umbrella. 3. Excuse me.
Is this my file or ...................... ? — It’s ...................... . 4. You check
my test and I’ll check ...................... . 5. The cat washed itself with
...................... paws. 6. She is a cousin of ...................... . Our mothers
are sisters. 7. He is a friend of ......................, Peter, isn’t he? 8. He
asked ...................... a difficult question. I couldn’t answer ...................... .
12
Местоимения
9. She invited us to ...................... party. ...................... thanked ...................... .
10. They called ...................... yesterday. He called ...................... back
at once. 11. The teacher told Boris that the best paper was
...................... . 12. You scratch ...................... back, and I’ll scratch
...................... (ïîñëîâèöà). 13. Helen is clever. That bright idea was
...................... . 14. This coffee is very good. I like ...................... smell.
15. They showed ...................... credit cards, but we couldn’t find
1.5. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Ìîé êîìïüþòåð íå â ïîðÿäêå. Ìîæíî ÿ ïîðàáîòàþ íà òâî¸ì? 2. Ýòî èõ îøèáêà, íå íàøà. 3. Îí îäèí èç ìîèõ äðóçåé.
4. Ýòè äåíüãè âàøè. 5. Ìû äàëè èì íàø íîìåð òåëåôîíà, à
îíè äàëè íàì ñâîé. 6. Åãî ìàøèíà íàïðîòèâ îôèñà, à ãäå æå
ìîÿ? 7. Ó íåãî íå áûëî ñîòîâîãî òåëåôîíà, è îíà äàëà åìó
ñâîé. 8. Ýòî òâîÿ ïðîáëåìà, íå íàøà. 9. — Èçâèíè, ÿ âçÿëà
òâîþ ðó÷êó âìåñòî ñâîåé. — Âñ¸ â ïîðÿäêå. 10. Îíà ðàññêàçàëà ìíå ñâîþ èñòîðèþ, à ÿ åé ñâîþ. 11. Ñåé÷àñ ìû îòêðîåì
íàøè ïîäàðêè, à çàòåì âçãëÿíåì íà âàøè. 12. Ýòîò êñåðîêñ
âàø èëè åãî? 13. Èõ äîì áîëüøå, ÷åì íàø. 14. Åãî ãîëîñ ñèëüíåå, ÷åì å¸. 15. Ýòî òâîÿ ãîëîâíàÿ áîëü, íå ìîÿ. 16. Ðóêà ðóêó
ìîåò.
1.6. Вставьте в пропуски указательные местоимения.
1. ...................... were happy days! 2. Who is ...................... over there?
3. ...................... shoes are too small for me. 4. ...................... is my
neighbour, Tanya. 5. Do you like ...................... idea? 6. ......................
was so long ago. 7. Do you like ...................... photo? 8. You are so
kind. ...................... why I like you. 9. Give me ...................... book from
the shelf. 10. Who are ...................... people over there? 11. — Did
you hear ...................... noise last night? — ...................... was the rain.
12. Who told you ...................... story? 13. I am so tired of ......................
life. 14. ...................... was a wonderful party, thanks. 15. Why did
you choose ...................... magazines? 16. ...................... are my textbooks. 17. ...................... events changed her life. 18. ...................... news
is great. 19. ...................... is very serious. 20. ...................... was your
mistake.
13
UNIT 1
1.7. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Ýòî òâîé äèñê, à ãäå æå ìîé? 2. Òâîÿ èäåÿ õîðîøàÿ, íî åãî
ëó÷øå. 3. Ýòî ìîè äðóçüÿ. 4. Ýòî áûëè åãî ïîñëåäíèå ñëîâà.
5. Ìíå íðàâÿòñÿ ýòè òóôëè. 6. Ýòè ëþäè èç Àíãëèè, à òå ëþäè
èç Ôðàíöèè. 7. Ýòîò âîïðîñ òðóäíûé, íî äóìàþ, ÷òî îòâå÷ó íà
íåãî. 8. Ýòî áûëè ñ÷àñòëèâûå âðåìåíà! 9. — Ýòî áûëà áîëüøàÿ
îøèáêà. — Äà, ýòî âåðíî. 10. Ýòî íîâûå âèäåîôèëüìû. Ïîñìîòðè èõ. 11. Ýòà ìàøèíà íå â ïîðÿäêå. 12. Ýòî ñëó÷èëîñü ìíîãî
ëåò íàçàä. 13. — Ïðèâåò, ýòî Ñâåòà? (ïî òåëåôîíó) — Íåò, ýòî
å¸ ñåñòðà Íàäÿ. 14. Íà ýòîé íåäåëå ÿ ïîéäó â òåàòð. 15. Ýòî
áûëî óìíîå ðåøåíèå. 16. Ýòè ðàññêàçû î÷åíü èíòåðåñíûå.
17. ß íèêîãäà íå çàáóäó òîò äåíü! 18. Ýòîò ãîðîä òàêîé êðàñèâûé! 19. Ïîñìîòðè íà âîí òå êàðòèíû. 20. Áûòü èëè íå áûòü —
âîò â ÷¸ì âîïðîñ. 21. Äàâàé âñòðåòèìñÿ íà äíÿõ. 22. ß ïîçâîíþ
òåáå íà äíÿõ. 23. ß ÷àñòî ïîñåùàþ Ëîíäîí. ß ëþáëþ ýòîò ãîðîä. 24. — Ãäå âûõîä? — Ñþäà, ïîæàëóéñòà. 25. Ýòî ëåòî áûëî
äîæäëèâûì. 26. Òå íîìåðà áûëè çàáëîêèðîâàíû. 27. Ýòè öèôðû íåâåðíû. 28. Ýòî âàøè äåíüãè. 29. Ýòî áûë î÷åíü ðèñêîâàííûé áèçíåñ. 30. Ýòî áûëè íàøè ëó÷øèå äåíüêè. 31. Íèêòî íå
ìîæåò ñîîáùèòü âàì ýòè ñâåäåíèÿ.
Unit
U
n
nit
iitt 2
Ãëàãîë tî be
áûòü, íàõîäèòüñÿ,
ñóùåñòâîâàòü, èìåòüñÿ
My name is Denis.
I’m 20.
My parents are teachers.
I’m Russian.
My hobby is travelling.
We are happy.
You are right.
He is smart.
Число
Ед.
число
Мн.
число
Утвердительная форма
I
he
she
it
we
you
they
am
is
are
(I’m)
(he’s)
(she’s)
(it’s)
I’m young. I am a student.
He is rich. He’s a businessman.
She’s my friend. She is very sweet.
It’s summer. It’s warm and sunny.
(we’re)
(you’re)
(they’re)
We’re your neighbours.
You’re our new programmers.
They’re tourists from Australia.
15
UNIT 2
В русском языке глагол-связка быть,
иметься, находиться опускается.
Я (есть) учитель.
Он (есть) занят.
Мы (находимся) здесь.
Это (есть) хорошо.
В английском языке глагол-связка
be никогда не опускается!
I’m a teacher.
Не is busy.
We are here.
It is good.
Вопросительная форма
Am
Is
Are
I ... ?
he ... ?
she ... ?
it ... ?
Am I right or am I wrong?
Is he in London now?
Is she your cousin?
Is it really important?
we ... ?
you ... ?
they... ?
Are we no longer friends?
Are you good partners?
Are they good lawyers?
Отрицательная форма
I
he
she
it
we
you
they
am not
is not
are not
(I’m not)
(he isn’t)
(she isn’t)
(it isn’t)
I’m not right.
He isn’t in London now.
She isn’t my cousin.
It isn’t really important.
(we aren’t)
(you aren’t)
(they aren’t)
We aren’t friends any longer.
You aren’t good partners.
They aren’t good lawyers.
to be in (быть дома, в офисе и т.д.)
to be in order (быть исправным,
работать)
16
to be out/away (отсутствовать, не быть
дома, в офисе и т.д.)
to be out of order (сломаться,
не работать)
Глагол tо be
to be eager (очень чего-то хотеть)
to be over (закончиться)
to be sorry (сожалеть о чём-то)
to be on duty (дежурить)
to be fond of (увлекаться чем-то)
to be sure (быть уверенным)
to be hungry (thirsty, hot, cold, lucky,
miserable, smart, cool, ...)
to be out of service (быть вне зоны
обслуживания, о телефоне)
2.1. Употребите правильную форму глагола to be.
1. Who ...................... you? What ...................... your name? Where
...................... you from? How old ...................... you? 2. I ...................... Maria.
I ...................... a Muscovite. I ...................... twenty. I ...................... a student. 3. — Where ...................... your parents? — They ...................... at
work now. My father ................... a doctor, and my mother ..................
a nurse. 4. This ...................... my friend, Nikita. He ...................... an actor. All his friends .................. actors too. 5. — I ...................... happy. My
life .................. great. .................. you happy? ................... everything all
right? — Yes, thank you, I ................... fine. There .................... no problems. 6. There ...................... two birds in the cage. 7. There ......................
a big bright star in the sky. 8. He ...................... a photographer.
9. ................... they your classmates? 10. There .................... many channels on our television. 11. There ...................... two computers in the
office, but there ...................... only one printer. 12. — It .................... Olga’s file. — Yes, that .................... right. 13. Denis .................... my workmate. 14. I ................... sorry, very sorry. 15. — .................. you from
this office? — Yes, I ................... . 16. The facts ................... clear. 17. —
You .................. always on my mind! — Oh, ................... I? 18. This telephone number ...................... out of service. Call back later.
2.2.
Употребите вопросительную и отрицательную формы следующих
предложений.
1. I am a teacher1. 2. My brother is an artist. 3. She is a
programmer. 4. He is a reporter. 5. We are managers. 6. I am
 âîïðîñèòåëüíûõ ïðåäëîæåíèÿõ ëîãè÷íî ìåíÿòü 1-å ëèöî (åä. è ìí. ÷èñëà) íà 2-å ëèöî:
I am here. — Are you here? — I am not here.
I am free. — Are you free? — I am not free.
We are busy. — Are you busy? — We aren’t busy.
We are cold. — Are you cold? — We aren’t cold.
1
17
UNIT 2
eager to see the world. 7. Life is hectic1. 8. The shops are closed
today. 9. Kate is at home now. 10. I am a bus driver. 11. My
keys are lost. 12. My children are I very well. 13. Our students
are very good. 14. My job is well-paid. 15. The traffic is heavy
today. 16. They are Japanese. 17. Boris is in Spain. 18. English
is difficult. 19. Chinese is easy. 20. Computers are very useful.
21. Robert is a friendly boy. 22. My friends are always helpful.
2.3. Заполните пропуски правильной формой глагола to be.
1. My name ...................... Tanya. My family name ...................... Serova. It
...................... the fifth of May. I ...................... eighteen today. It ......................
a special day for me. My parents and my friends ...................... all in
our house. They ...................... eager to congratulate me. We ......................
very happy. 2. Moscow ...................... a modern city. There ......................
many sights in it. I ...................... a Muscovite and I ...................... in love
with my city. 3. It ...................... a good dictionary. Good dictionaries
...................... expensive, but as I ...................... a great book lover, my
wish ...................... to buy it. 4. Mr. Hunt ...................... out, but his wife
and children ...................... in. And I ...................... their babysitter.
5. My house ...................... comfortable. The rooms ...................... big
and bright. I ...................... happy to live in it. 6. I ...................... sure
that it ...................... a great show. Many fine actors and actresses
...................... in it. 7. It ...................... winter. It ...................... cold and snowy.
The days ...................... short, and the nights ...................... long. There
...................... practically no sun. I ...................... always miserable in this
season. 8. — I ...................... glad that you ...................... at home. Supper
...................... ready, I hope it ...................... tasty. — I ...................... sure that
it ......................, you ...................... a wonderful cook. And we ......................
very hungry and thirsty.
2.4. Употребите правильную форму глагола to be.
1. — ...................... I late? — No, you ...................... just in time, but the
boss ...................... not here yet. 2. — ...................... you cold? — Yes,
it ...................... frosty today. 3. — ...................... I right? — I ......................
afraid that you ...................... not. 4. He ...................... a cool guy. He
1
18
hectic — áóðíàÿ, íàïðÿæ¸ííàÿ.
Глагол tо be
...................... a computer genius. 5. My friends ...................... good fellows.
6. Everybody ...................... here. It ...................... time to start the class.
7. Whose books ...................... these? 8. ...................... I or ...................... you the
manager here? 9. ...................... you a chocaholic? — No, I ......................
not. 10. ...................... he your brother? — Yes, that ...................... true.
11. ...................... your life interesting? How ...................... things? How
...................... business? 12. ...................... anybody at home? — No, they
...................... out. 13. What ...................... the matter? What ......................
wrong? 14. Who ...................... those people?...................... they your
friends? 15. ...................... it warm or ...................... it cold today? — It
...................... hot outside. 16. Where ...................... my watch? 17. Where
...................... my jeans? 18. Who ...................... these people? 19. What
...................... the score? 20. — How ...................... your children? —
Thank you, they ...................... very well.
2.5. Составьте пары прилагательных по образцу:
strong-weak, right-left, intelligent-stupid
Good, black, wonderful, high, right, short, cold, expensive,
warm, heavy, rich, difficult, wet, poor, happy, upset, full, big,
busy, old, early, free, young, late, small, empty, glad, sad, dry,
easy, light, false, cheap, cool, long, bad, low, awful, white, hot,
wrong, rich, new.
2.6. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. — Ýòî õîðîøî. — À ÿ äóìàþ, ÷òî ýòî ïëîõî. 2. Ïîãîäà ïðåêðàñíàÿ, à â÷åðà îíà áûëà óæàñíàÿ. Áûëî ñûðî è õîëîäíî.
3. Ïðàâà ÿ èëè æå íå ïðàâà? 4. Îí áûë áåäåí, à ñåé÷àñ î÷åíü
áîãàò. 5. — Øåô ñâîáîäåí? — Íåò, îí çàíÿò. 6. ß ðàäà, íåò, ÿ
ñ÷àñòëèâà âñòðåòèòüñÿ ñ âàìè. 7. Ýòî ë¸ãêèé òåñò, à ÿ ëþáëþ
òðóäíûå òåñòû. 8. Ýòà ìàøèíà ñòàðàÿ. ß õî÷ó êóïèòü íîâóþ.
9. — Îòâåò ïðàâèëüíûé? — Íåò, îí íåâåðíûé. 10. — Ýòî äîðîãîé ñëîâàðü? — Íåò, îí äåø¸âûé. 11. Îí íå ñòàðûé, îí âñ¸
åù¸ ìîëîä. 12. Ÿ ïàëüòî áåëîå, à øëÿïà ÷¸ðíàÿ. 13. Îí êðóòîé ïàðåíü. 14. Ýòî äëèííàÿ è ãðóñòíàÿ èñòîðèÿ. 15. — ß îïîçäàë? — Íåò, åù¸ î÷åíü ðàíî. 16. Ìû óâåðåíû, ÷òî îíè óæå
çäåñü. 17. Ïîäðîñòêè óâëåêàþòñÿ (ëþáÿò) ýòó ïîïóëÿðíóþ
19
UNIT 2
ãðóïïó. 18. Íàì æàëü ïðîùàòüñÿ. 19. Ëåêöèÿ îêîí÷åíà. 20. Ìíå
òàê õî÷åòñÿ ñêàçàòü âàì ÷òî-òî èíòåðåñíîå.
2.7. Употребите правильную форму глагола to be.
1. Apples ...................... useful. 2. My brother ...................... a pessimist,
and I ...................... an optimist. 3. She ...................... a girl of my dreams.
4. The boss ...................... out at the moment. 5. It ...................... an important meeting. 6. These ...................... very good schools. 7. I ......................
rather shy, but my friends ...................... very brave. 8. It ...................... a
fine day today. 9. They ...................... our relatives. 10. She ...................... a
young woman. 11. These ...................... fast trains. 12. It ...................... an
interesting fact. 13. They ...................... famous detectives. 14. Your
English ...................... not bad. 15. It ...................... a modern building.
16. He ...................... not well today. 17. They ...................... not at home
now. 18. It ...................... a clever step. 19. We ...................... from London.
20. ...................... I right? — Yes, you ...................... right as usual.
2.8. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Ïðèâåò, êàê òû? Òû â ïîðÿäêå? Êàê æèçíü? ß ñ÷àñòëèâ
(ðàä) âàñ âèäåòü. 2. Ñåãîäíÿ ïîíåäåëüíèê. Ýòî âñåãäà òðóäíûé
äåíü. ß î÷åíü çàíÿòà. 3. — Èçâèíè, ÿ íåïðàâ, à òû ïðàâà. —
ß ñ÷àñòëèâà ñëûøàòü ýòî. 4. Ýòî âåðíî. Ýòè ôàêòû ðåàëüíû.
5. — Îí äîìà? — Íåò, åãî íåò. 6. Ñåé÷àñ 10 ÷àñîâ. ß â îôèñå. ß ìåíåäæåð. 7. Ìîÿ ãðóïïà î÷åíü áîëüøàÿ. 8. Îíà òðóäîãîëèê. 9. Ìíå æàëü, íî ýòî î÷åíü òðóäíûé âîïðîñ. 10. Îíè ìèëûå ëþäè. 11. Îí ïðåêðàñíûé ó÷èòåëü. 12. Ìîé ñûí ëåíèâûé,
íî õîðîøèé ìàëü÷èê. 13. Îíà õîðîøàÿ ñòóäåíòêà. 14. Îí ïðåñòóïíèê. 15. Òû àíãåë, òû ÷óäî. 16. Ýòî âîåííàÿ òàéíà. 17. ̸ä
î÷åíü ïîëåçåí. 18. Ìû ãîòîâû, à Êàòÿ åù¸ íåò. 19. ×àé ãîðÿ÷èé.
20. Ìû çäåñü è ìû î÷åíü ðàäû âèäåòü âàñ. 21. — ß èç Ìîñêâû,
à âû îòêóäà? — Ìû èç Ëîíäîíà. 22. — Ìîÿ ñîáàêà ìîé ëó÷øèé äðóã. — Äà, ñîáàêè âåðíûå äðóçüÿ. 23. — Ìîé êîìïüþòåð íå â ïîðÿäêå. Ìîæíî ÿ ïîðàáîòàþ íà òâî¸ì? — Ìíå æàëü,
íî îí òîæå íå ðàáîòàåò. 24. — Óðîê îêîí÷åí? — Íåò, åù¸ íå
îêîí÷åí. 25. — Âû ïåññèìèñò èëè îïòèìèñò? — ß îïòèìèñò.
26. Ýòîò íîìåð òåëåôîíà íàõîäèòñÿ âíå çîíû îáñëóæèâàíèÿ.
Ïîçâîíèòå ïîçæå.
Unit
U
nit
n
iitt 3
It is — There is
It употребляется в безличных предложениях для обозначения:
1) времени
What time is it?
It’s 12 o’clock.
It’s late (early, noon, night).
It’s lunchtime. It’s dinnertime.
It’s time to start the class.
2) дней, месяцев,
времен года
What day is it? — It’s Monday.
It’s November. It’s autumn.
3) расстояния
It’s far from here to the park.
It’s a long way.
— How far is it to the metro station?
— It isn’t far.
4) природных явлений
It’s fine weather today.
It’s a foggy day today.
It snows in Russia in winter.
It rains a lot in autumn.
It looks like rain (snow).
(Похоже, будет дождь/снег).
5) состояний (nice, easy,
hard, good, necessary,
difficult, interesting, cool,
exciting, wonderful, thrilling,
awful, terrible, important)
It’s nice to be young.
It’s easy to be polite.
It was good to visit you.
It’s cool to be a bodyguard.
It was awful to lose the game.
It’s interesting to travel.
21
UNIT 3
What time is it? What day is it?
How far is it to...? — It’s not far from here.
It looks like rain (snow). — Похоже, будет дождь (снег).
It’s a small world. — Мир тесен.
It’s up to you to decide. — Тебе решать.
There употребляется когда необходимо передать наличие кого-то или чегото в определённом месте или же в определённый момент времени.
There is a file on the desk.
There were a lot of people in the streets.
There was a strong wind yesterday.
There is a good comedy on TV today.
There are clouds in the sky.
It’s cloudy today.
There is a lot of snow in winter.
It snows a lot in winter.
There are many rains in October.
It’s rainy in October.
В начале сказок и историй часто употребляются:
Once there lived... Once upon a time there was...
Once upon a time there lived a princess called Fiona.
Once there was a king who was very cruel.
3.1. Прочитайте пословицы и поговорки и дайте их русские эквиваленты.
1. It’s never too late. 2. Where there’s much talk, there’s little
work. 3. There is no rose without a thorn. 4. There’s nothing
new under the moon. 5. It’s never late to learn. 6. There is no
smoke without fire. 7. There is a black sheep in every flock.
22
It is — There is
8. There is no fool like an old fool. 9. There is no medicine like
hope. 10. There is no place like home. 11. This is a small world.
12. Where there is a will, there is a way. 13. There is no place
like home when you’re not feeling well.
3.2. Вставьте в пропуски it или there.
1. ............................ is a bike parking near the metro station. .........................
is a safe place. 2. .............................. is a fax today. ............................ is
for you. 3. ........................... is a Xerox ['zɪǝrɔks] in the laboratory.
.............................. is very useful. 4. ............................ isn’t a printer to this
computer. ...................... isn’t good. 5. ............................ is always a tiny
ray of hope. ...................... is better to be optimistic. 6. ...................... is no
ink in the cartridge. Is ...................... an old one? — Yes, ...................... is.
7. ...................... are some fish and an octopus on the screen saver.
...................... is a very pleasant picture. 8. ...................... was so much rain
last summer. ...................... was really like ...................... is in England,
but ...................... was very hot there. 9. ...................... is no money left
on my account. ...................... is very, very sad. 10. ...................... is so
much information in the Internet. .............................. is really a world
of knowledge. 11. Once upon a time ................................ lived a very
kind doctor. ................................ is a famous children’s story. 12. Once
...................... was a brave captain. ...................... is a story about Captain
Cook. 13. ...................... is a fine day today! ...................... are many dog
walkers in the park. 14. ...................... is up to you to decide this
question.
3.3. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Çèìà. Äåêàáðü. Î÷åíü õîëîäíî. Êðóãîì ìíîãî ñíåãà. 2. Âåñíà. Àïðåëü. Òåïëî è ñîëíå÷íî. Ýòî ÷óäåñíîå âðåìÿ ãîäà. 3. Ñåãîäíÿ ñóááîòà. Ýòî ìîé ñâîáîäíûé äåíü. 4. Ïàñìóðíî, ïîõîæå,
áóäåò äîæäü. 5. — Êàêîé ñåãîäíÿ äåíü? — Ýòî ïÿòíèöà. Ìîé
ëþáèìûé äåíü. 6. — Êîòîðûé ÷àñ? — 12 ÷àñîâ. Ïîðà ëàí÷åâàòü. 7. — Áîþñü, ÷òî ÿ îïàçäûâàþ. — Òû íèêîãäà íå îïàçäûâàåøü. 8. — Äàëåêî ëè îòñþäà äî ïàðêà? — Íå î÷åíü äàëåêî. 9. — Êàêîå ñåãîäíÿ ÷èñëî? Êòî îòñóòñòâóåò? — Ñåãîäíÿ 5 Ìàðòà. Âñå çäåñü. 10. — Êòî ñåãîäíÿ äåæóðíûé? — ß äå23
UNIT 3
æóðíàÿ ñåãîäíÿ. Ìû ãîòîâû ê óðîêó. — Äà, ïîðà íà÷èíàòü
óðîê. 11. — Âðåìÿ äëÿ âòîðîãî çàâòðàêà. — Äà, óæå 12 ÷àñîâ.
Õî÷åòñÿ ïèòü. 12. Ýòî òðóäíûé âîïðîñ. Íåîáõîäèìî ðåøèòü
åãî. 13. Ìèð òåñåí. Â íåì òàê ìíîãî ëþäåé, êîòîðûå çíàþò
äðóã äðóãà. 14.  Ëîíäîíå âñåãäà ìíîãî òóðèñòîâ.  àíãëèéñêîé ñòîëèöå ñòîëüêî äîñòîïðèìå÷àòåëüíîñòåé. 15. Òåáå ñîîáùåíèå íà äèñïëåå. Îíî ñðî÷íîå.
3.4. Вставьте в пропуски it или there.
1. ...................... is autumn. ...................... is getting cold. ...................... usually
gets dark very early. 2. ...................... were many people on the bus.
...................... was a peak hour. 3. — ...................... is no wind today. —
Yes, ...................... isn’t windy. 4. ...................... are twelve months in the
year, ......................... is a fact. 5. ...................... is a long way from here
to the airport. But ......................... is a taxi at the stop. 6. ...........................
was a fine day. ...................................... were a lot of people in the park.
7. ............................. is something I’d like to tell you. ............................ is
very important. 8. ............................... is a new book. ................................ are
many interesting facts in it. 9. ...................... isn’t a difficult task.
...................... are many ways to do it. 10. We can’t take any pictures. ...................... isn’t a film in the camera. ............................. is such
a pity! 11. ............................ is warm in the room. .................................... is a
fireplace here. 12. ................................... was a lot of snow last winter.
................................. was a cold winter. 13. — Is ...................... snowing? —
No, ...................... is raining hard. ...................... are dark clouds in the
sky. 14. ...................... is a supermarket down the street. ...................... is a
five minute walk from here. ...................... is close to the bus station.
15. — Who is that man? — ...................... is Mr. Smith, our director.
16. — ...................... is a question I’d like to ask you. — Is ......................
difficult? 17. ...................... is a good question, and I’ll try to answer
it. Sometimes ............................. are questions that you can’t answer.
18. ...................... is about ten o’clock. ...................... is little time left before the lecture starts. 19. ...................... is an island in the ocean.
...................... is a small island, but ...................... are many hotels there.
20. — What’s this? — ............................. is a secret file. ...................... is
very important information in it.
24
It is — There is
3.5. Переведите на английский язык следующие предложения.
1. — ×òî íàõîäèòñÿ â ýòîì êðàñèâîì çäàíèè? — Ýòî ïåäàãîãè÷åñêèé óíèâåðñèòåò. Ýòî íîâûé óíèâåðñèòåò. — À ÿ ðåøèë,
÷òî ýòî áàíê. — Íåò, åñòü íåñêîëüêî áàíêîâ íà ïðîòèâîïîëîæíîé ñòîðîíå óëèöû. — Ýòî òèõàÿ è êðàñèâàÿ óëî÷êà ñòàðîé
Ìîñêâû. Ìíå çäåñü íðàâèòñÿ. 2. Ðÿäîì ñ ìåòðî åñòü áîëüøîé
òîðãîâûé öåíòð «Àòðèóì». Ýòî íåäàëåêî îò íàøåãî óíèâåðñèòåòà.  í¸ì ìíîãî ðàçëè÷íûõ ìàëåíüêèõ ìàãàçèíîâ. Íåêîòîðûå äîðîãèå, íåêîòîðûå íåò. Åñòü õîðîøèå ìàãàçèíû äëÿ ìîëîäûõ ëþäåé. Ïðèÿòíî çàéòè â íåãî è ïîõîäèòü ïî ìàãàçèíàì
è âûïèòü ÷àøêó ÷àÿ â êàôå. 3. Íà ïðîòèâîïîëîæíîé ñòîðîíå
ýòîé óëèöû åñòü êíèæíûé ìàãàçèí. Åãî ëåãêî íàéòè. Íà í¸ì
âèñèò âûâåñêà. Ýòî íîâûé ìàãàçèí. Îí äîñòàòî÷íî áîëüøîé.
 í¸ì ìíîãî ðàçëè÷íûõ êíèã è ó÷åáíèêîâ. Êîãäà âû èä¸òå
òóäà, âàæíî çíàòü, ÷òî âû õîòèòå êóïèòü. Òàì åñòü ïðîäàâöû,
êîòîðûå ïîìîãàþò íàéòè êíèãè. Ïðèÿòíî íàéòè òàì ÷òî-òî íîâîå è èíòåðåñíîå. 4. ×òî íàõîäèòñÿ â âàøåì õîëîäèëüíèêå? —
Î, ýòî áîëüøîé õîëîäèëüíèê.  í¸ì äâå êàìåðû è â í¸ì ìíîãî ðàçëè÷íûõ ïðîäóêòîâ. Åñòü ñûð, ìàñëî, ìîëîêî, äæåì, ñîê.
 ìîðîçèëêå åñòü ìÿñî, ðûáà, ìîðîæåíîå.  í¸ì òàêæå åñòü
ôðóêòû è îâîùè.
3.6. Вставьте в пропуски it или there.
1. ...................... is the middle of December now. ...................... are ten days
left before Christmas. 2. ...................... is not any money in the safe,
sir, ...................... is empty. ...................... was someone here. 3. ...................... is
hot all the year round on Bali, that’s why ...................... are always a
lot of tourists there. 4. ...................... is so much work to do. ......................
is necessary to start today. 5. ...................... is a very expensive hotel,
but ...................... are not any vacant rooms in it. 6. ...................... was no
news yesterday. ...................... was Sunday. ...................... is usually our
day-off. 7. ...................... is nobody in, ...................... is still very early.
But ...................... are two guards at the entrance. 8. ...................... is your
duty to look after the children. ...................... are so many dangers
around. 9. Look! ...................... is a star in the sky. ...................... is the
North Star. ...................... is big and bright. 10. Once upon a time
25
UNIT 3
...................... lived an old man near the blue sea. 11. ...................... was a
fish in the net. ...................... was not an ordinary fish, ...................... was
a golden fish. 12. ...................... was a misprint in text five. ......................
was a bad mistake. 13. ...................... was night, ...................... was
two o’clock in the morning, ...................... were no people around.
14. ...................... is a good magazine. ...................... is so much useful
information in it. 15. ...................... is so pleasant to stay at home.
...................... are no classes today. 16. ...................... is a tray on the table
for you. ...................... is lunchtime. 17. ...................... was such a boring
film! ...................... weren’t many people in the cinema. 18. ......................
was a strange object in the sky. I was sure that ...................... was a
flying saucer. 19. ...................... is common knowledge that ......................
is no place like home. 20. ...................... was just an accident. ......................
were too many cars on the road.
3.7. А. Употребите it или there.
1. — How many colours are ...................... in the rainbow? —
...................... is a fact that ...................... are seven colours in it.
2. ...................... is some juice in the bottle. ...................... is orange juice.
3. ...................... is a note for you on the desk. ...................... is from
David. 4. ...................... is a karaoke club in this street. ...................... is
very popular. 5. ...................... is such a pity that ...................... is only one
birthday in the year. 6. ...................... is a garden behind the house
but ...................... is very small. 7. ...................... is a new university.
...................... are fifteen faculties in it. 8. ...................... is a big bookshop.
...................... are many good books in it. 9. ...................... was a surprise
in the box. ...................... was a beautiful watch. 10. ...................... was a
flower in the vase. ...................... was a tulip. 11. ...................... is a cheese
festival in Hungary every year. ...................... is a wonderful holiday.
12. ...................... is thirty miles to our country house. ...................... is
to the South. 13. — How far is ...................... to the cafe? — Well,
...................... is one near the supermarket. ...................... is small but
...................... is a big choice of cakes there. — Thanks, ...................... is
very kind of you to help me. 14. How many letters are ......................
in this word?...................... is a long word. 15. ...................... is no news
from home. ...................... makes me unhappy.
26
It is — There is
В. Опишите, что вы храните:
à) â ÿùèêå ïèñüìåííîãî ñòîëà;
á) â ñåéôå;
â) â êàðìàíàõ, ñóìêå, êîøåëüêå
3.8. A. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Â íàøåì âîêàáóëÿðå òàê ìíîãî âîëøåáíûõ ñëîâ — «ñïàñèáî», «èçâèíèòå», «ìíå æàëü». Ïîëüçóéòåñü èìè! 2. Îêîëî ìåòðî
åñòü áîëüøîé âîêçàë. Ýòî Êóðñêèé âîêçàë. 3. Æèëà-áûëà äåâî÷êà. Ÿ çâàëè Àëèñà. 4. Ýòî ìàëåíüêîå êàôå, íî â í¸ì âñåãäà åñòü âêóñíûå ïèðîæêè. 5. Æèë äà áûë îäèí êîðîëü. Çâàëñÿ
îí Ëóè Âòîðîé. 6. Åñòü âîïðîñ, êîòîðûé ÿ õî÷ó çàäàòü âàì, íî
îí ëè÷íûé. 7. Íà íåáå ðàäóãà. Îíà î÷åíü êðàñèâàÿ.  íåé ñåìü
öâåòîâ. 8. — Ñêîëüêî äíåé â äåêàáðå? — Ýòî ïîñëåäíèé ìåñÿö
ãîäà.  í¸ì òðèäöàòü îäèí äåíü. 9. Êàæäûé ãîä âî Ôðàíöèè è
Èòàëèè ïðîõîäèò ôåñòèâàëü øîêîëàäà (a chocolate festival).
Ýòî èíòåðåñíûé ïðàçäíèê. 10. Íà ìî¸ì ñòîëå íîâûé êîìïüþòåð. Ýòî íîóòáóê. 11. Âî Ôëîðèäå åñòü ìîðñêîé ëàãåðü. Ýòî
ýêîëîãè÷åñêèé ëàãåðü. 12. Ñåãîäíÿ ïàñìóðíî. Ïîõîæå, áóäåò
äîæäü. 13. Äëÿ âàñ åñòü ýëåêòðîííîå ïèñüìî. Îíî î÷åíü âàæíîå. 14. Àíãëèÿ — ýòî îñòðîâ. Íà í¸ì ìíîãî áîëüøèõ è ìàëåíüêèõ ãîðîäîâ. 15. Ìèð òåñåí.  í¸ì òàê ìíîãî ëþäåé, êîòîðûå çíàþò äðóã äðóãà.
В. Коммуникативное задание.
Ðàññêàæèòå î ñâî¸ì ðàéîíå, óëèöå, äîìå, êâàðòèðå. Èñïîëüçóéòå êîíñòðóêöèè there is (are)/was (were)/will be, it is/
was/will be.
3.9. Употребите it’s или its.
1. I like Moscow. I like ...................... streets and squares. 2. ......................
a new magazine. ...................... price isn’t high. 3. What a beautiful
book! ...................... cover is so bright. 4. ...................... a big company.
...................... main office is in New York. 5. The baby elephant called
...................... mother. 6. ...................... a long way from here to there.
7. ...................... not too bad. 8. The cat was playing with ......................
27
UNIT 3
tail. 9. Well, I don’t know. ...................... up to you. 10. ......................
snowing out there. 11. ...................... Tuesday today. 12. — We like
the place. ...................... so beautiful. What’s ...................... name? —
...................... Kuskovo. 13. ...................... me! Open the door! 14. ......................
a great painting. ...................... very expensive, ...................... price is a
secret. 15. He liked London for ...................... style. 16. ...................... very
important. 17. The baby lay in ...................... carrycot. 18. The group
had ...................... last exam yesterday. 19. ...................... a complete
waste of time. 20. Eat more fruit. ...................... good for you.
21. Well, ...................... so good to be here with you. 22. ......................
such a surprise for me! 23. ...................... a new word. I don’t know
...................... meaning. 24. Every city has own face. 25. I'm going to
buy this sweater. I like .......................................... colour.
Unit
U
n
nit
iitt 4
Èìÿ ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîå
The Noun
Нарицательные
Common
Конкретные
(материальные,
относящиеся
к какому-то классу...)
Concrete
a book
a disk
a computer
children
friends
cities
wood
iron
water
jam
paper
oil
Собственные
Proper
Абстрактные Собирательные
Abstract
Collective
Личные Географические
Personal
Geographic
success
news
progress
advice
freedom
love
friendship
democracy
Peter
Nikitin
Mary
Brown
Kate
the
Stones
police
people
clothes
glasses
team
jeans
company
Mass Media
Moscow
Russia
London
England
Italy
Rome
Исчисляемые
Неисчисляемые
ед. ч. — мн. ч.
ед. ч.
an idea — ideas
a fish — fish
a child — children
an apple — apples
a printer — printers
Material
milk
sugar
glass
bread
iron
Abstract
news
weather
money
information
knowledge
29
UNIT 4
Продолжение табл.
Исчисляемые
Неисчисляемые
Употребляются с:
is/are
has/have
many, a lot of
(a) few, several
a/the
some
is
has
much, a lot of
(a) little
the
some
4.1. Распределите следующие слова в две колонки: исчисляемые и неисчисляемые существительные.
An orange, a person, an album, butter, cakes, juice, children,
chalk, a fish1, wood, a sheep, a ship, iron, love, a piece, a mouse,
a deer, books, a toy, petrol, gold, silver, meat, a key, time,
progress, cream, paper, a paper, yogurt, money, gas, chairs, a
case, a star, water, fruit1.
4.2. Дайте множественное число следующих существительных.
a toy ............................................................
a cry ............................................................
a dictionary ...........................................
a boy ...........................................................
a story .......................................................
a country .................................................
a person ....................................................
a match ....................................................
a potato ....................................................
an orange ................................................
a shelf ........................................................
a leaf ...........................................................
a chief ........................................................
a wife .........................................................
a roof ..........................................................
1
30
Ñì. Unit 63.
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
fish ..........................................................
sheep .....................................................
ship .........................................................
deer ........................................................
man ........................................................
child .......................................................
woman .................................................
tooth ......................................................
foot .........................................................
handkerchief .................................
cliff .........................................................
key ..........................................................
half .........................................................
city ..........................................................
boss .........................................................
Имя существительное
4.3. Употребите is или are.
1. Big money ...................... hard to hide. 2. There ...................... big fish
in this river. 3. Clothes ...................... very important to her. 4. It
...................... front-page news. 5. The traffic ...................... bumper to
bumper today. 6. His hair ...................... getting thin, though he is
only thirty. 7. There ...................... a hair on your plate. 8. Your earrings ...................... so beautiful! 9. This news ...................... hard to believe. 10. The fish in this river ...................... dying. 11. The scissors ...................... on the table. 12. These sunglasses ...................... so
cool! 13. The pyjamas ...................... made of cotton. 14. The luggage
...................... too heavy. 15. The advice ...................... timely. 16. The
headphones ...................... in the laboratory. 17. Fruit ...................... very
useful. 18. Your jeans ...................... fashionable. 19. ...................... the police here? 20. Mass Media ...................... the Press, Radio and Television. 21. There ...................... a few hairs on your jacket. 22. My
furniture ...................... made of wood. 23. ...................... there any fish
in the Neva? 24. ...................... there any fish on the menu? 25. Her
clothes ...................... very expensive.
4.4. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Ïîëèöèÿ óæå â çäàíèè. 2. Äâà ïîëèöåéñêèõ îñìàòðèâàþò
ãàðàæ. 3. Ìîè äðóçüÿ — õîðîøèå ëþäè. 4. Ìûøè ëþáÿò ñûð.
5.  äîìå åñòü ìûøè? 6. Âñå ìîè äåíüãè ïîòðà÷åíû. 7. Åñòü
êàêèå-ëèáî äåíüãè íà ìî¸ì ñ÷¸òå? 8.  ýòîì áàíêîìàòå âîîáùå íåò äåíåã. 9. Äæèíñû âñåãäà â ìîäå. 10. Òàêàÿ îäåæäà ñåé÷àñ íå â ìîäå. 11. òàêèå ñîâåòû íå äëÿ ìåíÿ. 12. Ýòî ñåêðåòíûå ñâåäåíèÿ. Íèêòî íå äîëæåí çíàòü èõ. 13. Ñåãîäíÿ ïðåêðàñíàÿ ïîãîäà. 14. Åãî çíàíèÿ — ýòî ðåçóëüòàò óïîðíîé ðàáîòû. 15. Îáðàçîâàíèå — ñàìîå ëó÷øåå êàïèòàëîâëîæåíèå.
16. Ãäå ìîè ñîëíå÷íûå î÷êè? Ãäå ÿ èõ îñòàâèëà? 17. Íîæíèöû îñòðûå? 18. Æèçíü åñòü æèçíü. 19. Ëþáîâü òâîðèò ÷óäåñà.
20. Îòñóòñòâèå íîâîñòåé — óæå õîðîøàÿ íîâîñòü.
Unit
U
n
nit
iitt 5
×èñëî èìåíè ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîãî
Number
Способ
образования
1. -s
-es
a) -s
-sh
-ch
-x
-es
b) -у -ies
(после согласной)
32
Примеры
Примечания
a book — books
a desk — desks
a path — paths
[s]
a car — cars
a computer — computers
[z]
a bus — buses
a bush — bushes
a watch — watches
a box — boxes
а также:
a potato — potatoes
a tomato — tomatoes
a hero — heroes
[iz]
a cry — cries
a party — parties
a story — stories
a country — countries
a dictionary — dictionaries
Ho: -ay
-ey -ys
-oy
boys, toys, days, plays,
monkeys, joys, keys
Ho:
photos, pianos,
discos, radios, zoos,
videos, cuckoos
Число имени существительного
Продолжение табл.
Способ
образования
Примеры
с) -f/-fe -ves
a shelf — shelves
a half — halves
a life — lives
a knife — knives
a wolf — wolves
a leaf — leaves
an elf — elves
a calf — calves
2. Чередование
корневой
гласной
a man — men
a woman — women
a child — children
a foot — feet
a goose — geese
a louse — lice
a mouse — mice
a tooth — teeth
3. Совпадающие
формы
единственного и
множественного
числа
a deer — two deer
a fish — three fish
a sheep — four sheep
a swine — many swine
4. Составные
существительные
a grown-up — grown-ups
an office-block — office-blocks
a merry-go-round — merrygo-rounds
a forget-me-not — forget-menots
Названия национальностей
на -ese, -ss
a Swiss — ten Swiss
a Chinese — many Chinese
a Japanese — five Japanese
a Portuguese — a lot of
Portuguese
Примечания
Ho:
roofs,
chiefs,
cuffs,
cliffs,
handkerchiefs,
scarfs (scarves)
an ox — oxen
a fish — fishes
(различные виды
рыб)
употребляется
очень редко
mothers-in-law
passers-by
women-drivers
menservants
33
UNIT 5
5.1. Образуйте множественное число существительных, сделав все необходимые изменения по образцу:
This is a toy. — These are toys.
That is a ship. — Those are ships.
It is a child. — They are children.
1. It’s a long story. 2. This is a key. 3. That’s a new shop. 4. It’s a
fly. 5. It’s a big country. 6. He is a chief. 7. It’s a black cat. 8. That
is a clever dog. 9. It’s an orange. 10. He is a nice boy. 11. It’s a
yellow leaf. 12. She is a good wife. 13. It’s a bad tooth. 14. It’s
a strange fish. 15. It’s a beautiful deer. 16. That’s a new potato.
17. This is a red roof. 18. It’s my file. 19. She is a wonderful
child. 20. It’s a white sheep.
5.2. Дайте множественное число следующих существительных:
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
tomato ....................................................
hero ....................................................
photo ....................................................
party ....................................................
life ....................................................
wolf ....................................................
goose ....................................................
mouse ....................................................
Swiss ....................................................
Chinese ....................................................
fireman ....................................................
forget-me-not .....................................
library ....................................................
family ....................................................
mother-in law ........................................
a book ......................................................
a day .........................................................
a play ........................................................
a lottery ..................................................
a euro .......................................................
a monkey ...............................................
a passer-by ..........................................
an American .......................................
a German ..............................................
a battery ................................................
a fisherman .........................................
a swine ....................................................
a Japanese ............................................
an ox .........................................................
a video ....................................................
5.3. Образуйте множественное число существительных, сделав все необходимые изменения.
1. She is a lady. 2. Íå is a gentleman. 3. Íå is an honest partner. 4. She is a good translator. 5. He is an accountant. 6. It is a
mouse. 7. It’s a butterfly. 8. He is a fisherman. 9. She is a Swiss.
10. It’s a swine. 11. It’s an ox. 12. That is a wild goose. 13. There
is a sheep in the field. 14. There is a ship in the sea. 15. There is
34
Число имени существительного
a mouse in the kitchen. 16. There is a Vietnamese in our group.
17. He is a passer-by. 18. It’s a forget-me-not. 19. It’s a good
dictionary. 20. He is an Englishman. 21. I’m a teenager. 22. This
is a good offer. 23. I am an expert on business. 24. That man is a
German. 25. This woman is a Chinese.
5.4. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Ìîèìè ó÷èòåëÿìè â øêîëå áûëè â îñíîâíîì æåíùèíû.
2.  íàøåì ãîðîäå åñòü ìíîãî õîðîøèõ ìàãàçèíîâ äëÿ ìóæ÷èí. 3. Äåòè — öâåòû æèçíè. 4. Ðàáîòà — ëó÷øåå ëåêàðñòâî.
5. Ìíîãèå ëþäè ñåé÷àñ äåðæàò ìûøåé, êðûñ, çìåé, ïîðîñÿò
â êà÷åñòâå äîìàøíèõ æèâîòíûõ. 6. Îëåíè î÷åíü êðàñèâûå
æèâîòíûå. 7. Ãóñè ñïàñëè Äðåâíèé Ðèì ìíîãî âåêîâ íàçàä.
8. Â ýòîé ðåêå åñòü ìíîãî ðûáû. 9. Ðûáà âêóñíàÿ? Îíà òåáå
íðàâèòñÿ? 10. Òâîè ÷àñû ñïåøàò. 11. — Ãäå ìîè ÷àñû? — Îíè
íà ñòîëå. 12. Îâöû äàþò íàì øåðñòü. 13. Çóáû ýòîé àêòðèñû î÷åíü áåëûå. 14. Ìîè íîãè óñòàëè. Äàâàé ñÿäåì. 15. Äàíòèñòû ëå÷àò íàøè çóáû. 16.  ïîäâàëå äîìà åñòü ìûøè. 17. Âû
ìîæåòå óâèäåòü íåñêîëüêî áûêîâ â ïîëå. 18. Ìóæ÷èíû áîëåå
÷óâñòâèòåëüíû (sensitive), ÷åì æåíùèíû.
5.5. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Ìíå íóæíî ïîìåíÿòü áàòàðåéêó â ÷àñàõ. Îíè íå ðàáîòàþò.
2. Ýòè íàñòåííûå ÷àñû âñåãäà îòñòàþò. 3. Äâà âîëêà çàáðàëèñü íî÷üþ â äåðåâíþ è óáèëè òð¸õ îâåö. 4. Íà ýòîì îçåðå
åñòü äèêèå ãóñè. 5. Ñâèíüè — óìíûå æèâîòíûå. 6.  ýòîì ïàðêå åñòü íåñêîëüêî êàðóñåëåé. 7. Ìíå î÷åíü íðàâÿòñÿ ôèàëêè.
8. Ìîæíî ìíå âçãëÿíóòü íà ýòè ôîòîãðàôèè? 9. Íóæíî êóïèòü
êàðòîôåëü è ïîìèäîðû. 10. Íåêîòîðûå æåíùèíû òîæå èãðàþò
â ôóòáîë. 11. Ðîäèòåëè äîëæíû íå òîëüêî êîðìèòü è îäåâàòü
ñâîèõ äåòåé, îíè äîëæíû ðàçãîâàðèâàòü ñ íèìè. 12.  ìî¸ì
êîìïüþòåðå åñòü âñÿ íåîáõîäèìàÿ èíôîðìàöèÿ ïî ýòîìó âîïðîñó. 13. Âàøè ñîâåòû ïðåêðàñíû, è ÿ èì ïîñëåäóþ. 14. Êèòàéöû èçîáðåëè ïîðîõ (gunpowder), ÷åðíèëà, áóìàãó è ìíîãî
äðóãèõ ïîëåçíûõ âåùåé. 15. ßïîíöû è âüåòíàìöû åäÿò ìíîãî
ðèñà è ðûáû. 16. Øâåéöàðöû ãîâîðÿò íà íåìåöêîì, ôðàíöóçñêîì, èòàëüÿíñêîì ÿçûêàõ.
Unit
U
n
nit
it 6
Òèïû âîïðîñîâ ñ ãëàãîëîì tî be
1. Общий
(General)
Yes/No questions
— Am I right? — Yes, you are. (No, you
aren’t.)
— Is that your CD? — Yes, it is. (No, it isn’t.)
— Are they here? — Yes, they are. (No, they
aren’t.)
2. Специальный
(Special)
Who, Whose, What, When, How,
Why, Where, Which, What kind
of...
Who is it? Who are they? Whose book is it?
What is that? What is there...?
When is your birthday? How is life?
How far is...? How old is your son?
Why is it so? Where are the keys?
Where is the car?
Which is your file? What kind of film is it?
3. Выборочный
(Alternative)
«или... или»
Am I right or am I wrong?
Is it your CD or is it mine?
Are they in or are they out?
4. Разделительный
(Disjunctive, Tag-question)
«не так ли?», «ведь...?», «не
правда ли?»
It’s late, isn’t it?
They are busy, aren’t they?
There is a piano in the hall, isn’t there?
These are good books, aren’t they?
English is difficult, isn’t it?
I am your boss, aren’t I?
I am right, aren’t I?
36
English isn’t difficult, is it?
I am not your boss, am I?
I am not right, am I?
Типы вопросов с глаголом tо be
Everybody is here, aren’t they?
Nobody is angry, are they?
— Who is he? — He is Peter Brown. (личность человека)
— What is he? — He is a doctor. (профессия человека)
6.1.
Поставьте следующие предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную формы.
1. It’s five o’clock now. 2. They are bad boys. 3. This film is
a thriller. 4. It’s a good job. 5. They are nice people. 6. I am a
workaholic. 7. There are seven students in this group. 8. My
mother is forty years old. 9. It is far from here to the metro
station. 10. I am late. 11. She is a shopaholic. 12. We are fond
of music. 13. They are eager to meet you. 14. They are friends.
15. Many people now are gameaholics.
6.2. Поставьте вопросы к выделенным словам.
1. There are two computers in the office. 2. This is a new printer.
3. It is three miles to the shop. 4. There is a mistake in the text.
5. They are famous detectives. 6. It’s Mary’s book. 7. It’s Sunday
today. 8. He is in Paris now. 9. Mr. Parker is my teacher. 10. He
is a lawyer. 11. This is an important question. 12. They are
artists. 13. Marina is a secretary. 14. Henry is twenty years old.
15. This is a colour printer.
6.3. Поставьте выборочные (альтернативные) вопросы к следующим предложениям.
1. She is thirty. 2. It’s warm today. 3. It’s late. 4. I am cold.
5. They are free now. 6. He is a manager. 7. It’s a good idea.
8. There are three computers in the office. 9. It’s a nice day
today. 10. They are football fans. 11. She is in London at the
37
UNIT 6
moment. 12. They are good children. 13. It’s eleven o’clock now.
14. There are two mistakes in the text. 15. They are usually at
home on Sunday.
6.4. Поставьте разделительные вопросы к следующим предложениям.
1. That’s our university. 2. These are our students. 3. He isn’t
happy. 4. We are not rich. 5. She is never late. 6. He is very
poor. 7. Latin is a dead language. 8. Chinese isn’t an easy language. 9. His family isn’t big. 10. They are not friendly people.
11. There is much traffic on the road today. 12. We are free
now. 13. I am your friend. 14. I am not your sponsor. 15. They
are very busy at the moment. 16. There is useful information on
this site. 17. The scissors aren’t on the table. 18. You are not a
teenager any more.
6.5.
Выберите из правой колонки правильный вариант разделительного
вопроса.
1. It’s a difficult question,
2. German isn’t a global language,
3. Cats are wonderful pets,
4. He isn’t aggressive,
5. Everybody is happy,
6. I am a lucky person,
7. There is a lot of light in the house,
8. There aren’t any chances to win,
9. I am right,
10. Pigs are not nice pets,
11. We are partners,
12. I am not a dreamer,
13. Her clothes are new,
14. I am not right,
15. Nobody is late for my class,
a.
b.
ñ.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
1.
m.
n.
o.
are they?
aren’t I?
isn’t there?
is it?
are they?
are there?
aren’t I?
is he?
aren’t we?
am I?
isn’t it?
aren’t they?
aren’t they?
aren’t they?
am I?
