Загрузил Мария Иванисова

ПОСОБИЕ 1 2013 испр. (3)

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ГЛАВА 1. ИМЯ СУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНОЕ ..................................................................... 7
1.1. Основные правила употребления артиклей........................................................... 7
1.1.1. Употребление артиклей с именами нарицательными ...................................................... 7
1.1.2. Другие случаи употребления неопределенного артикля ............................................... 10
1.1.3. Употребление артиклей при наличии определения........................................................ 11
1.1.4. Употребление артикля с неисчисляемыми существительными .................................... 12
1.1.5. Употребление артикля перед числительными. ............................................................... 17
1.1.6. Переход прилагательных и причастий в существительные........................................... 17
1.1.7. Употребление артикля с именами существительными собственными......................... 18
1.1.8. Обзорные упражнения ....................................................................................................... 20
1.2. Единственное и множественное число существительных................................. 25
1.2.1. Категория числа. Образование множественного числа правильных
существительных ................................................................................................................ 25
1.2.2 Множественное число неправильных существительных. Особые случаи
употребления существительных в единственном и множественном числе ................. 25
1.2.3. Неисчисляемые существительные.................................................................................... 26
1.2.4. Единственное и множественное число слов с латинскими и греческими
корнями................................................................................................................................ 27
1.3. Имя существительное в роли определения ......................................................... 29
ГЛАВА 2. СЛОВООБРАЗОВАНИЕ........................................................................... 33
2.1. Совпадение разных частей речи по форме .......................................................... 33
2.2. Суффиксы в словообразовании в английском языке ......................................... 36
2.2.1. Суффиксы отвлеченных существительных..................................................................... 36
2.2.2. Суффиксы, используемые для образования слов, относящихся к человеку................ 37
2.2.3. Суффиксы прилагательных и наречий............................................................................. 38
2.2.4. Сравнительная и превосходная степень прилагательных и наречий............................ 41
2.2.5. Суффиксы глаголов ........................................................................................................... 45
2.3.Группы слов, производных от одного корня........................................................ 46
2.4. Приставки латинского и греческого происхождения......................................... 50
2.5. Образование антонимов. Схемы словообразования........................................... 52
2.6. Слова, производные от латинских и греческих корней ..................................... 54
2.7. Обзорные упражнения ........................................................................................... 58
2.8. Тесты к разделу “Словообразование” .................................................................. 59
ГЛАВА 3. МЕСТОИМЕНИЕ ....................................................................................... 61
3.1. Формы местоимений .............................................................................................. 61
3.1.1. Местоимения в именительном падеже ............................................................................ 61
3.1.2. Местоимения в объектном падеже ................................................................................... 61
3.1.3. Притяжательные местоимения ......................................................................................... 62
3.1.4. Возвратные местоимения .................................................................................................. 63
3.1.5. Обзорные упражнения по формам личных местоимений.............................................. 63
3.2. Правила согласования местоимений .................................................................... 64
3.3. Вопросительные местоимения и относительные местоимения ........................ 66
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3.3.1. Относительные местоимения ............................................................................................66
3.4. Употребление неопределенных местоимений и их производных ................... 67
3.5. Употребление местоимений this, that (these, those), another, other .................... 69
3.6. Местоимения much, many, little и few другие квантификаторы........................ 69
3.7. Обзорные упражнения на местоимения............................................................... 70
3.8. Тесты на местоимения ........................................................................................... 72
ГЛАВА 4. ПРЕДЛОГ .................................................................................................... 74
4.1. Предлоги времени .................................................................................................. 74
4.2. Предлоги места и направления ............................................................................. 77
4.3. Предлоги, которыми пользуются, когда речь идет о способе
путешествия............................................................................................................ 79
4.4. Предложные сочетания.......................................................................................... 80
4.4.1. Существительные и прилагательные с последующими предлогами ............................80
4.4.2. Устойчивые выражения с предлогами .............................................................. 81
4.5. Глагол и предлог..................................................................................................... 83
4.5.1. Глаголы с закрепленными предлогами ............................................................................83
4.5.2. Глаголы to be и to get с предлогами и наречиями ...........................................................84
4.5.3. Другие глаголы с послелогами..........................................................................................86
4.5.4. Классификация фразовых глаголов ..................................................................................88
4.6. Обзорные упражнения на предлоги ..................................................................... 94
4.7. Тесты на предлоги.................................................................................................. 95
ГЛАВА 5. ГЛАГОЛ....................................................................................................... 97
5.1. Система глагольных времен действительного и страдательного
залога в английском языке .................................................................................... 97
5.1.1. Таблица времен глаголов...................................................................................................97
5.2. Времена Present Simple и Present Continuous.................................................... 102
5.3. Употребление Past Continuous и Past Simple ..................................................... 105
5.4. Present Perfect или Past Simple?........................................................................... 106
5.5. Страдательный залог............................................................................................ 108
5.6. Present Perfect Simple и Present Perfect Continuous........................................... 113
5.7. Past Simple и Past Perfect...................................................................................... 116
5.8. "Used to" и "would" для выражения повторяющегося действия или
обычного состояния в прошлом ......................................................................... 119
5.9. Способы выражения будущего времени............................................................ 121
5.10. Сочетаемость глаголов и существительных.................................................... 125
5.11. Глаголы, близкие по написанию или значению.............................................. 128
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5.12. Обзорные упражнения на времена и залоги.................................................... 130
5.13. Тесты на времена и залоги ................................................................................ 134
ГЛАВА 6. МОДАЛЬНЫЕ ГЛАГОЛЫ ...................................................................... 137
6.1. Общие сведения.................................................................................................... 137
6.2. Таблица случаев употребления модальных глаголов, их
эквивалентов и вспомогательных глаголов в модальном значении............... 138
6.3. Глаголы, выражающие долженствование.......................................................... 141
6.4. Упражнения на модальные глаголы, выражающие разрешение и
возможность.......................................................................................................... 144
6.5. Степень вероятности протекания события ........................................................ 145
6.6. Обзорные упражнения на модальные глаголы.................................................. 147
6.7. Тесты на модальные глаголы .............................................................................. 151
ГЛАВА 7. ПРЯМАЯ И КОСВЕННАЯ РЕЧЬ. ПРАВИЛО СОГЛАСОВАНИЯ
ВРЕМЕН. ТИПЫ ВЫСКАЗЫВАНИЙ. ГЛАГОЛЫ РЕЧИ ..................................... 154
7.1. Прямая и косвенная речь ..................................................................................... 154
7.1.1. Правило согласования времен ........................................................................................ 154
7.1.2. Отклонения от правила согласования времен............................................................... 156
7.2. Повелительные конструкции в косвенной речи................................................ 157
7.3. Глаголы речи......................................................................................................... 158
7.4. Вопросы в косвенной речи .................................................................................. 159
7.5. Прямое и непрямое цитирование в письменной практике для
научных целей. ..................................................................................................... 161
7.5.1. Употребление глаголов речи при прямом цитировании. Пунктуационное
выделение прямых цитат ................................................................................................. 162
7.5.2. Непрямое цитирование .................................................................................................... 163
7.5.3 Письменная практика........................................................................................................ 164
7.6. Обзорные упражнения ......................................................................................... 166
7.7. Тесты на правило согласования времен............................................................. 168
Ключи к упражнениям ................................................................................................ 171
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 1. СЛОВА, ВЫЗЫВАЮЩИЕ ЛОЖНЫЕ АССОЦИАЦИИ....... 195
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 2. ТЕСТЫ......................................................................................... 197
Ключи к тестам ............................................................................................................ 215
СПИСОК ИСПОЛЬЗОВАННОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ ................................................... 217
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Глава 1. Имя существительное
Правильное употребление артиклей в английском языке является достаточно
сложным. Кроме довольно большого количества правил употребления артиклей,
существует много исключений из правил, которые также следует знать и помнить.
