Загрузил Bill Big

В.И.ПЛУЖНИКОВ Термины российского архитектурного наследия, СЛОВАРЬ-ГЛОССАРИЙ 1995

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«IIpoCBeI.QeHMe» [1910-e rr.]. - EcjJpeMoB E. HOBhIM rrOJIHhIM CJIOBaph MHOCTpaHHhIX CJIOB, BOIIIe.n;IIIHX B PYCCKHM 5I3hIK, C YKa3aHHeM rrpoMcxo)J{.n;eHM5I HX, y.n;apeHHM,
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C. K., JIe6eoeBa A. A., IIpocBupKuHa C. K. X035IMCTBO H 6hIT PYCCKMX KpeCTh5IH.
Orrpe.n;eJIMTeJIh. M., 1959. - lJU:JICUKOBa JI. H. CTaThM 0 )J{HJIMI.Qe B C60pHMKe
«3THorpacpH5I BOCTO'IHhIX CJIaB5IH. O'IepKM Tpa.n;M:QMoHHOM KyJIhTyphI». IIo.n; pe.n;.
K. B. l..{McTOBa. M., 1987, c. 239-243. - meHHUKOB A. A. PyccKoe KpeCTh5IHCKOe
KaMeHHoe cTpOHTeJIhCTBo. ApxMTeKTYPHoe HaCJIe.n;CTBO, .N2 12. M., 1960,
c. 183-207. - OpcjJUHCKUU B. II., rpUwuHa H. E. LJ:epeB5IHHhle KpeCTh5IHCKMe aM6aphI pyccKoro CeBepa H CH6HpH. feHe3Hc H 3BOJIIO:QM5I. - IIp06JIeMhI HCCJIe.n;OBaHM5I, pecTaBpa:QHH H HCrrOJIh30BaHM5I apxMTeKTypHoro HaCJIe.n;M5I PyccKoro CeBepa:
Me)KBY30BCKHM C60pHHK. IIeTp03aBo.n;cK, 1989, c. 42-66. - KPOXUH B.A. IIpoMCXO)J{.n;eHMe Be.n;yI.QMX MOTMBOB pe3h6h1 B PYCCKOM .n;epeB5IHHOM 30.n;'IeCTBe. CoxpaHeHMe rraM5ITHMKOB .n;epeB5IHHOrO 30.n;'IeCTBa. C60PHMK HaY'IHhlX Tpy.n;OB. IIo.n;
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A. H. 4>eAopoBa. HOBOCH6HpCK, 1982. - Ce.!lUU4-e6 A. M. ,Il;HaJIeKTOJIOrnqeCKHH
OqepK CH6HpH. HpKYTCK, 1921. - Mypaae6 3.M. CJIOBaph HapoAHhIX reorpaq,HqeCKHX TepMHHoB. M., 1984.
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1789. - 3KOHOMHqeCKOH Mara3HH, HJIH Co6paHHe BCSlKHX 3KOHOMHqeCKHX H3BeCTHH: .. B nOJIh3Y POCCHHCKHX AOMOcTpOHTeJIeH H APYrHX JIl060nhITHblX JIIOAeH o6pa30M ~HaJIa H3AaBaeMoH. q. 1-40. M., 1780-1789. - KHHra 0 aTaKe H o6opoHe
KpenocTeH, H3AaHHaSI qpe3 r. Ae Bo6aHa, nepeB. qpe3 lfBaHa PeMe30Ba. CII6.,
1744. - PeUlemHuKo6 A. JII060nblTHblH XYAO)I{HHK H peMeCJIeHHHK HJIH 3allHcm
KacalOru;HecSI AO pa3Hblx xYAO)I{eCTB, PYKoAeJIHH, COCTaBOB H AO HeKoTopblX 3KOHOMHqeCKHX, nOBapeHHhIX H caAOBblX pa6oTax. M., 1791. - ,I(OJI)I{HOCTh ApXHTeKTYPHOH 3KcneAH~HH. - B KH.: ApxHTeKTypHblH apxHB. BhIll. 1. M., 1946, c. 21-~8.
H3 KHHr XIX H XX BeKOB HaAO oco60 OTMeTHTh Tame: JIeM H. OnblT ropoAOBhIM H CeJIhCKHM CTpoeHHSIM, HJIH PYKOBOACTBO K 3HaHHIO, rAe pacnOJIaraTh H
CTPOHTh BCSlKoro pOAa cTpoeHHSl no HeHMeHHIO apxHTeKTopa. H3A. 3-e. CIIG., 1821
(3TO H3AaHHe 6hIJIO HCnOJIh30BaHO npH paGoTe HaA CJIOBapeM KaK pacmHpeHHoe no
cpaBHeHHIO C paHHHM, 1785 rOAa). KpaTKoe PYKOBOACTBO K rp~aHCKOH apXHTeKType HJIH 30AqeCTBY, H3AaHHoe AJISI HapOAHblX yqHJIHru; POCCHHCKOH HMnepHH.
CIIG., 1789. - KyaHmepo CPo illKOJIa AepeBeHcKoH apXHTeKTypbI. M., 1794. rpafjJ, XpucmofjJop BepHapo. TeopeTHKo-npaKTHqeCKOe HaCTaBJIeHHe 0 rp~aH­
CKOH apxHTeKTYpe B nOJIh3Y AOMocTPoHTeJIeH. HHKOJIaeB, 1800. - C61mae6 H. H.
YqeGHoe PYKOBOACTBO K apXHTeKTYpe, AJISI npenOAaBaHHSI B rOpHOM HHCTHTYTe,
rJIaBHOM HH)I{eHepHOM yqHJIHru;e, YqHJIHru;e rpa~aHcKHX HH)I{eHepOB H B APyrHX
yqeGHhIX 3aBeAeHHSIX. q. 1-4. CIIG., 1839-1841. - J(Buzy6cKUU H. A. JIeKcHKoH
ropoAcKoro H CeJIhCKoro X03S1HcTBa. T.I-12. M., 1836-1840. - CPYPMaHH II.
3~KJIOneAHSI PYCCKOro ropoAcKoro H CeJIhCKOrO x03S1HHa-apxHTeKTopa. q. 1-4.
CIIG., 1842. - KpacoBcKuU A. rpa~aHcKaSl apxHTeKTYpa. qacm 3AaHHH. CIIG.,
1851. - CaBe.!lbeB A. AJIq,aBHTHblH C60pHHK TeXHHqeCKHX CJIOB cTaphIx H HOBhIX,
OTHOCSlru;HXCSI K cTpOHTeJIhHoMY H HH:>KeHepHoMY HCKYCCTBaM, XHMHH, q,H3HKe H
MexaHHKe. CIIG., 1869. - CKp.n6YliUHCKUU, KaUleHl.{OB. CaMoyqHTeJIh cTpOHTeJIhHoro HCKYCCTBa. Cne~HaJIhHOe PYKOBOACTBO AJISI apxHTeKTopoB, CTOJISIpOB, llJIOTHHKOB, MeJIhHHKOB, KaMeHIIJ;HKOB, neqHHKOB H 3eMJIeAeJIh~eB. B 4-x KH. lf3A. I-e. M.,
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oGpa30M 5-e H3AaHHe - M., 1881]. - KynfjJfjJep 3.10. )l{HJIOH AOM. CII6., 1914. CY.!lmaHOB H. TeopHSl apxHTeKTypHhIX q,OpM. CIIG., 1901. - MUXMOBCKUU H. B.
TeopHSl KJIaCCHqeCKHX apxHTeKTYpHblx q,OpM. H3A.3-e. M., 1944. -JIacKoBcKUU CPo
MaTepHaJIbI AJISI HCTOPHH HH)I{eHepHOro HCKYCCTBa B POCCHH (AO XVIII B). q.
1-3. CIIG., 1858-1865. - BoeHHblH 3H~KJIOneAHqeCmH JIeKCHKOH. T. 1-14.
CIIG., (l-e H3A. - 1837-1851; 2-e H3A. - 1852-1858). - KlOu IJ.. A. KpaTKHH
HCTOpHqeCKHH OqepK AOJIrOBpeMeHHoH q,OPTHq,HK~HH. H3A. 2-e. M., 1889. BoeHHaSI 3H~HKJIOneAHSI. IIOA peA. B. 4>. HOBH~KOro HAP. T. 1-18. CIIG.,
-8-
nPEAlllcnOBIIIE
9
1911-1915. - H8aH08 H. H. BbUIBJIeHHe YTpaqeHHbIX rraM5ITHHKOB EOPO)];HHCKOrO
rrOJI5I MeTO)];OM 6Hoqm3HqeCKOH JIOKaU;HH. (Te3HCbI HayqHbIX C006In;eHHH K TBOpqeCKOMY OTqeTY B COlO3e apXHTeKTOpOB CCCP (15 <peBpaJI5I 1973 r.). BcepocCHHCKa5I
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c. 20-23. - CrrpaBOqHHK )];JI5I BoeHHo-cTpOHTeJIbHbIX TeXHHKOB. IIr., 1917. MOCTb!. Kypc CTapllIero KJIacca HHKOJIaeBCKOH HH)KeHepHOH aKa)];eMHH. CII6.,
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BeKa. M.-ll., 1940. -JIe6UluH B. IIOJIHOe HaCTaBJIeHHe 0 cTpoeHHH BC5IKOrO po)];a
MeJIbHHU; BO)];5IHbIX, BeTp5IHbIX, rrapoBblx, TaK)Ke CKOTCKHMH H qeJIOBeqeCKHMH
CHJIaMH B )];eHCTBHe rrpHBO)];HMbIX, rro KOTOPOMY Ka)K)l;bIH MO)KeT OHble YCTpoHBaTb.
M., 1818. - JIRMUH IT. MeJIbHHU;bI B POCCHH. - «)KypHaJI MHHHcTepcTBa rocy)];apCTBeHHblX HMYIn;eCTB». CII6., 1845, q. XVII. - 3azu6aJl06 IT. PYKOBO)];CTBO K
YCTPOHCTBY BO)];5IHbIX, BeTp5IHbIX, KOHHbIX H pyqHbIX MYKOMOJIbHbIX MeJIbHHU;. - B
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M.,
113BecTHhle TPY}J;HOCTH B03HHKalOT rrpH rrepe}J;aqe HepyccKHX TepMHHoB PycCKHMH 6YKBaMH, KOTophle AaJIeKO He BcerAa TOqHO COOTBeTCTBYIOT OTAeJIhHhIM 3ByKaM B HaIJ;HOHaJIhHhIX 5I3hIKax. TaK, HarrpHMep, B CJIOBaX H BhIpa)KeHH5IX «eH», «eKMhIC rreJIheCa KepKa», «eTepHCh rrOCO}J;3» 6YKBOH «e» YCJIOBHO 0603HaqeH HeHOTHpoBaHHhIH 3ByK, CXOAHhIH C HeMeIJ;KHM «0», a B CJIOBaX «IOH» H «lOp3eK» 6YKBe «10»
}J;OJI)KeH COOTBeTCTBOBaTh HeHOTHpOBaHHhIH 3ByK, 6JIH3KHH HeMeIJ;KOMY «u».
B
CJIO-
Bax «}J;HHre3», «Ma3paca», «HHre3» 6YKBa «3» 03HaqaeT 3ByK, CXO}J;HhIH C COrJIaCHhIM
B aHrJIHHCKOM CJIOBe «the», a B CJIOBaX «aJIrhI 3H», «6aJIChIK 3H», «HKe 3HJI3» ,
«KapTa 3H», «MaJI 3H3», «M3raparr», «3CKe 3H», «3CKe 3PJI3K», «lOp33K» 6YKBa «3»
03HaqaeT 3ByK, cpeAHHH Me)KAY PYCCKHM «H» H «3».
B
CJIOBe «KHllIT3» 6YKBa «3»
COOTBeTcTByeT 3BYKY, cpeAHeMY Me)KAY PYCCKHMH «a» H «3». EYKBa «x» B CJIOBOCOqeTaHHH «xarr}J;blK a5Irbl» 03HaqaeT M5IrKHH 3BYK, cpe}J;HHH Me)K}J;Y PYCCKHMH «x» H
«r», KOTOPhIH rrOXO)K Ha HeMeIJ;KOe «h» H YKpaHHCKoe
TaKOH rrepe}J;aqH rrOCJIY)KHJIa KHHra
B.
11. rOphKOBOH H T.
«r».
B.
060CHOBaHHeM }J;JI5I
MypaHHBcKoro «TIoco-
6He rro pecpepHpOBaHHIO H peAaKTHpOBaHHIO HayqHO-TeXHHqeCKOH JIHTepaTyphI»
(M.,
1964,
Ta6JI. Me)KAY c.
40
H
41).
0603HaqHTh PYCCKHMH 6YKBaMH TepMHHhI H3
ceBepoKaBKa3cKHx 5I3hIKOB rrOMOrJIa JIHHrBHCT 11. TI. OJIOB5IHHHKoBa.
Hap5IAY C orry6JIHKOBaHHhIMH rreqaTHhIMH H3}J;aHH5IMH rrpH pa60Te Ha}J; 3TOH·
KHHroH 6hIJIH rrpocMoTpeHhI MallIHHorrHCHhIe MaTepHaJIhI C HCTopHKo-apxHTeKTYpHhIMH TepMHHaMH (rJIaBHhIM o6pa30M 3arOTOBKH CJIOBHHKOB) B IJ,eHTpaJIhHOM rocYAapcTBeHHoM apxHBe JIHTepaTyphI H HCKyccTBa: cp.
TepHaJIhI apxHTeKTopa H.
B.
CYJITaHoBa); cp.
-11-
2059,
2428, orr. 1, eA. xp. 14 (Ma1, eA. xp. 224 (MaTepHaJIhI
orr.
nPEAMcnOBME
12
HapO,L{HOrO apmCTa POI>CP M. <1>. JIeHHHa); <p. 2606, on. 1, e:n;. xp. 157 (MaTePHaJIbI apxHreKTopa,D;. E. ApKHHa).
BIDKHbIM :n;onOJIHeHHeM KO BceM nepeqHCJIeHHbIM HCTOqHHKaM OKa3aJICSI
CJIOBapb K ,L{HCCepT~H II. C. KacaTKHHa (Ha COHCKaHHe yqeHoH CTeneHH KaH]l;H,L{aTa apxHTeKTypbI) «MoCKOBCKaSI rpa)K)l;aHCKaSI apxHTeKTYpa XVII BeKa» (M.,
1940). HeCKOJIbKO TepMHHOB 3aHMCTBOBaHO H3 :n;HccepTan;HH O. B. CTPyrOBOH (Ha
COHCKaHHe yqeHoH CTeneHH KaH:n;H,L{aTa HCKyccTBoBe:n;eHHSI) «IIpe:n;MeTHaSI cpe:n;a
)KHJIoro u:HTepbepa B POCCHH. KOH. XIX - Haq. XX BeKOB» (M., 1991).
3HaqHTeJIbHYIO nOMOlll;b B nO,L{rOTOBKe CJIOBapSI OKa3aJI peCTaBpaTOp
H. A. Ku:ceJIeB, rrpe:n;oCTaBHBmHH MHoroqHcJIeHHbie BbIIIHCKH H3 CJIOBapSI B. H. ,[(aJISI, a TalOKe CBOH H3blCKaHHSI 0 rrpO:n;YKIl;HH CTOJISIPOB H KaMeHIIl;HKOB. Orrpe,L{eJIeHHbIH BKJIa:n; B no:n;rOTOBKY CJIOBHHKa K CJIOBaplO H B pa3nSIcHeHHe nOHSITHH
c:n;eJIaJIH TalOKe H. C. ,D;aTHeBa, H. H. MBaHoB, JI. B. TbI:n;MaH, 10. 51. repqYK,
10. A. Be,L{eHHH, A. II. ,[(eHHcKHHa, B. M. Py:n;qeHKO, B. M. 51KY6eHSI, T. B. JIeBHHa, A. <1>. KpameHHHHHKOB, B. E. XaCJIaBCKaSI, B. B. Mu:xaHJIOB, B. M. He:n;eJIHH,
ID. A. BeAeHHH, A. H. ;H:eHHcKHHa, :B ..M. Py:n;qeHKO, B. Fl. ~KYt1eHSI, T. '8. JieBII
MeHKO, B n llapHlI
<l>parMeHTbI npe:n;JIaraeMOro CJIOBapSI 6bmH orry6JIHKOBaHbI He3HaqHTeJIbHbIM THPIDKOM B :n;Byx H3:n;aHHSIX: ApxHTeKTypHble naMSITHHKH CMOJIeHCKOH o6JIaCTH. KaTaJIOr. KH. 2-SI. M., 1987, c. 610-631. MHHHcTepcTBo KYJIbTYpbI PC<I>CP.
OCHoBHble CJIY)Ke6Hble MaTepHaJIbI no OTpaCJIH KyJIbTYPbI H HCKYCCTBa 3a
1970-1989 ro:n;bI. BbIII. 14. IIaMSITHHKH HCTOPHH H KyJIbTYPbI. q. 2. «IIepBHqHaSI
yqeTHaSI :n;OKYMeHTall;HSI Ha naMSITHHKH rpa}:{OCTPOHTeJIbCTBa H apxHTeKTypbI. CJIOBapb apXHTeKTYpHbIX TepMHHOB». M., 1989.
CTaTbH B CJIOBape pacnOJIO)KeHbI no <poHeTu:qecKOMY npHHn;u:rry.
-12-
-\3-
ABAXYP. 1 KOJmaK MH ~TOK npH
CBeTMhHHKe (JIaMIIa, CBe'la), JIOKaJIH3YIO~H rrOTOK CBeTa. 2 OKHO C rrO;llOKOHHHKOM H rrepeMhl'lKOH, CHJIhHO HaKJIO-
AB,lJ;3P. CYUJU'K;lIM O;lleX<;I\hI B 6YPHTCKOH IOpme.
ABJIYHh. IIepe6oouHa, rrepeKJIa;llHHa.
ABPA.mAThI1i''L H3pa3~OBhIH.
ABCH,lJ;A. Ancuoa.
ABillHHT. 1 (=pempa;lla, peTPaHweMeHT).
3arracHhIe 060pOHHTeJIhHhIe
rr03H~H BUYTPH OCHOBHOro YKperrJIeHHH
MH rr03a;I\H Hero, 3a~eHHhIe c06CTBeHHhIM 6a.t10M (1) JIH60 HHOH orpa;lIOH H OT;lIeJIeHHhIe pBaMH OT ;IlpYrHX
'laCTeii: ICpenocmu. 2 BaJ/, (1) co pBOM
BUYTPH YKperrJIeHHH.
ABAHEEK. TIepe;llHHH 'laCTh 6btlCa B
MOCTOBhIX orropax, orpaHH'leHHaH ;lIBYMH IIJIOCKOCTHMH JIH60 3aKpyrJIeHHOH
rrOBepXUOCThlO.
HeHHhIMH BHYTPh rrOMe~eHHH (rJIaBHhIM
06pa30M B rrO;llBaJIax). 3 llpHKperrJIeHHhm cHapY)I{H K CTeHe TlOpeMHOrO 3;l1aHHH H OTKphIThIH cBepxy KO)l(YX
(06hI'lHO ;lIo~aThm) BOKpyr OKHa TIOpeMHOH KaMephI, rr03BOJIHIO~H BH;I\eTh
H3 Hee JIHWh rrOJIOCKY He6a.
ABAQHCCA. TIpoMe)l(YTO'lHhm 3JIeMeHT npH nepeXO;lle OT opoepHOU KanumeJ/,u K a6aKe.
ABJIA. KPhIThIH 060P (1) ;I\JlH OBe~ H
KOPOB B Horan:cKoH ycaob6e.
ABCTEPlUI. AycmepUR.
ABTOTIHAHO. MY3hIKaJIhHhm HHCTPYMeHT ;I\JlH MeXaHH'leCKOH HrphI Ha
<popTeIIHaHo (pa3HOBH;I\HOcm: rrHaHOJIa,
<poHOJIa H ;liP.). BHa'laJIe HMeJI BH;I\ npHCTaBKH K KJIaBHarype POHJIH MH IIHaHHHO, BrrOCJIe;llCTBHH BCTPaHBaJICH BHYTPh
HX Koprryca.
ABAHTYPHHOBhIH JIAK. JIaK, rrepeMeWaHHhIH C MeTaJIJIH'leCKHMH 01IHJlKaMH, npH;lIalO~HMH JIaKHpyeMoH rroBepxHoCTH Mep~alO~ 6JIecK.
ArPA q,. 1 3fl.MIC06btU Ka.MeHb apKu,
a TaK)l(e ero rrO;ll'lepKHYTaH HMHT~
B apXHTeKTypHoM ;lIeKope (06hI'lHO B
rrepeMhI'li<:ax npoeMoB H HHW). 2 MeTaJIJIH'leCKaH cKperra B BH;I\e J/,acmo'lICUH020 X60cma C TI-06pa3HhIM 3am60M
KO~OB ;lIJIH coe;llHHeHHH KaMeHHhIX
6JIOKOB. 3 OpHaMeHTaJIhHhIH MOTHS
~BeTO'lHhIX napmep06 (1), HMelO~
BH;I\ JIerreCTKOB, JIHCTheB MH BeTBeH,
KOTophle CXO;llHTCH B O;llHY TO'lKY B cpe;llHeH '1aCTH rrapTepa.
ABAHTIOPHHOBA}! rJIA3YPh. 3eJIeHaH JIH60 KpaCHaH rrOJIHBa rro KepaMHKe, rrpH;lIalO~aH nOBepxHoCTH H3;l1eJIHH 30JIOmCThIH 6JIecK.
A,lJ;AMOBA rOJIOBA. H306pa)l(eHHe
'leperra Ha;ll cKpe~eHHhIMH JIOKTeBhIMH
KOCTHMH, rrOMe~eHHoe B OCHOBaHHH
KpecTa.
ABAH)J;YKH. C6au, B6HBaeMhIe B pH;lI
Y 6epera.
ABAH3AJI. TIoMe~eHHe rrepe;ll rJIaBHhIM 3aJIOM B KPYIIHOM o6~eCTBeHHOM
3;l1aHHH MH BO o6op~e (1).
ABATIOJIOK. rOp6btJIb.
ABAH<POC. POB KOHmpacKapna, ~H
rrepe;llHHH pOB, BhIKOrraHHhIH rrepe;ll zJ/,aCUCOM napaJIJIeJIhHO eMY.
Ar A. rpaHH~a YCa;I\e6Horo rrapKa MH
ca;lla, HMelO~aH BH;lI HerJIy6oKoro pBa C
rro;llrropHoH cTeHKoH, KOTOPaH He BH;I\Ha
co CTOPOHhI YCa;I\h6hI H HMeeT rrOJIOrHH
CKaT K rrapKY.
ABAKA (=a6aK). lliHTa Ha;I\ OCHOBHOH 'laCThlO KanumeJ/,u, 06hI'lHO rro;ll;lIep)l(HBalO~aH aHma6J/,f~MeHm.
ABAHTIOPHHOBOE CTEKJIO. TIoJIyrrpo3pa'lHOe CTeKJIO rrpeHMY~eCT­
BeHHO KpaCHoro, 3eJIeHOrO MH CBeTJIOKOpH'lHeBoro ~eTa C 60JIhWHM KOJIH'leCTBOM 30JIOmCThIX 6JIeCTOK H Mep~alO­
~ BKpanJIeHHH.
13
-13-
A
AAMACI30H - AnbKE)I(
MMAcI>OH. IlHaHHHO C KaMepTOHaMH
BMeCTO CTpYH.
MMI1PAJITEMCTBO
(=~MHparI­
Teg). 1 ITpH6pexmag TeppHTOpHg, npHcnOC06JIeHHag AJIg nOCTpoHKH H pe-
14
AKBE,lJ;YK. KaMeHHbIH KaHarI HJlH TPY60npOBOA (qaCTO C BbICOKOH apKaoou B
OCHOBaHHH) Allil cHa6)1{eHHg BOAOH H3
OTAarIeHHbIX HCTOqHHKOB.
AJIEBACTPOBOE CTEKJIO (=6eJIoe CTeKJIO, rJIyxoe CTeKJIO, KOCTgHOe
CTeKJIO MOJIOqHOe CTeKJIo). MaToBoe
CTeKJIO Allil ABepeH, utUpM, KaMUHHbtX
3KpaHo6, CBeTHJIbHHKOB.
A.JDKl1PCKI1M METAJIJI. BeJIbIH
CDJIaB C OJIOBOM B OCHOBe H npHMecblO
MeAH C cypbMon, ynoTPe6JIgsIDHHCg Allil
OTJIHBOK.
AJII13API1H.
KpacHO-limoJIeTOBbIH
HCKYCCTBeHHhIH KpaCHTeJIb, npHMeugsmHHCg AJIg MaIDlpHbIX pa6oT.
MOHTa BoeHHblx Kopa6JIeH. 2 3AaHHe
n;eHTParIhHhIX yqpeX<AeHHH MOPCKOro
BeAOMCTBa.
A3APO,lJ;. P~ CTOJI60B BhICOTOH ABeTpH CruKeHH, C roPH30HTarIhHblMH
OTBepCTHgMH, qepe3 KOTophIe nponycKalOTCg )I{epAH nOA CHODhI He06MOJIOqeHHOrO xne6a, npe):IHa3HaqeHHhIe AJIg
npocymKH.
A3BAP. ITepeAHHH 060P (1) B KpeCThgHCKOH ycaob6e TaTap-MHIllapeH,
BKJIlOqaBmHH B ce6g )l{HJIOH AOM H HaABopHhIe nOCTpoHKH.
AJIKOB. 1 AJlblW6. 2 KPbITag CKaMeHKa B c~y, 6eceoKa.
AKITA-wrAH. MaM6a-oyzaH.
AKPOTEPI1M. B03BbImeHHe HaA yrJIOM ljJpOHmOHa, HMelO~ee BRA naJIbMemmbt, Ba3bI HJIH nOCmaMeHma A.IDI
cTaryH, 6lOcma, He60JIbmOrO 06eJlUCKa
HT. A.
AJITAPHA5I ITPErpMA. CTeHKa C
npOeMaMH HJlH napanem MeX<AY aJlmapeM H OCHOBHbIM nOMe~eHHeM xpaMa.
AMJIEPOH. 3J1epoH.
AJITAPHl1qA. )l(epTBeHHHK.
AMillBA. KpyrJIbIH TPexHorHH CTOJIHK
B TP~HIl;HOHHOM a6a3HHcKoM AOMe.
HJlH
AJITAPb. 1 HaH60JIee BruKHag Allil
peJIHrH03Horo pHTyarIa qaCTb npaBOcnaBHoro xpaMa, OTAeJIeHHag OT ero
OCHOBHoro npOCTPaHCTBa aJlmapHOU
npezpaoou JIH60 UKOHocmaCOM. 2 B
3an~Ho-xpHCTHaHcKHX xpaMax - BbITgH)'ThIH nonepeK OCH XPaMa CTOJI, Ha
KOTOPOM COBepmaeTCg TaHHCTBO npeBpa~eHHg xJIe6a H BOAhI B DJIOTb H KpOBh
XpHCTa, a TaK)l{e B03BeAeHHag HaA 3THM
CTOJIOM ;o;eKOpaTHBHag CTeHKa C peJIH-
AJIACbIK. 1 He HMelO~ag OKOH qeTbI-
m03HOH )I{HBOnHCblO HJlH CKYJIbnTYPOH
(qaCTO HMelO~ag BRA CKJIa;o;ug).
AKC. QHJIHHAPHqeCKag IIOBepXHOCTb
60Jl1Ombt HJlH 6aJ1lOCmpbt.
AKA)KY. KpacHoe oepe6o.
AJIArPEK. MeaHOp.
AKAHT. (=60p~, MeABe)l{bg JIana).
,lJ;eKOpaTHBHbIH 3JIeMeHT B BRAe· JIHCTa
C BbIe~aTbIM H3BHJlHCTo-3y6qaTbIM
AJIAK. IIJluHmyc, nOgCOK.
AJIAHqbIK. AJITaHCKOe
)KHJImn;e,
Kopoii.
KpbIToe
Ko~eCKoe
BOHJIOKOM
pexyroJIbHaSI nOCTPOHKa co CTeHaMH H3
KOPbI (HanpHMep, 6epeCTbI HJlH JIy6a)
Ha AepeBgHHOM KapKace - )l{HJIH~e
OCTgKOB (xaHThI) H BOryJIOB (MaHcH).
2 BamKHpCKag KapKaCHag nocTPoHKa
AJIg )KHJIbSI, 06mHTag KOpOH.
AJIAqyrA. 3arny6JIeHHag 3e.MJ1RHKa C
nJIeTeHOH KpbtuteU H3 npYTbeB nOA BOHJIOqHOH HJIH poroxmoH Kp06.!leu.
AKAIO-JIAK. MHHeparIbHag Kop~He­
Bag HJlH )I{eJITag KpaCKa KpacHo-6yporo
OTTCHKa Ha MacngHOM HJIH BOAOpaCTBOPHMOM CBg3ylO~eM, - AJIg POCDHceH no
AepeBy.
AJIMEMOP. BUMa.
AJITAH, AJITAHA (=arIbTaHa). OTKpbIToe zY.!lb6ul4e HaA KpbtuteU 3;o;aHHg
HJlH .!looJICueu.
AlUI. BpeMeHHoe )l{HJImn;e arITaHCKOro
OXOTHHKa HJlH CKOTOBOAa.
KpaeM, - HanpHMep, B KOPUHljJCKOU H
KOMn03umHOU KanUmeJlJlX, a TaK)l{e B
MOOYJlbOHaX.
AJIJII1HbEMEHThI.
Pa36HBKa Ha
MeCTHOCTH DJIaHa 6YA~ero <P0PTH<pHKaIl;HOHHoro cOOp~eHHg.
AJIOrOJIYBbIM. JIHJIOBbIH C npe06JIaAaHHeM rOJIy6H3HbI.
A3YP (=mMarIhTa). CHugg KpaCKa ):\JISI
AepeBa, 6yMam H TKaHeH.
AMbID. AnTaHCKag Cpy6Hag IOpma C
qeTbIPb~, meCTblO HJIH BoceMblO rpaugMH, 3aBepmeHHag Kp06J1eU H3 KOPbI
JIHCTBeHHHn;bI.
AJIJIEH. ,lJ;opora MC)I{):Iy npOAOJIbHbIX
p~OB AepeBbeB.
AJIXI1M1151. IToMe~eHHe npH anTeKe,
B KOTOPOM npHroTOBJIgJIH JIeKapCTBO.
AJIbIM KI1PITl1q. Cna60 060)l{)l{eHHbIH KHp~ gpKo-KpacHoro n;seTa,
npeAHa3HaqeHHhIH AJIg K.!laOKU KYXOHHbIX H KOMHaTHbIX neqeH.
AJIbIMMAH. KapKaCHag Kpbtuta aJITancKoH cpy6Hon IOpmbt.
AJIAqbIK. qeTbIpexyroJIbHOe CaMaHHoe HJlH cpy6Hoe )I{HJlH~e TaTap-MHmapen, nepeKpbIToe Ha ABa CKaTa H 060rpeBaeMoe rJIHH06HTHOH neqblO.
AJIbBEPTI1EBbI CTEHhI. KaMeHHbIe CTeHbI C nycToTaMH Me)l{):ly BepTHKarIbHbIMH nOBepXHOCTgMH CDJIOmHOH
K.!laGKu.
AJIThI 3M, AJI,lJ;ArbI 51K. ITepBaSI OT
BXOAa KOMHaTa (c neqblO) B nRmUCmeHHOM 6amKHpCKOM GOMe (1).
AJIbKE)I(. 1 ITo;o;qepKHYTbIH yrnoBon
06'beM 3AaHHg, HMelOlIl;HH B DJIaHe npgMOyrOJIbHHK H 3aBepmeHHbIH 060c06-
-14-
A
AnbKOB - AHAHACHASI rPAHb
15
JIeHHOH 1(pOB.!leu. 2 He60JIbIIIaSl yrJIOBaSI KOMHaTa B ycaAe6HOM AOMe (06blqHO cnaJIbHSI, Ka6MHeT JIM60 rapAepo6).
3 )KMJIOe nOMern;eHMe B KOpqMe.
AMEAPHMK. 1 )KepAH AHaMeTpoM
ABa-TpH BepIIIKa, ynoTpe6JISleMble AJISI
B03BeAeHHSI XOJIOAHbIX (HeoTanJIHBaeMbIX) nocTpoeK. 2 llpeA6aHHHK.
AJIhKOB. HMIIIa B KOMHaTe, OTAeJIeHHaSl OT ee OCHOBHoro npocTPaHcTBa
3aHaBeCOM, ap1(ou MJIM KO.!101t1UlMU M
npeAHa3HaqeHHaSl AJISI pa3Mern;eHMSI B
HeH KpoBaTM JIM60 AMBaHa.
AMEP A3YPA. 1 llepeKpbIToe oTBepCTHe B KpenocTHoH CTeHe HJIH 6pycmBepe, npeAHa3HaqeHHOe AJISI CTpeJIb6bI.
2 llpoeM, pacIIIHpSIIOrn;HHCSI BHYTPb
nOMern;eHHSI.
AJIhllMHAPMM (=aJIbnMHCKMH caAMK, aJIbnMHeTYM). qacTb rrapKa MJIM
caAa, oTBeAeHHaSl AJISI Bblparn;MBaHMSI
BbICOKOroPHbIX pacTeHMH Ha MCKyCCTBeHHblX ropKax M3 KaMHeH.
AJIh CEKKO (=aJIbCeKKO, a ceKKO).
)KMBonMcb BOAopacTBopMMbIMM KpacKaMM no CYXOH IIIryKarypKe.
3JIeMeHTbI pa6oTalOT Ha C)!(aTHe,
HaKJIOHHble - Ha paCTSI)!(eHMe.
a
AMOCOBA KAJIOPMtf>EP. OTonHTeJIbHaH CHCTeMa, B KOTOPOH ropSlqHi1
AbIM, BblHASI H3 6opoea, pacrrpeAeJISleTCSI
rro MeTaJIJIHQeCKMM Tpy6aM, pacnoJIo)!(eHHblM B HeCKOJIbKO PSIAOB AJISI OTAaQH
TerrJIa B pa3Hble nOMern;eHHH, rrOCJIe
Qero YXOAMT Hap~y Qepe3 o6rn;ylO
AbIMOBYIO TPy6y.
AMBOH. 1 Bblcryrr CO.!leu nepeA cpeA- AMllEJIhHhIE P ACTEHII5I. BblOHeH QaCTblO UHOHocmaca. 2 B03BblIIIe- rn;MecSI
pacTeHHH
AJISI
YKpaIIIeHMSI
HMe rrocpeAM u;epKBH, Ha KOTOPOM . caAoBo-napKoBbix coopy)!(eHMH (mpeJlbcOBepIIIaeTcSI TOp)!(eCTBeHHoe o6JIaQe- RJ/CU, nep20.!lbl M T. A.).
HMe apxMepeSl.
AMtf>IITEATP. Coopy)!(eHMe C pacrroJIO)!(eHMeM MeCT AJISI 3pMTeJIeH MJIM CJIyIIIaTeJIeH paBHoMepHo rroBbIllialOIIJ;MMHCSI YCTyrraMM, C orn6aHMeM cu;eHbI,
KapeOpbt, apeHbI MJIM TeaTpaJIbHOrO
rrapTepa.
AJIh TAHA. A.!lmmt.
AJIh T AHKA. BeceoKa.
AJIhTAHHASI
KPOBJI5I.
OqeHb
rrOJIoraSl KpOB.!lR co CKB03HbIM napanemOM HJIH 6a.!llOCmpaOou no rrepHMeTpy.
AJIh tf>PECKO, AJIhtf>PECKO. <Ppec1(a, a <ppeCKO.
AMAPAHT, AMAPAHTOBO ,UEPEBO. KpacHoe oepeeo.
AMEPlIKAHCKA5I BhIllIKA. B03BeAeHHoe
M3 AOCOK nMpaMMAaJIbHOe
BbICOTHoe coopy)!(eHMe AJISI npoTMBorro)!(apHOrO Ha6JIIOAeHHSI 3a JIeCHbiM MacCHBOM.
AMEAP.
1 XOJIOAHOe CKJIaACKOe
cTPoeHHe AJISI xpaHeHHSI 3epHoBoro
XJIe6a B aaKpOMax (pe)!(e - MYKH JIH60
AMEPIIKAHCKIIE rOPhI. rOpbt.
HHbIX npoAYKTOB H TOBapoB). 2 Capau
(1) AJISI ceHa, CeHOBaJI (B HOBropoAcKHX
H nCKOBCKHX roBopax). 3 llorpe6.
4 CTpoeHHe AJISI npoM3BoAcTBeHHblx
u;eJIeH (HarrpHMep, KY3HeqHblH A.,
MeJIbHHqHblH A., MOJIOTOBOH A., TOqHJIbHbIH A.).
AMEAPKA,UEP. lleppoH AJISI rrocaAKM
B nacca)!(MpcKMe BarOHbI.
AMEPMKAHCKME K03JIhl. llpoMe)!(YTOQHble YCTOH AepeBSlHHbIX BoeHHbIX MOCTOB, rrpeACTaBJISlIOrn;He C060H
BepTHKaJIbHYIO paMY H3 .!leJICHR, cmoeK M
HacaoKu, CKperrJIeHHYIO AJISI )!(eCTKOCTM
KOHCTPYKU;MM HaKJIOHHblMM M ropM30HTaJIbHbIMM CXeamKa.MU.
CTPOllIIJIA.
AMEPMKAHCKME
Pa3HoBMAHOCTb rroABecHblx MeTaJIJIMQeCKHX cmponU.!l, KorAa BepTMKaJIbHble
-15-
AHAJIOM (=aHaJIOrHH, HaJIOH). BbICOKMH Y3KMH CTOJIHK C HaKJIOHHOH BepxHeH
rrJIOCKOCTblO, Ha KOTOpylO KJIaAYT HKOBY, KpecT MJIM EBaHreJIMe (AJISI QTeHHH
CTOSl).
AHAHACHA5I rp AHh. llOKpbITMe
u;epKoBHoH 2.!laBbt KBaApaTHbIMM QeIIIYHKaMM C 6yropKoM B u;eHTpe Ka)!(Aoro KBaApaTa.
A
16
AHATOMH"IECKHH TEATP - AHTA6nEMEHT
AHATOMMqECKI1J1: TEATP.
H HaKJIOHHhIMH 3JIeMeHTaMH,
AHKEPHA}l BAJIKA. rOpH30HTaJIh-
pa60TalOrn;HMH Ha C)KaTHe (Cp.: AMepU-
Ha5I MeTaJIJIH'IeCKa5I llOJIOCa, CT5IrHBa-
ICaHCICUe cmponUJw).
IIepell: CTYlI:eHTaMH-MeIl:HKaMH HJIH Bpa-
IOrn;a51 llPOTHBOllOJIO)KHhle CTeHhI 311:aHH5I H 3aKpenJIeHHa5I Ha HX BHeIIIHHX
'1aMH.
nOBepXHOCT5IX aHICepaMU.
HHe
HJIH
KOMllJIeKC
311:a-
llOMern;eHHH
II:JI5I
,IWMOHCTPaU;HOHHOrO BCKPhITH5I TPYllOB
AHBEJIOTIA
(=CHJIJIOHa).
)KeHlfe,
AHKEPHhIE KAMHM. BJIOKH -CJIO)K-
TIPOT5I-
)KeHHOe 060pOHHTeJIhHOe cOOpY)KeHHe
HOH KOHcpHrypaIJ;HH, llJIOTHO COeIl:HHeH-
3IIOXH rJIall:KOCTBOJIhHOH
HhIe TIIJ;aTeJIhHOH npHTeCKOH II:JIH CO-
apTHJIJIepWH,
AHrmrHCKMM
QyrYHHaH
npOTHBJIeHHH 60JIhIIIHM BHeIIIHHM B03-
rre'lh II:JIH llPHroTOBJIeHHH llHrn;H, COeIl:H-
OQAr.
lI:eHCTBHHM (HallpHMep, B /C.IlaoICe Ma-
HeHHa5I C BOII:OrpeHHhlM KOTJIOM.
RIC06 (1) HJlII. MOCTOBhIX OllOp).
AHrJIMMCKMM TIAPK. lleUaaJICHblU
AHHAJIMT
napIC.
CMech H3 CHJIhHO 060)K)KeHHOrO rHllCa,
AHrJIMMCKMM
TIAPTEP.
TIapKo-
yKpe-
IIJIeHH5I C rJIaBHbIMH 6epICaMU H pacllo-
AHHEJIEThI.
KOHe'lHhIH
KpeCT
C
OIl:HHaKOBhlMH
HbI, ceHa. 2 BOJIhIIIOe 311:aHHe II:JI5I xpaHe-
1 CapaH II:JIH COJIOMhl,
MHKH-
AHEMOCKOTI. YCTPOHCTBO II:JIH yc-
PaCIIOJIO)KeHHhIH
JIO)KHeHHhIX Ha6JIIOII:eHHH 3a llepeMe-
B6JIH3H o'lara u;eHTPaJIhHhIH CTOJI6 B
HaMH BeTPa: P.nlOzep Ha MeTaJIJIH'IeCKOM IIIeCTe, KOTOPhlH CBH3aH BHYTPH
IIOMeIIJ;eHH5I
)l(EJIqh.
)l(eJITa51
3aKpbIBaIOrn;ee CICOl{UIO Me)KII:Y nOJIYBa-
2 PeMeUlICu.
KOTophle MO)KeT B"heXaTh B03.
AHrEJI rOJIOBhl.
AHrmU1:CKA}!
YKpaIIIeHHe B BHlJ:e
HHH CHOIIOB P)KH, HMeIOrn;ee BopoTa, B
BOH KOPOH HJIH 6epecToH.
KpacKa.
1
BeH'IHKa H3 CJIerKa 3arHYThIX JIHCTheB,
JIaMH B ICanume.nu HJlH 6aae ICO.nOHHbl.
HaKJIOHHhlMH KOHu;aMH.
aCICapnoM.
oceTHHCKOM )KIfJIHrn;e.
H
JIeHHH HCKyccTBeHHbIx KaMHeH.
AH,UPEU.
AHr A. OPO'lCKHH KOHH'IeCKHH '1YM C
rpaBHH
KOTOpOrO C0311:aeTCH CO'leTaHHeM paCTH-
JIO)KeHHOe HellOCpell:CTBeHHo 3a ICoHmp-
)KeplI:eBhIM KapKacoM, llOKPhIThIH eJIO-
lleCKa,
BhIH napmep, lI:eKOpaTHBHhlH PHCYHOK
AH,UPEEBCKMM KPECT. QeThlpeX-
(1)
KpYllHo3epHHcToro
6eToH).
rn;e6H51, ynoTPe6JI5IBIIIaHCH II:JI5I H3rOTOB-
TeJIhHOCTH H IIeCKa.
OKpY)KaIOrn;ee BHeIIIHHH 6aJl
(=rHllcoBhIH
C
cHcTeMoH
3y6'1aThlX
KOJIeC, IIOBOpa'lHBaIOIIJ;HX cTPeJIKY-YKa-
AHT ABA.
MeTaJIJIH'IeCKaH
II:BepHaH
PYKoHTKa B BHlI:e ropeJIhecpHoH JIhBHHOH
MacICU C llOBOPOTHhIM KOJIhU;OM B 3y6ax.
3aTeJIh IIepell: KpyroBoH IIIKaJlOH (JIHM-
AHrmn1:CKAA 3EJIEHh. MaJI5IpHa5I
KpacKa
( 06hI'IHO MaCJI5IHa5l),
o6pa30-
60M) C 3211:eJIeHHHMH (PYM6aMH).
AHKEP (=3au;eII, IIIIIHJIhKa).
1 MeTaJI-
BaHHa5I CMeIIIeHHeM )KeJITOrO KpoHa C
JIH'IeCKaSi BCTaBKa 'Iepe3 KOHu;eBYIO npo-
6ep.nuHcICOU z.naaypblO.
YUlUHY C6Rau, 3aKpellJI5IIOrn;aH ee llOJIO-
AHrJIM"HCKAA KJIA,UKA. BHIJ: KHP-
)KeHHe Ha BHeIIIHeH lloBepxHocTH CTe-
IIH'IHOH IC.naoICu, IIpH KOTOPOM Ha JIHu;eBOH IIoBepxHocTH Ka)KIJ:bIe II:Ba ThI'IKOBhIX pHlI:a (CM.
II:BYMH
HJIH
Tbt'toIC) pa311:emiIOTCH
60JIee
JIO)KKOBhIMH
( CM.
AHT ABJIEMEHT.
rOpH30HTaJIhHaH
JIOJ/COIC).
BepXHH5I 'IaCTh OplI:epHOH KOMn03HU;HH,
AHrmrHCKA}l YKJIA,UKA. CIIoco6
06bI'IHO nOll:lI:ep)KHBaeMa51 ICO.nOHHaMU
YCTpoHcTBa ICP06.nU H3 rrpHMoyrOJIhHhlX
IIIHcpepHhlx llJIHTOK, llpH KOTOPOM OHM
paCllOJIaraIOTCH BII:OJIh CBeCa ICP06.nU,
Hhl; 'Iarn;e Bcero HMeeT BHII: '1eThlpexrpaHHoro CTep)KH5I C He60JIhIIIHM cxo)KlI:eHHeM rpaHeH, pe)Ke -
S-06pa3HYIO
HJIH X-06pa3HYIO CPOPMY. 2 KOJIbIIIIeK,
YlI:ep)KHBaIOIIJ;HH
ooeJICoy
ICpymocmeu
);.~'S\Q,4~
"'IIapaJIJIeJIhHbIMH PMaMH C HaIIYCKOM, H
IIIBhl
HH)KHerO
6nepe6eJICICy
PMa IIepeKphIBalOTC5I
IIJIHTKaMH
CJIeIl:YIOrn;erO
PMa.
Qepe3 IIpHB5I3aHHYIO K HeMY 6Ul{Y
AHrJIMl1:CKME
JIe3Hhle
pepMbl
C
(1).
JIH60
nu.nRcmpaMU;
'1JIeHHTCH
CHH3Y
)l(e-
3 Ka)KIJ:bIH H3 KOJIheB II:JIHHOH He MeHee
BBepx Ha apxumpa6, ppua H ICapHua (B
BepTHKaJIhHhlMH
II:BYX apUIHH, 3a6HThiH B 3eMJIIO II:JI5I
HenOJIHOM BapHaHTe A. apxumpa6 OT-
YKpeIIJIeHHH OOeJICObl ICpymocmeu.
CYTcTByeT) .
CTPOTIMJIA.
3JIeMeHTaMH, pa60TaIOIIJ;HMH Ha paCT5I-
-16-
A
AHTEMIIISI -
17
APAAbI
AHTEMIUI. IIaJlbMemma.
AHTECTATIOP. 3eMJHIHOe RJUI fjJaIUUlUlOe YKpeIIJIeHHe C 6pycm8epoM,
nepeCeKaJOru;ee 6acmuoH B ero nepej:(HeH '1aCTH.
AHTE<I>HKCbI (=aHTHcpHKChI). YKpaIIIeHHe B BHj:(e naJlbMemm, W<aHma JUl60
HHhIX j:(eKopaTHBHhIX ru;HTKOB Haj:( BeH-
nepeKphITHCM, JIH60 BepxHHH nOJlyamaJIC
3j:(aHH5I, BKJIJO'IeHHhIH B ero OCHOBHOH
06'heM. 2 IIo.!lamu (1, 2). 3 Ea.!lKOHW.!lepeR BHyTpH BblCOKoro rrOMeru;eHH5I.
4 ):!;onOJIHHTeJIbHhIC nOJIKH HJIH OTj:(CJICHHe C j:(Bep~aMH, YCTaHOBJICHHhIC Ha
BCpX IIIKacpa HJIH ceKpemepa.
HhIH BhlcTyn nOJIYKpyrJIOH, rpaHeHoH
JIn60 CJIO)KHOH CPOpMbI B nJIaHC; 3THM
TCPMHHOM nO'lTII Bcerj:(a 0603Ha'laJOTC5I
JIHIIIh a.!lmapHble 06'hCMhI.
AHTbl. BhlcTynaJOru;Hc HapY)Ky TOp~hI
BHYTpeHHMx CTeH, pacnOJIO)KCHHhle no
cTopoHaM OT BXOj:(a.
AH <I>EMH5I.. IIa.!lbMemma.
AH<I>HJIA):!;A. HcrrpephIBHhIH p5Ij:( npoCTpaHCTBeHHhIX 3JIeMCHTOB (noMcru;eHH5I, 080pbl) , 06'hCj:(HHCHHhIX 06ru;CH
OChJO rrcpcnCKTHBbI.
AIlCH):!;HOJIA. Hc60JIhIIIOH nOHH)KCHHhIH BhlcTyn nOJIYKpyrrroH IlJIH rpaHCHOH CPOpMbI, rrpHMhIKaJOru;HH K ocHOBHOMY 06'heMY 3j:(aHH5I H HC HMCJOru;mf BHyTpH cc65I npecmo.!la.
'IalOru;MM KapHU30M 3j:(aHM5I, 06pa3YJOru;HX pHTMM'IeCKHH p5Ij:( B OCHOBaHHH
CKaTa Kp08JlU.
AHTHKAMOP A.
H5I5I, 8ecmu6lOJlb.
ayoueHI1-3aJlOM.
1 IIpuXOJlcaR, nepej:(2 KOMHaTa rrepej:(
AIlTEKAPCKHll oropo):!; (=aIITeKapcKHH caj:(). 1 Ilocaj:(KH JICKapCTBeHHhIX pacTcHHH. 2 EOTaHH'ICCKHH caj:(.
AHTMMAKACCAP. KpY)KeBHa5I caJIcpeTKa Ha crrHHKe KpeCJIa HJIH AHBaHa.
AH<I>HJIA):!;HA5I. EATAPE5I.. ApTHJIJICpHHCKa5I rr03H~H5I C YKphITHeM, C
KOTOPOH npOCMaTpHBaCTC5I CPPOHT KpCnOCTHhIX YKpCnJICHHH Ha BCJO j:(JIHHy.
AIlAJIEP. Annape.!lb.
AHTHMHHC (=aHTHMHcHH). ~eTl'IpeX­
yrOJIhHhIH JIhH5IHOH HJIM IIIeJIKOBbIH
rrJIaT, H306pa)KaJOru;HH rrOJIO)KeHHe XPHCTa BO rp06; A., 6e3 KOToporo He
COBepIIIaeTC5I TaHHCTBO eBxapHCTHH,
HaXOj:(HTC5I B rrpaBOCJIaBHOH ~epKBH Ha
npecmOJle H Hepej:(KO YKa3bIBaeT Ha
BpeM5I ee B03Bej:(eHM5I, TaK KaK nepelI:aeTC5I B xpaM rrpH ero OCB5Iru;eHHH.
AHTHIlOPTHK. IIanepmb, npocTpaHCTBO KOTOPOH ~eJIHKOM HJIH rrOJIHOCTbJO
OTlI:eJIeHO OT cTyneHeH KOJlOHHaoou.
AHTOBbIll IlOPTHK. IIopmuK C aHmaMU Ha cpJIaHrax.
AIlOJIJIOHHOH. K.!la8eCUH C opraHHbIMH Tpy6aMH.
AIlTP A. 5I.ru;HK j:(JI5I CCMCHHhIX Mj:(OJIOB B
aJITaHCKOH KOHH'ICCKOH IOpme.
AIlIIIHHT. A61UHum.
APAEECKA (=apa6ccK, apa6CKa5I
)KHBOrrHCh, apanCKa5I )KHBOrrHCh, rpoTCCK, MaBpccKa). IlJIOCKOCTHoH HJIH
TOHKHH JICIIHOH opHaMeHT C O'leHb
CJIO)KHhIM, B OCHOBHOM CHMMCTPH'IHhIM
AIlO<l>MKA. 1 AIITCKa. 2 IloMcru;cHHc
j:(JI5I xpaHeHH5I MaCJIa, BHHa H HHhIX npoAOBOJIhCTBCHHbIX npHnacoB.
AIlIlAPEJIb. 3CMJI5IHOll. naHoyc C
YKJIOHOM OT 1:4 j:(0 1:10, j:(JI5I BTaCKHBaHM5I 0PYAHll. Ha 6ap6embl H 8a.!lWHlU, a
TaK)Ke j:(JI5I C006ru;CHH5I PBOB H TpaHIIIew
C OCHOBHOH rroBcpxHOCThJO YKpCrrJICHH5I.
"".==m-===
~
'
.' \" /fir/'" .
r~'
.~-
Wj'
"w;;?4
~~
\,r:f0k:-.
.fffJ
AIlIlJIHKE. H3j:(eJIH5I 113 j:(eIIIeBoro
MeTaJIJIa (HarrpHMCp, )KCJIe30, MCj:(h,
JIaTYHh), rrOKphIThIC C JIII~CBOH CTOPOHhI
CJIOeM cepc6pa HJIH HHoro ~CHHoro
MCTaJIJIa.
AIlPOEAIJ,M5I.. YTBCP)Kj:(CHHC apXHTeKTypHoro npOCKTa BhICOKonOCTaBJICHHbIM JIH~OM.
AHTOHHEB KPECT (=eBpeHcKHH
KpecT, KpecT «Tay»). <l>Hrypa B BHj:(e
6yKBhI «T».
AIlPOIli (=anpOIlla, onpOIIIa). TpaHIIIC5I j:(JI5I CTPCJIKOB.
AHTPECOJIM. 1 BepXH5I5I '1aCTb nOMeru;eHH5I,
pa3j:(eJIeHHOrO
BHyTpeHHHM
All CM):!;A (= a6cllj:(a). IlpIIMbIKaJOru;IIH
K OCHOBHOMY 06'hCMY 3j:(aHH5I nOHH)KCH-
-17-
paCTHTCJIbHbIM HJIH rCOMeTpH'IeCKHM
PHCYHKOM, Kyj:(a MoryT 6hITh BnJIeTCHhI
CPHryPKH JIJOAeH H )KJiBOTHhlX.
AP ABHllCKA5I. APKA. Iloj:(KoBo06pa3Ha51 oj:(Ho~eHTpOBa5I apKa (1) C
KPHBOH 60JIce nOJIOBHHhI OKPY)KHOCTH.
APA):!;bI (=Ha y6cr). illmpo6bl C j:(ByXcTyrreH'IaTbIMH yrJIy6JIeHH5IMH B KHPnH'IHyJO K.!laoKY.
A
APAnbiK -
18
APOH-KO.QEW
AP AJIhIK. llOrrepeqHhIe 6aJIKH, rroAAep)J{HBalOrn:He Kp06J1/O KapaqaeBCKOro )J{HJIHrn:a.
AP AH. OTKPbIThIH Ha lO)J{HYIO CTOPOHY
CapaU-HaBeC C IIJIeTeHhIMH CTeHKaMH H
KaMhIIIIOBOH KpbtUleU, rrpeAHa3HaqeH-
HhIH ]:1m! KpyrrHoro poraToro CKOTa Ha
3HMHeM HoraHCKOM rrOCeJIeHHH.
AP AHr A. 1 5IpycHoe coopY)J{eHHe B
6YPHTCKOH ycaob6e, rrpeAHa3HaqeHHOe
AJIH rrpHrOTOBJIeHHH MOJIOqHhIX rrpoAYKTOB. 2 B03BbIIIIeHHhIH rrOMOCT, Ha KOTOPOM B CH6HpH XOPOHHJIH IIIaMaHa JIH60
y6HToro MOJIHHeH.
(B]:IOJIh JIHIIeBOH rroBepxHocTH) rrepcKphIBaeMoro rrpocTpaHcTBa. 2 llpoe3A C
KPHBOJIHHeHHOH rrepeMhlqKoH. 3 ,[(yro06pa3HaH BCTaBKa rrOCpe]:lH KJlaOKU,
rrepepacrrpe]:leJIHlOrn:aH HarpY3KY Ha ocHOBaHHe (=pa3zPY3o'-tHaR apKa).
f~1}~':~::::':::'7::::?>:1:~':":::~ ,~; ;:,::~ ;,:-:::" ~;'-~';~.~
APMATYPA. 1 ,[(cKOpaTHBHaH KOMrro3Hl[HH H3 rrpC]:IMCTOB BoopY)J{eHHH H
BoeHHoro CHapSl)J{eHHH (rJIaBHhIM 06pa30M ]:IpeBHero), BOrrJIorn:CHHaH B peJIhe<jJe, MOH}'MeHTaJIhHOH pocrrHcM HJIH
~~~
.,-
f-::
(~:t
.,'
1-_'
,'-
APAllCKA5I )l(JIIBOllJIICh. Apa6ec-
MaCCHBHoe
APEA3.
COOpY)J{CHHe B 60raTOH KapaqaCBCKOH
ycaAh6e, 06'be]:lHHHIOrn:ee HCCKOJIhKO
)J{JfJIh!X ]:IOMOB H XJIeBOB, C Bh!XO]:laMH
BHYTph MHoroyrOJIhHOrO 3aMKHYToro
o6opa (2) rrOA MaccHBHoH 3eMJIHHOH
KPbtUleu.
APEA3 KAEAK. KpyrrHhle ABepH IIIMpOKoro BXO]:la B ap6a3.
APKAJIblK.
OCHOBHaH 6aJIKa Ha
KpbtUle HoraHCKoro ]:IOMa, rrOAAep)J{HBalOrn:aH 06a ec CKaTa.
APKA-CKAMEELJKA. BeceOKa B BHAe mpUYMpaJlbHOu apKU co CKB03HhIMH pCIIIeTqaThIMH CTeHKaMH, K KOTOphIM rrpHMhIKalOT CHAeHhH.
APKATYP A. PHTMHqCCKHH pSlA apOK,
rrpHJIeralOIIIHX K CTeHe,
APEAJIET. BOJIH006pa3HhIH crrycK K
Cepe]:lMHe rro HIDKHeMY o6pe3y KOMo):(a.
APEAH.
1 AM6ap. 2 llOABaJI, rrorpe6.
APEOPETYM. JI,eHopapuu.
APEOPHT.
4>aHepHbIe
rrJIaCTHHhl,
CKJIeeHHhIe H3 ABYX, Tpex MJIH qeThlpex
JIHCTOB TOHKOH <paHephl, KOTophle pacrrOJIO)J{eHhl TaK, qTO B Ka)J{AOM JIHCTe
HarrpaBJIeHHe BOJIOKOH rrcpcrrcHAHKYJIHPHO BOJIOKHaM COCe]:lHHX JIHCTOB, H
3TO MeillaeT Kopo6JIeHHIO H pacTpecKHBaHMIO.
APKATYPHO-KOJIOHLJATbIM llO-
5IC. ApKaTypa Ha KOJlOHHaX,
APMOKAMEHHOE
llEPEKPhITHE. llJIOCKaH KOHCTPYKIIHH H3 KHpilllqCH, rrOCTaBJICHHhIX Ha pe6po, H rrOJIOCOBoro )J{CJIC3a B ropH30HTaJIhHhIX Ul6ax
APEOCTJllJIb. KOJlOHHaOa C 60JIhIIIHMH uHmepKoJlYMHUR.MU.
APJIIEP-KOP. 3aAHMH 3JIeMeHT 3AaHHH
MJIM KOMrrJIeKCa rrocTpoeK (Koprryc,
rrOMern:eHHe, cTeHa).
APKA. 1 KPHBOJIHHeHHOe rrepeKphITHe, y KOToporo rrOrrepeqHaH TOJIrn:HHa
KJlaOKU MeHhIIIe, qeM rrpOTH)J{CHHOCTb
M03aHKe. 2 KapKac BHYTPH cKYJIhrrTypHhIX rrpoH3BeAeHHH, H3rOTOBJIeHHhIX
rryTCM JICrrKH H OTJIHBKH, a TaK)J{e
MeTaJIJIHqCCKHe CTep)J{HH BHYTPH )J{CJIC306eTOHHhIX 3JICMCHTOB, rrpcrrHTCTBYIOrn:He pacTH)J{cHHIO. 3 KOMrrJICKT 060pYAoBaHHH AJIH 3JIeKTpHqeCKOrO OCBern:eHHH.
APMHJIJIbI. PeMeUlKu.
APEJIJII (=pCJIH). KaqeJIH.
APEOTEKTOHJIIKA.
B03BeAeHHe
060pOHHTeJIhHhiX YKpeIIJIeHHH.
ApOqHaH HHilla HaA
APKMA. PHTMHqeCKMH pH]:I apoK,
orrHpalOrn:HXCH Ha KOJlOHHbt HJIH CTOJI6hI
6e3 rrpMMbIKaHMH K CTeHe.
t-'.
Ka, Ma6peCKa.
APKOCOJIJIIM.
3axopoHeHHeM.
KJlaOKu.
APM5IHCKJIIM KAMEHh. BOJl/Oc.
APKAY. llPO]:lOJIhHhle 6aJIKH KPbtUlU
KapaqaeBCKOro )J{HJIHrn:a, orrHpalOrn:He(51 Ha 6peBeHqaThle U{Unl{bt TOPIIOBhIX
(TCH.
APOMATHJIIIJ;A. Ba30H (2) C MeJIKHMH oTBepcTHHMH B BepxHeH qaCTH;
BMcrn:alOrn:HH 6JIarOBOHHSl.
APKEYTAH (=yrropHaH apKa). ApKa
MmaMU (1) Ha pa3Hhlx ypOBHSlX,
II<lKJIOHHO rrepcAalOrn:aH pacrrop c600a
IW BHCIIIHIOIO orropy,
(
APOH-KO,[(EIII
(=apoH-KOH]:IeIII).
CBHrn:eHHhIH KOBqer B cUHazoze, BMern:alOrn:HH CBHTOK TOphI H 06hlqHO YCTa-
-18-
A
APOLiHASI cJ)EPMA - AY,QHEHIl-3An
19
HaBJUmaeMbIH Y BOCTO'IHOH CTeHbI Ha
APXHTPABHOE
B03BbIIIIemHI co cTyrreHbKaMH.
BCRKoe rrJIOCKOC rrcpcKpbITHC H3 Il,CJIb-
nCpCH,T1CKHC
Horo 6JIOKa.
CTaTYH B BHp;e POCTOBbIX MY)KCKHX q,H-
APO'IHA51 <l>EPMA. IIpe,!lHa3Ha'IeH-
IIEPEKPhITHE.
ATJIAHThI (=TCJIaMOHbI, TCJIaMCHbI,
HCBOJIbHHKH,
rrcpCHp;bI) .
HlliI ,!ImI rrepeKpbITHll rrpOJIeTOB CBbIIIIe
ryp, nO,T1,T1Cp)KHBaIOIIIHX al-lma6JleMeHm
10
JIH60 HHOM apXHTeKTypHbIH BbIcTyrr.
M
pa3HOBH,!IHOCTb
MeTaJIJIH'IeCKHX
AP'IHBHOJIA.
cmponUJI,
,!IJIll
KOTOPOH
xapaKTepHbI
II1apHHpHbIe coe,!lHHeHHlI rrpllMOJIHHeHHbIX 3JIeMeHTOB rro,!l TyrrbIM yrJIOM.
1
APCEHAJI.
HHll
H
BoeHHbIX
3arraCOB
(KpoMe B3pblB'IaTbIX H JIerKO BOCrrJIaMeHllIOIIIHXCll).
2
XpaHHJIHIIIe cTapHHHoro
0py:lKHll H HHbIX rrpe,!lMeTOB, Il,eHHbIX p;mI
apTyacKHH
KOJIO-
B KOTOPOM HCrrOJIb3Y-
,!IeIl,). KOJIop;eIl"
eTCSI rrpHpop;HbIH Harrop rpYHTOBbIX BOP;
CKB03b
HHcc6c
q,opTeIIHaHo H lIIapMaHKY.
IIpHrOTOBJIeHHlI nHIIIH, B 6alIIKHpcKoM
Hapop;HoM :lKHJIHIIIC.
A CEKKO. AJlb ceKKO.
ACETh. 'IacTb OBUI-la, OTBC,!ICHHaR ,T1JISI
1
ATTHK.
BbIT5!HYTall rro ropH30HTa-
JIH CTCHKa Ha,T1 BCH'IaIOIIIHM KapI-lU30M.
APTE3HAHCKHM KOJIO,UEU (=apKOJIOp;eIl"
B
CyIIIKH CHonOB.
BoeHHOH HCTOpHH.
Tya3cKHH
MY3bIKaJIbHbIH
06"bCP;HHRIOIIIHH
ACAK. OT,!IeJIbHbIH O'Iar C rrJIHTOH P;JISI
3,!1aHHe ,!IJIll H3rOTOBJIe-
xpaHeHHll
cTpYMeHT,
rrp06ypeHHylO
BepTHKaJIbHYIO
CKBa:lKHH)' •
ACIIH,U.
HaCIIHC,
2
(=acIIH,T1HbIH
SICIIHC).
(=HacnHc, SIcnHc). 5I1IIMa.
HbIH, rrOp;p;eJIbHbIH.
3
MpaMop
4
(rnaBHbIM 06pa30M TCMHblH).
Ccpall
2
(=aTTH'ICCKHH
3Ta)K).
3Ta)K,
IIOHH:lKCHHbIH
aq,HHcKHH
BCpXHHH
:;lTa)K
3p;aHHS! B OpOepl-lblX q,opMax, orpaHH'ICHHbIH CHH3Y Kapl-lU30M.
KJIeCBaR KpacKa ,T1JISI MamIpHbIx pa60T, C
H3MeJIb'IeHHblM CJIaHIl,eM B OCHOBC.
ACCAMEJIEMHA5I.
APTH <I> HIJ,HAJIhHhIM. HCKYCCTBeH-
CJIaHCIl"
IIpHpOP;HbIH IIIHq,Cp.
3aJla
(1, 2)
BO
oBop~e HJIH P;OMC BCJIbMO:lKH, npC,!IHa3Ha'IeHHall ,!IJIll 6aJIOB H YBeCCJICHHH, a
APTY A3CKHM KOJIO,UEIJ, (;=apTya-
TaK:lKe ,!IJIll CB06o,!lHOro o6IIIeHHR ,T1BO-
CKHH KOJIOp;eIl,). Apme3ual-lc/wu KOJlO-
pllH (c
oe~.
1718 rO,!la).
ATTHKOBhIM
ACCEKYPAHIJ,-KOHTOPA
APXHBOJIhT. PeJIbeqJHaSI OKaHTOBKa
(=q,eHcp-Ka,T1aCTp).
Y'IpC)K,!IeHHc
no
CTpaXOBamHO cTpoeHHH OT rro:lKapa.
apO'IHOrO H3rH6a BP;OJIb ero Kpall.
ACTPArAJI.
1
II05lC.
no
rrcpHMCTPY
A TTHKOBhIM
CBOHCTBCHHbIH opoep-
HOU apxHTcKType 06JlOM B BR,T1e nOJly8aJla Hap; nOJlO'iKOU, 3aBeplIIaIOIIICH
HCBblcoKaSI
KynoJla HJIH
HHoro 06"bCMa Hap; BCHtJalOIIIHM Kapl-lU30M.
CTCHKa
51PYC.
rJIYXOH RpyC
HC3Ha'IHTCJIbHOH BbICOTbI, OT,!ICJICHHbIH
KapHu30M
5!pyca
OT
OCHOBHoro.
HccYIIl,Cro
II rrOBTOp5!IOIIl,HH B IIJIaHC cro
OQepTaHM51.
ATTHKypr. JIonamKa, nUJIol-l np5!MOyrOJIbHOrO CC'ICHHll.
APXHEPEMCKHM ,UOM. OqmIl,HaJIbHaSI pe3Hp;eHIl,HSI errHCKorra, apxHemfcKorra HJIH MHTpOrrOJIHTa.
APXHTEKTOHHKA.
HHe
apxHTeKTypHoro
rr03HIl,HH
1
Pacrrpcp;eJIe-
p;eKopa
rrpoH3Bep;eHHll
KOHCTPYKIl,HH,
COOTHOllIeHHH
ACTPAJIHT
(=reManmoH,
nypny-
pHH). IIPHMCHSIBIIICCCS! B M03aHKax HeB
KOM-
30p;'IeCTBa,
rrOp;'IepKHBaIOIIIee 3pHTeJIbHYlO Hap;C:lKHOCTb
BblKpyJICKy. 2 BaJlUK Ha CTbIKC CTBOJIa
KOJlOHHbl HJIH nUJlRCmpbl C KanWrCJIhlO.
3 )[(eM'iYJICl-luK.
YCTOH'IHBOCTb
HecYIIIHx
H
B
rrp03pa'IHOe CTeKJIO nypnypHoro IIBCTa.
COCHOBbIH
HJIH
CJIOBbIH
apxHTcKTypbI
KaK
HCKYCCTBa.
4 ApxHTeKTypa.
ATIH'IECKHM 3TA)K. AmmuK
JIRIOIIIHX al-lma6JleMel-lma, BaHHe,
orrHpalOIIIeecll
JlOnamKU
CTCHY·
JIH60
cepa,
3CMJI5!HaS!
CMOJIa,
3eMJI5!HOH
p;erOTb, HY,!lCHCKall CMOJIa). BCIIICCTBO,
6JIH3KOC CMOJIaM; IICnOJIb30BaJIOCb P;JIS!
rH,T1pOH30mIIl,HH H B TBCP,T1bIX P;OPO)KHbIX
APXHTP AB. HH:lKHSISI H3 Tpex COCTaBHa
ero OCHO-
KanUmeJlU,
Herrocpep;cTBeHHo
Ha
Y KOTOPbIX
60JIbllIC llIHpHHbI.
CKaS! CMOJIa, )KH,T10BCKHH KJICH, 3eMJIS!Ha5!
pHSI
C O'ICHb
BbICOTa Bccro JIIIllIb B II5!Tb-llICCTb pa3
6aJIKa).
2 HaY'IHall
Teo-
(=MaJIbIH
6pyc (1) C ,!IByMs! nJIOCKIIMH rpaHSIMH.
roPHbIH BOCK, ropHbIH ,!ICroTb, )KH,!IOB-
3
OP,UEH
p;CKOpaIl,H5!
BaR
AC<I>AJIhT (=acq,aJIbp;, rOpHaS! CMOJIa,
CTBOM MaTeMaTHKH H MexaHHKH.
<l>acap;Ha5!
KOPOTKHMH nUJlRCmpaMU,
HeCOMbIX
p;HCIl,HrrJIHHa 06 HCrrOJIb30BaHHH 30p;'Ie-
ATTH'IECKHM
'IHH).
ACTPAXAHCKA5I EAJIKA (=HH30-
'IaCTeH, rrpO'IHOCTb KapKacHblx Y3JIOB,
BeCOMOCTb OCHOBaHHH H T. p;.
A TTH'IECKA51 EA3A.
Ba3a KOJlOl-ll-lbl co CBOHCTBCHHbIM UOI-lU'ieCKOMy opoepy IIPOq,HJICM, B KOTOPOM ,!IBa
nOJlY8aJla COC,!IHHSIIOTCS! CKo~ueU.
ATTH'IECKOE
YKPAllIEHHE.
,UCKOpHpoBKa BCPXHCH 'IaCTH KaMUI-lOB
CKYJIbiiTypOH
HJIH
apxHTcKTypHbIMH
OpOepl-lblMU 3JICMCHTaMH H3 MpaMopa,
rHilca HJIH ,!IepcBa.
IIOKPbITHllX, a TaK)KC P;JIS! npO'IHOrO CIl,C-
A ThI,U3 hI -,UY .
IIJICHHR KaMCHHbIX 6JIOKOB.
CCMbH B a6a3HHcKoM CCJICHHH.
AT EAAMAP C3pr3. 51KYTcKall KOHOB5!3b
YTHJIHTapHOro
(HC
Ha3Ha'Iemu[.
KYJIbTOBoro)
(2).
,UOM
P;JI5!
60JIbllIOH
AY,UHEHIJ,-3AJI. 3aJI P;JIR oq,HIl,HaJIb.HbIX M ,!ICJIOBbIX IIPHCMOB BblCOKonoCTaBJIeHHbIMH ,!IOJI)KHOCTHbIMR JIHIl,aMH.
-19-
A
AYKUMOHHASI KAMEPA - ASiT -IO~
AYKll;lIOHHA5I
KAMEPA.
20
IIoMc-
~CHl'[C rrpH rOp0;L\CK0l1 ;L\YMC, B KOTOPOM
rrpOH3BO;L\HTCSI
rrpO;L\a)l{a
;L\BH)l{HMOro
HMY~CCTBa C rry6JIH'lHbIX TOprOB.
AYJIA. AKTOBbIH 3aJI B YHHBCPCHTCTC
HJIH aKa;L\CMHH.
Tpalcmup C
AYCfEPM5I (=aBCTCpHSI).
q,YHK~HSlMH KJIy6a.
A4>AHOP. JIaMnaOHaR ne'tb.
A4>E.IJ:POH. OTXO)l{CC MCCTO, y6opHaSl.
A4>MHCKA5I
KOJIOHHA.
[JUIlR-
cmpa.
A4>MHCKMH 3TAK
AmmuK (2).
JIAMIIA.
JIaMrra-KypHJIbHH~a C rrJIaTHHOBoH crrH-
paJIblO, KOTopaSl B paCKaJICHHOM COCTOSlHHH rrOMoraCT HcrrapcHHlO ;L\YXOB, BJIHTbIX B pC3cpByap.
AX-AX. BHc3arrHbIH rrpocBcT B rrJIOTHOM 3CJICHOM MaCCHBC rrapKa y cro rpa-
HH~bl, OTKPbIBalO~HH rrcpcrrCKTHBHbIH
BH;L\ Ha OKPCCTHOCTH (cp.: BOJI'-tUU CKOK).
AlII YH. qcpHaSl rrOJIOBHHa O;L\HOKaMCpHoro 6aIIIKHpcKoro )l{HJIH~a, B KOTOPOH
)l{HJIH )l{CH~HHbI H rOTOBHJIH rrH~.
AlII 5IK (=Ka3aHJIbIK, Ka3aH SlK, KaIIIblSlK
SlK).
yroJI rrcpc;L\
OT;L\CJICHHbIH
3aHaBCCblO
ycmbeM rrC'lH B 6aIIIKHpcKOM
)l{HJIH~C, rrpc;L\Ha3Ha'lCHHbIH AJISI rrpHroTOBJICHHSI
rrH~H.
A3P APMH.
CrrC~HaJIbHO
o6opY;L\OBaH-
HaSl rrJIO~a;L\Ka ;L\JISI rrpHcMa B03;L\YIIIHbIX
BaHH rrO;L\ Ha6JIlO;L\cHHCM Bpa'la.
A3POEAJIKM
(=a3pOTCJIa).
HarroJI-
HCHHbre ra30M HJIH B03;L\YXOM rH6KHc
HcrrpoHH~acMblc 060JIO'lKH ;L\JISI B03BC-
;L\CHHSl3;L\aHHH, 6aUleH
(1), 3JlJlUH208 (2),
MOCTOB H HHbIX cOOPY)l{CHHH, 3arraTCHTOBaHHblC
POCCHHCKHM
M. CYMOBCKHM B
HH)I{CHCPOM
1894 r.
A3POCTATMqECKA5I
JIAMIIA.
MaCJISlHaSl JIaMrra, B KOTOPOH C)I{aTbIH
B03;L\YX rrO;L\aCT MaCJIO K CBCTHJIbHHKY·
A3POTEJIA.
. A5IT-IOH.
A3po6aJtKU .
KyxHSI-ceHu
B
Horai1cKoM
;L\OMC.
-20-
BABA.
1
CTOSIK
C
KOJIO~e3Horo )[(ypaBJISI.
npoyUlU1wu ~JISI
2 Ba6Ka.
Y~MYpTCKaH
rOM
BABAPHA. 5lKYTcKaSi lloBapHSl, O~HO­
BA3.
BpeMeHHo
CKOTa.
CJIY)[(HBillaSi JIeTHHM )[(HJIH-
~eM.
3eMJISIHOrO nOJIa.
1 LI.BOp C HaBeCOM
2 M:napan.
BABHHEll,.
CmpRn1WU Kym.
3alla~Hhnl
1
H3
Tpex
OCHOBHhlX 06beMOB ~epeBSlHHoH ~epKBH
OCSlMH
~BYMSI
2 IIpum80p
CHMMeTpHH
HJIH KphITaSI
BAHrYIli. 3aHMKa
~JIH poraToro
BAHLI.AK.
B
2,5
Bap)[(a B OCHOBaHHH nJIaBY'leH BO~HHOH
MeJIhHH~hl.
BAHLI.AqHhIE
60JIee IIIHpoKoe, '1eM HX CTBOJI.
Hhle ~OCKH, 60R~aIIIHhIe ~OCKH, 6apo'lHhle ~OCKH).
llJIaHa.
(=6a6a,
Me~y
H)'IO K HeMY ropH30HTaJIhHYIO
OT
3amRJICKy.
npHMepHO
B
'1eTBepTh
1
BOJIee
nbedecma.rza,
ero
1
TIJIO~a~h B 2Opode
HOBJIeHHhlM
BArET (=6aTO)[(OK, CHypOK, raJICTy-
IIIOH ~WW3UH
~HSlM
Cbe3)[(aJIHCh
CThSiHe H3 oKpecTHhlx ceJI rOBJIH C MeCTHhlMH )[(HTeJISlMH.
CbeMHhlH npocpHJIHpOBaHHhIll
KapHU3 (1) H3 ~epeBa JIH60 npyT ~JISI
nO~BeCKH WpdUH. 2 Pe3HaH HJIH npocpHnJIaHKa,
~epeBSlHHaSi
H3
KOTOPOH ~eJIaIOT paMhl ~ml CTaHKOBhlX
npoH3Be~eHHH HCKYCCTBa.
HJIH
(1)
Kpe-
~JIH
BAKJIYIlIA. qyrYHHoe KOJIeCO rH~po­
CHJIOBOR YCTaHOBKH.
BA3HJIHKA.
2
BOJIh-
~JISI TOprOBJIH pa3Ho-
3~aHHe
BHYTPH
B
MaJIeHbKHH
KOJIOKOJI,
'1T06bl 06JIer'IHTb caMOKOHTPOJIb 3BOHapH npII nepe3BOHe.
BAKYJIh. TIo~beMHble BOPOTa y
KOp-
dezapduu.
1 BHcSI'IaSi KHCTO'lKa
2 TIoABecKa y naHUKadUJla.
BAJIABOJIKA.
C BhITHHyThlM
npHMoyrOJIhHHKOM B OCHOBe llJIaHa, pac'1JIeHeHHOe
6pyCOK Ha nOBopOTHOM BaJIy,
y~apHIO~HR
TOp-
06pa3HhlMH TOBapaMH.
pH~aMH
20 CM.
BHHHhiH
(2)
60JIhillOM ceJIe, Ha KOTOpyIO llO yCTa-
KpblUlU B
coopy)[(eHHSIX Kapa'IaeBCKOH ycadb6bl.
6hl, nO~~ep)[(HBaIO~He 6aJIKH
~o
BAKJIYIlIKA. qeThIpexrpaHHblH ~epe­
BA3AP.
HaH60JIee TOJICThle CTOJI-
13
BhlCOThI.
2 Ba3a.
JIHpOBaHHaH
C yKJIa~KOR
yJIH~bI.
Hi;>Ie rB03~H). KpyllHbIe rB03~H, ~JIHHOH
IIIHpoKaH HH)[(HHH '1aCTh
1
HaCTHJIKH llOJIOB,
BAMLI.AIlIHhIE rB03LI.H (=np06HB-
BA3AMEHT (=6a3aMeHTo).
'10K).
~JIH
cTpeKarro).
cmponuJlaMu, KOTO-
PhlH cBepxy llO~~ep)[(HBaeT nO~BeIIIeH­
BArAHA.
JI.OCKU (1) TOJI~HHOH B
MOCTKOB H MOCTOBbIX, -
K03eJI,
(=6aH~aIII­
LI.OCKH
llOJITOpa BepIIIKa
2a.rzepCR xpaMa
nOllepeK
CTOJI6HK
1 TecaHhle ~OCKH TOJI~MHOH
2
~IORMa ~JIH HaCTHJIKH nOJIOB.
npotjJUJlUp08aHHoe OCHOBaHHe nUJlRcmpbl, KOJ10HHbl, aHma HJIH cToJI6a,
(Ha IOro-3all~e POCCHH):
BABKA
(1,2), OT~aJIeHHhIH
xyTOp.
BA3A. HeBhlcoKoe H, KaK npaBHJIO,
BABHH KYT.
C
H3hl'leCKaH MOJIeJIhHSl C o'la-
nocpe~H
npO~OJIhHhIMH
KOJlOHH HJIH CTOJI60B Ha HetjJbl.
TKaHH.
BAJIAr AH.
1
JIerKoe BpeMeHHoe co-
opy)[(eHHe Ha SlpMapKe,
Hoe
~JIH
y
~HPKOBbIX
npe~Ha3Ha'leH­
HJIH TeaTpaJIbHhIX
npe~CTaBJIeHHH JIH60 ~JIH TOprOBJIH H
BArETKA.
~OCKa
CocHoBaSi
(1)
TOJI~HHOH
IIIHPHHOH
1 - 3 ~IOHMa.
BArJI5l.
0,5-3
eJIOBaSI
CKJIa~HpOBaHHH
~IOHMa H
BhIMo~eHHaH
LI.opora,
pH30HTaJIhHhlMH
HJIH
TOBapoB, a TaK)[(e
peMeCJIeHHblX npo-
~eCCOB.
cTPoeHHe ~JIH pa60-
2 He)[(HJIOe
'lHX HJIH CTOpO)[(eH.
ro-
)[(HJIH~e
6pe8HaMu.
3 JI.J/cue. 4
KaM'la~arrOB,
JIeTHee
B03Be~eHHoe
Ha
C8aRX H 3aBepIIIeHHoe llHpaMH~aJIbHOR
Kp08JleU H3 )KepAeii.
BArOp. rYCTo-KpaCHbrH ~BeT C CPHOJIeTOBhlM OTTeHKOM.
BAJIAKA.
BALI.3hIM KY A. KPhlTaSI Ha ~Ba CKaTa, C npocBeToM no rpe6HIO
~JIH
npoH3Bo~cTBeHHblx
MamuL{a (1).
BAJIrAY3.
KP08JlU,
21
-21-
Ba.rzbWY3.
Ii
IiAnAAXIIIH - IiAPAHblil porA
BAJI.IJ:AXMH. 1 <l>HryPHhrii: .n;eKopaTHBHhIH HaBec Ha ICOHCOJlRX JIII:60 CTOJI6H-
22
BAJIIOCTPMA. CKB03Hoe orpa)K,L\eHHe H3 PHTMH'IHO pacnOJIoX{eHHhIX
<pHrypHhIX CTOJI6HKOB, no.n;.n;epX{HBarorn;HX nopY'IeHh.
~~~
BAHHA. BaRRa.
BAHHOE
IIOKPhITME
(=6aHH).
rpaHeHaH ICP06Jlil C rpyrneBH.n;HhIM CHJly3TOM.
BAJI5ICMHA. EaJllocmpa (1).
Kax. 2 Kpecmo6blu C600 Ha 'IeThlpex
TOHKHX KOJIOHKax no.n; yrJIaMH.
BAH.IJ:EPOJIh. M306paX{eHHe perorn;eH
B B03.n;yxe TOHKOH JIeHThI C 3arn6arorn;HMHCH KOHQaMH.
...
~-
BAJIKOH. 1 OrpaX{.n;eHHaH BHCH'IaH
HJIH no.n;IIHpaeMaH cToJI6aMH nJIOrn;a.n;Ka,
BhlcTynarorn;aH H3 CTeHhI 3.n;aHHH H CBH3aHHaH rrpOXO.n;OM C HHTephepoM. 2 BHCH'Iee KPhIJIhIIO. 3 KOHroIIIHH Ha 70-150
JIorna.n;eii:.
BAJIJIOTMPOBAJIhHMK.
IIpHcrroC06JIeHHe .n;JlH Taii:Horo rOJIOCOBaHHH,
HMerorn;ee BH.n; MHHHaTropHoro rraBHJIhOHa Ha TPex nYCTOTeJIhIX TYM6ax, Ky.n;a
BAH5I. 1 OXOTHH'IhH H36yrnKa y KOMH3hIpHH .. 2. EaHHoe nOICpbtmue.
BEH,IJ;JIEThI. EpyclCu .n;JIH YKparneHHH
BAP.
ICapHU3a (1).
ynp~HeHHii:.
BAHETA. EOHem.
BAPABAPA (=6apa60p, 6apa60pa).
JIerKoe .n;epeBIDIHoe cTPoeHHe, rnaJIaIII.
BARK. 1 (=6aHKa). HH3KHii:napanemB
060pOHHTeJIhHOM coop~eHHH, He HMerorn;HH npOCBeTOB .n;JIH CTpeJIh6hI 060poHHrorn;HXCH, KOTOPhIM rrpHXO.n;HTCH BeCTH
OroHh rroBepx 6aHICema (CM. Eap6em).
2 Y'Ipe)K,L\eHHe, BhI.n;arorn;ee CCy.n;hI rro.n;
3aJIOr He.n;BHX{HMOrO HMyrn;ecTBa JIH60
HHhIX IIeHHocTeii:, a TaKX{e MeHHrorn;ee
.n;eHhrn Ha BeKCeJIH, aCCHrHaIIHH, 6aHKOBCKHe 6HJIeThI.
CTeHKa
.n;JIH
rnMHaCTH'IeCKHX
BAPABAH. IJ;HJlHH.n;p HJlH MHororpaHHHK, 3aBeprnarorn;Hii: 06'heM 3.n;aHHH H
06hI'iHO YBeH'IaRRhrii: ICynOJlOM JIH60
2Jla60U.
BAHKA. 1 CKaMhH B 06rn;ecTBeHHoM
3.n;aHHH, 3aHHMaeMaH orrpe.n;eJIeHHhIMH
JIHIIaMH B COOTBeTCTBHH C 3THKeTOM.
2 KpoBaTh, nOCTeJIh, JIoX{e. 3 EaHK (1).
'Iepe3 nopmaJZ C 3aBeCOH orrycKaJIH 6aJIJIOTHpOBaJIhHhle rnaphl (npaBaH T)'M6!l
OTMe'IeHa Ha.n;nHchro «COrJIaCHhle», JIeBaH - «HeCOrJIaCHhIe», cpe~HAA 3a.n;HAA - «CyMHHTeJIhHhle»).
BAJIChIK 3M. rJIHH06HTHoe 6arnKHpCKoe X{HJIHrn;e.
BAJIhrAY3. 3.n;aHHe HJIH rrOMern;eHHe
.n;JIH Hrphl B MH'I HJIH Ha 6HJIhHp.n;e.
BAHKET. 1 CTyrreHh y 6pycm6epa
H3HYTpH YKpenJIeHHH, Ha KOTOPYro
BCTaroT COJI.n;aThI .n;JIH CTpeJIh6hI rro oca)K,L\arorn;HM. 2 Y3KaH ropH30HTaJIhHaH
rrOJIoca Me)K,L\y OTKOCOM H KpaeM .n;opoX{Horo rrOJlOTHa, He rrOKphITaH 6aJIJlaCTOM
(rn;e6HeM, rpaBHeM, rnJIaKOM, rrecKoM).
3 HerrpephIBHhrii: tPYHOa.MeHm BO BCro
.n;JIHHy CTeHhI.
BAHKETKA.
He60JIhrnOH JIerKHH
.n;HBaH'IHK 6e3 cnHHKH HJlH aHaJIOrn'IHhIH
CT)'JI C MHrKHM CH.n;eHheM.
BAJIhKA. MamUl.l,a (1).
BAJIIOCTPA. 1 <l>HrYPHhIH CTOJI6HK B
6aJllocmpaoe. 2 Ka)K,L\hrii: H3 .n;Byx 3aBHThIX BaJIHKOB no 60KaM uOHUtteClCou
BAPAK. BpeMeHHoe HJIH pa360pHoe
coopyX{eHHe H3 OOCOIC (1), xBopoCTa,
KapTOHa HJIH MeTaJIJIa - .n;JIH pa3Mern;eHHH COJI.n;aT, pa60'IHX JIH60 3apa3HhIX
60JIhHhIX.
BAP AH. 3aMeHHrorn;HH 6b/OutICy rreqHOH npu60p .n;JIH 3aKphIBaHHH .n;hIMOBOH
TPy6hI rrOCJIe OKOH'IaHHH TonKH: Ha
rOpH30HTaJIhHOM CTepx{He 3aKpeIIJIeHa
MeTaJIJIH'Ie'(,KaH IIJIaCTHHa, 3aKphIBarorn;aH HJlH oTKphIBarorn;aH KaHaJI Tpy6hI
rrpH nOBopoTax BHernHeH PYKOHTKH.
BAPAHhM porA. CHMMeTPH'IHOe
3aBeprneHHe HaJIH'IHHKa, HMerorn;ee BH.n;
.n;Byx CIIHpaJIeH, 3aKpY<iHBarorn;HxcH B
CTOPOHY BepTHKaJIhHOH OCH rrpoeMa.
ICanumeJlu.
-22-
6
6AP6AKAH -
23
6AWH5I
BAPBAKAH. 1 A.M.6paaypa (1) WISI
cTPeJIh6hI. 2 BOAOCTOK rro CTeHe. 3 Pa3HOBHAHOCTh 6acmuoHa.
HAPBET. CAeJIaHHaSI BR}'TPH yKpeIIJIeHHSI 3eMJUIHaSI IiJIom:aAKa AJISI 0pYAHH,
Ct'peJISlIOm:HX rrOBepx 6pycm6epa.
BACT. IJ;BeTHaSI QHHOBKa C OCH060U H3
IIIeJIKa, a ymICoM H3 JIy6a HHAHHCKHX
paCTeHHH.
AHH, 3a PBOM H 6aJ10M (1).. 2 CHa6)KeHHoe HaBeCOM YKphITHe AJISI apTHJIJIepHH.
BACTEH. POltOeJlb.
BACTHJIh8, OTAeJIhHOe KaMeHHoe
YKperrJIeHHe, coeAHHeHHoe TPaHIIIeSIMH
C rroA06HhIMH YKperrJIeHHSlMH.
BACTHOH. MHoroyroJIhHOe (06hIqHO
IISITHrpaHHoe) CPOpTHcpHKaQHoHHoe coopJ)KeHHe, BhmBHHYToe rrepeA OCHOB-
BAPEJIhEcp. CKYJIhrrTYPHoe H306pa)KeHHe. C CPOHOM, H3 KOTOPOro cpHryphI
BhICTYIIaIOT He 60JIee qeM HarrOJIOBHHY
CBoero 06'beMa.
BAPEJIhEcpHAH OIIYIIIKA. OrrYIIIKa B neU3aJICltOM nap ICe, Ha KpalO KOTOpOH OTAeJIhHhIe rpyrrrrhI AepeBheB MH
KycTapHHKa eABa BhIcryrraIOT H3 ocHOBHoro MaCCHBa 3eJIeHH.
BApoqHhIE
nOCKH.
Bauoa'tltbte
HhIM CPPOHTOM 060pOHhI B CTOPOHY rrpoTHBHHKa H CBSl3aHHoe CTeHaMH JIH60
6aJ10M C ApyrHMH KperrocTHhIMH cooPY)KeHHJ;JMH.
nrem.
OOCICU.
BACTPOr.
BAPPHEP. Bapbep.
BATA METAJIJI (=rrpHHQ-MeTaJIJI).
CBeTJIO-XeJIThIH CITJIaB - pa3HOBBAHOCTh JIaryHH C cOAep)KaHHeM QHHKa
45-80%; HCrrOJIh30BaJICSI AJISI H3rOTOBJIeHHSI rrOACBeqHHKOB HAp. rrpeAMeToB.
BAPXATHhIE OBOH. BYMa)KHhIe
060H, Y KOTOPhIX rpYHT HJIH PHCYHOK
rroAp~aeT rroBepxHocTH 6apxaTa JIH60
cYKHa, qTO AOCTHraeTCSI HaChIIIKOH
H3MeJIhqeHHOH oKpaweHHoH IIIepCTH Ha
CBe)KeHarreqaTaHHYIO KpacKY.
BAPhEP (=6ephepa, 6appHep). 1 YKpeIIJIeHHaSI aacma6a Ha rryTH HerrpHSlTeJISI. 2 KperrOCTHhIe BopOTa. 3 IDJlaz6aYM, pozamICa. 4 IIpoXOA B QeHTpe
paca Ha BXOASlm:eM IIJI~apMe, CJIJ)KHBIIIHH AJISI BhlJla30K B CTOPOHY HerrpHJ;JTeJISI H 3am:Hm:eHHhIH OCTpOKOHeqHhIMH KOJIhSlMH B rrOJIOTHHm:ax BOpOT.
5 OrpaAa rrepeA BoeHHhIM MH X03S1HCTBeHHhIM 06'beKTOM, HMelOm:aSI BBA
rrepeKJIaAHH rroBepx CTOJI60B. 6 IIpeIISlTCTBHe AM JIOIIIaAeH B MalteJICe MH Ha
BACMEHHAH KO)KA. BhITJ;JR}'TaSI
Ha 60JIBaHKe H THCHeHaSI OpHaMeHTOM
Koxa AJISI 06HBKH CTeH.
BACOH. H3rOTOBJleHHaSI AJIJ;J yKpaIIIeHHSI Me6eJIH H opanup060IC y30pHaSI
TeChMa, 6axpOMa, KHCTH, IIIHYPhI H3
JIhHJ;JHOH, A)KYTOBOH MH IlIeJIKOBOH rrpSl)I{H, a TaKXe 30JIOThIX HJIH cepe6pSIHhIX
HHTeH.
BATO)KOK. Bazem.
BATTEP. BamapeR.
BATAHEIJ;. 06pea1UlR oocICa IIIHPHHOH
He 60JIee ceMH AIOHMOB H AJImIOH OKOJIO
TPex Ca)KeHeH.
BATAHqHHA. ,lJ;JIHHHaSI )KepAh, OTecaHH~ Ha qeThIpe rpaHH.
BATAPnA. KaMeHHaSI HJIH 6eToHHaSI
nJlOmUHa rrorrepeK KperroCTHoro pBa AJISI C03AaHHSI BOAHOH rrperpaAhI, AJISI
BATTEPcpJIHH. CKJIaAHOH CTOJI, xapaKTepHhIH AM ropoAcKoro )KMHm:a
cpeAHero AOCTaTKa B POCCHH XIX BeKa.
BATYPA. BhIIIIKa, lCaJlaH'ta, 6aw,HR.
BAY (=MaJI 0PYH). XneB B KapaqaeBCKOH ycaob6e.
BAYJI. CYHAYK C AepeBSlHHhIMH CTeHKaMH H cKpyrJIeHHhIMH yrJIaMH, HHorAa
06HThm KO)KeH H 06IIIHThIH )KeJIe30M.
BAYPHHK. TOHKaSI )KepAh, rrpH)l{HMalOm:aSI B ICp06J1e KaMhIIlI MH COJIOMY.
BAcpJIAHK. BOJIee HH3KHH, AOrrOJIHHTeJIhHhm pJlaHIC, HCrrOJIHSlBIIIHH POJIh
lCaaeMama (1).
BAqErA. 3aropoAKa B 3aroHe AJISI
MeJIKOrO CKOTa.
EAIIIEHHAH KPOBJIH. IDamep.
cKa~ax.
BAC. OTrOpO)KeHHhIB 3arOH C HaBecoM,
rrpeAHa3HaqeHHhIH AJISI 3HMHero cOAep)KaHHSI cKOTa, B 3aAHeH qaCTH KpecThSlHCKoro ABopa.
EATMAP,
BATMAPb.
)lrIHHHhIH
Slm:HK C KPhIIIIKOH, HrpaIOIQHH POJIh
rrpMaBKa, PYHoYlCa (1), ICOHUlCa.
BAIIIH
)pKABhmrAH
APBA3.
Ap6aa.
3am:HThI cyxoro pBa OT rrpHTOKa peqHOH
BAIIIJIABA. IJ;epKoBHaSl 2J1a6a.
BOAhI H AJISI rrpeCeqeHHSI CBSl3H
yqaCTKaMH pBa.
BAIIIMAK. qyrYHHhIH MH )KeJIe3HhIH
HaKOHeqHHK AepeBSlHHoro KOHCTPYKTHBHoro 3JIeMeHTa Ha CThIKe qaCTeH, He
CBSl3aHHhIX Me~y C060H )KeCTKHM KpeIIJIeHHeM.
Me~y
EATAPEH (=6aTapea, 6aTeTPHa, 6aTTep, pacKaT, pocKaT). 1 B03BhIIlIeHHaSl
IIJIom:aAKa AJISI YCTaHoBKH Ha HeH 0PY-
BAIIIHH. 1 CoopyxeHHe C SlBHhIM KOHTPacToM Me~y 3HaqHTeJIhHOH BhICOTOH
H He60JIbIIIHM OCHOBaHHeM. 2 BKJIlOqeHHhIH B KperrocTHYIO, MOHacThIpcKYIO
MH YCaAe6HYlO orpaAY H BhICTyrralOm:HH
3a ee rroBepxHocTb 06'beM C He60JIb-
BACPHJIEB. BapeJibep.
-23-
6
6AIOl - 6EPmtHCKASI nA3YPb
mHMH npoeMaMH HJIH rJIYXHMH CTeHKaMH. 3 3)l;aHHe, npe)l;Ha3Ha'IeHHOe )l;JIX
060pOHhI H BKJIIO'IeHHOe B cHcTeMY
<pOPTH<PHK~OHHhIX coopY}KeHlrn.
BAIOT.
mKa<pa.
CTapHHHax
24
BEMrEJIhB. )KeJITaX MeJIK03epHHcTax
KpacKa.
BEMIIIJIOT. ,!J;epeBxHHax HJIH KaMeHHax illJII030Bax nJIOTHHa, peryJIHpyIOlIJ;ax ypoBeHh BO)l;hI B BO)l;OXpaHHJIHlIJ;e.
BEMCKOE CTEKJIO. BhICOKOCOPTHoe JIHCTOBOe CTeKJIO )l;JIX OKOH, illJIH<pOBaHHOe Ha rmffiSlHhIX TIJIHTax; OTJIHBEJIA5I BAH5I. ,!J;epeBxHHax 6aux,
'IaeTCX H)l;eaJIhHO POBHOH nOBepXHOo6orpeBaeMax ne'IhlO C TPy60H.
CThlO ()l;OnyCTHMax KpHBH3Ha He
BEJIM BAPHM:QA. COJIeBapUX, B 60JIee 1/350 OT )l;JIHHhI JIHCTa) H np03KOTOPOH TonKa YCTpoeHa B BH)l;e ne'IH C pa'IHOCThlO (JIHillh npH HaJIO}KeHHH TPex
JIHCTOB B. c. Ha 6eJIYIO 6YMary MO}I{HO
Tpy6oH.
o6Hap~HTh CJIa6hIe }KeJITOBaThIe HJIH
rOJIy6oBaThIe oTTeHKH).
BEPBEPT.
PaHHxx pa3HOBH)l;HOCTh
6emOliUmOBbtX IW.MHeU, oco6eHHocTh
KOTOPOH )l;Ba 60JIhmnx KpyrnhIx
KaHaJIa BHYTPH npxMoyrOJIhHOrO 6JIOKa
H nJIOCKO-cKpyrJIeHHhle BhIeMKH Ha
mbl'tKOBbtX TOpU;ax.
pa3HOBH)l;HOCTh
BErM HEBECHhIE. M306pa}KeHHe
He6a C COJIHu;eM, JIYHOH, 3HaKaMH 30)l;HaKa, 3Be3)l;aMH H nJIaHeTaMH - B pocnHcH
nanaTHhIX nepeKphITHH.
BErYH. BhITXHYToe Me}l{)l;y )l;ByMX
pX)l;aMH umYHmOBbtX cBau npocTpaHCTBO, no KOTOPOMY nocTynaeT BO)l;a Ha
KOBmH MeJIhHH'IHOrO KOJIeca.
BErYHEIJ;. rOpH30HTaJIhHhIH y30p H3
TPeyrOJIhHhIX Bna)];HH Ha nOBepxHocTH
CTeHhI,
nonepeMeHHo 06paIIJ;eHHhIX
OCTpHeM TO BHH3, TO BBepx.
:-::~-·:···:··,c: :.~.'<
e
,<.'-'-,
';....!" ..,'""'..:-.--;,....
;',v. ,,-..- ...... _.
BErY:W;A5I BOJIHA (=KPHBOJIHHeHHhIH MeaH)l;p). IIpOTX}KeHHhIH opHaMeHTaJIhHhIH MOTHB, 06'be)l;HHXIOIIJ;HH B MepHOM pHTMe PXll: CnHpaJIeH, HanpaBJIeHHhIX B O)l;HY CTOpOHy.
BEJIM M3BA (=6eJIOKypHax H36a).
B03Be)l;eHHaX Ha nO)l;KJIeTe U36a (1) C
BEPBA. 1 3eMJIXHax Hachm'b HJIH nJIOTPy60H.
THHa, B03Be)l;eHHax Ha 6epery, y BO)l;hI.
BEJIM KA3HA. XpaHMHlIJ;e 6eJIMI B 2 JIaBbl (1), MOCTKH Ha)]; BO)l;OH MH
6oraToM )l;peBHepyccKoM )l;OMe.
TonKoH nOBepxHocThlO.
BEJIA5I KOPOBh5l.
)l;epeBXHHhIH CyH)l;y'IOK.
HeKpameHhIH
BEJIA5I TIEqh. IIe'Ih C Tpy60H )l;JIX
OTBO)l;a )l;hIMa.
BEJIM IIOJIOBMHA. qHcTax nOJIOBHHa U36bl (1), 2OpHuqa.
BEJI,!J;EY. TKaHhrn mepCTxHoH noxc,
3aKpeTIJIXIOIIJ;HH nOCpe)l;HHe KyCKH BOHJIOKa Ha HOraHCKOH IOpme.
BEJIE3HhIE PEMHIiI. BeJIhIe peMHH
)l;JIX npH6HBKH nOJICTH (BOiI:JIOK, Mex) K
CTeHe.
BEJIOE )KEJIE30. JIHcToBoe JIY}KeHOe
}KeJIe30 )l;JIX KpOBeJlb, }KeCTh.
BEJIOE
CmeKJlO.
CTEKJIO.
AJle6acmpOBoe
BEJIOKYPHA5IM3BA. EeJlaR U36a.
BEJIOHO)KKA. Ebl'tOK (1).
BE,!J;)KEHhI. BpeBeH'IaThle KJIeTKH
BHYTPH ap6aaa, Ha Ka}I{)l;ylO H3 KOTOPhIX
onHpanHCh 'IeThlpe 6aJIKH (B pa3Hhle
CTOpOHhI), nO)l;)l;ep}I{HBaIOIIJ;He KPblUlY
ap6a3a.
BE)KEH. KpyrJIhIH MH npO)l;OJIroBaThIH B nJIaHe HoraHCKHH 3epHOBOH
a.M6ap (1) C o6Ma3aHHhIMH rnHHoH TIJIeTHeBhIMH CTeHaMH H KaMhImoBoH Kpblmeu.
BE3AHMH, BE3,!J;AHMH. MeaoHuH.
BE3hIMEHKA. /{ocKa (1) TOJIIIJ;HHOH
MeHee BepmKa.
BE3hIM5IHHhIE BPYCh5l. HaCTHJI
Ha)l; BepxHHM UlnYHmOBblM PX)l;OM B
)l;epeBXHHhIX 3aBO)l;CKHX TIJIOTHHax.
BEJIhrMMCKMM K03EJI.
Y CTOH
)l;epeBXHHoro MOCTa, COCTOXlIJ;HH H3 )l;Byx
6pYC'IaThIX TPeHor H nepeKJIa)l;HHhI.
BEJIhI. BTophIe, 'IHCThIe eeHU.
BEJIhIM ,!J;BOP. KpecThXHcKHH OTKPhIThIH OBOP (1) 6e3 HaBeCOB.
BEJIhIM KAMEHh. Pa3HoBH)l;HOCTh
H3BeCTHXKa, HCnOJIh3yeMax B apXHTeKType )l;JIX KJlaOKU CTeH HJIH BKJIIO'IaeMaX
B KHpnH'IHylO KJIa)l;Ky )l;JIX YCHJIeHHX
npO'IHOCTH JIH60 B BH)l;e )l;eKOpaTHBHhIX
3JIeMeHTOB.
BEJIhBE,!J;EP. 1 Kpyrnax MH rpaHeHax Ha)l;cTPoHKa C npoeMaMH, 3aBepm'aIOlIJ;ax yCa)];e6HhIH )l;OM MH oeo6HRK H
n03BOJIXlOll~M o603peBaTh oKpecTHoCTH. 2 Ca)];oBo-napKoBhIH naBUJlbOH HJIH
6eceoKa B B03BhlmeHHoH qaCTH yca)l;e6Horo JIH60 )l;BOpu;oBoro aHcaM6mI.
-24-
BEPrAMT. ry6epHcKax KaHIJ;eJIxpHX,
Be)l;aBmM rOpHhIMH H TIJIaBHJIhHhIMH
3aBO)l;aMH.
BEPrBJIAY (=roPHM CHHh). 1 roJIy6M KpacKa JIa30peBoro OTl'eHKa.
2 rOJly6eq.
BEPrBEPK. rOpHhIH 3aBO)l;, PY)l;HHK.
BEPrrEJIhB (=6eprreJIh6). Oxpa.
BEPrrPMH. CBeTJIO-3eJIeHax KpaCKa.
BEPEr. KpaH 6peBeHQaTOrO cpy6a B
norpe6ax.
BEPErOBOM BAJI. HH3KHH 3eMJIXHOH BaJI B)l;OJIh 6epera cy)l;OXO)l;HOro
KaHana, npe)l;OXpaUXIOIIJ;HH OT na)];eHHX B
BO)l;y }KHBOTHhIX, KOTophIe TXHyT cy)l;a
Ha 6eQeBe.
BEPErOBOM JIE)KEHh. BeperoBM
onopa )l;epeBXHHoro MOCTa, C)l;eJIaHHM B
BH)l;e 6pyca (1), 6peBHa C oTecKoH Ha )l;Ba
KaHTa JIH60 B BH)l;e CTIJIO'IeHHhIX ooeoK
(1) H BocnpHHHMalOlIJ;aX HarpY3KY OT
KOHU;OB MOCTOBhIX nepeBoouH.
BEP)KEPKA. rJIy6oKoe MXrKoe KpeCJIO Ha HH3KHX HO}I{Kax.
BEPJIMHCKAA JIA3YPh (=6epJIHHep 6JIay, napH}KCKaX JIa3yph, MMOPH-
6
6EPnor - 6nOKrAY3
eBaH CHHh). CHHHH KpaCKa HHTeHCHBHoro 'IHCTOrO U;BeTa, C CHHepo,qHCThIM
)KeJIe30M B OCHOBe.
EEPJIOr, EEPJIOrA.
rro,qCTllJIKa ,qJIH rrOCTeJIH.
COJIOMeHHM
EEPMA. Y cTyrr rrepe,q 6pycm8epO,M,
Me)K)l;Y pBOM H BHeIIIHeH rrOBepXHOCThID
CTeH YKperrJIeHHH, ,qJIH rrOBhlIIIeHHH HX
rrpO'lHOCTH.
EEPCO. B03Be,qeHHhIH Ha,q ,qOpOroH B
rrapKe KOPH,qOP C peIIIeT'IaThIMH CTeHKaMH H TaKHM )Ke rrepeKphITHeM H3
,qepeBa HJIH MeTaJIJIa, CJIY)KaIu;HH OCHOBOH ,qJIH paCTIneJIhHOCTH, KOTopaH
06pa3yeT 31l:eCh CrrJIOillHOH TOHHeJIh
(HHOrll:a C 6eCeOl((1,MU Ha KOHu;ax).
25
HhIH H3 rrOpTJIaHIl:-u;eMeHTa, Iu;e6HH,
KHprrn'lHOH MYKH, IIIJIaKOB, FI3rapHHhI.
JIOIlIa,qeH. 4 TOproBM rrpHcTaHh, 'l'OproBaH IIJIOIu;a,qh, phIHOK.
EETOHl1TOBbIE KAMHl1 (=6eToHHhle KaMHll). CTpOllTeJIhHhie 6JIOKH H3
6emoHa HJIH 6emoHuma, HMe1OIu;He '3Ha'IHTeJIhHhle
reOMeTpH'IeCKH-rrpaBHJIhHhle CKB03Hhle rrycToThI B CBoeM 06'heMe (pa3HoBH,qHOCTH - 6ep6epm, MHpaKJIh, pOKO).
El1CKBl1T. <I>ap¢opoBoe H3,qeJIHe, He
rrOKphIToe rJIa3yphID II 060)K)KeHHOe
O,qHH-,qBa pa3a IIpH TeMliepaType 06)Imra rJIa3ypH, 'ITO rrpH,qaeT MaTOBOH
rrOBepXHOCTH TaKoro H3,qeJIHH JIerKHH
6JIecK.
EETTYHrl1. TIpHrro,qRHTOe Ha,q 8a1lzaH2a.MU B03BhlIIIeHHe ,qJIH apTHJIJIePHHCKOH cTPeJIh6hI '1epe3 napanem.
EEJIrEH. XJIeB ,qJIH K03-HOBOTeJIOK B
Kapa'laeBCKOH ycaob6e.
El1EJIO. Ee3,qeJIYIIIKH H3 6POH3hI, ¢ap¢opa, CJIOHOBOH KOCTll, CTeKJIa H
T. Il:. - ,qJI5! YKpaIIIeHH5! 3ma:»cepoK,
KaMHHOB, crrHHOK Il:llBaHOB, a TaIOKe
ll:eKOpHpoBKa CTeHhI opY)KlI.eM.
El1)J,E. 1. YMhIBaJIhHHK Ha HO)KKax.
2 CHIl:5!'1aH BaHHa.
EEPbEP A. Bapbep.
EECE)J,A. 1 CKaMh5!, Ta6ypeTKa, CTYJI,
Kapeopa. 2 06Iu;ecTBeHHaH u36a (2) ,qJIH
cOBMecTHoH pa60ThI. 3 OKpaHHHaH
'IaCTh 2Opooa (2), OTBell:eHHaH ,qJIH rrpo)KHBaHHH HHocTpaHu;eB. 4 CHrHaJIhHOe
YCTPOHCTBO Ha 6epery peKH.
EECE)J,KA. 1 He60JIhillOe KphIToe
coopY)KeHHe C KpyrrHhIMH He3aCTeKJIeHHhIMH rrpoeMaMH, B rrapKe llJIH Ha
El1THbU'1:. l13roTOBJIeHHhIH
MOIu;h1O 6HTMI, 'IeKaHKH.
C
rro-
El1Tb. O'leHh TOHKaSl IIJIOCKa5! HJIH
KpyrJIM rrpOBOJIOKa ,qJI5! BhIIIIHBaHH5!
(HHor,qa ,qo Ha'laJIa pa60ThI HaBHBaeTCH
Ha IIIeJIK) , HCrrOJIh3yeTC5! B Me6eJIhHhIX
TKaH5!X.
El1Tbl1 '1ACbI. Boe8ble 'taCbl.
El1<I>OPl1ll. )J,Ba o,qHHaKoBhlx Y3KllX
apO'lHhIX IIpoeMa, 06'he,qHHeHHhIX 06Iu;eH apKou 06paMJIeHH5!.
EJIArOBECTHl1K (;=60JIhillOH KOJIOKOJI). KpyrrHhIH KOJIOKOJI C O'leHh HH3KHM perHCTpOM 3BY'laHH5!, Hrpa1OIu;HH
rJIaBHYID POJIh rrpH 6JIarOBecTe.
EJIArOPO)J,HOE COEP AHl1E. )J,BOPHHCKHH KJIy6.
El1JIEHb. 513hIK KOJIOKOJIa.
El1JIl1Pl1K. TIO'leTHOe MeCTO B HKYTCKOH IOpme (B JIeBOM ymy rrpoTHB Bxo,qa
B Hee).
ERJIO. 1 (=6HJIU;O). MeTaJIJIll'lecKa5!
HJIH ,qepeB5!HHa5! oocKa, Hrpa1OIu;M POJIh
EJIArOPO)J,HbIll TIAHCl10H. l1HTepHaT rrpH YHHBepcllTeTe HJIH rHMHa3HH, 3aKphIToe Y'le6Hoe 3aBe,qeHHe ,qJI5!
ll:eTeH Il:BOP5!H.
EJIAH)KEBbIll.
TeJIeCHhIX TOHOB.
)KeJITOBaTO-6eJIhIH,
EJIAH-<I>l1KC. IIocmoRHHble 6eAU/la.
EJIA<I>OH. II/lapoH.
EJIE3l1P. 3epKaJlO (5) 2O/l/laT-tOCKOU
ne'tu, BhIJIO)KeHHOe 3arro,qJIHU;0 co CTeHOH o,qHoro rrOMeIu;eHH5!, Tor,qa KaK
TorrKa BhIX0Il:HT B Il:pyroe rroMeIu;eHlle.
EJIEH)J,A, EJIEH)J,YHr. lllaHoeJlbep.
6epery Bo,qoeMa. 2 Be/lb8eOep (1) Hall:
KpOBJIeH 3,qaHHH. 3 He60JIhillaH He)KHJIaH rrocTpoHKa C O,qHOH-,qBYMH KOMHaTKaMH ,qJIH 3aIu;HThI OT 3HOH H Herroro,qhI B
ca,qy HJIH B JIecy. 4 illaJIaIII, CTOpO)KKa H3
XBopocTa. 5 JIaBKa, CKaMeHKa B ceHHX
HJIH Y BOpOT.
EETAP)J,bI. )J,epeBHHHaH llJIH KaMeHHaH
rrJIOTllHa co Ul/l103a.MU (1), rrOBhlIIIa1OIu;aH ypoBeHh BO,qhI Ha Y'IaCTKe peKH.
EETOH. YrrJIOTHeHHaH CMeCh BH)KYIu;ero BeIu;eCTBa, BO,qhI II 3arrOJIHllTeJIeH
(rrecoK, rpaBllH, Iu;e6eHh II T. rr.), B
3aTBep,qeBilieM COCTOHHHH rrOll:06HM
KaMHID C BhICOKHM COrrpOTIfBJIeHHeM
C)KaTHID.
EETOHl1T. TIOPHCThlH 6emoH C HH3KOH TerrJIorrpOBOIl:HOCTh1O, COCTaBJIeH-
EJIECTA. KOJIhU;O, rrpHKperrJIeHHOe K
MeTaJIJInqeCKOH rrJIaCTHHe Ha rrOJIOTHHIu;e BOpOT.
KOJIOKOJIa. 2 KO/lOKO/lbHR. 3 (=rrpHTBopHoe 6llJIO). HaU{e/lbHUK (1) rroJIyKpyrJIOro HJIH MHoroyrOJIhHOrO ce'leHH5!, rrpHKphIBa1OIu;HH CThIK CTBOPOK B
u,apcKux 8pamax.
EJIl1H)J,A)K. <I>opTH¢HKau;noHHoe YKphITHe rrpoTHB HaBeCHoro 06CTpeJIa.
El1JIb. EHJIJIHapll:.
El1JIbHl1UA. KO/lOKO/lbHR.
El1MA. B03BhlIIIeHlle rrocpe,qll CUHa202U, C KOToporo '1HTaIDT CB5!Iu;eHHOe
rrncaHHe.
El1H)J,A)K. Ozu6HaR oopoza.
El1P)KA. 1 3,qaHHe HJIH rrJIOIu;a,qh, r,qe
C06HPaJIHCh KyrrU;hI ,qJI5! TOproBhIX c,qeJIOK. 2 MecTo HaHMa pa60THHKOB.
3 CToSlHKa H3B03'IHKOB, C RC/lR,MU ,qJISl
-25-
EJIOK-EATAPE51
(=6JIOK6aTape5!).
TIOIl:BH)KHM ,qepeB5!HHM 6aTape5! ,qJI5!
He60JIhIIIllX Opy,qllH, YCTaHOBJIeHHaH Ha
KaTKax, rrJIOTaX HJIH cy,qax.
EJIOKrAY3. OKpY)KeHHOe 3eMJIHHOH
HaChIIIhID He60JIhillOe 060c06JIeHHOe
YKperrJIeHHe B BHll:e ll:epeB5!HHOrO HJIll
s
snOKWMn - sonbwoA BAn
KaMcHHoro
;O:OMa
co
MHO}KCCTBOM
fLM6paayp (1), rrpucnOC06JICHHOC K 060-
26
BOf;LJ;OHH-XAJIfA. IIapa;n:HbIc BOpOTa Ha IO}KHOH CTOPOHC 6y;n:;O:uHCKOro
MOHaCTblpSI.
BOllHHQA. IIpocM ;O:IDl CTpcJIb6bI.
BOfEMCKA5I 3EMJI5I (=3CJICHaSI
3CMJISI). 3CJICHaSI MUHCPaJIbHaSI KpaCKa.
BorOYrO;LJ;HbIE
3ABE;LJ;EHH.H.
qaCTHbIC UJIU 06~CCTBCHHbIC 6JIaroTBoPHTCJIbHbiC yqpC}K):ICHUSl ;O:JISI nOMOIQH
MaJI0HMY~ U HCTPy;n:ocnoc06HbIM:
CUPOTCKHC rrpUIOTbI, BOCnHTaTCJIbHbIC
):IOMa, pa60mHbte OOMa, 6ozaoe.ltbHU,
60JIbHHU:bI.
--.:..::.:11---
=--
BO;LJ;BA. HH}KHHH BCHCU: cpy6a.
BJIOKIIIHII (=6JIOKlilllB, 6JIOKlllU<p).
Kopa6JIb, ncpc;O:CJIaHHblH B Ka3apMY UJIU
rrpUlllBapTOBaHHYIO K 6cpcry TlOpbMY (c
B03BC;O:CHUCM KpblW,U, rrpCBpam;CHHCM
nyrnCqHblX nopmo6 B OKHa, YCTaHoBKoH
KHpnHqHblX nCqCH U T. ;0:.).
BJIOHKA. 1 3a;n:BU}KHOH CTaBCHb BOJIOKOBOro OKHa. 2 3aCTCKJICHHblH OKOHHbIH ncpcnncT. 3 YTcnnUTCJIbHbIH CTaBCHb.
BJIOIIIHHQA. 1 APCCTaHTCKOC nOMC~CHHC B nOJIHQUH. 2 KfLMeHllblU Mew,OK.
BJI~IOmHH CA;LJ;. JIa6upw-tm.
BJI3K-BAPHHIII (=6mIKBapHHm, ra30BaSi CMOJIa). BbICTpOCOXHY~ qCPHbIH ac<paJIbTOBbIH JIaK, ynoTPC6JISICMbIH ;O:IDl nOKpbITUSl ;O:CpCBSlHHblX U
}KCJIC3HblX U3;O:CJIuH, ;O:JISI npu;n:aHUSl OM
JIOCHSl~CHCSI nOBcpXHoCTH.
BJIIO;LJ;HHK. IIIKa<pquK UJIU nOJIOqKa
;O:JISI nocY;O:bI.
BJUIKBAPHHIII. BJl3K-6apHUw,.
BOBHK, BOBOqKA. Hc60JIbmOH
CTOJIUK C ;O:ByMR CTOHKaMH, KOTOPbIC
no;o:;o:cp}KUBaIOT CmO.lteUlHU£(y, no OqCPTaHUSIM noxo~1O Ha 606.
BOBPOBbIH XBOCf. lliOCKaSI 'tepenUl4ll ;O:IDl Kp06e.ltb, no <pOPMC 6JIU3KaSI
BbiTSIHYTOMY rrpSiMOyroJIbHUKY, Y KOTOporo KOPOTKaSI cTopoHa, 06pa~cHHaSI K
CBCCY KP06.ltU, W006Pa3HaSI.
BOfA;LJ;EJIbH.H (=60}Kc;o:oMKa). IIpHlOT ;O:IDl rrpCCTapCJIbiX H HCTPY):IOCnoC06HbIX.
BOEBA5I KAPHH3HHA. BpyCOK,
COC):IHHSlIOIQHH KOHu;bl .lte:JICHeU B Kpblute
C TCCOM KP06.1tU.
BOEBA5I IIJIOmA;LJ;KA. BcpxHnH
yCTyn KpcnOCTHOH CTCHbI co CTOPOHbI
060pOHSlIO~UXCSI, KOTOPbIH n03BOJI»CT
BCCTH CTPCJIh6y H3HYTPH YKpCnJICHUSl
qCPC3 60UHU£(bl B ay6£(ax, 3aBcpmalO~ux CTCHY, UJIU MC}K):Iy HUMO; 06bJqHO
UMCCT Bu;n: npOTjJ}KCHHoro xO):la MC}K):IY
6aw,HJlMu (3), onupalO~crocSi Ha apKU U
orOpO}KCHHOrO ):ICPCB»HHblMO nCpUJIaMH
nO):l HaBCCOM.
BOEBOE KOJIECO. KOJICCO BO;O:SlHOH
MCJIbHUD:bI, Y KOToporo JIOnaCTU no
KpalO rrpuMbIKalOT K 60KOBOH nOBcpxHOCTU.
BOEBbIE qACbI (=6UTbU qaCbI).
qacbI, U3;n;aIOIQHC MCJIO;n;U'iHblC y;n;apbI
,UJIU MY3bIKaJIbHbIH 3BOH qCPC3 orrpc;n;cJICHHblC rrpOMC}KYTKH BpCMCHH.
BO)KE;LJ;OMKA. 1 (=y60rHH ;n;OM,
}KaJIbHUK). MCCTO B 2Opooe, Ky;o:a
;n;OCTaBJI»JIH TPynLI y6HTbIX UJIH BHC3anHO yMcpmux Ha yJIuu:c. 2 CTOpO}KKa B
TO:ii: qacm KJIa;n:6~a, mc XOPOHUJIH 3a
06~CCTBCHHbI:ii: CqCT HUlQHX, y6UThIX,
caMoy6uHu: U Haii;n;cHHbIX BHC ;n;OMa
MCPTBhIMH. 3 BOZaOe.ltbHR.
BOXHHUA. 1 MOJIUTBCHHhIH ;n;OM,
U:CPKOBHOC 3;O:aHHC (06hJqHO HCnpaBOCJIaBHOC H MaJIhiX pa3McpoB). 2 MOJICHHaSI KOMHaTa B ;n;OMC. 3 3aCTCKJICHHhIH
mKa<p, B KOTOPOM BhICTaBJICHhi HKOHhI,
CBSITaSI BO;n;a, naCXaJIhHblC SIii:u:a, Bcp6a U
;n;pyruc npc;O:McThI pCJIUrU03Horo 3HaqCHUSl. 4 lJac06HR, B03BC;n;CHHaSI Ha;n:
MmapeM HCcoxpaHUBmcHcSI U:CPKBU,
Ha;n: pO;n;HUKOM UJIU Ha UHOM MCCTC, rrpoCJIhIBmCM KaK CB»TOC, JIH60 Ha;n; MOrHJIOH.
BOH. 1 fOPH30HTaJIhHhIH pSI;O: 60UflUl{ B
KpcnoCTHoH CTCHC UJIH 6aw,fle (3).2 P»;n;
rB03):1C:ii: B TCCOBO:ii: 06w,u6Ke, 3a6HThlx
no O;n;HOH JIUHHH.
-26-
BOJIBAH. 1 CTary». 2 <popMa ):IJI» OTJIHBKH MCTaJIJIU'iCCKUX U3;n;CJIuH.
BOJIBAHKA. 1 qCThIpcxrpaHHbIH cocHOBhIH 6pyc (1) ;n;JIUHOH 9,12,15 UJIU 18
apIIIUH npH CCqCHHH 5x5 JIH60 4x4
BcpmKa. 2 COCHOBOC UJIU CJIOBOC
6pe6Ho ;n;JIUHOH B 3-7 Ca}KCHCH rrpu
nOnCpCqHHKC 4-6 BcpmKoB.
BOJIBEPK. BO.ltb6epK.
BOJI;LJ;bIPb. By.ltOblpb.
BOJIO}:PICE. ;LJ;BycKaTHhIH OPOqCKuH
maJIaIII C 6pCBCH'iaThIM KapKacoM U
nOKphITHCM U3 CJIOBOH KOphI.
BOJIOHKA. 1 MaJICHhKOC CTCKJIO B
ua6e (1).2 OKofl'tufla. 3 CTCKJIO B OKHC.
BOJIOHOK. rOp6bt.ltb.
BOJIbBEPK (=60JIBCpK). 1 ;LJ;CPCBSlHHaSI noonopHaR cmeHKa C OTBCCHOH UJIH
OqCHh KPYTOH nOBcpXHoCTblO, npcnuTCTBylO~aSI OnOJI3HSlM U OCbJTIjJM 6cpcra.
2 BpeK6amep. KaMCHHaSI npcrpa;n:a ;n;JISI
3aIQHThi MopCKoro 6cpcra OT y;o:apOB
BOJIH.