6.6. Поставьте разделительные вопросы к следующим предложениям.
1. There are many stars in the sky. 2. He is a star in showbiz. 3. Something is wrong. 4. She is never happy. 5. It’s fine
38
Типы вопросов с глаголом tо be
weather today. 6. It isn’t my day today. 7. There is a fax for
her. 8. There aren’t any messages for us. 9. Money is important.
10. Mice aren’t nice. 11. There is a lot of snow in the streets.
12. These are not your papers. 13. It’s late. 14. These are good
examples. 15. These are not correct data. 16. She isn’t old. 17. He
isn’t young. 18. I am on duty today. 19. They are not friends.
20. You are not a chocaholic.
6.7. Переведите следующие предложения.
1 . — Êòî ýòîò ïàðåíü? — Ýòî Äèìà. Îí ìîé äðóã. 2. — ×åì îí
çàíèìàåòñÿ? (Êòî îí?) — Îí ñòóäåíò. 3. — Êòî ýòè ëþäè? —
Îíè íàøè ñîñåäè. — ×åì îíè çàíèìàþòñÿ? (Êòî îíè?) — Îíè
ñëóæàùèå. 4. — ×üÿ ýòî ïàïêà? — Îíà ìîÿ. 5. — Êàêîãî ðîäà
ýòà ðàáîòà? — Îíà íåïëîõàÿ. 6. — Ñêîëüêî ëåò òâîåé æåíå?
Ñêîëüêî ëåò òâîèì äåòÿì? — Âû âåäü íå èíñïåêòîð, íå ïðàâäà ëè? 7. Â Àíãëèè ìíîãî õîðîøèõ òðàäèöèé, íå òàê ëè? 8. —
×òî ýòî çà ôèëüì? — Ýòî êîìåäèÿ. 9. — Êîòîðûé èç ýòèõ
äèñêîâ òâîé? — Îíè âñå ìîè. 10. — Êàê âû? Êàê æèçíü? Êàê
ðîäèòåëè? — Âñ¸ ïðåêðàñíî, ñïàñèáî. 11. — Ïî÷åìó òû òàêàÿ ïå÷àëüíàÿ?  ÷¸ì äåëî? — ß ïðîñòî ãîëîäíà è õî÷ó ñïàòü.
12. — Êîãäà òâîé äåíü ðîæäåíèÿ? — Ýòî ñåêðåò. 13. — ß ïðàâ
èëè íå ïðàâ? — Ýòî òðóäíî ñêàçàòü. 14. — Ãäå ó÷åíèêè? Ãäå
ó÷èòåëü? — Îíè â çàëå. Òàì êîíöåðò. 15. Ýòî íå î÷åíü-òî õîðîøàÿ èäåÿ, íå ïðàâäà ëè? 16. — Ïî÷åìó âû çäåñü? — ß íîâûé ñåêðåòàðü. Êàêèå ìîè îáÿçàííîñòè? 17. — ×òî îí çà ÷åëîâåê? — Îí ÷åñòíûé ÷åëîâåê è ïîìåøàí íà ðàáîòå. 18. Òû
âåäü íå ñåðäèøüñÿ íà íàñ, íå òàê ëè? 19. — Îí âåäü íå ãàíãñòåð, íå ïðàâäà ëè? — Íó êîíå÷íî æå íåò. 20. — Òû — êíèãîëþá? — Äà, è ÿ âåëèêèé ïóòåøåñòâåííèê. 21. Íó ïî÷åìó
ýòî âñåãäà òàê? Ìíå òàê íå âåç¸ò. 22. Êòî ãîâîðèò, ÷òî æèçíü
ñêó÷íà? Òîëüêî íå ÿ! Åñòü èíòåðåñíûå ëþäè, ïðåêðàñíûå êíèãè, ÷óäåñíûå ñòðàíû è ãîðîäà â íàøåì ìèðå.
Uni
U
Unit
n
nit
it 7
Íåîïðåäåë¸ííûé àðòèêëü
The Indefinite Article
Îñíîâíûå ñëó÷àè óïîòðåáëåíèÿ
íåîïðåäåë¸ííîãî àðòèêëÿ one > a (an)
Употребляется только с исчисляемыми существительными
в единственном числе для:
1) выражения значения единичности;
2) классификации лица или предмета (имеет значение «любой», «всякий»)
Употребляется
с существительными
Примеры
1. В роли:
а) подлежащего; имеет значение
«любой, каждый, всякий»
б) подлежащего в предложениях
с оборотом there is/was/will be, ...
A doctor should be competent.
A student must be diligent.
A computer is an electronic machine.
A cat has a very independent nature.
There is an e-mail for you.
There was a star in the sky.
There will be a party tomorrow.
2. В роли прямого дополнения
I have a dog. She has a cat.
He bought a printer. We got a fax.
You made a mistake.
3. В роли именной части
составного именного сказуемого
(предикатива)
I’m a student.
He is a programmer.
She is an accountant.
It’s a new show.
It’s a good idea.
40
Неопределённый артикль
Продолжение табл.
Употребляется
с существительными
4. В ряде устойчивых
словосочетаний, выражающих
однократные действия
Примеры
То be a success, to be a hit, to have
a rest, to have a good time, to have
a toothache, to give a look, to make
a mistake, to take a seat, to give smb.
a lift, to go for a walk, to catch a cold.
The show was a success.
He gave us a lift to the office.
We had a good time at the party.
Ho: We had fun.
5. При наличии у существительного
описательного определения
Сравните:
It was night. — It was a dark night.
It’s morning. — It’s a sunny morning.
We had dinner. — We had a big
dinner.
6. В восклицательных предложениях
после what, such
What a fine day!
What a good film!
It’s such a big city!
She is such a good girl!
Запомните фразы:
What a surprise!
(Какой сюрприз/неожиданность!)
What a shame!
(Какая досада/обида/жалость!)
What a shock! (Какой удар/шок!)
What a waste! (Какая пустая трата
денег, времени и т.д.)
Но:
What good news! What fine weather!
Во всех перечисленных случаях во множественном числе употребление
неопределённого артикля невозможно.
Doctors should be competent.
There are e-mails for you.
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UNIT 7
We got faxes.
He makes mistakes.
What fine days!
They are such good girls!
Cats can stare for hours without blinking.
7.1. Употребите артикль a или an.
1. ..............................................
2. ..............................................
3. ..............................................
4. ..............................................
5. ..............................................
6. ..............................................
7. ..............................................
8. ..............................................
9. ..............................................
10. ...........................................
11. ...........................................
12. ...........................................
13. ...........................................
14. ...........................................
15. ...........................................
album
artist
orange
hour
idea
event
opera
officer
airport
angel
actor
elephant
school
e-mail
fax
.......................................... new album
.......................................... poor artist
.......................................... big orange
.......................................... long hour
.......................................... bright idea
.......................................... sad event
.......................................... famous opera
.......................................... brave officer
.......................................... new airport
.......................................... kind angel
.......................................... young actor
.......................................... baby elephant
.......................................... old school
.......................................... long e-mail
.......................................... urgent fax
7.2. Употребите артикль, если это необходимо.
1. ...................... fortnight consists of fourteen days. 2. ......................
student must have ...................... good memory. 3. ...................... children
are fond of ...................... games. 4. ...................... friend in need is
...................... friend indeed. 5. ...................... secretary must be wellorganized. 6. ...................... vegetarians don’t eat meat. 7. ......................
busker is ...................... street musician. 8. ...................... dictionary gives
us ...................... reliable information. 9. ...................... friend is ......................
person who understands you. 10. ...................... teachers give us
...................... knowledge. 11. ...................... hour in the morning is worth
two in the evening. 12. ...................... piano is ...................... musical
instrument. 13. ...................... week passed, then ...................... month.
No news came. 14. ...................... politician must be ...................... good
speaker. 15. ...................... Xerox is ...................... photocopying machine.
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Неопределённый артикль
16. ...................... dentist is ...................... doctor who looks after our teeth.
17. ...................... chauffeur is ...................... person who drives ......................
car. 18. ...................... flowers need a lot of care. 19. ...................... chip
is ...................... very small piece of silicon inside a computer.
20. ...................... million words is stored on these chips.
7.3. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. ×àøêà êîôå è áóòåðáðîä — ìîé îáû÷íûé çàâòðàê. 2. Ïîäîæäèòå ìèíóòêó, ïîæàëóéñòà. 3. Íèêîãäà íå òåðÿéòå íè ñåêóíäû. 4. Ãîä — äîëãèé ñðîê. 5. ß âåðíóñü ÷åðåç ÷àñ. 6. Ñúåäàéòå
ÿáëîêî â äåíü, è ó âàñ íå áóäåò ïðîáëåì. 7. Ìíå íóæåí ñîòîâûé òåëåôîí. 8. Ïðîø¸ë ìåñÿö, çàòåì ãîä. 9. Îí âûïèâàåò
ñòàêàí àïåëüñèíîâîãî ñîêà êàæäîå óòðî. 10. Äàâàé âñòðåòèìñÿ
÷åðåç íåäåëþ. 11. — Òåáå êóïèòü ìîðîæåíîå? — Íåò, ÿ õî÷ó
áàíàí. 12. Ýòà ðó÷êà ñòîèò äîëëàð. 13. Îí êóïèë áëîê ñèãàðåò.
14. Íå çàáóäü êóïèòü òþáèê çóáíîé ïàñòû, áàòîí õëåáà è áàíî÷êó äæåìà. 15. Ó íåãî õîðîøåå ÷óâñòâî þìîðà. 16. — Õîòèòå
êóñî÷åê ìîëî÷íîãî øîêîëàäà? — Íåò, â÷åðà ÿ êóïèëà ïëèòêó
÷¸ðíîãî øîêîëàäà. 17. Ïîëîæè ëîæêó ñîëè â ñóï. 18. Ìíå íóæíà ìûøêà äëÿ êîìïüþòåðà. 19. Ó íå¸ áîãàòûé ÿçûê (âîêàáóëÿð). 20. Ó íàøèõ ñòóäåíòîâ õîðîøèå, ñîâðåìåííûå ñëîâàðè.
7.4. Употребите артикль, если это необходимо.
1. There is ...................... fitness centre near my house. 2. There was
...................... mistake in the text. It was ...................... spelling mistake.
3. There are ...................... grammar rules on this page. 4. There is
...................... good news for you today. 5. There will be ......................
important information in the e-mail, I’m sure. 6. There was
...................... surprise in her eyes. 7. There will be ...................... surprise
for you on your birthday. 8. There are ...................... beautiful
flowers in her small garden. 9. Is there ...................... lift in the
house? 10. There is ...................... money in the purse. 11. There was
...................... good advice in my parents’ letter. 12. There is ......................
reason for everything. 13. There was ...................... unknown object
in the sky last night. 14. There was ...................... loud knock on the
door. 15. Once upon a time there lived ...................... seven gnomes
43
UNIT 7
and ...................... princess. 16. He is ...................... figure skater. He is
...................... gold medalist. 17. ...................... dog is the only thing on
earth that loves you more than you love yourself.
7.5. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Â ìóçûêå ñåìü íîò. 2. Â ìîñêîâñêîì ìåòðî ìíîãî íîâûõ ëèíèé è ñòàíöèé. 3. Íà ñëåäóþùåé íåäåëå áóäåò ÊÂÍ. 4. Â áóòûëêå åñòü îëèâêîâîå ìàñëî. 5. Â âèòðèíå ìàãàçèíà åñòü
÷óäåñíîå ïàëüòî. 6. Íà íàøåì òåëåâèäåíèè ìíîãî ñåðèàëîâ.
7.  ìåòðî ìíîãî ðàçëè÷íûõ ïëàêàòîâ. 8. Èç ëþáîé ñèòóàöèè
åñòü âûõîä. 9. Íà ýòîé óëèöå âñåãäà ìíîãî ïðîèñøåñòâèé, òàê
êàê íà íåé îæèâë¸ííîå äâèæåíèå òðàíñïîðòà. 10. Íà ñòîëå
åñòü ÷èñòàÿ áóìàãà. 11. Íà ýòîé ïëîùàäè åñòü êàðàîêå-êëóá.
12. Â ýòîé ãðóïïå åñòü äâà ÿïîíöà, îäèí êèòàåö, òðè ðóññêèõ è
äâà àìåðèêàíöà. 13. Íàä ñòîëîì íà÷àëüíèêà âèñÿò (åñòü) áîëüøèå ÷àñû. 14.  õîëîäèëüíèêå åñòü àïåëüñèíîâûé ñîê. È ïèðîæíûå òîæå. 15. Íà ýòîì ñàéòå ìíîãî ïîëåçíîé èíôîðìàöèè.
16.  ìî¸ì êîìïüþòåðå åñòü çàùèòíàÿ çàñòàâêà (a screen saver). 17. Òåáå (åñòü) ïîñëàíèå íà ìîáèëüíîì òåëåôîíå. 18.  ýòîì
áàíêå åñòü ñèãíàëèçàöèÿ. 19. Â ìèðå ìíîãî íåðàçãàäàííûõ
òàéí. 20. Â ýòîì ñëîâàðå ìíîãî íîâûõ ñëîâ. 21. Â ýòîì åñòü
çåðíî èñòèíû. 22. Â ìèíóòå øåñòüäåñÿò ñåêóíä. 23. Íà çåìëå
ìíîãî ðåê, ìîðåé è îêåàíîâ.
7.6.
Опишите помещение современного офиса. Используйте следующие
слова и выражения:
office equipment, desks, chairs, computers, a Xerox, a fax,
printers, an e-mail, a clock, a cactus, files, a mouse, a mat, a
calendar, a telephone, a coffee machine, a map of the world, a bin
7.7. Употребите артикль, если это необходимо.
1. Íå got ...................... e-mail an hour ago. 2. — Would you like
...................... cup of tea? — No, just ...................... glass of mineral water. 3. I got ...................... Christmas cards from England last week.
4. I need ...................... new washing machine, and I want ......................
good one. 5. Our students gave ...................... wonderful concert on
44
Неопределённый артикль
Saturday. 6. He has ...................... big fast car. 7. She wants to become ...................... dancer. 8. We have ...................... new students in our
group. 9. My cousin has ...................... private house. 10. We bought
...................... two computers and ...................... Xerox for our department. 11. He didn’t say ...................... word. 12. Marina is wearing
...................... new shoes and ...................... new cap today. 13. You should
eat ...................... apple or ...................... grapefruit every day. 14. He
is reading ...................... interesting book now. 15. Bob is looking
for ...................... job. 16. Let’s meet in ...................... hour. 17. I’d like
...................... ice-cream, please. 18. She hasn’t got ...................... pet, but
she would like to have ...................... cat or ...................... dog. 19. We
booked ...................... tickets for the plane. 20. I need ...................... computer, and I want ...................... modern one.
7.8. Употребите артикль, если это необходимо.
1. My boss is ...................... good man. 2. She is ...................... famous
stylist. 3. Richard is ...................... yogi. Yoga helps to relax. 4. This
is ...................... new cartridge. 5. This man is ...................... imagemaker,
...................... promoter. 6. My father is ...................... excellent doctor.
7. My sister is ...................... speech therapist. 8. These children are
...................... my cousins. 9. Valentin is ...................... designer. 10. Tom
is ...................... Hollywood superstar. 11. These are ...................... very
pleasant moments. 12. It is ...................... heavy weather today.
13. It was ...................... sunny day yesterday. 14. Ann and Kate are
...................... nice girls. 15. — My workmates are ...................... hardworking people. — Are they ...................... workaholics? — I don’t
think so. 16. These are ...................... new magazines. 17. Harry
Potter was ...................... wizard. 18. It was ...................... boring job.
19. Monday morning is ...................... hectic time for me. 20. It is
...................... autumnal day. It looks like rain. You should wear
...................... sensible shoes. 21. It’s ....................................... tiring work.
7.9. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Àíãëèéñêèé î÷åíü êðàñèâûé ÿçûê. È î÷åíü áîãàòûé ÿçûê.
2. Â Èíòåðíåòå òàê ìíîãî ñàéòîâ è òàê ìíîãî èíôîðìàöèè.
3. «7 äíåé» — î÷åíü ïîïóëÿðíûé æóðíàë. 4. Âëàäèìèð î÷åíü
óìíûé ïàðåíü. Îí ïðîãðàììèñò. 5. Ýòî áûëî áîëüøèì ñþð45
UNIT 7
ïðèçîì äëÿ âñåõ. 6. Ýòî íåâåðíàÿ èíôîðìàöèÿ. 7. «Øðåê» —
ìóëüòèïëèêàöèîííûé ôèëüì. 8. Ìîè äâîþðîäíûå áðàòüÿ
î÷åíü ìèëûå äåòêè. 9. — Âû òåàòðàë? — Äà. 10. Ó÷èòåëü äîëæåí áûòü òâîð÷åñêîé ëè÷íîñòüþ. 11. — Âû ñ÷àñòëèâûé ÷åëîâåê? — Íàäåþñü, ÷òî äà. 12. Ó ìåíÿ î÷åíü õîðîøèé ó÷èòåëü
àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà. 13. Ýòî õîðîøèé âîïðîñ. ß ëþáëþ îòâå÷àòü íà óìíûå âîïðîñû. 14. Àíãëè÷àíå áîëüøèå ëþáèòåëè ÷àÿ
(tea-lovers). Îíè îñîáåííî ëþáÿò ÷àé ñ ìîëîêîì. 15. Ýòî áûëà
íå ïðîñòàÿ ðûáêà, ýòî áûëà çîëîòàÿ ðûáêà. 16. — Âû òðóäîãîëèê? — ß òàê íå äóìàþ. 17. Îí ïîïóëÿðíûé ïåâåö. Ó íåãî åñòü
çîëîòîé äèñê. 18.  êàæäîé ñåìüå åñòü ñåêðåò. 19. Îí ÷ëåí íàøåãî êëóáà. 20. Ýòà êíèãà — áåñòñåëëåð. 21. Åñòü ìíîãî ñïîñîáîâ, êàê ïðèãîòîâèòü ðûáó. 22. — Íà Ìàðñå åñòü æèçíü? —
Íåò, íî ãîâîðÿò, ÷òî òàì åñòü âîäà. — Ýòî íå âîäà, à ë¸ä.
7.10. Употребите артикль, если это необходимо.
1. What ...................... original idea! 2. What ...................... timely advice!
3. What ...................... breaking news! 4. Is this ...................... reliable information? 5. What ...................... sweet yogurt! 6. What ......................
smart dress! 7. What ...................... beautiful gloves! 8. What ......................
big surprise! 9. What ...................... fine shoes! 10. What ......................
cold wine! 11. What ...................... fine weather we are having today! 12. What ...................... wonderful day it is! 13. What ......................
big money! 14. What ...................... hectic life! 15. What ......................
beautiful white teeth she has! 16. What ...................... expensive furniture! 17. What ...................... challenging task! 18. What ......................
shame! My car is gone. 19. What ...................... tasteless things to do!
20. What ...................... smart man!
7.11. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Êàêàÿ ïóñòàÿ òðàòà âðåìåíè è äåíåã! 2. ×òî çà ñóìàñøåäøàÿ (hectic) æèçíü! 3. Êàêàÿ óæàñíàÿ ïîãîäà! Êàêîé óæàñíûé äåíü! 4. Êàêèå ëþáîïûòíûå ëþäè! 5. Êàêàÿ ïðåêðàñíàÿ
ðàáîòà! 6. Êàêîå âàæíîå äåëî! 7. Êàêîé õîðîøèé ñëó÷àé (âîçìîæíîñòü)! 8. Êàêèå òðóäîëþáèâûå ñòóäåíòû. 9. Êàêèå êðóòûå ïàðíè! 10. Êàêèå ÷óäåñíûå ñëîâà! 11. Êàêèå ó òåáÿ äëèííûå íîãè! 12. Êàêèå ó ýòîé àêòðèñû áåëûå çóáû! 13. Êàêèå íå46
Неопределённый артикль
îæèäàííûå äåíüãè! 14. Êàêèå ó íå¸ êðàñèâûå äåòè! 15. Êàêàÿ
ñëàâíàÿ êîøå÷êà! 16. Êàêîé çàõâàòûâàþùèé ôèëüì! 17. Êàêèå êðàñèâûå âîëîñû! 18. Êàêîé ñîë¸íûé îãóðåö! 19. Êàêîé ñîë¸íûé ñóï! 20. Êàêîé âêóñíûé òîðò! 21. Àâòîáóñ îïàçäûâàåò.
Êàêàÿ äîñàäà!
7.12. Измените предложения согласно образцу.
The film is so long. — It‛s such a long film.
The advice is so good. — It‛s such good advice.
1. The book is so boring. 2. The tea is too hot. 3. The boy is so
clever. 4. The children are so noisy. 5. The weather is so frosty!
6. The test is so long. 7. The furniture is so expensive. 8. The
coffee is so sweet! 9. The answer was so good. 10. The day is so
hot! 11. The cake is so tasty. 12. The dictionaries are so expensive. 13. The information is so important. 14. The day was so
lucky for me.
7.13. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Ýòî òàêàÿ áëåñòÿùàÿ ìûñëü. Òû òàêîé óìíûé. 2. Ýòî òàêîé
áîëüøîé ãîðîä. 3. Ìû òàê ñ÷àñòëèâû. Ìû òàêèå ñ÷àñòëèâûå
ëþäè. 4. Ýòî òàêîé õîðîøèé øàíñ. Òû òàêàÿ âåçó÷àÿ. 5. Ìóçûêà òàêàÿ ãðîìêàÿ. ß íå ëþáëþ ãðîìêóþ ìóçûêó. 6. Ïëàòüå òàêîå êðàñèâîå! Ìíå íðàâÿòñÿ òàêèå ïëàòüÿ. 7. — Ïîãîäà ñåãîäíÿ òàêàÿ ò¸ïëàÿ. — Äà, ñåãîäíÿ òàêîé ïðåêðàñíûé äåíü. 8. Ýòî
òàêîé ñþðïðèç! Ýòî òàê ïðèÿòíî! 9. Ýòî òàêèå ÷óäåñíûå íîâîñòè. ß òàê ðàäà. 10. Ýòî áûë òàêîé øîê! 11. Ýòî òàêèå âàæíûå
ñâåäåíèÿ. È îíè òàêèå ñâîåâðåìåííûå!
7.14.
Объясните разницу между следующими парами слов и составьте
предложения с ними.
1. glass — a glass; 2. paper — a paper; 3. wood — a wood;
4. iron — an iron; 5. coffee — a coffee; 6. cloth — a cloth;
7. rubber — a rubber; 8. fish — a fish; 9. language —
a language; 10. tin — a tin; 11. study — a study; 12. light —
a light; 13. duck — a duck; 14. gold — a gold; 15. play — a play;
16. thought — a thought.
47
UNIT 7
7.15. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Êóïè áàòîí õëåáà, ïîæàëóéñòà. 2. Ïîëîæè â ÷àé êóñî÷åê
ëèìîíà. 3. Ïîëèöèÿ àðåñòîâàëà áàíäó ãðàáèòåëåé. 4. Íà ñòîëå åñòü êóâøèí ñîêà. 5. Êóïè áàíî÷êó äæåìà. 6. ß âñåãäà êëàäó êóáèê ëüäà â ñîê. 7. Ìíå íóæåí òþáèê çóáíîé ïàñòû. 8. Ýòî
áûë õîðîøèé ñîâåò. 9. Îí âçÿë áîëüøóþ ñóììó äåíåã â áàíêå. 10. Êàæäûé ìåñÿö îí ïîêóïàåò áëîê ñèãàðåò. 11. Ýòà ïëèòêà øîêîëàäà ñòîèò ïÿòüäåñÿò ðóáëåé. 12. Ìîæíî ìíå êóñî÷åê ñûðà? 13. Ðàçäàëñÿ êðèê óæàñà. 14. Ýòîò ïðåäìåò ìåáåëè î÷åíü äîðîãîé. 15. Ýòî èíòåðåñíàÿ íîâîñòü. 16.  ýòîì åñòü
çåðíî ïðàâäû (äîëÿ èñòèíû).
7.16.
Найдите средства выражения единичности неисчисляемых существительных по образцу.
a loaf of bread, а piece of advice
1.
2
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
a piece
a block
a bar
a gang
a cry
a grain
a slice
an item
a word
an article
a tube
a tin
a jar
a sum
a cube
of
a.
b.
ñ.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
1.
m.
n.
o.
toothpaste
furniture
advice
news
cigarettes
lemon
money
chocolate
robbers
ice
horror
truth
juice
jam
cheese
7.17. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. ßçûê — ýòî ñðåäñòâî êîììóíèêàöèè. 2. Ëàòûíü — ì¸ðòâûé
ÿçûê. 3. Ýòî íåáëàãîäàðíàÿ (thankless) ðàáîòà. 4. Åãî êàðìàííûå äåíüãè íå î÷åíü âåëèêè. 5. ß æèâó â ìíîãîêâàðòèðíîì
äîìå. 6. Åñëè âû ïðîñòóæåíû, òî ïåéòå ãîðÿ÷èé ÷àé ñ ëîìòèêîì ëèìîíà è ëîæêîé ì¸äà.
Unit
U
n it
nit
it 8
Íåîïðåäåë¸ííûå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ
Indefinite Pronouns
Some, something,
somebody (someone)
Any, anything, anybody
(anyone)
No, nothing, nobody
(no one)
Утвердительные
предложения
Вопросительные
предложения
Отрицательные
предложения
There are some good
dictionaries in our
shops.
Are there any good
dictionaries in our
shops?
There aren’t any good
dictionaries in our shops.
= There are no good
dictionaries in our shops,
(более категорично)
He brought some news.
Did he bring any news?
He didn’t bring any
news. = He brought no
news.
There is something new
for me in this article.
Is there anything new
for you in this article?
There isn’t anything
new for me in this article.
= There is nothing new
for me in this article.
Someone knows his
address.
Does anyone know his
address?
Nobody knows his
address.
49
UNIT 8
Продолжение табл.
Some, something,
somebody (someone)
Any, anything, anybody
(anyone)
No, nothing, nobody
(no one)
Утвердительные
предложения
Вопросительные
предложения
Отрицательные
предложения
Some употребляется
в вопросительных
предложениях, когда
вы предлагаете или
просите что-то.
Would you like some
juice? Will you have
some more salad? Can I
have some tea, please?
Could you lend me
some money?
Запомните:
Any в утвердительных
предложениях имеет
значение «любой»,
«всякий», «всё, что
угодно».
Any child likes toys. We
are interested in any
information. I can give
you anything you need.
If anyone calls, tell me
about it.
— Is anything the
matter?
— Nothing is the
matter.
No news is good news.
8.1. Заполните пропуски словами some, any, no.
1. We’ve got ...................... questions. Everything is clear. 2. It’s autumn. There aren’t ...................... flowers in my garden. 3. She works
in her garden in ...................... weather. 4. Would you like ......................
mineral water? 5. I’ve just made ...................... coffee. Do you want
...................... ? 6. Are there ...................... problems in business? — No,
there aren’t ...................... . 7. — Do you make ...................... spelling mistakes? — Yes, I make ...................... . 8. Could you give us ......................
matches? We haven’t got ...................... . 9. There is ...................... marmalade left. I have to buy a jar or two. 10. There is ......................
petrol in the tank, but not much. I’m going to buy ......................
more. 11. There are ...................... changes in my life. They are very
important. 12. There are ...................... mistakes in the dictation. It’s
excellent! 13. — Can you lend me ...................... money? — I’m sorry,
but I haven’t got ...................... money with me today. 14. There are
...................... flowers in this shop, but there aren’t ...................... roses.
15. He left his children without ...................... money. 16. There isn’t
...................... progress in your study. 17. We need ...................... chalk.
There isn’t on the desk.
50
Неопределённые местоимения
8.2.
Поставьте следующие предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную формы.
1. There are some letters to answer. 2. There is nothing new
under the moon. 3. Something is wrong with my computer.
4. There is some money in the safe. 5. There are some good
things in our life. 6. There is somebody in the flat. 7. There
are some biscuits in the tin. 8. There is some olive oil in the
bottle. 9. There are some doubts about it. 10. There is something
interesting on the display. 11. I would like to read something
interesting.
8.3.
Заполните пропуски словами somebody, something, anybody, anything,
nobody, nothing.
1. ............................ got into our dacha again! 2. .............................. worries
him. 3. ............................ will stop me! .......................... must be done. 4. We
saw ............................. at the door. 5. Does ............................ know his name?
6. Is ...................... in? 7. It’s dark here. I can’t see ...................... . 8. He
was silent. He had ...................... to say. 9. There was ......................... in
the box. It was empty. 10. — Did you say .......................... ? — No, I
didn’t say .......................... . 11. My life is dull ...................... ever happens.
12. If you need ........................., just tell me. 13. I am hungry. I want
...................... to eat. 14. I’m not thirsty. I don’t want ...................... to
drink. 15. — There is ........................ in my eye. — No, there is
...................... in it.
8.4. Прочитайте и переведите текст.
EVERYBODY, SOMEBODY, ANYBODY AND NOBODY
This is the story about four people named Everybody, Somebody,
Anybody and Nobody. There was an important job to be done
and Everybody was sure that Somebody would do it. Anybody
could have done it, but Nobody did it. Somebody got angry
about that because it was Everybody’s job. Everybody thought
Anybody could do it, but Nobody realized that Everybody
wouldn’t do it. It ended up that Everybody blamed Somebody
when Nobody did what Anybody could have done.
51
UNIT 8
8.5. Измените предложения согласно образцу.
It‛s по problem at all. — It isn‛t any problem at all.
I‛ve got no enemies. — I haven‛t got any enemies.
We want no more tea. — We don‛t want any more tea.
1. I have no brother or sister. 2. He’s got no time for sport
now. 3. There’s no bread left. 4. We have no apples. 5. There’s
no news. 6. She has no reason to live. 7. We have no plans for
tomorrow. 8. She’s no fool, I’m sure. 9. There’s no jam in the
jar. 10. We need no food today. 11. Being very poor, he got no
education. 12. I am no expert on electronics. 13. He’s got no
faxes today. 14. There are no magazines on the coffee table.
15. It makes no sense.
8.6. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Íè÷òî è íèêòî íå îñòàíîâèò ìåíÿ. 2. Ó òåáÿ ÷òî-òî íà óìå (on
your mind). ×òî ýòî? 3. Íè÷òî íå íîâî ïîä ëóíîé. 4. Êòî-íèáóäü
ìîæåò ìíå ïîìî÷ü? 5. —  õîëîäèëüíèêå åñòü êàêàÿ-íèáóäü
åäà? — Êîå-÷òî åñòü. 6. — Â âàøåé ãðóïïå åñòü èíîñòðàíöû? — Íåò, èõ íåò. 7. — Õîòèòå àïåëüñèíîâîãî ñîêà? — Äà,
íåìíîãî âûïüþ. 8. — Ìíå íðàâèòñÿ íåêîòîðàÿ ïîïóëÿðíàÿ ìóçûêà. — À ìíå íðàâèòñÿ ëþáàÿ ïîïóëÿðíàÿ ìóçûêà. 9. — Åñòü
êàêèå-íèáóäü âîïðîñû? — Íåò, âîïðîñîâ íåò, íî åñòü íåêîòîðûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ. 10. Ìîæíî ìíå íåìíîãî ÷àÿ? Ïèòü õî÷åòñÿ.
11. Íåò íèêàêèõ øàíñîâ, ÷òî íàøà ôóòáîëüíàÿ êîìàíäà âûèãðàåò. 12. Â êîøåëüêå íåò äåíåã. Îí ïóñò. 13. Íà óëèöàõ íåò
ëþäåé. Íî÷ü, è âñå äîìà. 14. ß ãóëÿþ ñî ñâîåé ñîáàêîé â ëþáóþ ïîãîäó. 15. ß õî÷ó êîå-÷òî ñêàçàòü òåáå, íå÷òî î÷åíü âàæíîå. 16. — Åñòü êàêèå-íèáóäü íîâîñòè? — Íåò, íîâîñòåé íåò.
17. Ëþáîé ÷åëîâåê õî÷åò áûòü ñ÷àñòëèâûì è çäîðîâûì. 18. Íà
àâòîîòâåò÷èêå íåò íèêàêèõ ñîîáùåíèé äëÿ òåáÿ. 19.  íàøåì
ñàäó åñòü íåñêîëüêî ôðóêòîâûõ äåðåâüåâ. 20.  ̸ðòâîì ìîðå
íåò íèêàêîé ðûáû. 21. Ñ íèì ÷òî-òî íå òàê. Åãî íè÷åãî íå èíòåðåñóåò. Îí íèêîãî íå õî÷åò âèäåòü. — Äà, ÷òî-òî åãî áåñïîêîèò. 22. Åñëè ÿ òåáå ïîíàäîáëþñü, çâîíè â ëþáîå âðåìÿ.
23. ß âèæó, ÷òî ó òåáÿ ÷òî-òî íà óìå. ×òî ýòî? 24. Ëþáîé ïðîõîæèé ñêàæåò âàì, êàê äîéòè òóäà. 25. Â ïîãîäå íåò íèêàêèõ
èçìåíåíèé.
Un
Unit
nit
it 9
Íåîïðåäåë¸ííûå ìåñòîèìåíèÿ
Исчисляемые
существительные
a lot of, many
1. Утвердительные
предложения
a lot of
Но:
so, too, very +
many, much
2. Вопросительные
предложения
many, much
Неисчисляемые
существительные
a lot of, much
There are a lot of
interesting things in our
life.
Students have a lot of
exams.
There are so many books
to read!
You have too many
mistakes in your paper.
We discussed very
many questions
yesterday.
There is a lot of work
to do.
We have a lot of snow this
year.
There is so much work
to do.
This child has too much
energy!
They got very much
information last week.
Are there many
interesting things in your
life?
Do students have many
exams?
Are there so many books
to read?
Is there much work to do?
Do you have much snow
this year?
Did they get very much
information last week?
53
UNIT 9
Продолжение табл.
3. Отрицательные
предложения
many, much
Исчисляемые
существительные
a lot of, many
Неисчисляемые
существительные
a lot of, much
There aren’t many
interesting things in our
life.
Students don’t have many
exams.
There aren’t so many
books to read.
There isn’t much work to
do.
We don’t have much snow
this year.
They didn’t get very much
information last week.
Исчисляемые существительные
Неисчисляемые существительные
a few (= some, several)
«несколько» (+)
a little (= some)
«немного» (+)
Не made a few mistakes in his
speech.
Tell us a few words about your trip.
I’ve got a little free time now. I can speak
to you.
There is a little money left. We can go
shopping.
few (not many)
«мало» ( — )
little (not much)
«мало» ( — )
He made few mistakes in his paper.
Few people know about it.
I’ve got little free time now. I can’t speak
to you.
There is little money left. We can’t go
shopping.
(a) few, (a) little не употребляются в отрицательных предложениях; not many,
not much используются в этих типах предложений:
Не didn’t make many mistakes in his paper.
Not many people know about it.
54
I don’t have much free time now.
There isn’t much snow in the forest.
Неопределённые местоимения
9.1. Употребите many или much.
1. There are always ...................... people in the metro. 2. There is
...................... work to do today. 3. How ...................... time is it now?
4. How ...................... years ago did you meet? 5. There are ......................
things which I don’t understand. 6. There is ...................... food in
my fridge but there isn’t ...................... money in the purse. 7. How
...................... times have I told you not to use so ...................... make-up?
8. There aren’t ...................... students in this group. 9. She usually
puts too ...................... sugar in her tea. 10. I think I put too ......................
butter and too ...................... raisins in the cake. It’s very rich. 11. He
buys ...................... cigarettes and spends ...................... money on them.
12. We have ...................... cheese, but not ...................... bread. 13. How
...................... classes do we have today? 14. How ...................... petrol
do you need? 15. Our teacher gives us ...................... homework.
16. You shouldn’t eat as ...................... potatoes, as ...................... butter,
as ...................... snack foods as before because you’re getting fat.
17. There are too ...................... unfriendly people, too ...................... fast
cars and too ...................... noise in this city. 18. He made ......................
mistakes in the test as he didn’t have ...................... time to prepare
for it. 19. There is ...................... light and ...................... air in this hall
as there are ...................... windows in it. 20. Mr. Parker doesn’t like
his new secretary. He thinks she drinks too ...................... coffee,
makes too ...................... telephone calls to her friends, and doesn’t
pay ...................... attention to her duties.
9.2. Дайте вопросительную и отрицательную формы следующих предложений согласно образцу.
I have a lot of English books. — Do you have many English books? —
I don‛t have many English books.
There is a lot of information at this website. — Is there much
information at this website? — There isn‛t much information at this
website.
1. Our people read a lot of detective novels. 2. He has a lot
of great ideas. 3. Students usually buy a lot of textbooks.
4. Women always have a lot of things to do about the house.
5. There is a lot of money in this oil business. 6. There are a lot
of supermarkets in Moscow. 7. We have a lot of duties in life.
55
UNIT 9
8. There is a lot of fruit on the table. 9. There are a lot of fish
in the ocean. 10. She buys a lot of clothes. 11. They have a lot of
chances to win the match. 12. Teenagers spend a lot of money
on discs. 13. There is a lot of interesting news in today’s paper.
14. There are a lot of apples this year. 15. We have a lot of rain
this summer. 16. Mr. Rich has got a lot of money. 17. This agent
always brings a lot of important information. 18. There are a lot
of secret data in this file. 19. There are a lot of viruses in the
Internet. 20. The sun gives us a lot of energy.
9.3. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Â ìèðå åñòü ìíîãî ïðåêðàñíûõ ñòðàí è ãîðîäîâ. 2. — Ñêîëüêî ðàç â ãîäó òû îòäûõàåøü? — Äâàæäû: çèìîé è ëåòîì.
3. — Â âàøåé êâàðòèðå ìíîãî ìåáåëè? — Äà, â íåé ìíîãî ìåáåëè. 4. Ìîÿ ñåìüÿ òðàòèò ìíîãî äåíåã íà êíèãè è ôðóêòû. 5. Íà
ìî¸ì äíå ðîæäåíèÿ áóäåò ìíîãî íàðîäó. 6. — Ñêîëüêî áóìàãè
â ìåñÿö óõîäèò (go on...) íà êñåðîêñ? — Î÷åíü ìíîãî. 7. Íå òàê
ìíîãî ëþäåé, êîòîðûì ÿ ìîãó äîâåðÿòü. 8. Ó íàñ íå òàê ìíîãî
äåíåã, à íóæíî êóïèòü òàê ìíîãî âåùåé. 9.  áàíî÷êå íå î÷åíüòî ìíîãî ì¸äà. 10. — Òû ïü¸øü ìíîãî êîôå? — Íåò, íåìíîãî,
íî ÿ ïüþ ìíîãî çåë¸íîãî ÷àÿ. 11. Ó ìîåãî äðóãà ìíîãî âèäåîêàññåò. 12. Íà ýòîé äîðîãå âñåãäà ìíîãî ïðîáîê. 13. Ó ìåíÿ
íèêîãäà íå áûâàåò ìíîãî ñâîáîäíîãî âðåìåíè. 14. Ñêîëüêî ëóêîâèö è ñêîëüêî ñîëè òû êëàä¸øü â ñóï? 15.  ñåãîäíÿøíåé
ãàçåòå ìàëî èíòåðåñíûõ íîâîñòåé.
9.4. Употребите few, a few, little, a little.
1. There is ...................... information in this file, so let’s take
the next one. 2. In faxes one should use as ...................... words
as possible. 3. ...................... people called you when you were
out. 4. I need ...................... soap and shampoo. 5. She packed
...................... things into her travelling bag. 6. He bought ......................
newspapers to read on the train. 7. We are going to send
...................... presents to our relatives. 8. There is ...................... sense in
what he is saying. 9. There is ...................... of chocolate cake on the
plate. 10. I had a cup of tea with ...................... crackers. 11. Let’s
56
Неопределённые местоимения
buy ...................... Swiss cheese, I like it. 12. You’ve made ......................
mistakes in the test, I’m sorry to say. 13. There is ......................
petrol in the tank, we must stop and buy some. 14. The book
cost me very ...................... money. It was cheap. 15. We know too
...................... about it. 16. Even now there is ...................... we can do to
control the weather. 17. I’m going to have a rest for ......................
days. 18. — Do you speak French? — Just ...................... . 19. I eat
very ...................... meat, I prefer fish. 20. I have been to England
...................... times. 21. — ...................... time is left, we must hurry. —
Wait ......................, I’ll take my bag.
9.5. А. Употребите much, many, (a) little, (a) few.
MY FAVOURITE VEGETABLE SOUP
Ann. Here’s how I make my favourite vegetable soup. You start
with butter.
Olga. How ...................... ?
Ann. Just ......................
Olga. And then?
Ann. Then you slice ...................... onions and cook them in butter.
Olga. How ...................... onions?
Ann. As ....................... as you like.
Olga. And how ...................... butter?
Ann. As ...................... as you like.
Olga. And then?
Ann. Then you add ...................... water.
Olga. How ...................... ?
Ann. Not too ...................... Just ...................... cups.
Olga. And after that?
Ann. You add ...................... potatoes, ...................... tomato paste,
...................... carrots, ...................... cabbage and ...................... beans.
Olga. How ...................... time do you cook the soup?
Ann. Not too long. Just ...................... hours.
Olga. Thanks for the recipe. I’ll try it soon.
Ann. You are welcome.
В. Расскажите, как вы готовите чай.
57
UNIT 9
9.6. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Â õîëîäèëüíèêå ìàëî åäû. Íóæíî ïîéòè è êóïèòü íåìíîãî.
Ìîæíî êóïèòü íåìíîãî êîëáàñû, ñûðà, íåñêîëüêî áóëî÷åê è
ÿáëîê. 2. Òû ìàëî ðàáîòàåøü. Åñëè òû ÷óòü-÷óòü ïîðàáîòàåøü,
òî âñ¸ áóäåò õîðîøî. 3. Ìàëûøêà ìàëî ñïèò. Ñïîé åé íåñêîëüêî ïåñåíîê, è òîãäà îíà ïîñïèò íåìíîãî. 4. Îí îáåùàåò äàòü
íàì íåìíîãî äåíåã, íî ìû çíàåì, ÷òî ó íåãî ìàëî äåíåã. Òàê
÷òî ìû âåðí¸ì èõ åìó ÷åðåç íåñêîëüêî äíåé. 5.  ýòîì ãîäó
ìàëî ñíåãà, íî â ëåñó åñòü íåìíîãî ñíåãà. 6. ß âñåãäà äîáàâëÿþ
íåìíîãî ìîëîêà â êîôå è î÷åíü ìàëî ñàõàðà. 7.  ýòîì ôàéëå
ìàëî èíôîðìàöèè, à âîò â ýòîì åñòü íåìíîãî. 8. — Õî÷åøü
íåìíîãî ïèâà? — Íåò, ñïàñèáî. ß îáû÷íî íå ïüþ ïèâà, íî ñ
òîáîé ìîãó âûïèòü íåìíîãî. 9. — Ýòî ë¸ãêèé âîïðîñ. Ïîäóìàé
íåìíîãî. — Äà, íî ó ìåíÿ òàê ìàëî âðåìåíè, ïðîñòî íåñêîëüêî
ìèíóò. 10. —  äîìå åñòü ìàñëî? — Ñîâñåì íåìíîãî, íà íåñêîëüêî áóòåðáðîäîâ. 11. Ìû óåçæàåì ÷åðåç íåñêîëüêî äíåé.
Ó íàñ ìàëî âðåìåíè. 12. Ìàëî êòî çíàåò ýòîò ðåäêèé ÿçûê.
13. Äàâàé ïîãîâîðèì íåìíîãî ïîñëå òîãî, êàê ÿ ïðîñìîòðþ íåñêîëüêî áóìàã. 14.  ýòîé ñåìüå ìàëî ñ÷àñòüÿ. 15. Êàæäûé ÷åëîâåê õî÷åò íåìíîãî ñ÷àñòüÿ. 16. Åñòü íåñêîëüêî êàíàëîâ íà
òåëåâèäåíèè, êîòîðûå ÿ èíîãäà ñìîòðþ.
9.7. Прочитайте пословицы и поговорки и найдите их русские эквиваленты.
1. Many hands make light work. 2. The more you have, the
more you want. 3. Too many cooks spoil the broth. 4. Every little
helps. 5. Few clients, less money. 6. Little by little and bit by
bit. 7. You win a few, you lose a few. 8. More haste, less speed.
9. The more I know people, the more they puzzle me. 10. The
more I study, the more I know. The more I know, the more I
forget. The more I forget, the less I know. So why study?
Unit
U
n
nit
iitt 1
10
0
Îïðåäåë¸ííûé àðòèêëü
The Definite Article
Употребляется со всеми типами существительных (исчисляемыми и неисчисляемыми) как в единственном, так и во множественном числе.
Употребляется, если:
Примеры
1) ситуация или контекст
показывает, что речь идёт
об определённом лице или
предмете
The day is fine.
The film was exciting. (ситуация)
We have a new secretary.
The girl is smart. (контекст)
Запомните:
Определённый артикль во
множественном числе сохраняется.
The days are fine.
The films were exciting.
2) слово упоминалось ранее
He has a new car, the car is red.
They bought a dog, the dog is white.
3) у существительного
есть ограничивающее
(лимитирующее)
определение, выраженное:
а) словами: only, main, central,
same, right/wrong, left/right, next,
last, final;
But: next week (year, ...)
It’s the only way out.
Who can give me the right answer?
Keep to the right side of the road.
The next stop is ours.
The best things in life are never free.
59
UNIT 10
Продолжение табл.
Употребляется, если:
Примеры
b) порядковыми
числительными:
first, second, third, etc;
Не was the first man who helped us.
Read the second text.
He lives on the third floor.
c) прилагательными
в превосходной степени:
best, worst, longest, latest,
most important...
This is the best book I’ve ever read.
It’s the most important thing for me.
It was the worst moment in my life.
4) существительное
употребляется в роли
обстоятельства места: in (on)
the street, at the theatre, at the
office, at the library, on the balcony,
in the garden, on the train, in the
sky, in the picture...
We like to walk in the garden.
There are some people at the door.
Let’s meet at the library.
I read a book on the train.
There are dark clouds in the sky.
Неопределённый артикль
возможен также в своём
классифицирующем значении
«один из», «какой-то»
Matilda lived in a small English town.
He was born in a small village.
“We all live in a yellow submarine.”
10.1.
Прочитайте, переведите и выучите следующие употребительные
фразы.
1. — What’s the matter? — Nothing is the matter.
2. — What’s wrong? What’s up? — Everything is fine.
3. — What’s the weather like today? — It’s fine.
4. — What’s the date today? — It’s the third of June.
5. — What day is it today? — It’s Friday.
6. — What’s the problem? — There is no problem.
7. — Where is the remote control? — It’s on the desk.
8. — Where are the keys? — The keys are in your hand.
9. — Look at the picture! What can you see in it?
10. — Look at the sky. It looks like rain.
11. — What is the latest news? — It’s good news.
60
Определённый артикль
10.2. Измените предложения согласно образцу.
A student works hard. — Students work hard.
The man is an aviator. — The men are aviators.
1. The car is out of order. 2. The woman is our teacher. 3. A cat
is a cute animal. 4. The house is big. 5. The dictionary is mine.
6. The film is a hit. 7. The kid is a wizard. 8. A child needs love
and care. 9. The market is open today. 10. The clock is slow.
11. The mouse is hungry. 12. The dog is in the yard. 13. There
is a provision market on this street. 14. The watch is fast.
15. A computer is an electronic machine.
10.3. Употребите необходимый артикль.
1. — What’s ...................... weather like today? — ...................... weather
is dry and sunny. 2. ...................... day is rainy. ...................... sky is grey.
3. ...................... test was easy and ...................... result was good. 4. — Did
you enjoy ...................... film? — No, it was ...................... boring film. 5. —
Where are ...................... sweets? — On ...................... coffee table. 6. —
What do you think of ...................... new manager? — Well, I don’t
like ...................... fellow. 7. ...................... shoes are hand-made, that’s why
...................... price is so high. 8. Who is ...................... man in ......................
photo? 9. How much did you pay for ...................... discs? 10. ......................
question surprised me. 11. Look through ...................... magazine. It’s
interesting. 12. I’m going to water ...................... flowers and wash
...................... dishes. 13. Hurry up! ...................... lecture starts in ......................
few minutes. 14. — When are ...................... guests coming? — They
are already here. 15. — What’s wrong with ...................... printer? —
We must change ...................... cartridge. 16. ...................... answerphone
is switched off. 17. What’s ...................... latest fashion? 18. Look at
...................... screen. ...................... information on it is new. 19. — Where
are ...................... files? Did ...................... secretary take them? — No, it
was ...................... manager. 20. — What’s ...................... matter? — There
is ...................... problem, sir.
10.4. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Çàêðîéòå, ïîæàëóéñòà, äâåðü. Õîëîäíî. 2. — Ãäå ñòóäåíòû? — Îíè â ñòîëîâîé. Ñåé÷àñ âðåìÿ ëàí÷à. 3. Õîëîäèëüíèê
61
UNIT 10
íå ðàáîòàåò. ×òî íàì äåëàòü ñ ïðîäóêòàìè? 4. Ïîñòàâü öâåòû â
âîäó. 5. Òåáå íðàâèòñÿ êîìíàòà? Îíà òâîÿ. 6. Ñîáàêà âî äâîðå.
7.  ÷¸ì äåëî? Ïî÷åìó ñåêðåòàðøà òàê ðàññòðîåíà? 8. — Êàêàÿ ñåãîäíÿ ïîãîäà? — Ïîãîäà ñåãîäíÿ õîëîäíàÿ. 9. — ×àé
ñëèøêîì ãîðÿ÷èé. — Äîáàâü íåìíîãî ìîëîêà. — À ãäå ìîëîêî? — Ìîëîêî â õîëîäèëüíèêå. 10. ×àñû íà õîëîäèëüíèêå. Êîòîðûé ñåé÷àñ ÷àñ? 11. Ïóëüò óïðàâëåíèÿ íà òåëåâèçîðå.
12. Äæèíñû íåïëîõèå. Îíè ìíå íðàâÿòñÿ. 13. Êñåðîêñ íàõîäèòñÿ â ñîñåäíåé êîìíàòå. 14. Ñòîëîâàÿ îòêðûâàåòñÿ â 10 ÷àñîâ
óòðà. 15. —  ÷¸ì äåëî?  ÷¸ì ïðîáëåìà? — Ïðîáëåìà â òîì,
÷òî ìû ãîëîäíû. 16. — Äåíüãè â ñåéôå, à ãäå æå êëþ÷è îò ñåéôà? — Ýòî áîëüøîé ñåêðåò.
10.5. Употребите необходимый артикль.
1. Here is ...................... magazine. You can keep it for ......................
week. 2. — What is ...................... name of ...................... girl who is
over there? — Yes, she is ...................... nice girl but I don’t know
her. 3. — How was ...................... show? — Well, ...................... audience
liked it. 4. I like ...................... song. It will be ...................... hit. 5. Turn
on ...................... radio, please. Let’s listen to ...................... latest news.
6. Pass me ...................... sugar. I like ...................... sweet tea. 7. Look at
...................... screen. ...................... man on it is my schoolmate. 8. How
much is ...................... new cassette? Is it ...................... expensive film?
9. May I have ...................... look at ...................... test? 10. — When will
...................... lecture be over? — In ...................... hour. 11. ......................
soup is tasty. You are ...................... wonderful cook! 12. ......................
teacher will tell us ...................... results of ...................... test ......................
next week. 13. We are ...................... friends. We are of ......................
same age. 14. They all got ...................... good marks at .........................
final exam. 15. ...................... whole story is ...................... myth.
10.6. Употребите необходимый артикль.
1. We have ...................... dacha. ...................... house is small, but ......................
garden is rather big. 2. These are ...................... beautiful flowers. Let
us put them in ...................... vase which you gave me on Christmas.