1.1. Основные правила употребления артиклей
1.1.1. Употребление артиклей с именами нарицательными
Неопределенный артикль употребляется:
~ с исчисляемыми существительными в единственном числе, когда имеется в
виду любой представитель данного класса лиц или предметов:
They live in a lovely house.
I’m reading a good book at the moment.
She’s expecting a baby.
~ когда существительное служит в предложении именной частью составного
сказуемого и используется, чтобы описать, кем или чем является лицо или
предмет, о котором говорится в предложении:
My brother is an engineer.
That’s an instrument for measuring distance.
~ когда существительное служит приложением:
John Bolton, a student of our University, took the first place in the chess
tournament.
~ если перед существительным, употребляемом в общем смысле, можно
поставить слово “every”
A computer can quickly make calculations, store and rearrange information.
Определенный артикль употребляется:
~ перед существительными в единственном или множественном числе, когда из
ситуации или контекста ясно, какое именно лицо или предмет имеется в виду:
The room was in a mess. The books were on the floor and on the chairs.
Where is the key? Mind the baby! She’s near the fire.
~ перед существительными, являющимися единственными в своем роде или в
данной обстановке (the Queen, the Earth, the Atlantic):
The sun was getting warmer.
When goods have been loaded on a ship, the captain signs a receipt called a bill of
lading.
~ перед названием определенных общественных мест, если они употребляются в
общем смысле:
I went to the theatre last night. I’m going to the library.
I have to go to the post office.
Но: There isn't a theatre in this town. Where is a post office?
~ с существительными в единственном числе для обозначения целого класса
предметов:
The thermometer becomes useless if the fluid in it either freezes or boils.
The telephone was invented in the 19-th century.
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The pine grows in northern countries.
Однако в этих случаях артикль не употребляется со словом man. Слово
woman чаще употребляется с определенным артиклем, хотя может употребляться
и без артикля: Woman is man’s helpmate.
Определенный артикль может заменить указательные местоимения this и that.
Иногда его следует перевести словом “этот”:
He is going to take a post-graduate course. I like the idea.
Упр.1.1.1.a. Поставьте существительные во множественное число, сделав все
необходимые преобразования в предложении.
a. A dog is an animal.
b. A potato is a vegetable.
c. A pencil is like a pen.
d. A ruler is a thin rectangular wooden or plastic strip.
e. A test-tube is a hollow glass tube.
f. A writer writes a book.
g. The man who is sitting there is my friend.
h. The girl in that room is my sister.
i. The boy does his work well.
Упр.1.1.1.b. Поставьте существительные в единственное число, сделав все
необходимые преобразования в предложении.
a. Horses are animals.
b. Boots are kinds of shoes.
c. Watches are small clocks.
d. Novels are books.
e. Children are not always good.
f. Stockings are long socks.
g. Schools are large buildings.
**Упр.1.1.1.c. Поставьте а/an, где необходимо.
a. I haven’t got computer.
b. I am not chemist, I am biologist.
c. You made very bad mistake.
d. It is convincing result.
e. Do you keep record of the results?
f. I work in theoretical research team
g. I’ve got very good idea.
h. It is standard method.
Упр.1.1.1.d. Поставьте the , где необходимо.
a. Which city is ___ capital of ___your country?
b. What is ___largest city in ___world?
c. Our apartment is on ___third floor.
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d. Help! Fire! Somebody, call ___fire brigade.
e. Who was ___first man to walk on ___moon?
f. ”Where is ___your dictionary?” “ It’s on ___top shelf on ___right.”
g. We live in ___country, about five miles from ___nearest village.
h. ___Prime Minister is ___most important person in ___British government.
i. I don’t know everybody in ___this photograph. Who is ___man on ___left?
j. It was a very nice hotel but I don’t remember ___name.
k. I didn’t like her ___first time I met her.
Упр.1.1.1.e. Поставьте a/an, the , где необходимо.
a. I turned off ___ light, opened ____ door and went out.
b. Excuse me, can I ask ____ question, please?
c. Alan is ____ best player in our football team.
d. How far is it from here to ____ airport?
e. Enjoy your holiday and don’t forget to send me ____ postcard!
f. Have you got ____ ticket for ____ concert tomorrow night?
g. Yesterday I bought ____ jacket and ____ shirt.____ jacket was cheap but ____ shirt
was expensive.
h. What is ____ name of ____ director of ____ film we saw ____ last night?
i. “Where are _____ children?” “They’re in ____ garden.”
j. My sister’s _____ teacher in ____ school near Leicester. She has three children, two
girls and ____ boy. ____ girls are in her class at school, but ____ boy isn’t old enough
for school yet.
k. Jane and Bill are ____ very nice couple. She has ____ clothes shop, and he works in
____ office in ____ centre of town.
l. “Where are my shoes?” “On ____ floor in ____ kitchen.”
m. “How much are the driving lessons?” “Fifteen pounds ____ hour.”
n. When you come to bed, can you put ____ cat out and turn off ____ light?
o. I went to ____ restaurant last night.
p. What’s _____ name of ____ restaurant we went to last night?
Упр.1.1.1.f. Выберите правильный вариант из каждой пары.
a. Potatoes / The potatoes are not expensive.
b. This is a good meal. Potatoes / The potatoes are very nice.
c. Everybody needs friends / the friends.
d. Jan doesn’t go to parties / the parties very often.
e. Children / The children learn things / the things very quickly.
f. I enjoy eating in restaurants / the restaurants.
g. I enjoy taking photographs / the photographs. It’s my hobby.
h. I must show you photographs / the photographs I took when I was on holiday.
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**Упр.1.1.1g. Поставьте the, где необходимо.
Если перед такими существительными, как method, theory, effect, device и т.п.
стоит имя собственное в притяжательном падеже, то артикль не употребляется:
Seitz’s hypothesis, Whipple’s model
Если имя собственное стоит в общем падеже, то употребляется определенный
артикль: the Holl effect, the Boltzman factor, the Gerrish drive, the Coulomb field.
a. The DNA was examined by ____ Klein-Smith method.
b. ____ Wilson’s model has been applied.
c. ____ Hodgkin-Huxley equations modified by Dodge have been solved.
d. The system is studied by ___ Smith’s method.
e. Measurements performed on Bi-Te alloys are compared with Seeback coefficients (S)
using ___ Kelvin’s second relation P=ST.
1.1.2. Другие случаи употребления неопределенного артикля
В некоторых случаях неопределенный артикль сохранил значение числительного
one.
He did not say a word. A complete vibration or oscillation means a round trip.
The velocity of light is 186,300 miles a second. The case weighs a (one) hundred
pounds.
A stitch in time saves nine.
Неопределенный артикль обычно стоит перед существительным или его
определением:
~ в восклицательных предложениях типа: What a beautiful picture! What a
clever man!
~ перед исчисляемым существительным в единственном числе после such,
quite и rather:
It is rather a long story. She is such a clever girl!
(В последних двух случаях перед исчисляемыми существительными во
множественном числе и перед неисчисляемыми существительными артикль
отсутствует.)
Однако неопределенный артикль может стоять между прилагательным и
существительным в единственном числе, если ему предшествуют усилительные
частицы и местоимения, типа what, such, many, quite, rather, so и too:
It is not so simple a problem as it is seems. It is too urgent a matter to postpone.