BOJIbMAHOB KHPIIHq. KpYllHbIC
6JIOKH ;O:IDl KaMcHHo:ii: 1C.ItaOKU CTCH, 06JICrqCHHbIC }KCJI06aMU nOJIYKpyrJIOro
ceqCHUSl Ha qCThIPCX MCHbmHX rpaHSlX
U napaJIJICJIbHhlMO D:UJIUH)J;PU'iCCKHMU
KaHaJIaMU ;n;Byx ;n;uaMcTPoB qCPC3 MacCUB 6JIOKa; H306pCTCH B 1870-c -rr.
U3BCCTHhIM nCTcp6yprcKHM rrpo<pcccoPOM A. K. BOJIbMaHOM (1805-1887).
BOJIbIIIEMEPHbIH KHPIIHq. 1 PacnpOCTpaHCHHhIH B ;n;pCBHCpYCCKOM 30;n;qCCTBC KHpTIU'i C pa3McpaMH 7-8x1416x28-32 CM. 2 Kupnuq «60JIhmo:ii:
MCPbI» - C pa3McpaMu9x13,5x27 CM,UCnOJIh30BaHHbI:ii: B PYCCKOM CTpOHTCJIbCTBC 1775-1780-x rr.
BOJIbIIlOH BAIT. OTCCaHHbm Ha
HCCKOJIbKO rpaHc:ii: CocHoBhm UJIH ):Iy60-
27
60nbWOH rOPoA - 6PAHAMAY3P
6
BbIH KpIDK p;mmoH 6-11 M p;m! CTPOIITeJIbCTBa BOP;~HhIX M BeTp~HbIX MeJIbHHl\.
BOJIhIIIOM fOPOJ];. BHeIII~ H3
Tpex KOHl\eHTpWlecKHx qaCTeH KpynHOro p;peBHepyccKoro 2Opooa.
BOJIhIIIOM KOITOKOIT. B.lta208ecmHUK.
BOIThIIIOM. OPJ];EP (=KOJIOCCaJIbHbIH
opp;ep). Opp;epHa~ p;eKOpal\~ C KO.!lOHHaMU IIJIH nU.!lRCmpaMU Ha BbICOTY TPex
H 60JIee 3TruKeH.
BOIThIIIOM YfOIT. Kpaolblu Y20.!l.
BOJIIOC (=ap~HcKHH KaMeHb). MeJIK03epHHcTa~ 2KeJIe3MCTa~ rJIHHa, ynoTpe6JI~eMa~ B KaqeCTBe KpacHoH, KOpHqHeBOH, 3eJIeHOH HJIH 6eJIOH KpacoK,
a TaK2Ke npM 30JIOqeHIIH.
BOH (=60M, 600M, 6YM, 6YHa)•. 1 I1JIaByqee 3arpa2Kp;eHHe nonepeK peKH JIH60
HHOH npoToKII, Cp;eJIaHHOe H3 OCMOJIeHHhIX 60qeK, JIOP;OK, nJIOTOB, 6pe8eH,
KOTopbIe 2KeCTKO CKpenJIeHbI Me2K)J;y
C060H cK06aMH, xOMymaMU IIJIH 60JITaMII M 06'bep;HHeHbI B l\enb co 3BeHb~MH
Ha ~KOp~X. 2 3aKpenJIeHHhIe l\e~MH
p;epeB~HHbIe 6aJIKH Ha nOBepxHocTH
BOP;bI y onopbI MOCTa, 3aIl\HIl\aIOIl\He ee
OT yp;apoB CYP;OB.
BOHBAHK.
Pa3HoBHp;HOCTb
6e.!1020
KaMHR, 6JIH3K~ ~qKOBCKOH.
rpaHIIl\e KOBpa IIJIH 060eB, KaMeHHbIH
60PTMK Me2Kp;y MOCTOBOH II TpoTyapoM).
BOPOB.
fOpH30HTaJIbHbIH
HJIH
HaKJIOHHbIH Obt.MOXOO H3 KHpmlqa JIH60
2KeJIe3a (CM. J(bt.M60.!lOK (3).
BOPOBOK. BbInyKJIbIH npOMe2KYToK
Me2Kp;y .!lOJICKaMU (2) M paK08UHaMU B
H3p;eJI~X KaMeHOTeCOB H pe3qHKoB.
BOP03J];A. 1 )KeJI060K Ha KpOBeJIbHOM Tece, P;JI~ CTOKa BOP;bI. 2 I1poP;OJIroBaToe yrny6JIeHMe B CTeHe P;JI~ YCTPOHCTBa Obt.MOXOOa, P;JI~ nRmbl c8ooa, P;JI~
npMMhIKaHH~ JIeCTHHl\hI JIH60 KP08.!lU H
T. n. 3 TpaHIIIe~.
BOPOHKA.
nOMeIl\eHHe.
CTOp02KKa, KapaYJIbHOe
BOPCTBEP
(=6opcTep,
BOl.J:KA UEPKOBHA5I. meuKa no):\
l\epKOBHOH Z.!la6ou.
BOPT. 1 (=60PTOBOH KaMeHb). I1pOT~2KeHHbIH KaMeHHblH BbIcTyn no rpaHHl\e
P;Op02KHOrO nOJIOTHa C TPoTyapoM, ra30HOM HJIH BOP;OCTOqHOH KaHaBoH.
2 (=6opTeBoe YX02Kbe,
6opTHoe
yX02Kbe). I1aceKa.
BOIIIHH. CMecb acq:,aJIbTa M KayqyKa,
p;eJIaIOIIIaH KaMeHHYIO KJIa}:\Ky BO,l\oHenpOHHl\aeMoH.
BP A. HaCTeHHbIH KaHOe.!lR6p C O):\HHM
HJIH HeCKOJIbKHMM pa3BeTBJIeHH~MM.
BOPIIJ,. AKaHm.
BOCAfA. I1opor HoraHcKoH IOpmb/.
BOCA)K. BbInYKJIbIH yqaCTOK CTeHbI.
BOHET
p;aeT H3 3eJIeHH qeTKHe reoMeTPHqeCKHe
60HHeT).
BOl.J:KA. J];BYCKaTHoe nOKpbITHe KU.!le6UOH020 CeqeH~, paCIIIlIp~IOII\eeCH Ha):\
OCHOBaHMeM.
60pcTq:,ep).
Bpycm6ep.
BOCKET. 1 YqaCTOK pezy.!lRpH020
napKa, orpaHHqeHHbIH co Bcex CTOPOH
nJIOTHOH nocap;KOH KYCTapHHKa H
p;epeBbeB, nO):lCTPM2KKa KOTOPblX C03-
6aHeTa,
BOl.J:El.J:HA5I UEPKOBh. UepKoBHoe
,l\BYCKaTHOH
3):\aHlIe,
3aBepIIIeHHoe
Kp08.!leU KU.!le6UOHOzO CeqeHHH.
BOPOHA. Tepca.
BOHJ];APH5I. MacTepcK~ no H3roTOBJIeHHIO 60qeK II p;pyrHx p;epeB~HHbIX
eMKocTeH - YIIIaToB, Be):lep, JIOXaHeH.
(=6oHe,
HOM H nOnepeqHOM CeqeHMHX Op;HOl\eHTpOBble JIH60 Kopo606ble ,l\yrII pa3HbIx
pa,l\HycoB.
I10KpbITHe H3 3eMJIH, MeIIIKOB C 3eMJIeH
HJIH oepHa Ha):l 6pycm6epoM, yrJIaMH
pa6e.!lUH08, KOHmpzapoo6 H T. p;. - ):IJI~
3aIl\HTbl 060pOH~IOIl\MXC~ OT npO):lOJIbHoro H 3aTbIJIbHOrO 06CTpeJIa, IIIpanHeJIH H OCKOJIKOB.
BPAKAPH5I. I1oMeIl\eHMe P;JI~ COPTHPOBKM TOBapoB no KaqeCTBY.
BPAKETC. Y30pH~ 6pOH30B~ KOHCO.!lb 6pa, B BH,l\e aKaHm080Z0 3aBMTKa.
BP AMA (= 6paHa). J];eKopHpOBaHHhle
BopOTa MOHaCTblpCKOH HJIH l\epKOBHOH
orpap;bI (B IOro-3ana,l\HbIx 06JIaCTHX).
BOHET-KAI10HHP. 06opOHHTeJIbHa~ nocTpoHKa THna KaaeMama BO pBy,
HMeIOIl\a~ 3cKapnHbte CTeHKH H CBH3aHHaH nomepHou C BHYTpeHHocTbIO ocHOBHoro yKpellJIeHH~.
BOOM. BOH.
BOPJ];IOP. OP;Hopop;Hoe 06paMJIeHHe
3CTeTlfqeCKOrO xapaKTepa (l\BeTOqHaH
rpHp;a no KpaIO zaaOHa, nOJloca 3eMJIH
BOKpyr Ca):lOBOrO napmepa (1), y30p no
06'beMbI, nopoH HMIITHpy~ apxHTeKTYPY
C apKaMII H 6aIIIeHKaMH. 2 I1op;qepKHYT~ rpynna ,l\epeBbeB, MCKYCCTBeHHaH
pOIl\IIl\a B napKe, OKpY2KeHHa~ nJIOCKOCTHbIM zaaoHoM HJIII nOJl~HKoH.
BPAMAHTOBO OKHO. ApOqHOe
OKHO B npHMoyrOJIbHOM 06paMJIeHHH,
3aBepIIIeHHoM caHOpuKoM.
BP AHA. BpaMa.
BOTAnO. 5I3b1K KOJIOKOJIa.
BPAHA5I TKAHh.
I1oxo2Ka~
Ha
KHceIO Y30pqaTaH HJIM KJIe~aTaH pa3pe2KeHH~ TKaHb C KpynHbIMM oTBepcTMHMH, ynoTpe6JIHeMaH Ha cKaTepTH,
3aHaBeCH, nOJIorn, nooaopbl (1).
BOl.J:APHhIM CBOJ];. I1epeKpblTlIe
P;BOHKOH KplIBII3HbI Ha):\ npHMoyrOJIbHbIM yqaCTKOM, HMeIOIl\ee B npO,l\OJIb-
BPAHJ];MAY3P. HeMHoro BhIcTynaIOIl\a~ Ha,l\ KpOBJIeR rJIyx~ KHpIIMqHaH
CTeHa Ha CTbIKe CTPoeHMH HJIH BHyTpM
BOCKETHA5I. KOMHaTa B yca):le6HOM
p;OMe, CTeHbl KOTOPOH pacnlIcaHbl no,l\
napKoBble neH3a2KlI.
-27-
6
6PAHUEPBEPK -
6PYCOM
~OM
28
npOTSDKeHHoro 3,qaHIDI, IIpeIIRTCTBy~' BPE<I>OTPO<l>E5L IIpliIOT ,qmI BOCIIllIO~aR
paCIIpOC'TpaHeHHIO OrHR IIpli TaHll5I CliPOT, IIO,qKH,qhIIlIeH ll,qeTeH 6e,qIIO)Kape.
HhIX pO,qHTeJIeH.
BPAHUEPBEPK. YC'TpOHCTBO ,qJIR
IIO,qHRTIDI II OrryCKaHliSi KOJIeC BO,q5IHOH
MeJIhHllU;hI, 'IT06hI OHli 3HMOH He BMep3aJIli B JIe,q, a JIeTOM MOrJIli ,qeHCTBOBaTh
IIpH pa3HhIX ypOBHRX BO,qhI.
BPEIIIh-BATAPE5I (=6peIlI6aTape5I).
3eMJI5IHOe YKpenJIeHlle, B03Be,qeHHoe Ha
2Aaeuee KpenocTH npoTHBHllKa, 'IT06hl
npo6HTb
apTHJIJIepHHCKllM
orHeM
6peIlIb B ee CTeHe.
BPATCKASI M3BA. IIOCTpOHKa ,qJIR
CXO,qOK CJI060)KaH.
BPM3YPA (=6PH3yp). M3JIOM, HJIli
H3r1l6 B 6pycm6epe, gJI5I 60JIee y;g06HOH
CTpeJIh6bI.
BP A TCKME KEJIhM. IIoMe~eHH5I, B
KOTOPhIX IIOCT05IHHO )KllByT MOHaXli
O)l;HOH H TOH )Ke 06HTeJIH.
BPATCKME IIAJIAThI. MOHacThlpCKllH KOPrryC, B KOTOPOM )KHByT MOHaxll.
BPATCKMll .D,BOP. MecTo gJI5I cxo,qOK cJI060)KaH (06hI'IHO PMOM C u;epKOBhIO II KJIa)l;6H~eM, a TaK)Ke coe3J/Ceu
u360u HJIli coe3J/CUM 060pOM).
BPAYHPOT (='IepHh). TeMHo-KpacHruI MeJIK03epHHCTa5I 3eMJIRHa5I KpacKa.
BP A YHIIIBEllr
( = 6paYHIlIBeHrCKa5I
3eJIeHh). MHHepaJIhHaSi 3eJIeHruI KpacKa
(HHor,qa C rOJIy6oBaThIM OTTeHKOM),
113rOTOBJIeHHa5I H3 Me,qHoro KyIIopoca,
MhIIlIh5IKOBOH KHCJIOThI, IIOTaIlIa H
H3BeCTKOBoro MOJIOKa.
BPAYTCKAMEPA (=6pYHU;-KaMepa).
CIIeU;HaJIhHruI KOMHaTa ,qJISI IIepBoH
6pa'IHOH HO'Ili.
BPEBHO. OCBo6o)K,qeHHoe OT cy'IheB II
BeTBeH cpy6JIeHHOe ,qepeBo ,qJIHHOH He
MeHee Tpex Ca)KeHeH II ,qHaMe'TpOM He
MeHee Tpex BepIlIKOB (B JIeCHCThIX MeCTHOCTRX CBhIIlIe 'IeTblpex BepIlIKOB),
HCIIOJIb3yeTcR KaK CTpOllTeJIhHhIH MaTePllaJI, a TaK)Ke )l;JIR pa3,qeJIKH Ha 6pyebR
II ooC/CU.
BPE3EH.D,YK (= 6pe3eHT). KpaIlIeHa5I
IIapYCHHa, KOTOPOH BbICTHJIaJIli IIOJIbI B
IIOKORX.
BPEKBATEP. BOAb6epK (2).
BPEKlJM5I. Cu;eMeHTllpOBaHHruI ropHa5I IIopo,qa 113 YrJIOBaThIX 06JIOMKOB C
OC'TphIMH pe6paMll, XOPOIlIO IIo,q,qaIO~a­
RCR IlIJIHcpoBKe H IIOJIHpOBKe IIpH ,qeKOpaTHBHhIX gOCToHHCTBax (,qJI5I H3rOTOBJIeHH5I emoAeulHuu" IIO,qOKOHHbIX IIJIllT,
Ba3 H T. ,q.), a TaK)Ke npll BblCOKOH
)l(apOCTOHKOCTH (,qJI5I KAaoKu ne'IeH).
BPEMEHCKA5I 3EJIEHh. CBeTJIOCllH5I5I rpYHTOBruI KpacKa ,qJI5I MaJIRPHhIX
pa60T II )l(HBOIIllCH - CMeCb yrJIeKHCJIOH
Me,qH H rHgpaTa OKllCli Me,qH.
BPEMCBEPr. HaKJIOHHruI IlIaXTa B
ropHhlX pa3pa6oTKax.
BPETh5IHMUA. AM6ap, KJIa,qOBaR.
EPMKCHEHCKASI 3EJIEHh (=IlIBeHHcpypTCKa5I 3eJIeHb). MHHepaJIbHruI 3eJIeHruI KpacK3 ,qJIR M3JIRpHOrO ,qeJI3 H
oKpacKH 06oes, CMeCh MbIIllh5IKOBOKHCJIOH MeAll C YKCYCHO-KJilCJIOH Me,qhIO.
EPMJIJIMAHTMH. IIIepCHIHa5! llJIM
6YMa)KH<l5! TKaHh C aTJIaCHhlM 6JleCKoM.
EPMJIJIMAHTOBA5I lJEPHh. 1-JcpHa5! KpacKa, ra30Ba5I ca)Ka C BbICOKHM
co,qep)KaHlieM 'IHCTOrO yrJIepoga.
EPMJIhHSI. 3aBegeHlle, r).:(e 6pHJII1, a
TaK)Ke rrycKaJlll KpOBh B Me,qJilU;JilHCKHX
u;eJI5IX.
EPMJIhSlHTOBhU1 PYCT. 1 KAaoKa
113 KpyIIHhlX o,qHHaKOBbIX KaMHeH, y
Ka)K)l;Oro 113 KOTOPhlX JIJilu;eBa5I cTopoHa
1111/11I1I~1111~"f/iI/jI'
opHaMeHTOM 113 u:seTOB II «MepTBbIX
MaTepHaJIOB», 06hr'IHO Ha cpoHe rreCKa.
BPO.D,5I:tKKMHO OKOIIIKO. CBOHCTBeHHhle cH611PCKliM u36aM He6oJIhIlIoe OKHO HJIH HllIlIKa B Hll)l(HeH 'IaCTli
CTeHhI, o6pa~eHHoH Ha yJIllU;y; cIOga
X035IeBa H36hI BhICTaBJIRJIli 'egy )l;JIR
HH~HX H 6erJIhlx.
EPOKATEJIh.
TR)I(eJiaR
IlIeJIKO6YMa)KHa5I TKaHh C KpynHhIM Y30POM,
gJI5I 3aHaBeceH, nOKphIBaJI, 06HBKll
Me6eJIli.
BPOH3A MA.D,:tKEHTA. <l>llOJIeTOBruI
KpacKa.
BPOH30BASI 3EJIEHh. KJIeeBa5I II
MaCJIRHa5I 3eJIeHaSi KpacKa MliHepaJIhHoro npOllCXO)KgeHHSI, C KOpH'IHeBbIM
OTTeHKOM - MexaHWleCKa5I CMeCb xpoMOBOH )KeJITH, IIapH)KCKOH CllHH H ,qp.
BPOHHMUA. 1 MacTepcKaSi no H3roTOBJleHlllO BoeHHhlX ,qocneXOB. 2 lJacTb
wpooa HJIli nOCeJIOK, r,qe )KHByT opy)KeHHllKH.
BPYHU-KAMEPA. BpaymeKaMepa.
BPYC. 1 Bpe61l0 C napaJIJIeJIbHhIMli
oC'TpyraHHbIMH IIJIOCKOCTRMli II o,qllHaKOBhIM Ce'IeHlleM Ha Topu;ax. 2 BpeBHo,
IIO KOTOPOMY CJIe,q5IT 3a ypoBHeM BO,qhl y
BOgRHOH MeJIhHHU;hI. 3 IIOJIKa B c1l6HPCKOH U36e (1).
BPYCKOBOE :tKEJIE30. IIpo,qoJIroBaThle )l(eJIe3Hhle 3arOTOBKH KBa,qpaTHoro Ce'IeHH5I co CTOPOHOH OT 1 ,qo 9
,qIOHMOB.
OTecaHa Ha 'IeThlpe rpaHli. 2 IIITYKaTYPHruI HJIli plicoBaHruI HMllTaU;H5I TaKoH
KJIa,qKll.
BPMTAHCKMll METAJIJI. CHHeBaTo-6eJIh1H CIIJIaB OJIOBa, I.:(HHKa, CyphMhI II Me,qH (llHor,qa JIHIlIh U;HHKa II
CYPhMhl) ,qJIR H3rOTOBJIeHHSI IIogcBe'IHllKOB II HHhlX npegMeToB.
BPOBAPh. IIllBoBapeHHhBl HJIH Me,qoBapeHHhIH 3aBO,q.
BPOBKA. 1 .D,eKOpaTllBHruI peJIhecpHa5! apO'IKa Ha,q npoeMoM llJIli HllIlIeH.
2 JIHHll5I nepeCe'IeHH5I OTKOCOB HaChIIIH
C ee ropH30HTaJIhHOH nOBepxHocThIO.
3 KaAe6Ka (1).
BPO.D,EPM (=6pO,qPH, napTep-6poAPll). IIJIOCKliH 2G301l, YKpaIlIeHHbIH
-28-
BPYCKOBhIll KMPIIMlJ. IIp5IMOyrOJIhHbIH KllpIIll'I, y KOToporo ,qJIHHa
Ka)K)l;OH rpaHH B,qBoe 60JIhIlIe IlIllpHHhI.
EPYCOBhIll JIEC (=KaHToBaHHhIH
JIec, KaHTOBhIH JIec). Bpe6lla, OTecaHHhle JIH60 OnllJIeHHhIe C ,qByX, TPex HJIH
'IeThIpeX CTOPOH AJI5I 60JIee 6hIC'TpOrO
ynoTpe6JIeHllSi B cTpOllTeJIhCTBO H gJI5I
60JIee nJIoTHoH yKJIa,qKH, 'IeMY cnoco6cTByeT y,qaJIeHlle Manou;eHHhIX 'IacTeH;
pa3HOBH,qHOCTll:
pacnpocTpaHeHHhle
6pye (1), 6aJIKa, umaAa.
BPYCOK. 1 IIpogYKT npo,qoJIhHOH pacnllJIOBKH ooeoK Ha 'IaCTli ,qJIliHOH OKOJIO
6,5 M C KBa,qpaTHhIM HJIli rrp5IMoyrOJIhHhIM Ce'IeHHeM (OT 5x5 ,qo 7x7 CM),
ynoTpe6JIReMble Ha 06peUlemKy KpbtUlU, napKeT II MeJIKHe no,qeJIKll. 2 PeUlemUlla. 3 lleThlpeXrpaHHhIH 6pye (1) C
O):lllHaKoBhIMli ):IJIllHHhIMH nOBepXHOCT5IMliumpHHoH MeHee 4 BepIlIKoB. 4 KpaHHHH p5I)l; KllpnH'IeH y llIeCTKa ne'IH.
EPYCOM .D,OM. XapaKTepHoe AJIR
KapeJIHH ,qepeB5IHHOe KpecThRHcKoe
)KllJIll~e, o6be,qHHeHHoe Kp06Aeu C
6
29
6PYC'fATASI MOCTOBASI - 6YHKEP
(=6y,qHhIH
}WYX'MIPyCHhIM X03IDl.CTBeHHhIM OBOPOM
(2) Ha era npo,qOJIhHOH OCIf.
EY.D:HbIM
MAM.D:AH
CTaH). IIOTallIHhIH 3aBOA.
EPYCQATA5I MOCTOBA5I, EPYCQATKA. TBep,qoe ,qopQ)l{Hoe nOKphlTHe If3 KaMeHHhIX 6pYCKOB, cpOpMa
KOTOPhIX 6JIIf3Ka napaJIJIeJIenIfne,qy npH
He6oJIhllIOM BCTpe'1HOM CKallIHBaHHH
rpaHeH.
EY.D:YAP. 113hlcKaHHO y6paHHa5I KOMHaTa CBCTCKOH ,qaMhI, npc,qHa3Ha'1CHHaS!
,qJI5I OT,qbIxa, TYaJIeTa, a TaK)Ke npHeMa
6JIIf3KHX H 3HaKOMhIX.
rrOJIO)KeHHbIMH 6yropKaMH Hano,q06He
6YJIaB0'1HbIX rOJIOBOK.
EYJIrAH.
Eyp5ITCKOe
6peBeH'1aTOe
)KHJI~C C KapKaCHoH OCHOBOH.
EYJI.D:bIPb (=60JI,qblpb). IIJIOXO nocTpoeHHhIR )1;OM B cTopoHe OT ,qpyrHX
coopY)KeHHH:.
EYJIEBAP (=6YJIeBap,q, 6YJIBap, 6yJIeBCp), 1 3eMJISlHOH: 060pOHHTeJIbHbUf
BaJl, MaCCIfB 6acmuoHa IfJIH Kypmwlbl
(3), OT,qeJIhHOe 3eMJI5IHOe YKpenJIeHHe,
coe,qIfHeHHoe TPaHllIe5IMIf C no,qo6HbIMIf
CMy. 2 ByJlb6ap. 3 MCCTO pa3BJIe'1eHIfH:.
EPYCTBEP (=60pCTBep,
60pCTep,
6opCTcpep, 3aTKaHIfe, napaneT). 3eMJISIHaS!, 6peBeH'1aTaS! HJIH KaMeHHaSl npe-
EYJIEB KOJIO.D:E3b. MIfHHhUf KOJlO(2) ,qJISI B3phIBaHH5I rro,q3eMHhIX
zaJtepeu (2) KpenOCTfI.
oe~
rpa,qa B BH,qe BaJIa Tpane~MeBH,qHoro
Ce'1eHIfS! - ,qJISI 3a~IfThI 060POHSlIO~MXCSI B KpenOCTH IfJIH TpaHllIee OT
BCTpe'1Horo 06CTpeJIa.
EPYCTBEP MOJIA. CTeHa BhICOTOR
OKOJIO 2 M Y caMara KpaSl MOJIa, 3a~If­
~aIO~aS! ero OT BO,qhI; MHOr)W o,qHOBpeMeHHO no,q,qep~BaeT HaBec Ha,q CKJIa,qOM TOBapOB.
EPbIHKA. rOpH30HTaJIhHhIR H3JIOM Ha
CThIKe Me)K}J;Y CTBopKaMIf ,qBepM HJIH
OKHa, 3ar~H~alO~IfH aT CKB03HS1KOB.
EYAJIO. BhIT5IHYToe no ropH30HTaJIIf
np5IMoyrOJIbHOe OKHo-cpoHapb C BepTMKaJIbHbIM OCTeKJIeHeHMeM, Ha,q KpOBJIeR
npOMbIIlIJIeHHOrO ~exa.
EyrEJIb. 1 KOJIb~O M3 nOJIOCOBOro
)KeJIe3a, 3a~M~aIO~ee npM 3a6HBaHMM
BepXHIfH KOHen; CBau. 2 LKCJIC3HaS! 3aMKHYTaSl nOJIOca, OXBaTbIBaIO~aS! pSl)1;
3a6IfTbIX cBau (HanpIfMcp, O,qMH 6yrCJIb
Ha nOJICOTHM cBaH).
.
Eyrp A. 3CMJISlHKa PbI60JIOBOB M OXOTHIfKOB.
EY.D:A. 1 .D:PCBHCPYCCKMH ,qCPCBSlHHbIH
CKJlen. 2 IIocTpoRKa (B rOBopax IOro3ana,qHoH POCCIfM). 3 JIccHaSl nocTpoHKa, B KOTOPOR rOHSlT CMOJIY HJIIf ,qerOTb.
EYEBO.
rOBopax).
KJIa)1;6If~e
(B
OJIOHe~KIfX
EYM. 1 06HeceHHoe orpa,qoR MeCTO
OKOJIO n;epKBIf, KJIa,q6If~c npM n;epKBM
(B nCKOBCKMX H TBepCKMX rOBopax).
2 B)1;eJIaHHbIH: B cTeHY )KeJIe3HbIR rrpYT,
K KOTOPOMY rrpHKOBbIBaJIH apecTaHToB.
EYKET. 1 He6oJIbllIaS! HCKyccTBeHHaSl
pO~H~a
B rrapKe, COCTaBJIeHHaSl H3
6JIM3KO rrOCa)KCHHhIX ,qcpeBbcB. 2 JKupaHOOJlb.
EYKETHA5I IIOCA.D:KA. IIoca,qKa
HeCKOJIbKMX Ca)KCH~CB B OAHO rHe3)1;O,
C03,qalO~aSl
KOMrraKTHble
rpyrrrrbI
,qepcBbeB B neU3a:JICHOM napKe.
EYKETbI MAKAPTA (=MaKapToBbI
6YKeThI). KOMrro3Ifn;MM If3 HCKYCCTBeHHbIX n;BeTOB, pacrrpocTpaHeHHble B HHTCPbepax BTOpOH: rrOJIOBHHbI XIX B., no cpaMMJIHH aBCTpHH:CKoro xy,qO)KHIfKa
r. MaKKapTa (1840-1884).
EYKPAHI1M. .D:eKopaTHBHhIH MOTIfB
6apeJlbecjJoB B BH,qe 6hI'1hCrO '1epcrra,
06bI'1HO OKPY)KCHHOrO ZUPJlRHOaMU,
n;BCTaMIf, CPPYKTaMH.
EY.D:KOIO OKHO. l'/JoHapeM OKHO.
EYJIblr A, EYJIbILKHI1K. He6oJIhIlIHe BaJIYHhI, oKpyrJIhle KaMHM TBep,qhIx
rropo,q, yrroTpe6JI5IeMble ,qJIH BbICTHJIKM
MOCTOBbIX, a TaK)Ke B Ka'1eCTBe 6yma
(2), HHOr):(a - 3a6ymoBKu.
EYJIb. TCXHHKa xy,qO)KeCTBeHHOH: OT,qeJIKH Me6eJIH, HCrrOJIh3yIO~a5I '1epHoe ll:epeBO If 6pOH3Y, rJIall:KHe rrOBepxHOCTIf KOTOPhIX YKpallIaJIIfCh UHKpyCma~ueu H3 '1epenaXIf, rrepJIaMYTpa,
rrO)1;KpaIIIeHHOH: KOCTIf H T. )1;.; H306peTeHa BO BTOPOR rrOJIOBHHC XVII B.
cppaHn;Y3CKHM MaCTcpOM xy,qO)KeCTBeHHOH: Mc6CJIH H )1;eKOpaTopOM A. III. EyJIeM (1642-1732).
EYJIbBAP (=6yJIeBap). IIporYJIo'1HaS!
Il:opora MC)K}J;y p5Ill:aMM nOCa)KCHHhIX
)1;CPCBbCB, pHTM KOTOPhIX O~BJIHIOT
n;BCTHIfKM, He60JIbllIHC BOIl:OCMhI, CPOHTaHhI, cKYJIhrrTypa.
EYM. BOH.
E YMALKHI1K.
XJIon'1aT06YMa)KHhIH
MaTpac (cTeraHhIH TIOcpSlK).
EYMEA. 3aBcpllIcHHaSl MHoroSlpycHhIM KOHYCOM BhIIIYKJIaSl CPCIl:H5IH '1aCTh
cy6ypwHa, B KOTOPOH: HaxOIl:HTCSI 6YIl:)1;HH:CKHC pYKonHcH, MO~H M Il:parO~cH­
HOCTM.
EY.D:KA. 1 Hc60JIhllIOC JICrKOC cooPY)KCHHe ,qJISI '1aCOBOro, KapaYJIbHOrO HJIH
CTPCJIO'1HHKa, PSl,qOM C cro nOCTOM.
2 060c06JIeHHaS! ToproBmI JIaBKa Ha
YJIMn;e, ,qJI5I npo,qa)KIf 6YJIOK, cyxapeH,
Ta6aKa. 3 He60JIbllIOC cOOpY)KCHIfC B
BM)1;e ,qOMHKa.
EY.D:KA BOEHHA5I. BbIHeceHHaSl Ha
KPOHIlITcRHax KaMeHHa5I 6allIcHKa ,qJI5I
'1aCOBOro, npH H3JIOMC KpcnOCTHOH:
CT~HbI - ,qJI5I JIY'111ICrO 0630pa.
EYJIEHrpI1H. <l>parMcHT pezyJlRpHOW napKa, IfMeIO~IfH: BH,q W3'lHa C
n;BeTHHKaMIf HJIH He60JIhllIHMIf npy)1;aMIf, KOTOPhIH pacnOJIaraeTC5I HIf)Ke npIfJIeraIO~HX ,qopO)KeK.
EYHA. 1 (=TPaBcpc, nOJIy3anpy)1;a).l1cKYCcTBcHHaH rrpcrpa)1;a, BhIIl:BHHYTaSl B
peKy OT 6epcra Il:JIH ero 3a~IfThI OT
pa3MhIBa. 2 BOH.
EYJIABQATAA MATEPI15I. IIICJIKOBill!, 6YMa)KHaS!, IlICpCT5IHa5I HJIH JIhHSlHaSl TKaHb C '1aCThIMH, pcryJISlpHO pac-
-29-
EYHKEP. CaMopa3rpy)KaIO~CCCSI xpaHMJIM~C cbmy'1HX MaTCpHaJIOB, HH)KHH5I
'1aCTb KOTOPOro MMCCT BIf,q onpoKHHyTOH: rrMpaMIfll:hI C BhIrryCKHhIM OTBepCTHCM Ha BcpllIHHe.
SYHT - SIOCT
6
30
BYHT. Pac:umpeHHhlH no KpasIM 060;I\
BYTOBA5I KJIMKA. Krra;I\Ka H3 npH-
H3pa3n;OBOH PYMnbl.
P0;I\HbIX KaMHeH HenpaBHJIbHOH !fJ0PMbI.
OKOH
cpy6 C
O;I\HOKaMepHbm
KpblUleu,
nOJIoroH
JIeTHee
MbIX no BO;I\e.
BYPABJIEHhIM KOJIO,ll;EU;.
BhIK.
Apme-
2
IImlc H3 KpOBeJIbHoro :lKe-
BYTOBhIM
KAMEHh.
CJIOHCTbIH
JIe3a, ;I\Jlg O;I\HOro gpyca KpyrJIOH ne'lH.
npHpO;I\Hbm KaMeHb, a TaK:lKe 6YJIbI:lK-
2
HHK H lIJ;e6eHb,
CeKpeTHag
3
TlOpbMe.
O;I\HHO'lHag
KaMepa
B
CneIJ;HaJIbHag TPy6Ka ;I\JIg
!fJeHepBepKoB,
Ha'lHHeHHag
roplO'lHM
COCTaBOM C XJIOnYWKaMH H n;seTHhlMH
3Be3;I\aMH.
BYPAMA.
Bypa a.aaCbIK.
1
MY:lKCKOe ;I\YXoBHoe Y'lH-
JIHlIJ;e C 06IIJ;e:lKHTHeM (Y'leHHKH B. HaxO;I\HJIHCb
2
Ha
Ka3eHHOM
ynoTpe6JIgeMbIe ;o;JIg
6yma.
3
2 Ba3apHag llJIOlIJ;a;LIb.
1 IIpoMe.:lK)'To'lHag onopa MOCTa.
KOHmprjJopc. 3 CTPOllHJIbHag HOra (HaKJIOHHag onopa KP08.llU). 4 BamapeR (1).
,ll;epeBmHbm HJIH KaMeHHbm
5 Ka:lK;I\ag H3 rJIaBHbIX CTeH ;LIOMHbI.
BhICTPOTOK. rH;IlpOTeXHH'leCKOe coAM
6bICTPOH nepe6pOCKH BO;LIbI
MeHm, OCHOBY KOToporo COCTaBJIglOT
H36e:lKaHHe
KpynHbIe (;0;0 nOJIYMeTpa B nOnepe'lHH-
BO;LIoeMa B HH)KHHH.
rJIaB-
HbIM 06pa30M H3BeCTHHKa, neC'IaHHKa,
;LIOJIOMHTa.
BYcI>ET.
1
Cnen;HaJIbHhlH wKa!fJ HJIH
cToHKa AJIg CTOJIOBOrO 6eJIbg, CTOJIOBOH
06eCne'leHHH).
3aHOCOB)
H3
(BO
BepXHero
BhJqHM rJIA3. rOpH30HTaJIbHOe HJIH
BepTHKaJIbHOe OBaJIbHOe OKRO.
1
BhIqOK.
(=6eJIOHO:lKKa) IIpoMe:lKY- ,
TO'IHag IIJ;HTOBag CTeHKa
2
nJIOTHHe.
BooocnycKa B
CTeHKa, enO:lKeHHag H3 H3-
BeCTHHKa,
061IJ;e:lKHTHe npH MY:lKCKOM ;I\YXOB-
HOM Y'lHJIHlIJ;e.
a.M6apa.Mu ;I\M
0pY:lKeHHe B BHAe HaKJIOHHOrO JIOTKa
q,YHoa-
BYTOBhIM cI>YH,ll;AMEHT.
Ke) HepOBHble KyCKH KaMHH, -
BYPET. IIIeJIKOBag TKaHb;I\M Me6eJIH.
BYPCA.
IIpHCTaHb C
neHbKH, JIbHa, CaJIa H Maena, nepeB03H-
auaHcKuu KO.llOOel{.
1
1
BYHH.
}KHJlHlIJ;e
IO)KHOYPaJIbCKHX 6awKHp.
BYPAK.
B03Be;LIeHHbm Ha rJIaBHOH OCH ;LI33H-6y;o;;I\HHCKOrO aHcaM6JIg.
BYPA AJIAChIK (=6ypaMa). He HMeIOIIJ;HH
BYI.1;Y,ll;3H. XpaM co cTaTyeH BY;LIAhI,
pa3;L1eJIglOIIJ;ag
o'te.llKU
B
ne'lax ;LIJIg o6:lKHra.
IIepcH;I\cKag WeJIKO-
Bag TKaHb.
BhEcI> (=nJIeco). qacTb CYAOXO;LIHOro
BYPhIM KHPIIHq. CneIJ;HaJIbHO ne-
KaHaJIa HJIH peKH, orpaHH'IeHHag ;LIByMH
pe:lK:lKeHHbm KHpllH'l CO CTeKJIOBH;IlHOH
CTPYKTYPOH,
;I\JIg
rjJYHOa.MeHmOB
llIJl103aMH H OTJIH'IalOlIJ;agCg no ypOBHIO
B
BO;LIbI
CblpbIX MecTax.
BYPXAH.
1
2
aHaJIOrH'lHOrO
6ypHT.
IIIaMa-
HHCTCKHH H;IlOJI.
B3Y (=1IJ;31IJ;). HaABOPHag KOHIOWHH
BYCHHA. IIIapoBH;IlHbIH 3JIeMeHT AeKopa B ;I\peBHepYCCKOM 30;I\'leCTBe, noMelIJ;aBWHHCg nOCpe;I\H CTBOJIa
KO.llOHHbl
MeHbwero AHaMeTPa.
nOCY;LIbI H HanHTKOB.
CBOHCTBeHHbm
UOHU'teCKOMY
2 CTOJIHK, Ha KOTO-
'1epKeCCKoH
ycaob6bl.
IIaBU.IlboH
(1)
pOM paCCTaBJIeHbI TapeJIKH, 6JIIOAa, CTa-
BIOBET.
KaHbI,
coopY:lKeHHe Ha;I\ MHHepaJIbHhlM HCTO'l-
3
BlOcm.
BYChI.
coceAHero
B3MJIAH. IIpoMe:lKYTo'IHoe CTOH6H1IJ;e
H306pa:lKeHHe 6Y;I\;I\HHC-
KOro 60:lKeCTBa HJIH CBgTOro.
BYCT.
OT
Y'laCTKa.
PIOMKH,
rpa!fJHHbI
(=6y!fJeTHag).
KOMHaTa
;LIOMa,
B
BCeMH
npHHaAJIe)KHOCTgMH
4
KOTOPOH
H
CTOgT
T.
n.
60raTOro
wKa!fJhI
;LIM
co
eAbI.
HHKOM, B KOTOPbIX
JIe'le6HOrO nHTbg.
BIbrEJIh.
HJIH
HHoe
6epYT BOAY AJIg
Byze.llb.
IIoMelIJ;eHHe HJIH cToHKa B 061IJ;eCT-
opoepy OpHaMeHTaJIbHblH MOTHS B BHAe
BeHHOM 3AaHHH, npe;LIHa3Ha'leHHble AM
BIOP. rpy6ag WepCTgHag TKaHb TeM-
MeJIKHX wapHKOB Ha O;I\HOH JIHHHH, pa3-
npoAa:lKH HanHTKOB H 3aKycoK.
Horo n;seTa -
KOTophle no !fJ0pMe HallOMHHalOT 'le'le-
BYcI>hI.
IIIapOBH;IlHble
BblcTynbI
Ha
BIOPO. CTOJI AJIg nHCbMeHHbIX 3aHH-
HO:lKKaX M CTOHKax Me6eJIH.
BHIJ;y.
Ha nOKpbITHe llHCbMeH-
HbIX CTOJIOB.
;I\eJIeHHbIX ;I\HCKaMH Toro :lKe ;I\HaMeTPa,
THH, nOXO:lKHH Ha KOMOA HJIH wKa!fJ'IHK
H HMelOlIJ;HH MHO:lKeCTBO HIIJ;H'lKOB (B
BYT.
1
TOM '1Hene H nOTaHHbIX) -
KaK HH:lKe
BhI;LIBH:lKHOH HJIH OTKHAHOH
CmO.lleUlHU-
I{bl, TaK H Ha;I\ HeH.
3arJIy6JIeHHOe HH:lKe ypOBHH
3eMJIH OCHOBaHHe 3;I\aHHH, COCTOglIJ;ee H3
6YJIbI:lKHHKa,
llJIHTHHKa
3aJIHBKOH paCTBOpoM.
H
lIJ;e6HH
C
2 Bec!fJ0pMeHHble
MaJIOn;eHHble KaMHH, KOTOPbIMH BMeCTe
co
cTpOHTeJIbHhlM pacTBopoM 3anOJI-
HHIOT npOCTP~CTBO Me:lK;I\y BHeWHHM H
BYXTOBhIE
BHYTpeHHHM enOgMH KHpllH'IHOH CTeHbI
nOHTOHbI, nO;I\;LIep:lKHBalOIIJ;He nJIaBY'lHH
(cM.3a6ymoBKa).
BYTAC. )KeJITbIH HJIH cepbIH KpynHbIH
BAP)KH.
JIO;o;KH
HJIH
MOCT B MecTax Cn;ellJIeHHH ero COCTaBHbIX 'laCTeH.
BIOCT
CeBep06ypgTCKOe
(=6yCT).
OTAeJIbHOe
npoH3BeAeHHe,
CKYJIb-
H306pa:lKa-
BYX3K.
TPe6MeMbIH B pacTBopbI ;LIJIg KJIa;I\KH
Koe }KHJlHlIJ;e C nOKpbITHeM 3BepHHhlMH
IOlIJ;ee BepxHlO1O '1aCTb '1eJIOBe'leCKOH
CTeH H !fJYHAaMeHToB.
wKypaMH no :lKepAeBoMY KapKacy.
!fJHryPhl: rOJIOBY, llJIe'lH, rpYAb.
-30-
KOHH'leC-
nTYPHoe
neCOK H3 KaMeHOJIOMeH neC'IaHHKa, yno-
BABMJIOH. JIa6upuHm B napKe, 06pa30BaHHhrH 3eJIeHbIMH HaCa)Kll:eHHSlMH.
BABMJIOHCKA5I TKAHh. MaTep'laTbIH 6a.nOaxUH (1).
apXHTeKTypHoe YKpameHHe B BHll:e
cocYll:a C pacmHpSlIOIIIHMCSI KBepxy napa60JIOH,I\HbIM OCHOBaHHeM.
BABMJIOHhl. EOJIbnIHe norpe6a B
rrpHMopcKHX 6yrpax, HMeIOIQHe BHIl:
npOpbITbIX XO/.lOB, no cTopoHaM KOTOpbIX paCnOJIaraIOTCSI JleOHUI<:U C JIapSlMH
Il:JISI 3aCOJIKH H xpaHeHHSI pbI6bI.
BArA. EOJIbmHe BeCbI Il:JISI rpOM031l:KHX
TSI)KeCTeH, 06bI'lHO BKJIIO'leHHbIe B cne~aJIbHOe coopY)KeHHe 6aJICHlO.
BArAJIMll,A. 1 CJIIOIl:SlHaSl OI<:OH'tUHa.
2 JIHCTOK CJIIOll:bI.
BArEHIIIOc. BaH'tec.
BArOHKA (=KaJIeBKa). 06mHBKa H3
Y3KHX eJIOBbIX HJIH COCHOBblX 1l:0COK
(mHpHHOIr 7,5-12,5 CM H TOJIIQHHOH
1,3-1,8 CM), HMeIOIIIHX Ha npOTHBonoJIO)KHbIX Y3KHX Il:JIHHHbIX CTopOHax na3 H
rpe6eHb paBHOH BeJIH'lHHbI, a B/.IOJIb
KpaS! Ha JIHIIeBOH nOBepxHocTH - )KeJIO60K HJIH HHOH npocToH npOCPHJIb.
BArOHHA5I 3EJIEHh. 3eJleHaJl I<:UH06apb.
BArOHHhIH CAP AH. 1 )KeJIe3HOIl:OpO)KHOe oeno Il:JISI naCCa)KHpCKHX BaroHOB, rJIaBHbIM 06pa30M Il:JISI Tex, KOTOpbIe He BKJIIO'laJIHCb B perYJISlpHbIe
peHCbI (caJIOHHbIe, HMnepaTopCKHe,
BeJIHKOKHSI)KeCKHe H T. Il:.). 2 31l:aHHe
Il:JISI npHBell:eHHSI B nOpS!ll:OK H MeJIKOrO
peMoHTa naCCa)KHpCKHX BarOHOB.
BA)KH5I. KpbIToe coopY)KeHHe Ha)l;
KPYIIHbIMH BecaMH (6a20u) , B03Bell:eHHoe npH ToprOBOH nJIOIIIaIl:H.
BA30H. 1 EMKOCTb C 3eMJIeH Il:JISI
)KHBbIX IIBeTOB, HMeIOIQaS! BH,lI Ba3bI HJIH
ll:eKOpaTHBHoH KOP3HHbI. 2 Ba3a -
HHSI. 2 06pa6oTKa Ul6a B BH,I\e HenpePbIBHOH npOTSI)KeHHOH BbIIIYKJIOCTH C
Y3KOH OKaHTOBKOH (CM. PaCUIU6I<:a).
BAJIKAHT (=BaJIKaHTHbIH 6pyc, mJIHnep, mnaJIa). Epe6Ho, OTecaHHoe Ha 4
rpaHH C OCTaBJIeHHeM Y3KHX nOJIOc
0630JIa (KOpbI) Me)Kll:y rpaHeH.
BAH ( =BOHO). YJIb'lCKHH cpy6 Il:JISI
3axopoHeHHSI KocTeH pHTyaJIbHO y6HToro MeIl:Be).lSl.
BAH5I. )J,eKopaTHBHbIH MOTHB B BH).Ie
rraJIbMOBOH BeTBH, BKJIIO'laeMbIH B
y6paHcTBo IIepKoBHoro UHmepbepa.
BAKCAJI. BOl<:aaJl (1).
BAJIOBhIH
1<:0JlOI<:OJl.
KOJIOKOJI.
O'tenHou
BAJIhrAHr. BaJl2aH2.
BAJIhKA. 1 BaJlel<:. 2 IIPOIl:OJIroBaTbIH
MemOK C neCKOM, YKJIall:bIBaeMbIH Ha
OKHO Il:JISI 3aIIIHTbI OT CblpOCTH.
BAJI. 1 3eMJISlHaSl HaCbIIIb Il:JISI 06opoHbI. 2 (TO'lHee, nOJlY6aJl) - ::meMeHT
apxHTeKTypHoro y6paHcTBa, HMeIO~H
BH,I\ npOTSI)KeHHOrO BbIcTyna C OIl:HHaKOBbIM nOJIYKpyrJIbIM Ce'leHHeM.
BAJIhMOBA5I KPOBJI5I. IIOKpbITHe
C BaJIbMaMH - TpeyrOJIbHbIMH CKaTaMH
OT KapHH3a 1l:0 ero BepmHHbI, nOIl:HHMaIOIIIHMHCSI Hall: TOPIIOBbIMH CTeHaMH.
BAJIrAHr (=BaJIbraHr). IIpHMbIKaIOIIIaSl K 6pycm6epy ropH30HTa.ITbHaS!
nOBepxHocTb BHYTpeHHero YCTyna B
KperrocTHoM 6aJlY, Ha KOTOPOH YCTaHaBJIHBaJIHCb 0pYIl:HSI.
BAJIhIIMII.J:E. IIpHcTaHb, 06CJIY)KHBaIOIIIaSl JIeCOCnJIaB.
BAJIrAHr COOEII.J:EHM5I. IIoHH)KeHHbIH 6aJlWH2 /.IJISI nepeMeIQeHHSI
60eBbIX rpY30B.
BAJIEHhIH. TecaHbIH.
BAJIEK. IIoIl:JIOKoTHaS! IIHJIHHll:pH'leCKaS! nO).lymKa Ha KpaIO ).IHBaHa, COcpbI,
TaXTbI, KpoBaTH B napall:HOH cna.TIbHe.
BAJIMK. 1 ApxHTeKTypHO-ll:eKOpaTHBHaSl nOJlo'tl<:a He6oJIbmOrO BbIHoca, co
cKpyrJIeHHbIMH pe6paMH, HJIH npoTSI)KeHHbIH BbIcTyrr nOJIYKpyrJIOro ce'le-
31
-31-
BAJIhMOBhIE HOrM. CmpOnUfta.
BAJIhll,OBA5I IIJIOTMHA. IIJIoTHHa,
B KOTOPOH aam60p (4) BbIIl:BHraeTCSI no
HaKJIOHHbIM HanpaBJISlIOIQHM B HHmax
MaCCHBHbIX onop.
BAJIh5IH. Pe3HaS! HJIH 'leKaHHaSl xYll:o)KeCTBeHHaSl pa60Ta.
BAJIh5III.J:AThIH. Pe3HoH, TO'leHbIH.
BAH)J,PYThI. EpyCbJl, BepTHKaJIbHO
npH6HTble K CTeHaM maXTbI Il:JISI 3aIIIHTbI
ee OT HCKpHBJIeHHSI H3-3a HarpY3KH.
BAHHhIH IIIKA<I>. BapHaHT BaHHbI,
npH KOTOPOM rOJIOBa HJIH OTll:eJIbHble
'laCTH TeJIa npHHHMaIOIIIero BaHHY OCTa-
B
BAHTEnATOP - BEHCKASI ME6Enb
IOTCll BHe ~eHCTBHll rrapa H.lm rOpllqerO
B03~yxa, rrocTyrraIOru;HX B ~epCBllHHhIH
IIIKacp JIH60 KO)J{)'X H3 rrJIOTHOH MaTcpHH
Ha ~ByX CToHKax.
32
12-13 ~IOHMOB H TOJIru;HHOH 10-11
AIOHMOB, yrroTPc6JIllBIIlHHCll ~JIll pacrrHJIOBKH Ha CTOJIllPHhIC ~OCKH H cpaHcpy.
BEEPHhIH 3AMOK. 3aBcpIllcHHC rrcPCMhIqKH rrpocMa HJIH HHiliH HaJIO)J{CHHhIMH ~pyr Ha ~pyra Tparrc~HcBH~HhIMH
BACI1JIIiK. EaaU/lUKa.
BAHTEJIATOP. BeHmUJlRmop.
BACIiCAAC. <l>opTOqKa B OKHC HJIH
BAHTOBA5I <l>EPMA. KOHCTPYK~Hll
H3 CTep)lmCH, HcrrhiThIBaIOru;all TOJIhKO
YCHJIHll paCTll)J{CHHll.
BAHThl. AOrrOJIHHTeJlhHhIC KaHaThI
JIH60 TpOChI B 6UCR'lUX Mocmax H rro~o6HhIX KOHCTp'yK~HllX.
BAHqEC (=BareHIIIOC, BaHqYK, BaHqyc, BaH'fIOC, BaHIIIOC, BOHqac). OCTpOKaHTHhIH ~y60BhIH 6pyc (1) C TpCMll OTCcaHHhIMH rpaHllMH H 3aKpyrJICHHOH
qCTBCPTOH CTOPOHOH, coxpaHllIOru;cH
KOPY; yrroTPc6JIllJICll B HH)J{HHX qaCTllX
CTpOCHHH.
BAHhKA. KpIOK ~JIll KOTJIa B JIorrapCKOH XH)J{lfHC.
BAllA. 1 )KH~Kall MaJillpHall KpacKa
~JIll oKpacKH CTCH. 2 PacTBop ~JIll 3aJIHBKH KHpIlHqa HJIH KaMHll rrpH B03BC~C­
HHH KaMCHHhIX cOOpY)J{CHHH.
~BCpH.
BACbKA-PA3YBAHKA. HcrrO~BH)J{­
Hall ~oru;CqKa C BhICMKOH ~JIll CHHMaHHll
carror.
BATAfA. PhI6a~KHH rrOCCJIOK, BKJIIOqaIOru;HH B CC6ll ua6bt (1) H aeM/lRHKU,
6a6UJlOHbl, rrpHcTaHh, KphIThIC rrOMOCThI Ha CBallX.
BATYJIKA. llJICTCHhIH rrOJIOBHK pyqHOH pa60ThI.
BAIIIllEPT. MapHHcKoC KPCCThllHCKOC
)J{HJIHru;C, COCTOllru;CC H3 ~ByX ~CpCBllH­
HhIX u36 (1) C 06ru;HMH CeHRMU rrocpe~HHC.
BBEPTHhIH IIIAHAAH. 3aKpCrrJICHHhIH Ha CTCHC rrO~CBCqHHK.
B fJIYXAPb. B /lany.
BAPA q. BapuHI<a.
BAPBOPKA. Bop6opKa.
B ABA CBETA. p6yc6emHblu.
IIIaJIaill
H3
JIarrHHKa,
BAPI1HKA (=Bapaq). 060c06JICHHhIH
HJIH YCTPOCHHhIH rrpH u36e CKOTHhIH
~BOp.
BAPI1CTA5I llEqh. PyccKaR ne'lb.
BAPKA. 3aroH ~JIll KpyrrHoro CKOTa.
BAPHHlI,A. 3aKphIToC rrOMcru;CHHC
~JIll BhIBapKH COJIH H3 COJIllHhIX paCTBOpOB.
B ABA IIIAPA KPbIIIIA. ABycKaTHOC
rroKphITHC.
BAOBIiH AOM. Eozaoe/lbHR ~Jlll
B~OB, MY)J{hll KOTOPhIX HaXO~HJIHCh Ha
rocy~apcTBeHHoH
CJIY)J{6c
(BOCHHOH
JIH60 rpa)J{~aHCKOH) He MeHCC ~CCllTH
JICT.
B
AOPO)KHI1KI1
OEP AEOTKA.
llpocpHJIHpoBKa OKOHHhIX rrepCnJIeTOB.
BEBIiHA. BUl{a ~JIll rrcpCB1l3KH rraphI
.KOJIhCB
H3ropO~H,
O~HOBpeMCHHO
rroAAcp)J{HBaIOru;all )J{Cp~H orpa)J{~eHHll
(HarrpHMcp, rrJICTHll).
BAPH5I. 3aBc~eHHc rro H3rOTOBJIeHHIO
HarrHTKOB (rrHBa, Mc~a H rrp.).
KphITOC rrOMcru;eHHC ~JIll
HMCIOru;CC TOJIhKO 3a~HIOIO
CTCHY, a C TpCX CTOPOH OTKPhITOC BO
BAPOK.
CBO~).
CBOA
(=HopMaH~cKHH
C600, orrHpaIOru;HHcll Ha yrJIOBhIC
orrophI,
OT KOTOPhIX BCCPOM KpyTO
O~HHaKOBhIe H30rnYThIC
rrO~HHMaIOTCll
JIOrraCTH.
BE)KA.
~cpCBa.
1 BhICOTHOC cOOPY)J{CHHC H3
2 K/Oum.
BEKO.
BHTPHHa.
HaKJIOHHall
3aCTCKJICHHall
BEJIAMIiHA. 3aBcca.
BEJIAPIiH. PaBHoMcpHOC paC'fJICHCHHC opHaMcHTHpoBaHHoH BHYTPCHHCH
nOBcpxHOCTH Kyno/la (1) HJIH KOHXU Ha
Y3KHC BCPTHKaJIhHhIC ~OJIH.
BEJII1KI1E BPATA. aapcKue 6pama.
B ABA )KI1JIb5I 113EA. KPCCThllHCKOC
)J{HJIHru;C H3 ~BYX Cpy606: B O~HOM - C
rrCqhIO - )J{HJIH 3HMOH, B ~pyroM
JICTOM.
BAP A)KH5I.
XBOH.
BEEPHbIH
BEJII1KI1E ,QBEPl1. ,QBCpH,
IOru;He npum60p OT nanepmu.
OT~CJlll­
BEJIYM. KpyrrHall opanupo6Ka, 3aKphIBaIOru;all npoxo~ UJIH CBCTOBOH rrpoeM (HarrpHMCp, CBCTOBOH rrOTOJIOK cpOTOaTCJIhe) .
BEH,QEPKA.
rrCqH.
Y cTyrr
B
OCHOBaHHH
BEHElI,. 3aMKHYThIH ropH30HTaJIhHhIH
pll~ 6pe6eH HJIH 6pycbe6 B cpy6e.
BEHElI,MAHCKOE OKHO. Hma/lbRHCKoe OKHO.
BEH3EJIb .. 0pHaMCHTaJIhHhIH Y3CJI H3
HaqaJIhHhIX 6YKB C06CTBCHHhIX HMeH.
BEBT. 1 O~HocKaTHall Kp06/1R KpCCThllHCKHX rrocTpocK y KOMH-3hlpllH.
2 KPbtUW KPCCThllHcKoro ~OMa y KOMHrrCpMllKOB.
JIOIlla~CH,
BEfJIOB5I3b. OCHOBROH CTOllqHH BaJi
BCTPllHOH
MCJIhHH~hI,
Bparu;aIOru;HH
060P (1).
)J{epHoBa.
BEHMK. EYKCT, rryK ~CTOB.
BAPTA. CTopo)J{cBall 6aUlHR Ha B03-
BE,Q)KBY,Q. BKJIIOqCHHhIC B Mc6cJIh
BhIIIICHlIH pCJIhccpa.
~cKopaTHBHhIC BCTaBKH B BH~C 6CJIhIX
BAP5IKA. Epe6Ho (06hlqHO XBOHHhIX
nopo~) TOJIru;HHOH 3-4 BcpIIIKa B HH)J{HCM oTpy6c.
6ape/lbefjJo6 H3 aHrJIHHCKOro cpallHCa
6C3 rJIa3ypH.
BEHMlI,EHCKA5I 5IPb. OqCHh npoqHall H llpKall MHHCpaJIhHall KpaCKa 3CJICHoro ~BCTa (B OCHOBC yKCyCHo-Mc~Hall
COJlh) , yrroTpc6JIllIOru;allCll AJill OKpaCKH
KpblUl H HHhIX MamlpHhIX pa60T.
BACMJIEK (=nOJIYBaHqCC). KOpOTKHH
6aH'leC ~JIHHOH 3-7 apIIIHH, IIIHPHHOH
BEAME,QMK. He6oJIhillOC HaJIHBHOe
KOJIeCO BO~llHOH MCJIhHH~hI, nOKphITOC
KO)J{YXOM.
-32-
BEHCKA5I MEEEJIb. Mc6CJIh C rrJlCTCHhIMH TPOCTHHKOBhIMH BCTaBKaMH
33
BEHTlIIl1S1TOP - BEPX HA APEBSIHO AE110
B
MeJK):IY OCHOBHbIX
rHYTbIX
3JIeMeHTOB
3
,lJ;JIHHa lIaxoTHoro 1I0JISl, ollpe):leJISl-
KpyrJIOrO Ce'IeHIDI, HHOr):la C THCHeHOH
eMaSl paccToSlHHeM MeJK):\Y 1I0BopoTaMH
cpaHepoH.
COXH Ha lIailiHe.
1
BEPEXA.
JKep):lb
8-11
HJIH
eJIOBaSl
10
MeHee
M
IIpH
CM, YlloTPe6JISleMaSl
2 )Kep):lb KpO-
IIpH CIIJIa'IHBaHHH 6pe6ell.
BeJIbHOH o6peutemKu.
1
BEPE5I.
,lJ;epeBSlHHbIH
CTOJI6
JIaTop).
1 OTBepcTHe
):IJISl IIpHToKa CBe-
JKero B03):1yxa B KOMHaTY, C):IeJIaHHOe B
CTeHe HJIH OKHe.
2
HbIH KpIOK,
HJIH noocma6,
1I0JIOCOBOH
lIeTJIeH
BOpOT.
4
3
Ha
2
):IJISl
BOPOT-
BMeCTe C
1I0JIOTHHII\e
KOCRK, ):IBepHaSl npUmOJlOKa.
CTOJI6,
pa3):1eJISlIOII\HH
'Iacm
B
3am60pe (4) llJIOTHHbI.
lIepeMe~a­
BEPE5IJIbHbII1: CTOJIE (=BepHaJIbHbIH CTOJI6). CTOJI6, KOTOPbIH CJIYJKHT
IOIIl,HH B03):1YX B 1I0Me~eHHH.
,lJ;eKopaTHBHbIH
3JIe-
BEHqAHME
fJIACMCA.
TpaHilieSl
Ha lIoBepxHocTH rJIaCHCa, HallpaBJIeHHaSl
B):IOJIb ero Zpe61lR
(3)
H coe):lHHSlIO~aSl
6peutb-6amapeu.
BEHqAJOmml KAPHM3 (=maBHbIH
KOCbIMH 3amy6JIeHIDIMH Ha paBHbIx pac-
BEPTI1KAJIbHbII1:
CTOSlHHSlX.
HHe BHeIIIHeH CTeHhI 3):1aHHSl BhIOIIl,H-
BepeRJIb-
CTOJIE.
1 3arHYTbIH
BEPAH,lJ;A.
IIpHMbIKaIO~ee K ):IOMY
1
BEPMHfA
CMCTEMbl.
IIpe):lHa3Ha-
H3 o6yma6p06btX
6aJIOK,
JKeCTKO
COe):lHHeHHbIX MeJK):\y C060H oTpe3KaMH
CHapYJKH
llJIIOII\OM.
CTeHaMH.
BEP-,lJ;E-IIEPCMKO.
TOHOB,
PYCCKOH
MTaJIbSlHCKHH
YlloTpe6JISlB-
apxHTeKType
):IJISl
OT):IeJIKH 1I0Me~eHHH.
pOHHTeJIbHOrO YKpellJIeHIDI.
HarrpHMep, y KpblilieK B Kopo6bRX
BEPMEJIb. II030JIo'IeHHoe cepe6po.
1
IIpH):IOpOJKHbIH CTOJI6
Ha KOH~ax ):Ioporn.
IIH'Ia
HJIH
2 JIH~eBoH
KaMHSl,
BEPTOfPA,lJ;.
C
HbIe
H
IIpO):lOJIbHhle
B
3
pSl):lbI
6YJlblJlClloil
BEPCTAK.
pSl):l KHP-
Ollpe):leJISlIOII\HH
OCTaJIbHYIO KJlaoKY CTeHbI.
2 IIJIO):lOBhIH
BEPTOK.
CocHoBoe
HJIH neU3a:JJC1l0Z0 napKa.
CTOJI HJIH CKaMhSl,
110
Ka-
HMe-
IIPHCIIOCo6JIeHHSl
BEPTJOfMEH. 1 1l0KPbITbIH la30110M OTKOC, orpaHH'IHBaIOII\HH pezyJlRpllbtU Y'IaCTOK lIapKa. 2 TeppaCUp06alllloe lIapKoBoe B03BblIIIeHHe C 1I0JIYKPYrJIhIMH cTYlleHSlMH H CTpHJKeHOH 3eJIeHOH CTeHKoH.
BEPCTOBA5I KJIA,lJ;KA (=roTH'IeC-
BEP<I>b. MeCTO Ha 6epery KPYIIHOro
KaSl, 1I0JIhCKaSl, PYCCKaSl, cTapopyccKaSl).
BO):lOeMa, IIpe):lHa3Ha'IeHHOe ):IJISl CTPOH-
JIH~eBOH
TeJIbCTBa, peMoHTa H xpaHeHHSl BoeH-
KJlaOKa,
Ha
HbIX JIH60 Kyrre'IeCKHX CY):IOB.
eJIOBOe
BEPX.
1
2
TPOM
CKHH AOM.
1
BaJI,
sa
THKaJIbHbIH
CTepJKeHb
Qep):Ia'IHOe
UapcKHH o6opeu,
(1),
IIpocTPaHcTBo.
60raThIH 6ap-
3 OTBepcTHe ):IOMeHHOH lIe'IH.
BEPX HA ,lJ;PEB5IHO ,lJ;EJIO. 3aBep-
KOTOPOM
2
):IJIM
):IJISl PY'IHOH pa60ThI.
13 apIIIHH (9 M) H ):IHaMe1,5-2 BepiliKa (7-9 CM).
3aKpeIlJleH 1I0):lBHJKHOH JKepHoB.
3arrop
M3BHJIHCThle ):IOPOJKKH ca):la
6peBHo ):IJIHHOH
BEPETEHO.
IIOBOPOTHhIH
BEPTbl.
lIoBepxHocTH KOTOPOH KaJK):\hIH roPH-
HJIH
OrOpOJKeHHbIH Ca):\.
3 UBeTHHK.
KPYIIHOro
OCTaJIbHOH
2 mapllup,
(2).
):IBepH HJIH OKHa.
30HTaJIbHbIH pSl):l COCTOHT H3 'Iepe):lYBEPE)KKA.
1
ca):l.
1l0Ilepe'I-
MOCTOBOH,
paBHSlIOT
Clle~aJIhHble
KHpIIH'IHaSl
BEP,lJ;)KMHAJI. BupzulIaJl.
IIeTJISl HJIH KpIOK ):IJISl
HaBeCKH rrOJIOTHH~a BOpOT.
IOII\He
TellJIbIX
1
BEPKI1. CaMoCTOSlTeJIbHbIe 'IaCTH 060-
MeHb.
B
CThIKe rrOJIY'IHJIH 6hI TpeIll,HHhI H3-3a
HeO):lHHaKOBoH oCa):lKH CTeH.
ut6eJlJlep06, YZOJlK06, ma6p06.
06bI'IHO
MpaMop
):IJISl COe):lHHeHHSl 'IaCTeH KHprrH'I-
BbICOTe H rrpH 06hI'IHOH rrepeBSl3Ke Ha HX
(2)
KOTOPbIM
IIIHHCSl
rrH'I -
6eToHHaSl KOHCTPyK~IDI C apMamypou
KaMHSl
JIerKHH na6UJ1bOll C 3aCTeKJIeHHbIMH
HMeIO~HH
KJlaOKU,
BhICTyIl
Horo 3):1aHHSl, KOTophle KOHTpacTHhI rro
KJIeHHOe HeOTallJIHBaeMOe 1I0MeII\eHHe,
YBHTOe
BEPTMKAJIbHbII1: llIIIYHT. Bepm-
'IeHHaSl ):IJISl utnYllm06btX cBaH JKeJIe30-
HJIH BCTPoeHHoe B Hero C yrJIa 3aCTe-
2
MHCSl paCTeHIDIMH Ha BbICOTy ):IByx H
KaJIhHhIH
0603Ha'IeHHeM 'IHCJIa BePCT ):10 rOpO):lOB
paJtbu,e6oil, HJIH MapCeJlbCKOil, 'tepenuU,bt. 2 Xopoc.
03eJIeHe-
rJIy6HHY B 1I0JIKHpIIH'Ia H IIIHPHHY B KHP-
BEPCTA.
TblJlbHbIH KpaH
CA,lJ;.
60JIee 3TaJKeH.
KapHH3). IIpOTSlJKeHHbIH HellpepbIBHbIH
BbICTyIl 110 BepxHeMY 06pe3Y CTeHbI.
QJIEHEHI15I.
JIH60 3amy6JIeHHSl Ha cpaca):le 3):1aHHSl,
BEPTJIJOf.
BEHqATA5I OfPA,lJ;A. 3anJlom.
BEHqMK.
KH lIapKa HJIH OT):IeJISlIOII\HX ero OT BHeIIIHero OKpYJKeHIDI.
KOTopble 'IJIeHSlT ero 110 ropH30HTaJIH.
BEHUOBA5I KPEIIb. Cpy6 H3 6pe6ell
(2).
paCTeHHSlMH JIH60 C03):1aHHe CTeHOK H3
MeHT B BH):\e 6aJtUKa C lIapaJIJIeJIbHbIMH
llbtil cmoJl6.
CTeHKH IIIaxTHoro KOJlOou,a
03EJIEHEHME.
PHTMH'IeCKHe BepmKaJIhHhIe BhICTyllhi
BEPMAJIbHbII1:
1I0):l):lepJKHBaIO~HH
BEPTI1KAJIbHOE
YKpaIIIeHHe CTeH 3):1aHHH BbIOII\HMHCSl
BEPTI1KAJIbHbIE
JIaHHbIH ):IJISl IIpoxo):la HJIH IIpOe3):1a.
(1),
CPYH~HOHaJIbHO-TeXHH'IeCKHX H KOMIIO3H~HOHHO-3CTeTH'IeCKHX ~eJISlX.
6btX BOpOT.
BEP3E5I. IIpocBeT B OrpaJK):\eHHH, C):Ie-
6pycbe6
I1cKyccTBeHHoe H3MeHeHHe peJIbecpa B
OCbIO ):IJISl 1I0BOpOTHOro KOJIeCa UI./l/030-
BEPEBOqKA.
HJIH
IIIHllaMH C 1I0Ilepe'IHHaMH.
paCTHTeJIhHOCTH, pa3):1eJIMIOII\HX Y'IaCT-
(=cpa6pH). Mexa-
HH3M C JIOllaCTSlMH Ha OCH,
BEPTI1KAJIbHA5I OEB5I3KA. CTO- .
SlKH pUJIell'tamoil ):IBepH, COe):lHHeHHhIe
BEPmKAJIbHAA llJIAHI1POBKA.
HaBeCKH 1I0JIOTHHII\a BOpOT.
BEHTI1JUITOP (=BeHTHJIaTOp, BaHTe-
mbt'tK06 H JlOJICK06, a BepTH-
BEPT. Bepmozpao.
CocHoBaSl
):IJIHHOH He
1I0llepe'IHHKe
IO~HXCSl
KaJIH ut606 COBlla):\aIOT 'Iepe3 PSl):l.
IIIeHHe 3):1aHHSl KaMeHHhIM utampOM C
Bep-
KPYTbIMH llJIOCKHMH rpaHSlMH.
nallUKaOUJIa.
-33-
B
BEPXHEliOMHOE KOnECO - B IIIrny
BEPXHEBOHHOE KOJIECO (=BepXo6oHHoe KOJIeco). KOJIeco BO));HHOH
MeJIbHHIl;bI, KOTopoe rrpHBO));HTCH B ));BH)KeHHe BO));OH, rrOCT)'IIalO~eH rro )KeJIo6y
cBepxy.
BEPXHEE OKRO. Y3KHH roPH30HTaJIbHbIH rrpoeM ));JIH BbIXO));a ));bIMa, c));eJIaHHbIH B BepXHeH qaCTH CTeHbI KYPHOU
ua6bt, qepHOH 8apHU14bt H T. ));.
34
BETPEHI1I~A. 1 BeTpHHaH MeJIbHIn~a.
2 KaX<f\aH H3 )Kep));eH HJIH XBOPOCTHH,
rrpH)l{HMalO~ COJIOMeHHYIO Kp08/l10,
));JIH ee 3a~HTbI OT pa3pyweHHH BeTpoM
H OCa));KaMH. 3 IIpocTPaHcTBo 'lepoa7ca
HJIH BbICOKHH rroMocT, rrpHcrroco6JIeHHble ));JIH CyWKH 6eJIbH, BHJIeHbH PbI6bI H
T. rr. 4 Pe3HaH BepTHKaJIbHaH ));OCKa, Ha
Top~e KOHbKa,
npU'lelluH.
3aKPbIBaIO~aH
CTbIK
BEPXHEE CTPOEHHE. PeJIbCOBbIH
rryTb BMeCTe C 6aJIJIaCTOM (~e6eHb, rpaBHH, WJIaK, rreCOK rro)); wrraJIaMH).
BETPEHKA. 1 '¥OpTOqKa
"'"
));JIH rrpo-
BEPXHHH CBET. 1 BepXHHH PH));
OKOH, pacrrOJIO)KeHHbIX B rrOMe~eHHH Ha
));ByX HJIH 60JIee ypOBHHX. 2 BepxHHH
BETPOBOH KPIOqOK.
ypOBeHb OKOHHoro rrpoeMa.
BeTPHBaHHH JIH60 OT));ywHHK B cTeH.e.
2 CP/llozep. 3 CP/l,/OZapKa.
)l(eJIe3HbIH
KPlOqOK ));JIH 3aKpeIIJIeHHH CTBOPKH OTKpbITOro OKHa.
B3AKPoH. IIOKpbITHe rripH30HTaJIbHO YJIO)KeHHbIMH TeCHHaMH B O));HH CJIOH,
C HarrycKoM KaX<f\OH BepxHeH TeCHHbI Ha
HH)l{HIOIO.
B 3AMET. KOHCTPyK~HH ));epeBHHHoH
orpa));bI H3 ropH30HTaJIbHbIX OOCOK (1),
BCTaBJIeHHbIX KOH~aMH B BeprnKaJIbHble
'rra3bI CTOJI6oB.
B3AChIQKY. KHprr}lqHaH KllaoKa C
H36b1TOqHbIM pacTBopoM, BbIcTyrraIO~HM H3 Ut606.
B3BO,I1;. C600.
BEPXHHH YrOJI. KpaCHbtU Y20Il.
BETPO,I1;YH (=BeTp0));YHHoe KOJIeCO,
BeTporoH). BeHmUllRmop (2).
BEPXHHK. 1 OTBepcTHe B rrOTOJIKe
ua6bt (1), rrpe));Ha3HaqeHHOe ));JIH OTBO));a
));bIMa H3 KYPHOU rreqH, KOTOPbIH CHaqana rroCTyrran Ha 'lepOaK (1) H JIHWb
BEqEBAHhE (=Be%). 1 Co6opHaH
IIJIO~a));b. 2 BaUtHR (1) C KOJIOKOJIOM,
C03b1BalO~HM Ha Beqe.
rrOTOM H3-rrO)); KP081lU Hapy~.
HHH )KepHOB Ha MeJIbHHIl;e.
KOTOPOH OCPOPMJIHJIHCb peweHHH Beqa.
2 Bepx- BEqEBA5I H3BA. KaH~eJIHpHH, B
BEPXHHUA. Ha));cTPoeHHble Ha)); ocHOBHbIM 06'beMOM ));epeBHHHoro ));OMa
mepeMoK (2), 2OpHu14a HJIH 'lepOa'lOK.
BbtUtKa (2), c8emellKa, 63Py60K.
BEPXOBOHHOE KOJIECO. BepxHe60uHoe KOlleco.
BEPXOBA5I CTOPOHA. IIoBepxHOCTb TeJIa nIlOmUHbt, o6pa~eHHaH K
Harropy BO));bI.
BEPXOBHHK. B03BbIWeHHaH yKperrJIeHHaH qaCTb 2Opooa (1, 2).
BEIllAJIKA. KplOK ));JIH rrO));BeCKH KOJIbI6eJIH.
BEIllAJIO. 1 IIoMe~eHHe BbICOTOH B
HeCKOJIbKO 3Ta)I{eH cpa6p}lqHOrO KOprryca JIH60 oco6oe 3));aHHe, B KOTOPOM
pa3BeIIIHBalOT TKaHH BO BCIO ));JIHHY
KycKa - ));JIH CyWKH rrOCJIe 6eJIeHHH HJIH
KpaweHHH. 2 ropoob6a (1) ));JIH CyWKH
CHorrOB, HeBO));OB H T. ));.
BEIllKE3EM. Mopza 33eM.
BEPXQBOH OBHH. 08UH B BH));e
));BYX3TIDKHoro cpy6a, 6e3 HMbI B HH)KHeH qaCTH.
BEIllKH. 3aTBopHble ~HTbI rrpH BO));OcrrycKe nIlOmUHbt, C));eJIaHHbIe H3 OOCOK
(1), KOTopbIe rrpH6HTbI K paMe H3 6pycK06 C rrorrepe'I1ffiaMH.
BEPXOBOH CA,I1;. BUCR'tUU cao.
BEIllH5IK. 1 OTBepcrne B nIlOmUHe,
rrporrycKalO~ee
rraBO));KOBbIe
BO));bI.
2 BO));HHaH MeJIbHH~a yrrpo~eHHoro THrra, pa60TalO~aH TOJIbKO rrpH BbICOKOM
ypoBHe BO));bI B peKe, OTqerO MeJIbH}lqHbIe KOJIeCa rrpHrrO));HHTbI Ha)); Me)KeHHbIM (cpe));HHM) ypoBHeM. 4 IIo));'beMHbIH 3am60p (4) B rrJIOTHHe.
BEPIllHHA CBO,I1;A (HJIH apKH). BblCwaH TOqKa Ha BHYTPeHHeH rrOBepXHOCTH
C600a (apKU).
BEPIllHHK. BepxHHH qaCTb paMbI B
));BepHOM rrpoeMe, 06eCrreqHBalO~aH
IIJIOTHOe rrpHJIeraHHe ));BepHOro rrOJIOTHH~a.
BEPIllH5IK.
IIO));'beMHbIH
MeJIbH}lqHOH nIlOmUHbt.
HbIe rrOJIOBHHKH 6pe6eH C BbI));OJI6JIeH-'
HOH Cep));~eBHHOH, rrOOqepe));HO o6pa~eHHbIe TO BHH3, TO BBepx, rrepeKpbIBaH rrpOMe)KYTKH.
3am60p
BECTHBIOJIh. 1 IIpocTopHoe rrOMe~eHHe rrepe)); napa));HOH JIeCTHH~eH,
3aIlOM, za/lepeeu, mujJUIlaoou. 2 06WHpHaH rrpHXO)KaH.
BEIllH5IqHhIH ,I1;BOP. qacTb BO));OeMa rrepe)); rrpope3aMH 3aBO));CKOH nIlOmUHbt, orOpO)KeHHaH C6aR.MU ));JIH 3a~bI ee OT Harropa JIb));a H HaHOCHoro
JIeca.
BEP-KEPKA.
KOMH-3bIpHH.
OXOTH}lqbH
H36YWKa
B )l(E.rrOB. 1,I1;peBHeHwHH BH)); TeCOBOH
KP06IlU, B KOTOPOM TeCHHbI, CrryCKaHCb
OT KOHbKa, yIIHpalOTcH HH)l{HHMH KOH~aMH B )KeJIo6, YKperrJIeHHblH Ha Kypu~X. 2 BH)); ));epeBHHHoH KP06IlU, B KOTOPOM BMeCTO TeCHH YJIO)KeHbI rrpO));OJIb-
-34-
B3BO,I1;HhIH MOCT. MOCT, B03Be));eHHbIH Ha C6aRX.
B3B03 (=B3Bo3be). 'HaKJIOHHbIH HaCTHJI ));JIH B'be3));a B030B co o60pa (1)
KpeCTbHHcKOH yca));b6bI B CKJIa));CKOe
rrOMe~eHHe Ha nooKlleme.
B3rJIABhE (=B3roJIOBOK, B3rOJIOBbe).
HaKJIOHHOe ));epeBHHHoe H3rOJIOBbe B
BH));e TpeyrOJIbHOH npH3MbI, YKJIa));bIBaeMoe Ha JIaBKY, 6aHHbIH nOIlOK H T.));.
B3rOJIOBAIIIEK
(=H3roJIOBaweK,
rrpHrOJIOBaweK). H3rOJIOBbe B BH));e
JIap~a Ha CKaMbe ));JIH crraHbH.
B3JIA3. JIecTHH~a (HarrpHMep, Ha KperrOCTHYIO CTeHY) , rrOMOCT, o6JIerqaIO~HH rrpO));BIf)I{eHHe BBepx.
B3MOCT. IIpeoMocmbe (2).
B30PHOE
nOCT.
MECTO.
B3PYB. 1 ,I1;epeBHHHaH
CTeHKa. 2 Cpy6. 3 IIopy6.
CTOpO)KeBOH
nOonopHaR
B3PYBOK. Ha));CTPOHKa Ha)); ua60u (1),
HJIH XOpOMaMH: 6btUtKa, c8emellKa,
20peHKa (1).
B3'bE3)1(HH ,I1;BOP. 1 IIocmoRllbtu
060p. 2 MOPCKaH rrpHcTaHb.
BHA,I1;YK. IIpHIIO));HHTbIH Ha)); 3eMJIeH
neWeXO));HbIH JIHGO rrpoe3)1{Hil: MOCT, rro));
KOTOPbIM HeT BO));HOH rrperpa));bI.
BHBHAHHT. qepHaH KpacKa C CHHeBaTbIM OTTeHKOM, HCrrOJIb30BaBWaHCH B
MaJIHPHbIX pa6oTax.
B HrJIY. CrrocoG yKJIa));KH 6pe6eH B
CTeHax, py6JIeHHbIX C OCTaTKOM, KOr):~a
'laUta ));eJIaeTCH y 60JIee TOJICTOrO KOH-
B
B~3AHT~H~ nn~TA
-
B~TPA)I{
~a, a TOHKHil: Bpe3aeTCSI B 6peimo no-
nepe'lHOH CTeHhI.
BH3AHTHHH IIJIHTA. )KeJIe306eTOHHaSI 6aJIKa C OTBepCTIDIMII MeX<JIY
Y'laCTKaMH, oco6eHHo nO~Bep}l{eHHblMII
C}I{aTHIO, paCTSI}I{eHHIO MH H3rH6y.
BHJIKA. 1 Cnoco6 coe~HHeHIDI ~epe­
BSlHHhIX 6pycbe6 no~ yrJIOM, ~JISI '1ero B
npocBepJIeHHOM KOHQe O~Horo 6pycKa
~eJIaeTCSI
rra3, a Ha npoCBepJIeHHOM
KOHQe ~pyroro - umYHmo6blu BhIcTyrr.
2 Ha'laJIo paa:JICeJ/,o61Ca - MeCTO rrepece'1eHHSI rroBepxHocTH 1CpblutU C 1COHb1COM
CJ/,YX06020 O1CHa HJIH ~pyroH, 60JIee HH3KOH KphIIIIH.
BRTI.TIA. KOMq,opTa6eJIhUbIH 3aropo~­
HhIH OC06HR1C C napKoM, pacrrOJIO}l{eHUbIH B aq,q,eKTHoM rreH3a}I{HOM oKp)')KeHHH.
BHMA. U;eHTPaJIhHaSi '1aCTh QJ/,mapR
(1), B KOTOPOH HaxO~HTCSI npecmoJ/,.
BHMTIEPr. muneu, C O'leHh KPYThIMH
CKaTaMH, 3aBepmaIOm;HH: nopmQJ/, JIH60
HQJ/,U'tHU1C.
35
rrOJIOBHHe XIX B. KaK 6aJIKH ~JISI rrOTOJIO'lHhIX rrepeKphITHH.
BHC.sIqA5I
BHPrHHAJI (=BHp~}I{HHaJI, Bep~}I{H­
HaJI). He6oJIhmOH KJIaBeCHH C '1eTbIpexyrOJIhHOH
OTKH~HOH
KpblmKOH:,
06b1'1HO YKpameHHOH: ~eKOpaTHBHOH
POCIIHChIO 1'1 HarroMHHaIOm;eH: cmoJ/,eutHUU,y.
Ha U,01COJ/,b, nOCmaMeHm JIH60 HHOH:
BhIcTyrr H OKp~eH q,OHOM CTeHhI.
JIOTIATKA.
JIonam1Ca,
HH}I{HHii: KOHe~ KOTOPOH: He orrn:paeTCSI
BHC.sIqA5I CTEHA. CTeHa, TSI}I{eCTb
KOTOPOH rrepe~aeTCSI He Ha ee OCHOBaHHe, a Ha ~yrHe CTeHhI JIH60 Ha KapKac
coopY}l{eHIDI.
BHC.sIQHE CTPOTIHJIA. CmponUAa
6e3 rrpOMe}l{YTO'lHbIX orrop.
BHPEH,[(EM EA1IKA. Pa3HoBMHOCT!. }l{eJIe306eTOHHOH: fjJepMbl, rr03BOJISlIOm;aSI rrepeKpblTh 6e3 npoMe~TO'l­
HhIX orrop npOJIeT ~o copoKa MeTPoB.
BHCEJIhrA.
TIorrepe'lHas.
ceMY}l{Horo aa60pa (2).
}l{ep~h
BHCJIA5I TIO,IJ;BOJIOKA. 1 ,IJ;epeBSlHHblH rrOTOJIOK Ha 1CpOHutmeuHax. 2 TIo~­
BeCHoe YKpameHHe rrOTOJIKa, BKJIIO'IaIOm;ee B ce6S1 npoce'tHoe :JICeJ/,eao, OTJIHBKH 1'13 OJIOBa 1'1 CJIIO~y.
BHC.sIQH11: 3AMOK (=BblCTaBHBmHHCSI 3aM6K). 3aM1C06btU 1CaMeHb,
3aMeTHO BhICTYIIaIOm;HH HH}I{e apO'lHOH:
~yrH.
BHCJIOE KAMEHhE. Pe3HaSi KaMeHHaSI zupb1Ca rro~ BHCSI'IeH: nRmOU CMhIKaIOm;HXCSI apo1C.
BHH,IJ;ABA (=B rrpHThI'IKY). TIeprreH~HKyJISIpHOe npHMblKaHHe KpbIToro KpeCTbSlHCKoro o6opa (2) K cepe~HHe ~JIHH­
HOH: CTOPOHhI U36bt (1).
BHHOrpAp;HHU;A. TeIIJIH~a ~JISI BbIpam;HBaHIDI CTOJIOBOrO BHHorpa~a.
BHHTEP-KBAPTHPhI. 3HMHHe rrOMem;eHIDI ~JISI BOHCK.
BHHTOBA5I JIECTHHU;A. JIecTHH~a, COCTOlIID;aSI 1'13 O~HHaKOBbIX aa6e:JICHbtx cmyneHeU.
BHHTOBO-KOJIhU;EBOI1
CBO,IJ;.
TIepeKpblTHe ~yroo6pa3Horo Ce'leHIDI,
rro~~ep}I{HBaIOm;ee
6UHm06Y1O J/,ecmItuu,y MH JIeCTHH'IHble MaputU C 3aKpyrJIeHHblM rrOBopOTOM npOMe}l{YTO'lHhIX
IIJIOm;a~OK.
BHHThI. rOpH30HTaJIhHble ~hIMOBhIe
KaHaJIbI B ne'lH.
BHHhOJI.sI
PEJIhChI.
CTaJIbHble
peJIhCbI C mHpOKHM rrJIOCKHM OCHOBaHHeM H CHMMeTPH'IHOH O~HHapHOH:
rOJIOBKOH, npHMeHSlBmHecSi BO BTOPOH
BHCJIhIH
PYH,IJ;YK.
TIo~BecHble
rrOJIKH co CTBopKaMH JIH60 3a~BH}l{HblMH
CTeHKaMH.
BHCJIhIH illAH,IJ;AH. BHCSI'IHH:
CBe'lHHK, rrpoo6pa3 JIIOCTPhI.
rro~-
BHCTA. Y3KaSI rrapKOBaSI rrepcrreKTHBa
MeX<JIY rrapaJIJIeJIhHblMH rrJIOCKOCTSlMH
3eJIeHH, HarrpaBJIeHHaSI K KOMrr03H~HOH­
HOMY a~eHTy (apXHTeKrypHoe coopy}l{eHHe,
CKyJIhIITYPHhIH
MOHYMeHT,
XOJIM, Bo~oeM HJIH q,OHTaH, OCBem;eHHaSi
rroJISlHa B KOH~e 3aTeHeHHOH aJIJIeH,
o6oco6JIeHHOe ~epeBO OpHrHHaJIhHOH:
q,OPMbI).
BHCTHHrAY3EHA TIEQh. BoaoyutHaR ne'tb, B KOTOPOH: npHTOK B03~yxa
C03~aBaJICSI 6eHmUARmopOM (2).
BHCTH.sIPH.sI. 1 lliaTSIHaSI KOMHaTa,
rap~epo6HaSI.
2
COKpOBHm;HH~a.
BHC.sIQA.sI rA1IEPE.sI. rQJ/,epeR (1)
Ha 1CpOHutmeuHax.
BHC.sIQA5I JIECTHHu;A. He HMeIOm;aSI cToJI6'1aTbIX orrop JIeCT~a, cryrreHH KOTOPOH: 3~eJIbIBaIOTCSI O~HHM
KOHQOM B 1CJ/,ao1CY CTeHbI, a ~pyroH
OCTaeTCSI He3aKpenJIeHHbIM.
-35-
BHC.sIQHH MOCT. MOCT, Y KOToporo
npoe3}1{aSI '1aCTh rrO~~ep}I{HBaeTCSI ~eIISIMH HJIH TPocaMH, 3aKpeIIJIeHHbIMH Ha
6epery.
BHC.sIQHH CAp; (=BepxoBoH ca~,
KpacHhIH c~). C~, YCTPoeHHbIH Ha
CHJIhHO nO~HSlTOM HCKyccTBeHHoM OCHOBaHHH.
BHTAJIhHHu;A.
1
rOCTHH~a,
cmpaHHonpuitMHblu OOM. 2 )KHJIaSI KOMHaTa, 2OpHuu,a. 3 CTOJIOBaSI.
BHTA5I TIHJI.sICTPA. IIUARcmpa, rro
CTBOJIY KOTOPOH rrpoxo~ rrapaJIJIeJIhHhIe HaKJIOHHbIe :JICeJ/,o61Cu, 6QJ/,U1CU (2)
JIH60 ZUPJ/,RHObl.
BHTP A)K. 1 3anOJIHeHHe npoeMa
opHaMeHTaJIhHOH: HJIH CIO}I{eTHOH KOMrro3H~eH H3 pa3Ho~eTHhIX CTeKOJI.
B
BHCI)AHHSI - BOAHOE CTEKnO
2 3aCTeKJIeHHe 06nIHpHOM. rroBepxHoCTH, pa3~eJIeHHOe MaJI03aMeTHbIMH rrepeIIJIeTaMH.
ApXHTeKTypHo-rrapKOBM<I>AHM51.
BbiM. KOMrrJIeKC rrpH MOHaCTblpe, CHMBOJIH3HPYIOIIl,HM. rreM.3a)!{ H coopy)!{eHH5I, C
KOTOPbIMH CB5I3aHbI C06bITH5I eBaHreJIbCKOM. HCTOpHH.
BMXPEBA51
~eKopaTHBHbIH
P03ETKA. KpymbIM.
3JIeMeHT, H3 I.\eHTpa
KOToporo paCXO~51TC5I O~HOCTopOHHe
BhlrHYThIe ~yrH O~HOM. H TOM. )!{e KpHBH3HbI (cp.: B CnUpa.J1b).
36
KJIeM.KOM. ero 3JIeMeHTOB cpaHepOM. y)!{e
Ha MeCTe HX yKJIa~KH.
B KPYrJIYIO. B .J1any.
B KPIOK. Py6Ka CTeH C BblcTyrraIOIIl,HMH 3a KpaM. cpy6a KOHI.\aMH 6pe6eH,
y KOTOPbIX Kperre)!{Ha51 BbIeMKa ~eJIa­
eTC5I B 'IeTBepTb Kpyra, C BepTHKaJIbHbIM rrOrrepe'IHbIM cpe30M.
BJIA,lJ,bIl.JHbII1 ,lJ,BOP. KOMrrJIeKC,
coopy)!{eHHbIM. rrpH 0CPHI.\HaJIhHOM. pe3H~eHI.\HH apXHepe51 (CM. ApxuepeucKuu
OOM).
B JIAIIY (=B KpymyIO, B Illarr, B rJIyxapb, Ha KOKC). Coe~HHeHHe 6pe6eH HJIH
6pycbe6 B yrJIy cpy6a 6e3 Bblxo~a HX
KOHI.\OB 3a rrJIOCKOCTb CTeHbI.
BMUA. 1 rH6KHH rrpyT B rraJIeI.\ TOJIIIl,HHOM., rrpHMeH5IeMhIM. ~JI5I rrepeB5I3KH
cjJaUtUH H cpanIHHHhIX KaHaTOB, a TaK)!{e
~JI5I YKperrJIeHH5I ooeJ/Co Kpymocmeu.
2 Be6uHa. 3 Pa3MO'IaJIeHHbIH XBOPOCT,
3aMeH5IIOIIl,HH BepeBKy.
B KBA,lJ,P AT. BbIKJIa~Ka c600a H3 KHPrrH'Ia, C03~aIOIIl,a51 pIiCYHOK BJIO)!{eHHhIX
~pyr B ~pyra KBa~paToB, C HeCOBrra~e­
HHeM rrOrrepe'IHbIX Ut606 B coce~HHX
BHEIIIHME IIPMCTPOI1KM. <l>0PTHcpHKaI.\HOHHble coopy)!{eHH5I, rrpHMbIKaIOIIl,He co CTOPOHbI OCa~aIOIIl,HX K rJIaBHOMY 6a.J1y (1) YKperrJIeHH5I.
BHEIIIHMI1 IIPECTOJI. CO.J1eR.
BHEIIIHMI1 IIPMTBOP. llanepmb.
B HO)J(OBKY. Crroco6 rrO~IllHBKH
rrOTOJIKa HJIH 06IllHBKH CTeH OOCKaMU
(1), y KOTOPhIX ~JIHHHbIM. KpaM. cpe3aH
rro~ 45° (cp.: BHan.J1aoKY).
BHYTPEHHEE KPbillbUO. JIecTHHI.\a rrpH Bxo~e B ~OM, Y KOTOPOH O~Ha
HJIH ~Be cTyrreHH HaXO~51TC5I cHapY)!{fl, a
OCTaJIhHhle - B ceHRX.
BHYTPEHHMI1 KAPHM3. 1 IIITYKaTypHa51 rrpocpHJIMpOBaHHa51 mR2a rro
Bepxy CTeH B rrOMeIIl,eHH5IX. 2 IIITYKaTYPHaS! mR2a rro KpaIO rrOTOJIKa.
BHYTPEHH5151 IIJ:EKA. BepTHKaJIhHa5I 60KOBa51 rrOBepXHOCTb JIeCTHHI.\bI,
06paIIl,eHHa51
BHYTPb
.J1eCmHU'lHOU
K.J1emKU.
B JIAC. OTecKa BHyTpeHHHx cTeHcpy6a
rro~ e~HHyIO rrnOCKOCTb CHH3Y ~oBepxy,
rrpH coxpaHeHHH 3aKpyrJIeHH5I 6pe6eH B
yrJIax.
B OEJIO (=B 'IaIlly, B 'IaIllKY). CaMbIM.
pacrrpOCTpaHeHHbIH BH~ py6KH 6peBeH'IaTbIX CTeH C ocmamKOM; ~JI5I 3Toro y
KOHI.\OB 6peoeH cBepxy ~eJIaeTC5I rrOJIyKpyrna51 BbleMKa, orH6aIOIIl,a51 BbIIlleJIe)!{aIIl,ee 6peBHO.
BOBJIbII1. PenbecpHbIH, KpyrJIbIH.
BOEJIbII1
p5l~ax.
rrO~BanbHoe
B KMPIIMl.JMK. Crroc06 HaKJIeHKH
U{um06020 napKema rrp5lMoyrOJIbHhIMH
~OIIl,e'IKaMH (K.J1emwu) rro rrapaJIJIeJIbHbIM 3Hr3araM C H3JIOMaMH B 90°.
IIl,eHHe.
B OEOJIOHb. Py6Ka u36bt H3 HeTecaHbIX H HeCTporaHbIX 6pe6eH.
B MOCT. PacrrOJIO)!{eHHe naBOK B~onh
Bcex CTeH BHyTpH na.J1ambl HJIH U36bl.
B HArpA,lJ,. IIapannenbHoe CrrJIa'IHBaHHe Tpex 6peoeH rrYTeM Bhlpy6KH
IllrryHTa TparreI.\HeBH~Horo Ce'IeHH5I B
BepxHeM 6peBHe H COOTBeTCTBYIOIIl,HX
cHMMeTpH'IHbIX rra30B B ~ByX HH)!{HHX
6peBHax.
BKJIA,lJ,hIIIIM. BepTHKaJIbHble BaJIHKH
C 3aKpyrJIeHHhIMH KOHI.\aMH, pacrroJIo)!{eHHhle Me~y pe6paMH KaHl-le.J1l0p B
HH)!{HeM. 'IaCTH K0.J10HHbl co 6Cmpe'lHbl.MU KaHHe.J1l0paMU.
B KOCYIO KOP3MHKY. Crroc06
HaCTHJIKH U{um06020 napKema C 06-
IIO,lJ,KJIET. CBO~'IaTOe
HJIH n0.J1yno06a.J1bHOe rrOMe-
B OEPE3 (=rro~cKpe6Ka). 06pa60TKa
Ut6a, rrpH KOTOPOH H36bITOK CTpOHTeJIbHoro paCTBopa rrJIOCKO cpe3aH ~O JIHI.\eBOM. rrOBepXHOCTll.
BOrHYTA51 APKA. ,lJ,eKopaTHBHoe
rrepeKpbITlle B BH~e ~yr, 06paIIl,eHHbIX
BbIIIYKJIOCTbIO BHYTPb rrpoeMa.
BHAKM,lJ,KY (=BHaTpycKY). IIpocTeHIllHH THrr conOMeHHOH KpOO.J1U, rrpH
KOTOPOM COJIOMy, paBHoMepHo pa36pocaHHYIO rro ~epeB5IHHoMy HaCTHJIY, rrpH)!{HMaJIH )!{ep~51MH OT BepIllHHbI K cBecy.
BHAIIJIABKY. BbICTHJIKa rrOJIa TeCHHaMH, Ha~BHHyTbIMH O~Ha Ha ~pyryIO
~JIHHHbIMH
CKOIlleHHbIMH KpOMKaMH
(cp.: B HO:J/C06KY).
BHATPYCKY. BHaKuoKY.
BHEIIIHME IIOMEIIJ:EHM51. Ba.J1KOHbt (1, 2), .J1oo:J/Cuu, OTKpbITble w.J1epeu
(1), 6epaHObt (1), meppaCbt (1) H
maM6YPbt, rrpHMbIKaIOIIl,He K HapY)!{HOH
CTeHe 3~aHH5I.
-36-
BO,lJ,HOE CTEKJIO (=CTeKJIO <l>YKca).
PaCTBopHMoe
B Kllrr5lTKe
CBeTJIOe
rrOKpbITHe ~epeB5IHHbIX, MeTaJIJIH'IeCKHX HnH KepaMH'IeCKHX H3~eJIHH, HMeIOIIl,ee 6JIeCT5IIIl,YIO rrOBepXHOCTb H
3aIIl,HIIl,aIOIIl,ee fIX OT Kone6aHHM. TeMrrepaTYPbI, HCTHpaHH5I H CblpOCTH.
B
B OAHY CK06KY -
37
BOnOTOBASI KPblWA
B OJJ;HY CKOBKY. OTeCKa KOHH'IeCKHX CTBOJIOB AepeBa AO n;HJIHHApa - AJUI
'IHCTOBOH YKJIaAKH 6pi!Bell B cpy6e.
BOJJ;HbIE KYHiliThI. cpOHTaHhI C
CIOpnpH3aMH H APyrne YBeCeJIHTeJIhHhIe
YCTpOHCTBa Ha BOAHOH OCHOBe.
BOJJ;OBol1:. CpeAlOOI, caMruI MOrn;HruI
'IaCTh qJ/uom6ema, BocnpHHHMalOIn;ruI
YAaphI naAalOIn;eH BOAhI B llJIOTHHe H
Harpy3KY OT ee coopyx<eHHH.
BOJJ;OB3BOJJ;HMI BAillIDI. Baul1tR
(1) C BOAOnOA"beMHhIM ycrpOHCTBOM
BHYTPH.
BOJJ;PY)l(AJlbHbII1: KPECT. BOChMHKOHe'lHhIH AepeBHHHhIH KpecT Ha nOAHO)KHH, YCTaHaBJIHBaBWHHcH npH 3aKJIaAKe
n;epKoBHoro 3AaHIDI Ha MeCTe 6YAYIn;erO
npecmolta.
BOMHOE CTEKJIO. PaCTBOpHMruI B
ropg'leH BOAe CTeKJIOBHAHruI Macca (B
OCHOBe KpeMHeKHCJIhIH HaTp H KaJIH)
AJIH 3aIn;HThI AepeBa OT 3aropaHHj{.
BOJJ;.HHol1: B3BOJJ;. BOAOnOA"beMHOe
YCTPOHCTBO.
BOMHOI1: TIO<t>5IK. HanOJIIDIeMOe
BOAOH HCKyccTBeHHoe yrJIy6JIeHHe nOA
BOAOCJIHBOM naOmUllbl, B KOTopoe 6heT
nMalOIn;HH cBepxy nOTOK.
BOEHHMI BYJJ;KA. ByolCa BOem{1l1l.
,
BOJJ;OB3BOJJ;HbII1: JIAPb. BOAoeM
BHYTPH 3AaHIDI, HanOJIIDIBWHHCH C
nOMOIn;hlO BOAOnOA"beMHOrO YCTPOHCTBa.
BOJJ;OrPEI1:KA. PacnOJIO)KeHHOe B
ymy KpeCTh)lHCKOro oBopa (2) nOMeIn;e-
BOEHHMI
KPACKA.
MaJIHPHruI
KpacKa AJIH nOKphITIDI 60JIhWHX nOBepxHocTeH, BKJIIO'IalOIn;ruI B ce6H 6eJIHJIa,
llJIaBJIeHhIH MeJI, rOJIJIaHAcKYIO ca)KY H
CypHK.
B03JJ;YIIIHMI IIIAXTA.
n;HOHHhIH KaHaJI B PY]."(HHKe.
BeHTHJUI-
B03JJ;YllIHOE OTOllJIEHME. CHCTeMa 060rpeBa nOMeIn;eHHH, B KOTOPOH TerrJIO rrepe]."(aeTcH HarpeThIM B03]."(yXOM, nocryrralOIn;HM 'Iepe3 )KapOBhIe
KaHaJIhI OT Crren;HaJIhHOH KaMephI
(06hNHO HaA TOrrJIHBHHKoM).
B03JJ;YllIHhII1: KMPllMlJ. 1 JIe.Mna'l.
2 CaMall.
B03JJ;YllIHhII1: TEATP. TeaTp rro]."(
OTKphIThIM HeGoM.
B03JIOXEHME. KanUme/l,b.
BOI1:O.
Bau.
BOI1:CKOBMI M3BA.
Kaun;eJIHPHH Ka3aKOB.
BOHCKOBruI·
BOK3AJI. 1 (=BaKCaJI, BOKCaJI, BOKCraJI). 3aropo]."(HhIH 3aJI ]."(JIH Taun;eB H
BOEHHMI YJIMI(A. JJ;opora BAOJIh
BaAOB (1) BHYTpH KpenocTH - AJIH nepeMeIn;eHHj{ BOHCK H npHllacoB K KpenoCTHhIM BeplCaM.
B03BOJJ;HhII1: MOCT. 1 llOA"beMHhIH
MOCT npH o60poHHTeJIhHoM coopyx<eHHH. 2 B3BoollblU Mocm.
HHe C ne%lO, B KOTOpylO BMa3aH KOTeJI.
B03BhIIIIEHME CBOJJ;A (HJIH apKH).
BOJJ;OMET. JIomolC (2) AJIH OTBOAa
]."(o~eBoH H TaJIOH BO]."(hI C ICPOBAU, HMeIOIn;HH 3Ha'lHTeJIhHhIH BhIHOC HM CTe-
BepTHKaJIhHOe YAJIHHeHHe ]."(yrn nepeKphITIDI nyTeM onycKaHIDI nRm HH)Ke
n;eHTpa OKPY)KHOCTH.
Koun;epTOB, C peCTOpaHOM. 2 rJIaBHOe
3]."(aHHe )KeJIe3Ho]."(opO)KHOH CTaHn;HH.
B03JJ;YXOllPMBOJJ;HhII1: KAHAJI.
BhIJIO)KeHHhIH H3 HecropaeMoro MaTepHaJIa BHYTpHCTeHHhIH KaHaJI, 'Iepe3
KOTOPhIH HapY)KHhIH B03AYX nocTynaeT
B KaMepy lCa/lopucpepa.
BOJIHMCTO-POMBMlJECKA.H PEIIIETKA. OKOHHruI peweTKa, PHCYHOK KOTOPOH pa36HT Ha OAHHaKOBhIe
3JIeMeHThI, HanOMHHalOIn;He BepTHKaJIhHhIe pOM6hI C BOJIHHCThIMH CTOPOHaMH.
BOJJ;OEMHOE 3JJ;AHME. llOcTPoHKa
B KOMnJIeKCe coopY)KeHHH )KeJIe3HOAOPO)KHOH CTaHn;HH, BKJIIO'IalOIn;ruI l! ce6H
KpynHhIH pe3epByap BO]."(hI.
BOJJ;OllOJJ;'bEMHA5I
llJIOTMHA.
[J/I,omwta, peryJIHpYIOIn;ruI ypoBeHh BO]."(hI B peKe.
B03JJ;YllIHA5I JIMHM.H. lJeTKo o'lep'IeHHhIH, H3pe3aHHhIH JIHGO paCllJIhIB'IaThIH BepxHHH KOHTYP MaCCHBa AepeBheB
B napKe.
B03JJ;YIIIHA5I llElJh. OTOnHTeJIhHhIH npH60p, B KOTOPOM ropeHHe
TOnJIHBa H pacnpOCTpaHeHHe TellJIa CTHMYJIHpYIOTCH ]."(orrOJIHHTeJIhHhIM rrpHTO-
BOJJ;OPA3BOPHhII1: cpOHTAH. OK-
KOM B03]."(yxa.
PY)KeHHhIH <l>OHTaHHOH'IameH BhIxo]."( Bo]."(orrpoBo]."(HOH Tpy6hI H3-no]."( rpYHTa, npe]."(Ha3Ha'leHHhIH ]."(JIH pa3]."(a'lH
BOAhI HaCeJIeHHIO.
B03JJ;YIIIHA5I CB5I3b. CBR3b (1),
OCHOBHruI 'IaCTh KOTOPOH npoxo]."(HT rro]."(
CBOOOM.
BOJIOrOJJ;CKA.H CA)I(A. llHrMeHT
'IepHOH MaJIHpHoH KpacKH, rrOJIY'laeMhIH
npH C)KHraHHH COCHhI, eJIH HJIH 6epe3hI.
BOJIOK. JJ;OIn;aThIH, GpeBeHqaThIH HJIH
6pYCHHOH nalloyc ]."(JIH BTaCKHBaHHH H
CBOJIaKHBaHHH Tj{)KeCTeH.
BOJIOKOBOE OKHO. 3aKphIBaeMhIH
3aABH)KKOH ropH30HTaJIhHhIH rrpoeM,
npopy6JIeHHhIH B ]."(Byx 6pi!Bllax, KOTOphIe nOJIO)KeHhI O]."(HO Ha ]."(pyroe.
~~
~
\~
BOJJ;OCJIMBHMI nrrOTMHA. [J/I,OmUlla, rrOMep)KHBalOIn;ruI ypoBeHh BO]."(hI
B Bo]."(oeMe.
BOJJ;OCllYCKHMI
nrrOTMHA.
[J/I,omulla, npHcrroc06JIeHHruI K 3Ha'lHTeJIhHOH rrepe6pocKe BO]."(hI H3 npY]."(OB H
Bo]."(oxpaHHJIHIn;.
BOJIOTOBA5I KPbIIIIA. CeBepoKaBKa3CKoe COJIOMeHHOe rroKphITHe c
YKJIaAKOH CHorrOB KOMeJIhKaMH BBepx.
-37-
B
BonXOBCKASI M3BECTb -
B norOH
BOJIXOBCKAH H3BECTh. Pa3HOBIl)(HOCTb H3BeCTH, rrpHro;n:Hru! ;n:mI
rro;n:Bo;n:HOH KJIa;n:KH.
BOJIXOBCKHH H3BECTH5IK (=;n:HKapHbIe CJIOH). OqeHb TBep;n:bIH KaMeHb
ceporo l(BeTa, rrpHMeIDIBurnHC5I KaK
06JIHl(OBOqHbIH H ;n:eKopaTHBHbIH MaTepHaJI B <paca;n:ax MOCTOB H rH;n:pOTeXHHqeCKHX cOOPY)KeHHH, a TaK)Ke KaK
HCXO;n:HbIH rrpo;n:yKT rrpM rrOJIyqeHHH m;n:paBJIHqeCKOH li.3BeCTH ;n:JI5I KJIa;n:KH CTeH
rro;n: BO;n:OH H B CbIpbIX MeCTax.
BOJILIHH 3YE.
OpHaMeHTOBKa Ka-
BOP. 3a60p
(1), orpa)];a H3 )Kep;n:eH.
BOPBOPKA (=BapBopKa, <papa<popKa). KHCTOqKa, MaXpOBa51 HJIH IIIapoBH)];Ha51 rrO)];BeCKa Y naHUKaOUJla, a
TaK)Ke 30JIOTOH, cepe6p5lHbIH, IIIeJIKOBbIH, IIIepCT5IHOH, HHT5IHOH C l(BeTHbIMH
KaMeIIIKaMH IfJIH )KeMqY)KHbIH IIIapHK Ha
IIIHypKe JIH60 TeCbMe.
BOPOEHHA. 1 )KeJIe3HbIH KpIOK B
COJIeBapHe, K KOTOPOMY rro;n:BeIIIeH
'lpeH. 2 ,o:JIHHHa51 oocKa (1) TOJIIl(HHOH
OKOJIO ;n:ByX BepIIIKOB.
BOPOK. CKOTHbIH )];BOp.
BOPOH. KpOHutmeuH.
BOPOHEQ.
1 rpRoa (1, 2). 2 Mamu-
l1a (1).
BOPOHKA. PacIIIHpeHHa51
qaCTb BO;n:OCTOqHOH Tpy6bI.
%"'AT&'T&'f!~"f
• tdl:llllt:J!~i_W~~
BOJILIHH CKOK. OTBepcme B )KHBOH H3ropo;n:H rrapKa, OTKpbIBaJOIl(ee
HeO)KH;n:aHHYIO BH;n:OByIO rrepcrreKTHBY
(CM ... Ax-ax).
BOJILIhH 51Mhl. Y cTPoeHHru! B TBep;n:OM rpYHTe rrepe;n: 060pOH5IeMOH rr03Hl(HeH CHCTeMa H3 qeTbIpex-II5ITH P5l;n:OB
3aMacKHpoBaHHbIX rJIy60KHx 51M B IIIaxMaTHOM rropSI;n:Ke, HMeBIIIHX BH)]; orrpoKHHYToro yceqeHHOrO KOHyca (MaKcHMaJIbHbIH ;n:HaMeTp - OT 6 ;n:o 7 <PYTOB,
rJIy6HHa - OT 6;n:0 7 <PYTOB) C 3aocTpeHHbIM KBepxy KOJIOM B l(eHTpe; rrpe;n:Ha3HaqaJIaCb ;n:JI5I 3aIl(HTbI OT KOHHMl(bI rrpoTHBHHKa.
BOJIhEP (=BOJIbepa). PacrrOJIO)KeHHru!
B ca;n:y OqeHb KpYIIHa51 KJIeTKa ;n:JI5I MHOrOqHCJIeHHbIX H pa3Ho06pa3HbIx rrTHl(.
BOJIIOTA. ,o:eKopaTHBHbIH 3JIeMeHT B
BH)];e CrrHpaJIbHOrO 3aBHTKa.
BepxH5ISI
BOPOTA 0 TPEX IIIHTAX. BopoTa C
)];ByMSI KaJIHTKaMH .
B OTXBAT. BH;n: KAaoKu, rrpH KOTOPOM
paCTBOp He pa3paBHHBaIOT rro rrOBepxHOCTH KHprr~a, a Ha6paCbIBaIOT, He
;n:OBO;n:SI )];0 JIHl(eBoro Kpa5l, B paCqeTe Ha
JIyqIIIee Cl(eIIJIeHHe C 06JIHl(OBOqHOH
IIITYKaTypKoH.
BOY. PO)];OBru! 60eBaSI 6autHR (1) y
MHrYIIIeH.
BO <l>PH3. IIOJIbI, COCTaBJIeHHbIe H3
OOCOK (1) TOJIIl(HHOH B 2,5 ;n:IOHMa, KOTOpble rrorrapHo CKJIeeHbI Y3KHMM )];JIHHHbIMH cTopoHaMH H CB5I3aHbI CT5I)KKaMH,
a C ;n:pymMH ;n:OCKaMH coe;n:HIDIIOTC5I
utnOHKaMU.
B OXJIYII. BapMaHT py6KH CTeH B
06AO, rrpH KOTOPOM 'lauta y KOHl(OB
6pe8eH 06paIl(eHa He BBepx, a BHM3.
B OXP5IIIKY. BapHaHT py6KH CTeH C
ocmamKOM, xapaKTepH3YIOIl(HHC5I BbIpy6KOH 'laut C rrJIOCKMMH )];HOM H CTeHKaMH, rrpHToM KaK cBepxy 6pe8eH, TaK H
CHH3y.
BOPOTHJIO. X060m.
BOIIIAHHQA. QepKoBHblH rro;n:CBeqHHK.
BOPOTHA5I EAllH5I. KperrocTHa51
HJIll MOHacTbIpCKa51 6autHR co CKB03HbIM
rrpOe3)];OM.
B IIA3. KOHCTPYKl(H5I ;n:epeBSIHHbIX
CTeH H3 ropH30HTaJIbHbIX 6pe8eH, BCTaBJIeHHbIX KOHl(aMH B BepTHKaJIbHbIe rra3bI
BOCKJIOHEHHE. 1 CrraJIbIDI. 2 CTOJIOBaSI. 3 JIo)Ke, rrOCTeJIb. 4 H3rOJIOBbe.
BOCIIOKOHIIIE. KJIa)];6HIl(e.
BOCXO,o:. CTyrreHb JIeCTHHl(bI.
BOCXO,o:HHQA. 06JIaqaJIbHbIH aM80H (2), YCTaHOBJIeHHbIH B l(epKOBHOM
3)];aHHH ;n:JISI apxHepeHcKoro rrOCBSIIl(eHHSI ()];JI5I rraTpHapxa OH )];OJI)KeH HMeTb
12 cTyrreHeH, ;n:JI5I MHTpOrrOJIHTa - 8,
;n:JISI apxHerrHcKorra - 6, ;n:JI5I errapXHaJIbHorO apxHepeSI - 4).
BOCXO,o:HhIH CBO,o:. Kop0608blU
HJIH l(HpKyJIbHbIH C800 C HaKJIOHHbIMM
rrapaJIJIeJIbHbIMH nRmaMU.
BOChMEPHK. BocbMHrpaHHbIH apxHTeKTypHbIH 06'beM.
BOChMEPHK HA LIETBEPHKE.
KOMrr03Hl(HOHHbIH rrpHeM B03Be)];eHHSI
BocbMHrpaHHoro 06'beMa Ha qeTbIpexrpaHHoM.
BOChMHKOHELIHhIH
IIPABOCJIABHhIH KPECT. KpecT, CXO)];HbIH
C uteCmUlC01te'lHbiM rrpaBOCJIaBHbIM, HO
MMeIOIl(HH, KpoMe Toro, HeMHoro HH)Ke
BepxHero KOHl(a KOPOTKYIO ropH30HTaJIbHYIO rrOrrepeqHHY' rro IIIHpHHe 6m13KyIO HH)KHeH HaKJIOHHOH JIHHHH.
BOChMHJIOTKOBhIH CBO,o:. IIepeKpbITHe BocbMHrpaHHoro 06'beMa CMbIKaIOIl(HMHCSI AOmKaMU (1).
-38-
CTOJI60B; 06blqHO BCTPeqaeTC5I B X03SIHCTBeHHbIX coopY)KeHH5IX HJIH rrpHCTPOHKax K OCHOBHOMY cpy6y, HarrpHMep, B
ceHRX rrpH ua6e (1).
BIIAJIA5I KOJIOHHA. [JOAYKOAOHHa, He BblcryrraIOIl(ru! 3a rrOBepXHOCTb
CTeHbI.
BIIEPEEE)KKY. Pa3MeIl(eHHe O;n:HOPO;n:HbIX 3JIeMeHTOB ropH30HTaJIbHbIMH
p5l;n:aMH, rrpH KOTOPOM rrpOCBeTbI Me)KJl:y
3JIeMeHTaMH B O;n:HOM pSI;n:y pacrrOJIaraIOTC5I rro OC5IM TaKHX )Ke 3JIeMeHTOB
coce;n:Hero p5l;n:a.
B IIEPEIIJIET. IIepeKpbITHe rrOMeIl(eHHSI B3aHMHO rreprreH;n:HKyJISIpHbIMH,
OrrHpaIOIl(HMHC5I )];pyr Ha ;n:pyra 6aJIKaMH, ;n:JIHHa KOTOPbIX MeHbIIIe paCCTO-
B IIEPEIIJIETE IIOTOJIOK. CepAUO
nomOAOK.
B IIOrOH. BapHaHT py6KM CTeH C
ocmamKOM, xapaKTepH3YIOIl(HHCSI BbI-
B
B nOA60P - BPEMEHHblE YKPEnnEHIUI
py6KOH Herny60I{HX OKpyrJIbIX 'taUl
KaK cBepxy, TaK H CHH3Y 6pe6Ha; npH
3TOM npocBeTbI Me:lK,ll;y OCHOBHbIMH
6peBHaMH 3anOJIHSI1OTCg 60JIee TOHKH~
MR, co Bpe3KoH HX KOH~OB B MaCCHB
OCHOBHbIX 6peBeH.
~
B IIOABOP. B03Be;o;eHHe CTeH H3 BepTHKaJIhHbIX 6pycbe6 H 6pe6eH.
B IIOAB5I3KY (=B npHBg3KY). Cnoc06
YCTPoHcTBa COJIOMeHHOH KPOBJIH 6e3
npIDKHMHbIX :lKep;o;eH.
BIIOJIAEPEBA. Coe;o;HHeHHe ;o;Byx
6pe6eH HJIH 6pycbe6 nOT( npgMbIM yrnoM
nyTeM BbIpy6KH ycrynOB ;0;0 cepe;O;HHbI
6pe6Ha JIH60 6pyca (1).
39
CMbIKaIOIqHXCg CKOCOM no;o; yrJIOM B 135°
K npocmynu HHX<HeH cTyneHH H noocmyneHKY BepxHeH.
B IIPI1ThftIKY. BUHOa6a.
B IIPHqEPTh C BhITECOM. MOIqeHHe OOCKaMU (1), C03;o;alOIqee rJIa;o;KylO
H pOBHYIO nOBepxHocTb.
B IIPHqECKY. HaCTHJIKa COJIOMeHHOH KP06.11U CJIOSIMH H3 CHOTIHKOB, npHBSI3aHHbIX K C.IIe2aM H 3aTeM npWlecaHHbIX IqeTKaMH.
JISIIOT '1eTbIpe KBa;o;paTa. 2 Cnoc06
OKJIeHKH CTeH 060SIMH, npH KOTOPOM
SIpKHe (06bI'lHO o;O;Ho~eTHbIe) nOJIOCbI
oKpY:lKalOT naHHO.
BPAHhIl1:. llieTeHbIH.
B PACm;EII. YnpOIqeHHbIH BH;o; OKOHHbIX pemeToK ;o;JISI He:lKHJIbIX IIOMeIqeHHR, HCnOJIb3YlOIqHH illHpoKHe :lKeJIe3HbIe nOJIOCbI C paBHOMepHo oTornyTblMH 3ayceH~aMH no 060HM KpaSIM.
BIIPOrAPh. TOHKaSI K.IIaOKa ne'lH H3
KHpTIH'Ia, 06paIqeHHOrO nOCme.llblO Ha
JI~eBylO CTOPOHY (cp.: B 'tem6epmb
Kupnu'ta).
BIIPOCA,[(h. PaBHoMepHaSI noca;O;Ka
;o;epeBbeB no npSIMbIM JIHHHSIM HJlH B;o;OJIb
;o;opom.
B IIP5IMYIO KOP3HHKY. Pa36HBKa
KBa;o;paTHOro napKeTHoro IqHTa Ha
60JIee MeJIKHe KBa;o;paTbI (HanpHMep, no
'1eTbIpe C Ka:lK,ll;OH CTOpOHbI).
BPATA. Bxo;o; B a.llmapb, xpaM, MOHaCTbIpb.
BPATHJIO. meCT.
BPA THA5I HKOHA. HKOHa Ha;o; BXO;o;OM B MOHacTbIpb, xpaM HJlH ;o;OM, a
TaK:lKe Ha;o; BOPOTaMH KpenOCTH HJlH
ropo;o;cKoro YKpeIlJleHHjJ:.
B IIOJIKHPIHfqA. B03Be;o;eHHe CTeHhI H3 KHpnWleH B O;o;HH BepTHKaJIbHbIH CJIOH, C JIH~eBbIMH cTopoHaMH H3
O;o;HHX TOJIbKO ./to3ICK06.
B IIOJIYJIAIIY. Coe;O;HHeHHe 6pycbe6
IIO;o; rynblM yrJIOM 6e3 BbIXo;o;a KOH~OB
3a IIJIOCKOCTb CTeHbI.
B IIOTEMOK. Py6Ka C ocmamKOM,
npH KOTOPOH coce;O;HHe 6pe6Ha COe;O;HHgIOTCg B 'taUle IIIHTIOM, HeBH;o;HMblM CHaPY:lKH·
B IIPHB5I3KY. B noo6R3KY.
B IIPHCEK. Cnoc06 B03Be;o;eHHjJ: CTeH
H3 roPH30HTaJIbHbIX 6pe6eH, 6JIH3KHH
py6Ke 6 06.110, HO C OCTaBJIeHHeM B 'taUle
HeBbIpy6JIeHHOrO 3y6a' (npSIMoyrOJIbHoro BbIcryna), KOTOPbIH npeTISlTcTByeT
C;o;BHry 6peBeH B 6eHl¥lX.
BIIPHThIK. Y CTPOHCTBO JIeCTHH~bI H3
KaMeHHbIX HJlH 6eTOHHbIX cTyneHeH,
BPA3BE)I(KY. Cnoco6 yKJIa;o;KH TecoBbIX Kp06e.llb B ;O;Ba HeIIJIOTHbIX CJIOSI:
TeCHHbI HHX<HerO pSI;o;a pacnOJIaralOTCH
C npoMe:lKYTKaMH, KOTopbIe cBepxy
3aKpbIBaIOTC5} OOCKaMU (1) CJIe):lYIOIqerO
pSI;o;a.
~???ni?:i
BPA3HOIIA3. Pa3HoBH;O;HOCTb py6KI1
CTeH C ocmamKOM, npH KOTOPOH '1epe;o;YIOTCH 6pe6Ha 6e3 'taUl H 6peBHa C
nOJIYKpyrJIblMH '1amaMH KaK Ha BepxHeH, TaK H Ha HHX<HeH CTOPOHax.
B PE)I( (=B pe:lKb, B pSI:lK). Py6Ka rpaHeB Ulampa HJIH CTeH 113 6pe6eH, Me:lK,ll;y
KOTOPbIMH OCTalOTCg 3Ha'lHTeJIbHbIe
ropH30HTaJIbHbIe npOCBeTbI BCJIe;O;CTBHe
MaJIOH rJIy6HHbI 'taUl.
BPE3HA5I 3AABH)l(KA. BepTHKaJIbHbIH 3anop ):IBYCTBop'laTbIX ;O;BepeH, Bpe3aHHblH Ha yrny nOJIOTHHIqa 3anO):lJI~0
C ero Y3KOH CTOpOHOH.
BPE3HA5I II5ITA. BKJIIO'IeHHbI"H B
K.IIaOKY KJIHH'laTbIH KaMeHb JIH60 KHPTIH'I, Ha KOTOPbIH onHpaeTCg apKa.
B PAKOBHHY. T-06pa3Hoe coe;O;HHeHHe 6pycbe6 C IIOMOIqbIO TPane~eBH;o;­
HOHBpy6KH.
B P AMKY. 1 Ksa;o;paTHbIH 3JIeMeHT
U{um06020 napKema, pa3):1eJIeHHbIH Ha
OKaHTOBaHHbIX
KBa;o;paTa,
'1eTbIpe
Ka:lK,ll;bIH H3 KOTOPbIX TaK:lKe COCTaB-
BPE3HA5I CTYIIEHh (=BCTaBHaSI
cTyneHb). CryneHb, BCTaBJIeHHaSI B
na3bI Ha memu6ax.
BPE3hI. KaHHe.lllOpbt.
BPEMEHHhIE YKPEIIJIEHH5I. He;O;OJIrOBe'IHble 060pOHHTeJIbHbie
CO-
-39-
B
BPEHTvr - B WECTHVrOnbHHK
40
BCfABHA5I
BPEHTYr
(=BpeTHIu;e,
BpeTyra).
3aBeca, pa3AemnoIIl;ruI CTaP006pHAqeCKylO MOJIeJIhHIO Ha ABe nOJIOBHHhI.
BCTABHOH IIIMll. CoeAHHHTeJIhHruI
rrpHMoyrOJIhHaH BCTaBKa B 06paIIJ;eHHhIe
Apyr K )l;pyry ZHe30a (1) Ha )l;JIHHHhIX
cTopoHax rrapaJIJIeJIhHO CnJIaqHBaeMhlX
6pe6eH HJIH 6pycbe6.
B P5I.IK. B pe:JIC.
BCEBMA5ImEE OKO. CHMBOJI XPHCTHaHCKoro 60)KeCTBa, HMelOIu;HR BHA
TPeyrOJIhHHKa, OT KOToporo paCXOAHTCH
JIyqH.