3. What ...................... beautiful hat! Is ...................... hat yours? 4. —
There are ...................... pancakes on the plate. Would you like
62
Определённый артикль
...................... pancake? — Thank you. I like ...................... pancakes.
5. — How are you going to spend ...................... holiday? — I’ll go
to ...................... country for ...................... week. 6. ...................... situation
is serious. We must make ...................... decision. 7. ...................... best
things in life are never free. 8. She has ...................... strong accent.
9. It was ...................... remarkable friendship. They were ......................
great men. 10. This writer is ...................... wonderful storyteller.
He writes ...................... historical novels. 11. I live in ...................... new
region. ...................... new regions are usually far from ......................
centre of ...................... city.
10.7. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. — Âàì íðàâèòñÿ íîâîå çäàíèå íàøåãî óíèâåðñèòåòà? — Äà,
ýòî î÷åíü êðàñèâîå çäàíèå, íî êîìíàòû ñëèøêîì ìàëû. 2. Ïîêàæè ìíå íîâûé êîñòþì. Êàêîãî îí öâåòà? 3. Ìàëü÷èê ïîõîæ íà îòöà. 4. Âèêòîð è Êîñòÿ ðîâåñíèêè. 5. — Ó ìåíÿ íîâûé äðóã. — Êàê çîâóò òâîåãî ïàðíÿ? 6. Ó íàñ íîâûé ó÷èòåëü. Ó÷èòåëü çíàþùèé è ñòðîãèé. 7. Ñúåøü áëèí÷èê, êîòîðûé
íà áëþäå÷êå. 8. Ñâåäåíèÿ, êîòîðûå ìû ïîëó÷èëè â÷åðà, î÷åíü
âàæíûå. 9. Äîì î÷åíü ñòàðûé. Åìó ñòî ëåò. 10. Æèëè-áûëè îäíàæäû êîðîëü è êîðîëåâà. Ó íèõ áûëà äî÷ü. Èìÿ äî÷åðè áûëî
Ôèîíà. 11. Ñàëàò âêóñíûé, íî ÿ äîáàâèëà áû â íåãî íåìíîãî
ÿáëîêà. 12. ß íå ëþáëþ ðûáó, íî ðûáà, êîòîðóþ îíà ïðèãîòîâèëà, ïðîñòî îáúåäåíüå. 13. Âîäà â ýòîì îçåðå ÷èñòàÿ, è â í¸ì
åñòü ðûáà. 14. — Êòî àâòîð ýòîãî ðîìàíà? — Ýòî Àãàòà Êðèñòè. 15. Äåòè óæå â ïîñòåëè. Äîìà òèõî.
10.8. Употребите необходимый артикль.
1. This morning I bought ...................... newspaper and ......................
magazine. ...................... newspaper is in my bag but I don’t know
where I put ...................... magazine. 2. I saw ...................... accident this
morning. ...................... car crashed into ...................... tree. ......................
driver of ...................... car wasn’t hurt but ...................... car was
badly damaged. 3. There are two cars parked outside:......................
blue and ...................... red one. ...................... blue one belongs to my
neighbours; I don’t know who ...................... owner of ...................... red
one is. 4. My friends live in ...................... old house in ...................... small
63
UNIT 10
village. There is ...................... beautiful garden behind ......................
house. I would like to have such ...................... garden. 5. a) This
house is very nice. Has it got ...................... garden? b) It’s ......................
beautiful day. Let’s sit in ...................... garden. c) I like living in this
house but it’s a pity that ...................... garden is too small. 6. a) Can
you recommend ...................... good restaurant? b) We had dinner
in ...................... very nice restaurant. c) We had dinner in ......................
most expensive restaurant in town. 7. a) She has ......................
French name but in fact she’s English, not French. b) What’s
...................... name of ...................... man we met yesterday? c) We
stayed at ...................... very nice hotel. I can’t remember ......................
name now. 8. a) There isn’t ...................... airport near where I live.
...................... nearest airport is 70 miles away. b) Our plane was
delayed. We had to wait at ...................... airport for ...................... hour.
c) Excuse me, please. Can you tell me how to get to ......................
airport? 9. a) — Are you going away ...................... next week? —
No, ...................... week after next. b) I’m going away for ......................
week in September. c) George has ...................... part-time job. He
works three mornings ...................... week. 10. a) It is ...................... very
good news. You always bring ...................... good news. b)......................
news is fantastic. I can’t believe ...................... word of it.
10.9. Употребите необходимый артикль.
1. What was ...................... first word, which you said? 2. This is
...................... fax that I got this morning. 3. Do you often go to
...................... centre of ...................... city? 4. Here is ...................... code to
...................... computer. 5. My parents are ...................... main people in
my life. 6. We live in ...................... same street. 7. He took ......................
second place in that game. 8. We’ll get off at ...................... next
stop, which is also ...................... last stop. 9. He is ...................... man
I told you about. 10. What’s ...................... name of ...................... man
who discovered America? 11. ...................... concert was ......................
great success. 12. You’ll find the index on ...................... last page.
13. This is ...................... best hotel in ...................... town. 14. My flat is
on ...................... third floor. And my brother’s is on ...................... fifth
floor. 15. ...................... exercise is on ...................... next page. Do it for
...................... next week. ...................... next class will be on Monday.
Unit
Uni
U
n
nit
ni
iitt 1
11
1
Have / Have got
(èìåòü ÷òî-òî, îáëàäàòü ÷åì-òî)
Утвердительная форма
I, you, we, they
he, she, it
have...
has...
Вопросительная форма
Do you have...?
Does she have?
Отрицательная форма
I don’t have...
She doesn’t have...
I have a lot of discs. — Do you have many discs? — I don’t have many discs.
He has a lot of work to do. — Does he have much work to do? — He doesn’t
have much work to do.
Утвердительная форма
I, you, we, they
he, she, it
have got...
has got...
Вопросительная форма
Have you got...?
Has she got...?
Отрицательная форма
I haven’t got...
She hasn’t got...
I have got a big family. — Have you got a big family? — I haven’t got a big
family.
She has got a new office. — Has she got a new office? — She hasn’t got a new
office.
1
Br = British English; Am = American English.
65
UNIT 11
Have употребляется в ряде устойчивых сочетаний, выражающих деятельность или однократное действие:
to have breakfast (lunch, brunch, dinner, tea, supper),
to have a snack (a talk, a bath, a seat, a walk),
to have a good time (a rest, a journey, a holiday),
to have a look (a smoke, a date, an appointment).
Утвердительная
форма
Вопросительная
форма
Отрицательная
форма
I have dinner at four
o’clock.
We always have a good
time in summer.
Do you have dinner at
four o’clock?
Do you always have a
good time in summer?
I don’t have dinner at four
o’clock.
We don’t always have a
good time in summer.
11.1. Поставьте следующие предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную формы.
1. I have a good job. 2. They have a daughter. 3. He has a
business of his own. 4. This family has a small hotel. 5. She
has two brothers. 6. I have some doubts about it. 7. She has
a good reputation. 8. I have much work to do. 9. We have a
good office. 10. He has a big library. 11. She has an excellent
memory. 12. She has a good sense of humour. 13. Ben has a dog.
14. Many children have pets. 15. She has many duties. 16. He
has an understanding heart.
11.2. Поставьте следующие предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную формы.
1. They have got a country house. 2. I have got a big family.
3. He has got a fast car. 4. We usually have dinner at home.
5. She always has a rest after dinner. 6. We usually have cold
weather in winter. 7. He has a cold shower in the morning.
8. They’ve got important information. 9. She has breakfast
with her children. 10. People often have a snack at McDonald’s.
11. He has a date every Saturday. 12. I have a toothache today.
66
Have / Have got
13. We have lunch at the office. 14. She’s got interesting ideas.
15. He’s got many relatives in Moscow.
11.3. Употребите have или have got. В некоторых случаях возможны оба варианта.
1. I usually ...................... breakfast at home, but I ...................... dinner at
the office. 2. I ...................... a problem with my car. 3. We ......................
some time right now. Let’s ...................... a talk. 4. He ...................... two
small children. 5. She ...................... a high temperature. She ......................
a cold. 6. I ...................... a new swimming pool. So I ...................... a swim
every day. 7. I’d like to ...................... a look at that picture. 8. He
...................... long hair. 9. I’m going to ...................... a shower. 10. Every
Sunday he ...................... a walk in the park. 11. They ...................... big
families. 12. We usually ...................... a good time at our parties.
13. He’d like to ...................... a look at the e-mail. 14. He ...................... a
huge house. It ...................... ten bedrooms. 15. My family ...................... a
small flat.
11.4. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Ó íå¸ ãîëóáûå ãëàçà è ÷¸ðíûå âîëîñû. Ó íå¸ î÷åíü êðàñèâîå
ëèöî. 2. Ó íåãî åñòü ÷óâñòâî þìîðà? 3. Ó íåãî ìíîãî äåë (ðàáîòû). Ó íåãî òðóäíàÿ ðàáîòà. 4. ß îòäûõàþ äâà ðàçà â ãîäó.
À êàê ÷àñòî âû îòäûõàåòå? 5. — Ó âàñ åñòü ìàøèíà? — Äà,
ó ìåíÿ íîâàÿ ìàøèíà. 6. — Ïîðà ñäåëàòü ïåðåðûâ è ïåðåêóñèòü. — Õîðîøàÿ ìûñëü. 7. Âîäà ñåãîäíÿ ò¸ïëàÿ. Äàâàé èñêóïàåìñÿ. 8. Õîëîäíî. Äàâàé âûïüåì ãîðÿ÷åãî ÷àÿ. 9. — Ó âàñ
åñòü âîïðîñû? — Ó íàñ íåò âîïðîñîâ. Âñ¸ ÿñíî. 10. Ó íåãî
ìíîãî äðóçåé. 11. — Ó âàñ ìíîãî ðîäñòâåííèêîâ? — Íåò, ó
ìåíÿ íåìíîãî ðîäñòâåííèêîâ. 12. — Ãäå âû îáû÷íî îáåäàåòå? — ß îáåäàþ äîìà. 13. — Ó íåãî åñòü àëèáè. — Ó íåãî
äåéñòâèòåëüíî åñòü àëèáè? — Äà. 14. Ó íàñ âñåãäà åñòü ôðóêòû íà ñòîëå. 15. Ó íå¸ õîðîøàÿ ðåïóòàöèÿ. 16. — Ó âàñ åñòü
ýëåêòðîííàÿ ïî÷òà? — Äà, åñòü.
Unit
U
n
nit
iitt 1
12
2
Ïàäåæ èìåíè ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîãî
Case
Притяжательный падеж
Possessive Case
Общий падеж
Common Case
-’s, -’
Mary, Peter, a doctor, a teacher, a file,
novels, a child, engineers, people,
students, the Belovs
Mary’s life, Peter’s car, a doctor’s office,
a teacher’s pen, Boris’s file, Dickens’s
novels*, children’s toys, engineers’
plans, people’s lives, students’ hostel,
the Belovs’ house
* Åñëè ñëîâî çàêàí÷èâàåòñÿ íà [s], òî â áîëüøèíñòâå ñëó÷àåâ óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ ’s: St. James’s park, Dickens’s novels, Columbus’s ship, Mr. Fox’s car.
Ïðèòÿæàòåëüíûé ïàäåæ
The Possessive Case
Основные значения: принадлежность, обладание чем-то, описание
(с одушевлёнными именами существительными)
Единственное число
’s
a boy’s toy, a girl’s dress,
an actress’s life, a woman’s
magazine, Burns’s poems
68
Множественное число
-’
boys’ toys, girls’ dresses,
actresses’ lives, lawyers’
duties, the Romanovs’
family tree
-’s
children’s shop,
men’s hobbies,
women’s magazines,
sheep’s wool, deer’s
horns
Падеж имени существительного
Продолжение табл.
Неодушевлённые существительные, как правило, передают значение
принадлежности при помощи сочетания of + существительное
the roof of the house
the end of the story
the cover of the book
the back of the chair
the cap of a pen
the leg of a table
1. Слова moon, sun, Earth,
world, country, river, ocean,
city, town, company
the moon’s surface, the sun’s rays, the Earth’s
population, the world’s history, the river’s bank,
the city’s museums, the company’s future
2. Названия стран, городов,
месяцев, дней недели
England’s traditions, Moscow’s streets, July’s heat,
Tuesday’s meeting, London’s double-deckers
3. Меры времени
и расстояния
a moment’s silence, two miles’ drive, an hour’s
sleep, a fortnight’s holiday, a day’s wait
4. Указание места
(магазина, офиса, дома,
клиники, салона и т.д.)
The chemist’s (shop), the dentist’s (office),
the baker’s (shop), my mother’s (house), the
doctor’s (clinic), the hairdresser’s (salon), the
dressmaker’s (shop), McDonald’s (restaurant)
We went for a two-mile walk. — It was two miles’ drive.
Примечание:
В посвящениях притяжательный падеж не употребляется:
the Pushkin Monument, the Kennedy Center, the State Tretyakov Gallery
12.1. Замените фразы с предлогом of на существительные в притяжательном падеже.
1. The advice of my parents. 2. The games of her sons. 3. The
marks of her children. 4. A fax from Felix. 5. A novel by Akunin.
6. The life of students. 7. A school for boys. 8. A magazine for
69
UNIT 12
women. 9. A club for men. 10. The climate of England. 11. The
surface of the moon. 12. The history of the world. 13. A holiday
for two weeks. 14. The news of today. 15. The problems of the
country.
12.2. Ответьте на следующие вопросы, используя слова из правой колонки.
Where do you go if you want to
1. get fast food?
2. buy some vegetables?
3. have your eyes examined?
4. get your hair cut?
5. have some clothes cleaned?
6. buy cakes and chocolate?
7. buy a lot of small
different things?
8. have your teeth examined?
9.
10.
11.
12.
buy some medicine?
buy some meat?
buy some flowers?
get some information
about travelling?
13. have your watch repaired?
14. have your pet examined?
15. have advice about your
health?
a.
b.
ñ.
d.
the florist’s
the greengrocer’s
the travelling agent’s
the chemist’s
(drugstore)
e. the watchmaker’s
f. the doctor’s
g. the confectioner’s
h. the hairdresser’s
(the barber’s)
i. the butcher’s
j. the supermarket
k. McDonald’s
l. the vet’s
m. the optician’s
n. the dentist’s
o. the (dry) cleaner’s
12.3. Дайте форму притяжательного падежа, используя -’s, -s’, -’
1. We met at Mr. Harris house. 2. I need Bess phone number.
3. My sister husband is a broker. 4. We’ll have a children party
next week. 5. I’ll spend the weekend at my friends house. 6. They
need a month time to finish the project. 7. This is a women
shop. 8. She works in a girls school. 9. Columbus discovery of
America was a historic event. 10. Do you remember Pythagoras
Theorem? 11. “Alice Adventures in Wonderland” was written
70
Падеж имени существительного
by Lewis Carroll. 12. From the radio came Elvis voice. 13. My
brother is now reading “Gulliver Travels”. 14. It’s teenagers
style. 15. I work at Mr. Phillips office. 16. My grandparents
house is very old.
12.4. В следующих предложениях замените предложные фразы существительными в притяжательном падеже там, где это возможно.
1. The cover of this dictionary is glossy. 2. This video cassette
belongs to Liz. 3. We heard the sound of the plane. 4. Our
students study the History of the English language. 5. The roof
of the house was red. 6. The dresses of the girls were very
pretty. 7. The future of a girl depends on her character and good
luck. 8. The prices of the houses go up and up. 9. I borrowed a
mobile phone from Denis. 10. My seat was at the end of the hall.
11. This theatre is in the centre of the city. 12. He knows much
about the history of Russia. 13. We need some bread. Let’s go
to the shop of a baker. 14. A rest for an hour will do you good.
15. The news we got yesterday was unbelievable.
12.5. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Îíà ïîëîæèëà ïàïêó íà ñòîë íà÷àëüíèêà (áîññà). 2.  ñåãîäíÿøíèõ ãàçåòàõ íåò íè÷åãî èíòåðåñíîãî. 3. Ñåãîäíÿ äåíü ðîæäåíèÿ Áîðèñà. 4. Âñå óñòàëè, äàâàéòå ñäåëàåì äåñÿòèìèíóòíûé ïåðåðûâ. 5. Ñîâåòû ìîèõ äðóçåé íå âñåãäà ïîëåçíû. 6. Ãäå
êëþ÷è îò ìàøèíû? 7. Çàâòðà ÿ ïîéäó â ïàðèêìàõåðñêóþ è â
õèì÷èñòêó. 8. Ìíå ïîíðàâèëàñü èäåÿ Òîìàñà. 9.  êîíöå óðîêà
ó÷èòåëü îòâå÷àåò íà âîïðîñû ó÷åíèêîâ. 10. Áóäóùåå ìîèõ äåòåé áåñïîêîèò ìåíÿ. 11. Ìíå íðàâÿòñÿ ðîìàíû ×àðëüçà Äèêêåíñà. 12. Èìÿ ìîåé ìëàäøåé ñåñòðû Âåðà. 13. Äîêëàäû òåõ
ñòóäåíòîâ îòëè÷íûå. 14.  ýòîì ìàãàçèíå åñòü ìóæñêèå ðóáàøêè. 15. Ìíîãèå äåòñêèå èãðóøêè ñäåëàíû â Êèòàå. 16. Êàê
çâàëè òîãî ïàðíÿ? 17. Öåíà áåíçèíà âàæíà äëÿ âîäèòåëåé.
18. — Ìíå íðàâÿòñÿ ïåñíè Ðîááè Óèëüÿìñà. — À ìíå ïåñíè
Ýíðèêå Èãëåñèàñà. 19. Óâëå÷åíèå Ïðèíöà ×àðëüçà — ëîøàäè. 20. Ôåðìà Ìèñòåðà Õàððèñà âåëèêîëåïíà. 21. Êëèìàò çåìëè ïîñòîÿííî ìåíÿåòñÿ. 22. Ñîëíå÷íûå ëó÷è äàþò íàì æèçíü.
Unit
U
n
nit
iitt 1
13
3
Ðîä èìåíè ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîãî
Gender
Средства выражения
рода
1. Лексическим
значением слова
2. Личными
местоимениями
Мужской род
Masculine
man
boy
father
husband
bachelor
brother
lord
nephew
son
cock
he
god
waiter
poet
prince
widower
4. Составными
существительными
a he-cousin
a he-goat
a man-driver
a man-servant
a boyfriend
a policeman
a businessman
72
woman
girl
mother
wife
spinster
sister
lady
niece
daughter
hen
she
3. Суффиксами -ess,
-ine (-ina), -er, -ette
5. Обусловленные
традицией:
страны, средства
передвижения
Женский род
Feminine
lion
hero
tzar
tiger
bachelor
goddess
waitress
poetess
princess
widow
lioness
heroine
tzarina
tigress
bachelorette
a she-cousin
a she-goat
a woman-driver
a maid-servant
a girlfriend
a policewoman
a businesswoman
England is proud of her
poets.
What a fine yacht!
She is very fast.
Род имени существительного
Продолжение табл.
Средства выражения
рода
Мужской род
Masculine
(самолёты, суда,
автомобили) - she
Женский род
Feminine
This jet is supersonic.
She will beat all the
records.
She is a great car!
1. Слова типа a chairman, a postman, a policeman, a fireman, a congressman считаются в настоящее время «политически некорректными», так как игнорируют
вторую половину человечества — женщин.
Говорите: a chairperson, a mail-carrier, a police officer, a firefighter, a member of
Congress и т.д.
2. В английском языке к среднему роду it относятся названия неодушевлённых
предметов.
a book, a house, a star, life, a river, snow, metal
13.1.
Прочитайте и переведите следующие предложения. Объясните употребление выделенных слов.
1. Britain is not a great country now and she knows it. 2. She
was a good ship. 3. England is proud of her poets. 4. Look at
the moon! She is so beautiful! 5. I like my new speed-boat. She
moves so fast through the water. 6. “I’ll get her car fixed up for
her,” he said. “I’ll come and collect it — her — later”. 7. Japan
has problems of her own. 8. She is a fine car, she is fast and
beautiful.
13.2. Объясните, какой род выражают следующие существительные:
A tourist, a doll, a client, a cousin, a doctor, a mermaid, a friend,
a parent, a neighbour, a student, a stranger, a witch, a teacher,
a wizard, a clown, a fairy, an amazon, a sailor, an angel, a
passer-by, a ballerina, a ballet-dancer, a widow, a pirate.
73
UNIT 13
13.3. Назовите существительные, обозначающие противоположный пол.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
a
a
a
a
a
man
brother
husband
father
nephew
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
a
a
a
a
a
son
king
girl
nun
lady
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
a bride
Mrs.
a lass
a widow
an uncle
13.4. Определите, насколько вы политкорректны и какие из приведённых
ниже слов вы употребили бы.
Mrs. — Ms.
Asian — Oriental
a chairman — a chairperson
a fireman — a firefighter
a Negro — an Afro-American
a stewardess — a flight attendant
a mailman — a mail carrier
mankind — humanity
a policeman — a police officer
a Red Indian — a Native American
a congressman — a member of Congress
a pensioner — a senior citizen
13.5.
Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на политкорректность.
1. (Ëþäè) ãîâîðÿò, ÷òî æåíùèíû ñ Âåíåðû, à ìóæ÷èíû ñ Ìàðñà. 2. Îíà íàñòîÿùàÿ ãåðîèíÿ. 3. Ïðèíöåññà Ôèîíà æäàëà ñâîåãî ïðèíöà. 4. Ãàððè Ïîòòåð áûë âîëøåáíèêîì. 5. Âîëøåáíèöà ïîìîãëà Çîëóøêå ïîåõàòü íà áàë. 6. Ëüâèöà ãíàëàñü çà ëîøàäüþ. 7. Ïîæàðíûå ÷àñòî ðèñêóþò ñâîåé æèçíüþ. 8. Áîðòïðîâîäíèöà ïðåäëîæèëà âñåì íàïèòêè. 9. Îí êîðåííîé æèòåëü Àìåðèêè. 10. Ïðåäñåäàòåëü ñîáðàíèÿ îáúÿâèë ïåðåðûâ.
11. Ìóæ ìîåé ñåñòðû — àôðî-àìåðèêàíåö. 12. Íàø ïî÷òàëüîí
âñåãäà ïðèõîäèò â 7 ÷àñîâ óòðà. 13.  Ìîñêâå ñåé÷àñ ìíîãî
æåíùèí-âîäèòåëåé. 14. Æåíà Áèëëà — ÷ëåí Êîíãðåññà. 15. Îí
áûë êîðîëü, à îíà — êîðîëåâà. 16. Æåíèõ ïîöåëîâàë íåâåñòó.
Uni
Unit
U
n
nit
iitt 1
14
4
Ïðîñòîå íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ
Present Simple
Образуется при помощи инфинитива глагола без частицы to1.
Утвердительная форма
Вопросительная форма
Отрицательная форма
I, we
you
they
speak
Do
I, we
you
they
speak ...?
I, we
you
they
he
she
it
speaks
Does
he
she
it
speak ...?
he
she
it
You speak three
languages.
He drives his car well.
It rains a lot in
summer.
Do you speak three
languages?
Does he drive his car well?
Does it rain much in
summer?
Случаи употребления
1. Регулярно повторяющиеся
действия в настоящем времени,
факты, пословицы, общеизвестные
истины.
1
do not (don’t)
does not
(doesn’t)
I do not (don’t) speak
three languages.
He does not (doesn’t)
drive his car well.
It does not (doesn’t)
rain much in summer.
Примеры
I go to school every day.
Moscow is the capital of Russia.
Tastes differ. Time flies.
Teachers educate people.
All is well that ends well.
Ïîëíûé ñïèñîê ãëàãîëîâ ñìîòðè íà ñ. 402.
75
UNIT 14
Продолжение табл.
Случаи употребления
Примеры
2. С глаголами умственной
и чувственной деятельности, а также
с глаголами обладания:
see, hear, believe, know, understand,
like, realize, own, possess, belong, prefer,
mean.
I see and hear you well.
We understand everything and we
believe you.
She realizes that she knows very
little.
He owns this house, it belongs to
him.
I like your offer.
It means a lot to me.
3. Будущее действие в соответствии с
расписанием.
My bus starts in five minutes.
The plane arrives at 7 o’clock.
The show begins at half past seven.
4. С глаголами to forget, to hear,
to be told (в значении «знать»,
«не помнить»)
I hear he is in Paris now.
(Я знаю, что он в Париже.)
I forget her telephone number.
(Я не помню её номер телефона.)
Наиболее часто употребляемые обстоятельства времени:
always, ever, never, as a rule, every day (week, month, year), now and then,
generally, seldom, occasionally, usually, regularly, rarely, sometimes, from time
to time.
What do you (does he) do (for a living)? = What’s your job (profession)?
When, Where, How (often), How much/many, What kind of ...?
Не lives here. — Who lives here?
They know it. — Who knows it?
76
Простое настоящее время
14.1. Объясните употребление простого настоящего времени в следующих
предложениях.
1. I watch TV every day. 2. After rain comes fair weather. 3. We
all make mistakes. 4. The earth moves around the sun. 5. Our
children start school at the age of four. 6. I understand you.
7. She sees and hears well. 8. Many people use metro in Moscow.
9. My bus leaves at six o’clock in the morning. 10. We usually
have lunch at 12 o’clock. 11. He is in London now. 12. There are
many holidays in the year. 13. This train arrives at midnight.
14. This linguist speaks fifteen languages. 15. I often forget people’s names. 16. It takes 25 minutes to get to the airport from
here. 17. Travelling broadens your mind.
14.2. Поставьте следующие предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную формы.
1. Good weather makes me happy. 2. Irene helps her mother.
3. I take my dog out for a run every morning. 4. She prefers tea
to coffee. 5. Students spend a lot of money on books. 6. It takes a
long time to become clever. 7. The Chinese like spaghetti. 8. Old
people like to wear T-shirts and jeans. 9. He goes on business
trips every month. 10. It rains a lot in autumn. 11. It seldom
snows in the south of England. 12. It takes me half an hour to
get to my work. 13. She waters the flowers in her garden twice
a week. 14. Children enjoy playing computer games. 15. I meet
my classmates every year. 16. We agree with you. 17. I love
Paris in the spring. 18. I am angry with you.
14.3. Употребите необходимый вспомогательный глагол в следующих вопросах и ответах.
1. — ...................... you want to join us? — No, we ...................... busy.
2. — ...................... your clock show the right time? — No, it
...................... . It ...................... fast. 3. How long ...................... it usually take
you to get home? — It ...................... take me long. 4. What ......................
this word mean? ...................... anyone know it? 5. ...................... your
parents know about it? — My mother _____, but my father
...................... . 6. — ...................... you like living in Moscow? — No, I
......................, life ...................... hectic here. 7. — ...................... it ever snow
77
UNIT 14
in California? — No, it ......................, it ...................... always hot there.
8. — ...................... pupils make many spelling mistakes? — Yes,
they ......................, English spelling ...................... killing. 9. — ......................
anyone help you with housework? — Yes, my daughter ......................
it when she ...................... at home. 10. — ...................... your son like
animals? — Yes, he ...................... . He ...................... a vet (veterinarian).
11. — ...................... your children go to school? — My son ......................,
but my daughter ...................... only four years old. 12. — ......................
it usually take you long to look through the e-mail? — No, it
......................, it ...................... the secretary’s duty. 13. — ...................... it
ever snow in the Sahara? — No, it _____, it ...................... a desert.
14. — How well ...................... he run his firm? — He ...................... a
good businessman. 15. — ...................... you agree with me? — No, I
...................... . I ...................... still cross with you.
14.4.
Дополните следующие предложения глаголами в отрицательной
форме согласно образцу:
I like apples, but I don‛t like oranges.
She speaks French, but she doesn‛t speak it well.
1. He does business, but he ...................... it successfully. 2. Tom’s
parents give him pocket money, but they ...................... him much.
3. That shop sells office equipment, but it ...................... computers.
4. We know Sharon, but we ...................... her parents. 5. I feel sad,
but I ...................... unhappy. 6. He makes grammar mistakes, but
he ...................... spelling mistakes. 7. He earns a lot of money, but
he ...................... millions. 8. She speaks English, but she ......................
any other foreign language. 9. He works hard, but he ......................
on weekends. 10. This hotel attracts a lot of tourists, but it
...................... them in winter. 11. It takes me two hours to get to my
country house, but it ...................... me so long to get to my work.
12. He knows all about computers, but he ...................... anything
about real life. 13. She likes the book, but she ...................... the film.
14. I like dogs, but I ...................... cats. 15. She loves him, but she
...................... his friends. 16. He has a car, but he ...................... a garage.
17. She’s got a dishwasher, but she ...................... a breadmaker.
18. Teenagers like mostly pop music, but they ...................... classical
music. 19. He wears caps, but he ...................... hats. 20. Most people
like summer, but they ...................... winter.
78
Простое настоящее время
14.5. Дополните слова фразами из правой колонки.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
An artist
Doctors
A tailor
Microchips
Dictionaries
A businessman
A Xerox
Information
a.
b.
ñ
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
Programmers
A baker
A writer
Cash dispensers
A babysitter
A showman
Mobile phones
i.
j.
k.
l.
m.
n.
o.
are used to make computers.
explain the meanings of words.
makes photocopies.
rules the world.
write computer programmes.
makes and sells bread.
writes stories and novels.
give customers money from
their banks.
looks after little children.
arranges shows.
contact us with many people.
does business.
paints pictures.
makes men’s clothes.
treat people.
14.6. А. Употребите правильную форму глаголов в скобках.
Robert is a very ordinary boy. He (live) with his mother and
father in a perfectly ordinary house in an ordinary street which
(be) opposite the park. Every morning his father (put) on his
hat, (pick) up his umbrella from the hall, and (go) off to work.
His mother (put) on an apron, (get) out the vacuum cleaner and
(do) the housework. And Robert (put) on his suit, (pick) up his
lunchbox and (go) off to school.
In the afternoon when he (get) home, his mother (open) the
door and (say): “Hullo, dear. Did you have a nice day?” Then
they (have) tea and sometimes (go) shopping together and later,
when his father (come) back from work, they all (have) supper
and (talk) a bit, and then Robert (go) to bed. Robert (like) his
life exactly the way it (be).
But one day when he returns home from school, his father
(open) the door and (say): “You (be) home early today, Robert.”
“I (be) always on time, Dad,” (say) Robert. “You (be) the one
that (be) early.”
79
UNIT 14
“Today (be) a very important day,” (explain) his father. “It’s
day one. Our life (be) very boring. From today things (be)
going to be different. I have an idea. It (be) an absolutely
original idea. We (be) going to move out of our house and (live)
in a treehouse in the park close to nature.” “But there (be)
not a treehouse in the park,” (cry) Robert. “So we shall build
one,” (answer) George. Robert (feel) very, very unhappy, as he
not (want) to leave his comfortable house, his Lego, his model
planes, some books and his Action Man. But his parents (be)
happy with the new prospect and (not want) to listen to their
son who (think) that his Dad and Mom (be) just two crazy
people.
В. Опишите обычный день своей мамы (папы, друга, подруги).
14.7. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Òàðàñ — ïðîãðàììèñò. Îí ïèøåò êîìïüþòåðíûå ïðîãðàììû. 2. — Òâîé áðàò ìíîãî ðàáîòàåò? — Äà, ó íåãî áîëüøàÿ
ñåìüÿ. 3. — ß íå îïîçäàë, íå òàê ëè? — Íåò, âû âñåãäà ïðèõîäèòå âîâðåìÿ. 4. Íà ñåâåðå Àíãëèè ÷àñòî èä¸ò ñíåã. 5. Ìîé àâòîáóñ îáû÷íî îòïðàâëÿåòñÿ â 9 ÷àñîâ óòðà. 6. Îí äåëàåò ìíîãî
îøèáîê, ïîòîìó ÷òî íå ëþáèò äóìàòü. 7. Ñòóäåíòû ñäàþò ýêçàìåíû äâà ðàçà â ãîäó. 8. Ìîÿ ìàìà ëþáèò ôðóêòû è îâîùè,
íî îíà íå âåãåòàðèàíêà. 9. ß ñîñòàâëÿþ ýëåêòðîííûå ïèñüìà, à
Àëåêñàíäð îòïðàâëÿåò èõ. 10. — Êàêîãî ðîäà ôèëüìû âû ëþáèòå ñìîòðåòü? — Ìíå íðàâÿòñÿ õîðîøèå ôèëüìû. 11. — Òû
ëãóí! — Íåò, ÿ ÷åñòíûé ÷åëîâåê, ÿ âñåãäà ãîâîðþ ïðàâäó.
12. Ïîñìîòðè íà íåáî. Ïîõîæå, áóäåò äîæäü. 13. Òû âåäü âñåãäà îáåäàåøü äîìà, íå ïðàâäà ëè? 14. Ìàìà Ìàêñèìà ìíîãî
ðàáîòàåò, ïîýòîìó îí ñàì óáèðàåò ñâîþ êîìíàòó. 15. Åãî áèçíåñ ïðèíîñèò åìó áîëüøèå äåíüãè è ìàññó ïðîáëåì. 16. Ñîëíöå âñòà¸ò íà âîñòîêå, à ñàäèòñÿ íà çàïàäå. 17. Ìîé îïòèìèçì
ïîìîãàåò ìíå â æèçíè. 18. — Ñêîëüêî âàì îáû÷íî òðåáóåòñÿ
âðåìåíè, ÷òîáû ïðèãîòîâèòü êîôå? — Ýòî çàíèìàåò ó ìåíÿ
5 ìèíóò. 19. Íàøà ó÷èòåëüíèöà çàäà¸ò íàì ñëèøêîì ìíîãî
äîìàøíèõ çàäàíèé. 20. — ×åì âû çàíèìàåòåñü? — ß ó÷èòåëü,
ó÷ó äåòåé.
80
Простое настоящее время
14.8. Поставьте вопросы к выделенным словам.
1. Íå knows everything about computers. 2. I usually get up
at seven o’clock. 3. She lives in the centre of Moscow. 4. Children like fast food. 5. Igor wants to become a showman. 6. Many
people play tennis. 7. He drives an expensive car. 8. I have a
cold shower every morning. 9. Most people get to their work by
metro. 10. They work in a bank. 11. They work hard. 12. I often
have fish for dinner. 13. My father drives a car. 14. She sings
well. 15. I do it to help her. 16. It takes us an hour to write a
test. 17. He wants a good job. 18. She speaks English fluently.
14.9. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Íèêòî íå çíàåò, ÷åì îí çàíèìàåòñÿ. 2. Îí ëþáèò å¸, íî îíà
åìó íå âåðèò. 3. Äåâî÷êè îáû÷íî íå ëþáÿò ìàòåìàòèêó. 4. Ìîé
äðóã ìíîãî êóðèò è íå õî÷åò áðîñèòü êóðåíèå (give up smoking). 5. Îíà îáû÷íî ïàðêóåò ìàøèíó âî äâîðå. 6. — Ñêîëüêî
ñòîèò ýòîò öâåòîê? — Îí ñòîèò ñòî ðóáëåé. 7. Ýòè äåòè äåëàþò çàìå÷àòåëüíûå èãðóøêè. 8. — Âû îòêóäà? — Ìû èç Èñïàíèè. 9. — ×åì òû çàðàáàòûâàåøü íà æèçíü? — Ðàáîòàþ â
êíèæíîì ìàãàçèíå. 10. —  êàêîå âðåìÿ îáû÷íî ïðèõîäèò ïî÷òà? — Îíà ïðèõîäèò â 7 ÷àñîâ óòðà. 11. — Ïî÷åìó îíà âñåãäà ïîçäíî ïðèõîäèò äîìîé? — Îíà ïîñåùàåò êëóáû è çàòåì
ñïèò äî îáåäà. — À ÷òî îá ýòîì äóìàþò å¸ ðîäèòåëè? 12. Îí
íèêîãäà íå æàëóåòñÿ. Îí ãîâîðèò, ÷òî êîãäà îí æàëóåòñÿ, òî
íèêòî åãî íå ñëóøàåò. 13. — ×òî òû äóìàåøü î íàøåì íîâîì
äèðåêòîðå? Îí òåáå íðàâèòñÿ? — Íå çíàþ, òðóäíî ñêàçàòü.
14. — Íàñêîëüêî õîðîøî âû çíàåòå ýòè ìåñòà? — Ìû çíàåì
èõ íå î÷åíü õîðîøî. 15. Ìóæ÷èíû îáû÷íî ëþáÿò ÷èòàòü ãàçåòû, íî ìîé îòåö íå ëþáèò. 16. Íàø ïîåçä óõîäèò â ïÿòü ÷àñîâ
äíÿ. 17. Ñåðèàë íà÷èíàåòñÿ â 5 ÷àñîâ. Ìîÿ áàáóøêà ñìîòðèò
åãî ñ áîëüøèì èíòåðåñîì. 18. Êàê òîëüêî îíà âõîäèò â êâàðòèðó, îíà âêëþ÷àåò òåëåâèçîð. Îíà ãîâîðèò, ÷òî íå ìîæåò æèòü
áåç íåãî, òàê êàê îí äåëàåò å¸ ñ÷àñòëèâîé. 19. Êîíå÷íî, ó ìåíÿ
åñòü ñåêðåòû. Ó êàæäîãî åñòü íåñêîëüêî ñåêðåòîâ. 20. Äåíèñ
âñåãäà ðàññêàçûâàåò ìíå íîâîñòè, è ÿ ëþáëþ ñëóøàòü èõ.
Unit
U
n it 1
nit
15
5
Ïîâåëèòåëüíûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ
Imperative sentences
Повелительные предложения выражают приказания, предупреждения,
просьбы и пожелания. Они образуются при помощи инфинитива (неопределённой формы глагола) без частицы to. Подлежащее you подразумевается, но не употребляется.
Be happy! Take it easy! Smile!
Say “cheese”! Relax! Stay cool!
Freeze! Dismiss! Look at the slides!
Enter the PIN code.
Вспомогательный глагол do используется в отрицательных повелительных
предложениях для выражения запрещения.
82
Утвердительные предложения
Отрицательные предложения
Sit down! Stand up!
Open your mouth!
Close your eyes!
Buy expensive things!
Do it again!
Don’t sit down! Don’t stand up!
Don’t open your mouth!
Don’t close your eyes!
Don’t buy expensive things!
Never ever do it again!
Never say “never”!
Повелительные предложения
let + инфинитив (без to) используется для 1-го и 3-го лица.
Утвердительные предложения
Отрицательные предложения
Let me do it.
Let him buy it.
Let’s stay here.
Let them go to the park.
Don’t let me do it.
Don’t let him buy it.
Let’s not stay here.
Don’t let them go to the park.
Разделительные вопросы:
Stay here, will (would) you?
Help me to do it, will (would) you?
Don’t be late, will you?
Don’t answer back, will you?
Глагол do используется для выражения более вежливой просьбы.
Do sit down! Do believe me! Do trust me! Do help me!
Cheer up! — Выше нос!
Let me see; let me think. — Дайте мне подумать.
Mind your own business! — Занимайся своими делами! (Не вмешивайся!)
15.1. Отреагируйте на следующие ситуации.
1. Your child told you a lie.
2. Your boyfriend is always late.
3. Your boss is shouting at you.
4. They are angry with you.
5. Your brother is always using your mobile.
6. Your friend borrows money and never gives it back.
7. Your pupils don’t answer your questions.
8. Your child opened the door to strangers.
9. You invite somebody to have tea with you.
10. Your children are too noisy today.
83
UNIT 15
11. Your friend has decided to leave her husband.
12. You and your friends want to see a new show.
15.2. Прочитайте, переведите и определите, где вы можете увидеть и услышать следующие объявления.
1. Push. Pull. 2. Please Don’t Feed The Animals. 3. Fasten Seat
Belts. 4. Do Not Lean Out Of The Window. 5. Please stand on
the right. 6. Beware of the dog. 7. No Smoking. 8. Queue This
Side. 9. Slow down. 10. No Parking. 11. Do Not Walk On The
Grass. 12. Passengers Must Not Cross The Line. 13. Mind the
doors! 14. Keep Britain Tidy! 15. Choose the language. Enter the
PIN code. 16. Wait, your transaction is processed. 17. The number you have dialed is blocked. Call back later. 18. Don’t mobile
when mobile!
15.3. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. He âîëíóéòåñü! Áóäüòå ñ÷àñòëèâû! 2. Îòíîñèòåñü ê ýòîìó
ëåã÷å. 3. Íàñëàæäàéòåñü æèçíüþ. 4. Íèêîãäà íå ãîâîðè «íèêîãäà»! 5. Íå îáðàùàé âíèìàíèÿ íà òàêèå âåùè. 6. Íå ãîðÿ÷èñü! (ñîõðàíÿé ñïîêîéñòâèå). 7. Ïðîâàëèâàé! Íèêîãäà áîëüøå çäåñü íå ïîÿâëÿéñÿ. 8. Íå êëàäèòå äåíüãè â áàíê! Òðàòüòå èõ! Íî íå òðàòüòå ñëèøêîì ìíîãî! 9. Äàâàéòå áóäåì äðóçüÿìè. Äàâàéòå áóäåì (îñòàíåìñÿ) âìåñòå äî êîíöà. 10. Ïóñòü
èãðàåò ìóçûêà, äàâàéòå õîðîøî ïîâåñåëèìñÿ. 11. Ïîñåòèòå
íàø ñàéò â Èíòåðíåòå. 12. Çàíèìàéñÿ ñîáñòâåííûìè äåëàìè!
13. Íèêîãäà íå ñïîðü ñî ìíîé. Íèêîãäà íå ïðåðåêàéñÿ ñî ìíîé
(to answer back). 14. Íèêîãäà íå îòêëàäûâàé (put off till...) íà
çàâòðà òî, ÷òî ìîæíî ñäåëàòü ïîñëåçàâòðà. 15. Ïîòèøå, ïîòèøå, ñáàâü ñêîðîñòü. 16. Çàìðè! Âîëüíî! 17. Ïîçâîëüòå åìó ñäåëàòü òàê, êàê îí õî÷åò. 18. Ðàññëàáüòåñü, õîðîøî? 19. Íå îòêðûâàé äâåðü íåçíàêîìûì ëþäÿì, ëàäíî? 20. — Íå ïîëüçóéòåñü ìîáèëüíûìè òåëåôîíàìè, êîãäà âû çà ðóë¸ì. Ýòî îïàñíî. — Äà çíàþ ÿ ýòî. 21. Âûáåðèòå ÿçûê è ââåäèòå PIN-êîä.
22. Äîáðî ïîæàëîâàòü â Âåëèêîáðèòàíèþ!
Unit
U
n
nit
iitt 1
16
6
Íàñòîÿùåå ïðîäîëæåííîå
âðåìÿ
Present Progressive
(Continuous)
Утвердительная
форма
Вопросительная
форма
I
am (I’m)
He
She
It
is
We
You
They
(we’re)
we
We
are not (aren’t)
are (you’re) reading Are you reading? You reading
(they’re)
they
They
(he’s)
(she’s)
(it’s)
I’m reading a book.
He is sleeping.
They are talking.
reading Am I
Отрицательная
форма
reading Is
he
she
it
reading? I
am not (I’m not)
reading
He
reading? She
It
is not (isn’t)
reading
Are you reading
a book?
Is he sleeping?
Are they talking?
I’m not reading
a book.
He isn’t sleeping.
They aren’t talking.
85
UNIT 16
Случаи употребления
Примеры
1. Действие, происходящее
сейчас, в данный момент.
We are watching a new film now.
It is still raining outside.
They are still working.
I’m coming, wait for me.
2. Действие, происходящее
в течение определённого
периода времени в настоящем.
This team is playing very well this year.
I am studying at college now.
He is writing a new book at present.
3. Эмоционально окрашенные
действия, выражающие
раздражение, неудовольствие.
He is always losing his keys!
They are constantly talking about their
problems!
Why are you chewing all the time?
4. Заранее запланированное
действие в ближайшем будущем
(с глаголами движения: move,
come, go, leave, arrive, return, start),
to be going to («собираться чтото сделать»).
We are leaving tomorrow.
They are coming back next Sunday.
My granny is arriving next week.
We are moving to a new flat soon.
I'm going to open a website.
Обстоятельства времени:
now, right now, at present, at the moment, always, constantly, still,
soon, next.
1. Следующие глаголы не употребляются в продолженных временах, так как
выражают факты: believe, understand, realize, matter, know, contain, intend, cost, remember, own, possess, belong, prefer, deserve, depend, resemble, look like.
I believe you and you know it. He owns this wonderful house.
She possesses a good sense of humour. Now we realize how risky it was.
2. Глаголы to go on, to keep, to remain, to continue, to last не употребляются в продолженных временах, так как лексически выражают процесс.
The film lasts two hours. They kept talking.
The children continued to play. He remained silent.
86
Настоящее продолженное время
3. Глаголы stand, lie, run, flow, lead, hang не употребляются в продолженных временах с неодушевлёнными предметами, так как выражают факт, а не процесс и равняются глаголу to be.
The house stands (is) on the hill. A thick fog hung (was) in the air.
The path led to the lake. The whole city lay before us.
16.1.
Прочитайте и переведите следующие предложения. Объясните употребление настоящего продолженного времени.
A. 1. — Where are the boys? — They are playing football in
the yard. 2. Be quiet! The child is sleeping. 3. At the moment
he is making a report. 4. She is writing a new novel at present.
5. They are living in Florida now. 6. We are discussing our plans
right now. 7. I am learning to drive a car now. 8. Our football
team is playing badly this season. 9. What perfume are you
wearing today? 10. — Is it still raining? — No, it’s snowing.
A cold wind is blowing.
B. 1. We are going home in half an hour. 2. My parents are
returning from Sochi next Saturday. I’m going to meet them.
3. — When is the concert starting? — Very soon. 4. My family
is moving to the country tomorrow. 5. They are giving a party
next weekend.
C. 1. — Why are you always smiling? Are you very happy? —
Yes, I am. 2. Some kids are watching too many cartoons. 3. Brian
is playing computer games all round the clock. 4. This cat is
constantly miawing and scratching me! 5. You are spending too
much money! You should be careful with it. 6. Some people
are chewing gum nonstop. 7. He is driving his car so carelessly!
8. Why am I always forgetting people’s names? Am I getting
old? 9. You are driving me crazy (nuts)! 10. She is talking on her
mobile for hours!
16.2. Употребите правильную форму глагола в скобках.
1. Switch on the light. It (get) dark. 2. Put on a warm coat.
It (snow) outside. 3. Look out of the window. Some students
(hurry) to their first lecture. 4. It’s a fine day today. The sun
(shine), the wind not (blow). 5. We (have) dinner right now. I’ll
87
UNIT 16
call you back later. 6. I (wear) my best suit and shoes today.
I (go) to an interview. 7. He (look for) this file but he can’t find
it. 8. — What you (look) at? — I (look) at my old photographs.
9. It’s 10 o’clock but the child still (sleep). 10. I (learn) Arabic,
and I find it very interesting. 11. They are at a karaoke club now.
They (sing) there. 12. Look how many people (walk) in the park.
They (enjoy) the fresh air and exercise. 13. What group you
(teach) this year? 14. — How you (feel) today? — Thank you,
doctor. I (feel) much better. 15. — You still (look) for a job? —
Yes, I am. 16. — What you (think) about? — I (think) about
you. 17. — Why you (sit) here and (do) nothing? — I (relax).
18. — You (kid)? — No, I’m absolutely serious. 19. — How you
(get on)? — Thank you, I (do) fine.
16.3. Поставьте вопросы к выделенным словам.
1. She is talking about her new job. 2. He is sending a message
to his boss. 3. The students are preparing for the session. 4. My
parents are visiting their friends today. 5. She is complaining
about her children. 6. I’m calling my boyfriend. 7. He is shouting
at his secretary. 8. We are waiting for the bus. 9. They are talking
about their plans. 10. She is quarrelling with her friend. 11. We
are discussing the latest show. 12. He is singing about love. 13. My
friend is learning to drive a car. 14. He is serving in the Army
now. 15. My children are resting in the Crimea at present.
16.4. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Êîðîëåâñêèé äâîðåö ñòîÿë â ïàðêå. 2. Ïîëèöåéñêèé ñòîÿë
íà ïåðåêð¸ñòêå è ðåãóëèðîâàë äâèæåíèå. 3. Ðó÷åé ïðîòåêàåò ÷åðåç äåðåâíþ. 4. Ïî÷åìó ýòî íà êóõíå òå÷¸ò âîäà? Çàêðîé
êðàí, ïîæàëóéñòà. 5. Ïåðåä íàìè ëåæàëà ïðåêðàñíàÿ äîëèíà. 6. Äåòè ëåæàëè íà ïîëó è ñìîòðåëè ìóëüòèêè. 7. Äîðîãà
âåëà ê øêîëå. 8. Ñóñàíèí â¸ë ïîëÿêîâ ÷åðåç ëåñ, âñ¸ äàëüøå
è äàëüøå îò Ìîñêâû. 9. Ÿ áóäóùåå íàõîäèòñÿ â òâîèõ ðóêàõ.
10. Äâåðü ñòîÿëà îòêðûòîé. 11. Îí ñòîÿë ó îêíà, êîãäà ÿ âîøëà
â êîìíàòó. 12. Íàä Òåìçîé âèñåë ãóñòîé òóìàí. 13. Ìû âåøàëè
êàðòèíó, êîãäà îí ïðèø¸ë. 14. Ýòîò êîëîäåö ïåðåñûõàåò ëåòîì
(run dry). 15. Êóäà ýòî âû áåæèòå?
88
Настоящее продолженное время
16.5. А. Употребите правильную форму глагола в скобках.
It’s Friday evening. Denis (walk) in the centre of Moscow to the
metro station. He (meet) his friend Igor, who (go) in the same
direction.
Denis — Hallo, Igor. Where you (hurry) to?
Igor — I (go) to my uncle’s place. I (go) there once a month to
take the money which my father (send) me.
D. — Why your father not (send) it to you?
I. — He not (want) to send it by post, as my father and my
uncle’s son (work) together in the country, so my father always
(give) him some money for me.
D. — Shall we take a bus? I (see) that you (limp)1.
I. — I usually (go) by bus. But today I not (have) any money
left.
D. — Oh, usually I not (use) public transport very much. My
mother (say) that I (get) too fat, so I (try) to take more exercise.
And by the way, why you (wear) shoes that not (fit)?
I. — They (be) new. And the left one (rub) a lot, that’s why I
(limp).
D. — You can’t walk like that. Let’s take the bus. It usually
(come) at about this time.
I. — It (come) now, look. But I not (have) any money.
D. — Well, not (worry)! I can lend you some. Come on, not
(argue). The driver (wait) for us.
В. Подойдите к окну и опишите то, что происходит на улице.
16.6. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. — ×òî çäåñü ïðîèñõîäèò? Ïî÷åìó âû âñå ñìå¸òåñü? —
Àíäðåé ðàññêàçûâàåò íàì ðàçíûå èñòîðèè. 2. Ïîãîäà ñòàíîâèòñÿ âñ¸ òåïëåå, äíè ñòàíîâÿòñÿ äëèííåå, íî÷è êîðî÷å. Ïðèáëèæàåòñÿ âåñíà. 3. Âåñíîé ìû îáû÷íî ïåðåâîäèì íàøè ÷àñû
íà ÷àñ íàçàä, à îñåíüþ ìû ñòàâèì èõ íà ÷àñ âïåð¸ä. 4. Áàáóøêà âÿæåò ìíå ò¸ïëûé ñâèòåð. Îíà î÷åíü õîðîøî âÿæåò
1
to limp — õðîìàòü.
89
UNIT 16
è ïîëó÷àåò îò ýòîãî óäîâîëüñòâèå. 5. — ×òî âû, äåòè, äåëàåòå íà óëèöå? Âåäü óæå íî÷ü. — Ìû èùåì ñâîþ ñîáà÷êó.