Only later was it discovered what fruitful a theory it was.
Но: Such a laborious procedure is obviously not suitable for routine identifications.
Упр.1.1.2 Поставьте a/an, где необходимо.
a. It is ___ pleasure to do ___ business with such ___ efficient organization.
b. I have ___ headache.
c. I have ___ pain in my shoulder.
d. You must be strong in ___ mind and body.
e. If they had ___ mind to, they could easily get it published..
f. Oh, I know there’s no danger, but I’m ____ little frightened all the same.
g. ___ Little of the equipment was standardized.
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h. It is possible to make ___ very good living from being a businessman.
i. The quality of ___ urban living has been damaged by excessive noise levels.
j. He was one of ___ few men of science who never terrified me, probably because he
never behaved like ___ doctor.
1.1.3. Употребление артиклей при наличии определения
Когда существительное имеет при себе определение, выделяющее лицо или
предмет из всех лиц или предметов данного класса, оно употребляется с
определенным артиклем:
The water inside the pipe does not meet the pressure of the air.
Когда определение выражено определительным придаточным предложением,
причастным оборотом или предложным оборотом, то:
- при наличии ограничивающего определения существительное употребляется с
определенным артиклем: He knocked at the door of a very neat house. The things
that I have come to me quite by accident.
Show me the telegram which was received yesterday.
This is the book you asked for.
~ при наличии классифицирующего определения существительное в
единственном числе употребляется с неопределенным артиклем, а во
множественном числе - без артикля:
A letter which is written in pencil is difficult to read.
Vessels built for the transportation of oil are called tankers.
~ описательное определение не влияет на выбор артикля, и существительное
употребляется с определенным или неопределенным артиклем или с
местоимениями some, any на основании общих правил:
I went to the door where they were waiting for us.
Last summer I spent in a small village, which I thought to be a nice place to live in.
We have ordered some engines of 2,000 H.P. each.
В сочетании “существительное + of + существительное” употребление артиклей
зависит от того, говорится ли о знакомом предмете или лице, или об
определенных по ситуации предметах или лицах. Сравните:
a book of a student
the books of a student
a book of the student
the books of the student
the book of the student
the books of students
(одна из книг какого-то студента)
(эти книги какого-то студента)
(одна из книг знакомого студента)
(эти книги знакомого студента)
(эта книга знакомого студента)
(эти книги каких-то студентов)
Упр.1.1.3.a. Переведите следующие словосочетания на английский язык.
a. работа какого-то автора; знание какого-либо предмета; статьи какого-либо
ученого; эти данные авторов; студенты какого-либо университета; человек
науки; учитель математики.
b. горы Крыма; металлы Урала; электростанции на Ангаре; Академия Наук
Украины; леса Сибири; многие зоны (area) нашей планеты.
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c. история искусства; прогресс науки; важность образования; степень (degree)
кандидата наук; формы растительной жизни (vegetable life); интерес к (for)
экологии; население планеты.
d. вагоны поезда; средства транспорта; цель (purpose) визита; служащие (clerk)
гостиницы.
Упр.1.1.3.b. Поставьте артикль, где необходимо.
a. ___ chair on which you are sitting is not comfortable.
b. There is ___ man waiting to see Mr Smith.
c. ___ man whom Mr Smith telephoned this morning is here now.
d. I should like to find ___ good book to read tonight.
e. ___ book which I am reading now is a very good one.
f. ___ book which gave me the greatest pleasure was “War and Peace”.
g. Have you ___ cigarette?
h. John threw away ___ cigarette he was smoking.
i. Peter put ___ letter he had just received into his pocket.
j. I must write ___ letter.
*Упр.1.1.3.c. Поставьте артикль, где необходимо.
a. Number ___ hundred and two, ___ house next door to us, is for sale. It’s quite ___
nice house with ___ big rooms. ___ back windows look out on ___ park.
b. Professor Jones, ___ man who discovered ___ new drug that everyone is talking
about, refused to give ___ press conference.
c. Peter Piper, ___ student in ____ professor’s college, asked him why he refused to talk
to ___ press.
d. ___ ship you were speaking about has just come onto ___ port. She has been at ___
sea for ___ long time. Look: ____ captain has just come on ___ deck.
**Упр.1.1.3.d. Поставьте артикль, где необходимо.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
This is a rather crude criterion of ___ purity.
The technique of ___ paper chromatography was cited above.
The temperature of ___ solution should be controlled within half a degree or so.
Addition of, say, ___ halogen molecule to benzene leads to a dihydrobenzene
derivative.
Proof of ___ formula for d-galactose is too involved to be given here.
The direction of ___ rearrangement will depend on two matters, which have to be
taken in order.
In the light of ___ present-day knowledge of ___ molecular structure, much of this
material is now incorrect.
The hypothesis of ___ intermediate compound formation traces its origin as back as
1808.
1.1.4. Употребление артикля с неисчисляемыми существительными
a) Употребление артикля и местоимений some и any с именами
существительными вещественными.
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Имена существительные вещественные употребляются:
~ без артикля, когда речь идет о веществе в общем смысле:
We can’t live without water.
Gas is cheaper than electricity.
и когда одно вещество противопоставляется другому:
Which do you prefer: tea or coffee?
~ с местоимениями some и any, когда речь идет о каком-то неопределенном
количестве вещества:
Bring me some water. Isn’t there any sugar in the sugar basin?
~ с определенным артиклем, когда речь идет об определенном количестве
вещества, когда имеется определение, выделяющее определенное количество
вещества, или из ситуации ясно, о каком именно количестве идет речь:
I forgot to pay the bill and now the gas has been cut off. The milk I bought yesterday
has turned sour. The ore discovered by the expedition is of a high quality. The nickel
was probably inessential in the reaction.
~ с неопределенным артиклем, когда имеется в виду порция вещества:
Could you give me a coffee and a sandwich?
Употребление артикля при наличии классифицирующего и описательного
определений, а также прилагательного в превосходной степени не отличается от
его употребления с нарицательными существительными:
Silk which is used for the aviation industry must be of the highest quality. Bulgaria
exports tobacco, which is one of the stable agricultural products of the country. This is
the best wine I have ever drunk.
b) Употребление артикля и местоимений some и any с именами
существительными отвлеченными.
Артикль не употребляется перед названиями научных дисциплин, видов спорта,
искусств:
J. Bonner earned a BA in chemistry and mathematics from the University of Utah.
Do you play chess?
Имена существительные отвлеченные употребляются:
~ без артикля, когда они выражают отвлеченные понятия в общем смысле:
While there is life there is hope. Knowledge is power.
~ с определенным артиклем, когда они имеют при себе определение,
относящее это понятие к какому-либо лицу или предмету:
He was the hope of his parents. I like the music of this ballet.
~ с местоимениями some и any, когда речь идет о неопределенной степени
качества:
There is some difference between these two samples. He did not show any fear.
~ с неопределенным артиклем, когда речь идет о разновидности качества или
чувства:
He has a cleverness quite of his own. He showed a patience that I had never expected
of him.
~ с неопределенным артиклем, когда имеются существительные period,
population, distance, height, salary и др. с последующим предлогом of +
числительное + существительное:
He has been working here for a period of 2 years.
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c) Отсутствие артикля перед именами существительными нарицательными исчисляемыми и неисчисляемыми.
Артикль отсутствует:
~ перед существительным, имеющим при себе другой определитель:
My room is large. This book is interesting.