CTYTIEHb.
Bpe31WJl
opY)KeHIDI H3 3eMnH, AepeBa HJIH MeTaJIJIa.
cmyneHb.
B CfAMMK. KOHCTpYKu;IDI AepeBHHHhIX orpa~eHHH H3 rrJIOTHO nOCTaBJIeHHhIX BepTHKaJIhHhIX OOCOK (1), 6pe6eH
HJIH 6pycbe6.
B CfOJIE. KOHCTPYKu;IDI )l;epeBHHHhlx
orpaYAJ\eHHH, COCTOHIIJ;ruI H3 ropH30HTaJIhHhIX OOCOK (1), BCTaBJIeHHhIX TOPu;aMH B BepTlIKaJIhHhle na3hI CTOJI6oB.
BCETIPMMMHMUA. fOCTHHHu;a, 3ae3:JICUU a60p.
BCfPE"llHbIE KAHHEJIIOPbl. llapaJIJIeJIhHhle BepTHKaJIhHhle :JICe.no6Ku
Ha CTBOJIe KO.nOHHbt HJIH nU.flJlCmpbt,
pa3AeJIeHHhle B HH)KHeH qaCTH rrepe-
BCKAT. llOJIOrHR nOMOCT AnH BKaThIBaHHH 60qeK, 6pe6e1l H T.n.
CKOEEJIb. Bpe6fta, 6pyCbJl HJIH
aocKu (1) C qHCTO oCTPyraHHoH JIHu;eBOH
nOBepxHocThlO .
B
B CKOBOPOAEHb. T-06pa3Hoe KpenneHHe 6pycbe6 C rrOMOIIJ;hlO TPaneIJ;HeBHAHoro BhlcTyrra, paCrnHpHIOIIJ;erOCH K
KOHU;y OAHoro 6pyca H nJIOTHO rroAomaHHoro rrOA ZHe3aa (1) TOR)Ke q:,OpMhI
Ha APyroM 6pyce.
ropOAKOH Ha 60JIee Y3KHe JIH60 3arrOJIHeHHhle Ha TY )Ke BhICOTY 6a.nuKa.MU (1) C oKpyrnhlM BepxoM (CM.
BK.naObtUlu) .
B YC. COeAHHeHHe aocoK (1) HJIH 6pycK06 KOHu;aMH, cpe3aHHhIMH nOA 45".
BYTbI. YTOJIIIJ;eHIDI nJIHT HJIH 6aJIOK B
)KeJIe306eTOHHhIX KOHCTPYKU;HHX, rrOBhIrnalOIIJ;He conpOTHBJIeHHe H3rH6alOIu;HM
HarpY3KaM.
n
BXOA5ImVl
YfOJI (B YKpeIDIeHHHX C
JIOMaHhIM JI.I.IHOM). YroJI C BeprnHHoH,
06paIIJ;eHHOH K 060POillllOIIJ;HMCH.
B "llAIIIY, B "llAIIIKY. B o6.no.
B "llETBEPTb. Cnoco6 HaCTHJIKH noTOJIKa B KpecThHHcKOH H36e, C HaKaTOM H3 rrpOAOJIhHhIX nOJIOBHH 6pe6eH
(n.nacmUIl), nJIOTHrui nO)l;roHKa KOTOphIX )l;OCrnraJIaCh C nOMOIIJ;hlO BhIeMKH
npHMoyrOJIhHOrO CeqeHIDI no )l;JIHHHOMY
KpalO.
B "llETBEPTb AEPEBA. 1 llepeKpeCTHoe CrrJIaQHBaHHe 6pycbe6 (1), B Ka~OM
H3 KOTOPhIX AeJIaeTCSI np»:MoyrOJIhHruI
BhleMKa rnHpHHoH B 6pyc, He )l;OCTHralOIIJ;aSl B rny6HHy ero cepeAHHhI.
2 llapaJIneJIhHOe CnJIaqHBaHHe 6pycbe6
(1), nAaCmUH H T.A. C rrOMOIIJ;hlO npo)l;OJIhHhIX 6pycheB H BhIeMOK, HMelOIIJ;HX
B CeqeHHH paBHhle npHMhIe oTpe3KH.
(2).
B "llETBEPTb KMPllM"llA. B03Be)l;eHHe TOHKOH CTeHKH H3 KHpn~eH,
rrOCTaBJIeHHhIX Ha y3KylO rpaHh H o6paIIJ;eHHhIX nocme.nblO Ha JIHu;eBylO CTOpOHy (cp.: BnpozaPb).
BCllAPYIIIEHHbIH CBOA. Kpecmo6blU C600, Y KOTOPOro u;eHTpaJIhHruI
qaCTh 3aMeTHO nOAHHTa Ha)l; 60KOBhIMH.
BCXOAH5I. 3aMeHHIOIIJ;ruI JIeCTHHU;y
aocKa (1) C Ha6HThIMH rrorrepeK 6pycoqKaMH BMeCTO cTyrreHeK (cp.: r6apOUJl,
B "llEIIIYIO. KPOBJISI H3 O):lHHaKOBhIX
3JIeMeHTOB, BhlcTyrralOIIJ;HX O)l;HH H3-rrO)l;
APyroro rrOJIYKpyrJIhIM KpaeM .
B CllMPAJIb. BhIKnaAKa c600a rro
OAHHaKOBO HanpaBneHHhIM paBHhIM
AyraM, paCXO)l;HIIJ;HMCH OT u;eHTpa (cp.:
BTOPOM CBET. BTOPOR OT rrOJIa pSiA
rrpoeMOB B rrOMeIIJ;eHHH.
B COK. K.naoKa Ha rYCTOM pacm60pe C
3aJIHBKOR )KHAKOR H3BeCThlO rrpOMe)KYTKOB, 3anOJIHeHHhiX 6HThIM KHpnHqOM,
IIJ;e6HeM H T.rr.
BCXOA. 1 llOMOCT. 2 JIo61loe .Mecmo.
3 CTyneHH Ha a.M601l (3).
BCXOAHMUA. 1 Bcxoo. 2 BblUlKa
.na3HJl).
BUXpe6aJl p03emKa).
BCllOJIOIIIHOH KOJIOKOJI (=Ha6aTHhIH
KOJIOKOJI,
nepenOJIOrnHhIH
KonOKon, OCa)l;HhIH KOJIOKon). KOJIOKOJI, B KOTOPhIH 3BOHHJIH, KOr)l;a )KHTeJIHM yrpo)KaJIa onaCHOCTh (HarnecTBHe
BparOB, MHTe)K, nO)Kap).
BCllOP.
1 llOTOJIOK. 2 lloAnopa.
BCTABEHb
(=CTaBeHh).
OKOHHhIH rrepeIIJIeT.
3HMHHH
BCTABHA5I PEHKA. PeHKa Tparreu;neBHAHoro CeqeHIDI, BCTaBJIHeMruI B
OOCKY (1) B)l;OJIh ee OCHOBHOH nOBepxHoCTH, qTo6hl nOMernaTh Kopo6JIeHHIO,
3aKphITh IIJ;eJIH H T.)l;.
BHHHhIX CTeH, npH KOTOPOM npoMe)KJTKH Me~y cToJI6aMH 3anOJIHeHhI
BepTHKanhHhIMH OOCKa.MU (1), C rrOCJIeAylOIIJ;HM 3aKpenJIeHHeM HX rrOnepeqHhlMH )KepAHMH.
BTYJIKA. 06HThIH BOHJIOKOM HJIH CYKHOM AepeBSlHHhIH IIJ;HT, 3aKphIBaBrnHH
OKHO H3HYTPH rro BceH ero rrJIOIIJ;aAH (HarrpHMep, Ha HOqh HJIH )l;JISI coxpaHeHHH
TerrJIa B nOMeIIJ;eHHH).
BYJIKAHOJIb. BhICOKorrpOqHhIe KaMHH )l;JIH MOCTOBhIX, HMelOIIJ;He BH)l;
KpyrrHhlx nnHT H3 npeCCOBaHHOH CMeCH
rrOJIeBOrO rnrraTa.
-40-
B IIIAll. B .nany.
B IIIAXMAT. Pa3)l;eJIKa nOBepxHocTH
qepeAYIOIIJ;HMHCH CBeTJIhIMH H TeMHhIMH
B IIIECTMYfOJIbHMK. Py6Ka C ocmamKO.M H3 rnecTHrpaHHhlx 6pycbe6 (1).
B
B WnVHT -
41
BblOWKA
B IIIIIYHT. Py6Ka CTeH H3 6pycbe6 (1)
JIH60 llIHPOKHX OOCOK (1).
BhIIIPABMTEJIhHhIE COOPY)]ffiHM5I. rH)l;pOTeXHwlecKHe cooPY)KeHIDI
)l;JIM rro)l;)l;ep)KaHIDI B rrOpM)l;Ke cY)l;OXO)l;Horo rryTH, )l;Ha H 6eperoB BO)l;OeMa.
BhIIIYKJIO-BOrHYTA5I APKA . .JJ:eKopaTHBHaM apKa, B KOTOPOH H3rH6bI Y
fIRm 06pal.l(eHbI BbmYKJIbIMH CTOpO-
BhICTABMBIIIMHC5I 3AMOK. BuCR'tUU 3aMOK.
BhICTABKA. .JJ:orrOJIHHTeJIbHM QepKOBb B rrpe):leJIax rrpHXO):la.
BhICTABOQHA5I IJ;EPKOBh. XpaM
rrpH 060c06HBmeHcM qaCTH rrpHXO):la.
BhICTYIIAIOII.J;A5I II5ITA. BblHocHaR
nRma.
BhIBO.JJ:.
BhICh. 1 lJepoaK (1). 2 BbICOTa CTeH
3):1aHIDI.
1 (/Jopm. 2 IIeqHM TPy6a.
BhIBO.JJ:HOE
OKHO.
OKHO.
BhITh.
1 Ha):lBOpHaM
2 3arOpO):lKa.
BbtnYCKlwe
BhIrOHOQHA5I TEIIJIMIJ;A. IIapHHK )l;JIM BbIpal.l(HBaHIDI KYJIbTypHbIX
paCTeHHH B MeCTHOCTH C qY)K)l;bIMH )l;JIM
HHX rrOqBOH H KJIHMaTOM.
BhIroPO.JJ:. Orpa)l;a.
BhIrPEE. 1 BbleMKa B 3aKpOMe, H3
KOTOPOH BbIrpe6alOT 3epHo. 2 5IMa )l;JIM
HeqHCTOT.
BhIrPhI3EHHhIH cpPOHTOH.
30p6aHHbiu ppoHmoH.
Pa-
HaMH BHYTPb rrpoeMa H rrJIaBHO rrepexo)l;MT B O)l;HoQeHTPoBoe JIH60 MHoroQeHTpoBoe rrO)l;BbImeHHe rro ero BepTHKaJIbHOH OCH.
BhIIIYCKHA5I
nRma.
II5ITA.
BblHocHaR
BhIIIYCKHOE
EPEBHO.
KPOHutmeuH B )l;epeBMHHoM 30)l;qeCTBe.
BhI.JJ:P A. 1 EOp03)l;a B rrpHMbIKaHHH
Kp06J1U K KHprrHqHOH KJIa)l;Ke CTeHbI HJIH
TPy6bI. 2 BbIcTyrr C ropH30HTaJIbHOH
BepxHeH rrJIOCKOCTblO, paCmHpMIOl.l(HH
HH)KH101O qaCTb )l;bIMOBOH Tpy6bI, HerroCpe)l;CTBeHHo Ha)l; Kp06J1eu.
rrocTpoHKa.
BhIT5I:lKHOH KAHAn. KaHaJI, rro
KOTOPOMY yXO):lHT B aTMoc<pepy B03):1YX
H3 rrOMel.l(eHHH, HerrpHro):lHbIH ):IJIM
):IbIXaHHM.
BhIT5I:lKHhIE EPEBHA (=rrpOTMrH,
rrO):lCTPoIIHJIbHble 6peBHa). OrropbI ):IBYcKaTHoH KPblutU, rrO):l):lep)KHBalOl.l(He ee
CBeCbI.
BhIXO.JJ:. 1 CYXOH rrorpe6 rrepe):l ):\0MOM - He60JIbmOH cpy6, Ha TpeTb HJIH
HarrOJIOBHHY 3arny6JIeHHbIH B rpYHT,
rroKpbITbIH Ha .o;Ba CKaTa H YTellJleHHbIH
cHapY)KH 3C\UeH. 2 EaJlKOH HJIH ZaJlepeR
BhIKPY)KKA. ApxHTeKTypHbIH 3JIeMeHT C BorHYToH KPHBOH B CeqeHHH.
BhIIIYCKHOE OKHO (=BbIBO):lHOe
OKRo). Qep.o;aqHOe OKHO, BbIcTyrralOl.l(ee
BhIXO.JJ:HA5I .JJ:PAHh. CJIOH opaHu
(2) Me)K)l;y npOCmUJIbHOU opaHblO H
mTYKaTypKoH CTeHbI.
BhIMOJI. IIpHcTaHb.
BhIHOC KAPHM3A. rOpH30HTaJIbHoe paCCTOMHHe Me)K)l;Y KpaeM KapHU3a
H rroBepxHocTblO CTeHbI rrO):l HHM.
BMeCTe C 60KOBblMH CTeHK'IlMH, COe):lHHeHHbIMH rroKpbITHeMif H3 OCHOBHoro
BhIHOCHA5I
06"beMa Kp06J1U.
II5ITA
(1), CBM3aHHbIe C qep):laqHbIM rrOMel.l(eHHeM U36bl HJIH XOpOM.
(=BbmycKHaM
rrMTa, BbIcTyrralOl.l(aM rrMTa). ApOqHaM
nRma, OrrHpalOl.l(MCM Ha ropH30HTaJIbHbIe pM.o;bI KJlaOKU, CTecaHHble rro KpHBOH, KOTopaM rrJIaBHO rrpO)l;OJI)KaeTCM
.o;yroH apKU.
BhIIIYCKHOH 3AMOK. 3aMK06blU
KaMeHb, CHJIbHO BbI.o;BHHYTblH rrepe.o;
<pOHOM .
BhIIIYII.J;AJIO . .JJ:BepQa.
BhIP AEOTKA. IIo):l3eMHaM rrOJIOCTb
ropHOro rrpOMbICJIa.
BhIPEIJ;. KJIYM6a.
BhIPYQKA. IIpHJIasoK, CTOJI C Ml.l(HKOM .o;JIM .o;eHer HJIH CyH.o;yK Toro )Ke Ha3HaqeHIDI, B ToproBoM 3aBe.o;eHHH.
BhICOKMH IIAPTEP. JIapmep (2).
BhIIIOJI30BO (=060JIOHbe). IIpe.o;MeCTbe zopooa (2) HJIH KpaHHHe U36bl
(1) CeJIeHHM.
BhICOKO-OEPOHHAA
P AEOTA.
CKYJIbllTYPHbIH peJlbep, B KOTOPOM
<PHrYPbI rrOqTH oT.o;eJIMIOTCM OT <poHa
(cp.: rOpeJlbep).
-41-
BhIIIIrOPO.JJ: (=BbImerpa.o;). YKperrJIeHHaM B03BblmeHHaM qaCTb zopooa
(1,2).
BhIllECTOJIME. CTOJIHQa, CTOJIbHblH
zopoo (1, 2).
BhIllKA. 1 BbIcoTHoe coopY)KeHHe co
CMOTPOBOH rrJIOl.l(a.o;KoH B BepxHeH
qaCTH. 2 C6emeJlKa. 3 JIeTIDIM u36a Ha
nOOKJleme, rrpHMblKalOl.l(aM K ceHRM.
4 lJepoaK (1).5 Yca):le6HOe coopY)KeHHe
.o;JIM xpaHeHHM Bel.l(eH, B03Be):leHHOe Ha
cToJI6ax B cTopoHe OT rocrrO):lCKOrO
.o;OMa.
BhIOHillA IIEPEKPhITME. :lKeJIe306eToHHoe rrepeKpblTHe c· ropH30HTaJIbHblM BepxoM cHapY)KH H rrOJIOrHM C60OOM H3HYTpH.
BhIOIIIKA. Pa306l.l(alOl.l(aM OCHOBHoe
rrpocTpaHcTBo rreqH H .o;bIMOBYIO Tpy6y
.o;BYCJIOHHM 3aCJIOHKa, KOTOPM COCTOHT
B3HT3XA - BUb
B
H3 paMKH H
~ml
~Byx
42
KphIWeK C 3aKpaHHaMH
nJIOTH0l10 npHJIeraHlUl.
B3HT3xA. 3HMHHH KOHlf'IeCKHH waJIaW ~JIH dPO'lCKlIX OXOTHHKOB, coopyx<eHHhIH H3 nJiax.
BIOTA. XrreB B MapHHcKoH KpecThHHCKOH
ycaob6e.
B5DKYIl(EE. MCnOJIh3yeMoe B KJlaOKe
Be~eCTBO,
cnoco6Hoe
nepexo~HTh
Heo6paTlIMO
H3 nJIaCTH'IHOrO COCTOHHHH
B TBepJ(oe H Cu;eTIJIHIO~ee KHpnH'IH JIH60
6JIOKH KaMHH.
B5I3AHME.
6pycbe6 (1)
nOTOJIOK, nOJI H
B5I3KA.
Coe~HHeHHe
6pe6eH,
OOCOK (1)
B HaKaT,
HJIH
T.~.
1 CmponU.!w. 2 BR3allUe.
B5I3HA5I ,IJ;BEPb. ,IJ;Beph C cjJUJlellKaMU, oKpyx<eHHhIMH cocTaBHoH paMoH.
B5I3b.
KaJIJIHrpa<pH'IeCKOe CnJIeTeHHe
u;eJIhIX
CJIOB
u;epKOBHO-CJIaBHHCKlIX
HJIH
HeCKOJIhKHX
(06hI'IHO
6YKB
HJIH
apa6cKHx) B 60JIee HJIH MeHee CJIOX<HhIH
y30p.
-42-
t
r ABBI1HA CMCTEMA. KOHCTPY~
~epeBmlHbIX MOCTOB, AmI KOTOPOH
xapaKTepeH HaKJIOH BepXHeH 'laCTH
MeTaJIJIl{qeCKHX paCKOC06, coe~HWI­
IOIWIX CTOHKH Me:lKAY ropH30HTaJIbHbIMH nORCaMU (2), B CTOPOHY 6eperoBbIX onop.
rABBPO. TeMHO-CepbIH KaMeHb C
HCKOpKaMH B KPHCTaJIJIH'leCKOH 3epHHCTOH CTPYKTYpe, ynoTPe6JISIeMbIH B
KOIlOHHax, nOCmaMeHmax, I{OKOIlRX,
6a1llOcmpaoax, JIeCTHHD;aX, a TaK:lKe B
HaArpo6HSIX.
[ABED;. rOll6el{
(1).
[ABMOH (=ra6IOH). 3anOJIHeHHaSI
KaMWIMH
KapKaCHaSI
npOBOJIOqHaSI
KJIeTKa 60JIbIIIHX pa3MepOB, 3aIl\HIl\alOIl\aSI 6eper HJIH YCTOH MOCTa OT pa3MbIBa H y~apoB BOJIH.
r ABMOHA,o;A. CllJIOIIIHOH PSIA 3anOJIHeHHbIX 3eMJIeH za6uoHo6, 3aKpbIBaIOIl\HH OT npOTHBHHKa MeCTO q,opTHqmKaWiOHHbIX pa60T JIH60 YKa3bIBalOIl\HH
BOHCKaM nyTb B HOqHOe BpeMSI.
HHbIMH HCKYCCTBeHHbIMH nperpaAaMH
3aIWiTbi Cy~OB OT BOJIHeHHSI Ha
Mope.
~JISI
rABPMK (=<I>a6pHWiYCa CHCTeMa).
06JIerqeHHaSI KllaOKa, B KOTOPOH npO'lHOCTb napaJIJIeJIbHbIX CTeHOK B 'leTBepTb KHpllH'la KOMlleHcHpyeTcSI apMHpylOIl\HM :lKeJIe30M.
[A3MPOBAHHbHi CTOJI. Y6opHbIH, HJIH TYaJIeTHbIH, CTOJI (HanpHMep,
B 6yoyape) , 3a~paITHPOBaHHbIH JIerKOH
np03pa'lHOH TKaHblO.
[A30BA5I CMOJIA. EIlRK6apHUUl.
[A30H (=MypaBHOe MeCTO). MCKYCCTBeHHaSI JIY:lKaHKa CaAa HJIH napKa,
nOKpbITaSI KOPOTKOH, POBHO nO~CTPH­
:lKeHHOH TpaBoH.
HbIH Ka3eMam MaJIOro Ce'leHHSI, nO~3eM­
HbIH KOPHAOP B KpenoCTH HJIH PYAHHKe.
3 CBO):l'laTbIH KOPHAOP, 3aIl\HIl\aIOIWiH
:lKeJIe3HO~OpO:lKHbIH nyTb OT 06BaJIOB
ropHbIX nopo~. 4 Co6paHHe KapTHII HJIH
HIIbIX MY3eHHbIX ~eHHoCTeH.
[AJIEPHbIH CAPAH. 31lllUH2 (1).
rArrJIEPA llEPEKPbITME. "YCTOTHoe nepeKpbITHe H3 Ul6ellllep06, 3epKaJIbHO BKJIaAbIBaeMbIX O):lHH B ):\pyroH.
rAJICTYQOK. Bazem.
[AJITEJIb. 1 ,o;epeBSIHHaSi peHKa C
BbIKPY:lKKOH B HeCJIO:lKHOM npoq,HJIe,
3aKpbIBalOIl\aSI CTbIK CTeHbI C nOJIOM HJIH
r
A30<l> YJIAKM5I (= ra30q,HJIaKHSI, ra30q,IOJIaKHSI). XpaHHJIHIl\e Ka3HbI HJIH
HHbIX COKPOBHIl\.
r AMHO (=raHHHIl\e, raHbHIl\e, roiiHo,
KaTYX, KaTyxa). XJIeB ~JISI CBHHeH.
r AJIA. )KHJIaSI 6aIIIWI B 'le'leHCKOM H)IH
HIIryIIICKOM CeJIeHHH; nepBbIH SIPYC
3aWIT XJIeBOM H nOMeIl\eHHSIMH ~JISI
HHbIX X03S1HCTBeHHbIX HY:lKJl, BTOPOH :lKHJIbeM, TpeTHH - nOMeIl\eHHeM AJISI
. - npa3~HeCTB H npHeMa rocTeH.
[AJIAHKA. rOllllaHOCKaR ne'tb.
r AJIEBAHT. rallbc6aHm.
r AJIEPE5I. 1 ,o;JIHHHbIH H CBeTJIbIH
KpblThIH npoxo~. 2 llo~3eMHbIH ~JIHII-
r ABMTYC. BHeIIIWISI q,opMa AepeBbeB
H KycTapHHKoB.
r ABIOH. ra6UOH.
XY,o;O)KECTBEHHA5I.
rABAHb
[aBaHb, orpaHH'leHHaSI llJIOTHHaMH HJIH
43
-43-
pa3~eJISIIOIl\aSI nOJIe CTeHbI.
2 PeJIbeq,HaSI nOJIOca, pa3~eJISIIOIl\aSI Y'lacTKH
oIIITYKaTypeHHoro nOTOJIKa. 3 BorHYThIH IIITYKaTypHbIH nepexo):l OT CTeHbI K
nOTOJIKY. 4 06JIOM B BH):Ie 6bIKPY3fCKU
HJIH :lKeJIo6a.
[AJITbIPb. )KeJI060qHbIH
OKOHHOH paMe .
y30p
Ha
[AJIYAH. OceTHHCKHH YKpellJleHHbIH
KOMllJIeKC, B KOTOPOM :lKHJIaSi H o6opoHHTeJIbHaSi 6aUlHR (1), a TaK:lKe pSl~
:lKHJIbIX H X03SIHCTBeHHbIx nocTPoeK
06HeceHbI KaMeHHOH CTeHoH.
r AJIbI3b
(=MOCTOBHHK).
Bpe6Ha
(06bI'lHO OT ~epeBbeB XBOHHbIX nopo~)
~JIHHOH OKOJIO 6 apIIIHH H C nOnepe'lHHKOM no BepXHeMY oTPy6y B 21/3'-3 1/ 2
BepIIIKa, HJ:\YIWie Ha MOIl\eHHe ):Iopor B
60JIOTHCTOH MeCTHOCTH.
r
rAnbC6AHT - rEPIllAOH
44
rAJIhCBAHT (=raJIe6aHT). XOMym,
OXBaTbIBarom;HH WeHI{)' BepeH..llbHOZO
cmoJl6a B BOPOTax Ul//lOaa (1) H BMypOBaHHbIH B K.IIaiJKY CTeHhI; BMeCTe C
noiJnRmHUKOM B HH).KHeH qaCTH BOPOT
06eCneqHBaeT BepTHKaJIhHOCTh HX OCH
Bpam;eHIDI.
rACEHh. ,lJ;om;aTruI j:\bIMOBruI TPy6a.
rAMA3EH.MazaauH (2).
rATh (=raTh6a). 1. HaCTHJIKa H3 6pi!BeH H XBopocTa Ha TonKOM yqacTKe
~opom. 2. 3eMJIRHaSI j:\0P0:lKHruI HaCbIIIb
Ha 60JIOTHCTOM MeCTe, YKpellJleHHruI
f/JautuHaMu, m;e6HeM H T. n.
r AHAX. OCeTHHCKruI xrn:JIruI 6auutR
(~oM-KpenocTb), B KOTOPOH nepBbIH
aT~ HCnOJIb30BaJICR no~ 3epHoxpaHHJIHIll;e H nOMem;eHHe ~JIR CKOTa, BTOPOH KaK xaiJaap, TpeTHH 6blJl npHcnoco6JIeH j:\JISI 060pOHhI.
r AH,J:()KMP. MHOrogpYCHbm utnUJIb,
3aBepwaIOm;HH rpe6eHb KpOBJIH Ha~
6YMHHCKHM xpaMoM H q)JIaHKHpoBaHHhm
~HHj:\plfqeCKHMH
06'beMaMH
'iJlCaJll¥lHOB.
r ACMH. rYMHO.
f ACIIEJIh. IIoj:\'beMHHK C ropH30HTaJIhHhIM BOPOTOM B Hemy60KHX PYj:\HHKax, npHBoj:\HMbIH B ~eHCTBHe j:\BYMR
pa60qIfMH.
fAY-)I(YPABCKOrO <l»EPMA (=ray
cHcTeMa). MeTaJIJIoj:\epeBSIHHruI KOHcTPYKIUfR j:\JISI MOCTOB H nepeKphITHH B
KPYllHbIX nOMem;eHHSIX, 3anaTeHTOBaHHruI B 1840 r. aMepHK~eM fay H
BCKope ycoBepweHcTBoBaHHruI PYCCKHM
HH:lKeHepOM ,lJ;. l1. )l(ypaBCKHM (18211891); OCHOBHOH ee aJIeMeHT - ~epe­
BSIHHhle ropH30HTaJIbHhle nORca H j:\epeBRHHble paCKOCbl C MeTaJIJIHqeCKHMH
CTOHKaMH.
rAYIITBAXTA(=rorBaxTa, roy6BaxTa). rJIaBHbIH KapaYJIhHhIH nOCT B Kpenocmu HJIH HaCeJIeHHOM nyHKTe, B KOTOPOM pacnOJIO:lKHJIHCh BOHcKa, 06'bej:\H-
fAHK. raHKa (1).
r AHKA. 1 KphlJleqKO C HaBeCOM Y
BXOj:\a B U36y (1). 2 TOqeHruI HO:lKKa
HJIH 6aJISICHHa C wapoBHj:\HhIM YTOJIm;eHHeM.
rAPrYllM. OTBeTBJIeHHSI OT BOj:\OOTBOj:\Horo :lKeJI06a no KpruIM KPOBJIU.
HSIIOm;HH nOMem;eHHe j:\JISI CTPaxm: H apecTaHTcKYIO KaMepy (c 1884 r. - 06}l3aTeJIhHruI npHHa):\JIe:lKHOCTb f.).
fAP,lJ;EPOB. 1 illKaq, j:\JI}l XpaHeHIDI
6eJIbSI H HHOH OJ:\e:lKj:\hI. 2 IIoMem;eHHe B
rAY
06m;ecTBeHHoM 3j:\aHHH, npej:\Ha3HaqeHHoe j:\JI}l KpaTKOBpeMeHHoro xpaHeHHSI
BepXHeH OJ:\e:lKj:\bI H rOJIOBHbIX y60pOB,
pa3j:\eBaJIKa. 3 (=rap~epo6-peTHpaj:\a).
HYX<HHK, y60pHruI, OTXO:lKee MeCTO B
npej:\eJIax 3j:\aHIDI.
fA qYJIH. KaqeJIH.
rBAP,lJ;MH. 1 PbI6an;KruI CTOpO:lKKa.
2 EpeBHo C Ha6HThIMH nonepeK 6pycKaMU, 3aMeHSIIOm;ee JIeCTHHn;y (cp.: JIaa-
r AP,lJ;MHA. 3aBeca H3 TSI:lKeJIOH TKaHH
j:\JIR aJlbKOBHOU HHIIIH H T. j:\.
rEBAHOBhIH (=re60HoBbIH, rej:\aHOBhIH). Cj:\eJIaHHbIH H3 a6eHoBoro (<<qepHOro») j:\epeBa.
f APMOHMYM. KJIaBHWHbIH MY3bIKaJIhHbIH HHCTpYMeHT, CXOj:\HbIH C opujHOM npH ropa3j:\0 MeHhwHX pa3Mepax.
r APHMTYP. KOMJIeKT OJ:\HOCTHJIbHhIX
npej:\MeTOB (HanpHMep, CTOJI, CTYJIhSI,
KpeCJIa, ~HBaH), 06pa3YIOm;HX xYj:\O:lKeCTBeHHOn;eJIhHbIH aHCaM6JIh.
r ACAPhl. IIepeHocHruI ~epeB}lHHruI
KpenOCTh, rJIaBHhIH aJIeMeHT KOTOPOH ~Om;aTbIe m;HTbI JIH60 mbtH, npope3aHHbIe 60UHUl¥l.MU.
rEJIEHr. JIe3ICeHb (1).
rEJIMKOH,lJ;AJIhHhIH. BHHTo06pa3Hbm.
fEllHOCTAT. faJOBaSI JIaMna, HCnOJIh3YIOm;aSI aHeprHIO OT cropaHIDI :lKH):\KHX
ymeBo~opoj:\OB.
rEMATHHOH. AcmpaJIum.
rEOIIJIACTHKA.
HCl{)'ccTBeHHoe
q,OpMHpoBaHHe peJIbeq,a B JIaHWllaq,THOR apxHTeKTYpe (HanpHMep, B napKe).
fEIIEJIh. rOpHOpYj:\HhIH nOj:\'beMHHK C
KOHHbIM npHBOj:\OM, ~JISI my60KHX
WaxT.
rEPAKJIHT (=q,H6poJIHT). 06JIaj:\aIOIIJ;He HH3KOH TenJIonpoBo~HOCThIO H
MaJIhIM Yj:\eJIhHbIM BeCOM llJIHTbI H3
CMeCH Marue3HaJIhHOrO n;eMeHTa C cocHOBOH HJIH OCHHOBOH CTPYX<KOH, HCnOJIh3yeMhIe B KOHCTP)'Kn;WIX CTeH H nepeKphITHH.
rEP AP,lJ;A CTEHhI. OrpaX<):larom;a}l
KOHCTPYKIUfR j:\JI}l OTallJlHBaeMbIX CeJIbCKHX nocTPoeK, COCTOSIm;ruI H3 j:\Byx
napaJIJIeJIhHhIX CTeHOK B nOJIKUpnU'ta,
npocTPaHcTBo Me:lKj:\Y KOTOPbIMH 3anOJIHSIeTC}l MaTepHaJIOM C HH3KOH TellJlOnpOBO~HOCThIO .
rEPBEPr. 1 [JocmOH..llblU iJBOP C mpaKmupoM. 2 YCa):\e6HbIH q}/lU2eJlb (1) j:\JISI
CJIyr.
r AHhMm;E. rauHo.
r APBE. CeHu Me:lKj:\Y KOMHaTaMH B
KYMhIKCKOM :lKHJIHIll;e.
rEK3ArOH (=aK3arOH). illeCTHrpaHHHK.
CMCTEMA.
ray-)[(ypaBcKow
tjJepMa.
rEP3A. repca.
fEP3HJIHOH
(=WTypM6peTThI).
CnJIOqeHHble BMeCTe H YThIKaHHhle
OCTPbIMH rB03j:\SIMH iJOCKU (1), 3am;Hm;aIOIIJ;He npoxoj:\ B YKpellJleHHe HJIH Ha
MOCT (cp.: repca).
rEPH,lJ;OH. 1 He6oJIhWOH BbICOKHH
CTOJIHK-nOj:\CTaBKa Ha OJ:\HOH HO:lKKe.
HR (3). BCXOiJHR).
rE3EHK
(=re3eHr).
Coej:\HHSIIOm;HH
utmOJlbHU H He BbIXOj:\SIm;HH Ha nOBepxHOCTb BepTHKaJIhHbIH KaHaJI (KOJloiJe~)
j:\JI}l nOj:\'beMa PYj:\hI, j:\JISI BeHTHJI}lIJ;HH
HH:lKHHX ropH30HTOB B PYj:\HHKe JIH60
~JI}l reOJIOrlfqeCKOH pa3Be~KH.
fE3MMC (=re3HM3). KapHU3.
rEHBEU. rOJl6e~.
fEH30H. BeH'talOUJ,uu KapHU3 B opiJepHou apXHTeKType.
-44-
~JI}l MHO:lKeCTBa
3aBepWaIOm;ee onopHyIO KOJIOHKY. 3 3KpaH nepej:\ KaMUHOM.
2 Kpymoe OCHOBaHHe
nO~CBeqHHKOB,
r
rEPMCCOH -
fEPMCCOH.
YCeSIHHasI ):IJIHHHhIMH
OCTphIMH nIHnaMH H3 x<:eJIe3a nOBOpOTHaSI p02amICa B BOpOTaX, npOJIOMe KpenOCTHOH CTeHbI, nepe):l B"be3):10M Ha MOCT
H T.
45
rnACMC
n.
fEPKOTEKTOHMKA. MCKYCCTBO BO3BO):lHTh BOeHHhle YKpenJIeHHSI.
fEPMA (=repMeC, repMeCOB CTOJI6).
BlOcm Ha onope npSIMoyrOJIhHOrO CeqeHHSI, 06b1qHO cyx<:aJOll..\eHCSI KHH3y.
fEllIJIEIlIl. BO):lO):leHcTBYJOll..\asI
IIIHHa B ropHoM npOH3BO):lCTBe.
Ma-
fEBE"lJ.
IIooICJlem
KpecThSIHcKoro
oOMa (1) KOMH-3hlPSIH, HCnOJIh3yeMhIH B
CKJIa):lCKHX Il,eJISIX.
fE3EH. "lJYJIaH Y BXO):lHOH ):IBepH 6aJIKapcKoro HJIH KapaqaeBCKOro X<:HJIHll..\a,
npe):lHa3HaqeHHhIH ):IJISI xpaHeHHSI C"beCTHhIX npHnacoB H OT):IeJIeHHhIH OT ocTaJIhHOrO nOMell..\eHHSI mYPJly'tHOU HJIH
x<:ep):leBOH neperopO):lKoH.
fETEPMHKM 10M. KyMhIKCKHH OOM
(1) Ha BhICOKOM KaMeHHOM nOJlynoo6aJlb~OM amaJICe.
DKEJIhCKHM KMPIlH"lJ. OmeynopHhIH KHpnHq H3 6eJIOH rJIHHhI (pa3MephI
23xll, 5x5,5 CM H 19x9,5x5 CM).
f3hIMC. KapHua.
fEPMAHCKMM CIIOCOB. TeXHOJIOrHSI YCTPOHCTBa KPOBJIH rOpH30HTaJIhHhIMH pSI):IaMH H3 IIIHcpepHhIX (aCnH):IHhIX) nJIaCTHHOK pa3JIHqHOM BeJIHqHHhI
(3aKpenJIeHHhIX Ha CnJIOIIIHOM ):IOll..\aTOM
OCHOBaHHH, C YMeHhIIIeHHeM BhICOThI
PSI):IOB no Mepe npH6JIHx<:eHHSI K ICOHbICy (1).
fEPMEC, fEPMECOB CTOJIB. repMa.
fHAJIOfP A <I> l-UI.
PHCYHKOB, opHaMeHToB H Ha):lnHCeH Ha
CTeKJIe nJIaBHKOBoH KHCJIOTOH.
fH,U. IloMell..\eHHe ):IJISI CKOTa B KpeCThSIHCKOH ycaob6e KOMH-3hlpSIH.
fM,UPO. MCTOJIqeHHhle B nopoIIIoK
060X{X{eHHhle
KHpnHqH
H3
CMeCH
H3MeJIhqeHHOrO H3BeCTHSIKa H yrJISI
(JIH60 necKa) - HCXO):lHhIH MaTepHaJI
):IJISI HCKyccTBeHHhIx ICaMHeU JIe6peHa.
fEPOOH. He60JIhIIIaSI MeMOpHaJIhHaSI
pOUl,a co cKYJIhnTypaMH H naMSITHhIMH
):IepeBhSIMH.
fHIlEPTHPOH. llIHpoKaSI ):IeKOpaTHBHasI oocICa (2) Ha):l npSIMoyroJIhHhIM BXO):10M (B opoepH011 apxHTeKType).
fEPCA (=rep3a, 6opoHa, KaTapaKTa).
Ilo):l"beMHasI 3arpa):lHTeJIhHasI peIIIeTKa B
npm!Me KpenocTHhIX BOpOT.
fHIlOTPAXHJIHOH. )l(eJI060K, OT):IeJISIJOIl..\HH weuICY (3) oopu'tecICou ICO-
JlOHHbt OT ee CTBOJIa.
fHIlCOBhIE ,UOCKH. <l>opMoBaHHhIH
cTpOHTeJIhHhIH MaTepHaJI H3 KaMhlIIIa,
):IpaHH H TOJICTOH COJIOMhI, 3aJIHThIX aJIe6acTpoM.
fHIlCOBhIl1: BETOH. AHHaJlum.
fHPEBOM KOJIO,UEll BepTHKaJIhHhIH KaHaJI BHyTpH KaMeHHoH ICJlaOICU, B
KOTOPOM npOXO):lHJIH Il,enH C rHpSIMH,
npHBO):lHBIIIHe B ):IBHx<:eHHe qaCOBOH
MexaHH3M (HanpHMep, Ha 6awHe (1) HJIH
ICOJlOICOJlbHe) .
fE<I>A IlOJIhl. IlOJIhI H3 nycTOTeJIhIX
x<:eJIe306eToHHhIX 6aJIOK, npocTPaHcTBo
MeX{):\y KOTOPblMH 3anOJIHeHO 6emoHoM.
fHPhKA. ,UeKopaTHBHasI nO):lBeCKa K
061l..\eH nRme (1) COCe):lHHX apoIC.
fMPJI5IH,UA. BhITSIHYToe B JIHHHJO
):IeKOpaTHBHoe
CnJIeTeHHe
Il,BeTOB,
JIHCTheB H CPPYKTOB, HHOr):la nepeBHToe
JIeHToH.
fE<I>CHMAHH5I.
ApxHTeKTypHo-ca):IOBhIH KOMnJIeKC npH MOHacThlpe, CHMBOJIH3HPYJOIl..\HH MeCTHC?CTh, B KOTOPOH
rrpoHcxO):lHJIH HeKoTophle BaX<:Hhle co6hITHSI eBaHre.[IhcKoH HCTOpHH.
-45-
fJIABA. KynOJlbHOe HJIH MHororpaHHoe nOKphITHe 6apa6a1la Ha KYJIhTOBOH
nOCTpoHKe.
fJIABfII.:(A. 1 He60JIhIIIasI ZJla6a Il,epKOBHOro coopyx<:eHHSI, ZJla6ICa. 2 KanumeJlb. 3/(ocICa.
fJIABKA.
He60JIhIIIaSI
06hlqHO Ha weuICe (1).
ZJla6a
fJIABHhIM BAJI. BaJI (1) ICpenocmu,
oKpyx<:aJOIl..\HH ee OCHOBHhle coopyx<:eHHSI.
fJIABHhIM
ICapHua.
KAPHM3.
Bell'talOUI,uu
fJIAfOJIEM (nocTpoHKa). KpecThSIHCKoe X<:HJIHll..\e HJIH ):IpeBHepyccKoe 3):1aHHe C f-06pa3HhIM nJIaHOM.
fJIA,UKHM HAJIH"lJHHK (KOH. XVIII
- Haq. XIX B.). HerrpephIBHoe 06paMJIeHHe npoeMa, HMeJOll..\ee HeCJIOX{HhIH
npocpHJIh B BH):Ie acmpazaJla (1),
'tem6epmHozo 6aJla H T. n.
fJIA30K. 1 ,UeKopaTHBHhIH MOTHB B
cpaca):lax KHpnHqHhIX ua6 (1) C JlUl{e60U
/(.l/aOICOU, HMeJOIl..\HH BH):I KpacHoro
JIex<:al.!ero pOM6a, KOTOPhIH BnHcaH B
6eJIhIH npSIMoyroJIhHHK; ):IJISI 3TOro
mbt'toIC 6pYCK060Z0 ICupnu'ta o6MaKHBaJIH KaX{):\hIM yrJIOM B H3BeCTh.
2 He6oJIhIIIOH KPYX<:OK B Il,eHTpe
3aBHTKa UOHu'teCKOU 60JllOmbt.
fJIA3YPh. CTeKJIOBH):IHOe nOKphITHe
Ha KepaMHQeCKHX H3):1eJIHSIX, 3all..\Hll..\aJOll..\ee HX OT pa3pYIIIHTeJIhHOrO ):IeHCTBHSI X<:H):IKOCTeH H ra30B, a TaKX<:e npH):IaJOll..\ee HM 60JIee 3cpcpeKTHhIH BH):I.
fJIA3YPh
BOJIhllIOfO
OfH5I.
TyroJIJIaBKOe CTeKJIOBH):IHoe nOKphITHe
cpapcpopa, cpasIHca H KaMeHHhlX H3):1eJIHH.
fJIA3YPh MAJIOfO OfH5I. JIerKonJIaBKOe CTeKJIOBH):IHoe nOKphITHe KHPnHQeH, 'tepenul{bt, uapaal{o6 H 06JIHIl,OBOQHOH nJIHTKH C nopHcThIM l.!epenKoM.
fJIACMC. IloJIorasI HaChIJIh nepe):l
HapyX<:HhIM pBOM YKpenJIeHHSI, 6ecnpenSITCTBeHHO 06CTpeJIHBaeMaSI C KpenoCTHoro 6aJ1a (1).
r
46
rnE3AYH - rOnnAHACKASl nE"Ib
fJIE3)J;YH. Bpe3HOH aaMOK
(3).
fJII1HOBETOH. YTpaM60BaHHilli rJU!:Ha C ):I06aBJIeHHeM KaMHeH, npHMeIDIeMilli B nepeMhl'IKax H l"H):IPOH30JIMU;HOHHhIX rrpOCJIOHKax.
fJII1HOBI1THhIE CTEHhI (=rJlHHOMMTHble cTeHhI). CTeHhI H3 CMeCH rJlHHhI
C neCKOM (npHMepHo nopoBHY) HJIH H3
O):lHoro JlHIIIh rJIHHHCTOro rpYHTa,
coopY)l{aeMhIe npH nOMOIu;H MIu;HKOB,
KOTopble <l>OpMyIOT rJIHIDIHYIO Maccy.
fJIYXOMllII1II. Ky6HqeCKHH IIIHn ):IJIM
CIIJIaqHBaHHM ):IByx 6pycbe6 nO):l npMMhIM
yrJIOM, paBHhI:It: TPeTH OT IIIHpHHhI 6pyca
H cMeIu;eHHhIH K yrJIy Ha ero Topu;e.
fJIYllIEHOE
CTEKJIO.
MaToBoe
CTeKJIO, XOPOIIIO pacceHBalOIu;ee CBeT
6JIarO):lapM paBHoMepHoMY pacnpe):leJIeHHIO B HeM qaCTHU; TaJIhKa, rHnca, OJIOBa, <l>OC<l>0PHblX COe):lHHeHHH, OKHCJIOB
MblIIIhMKa H T. ):I.
fJI5IHEIJ,. rJlaaypb.
fJII1HYXA. IIorpe6-Maam{Ka, rrpHMhIKalOIu;HH K KpecThMHcKOMY ):IOMy.
fMhmH5I.
nOJlKe.
fJIOBA. rHem.
fHE3.o;O. 1 BhI):IOJI6JIeHHOe C OTCTYnOM OT KpaM npMMoyrOJIhHOe yrJIy6JIeHHe - npHMepHO ):10 nOJIOBHHhI OOCKU
(1), 6pyca (1) HJIH 6pe6Ha. 2 .D:Be KpeCThMHCKHe ycaob6bl, npHMhIKalOIu;He
O):lHa K ):IpyroH 6e3 pa3):1eJIMIOIu;erO HX
npoyJIKa. 3 IIapa J/CUK06UH ):IJIM O):lHoro
):IBepHOro nOJIOTHHIu;a. 4 (=HaCe):lKa).
Ha60p qa:lt:HhIX CTOJIHKOB, B):IBHraeMhIX
O):lHH B ):IpyroH.
fJIOBKA. MOCTKH.
fJIOPI1ETTA. OTKphIThI:It: KOJlOHHhI:It:
na6U.!lbOH (1) B napKe, pacnOJlO)l{eHHhIH
y BXO):la B Hero, Ha XOJIMe JIH60 B KOHu;e
rJIy60KoH nepcneKTHBhI.
fJIYBI1HA APKI1 (HJIH CBO):la). Pa3Mep KPHBOJlHHeHHOro nepeKphITHM no
ropH30HTaJIH, napaJIJleJlhHO ero onopaM.
fJIYBI1HA 3AJIO)l(EHI15I. PaccToMHHe no BepTHKaJlH OT nOBepxHocTH
3eMJlH ):10 noooUJ6bt.
fJIYXA5I JIABKA.
CTeHhI 6e3 OKOH.
JIaBKa
B):IOJIh
fJIYXA5I IIJIOTI1HA. llJlOmUHa 6e3
BO):lOcnycKHhlx OTBepCTHH.
fJIYXA5I IIOBETh. KphIThIH 060P (2)
B KpeCTb5IHCKO:lt: ycaob6e.
fJIYXOE BATAP.o;O. IIepeceKalOru:illI
KpenocTHoH POB KaMeHHaM CTeHKa C
KPYTOH ):IBYCKaTHOH Kp06J1eU, YCJIO)l{HeHHO:lt: 3arpa)l{):leHHeM, KOTopoe MeIIIaeT
nepeHTH C O):lHOH CTOPOHhI pBa Ha ):IpyrylO.
fJIYXOE
CmeKJlO.
CTEKJIO.
AJle6acmp060e
fJIYXOM. He HMelOIu;H:It: oTBepCTH:It:.
IIO):lroJIOBhe
Ha
6aHHOM
fOJIKEJIh. rOJlOpe6epc.
fHE3.D:OBA5I IIOCA.D:KA. fpynna H3
HeCKOJIhKHX ):IepeBheB, BhICa)l{eHHhIX Ha
paccToMHHH ):10 MeTpa ):Ipyr OT ):Ipyra H
06pa3ylOIu;Hx e):lHHylO KpOHy.
fOJIJIAH.D:KA. rOJlJlaHOCKaR ne'tb.
fOJIJIAH.D:CKA5I f AJIEPE5I. <l>0PTH<l>HKaU;HoHHaM laJlepeR (2) co CTeHKaMH
H3 OOCOK (1), pacnOJIO)l{eHHhIX B CThIK
O,L\Ha K ,L\pyroH.
,
.
:<~--S;~-?
fHET
(=rJl06a).
fOPH30HTaJIhHilli
cJleza B 3aBepIIIeHHH ua6bl (1), npH)!(HMalOIu;aM B Kp06J1e BepxHHe KOHU;hI
TeCHH HJIH opaHoK (1) JIH60 COJIOMy.
fHOMOH (=rpa):lIIIToK). BepTHKaJlhHhIH HJIH HaKJIOHHhIH CTep)l{eHh B COJIHeqHhIX qacax, TeHh OT KOToporo na):laeT
Ha U;H<l>ep6JIaT, YKa3hIBilli BpeMM.
fOBEJIEH. llInaAepa (1).
fOfBAXT A.
ma.
KapayJlhHM,
zaynm6ax-
fOMHO. raUHO.
fOJIAHKA. rOJlJlaHOCKaR nelfb.
fOJIBEIJ,. 1 (=ra6eu;, re:lt:6eu;, r06eu;,
roJly6eu;, Kap)l{HHa) . .D:epeBMHHaM npHcTpoHKa K neqH, HMelOIu;illI HaBepxy
fJIYXOM IIO.o;KJIET. lloJlynoo6aJl
nO):l KJleThlO (JIeTHHM HeOTanJIHBaeMhIM
nOMeIu;eHHeM KpecThMHCKO:lt: ua6bl) , B
KOTOPOM cO):lep)l{aJICM CKOT H pa3MeIu;aJIaCh KJla):IOBilli.
fJIYXOM CKOBOPO.o;EHh (=rnyxoH
CKOBOPO):lHHK). TpaneU;HeBH):\HhI:It: Kpene)l{HhIH BhIcTyn B nOJIOBHHY CeqeHHM Ha
KOHu;e OOCKU (1) HJIH 6pyca.
fOJIfO<l>A. CTynesqaToe OCHOBaHHe
peJIhe<l>Horo KpecTa Ha CTeHe KyJlhTOBOH nocTpoHKH.
JIe)l{aHKY, a C60KY - ):IBepu;y K JIeCTHHu;e
B nO):lnOJIhe. 2 BhIrOpO)l{eHHhI:It: qYJIaH B
IIOMeIu;eHHH. 3 IIO):lnOJIhe ua6bl (2),
cnYCK B Hero. 4 Orpa):la KJlUpoca. 5 roJly6el{ (3).
fOJIBEIJ,. .D:OMHK, XH)I{HHa, 6aJlalaH,
JIaBKa.
-46-
fOJIJIAH.D:CKA5I KJIA.D:KA. KHpnHqHaM KJIa,L\Ka, B KOTOPO:lt: pM,L\hI C qepe,L\OBaHHeM mbl,{K06 H JlOJ/CK06 pa3,L\eJIeHhI
O,L\HHOqHblMH pM,L\aMH H3 O,L\HHX ThIqKOB.
fOJIJIAH.D:CKA5I KPOBJI5I. BaJlbMO6aR KP06J1R.
fOJIJIAH.D:CKA5I MEJIhHI1IJ,A. llIamp06Ka.
fOJIJIAH.D:CKA5I IIEl..Jh (=raJIaHKa,
raJIJIaHKa, rOJIaHKa, rOJIJIaH,LIKa, ryJIaHKa).
06JIHU;OBaHHilli Ka¢eJleM HJIH
r
ronnAHACKASI 'tEPEnHUA - rOHT
uapa3u,aMU rrpSlMoyrOJIbHaSl rre'lb ;n;JISI
060rpeBa KOMHaT, HMelOlQaSI BepTHKaJIbHble OblMoo6opombl.
rOJIJIAH,n:CKA~ qEPEIIMIJ;A. Ke-
paMHqeCKHe KpOBeJIbHble rrJIHTKH S-06pa3Horo Ce'leHHSI, C Kperre)l{HbIM mHrrOM
Ha HH)I{HeH CTopOHe - ;n;JISI co:errJIeHHSI C
o6peUlemKO/l; YKJIaAbIBalOTCSI ropH30HTaJIbHhIMH PSlAaMH, Ka)l{;n;bIH H3 KOTOpbIX 3aKpbIBaeT TpeTb HIf)l{Hero.
rOJIJIAH,n:CKME P AMhl. IIpeAHa3Ha'leHHble AJISI YKperrJIeHHSI CTeH <pOPTH<pHKaO:HOHHOH wJlepeu (2) lQHTbI H3
OOCOK (1), CrrJIO'leHHbIX B CTbIK OAHa K
APyroH (CM. rOJlJla/-10CKaJl WJlepeR).
rOJIJIAH,n:CKMM 3YE. HapalQHBaHHe 6pycbe6 (1) B CTbIK rro O;n;HOH OCH C
rrOMOlQblO KOCbIX Bpy60K C KOHI~eBbIMH
3an:erraMH, Me)l{;IJ;y KOTOPbIMH B6HBalOT
BCTpe'lHbIe KJIHHbSl, yrrJIOTHSlIOIIJ;He coe;n;HHeHHe.
rOJIJIAH,n:CKMM IIOTOJIOK. KOHCTPYKn:HSI rrepeKpbITHSI H3 KOPOTKHX
B3aHMHO rrO;n;;n;ep)l{HBalOlQHX 6pYCK06
(1), YJIO)l{eHHblx TO rrapaJIJIeJIbHO CTeHaM rrOMelQeHHSI, TO rro;n; yrJIOM 45° K
47
rOJIOE CEPEEPO. Cepe6po 6e3 rrpHMeceH.
rOJIOKOCT. CBeqa rrepeA HKOHOH:.
rOJIOMO. KOHHqeCKOe )I{HJIHlQe KOpeHHbIX HapoAoB CH6HPH, YTerrJIeHHOe
3eMJIeH H oepHoM.
rOJIOPEBEPC (=rOJIKeJIb, rOJIbKeJIb).
1 )KeJI060K B apxHTeKTypHbIX yKpameHHSlX (B KapHuaax, KOJlOHHaX HAP.).
2 raJtmeJlb.
rOJIOCHMKM. BKJIIO'leHHbIe B KJIa;n;Ky CTeH HJIH C60006 KepaMHqeCKHe cocy;n;bI, OTKpbITbIe KpyrJIhIM oTBepcTHeM
BffYTph rrOMelQeHHSI; o6JIerqaJIH KOHCTPYKn:HIO H YCHJIHBaJIH aKycTHqeCKHH
pe30HaHc.
rOJIOTH~. )KepAH ;n;JISI cymKH ceHa,
roPH30HTaJIhHO YKperrJIeHHbIe Ha CTOJI6ax.
rOJIO<l>AH. I1peccoBaHHoe rrpH3MaTHqeCKOe CTeKJIO C BbICOKHM cBeTopacrrpe;n;eJIeHHeM, rrpHMeHSlBmeecSI B a6aJICypax
(1) H 3arrOJIHeHHSIX rrpoeMoB.
rOJIYEA~ OXP A. TeMHo-cHHSISI 3eMJISlHaSl KpacKa, rrpHMeHSlBmaSlcSI B MaJISlpHhIX pa60Tax.
rOJIJIAH,n:CKMM CIIOCOE O,n:E)K,n:hI OTKOCOB. IIO;n;BO;n;Hoe yKperrJIeHHe HaKJIOHHOrO 3eMJISlHOrO 6epera
ropH30HTaJIbHbIMH
pSl;n;aMH
paUluH,
KOTopble HMelOT B rrOrrepe'lHHKe ;n;o
qeTBepTH <PYTa H yrrHpalOTcSI KOMJISlMH B
6eper, a MeTJIaMH 06palQeHbI B Bo;n;y.
rOJIYEEJIh. KaqeJIH.
rOJIYEEIJ;.
1 CBeTJIO-roJIy6aSl KpaCKa.
2 (=ropHaSI roJIy6aSI, ropHaSl CHHh).
CHHHH KpaCHTeJIh C rnApaToM OKHCH
MeAH H yrJIeKHCJIhIM KaJIhn:HeM B OCHOBe. 3 qeThlpexrpaHHhIH CTOJI6HK Ha
rOJIJIAH,n:CKMM TMII. mampo6Ka.
rOJIOBHOE COOP~HME. r~­
pOTexHwiecKoe YCTPOHCTBO, HarrpaBJISIIOlQee BOAY caMOTeKOM H3 peKH B OPOCHTeJIbHbIH KaHaJI.
rOJIYEMu;A. IIOArrOJIhe
CKOH: ua6bl (1), XOA B Hero.
KpeCThSlH-
rOJIYEKM. rOJly6eHKU.
rOJIYEHMK, rOJIYEHMIJ;A. rOJlY6RmHR.
rOJIYEOAJIhIM. JIIfJIOBhIH C rrpe06JIa;n;aHHeM KpacHoro OTTeHKa.
rOJIYE~TH~ (=roJIy6HHK, rOJIy6HHo:a). CoopY)l{eHHe, B KOTOPOM CO;n;ep)l{aT
H pa3BoASlT rOJIy6eH; B yca;n;e6HoM
cTPoHTeJIhCTBe Hepe;n;KO HMeJIO BH;n;
SlpycHoro Kpymoro 06"beMa Ha BhICOKOH
rOJIh,n: -<I> APEA. IIOJIO)l{eHHaSI rroBepx
rpYHToBKH MaCJISlHaSl KpacKa, K KOTOPOH
(rroKa OHa He 3aCOXJIa) rrpHKJIaAhIBalOT
JIHCTOqKH cycaJIhHOrO 30JIOTa rrpH 30JIO'leHHH Ha OJIH<pe (HarrpHMep, Kp06eJlb).
rOJIhK. PYKOMOHHHK.
rOJIhKEJIh. rOJlOpe6epc.
rOJIhIJ;-IJ;EMEHT.
CTpOHTeJIbHhIH
MaTepHaJI H3 n:eMeHTa C ;n;peBeCHhIM
3arrOJIHHTeJIeM (CTPY)l{KH, OlIHJIKH).
rOJIhIJ;IJ;EMEHTHA5I
KPOBJI5I.
IIOKphITHe H3 HeCKOJIhKHX CJIOeB 6yMarH HJIH KapToHa, YJIO)l{eHHhlx 1I0
ClIJIOmHOH olIaJIy6Ke H CKJIeeHHhIX
COCTaBOM, B KOTOPOM rJIaBHhIM KOMrroHeHTOM CJIY)l{HT KaMeHHoyrOJIbHaSI CMOJIa. YKJIOH TaKoro lIOKPhITHSI HeBeJIHK
rOJIOBHOE YKPEIIJIEHME. <l>opTH<pHKaO:HoHHoe coopY)l{eHHe ;n;JISI 3alQHTbI MOCTa, Y3Koro rrpoxoAa B peJIbe<pe MeCTHOCTH H T. II.
rOJIOBOJIOMKA. Ca;n;OBo-rrapKoBoe
rnMHaCTHqeCKOe coopY)l{eHHe C ;n;epeBSlHHbIM BaJIOM Me)l{;IJ;y ;n;ByMSl cToHKaMH,
HMelOlQHM Ha TOpn:ax TpeyrOJIbHbIe
Ha60HKH C rrapaJIJIeJIbHbIMH BepeBKaMH
OT yrJIOB; ;n;JISI BbIIIOJIHeHHSI cnopTHBHbIX
ynpa)l{HeHHH Ha;n;O npoHTH B;n;OJIb BaJIa,
orrHpaSlcb Ha HH)I{HHe BepeBKH H ;n;ep)I{aCb PYKOH 3a BepxHIOIO.
;n;apTHhIMH rrpSlMoyrOJIhHhIMH KHpnHqaMH H YCHJIHBalOlQIfe cn:errJIeHHe mTyKaTypKH C MaCCHBOM CTeHhI.
(1:20+1:50).
MOrHJIe HJIH rrpH Aopore, 3aBepmeHHhIii:
HKOHOH rro;n; ;n;BYCKaTHhIM rroKphITHeM.
4 rOJl6el{. 5 IIIHpoKaSl JIaBKa, HaphI ;n;JISI
cnaHhSl.
rOJIYEEHKM (=rOJIy6KH, rOJIy6O:hI).
Bna;n;HHhI B KHpnHqHOH KJlaOKe Ha
pe6pax OTKOCOB B rrpoeMax, 06pa30BaHHhIe rrpM BhIKJIa;n;Ke Tynhlx yrJIOB CTaH-
-47-
rOJI5IHIl(MHA. Pe3HbIe HJIH TOqeHhIe
H3;n;eJIHSI H3 ;n;epeBa, lQerrHOH TOBap.
rOHOT. 1 (=lIJIaxa, IIJIaCTHHa). IIoJIOBHHa lIPOAOJIbHO paCKOJIOToro 6pe6Ha. 2
IIOJIeHO ;n;JISI paClQelIJIeHHSI Ha JIyqHHbI.
rOHOThE. KpOBeJIhHaSl ;n;paHh.
rOHT. KpOBeJIbHbIH MaTepHaJI B BH;n;e
AepeBSlHHhIX KJIHHOBH;n;HhIX ;n;OlQeqeK C
r
rOHXOH - rOPOA'iATbiA nORC
npOp;OJIhHhIM na30M Ha cTopoHe, npoTHBOnOJIO)KHOM oCTpmo.
rOHXOH. BepxHHM RpyC 6YP;P;HMCKOro
xpaMa C rrHpaMHp;aJIhHOM KOMrro3H~eM.
rOHqAPhl. rOpIIIKH H3 060)K)KeHHOM
rJIHHhI, a TaK)Ke KepaMH'IeCKHe Tpy6KH
H KOHYChI P;JISI KJIap;KH C80008 H rreperopOP;OK, o6JIerlJaIOIQHe KOHCTPYK~HIO.
rop. rJIHHo6HTHaSI rrelJh B KpecThSIHCKOM )KHJIHIQe KOMH-nepMSIKoB.
48
rOPKA. 1 IlHpaMHp;aJIhHaSI ama:HCepKa
P;JISI p;oporoM nocyp;hI. 2 Cy)KaIOIQHMCSI
KBepxy He6oJIhillOM KOMOP; HJIH 61OpO C
BhI}1;BH)KHhIMH SIIQHKaMH HJIH p;Bep~aMH
B HeCKOJIhKO srpYCOB.
rOPHA5I MEllhHI1QA. PYP;HHK P;JISI
}1;06hIlJH nycToM nopop;hI, KOTOPOM
3anOJIHSlIOT BhIpa60TaHHhle nop;3eMHhIe
nOJIOCTH.
rOPHA5I CI1Hh. rO/ly6eu, (2).
rOPHA5I CMOllA. AC¢allbm.
rOPBYIIIKI1. BhInYKJIhIe lJaCTH 6peBeHlJaT01l: CTeHhI, KOTophIe npep;CTOHT
CKOJIOTh TorropOM rrpH ee OTeCKe.
rOPBhillEK (=20p6bl/lb (2). Pa3p;eJISIIOIQHM CTeKJIa B OKOHHOM nepenJIeTe
6pycOI' (1) IIIHPHHOM 3-3,5 CM, coep;HHeHHhIM C BHeIIIHeM }1;epeBSIHHOM 06BSI3KOM paMhI rrpH rrOMOIQH IIIHrrOB.
rOPHBEPK. BacTHoHHhIM CPPOHT C
P;BYMSI KPhIJIhSIMH (anO/leMeHmaMu) ,
BhI}1;BHHYThIM B CTOPOHY rrpoTHBHHKa
nepe}1; rJIaBHhIM 8a110M (1) Kpenocmu.
ro PO,o:EQ (= ropop;oK). 1 He6oJIhIIIOM
HaCeJIeHHhIM rryHKT, o6HeceHHhIM mblHOM P;JISI 3aIQHThI. 2 BoraToe ceJIO C
HeCKOJIhKHMJf ~epKBaMH. 3 He60JIhillaSI
KpenOCTHaSI 6aIIIHSI. 4 QepKoBHaSI orpa}1;a. 5 (=¢ecmoH). rOpOObl (1).
rOPO,o:I1HA. OTrOpO)KeHHhIM KOJIhSIMJf OTceK B XJIeBy.
rOPO,o:I1HKA. llecHoe KJIa}1;6HIQe IIpH
ceBepHoM PYCCKOM p;epeBHe.
rOPO,o:I1:rn;E. OCTaTKH oKpY)KeHHOrO
BaJIaMH H PBOM p;peBHero nOCeJIeHHSI.
rOPO,o:KI1. 1 IlJIOCKHe cTyneHlJaThIe
KpoHUlmeuHbl nop; KapHU3oM, pacIIIHpSIIOIQHeCSI KBepxy BP;OJIh rroBepxHocTH
cpacap;a. 2 Hapaau,bl C CPHryPHhIM CHJIy3TOM, rrpe}1;Ha3HalJeHHhle }1;JISI KapHuao8
nelJeM.
rOPo,o:HI1QA. rOpOOHR
rOPBhillh. 1 (=a6arrOJIOK, 60JIOHOK,
rop6HHa, rop6HHHHK, rop6YIIIHHa, rop6hIJIhHHK, 3a60JIOHKa, KpaIOxa, 06anoJI,
060JIOHOK). KpaMHSISI O{)CKa (1) 6pe8Ha
rrpH ero npO}1;OJIhHOM paCnHJIKe, coxpaHHBIIIaSI BhIIIYKJIOM Op;Hy 113 CTOpOH.
2 rOp6bl/leK.
rOPEllhE<l>. CKYJIhIITypHoe npoH3Bep;eHHe C CPOHOM, H3 KOToporo 11306pa)KeHHhIe cpHryphI BhIcTyrraIOT 60JIee lJeM
Ha nOJIOBHHY cBoero 06'heMa.
rOPEllhE<l>HA5I OIlYIIIKA. OrrYIIIKa B neU3a:HCHOM napKe, Ha KpaIO KOTOpOM OT}1;eJIhHhIe rpyrrrrhI }1;epeBheB BOCIIpHHHMaIOTCSI 060c06JIeHHO OT OCHOBHoro MaCCHBa 3eJIeHH, HO Henocpep;CTBeHHO npHMhIKaIOT K HeMY.
rOPEHKA. 1 IlOMeIQeHHe 'tepoaKa (1)
HJIH C8eme/lKU, B03BhIIIIaIOIQeMCSI Hap;
xopOMaMU HJIH 60raThIM KpeCThSIHCKHM
}1;OMOM. 2 OTp;eJIhHhIM cpy6 C OKHOM Hap;
BopOTaMH B HH)KHHM SIPYC KpeCThSIHCKoro o6opa (2).
rOP)I(A (=rop)K, rrepeIIIeeK). 1 Coep;HHSIIOIQaSI KOH~hI ¢/laltK08 H 06paIQeHHaSI BHYTPh KpenocTH ThIJIhHaSI lJaCTh
6acmuoHa, co BXO}1;OM Ha rrepeCelJeHIIH
JIHHHM coce}1;HHX KypmuH (3). 2 lIa/lucao
HJIH mbtH Ha 3ap;HeM cTopoHe 6acmuoHa.
3 OTKphITaSI cTopoHa YKperrJIeHHSI C
He3aMKHYThIM rrJIaHOM.
rOPI130HTAnbHhIE qAChl. COJIHelJHhIe lJaChI.
rOPI130HT AnhHhIE qllEHEHI15I.
IlpOTSI)KeHHhle ropH30HTaJIhHhIe BhIcTyrrhI Ha cpaca}1;e, lJJIeHSIIQHe ero rro
BepTHKaJIH (HarrpHMep, npoMe:JICymo'tHblU KapHU3, nop;OKOHHaSI nO/lo'tKa).
rOPI1:rn;E. BepxHSISI lJaCTh XOpOM HJIH
KpecThSIHcKoro oOMa (1).
(1, 2, 3).
ropo,o:H5I. 1 3anOJIHeHHhIM 3eMJIeM
HJIH KaMHSIMH cpy6 }1;JISI KpenocmHblx
CTeH HJIH MOCTOBhIX orrop. -2 qaCTh }1;epeBSIHHoro MOCTa Me)K}1;y 6blKaMU (2).
3 lIpRc/lo p;epeBSIHHoM CTeHhI HJIH HHOM
Orpap;hI. 4 IlOP;BOP;HaSI C6aR. 5 IlOP;BOP;HhIM cpy6. 63a6op (1) H3 CnJIOlJeHHhIX
BepTHKaJIhHhIX 6pe8eH.
rOPHEE MECTO (=ropHHM npeCTOJI). B03BhlIIIeHHoe Cep;aJIHIQe Y BOCTOlJHOM CTeHhI a/lmapR (1), 3a npecmo/10M, npep;Ha3HalJeHHOe }1;JISI apXHepeSI H
cpJIaHKHpOBaHHoe conpecmO/lUR.Mu.
rOPO,o:KOBhII1 llEMEX. Ilpop;oJIroBaThle p;OIQelJKH P;JISI Kp08e/lb, HMeIOIQHe Ha HH)KHeM KOHI~e, cY)KaIOIQeMCSI
K Cepe}1;IfHe, clfMMeTPlflJHhIe npSIMoyrOJIhHhIe yCTyrrhI.
rOPHI1E ,o:BEPI1. KamanemacMa.
rOPHl111 IlPECTOll. rOpHee Mecmo.
rOPHMQA. 1 COe}1;HHeHHaSI celtR.Mu C
TenJIhIM )KHJIhIM nOMeIQeHHeM napa}1;HaSI nOJIOBHHa KpecThSIHcKoro p;OMa,
06hIlJHO HeOTanJIHBaeMaSl, 6e3 nO/lameu
H 2O/l6u,a. 2 Ha6a (1) Ha rJIyxoM nooK/leme.
rOPHI1QA HA CTOllBAX. Pa3HoBHP;HOCTh KpecThSIHcKoro )KHJIIIIQa, rrpH
KOTOPOM nop; U360u (1, 2) Haxop;HTCSI
He)KHJIOe rrOMeIQeHHe co cToJI6aMH no
yrJIaM H p;OIQaThIMH CTeHaMH.
rOPHhII1 BOCK,
rOTh. AC¢a/lbm.
rOPHhII1
,o:E-
ropo,o:. 1 (=zpao (1) HaCeJIeHHhIM
rryHKT, o6HeceHHhIM CTeHOM }1;JISI 3aIQHThI. 2 KpyrrHhIM HeCeJIeHHhIM nyHKT C
npOMhIIIIJIeHHhIMH, ToproBhIMH, TpaHcrropTHhIMH, a}1;MHHHCTpaTHBHhIMJf CPYHK~HSIMH. 3 Orpa}1;a.
rOPO,o:AMI1 BhIPE3AHO. rOpOObl.
rOPO,o:BI1:rn;E. rOpOouU4e.
rOPO,o:EHh. YlJaCTOK aa60pa (1) JfJIH
mbtHa Me)Kp;y COCep;HJfMH cToJI6aMJf (CM.
lIpRc/lO).
-48-
rOPO,o:OBOI1 KI1PIlI1Q (=cTeHoBoM
KlfpnHlJ). OCHOBHOM BIfP; KHpnHlJa B
rrepHop; KJIaCCIf~1f3Ma.
rOPo,o:OK. ropooeu,.
rOPO,o:-CA,o:. 3apop;IfBIIIaSIcSI B KOH~e
XIX B. B AHrJIHH H}1;eaJIhHaSI cxeMa
He6oJIhIIIoro 2Opooa (2), Ha 30-50 ThIC.
lJeJIOBeK, C CPYHKU:lfoHaJIhHhIM 30HHpOBaHHeM H OnTIfMaJIhHhI~1H YCJIOBHSlMH
IIpO)KHBaHHSI, cpe}1;1f MaCCHBOB 3eJIeHhIX
HaCa)Kp;eHHM; B POCCHIf peaJIH30~aHa
rJIaBHhIM o6pa30M B }1;alJHhIX rrOCeJIKax:
IlP03opoBKa nO}1; MOCKBOM, EJIHU:hIIlapK nop; IleTep6yproM, QapcKHM llec
B Plfre, Cap;-ropop; B BapHaYJIe, nOCeJIKIf
nop; XaphKoBoM, Op;eccoM, BJIap;IfBOCTOKOM.
rOPo,o:QAThIll
IlO5IC,
<l>PI13.
OpHaMeHTaJIhHml nOJIoca C Bll.CSIlJHMll.
cryneHlJaThIMIf 3y6u:aMH no HH)KHeMY
KpaIO, KOTophIe MO)KHO BrrlfcaTh B OP;IfHaKOBhle paBH06e}1;peHHhle TpeyrOJIhHIfKH, rrapaJIJIeJIhHhIe cpaCa}1;HOM rroBepxHOCTIf.
r
49
rOPOAbi - rPE6EHb
rOPO,I1;hl. 1 OpHaMeHT B BHl\e 3HT3ara
C Oll:lfHaKOBhIMlf rrpSiMoyrOJIbHbIMlf ycryrraMlf rro ero HaKJIOHHbIM HarrpaBJISIlOm:lfM. 2 OpHaMeHT lf3 lIOJIYKpyrnblx
BbIeMOK C 3y6'1aTbIM KpaeM.
6aMH, npell:Ha3Ha'leHHOe ;r(JISI c60pa crym:eHHoro paCCOJIa B eMKOCTb rro;r( RpycaMU. 2 BaIIIeHHbIH OXJIall:HTeJIb BOll:bI
aTMoc<pePHbIM B03;r(YXOM.
rOPO,I1;hBA. 1 Orpall:a lf3 roPlf30HTaJIbHbIX x<epll:eH, KOHn;bI KOTOPbIX
3ax<aTbI rrapaMlf KOJIbeB. 2 IIJIeTeHb lfJIH
3a6op (2) ;r(JISI JIOBJIH PbI6bI B peKe JIH60
03epe.
rp A,I1;IIITOK. rHOMOH.
rOPOID:AThIE rB03,I1;M. rB03;r(H co
IllJISIrrKOH B BHl\e ropOIlllfHbI, CKperrJISIIOm:He B CJIIOIl:SlHOH OKOH'tUHe Y3KHe
rrOJIOCbI JlCecmu C ;r(epeBSlHHbIM KapKaCOM.
rp A,I1;MID:E. ropoouU{e.
rPA,I1;)I(A (=rpa)KIJ:, rpaX<ll:b).
JIO, XJIeB. 20rpa;r(a.
rp A)l(EHME. CTPoeHHe.
rOCIIMTAJIh. 1 Cnn;lfoHapHaSl JIe'1e6HHn;a (rJIaBHbIM 06pa30M Il:JISI BoeHHbIX). 2 rOCmUHUl4a (1, 2), cmpaHHonpuUMHblU OOM,
6ozaoeJtbHR (B
XVIII B.).
rOPCKA5I M3BA. CeBepOKaBKa3CKoe
HJIH
Il:BYXKaMepHoe
OIl:HOKaMepHoe
X<lfJIHm:e C rrJIOCKOH HJIlf rrOJIOrOH ;r(ByCKaTHOH 3eMJISIHOH KpblUleu.
rOCTMHA5I. KOMHan ;r(JISI rrpHeMa
rOCTeH If ceMeHHbIX Topx<eCTB.
rOCTMHEIJ;. BOJIbiliaSl Il:opora.
rOPtIAHKA. rO~apHaSI Il:bIMOBaSi
TPy6a Ha KpeCTbSlHCKOH rrOCTpOHKe,
COCTOSlm:aSI H3 pSIll:a Hall:eTbIX Il:pyr Ha
Il:pyra COCYIl:OB 6e3 Il:Ha.
rOCTMHMIJ;A. 1 ,I1;OM C Me6JIlfpOBaHHbIMlf KOMHaTaMlf Il:JISI BpeMeHHoro rrpo)KlfBaHlfSi rrpHe3)Klfx.
2 BOJIbHHn;a.
3 rOCmUHel4.
rOPIIIEtIHA5I KJIA,I1;KA. KJtaOKa, B
KOTOPOH pSlll:bI KHplm'leH '1epe;r(YIOTCSI C
JIex<a'lHMH HJIH CTOSl'lHMlf KepaMH'IeCKHMH Tpy6KaMH (B <popMe n;HJIlfH;r(pa
HJIlf yce'leHHoro KOHYca), o6JIeraIOm:HMH KOHCTPYKn;HIO'
rOCTMHhIll .D:BOP. Kopnyc HJIlf
rpyrrrra rrocTpoeK BMeCTe C rrpHJIeralOm:eH TeppHTopHeH, rrpell:Ha3Ha'leHHble
Il:JISI xpaHeHlfSi H rrpoll:a)Klf TOBapoB, KaK npaBHJIO, rOTOBbIX H3Il:eJIHH, a He
CblpbSl (cp.: TopWBble pRObl).
rOPIIIEtIHhIll CBO,I1; (=roPiliKOBbIH
CBOIl:). KPlfBOJIHHeHHOe rrepeKpbITlfe lf3
rrycTOTeJIbIX KJIHHOBHIl:HbIX KHprrH'IeH,
KepaMH'IeCKHX Tpy60K HJIlf rrOJIbIX KOHYCOB.
rOCTMHhIll P5I.D:. TopWBble pRObl.
rOCY,I1;APEB OPEJI. KneHMo Ha KlfPrrH'IaX C rOCYll:apCTBeHHbIX 3aBO;r(OB,
HMelOm:ee BHIl: ;r(ByrJIaBoro -OPJIa.
rOPhI (=aMeplfKaHcKHe ropbI, PyccKHe
rOPbI). ATTpaKI(HOH B BHll:e KPYTbIX
crrycKoB H nOIl:"beMOB, rro KOTOPbIM
HecYTcSI caHH.
1 CTOH-
rOTWIECKA5I KJIA,I1;KA. Bepc1Jl;0BaR KJtaOKa.
rp AM. Xap'leBHSI.
rp AH,Il;. KaMeHHbIH HJIH KHprrH'IHbIH
pe3epByap Il:JISI OXJIaX<;r(eHHS! cycJIa Ha
BHHoKypeHHoM 3aBOll:e.
rp AHEHA5I KOHXA. Kopo6oBblU
CBOO, rrJIaBHO nepeXOIl:Slm:HH B rrepeKpbITHe H3 Tpex HJIH IIS!TH JtomKOB, KOTopble
CMbIKalOTCSI KpaSlMH B BepTHKaJIbHbIX
rrJIOCKOCTSIX.
rp AHI1TOJI. pepMamUH C BbITHCHeHHbIMlf BbIIIYKJIbIMlf Y30paMH.
rPAHh. CTOJI6 C 3apy6KoH, OTMe'laIOm:HH rpaHHn;y BJIall:eHHH.
rPA<I><I>MTM. Czpaq)(pumo.
rPA<I>hE (=n;HpOBKa). XYll:ox<eCTBeHHaSl 06pa6oTKa napKema (1) TOHKHMH
)KeJI06KaMH HJIH 60P031l:KaMH, KOTopble
3arrOJIHSlJIHCb '1epHbIM BapoM JIH60
BCTaBKaMH H3 «'1epHoro» ll:epeBa.
rPA<I>h5I. 3arny6JIeHHhIH KOHTypHhIH
PHCYHOK, npon;aparraHHbIH no JIeBKacy
HJIH IIITYKaTypKe (Il:JISI rrpell:CToSlm:eH
MOHYMeHTaJIbHOH pocrrHcH, pHcoBaHHoH
HMHTan;HH KHprrH'IHOH KJtaoKu HJIH
KaMeHHblX 6JIOKOB; pa3MeTKa M03aH'IHoro Mom:eHHSI rrOJIa H T. rr.).
rPEBEHh. 1 BepxHSlSI rrJIom:all:Ka nJIOTHHbI. 2 MeTaJIJIH'IeCKaSI HJIH ;r(epeBSlHHaSI Kpyx<eBHaSl nOJIOca, rrO;r(HHMalOm:aSlCSI Hall: CBOHM OCHOBaHHeM (HarrpHMep,
rOT<I>CKMll. CmpeJtb'tamblu.
rOYBBAXTA. raynmBaxma.
rO<l>Phl. IIapaJIJIeJIbHble )KeJI06KH,
3anOJIHSlIOm:He ;r(eKopaTHBHYIO BCTaBKY
Ha <pacall:e HJIH B HHTepbepe.
rp A,I1;. 1 ropoo (1), YKperrJIeHHOe rroceJIeHHe co MHox<eCTBOM 1l:0MOB, Coell:HHeHHblX YJIHn;aMH. 2 Kpenocmb. 3 BaA
(1), OKpyx<alOm:HH wpOO HJIH ero '1aCTb.
4 CTeHa, orpall:a.
rPA,I1;E)I(. 3a6op (1), orpall:a.
rpA,I1;EIJ;. 3d.MOK (1), KperrocTb.
rPA,I1;MHA. OroPOIl:, Call:.
rPA,I1;MPH5I (=rpa;r(Hp). 1 MHoroSipycHoe coopyx<eHHe H3 OTKpbITbIX co Bcex
CTOPOH ll:epeBSlHHbIX rrO;r(MOCTeH C )KeJIO-
-49-
B 3aBepIIIeHlfH KpOBJtU). 3 JIHHHSI nepeCe'leHHS! rroBepxHocTH 6pycmBepa HJIH
zJtacuca C BHYTpeHHeH KPYTOCTblO'
4 CBoHcTBeHHoe rr031l:HeMY KJIaCCHn;H3MY
ll:eKOpaTHBHoe
3aBepIIIeHHe
rrpSlMoyrOJIbHoro OKHa rrepeMbI'IKOH H3 KJIHH'1aTbIX KaMHeH, BblcTyrralOm:Hx OIl:HH H3-
r
rPEsnSl - rVnAHKA
no,q IWyroro. 5 (=IIInyHT). BhICTYn
B,qonh KpaSl OOCKU (1) ruIH 6pyca, BBO,qHMhm B na3 Toro }Ke CeqeHHSI, ,qnSI CImaqJl:BaHHSI ,qepeBIDIHoH KOHCTpYKIQlH.
6 Coe,qHHeHHe B3aHMHOneprreH,qHKYnSlpHhIX 6pycbe6 (1) rrpSlMoyronhHhIMH
ruIH KocoyronhHhIMH BhIeMKaMH C rrnOTHOH no,qroHKoH ,qpyr K ,qpyry.
rPEBll5l. 3eMnSlHaSI HaChIrrh ,qnSl ,qoporn Ha KpalO BOAoeMa HnH Ha TorrKOM
MeCTe, YKperrneHHaSI XBOPOCTOM, rjJamuHaMU nH60 TeCOM.
rPEBEHb. Ax<yPHaSI rronoca, rro,qHHMalOW;aSICSI OT KOHbKa KP06IlU.
rPEBHM HAllMqHMKA. BornYThIe
CKaThI pa30pBaHHOro rjJpoHmoHa, 3aBepIIIalOw;ero HaltUliHUK.
rPEqECKMM BAIT. 3XUH.
rPEqECKMM KPECT. qeThIpexKoHeqHhIH KpecT C OAHHaKOBhIMH ropH30HTanhHhIMH H BepTHKanhHhIMH KOIill;aMH,
CTOPOHhI KOTOPhIX rrapannenhHhI.
50
IOW;HX nOllY6a1t B 6a3e KOIlOHHbl C yrnoM
nIlUHma rro,q HeH. 2 rpUrjJOH.
rPM<I>OH. KphmaThIH neB C ronoBoH
opna.
rPYH,UBEPK. Y CTpOHCTBO Ha cTon6oBhIX onopax, HarrpaBnSIlOw;ee BO,qy B
}Keno6 BO,qSIHOH MenhHHD;hI.
rpYHTOBbIE OBOM. 060H, Ha KOTOphle rrepe,q rreqaTaHheM Y30POB HaHOCHTCSI cnOH o,qHOD;BeTHOH KpaCKH.
rpYHTOBbIM CAPAM. HaBec Ha
CTOJI6ax, rro,q KOTOPhIM BhIClUKeHhI rrno,qOBhle ,qepeBhSl; Ha 3HMY rrpOCBeThI
Me~ CTOJI6aMH 3aIIIHBalOTCSI AJISI
YTerrneHHSI OOCKaMU (1).
rpOBMIII;E.
1 Kna,q6Hw;e. 2 Mormra.
rpOBll5l. 1 POB BOKPyr KaMeHHoH orpaAhI. 2 Mow;eHHe zpe6llu.
rPOBE ,ll;E<I>llEKTOP. HerrOABH}KHaSI
fjJIl10ZapKa H3 Ayro06pa3HhIx }Kene3HhIX
rronoc, coeAHHeHHhlX KOHu;aMH Ha
OAHOM ypOBHe H 06pa3ylOW;HX BeepHoe
nOKphlTHe ,qhIMOBOH Tpy6hI.
rpOMOBbIM 3HAK. ,ll;eKopaTHBHhiH
MOTHB Sl3hReCKoro rrpoHcxo~eHHSI, B
BRAe
Kpyra
C IIIeCTHnerreCTKOBOH
poaemKOU BHYTpH; xapaKTepeH ,qnSI
rPMBOBM,ll;HA5I rllABA. rlla6a B
. c»aca,qHOH ,qepeBSlHHOH pe3h6hI Ha pycBHAe IIIapoBoro CerMeHTa, 3HaqHTenhHO
CKHX ua6ax (1).
MeHhIIIe rronycc»ephI.
rpOT. TIapKoBoe coopY}KeHHe, CHMBOnH3HpYIOw;ee rrpHpo,qHYIO rrew;epy H
YKpaIIIeHHoe BHyTpH paKOBHHaMH, MOpCKHMH KaMHSlMH H T. n.
rpYTITIA)K. TIoMew;eHHe, B KOTOPOM
co6HpalOTcSI oaCCa}KHphI rrepeA BhI,qaqeH 11M 6ara}Ka.
rp5I,ll;A. 1 (=rpSl,qKa, BopoHeu;). ,ll;Be
rrepeKJIa,qHHhI Ha,q liellOM (1) PYCCKOU
ne'tu, rrpe,qHa3HaqeHHhIe ,qJISI. CyIIIKH
APOB. 2 (=rp~Ka). ropH30wranhHaSI
}Kep,qh Me~y ,qBYMSI CTeHaMH. 3 I.J;BeTHHK.
rp5I,ll;KA. 1 rpRoa (1, 2). 2 IIolla6oliHUK (1). 3 OrropHhIH 6pyc ,qJISI nOllameu
(2) Ha,q BXO,qHOH ,qBephlO ua6bl. 4 Olien
AnSI 3b16KU. 5 CryoeHh rrpHcTaBHoH
neCTHHD;hI. 6 Bepe30BaSI oocKa (1) AnHHOH OKono 2-x Ca}KeHeH rrpH TOJIID;HHe
3 BepIIIKa H IIIHpHHe 7 -10 BepIIIKoB.
rP5I3EBA5I KYXlUI. TIoMew;eHHe AnSI
rroAroToBKH JIeqe6HOH rpSl3H K Me,qHD;HHCKHM rrpou;eAypaM.
rYBA. BepxHSISI qaCTh KOPUHfjJCKOU
Kanumellu, rrpHMhlKalOW;aSI K a6aKe.
rPMBOBM,ll;HOE
TIEPEKPbITME.
Be36anoqHOe }Kene306eToHHoe rrepeKphITHe Ha orropax C Ha,qKonOHHhIMH
rrnHTaMH B BRAe orrpOKHHYTOH yceqeHHOH IIHpaMH,qhI.
rPMBA (=3arpHBoK, OrpHBOK). 06IIIHBKa crranhHoro HnH caHHoro OAeSIna 06'hSIphlO, aTnaCOM HnH Tac»ToH,
rYBKA. TIPoc»HnHpOBaHHaSI peHKa,
3aKphIBalOW;aSI w;enh Me~ CTBOPKaMH
B rrpoeMe H IIpH6HTaSI K OAHOH H3 HHX.
rpOTECK. CnO}KHhIH opHaMeHT, rrpHqyAJIHBO BIIJIeTalOID;HH B paCTHTeJIhHhIe
H reoMeTpHqeCKHe MOTHBhl c»HrypKH
nlO,qeH H }KII:BOTHhIX.
oKail:MJIeHHaSI ranYHoM, HHDrAa yKpa- rpYBA (=rpy6Ka, rpYHKa). 1 He60JIhIIIeHHaSI }Ke~yroM H ,qparou;eHHhIMH
IIIaSI neqKa AnSI OTorrneHHSI H pa30rpeBa
KaMHSIMH.
rrHW;H, 06hIqHO coe,qHHeHHaSI C PYCCKOU
rPM3AMnb. O,qHoD;BeTHaSI pocrrHch, nelib/O. 2 rOllllaHocKaR nettb. 3 Tpy6a
HMHTHPyroW;aSI 6apellberjJ HJIH apxHTeK- PYCCKOU neliu.
TYPHhIH ,qeKop.
rpY,ll;HA5I BbICOTA. 1 YqHThIBaerpM,ll;HMU;A, rpM,ll;H5I. 1 TIoMew;e- MhlH: B c»0PTHc»HKau;HOHHOM cTpOHTeJIhHHe ,qJISI TeJIOXpaHHTeJIeH KHSl3S1. 2 TIpH- CTBe ypoBeHh rrpHKJIa,qKH PY}KhSl K rrneqy
CTpeJIKa cpe,qHero pOCTa (rrpH cTpeJIh6e
eMHhIH 3an B KHSI}KeCKHX XOPOMax.
CTOSI - 4,5 c»YTa, C KOJIeHa - 3 c»YTa,
rPMllb5l)K. Ca,qoBo-rrapKoBoe coopyCHASI - 2 c»yTa, JIe}Ka - 1 c»YT). 2 Pa3}KeHHe C peIIIeTqaThIMH CTeHKaMH.
HHu;a B YPOBHSlX Me}KAY 6aHKemoM H
rPMH,ll;A. Bpe6Ho AJIHHOH 6-7 Ca}Ke- zpe6HeM (3) 6pycm6epa.
HeH (12,8-14,9 M) C rrOrrepeqHHKOM
rpY,ll;b 3AB05l. TIepeAHSlSI qaCTh py,qB 3-4 BepIIIKa rro BepXHeMY oTpy6y.
HJl:qHOro aa60R (1), rrpo,qBHralOW;aSIcSI
rPMH-3BEH. TaK Ha3hlBaeMoe 3eJIe- Brrepe,q rro Mepe Bhrpa60TKH ropHOH
rrOpOAhI.
Hoe ,qepeBO AJISI rrapKeTHhIX pa60T.
rPM<I>. 1 ,ll;eKopaTHBHhIH MOTHB B BHAe OCTpOKOHeqHhIX nHCTheB, coe,qHHSI-
rpY,ll;b TIEqM. TIepeAHSISI qaCTh
Hero 06'heMa IIIaXTHOH rreqH.
-50-
rYBOBMHA. He6onhIIIoe
ycaob6a, ua6a (1).
ceneHHe,
rYBHO. ['yMHO.
ryrAllA. BepeBOqHhle KaqeJIH.
rY,ll;KM (=ryTKH). TOqeHhIe 6a1tRCUHbi
( C KpyrJIhIM CeqeHHeM Ha Bcex ypOBHSIX).
rY3bIPM. ConoMeHHhIe CHOIIHKH ,qnSl
KP06IlU.
rYllAMTIA (=ryJIOHTa). KBa,qpaTHoe
KHpIIHqHOe
OCHOBaHHe AnSI oqara
rrocpe,qH py6JIeHOH /Opmbl 3arra,qHhlx
6ypSlT.
rYllAMTA. Oqar B u;eHTpe Tpa,qHD;HOHHoro 6ypgTCKOro }KII:nHw;a.
HH}K-
rYllAHKA. rOllllaHOCKaR nelib.
r
ryncJ)APIi - rIOPEH'tA
rYJI<pAPB. rYJlbfjJap6.
rYJIhBI1UA. llooKJ!em, nOp;bI36lUl;a.
rYJIhBl1mE. OTKpbITaH npOTH)KeHHaH
nJlOIIJ:a,LIKa, npMMbIKalOIIJ:aH K 3,L1aHMIO.
rYJIh<pAPB
(=ryJlbcpap6a,
rYJlbTcpapT,
rYJlcpap6,
rYHcpap6,
ryTJlbcpap6). 1 KpacKa ,LIJIH 30JlOqeHMH.
2 MaCJlHHaH rpYHToBKa M3 BapeHoro
Macna M KpoHa, KOTOPOH nOKpblBalOT
npe,LIMeT nepe,LI ero 30JlOqeHMeM.
rYJI5II1:, rYJI5II1:-rOPO.IJ,. 1 llO,LIBM)KHoe YKpenJleHMe M3 npope3aHHbIX 60HHMIJ:aMM ,LIepeBHHHblx IIJ:MTOB Ha KOJleCaX
51
rYPT. 1 YTOJlIIJ:eHMe cBooa, BblcTyrralOIIJ:ee pe6poM no ero BHeIIIHeH MnM BHyTPeHHeH nOBepxHocTM M cooTBeTcTBYlOIIJ:ee ero HanpaBnHIOIIJ:eH JlM60 ,LIMarOHaJlbHoMY
CeQeHUIO
nepeKpbITMH.
2 IIpoMeJICymO'1HbiU KapHU3 rrpocToro
CeQeHMH M MaJlOrO BbIHoca. 3 TIpocTaH
,LIepeBHHHaH MJlM IIITYKaTypHaH OKaHTOBKa npoeMa.
rYP3M .IJ,)KIO. TIpOCTOpHbIH ynbQCKMH
OOM (1).
fYCAK. JIeKaJlbHblH MJlM TecaHbIH KMpnMQ C ZYCbKOM B npocpMne.
fYCEK (=ryceHoK). BbITHHYTblH no
ropM30HTaJlM HaBuCalOIIJ:MH npocpMJlb C
YMepeHHbIM M3rM60M, B KOTOPOM BepxHHH QaCTb BorHYTaH, a HM)KHHH - BbIIIyKJlaH.
MJlM caHHbIX nOJl03bHX. 2 llO,LIBM)KHOH
,LIepeBHHHbIH ropop;oK, CJle,LIYIOIIJ:MH B
0603e 3a BoHcKaMM. 3 KpbITble caHM C
60UHU/{aMU B CTeHKax.
rYJI5IHhE. TIPOryJlOqHaH aJlJleH B
npe,LIMeCTbe, cpJlaHKMpOBaHHaH 60nee
Y3KMMM aJIJleHMM.
rYChKOBA5I KPOBJI5I. 1130mYTaH y
OCHOBaHMH Kp06J1H C npocpMneM B BHl.\e
o6pamHolO zycbKa.
,fYTA. CTeKonbHbIH 3aBO,LI.
rYMEHHI1K. rYMHO.
rYTKl1. ryOKU.
rYMEHHI1UA. qacTb KpeCTbHHCKOH
ycaob6bl, pacrronO)KeHHaH 3a u360u (1),
OBOPOM M KOHIOIIIHeH M 06HeCeHHaH
M3rOpO,LIblO.
rYMEHUhI, rYMEHhE. rYMHO.
rYMJIA.
rYMHO
B
ycaob6e KOMM-3blpHH.
KpecTbHHcKOH
rYMHO (=racMH, ryMeHHMK, rYMeHIJ:bI,
rYMeHbe). qacTb KpecTbHHcKOH ycaob6bl, 060c06J1eHHaH OT OCTaJlbHbIX ee
CTPOeHMH M npe,LIHa3HaqeHHaH ,LIJIH npoCYIIIKM 3epHoBoro xne6a M 06MOJlOTa.
fYTJIh<l> APB. rYJlbfjJap6.
rYTThI (=rYTbI). Kanne06pa3Hble BbIcTynbI B BMp;e yceQeHHbIX KOHYCOB
HJlM yceQeHHbIX ImpaMM,LIOK, npHMbIKaIOIIJ:Me cpe30M K HH)KHeH nOBepxHocTH
MymyJlbl, BblcTyna B HaJlU'1HUKe H T. n.
rY3H (=,LIY). 3epHoxpaHHnMIIJ:e B QepKeccKoH ycaob6e.
rIOPEHqA. TIapa,LIHOe nOMeIIJ:eHMe B
CeJlbCKOM )KMJlMIIJ:e TaTap-MMIIIapeH.
ryp. rJlMH06MTHaH ne% B YP;MYPTCKOH
U36e (1).
rYP.IJ,l1c. TIpMMeHHBIillIHcH B apOqHblX
M 6anOqHblX nepeKpbITMHX nycTOTeJlbIH
KMpnMQ ,LIJlMHOH p;o MeTpa, C npHMoyrOJlbHMKOM JlM60 TPaneIJ:MeH B CeQeHMM
M O,LIHMM MnM HeCKonbKMMM npO,LIOnbHbIMM KaHanaMM BHYTpM.
rYPI1I1: (=rypeH, ryPMH, K€Kypa, Map,
TeMHbIH MaHK). OCTPOBepxaH rpy,LIa
KaMHH-nnMTHHKa,
coopY)KeHHaH
Ha
6epery Benoro MOpH ,LInH npep;ynpe)Kp;eHMH MOpeXO,LIOB 0 MeJlM MnM MHOM
rrO,LIBO,LIHOMrrpeIIHTcTBMM.
-51-
,ll;ABBEPTA H rIOTEHA IIJIHTA.
IIepeKpbITHe H3 KHpnH'IeH, YJIO>KeHHbIX
Ha ~eMeHTHOM paCTBope no >KeJIe3HOMY
OCHOBaHHIO, C YCHJIeHHeM >KeJIe3HbIMH
npYTKaMH KpyrJIOro Ce'IeHIDI.
,ll;AKKA. OPO'IcKHii: Jla6U3 (3) B rJIY6HHe TaHrH, B KOTOPOM xpaHSIT 3anaCbI
e)l;bI H OXOTHH'Ibe cHapIDKeHHe.
,ll;APY. YJIb'ICKHH IIIaMaHCKHH CTOJI6.
,ll;AIJ;AH. BypgTCKHH 6Y)l;)l;HHCKHH MOHacTbIpb.
,ll;BEPHA5I rOITOBKA. KHonKa H3
6POH3bI, Me)l;H, CTeKJIa, q,apq,opa HJIH
)l;epeBa, OTKPbIBalO~aB U{elwJlay HJIH
Bpe3HoH aaMOK (3).
,ll;AITITAP yPACA. Ypaca )l;JISI PSl)l;OBbIX
'IJIeHOB MHOrO'IHCJIeHHOH ceMbH.
,ll;BEPHHIJ;A.
npoeMe.
.a;AIT
,ll;BEPHOM rn03,ll;b. rB03)l;b )l;JIHHOH
7-9 CM.
yP AXAnAP. Ypaca )l;JIB xpaHeHIDI )l;OMaIIIHero cKap6a H npO>KHBaHIDI
'IeJISl)l;H.
,ll;AMACK. CTpyii:'IaTbIH y30p Ha MeTaJIJIe, nOJIyqeHHbIH TPaBJIeHHeM 'Iepe3
KaHaBKH B BOCKOBOM nOKpbITHH.
IIopTbepa B )l;BepHOM
,ll;BEPHOM OKITA,ll;. Tpane~eBH)l;HaSl
Kpene>KHaB KOHCTPy~IDI B PY)l;HHKe, B
KOTOPOH Ka>K)l;aB nepeKJIa)];HHa OIllIpaeTcSI Ha )l;Be cmouxu.
,ll;AMBA (=3eMJIBHOH MOCT). 3eMJISlHaB
HaCbIllb C )l;OpOrOH nOBepxy ,3a~H~a­
lO~aB MeCTHOCTb OT pa3JIHBa BO)l;bI JIH60
pa3)l;eJISIIO~aB BO)l;OeMbI.
,ll;BOEHKA. ,ll;Ba cpy6a, Coe)l;HHeHHbIe
ceHR.Mu.
,ll;AHTHKITbl. p'eHmuKYJlbt.
,ll;BOECTEHHbIM CPYB. KOHCTpYK~ H3 )l;Byx npO)l;OJIbHbIX H )l;BYX nonepe'IHbIX Py6JIeHbIX CTeH, 6e3 BHYTPeHHeH CTeHbI.
,ll;APArH. P,Op02U.
,ll;APHH ,ll;AHH.
umoaHOM.
IIJIo~a)l;Ka
nepe)l;
YCTa,ll;APOXPAHHTEITbHHIJ;A.
HOBJIeHIIbIH Ha npecmoJle 30JIOTOH HJIH
cepe6pSIHbIH KOB'Ier )l;JISI TaK Ha3bIBaeMbIX CBSlTbIX )l;apOB, ynoTpe6JISleMbIX
npH 60rOCJIy>KeHHH.
,ll;'APCETA IIE'llb. MHoroq,yH~o­
HaJIbHaB KYXOHHaB llJIHTa C BbITSl>KHbIM
YCTPOHCTBOM, pa3)l;eJIbHbIMH ne'IHbIMH
IIIKaq,aMH )l;JISI TYIIIeHIDI oBo~eH, >KapeHbSl MSIca H T. )l;., C BepTeJIOM H 3y6'IaTOH nO)l;BeCKOH KOTJIa, n03BOJIBIO~eH
06eCne'IHTb HarpeB HY>KHOH CHJIbI.
,ll;BOMHA5I IIEPEMbI'llKA. CO'IeTaHHe llJIOCKOH HJIH H30rHYTOH nepeMbI'IKH npoeMa C pU3zpyao'tHOu apKou
HenOCpe)l;CTBeHHO Ha)]; HeH.
,ll;BOEPE3. P,U2JlufjJ.
,ll;BOETEC (=)l;BYTec). KpOeeJlbHbte
rn03)l;H )l;JIHHOH 10-14 CM, cnoc06HbIe
npOIIIHBaTb )l;Ba CJIOSI aoc01c (1).
,ll;BOE'llEITbHA~
IIE'llb. IIe'Ib H3
)l;Byx 'IaCTeH, Ka>K)l;aB H3 KOTOPbIX HMeeT
OT)l;eJIbHYIO TonKY.
,ll;BOMHA5I XHPAH,ll;OITb. ,ll;BYX'bSlPYCHbIH q,OHTaH, coe)l;HHSlIO~Hii: BbICOKYIO BepTHKaJIbHYIO BO)l;OMeTHYIO Tpy6y
C 60JIee HH3KOH KOJIb~eBOH, Ha KOTOPOH
paBHoMepHo pacnOJIO>KeHbI oTBepcTIDI
)l;JISI BbI6poca BO)l;bI.
52
-52-
,ll;BOMHA5I IIO,ll;PE3KA. IIoapea/Ca.
,ll;BOMHA5I CAlIA. 1 Cana, 3~~eH­
HaB C )l;Byx CTOPOH napaJIJIeJIbHbIMH 6pycmeepaMu.
2 Cana, orpaHH'IeHHaB
)l;BYMSI pRJl:aMH )l;BOHHbIX mypoe.
,ll;BOMHOM CBO,ll;. IIepeKpbITHe H3
)l;Byx KpHBOJIHHeHHbIX 060JIO'IeK, nOMe~eHHbIX O)l;Ha Ha)l; )l;PyroH H pa3)l;eJIeHHbIX Y3KHM B03)l;yrnHbIM. npocTPaHCTBOM.
,ll;BOMHOM TEHAITb. TeHaJlb C TPeMSI OCTPOyroJIbiIbIMH BbIcTynaMH B CTOpOHY npoTHBHHKa.
,ll;BOM~.
KpecTbBHcKoe >KHJIH~e,
06'be)l;HHSIIO~ee )l;Be U36bt (1) nO)l; CaMO- .
CTOSlTeJIbHbIMH nOKpbITHSIMH.
,ll;BOKPOBHHK. 3)l;aHHe B )l;Ba Rpyca.
,ll;BOP. 1 IIpHMbIKalO~aB K )l;OMY He3aCTPoeHHaB
'IaCTb
3eMJIeBJIa)];eHIDI.
2 IIpHMbIKalO~aB K >KHJIOH U36e X03S1HCTBeHHaB nocTPoHKa, CBSl3aHHaB C HaBeCOM H aa6opoM (1). 3 KpecTbSIHcKoe
3eMJIeBJIa)l;eHHe. 4 Ka3eHHoe HJIH 06~e­
CTBeHHoe 3AaHHe JIH60 yqpe>K)l;eHHe
(MoHeTHbIH )l;BOP, 20cmUHbtU aeop H
AP.). 5 O)l;HH H3 npoMexyTO'IHbIX KOJIb-
ABOPEU - AEHH1Kynbl
u;eBhIX rrOSICOB B MeJIhHHqHOM )KepHOBe.
6 PYOltblU 080p.
JJ:BOPEIJ;. 1 MOHYMeHTaJIhHOe rrpe~­
CTaBHTeJIhHOe 3~aHHe, rrpHHa~JIe)KaIu;ee
JIHU;Y H3 BhICIIIHX CJIOeB 06Iu;ecTBa H
rrpe~Ha3HaqeHHOe,
B qaCTHOCTH, ~JISI
TOp)KeCTBeHHhIX rrpHeMoB. 2 KpyrrHoe
06Iu;ecTBeHHoe 3~aHHe, IjJYHKn;HSI KOTOporo BhIpa)KeHa B Ha3BaHHH (HarrpHMep,
JJ:Bopeu; IIpaBocy~HSI). 3 IIyme80u 080peu,. 4 3a~HHM 080P KpecThSIHcKOM
YC~h6hI, rrpe~Ha3HaqeHHhlM ~JISI CKOTa.
5 XYTOP, o6oco6JIeHHaSI ycaob6a.
6 3eMJIe~eJIhqeCKOe HJIH CKOTOBO~qeC­
Koe X03SIMCTBO MOHaCThIpSI.
JJ:BOPHIUE. 1 (=~BopoBHIu;e). MecTo,
r~e HaXO~HJIHCh 080P HJIH KpyrrHoe
3~aHHe. 2 IIo080pbe. 3 IIpHcTpoMKa K
53
JJ:BYXMAPIIIEBA5I
JIECTHHIJ;A.
JIecTHHu;a, pa3~eJIeHHaSI O~HOM rrJIoIu;a~­
KOM.
JJ:BYXI10JJ:KOCHA5I
CHCTEMA.
KOHCTPYKU;HSI ~epeBSIHHhlX cjJepM, rrpH
KOTOPOM nool<ocbl, Cxo~SIIu;HecSI BHH3Y B
O~HOM
TOqKe, rro~IIHpaiOT pa3HhIe
yqaCTKH ropH30HTaJIhHOM 6aJIKH.
JJ:EJIEHEQ.
oocKa (1).
JJ:BYXPACKOCHA5I
CHCTEMA.
KOHCTPYKU;HSI ~epeBSIHHhIX MOCTOB, B
cjJepMax KOTOPhIX rrepeceKaiOTcSI HaKJIOHHhIe 6pyCbR (1).
JJ:EJIOBA5I JJ:oporA. IIpe~Ha3HaqeH­
HaSI )l;JISI npaKTHqeCKHX nepeB030K aJIJIeSI
HJIH ~opora, nepeceKaiOru;aSI napK JIH60
ca~ no KpaTqaHIIIeMY paCCT05lHHiO.
JJ:BYXP5IJJ:HA5I CB5I3b. PyccKoe KpeCTh5IHCKOe )KHJIHIu;e, KOTopoe COCTOHT
H3 ~ByX rrpHMhIKaiOru;Hx )l;pyr K ~pyry
rrocTpoeK (U36a H X03SIHcTBeHHhIM osop)
rro~
rrapaJIJIeJIhHhIMH
~BycKaTHhIMH
KP08JtRMU.
JJ:EJIOPMA CTPOI1HJIA. ApOqHaSI
KOHCTPYKU;HSI H3 KOPOTKHX OOCOK (1),
nOCTaBJIeHHhIX Ha pe6po H CnJIOqeHHhIX
C nOMoru;hiO IwuJteu Topu;aMH no HOpMaJIH K 06pa3YiOru;eR.
OOMY·
,I:(BOPOBA5I KPEIIb. JJ:epeBSIHHhIe
KOHCTPYKU;HH, yKperrJISIiOIu;He PY0ltbIU
080p.
JJ:BYXCTOPOHKA. jJ8yxzpaHKa.
JJ:BYIJ;BETHA5I TKAHb. MaTepHSl,
CTOPOHhI KOTOPOM HMeiOT pa3HhIM IJ;BeT.
(60JIT,
rno3~h).
IIpe~Ha3HaqeHHhll{ ~JISI 3aKJIerrOqHhIX
JJ:BOPOBHIUE. jJ80puU{e (1).
JJ:BYIIIJI5II1HbIl1:
JJ:BOPOBOE MECTO. He3acTPOeHHhIM HJIH MaJI03aCTpoeHHhIM yqaCTOK
3eMJIH cpe~H ropo~cKHX 3~aHHM.
coe~HHeHHM.
JJ:B05IKOBbIITYKJIbIl1: CBOJJ:. I1epeKphITHe rrpSIMoyrOJIhHOrO yqaCTKa,
HMeiOIu;ee ~yroo6pa3HhIe CeqeHHSI pa3HOM KpHBH3HhI B rrpO~OJIhHOM H rrorrepeqHOM HanpaBJIeHHSIx.
JJ:BYJJ:hIMOK. Tpy6a, B KOTOPYiO BhIBe~eHhI ~hIMOBhIe KaHaJIhI OT pa3HhIx
rreqeM.
JJ:BY)J(HJIhHA5I H3EA (=~By)KHpHaSI
H36a). lfa6a (1) C ~ByMSl )KHJIhIMH na)KaMH, 060rpeBaeMhI.MH rreqaMH.
JJ:BYCBETHhIH (=B ~Ba cBeTa).
06'beM C ~ByMSI ropH30HTaJIhHhIMH P5l~aMH OKOH, He pa3~eJIeHHhIMH B HHTephepe nepeKphITHeM.
JJ:BYCTOJIIIHE.
THrr
rrOMeru;eHHSI
(xpaM, mpaneaHaR, naJtama) , B KOTOPOM rrpOCTpaHCTBO paCqJIeHeHO ~ByMSl
CTOJIrraMH, rrO~~ep)KHBaiOIu;HMH CBO~qa­
.Toe rrepeKphITHe.
JJ:EAMEYJIATOPl1J1:. TaJtepeR (1),
om6aiOIu;aSI aJITapHhIM BhIcTyrr 3arra~HO­
xpHCTHaHCKoro xpaMa.
I10JJ:PE3KA.
JJ:BYTABP. MeTaJIJIHqeCKaSI 6aJIKa C
CeqeHHeM B B~e PHMCKOM e~HHHU;hI, - C
~ByCTOpOHHHMH
rrOrrepeqHhIMH OTCeqKaMH y KOHU;OB OCHOBHOM CTOMKH.
JJ:BYTEC. jJ80emec.
JJ:BYXrp AHKA
( =)l;BYXCTopOHKa).
Epyc (1) C ~ByMSI rrapaJIJIeJIhHhIMH )l;JIHHHhIMH cTopoHaMH.
YKopOqeHHaSI
COCHOBaSI
JJ:EJIbHHIJ;A. MacTepcKaSI.
JJ:EJIb<l>HHA. QepKoBHhIM CBeTHJIhHHK
C YKpaIIIeHHeM.
JJ:EMHrOP)J( (=noJIynepeIIIeeK). yqaCTOK lOPJICU OT cjJJtaltKa ~o u;eHTPa
6acmuoHa.
JJ:EMHJIIOH (=nOJIYMecSIU;). I10JIyKpyrJIoe HmI rro~KoBoo6pa3Hoe B nJIaHe
060pOHHTeJIhHOe coopY)KeHHe, B03Be-
,UEEAPKAJJ:EP. 1 KPhIThIH 3aJt Ha~
)KeJIe3HO~OpO)KHhIMH rrYTSIMH H rreppoHaMH. 2 CY~HO, cJIY)Karu;ee rrJIaByqeM
rrpHcTaHhiO.
JJ:EBCTBEHHHK.
CThlph.
)J(eHcKHM
MOHa-
JJ:EB5ITEPHK. Epe8Ho )l;JIHHOM 9 ca)KeHeR.
JJ:ErA. 3arJIy6JIeHHaSI B 3eMJIiO 3HMHSISI
KOMHaTa U;axypcKoro )KHJIHIqa.
JJ:ErA)J(EMAH. 3arrHpaiOIu;HMcSI XO)l;,
rro KOTOPOMY MO)KHO He3aMeTHO rrpoHTH
H3 O~HOro pSI)l;a KOMHaT B ~pyroH (HarrpHMep, Ha )l;pyroM 3Ta)Ke).
JJ:ErOHA CHCTEMA. )l(eJIe306eToHHaSI KOHCTPYKn;HSI C BOJIHHCTOH apMamypou (2) Me~y IIIThIpSIMH B TOJIIu;e
6emolta.
JJ:EJJ:. C8emeu, ..
JJ:BYCTOPOHH5I5I
IIoopeaKa.
iOru;aSICSI OT T. H. JlCUSOnUC1lbIX KpacoK
Herrp03paqHOCThiO KpaCOqHOrO CJIOSI H
MeHhIIIeR HHTeHCHBHOCThiO TOHa; OCHOBOM )l;JISI TaKoR pocrrHcH MoryT CJIY)KHTh
MeJIKOrrOpHcTaSI IIITYKaTypKa, MeTaJIJI,
XOJICT, KapToH, 6YMara.
JJ:EKAJIbKOMAHH5I (=MeTaxpoMoTHrrHSl). H306pa)KeHHe Ha 6YMare, rrpe~­
Ha3HaqeHHOe ~JISI rrepeHoca Ha )l;pyryiO
rroBepxHocTh (HarrpHMep, ~JISI HMHTaU;HH
npO)KHJIOK MpaMopa H ~peBecHhlx BOJIOKOH, - B OT)l;eJIKe HHTephepoB, BhIBecKax H T. )l;.) - rro crroco6y, H306peTeHHOMY B 1830-e rr. PYCCKHM cKYJIhrrTOpOM
A. II. Tepe6eHeBhIM (1815-1859).
JJ:EKOPATHBHhIE KPACKII. Pa3HoBH~HOCTh JlCU80nUCU KellMa, OTJIHqa-
-53-
~eHHoe nepe~ 6acmUOHOM
HJIH KypmuHOU (3) ~JI5I 3aIu;HThI pBa HJIH XO~OB
coo6ru;eHHSI Me~y KpenOCThiO H OKpy)KaiOIu;eR MeCTHOCThiO;
rrOCTeneHHO
TPaHcljJopMHPOBaJIOCh B pa8eJtUIt.
JJ:EMOJIHQHOHHA5I
CHCTEMA.
COBoKynHocTh
MHHHhIX
KaHaJIOB,
n03BOJI5IiOIu;aSI B30pBaTh KaKYiO-JIH60
qaCTh YKpeIIJIeHHSI B CJIyqae ee 3aXBaTa
npOTHBHHKOM.
JJ:EHJJ:PAPHH. TeppHTopHSI, Ha KOTOPOM BhICa)KeHhI B OTKPhIThIM rpyHT pa3Hoo6pa3Hhle ~peBeCHhIe paCTeHHSI, 30HaJIhHO CHCTeMaTH3HpOBaHHhIe B HayqHhIX HJIH 3CTeTHqeCKHX u;eJISIX .
JJ:EHHHK. 1 3aKphlBaeMoe )l;Bepu;eM
npocTopHoe cmoUJto (1) B KOHiOIIIHe
HJIH Ha CKOTHOM ~Bope, npe~Ha3HaqeH­
Hoe ~JISI 6ecrrpHBSI3Horo CO~ep)KaHHSI
JIOIIIa~H, HOBopo~eHHoro TeJIeHKa H
T. )l;. 2 OTKPhIThIH cBepxy oropO)KeHHhIM yqaCTOK CKOTHOro ~Bopa, npe~Ha3HaqeHHhIM ~JISI npe6hIBaHHSI CKOTa B
~HeBHoe BpeMSI.
JJ:EHTHKYJIbI (=~aHTHKJIhI, 3y6qHKH). PacnOJIO)KeHHhIe C He3HaqHTeJIhHhIMH npOMe)KYTKaMH no ropH30HTaJIH,
54
AEHUE - AHOPAMA
nOITOrOH ~yre HITH HaKITOHHOH ITHHHH
O~HHaKOBhIe np5lMoyrOIThHhIe BhIcTynhI,
nO~~ep)KHBalO~He KapHua ITH60 CKaTJ-'
ppOHmOHa.
yKrra~KOH iJepHa no CnHpaJIH, )KeJIo6a
KOTOPOH MoryT BHe3anHO 3anOJIH5IThC5I
BO~OH H3 CKPhITOro pe3epByapa.
.D:EPHYXA. .D:epeB5IHHhIH )KepHOB ~JI5I
06~HPKH KpyrrhI.
.D:EPHYiliKA. 3eM/lRHKa, KphlTa51 oepHOM.
.D:ECIO.D:EIIOPT (=cyrrpanopT). llaHHO
CKOM )KHJIH~e IIIHpOKa51 ~epeB5IHHa5I
rrOJIKa ~JI5I CyH~yKOB, MaTPan:eB H o~e5lJI.
.D:)KhIHrhIQ KhI3. BOHJIO'IHhIH KOBep, 3aKph1BalO~HH rrOCTeJIH Ha rrOJIKe B~OJIh 3a~HeH CTeHhl B Ka6ap~HHcKOM
HJIH 6aJIKapCKOM )KHJIH~e .
.D:3AIIIIA.D:3 (=~3anrra3, 3arrrra~3).
Ha3eMHhlH HJIH rrOJIyrro~3eMHhlH oceTHHCKHH CKAen.
Ha~ ~BepblO.
.D:EHUE (=nO~60H). /{ocKa (1), oKaHMIT5IBIIIa5I cBepxy HITH CHH3Y ppua (JI0608aR oocKa, ppua08aR oocKa, KpacHaR
oocKa, nJlamoK) Ha rJIaBHOM q,aca~e
~epeB5IHHOH KpeCTh5lHCKOH ua6bt (1).
.D:EOITKA. /{ocKa (1) IIIHPHHOH 10
~IOHMOB.
.D:ETEHhIIII. 1 .D:o~aThIH cpy6 C rrecKOM Ha ~He KO/lOOl4a (1), O'IH~alO~HM
BO~y. 2 (=TapeJIKa). LJacTb 8bIOUlKU,
.D:EIIO. 3~aHHe, B KOTOPOM c06paHhI ,3aKphIBaeMa5I KOJInaKOM.
3arraChI HJIH YCTpoHcTBa onpe~eJIeHHOrO
Ha3Ha'IeHHSI (KapTorpaq,H'IeCKHe MaTe- .D:ETI1HEU. 1 (=~HeIIIHHH rpa~).
PHaJIhI, npO~OBOJIhCTBHe, BoeHHoe CHa- YKpeIIJIeHHa51 ~eHTPaJIbHaSI 'IaCTh ~peB­
p5l)KeHHe, npoTHBOnO)KapHhle cpe~cTBa, HepyccKoro 2Opooa (1, 2). 2 JIaph Ha~
5IMOH ~JI5I CTOKa CMOJIbI.
TpaHCnOpTHOe o6opYAoBaHlie).
.D:EPEEHh. Ha6a (1) MeJIbHHKa.
.D:EPEEEHh. IIo~co6Hoe nOMe~eHHe B
HH)KHeM 3Ta)Ke XOpOM .
.D:EPEB5IHHA5I
MA3AHKA.
IIo-
.D:3YC. IIIHpoKaSI JIaBKa
y~MYPTCKOH ua6e (1).
B~OJIh
CTeH B
.D:I1ArOHAJIhHA5I rPAHh. Ka~a5I
H3 'IeTblpex Y3KHX rpaHeH 80CbMUJlOmK08020 c800a B rrp5lMoyrOJIhHOM rrOMe~eHHH, pa3~eJI5IIO~HX IIIHpoKHe /lOmKU
Ha~ OCHOBHhlMH CTeHaMH.
.D:E<I>EH3HI1. B3aHMHo 060poHSIeMhle
YKperrJIeHIl:SI .
.D:E<I> I1JIA,D:hI. IIJIOCKOCTh, rrpoxo~5I~a51 'Iepe3 caMhle BhICOKHe TO'IKH yKpe-
CTpOHKa C 06MaaKou CTeH rro HX ~e-
nJIeHH5I.
peB5IHHOH rroBepxHocTH - KapKacy, a
TaK)Ke n/laCmUHaM, OOCKaM (1) H 6pe8HaM B 3anOJIHeHlI.H ero npOCBeTOB.
.D:E<I>I1JIE,. Y3Ka5I HaChIllh HJIH MOCT
'Iepe3 60JIOTO HJIH HHyIO HenpHcTyrrHYIO
.D:EPMATI1H
(=rpaHHTOJI,
rpaHHTOITh). 1 3aMeH51IO~a51 KO)KY 06HBO'IHa5I
xJIon'IaTo6YMa)KHa51 TKaHh, rrOKphITa5I
MacTHKoH, KOTOPa51 BKJIIO'IaeT B ce651
pacTBop
~eJIJIIOJI03hI,
KacTopoBoe
MaCITO H rrHrMeHT. 2 CypporaT Kay'IyKa
HITH KO)KH, BKrrIO'IaIO~HH B ce6SI cepHHCTYIO CyphMy, OKHCh )KeJIe3a, cepy, rJIHH03eM, ac6ecT, cepHHcTbili ~HHK, yrJIeKHCJIhIH aMMoHHH H ~p.
B03Be~eHHe
.D:E<I>I1JII1POBAHI1E.
pa3JIH'IHhIX
q,OpTHq,HKa~HoHHhIX
coopY)KeHUH (HachIllH, BhlCOKHe 6pycm8epbl, mpa8epcbl U rrp.) AJI5I 3a~HThI
pac08 YKperrJIeHHSI Hero BHYTpeHHOCTH
OT BhICTpeJIOB npOTHBHHKa.
MeCTHOCTh .
.D:E<I>JIEKTOP.
BblcTyrralO~aSI
Ha~
Kp08/leU BeHTHJISIIIHOHHa5I Tpy6a, y
KOTOPOH Bce 'IaCTH HerrO~BU)KHbI, a BHeIIIHee oTBepcTHe HaKJIOHeHO BHH3, 'ITO
06eCne'IHBaeT T5Iry npH ITI060M HarrpaBJIeHUU BeTpa.
.D:EPHI1HA. KBa~paTHhIH ITH60 rrp5lMOyrOIThHhIH KyCOK oepHa, ynoTpe6IT5IeMoro ~JISI 3a~HThI 3eMIT5IHhIX CKJIOHOB
OT OChIllaHH5I; pacnpocTpaHeHHble pa3- .D:EPH. rYCTO 3apOCIllHH TpaBOH BepxMephI AepHHHhI - 0,5 apIIIHHa B AJIHHY, HHH CJIOH rrO'IBhI, B KOTOPOM TeCHO
6 BepIllKoB B IIIHPHHY H 2-3 BepIIIKa B neperrJIeTeHHhJe KOpHH H KopHeBH~a
c03AaIOT no~o6He rpy6oro BOHJIOKa.
TOJI~HHy.
.D:EPHOBA5I O.D:mK.D:A. 3a~HTHOe
nOKphlTHe oepHOM 3eMJI5IHhIX CKJIOHOB,
COCT05l~ee H3 ropH30HTaITbHhlX pSI~OB
npSIMoyrOITbHblX oepHuH, YJIO)KeHHbIX
TpaBoH BHH3 HarroA06He KHpnH'IHOH
K/laOKU (c HeCOBrraAeHHeM BepTHKaITbHhIX CThIKOB B coceAHHx p5lAax) JIH60 H3
KBa~paTHhlx
AepHHH, pa3Me~eHHhlx
nJIaIIIM5I no CKrrOHY, TpaBoH BBepx; B
060HX BapHaHTax Ka)K~aSI ~epHHHa KpenHTC5I K rpyHTy TpeMSI HJIH 'IeThlpbMSI
CIIHIIaMH.
.D:3YAP. OceTHHcKoe CB5ITHJIH~e, CBSI3aHHoe C KYJIhTOM MeCTHoro 60)KeCTBa- rroKpOBHTeJI5I ayITa.
.D:)KA.D:)l(. IIoJIKa B KOMH-nepM51~KOH
ua6e (1).
.D:)l(ATMA (=xaJIyaH). HaBec Ha CTOJI6ax no maBHoMY q,acaAY Kapa'iaeBCKoro ~OMa.
.D:)l(I1E. 3HMH5I5I 5IKYTCKa5I IOpma C KapKaCOM H3 qeTblpex HJIH BOChMH CTOIT6oB,
Ha KOTophle onHpaeTC5I qeThlpexyroITbHa5I 6peBeH'IaTa51 paMa, nO~~ep)KHBa­
lO~a5I HaK.JIOHHhJe )Kepp;H CTeH C rJIHH5IHOH 06MaaKou.
.D:EPHOBA5I YJII1TKA. .D:eKopaTHB- .D:)l(hIHrbILJ. 3aKpenITeHHa5I Ha cepeHoe napKOBoe coopY)KeHHe H3 3eMITH C ~HHe BblCOThl 3a~HeH CTeHhl B Kapa'iaeB-
-54-
.D:I1AKOHCKI1E .D:BEPI1.
p;BepH UKOHocmaca.
IO)KHhIe
.D:I1BAHHA5I. IIoMe~eHHe B 6oraToM
~OMe, 06CTaBJIeHHOe ~HBaHaMH B~OJIb
CTeH H npe~Ha3Ha'IeHHOe ~J151 6eceA.
.D:l1rJII1 <I> (= ~Boepe3). CXO~HbIH C
mpUZ/lUpOM rrOBTOp5lIO~HHC5I 3JIeMeHT
oopu'tecK02O ppuaa, Ha JIH~eBOH CTOpOHe HMeIO~HH BHA AByX BepTHKaIThHhlX
BhIcTynoB C )KeJI06KOM Me~y HHMH.