6. Ìàìà ñìîòðèò íîâûé áðàçèëüñêèé ñåðèàë, à ÿ ÷èòàþ ñâîé
ó÷åáíèê, ÿ íå ëþáëþ ñåðèàëû. 7.  äàííîå âðåìÿ ÿ ïèøó äèïëîìíóþ ðàáîòó. ß ìíîãî ðàáîòàþ íàä íåé. 8. Ìû âñòðå÷àåìñÿ çàâòðà âå÷åðîì è èä¸ì â êàôå. 9. — Õî÷åøü ïèðîæíîå? — Íåò, ñïàñèáî, ÿ ïîïðàâëÿþñü, òàê ÷òî ñòàðàþñü õóäåòü. 10. — Âçãëÿíè! Èä¸ò ñíåã. — Ðàäèî ãîâîðèò, ÷òî â Àíãëèè ñåãîäíÿ èä¸ò äîæäü. 11. — Ïîðà èäòè ñïàòü, à òû âñ¸
åù¸ ñèäèøü çà êîìïüþòåðîì! — Íå âîëíóéñÿ, ÿ çàêàí÷èâàþ ýòîò ôàéë. 12. — Ãäå Ìàøà? — Îíà â ñàäó. Îíà ïîëèâàåò öâåòû. 13. — ×òî òû èùåøü çäåñü? — ß èùó ñâîþ ïåð÷àòêó. — Âå÷íî òû èõ òåðÿåøü! Íóæíî ñðàçó ïîêóïàòü äâå
ïàðû. 14. Ìîÿ æèçíü ñòàíîâèòñÿ âñ¸ áîëåå èíòåðåñíîé. Ïðîèñõîäèò òàê ìíîãî âñåãî. 15. — Îïÿòü òû åøü ÷èïñû! Òû ÷òî,
òàê èõ ëþáèøü? — Äà, î÷åíü. 16. — ß âèæó, ÷òî âû ïîíèìàåòå ìåíÿ. — Äà, ÿ âàì âåðþ.
16.7. Прочитайте текст и расскажите, чем вы, ваши родители, друзья занимаетесь в данный момент.
LEMON TREE
I’m sitting here in the boring room
It’s just another rainy afternoon
I’m wasting my time
I got nothing to do
I’m hanging around
I’m waiting for you
But nothing ever happens and I wonder
I’m driving around in my car
I’m driving too fast
I’m driving too far
I’d like to change my point of view
I feel so lonely
I’m waiting for you
But nothing ever happens and I wonder
90
Настоящее продолженное время
I wonder how
I wonder why
Yesterday you told me ‘bout blue blue sky
And all that I can see is just a yellow lemon tree
I’m turning my head up and down
I’m turning turning turning turning turning around
And all that I can see is just another lemon tree.
16.8. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Îí âåëèêèé ïóòåøåñòâåííèê. Êàê ðàç ñåé÷àñ îí ïóòåøåñòâóåò ïî Âîñòîêó. 2. ß íå ïîíèìàþ, ÷òî òû ãîâîðèøü. Ãîâîðè ìåäëåííî, ïîæàëóéñòà. 3. Îí ñ÷èòàåò, ÷òî îíà ÷óäåñíàÿ äåâóøêà.
Îí ïîñòîÿííî äóìàåò î íåé. 4. Ìîÿ ìàìà ÷àñòî ïå÷¸ò ïèðîãè.
Ñåãîäíÿ îíà äåëàåò òîðò, ïîòîìó ÷òî âå÷åðîì ïðèåçæàþò íàøè
äðóçüÿ. 5. ß âíèìàòåëüíî âàñ ñëóøàþ. ×òî âû ïëàíèðóåòå äåëàòü? 6. — Ãäå äåòè? — Îíè â ãîñòèíîé. — Îïÿòü ñìîòðÿò
ìóëüòèêè? — Íåò, îíè èãðàþò â êàêóþ-òî èãðó. 7. Èä¸ò ñèëüíûé äîæäü, õîòÿ â äåêàáðå äîæäü íèêîãäà íå èä¸ò. 8. — Êòî
ýòè ëþäè è ÷òî îíè çäåñü äåëàþò? — Íèêòî íå çíàåò ýòîãî.
9. — Êàêàÿ ñåãîäíÿ ïîãîäà? — Ìîðîçíî, è ÿðêî ñâåòèò ñîëíöå.
10. Ïðèáëèæàåòñÿ Íîâûé ãîä. Ëþäè ãîòîâÿòñÿ ê íåìó è ïîêóïàþò ïîäàðêè. 11. Ýòîé çèìîé ÷àñòî èä¸ò ñíåã. Âîò è ñåé÷àñ
èä¸ò ñíåã. 12. — Êîãî òû æäåøü? — Æäó ïîäðóãó. Óæå 7 ÷àñîâ. Áîþñü, ÷òî îíà îïàçäûâàåò. 13. Ñåé÷àñ ÿ ñèæó çà ñòîëîì
â ñâî¸ì îôèñå. Ìîé ìåíåäæåð ðàáîòàåò íà êîìïüþòåðå. Ñåêðåòàðøà ïðîñìàòðèâàåò ýëåêòðîííóþ ïî÷òó. 14. Ìû ñëóøàåì êîíöåðò ñåé÷àñ. Ìíîãèå èçâåñòíûå ïåâöû ïðèíèìàþò â í¸ì
ó÷àñòèå. 15.  íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ îí ðàáîòàåò â êíèæíîì ìàãàçèíå. 16. Îí óëè÷íûé ìóçûêàíò1. Îí ïî¸ò â Ëîíäîíñêîì ìåòðî.
17. — Êàêóþ êíèãó òû ÷èòàåøü? — Íîâûé äåòåêòèâ. Îí î÷åíü
èíòåðåñíûé. À òû ëþáèøü äåòåêòèâíûå ðîìàíû? – Èíîãäà äà.
18. Ïî÷åìó òû âñåãäà êðèòèêóåøü ëþäåé? Ýòî ïëîõî. 19. Íå
ìîãó ïîâåðèòü, ÷òî â äàííûé ìîìåíò ìû èäåì ïî óëèöàì Ëîíäîíà è íàñëàæäàåìñÿ âñåìè çíàìåíèòûìè ìåñòàìè. 20. Îí ïîäóìûâàåò î òîì, ÷òîáû êóïèòü íîâóþ ìàøèíó, è ïîýòîìó ðàáîòàåò ñ óòðà äî íî÷è, ÷òîáû çàðàáîòàòü äåíüãè.
1
à busker ['bʌskǝ] — óëè÷íûé ìóçûêàíò.
Unit
U
n
nit
it 1
17
7
Ïîâòîðåíèå
Revision
17.1. Ответьте на следующие вопросы.
1. Does the sun rise in the east or in the west? 2. Do many
people know English? 3. Is our climate getting warmer or colder?
4. Do dogs or cats help people to find drugs and bombs? 5. Who
writes articles for newspapers and magazines? 6. Do bees make
honey or jam? 7. Who sells bread? 8. Who treats animals? 9. Do
engineers or programmers write computer programs? 10. Who
serves food in a restaurant? 11. Is life getting easier or more
difficult? 12. Who directs the traffic? 13. Does water boil at
100° or 150° Centigrade? 14. Are we getting younger or older?
15. Are the prices going up or down?
17.2. Дополните следующие предложения фразами из правой колонки.
1. An alcoholic is a person who
2. Workaholics are people who
3. A chocaholic is a person
who
4. A shopaholic is a person
who
5. A clothesaholic is a person
who
6. Milkaholics are people who
92
a. lies on the sofa, watches
TV and does nothing else.
b. guards rich and important
people.
ñ. is mad about new clothes.
d. likes to keep everything
clean.
e. have a very poor memory.
f. keeps financial books.
Повторение
7. A cleanaholic is a person
who
8. Forgetaholics are people
who
9. A bookaphobic
is a person who
10. Xenophobes are
people who
11. An accountant
is a person who
12. A bodyguard is a person
who
13. A couch [kautʃ] potato is
a person who
g. are afraid of foreigners.
h. hates reading books.
i. like milk products very
much.
j. drinks heavily.
k. loves chocolate very much
(has a sweet tooth).
l. work all round the clock.
m. is fond of shopping.
17.3. Употребите необходимый артикль.
1. Barbara is ...................... teacher. She has ...................... stressful job.
2. ...................... box is made of ...................... silver. 3. It’s ...................... very
important news. Where did you get ...................... news? 4. I’d like
...................... sandwich or ...................... toast with ...................... cup of ......................
black coffee. 5. There was ...................... accident in ...................... centre
of ...................... city ...................... week ago. 6. ...................... butter is made
from ...................... milk. 7. If ...................... figures are correct, you’ll have
...................... chance to win ...................... car in ...................... lottery. 8. They
have two children, ...................... boy and ...................... girl. ...................... boy
is seven years old and ...................... girl is three. 9. Close ......................
door, please. I may catch ...................... cold. 10. ...................... new cars are
very expensive. I bought ...................... old one. 11. There are ......................
apples and ...................... oranges on ...................... kitchen table. There is
also ...................... vase with ...................... flowers on it. 12. — Have you
bought ...................... present for ...................... coming holiday? — Yes,
I did it ...................... week ago. And I’ve got ...................... surprise for
you too. 13. ...................... vegetarian is ...................... person who doesn’t
eat ...................... meat. 14. What ...................... miserable weather it is
today! I hate ...................... such ......................... weather. 15. — Where are
...................... keys to the car? — I saw them ...................... minute ago on
...................... desk. 16. — ...................... computer is out of order and I’ve
lost ...................... mouse again! — It was on ...................... mat, wasn’t it?
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UNIT 17
17. — What’s ...................... matter with you? — I’ve got ......................
headache. — You should go for ...................... walk in ...................... park.
And take ...................... dog out for ...................... run, will you?
17.4. Употребите правильную форму глагола в скобках.
1. — My brother (build) a house in the country. — He (be) a
builder? — No, he just (like) to do something with his hands.
And then he not (do) it alone. Two or three people (help)
him. 2. — What you (do) this Saturday? You (be) free? —
Unfortunately, I (work) this Saturday, though I usually not
(work) on this day. And you? What you (do) this weekend? —
Fortunately, I not (work), I (rest). 3. — You (be) serious or you
(kid)? — I (try) to tell you that you (behave) like a fool. 4. —
Exams (come) soon and we (work) like maniacs. — But usually
you not (work) so hard, as far as I know. 5. — What you (look)
for in . this site? — Our teacher (say) that there (be) everything
you need in the Internet. And I (write) my graduation project
at present. I (be going) to use as much material as possible in
it. 6. — Your English (get) better or worse? — I (think) that
it (improve). And I even (think) of studying it with a native
speaker. — Yes, I (see) that you seriously (think) about your
future career.
17.5. Употребите правильную форму глагола в скобках.
1. It’s Monday morning and my students (drive) me nuts1.
I (stand) in the room in the International Language School in
London. The motto of this school (be) “English in Two Years
Without Any Tears”. My students are mostly from East Asia —
Japan, China, Hong Kong. Now I (watch) them closely. Zeng
(sleep) at the back of the class. Imran (stare) at the text message
on his mobile phone. Astrid and Vanessa (chatter). Witold (cry)
and Yumi (try) to comfort him. Only Gen (look) at me. He (wait)
for something to happen. Suddenly Zeng (start) snoring. I clear
my throat. “Right, who’s got that homework for me?” I ask
them. But I can see that they (be) not ready with it. Usually I
1
94
to drive somebody nuts — ñâîäèòü êîãî-òî ñ óìà.
Повторение
not (be) angry with them, but today it all (make) me wonder
what I (do) here. And also what they (do) here. “Witold, why you
(cry)? What (be) wrong with you?” Yumi (explain), “He (miss)
his family.” I look at them all seriously. “I (be) your teacher and
you (be) my students. You should respect me. That (mean) no
talks in class. It (mean) you come here to study English, but not
to waste your time. You (understand) me?”
17.6. Выберите правильный вариант.
1. His teeth ...................... Colgate white
a. is
b. are
ñ. looks
2. The police ...................... now hunting the driver of the car.
a. are
b. is
ñ. was
3. It was ...................... joyful news.
a. —
b. the
ñ. à
4. You never have lunch at home, ...................... you?
a. don’t
b. do
ñ. have
5. ...................... is little information in this file.
a. there
b. it
ñ. this
6. Let’s talk about it, ...................... we?
a. will
b. do
ñ. shall
7. They are such ...................... nice people.
a. a
b. —
ñ. the
8. What ...................... nasty weather!
a. —
b. the
ñ. à
9. Where ...................... your clothes usually made?
a. is
b. was
c. are
10. This money isn’t ...................... .
a. mine
b. my
ñ. her
11. What’s ...................... score?
a. a
b. —
ñ. the
12. I am late, ...................... I?
a. am
b. aren’t
ñ. don’t
13. Who ...................... that man? — We do.
a. knows
b. know
ñ. is knowing
14. The child is hungry. It ...................... loudly.
a. cries
b. cry
ñ. is crying
95
UNIT 17
15. There wasn’t ...................... on the street.
a. anybody
b. some people ñ. nobody
16. No news ...................... good news.
a. is
b. are
ñ. were
17. Your advice ...................... me a lot, thank you.
a. help
b. helps
ñ. are helping
17.7. Употребите правильную форму глагола в скобках.
My mum is a dinner lady at a local school. It’s not the Princess
Diana Comprehensive School where I (teach) now. Her school
is very tough. “The girls are as bad as the boys these days,”
my mum often (complain). “Worse.” But she (refuse) to give
up what she (call) “my little job” even when my father began
to get serious money for his book. My mum (love) her school.
She really (do). She (like) to have a laugh with the women she
(work) with in the kitchen. She (like) getting out of the house
and driving to the school. But what my mum (like) best about
her job are the children. I say children, although of course
many of them are big bad boys and girls. That’s how I (see)
them. My mum (think) that there’s no such thing as a bad child.
“My kids,” she (call) the children whom she (feed), even though
she has seen the worst of them. She not (let) her kids shout
when they (queue) for their burgers and chips. She not (allow)
bad language in the school canteen. She not even (let) them
(fight) with each other. People say that once my mother even
put down her laddle with which she gave them porridge, went
to the playground and stopped a fight. I (tell) her over and over
again that she may get seriously hurt. She not (listen) to me.
Tough, and very stubborn my mum is!
17.8. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. — Êàêîé ñþðïðèç! Êàêàÿ ïðèÿòíàÿ íîâîñòü. — Äà, íîâîñòü
÷óäåñíàÿ. 2. Ïîëèöèÿ çäåñü. Ïîëèöåéñêèå îñìàòðèâàþò äîì.
3.  ýòîé êíèãå ìíîãî ïîëåçíûõ ñîâåòîâ. Îíè ìîãóò ïîìî÷ü
âàì. 4. Ýòî òàêàÿ òðóäíàÿ ðàáîòà! Íèêòî íå çíàåò, êàê å¸ âûïîëíèòü. 5. Ó ñòàðîãî Ìàêäîíàëäà åñòü ìàëåíüêàÿ ôåðìà. Íà
íåé îí äåðæèò äåñÿòü îâåö, âîñåìü ãóñåé, êîðîâó, êîçó è äâóõ
96
Повторение
ñâèíåé. 6. Ðûáêè ãîëîäíûå. Äàâàé ïîêîðìèì èõ. 7. Êàêàÿ ñîëíå÷íàÿ ñåãîäíÿ ïîãîäà! Óæå âåñíà. 8. — Ó òåáÿ åñòü ñ ñîáîé äåíüãè? — Íåò, ÿ ïîëîæèë èõ â áàíê. 9.  ìî¸ì àêâàðèóìå1 âñåãî ÷åòûðå ðûáêè. ß ñîáèðàþñü êóïèòü åù¸ òðè ðûáêè.
10. — Ôðóêòû î÷åíü ïîëåçíû.  íèõ ìíîãî âèòàìèíîâ. — Äà,
íî îíè î÷åíü äîðîãèå. 11. — Êàêèå ïîñëåäíèå íîâîñòè? — Ñåãîäíÿ âîñêðåñåíüå, òàê ÷òî íîâîñòåé íåò. — Íó ÷òî æå, îòñóòñòâèå íîâîñòåé ýòî óæå õîðîøàÿ íîâîñòü. 12. — Ãäå òâîÿ
îäåæäà? — Îíà â øêàôó. 13. Ñâåäåíèÿ î÷åíü âàæíûå. Ìû
êàê ðàç ïðîñìàòðèâàåì èõ ñåé÷àñ. 14. Ìîÿ êîøêà î÷åíü ëþáèò ðûáó. Êàæäûé äåíü îíà ñúåäàåò ïî òðè ðûáêè, íî î÷åíü
ìàëåíüêèå. 15. Ýòè íîâîñòè ìåíÿ íå èíòåðåñóþò. ß óæå çíàþ
èõ. 16. — Ãäå äåíüãè? Íèãäå íå ìîãó íàéòè èõ. — ß èõ ïîòðàòèë, íî ÿ èõ òåáå ñêîðî âåðíó. 17. Ýòî áîëüøîå îçåðî. Â
í¸ì ìíîãî ðûáû. 18. Íà íàøèõ ðûíêàõ ñåé÷àñ ìíîãî ðàçíîé
ðûáû. 19. — Ïî÷åìó òâîè âîëîñû ìîêðûå? — Îíè íå ìîêðûå.
Îíè áëåñòÿò, ïîòîìó ÷òî ìîé øàìïóíü î÷åíü õîðîøèé. 20. Èçâèíè, íî ó òåáÿ âîëîñ íà ïèäæàêå. Ïîçâîëü ìíå ñìàõíóòü åãî
(to brush off).
17.9. Употребите правильную форму глагола в скобках.
It’s six o’clock in the morning. Everybody still (sleep). Alice
(yawn2) as she (go) down the stairs. The two dogs (jump) all over
her and (run) to the front door, wagging their tails furiously.
She (pull) her coat over her pyjamas, (slip) her feet into her
boots and (put) on her hat. She then (clip) the leads on the dogs
and (go) outside. It (be) a beautiful morning. The frost (glitter)
on the grass. Alice (push) open the gate and (lead) the dogs into
the field. She (bend) down and (unclip) their leads. They (race)
round in circles. Their tongues (hang) out of their mouths with
joy. She (love) being in the open air. She (cross) her arms to
keep the cold, and (follow) the dogs. Twenty minutes later she
(be) about to die of the cold weather. She (call) the dogs, (clip)
the leads back on and (lead) them back into the house. She
(want) to warm up and have some hot coffee.
1
2
a fish-tank — àêâàðèóì.
to yawn — çåâàòü.
97
UNIT 17
17.10. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Ïî÷åìó òû íå ñëóøàåøü ìåíÿ? Î ÷¸ì òû äóìàåøü? 2. — ×òî
òû äóìàåøü î í¸ì? — Îí âñåì íðàâèòñÿ, õîòÿ ìû íå î÷åíüòî õîðîøî çíàåì åãî. 3. — ×òî òû ñåé÷àñ ÷èòàåøü? — Íè÷åãî íå ÷èòàþ, ãîòîâëþñü ê êîíòðîëüíûì ðàáîòàì. Âïåðåäè
ñåññèÿ. 4. — Î ÷¸ì âû ãîâîðèòå? — Ìû îáñóæäàåì ïîñëåäíèå
íîâîñòè. — È êàêîâû æå ïîñëåäíèå íîâîñòè? — Îíè ïðîñòî
ôàíòàñòè÷íû. Çàâòðà ìû ëåòèì â Ëîíäîí è äà¸ì òàì òðè êîíöåðòà. 5. Ýòî î÷åíü õîðîøàÿ êóêëà. Îíà õîäèò, ïëà÷åò, ñìå¸òñÿ, îòêðûâàåò è çàêðûâàåò ãëàçà. Êàê ðàç ñåé÷àñ îíà ãîâîðèò
«Ìà-ìà». 6. ×àéíèê êèïèò, òîñò ãîðèò, äåòè ïëà÷óò, à òû âñ¸
åù¸ ñïèøü! 7. — Òû âñ¸ åù¸ ñåðäèøüñÿ íà ìåíÿ? — Íåò, íå
ñåðæóñü. ß ïûòàþñü íàó÷èòü òåáÿ õîðîøèì ìàíåðàì. 8. — ×òî
ýòî òû ãîòîâèøü? Òû ðûáó æàðèøü? — Òàê, ìîé ðóêè è ñàäèñü çà ñòîë. Ïîðà óæèíàòü. 9. Òàíÿ íå èä¸ò ñåãîäíÿ ñ íàìè â
êèíî. Îíà ñèäèò ñ ðåá¸íêîì (to babysit). Îíà çàðàáàòûâàåò íåìíîãî äåíåã òàêèì îáðàçîì. Ñîñåäè ÷àñòî ïðîñÿò å¸ ïîñèäåòü ñ
èõ äåòüìè. 10. Àíãëèéñêèé ÿçûê ïîñòîÿííî ìåíÿåòñÿ. Ïîÿâëÿþòñÿ íîâûå ñëîâà, ñòàðûå ñëîâà óõîäÿò èç ÿçûêà.
17.11. Употребите правильную форму глагола в скобках.
At 5.30 in the morning the radio screams and Monica (open)
her eyes and (throw) the covers off. She (put) on a T-shirt,
trackpants and sneakers, (pick) up her gym bag and (hurry)
to her club. Her daily routine seldom (change). She (go) to her
locker, (hang) her clothes, and (do) her stretches. She (know)
some people in the club, but she not (like) to chat with them.
She (take) her exercise very seriously. She (have) breakfast on
the way to work. It (be) always the same thing every day: a
cup of coffee and a dry roll. She not (have) time to sit and enjoy
it. She (try) to visit her gym five times a week and when she
(be) home early and (have) nothing to do, she (go) to the gym
a second time in the evening. And of course there is work. The
more she (work), the better she (feel), the less she (think) about
her personal life.
Unit
U
n it 1
nit
18
8
Ïðîñòîå ïðîøåäøåå âðåìÿ
Past Simple
Утвердительная
форма
Ед. ч.
I
He
She
It
was
Мн. ч.
We
You
They
were
Примеры
употребления
He was right.
You were on
time.
Утвердительная
форма
We
They
He
She
It
enjoyed
had
did
went
rained
Вопросительная
форма
Was
I ...?
he ...?
she ...?
it ...?
I
He
She
It
was not
(wasn’t)
Were
we ...?
you ...?
they ...?
We
You
They
were not
(weren’t)
Was he right?
Were you on
time?
He was not (wasn’t)
right.
You were not
(weren’t) on time.
Вопросительная
форма
Did
you
they
he
she
it
Отрицательная
форма
enjoy?
have?
do?
go?
rain?
Отрицательная
форма
We
They
He
She
It
did not
(didn’t)
enjoy
have
do
go
rain
99
UNIT 18
Случаи употребления
1. Действия, события, факты
в прошлом, не связанные
с настоящим моментом.
He left yesterday.
We met last year.
I saw the film long ago.
It snowed last night.
2. Последовательность действий
при описании событий в прошлом;
обычные, повторяющиеся действия
в прошлом.
I came home, opened the door and
switched on the TV-set.
He called us every week.
3. Действие, которое длилось
некоторое время и было закончено
в прошлом. Важен факт, но не
процесс.
Yesterday I walked in the park for two
hours.
He studied hard for six years to become
a doctor.
How long did you live in London?
Сравните:
I was walking in the park at two o’clock
yesterday.
He was studying from six till ten
(all day long) yesterday.
Обстоятельства времени:
ago, last week (month, year), the other day (на днях), yesterday, the day before
yesterday, in those times.
used to/would употребляются для выражения регулярных действий и состояний в прошлом, которые больше не существуют.
Сравните в русском языке «бывало, имел обыкновение что-то делать».
We used to walk to school, but now we go by metro.
(Did you use to...?)
When I was little, my mother would tell me a bedtime story.
(Would your mother tell...?)
100
Простое прошедшее время
18.1. Поставьте следующие предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную формы.
1. I was born in April. 2. We were at the theatre on Sunday.
3. He was a Hollywood star. 4. I was late for the bus. 5. You
were angry at my words. 6. She was a great actress. 7. I was
happy. 8. He was very busy last week. 9. I was very poor at that
time. 10. They were good students. 11. I was on duty on that
day. 12. We were on holiday in August. 13. I was eager to make
a career. 14. She was in great shock. 15. I was in love with that
girl. 16. He used to be my best friend at school. 17. This building
used to be a factory.
18.2. Поставьте следующие предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную формы.
1. Miss Honey taught me to read and to write. 2. We went to
a karaoke club on Saturday. 3. We sang a lot of songs. 4. They
had great fun at the party. 5. He did his work very well. 6. She
heard some noise behind the door. 7. I read this book in my
childhood. 8. It started raining in the morning. 9. We had dinner
at Maxim’s. 10. It snowed a lot last winter. 11. The children
ran to the river. 12. Martin wrote a program for the computer.
13. Susan said goodbye and left the room. 14. That dictionary
cost me a fortune. 15. I saw it with my own eyes. 16. My
mother used to end her story on a happy note. 17. He used to
work very long hours. 18. The old man would come to us every
Sunday and we would talk and talk and talk. 19. When I was
a kid, I used to love table tennis. 20. She used to love going to
parties.
18.3. Поставьте вопросы к выделенным словам.
1. The incident happened the other day. 2. They were at the
disco last night. 3. Columbus discovered America in 1492. 4. He
sent us a fax two hours ago. 5. Yesterday I prepared for the test
for three hours. 6. She made a lot of mistakes in the dictation.
7. Last week she flew to Japan. 8. My Granny told me a lot of
interesting stories from her life. 9. Mike bought a new com101
UNIT 18
puter. 10. He did his job professionally. 11. They came five days
ago. 12. It took us a lot of time to find them. 13. I was born in
Moscow. 14. She said that she was sorry. 15. The weather was
windy last week.
18.4.
Употребите правильную форму глагола в скобках и перескажите
шутку.
NO MONEY
A man came into the bar, (sit) down, (call) the barman and
(say) to him, “Give me a drink before the trouble (start).” The
barman (be) busy with other people, so he not (say) anything,
but (give) the man a whisky, and the man (drink) it quickly.
Then he (put) his glass down, and (cry) to the barman again,
“Give me another one before you (have) problems.” The barman
(have) no time to say anything, so he (bring) the man his drink
and (go) away. The man (smile) happily, and some time later
he (tell) the barman that he (want) another drink. This time
the owner of the bar (think) that it was too much and (ask) the
man, “What trouble you (talk) about?” The man (reply) that the
trouble was that he not (have) any money.
18.5.
Употребите правильную форму глагола в скобках и перескажите
шутку.
A SMALL FISH
It was evening. A man (cross) a narrow bridge when he (see) a
fisherman on the bank of the deep river under him, so he (stop)
and (watch) him quietly. After a few minutes, the fisherman
(pull) his line out. There (be) a big, fat fish at the end of it.
The fisherman (take) it off the hook and (throw) it back into
the water. Then he (put) his hook and line into the water again.
After a few more minutes he (catch) another big fish. Again he
(let) it (go) into the river. Then the third time he (manage) to
catch another fish. It was very small. He (take) it and (begin)
to collect his things to go home. The man on the bridge (can)
102
Простое прошедшее время
not (hide) his surprise, so he (speak) to the fisherman. He (say)
“Why you (throw) those beautiful big fish back into the water,
and keep only that small one?”
The fisherman (look) up and (reply), “I (have) a small fryingpan.”
18.6. Дополните следующие предложения.
1. She was invited to the party, ...................... ? 2. Your daughter
went to this school, ...................... ? 3. You didn’t forget to call your
mother, ...................... ? 4. Mr. Grant sent us an e-mail, ...................... ?
5. You didn’t pass the interview, ...................... ? 6. They lost the
match, ...................... ? 7. He didn’t do it, ...................... ? 8. They weren’t
happy, ...................... ? 9. She had to do it, ...................... ? 10. She didn’t
tell you about it, ...................... ? 11. Your boss didn’t like your project, ...................... ? 12. The lecture began half an hour ago, ...................... ?
13. They weren’t friends, ...................... ? 14. He was a good teacher,
...................... ? 15. That wasn’t your fault, ...................... ? 16. He used to
smoke a lot, ...................... ? 17. It used to be a club, .............................. ?
18.7.
Употребите правильную форму глагола в скобках и перескажите
шутку.
LAZY TIM
It was summer. Two friends (camp) together on the bank of a
river. Their names (be) Jim and Tim. Tim (be) a very lazy boy.
On the first evening of their holiday, Jim (say) to Tim, “Here
(be) some money. Go and buy some meat.” “I (be) too tired,”
(answer) Tim. “You go.” So Jim (go) and (buy) the meat.
When he (come) back, he (tell) Tim that he (must) (cook) it. But
Tim (explain), “No, I (be) not good at cooking. You must (do)
it.” So Jim (fry) the meat. Then Jim (cut) the bread as Tom
not (want) to do it. After that he (offer) his friend (bring) some
water. This time Tim (reply), “My clothes (be) clean, I not (be
going) to do it.” So Jim (bring) the water. At last the meat (be)
ready and Jim (invite) Tim to eat it. “Well, I can (do) that,”
(agree) Tim. “I not (like) to say “no” all the time.”
103
UNIT 18
18.8. Употребите правильную форму глагола в скобках.
A VISIT TO ST. PETERSBURG
Last weekend we (travel) to St. Petersburg. We (get) on a fast
train at 3 o’clock. On the train my friend and I (talk) a little, (read) some magazines and then (sleep) for about an hour.
The train (stop) only twice. It (take) us five hours to get to the
North capital. At about nine o’clock we (come) to our hotel. The
next day we (go) on a bus excursion about the city. Fortunately,
the weather (be) fine. We (start) from the Nevsky Prospect and
(drive) along it to the Neva. Our guide (know) a lot of interesting facts, stories and jokes which she (tell) us with great pleasure. The driver (stop) the bus from time to time, and we (go)
out to admire the wonderful churches, palaces, museums and
the famous bridges. We (learn) a lot of interesting things about
the city and its people. The bus (bring) us back to the Nevsky
Prospect at about four o’clock in the afternoon. It (be) time for
dinner. We (be) hungry and thirsty. We (enter) one of the many
cafes, (find) a table and (sit) down. We (choose) from the menu
what we (want). The dinner not (cost) us much. It was in fact
twice as cheap as in Moscow. There (be) a lot of people around
us. They (talk), (laugh), (drink) coffee. They (speak) different
languages: English, Italian, German, Finnish. After dinner we
(do) some shopping. We (buy) a few souvenirs and (go) to the
hotel. We (be) tired but very happy.
18.9. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. — Ãäå è êîãäà âû ðîäèëèñü? — ß ðîäèëñÿ äâàäöàòü ëåò íàçàä â Ìîñêâå. 2. — Ãäå è êîãäà ýòî ñëó÷èëîñü? — Ýòî ïðîèçîøëî ãîä íàçàä â Àëüïàõ. 3. — Ó íåãî íîâàÿ ìàøèíà. Êîãäà
îí å¸ êóïèë è ñêîëüêî îíà ñòîèò? — ß íå ñïðàøèâàë åãî îá
ýòîì. 4. Ìû ïëûëè âíèç ïî Âîëãå. Áûëà ÷óäåñíàÿ ïîãîäà. 5. —
Êîãäà òû áûëà â òåàòðå â ïîñëåäíèé ðàç? — ß áûëà òàì ìåñÿö íàçàä. 6. — ×òî ïðîèçîøëî â÷åðà? Ïî÷åìó âû íå ïðèøëè? — Èçâèíèòå, ìû áûëè î÷åíü çàíÿòû. Ìû âàì çâîíèëè, íî
ëèíèÿ áûëà çàíÿòà. 7. — Ãäå òû áûë â÷åðà âå÷åðîì? ß çâîíèë òåáå. — ß ãóëÿë ñ ñîáàêîé. 8. Ìîé êîìïüþòåð áûë íå â ïî104
Простое прошедшее время
ðÿäêå, è ÿ íå ñìîã íàáðàòü òåêñò. 9. Ïîåçä ïðèáûë âîâðåìÿ,
è ìû íå îïîçäàëè íà êîíöåðò. 10. — ×òî çàñòàâèëî òåáÿ ñêàçàòü ýòî? — ß ïðîñòî íå ìîã ñêàçàòü íåïðàâäó. 11. Îí ïðîæèë
â Ìîñêâå äåñÿòü ëåò, à çàòåì ïåðååõàë çà ãîðîä. 12. Ìîÿ ñåñòðà äåñÿòü ëåò ó÷èëàñü â øêîëå, çàòåì ïÿòü ëåò â óíèâåðñèòåòå. Ñåé÷àñ îíà ðàáîòàåò þðèñòîì. 13. — Ñêîëüêî âðåìåíè òåáå ïîòðåáîâàëîñü, ÷òîáû íàéòè ýòè ñâåäåíèÿ? — Ìíå ïîíàäîáèëîñü íåñêîëüêî ÷àñîâ. 14. — Ñêîëüêî ðàç îíà ïûòàëàñü
ïîñòóïèòü â òåàòðàëüíûé èíñòèòóò? — Òðè ðàçà, ñåé÷àñ îíà
èçâåñòíàÿ àêòðèñà. 15. — ×òî òåáå ïîìîãëî âûáðàòüñÿ èç ýòîé
ñèòóàöèè? — Ìíå ïðîñòî ïîâåçëî. 16. — ×òî òû ñäåëàëà, ÷òîáû ïîìî÷ü èì? — ß ñäåëàëà âñ¸, ÷òî ìîãëà. 17. — Êòî ñêàçàë
ýòî? — ß ñêàçàë. 18. — Ïðîñòèòå, ÷òî âû ñêàçàëè? ß âàñ íå
ðàññëûøàë.
18.10. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. — Êòî áûëè ýòè ëþäè? ×òî îíè õîòåëè? — Îíè õîòåëè óâèäåòü òåáÿ, íî òåáÿ íå áûëî. 2. — Êòî íàïèñàë ýòîò ðîìàí? —
Ìíå æàëü, íî ÿ íå ïîìíþ. 3. Íà äíÿõ ÿ ïîïàë â äîðîæíîå ïðîèñøåñòâèå, íî âñ¸ îáîøëîñü, íèêòî íå ïîñòðàäàë. 4. Îí äîëãî ãîòîâèëñÿ ê èíòåðâüþ è ïðåêðàñíî ïðîø¸ë åãî. 5. ß èìåëà
îáûêíîâåíèå áåãàòü ïî óòðàì â ïàðêå, íî â ïðîøëîì ãîäó áðîñèëà ýòî. 6. — Êàê òåáå óäàëîñü (manage) ïîëó÷èòü òàêóþ õîðîøóþ ðàáîòó? Êòî ïðåäëîæèë å¸ òåáå? — Èì ïîíðàâèëèñü
ìîè ðåêîìåíäàöèè. 7. ß, áûâàëî, ðàññêàçûâàëà åé âñå ñâîè ñåêðåòû, à îíà òàê ìåíÿ ïîäâåëà (let somebody down). 8. Êòî ïîñîâåòîâàë òåáå ýòó íÿíþ? Ãäå òû å¸ íàøëà? — Ìîè ðîäñòâåííèêè ïîðåêîìåíäîâàëè å¸ ìíå, è îíè áûëè ïðàâû, ïîòîìó ÷òî
îíà èìåííî (exactly) òî, ÷òî ìíå íóæíî. 9. ×òî ïðîèçîøëî ñ
ïðèíòåðîì â÷åðà? ß íå ìîã ñäåëàòü êîïèè. 10. —  êàêîé ðåñòîðàí âû õîäèëè íà äíÿõ? — Ýòî áûë êèòàéñêèé ðåñòîðàí â
öåíòðå ãîðîäà. — Òåáå ïîíðàâèëîñü? — Íå î÷åíü. 11. — Êàêîé îí áûë â äåòñòâå? — Î÷åíü àêòèâíûé ìàëü÷èê, è âñåãäà çàäàâàë ìàññó âîïðîñîâ. Ìû íå âñåãäà ìîãëè îòâåòèòü íà
íèõ. 12. — Ó òåáÿ áûëà ïðèâû÷êà íîñèòü âåùè ñòàðøåé ñåñòðû? — Äà, èíîãäà îíà ìíå ðàçðåøàëà äåëàòü ýòî, íî èíîãäà
ÿ å¸ ïðîñòî íå ñïðàøèâàëà îá ýòîì.
Unit
U
n
nit
it 1
19
9
Ïðîøåäøåå ïðîäîëæåííîå
âðåìÿ
Past Progressive
(Continuous)
Утвердительная
форма
I
He
She
It
We
You
They
was
Was
reading
were
reading Were
I was reading
a new magazine.
He was working
in a bank.
They were talking
about sport.
106
Вопросительная
форма
Отрицательная
форма
I
he
she
it
I
reading? He
She
It
you
we
they
We
reading? You
They
Were you reading a new
magazine?
Was he working in a
bank?
Were they talking about
sport?
was not
(wasn’t)
reading
were not
(weren’t)
reading
I wasn’t reading a new
magazine.
He wasn’t working in a bank.
They weren’t talking
about sport.
Прошедшее продолженное время
Случаи употребления
1. Действие, происходившее
в определённый момент
в прошлом.
You were still sleeping when I left.
She was having tea at five o’clock
yesterday.
2. Действие, происходившее
в определённый период
времени в прошлом.
This time last year I was resting
in the South.
She said she was writing a new
novel.
3. Эмоционально окрашенные
действия (обычно негативного
характера).
He was constantly talking about football!
They were always telling me about their
problems!
The boys were fighting all the time!
4. Два одновременных
действия в прошлом.
While I was cooking supper, Kate
was having a shower.
My father never talked while he
was driving.
Обстоятельства времени:
at the moment, at 5 o’clock, at the particular time, while..., still, constantly,
all the time.
Past Simple употребляется для выражения действий, происходивших в прошлом в течение какого-то периода времени. Past Progressive выражает
действия, происходившие в определённый момент (или период времени)
в прошлом.
I studied German for three years.
I was studying German at that period.
She lived in Paris for a long time.
She was living in Paris when they met.
107
UNIT 19
19.1. А. Употребите правильную форму глагола в скобках.
1. His mobile rang when he (drive) to the office. 2. It was the
31st of December. Everybody (prepare) for the New Year.
3. I met Nelly last weekend while I (shop) at Ikea. 4. When
she entered the flat, her children (watch) 101 Dalmatians on
video. 5. When we went out, it (snow) heavily. 6. At this time
yesterday I (celebrate) my birthday. 7. It was already noon but
the children still (sleep). 8. It was a fine spring day. The sun
(shine), a light wind (blow), happy people (walk) in the streets.
9. We had a very pleasant evening at home. The clock (tick),
the fire (burn), we (talk) and (have) tea. 10. They (rest) in Miami when a storm started. 11. When I entered, the doctor (key)
the name of the next patient into his computer. 12. At seven
o’clock she (wait) for him where they usually met. 13. Now he
(look) forward to seeing Sharon again. 14. I (read) the magazine while you (sleep). 15. At that period of time he (work) for
a big international company. 16. On the way to the bathroom I
noticed that the answerphone light (flash): Denis. He (wait) for
me at the club. 17. I looked at the guests. Everyone (shout) and
no one (listen).
В. Расскажите, как вы и ваша семья (друзья) провели последние выходные.
19.2. Употребите правильную форму глагола в скобках.
THE NEW YEAR IN LONDON
On the 31st of December at 11.30 p.m. Bianca and I went to
Trafalgar Square to see the New Year in. There (be) crowds
of people around us. Merry Santa Clauses (give) small presents
to everybody. When Big Ben (strike) twelve, I (find) that I
(kiss) some people and some strangers (kiss) me. I (try) to get
to Bianca, but she (stand) in a group of foreigners and I (can)
not (get) to her at once. But finally, at 12.03 a.m. on the first
of January, we (meet) and (kiss). In the morning we (go) to
Tower Bridge. I not (like) it very much, but Bianca (think) that
the design (be) wonderful and I practically (have to) drag her
108
Прошедшее продолженное время
away. In the evening we (take) our umbrellas as a fine rain
(fall) and (leave) the house. We (be going) for a walk in Soho.
Soho is a district in London that never (sleep). The restaurants
(be full). Happy people (eat), (drink), (laugh). They (celebrate)
the New Year. We (choose) a Japanese restaurant famous for
its food. The owner (stand) near the entrance. He (smile) nonstop to his regular customers. We (sit) at a table ready to have
a great time.
19.3. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Êîãäà ìû áûëè ñòóäåíòàìè, ìû âñåãäà ïîìîãàëè äðóã äðóãó.
2. Êîãäà ÿ çàãëÿíóë íà êóõíþ, ìîÿ ñåñòðà ïîìîãàëà ìàìå ãîòîâèòü îáåä. 3. Îí ñëóøàë ïîñëåäíèå íîâîñòè. Îíè áûëè èíòåðåñíûìè. 4. Ìû âûøëè èç ìåòðî. ظë ñèëüíûé äîæäü. 5. Áûë
ÿíâàðü. Â óíèâåðñèòåòå áûëî ìíîãî ñòóäåíòîâ. Îíè ñäàâàëè
ýêçàìåíû. 6. Ìû íå ìîãëè ïîíÿòü, ÷òî îíà ãîâîðèëà, òàê êàê
îíà ãîâîðèëà î÷åíü áûñòðî. 7. Îí âå÷íî ÷òî-òî æåâàë. Ýòî ìåíÿ
î÷åíü ðàçäðàæàëî. 8. — Òû õîäèë ê âðà÷ó? ×òî îí ñêàçàë? —
Êàê îáû÷íî, îí äàë ìíå ìíîãî ñîâåòîâ, è ìíå ïðèä¸òñÿ òåïåðü
èì ñëåäîâàòü. 9. Îíè ïðîæèëè â Ðèãå äâàäöàòü ëåò, à çàòåì
ïåðååõàëè â Ìîñêâó. 10.  âîñêðåñåíüå ìû äâà ÷àñà ãóëÿëè â
ïàðêå. Êîãäà ìû ãóëÿëè, ìû óâèäåëè íåñêîëüêèõ áåëîê. 11. —
Ñêîëüêî âðåìåíè òû ãîòîâèëñÿ ê êîíòðîëüíîé ðàáîòå â÷åðà? — ß çàíèìàëñÿ òðè ÷àñà. Òû ïîçâîíèë ìíå êàê ðàç òîãäà,
êîãäà ÿ ó÷èë ôîðìû ãëàãîëîâ. 12. — ß ïîäîæäàë òåáÿ è óø¸ë.
Ïî÷åìó òû íå ïðèåõàëà? — ß ñòîÿëà â àâòîìîáèëüíîé ïðîáêå. 13. Ìû âîøëè â êàðàîêå-êëóá. Âñå ïåëè è òàíöåâàëè. Ìû
ïðîáûëè òàì íåñêîëüêî ÷àñîâ. 14. Ôèëüì äëèëñÿ äâà ÷àñà. Âî
âðåìÿ ôèëüìà íåêîòîðûå ëþäè âõîäèëè è âûõîäèëè; êòî-òî åë
ïîïêîðí, êòî-òî ñïàë. 15. ß äåñÿòü ëåò ó÷èëñÿ â øêîëå, ïÿòü
ëåò ó÷èëñÿ â óíèâåðñèòåòå, à ñåé÷àñ ÿ ïîëó÷àþ âòîðîå âûñøåå îáðàçîâàíèå. Íàäåþñü, ÷òî ÿ ñóìåþ ýòî ñäåëàòü. 16. Ìû
ïîëó÷èëè ýòó ýñýìýñêó íà äíÿõ è ñðàçó æå îòïðàâèëè ôàêñ.
Ó Âàñ â ýòî âðåìÿ áûëè ïåðåãîâîðû. 17. Îí ïÿòü ëåò ó÷èëñÿ â
Ëîíäîíå è ïðåêðàñíî çíàåò ýòîò ãîðîä. 18. Ìîé áðàò è ÿ èìåëè
îáûêíîâåíèå ìíîãî äðàòüñÿ, íî çàòåì ìû âûðîñëè, è ñåé÷àñ
ìû áîëüøèå äðóçüÿ.
Unit
U
n
nit
iitt 2
20
0
Ìîäàëüíûå ãëàãîëû
Can, May
Формы
Can
настоящее время
Значения
Could
прошедшее время
Could
сослагательное наклонение
Примеры
1) способность
(физическая, умственная),
навыки, умения
I can run fast.
She can drive well.
He could read when he was four.
These children can use computers well.
2) просьба, разрешение
— Can I use your telephone? — Of course you
can. (No, you can’t.)
— Could you help me? — Of course I can.
(I’m afraid I can’t.)
3) объективная
возможность
We’ll be able to do it next month.
You can always have a quick snack at McDonald’s.
You can cross the street here.
4) сомнение,
Can it be true? (Неужели это правда?)
неуверенность, недоверие It can’t be true. (He может быть, что это
(сравн. в русском: неужели,
правда.)
не может быть)
5) упрёк (ты мог бы...)
110
You could be more polite. (Ты мог бы быть
повежливее.)
She could have called us. (Она могла бы
и позвонить нам, но не сделала этого.)
Модальные глаголы
1. Модальный глагол + инфинитив без to (за исключением be to, have to,
ought to).
Модальные глаголы не являются полнозначными глаголами и не могут употребляться в роли сказуемого в предложении. Модальные глаголы выражают
различные оттенки значений и являются в предложении частью составного
модального сказуемого.
2. To be able to употребляется в прошедшем, настоящем и будущем времени
в значении «быть в состоянии сделать что-либо».
Не is (was, will be) able to solve all his problems.
3. В прошедшем времени вместо глагола could часто употребляется глагол
manage (удалось...).
It was difficult but we managed to do it.
Формы
May
настоящее время
Значения
Might
прошедшее время
Might
сослагательное
наклонение
Примеры
1) объективная
возможность
One day all your dreams may come true.
We may go to China next year.
2) формальная просьба,
разрешение, пожелание
— May I leave early today? — Yes, you may.
— May I use your printer? — No, you may not
(mustn’t).
— May you be happy!
3) предположение
It may be true, but we are not sure. (Это может
быть и правда, но мы не уверены.)
4) упрёк, совет
(употребляется только
с might)
You might wait for me! There is a lot of time.
(Ты мог бы и подождать меня. Ещё много
времени.) Не might have warned us about it.
Now it’s too late. (Он мог бы и предупредить нас
об этом. Сейчас уже слишком поздно.)
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UNIT 20
20.1. Ответьте на следующие вопросы.
1. What languages can you speak? 2. Can you read English books
in the original? 3. Can you do some housework, what exactly?
4. When will you be able to visit your relatives? 5. What dishes
can you cook? 6. Could you read and count when you were four
years old? 7. Can any of your friends ride a horse? 8. Can all
your friends use the Internet? 9. Can we cross the street when
the light is red? 10. Could you swim when you were a child?
11. Were you able to pass all your exams successfully? 12. Did
your parents manage to become your best friends? 13. Could
you play any musical instrument when you were younger?
14. Will you be able to give up smoking one day? 15. What can
you never do in this life? Now say what things you can do!
20.2. Поставьте следующие предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную формы.
1. A lot of kids can work on computers now. 2. They can always
ask us for help. 3. She can sing professionally. 4. You can believe
me. 5. He can trust his partners. 6. She will be able to leave
the hospital soon. 7. We could always get tickets to the Bolshoi
Theatre when we were students. 8. My Granny is able to look
after herself. 9. I can give you a lift to the supermarket. 10. My
family will be able to move to the country in a few years. 11. My
parents can always give me good advice. 12. He was able to
explain everything to the police. 13. The detective will be able
to find the criminal. 14. He could play football very well when
he was a teenager. 15. She can be here at exactly eight o’clock.
16. The manager couldn’t pay the workers.
20.3. Выразите удивление и недоверие согласно образцу.
It‛s Тоm Cruise. — Can it be Тоm Cruise?
— It can‛t be Tom Cruise. He is in Hollywood now.
1. It’s very late. 2. This TV-set is so expensive! 3. This meeting
is very important. 4. She is a model. 5. He knows five languages.
6. Mr. Grant is our chief. 7. He is a bodyguard. 8. Tom is Bess’s
boyfriend. 9. This is my new car. 10. The Queen is in Scotland
112
Модальные глаголы
now. 11. It’s our last lecture this term. 12. This is my present to you. 13. Hugh Grant is a filmstar. 14. It’s frosty outside.
15. There is an e-mail for you today. 16. He is a great liar.
20.4. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. He ìîãëè áû âû çàêðûòü äâåðü è îòêðûòü îêíî? Ñïàñèáî.
2. Îíà óìååò âîäèòü ìàøèíó è åé ýòî î÷åíü íðàâèòñÿ. 3. Ìû íå
ìîæåì èçìåíèòü ñèòóàöèþ, íî ìû ìîæåì ïîñòàðàòüñÿ íàéòè
èç íå¸ âûõîä. 4. Êòî ìîæåò îòâåòèòü íà ýòîò âîïðîñ? ß âèæó,
÷òî Ïåòðîâ ìîæåò. 5. — ß íå ìîãó îòêðûòü ýòîò ôàéë. ×òî-òî
íå â ïîðÿäêå ñ êîìïüþòåðîì. — Íåóæåëè ýòî òàê? Ýòîãî íå
ìîæåò áûòü! Ïîë÷àñà íàçàä îí áûë â ïîðÿäêå. 6. Íåëüçÿ êóïèòü çäîðîâüå è ñ÷àñòüå. 7. ß íå ïåðåíîøó òàêèå âåùè. 8. Íå
ìîãëè áû âû îáúÿñíèòü, ÷òî âû çäåñü äåëàåòå è ÷òî âàì íóæíî? 9. — Òû ñîáèðàåøüñÿ ïîìåíÿòü ìàøèíó? — Íåò, ÿ ñìîãó ñäåëàòü ýòî ÷åðåç ãîä èëè äâà. 10. — Ìû íå ìîæåì ïîìåíÿòü âàì ýòè äåíüãè. Îíè ôàëüøèâûå. — Íåóæåëè ýòî òàê? Äà
ýòîãî ïðîñòî íå ìîæåò áûòü! ß ïîëó÷èë èõ â áàíêå. 11. Íåëüçÿ òàê ðàçãîâàðèâàòü ñ ðîäèòåëÿìè. Òû ìîã áû áûòü âåæëèâåå!
12. Îíà àêòðèñà. Îíà óìååò ïåòü, òàíöåâàòü, èñïîëíÿòü ëþáûå
ðîëè. 13. Ìîé áðàò ðàíüøå õîðîøî èãðàë â øàõìàòû, à ñåé÷àñ
îí íå ìîæåò äàæå âñïîìíèòü õîäû (moves). 14. Îí îáåùàåò, ÷òî
ñóìååò íàéòè àëèáè. È òîãäà àäâîêàò ñóìååò îñâîáîäèòü åãî.
15. — Íå ìîãó ïîâåðèòü âî âñþ ýòó ÷åïóõó! À òû ìîæåøü? —
ß ìîã áû ïîâåðèòü â ýòî, íî ÿ íå íàñòîëüêî ãëóï. 16. Íå ìîã áû
òû âûêëþ÷èòü (turn off) ñâîé ìîáèëüíûé òåëåôîí?
20.5. Измените следующие предложения, используя may или might согласно образцу.
Perhaps my wish will come true. — My wish may come true.
1. Perhaps it will rain today. 2. Maybe, she is at work now. 3. It’s
possible that I’ll invite them to my party. 4. Perhaps she’s unwell
this morning. 5. Maybe it’s true. 6. It looks like snow today. 7. It’s
possible I’ll play tennis on Sunday. 8. It’s probable that they will
get married. 9. Evidently she knows the truth. 10. Maybe she
doesn’t like me. 11. It’s possible that I’ll go to Italy in the sum113
UNIT 20
mer. 12. Perhaps you are right. 13. It’s possible he will not call
us. 14. It’s probable he’ll find a job for you. 15. Maybe the train
will be late. 16. It’s possible that he is still asleep.