~ перед исчисляемыми существительными во множественном числе, когда в
единственном числе следовало бы употребить неопределенный артикль: This plant
is engaged in the manufacture of pumps. They are hard working students. Squares
have four sides. These are such interesting books!
Следует также помнить, что многие существительные имеют как отвлеченное, так
и конкретное вещественное значение:
мedicine – медицина
glass – стекло
radio – радио
painting – живопись
tin – олово
opera – оперное искусство
business – бизнес
a medicine – лекарство
a glass – стакан
a radio – радиприемник
a painting – картина
a tin – консервная банка
an opera – опера
a business – предприятие
Упр.1.1.4.a. Выберите правильный вариант из каждой пары.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
“Where’s coffee / the coffee?” It’s in the cupboard.
Tennis / The tennis is a very popular sport.
We went for a swim in the river. Water / The water was very cold.
I don’t like swimming in cold water / the cold water.
You must visit the art gallery. Paintings / The paintings are very beautiful.
Money / The money doesn’t always bring happiness / the happiness.
English / The English is the language of international business.
Women / The women are often better teachers than men / the men.
In Britain coffee / the coffee is more expensive than tea / the tea.
We had a very nice meal in that restaurant. Cheese / The cheese was especially
good.
k. Most people / The most people still believe that marriage / the marriage and family
life / the family life are the basis of our society.
l. They got married but marriage / the marriage wasn’t successful.
m. I know someone who wrote a book about life / the life of Gandhi.
n. Life / the life would be very difficult without electricity / the electricity.
o. Do you know people / the people who live next door?
p. Are you interested in art / the art or architecture / the architecture?
q. Two of the biggest problems facing our society are crime / the crime and
unemployment / the unemployment.
r. I hate violence / the violence.
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Упр.1.1.4.b. Поставьте a, an или the, где необходимо.
Обратите внимание на разницу в употреблении артиклей в следующих парах
предложений:
My daughter is at school.
He was rushed to hospital
immediately.
The meeting will be held at the school.
I’m going to the hospital to visit him.
То есть, употребление артикля перед словами типа university, school, hospital,
church, prison и т.д. подразумевает, что говорящий имеет в виду здание.
Употребление этих же существительных без артикля означает, что они
рассматриваются как учреждения в общем смысле.
a. Our children attend _____ very good school.
b. Some people think they know about education just because they were once at _____
school.
c. People who spend time in _____ prison rapidly become institutionalized.
d. As soon as the riot broke out, police surrounded _____ prison.
e. A lot of people think _____ prison should be just like any other building.
f. The trial attracted a lot of attention and _____ court was crowded.
g. A lot of people have been taken to _____ court for failing to pay local taxes.
h. Though it’s a small town, it has _____ school, _____ church and _____ court.
i. ____ youngest brother is at ____ school now.
j. She is at ____ school. If you go to ___ school by ____ tram, you will be just in ___
time to meet her.
**Упр.1.1.4.c. Поставьте a, an или the, где необходимо.
a. ___ thermometer is ___ instrument for measuring ____ temperatures.
b. ___ temperature to-day is not so high as it was yesterday.
c. ___ observation and ___ experience are two great teachers.
d. ___ air is necessary for ___ life.
e. ___ length, ___ breadth and ___ height of ___ cube are equal.
f. Every machine requires some sort of ___ power to operate it.
g. ___ history is his subject. Especially ___ history of ___ Middle Ages.
h. He finished his work without ___ difficulty.
i. ___ task presented ___ difficulty, which we could not overcome at first.
j. He was not discouraged by ___ difficulty of ___ task.
Упр.1.1.4.d. Выберите правильный вариант из каждой пары.
Пример: I’ve got some cigarettes but I haven’t got light / a light.
Light / The light travels faster than sound / the sound.
a. We’re having lamb / the lamb for lunch.
b. The sheep gave birth to lamb / a lamb in the middle of the night.
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c. Would you like cake / a cake?
d. No, thanks. I don’t like cake / a cake.
e. This suit is made of very fine cloth / the very fine cloth.
f. Can you get cloth / a cloth, please? I’ve just spilt tea / a tea on your carpet.
g. I went to a talk / talk on Russian revolution / the Russian revolution last night. It
was very interesting.
h. There has been a talk / talk of redundancies at the British Shipping Company.
i. Service / A service in restaurants isn’t as good as it used to be.
j. The Health Service / Health Service is suffering from severe cutbacks.
k. The Times / Times is one of Britain’s oldest newspapers.
l. Time / The time and tide / the tide wait for no man.
m. I don’t usually like poetry / the poetry.
n. But here’s a poem / poem I do like.
o. Do you want an ice / ice in your whisky?
p. Ice / The ice at the North and South Poles is said to be melting little by little.
Упр.1.1.4.e. Поставьте a (an) или some, где необходимо. Подчеркните
неисчисляемые существительные, которые можно использовать в словосочетании
a piece of …
a. Can I offer you _______ advice?
_______ suggestion?
b. I’ve just heard _______ interesting news.
_______ interesting announcement.
_______ interesting information.
c. There’s going to be ________ thunderstorm.
________ bad weather.
d. She is carrying ______ luggage.
_______ suitcase.
e. We’ll need _______ accommodation.
_______ room for the night.
f. He’s got ______ strange equipment.
______ strange machine in his laboratory.
g. Do you mind if I put on _____ music?
_____ tape?
*Упр.1.1.4.f. Объясните случаи употребления артиклей или их отсутствие.
a. Is there life after death?
She has lived a life of misery since the death of her husband.
b. There’s a feeling of love, joy, beauty and peace.
My new car’s a beauty. It’s a real joy to drive.
c. That numerous people have had Near Death Experiences is not in doubt.
There is still a doubt in my mind about whether it was the right thing to do.
d. The future looks bleak - drought, disease and economic collapse.
The drought in Africa last year cost many lives.
There is a drought every year.
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1.1.5. Употребление артикля перед числительными.
a) Как правило, когда определение выражено количественным числительным,
существительное употребляется без артикля: Two men entered the room.
Если же перед количественным числительным употребляется артикль, то он
приобретает смысловое значение: the two - эти два или оба - и часто обозначает
полное количество объектов:
The close agreement of the six compounds is unlikely to be a coincidence.
b) Перед порядковым числительным обычно употребляется определенный
артикль. Однако, когда порядковое числительное имеет значение другой, еще
один или неизвестно общее число предметов, действий и пр. употребляется
неопределенный артикль:
A third man (еще один) entered the room.
The same authors put forward a second correlation.
c) Артикль не употребляется перед существительным, если за ним следует номер:
I'm waiting for tram 55.
The deduction of the equation you'll find in chapter 8 of the book.
Упр.1.1.5.a. Поставьте артикль, где необходимо.
a. Of all those to whom he appealed one was actually not in ____ position to do
anything for him; another was afraid; ___ third was calculating eagerly to drive ____
hard bargain; ___ forth was too deliberate, anxious to have much time.
b. Two people would have to hold ___ chair, and ___ third would help him up on it, and
___ forth would hand him ___ nail, and ___ fifth would pass him up ___ hammer.
c. ___ professor Earle Fox ignored for ___ second time ___ buzzing signal from the
secretary in ___ adjoining office.
d. Mr Pickwick was perfectly aware that ___ tree is ___ very dangerous neighbour in
___thunderstorm. He had ___ tree on his right, ___ tree on his left, ___ third before
him, and ___ fourth behind.
e. Our apartment is on ___ third floor.
f. You are ___ forth visitor asking where ___ room 40 is there.