.D:I1KACTEPI15I. IIo~'IHHeHHoe enapXHaJIbHOMY apxHepeIO ~yxoBHoe ynpaBJIeHHe,
3aHHMaBIIIeeC5I
cy~e6HhlMH
~eJIaMH B OTHOIIJeHHH cBSI~eHHOCJIy)KH­
TeJIeH H IIepKOBHOCJIY)KHTeJIeH.
.D:I1KA5I KPACKA. UIapa.
.D:I1KAPHbIE CJIOI1. BO/lX08CKUU ua8ecmHRK.
.D:I1KI1E KAMHI1. Ey/lbt:J/CHUK B rre'IKe-KaMeHKe.
.D:I1KI1H KAMEHb (=nOITeBOH KaMeHb). CepblH MeJIK03epHHcThlH rpaHHT
H3 oKpecTHocTeH COpTaBaJIhI.
.D:I1KI1H UBET. CepaSI oKpacKa.
.D:I1HAC. OrHeynopHhlH KHpnH'I H3
3epeH KpynHOMOJIOTOrO KBapIIa, CB5I3aHHhlX He60JIhIIIHM KOJIH'IeCTBOM H3BeCTH IIITH rITHHbI.
.D:I1HrE3. HU2ea.
.D:110P AMA. 1 IIaHopaMHoe H306pa)KeHHe, 06'he~HH5IIO~ee He3aMKHYThlH BorHYThlH B nJIaHe )KHBOnHCHhIH 3aAHHK H
nepe~HHH nITaH, KOTOPhlH 3anOJIHeH
A
AlllnnA31110H - AOCKA
55
OO'beMHhIMH qmrypaMH, npe~MeTaMH,
coopY)KeHIDIMH, IIOB03KaMH H T. ~.
2 IIaHopaMa C )KI{BOIIHCHhIM 3a~HHKOM
Ha IIp03pa'lHoH OCHOBe, qepe3 KOTOpyIO
(B H300pa)KeHHH OKOH, JIYHhI H T. II.)
IIpOHCXO~HT
He3aMeTHru! IIO~CBeTKa
TpeXMepHoro IIepe~Hero IIJIaHa.
,n:OJIbfAY3. J(onnwya.
,n:OJIbMEH. ,n:OHcTOpHqeCKOe IIorpe6aJIhHOe coopY)KeHHe H3 BepTHKaJIhHhIX
KaMeHHhlX IIJIHT, HaKphIThIX ropH30HTaJIhHOH IIJIHToM.
)J,OPHqECKHM OP,Il,EP. O~HH H3 ocHOBHhIX apxHTeKTypHhIX opoep06, ~JIH
KOToporo
xapaKTepHhI
CY)KaIOll\He-
,n:HIIJIA3HOH. ,n:BOHHOH pmlJIh C KJIaBHaTypoH Ha ~BYX CTOPOHax.
,n:HCKAHT. 3aa60HHblU KonOKon.
)J,JIHHHHK. 1 Epe6Ho, 6pyc (1) HJIH
oocKa (1), YJIO)KeHHhle B~OJIh cTpoeHIDI. 2 (=)Kep~HHK). JIecoMaTepHaJI ~JIH
IIIeCTOB. 3 Pa3Mep B ~JIHHY.
,n:HEBHbIE qACbl. PyccKue 'WCbl.
)J,HEllIHHM fPM. J(emuHeu,.
,n:OEOP. Pe3epBHoe paCIIIHpeHHe 3JIeMeHTOB U{um060W napKema, OOJIerqaIOll\ee HX YlIoTpeOJIeHHe oe3 IIpe~BapH­
TeJIhHOrO paCqeTa IIO~ IIJIOll\a,n;h IIOMell\eHIDI H II03BOJIHIOll\ee TOqHO IIo~ro­
HHTh TaKHe Il\HThI rryTeM qaCTHqHOM
IIO~pe3KH Ha MeCTe yKJIa~KH.
,n:OM. 1 )l(HJIHll\e (COBOKYIIHOCTh )KHJIhIX H He)KHJIhIX IIoMell\eHHM B O~HOM
3~aHHH). 2 HMeHHe. 3 QeHTp ~epKoB­
HOH BOTqHHhI (HalIpHMep: ~OM CB. EoropO~H~hI). 4 TOproBhIH KOMIIJIeKC.
,Il,OMAHHK. llpolIHTaHHhIH Heq)ThIO
rJIHHHCThIM CJIaHe~, YlIoTpeOJISIBIIIHMCSI
Ha H3rOTOBJIeHHe cmoneUlHUl{, IIO~O­
KOHHHKOB H T. ~.
,Il,OM EO)l(HM
QepKoBh.
(=~OM foclIo~eHh).
,Il,OfA. IIypxa.
,Il,OM BEKA. fp06, MOrMJIa.
,Il,030PHbIM IIYTb. 'Y3KHH IIpOXO~
Me~y cTeHKoM aCKapna H 6pycm6epoM,
IIpe,n;Ha3HaqeHHhIM ,n;JIH OOOpOHhI IIpHKphIToro rryTH H rpeoHH znacuca, a
TaK)Ke ~JIH pa3Mell\eHHH qaCOBhlX ~030POB B HOqHOe BpeMH.
,Il,OM BCEX CKOPE5IIUHX. CYMacIIIe,n;IIIHM ~OM.
,n:OM,Il,Y C3Pf3T3. PH,n; KOHOBH3eH Ha
.,.MeCTe, r~e HKYThI OTMeqaIOT IIpa3~HHK
hIChIaX.
,n:OM fOCIIO,n:EHb. J(OM EoJICuu.
,Il,OM-,Il,BOP. XapaKTepHoe P;JIH PycCKoro CeBepa KpeCThHHCKoe )KHJIHll\e C
IIpHMoyro.TIhHhIM IIJIaHOM, 06'be~HHH­
IOll\ee U36y (1), cellu H KphIThIH X03HHcTBeHHhIH 060P (2) B ~Ba Hpyca.
,,Il,C>K. CoopY)KeHHe ,n;JIH IIOJIHOrO BHeIIIHero OCMOTPa H peMOHTa KOpaOJIeH.
BO~Y·
,,Il,OJI. llIHpOKHH )KeJIoo.
,n: OJIf APb. IInacmuHa.
,n:OJIfA5I ,n:PAHb. J(paHKa
OKOJIO 5 M.
~JIHHOH
,n:OJI)l(E5I (=~OJI)Kh). llpo~oJIhHaH BhIeMKa B 6pe611e.
,n:OJI)l(HHA. IInacmuHa.
,Il,OJIHK (=MeJIKHM ,n;OJI). )l(eJIOOOK.
,Il,OJIJIfAY3 (=,n;OJIJIhraY3, ~OJIhray3).
llcHXHaTpl{qecKaH OOJIhHH~a.
,n:OJIOHb. YTpaMooBaHHoe
MeCTO ~JISI MOJIOThOhI, TOK.
pOBHoe
,Il,OPH. 1 OCh, BOKpyr KOTOPOH Bpall\aIOTCH rrOJIOBHHKH ,n;BepHOH IIeTJIH.
2 KpyrJIhIH HJIH qeThlpexrpaHHhIH
CTep)KeHh ~BepHoH pyqKH, IIOBOpaqHBaIOll\HH U{eKonoy HJIH IIepeMell\aIOIl\HH 3a,n;BH)KKY.
,Il,OPHOBA KPOBJI5I. llJIocKaH Kpbluta H3 CMeCH rJIHHhI, IIeCKa, CMOJIhI,
,n;y60BOH KOPhI, a TaK)Ke Mxa, MHKHHhI,
KOCTPH~hI, KopoBheH IIIepcTH HJIH ~py­
rHX M~J:rKHX MaTepHaJIOB.
,n:OPOfA. Cpe,n;IDIH IIOJIoca neqHoro
nooa, IIO KOTOPOH ~BH)KeTCH JIOlIaTa IIpH
BhIIIeqKe xJIe6a.
,n:OPOfH (=~aparH). 1 lloJIocaTaH
(pe)Ke KJIeTqaTaH) TKaHh BOCTOqHOro
IIpOHCXO~eHHH, HHor~a C 30JIOThIM H
cepe6pHHhIM IIIHTheM, - cTpYHqaThIMH
Y30paMH, H306pa)KeHHHMH ,n;epeBheB H
TpaB. 2 llapaJIJIeJIhHhle rrOJIOChI Ha TKaHH. 3 llapaJIJIeJIhHhle )KeJIOOKH.
,Il,OKHMACTWIECKA5I
JIAMllA.
OCBeTlITeJIhHhIH
IIPHOOp,
II03BOJIHIOll\HH O~HOBpeMeHHO KHIIHTHTh Ha HeM
',Il,OJIEE)l(A. IIpHMoyroJIhHoe meaoo
(1), BhI,n;OJIOJIeHHOe B O,n;HOM 6pe6He ~JIH
IIJIOTHoro CKpelIJIeHIDI C IIIHIIOM ~pyroro
opeBHa.
CH KBepxy KaHlIenUp06allHble KonOHHbl
6e3 6aa, 3aBepIIIeHHhle 3XUHOM H a6aKOM, a TaK)Ke ¢pua C MemOnaMU H mpuznu¢aMu.
,Il,OPOfHJIbHbIM. llIeJIKOBhIH.
,Il,OM HOqJIEfA. HO'lJleJICHbIU OOM.
,Il,OMOBHIUE. 1 BpeMeHHoe )KHJIOe
coopY)KeHHe (6nuHoaJIC, aeMnRHlW, 6apaK), OOhIqHO IIpH 3eMJIHHhIX pa60Tax.
211pHTOH.
,n:OPO)l(KA. 1 ,Il,JIHHHhIH IIOJIOBHK H3
IIeHhKH, OOhlqHO YKpaIIIeHHhIH pa3Ho~BeTHhIMH
IIOlIepeqHhIMH IIOJIOCaMH.
2 lloJIoca Ha TKaHH, OTJIHqaIOll\aHCH IIO
~BeTy OT <poHa.
,n:OMOBbIM PbIHOK. MecTo IIpO,n;a)KH rOTOBhIX ,n;epeBHHHhIX cpy606.
,Il,OPO)l(HHK. Eazem, IIP0<pHJIHpoBaHHhIH p;epeBHHHhIH KapHU3.
,Il,OM TPY,n:OJIIOEH5I. EJIarOTBOpHTeJIhHhIM IIpHIOT, B KOTOPOM rrpeCTapeJIhle H HeMOll\Hhle BhIIIOJIHHJIH HeCJIO)KHhle paOOThI.
,n:OPO)l(HOE IIOJIOTHO. 1l0JIoca
3eMJIH, IIpe,n;Ha3HaqeHHaH P;JIH IIpOe3~a.
,Il,OP. KpOBeJIhHhle ,n;Oll\eqKH H3 p;peBeCHHhI XBOMHhIX rropo,n;, P;JIHHOH ,n;o ca)KeHH, TOJIll\HHOH P;O 1/8 p;IOHMa H IIIHPHHOH
3-4 BepIIIKa; ynoTpe6JIHJIHCh TaK)Ke Ha
YCTPOHCTBO OpaHU'lHbIX 3a60poB.
-55-
,Il,OPTYAP (=p;opToap). 0611\ru! ClIaJIhIDI B naHCUOHe. (1).
,n:OPYEKA. llpHcTpoeHHhIH HJIH Hap;cTpoeHHhIH cpy6.
,n:OCKA. 1 BhIIIHJIeHHru! HJIH BhITecaHHaH H3 ~epeBa p;JIHHHaH nnacmUHa,
~ocnEWHSI
-
~blMHOE
OKHO
IIIJlpJlHa KOTOPOR HaMHOrO 60JIhIIIe TOJIrn;JlHhI, COCTaBmnOrn;eH OT 3/8 BepIIIKa
11.0 3 BepIIIKoB. 2 IIpSiMoyroJIhHaSi KaMeHHaSI JlJIJI MeTaJIJIJI'leCKaSI nJIJlTa C
TeKCTOM, BMYpoBaHHaSI B cTeHY. 3 CoeAJlHeHHaSI BJlHTaMJI C AepeBSIHHoH OCHOBOR nOnOBJlHa ABepHoR JlnJl OKOHHOR
zuapftUpftOU nem.tlu.
)lOCIIEIIIlUI. IIPOJl3BOACTBeHHoe noMern;eHJle JlJIJI 3AaHJle.
)lOCQATbII1: PYCT. ,aoU{amblu pycm.
)lOXO)lHAH YCA)lbBA. MMeHJle, B
KOTOPOM Ha3Ha'leHJle H rpynnHpoBKa
coopY)KeHHR, a TaK)Ke Y'laCTKOB TeppJlTOpHH onpeAeJISIIOTCSI He 3CTeTH'leCKHMH C006pa)KeHHSlMH, a nOTpe6HOCTSIMH TOBapHoro npOH3BOACTBa.
)lOXO)lHbII1: )lOM. ,aOM (1) C KBapTHpaMJI H OTAeJIhHhIMJI KOMHaTaMJI, cAaBaeMhIMJI B HaeM.
)lO:W;ATA5I CBA5I. TIpeAHa3Ha'leHHaSi
AJISI B6HsaHHSl B rpYHT CJIa60H HJIH cpeAHeH TBepAocTH Y3KaSI AepeBSIHHaSI C6aR C
rpe6HeM TpeyrOJIhHOrO Ce'leHHSI.
)lO:W;ATOE
)KEJIE30.
JIHcToBoe
KOBaHoe )KeJIe30 AmI Kp06eJlb.
)lO:W;ATbIE )lBEPM. Ha60pHhle ABepHhle nOJIOTHJlrn;a H3 HeCKOJIhKHX MeTaJIJIJI'leCKHX JIHCTOB, Ha CThlKax KOTOPhlX
peIIIeTKa H3 )KeJIe3HhIX nOJIOc.
)lO:W;ATbII1: PYCT (=AOC'laThIH PyCT).
. PYCT B BHAe HerrpephIBHhlX ropH30HTaJIhHhIX rrOJIOC, IIIJlpJlHa KOTOPhIX He
HaMHoro rrpeBocxoAHT rrpocBeThI Me~y
HJlMJI (Me~ypYCThSI).
56
)lPEBECHbII1: UEMEHT. CMech AerTSI, KaMeHHoyrOJIhHOH CMOJIhI JI cephI,
CKJIeHBaIOrn;aSI CJIOJl B ApeBecHo-n;eMeHTHOR KpOBJIe.
KJlaOKe rre'lJl, 'lepe3 KOTOPhIH TerrnhIH
B03AYX nonaAaeT BHyTph nOMern;eHHSl.
3 OTBepCTJle B OKOHHOH paMe, nporrycKaIOrn;ee CBe)KHH B03AYX B KOMHaTY·
)lPEBO)lEJIAHME. IIJIoTHJI'lHoe CTOJISipHOe HCKYCCTBO.
)lbIBA. OrropHbIH CTOJI6 AJISI KOJIOAe3HOro JlCypa6JlR.
)lPEH. Tpy6a (mJlHSlHaSI, KaMeHHaSI
JIJl60 lI.epeBSIHHaSI) HJIJI rrOll.3eMHhIR
KaHaJI (H3 KaMeHHhIX rrnHT, KJlprrJl'la,
fjJaUtuft, XBopocTa, )KepAeH JlJIJI OOCOK
(1) Jl3 ApeBecHHhI CMOJIHCThlX nopoA)
AJISI oTBoAa rrO'lBeHHhIX BOA.
)lbIJIM. ,aOCKU (1) TOJIrn;JlHOH 10 CM,
JlCrrOJIh3yeMhle AJISI cpy60B )KJIJIhIX
nOCTpoeK
Ha
IOro-3arraAe
POCCJlH
(06hI'lHO C YCTaHOBKOH Ha pe6po H npJlna30BKOH CeAJIOM).
)lPEHA)K. Y CTPORCTBO AJISI
H36hITO'lHhIX rpYHTOBhIX BOA.
oTBoAa
)lPEHMHA. ,apaHKa.
)lPMH. 1 KphIThIH KpecTbSlHcKHR 060P
(2). 2 )lepeBSIHHbIR HaBec Ha KpecThSIHCKOM o6ope (1, 2).
)lPOBMHA (=lI.pa6J1Ha). IIpJlcTaBHaSI
AepeBSIHHaSI JIeCTHJln;a.
)lCKA. 1,aocKa (1).2 IIJIOCKaSI maAKaSi
rroBepxHocTh AepeBa, MeTaJIJIa JIJl60
KaMHSI, rrpeAHa3Ha'leHHaSI AJISI )KJlBOrrHCHbIX JlJI,JI pe3Hblx Jl306pa)KeHJlH.
)lY. ryaft.
)lYB)lA. JIaMaJlCTCKJlH OTIIIeJIhHJI'leCKJlR MOHacTblpb, Crren;HaJIJl3J1pOBaHHbIH Ha c03epu:aTeJIbHOM rrOABJI)KHH'leCTBe.
)lP AHhE. KOJIOThle COCHOBhle AOCKJI
(6oJIee rpy6hle JI AeIIIeBhle, 'leM rrJlJleHhle).
)lYTMK. )leq,eKTHhIH rrY3hlp'laTbIH
6yropoK Ha"oIIITYKaTypeHHoH rroBepxHOCTJI.
)lPAIIPM. CKJIaA'laThIH 3aHaBec
ABepHoM npoeMe Uftmepbepa.
B
)lPEBECHO-UEMEHTHA5I KPOBJUI. TIoKphITJle H3 'leThlpex JlJIH 60JIee
CJIOeB 6YMarJl, CKJIeeHHhIX Me)KAY C060H
Ope6eCftbLM u,eMeftmOM (cp.: rOJlbU,u,eMeftmftaR Kp06JlR).
)lbIM HA BbIOIIIKY. Pa3Mern;eHHe
BhIOIIIKH Ha rryTJI AhIMa cBepxy.
)lbIMHMK. 1 )lepeBSIHHaSI AhIMOBaSI
Tpy6a Hall. Kp06Jleu. 2 OTBepCTJle AJISI
BhIxoAa rre'lHOrO AhIMa B nOTOJIKe HJIJI
CTeHe KYPftOU U36bl. 3 KypftaR U36a.
4 )leKopaTHBHoe 3aBepIIIeHHe AhIMOBOR
Tpy6hI Ha)l; Kp06Jleu.
)lyrAH. JIaMaJlcTcKJlH xpaM.
)lY)lKA. 1 IIIaXTa AJISI A06hI'lJl PYAbI.
2 BbICOKaSi Y3KaSI nOJlYKOJlOftfta B ApeBHepyccKoM 301l.'leCTBe.
CTeH HJIJI
)lbIMBOJIOK. 1 OTBepCTJle B BepxHeu
'laCTH CTeH KYPHOU U36bl, 'lepe3 KOTOpoe BbIXOAHT' ne'lHOH AhIM. 2 )lorn;aTaSi
AhIMOBaSI Tpy6a. 3 (=60pOB). JIe)Ka'lJlH
AbIMOBOH KaHaJI Ha 'leplI.aKe.
)lYBOBbII1: KMPIIMQ. MaCCJlBHble
ily60Bhle 6pYCKU (1) AJISI nOJIa, HaCTJIJIaeMhle Ha rroAocHoBY Jl3 rreCKa.
)lPAHKA (=ApaHHn;hl). 1 MaTepJlaJI
AJISI Kp06eJlb AepeBeHcKHX CTPoeHHH,
JlMeIOrn;JlH BHA O'leHh AJIJlHHhIX KOJIOThIX
COCHOBhIX AOrn;e'leK (06hI'lHO AJIJlHOH 11.0
Ca)KeHH H IIIHPHHOH 11.0 'leThlpex sePIIIKOB); no KpblUte pacnOJIaraeTCSI ropH30HTaJIhHhlMH pSIAaMJI C HanycKoM JI
CKperrJISIeTCSI C o6peUtemKOu ftaZeJlRMU
JlJIH rB03ASIMH. 2 COcHoBhle Jly'lJlHhI,
AJISI 06J1BKJI CTeH rroA IIITyKarypKy.
)lP AIIMPOBKA. 06HBKa
Me6eJIJlMaTepJleR.
)lbIMAPb. He JlMeIOrn;aSI 3aCJIOHKJI
BhICOKaSI H IIIJlPOKaSI AhIMOBaSI Tpy6a
ceBepo-KaBKa3cKoro )KJIJIJlrn:a, CnJIeTeHHaSI Jl3 rrpYTbeB JI 06Ma3aHHaSi rJIJlHOH;
BHYTPJl nepeceKaeTcSI rrepeKJIa,QJlHOH C
u:enhIO AJISI rroABecKJI KOTJIa.
)lYJI3. Pe3Hoe 3aBepIIIeHHe npJlrrOAHSITOro yrJIa B Jl30rHYToH Kp06Jle 6YAAHHCKoro KYJIbTOBOro coopY)KeHJlSI.
)lYMII-BAI1:TEP. CTOJIHK C TPeMSI
KpyrJIbIMH cmOJleUtftuu,aMU Ha 06rn;eH
cToHKe rro JlX n;eHTpy.
)lYXOBA5I IIEQb. OTOIlJlTeJIhHbIH
npJl60p, BKJIIO'laIOrn;JlH B ce6SI Tpy6y,
KOTOPaSI OAHJlM OTKpbIThIM KOHn;OM
COrrpJlKaCaeTcSI C BHeIIIHHM B03AYXOM,
3aTeM rrepexoAHT B CrrJlpaJIh nocpeAJI
TOnJIHBHHKa H 3aKaH'lHBaeTCSI ApyrHM
OTKpbIThIM KOHn;OM B rrOMern;eHJIJI (coceAHeM JIJl60 Ha APyroM 3Ta)Ke).
)lYIIIHMK. 1 BeHTJlJISIn;JlOHHhIH KaHaJI
B CTeHe JlJIJI rrepeKphITJlJI. 2 KaHaJI B
-56-
)lbIMHMUA. 1 )lepeBSIHHaSI Tpy6a Ha):\
Kp06JleU, npeAHa3Ha'leHHaSI AJISI YAaJIeHJlSI AhIMa Jl3 'lepAa'lHorO rrpOCTPaHcTBa, - 06hI'lHO HaXOAJlJIaCb HaAoTBepCTHeM B rrOTOJIKe u36bl. 2 KOrrTJlJIhHSl.
3 )lepeBHSI.
)lbIMHOE OKRO. He60JIhIIIOe ropH30HTaJIhHOe OKHO B BepXHeH 'laCTH KypftOU U36bl, npeAHa3Ha'leHHOe II.nSI BhIXOAa rre'lHOrO AhIMa.
A
57
AbiMOBHHK - AlOnEH
,lJ;hIMOBHMK (=pa3AeJIKa). llepexoAHOH KaHaJI Me)!(AY IIe'lblO H AbIMOBOH
Tpy60H.
,lJ;hIMOBOll KAHAJI. ,l.(bl.MOXOO.
,lJ;hIMOfAPHA5I llEqh. OTOnHTeJIbHoe YCTPOHCTBO, B KOTOPOM C)!(HraIOTCSI
MeJIb'laHIUHe roplO'IHe 'IaCTHn;bI, nonaBIUHe B }l;bIM.
,lJ;hIMOOEOPOThI. llocJIeAOBaTeJIbHO
CBSI3aHHhle napaJIJIeJIbHbIe KaHaJIbI BHYTJilIl ne'lH, no KOTOPbIM 3aMe}l;JIeHHO
npOXOAHT ropSI'IHH AbIM, OT}l;aBaSI TenJIO
nOMeru;eHIISIM.
,lJ;hIMOOTBO,lJ;.
MeTaJIJIH'leCKaSI
BCTaBKa B Bepx AbIMOBOH Tpy6bI HJIH
)!(eJIe3HaSI nOBopOTHaSI HacaAKa Ha Hee
(pAlozaplCa),
3aru;tlru;alOru;He
BbIXOA
AbIMa OT OCa}l;KOB H BeTpa.
,lJ;hIMOXO,lJ; (=AbIMOBOH KaHaJI). KaHaJI }l;JISI OTBO}l;a AblMa 113 TonKH.
,UbIM llO,lJ; BbIOlliKY. Pa3Meru;eHHe
6blOUlKU Ha nYTH }l;bIMa CHH3Y.
,UhIHhKA. lliapOBH}l;HOe paCIUHpeHHe
nocpeAH He60JIbIUOH ApeBHepYCCKOH
1C0JlOHHbi HJIH nOJlYKOJlOHHbl, 06bI'IHO
pa3AeJIeHHOe Ha BepTHKaJIbHbIe }l;OJIbKH.
,UbIXJIO. BOJlOIC080e OKHO.
,lJ;h5IKOHHMK. llpHMbIKalOru;ee C lOra
K OCHOBHOMY 06'beMY aJlmapR nOMeru;eHHe, B KOTOPOM xpaHSITCSI 06JIa'leHHSI
CBRru;eHHOCJIY)!(HTeJIeH H 3anaCHaR n;epKOBHaSI YTBapb.
,lJ;h5IKOHCKME BPATA. IO)!(HbIH
BXO}l; B aJlmapb 'Iepe3 UKOHocmac.
,lJ;33BMP. BOHJIO'lHbIH Bepx TYSHHCKOH
IOpmbl.
,lJ;IOfEPJIMK. 1 06Ma3aHHbIH rJIHHOH
rpH30HTaJIbHbIH nJIeTeHb Ha}l; OTKPbITbIM O'larOM BHYTpH 1C0Ula, 3aru;Hru;aIOru;HH KPblUlY OT B03ropaHHSI. 2 HaCTHJI
113 6pe6eH HJIII )!(ep}l;eH, HrpalOru;HH pOJIb
nOJlameu (1, 2) B Kapa'laeBCKOM }l;OMe C
rrpHcTeHHbIM O'larOM.
,UIOllMOBKA.
1 }l;IOHM.
llIeJle8ICa
TOJIru;HHOH
,UIOJIEH. HaHaHcKHH IUaMaHHcTcKHH
H}l;OJI C KBaApaTHoH HJIH llRTHyrOJIbHOH
rOJIOBOH, BbICe'leHHbIH 113 KaMHR HJIH
Bblpy6JIeHHbIH H3 }l;epeBa B Ky60BH}l;HbIX
<popMax.
-57-
EBH5I. 3epHOCYIllHJIKa.
EBPEMCKMM
KpeCm.
KPECT.
AllmOl-lUe6
ErMIlETCKMM KPECT. <pHrypa B
BH):Ie 6YKBhI «T», ):IOIIOJIHeHHaSI cBepxy
KOJIhU;oM, KOTOpOe IIpHMhIKaeT K CThIKY
BepTHKaJIH C rOpH30HTaJIhlO.
EAMHOPOr. K.rteiiMo rocY):lapCTBeHHhIX 3aBO):lOB Ha KHpIIHqaX XVII B.
E3 (= 33). qacTOKOJI HJIH IIJIeTeHh, IIeperOpa)l(HBalOlI\HH peKy Ha BCIO IllHpHHy H IIpeIISITCTBYIOlI\HH ):IBH)I(eHHIO PhI6hI IIpOTHB TeqeHHSI.
EJIYM, EJIYHMUA. IIoMocT H3 cBaH H
)l(ep):leH, IIpe):lHa3HaqeHHhIH ):IJISI CYIllKH
phI6hI H CHaCTeH.
EMBOJI. XO):l, YJIHI.\a.
EHAOBA. 1 BIIa):llIHa Me)l():IY BhIIIYKJIhIMII IIoBepxHocTSIMH Kp06/1U. 2 OTKphITaSI qaCTh X03SIHcTBeHHoro o6opa
(1) B PYCCKOH KpecThSIHcKOH ycaob6e,
3aKphIBaBIllaSIcSI Ha 3HMY ):IepeBSIHHhIM
lI\HTOM HJIH COJIOMOH.
EHIIEJIbEC. KpaCllblU ylO/I B KOMHIIepMSII.\KOH U36e (1).
EHYB IIEJIbEC. KpaCllblU ylO/I B U36e
(1) KOMII-3hlpSIH.
EIIAHqA (=cKlIp):la). KpYTaSI qeThIpexcKaTHaSI Kp06/1Jl C roplI30HTaJIhHhIM
pe6poM HaBepxy.
EP YPbIHAbIK. 3eMJISIHhle HaphI B
6aIllKHpcKOM )l(IIJIHlI\e.
EKATEPMHMHCKME MMJIM. B03Be):leHHhie B 1784 r. K IIYTeIllecTBHIO
EKaTepHHhI II B KphIM KaMeHHhIe
):IOpO)l(Hhle 3HaKH B BH):\e HH)I(HeH qaCTH
TocKaHcKoH KO/lOllllbl Ha nOcmaMellme,
OXBaqeHHOH IllecTHrpaHHoH MyifJmou.
EJIAM. 1 KOCJlK, ):IBepHaSI npUmO/lOKa.
2 IIopor B ):IBepHOM IIpoeMe. 3 KphITaSI
za/lepeJl.
EJIEYT C3pr3T3. YCTaHOBJIeHHaSI Ha
SIKYTCKOH MOrHJIe KOHOBSI3h, IIpHHa):lJIe)l(aBIllaSI IIOKOHHHKY.
EJIOBqMK. <PJIar, BhIMIIeJI.
EM. IIpocTpaHcTBo 6aIllKIIpcKOH U36bl
(1,2).
EKMbIC IIEJIbECA KEPKA. H36aKpecm06UK Y KOMH-3hlpSIH.
EKYCMUY. EaHSI B COCTaBe ):I33H-6Y):I):IlIHCKOro xpaMoBoro KOMIIJIeKca.
EPMUYKM. IIplIeMHaSI B SIIIOHCKOM
qaHHOM na6U11bOlle (1, 2).
EPllI. AJIHHHhIH )l(eJIe3HhIH HJIH MeAHhIH rB03):1h C 3a3y6plIHaMH, YCHJIHBa1OlI\IIMII ero CI.\eIIJIeHlIe C ):IpeBeCIIHOH
IIJIII IIHhIM MaTeplIanOM.
rJIyxoe
ETEPMCb
IIOCOA3.
KPhIJIhI.\O KOMII-IIepMSII.\KOrO KpeCThSIHCKOro oOMa (1, 2).
58
-58-
)KAEhIY.
PaCIIHlTM arrrrJIHKaTHBHblM
)KAPOBOli
KAHAn.
BblTHHYTaH
qeHHbIMII. CTeHaMII. II. IIOJIOM H3 .!\epeBHH-
OpHaMeHTOM BOHJIOqHaH HJIH CYKOHHaH
rrOJIOCTb BO BHYTpeHHeH CTeHe 3):1aHHH,
HblX
3aHaBeCb, 3aKpblBalOll\M rrOJIKH B 6aJI-
pacIIpocTPaHHIOll\M B):IOJIb rrOMell\eHHjJ
Ka6aHaMH -
B03):1YX rrOCJIe ero rrporpeBa KallopucjJe-
MH JIb):la.
KapCKOM )l{HJIHll\e.
)KAKOEOBCKA5I TYMEA. HH)l{HHH
)KrYT. ApxHTeKTypHoe YKpaIIIeHHe C
Ba3bl H T. II.
MHHalOll\ee BepeBKY.
)KAITO. BepXHHR KOHe~ rpOMOOTBO):la.
)KEAEIIOM.
)KAnh.
1 MOrMJIa. 2
1
)KAnhHHK.
Ha
KOTOPOM XOPOHMJIH
KJIa):\6Hll\e,
caMoy6HR~ H
MepTBOpO)l{):leHHblX ):IeTeH.
2
MOrHJIa.
3 IIorocT. 3 BOJICeOO.MKa.
)KAnI03H.
CTaBHH,
rrOMell\eHHe OT BHeiliHero CBeTa, 3HOH H
IOll\M B03):1YX q_epe3 qaCTble roPH30Hll\eJIH
Me)l{):IY
HaKJIOHHblMH
20pKU
eMKOCTb
(1)
IIJIoll\a):lKa
):IJIH
O):lHO-
)KEITE.
qeqeHCKHR
):IOM-XJIeB,
rrepe-
KpblTblH IIOJICHbt.M C6000.M H3 KaMeHHblX
6yc, pa3):1eJIeHHblX ):IHcKaMH, rrJIOCKOCTb
rrJIHT.
KOTOPblX rreprreH):lHKYJIHpHa rroBepxHoCTH CTeHbI.
rrOJIa rrYTeM pa3rJIa)l{HBaHHH H 3aTHpa-
)KEHhCKOIIOITHE.
HM )l{eJIe3HOR TepKoH TOHKoro CJIOH
mOl, rrOMell\eHM ):IJIjJ )l{eHrn;HH.
pacTBopa,
COCTOjJll\ero
H3
):IJIjJ
~BeTOB,
)KeHcKHR
t.tep-
IIOpTJIaH):l)KEP ABUhl.
~eMeHTa H IIeCKa.·
CTOJI6bl
rroBopoTHoro
MexaHH3Ma Y rrO):lbeMHoro MOCTa.
)KEITE3HOAOPO)KHhIli
MArA-
CKJIa):l HHBeHTapH H MaTepHaJIOB
)KEPAEBOli EAPAK.
)KEJIE3H5IK. IIepe)l{)l{eHHblH TeMHOKpacHblH KHprrHq ):IJIH KllaoKu l1oKolleu H
CTeH B IIO):lBaJIax.
IIpHMoyroJIb-
Hoe MJIH KpyrJIOe B rrJIaHe IIOMern;eHHe C
HaKJIOHHblMH
XY):IO)l{eCTBeHHo
HMelOll\M BH):I Hll\HKa, KOP3HHbl, ama-
JlCepKU,
apxHTeKTypHblH ):IeKOp B BH):Ie HerrpePblBHOro pH):\a KpyrJIblX HJIH OBaJIbHblX
)];JIH peMoHTa )l{eJIe3HO):lOpO)l{HOrO IIYTH.
)KAM5IT. Maxlla.
ocpopMJIeHHaH
uo-
CBoHcTBeHHblH
KOPUHcjJCKO.MY opoepaM
HaKJIOHHblMH
3MH.
IIJIaHKaMH.
)KAPAMHhEPKA.
MJIH
HU'leCKO.MY H
rrapaJIJIeJIbHblMH nOIlY6a11UKaMU, Harro-
KOCOH
:)KEJIE3HEHME. OT):IeJIKa 6eToHHoro
rrocTopoHHHX B3rM):IOB, HO rrporrycKaTaJIbHble
rrope3KoR
Ha6HBaeMblR
HMeHHoR Hrpbl B Mjlq paKeTKaMH.
EOJIbHH~a.
ITecHoe
rrJIOTHO
rrpHMoyrOJIbHblMH 6JIOKa-
)KEMqY)KHMK.
KOllOHHbl C
6aaou, HCIIOJIb3yeMaH B KaqeCTBe nocmaMeHma ):IJIH He60JIbillOR CKYJIbIITypbl,
qaCTb
1<:aI-tHellUp06aHHOU
PO.M.
nllacmuH,
CTeHKaMH
H3
ropH30H-
TaJIbHbIX )l{ep):leH, IIpHCblIlaHHblMH CHaPY)l{H 3eMJIeH ):IJIH YTeIIJIeHHjJ; BBepxy
CTeHKH CXO):lHTCH B TOqKY HJIH JIHHHIO.
)KEJIE30-AC<I>AnhT.
)KEPITO. Ycmbe.
KOToporo Ha MeCTe CmOlleutHul1bl C):Ie-
AccjJallbm C
MeTaJIJIHqeCKOR ap.Mamypou (2), rrpHMe-
JIaHa BbIeMKa ):IJISI IIOCa):lKH KOMHaTHbIX
HSlBIIIHRCSI Ha Py6e)l{e XIX-XX BB. B
)KEPHOB-yrOJI. YroJI Y ):IBepH B ua6e
~BeTOB.
Tex qaCTHX 3)];aHII.R, KOTopbIe IIO):lBep-
(1, 2)
JIH60
CTOJIHKa,
Y
)l{eHbI
pa3pYIIIII.TeJIbHoMY
):IeRCTBlI.1O
BJIarll. II.JIH e):lKII.X Bell\eCTB.
)KEITOEKM. KaHHelllopbt.
HH)l{eropO):lCKoro KpajJ ..
)KEPTBEHHHK.
ceBepa K
IIpHMblKalOrn;ee
OCHOBHOMY aIImapHO.MY
C
(1)
06beMY rrOMern;eHHe, B KOTOPOM cOBepIIIaeTCjJ HaqaJIO mnyprHH.
)KEJIOEqATA5I qEPEIIMUA. T.Jepe-
nUl1a, KP06I1R, 11.3 KOTOPOH rrpe):lCTaBJISleT C060R pSl):l IIapaJIJIeJIbHblX c60pHbIX )l{eJI060B OT KapHuaa )];0 BO):lOCTOKa
rro):l CBeCOM KpblutU.
)KEPTBMIIIE. KanuU{e.
)KECTh.
MgrKoe
JIHCTOBOe
)l{eJIe30
BblCOKoro KaqeCTBa, rroKpblToe TOHKHM
CJIOeM
OJIOBa
(0,005+0,25
MM);
yrro-
)KEITYA0K. PaCIIOJIO)l{eHHbIR B HIDK-
TpeOJIHeTcjJ, B qaCTHOCTH, KaK Kp06e./l,b-
HeR qaCTII. lIeoHuKa cpy6 C rrpoKoHoIIa-
HbtU MaTepHaJI.
-59-
)I{
)l{ETE -
60
)l{Y~KM
)l(ETE (=napHhle MOJIhI). BhlcTynaIOIn;He B Mope napaJIJIeJIhHhle OaM6bt,
orpa)l{):\alOIn;He OT HaHOCOB BXO;rlHOH
KaHaJI B nopT.
)KEK. CTOJI B Y;rIMypTCKOH U36e
)KHKOBHHA (=)KYKoBHHa) .. <I>HrypHaa ;rIBepHaa nem.tlR, BhITaHYTruI nonepeK ;rIBepHoro nOJIOTHHIn;a.
)KHTbE. )l{lfJIOH 3Ta)K.
(1, 2).
)l(H5IITbI. BhlrHYTaa nOnepe'lHaa 6aJIKa, nO;rl;rlep)KlfBalOIn;ruI .Mamuu,y (1) B
6aJIKapCKOM )KIfJIHIn;e.
)KECTKHM BAlI. IIoJw'lKa C 3aKpyrneHHhIMH roPH30HTaJIhHhIMH pe6paMH.
)KECTKHM KAEITYK. Ka6IlY'lOK C
BepTHKaJIhHhIM BepxHHM Y'laCTKoM.
)KECTKHM llOITYBAlI. IIoJtO'lKa co
cKpyrJIeHHhIM HIDKHHM pe6poM.
)K)K.EHMI 3EITEHA5I 3EMIT5I. KopH'lHeBruI KpacKa, rrOJIY'leHHaa rrYTeM
06)K1fra 3elle1tOU 3e.MIlU.
)K)KEHMI KOCTb. "llepHaa KpacKa C
KpacHoBaThIM OTTeHKOM, rrOJIyqaeMruI B
pe3YJIhTaTe o6yrJIHBaHHSI KOCTH.
)KHITKA. )J,eKopaTHBHhIH noaCOK IIIHPHHOH OT 2 ;riO 5 MM, HCnOJIHeHHhIH B
TeXHHKe uHKpycmau,uu HJIH uHmapcuu
Ha H3;r1eJIHH H3 ;rIepeBa, MeTaJIJIa H T. ;rI.
)l(HPA. KY3HHI~a B a6a3HHcKoM ceJIeHHH.
)l(HPAH)J,OITb (=6YKeT). EOJIhIIIOH
;rIeKOpHpoBaHHhIH nO;rlCBe'lHHK Ha HeCKOJIhKO CBe'leH, 06hI'lHO YCTaHaBJIHBaBIIIHHca Ha zepuooHe.
)KHBA5I EECE)J,KA. rpyrrrra ;rIepeBheB, KpOHhI KOTOPhIX 06pa3ylOT rrO;rl06He
CBooa Ha;rl Ca;rIOBOH CKaMheH.
)l(YPABITb. 3aKperrJIeHHaa Ha OCH
)Kep;rlb ;rIJIa nO;rl'beMa TSl)KeCTeH (HanpHMep, BO;rlhI H3 KOlloou,a (1).
)l(HBOllHCHbIE KPACKH. Pa3HOBH;rIHOCTh JlCUBOnUCU Kei1.Ma, npe;rlHa3Ha'leHHruI ;rIJIa CTeHonHCH no ;rIBYXCJIOHHOH
IIITYKaTypKe; xapaKTepH3yeTca 60JIhIIIOM apKocThlO WJeTa H MaToBoH noBepXHOCThlO nOCJIe YMepeHHoro CPHKcHpoBaHHSI pacTBopHMhIM KaJIHeBbIM
CTeKJIOM C nOMOIn;hlO rryJIbBepH3aTopa.
)l(H)J,OBCKA5I CMOITA, )l(H)J,OBCKHM KITEM. AcrjJaJtbm.
)KYKOBHHA. 1 )KuKoBuHa. 2 BhIllYKJIaa cTopoHa lOp6blllR (1). 3 0630JI,
TyrroM KaHT 6pyca HJIH OTecaHHoro 6peBHa. 4 3 a60JIOHb , OCTaBJIeHHruI Ha pe6pax 6pyca. 5 Bna;rlHHa Me)l{):\y BeHu,aMU
6peBeH.
)KHPA<I>A. ACHMMeTpH'lHOe cpopTenHaHO C BepTHKaJIhHhIMH cTpYHaMH (BhInycKaJIOCh BeHcKmi cpa6pHKoM BaxTJIa H
EJIeMepa C 1804 no 1830 rr.).
)KHBOM MOCT. )J,epeBaHHblH MOCT Ha
llJIaBalOIn;HX 6peBHax.
)KH)J,KOE CTEKITO. BooRHoe cmeKilO.
)l(YK. rOpH30HTaJIhHruI 'laCTh 3aKJIa;rlHOH OKOHHOH paMhI, npllJIeralOIn;ruI K
nO;rlOKOHHHKY·
)KYPABEU. 1 Ka)l{):\hIH H3 KPHBOJIHHeHHblX 3JIeMeHTOB KapKaca BHYTPH
~epKoBHoH lllaBbt. 2 Pbl'lar KOJIO;rle3Horo JlCypaBIlR.
)KMBA5I 3A[~HT A. ITecoHaCa)l{):\eHHSI
B;rIOJIh )KeJIe3HO;rlOpO)KHOrO rryTH, 3aIn;HIn;alOIn;HeerO OT 3aHOCOB.
)KHBOllHCb KEMMA (= MHHepaJIhHrul
)KHBOnHch).
MOHYMeHTaJIhHruI
CHJIHKaTHaa )KHBOnHCh, KOTopaa OCTaBJIaeT OTKphIThIMH nophI B KaMeHHoM
KJIa;rlKe.
)KOITH ITECTHHUA. ITecTHHI~a C
;rIepeBaHHhIMH cTyneHSlMH, CKperrJIeHHhIMH 60JITaMH C MeTaJIJIHlJeCKHM HecyJ:IUlM KapKacoM.
)KYllA. 1 )J,peBHeCJIaBaHCKoe CeJIeHHe.
2 PY;rlHHK.
)KHBA5I 3AllPY)J,A. llpHchIIIaHHruI
3eMJIeH 3anpY;rla H3 cBe)Kecpy6JIeHHhIX
KOJIheB H XBopocTa, rrpeIISITcTBylOIn;ruI
06pYIIIeHHIO CKJIOHOB oBpara.
)l(HBMI H3rOPO)J,b. Y3KruI H rYCTaa
rrOJIoca nOCa;rlOK O;rlHHaKOBoM BhICOThI
(KycTapHHKH HJIH ;rIepeBha) B;rIOJIh
;rIOpOrH IIJIH BOKpyr nOJIa, ca;rla, oropo;rla
JIH60 HHoro CeJIhCKOX03aHcTBeHHoro
yrO;rlha, nperpa)l{):\alOIn;ruI ;rIOcTyn JIIO)l;aM
H )KIfBOTHhIM, a TaK)Ke 3aJ:IUlIn;alOIn;aa OT
BeTPa H 3aHOCOB.
)l(HTHbIM )J,BOP (=)KIfTHOM ;rIBOp,
3anaCHbIH
npOBHaHTCKHH Mara3HH).
rpynna CTpoeHHH, B KOTOPhIX xpaHHJIHCh 3anaChi xJIe6a.
)KHPHbIM
KAMEHb
(=cTeaTHT,
TaJIhK). KpeMHeKHCJIaa COJIh MarHe3HH,
HCnOJIh3yeMruI npH H3rOTOBJIeHHH o60eB
6eJIoro H ;rIPyrHx CBeTJIbIX KOJIepoB.
)l(HTHHUA. 1 A.M6ap (1) C 3epHoBhIM
XJIe60M HJIH MYKOH. 2 MeCTO ;rIJIa CKJIa;rIHpOBaHHa (KJIa;rlOBaa, aM6ap (1), .Maza3UH, IIIKacp).
-60-
)KY"llKA. "llacTh 3aKJIa;rlHOH paMhI,
BhlcTynalOIn;aa H3 KaMeHHoH 3aKJIa;rlKH.
)KY"llKH. lloBTOpalOIn;HHCa B ;rIpeBHePYCCKOM cpaCa;rlHOM cppH3e ;rIeKOpaTHBHhIH MOTHB (pannopm) , COCTaBJIeHHhlM
H3 TPeyrOJIbHbIX Bna;rlHH, nepeMhI'lKH
Me)K;rIy KOTOPblMH o6pa3ylOT rrO;rl06He
6YKBbI «)K».
3ABEf. CTyneH'laThIH nOBopoT JIeCTHllqbI.
3ABEfYllKA. XrreB ):IJIH HrHHT.
3ABE)I{}fAA CfYI1EHb. CryneHh Ha
3aKpyrneHIIII JIeCTHlln:hI, IIMelO~1UI pacnnq>eHHe TPanen:ueBH):\HOH npocmynu
KO BHemHeH cTopoHe.
1 HaBllcalO~1UI H8):I KpenocTHoH cTeHoH
):IepeBHHHIUI mIO~a):lKa, C KOTOPOH
c6paChIBaJIH Ha npOTHBHHKa 6peBHa, a
TaK}Ke nOJIIIBaJIII ero KHllHTKOM II roPH'1eH CMOJIOH. 2 Cf)opnoCT, nepe):lOBaSl
ICpenocmb.
3ABIITEPbE. 3a6op (1) C HaBeCOM
):IJIH 3a~I CKOTa OT HenorO):lhI.
3ABO,lJ;. 1 I1poMhIIUJIeHHOe npe):lnpll}[THe. 2 I1pe):lnpHHTHe no pa3Be):leErnUO
nOpO):lHCThIX xmBOTHhIX. 3 MaCTepcKIUI
B KyneqeCKOH HJIII Me~aHCKOH ycaob6e.
3AB03H5L I1pllcTPoeHHoe K Q.M6apy
KphITOe nOMe~eHHe ):IJIR TeJIer II caHeH.
3ABOP, 3ABOPA. 1 3acoB ):IJIR BOpOT.
2 }Kep):lh, COe):lIlHHIO~1UI KOJIhR B orpa):Ie. 3 m.llaz6aYM.
3ABMPKA. I1eperopO):lKa 113 OOCOK
(1), 3anOJIHHIO~ npocTPaHcTBo Me}K):Iy 6pYCbR.MU
3ABOPOTH5L 3aKJI8):IHOH 3anop BOpOT.
(1).
3ABOPQATA5l fOPO,lJ;bBA. Orpa):la
113 roP"30HTaJIhHhIX }Kep):leH.
3ABOH. 1 MeCTo pa3pa60ToK B PY):lHilKe IIJIII maXTe. 2 (=3a60HKa). KOJIhH
IIJIII C6au, 3a6HThle B pH):I nonepeK peIOl.
3ABOQEHb. BOKOBIUI npHCTPOHKa K
OOMY (HanpHMep, npHMhIKalO~ ¢.IlU-
2e.llb).
3AB5l3EHME. TlOphMa.
3ABOJIOHKA. rOp6bt.ltb.
3ABYTOBKA (=3a6YTKa). QaCTh CTeHhI,
3anOJIHHIO~1UI
npocTPaHCTBo
Me}K):ly KHpnHqaMH IIJIH KaMeHHhIMH
6JIOKaMII mw;eBhIX nOBepxHocTeH.
3AfATKA, 3AfATb. 1 XrreB. 2I1poCTPaHCTBO Me}K):ly mIeTHHMH, YCTJIaHHOe
COJIOMOH. 3 3HMHHS1 06,MQaKa ua6bt (1)
HaB030M C COJIOMOH. 4 llieTeHh C HaBeCOM, KphIThIM COJIOMOH.
3ABOP. 1 ,lJ;epeBHHHIUI IIJIII KaMeHHIUI
orpa):la (06h1'lHO rJIYXIUI H BhIme qeJIOBeqeCKOrO pocTa) BOKpyr KaKOH-JIH60
Tepp"Top"". 2 B03Be):leHHOe B peKe
npllcnoc06JIeHlle ):IJIH JIOBJIII PhI6hI.
•
3ABAJI. 3e.M.1lRHICa C KphImeH.
3ABAJIMHKA (=3aBaJIHHa). 3aKpemieHHIUI C 60KOB HeBhICOKaH 3eMJIHHIUI
3ABOPAJIO.3a6opo.ll.
HaChIlIh, npHMhIKalO~1UI cHapyxm K CTe3ABOPKA. ,lJ;o~aTIUI neperopO):lKa B HaM ua6bt.
ua6e, 3aKpemIeHHIUI B rop"30HTaJIhHhIX
_----.:Il9~~~
na3ax BepXHeH II HIIX<HeH 6aJIOK.
3ABOPHMK. 1 (=HaKaTHHK, 3aMeTHHK). Bpe6Ha ):IJIHHOH OT 4 ):10 6,5 Mil
npll ):IHaMeTPe OT 11 ):10 15,5 CM; ynoTPe6JIHIOTCH Ha aa60Pbt (1) H XOJIO):lHhIe
nOCTPoHKH. 2 ,lJ;y60Bhle mIaIIIKH ):IJIHHOH
3 apmHHa (2,1 M) H TOJI~OH 1,5-2
BepIlIKa (6-8,9 CM), ynOTPe6JIHeMhle Ha
H3ropO):lH. 3 EJIOBhIe }Kep):lll ):IJIHHOH
5 apmHH (3,5 M) II TOJI~OH 2 BepmKa
(8,9 CM).
3ABOPOJI
(=3a60PaJIo,
3a6paJIo,
3a60poJIa, 3a6paJIa, 06JIaM, 06JIOM).
3AfJIYllMHA. 1 IIoocmyneHolC ):IepeBHHHOH JIeCTHHqbI, npll6HBaeMhm K 3y6qaThIM memU6Q.M. 2 BepTIIKaJIhHIUI
):IO~aTIUI nOBepXHocTh, coe):\HHRlO~1I.!I
cryneH'laThIe no.llICu B 6aHe. 3 PacCToHHHe Me}K):ly ):IBYMR Kopo6ICQ.MU B O):lHOM
OKOHHOM npoeMe.
3ArPMBOK. rpu6a.
3ABETPME. I1pHCTaHh.
3ABEPTKA. 1 BepxHHH CThIK BepTHKaJIhHhIX ):IhIMOBhIX KaHaJIOB 20.ll.llaHo-·
CICOU neliU. 2 I1oBOpaqIlBalO~CH Ha
rn03):1e ):IepeBHHHhIH 6pyCOl(' IIJIII }KeJIe3HIUI nJIaCTHHKa ):IJIH 3anupaHHH ):IBepeH
JIII60 CTaBeHh.
81
-61-
3ArP5l,lJ;KA. }Kep):lh no BepXHeMY
KpalO PYCCICOU neliU, nOMoralO~1UI B306paThCR Ha JIe}KaHKY.
3AfY30K. BOKOBIUI rpaHh '1eThIpeXCKaTHOH KP06.1lU.
3AfYH. CaUHUIC.
3A.lJ:BOPHA5l M3BA. He60JIhmlUl
ua6a (1) B 38):1HeH qaCTH KpecThHHcKoro
3
3AABOPH5I
62
3AnOM
060pa (1, 2), npeAHa3HaqeHHaSl AJISI
cOAepX<llHIDI MOJIOAOrO CKOTa JIH60 AJIH
CTUpKH, nOCHAeJIOK H T. A.
3A,[(BOPlUI. AaJIhHHSl H3 napaJIJIeJIhHhlX yJIH~ B AepeBHe.
3A,[(BOPOK. 1 3aAHHH 060P (1, 2)
KpeCThSlHcKOH ycaob6bt, 06'heAHHSIIOI.QHii XJIeBJ>I H aaTCymbt. 2 J(60p (1, 2)
KpeCThSlHcKoH ycaob6bt, OTAeJIeHHhIH OT
ua6bt (1) AepeBeHcKoH yJI~eH. 3 HaBec
,AJISI CKOTa. 4 KpaHHHSI 3aAHHSI yJIH~a B
CeJIeHHH.
3AKJIAAHA}! rOJIOBKA.
qaJIhHOe
pacIIIHpeHHe
Ha
M3Ha-
3AKPEIIJIEHHhIH rB03Ab. 3aep-
Ko~e
uteHHbtU z6oaob.
CTepX<HSIaaKAemcu.
3AKJIAAHA~ AOCKA. 3aJIox<eHHaSI
B OCHOBaHHe 3AaHHSI oocTCa (2) co cBeAeHHSlMH 0 BpeMeHH coopyxeHHSI H JIH~aX,
npHCYTCTBoBaBmux npH 3aKJIaAKe.
3AKJIA,[(HOH BPYC. AepeBHHHhIH
1I0AOKOHHHK, 3aKJIaAhIBaeMhIH B KaMeHUYIO CTeHY HJIH Bpy6aeMhm B AepeBSlHHhIe cmouTCu, KOTophIe orpaHHqHBalOT
npoeM.
3AKPECTOBbE. YrJlOBOH nOHHX<eHHhIH yqaCTOK qeThIpeXCTOJIIIHoro TCpecm06oTCyno.!lbHolO xPa.Ma C npHMOyrOJlhHhIM IIJIaHOM.
3AKPOB. IIoKpoB, 3aBeca.
3AKPOH. 1 Cma6HR. 2. CoeAHHeHHe
napaJIJleJlhHhIX OOCOTC (1), n.!IaCmUH HJIH
oepHuH, npH KOTOPOM KpaH: O,AHOrO H3
3THX 3J1eMeHTOB nepeKphIBaeTcSI coceAHHM - 6J1aroAapSl cpe3y HJIH crylleHhKe
Ha CThIKe.
3A,[(BOPbE. 1 HaBec AJISI CKOTa B
3aAHeH qaCTH KpecThSlHcKoro o6opa (1).
2 AepeBeHcKHe 3ao6opTCu.
3AKJIA,[(HOH KPECT. KpecT C HaAITHChlO, 3aBepmaBmHH CTpOHTeJIhHhIe
JIeca npH B03Be,AeHHH 3,AaHHSl.
3A,[(EU. He60JIhmOH npupy6 K ceHJt.M,
HMelOI.QHii
nOAc06HO-x03S1HCTBeHHoe
3HaqeHHe.
3AKJIAAOQHbIH
KAMEHb.
1 KpYIIHhm KaMeHh (06hJqHO yrJIOBOH),
Topx<eCTBeHHO 3aKJIaAhIBaeMhIH B OCHOBaHHe 06~eCTBeHHoro coopyxeHHSI.
2 HuX<HuH: x<epHoB B MeJIhHUqHhIX
1I0CTaBax.
3AKYT. 1 TeIlJlhIH 3HMHuH: XJleB AJiSI
MeJIKoro CKOTa. 2 IIoMe~eHHe AJiSI
c06aK Ha IIcapHe. 3 QYJIaH, oTropox<eHHaSI KJIaAOBaSI.
3AKJIA,[(JfOH KPIOQOK. OTpe30K
x<eCTKOH npOBOJIOKH C ~eIIJISlIO~
H3m60M Ha Ko~e, 3aKpellJIeHHhIH Ha
CTBOpKe OKHa, qT06hI ee He 3aXJIOnUYJI
BeTep.
CTBeHHOM 3AaHHH, npeAHa3HaqeHHOe
AJiSI Topx<ecTBa HJIH HHhIX c06paHHH
60JlhmOrO KOJluqeCTBa JlIOAeH.
3A,[(MHKA. J(ocTCa
CllHHKY AHBaHa.
3A,[(~
(1),
3aBepmalO~aSI
M3BA. 3aAHHe
nOMe~eHHSI
B KpecThSlHcKoH ua6e (1), npeAHa3HaqeHHhIe nOA X<HJIhe 6aTpaKOB H xpaHHJIH~e AOMamHeH YTBapH.
3A,I1;OK,3acnuHTCa.
3A,[(OprA. IIepHJIh~a, 1I0MoralO~e
B306paThCH Ha JIeX<aHKY PYCCTCOU ne'lu.
3A,[(OPOrA. IIOllepeqHaSI CTeHKa C
OTBepCTHeM ycmbR, OTAeJISlIO~aSI B pycCTCOU ne'lu ee OCHOBHoe npocTpaHCTBo
.OT uteCmTCa.
3AE30K. 3ae30TC.
3A3AAOPOrA. Y3Koe IIpocTpaHCTBO
MeX<.AY neqblO H cTeHoH.
3A3BOHHhIH
KOJIOKOJI,
3A3BOHqMK (=AHCKaHT, MaJIhIH KOJIOKOJI). TOHKOrOJIOChIH KOJIOKOJI (BecoM
OT 10 ¢YHTOB AO 6 nyAOB), 3BOHOM KOTOporo HaqUHaeTCSI 6JIaroBecT, C03hIBa1OI.QHii OKpeCTHhlX npuxox<aH Ha ~ep­
KOBUYIO CJIyx6y.
3AMMKA. 1 3eMJIH B HeAaBHeM npomJIOM 6ecx03HhIe, a Teneph 3aHSIThIe
AJISI ceJIhCKOX03HH:CTBeHHOH 06pa60TKH.
21136a (1) Ha TaKHX 3eMJISIX.
'
3AKAMAPA. 3aTCO.Mapa.
06mupHoe
3AJIABHHA. JIa6a
(1).
3AJIABOK. 1 PYHOYTC (1), z.!IyXQR
.!Ia6TCa C 1I0A'heMHOH KphImKoH, B KpeCThSlHCKOH ua6e {I, 2) HJIH B npuxo:HCeu.
2 3aJIox<eHHoe rnyxoH OOCTCOU (1) HJIH
3AKJIETb. 3aAHHH OTceK pa3AeJIeHHOH HaABoe TC.!Iemu JIH60 BTOPaSI KJIeTh
1I03aAH lIepBoH.
A.
(=caJla).
3AKJIEIIHOH BOJIT. IIporry~eHHhm
qepe3 AepeBo 60JIT, 3aOCTpeHHhm KOHe~ KOToporo 3aruyT HJIH paCKJIellaH
AJISI npoquocTH Hepa3'heMHOrO KpeIlJleHHSI.
3AE30K. IIeperOpaX<HBalO~H peKY
IIJIeTeHh C BepmaMH AJISI JIOB,lIH PhI6hI.
H T.
3AJIA
1I0Me~eHHe B X<HJIOM AOMe HJlH 06~e­
3AJIABHHK. AJIHHHaSl CKaMhSl BAOJlh
CTeHhI B ua6e (2).
TCa.MeHb.
OOCTCOU (1), 6pe6HoM
3AJI,
3AKJIEII. 3anop BOpOT.
3AE3)K11:H
,[(BOP,
3AE3)KMH
AOM. lIocmoMbtu 060P, lOcmuHul¥l
(1) npH Aopore.
3AEPIIIEHHhIH rn03Ab (=3aKpeIIJIeHHhIH m03Ah). rB03,Ah AJIHHOH
15-20 CM, HMelO~H Ha CTBOJIe qaCThle
3a3y6pHHhI, 1I0BhImalO~e C~ellJIeHHe C
3AKPOM. OTceK, B KOTOPhIH CChIIIalOT
3epHoBoH XJIe6 BUYTpH a.M6apa (1).
3AKJIEIIHOH KAMEHb. 3a.MTC66blU
3AKJIEII. 3allop ABepH HJIH OKHa.
3AKJIEIIKA. Hepa3'heMHOe KpeIlJleHHe ABYX MeTaJIJIuqeCKUX JIHCTOB HJIH
1I0JIOC ~HHApuqeCKHM CTepX<HeM C
ymupeHHSIMH (roJIOBKaMH)' Ha KO~ax,
nJlOTHO npHJIeralO~MH K CKpeIIJIHMhIM
nOBepXHOCTHM nOCJIe YAapoB MOJlOTOM.
pemeTKoH IIPOCTPaHCTBO 1I0A JlaBKOH, B
KOTOPOM KyphI HecYT H BhICHX<HBaJOT
SI~a. 3 ,[(JIHHHhm H HH3KuH: mKa¢ B KpeCThSlHCKOH ua6e (2), npHMhIKalO~H K
CTeHe HJIH K neperopoAKe Y nequ. 4 JIaBKa, BhITHuyTaSI BAOJlh CTeHhI OT lIeqH H
3aMeHSlIO~aSI CTOJI AJiSI CTpHIlHH. 5 IIpHJlaBOK - AJIHHHhm rJIyxoH CTOJI co
mKa¢qHKaMH. 6 3anaoHR (2).
3AJIOBHMK. OrpaHuqeHHoe HH3KHMH
CTeHKaMH npocTpaHC1itI0 HaA lIepeKphITHeM zQ./Iepeu (1) Y BxoAa B AepeBSlHHhIH
a.M6ap (1, 2).
3AKJIYHbE. MeCTo 3a TC.!IYHeu HJIH
PUlOU B PYCCKOH AepeBHe.
3AKOJI.
QacToKoJi
H3
nJleTHeH,
KOJIheB H xBopoCTa, B03BeAeHHhIH
1I0llepeK peKH H npelISlTCTBYIO~H ABHx<eHHIO PhI6hI BBepx 110 TeqeHHIO; HHOrAa
cHa6x<aeTCSI
phI60JIOBe~HMH
YCTpOHCTBaMH.
3AKOMAPA. IIoJlYKpyrJloe HJIH TCU./Ie6uoHoe 3aBepmeHHe npRCe.!l ~epKoB­
Horo 3AaHHSI, npHMepHo cooTBeTcTBYlO~ee KpHBH3He 3aKphIBaeMoro c6ooa.
-62-
3AJIOrH. rOpH30HTaJIhHhIe PSIAhI KHpnuqHOH TC.!IaOTCU, pa3AeJleHHhle mupoKHMH nOJIOCaMH pacTBopa.
3AJIOM. HHma.
3
3Al1Y&HMUA - 3ACEKA
3AJIYBHHUA. I1oMem;eHUe 3a neperOpOAKOH B ua6e (2).
3AJIhHhHi XPAM. D;epKoBHoe 3AaHUe, B KOTOPOM BbICOKoe U rrpoCTopHoe
nOMem;eHUe xPaMa UMeeT nepeKpbITIDI
rrpuMepHo Ha OAHOM ypoBHe.
63
3) unu OOCOK (1), UMelOm;ee BHYTPU
YCTY" nu60 BbleMKY. 3 YCTPOii:CTBO AJIJI
3anupaHUJI C nOMOm;blO KnIO'Ia. 4 CJIoii:
BOAOHerrpOHun;aeMoii: rnUHbI, rrpeUJITCTBYIOm;uii: rrpoCa'lUBauulO BOAbI 'Iepe3
Teno n.aomUHbl UJIU ADO rrpYAa.
3AMA3KA. BJI3KruI CMeCb U3 oTMY'IeHHOrO Mena U onucpbI, 3aKpennJIlOm;ruI CTeKna B OKOHHbIX nepenneTax.
3AMIIIEHHK, 3AMIIIEHKA. CTPoeHue C 6peBeH'laTbIMU CTeHaMU, npOKOHOna'leHHbIMU MXOM.
3AMET. 1 3a6op (1) U3 ropu30HTanbHbIX OOCOK (1), 3aKpenneHHbIX KOH~a­
MO B na3ax BepTuKanbHbIx cTOn6oB (aan.aom). 2 (=3aMeTKa). I1onepe'IHruI
}l{ene3HruI nOJIoca AnJI 3anupaHUJI OKHa
JIu60 ABepu.
3AMhIKAIOmMI
rOnOBKA.
IIInJIUKa aaKllenKU, 06pa3yeMruI U3 ee
~JIHHAPU'leCKoro KOH~a YAapaMU MOnOTa:
3AMETHHA. )I{epAb AJIJI u3ropoAu.
3AMHTHHA. HanonOBUUY 3arny6JIeHHOe B 3eMJIlO ropU30HTanbHoe
6peaHo C npOAOJIhHbIM na30M, B KOTOphIii: BCTaBJIJIeTCJI HU}I{HJIJI U3 OOCOIC (1)
CTeHbI B XOJIOAHOM cTPoeHuu.
3AMETKA. 3curem (2).
3AMETHHK. 3a60pHDK.
3AMET. He60nbwruI AepeBJIllHruI Kpenocmb C 6peBeH'laTOH npRcllo80U orpaAoii: U3 ropu30HTanbHbIx n.aacmUH,
3aKpenneHHbIX B na3ax CTOJI60B.
'3AMETOM. Cnooo6 B03BeAeHUJI AepeBJIHHbIX CTeH U3 BepTUKanbHbIx }l{epAeii:
(B KpecThJIHCKHX nocTPoiiKax).
BbII1PHTECKA.
3AMK6BA5I
KnaAKa KaMeHHhIX 6JIOKOB B OAHOii:
nnOCKOCTU 6e3 rrpocBeToB 6JIarOAapJI
TO'lHOii: nOArOHKe KpaeB no JIOMaHbIM
3AMKOBhIH KAMEHh (=3aM6K,
KnIO'I, 3aKneUHOH KaMeHb). KnHH'laThIH
KaMeHb B BepwHHe apKu, a TaK}l{e HMOTHPYIOm;uii: ero aneMeHT nocpeAHHe
nepeMbNKH HaJlU'lHUKa unu npoeMa.
3AMhIqKA.
CTBO.
3anupalOm;ee
YCTPOH-
3AM5ITHHhl. HU}l{Hue ropH30HTaJIhHbIe 6pYCbR B aan.aome (uHorAa onupaIOTCJI Ha cmYllbR).
3AOKOHHHK, 3AOKOHOK. CTaBHJI. _
3AMOK. 1 3aMK6ablU KaMeHb. 2 CoeAUHeHue ABYX 6pycbea (1), 6pycKoa (1,
Y3Koe
rrpOCTpaHCTBO
3AI1HJIEHOK. ,lJ;JIHHHruI nnOCKaJI CTOpOHa lop6bl/lR (1).
3AI1J1ABh.3anaHb.
3AI1llEqHKH. rOpH30HTanbHbIe BbICTY"bI, CUMMeTPU'lHO npUMbIKaIOm;ue
U3BHe K OCHOBaHUIO Ayru unu zqunZ¥Z B
6p08Ke.
3AI1llEqHA5I APKA. ApKa HaA yrny6neHueM B CTeHe.
3AI1llEqHHK. KapHua B nRme apKU,
UMnocm (1).
3AI1ll0T, 3AI1ll6TA. 1 rJIYXOH aa60p (1) U3 ropu30HTanhHbIX nOJIy6peBeH, n.aacmUH unu OOCOK (1), BCTaBJIeH-
HbIX CBOUMO Koun;aMO B na3bI cmoeK.
2 1IlIomuHa. 3 BCTaBJIeHHbIH B JIMY
cpy6, B KOTOPbIH cMonoKypbI c06upalOT
CMOlly.
3AIIA,J:(H5I. 1 I1oA'beMHruI KpbIwKa
HaJlJIa30M B nOAnOJI. 2 (=3anaBoK).
I1oA'beMHaJI cmOlleUlHUZ¥Z HaA npoxoAOM B npunaBKe ..
3AI1JIhIBH. CKpenneHHbIe Me~y
C060H nnaByque pJIAbI 6peaeH, 3am;um;alOm;ue OT YAapoB (j 6eper cYAa, KOTopbIe
CHOCUT Te'leHUe.
3AI1AJIYBKA.
3anOJIHeHUe
npocTPaHcTBa HaA Hepa~paMu caooa KHpnU'lOM UJIH MenKUM KaMHeM.
3AI10JIhE. 1 CmpRnHou IC)'m. 2 ,lJ;0m;aTbIii: non B caMoH Tennoii: 'IacTU ua6bl (1, 2) - Y CTeHbI, 06pam;eHHoH KO
oaopy (2).
3AI1AHh (=3anJIaBb, 3anOH, 3anOHb). D;enb U3 6peaeH, BhITJIHYTaJI
nonepeK peKH AnJI 3aAep}I{KH neca,
CnnaBJIJIeMOrO POCCbIUblO.
3AIIAC. I1pocBeT Me~y BepXHUM
6pyCOM KOCRKa U aeH~oM AepeBJIHHOH
CTeHbI,
COCTaBJIJIIOID;UH OKono 1/10
BbICOTbI rrpoeMa U 3anOJIHJIeMbIH nOCJIe
OKOH'laTeJIhHOH OCaAKH CTeH MXOM,
neHbKOH UJIU naKneH.
3AI1ACHAA. CKnaA, aM6ap (1, 2, 3).
3AMOK. 1 Kpenocmb cpeoAana unH
YCaAe6HOe coop~eHUe B npApa}l{aHUe
eii:. 2 (=3aMoK AJIJI rrpetTynHuKoB,
TlOpeMHbIii: 3llMOK). KpYDHruI TlOpbMa
(HanpUMep, BYTbIPCKHii: 3. B MocKBe,
JIUTOBCKHH 3. B I1eTep6ypre).
3AI1EqEK.
Me~ cTeHoii: U ne'lblO.
3AIIACHOH KOJIO,lJ;ED;. YnY'IwalOm;ruI060rpeB nOMem;eHUJI B03AYWHaJI
KaMepa co CTeHKaMU U3 nUCTOBoro
}l{eJIe3a, nOMem;eHHaJI Me~y oblMoo6opomaMu 201IIIaHocKou ne'lU H 3anOJIHJIeMaJI K;OMHaTHbIM B03AYXOM, KOTOPbIH
BXOAUT u3-nOA ne'lu U BbIUycKaeTCJI
BBepxy 'Iepe3 0YUlHUK (2).
3AI1ACHhIli ,lJ;BOP. 3AaHUe C BHyTPeHHuM oaopoM (1), npeAHa3Ha'leHHoe
AnJI xpaueHUJI npOAOBOJIhCTBeHHbIX npunaCOB (HarrpUMep, xne6a U COJIH).
3AIIACHhIH
I1POBHAHTCKHH
MArA3HH. )/(umHblu oaop.
-63-
3AI10H, 3AI10Hh. 3anaHb.
3AI1I1AA3. p,aannaoa.
3AI1PECTOJIhHhHi KPECT. KpecT
Ha AJIUHHOH AepeBJIHHOH PYKOJITKe,
KOTOPhIH BO BpeMJI peJIUm03HhIX rrpo~eccuH BbIHOCUTCJI H3 a/lmapR (1), rAe B
06bI'IHOe BpeMJI CTOUT y ero BOCTO'lHOH
CTeHbI, 3a npecmolloM.
3APO,lJ;. 1 Cywuno AJIJI CHonOB. 2 OropO}l{eHHOe MeCTO AJIJI CTora.
3APYB. 1 3acelCa. 2 Cpy6 AJIJI PbI6HOro
caolCa (1). 3 YKpenneHUe 6epera caaRMU.
3ACA)l(EHhE. rapHU30HHaJI TlOpbMa.
3ACBETKA. JIyquHa AJIJI OCBem;eHUJI
unu pacTonKH.
3ACE,lJ;KA. CTOHKa-rrpunaBoK
rrpOAa}I{H BOAKH B Ka6aKe.
AJIJI
3ACEKA. I1pocTeii:mee 060pOHUTeJIbHoe coopY}l{eHUe H3 HaAPy6JIeHHbIX
AepeBbeB, 06pam;eHHbIX BepwuuaMU B
CTOPOny HerrpUJITenJI U YJIO}l{eHHbIX APyr
Ha APyra KpeCT006pa3HO.
3
3ACE"IHASI "lEPTA - 3BOHMK
3ACElJHAJI QEPTA. CHCTeMa 060pOHHTenbHbIX
COOp}')KeHHH
npoTHB
KOqeBHHKOB Ha IOX<HOH H IOro-BOCTOqHOH oKpaHHax PyCCKOro rocYAapcTBa B
XVI-XVII BB., BKnIO'faBmruI B ce6x
3aceKU, 6a.tlb! (1), pBbI H qaCTOKOnbI, C
Hcnonb30BaHHeM eCTeCTBeHHbIX nperpaA·
3ACJIYTI. CTon6.
3ACOB. 1 3aIl;BHX<HOH 3anop Il;nx
.BOPOT,
KanHTOK,
ABepeH,
OKOH.
2 AHKep BUYTpHCTeHHOH KpeneX<HOH
C6R3U (1), npony~eHHbIH CKB03b oTBepCTHe Ha ee KOHn;e H npHJIeraIOID;HH K
BHeIIIHeH nOBepXHoCTH CTeHbI.
3ACOBKA.
,Il;epeBXHHbIH BblcrynmM, 06eCneqHBaIO~ nnOTHoe coeAHHeHHe ABYX OOCOK (1).
3ACOKA (=3aCOqHHa). 3aKpyrneHHblH CKOC OOCKU (1), nOKpbITbIH KOpOH.
3ACOQHHA. 3acoKa.
3ACTIHHKA (=3all;oK). CUHHKa Il;HBaHa,cKaMbH,KpeCJIa,cTYJIa.
3ACTABA. 1 MecTo B'be3ll;a B zopoo
(1,2) H BbIe3Aa H3 Hero. 23arpaAHTeJIbHbIH CTOpO;)KeBOH nOCT Ha rpaHHn;e
zopooa (1, 2), pernoHa, rOCYAapCTBa.
3 mltaz6aYM ARlI BpeMeHHoH 3aAepxarn
B
nYTH.
3ACTABKA. 1 CTOpO;)KeBOH 3arpaAHTenbHblH nOCT Ha Aopore. 2 T6opKa.
3ACTABHAA ,Il;BEPh. IIJ;HT, 3aKpblBaIO~HH ABepHoH npoeM 6e3 HauecKH C
nOMO~bIO nemeltb.
3ACTEHOK. 1 ManbIH npRAen B xpaMe. 2 TIoMe~eHHe Il;JIX AOnpOCOB H
nbITOK. 3 PacnOnO;)KeHHruI 3a TennHn;eH
npOxnaAHruI TeMHruI KOMHaTa, B KOTOpyIO BpeMeHHo nOMe~aIOT paCTeHHX
AJIX CMeHbI pe)l{HMa. 4 TIoceneHHe B
HeCKonbKO OO.M06 (1).
64
3AlBOP. 1 Kenbx, TeMHHn;a, TIOpbMa.
3AXO,Il;. 1 Y3KHH npOXOIl;. 2 TYDHK.
2 (=BTynKa). CTaBUX. 3 TIpHcnoc06ne-
3 Yron. 4 XneB. 5 (=MOTbillbHbIH 3a-
HHe Anx 3anopa CTaBeHb. 4 IIJ;HT, nepeKPbIBaIO~ npOXOIl; BOll;bl qepe3 rHAPOTeXHHqeCKOe coopY;)KeHHe.
XOIl;). OTXO;)Kee MeCTO, y60pHruI.
3AlBOPhl. illHpoKHe Il;BepH co CKnaAHblMH nonOTHH~aMH.
3AQETI. AHKep.
3AQETIA. KOHTponbHO-CTOp0;)KeBOH
nyHKT, Ha KOTOPOM oCTaHaunHBaIOT
nOB03KH Il;nx npoBepKH.
3ATHH. 1 TInO~aAKa Il;nx apTRnnepHCTOB H cTpenKoB H3 p}')KeH, npRneraIO~ruI K BuyTpeHHeH cTopoHe KpenocmHbtX CTeH. 2 IIJ;HTOK, orp~HBa­
IO~ CBeT OT CBeqH RnH JIaMllbI (CM.
A6a:JICyp).
3AQETIKA. JIenHoe RnH pe3Hoe YKpameHHe Ha CTblKe apxHTeKTYPHbIX ll;eTaneH, HanpHMep, alpap (1) .
3ATHPKA. Pa3rna;JKHBaHHe H36bITOqHOro pacTBopa H3 W606 KltaOKU no
ItU"4e6ou n06epxHocmu KHpllHqeH.
3Am;ETIhI. 3aKnaAHbIe KpIO%X Anx
HauecKH BOPOTHblX CTBOpOK.
3ATHillHHK. He60nbmoe yeAHHeHHoe coopY;)KeHHe Ha 6epery: 6eceoKa
(1), OXOTHHqHH manam, CTOpO;)KKa.
3ATKAHHE. Bpycm6ep.
3ATOTI. TOnOqHOe oTBepcTHe neqH.
3AThIHhE. BHYTpeHHoCTb YKpenneHHX.
3AT5DKKA. 1 rOpH30HTanbHbIH 6pyc,
CTxrnBaIO~ HHX<HHe KOHD;b1 cmponUltbHbtX HOl. 2 CTep;)KeHb, BocnpHHHMaIO~ pacnop B C600ax H apKax
(06bNHO Ha ypoBHe ax nRm).
3AYCEHKA,3AYCEHOK.10CTpruI
KpoMKa TecaHoro KaMUX. 2 (=3ayceHHn;a). 3aruyrbIH OCTpoKOHeqHbIH OT~en
;)Kene3HOH nonOCbl (06blqHO B pemeTKax
BTopocreneHHblx OKOH). 3 MeHbmruI
JIH60 cpell;UjJjJ rpaub KHpnHqa (CM.
Tb!'lOK. JIO:JICOK).
3AQEKA (=3aqOKa)./I(eKoltoa.
3Am;A,Il;A. 3KpaH nepell; KaMUHOM.
3Am;EBEHKH.
TIpoMe;)KYTOqHbIH
CJIOH B OCHOBaHHH KaMeHHoro nona,
COCTOllID;HH H3 6emoHa C MenKHMH
KaMemKaMH.
3AIIJ;ErrKA. 1 ,Il;BepHoH 3anop, KOTOpbIH COCTOHT H3 KpIOqKa, npHKpenneHHoro K KOCRKY, H KOJIbn;a Ha Il;BepHoM
nonOTH~e. 2 BXOIl;HOH 3anop B BRAe
nQBopOTHOH nnaCTHHKH, ;)KeCTKO coell;HHeHHOH C BHeIIIHeH pyqKOH Ha nOIl;BH;)KHOH CTBopKe ABepH H 3arraAaIO~eH 3a
BbIcTyn Ha KOCRKe JIH60 HenOABHX<HOH
CTBopKe.
3BEPHHEQ. OTBell;eHHruI ARX OXOTbI
qaCTb neUaa:JICHOlO napKa, npope3aHHruI
cneD;HanbHblMH npoceKaMH.
3BE3,Il;HAA .8APTA. 06cepBaTOpHX.
3BE3,Il;QAThIH CBO,Il;. C600, COCTauneHHbIH H3 fljITH H 60nee paCna.tly6oK,
KOTopble CXOIl;XTCX BepXHHM OCTpHeM B
OIl;UY TOqKY·
3AXAB. 1 H3nOMaHHbIH B nnaHe npoXOIl; CKB03b KpenocmHYIO cTeuy. 2 YKpenneHHe, Bblll;BHHYToe nepell; Kpe.MlteM
HnH OemuH"4eM B CTOPOHY npoTHBHHKa.
3 CKnall;CKruI npHcTpoHKa K pUle HJIH
3ACTOJIhHAA
(=3aTparre3HruI).
1 KOMHaTa, B KOTOPOH BMeCTe 06eAanH
ABopoBble. 2 06~ruI CTonOBruI B roCTHHHn;e.
3ACTPEX, 3ACTPEXA, 3ACTPEillHHA. 1 HHX<HHii npoAonbHbIH 6pyc
KP06ItU, Ha KOTOPblH OImpaeTClI TeC.
2 BHYTpeUHjJjJ CTopOHa KpruI KPOBltU,
HaBHcaIO~ero HaA CTeHoH. 3 BOAOTeqHbIH ;)Ken06 B OCHOBaHHH KP06ItU.
3ACYJIAH. JIeTHee CKOTOBOAqeCKOe
;JKHRH~e 3a6aiiKanbCKHX 6ypXT.
3AChITIKA (=cMa3Ka). 3anonHeHHe
Me~3TaX<HbIX nepeKpbITHii CTpOH- 3AXJIOTIKA. 1/I(eKoltoa, 3aCOB, Il;BepTenbHblM MYCOPOM, 06naAaIO~HM HH3- . HOH 3anop. 2 ,Il;Bepn;a HJIH OKOHHruI
CTBopKa Ha nemltRX.
KOH TennonpoBoll;HOCTbIO~
-64-
3BOH. 1 Hpyc KOItOKOltbHU, HMeIO~
apKu RnH npXMoyronbHbIe npoeMbl ARX
KOJIOKOnOB. 2 KOMnneKT KOJIOKOJIOB Ha
OAHOH 360HHUI{e RnH KOItOKO.ll.bHe.
3BOHHK. ,Il;BepHoH KOJIOKOnbqHK.
3
3BOHHIU",A - 3HMHSlSI lI,EPKOBb
3BOHHMIJ;A. ApXHTeKTYPHOe COOPY)KeHHe ]:IJIll nOABeCKH KOJIOKOJIOB, He
HMelOll\ee 6aIIIHe06pa3Horo 06JIHKa,
HJIH CTeHKa Toro )Ke Ha3HaqeHHlI (cp.
KOJlOKOJlbHR).
65
3EMJIEBM1HhH1: KAMEHh. CTPOHTeJIhHhIU MaTepHaJI B BHAe 6JIOKOB,
KOTophle
H3rOTOBJIllIOTCll
nYTeM
Ha6HBKH YBJIa)KHeHHOU )KHPHOH 3eMJIH C
rJIHHOH H Py6JIeHOH COJIOMOH B npllMOyrOJIhHYIO CPOPMY.
3EMJI5I. 1 <l>OH MaTepHH C BhIIIIHBKOU
JIH60 TKaHhIM PHCYHKOM HJIH Y30pOM.
2 OCHoBa 6apxaTa, HaA KOTOPOH nO]:lHHMaeTCll BOpC. 3 MOHOTOHHhIH CPOH Ha
JIHn;eBOH cTopoHe uapa314a.
3EMJI5IHA5I CEPA,
CMOJIA. Ac(jJaJlbm.
3EMJI5IHA5I
3EPKAJIhHOE CTEKJIO. IIJIocKoe
JIHCTOBOe CTeKJIO BhICOKOH rrp03paqFjOCTH, nOJIHpoBaHHOe C 06eHX CTOPOH;
06hNHall TOJIll\HHa - OT 6 AO 9 MM.
3EPKAJIhHhIll METAJIJI. Pa3HOBH]:IHOCTh HHKeJIeBhIX CnJIaBOB, 06JIaAalOll\all nOBhIIIIeHHOH cnoc06HOCThlO K
rrOJIHpOBKe.
3EPKAJIhHhIll CBO,I:(. IIepeKphITHe
C 06IIIHpHOH ropH30HTaJIhHOH nOBepxHOCThlO, coeAHHeHHOH co CTeHaMH nJIaBHhIM H3rn60M (CM. JIaoyza).
3EMJI5IHKA. BhIKonaHHoe B 3eMJIe
)KHJlHll\e, Kp06J1R KOTOPOro (H3 COJIOMhI
HJIH XBopocTa) TaK)Ke 3aCbmaHa 3eMJIeH
JIH60 CAeJIaHa H3 oeplla.
KOMnaKTHoe
3EPIJ;AJIO. YCTaHaBJIHBaBIIIallCll Ha
CTOJIaX B npHCYTCTBeHHhIX MeCTax BepTHKaJIhHall TPexrpaHHall nPH3Ma C TeKCTOM n;apCKHX YKa30B (Ha rpaHlIX) H ABYrJIaBhIM OPJIOM (HaBepxy).
MeTpHqeCKH llfJdJ:>Jl'lJ1'bnJ~.l'l
)KeHHOe nJIOTHO noca~KtjlflHl'IMH AepeBbSIMH, KOTopble
KpOHaMH,
06pa3Yll nOA06He
3ETOBOE )KEJIE30. MeTaJIJIHqeCKall 6aJIKa, KOTopall HMeeT B CeqeHHH
,",,,,,.,,,,an. KpaCKa,
pacnaAa rop-
3eJIeHb,
3eJIeHb,
3EMJI5IHOE
IIOJIOTHO.
IIoBepx-
HOCTh 3eMJIllHOH HaChIIIH, npeAHa3HaqeHHall AJIll YKJIaAKH AOpO)KHOro noKphITHll.
~HKOBall
OTTeHKa AJIll
COCTaBY - OKHCh'
C nOAMeChlO
nmaTa HJIH CMeCh
H 6epJIHHCKOH JIa3ypH C
XPOMOM,
)KeJIThIM Ka]:lMHeM
n;HHKOBOH
)KeJIThlO) ;
H3YMVYAHall 3eJIeHh, JIOKOMOtH1BHlllI 3eJIeHh,
IIIeJIKOBall 3eJIeHh.
3EJIEHA5I OXPA. Hf:m:)O'lIHailI 3eJIeHall KpaCKa,
nyTeM 06pa60TKH )KeJITOIi OXPhI Kp,omlHo1ii: COJIhlO,
COJIlIHOH KHCJIOTOU H
KynopOCOM.
3EJIEHOE ,I:(EPEBO IIpeAHa3HaqeHApeBeCHHa
3EJIEHOE
UKOlIocmaCOB H T. A.
. 3eJIe-
3EJIEHhIM
PocnHCh
MpaMOp.
3EMJI5IHOll rOPO,I:(. 1 rOpOAcKoe
YKpenJIeHHe, OCHOBY KOToporo COCTaBJIlleT 3eMJIllHOH BaJI (1). 2 qacTh ApeBHePYCCKOro 2Opooa (2), orpaHHqeHHall
TaKHM YKpenJIeHHeM.
CTOHKY C rrOJIOqKaMH, OTXOAllll\HMH OT
ee KOHn;OB B npoTHBOnOJIO)KHhIX HarrpaBJIeHHllx.
3MAPATXAHA (=3HllpaTxaHa) rJIaBHoe nOMell\eHHe AJIll MOJIllll\HXCll B Me'femu.
3Mr3ArM. TpaHIIIeH MaJIOH IIIHpHHhI,
nepeXOAllll\He OAHa B APyryIO nOA
OCTphIM yrJIOM.
3EMJI5IHOll ,I:(ErOTh. ACpaJlbm.
3M,I:(. CTeHa.
3EMJI5IHOll MOCT.l1.aM6a.
3MJIhBEPrJIET
(= 3HJIh6eprJIHT).
1 YnoTpe6JIlleMhIH npH H3rOTOBJIeHHH
6hICTPOcoxHYll\eH 3aMa3KH H KpacoK AJIll
OTAeJIOqHhIX pa60T nopoIIIoK. 2 II060qH:!>IH npoAYKT BhIIIJIaBKH cepe6pa H3
CBHHn;OBhIX PYA. 3 BJIeCTllll\HH )KeJITOOpaH)KeBhIH nopomoK C KpynHOqeIIIYHqaTOH CTPYKTypOH.
3EMCKA5I
BOJIhHMIJ;A,
3EMCKA5I illKOJIA. MeAHn;HHCKOe JIH60
yqe6HOe yqpe)KAeHHe, C03AaHHoe H
cpHHaHcHpyeMoe Ha cpeAcTBa 3eMCTBa opraHa
MeCTHoro
caMoynpaBJIeHHlI
(c 1864 r.).
3EMCKA5I M3BA. ,I:(peBHepyccKoe
aAMHHHcTpaTHBHoe 3AaHHe, B KOTOPOM
COBepIIIaJICll CYA H HCnOJIHlIJIHCh HaKa3aHHlI no npHroBopaM.
3EPKAJIO. 1 rJIaAKall nOBepxHocTh,
HHTeHCHBHO OTpa)KalOll\all CBeTOBhIe
HJIH TenJIOBhIe JIyqH. 2 BepxHlIlI ropH30HTaJIhHall ~acTh 3epKaJlbl1020 c6ooa.
3 IIoJIe nOTOJIOqHOro nJla(jJoHa, orpaHHqeHHOe npocpHJIHpOBaHHoH (06hIqHO
IIITYKaTypHoH) paMKoH. 4 OrpaHHqeHHhIH IIITYKaTypHoH paMKoH KpynHhIH
yqaCTOK CTeHOK B HHTephepe. 5 HaH60JIee 06IIIHPHhIH yqaCTOK Ha JIHn;eBOH
cTopoHe neqH HJIH KaMUHa. 6 IIoJIe
KpynHoH ABepHoH pUJleHKU (1). 7 IloBepXHocTh BOAoeMa.
-65-
3MMHMll IIEPEIIJIET. OKOHHall paMa 6e3 CTBOPOK H OTKphIBaIOll\eHCll
(jJPaMYzu.
3MMHMll CA,I:(. Cal:( H3 AeKopaTHBHhIX pacTeHHH, YCTpoeHHhIH B 3aKphITOM nOMell\eHHH.
3MMHMIJ;A. 1 H36a (1) 6e3 TPy6hI H
ceHeu, nocTpoeHHall 3a X03llHcTBeHHhIM
OBOPOM KpecThllHcKOH ycaob6bt HJIH
C60KY OT Hero; 06hlqHO 3arJIy6JIllJIaCh B
3eMJIIO Ha 0,7-1,25 M. 2 (= 3HMoBhe).
H36a (1), B KOTOPOH cOnpOBO)K):laBIIIHe
0603 no 3HMHeH Aopore AO)KH]:IaJIHCh
BCKPhITHlI peK.
3MMH5I5I IJ;EPKOBh (= TenJIall n;epKOBh). OTanJIHBaeMhIH xpaM, B KOTO-
3
3111MOBKA - 3b1M3A
POM MO)J{HO COBepIIIaTb 60roCJIY)J{emBi B
3HMHee BpeMSI rO):la.
3MMOBKA. H36a B 3a):lHeH qaCTH KpeCTMIHCKOH ycaob6bl, npe):lHa3HaqeHHruI
):IJUI cO):lep)J{aHIDI CKOTa, a HHOr):la H ):IJI}!
)J{HJIb}!.
3MMOBHMK, 3MMOBbE. 1 H36a (1)
):IJI}! BpeMeHHoro npo)J{HBaHIDI nYTHHKoB
B JIecy HJIH CTenH 3HMOH (cp.: 3~lM­
HUUP (2). 2 []ocmORJlbiU 060P B 6e3JIIO):IHOH MeCTHOCTH. 3 OXOTHHqb}! H36YIIIKa
B rJIy6HHe JIeca. 4 I1acTYIIIecKruI XH)J{HHa
B CTenH. 5 KYXH}! HJIH JlIOOCKaR, B03Be):IeHHble B cTopoHe OT ):Ipymx nocTPoeK
ycaob6bl.
3MMOrOPbE. I10CeJIeHHe HeHMYW;Hx
H ce30HHbIX pa60qHx.
3MMC. CTbIK OOCOK (1) B 06mu6Ke.
3MHKBEPK. mmOJlbl-lR, B KOTOPOH
HaKanJIHBaIOT HacbIw;eHHblH COJIbIO pacTBOP H3 rpYHTa, qT06bI 3aTeM BbIIIyCTHTb ero B CneIl,HaJIbHbIH pe3epByap.
3MIJ,-OPT, 3MIJ,OPT. HH3KHH mmpeK
B PY):lHHKe, npe):lHa3HaqeHHblH
pa60TbI CHIl;}!.
3M5IP ATXAHA. 3uapamxal-la.
3JIATOKPOBHbIll.
3JIaTOrnaBbIH,
66
30JIOTO JIMCTOBOE. OqeHb TOHKHe
JIHCTKH
BbICOKOKaqeCTBeHHoro
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30<l>OP. 300¢op.
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3bIM3A, 3bIMC. Kapl-lua.
MACIIMC (= S1CnHC). Acnuo.
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MBEPHh.
KpOBeJIbHaSI opaH1ca (1),
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2 YCTOH MOCTa.
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67
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68
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IIPEIUITCTMCKYCCTBEHHOE
BME. 060pOHHTenhHoe coopy)!{eHHe
IlIHpIl.HOH He MeHee 2 Ca)!{eHeH, B03Be.n;eHHoe B 50-300 IlIarax nepe.n; yKpenneHHhIMH rr03H~IDIMH II. rrpe.n;Ha3HaqeHHoe .n;ml 3a.n;ep)!{KH HenpHgTenhCKoro
HacTynneHlI.g; MO)!{eT 6hITh H3rOTOBneHO 11.3 3eMnH (pOB, 60Jl'lbR R.Ma,
aClcapnHaR Mil. KOHmpaCl(apnHaR CTeHKa), BO.n;bI (BO.n;gHOH pOB, 3anpy.n;a),
.n;epeBa (naJlucao, utmypMcjJaJl, KOnhg B
IlIaXMaTHOM nopg.n;Ke, pozamKU, 3aceKU,
60pOHhI KBepxy 3y6hgMH), rrpOBonOKH
(ceTh, rreTnH-CMKH), )!{ene3a (peIlIeTKa,
utmypMcjJaJl).
COOPY)KEMCKYCCTBEHHOE
HME. Coopy)!{eHlI.e rrpH rrepeCeqeHHH
.n;oPO)!{Horo nonOTHa C BO.n;HOH rrperpa.n;OH, pe3KHM rrOHH)!{eHlI.eM penhecj:>a,
BCTpeqHOH .n;OpOroH II. T . .n;. Pa3HOBII..n;HOCTII. M. C.: MOCT - B qaCTHOCTH, 6uaoYK,
nyTenpoBo.n;, 3cmaKaoa (1) - Tpy6a HnH
nOTOK rro.n; HaChIIIhIO, TYHHenh, npoTHBoo6BanhHag ZaJlepeR (3), noonopnaR
cmenKa, 6btCmpomoK II. .n;p.
MCKYCCTBEHHbIll MPAMOP. OTITInHcj:>oBaHHhIH rHrrc, o6pa6oTaHHhIH
KBaC~aMH II. CMeIlIaHHblH C MHHepanhHblMII. KpaCKaMII..
69
AblPA3bnyn
MTAJIMIHCKMll IIAPK. TeppaCHhIH
peZYJlRpHblU rrapK co cKynhrrTypaMH.
MTAJIh5IHCKOE OKHO (= BeHe~HaHCKoe
OKHO, rranna.n;HeBO OKHO,
rrgTHKono.n;Hoe OKHO, Cepnll.aHO, TPOHHoe OKHO). TpeXqaCTHOe OKHO C 60nee
IlIHPOKOH cpe.n;HeH qaCThIO (06hIqHO
apO'lHOU, BblIlIe 60KOBhIX npgMoyronhHhIX - T. H. nOJlYOKOH).
MTOAH. HaHaHCKHH rrorpe6anhHhIH
IlIanalli 11.3 TOHKHX )!{ep.n;eH, coopy)!{eHHhIH B6nH311. )!{lI.nHI~a.
MTOOK. HaomaH.
MY,IJ;EllCKA5I CMOJIA. AccjJaJlbm.
MqIOll. CnanhlJg B HoraHCKOM oOMe
(1,2).
llAr,IJ;YH. YnhqCKHH IlIanalli .n;ng po)!{eHH~hI.
llAOTAH (= HTOOK). IIoMHHanhHhIH
HaHaHcKHH IlIanalli C rrOnOTHgHhIM
nOKphITll.eM rro KapKacy 11.3 BhIrHYThIX
)!{ep.n;eH).
IlOPT. IIepe.n;HII.H .n;BOp ycaob6bl TaTapMHlIIapeH, BKnIOqaIO~H xmnOH (JOM (1)
II. Ha.n;BopHhIe X03gHCTBeHHhIe rrocTpoHKH.
llbIPA3bIIYJI. IIo.fwmu (1) C .n;epeBgHHhIM H3ronOBheM, B y.n;MypTCKOH
U36e (1).
MCIIAHCKMll MEJI. TanhK, yrroTPe6ngeMhIH .n;ng oKpacKH o6oeB, a
TaK)!{e KaK COCTaBHag qaCTh pg.n;a MangpHhIX KpacoK.
MCIIO,IJ;HME CEHM (= rro.n;ceHlI.e).
5Ipyc B OCHOBaHII.H .n;epeBgHHhIX ceHeu.
MCIIO,IJ;HMl(A. IIO.n;hI36H~a, HH)!{HHH
RpyC KJlemU (1).
MCTEEKA. 1 IIooKJlem, rro.n;hI3611.~a.
2 Kna.n;oBag C pyqHhIMH )!{epHOBaMII.,
B KpeCThgHCKOH U36e (1).
MCTOEKA. H36a (2).
MCTOIIKA. 1 H36a (2).2 (= rro.n;BonoKa, qep.n;aK). qep.n;aqHOe rrpocTpaHcTBo
Me)!{,!l;y rrOTOnOqHhIM HaKaTOM II. KP06Jleu u36bl (1). 3 IIocTpoHKa .n;ng MhIThg,
6~, Jla3HR (1).
MCTOIIH5I. ,IJ;epeBgHHag KpeCThgHCKag rrocTpoHKa .n;ng rOTOBKH nH~H.
MCTPYE. Cpy6.
CTPOIIMJIA
MTAJIb5IHCKME
(= 06hIKHoBeHHhIe cTponHna). KOHCTPy~ID1 11.3 coe.n;HHeHHhIX 3aTg)!{KOH
CmpOnUJIbHblX Hoi, KOTophIe rro.n;.n;ep)!{lI.BaIOTCg nOOKOCa.MU C yrropoM B BII.CgqyIO 6a6KY.
-69-
KABAHllHK. PacrrpOCTPaHeHHIUI B peHHhIM H3rn6oM, B KOTOPOM BepXHIDI
rrepHOA MOAepHa o6mru;oBO'fHaSI Kepa- '1aCTh BhIITyKJIIUI, a HIDKHSlSl - BorHYTIUI.
MH'IeCKaSI rrnHTKa, B rrporroplVfSlX nHl\eBOH CTOPOHhI HMHTHPYIOm:aSI KHprrH'l.
KABEJIbHbIH MOCT. BHCSI'IHH MOCT
Ha rrpOBOnO'lHhIX TPocax ..
KABHHET. 1 KOMHaTa B KBapTHpe,
rrpeAHa3Ha'leHHaSI AnSI HHAHBHAyanhHhIX
3aHSlTHH YMcTBeHHhIM TPYAOM. 2 CrreQHanhHO o6opYAoBaHHoe AnSI 3aHSlTHH
orrpeAeJIeHHoro rrpOCPHJISI rroMem:eHHe B
Y'le6HoM 3aBeAeHHH. 3 CrreQHanhHo KABPHOJIb. H30rnYTIUI Me6eJIhHIUI
o6opYAoBaHHoe rroMem:eHHe AnSI rrpH- HO)i{Ka, - 06hI'IHO B BHAe JIanhI )l{lfBOTeMa 60JIhHhIX. 4 IIoMem:eHHe B y'lpe- Horo C KOITSlMH HJIH C KonhITOM BHH3y.
)l{AeHHH, rrpeAHa3Ha'leHHOe AnSI cnY)i{e6HhIX Aen AOn)I{HOCTHOro nHl\a (B '1aCTHOCTH,AnSI rrpHeMa rroceTHTeneH). 5 KOMrrneK,T Me6enH Ami Ka6UHema (1, 4).
6 IIHchMeHHhm CTon C HaACTPOH:KOH,
3arrOJIHeHHOH SIm;H'IKaMH H rronOCTSlMH C
KABA. 0pO'lCKOe neTHee )I{HJlHm:e C
rrpSlMoyronhHhIM rrnaHOM, CTeHaMH H3
eJIOBOH KOphI no BepTHKanhHoMY 6peBeH'laToMY KapKacy H ABycKaTHoH Kpbl-
uteu.
KABAJIbEP. PacnOJlO)i{eHHOe BHYTPH
Kpenocmu BcnOMOraTeJlhHOe 060POHH-
TeJlhHOe coopY)i{eHHe C 6oeeou nIlow,aoKOU, rrpHTIOAHSlTOH H~ CTeHaMH 6J1H)i{aHIIIerO 6acmuoHa.
KABJIHKOJIbI. BOJllOmbl KOPUHq,CKOU KanUmeJlU,
rrOMep)l{lfBaIOm:He
yrJlhI ee a6aKu.
KA.,[()KAJIH. YJlh'lCKHe CTOJl6hI,
KOTOPhIM rrpHBSI3hIBalOT MeABeAeH.
K
KA,!J;HJIbHAA IIEl.J:b. IIe'lh, rrpHcnoC06J1eHHIUI K BocKypeHHIO 6J1aroBoHHH B
nOMem:eHHH.
KA,IJ;YQE,H. )l(e3JI MepKYPHSl, CHMMeTPH'IHO 06BHThIH ABYMSI 3MeRMH H
3aBePIIIeHHhm rrapoH KphInhIIIIeK.
KA3AHJIbIK, KA3AH ~K.
Aut RK.
KA3APMA. 1 IIpHcrroco6J1eHHoe AJiR
060pOHhI 3AaHHe, B KOTOPOM )l{lfByr
ABepQaMH (cp.: BlOpO). 7 (= Ka6HHeT B
6ocKeme). Y'IaCTOK pezyJlRpHOZO rrapKa, orpaHH'IeHHhIH CTeHKaMH H3 CTPH)i{eHhIX ):ICpeBheB (HHorAa BKJIIO'Ian B
ce6SI 6eceoKY, cKynhrrTYPY, 6acceHH).
KABH~. Yrny6neHHIUI B 3eMJIIO rnHHSlHIUI rre'lKa, B Ky6aHCKHX CTaHHQax.
COJlAaThI BOHCKOBOH '1aCTH. 2 ,!J;opeBoJlIOQHOHHOe 3AaHHe AnSI pa6o'lero
o6m:e)l{lfTHSl, pacnOJIO)i{eHHOe rrpH npo-
KABJIYlJOK. BhITSIHYThIH rro ropH30HTanH HaBHcawm:HH npoqlHJIh C yMe70
-70-
K
KA3EMAT - KAnEnnA
MbIIIIJIeHHOM npe):lnpIDITIHI. 3 /(OM (1)
npH TpaHcnOpTHOIl: MarHcTPaJIH, B KOTOPOM npmKHBalOT ):IOpO)KHbIe pa60qHe H
CJIY)KaIl\He, OTBeqalOIl\He 3a HcnpaBHOCTb nYTH.
KA3EMAT. 1 CBO):lqaTOe KaMeHHoe
coopY)KeHne nO):l KpenocTHbIM BMOM
(1), npe):lHa3HaqeHHOe ):IJISI YKPbITHSI OT
HaBeCHoro 06CTpeJIa H ):IJISI xpaHeHIDI
71
KAJIAH1:JA. ,IJ,03opHaSI BbIlliKa }:IJISI
Ha6JIIO}:IeHHSI 3a npH6JIH)KeHHeM npoTHB-
KAMHH JIEEPEHA. JIe6pella KaMllU.
HHKa HJIH 3a B03HHKHOBeHHeM nO)KapoB.
CBOOOM.
KAJIEBKA. 1 (= 6poBKa). HeCJIO)KHa5I
rrpOCPHJIHpOBKa KpaSI OOCKU (1), BKJllO2 (= BaroHKa).
qalOIl\a5I nOJlYBaJl.
/(ocKa (1) MJIH 6pYCOK (1) C TaKOll npoCPHJIHPOBKOll .
KAJIOPH<I>EP. OTOnHTeJIbHOe YCTPOllCTBO, 060rpeBalOl.l\ee B03}:1yx B nOMel.l\eHIDIX 6JIarO):lapSI ero conpHKocHoBeHHIO
KAMOPKA.
I1oMeIl\eHHe pSI}:IOM co
KAMI1EIIIEBOE ,IJ,EPEBO (= CHHHH
CaH}:IaJI). ,IJ,peBecHHa, oTBap KOTOPOH
HaHOCHJIH nJIOCKHMH M5IrKHMH KHCTSIMH
Ha KJIeHOBbIe qaCTH Me6eJIH, qT06bI
HMHTHpOBaTb rrpO)KHJIKH, CBollcTBeHHbIe meKcmype naJIHCaH):Ipa, opexa H
,n;pyrHx u;eHHbIX nopo):l.
KAH. HapbI, npHMbIKalOIl\He K BHYTpeHHHM CTeHaM )KHJIHIl\a Y KopeHHbIx
HapO}:lOB BOCTOqHOll CH6HpH.
KAHAIIE. ,IJ,HBaHqHK C npHnO):lHSITbIM
H3rOJIOBbeM.
KAH,IJ,EM. Kap/{ep.
co CTeHKaMH Tpy6 HJIH HHbIX KaHaJIOB,
no KOTOPblM npOXO):lSIT rOpHqHe ra3, nap
JIH60 BO):la.
KAH,IJ,EJI5IEP. KpynHbIll CTOHqHll CBeTHJIbHHK, HHOr}:la C pa3BeTBneHIDIMH }:IJIH
CBeqeH.
KAJITA. I1pHMoyronbHoe B IIJIaHe
3BeHKHllcKoe )KHJIHl.l\e H3 6peBell, BHYTPH KOToporo YCTPoeHbI HapbI Ha IIIHpOKOM Obl.MOXOOe, npOXO):lHBIIIeM no nepHMeTPY OT neqH Y }:IBepH.
60enpHIIaCOB. 2 CBO):lqaTOe nOMeIl\eHHe
):IJISI oc060 onaCHblX npecTynHHKoB, B
TlOpbMe HJIH Kpenocmu.
KA3EHKA. 1 I1eperOpO}:lKa, OT}:IeJISIlOIl\aSI KYXOHHYIO qaCTb U36bl (1) OT ee
qHCTOll nOJIOBHHbI. 2 IIOMel.l\eHHe ):IJI5I
xpaHeHIDI ):IeHer H ):IOKYMeHToB, B ):IpeBHepyccKoM npHKa3e. 3 BCTpoeHHbIll B
cTeHY CTOJISIpHbIll IIIKacp H3 JIHnOBblX
OOCOK (1), B KOTOPOM XpaHHJIH }:Iopome
BeIl\H. 4 Ka31w (1).
KAMEHHQA. )KMJIOH OO,M (1) H3 KHPnHqa MJIH KaMHSI Ha IOrO-3ana):le POCCHH.
KAMEHKA. I1e% 6e3 Ow,toxooa,
KynoJIo06pa3Ho CJIO)KeHHaH H3 KaMHell
Ha rJIHHSIHOM pacTBope.
KAMEHHhIM KAPTOH (= KapToHnbep). IIanbe-Mallie C 60JIbIIIHM KOJIHqeCTBOM MHHepaJIbHbIX ):I06aBOK (HanpHMep, MeJI, u;eMeHT), npHMeHSIBIIIeecH
}:InH H3roToBneHHSI MeJIKHX apxHTeKTYpHbIX YKpaIIIeHHll.
KA3EHHhIM KHPI1H1:J. EpYCKOBbIll
KHpnHq C pa3MepaMH 6 x 3 x 15 BepIIIKoB,
HJIH 267x133x67 MM, pacnpocTpaHeHHbIll Ha npaBax CTaH}:IapTHOro B PYCCKOM
cTPoHTeJIbCTBe C 1847 no 1927 r.
KAMEHHhIM MEiliOK (= 6JIOIIIHHu;a). Y 3Koe BepTHKaJIbHOe nOMel.l\eHHe C
BepxHHM na30M H rnyxHMH CTeHKaMH,
npe}:lHa3HaqeHHOe }:InH Y3HHKa.
KA3HA. 1 (= Ka3eHKa (4). 1:JYJIaH B
ceHRX PYCCKOll U36bl (1), OrpaHHqeHHbIll
neperOpO):lKoll. 2 KyxoHHaSI qaCTb B
u36e (1) TaTap-MHIIIapell.
KAMEPA OT,IJ,hIXA. I10BblIIIeHHbIll
():IO nonYTopa MeTPOB) yqaCTOK KaHaJIH3aU;HOHHoro TOHHeJIH, - Me)K):IY 60JIee
HH3KHX yqaCTKOB ():IO 60 M B CTOpOHbI).
KAMrH. EOJIbIIIa5I 3CKHMOCCKa5I 3eMJISIHKa Ha HeCKOJIbKO pop;cTBeHHblx
ceMeHcTB.
KAMHH. I1pHcTeHHaH neqb C OTKPbITblM TOIIJIHBHHKOM, He HMelOIl\a5I Obl.MOo6opomOB.
KAH,IJ,HJIO. 1 HanOJIbHbIll nO):lCBeqHHK nepe}:l HKOHOll. 2 QepKOBHa5I JIaMna}:la C eJIeeM.
KAHHEJIHPOBAHHhIM.
TbIH KalllleJllOpaMu.
KAHHEJIIOPhI (= Bpe3bI, )KeJI06KH).
IIapaJIJIeJIbHbIe )KeJI06KH Ha nOBepxHoCTH CTBOJIa KOJlOllllbl HJIH nUJIRCmpbl
(BepTHKaJIbHbIe K.) JIH60 Ha nOBepxHoCTH mopa (ropH30HTaJIbHbIe K.).
SInOHCKoro xpaMoBoro KOMnJIeKca.
KAHOH. I1aHHXH):IHbIll CTOJIHK B u;epKBH, Ha KOTOPbIH CTaBHTCH rp06 C nOKollHHKOM.
KAJIA. KaBKa3CKa5I 60eBa5I 6aUlllR H3
KaMHSI.
KAI1. HapocT Ha }:IepeBe, B pHcYHKe
cpe3a HanOMHHalOIl\HH MpaMop.
KAJIAK KhICThIPrhIC.
IIpHKpenJIeHHble K CTeHe B 6aIIIKHpcKOH U36e
(1) nepeKJIa):lHHbI }:IJISI xpaHeHIDI JIO)KeK
H HO)Kell.
KAI1AK. CmaBllU (1) Ha OKHax HorallcKoro ):IOMa.
KAMPO. raJlepeu (1) no nepHMeTpy
KAIIEJIJIA. KaTOJIHqeCKa5I MJIH aHrJIHKaHCKaH 'taCOBllR (1), B03Be):leHHa5I 060C06JIeHHO JIH60 BKJIlOqeHHaH B 06beM
xpaMa.
KAJIAHA. YJIbqCKHll OOM (1) C ):IBYcKaTHoll KpblUleu.
-71-
KAnlllTAJlbHASI CTEHA - KATOnlll~ECKIllM KPECT
K
KAIUfTAJIbHA5I
CTEHA.
BOCnpHHHMaJO~(u{
3):1aHIHI,
CTCHa
HarpY3KY OT
72
CT B cc6a 06WHpHOC 3aMKHYTOC npo-
3aKpY'lCHHhIMH KP(u{MH H BKJIJO'IaJO~H:iI:
CTpaHCTBO nOA OTKphlThIM Hc60M -
no
):IJIa
KOHCTpYK~H BCPXHCro 3Ta)Ka H ncpc-
OT):IhIXa BhJO'IHhIX )KHBOTHhIX, OKPY)KCH-
KphITHH.
HOC
KAnHT AJIbHbIM rE3EHK. Hc HMCJO~(u{
BhIXO):la Ha nOBCpXHOCTh BCPTH-
MHOrO'lHCJICHHhIMH
CKJIa):laMH
JO~HX
Haa ncpcropO):lKa B anOHCKOM
IWJlOHHbl
2
HJIH
H
1 Pa3ABH)KH(u{ BHYTpCH-
KAP AKAMH.
KAIIHTEJIb.
BJIa-
KapaBaH.
IDIJO~(u{
TOB B PY):IHHKC.
HHH~HaJIaMH
HMCHHa.
KOMHaTaMH ):IJIa HO'IJICra COnpOBO)K):la-
KaJIhH(u{ HJIH HaKJIOHH(u{ WaXTa, COC):IH):IBa lfJIH HCCKOJIhKO roPH30H-
6e1t3eJlb C
~CHTpy
):ICJIh~a
CnCI\HaJIhH(U{
oOMe (1).
nJIOTH(u{
6YMara
(06hI'IHO npOMaCJICHH(u{), 3aMCIDIJO~(u{
BCH'IaJO~HH
3JICMCHT
nUIUlcmpbl,
OTJIH'Ia-
OCTCKJICHIfC B TaKoH ncpcropoAKc.
JO~HHca OT cc OCHOBHOH '1aCTH 60JICC
KAPA-KAPilibI bI3EA. IIpaMoyroJIh-
CJIO)KHOH CPOPMOH H 60JIhWCH WHpHHOH.
HOC CCJIhCKOC )KHJIH~C TaTap-MHwapCH,
B KOTOPOM ):IBC
ua6bl (1) pa3):1CJICHhI
CeHR.MU.
KAPIJ;EP
KaH):Ic:iI:). IIoMc~cHHc ):IJIa
(=
BpcMcHHoro
O):lHHO'IHOrO
3aTO'lCHHa
npOBHHlfBwHXca apccTaHToB (B TJOPhMC) lfJIH y'la~HXca (B Y'lC6HOM 3aBC):ICHHH).
KAP AJI,ll,bI A5IrbI. HH3KHH wKacp'lHK
co
CTBOpKaMH
B
OCHOBaHHH
CTonhl
nOCTCJIhHhIX npHHa):IJIC)KHOCTCH B 6awKHPCKOM
)KHJIH~C.
C/JpoHmoH C H30my-
KAPA-XA<I>Y.
ThIMH CKaTaMH B anOHCKOH apXHTCKTYPC
(06h1'1HO KYJIhTOBOH HJIH ):IBOp~OBOH).
(=
KAIIHmE
)KCPTBH~C).
CJIaBaH-
KAPE.
KOMnOHOBKa
apXlfTcKryPHhlx
06'bCMOB BOKpyr npaMoyrOJIhHoro npo-
CKH}I a3hI'ICCKHH xpaM.
CTpaHCTBa.
KACATKHH XBOCT.
KAIIJIH. IIpHJIcraJO~c K CTCHC ):ICKOpaTHBHhIC
TpcyrOJIhHhIC
nO):lBCCKH
B
BH):IC npH3M lfJIH YCC'ICHHhIX KOHYCOB, B
OCHOBaHlm
mpUlJlurjJa JIH60 MOOYJlb-
OHa.
):ICp)KHBaJO~(u{
nocTpoHKa
1
MO)KCT HMCTh
HOC
Hc6oJIhW(U{ KYJIhTOBaa
cc Ha
aJlmapb). 2 060c06JICH-
'1aCTh
OTJIH'IHC
Hc60JIhWOC
OT
nOMc~cHHC
B COCTaB KaTOJIH'ICCKOrO xpaMa
rp~aHCKoro
3):1aHHa
Ha
JOro-
3ana):lC POCCHH.
1
IIpOTa)KCHHhIH BhlcTyn,
RPYCbl HJIH 3Ta)KH. 2BcH'IaJO~(u{
aHma6J1eMeHma.
KAPHH30JIb.
TKaHh
AJIa
060CB
C
BhIWHBKO:il:.
1
OpY)KCHlfC ):IJIa npO):lOJIhHOrO 06CTpCJIa
pH.
JIO)KHhIX HanpaBJICHHax.
(=
ApaTHhIH TOHKHH KHpnH'I ):IJIa BhICTHJIKH
nC'IHOrO
nooa.
KAIIbI. ,ll,BCPh HoraHCKOH
IIPY,ll,bI.
npY):IOB,
pacnOJIO)KCHHhIX
ypoBHax
H
CHcTcMa
Ha
pa3Hhix
06'bC):IHHCHHhlX CKB03HhIM
TC'ICHHCM BO):lhi.
KeccoH.
ua6a, CnO)KCH-
oepHa (1).
1 (=
KATAJIA)J(HA5I.
3M.
rJIHH06HTHaa
6awKHp-
~HH.
2 (=
KaTaJI3)KKa).
TaKCJIa)KH(u{). CKJIa):l ):IJIa CHa-
CK(u{ nOCTpoHKa.
CTCH.
KAPTHHA. ,ll,Ba JIHCTa KPOBCJIhHOro
KATAJIbHA5I
)KCJIC3a, nJIOTHO COC):IHHCHHhIX MC)K):IY
COOPY)KCHHC C
C060H.
caHax.
KaMeHltblU KapmOH.
KAPTOHbEPKA.
6YMar.
JICHH(u{
meppac-
ApccTaHTcKoc nOMC~CHliC npH nOJIK-
EYMArA.
6YMara
):IJIa
IIpocMo-
rH):IpOH30JIa~H,
HhIX PC3h60H ):ICPCBaHHhIX CTBOPOK Ha
ICp06J1e.
(1) B TCCOBOH
KATAIIETACMA
BH):IC ~HTa JIH60 CBHTKa C 3aKpY'lcH-
EOJIhWOH noCmOJUlblU 060P ):IJIa pa3MC~CHlm Ka-
HhIMH KP(u{MH.
paBaHHhIX 06030B, KOTOPhIH BKJIJO'Ia-
B
2 IJ;BCTO'lHhIH: OPHaMCHT
napmepe (1), HMCJO~H:iI: BH):I CBHTKa C
-72-
IIapKoBoc
(=
ropHHC ):IBCpH).
uKoHocmacoM, pa3):1CJIaJO~ £4apcKue 6pama H npecmoJl.
3aHaBCC
3a
repca.
KATA<I>AJIK. B03BhIWCHHC B ~CpKBH,
Ha KOTOPOC CTaBaT rp06 npH OTnCBaHHH.
KATOK.
KAPTYili. l,ll,cKopaTHBHhIH 3JICMCHT B
rOPA.
naHOYCOM ):IJIa cnycKa Ha
KATAPAKTA.
pa3):1CJIaJO~aa CJIOH OOCOK
KAP ABAH-CAP AM.
KACKA,ll,HbIE
H(u{ H3
CToa~(U{ H3 OAHOH HJIH ):IBYX YKpaWCH-
UtapHupax.
HMHTHpyJO~CC
KAC 3M. EawKHpcK(U{
KAPTY3HA5I
/Opmbl, CO-
npOMC~­
HblU BO):lona):l.
CKOH
KAPT A
nO):lOBaa JIC~a):lh). KBa-
TOKa B napKC,
MaKOB.
KAPTOH-IIbEP.
KAIICOJIb
HOC COOPY)KCHHC C MCJIKHMH
CKOTHhI:iI: ):IBOp B KPCCTMIH-
KpenocmHOlO pBa B ):IBYX npOTHBono-
<l>opTHqmKa~HoHHOC CO-
KACKA,ll,. MHorocrynCH'IaTOC KaMCH-
KACCETA.
KAPT A.
ycaob6e KOMH-3hlpaH H KOMH-ncp2 Yp3a. 3 HaKJIa):IHaa nJIaCTHHKa
B nemJle, YKPCllJICHH(u{ Ha CTBOPKC ):IBC-
KAIIOHHP.
CIC060POOeHb.
TO'lHhIMH 6accc:il:HaMH Ha nYTH BO,o;O-
):IJIa
MOJIHTB H PCJIHrH03HhIX 06Pa):IOB, BXO):Ia~cc
Bhl-
3aBcpwaJO~H:iI: CTCHY JIH60 '1JICIDI~H:iI:
ltaC06eH
(B
apxHTcKryPHhI:iI:
cTyn.
KAPHH3.
KAIIJIHIJ;A.
HJIH
KAPHATH,ll,A. )KCHCK(u{ cTaTya, nOA-
,ll,cpcBaHHhIH:
nOMOCT
HJIH
HaphI ):IJIa pa60ThI nopTHoro.
KATOJIHqECKHM KPECT.
CICUU ICpecm.
JIamuH-
K
73
KATOMAAO - KEPWmtnb
KATOMA,IJ;O. Omo 51nOHCKOH noCTpoihrn, B nepeDJIeTe KOTOPOro MHO)l{eCTBO H3m60B.
KATYX. raiiHo.
KAY. OCeTHHCKOe )KHJl~e.
KAfPEWA. Orp~eHHOe B03BblIIIeHHe AJI5I npOnOBeAeH, 06pam;eHH51 K CJIYIIIaTeJI5IM .
I"
I
,,
,,f
KBA,IJ;POBbIH PYCf. ,[(eKOpaTHBHruI
06pa60TKa CTeHbI npmmyrOJIbHhIMH
6JIOKaMH, pa3AeJIeHHbIMH roPH30HTaJIbHbIMH H BepTHKaJIbHbIMH npO<pHJlHpOBaHHbIMH )l{eJI06KaMH.
KBAHT I1EJIbECA KEPKA. Ih6anRmUCmeHOK Y KOMH-3blpD.
KBAPTAJI. 1 qacTb wpooa (2) HJIH
60JIbmOrO
ceJIeHH51,
orpaHH'IeHHruI
nepeceKalODl;HMHCH ymu~aMH, Me)l{lJ;Y
COCeAHHMH nepeKpeCTKaMH. 2 qacTb
JIeCOnapKoBoHTeppHTopHH,orpaH~eH­
I
:,
HruI npoceKaMH. 3 OTAeJIeHHe ropoACKOH nOJIHQHH (B cep. XIX B.).
,
,,
,
i
KBAll. BpeMeHHbIH a6a3HHcKHH cmaH
(3) AJI5I nacryxoB H CKOTa, KOUt (1).
,
KBEPllJIAr. 1 He HMelOm;HH: HenocpeACTBeHHoro BbIXOAa Ha 3eMHYlO
nOBepxHoCTb roPH30HTaJIbHbIH KOPRAOP
BHYTPH PYAHHKa HJlH IIIaxTbI, HCnOJIb3YeMbIH AJIH BeHTHJI5IQHH H nyTeH TPaHcnopTa Me)l{lJ;y maxTHbiM CTBOJIOM 11
MeCTOM pa3pa60TKH nopoAbl. 2I1oA3eMHbIH KOPRAOP, coeAHHHlOm;HH: XOAbi H
KaMepbI nOA 060pOHHTeJIbHbIM yKpe-
I,
KAfPEJIb. Kepa~ecKHe rJIa3ypoBaHHble DJIHTKH AJI5I 06JIHQOBKH ne'leH, a
TaK)l{e CTeH B He)KHJlbiX nOMem;eHH5IX C
nOBblIIIeHHoH BJI~OCTblO.
KAfPE,[(PAJlbHbIH COEOP. XpaM, B
KOTOPOM coBepIIIaeT 6orOCJIY)I{eHHe
MeCTHblH eDHCKon (enapXHaJIbHbIH apXHepeH).
KEAEll. Coop~eHHe
HorancKoH ycaob6e.
KEHMA
Ke11Ma.
AJI5I ~ B
)KHBOI1HCb.
)Ku8onucb
KEKYPA. rypuu.
KEJIAT. KJIeTb-aM6ap (1) B 6aIllKHpCKOH ycaob6e.
KEJIEHHbIH I10P.H,[(OK, KEJIEHHbIH P.HA. CTOpoHa AepeBeHcKoH YJIH~I, 3aCTpoeHHaH H36YI11KaMH, B KOTOpbIX )KHJlH 6blBIIIHe COJIAaThI H OAHHOKHe.
KEJIbH. )I{HJIbIe nOMem;eHH51 AJI5I MOHaxOB, a TaK)l{e KOpnyC 3TOro Ha3Ha'leHH51.
KEHKET. MaCJI5IHruI JIaMIIa, Y KOTOPOH
pe3epByap C roplO'IHM pacnOJIO)l{eH Ha
ypoBHe rOpeJIKH H CB5I3aH C HeH H30rHYTOH TPy6KOH.
flJTeHHeM.
KAl(YOrn. KopoTKHe KpYrJIbie 6pe6Ha nonepeK KOHbKa Kp06J1U B HnOHCKOH apXHTeKrype.
KAmArA. lIoo30p (1) no KpalO
MamUZ4bl (1) B ua6e (1) TaTap-MHWapeH.
KAllITA. I1epeKJIa;n;HHa AJI5I OAe)l{lJ;bI B
MapdcKoH ua6e (1).
KAIIIhUIK .HK. AUt RK.
KBA,IJ;P. EJIOK KaMH5I AJI5I <pacaAa, OTecaHHbIH Ha JIHQeBOH CTOpoHe BAOJIb
KpaeB, a TaK)l{e C JIH~eBOH nOBepxHoCTblO B BRAe nOJloroH 'IeTbIpexrpaHHOH
DHPaMHAbi JlH60 npH3MbI.
KBAW B KPECfOBHHE. THn napKeTHoro Dl;HTa (CM. Iaumo6ou napKem),
B pHcyHKe KOTOporo nOJIe pa3AeJIeHO
PaBHOKOHe'lHbIM np5lMbIM KpeCTOM Ha 4
KBaApaTa, COCTaBJIeHHbiX H3 9 MeHbIIIHX,
C 'IepeAOBaHHeM B ?pHeHTaQHH KJlenOK.