20.6. Прочитайте и выучите новогоднее поздравление.
A HAPPY NEW YEAR TO YOU
May the New Year bring your way
Nice, unexpected things each day –
New joys, new dreams, new plans to make.
Worthwhile things to undertake...
And may it bring you piece of mind.
Success — the real and lasting kind.
The gift of health, the joy of friends
And happiness that never ends!
20.7. Заполните пропуски глаголами can или may в нужной форме.
1. You ...................... not stop time. 2. This job ...................... become very
difficult for you. 3. ...................... you bring me a glass of water?
4. Who ...................... tell me what the matter is? 5. The radio said
it ...................... snow today. 6. Don’t throw away these notes. We
...................... need them later. 7. I ...................... not believe it! 8. This
team ...................... win the match but I’m not sure. 9. He ......................
do it when he comes. But he ...................... not arrive on time. 10. We
...................... go to the restaurant when the babysitter comes.
But she ...................... not come on time. 11. You ...................... read
this letter, it’s not personal. 12. What ...................... I do for you?
13. You ...................... trust us, and who knows, you ...................... need
us one day. 14. You ...................... never say what ...................... happen
next. 15. A fool ...................... ask more questions than a wise man
...................... answer.
20.8. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. — Ìîæíî ìíå âîéòè? — Êîíå÷íî, ìîæíî. 2. Âîçüìè çîíòèê.
Ìîæåò ïîéòè äîæäü. 3. Îíà ìîæåò óçíàòü ïðàâäó, à ÿ ýòîãî íå
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Модальные глаголы
õî÷ó. 4. Çäåñü íåëüçÿ êóðèòü. 5. Ïîçâîíèòå åìó. Îí, âîçìîæíî,
âñòðåòèòñÿ ñ âàìè. 6. Ìîæíî íàì èäòè äîìîé? 7. Ïîçâîíèòå
Áîðèñó. Îí ìîã áû ïîìî÷ü. 8. Îíà, âîçìîæíî, íå ïðèåäåò âîâðåìÿ. 9. Íå äåëàé ýòîãî. Ýòî ìîæåò áûòü îïàñíî. 10. — Ìîæíî çäåñü êóðèòü? — Íåò, íåëüçÿ. 11. — ×òî òû äåëàåøü ñåãîäíÿ âå÷åðîì? — Íå çíàþ, ìîæåò, ïîéäó â êèíî. 12. — Ìîæíî
ìíå ïîãîâîðèòü ñ äèðåêòîðîì? — Áîþñü, ÷òî íåò. Îí î÷åíü çàíÿò. 13. Äà ñîïóòñòâóåò âàì óñïåõ. 14. Ïóñòü Íîâûé ãîä ïðèíåñ¸ò âàì ìíîãî ñ÷àñòüÿ! 15. Ïîéìàé ìåíÿ, åñëè ñìîæåøü.
20.9. Заполните пропуски глаголами can, may, be able to в нужной форме.
1. ...................... you tell me the time, please? 2. I’m sorry, there’s
nothing I ...................... do about it. 3. I’m sure he ...................... do it
in future. 4. You ...................... get back to your childhood. 5. Next
summer we ...................... visit you. 6. When I was young, I ......................
run very fast. 7. Meeting new people ...................... be very exciting.
8. That ...................... be true! It’s absolutely impossible. 9. I am not
sure, but you ...................... be right. 10. It was so noisy that we
...................... hear anything. 11. He said it ...................... be wise to call
the police. 12. The patient is recovering. Soon he ...................... go
home. 13. ...................... smell the gas? 14. It ...................... rain soon,
but who knows? If it rains, we ...................... do some housework.
15. He knew he ...................... always turn to his father for help.
16. The child was sure that nobody ...................... help him. 17. The
weatherman said it ...................... snow by the end of the week.
18. ...................... I trouble you for a minute? 19. He hoped that he
...................... run away from prison. 20 Nobody ...................... tell me
what to do. I ...................... seem silly, but I am not!
Unit
U
n
nit
iitt 2
21
1
Ìîäàëüíûå ãëàãîëû
Must, Be to
Формы
must
Present Simple
We must send the fax
now.
Must we do it now?
Значения
had to
Past Simple
We had to send the fax yesterday.
We had to do it then.
Примеры
1) необходимость,
обязанность, долг
I must come to the office at 10 o’clock.
Must Ben stay at home today? — Yes, he must.
2) запрещение
(в отрицательных
предложениях)
You mustn’t talk that way. (Нельзя так
разговаривать.)
You mustn’t speak Russian in class.
(Вы не должны говорить по-русски на занятии.)
Must we work on Saturday? — No, you needn’t.
(Должны мы работать в субботу? — Нет, не надо.)
3) уверенное
предположение
It must be true. (Это, должно быть, правда.)
It must be a mistake. (Это, должно быть, ошибка.)
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Модальные глаголы
Формы
am/is/are to
Present Simple
was/were to
Past Simple
shall/ will have to
Future Simple
I am to meet the
delegation.
He is to make a report.
I was to meet the
delegation.
He was to make a report.
They are to arrive
tomorrow.
They were to arrive
yesterday.
I’ll have to meet the
delegation.
He will have to make a
report.
They will have to arrive
next week.
Значения
Примеры
1) долг,
обязанность
(по
предварительной
договорённости)
The driver is to meet us at 5 o’clock. (Водитель должен
(обязан) встретить нас в 5 часов.)
The director was to sign the contract. (Директор должен
был подписать контракт.)
The director was to have signed the contract. (Директор
должен был подписать контракт *.)
2) приказ,
запрещение,
вопрос о том,
что делать
дальше
You are to report to the teacher. (Вы должны отчитаться
перед учителем.)
You are not to come here! (Вы не должны сюда
приходить.)
What am I to do? Am I to leave? (Что я должен делать?
Мне уйти?)
3) нечто
неизбежное,
предрешённое
судьбой
It was to happen. (Этому суждено было случиться.)
They were to part soon. (Им суждено было скоро
расстаться.)
* Перфектный инфинитив показывает, что действие было запланировано, но
не было выполнено.
117
UNIT 21
Не was to do it.
(Он должен был сделать это по договорённости, и неизвестно, сделал он это
или нет.)
Не was to have done it.
(Он должен был сделать это по договорённости, но определённо не сделал
этого.)
21.1.
Прочитайте и переведите следующие предложения.
1. Your family and your children must always come first. 2. You
must learn to forgive people. 3. Now I must call and thank
them for their Christmas cards. 4. You mustn’t worry about us.
5. It mustn’t be forgotten that we all make mistakes. 6. Schools
must teach children what is right and what is wrong. 7. You
must come and see our new kitchen. 8. He must be Patrick,
our new manager. 9. — Must I work on Saturday? — No, you
needn’t. 10. She must be very, very tired. 11. Come here at five
o’clock. It’s a must! 12. I must always keep my back straight,
my head high. 13. — What am I to do? Must I start working
right now? — No, you needn’t. 14. We were to meet at the cafe.
15. He was to have spokenatthe meeting but he suddenly fell ill.
16. She was to become his wife. 17. — Who is to do the shopping
today? — I am. 18. You are to report to the Dean. It’s a must.
19. You must never give up your home — it’s all that we have.
21.2.
А. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. ß äîëæåí ìíîãî ðàáîòàòü. Ó ìåíÿ ñåìüÿ. 2. Ìû äîëæíû
ñîáëþäàòü ïðàâèëà. 3. — Äîëæíû ëè ìû îòïðàâèòü ôàêñ ñåãîäíÿ? — Íåò, íåîáÿçàòåëüíî. 4. Îíè äîãîâîðèëèñü âñòðåòèòüñÿ ïåðåä ñîáðàíèåì. 5. Ýòî, äîëæíî áûòü, î÷åíü âàæíûé âîïðîñ. 6. ×òî ìíå äåëàòü? ×òî ÿ äîëæíà ñêàçàòü èì? 7. Ýòîìó
ñóæäåíî áûëî ñëó÷èòüñÿ. 8. Òû äîëæåí ïîíÿòü, ÷òî ýòî î÷åíü
îïàñíî. 9. Îí, äîëæíî áûòü, î÷åíü ñèëüíûé. Îí æå òåëîõðàíèòåëü. 10. Ìû ïàðòí¸ðû, è ìû äîëæíû ïîìîãàòü è äîâåðÿòü
äðóã äðóãó. 11. Òû âûãëÿäèøü áîëüíûì. Òû ïðîñòî äîëæåí
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Модальные глаголы
ïîéòè ê âðà÷ó. 12. — Ìû äîëæíû ñåé÷àñ îïëàòèòü áèëåòû? —
Íåò, íåîáÿçàòåëüíî. Ìîæíî ñäåëàòü ýòî çàâòðà. 13. Âû ïðîñòî äîëæíû óâèäåòü Èòàëèþ! 14. Òû íèêîìó íå äîëæåí ãîâîðèòü îá ýòîì. 15. Îí î÷åíü áîãàò. Îí, äîëæíî áûòü, áèçíåñìåí.
16. Ó íàñ ìàëî âðåìåíè. Íàì íóæíî ïîòîðîïèòüñÿ. 17. Òû íå
äîëæåí òðàòèòü òàê ìíîãî äåíåã! 18. — Äîëæåí ëè ÿ ñëåäîâàòü âàøèì óêàçàíèÿì, èíñïåêòîð? — Äà, äîëæíû. 19. Âû,
äîëæíî áûòü, çàáûëè î ñâî¸ì îáåùàíèè. 20. Øîó äîëæíî ïðîäîëæàòüñÿ! 21. Âû íå äîëæíû ñèäåòü çà êîìïüþòåðîì áîëåå
ñîðîêà ìèíóò.
В. Расскажите о десяти вещах, которые Вы должны делать, и о десяти вещах, которые Вы не должны делать.
Unit
U
n
nit
iitt 2
22
2
Ìîäàëüíûå ãëàãîëû
Have to, Should, Ought to
Формы
have (has) to
Present Simple
had to
Past Simple
shall (will) have to
Future Simple
I have to go shopping
every weekend.
She has to walk to her
school every morning.
I had to spend a lot of
money on shopping last
weekend. She had to walk
to her school yesterday.
I shall have to do some
shopping on Friday.
She will have to walk to
her school tomorrow.
Значения
Вынужденная
необходимость,
обязанность, в силу
определённых
обстоятельств
Примеры
Now I have to go home. (Мне нужно идти домой.)
In England you have to drive on the left. (B Англии
нужно ездить по левой стороне.)
We don’t have to go to work on Saturdays and
Sundays. (Нам не приходится ходить на работу по
субботам и воскресеньям.)
Did you have to get up early today? (Вам сегодня
рано пришлось встать?)
Вопросительная и отрицательная формы модального глагола have to образуются с помощью вспомогательных глаголов: do /does, did, shall/will.
Do you have to go shopping every weekend? — I don’t have to do it every
weekend.
120
Модальные глаголы
Did she have to go to her school yesterday? — She didn’t have to go to school.
Will they have to do it? — They won’t have to do it.
Формы
Should + инфинитив (без to)
ought + инфинитив (с to)
You should help him.
He shouldn’t be so shy.
You ought to do your best.
He oughtn’t to smoke so much.
Значения
Примеры
1) совет, моральная обязанность
перед собой или другими людьми
(should в этом значении сильнее, чем
ought to)
You should be friendly to people.
They ought to take up some sport.
2) упрёк, совет, рекомендация
He ought to help his parents. They
should consult a doctor.
Mary should have bought that book. It’s very good.
Мэри следовало купить эту книгу (но она этого не сделала).
Mary shouldn’t have bought that book. It’s too expensive.
Мэри не следовало покупать эту книгу (но она её купила).
22.1. Поставьте следующие предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную формы.
1. Íå sometimes has to go away on business. 2. We all have to
do some things which aren’t very pleasant. 3. The soldier had
to obey the officer’s order. 4. He should be kind. 5. She ought
to pay more attention to her appearance. 6. Students have to
read a lot. 7. The agent had to leave the country immediately.
8. I have to get up very early on Sunday to catch the plane.
9. You should have told her about your problems. 10. He ought
to marry this girl. 11. She really ought to keep to a diet. 12. He
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UNIT 22
has to work day and night to make a good career. 13. I had to
pay the taxes. 14. He will have to agree to our plans. 15. We had
to queue for hours. 16. We all have to compromise in life.
22.2.
Заполните пропуски правильной формой глаголов have to, should,
ought to.
1. The bus was late so we ...................... wait for half and hour. 2. The
doctor says that you ...................... give up smoking as soon as possible.
3. The car was out of order so we ..................... take a taxi. 4. He
..................... tell a lie to save the situation. 5. You ..................... think twice
about it. 6. I’m afraid you ..................... take the exam again. 7. You
.................... use such rude words! 8. She ..................... be more friendly.
9. He ..................... have two jobs to keep his family. 10. You ......................
consult your doctor about it. 11. You ...................... be more careful
with your money. 12. You ...................... write two tests next week.
13. This lawyer usually ...................... study a lot of cases. 14. My
brother ...................... work hard before he entered the University.
15. — Why ...................... I believe you? — You ...................... to do it.
22.3. A. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Âàì ïðèõîäèòñÿ ìíîãî çàíèìàòüñÿ, ÷òîáû õîðîøî ñäàâàòü
ýêçàìåíû? 2. — Òåáå ïðèøëîñü âûñòóïèòü íà ñîáðàíèè? —
Íåò. 3. Âàì íå ñëåäóåò îïàçäûâàòü íà ëåêöèè. 4. Åé ñëåäóåò
ïðèñëóøàòüñÿ ê ñîâåòàì ñâîèõ ðîäèòåëåé. 5. Åìó íå ñëåäîâàëî ñëóøàòü èõ ñîâåòîâ. 6. Òåáå ñëåäóåò ÷àùå óëûáàòüñÿ. 7. Åé
ïðèøëîñü ñîëãàòü. Åé íå ñëåäîâàëî ýòîãî äåëàòü. 8. Èçâèíèòå, ìíå íåîáõîäèìî ïîçâîíèòü äðóãó. 9. — Ïî÷åìó òåáå ïðèøëîñü òàê ðàíî ïîêèíóòü âå÷åð? — Ìíå ïðèøëîñü âåðíóòüñÿ
â îôèñ. 10. ×òî-òî áûëî íå â ïîðÿäêå ñ ìàøèíîé, è íàì ïðèøëîñü âûçâàòü òàêñè. 11. Ñêîëüêî ðàç â íåäåëþ òåáå ïðèõîäèòñÿ äåëàòü ïîêóïêè (to shop)? 12. Âàì ñëåäóåò èçâèíèòüñÿ. 13. — ß ñåáÿ íåâàæíî ÷óâñòâóþ. — Òåáå íå ñëåäîâàëî òàê
ìíîãî åñòü. 14. Îíà âûãëÿäèò óñòàëîé. Åé ñëåäóåò îòäîõíóòü
íåñêîëüêî äíåé. 15. Óæå ïîçäíî. Äåòÿì ñëåäóåò èäòè ñïàòü.
В. Расскажите о десяти вещах, которые вам приходится делать, и о десяти
вещах, которые вам не приходится делать.
Unit
U
n
nit
iitt 2
23
3
Ìîäàëüíûé ãëàãîë
Need to
Need to
Needed to
Shall/will
need to
I need to go there
I needed to go
there
I’ll need to go
there
Вопросит. форма
Do you need to
go there?
Did you need to
go there?
Will you need to
go there?
Отриц. форма
I don’t need to
go there.
I didn’t need to
go there.
I won’t need to
go there.
Утв. форма
Только в настоящем времени в вопросительных и отрицательных предложениях возможны следующие формы (Br. E.):
— Need I go there? — You needn’t go there.
— Need we help you? — You needn’t help us.
Значения
Примеры
1) Необходимость сделать что-то,
Не needs to do it now.
отсутствие необходимости что-то сделать. Does he need to do it now?
(Сходно по значению с must и have to.)
He doesn’t need to do it now.
123
UNIT 23
Продолжение табл.
Значения
Примеры
Сравните формы прошедшего времени:
did not need to go
needn’t have gone
She didn’t need to go shopping.
(Она не ходила за покупками, так как в этом
нет необходимости.)
She needn’t have gone
shopping.
(Она ходила за покупками,
но ни к чему было это
делать.)
Глагол need может употребляться как полнозначный глагол (= want).
I need a new bag. — Do you need a new bag? — I don’t need a new bag.
23.1. Поставьте следующие предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную формы.
1. I need a new umbrella. 2. We need to hurry. 3. They need our
help. 4. He needed this information badly. 5. She needs to get up
early tomorrow. 6. We needed to see you. 7. He needs a laptop.
8. Your children need to live in the country. 9. They need fresh
air. 10. We need to see you. 11. I need to finish the work tonight.
12. The boy needs attention and care. 13. She needs to tell you
something important. 14. Everybody needs an ideal.
23.2. Употребите глаголы must, need, have to в необходимой форме.
1. You ...................... take a taxi. I can give you a lift. 2. We’ve got
a lot of time. We ...................... hurry. 3. Yesterday I ...................... to go
to work. It was Sunday. 4. We are friends. You ...................... be so
official with me. 5. You ...................... worry. All is going to be fine.
6. The chief is in the meeting now, so you ...................... disturb him.
7. You ...................... know all the traffic rules. 8. There ...................... be
a misunderstanding. You ...................... explain everything. 9. If you
go to Britain, you ...................... have a visa. If you go to Turkey,
124
Модальный глагол
you ...................... have a visa. 10. You ...................... open the door to
strangers. 11. She was unwell but still she ...................... go to work.
12. ...................... I say more? 13. We ...................... a short rest. 14. You
...................... stroke the dog. It may bite you. 15. She is on pension
so she ...................... work any more.
23.3. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. — Ìíå íóæíû âåðíûå äðóçüÿ. — À êîìó îíè íå íóæíû?
2. Îí íóæäàëñÿ â áîëüøîé ñóììå äåíåã, è íàì ïðèøëîñü ïîìî÷ü åìó. 3. Âàì íè ê ÷åìó ðàññêàçûâàòü âñå äåòàëè. Ìû ñóìååì âñ¸ ïîíÿòü. 4. Íè ê ÷åìó íàì áûëî áðàòü òàêñè. Âîêçàë íåäàëåêî îòñþäà. 5. Òåáå â ñàìîì äåëå íóæíà ýòà êàññåòà? Òåáå íå íóæíî ïîêóïàòü å¸. ß ìîãó äàòü òåáå ñâîþ. 6. Íå
íóæíî áûëî òåáå õîäèòü ê âðà÷ó. Òåáå ïðîñòî íóæåí îòäûõ.
7. Îïÿòü èä¸ò äîæäü. Íè ê ÷åìó áûëî ìûòü îêíà. 8. Ó íàñ íå
áûëî íåîáõîäèìîñòè çâîíèòü èì. Îíè ñàìè ïðèøëè ïîâèäàòü
íàñ. 9. — Íàì íóæíî îñòàòüñÿ çäåñü? — Íåò, âû ìîæåòå èäòè.
10. Íè ê ÷åìó âîëíîâàòüñÿ. Âñ¸ áóäåò õîðîøî, òû äîëæåí âåðèòü ìíå. 11. Õîëîäèëüíèê áûë ïîëîí. Òàê ÷òî íàì íå íóæíî
áûëî ïîêóïàòü ïðîäóêòû. 12. Çðÿ òû îáìàíóë íàñ. Ìû çíàåì
ïðàâäó. 13. — Ìíå íåîáõîäèìî çíàòü àíãëèéñêèé ÿçûê. — Îí
òåáå â ñàìîì äåëå íóæåí? — Äà, î÷åíü. 14. Òåáå íåîáõîäèìî
íîñèòü î÷êè. — Äà, äàâíî ñëåäîâàëî êóïèòü èõ. 15. — Íóæíî ëè ïðèãëàñèòü âñåõ äðóçåé íà ìîé äåíü ðîæäåíèÿ? — Íåò,
íåîáÿçàòåëüíî. Ìîæåøü ïðèãëàñèòü ñàìûõ áëèçêèõ. 16. Òåáå
íóæíî ïåðåçàðÿäèòü (to recharge) áàòàðåéêó. 17. Ìíå íåîáõîäèìî íà ýòîé íåäåëå îïëàòèòü òåëåôîííûé ñ÷¸ò (bill).
23.4. Прочитайте, переведите и запомните следующее.
I Can
I Did is a word of achievement,
I Won’t is a word of retreat,
I Can’t is a word of defeat,
Ought is a word of duty,
Try is a word of each hour,
Will is a word of beauty,
Can is a word of power.
Unit
U
n
nit
iitt 2
24
4
good — well, bad — badly
Именное (Nominal)
Выражает факты, состояния, качества,
характеристики
Глагольное (Verbal)
Выражает действия
Many people study English now.
They are resting at the seaside now.
I’ve been working for this firm for
ten years.
We are students. We are happy.
He feels sad. It’s getting cold.
They seemed upset.
She looks great today.
Запомните:
Именное сказуемое определяется
прилагательным:
We are good students.
He is a quick runner.
She is a slow thinker.
Глагольное сказуемое
определяется наречием:
We study well.
He runs quickly.
She thinks slowly.
Именное сказуемое состоит из глагола-связки и именной части.
Основные глаголы-связки
Link verbs
1) бытия: be, look, feel, taste, smell,
sound
126
She is (looks, feels) upset.
The cake tastes and smells
wonderful.
good — well, bad — badly
Продолжение табл.
Основные глаголы-связки
Link verbs
2) изменения, перемены: get, grow,
become, turn, prove
3) сохранения качества: remain, keep
4) кажимости: seem, appear
Our climate is getting (becoming,
growing) warmer.
My life remains very interesting.
He seems (appears) tired.
Именная часть составного именного сказуемого может быть выражена: существительным, прилагательным, числительным, герундием,
причастием II.
He is an architect.
He is very creative.
She is forty.
My hobby is travelling.
He was very much surprised.
1. Слова hard и fast могут употребляться как наречие и как прилагательное.
She is a hard worker. — She works hard.
He is a fast driver. — He drives fast.
2. hardly = едва, очень мало
We hardly know each other. (Мы едва знакомы.)
There is hardly any money in my purse. (В моём кошельке практически нет
денег.)
24.1. Употребите good или well.
1. Your knowledge is very ...................... . You study ......................
2. What are your friends like? Are they ...................... ? 3. How are
your parents? Are they ...................... ? 4. Your exam results are
really ...................... . You did ...................... . 5. I slept ...................... last night.
I had a ...................... dream. 6. They are ...................... people, but they
are not very ...................... . 7. Our business brings ...................... money.
It is going very ...................... at the moment. 8. Did you have a
127
UNIT 24
...................... holiday? Was the weather ...................... ? 9. My husband
has a ...................... job and he tries to do it ...................... . 10. She is a
...................... actress. She acts very ...................... . 11. He is a ......................
footballer. He plays ...................... . 12. They earn ...................... money.
They manage their firm ...................... . 13. This is a ...................... car.
She runs ...................... on gas. 14. The pie tastes ...................... . You
cooked it ...................... . 15. — Are you getting on ...................... with
your partners? — Yes, they are quite ...................... people.
24.2. Перефразируйте предложения согласно образцу.
My boss is a hard worker. — My boss works hard.
It was a fast decision. — They decided it fast.
That was a clever answer. — They answered cleverly.
1. Your French is good. 2. He is a quick thinker. 3. Brian is a
slow eater. 4. I am a careful listener. 5. She is a good driver.
6. Ali is a fast runner. 7. The match was very good. 8. She is a
wonderful dancer. 9. He has a wonderful voice. 10. My answer
at the exam was good. 11. The children were quiet. 12. The
agent gave a positive answer. 13. They are bad boys. 14. His
smile was pleasant. 15. There was a heavy snowfall outside.
16. Computers brought great changes to our life. 17. It’s an
easy task for me.
24.3. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Îí ñåðü¸çíûé ÷åëîâåê. Îí âñ¸ äåëàåò ñåðü¸çíî. 2. Ðåá¸íîê
ïëîõî ñåáÿ ÷óâñòâóåò è ïëîõî ñåáÿ âåä¸ò. 3. Îíà ìíîãî ðàáîòàåò. Îíà åäâà ëè (ïðàêòè÷åñêè íå) îòäûõàåò. 4. Ýòî ñêîðûé ïîåçä. Îí áûñòðî äîñòàâèò íàñ â Ìîñêâó. 5. Ýòî ÿñíî. Òåïåðü ÿ
ÿñíî (÷¸òêî) âñ¸ ïîíèìàþ. 6. Ýòî îáùåèçâåñòíàÿ èñòèíà. 7. Îí
âñåìèðíî èçâåñòåí. 8. ß ÷óâñòâóþ ñåáÿ áåñïîìîùíîé â òàêèõ ñèòóàöèÿõ. 9. Îíà áåñïîìîùíî óëûáàëàñü. 10. Ìû ïðèìåì
ñðî÷íûå ìåðû. Ìû îòâåòèì âàì áåçîòëàãàòåëüíî. 11. — Êàê
òû ñåáÿ ÷óâñòâóåøü? — Ñïàñèáî, î÷åíü õîðîøî. Íî ìîÿ áàáóøêà ïëîõî ÷óâñòâóåò ñåáÿ. 12. — ×àñòî áûâàþò íåîæèäàííûå ïåðåìåíû â ïîãîäå. — Äà, îíà ÷àñòî íåîæèäàííî ìåíÿåòñÿ. 13. — Öâåòû ïàõíóò ÷óäåñíî. — Äà, è âûãëÿäÿò ÷óäåñíî.
14. Òâîè ñëîâà çâó÷àò çäîðîâî! 15. Îí êðóòîé ïàðåíü! Îí êà128
good — well, bad — badly
æåòñÿ ñ÷àñòëèâûì. 16. Ïî÷åìó òû òàê õîëîäíî ðàçãîâàðèâàåøü ñ íàìè? 17. — Ìû çàì¸ðçëè. — À íàì æàðêî. 18. Ìû àáñîëþòíî ðàçíûå ëþäè. 19. Ñåé÷àñ îí âåä¸ò ñåáÿ ñîâåðøåííî
ïî-äðóãîìó. 20. — Íå ãîâîðè ïëîõî î äðóãèõ ëþäÿõ. Òû âåäü
íåïëîõîé ÷åëîâåê. — Ñïàñèáî.
24.4. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Ñîê êèñëûé íà âêóñ. 2. Ýòî çâó÷èò çäîðîâî. 3. Ïîñòàðàéñÿ îñòàâàòüñÿ õëàäíîêðîâíûì. 4. Åãî ñëîâà çâó÷àëè ñòðàííî.
5. Ñàëàò îñòðûé (spicy) íà âêóñ. 6. Ýòî áûëè òÿæ¸ëûå âðåìåíà. 7. Ýòè ÿãîäû òàê õîðîøî ïàõíóò. 8. Íå âîëíóéòåñü, ðåá¸íîê õîðîøî ÷óâñòâóåò ñåáÿ. 9. Îíè ñîõðàíÿëè ìîë÷àíèå.
10. Îíè ìîë÷à ïîêèíóëè äîì. 11. Ïîãîäà îñòà¸òñÿ õîëîäíîé.
12. Òû çäîðîâî âûãëÿäèøü ñåãîäíÿ. 13. Ÿ àíãëèéñêèé î÷åíü
ïëîõîé. 14. Òû ïëîõî ñäåëàë ýòó ðàáîòó. 15. Îíà âûãëÿäèò
óæàñíî. 16. ß óæàñíî áëàãîäàðíà âàì. 17. Îáåä õîðîøî ïàõíåò.
18. Ðîçû òàê õîðîøî ïàõíóò! 19. Ïèâî ãîðüêîå íà âêóñ. 20. Ðåá¸íîê ãîðüêî ïëàêàë.
24.5. Дополните предложения словами из правой колонки.
1. This question remains
2. The music sounded too
3. The detective stood
4. His words sounded
5. The strawberries smelled
6. The show was
7. He helps people and feels
8. No problem, I can do it
9. He was so weak, he could
10. This matter isn’t so
11. To succeed you have to
12. Are you feeling
13. This perfume smells too
14. The apple-pie tasted
15. The girl smiled
a. entertaining.
b. good about it.
ñ. easily.
d. hardly walk.
e. easy.
f. well today?
g. sweet.
h. delicious.
i. sweetly at us.
j. motionless.
k. open.
l. loud.
m. true.
n. wonderful.
o. work hard.
Unit
U
n it 2
nit
25
5
Ïîâòîðåíèå
Revision
25.1. Употребите необходимый артикль.
1. Mr. Fox is ................................. mobile-phone magnate. 2. He is
............................ professor of linguistics at Oxford. 3. Simon Hope
has .............................. biggest vocabulary in London, if not in
.............................. country. 4. Will you take ......................... dog out for
........................... run? 5. There appeared ............................. helicopter in
............................. sky. 6. Let’s have ......................... cappuccino at this
cafe. 7. There are ...................... big bright stars in ............................ sky.
8. She quickly hit .............................. stop button on .............................
video remote. 9. I’ve got ............................. job as .......................... TV
presenter. 10. If you don’t run into ...................... kitchen and
have .......................... look at ............................. dinner, it will get burnt.
11. There is ............................. pay phone in ............................ coffee shop.
12. ............................. young man is ...................... rock musician. 13. lam
.............................. journalist from ...................... financial magazine.
14. There is ............................ airbag in my new car. 15. I bought you
............................. new cell phone. 16. There is ................................ peephole
in ............................. front door. 17. She was ............................ right person
at ............................... right time. 18. ...................... news isn’t just good. It
is ............................. fantastic news! 19. He pushed ............................... tape
into ............................. VCR. 20. She has ............................. full-time job.
21. He is ............................. computer programmer for ..............................
big international company. 22. Paul is .............................. fitness
instructor at ............................. local club.
130
Повторение
25.2. Употребите правильную форму глагола в скобках.
1. Íå (e-mail) us every week. 2. Chocolate always (make)
me feel better. It (give) me energy. 3. Now she (work) as a
travelling agent and she (like) what she (do). 4. I often go to
McDonald’s. I (love) it. 5. He (do) everything she (ask) him
for. 6. Who (know) what (lie) around the corner? 7. New York
is a city that not (sleep). — Yes, it never (sleep). 8. My mobile (ring). The display (say): number withheld1. 9. I remember that he (can) (read) like a computer when he (be) six.
10. The weather forecast (say) that it (be) going to rain. And
what (be) the weather for next week? 11. — Why you (be) so
sad? — Life not (make) us happy. 12. This tape (last) ninety
minutes. 13. Money (slip) through his fingers. 14. I (phone)
you to ask how you (be). 15. — Anyone (sit) here? — No, it
(be) vacant. 16. — Why you always (wear) such high-heeled
shoes? — I (try) to look taller.
25.3. Выберите правильный вариант.
1. I ...................... ride a bicycle. I always fall off.
a. may not
b. can’t
ñ. don’t have to
2. You look sick, you ...................... see a doctor.
a. should
b. can
ñ. may
3. ...................... you pass me the ketchup?
a. may
b. must
ñ. could
4. Students ...................... take exams twice a year.
a. can
b. must
ñ. may
5. Sorry, I ...................... come yesterday.
a. didn’t have to b. couldn’t
ñ. might not
6. You ...................... move with the times.
a. must
b. may
ñ. could
7. I ...................... get you out of my mind.
a. may not
b. am not to
ñ. can’t
8. He was very busy but still he ...................... visit us.
a. managed
b. had to
ñ. was to
1
number withheld — íîìåð íå îïðåäåë¸í.
131
UNIT 25
9. ...................... you give me your mobile phone number?
a. might
b. may
ñ. could
10. In future you ...................... be more punctual.
a. may
b. can
ñ. ought to
11. You ...................... face the truth immediately and leave.
a. can
b. are to
ñ. must
12. If he saves enough money, he ...................... buy a car next year.
a. will be able to b. can
ñ. should
13. We ...................... test the printer before buying it.
a. might
b. have to
ñ. must
14. I ...................... smoke in the house. My parents are against it.
a. needn’t
b. ought not to ñ. can’t
15. The cake was so rich that we ...................... eat it.
a. couldn’t
b. shouldn’t
ñ. might not
25.4. Употребите правильную форму глагола в скобках.
1. Last Christmas I (give) you my heart. 2. Where (be) you
when it (happen)? 3. You (have) nice teachers when you (be)
at school? 4. When you actually (arrive)? 5. Who (tell) you
that? 6. Where I (leave) my umbrella? 7. You (see) him at the
theatre? 8. We (swap1) our mobile numbers and (drive) off.
9. I (buy) an electronic organizer yesterday and (spend) all
night typing my personal data into it. 10. There (be) a time
when I (love) to cook. 11. When he (come) back home late in
the evening, there (be) eight messages on the answering machine from Steve. 12. They (be) brainy children. They (know)
so many things! And now they (be) famous people. 13. It not
(matter) now. It (be) all right with me. 14. Inflation (go up) at
the moment.
25.5. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Âìåñòå ìû ìîæåì ýòî ñäåëàòü. Íî ìû äîëæíû êàê ñëåäóåò
ïîðàáîòàòü. 2. ß íå ìîãó æäàòü. ß äîëæåí òîðîïèòüñÿ. Ìíå
ïðèõîäèòñÿ áûòü ïóíêòóàëüíûì. 3. Âàøè äåòè äîëæíû åñòü
1
132
to swap — îáìåíÿòüñÿ ÷åì-òî.
Повторение
ìíîãî ôðóêòîâ. Âàì ñëåäóåò îáðàòèòü âíèìàíèå íà èõ äèåòó.
4. — Âàì ïðèõîäèòñÿ ðàíî âñòàâàòü ïî óòðàì? — Äà. Çàíÿòèÿ íà÷èíàþòñÿ â 9 ÷àñîâ, è ÿ íå ìîãó îïàçäûâàòü. 5. Âû
äîëæíû áûòü áîëåå âåæëèâû. Âàì íåëüçÿ òàê ðàçãîâàðèâàòü!
6. — Ìû äîëæíû íà÷àòü ñîáðàíèå â 12 ÷àñîâ. Òû ñìîæåøü
ñêàçàòü ïàðó ñëîâ? — Ñìîãó. 7. — Ìîæíî íàì ïîñìîòðåòü
åù¸ îäèí ôèëüì? — Íåò, íåëüçÿ! Óæå 10 ÷àñîâ âå÷åðà. —
Íåóæåëè óæå òàê ïîçäíî? Ïîâåðèòü ýòîìó íå ìîãó. 8. — Òåáå
ñëåäóåò ïîäóìàòü î ñâî¸ì áóäóùåì. — Òåáå íå íóæíî âîëíîâàòüñÿ îáî ìíå. 9. Íå ñåðäèñü. Íî òû áû ìîã ñäåëàòü ýòî äëÿ
ìåíÿ ñåé÷àñ. 10. — Ãäå äåòè? — Îíè, äîëæíî áûòü, åù¸ â
øêîëå. — Äà, íî òû âñåãäà äîëæåí çíàòü, ãäå îíè. 11. Áîþñü,
÷òî ÿ íè÷åãî íå ìîãó ñäåëàòü äëÿ âàñ. Âàì ïðèä¸òñÿ ïîïðîñèòü êîãî-òî åù¸. 12. Òû äîëæíà áûòü áîëåå ýêîíîìíîé! Òû
íå ìîæåøü ïîçâîëèòü ñåáå òàêèå äîðîãèå âåùè! 13. Ñïðîñè
Íèêèòó. Îí ìîæåò çíàòü òåëåôîí Äåíèñà. 14. Òàê, äîãîâàðèâàåìñÿ âñòðåòèòüñÿ ïîñëå ëåêöèè. Òàê íóæíî è âñ¸ òóò!
15. — Òåáå íóæåí ñîòîâûé òåëåôîí, íå òàê ëè? — Íåò, íå
íóæåí.
25.6. Объясните разницу (иногда стилистическую) в значениях следующих
модальных глаголов. Опишите ситуации, в которых они могут употребляться.
1. — Can you do this for me?
— Could you do something for me?
2. — You mustn’t go out.
— You don’t have to go out.
3. — I may come round to see you later.
— I might come round to see you later.
4. — The train should be here by now.
— The train should be here any minute now.
5. — You must wait here until you are called.
— You are to wait here until you are called.
6. — I can’t leave the house at the moment.
— I am not allowed to leave the house at the moment.
7. — You can do it now (it is all right with me).
— You can do it now (you don’t need any more lessons).
133
UNIT 25
8. — You must let the boss see the fax.
— You will have to let the boss see the fax.
9. — You needn’t write out all the new words.
— You don’t need to write out all the new words.
25.7. Дополните следующие предложения.
1. She can cook well, ............................. ? 2. You can’t buy happiness,
.............................. ? 3. We need to be friends, ............................... ? 4. They
need new information, ...................................... ? 5. You needn’t think
about it, ............................. ? 6. She needed a lot of time to write
this book, ..................................... ? 7. He had to get the second job,
................................ ? 8. You must keep it secret, .............................. ? 9. Let’s
do it, ........................ ? 10. Let’s not discuss it now, ............................... ?
11. We should do something about it, ............................... ? 12. John
must speak to the boss, ...................... ? 13. You ought to call
your parents more often, ......................... ? 14. He may come soon,
...................... ? 15. You could be more friendly, .............................. ?
16. We need to think about it, ...................... ? 17. You will be
able to help us, ................................ ? 18. We need to pass the test,
................................. ? 19. She never had to work, ............................... ?
20. They won’t have to wait long, ............................ ?
25.8.
Употребите правильную форму глагола в скобках. Перескажите
текст.
HOWARD HUGHES — THE GREAT AVIATOR
Howard Hughes (be) born in Houston, Texas. He (go) to school
in 1912 and (leave) it in 1924. At that time his father (die) and
Howard (become) director of his father’s oil company. He (be)
very rich as his father had left him about a million dollars which
in those times was a great fortune. He (be) very interested in
film industry so he (decide) (go) to Hollywood. A year later he
(make) his first film. In 1933 he (begin) to work as an airline
pilot. In 1935 he (build) a plane and (break) the world airspeed record as he (fly) at 352 kilometres per hour. President
Roosevelt (give) him a special aviation award. Three years later
134
Повторение
he (set) a new world record. During the war he (design) and
(manufacture) war planes. After the war he (found) a new
company T.W.A. (Trans World Airlines). In 1947 he (crash) a
new war plane but fortunately he not (die). After he (get) out of
hospital, he again (fly) a new passenger plane. In 1966 he (go) to
Las Vegas. He (buy) a lot of casinos, clubs and hotels. He (lead)
a puritan life. He not (smoke), (drink) or (gamble). Hughes (die)
in 1976. He (leave) two billion dollars.
25.9. Переведите следующие предложения.
1.  æóðíàëå íå áûëî íè÷åãî èíòåðåñíîãî. ß ïðîñòî ñìîòðåëà
íà êàðòèíêè. 2. — Ýòîò òåêñò íóæíî íàáðàòü ñåé÷àñ? — Íåò,
â ýòîì íåò íåîáõîäèìîñòè, ìîæåòå ñäåëàòü ýòî çàâòðà. 3. Âñå
çíàþò, ÷òî íà Ëóíå åñòü ïÿòíà (spots). Âû ìîæåòå óâèäåòü èõ
â õîðîøóþ ïîãîäó. 4. Îí íå ìîã çàáûòü ýòó äåâóøêó. Îí ïîñòîÿííî äóìàë î íåé. 5. — Âû õîòèòå ñòàòü ìèëëèîíåðîì? Òîãäà
âàì ñëåäóåò ïðèíÿòü ó÷àñòèå â ýòîé ïåðåäà÷å. — Áîþñü, ÷òî ÿ
íå ñóìåþ îòâåòèòü íà âñå âîïðîñû. 6. Îí íèêîãäà íå ÷èòàë íèêàêèõ êíèã. Îí ïîñòîÿííî èãðàë â êîìïüþòåðíûå èãðû. 7. Âû
íå äîëæíû ïåðåõîäèòü óëèöó, êîãäà ñâåò êðàñíûé. 8. — Êòî
çíàåò, ÷òî ìîæåò ñëó÷èòüñÿ çàâòðà? — Òåáå ñëåäóåò áûòü áîëåå óâåðåííûì â ñâî¸ì áóäóùåì. Òîëüêî òîãäà òû ñóìååøü
ñäåëàòü õîðîøóþ êàðüåðó. 9.  ïðîøëîì ãîäó îí ïîòåðÿë ðàáîòó. Îí íå ñìîã íàéòè äðóãóþ â ñâî¸ì ìàëåíüêîì ãîðîäêå è
îòïðàâèëñÿ â Ëîíäîí. 10. Âû ìîæåòå âçÿòü ýòîò ñëîâàðü. Îí
ìíå áîëüøå íå íóæåí. 11. Ëåðå íå íóæíî ðàíî âñòàâàòü, òàê
êàê îíà æèâ¸ò íàïðîòèâ óíèâåðñèòåòà. 12. Êîãäà íà÷àëüíèê
âîø¸ë â îôèñ, ñåêðåòàðøà áîëòàëà ïî òåëåôîíó, ìåíåäæåð
ïèë êîôå, äåâóøêè ïðîñìàòðèâàëè ãëÿíöåâûå (glossy) æóðíàëû. 13. — Äîëæåí ëè ÿ îòïðàâèòü ôàêñ ïðÿìî ñåé÷àñ? — Íåò,
íåîáÿçàòåëüíî. Âû ìîæåòå ñäåëàòü ýòî ÷åðåç ÷àñ. 14. — Âûíóæäåí ïðèçíàòüñÿ, ÷òî íå ñìîãó ïðèíÿòü ó÷àñòèÿ â êîíôåðåíöèè, õîòÿ è áûëà òàêàÿ äîãîâîð¸ííîñòü. — Íå ñòîèò âîëíîâàòüñÿ ïî ýòîìó ïîâîäó. ß ìîãó ñäåëàòü ýòî. 15. — Ýòî, äîëæíî áûòü, ïðàâäà. — Íåóæåëè ýòî ïðàâäà? Íå ìîæåò áûòü, ÷òî
ýòî ïðàâäà.
135
UNIT 25
25.10.
Прочитайте следующие пословицы и поговорки и найдите их русские эквиваленты.
1. Appearances can be deceptive. 2. Show must go on. 3. You
must sleep on it. 4. You can’t see the wood for the trees. 5. One
can’t have too much of a good thing. 6. One Englishman can
beat three Frenchmen. 7. You never know what you can do
until you try. 8. He who falls today may rise tomorrow. 9. Who
says A must say B. 10. What everybody says must be true.
11. You can’t put new wine in old bottles. 12. What can’t be
cured must be endured. 13. Children should be seen and not
heard. 14. A liar ought to have a good memory. 15. Life is like a
box of chocolates. You never know what you may get.
Unit
U
n
nit
it 2
26
6
Ïðîñòîå áóäóùåå âðåìÿ
Future Simple
+
I
We
You
He
She
It
They
shall/
will
(‘ll)
will
(‘ll)
?
be
here
Shаll
phone
you
be
here
Will
phone
you
I’ll visit you soon.
She will help us.
They will discuss it
soon.
I
we
you
he
she
it
they
–
be
here?
phone
you?
be
here?
phone
you?
Shall I visit you soon?
Will she help us?
Will they discuss it
soon?
I
We
shall
not
(shan’t)
will not
(won’t)
You
He
She
It
They
will not
(won’t)
be
here
phone
you
be
here
phone
you
I shan’t (won’t) visit you
soon.
She won’t help us.
They won’t discuss it
soon.
137
UNIT 26
Случаи употребления
1. Единичные и повторяющиеся
действия в будущем.
2. Предложение помощи
(в вопросительных предложениях).
Примеры
We shall meet at five o’clock
tomorrow.
My students will have tests every
month.
It will be cold tomorrow.
Shall I help you?
What shall we do next?
Обстоятельства времени:
tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, one of these days («на днях»), next week
(month, year), in the near future, soon, as soon as possible, some day, in an hour
(a week, ...)
Let’s talk about your problems, shall we?
Don’t be late, will you?
Be on time, will you?
26.1. Дополните следующие вопросы, используя Shall we...? и данные ниже
вопросительные слова согласно образцу.
where, when, what, how, how much, how long, whom
What shall we tell them?
1. ...................... do tomorrow?
2. ...................... go tomorrow evening?
3. ...................... buy Susan for her birthday?
4. ...................... go on holiday? To Paris?
5. ...................... go? In August or in May?
6. ...................... travel? By car or by train?
7. ...................... do at the weekend?
8. ...................... go on Sunday? To a museum?
9. ...................... invite to dinner on Saturday? All our friends?
10. ...................... stay in Paris? For a week?
11. ...................... have to pay for the trip?
138
Простое будущее время
26.2. Заполните пропуски глаголами shall (not) (shan’t) или will (not) (won’t).
1. ...................... Jack pass the test? — I’m afraid he ...................... He
doesn’t work hard enough. 2. ...................... there be many people
at the party? — No, there ...................... . 3. ...................... it snow
tomorrow? — I hope it ...................... 4. — Let’s stay at home today,
...................... we? — And what ...................... we do? 5. — Who ......................
meet you at the airport? — Nobody ...................... 6. It’s raining. Take
your umbrella or you ...................... catch a cold. 7. ...................... I do the
washing up, Mum? — No, I ...................... do it. 8. ...................... you be at
home tomorrow? — No, we ...................... . We are having a party.
9. ...................... I sign all these papers? — No, the manager ......................
do it. 10. I have eaten two big round pizzas. I hope I ......................
fall ill. 11. Next year at this time I ...................... be in Florida. 12. I’m
afraid you ...................... catch your train. It’s too late. — So, what
...................... I do? 13. I expect the traffic ...................... be heavy on
Monday morning. 14. Stay cool, ...................... you? 15. Don’t ask
me too many questions, ...................... you? 16. — I help you with
cooking?...................... it be all right with you? 17. What ......................
the weather be like next week? 18. We haven’t got any money.
So we ...................... go on holiday this summer. We ...................... stay in
our dacha. — ...................... you visit us? — Thank you, I ...................... .
26.3. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. — Ìíå ïîçâîíèòü òåáå çàâòðà? — Çàâòðà âîñêðåñåíüå.
ß áóäó ñïàòü äî 12 ÷àñîâ äíÿ. Ïîçâîíè ìíå ïîñëå 12 ÷àñîâ, õîðîøî? 2. — Ãäå ñîñòîèòñÿ ôåñòèâàëü? — Îí áóäåò, êàê îáû÷íî, â Âåíåöèè. Ïîåäåì òóäà? 3. — ×òî ó íàñ ñåãîäíÿ áóäåò
íà óæèí? — Äàâàé çàêàæåì ïèööó, õîðîøî? 4. — Íà ýòîì
êîíöåðòå áóäåò ìíîãî íàðîäó? — Íó ÷òî æå, ïîïûòàåìñÿ äîñòàòü áèëåòû? 5. — Ñêîëüêî ëåò áóäåò âàøåìó ñûíó â ýòîì
ãîäó? — Åìó áóäåò øåñòü ëåò. — Îí ïîéäåò â øêîëó îñåíüþ? — Äà, ïîéäåò. 6. — Âîçìîæíî ëè áóäåò ïîëó÷èòü ýòè
ñâåäåíèÿ? — Ìû ñäåëàåì âñå âîçìîæíîå. 7. — Ãäå òû áóäåøü
âñòðå÷àòü Íîâûé ãîä? — Êàê âñåãäà, ÿ áóäó äîìà ñî ñâîåé ñåìüåé. 8. Ïðîñòè ìåíÿ, õîðîøî? 9. Íèêòî íå çíàåò, ÷òî ñëó÷èòñÿ â áóäóùåì. 10. Îí íàäååòñÿ, ÷òî îíà ñîãëàñèòñÿ ñòàòü åãî
139
UNIT 26
æåíîé. 11. Íå ãîâîðè èì íè÷åãî. Ýòî áóäåò ñþðïðèç. 12. ×åðåç
ãîä ìîé ñûí çàêîí÷èò óíèâåðñèòåò, à äî÷ü çàêîí÷èò øêîëó.
13. — ß íèêîãäà íå îáìàíó òåáÿ. — À ÿ íèêîãäà òåáå áîëüøå
íå ïîâåðþ. 14. Áóäü îñòîðîæåí. Íå ãîíè ìàøèíó. — Íå âîëíóéñÿ, ÿ áóäó îñòîðîæåí. 15. Ìíå ïðèãîòîâèòü òåáå ÷àøå÷êó
÷àÿ? Òû áóäåøü çåëåíûé èëè ÷åðíûé ÷àé? 16. — Íó è ÷òî òû
íà ýòî ñêàæåøü? — Íè÷åãî íå ñêàæó. ß ïðîìîë÷ó. 17. — Äàâàé âñòðåòèìñÿ íà äíÿõ â öåíòðå. — Õîðîøî, ÿ ïðèäó. Ãäå
ìíå æäàòü òåáÿ? 18.  áëèæàéøåì áóäóùåì íèêàêèõ ïåðåìåí íå îæèäàåòñÿ. 19. Ìíå ïîäîæäàòü òåáÿ? — Äà, ÿ áóäó ãîòîâ ÷åðåç ìèíóòó. 20. — Êîãäà ìû âíîâü óâèäèì âàñ? — Ìû
äàäèì âàì çíàòü.
Unit
U
n
nit
it 2
27
7
Áóäóùåå ïðîäîëæåííîå âðåìÿ
Future Progressive (Continuous)
+
I
We
You
He
She
It
They
?
shall/
be
will (‘ll) doing
will
(‘ll)
be
doing
Shall
Will
Случаи употребления
1. Действие в процессе в
определенный момент в
будущем.
I
we
you
he
she
it
they
–
be
doing?
I
We
be
doing
You
He
She
It
They
shall not be
(shan’t) doing
will not
(won’t)
will not
(won’t)
be
doing
Примеры
At this time next week I’ll be flying to
London.
In a week we’ll be celebrating Mike’s
birthday.
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UNIT 27
Продолжение табл.
2. Действие, которое
говорящий предвидит
в будущем.
Способ
I must go now or my mother will be
worrying.
She is sure he will be telling her about his
love again.
Случаи употребления
Примеры
1. to be going to +
инфинитив
Запланированное
действие в ближайшем
будущем.
She is going to tell him the
truth.
They are going to buy a
computer.
2. Настоящее
продолженное
время (Present
Progressive)
Запланированное
действие в ближайшем
будущем (с глаголами
движения to come,
to leave, to start, to arrive,
to fly)
I am leaving for Sochi today.
He is coming to dinner on
Saturday.
They are arriving at five
o’clock.
3. Простое
настоящее время
(Present Simple)
Запланированное
действие
в соответствии
с расписанием,
графиком,
программой.
The bus starts at 6.30.
The lecture begins in five
minutes.
4. Модальный
глагол to be to
+ инфинитив
глагола
Действие,
которое должно
быть выполнено
в ближайшее время
по договоренности.
We are to meet after lunch.
What am I to do now?
Who is to do the talking
today?
142
Будущее продолженное время
27.1.
Прочитайте и переведите следующий текст. Найдите в нем средства
выражения будущности.
During our dinner at the restaurant Fiona told us: “I’m sorry it’s
such a short trip for us. But David has to get back to England.
We’ll be leaving on Tuesday, so it’ll be less than a week. We’re
staying here until Monday night and we’re flying out in the
morning. You see, I’ve bought a house in Yorkshire and I’m in
the process of furnishing it.” “Are you moving from London?”
Jake asked. “You’re not selling your beautiful house, are you?”
“Oh, no, not at all. It’s too special for me. But I will be living in
Yorkshire in the summer, when the weather is always better.
I am buying a business there too.”
“Oh, Fiona, you are full of surprises. What kind of business?”
Tony asked.
“A restaurant and a bar,” she said. “When David retires, he’ll
be running it with me. Until then, his son Noel will be working
with me. He’s a great cook. So, you must all come and enjoy his
food one day.”