**Упр.1.1.5.b. Объясните случаи употребления артиклей перед числительными.
a. In brominating the ketone a second bromine atom enters the nucleus.
b. The four centres lie in a plane.
c. A second smaller step is also produced just before the final increase in current.
d. All the three oxygen atoms lie in a plane with the carbon atom.
e. Of the two reactions the second goes about a thousand times faster than the first.
f. The close agreement of the six compounds is unlikely to be a coincidence.
g. A second notation uses the lower-case letters d- and l- to denote configuration.
1.1.6. Переход прилагательных и причастий в существительные
Когда прилагательные употребляются с определенным артиклем, они выступают
в роли коллективных существительных, которые относятся к данной группе
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людей: the wounded – раненые. Если прилагательное стоит перед
существительным people, артикль не употребляется. Сравни:
The wounded were taken to the hospital; но: Wounded people were taken to the
hospital.
The French are famous for their food;но: French people are famous for their food
Упр.1.1.6.a. Закончите предложения, используя the со следующими
прилагательными:
rich
sick
blind
poor
injured
unemployed
dead
a. Braille is a system of reading and writing by touch for ____ .
b. Many people were killed in the plane crush. The bodies of ____ were taken away.
____ were taken to hospital.
c. Every English child knows the story of Robin Hood. It is said that he robbed ____
and gave the money to ____ .
d. Those people with jobs have enough money but life is not so easy for ____ .
e. Agnes has been a nurse all her life. She has spent her life caring for ___ .
Упр.1.1.6.b. Как вы назовете людей из этих стран?
1. Canada
2. Germany
3. Switzerland
4. Russia
5. China
6. Brazil
7. England
один человек
(a/an)
a Canadian
народ в целом
the Canadians
1.1.7. Употребление артикля с именами существительными собственными
Как общее правило, имена собственные употребляются без артикля. Это
относится к именам, названиям улиц, дорог, площадей, городов, стран, состоящих
из одного слова, континентов, озер, единичных островов и горных вершин, к
названиям научных журналов, к словам, обозначающим звания, титулы.
Определенный артикль употребляется перед ними в следующих случаях:
~ перед фамилиями во множественном числе: The Browns have left London.
~ если перед названием страны присутствует существительное с
предшествующим определением или имеются слова: республика, королевство,
союз и пр.: the British Empire, the United Kingdom
~ перед названиями океанов, морей, рек, заливов: the Pacific Ocean, the Persian
Gulf, the Volga
~ в названиях горных хребтов: the Alps
~ перед названиями групп островов: the Bermudas
~ перед названиями судов, газет: the “Titanic”, the Daily World
~ перед названиями гостиниц, музеев, галерей, театров, кинотеатров: the “Savoy”,
the Palace Theatre, the Odeon, the British Museum, the Tate Gallery.
18
~ перед названиями с of: the Bank of England, the University of Salamanca.
~ перед названием исторических документов: the Constitution, the Magna Carta.
~ перед названием следующих городов, стран, улиц, местностей: the Hague
(Гаага), the Netherlands, the Ukraine, the Crimea, the Caucasus, the Transvaal,
the Congo, the Argentine, the West Indies, the Reviera, the Lebanon, the High
Street, the Mall, the Strand и др.
Если же в названиях есть имя или фамилия человека или название места, то
артикль не употребляется (Buckingham Palace, Lloyds Bank, Cambridge
University, Westminster Abbey)
Упр.1.1.7.a. Поставьте артикли a, an и the где необходимо.
a. _____ Statue of Liberty was a gift of friendship from _____ France to _____ United
States.
b. No one in ____ Spanish class knew _____ correct answer to _____ Mrs Perez’s
question.
c. ____ Lake Erie is one of _____ five Great Lakes in ____ North America.
d. On our trip to _____ Spain, we crossed ____ Atlantic Ocean.
e. While we were in ____ Alaska, we saw _____ Eskimo village.
f. David attended _____ Princeton University.
g. Harry has been admitted to ____ School of Medicine at ____ midwestern university.
h. ____ Queen Elizabeth II is _____ monarch of _____ Great Britain.
i. ____ Declaration of Independence was drawn up in 1776.
j. ____ Florida State University is smaller than ____ University of Florida.
k. ____ Heathrow is ____ busiest airport in Europe.
l. We arrived in ____ Paris on ____ third of August.
Упр.1.1.7.b. Поставьте the, где необходимо.
a. ____ Kevin lives in ____ Coronation Street.
b. Have you ever been to ____ National Theatre and ___ British Museum?
c. ____ Milan is a large city in ___ north of ____ Italy.
d. Have you ever been to _____ Hague ?
e. ____ Brussels is the capital of ____ Belgium.
f. ____ Manila is the capital of ____ Philippines.
g. There are two cinemas in our town - ____ Regan and ____ Plasa.
h. ____ Dr Bradbury comes from a small village in ____ west of ___ Ireland.
i. ____ Rocky Mountains are in ____ North America.
j. ____ Texas is famous for oil and cowboys.
k. ”Where are you staying ?” “At ____ Intercontinental Hotel”.
l. ____ National Gallery is in ____ Trafalgar Square in ____ London.
m. In ____ London, ____ Houses of Parliament are beside ____ River Thames.
n. ____ Panama canal joins ____ Atlantic Ocean and ____ Pacific Ocean.
o. If you sail from ____ Britain to ____ Denmark you cross ____ North Sea.
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Упр.1.1.7.c. Поставьте артикли, где необходимо.
I. ____ (1) King Juan Carlos of ____(2) Spain arrived in ____(3) London today for
____(4) three day visit to ____(5) United Kingdom. He was met by ____(6) Queen and
drove with her to ____(7) Buckingham Palace. Tomorrow he will have lunch with
____(8) Governor of ____(9) Bank of England and in the evening he will have talks
with businessmen.
II. On the first morning we went to ____(1) British Museum and had lunch at ____(2)
MacDonalds in ____(3) Church Street. We looked in ____(4) Evening Standard
newspaper and found there was a good film at ____(5) Odeon (cinema) near ____(6)
Piccadilly Circus.
1.1.8. Обзорные упражнения
При выполнении этих упражнений следует иметь в виду, что существует
достаточно много случаев, так сказать, «немотивированного» употребления
артиклей или их отсутствия. Ниже приводится список некоторых устойчивых
выражений, которые употребляются с
~ неопределенным артиклем:
• (выражения, обозначающие количество): a lot of, a great deal of, a good deal
of, a great number of, a good many, a great many; a few, a little;
• (выражения с предлогами): all of a sudden at a time when; at a time; for a short
/long time; in a loud voice; on a large/ small/ semi-industrial scale, as a result of;
as a matter of fact;
• (глагольные словослчетания): to be a success / in a hurry; it is a pity /shame; it
is a pleasure, to have a mind / a cold / a good time / a look / a headache; to take
a seat; to go for a walk; to make a living, to put an end to, to come to an end и
др.
~ определенным артиклем: in the morning (evening, afternoon), the day before
yesterday the other day, at the beginning at the end, in the country, in the distance on
the one (other) hand, on the whole, to play the piano (the violin), to tell the truth, to run
the risk, to listen to the radio но: to watch TV; it is out of the question и др.
~ без артикля: at home, at hand, at work, at night, at first sight, from time to time,
from head to foot, from morning till evening by tram (train, bus, air, land), on foot, by
heart, by chance, by means of, by mistake, by name, in/on time, on sale, on credit, to
keep house, to make use of, to take notice on и др.