KBHKYHKC. I10CaAKa AepeBbeB no
yrJIaM np5IMoyrOJIbHOrO Y'laCTKa H B ero
~eHTPe.
KrEP. KaJIMbm;KruI peIlleT'IaTO-BOHJIO'lHruI lOpma, Ku6umKa.
,
.
KEHOC. OAHoKaMepHaH KJlemb (1) B
YAMypTCKOH KpeCTbDcKoH ycaob6e.
KEHOTAfP. HaArp06He, nOA KOTOPblM
HeT MOrHJIbl.
KEEJIA. Ku6.1la.
KErEJIbEAH. I1oMem;eHHe, npHcno-.
C06JIeHHOe AJI5I HrpbI B KerJIH H BKJIIO'Ia-:
lOm;ee B ce651 AOPO)l{KY AJI5I YAapoB KPynHbIMH IIIapaMH, a TaK)l{e )l{eJI06 AJI5I HX
B03BpaTa K HrpOKY·
KEHT. KYMbIKcKoe CeJIeHHe.
.
. KEPErE. 1 (= KepeHe). AJITaHcKruI
BOUJIO'lHruI lOpma. 2 ,[(epeB5lHHaH CKJIaAHruI peIlleTKa B OCTOBe pa360pHOH HO. raHCKOH lOpmbl.
KEPKA. ,[(Byx:n~oe .6peBeH'IaTOe
)KHJlHm;e KOMH-3bIpD, 06bl'1HO COCTaBJIeHHOe H3 AByx-rpex cpy606, KOTOpbIe
pa3AeJIeHbl ;n;pyr OT ;n;pyra He60JIbIIIHM
3a30pOM.
KBA,IJ;PHfPOJIHH. 3aMKHYTruI <pHrypa, C ABYM5I B3aHMHO nepneHlJ;HKyJI5lpHblMH OC5IMH CHMMeTPHH, 06pa30BaHHruI
'IeTbIpbM51 nOJIYKp~, KOTopbIe
06pam;eHbI BhTTlyY<JTOCThlO Hapy)I{y.
,d"-··
•
KEHKOHC.
I10CaAKa
napKoBbIX
AepeBbeB B IIIaxMaTHoM nop5lAKe, npH
OTlI:PbITbIX BHH3Y CTBOJIax nOA KpoHaMH..
nOACTpH)l{eHHblMH B JIHHHIO.
KEPKY I1blTillKEC. )I{HJIoe nOMem;eHHe B KOMH-nep~KOM KpeCTbDCKOM
oOMe (1) .
KEPllI1MJIb.
llHpOKHH AOm;aTbIH
HaCTHJI B MOKIIIaHcKoH ua6e (1), 3aHHMa1Om;HH: DpOCTpaHCTBO OT ne'lH ;0:0 3aAHeH
CTeHbi oOMa (1) .
"
,
-73-
K
KECCOH - KnABlIIl.UIITEPIllYM
KECCOH (= KaCCeTa). 3neMeHT PMTMM~HOH pa3AenKII BHYTpeHHeH nOBepXHOCTM nepeKphITIDI yrny6neHIDIMM reoMeTpM~eCKOH c1JOPMbI.
~~--
~~
I1EITbECA
KMITKAPTM. OTKPhIThIH OBOP (1) ~y­
BamCKOH KpecThHHcKOH ycaob6bt.
KMMATMM (= KlIMa). ,lJ;eKopMpOBKa
M30rnyTOH nOBepXHOCTM KapHU3a CTMnM30BaHHhIMM nMCThHMM, OBanaMM B
06paMneHMHX M T. A., o6pa3ylOIQMMll
HenpephIBHhIH opHaMeHTanhHhIH PHA.
KHHMMT C3pr3. 5IKYTcKaH KOHOBH3h
AnH KOHH HeBeCThI.
KMHOBM5I. MOHacThlph C nonHhIM
o606Il\eCTBneHMeM co6cTBeHHocTM ero
6paTMM.
KEEPEr. IIazpeH.
KEKMIMbIC
74
KMlJA, KMlJMAH. TlOphMa.
KMIIIT3. I10nKa B cenhCKOM TaTapCKOM }KII:llMIl\e, Ha KOTOPYIO CKnaAhIBalOT nOCTenM, OAeHna M nYXOBhle noAymKM.
KITABECMH. KpynHhIH KnaBMmHhIH
MY3hIKanhHhIH MHcTpYMeHT C AByMH MnH
TpeMH py~HhIMM KnaBHaTypaMH BHyTpH
OCHOBHoro 06'beMa npHMoyronhHoH
nM60 KphrnoBMAHoH c1JOPMhI.
KEPKA.
Ih6a-UlecmucmeHoK y KOMM-3blpHH.
KEIT,lJ;EKCE. fnMHo6MTHM nnOIl\aAKa
nepeA ne%1O B 6amKllpcKoH U36e (1).
KMOCK. 1 ITerKoe caAoBo-napKoBoe
coopY}KeHMe C o6mMBKoH no CTon6MKaM
KapKaca. 2 EbICTPO B03BOAMMhIH ToproBhIH MnM MY3hIKanhHhIH naBUJlbOH (1, 3).
KElJrEH TEPE3E. 3aABM}KHaH BHyTpeHHHH Cma61tR (1) He6onbmoro OKHa
B Kapa~aeBcKoM oOMe (1).
KMA-KMHf. fMpnHHAbI pa3HOn;BeTHhIX 6YMa}KHhIX c1JoHapMKoB AnH MnnlOMMHan;MH.
KMAHM3MPOBAHME. AHTMcenTM~eCKaH nponMTKa ApeBecMHhI cyneMoH.
KMEMTKA.
BOHno~Hoe
}KII:nMIl\e
Ko~eBHMKOB M nonyKo~eBHMKOB
(cp.:
KMOT. 1 Yrny6neHMe AnH MKOHhI B CTeHe. 2 3acTeKneHHaH paMa-mKacIJ~MK AnH
KpynHoH MKOHhI MnI'li HeCKonhKMX
He60nhmMX HKOH.
IOpma).
KMEITA (= K116nax, Ke6na). EoraTo
AeKopMpoBaHHhIH mKacIJ BHYTPM Me'lemu, B KOTOPOM xpaHMTcH KopaH.
KITABMKOP,lJ;. KnaBHmHhIH MY3hIKanhHhIH HHcTpYMeHT CnpoAonroBaThIM
npHMoyronhHbIM KOpnyCOM Ha HO}KKaX,
BHemHe nOXO}KMH Ha CTon C nOAHHToH
cmoJleUlHuu,eii, YCTaHoBneHHoH BepTHKanhHO no OAHOH M3 AnHHHhIX CTOpOH.
KMBOPMM. I1oAAep}KMBaeMaH KOJlOHHaMU ceHb HaA npeCmOJlOM, CBHThIM
MCTO~HMKOM M T. n.
KMPH.D:3YMA. KOHCK KPbtUlU B HnOHCKOH apxMTeKType.
KMPH.D:3YMA. KOHeK KPbtUlU B HnOHCKOH apxHTeKType.
KMPXA
xpaM.
(= KHpKa).
ITIOTepaHcKIIH
KMCTb. BhlcTynalOIl\HH HM}KHMH KOKMMM3. illepcTHHhle BOI1JlOKH, noKphIBalOIl\Me pa36opHYlO HoraHCKYIO
Hen; npU'leJlUHbt, YKpameHHh[H CKB03HOM pe3h6oM.
IOpmy.
KM,lJ;AH. IIoouyM HnoHcKoro xpaMa.
KMITEBM,lJ;HbIM. MMelOIl\MH c1JOPMY
nonYKpyra MnM nonYOBana C BHemHMM
3aOCTpeHlIeM HaA cepeAHHOH Ayrn.
KMT. 1 BepeBKa M3 conOMhI, npeAHa3Ha~eHHaH AnH BH3K11 conoMeHHoH KPOBJlU. 2 Kop3MHa, HanonHeHHaH AOBepxy
3eMneH H BKnIO~eHHM IB 06opoHHTenhHYIO orpaAY·
KMTAMCKA5I POmMQA. I10CaAKa
napKoBhIX AepeBheB aM£jJumeampoM.
-74-
KITABMQMTEPMYM.
KJlaBeCUH
C
BepTMKanhHbIM pacnOnO}KeHHeM OCHOBHOH ~aCTM M CTPYH.
75
KnAAI4 - KOHKA
K
KJIA,I1;M.
6peBHa,
fOPH30HTaJIhHhIe
BKJHOqeHHhIe B KaMeHHYIO HJIH KHpIIWI-
KJlaaKY,
npOWHbl.
HYIO
qT06hI
IIO~~ep)l{HBaTh
KJIMHKEP. BhICOKOIIPOqHhIH KMpIIJfq
~JIlI Mo~eHHlI ~opor
rrpoMhIIIIJIeHHhIX
M HaCTMJIKH nOJIOB B
JIO)l{eHHalI
3~aHMlIX.
KJIMHlJATAJI
KJIA,I1;KA.
IIepe-
KJIA,I1;KA. KHPIIHqH JlH60 KaMHH, coe-
MhIqKa rrpoeMa MJIM HMIIIM, CJIO)l{eHHaH
~HHeHHhIe Me~y C060H B OIIpe~eJIeH­
H3
HOM
IIOp~Ke
IIOMO~hIO CB1I3YIO~ero
C
paCTBOpa.
TPaIIe~eBM~HhIX
6JIOKOB,
Y3KHH
Tope~ KOTOPhIX o6pa~eH K IIpoeMY.
peBlIHHoe nOKphITMe Ha
CKaTa.
BepXHHe
B~OJIh
KO~I
Hero H
coe~HHlIIO~aH
CmpOnUJIbHblX HOl.
KOEhIDKA. IIpoMe)l{YToqHhlH 6pYCOK
coe~HHlIIO~HH ~epeBlIHHhIe 3JIe(cTyrreHH, KpOBeJIhHhIH TeC,
~BepHYIO Kopo6KY) C OCHOBHOH KOH-
(1),
cTpy~eH CTeH (B TOM qMCJIe KaMeHHhIX) HJIH cmponUJI.
t
(1) B MapHil:cKoH Kpe-
KJIAT. Au6ap
~Ba
KHec, KHeCKa,
MeHThI
KJIMHlJATAJI KPOBJIH. KpYToe ~e­
(1).
KJIA,D;h. JIa.Ba
(=
KH5I3EBAJI CnEfA
KH1I3eK). )Kep~h IIO~ KOHbKOM, pacIIo-
KOf.
CThlIHCKOH ycaab6e.
1 ApKaaa,
IIO~~ep)l{HBaIO~aH
IIJIOCKYIO KPOBJlIO qeqeHcKoro
)l{MJIM~a.
2 IIIapHHpHalI KO)l{aHalI CB1I3Ka B peIIIeT-
KJIEMMO. PeJIhecpHhIH OTTHCK YCJIOBHoro 3HaKa (qa~e 6YKBeHHoro, pe)l{e
qaTOM KapKace TYBHHCKOH IOpmbl.
H306pa3HTeJIhHO-CHMBOJIJfqeCKOrO
KOrAnA-3CMK.
HJIH
PaCIIIHTalI KOIIIMa,
~CPPOBOro) Ha KHpIIHqaX HJIH MeTaJIJIH-
3aKphIBaIO~alI BXO~ B HoraHcKYIO IOpmy
qeCKHX
~JIlI MOJIO~O)l{eHOB.
H3~emrnx.
KO,D;3EMH. ,D;OM cBlI~eHHOCJIy)l{HTe­
KJIEIIMK. IIpOCPHJIHpOBaHHhIH KHPIIHq ~JIlI KapHU3a, HMeIO~HH B CeqeHHH
(2)
qeTBepTh BaJla
JIeH lIIIOHCKoro xpaMa.
H nOJlo'lKy.
KJIETKA. rOpoaftR
KO,D;O. XpaM IIpoIIoBe~H (O~HO H3 3~a­
(1, 2, 3).
HHH B aHCaM6JIe nocTpoeK lIIIOHCKoro
6Y~~HHCKOro MOHacThlplI).
KJIETHMK. TOHKHH JIec ~JIlI B03Be~e­
K03ETKA. ,D;HBaHiJ:HK ~JIlI ~BOHX.
HHlI HeOTaIIJIHBaeMhIX IIocTpoeK.
KJIETCKAJI
~PKOBh. ,D;epeBlIHHhIH
xpaM C IIplIMOyroJIhHhIM Cpy60M B OCHOBe KOMII03H~HH H npO.::TeHIIIHM BapHaH-
KJIMHlJATbIM PYCT. 1 XapaKTepHoe
~JIS! KJIaCCM~H3Ma cTYIIeHqaTOe peJIhecpHoe
3aBepIIIeHHe
TParre~HeBH~HhIM
TOM IIOKphITHlI.
rrpoeMa
HJIH HHIIIH
3aMK06btM KaMHeM,
KOTOPhIH cpJIaHKHpYIOT KJIH~aThIe KaMHH MeHhIIIeH BhICOThI (cp.: BeepHblU
JaMOK). 2 M3JIOM IIOJIOC aOUfamow
pycma Ha~ rrpoeMoM HJIH HHIIIeH IIO HOPMaJIH (<<IIO~ IIplIMhIM YrJIOM») K HH)l{-
K03En. Ea6Ka.
K63nhI. ,D;epeBlIHHalI
HeMY KpaIO.
KOHCTPY~lI
qeThIpex HaKJIOHHhIX HO)l{eK,
KJIMPOC
(=
KPhIJIOC). MecTo ~JIlI IIeB-
qHX BO BpeMlI 6orOCJIY)l{eHHlI, pacnoJIo-
HhIX 6pYCbRMU
H3
coe~HHeH­
(1) HJIH aOCKaMU (1);
CJIY)l{HT OIIOPOH ~JIlI HaCTMJIa B JIerKHX
)l{eHHOe Ha COJlee, IIepe~ cpJIaHrOM UKO-
MOCTax, a TaK)l{e IIpH cTpOHTeJIhHhIX
Hocmaca.
pa6oTax.
KJIOCTEP-fEBEnhEE. COMKHymblu
1
KJIETh.
CKJIa~CKaH
He6oJIhIIIa»
~epeBlIHHalI
IIOcTpoHKa C IIplIMoyrOJIh-
HhIM llJIaHOM.
2
KJIa~OBaH IIpH U36e
(1).
cBoa.
KJIOTMK. IIIap Ha BepxHeM Ko~e
cpJIarIIITOKa, HMeIO~HH BHyTpH IIIKHB
HJIH POJIHK ~JIlI IIO~'heMa cpJIara.
KJIEYX. KYP»THHK.
KJIElJAHhE. BeTBH H ~BeThI, KOTO-
KJIYMEA. 1 D:BeTHHK npaBMJIhHOH
reOMeTPHqeCKOH
CPOpMhI,
06hIqHO
phIMH K rrpa3~HHKY COIIIecTBHlI CBlIToro
BKJIIOqeHHhIH B KOMn03M~HIO napmepa
,D;yxa
H
TpOH~hIHY
UHmepbep B
~epKBax
~HIO
H
YKpaIIIaIOT
)l{HJIH~ax.
KJIEIUM. YKpenJIeHHe BO pBy IIepe~
KypmuHou
(1). 2
fpYIIIIa ~epeBheB H KycTapHHKoB
Ha IIOJIlIHe B neUaaJICHOM napKe.
KJIYIUI.
OT~eJIhHOe
cTpoemie
MJIH
rrpHCTPoHKa K 06UHY, IIpe~Ha3HaqeHHhle
~JIlI MOJIOTh6hI H xpaHeHHlI XJIe6a.
(3).
KJIEIIAHAH EAnKA. EaJIKa, CKJIeIIaHHaH H3 JIMCTOBOro )l{eJIe3a.
KJIEIIKM. O~HHaKoBhIe IIplIMOyroJIhHhIe
~O~eqKH
H3
Ba,
COCTaBJIlIIO~Me
TBep~hIx IIOpO~ ~epe­
JIH~eBYIO
IIoBepx-
HOCTh napKema.
KJIMMATPOH. OpaltJlCepeR C HCKYCCTBeHHhIM KJIHMaTOM.
KJIIOI.J. 1 3aMKOBbiU KaMeHb. 2 KpeIIe)l{HhIH IIIHII Ha HM)l{HeH IIoBepxHocTM
qaCTH
KJIIOlJEBMHA. JIU'IUHa.
KJI5IlJYfA.
CTOpO)l{eBalI
BhlIIIKa
KHecKa). KHR3eBaR C.!lelQ.
-75-
~33H-6Y~~HHcKoro
xpaMoBoro
KOMIIJIeKca.
llJIO~OBOM ca~y.
(=
poro CJIY)l{aT HO)l{KaMH.
KOMH. COKpOBH~HH~a B BOCTOqHOH
'1epenuu,bt.
KHEC
K03yn5I.
KOpOTKalI KpecThlIHCKaH
CKaMhlI H3 KycKa ~epeBa, CyqhlI KOTO-
B
KOMKA. 06oco6JIeHHhIH OT U36bl (1)
a60p (1), 3aH»ThIH maJIamaMH ~JIlI
JIIO~eH H CKOTa.
K
76
KOKOWHIIIK - KOHIilK
KOKOIlIHHK. IIOXO)l{JIlI Ha He60JIhIIIYIO 3a1W.Mapy ,l\eKOpaTlIBHhIH 3JIeMeHT. 3a KOTOPhIM HeT CBO,l\'1aTOH KOH-
KonOMEH. OKOJIlIn;a, nplIJIeralOIlI,aSl
TeppliToplISl, OKo/tomOl( (5).
KOnOHHA.
ApxlITeKTYPHhIH 3JIeMeHT,
lIrpalOIlI,lIH POJIh onopHoro
cToJI6a MIl nO,l\pa)KaIOIlI,lIH eMY.
KOnOHHAAA.
PlITMlI'IeCKliH pSI,l\
KO/tOHH, HecyIlI,lIX 06Il1,ee rop1l30HTaJIhHoe nepeKphITlie.
CTPYKIl,lIl1, COOTBeTCTBYIOIlI,eH BHeIlIHeMY KOHTYPY K.; lIMeeT lIOJIyn;lIpKYJIhHYIO,
TPeXn;eHTPOBYIO, KUIle8UOHYlO
JI1I60 ~yroJIhHYIO <P0PMY.
KOJIOCHHKH. 1 PeIlIeTKlI 1I3 )KeJIe3HhIX npYTheB B TonKe ne'lll, - ,l\JISl
npliToKa B03,l\yxa II YCTPaHeHlISl 30JIhI.
2 )l(ep,l\R ,l\JISI CHonOB B 06UHe.
KOKCOBOH 3AMOK. COe,l\lIHeHlIe
6pe8eH B TOpen; C nOMOIll,hlO n;lIJIlIH,l\plI'1eCKOrO BhlcTyna no npO,l\OJIhHOH OCli II
COOTBeTCTBYIOIlI,erO eMY yrny6JIeHIDL
KOnOCH5IK. )l(ecTKoe TpaBSlHRcToe
pacTeHlIe ,l\JISl YKpenJISlIOIlI,eH 06Ca,l\KlI
8aJt.o8 (1).
KOnOBPAT.
CTOSl'lliH
nO,l\'heMa TSl)KeCTeH.
BaJI
,l\JISl
KOnOAEU. 1 BhIPhIThIH B rpYHTe II
3aIll,llIll,eHHhIH OT 06BaJIa BepTlIKaJIhHhIH
KaHaJI ,l\JISl ,l\06hIBaHlISl BO,l\hT. a TaK)Ke
KOnOCCAITbHbIH
lUOU opoep.
OPAEP.
KOMII03HTHbIH OPAEP (= PHMCKHH op,l\ep). IIPOH3BO,l\HhIH OT K.oPUHPCK.o20 H u.oHu'teCK.o20 apxHTeKTYpHbTl1 opoep. OTJIlI'IaIOIIIHHCSl OC060H
BO/tb-
KOnOTOBKA (= KOJIOTYIIIa). He60JIhiliaSl BO,l\.SlHaSI MeJIhHlIn;a C KOJIeCOM
Ha BepTlIKaJIhHOH OCli.
KOnIIAK. qeThrpeXCKaTHoe nOKphITIle C BepTlIKaJIhHOH OChlO CliMMeTPlili II
KpYT1I3HOH He 60JIee 45°.
KOM. IIpocTpaHcTBo 3a ne'lhlO B KOMHnepM.Sln;KOH ua6e (1), lICnOJIh3yeMoe no,l\
KyxHlO.
KOMA. MaJIeHhKlIH na8U1lb.oH (1) ,l\JISI
.SlnOHCKHX '1aHHhIX n;epeMoHliH.
KOMAKA. K.oHla.
coopY)KeHlIe Ha,l\ HliM. 2 3arJIy6JIeHHOe
npocTPaHcTBo ,l\JISl KOHKpeTHhIx TeXHlI'1ecKHX n;eJIeH (MlIHHhIH KOJIO,l\en;, PY,l\-
KOMIIAPTHMEHT. IIOBTOpSlIOIlI,lIHC.Sl KpynHhIH 3JIeMeHT KOMn03Hn;HH, HanpliMep, Ka)K,llhIH 1I3 napmepo8 (1)
BOKpyr 6acceHHa B pe2y/tRpHO.M napKe.
KOMEnb. 1 KaMUH. 2 Bpe6Ho ,l\JIliHOH
12 Ca)KeHeH.
KOMMEPqECKHH 3AIT. IIoMeIll,eHlIe ,l\JISI npliBlIJIernpOBaHHhIx noceTlITeJIeH pecTopaHa lIJIli mpaKmupa.
nhIIIIHOCThlO; ero xapaKTepHhIH 3JIeMeHT - l<anume.ffb C '1eThIphM.Sl KpynHhIMlI 6o/tlOmaMU (KaK B 1I0HIf'leCKOM
op,l\epe), HO C BepTlIKaJIhHhIM n;HJIHH,l\pll'leCKliM .Sl,l\POM (KaKB KOPllH<pCKOM
op,l\epe), KOTopoe oKpY)KalOT aKaHm.o8bte JIIfCThSl B ,l\BYX ypOBHSlX .
KOMII03HUH5I qEPHH. qepHaSl
MaCJISlHaSl KpacKa ,l\JISI MaJISIpHhIX pa6oT,
n060'lHhIH rrpO,l\YKT rrpll rrp01l3BO,l\CTBe
6epJIlfHCKOH
JIa3ypli
(SIpKo-clIHeH
KpacKIf C e,l\Ba 3aMeTHhIM 3eJIeHOBaThIM
oTTeHKoM).
KOM5IrA. BhI,l\OJI6JIeHHOe 6pe8Ho ,l\JISI
KOpMJIeHlISl CKOTa (CM. Hc/tu).
KOMHATA-CEHct>. IIoMeIll,eHRe 6e3
OKOH, npe,l\Ha3Ha'leHHOe ,l\JISl xpaHeHlISl
oc060 Ba)KHhIX ,l\OKYMeHToB, 60JIhililiX
CYMM ,l\eHer, ,l\parOn;eHHhIx MeTaJIJIOB R
lIHhIX n;eHHocTeH.
KOHAK (= KOHaK rreIlI). KOMHaTa ,l\JI.Sl
nplfeMa rocTeH, B HoraHCKOM ,l\OMe.
KOMOA. BlI,l\ Me6eJIlI, npe,l\Ha3Ha'leHHhIH ,l\JISI xpaHeHlISl 6eJIhSl II lIHhIX BeIll,eH
B 60JIhIlIRX BhI,l\BR)KHhIX SIIlI,lIKax.
.KOHrA
(= KOMaKa). rJIlfH0611THaSI
ne'lh B MapllHcKoH ua6e (1, 2).
KOHAO. rJIaBHhIH xpaM B SlnOHCKOM
6Y,l\,l\lIHCKOM MOHaCThlpe.
KOHEK. 1 BepxHSlSl roPlf30HTaJIh
Kp08/tU. 2 rOp1l30HTaJIhHOe 6pe8Ho,
nplf)KlfMalOIlI,ee BepXHlfe KOHn;hI Teca B
Kpo8/te.
HlI'IHhIH KOJIO,l\en;, CMOTPOBOH KOJIO,l\en;). 3 BepTlIKaJIhHhIH Obt.M080U KaHa/t
B ne'lli.
KOnOAKA
cmyn.
IIPHCTYTIHAA.
JIpu-
KOnOKOnbH5I. EaIlIHe06pa3Hoe coopY)KeHlle C KOJIOKOJIaMH B apKax BepxHero Rpyca (cp.: 380HHUl(a).
KOMOPA. A.M6ap (1), KJIa,l\OBaSI.
-76-
KOHHK. KOPOTKaSI II IIIIfPOKaSI JIaBKa
OT BXO,l\a B ua6y (1) ,l\0 ee yrJIa, lIHOr,l\a
YKpaIlIeHHaSI C TOpn;a pe3HhIM 1I306pa)KeHlIeM KOHCKOH rOJIOBbL
K
KOHKOPC - KOP06'iATblH 3AMOK
KOHKOPC. PacrrpeAemlTeJIhHhIH 3aJI
AJI5I rraCCa)KHpOB B KpyrrHoM TpaHCrrOpTHOM 3}l;aHHH.
KOHHbIM ,D;BOP. qacTh ycaiJe6nou
TeppHTOpHH, 06be}l;HH5IIO~a5I 3arOHhl H
rrOMe~eHH5I AJI5I JIOrrIaAeH, a TaK)Ke
rrOCTpOHKH }l;JI5I 3KHrr3)l{eH.
77
KOHTP<I>OPC.
lloiJnopnaR CmeHlCa,
rrO}l;
rrp5IMhIM HJIH
TyrrhlM yrJIOM K CTpOHTeJIhHOMY 06beMY
}l;JI5I rrOBhIIIIeHH5I ero rrpO'lHOCTH H
YCTOH'IHBOCTH.
rrpHMhIKaIO~a5I
KOP,D;OH. llpoMeJICymOItnblU Kapnua
o606~eHHoro npoepHJI5I C 60JIhIIIHM
BhIHOCOM.
KOPEIJ;. lleKJte6annbiu RU{UK.
KOPEiliKOBA5I KPhIIIIA. CeBepoKaBKa3CKa5I COJIOMeHHalI Kp06J1R C
YKJIa}l;KOH CHorrOB KOMeJIhKaMH BBepx.
KOPHH. YJIh'lCKHH }l;OMHK }l;JIlI rroHMaHHoro Me}l;Be}l;5I.
KOHHbIM 3ABO,D;. X035IHCTBeHHhnr
KOMrrJIeKC }l;JI5I pa3Be}l;eHH5I JIOIlla}l;eH.
KOHCHCTOPIHI.
yrrpaBJIeHHe.
ErrapXHClJIhHOe
KOPHH<I>CKHM OP,D;EP. HaH60JIee
YTOH'IeHHhIH Cpe}l;H apxHTeKTypHhlX
opiJepo6, }l;JI5I KOToporo xapaKTepHbl
H35I~Hhle KanneJlUp06annbie KOJlOnnbl C
I1CKYCCTBeHHoe
KOHTP3CKAPII.
3eMJI5IHOe npeIIlITcTBHe, OT}l;eJIeHHOe OT
060pOHlIIO~HXClI pBOM H 06pa~eHHoe K
HHM rrO'lTH OTBeCHhTM BhTCOKHM OTKO-
KOHCOJIb. 1 BhlcTYrraIO~a5I H3 CTeHhl
orropa. 2 CTOJI Ha }l;Byx orropax, BhICTynaIO~HH H3 CTeHhl H 06hl'lHO npHMhlKaIO~HH K 60JIhllIOMY 3epKaJIy OT caMoro
nOJIa.
KOH<I>HPMAIJ;H5I.
npoeKTa BepXOBHOH BJIaCThIO.
KOHCTAHTHHOB KPECT. KpecT C
BoceMhIO O}l;HHaKOBhIMH KOHIl,aMH, paBHOMepHo paCXO}l;5I~HMHC5I OT Il,eHTpa.
KOHTOPKA. He60JIhllIOH no rrJIO~a}l;H BhICOKHH CTOJI C HaKJIOHHOH cmoJleumuu,eu, Ha KOTOPOH rrHllIyT CT05I.
KOHTP-BAHKET. HachIIIHoe coopy)KeHHe H3 YTpaM60BaHHoro KaMH5I HJIH
rpaBH5I, KOTopoe YKperrJI5IeT OCHOBaHHe
OaM6bl, B03Be}l;eHHOH Ha CKJIOHe, H npeIUITcTByeT ee CnOJI3aHHIO no OTKOCy.
KOHXA. C60iJ B BH}l;e '1eTBepTH cepephI
(cp.: rpanenaR Koma).
KOHhKOBbIM rYPT. IIpoepHJIHPOBaHHa5I H }l;eKOpHpOBaHHalI OT}l;eJIKa
pe6pa Kp06J1U H3 Il,HHKa, )KeCTH HJIH
)KeJIe3a.
KOIIAHh. KonaHalI lIMa }l;JIlI c06HpaHH5I AO)l{}l;eBOH BO}l;hI.
KOIIbITqATA5I PEIIIETKA. Ky6o6amaR peUlemKa.
KOPKA, KOPKA3h.
Y}l;MypTcKoe
KpeCTh5IHCKOe
)KHJIH~e,
06be}l;HH5IIO~ee ua6y (1) H XOJIO}l;HhIe cenu.
KOPOBKA. ,D;epeB5IHHa5I paMa, y}l;epOKOHHhIH rreperrJIeT HJIH
}l;BepHOe nOJTOTHH~e.
)KHBaIO~a5I
KOPABEMKA. Kopo6bR (2).
KOHTPBAJIAIJ;HOHHA5I JIHHI15I.
HerrpephIBHa5I JIHHHlI nOJIeBhIX yKpenJIeHHH, KOTOpa5I 06pa~eHa K u,umaiJeJlu H orpaHH'IHBaeT C BHYTpeHHeH CTOPOHhl }l;yro06pa3HYIO nOJIocy, 3aH5ITYIO
BOHcKaMH (cp.: QupKYM6aJlau,uonnaR
JlUnuR).
KOPABEJIbHbU1 MArA3I1H. IIpH6pe)KHOe CKJIa}l;CKOe nOMe~eHHe, B
KOTOPOM XpaH5ITClI 3anaCHhle 3JIeMeHThI
Kopa6eJIhHhlX MaIIIHH, MexaHH3MOB H
HHhlx.cHCTeM.
KOHTP-rAP,D;.
HJIH KOMnJTeKC nocTpoeK.
<l>opTHepHKall,HOHHOe
6a3aMU, 3aBepIIIeHHhle KanUmeJlblO C
aKanm06blMU JIHCThlIMH B Tpex ypOBHlIX
H BoceMhIO He60JIhIIIHMH 60Jl1OmaMU
Ha}l; HHMH.
KOPOBOBA5I APKA, KOPOBOBbIM CBO,D;. KPHBOJIHHeHHOe rrepeKphITHe C JIe)Ka'lHM nOJIyoBaJIOM B ce'leHHH.
KOP,D;ErAP,D;115I. IIocTpoHKa }l;JI5I }l;e)KypHOro KapaYJIa, y Bbe3}l;a B ropO}l;
coopY)KeHHe rrepe}l; rJIaBHhlM 6aJIOM (1)
Kpenocmu, 3a~H~aIO~ee 3cKapnny1O
cTeHKY OT apTHJTJTepHHCKoro 06CTpeJTa
HenpHlITeJI5I .
KOHTPHAJII1QHHK. 3aBepIIIeHHhlH
caniJpuKoM HJIH pponmonoM naJlUItnUK,
npHMhIKaIOlIl,HH no rrepHMeTpy K peJTheepHoMY 06paMJIeHHIO rrpoeMa.
KOPOBQAThIM 3AMOK.
HOH 3aMOK (3) Ha }l;BepH.
KOHTPPEJIbE<I>. PeJIheep, 3arJIy6JIeHHhIH B nJIOCKOCTh epoHa.
-77-
HaKJI~­
K
KOP06~ATbiM
CBOA - KPA66b1
KOPO.ollATbIM CBO,a:. Kopo606btU
(MHorof\eH'rpOBhIH) C600 nH60 O~HO­
lIeHTPOBhIH f\HpKynhHhIH.
78
HanpaBneHhI K CTeHaM no):\ yrnoM B 45° H
06'he~HIDIIOTcH
B KOHf\eHTpHqeCKHe
HMelOIIIee BhICOTY He MeHee Tpex ~HaMe­
TPOB 6pe6Ha B cpy6e.
KBa~paThI.
KOCAJI llETBEPTb. TIpe~Ha3HaqeH­
HhIH ~nH npHMhIKaHHH paMhI BepTHKanhHbIH yCTyn B K.flaOKe npoeMa, o6pa3yIOIIIHH B nnaHe TynoH yron.
KOCOM .oOM. MaulUKY.flu.
KOPO.oMI. 1 ,a:epeBHHHaH cjJU.fleH1.(,amaR OT~enKa KaMeHHhIX OTKOCOB B
OKOHHhIX H ~BepHhIX npoeMax. 2 (=KOpa6eHKa, Kpa6HH, Kpa6Hlla). JIy6HHOH
napef\ lInH CyH~yqOK C oKpyrnhIMH CTeHKaMH H KphImKoH Ha nem.flRX. .
KOPOBMM ,a:BOPEIJ;. CKOTHhIH ~BOp.
KOPOMMHA. KpecThHHcKHH
060P KOMH-3hIpHH.
KOPOTIllATbIM
CBO,a:.
OOM-
Kopo61.(,a-
mbtU C600.
KOPOT. JIeTHHH KyxHH B 6amKHpcKoH
KpecThHHcKOH ycaob6e.
KOPYHA. llHPOKHH llHTHyronhHHK
lInH MHoroyronhHHK C BorHYThIMH CKaTaMH nH60 OCTPhIMH H ~nHHHhIMH HenapannenbHbIMH BhlcTynaMH, 3aBepmaIOIIIHH Ha.!lU1.(,HUK.
MEAH,a:P.
KOCOYfOJIbHbIM
MeaHOp, y KOToporo Bce 3neMeHThI,
KpOMe npo~onhHhIX, HaKnOHeHhI K HHM
no~ yrnoM 60° H 06hlqHO HanpaBneHbI
KOTAH. CapaH HnH HaBec ~nH oBell,
pacnOnO)KeHHhIH B f\eHTPe HoraHCKoro
cneBa CHH3Y BnpaBo BBepx.
KOTEJIbHbIM CBO,a:. COMKHymblu
KOCOYPbl. HaKnOHHhle MeTannHqCCKHC HnH )Kcnc306cTOHHhIC 6anKH, Ha
KOTOPhIX 3aKpcnncHhI cTyneHH neCTHHqHOrO MapUla.
C600.
KOCTEJI. KaTOnHqeCKHH xpaM, cpe~H
npHXO)KaH
KOToporo
npeo6na~alOT
nonHKH.
KOCTEP. ,a:onroBpeMeHHoe 060POHHTenhHoe coopY)KeHHe B BH~e 6aUlHu (1,
3) lInH u,umaoe.flu BHyTpH ropO~CKOH
orpa~hI (Ha PYCH - B XIV-XVI BB.).
KOCTPOM TIOKPbITME. ApXaHqHaH
Kp06.flR B BH~C qCThIpexrpaHHoH llHpaMH)J;bI H3 6peBCHqaThIX 6eHu,06, npo~on­
)KaIOIIIHX C nOCTeneHHhIM YMeHhmeHHCM
BeHllhI cpy6a.
KOCTbIJlEK. fB03~h, Y KOTOPOro
KOHell, npoTHBOnOnO)KHhIH OCTPHIO,
3arHYT H He HMeeT mnHnKH.
KOPbITHbIM CBO,a:. COMKHymblu
C600 C mHpoKHM nnOCKHM yqaCTKOM B
BepmHHe.
)KEJIE30.
KOPbITOO.oP A3HOE
m6e.fl.flep co cKpyrneHHHMH no BHYTpeHHHM yrnaM H KOHllaM.
KOP5IK. IIeK.!le6aHHblu RU{UK.
KOCAJI AM.oP A3YPA. EouHuu,a, OCh
KOTOPOH He o6pa3yeT npHMoro yrna C
BHemHeii: nnOCKOCThlO KpenocmHou
CTeHhI lInH 6pycm6epa.
KOCThlJlb. 1 OqeHh ToncThIH rB03~h
npHMoyronhHoro CeqeHHH, HMCIOIIIHH
mnHnKY C CHnhHbIM BhIHOCOM B O~Hy
CTOPOHY. 2 HCBhICOKaH )KenC3HaH Tpy6a
T -o6pa3HoH CPOpMbI ~nH OTBo~a ~bIMa
Ha~ HecropaeMoH Kp06.fleU, nOXO)KaH Ha
Bepx apxHepeHcKoro nocoxa. ,a:hIM
BhIXO~HT qepe3 TOPllbI BhlrHYTOH KBepxy nOnepeqHHhI, H 3TOMY He MemalOT HH
~O~b, HH CHCr.
6aaa (1).
KOTTE,a:)K.
O~HoKBapTHpHhIH
3aro-
pO~HhIH OC06HRK (KaK npaBMJIO, ~Byx3T~hIii:).
KOcI> P. 1 3aKphITaH KaMeHHaH la.flepeR
(2) B CYXOM KpenocTHoM pBy. 2 KaMeHHaH la.flepeR (2) B 3eMnHHOH TonIIIe 6pycm6epa, coopY)KeHHaH ~nH ero CPPOHTanhHoH 060pOHbI. 3 (c 1900 r.) KaaeMam (1) Ha H3nOMe KpenocTHoro pBa,
o6paIIIeHHoM K npoTHBHHKy; npe~Ha3HaqeH ~nH o6cTpena pBa B O~HOM HnH
il;BYX HanpaBneHHHx.
KOIJ;. KOHycoo6pa3Hoe )KHnHIIIe ail;bIrOB.
KOll. 1 BpeMeHHOe" )KHn!,IIIe ceBepoKaBKa3CKHX nacTyxoB, coe~HHeHHoe C
3arOHOM ~nH CKOTa. 2 Cpy6 H3 TonCThlX
6pe6eH, HMCIOIIIHH BBepxy 3eMJIHHYIO
KPbIUlY, a BHYTPH - 3eMnHHYIO ne)KaHKY; B03BO~lInCH npH BpcMeHHoH CTOHHKe
CKOTa Ha CeBepHoM KaBKa3e.
KOllEJIb. KpecThHHcKoe )KHnHIIIe Ha
PYCCKOM CeBepe, B nnaHe 6nH3Koe KBa~paTY H 06'he~HHHIOIIIee no~ o6IIIeH
CKaTHOH KpoBneii: ua6y (1) H ~BYX'hHPYC­
HhlH X03mCTBeHHhIH 060P (2).
KOCTblJlbKOBA5I PYllKA. ilOBOPOTHaH ~BepHaH pyqKa C BhlcTynoM B
O~HY CTOpOHy OT OCH.
KPA.o.obl. CBoHcTBeHHhlc rOTHqCCKOH
apxHTeKTYpc pe3HhIe KaMeHHhIe yKpamCHHH B BH~e CTHnH30BaHHoro IIBcTKa
KOCT5IHOE CTEKJIO. A.!le6acmpo60e CmeK.flO.
KOC5IK. BepTHKanhHaH cToHKa ~Bep­
HOH Kopo6KU.
KOCA5I KJIMKA. CTpYKTypa KHPIIJiqHOrO Kopo6oBoro HnH .flY'tK06020
c6ooa, B KOTOPOM Bce pHiI;bI K.flaOKU
KOC5ImATOE OKHO (=KpacHoe
OKHO). 3anonHeHHoe 3aCTCKneHHhIM
nepenneToM OKHO il;epeBHHHoro ~OMa,
-78-
K
KPA6~HUA - KPOBEnbHOE OKHO
HJIH CBepHYTOrO JIHCTa CJIO)KHOH CPOpMhI, pa3MeIl\eHHhIe Ha KPYThIX cKaTax
HJIH 3aOCTpeHHhIX 3JIeMeHTax cpacaAa.
79
KPECTIIJIbHMIJ;A. 1 KyrreJIh. 2 IIpuoeJl, B KOTOPOM cOBepliialOT KpeIl\eHHe.
KPECTOBA5I (=MOJIeHHa5I). KOMHaTa
B 6oraToM AOMe, HCrrOJIh3yeMaH KaK
AOMallIHHH u;epKOBh.
KPECTOBA5I KJIA.!l:KA. KHprrHqHa5I
KJlaOKa, B KOTOPOH mbl1fKOBble pHAhI
qepeAYIOTcH C JlOJICKOBbLMU, a BepTHKaJIH UlBOB B JIO)KKOBhIX PHAax COBrraAalOT Qepe3 TpH pHAa.
KPAEMMIJ;A,
KPAEM5I.
Kopo6bR
(2).
KP ACHA5I .!l:OCKA. JIo6oBaR oocKa.
KPACHOE .!l:EPEBO (=aKa)KY, aMapaHT, aMapaHTOBO AepeBO). IO)KHoaMepHKaHCKoe AepeBO C H3HIl\HhIM PHCYHKOM rrpO)KHJIOK B KpaCHOBaTOH ApeBeCHHe, yrroTpe6JIHBIIIeHCH B AoporHX CTOJIHPHhIX pa60Tax (HarrpHMep, AJIH H3roTOBJIeHHH Me6eJIH u;eJIHKOM H3 K. .!l:.
JIH60 B BHAe rrOBepXHOCTHoro HaKJIeHHoro CJIOH - Uln01W).
KPACHOE OKHO. KOCRU{amoe OKHO.
KPACHbIE BPATA. IIapaAHhle ABepH, BeAYIl\He H3 npumBopa (1) B OCHOBHoe rrOMeIl\eHHe xpaMa.
KP ACHbIM CA.!l:. BUCR1fUU cao.
KP ACHbIM TEC. 06pe3HhIe XOPOlliO
oCTpyraHHhIe OOCKU (1) Ha JIHu;eBOH
ITOBepXHocTH TeCOBOH KPOBJlU, HepeAKo
C pOM6HqeCKHMH YAJIHHeHHhIMH BhICTYrraMH HH)Ke KapHU3a.
KPEmAThIM CBO.!l:. COMKHymblu
ceoo, KpecToo6pa3Ho rrepeCeqeHHhIH
qepe3 cepeAHHy JlOmKOB (1) Kopo6oBbLMU .HJIH rrOJIyU;HpKyJIhHhIMH CBOOaMU.
KPECTOBA5I UEPKOBb . .!l:oMoBaH
u;epKoBh.
KPECTOBMK
H36a
KP ACHA5I JIMHM5I. IIJIaHHpoBoqHa5I
rpaHHu;a 3acTpaHBaeMhIX TeppHTopHH,
3a KOTOPYIO He AOJI)KHhI BhIcTyrraTh
CTpoeHHH.
KPEmATbIM
IIJIAH
3.!l:AHM5I.
IIJIaH B BHAe HaJIO)KeHHhIX APyr Ha
APyra PaBHOKOHeqHOrO KpeCTa H KBaApaTa HeCKOJIhKO MeHhllIHX ra6apHToB
(rrpH rrapaJIJIeJIhHOCTH CTOPOH H COBrraAeHHH Bcex oceH cHMMeTPHH).
(1),
(=KpecToBhIH
AOM).
cpy6 KOTOPOH rreperopO)KeH
rrepeCeqeHHeM AByX KamfTaJIhHhIX CTeH.
KPMBOJIMHEMHbIM MEAH.!l:P. EezyU{aR BOJlHa.
KPMBOIIIEMHA CMCTEMA. KOHCTpyKU;HH
MeTaJIJIHqeCKHX
C60pHhIX
MOCTOB, B cpepMhI KOTOPOH BXOAHT paBHo6eApeHHhIe TpeyroJIhHHKH, o6paIl\eHHhIe BepllIHHaMH K cpJIaHraM MOCTa, a y
ero cepeAHHhI o6pa3ylOIl\He pOM6 C BepTHKaJIhHOH AHarOHaJIhlO.
KPECTOBOKYIIOJIbHbIM XPAM.
qeThIpeXCTOJIrrHOe u;epKoBHoe 3AaHHe C
rrOHH)KeHHhIMH yrJIOBhIMH qaCTHMH,
ITOAQepKHBalOIl\HMH (KaK B HHTepbepe,
TaK H rrpH BHAe cHapY)KH) u;eHTpaJIbHbIH
rrJIaHHpOBOqHhIH KpecT.
KPMH . .!l:peBHepyccKHH AeKopaTHBHhIH
MOTHB B BHAe JIHJIHH.
KPECTOBbIM CBO.!l:. IIepeKphITHe
rrpHMoyrOJIhHOH HqeHKH, COCTOHIl\ee H3
qeThIpex paCnaJly60K (1) H rrepeAalOIl\ee
HarpY3KY Ha ymoBhTe OITOPhI.
KPMIITA. IIoA3eMHoe HJIH rrOJlyrroA3eMHoe CBOO1famOe rrOMeIl\eHHe rroA
KYJIhTOBhIM 3AaHHeM.
KPACHbIM yrOJI (= 60JIhllIOH yroJI,
BepxHHH yroJI). IIapaAHhIH yrOJI B U36e
(1), pacrrOJIO)KeHHhIH ITO AHarOHaJIH OT
rreqH; B 3TOM yrJIy HaXOAHJIHCh HKOHa H
JIaMrraAa HaA BCTpoeHHhIMH JIaBKaMH
BAOJIh KpaeB rrpHMoyrOJIhHOrO CTOJIa.
KPECTOUBET. CBoHcTBeHHoe roTHKe
AeKopaTHBHoe 3aBepllIeHHe BUMnepza,
nUHaKJlR, cjJJlepOHa HJIH 6allIeHKH CKYJIhnTypHhIM H306pa)KeHHeM U;BeTKa C KpecToo6pa3HhIMH OTBeTBJIeHHHMH rro ro-
KPAIIIEHMHA. rpy60TKaHhIH OKpa-
pH30HTaJIH.
lIIeHHhIH XOJICT KYCTapHoro rrpOH3BOACTBa, KOTOPhIH HCrrOJIh30BaJIH Ha rroKphIBaJIa, CKaTepTH, 3aHaBeCH B He6oraTOM )KHJIHIl\e.
KPOBATb. BHyTpeHHHH npHcTyrroK K
BhICOKOMY aa6opoJly (1), rr03BOJIHBIIIHH
060pOHHBIIIHMdt BeCTH 06CTpeJI rroBepx
CTeHhI.
KP AIOXA. rOp6blJlb.
KPEMJIb. Y KperrJIeHHaH u;eHTpaJIbHa5I
QaCTh ApeBHepYCCKoro wpooa (2).
KPEMHMK. KpeMJlb.
KPEIIOCTUA. He60JIhllIaH Kpenocmb
C HeCJIO)KHblM rrJIaHOM.
KPOBEJIbHA5I CB5I3b. KapKac KpblUlU, o6DeAHHHlOll~HH cmponuJla, o6peUlemKY H JleUJlu.
KPEIIOCTb. .!l:OJIrOBpeMeHHoe yKperrJIeHHe, o6HeceHHoe 3aMKHYToH orpaAOH.
KPOBEJIbHOE OKHO. OKHO AJIH
OCBeIl\eHHH qepAaKa, rrpope3alOIl\ee
KPblUlY (cp.: BbtnYCKHoe OKHO).
KPECT «TAY». AHmOHueB Kpecm.
-79-
K
KPOBnSl -
KYHAK-TMPMArA
KPOB.IDI. BepXHuH cnOH KpbtJ.UU.
KPOM.
1 aemuHelf (1).2
llapL, 60JIL-
WOHg~K.
80
KPY)I(AJIO. 1 Ka6aK. 2 ,QepeBjlHHag
KpHBOJIHHeHHag onopa ,a;JIg BLIKJIa,a;KH
lOm;ag KUI/,eauOHOe ce'leHHe C pacwupeHHeM Ha,a; OCHOBaHHeM.
caooa.
KPhDK. JIamuHcKuu Kpecm.
KPOHBEPK. BcnOMOraTeJILHOe yKpeUJIeHHe, B03Be.a;eHHoe nepe.a; OCHOBHLIM
CPPOHTOM Kpenocmu.
KPhmOc. KAupoc.
KPhITAH ,QOPOfA. 02u6HllR oopo2a.
KPhIIIIA.
KOHCTPYKD;IfjI,
3aBepWalOm;ag 3,a;aHHe H 3a~m;alOm;ag ero OT
OCa,a;KOB, neperpeBa H nepeoXJIa}I{,ll;eHHj(.
KCHCT. Pa36HTLIH nepe,a; ,a;OMOM
He60JILWOH UJIOCKHH ca,a; C '1eTIrnM oceBLIM nOCTpoeHHeM, pa3,a;eJIeHHLIH Ha
rrpjIMOyroJILHHKH, C rrpe06JIa,a;aHHeM
2a30HOa
KPOHDITEI1H.
Xy.a;O}l{eCTBeHHO
ocpopMJIeHHag KOHCOAb (1).
H
6opolOpoa.
KYA (=KYaJIa). KYJILTOBag nocTPOHKa
B y,a;MYPTCKOH. KpeCTLjlHCKOH. ycaob6e,
HMelOm;ag BH,a; KpLITOro cpy6a 6e3 OKOH,
B KOTOPOM pg.a;OM C O'larOM XpaHHJIHCL
po,a;oBLIe H ceMeooLIe CBwrLIHH.
KYA)KE. Ka6ap,a;HHcKoe JIH60 '1epKeCCKoe CeJIeHHe B BH,a;e He60JILWOH
rpynnLI ycaoe6, pacnOJIO}l{eHHLIX 6~3
peryJIgpHoH UJIaHHpoBKH H oKp~eH­
HLIX UJIeTHeM HJIH KaHaBoH.
KYBOBATAHBA3A,KYBOBATAH
KAIIHTEnh. IIo cpopMe 6JIH3Kag
Ky6y, Ha Ka}I{,ll;ylO H3 OTKpLITLIX rpaHeH
KOTOPO!;,O
HaJIO}l{eHO
nOJIYKPY}I{He,
06pam;eHHoe BepWHHoH ,a;ym K CTBOJIY
KPOHIIlTEl1HhIl1 IIAPYC. nAOCKUU
KOAOHHbt.
KYBAKCA. llonapcKHH maJIaw, KpLITLIH KOPOH HJIH wKypaMH.
KYBAC. llonapcKHH '1YM, KPLITLIH
XOJICTOM HJIH OJIeHLHMH IIIKypaMH no
KapKacy H3 weCTOB.
KYBPclJAC.
He60JILWOe 060POHHTeJILHOe coop~eHHe C ,a;ByMj( ¢acaMu
no,a; yrJIOM, BKJIIO'IaeMOe BMeCTe C paae-
KYrEllhBllAY. fOJIy6ag KpacKa .a;ng
060eB.
KPOCC. IIoMem;eHHe B COCTaBe TeJIeCPOHHOH HJIH TeJIerpacpHoH CTaHQHH,.
06'be.a;HHj(IOm;ee KO~I Bcex rrpOBO.a;OB
CBg3H.
KPYrllbII1 ,QOM. 1 Py6JIeHHLIH H3
6peaeH KBa.a;paTHLIH KpeCTLjlHCKHH OOM
(1) 6e3 nepepy6oa, no,a; '1eTLIpeXcKaTHOH KPbtJ.UeU. 2 KBa,a;paTHbIH B nnaHe
KYBAKA 33EM. KYXOHHag JIaBKa,
B,a;eJIaHHag B CTeHY MOp,a;OBCKO-3P3j1HCKOH ua6bt (1).
AUHa.MU B aHaeAony.
napyc.
KPYfJIA5I CKYllhIITYPA. CKYJILnTYPHoe rrpOH3Be.a;eHHe, He rrpHMLIKalOm;ee K CPOHY ..
KYBhIIIIKA.
,QpeBHepYCCKHH KOHCTPYKTHBHo-,a;eKOpaTHBHLIH 3JIeMeHT B
BH,a;e MaCCHBHoro KOPOTKOro cToJI6a C
UJIaBHLIM pacnmpeHHeM WI. BLlwe·
OCHOBaHHSI.
KY,Q. ,QBYXKaMepHag ,a;epeBjlHHag ua6a
(1) y MOPABLI-MoKillaH.
KYEOBATAH PEIIIETKA (=Ky6'1aTag peweTKa, KOnLIT'IaTag peweTKa).
,QpeBHepYCCKag peweTKa H3 BOJIHHCTLIX
KpyrJILIX rrpYTKOB, 'pannopm KOTOPOH
KY,QO. 1 Kyo. 2 Cpy6 C HaBHcalOm;eH
Ha TOp~e ABycKaTHOH KpoaAeu, HCnOJIL3yeMLIH MapHH~aMH JIeTOM no,a; KyxHIO
HJIH }I{HJILe.
KYllAKH. noocmaaa.
KYllHChl. fpynnLI ,a;epeBLeB HJIH
KYCTapHHKoB, pa3Mem;eHHLIe napaJIJIeJILHO Apyr .a;pyry H C03.a;alO~e MHOroUJIaHOBYIO nepcneKTHBy.
KYllYAP. Y3KHH npoxo,a; Me}l{,ll;y nOMem;eHIfjIMH HJIH nOTaOOag JIeCTHH~a, coe,a;HHj(IOm;ag }l{HJILle KOMHaTLI.
KYM. AM6ap (1) B ycaob6e KOMH3LIpgH.
. ceBepOKaBKa3CKHii OOM (1) C nOMem;eHHgMH, pacnOJIO}l{eHHLIMH B ,a;Ba pg.a;a no
OTHOWeHHIO K cpacail;Y, H BXO,a;OM '1epe3
yrJIOBOe nOMem;eHHe.
KPYrllbII1 CBO,Q. Koma.
6JIH30K BepTHKaJILHOMY pOM6y, HO co
cKpyrJIeHHLIMH 60KOBLIMH yrJIaMH H
KUI/,eaUOHbt.MU 3aOCTPeHHj(MH BBepxy H
BHH3y.
KYMOfATA XH,Q3HKH. ~pyCHag
CHCTeMa
KpeCT006pa3HO
nepeceKaIOm;uxCg KpoHJ.UmeuHoa B gnOHCKHX
nocTPoHKax.
KYBOBATOE IIOKPhITHE. KpoaA/l
C 'IeTLIpLMj( BLmyKJILIMH CKaTaMH, HMe-
KYHAK-THPMArA.
BaIIIKHpCKag
IOpma AJIg npHeMa rocTeH.
-80-
K
81
KYHAK·YH - KIOH
KYHAK·YI1. LIHCTaSI nOJIOBHHa OIl:HOKaMepHOrO
6arnKHpCKOrO )[(HJIHII\a,
npell:Ha3Ha'leHHaSI II:JISI npFteMa rocTeH.
KYHAIJ;KA5I. ITapall:HaSI KOMHaTa B
ceBepoKaBKa3cKoM oOMe (1, 2), npell:Ha3Ha'leHHaSI II:JI.s! npHeMa rOCTeH, a
TaK)Ke II:JISI npe6hIBaHHSI MY)KCKOH 'laCTH
ceMhH.
KYITOIT. 1 CBOO, nOBepxHocTh KOTOporo o6pa30BaHa BpaII\eHHeM KPI1BOH
BOKpyr BepTHKaJIH. 2 CcpepOHII:HaSI,
3JIJIHnCOHII:HaSI HJIH rpaHeHaSI KPOBJlR,
no CHJIyny 6J1H3KaSI KynOJly (1).
KYPA. ABOP 6arnKHpcKoH ycaob6bl.
KYPA (=MHlI,yrypa). 5InoHcKaSI )KHTHHlI,a Ha CBaSIX, npHnOIl:HSITaSI Hall: 3eMJIeiL
KYPHIJ;bl. ITpHKpenJIeHHhle K CJlezaM
KpbllUU TOHKHe )Kep):lH C KPIOKOM Ha
HH)KHeM
KOHlI,e,
nO):lgep)KHBaIOII\eM
BOII:OTe"IHhIH nomOK (1) B OCHOBaHHH
CBeCOB TecoBoH KPOBJlU.
KYPHA5I H3EA. lf36a (2), OTanJIHBaeMaSI 6e3 Tpy6hl, B CBSI3H C'leM B BepxHeH 'laCTH CTeH geJIaIOTCSI Y3KHe ropH30HTaJIhHhle OKHa gJISI BhIxoga ghIMa.
KYPTHHA. 1 B cagoBo-napKoBoM
HCKyccTBe - KOMnaKTuaSI o6oco6JIeHHaSI rpynna 0Il:HOpogHhIX HaCa)KgeHHH.
2 06JIO)KeHHaSI oepHoM rpSIII:Ka C lI,BeTaMH. 3 B CPOpTHcpHKall,HH - y'laCTOK KpenOCTHoro Orpa)KIJ:eHHSI CTeHOH HJIH
KyprAH. HaChIITHOH 3eMJISIHOH XOJIM C
norpe6aJIhHOH KaMepOH BHYTpH.
BaJlOM (1), coegHHSIIOII\HH gBa 6acmuoHa. 4 ITpSIMoyrOJIhHaSI B nJiaHe rpynna
K6apmaJI06 (1), OrpaHHqeHIIa5I Ha norrepeQHhlX cTopoHax crrYCKaMH K peKe.
KYPYK. rOpH30HTaJIhHhIH rneCT gJISI
pa3BeCKH HapSIII:HOH oge)KghI Hall: KpOBaThIO rJIaBhl ceMhH B KapaQaeBCKOM
oOMe (1).
KYPYK KI1I1H3. BOHJIOK, YKparneHHhIH annJIHKall,HSIMH H3 cyKHa; BhIBelllHBaJiCSI Ha KypyKe.
KypqA. MecTo gJISI co6pauHH MY)KQHH
B KBapmaJle (1) (MaXJla, )KaMSIT) JIaKCKoro CeJIeHHSI.
KYPEHb. EaJlazait (1) ):IJISI npOlI:a)KH
BapeHoH HJIH ne'leUOH nHII\H.
KYPHITbHHIJ;A. Ba30H (2), B lI,eHTpe
KOToporo HaX0II:HTCSIeMKOCTh C 6JIaroBOHHSIMH - II:JISI pacnpocTpaHeHHSI apoMaTa B nOMeII\eHHH.
KY~A. CeHb, Ulamep
(1), 6eceoKa (1,
3,4).
KY3E)K3. BopOTa B orpall:e 'lepKeCCKOH ycaob6bl.
KYPAHTbl. KpynHhle 'laChl, COeIl:HHeHHhle C MY3hlKaJIhHhIM MexaHH3MOM,
KOTOPhlH HCnOJIHSIeT MeJIOII:IHO 'lepe3
onpell:eJIeHHhle npOMe)KYTKH BpeMeHH
(HanpHMep, 'lepe3 'leTBepTh 'laca).
KYPAOHEP. ITapall:HhIH OBOP (1)
nepell: ycall:e6HhiM II:OMOM, OBOPI10M (1,
2, 3) HJIH OC06HRKOM, OrpaHH'leHHhIH C
60KOB PJlU2eJlR.MU (1) HJIH KPhIJIhSIMH
3Toro 3I1:aHHSI, a Cnepell:H - CKB03HOH
OrpaIl:OH.
KYIllI1 0 PT.
ABoHHaSI 6arnKJipCKaSI
u36a (1) c CeHR.MU rrocpegHHe.
KYTAH. CToSIHKa naCTYXOB Ha 3HMHHX
cenepoKaBKa3cKHx rracT6HII\ax.
( =CJIerraSI
MEEEITb
KYTAHA5£
Me6eJIh). MSIrKaSI Me6eJIh, y KOTOPOH
gepeBSIHHaSI OCHOBa rrOJIHOCThIO 3aKphITa 06HBKOH.
KYYIll. 1 EarnKHpcKHH KOHW{eCKHH
rnaJIarn, KPhIThIH KOpOH. 2 rJIHH06HTHhle cTyrreHhKJi nepeg O'larOM B KapaQaeBCKOM )KHJIHII\e.
KYIIIETKA. AHBaU'lHK gJISI JIe)KaHHSI,
HHOrll:a C nOJIOrHM H3rOJIOBheM.
-81-
KbIP KAEArbl. ITOJIeBhle BopOTa,
3aKpbIBaIOII\He BXOA B nOCeJIeHHe TaTapMHillapeH.
K3EAK. OKOHHhIe cmaBHU (1) B 'lepKeCCKOM oOMe (1).
K3KbIP3 (=y3). CKOTHhIH gBOP B 'lepKeccKoH ycaob6e.
K3IT3rYH3. KpaHHSISI rrpHcTpoHKaKJIagoBaSI B 'lepKeCCKoM oOMe (1, 2).
K3P3H. HaHaHcKHH CKJlen B BHlI:e BphIToro B 3eMJIIO 60JIhrnOrO II:OMa C rrOJIUOH
o6cTaHoBKoH H nOJIKaMH, Ha KOTOPhIX
nOCTaBJIeHhI rpo6bI C nOKoHHHKaMH
egHHoro ceMeHcTBa HJIH Bcero CeJIeHIDI.
KIOI1T. BpeMeHHoe JIOnapCKoe )KHJIHII\e B BHge QeThlpexrpaHHoH yceQeHHOH nHpaMH):IhI H3 OOCOK (1), )Kep):leH
HJIH Wp6blJlR (1), nOKphITOe cBepxy
3eMJIeil:.
KIOH. HoraHCKoe CeJIeHHe, COCTOSIII\ee.
H3 HeCKOJIhKHX rpynrr Ku6umoK; Ka)KgaSI
rpyrrrra BKJIIO'laeT 40-60 KJi6HTOK H
OTCTOHT OT COCell:HHX Ha OIl:HY-II:Be BepCThI.
JIAEA3. 1 lloMeru:eHHe ,qmI TOprOBJIH
3epHOM IfJIH MYKOH. 2 ,UepeBHHHhIH
HaBec Ha CToHKax. 3 CH6HPCKHH CBaHHhIH aM6ap (1, 2).
JIArM. rOpH30HTaJIhHhle 6pyCbR (1) B
KOHCTPYKII;lIHx.
rrOJIh3yeMhIe rnaBHhIM o6pa30M B llJIJIIOMHHaU;IIHX.
JIArThI XAM. MY)!(CKaH (JIeBaH) rrOJIOBHHa oceTHHCKoro )!(lIJIHru:a.
JIAHTEPHA. JIamepHa.
JIArYHA. JI;nYH3.
JIA,UEMHA5f MEJIbHMl(A. IlJIaBYqaH Bo,qHHaH MeJIhHIIu;a.
JIA3H5f. 1 llocTpoHKa ,qJIH MhIThH,
6aHH. 2 CrrycK B rro,qIlOJIhe 1I3-rro,q
wJl64a (1, 2). 3 TOJICTaH oocKa (1) C
Bpy6KaMH, 3aMeHHIOru:aH JIeCTHHU;y (cp.:
BCXOOHR, rBapouR (2).
JIAEMPMHT (=6JIy)!(,qaIOru:HH ca,q,
JIaBHpHH<j:J). Y qaCTOK co CrreU;HaJIhHO
3arrYTaHHhlMH rrpoxo,qaMH Me)!(,qy CTPH)!(eHOH rrJIOTHOH 3eJIeHhIO (HarrpHMep,
JIaBpa, rpa6a, JIHrrhI) BHyTpH rrapKa.
JIAEMq. JIaBKa B,qOJIh CTeHhl B KOMHrrepMHU;KOH U36e (1).
JIABA. 1 (=KJIa,qh). JIerKHe ,qepeBHHHhle MOCTKH qepe3 pyqeH HJIH TOIlKYIO
HIf3HHy. 2 [J0PROOK.
JIABATOPMM (=JIaBa6o). KaMeHHml
qallIa ,qJIH pHTyaJIhHOrO OMOBeHHH pyK,
oKpy)!(eHHaH HHllIeH B HHTephepe 3Urra,qHO-XPHCTHaHCKOrO xpaMa.
JIABMPMH<I>. JIa6upuHm.
JIABPA.
KpyrrHhIH
rrpaBOCJIaBHhlH
MOHacThlph C OC06hIMH rrpHBllJIerHHMH, rro,qqHHHBllIHHCH Herrocpe,qcTBeHHo
rraTpHapxy JIH60 (rrocJIe 1721 r.) CHHO,qy. B POCCIIH lIX 6hIJIO qeThIpe: KHeBolleqepcKaH, Tpollu;e-CeprHeBa, AJIeKcaH,qpo-HeBcKaH, lloqaeBo-Y crreHCKaH.
JIArEPHbIM llOrPEE. lloMeru:eHl1e
,qJIH rrOBTopHora 6pO)!(eHHH rrllBa, Ha
rrHBOBapeHHOM 3aBo,qe.
JIAIIA. Kperre)!(HhIH qeThIpexrpaHHhIH
BhIcTyrr Ha KOHu;e 6peBHa HJIII 6pyca (1)
rro ero OCH, BhITecaHHhIH rro CTporOH
pa3MeTKe Ha HerrpaBHJIhHhIe qeThIpexyrOJIhHHKH ,qJIH rrpOqHOrO Cu;errJIeHHH
3JIeMeHTOB B yrnax cpy6a.
JIAllJIAT. CaHOpa.
JIAKMYC. TypHuca.
JIAIIOHE. lloJIKa rro,q rrOTOJIKOM MOp,qOBCKOH u36bl (1).
JIAKIIIbIH. 3aKperrJIeHHaH BepxHIIM
KOHU;OM Ha rrepeKJIa,qIlHe BHyTpll OblMapR u;errh C KOTJIOM (Ka3aHoM) Ha,q oqarOM B HoraHCKOM ,qOMe.
JIAPEl(. llp5lMoyroJIhHaH B rrJIaHe llIKaTYJIKa ,qJIH xpaHeHH5I u;eHHocTeH, yKpallIeHHaH HaKJIa,qHoH JIH60 rnyxoH pe3h60H, HHKpycTaII;HeH llJIH pocrrllchlO.
JIAMEPEKEH. TH)!(eJIaH rrOrrepeqHaH
,qparrllpOBKa Ha,q BepXHeH qaCThlO rrpoeMa, HHor,qa YKpallIaeMaH peCmOHaMU
(1), BhIllIIIBKOH, arrrrJIIIKaU;lIeH.
JIAMEPM. 3aru:HTHaH II ,qeKopaTIIBHaH
06JIIIU;OBKa CTeH B rrOMeru:eHHHX, c,qeJIaHHml 11.3 ,qepeBa, HHor,qa co BKJIlOqeHlIeM 3epKaJI, )!(HBOrrHCH II xy,qO)!(eCT- .
BeHHOH JIerrKH.
JIAPEK. 'uoru:aThIH ,qOMIIK rro,q O,qHOCKaTHOH KpOBJleU C YKJIOHOM OT JIIIu;eJIAMllA,UA. llo,qBellIeHHhIH rrepe,q Bora <j:Jaca,qa.
HKOHOH He6oJIhllIOH cocy,q C cpllTIIJIeM H
JIACTOqKMH XBOCT. 1 <l>opMa 3y6rOplOqHM MaCJIOM.
40B, - C OCTpOKOHeqHhIM pa3,qBoeHHeM
JIAMllA,UHA5I llEqb. OTOrrHTeJIh- Bepxa OT cepe,qHHhI B CTOPOHhI. 2 CKOHoe YCTPOHCTBO co cTa6HJIhHOH H pery- BopooeHb.
JIHpyeMoH TerrJIOOT,qaqeH 6JIaro,qapH
pe3epByapy, B KOTOPOM yrnH rrOCTe. rreHHO pa3)!(HraeT rapHqHH B03,qyX OT
paCKaJIeHHhIX yrneH B rapHe; 3TOT B03,qyx rrocTyrraeT qepe3 OTBepCTHH B CTeHKax H ,qHe pe3epByapa.
JIAMllMOHbI. Pa3HOU;BeTHhIe CTeKJIHHHhIe HJIII 6YMu)!(HhIe <j:JOHapH, HC-
82
-82-
n
nACb - nEIllA,Qb
JIACh. Cpy6ml5l JIenOOI KyxHH 6e3
rrOJIa H rrOTOJIKa B '1YBaillCKOH ycaob6e.
JIAT ACThl. HaBec B ycaob6e TeMHHKOBCKHX TaTap-MHillapeH, IIO,n; KOTOPhIM
xpaHHTCH MeJIKHH CeJIhCKOX03HHCTBeHHhIH HHBeHTaph H C6pYH, a TaIOKe CTOHT
BO,n;OIIOHHhle KOJIO,n;hI.
83
JIE,IJ,OPE3. Coopy)!(eHlle, 3arJIy6JIeHHoe B BO,n;y peKH II 06paIIIeHHoe KJIllHOBH,n;HhIM BhlcTyrroM BBepx IIO Te'leHHIO ,n;JIH 3aIIIllThI OIIOP MOCTa OT yp;apoB
JIh,n;HH.
JIEHTOqHOE OCTEKJIEHME. XapaKTepHhle P;JIH KOHCTPYKTHBH3Ma OKHa,
IIpHMhIKaIOIIIHe O,n;HO K ,n;pyroMY IIO'ITH
6e3 pa3rpaHH'IHBaIOIIIHX IIpOMe)!(YTKOB
H 06'he,n;HHeHHhle Ha <paca,n;e B IIPOTH)!(eHHhle rrOJIOChl.
JIEHTOqHhIll HAJIMqHMK. HerrpephIBHoe 06paMJIeHHe OKHa, HMeIOIIIee JIH~eBYIO rrOBepXHOCTh B e,n;HHOH
rrJIOCKOCTH.
JIATEPHA (=JIaHTepHa). B03Be,n;eHHaH
Ha,n; CBeTOBhIM OTBepCTHeM B KpblUle
HJIH KynOJze KpyrJIaH, OBaJIhHaH HJIH
MHororpaHHaH 6ailleHKa C OCTeKJIeHHeM
OKOH, npeBhIillaIOIIIHM IIO IIJIOIIIa,n;H
IIpOCTeHKH.
JIEHTOqHhIll PYCT. PycmoBKa HerrpephIBHhIMH ropH30HTaJIhHhIMH IIOJIOcaMH, 6e3 BepTHKaJIhHhIX JlCeAo6KOB.
JIEHTOqHhIll <l>YH,IJ,AMEHT. c[JYHOaMeJ.lm,
06pa30BaHHhIH rrpOTH)KeHHhIMH Y'laCTKaMH HerrpephIBHOH KAaOKU
B OCHOBaHHH KanumaAbHblX cmeH.
JIATMHCKlfH KPECT (=KaTOJIWleCKHH KpeCT, KphDK, PHMCKHM KpeCT).
'lleThIpeXKOHe'lHhIH KpeCT C ,n;JIHHHhIM
KOH~OM B OCHOBaHHl!...
JIAXA. 5IMa ,n;JIH OrRH B ~eHTpe KOMHaThI ~axypcKoro )!(HJIHIIIa (CM. pew).
JIE,IJ,5IHA5I CTAHUM5I. )KeJIe3Ho,n;opO)!(HaH CTaHl\HSI C XpaHHJIllI~eM JIh,n;a
,n;JIH 3arpY3Kll BarOHOB-JIe,n;HllKoB.
JIEEPEHA KAMHM. BhICOK03KOHOMH'IHhIH HCKYCCTBeHHhlH MaTepHaJI ,n;JIH
JIeIIHhIX YKpailleHHH H IIJIHT TpoTyapa,
COCTOHIIIHH rJIaBHhIM 06pa30M H3 TOJI'IeHOro H3BeCTHHKa (CM. rUOpo).
JIEIlHMHA. PeJIhe<pHhle YKpailleHHSI
apXHTeKTypHhIX coopy)!(eHHH, H3rOTOBJIeHHhle H3 aJIe6aCTpa HJIH 6emOHa.
JIE)KAqA5I CKAMh5I.
CKaMbR C nOOKocaMu B rrpocTpaHcTBe
KpbIUlU.
JIECHOH: ,IJ,BOP. CKJIap; P;JIH BpeMeHHoro xpaHeHHH JIeCOMaTepllaJIOB P;O HX
rrpOp;a)!(H.
KpOBeJIhHaH
JIECHOH: MAfA3MH. IlOMeIIIeHHe
co C'heMHhIMll IIIllTOBhIMll CTeHaMll,
IIpep;Ha3Ha'IeHHOe ,n;JIH Me,n;JIeHHOH peryJIIlpyeMoH CyillKH p;peBeCHHhI.
JIEBA,IJ,A. qacTh JIyra, OTrOpO)!(eHHaH
,n;JIH )!(epe6hlX K06hIJIH~ H )!(epe6HT.
JIEBAlli. CapaM B MapHMCKOH ycaob6e.
JIEBKAC. fpYHTOBKa H3 CMeCH KJIeH H
MeJIa, IIpHMeHHBillaHCH B HKOHOIIHCH, a
TaIOKe B CKYJIhIITypHOH H ,n;eKopaTHBHOH
pe3h6e (HarrpHMep, B peJIhe<pax UKOHOcmaCOB KaK YTO'lHHIOIIIHH <POPMY
CJIOH Me)!(,D;y ,n;epeBHHHOli OCHOBOH H
II030JIOTOH) .
JIEfEJIh. fOp1l30HTaJIhHhIH 6pyc (1),
coe,n;HHHIOIIIHH CTpOIIHJIa.
JIECHOll CAP All. B03Bep;eHHoe IIpH
JIE)KAqME OKHA M HMllIM. CBeToBhIe HJIll JIO)!(Hhle npoeMhI IIpHMoyrOJIhHOH, BochMHyrOJIhHOH JIH60 OBaJIhHOH
<pOPMhl, y KOTOPhIX illHpHHa HBHO
60JIhille BhICOThI.
JIE)KEHh (=reJIeHr). 1 fOp1l30HTaJIhHhIH 6pyc (1), CJIy)!(aIIIllH OCHOBaHlleM
,n;JIH pa3JIll'lHhlX qaCTeH rrocTpoHKll.
2 EpeBHo C oTecKoH TOJIhKO Ha O,n;I1H HJIH
,n;Ba KaHTa.
JIEKAJIhHhIH KMPIlMq. KHprrH'I
KJIHHOBH,n;HOH,
,n;yro06pa3HoH
HJIH
YCJIO)!(HeHHOH <pOpMhI, a TaIOKe 6pYCKOBblU C KPHBOJIHHeHHhIMH Y'IaCTKaMll
BHeillHero KOHTypa.
JIEfEPHOE CTEKJIO. BhIcoKoKa'leCTBeHHoe CTeKJIO, 6JI1l3KOe 6eMcKoMY,
OT KOToporo OTJIH'IaeTCH cIIoc060M
IIOJIHPOBKH.
JIE,IJ,HMK. IlPO,n;OBOJIhCTBeHHhIH CKJIa,n;,
oXJIa)!(,n;aeMhIH JIh,n;OM.
JIEMEKE CMCTEMA. KOHCTPYK~HSI
,n;epeBSlHHhIX MOCTOB 113 op;llHaKOBhIX
IIPHMOyrOJIhHhIX pepM, B KOTOPhIX pacKOCbl 06pa3yIOT HaJIO)!(eHHhle p;pyt Ha
,n;pyra pOM6hl.
JIEMEX. KpOBeJIhHhIH MaTepHaJI B
Bllp;e
rrpOp;OJIrOBaThIX
p;epeBHHHhIX
,n;OlIl,e'leK (Hepe,n;KO C ropo,n;'1aThIM Hll)!(HllM KpaeM), paCIIOJIaraIOIIIHXCH ropH30HTaJIhHhlMH pH,n;aMH, C HanycKoM
BepXHHX Ha HH)KHlle.
JIEMilAq
( = B03,n;YillHhIH KHprrH'I).
KHpIIH'I. H3rOTOBJIeHHhIH H3 rJIHHhI.
IIeCKa, KOHCKoro HaB03a H COJIOMhI JIH60
OCOKH (cp.: CaMaH).
-83-
3.!lAUHU (1) 3p;aHHe, B KOTOPOM xpaIlllTCH 3aIIac cTpoeBoro JIeca P;JIH CTPOH-
TeJIhCTBa H peMoHTa Kopa6JIeH.
JIECOilAPK. EJIaroycTpoeHHhIH JIecHOM MaCCHB.
JIECTHMqHA5I KJIETKA. IloMeIIIeHHe BhICOTOH B p;Ba 3Ta)Ka llJIH 6oJIee,
3aHHToe JIeCTHH~eH.
JIECTHMqHA5I llIAXTA. CMOTPOBOH KOAooeu, (2) rrpH KaHaJI1l3a~HOHHoH
CllCTeMe, llMeIOIIIHH BUHmOBYIO AecmHUU,y BP;OJIh CTeH.
JIETH5I5I UEPKOBh (=XOJIOP;HaH ~ep­
KOBh). XpaM, He llMeIOIIIllH OTOIIJIeHHH
H rrOTOMY IIpep;Ha3Ha'IeHHhIH ,n;JISI 60roCJIy)!(eHHH TOJIhKO B TerrJIOe BpeMH ro,n;a.
JIETYqA5I MhlIIIh. KpOBeAbHoe OKHO
IIO,n; rrJIaBHhIM IIOJIOrllM H3r1l6oM -c<tepenU'lHOU rrOBepXHOCTH.
JIEmA,IJ,h (=IIIepa, IIIHpa). TOHKHH
KBa,n;paTHhIH KHpIIH'I HJIH KaMeHHhle
IlJIHTKH TOH )!(e <pOpMhI, yrrOTPe6JIHBillllecSI KaK IIOKphITHe IlOJIa HJIH KpOBeJIhHhIH MaTepllaJI.
n
84
nErKIotM WnAT - nYKOBIot"lHASI rnABA
JIEfKHH
umam.
illIIAT.
H3BeCmKOBblU
JIHEPHA. ,ll;onOJIHHTeJIbHruI ftepBlOpa B
KpecmoBoM cBooe, COe,!lHIDlIOm;aSl ero
UleJtblzy C BepmHHoH 60KOBOH apKu.
JIH3EHA. CJIa60 BbIcT}'IIalOm;ruI H3
nOBepXHoCTH CTeHbI Y3KruI BepTHKaJIbHruI nOJIoca Ha BCIO ee BbICOTY.
JIHCKH. IIJIeTeHaSI orpa,!la H3 BeTBeH
opemHHKa.
JIHTOBCKHH
CKUU Kpecm.
KPECT.
JIomapuftz-
KAMEHh.
HCKYCCTBeHHbIH CTpOHTeJIbHbm MaTepHaJI, OCHOBY KOToporo COCTaBJISIIOT
KpeMHeKHCJIble COJIH, npoTHBO,!leHcTBYlO.m;:He
pa3pYIIIHTeJIbHoMY
BJIHSlHHIO
BJIarn H B03,!1yxa.
JIOBhIPEK. Tbl'lOK C HaBHCalOm;eH
HaKJIOHHOH nOBepXHOCTblO, BKJIIOlJ:eHHbm B np0<pHJIHpOBKY ,!IpeBHepyccKHX
ftaAU'lftUKOB,
KapftU30B,
ijOKo.//,eu;
06bIlJ:HO - HenOCpe,!lCTBeHHO no,!l no'//'yBa.//,OM ruIH 'lemBepmftbl.M BaAOM.
JIOf. JIOJICOK
(1). 3ayceftOK (3).
JIOfOM. YKJIa,!lKa O,!lHHaKOBbIX npSIMOyrOJIbHbIX 3JIeMeHTOB (KHpnH'IH, oepft,
MemKH C 3eMJIeH) .r\JIHHHOH CTOPOHOH Ha
JIHn;eBylO nOBepxHocTb CTeHbI HJIH 3eMJISIHoro BaAa (1).
JIO,ll;)KHH. OTKpbITOe Hap~y nOMem;eHHe C nOTOJIKOM HJIH CBOOOM, OT.r\eJIeHHOe OT OKpY)KaIOm;ero npOCTPaHCTBa C O,!lHOH HJIH pa3HbIX CTOPOH
Ko.//,Oftftaoou, apKaoou, napanemoM JIH60 6aAlOCmpaoou.
JIHTOIIOH. IIOCmORftftble 6eJtUJta.
JIHTO<l>AHHH. PeJIbe<pHbIe H306pa)KeHHSI Ha HerJIa3ypoBaHHoM <pap<pope
(6ucKBume), npe,!lHa3HalJ:eHHbIe K BOCnpHSITHIO Ha npocBeT.
JIHIJ;EBASI KJIA,ll;KA. AKKypaTHaSI
KHpllH'IHaSI K.//,aoKa, paCCqHTaHHaSI Ha
BocnpHSITHe Bee eCTeCTBeHHOM BH,!Ie, 6e3 mTyKarypKH, 06Ma3KU, n06eJIKH,
nOKpaCKH H 06JIHn;OBKH.
JIHqHHA (=KJIIOlJ:eBHHa). IInacTHHKa
Ha ,!IBepH, OKpY)KalOm;aSI OTBepcTHe .!IJISI
KJIIOlJ:a.
JIOB. IJ;epKoBHaSI z.//,aBa.
JIOBAHh. ,ll;eKopaTHBHoe nO,!lBbImeHHe ftaAU'lftUKa.
JIOBHK. IIOJIYKpyrJIbIH KHpnH'IHbIH
BbIcryn Ha,!I npoeMoM B oKp~alOm;eH
ero HHme, paCClJ:HTaHHbIH Ha nnOTHoe
npHMbIKaHHe npSlMoyrOJIbHOH paMbI.
JIO)I(EMEHT. He60JIbmOH CTpeJIKOBbIH HJIH 0py,!lHHHbm OKon.
JIOTAPHHfCKHH KPECT (=JIHTOBCKHH KpecT, SIreJIJIOHCKHH KpecT).
illeCTHKOHe'IHbm KpecT C ,!IByMSl 0.r\HHaKOBbIMH rOPH30HTaJISlMH.
JIOTKOBASI qEPEIIHIJ;A. KpOBeJIbHbIH MaTepHaJI B BH.l\e lJ:eTbIpexyroJIbHbIX KepaMHlJ:eCKHX nJIaCTHH C 60pTHKaMH no mHpoKHM CTOPOHaM, COCTaBJISIeMbIX Ha KpOBJIe B )KeJI06a OT KOftbKa
(1) ,!IO CBeca.
JIO)KHhIH CBO,ll;. KpHBOJIHHeHHOe
nepeKpbITHe, 06pa30BaHHoe roPH30HTaJIbHbIMH pSl,!laMH KHpllH'Ia, KaMHSI HJIH
,!IepeBa.
JIO)KOK (=JIor). 1 HaH60JIee BbITSIHYTaSI, cpe.r\HSISI no BeJIH'IHHe rpaHb 6pyc-'
KOBOlO KUpnU'la. 2 Ka)K,!Ibm H3 KOPOTKHX napaJIJIeJIbHbIX JlCe.//,o6KoB.
JIO)KqAThIH ,ll;EKOP. O,!lHHaKOBbIe
napaJIJIeJIbHbIe BbleMKH nOJIYKpyrJIOrO
Ce'leHHSI, C 3aKpyrJIeHHSlMH B qeTBepTb
c<pepbl Ha KOun;ax.
,
JIOEOBASI ,ll;OCKA (=KpaCHaSI ,!lOCKa,
<PPH30BaSI .r\OCKa, nnaTOK). Pe3HOH
.r\epeBSlHHbIH ppU3 (2) Ha rJIaBHOM <paca.r\e KpecTbSlHcKoro OOMa (1), nOMem;eHHbIH Ha,!I OKHaMH.
JIOIIATKA. He HMelOIn;H:H 6a3bl H
KanUmeAU BepTHKaJIbHbIH JIeHTOqHbm
BbICTyn CTeHbI, pa3,!1eJISllOIn;H:H HJIH orpaHH'IHBaIO.m;:HH ee nOBepxHocTb.
JIO)KHHIJ;A. CnaJIbHSl.
g
i ~ ~i
JIOBHOE MECTO. 1 B03BblmeHHe, C
KOToporo OrJIamaJIH n;apcKHe YKa3b1 H
06pam;aJIHCb K Hapo,!ly. 2 MeCTO Ha nnom;a,!lH, npe,!lHa3Ha'leHHOe ,!IJISI ny6JIHqHbIX Ka3HeH.
JIOIIACTHASI APKA. ApKa (1), BHyTpeHHSISI nOBepXHOCTb KOTOPOH COCTaBJIeHa H3 O,!lHHaKOBbIX ap0lJ:eK.
JIOTKOBhIH IIOTOJIOK. IIJIocKoe
,!IepeBSlHHoe nepeKpbITHe C HaKJIOHHbIMH nOBepxHocTXMH no KpaSIM.
JIOTKOBhIH CBO,ll;. CBOO, COCTOSIlI\HH H3 JtomKOB (1), C nepe.r\aqeH pacnopa Ha CTeHbI.
JIOTOK. 1 PaBH06e,!lpeHHblH TpeyroJIbHblH yqacToK n;HJIHH,!IpH'IeCKOH nOBepx-
JIOKOMOTHBHASI 3EJIEHh. 3e'//'e-
HOCTH, OnHpalOIn;H:HCX Ha rOpH30HTaJIb.
2 )KeJI06 .r\JISI CTOKa HJIH CCbmaHHSI.
3 KOpbITn;e.
JIOKOTKH.
o6pe-
JIY3f. IInOCKHH mTYKarypHhm BhICTyn
Ha CThIKe CTeHhI H nOTOJIKa.
JIOMBAP,ll;. YlJ:pe)K,l\eHHe, B KOTOPOM
3a nnaTY xpaHSIT JIHqHhIe Be.m;:H HaCeJIe-
JIY3fA. 1 CKB03HOH BepTHKaJIbHbIH
UlOB '1epe3 pSl,!lbI 1CJI,aOKu. 2 OCa,!IKa
coopY)KeHHSI B rpynT.
fOPH30HTaJIbHaSI
HHSI H npe.r\oCTaBJIXIOT cCY.r\y n0.r\ HX
3aJIOr.
JIOMBEPHhIH CTOJI. CTOJI C npSIMOyroJIbHOH cmo.//,eUlftUijeU, 06TSlnyTOH
CYKHOM, ,!IJISI HrpbI B KapTbI.
-84-
JIYKOBHqHAJI
fJIABA.
BeHlJ:a-
IOm;HH 06'beM nocTpoHKH C nnaBHoH
KPHBH3HOH CHMMeTpH'IHOrO CHJIY3Ta,
HMelOIn;H:H nOnepe'lHHK nY'lUftbl 60JIhme
ero BbICOThI.
n
85
nynOBHUlE - nlOCTrAY3
JIYIIOBMIIJ;E. MeCTO, r,[le 06,[1MpaJUf M
3aKanbIBanM naBIIIMH CKOT.
JIYl.JMCThII1
CBOA.
36e3DliamblU
C60D.
JIYl.JKOBhIM. OrpaHM'IeHHbIH ,[Iyroi1
HaMHOrO MeHbIIIe 1800 •
JI3rYH3 (=narYHa). IIpe,[lHa3HaqeHHaR ,[InR HOB06paQHbIX KOMHaTa B 'IepKeCCKOM MnM Ka6ap,[lMHCKOM DOMe (1, 2),
MMelO~aR OT,[IenbHbIH BXO,[l.
JI3rYH3 UhIKY. He6onbIIIa~ Kna,[lOBaR B QepKeCCKoM DOMe (1, 2).
JIIOACKAH. IIoMe~eHMe ,[InR npMcnyrM B nOMe~M'IbeM oOMe (1, 2).
JIIOKAPHA. CBeToBoH npoeM B HaKnOHHOM IInI1 CBO,[l'IaTOM nepeKpbITI1M,
HMelO~MH
BepTMKanbHYlO nMIIeBYlO
JIIOJIhKA.
Mna,[leHIIa.
Ka'IalO~aRCR
KpoBaTb ,[InR
JIIOHET. 1 IIonYKpyrnbIH YQaCTOK CTeHbI, Herrocpe,[lCTBeHHo rro,[l Orl16alO~I1M
ee C60DOM. 2 l.JeTblpexcTopoHHee yKperrneHMe, OTKpbITOe C Tbma, a crrepe,[1M 3a~l1~eHHOe 6a.!!aMU (1) 11 pBaMM.
3 BonbIIIoe rronYKpyrnoe OKHO HerrOCpe,[lCTBeHHo Ha,[l rrpRMoyronbHbIM rrpoeMOM.
JIIOCTrAY3. IIapKoBbIH na6U.!lbOH B
BM,[Ie KpyrrHoH 6eceoKu (1), 06bI'IHO C
60raTbIM cpaCa,[lHblM )l;eKOpoM.
-85-
\
-
MA. HraHaCaHCKllH: t.tYM.
MAB30JIEM. MOH)'MeHTaJIhHOe Ha).jrp06HOe cOOpY)KeHlIe.
MABPECKA. Apa6eC1Ca.
MArIICTPAT.
OpraH ropO).jCKoro
caMoyrrpaBJIeHlISI, B03HlfKIIIlIH: II cYIl\eCTBOBaBililfH: B POCClIH:CKOH: lIMrreplili C
1720 rro 1864 r. (B 1727-1743 rr. Ha3hIBaJICSIpamYUteu (1).
MA,UPACA (=Me).jpece). MycYJIhMaHCKaH cpe).jHSISI IIIKOJIa Ha KaBKa3e.
MA3AHKA. He6oJIhiliOe cTpoeHlIe C
rJIlfH06l1THbIMli CTeHaMIf rrplf ).jepeBSIHHOM KapKace.
MA3P ACA. EaIIIKlIpcKaSI MycYJIhMaHCKaSI IIIKOJIa.
MABPJITAHCKA5I APKA. JIOOKOBO06pa3HaR apKa.
MAKCYPA. rJIaBHOe MeCTO ).jJISI MOJIlITBhI B Met.temu, OT).jeJIeHHOe OT ee
OCTaJIhHOrO uHmepbepa.
MAKTAE. MycYJIhMaHCKaSI HaqaJIhHaSI
IIIKOJIa Ha KaBKa3e.
MAKTAII. EaIIIKlfpcKaSI MycYJIhMaHCKaSI IIIKOJIa.
MAJIA5I KY,UO. He60JIhillaSI oTropo)KeHHaSI qaCTh JIeTHeH: KyxHlI (CM.
K yoo ), rrOqllTaBillaSICSI MecTorrpe6hIBaHlieM ).jyxa-xpaHlITeJISI ceMhlf.
MAM,UAH. 1 rJIaBHaSI rrJIOIl\a).jh B KpyrrHOM IO)KHO-PYCCKOM CeJIeHlIli (HarrplfMep, B Ka3aqheH: cTaHlIn:e). 2 JIropHhIH:
rrpliTOH. 3 5IMa ).jJISI BhlrOHKIf ).jerTSI.
MAJIA5I KYHAUKA5I.
IIapa).jHaSI
KOMHaTa B 6oraToM ceBepoKaBKa3cKoM
oOMe (1, 2), rrpe).jHa3HaqeHHaSI ).jJISI rrplfeMa 6JIlI3KlIX pO).jcTBeHHHKoB X03SIeB.
MAMMYJI (=o6e3hSIHa, o6e3hSIHKa).
YKperrJIeHHaSI Ha rrOrrepeqHhIX rrporOHax
<jJlIrypHaSI CTOH:Ka, rro).j).jep)KlIBaIOIl\aSI
BepXHlIH: (KOHbKOBblU) 6pyc (1) B KpblUte ceBepoKaBKa3cKoro oOMa
(1);
Hepe).jKo IfMeeT BlI).j o606Il\eHHOlf CPllrypKlI qeJIOBeKa.
MAJI OPYH. Bay.
MAMOJIJIKA. IIOKphIThle rJIa3yphIO
KepaMlIqeCKHe H3).jeJIliSI C KpyrrHorropHCTOH: OCHOBOH:.
MAJIO, MAJIY. IIoqeTHoe MeCTO B
Tpa).jlll\llOHHOM )KlIJIHIl\e BOCTOqHOClI6HPCKIfX Hapo).joB.
MAJIYXA (=MaJI 3H:3). YTerrJIeHHhIH:
).jOMHK ).jJISI HOBOpO)K).jeHHhIX TeJISIT HJIli
SIrHSIT B 6aIIIKHpCKOH: ycaob6e.
MAJIbIM BOCbMEPJIK. BOChMHrpaHHhIH 06'heM, B03Be).jeHHhIH Ha cBooe
t.temBepuKa H CHJIhHO YCTyrraIOIl\HH eMY
B rrOrrepeqHHKe.
MArA3JIH. 1 ToprOBoe 3aBe).jeHHe
).jJISI rrpO).ja)KH P03HHQHhIX TOBapoB.
2 (=raMa3eH:, MaHra3eSI). CKJIa).j ).jJISI
rrp0).joBOJIhCTBeHHhlx 3arraCOB, Kopa6eJIhHOrO lIMYIl\eCTBa, orHeCTpeJIhHhIX
rrplirracoB II T. ).j.
MAKA,UAM. llIocce yrrpOIl\eHHoH KOHCTpYKl\lIli - 6e3 crren:lIaJIhHOrO OCHOBaHliSI H3 KpyrrHoro KaMHSI H 6e3 YKaTKH
Il\e6HSI B rrOKphITliH.
MAJIbIM KOJIOKOJI. 3a3BoHHblU KO.II0KOJI.
MAKAPA. YXO.ll3a.
MAJIbIM LIJIH. Ammut.tecKuu opoeH.
MArAJI. 1 (=MeXJIe). KBapma.ll (1) B
).jareCTaHCKOM CeJIeHlIli. 2 KBapma.ll (1),
3aCeJIeHHhIH ropcKllMli eBpeSIMli B KaBKa3CKOM wpooe (2).
MAKAPTOBbI BYKETbl.
MaKapma.
MAr,UAJIJIHJIHCKJIE OEIUJIHbI.
IIpliIOThI ).jJISI pacKaSIBIIIlIXcSI rra).jIIIHX
)KeHIl\lIH, CYIl\eCTBOBaBililie B POCCHli C
MAKOBJIUA. <PopMa n:epKoBHoH 2JlaBbl, 6JIlI3KaSI .IIYKOBUt.tHOU, HO MeHee
BhIcTyrraIOIl\aSI B CTOPOHhI Ha).j 6apa6aHOM B ee OCHOBaHlili.
1863 r.
BYKembl
MAKAAC. EaJIKlI B rroKphITlili HoraHCKoro oOMa (1).
86
-86-
MAJIbTJIMCKJIM KPECT. LIeThlpexKOHeqHhIH: KpecT C O).jHHaKOBhIMli BepTHKaJIhHhIMli H ropll30HTaJIhHhIMH KOHn:aMH, CTOPOHhI KOTOPhIX pacxo).jSITCSI OT
n:eHrpa.
MAJI 3M3. MaJlyxa.
MAMBA-,UYrAH
(=MaM6Y-).jyraH,
aKrra-AyraH). JIaMaHcTCKHH xpaM-IIIKO-
M
MAHrA3ESl - MAWIilKymt
na, B KOTOPOM npenO}];alOT TH6eTCKYlO
Me}];H.qHHy.
87
MAP. rypuu.
MAPEIJJJ;O. Pa3HOBH}l;HOCTh HCKyCCTBeHHoro MpaMopa (nmca, o6pa6oTaHHoro KBaCn;aMH), - nmhhI }];nSl o6nHMAH,lJ,OPJIA. BepTHKanhHhIH MHH}];a-, n;OBKH CTeH B nOMeru;eHHSlX.
neBH}];HhIH HHM6 BOKpyr POCTOBhIX
MAPKETPI1. CTonSlpHaSl M03aU"maR
qmryp XpHcTa H BoropO}];Hn;hI (pe)Ke pa60Ta H3 }];epeBa pa3HhIX nopo}]; co cnoBOKpyr qmryp HHhIX CBSlThIX).
HOBOH KOCThlO, MpaMopoM, MeTaJIJIOM.
MAHE)I(. 3}];aHHe C npOCTopHhIM
MaTep'laThIH
HaBec
3anOM HnH orOpO)KeHHaSl nnoru;a}];Ka, MAPKI13A.
(06hI'IHO nO}];BH)KHOH) Ha}]; npoeMoM, C
npe}];Ha3Ha'leHHhle }];nSl BepxoBoH e3}];hI.
BHenIHeH CTOPOHhI.
MAHrA3EH. Maw3UfI (2).
MACKA (=MaCKapOH). BKJIIO'IeHHOe B
apxlfTeKTypHhIH }];eKOp CKYJIhnTypHoe
lf306pa)KeHlfe JIhBlfHOH MOP}];hI, JIHn;a
'1eJIOBeKa, cpaBHa, rH}l;phI If T. n.
MAPMA. KynoJIoo6pa3Hoe 3BeHKHHCKoe )KHJIHru;e C KapKacoM H3 BeTBeH
6epe3hI, nOKphIToe 6epecToH.
MAHECMAHOBCKA5I rOPEJIKA.
BHCSI'IaSI ra30KMHnhHaSl naMna, o6paru;eHHaSl CBeTHnhHHKOM BHH3.
MAHI1. JIHraTypa H3 TH6eTCKRX 6YKB,
cHMBonH3HpYIOru;aSl 6Y}];}];HHCKYIO MonHTBy (cp.: BFl3b).
MAPMOP. MpaMop.
MAPCEJIhCKA5I QEPEIII1IJ;A. IIpSlMoyrOJIhHhIe B nnaHe KepaMH'IeCKHe
nJIHTKH C HepaBHoMepHhIMH npO}];OJIbHhIMH BhIITYKJIOCTSlMH H )KeJI06KaMlf,
HCnOJIh3yeMhle KaK KposeAbliblu MaTeplfaJI.
MAChIr. OceTHHCKaSI ycaob6a C MacClfBHhIMH KaMeHHhIMH CTeHaMH H MHoro3Ta)KHOH 6aumeu (1).
MATI1IJ;A (=BopoHen;, 6anaKa, 6anhKa). 1 OnopHaSl 6anKa nOTonKa B u36e
(1) lfJIlf xopoMax. 2 )l(eJIe3HhIH cTep)KeHh KBa}];paTHOro Ce'leHlfSl }];JISI no}];BeCKH 6AazosecmliuKa.
MATOQHI1K. KpynHaSl JIHTaSI neTJISI
HaBepxy KOJIOKOJIa, '1epe3 KOTOPYIO
rrporrycKaeTcSI Mamu4a (2); 06hI'IHO no
60KaM
}];eJIaJIlfCh
}];OnOJIHlfTeJIhHhle
neTJIH - yrnH KOJIOKOJIa.
MAHI1IIYJI5IIJ;I10HHA5I. IIoMeru;eHHe }];nSl ne'le6HOrO MaCCa)Ka, HH'heKn;HH
H nepeBSl30K.
MAHCAP,lJ,A. OTannHBaeMoe )KlfnOe
nOMeII\eHlfe no}]; KposAeu, KOTopaSl
KpyTO nO}];HlfMaeTCSI OT Kapliuaa, a y
BepXHero o6pe3a OKOH M. o6pa3yeT
roplf30HTaJIhHhIH nepeJIOM If Bhlrne Hero
CTaHOBHTCSI nOJIOroH.
MAPCEJIhCKI1E OB011. IIe'laTHhIe
HnH pacnHcaHHhIe MacnSlHhIMH KpacKaMlf 060lf lf3 JIhHSlHOH JIH60 rnepcTSlHoH
TKaHlf.
MATCA. 3CK3 3pA3K.
MAPTOBCKI1H: IIorPEB. KJIa}];OBaSI
}];nSl ITlfBa.
MAXABKA. (JJmozep.
MAPill. Y'IaCTOK JIeCTHlfn;hI
}];ByMSI nnOII\a}];KaMH.
Me)K}l;y
MACBEPK. CBoHcTBeHHhIH rOTlfKe
pa3BHToH KapKacHhiH opHaMeHT C n;lfpKynhHhIM nOCTpoeHHeM Bcex 3JIeMeHTOB, a TaK)Ke nO}];06HhIe no CJIO)KHOCTH
y30phI CTlfJISI MO}];epH.
MAY3PJIAT. rOplf30HTaJIhHhIH 6pyc
(1) no Bepxy CTeH, BocrrplfHlfMalOru;lfH
pacnop CTPOIIlfJI.
MAXJIA (=)KaMSlT). KsapmaA (1) B
naKCKOM CeJIeHlfH.
MAXJIE. K6apmaA (1) B Ta6acapaHCKOM ceneHHH.
MAXhI1. BbICeJIOK ,[IJISI oxpaHhI 3CMeJIhHhIX yrO}];lfH OCHOBHoro CeJIeHHSI B
,lJ,arecTaHe.
MAillB. TOR nplf a6a3lfHcKOM CeJIeHlflf.
MAIllI1KYJII1 (=KOCOH 60H, HaBeCHhle
60HHlfn;hI). HaBlfcalOru;lfe Ha,[l cTeHOH
YKpenJIeHlfSl HaKJIOHHhle rrpoeMhI, '1epe3
KOTophle
BeJIH
CTpeJIh6y
11
JIlfJill pacnnaBneHHYIO CMOJIY Ha Oca)K}];aIOII\HX.
MAHTEJIET. IIO}];Blf)KHOH ru;HT Ha
KOJIeCaX, lfCnOJIh3yeMhIH }];JISI 3aru;lfThI OT
06CTpeJIa nplf coopY)KeHlflf canbl.
MACI1KOT. )l(eJITaSl KpaCKa.
-87-
M
MARK - MMHEPAJlbHAR )l{MBOnMCb
MAAK. 1 BalIIHeo6pa3Hoe coopY}I{eHHe
p;ml opHeHTHpoBKH CYP;OB. 2 CBeTJIblH
KHpmf'IHK (npHMoyrOJIbHbIH JIH60 C
lIaCmOttKUHblMU X60CmaMU Ha IIIHpOIrnx
CTOPOHax) H3 rHnca, aJIe6acTPa, ~e­
MeHTa JIH60 CTeKJIHHHaH nJIaCTHHKa,
3aKpenneHHbIe CTPOHTeJIbHbIM paCTBoPOM Ha nOBepXHOCTH KllaOKU, nepeceKaH TpeW;HHY, - AJIH KOHTPOJIH 3a AHHaMHKOH pa3pywalO~ YCHJIHH.
MEAH,D;P (= anarpeK). BblTHHYTbIH
opHaMeHT: HenpepbIBHaH JIHHHH C Op;HHaKOBbIMH r-06pa3HbIMH H3JIOMaMH.
1@1i!1(
ME,uPECE. Maopaca.
ME,uAJIbOH. BapeJIbe¢ HJIH }l{HBOllHCHoe H306pa}l{eHHe B KpyrJIOM JIH60
OBaJIbHOM 06paMJIeHHH.
ME,uBE,uKA. BepXH}l}l 'laCTb KP0611U
Hap; llJIaBHJIbHOH <l>a6pHKOH, npope3aHHaH no 60KaM OTBepCTHHMH P;JIH BbIxop;a
AbIMa H napOB.
ME,uBEXMI JIAIIA. AKaHT.
ME)I(,Il;YPYCfbE. rOpH30HTaJIbHblH
npocBeT Me}l{;JJ;Y COce;D;HHMH pycmaMu.
ME3EJIHH. IIOJIyweJIKOBaH TKaHb ;D;JIH
3aHaBeceH H 'leXJIOB Ha Me6eJIb.
ME30HET. ll.OM (1) C KBaprnpaMH,
nOMew;eHHH KOTOPbIX pacnOJIO}l{eHbI B
p;ByX HJIH TPex ypOBHHX.
ME30HMH (=6e3aHHH, 6e3;D;aHHH).
HenOJIHbIH BepxHHil: aTa}l{ Ha;D; Cpe;D;HeH:
'laCTblO oOMa (1), xapaKTepHbIH: ;D;JIH
88
MEJIbCEHCA rpOMOOTBO,u. rpoMOOTBO;D; CO MHO}l{eCTBOM pacxop;HW;HXCH K He6y npOBOJIO'lHbIX nY'lKOB no
rpe6HIO Kp06llU.
MEHAXEPM}I.
ApXHTeKTypHO
O¢OPMJIeHHblH ;D;OM ;D;JIH nTHn;, 06bI'lHO
Ha 6epery BO;D;oeMa B napKe.
MEHA)l(EPHbIH <POHTAH. <POHTaH
C nOJIbIMH CTPYHMH 60JIbmOrO ;D;HaMeTPa, 6blO~MH 'lepe3 KOJIb~eBbIe npope3H.
MEH3A. HH}!{HAA 'laCTb aIImapR (2),
HMelOW;aH BH;D; CTOJIa, ropH30HTaJIbHOrO
mKa<l>'lHKa HJIH capKoqJa2a.
MEPEXKA. tPpU3 (2) 1'13 He60JIbmHX
KBa;D;paTHbIX Bna;D;HH, B <l>aCa;D;HOM
;D;eKope ceBepOKaBKa3CKoro }l{HJIHw;a.
MEPJIOHbl. 1 3y6n;bI KpenocmHou
CTeHbI. 2 Y'laCTKH 6pycm6epa Me}l{;JJ;y
60UHUl1aMU.
MECTHbIH IIJIETEHb. CTa~oHap­
Hbm ¢opTH<I>HKa~HoHHblH nJIeTeHb,
KOJIbH KOToporo 3arny6JIeHbI B rpyHT Ha
apmHH.
nO;D;06HbIe HM MaTepHaJIbI HeOpraHH'ieCKoro npoHCXO}l{;JJ;eHHH, C03;D;alO~e B
HaTYPe PHCYHOK Ca;D;OBbIX napmepo6 (1),
CO'leTaHCb C U130HHblMU TPaBaMH, ~e­
TaMH H IIH3KHMH cTPH}I{eHbIMH KycTapIIHKaMH.
MH3Y~. rJIaBHbIH: 3aJI B }IllOHCKOM
'laHHOM na6U11bOHe (1).
MHKCBOP,uEP. MHOroPSl;D;HaH (pe}l{e
rHe3;D;OBaH) nOCa;D;Ka ;D;eKOpaTHBHbIX pacTeHHH, nO;D;60p KOTOPbIX C03;D;aeT KapTHHY HenpepbIBHoro ~eTeHHH OT paHHeH BeCHbI ;D;O n03;D;HeH oceHH.
MMJIH EKATEPMHHHCKHE. EKamepuHuHcKue MUIIU.
MHJIOBM,u, MHJIOBM,uA. BHAOBaH
nJIOw;ap;Ka B BHAe 6eceoKu (1), paCC'lHTaHHoH Ha 0630p }l{HBOnHCHbIX naHOpaM.
MHMBAP
Mettemu.
(=MHH6ap).
Kapeopa
B
METAXPOMOTMIIM}I. ll.eKallbKOMaHUll.
METJIAXCKA}I IIJIMTKA. illTY'lHbIH
MaTepHaJI ;D;JIH HaCTHJIKH nOJIOB, HMe1Ow;HH BH;D; nJIHTOK H3 060}l{}l{eHHOH
npeccoBaHHoH rnHHbI, C oKpameHHbIM
BepXHHM CJIOeM.
METOIIbI. BJIH3KHe KBa;D;paTY aJIeMeHTbI oOpUtteCKo20 PPU3a, 'lepe;D;ylO~eCH C mpu2IIuPaMu.
MEXJIE. Mazall (1).
MEqETb. MycYJIbMaHCKHH xpaM.
MMHAPET. BblCOKaH Y3KaH 6aUtHR, C
BepmHHbI KOTOPOH npH3bIBaIOT MyCyJIbMaH Ha MOJIHTBY.
!
KJIaCCH~3Ma.
MEHEC. IIe'ib B 6amKHpcKoH U36e (1).
MEKJIEP. CIIHpaJIbHO 3arnYTbIH: BBepx
HH}I{HHH KOHen; JIeCTHH'lHOH memU6bl.
MEKTEB. MYCYJIbMaHCKaH peJIHrH03HaH mKOJIa.
MEJIKMH ,uOJI. ll.OIlUK.
MEPTBA}I rOJIOBA. )l(}l{eHaH oxpa.
MEJIbHMqHbIH PYKAB. illHpOKHH
TeCOBbIH }l{eJIo6, no KOTOPOMY nocTYnaeT BO;D;a Ha MeJIbIIH'lHOe KOJIeco.
MEPTBbIE MATEPHAJIbI. IIecoK
pa3HbIX ~BeTOB, aHTpa~T, TOJI'leHble
ttepenuu,a, CTeKJIO H MpaMop, a TaK}I{e
MMHBAP. MUM6ap.
-88-
MI1HEPAJIbHAA
)[(uBonucb Kei1Ma.
)l(HBOIII1Cb.
M
MIIIHTPOBASI APKA - MYTOBKA
MHHTPOBA5I
apKa.
APKA.
Mump06aJl
89
pHTMHqeCKH IIOBTOP5lIOTCH OgHH H Te )!(e
I'eOMeTpHqeCKHe <pOPMhI.
MOAYJIhOH. KpOllutmeUH B <popMe
3aBHTKa C aKallm06blM JIHCTOM, noggep)!(HBaIOIIl,HH KapllU3llYlO IIJ1l:!Ty.
MO)KAHKA. 3aJI gJUi npocToHapoghH
B pecTopaHe HJIH mpaKmupe.
M03AHKA (=MyCHH). H306pa)!(eHHe,
COCTaBJIeHHOe H3 MHO)!(eCTBa 3JIeMeHTOB, 6JIH3KHX gpyr gpyry rro pa3MepaM.
MJiIT3CAKH. MOIIl,Hhle KpOl-tutmdt1lbl
IIOg KpbluteU 60JIhlIIOrO BhlHOCa B HIIOHCKOH apxHTeKType.
MHXPAE. MOJJHTBeHHaH HHlIIa B Me'lemu, 06paIIl,eHHa51 B CTOPOHY MeKKH.
MOCTOBA5I.
AOpO)!(HOe rroKphlTHe H3 6YJlbiJICHbiX
KaMHeR, OKOJIOThIX cBepxy H C 60KOB,
qTO geJIaeT rrpOe3)!(yIO qaCTh 60JIee POBHOH H cTa6HJIhHoH.
MOKOCH. 5Ipyc B Buge OTKPhITOl!
laJlepeu (1) C HaBeCOM 60JIhlIIoro BhIHOca, 3aBeplIIaIOIIl,uH OCHOBHOH 06'beM
5IrrOHCKOH KYJIhTOBOH IIOCTpOHKH.
MOJI. BhITHHYToe IIO roPU30HTaJIU
coopy)!(eHUe, 3aIIl,HIIl,aIOIIl,ee aKBaTopuIO
OT CHJIhHhIX BHelIIHHX BOJIH U IIpuMhIKaIOIIl,ee OgHUM KOH~OM K 6epery.
lIIeCThIO oguHaKoBhIMU KOH~a­
MU, H3 KOTOPhIX BepxHuH AOrrOJIHeH
He6oJIhllOR rrOJIYKpyrnOIl: cKo6KOH,
OTqerO BCH <purypa IIpeACTaBJI5IeT C060H
COBMeIIl,eHHe 6YKB «X» H «P».
~eHTpa
MOHOCAA. Cag C 5IBHhIM rrpeo6JIagaHHeM paCTeHHIl: KaKOrO-JIH60 ogHoro
Buga, HarrpUMep, p03apuu (1), cHpeHrapUIl:, reoprnHapHIl:, upuoapuu.
MOHhE CBOAhl. OrrHpaIOIIl,HeCH Ha
6aJIKH rrapaJIJIeJIhHhle JlY'lK06bte )!(eJIe306eToHHhle C600UKU, rrpoHH3aHHhIe
BHyTpH CTep)!(H5IMH apMamypbl (2) rrog
rrpHMhIM yrJIOM.
MOPfA 33EM (=BeIIIKe3eM). KYXOHHaH JIaBKa, BgeJIaHHaH B CTeHY MOKIIIaHCKOH u36bl (1).
MOPTHPHA5I BATAPE5I. ApTHJIJIePHHCKaH 6amapeR (1), B 6pycm6epe
KOTOPOH HeT aM6pa3yp (1).
MOPTHPHhIH KECCEJIb. MopmupllaR 6amapeR.
MOCT. BepxHHe CeNU ABYX3Ta)!(HOIl:
u36bl (1), rrpHMhIKaIOIIl,He K KPhITOMY
iJ60py (2) KpeCTh5lHCKOH ycaob6bl.
MOCTOBHHK. raJlbl3b.
MOTbIJIbHhIH 3AXOA. 3axoo.
MPAMOPHA5I <l>AHEPA. TOHKHe
06JIH~OBOqHhle rrJIHTKH gJIH CTOJIHPHhIX
pa6oT, H3rOTOBJIeHHhle H3 CMeCH gpeBeCHhIX OrrHJIOK, 6YMa)!(HOH MaCChI H
CTOJIHpHOrO KJIeH, C rrOCJIegYIOIIl,eH
rrOJIHpOBKOR.
MHI..(YfYPA. Kypa.
MHIIIEHh. IIIHpoKaH MeTaJIJIHqeCKaH
lIIaH6a nog IIIJIjiIIKOH rno3gH HJIH
3aKJJerrKH.
MHOfOJIOIlACTHA5I APKA. ApKa (1), JIHI~eByIO IIOBepXHOCTh KOTOPOH
orpaHHqHBaIOT He MeHee Tpex IIepeceKaIOIIl,HXCH gyr IIpHMepHO ogHHaKoBOH
KpHBH3HhI.
MYJIAEH-fEBEJIbBE. COMKJlymbtU
C600, B BeplIIHHe KOToporo KPHBOJIHHeHHhIe rrOBepXHOCTH rrepexogHT B rrpHMoyrOJIhHYIO rrJIOIIl,agKy.
MHOfOOBJIOMHhIH. HMelOIIl,HH B
CeqeHHH MHO)!(eCTBO YCTYIIOB H H3rH6oB.
KPOBJI5I.
MHOfOIIIHIlI..(OBA5I
Kp06JlR, YJIO)!(eHHaH IIO CKaTaM U4unl{o6
B 3aBeplIIeHHH Bcex rpaHeH cTpOHTeJIhHoro 06'beMa.
MOrOJI yP ACA. Ypaca gJIH maBhI
CeMell:cTBa H rrpHeMa rOCTeM:.
MOAYJIh. 1 JIHHeHHhIH pa3Mep, IIpHHHThIH 30gqHM gml paCqeTa 3JIeMeHTOB
coopy)!(eHHji HJIH apxHTeKTypHoro KOMnJIeKCa H 06hlqHO cooTBeTcTBYIOIIl,HIl:
OgHOMY H3 TaKHX 3JIeMeHTOB. 2 qacTHhIH BapHaHT MOgYJIH (1), CBOIl:CTBeHHhIH opgepHhIM KOMII03H~HHM H paBHhlli
pagHycy CTBOJIa KOJlOllllbl B ero OCHOBaHHH.
MOAYJIhHhIH CAA. He6oJIhlIIOH
IIapK HJIH ero <pparMeHT, B IIJIaHHpOBOqHOH H 06'beMHOH CTPYKType KOTopoI'o
MYJIIDPhI. 06JlOMbt.
MYHCA. BaHH B 6alIIKHpCKOH ycaob6e.
MOJIEHHA5I. Kpecmo6aR.
MYHqA. BpeBeHqaTaH qYBaIIICKa51
6aHH, B03BegeHHaH B CTopone OT KpeCTh5lHCKOR ycaob6bl.
MOJIOqHOE CTEKJIO. AJle6acmpo60e CmeKJlO.
MYP ABJIEHhIH. IlOKphIThIH 3eJIenOH
lJla3ypblO.
MOHACThIPCKHH CBOA. COMKllYmblu C600 CpaCnaJly6KaMU (2) B OCHOBaHUU.
MYPABHOE MECTO. ra301l.
«MOHAX-MOHAIIIKA» (<<MoHax H
MOHaIIIKa»). Bug '1epenU'lHOU KP06JlU,
npu KOTOPOR rrOJIOBHHKU yceqeHHOrO
KOHyca rrorrepeMeHHo YJIO)!(eHhI B roPH30HTaJIhHhIX p5lgax TO BHH3 BhIrryKJJOCThIO, TO BBepx.
MOHOfPAMMHhIH KPECT. KpecT
C paBHoMepHo pacxog5lIIl,UMUC5I OT
-89-
MYPh5I. JIaqyra, 3eMJlRllKa.
MYC(UI. M03auKa.
MYCOPHA5I CMA3KA. 3arrOJIHeHUe
rrYCTOT B cTeHax U rrepeKphITUHX CTpOUTeJIhHhIM MYCOPOM (CM. 3aCbtnKa).
MYTOBKA.
IlpOCTeHlIIa51 BOgjiHMl
B KOTOPOH He6oJIhlIIOe
KOJIeCO H )!(epHOB 3aKpeIIJIeHhI Ha
06IIl,eM BepTHKaJIhHOM BaJIy.
MeJIhHH~a,
M
MYTynbl -
MSI
90
MYTYJIbI. KpYIIHble IIP5IMOyroJIbHble
IIJIHTKH, paBHOMepHO paCIIOJIO)KeHHble
IIO HH)KHeH IIOBepXHOCTH BbIHOCHOrO
3JIeMeHTa B oOpU'teCKOM KapHU3e.
MYIl>TA. MaCCHBHbIH ~eKOpaTHBHbIH
3JIeMeHT KpyrJIOH, KBa~paTHOH HJIH
MHoroyrOJIhHOH CPOPMhI, OXBaTbIBaIOIl.\HH CTBOJI KOJlOHHbt JIH60 nUJlRcmpbt.
MYIl>TI1POBAHHA5I (KOJlOHHa IUIH
nUJlRCmpa). I1MeIOIl.\a5i llIHpOKHe IIOIIepe'lHble BbICTYIIbI (06bI'IHO IIP5IMOyrOJIbHble), OXBaTbIBaIOIl.\He~tTBOJI.
MbI3A. 3aropo~HbIH OOM (2) co CJIy)Ke6HbIMH IIOcTpoHKaMH, COCTaBJI5IIOIl.\HMH o6oco6JIeHHbIH yca~e6HO-X035IH­
cTBeHHbIH KOMIIJIeKC; xapaKTepeH ~JI5I
I1pH6aJITHHCKHX TeppHTopHH.
MbIJIbHA5I (=xOJIO~Ha5I 6aH5I). TIoMeIl.\eHHe B 6aHe, IIpe~Ha3Ha'leHHOe ~JI5I
MbITb5I.
MbITA5I CTOPOHA. TIp5IMoyrOJIbHa5I
I1JIOCKa5i cTopoHa KpYIIHoro 6peBHa,
paCIIHJIeHHOrO B~OJIb I10IlOJIaM (CM.
IIJlacmuHa) .
MbITHI1l(A, MbITH5I. 3acmaBa (2),
.Ha KOTOPOH B3bIMaJIH MbIT - IIOlllJIHHY
3a IIPOB03 TOBapoB H I1pOrOH CKOTa.
M3rAPATI. TIorpe6 co CTOJI6oBbIM
KapKacoM, B 6alllKHpcKOH ycaob6e.
MIOrbIPETI. HepeII.
M5I. HeHeU;KHH 'tyM.
-90-
HAEATHblH: KOJIOKOJI. Bcno.!loUlHOU KO.!lOKO.!l.
HAEOP. IJepHbtU no.!l.
HAEOPHbIH HAJIMqHMK. Ha.!Iu'lHUK, Y KOTOpOrO BepTHKaJIH BAOJIh
rrpOeMa COCTaBJIeHhI H3 q,HryPHhIX 3JIeMeHTOB npHMepHO paBHOH BhlCOThI.
HAKATIlHA. H3.!1Y'lUHa.
HAKJIA,Il;H~ PE3bEA. Pe3HOe AepeBRHHOe YKpaIIIeHHe, He COCTaBJIRIO~ee C npHJIeralO~HM q,OHOM I\eJIhHOrO
KYCKa.
HAOKOillEqHMK. MaTepqaTOe noKPhIBaJIO Ha KaMeHHhIH nOAOKOHHHK.
HAIIJIABHMI cl>MJIEHKA. ClJU.!IeHKa (1), BCTaBJIeHHaSI oCTPoyrOJIhHhIM
KpaeM B nM Me~y CKJIeeHHhIX TIJIaCTOB
CTOJIRpHOH ABepH.
HAIIOJIbH~ IIEqb. BpeMeHHaSI
neqh, CJIO)l{eHHaSI B nOJIe AJISI o6CJI~­
BaHHR CeJIhX03pa6oT.
HAKJIEHHOH CTOJI. CTOJI, yKpaIIIeHHhIH UHmapcueu.
HAIIOJIbHbIE qACbl. KpYTIHhIe qaChI B BepTHKaJIhHOM q,YTJIRpe, YCTaHOBJIeHHhIe Ha nOJIY B UHmepbepe.
HA KOKC. B .!Iany.
HAKOCHOE PEEPO. BhICTynalO~ee
pe6po KP06.!1U npH nepece'leHHH ee CKaTOB.
HAEOPHbIH IIAPKET. iIapKem (1)
H3 He60JIhIIIHX KBaApaTHhIX ~TKOB (co
CTOPOHOH OKOJIO nOJIYMeTpa), COCTaBJIeHHhIX H3 60JIee MeJIKHX KBaApaToB,
KOTophIe qepeAYIOTcR B IIIaxMaTHOM
nopRAKe no HanpaBJIeHHIO KJlenOK.
HABECHbIE
Ky.!lU.
EOHHMUbl.
06paMJIeHHe
npoeMa
MaUlu-
HArEJIb. 1 Kpene}I{HhIH CTep)l{eHh,
npony~eHHhIH qepe3 OOCKU (1) HJIH
6pyCbR (1). 2 ,Il;epeBRHHhIH rB03Ah lfJIH
OOJIT.
HArPA,Il;HOH illIIYHT. 3aKpeTIJIeHHe TOHKHX AO~eqeK HJIH q,aHephI B
na3ax 6pycbe6 (1), COCTaBJIRIO~ KapKac napKemHozo U4uma.
HMBPATHA5I
KOJIOKOJIbH5I,
HA,Il;BPATHAA UEPKOBb. KYJIhTOBoe coopY)I{eHHe, B03BeAeHHoe HaA
npoe3AoM Ha orpIDKAeHHYIO TeppHTopHIO.
HA,Il;qEPEIIOK. OX.!IyneHb.
HAJIMqHMK.
HJIH HHIIIH.
HAJIOH. AHMou.
HAMA3JIbIK. KOBPHK, KYCOK BOHJIOKa, I\HHOBKa HJIH He60JIhIIIaSI IIIKypa
)l{HBOTHOro B )l{HJIOM GOMe (1) Ka6apAHHCKOH JIH60 'IepKeCCKoH ycaGb6bt,
nOACTHJIaBIIIHeCSI BO BpeMS! MOJIHTBhI.
HAIIbIDbHMK. 1 Bpyc (1) HaA
ycmbe.M 'lepHOU ne'lU, Ha KOTOPhIH KJIaJIHCh APoBa AJIR CYIIIKH. 2 KOJIna'lOK HaA
JIY'lHHOH B c6em/,fe, co6HpalO~HH Ha
ce6SI KonOTh.
HAMETMCT~ T5IrA. illTYKaTypHaR
mnl.a 60JIhIIIOrO ce'leHHR (HanpHMep,
Me~y KeCCOHaMu).
HAPO,Il;HbIH ,Il;OM. IIpocBeTHTeJIhCKHH KJIy6 AJISI IIIHpOKHX CJIOeB HaCeJIeHHR.
HAHOCOY,Il;EP)l(ATEJIb. H.!Ioyoep3ICame.!lb.
HAPTEKC. 3anaAHhIH npumeop
IIIHpHHY I\epKoBHoro 3AaHHR.
91
-91-
B
H
HAPbl>KHHKH -
92
HHWEnbHblA CSlOHTAH
HAPbDKHllKll (=OCTPHWKH, OCTpmKKH). CTyrreHqaThIe rpe6eWKH rro
pe6paM conOMeHHOM KP06AU B Ky6aHCKHX CTaHH~ax.
HAPbIIlIKllHCKllE <l>OPMbl. APXHTeKTypHhIe 3neMeHThI H rrpHeMhI,
xapaKTepHhIe }:InH T. H. «MOCKOBCKO1'0» HnH «HaphIWKHHCKoro 6apOKKO».
BKnIOqaIOT B ce6H CHMMeTpHIO Bcex
<.jJaCa}:lOB ~epKoBHoro 3}:1aHHH, npYCHble
KOMrr03H~HH C 60CbMepUKa.MU Ha "lem6epUKe, nerreCTKOBhIe rrnaHhI xpaMOB,
HOW 6pyca H CJIY)J(aUWH orropoH }:InR
rronoroH qaCTH "1'{)fUIl Bee OCHOBaHHH.
nnOTHoe pa3Me~eHHe BepTHKanbHbIX
6pi!6eH HJIH )Kep}:leH no }:lyre, COe}:lHHHIO~eM
CTeHKH H3 ropH30HTaJIhHhIX
6pycbe6 (1).
HEOPAMA.
IIaHopaMa, II306pa)KanocTpoHKH, BocrrpHHHMaeMbIM 3pHTeneM II3 ee ~eHTpaJIhHOrO
rrOMe~eHHH; H306peTeHa B 1827 r.