“Thank you, Fiona, we are sure you’re going to have a great
success.”
27.2.
Ответьте на следующие вопросы.
1. What will you be doing at exactly this time tomorrow? 2. Will
you be working this Saturday? 3. Will your friend be watching
the football match tonight? 4. Will you be meeting your friends
in the evening? 5. Will your mother be shopping on Saturday
morning? 6. Will you be waiting for him while he is in the
Army? Will you be thinking about him? 7. What will you be
wearing for the party? 8. Will you be still working at 7 o’clock?
9. What will you be discussing at tomorrow’s seminar? 10. Will
your mother be as usual watching her favourite serial from
seven till eight o’clock?
27.3.
Переведите следующие предложения.
1. He óõîäèòå, ñêîðî áóäåì ïèòü ÷àé. 2. Íå ìîãó ïîâåðèòü,
÷òî çàâòðà ìû áóäåì õîäèòü ïî óëèöàì Ëîíäîíà. 3. Çàâòðà
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UNIT 27
ìû ïîñåòèì Ïàðëàìåíò. ×ëåíû Ïàðëàìåíòà áóäóò îáñóæäàòü ïîñëåäíèå ñîáûòèÿ â ìèðå. 4. Ïîëîæè ó÷åáíèêè â ïîðòôåëü ñåãîäíÿ âå÷åðîì, à òî çàâòðà óòðîì òû îïÿòü áóäåøü íîñèòüñÿ ïî äîìó. 5. — Ñîíÿ óñòðàèâàåò çàâòðà âå÷åðèíêó, òû
èäåøü? — Ê ñîæàëåíèþ, íåò. Çàâòðà ÿ áóäó ñäàâàòü ýêçàìåí. 6. — Çà÷åì òû âçÿëà çîíòèê Ëèçû? Îíà æå áóäåò èñêàòü
åãî çàâòðà. 7. ß ìîãó ëåãêî îïèñàòü òåáå, ÷òî ìîÿ ñåìüÿ áóäåò
äåëàòü â êàíóí Íîâîãî ãîäà: ìàìà áóäåò íàêðûâàòü íà ñòîë,
ïàïà áóäåò ãîòîâèòü èíäåéêó ñ ÿáëîêàìè, à äåòè áóäóò óêðàøàòü åëêó. 8. Íå çâîíè ìíå îò 8 äî 10 ÷àñîâ. ß áóäó ðàáîòàòü
â Èíòåðíåòå. 9. Çàâòðà ìû áóäåì î÷åíü çàíÿòû. Ìû áóäåì ãîòîâèòüñÿ ê êîíöåðòó. 10. — ×òî òû áóäåøü äåëàòü â ýòî âðåìÿ
çàâòðà? — Áóäó ðàññëàáëÿòüñÿ, òî åñòü îòäûõàòü. 11. — ×òî
òû ñîáèðàåøüñÿ íàäåòü íà âå÷åð? — Íà ìíå áóäåò (to wear)
êðàñíîå ïëàòüå. 12. Äàâàé ïîéäåì íà ëåêöèþ ïðîôåññîðà Õèããèíñà. Îí áóäåò ðàññêàçûâàòü î ïîñëåäíèõ òåíäåíöèÿõ â àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå. 13. Íå âîëíóéñÿ, ÿ òåáÿ íå çàáóäó. ß áóäó
äóìàòü î òåáå äí¸ì è íî÷üþ. ß âñåãäà áóäó âñïîìèíàòü òâîþ
óëûáêó. 14. Çàâòðà â ýòî âðåìÿ, ìîëîäîé ÷åëîâåê, âû áóäåòå îòâå÷àòü íà íàøè âîïðîñû. 15. Âñþ ñëåäóþùóþ íåäåëþ ÿ
áóäó ãîòîâèòüñÿ ê ýêçàìåíàì.
Unit
U
n it 2
nit
28
8
Ïðèäàòî÷íûå âðåìåíè è óñëîâèÿ
If — When
В английском языке в придаточных предложениях условия и времени после союзов if, unless, in case, on condition that, when, till, until, as soon as, before, after вместо будущего времени употребляется простое настоящее время (Present Simple).
Тип
предложения
Придаточное
предложение
1. Реального
условия
If I get this job,
I’ll be happy
Если я получу эту
работу, я буду
счастлив(а).
If he calls,
we’ll discuss the
plan.
Если он позвонит, мы
обсудим этот план.
If they come,
we’ll have a party.
Если они придут,
то мы устроим
вечеринку.
When I see her,
I’ll ask her about it.
Когда я увижу её, то
спрошу её об этом.
As soon as the
lecture is over,
we’ll go home.
Как только лекция
закончится, мы
пойдём домой.
After the rain
stops,
the children will
go for a walk
После того как дождь
закончится, дети
пойдут гулять.
2. Времени
Главное
предложение
Перевод
145
UNIT 28
В дополнительных придаточных предложениях после союзов if, whether,
when употребляется будущее время (Future Simple).
I’d like to know if it will rain or snow tomorrow.
We don’t know when the chief will come.
28.1. Составьте предложения, используя приведённые ниже фразы.
Образец: If you sit at the computer too long, you will get very tired.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
don’t switch off the TV-set,
get up very early,
eat too many sweets,
don’t take this medicine,
doesn’t save his money,
forgets his promise,
don’t put the milk in
the fridge,
don’t work hard,
drinks some more beer,
don’t invite Mary,
moves to London,
rains today,
don’t listen in class,
14. take an umbrella,
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
get hurt
have bad teeth
not pass your exam
not go for a walk
work in the City
turn sour
not understand
homework
h. see the sunrise
i. do it myself
j. definitely fall ill
k be able to rent a house
l. remind him about it
m. have problems with
the police
n. not work in the garden
28.2. Дополните следующие предложения.
1. Unless you hurry, ...................... . 2. I’ll tell him something
interesting when ...................... . 3. We are going to visit them after
...................... . 4. As soon as it stops raining, ...................... . 5. If he is not
punctual, ...................... . 6. We’ll visit the Russian Museum when
...................... . 7. My life will be easier after ...................... . 8. Dinner will
be ready before ...................... . 9. As soon as he gets to the airport,
...................... . 10. The director will e-mail you after ...................... .
11. Let’s wait till ...................... . 12. We’ll stay here until ...................... .
146
Придаточные времени и условия
13. Give them our address if ...................... . 14. He’ll have to work
in the Internet if ................... . 15. We’ll listen to you after ................. .
16. I’ll give you my phone number in case ...................... . 17. If Tom
comes, ...................... . 18. She’ll stay at home in case ...................... .
19. You’ll get tired unless ...................... .
28.3. Употребите правильную форму глагола в скобках.
1. If everything (go) well, we (meet) soon. 2. I don’t know where
I (have) a rest next summer. 3. If she (want) it, she (get) it.
4. We (try) to get the money before the bank (close). 5. If she
(keep) to a diet, she (feel) very well. 6. I not (speak) to him
unless he (apologize). 7. If it not (rain) on the weekend, we
(paint) the bench in the garden. 8. We (have) to leave the place
before the sun (rise). 9. We (know) his new address as soon as
he (e-mail) us. 10. I (stay) with you till the doctor (come). 11. If
the film (finish) late, the child not (able) to fall asleep. 12. In
case the plan not (work), we (think) of something else. 13. If
the price (go) down, I (buy) a new computer. 14. We (try) to
run away before the police (come). 15. If she (learn) the truth,
she (be) very unhappy. 16. If the ecological situation (improve),
people (feel) much better. 17. I (have) to tell my parents the
truth before my teacher (call) them. 18. If there (be) a lot of
snow in the forest, we (go) skiing. 19. As soon as he (get) the
contracts, he (fax) them to you. 20. She (start) a new life after
she (graduate) from University.
28.4. Перефразируйте и дополните предложения согласно образцу.
It looks like rain. — If it rains, I won‛t have to water the flowers in
the garden.
1. People will have a ten-day holiday after the New Year.
2. I hope my friend will have some free time on Sunday.
3. Maybe Marina won’t come to class tomorrow. 4. I’m sure
you’ll be hungry after the excursion. 5. Maybe she’ll marry this
fellow. 6. Perhaps she will call a good doctor. 7. Kostya Dzu
will win the match. 8. It looks like snow. 9. Everybody is going
to leave the city in the summertime. 10. Maybe one day he’ll
become a serious person. 11. He hopes that one day he’ll have
147
UNIT 28
enough money. 12. Maybe we’ll be lucky with this new business.
13. Perhaps, the police will find his car. 14. Maybe she’ll come to
the concert. 15. Probably Mr. Parker will join the club.
28.5. Употребите правильную форму глагола в скобках.
1. If Sam (give) up smoking and drinking, he (feel) a different
man. 2. Let us (buy) some more food in case guests (arrive).
3. If this detective (work) for us, he (help) us a lot, I’m sure.
4. If television (show) more cultural programmes, it (be) very
useful for all of us. 5. She (send) us an SMS in case she (be)
late. 6. If there (be) some messages for you, I (call) you. 7. If
there (be) a concert on Red Square, we (go) there. 8. If he (be)
out, we (have to) wait for him. 9. As soon as the metro (open),
there (be) crowds of people in it. 10. When my English friend
(arrive) in Moscow, we first (go) to the Red Square. 11. If my
money not (come) tomorrow, I not (able) to go shopping with
you. 12. As soon as summer (come), he (go) on an expedition to
the Urals. 13. I (take) a dictionary from the library in case there
(be) unknown words in the text. 14. You (have) to stay here
until your lawyer (come). 15. After the agent (get) the secret
data, he (leave) the country immediately.
28.6. Дополните следующие предложения
1. It’s interesting if ... . 2. I have no idea whether ... . 3. We
greatly doubt if ... . 4. He wonders whether ... . 5. We would like
to know when ... . 6. Tell me if ... . 7. Can anyone tell me when ...?
8. Do you know if ...? 9. He can’t remember when ... . 10. He has
no idea if ... . 11. Tell us if ... . 12. Does anyone know when ... ?
13. He wants to find out if ... . 14. Ask her if ... . 15. I am not sure
when ... . 16. We don’t know whether ... . 17. I can’t say whether
... . 18. She wonders if ... .
28.7. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. ß óâåðåíà, ÷òî âû ïîéì¸òå ïðîáëåìó, êàê òîëüêî îíà âàì
âñ¸ ðàññêàæåò. 2. Åñëè ïîõîëîäàåò, ÿ ïîñòàâëþ ìàøèíó â ãàðàæ. 3. Åñëè ïîåçä ïðèä¸ò âîâðåìÿ, ìû áóäåì äîìà â 7 ÷à148
Придаточные времени и условия
ñîâ âå÷åðà. 4. Åñëè îí ïîëó÷èò ôàêñ ñåãîäíÿ, òî óæå çàâòðà
ñìîæåò ïðèëåòåòü ñþäà. 5. Åñëè ïîéä¸ò ñíåã, òî ñòàíåò òåïëåå. 6. Çàñòàâü åãî ðàññêàçàòü òåáå ïðàâäó. Åñëè îí íå ñäåëàåò ýòîãî ñåé÷àñ, òî áóäåò âñåãäà ëãàòü. 7. Èíòåðåñíî, êîãäà æå
ìû âñòðåòèìñÿ? — Ìû âñòðåòèìñÿ, êàê òîëüêî îí ñäàñò âñå
ýêçàìåíû. 8. ß åù¸ íå çíàþ, êîãäà îñâîáîæóñü. Íî åñëè áóäåò
íå î÷åíü ïîçäíî, òî ÿ íàâåùó âàñ. 9. Åñëè îí âûèãðàåò ïðèç,
òî ñóìååò êóïèòü ìíîãî âåùåé, â êîòîðûõ îí î÷åíü íóæäàåòñÿ. 10. Äàâàé ïîáåæèì äîìîé ïðåæäå, ÷åì ïîéä¸ò äîæäü.
11. Åñëè îíà íàïèøåò íîâûé ðîìàí, òî îí òî÷íî ñòàíåò áåñòñåëëåðîì. 12. Íèêòî íå çíàåò, êîãäà ýòî ïðîèçîéä¸ò. 13. Îí íàäååòñÿ, ÷òî êîãäà îíè óçíàþò ïðàâäó, òî ïðîñòÿò åãî. 14. Åñëè
îíà ïîñòàðàåòñÿ, òî ñóìååò ïðîéòè èíòåðâüþ. 15. Îí ïðèä¸ò
íà âå÷åð, â ñëó÷àå åñëè òû ëè÷íî åãî ïðèãëàñèøü. 16. Îíà íå
ïðèä¸ò íà âå÷åð, â ñëó÷àå åñëè òû ëè÷íî íå ïðèãëàñèøü å¸.
17. Åñëè êòî-íèáóäü ïîçâîíèò, ÿ îñòàâëþ òåáå çàïèñêó. 18. Íèêòî íå çíàåò, áóäåò ëè ëåòî æàðêèì èëè õîëîäíûì. 19. Ìû îáñóäèì ýòîò âîïðîñ, êàê òîëüêî âñå ïðèäóò. 20. Åñëè îí íå áóäåò òîðîïèòüñÿ, òî íå áóäåò äåëàòü òàê ìíîãî îøèáîê. 21. Åñëè
íîâîñòè áóäóò âàæíûìè, òî ÿ îòïðàâëþ òåáå ôàêñ. 22. Åñëè
òâîé äðóã ïðèìåò ó÷àñòèå â ïåðåäà÷å «Êòî õî÷åò ñòàòü ìèëëèîíåðîì?», òî îí òî÷íî (definitely) âûèãðàåò áîëüøóþ ñóììó
äåíåã. Îí òàêîé óìíûé ïàðåíü.
28.8. Употребите правильную форму глагола в скобках и перескажите рассказ.
HIGH HOPES
A young village girl who lives in the East is going one day to the
nearest town. She (carry) a jug of milk on her head. She (walk)
and (think) “When I (come) to town, I (find) a market and (sell)
the milk there. I not (think) that I (get) much money for it but
if it (be) enough, I (buy) a dozen eggs. I (have) twelve chickens
out of those eggs. When the chickens (grow up), I (take) them
to the market. After I (sell) them, I (go) to a shop and (buy) a
beautiful new dress for myself. I (look) wonderful in it. After
I (put on) this beautiful dress, I (walk) along the main street of
149
UNIT 28
the village. When people (see) me, they (stop) and (say): “What a
beautiful girl she (be) and what a wonderful dress she (wear)!”
But when I (hear) it, I not (say) anything, I just (give a shake)
of my head.” And here she (give) a shake of her head and down
(come) the milk, the eggs, the chickens and the wonderful new
dress!
28.9. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Êàê òîëüêî âñå ïðèäóò, ìû áóäåì îáåäàòü. Íî ìû íå çíàåì òî÷íî, êîãäà âåðíóòñÿ ðîäèòåëè. 2. Ñïðîñè å¸, ïðèä¸ò ëè
îíà íà âå÷åð. Åñëè îíà ñîãëàñèòñÿ, âñå áóäóò ðàäû. 3. Îí ïðèøë¸ò ôàêñ, êàê òîëüêî ïðèáóäåò â Ðèì. Îí íå çíàåò, ïðîáóäåò
ëè îí òàì äåíü èëè íåäåëþ. 4. Åñëè ïðîäþñåð ïîëó÷èò äåíüãè, òî îí ñäåëàåò ïðåêðàñíûé ôèëüì. Íî íèêòî íå çíàåò, êîãäà
îí èõ ïîëó÷èò. 5. Èíòåðåñíî, áóäåò ëè çàâòðà äîæäü. Åñëè åãî
íå áóäåò, òî ìû ïîåäåì çà ãîðîä. 6. Ðîäèòåëè Ìàêñà íå áóäóò
äàâàòü åìó êàðìàííûõ äåíåã äî òåõ ïîð, ïîêà îí íå èñïðàâèò ñâîè äâîéêè. Îí ñîìíåâàåòñÿ, ñóìååò ëè îí ýòî ñäåëàòü.
7. Ñïðîñè å¸, ñîãëàñèòñÿ ëè îíà ïîìî÷ü íàì. Åñëè îíà ñäåëàåò ýòî, òî ó íàñ íå áóäåò ïðîáëåì. 8. Åñëè êîðàáëü äîñòèãíåò
ýòîé ïëàíåòû, òî ó÷¸íûå ïîëó÷àò ìíîãî èíòåðåñíûõ ñâåäåíèé.
Èíòåðåñíî, ñêîðî ëè ýòî ïðîèçîéä¸ò? 9. — Åñëè ÿ âûïüþ ýòîò
êîôå, òî íå ñìîãó çàñíóòü ñåãîäíÿ. — Õîòåëîñü áû óçíàòü,
êîãäà æå òû ïåðåñòàíåøü ïèòü êîôå ïî âå÷åðàì? 10. ß ñäåëàþ ýòî ïîçæå, åñëè ó ìåíÿ áóäåò âðåìÿ. Íî ÿ íå çíàþ, êîãäà îíî ó ìåíÿ ïîÿâèòñÿ. 11. Íèêòî íå äîëæåí óõîäèòü, ïîêà íå
âåðí¸òñÿ óïðàâëÿþùèé, îäíàêî íèêòî íå çíàåò, êîãäà îí ïðèä¸ò. 12. Åñëè ìû íå ïîëó÷èì ôàêñ ñåãîäíÿ, òî çàâòðà ïðèä¸òñÿ
ëåòåòü â Ëîíäîí. — Èíòåðåñíî, ñóìååì ëè ìû êóïèòü áèëåòû?
28.10. Употребите правильную форму глагола в скобках.
1. Hurry up! Your father mot (wait) for you if you not (be) ready
in five minutes. 2. If he (get) the car in time from the service
station, he (collect) the children from school. 3. If the battery
(run) low, I not (be able) to call you. 4. If Andrew (switch) on his
answering machine, he (read) our message. 5. We not (know) if
she (get) the job. When the interview (be) over, she (email) us.
Unit
U
n
nit
it 2
29
9
tî be exciting — to be excited
Употребительные выражения с глаголом be и причастием II (3-я форма глагола):
1. be amused
16. be hurt
2. be bored (with)
17. be interested in
3. be broken
18. be mistaken
4. be closed
19. be made of (from)
5. be challenged
20. be married (to)
6. be crowded (with)
21. be gone
7. be devoted (to)
22. be pleased (with)
8. be disappointed (in, with)
23. be prepared (for)
9. be divorced (from)
24. be satisfied (with)
10. be drowned
25. be scared (of )
11. be engaged (to)
26. be surprised
12. be excited (about)
27. be spoiled
13. be exhausted (from)
28. be terrified (of )
14. be finished (with)
29. be tired (of )
15. be frightened (of )
30. be worried (about)
Все эти выражения передают факты или состояния человека. Прилагательное даёт характеристику чего-то или кого-то. Причастие II выражает состояние кого-то или чего-то.
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My job is interesting. — I’m really interested.
This moment is so exciting. — We’re so excited.
The party is boring. — Many people are bored.
It was a challenging1 match. — He was challenged to beat the boxer.
Сравните также:
be made of
to consist of (состоять из чегото, материал присутствует
в предмете)
The carpet is made of wool.
The dress is made of silk.
29.1.
be made from (out of)
(сделано из ..., но конечный продукт
другой)
Butter is made from (out of) milk.
Glass is made from (out of) sand.
Выберите правильное слово.
1. The clowns were very ...................... . The children were ......................
by the show. (amusing/amused).
2. The people in front of me were ...................... and fell asleep. The
film was ...................... . (boring/bored).
3. Everyone was ...................... as the situation was ...................... . (shocking/shocked).
4. It was a ...................... task. The agent was ...................... to do it. (challenging/challenged).
5. Helen is ...................... in many things. She is an ...................... person.
(interesting/interested).
6. It was a very ................... match. All the fans were very ................... .
(exciting/excited).
7. Housework can be very ...................... I am often very ...................... .
(tiring/tired).
8. It was quite ...................... that they got married. But I wasn’t
...................... . (surprising/surprised).
a challenging task — çàäàíèå, òðåáóþùåå îò âàñ ìàêñèìóìà óñèëèé, ñèëû
âîëè; ïðîâåðÿþùåå, ñïîñîáíû âû âûïîëíèòü åãî èëè íåò.
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152
tо be exciting — to be excited
9. I was .................. with the concert. — Yes, it was rather ................... .
(disappointing/disappointed).
10. He is very ...................... He’s going to have an ...................... day. (exciting/excited).
11. At the end of the day we were ...................... . It was a long and
...................... day. (tiring/tired).
12. Many people are ...................... in the Internet today. Working in
the Net is ...................... for me. (interesting/interested).
13. This weather is so .................. , many people are really .................... .
(depressing/depressed).
14. The man gave us a ...................... look. We were ...................... to
fight. (challenging/challenged).
15. Many people were ...................... in the storm. A ...................... man
catches at a straw. (drowning/drowned).
29.2.
Переведите следующие предложения.
1. ß íå ëþáëþ ôèëüìû óæàñîâ. Ìíå âñåãäà ñòðàøíî. 2. Ýòî
áûë èçíóðÿþùèé äåíü. Ìû î÷åíü óñòàëè. 3. Îíà âñåãäà âûãëÿäèò îáåñïîêîåííîé. 4. — Òû óäîâëåòâîð¸í ñâîåé ðàáîòîé? — È äà è íåò. 5. Ìîé ñûí èíòåðåñóåòñÿ êîìïüþòåðàìè. 6. — Îíè æåíàòû? — Íåò, îíè ïðîñòî ïîìîëâëåíû. 7. Íîâîñòü áûëà øîêèðóþùåé. 8. Ìîÿ ìàøèíà ïðîïàëà. ß â øîêå.
9. Ìíå òàê ïðèÿòíî âèäåòü âàñ. 10. Ðåá¸íîê íàïóãàí ýòîé ñîáàêîé. 11. Îí íå áûë ïîäãîòîâëåí ê ýòîìó ýêçàìåíó. 12. Ìíå íàñêó÷èëà ýòà æèçíü.  íåé íåò íè÷åãî âîëíóþùåãî. 13. Ìû çàáëóäèëèñü â ëåñó â÷åðà. 14. Îíà ïîêèíóëà ìåíÿ, è ìî¸ ñåðäöå
ðàçáèòî. 15. Âû îøèáàåòåñü, ýòî íå òàê. 16. Îíà áûëà ïðåäàíà
ñâîåé ñåìüå. 17. Ýòîò ÷åëîâåê óòîíóë äâà ãîäà íàçàä. 18. Óòîïàþùèé çà ñîëîìèíêó õâàòàåòñÿ.
29.3.
Употребите of или from (out of).
1. My sweater is made ...................... wool. 2. These shoes are made
...................... leather. 3. Olive oil is made ...................... olives. 4. Sugar
is made .................... beet. 5. This furniture is made .................... wood.
6. You can get petroleum .................... coal. 7. Chocolate is made
................... coffee, milk, butter and sugar. 8. — What is your jacket
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made .................... ? — It’s made .................... leather. 9. This cottage
is made .................... brick. 10. — Is your scarf made .................... pure
wool? — No, it’s acrylic. 11. My spoons are made ...................... silver.
12. This medicine is made ...................... snake poison. 13. Yogurt is
made .................... sour cream and different fruits. 14. Oil is made
................... sunflowers. 15. Coffee is made .................... coffee beans.
16. Orange juice is made ...................... oranges. 17. Marmalade is
made ...................... oranges. 18. — What are your earrings made
................... ? — They are made ...................... silver. 19. These blankets are
made ...................... wool. 20. Our office equipment is made ......................
plastic. 21. Sugar on Cuba is made ...................... sugar cane. 22. These
plates and glasses are made ...................... paper. 23. Cornflakes are
made ...................... corn or oats and different fruits and nuts.
29.4.
Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Ñòåêëî äåëàþò èç ïåñêà. 2. Áåíçèí ïîëó÷àþò èç íåôòè.
3. Êîâ¸ð ñäåëàí èç øåðñòè. 4. — Èç ÷åãî ñäåëàíî ýòî êîëüöî? — Èç áåëîãî çîëîòà. 5. Ïîÿñ ñäåëàí èç òêàíè è áóñ (beads).
Îí î÷åíü êðàñèâûé. 6. Ñûð, ìàñëî, ñìåòàíó äåëàþò èç ìîëîêà.
7. Áëóçêà î÷åíü äîðîãàÿ, îíà ñäåëàíà èç ÷èñòîãî ø¸ëêà. 8. Áóìàãó äåëàþò èç äåðåâà. 9. Ìóêó äåëàþò èç çåðíà. 10. Õëîïüÿ
äåëàþò èç ïøåíèöû èëè êóêóðóçû. 11. Ëó÷øèå âèíà äåëàþò
èç âèíîãðàäà. 12. Ýòîò êðåì ñäåëàí (ñîñòîèò) èç ðàçëè÷íûõ
ôðóêòîâ. 13. Çèìíèå âåùè ñëåäóåò äåëàòü èç øåðñòè. 14. Âèñêè — ýòî ñèëüíûé àëêîãîëüíûé íàïèòîê, êîòîðûé äåëàþò
èç çåðíà (corn). 15. Øêàòóëêà ñäåëàíà èç äåðåâà. 16. Øëÿïêà ñäåëàíà èç ñîëîìêè. 17. Ôóòëÿð ñäåëàí èç ïëàñòìàññû.
18. Ñêîâîðîäà ñäåëàíà èç ÷óãóíà (cast iron). 19. Áðþêè ñøèòû
èç õëîïêà. 20. Ïàëüòî ñäåëàíî èç êàøåìèðà (cashmere). 21. Êîðàáëè äåëàþò èç æåëåçà. 22. Îôèñíîå îáîðóäîâàíèå îáû÷íî
äåëàþò èç ïëàñòèêà. 23. Ýòî ïëàòüå ñäåëàíî èç ðûáüåé êîæè.
24. Ïî óòðàì ìåòðî îáû÷íî ïåðåïîëíåíî. 25. ß áåñïîêîþñü î
áóäóùåì ìîèõ äåòåé. 26. Ýòà øóáà ñäåëàíà èç ëèñû. 27. Ìû
áûëè óäèâëåíû òåì, ÷òî áàíê çàêðûò. 28. ß óñòàëà, ÿ èçìó÷åíà, ÿ îáèæåíà. 29. Ñ ìîåé ïðåæíåé æèçíüþ ïîêîí÷åíî. Ìîÿ
íîâàÿ æèçíü íà÷èíàåòñÿ ñ ïîíåäåëüíèêà. 30. Îíà ðàçî÷àðîâàëàñü â í¸ì, è èõ ðàçâåëè â ïðîøëîì ãîäó.
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Íàñòîÿùåå ñîâåðøåííîå âðåìÿ 1
Present Perfect 1
Утвердительная
форма
Вопросительная
форма
I
I
arrived
we
have
We
been
Have
you
You (‘ve)
gone
they
They
He
She
It
has
(‘s)
arrived
been
Has
gone
We’ve just arrived at
the station.
They’ve been here
for a month.
He’s done the task.
he
she
it
Отрицательная
форма
arrived?
been?
gone?
I
We
You
They
have not
(haven’t)
arrived
been
gone
arrived?
been?
gone?
He
She
It
has not
(hasn’t)
arrived
been
gone
Have you just arrived
at the station?
Have you been here
for a month?
Has he already done
the task?
We haven’t arrived at the
station yet.
They haven’t been here for
a month.
He hasn’t done the task yet.
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UNIT 30
Случаи употребления
Примеры
1. Законченное действие, связанное
с настоящим моментом.
I’ve bought a new dictionary.
We’ve just done the work.
2. Действие, выражающее
предшествующий опыт, результат
(положительный или отрицательный).
I have always liked music.
Have you ever been to England?
He has never heard about it.
3. Действие, которое началось
в прошлом, длилось в течение какогото времени и всё ещё продолжается.
С глаголами, не имеющими формы
Continuous: be, have, see, hear, know,
understand, realize, like, hate, love, believe,
own, possess. Употребляется с предлогами
for (для обозначения периода времени)
и since (для обозначения момента,
с которого началось действие).
I have had this dog for two years.
They have been friends all their
lives.
We have known each other since
we met in 2004.
He has been here for three hours.
They have owned this cottage
since they built it.
Обстоятельства времени:
ever, never, just, already, before, always, not... yet, lately, recently, so far, up till now,
for (in) a long time.
already — употребляется в утвердительных и вопросительных предложениях.
I have already done it. I have done it already.
Has he already come? Has he come already?
yet — употребляется в вопросительных и отрицательных предложениях, как
правило, в конце предложения.
Have you done it yet (already)?
He hasn’t done it yet. She hasn’t come yet.
30.1. Поставьте следующие предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную формы.
1. Íå has bought a new bike. 2. I’ve sent a letter to my friend.
3. She has made a very bad mistake. 4. The children have gone
to bed. 5. I have seen a mouse in the kitchen. 6. We’ve met our
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Настоящее совершенное время 1
business partners. 7. I’ve lost my student identity card. 8. They
have cleaned their rooms. 9. The tourists have visited the National Gallery. 10. The teacher has checked our tests. 11. Harry has broken his car. 12. I’ve forgotten his phone number.
13. They have left for Rome. 14. Mary has seen this film. 15. We
have read this detective story. 16. He has taken my credit card.
30.2. Употребите already или yet. В некоторых случаях возможны оба варианта.
1. Has your new office furniture arrived ...................... ? 2. I haven’t
met our new secretary ...................... . 3. Have you ...................... finished
breakfast? 4. They haven’t got married ......................, but they have
...................... signed the contract. 5. The film festival hasn’t begun
...................... , but we have bought the tickets ...................... . 6. It has
...................... stopped raining. 7. Has it stopped snowing ...................... ?
8. — I have ...................... paid all my bills. — And I haven’t done
it ...................... . 9. — Have you seen the new movie ...................... ? __
Yes, we have ...................... seen it. 10. Has Michael left for work
...................... ? 11. — I’m half an hour late ...................... — Don’t worry.
The meeting hasn’t started ...................... . 12. — I’ve ...................... had
coffee, thank you. — But you haven’t tasted my apple pie
...................... . 13. So, have you ...................... got those faxes? — Yes,
but we haven’t answered them ...................... 14. — Have you heard
the latest news ...................... ? — Yes, Dick has ...................... told me
about it. 15. — Has she spoken to you ...................... ? — Yes, we’ve
...................... discussed everything.
30.3. A. These are the things which Jessica and Robert have to do before they
leave for their holiday. Write what they have already done and what they
haven’t done yet.
Jessica
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Pack suitcase. + ..................................................................................................................
Make bed. + ...........................................................................................................................
Switch off lights. + .........................................................................................................
Water plants. — .................................................................................................................
Have a shower. — ...........................................................................................................
Take the cat to the neighbour. + .......................................................................
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Robert
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Pack suitcase. — ...............................................................................................................
Cancel visits. + ...................................................................................................................
Turn off computer. — ..................................................................................................
Close windows. — ............................................................................................................
Tidy the room. — .............................................................................................................
Wash hair. + .........................................................................................................................
В. Расскажите о делах, которые Вы должны сделать и которые:
à) Âû óæå ñäåëàëè;
á) åù¸ íå ñäåëàëè, íî ñîáèðàåòåñü ñäåëàòü (óòî÷íèòå, êîãäà
èìåííî).
30.4. Употребите правильную форму глагола в скобках.
1. Jack (pass) the interview and he’s very happy. 2. I’m afraid
the manager not (come) yet. 3. Thank you for everything that
you (do) for us. 4. I already (study) the telexes from Paris and
I (write) the answers. 5. I’m afraid he (forget) that you are
waiting for him. 6. You (have) dinner yet? 7. I not (see) my boss
this week. He (fall ill). 8. They just (call) and (invite) us to lunch.
9. — Where is Mr. Green? — He (go) to the bank. 10. My little
cousin already (learn) to read. 11. No news (come) yet from our
office in London. 12. Someone (eat) all the cakes and I not even
(taste) one! 13. Remember that your children already (grow up).
14. This Hollywood star (live) a long and interesting life. 15. I not
(look through) my favourite magazine yet. 16. My mother
(throw away) the yogurt. It’s too old. 17. I (cut) my finger badly.
It hurts. 18. She already (make) different sandwiches for lunch.
They are on the plates. 19. She (be) very lonely lately. 20. We
not (meet) recently. We (be) very busy lately.
30.5. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. — Âû óæå êóïèëè ïîäàðêè ê Ðîæäåñòâó? — Äà, ÿ êóïèëà
âñ¸, ÷òî íóæíî. 2. Ëåòîì ÿ ñîáèðàþñü ïðî÷èòàòü âñå êíèãè, êîòîðûå ïîêà åù¸ íå ïðî÷èòàëà. 3. Ìîÿ ëþáèìàÿ êîøêà òîëüêî ÷òî ðàçáèëà ìîþ ëþáèìóþ ÷àøêó. 4. — Òû ïîëèëà öâå158
Настоящее совершенное время 1
òû? — Íåò åù¸. 5. — Îí ñòàë äðóãèì ÷åëîâåêîì! — Äà, îí
î÷åíü èçìåíèëñÿ! Îí îòðàñòèë áîðîäó. 6. Îíà ïðîæèëà òðóäíóþ, íî èíòåðåñíóþ æèçíü. 7. — Òû ïîìåíÿëà íîìåð òåëåôîíà? — Íåò, ÿ òîëüêî ÷òî ïåðååõàëà íà íîâóþ êâàðòèðó. 8. Ñåãîäíÿ ìû âûó÷èëè äåñÿòü ôðàíöóçñêèõ ñëîâ. 9. — Îíà âûêëþ÷èëà óòþã? — Îíà îïÿòü çàáûëà ýòî ñäåëàòü! 10. Âîò ìîÿ
òåòðàäü. ß èñïðàâèë âñå ñâîè îøèáêè. 11. Îí òîëüêî ÷òî çàêîí÷èë ðàáîòó, âûêëþ÷èë êîìïüþòåð è ñîáèðàåòñÿ èäòè äîìîé. 12. — Îí óæå âûìûë ìàøèíó? — Äà, îí î÷åíü ëþáèò
ñâîþ ìàøèíó è äåëàåò ýòî êàæäûé äåíü. 13. — Âîçüìè çîíòèê, èä¸ò äîæäü. — ß óæå ïîëîæèëà åãî â ñóìêó. 14. — Ïîñìîòðè, ñíåã ïîêðûë âñ¸ âîêðóã. — Äà, íàêîíåö-òî íàñòóïèëà çèìà. 15. — Âû ñäàëè ýêçàìåí? — Âñå ñòóäåíòû ñäàëè, à
Íèíà — íåò. Ìû âîîáùå íå âèäåëè å¸ â ïîñëåäíåå âðåìÿ.
30.6. Употребите правильную форму глагола в скобках.
1. — You (see) the latest video game? — No. I not (see) it yet. I
am not a gameaholic. 2. Sorry, I think I (lose) the file. You (see)
it? — No, I not (see) it. 3. My computer (crash). May I use yours?
4. You’re late. The plane already (take off). 5. Hurrah! We (win)
the match! We’re the champions now. 6. Your taxi just (arrive).
7. I’m afraid Fiona isn’t here. She (leave) the office. 8. — Hi,
John. I not (see) you for ages! — Hi, Ted. I’m sorry that I not
(be) in touch with you recently. I really (be) very busy all this
time. 9. — You (finish) the report yet? — No, I (write) only half
of it. 10. — You (speak) to your parents today? — I just (call)
them. 11. — They (reply) to your email? — Yes, we just (get)
a fax from them. 12. You (see) my mobile? I’m sure I (leave) it
here. 13. They say that this bank (collapse) and many people
(lose) their savings. 14. At last I (do) what I always (want) to
do. 15. Look! It (stop) raining and the sun (come out). 16. Since
October the dollar (fall) by 10 percent against the other main
currencies.
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Íàñòîÿùåå ñîâåðøåííîå âðåìÿ 2
Present Perfect 2
31.1. Составьте вопросы, используя следующие слова, согласно образцу и
дайте на них полный ответ.
You, play, football? — Have you ever played football? — I have never
played football.
1. Your friend, invite, his/her house? 2. You, be, the North Pole?
3. She, use, the Internet? 4. You, lose, keys? 5. You, be late,
for the plane? 6. Your son, have, pets? 7. You, write, poems?
8. You, play, music group? 9. You, eat, snakes (frogs, snails, ...)?
10. Your parents, give, good pocket money? 11. You, meet, a
famous person? 12. You, have, a dog or a cat? 13. You, travel,
without a ticket, on public transport? 14. You, win, money, in a
lottery? 15. You, find, some money, on the street? 16. You, see,
a flying saucer? 17. You, ride, a camel or an elephant? 18. Your
father, take you, to a football match? 19. Your mother, grow,
roses? 20. You, be, in the jungle?
31.2. Составьте предложения, используя always и never, согласно образцу.
I, like, him. — I have always liked him. (Он мне всегда нравился).
She has never liked him. (Он ей никогда не нравился).
1. Íå, want, be, an astronaut. 2. She, like, English. 3. Women,
be interested in fashion. 4. You, want to live in your own flat.
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Настоящее совершенное время 2
5. My brother, try, to become famous. 6. This actor, be popular.
7. I, never, love, chocolate. 8. That doctor, have, a lot of patients.
9. Winters, be cold, in Russia. 10. The climate, be changeable,
in England. 11. I, want, to teach people. 12. My mother, like, to
cook pizza. 13. My friends and I, dream of Africa. 14. My sister,
like, bright colours. 15. My cat, not catch, mice. 16. I, be interested, in computers. 17. My brother, be, a football fan. 18. I, not
like, noisy parties.
31.3. Употребите gone или been, согласно образцу:
You can‛t see her now. She‛s gone out. (Её здесь нет. Она ушла).
She is here. She‛s just been to the café. (Она здесь. Она только что
была в кафе).
1. My parents have just come back. They have ...................... to
Italy. 2. The chief is here now. He has ...................... at a conference.
3. — Isn’t Kate here? — No, she has ...................... home already.
4. — Where have you ...................... ? — I have ...................... to the
library. 5. You won’t be able to speak to the Minister. He has
...................... to the Parliament. 6. — Have you ever ...................... to
Brazil? — No, never, but my friends have just ...................... there.
7. I know London well. I have ...................... there many times.
8. There is a new shop on our street, but I haven’t ......................
there yet. 9. Where has the manager ...................... ? I’m waiting
for him. 10. — How long has this client ...................... here? — But
he has already ...................... away. 11. My friends aren’t in Moscow
at the moment. They have ...................... to the country. 12. I’m
happy to see you. I know that you have ...................... away. 13. This
detective doesn’t live here any longer. He has ...................... away.
14. Sorry that I kept you waiting. I have ...................... to the bank.
15. Susan has ...................... to a party, call her tomorrow.
31.4. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. — ß áûë â Àíãëèè äâà ðàçà. À âû òàì áûëè êîãäà-íèáóäü? —
ß òîëüêî ÷òî áûë íà Áðèòàíñêèõ îñòðîâàõ. 2. — Òû âñåãäà
áûë òàêîé ðàññåÿííûé? — Ê ñîæàëåíèþ, äà. 3. — Äåòè, âû
ñíÿëè îáóâü? — ß ñíÿë, à Ìàøà — íåò. Îíà îïÿòü çàáûëà
ïðî ýòî. 4. Îí íèêîãäà â æèçíè íå ìûë ïîñóäó. Îí âîîáùå
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âñþ æèçíü áûë ëåíèâûé. 5. — Ïî÷åìó îí íå ïîçâîíèë ìíå? —
Îí òîëüêî ÷òî óëåòåë â Øòàòû. 6. — Âû êîãäà-íèáóäü âèäåëè îëåíåé â ëåñó? — ß íå âèäåë, à ìîé îòåö âèäåë ïðîøëûì
ëåòîì. 7. — Âû ñëûøàëè ïîñëåäíèå íîâîñòè? Îíè èíòåðåñíûå? — Íåò, ÿ èõ åù¸ íå ñëûøàë. 8. Ïðèøëà îñåíü. Ìíå íèêîãäà íå íðàâèëîñü ýòî âðåìÿ ãîäà. 9. Îí åù¸ íå ïðèáûë. Áîþñü, ÷òî ÷òî-òî ñëó÷èëîñü. Îí íèêîãäà â ñâîåé æèçíè íå îïàçäûâàë. 10. Òåïåðü ÿ ïîíèìàþ, êàê ñèëüíî ÿ ïî âàì ñîñêó÷èëñÿ. Ãäå âû áûëè âñ¸ ýòî âðåìÿ? 11. — Âû êîãäà-íèáóäü îòäûõàëè çà ãðàíèöåé? — Íåò, âåäü ÿ ñòóäåíò, íî ÿ âñåãäà õîòåë
óâèäåòü ìèð. 12. Åìó íèêîãäà íå íðàâèëàñü ÿïîíñêàÿ åäà. Îí
å¸ òåðïåòü íå ìîæåò. 13. — Êòî çíàåò àäðåñ Áîðèñà? — Íèêòî íå çíàåò, îí òîëüêî ÷òî ïåðååõàë íà íîâóþ êâàðòèðó, è ÿ
íå âèäåë åãî â ïîñëåäíåå âðåìÿ. Äàâàéòå ïîçâîíèì åãî ìàìå.
14. — Ýòî ìîé ñûí. — ß òàê äàâíî åãî íå âèäåë. Ãäå îí áûë
âñ¸ ýòî âðåìÿ? — Îí áûë â Àìåðèêå. 15. Æèçíü òàê ñèëüíî
èçìåíèëàñü! Êîìïüþòåðû, ñîòîâûå òåëåôîíû, Èíòåðíåò ñòàëè
÷àñòüþ íàøåé æèçíè.
31.5. Употребите правильную форму глагола в скобках.
1. You ever (speak) in front of a large audience? 2. I never (be)
in Africa, but my friend just (come) back from there. 3. They
(be) partners for many years but they never (trust) each other.
4. You ever (ride) s motorbike? 5. Let’s talk, we never (discuss)
such matters seriously. 6. We never (meet) better people than
you are! You are the best! 7. You ever (travel) in the mountains?
8. I never (grow) roses in my garden. 9. — You (try) this pie?
I (cook) it myself! — I never (taste) anything more delicious.
10. We are a team. We never (let down) one another. 11. I (learn)
a lot in the last months. 12. — Just listen! She (fall in love)! —
Who with?
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Íàñòîÿùåå ñîâåðøåííîå âðåìÿ 3
Present Perfect 3
32.1. Распределите следующие слова и фразы в соответствующие две колонки.
last Sunday; yesterday; a fortnight; September; Saturday night;
a few days; I was 20; ages; a few hours; three years; 2003;
last month; ever; a week; lunchtime; a long time; Christmas;
10 years; 12:30; a few minutes
Example
We have been here
for
since
a few days
2003
....................................................
....................................................
....................................................
....................................................
32.2. Употребите for или since.
1. Mrs. Honey has been a teacher ...................... thirteen years.
2. My father has had this car ...................... half a year. 3. We have
known each other ...................... . 2004. 4. I haven’t heard from her
...................... a long time. 5. They haven’t had news from home
...................... May. 6. The astronauts have been in space ......................
a year already. 7. She has had a toothache ...................... morning.
8. Mr. and Mrs. Parker have been married ...................... ten years.
9. The tourists have been in Russia ...................... a week. 10. He has
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loved her ...................... he first saw her. 11. She has been interested
in Art ...................... she visited Paris. 12. Dick has been able to
count and read ...................... he was three years old. 13. He hasn’t
been anywhere ...................... he got into hospital. 14. I have known
her ...................... my babyhood. 15. He has been in this business
...................... he came back from the Army. 16. He has owned this
firm ...................... ten years.
32.3. Составьте вопросы, используя How long...? Ответьте на них, используя
for или since.
1. know your best friend? (two years). 2. have a computer?
(last year). 3. play the guitar? (a few years). 4. live in this city?
(childhood). 5. be interested in girls/boys? (fourteen years)
6. be a reporter? (graduate from University). 7. be in love?
(first meet). 8. have problems with your children? (become
teenagers). 9. own this dacha? (1970). 10. there be mice in the
shop? (autumn). 11. want to be a doctor? (a long time). 12. be
interested in computer technology? (last year). 13. wear glasses?
(six years). 14. be angry with each other? (a week). 15. be in this
country? (last Monday). 16. have a boyfriend? (several months).
17. there be a karaoke club here? (last winter).
32.4. Употребите правильную форму глагола в скобках.
1. Íå (be) unwell since he (catch) a bad cold. 2. We not (meet)
since she (emigrate) 3. Mr. Stone (be) with the company since
1995. 4. I not (have) a rest since I (begin) working on this project. 5. We (know) each other since we (be) kids. 6. I not (be) in
London for a long time. 7. My friends (own) this house since
they (move) to the country. 8. She (make) good progress since
she (begin) to work. 9. We (be) in the library since ten o’clock
but we not (find) the necessary books yet. 10. Life (change)
greatly for her since she (get) married. 11. We not (hear) from
them since they (fly) to New York. 12. — You (be) friends since
you (enter) the University? — No, we (be) friends since we (be)
at school. 13. I (have) a room of my own since we (get) a bigger
flat two years ago. 14. Life (become) more difficult since this
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Настоящее совершенное время 3
war (start). 15. The little girl (be) very happy since she (get)
that doll. 16. You (be) kind and helpful to us ever since you
(come) to live in our little town.
32.5. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. ß â óíèâåðñèòåòå ñ óòðà, ó íàñ áûëî äâà çàíÿòèÿ, îäèí ñåìèíàð, íî ëåêöèè ïîêà íå áûëî. 2. Îíè ÿâëÿþòñÿ ïàðòí¸ðàìè ñ òåõ ïîð, êàê (îíè) îñíîâàëè ýòó ôèðìó. 3. Ïðîøëî ìíîãî ëåò ñ òåõ ïîð, êàê ìû âñòðåòèëèñü. 4. ß óæå íåñêîëüêî ëåò
íå áûë íà ׸ðíîì ìîðå. 5. Êàíèêóëû òîëüêî ÷òî çàêîí÷èëèñü,
è ÿ ïîíèìàþ, êàê ñèëüíî ñîñêó÷èëàñü ïî ñòóäåí÷åñêîé æèçíè. 6. Ìàøèíà íå â ïîðÿäêå ñ òåõ ïîð, êàê òû áðàë å¸ íà ïðîøëîé íåäåëå. ×òî òû ñäåëàë ñ íåé? 7. Ëþäè â ïîëå ñ òåõ ïîð,
êàê âñòàëî ñîëíöå. 8. Ó ìåíÿ ýòè ÷àñû óæå äåñÿòü ëåò, è îíè
íè ðàçó íå îñòàíîâèëèñü. 9. ß ìíîãî ðàç ÷èòàëà ýòó êíèãó
è ñîáèðàþñü ïðî÷èòàòü å¸ åù¸ ðàç. Îíà ìíå î÷åíü íðàâèòñÿ.
10. Îí ñòàë î÷åíü àãðåññèâíûì ñ òåõ ïîð, êàê ïîòåðÿë ðàáîòó. 11. ß íè÷åãî ñ óòðà íå åë, îäíàêî âûïèë äâå ÷àøêè êîôå.
12. — Òû ñúåë ÿáëîêè, êîòîðûå áðàë ñ ñîáîé â øêîëó? — Äà,
ÿ èõ ñúåë âî âðåìÿ ïåðåðûâà. 13. Åñëè âû âûìûëè ðóêè, äåòè,
ñàäèòåñü çà ñòîë. Áóäåì ïèòü ÷àé. 14. Íèêòî íå âèäåë ìîé ìîáèëüíûé òåëåôîí? Âåäü îí áûë íà ñòîëå ìèíóòó íàçàä. 15. —
ß íàøëà ïàïêó, êîòîðàÿ òåáå íóæíà. — Ãäå òû íàøëà å¸? —
Îíà áûëà â ÿùèêå ñòîëà. 16. Âàø àíãëèéñêèé çàìåòíî óëó÷øèëñÿ (to improve) ñ òåõ ïîð, êàê ÿ ñëûøàë âàñ â ÿíâàðå.
17. Îíè íèãäå íå áûëè ñ òåõ ïîð, êàê ó íèõ ïîÿâèëñÿ ðåá¸íîê.
18. Öåíû î÷åíü âûðîñëè çà ïîñëåäíåå âðåìÿ. 19. Ïîêà ÷òî ÿ íå
î÷åíü-òî ìíîãî ñäåëàë, ÷òîáû ïîìî÷ü òåáå. 20. Ýòî êíèãè, êîòîðûå ó ìåíÿ óæå ëåò äâàäöàòü. 21. Íè÷åãî ïîäîáíîãî ñî ìíîé
ðàíüøå íå ñëó÷àëîñü. 22. Çäåñü î÷åíü äàâíî íå áûëî äîæäÿ.
23. Ñ òåõ ïîð êàê ÿ ñëîìàë ðóêó, ÿ óæå íå â ñîñòîÿíèè èãðàòü
â òåííèñ. 24. Ó ìåíÿ íèêîãäà íå áûëî ïðîáëåì ñ ìîèìè äåòüìè
è íàäåþñü, ÷òî èõ íå áóäåò. 25. Âû ïîêà íå îáúÿñíèëè íàì, çà÷åì ïðèøëè ñþäà è ÷òî âàì íóæíî.
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Present Perfect
Past Simple
Выражает законченное действие,
связанное с настоящим моментом.
Употребляется со следующими
словами: just, already, recently,
lately, still, yet, never, ever, so far,
until, up till now.
Выражает законченные действия или
события в прошлом.
Употребляется со следующими
словами: ago, just now, yesterday,
last..., the day before yesterday, the
other day (на днях).
Сравните:
She has just called me.
I have already done it.
We have met a few times.
It has just happened.
She called me just now.
I did it yesterday.
We met last year.
It happened long ago.
1. В вопросах, начинающихся с when, употребляется только Past Simple.
When did you do it? When did it happen?
2. В специальных вопросах, начинающихся с Where, How, Who, What, Why,
What ... for, возможны оба времени:
Why have you done it? — Why did you do it?
3. Co словами today, this week (month, year, ...) возможны оба времени.
Сравните:
Did you read the paper this morning?
(Сейчас уже не утро, важен факт.)
Have you read the paper this morning?
(Сейчас ещё утро, важен результат.)
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Настоящее совершенное время 3
33.1. Употребите глаголы в скобках в Present Perfect или Past Simple.
1. — When you (be) at the theatre last? — I (go) there two
weeks ago. 2. — You ever (be) at the Bolshoi Theatre? — No, I
not (be) there yet. 3. The Chinese (invent) many useful things.
4. Just listen to him! He again (invent) another story. 5. My boss
just (offer) me another job. 6. I can’t find my new disc. I’m
afraid I (lose) it. 7. I was very much upset when I (lose) my new
mobile phone. 8. They (get married) in Las Vegas. 9. They are
very happy. They just (get married). 10. She (go) out an hour
ago and not (come) back yet. 11. He not (be) at work yesterday.
He (be) unwell. 12. He not (come) to work today. He (be) unwell
lately. 13. I (speak) to him the other day. 14. I not (speak) to him
today. 15. It (happen) many years ago. 16. Nothing (change) in
my life recently. 17. My secretary (call) me just now. 18. You not
(make) any progress so far. 19. Life (be) kind to me up till now.
20. Life (be) hard for him when he was a child.
33.2. Ответьте на следующие вопросы.
1. When and where were you born? 2. When did you move
to Moscow (or to the area where you live now)? 3. When did
you begin to walk and to speak? 4. When did you go to school?
Who was your first teacher? 5. When did you first fall in love?
6. When did you first see the sea? Where was it? 7. When did you
start learning English? 8. When did you enter the University?
9. When was the last time you went to the circus? 10. When
was your last visit to the theatre? 11. When did you last go
shopping? 12. When was the last time you went to a party?
13. When did you last talk frankly to your parents? 14. When
did you last have a holiday?
33.3. Употребите правильную форму глагола в скобках.