Упр.1.1.8.a. Поставьте артикли a, an или the, где необходимо.
I. a. I don’t usually like staying at ____ hotels, but last summer we spent a few days at
___ very nice hotel by___ sea.
b. ___ tennis is my favourite sport. I play once or twice ___ week if I can, but I’m not
___ very good player.
c. I won’t be home for ___ dinner this evening. I’m meeting some friends after ___
work and we’re going to ___ cinema.
d. ____ unemployment is very high at the moment and it’s very difficult for ___ people
to find ___ work.
20
e. There was ___ accident as I was going ____ home last night. Two people were taken
to ____ hospital. I think ___ most accidents are caused by ____ people driving too fast.
f. Carol is ___ economist. She used to work in ____ investment department of ____
Lloyds Bank. Now she works for ___ American bank in ___ United States.
g. “What’s ___name of ___ hotel where you’re staying?”
. “____ Imperial. It’s in ___ Queen Street in ___ city centre. It’s near ___ station.
h. I have two brothers. ___ older one is training to be ___ pilot with ____ British
Airways. ____ younger one is still at ___ school. When he leaves ____ school, he hopes
to go to ____ university to study ____ law.
II. a. Excuse me. Is there ____ post office near here?
b. A We haven’t got any money.
B It’s all right. I’m going to ____ bank.
c. My wife and I went out for ____ meal last night. ____ food was excellent. I don’t
usually like ____ Chinese food, but ____ duck was superb.
d. Has ____ postman been yet? I’m expecting ____ parcel.
e. We’ve moved to ____ lovely house in ____ country. It’s got ____ views of fields and
hills, and there’s ____ garden at ____ back.
f. ____ government without ____ strong leader will not produce ____ good policies.
g. ____ government has introduced ____ law to ban ___ sale of ___ air guns to ____
people under ____ age of eighteen.
III. a. In my job, I do____ business with people from all over the world.
b. I’m going to do ____ shopping. Do you want anything?
c. I was late for ____ work this morning.
d. Can you keep ____ secret? I’m getting married.
e. He got ____ sack because he was caught stealing money.
f. It isn’t easy, but I think we’re making ____ progress.
g. I lost ____ control of the car and crashed into a wall.
h. Make ____ love, not ____ war.
i. If you make ____ promise, you must keep it.
j. When buying a house, you should take into ____ consideration how near it is to
public transport.
k. He set ____ fire to his factory so that he could claim the insurance.
l. You must make ____ effort to get to know your neighbours.
m. I’ve been to all the countries of Europe with ____ exception of Albania.
n. If you’re in Paris, take ____ opportunity to visit the Louvre.
**IV. a. ____ temperature varies with ____ pressure.
b. ____ scientists believe to have discovered ____ new compound.
c. ____ holes were spaced at ____ 10 foot intervals.
d. ____ reaction is similar to that observed by us.
e. In 1812 Berzelius advanced ____ theory of ____ chemical combination.
f. No sooner had ____ reaction stopped ____ precipitate turned black.
g. Such ___ stage is known as ____ “theoretical” stage or plate.
h. ____ compound II can be hydrolyzed to yield ___ free amine.
21
i. When being pure, ___ water is ___ colourless liquid.
j. ___ benzene is ____ stronger acid than ____ ethane.
Упр.1.1.8.b. Поставьте артикли a, an, the, или местоимение some, где
необходимо.
a. ___ book on that shelf is ____ interesting one about ___ history.
b. It is pleasant to play ____ game of ____ tennis on ____ summer afternoon.
c. ___ butcher opposite ____ library always sells ___ good meat.
d. ____ honesty is ____ best of all ____ virtues.
e. Peter travelled in ____ third-class carriage with ____ Americans.
f. When ___ Titanic was crossing ___ Atlantic she struck an iceberg which tore a huge
hole in her bow. ___ captain ordered ___ crew to help ___ passengers into ___ boats.
g. Everywhere ___ man has cut down ___ forests in order to cultivate ___ ground, or to
use ___ wood as ___ fuel or as ___ building material.
h. But ____ interference with ___ nature often brings ____ disaster: ___ tree-felling
sometimes turns ___ fertile land into a dustbowl.
i. ___ people think that ___ lead is ___ heaviest metal, but ___ gold is heavier.
j. You can fool some of ___ people all ___ time, and all ___ people some of ___ time;
but you cannot fool all ___ people all ___ time.
k. We have a very good train service from here to ___ city centre and most people go to
___ work by train. You can go by ___ bus too, of course, but you can’t get a season
ticket on ___ bus.
l. “I’d like to see ___ Mr Smith please.” “Do you mean ___ Mr Smith who works in
___ box office or ___ other Mr Smith?”
Упр.1.1.8.c. Поставьте a, an или one, где необходимо.
a. ___ of my friends advised me to take ___ taxi; another said that there was quite ___
good bus service.
b. “___ friend of mine lent me ___ book by Meredith. I’ve only ___ more chapter to
read. Would you like ___ loan of it afterwards?”
“No, thanks. I read ___ of his books ___ few years ago and didn’t like it. Besides I
have ___ library book to finish. If I don’t take it back tomorrow I’ll have to pay ___
fine.
c. Most people like ___ rest after ___ hard day’s work, but Tom seems to have ___
inexhaustible supply of energy.
d. I’ve told you ___ hundred times not to come into ___ room with ___ hat on.
e. You’ve been ___ great help to me; ___ day I will repay you.
f. My car broke down near ___ bus stop. There was ___ man waiting for ___ bus so I
asked him for ___ advice.
g. He took ___ quick look at my car and said, “Buy ___ new ___.”
h. Most of the staff had been there for only ___ very short time, but ___ man had been
there ___ year and ___ half, so he knew ___ little more than the rest.
i. ___ day a new director arrived. He was ___ ambitious, bad-tempered man, and the
staff took ___ instant dislike to him.
22
*Упр.1.1.8.d. Исправьте ошибки, связанные с артиклями. Помните, что перед
названиями частей тела употребляется соответствующее притяжательное
местоимение.
a. Jane, has anyone ever told you that you’ve got some lovely fingers?
b. I’m very interested in the history, especially the history of Western Europe.
c. What a lovely weather we’re having! It’s such a nice day!
d. We’re trying to sell our house. People came to see it on Saturday, and they were quite
interested, but some people who saw it on Sunday morning were very rude and said
they didn’t like it at all.
e. Did you remember to buy a bread while you were out at some shops?
f. Crossing the English Channel can be quite unpleasant in the bad weather.
g. People who live on the floor above ours work in a government ministry.
h. What’s the government going to do about the unemployment?
*Упр.1.1.8.e. В этом упражнении в 10 предложениях артикль the употреблен
правильно, а в 10 – неправильно. Найдите неправильные предложения и
исправьте их.
a. He lived in United States for ten years.
b. John has cut the leg and needs the stitches.
c. The camera I bought yesterday doesn’t work.
d. William Wordsworth is famous for his poems about nature.
e. It was first time I had crossed equator.
f. This is only one left but you can have it.
g. Frank does a lot of work for the disabled.
h. I will be visiting the Netherlands next month.
i. Society doesn’t care enough for old people.
j. This is the same film I saw last week.
k. The worst thing was not knowing exactly what had happened.
l. Harder we work, more money we make.
m. Smiths are coming round to dinner tonight.
n .The aeroplane is one of the greatest inventions of the twentieth century.
o. It’s very disappointing news but that’s the life.
p. Eating the chocolate always gives me pimples on my face.
q. What is on radio this afternoon?
r. John plays the football very well.
s. The furniture was sold at auction.
t. He was sent to prison for life.