IO~aH uHmepbep
HAllAJIO CBO,Il,A. HmKHHH rroBepxHOCTh rrepBhIX KaMHeM C600a - HerroCpe}:lCTBeHHO Ha}:l ero OCHOBaHHeM.
HEIIOJIHbIM AHTAEJIEMEHT. AHma6AeMeHm, B KOTOPOM OTCYTcTByeT
HaJlU"lHUKU C pa30p6aH1tbl.M cjJpOHmo- HAmEJIbHllK. 1 PeMKa, 3aKphIBaHOM Ha}:l aHma6AeMeHmOM, KOAOHHbl C IO~aH CThIK Me)J(}:IY napannenhHhIMH
BHThIMH YKpaweHHHMH CTBona, <.jJHryp- oocKa.Mu (1) HnH 6pyCbJl.MU (1).2 Y3KHM
HhIe KpOHlumeUHbl B OCHOBaHHH COCTaB- u3pa3el1, 3aKphIBaIO~HH WOB KHprrHq-
HEIIP5IXA. PYCCKaH U36a (1), B KOTOPOM pacrrOnO)KeHHe rreqH CJIeBa OT BXO}:la
orrpe}:len5!eT rrJIaHHpoBKY , MewaIO~IO
rrpRcTb y OKRa.
HhIX
HanHqHHKOB,
BOChMHrpaHHhIe
OKRa, rrpOXO}:lhI co cpe3aHHhIMH BepxHHMH yrnaMH H T. }:I.
HAP5I,Il,. MaTepqaThIe 3neMef!ThI }:IJIH
rrpa3}:1HHqHOro y6paHcTBa }:IpeBHepycCKoro HHTephepa: 3aHaBeCH, nOAa60"lHUKU (2), HaOKOute"lHUKU,
KOBPhI,
rroKpoBhI, HaBonOKH, O}:leHna, rronorH,
cKaTepTH.
HOM Kna}:lKH Ha CThIKe rpaReM, 06nH~O­
BaHHhIX U3pa3l{aMu.
HEEO. 1 ,Il,epeBHHHoe rrepeKphITHe Ha}:l
py6neHhIM 6ocbMepU1w.'>t xpaMa, BHe-
apxumpa6.
HEPBIOPbl. CmpeJ1b"lamble apKu H3
TeCaRhIX KaMHeM, C03}:1aIOuwe KapKacHyIO OCHOBY Kpecm060w c600a.
HACA. MecTo }:IJIH 06~ecTBeHHhlx
co6paHHH B Ka6ap}:lHHCKOM HnH a}:lhIreHcKoM ceneHHHX.
HECOBEPIlIEHHbIM
HACA,Il,KA. 1 Spyc (1), coe}:lHHHIO~HM
BepwHHhI cmoeK. 2 3aMem (1).
HACE,Il,KA. rHe300 (4).
HACJIOHHbIE CTPOIIllJIA. CmponUAa C rrpOMe)KYTOqHhIMH onopHhIMH
CmOUKaMU, B03Be}:leHHhIMH Ha BHYTpeHHHX cTeHax, c600ax HnH rrOTOnOqHhIX
6anKax.
HACblIIHbIE OEOll. llMHTHpyIO~He
5!pKYIO 06HBOqHYIO TKaHh 6YMa)KHhle
060H, H3rOTOBneHHhle rrYTeM rrpHrropaWHBaHH5! I~BeTHoro CYKoHHoro rropowKa
Ha He3acoxwHM PHCYHOK (06hIqHO opHaMeHTaJIhHhIM) KneeM.
HATPYCKA. KOBW Ha)1; MeJIhHmHhIMH )KepHOBaMH, HarrpaBn5!IOUWH K HHM
3epHO.
HA YEEr. Apaobl.
HAYrOJIbHllK. IlIKa<.jJ C TpeyroJIhHhIM rrnaHOM, - }:InH YCTaHOBKH B yrny
KOMHaTh!.
HAYJIOK. IIorrepeqHaH ynH~a ceJIa.
HAXJIECTKA. HalwoHHhIM 6pyCOK (1),
Bpe3aHHbIH B HH)KHHH KOHe~ cmponUAb-
TPllrJIll <1>.
JJ.UlAUcjJ.
WHe HarrOMHHaIO~ee AomK06blu C600.
2 IIoTonoK nO}:l C6000M. 3 ,Il,epeBHHHoe
nepeKphITHe B utmOAbHe.
HE<I>. 3JIeMeHT rrpocTpaHcTBa 6a3UAuKU, BhITRHYTbIH B}:IOnh ee rnasHoH OCH H
OrpaHHqeHHhIH C O}:lHOH HnH }:IByx CTOPOH KOAOHHaMU nH60 cTon6aMH.
HEBECTA XPllCTOBA. UepKoBh.
HEPEII (=MIOrblperr). IIorpe6 B MaPlfHCKOH KpeCTbHHCKOM ycaob6e.
HEKPOIIOJIb. ApxHTeKTypHo-XY}:lO)KeCTBeHHO o<.jJopMneHHhIH KOMnneKC
rrorpe6eHHH C Ha)1;rp06H5!MH.
HllrE3 (=}:IHHre3). BHYTpeHH5!5! 3aBanHHKa B 6aWKHpCKOM cenbCKOM oOMe
HEMEUKA5I CllCTEMA. BUCR"lUe
cmponUAa C rrO}:lrrOpKaMH, nepneH}:IHKyJIRpHhIMH cmponUAbHOU HOle, H C
HaKnOHHhIMH cmpYHaMU.
Hll,Il,EPJIAH,Il,CKI1M CIIOCOE YKPEIIJIEHl15I.
<l>opTH<pHKa~OHHaH
CHCTeMa, }:InR KOTOPOH xapaKTepHhI
06wHpHble, XOTX H Herny6oKHe, pBbl C
BO}:lOM.
(1).
Hll3KllM IIAPTEP. IJapmep (2).
HEMEUKA5I YKJIA,Il,KA.
CHcTeMa
BhICTHnKH wH<.jJepHoH KP06AU rrapaJInenhHbIMil pH}:IaMil KBa)1;paTHbIx IIJIHTOK
rro 06peUlemUHaM, COCTaBmIIOIIJ;HM co
CBeCOM KpblUlU yroJI OKono 60°.
HEMEUKllM AC<I>AJIbT. LJepHhIH
JIaK }:IJI5! MaJIHPHhIX pa60T (B OCHOBe ero
- CMeCh ac<.jJaJIhTa H KaMeHHoyronhHoro
ry}:lpOHa).
HEMEUKllM TllII. CmoA606Ka.
HEMEUKllM YrOJI. KOHCTpyK~H
oKpyrneHHoro yrna B }:IepemlHHOM
coopY)KeHHH, }:ImI KOTOPOH xapaKTepHO
-92-
H1130BA5I EAJIKA. AcmpaxaHcKaR
6aAKa.
HllME.
CHMBOJI
60)KeCTBeHHocTH,
06hlqHO HMeIO~HH BH}:I 30nOToro }:IHCKa
3a ronoBoH CBRToro (rro 3arra}:lHOeBporreHcKoM Tpa}:lH~HH - BHJI TOHKoro 30noToro Konh~a Ha}:l ero ronoBoH).
Hll0MOH. BopoTa C II:ByMH cTaTYSlMH
60)KeCTB «<cTPa)KH BpaT») rrepe}:l XIIOHCKHM 6Y}:l}:lHMCKHM xpaMoM.
HI1IlIEJIbHbIM <l>OHTAH. <l>oHTaH,
YCTpoeHHhIM B mpeAbRJICHOU HHwe,
KOTOPYIO
<PJIaHKHPYIOT
rrapKoBble
rroca}:lKH.
H
HOAbSi -
93
HIOXPEn
HO,lJ;b5I. 3HMHHH OXOTHHqHH IIIaJIaIII.
tIOMEP. OT,qenhHaH KOMHaTa B 2OCmUHuu,e (1), c,qaBaeMaH nOCTOHnh~aM.
HOMO. ,lJ;epeBHHHaH KOHCOJlb (1) C
npope3HhIM opHaMeHToM, B 6ypSfTCKOH
apXlfTeKType.
HOPMAH,lJ;CKI-Hi. CBO,lJ;.
BeepHblu
C60iJ.
HOqnmKHbIM ,lJ;OM (= ,qOM HOqnera). ,lJ;OM, B KOTOPOM 6e,qHHKH 6e3 npHCTaHH~a MornH 3a HH3KYIO nnaTY nepeHOqeBaTh Ha Hapax; cy~ecTBoBaJlH
TaKHe ,qOMa B POCCHH C 1879 r.
HYEOXYH,lJ;E. IIIKona npH
HYMEP.
CUHawu.
HOMep.
HbIHny (=hIHny). 3arny6JleHHOe B
3eMJlIO 3CKHMOCCKoe )KHnH~e H3 nnaBHHKa (,qepeBo, BhI6poIIIeHHoe MopeM Ha
6eper), KHTOBhIX KOCTeH:, oepHa H KaM-
HeiL
HbIXAC. MecTo il:JlH o6~ecTBeHHhlx
c06paHHH: B oceTHHCKOM ceJlemm.
HbIXAIII. MeCTO il:JlH o6~ecTBeHHbIx
c06paHHH: B 6aJIKapCKOM HnH KapaqaeBCKOM CeJIeHHH.
HIOXPEIT. ITorpe6 B qYBaIIIcKoH KpeCThHHCKOH: ycaob6e.
-93-
OBAIIOJI. rOp6bl.flb.
OBE3b5IHA. Mai1.My.!l.
OBEJIMCK. BepnlKaJIhHhIH MOHYMeHT
B BHAe OqeHh Y3KOH rrHpaMHAhI (06hlqHO
qeThlpeXrpaHHOH) .
OBJIOMbI (=MYJIlOPhI).
apxHTeKTypHhIX npopu.!leu.
OBJIOH. fOpH30HTaJIhHhIH
CKaTa B MaHcapAHoH Kp06.!le.
3JIeMeHThI
OBPATHA5I APKA. ApKa (1, 3), Ayra
KOTOPOH
06palll,eHa
BhIIIYKJIOCThIO
rrepeJIOM
OBMA3KA. TOHKOCJIOHHOe rroKphITHe
KHprrHqHOH
K.!laOKU
rroBepxHocTH
H3BeCTKOBhlM HJIH IIeMeHTHhlM pacTBoPOM, CKB03h KOTopoe rrpocTyrraeT ee
PHCYHOK.
OI?MAHKA. 06pe3HaR cmamYR.
OBPATHA5I IIMPAMM.IJ:A. ll.!lOCKUU
OBO. IIHpaMHAa H3 KaMHeH H BeTOK, napyc.
coopy)!(eHHruI IIIaMaHHCTaMH 6JIH3 AOPOIIO.IJ:PE3KA.
BHA
rH, Ha ropHoM rrepeBaJIe, P5IAOM C OBP ATHA5I
noope3Ku, rrpH KOTOPOM 3arJIy6JIeHa
IIeJIe6HhIM HCTOqHHKOM H T. II.
HH)!(H5I5I qaCTh UJ6a.
OBOJIOHOK. rOp6btJlb.
OBP ATHbIM fYCEK. llpOpU.!lb B
OBOJIOHbE. Bblno.!l3060.
BHAe rrepeBepHYToro zycbKa.
OB2KOPHbIl1: P5I.IJ:. qacTh phIHKa, B
KOTOPOH ToprylOT roTOBOH BapeHOH H
rreqeHOH IIlUljeH Am! rrpocToHapoAhlL
OB30JIbHA5I .IJ:OCKA. !l.ocKa (1), Y
KOTOPOH Ka)!(AruI H3 ABYX Y3KHX rrpoAOJIhHhIX CTOPOH cOXpaHHJIa KOpy - 0630JI, HJIH 06JIHBHHY.
OBJIAM. 1 HarrycK BepxHHx 6eH/,~06
HaA HH)!(HHMH. 2 HaBHCalOlll,a51 B CTOPOHY rrpoTHBHHKa rrJIOlll,aAKa Ha AepeB5IHHOH KperrocTHoH CTeHe, HMelOlll,a51 B
rrOJIY 60eBYlO lll,eJIh AJl51 AeHcTBHH rrpoTHB OCa)!(AalOlll,HX B HerrocpeAcTBeHHoH
6JIH30CTH K YKperrJIeHHlO, KOTophle H33a 3TOro HeAocTyrrHhI 06CTpeJIY H3 6ouHU!<.
OBOqMHA. 1 He3aMOlll,eHHruI rrOJIoca
BAOJIh AoporH. 2 IIopyqeHh.
OBPA3HA5I. 1 lla.!lama (1) HJIH KOMHaTa co MHO)!(eCTBOM HKOH Ha CTeHax.
2 IIoMelll,eHHe (06hI'IHO MOHacThlpcKoe), B KOTOPOM rrHIIIyT HKOHhI.
OBPA3I.1,OBbIM IIPOEKT. IIpoeKT
3AaHH5I, rrpeAHa3HaqeHHhIH AJI5I MHoroKpaTHoro HCrrOJIh30BaHH5I H peKoMeHAoBaHHhIH IIeHTpaJIhHhIM rocYAapcTBeH'HhIM opraHoM apXJilTeKTypHo-CTPOHTeJIhHOrO KOHTPOJI5I.
OBJIEfqEHHbIM CBO.IJ:. KaMeHHhIll
C600, BHeIIIH5I5I I10BepXHocTh KOToporo
HMeeT yCTYIIhI, cOKpalll,alOlll,He Bec ero
K.!laOKU B BepxHHx qaCT5IX.
94
-94-
OBP ATHbIM KABJIyqOK. llpOpU.!lb
B BHAe rrepeBepHYToro Ka6.!lY'lKa.
o
06PE3HASI AOCKA - OKTOrOH
OBPE3HA5I
,ll;OCKA.
,ll;epeBmHruI
iJocKa (1), HMeIOm;ruI no BceH AJIHHe npSlMOyrOJIhHHK B nOnepe'lHOM ce'leHHH.
OBPE3HAA CTATYH (=06MaHKa,
TPOMDJIeH). cl>Hrypa C DJIOCKOCTHhIM
xmBODHCHhIM H306pIDKeHHeM BH)'TpH
CHJIY3THOto KOHTypa, - AJISI YCaAe6HhlX
H ABOpn;OBhIX napKOB, a TaIOKe UHmepbepOB B 60raThIX iJO.M.aX (1, 2) HJIH n;epKBax.
OBPEIIIETKA. YJIox<:eHHhle nonepeK
cmponUJl peHKH, iJOCKU (1), x<:epAH,
6pYCbR (1) HJIH MeTaJIJIH'IeCKHe nOJIOChI,
Ha KOTophle HaCTHJIaeTCSI KPOBJIR.
OBXO,ll;HOI1: TPABEPC. TpaBepc (1),
3aHHMaIOIIJ;HH OCTPoBHoe nOJIox<:eHUe
MeX<:AY oru6aIOIIJ;HMH ero C ABYX CTOPOH
pa3BeTBJIeHHSlMH TPaHweH HJIH XOAOB
CO06m;eHHSI.
OBIIIHBKA. 3aKpenJIeHHruI rB03.o;SIMH
060JIO'lKa, 3aIIJ;Hm;arom;ruI HJIH MacKHpyIOm;ruI OCHOBHOH CTpOHTeJIhHhIH MaTepHaJI B coopyx<:eHHH.
OBID;E)I{HTEJIbHbII1:
MOHACTbIPb. MOHawecKruI 06HTeJIh, Bce
'IJIeHhI KOTOPOH HaxO.o;SlTCSI Ha 06m;eM
MOHaCThlpcKOM AOBOJIhCTBHH.
OBbl,ll;EHHAH ~PKOBb. XPaM,
nocTpoeHHhIH 3a OAHH AeHh B 6JIarOAapHOCTh 3a no6e.o;y, a TaIOKe 3a npeAOTBpam;eHHe HJIH npeKpam;eHUe KaKOrO-JIH6o
6e.o;cTBHSI.
OBbIKROBEHHbIE
CTPOiIMJIA.
HmaJlbRHcKue cmponUJla.
OBHH. Coopyx<:eHUe AJISI npoCYWKH
CHonOB 3epHoBoro XJIe6a, JIhHa HJIH
KOHODJIH TenJIhIM B03.o;YXOM OT ne'lH HJIH
KOCTpa.
OBbI. HOHuKa.
OrHBAIOID;AA JIOTIATKA. BhICTYnaIOm;uH H3 KJlaiJKu yrJIOBOH YCTOH B
Bu.o;e CMhIKaIOm;OXCSI JlOnamOK Ha <i)JIaHrax COce.o;HOX rpaHeH C1pOHTeJIhHOrO
06'heMa.
OrHBHAH ,ll;OPOrA (=KPhITruI AOPOra, 6HH,o;IDK). AJlJleR, HaA KOTOPOH AepeBSlHHhrn peWeT'laThIH KapKac BhlrnyT H
3aKpeDJIeH Ha AepeBMIX, 'IT06hI C03.o;aTh
Bne'laTJIeHHe AJIHHHOrO CBo.o;a H3 BeTBeH
H JIHCTheB.
OrHHBA.
KOPOTKruI
BepTHKaJIhHruI
oocKa (1) C npOXOTJIHBhIM CHJIY3TOM,
CBHcaIOm;ruI
OT
KOHbKa Ca.M~OBOU
KPOBJIU Ha rJIaBHOM fjJacaoe KpeCTMIHCKOro oOMa (1).
OrHHID;E. OTKPhIThrn o'lar nocpe.o;H
ceBepoKaBKa3cKoro iJOMa (1) HJIH ero
o6m;eceMeHHoH KOMHaThI.
95
OrOJIOBOK. APXUBOJlbm, 06paMJISIIOm;uH B'he3}l; B TYHHem, HJIH x<:eJIe3HO.o;OpOX<:syIO 2aJ1epe1O (3).
OrPHBOK. rpuBa.
OrY30K.
CKB03HOii: U{une~ BBepxy
enaH'IU, oCBem;aIOm;uH '1epOaK (1).
O,ll;EBAIOID;AA CTEHA. HaKJIOHHruI
KaMeHHruI KJlaOKa (06hI'IHO C JIOMaHhIM
BepXHHM 06pe30M), npe.o;oxpaHSlIOm;ruI
OT 06pyweHHSI CKJIOHhI x<:eJIe3HOAopOX<:HOii: BhleMKH.
O,ll;E)I{,ll;A
(=o.o;eX{Aa
KpYTocTeH).
TIoKphITHe 3eMJl}lHhIX CKJIOHOB, 3aIIJ;Hm;aIOm;ee ox OT 06pyweHHSl H COCTO-
OKAHTOBAHHOE BPEBHO. qacTH'lHO OTecaHHoe 6peBHo, y KOTOPOro npO}l;OJIhHhIe DJIOCKHe nOJIOChI 'Iepe}l;YIOTcSI C yqacTKaMH npUPO):lHOH KpyrJIoii: nOBepXHOCTH.
OKJIA,ll;HOH BEHEU. HHX<:HHii: BeHe~
cpy6a, COCTaBJIeHHhIH H3 HaH60JIee TOJICThIX H KpenKHX 6peBeH, KOTophle
HMeIOT meaoa (1) ):\JISI cKpenJIeHHSl C
TOpn;OBhIMH WHnaMH B cmyJlbRX (1)
<pYH,o;aMeHTa.
OHYYH C3pr3T3. KOHOB}!3h SlK)'TCKoro WaMaHa.
OHIOJIAAX C3pr3. }lKYTCKruI KOHOBSl3b C Y30paMH.
OKOJIOTOK. 1 MeAHIJ;HHCKHH nyHKT
npH BOHCKOBOH 'IaCTH. 2 TIoApa3.o;eJIeHHe roPOACKOH nOJIHIJ;HH. 3 Y'IaCTOK
x<:eJIe3HOH AoporH C OTHOC}!IIJ;HMHCSI
K HeMY CJIyx<:6aMH. 4 ~IaCTh 2Opooa (2).
5 TIpnropoA.
gm;ee H3 oepHa, XBopocTa, DJIeTHB, nJlacmUH, x<:ep):leH, OOCOK (1), fjJawuH,
MeTaJIJIH'leCKoii: ceTKH' MeWKOB C 3eMJIeH H T . .o;.
O,ll;EOH. 3.o;aHHe ):IJI}! KOHn;epToB, TaHn;eB, 06m;ecTBeHHhIX pa3BJIe'leHHii:.
O,ll;)l{AK (=oAx<:eK). TIpHcTeHHhIH o'lar
Ha rJIHH06HTHOM nOJIY B ceBepOKaBKa3CKOM oOMe (1).
OKOJIbHbIH rOPO,ll;. qacTh ApeBHePYCCKOro 2Opooa (2), npHMhIKaBWruI K
ero YKpeDJIeHHoMY SIAPY.
OKOHqHHA. OKOHHhIH nepeDJIeT H3
Y3KHX nOJIOC (06hI'IHO x<:eJIe3HhIX),
BCTaBJIeHHhIX KOHn;aMH B AepeBmsyIO
paMY H CJIyx<:am;ux onopoH .o;JISI KYCO'lKOB
O,ll;HOKOJIOK. TIpocTeHillaSi pyccKaSi
U36a (1) B 'IeThIpe CTeHhI.
O,ll;HOTIO,ll;KOCHAH
CHCTEMA.
KOHCTPYKIJ;HSI ):IepeBmHhIX MOCTOB, npH
KOTOpoii: cepe):lHHy KaX{AOrO npo20Ha
HJIH nepeBoiJuHbt (1) nO):l):lepX<HBaIOT ):IBa
nooKoca, Bpy6JIeHHhle O.o;HH B .o;pyroii:.
O,ll;HOPE3KA. IIJlacmuHa.
CJIIO):IhI, KOTophle 3aKpeDJIeHhI 3aMa3KOH H OJIOBmHhIMH 6J1}1IIIKaMH pa3HoH
<pOPMhI (<<):IekeX<:KH», «peneuKu», «op-
O,ll;HOCKATHOE OKRO. BbmycKHOe OKHO C npBMoyrOJIhHOH JIHIJ;eBQH
nOBepxHocThIO.
JlUKU»).
O,ll;PHHA. CnaJIhHB B .o;peBHepyccKoM
OKOH'IUHbt, 06HTruI BOMOKOM H cYK-
oOMe (1, 2).
HOM.
O,ll;Y. O'lar B aJITaHCKOH KOHH'IeCKOH
okOC}lqKA. ,ll;epeBmHOe 06paMJIeHUe npoeMa no BceMY nepHMeTPY.
OKOHqHHHbIH
IOpme.
.'
O)I{AK. 1 CBeToBoe oTBepcTHe B
nOTOJIKe 6aJIKapCKOro X<:HJIHm;a, O.o;HOBpeMeHHo CJIYX<:HBwee .o;JISI BhIXo.o;a
):IhIMa OT O'lara, KOTOPhIH TODHJICSI no'IepHoMY (6e3 TPy6hI Hapyx<:y). 2 TIe'lHrul TPy6a HoraHcKoro OOMa (1).
O)l{HBA. ,ll;HaroHaJIhHaSi apKa (1) roTH'IeCKOrO KpecmoBo20 cBooa.
03A,ll;OK. 3HMHSISI U36a (1) C ceHRMU,
npHMhIKaIOm;ruI K ):IByx'hSIpyCHOMy OBOPY
(2) B COCTaBe oOMa-oBopa HJIH ):IOMa 6py-
COM.
-95-
.
CTAHOK.
PaMa
OKTorOH
(=oKTaroH).
BOChMHyrOJIhHhIH 06'heM C paBHhIMH rpaHBMH.
o
onSOK - OTCTynKA
OJIEOK. IIJIOCKa5I rro~yIIIKa Ha Cll~eHhe
riOqeTHhlX rOCTeH B 6YP5ITCKOH
roptne H ~JI5I 6y~~HHCKHX MOHaXOB
(JIaM).
~JI5I
OJIllBHbIE
JIllCTb5I.
PHMCKHH
BapHaHT aT<GHtna, - co cKpyrJIeHHhlMH
KOHu;aMH JIHCTheB.
OJIOBEHHllKll. EaJlRCUHbl B cpOpMe
KyBIIIIIHtIHKa.
OJIO 5IK.
3C1(3 3U.
OJIbIMEAJI. JIaBKa B~OJIh 60KOBOH H
rrepe~HeH CTeH B MapHHCKOH U36e (1).
OIIACAHllE (=orracaHh). OTKphlTa5I
zaJlepeR (1) Ha cToJI6ax, om6alOID;a5I
u;epKoBh, KOJlOKOJlbHro MH xaTY (B IOro3arra~HhlX roBopax).
OIIEP AIJ,llOHHbIM 3AJI. CaMoe
KpyrrHoe rroMeID;eHHe B 6aHKe (2) HJIH
HHOM yqpe)K)l;eHHH, rrpe~Ha3HaqeHHOe
~ml ocpopMJIeHH5I ~eHe)KHhIX ~oKyMeH­
TOB, ToproBhlx HJIH cpHHaHcoBhIX c~e­
JIOK.
OIIEqEK. KaMeHHoe HJIH ~epeB}lHHOe
OCHOBaHHe rreqH.
OIIPOKllHYTA5I APKA. ApKa (1, 3),
Y KOTOPOH aaMK66blU KaMeHb HH)Ke
nRtn; 06hlqHO BhlKJIa~hIBaeTC}I B HH)KHeH qaCTH CTeH KaK paazpyaOltHaR.
OIIPOMETHA5I CKAMb5I (=rrepeMeTHa5I CKaMh5I). CKaMh5I C nepeMetnOM.
OIIPOillA. AnpoUl.
OIIYCKHbIE KOJIO,UIJ,bI. IIycToTeJIhle nUJlOHbl cpy~aMeHTa, 3arrOJIH5IeMhle aa6ytn06KOU rro Mepe rrOCTerreHHoro 3arJIy6JIeHH5I B rpyHT H 06hlqHO
COe~HH5IeMhle apKaMU (1) B BepxHeH
qaCTH.
OIIYIIIKA. ,UepeB5IHHhIH nooaop (1) Ha
JIaBKe B KpeCTh5IHCKOM HJIH ~peBHepyc­
KOM )J{HJIHID;e.
OP AH)KEPE5I. IIOcTpoHKa co CrrJIOIIIHhIM 3aCTeKJIeHHeM CTeH H rrOTOJIKa,
npe~Ha3HaqeHHa}l
~JI}I
BhlpaID;HBaHml
pacTeHHH, KOTOPhIM rrpIfpo~Hhle yCJIOBIf51 ~aHHoH MeCTHOCTH He6JIarOrrpH-
96
5ITHhI H3-3a HIf3KHX TeMrrepaTYP B03~yxa
If rpYHTa, a TaK)J{e He~OCTaTOqHOrO
oCBeID;eHH5I.
OprAH. 'uYXOBOH MY3hIKaJIhHhlH HHCTpYMefIT, COCT05IID;HH H3 MHQ)KeCTBa
~epeBSlHHhIX HJIH OJIOB5IHHhlX Tpy6, B
KOTophle rrocTyrraeT B03)l;yX qepe3
rrO~)l;yBaJIhHhle
MeXH, yrrpaBJI5IeMhle
rre~aJI}lMH rro~ HeCKOJIhKHMH KJIaBHaTYpaMH.
oprAHHA5I KPEIIb. 3aID;IfTa OT
06pYIIIeHHSI B rrO~3eMHhlX KopH~opax
py~HHKOB If IIIaXT, OCHOBY KOTOPOH
06pa3ylOT CtnOUKU, rrOMeID;eHHhle rrOqTH
6e3 rrpOCBeTOB B O~HH, ~Ba HJIH TPH
p5I~a.
OP,UEP. CHCTeMa orrpe~eJIeHHhIX apXHTeKTypHhIX cpOpM B CTporoH nporropU;HOHaJIhHOH B3aHMOCB5I3H, rrOBhlIIIalOID;aSl Bhlpa3HTeJIhHOCTh KOHCTPYKII.HH
HJIH ee HMHTaU;HH.
OCJIOH. CrrHHKa CTYJIa.
OCHOBA. IIpO~OJIhHhle HHTH B TKaHH,
H3rOTOBJIeHHOH Ha TKaU;KOM CTaHKe.
OCOEH5IK. KOMcpopm6eJIhHhIM OOM
(1) ropO~CKOro Tlirra C HH~HBH~yaJIhHhIM
06JIRKOM, rrpe~Ha3HaqeHHhIM ~JI5I rrpo)KHBaHH5I B HeM O~HOH ceMhR.
OCTO)KbE. Orpa~a BOKpyr CTora.
OCTPllIIIKll. HapblJlCHUKU.
OCTPOB. 06oc06JIeHHhIH yqaCTOK
rrapKa, rrpe~Ha3HaqeHHhIM ~JISI ye~RHeH­
HhIX pa3MhIIIIJIeHHH.
OCTPOr. 1 ,UpeBHepyccKoe ~epeB5IH­
Hoe YKperrJIeHHe. 2 TlOphMa, OKpY)KeHHa5I CTeHoH.
OCTPO)KKll. HapbIJICHUKU.
OTAB.
1 Hepa360pHaSl
HoraMCKa}l
C 3aKpyrJIeHHhIM BepxoM.
2 HoraHCKa5I cBa~e6Ha5I IOptna.
Ku6utnKa
OP,UllHAP. COJlutnep.
OP,UllHAPKA. qeThlpexcTeHHa}l U36a
(1) CCeIDIMH, rrepeKphITaSl Ha ~Ba CKaTa.
OP,I1;OHAHCrAY3. 3~aHHe
yrrpaBJIeHHSI.
OCJIE,Ub (=OCJISI~h). CAeza.
OTKll,UHOE KPbIJIbIJ,O. KPhIJIhU;O
rrepe~ BHeIIIHeH JIeCTHHu;eH, He rrpHMhI-
KOMeH-
~aHTcKoro
OPEqE. BOHJIOK, 3aKphIBalOID;HH BepxHee oTBepcTHe TYBHHCKOH roptnbl.
OPllJIbOH (=YIIIKO). 3aKpymeHHhIH
BhlcTyrr, y)l;JIHHSlIOID;HM pac 6aCtnUOHa "II
rr03BOJI5IIOID;HM BeCTH CTpeJIh6y B~OJIh
ero pJlaHKa.
OPJIllK. cPIfrypHa5I IIIaM6a, 3aKphIBalOID;a5I rrepeCeqeHHe HJIIi CThlK rrOJIOC Ha
)KeJIe3HOM ~BepH IiJIH OKOH'IUfle.
OPOH. 1 HaphI B~OJIh CTeH }lKYTCKOM
IOptnbl. 2 HeBhICOKa5I ~epeBSlHHaSl KpOBaTh B 6yp5ITCKO~ IOptne.
OPTA-EArAHA. IIoqeTHoe MeCTO y
cpe~HHHoro cToJI6a (CM. CmoJl6 KOpHR)
B aBapCKOM oOMe (1).
OPYH,UYK. KpoBaTh maBhI ceMhR B
KapaqaeBCKOM )KRJIRID;e, HMelOID;a5I B~
~IiBaHa
co crrRHKaMR o~HHaKoBoM
BhlCOThI no TpeM cTopoHaM.
OPYC qAJI,UbIIII (=PYCCKRM yroJI).
Cpy6 H3 6pycbe6 (1) 6e3 BhlcTynalOID;Hx
KOHU;0B, pacnpocTpaHHBIIIHHC5I B Hapo~­
HOM KapaqaeBCKOM CTpOHTeJIhCTBe rro~
BJIH}lHHeM PYCCKOM py6KH CTeH 6 Jlany.
OPbIH,UbIK. IIOKphITa5I KOIIIMOM rJIHHo6HTHa5I Jle)KaHKa B HoraMCKOM OOMe.
OCA,UHbIE ,UOMA. ,UOMa BHyTpH
KperrOCTHOM orpa~hI, B KOTOPhlX )KHByT
TOJIhKO BO BpeM5I oca~hI ropo~a.
OCA,UHbIM KOJIOKOJI. BCnOJlOUlHOU KOAOKOA.
-96-
OTKPbITA5I AMEPA3YPA. IIpe~­
Ha3HaqeHHOe ~JISI CTpeJIh6hI rrOHH)KeHRe
B KperrocTHoH orpa~e HJIH 6pYCtn6epe,
He HMelOID;ee cBepxy rrepeMhlqKH.
OTJIllB. KpYTa5I HaKJIOHHa5I rrJIOCKOCTh
rroA OKOHHhIM rrpoeMoM, 06paID;eHHa5I
BHyTph rroMeID;eHRSI.
OTJIllBHA5I ,UOCKA. JJ.ocKa (1),
3aKphIBalOID;aSl BepxHRH 06pe3 KliprrHqHoro IiJIH KaMeHHoro UPKOAR B OCHOBaHHH ~epeB5IHHhlX CTeH H Bpe3aHHa5I
KpaeM B HH)KHHM 6eHeu,.
'OTOY. IIoMeID;eHHe ~JI5I )KeHaTOro
ChIHa, npHcTpoeHHoe K O):lHOKOMHaTHOMY KapaqaeBcKoMY )KHJIHID;y.
OTPE3HOM
EACTllOH.
rrepe~ KyptnUHOU
EactnuoH
(3).
OTCTYIIKA. CTeHKa B 'Ietn6eptnb
KUpnU'Ia, B03Be):leHHa5I rrepe):l ~epeB}lH­
HOM cTeHoM HanpoTIiB neqH.
o
OTTOMAHKA -
97
OWAK
OTIOMAHKA.
IIhIPOKIIJ'i M51rKHM
}:IHBaH C rrO}:lYiliKaMH, He HMelOrn;HM
crrHHKH.
OXAEEHb. 1 IIpe}:lMecThe wpooa (2),
OT}:IeJIeHHOe OT Hero KpenocmHo/1 CTeHOM. 2 BHeiliHee KOJIh~O YKperrJIeHHM
}:IpeBHepyccKoro wpooa (2).
OXllYIIEHb (=Ha}:l'IeperrOK, IIIeJIOM,
IIIOJIOM). OrrpoKHHYThIM }:IepeB5IHHhIM
)KeJIo6, 3aKphIBalOrn;HM CThIK TeCHH rro
rpe6HlO ICP08IlU.
OXOK. KaMeJIeK (t.tY8all) B 5IKYTCKOM
IOpme, 3aBepIIIeHHhIM Tpy60M H3 TOHKHX
)Kep}:leM C rJIHH5IHOM 06MaJICou.
OXOTHbII1 P5I)J;. JIaBKH, B KOTOPhIX
rrpO}:lalOT )KHBYIO H 6HTYlO rrTH~Y,
}:IHKYIO H }:IOMaIIIHIOIO.
OIJ;AII, OIJ;EII, OqAII. Ot.ten.
OqAIIHbU1:
ICOIlOICOIl.
KOJIOKOJI.
Ot.tenHou
OQEJIOK (=oqeJI). lliecmoIC.
OQEJIbE. 1 Iauneu, cpy6a. 2 BepXH5I5I
}:IeKOpaTHBHa5I qaCTh }:IpeBHepyccKoro
HJIH }:IepeB5IHHOrO Hallut.tHUICa. 3 CTeHKa
Ha}:l ycmbeM PyccICou net.tu.
OQEII (=o~arr, o~err, oqarr). IllecT HJIH
)Kep}:lh, rrpHBO}:lHBiliHe B }:IBH)KeHHe cKperrJIeHHhle C HHMH KOJIOKOJI Ha J80HHuu,e,
KOJIhI6eJIh (JIIOJIhKY) B KpeCTh5IHCKOM
}:lOMe, Be}:lpo rrpH IColloou,e (1) C JlCypa8lleM.
OQEIIHOI1 KOJIOKOJI (=BaJIOBOM
KOJIOKOJI, o~errHoH KOJIOKOJI, OqarrHhIM
KOJIOKOJI). KOJIOKOJI, 3aKperrJIeHHhIH Ha
rroBopoTHOM BaJIY H rrpHBO}:lHMhIH B }:IBH)KeHHe C rrOMOrn;hlO ot.tena.
OIllAK. )KeJIe3HhIM TpeHO)KHHK Ha}:l
OqarOM B ~eHTpe HoraMcKoM IOpmbl.
-97-
IlABMJIbOH.
1 He60JIbIIIaH napKoBaH
pe3Ko BbIrHYTbIMH Y,QJIHHeHHbIMH KOH-
rpa}I{,QaHCKaH
nocTpoHKa
KVynHbIMH
QaMH KpOBe.!lb.
OHO 3aHHMaeT rJIaBHOe MeCTO.
C
3aCTeKJIeH-
IlArPEH
(=Ke6per).
Ilorpe6
B
ycaob6e KOMH-3bIpHH.
IlAJIMCA,ll;.
nOCTpOH:Ka,
1
B
KOTOPOH
(=IIOJIHCa):\) 3arpa}I{.Qe-
HHe H3 3aocTPeHHbIX cBepxy TOJICTbIX
IlA,ll;YrA (=na,Q,Qyra, nO):l):lyra).
Co-
npH)KeHHe Me}I{,Qy cTeHoH H ropH30H-
6peBeH ):IJIHHOH ,QO TPex MeTpoB, BpbITbIX B 3eMJIIO npHMepHO Ha TpeTb .QJIHHbI
TaJIbHOH 'IaCTbIO nepeKpbITHH, 06bI'IHO
HMeIOIQee B Ce'leHHH 'IeTBepTb OKPY)KHOCTH (CM. 3epKQ./lbHblU CBOO).
IlAET. HaBec B ycaob6e cepra'lcKHX
HbIMH npOeMaMH.
2
qacTb KpYIIHoro
OBOPl{OB020 3):1aHHH, 3aBepIIIeHHaH 060-
TaTap-MHIIIapeH, nO):l KOTOPbIM xpaHHTCH MeJIKHH CeJIbCKOX03HHcTBeHHbIH
HHBeHTapb
H C6pYH,
a
TaK)Ke CTOHT
BO):lOIIOHHbIe KOJIO):lbI.
IlA)I(EBbIE ,ll;OCKM. j{OCKU
(1)
C IIa-
3aMH no ,QJIHHHbIM Y3KHM cTopoHaM, ):IJIH IIJIOTHOH npHroHKH ,Qpyr K ,Qpyry.
IlA)KMJIMHA. IlpH)KHMHOH 6pyc
YJIO)KeHHbIH
no
KpaIO
HaCTHJIKY H3 OOCOK
C06JIeHHOH KpOB.!leu.
COCTaBAAIOIQHX
3 O):lHO H3
KOM-
nJIeKC.
IlArO,ll;A. EY):l,QRHCKOe MeMOpHaJIhHOe
(1),
Ha
(1), n.!laCmUH
HJIH
)Kep):leH.
3):1aHHH,
BbICTaBO'lHbIH
coopY)KeHHe B BH):Ie 6aulHu
(1),
MOCTa
06b1'1HO
MHOroHpYCHOH, HJIH naBU.!lbOHa
(1),
C
IlA3YllIHbII1: CBO,ll;. IIo.!lyl{upKy.!lb-
HblU CBOO C paCnQ./ly6KaMU (2).
(O,QHO BIIJIOTHYIO K ):IPyroMY) H CnJIO'leH-
IlAMCHA5I OKOHqMHA. OKOHHbIH
IIepeIIJIeT C pbI6bHM rry3bIpeM BMeCTO
CJIIO,QbI HJIH CTeKJIa.
HbIX
2
IIOnepe'lHbIMH
6pYCbRMU
(1).
qacTOKOJI H3 6peBeH, 3aIQHIQaIO~
3eMJIHHOH CKJIOH OT 01l0JI3HeH H OCbIIIa-
3 Tpe.!lbR:JICHllR H3ropo,Qb 110 KpaIO
60cKema (1). 4 JIerKHH CKB03HOH 3a60p (1) H3 peeK.
HR».
IlAKrAY3. CKJIa,Q TOBapoB HJIH 3aIIaCOB (06bI'IHO IIpH )KeJIe3HO,QopO)KHOH
CTaHlJ,HH JIH60 TaMQ)KHe).
IlAJIMCA,ll;HMK.
IlAJIAC. ,ll;BYCTOPOHHHH rpy60TKaHbIH
,QHK nepe):l OOMOM
OrOpO)KeHHbIH ca-
(1, 2).
KOBep 6e3 Bopca.
IlAJIATA.
1
IIAJIJIA,ll;MEBO
KpYIIHoe
cBoo'tamoe
OKRO.
Hma.!lbRH-
CKoe OKHO.
IIOMeIQeHHe (06bI'IHO 6eCCTOJIIIHOe HJIH
C O,QHHM CTOJIIIOM B QeHTpe) B ,QpeBHePYCCKOH KaMeHHoH IIOcTpoHKe.
HHe,
B
KOTOPOM
TaKoe
2
3):1a-
IIOMeIQeHHe
HrpaeT rJIaBHYIO POJIb.
IlAJIATKA. He60JIbIIIOe 6eCCTOJIIIHOe
nOMeIQeHHe, IIepeKpbIToe CBOOOM, HJIH
98
-98-
IIAJIJIA,ll;MEBbI CTPOIlMJIA. BHCH'1He cmponU.!la,
BKJIIO'IaIOIQHe B ce6H
):IBe CmpOnU.!lbHble H02U H ):IBe 6a6Ku,
n
nAnTYXIII - nHAT
99
KOTOPhIMH COe~HIDIIOTCli KOHIIhI IIpOMe)l{YTO'IHOrO PU2eIlR H HH)l{Hllll COCTaBHall aamRJICKa (1), IIpHMeIDIJIHCh HTaJIhllHCKHM apxHTeKTopoM A~pea lIaJIJIa~HO (1508-1580 rr.).
lIAJITYXM. )l(ep~H ~JISI cymKH PhI6hI.
lIAJIYEA. Kp08I1R.
lIAJIhMETIA. ,D;eKopaTHBHhIH MOTHB
B BH~e MHOrOJIOllaCTHoro lIaJIhMOBOro
JIHCTa.
lIAPI10PT. HKe 3U1I3.
lIAPKET (=lIapKe, mTy'IHhIH 1I0JI).
1 lIoJI, BhICTJIaHHhIH He60JIhmHMH
~OIIIe'IKaMH HJIH nJIOTHO no~ornaHHhIMH
qmrypHhIMH KycO'IKaMH ~epeBa pa3Hhlx
nopo~. 2 KphIToe orpa)l{~eHHOe npocTpaHcTBo, B KOTOPOM cO~ep)l{aT KPOJIHKOB.
lIAPKETHhII1 IIIMT. !4umo8ou napKem.
ypOBH5I 3eMJIll (= Hll3KllH napTep) llJIH
Ha HeCKOJIhKO cTyneHeH Bhlme (=BhICOKllH napTep).
lIAPTEP-EPO,D;PM. Epoopu.
lIAPTMKYJI5IPHOE
qacTHOBJIa~eJIh'IeCKa5I
CTPOEHME.
nocTpoHKa.
lIAPYC
(=naH~aTllB,
neH~eHTllB).
KOHCTPYKTllBHhIH 3JIeMeHT B Bll~e cq,epll'IeCKoro TPeyrOJIhHllKa, 06paIIIeH-
lIAPHAC. HaChIITHOH XOJIM B yca~e6HOM napKe.
lIAH,D;ATIlB. IIapyc.
lIAH,D;YC. lIoJIorHH HCKyccTBeHHhIH
nO~'beM 6e3 cTyneHeH, - ~JIli nemHX
HJIH nOB030K.
lIAHEJIh. 1 ,D;eKopaTHBHoe nOKphITHe
HH)I{HeH 'IaCTH CTeH B uHmepbepe, HMe-
lIAPHhIE MOJIhI. JKeme.
lIAPOB03HOE 3,D;AHME. )l(eJIe3HO-
~OpO)l{HOe oeno ~JIS! CT05IHKH MapmpyTHhIX H MaHeBpoBhIX JIOKOMOTHBOB Ha
BpeM5I OT~hIxa napoB03HOH 6pHra~hI.
lIAPOM. lIJIaByqee coopY)l{eHlle ~JI5I
nepeB03Kll naCCa)l{llpOB, rpY30B, a
TaK)l{e
cyxonYTHhlx
TpaHcnopTHhIX
cpe~cTB C O~Horo 6epera peKll llJIll
Bo~oeMa Ha ~pyroH.
Horo oCTplleM BHIl3, a ~yroH B ropll30HTaJIhHOH llJIOCKOCTll KBepxy, IIpH
nepexo~e OT 'IeThlpexrpaHHoro 06'beMa
K IIHJIllH~pH'IeCKoMy.
lIAPYCHhII1 CBO,D;. lIepeKphITlle B
cq,ephI, yce'IeHHOH C 60KOB nJIOCKOCT5IMII CTeH.
Bll~e
IOIIIee Bll~ pocnllcH JIH60 06JIlll\OBKll H3
~epeBa, nJIaCTHKa II T. II. 2 TpoTyap.
lIAHMKA,D;MJIO. KpynHa5I l\epKOBHa5I
JIIOCTpa co MHO)l{eCTBOM CBe'IeH (CM.
IIolluKaHoullo. Xopoc).
lIAHHO.
06paMJIeHHa5I
pocnllCh,
peJIheq, llJIll KapTllHa, npe~Ha3Ha'IeH­
Hhle ~JI5I YKpameHHll CTeHhI, 1I0TOJIKa
llJIH c8oot.tamozo nepeKphITll5I B Te'IeHlle npO~OJI)I{llTeJIhHOrO BpeMeHll.
lIACCA)I(. 1 3~aHlle (B 2 3Ta)l{a II
Bhlme) C Mara311HaMll 110 06ellM CTOpOHaM IIpoxo~a no~ 3aCTeKJIeHHhIM 1I0TOJI-
IIAHCMOH. 1 3aKphIToe cpe~Hee
Y'Ie6HOe 3aBe~eHlle C 06IIIe)l{IlTlleM.
2 He60JIhma5I zocmuHu/,fa (1), nOCTOSlJIhIIaM
KOTOPOH
npe~OCTaBJI5IeTC5I
peryJI5IpHOe nllTaHlle.
lIAlIEPTh (=BHemHHH npHTBop). IIIllpOKoe OTKphIToe KPhIJIhl\O HJIll 2allepeR
(1) nepe~ BXO~OM B IIepKoBh.
lIAP A,D;OC. YKphITlle npOTllB ThIJIhHOro 06CTpeJIa.
lIAPAEKKJIECM5I. IIpecmoll B ObRKOHHUKe.
lIAPTA. TpH~l\aTa5I 'IaCTh MOOYIIR (2),
llCnOJIh3yeMa5I ~JIli nocTpOeHIl5I MeJIKllX
3JIeMeHTOB ~eKopa.
lIAPTEP. 1 OTKphIThIH Y'IaCTOK pezyIIRpHOZO napKa, BKJIIO'IaIOIIIllH B ce65I
waOHbl, IIBeTHllKll H Hll3KllH ~eKopaTllB-
lIAPAlIET.
HeBhICOKa5I
orpa~a­
IOIIIa5I CTeHKa no KpaIO KPbIUlU, 6a/1-
KOM. 2 KphITa5I wllepeR (1) ~JI5I lIemexoYJIlll\hI.
~OB, COe~IlH5IIOIIIa5I
IIAChIHOK. YKocuHa.
lIAChKhIT 3YC. HaphI ~JI5I CHa B
y~MYPTCKOH ua6e
(1).
lIATMO. He60JIhmOH 3aMKHYThIH ca~,
orpaHll'IeHHhIH
BhICOKllMll CTeHaMll
oOMa (1, 2) II ero Orpa~hI.
ITAq. PyccKaJl net.tb B KpeCTh5IHCKOM
)l{IlJIllIIIe KOMIl-3hIP5IH.
KOHa
lIEBrOBhII1. COCHOBhIH.
(1), meppacbl (1), KphIJIhIIa, JIeCT-
HHIIhI, Ha6epe)l{HOH, MOCTa,
06phIBOM. 2 Epycm8ep.
~oporll Ha~
HhIH KycTapHllK no KpaIO. 2 HH)l{HllH
3T~ oOMa (1), Ha'IllHaIOIIIllHC5I OT
-99-
ITErAT. MeCTO ~JI5I o6IIIecTBeHHhIX
C06paHllH B 'Ie'IeHCKOM CeJIeHllll.
n
nEA3A>KHblA nAPK - nnAcPOH
IIEM3A)KHhIM ITAPK (=aHrJIHHCKHH
napK). ITapK co CBo6o;U;HOH llJIaHHpOBKOH H TaKOH }Ke KOMnOHOBKOH Haca}K}l;eHHH, B no;u;pa}!{aHHe npHpO;u;e.
ITEKJIEBAHHhIM 5.lm;HK (=CHTHbIH
RI.QHK, Kopen;, KOpSlK). JIapb Ha MeJIbHHn;e, B KOTOPbIH nocrynaeT MYKa OT }KepHOBOB.
IIEJIEAA. 1 HaBec KpOe/lU Me}K}l;Y
;U;BYMSI cOCe;U;HHMH u36aMU (1).2 ITOKPbITHe Ha;u; CKHP;U;aMH XJIe6a.
ITEH,IJ;EHTIffi. IIapyc.
ITEHTAfPAMMA.
lliTHKOHe'lHaSI
3Be3;u;a, 06pa30BaHHaSI H3JIOMaMH nepellJIeTeHHOH 3aMKHYTOH JIeHTbI.
ITEPfOJIA. ITapKoBoe coopY}KeHHe B
BH;u;e 6eceoKu (1) HJIH KopH;u;opa co
CKB03HbIM KapKacoM,
YBHTbIM 3e·
JIeHbIO.
100
BepIIIKa, KOTopble Y;U;aJIeHbI O,!lHH OT
ITEili. JIaZYHa.
,!IPyroro Ha nOJI-apIIIHHa, a 3arJIy6JIeHbI
B 3eMJIIO Ha 'leTBepTb apIIIHHa.
ITEPT. Cpy6HaSI MapHHCKaSI U36a (1) C
IIEPEITOJIOIIIHhIM
Bcno/loumou KO/IOKO/I.
KOJIOKOJI.
ITEPEPYB. ITepece'leHHe Hap~oH
CTeHbI cpy6a nonepe'lHoH CTeHoH, BbIcTynaIOIn;ee Ha q,aca,!le.
IIEPECJIE)l(HHA. BpeeHo
HSlIOIn;ee c/lezu.
ITEPETETHBhE. IIoonpY:JlCHaR apKa
ceooa, nepeKHHYTaSI no;u; npRMbIM yrJIOM
K HaPY}KHOH CTeHe.
IIEPEillEEK. ropJ/Ca.
IIEPE,IJ;. JIeTHSIH U36a (1) Ha BbICOKOM
nOOK/leme, BXO;U;BIn;aSI B COCTaB oOMaoeopa HJIH ;U;OMa 6pYCOM.
IIEPMAHEH. IIocmoRHHbte 6e/lUlla.
(1) TOJI-
ITEPCH (= nepIIIH). ITOJIYKpYrJIble HJIH
npBMoyrOJIbHble BblcTynbI ,!IJISI yCTaHOBKH 06opOHHTeJIbHbIX Opy;U;HH, npHMbIKaIOIn;He C BHeIIIHeH: CTOPOHbI K
OCHOBHOH CTeHe YKpenJIeHHSI.
IIEPEBOJIOqHHA. Bpyc
}KIfBaIOIn;HH nOTOJIOK.
(1), nOMep-
ITEPE,IJ;MOCThE. IIpeoMocmbe.
ITEPEKH,IJ;HOM PYKAB. fOPH30HTaJIbHbIH KHpllH'lHbIH Obl.MOXOO B
}KeJIe3HOM
q,YTJIBpe,
cOe;U;HHSlIOIn;HH
ne'lb C ;U;bIMOBOH TPy60H B cTopoHe OT
Hee.
IIEPEKPECTIIOE COITP5.l)I(EHHE.
CKpenJIeHHe B3aHMHOnepneH;u;HKYJIBPHbIX 6pycbee eno/loepeea HJIH B 'temeepmb oepeea (1).
IIEPEKPhliliKA. BepXHSISI nOBepxHOCTb Obl.MOeOW KaHa/la B ne'lH.
ITEPEMET. ITOBOPOTHaSI Ha roPH30HTaJIbHOH:
OCH
cnHHKa
nepeHOCHOH:
CKaMbU B ;u;peBHepYCCKOM oOMe (1),
06bI'lHO YKpaIIIeHHaSI pe3b6oH:.
ITEPEMETHAA
MemHaR CKaMbR.
CKAMh5.l.
Onpo-
ITEPEHOE KPhIJIhIJ;O. ry/lb6uw,e
HJIH KPblJlbn;O 6e3 HaBeca, 06paMJIeHHOe
napanemoM.
IIEPEHOCHhIM IIJIETEHb. <l>0PTHq,HKal\HOHHbIH: llJIeTeHb BbICOTOH: 21/2
apIIIHHa, COCTOSlIn;HH: H3 q,paI"MeHTOB
;U;JIHHOH: ,!IO 41/2 apIIIHHa H BKJIIO'laIOI.QHH
B ce6S1 KOJIbSI TOJIIn;HHOH: B nOJITOpa
ITHJIA. Tpcx- HJIH 'lcTbIpeXpH)l;Hbm
PPU3 (2), COCTaBJIeHHbIH H3 KHpnH'leH
C HanycKoM, KOTopble nOJIO}KeHbI
llJIaIIIMH no,!l yrJIOM K nOBepXHocTH
q,aca;u;a.
(1), COe,!lH-
ITEPOBA5.l ,IJ;OCKA. /1,ocKa
Il\HHOH B nOJITOpa ,!IIOHMa.
IIEPEBO,IJ;HHhI. 1 BaJIKH, Ha KOTOpble HaCTHJIaeTCR nOJI JIH60 nOTOJIOK.
2 ITepHJIa.
,!IBYCKaTHOH: Kpbluteu.
ITEPCH,IJ;CKHE
HEBOJIhHHKH,
ITEPCH,IJ;hI. AmllaHmbt.
IIEPCITEKTHBA. ITpOTSl}KeHHaB M/leR HJIH YJIHIJ;a, BOcnpHHHMaeMaSI KaK
MHOrOllJlaHOBaSI KOMn03Hl\HB C pa3BHTHeM B rJIy6HHy.
IIEPCITEKTHBHOE ,IJ;EJIO. CTeHonHCb, H306pa}!{aIOIn;aSI apXHTeKTYPY B
nepcneKTHBe.
ITMJIOH. MaCCHBHbIH rpaHcHbIH YCTOH.
IIHJIOOBPA3HA5.l KPbIIIIA. meoo6aR KpbtUla.
ITMJIOTHPOBAHHE". 3a6lfBKa C6aU.
ITHJI5.lCTPA. ilJIOCKHH, 1CaH.1le.l/,UpO6aHHblu HJIH pUlleH'tamblu BCPTHKaJIbHbIH BblcTyn Ha q,OHC CTCHbI, IfMCIOIn;eH
6a3y If KanUme/lb.
ITHHAKJIh. ,IJ;eKOpaTHBHbIC 6aIIIcHKa
IfJIH nHpaMH;U;Ka, 3aBepIIIaIOIn;He HMU'tHUK, KapHU3 H T. ,!I.
ITHPOfPABIOP A. PlfCYHOK HJIH Y30P,
IfCnOJIHeHHbIH: BbI}KHraHHeM (HanpHMep,
;U;JIB xY,!lO}KeCTBeHHoH OT;u;eJIKH Me6eJIH).
ITI1POH. MeTaJIJIH'lecKHH: IfJIH KaMeHHbIH: BKJIa;u;bIIII B KaMeHHbIH: 6JIOK ,!1M
ero npO'lHoro coe;U;HHeHHSI C COCe;U;HHM
6JIOKOM.
IIEPCITEKTHBHhIM (nopmM, Ha/lU'tHUK, apXUeO/lbm). C yxO)l;BIn;HMH B
rJIy6HHY YCTynaMH CXO;U;Horo o'lepTaHHB
B BepTHKaJIbHOH: nJIOCKOCTH.
IIEPiliH. IIepcu.
ITETJI5.l. MeTaJIJIH'lecKoe npHcnoc06JIeHHe
;U;JIB
iIoBopoTa KaKOH-JIH60
CTBOPKH (HanpHMep, cmae1tR, ;U;Bepn;bI,
nOJIOTHHIn;e BOpOT), npHKPCllJICHHOC K
HeH:.
IIEq. KOMHaTa pyccKoro THna (c llJIHTOH, 3aCTeKJIeHHbIM OKHOM, ;u;epeBSIHHbIM nOJIOM H nOTOJIKoM) B Kapa'lacBCKOM }KHJIHIn;C.
IIEqypA. 1 He60JIbIIIaSI HHIIIa Ha BHYTPeHHeH: nOBepxHocTH CTeHbI B ,!IpeBHePYCCKOM KaMeHHOM 3;u;aHHH, HrpaBIIIaSI
pOJIb BCTPoeHHoro IIIKaq,'lHKa ;U;JISI xpaHeHHB MeJIKOH yTBapH; HHOr)l;a 6blJla
pa3;u;eJIeHa Ha Rpycbt )l;epeBBHHbIMH nOJIKaMH H 3aKpbIBaJIaCb HaBeCHbIMH ;U;Bepn;aMH. 2 HHIIIa C aM6pa3ypou (1) ,!IJIB
cTPeJIb6bI.
-100-
ITHPC. BbI,!IBHHYTOe OT 6epera B BO;U;y
npH'laJIbHOe coopY}KeHHe ,!IJISI ,!IByCTOpOHHeH IIIBapTOBKH CY)l;OB.
ITJIAKHPOBKA. IToKpbITHe nec'laHbIX OTKOCOB HaCbIIIeH If BbleMOK oepHOM (TOJII.QHHOH OKOJIO 15 CM) ,!\JIR
3aIl\HTbI HX OT 06pYIIIeHlfSI.
ITJIACTHHA (=llJIaxa, roHOT, O,!lHOpe3Ka, ,!IOJIraph, ,!IOJI}KHHa). ITOJIOBHHa
6pe6Ha, paCnHJIeHHOrO IfJIH paCKOJIOToro B;U;OJIb.
ITJIATBAH,IJ;. IJ;BeTo'lHoe 06paMJIeHHe
(IIIHpHHOH OT nOJIYTopa,!lO Tpex apIIIHH)
napmepa (1).
ITJIATOK. JIo6oeaR oocKa.
IIJIA<I>OH. fOPH30HTaJIbHaSI 'laCTb nepeKpbITHSI, YKpaIIIeHHaSI POCllHCbIO HJIIf
6ape/lbepoM.
n
nnAXA - nOAKOB006PA3HASl APKA
TIJIAXA. JDtacmwta.
TIJIAIIIKOYTHhH1: MOCT. TIJIaByqHH
MOCT, orIHpaIOr.u;IH1:c5! Ha rrJIOCKO}];OHHble
cy}];a.
TIJIAI..UJ:APM. 1 TIJIor.u;a}];b B yKperrJIeHHH,
rrpe}];Ha3HaqeHHa5! }];JI5! c60pa
BOHCK. 2 TIpHcrroco6JIeHHbIH K o6opoHe
CKJIa}]; opy:aum, aMyHHll,HH mIH rrpoBHaHTa }];JI5! BOHCK. 3 JIHHH5! KpyroBoH
060pOHhI rrepe}]; YKperrJIeHHeM.
TIJIAIJ,-TIAP A,I(. TIJIor.u;a}];b }];JI5! BoeHHbIX CMOTPOB H o6yqeHH5! BOikK.
101
IOr.u;ee rrO}];HHMaTb H perYJIHpOBaTb yposeHb BO}];hI Ha rrpHJIeraIOr.u;eM Y'laCTKe
BblIIIe rro Te'leHHIO.
TIHEBMATMqECKA5I TIEQh. KaJlopucjJep.
TIOBAJI.
TIocTerreHHoe HaKJIOHHOe
pacIIIHpeHHe KBepxy, BeHQaIOr.u;ee cpy6.
TIOBAJIYIIIA. 1 BblcoKaSl }];epeB5!HHa5!
6autllR (1) B COCTaBe XOPOM, 3aBepIIIeHHaSl utampoM HJIH enall'1eu. 2 061ll,aSl
CrraJIbH5! (Qalll,e JIeTH5!Sl, HeOTarrJIHBaeMa5!) B Tpa,[lHll,HOHHOM PYCCKOM oOMe
TIO,UBOPhE. 1 rOpO}];CKOH KOMrrJIeKC C
rOCTHHHQHbIMH, ToproBbIMH HJIH X035!HCTBeHHbIMH IPYHKll,HSlMH, rrpHHa}];JIe)Kar.u;HH BJIa}];eJIbll,y (MoHacThlpIO, Kyrrll,y)
H3 }];pyroH MeCTHOCTH. 2 IIOCmORJlblU
080p.
TIO,UBhIIIIEHME (cBO}:la, apKH). PacnOJIO)KeHHe ll,eHTpa nOJlYl{upKYJlb1l020
c800a (apKu) BblIIIe ypOBHSl nRm.
(1).
TIJIECKATEJIhHhIH
EACCEHH.
HerJIy60KHH BO}];OeM, YCTpoeHHbIH B
3CTeTHQeCKHX ll,eJI5!X HJIH }];JI5! }];eTCKHX
Hrp.
TIJIECO. BbeljJ.
TIJIP-IHOH YrOJI.
YroJI
ljJacoM H IjJJlallKOM 6acmuolla.
TIJIMHT. KBa}];paTHa5! rrJIHTa, 3aBepIIIaIOr.u;a5! nocmaMellm.
TIJIMHTYC. TIoCTaBJIeHHa5! Ha }];JIHHHYIO
y3KYIO CTOPOHY }];epeB5!HHa5! oocKa (1),
3aKpbIBaIOr.u;a5! CTbIK CTeHbI H rrOJIa.
TIOBAJIhHhIE CJIErM. 3aBepIIIaIOr.u;HH 8ellel{ B n08aJle cpy6a, CJIY)KaIll,HH
yrropoM }];JI5! HH)KHHX KOHll,OB cmponUflbllblX 1102.
TIOBETh. QacTb KpbIToro o80pa (2) B
KpecThSlHcKOH ycaob6e, rrpe}];Ha3Ha'leHHaSl ,[IJISl ceHa, COJIOMbI H X03SlHCTBeHHoro HHBeHTapSl.
I
TIO,UrOJIOBHMK. JIapel{ C HaKJIOHHOH BepxHeH ,[IOCKOH, CJIY)Kar.u;HH H3roJIOBbeM ,[IJISl crrSlr.u;ero.
TIOrPEEMIJ,A. Ha}];CTpOHKa Ha}:l rrorpe60M.
•
TIO,U. TIOJI B TorrKe PYCCKOU ne'1U
(06bIQHO BbICTJIaHHbIH JIelll,a}:lbIO), Ha
KOTOPhIH KJIa}:leTCSl TOrrJIHBO H CTaBSlTCSl
ropIIIKH C rIHlll,eH.
TIO,UEAJIKA.
KOpOTKHH ropH30HTaJIbHbIH 6pyc, orIHpaIOIll,HHCSl Ha CTOJI6,
CTOSlK JIH60 KOJlOllllY H rrO}];}];ep)KHBaIOIll,HH CKperrJIeHHYIO rrapaJIJIeJIbHO C
HHM 6aJIKY.
TIO,UEOVL j(elll{e.
TIJIMH<I>A. XapaKTepHbIH }];JISl PYCCKoro ,[IOMOHrOJIbCKOrO 30}];QeCTBa TOHKHH KHprrHQ, IIIHpHHa KOToporo 6JIH3Ka
ero }];JIHHe.
ITO,UEOP. CTeHKa H3 BepTHKaJIbHbIX
o6py6KOB 6pe8eH, orpa)K}];aIOlll,aSl rro}];rrOJIbe rro}]; Cpy60M.
TIJIOCKA5I APKA. ApKa (1), Y KOTOpOH cmpeJla nOOoeMa B 8 HJIH 60JIee pa3
MeHbIIIe npO:flema.
TIO,UBEPTKA. ITepeJIOM B }:IbIMOBOM
KaHaJIe m~'lH, MeHSlIOIll,HH HarrpaBJIeHHe
}];bIMa Ha npOTHBOrrOJIO)KHoe.
TIJIOCKMH TIAPYC (=KpoHIIITeHHbIH
rrapyc, o6paTHaSl rrHpaMH}];a, rrJIOCKHH
TpoMrr). 06par.u;eHHbIH oCTpHeM BHH3
TIO,UBM)J(HOH TP ABEPC. TIepeH()CHhIH 060pOHHTeJIbHbIH BaJI H3 ropH30HTaJIbHbIX ljJautUll, YJIO)KeHHbIX Ha rrorrepe'lHble }];epeBSlHHble 6aJIKH Me)K}:Iy
cmoeK C nOOKOCaMU.
TIO,U,UEJI. ll,OKOJlb.
TIo,U,UYr A. IIaoyw.
TIO,U30P. 1 TIOJIOca co CKB03HhIM
opHaMeHToM, CBHcaIOlll,aSl C }];JIHHHOrO
BhIcTyrra (HarrplIMep, Kapllllaa) lIJIlI KpaSl
TKaHlI napaJIJIeJIbHO eMY. 2 Hapaael{ C
}:IBOHHOH apO'1KOU, BKJIIOQeHHbIH B
}];eKOpaTHBHYIO apKaoy no OCHOBaHHIO
ne'lH'~mI
TIO,UMYM (=nO,[lHH). BhlcoKoe npSlMoyrOJIbHOe OCHOBaHHe coopY)KeHHSl, HMeIOlll,ee JIeCTHHll,Y Ha KOPOTKOH nepe}];HeH
cTopoHe H OTBeCHble CTeHKH Ha OCTaJIbHbIX.
TIO,UKJIET. HH)KHHH 3Ta)K 3,[1aHH5! B
}];OOp}];epHOH
PYCCKOH
apxHTeKType,
He3Ha'lHTeJIbHO B03BblIIIaIOIll,HHC5! Ha}:l
3eMJIeH.
HaKJIOHHbIH
paBH06e,[lpeHHhIH
TpeyrOJIbHHK rrpH rrepexo}];e OT '1em8epUKa
K 8ocbMepuKY.
TIJIOCKMH CBO,U. OQeHb rrOJIOrHH
C800, Y KOTOPOro cmpeJla noOoeMa He
rrpeBhlIIIaeT 1/36 rrpOJIeTa.
TIJIOCKMH TPOMTI. IIJloCKUU napyc.
TIJIOTMHA. rH}];pOTeXHH'leCKOe coopY)KeHHe rrorrepeK peKH, rr03BOJISl-
TIO,UKOBOOEPA3HA5I
APKA
(=MaBpHTaHcKaSl apKa). ApKa (1) C
}];yroH 60JIee rrOJIOBHHbI OKPY)KHOCTH.
TIO,UBOJIOKA. 1 YTerrJIeHHbIH 3eMJIeH
,[IepeBSlHHbIH rrOTOJIOK Ha MamUl{ax (1)
B xopoMax, 06bI'lHO YKpaIIIeHHbIH pe3b60H H pocrrHcbIO. 2 HcmonKa (2).
TIO,UBOJIOQHhIE IIITYKM. KJIeeHble }];epeBSlHHble Ill,HTbI }:IJISl pocrrHcH
rrOTOJIKa.
-101-
n
nOA KOnOKonbi XPAM - nonATH
I10,Il, KOJIOKOJIbI XPAM. UepKoBHoe 3,llaHHe C RpyCOM 3601ta Ha rJIaBHOH
BepTHKaJIbHOH OCH.
I10,Il,KOC. I1epepaCIIpe,lleJISIIOIIl,aSI HarPY3KY B KOHCTPYKIl,HH HaKJIOHHaSI ,llepeBSIHHaSI IIO,llilOpKa, Bpy6JIeHHaSI KOHIl,aMH
B cmORK 1'1 B roPH30HTaJIbHbIH 6pyc (1)
Ha HeM.
I10,Il,KPbIJIKM. He60JIbllIlle OOCKU
(1), 3aKpbIBaIOIIl,He Ha <j>aca,lle U36bl (1)
HJIH ,llepeBSIHHbIX XOpOM TOPIl,bI 6pe6C1t B
n06aJlaX 1'1 06bPIHO YKpaIIIeHHbIe pe3b60H.
I10,Il,KYPETHMKM
(=IIO}:l,KypSITHHKH). BepxHHe 6pe61ta cpy6a, B KOTopbIe
Bpy6aIOTcSI CmpOnUJlb1tblC 1t02U (cp.:
II06aJlb1tbIC CJlczu).
I10,Il,OBA5I JIEIl(A,Il,b. KanCOJlb.
I10,Il,OJI. HH3HHHaSI qaCTb ,llpeBHepycCKoro 2Opooa (2), paCIIOJIO)l{eHHaSI Y
IIO,llHO)l{HSI ero B03BbIIIIeHHoro SI,llpa.
102
IIapaJIJIeJIbHbIH pR,llaM KJIa,llKH (,llBYCTOPOHHIDI, HJIH ,llBoil:HaSI, IIO,llpe3Ka).
I10,Il,'bE3,Il,. Bxo,ll C KPbIJIbIl,OM II HaBeCOM.
I10,Il,PEIIIETKA. HellJIOTHO YJIO)l{eH- . I10)KEHA5I QACOBH5I. IJac061tR (1)
HbIe rro 6aJIKaM Y3KHe nOJlyo6pC31tblC Ha BbICOKOM cpy6e HJIH Ha cToJI6e, B03OOCKU ,llJISI HaCTHJIKH Ha HHX 'tucm020 Be,lleHHaSI Ha yqacTKe, KOTOPbIH 3aTOnOJla, napKcma (1) HJIH Ulmy't1t020 rrJISIeTCSI B rrOJIOBO,llbe.
nOJla.
I103EMHA5I I10CTPOMKA. H36a
I10,Il,PYE. IIopy6.
(1) HJIH HHaSI rrocTpoHKa, B03Be,lleHHaSI
6e3 nOOKJlCma; 06blqHO - C 3eMJIRHbIM
I10,Il,CEHME. Hcnoo1tuc ce1tu.
rrOJIOM.
I10,Il,CKAJIbHMK. HH)I{HHH CJIOH KpOI10KJIOHHbIM KPECT. YKpeIIJleHBeJIbHOrO Teca, OT,lleJIeHHbIH OT BepxHbIH Ha,ll BXO,llOM MJIH YCTaHOBJIeHHbIH
Hero CJIOSI JIH60 KpOBeJIbHOH opa1tU
rrpH ,llopore KpecT, rrpe,llHa3HaqeHHbIH
6epe30BOH
CKaJlOU
HJIH
JIHrrOBbIM
,llJISI MOJIHTBeHHbIX rrOKJIOHOB rrepe}:l,
JIy60M.
I10,Il,CKPEEKA. B o6pca.
I10,Il,CTABA (=KYJIaKH). BbIcTyrraIOIIl,He 1'13 CTeHbI, nUJlO1ta HJIH cToJI6a
KOHCOJIbHbIe MeTaJIJIHqeCKHe orropbI C
I10,Il,OIIIBA. HH)I{HSISI llJIOCKOCTb ¢y1tOaMC1tma, cOllpHKaCaIOIIl,aSICSI C rpYHTOBbIM OCHOBaHHeM.
I10,Il,OIIIBEHHbIM EOM. 1 BOU1tUU,bl
HH)l{HerO ypOBHSI B KpellocTHbIX cTeHax
1'1 6aUl1tRX (3). 2 YCTpOHCTBO BO,llSIHbIX
MeJIbHHIl, C Y,llapaMH BO,llbI B HH)I{HHe
JIOilaCTlf KOJIeca.
I10,Il,I10PHA5I CTEHKA. CTpOHTeJIbHaSI KOHCTPYKIl,HSI, IIpHMbIKaIOIIl,aSI K
MaCCHBY rpYHTa HJIH KJlaOKC, - ,llJISI
3aIll,HTbI OT 06pYIIIeHHSI.
BepTIIKaJIbHbIM KpyrJIbIM OTPOCTKOM
,llJISI HaBeCKH OKOHHbIX Cma6C1tb (1),
nOJIOTHHIIl, ,llBepeH 1'1 BOpOT.
I10,Il,CTEHOK. YqaCTOK KaMeHHoH
KJlaOKU, rrpHMbIKaIOIIl,HH K nRme apKu
MJIH c6ooa, ,llJISI noraIIIeHHSI pacrropa.
I10,Il,CTPEJIMHA. Bpyc (1) KPbtUlU,
HaXO,llSIIIl,HHCSI rro,ll CBeCOM Kp06JlU HJIH
rro,ll nOJluu,eu (1).
I10,Il,CTP0I1MJIbHbIE
BblmRJIC1tble 6pe61ta.
EPEBHA.
I10,Il,CTYI1EHOK
JIHIl,eBaSI
KaJIbHaSI rroBepxHocTb cTyrreHH.
BepTH-
I10,Il,TEQMHA. Bpyc (1) o6peUlemKu
rro,ll TecoBYIO KP06JlIO.
I10,Il,I1PY)J(HA5I APKA. ApKa (1),
rrO,ll,llep)l{HBaIOIIl,aSI C600.
I10,Il,TOBAPHMK.
TOHKHH CTPOHTeJIbHbIH JIec XBOHHbIX rropo,ll, ,llHaMeYpOM 8-11 CM 1'1 ,llJIHHOH OT 3 ,ll0 9 M.
I10,Il,YIIIKA. HH)I{HSISI ropH30HTaJIb B
OKOHHOH Kopo6Ke.
I10,Il,UEPKOBbE. HH)I{HHH 3Ta)l{ Il,epKOBHoro 3,llaHIISI, 06bP1HO He IICrrOJIb3YeMbIH ,llJISI 60rOCJIY)I{eHHSI.
I10,Il,I15ITHMK. KpYfJIbIH BbIcTyn Y
KpaSI Ha Y3KOM TOpIl,e ,llBepHOro nOJIOTHHIIl,a, 1l0MeIll,aBIIIHHCSI B mC300 (1)
,llBepHOH paMbI.
I10,Il,PE3KA.
06pa60TKa
Ul6a
B
KaMeHHoH KJlaOKe rrYTeM Y,llaJIeHHSI
1I36bITKa pacTBopa, OTqerO IIIOB rrpH06peTaeT BII,ll rrOJIOCKH, 3arrpoKHHYTOH
O,llHHM KpaeM BrJIy6b KJIa,llKH (O,llImapHaSI nO,llpe3Ka), JIH60 1l0JIyqaeT H3JIOM,
I10JIABOQHMK. 1 I10JIKa Ha,ll JIaBKaMH, HenpepbIBHo orH6aIOIIl,aSI CTeHbI B
U36e (1). 2 I1oKpbIBaJIO (06bIqHO CYKOHHoe) Ha npHCTeHHYIO JIaBKY B U36e (1).
nOJIArAJIMIl(E. KJIa,llOBaSI.
I10JI ACTbl. KBa,llpaTHbIH JIa3 Ha,ll
SI1IWH ,llJISI xpaHeHHSI KapTo<j>eJISI, rrpope3aHHbIH B rroJIY )l{HJIIIIIl,a TaTap-MHIIIapeH.
nOJIATM. 1 HapbJ ,llJISI crraHbSI,
YCTpoeHHbIe no,ll rrOTOJIKOM, Me)l{,llY pyc-
I10,Il,IIIMBKA. JIHIl,eBaSI qaCTb ,llepeBSIHHoro rrepeKpbITHSI, KOTopaSI COCTOHT
113 OOCOK (1), rrpH6HTbIX CHH3Y K ero
6aJIKaM.
I10,Il,IIIMBHOM I10TOJIOK. I10ToJIOK, rrpll6HTbIH CHlI3Y K 6aJIKaM.
I10,Il, IIIYEY. 06pa60TKa CTeHbI IIITYKaTypHbIM Ha6pbI3roM, C03,llaIOIIl,aSI 6ecCHCTeMHYIO
MeJIK06yrpHCTYIO
rroBepXHOCTb.
-102-
(1). 2 HaCTHJI ,llJISI xpaHeHIISI BeIll,eH, YCTpoeHHbIH
no,ll rrOTOJIKOM. 3 IIpuOCJlb1tbtU xpaM Ha
ypoBHe XOp06 B Il,epKOBHoM 3,llaHHII.
CKOU ne'tblO 1'1 CTeHOH U36bt
n
103
nonATKA - nOnYKPECnO
nOJIATKA. Kpyrrul qeTblpeXCKaTHrui
Kpbluta C roPH30HTaJIbHbIM zpe6HeM (2),
3aBepIIIalOIqrul 06'beM npSlMoyrOJIbHOrO
llJIaHa.
nOJIEBOM:
MeHb.
KAMEHh.
P,UKUU
Ka-
coe;n:HHeHHhIX no;n: rynhIM yrJIOM H CBSI3aHHhIX KOHIJ;aMH co cmponUJIaMu
nocpe;n:CTBoM nooKoco6 H cmpyH.
nOJIOTEHUE. 1 BepTHKaJIhHruI ;n:epeBSlHHruI nOJIoca C y30pHhIM KpaeM (qaCTO
H co CKB03HOH pe3h6oH), HeCKOJIhKO
BhI;n:BHHYTrui HaA q,OHOM q,aca;n:HoH
nOJIHCA,Il,. IIaJlucao (1).
nOJIHUA. 1 nOJIOrHH CKaT B OCHOBaHHH 60JIee KpYTOH Kp06J1U. 2 II1HPOKrui
nOJIKa ;n:JISI Bem;eH, npHMhIKalOm;ru1
pe6poM K CTeHe.
nOJIOBHHHhIM: EACTHOH. 3noJZeMeHm.
nOJIOBHHqATMI EECE,Il,KA. IIoJly6eceoKa.
nOJIOBH5IK (=nOJIOBhe). BpYCK06blU
Kupnu't, paCKOJIOTblH nOnOJIaM B;n:OJIh
nocmeJlu.
nOJIOf.
RpaHu.
CnaJIhHOe
nOMem;eHHe
B
nOJIOfMI APKA. ApKa (1), Y KOTOpOH cmpeJia nOO'beMa B qeTbIpe pa3a
MeHhIIIe npoJlema.
nOJIOK. HaphI no;n: nOTOJIKOM PYCCKOH
6aHH, Ha KOTOPhIX napSlTcSI.
nOJIOK JIAHfO. IIoJlamu
3P3S1HCKOH U36e (1).
CTeHhI JIH60 3aKphIBalOm;aSl TOPl\bI ee
6pe6eH. 2 CTBopKa ;n:BepH HJIH OKHa,
HMelOIqrul C KpalO BepTHKaJIbHYIO OCb
Bpam;eHHSl.
rrOJIY,Il,EHHMI CH,Il,EJIKA. CKaMbSl-CH;n:eJIKa B napKe, 3a~m;aeMruI
JIHCTBOH OT JIyqeH nOJIy;n:eHHoro COJIHl\a.
nOJIOqKA. Y3KHH BhIcryn npSlMO-
nOJIY3AnpY,Il,A. ByHa (1).
yrOJIhHOrO CeqeHHSI.
nOJIYKA3APMA. nYTeBrui KaaapMa
(3) C HenOJIHhIM COCTaBOM nOMem;eHHH
(HanpHMep, 6e3 OT;n:eJIeHHSI ;n:JISI CyIIIKH
o;n:e)K;n:bI).
nOJIYAKPOTEPHM:. AKpomepuu Ha
HH)l{HeM yrJIy ppoHmoHa.
nOJIYEEJIOE CTEKJIO. JIHcToBoe
CTeKJIO nocpe;n:cTBeHHoro KaqeCTBa ;n:JISI
OKOH.
nOJIYEECE,Il,KA
(=nOJIOBHuqaTrui
6ece;n:Ka). BeceoKa (1) C nJIaHOM B BH}l;e
nOJIYKpyra, nOJIyoBaJIa HJIH npSlMOyrOJIhHHKa C IIIHPHHOM B;n:Boe MeHhIIIe
;n:JIHHhI.
nOJIYEYTOBMI KJIA,Il,KA. KOHcTPYKl\HSl KaMeHHhIX CTeH, npH KOTOPOH
npocTPaHCTBO
Me)l{}l;y
KHpnuqaMH,
o6pa3ylOIqHMH BHeIIIHlO1O H BHYTPeHHIOIO nOBepxHocTh CTeHbl, 3anOJIHSleTCSI
06JIOMKaMH KaMHSI H cTPoHTeJIhHhIM
pacTBopoM.
(1, 2) B nOJIYBAJI.
nOJIOHCO CHCTEMA. Pa3HoBH;n:HOCTh 6UCR'tUX cmponUJI, B KOTOPOH
aamRJICKa COCTOHT H3 TPex oTPe3KoB,
rrOJIYfJIABHE. nOJIYKpYrJIOe 3aBepIIIeHHe BHeIIIHeH CTeHhI l\epKOBHoro
3;n:aHHSI Ha;n: ee cepe;n:HHoH.
nOJIY,Il,OMOK. 1 He6oJIbIIIOH OOM
(1), Y KOToporo HH)I{HHH 3TaX{ KaMeHHhIH JIH60 KHpnHqHhIH, a BepxHHH ;n:epeBSlHHhIH. 2 P,OM (1), 3aHHMalOm;HH
nOJIOBHHY yqaCTKa, OTBe;n:eHHoro no;n:
ero cTPoHTeJIhCTBo.
)KHBOnHCh.
nOJIHKAH,Il,HJIO. UepKOBHblH CBeTHJIhHHK, 06'be;n:HHSlIO~H OT 7 ;n:o
12 CBeqeH.
nOJIYBAHqEC. BaCUJIeK.
nOJIY,Il,A. )KeJIe30, nOKphIToe TOHKHM
CJIOeM OJIOBa, )KeCTh.
nOJIHBHA5I KEPAMHKA. H3;n:emlSl
H3 060)lOl{eHHOH rJIHHbI, nOKpblTbIe ulaaypblO.
nOJIH,Il,OPOBMI
Czpappumo.
6aJ1bMaMU B BepxHeH qaCTH, Ha TOpWlx
3;n:aHHSI.
fOpH30HTaJIhHhIH BhIcryn C o;n:HHaKOBhIM nOJIYKpYrJIhIM ceqeHHeM.
nOJIYBAJlhMA. HaKJIOHHaSi rpaHh Ha
TOpl\e qeThIpexcKaTHoH KP06J1U, HMelOm;aSl BH}l; TpeyrOJIhHHKa HJIH Tpanel\HH,
no BblCOTe HaMHOrO MeHhIIIe npo;n:OJIbHhIX CKaTOB.
nOJIYBAJlhMOBA5I KPhIIIIA. ,Il,BYCKaTHoe nOKphITHe C He60JIhIIIHMH
-103-
nOJIYKAnOHHP. cP0pTHq,HKal\HOHHoe coopY)KeHHSI ;n:JISI npo;n:OJIhHOrO
06CTpeJIa KpenocTHoro pBa B O;n:HOM
HanpaBJIeHHH.
nOJIYKOJIOHHA. KOJlOHHa, HanOJIOBHHy BhIcTynalOm;aSl H3 BepTHKaJIhHOH
nOBepxHocTH KJlaOKu.
nOJIYKPECJIO. CTYJI C no;n:HHMaIOm;HMHCSI K cnHHKe llJIaBHhIMH H3rH-
n
nOnYKPECTOBAg KnA,Q,KA - nOCA,Q,
6aMH no CTopOHaM CH;n;eHbSl, 3HaqHTeJIbHO 60JIee HH3KHMH, qeM nO;n;JIOKOTHHKH KpeCJIa.
nOJIYKPECfOBMI KJIA,ll;KA. IJ,enHllIl KIlaOKa.
104
nOJIYIJ;I1PKYJIhHhIH CBO,ll; (=n;HJIHH;D;p1fqeCKHH CBO;n;).. C800 C nOJIYOKP~OCTblO B CeqeHHH, O;n;HHaKoBoM
Ha BceM npoTSI)KeHHH.
nOPTAJI. Xy;n;O)KeCTBeHHoe o6paMJIeHHe BXO;n;a.
nOJIYKynOJI. Koma.
nOJIYJIOTKOBhIH
COMKHYTbrn: C800.
CBO,ll;.
nOJIy-
nOJIYMEOIIJ;. J!.eMUJuoH.
nOJIYOEPE3HA5I ,ll;OCKA. ,ll;epeBSlHHaSI oocKa (1) C HeO;n;HHaKOBblMH
60JIbWHMH nJIOCKOCTSlMH H TOpn;aMH H3-3a qaCTHqHO oCTaBwe:ii:cSI KOPbI.
nOJIYOKHO. EOKOBaSI qaCTb Uma.tlbRHCKOlO OKHa.
nOJIynEPEIIIEEK. J!.eMUWp:JIC.
nOJIYTIJIAC,ll;APM. TynHKoBoe OTBeTBJIeHHe OT Xo;n;a C006rn;eHHSI B nOJIeBbIX YKpellJIeHHSIX.
nOJIYIIIJII03. Bo;n;OcnycK Ha cy;n;oxo;n;HOM HJIH CllJIaBHOM KaHaJIe.
IlOJIY3TA)K.
3Ta)!{
3HaqHTeJIbHO
MeHbwe:ii: BbICOTbI no cpaBHeHHIO C ;n;pyrnMH !na)KaMH Toro )Ke 3;n;aHHSI.
IlOJIY5IPYC. Hpyc, 3HaqHTeJIbHO ycrynalOrn;HH no BblCOTe ;n;pyrnM SfPycaM
Toro)Ke coop~eHHSI.
IlOPTAJI MOCfA. ApXHTeKTypHoe
o<i>opMJIeHHe B'be3;n;a Ha MOCT, C coe;n;HHeHHeM Kpa:ii:HHX onop <i>epM no o6eHM
CTOPOHaM npoe3)Ke:ii: qaCTH.
nOPTArnB.
OpUiH.
nepeHocHbI:ii:
nOJIhCKMI KJIA,lJ;KA. Bepcm08ll1l
KAaoKa.
IlOMOrA. Koco:ii: Kpene)KHbI:ii: ay6 Ha
KOHn;e cmponUJ/,bHou HOlU.
IlOMOQI1. Epe8Ha-KOHCOAU, BblcTynalOIn;He H3 cpy6a.
nOJIYTIJII1Hct>A. KHpllHq B CTPOHTeJIbCTBe ;n;peBHero HOBropO;n;a, HMeIOrn;HH pa3MepbI 28 X 23 x 7,5 CM.
nOPTEPHMI. IlHTe:ii:Hoe 3aBe;n;eHHe C
npo;n;a)!{e:ii: nOPTepa - KpenKoro TeMHOro nHBa.
IlOJIYTIO,ll;BAJI. 3Ta)K, 3arJIy6JIeHHbI:ii: B 3eMJIIO MeHee qeM Ha nOJIOBHHY
BbICOTbI CBOHX nOMern;eHHH.
IlOJIYCAMIJ;OBMI KPOBJUI. THn
nOKpblTHSI ;n;epeBSlHHoH nOCTpo:ii:KH, npH
KOTOPOM ero npO;n;OJIbHble 6aJIKH HerJIY60KO Bpe3aHbI B HellJIOTHO pacnOJIO)KeHHble 6pe8Ha U4unl{08bLX f/JpoHmoH08 HaA
TOpn;OBbIMH CTeHaMH.
IlOJIYCBO,ll;. IJem8epmHou C800.
IlOPTHK. KOMno3Hn;HS1 Ha <i>aca;n;e 3;n;aHHSI, KOTOPaSI o6pa30BaHa KOAOHHaMU,
nOAYKoAOHHaMU JIH60 nUJ/,RcmpaMU,
HecYIn;HMH aHma6Ae.MeHm.
IlOHTOHhI. ,ll;epeBSlHHble HJIH )KeJIe3Hble nJIOCKO;n;OHHble cy;n;a, HCnOJIb3YeMble B KaqeCTBe onopbI llJIaByqHX
MOCTOB.
IlOJIYCOMKHYThIH CBO,ll; (=noJIYJIOTKOBbI:ii: CBO;n;). Kop0608blu JIH60
nOAYl{UpKYAbHblU C800, orpaHHqeHHbI:ii:
C TOpn;a AomKOM.
IlOPTOMOHHhIH QEP,ll;AK. IloMern;eHHe, B KOTOPOM CYWHJIOCb 6eJIbe
nOCJIe nOJIOCKaHHSI B peKe.
nOPYE (=B3py6, no;n;py6). HeBbICOKH:ii: ;n;epeBSlHHbI:ii: nooKllem.
IlOHYP. nOJI nepe;n;He:ii: (npy;n;OBo:ii:)
qaCTH 8000CAU8HOU HJIH 8000cnYCKHou
nAomUHbl.
IlOJIYct>POHTOH. <PpoHmoH C npepBaHHo:ii:
nocpe;n;HHe ropH30HTaJIblO
IlOPEEPI1K. 1 OpHaMeHTaJIbHaSI roPH30HTaJIbHaSI nOJIoca Ha <i>aca;n;e, o6pa30BaHHaSi OAHHM PSIAOM KHpllHqe:ii:, OAHHaKOBO pacnOJIO)KeHHblX nJIawMSl HJIH Ha
pe6po nOA yrnoM K nOBepxHocTH CTeHbI.
2 KaMeHHaSI OKaHTOBKa Tporyapa co
CTOPOHbI npoe3)Ke:ii: qaCTH.
-104-
nOPct>I1,ll;KA (=npo<i>HTKa). OT;n;eJIbHoe meaoo (1) ;n;JISI n;epKoBHo:ii: CBeqH Ha
naHuKaoUJ/,e.
IlOPMOK. PSI;D; 00M08 (1), o6pa3YIOrn;HX CTOPOHY ;n;epeBeHcKo:ii: yJIHn;bI.
nOCA,ll;. 1 ToproBo-peMeCJIeHHOe noCeJIeHHe, npHMbIKaBwee cHap~ K CTeHaM ApeBHepYCCKoro wpooa (1, 2).
2 nOCeJIOK ropO;n;CKoro THna B PocCH:ii:CKO:ii: HMllepHH.
n
nOCKon1HA - npI>1HU-METAJln
IIOCKOTHHA. 1 H3roPO)l;h, KOTOPOH
o6HeceHa ceBepHruI HJIH cH6HpCKaJI
)l;epeBHJI BMeCTe C npHJIeralOll.\HMH K HeH
BhIroHaMH )l;JIJI CKOTa. 2 ropoob6a (1)
BOKpyr CKOTHOro )l;BOpa.
105
KH. 2 TenJIOBOH KaHaJI OT Ka.tlOpurjJepa,
rrpOHH3hIBalOll.\HH CTeHY.
IIPHEOMKH. BepTHKaJIhHhIe peRKH
Me)!{)l;Y 6peBeH'IaTOR CTeHOll: H ee
06UlU6KOU H3 Teca HJIH Wp6blJlJl (1).
IIOCTABEU. HeBhIcoKHH IIIKa<p )l;JIJI
nocY)l;hI.
IIOCTABHAA CBEqA. Tow,aJl C6et.ta.
IIOCTAMEHT. B03BhIIIIeHHoe OCHOBaHHe KO/lOHHbl, MOHYMeHTa, cTaTYLI
JIH60 6aaOHa (1, 2).
IIOTP5ICOK. KophITQe Ha MeJIhHHQe,
'Iepe3 KOTopoe nocTynaeT 3epHo nO)l;
)l{epHOB.
rpaHh
IIOqMAK 5IK. )l(eHCKaJI (oHa )l{e KyXOHHruI) nOJIOBHHa TaTapcKoro CeJIhCKoro )l{HJIHll.\a.
IIOCT05IJIhIliJ: ,a:BOP. KOMnJIeKC,
06'he)l;HHJIIOll.\HH KOMHaThI )l;JIJI HO'IJIera
npHe3)1(L1X, mpaKmup, a TalOKe 060P
(1, 2) )l;JIJI JIOIIIa)l;eH H 3KHna)l{eH BpeMeHHhIX nOCTOJIJIhQeB.
II05IC. 1 rOpH30HTaJIhHaJI )l;eKOpaTHBHaJI nOJIoca no nepHMeTpy 06'heMa HJIH
BO BCIO IIIHPlfHY <paca)l;a. 2 BepxHSISI HJIH
HH)I{HSISI ropH30HTaJIh rjJepMbl.
IIOCTEJIh. CaMaJI
6PYCK060W Kupnut.ta.
KpynHruI
,a:opora
no
lIP AIIOP. MeTaJIJIH'IeCKHR <pJIa)l{OK
Ha)l; 6aIIIHeo6pa3HhIM 06'heMOM.
IIOTEPHA. C600t.tamb1U nO)l;3eMHhIH
XO)l;, COe)l;HHJIIOll.\HH W/lepelO (2) )l;JIJI
CTpeJIKOB (3a aCKapnHou HJIH KOHmpacKapnHou cTeHKoH no <PPOHTY Kpenocmu) C BH)'TpeHHeH 'IaCThlO yKpenJIe-
IIPHEOP. KOMnJIeKT 3JIeMeHTOB )l;JISI
)l;BepH, OKHa HJIH ne'IH. ,a:BepHOll: H OKOHHhIll: II. BKJIIO'IaJI B ce6S1 B )l;peBHOCTH
)l;Be JlCUK06UHbl, KplOKH )l;JIJI HaBeCKH
cma6eHb (1), 3a)l;BH)I{KH, KOJIhQO B Ka'IeCTBe PY'IKH, BHTOll: aaK/laOHOU KPIOt.tOK,
cKo6hI, a TaK)I{e rB03)l;H nJISI 06HBKH
nOJICThMH (BORnOKOM) HJIH CYKHOM.
IIe'IHoH II. BKJIIO'IaJI B ce6S1 )l{eJIe3HhIe
3aCJIOHhI K ne'IaM H Tpy6aM, paMKH
OT)l;YIIIHHKOB, 6bIOUlKU, KOJlOCHUK06ble
peIIIeTKH, KO'Iepry, )l{eJIe3HYIO JIOnaTKY, YXBaT H neIIIHIO.
IIPHrOJIOBAiliEK. BaW/106aUleK.
II05ICHA5I ,a:oporA.
nepHMeTpy napKa.
IIOCT05IHHhIE EEJIHJIA (=6apHTOBhIe 6eJIHJIa, 6JIaH-<pHKc, JIHTOnOH,
nepMaHeH).· H3rOTOBJIeHHruI Ha OCHOBe
cepHOKHCJIOrO 6apHlI 6eJIaJI MaCJIJIHaJI
KpaCKa C BhICOKOH KpOIOll.\eH cnoco6HOCThlO, )l;JIJI 060eB.
2 BepTHKaJIhHaSl oocKa (1), 3aKphIBalOll.\ruI nepepy6.
IIPHrOH. CapaR )l;JISI CKOTa.
IIPH,a:EJI. ,a:onOJIHHTeJIhHhIll: xpaM co
CBOHM npeCmO/lOM H UKOHocmaCOM,
npHMhIKalOll.\HR K OCHOBHOMY QepKoBHOMY 3)l;aHHIO JIH60 BKJIIO'IeHHhIR B ero
06'heM.
IIPE,a:EJIJIA. BepXHJIJI 'IaCTh a/lmapJl
(2), 06hI'IHO YKpaIIIeHHruI )l{HBOnHChlO
HJIH pe3h6oR.
IIPHKJIA,a:OqHhIM IIIOB. CKB03HOH
BepTHKaJIhHhIH Ul06 Me)!{)l;Y 'IaCTJIMH
3)l;aHHlI.
IIPHKPhIThIM IIYTh. IIpocTpaHcTBo
Me)l{)l;Y KOHmpacKapnoM H l/laCUCOM.
IIPE,a:MOCThE
(=nepe)l;MOCThe).
1 He6oJIhIIIOe YKpenJIeHHe nepe)l;
MOCTOM. 2 (=B3MOCT). IIoMocT nepe)l;
ceHSlMH H nepeXO)l;aMH B xopOMax (1, 2)
HJIH KPynHoR ua6e (1). 3 PYHOYK (2).
IIOTEIIIHhIM rOPO,a:OK (=noTeIIIHhIH )l;BOp, COKOJIhHJI). ,a:epeBJIHHruI HJIH
3eMJIJIHaJI Kpenocmb )l;JIJI <pOpTH<pHKaQHOHHOro o6Y'IeHHlI PYCCKHX QapeBH'IeH.
IIOTMAP. JIaph )l;JIJI xpaHeHHJI nocY)l;hI,
pacnOJIO)l{eHHhIH PJI)l;OM C ne'IhlO B
3P3S1HCKOR ua6e (1).
IIOTOK. 1 MaccHBHhIl'i )l{eJIo6, B KOTOPhIH YIIHpalOTCSI HH)I{HHe KOHQhI TeCHH B
Kp06/le PYCCKOH )l;epeBJIHHOH nocTpoR-
IIPECTOJI. HenO)l;BH)I{HhIR 'IeThIpexyrOJIhHhIR CTOJI B QeHTpe a/lmapJl (1),
06JIa'IeHHhIH B TKaHH C peJIHrH03HoR
CHMBOJIHKOR; Ha BepXHell: nJIOCKOCTH
HaXO)l;S1TCSI EBaHreJIHe C HanpeCTOJIhHhIMH KpecTaMH no cTopoHaM, a TalOKe
oapoxpaHUme/lbHUl{a.
IIPHEO)l(OHKA. IIpum60p (1).
IIPHEOHHA. 1 BepTHKaJIhHhIR 6pyCOK (1) Me)!{)l;Y Cpy60M H o6um6Kou.
-105-
IIPHMKHYThIM EACTHOH. BacmUOH, Ha rjJJlaHKaX KOToporo 6a.tlWHl
H 6pycm6ep HenOCpe)l;CTBeHHo npHMhIKalOT K KypmUHa.M (3).
IIPHMKHYThIM TP ABEPC. Tpa6epc
(1), om6aeMhIll: TpaHIIIeeR HJIH XO)l;OM
C006IQeHHSI TOJIhKO C O)l;HOR CTOPOHhI
(cp.: 06XOOHOU mpa6epc).
IIPHMOCT. HaphI )l;JISI cnaHhSl B pycCKOR ua6e (1, 2).
IIPHHU-METAJIJI. Bama Mema/l/l.
n
106
nPMPY& - npOcDMnbHblE BOPOTA
•IIPlfPYB.
He60JIbmasI ;o;epeBSlHHasI
npHCTpoHKa, KOHCTPYKTHBHO CBSl3aHHasI
C 60JIee KpYTIHOH qaCTblO 3;o;aHHH.
IIPMCEK. Kpene)KHbIH 3y6, OCTaBJIeHHbIH Bqame Y Ko~a 6pe6Ha, npe;O;Ha3HaqeHHOrO ;o;JISI py6KH CTeH C ocmamKOM.
IIPMCllA. 3eMJISlHasI HaCbTIIb, 6aA (1),
KypzaH.
IIPlfCTIEIIIHhIH KATOK. lloxo~
Ha npHJIaBOK BbITSlHYTbIH CTOJI ;o;nSl
pa60TbI nOBapoB.
IIPMCllElllUl. 1 KYXIDI, nOBapIDI.
2 lleperopo;O;Ka B U36e (1), npHMbIKalOm;asI K neqH H OT;o;eJISlIOm;asI npocTPaHCTBO ;o;JISI CTPSlTIHH.
IIPMCTYll (=npHCTYTIHasI Kono;O;Ka).
llepeHocHasI CKaMeeqKa-cryneHbKa Y
KpoBaTH HJIH Kpecna.
IIPlfCYTCTBEHHhIE MECTA. KOMnneKC racy;o;apCTBeHHbIX yqpe~eHHH B
rapo;o;ax POCCHHCKOH HMnepHH.
IIPlfTBOP. 1 Orp~eHHoe CTeHaMH
nOMem;eHHe nepe;o; BXO;o;OM B qepKoBHoe
3;o;aHHe. 2 CTBOpKa BOPOT HJIH KaJIHTKH.
CHB CTeHbI HJIH 3aKpenneHHasI Ha ;O;BepHOM nOJIOTHe.
TPaneqReBH;o;HbIH KOHen; O;O;Horo 6pyca
BbICTynaeT Ha illHpHHY BTopora.
IIPOrlfMHA3lfH. Cpe;O;Hee yqe6Hoe
3aBe;o;eHHe C COKpam;eHHOH npOrpaMMOH
06yqeHHH (4 ro;o;a HJIH 6 JIeT BMeCTO 8 B
mMHa3HH).
IIPOCEK. MCKYCCTBeHHasI npJIMasI ;0;0pora 'Iepe3 JIeCHOH MaCCHB, BXo;o;mu;Hii B
COCTaB napKa.
llPorOH. MaCCHBHasI npO;o;OJIbHasI
6aJIKa, YJIO)KeHHasI Ha CTeHbI nOMem;eHHSI H no;o;;o;ep)KHBalOm;asI ;o;pyme 6aJIKH.
IIPOEKTYPA.
CTyn HJIH CBec.
ApxHTeKTypHbIH BbI-
llPOEMHAH TIEqh. lle%, BCTpoeHHasI B KanHTaJIbsyID BHYTPeHHlO1O CTeHY
3anO;O;JIHn;0 C ee nOBepXHOCTJIMH.
llPOEMHhIH 3AM6K. ,!l;eKopaTHBHbIH 3aMK06bl14 KaMeHb, B03BblmaIOm;HHCSI Ha;o; apxu6oAbmoM, nepeceKasI
KapHU3Hble mRZU.
llPOKJIAAHAH llJIMTA. OTecaHHblH
KaMeHb, BKJIlOqeHHbIH B KHpn~HYIO
KAaoKY;O;M ee yKpenneHHSl (Ha ypoBHe
apO'lHbLX TlRm, Ha pa3HoH BblCOTe B
CTBOJIax KHp~HbIX KOAOHH, B OCHOBaHHH noocma606).
1 MeCTO ;o;JISI qaCOBoro.
IIPOCTlfJIhHAA ,!l;PAHh. llPH6HTbIe
Henocpe;o;cTBeHHo K CTeHe HaKJIOHHbIe
napaJIJIeJlbHble nOJIOCbI opaHu (2), Ha
KOTopbIe no;o; npJIMbIM yrJIOM Ha6HBaeTCSI 6bLXooHaR opaHb, - ;o;M y;o;ep)KaHHH mTYKaTypKH.
IIPlfTOJIOKA. 1 BepxHHH 6pyc (1)
;o;BepHora npoeMa. 2 3aBepmalOm;asI
rapH30HTaJIb ;o;BepHoH Kopo6KU.
llPlITYIlJIEHHAH APKA. llOJIOrasI
CmpeAb'lamaR JIH60 ;O;BycKaTHasI apKa co
cKpyrJIeHHHMH B TlRmax (1).
llPMXO)I(AA. HexamasI KOMHaTa npH
Bxo;o;e B KBapTHpY·
llPOCTOH TEHAJIh. TeHaAb C ;o;BYMH
OCTPOyroJIbHbIMH BbIcrynaMH B CTOPOHY
npOTHBHHKa.
IIPOJIET APKH. PaCCTOSIHHe MexqJ;Y
TlRmaMU (1) apKu.
IIPOCTYllh. rOpH30HTaJIbHasI
BepXHOCTb CTyneHH.
llPOME)I{YTOqHhIH
KAPHlf3.
KapHU3, pa3;o;eJISUOm;HH RpyCbl Ha ljJaca;o;e.
llPOHO)I{KH. rOpH30HTaJIH, coe;O;HIDIIOm;He B HIDKHeH qaCTH HO)KKH Me6eJIH.
llPOC<I>OPHAH.
llOMem;eHHe ;O;JIa
BblneqKH npocljJop - KpyrJIbIX xne6n;eB
C peJIbeljJHbIMH CHMBOJIaMH, ynoTPe6JISIeMbIX B XPHCTHaHCKHX o6pSl;o;ax.
IIPlfqEJIMHA. J(ocKa (1), 3aKpbIBalOm;asI pe6po CaMl4060U Kp06AU.
rB03,!l;M.
no-
IIPOTHrM. BbllnRJICHble 6pe6Ha.
llPOTH)I{KA. MeTaJIJI~eCKasI rpa~a Me~y CTeKJIaMH B 6Umpa:JICe (1).
IIPI-UIMOK. lfCKyccTBeHHoe 3arny6JIeHHe B rpYHT nepe;o; npoeMoM nO;O;BaJIbHoro 3Ta)Ka.
IIPOBMBHhIE
Hble 26030U.
IIPOCllEKT. JIHn;eBasI 'IaCTb OpZtlHa.
llPOCTMJIh. llpaMoyrOJIbHOe B nnaHe
3;O;aHHe C O;o;HOPJIAHOH KOAoHHaoou
TOJIbKO Ha rJIaBHOM ljJ;tca;o;e, PaBHOH eMY
no mHpHHe.
llPlfTBOPHOE BlfJIO. BUAO (3).
llPlfTlfH.
2llpHTOH.
IIPOCEqHOE )l{EJIE30. )l{eJIe3HasI
nOJIoca co CKB03HbIMH OTBepCTHSlMH,
qaCTO COCTaBJISlIOm;HMH ~HbIH opHaMeHT H nOJIyqeHHbIMH C nOMOm;blO 3aoCTpeHHora y;o;apHora HHcTPYMeHTa.
llPOYlllfHA. CKB03Hoe OTBepCTHe B
3JIeMeHTe KOHCTPYKn;HH (o6b1'IHO y era
KOHn;a).
BauoaUl-
llPOllMJIEM. 06paMJIeHHe napa;O;Hora
Bxo;o;a napanneJIbHbIMH KOAOHHaOaMu.
llPOBMPHAA llAJIATKA. Ka3eHHoe
yqpe~eHHe, B KOTOPOM onpe;o;eJISUOT
CO;o;ep)KaHHe 6JIarapO;O;HbIX MeTaJIJIOB B
H3;o;eJIHSIX H IjJHKCHpYIOT era HaJIO)KeHHeM 1CAeilMa.
IIPOlllfJIhHAA PE3hBA. Y30p Ha
;o;epeBSlHHoH oocKe (1) HJIH ljJaHepe,
BbITIOnHeHHbIH nyTeM CKB03Hora npoTIHJIa H npe;O;Ha3Ha'IeHHblH K BOCnpHHTHIO Ha npocBeT.
IIPOBOH. )l{eJIe3HasI nemAR ;o;JISI
HaBeCKH 3aMKa (3), 3a;o;eJIaHHasI B Mac-
IIPOPE3HAA JIAllA. T-06pa3Hoe
Cn;enneHHe 6pycbe6 (1), npH KOTOPOM
-106-
llPO<I>lfJIlfPOBAHHhIH. llpOT}l)KeHHbIH 3JIeMeHT, HMelOm;HH Ha JII060M
yqaCTKe O;o;HO H TO )Ke nOnepeqHOe ceqeHHe, orp~eHHoe ;o;yraMH H OTPe3KaMH npSlMbIX.
IIPO<I>lfJIhHhIE BOPOTA. KpenoCTHbIe BopoTa, npoeM KOTOPbIX HaqHHaeTCSI OT no;o;omBbI 6aAa (1) B HX OCHOBaHHH.
n
npOcPMTKA - nSiTPA
107
IIPO<I>MTKA. IIopcjJuoKa.
IIPYCCKMM CBO.IJ;. HeCKOJIhKO O~II­
HaKOBhIX 60'lapHblX CBOOOB, BhITSIHyThIX nOnepeK 06m.en OCII II pa3~eJIeH­
HhIX nOHIDKeHHhIMII apKaMU (1).
IIPIDHEITb.
IIJIOTHruI
llIepcTSIHruI
TKaHh ~JISI 06KBKII Me6eJIII.
IIYHbKA, IIYH~. Capaft ~JISI xpaseHKSI KOPMOBhlX pacTeHIIH, SIPOBOH COJIOMhI, MSIKKHhI K T. n.
IIbITIIIKMCb IIOCO.IJ;3. CeHH KOMIInepMSII.\Koro KpeCThSIHcKoro )KKJIKm.a.
IIYPIIYPMH. AcmpaJlum.
oOMe
IIYPXA. raMpeR (1) B~OJIh tPaca~a
KYMhIKCKOro oOMa (1).
IIbE.IJ;ECTAn. Xy~O)KeCTBeHHo otPopMJIeHHhIH nOCmaMeHm, - HanpHMep, C
IICnOJIh30BaHlleM op~epHhIX tPOPM K
npOnOpl.\IIH.
IIYCTOM BACTMOH. BacmuoH, BHYAMBP A3YPA. BouHuu,a, rpll KOToporo BaJlWH2 npoxo~IIT B~OJIh
OCh KOTopon 06pa3yeT npSIMoH yrOJI C cjJJlaHKOB II cjJacoB, a nOBhIllIeHHoH nJIOnJIOCKOCThfO
KpenocTHoH m.a~KH ~JISI apTIIJIJIepKH HeT.
BHcllIHen
CTeHhI KJIII 6pycmBepa.
IIYCTOIIlOBKA. Cnoc06 KHpnllqHOH
KJlaOKU, npll KOTOPOM pacTBop Ha caHIIP~MAA KITA.IJ;KA. KOHCTPYKI:\KSI
TIIMeTp He ~OXO~HT ~O JIHl.\eBOH nOBepxKKpnKqHOrO CBooa, B KOTOPOM rpaHK
HOCTH, 06JIerqaSI ee Cl.\enJIeHHe co llITyKa)K,lloro KKpnKqa pacnOJIO)KeHhI no~
KaTypKoH.
npSIMhIM yrJIOM K nJIOCKOCTSIM CTeH
nepeKphIBaeMoro
nOMem.eHKSI
HJIH IIYCTbIHb. MOHallieCKaSI 06HTeJIh,
napaJIJIeJIhHhIHM.
B03HIIKllIaSI B CTopOHe OT HaCeJIeHHhIX
MeCT.
IIP~MOM 3AMOK C 3YBOM. Cnoc06 CllJIaqHBaHKSI 6pycbeB (1) no O~HOH IIYTEBOM ,IJ;BOPEIJ,. .IJ;BOPI.\OBhIH
OCII, npll KOTOPOM Ha KOHl.\ax Ka)K,llOrO KOMnJIeKC . ~JISI HenpO~OJI)I(JITeJIhHOrO
6pyca ~eJIafOTCSI O~HHaKOBhIe npO~OJIh­ OT~hIxa JIHI.\ l.\apCKOH tPaMIIJIlI1I BO
HhIe BhIcrynhI-KpfOKII r-06pa3HoH tPop- BpeMSI ~aJIhHerO nYTellleCTBIISI.
IIP~MA~
MhI, C H3JIOMaMII
IIP~CITO.
no~
npSIMhIM yrJIOM.
1 YqaCTOK CTeHhI
~peBHe­
pyccKoro KaMeHHoro coopY)KeHIISI, orpaHllqeHHhIH ~ByMSI JlOnamKaMU, nUJlOHaMU HJIII6aUlHR.MU (1, 2, 3) (cp.: ropooeHb). 2 YqaCTOK ~epeBSIHHoH orpa~hI,
orpaHHqeHHhlH ~ByMSI cToJI6aMH, KOJIhSIMH KJIK cToHKaMII.
IICMIIIE. BOJIhlllOe 3epKaJIO ~JISI yCTaHOBKK Ha nOJIy.
IITMqMM rITA3. Pa3HoBH~HOCTh ~pe­
BeCHHhI KJIeHa, IIMefOm.ruI )KHBOnllcHYfO
meKcmypy II n03BOJISIfOm.aSI 113rOTOBJISITh He~oporyfO Me6eJIh C BHelllHKM
BH~OM, nOXO)I(JIM Ha 113~eJIKSI 113 KapeJIhCKOH 6epe3hI.
IIYrOBMIJ,A. KpyrJIhIH ~eKOpaTKB­
HhIH BhIcTyn, 3aKphIBafOm.IIH llIJISInKY
rB03~SI KJIH TOpel.\ UlnUJlbKU (2) B KpenJIeH1I1I ~epeBSIHHhIX 3JIeMeHTOB.
IIIDPTIDM. CeHH qysallicKoro KpeCThSIHCKoro OOMa (1).
II~ITbU:bI. 1 lleThlpexyrOJIhHhIe paMhI
K3 6pycbeB (1), Ha KOTOPhIX 3aKpellJIeHa
~om.aTaSI 06ll111BKa MKHHoro KOJlOou,a
(2). 2 KOMHaTHruI UlupMa.
II5ITA. 1 HII)KHIIH ypoBeHh B K3rll6e
apKU (1, 3) IlJIII cBooa. 2 BhIeMKa ~JISI
Kpene)KHOrO Uluna.
II~TEPMK.
BpeBHO
5 BeplllKoB.
II~TMrITABME.
Horo 06'beMa
nSIThfO 2JlaBa.Mu.
IIYqKOBbIE IIMIT5ICTPbI. 3JIeMeHT
apXIITeKTypHoro ~eKopa, 11306pa)KafOm.HH pacnOJIO)KeHHe Tpex nUJlRCmp B
~Ba CJIOSI - TaK, qTO ~Be 3a~Hlle BhICTyrrafOT K3-3a nepe~HeH.
IIIIJ,AHT3.
KpeCThSIHHHa
B Ka6ap~HHCKOM HJIH
qepKeCCKOM CeJIeHIIII, BKJIfOqafOm.aSI
)KKJIOn OOM (1) B rJIy6KHe npOcTopHoro
oBopa (1) (06HeceH nJIeTHeM KJIH HH3Kon KaMeHHoH cTeHKoH), a TaK)l(e
rrocTp.0HKY ~JISI KyXHH, HaBec ~JISI X03SIHCTBeHHhIX Hy)K~, nOMem.eHlle ~JISI JIOllla~II, CKOTHhIH ~BOp, KypSITHIIKH II npHyca~e6HhIH yqaCTOK C noceBaMII KyKyPY3hI H oBom.eH.
Ycaob6a
cpe~HeI'O ~OCTaTKa
IIIIJ,bIII3. KpyrJIoe )l(JlJIHm.e C He06Ma3aHHhIMH nJIeTeHhlMH CTeHaMII, pacnpocrpaHeHHoe y a~hIrCKKX Hapo~oB.
IIIIJ,bI3 ( = nlllhI3 ). IIoxo)Kee Ha llIaJIalli
qepKeCCKoe )KIIJIIlm.e C BhITSIHyThlM nJIaHOM.
IIYITbIIET (=nyJIhnHTp) . .IJ;epeBSIHHhIH
nlonump (cp.: AHaJlOu).
IIIIJ,bI3XYPEM. Kpyrnoe qepKeCCKoe
)KKJIIlm.e, no tPopMe nOXO)Kee Ha
IIYIThTOBM.IJ;HAA KPbIIIIA. IIOJIOrruI O~HOCKaTHaSI KpblUla.
llIaJIalli.
IIbIB3AH.
3hIPSIHCKruI OXOTHHqhSI
K36YlllKa CHe60JIhlllHM aM6apOM (1) ~JISI
~06hIqH.
IIbIPT. ITonapcKaSI cpy6HruI u36a (1)
6e3 nOTOJIKa, OTanJIIIBaeMruI 'lYBaJlOM.
-107-
B qepKeCCKoM
IIIDIIMTP. HaKJIOHHruI nO~CTaBKa ~JISI
HOT KJIH KHHr, 3aBeplllafOm.ruI JIerKYfO
CTOHKY·
IIYllMHA. MaKCIIMaJIhHOe paCllIKpeHHe JlYKOBU'lHOU, MaKOBU'lHOU HJIII rpyllIeB~HOH l.\epKOBHoH 2JlaBbl, BhIllie ee
OCHOBaHKSI.
IIYITAT. IIoJlamu (1, 2) B U36e (1)
TaTap-MlIllIapeH.
IIYHKITM. IIOJIyctPepllqeCKHe rOJIOBKK
Kpene)KHhIX CTep)KHeH, npHMeHSIBllIllxCSI
B ~peBHepyccKoM npIlKJIa~HOM IICKyCCTBe.
KJI~OBruI
(1).
IIYTIT~HKA. JIa6upUHm.
IlYKET. BYKem.
IIYKOH. CTYJI ~JISI rJIaBhI ceMhK HJIII
nOqeTHoro roCTSI B y~MYPTCKOM )l(JlJIKm.e.
IIbIIIJ,bIK.
3aBepllleHKe OCHOBl.\epKOBHoro 3~aHKSI
II~TMKOITO.IJ;HOE
OKHO. HmaJlb-
RHCKoe OKHO.
II5ITM CKAT. IIpSIMOyroJIhHhIH KaMeHHhIH 6JIOK, oTecaHHhIH C llSITII CTOpOH.
II~TMCTEHOK
(=llSITKCTeHHruI 1136a). KpeCThSIHCKHH OOM (1) 113 6peBeH
IlJIH 6pycbeB (1), y~JIIIHeHHhIH cpy6
KOToporo pa3~eJIeH nonepeK Ha )KKJIYfO
U36y (2) K napa~HyfO 2OPHUU,y (1) KanumaJlbHOU cmeHou, py611BllIeHcSI O~HO­
BpeMeHHo C OCTaJIhHhIMII CTeHaMK.
II~THMU:A. T.facoBHR (2) B BH~e KpeCTa C IIKOHOH, nOCTaBJIeHHaSI y pa3BHJIKK
~opor.
II5ITPA. raJlepeR (1) no BTOPOMY
3Ta)KY cII611PCKOro aM6apa (1, 2), orpaHJlqeHHruI TOqeHhIMII KOJIOHKaMII.
PAEATKA. Y3KH"H n;BeTHMK rro KpaIO
,n;OpOrM HJIH a.!l.!leu.
PAEOTHhII1: ,o:OM. I1crrpaBHTeJIbHOe
Y'lpe)!(,n;eHHe, B KOTOPOM cO,n;ep)!(aJIHCb M
BbIIIOJIHl1JIH 06Il\eCTBeHHO rrOJIe3HYIO
pa60TY JIHn;a HH3IIIHX COCJIOBHH, COBepIIIHBIIIHe He3Ha'lHTeJIbHbIe rrpecTyrrJIeHHl1, a TaK)!(e HeHMYIl\He C YBe'lbl1MH (rro
YKa3Y 1781 r.).
P ABEJII1H. TpeyroJIbHOe B rrJIaHe
<pOpTH<pHKan;HOHHoe coopy)!(eHHe rrepe,n; KpenOCmllbl.M PBOM, Me)!(,ll;Y 6acmUOllaMu.
P A3,o:BOEHHhII1: YrOJI. BHeIIIHHH
yroJI 3,n;aHHlI, 3arra,n;aIOIl\HH H3-3a HeCJIHBaIOIl\HXCli .!IOnamOK rro KpaliM CMbIKaIOIl\HXCli <paca,n;HbIX rrJIOCKOcTeH.
P A3,IJ,EJIKA. 1 YTOJIIl\eHHe KHprrH'lHOH CTeHbI Obl.MOXOOa Pl1,n;OM C ,n;epeBl1HHbIMH KOHCTPYKn;l1l1MH, a TaK)!(e KaMeHHal1 CTeHKa 6e3 ,n;epeBl1HHbIX 3JIeMeHTOB,
B03Bo,n;HMali Pl1,n;OM C TorrKOH rre'lH HJIH
HHoro KyxoHHoro O'lara. 211.bl.M06IlUK.
P A3)KEJIOEOK. )KeCTliHOH )!(eJIo6
,n;JIli rrporrycKa ,n;O)!(,n;eBoH BO,n;bI, YJIO)!(eHHbIH Ha ,n;OIl\aTOe OCHOBaHHe B yrrry6JIeHHM KP06.!1U, a TaK)!(e Pl1,n;OM C ,n;bIMOBOH
Tpy60H HJIH C.!lYX06blM OKIl0M.
P AMO'1HA5I <l>EPMA. Apo'tllaH pepMa.
P AMO'1HhII1: HAJII1'1HI1K. 3aMKHYToe 06paMJIeHHe rrpoeMa, MMeIOIl\ee
o,n;HHaKOBoe Ce'leHHe Ha Bcex Y'laCTKax.
P AMTIA. 1 HaKJIOHHali
2 Ea.!llocmpaoa, rrepHJIa.
rrJIOCKOCTb.
P AHKAH. Orpa)!(,n;eHHe za.!Iepeu HJIH
JleCTHMn;bI, B l1rrOHCKHX rrocTpoHKax.
PATITIOPT. TIoBTOPliIOIl\HHC113JIeMeHT
opHaMeHTa.
PACKAT (=pocKaT). EpeBeH'laTbIH
rrOMOCT ,n;JIli rrYIIIeK Ha KpenOCmllou CTeHe, a TaK)!(e rrOMOCT HJIH HaCbIIIHal1 rrJIO-
P A3)KI1BKA. Herrry60KHe KaHaBKH Ha
OCHOBHOH rroBepxHocTH ,n;epeBl1HHOrO
6ape.!lbepa, c,n;eJIaHHble ,n;JIl1 Mo,n;eJIHPOBKM opHaMeHTa HJIH B HHbIX 3CTeTH'leCKHX n;eJIlIX.
PA,o:Y)I(HOE CTEKJIO. CTeKJIO C
pa,n;Y)!(HOH rro6e)!(aJIOCTbIO rrOBepXHOCTH, rrOJIY'leHHOe rrYTeM B03,n;eHCTBHl1 Ha
Hero B paCKaJIeHHOM COCTOl1HHH a30THOKHCJIbIX H XJIOPHCTbIX COJIeH; pacrrpoCTpaHlIJIOCb C 1870-x rr.
PA3rpY30'1HA5I APKA. ApKa (3),
BKJIIO'leHHaJI B TOJIIl\Y K.!IaOKU H rrepepacrrpe,n;eJIliIOIl\al1
HarpY3KH, - ,n;JIli
60JIbIIIeH Ha,n;e)!(HOCTH KOHCTpYKn;HH.
- , ,
-/' -,::-',; ,I.:~
,/'
PA30PBAHHhII1: <I> POHTOH (=BbIrpbI3eHHbIH <pPOHTOH). (/Jpollm«)ll, y
KOToporo ,n;JIli ,n;eKopaTHBHoro 3<p<peKTa rrpepBaHbI CKaTbI.
m,a,n;Ka rro,n; KpenOCmllbl.M 6a.!10M (1),
PA3PE3HOI1: TIAPTEP. 06paMJIeHc,n;eJIaHHbIe C TOH )!(e n;eJIbIO (CM. EamaHbIH CTpH)!(eHbIM 6YKCOM (caMIIIHToM)
peH).
rrapKoBbIH napmep (1), PMCYHOK KOTOporo C03,n;aIOT n;BeTbI Ha rreC'laHOMPACKOC. HaKJIOHHblH 6pyc (1), yrrH<poHe.
paIOIl\HHCli O,n;HMM KOHn;OM B llaCaoKY (1)
M B BepIIIMHy O,n;HOH cmouKu, a ,n;pyP AI1:CKI1E BPA T A. C6Hmbie 6pama.
rMM - B .!IeJICellb (1) M B HM)!(HMH KOHell,
PAKA. BbITl1HYTbIH rro ropM30HTaJIH ,n;pyroH CTOHKM, YCHJIHBaJI rrpO'lHOCTb
MeTaJIJIH'leCKHH l1Il\HK C OCTaHKaMH CBl1- KOHCTPYKlI,HH.
Toro, o<popMJIeHHbIH KaK capKopaz HJIH
PACKPETIOBKA.
apxHTeKTypHoe coop~eHHe.
BblcTyrr rrpOTl1)!(eHHOrO ropH30HTaJIbP AKOBI1HA. BeepHoe 3arrOJIHeHHe Horo 3JIeMeHTa, rrapaJIJIeJIbHbIH I1JIOCKOmUMnalla 3aKOMapbl HJIH rrOJIYKpyrJIOro CTH CTeHbI.
Bepxa HMIIIH.
P AMMA. A)!(ypHble ,n;epeBl1HHble peIIIeTKH, coe,n;HHl1IOIl\He rroBepxy CTOJI6bI,
B l1rrOHCKHX I10CTpoHKax.
108
-108-
P ACTIAJIYEKA. 1 PaBHo6e,n;peHHbIH
TPeyrOJIbHbIH Y'laCTOK n;MJIHH,n;pH'leCKOH
rrOBepXHOCTH C ,n;yroo6pa3HbIM OCHOBaHHeM, OrrHpaIOIlI,HMCl1 Ha ,n;Be TO'lKH.
P
109
PAcnAWHASI ABEPb - PMrA
2 CBOAHK C Tpeyrom,HoH, cTPem,'IaTOH,
napaGOJIuqecKoH, nRTUYmJIhHOH HJIH
npmmyrOJIhHOH npoeKD:HeH, HaBHCaIOm;HH HaA npoeMoM H Bpe3aHHhIH B
OCHOBHOH caoo nOMem;eHIDl.
3Be3A'IaThIM KpaeM, 3aKpeTIJIeHHhIe Ha
nepeCe'leHHH nOJIOC B KOBaHhIX ABepSlx
MH npYTheB B peweTKax.
PE,[(YT. IIpHcnoco6JIeHHoe AJISI KPyrOBOH OGOpOHhI COMKH}'Toe nOJIeBOe yKpenJIeHHe C npSlMoyrOJIhHhIM HJIH MHoro-
cr
'.'.