1. She is an intelligent girl, but she not (read) a book since she
(leave) school. 2. I (buy) an electronic organizer today, and I just
(type) my personal data into it. 3. Her solo album already (sell)
a million copies. She is happy. 4. This doctor’s methods (show)
good results recently. 5. So much (happen) since I last (see) you.
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6. — You ever (be) in Norway? — Yes, I (go) there on business
last year. 7. — You (miss) a lecture recently? — I (miss) one a
week ago. 8. Success not (spoil) her. She simply (become) more
sure of herself. 9. I (have) a video for some years but I not
(manage) to learn the instructions. 10. We not (have fun) for
a long time. We (have) our last party a month ago. 11. — How
long Lucy (have) problems with her back? — It first (start) last
year. 12. We (be engaged) since we (leave) high school. 13. —
You always (have) a dog? — I (have) it for the last six years.
14. — Guess what I (decide) to do! — I can’t guess. What? —
I (decide) to start my own business. — When you-(decide) to do
it? — I (think) about it just now. 15. It not (rain) here for a very
long time. 16. Yesterday all your troubles (seem) so far away.
Today the thieves (take) your car away!
33.4. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. — ×òî âû ñêàçàëè? — ß íè÷åãî íå ãîâîðèë. 2. — Ïî÷åìó
òû ñäåëàë ýòî? — ß íå ìîãó ñêàçàòü òåáå. 3. — Êàê ýòî ñëó÷èëîñü? — ß íè÷åãî íå ïîìíþ. 4. — Êòî ïðèãëàñèë òåáÿ íà
âå÷åð? — Îäèí èç ìîèõ äðóçåé. 5. Ãäå âû âïåðâûå âñòðåòèëèñü? 6. — Êòî ïîäàðèë òåáå ýòè ÷óäåñíûå öâåòû? — Ìîé
äðóã. 7. ×òî ïðîèçîøëî â÷åðà âå÷åðîì? 8. Ïî÷åìó âû íå áûëè
íà ðàáîòå â ïðîøëóþ ïÿòíèöó? 9. Êàêóþ èç ýòèõ äâóõ òåì òû
âûáðàë, íàêîíåö? 10. Äëÿ ÷åãî òû íà÷àë ýòîò ðàçãîâîð? 11. Ïî÷åìó òû íå ïîçâîíèëà ìíå â÷åðà? ß äîëãî æäàë. 12. Êòî ðàçáèë îêíî? Êòî ýòî ñäåëàë? 13. Íà ýòîé íåäåëå ÿ íå âñòðå÷àëñÿ
ñî ñâîèìè äðóçüÿìè. 14.  ýòîì ìåñÿöå ÿ íå êóïèëà ñåáå íè÷åãî íîâîãî. 15.  ýòîì ãîäó ïðîèçîøëî ìíîãî ñîáûòèé. 16. ß òàê
äàâíî íå ÷èòàë íè÷åãî èíòåðåñíîãî. 17. ß äàâíî ÷èòàëà ýòîò
ðîìàí, ÿ äàæå íå ïîìíþ àâòîðà. 18. Ìû çäåñü óæå î÷åíü äàâíî. Ïîðà åõàòü äîìîé. 19. Ìû áûëè â Ñî÷è ìíîãî ëåò íàçàä.
Ñ òåõ ïîð ãîðîä î÷åíü èçìåíèëñÿ. 20. Ìû âñòðåòèëèñü äàâíî
è ñ òåõ ïîð äðóæèì. Íî ìû óæå äàâíî íå âèäåëèñü, ïðàêòè÷åñêè ïîëãîäà. Âñå òàê çàíÿòû. 21. — Êóäà òû ïîëîæèëà ìîé
ïàñïîðò? — ß åãî íå âèäåë. 22. — Êóäà òû õîäèë? — ß áûë â
ñòîëîâîé. 23. Êóäà îíà óøëà? Îíà ìíå î÷åíü íóæíà.
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Present Perfect Progressive
(Continuous)
Утвердительная
форма
I
We
You
They
He
She
It
Вопросительная
форма
I
been
we
been
have (’ve)
Have
living
you living ...?
they
has (’s)
been
Has
living
I’ve been living in
Moscow for twenty years.
He has been working
since nine o’clock.
he
she
it
been
living ...?
Have you been living
in Moscow for twenty
years?
Has he been working
since nine o’clock?
Отрицательная
форма
I
We
You
They
have not been
(haven’t) living
He
She
It
has not
(hasn’t)
been
living
I haven’t been living
in Moscow for twenty
years.
He hasn’t been working
since nine o’clock.
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Случаи употребления
Примеры
1. Действие, которое началось в
прошлом, длилось в течение какогото времени и всё ещё продолжается.
(Переводится на русский язык глаголами
несовершенного вида в настоящем
времени.)
I’ve been learning to drive a car
for a month. (учусь)
How long has he been studying
Chinese? (изучает)
Have you been waiting for me for
a long time? (ждешь)
2. Действие, которое началось в
прошлом, продолжалось какойто период времени, только что
закончилось и результат этого действия
очевиден. (Переводится на русский
язык глаголами несовершенного вида
в прошедшем времени.)
— Why are your boots so dirty?
— I’ve been playing football.
(играл)
He looks tired, he has been
running fast. (бежал)
34.1. Поставьте следующие предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную формы.
1. It has been raining for a week already. 2. Clients have been
waiting for the manager since morning. 3. The baby has been
crying for an hour already. 4. I’ve been living next door to Alice
for five years. 5. She has been waiting for this moment all her
life. 6. He has been drinking again! 7. They’ve been discussing
the plan for hours. 8. Students have been smoking in this room.
9. The detective has been watching the house for the last few
days. 10. The young people have been dating for half a year
already. 11. The secretary has been checking the e-mail since
she came to the office. 12. She has been speaking on the phone
all the morning. 13. The boys have been fighting again! 14. The
sun has been shining all day long today.
34.2.
Ответьте на следующие вопросы. Используйте слова-подсказки согласно образцу.
— How long have you been waiting? (two hours)
— I have been waiting for two hours.
1. How long has the phone been ringing? (ten minutes) 2. How
long have we been driving? (six hours) 3. How long has she been
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looking forward to this chance? (all her life) 4. How long have
your parents been living on Baker Street? (1980) 5. How long
have they been building the ring-road? (several years) 6. How
long has it been snowing? (last night) 7. How long have you
been having problems with your teeth? (school) 8. How long
has your friend been resting in the South? (...) 9. How long have
people been queuing outside the theatre? (six o’clock) 10. How
long have you been feeling bad? (yesterday morning) 11. How
long has your friend been listening to this loud music? (all day
long) 12. How long has Vladimir been working at this office?
(two years)
34.3. Ответьте на следующие вопросы.
1. How long have you been living in this city? 2. How long have
you been a student and how long have you been studying in
this group? 3. Have you been studying English for a long time?
4. How long have you been writing this test? 5. How many
days have you been staying in this hotel? 6. How long have you
been sorting out the mail today? 7. How long have you been
babysitting? 8. Have you been doing this work for a long time?
9. How long have you been smoking? 10. How long have you
been wearing these boots? 11. How long have you been working
on the computer? 12. What has your mother just been cooking?
34.4. Употребите правильную форму глагола в скобках.
1. — You (be) partners? — Yes, we (found) this company ten
years ago and since then we (work) together. 2. I (think) about
it all day long today and I just (make) a decision. 3. — You
ever (do) such work? — Yes, I (do) it since I left the college.
4. I’m afraid you not (be able) to drive the car. You (drink)!
5. — Where I (leave) my mobile phone?! — But you just (speak)
on it. 6. — How long he (have) this computer? — He (buy) it
two years ago. 7. — Where is Olga? — She (fall ill). She (catch
a cold) two days ago and now she (feel) really bad. 8. — The
information (come) just now. It (be) very important. We (wait)
for it since yesterday. 9. — You (hungry)? — No, I just (have)
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lunch. 10. He (be) very busy lately. In fact, he (work) all round
the clock in the last two months. 11. At last I (find) the site I
(look) for since morning! 12. You (work) in the garden too long
today. Let’s go into the house and have a nice cup of tea. And
I (bring) some tasty cakes for you. 13. — You (live) a happy
life? — I think so, as all my life I (do) only what I wanted.
14. He (try) to start his bike for half an hour already but so far
he not (manage) to do it. 15. — Why you (open) the window
while I was out? — I (want) to air the room. 16. — Why you
(open) the window? I’m cold. Will you close it?
34.5. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Îíè îáñóæäàþò ýòîò âîïðîñ î÷åíü äàâíî, íî ïîêà íè÷åãî
íå ðåøèëè. 2. Ìû íå âñòðå÷àëèñü ñ òåõ ïîð, êàê îí óåõàë â
Ëîíäîí. Íî âñ¸ ýòî âðåìÿ ìû ïåðåïèñûâàåìñÿ. 3. — Ïî÷åìó
òâîè âîëîñû ìîêðûå? — ß ïëàâàëà. 4. Ãäå ìîè î÷êè? Ãäå ÿ
èõ îïÿòü îñòàâèëà? Íó ïî÷åìó ÿ èõ âñ¸ âðåìÿ òåðÿþ? 5. Ïîëèöèÿ ñëåäèò çà íèì âîò óæå íåñêîëüêî äíåé è ñîáèðàåòñÿ
àðåñòîâàòü åãî. 6. — ß çäåñü óæå ïîë÷àñà. À òû ãäå áûë? —
ß áûë â ëàáîðàòîðèè. 7. Ó íåãî ìàëåíüêèé áèçíåñ. Îí ó íåãî
óæå íåñêîëüêî ëåò. 8. — Òû ïðî÷èòàë èíñòðóêöèþ ê òåëåôîíó? — Äà, ÿ ñäåëàë ýòî ìèíóòó íàçàä. 9. Ìû òîëüêî ÷òî
áûëè â çîîìàãàçèíå (petshop) è íàêóïèëè ìíîãî åäû íàøåé
ñîáàêå. 10. — Ïîñìîòðè! Êîðîáêà ïóñòàÿ. Êòî-òî ñúåë âñå êîíôåòû! — Ýòî òî÷íî Ëèçà. Îíà âñåãäà áûëà ëþáèòåëüíèöåé
øîêîëàäà. — À ÿ íè îäíîé êîíôåòêè íå ïîïðîáîâàëà. 11. Îíà
ðàññòðîåíà. Îíà òîëüêî ÷òî áûëà â áàíêå, íî å¸ äåíüãè åù¸ íå
ïðèøëè. 12. — Ïðîñòè ìåíÿ! — Óæå ïðîñòèëà è âñ¸ çàáûëà.
13. — Òû æó¸øü âñ¸ òî âðåìÿ, ÷òî ìû ñ òîáîé ðàçãîâàðèâàåì. Òû íå ñëûøàë, ÷òî ýòî âðåäíî (ïëîõî)? — Äà, ýòî ïëîõàÿ
ïðèâû÷êà. 14. — Âû ñëûøàëè ïîñëåäíèå íîâîñòè? — Íó à êòî
æå èõ íå ñëûøàë? Âñå óæå çíàþò èõ. 15. — Òû êîãäà-íèáóäü
ïûòàëàñü áðîñèòü (give up) êóðèòü? — ß ìíîãî ðàç ïûòàëàñü
ñäåëàòü ýòî, íî ïîêà ìíå íå óäàëîñü ñäåëàòü ýòî. 16. — È êàê
äàâíî âñ¸ ýòî ïðîäîëæàåòñÿ? — Ýòî âñ¸ íà÷àëîñü â ïðîøëîì
ãîäó.
Unit
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35
5
Èìÿ ïðèëàãàòåëüíîå
The Adjective
Форма
Степень
сравнения Положительная
Positive
Сравнительная
Comparative
Превосходная
Superative
Синтетическая
(одно- и двусложные
прилагательные)
-er, -est
nice
hot
long
happy
nicer
hotter
longer
happier
nicest
hottest
longest
happiest
Аналитическая
(многосложные
прилагательные)
more, most
interesting
beautiful
comfortable
serious
more interesting
more beautiful
more comfortable
more serious
most interesting
most beautiful
most comfortable
most serious
Примечание. Прилагательные angry, clever, common, cruel, friendly,
gentle, handsome, narrow, pleasant, polite, quiet, simple могут иметь как синтетические, так и аналитические формы степеней сравнения.
simpler
simplest
more simple
most simple
handsomer
handsomest
more handsome
most handsome
simple
handsome
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UNIT 35
1. Перед существительным, определяемым прилагательным в превосходной
степени, как правило, употребляется определённый артикль.
She is the tallest girl in our class.
He is the most serious boy in my group.
2. Следующие прилагательные не имеют степеней сравнения, так как выражают абсолютную степень качества:
woollen, golden, wooden, American, Russian, Italian, weekly, daily, middle, dead, pregnant, left, right, empty, perfect, square, round, medical, full,
unique
3. При сравнении двух лиц или предметов употребляется сравнительная
степень. Сравните:
Of the two books this one is more interesting.
Dick is the taller of the two brothers.
Положительная
степень
Сравнительная
степень
Превосходная
степень
good
bad
little
much
many
better
worse
less
best
worst
least
more
most
It’s a good day today.
The weather is better
today.
He makes less progress
in his study than his
friend.
They have more time
in summer than in winter.
It’s the best day in the
whole summer.
He has made the least
progress in the group.
He makes little progress
in his study.
Children have much
free time in summer.
174
Most of his time is spent
on working.
Имя прилагательное
Употребительные выражения:
— to change for the worse (for the better) — меняться к худшему (к лучшему);
— to do one’s best — сделать всё возможное;
— to be of the same age — быть одного возраста.
35.1. Дайте степени сравнения следующих прилагательных.
Able, bright, cool, cold, dark, careful, clever, big, early, bad,
high, hot, funny, famous, important, serious, pretty, busy, wise,
comfortable, interesting, difficult, small, happy, polite, delicious,
tasty, cheap, expensive, weird.
35.2. Напишите слова с противоположным значением.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
old ......................................................
full .....................................................
sour ...................................................
short .................................................
right .................................................
left .....................................................
poor ...................................................
noisy .................................................
narrow ...........................................
long ...................................................
low .....................................................
heavy ...............................................
first ...................................................
fat .......................................................
fast ....................................................
dry .....................................................
dangerous ....................................
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
beautiful ............................................
many ....................................................
hard .......................................................
much ....................................................
little .......................................................
bad .........................................................
cheap ....................................................
simple ..................................................
early ......................................................
sad ..........................................................
stupid ...................................................
modern ...............................................
private ................................................
weak .....................................................
sick .........................................................
kind .......................................................
easy .......................................................
35.3. Употребите правильную форму слов в скобках.
1. Today people seldom write letters. It’s (easy) to phone. 2. — Do
you feel (good) now than yesterday? — No, I am feeling much
(bad). 3. France is (big) than England. 4. She’s (beautiful) girl he
175
UNIT 35
has ever met. 5. My flat isn’t big. I’d like to have a (big) one. 6. It
was (cold) yesterday than it is today. 7. Our climate is getting
(warm) and (warm). 8. It was (bad) mistake I’ve ever made in
my life. 9. Who is (important) person in your life? 10. She is
(clever) than her sister. 11. This actor looks much (young) in life
than on TV. 12. Let’s move to the sittingroom. It’s (light) there.
13. He is (smart) man in the world and she is (kind) woman
of all. 14. What is (good) film you’ve ever seen? 15. You’ll live
(long) if you eat (little). 16. This computer is (expensive) than
that one. 17. The English language is (easy) than the German
language. 18. My life now is (interesting) than it used to be.
19. Cats are (easy) to keep than dogs. 20. It was (difficult) exam
I had ever taken. 21. People live much (long) nowadays than
they used to.
35.4. Дайте степени сравнения следующих прилагательных.
Angry, fast, shy, simple, accurate, neat, sweet, aggressive,
resilient, exciting, charming, tough, tidy, sour, common, thrilling,
boring, loyal, lazy, tolerant, talkative, careless, attractive,
competent, cute.
35.5. Дополните следующие предложения.
1. The sooner ... . 2. The more you work, ... . 3. The harder you
study, ... . 4. The longer I stay here, ... . 5. The more serious you
are, ... . 6. The faster the car, ... . 7. The warmer the weather,
... . 8. The longer the night, ... . 9. The busier he is, ... . 10. The
younger you are, ... . 11. The older you are, ... . 12. The bigger the
house, ... . 13. The more money you earn, ... . 14. The heavier the
traffic, ... . 15. The more you learn, ... .
35.6. Дополните следующие предложения необходимыми по смыслу словами из правой колонки.
1.
2.
3.
4.
176
It’s as easy as
I am as free today as
She was as happy as
He was as busy as
a.
b.
ñ.
d.
a bee
a rest
snow
the world
Имя прилагательное
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
A change is as good as
It was as black as
She was as white as
He is as slow as
It’s as old as
She is as pretty as
He is as drunk as
This man is as brave as
It’s as safe as
He is as obstinate as
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
l.
m.
n.
a calendar picture
a lord
the wind
a soldier (a lion)
the Bank of England
ABC; 1, 2, 3
a donkey
a child
night
a tortoise
35.7. Употребите as или than.
1. The test isn’t ...................... difficult ...................... it seems. 2. He
doesn’t earn ...................... much money ...................... she does. 3. She
earns more ...................... he does. 4. He is more lucky ...................... I am.
5. I’ve known them longer ...................... you. 6. Moscow is bigger
...................... St. Petersburg. 7. She doesn’t know English ......................
well ...................... he does. 8. This site is more interesting ......................
that one. 9. Better late ...................... never. 10. I don’t know business
...................... well ...................... they do. 11. You eat more ...................... is
necessary for you. 12. The weather is worse today ...................... it
was yesterday. 13. The film isn’t ...................... good ...................... the
book. 14. We don’t travel ...................... often ...................... our friends.
15. My life is more interesting now ...................... it was some years
ago. 16. People in Italy live longer ...................... anywhere else in
the world.
35.8. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Íîâûé ãîä — ñàìûé çàìå÷àòåëüíûé ïðàçäíèê â ãîäó.
2. Êíèãà — ñàìûé õîðîøèé ïîäàðîê. 3. ×åì ñêîðåå òû ïîêèíåøü ñòðàíó, òåì ëó÷øå. 4. Ýòî ñàìûé âîñõèòèòåëüíûé ïèðîã, êîòîðûé ÿ êîãäà-ëèáî åë. 5. ×åì áîëüøå ÿ äóìàþ îá ýòîì,
òåì ìåíüøå ïîíèìàþ ýòî. 6. Íåò íè÷åãî ëó÷øå, ÷åì ÷àøå÷êà ãîðÿ÷åãî øîêîëàäà. 7. Ïîñòàðàéòåñü ñäåëàòü ñâîé äîêëàä
êàê ìîæíî êîðî÷å. 8. Äëÿ íåãî íåò íè÷åãî âàæíåå, ÷åì åãî êàðüåðà. 9. Èç äâóõ áðàòüåâ Ãåíðè áîëåå óìíûé. 10. Ì¸ä — ñà177
UNIT 35
ìûé ñëàäêèé ïðîäóêò. 11. Êàêîå èç ýòèõ äâóõ ëåêàðñòâ áîëåå ýôôåêòèâíî? 12. ×åì áîëüøå ëþäåé ïðèä¸ò íà âå÷åð, òåì
ëó÷øå. 13. ×åì ìåíüøå òû áóäåøü çíàòü, òåì ëó÷øå. 14. Îí
íå òàêîé óìíûé, êàê òû äóìàåøü. 15. Ðóññêèé ÿçûê ãîðàçäî òðóäíåå, ÷åì àíãëèéñêèé. 16. Íàøà íîâàÿ ìàøèíà ãîðàçäî áîëüøå è äîðîæå, ÷åì ñòàðàÿ. 17. Ýòî ñàìîå ìåíüøåå, ÷òî ÿ
ìîãó ñäåëàòü äëÿ âàñ. 18. Ýòî áûë ñàìûé ïëîõîé äåíü â ìîåé
æèçíè. 19. Ìîÿ ïîäðóãà ÷àñòî îáúÿñíÿåò ìíå ãðàììàòè÷åñêèå
ïðàâèëà, òàê êàê ÿ çíàþ ãðàììàòèêó ãîðàçäî õóæå, ÷åì îíà.
Ýòî ìî¸ ñàìîå ñëàáîå ìåñòî.
35.9.
Прочитайте и переведите следующие предложения. Объясните употребление степеней сравнения прилагательных.
1. Universities try to select the most able pupils. 2. Matilda was
the brightest pupil in her class. 3. You know that everything
looks better in the morning. So you must sleep on it. 4. The
weatherman says that the weather is again changing for the
worse. 5. She is talking into the smallest mobile phone. 6. He
looked like the handsomest man she’d ever seen in her life.
7. It’s the weirdest thing I’ve ever heard. 8. I think that the less
they know the less they have to worry about. 9. The sooner you
forget it the better. 10. This is the oldest untruth in the book of
Lies. 11. They had a late lunch with cheese, delicate blinis with
the finest caviar. 12. The child behaved in the most impossible
way. 13. I’m happier now than I’ve ever been in my life. 14. It’s
more difficult to find a good job now than it was twenty years
ago. 15. You are the cleverest man in Oxford and the laziest. If
you’re not careful, you’ll end up in Parliament. 16. The grass is
always greener on the other side of the road. («Ó äðóãèõ âñåãäà
âñ¸ ëó÷øå».) 17. The more I know people, the more I like dogs,
(àíãëèéñêàÿ ïîñëîâèöà).
35.10. Обсудите следующие темы.
1. Your best friend. 2. Your proudest achievement. 3. Your
greatest regret and disappointment. 4. Your strongest belief.
5. Your most important decision. 6. Your biggest inspiration.
7. Your most memorable dream. 8. The most important lesson
178
Имя прилагательное
life has taught you. 9. The best year of your life. 10. The person you admire most. 11. The thing that interests you most in
people. 12. The last time you fell in love. 13. The three most important people in your life. 14. The most courageous act you’ve
ever made. 15. The three most important principles which you
follow.
35.11. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Ôàêñ — ñàìîå ýôôåêòèâíîå ñðåäñòâî îáùåíèÿ. 2. Íàø ãîðîä
ñòàíîâèòñÿ âñ¸ áîëåå êðàñèâûì. 3. Ñèòóàöèÿ ñåé÷àñ ãîðàçäî
õóæå, ÷åì ÿ äóìàë. 4. Âàòèêàí — ñàìîå ìàëåíüêîå ãîñóäàðñòâî â Åâðîïå. 5. — Êîãäà ìû âñòðåòèìñÿ? — ×åì ñêîðåå, òåì
ëó÷øå. 6. Ýâåðåñò — ñàìàÿ âûñîêàÿ âåðøèíà ìèðà. 7. Îí óñèëåííî òðåíèðóåòñÿ. Îí õî÷åò áûòü ñàìûì ñèëüíûì ìàëü÷èêîì
â ñâîåé êîìàíäå. 8. Òû îøèáàåøüñÿ. È ÷åì ñêîðåå òû ïîéì¸øü
ýòî, òåì ëó÷øå äëÿ òåáÿ. 9. Îí ñàìûé ëåíèâûé ïàðåíü, êîòîðîãî ÿ êîãäà-ëèáî âñòðå÷àëà. 10. Âòîðàÿ êíèãà ãîðàçäî èíòåðåñíåå, ÷åì ïåðâàÿ. 11. Ìîé äåíü ðîæäåíèÿ — ñàìûé ëó÷øèé
äëÿ ìåíÿ äåíü â ãîäó. 12. — Ïîãîäà ìåíÿåòñÿ ê ëó÷øåìó èëè
ê õóäøåìó? — ß íå ñëûøàëà ïðîãíîçà ïîãîäû íà ñåãîäíÿ.
13. Ðàçëè÷íûå øîó ñòàíîâÿòñÿ âñ¸ áîëåå ïîïóëÿðíûìè íà òåëåâèäåíèè. 14. Ðîáåðò òàêîé æå óìíûé, êàê è åãî îòåö. 15. Ýòî
ñàìûé î÷àðîâàòåëüíûé (cute) ìàëûø, êîòîðîãî ÿ êîãäà-ëèáî
âèäåëà. 16. Ìåòðî — ñàìûé óäîáíûé òðàíñïîðò â áîëüøèõ
ãîðîäàõ. 17. Èç äâóõ áðàòüåâ Ñåðãåé áîëåå ñåðü¸çíûé. 18. Îí
ñàìûé ñïîñîáíûé èç ìîèõ ñòóäåíòîâ. 19. Àâñòðàëèÿ — ñàìûé
ìàëåíüêèé êîíòèíåíò, íî ýòî ñàìûé áîëüøîé îñòðîâ â ìèðå.
20. Õîòÿ Âåðîíèêå ñòîëüêî æå ëåò, ñêîëüêî è âñåì íàì, îíà
ñàìàÿ òàëàíòëèâàÿ èç íàñ.
Unit
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36
6
Äâîéíûå ñòåïåíè ñðàâíåíèÿ
ïðèëàãàòåëüíûõ
later
(более поздний)
the latest
(самый новый,
свежий, последний
по времени
появления)
the latter
(последний
из двух
перечисленных)
the former
(первый из двух
перечисленных)
last
(прошлый
во времени)
the last
(последний
по порядку)
Let’s go by a later train.
I usually watch the latest news.
I met Max and Henry in the street, the former (первый) said “Hello”, but the
latter (последний) didn’t recognize me.
I am the last, but not the least.
Last year we went to the Crimea.
Read the last sentence, please.
She will always have the last word.
180
Двойные степени сравнения прилагательных
nearest
(ближайший в значении
расстояния в прямом
и переносном смысле)
nearer
(более
близкий)
next (следующий
по времени)
the next (следующий
по порядку)
Let’s sit nearer to the stage.
What are your nearest plans?
He lives nearest to the school.
I’ll see Ann next week.
The next stop is ours.
older
(старше
no возрасту)
oldest
(самый старший
по возрасту)
elder
(старший —
родственные
отношения)
eldest
(самый старший
по положению)
Mary is much older than Peter.
He is the oldest of the five children.
Boris is my elder brother.
He is the eldest at our office.
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UNIT 36
farther
(более дальний)
farthest
(самый дальний)
further
(дальнейший,
последующий)
furthest
(самый дальний)
Обе формы могут обозначать расстояние:
Не went farther (further) into the wood.
They sat at the farthest (furthest) table.
Ho:
We are waiting for further instructions.
There was no further comment.
36.1. Заполните пропуски соответствующей формой прилагательных.
I. Late.
1. What is ...................... news? 2. On Saturdays I get up ......................
than on week-days. 3. Wear pink. It’s ...................... fashion. 4. She
is dying to tell me ...................... gossip. 5. Let’s talk about it a
bit ......................, shall we? 6. I have two nieces: Kate and Rose
......................_ is a student, ...................... is a schoolgirl. 7. Scientists use
...................... technologies to clone people. 8. He is always ......................
to learn ...................... news. 9. We use ...................... methods in language
learning. 10. She got married ...................... month. 11. When was
...................... time you bought something new for yourself? — It
was ...................... week.
II. Near.
1. My house is ...................... to the metro station than my mother’s.
2. There is no one ...................... to me than you, my dear. 3. The
...................... to the equator, the hotter it is. 4. What are your
...................... plans? 5. ...................... stop is ours. 6. ...................... week you’ll
get your money. 7. You’ll find the exercise on ...................... page.
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Двойные степени сравнения прилагательных
8. They are going to the Alps ...................... month. 9. ...................... bistro
is just round the corner. 10. Come ...................... to me, I can’t hear
you well. 11. ...................... lecture will be on the History of the
English language.
III. Old.
1. — Is your husband as ...................... as you are? — No, he is
five years ...................... than me. 2. Of the four children Masha is
...................... . 3. John’s ...................... brother is a chemist. 4. Brian is
...................... at our office, though he is the youngest man here.
5. The ...................... she gets, the more difficult she is. 6. My
...................... sister is very close to me. 7. What are ...................... books
in the world?
IV. Far.
1. How ...................... is the Earth from the Sun? 2. He lives ......................
from the metro station than all his classmates. 3. We found the
boy in ...................... corner of the garden. 4. You’ll see, she’ll go
very ...................... in life. 5. The private detective went ......................
into the case. 6. It’s not enough. We need ...................... calculations.
7. At concerts I prefer to sit ...................... from the stage, as the
music is usually too loud. 8. ...................... instructions will be given
tomorrow. 9. ...................... we went into the forest, the more lost we
got. 10. ...................... and ...................... went the scouts trying to find
the way. 11. This time, my dear, you’ve gone too ...................... You
should apologize to avoid ...................... trouble.
36.2. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Òû îáìàíóëà ìåíÿ íà ïðîøëîé íåäåëå. È ýòî ïîñëåäíèé
ðàç, êîãäà ÿ âåðþ òåáå. Òàê ÷òî â ñëåäóþùèé ðàç äóìàé, ÷òî
òû ãîâîðèøü. 2. Ýòî ïîñëåäíÿÿ îñòàíîâêà. Àâòîáóñ äàëüøå íå
ïîéä¸ò. 3. Íà ñëåäóþùåé íåäåëå ó íàñ áóäåò íîâîå ðàñïèñàíèå. 4. Ëó÷øå ïîçäíî, ÷åì íèêîãäà. 5. Ïî÷åìó ó òåáÿ êîëüöà
â íîñó? Ýòî ÷òî, ïîñëåäíÿÿ ìîäà? 6. — Ñåãîäíÿ ïîñëåäíèé
äåíü ñåññèè. Ïðîøëàÿ íåäåëÿ áûëà î÷åíü òÿæ¸ëîé. — Íó íè÷åãî, çàòî áóäåì îòäûõàòü íà ñëåäóþùåé íåäåëå. 7. — Êòî
èç âàñ ñòàðøå — òû èëè Êðèñòèíà? — Êðèñòèíà íà äâà ãîäà
ñòàðøå ìåíÿ. 8. Íå óõîäè äàëåêî îò äîìà, ýòî íåáåçîïàñíî.
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UNIT 36
È íå ïðèõîäè ïîçæå 10 ÷àñîâ. 9. — ×åì çàíèìàåòñÿ òâîé
ñòàðøèé áðàò? — Îí þðèñò, îí ðàáîòàåò â êîìïàíèè. 10. Ýòî
áûëî ïîñëåäíåå ïèñüìî, êîòîðîå îíè ïîëó÷èëè îò íåãî. 11. Ïîñëåäíèå ñîáûòèÿ íàñ íå ðàäóþò. 12. Ýòî ïîñëåäíèé ðàç, ÷òî ÿ
ïðåäóïðåæäàþ âàñ. 13. ß íå äóìàþ, ÷òî îí çàéä¸ò òàê äàëåêî.
14. — Âû ñõîäèòå íà ñëåäóþùåé îñòàíîâêå? — Íåò, ÿ ñõîæó
íà ïîñëåäíåé îñòàíîâêå. 15. ×åì äàëüøå âû æèâ¸òå îò öåíòðà ãîðîäà, òåì ëó÷øå âîçäóõ. 16. ×åì áîëüøå ìû ó÷èìñÿ,
òåì áîëüøå ìû çíàåì. ×åì áîëüøå ìû çíàåì, òåì áîëüøå çàáûâàåì. ×åì áîëüøå ìû çàáûâàåì, òåì ìåíüøå çíàåì. Çà÷åì
æå òîãäà ó÷èòüñÿ? 17.  ýòîì àëüáîìå ñîáðàíû âñå ïîñëåäíèå
õèòû. 18.  ïðîøëîå Ðîæäåñòâî òû ïîäàðèëà ìíå ñâîþ ëþáîâü.  ñëåäóþùåå Ðîæäåñòâî ìû ïîæåíèìñÿ. 19. — Êòî îòâå÷àåò ñëåäóþùèì? — ß ïîñëåäíèé (ïî ïîðÿäêó), íî íå ñàìûé
ïîñëåäíèé ÷åëîâåê. 20. Îíè èãðàþò â øàõìàòû óæå íåñêîëüêî
÷àñîâ. Ñëåäóþùèé õîä äåëàåò Ãàððè. 21. Òåáå ëó÷øå ïîñëóøàòü å¸. Âñ¸ ðàâíî ïîñëåäíåå ñëîâî áóäåò çà íåé.
Unit
U
n
nit
it 3
37
7
Àðòèêëè ñ ãåîãðàôè÷åñêèìè
íàçâàíèÿìè
Ìèðîâàÿ ãåîãðàôèÿ
World Geography
Названия
the
—
1. Части света,
континенты,
страны,
регионы,
города, деревни
Если в названии государства есть
нарицательное существительное:
the Russian Federation, the
United Kingdom of Great Britain
and Northern Ireland, the United
States of America, the Irish
Republic;
Europe, Asia,
Australia, North
(South) America,
Africa
а также названия стран во мн. ч.:
the Netherlands, the Philippines,
the United Arab Emirates;
Russia, Ukraine,
Italy, England, Latin
America, SouthEast Asia, Northern
Africa, Southern
France
названия следующих регионов,
областей, городов:
the Antarctic, the Arctic (Circle), the
Crimea, the Caucasus, the Far East,
the Riviera, the Midlands, the Lake
District, the Middle East, the Ruhr,
the Tyrol, the Hague [heɪg] (Гаага)
Moscow, St.
Petersburg, Rome,
London, Dubrovo,
Peredelkino
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UNIT 37
Продолжение табл.
Названия
the
—
2. Океаны,
моря, проливы,
каналы, реки,
озёра, заливы,
водопады,
полуострова
the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific
Ocean, the Indian Ocean,
the White Sea, the Black Sea,
the Mediterranean Sea, the
English Channel, the Gulf Stream,
the Panama Canal, the Volga,
the Mississippi, the Thames
(the River Thames), the Baikal,
the Seliger, the Swallow Falls,
(the) Niagara Falls
Ho: Lake Baikal,
Lake Seliger
Но: названия
заливов и
полуостровов
употребляются
без артикля:
Hudson Bay,
Kamchatka,
Сравните: Kola —
the Kola Peninsula
Scandinavia —
the Scandinavian
Peninsula
3. Горные
цепи, группы
островов
the Urals, the Alps, the Rocky
Mountains (the Rockies), the
Himalayas, the Andes, the Canaries,
the British Isles, the Kurilas, the West
Indies
Но: названия
горных вершин
и отдельных
островов:
Elbrus, Everest,
Vesuvius,
Poklonnaya Gora,
Cuba, Cyprus, Haiti,
Easter Island
Запомните:
Bermuda or
the Bermuda
Triangle
4. Пустыни
the Gobi, the Sahara Desert, the
Kara-Kum, the Kalahari
37.1. Употребите артикль, если это необходимо.
1. ...................... Europe extends from ...................... British Isles in the
west towards ...................... Urals in the east, 2. ...................... Australia
is the smallest continent but it is the largest island in the
186
Артикли с географическими названиями
world. 3. ...................... Russian Federation is the official name
of ...................... Russia. 4. ...................... USA is the official name of
...................... America. 5. ...................... Canada is in ...................... North
America. 6. ...................... Kenya is in ...................... Africa. 7. ......................
Atakama is a desert in ...................... South America. 8. ......................
Mississippi is a famous river. 9. ...................... Luxemburg is a
small country in ...................... Europe between ...................... France,
...................... Belgium and ...................... Germany. 10. ......................
Turkey is situated on two continents:_____ Asia and ......................
Europe. 11. ...................... Monaco is a small country on ......................
Mediterranean Sea. 12. ...................... Bermuda Triangle is a
mysterious place. 13. ...................... Gulf Stream is a warm current.
14. The highest peak in ...................... North America is ......................
Mount McKinley. 15. ...................... Cuba is an island. 16. There are
many wild animals in ...................... Rocky Mountains. 17. ......................
Mexico, ...................... New York, ...................... Tokyo and ......................
Moscow are the biggest and the most populated cities in the
world. 18. ...................... Crimea and ...................... Caucasus are popular
resorts. 19. Many centuries ago ...................... Vesuvius destroyed
...................... Pompeii.
37.2. Какие из данных ниже географических имён употребляются с определённым артиклем? (См. также Unit 38.)
A. 1. Everest 2. Jenisei 3. Bermuda 4. Elbrus 5. Hudson Bay
6. Laptev Sea 7. Urals 8. Kalahari 9. Volga 10. Carpathians
11. Indian Ocean 12. Madeira 13. Etna 14. English Channel
15. Palm Beach 16. Arctic Circle 17. Olympus 18. New Forest
19. South Pole 20. Bridge of Sighs 21. Jutland Peninsula
22. Suez Canal 23. Swallow Falls 24. Sicily 25. London Bridge
26. Kara-Kum 27. Lake Chad 28. Amur 29. Malay Archipelago
30. Aleutian Islands
B. 1. United Arab Emirates 2. Ukraine 3. Far East 4. Brussels
5. Netherlands 6. Booker Prize 7. Hague 8. Philippines 9. Art
Theatre 10. Northern Europe 11. St. James’s Park 12. Peacock
Inn 13. Baker Street 14. Russian Museum 15. Salisbury Cathedral
16. Wailing Wall 17. Middle East 18. Southern Africa 19. Roman
Empire 20. Miami Airport 21. Nobel Prize 22. Republic of
187
UNIT 37
Ireland 23. Athens 24. Winter Palace 25. Republican Party
26. Eiffel Tower 27. National Association of Teachers 28. Alaska
29. Village of Sosnovka 30. Central Asia.
37.3. Ответьте на следующие вопросы.
1. How many continents are there in the world? 2. What
continent do you live in? 3. What is the smallest continent?
And what is the biggest one? 4. What is the highest point on
the Earth and where is it? 5. Name the biggest ocean and the
biggest sea on our planet. 6. What is the longest river on the
globe? 7. There is a famous city, which is in danger of going
under the water. What is it and where is it situated? 8. What
river does Paris stand on? 9. What is the most popular place in
Moscow? 10. What is the longest street in St. Petersburg? 11. Do
you know the name of the town where Shakespeare was born?
What river does it stand on? 12. What is the difference between
a channel and a canal? Name the most famous ones. 13. Name
the smallest country in the world with the population of just
about 800 people. 14. What are the oldest books in the history
of mankind? 15. What are your favourite places in your city,
country or in the world?
37.4. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Åñëè âû ïîåäåòå â Åãèïåò, òî óâèäèòå Íèë è çíàìåíèòûå
ïèðàìèäû. 2. Êðàñíîå ìîðå äåéñòâèòåëüíî êðàñíîå? 3. Êðûì,
Êàâêàç, Äàëüíèé Âîñòîê óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ â àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå ñ
îïðåäåë¸ííûì àðòèêëåì. 4. Ñèöèëèÿ, Ìàëüòà, Êèïð, Êàïðè —
çíàìåíèòûå îñòðîâà. 5. Ïàíàìñêèé êàíàë ñîåäèíÿåò äâà îêåàíà: Òèõèé è Àòëàíòè÷åñêèé. 6. Àìåðèêà ñîñòîèò èç òð¸õ ÷àñòåé: Ñåâåðíîé Àìåðèêè, Öåíòðàëüíîé Àìåðèêè è Þæíîé
Àìåðèêè. 7. Â ìèðå åñòü íåñêîëüêî ìîðåé, íàçâàíèÿ êîòîðûõ
îáîçíà÷àþò öâåòà: Ƹëòîå ìîðå, Êðàñíîå ìîðå, Áåëîå ìîðå è
׸ðíîå ìîðå. 8. Êèòàé — äðåâíÿÿ ñòðàíà íà Âîñòîêå. 9. Ãààãà íàõîäèòñÿ â Íèäåðëàíäàõ. 10. Íàïîëåîí ðîäèëñÿ íà Êîðñèêå, îñòðîâå â Ñðåäèçåìíîì ìîðå. 11. Ìîé îòåö ðîäèëñÿ â
Ñèáèðè, çàòåì ñåìüÿ ïåðååõàëà â Êðûì. 12. Â Ëîíäîíå åñòü
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Артикли с географическими названиями
ìíîãî êðàñèâûõ ìîñòîâ ÷åðåç Òåìçó. 13. Áàéêàë î÷åíü êðàñèâîå îçåðî. 14. Îçåðî Âèêòîðèÿ è ãîðà Êèëèìàíäæàðî íàõîäÿòñÿ â Àôðèêå. 15. Âëàäèâîñòîê íàõîäèòñÿ íà Äàëüíåì Âîñòîêå. 16. Ñêàíäèíàâèÿ âêëþ÷àåò â ñåáÿ Íîðâåãèþ, Øâåöèþ,
Ôèíëÿíäèþ, Äàíèþ è Èñëàíäèþ. 17. — Àìàçîíêà íàõîäèòñÿ â Þæíîé Àìåðèêå, íå òàê ëè? — Íå ìîãó ñêàçàòü òî÷íî.
Ãåîãðàôèÿ âñåãäà áûëà ìîèì ñàìûì ñëàáûì ìåñòîì (a weak
point). 18. Íàø øåô íå çíàåò, êóäà ïîåõàòü íà êàíèêóëû: íà
Áàãàìû èëè æå â Àëüïû. 19. Ýëüáðóñ — ñàìàÿ âûñîêàÿ ãîðíàÿ
âåðøèíà â Åâðîïå. 20. Ïîäâîäíûé òîííåëü ñîåäèíÿåò Áðèòàíñêèå îñòðîâà ñ Ôðàíöèåé.
Unit
U
n it 3
nit
38
8
Àðòèêëè ñ ãåîãðàôè÷åñêèìè
íàçâàíèÿìè
Ãîðîäñêàÿ ãåîãðàôèÿ
City Geography
Названия
the
—
1. Улицы,
площади,
переулки, парки,
леса
(the) High Street, the
Mall, the Strand (улицы
в Лондоне), the Speaker’s
Corner, the Nevsky Prospect,
the Latin Quarter
Tverskaya Street,
Regent Street, Fifth
Avenue, Charing Cross
Road, Park Lane, Red
Square, Manezh Square,
Trafalgar Square,
Gorky Park, Hyde Park,
Jurassic Park
2. Театры,
концертные залы,
музеи, галереи
кинотеатры, отели
дворцы,
рестораны, кафе,
бары
the Bolshoi Theatre, the Art
Theatre, the Chaikovsky
Hall, the Opera House, the
Hermitage, the National
Gallery, the Russian Museum,
the Louvre
Covent Garden, Grand
Opera
Ho: Buckingham
Palace, Maxim’s,
Vadim’s
the Pushkinsky, the Kodak,
the Odeon, the Ritz, the Continental, (the) President Hotel
the Winter Palace, the Taj
Mahal, the Savoy, the Three
Oaks, the Big Bite, the Talk of
the Town
190
Артикли с географическими названиями
Продолжение табл.
Названия
the
—
3. Известные
произведения
искусства,
уникальные
книги, здания
the Great Pyramid, the Mona
Liza, the Sistine Chapel, the
Moonlight Sonata, the Bible,
the Koran, the Acropolis, the
Colosseum, the Roman Wall,
the Kremlin, the White House
4. Аэропорты,
станции, мосты,
зоопарки,
памятники
the Brooklyn Bridge,
the Golden Gate Bridge,
the Bridge of Sighs (in Venice),
the Pushkin Monument,
the Nelson Column
Heathrow (Airport),
Vnukovo (Airport),
Victoria Station,
Taganskaya Station,
Tower Bridge, Waterloo
Bridge, Krymsky
Bridge, London Zoo,
Moscow Zoo
5. Школы,
колледжи,
университеты
Запомните:
the Sorbonne
Richmond Grammar
School, Carnegie
College, Oxford
University, Moscow
University
Сравните:
London University — the University of London (офиц.
название), Chicago University — the University of Chicago
6. Церкви,
приходы, соборы
Trinity Church,
St. Paul’s Cathedral,
St. Basil’s Cathedral,
Westminster Abbey
7. Корабли,
паромы, яхты,
известные поезда
the Magnolia, the Victoria,
(the) Titanic, the Beautiful
Dreamer, the Orient Express
8. Политические и
государственные
учреждения, организации, партии,
исторические
события
the Senate, the State Duma,
Ho: Parliament,
the Cabinet, the Supreme Court, Congress, Whitehall
the Government, the British
Council, the Pentagon, the
Democratic Party, the Second
World War, the Gulf War
191
UNIT 38
Продолжение табл.
Названия
the
—
9. Газеты
(английские
и американские),
журналы,
периодические
издания
the Times, the Observer, the
Financial Times, the Sun, the
Star, the Spectator, the New
Yorker, the American Scientist
С названиями
российских
газет артикль не
употребляется:
Moscow News,
Arguments and Facts,
Economist, Computer
Weekly, Newsweek,
Playboy
10. Спортивные
события
the Olympic Games, the
World Cup, the World
Championship
Ho: Wimbledon
(теннис)
11. Музыкальные
группы
the Beatles, the Rolling
Stones, the Spice Girls
(если сущ. во мн. ч.)
Ho: Queen, Abba,
Gorky Park, A-Ha
38.1. Употребите артикль, если это необходимо.
1. ...................... Bolshoi and ...................... Malyi theatres are the
oldest in ...................... Moscow. 2. It’s impossible to see ......................
Hermitage in one day. 3. ...................... Tate Gallery in ......................
London was founded by Sir Henry Tate. 4. When he comes
to ...................... London, he always stays at ...................... Ritz. 5. The
usual sights of ...................... British capital are: ...................... Houses of
Parliament, ...................... Big Ben, ...................... Tower Bridge, ......................
Tower, ...................... Madam Tussaud’s, ...................... Trafalgar Square.
6. There are always a lot of people on ...................... Manezh Square.
7. Sometimes we dine at the bar “...................... Big Bite”. 8. ......................
Winter Palace faces ...................... Neva. 9. We saw ...................... Mona
Liza when we went to ...................... Louvre in ...................... Paris.
10. ...................... Democratic Party won the elections in ......................
USA. 11. She went to ...................... Richmond Grammar School.
12. ...................... Oxford University is the oldest in ...................... UK.
13. All doctors give ...................... Hippocratic Oath. 14. ......................
Buckingham Palace is the official residence of ...................... Queen
192
Артикли с географическими названиями
of ...................... England. 15. ...................... Olympic Games first started
in ...................... Greece. 16. She works for ...................... Cosmopolitan
17. He used to read ...................... Observer, but now he prefers
...................... Times.
38.2. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Ó Áðèòàíñêèõ îñòðîâîâ äîëãàÿ è èíòåðåñíàÿ èñòîðèÿ.
2. Ìû âñåãäà ñìîòðèì ïîñëåäíèå ôèëüìû â «Êîäàêå». 3. Îí
íà êàíèêóëû åçäèë â Èòàëèþ, è åìó î÷åíü ïîíðàâèëàñü òàì
åäà. Íî êàê òîëüêî îí âåðíóëñÿ â Àíãëèþ, îí ñðàçó æå îòïðàâèëñÿ â ÌàêÄîíàëäñ. 4. — Êîãäà òû â ïîñëåäíèé ðàç
áûëà â Òðåòüÿêîâñêîé ãàëåðåå? — Íå ìîãó âñïîìíèòü, íî íà
ïðîøëîé íåäåëå ÿ áûëà â Ìóçåå èçîáðàçèòåëüíûõ èñêóññòâ.
5. Â Ñåðåáðÿíîì áîðó ìíîãî ñòàðèííûõ äà÷. 6. Íà áåðåãó
Ìîñêâà-ðåêè ñòðîèòñÿ ìíîãî ýëèòíûõ äîìîâ. 7. Ìíå î÷åíü
íðàâèòñÿ «Ëóííàÿ ñîíàòà» Áåòõîâåíà. 8. Èíîãäà ÿ âñòðå÷àþñü ñ äðóçüÿìè â «¨ëêàõ-Ïàëêàõ» íà Ëåíèíñêîì ïðîñïåêòå. 9. Ëåòîì ìû ïîåäåì îòäûõàòü â Êðûì èëè æå íà Êàâêàç. 10. Ìíîãèå çíàìåíèòûå ëþäè áåãàþò ïî óòðàì â Öåíòðàëüíîì ïàðêå â Íüþ-Éîðêå. 11. Ýéôåëåâà áàøíÿ — ñèìâîë Ïàðèæà. 12. Áèã-Áåí — ýòî íå áàøíÿ, ýòî ÷àñû. 13. À ÷òî
èä¸ò íà ýòîé íåäåëå â «Ïóøêèíñêîì»? 14. Íà Òâåðñêîé óëèöå ìíîãî êðàñèâûõ ìàãàçèíîâ. 15. Ó ýòîãî ðåæèññ¸ðà åñòü
âèëëà íà Ôðàíöóçñêîé Ðèâüåðå. 16. Îí ñëîìàë íîãó, êîãäà
êàòàëñÿ íà ëûæàõ â Àëüïàõ.
38.3. Употребите артикль, если это необходимо.
1. I like to have a cappuccino in a Coffee House on ......................
Nevsky Prospect. 2. — Have you ever been to ......................
Russian Museum? — Yes, many times. 3. ...................... Danube
flows through ...................... Germany, ...................... Austria, ......................
Hungary, ...................... Romania and ...................... Bulgaria. 4. When
we were in ...................... Vatican, we admired ...................... Sistine
Chapel. 5. We are flying tomorrow from ...................... Heathrow
airport to ...................... London. 6. ...................... Speaker’s Corner is in
...................... Hyde Park in ...................... London. 7. The concert was
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UNIT 38
given in ...................... Royal Festival Hall. 8. There are three royal
parks in the centre of ...................... London — ...................... St. James’s
Park, ...................... Green Park, ...................... Hyde Park. And there is
a lake in ...................... Hyde Park — ...................... Serpentine. 9. The
usual sights of Moscow are: ...................... Red Square, ......................
Kremlin, ...................... Bolshoi Theatre, ...................... Poklonnaya
Gora, ...................... Tretyakov Picture Gallery. 10. ...................... Beatles
came from ...................... Liverpool. 11. ...................... 7 Days is a very
popular magazine in this country. 12. ...................... Volga flows from
...................... Valdai Hills to ____ Caspian Sea. 13. — Are there any
crocodiles in ...................... Nile? — I hope not. 14. ...................... Pacific is
between ...................... America and ...................... Asia.
38.4. Употребите артикль, если это необходимо.
EARTHQUAKES
The Earth is not a static planet, it is in constant slow motion.
These movements cause earthquakes, which can strike
anywhere in the world. But the largest zone is ...................... Pacific
Ocean. The seismic belt extends from ...................... Chile to the coast
of ...................... South America, ...................... Central America, ......................
Mexico, and ...................... United States. Earthquakes frequently
happen in ...................... Alaska, and then through ......................
Aleutian Islands to ...................... Japan, ...................... Philippine Islands,
...................... New Guinea and to ...................... New Zealand. Another
seismic belt extends from ...................... Java to ...................... Sumatra in
...................... Indonesia, through ...................... Himalayas, on to ......................
Mediterranean, and out into ...................... Atlantic. Unfortunately,
there isn’t a reliable way of predicting an earthquake in order
to evacuate people in time. Some people believe that animals
are very sensitive to earthquakes. Just a few examples from the
previous earthquakes:
Flocks of birds flew in circles for hours, then suddenly flew
away, just before the start of an earthquake.
A few hours before an earthquake cats run out of every
house.
•
•
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Артикли с географическими названиями
•
Thousands of fish jumped into the air, landing on beaches
and dying. It’s also said that dogs howl, pandas moan, and rats
and mice leave their holes long before the earthquake.
Scientists are studying all the factors to predict earthquakes in
...................... Japan, ...................... United States and ...................... Russia —
where the risk is very high.
38.5. Употребите артикль, если это необходимо.