*Упр.1.1.8.f. В текстах поставьте артикли, где необходимо.
You can't teach managers
___(1) Harvard Business School is ___(2) ark of the tabernacle in ___(3) management
education. ___(4) many schools more or less ape the HBS, especially its “case study”
method of ___(5) instruction - though mulling over ___(6) out -of-date business
anecdotes is about as helpful in ___(7) actual management as waging war by tramping
23
over ___(8) old battlefields. ____(9) specific management element in these mindbending studies is hard to isolate. Although ___(10) managers should be numerate (and
many are not), they don’t require ___(11) skills in ___(12) higher algebra; and ___(13)
many great businesses have been created by ___(14) men who all but count on their
___(15) fingers. ___(16) story tells of ___(17) two schoolboy friends, one brilliant at
___(18) maths, one innumerate to the point of idiocy, who meet much later when
___(19) first is ___(20) professor and ___(21) second ___(22) multi-millionaire. Unable
to control his ___(23) curiosity, ___(24) professor asks ___(25) figure-blind dunderhead
how he managed to amass his fortune. “It’s simple”, replies ___(26) Midas. “I buy
___(27) things at $1 and sell them for $2, and from that 1% difference make ___(28)
living.”
Garbage
For most of ___(1) past two and ___(2) half million years ___(3) human beings left
their garbage where it fell. Oh, they sometimes tidied up their sleeping and activity
areas, but that was about all. This disposal scheme functioned adequately, because
___(4) hunters and ___(5) gatherers frequently abandoned their campgrounds to follow
___(6) game or find new stands of plants. ___(7) man faced his first garbage crisis
when he become ___(8) sedentary animal - when, rather than move himself, he chose to
move his garbage.
Tax
___(1) West Germany funds ___(2) large share of its social welfare outlays, as it did in
Bismarck’s time, through ___(3) regressive payroll taxes. Like ___(4) Sweden, it uses
___(5) tax incentives to lower certain burdens on ___(6) wealthy. ___(7) capital gains
on ___(8) stocks and bonds, subject to ___(9) tax of up to 33 percent in ___(10) United
States, are exempt in ___(11) West Germany - as well as ___(12) Netherlands, ___(13)
Belgium, and ___(14) Japan. (But ___(15) United States, virtually alone among ___(16)
Western nations, leaves gains from ___(17) sale of one’s home, in most cases,
untouched.) In ___(18) France, one of ___(19) most heavily taxed nations in ___(20)
Europe, ___(21) successive governments after ___(22) World War II clung to ___(23)
tradition of ___(24) indirect taxation. ___(25) France adopted ___(26) value added tax
(VAT), ___(27) consumption tax on goods and services, in 1954.
Sources of funds for businesses
There are ___(1) several sources of ___ (2) funds. One source is ____ (3) commercial
bank such as ___ (4) Citibank, Chase, Chemical and ___ (5) others. Any money you
get from such ___ (6) source would be borrowed and only on ___ (7) short-term basis
___ (8) bank would become ___ (9) creditor of yours, not ___ (10) owner. Another
possibility is ___ (11) venture capital firm, whose sole purpose is to invest in ___ (12)
young, promising companies. To secure ___ (13) funds from such ___(14) firm, you
would have to prepare ___ (15) convincing business plan for ___ (16) expected
operation, showing ___ (17) return you expect on ___ (18) investment and how you
intend to make it. Among ___ (19) other requirements, ___ (20) venture capital firm
will expect you to incorporate. What does ___ (21) venture capitalist get out of ___ (22)
investing in your company? ___ (23) sizable percentage of ____ (24) ownership.
___(25) third source of ___(26) funds is ___(27) investment banker, who can help you
raise ___(28) money through ___(29) sale of ____(30) securities, only if ___(31)
company is incorporated.
24
1.2. Единственное и множественное число существительных
1.2.1. Категория числа. Образование множественного числа правильных
существительных
В английском языке существительные делятся на исчисляемые и
неисчисляемые. Исчисляемые существительные имеют форму единственного и
множественного числа. Неисчисляемые существительные не имеют форму
множественного числа, никогда не употребляются с неопределенным артиклем,
согласуются с глаголом в единственном числе и определяются количественными
местоимениями much и little.
Множественное число большинства существительных образуется путем
добавления в конце слова окончания -s: car - cars, book – books; или
–es, если существительное оканчивается на -s, -sh, -ch, -x: class – classes, dish dishes, match - matches, box - boxes.
Некоторые существительные, оканчивающиеся на -o , требуют добавления
окончания -es : tomato - tomatoes, potato - potatoes, hero - heroes. Другие образуют
множественное число по общим правилам: photo - photos, piano - pianos.
Если существительное оканчивается на букву -y с предшествующей
согласной, то она заменяется на -ies: baby - babies, family - families. Если букве -y
предшествует гласная, то по общему правилу добавляется -s:
holiday - holidays, key - keys. Это правило распространяется и на имена
собственные: Kennedy- the Kennedys
Во многих словах, оканчивающихся на f, во множественном числе f
меняется на v+(e)s: shelf - shelves, knife - knives. Однако слова belief, chief, proof,
roof и некоторые другие образуют множественное число путем добавления в
конце слова окончания –s.
Упр.1.2.1.. Напишите следующие существительные в форме множественного
числа:
boy, lady, day, potato, party, watch, glass, city, church, address, sandwich, key, video,
way, wolf, leaf, half.
1.2.2 Множественное число неправильных существительных. Особые случаи
употребления существительных в единственном и множественном числе
Некоторые существительные образуют множественное число путем
изменения корневой гласной:
foot – feet, goose – geese, tooth – teeth, mouse – mice, woman – women, man – men
(gentleman - gentlemen fireman - firemen), но: German – Germans, the Freemans.
С помощью суффикса –en множественное число образуют три слова: child –
children, ox – oxen, brother- brethren (духовное братство).
Некоторые существительные имеют одинаковую форму во множественном
и в единственном числе. Часть из них оканчивается на -s: species, series, means,
headquarters, crossroads, gasworks:
Those species are common.
That species is rare.
25
Другая часть никогда не оканчивается на -s: sheep, deer, fish (множественное
число употребляют, когда говорят о разных видах рыб: the fishes of the
Mediterranean).
That deer is young .
Those deer are old.
Собирательные существительные, к которым относятся такие слова, как
class, team, police, committee, audience, family не меняют форму, если
употребляются в значении множественного числа. В этом случае речь идет не о
монолитной организации, а о ее членах. Индикатором числа в этом случае
становится число сказуемого или местоимения: That class has its final test on
Friday. The class are working on their individual projects today. Собирательные
существительные police и cattle всегда употребляются во множественном числе.
Некоторые названия предметов одежды: trousers, jeans, shorts, pyjamas,
tights, инструментов: scissors, tweezers согласуются с глаголом во множественном
числе. Эти слова используются с глаголом в единственном числе в выражениях
типа a pair of… (jeans).
Если слова, выражающие понятие количества several, many, both, few, a few,
являются подлежащим, то они согласуются с глаголом во множественном числе:
Only a few have passed the exam.
Выражение a number of согласуется с глаголом во множественном числе, а the
number of требует глагола в единственном числе.