PE,[(HHA. PacnOJIO}KeHHaSl Ha KpalO
OTKPhITOro npocTPaHcTBa 'IaCTh napKoBoro MaCCHBa, AJISI KOTOPOH xapaKTepHhI HeCOMKH}'TOCTh KpOH H OTCYTCTBHe nOAJIeCKa.
,
.'.
. "
PACIlAII1HA51 ,[(BEPh. ,[(BYCTBOp'laTaR ABeph.
P ACIIAIIIHhIE KPhillhD;A. CHMMeTPH'IHhIe OmlCUOftbte ICpbt.ltbi¥J no pa3HhIe CTOPOHhI 3AaHHSI.
PACIIYIIIKA. BbtOpa
(2).
P ACCBEThI. BepmKaJIhHhIe nOBepxHOCTH OKOHHoro npoeMa, KOTOPhIH pacwHpSleTcSI B CTOPOH}' Uftmepbepa.
PACCTEKJIOBKA. PaC'IJIeHeHHe nepenJIeTa iIa 3aCTeKJIeHHhIe yqacTKH.
P ACIIIHBKA. MexasuqeCKaR oGpaGOTKa WBa B BHAe aa.tlulCa (2) Me~y
TOHKHX :HCe./106ICo6.
P A TYlIIA. 1 OpraH ropoAcKoro caMoynpaBJIeHHR B PYCCKHX 2OpoOax (2)
C 1727 no 1743 r. (CM. Mazucmpam).
2 COCJIOBHhIH CYA B HeGOJIhWHX 2OpOOax
(2) POCCHH XVIII H XIX BB.
PAYIIIrEJIhE. KpaCHaR KpacKa C }KeJITOBaThIM OTTeHKOM.
P AD;HOHAJIhHhI11:
KHPIIHQ.
EeToHHhIH HCKYCTBeHHhIil: KaMeHh C
napaJIJIeJIhHhIMH m;eJIeBHAHhIMH nyCTOTaMH (npHMeHRJICSI C 1912 r.; KOHCTPYK~ PYCCKHX HH}KeHepOB C. JI. IIpoxopOBa H M. H. CMHpHO~a).
PEBEPEEP. MeTaJIJIuqeCKoe 3epKaJIO
npH JIaMne HJIH CBe'le, nOBhIwalOm;ee
OCBem;eHHOCTh.
PErOJIA. IIoMem;eHHaR nOA mpuz./lUPOM H paBHaR eMY no WHpHHe nOJIO'lKa
C weCThlO zymmaMU, npHMhIKalOm;aR
CHH3Y K meftUu.
PErYJI5IPHhIl1:. OCHOBaHHhIH Ha CHMMeTPHH reOMeTPuqecKHX nOCTPOeHHH.
PE,[(AH. OTKphITOe nOJIeBOe yKpeTIJIeHHe, 06pam;eHHoe B CTOPOH}' npOTHBHHKa OCTPhlM yrJIOM.
yrOJIhHhIM TIJIaHOM, KOTOPhIH BKJIIO'IaeT
B ce6S1 6a.t1 (1) C 6aftICemOM (1), a TaK}Ke
OKaHMJIeHHOe BHeWHHM H BH}'TPeHHHM
pBaMH.
PE)K. rOpOOlffl
(1, 2, 3).
PETHPA,[(A. 1 A6utftum. 2 OTXO}Kee
MeCTO, y60pHaR.
PETPAHIIIEMEHT. 1 BcnOMOraTeJIhHaR q,opmq,HKalUlOHHaR nocTPoil:Ka AJISI
YCHJIeHHoil: BH}'TPeHHeil: OGOpOHhI ICpenocmu B CJIyqae npophIBa npOTHBHHKa
PE3EPB.A)K. TeXHOJIOrHR H3rOTOBJIeHHR 06oeB, npH KOTOPOH ne'laTaeTCSI
TOJIhKO HX q,OH, a PHCYHOK oGpa3yeT
HCXOAHaR nOBepxHocTh GYMarH.
PE:HHCKHH IIOrPEE. KJIaAOBaR AJISI
BHHa.
PEKAMhE. KOPOTKaR lCyutemlCa C BhICOKHM H30rH}'ThIM H3rOJIOBheM.
PEKPEAD;H5I. IIoMem;eHHe B yqeGHoM
3AaHHH, npeAHa3Ha'leHHOe AJISI oTAhIXa
yqam;HXcR B nepephIBe Me~y 3aHRTHSlMH.
PEJIH. 1 Ma'lThI, nOAAep}KHBalOlJUle
QenH HJIH KaHaThI 6UCR'leZO Mocma.
2 Ape./lu.
PEMEIIIKH. 1 (=apMHJIJIhI, aHHeJIeThI). Y3KHe peJIheq,Hhle KOJIhQa B OCHOBaHHH aXUfta, onORChIBalOlJUle OCHOBaHHe OopU'lecICOU lCanume./lu. 2 HaGopHhIH 6azem (2) H3 TPex OAHHaKOBhIX
nJIaHOK C MepHhIM PHTMOM BhlnyKJIOcTeil:, KOTophIe B coceAHHX PSlAax CMem;eHhI Ha nOJIwara.
(CM. A6utftum). 2 IIoJIeBoH OKon AJISI
neXO,:\,hI, B KOTOPOM ABe napaJIJIeJIhHhIe
BhIeMKH my6HHoH 3 q,yTa pa3AeJIeHhI
6pycmaepoM.
PEcI>JIEKTOP. IIocepeGpeHHoe BOJIHHCToe CTeKJIO B nOABH}KHOH MeTaJIJIuqecKOH paMe, KOTOPaR YKpenJIeHa cHapY}KH
nepeA OKHOM 3aTeMHeHHoro nOMem;eHHR, - AJISI pacnpocTPaHeHHR B HeM AHeBHoro CBeTa.
PEIIIETHHhI.
OCHoBHhle
3JIeMeHThI
o6peutemlCu.
PHrA. 3aBepWeHHaSl HaBeCOM noCTPOHKa AJIR CyWKH 3epHoBoro XJIeGa H
JIhHa.
PEHTEPE5I. MecTHoe Ka3Ha'leil:CTBo,
npHHHMaBWee HaJIOrOBhIe B3HOChI, xpaHHBwee Ka3eHHhle AeHhrH H BhIAaBaBwee HX no paCnOpR}KeHHIO BoeBOAhI;
cym;ecTBOBaJIH TaKHe Ka3Ha'leHCTBa C
1720 r.
PEHIIITOK. YJIO}KeHHOe BAOJIh AOPO}KHoro nOJIOTHa HCKycCTBeHHOe PYCJIO H3
KaMHSI, KHpnH'Ia, GeToHa HJIH AepeBRHHhIX waweK (B COOTBeTCTBHH C nOKphITHeM npoe3}KeH 'Iacm), HanpaBJISlIOm;ee
JIHBHeBhIe BOAhI K MeCTaM eCTeCTBeHHoro CTOKa.
PEIIhH (=peneil:KH). MeTaJIJIH'IeCKHe
poaemlCu C oKpyrJIhIMH JIeneCTKaMH HJIH
-109-
.
,~----~
(\ '-17
IJ" \j
I
""'--~"/
I
P
PMrA'I - PYHAYK
110
PIt:rA q. TIpHCTpouKa ,n:ml xpaHeHHSI
XJle6a B CHOrrll,X, rrpHMLlKalO~aSI K
capaIO C rre'lhlO ,n:JISI HX CyuIKH.
PHfEJIh. fopH30HTaJIbHLlU 6pyc (1),
coe,n:HHSlIO~u cmponUllbHble H02U B
6UCR'tUX cmponUilax.
KaMHSIMH Me}K,t\y HeCKOJIbKHMH pSI,n:aMH
C6aU.
POfATKA. 3aKpellJIeHHbIU Ha BepTHKaJIbHOU OCH roPH30HTaJIbHhIU 6pyc (1)
C 'lacTbIMH KpecTOBHHaMH, 3aKpbmaBIIIHU rrpoe3,n: rro yJIH~e HJIH ,n:opore.
PHfEJIhHO-TIO,lJ;KOCHMI CHCTEMA.
KOHCTPY~SI
,n:epeBSlHHblX
MOCTOB, rrpH KOTOPOU nOOKocbl YITHpaIOTCSI CBOHMH BepIIIHHaMH B PUUJlb.
HeBblcoKaSI 6autHR (3),
H3 KperrOCTHblX CTeH B
CTOPOHY rrpOTHBHHKa ,n:yro06pa3Hou
rroBepxHoCTblO.
POHAEJIh.
BLlcTYrralO~aSI
POCKAT. PaCKam.
POCTBEPK. B3aHMHO rreprreH,n:HKyJISIpHLle Jle3ICHU Ha C6aRX, rro,n:,n:epxamalO~e fjJYHOaMeHm.
PH:>KCKMI MOCTOBMI. Moaau'tecKaR MOCm06aR.
PH3AJIHT.
BblcTyrralO~aSI
'laCTb
<lJaca,n:a (KaK rrpaBHJIO, HMelO~aSI rrpSlMOyrOJIbHbrn rrJIaH) - O,n:HH H3 cy~eCTBeHHblX 3JIeMeHTOB ero cHMMe1"pH'lHOU KOMrr03H~H.
P03A. BOJIbIIIoe KpyrJIOe OKHO co
CJIO}I{HblM Y30PHbIM rreperrJIeToM.
POTOHAA. 3,n:aHHe C KpyrJIbIM lIJIaHOM HJIH 60JIbllIOU ~JIHH,n:pH'leCKHU
06'beM, 3aBepIIIeHHblU KynoJloM.
PH3HHQA. TIoMe~eHHe B ~epKBH HJIH
MOHacTblpe, rrpe,n:Ha3Ha'leHHOe ,n:JISI xpaHeHHSI 06JIa'leHHU H ~epKoBHoH yTBapH,
a TaK}l{e OT,n:eJIbHOe 3,n:aHHe Toro xe Ha3Ha'leHHSI.
PH3HHQHhIH
HUK.
TIPH,lJ;EJI.
j{bRKOH-
PHMCKMI M03AHKA. M03aH'lHOe
H306pIDKeHHe H3 O'leHb MeJIKHX rroJIHpoBaHHbIX KaMeIIIKOB.
PUMCKMI QEPETIHIJ;A. Tparre~H­
eBH,n:HbIe rrJIOCKHe IIJIHTKH C Y3KHMH
60pTHKaMH rro HaKJIOHHblM cTopoHaM
POTYHAA. KpyrJIaSI 6eceoKa(1, 2),
pomoHoa.
P03APHH. 1 Y'laCTOK ca,n:a, rrpe,n:Ha3Ha'leHHbIU ,n:JISI BbIP~BaHHSI p03 pa3JIH'lHblX rro ~eTY H <lJopMe. 23apOCJIb
,n:HKopacTy~ero IIIHllOBHHKa B rrapKoBOM KOMrrJIeKce.
P03ETKA (=p03eTTa). ,lJ;eKOpaTHBHbIH MOTHB B BH,n:e KpyrJIOrO ~BeTKa C
O,n:HHaKOBblMH JIerreCTKaMH.
P03ETTA. 1 CTHJIH30BaHHoe H306paxeHHe ~BeTKa B pHCYHKe ca,n:OBo-rrapKOBOro napmepa (1).2 PoaemKa.
P030BhIM CM. PezYJlRpHblU rrapK C
rrpe06JIa,n:aHHeM p03 B ero 06JIHKe.
POKAHrrhHhIH. XapaKTepHblu ,n:JISI
aCHMMe1"pH'lHOrO apXHTeKTYPHoro ,n:eKopa POKOKO (HarrpHMep, ,n:HaroHaJIb-
y,n:ep}I{HBaeMble 1"peHHeM
(6e3 Kperre}I{HblX IIIHrroB) Ha CIIJIOIIIHOU
o6peutemKe rrpH ee YKJIOHe He 60JIee
1:4; CTLlKH rrepeKpbIBalOTcSI 3JIeMeHTaMH B BH,n:e yce'leHHOrO KOHYca.
TParre~HH,
PHMCKHH
Kpecm.
KPECT.
POCTPAJIhHhIH. YKpaIIIeHHbiu CTHJIH30BaHHbIMH H306pIDKeHHSIMH Kopa6eJIbHblX Hoca H KOPMbl.
POII(A. MaccHB ,n:epeBbeB O,n:HOU H TOU
xe rropo,n:bI, B neUaa:HCHOM napKe, C rrpoCMaTpHBaeMbIM rrpOC1"paHCTBOM Me}K,tly
CTBOJIaMH.
PY,lJ;HhIH ,lJ;BOP. PaclIIHpeHHe py,n:HH'lHOrO KopH,n:opa rrepe,n: rro,n:'beMHOH
IIIaxTOH, rrpe,n:Ha3Ha'leHHOe ,n:JISI BpeMeHHOro CKJIa,n:HpOBaHHSI py,n:bl.
PY,lJ;O-xEnThIH.OpaH}l{eBbIH.
PYHHA. TIapKoBoe coopyxeHHe-; C
POMaHTH'leCKOH XHBOIIHCHOCTblO H306pIDKalO~ee pa3BaJIHHbI aHTH'lHOro xpaMa, rp06HH~bI H T. ,n:.
PYKAB. 1 Ka}K,tIoe H3 'leTbIpex OTBeTBJIeHHU KpeCT006pa3HoH lIJIaHHpOBKH,
a TaK}l{e cooTBeTcTBYIO~U eMY apXHTeKTypHblH 06'beM. 2 Maput ..
PYMTIA. Kop06'laTLlU BLlCTYrr Ha
3a,n:HeH cTopoHe U3paa~, rrpe,n:Ha3Ha'leHHbIH ,n:JISI ero 3aKpellJIeHHSI B KJlaOKe
JIamuHcKuu
PHMCKHH OPAEP. KOMnoaumHblu
opoep.
PHTIH,lJ;A. Cepe6pIDlhIu HJIH 30JIO'leHbIU ,n:HCK JIH60 rrpSIMoyrOJIbHHK C IDKYPHbIM H306pIDKeHHeM cepafjJUMa B JIy'lax
CHSIHHSI, 3aKpellJIeHHblU Ha ,n:JIHHHOM
BePTHKaJIbHOM IIIeCTe H BbIHOCHMbIU
rrpOTO,n:bSlKOHOM BO BpeMSI apxHepeHcKoro 60rOCJIyxeHHSI (B 'laCTHOCTH, rrpH
KpecTHoM xo,n:e).
PHCBEPMA. TIJIO~a,n:Ka C HH30BOU
CTOPOHbI 6ooocnycKHou, 6000CJlU6HOU
JIH60 zJlYxou nJlOmUHbl, BblCTJIaHHaSI
Hble rreperrJIeTeHHSI C KpyrrHblM rrpOCBeTOM, pe6pHCTble 3aBHTKH MOPCKHX
paKOBHH, rrpHXOTJIHBO H30rnyTbIe, pa3BeTBJIeHHble H ClIJIeTeHHbIe rr06erH IIJIO,n:OBbIX paCTeHHH).
POKAPMM. Y'laCTOK rrapKa, 06'be,n:HHSlIO~H B CB060,n:HblX KOMII03H~HSIX
aCHMMe1"pH'lHbIe rJIbI6b1 OUKOZO KaMHR
H rroca,n:KH ~BeTOB.
POMAHCKMI KATIMTEnh. Ky6o6amaR KanUmeJlb.
-110-
rre'lH HJIH CTeHbI (rrpH 3TOM BHYTPeHHOCTb P. 3arrOJIHSleTCSI paCTBopoM C KHpIIH'IHbIM ~e6HeM).
PYH.n;YK. 1 napb C rro,n:'beMHOH KpbIIIIKOU, HCrrOJIb3yeMbrn KaK CKaMbSi. 2
KPLlTaSI rrJIO~a,n:Ka HapY}I{HoH JIeCT-.
HH~bI rrpH ,n:peBHepyccKoM 3,n:aHHH. 3
HH3KHH rrpSIMOyrOJIbHblU 06'beM, HaBHcalO~H Ha,n: BXO,n:OM B 6peBeH'laTbIH
aM6ap (1, 2).
PYCCKASI KnAAKA - PSI)K
P
111
BepCm06aR
JISUOIqHH 3aBO~HTb 3a):1BIDKHOH 3anOpHbIH 6pyc (1).
PYCCKA~ llEqb (=BapHcTruI ne'Ib).
HaH60JIee pacnpOCTpaHeHHhIH B PycCKOM KpecTbSIHcKOM cTpoHTeJIbCTBe run
ne'lH, ~JIX KOToporo xapaKTepHbI:
OTCYTcTBHe obtMoo6opomo6, HaJIH'IHe
60JIbIIIHX nOJIOCTeH, n03BOJISUOIIQIX HCnOJIb30BaTb HX ~X BbIne'lKH XJIe6a H
~JIX MhITbX, a TaIOKe HaJIH'lHe umpOKOH
JIeXaHKH HaBepxy.
PbIM. )I(eJIe3HOe KOJIb~O (;n;HaMeTp 10-20 ;n;IOHMOB, TOJl~Ha
2-3
;n;IOHMa) ;n;JIX IIIBapTOBKH cy;n;oB, KOTopoe
Bpa~aeTcSI B npoyutwte 60JITa, 3a):1eJIaHHOro B KaMeuuyIO lUlaoKY Ha6epe)KHOH.
PYCCKA5I
KJIA.D:KA.
lUlaOKa.
PYCCKIIE rOPbI. rOpbt.
PYCCKIIE qACbI. .D:peBHepyccKHe
'IaChI, ~<pep6JIaT KOTOPbIX pa3~eJleH
Ha 17 'IaCTeH - ~JIX 0603HaQeHIDI ~HeB­
Horo BpeMeHU OT~eJIbHO OT HO'IHOrO;
pOJIb CTpeJIKH HrpaJIO H306paxeHHe
COJIH~a C JIY'IaMH, ~BHraBIIIeecSi no BHeIIIHeMY KpaIO ~<pep6JIaTa.
PYCCKIIH MAKA.D:AM. MalcaoaM. Ha
HCKycCTBeHHoH neC'IaHOH nO;n;CTHJIKe.
PbIHbIill.
OBHH B KOMH-3hIpmcKoH
ycaob6e.
P3H.D:3I1MMO. Pa3;n;BHX<HhIe OKOHHhIe paMbI C 'IaCTbIM peIIIeT'IaTbIM nepenneTOM, 3aTXHYTbIe 6eJIOH 6YMaroH (B
xnOHCKHX nOCTpOHKax).
P3H.D:30 KYEAPlI. IJ;eJIbHruI 6aJIKa
Ha HeCKOJlbKHX onopax B xnOHCKOH
nOCTpoHKe.
P~.
Cpy6 C npOCBeTaMH MeX<;n;y 6pi!-
Belt, 3anOJlHeHHbIH KaMHSIMH (;n;JISI Kpe-
nOCTHbIX H rH;n;pOTeXHH'leCKHX coopyx<eHUH) (CM. rOpOOHR (1, 2, 3).
PYCCKIIH YrOJI. Opyc 'tMObtut.
PYCT. llOBTOPSUOIqHHCX :meMeHT pyc-
m06KU.
PYCTOBAHHAA illTYKATYPKA.
Pycmo6Ka, HCnOJIHeHHruI B IIITYKaTypKe
6e3 peaJIbHbIX BhIcTYnoB K.!laOKu.
PYCTOBKA. .D:eKopaTHBHruI o6pa60TKa cTeHHoH nOBepxHoCTH, HanOMHHaIO~aSl K.!laoKY H3 KPYnHbIX KaMHeH
.: " , d';' "")o.!~I~~~..!~~~~.
;~;:.)t3:;~?l}i<'
r
HJIH HMeIO~ruI BH;n; roPH30HTaJIbHhIX
nOJIOC PaBHOH IIIHpHHhI (TO'lHee - BblCOTbI), peJIbe<pHo BhICTYnaIOIIQIX Ha):I
<pOHOM.
PYXJI~.D:HA~ llAJIATKA. KaMeHHoe
CBO;n;'IaTOe nOMe~eHHe JIH60 3;n;aHHe C
XeJIe3HhIMH ;n;BepSlMH H CTaBHSlMH, npe;n;Ha3Ha'leHHOe ;n;JISI xpaHeHHX MeJIKOrO
;n;OMaIIIHero HMY~ecTBa 6oraToro BJIa;n;eJIb~a.
PYQEH. rOpH30HTaJIbHhIH na3 B KaMeHHoH K.!laOKe OTKoca npoeMa, n03BO-
-111-
CA.o;HJIO.
1
He60JIbUIaH pUla
cpe;LIHeH CTeHKH H I10TOJIKa.
2
6e3
MecTo B
pH;L\a
'IeTbIpex
mbt'tKOB,
y
KOTOPbIX
I10CJIe ;LIByKpaTHoro o6MaKHBaHHH KHP-
I1apHHKe, 3aHHTOe HMaMH C'IepH03eMoM
I1H'Ia
;LIJIH oBo~eH, Tpe6ylOIIl;Hx oco6oro yxo-
I1IHpOKHH paBHo6e;LIpeHHblH TpeyrOJIb-
;LIa.
3
He3aCTeKJIeHHOe
OKHO,
'Iepe3
KOTopoe OIlYCKalOT CHOIlbI B OBUH.
B H3BeCTb
OCTaBaJICH KpacHbIM
HHK - B cpe;LIHeM PH:r:lY ;LIBa TaKHX TPeyrOJIbHHKa paCIIOJIaralOTCH BepIlIHHoH
BHH3 (KaK H B TbI'IKe BepxHero pH;LIa), a
1 Ca:J/Ca.!/xa. 2 EOJIbiliaH KJIeT-
HH)KHHH TPeyrOJIbHHK o6pa~eH BepIlIH-
Ka, B KOTOPOH cO;LIep)KaT H pa3Bo;LIHT
HOH BBepx; I1pHMeHHJIaCb ;LIJIH yKpaIlIe-
I1eB'IHX
HHH KHpIlH'IHbIX ua6 (1) C JIH~eBOH KJlaO-
CA,lJ;OK.
I1TH~.
CA,lJ;PAl.J: OPYH.o;YK.
YKpaIlIeHHbIe
pe3b6oH
;LIo~aTbIe
CTeHKH
paBHoH
BbICOTbI - I10 TpeM CTOPOHaM KpoBaTH
;LIJIH
rJIaBbI
ceMbH
B
Kapa'laeBCKOM
AillJIH~e.
CA)!(. XrreB, B KOTOPbIH Ca)KalOT CBH-
KOU BHeUIHHX CTeH.
CAHKTYAPHH.
CAMl.(OBA5I KPOBJI5I. THII KpbtutU
xpaHeHHH H
I1PO;LIOJIbHbIe 6aJIKH YKJIa;LIbIBalOTcH Ha
JIHTyprHH.
6peBHa, o6pa3ylO~e U{unl{OBbte l/JPOHmOHbt TOp~OBblX CTeH.
1
lloMe~eHHe B KaTO-
JIH'IeCKOM xpaMe, I1pe;LIHa3Ha'leHHOe ;LIJIH
;LIepeBHHHbIX I10CTpOeK, I1pH KOTOPOM
HeH ;LIJIH oTKopMa.
CA)KAJIKA.
I1pOeMOM HJIH HHilieH (H3Ha'laJIbHO
;LIJIH 3a~TbI OT ;LIO)K;LIeBOH BO;LIbI).
;LIeMoHcTPa~HH
I1pe;LIMeToB
CAHCOBHHO OKHO. OKHO, B KOTOPOM apKa
(1),
3aBepUIaIO~aH I1pOeM,
mpex'temBepm1tbt.MU
Ka1t1teJlUpOBa1t1tbt.MU KOJlO1t1taMU C U01tU'teCKUMU
KanUmeJlR.MU,
Hecy~HMH
UMnOCmbt (1).
cpJIaHKHpOBaHa
(=ca;LIoK). llpy;LI ;LIJIH
pa3Be;LIeHHH PbI6bI.
2
KOpOTKHH ;LIepe-
BHHHbIH KOJI.
CAHHHK (=3aryH). KpbITbIH 3aroH
CAllA. HaIlpaBJIeHHaH B CTOPOHY oca-
;LIJIH JIOIlIa;LIeH, B ycaob6e KOMH-3bIpHH.
)K;LIaeMOH Kpenocmu TPaHUIeH, I1OCTe-
CAKJI5I. KaBKa3CKOe Hapo;LIHoe )KHJIH-
Ma1tmeJlemOB, uta1tOeJlbepOB, mypoB H
l/Jautu1t.
I1eHHO
~e,
06bI'IHO
YCTPoeHHoe
B
CKJIOHe
y;LIJIHHHeMaH I10;LI rrpHKpblTHeM
rOpbI.
CAKPHCTH5I. PuaHUl{ll I1pH KaTOJIH'IeCKOM HJIH JIlOTepaHcKoM xpaMe.
CAKCOHCKHH
CBO.o;.
Bo'tapHbtU
CAMl.(OBbIH JIOE. Iaunel{ Ha
CBOO.
CAlIA.
6peBeH'IaTOH ua6bt
3a.t1a.
CAMAH (=B03;L1YUIHbIH KHPIIH'I). He060)K)KeHHbIH
rJIHHHcToro
KPYIlHbIH
rpYHTa,
KHpIIH'I
CMeIlIaHHoro
H3
C
CAHEOHH.
rJIaBHOe 3;L1aHHe CHHTO-
HCTCKoro xpaMa.
CAHrABAP A. BOJIHHCTOe I10KpbITHe
o6pe3KaMH COJIOMbI (cp.: JIeMna't).
B HIIOHCKOH apxHTeKType.
CAMMOH.
CAH.o;PA. IIoJlamu
rJIaBHbIe
BopOTa
I1epe;LI
Top~e
(1).
(2)
Ha;LI BXO;LIOM B
CAllorOM
(=rnaroJIeM).
Pa3Me~e­
HIIOHCKHM xpaMoM.
6aIlIKHpcKoe )KHJIH~e.
CAMOBAP. CHMMeTpH'IHaH I1JIOCKOCT-
CAH.o;PHK. He6oJIhiliOH oTpe30K Kap-
CTbHHCKOH ycaob6e C60KY H C3a;L\H ua6bt
HaH q>Hrypa H3 pa3Me~eHHbIX B TPH
Huaa HJIH l/JpoHmoH, I10Me~eHHhIH Ha;LI
(1),
112
-112-
HHe O;LIHoHpycHoro oBopa
(1)
B Kpe-
C OXBaTOM ee I10 ;LIByM CTOPOHaM.
c
CAPA~ -
CEHr06EHCKOE CTEKnO
CAPAH. 1 CKJIa):(cKruI rrOCT}JoHKa.
2.3):(aHHe, B KOTOPOM CTOKJIH BarOHbI H
rrapoBo3bI, a TaIOKe XpaHHnHCb 3arracHbIe qaCTH H MaTepHanbI ):(ng Hy)KJ\
)Kene3HOH ):(oporH.
CAPAH-3JillMHr. 3):(aHHe ):(ng CTOgHKH a3porrnaHoB, a3pocTaTOB H ):(HpH)Ka6neH.
CAPA «PAH. OCHOBHOH 06"beM KonOKOna, HMelOW;HH B~ yceqeHHOrO KOHyca.
CAPKO«pAr. KaMeHHoe H~rpo6He,
BbITjffiYToe rro ropH30HTanH H HarrOMHHalOw;ee CyH):(yK, qaCTO co cKpyrneHHeM
yrnoB H pe6ep.
CATM. M306pa)KeHHe pbl6bI-):(paKoHa
Ha KpoBne grrOHCKOro xPaMa.
CA«pT-rpMH. TeMHO-3eneHruI KpacKa.
113
CBETOBOH EAPAEAH. Bapa6aH C
OKHaMH, OCBew;alOw;HMH UHrnepbep.
CBEqHOH .sIIIJ;MK. BblCOKHH H BMeCTHTenbHbIH napb-rrpllnaBOK ~g xpaHeHHSI H rrpO):(a)KH CBeqeH, 06bIqHO paCIIOJIO)KeHHbIH B 3arr~HOH qaCTH ~epKOB­
Horo uHrnepbepa.
CBMJIb. OKpyrnblH HarrJIbIB Ha CTBone
):(epeBa,
o6n~arom;HH
3arrYTaHHbIM
rreperrneTeHHeM BOJIOKOH, 'ITO C03):(aeT
rrOBbIweHHYIO
rrpOqHOCTb
3Toro
yqaCTKa ~peBeCHHbI H ):(eKopaTHBHYIO
rneKcrnypy Ha ero cpe3e.
CBO;O: (=B3BO~). KPHBOJIHHeHHOe rrepeKpblTHe, rrepe~alOw;ee Ha OCHOBaHHe
He TOJIbKO HarpY3KY, HO H pacrrop.
CEKMPHbIH 3AM6K. PacrrpocTpaHeHHbIH BapHaHT .ItU'tUHbt, HarrOMHHaIOw;HH rro CHJIY3TY JIe3BHe CeKHpbI.
CBOJIOK. rJIaBHruI 6anKa, rro):(~ep)KH­
BalOW;ruI rrOTOJIOK B U36e (1) HJIH xopo-
CEOPH5I. /l.OM (1), B KOTOPOM C06Hpancg ):(epeBeHcKHH cxo~.
.Max
CBA5I. Bpyc (1) IInH 6pe8Ho, BepTHKanbHO B6HTbIe B 3eMnlO.
~epeBjffiHbIH 6pyc
CBETEU. )l(ene3HblH rrpyT C 3a)KHMOM,
B KOTOPb[H BCTaBngnaCb ropgW;ruI
JIyqHHa ~ng OCBew;eHHg B U36e (1) HnH
XOPOMax.
CTopOHaMH C rrOMOW;blO HX OTeCKH Ha
):(Be rpaHH rro~ ryrrbIM yrJIOM (Ha O~HOH
cTopoHe - Brr~HHa, Ha ~pyroH BbIcTyrr).
(-cp.:
Marnu~a).
CB5I3b. 1 MeTanJIHqeCKruI rrOJIoca IInH
(1), rrpOHH3bIBalOw;He
KaMeHHYIO KJlaoKY H rrpoTHBo):(eHCTBYIOW;He pacrropy C80008. 2 THrr PYCCKOH
U36bt (1), rrpH KOTOPOM ):(Ba )KHnbIX
rrOMew;eHHSI 06"be~HHSlIOTCg qepe3 ceHU
B rrpgMOyroJIbHbIH 06"beM.
CB5ITbIE BPATA. 1 BopOTa rJIaBHOrO
Bxo~a H B"be3~a B MOHaCTbIpb. 2
Uap- CEKPETEP. He6oJIbWOH rrHcbMeHHbIH
CTOJI C Ha):(cT}JoHKOH, BKJIlOqalOW;HH
BbmBH)KHbIe H rroTaHHble gW;HKH ):(JIg
):(enOBbIX 6yMar H rrHceM.
CKue 6parna.
CBETEJIKA.
He60JIbWag
CBeTJIruI
KOMHaTa B BepxHeH qaCTH oOMa (1).
CBETMJIbH5I. ;O:epeBgHHOe KOPbITO
pg):(OM co C8ern~OM, B KOTopoe rr~aJI
Harap C nyqHHbI.
CBETJIMUA. 1 rJIaBHOe rrOMew;eHHe B
KpeCTbgHCKOM oOMe (1) (CM. rOpHU~).
2 llapa):(Hag CBeTJIruI KOMHaTa B XOpOMax (1, 2).
CBETJIbIH qEP;O:AK. rpYIIIIa C8ernJlU~ B BepxHeM Rpyce XOpOM; KOHCT}JYK~Hg HX ):(epeBjffiHbIX CTeH 6blJla KapKacHOH, a He py6JIeHoH.
CBETOBOE KOJIbUO. KpyrJIoe IInH
MHoroyronbHoe OTBepCTHe B UteJlbt2e,
rrporrYCKalOw;ee CBeT B UHrnepbep rro):(
HHM.
crPA«P«PMTO (=rpacpCPHTH). ;O:eKopaTHBHag OT~enKa CTeH, rrpH KOTOPOH
nHHHH, rrpo~aparraHHbIe B BepxHeM CJIoe
wTyKarypKH, 06Ha)Ka1OT ee HH)KHHH
CJIOH HHOro ~BeTa.
C;O:ABJIEHHA5I
apKa.
APKA.
CJlCarnaR
CErMEHTHA5I «pEPMA. MeTaJIJIHqeCKruI CrnpOnUJIbHQR KOHCTpy~HSI,
rrOMep)KHBalOw;ag Kp06J110 .Ity'tK06020
ceqeHHSl.
CErMEHTHOE OKHO. OKHO B BH):(e
qaCTH Kpyra, 3HaqHTeJIbHO MeHbwe,
qeM rronOBHHa rrOCJIe):(Hero.
CErMEHTHbIH
C600.
CBO;O:. J/y'iK08btU
CEJIbHMK. rOpHu~a (2).
CEMMHAPM5I. Cpe~Hee yqe6Hoe 3aBe):(eHHe ~JIg rro~rOTOBKH CJIY)KHTeJIeH
KYJIbTa (~YXOBHruI C.) HnH yqHTeJIeH
HaqaJIbHOH WKOJIbI (yqHTeJIbCKag C.).
;O:BycKaTHruI
CEHrOEEHCKOE CTEKJIO. CTeKJIO
):(JIg rroKpbITHg naccaJlCeu, BHYTpeHHHx
CE;o:JIOM llPMllA30BKA. llJIoTHag
CTbIKOBKa OOCOK (1) Y3KHMH ~nHHHbIMH
080P06 (1), TeIIJIH~ H T. ~., o6JI~alOw;ee rrpOqHOCTblO 3epKaJIbHoro, a rro
CTOHMOCTH 6JIH3KOe K OKOHHOMY·
CE;O:JIOM
KP08J1R.
KPOBJI5I.
-113-
C
CEHM - CKAJlA
114
CEHH. IIoMe~eHHe B rp~aHCKOH napaJIJIeJIbHO H nepne8AHKYJIKpHO erenOC-rpOHKe, coeAHIDIIO~ee BXOA C KOM- HaM Ha GOJIee MaCCHBHble GaJIKH, cnnoHaTaMH (rum nQIJama.M.U (1) JIHGO C qeHHble B Tope~.
nepeAHeii.
CEPIIAHTHH. H3BHJIHCTruI Aopora Ha
CEHh. XYAO)KeCTBeHHO oq,opMJIeHHbIH nepena):lax peJIbeq,a (HaIIpHMep, B neuHaBeC Ha KOJIOHKax, B03BeAeHHbIH Ha):I 3a:JICHOM napKe).
npeCmO.lWM, mpOHOM HAP.
CEPhrA. 1 TpeyroJIbHruI nOABeCKa K
HQlJU'tHUKY. 2 OTBeperHe B Bblcryne
'tepenu'tHOU nnHTKH, n03BomIIo~ee
npHBg3aTb ee K o6peUlemKe. 3 CTeHKa
H3 i)paHKu, no KOTOpoii BbeTCg BHHOrpa):lHruI JI03a.
Kpo6.1te gnOHCKOro xpaMa, HanOMHHaIO~ee XBOCT COBbl HJIH PbI6HH XBOCT.
cE.o;3H. CABHraeMruI ereHKa B gnOHCKOH apXHTeKType, COCTO~ruI H3 JIerKOH AepeBJlHHOH peweTKH C 06KJIeHKOH
6yM:aroH.
.
CEPA«I>HM. Pa3HOBH;lIHOCTb TaK Ha3bIBaeMbIX CHJI He6eCHbIX, H306paJKaeMIIJI
B BH;lIe AeTCKOH roJIOBKH C weCTbIO
CE.o;O. 1 OTKpbITOe nOMe~eHHe C
KOJIOKOJIOM, npH CHHTOHCTCKOM xpaMe.
2 IIoMe~eHHe AM HacToneM, npHMbIKaIO~ee C 3a):1Heii CTOPOHbI K CHHTOHCTCKOMY xPaMY.
cEHH. 1 IIoJIKa, BAeJIaHHruI B CTeuy
gnOHcKoro· )KHJI~a. 2 IIIKoJIa npH
mOHCKOM xpaMe.
CECO (=cecoHH).
CKoro xpaMa.
HHJKHHii: RPYC mOH-
CEM. XpaM B KaJIMb~KOM JIaMaHCTCKOM MOHaerbIpe.
AJIHHHbIMH KpbIDbJIMH (o;llHa napa
nOABJlTa Ha):I roJIOBOH, APyrruI - ony~eHa HHJKe roJIOBbI, a e~e ABa KpbIDa
pacnpoCTepTbI B CTOpoHbI).
CHBHPKA. 1 ApecTaHTCKruI npH BOJIOerHOM npaBJIeHHH HJIH nOJI~eHCKOM
yqacTKe. 2 He60JIbWruI 3TanHruI TIOpbMa. 3 HPb-cu6upKa.
CHBHPCKOE )KEJIE30. j{oJJ¥jmoe
:JICe.lte30.
CH.o;EJIKA. O;llHoMecTHruI napKoBruI
CKaMeiiKa-Kpecno AJIg
C03ep~aHHB: npHpOAbI.
CHJIJIOHA. AH6e.ltona.
CHMA. BeuqaIO~ 2YCbK06btU npoq,HJIb i)opu'tecKozo KapHuaa.
C)KAT AA APKA (=cAaBJIeHHruI apKa).
II.lWCKaR JIH60 nO.lW2aR apKa (1) C npoTJl)KeHHOH rOpH30HTaJIbIO Ha):I npOJIeTOM.
CEPE.o;A. 1 qaerb nO,1la nepeA ne%IO iI
ua6e (1), BbICTJIaHHruI i)OCKaMU (1) nOA
npJIMbIM yrJIOM K OCTaJIbHbIM nOJIOBH~aM. 2 IIepeAHU qaCTb ua6bt (1).
CEPH30BhI¥I. BHIlIHeBoro ~eTa.
CEPHHET. He60JIbWOH OpUfH.
CEPJIHAHO. CaMbm pacnpOCTPaHeHHbm BapHaHT UmQIJbRHCK020 OKHa C
npoeMoM
nO;llBbIweHHblM apO'tHbtM
nocpeAHHe; Ha3BaHO no HMeHH HTaJIbJlHCKOro apXHTeKTOpa C.
CepJIHo
(1475-1554).
CEPJI00 IIOTOJIOK (=B nepenneTe
nOTOJIOK). IIJIocKoe nepeKpbITHe H3
CHH.o;3H. CBgTHJI~e CHHTOHCTCKOro
xpaMa.
C)KHMhl.
CKpenneHHble
60JITaMH
qepe3 MeJIKHe BbleMKH B 6pe6Hox napaJIneJIbHbIe BepTHKaJIbHbIe 6pYCbR (1) no
o6e CTOPOHbI 6peBeuqaToH ereHbI, npeIIB:TCTByIO~e ee HCKpHBJIeHHIO H OTKJIOHeHHIO OT BepTHKaJIH.
CHAMCKHE BJlH3HEIJ;hl. .o;HBaHqHK B BHAe AByx cnHBWHXCg KpeCeJI, 6e3
npoMexyTOqHOH pyqKH Ha):I CTbIKOM
cH;lIeHHii:.
CHHH¥I CAH.o;AJI. Ka.M.neute60e oepe60.
CHHTPOH.
.o;yro06pa3HruI
CKaMbg,
npHMbIKaIO~ruI H3HYTPH K BOCTOqHOH
CTeHe QlJmapR (1), cHMMeTPlI'IHO ero
npOAOJIbHOH OCH.
CHOH. Cepe6pJlHbm COCYA B BHAe XPHc-rnaHCKoro xpaMa, npe;llHa3HaqeHHbIH
AJIg npocq,op H 06blqHO YCTaHaBJIHBaeMblH Ha npecmo.lte B QlJmape (1).
CHOCOHH. CoKpoB~~a npH moHCKOM xpaMe.
CHTHhI¥I
R",UK.
6aJIOK, KOTOpble KOpOqe WHpHHbI nOMe~eHHB:, B CBg3H C qeM YKJIaAbIBaIOTCg
f
CHBH. IIpOAOJI)KaIO~ee
pa3;l1BOeHHOe yKpaweHHe
I
-114-
cmponU.lta
KOHbKa B
HmHK.
IIeK.tte6aHHbtU
CKAJIA. IIIHpoKoe nOJIo~e 6epeCTbI MeJKAY cnOlIMH TeCOBOH KP06.1tU.
C
CKAnOBbiE rB03AIot - COKOnbHSI
CKAJIOBblE rB03):t;Jf. rB03;q1f ;qJIIfHOH 4 CM, KOTOPhIMIf nplf6lfBaIOT nOJICTh
(BOHJIOK, ¢eTP) ;qJIX yrellJIeHIfH CTeH If
;qBepeH.
CKAMI1JIn. E;qBa 3aMeTHax npoKJIa;qKa Me~y a6aKou oopu~ecKou
Kanume.nu If apxumpa6oM, B norrepe~HIfKe
PaBHax BepxHeMY ;qlfaMeTpy
CTBOJIa KO.nOHHbl.
CKAMb5.I. CBx3aHHhIe Me~y C060H
B rrpocTPaHcTBe
KPbtUlU,
115
CKOJIOTEHb. ):t;epeBxHHbIH rn03;qb,
Haze.nb.
CKOJIOTMHA. Il.nacmuHa C HanOJIOBHHy BhI;qOJI6JIeHHOH cepe;qIfHoH, KOTOpyIO ;qJIX npo~HocTIf 3arrOJIHSIIOT paCKJIIfHeHHhIMIf OOCKaMU.
CK 0 UM5.I (= IlIOTJIaH;qcKIfH npO¢IfJIh).
CBoHcTBeHHbIH op;qepHoH apxHTeKType
BornYThIH rrpO¢IfJIb B BIf;qe COnpSI)KeHHbIX ;qyr pa3Horo pa;qlfyca.
6pyCbR
rro;q;qep)KlfBaIO~lfe
cmponu.na.
CKATHblE rOPbl. KamaAbHaR 2Opa.
CKBEP. OKpY)KeHHaX )KIfJIOH 3acTpoHKOH 6JIaroycTPOeHHax TepplfToplfX C
perYJIXpHOH 06ca;qKoH ;qepeBhxMIf no
KpaIO, a B cpe;qHeH ~aCTIf - C JI~aHKa­
MIf, 2a301taMU, K.nYM6aMU (1).
CKETI1Hr-PMHr. KphIThIH KaTOK ;qJIX
e3;qhI Ha POJIIfKOBhIX KOHhKax.
CKMT. 1 He60JIhllIOH MOHacThlph co
cTPorlfM YCTaBOM. 2 CTaP006px;q~ecKlfH
(paCKOJIhHIf~IfH) MOHacThIph B 6e3JIIO;qHOH MeCTHOCTIf. 3 Ke.nbR MOHaxaOTllIeJIhHIfKa, pacnOJIO)KeHHax B CTOpOHe OT MOHacThIpx.
CKJIA):t;EHb. MKOHhI, coe;qIfHeHHhIe
nOBopoTHhIMIf neTJIXMIf Ha ;qJIIfHHhIX
CTOPOHax.
CKJIA):t;qATbUi IIAPYC. CBO;qIfK
rrplf rrepexo;qe OT rpaHeHoro OCHOBaHIfX
K pOmOHOaAbHOMY 06'heMY, pa3;qeJIeHHhIH rrOrrOJIaM BepTIfKaJIhHhIM 1f3JIOMOM,
KOTOPbIH npo;qOJI)KaeT pe6po yrJIa Ha
CTbIKe rpaHeil::
CKJIEII.
CBo;q~aTax
rp06HIfl~a,
3arJIy6JIeHHax B 3eMJIIO.
06hI~HO
CKOE5.IHKA. MeTaJIJIIf~eCKHe )1eTaJIH
OKOH H ;qBepeH.
CKOEOBA5.I CTPEM5.IHKA. BepTHKaJIhHax JIeCTHIfQa B BIf;qe II-06pa3Hhlx
MeTaJIJIIf~eCKIfX cK06, B6HThIX IfJIH BMypOBaHHbIx B cTeHY.
CKOBOPO):t;EHb (=KacaTKHH XBOCT,
XBOCT). TpaneQlfeBIf;qHhIH
Kpene)KHhIH BbIcryn Ha KOHQe 6pyca
MIf 6pe6Ha, 1fH0r;qa YCJIO)KHeHHbIH
60KOBhIM Bblpe30M B BH;qe KpIOKa.
JIaCTO~KlfH
CKOBOPO):t;HEM. B Halpao.
CJIY)KEA.
IIoMe~eHlfe
lIo;qco6HOX03xHcTBeHHoro Ha3Ha~eHIfH B )KIfJIOM
;qoMe IfJIIf 3;qaHlfe C TaKoH ¢YHKQlfeH B
KOMIIJIeKCe 1I0cTPoeK.
CJIYXM. 1 IIpoeMhI B Ulampe (1) KO.nOKO.nbHU. 2 IIo;q3eMHhIe KOplf;qOphI IfJIIf
KaMepbI, BhI;qBHHYThle 3a IIpe;qeJIhI
YKpellJIeHIfH, ~T06hI CJIe;qHTh 110 3ByKy
3a 1I0;qKOIIHbIMH pa60TaMH IIPOTIfBHIfKa.
CJII03. mAl03.
CKPM)KAJIJf. C;qBoeHHble BepTIfKaJIbHhIe KaMeHHhIe OOCKU (2) C o;qIfHaKoBbIM
nOJIYKpyrJIhIM BepxoM, Ha KOTOPhIX
HanlfcaHbI ;qecSITb 3anoBe;qeH.
CKY):t;EJIbH5.I. BOJICeOOMKa (2).
CKMP):t;A. EnaH~a.
CJIOHEU. IIIIf¢ep.
CJIYXOBOE OKHO. IIpoeM B KpbtUle, CJIy)Ka~HH ;qJISI OCBe~eHIfH H BeHTIfJIXQIfIf ~epoaKa (1).
CKPbIH5.I. 1 KOMO;q, IlIKa¢, Kuom (2).
2 ):t;OPO)KHhIH CyH;qy~OK.
CKMHM5.I. 1 IIa.namKa. 2 mamep (1).
HhIe pa60ThI (peMeCJIa KOHKpeTHoro
xapaKTepa, 1f3B03 If ;qp.). 2 IIpIfMhIKaIO~HH K 2OpOOy (2) IIPOMhIIlIJIeHHhIH
1I0CeJIOK (XIX - Ha~aJIO XX B.).
CKy<pb5.I. C600 B BH;qe
llIapoBoro CerMeHTa.
CMA3KA. 3aCbtnKa.
CMEIIIAHHblE <pEPMbl. KOHCTPYKQHIf KPbtUlU, B KOTOPhIX cmponu.nbHbte
HOlU H nOOKOCbt c;qeJIaHbI 1f3 ;qepeBa, a
3amRJICKU (1) If cmpyHbt - 1f3 )KeJIe3a.
CMOTPMJIbH5.I. 1 He60JIhllIax ;q030pHaSI Ha;qcTpoHKa Ha 6aUlHe (1, 3) HJIIf
nOJIororo
CJIAB5.IHCKMll IIIKA<p. KpynHhIH
MHoro¢YHKqIfOHaJIbHhIH IlIKa¢, COBMe~aIO~HH B ce6e rrpocTPaHcTBo ;qJIX pa3BeCKIf BepxHeH o;qe~hI, BhI;qBIf)KHhle
X~IfKIf If nOJIKIf.
CJIErA (=oCJIe;qh, OCJIX;qh). BxO;qSI~ax
B o6peUlemKY )Kep;qh IfJIH oocKa (1),
3aKpellJIeHHax nonepeK cmponu.n If yJIO)KeHHax Ha TOPQoBble ~unl{bt 3;qaHIfSI.
CJIE3HMK.
IIJIIfTa
Half60JIhllIerO
BbIHoca B BepxHeH ~aCTIf KapHuaa.
CJIEIIA5.I MEEEJIb.
KymaHaR
Me-
xopOMax. 2 CTellHax Ka3a~hSI 6btUlKa Ha
qeThIpex HaKJIOHHhIX cToJI6ax.
oe.nb.
CHYPOK. Bazem.
CJIMBHOll MOCT. 3anacHoH B0)10cnycK B 3aBo;qcKoH nJIOTlfHe, npe;qHa3Ha~eHHhIH )1JISI npoxo)1a naBO)1KOBhIX BO)1.
COEAqKA.
CJIMBH5.IK. Ca;q Crrpe06JIa;qaHlfeM CJIIfBOBhIX )1epeBheB.
CJIM30BOll
KMPIIMq (=CJIIf3HOH
H3rOTOBJIeHHhIH
nyTeM PY~HOH ¢OpMOBKH.
Klfprrlf~).
KHpnlf~,
CJIMII. CoopY)KeHlfe C HaKJIOHHOH llJIO~a;qKoH ;qJIX cIIycKa He60JIhllIHX Cy;qOB
Ha BO)1Y HJIIf ;qJIX no;q'heMa IfX Ha 6eper.
CJIOEO):t;A. 1 BH;q 1I0CeJIeHlfH B ¢eo;qaJIhHOH POCCIfIf, )KHTeJIIf KOTOPhIX
OCBo60)K;qaJIHCh OT HaJIOrOB H 1I0BIfHHOcTeH TSIrJIOBOrO HaCeJIeHIfH (KpecThSIHe,
1I0Ca)1CKlfe) If BhIIlOJIHSIJIH Ollpe)1eJIeH-
-115-
IIpo;qoJIhHax
1I0JIOBlfHa
KlfpIIIf~a.
COEOP. rJIaBHhIH xpaM B ropo;qe IfJIH
MOHacThlpe, pacc~IfTaHHhIH Ha 60rocJIy~eHHSI
C yqacTlfeM ellapXlfaJIhHOrO
apxHepex.
CO):t;BbIB. IIplfllo;qHSIToe Ha;q 3eMJIeH
KPhIJIhQO C rrpIfMhIKaIO]l\eH KPhITOH
JIeCTHIfQeH B;qOJIh BHellIHeH CTeHhI KpeCThXHCKoro oOMa (1) KOM1l.-3hlpXH.
C03EA APKAJIbIK. EaJIKIf 110 CKaTaM KPbtUlU HoraHCKoro oOMa (1),
CJIy)Ka~lfe OIlOPOH ;qJISI TOHK1l.X )Kep;qeH
1I0;q KaMhIllioBOH HJIH rJIIfHSIHOH KP06.neil.
COKOJIbH5.I. IlomeUlHbtu 2OpOOOK.
C
COKutHH -
CTAPOPYCCKASI KnAAKA
COKII1;IIH~ Il,01C'lWt-oyzaH.
COJIE5I (=BHeWHlfll: npeCTOJI). He60JIhWOe npOT~[)KeHHOe B03BhIWeHHe
B,IlOJIh UKOHOCmaCa, co CTOPOHhI OCHOBHOrO npOCTpaHCTBa XpaMa.
COJIMTEP (=Op,IlHHap). AKu;eHTHpOBaHHOe, OT,IleJIhHO CTOSlIIl,ee ,IlepeBO B
napKOBOM aHCaM6JIe.
COJIHEQHA5I P03ETKA. 1 CO.!lRPHblU 3ftaK (1).2 BuxpeBaR p03emKa.
COJI5IPHhIll 3HAK. 1 .D:eKopaTHBHhIH MOTHB B BHAe Kpyra HJIH nOJIyKpyra, paBHoMepHo pa3AeJIeHHOrO Ha ceKTopa. 2 BuxpeBaR p03emKa. 3 CBacTHKa - '1eThlpeXKOHe'lHhIH KpecT C O,IlHHaKOBhIMH H3JIOMaMH KOHU;OB B O,IlHy 1'1 Ty
)Ke cTopOHy.
116
CO<I>A. IIIHpoKaSi
TKaHhlO HJIH KO)KeH.
cKaMhSl,
06HTaSi
CPE.D:OKPECTME.
5IAPo
KpecToo6pa3Horo B nJIaHe KYJIhTOBOro 3,I1amui,
06hI'IHO nO,Il'lepKHYToe B 06'heMHOH
KOMn03Hu;HH.
CO<I>MT. HH)KHSISI nOBepxHocTh apKU
(1) HJIH nepeMhI'IKH rrpoeMa.
COXM. CTOJI6hI C pa3BHJIKaMH BBepxy,
nO,IlnHpalOIII,He KPblUlY (B KpecTMIHcKHX
nocTpoHKax).
KOB
(1), nepe,IlalOIII,HX pacnop Ha CTeHhI.
CPYB (=lIcTpy6) . .D:epeBHHHoe coopy)KeHHe 6e3 nOJIa, nepeKphITHH, JIeCTHHU;, ,IlBepeH 1'1 OKOHHhIX paM, B03BeAeHHoe 1'13 ropH30HTaJIhHhIX 6peBeH HJIH
6pycbeB.
CTABEHh.
BeHb.
1 CmaBHR (1). 2 Bcma-
CTABH5I. 1 .D:epeBHHHhIH 3aCJIOH OKHa.
2 3amBop (4) B HH)KHeH '1aCTH n.!lomuHbl.
CTAllKA. 1 CKOTHhIM ,IlBOp B KpeCThSlHcKoHycaob6e. 2 CapaH, B KOTOPOM
CO,Ilep)KaT nTHU;y.
COMKHYTOE
YKPEITJIEHME.
<I>opTHcpHKaU;HOHHoe nOJIeBOe coopy)KeHHe, n03BOJISlIOIII,ee BeCTH KpyroBylO
060poHY (HanpHMep, peoym).
COMKHYThIll CBO.D: (=KoTeJIhHhIH
CBOA). CBOO Ha,II '1eThlpexyrOJIhHhIM
nOMeIIl,eHHeM, COCTaBJIeHHhIH: 1'13 .!lOm-
CPE.D:HMll BOll. EOUHUqbl BTOpOro,
rrpoMe)KYTo'lHoro Rpyca B KpenocmHblx
cTeHax 1'1 6aUlHJlx.
CTAllH5I. ITpHMoyrOJIhHaSI Bhlropo,IlKa
,IlJIH JIOIIIa,IlH B XOJIO,IlHOM oBope (1) KpeCThHHCKOH: ycaob6bt.
CTAJIAKTMThl. CBoMcTBeHHhIH 30ACITMHET. He60JIhIIIOH: K.!laBeCUft Tpe- '1ecTBY MYcYJIhMaHCKHX HapoAoB MHoroyroJIhHOH: HJIH '1eThlpexyrOJIhHOH cpop- . SlPYCHhIH H'IeHCThIH nepexo,II OT '1eThIMhI, 06hI'IHO He HMelOIII,HH HO)KeK.
COHETKA. KOMHaTHhIH: KOJIOKOJIh'1HK, rrpHBOAHMhIH B AeHCTBHe 1'13 APYroro nOMeIIl,eHHSI.
pexrpaHHoro HH)KHero Slpyca K BOChMHrpaHHoMY BepxHeMy, COCTOSlIIl,HH 1'13
MHO)KeCTBa MeJIKHX CBO,IlHKOB C BHCSI'1HMH nllmaMU (1) 1'1 KOftCO.!lbftbt.MU onopaMH.
COITJI5I. BepTHKaJIhHaSI oocKa (1) Ha
cpacaAe 11.)"1>1 (1), 3aKphIBalOIII,aSl CThIK
npU'lellllli (01 ()ZHUBa).
CIIMP AJIEBM.D:HA5I ITEPEB5I3KA.
B CnUpa.!lb.
COITPECIOJIII5I.
CKaMhH, I1PII\II,Ih.<lIOIII,He K BHYTpeHHeH
BOCTO'lHOH Chile a.!lmapR (1) no 06e
CTOPOHhI OT lOpHe20 Mecma.
CITJIOIIIHOIO
<I>ACA.D:OIO
3ACTPOllKA. ITpeAHaMepeHHoe B03Be,IleHHe 3AaHMH C O,IlHOpO,IlHhIMH cpaca,IlaMH no CPPOHTY yJIHU;hI HJIH nJIOIIl,aAH
6e3 HHTepBaJIOB no KpaCftOU .!lUHUU.
CTAME.D:. JIerKaSi IIIepcTHHaH MaTepHSl, ynOTPe6JISlBIIIaHCH AJISI OKOHHhIX
3aHaBeceH 1'1 Ha 06HBKY Me6eJIH.
CITOll. IIIOB B K.!laOKe ne'lH.
CTAH. 1 BoeHHhIH JIareph Ha B03BhIIIIeHHH. 2 IIpoMe)KYTo'lHaSi CTOSlHKa AJIH
OT,IlhIxa Ha SlMCKOM TpaKTe. 3 Ce30HHaSi
CKOTOBO,Il'leCKaSi CTOSlHKa. 4 MecTo cy,Ila
1'1 c60pa nOBHHHocTeH B cpeoAaJIhHOM
PYCH. 5 TeppHTOpHaJIhHaSi e,IlHHHu;a
cYAe6Horo 1'1 nOJIHu;eHCKoro xapaKTepa,
'1aCTh ye3,I1a. 6 JIonapcKHH IIIaJIaIII,
nOKphIThIH: KOpOH: HJIH IIIKypaMH.
COCEHKA. reoMeTpH30BaHHoe 1'1306pa)KeHHe
cHMMeTpH'IHO
nOAHHMaIOIII,HXCSI napHhlx BeTBeH: B TPH 1'1 60JIee
RpyCOB, - C nOMOIIl,hlO 06MaKHYThlx B
H3BeCTh yrOJIKOB KHpnH'la, KOTophle
BhI,IleJISIIOTCSI Ha KpacHoM cpOHe JIHu;eBOH
K.!laOKU B HapY)KHhIX cTeHax KHpnH'IHhIX
U36 (1).
C OCTATKOM. Py6Ka CTeH 1'13 6peBeH,
KOHU;hI KOTOPhIX BhlcTynalOT 3a yrJIhI
cpy6a.
COCMC. .D:JIHHHhIH rll6KHll: pYKaB 113
6pe3eHTa HJIH napYCHHhI, BhmOJIHSIIOIII,HH POJIh 6HKcpOPAOBa mHypa AJISI
BOCnJIaMeHeHHSI B3phIB'IaTKH nOA oca)KIl;aeMhIM YKpenJIeHHeM.
CITMIJ;. llInuq.
CITOPHA5I BO.D:A. BO,Ila, CKonHBwaHCH nepe,II n.!lOmUHOU Ha peKe.
CITOThIKAQ. 3arpa)KAeHHe 1'13 KOJIIO'1eM npOBOJIOKH Ha HH3KHX KOJIhSlX,
BhlcTynalOIII,ee Ha,II 3eMJIeH He 60JIee
'1eM Ha nOJI-apIIIHHa (35,5 CM).
CITYCKOBA5I ITJIMTA. ITpoTHBoBecHhIH: KaMeHh, rrpH)KHMaIOIII,HH C 3aAHeH
CTOPOHhl KapHU3ftylO nJIHTY HaH60JIhwero BhIHoca.
CPE.D:M3AJIhHA5I
ITEqh.
ITe'lh,
npHMhIKalOIII,aH K cepeAHHe CTeHhI B
nOMeIIl,eHHH.
-116-
CTAMMK. He60JIhIIIaSi BepTHKaJIhHaSI
onopa.
CTAHOK.
JIecHaSi H36YIIIKa,
noCTPoeHHaSi KaK BpeMeHHoe npHCTaHHIII,e ,IlJISI OXOTHHKOB, JIeCHHKOB H phI6oJIOBOB.
CTAPOPYCCKA5I
cm06all K.!laOKa.
KJIA.D:KA.
Bep-
c
CTEATMT - CTYn nbEAECTAnA
CTEATI1T. )KUPHblU KOMeHb.
CTEKJIO cl>YKCA. BooHoe cme1Ulo.
crEKJI5IHlIMI r APMOHHKA. My3hIKaJIhHhIii: HHC1'pYMeHT B BH):\e CTOJIa, C
no~mrroii: cmoAeUlHuu,eu,
06'he~HIDI­
IO~Hii:
HeO~HHaKOBhIe
CTeKJImIHhIe
117
crOJIB KOPH5I. Cpe~HHii: onopHhm
CTOJI6 BHY1'pH aBapcKoro X{HJI~a, CHMBOJIH3HPYIO~ pO~OBylO npeeMCTBeHHOCTh.
crOJIBOBKA
(=HeMe~ii:
THn).
Be1'pBHag MeJIhHH~a, BeCh 06'heM KOTOpoii: MOX{HO nOBOpa'lHBaTh, YCTaHaBJIHBag KphmhB npOTHB Be1'pa.
CTPAHHOIIPHHMHhIH ,l1;OM. 1 BoZaOeAbHJl, COBMe~eHHag C 60JIh~eii:.
2 IIpHIOT ~JIB MaJI0HMY~ nyTHHKOB.
CTPAIIOHTI1H. QryJI C H3MeIDIeMOH
BhICOTOii: CH):\eHhB.
CTPEKAJIO. Ba6Ka.
CTPEJIA. 1 BUMnepz. 2 JIuepHa.
CTPEJIA IIO,l1;'hEMA. BepTHKaJIbHOe
paccToBHHe OT 3OMK060Z0 KOMHJl apKu
HJIH c600a ~o JIHHHH, coe~HHBIO~eii:
nRmbl (1).
CTPEJIKA. OcrpOyrOJIbHhIH yqaCToK
Ha CTbIKe yJI~ HJIH; npH CJIHBHHH peK.
CTPEJIhHHIJ;A. ,[(epeBmIHag 6aUlHJl
(3) 6e3 wampa (1).
'laum Ha ropH30HTaJIhHOM BaJIY, KOTOPhIii: npHBO~HTCB B ~BIDKeHHe ne~aJIhlO;
3BYK H3BJIeKaeTCB 1'peHHeM YBJI~eH­
HhIX naJIh~eB 0 Kpag 'lam.
CTEJIA. MeMOpHaJIhHag HJIH H~rpo6Hag KaMeHHag DJIHTa C TeKCTOM HJIH
H306pIDKeHHeM, YCTaHOBJIeHHag BepTHKaJIhHO.
CTEHOBOH KHPIIHq. rOp00060U
Kupnu't.
CTPEJIhQAThIH. HMelO~Hii: 3aocrpeHHe npH nepeCe'leHHH ~Byx CHMMe1'pH'ICTOJIEIJ;. Ta6ypeT u.n;H CTYJI.
HhIX~.
CTOJIEllIHHqA. BepKIDIB HeOTKH~­
Hag ~OCKa CTOJIa.
CTOJIOOBPA3HhIE rYCJIH. KpynHhIH IQIDIKOBhrn MY3hIKaJIhHhlH HHC1'pyMeHT, pacnOJIoX{eHHhIH ropH30HTaJIhHO
Ha 'leThlpex HOx{Kax, Hano~o6He npBMO-
crEIIEHh. IIoMOCT Ha DJIO~a~H, K
KOTOPOMY Be~T CTyneHH.
crEPEOBAT. BhICOKoe o6'heMHoe
OCHOBaHHe no~ 3~aHHeM HJIH nbeoecmaAOM.
crEP)KHEBA5I
CmoA606Ka.
CTPEXA. 1 HHX{HHe KOH~I TeCHH B
Kpo6Ae, BhICTynalO~e 3a nJIOCKOCTb
CTeHhI. 2 KP06AR, KpblUla.
MEJIhHHqA.
CTPOH. CmponUAa.
CTI1JIOBAT. BepXIDIB DJIOCKOCTh cryrreH'IaTOrO OCHOBaHHB no~ apXHTeKTYPHhIM coopyX{eHHeM HJIH CKYJIhnTYPHhIM
MOHYMeHTOM.
CTO){(APhl. IIo~MOCTKH CO CXO~SIl~H­
MHCB BBepxy HaKJIOHHhIMH X{ep~BMH ~JIB
coxpaHeHHB ceHa B CYXOM BH):\e.
yrOJIhHOrO CTOJIa, Y KOTOPOro cmOAeUlHuu,a oTKHHYTa H YCTaHOBJIeHa BepTHKaJIhHO B~OJIh ~JIHHHOH CTOpOHhI.
CToHKA. BepTHKaJIhHhIH 6pyc (1),
YCTaHOBJIeHHhIH B rHe3~e Ae3ICHJl.
CTOJI5IPKA. ,l1;epeBmIHhle 'laCTH OKOH
H pUAeH'tambtX ~epeH.
crOHrrO. 1 OTropoX{eHHoe MeCTO ~JIB
KOPOBhI B XJIeBY HJIH ~JIB JIOm~H B
croPO:JKA. He6oJIhmOe YKpeDJIeHHe
Ha rp~e MOCKoBcKoro rocy~apcTBa,
npe~ynpe~aBmee BHe3anHOCTh KO'leBhIX Ha6eroB.
CT05IJIO. IIocmOMeHm.
cr05IqA5I CKAMh5I. Kp06eAbHtlR
CKOMbR C BepTHKaJIhHhIMH nO~OpKaMH
cmponUA.
CTPOIIHJlA (=C1'pODHJIbHble Horn,
BaJIhMOBhle
HorH).
06pa3yID~He
OCHOBY KpblUlU HaKJIOHHhle 6pe6Ha HJIH
6pycbR, COe~HHeHHble BBepxy no~
yrJIOM, a BHH3Y yDHpalO~eCB B CTeHbI
HJIH B MayapAambl.
CfPYHA. IIpoMe~O'lHhIH x{eJIe3Hbrn CTepX{eHh B KOHC1'py~ <i>epMbI,
nO~BepraID~CB paCTBX{eHHlO.
CTP5IIIHOH KYT (=6a6Hii: KyT, 3anOJIbe). OrropoX{eHHag 3aHaBecKOH
'laCTb ua6bl (1), npe~Ha3Ha'leHHag ~JIg
rOTOBKH DH~.
CTP5IIIYID;A5I
H3BA.
IIoBapIDI,
KyxIDI B KpeCTbBHcKoH ycaob6e.
CTY.n;EHEIJ;. KOAooeu, (1).
CTY,l1;H5I. MaCTepCKag X{HBODHC~a HJlH
CKYJIbDTOpa.
CTYK. IIoJIHpoBaHHhm rnnc, HMHTHpY1O~Hii: MpaMop.
CTYJI
KOHlOmHe. 2 OTceK ~JIg JIOKOMOTHBa
BHYTpH X{eJIe3HO~opox{Horo ~eno.
06~eM
-117-
"""ra.
IIhE,l1;ECTAJIA.
OCHOBHOH
0....,..,_'" sa
c
CTynbSl -
CblYAJI An.QbI
rrO):(HO)l{lIe (6a3a nbeOecma.!ta) II 3aBepIIIeHHhIl1: KapHU30M.
CTYJIh5I. IIpOCTeHIIIIIH PYHOaMeHm
rron: He60JIhIIIOe ):(epeBSlHHoe coopy)l{e-
118
HarpY3KII apKaMU (1) Ha pa3Hhlx ypOBHSIX, IIMelOll(ee B pa3pe3e BII):( HaKJIOHHOH JIeCTHIIl\hI.
CTYIIEHqAThIE TPOMIIhI. TPOMnbt B BII):(e ):(Byx IlJIII 60JIee apO'leK, pacrrOJIO)l{eHHhIX O):(Ha rro):( ):(pyroH.
CYIUMJIhH5I. IIOMell(eHlle ):(JISI rrpocyIIIHBaHIISI C rrOMOll(hlO rrporpeBa.
Cyrn;EBCKA5I IIEqh. He60JIhIIIaSI
KyxoHHaSl rrJIIITa B BlI):(e JIe)l{a'lero
rrapaJIJIeJIerrllIle):(a, C ):(ByMSl KOHq,OPKaMII ):(JISI rrpllrOTOBJIeHIISI IIIIll(II.
OI>MHKC. <PaHTaCTII'leCKOe )KJIBOTHOe
C TeJIOM JIhBa II rOJIOBOH 'leJIOBeKa.
CThlqHA5I CB5I3KA. CThIK ):(Byx 6peaeH rro O):(HOH OCII C rrOMOll(hlO rrpo):(OJIhHOH Tparrel\lIeBII):(HoH Bpy6K11.
CYECTMJIAPHhIE JIMHMM. JIIIHIIII
Ha l\1Iq,ep6JIaTe COJIHe'lHhIX 'laCOB, 0603Ha'lalOll(lIe BpeMSl.
Hlle, KOTOPhIH COCTOIIT 113 06py6KOB
6peaeH ):(lIaMeTpoM 5-7 BepIIIKoB; 06py6KII 3amy6JISlIOTCSI B 3eMJIIO Ha 13/4 2 1/ z apIIIIIHa II pacrrOJIaralOTCSI rro):(
yrJIaMII cTpoeHIISI, rro):( CThIKaMII H rrepeCe'leHIISIMII CTeH; Ha OCTaJIhHhIX Y'laCTKax oTcTyrralOT O):(IIH OT ):(pyroro Ha
1- Il/z Ca)l{eHII.
CYEyprAH. EaIIIHe06pa3Hoe 6y):():(ml:CKOe coopY)l{eHlle, B KOTOPOM 3aMYpOBaHhI CB}lll(eHHhle TeKCThI II MOll(II.
CXO)J;H5I. C60pHR.
CTYIIAJIhHhlI1: KOJIO)J;EIJ,. Ko.!looe14 C rrpllBo):(HhIM KOJIeCOM 60JIhIIIOro ):(lIaMeTPa Ha BepTIIKaJIhHOH IlJIII
HaKJIOHHOH
OCII,
KOTopoe
Bpall(alOT
')''':'<''-
CYBYPrA. TYBIIHCKml: cy6ypzaH.
CYM3H. 3aBepIIIeHHe }lrrOHCKOH nazoObt,
H306pa)l{alOll(ee 'leJIOBe'leCKYIO
q,lIrypy B Sl3hIKax rrJIaMeHH.
CYMAX. Ee3BopCOBhIH O):(HOCTOPOHHHH KOBep y KaBKa3CKHX HapO):(OB.
CYM3. MaJIhIH xpaM B 6Y):():(IIHCKOM
MOHaCThIpe.
CYIIPAIIOPT. ,lJ,wooenppm.
HoraMII )l{HBOTHhle, rrOCJIe):(OBaTeJIhHO
rrepecTyrralOll(lIe C O):(Horo ero Y'laCTKa
Ha coce):(HHH, q,aKTH'leCKH OCTaBaSlCh Ha
O):(HOM H TOM)I{e MeCTe (cp.: Ton'taHKa).
CTYIIEHqATO-KPErn;AThIH CBO)J;.
KpeUfambtii caoo CO cryrreH'laTOH
rrOBepXHOCThIO paCna.!ly60K (2).
CXBATKA. 1 Coe):(IIHeHlle KOHl\OB
6aJIOK B cmponUJIax MeTaJIJIII'leCKIIMII
cKperraMII. 2· IIorrepe'lHaSI )l{ep):(h, 06'he):(IIHS1IOll(aSl BepTIIKaJIhHhle ):(epeBSlHHhle ::lJIeMeHThI (HarrplIMep, KOJIhSl B
rroKphITlI1I 3eMJISlHhIX CKJIOHOB XBOPOCTOM ):(JISI IIX 3all(llThI OT oChIIIaHIISI).
CYPT. Mapml:CKOe rrOCeJIeHlle MapIIHCKaSI ycaob6a.
CYCEK. 3m<pOM.
~
C'hE3:JKA5I (:;C'he3)1{aSlIl36a, C'he3)KJ1H
):(OM). A):(MIIHIICTPaTIIBHOe 3):(aHJIe, B
KOTOPOM rrOMell(aJIlICh KaHl\eJI}lplISI,
apxlIB, TlOphMa.
C'hE3)KMH )J;BOP. MecTo ):(JISI CXO):(OK
cJI060)l{aH (06hI'lHO PSl):(OM C l\epKOBhlO
II C'be3J1CeU U360u).
C'hE3)KMH )J;OM. C'be3J1CaR.
ChIH)J;)KMP. IJ,errh ):(JISI KOTJIa Ha):( O'laroM B Kapa'laeBCKOM oOMe (1); KpeIIIITcSI
Ha rrOrrepe'lIlHe BHYTPII ObtMapR.
ChIPEIJ" ChIPIJ,OBhIH KMPIIMq.
KHprrll'l H3 He060)l{)l{eHHOH rJIHHhI.
ChIP3. M3roTOBJIeHHhIH KycTapHhIM
crroc060M 6ypem (1) B 'lepKeCCKoM
)l{HJIHll(e.
ChIYAJI. B03Be):(eHHaSI B ymy 6aIIIKHpCKOH U36bt (1), Y BXO):(HOH ):(BeplI, rre'lh'tyaa.!l, COCTOSlll(aSI H3 rJIHH06HTHOH IIJIOll(a):(KII II IIIHpOKOH Tpy6hI.
CTYIIEHqAThIH CBO)J;. IIepeKphITHe C rrOCJIe):(oBaTeJIhHOH rrepe):(a'leH
CYTyr A. )KeJIe3HaSl rrpOBOJIOKa.
CYXAPMKM.
He60JIhIIIlie
rrpSlMOyrOJIhHhIe BhIcTyrrhI rro):( KapHU30M,
06pa3yIOll(He rrpephIBIICThIH PSl):(.
CYIIIMJIO. IIoMell(eHJIe ):(JI}l rrpocyIIIIIBaHlIlI rrYTeM rrpOBeTPIIBaHIISI.
-118-
ChIYAJI AJI)J;hI. CKJIa):(CKoe rrpoCTpaHcTBO 3a rre'lhIO B 6aIIIKllpCKOH
U36e (1).
C3pr3 - CIOM3
C
C3pr3. 1 ,IJ,epeB5IHHble
119
HJIH KaMeHHble
CTOJI6bI Ha MeCTax, r;o:e 6YP5ITbI-IIIaMaHHCTbI cOBepIIIaJIH nO;O:HOIIIeHH5I ;o:yxaM.
2
KOHOB5I3b B u;eHTpe
P5ITCKOIf
ycaob6bl,
o6opa (1)
6y-
OJIHu;eTBOpSIIOIl\M
6JIarOCOCT05IHHe X03HHHa Hero rOCTenpHHMCTBO.
CIOM3.
CKHH
qeTblpexyrOJIbHbIH JIaMaHCT-
MOHaCTblpb,
pa3;o:eJIeHHbIH
Ha
060Pbl (1).
-119-
T AErA. IIoJIKa ~JIjI 3anaCHbIX no~y­
IlIeK H o~eM, a TaIOKe ~JIjI KpaCHBbIX
Bern;eH, pacnOJIO)KeHHag no Bepxy
3a~HeH CTeHbI B KapaqaeBCKOM HJIH 6aJIKapCKOM )KHJIHrn;e.
. T AEEPHAKJIh. 1 ,[(eKopnpoBaHHbIH
IlIKacpqHK B a.tlmapHOU qaCTH 3an~HO­
xplfcTlfaHcKoro xpaMa. 2 HHIlIa B KaTOJIHqeCKOM xpaMe, 06paMJIjlIOrn;ag H306pa)KeHHe CBjlTOro.
TAEJIh,[(OT. 06rn;HH o6e~eHHbm CTOJI
B naHCUOHe (2), rOCTHHliQe, pecTopaHe.
TAEOP. BoeHHbIH JIarepb, oKpyxeHHbIH BMeCTO CTeHbI TeJIeraMH.
TAEqAH (=To6qaH). ,[(epeBjlHHbIH
~HBaH B KaBKa3CKOM )KHJIHrn;e.
TABP. MeTaJIJIHq«CKag 6aJIKa T-06pa3Horo CeqeHIl.jI.
rrpH YJIHqHbIX 60n B ropo~e. 3 Sapa6aH, 3aBepIlIeHHbIH n;epKoBHoH Uta6ou ..
T AH,[(hIP. rJIHH06HTHag ne% B cpopMe
OqeHb 60JIbIlIOrO cocy~a, Ha BHYTPeHHeH rrporpeToH nOBepxHocTH KOTOPOH
neKYT JIeneIlIKH ..
~bIBaeMbIe ~pyr
Ha
~pyra
C HarrycKoM B
10-12 CM; Ha KOHbKe 06parn;eHa Y3KHMH
KOHn;aMH B HaBeTpeHHYIO CTOPOHY, a Ha
pe6pax - BBepx no YKJIOHY (rrpH aTOM
OCHOBHbIe nOBepXHOCTH Kp06.!tU BbIKJla~bIBaIOTCjI nJIOCKOH 'tepenu~eu) .
TAYHA CMCTEMA. JIeM6xe cucme.Ma.
TAPA. EYPjlTCKHH KOBep, COTKaHHbm
H3 K03beH IlIepcTH H KOHCKoro BOJIOca.
TAPACbl. EpeBeffqaTble Cpy6bt KpenocmHou CTeHbI, 3anOJIHeHHbIe 3eMJIeH H
KaMHjlMH; B OTJIHqHe OT WPOOHU (1)
OT~eJIMHCb ~pyr OT ~pyra He ~BOHHOH,
a O~HHapHOH CTeHKoH.
TAYX. KaMUH B qeqeHCKOM )KHJIHID;e,
COCTOjlrn;HH 1f3 ~ByX qaCTeH; 06JIO)KeHHbIH KaMRjlMH nOJIYKpyrJIbIH oqar, H~
KOTOPbIM HaxO~HTCjI ~bIMOBag TPy6a B
B~e yceqeHHOH llHpaMH~bI C nJIeTHeBbIMH CTeHKaMH, o6Ma3aHHbIMH rJIHHOH
cHap~ If 1f3HYTPIf.
TAXTA. IDlfpOKHH ~lfBaH 6e3 CllHHKH,
HaKpbIBaeMbIH KOBPOM, KOTOPbIH crrycKaeTCjI co CTeHbI H B roPH30HTaJIbHOH
qaCTJf ~OnOJIHeH KOBPOBbIMIf 6a.!tbKaMU.
TBOPMJIO. 1 BeputHRK. 2 51rn;HK
TAMHMIJ;KA5I EAIDlUI. SautHR (2,
3), Ha~ TaHHHKoM C BO~OH JIH60 CBjl3aHHag C TaHHbIM XO~OM K Bo~e.
TBOPKA (=3aCTaBKa).
MeJIbHHqHOM )KeJIo6e.
TAMH05l.
BcnOMOraTeJIbHbIe
noCTPOHKH CHHTOHCTCKoro KOMIIJIeKCa,
coe~HHeHHbIe Me~y C060H za.tlepeeu
(1).
TAKTAEAH. IIoqeTHoe MeCTO B HOraHCKOM oOMe (1).
TAM.
IOu.
TAMEYP. 1 He60JIbIlIOe nOMern;eHHe
co BTOPbIMH ~BepbMIf y Bxo~a B 3~aHHe,
nOMoraIOrn;ee COXpaHHTb B HeM TenJIO;
B03~YIIIHbIH IlIJII03. 2 TpeyroJIbHag nJIOrn;~Ka ~JIjI cTPeJIKOB, orpaHHqeHHaji C
~ CTOPOH 6peBeffqaTbIM na.tlUCaOOM
(1), a C TPeTbeH - CTeHOH )KHJIoro HJIH
06rn;ecTBeHHoro 3AaHIl.jI, npeBparn;eHHoro B 060pOHHTeJIbHOe coopyxeHHe
~JIjI.
rameHlfjl 1f3BeCTIf. 3 51Ma, 06JIO)KeHHag
~OCKaMIf IfJIIf KHpnHqOM.
TAPEJIKA. J/.emeHbtut
(2).
3aCJIOHKa B
TEBCH. HeBbIcoKHH KpyrJIbIH CTOJIHK
Ha TPex HO)KKax, ynoTPe6JIjlBmmCjI
TOJIbKO ~JIjI e~bI (B KaBKa3CKOM )KHJIIfrn;e ).
TAPMAKA,[(AM. EeTOHHoe ~OpO)K­
Hoe nOKpbITHe B HeCKOJIbKO CJIOeB, 1f3
rn;e6Hj1 H ~eITjI.
TE3MA 3M. EaIlIKHpcKajl ua6a (1) 1f3
HBOBbIX HJIIf 6epe30BbIx )Kep~eH, 3aJIO)KeHHbIX 3a ropH30HTaJIbHbIe llJIaHKH.
T APYKM. OqeHb BbICOKHe KO.!toHHbt B
jlnOHCKOM xpaMe, nOMep)KHBaIOrn;He
TEKME. MycYJIbMaHCKag YCbIlIaJIbHHn;a
y TaTap, 6aIlIKHp H HoraHn;eB.
cmponUAa.
TEKCTYPA. IIPHpO~HbIH
~eBecHHbI Ha cpe3e.
T AC KOPA. KaMeHHag orp~a BOKPyr
HoraHcKoH ycaob6bt.
TATAPCKA5I qEPEIIMIJ;A. KOHHqeCKHe KepaMHqeCKHe )KeJI06a, yKJIa-
120
-120-
pHCyaOK
TEJIAMOHhI (=TeJIaMeHbI). Am.ttaHmbt.
TEJIEBEP,[(A. JKeJITO-3eJIeHaji KpacKa.
T
TEnEnEHb - TOPU.OBASI MOCTOBASI
TEJIETIEHb.
KOJIa.
1 JI06U1C. 2 .sI3hIK KOJIO-
TEHAJIb. 06opOHHTeJIhHOe yKpenJIeIrne, o6pam;eHHoe K npoTHBHHKY ABYMSI
HJIH TPeMSl cHMMeTPH'IHhIMH OCTPOyrOJIhHhIMH BhIcrynaMH.
121
2 TIapaAHaSI 'IaCTh Kapa'iaeBCKOro
)l{HJIHm;a, pacnOJIO)l{eHHaSI y 60KOBOH
CTeHhI, 3a O'iarOM. 3 llO'leTHOe MeCTO
AJISI rnaBhI ceMhH, B rJIy6HHe HoraHCKOH
IOpmbl.
TOMTIAK. CnJIaB H3 U;HHKa H MeAn (B
nponopU;HH 15,5: 84 ,5), ynoTPe6mIeMhIH
AJISI OTJIHBKH MeJIKHX AeTaJIeH.
TEPE C3PEr. KpacHblu y20JI B YAMypTCKOH U36e (1).
TOHYP (=TOHHp). KaBKa3CKaSI rJIHHSIHaSI ne'lh B BRAe nepeBepHYToro yce'leHHOro KOHYca, YXOASIm;aSI OCHOBaHHeM B
3eMJIIO.
TI1HPE. POAOBOH nOCeJIOK Kapa'iaeBu;eB (B PYCCKOSI3b1'1HOH JIHTepaType
'IaCTO Ha3hIBaJICSI 1C6apma.aoM (1) Kapa'IaeBCKOro CeJIeHHSI).
TEHIUI. llPSIMOyroJIhHblH BhIcTyn B
3aBepWemill oOpU'teC1C020 apXUmpa6a.
TOHEA. TYM6a (3).
TOOHO. BepxHee KOJIhU;O TYBHHCKOH
IOpmbl.
TI1MEPQE AJIAqblrbI. KpIrnu;a B
TaTapcKoM CeJIeIrnH.
TOTII1APHOE I1CKYCCTBO. <l>HrypHaSI cTPlI)I{Ka AepeBheB H KycTapHHKa
B peryJISIpHOM napKe.
TI1MllAH. OrpaHII'leHHOe npOTSI)I{eHHhIM BhIcrynoM nOJIe ppoHmoHa,
U{unu,a HJIH aa1CoMapbl.
TOllTAJIbH.sI. CTpoeHHe, B KOTOPOM
MHYT H TOlll{YT CyKHO AJISI ero BhIAeJIKH.
TOEI1PYY. 30JIO'leHhIe nOJIywapHSI B
nypnyPHOM
<ppH3e
6ypSITCKOro
JIaMaHCTCKoro xPaMa.
TOllQAHKA. MeJIhHHu;a, npHBoAHMaSI
B AeHcTBHe pa60'lHM CKOTOM, KOTOPblH
HaxOAHTCSI B 3aroHe-BhIropoAKe H 1I0A
TOEQAH. Ta6'laH.
TEHHI1K. ntOMOH.
TEPA.Q. Teppaca (1).
TEPEM. 1 ,I:(peBHepyccKHH 6aWHe06pa3HhIH AOM. 2 BepxHHH SIPYC XOPOM,
HMelOm;HH B OTJIH'IHe OT 'tepoa1Ca (1)
caMOCTOSITeJIhHble CTeHhI no nepHMeTpy. 336oHHuu,a.
TEPMAJIbHOE OKHO. llOJIyKpyrJIoe OKRO, pa3AeJIeHHOe Y3KHMH npoCTeHKaMH Ha TPH 'IaCTH npHMepHo paBHOH WHpHHhI.
TEPME. Pa360pHaSI HoraHCKaSI
6um1Ca KpynHhIX pa3MepoB.
1CU-
TEPPACA. 1 Ea.a1COH (1) Ha ypoBHe
nepBoro 3Ta)l{a )l{HJIoro AOMa, HMeIOID;HH nOKphITHe Ha CTOJI6ax. 2 rOpH30HTaJIhHaSI nJIOm;aAKa Ha CKJIOHe, orpaIrn'leHHaSI cBepxy H CHH3Y CTeHKaMH
60JIhWOH KpyT1I3HhI.
TOBAPHA.sI MEJIbHI1QA. TIpeAnpHSlTHe no npoH3BoAcTBY nHIu;eBoH MYKH
AJISI onToBoH npoA~H.
TOKHO. CHcTeMa 1CpOHutmeUHo6, 3aBepwalOID;Hx 1COJlOHHbl B SInOHCKHX
TOKOHOMA. Y CTJIaHHaSI U;HHOBKaMH
He60JIhWaSI HIlwa HaA nOJIOM B SInOHCKOM uHmepbepe, YKpaweHHaSI B rJIy6HHe CBHTKOM (KapTHHa HJIH KaJIJIHrpa<pH'IeCKaSI HaAllHCh), a Ha nepeAHeM
nJIaHe - Ba30H C He60JIhWHM KOJIH'leCTBOM u;seTOB.
TOJIE, TOJII1. BblllYKJIhIe 30nO'leHhIe
AHCKH BO ppU3e Ha <pacaAax 6YAAHHCKoro xpaMa.
TETI1BA. K~hIH 113 AByx HaKJIOHHhIX
6pycbe6 (1), Ha KOTOPblX 3aKpellJleHbI
CTyneHH JIeCTHHU;hI.
TETP AKOHX. KOMn03H1J;HSI H3 'IeThIpex IJ;HJIHHApH'leCKlIX 06"beMOB, nepe-·
KphIThIX 1COHXaMU.
TEXHI1QECKOE llO,I:(llOJIbE. He)I{lIJIOH HlI)I{HHH 3Ta)l{, 'Iepe3 KOTOPhIH
npoxoASIT TPy60npoBoAhI H APyrHe
HH)I{eHepHble ceTH.
TOJICTYXA. TeMHaSI oxpa, )l{eJITOKOpH'lHeBaSI KpacKa.
TOJIQE5I. MeJIhHHIJ;a, B KOTOPOH 3epHO H3MeJIh'laeTCSI He )l{epHOBaMH,
lIeCTaMH B cTynax.
YAapaMH KHyTa nblTaeTCSI H3 Hee
Bbl6paThcSI, lIepecTYllaSI )l{epAH B 1I0JIOrOH KOHH'IeCKOH lIoBepxHocTH IIPHBOAHoro KOJIeca.
TOP (=TOPYC). Ba.a (2) B 6aae 1COJlOHHbl; B UOHu'teC1COM opoepe MO)l{eT 6b1Th
IIpope3aH HellpephIBHblMH ropH30HTaJIhHhIMH JlCeJl061CaMU (1CaHHeJilOpaMu).
TOPA. Tapo.
TOprOBbIE P5I,I:(bI (=roCTHHhIH PSIA).
Kopnyca, 06"beAHHSIIOm;He ToproBhIe
3aBeAeHHSI (naBKH, Mara3HHhI), B KOTOpblX npoAalOTcSI TOBaphI rJIaBHhIM 06pa30M npHpOAHoro npOHcxo~eHHSI MYKa, CaJIO, neHhKa, KO)l{ll H T. A. (cp.:
rOcmUHblU 060p).
TOP ,I:(bEP. llO'leTHOe MeCTO B aJITaHCKOH KOHH'IeCKOH IOpme.
TOPl1l1. llpSIMoyroJIhHhIe BOPOTa lIepeA SInOHCKHM xpaMoM.
a TOPO (=Topa). HaHaHcKHH waMaHCKHH CTOJI6.
TOPQOBA.sI MOCTOBA5I (=wawe'lHaSI HaCTHJIKa). BhICTHJIKa IIpOe3)1{eH
'IaCTH yJIHU;b1 HJIH MOCTa BOChMHyronhHhIMH B nnaHe 06py6KaMH AepeBa, cnJIO'IeHHblMH Me~y C060H; 06hI'IHaSI
BhICOTa TaKHX 06py6KOB, KOTophIe
YKJIaAblBaJIHCh Ha lIeCOK lIoBepx Aom;aTOH OCHOBhI - 20 CM, nOnepe'lHHK - OT
30 AO 35 CM.
TEMHbIH MA.sIK. rypuu.
TETIJIA.sI QEPKOBb. 3U.M/i.FI.R I¥P1C06b.
TEKKOMOH. CnnpaJIhHhIH opHaMeHT
B SInoHcKoH KYJIhTOBOH apXHTeKTYPe.
TEP. 1 llO'leTHaSI nOJIOBHHa B Ka6apAHHCKOM H 6aJIKapCKOM )I{lIJIHm;e.
-121-
T
TOPWEP - TPIo1CJ)omd1
TOPllEP. BbICOKllJI HanOJlbHbIlI CBeTIDIbHHK.
122
TPAKTHP. 1 3aBe,!leHHe, 06"e,!lHIDIIOm;ee wcmuHu/{y (1) H CTOJlOBYIO, B
KOTOPOH nO,!laIOT aJIKOrOJlbHbIe HanHTKH. 2 PecTopaH HH3IIIero pa3pSl,!la.
TPAHCEOP,UEP. IIOBOPOTHbIH Kpyr B
TPEXYCTYIIqAThIH YrOJI. BbInyCK pe6pa yrna (B 06"eMe 3,l1;aHHSI HJlH
ero '1aCTH) Me)J{,!ly JlOnamKaMU JlH60
nUJIRCmpaMU Ha cpJlaHrax COCe,!lHHX
cpaCa,!lOB.
TPEXUEHTPOBA5I APKA. IIepeKpbITHe C nOJlyoBaJIOM B pa3pe3e,
COCTaBJleHHbIM H3 ,!Iyr Tpex OKPY)KHOcTeH: Cpe,ll;HeMY y'IacTKy cooTBeTcTByeT
OKPY)KHOCTb HaH60JlbIIIerO pa,!lHyca,
~eHTp KOTOPOH pacnOJlO)KeH Ha OCH
npoeMa, a ,lI;Ba ,lI;pyrHX HaxO,ll;SlTCH
HeCKOJlbKO BbIIIIe, no ee CTopOHaM.
oeno.
TP AHCEIIT. IIOnepe'lHbIH Hep nepe,!l
aJlmapHOU '1aCTbIO UHmepbepa B 6a3UJlUKe.
TOCKAHCKHH OP,UEP. MO,!lH<lmKa~HSI oOpU'-leCKOW opoepa, ,!IJlSI KOTOPOH
xapaKTepHo HaJIH'IHe 6a3 rro,!l KOJlOHHaMU, a KaHHeJIIOp Ha CTBOJle HeT.
TPAHCIIAP AHT. BnHcaHHaSI B KBa,!IpaT OKOHHoro rreperrJleTa KOMrr03H~HSI
H3 HeCKOJlbKHX rrpOCBe'lHBaIOm;HX KapTHHOK.
TPEXqETBEPKA. YKopO'leHHbIH Ha
'1eTBepTb ,!IJlHHbI 6PYCKOBbiU KUpnU'l,
BKJlIO'IaeMblH B KJlaOKY ,lI;JlH BblpaBHHBaHHH PMa no roPH30HTaJIH.
KOJIOHHA.
IIpHMbIKaIOm;aSI K CTeHe KOJlOHHa,
CTBOJI KOTOPOH 60Jlee 'IeM HanOJlOBHHY
BblcTynaeT H3 KJlaOKU.
TPHEYH. rJlyxoe OCHOBaHHe 6apa6aHa, HMeIOm;ee 60JlbIIIHH nOnepe'lHHK.
TPHrJIHlllhl. qepe,ll;YIOm;HeCH C MemonaMU 3J1eMeHTbI OOpU'-leCKOZO ppU3a,
HMeIOIll;He BH,!I KBa,!lpaTa HJlH 6J1H3KOrO
eMY npHMoyroJlbHHKa C BepTHKaJlbHbIMH
JlCeJl06KaMU.
TPHCTEH. TpeXCTeHHbIH aM6ap (1, 2)
npHMoyroJlbHoro nJlaHa.
TO<;::Y. rpyrrrra rrO,!lC06HbIX rroMem;eHHH
B 3arra,!lHOH '1aCTH ,!I33H-6Y,!l,!lHHCKOro
xpaMoBoro KOMIIJleKca.
TOqOK. Tbl'toK.
TOmASI CBEqA (=nOCTaBHaSl CBe'la).
HarrOJlbHOe nOJlUKaHOUJIO C BbICOKHM
~HJlHHAPH'IeCKHM OCHOBaHHeM 60JlbIIIoro ,!IHaMeTpa, 06bI'IHO rroKpbIThiM
,!IeKOpaTHBHoH pocrrHcbIO.
TP ABEH. COCTaBJlHIOm;He pHTMH'IeCKHH pH,!I rrpocTPaHcTBeHHbIe H'IeHKH,
Ka)J{,!laH H3 KOTOPbIX OrpaHH'IeHa 'IeTblpbMSl onopaMH KpecmoBow cBooa
(xapaKTepHo ,!IJlH 6a3UJ1UK).
TP ABEPC. 1 IIOrrepe'lHbIH 3eMJlHHOH
BaA (1), 3am;Hm;aIOm;HH YKpenJleHHe OT
rrpO,!lOJlbHOrO 06cTpeJla. 2 EYHa (1).
TPABEPTHH (=H3BecTKoBbIH TY<P).
JIerKHH rropHcTbIH KaMeHb, HcrroJlb3YeMbIH B cTpOHTeJlbHbIX KOHCTPY~HSIX H
apxHTeKTypHoM ,!IeKope.
TP ABHHK. OropO,!l
HbIMH pacTeHHSlMH.
C JleKapCTBeH-
TPAHllEHHhIH !<ABAJIhEP. 060pOHHTeJlbHaSI 3eMJIHHaH rrocTpoHKa,
,!IJlH
PY)KeHHOH
rrpe,!lHa3Ha'leHHaH
CTpeJlb6bI; C pacrrpocTpaHeHHeM ,!IaJIbH060HHbIX OPY,!IHH TaKHe coopY)KeHHSI
rrpeBpam;aJlHCb B CKJla,!lbI.
TPHYMIllAJIhHASI APKA. IIapa,ll;Hoe
cHMMeTpH'IHOe coopY)KeHHe C npoe3,!IHOH apKou (2) no OCH.
TP AIIE3HASI. 1 CTOJlOBaH naJlama B
MOHaCTblpe. 2 IIoHH)KeHHaSI 3arra,!lHaSI
'1aCTb ~epKoBHoro 3,!1aHHSI, rrpHMbIKaIOm;aH K ero rJlaBHoMY 06"eMY H Hepe,!lKO
BKJlIO'IaIOm;aSI B ce6H 3HMHHH (TerrJlI,IH)
xpaM.
TPEJIh5DK. 1 IIapKoBoe coopY)KeHHe C
peIIIeT'IaTbIMH CTeHKaMH, KOTopble CJlY)KaT orropOH ,!IJlH BbIOm;HXCH pacTeHHH.
2 3epKaJlo H3 Tpex CTBOpOK.
TPEIIAJIKA.
HrHHT.
KpyrJlbJe
RCJlU
,!IJlH
TPETHOH CBO,U. CBOO, Y KOToporo
cmpeJla nOO'beMa B TpH pa3a MeHbIIIe
npoJlema.
TPEXBAJIhHhIE BOPOTA. TpUYMpaAbHble Bopoma.
TPEXJIOIIACTHASI APKA. ,UeKopaTHBHbIH 3J1eMeHT B BH,!Ie Tpex ,!Iyr, H3
KOTOPbIX nOBblIIIeHHaH Cpe,!lHHH onHpaeTcH Ha KOH~bI 60KOBbIX, 3epKaJlbHO
nOBTopSlIOIll;HX ,!Ipyr ,lI;pyra.
-122-
KOJIOHHA.
TPHYM IIIAJIhHA5I
O,ll;HHO'lHaSI KOJlOHHa KpynHblx pa3MePOB Ha nOCmaMeHme, YCTaHoBJleHHaH B
'1eCTb KaKOrO-JlH60
C06bITHH HJlH
,!IeHTeJlH, 06bI'IHO ,!IonOJlIDIJlaCb CKYJlbmypoH.
TPHYMIllAJIhHhIE BOPOTA. IIapa,!lHOe cHMMeTpH'IHOe coopY)KeHHe B
'1eCTb KaKoro-JlH60 C06bITHSI, BKJlIO'IaIOm;ee B ce6H npOe3,!1HyIO apKY (2).
TPHIllOJIHH. CHMMeTpH'IHaSI cpHrypa,
orpaHH'IeHHaSI TpeMSl O,ll;HHaKOBbIMH
OKPY)KHOCTHMH, ~eHTPbI KOTOPbIX pac-
T
TPHcJ)OPHM - TbI~OK
123
rrOJIO:lKeHhI B BepUHlHaX paBHOCTOPOHHero TpeyrOJIhHHKa.
rraHHruI H3 AByx IIIHPOKHX Ul6eJlJlep06 co
CTaJIhHhIMH rrOJIOCaMH.
TPMCPOPMH. raJlepeR (1) HaA 60KOBhIM HepoM, OTKphITruI B cpeAHHH Heq,
CABoeHHhIMH HJIH cTpoeHHhIMH apo'1Hbl.MU rrpoeMaMH.
TPYEqAThIH KMPI1Mq. EOJlbMaH06
lCUpnU'1.
TPIOMO. 1 3epKaJIO, 3arrOJIIDlIOrn;ee
rrpocTeHoK H OTpa:lKalOrn;ee '1eJIOBeKa BO
eMKH AJIHHHOe rrOMern;eHHe cd CTeKJISIHHOM lCpbtUleU, HaKJIOHeHHOM K ceBepy, a
TaK:lKe co CTeKJISIHHhIMH 3arraAHoH H BOCTO'lHOH CTeHaMlI rrplI rnYXOM IO:lKHOH
CTeHe 1I3 KlIpIIlI'la lIJIlI KaMIDl.
TYHTOfAT. Eepecnmoe OCTHl\KOe
:lKHJIlIrn;e C :lKepAeBOH OCHOBOH.
TYI10H OE30JI. I10JIoca KOPhI, y~e­
JIeBIIIruI Ha CThIKe AJIlIHHhIX rrJIOCKOCTeH
OOClCU (1) 1I oopa3YIOrn;ruI C HlIMlI Tyrr!>re
yrJIhI.
~
TYI10H IIIAPOBhIH I1APYC. JIapyc
B BRAe TParrel\lIlI Ha cq,eplI'IeCKOH
rrOBepXHOCTlI, OIIlIpalOIQIIHCH Ha KOPOTKylO 1I3 rrapaJIJIeJIhHhIX CTOpOH.
TPOHHMK. 1 ,aoclCa (1) TOJIIQIIHOH B
TpH AIOHMa. 2 Epe6Ho AJIHHOH TpH ca:lKeHH.
TPOHHOE OKRO. 1 KOMII03H~IDl H3
TPex OKOHHhIX rrpoeMOB, pa3AeJIeHHhIX
Y3KHMH rrpoCTeHKaMH. 2 HmaJlbRHClCOe
Q,lCHO.
TYP. BhICOKaSI l\lJIHHAP"'IeCKruI KOp31IHa oe3 AHa, ~arrOJIHHBIIIruICH 3eMJIeH 1I
rrp"MeHSIBIIIruICSI KaK YKphITlIe BO BpeMeHHhIX YKperrJIeHlIHX.
TPOHHhIE BOPOTA. BopoTa co ABYMSI KaJIHTKaMH.
BeCh pOCT. 2 IIIKaq, C Hapy:lKHhIM 3epKaJIOM, OTpa:lKalOrn;HH '1eJIOBeKa BO BeCh
pOCT. 3 BhlcoKoe rrepeHocHoe 3epKaJIO
Ha HO:lKKax.
TPOHIUI. XOPOMbt (1, 2), COCTmnIJ;He
H3 Tpex o6beMoB rrOA caMOCTOHTeJIhHhIMH lCP06J1R.MU.
TYAP KAHhIC. KO:lKaHhIH peMeHh,
3aKperrJIHBIIIHH rrocpeAHHe BOHJIOK Ha
HoraHcKoH 1Opme.
TPOMI1 (=rrepeMhI'Ie'lHhIH rrapyc).
CBOA'IaTruI KOHCTpyK~H AJIH rrepexoAa
TYAJlET (=TYaJIeTHhIH CTOJI). M3Hrn;HhIH CTOJIHK C 3epKaJIOM H Hrn;H'IKaMH
AJIH KOCMeTHKH.
TYPJIAK. OCTOB HoraHCKOH 1Opmbt.
TYPJIYK. I1JIeTeHh (y KaBKa3CKlIX HapOAOB).
TYPJIYQHhIH. 06Ma3aHHhIH rJIlIHOH
rroBepx rrepeIIJIe;eHHOro XBopOCTa.
TYPHMCA (=JIaKMYC). TeMHo-roJIY6ruI KpaCKa (06hI'IHO KJIeeBaH).
TYPTMK. TWla.
TYPhIIII. KYM.
TYYPfA. HaCTeHHhIH BOHJIOK TYBHHCKOH 1Opmbt.
TYXYM. K6apmaJl (1) ropcKoro ceJIeHlIH.
~AHHhIE BOPOTA. OAHOcTBop'laThle BopoTa 1I3 BepTlIKaJIhHhIX nJlacmUH, OOCOlC (1) lIJIlI :lKepAeH; lIHorAa
3aBepIIIaJIlICh lCpbtUleU Ha cToJI6ax.
OT '1eThlpexrpaHHoro o6beMa K BOChMHrpaHHoMY, HMelOrn;ruI BRA aplCu (1) C KOHH'IeCKOH BHYTpeHHeH rroBepxHocThlO.
TPOMIIJIEH. 06pe3HaR cmamYR.
TIIIbIXQA. ,aOM
CeJIeHlIlI.
TPOH. I1apaAHoe KpeCJIO MOHapxa AJIH
TOp:lKeCTBeHHhlx l\epeMoHHH.
TYHf3. KpyrrHhIH IIIaMaHcKHH CTOJI6 Y
HaHaH~eB.
TYJIThIPMA 3H. EaIIIKHpcKoe KapKaCHoe :lKHJIHrn;e C 3eMJIHHOH 3achIIIKoH
Me:lKAY CTeHaMH H3 TOHKRX 6epe30Bhlx
CTBOJIOB, paCKOJIOThIX BAOJIh rrOrrOJIaM.
TYMEA. 1 HeBhlcoKHH rrpHMoyroJIhHhIH HJIH MHororpaHHhIH o6beM, BXOASIrn;HiI B COCTaB napanema HaA lCapHU3oM.
2 I1pHKJIMKa K CTeHe B OCHOBaHHH ABepHoro HaJlU'1HUlCa. 3 (=ToH6a). IIIap Ha
rrHpaMlIAKe·, YKpaIIIalOIQlle HaJlU'1HUlC
HJIH lCapHU3.
TPOXMJIh. ClCOI{UR.
TPYEQATA~I'EAJlKA. EaJIKac rrOJIOCThlO rrpSlMoyrOJIhHOrO Ce'leHlIH, CKJIe-
(1, 2) B a6a31IHcKoM
ThIH . .il:epeBHHHaH orpaAa oe3 rrpocBeTOB, COCTaBJIeHHruI H3 BepTlIKaJIhHhIX
KOJIheB, 6pe6eH HJIlI :lKepAeH.
ThIHXBA. BpeMeHHoe
coopY:lKeHlIe, .IIIaJIaIII.
a6a3HHcKoe
ThIPr. CeHu B 3a:lKlITO'lHOM oceTlIHCKOM oOMe (1), rrepeAHSISI rrOJIOBlIHa
KOTOPhIX '1aCTO lICrrOJIh30BaJIaCh rrOA
KJIaAOBYIO.
ThIPKbIK (=ThIPXhIK). 3aBaJIlIHKa Y
3aAHeH CTeHhI BHYTP" 6aJIKapcKoro lIJIlI
Kapa'laeBCKOro )KlIJIlIrn;a, CJIY:lKarn;aSI
rrOJIKOH AJIH KOHCKOH COPY" 1I rrpeAMeTOB )KeHCKOro TPYAa.
TYHrJIMK. BOHJIO'lHhIH q,JIar HaA
HoraHcKoM 1Opmou AJIH MOJIOAO)KeHOB.
ThIPJIO. OropO:lKeHHOe rracT61Irn;e AJISI
MOJIOAHHKa.
TYHHEJIEBbIH I1ABMJIbOH. I1peAHa3Ha'leHHOe ~ml rroPTPeTHoH q,OTOCb-
TbIQOK
(=TO'lOK).
HalIMeHhIIIruI
rpaHh 6pYClC060lO lCUpnU'1a.
,t
-123-
T
124
TbEPCEPOH - TRCMUY
TbEPCEPOH. IIpoMeX<)'ToqHruI llep6lOpa, IIOllIWPX<HBaJOIQruI .!luepllY B ee
cepellHHe.
T3JIT3T3 11T11HH33fHHr. KOHOBg3h BO lIBope HK)'TCKoro }KIDIHIQa.
TIOBAllEK.
HnMa.
TIOMOH. Cpep;HHe BopOTa B HIIOHCKOM
XPaMOBOM aHCaMOJIe.
TIOP. 1 Myx<:CKruI, IIapa):IHruI IIOJIOBHHa B TaTapCKOM CeJIhCKOM aOMe (1).
2 IIIHpoKHe HaphI PH1\OM C IIelJhlO B ua6ax (1) TaTap-M1IIIIapeH.
TIOPEMHAJI H3BA. f{epllflSl na.!lama.
TIOPEMHbIH 3AMOK. 3tiMOK (2).
TIOP CAKE. HaphI Ha lJHCTOH IIOJIOBHHe lJeThIpexCTeHHoH OamKHpCKoH
ua6bt (1).
TIOP .HK. OCHOBHruI, }KIDIruI lJaCTh
lJeThIpexcTeHHoH oamKHpcKoH ua6bt
(1), OTlIeJIeHHruI OT x03HHcTBeHHoH
qaCTH 3aHasechIO.
T.HBno. Pa311eJIHIOIQHH PH1\hI UKOIl0cmaca 6pyc (1), KOHllhI KOToporo 3a):1eJIaHhI B CTeHhI xPaMa.
T.HfA. IIIT}'KarypHhIH rrpoq,HJIHpOBaHHhIH BhICTyII (HarrpHMep, Kapllua, KpaH
JIeIIHOH
tPU.!leIlKu) ,
ClIeJIaHHhIH
C
IIOMOII(hIO JIeKaJIhHOrO BhIpe3a B maoJIOHe.
T.HHYTAJI 41lUIEHKA. tPU.!lellKa C
rrpOq,HJIHpOBaHHhIM OOpaMJIeHHeM.
T.HHYTbIH KAPIlli3. IIpoq,HJIHpoBaHHhIH mTYKaTypHhIH Kapllua C H):\eaJIhHOH CTporocThlO ropH30HTaJIeH.
T.HCHI.J;Y. lla6U.!lbOIl (1) lIJIH HIIOHCKHX
qaHHbIX ~epeMoHHH.
-124-
Y A3AT,I:(OH. KYHan;KruI B OceTHHCKOM
XOIJIHm;e.
Y AP,ll;OH,I:(OH. KPbITbIH HaBeC, npHMbIKaJOID;HH K OCeTHHCKOMY OOMY (1).
Y ACAXqA AXBA. AGa3HHcKruI 3HMHSIH CTOmKa ,n;mI CKOTa.
Y AT. OT,n;eJlbHruI CnaJIbIDI ,n;mI )I{eHaTbIX qJleHOB ceMbH B oceTHHCKOM 00-
Me (1).
YBOfHR ,I:(OM. B03lCeooMKa (1).
YrJIOBOR illKACP. illKa¢ C nJiaHOM B
BH,n;e paBHoGe,n;peHHoro npSIMoyroJlbHoro ~yrOJlbHHKa, KOTOPbIH oGpam;eH
runoTeUY30H B nOMem;eHHe, a KaTeTaMH
npHMblKaeT K ero CTeHaM.
YfOJIOK. npoKaTHoe )I{eJle30 f-oGpa3Horo ceqeHHSI.
YrOJIbHA5I APKA. Mump06aR apKa.
YfOITbHOE KPECJIO. Kpecno C KBa,n;paTHblM CH,n;eHbeM H HeBbICOKHMH CMbIKaJOID;HMHCSI
CnHHKaMH-no,n;JlOKOTHHKaMH no ,n;BYM coce,n;HHM CTopoHaM.
YrYJIb,[()KHH. 3HMHee nOCeJleHHe
GypSiT npH3.HI'apbSI H npHGaHKaJIbSi.
YKA3HOR KPYf. IJ;H¢epGJlaTqacoB.
YKJIA,ll;. 3aKaJIeHHOe )I{eJle30, pa3HoBH,n;HOCTb CTaJIH.
YKJIA,I:(KA. HeBbIcoKHH Cyu,n;yK C
nJlOCKHMH nOBepXHOCTSIMH, ynoTPeGJlSIBIIIHHCSI B noe3,n;Kax.
YKOCHHA. HaKJlOHHruI no,n;nopKa.
YJIHu;A. 1 npOe3)1{ruI ,n;opora nepe,n;
JlHn;eBOH CTOPOHOH 00M06 B CeJleHHH.
2 P,60p (1) nepe.n; J),360u (1) B PYCCKOH
,n;epeBHe.
e.n;HHCTBeHHbIM nOMem;eHHeM. 2 KOM- ynOPHA5I APKA. ApK6ymaH.
HaTa KapaqaeBcKoro OOMa (1), B KOTOPOH XOIJIH ero X03SIeBa co CBOHMH AeTb- YllPABJIEHHE KPOBJIER. TexHHqeCKHe MeponpHSITHSI no no.n;,n;ep)l{BHHIO
MH, He BC'l'ynHBIIIHMH B GpaK.
Ge30nacHoro COCTOSIHHSI no,n;3eMHbIX
YIT33H. CBoii:CTBeHHbIii: 6y.n;.n;HHCKHM nOJloCTeii: B py.n;HHKe HJIH lIIaxTe, BKJlIOPOCllHCSIM .n;eKOpaTHBHbIii: MOTHB B BH,n;e qalOm;He B ceGSI nOJlHbIe HJlH qaCTH'IHbIe
oGJlaKOB co cnHpaJIbHO KpyrJISIID;HMHCSI 06pYllleHHSI nopo,n;bI, ee nnBBHoe onycKpruIMH.
KBHHe JlHGO 3aKJIBAKY nYCTOT.
YH,I:(PYK. nOJIKa ,n;JlSI rJlHIDIHOH H
,n;epeBSIHHoii: nocy,n;bI B HOra:HCKoii: lOpme.
YHEIIIXO. 1 fJIBBHruI KOMHaTa B )I{HJlOM oOMe (1) Ka6ap.n;HHcKoii: HJlH qepKeccKoii: ycaob6bl, npe.n;Ha3HaqeHHruI
,n;JISI npO)l{HBaHHSI po.n;HTeJIeii: co CBOHMH
He)l{eHaTbIMH H He3a~HHMH ,n;eTbMH, a
TaK)l{e ,n;JISI npHeMa )I{eHm;HH-rocTeii:.
2 fJlBBHruI KOMHaTa B TPBAHn;HOHHOM
BAbIreii:cKoM oOMe (1).
yPACA. TpBAHn;HOHHOe XOIJIHm;e SIKyTOB, 3aqacrylO HMelOm;ee BH,n; GepecTSIHoro Kopnyca C )I{ep,n;eBbIM KapKacoM.
YH3IIIXO.
JIonapcKoe
KapKacHoe
XOIJIHm;e C GepecTSIHblM nOKpbITHeM.
YHH. HaKJIOHHbIe 6aJIKH B BepXHeii:
qaCTH TYBHHCKOH lOpmbl.
YH3. )KunOH OOM (1) B KaGap,n;HHcKoii:
HJIH qepKeCCKoH ycaob6e, y KOToporo
CTeHbI oGMa3aHbI rJlHHoii: no CTOJIGaM
KapKaca H 3anOJlHeHHIO H3 nepenneTeHHbIX BeTBeii: opelllHHKa.
YP3A (=KapTa). )Kep.n;H )l;JISI pa3BeCKH
o.n;e)l{)l;bI, cKaTepTeii: H nOJlOTeHen;, yKpenneHHbIe no.n; nOTOJIKOM B GalllKHpcKoM
XOIJIHm;e.
YPbIH. CJlO)l{eHHbIe Ha no,n;cTBBKe-cyuAYKe nOCTeJlbHbIe npHHBAJIe)I{HOCTlI B
TPBAHn;HOHHOM GaIIIKHpCKOM )l{HJImn;e,
COCTaBJISIIOID;He BB)l{HbIR 3J1eMeHT ero
YH3KX. qepKeccKHii: OOM (1) C uHmepbepa.
HeCKOJlbKHMH KOMHaTaMH, pacnoJlo)I{eHHblMH B ,n;JlHHY o,n;Ha 3a .n:pyroii:.
YPbIH,ll;bIK. illHpOKHe HapbI B GalllKHPCKOM XOIJImn;e, pacnOJlO)l{eHHbIe
YlUIA. KpyrnbIe KOHCO/lU (1), nO,n;Aep- B,n;OJlb CTeHbI npOTHB Bxo,n;a.
)l{HBaJOID;He Kp06/l1O GY,n;AHHCKOro KYJlbYCA,I:(bBA. OT,n;eJlbHOe 3eMJIeBJIBAeTOBoro coopY)l{eHHSI.
HHe co BCeMH cTPoeHHSIMH Ha ero TeppHTOpHH.
YCAT. 3a,n;HHH 060P KpecTbSIHcKoii:
ycaob6bl TeMHHKOBCKHX TaTap-MHIIIapeR, BKJllOqaJOm;HH B ceGSI TOK ,n;JlSI
MOJlOTbGbI, puzy HJlH 06UH (HHor,n;a H
6aHIO).
YJIITY lOR. 1 CpyGHoe HJlH nneTeHoe
KapaqaeBCKOe )l{HJlHm;e C GOJlblllHM
125
-125-
y
YCAX - Y3HlKAK
126
YCAX. O'lar C BMa3aHHhIM KOTnOM, B
6ammpCKOH U36e (1).
YXO)KH. Yro~hSI H X03SIHcTBeHHhIe
nOCTPOHKH B ~eBHepyccKoH ycaob6e.
YCEHOK. Pe6po QPyca (1), KOCRKa H
YXOJI3A (=MaKapa). Pe3HaSI ronoBa
~paKoHa Ha HH)KHeM yrny H30ruyTOH
KP06.!lU 6y~~mcKoro xpaMa.
T.
~.
YCTEJI. CTon B nepe~HeM yrny ·MapmcKoH U36bl.
YCThIThI XAit )KeHcKaSI (npaBaSI)
nonOBHHa OCeTHHCKOrO )KHn~a.
YCThE (=)Kepno. 3eB). illHpoKoe TOnO'lHOe OTBepCTHe PYCCKOU ne'tu.
YChIIIAJIhHHIJ;A. CK.flen ~nSI 3axopOHeHHSI mm;, 06'he~HHeHHhIx po~­
CTBOM.
YX3f. C~YK ~nSI MenKHX Be~eH B
6YPSITCKOH IOpme.
YillH. 1 KpHBonHHeHHhIe HnH npSIMOyronhHhIe BhICryDhI HO.IIU'tHUKa, CHMMeTPH'lHO pacnOnO)KeHHhIe no pa3HhIe
CTOPOHhI OT BepXHeH qaCTH npoeMa.
2 JIHThIe neTnH no BepIIIHHe KonOKona,
npe~a3HaqeHHhIe ~SI ero nO~BeCKH.
YillKO.Opu.abOH.
Y3. KaKblpa.
Y3H)KAK.
C~aro~HHcSI
KBepxy
o6Ma3aHHhIH rnHHoH nneTeHhIH ObLMaPb
qepKeccKoro oOMa (1).
YTAP. BammpcKHH 3HMHHH xyTOp.
YTEPMAPKOBCKMI IIEqh (=YTepMaHOBCKaSI ne'lh). 06mHTaSI )Kene30M
KHpnH'lHaSI ne'lh (06h1'lHO B B~e BhICOKOro BepTHKanhHoro ~nH~pa); B PocCHH - C 1820-x rr.
YTOK. IIonepeqHaSI HHTh B TKaHH, BBO~HMaSI
qenHOKOM
Me~y
HHTSIMH
OCltoBbl nepne~HKynSIpHo K HHM, Ha
BCro mHpHUY MaTepHH.
YTYr. CeHHHK B 6YPSITCKOH ycaob6e.
YXBAT. )Kene3HaSI cKo6a ~nSI npHKpenneHHSI BO~OCTO'IHhIX TPy6 H rpOMOOTBO~OB K CTeHaM.
YXBATHA5I CKOBA. ABepHaSI pyqKa.
-126-
cI>AEPl:I. BeHmUJIRmOp
(2).
cI>AEPI1IJ;HYCA CHCTEMA. raepuK.
cI>AJIEBA5I PY~IKA. ACHMMeTpH'lH<UI
rrQBQPQTH<UI
pY'lKa,
QTKphIBaIOIl.\aJl
):IBepHQH 3llMOK (3).
cI>ACOHHbIll Kl1PIIl1l.J. KHprrH'l C
qJHrypHQH QTeCKQH JIH6Q CPQPMQBKQH.
cI>EllEP-KAAACTP. AcceKypaH/{-KOHmopa.
cI>ACUl1l1. TPH ropH3QHTaJIhHhIX ycryrra Ha JIHl\eBQH rrQBepXHQCTH apxumpaea B UOHu'teCKOM H KOPWUjJCKOM
opoepax.
cI>EPMA. KQHCTPYKTHBHhIH :,lJIeMeHT
rrepeKphITHJI HJIH MQCTa, CQCTQJlIl.\HH H3
6pycbee (1) JIH6Q CTep)!{HeH, KQTQPhle
CKperrJIJlIOTCJI rrQ yrJIaM H B MeCTax rrepeCe'leHHH.
cI>AJIEBbIll 3AMOK. Bpe3HQH 3llMOK
(3), QTKphIBaeMhIH rrQBQPQTQM ):IBepHQH 'cI>AXBEPK. KapKac CTeH, COCTQJlIl.\HH
pY'lKH.
cI>AJIbUEBA5I l.JEPEIIl1UA.
CeJlbCKaR 'tepenu/{a.
Map-
H3 BepTHKaJIhHhIX, rQPH3QHTaJIhHhIX H
HaKJIQHHhIX 6pycbee (1), rrpQCBeThI
Me)!{):IY KQTQPhIMH 3arrQJIHJlIOTCJI rJIHHQH,KaMHeM,KHprrH'lQM.
cI> AJIbIIIl1BA5I r AJITEJIb. raJlmeJlb
(1), CQCTaBJIeHHaJl H3 OOCOK (1) IIlHpHHQH B ):IIOHM.
cI>ECTOHbI. 1 rUpJlRHoa. 2 ropoo'tamblu fjJpU3, wpoo'tamblu nORCo
cI> l1AJIA ( = CPHaJI) . ApXHTeKTypHQe
YKpaweHHe B BH):Ie ZJlYXOU CPHryPHQH
6aweHKH HJIH CQcy):la C BhICQKQH KPhIWKQH (CM. BaaoH (2).
cI>APAOHKA. 113Q6pa)!{eHHe rrhIllIHQrpY):IQH )!{eHIl.\HHhI C PhI6hHM XBQCTQM B
PYCCKHX HapQ):IHhIX PQCrrHCJ'IX H pe3h6e, - HarrpHMep, B Jl060ebix oocKax.
cI>AUET. IIp03pa'lHaJl rrOJIQca rrQ KpaIO
TQJICTQrQ rrOJIHPQBaHHQrQ CTeKJIa, Q6pa3YIOIl.\<UI TyrrQH yrQJI C ero QCHQBHQH
rrQBepXHQCThIO .
cI>APAcI>OPKA. BopeopKa.
cI>APTl1HA. IIHTeHHhIH ):IQM, Ka6aK.
cI>APTYK. AeKQpaTHBHaJl 'laCTh HaJlU'tHUKa, pa3MeIl.\eHHaJl rrQ erQ QCH HH)!{e
rrQ):IQKQHHHKa.
cI> AIIIHHbI. CBJl3KH rrpYTheB ):IJIHHQH
QT Tpex ):10. 'leThlpex apWHH (c cyMMapHhIM rrQrrepe'lHHKQM QT TpeTH ):10. nQJIQBHHhI apWHHa), nepeXBa'leHHhle KQJIh-
<!>l1rAPPEll. KpaH HanJlaeHOU fjJUJlCHKU, HMeIOIl.\HH KJIHHQBH):IHQe Ce'leHHe.
cI>l1JIE. AeKQpaTHBHaJl BCTaBKa B Me6eJIh.
cI>AC. l.JacTh YKpenJIeHHJI, HMeIOIl.\aJl
BH):I eaJla (1) C 6pycmeepoM, KQTOphle
QT):IeJIeHhI QT npQTHBHHKa PBQM.
l\eBhIMH eu/{a.MU 'lepe3 Ka2K):\hle i/2 - 3/4
apWHHa H HCrrQJIh3yeMhle ):IJIJI yKperrJIeHHJI 3eMJIJlHhIX QTKQCQB HJIH rrpH rrpQKJIa):lKe ):IQPQr B CHJIhHQ rrepeCe'leHHQH
JIH6Q TQrrKQH MeCTHQCTH, a TaK)!{e B
nQJIeBhIX YKperrJIeHHJlX ):IJIJI 3aIl.\HThI QT
Q6CTpeJIa.
'
127
-127-
cI>HJIEHKA. 1 Cpe):lHJ'lJl, BCTaBHaJl
'laCTh ):IBepHQrQ rrQJIQTHa. 2 06paMJIeHHhIH HJIH 3arJIy6JIeHHhIH rJIYXQH Y'laCTQK
cpaca):la JIH60 HaCTeHHQH naHeJlU, HMeIOIl.\HH CPQPMy rrpJlMQyroJIhHHKa HJIH
6JIH3KYIO K HeMY (HarrpHMep, C BbIKPYJICKllMU Ha yrJIax HJIH C rrQJIYKpY)!{HJlMH Ha
TQPl\ax).
cIH,nEH"IATA5I - Cl)POHTOH
IllMJIEHqATA5I
(.flOnamKa,
nUIIRcmpa). MMelO~ruI rrpSiMoyr.OJIbHOe HJIH
qmrypHoe 3arJIy6JIeHHe rrOqTH rro BceH
JIHQeBOH rrOBepXHOCTH.
IllMcrAPMOHM}I. TIHeBMaTHqeCKHH
KJIaBHIIIHblH MY3bIKaJIbHblH HHCTpyMeHT, BHeIIIHe rrOXO)K}lH Ha He60JIbIIIOe
rrHaHHHO C BbI)l;BH)KHbIMH pblqaraMH, a
rro 3ByqaHHIO - Ha opz(m.
128
IllJIOPEHTMI1:CKA5I
M03AMKA.
M03al{qHOe H306pa)KeHHe H3 ;!IOBOJIbHO
KpyrrHblx KYCKOB KaMHSI H CTeKJIa.
IllJIIOrAPKA. TIoBopoTHaSi )KeJIe3HruI
HaCa):IKa Ha AbIMOBYIO Tpy6y, HarrpaBJISIlO~aSl AbIM rro BeTPY, AJISI YJIyqIIIeHHSI
TSirH.
IllJIIOrEP.
TIJIOCKruI
rrJIaCTHHKa
(crrJIOIIIHruI HJIH rrpope3HaSl, C rrpSIMOJIHHeHHblMH HJIH CPHryPHbIMH KpruIMH) Ha
BepTHKaJIbHOH
OCH,
yKa3b1BalO~ruI
HarrpaBJIeHHe BeTPa.
IllJIIOTEET. MCKYCCTBeHHoe rrO;!lBO;!lHoe OCHOBaHHe rH;!IpOTeXHHqeCKOrO
coopY)KeHHSI, COCTOSl~ee H3 n01typa,
600060R H pUC6epMbi.
IllJIAHK. EOKOBaSi CTopOHa yKperrJIeHHSI.
IllJIEMCKA5I PE3b. 30JIOqeHruI pe3b6a B CTHJIe 6apOKKO, CBOHCTBeHHruI pycCKHM UK01tOCmaCaM XVII H HaqaJIa
XVIII
B.
IllJIEPOH. 1 )J,eKopaTHBHruI mlpaMH;!IKa
B BepxHeH qaCTH 1ta.flu't1tUKa HJIH Ha Kap1tuae. 2 CTHJIH30BaHHoe H306pa)KeHHe
H30rHYToH BeTBH B QeHTPe Ca;!lOBO-rrapKOBoro napmepa (1).