1. After a tour in ...................... Austrian Alps they stayed for a day
or two on ...................... Lake of ...................... Geneva. 2. ...................... Capetown is in ...................... South Africa. 3. The ancient Egyptians
built ...................... Pyramids. 4. ...................... Museum of Fine Arts is
on ...................... Volkhonka. 5. ...................... New York City is situated
at the mouth of ...................... Hudson River on ...................... East coast
of ...................... USA. 6. ...................... Eton College is a famous public
school for boys in ...................... UK. It is in Eton, a small town which
stands on ...................... River Thames. 7. ...................... White Tower in
...................... London was built between 1078 and 1098. 8. When we
were in Vienna, we went to visit ...................... Sigmund Freud Museum. 9. Who built ...................... St. Basil’s Cathedral? 10. ......................
Lowlands are in the south of ...................... Scotland. ...................... Highlands are in the North. 11. ...................... Big Ben in fact is the name
of the largest bell in this clock, but most people call the clock
...................... Big Ben. 12. ...................... Victoria and Albert Museum in
London is worth visiting. 13. ...................... Antarctic is the region
around ...................... South Pole. 14. ...................... Arctic is the area of
the world around ...................... North Pole, where it is extremely
cold. 15. My students at the International Language School are
mostly from ...................... East Asia, ...................... Japan, ...................... China, ...................... Hong Kong. 16. Once, when I was in ...................... Denmark, I was lucky to watch ...................... Northern Lights. It was an
amazing sight!
38.6. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Èñòîðèÿ íàøåé öèâèëèçàöèè — ýòî èñòîðèÿ âåëèêèõ ìîðåé è îêåàíîâ: Ñðåäèçåìíîãî è ׸ðíîãî ìîðåé, Àòëàíòè195
UNIT 38
÷åñêîãî è Òèõîãî îêåàíîâ. 2. Óðàëüñêèå ãîðû äåëÿò íàøó
ñòðàíó íà äâå ÷àñòè. 3. Ëåíà, Îáü, Åíèñåé, Àìóð — âåëèêèå ñèáèðñêèå ðåêè. 4.  ïðîøëîì ãîäó â ßïîíèè ïðîèçîøëî çåìëåòðÿñåíèå. 5. Ó ìîåãî äðóãà áèçíåñ â Ñèíãàïóðå,
Ãîíêîíãå, íà Ôèëèïïèíàõ. 6. Ìîñêîâñêèé çîîïàðê íàõîäèòñÿ íà Áàððèêàäíîé óëèöå. 7.  ̸ðòâîì ìîðå íåò æèçíè, òàê êàê âîäà â í¸ì ñëèøêîì ñîë¸íàÿ. 8. Áåðèíãîâ ïðîëèâ ðàçäåëÿåò Àìåðèêó è Àçèþ. 9. Ãîðîä Íüþêàñë ñòîèò
íà ðåêå Òàéí. 10. Îí æóðíàëèñò è ðàáîòàåò â «Àðãóìåíòàõ
è ôàêòàõ». 11. Ðîìàíñêàÿ ñòåíà — îäíà èç äîñòîïðèìå÷àòåëüíîñòåé Ñåâåðíîé Àíãëèè. 12. Îôèöèàëüíàÿ ñòîëèöà Íèäåðëàíäîâ — Àìñòåðäàì. 13. Âàòèêàí ÿâëÿåòñÿ ðåçèäåíöèåé Ðèìñêîé êàòîëè÷åñêîé öåðêâè. 14. Ïàìÿòíèê Ïóøêèíó
íàõîäèòñÿ â öåíòðå Ìîñêâû. Îí ñòîèò ïåðåä êèíîòåàòðîì
«Ïóøêèíñêèé». 15. Íà Ïóøêèíñêîé ïëîùàäè åñòü äâà ôîíòàíà. 16. Íèàãàðñêèé âîäîïàä — îäèí èç ñàìûõ áîëüøèõ è
êðàñèâûõ â ìèðå. 17. Îí çàêîí÷èë Ìîñêîâñêèé óíèâåðñèòåò â ïðîøëîì ãîäó. 18. Ýòîò ïîëèòèê ïîëó÷èë Íîáåëåâñêóþ
ïðåìèþ â ïðîøëîì ãîäó. 19. Ïðàãà — ñòîëèöà ×åøñêîé Ðåñïóáëèêè. 20. Î÷åíü ìíîãî öâåòîâ ïðèâîçÿò â Ìîñêâó èç Ýêâàäîðà è Ãîëëàíäèè.
38.7. Употребите артикль, если это необходимо. Перескажите текст.
THE SIGHTS OF LONDON
When you come to ...................... British capital, you’ve just got
to know what to see! For the start there are the parks. From
the top of ...................... Primrose Hill you’ll have a wonderful
view of ...................... London. In ...................... Richmond Park you’ll
see the royal deer. ...................... Holland Park is full of beautiful
sculptures and statues. In ...................... Hyde Park people ride
horses and you can walk by ...................... Serpentine, a lake next
door to ...................... Kensington Gardens. Then there’s ......................
St. James’s Park by ...................... Buckingham Palace, very
beautiful. You certainly shouldn’t miss all the treasures of
...................... British Library. You should also see Prime Minister’s
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Артикли с географическими названиями
question time at ...................... Houses of ...................... Parliament,
the markets at ...................... Brick Lane and ...................... Portobello
Road. The Picassos and Van Goghs at ...................... National
Gallery. You can see how ...................... city looks at night and get
a great view across ...................... Thames to ...................... Tate and
...................... Big Ben.
Unit
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39
9
Êîñâåííàÿ ðå÷ü
Reported Speech
Тип предложения
Type of Sentences
Прямая речь
Direct Speech
Косвенная речь
Indirect (Reported) Speech
Утвердительное Liz says, “I’m busy.”
Liz says (that) she is busy.
Declarative
He says to us, “I like London.” He tells us (that) he likes
London.
He says (that) he doesn’t
He says, “I don’t know this
know this man.
man.”
Повелительное
Imperative
They say, “Close the door,
please.”
She says to Bob, “Don’t close
the window.”
The teacher orders the
pupils, “Don’t talk!”
They ask me to close the
door.
She tells Bob not to close
the window.
The teacher orders the
pupils not to talk.
Общий вопрос
General Question
The tourist asks me, “Do you
live in Moscow?”
He asks, “Is it raining now?”
The tourist asks me if I live
in Moscow.
He asks if (whether) it is
raining now.
The chief asks if (whether)
everybody is here.
The chief asks, “Is everybody
here?”
Специальный
вопрос
Special Question
198
I ask them, “Where does Sue
live?”
They ask, “What’s the matter?”
We ask them, “When shall we
meet?”
My friend asks, “Who told you
this?”
I ask them where Sue lives.
They ask what the matter is.
We ask them when we
shall meet.
My friend asks who told
me this.
Косвенная речь
Ãëàãîëû, ââîäÿùèå êîñâåííóþ ðå÷ü
add
advise
allow
ask
explain
inform
comment
observe
order
offer
promise
remark
reply
recommend
refuse
say
tell
think
warn
wonder
39.1. Измените следующие предложения по образцу.
The teacher says, “I have good news for you.” —
The teacher says (that) he/she has good news for us.
1. My sister says, “I don’t want to do this work.” 2. The young
man explains, “I’m not enjoying my life in this small town.”
3. Mother says, “I’m already late.” 4. My friends say, “We can
help you.” 5. Linda complains, “I’ve never been to Paris.” 6. The
manager promises, “You’ll get your money on time.” 7. The
secretary remarks, “I sent the fax two days ago.” 8. These
girls say, “We seldom go to McDonald’s as we don’t like junk
food.” 9. The agent warns the man, “You’ll have to leave the
country immediately.” 10. The weatherman says, “The weather
is changing for the better.” 11. The police officer says, “There
is no parking here.” 12. She says, “I want a job that pays well.”
13. He adds, “I haven’t found a good job yet.” 14. She tells us,
“I’ll call you one of these days.” 15. My father always says, “It’s
never late to learn.” 16. He says, “My friend’s mobile phone has
been out of service for two days already.”
39.2. Измените следующие вопросительные предложения по образцу.
Не asks, “Are you happy?” — He asks if (whether) I am happy.
1. The tourists ask, “Shall we visit the Bolshoi Theatre?”
2. A passer-by asks me, “Do you live in Moscow?” 3. The
manager asks the secretary, “Have you already phoned our
clients?” 4. The gardener asks, “Should I cut the grass?” 5. When
I come home in the evening my parents say, “Did you have a
good day?” 6. He asks, “Am I right or wrong?” 7. My boyfriend
asks, “Were you born on the eighth of March?” 8. Everybody
asks, “Can we trust those people?” 9. My Granny asks, “Will
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you visit me on Sunday?” 10. The students ask the Dean, “Shall
we have a lecture today?” 11. The soldier asks the officer,
“Must I report to the sergeant?” 12. People ask, “Is this a good
film?” 13. We ask him, “Will you come to our party?” 14. These
English tourists ask me, “Are you a Muscovite?” 15. He asks
her, “Are you still working at the supermarket?”
39.3. Измените следующие предложения согласно образцу.
Не asks, “What‛s the matter?” — He asks what the matter is.
She asks, “Where do you live?” — She asks where I live.
1. She asks the students, “Who is (the) Dean of your Faculty?”
2. She asks, “How much money is there on my account?” 3. I ask
the old woman, “Who helps you with housework?” 4. The client asks, “Who is the director of the firm?” 5. My father asks
me, “Why did you do that?” 6. The mother asks her daughter,
“Where have you been?” 7. My friends ask me, “Where did you
buy this disc?” 8. The teacher asks Peter, “Why did you break
the window?” 9. The guide asks me, “What languages do you
speak?” 10. My son asks me, “Who invented the telephone?”
11. This pupil asks, “What’s the longest river in the world?”
12. My Mother asks, “Who am I talking to?” 13. Our guests ask,
“How shall we get to the station?” 14. The patient asks, “When
shall I go home?” 15. My workmate asks me, “How long does it
take you to get to the office?” 16. The doctor asks the patient,
“How are you feeling today?” 17. The teacher asks, “Why do
people study languages?”
39.4.
Измените следующие повелительные предложения согласно образцу. Используйте данные в скобках слова.
She says, “Come on time, please.” (ask) — She asks us to come on time.
She says, “Don‛t be late!” (warn) — She warns us not to be late.
1. The teacher says, “Read this book.” (advise) 2. He says, “Help
me with my homework.” (beg) 3. The girl says, “You may
kiss me.” (allow) 4. The stewardess says to Jim, “Don’t smoke,
please.” (tell) 5. They say, “Come and sit down.” (invite) 6. The
agent says, “Stay at this hotel.” (recommend) 7. The doctor says,
“Don’t smoke and have a long rest.” (advise) 8. The police of200
Косвенная речь
ficer says, “Don’t park your car here.” (order) 9. My friends say,
“Join our party but don’t drink much.” (offer, warn) 10. My
Mum says, “Don’t spend so much money on cosmetics.” (beg)
11. My Dad says, “Switch off the computer.” (order) 12. The
judge says, “You must pay a fine.” (order) 13. The boss says,
“Don’t forget to send the e-mail.” (remind) 14. The teacher says,
“Don’t chew in class.” (warn) 15. Parents often say to their children, “Don’t open the door to strangers.” (instruct)
39.5. Прочитайте следующие шутки и перескажите их в косвенной речи.
A GREAT PAINTER
A teenager goes from door to door as he is trying to earn money
by doing different jobs. After being turned away nine times, he
is more lucky on the tenth try.
“Yes,” the man says. “I need someone to paint my porch1. You’ll
find two gallons of green paint in the garage, together with
everything else you need.”
“Fine,” the boy says.
“I’ll be working in the attic,” the man says. “Ring the bell when
you finish painting the porch”.
About an hour passes and the man comes to the back door to
answer the bell.
“Have you finished so soon?” he says surprised.
“Yes,” the boy says. “But it looked more like a Ferrari than a
Porshe.”
NO ACTOR
“Sir,” the actor says, “I would like permission to marry your
daughter.”
“Forget it,” the father answers. “Never in my wildest dreams
would I let my daughter marry an actor.”
“Before you make a final decision, sir, would you be willing to
come and see me perform?”
“Sure.”
1
porch [pɔ:tʃ] — êðûëå÷êî.
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So the father and his daughter go to the theatre in which the
young man was appearing. When the play is over, they go
backstage to the young man’s dressing-room.
“Okay,” the father says, “You can marry her. You’re no actor.”
39.6. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Îí ãîâîðèò, ÷òî îíà âñåãäà ñîãëàøàåòñÿ ñ íèì. 2. Íî îí æàëóåòñÿ, ÷òî íà ñåé ðàç îíà íå ñîãëàñíà ñ íèì. 3. Ìàìà ãîâîðèò, ÷òî îíà ñåðäèòñÿ íà ìåíÿ (to be cross with somebody).
4. Îíà ãîâîðèò, ÷òî íèêîãäà íå ñåðäèòñÿ íà ñâîèõ äåòåé. 5. Îí
ãîâîðèò, ÷òî åìó î÷åíü íóæíû äåíüãè. 6. Ìíîãèå ëþäè ãîâîðÿò, ÷òî èõ óâëå÷åíèå — ýòî ïóòåøåñòâèÿ. 7. Âðà÷ ñïðàøèâàåò ïàöèåíòà, êàê îí ñåáÿ ÷óâñòâóåò ñåãîäíÿ. 8. Ñèíîïòèê ñîîáùàåò, ÷òî çàâòðà áóäåò äîæäü. 9. Ïîëèöåéñêèå ÷àñòî
ïðåäóïðåæäàþò ìåíÿ íå ïåðåõîäèòü óëèöó íà êðàñíûé ñâåò.
10. Ìîé äðóã ïðåäëàãàåò ìíå ñúåçäèòü çà ãîðîä â âîñêðåñåíüå. 11. Ëåêòîð ïîïðîñèë ñòóäåíòîâ íå ðàçãîâàðèâàòü âî
âðåìÿ ëåêöèè. 12. Âðà÷ ñîâåòóåò ìíå íå ëîæèòüñÿ ñïàòü òàê
ïîçäíî. 13. Îí ñïðàøèâàåò, êàê äàâíî ìû â Ëîíäîíå è áûëè
ëè ìû çäåñü ðàíüøå. 14. Íà÷àëüíèê ïðîñèò ñåêðåòàðøó íå
áåñïîêîèòü åãî. 15. Äåòè ñïðàøèâàþò, êîãäà îíè ïîéäóò ãóëÿòü. 16. Ìîëîäîé ÷åëîâåê èíòåðåñóåòñÿ, ïîëó÷èò ëè îí ýòó
ðàáîòó. 17. Èíñïåêòîð õîòåë áû çíàòü, íå çàìåòèëè ëè ñîñåäè
÷òî-òî ñòðàííîå. 18. Îíà ñîîáùàåò íàì, ÷òî â÷åðà ïîòåðÿëà
êëþ÷ îò ñåéôà. Îíà ñïðàøèâàåò, íå âèäåë ëè èõ êòî-íèáóäü.
19. Îí ãîâîðèò, ÷òî ìîáèëüíûé òåëåôîí åãî ïàðòí¸ðà óæå
äâà äíÿ íàõîäèòñÿ âíå çîíû îáñëóæèâàíèÿ.
39.7. Прочитайте и перескажите в косвенной речи следующие истории.
A FLOWER SELLER
Mrs. Williams loves flowers and has a small but a beautiful
garden. In the summer her roses are always the best on the
street. One summer afternoon the bell rings and when she goes
to the front door, she sees a small boy outside. He is about
seven years old, and is holding a big bunch of beautiful roses
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Косвенная речь
in his hand. “I’m selling roses,” he says. “Do you want any?
They are quite cheap. Five pence for a big bunch. They are
fresh. I picked them this afternoon.” “My boy,” Mrs. Williams
answers. “I pick roses whenever I want, and don’t pay anything
for them, because I have lots of them in my garden.” “Oh, no,
you haven’t,” says the small boy. “There aren’t any roses in
your garden — because they are here in my hand!”
A POLITE BOY
Peter is ten years old. One day his friend Paul says to him, “I’m
going to have a birthday party on Saturday. Can you come?”
Peter asks his mother, and she says, “Yes, you can go.” She
phones Paul’s mother to tell her about it. Before Peter goes to
the party on Saturday, his mother instructs him, “Now, Peter,
don’t forget to be polite. Don’t ask for food. Wait until someone
gives it to you.” “All right, Mom,” Peter answers, and he goes
to Paul’s house on his bicycle. There are a lot of children at the
party. They play together for an hour, and then Paul’s mother
gives them some food; but she forgets to give Peter any. He
waits politely for a few minutes, and then he holds his plate
up in the air and says loudly, “Does anyone want a nice clean
plate?”
39.8.
Употребите следующие предложения в косвенной речи, используя
данные фразы.
1. — What’s your name? — I’d like to know ... . 2. — How old are
you? — Could you tell me ... . 3. — Where is he from? — Nobody
knows ... . 4. — What does your mother do? — The neighbour
wants to know ... . 5. — Where do you live? — Would you mind
telling me ... . 6. — What do you enjoy doing? — Could you tell
us ... . 7. — What’s the problem? — I don’t see ... . 8. — How
is she? — We’d like to know ... . 9. — Where is she living
now? — Her friends don’t know ... . 10. — When is she going to
New York? — The chief asks Grace ... . 11. — When will your
vacation start? — My parents want to know ... . 12. — Why
hasn’t she written to us? — I have no idea ... . 13. — What’s
her telephone number? — I don’t know ... . 14. — When did you
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first meet? — I can’t remember ... . 15. — How much does this
mobile phone cost? — I’ve forgotten ... . 16. — Whose watch is
this? — I’ve no idea ... .
39.9. Исправьте ошибки в следующих предложениях.
1. Can anyone tell me what is the matter? 2. Could you tell
me where is the remote control? 3. Nobody understands what
is he speaking about. 4. I don’t remember what is the date of
the meeting. 5. She can never remember when is my birthday.
6. Tell us please who are you? 7. We can’t understand why has
she done it? 8. I have no idea what is the price of such a house.
9. I wonder what does she do for a living. 10. It’s difficult to
understand what is the reason for your refusal. 11. You should
learn how is it done. 12. I can’t tell you how old is she. 13. Do
you know why was she late? 14. Could you tell me where is
the museum here? 15. Do you know what time does she come
home?
39.10. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Ïîíÿòèÿ íå èìåþ, êîòîðûé ñåé÷àñ ÷àñ. 2. Íèêòî íå çíàåò,
êàêîå ñåãîäíÿ ÷èñëî. 3. Íå ìîãëè áû âû îáúÿñíèòü ìíå, â ÷¸ì
äåëî? 4. ß íå âèæó, â ÷¸ì ïðîáëåìà. 5. Íå ìîãëè áû âû ñêàçàòü ìíå, êàê äîáðàòüñÿ äî âîêçàëà? 6. Íèêòî íå çíàåò, êòî
ýòîò ÷åëîâåê è ÷åì îí çàíèìàåòñÿ. 7. Èíòåðåñíî, êîãäà ó íàñ
áóäåò ñëåäóþùàÿ ëåêöèÿ? 8. Íå ìîãëè áû âû îáúÿñíèòü íàì,
ïî÷åìó âû ñåãîäíÿ îïîçäàëè? 9. Ìíå õîòåëîñü áû çíàòü, êîãäà áóäåò ãîòîâ ìîé ïàñïîðò. 10. Âû çíàåòå, ãäå áëèæàéøàÿ çàïðàâî÷íàÿ ñòàíöèÿ? 11. Íå ìîãëè áû âû îáúÿñíèòü íàì, ïî÷åìó âû ðåøèëè ñòàòü ó÷èòåëåì? 12. Ìàñòåð íå çíàåò, áóäåò
ëè âàøà ìàøèíà ãîòîâà çàâòðà. 13. Ìû ïîíÿòèÿ íå èìååì, ãäå
òâîè ïàïêè. 14. Íå ìîãó ñêàçàòü òåáå, êîãäà îíà îáû÷íî íà÷èíàåò ðàáîòàòü. 15. ß íå ìîãó îáúÿñíèòü òåáå, ïî÷åìó îí òàê
ðàíî óø¸ë ñ âå÷åðà. 16. Íèêòî íå ìîæåò ïîíÿòü, ÷åãî õî÷åò
ýòîò ðåáåíîê. 17. Äîêòîð ñîâåòóåò åé íå åñòü òàê ìíîãî ïèðîæíûõ. 18. Îíà æàëóåòñÿ, ÷òî íèêòî å¸ íå ïîíèìàåò.
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Ïîâòîðåíèå
Revision
40.1. Употребите it или there.
1. .................... was a really long queue at the cinema. 2. ....................
was such a shocking programme! 3. .................... is a wonderful,
wonderful life! 4. .................... is only one person I can turn to in my
hour of need. .................... is you. 5. .................... is very nice to be seen
with someone so beautiful! 6. .................... is a fact that education is
the best investment. 7. .................... is a vacant seat in this carriage.
.................... is good luck for me. 8. .................... is a problem to find a good
job because .................... aren’t many. 9. .................... was a nice museum
on this street. .................... is not here any longer. 10. .................... is
twenty miles from here to the airport. 11. .................... is out of
the question, .................... is no one to do this work. 12. ....................
is a car race near our town every spring. .................... are usually
hundreds of people there. ...................... are always different cars in
the race. ...................... is such an exciting sight! 13. Ecologists say
that ...................... won’t be any snow in Moscow in a hundred years.
...................... is unbelievable, but we won’t see it. 14. ...................... is
true that ...................... is no way back for us now. 15. ...................... was
a computer error in the text. ...................... was a wrong number.
40.2. Употребите артикль, если это необходимо.
THE PIG WITH GREEN SPOTS
There was once ...................... bright pink pig with ...................... green
spots all over his body. He belonged to Old Mrs. Loveday.
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...................... pig stood on ...................... mantelpiece next to ......................
clock. He was made of ...................... china, and underneath him was
...................... little place to lock and unlock him, because he was
...................... money-box.
One day Lucy went to see old Mrs. Loveday. She knocked at
...................... door, but nobody said “Come in”. She turned ......................
handle and ...................... door opened. Mrs. Loveday was out. She
was in ...................... her garden. Lucy looked around ...................... room
with ...................... red geraniums on ...................... windowsill, ......................
little rocking-chair by ...................... fireplace, ...................... small yellow
stool — and, of course, ...................... pig with green spots was
on ...................... mantelpiece, as usual. She sat down on ......................
little yellow stool and looked at ...................... clock. It had stopped.
Lucy thought it would be ...................... good idea to wind it up.
She stood up and took down ...................... clock. She wound it up
carefully. She reached up to ___ mantelpiece to put it back —
and then ...................... dreadful thing happened. ...................... pig fell
on ...................... floor and smashed into ...................... hundred pieces.
...................... money fell out of ...................... pig too. ...................... silver and
copper coins rolled here and there, under ...................... sofa, over
...................... rug — all over ...................... room. Lucy stood and stared
in horror. What will Mrs. Loveday say? She had had him for
such ...................... long time on her mantelpiece!
...................... girl wanted to run away, but then she felt ashamed
of herself. Mummy always said you must never run away
from problems. At that moment Old Mrs. Loveday came into
...................... room. She looked down at ...................... broken pieces and
all ...................... money on ...................... floor. Lucy waited to be scolded.
But ...................... old woman laughed happily. “So that ugly pig is
broken at last, and I can get ...................... money out of him. You
know, I lost ...................... key ages ago. But I’m glad to see such
...................... ugly creature go, and to get my money. You have
done me ...................... good turn.”1 “Oh, I was so afraid to tell you
...................... truth, Mrs. Loveday!”
“You see, I’m glad of ...................... accident because I badly
wanted some money today. ...................... friend is coming to see
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to do somebody a good turn — îêàçàòü êîìó-òî õîðîøóþ óñëóãó.
Повторение
me, and I want to buy ...................... flour and ...................... currants
and ...................... chocolate to bake ...................... big cake for her. And
you must certainly have ...................... nice big slice to take home
to tea, because you are not ...................... coward, but ......................
brave good girl!”
40.3. Употребите of или from (out of).
1. This knife is made ...................... steel, you know. 2. Today I’m
making soup ...................... wild mushrooms which we gathered in
the forest. 3. This saucepan’s made ...................... copper. Copper
saucepans last a long time. 4. That night in the forest we
made a shelter ...................... branches and leaves. 5. The sink’s
made ...................... steel. 6. The child made a figure of an elephant
...................... clay. 7. This tray is made ...................... silver. 8. Our bodies
are made up ...................... millions of cells. 9. This mattress is made
...................... rubber. 10. These children are making a shelf ......................
cardboard boxes. 11. These curtains are made ...................... nylon.
12. Those chairs are made ...................... leather. 13. This soap is
made ...................... coconut oil and wood ash. 14. This pillowcase
is made ...................... cotton. 15. These sheets are made ......................
linen. 16. Ropes were made ...................... local flax. 17. The boy
made a model car ...................... old boxes and yogurt pots. 18. These
cupboards are made ...................... metal. 19. What’s this carpet made
...................... ? 20. She mixed the batter made ...................... flour, eggs
and water. 21. The jury was mostly made up ...................... women.
40.4. Употребите правильную форму глагола в скобках.
1. Everyone who (visit) London, (go) to Harrods, which (be) a
famous department store. 2. I (try) to concentrate, so please not
(interrupt) me. 3. — You (know) this man? — I never (see)
him. — But the police (say) that they (see) you together last
Sunday. 4. I (be) at University from 1993 to 1998. 5. They already
(work) here for about five years. 6. When you (leave) the office?
And where you (be) all this time? 7. We last (see) our relatives
on Christmas. 8. We not (see) our friends since Christmas. 9. She
not (see) him since he (get) arrested. 10. They (meet) many years
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ago when they (rest) in the South and they not (see) each other
since that time. 11. My friend has a computer, but he not (have)
a printer. He (plan) to buy it as soon as he (earn) enough money.
But he not (know) when he (earn) it. 12. The police (be) here.
They (come) two hours ago and all this time they (examine)
the house. 13. I wonder what she (cook) for dinner. If she (try),
it (be) something special. 14. He (work) at this project for a
year already and (do) half of it. 15. He says he (do) it when he
(have) a good chance. But he (be) not sure if he ever (have) this
chance. 16. Santa Claus is not a person who (come) through the
chimney. He (come) through a large hole in your pocketbook.
40.5. Выберите правильный вариант.
1. My boss is on holiday. He ......................to Italy.
a. is gone
b. has gone
ñ. has been
2. Andrew says that he’s very ......................in new technologies.
a. interested
b. interesting
ñ. interest
3. — Have you typed the letter yet? — Yes, I ......................it long
ago.
a. has typed
b. have typed
ñ. typed
4. She will stay there till she ......................my message.
a. gets
b. get
ñ. will get
5. My knowledge of English is rather ......................, I’m afraid.
a. poorly
b. poor
ñ. short
6. I only bought this magazine because it seemed ......................to me.
a. interested
b. interest
ñ. interesting
7. All the people ......................the hall. You may switch off the light.
a. have left
b. has left
ñ. had left
8. You look so sad, ...................... ?
a. did you cry
b. were you
ñ. have you been
crying
crying
9. This is a wonderful car. Who ......................to?
a. does it belong
b. belongs it
ñ. has it belonged
10. Wait here till the secretary ......................you.
a. call
b. calls
ñ. will call
11. Where is my mobile? Where ......................it?
a. had I left
b. did I leave
ñ. I have left
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Повторение
12. I’ll let you know about it if the situation ......................
a. changes
b. will change
ñ. change
13. The last bus left ......................
a. for a few
b. since January ñ. several minutes
minutes
ago
40.6. Перескажите следующие шутки в косвенной речи.
1. Army
Officer: Are you happy now that you are in the Army?
Soldier: Yes, sir.
Officer: What were you before you got into the Army?
Soldier: Much happier.
2. Babysitter
When the father calls home, the six-year-old son answers and
says, “Don’t talk too loudly, Dad, the babysitter is asleep.”
3. Synonym
Teacher: Scotty, what is a synonym?
Scotty: A synonym is a word you use when you can’t spell the
other one.
4. Gray Hair
Mother: Every time you are naughty, I get another gray hair.
Son: Gee, Mom, you must have been a terror when you were
young... just look at Grandma.
5. Scouts
Younger Scout: How can I tell the difference between a mushroom and a toadstool (ìóõîìîð)?
Older Scout: Just eat one before you go to bed. If you wake up
the next morning, it was a mushroom.
40.7. Переведите следующий текст.
Êàêàÿ ïðåêðàñíàÿ ñåãîäíÿ ïîãîäà! Êàêîé ÷óäåñíûé äåíü! Ñåé÷àñ àïðåëü, è íàêîíåö-òî íàñòóïèëà âåñíà. ßðêî ñâåòèò ñîëíöå, ñíåã ðàñòàÿë åù¸ â ìàðòå. Ïòèöû âåðíóëèñü èç ò¸ïëûõ
ñòðàí. Îíè âåñåëî ïîþò è ñòðîÿò ñâîè ãí¸çäà. Ëþäè âûãëÿäÿò
áîëåå ñ÷àñòëèâûìè. Îíè ÷óâñòâóþò ñåáÿ óñòàëûìè ïîñëå äîë209
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ãîé ñíåæíîé çèìû. Â ìàðòå ìû ïåðåâîäèì (to set forward or
back) ñâîè ÷àñû íà îäèí ÷àñ âïåð¸ä. Ëåòíåå âðåìÿ áûëî âïåðâûå ââåäåíî â Àíãëèè â 1908 ãîäó. Äíè ñòàíîâÿòñÿ äëèííåå, à
íî÷è êîðî÷å è ñâåòëåå.  îêòÿáðå ìû îáû÷íî ïåðåâîäèì ñâîè
÷àñû íà îäèí ÷àñ íàçàä. Ýòî ðàäóåò ìíîãèõ ëþäåé, òàê êàê
îíè ñóìåþò ïîñïàòü íà îäèí ÷àñ áîëüøå.
ß ëþáëþ âåñíó è âñåãäà ñ íåòåðïåíèåì æäó å¸ è ëåòíèõ êàíèêóë. Ëåòî — ýòî äåéñòâèòåëüíî ìàëåíüêàÿ æèçíü. Êàê òîëüêî ÿ ñäàì âñå ýêçàìåíû, òî îòïðàâëþñü ïóòåøåñòâîâàòü. Êàê
ãîâîðèòñÿ â àíãëèéñêîé ïîãîâîðêå, «ïóòåøåñòâèÿ ðàñøèðÿþò
íàø êðóãîçîð». Ëåòîì òû ìîæåøü îòêëþ÷èòüñÿ (switch off)
îò ïîâñåäíåâíîé æèçíè, ðàññëàáèòüñÿ, ïîîáùàòüñÿ ñ äðóçüÿìè. ß ïîêà åù¸ íå ðåøèë, ãäå ïðîâåäó ëåòî. Ñåé÷àñ ýòî ñòàëî áîëüøîé ïðîáëåìîé. Ìíå âñåãäà î÷åíü õîòåëîñü ïîâèäàòü
ìèð, èñêóïàòüñÿ â îêåàíå. Îäíàêî ïîñëåäíèå òðàãè÷åñêèå ñîáûòèÿ â çàðóáåæíûõ ñòðàíàõ îñòàíàâëèâàþò ìåíÿ. ß ñ÷èòàþ,
÷òî ëó÷øå è áåçîïàñíåå ñúåçäèòü íà ׸ðíîå ìîðå, â Êðûì
èëè íà Êàâêàç. Ìîè äðóçüÿ óæå êóïèëè áèëåòû â Ñî÷è — ñàìûé ëó÷øèé, êðàñèâûé è êîìôîðòàáåëüíûé êóðîðò íà þãå.
Âîçìîæíî, ÿ ïðèñîåäèíþñü ê íèì, ïîòîìó ÷òî ÿ íèêîãäà íå
áûë â Ñî÷è, à êàæäûé ÷åëîâåê õîòÿ áû îäèí ðàç â æèçíè (at
least once...) äîëæåí ïîñåòèòü ýòîò ÷óäåñíûé ãîðîä.
40.8. Прочитайте следующие шутки и перескажите их в косвенной речи.
ABSENT-MINDED PEOPLE
Three people are on train in England. As they approach what
appears to be Wemberly Station, one of the travellers says, “Is
this Wemberly?”
“No”, replies a second passenger, “it’s Tuesday.”
And the third person remarks, “Oh, I am too, let’s have a drink!”
TAKE IT EASY, NATASHA
Pushing a cart in a supermarket, a man passes a woman whose
cart carries a four-year-old girl. As he walks by, he hears the
mother saying, “Take it easy, Natasha. It won’t be long. We
have only three more items to buy.”
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Повторение
A few minutes later, he passes the same woman in another
section. As the little girl looks at the items on the shelves, the
woman says in a soothing voice, “It’s okay, Natasha. We’ve
almost finished. There is nothing to get upset about, Tasha dear.
We’ll be outside in no time at all.”
When the man reaches the checkout counter, the woman
is paying for her groceries. “Excuse me,” he says. “I’d like to
compliment you on the way you kept your daughter calm while
you did your shopping. I overhead some of the soothing things
you were saying to Natasha here to keep her from getting
upset.”
The woman looks puzzled for a few seconds, then she laughs.
“You’ve got it all wrong,” she says. “My daughter’s name is
Kate. I am Natasha.”
NO CAR
Henry lived in a small town, but then he got a job in a big
city and moved there with his wife and children. It’s Saturday
today in their new home. Henry takes his new red car out of
the garage and is going to wash it. A neighbour comes by. He
stops and looks at Henry’s car and then says, “That’s a nice
car. Is it yours?” “Sometimes,” Henry answers. The neighbour
is surprised. “Sometimes? What do you mean?” “Well,” answers
Henry slowly, “When there is a party in town, it belongs to my
daughter, Jane. When there is a football game somewhere, it
belongs to my son, Joe. When I’ve washed it, and it looks really
nice and clean, it belongs to my wife. And when it needs gas,
it’s mine. But next time when I buy a new car, it will certainly
be only mine.”
40.9. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. «Êîøêè» — ñàìûé ïîïóëÿðíûé ìþçèêë â ìèðå. ß âèäåë
åãî î÷åíü äàâíî íà Áðîäâåå, êîãäà áûë â Íüþ-Éîðêå. 2. Îíà
æàëóåòñÿ, ÷òî î÷åíü äàâíî íå áûëà â Âåëèêîáðèòàíèè. Îíà
÷óâñòâóåò, ÷òî å¸ àíãëèéñêèé ñòàíîâèòñÿ âñ¸ õóæå è õóæå.
3. Íàø íà÷àëüíèê îòäûõàåò íà Ñðåäèçåìíîì ìîðå. Ìû çâîíèì
åìó ñ óòðà, íî åãî òåëåôîí âñ¸ ýòî âðåìÿ íàõîäèòñÿ âíå çîíû
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îáñëóæèâàíèÿ. 4. Ìîé äðóã î÷åíü ìíîãî ïóòåøåñòâîâàë â ñâîåé æèçíè, íî îí ãîâîðèò, ÷òî íèêîãäà íå îñòàíàâëèâàëñÿ â îòåëÿõ òèïà «Ðèö» èëè «Êîíòèíåíòàëü», òàê êàê ýòî ñàìûå äîðîãèå ãîñòèíèöû. 5. — Ìîÿ ëó÷øàÿ ïîäðóãà ïðèçíàåòñÿ, ÷òî
å¸ ñàìîå áîëüøîå óäîâîëüñòâèå — ýòî äåëàòü ïîêóïêè. — Äà,
îíà âñåãäà áûëà ïîìåøàíà íà ïîêóïêàõ. 6. ×åì êîðî÷å ïàìÿòü,
òåì ëåã÷å æèòü. 7. — Ìíå âñåãäà õîòåëîñü óâèäåòü Ëàòèíñêóþ Àìåðèêó, â îñîáåííîñòè ïîáûâàòü â Áðàçèëèè. — ß äóìàþ, ÷òî òû ïðîñòî íàñìîòðåëàñü áðàçèëüñêèõ ñåðèàëîâ, õîòÿ
ýòî òîæå âñåãäà áûëî ìîåé ìå÷òîé. 8. Ðûáà èùåò ãäå ãëóáæå, à ÷åëîâåê ãäå ëó÷øå. 9. — Òû îïÿòü åøü øîêîëàä? Ñêîëüêî ïëèòîê òû óæå ñúåëà íà ýòîé íåäåëå? — Òû æå çíàåøü, ÿ
âñåãäà ëþáèëà øîêîëàä. 10. — Ñïåöèàëèñòû ãîâîðÿò, ÷òî ëó÷øèé øîêîëàä ïðîèçâîäèòñÿ â Øâåéöàðèè. — À ÿ ëþáëþ ðóññêèé øîêîëàä. 11. Òèøå åäåøü, äàëüøå áóäåøü. 12. Îíà ãîâîðèò, ÷òî æèâ¸ò â ÑØÀ óæå äâàäöàòü ëåò, íî òàê íèêîãäà è íå
áûëà â Êàëèôîðíèè. 13. Ó÷èòåëü ðåêîìåíäóåò íàì ïðî÷èòàòü
ýòó êíèãó êàê ìîæíî áûñòðåå. 14. Âû çàìå÷àëè, ÷òî ãîðàçäî
ëåã÷å ïèñàòü êîðîòêèå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ, ÷åì äëèííûå? Î÷åíü ÷àñòî êîðîòêèå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ ëåã÷å ÷èòàòü è ïîíèìàòü. 15. Ïëàòèíà òÿæåëåå, ÷åì çîëîòî. Ýòî ñàìûé òÿæ¸ëûé ìåòàëë.
Unit
U
n
nit
iitt 4
41
1
Àðòèêëè â íàçâàíèÿõ
íåêîòîðûõ ñòðàí, íàöèîíàëüíîñòåé,
æèòåëåé ñòðàíû è ÿçûêîâ
Жители
страны
Название
языка
a Russian
(the) Russians
Russian
(the Russian
language)
British
a Briton
an Englishman
(Englishwoman)
the British
(English
people)
English
(the English
language)
China
Chinese
a Chinese
the Chinese
Chinese
America
American
an American
(the)
Americans
English
Hungary
Hungarian
a Hungarian
the Hungarians Hungarian
Finland
Finnish
a Finn
the Finns
Finnish
Spain
Spanish
a Spaniard
the Spanish
Spanish
Turkey
Turkish
a Turk
the Turks
Turkish
Scotland
Scottish
a Scot,
a Scotsman
(a Scotswoman)
the Scots
Scottish
Название
страны
Прилагательное
Национальность
Russia
Russian
Britain
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UNIT 41
Продолжение табл.
Название
страны
Жители
страны
Название
языка
Прилагательное
Национальность
Holland
Dutch
a Dutchman
the Dutch
(a Dutchwoman)
Dutch
Denmark
Danish
a Dane
the Danes
Danish
Egypt
Egyptian
an Egyptian
the Egyptians
Arabic
Iraq
Iraqi
an Iraqi
Iraqis
Arabic
Sweden
Swedish
a Swede
the Swedes
Swedish
Switzerland Swiss
a Swiss
the Swiss
German
French
Italian
Israel
Israeli
an Israeli
the Israelis
Hebrew
Belgium
Belgian
a Belgian
the Belgians
Dutch
French
German
Portugal
Portuguese
a Portuguese
the Portuguese Portuguese
Australia
Australian
an Australian
the Australians
English
the Czech
Republic
Czech
a Czech
the Czechs
Czech
Poland
Polish
a Pole
the Poles
Polish
41.1. Назовите страны, национальности и языки. Хороший словарь может
оказать вам большую помощь в этом.
I. Countries.
1. Olga is Russian. She comes from ... . 2. Fritz is German. He
comes from ... . 3. Olaf is Norwegian. He comes from ... . 4. Istvam is Hungarian. He comes from... . 5. Antigone is Greek. She
214
Артикли в названиях некоторых стран, национальностей, жителей страны и языков
comes from ... . 6. Gareth is Swiss. He comes from ... . 7. Erica is
Swedish. She comes from... .
II. Nationalities.
1. Johan is from Holland. He is ... (or He is a ...). 2. Teng is from
China. He is ... (or He is a ...). 3. AH is from Iraq. He is ... (or He
is an ...). 4. Beatrice is from Switzerland. She is ... (or She is a ...).
5. Abdul is from Sudan. He is ... (or He is a ...). 6. Jean is from
Belgium. He is ... (or He is a ...). 7. Kemal is from Turkey. He is ...
(or He is a ...). 8. Carmen is from Spain. She is ... (or She is a ...).
9. Nils is from Denmark. He is ... (or He is a...).
III. Languages.
1. What language is
in Argentina?
2. What language is
in Brazil?
3. What language is
in Libya?
4. What language is
in Switzerland?
5. What language is
on Cyprus?
spoken
1. Greek and Turkish.
spoken
2. Spanish.
spoken
3. Portuguese.
spoken
4. Arabic.
spoken
5. French, Italian and German.
41.2. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. ßïîíöû î÷åíü òðóäîëþáèâûå ëþäè. 2. Øâåéöàðöû æàëóþòñÿ, ÷òî æèçíü â Øâåéöàðèè î÷åíü ñêó÷íà. 3. Àìåðèêàíöû ìåíåå ôîðìàëüíû, ÷åì åâðîïåéöû. 4. Øîòëàíäöû ëþáÿò ñâîþ ãîðíóþ ñòðàíó. 5. Ãîëëàíäöû æèâóò â Ãîëëàíäèè
è ãîâîðÿò ïî-ãîëëàíäñêè. 6. Òåòðà-Ïàê — øâåäñêàÿ ôèðìà.
Îíà ïðîèçâîäèò óïàêîâêó. 7. Ôðàíöóçû óïîòðåáëÿþò â ïèùó
ìíîãî ìîðåïðîäóêòîâ. 8. Àíãëè÷àíå áîëüøèå ëþáèòåëè ÷àÿ.
9.  ýòîé ãðóïïå ó÷àòñÿ êèòàéöû, âüåòíàìöû, êîðåéöû, þãîñëàâû è ïîëÿêè. 10. Íà êîíôåðåíöèè ïðèñóòñòâîâàëè íåìöû,
øâåäû, äàò÷àíå, èòàëüÿíöû. 11. Èñïàíöû î÷åíü ëþáÿò êîððèäó. 12. Îíà èñïàíêà. Îíà ïðåêðàñíî òàíöóåò. 13. Äàò÷àíå — ýòî ëþäè, æèâóùèå â Äàíèè. 14.  Äàíèè ëþäè ãîâîðÿò íà äàòñêîì, â Ãîëëàíäèè, íà ãîëëàíäñêîì, â Íîðâåãèè, íà
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íîðâåæñêîì. 15. — Êàê âû íàçûâàåòå ëþäåé, êîòîðûå æèâóò
â Íèäåðëàíäàõ? — Ýòî ãîëëàíäöû. 16. Ãàíñ Õðèñòèàí Àíäåðñåí áûë äàò÷àíèíîì. 17. Àíãëèéñêèé ÿçûê ñòàë ÿçûêîì
ìåæíàöèîíàëüíîãî îáùåíèÿ â XX âåêå. 18. Êèòàéñêèé ÿçûê
î÷åíü òðóäíûé ÿçûê. 19. Ëåãî — ýòî èçâåñòíàÿ äàòñêàÿ êîìïàíèÿ, êîòîðàÿ ïðîèçâîäèò äåòñêèå èãðóøêè. 20. Ïî÷åìó â
àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå âñå ïóòàþò øâåäîâ ñî øâåéöàðöàìè, äàò÷àí ñ ãîëëàíäöàìè? 21. Íåìöû — î÷åíü ïóíêòóàëüíûå ëþäè.
22. Îíà øâåäêà, å¸ ìóæ øâåéöàðåö. 23. Åãèïòÿíå ãîâîðÿò íà
àðàáñêîì ÿçûêå. 24. Áðèòàíöû ÷òóò ñâîè òðàäèöèè.
Unit
U
nit
n
iitt 4
42
2
Ïðîøåäøåå ñîâåðøåííîå âðåìÿ
Past Perfect
Утвердительная форма
I
We
You
They
He
She
It
had
arrived
passed
done
gone
written
cost
The police had
arrived before the
robbers escaped.
I had done the work
by nine o’clock.
Вопросительная форма
Had
I
we
you
they
he
she
it
arrived....?
passed...?
done...?
gone...?
written...?
cost...?
Had the police arrived
before the robbers
escaped?
Had you done the work
by nine o’clock?
Отрицательная форма
I
We
You
They
He
She
It
arrived
passed
had not done
(hadn’t) gone
written
cost
The police hadn’t arrived
before the robbers
escaped.
I hadn’t done the work by
nine o’clock.
Случаи употребления
1. Действие, которое произошло
раньше другого действия или
момента в прошлом.
I remembered that I had met him
before.
She had cleaned the flat by five
o’clock.
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UNIT 42
Продолжение табл.
Случаи употребления
2. Действие, которое началось
до какого-то момента в прошлом
и всё ещё продолжалось в тот момент.
(С глаголами не имеющими формы
Continuous: see, hear, know, understand,
realize, like, hate, love, believe, own,
possess.)
I knew they hadn’t seen each other
for many years.
They had owned the house for
twenty years already when they
decided to sell it.
He said he had loved her since he
first saw her.
3. Действие, которое уже завершилось
в прошлом, а второе действие всё ещё
находилось в процессе.
She had done the work and was
speaking on the phone.
The rain had stopped and the sun
was shining brightly.
4. В сложноподчинённых
предложениях с придаточными
времени, вводимыми союзами:
scarcely... when, hardly... when,
no sooner... than, («не успел... как»,
«едва... как»)
Scarcely had I entered the flat,
when the telephone rang.
No sooner had we left the house,
than it began raining.
Hardly had the show ended when
all the mobiles started ringing.
42.1. Прочитайте и переведите следующие предложения.
1. It was the best book I had ever read. 2. We called him last
night but he hadn’t come home yet. 3. I couldn’t understand
what had happened. 4. She was sure she had met him before.
5. The secretary was reading the fax which she had just got.
6. The programmer had done the work by five o’clock. 7. The
police officer asked why they had parked the car on the square.
8. When we came to the supermarket, it had already closed.
9. The rain had stopped and the sun was shining in the blue sky.
10. She was late for the lecture as she had overslept. 11. Hardly
had I turned on the radio, when I heard breaking news. 12. The
students hadn’t finished writing the test yet when the class
was over. 13. He realized that he had lost his passport. 14. She
couldn’t go to England as she hadn’t received a visa. 15. We had
packed our suitcases and were waiting for the taxi.
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Прошедшее совершенное время
42.2. Употребите правильную форму глагола в скобках.
1. She was sorry for the things that she (do). 2. He was afraid
that she already (learn) the truth. 3. Mary looked at the clock
and realized that it (stop). 4. That night she was very beautiful.
She never (be) so lovely before. 5. My friend complained that
she (spend) all her money. 6. Nobody could explain what really
(happen). 7. When he went out of the office, he saw that his
car (disappear). 8. No sooner she (open) the door than the
children ran to meet her. 9. Jack and Amelia were the only
family she ever (have). 10. The agent realized that he (make)
a fatal mistake. 11. The children went for a walk only after
they (do) their homework. 12. Margaret was a wonderful cook.
Her mother (teach) her to do it. 13. He had a big library but
he not (read) most of the books. 14. He explained that he not
(decide) yet what University to enter. 15. There was nobody at
the office. Everybody (go) out for lunch 16. I looked out of the
window and saw that the rain (stop) already.
42.3.
Дополните следующие предложения согласно образцу. Используйте
данные в скобках слова.
— Did your parents gо to the country with you last weekend?
(the weekend before)
— No, they didn‛t. They had gone there the weekend before.
1. Did your mother take a day off last week? (the week before).
2. Did the children go skiing on Sunday? (the Sunday before)
3. Did Martin eat at a restaurant yesterday evening? (the evening before) 4. Did your pupils see a movie last Saturday night?
(the night before) 5. Did you and your friends have a picnic
last Sunday? (the Sunday before) 6. Did Helen have a birthday
party last night? (the night before) 7. Did they have their last
exam yesterday? (the day before) 8. Did he fly to the Bahamas
last weekend? (the weekend before) 9. Did you go shopping last
Saturday? (the day before) 10. Did your relatives visit you on
Sunday? (the Sunday before) 11. Did your workmates discuss
politics at the office on Friday? (the day before) 12. Did he put
his car in the garage last night? (the night before).
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UNIT 42
42.4. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. Îí áûë ñ÷àñòëèâ, òàê êàê ïðîø¸ë èíòåðâüþ. 2. Îíà íå ïîëó÷èëà ðàáîòó, ïîòîìó ÷òî íèêîãäà ðàíüøå íå âûïîëíÿëà òàêóþ
ðàáîòó. 3. Îíè îáñóæäàëè ñâåäåíèÿ, êîòîðûå íàøëè â Èíòåðíåòå. 4. Íÿíÿ âîøëà â êîìíàòó è óâèäåëà, ÷òî ðåá¸íîê óæå
çàñíóë. 5. Ñåêðåòàðøà ñîîáùèëà, ÷òî óæå îòïðàâèëà ôàêñ â
Ãààãó. 6. Îí ïîæàëåë, ÷òî êóïèë ýòó ìàøèíó. 7. Êîãäà ìû ïðèåõàëè íà ñòàíöèþ, ïîåçä óæå óø¸ë. 8. ß âûøëà èç äîìà è
âñïîìíèëà, ÷òî íå âûêëþ÷èëà êîìïüþòåð. 9. Ìîÿ ïîäðóãà ïîäàðèëà ìíå ÷óäåñíûå ðîçû è ñîîáùèëà, ÷òî ñàìà âûðàñòèëà
èõ. 10. Êîãäà ìû âîøëè â çàë, êîíöåðò óæå íà÷àëñÿ. 11. Çàäàíèå îêàçàëîñü ëåã÷å, ÷åì ìû äóìàëè. 12. Îíà æàëåëà, ÷òî îòêàçàëàñü îò ïðèãëàøåíèÿ â òåàòð. 13. Æóðíàëèñò ñîîáùèë, ÷òî
òîëüêî ÷òî âåðíóëñÿ èç Êèòàÿ. 14. Ìû î÷åíü óäèâèëèñü, êîãäà
óçíàëè, ÷òî ýòîò ðîìàí ñòàë áåñòñåëëåðîì. 15. Îí áûë ðàññòðîåí. Îí ïîòåðÿë áóìàæíèê. 16. Âñå õîòåëè óçíàòü, êàê äàâíî îí
â ýòîì áèçíåñå. 17. Êâàðòèðà áûëà â ïîðÿäêå. Ìàìà óáðàëà å¸.
18. Êîãäà ïðèåõàëà ïîëèöèÿ, ãðàáèòåëè óæå ñêðûëèñü. 19. Ÿ
âîëîñû áëåñòåëè. Îíà òîëüêî ÷òî èõ âûìûëà. 20. Îíà íå ñóìåëà âûñòóïèòü íà êîíôåðåíöèè, òàê êàê çàáîëåëà.
42.5. Употребите правильную форму глагола в скобках.
THE PHILOSOPHY OF LIFE
It was a hot summer day in Ancient Rome. A philosopher (cross)
the Tiber ['taɪbǝ] in a small boat. During the passage he asked
the boatman if he ever (hear) about Philosophy. The boatman
(reply) that he never (hear) about it. The philosopher (answer)
that the boatman (lose) a quarter of his life because it (be) a
very interesting science. A few minutes later the philosopher
again asked the man if he ever (hear) about Astronomy. The
latter answered that he (have) no idea what it was as he never
(study) it. The philosopher (say) that the boatman (lose) a second
quarter of his life. Some time passed and the philosopher asked
the man if he ever (hear) about Algebra. And the boatman
(have) to say that he never (hear) about it. The philosopher
(explain) to the man that he (lose) a third quarter of his life,
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Прошедшее совершенное время
as it was the most interesting subject he ever (study). Hardly
he (say) that when the boat (run) on a big stone. The boatman
jumped up and asked the philosopher if he ever (learn) to
swim. The philosopher answered sadly that he never (study)
swimming. The boatman explained to his passenger that soon