IllJIEilib. TIOJIeBOe CPOpTHcpHKaqIlOHHoe coop~eHHe, OTKpbITOe C TbIJIa H
06pa~eHHoe
K rrpOTHBHHKy AByMSI
paCaMU AJIHHOH 20- 30 M, rrOA YrJIOM
60-120°.
IllOJIbBAPK. He60JIbIIIruI AOXOAHruI
ycaob6a C orpaHHqeHHbIM qHCJIOM CJIy)Ke6HbIX rrOCTPoeK (B 3arra;!lHbIX paHOHax CTPaHbI).
IllOHAPEM OKHO (=6Y;!lKOIO OKHO).
OKHO C ;!IOrrOJIHHTeJIbHblM OCTeKJIeHHeM
60KOBblX CTOPOH (rrOA rrpSIMblM YrJIOM
K JIHQeBOH), BMeCTe C rrOAOKOHHOH
qaCTblO OT rrOJIa, BbI)l;BHHYToe Ha
Kp01tlUmeu1tax rrepeA cpaCa;!lHOH rrJIOCKOCTblO.
IllPAHUY3C~ KPOBITK KpOB.flR
.Ma1tCapObt.
IllPAHIJ;Y3CKA5I
.flO1tCO cucmeMa.
CMCTEMA.
llo-
IllPAHIJ;Y3CKA}I YKJIA)J,KA. CHCTeMa BblCTHJIKH IIIHcpepHoH KP06.flU
rrapaJIJIeJIbHblMH pSl):laMH IIIecTHyrOJIbHbIX rrJIHTOK TaKHM o6pa30M, ~o Ha
rroBepXHOCTH IIIBbI 06pa3ylOT ceTKY C
HaKJIOHOM JIHHHH rro;!l yrJIOM B 45 ° K
cBecy KPbtUlU.
IllPAHIJ;Y3CKMI1: EMJIb}IP)J,. CTOJI C
60PTaMH 6e3 JIY3, ;!IJISI HrpbI TPeMSI
IIIapaMH.
IllPAHUY3CKMI1: TIAPK. llapKoBblH
aHCaM6JIb C reOMeTpHqeCKOH qeTKOCTblO KaK B IIJIaHHpOBKe, TaK H B 061>eMax Haca~eHHH.
IllPAHIJ;Y3CKMI1: TIAPTEP. UBeTOqHbrn napmep (1) C Kp~eBHbIM PHCYHKOM.
IllPECKA (=a cppecKo, aJIb cppecKo,
aJIbcppecKo). )l(HBOIIHCb BO;!lOpacTBopHMbIMH KpacKaMH rro BJIa)KHOH IIITyKarypKe.
IllPM3. 1 Cpe;!lHSISI qaCTb a1tma6.fleMe1tmao 2 )J,eKopaTHBHo ocpopMJIeHHruI ro-
IllOHAPMK. 3aBepIIIalOIqIlH 3;!1aHHe
He60JIbIIIOH rpaHeHblH 061>eM, y KOTOporo rrOBepXHOCTb 3aCTeKJIeHHSl 60JIbIIIe
rrJIO~a;!lH rrpOCTeHKOB.
PH30HTaJIbHruI rrOJIoca.
IllOHAPb. 1 J/amep1ta. 2 rpaHeHblH
Bblcryrr Ha cpaca):Ie, HMelOIqIlH KpyrrHble
OKHa Ha Ka~oH rpaHH. 3 TIoBblIIIeHHruI
qaCTb KP06.flU, BKJIlOqalO~ruI B ce6S1
3aCTeKJIeHHble rrpoeMbI ;!IJISI rrpoxoAa
AHeBHoro CBeTa B rrOMe~eHHe, KOTopoe
orpaHHqeHO TOJIbKO BHYTPeHHHMH CTeHaMH.
IllPM30BbIE )J,OCKM. 1 Ka~ruI H3
OOCOK (1) B BepxHeM CJIoe rrOJIa, yJIO)KeHHbIX B;!IOJIb CTeH HJIH rrorrepeK rrOMe-
IllOHTAIT. BOAopa360pHruI KOJIOHKa Ha
rOpO;!lCKOH rrJIO~aAH, HMelO~ruI BH;!I
MHOrorpaHHOro na6U11b01ta (1) C pa3BHTblM cpaCa):IHbIM ;!IeKOpoM.
IllOPT. KpYIIHoe KpenOCm1toe coop~e­
HHe, rrpHcrroc06JIeHHOe K AJIHTeJIbHOH
KpyroBoH 060poHe 6e3 rrOAAep)KKH
H3BHe.
IllOPTEU~.
IllITMrEJIb. 1 :JKHJIoe JIH60 X03S1HCTBeHHoe CTPoeHHe rrpH rJIaBHOM 3;!1aHHH,
rrpHMblKalO~ee K HeMY HJIH B03Be;!leHHoe rr06JIH30CTH. 2 POSlJlb.
IllPAHKJIMHA rpOMOOTBO)J,. rpoMOOTBO;!l,
3aBepIIIeHHblH
BbICOKHM
CTep)KHeM Ha):I 3a~H~aeMbIM OT rp03
coopY)KeHHeM.
Kpenocmb.
IllPM30BA}I CTYTIEHb. JIecTHHqHruI
cTyrreHb, rrpHMblKalO~ruI K IIJIO~aAKe.
~eHHSI rro;!l rrpSlMblM yrJIOM K 60JIbIIIHHCTBY ;!IOCOK 3TOro CJIOSI. 2 J/0606QR
oocKa.
IllPOMyrA. CVpaMyza.
IllPOHTMCllMC. CVpo1tmo1t.
cllPOHTOH
(=cppOHTHCrrHc).
TpeyrOJIbHOe,
rrOJIYKpyrJIOe,
.fly'tK060e
JIH60 CJIO)KHocpHrypHoe 3aBepIIIeHHe
Kap1tuaa HJIH 1ta.flU't1tUKQ.
IllOTAPMI1:. TIoMe~eHHe ;!IJISI yJIbTPacpHOJIeToBoro, HHcppaKpacHoro H HHoro
o6JIyqeHHSl B Me;!lHQRHCKHX QeJISIx.
IIIP AMYTA. HerrO;!lBH)KHruI JIH60 OTKH;!IHruI 3aCTeKJIeHHruI paMa Ha;!l OCHOBHOH qaCTblO ABepH HJIH OKHa.
-128-
":-.'.,
41POHTOHHOE OKHO -
129
41b1Hr
<l>POHTOHHOE OKHO. BbtnycKHoe
C ,IJ;BycKaTHbIM IIOKpbITlfeM Ha
OKHO
OT~eJIbHbIX
cmponUJlax.
<l>P.~DKCKMll I10fPEE. I1IfTeiiHoe
C IIpO~a)!{eH BIfHorpa~Hblx
BIfH.
3aBe~eHlfe
<l>YKCOBO CTEKJIO.
BooR-Hoe cme-
K/IO.
<l>YH.IJ:AMEHT.
I1o~3eMH(l}I
qaCTb
coopy)!{eHIfM, 06eCIIeqlfBalOll\(l}I ero ycTOii:qHBOCTb.
<I> YPHEJIb. KopoTKaM BepTIfKaJIbHaM
IIIaxTa, COe~HH»IOll\aM ~Be utmO/lbHU.
<I> YPHMTYPA. MeTaJIJIlfqeCKHe 3JIeMeHTbI Ha ~epeBMHHbIX ~BepMx If Me6eJIIf: pyqKIf, IIOBOpOTHble IIeTJIIf, /lU'tUHbl, YKpaIIIeHH».
<l>YCT. CTBOJI
KO/lOHHbl.
<l>YCYMA. JIerKHe pa3~BIf)!{Hble CTeHbI
B MIIOHCKHX IIOCTpoHKax.
<l>YTllTOK. HeIIO~BH)!{HaM peHKa ~JIM
1f3MepeHlfM ypOBHM BO~bI B peKe.
<l>bIHf . .IJ:epeBMHHbIH CTOJIIfK Ha TPex
HO)!{KaX, B oceTHHCKOM )!{HJIIfll\e.
-129-
XAEJIb. 1 Tpa)WJl;MOHHbIH ceBepoKaBKa3cKMH rrOCeJIOK - COCTaBHaji 'IaCTb
aYJIa. 2 A,n;blreHcKMH ayJI, o6HeceHHbIH
rrJIeTHeM C 3eMJIjlHOH rrpMcbIIIKOH Ha
BbICOTY rro rpy,n;b 'IeJIOBeKa; liHor,n;a C
rrJIeTHeBblMM Ha6mo,n;aTeJIbHblMll BblIIIKaMM.
XA,U3AP. HCrrOJIb3yeMoe rro,n; CTOJIOBylO M KyxHIO rJIaBHOe rrOMeIl.\eHMe oceTMHCKoro oOMa (1, 2), C O'IaroM B Il;eHTpaJIbHOH'IaCTM.
XAlJHIII. IIocTpoHKa ,n;JISI rOCTeH, B03Be,n;eHHaji ('IaCTO C rrpMCTPoeHHOH KOHIOIIIHeH) BHyTpll OC060H orpa,n;bl, B
CTopOHe OT yeaob6bl 'IepKeCOB MJIM
Ka6ap,n;MHIl;eB.
XA5IABY. BOHJIO'IHbIH Il;OKOJIb TYBMHCKOH lOpmbl.
XEPYBHM. Pa3HOBM,n;HOCTb TaK Ha3bIBaeMbIX CMJI He6eCHbIX, M306pa)KaeMaji
B BM,n;e ,n;eTCKOH rOJIOBKll C KPblJIbjlMM rro
60KaM.
XAI1:JIO. Yembe.
XAK3II1,. ,KYHaIl;Kajl B a,n;bIreHcKoH
yeaob6e, COCTOjlIl.\ajl M3 KOMHaTbI ,n;JIjI
rOCTjI II rrpMMbIKalOIl.\eH KOHIOIIIHM ,n;JIjI
ero JIOIIIa,n;M.
XAJIArA. 06paIl.\eHHaji K lOry ,n;epeBjlHHaji ,n;BycTBOp'IaTaji ,n;Bepb 6YPjlTCKOH
BOHJIO'IHOH lOpmbl.
XAJIYAH. J/.JlCam.Ma.
XAJIYrA. ,UpeBHepyccKajl
yJIM'IH~
M3-
ropo,n;b.
XAHbI.
Pa3,n;Bll)KHble peIIIeT'IaTble
CTeHbl TYBMHCKOH lOpmbl, C06paHHble M3
MBOBbIX rrJIaHOK.
XAOC.
HarpOMO)K,ll;eHMe KpyrrHblx KaMeHHblX
rJIbl6 HenpaBMJIbHOH <pOpMbl (MHor,n;a
cpe,n;M CKaJI) B neU3aJICHOM napKe, CMMBOJIM3MpYIOIl.\ee Mcxo,n;Hoe COCTOjlHMe BM,n;MMoro MMpa.
XOJIO,UHA5I EAH5I. MblllbHaR.
XOJIO,UHA5I
l{epKoBb.
ll,EPKOBb.
JIemHRR
XOJIO,UHA5I lJETBEPKA. KMprrM'IHajl CTeHKa TOJIIl.\MHOH B 'JemBepmb KUpnU'Ja, OT,n;eJIjllOIl.\ajl ,n;epeBHHHylO cTeHY
rrOMeIl.\eHMjI OT rre'IM MJIM MHoro OTOIIMTeJIbHOrO rrpM60pa.
XOnOMO. KOHM'IeCKOe )KMJIMIl.\e ceBepHblx HKYTOB, B03Be,n;eHHoe M3 rrepeceKalOIl.\MXCjI )Kep,n;eH Ha 6peBeH'IaTOH
paMe, 06JIO)KeHHOe cHapY)KM oepHoM M
KpbIToe 6epecToH.
XOJIOCTA5I CJIY)KEA. Yeaoe6HaR
CJIY)Ke6HaH rrocTpoHKa 6e3 rre'IHOrO
OTOrrJIeHMjI.
XHKHMA,UO.
CllYXOBoe OKHO B
KpblUJe jlrrOHCKOH rrOCTpOHKM, OTKPbIBaeMoe HaTjlHYTblM llIHypOM.
XOMYT. )KeJIe3Haji cKo6a, OXBaTbIBalOIl.\aH ,n;epeBjlHHble 6pyebR (1) ,n;JIjI MX
coe,n;MHeHlljl MJIM ,n;JIjI rrOBbIIlleHMjI rrpo'IHOCTM KOHIl;a 6pyca.
XHPOMA. 1 3aJIbHOe IIOMelll;eHMe B
jlrrOHCKOM 3,n;aHMM. 2 TMrr jlrrOHCKOro
)KMJIMIl.\a, Il;eHTp KOToporo 3aHMMaeT
60JIbIllaji KOMHaTa.
XOH,U3E. ll,eHTPaJIbHaji 'IaCTb jlrrOHCKoro 3tl.MKa (1) MJIM Kpenoemu, l{umaOellb.
XHT. Ye,n;MHeHHaji JIaMaMCTCKajl 06MTeJIb y KaJIMbIKOB.
XOH,U3H (=XOHCH). rJIaBHbIH xpaM B
CMHTOMCTCKOM KYJIbTOBOM KOMrrJIeKce.
XJIEEH5I. IIoMeIl.\eHMe ,n;JISI BbIIIe'IKM
xJIe6a; MHor,n;a TaK)Ke ,n;JIjI ero rrpo,n;a)KM
MJIM pa3,n;a'IM (B MOHacTblpe).
XOHKAKY. Orpa,n;a jlrrOHCKOH Kpenoemu.
XOEOT. (=BOpOTMJIO). HapY)KHbIH
rroBopoTHblH 6pye (2) BeTpjlHOH MeJIbHMIl;bI, rr03BOJIjllOIl.\MH YCTaHoBMTb ee
KPblJIbjl rro HarrpaBJIeHMIO BeTPa.
XOHC5I. XOH031l.
XAP ACA. ll,eHTpaJIbHblH orropHblH
CTOJI6 C ropM30HTaJIbHOH 6aJIKOH,
rro,n;,n;ep)l(MBalOrrl;eH rrOTOJIOK py6JIeHOH
lOpmbl y 3arra,n;HbiX 6ypSIT.
XOI1:MOP. IIapa,n;Haji 'IaCTb Tpa,n;MIl;MOHHoro 6YPjlTcKoro )KMJIMIl.\a, B KOTOpoft Haxo,n;HTCH peJIMKBMM M rrpe,n;MeTbI
pMTyaJIa.
XOP. BOCTO'IHaH 'IaCTb 3arra,n;Ho-xpMCTMaHCKoro xpaMa, rrpe,n;Ha3Ha'IeHH~
,n;JIjI ,n;yxoBeHcTBa M 06bI'IHO OT,n;eJIeHHaji
OT OCHOBHoro rrpocTpaHcTBa 3,n;aHMjI
rrOBblIlleHMeM rrOJIa, JIerKMM orpa)K,ll;eHMeM MJIM apKou C paCrrjlTMeM M rrpe,n;CTOHIl.\MMM (EoroMaTepb M HoaHH EoroCJIOB).
XATTO. XpaM ,n;ml rrporrOBe,n;eH, B
COCTaBe ,n;33H-6y,n;,n;MHCKOro aHCaM6JISI.
XOJIJI. IIpocTopHoe rrOMeIl.\eHMe ,n;mI
O)KM,n;aHMH MJIM OT,n;bIxa.
XOPOMHHKA. He60JIbIllaji U36a (1) C
e,n;MHcTBeHHbIM rrOMeIl.\eHMeM.
XAII,UbIK A5IrbI. KapallObt aRZbt.
130
-130-
x
XOPOMbi - XIOP
131
XOPOMhI. 1 KpynH.Wf,n;peBHepyccKMM
,n;OM C MHOrO'lMCJIeHHhIMM nOMeII\eHM-
XYP3. JIaMaMcTcKMM MOHacThlph C pa3MeII\eHMeM nocTpoeK no Kpyry.
X3IU3IU.
KyHa~KaSI,
3aHMMaIDII\aSI
He60JIhillYID nocTpoMKY Ha OT,n;eJIhHOM
,n;BopMKe B03JIe ycaob6bl B Ka6ap,n;MHCKOM MJIM '1epKeCCKoM CeJIeHMM.
XIDP. JIe3rMHcKoe CeJIeHMe B ropax.
SIMM. 2 CeBepHoe py6JIeHOe )KMJIMII\e B
,n;Ba 3Ta)Ka.
XOPOC (=BeH'lMK). IIo,n;BecH01f ~ep­
KOBHhIM CBeTMJIhHMK co MHO)KeCTBOM
CBe'leM,naHuKaouAo.
XOPhI. EaAKoH (1), wAepeR (1) JIM60
AOO:JfCUR BHyTpM napa,n;Horo 3aJIa MJIM B
~epKBM.
XOTOH. 1 IIoMeII\eHMe ,n;JISI CKOTa,
IIpMcTPoeHHoe C ceBepa K SIKYTCKOM
IOpme. 2 KaJIMhI~KMM aYJI.
XPAM B AHTAX. KYJIhTOBOe 3,n;aHMe
C mlm06bl.M nopmUKOM. .
XPEBET. BepxHSISI ropM30HTaJIh KOpo6'-t.amo20 c6ooa.
XYBCAP. KOBpMK-naJIaC
npMaHrapcKMX 6ypSIT.
XY,o;mKECTBEHHA5l
ra6aHb xyoO:JfCeCm6eliHaR.
XYPA
U36a.
IIIDPT.
B
IOpme
rABAHh.
l.! YBaIIIcKaSI
KypHaR
XYP,o;3.
CTa~oHapHhIM
BpaII\aIDII\HMCSI 6apa6aH Ha BepTHKaJIhHOM OCM,
3aIIOJIHeHHhIM TeKCTaMM JIaMaMCTCKMX
MOJIHTB.
XYPYJI. KaJIMhI~KMM 6y,n;,n;MMCKMH MOHaCThlph.
-131-
UArEJIhH5I. KHPIHI'IHhlM: 3aBO,n;.
UAryp. 1 OrpOMHhlM: JIaph-a.M6ap C
TPeM» ,n;Bep»MH, BO BTOPOM 3Ta:lKe aBapCKOro oOMa (1). 2 IIIKacp-'1YJIaH B ,n;areCTaHCKOM Hapo,n;HoM :lKHJIHIlW, 06hI'IHO
YKpallIeHHhIM: pe3h60M:.
UAII«I>A. IlIun
(2).
UAPrA. 1 rOpH30HTaJIhHa» paMa H3
rrOCTaBJIeHHhIX Ha pe6po OOe01( (1),
06'he,n;HH»IOIIJ;a» HO:lKKH CTOJIa HJIH CTYJIa. 2 UHJIHH,n;p H3 JIHCTOBOM: CTaJIH (HarrpHMep, ,n;JI» rrpOMhIIlIJIeHHhIX ,n;hIMOBhIX
TPy6).
UAPCKA5I APKA. ApKa (1) l1apeKux
8pam B UKOHoemaee.
UAPCKME BPATA (=BeJIHKHe BpaTa,
paM:CKHe BpaTa, CB»Thle BpaTa). Cpe,n;HHe ,n;BepH UKOHoemaea, pacrrOJIO:lKeHHhle Ha rrpO,n;OJIhHOM: OCH XpaMa, rrepe,n;
aJITapHhIM npeCmOJlOM.
UAPCKOE MECTO. IIo'leTHoe MeCTO
,n;JI» u:ap» , rrpHMhlKalOIIJ;ee co CTOPOHhI
UKOHoemaea K O,n;HOMy H3 BOCTO'lHhIX
CTOJI60B B c060pe JIH60 K 60KOBOM:
CTeHe B ero UHmepbepe; BKJIIO'IaJIO B
ce6» orpa:lK,n;eHHoe ce,n;aJIHIIJ;e 3a OT,n;eJIhHhIM BXO,n;OM H 3aBepllIaJIOCh 60raTO
,n;eKopHpOBaHHhIM AepeB»HHhIM UlamPOM (1) Ha pe3Hhlx KOJIOHKaX, KOTOPhIM:
06h1'1HO 6hIJI YBeH'IaH H306pa:lKeHHeM
KOPOHhI HJIH ,n;ByrJIaBOrO OPJIa.
UBETOqHMUA. He60JIh1lI0M: zaaoH C
n:seTaMH rrepe,n; Ha,n;rp06HeM, 06paMJIeHHhIM: 60pO/OpOM.
UE3YPA. MHTepBaJI B opHaMeHTe.
UMtEJIhH51. 1 KHPIHI'lHhlM: 3aBO,n;.
2 HaBec ,n;JI» XpaHCHH» KHprrH'Ia.
UMKJIOIIMqECKA5I
KJIA)J.KA.
KJlaOKa H3 OrpOMHhIX KaMHeM: HeOAHHaKOBOM: CPOpMhI 6e3 rrp»Mhlx yrJIOB.
UMJIMH,ll;PMQECKMI1 CBO,ll;. IIoJlyI1UPKYJlbHblU C800.
UMMAPA KAJIOPM«I>EP. KaJl0pupep C KepaMH'IeCKHMH TPy6aMH ,n;JI»
,n;BH:lKeHH» TerrJIOrO B03,n;yxa, 060rpeBalOIIJ;ero rrOMeIIJ;eHH».
UEl1XrAY3. BOeHHhIM: CKJIa,n; ,n;JI» xpaHeHH» 3arraCOB BoopY:lKeHH», cHap»:lKeHH», 06MYH,n;HpoBaHH» H rrpo,n;oBOJIhCTBH».
UMMETMK. Y3KHM: KapHUa C HeCJIO:lKHOM: npOpUJlUp08K011.
UEJIOBAJIhH5I. qaM:Ha», Ka6aK.
UMHTOBKA. TlOphMa.
UEM5IHKA.
M3MeJIh'leHHa»
060:lK:lKeHHa» rJIHHa H TOJI'IeHhIM: KHprrH'I,
,n;06aBJI»BIlIHec» B CTPOHTeJIhHhlM: pacTBOP ,n;JI» rrpO'lHOcTH.
UMPKYMBAJIAUMOHHA5I
JIMHM5I. HerrpephIBHa» JIHHH» rrOJIeBhIX
YKperrJIeHHM:, KOTOpa» 06paIIJ;eHa OT
I1UmaOeJlU H OrpaHH'IHBaeT C BHeIliHeM:
CTOPOHhI ,n;yro06pa3HYIO rrOJIOcy, 3aH»TYIO BOM:CKaMH (Cp.: KOHmp8aJlaI1UOHHaR JlUHUR).
UEHMHA. 1 Hapaael1 C MOHOXPOMHhlM
PHCYHKOM (06hI'IHO CHHero U:BeTa).
2 KepaMH'IeCKOe H3,n;eJIHe C rroKphITHeM
3MaJIhlO.
UEHTPAJI.
TIOphMa.
KpyrrHa»
KaTOp:lKHa»
UEIIHA5I KJIA)J.KA (=rrOJIYKpecToBa» KJIa,n;Ka). KHprrH'IHa» KJlaOKa, B
KOTOPOM: p»,n;h1 H3 O,n;HHX JlOJICK08 '1epe-
UMPKYM«I>EPEHUM5I. HH3KHM: KOprryc C,n;yro06pa3HhIM rrJIaHOM, rrpHMhIKaIOIIJ;HM: K rJIaBHOMY OOMY (1) ycaoe6Ho20
HJIH 080P1108020 KOMrrJIeKca.
UMPOBKA.
rro Jle8Kacy.
1
rpapbe.
2 rpaBHpoBKa
UMTA)J.EJIh. IIpe,n;Ha3Ha'leHHoe ,n;JI»
caMocTo»TeJIhHOM: 060pOHhI 060c06JIeHHoe YKperrJIeHHe BHYTPH Kpenocmu.
UOrqHH. I{OK'tUH-OyzaH.
,n;YIOTC» C p»,n;aMH H3 O,n;HHX mbl'tK08, a
BepTHKaJIH Ul808 COBrra,n;aIOT '1epe3 p»,n;.
132
-132-
UOKOJIh (=rro,n;,n;eJI). BhlcTyrralOIIJ;ee
rro,n;HO:lKHe 3,n;aHH» , rro BhICOTe rrpH-
U
UOKonbHblH 3TA)I( -
UbiPT
133
MepHO COOTBeTCTBYIOII\ee ypOBHIO nOJIa
B HH)!{HeM OCHOBHOM :nruKe.
UOKOJIbHbIl1:
3TNK.
HH)!{HHH
3Ta)!{ 3;D;aHIDI, BHeIIIHHe CTeHhI KOToporo
HeCKOJIhKO BhlcrynalOT no cpaBHeHHIO c
BepXHHMH 3TruKaMH.
UOKqMH;,lJ,yrAH
(=I\OKqHH,
1I0K-
qeH, 1I0rqHH, COKIIIHH). rJIaBHhIH xpaM B
JIaMaHCTCKOM MOHaCThlpe.
WXTrAY3
(IIYXTraY3CKIDI KaHI\emI-
pHH). McnpaBHTeJIhHhIH ;D;OM, TlOphMa.
UbIPT. IIpH;D;OPO)!{HhIH nOMHHaJIhHhIH
naMHTHHK B OceTHH.
-133-
qA)J,OBKA. Kyp/-taJl ua6a.
qA)J,hIP. AnTaMcKaSi KOHll'leCKaSi IOpma, KphITaSi rro 2Kep}J;eBOMY KapKacy
KOPOM JIHCTBeHHHn;hI.
qAKhI. t(eHTPaJIhHhIM CTOJI6 B aJITaMCKOM KOHHqeCKOM IOpme.
l.IAHHhIE BOPOTA. T'lallHbte 80pO-
mao
l.IAPIllAY. f{e6e.llOeK.
l.IACOBH5I. 1 He6oJIhilIOe KYJIhTOBOe
coopY2KeHHe 6e3 a.llmapJl. 2 IIPH}J;Op02KHhIM CTOJI6 C HKOHOM H .IlaMnaoou B
HHllle.
qEKA (=qeKOJI}J;a). )KeJIe3HhIM HJIH
}J;epeBSlHHhIH
KJIHH }J;JISI
3alIHpaHHSI
BOpOT.
qEPJI5I)J,h (=qepHe}J;h). TeMHO-KpacHaS! oxpa, IIpHMeHSlBlllaSiCSI ;n:JISI OKpaCKH
KPOBJIH.
qEJIO. 1 CTeHKa Ha}J; ycmbeM PYCCKOU
ne'lu. 2 lI(uneu, HJIH cjJpoHmoH Ha ¢aca}J;e }J;epeBSlHHoH u36bt (1) JIH60 XOpOM.
3 IIOTOJIOK 08UHa.
qEPHh. EpaYHpom.
qEJIIDCTHOM )J,OM. 3arJIy6JIeHHOe B
3eMJIlO 3CKHMOCCKoe HJIH qYKoTcKoe
2KHJIHIn;e co cmponU.llaMu H3 KHTOBOH
KOCTH.
qEJI5I)J,HA5I. lf36a (1) }J;JISI }J;BOPOBhIX
JIIO}J;eM.
qEMh5l. Cpy6 B JIecy, CJIY2KHBlllHH B
KaqeCTBe
BpeMeHHoro CKJIa}J;a }J;JISI
}J;06hlqH ypaJIhCKHX OXOTHHKoB-rrpoMhICJIOBHKOB.
qEPBOHKA. Cep}J;n;eBHAHhIH }J;eKopaTHBHhIH MOTHB B npOnU.IlbHOU pe3b6e
HJIH npOCe'l/-wM JlCe.!le3e.
qEP)J,AK. 1 (=HcToIIKa). He2KHJIOe
IIpoCTpaHcTBo Me2K}J;y BepxHHM IIOTOJIKOM H Kp08.1leU 3}J;aHHSI. 2 OTKphITaSi
}J;epeBSlHHaS! 6eceoKa B ca}J;y. 3 CaJJCa.!lKa
(1). 4 TepeM (2).
qEPTOr. OqeHh 60JIhillOe lIapa}J;Hoe
IIOMeIn;eHHe C IIhIlllHhIM y6paHCTBOM.
qECHOK. IIJIOTHO
KOJIhSl HJIH C8au.
B6HThle
B
pSl}J;
qETBEPl1K. 061>eM C rrpSiMoyroJIhHhIM IIJIaHOM (TepMHH 06hIqHO OTHOCHTCSI K KYJIhTOBhIM IIOCTPOHKaM).
qETBEPHA5I AMEP A3YP A. CJIHBaIOIn;HeCSI Me2KAY C060H aM6pa3ypbt (1),
1I03BOJISIIOIn;He BeCTH CTpeJIh6y B pa3HhIX HalipaBJIeHHSIX.
qETBEPTl1HA. II.IlacmuHa,
JIeHHaSi IIO OCH rrOIIOJIaM.
pacrrH-
QETBEPTHOM BAIT. IIpoTSl2KeHHhIM
BhICTYIi C CeqeHHeM B qeTBepTh Kpyra.
QETBEPTHOM CBO)J,. C800 C ceqeHHeM B qeTBepTh OKPY2KHOCTH OT
e;n:HHcTBeHHoM nJlmbt (1) }J;O ute.!lbt2u.
qEPEII. IIOrrepeqHhIH 6pyc (1), rro}J;}J;ep2KHBalOIn;HH IIOTOJIOK B u36e (1).
qAIllA (=qalllKa). IIOJIYKPYrJIaSi BhIeMKa B KOHn;e 6pe8Ha }J;JISI py6KH CTeH C
ocmamKOM, Bhlpy6JIeHHaSi IIO ¢opMe
}J;pyroro 6peBHa, KOTopoe 6Y}J;eT B Hee
YJI02KeHo.
qEPElIl11.1,A. IllTyqHhIH KpOBeJIhHhIH
MaTepHan H3 0602K2KeHHOH rJIHHhI.
qEEEJI)J,EK. 3aHaBech y CrraJIhHOrO
MeCTa B ua6e (1) TaTap-MHlllapeM.
qEPEIIHOM BEHEt(. BepxHHH 8eHeu,
B cpy6e u36bt (1), rro}J;}J;ep2KHBalOIn;HH
Mamuu,y (1) H rrOTOJIOK, }J;JISI qero B 6pe8Hax HJIH 6pyCbJlX (1) 3TOro BeHn;a c}J;eJIaHhI BhleMKH.
134
-134-
QETBEPTh. 1 QeTBepTaSi qaCTh 6pycK08020 KUpnU'la, 06KOJIOTOrO lIapanJIeJIhHO mbt'lKY }J;JISI BhlpaBHHBaHHSI
}J;JIHHhI pSl}J;a B K.IlaOKe. 2 YCTYII B KHPIIHqHOH K.IlaOKe IIpoeMa, paCCqHTaHHhIH
Ha IIpHMhIKaHHe OKOHHOM l1JIH }J;BepHoH
paMhI.
QETBEPKA.
PaCKOJIOThIH
B}J;OJIh
.!lOJICKa (1) 6pYCK08btU KUpnU'l, KOTOphIH BKJIlOqalOT B K.!laoKY }J;JISI BhlpaBHHBaHHSI pSl}J;a IIO ropH30HTamL
~ETbiPExnEnECTKOBblH
XPAM - ~bln
135
llEThIPExnEIlECTKOBhlI1 XPAM.
:QepKOBHOe 3):1aHMe, Y KOTOPOro IWaH
06pa30BaH nOJIyKpyXillllMM, npMMhIKaIOIl\MMM K CTOpOHaM KBa):lpaTa B n;eHTpe.
llOnrAH. KYXHlI 6ypllTcKoro JIaMaMCTCKoro MOHacTblpll, B KOTOPOH rOTOBlIT
)!(epTBOnpMHOrrreHMlI (6aJIMHhI M ,n;YPMY)
,n;JIlI xypanoB.
llEPHA5I. BAoUlHul1a.
llOll)K-XOPOn. IloMell\eHHalI: Ha,n;
BXO):lOM B 6Y):I):IMlfcKMH xpaM CMMMeTPMqHall KOMn03MIJ;MlI B BM):Ie «KOJIeCa 3aKOHa» - C BoceMblO CnMIJ;aMM, tPJIaHKMpOBaHHoro tPMrypaMM KOJIeHOnpeKJIOHeHHbIX ra3eJIeH.
llEPHA5I )KECTh. nMCTOBOe KpOBeJIbHOe )KeJIe30 TOJIIl\MHOH MeHee 1 MM.
llEPHA5I H3BA. 1 KYPHaR ua6a. 2 TJeARvHaR.
llEPHA5I nECTHH:QA. Ilo):lc06Hall
JIeCTHMn;a BHYTPM vO.Ma (1), npe):lHa3Ha'IeHHall ,n;JIlI X0311HCTBeHHbIX HY)!(,n; M
BbIXO,n;lIIl\alI: BO vsop (1).
llEPHA5I IlAITATA. IloMell\eHMe ):IJIlI
apecToBaHHbIx, npM ,n;peBHepyccKoM
npMKa3e.
llEPHA5I IlEllh. Ile% B nOMell\eHMM,
He MMelOll\all Tpy6bJ.
llEPHA5I IlOnH:QA. POClca (1) ,n;JIlI
CyurKM roprrrKoB, nepeKMHYTall C nOAamelt (2) Ha PyCCKY/o ne'tb.
llEPHhI11 lIOn, llEPHhIll IlOTOnOK. OCHoBa nOJIa MJIM nOTOJIKa,
COCT0llll\all M3 nAacmUH, Wp6bl./lR (1),
HeocTPyraHHbIX VOCOK (1).
llOllHXOP. CKYJIbnTypHoe
)KeHMe «KOJIeCa 3aKOHa» (CM.
XOpOA).
llOllP A. BY):l):lMHCKOe
yqMJIMll\e.
~306pa­
TJol1JfC-
60roCJIOBCKOe
llOM. O):lHOCKaTHbIH rrraJIarrr
3blpllH.
KOMM-
llPEH. MeTaJIJIMqeCKall eMKOCTb ,n;JIlI
BbIIIapMBaHMlI COJIM M3 paCTBopa.
llYBAIT. Ileqb B Hapo,n;HOM )!(MJIMll\e,
MMelOll\all nOJIYKpyrJIbIH BepTMKaJIbHbIH
Kopnyc M no KOHCTPYKIJ;MM CXO,n;HalI: C
Ka.MUHO.M.
llYM. KOHMqeCKOe )KMJIMll\e MaJIbIX
HapO):lOB CeBepa, KpbIToe 6epeCTOH MJIM
rrrKypaMM no KapKacy M3 HaKJIOHHhIX
)!(ep,n;eH.
llhln. nerKall a):lblreHCKall nOCTpOHKa
(6a.!laWH, rrraJIarrr).
ll)KAB,o:AH. ,o:JIMHHall CKaMbll ,n;JIlI
MOHaXOB BHYTpM 6y,n;):IMHCKOro xpaMa.
ll)KArAH. KYXH1I6ypllTcKoro JIaMaMCTCKoro MOHacTblpll, B KOTOPOH BO
BpeMll xypaJIOB rOTOBlIT qaH ):IJIlI JIaM.
ll)KAIT:QAH. Ka)K,!l;hIH M3 ):IByX BepTMKaJIbHbIX IJ;MJIMH):IPOB, tPJIaHKMpYlOll\MX
WHOJICUP Ha,n; KOHbKO.M KPOBJIM 6Y):l,n;MHCKoro xpaMa.
llH)K. ,o:etPeKTHoe B3,n;YTMe no,n; 06JIMIJ;OBOqHbIM UmOHO.M.
llH)KOBhIll UBET. CBeTJIall )!(eJITO3eJIeHOBaTalI: oKpacKa.
llHCTA5I H3BA. rOpHul1a (1).
llHCTA5I,o:OCKA. 06pe3HaR oocKa.
llHCThIll lIon. BepxHMH CJIOH nOJIa,
COCTOllll\MH M3 Tll\aTeJIbHO oCTpyraHHbIX
M nJIOTHO npMrnaHHbIX VOCOK (1).
-135-
llIArAPAK. lIOnYKpYrJIhIH peIIIeT'laThIH BepX HOraHCKOH 1Opmbl, CJI)l)Ka~HH
]l;JUI eCTeCTBeHHOrO OCBe~eHlBI H ]l;JUI
OTBO]l;a ]l;hIMa OT O'lara.
I1IA,ll,AA.
llaMaHCTCKHH MOHaCThIph,
Cne~anH3HpoBauHhIH Ha H3Y'leHHH 6Y]l;]l;H3Ma.
I1IAM T AlIXA. lIoJIKa ]l;nSl 'laHHOH
nOCY]l;hI B Kapa'laeBCKOM :lKHJI~e.
IIIAllA. lIe'lh Ha ]l;epeBSlHHOH nO]l;CTaBKe, 06HTOH :lKeCThlO, B n;eHTPe TYBHHCKOH 1Opmbl.
I1IAllE. Aa'la-oco6HRK, apXHTeKrypa
KOTOPOH nO]l;pa:lKaeT CenhCKHM ]l;OMHKaM
B ropax I1IBeHn;apHH.
KH, a npOCTpaHCTBO Me:lK]l;Y HHMH 3arronHeHO paUlUHaMU ]l;JISI 3a~HThI OT
06CTpeJIa.
llIAHAOP. 3aTBopHhIH Z14um (1) Ha
rropore n.!WmUHbl.
I1IAHAOPHhIE EPYCh5I. 3anophI,
3aKphIBalO~He
rrpOMe:lKYTKH Me:lK]l;Y
onopaMH B BooocnycKHblX n/lOmuHax.
I1IAHUhl. lIapanJIenhHhIe KHprrH'lHhIe
CTeHKH (06hI'lHaSI BhICOTa - ]l;Ba pSl]l;a
KIlaoKu) B OCHOBaHHH rre'lH, pa3]l;eJIeHHhIe He60nhIIIHMH HHTepBaJIaMH (oKono
TPex BepIIIKoB).
IlIATEP. 1 lIHpaMH;n:aJIhHoe rroKphIme
C KPYThIMH CKaTaMH. 2 lIoBopoTHhIH
Bepx MeJIhH~I-UlampoBKu. 3 lIHpaMH;n:anhHhIH KO:lKYX Ha;n: KyxOHHhIM O'larOM.
1
t
A
I1IAIII1TO. lIepe]l;BH:lKHoe C6opHo-pa36opHoe n;HpKoBoe rrOMe~eHHe C nerKHM
KapKaCOM]l;JISl 6pe3eHToBoro rroKphITHSI.
I1IATEPHhIM YEOP. 06HBKa CTeH
;n:OpOroH TKaHhlO B ;n:peBHepyccKHX
XOPOMax (1).
I1IAP. 1 CKaT KP06JlU (HanpHMep,
«Kp0BJISl Ha 'leThIpe IIIapa» - utamep
JIH60 KOAnal'). 2 lInacT 3eMJIH TOJI~H­
HOH B O]l;flH IIIThIK nOrraThI. 3 llaKcKoe
ceneHHe B ropax.
IlIATPOBKA (=ronnaH]l;CKHH mrr).
BeTpSlHaSI MeJIhHHn;a, Y KOTOPOH OCHOBHOH 06'beM Herro;n:BH:lKeH, a BepxHlO1O
'iaCTh C KphmhSlMH MO:lKHO rrOBOpa'lHBaTh, 'lTo6hI YCTaHOBHTh HX rrpomB
BeTPa.
I1IAPA (=]l;HKaSI KpacKa). CMech Mena H
ca:lKH ;n:nSl ManSlpHhIx pa6oT.
IIIAllEBKA. meAeBKa.
I1IAHAAll. KpYllHhIH HanOnhHhIH CBeTHnhHHK C nO]l;CBe'lHHKaMH Ha pa3BeTBneHHSIX OT CTBOJIa.
I1IAHAEllhEP (=6JIeH]l;a, 6neH]l;yur).
EpeBeH'IaTaSi KOHCTPY~ B BH]l;e roPH30HTanhHOH npSlMoyrOJIhHOH paMhI, Ha]l;
yrJIaMH KOTOPOH nO]l;HHMaIOTCSl CTOJI6H-
I1IAPAOH. OCTPOKOHe'lHhIe 3aBepIIIeHHSl Ha :lKene3HhIX npYThSIX orpa;n:hI,
MeIIIalOIn;He nepene3Th 'lepe3 Hee.
I1IAPHI1P.
C'beMHhIe
nemllu Ha ;n:BepSIX.
nOBOpOTHhle
I1IAPiliAY. AnHHHaSI 3aHaBeCh, pa3;n:eJISlIO~aSI
6aIIIKHpcKoe :lKHJI~e Ha
'iHCrylO H KyxOHHYIO nOJIOBHHhI.
IIIAPiliAY CAKE. HaphI npOTHB
ycmbR ne'iH B 'leThIpexcTeHHoH 6aIIIKHpCKOH ua6e (1).
IIIAPiliAY 3CE (=IIIapIIIay SlK). X03SlHCTBeHHaSI rrOJIOBHHa 'leThIpexcTeHHoH
6aIIIKHpcKoH ua6bl (1), OT;n:eJIeHHaSl
3aHaBeChlO OT :lKHJIOH nonOBHHhI.
138
-136-
I1IAtl>. I1IKaq" nocmaBe14, rrocy;n:HHK.
llIAIIIEqHMf HACTl1llKA. Top14oBaR MOCmOBaR.
W
WBAnbHSI - WMWOM KPblWA
IIIBAJIhH5I.
CKillI.
llOPTHOBCKaH
MaCTep-
IIIBEJJ:KA. PYCCKaR ne'tb, K KOTOPOH
Crrepe,LVI rrpHCTpOeHa KyxOHHillI rrJIHTa C
KOHcpOpKaMH (rrpH 06rn;eM Obt.MOXOOe).
IIIBEJIJIEP. MeTaJIJIHqeCKaH
ll-06pa3Horo CeqeHHH.
6aJIKa
IIIBEHH<I>YPTCKA5I 3EJIEHh. BpuKCHeHCKaR ae.!/,eHb.
IIIrJIO. HaKJIOHHOe 6pe6HO C BhIpy6JIeHHbIMH B HeM cryrreHHMH.
IIIEEOJIhH51. JIecHaH rrpOMhICJIOBaH
ua6a (1), B KOTOPOH H3 qyp6aKoB pe)KYT
6aKJIYIIIH (3aroToBKH ,QJIH MeJIKOrO U(enHOW TOBapa).
IIIErYPKA. "lJeTBepTh
KUpnU'la (rro ,QJIHHe).
6PYCK060lO
IIIEJJ:OBA5I KPhIIIIA. PacrrpOCTpaHeHHaH B cpa6pHqHO-3aBO,QCKOM CTpOHTeJIhCTBe CHCTeMa rrapaJIJIeJIhHhIX O,QHOCKaT-
137
llPABOIIIECTHKOHE"lJHhIH
CJIABHhIH KPECT. KpecT, Y KOTOporo BepTHKaJIh nepeCeqeHa BhlIIIe
cepe,QHHhI ropH30HTaJIhlO, a nO):l HeH HaKJIOHHOH JIHHHeH MeHhIIIeH IIIHpHHhI.
paM C rrOBopOTHhIMH nem.!/,R.MU, 06THHYThIX TKaHhlO.
IIIECTHCKAT. llpHMoyrOJIhHhIH KaMeHHhUl: 6JIOK, oTecaHHhIH co Bcex CTOpOH.
IIIECTHCTEHOK. JJ:epeBHHHhIH KpeCTMIHCKHH ):10M, BhITHHYThIH cpy6 KOTOporo pa3):1eJIeH BHyTpH ):IByMH nonepeqHhIMH Kanuma.!!bHbt.MU CmeHaMU, OT):IeJIHIOrn;HMH ceHU OT )KHJIhIX nOMern;eHHH.
IIIHTrEJIhE. llilOmU'!/'b6.
IIIECTOK. KaMeHHaH nJIOrn;a,QKa nepe,Q
ycmbe.M neqH.
IIIETEH KOP A. llJIeTHeBaH orpa,Qa
HoraHCKOH ycaob6bl.
IIIE<I>EPBEHC. lliu¢ep6euc.
IIIEJIKOBA5I 3EJIEHh. 3e.!!eHaR KUH06apb.
IIIEPJIhIK. llOJIKa
MapHHcKoH ua6e (1).
,QJIH
nocY,QhI
IIIHTYXA. llpOCTeHIIIHH THn OKOHHOH
paMhI, 3arrOJIHeHHOH CJIIO)l,OH rro )l,epeBHHHOH OCHOBe.
IIIH<I>EPBEHC (=IIIecpepBeHc).
JIHpHhle 6eJIHJIa.
Ma-
IIIH<I>OHhEP. IIIKacp .f\JIH xpaHeHHH
O)l,e)K):IhI, 6eJIhH H MeJIKHX Bern;eH.
B
IIIHlKrEJIh. llilOmu'!/'b6.
HbIX Kp06e.!/,b Ha,Q ,QJIHHHhIMH OTBecHhIMH HJIH HaKJIOHHhIMH CTeHKaMH H3
3aCTeKJIeHHhIX rreperrJIeTOB.
IIIE3JIOHr. 1 JIerKoe paCKJIa,QHoe KpeMaTepqaThIM
CJIO
C Y,QJIHHeHHhIM
CH):IeHheM, rrJIaBHO rrepeXO):lHrn;HM B
HaKJIOHHYIO crrHHKY, - ,QJIH OT,QbIxa
nOJIYJIe)Ka. 2 Y3KHH ,QHBaHqHK ):IJIH
JIe)KaHHH, OrpaHHqeHHhlif C O):lHOrO
KOHn;a BbICOKOH crrHHKoH.
IIIHHJJ:EJIh. llyqKH COJIOMhI, nponHTaHHhHi: rmmoH, - ,QJIH Kpo6e.!/,b.
IIIHHJJ:HK. HH3eHhKaH CKaMeeqKa B
KapaqaeBCKOM oOMe (1) (06hlqHO Ha ero
)KeHCKOH nOJIOBHHe).
IIIl1HHOE
lKEJIE30.
lKeJIe3Hhle
3arOTOBKH C BhITHHyThIM npHMoyrOJIhHHKOM B CeqeHHH, ynoTpe6JIHeMhle Ha
C6Rau B KaMeHHOH KJIa,QKe, Ha cmponU.!!a
H Ha OKOBKY BO.f\HHhIX KOJIec.
IIIHHOK. Ka6aK, nHTeHHhIH .f\OM, B
KOTOPOM rrp0.f\aBaJIH qapKaMH XMeJIhHhle HanHTKH.
IIIEHKA, IIIE5I. 1 He HMelOrn;ee rrpoeMOB KpyrJIOe HJIH MHororpaHHoe OCHOBaHHe z.!/,a6bl C 60JIee KpyrrHhIM nonepeqHHKoM. 2 Y3KaH qaCTh 60UHU14bl.
3 Y3KHH ¢pua (2) B oOpU'leCKOU Kanume.!/,u. 4 Y3KillI qaCTb aa6e:JICHOU cmyneHU B 6uHmo6ou .!/,ecmHU14e.
IIIHll. 1 He6oJIhIIIOH BblcTyn Ha O.f\HOM
3JIeMeHTe .f\epeBHHHoH KOHCTpYKn;HH,
nJIOTHO BXO):lHrn;HH B BhleMKY Ha .f\pyroM
ee 3JIeMeHTe .f\JIH HX B3aHMHoro Cu;enJIeHHH. 2 (=n;ancpa). KOHen; BaJIa B MexaHH3Me, onHpalOrn;HHCH Ha rrO.f\IIIHllHHK.
IIIl1PJJ:3r. CTeraHhIe BOHJIOKH' .f\JIH
CHiWHHH B 6ypHTCKOH BOHJIO'lHOH IOpme,
pacnOJIaraBIIIHecH nepe,Q 60:JICHU14eU (1)
H no ee cTopoHaM.
IIIEJIOM. Ox.!/,yneHb.
IIIHPHHKA. JJ:eKopaTHBHhIH MOTHB B
BH.f\e 3arJIy6JIeHHOrO npHMoyrOJIhHHKa
(06hI'lHO 6JIH3KOrO KBa):lpaTY) C yCTyn'laThIM HJIH rrpocpHJIHpOBaHHhIM o6paMJIeHHeM.
IIIEJIhlrA. BepIIIHHa c600a HJIH apKU
(1) npH BH):Ie CHH3Y.
IIIHPMA. IIepeHocHoH CKJIa,QHoH 3aCJIOH B BH)l,e O)l,HHaKOBhIX BepTHKaJIhHhIX
IIIEJIEBKA. COcHoBhle HJIH eJIOBhle
TOHKHe o6peaHble OOCKU AJIH Kp06e.!/,b H
o6utu6KU CTeH.
-137-
IIIH<I>OHhEPKA. He6oJIhIIIOH KOMO)l,
)l,JIH xpaHeHHH npe)l,MeTOB. )KeHCKOro
TyaJIeTa (B TOM 'lHCJIe YKpaIIIeHHH), JIOCKYTOB MaTepHH H BceB03MO)KHhIX MeJIO'leH.
IIIH<I><I>EPA CHCTEMA. KOHCTPYKD;HH pa360pHhIX MOCTOB Ha Y3KOKOJIeHHhIX )KeJIe3HhIX )l,oporax, )l,JIH KOTOPOH
xapaKTepHhI nooKocbl Me)KJ.\y nORCaMU,
o6pa3ylOrn;He paBH06e)l,peHHhle TPeyrOJIhHHKH C 'lepe)l,OBaHHeM BepIIIHH TO
BHH3, TO BBepx.
IIIHIII. KOHYC H3 )Kep)l,eH, B03Be)l,eHHhIH
Ha):l HMOH C rJIHH06HTHOH HJIH KaMeHHOH
ne'lhlO )l,JIH npocyIIIKH ):IhIMOM CHorrOB,
KOTophle npHCJIOHHJIH CHapY)KH K )Kep)l,HM.
IIIHIIIOM KPhIIIIA. JJ:BycKaTHaH Kpbluta.
W
WKAnHK -
WTYPM6PETTbI
IIIKAJII1K. HarrOJIHeHHbu'i: CaJIOM CTaKaH, yrroTpe6lli1eMbIH KaK CBeTHJIbHHK.
IIIKAHT.
Kperre)KHa»:
.o;epeB»:HHa»:
lUnUAbl<a (2) Kpyrnoro Ce'IeHH»:.
IIlJIArEAYM (=3acTaBa (3). IIo):l'beMHbIH HJIH rroBopoTHblH 6pyc, orpaHH'IHBalOlWIH rrpoe3.o; no ):Iopore.
138
IIlIIAJIEPA. 1 (=ro6eJIeH). BbITKaHHbIH BpyqHylO C BblCOKHM MacTepcTBoM
KpyrrHbIH KOBep-KapTHHa. 2 3arpaHH'IHble TKaHble 060H. 3 lliOTHO nOCa)KeHHbIe H pOBHO nO):lCTPFl)KeHHble Hano):I06He CTeHhI ):IepeBh»: no CTopOHaM
):IOPO)KKH B peZYJlRpHO.M rrapKe.
IIlIIAHrpIOH. 3eMJI»:HM
Me):lHOH OCHOBOH.
IIlIIEH:XEP. KpynHoe
CKJIa):lHpOBaHliji TOBapoB.
IIIJIEMOBl1nHA~ rJIABA. EJIH3KOe
nOJIyc¢epe KPHBOJIHHeHHOe nOKphITlie
6apa6wla,
nJIaBHO nepexo):l»:rn:ee B
OCTPHe Ha ero BepTHKaJIhHOH OCIi CIIMMeTpHH.
IIlJII1IIEP. Ba.tlKaHm.
IIIJII03 (=CJIlO3). 1 rH):IpOTeXHli'IeCKOe
coopY)l{eHlIe .o;JI»: nepeBO):la Cy.o;OB II nJIOTOB 1I3 o.o;Horo 6befjJa B .o;pyroH. 2 JIe'Ie6Hoe nOMern:eHlIe C peryJIlipyeMhIM .o;aBJIeHHeM B03):1yxa. 3 HaKJIOHHblH PY):lHH'IHbI:H )KeJI06 ):IJI»: BbI):IeJIeHH»: MeTaJIJIOB
H3 cbIIIY'IeH rrOpO):lbI npll ee npOMbIBKe.
IIIMAJIbTA. A3Yp.
IIIMEJITb.
TeMHo-roJIy6M
(06hI'IHO KJIeeBM).
KpacKa
1II0B. IIpocJIoHKa CB»:3YlOrn:ero pacTBopa Me)l{):\y coce.o;HIIMIi 3JIeMeHTaMli
KJlaOKU.
1II0JIOM. OXJlyneHb.
1II0MHbIIII (=IIIOJIHYIIIa, IIIOMYIIIa,
IIIoMblIIIa). IIoMern:eHHe 3a rre'IhlO B
ceBepHoH PYCCKOH U36e (1).
1II0IIA. 1II0¢a.
1II0P<PE. KpyroBoH 6aJlKOH (1) .o;mI
My3):13HHa, B BepxHeH 'IaCTH .MUHapema.
1II0CCE. nopora C IICKyccTBeHHhIM
nOKpbITHeM H3 KaMHjJ (B TOM 'IHCJIe II
rn:e6H»:), acfjJaJlbma IIJIH 6emoHa.
IIIOTJIAHnCKl1H: IIPO<Pl1JIb. CKOl{W!.
IIIOTTA PAMA. OKOHHM IIJIIi .o;BepHa»: paMa, no KpalO KOTOPOH npoxo.o;HT
BbleMKa r-06pa3Horo Ce'leHmI, 3anOJIHjJeMa»: 3JIaCTII'lHbIMH nOJIOCaMIi rrp06KOBoro ):IepeBa pa.o;lI rrJIOTHOrO npliMbIKaHliji.
IIIO<PA. 1 3):1aHlie ):IJI»: 6paKepa)Ka
neHhKH. 2 Capau (1), B KOTOPOM TpenJIlOT JIeH. 3 PblHO'IHhIH HaBec HJIH
capau (1) .o;JI»: TOproBJIH XJIe60M, M»:COM,
OBorn:aMH, JIhHOM HJIH rreHhKoH.
IIlIIAJIA. BaJiKaHm.
KpaCKa
3):1aHHe
C
.o;JI»:
IIIIIl1AYTP ( = llIrrHaTp, llIrrllaYTep) .
CnJIaB ~HHKa H OJIOBa, yrroTpe6JI»:eMbIH
):IJI»: OTJIHBOK CKYJIhrrTypbI, ¢aCa):lHoro
.o;eKopa, rro.o;CBe'IHHKOB H T. ):I.
IIlIIl1rEJIb-rEBEJIbEE.
CO.MKHYmblu C600, BepllIHHa KOTOPOro rrpe):lCTaBJI»:eT C060H KpyrJIylO rrJIorn:a):lKy.
IIlIII1JIb. Y 3Koe BepTHKaJIhHOe 3aBepllIeHHe C rpaHeHblM JIH60 KpyrJIbIM ce'leHHeM, rrOCTerreHHO YMeBbllIalOIWIMC»: OT
OCHOBaHliji.
IIlIIl1JIbKA. 1 AHKep. 2 Kperre)KHhIH
BCTaBHoH 3JIeMeHT B BH):Ie CTep)KHjJ 6e3
IIIJI»:rrOK.
IIIIII1HrAJIET. OKOHHM HJIH .o;BepHa»:
3a):lBH)KKa Ha BClO BbICOTY rrpoeMa, rrpHBO):lHMM B ):IeHCTBHe rroBopoTHOH py'lKOH B Cpe):lHeH 'IaCTH.
IIlIII1IJ,. OCTpOKOHe'lHbIH Bepx lUnUAR,
3):1aHliji HJIH CTeHbI.
IIlIII1IJ, EACTI10HA. 06parn:eHHa»: K
rrpoTHBHHKy BepllIHHa yrna, 06pa30BaHHOro fjJaca.Mu 6acmu01la.
IIIIIOH. O):lHOCJIOHHaji ¢aHepa.
IIIIIOHKA. EpYCOK (1, 2) lIJIH IIJIaCTHHKa, CrrJIa'IHBalOrn:He 6pYCbR (1) JIH60
OOCKU (1) rrYTeM rrOrrepe'lHOH Bpe3KH B
HHX.
IIIIIPEHfEJIb. 1 BhITjiHYTM no roPH30HTaJIH
):IOnOJIHHTeJIhHa»:
YCHJIHBalOrn:a»: KOHCTPyK~ TpeyroJIhHOH, Tparre~HeBH):\HOH lIJIH MHOroyroJIbHOH ¢opMhI. 2 3aBepllIeHHe HaJlU'lHUKa, no
¢opMe 6JIH3KOe fjJpoHmoHY.
IIlIIYHT. IIPO):lOJIbHbIH BbIcTyrr B 0):1HOH oocKe (1), 6pyce (1), C6ae, IIJIOTHO
BXO.o;»:Il\HH B npo.o;OJIhHylO BbleMKY .o;pyroH .o;OCKH (6pyca lIJIH CBaH), - .o;JI»: HX
coe.o;HHeHlf»:.
IIlIIYHT 11 rPEEEHb CKOBOPOnHEM. Cnoc06 npo.o;OJIhHOrO CnJIa'IHBaHH»: TPex 6pe6eH C nOMorn:hlO 'IaCTH'IHoro cocTpyrHBaHH»: IIIIJIIIH.o;pH'IeCKOH
rroBepxHocTH C BhITetKoH .o;JIHHHhIX np»:MoyrOJIbHbIX BbleMOK, 'IT06bI BBeCTH
rpe6eHb Ha O):lHOM 6peBHe B rra3 Ha
CTblKe ):IByX ):Ipymx.
-138-
IIlIIYHTOBAA nOCKA. p,ocKa (1), y
KOTOPOH Ha O):lHOH H3 ):IJIHHHbIX Y3KHX
CTOPOH BhIcTyrraeT np»:MoyrOJIhHbIH
rpe6eHh KBa.o;paTHoro Ce'IeHH»:, a B npoTHBOnOJIO)KHYlO - 3arJIy6JIeHa BhleMKa
TOH )Ke ¢OpMbI H BeJIH'lHHbI.
IIlIIYHTOBA5I CBAA. IIpe.o;Ha3Ha'IeHHOe ):IlliI 3a6HBKH B rpyHT 6pe6Ho, Ha
O):lHOH cTopoHe KOToporo rrpOXO):lHT
.o;JIHHHhIH Bhlpy6JIeHHbIH rpe6eHh np»:MoyrOJIhHOrO ce'IeHlf»:, a Ha rrpoTHBorroJIO)KHOH - na3 TOH )Ke ¢OpMbI H BeJIH'IHHbI.
IIIIIYHTOBbIH: 3AMOK. IIJIoTHoe
coe.o;HHeHHe rrapaJIJIeJIbHbI:X 6pycbe6 C
nOMorn:hlO lUnYHma Ha O.o;HOM H3 HHX H
TO'lHO cooTBeTcTBYlOrn:ell: BbIeMKH (rra3a) Ha .o;pyroM.
IIITj\MEOBbIE nEPEBb5I. I1crrOJIb3yeMble ):IJI»: a.tlJleu H cOJiUmep06
.o;epeBh»: C O'IHrn:eHHoll: OT BeTBell: HH)KHell: 'IaCThlO CTBOJIa (.0;0 KpOHhI).
IIITAHrOBbIH: 3AMOK. )KeJIe3HM
(TO'IHee, CTaJIhHM) nOJIOca, CKpeIIJI»:lOrn:a»: HeCKOJIhKO TOJICThIX OOCOK (1),
nJlaCmUH HJIH 6pycbe6 (1).
IIITEPHIIIAHIJ,. COMKHYToe yKpenJleHue C paBHOKOHeqHOll: 3Be3.o;oH B nJIaHe.
IIITOKBEPK. IIo):l3eMHa»: laJlepeR (2) B
py.o;HHKe.
IIITOJIbH~. EJIH3KHH K ropH30HTaJIb-
HOMY KOPH):IOP rro.o;3eMHoH rOpHOll:
Bblpa60TKH, BbI:XO.o;»:IWIH Ha nOBepxHOCTh 3eMJIH.
IIITO<P. IIJIOTHM llIeJIKOBM TKaHb C
pa3Bo.o;aMH,
ynoTpe6JI»:BllIMC»:
):IJI»:
06HBKH CTeH H Me6eJIH, a TaK)Ke Ha
3aHaBeCH.
IIITPAEA. mmpo6a.
IIITPEK. IIO):l3eMHhIH npoH3Bo.o;cTBeHHbIlI: KOpH):IOp B pY):lHHKe, He HMelOrn:HH
HerrOCpe):lCTBeHHoro BblXO):la Ha nOBepxHOCTh.
IIITPOEA (=llITpa6a). CTyneH'IaTbIlI:
06pbIB B KJlaOKe KHprrHqHOH CTeHbI, c.o;eJIaHHhIlI: B paC'IeTe Ha ee npO):lOJI)KeHHe
rro ropH30HTaJIH.
IIITYK. CMecb H3BeCTH H TOJI'IeHOrO
MpaMopa, HCrrOJIb3yeMaSI AJISI apxHTeKTypHoro JIenHOrO .o;eKopa.
IIITYKA. Ka)l{,Il;bIH H3 KJIeeHbIX ):IepeBSIHHblX rn:HTOB ):IJISI pacnHcHoH noo6oJlOKU HJIH napKema.
IIITYKI1. KJIeeHble rn:HTbI, COCTaBJISIlOrn:He HH)KHlOlO nJIOCKOCTh rrOTOJIKa
lIJIH nOBepxHocTh napKeTa.
IIITYPMEPETTbl. rep3UAuoH.
W
WTYPMcJ)An -
139
WIOTrEnb5
IlITYPM«I>AJI. HaKJIOHHhIli HJIH roPH30HTaJIhHhIH 060pOHHTeJIhHhIH mbtll.
•
IlITYQHhIH TIOJI. Ha60pHbiU napKem.
IlIYEA. IlITYKaTypHaH 06JIHI\OBKa C
6eCCHCTeMHOH KpyrrHo6yrpHCTOH rroBepXHOCThIO.
IlIYEYYH XOHor. XapaKTepHhle Il:JIH
t/Jpua06 (2) 6Yll:Il:HHCKHX coopYlKeHHM
pa3Hou;seTHhle KpoHUJmeuHbl, B TPeyrOJIhHhIH KOHTYP KOTOPhIX BrrHcaHhI
cTyrreH'laThle Ky6H'leCKHe BhleMKH.
IlIYJIhl. ,lJ;epeBHHHhle cmouKu B KapKace Ma3aHKU.
IlIYTllXA. TIapKoBhIH <poHTaH C KOMH'leCKHM cIOprrpH30M.
IlIhIMTIhlJl,lJ;hIK. 3aHaBech
Kapa'laeBCKOro lKHJIHII\a.
BHyTpH
IlIhIMhlJl,lJ;hIK.
3aHaBech
HoraMcKoH IOpmbl.
BHyTpH
IlIhITITA. KaMhIIITOBbIe
HoraHcKoH IOpme.
I\HHOBKH
B
IIIhI«I>3,lJ;3ATI3. KOHOBH3h C He6oJIhIITHM HaBeCOM B 'lepKeCCKoM ycaob6e.
IlIIOTfEJIhE (=IITHlKreJIh IITHTreJIh6).
CBeTJIO-lKeJITaH KpacKa, yrroTpe6jmBIITaHCH B CMeCH C MeJIOM Il:JIH MaJIHpHhIX
pa6oT.
-139-
mAJIKA. TOHIrne npyTMI AJISI CKpeDJIeHIDI 6peaeH B AepeBSIHHbIX MOCTax.
mEKOJIp;A. PbIqaXffibIH: 3anOp B BRAe
x<eJIe3HOH: nOJIOCbI, npHKpeDJIeHHOH:
roPH30HTaJIbHOH: OCblO Ha KOHu;e K ABepHOMY nOJIOTHHID;y.
mEIIHOH P.Hp;. ToprOBble JIaBKH AJISI
npOAaX<H AepeBSIHHbIX H3AeJIHH: - nocyII;bI, HI'pymeK, nOCTaBU;OB.
.mEPA. JIeU{aOb.
mEKOBAA APKA. ApKa (1), orpaHHqHBalO~aSI caoo no HanpaBJISIIO~eH: H
nepneHAHKymrpHaSI ero 06pa3yw~eH:.
mHPA. JIeU{aob.
mMT. 1 CTBopKa BOpOT. 2 CDJIOqeHHhle
H CKJIeeHHble AJIHHHhIMH Y3KHMH CTOPOHaMH ABe IUHpOKHe OOCKU (1) AJISI
HaCTHJIKH DOJIa. 3 BepxHSISI qaCTb l¥lPeKUX apam, nOMe~eHHaSI Hall; CTBOPKaMH H 06blqHO BKJIlOqalO~aSI B ce6SI
H306paX<eHHe Taii:HOH BeqepH.
mHTOBOH IIAPKET. KBall;paTHble
ID;HTbI (pa3MepOM OT 0,5 11;0 1,5 KB. M)
AJISI nOJIa, C HaKJIeeHHblMH Ha HHX K.Ilen-
KaMU.
mEKOBAA P ACllAJIYEKA. IIOJIOraSI pacna.n,y6Ka (2) C napaJIJIeJIhHbIMH
BepTHKaJIbHbIMH DJIOCKOCTSIMH B OCHOBaHHH.
mEKOBAA CTEHA. CTeHa, orpaHHqHBalO~aSI npocTPaHcTBo nOli; Kopo6'ta-
~5Z
(1)
2,5 AIOHMa, nonapHo CKJIeeH-
mbLM caOOOM, He BOCnpHHHMaSI ero pac-
mMTOBOH IIOJI. IIOJI H3 OOCOK
nopa.
mHII. llIun.
TOJI~HHOH:
HbIX AJIHHHbIMH CTopOHaMH H CKpeDJIeHHhIX umOHKaMU.
mHIIEU
(=ID;HnU;OBbIH: <pPOHTOH).
p;BycKaTHbIH: Bepx CTeHbI, nepexoASI~
6e3 BbICTYDOB B ee OCHOBHYIO DJIOCKOCTb.
m3m· Bay.
mHIIhI. p;epeBSIHHble utnOHKU AJISI
CDJIaqHBaHIDI aeH~a B epy6e H ooeoK
(1) nOJIa.
140
-140-
bIJIAili.
KpbITbIH
KOTnaMH
KOPOH mlBeC Ha,fl
06Il\eCTBeHHOrO
II,eHTpe
6aIIIKHpCKOrO
O'Iara
B
CeHOKOCHOrO
CToii6HIII,a.
1 3a,flHHH a60p (1) KpecTMIHycaab6bl cepra'ICKHX TaTap-MHIIIa-
bIH,lJ;bIP.
CKOH
peii,
BKnIO'IaIOIl\Hii
MOnOTb6b1,
6aHIO).
puzy
2 TOK
B
ce6S1
TOK AnSI
HnH 06UH (HHorAa H
B 6anKapcKoii
ycaab6e,
B
II,eHTpe KOToporo HaXO,flHncSI cTon6 C
peMHeM ,fIml 6bIKOB, BblTanTbIBaBIIIHX
3epHo H3 KonocbeB,
-
,fInSl nocne,flY-
IOIl\ero pa3Mona BOASlHOii HnH PY'IHoii
MenbHHQeii.
bIHJIY.
HblH.!lY.
bIPrAK. ,lJ;epeBSlHHaH BeIIIanKa B BRAe
npHKpenneHHaH
MYTOBKH,
K
6anKe
KPbtUlU B Kapa'IaeBCKOM ,fIOMe.
bICTbIK.
EaIIIKHpcKaSl
KOnTHJIbHH,
COCTOSlIl\aH H3 ,fIBYX 'IacTeii, KOTopble
coeAHHSlIOTCSI ,fIbIMOXO,f\OM co CJIa6bIM
YKJIOHOM: B OAHOH (SIMa C paCIIIHpeHHeM
HH)Ke ypOBHH 3eMnH HJIH 3arJIy6neHHbIH
B Hee cpy6) pa3BO,flHTCSI orOHb, B ,fIPyroii
(B BHAe cpy6a) Ha )Kep,flO'IKaX BbIBeIIIHBalOTCSI
H
nOABepralOTCSI
KOn'IeHHIO
3arOTOBKH H3 KO)KH AJISI 60JIbIIIHX cocyAOB nOA KYMbIC.
141
-141-
3rHKPAHHll. .D:eKopaTHBHhIH ,meMeHT B <POp Me K03hero '1eperra.
3KCE.D:P A. EOJIhIIIIDI apO'lHml HHIIIa C
rrJIaHOM.
~yroo6pa3HhlM
fjJpOllm01l0M Ha~ allmaMU, KOAOllllaMU
nUllRCmpaMU,
IOpmbt.
3HTA3HC. He3Ha'lHTeJIhHOe rrJIaBHOe
pacIIIHpeHHe CTBOJIa KOAOllllbt B ero
HH:lKHeH rrOJIOBHHe, C03~a1OIIIee Brre'laTJIeHHe yrrpyrocTH OrrOphI.
3.D:I1KYITA. 1 HHIIIa B xpaMe, <pJIaHKHpOBaHHaH nUllRcmpaMu HJIH KOAOHftaMU, KOTophIe rrO~~ep:lKHBaIOT fjJPOllmOH. 2 KaTOJIH'IeCKaH 'taC081lR (1) C
HJIH
3HErE . .D:BepHoH rrpoeM HoraHcKoH
3H3. HH3eHhKHH CTOJIHK B'IepKeCCKoM
:lKHJIHIIIe.
<pJIaHKHpYIOIIIHMH
BXO~.
3llI1CTHITb. Apxumpas.
3)1(HK . .D:Beph TYBHHCKOH IOpmbt.
33. E3.
3ITOITEMEHT. Bacmuoll C O~HHM
fjJacoM HJIH C O~HHM fjJAallKoM.
3K3ArOH. reK3alO1l.
3KHKAT lOll.
MhIKCKHH ~OM.
3K3EPIJ;HPrAY3. 3~aHHe ~JIH yrrpa:lKHeHHH B BepxoBoH e3~e, MalIeJIC.
3ITEPOH. He6oJIhIIIOlfl:
3arJIy6JIeHHhIH B pOB.
3K30Tbl. 3<p<peKTHhle rrapKoBhle HJIH
cipaH:lKepeHHhle pacTeHHH C HpKO Bhlpa:lKeHHhIMH ~eKopaTHBHhIMH ~OCTOHH­
CTBaMH, He CBOHCTBeHHhle ~aHHOH MeCTHOCTH.
3ITITHHr. 1 (=raJIepHhIH capaH). llpH6pe:lKHOe 3~aHHe C HaKJIOHHhIM OCHOBaHHeM (CTarreJIeM), rrpe~Ha3Ha'leHHOe
~JIH cTPoHTeJIhCTBa H peMoHTa Cy~OB.
2 CoopY:lKeHHe ~JIH CTOJIHKH H peMoHTa
3KPAH. 3aCJIOH H3 ~epeBa, MaTepHH
Ha KapKace JIH60 H3 MaTOBoro CTeKJIa,
YCTaHaBJIHBaeMhIH rrepe~ KaMU1l0M HJIH
3llIIll1 .D:bAHbIT. )l(eHcKM rrOJIOBHHa
aJITaHCKOH KOHH'IeCKOH IOpmbt.
AlOllem
(1),
~HpH:lKa6JIeH.
3MllOPbl. B03Be~eHH:liI Ha nUllOllaX H
orpaHH'IeHHaH napanemOM wAepeR (1) B
3arra~HO- xpHcTHaHcKoM xpaMe.
3HrABA. OTKphITml WAepeR (1),
orH6alOIIIaH C ~BYX HJIH Tpex CTOPOH
HrroHcKHH DOM (1).
142
-142-
3pr3H3r. llOCY~HhIH II1Ka<p, pacrroJIo:lKeHHhIH BrrpaBo OT Bxo~a B 6ypHTCKYlO
IOpmy.
3prEfIEK. Kepeze.
3P .D:bAHbl. MY:lKCKaH rrOJIOBHHa
aJITaHCKOH KOHH'IeCKOH IOpmbt.
3PKEP. BhlcTyrralOIIIHH H3 <paca~HoH
rrJIOCKOCTH rrpH3MaTH'IeCKHH HJIH ~­
JIHH~pH'IeCKHH BepTHKaJIhHhlH 06'heM C
OKHaMH, YBeJIH'IHBaIOIIIHH rrJIOIII~h
BHYTpeHHero rrOMeIIIeHHH H yJIy'lIIlaIOIIIHH ero oCBeIIIeHHOCTh.
:3
:3PMHTA>K - 3WACilOIlA>K
3PMMTA)K. IIaBUJlboll (1) B my6HHe
rrapKa, rrpe,n;Ha3HaqeHHhlM ,n;ml ye,n;HHeHHoro pa3MbIIlIJIeHHSI, a TalOKe ,n;JISI KOHu;epTOB H ,n;pyrHx HHTeJIJIeKTyaJIbHblX
pa3BJIeqeHHM B Y3KOM Kpyry rocTeM.
3CMK. KyCOK BOMJIOKa, YTerrJISlIOIQHM
Ha 3HMy ,n;Bepb B HoraMCKYIO IOpmy.
3CKAPII. MCKYCCTBeHHoe 3eMJISIHOe
rrperrSlTcTBHe, 06paIQeHHOe K rrpOTHBHHKy rrOqTH oTBecHOM KPYTH3HOM, KOTOpaSi oT,n;eJIeHa OT Hero pBOM.
143
3XE Yr3. IIoJIKa ,n;JISI rrpe,n;MeTOB KYJIbTa, BCTpoeHHaSI B IO)KHYIO CTeHY py6JIeHOM IOpmbt 3arra,n;Hblx 6ypSiT.
3XMH (=rpeqeCKHM Ban). OCHOBHaSI
qaCTb KanUmeJlU B oopU'teCKOM opoepe,
HMeIOru;aSl BH,n; ,n;HCKa CO cKpyrJIeHHbIM
pe6pOM; pacrrOJIaraeTCSI Me)K,n;y CTBOJIOM
KOJlOllllbt H a6aKOU.
3IIIA<lJO.Il:AlK. IIpHMbIKaIOru;HM K KpenOcm1l0U CTeHe rrOMOCT AJISI apTHJIJIePHMCKOM CTpeJIb6bI qepe3 60UllUl{bt.
3CKE 3M (=OJIO SlK). qHcTaSl, rrapa,n;HaSi rrOJIOBHHa nRmUCmell1l0U 6aIlIKHpCKOM U36bt (1).
3CKE 3PJI3K (=MaTca). IIOTOJIoqHaSI
6aJIKa B 6aIlIKHpcKOM CeJIbCKOM oOMe
(1), - CM. Mamul{a (1).
3CIIAHbOJIET.
Pa3HoBH,n;HOCTb
umUlllaJlema: 3arrHpaIOru;HM OKOHHble
CTBOPKH BbICOKHM )KeJIe3Hblil: CTep)KeHb
C rroBopoTHoil: BbITSIHYTOM PYKOSlTKOM B
cpe,n;HeM qaCTH.
3CIIJIAHA.Il:A. 1 ApxHTeKTypHo opraHH30BaHHoe 06I1IHpHOe OTKpbIToe
rrpocTpaHcTBo rrepe,n; 3,n;aHHeM, BKJIIOqaIOru;ee B ce6S1 ca,n;oBo-rrapKoBble napmepbt (1), a TalOKe I1IHpOKHe aJlJleu C
<poHTaHaMH H cKYJIbrrTypaMH. 2 APXHTeKTypHo opraHH30BaHHoe OTKpbIToe
rrpocTpaHcTBo Me)K,n;y l{UmaOeJlblO H
perYJISIpHOM 3acTpoMKOM HaCeJIeHHOrO
MeCTa.
3CTAKA.Il:A. 1 .Il:JIHHHbIM MOCT ,n;JISI
TpaHCrrOpTa HJIH Tpy6orrpoBo,n;a, coopy)KeHHbIM Ha cToJI6ax H rrpHrro,n;HSlTbIM
Ha,n; cYllieM. 2 IIpHqanbHbIM rrOMOCT Ha
CBaSlX, ,n;orrycKaIOru;HM rrpoxo,n; H rrpoe3,n;
rro,n; HHM. 3 IIo,n;Bo,n;Hoe CBaU1l0e 3arpa)K,ll;eHHe.
3TAlKEPKA. IIpe,n;Ha3HaqeHHble ,n;JISI
xpaHeHHSI KHHr H 6e3,n;eJIYIlIeK rrOJIKH B
HeCKOJIbKO RpyCOB, coe,n;HHeHHble rro
yrJIaM cmOUKaMU H He HMeIOru;He
CIIJIOIlIHbIX 60KOBbIX CTeHOK.
3TYAJIb. 3Be3,n;oo6pa3Hoe rrepeceqeHHe aJlJleu B rrapKe.
3<IJEMEPM.Il:bl.
JIerKHe rrapKOBble
coopY)KeHHSI, HMHTHpYIOru;He MOHYMeHTaJIbHYIO apXHTeKTYPY JIH60 paCCqHTaHHble Ha rrpexo,n;Slru;ee HeO)KH,n;aHHoe BrreqaTJIeHHe.
-143-
ЮЗГЕРЕ. Площадка для дойки коз, в
карачаевской усадьбе.
ЮЙ. Дом в карачаевской усадьбе,
имеющий вид прямоугольного сруба с
двускатной земляной крышей (посте­
пенно зарастающей травой) и навесом
на
столбах,
который
примыкает
продольной стене с дверью.
ский до'м
(1)
2
к
Ногай­
с белеными стенами из
сырцовою кирпича.
3 Жилище
кумы­
ков.
ЮМЫ.
Стенки из кирпичей, приго­
товленных к обжигу.
ЮРЗЭк. Зскэ эрлэк.
ЮРТ.
1 Казачья
станица со всеми зем­
лями и постройками.
селение.
3 Кочевое
2
Кумыкское
владение.
ЮРТА. Центрическое жилище с кар­
касной основой либо бревенчатыми
стенами,
свойственное
полуоседлым народам.
144
кочевым
и
51EJIOKO. Opepa rroA KpeCTOM, BeHqalOIIJ;HM xpaM, JIH60 rroA MeTaJIJHfqeCKHM
rrparropOM HJIH CHJIY3THOH qmrypOH
aHreJIa B 3aBepIlleHHH 6autI-lu (2).
TPHqHO pacrrOJIO)KeHhI C He60JIbIllHM
HaKJIOHOM )l;ByM~ rpyrrrraMH rro o6e CTOPOHbI OT Cpe)l;HerO KHprrHqa, 06KOJIOToro B BH)l;e KJIHHa oCTpHeM BHH3.
51EhIY.5InMa.
51rEJIJIOHCKllll KPECT. JIomapuHlCKUU Kpecm.
513hI'IKll. PacrrOJIO)KeHHble B qaCTOM
MepHoM pHTMe Y3KHe cTyrreHqaTble
Kp01llumeuHbl (06hlqHO KHprrHqHhle),
rrOAAep)KHBalOIIJ;He KapHu3.
51PYC. Ka)K)l;bIH H3 3JIeMeHTOB, COCTaBJI5IKlIl\HX
o6beMHYlO
KOMII03HIIHlO
(o6beM C qeTKHMH rpaHHIIaMH IIO ropH30HTaJIH, P~A rrpoeMoB H T. rr.).
51PYC 3BOHA. 3aoH.
51M. CTaHIIHoHHoe cTPoeHHe Ha TpaKTe.
51MHhIll OBIIH. OaUH B BH)l;e cpy6a
HaA ~MOH, B KOTOPOH pa3BoA~T KOCTCP
AJI~ CyIllKH CHorrOB.
51MCKA5I. 3aropoAHa~ c.no6ooa (1)
HJIH qaCTb 2Opooa (2), r)l;e )KHJIH
~MIIJ;HKH H HX ceMhH.
51Ph-CIIEIIPKA.
CBeTJIO-3eJIeHa~
KpacKa (06bl'-lHO KJIeeBa~), yrroTpe6JI~B­
Illa~c~ B MaJI~pHhIX pa6oTax.
51CJIll. KopMYIllKa AJI~ CKOTa, C HaKJIOHHOH peIlleTKoH, YKperrJIeHHOH Ha
CTenc.
51CI111C (=HacIIHc, aCIIHA). 51uIMa.
51TKA. I1aJIaTKa Ha 6a3ape.
51HYP,D,hIK. Y3Ka~ JIaBKa BAOJIh 60KOBOH CTeHbI B U36ax (1) TaTap-MHIllapeH.
51I1MA. HaBec C )Kep)l;eBOH cTeHKOJ1,
rrpHMbIKalOIIJ;eil: K )l;pyrHM coopY)KeHMM
)l;BOpOBOro KOMrrJIeKCa B 6aIllKHpcKOH
ycaob6e.
51PAHrA. KpbIToe OJIeHbHMH IllKypaMH Ha3eMHoe )KHJIHIIJ;e 3CKHMOCOB H
qYKqeH, HMelOIIJ;ee KapKac H3 )Kep)l;eH H
6aJIOK.
5iPOCJIABCKA5I
rOpH30HTaJIbHOe 3aBepIlleHHe rrpoeMa,
CJIO)KeHHOe H3 rrapaJIJIeJIbHbIX rrp~Mo­
yrOJIbHblX KHprrHqeH, KOTopble CHMMe145
-145-
fIPHJIO)l(EHHE fIEPBOE
TepMl1Hbl
repaJlbAl1Kl1
repaJIhAHKa -
JlOKaJIhHlUI OOJlaCTh 3HaHIDI Ha rpaHH~e
Kpacory, rrpHRTHYIO MRrKOCTh, BeJlHtlHe H OAHTeJlh-
HCTOPHH H rrpHKJlMHOro HCKYCCTBa. IIpH 3TOM repOhl,
HOCTh) -
COCTaBJIRIO~e
HhIMH ropH30HTaJISlMH;
COAep)l(aHHe
HayqHoii AHC~HHhI, He TaK
B rraMRTHHKax apXHTeKTyphI -
3TOii
crre~<pHtlecKoii
yx peAKO
BCTPeqalOTCR
HarrpHMep, BO <pPOH-
-
qaCTbIMH CIIJIOmHbIMH JlHOO llTPHX-rryHKTHp3eJleHh (B rrOJlHXpOMHH -
TOHe 3AaHIDI, B Jlarrax CKYJlhrrTypHoro JlhBa rrpH B'be3Ae
H300HJIHe)
B YCMhOY, Ha rrOBepXHOCTH HaArpOOIDI. TepMHHOJlO-
HarrpaBO;
I"IDI, KOTopaR rrpHc~a repaJlhAHKe, CBoeoopa3Ha H
rropoii OTJlHtlaeTCR KaK OT oo~errpHHRToro R3hIKa (Ha-
-
~eCTBO) HarrpaBO;
rJIaBHhIM oopa30M
-
qaCThIMH rrapaJIJleJISIMH cBepxy CJleBa BHH3
qepHh (B rrOJlHxpOMHH -
)l()l(eHlUI CJlOHOBlUI
KOCTh; CHMBOJlH3HpOBaJIa OJlarOpa3YMHe, CMHpeHHe,
IIOHHMaHHe repaJIhAHtleCKOii TepMHHOJlOrHH
rrOMoraeT rrpHOJlH)l(eHHO peKOHCTpyupOBaTh BHA repoa, yrroMHHaeMoro B KaKOM-JlHOO CTapHHHOM orrHcaHHH, H OJlarOAapR 3TOMY YCTaHOBHTh CBR3h Toro HJlH
HHoro
qaCTbIMH rrapaJIJleJISIMH CJleBa BBepx
rryprryp (B rrOJlHxpOMHH -
rrpHMep, B 0003HaqeHHH rrpaBoii H JleBoii CTOPOH ~HTa
«BepeTeHO»).
-
KapMHH; CHMBOJlH3HpOBaJI AOCTOHHCTBO, CHJlY H MOry-
B repoe), TaK H OT apXHTeKTypHoro (HarrpHMep, B TOJlKOBaHHH CJlOB «rJlaBa», «OPYCOK», «)l(epAh», «rOHT» ,
rJlaBHhlM 00pa30M
OKHCh xpOMa; CHMBOJlH3HpOBaJIa HaAeXAY, PMOCTb,
rrpOH3BeAeHHSI
C KOHKpeTHbIM
BJlMeJlb~eM.
rreqaJIh)
-
rrepeCeqeHHeM qaCTbIX rOpH30HTaJleii H
BepTHKaJleii;
-
30JlOTO (CHMBOJI crrpaBeAJlHBOCTH, BeJlHKOAY-
mHR, ooraTCTBa) -
TOqKaMH;
cepeopo (CHMBOJI qHCTOTbI H HeBHHHOCTH) -
CKa3aHHoe qYTh BhIme rroo~aeT, C OAHoii CTOPOHbI,
OKOHTYPeHHbIMH yqacTKaMH oe3 KaKHX-JlHOO rpa<pH-
BKJllOqHTh B 3Ty KHHry oOJlee COTHH repaJIhAHtleCKHX
qeCKHX 3J1eMeHTOB.
TepMHHoB, a C APyroii -
MeHee
OOOCOOHTh HX OT OCHOBHoro
reHpHXa
MaCCHBa JleKceM.
KpOMe CJlOBeCHhIX TepMHHOB, KOTophle pac-
pacrrpOCTPaHeHHoii
CrrHJlhMaHa
(1654),
Obma
CHCTeMa
HCrrOJlh30BaBmlUI
rrOJlO)l(eHhI 3Aech B aJI<paBHTHOM rropRAKe, rrOJle3HO
JlOrHH: qepBJleHh OJl~eTBOPRJI Mapc, Jla3ypb -
3HaTb H crrocoOhI rpa<pHqeCKOrO 0003HaQeHIDI repaJIh-
rep, 3eJleHh -
AHqeCKHX ~BeToB B MOHOXPOMHhIX H300paxeHIDIx (Ha-
CarypH, 30JlOTO -
rrpHMep, B CKYJlbrrType). B POCCHH pacrrpOCTpaHHJlaCb
CHCTeMa
TaKoii
MapKHpoBKH
~BeTa,
B03HHKlliaR
B
AJIR
0003HaqeHIDI ~eTOB CHMBOJlhl aCTpOHOMHH H acTPoBeHepa, rryprryp -
COJl~e, cepeopo -
HH<popMa~
AJIR
IOrrH-
MepKypHii, QepHh-
3TOro
nYHa.
rrpHJlO)l(eHIDI rro-
qeprrHYTa B OCHOBHOM H3 KHHr II. II. <pOH BHHKJIepa:
PyccKaSi repaJIbAHKa. HCTOPHSI H OITHCaHHe PYCCKHX
1630-e roAhI B 3arraAHOH EBporre:
qepBJleHh (KpaCHlUI KpaCKa, C03AaBaeMlUI B
repooB C H300pa)l(eHHeM Bcex ABOPSIHCKHX repooB,
rrOJlHXpOMHH CMeCblO cypHKa H KpaCHoii KHHOBapH,
BHeceHHblX B OO~Hii repooBHHK BcepoccHHcKOii HM-
-
1-3.
rrepHH. BhIII.
HaCh~eHHoe KPOBblO Bpara) 0003HaQaJIaCh qaCThIMH
ryoepHHii, oOJlacTeii H rrocaAOB POCCHHCKOii HMIIepHH,
BepTHKaJIRMH;
Jla3ypb (B rrOJlHXpOMHH -
BHeceHHhle B rrOJlHOe COOpaHHe 3aKOHOB C
CMeCb CHHero KO-
OaJIbTa H cHHero YJlbTPaMapHHa; CHMBOJlH3HpOBaJla
146
-146-
1900 rOA.
CIIo.,
CIIo.,
1892-1894; repOhIrOpOAOB,
CHMBOJlH3HpOBaJIa xpaopOCTh, a TaKXe rroJle OHTBbI,
1649 rro
1900. BKpaT~e 00 3TOM roBOPHTCR H B
3H~KJlOrreAHqeCKOM CJlOBape Ep0KraY3a H E<ppoHa.
nPHllO)l(EHHE ·nEPBOE. TEPMHHbI rEPAllbAHKH
AHfJIyUfCKMM mMT
1 mum, rro cpopMe 6nH3KHH aapRJICCKOMY, HO C iWYMg cHMMeTpwlHbIMH
J:\yroo6pa3HbIMH BbleMKaMH He6onblIIoH
KpHBH3HbI rro BepxHeMY o6pe3Y.
2 mum, rro cpopMe 6nH3KHH cppafll-{Y3CKOMY, HO C J:\BYMg OCTpOKOHe'lHhIMH
BblcTyrraMH rro cTopoHaM, paCIIIHpgJO~HMH ero BepxHHH o6pe3.
APM5IHCKMM KPECT
BOCbMHKOHe'lHbIH KpeCT C J:\BYMg HepaBHbIMH ropH30HTaJIgMH BBepxy H HaKJIOHHOH rrepeKJIaJ:\HHoH rroJ:\ HHMH, HMeJO~HH TpeXJIOrraCTHoe O'lepTaHlte Ha
Topu;e Ka)KJl:oro KOHI.\a.
147
60KOBbIMH yrJIaMH B TpH pa3a MeHbIIIe,
'leM Me)KJl:y BepxHHM H HH)KHHM.
BTOPOCTEIIEHHbIE AEJIEHM5I
3JIeMeHTbI z«uma, OrpaHH'leHHbIe rrpgMOH, JIOMaHOH HJIH BOJIHHCTOH JIHHHeH B
npeJ:\eJIax ZJlaafl020 OeJlefluR.
BbIPYEHOM KPECT
KpecT C cHMMeTpH'lHOH BbIeMKoH Ha
Topu;e Ka)KJl:OrO KOHu;a, OrpaHH'leHHbIH
J:\BYMg oTPe3KaMH npgMoH.
BEPHOCTb
fepaJIbJ:\H'leCKOe H306pa)KeHHe J:\ByX
pyK, CnO)KeHHbIX BMeCTe, JIaJ:\oHb K JIaJ:\OHH.
ACMMMETPWIHbIE IIHM
'1eTblpexyronbHble BhIcTyrrhI nflucmozo
Kpecma, pacrrOJIO)KeHHble rrpoTHB rrpoCBeTOB Me)KJl:y nflRMU Ha rrpoTHBonoJIO)KHOH (napaJIJIeJIbHoH) cTopoHe.
BEPIIIMHA
Tizaaa, 3aHHMaJO~ag rrpHMepHo J:\eBgTYJO 'laCTb z«uma.
EAIIIEHHA5I KOPOHA
(=rop0J:\cKag KopoHa)
3aBepIIIeHHe z«uma B rep6e rop0J:\a HJIH
rrocaJ:\a nOJ:\o6HeM KOPOHbI C rrgTbJO,
TpeMg HJIH J:\ByM»: rrpgMoyrOJIbHbIMH
3y6u;aMH JIH60 KpyrJIhIMH 6aIIIHgMH,
BbIJIO)KeHHOH H3 KHprrH'la HJIH KaMHg;
II»:Th 3y6U;OB HMeJIa KopoHa B rep6ax J:\JIg
roP0J:\OB C HaCeJIeHHeM CBblille 50 000
)KHTeJIeH, TpH 3y6u;a - J:\JIg rrpO'lHX roP0J:\OB, J:\Ba 3y6u;a - il;JIg rrocail;OB.
BMJIOOEP A3HbIM KPECT
(= TpeXKOHe'lHbIH KpecT)
CHMMeTpH'lHag repaJIbJ:\H'leCKag cpHrypa, o6pa30BaHHag TpeMg IIIHpOKHMH
rrOJIOCaMH, KOTopble pacxoJ:\gTCg H3
OJ:\Horo u;eHTpa K BepXHHM yrJIaM z«uma
H K cepeJ:\HHe ero HH)KHerO KpM.
EPYCOK
IIpgMOyroJIbHblH Y'laCTOK B rrpeil;eJIaX
z«uma, HMeJO~HH OCHOBaHHe B rronoBHHy BbICOTbL
EPYCb51
BepXHeM yrJIy z«uma H 3aHHMaJO~HH
'lyTb MeHbille ero 'leTBepTH.
BM3AHTMMCKA5I MOHETA
MOflema.
BHEIIIHME '1ACTM fEPEA
3JIeMeHTbl, oKpy)KaJO~He w,um H yKa3bIBaJO~He Ha COU;HaJIbHOe rrOJIO)KeHHe
BJIaJ:\eJIbu;a (flaMem, IIIJIeM, flaUl/leMflUK,
KopoHa, IIIanKa HJIH IIIJIgrra, MaHTHg,
ceHb, z«umooepJICameJlu).
BbIPYEHOM TPEYfOJIbHMK
PaBHo6eil;peHHbIH TPeyroJIbHHK C CIIMMeTpH'lHOH BbleMKoH OT KOHU;OB OCHOBaHHg, orpaHH'leHHOH J:\BYMg oTpe3KaMH
npgMoH.
BbICTYIIAIOmA5I <l> MfYPA
B03fluKalOz«aR cpuzypa
fEOPfMEBCKMM KPECT
KpecT H3 'leTblpeX OJ:\HHaKOBblX paBHo6eJ:\peHHblx TpeyroJIbHHKOB cepe6pgHoro U;BeTa C 30JIOTOH KaHMoH, CX0J:\g~HXCg BepIIIHHaMH K u;eHTpy Kpyra C
H306pa)l(eHHeM feoprY!»: IIo6eJ:\oHocu;a.
fEP AJIbAM'1ECKMM KPECT
JIPRMou Kpecm.
fJIABA
IIoJIoca, 3aHHMaJO~ag BepxHJOJO TpeTb
z«uma; CHMBOJIH3HpyeT IIIJIeM, 6ypeJlem
HJIH KOpOHy.
BHYTPEHH5I5I KAMMA
KaCtMa C oTcTyrroM OT KpaeB z«uma K
ero u;eHTpy.
ABe rrapaJIJIeJIbHhIe nOJIOCbI Ha MeCTe
nORca.
BHYTPEHH5I5I'1ACTb fEPEA
EYPEJIET
Pa3HoU;BeTHbIH MaTep'laTbIH )KryT, BeH'laJO~HH IIIJIeM B rep6e.
B03HMKAIOmA5I <l>MfYPA
(= BhIcTyrraJO~ag cpHrypa)
IIepeJ:\H»:g 'laCTb 'leJIOBeKa HJIH )KHBOT-
BAP5I)I(CKMM mMT
06pa~eHHbIH KHH3Y oCTpHeM H BblTg-
HOro, BblcTyrraJO~ag H3-3a J:\pyroH
cpHrypbI HJIH rrJIOCKOCTH z«uma.
HYTbIH no BepTHKaJIH z«um B BHJ:\e paBHo6eJ:\peHHoro TpeyrOJIbHHKa C BhInyKJIbIMH 60KOBbIMH cTopoHaMH.
BOJIbHA5I'1ACTb
IIpgMoyrOJIbHHK
C HeKoHTpacTHbIM
COOTHOIIIeHHeM CTOPOH, rroMe~eHHblH B
mum.
BEHfEPCKMM KPECT
IIIecTHKOHe'lHblH cepe6pgHblH KpecT C
J:\BYMg OJ:\HHaKOBbIMH ropH30HTaJIgMH,
BeH'laJO~HH 30JIOTYJO KOPOHY, KOTOpag
3aBepiliaeT cpeJ:\HHH H3 Tpex 3eJIeHbIX
XOJIMOB B 'lepBJIeHOM z«ume.
fJIABHbIE AEJIEHM5I
JIO'temHble CPUZYPbl.
fJIACHbIM fEPE
fOP0J:\CKOH rep6, B z«ume KOToporo
rrOMe~eHbI
H306pa)KeHY!»:, YKa3bIBaJO~He Ha Ha3BaHHe J:\aHHoro HaCeJIeHHoro rryHKTa (HarrpHMep, rep6 rop0J:\a
TYJIhCKOH
ry6epHHH,
Eorop0J:\HU;Ka
BKJIJO'laJO~HH B ce6g no6erH THMhgHa 6orop0J:\cKOH TpaBhI).
fOHT
IIpgMoyrOJIhHblH Y'laCTOK B rrpeJ:\eJIax
z«uma, HMeJO~HH BhICOTY B nOJIOBHHY
OCHOBaHHg.
BEPETEHO
<l>Hrypa, HMeJO~ag BHJ:\ CKB03HOro POM6a, y KOTOPOro paCCTOgHHe Me)KJl:y
fOPOACKA5I KOPOHA
EaLUeflflaR Kopofla.
-147-
. 148
nplo1nO>KEHIo1E nEPBOE. TEPMIo1HbI rEPAllbAIo1KIo1
rp£lIECKI1I1 KPECT
PaBHOMepHO YKOpO'teHltbtU npH..MOU
Kpecrn cepe6pHHoro ~eTa Ha na30peBOM q,OHe ~urna, paCI10JIO)l(eHHbIll. B
ero l\eHTpe.
I1TAJIh~HCKI1I1 IUI1T
fl1urn B BH~e BepTHKanbHoro 3nnHI1Ca
HnH
OBana.
JIATI1HCKI1I1 KPECT
He KaCalOIl\HMCH KpaeB ~urna npH..Mou
Kpecrn, y KOTOPOro HH)I(HHll. KOHeI\
~nHHHee OCTanbHbIX.
JIEOTIAPA
JIeB, H306pa)J(eHHbIll. H~YIl\HM B npoq,Hnb, HO C ronoBoM B ¢lac.
,Il;AMACKI1POBKA
OpHaMeHT, npOPHCOBaHHbIll. TOHKHMH
nHHHHMH 110 cepe6pHHoll. 110BepXHocTH
~urna.
,Il;BOI1HOI1 KPECT
repanb~lfqeCKaH (jJHrypa, 06'be~HHH­
lOru;aH crno.!l6, nORC H ~Be nepe6R3U OT
060HX BepXHHX yrnoB ~urna.
KAI1MA
illHpOKaH 110noca 110 l1epHMeTpy ~urna,
cHMBonH3HpYIOru;aH 110KpOBHTenbCTBo
Bna~enbl\Y rep6a co CTOPOHbI rocy~apH.
KJIEI1HO,Il;hI
TIpe~MeTbI, OnHl\eTBOpHIOIl\He BnaCTb
(Hal1pHMep,cKHrreTp,~ep)J(aBa,6YHqYK,
l1epHaq, 6ynaBa, xopyrBb).
,Il;EBI13
KpaTKoe H3peqeHHe B HH)I(Hell. qaCTH
rep6a.
)l(EHEBCKI1I1 KPECT
( = llIBell.l\apCKHll. KpecT)
PaBHoMepHo YKopO'teHHbIU npH..MOU
Kpecrn cepe6pHHoro I\BeTa B l\eHTpe
qepBneHoro ~urna.
JIEOTIAPAOBhII1 JIEB
I1~YIl\HM neB, H306pa)J(eHHbIM I\enHK0l>1
B I1poq,Hnb (BKJIlOqaH ronOBY).
KJII1H
TIPHMOyroJlbHbIH TpeyrOJIbHllK, I1pHMbIKalOIl\HH KaTeTOM K BepTliKMH l,£{uma y
ero BepxHero yrna (~pyroH KaTeT BbITHHyT 110 ropH30HTamf).
KJII1HqA ThII1 IUI1T
fl1urn, pa3~eneHHbIH qepe3 I\eHTp Bep-
THKanblO, ropH30HTanbIO H
rOHanHMH.
~ByMH ~Ha-
JIOTAPI1HrCKI1I1 KPECT
Kpecrn XPaMOBHUKOB.
)l(EPAh
(=qepTa)
Y3KaH KOCaH 110nOca, l1epeCeKalOru;aH
nO.!le ~urna.
KOPOHA rrOCA,Il;OB
BazueHHaR KopOHa C ~BYMH I1pHMoyronbHbIMH 3y6I\aMH 110 60KaM.
I1EPYCAJII1MCKI1I1 KPECT
KpeCT C T-06pa3HhlMH KOHl\aMH, ~ol1on­
HeHHbIll. paBHOKOHeqHbIMH l1apannenbHbIMH ManbIMH KpecTaMH, pacI10no)J(eHHbIMH Ha KBa~paTHbIx yqaCTKaX Me~y
HlIMH.
I1CTIAHCKI1I1 IUI1T
C COOTHOllIeHHeM BbICOTbI H
llIHpHHbI 9:8, 110 q,opMe 6nH3KHll. I1pHMoyronbHHKY, BepTHKanbHbIe CTOPOHbI
KOToporo I1naBHO l1epeXO~HT BHH3Y B
110nYKpY)J(He.
fl1urn
KPECT
[JpH..MOU Kpecrn.
JIhBI1HhII1 JIEOTIAP,Il;
JIeB, H306pa)J(eHHbIH B I1pO¢lHnb CTOHIl\HM Ha 3a~HHx narrax, HO C ronOBOH B
¢lac.
KPECT CB~TOrO ~KOBA
JIarnuHcKuu Kpecrn, y KOTOPOro KOHl\bI
HeMHoro pacllIHpslfOTCH Ha TOpl\aX, a
60nee ~nHHHbIH HH)J(HHH yqaCTOK HMeeT
He60nbllioe YTOnIl\eHHe B cpe~HeH
qaCTH.
KPECT XP AMOBHI1KOB
(= nOTapHHrCKHH KpeCT, l1aTpHapllIHH
KpeCT)
illeCTHKOHeqHbIH KpeCT C ~ByMH CHMMeTPHqHbIMH ropH30HTanHMH, H3 KOTOPbIX
HH)I(HHH HeCKonbKO ~nHHHee BepXHeH.
-148-
MAJIh TI1I1CKI1I1 KPECT
Cepe6pHHbIH KpeCT B I\eHTPe qepBneHoro ~urna, COCTaBneHHbIM H3 qeTblpex
BblPy6HblX rnpeYW./lbHUKOB, KOTopble
pacnOJIO)KeHhl no ropH30HTaJIH H BepTHKaJIH BepIIlHHOH K ~eHTPY.
MOHETA
( = BH3aHTHHCKaSl MOHen)
AHCK Ha nOBepXHOCTH
MeTaJIJI~eCKHH
~uma.
HAMET
CaMaSl KpYllHaSl 6HeUlHRR 'tacmb zep6a, HMelOID;aSl BHA AJIHHHhIX aKaHTOBhIX
JIHCTheB co cKpyrJIeHHhlMH 3y6~aMH,
BhIXOASIw;HX H.3-nOA rnJIeMa Ha BepXHeM
Kpae ~uma; CHMBOJIH3HpyeT pa30ApaHHylO B 6010 TKaHh, KOTOPaSI 3aID;HID;aJIa
lllJIeM OT neperpeBa COJIHIJ;eM.
HACTABHMI !l>HrYPA
repaJIhA~eCKaSI
cpHrypa, OCHOBHaSI
qaCTh KOTOPOH BhIAeJIeHa KaKHM-JIH60
MeTaJIJIOM HJIH tjJuHutjJmblO,a KpaSi MH
KOH~hl AOnOJIHeHhI APyrHM MeTaJIJIOM
JIHGO CPHHHq,ThlO HHOro ~eTa.
OCTPHE
PaBH06eApeHHhlH TPeyroJIhHHK, OCHOBaHHe KOToporo CKPhITO HH)KHHM KpaeM
~uma, a BeprnHHa KacaeTCSI ero BepxHeH CTOPOHhI.
OCTPOKOHEqHbIM KPECT
IIpRMou ICpecm,
TOp~I
KOTOPOro
HMelOT OAHHaKOBoe cHMMeTPHqHOe 3aocTPeHHe.
OTOPBAHHMI !l>HrYPA
!l>Hrypa Ha rroBepxHocTH ~uma, H306pa)KeHHaSI He rrOJIHOCThlO, C HepoBHoii:
JIHHHeii: 06pe3a.
llATPHAPIIIHM KPECT
Kpecm XPa.M06HUIC06.
llEPEB5I3b
lloJIoca no AHaroHaJIH ~uma B TPeTh
ero rnHpHHhI.
-===-----...,
HAIIIJIEMHHK
!l>Hrypa, 3aBeprnalOID;aSl nmeM MH HHOH
roJIOBHOH y60p HaA ~umo.M.
HEMEUKHM mHT
1 ACHMMeTPHqHhIH ~um C nOJIyKpyrJIOH BhleMKoH AJISI KOllhSl B BepxHeH
qaCTH JIeBOH (OT 3pHTeJISI) CTOPOHhI.
2 CHMMeTPHqHhIH ~um C npHXOTJIHBhIMH OqepTaHHSlMH 60KOBhIX KPHBOJIHHeHHhIX CTOpOH.
HEllOJIHbIM
TPHJIMCTHbIM KPECT
IIpRMou ICpecm c TPeXJIOnaCTHhIMH 60KOBhIMH H BepxHHM KOHIJ;aMH.
llOBEPHYTAH !l>HfYPA
06pa~eHHaR tjJuzypa.
llOJIOCA
IIoRc, 3aHHMalOID;HH OKOJIO 1/9 BhICOThI
~uma.
llEPEB5I3b BJIEBO
IIepe6R3b OT JIeBOrO BepxHero yrJIa (co
CTOPOHhI 3pHTeJISI).
OBPAmEHHMI !l>HfYPA
!l>Hrypa qeJIOBeKa HJIH )KHBOTHOro,
H306pa)KeHHaSI B npOCPMh npaBOH CTOpOHOH K 3PHTeJIlO.
llEPECEqEHHE
Pa3AeJIeHHe ~uma ropH30HTaJIhlO, coeAHHSlT')ID;eH cepeAHHhl ero GOKOBhIX CTOpOH.
----"/
llOJIYfllACHbIM rEPB
rOpOACKOH rep6, B ~um KOTopOro
BKJIlOqeHO H306pa)KeHHe, KOCBeHHO CBSI3aHHoe C Ha3BaHHeM AaHHoro HaCeJIeHHoro rryHKTa.
llOJIbCKHM mHT
PacrnHpSllOIIIHHcSI KHH3Y ~um C yceqeHHhIMH BepXHHMH yrJIaMH H S-06pa3HhIM
H3rH60M 60KOBbIX CTOpOH.
c---
I
OKOHEqHOCTb
HH)KHSISI TPeTh ~uma, orpaH~eHHaSi
cBepxy ropH30HTaJIhlO.
OllYIIIKA
Y 3KaSI ICaUMa.
~
)
OBPEMEHEHHMI !l>HrypA
!l>Hrypa, BhICTynaroID;aSI H3-nOA APyroii:.
OKPAHHA
OICoHe'tHocmb MaJIOH BhICOThI.
JAJAA
llEPEB5I3b BllPABO
IIepe6R3b OT rrpaBoro BepxHero yrJIa (co
CTOPOHhI3pHTeJISI).
llEPEKPEmEHHbIM KPECT
IIpRMou ICpecm C KOPOTKHMH OTBeTBJIeHHSlMH rrOA rrpSlMhIM yrJIOM OT K~Oro
KOH~a, C03AalOID;HMH BrreqaTJIeHHe AOrrOJIHHTeJIhHhIX KpecTHKoB, YAaJIeHHhIX
OT ~eHTpa.
( = nOBepHYTaSI cpHrypa)
llHHCTbIM KPECT
KpeCT C nHRMU no nepHMeTPY.
llHH
OAHHaKoBhIe qeThIpexyrOJIhHhIe BhICTyrrhl rro KpalO KpecTa, pa3AeJIeHHhle
rrpOMe)KYTKaMH TaKOH )Ke q,OPMhI.
-149-
llOqEllibIE !l>HrYPbI
( = maBHhIe AeJIeHHSI)
OCHoBHhle IIJIOCKOCTH paCqJIeHeHHoro
~uma:
Vla6a, nORC, OICOHe'tHocmb,
nPIUIO)l(EHIotE nEPBOE. TEPMIotHbi rEPAJlbAIotKIot
150
cmoJl6,
nepeBR3b, npRMOU Kpecm,
cmponUJlO, OKOHe'-lHOCmb, KailMa, UjumOK, BOJlbHaR '-laCmb.
CEHh
maTep HaA MaHTHeii: rOCYAapCTBeHHoro
rep6a.
CTPA)K,IJ,YIII,EE CEP,IJ,UE
YCJIOBHOe H306pa)KeHHe cepAn;a, rrpOH3eHHoro TpeMH rB03AHMH.
TI05IC
rOpH30HTaJIbHaH rrOJIOca, rrpOXOAHm:aH
qepe3 n;eHTp Ujuma H 3aHHMaJOm:HH ero
TpeTb.
CMMMETPMQHhIE TIHM
IIHu, pacrrOJIO)KeHHble Ha 0AHHaKOBbIX
ypOBHHX rro 06eHM cTopoHaM Ka)KAoro
KOHn;a KpecTa.
TIPYCCKM:H KPECT
YKopO'-leHHbIU npRMou Kpecm, TOpn;bI
KOToporo 3aKaHqHBaJOTCH JIHJIHHMH, a
Ha rrepeCeqeHHH rrOMem:eH UjumOK C
qepHbIM OAHOrJIaBbIM OPJIOM.
CKomEHME
Pa3AeJIeHHe Ujuma AHarOHaJIbJO HJIH
nepeBR3blO. ECJIH AHarOHaJIb crrycKaeTcH
crrpaBa HaJIeBO, TO TaKoe CKOIIIeHHe
Ha3blBaeTCH JIeBbIM, a rrpH crrycKe CJIeBa
HarrpaBO - rrpaBbIM.
CTPOTIMJIO
CHMMeTpHqHO
pacrrOJIO)KeHHaH
Ha
Ujume qmrypa, COCTaBJIeHHaH H3 AByX
HaKJIOHHbIX rrOJIOC OAHHaKoBoii: IIIHpHHbI
H
HarrOMHHaJOm:aH
OCTpOKOHeqHYIO
6YKBY «JI».
TIP5IMO:H KPECT
( = KpeCT, repaJIbAHqecKHii: KpecT)
IIo'-lemHaR ¢uzypa, 06'beAHHHJOm:aH
cmoJl6 H nORCo
TI5ITMKOHEqHhI:H KPECT
(/JpaHl1,Y3cKUU Kpecm.
TMTJIO
TypHUPHblU BopomHuK.
P ACCP-IEHME
Pa3AeJIeHHe Ujuma BepnIKaJIbJO qepe3
ero cepeAHHy.
TPEXKOHEQHhI:H KPECT
BUJloo6pa3HbiU Kpecm.
,
., ,
. 1'-'.
-"
.,
~,
~
'----ll..;c
..• ,',,:,..'J...---
PEKA
IIoRc C BOJIHHCTbIMH KpaHMH.
CO,IJ,PAHHA5I QACTh
<l>parMeHT )KHBOTHOro, H306pa)KeHHblii:
6e3 KO)KH H rrepbeB, C rrOKa30M 06Ha)KeHHOrO MHca.
CTEHA
IIoRC C rrpHMoyrOJIbHbIMH BblcTyrraMH
Ha BepxHeii: CTopOHe.
CTOJIE
CpeAHHH BepTHKaJIbHaH rrOJIOca B Ujume,
3aHHMaJOm:aH ero TpeTb H CHMBOJIH3HPYJOm:aH Korrbe.
TPMJIMCTHhI:H KPECT
IIpRMOU Kpecm C TpeXJIOrraCTHbIM oqepTaHHeM Ka)K)l;OrO TOpL\a.
TYPHMPHhI:H BOPOTHMK
(= THTJIO, qmrypa 0 Tpex 3y6n;ax)
BbITHHYTaH rro ropH30HTaJIH paBH06eApeHHaH TParren;HH, OCHOBaHHe KOTOPOii:
;U;OrrOJIHeHO KHH3Y TpeMH 3y6n;aMH TpeyrOJIbHbIMH JIH60 TaK)Ke- B cpopMe
paBH06eApeHHoii: Tparren;HH.
CABO:HCKM:H KPECT
Cepe6pHHblii: npRMou Kpecm B qepBJIeHOM Ujume.
CBOEO,IJ,HA5I <l>MrYPA
YKOpO'-leHHaR ¢uzypa.
C,IJ,BMHYTO-mAXMATHhI:H IlI;I1T
Iaum, pa3AeJIeHHblii: Ha ropH30HTaJIbHble pHAbI H3 KBaApaTOB TaKHM 06pa30M, qTO HX BepTHKaJIbHble CTOPOHbl B
KaKOM-JIH60 PHAY yrmpaJOTCH B cepeAHHbl ropH30HTaJIbHbIX CTOPOH KBaApaTOB coceAHero pHAa.
CTOJIEMK
Y3KHii: cmoJl6 (OT 1/9 AO 1/6 rrJIom:aAH
Ujuma).
-150-
YKOPOQEHHA5I <l>MrYPA
(= CB060AHaH cpHrypa)
IIo'-lemHaR ¢uzypa, KOHL\bI KOTOPOii: He
KacaJOTCH KpaeB Ujuma.
YPO,IJ,JIMBA5I <l>MrYPA
)KHBoTHoe, H306pa)KeHHOe 6e3 XBOCTa.
151
nPHlIO>KEHHE nEPBOE. TEPMHHbI rEPAJlb,QHKH
YCE5IHHhII1 II1J1T
IIl.um, B rrpe):leJIaX KOTOpOrO H306pa)KeHO 60JIee ):IBeHa):lu;aTH <pHryp.
<l>l1fYPA 0 TPEX 3YEQAX
TYPflUPflblU 8opomHuK.
<I> I1HI1 <l>Tb
1 3MaJIh.
2 fepaJIh):lH"IeCKaH KpacKa (qepBJIeHh,
JIa3yph, 3eJIeHh, rryprryp, qepHh, 30JIOTO, cepe6po).
<I>P AHQY3CKI1I1 KPECT
II1;I1TO,[(EP)KATEJII1
<l>HrYPhI JIIO):IeH H )KHBOTHhIX, BKJIlOqeHHhIe B rep6 H rrO):l):lep)KHBalOrn;He C 60KOB
ero U4um; rrOMern;aJIHCh JIHmh B rep6ax
JIHU;, 3aHeceHHhIX B 4-10, 5-10 H 6-10
qaCTH PO):(OCJIOBHhIX KHHr.
III:I1TOK
llO'lemflaR pU2ypa B <popMe ppaflLl,yaCK020 U4uma, rrOMern;eHHaH B u;eHTpe
OCHOBHoro repaJIh):(HqeCKOrO U4uma (rro
mHpHHe H BhlCOTe rrpHMepHO paBHa ero
TpeTH).
(= rrHTHKOHeqHhIH KpecT)
<l>Hrypa, COCTaBJIeHHaH H3 rrHTH 8blpy6HblX mpeY20JlbflUK08, KOTophle cxo):(HTCH oCTpHeM B O):(Hy TOqKY.
<l>P AHQY3CKI1I1 III:I1T
OCHoBHaH <popMa U4uma B PYCCKOM
repaJIh):lHKe, 6JIH3KaH rrpHMoyrOJIhHHKy
C OTHomeHHeM BhlCOThI K mHpHHe 9:8,
rrpHqeM HH)KHHe yrJIhI cKpYrJIeHhI, a
cepe):(HHa OCHOBaHHH rrJIaBHO 3aocTPeHa
KHH3y.
, •
,~
-
I,
\
....
(~
5IKOBA KPECT
Kpecm C8Rmow 5/Ko8a.
~
"
. ': ,~\~ :~:..:"
XP AMOBHbII1 KPECT
Kpecm XPaM08flUK08.
qEPTA
)/(epob.
QETBEPOQACTHbII1 III:I1T
IIl.um, pa3):1eJIeHHhIH Ha qeThIpe rrpHMepHo paBHhIe qaCTH rryTeM O):lHOBpeMeHHoro paCCe'leflUR H nepeCe'leflUR.
QETBEPOQACTHbII1
CKOIIIEHHbII1 III:I1T
IIl.um, pa3):1eJIeHHhIH Ha qeThlpe rrpHMepHo paBHhle qaCTI-1 rryTeM o):(HoBpeMeHHoro CKOuteHUR cnpa8a H CJle8a.
IIIAP
CPuflupmRflou ):IHCK Ha rroBepxHocTH
U4uma.
IIIBEI1QAPCKI1I1 KPECT
)/(efle8CKUU Kpecm.'
III:I1T
fJIaBHaH qaCTh rep6a, 06be):(HHHlOrn;aH
ero HaH60JIee Ba)KHhIe HH):(HBH):IyaJIhHhle
3JIeMeHThI; CHMBOJIH3HpyeT phII~apcKHil:
U4um.
-151-
I1PMJIO)l(EHME BTOPOE
ApeBHepYCCK~e
peJl~r~03Hble
MOHOrpaMMbl
Ha IIOKJIOHHbIX KpecTax H HHblX peJIbeqJaX (HarrpHMep,
Ha 3aKJIa):{HbIX
~OCKax
-
CBRTOH,
IHIJ;H -
MHCyC Ha3apeT Uapb MY)l;eHCKHH.
IC XC -
MHCyC XpHCTOC.
M)"IeHHK, CThIM -
6YKB CJIOB, yra):{aTh 3HaqeHHe KOTOPhIX He Bcer~a rrpoCTO. qTo6hI 06JIerqHTh IIOHHMaHHe TaKHX 6YKBeHHhIX
0603HaqeHHH, COCTaBJIeH IIpe~JIaraeMhIH aJl(paBHTHhIH
IIepeqeHh HX C paCillH<pPOBKOH. OH :QeJIHKOM OCHOBaH
Ha H3hICKaHHRX T.
B. JIeBHHoH, o~aCTH orry6JIHKOBaH-
HhIX B ee CTaThe «,I:(epeBRHHhle IIOKJIOHHhle KpeCThI Ha
PYCCKOM CeBepe» (C60pHHK «,I:(peBHepyCCKaR CKYJIb-
pe~aK:QIDI
rrrypa» ,
c.
245-261)
PbIH~HHOH.
A. B.
M.,
1991,
H yqHTbIBalOI:QHX 60JIee paHHHH OIIbIT
pacillH<PPOBKH MOHorpaMM, KOTOPbIH CO~ep)I{HTCR B
CTaTbe H. IIoKpoBcKoro «EBaHreJIHe B IIaMRTHHKax
HKOHOrpa<pHH rrpeHMY~ecTBeHHo BH3aHTHHcKHx H pycCKHX» (B KH.: TpY~hI VIII apxeoJIOrW:leCKOrO C'he3~a B
MocKBe B
Me
A. A.
.!U1.II.IDImUlHII - )l;HeCb npeBeJIHe )l;peBO HaM SlBHCSI, nOHexe
Uapb Be'lHbIH Ha HeM npHrB03)l;HCSI.
Chm) BCTPeqalOTCR COqeTaHIDI HaqaJIhHhIX
HIDI CJIOB: MqHK'b CH'b
COKpa~e­
IIOMHMO qaCTW:lHOrO
K-KollHe.
KAC -
KpeCT -
aHreJIaM CJIaBa.
KB}I -
KpeCT -
6ecaM Sl3Ba.
KBY -
KpeCT - BepHbIM YTeweHHe.
KpeCT - BepHbIM YTBep)l{)l;eHHe.
KER -
KpeCT EJIeHe SlBHCSI.
KKKK KKlJ, KXBB -
B aJIb60-
KM -
MJI -
r. CIl6.,
Hble H3~eJIIDI» (M.,
1892,
1913,
T.
Bbill.
1,
X,
c.
c.
357),
56)
H B KHHre
H. H. C060JIeBa «PyCCKaR HapO~aR pe3h6a IIO ~epe­
By» (M.-JI.,
1934,
c.
246).
KpenOCTb KOHCTaHTHHY K Bepe.
KpeCT - KpaCOTa ~epKOBHaSI.
KpeCT XPHCTOB B03Bew:aeT BOCKpeweHHe.
KpeCT - XpaHHTeJIb BceH BCeJIeHHoH.
KlJ,A - KpeCT - ~epKBH Ha'laJIO (OT rpe'leCKOH
0YKBhI «aJIbq,a» - Ha'laJIO).
Eo6pHHCKoro «PyccKHe Hapo~Hble ~epeBRH­
1890
KpeCT -
KpeCT -
~apSIM
)l;epXaBa.
MeCTO JIOOHoe.
MMMMKB - MHoro 00 MoxeT MOJIeHHe MaTepHee KO
OJIarOCep)l;HIO BJIa)l;bIKH.
MP QY -
MaTepb Bo)I{HSI (no-rpe'leCKH).
He
HHKA -
nOOe)l{)l;aIO (no-rpe'leCKH).
BKJIlOqeHbI CBeTCKHe MOHorpaMMbI, CKa)KeM, KJIeHMa
OMO -
opyxme - MllPY O)l;OJIeHHe.
Ha KHPIIHqax :QepKOBHbIX IIOCTpoeK (HaIIpHMep, «.HK»,
OOKlJ,E -
ECTecTBeHHo,
qTO
B
::lTO
rrpHJIO)KeHHe
qTO 03HaqaeT KHpIIW:lHbIH 3aBO~.H. KHTaH:QeBa).
nnn PE -
EEEE -
0H'l BoxmH obeT oecoB.
BBBB -
BceH BCeJIeHHOH B03Bew:aeT Bepy.
B03Bpaw:eHHe Be'lHoe BepHhIM B paH.
BCeJIH BeCeJIHe B Hero BepYIOW:HM.
BBBBf fA IT -
.lUU1.ll: -
PPPP CBBH CCCC -
B03Bpaw:eHHe B pail: BceM BepHbIM rOCnO)l;eBH.
IJ,EII -
ropa rOJIroq,a.
qqpl -
)l;peBO )l;oopa - )l;oca)l;a )l;HaBOJIa.
)l;peBO )l;apyeT )l;peBHee )l;ocToSIHHe.
152
-152-
nOHTe, nO'lHTaHTe, nOKJIOHSIHTecb.
pao ObICTb.
pe'leHHOMY pO)l;y pa)l;OCTH Pa)l;H.
CO)l;epXaH BCSI BHcm Ha )l;peBe.
CBeT, COTBOPH ceTb caTaHe.
T-TPOCTb.
XXXX -
rJIaBa A)l;aMa.
oopeTeH OT Bora KpeCT ~ap~eIO EJIeHoIO.
XPHCTOBbI xopyrBH - XpHCTHaHaM XBaJIa.
~apb -
Bor npe)l;Be'lHbIH.
'1eCTHO '1ryW:HM Ero '1eJIOBeKOM .
I1PI1JIO)KEHI1E TPEThE
PaCWVlQ>pOBKa AaT
Ha 3AamUlX HnH B HHTephepaX BCTpeqalOTCSI Il,HCPPOBhle H 6YKBeHHhle 0603HaqeHHSI, n03BOnSiIOlIl,He AaTHpOBaTh npOH3BeAeHHSI apxHTeKTyphI H HHhIX BHAOB
HCKYCCTBa. HapSiAY C 0603HaqeHHeM rOAa, COOTBeTCTByiolIl,HM HhIHeIllHHM eBpOneHCKHM KaneHAapSlM,
eCTh H ApyrHe BapHaHThI cpHKCaIl,HH AaT.
HaH60nee npOCTOH H3 HHX - AaTHpOBKa PHMCKHMH Il,HcppaMH. I1x BCerO ceMh: I - 1, V - 5,
X - 10, L - 50, C - 100, D - 500, M - 1000.
qHcna nHIllYTcSI B CTPOKY cneBa HanpaBo C
nOMOlIl,hIO KOM6HHaIl,HH 3THX IJ;HCPP. OAHH H Te )l(e
Il,HcpphI 06hlqHO He nOBTopSiIOTCSI nOAPSIA 60nee Tpex
pa3, a 60nee KpynHoe cneAYIOlIl,ee qHCnO H306pa)l(aeTCSI napOH Il,HCPP TaK, qTO MeHhIllaSi CTaBHTCSI BHaqane H 03HaqaeT, qTO ee HaAO BhlqeCTh H3 cneAYIOlIl,eH,
HanpHMep: IV - 4, IX - 9, XL - 40, XC - 90,
CD - 400, CM - 900, TorAa KaK VI - 6, XI - 11,
LX - 60, CX - 110, DC - 600, MC - 1100.
B PYCCKOH apxHTeKType AaTHpoBKa PHMCKHMH
Il,HcppaMH HaH60nee CBoHcTBeHHa py6e)l(Y XIX-XX BB.
fIpHMephI: MDCCCXCVIII - 1898, MCMV - 1905.
Donee cnO)l(Ha CHCTeMa 0603HaqeHHH qHCen 6YKBaMH
KHpHnnHIl,hI, nOBceMeCTHO pacnpocTpaHeHHaSi Ha PYCH
AO 1700 rOAa, a B Il,epKOBHoH )l(H3HH YIl,eneBIllaSi AO
HaIllHX AHeH. fIpH AeCSITepHqHOH CHCTeMe CqHCneHHSI B
.IJ:peBHeH PYCH HCllonh30BanHCh 27 Il,HCPP, a Honh He
0603HaqanCSI HHKaK. HaA Ka)l(.ll:hIM qHCnOM gon)l(eIl
CTOHTh 3HaK .... (<<THTno»).
.....
.... .... .... .....
r A c .s .3 f1 ,0,
4
6
7
8
9
.... ....:2 3 .... .....5 .....
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