Упр.1.2.2.a. Образуйте множественное число от следующих существительных:
child, person, woman, tooth, sheep, mouse, foot
Упр.1.2.2.b. Заполните пропуски в следующих предложениях формами глагола is
или are в зависимости от числа подлежащего. Объясните свой выбор.
a. Several unusual species of birds _____ found in this area.
b. When a young deer ______ motionless, its colouring will hide it well.
c. The committee ______ ready to make its recommendations public.
d. Both apparatus ______ available for your use.
e. The family ______ fighting among themselves constantly.
f. The fish in the aquarium ______ waiting for their daily feeding.
g. All sheep ______ dipped in the spring to kill the parasites.
h. The press ______ requested to show their credentials to the guard.
1.2.3. Неисчисляемые существительные
Неисчисляемые существительные могут быть нарицательными (concrete) и
отвлеченными (abstract).
~ нарицательные существительные: meat, tea, butter, bread, juice, furniture,
luggage, baggage;
~ названия различных материалов, металлов и веществ: gold, silk, iron, oil, silk,
cotton;
~ названия наук и видов спорта: mathematics, physics, economics, statistics, ethics,
gymnastics Но: These statistics are unreliable. (Если речь идет не о науке в целом);
~ название болезней: measles, mumps, herpes;
26
~ отвлеченные существительные: politics, weather, advice, accommodation,
permission, behaviour, chaos, damage, news, knowledge, scenery, traffic, work, luck,
research, progress, information;
~ некоторые имена собственные: the United States, the United Nations, Brussels,
Athens, Wales;
~ названия книг, газет, фильмов: The New York Times is a good newspaper.
Star Wars was a good movie.
Выражения, обозначающие количество времени, веса, объема как одно целое,
имея форму множественного числа, согласуются с глаголом в единственном
числе: Two weeks is enough time for a nice vacation. Five hundred roubles is
required as an entrance fee. Twenty gallons of gasoline costs a lot of money.
Упр.1.2.3.a. Некоторые из предложений содержат ошибку. Найдите и исправьте
ошибки в неправильных предложений.
a. News of the peace talks has not yet reached the island.
b. Politics usually attract ambitious individuals.
c. There were extra copies of the New York Times in all the offices.
d. Two weeks are ample time for a camping trip to the state park.
e. Two thousand dollars is a lot for him to pay for tutorial.
f. Jaws, a movie about sharks, was seen by a record number of people.
g. Both mathematics and physics are interesting.
h. Thermodynamics are beyond me.
Упр.1.2.3.b. Перефразируйте следующие предложения, используя слова в
скобках. Сделайте все необходимые изменения.
Пример:
There aren’t many jobs for school leavers. (employment)
There isn’t much employment for school leavers.
a. He couldn’t give me much information. (details)
b. When I moved into my flat, I had very few chairs or tables or anything. (furniture)
c. There aren’t many flats to rent in this town. (accommodation)
d. I haven’t got many bags. They’re in the boot. (luggage)
e. I had a little time to spare, so I browsed round a bookshop. (minutes)
f. Very little research has been done to find out the cause. (experiments)
g. It’s very quiet in my area. There aren’t many cars or lorries. (traffic)
1.2.4. Единственное и множественное число слов с латинскими и греческими
корнями
Таких слов достаточно много. Они образуют множественное число по правилам,
суммированным в таблице.
27
Происхождение Окончание в Окончание во
слова
единственном множественном
числе
числе
Греческое
-is
-es
Греческое
Латинское
-on
-us
-a
-i
Латинское
Латинское
Латинское
-a
-um
-ix / -ex
-ae
-a
-ices
Примеры (в
единственном числе)
basis, crisis, hypothesis,
analysis, thesis, axis
criterion, phenomenon
radius, alumnus, nucleus,
genius
formula, vita
datum, medium, bacterium
index, appendix
Упр.1.2.4.a. Образуйте множественное число от приведенных слов.
**Упр.1.2.4.b. Заполните пропуски нужной формой глагола to be.
a. Alumni of the university ______ invited to the graduation ceremony.
b. These bacteria _______being studied by university scientists.
c. The criteria for promotion ________ clearly stated.
d. The appendices ________ usually found at the back of a book.
e. Supernatural phenomena ______ of great interest to many people.
f. The hypothesis _______ supported by the data.
**Упр.1.2.4.c. Выберите правильный вариант из каждой пары.
a. This phenomena / phenomenon follows the Newton Law.
b. Data / Datum speak in favour of this theory.
c. This hydrolysis / hydrolyses is taken to follow the above scheme.
d. Conclusive proof for the dioxane structure of IV was acquired through an
independent synthesis / syntheses.
e. This thesis / theses holds for more general cases of isomerisation.
f. The free proton resembles an-α particle in that it consists of a nuclei / nucleus
without planetary electrons.
g. As long as the barrier to internal rotation is not too low, the molecule will remain in
one of these minimum / minima.
h. The motion of a valency electron in its orbital is equivalent to the flow of a current in
the loci / locus of its motion.
i. The equation will now be derived on a statistical basis / bases.
j. We still have a long way to go before we can claim to have solved the problem of
sexuality in a bacterium / bacteria.
k. The equilibrium constant was found to equal 0.232 and the data to fit more accurately
into a formulae / formula.
l. This value may be subject to refinement when analysis / analyses are complete.
m.These workers have examined the spectra / spectrum of some seventy nitrides.
28
*Упр.1.2.4.d. Заполните пропуски в предложениях словами из предложенного
списка. Каждое слово используется дважды в каждой паре предложений, один раз
в форме единственного числа, а другой раз – в форме множественного числа.
(Неисчисляемое существительное с окончанием -s, приобретает другое значение).
quarter
damage
condition
pain
term
honour
experience
ground
youth
length
good
saving
a. Under the _________ of the contract, you are obliged to repay the loan within two
years.
The car was a reasonable price, but wasn’t in good _______
b. It has been an ______ to work with you. I’ve been very proud of what we’ve
achieved together.
She has an _______ degree in geography.
c. I have a terrible ______ at the back of my neck.
He took great ______ to ensure his quests’ stay was pleasant.
d. After the accident, it took her a long time to come to _______ with the fact that she
would never dance again.
During his first _______ of office, the Prime Minister made many sensible decisions.
e. We need a person with relevant ________ to fill the post.
He wrote a book about his _______ whilst crossing Africa on foot.
f. The Vicar was a kind man, and did a lot of _______ during his life.
There is a wide range of electrical _______ on sale in our village shop.
g. The day return fare is only $12 – a __________ of $8 on the full fare.
Mrs Higgins’ house was broken into the other day, and all her _______ were taken.
h. Officers don’t live with ordinary soldiers. Their _______ are usually separate and
more luxurious.
Interest rates have risen to 8.25 per cent, a rise of a _______ of a per cent.
i. For some reason, he was ashamed of his working class background, and went to great
______ to conceal the fact.
I can only swim one _______ of the swimming pool before I get tired.
j. Don’t sit on the grass. The _______ is still very wet.
I trust John. I have good _______ for believing his version of events.
k. The storm caused a lot of ________ .
She was awarded four thousand pounds’ ________ in the libel case.
l. Two _______ were seen running away from the scene of the crime.
_________ has always been the time for rebellion.
1.3. Имя существительное в роли определения
Существительное может служить в качестве определения к другому
существительному. Такое существительное может быть
• в притяжательном падеже, например, the professor’s opinion, the manager’s
signature, reader’s conference;
• в общем падеже, то есть без изменения своей формы. Такое существительное
переводится на русский язык прилагательным, существительным в
родительном падеже, предложным оборотом или причастным оборотом:
29
an iron bridge - железный мост
light waves - световые волны
an institute building - здание института
a particle model - модель частиц
an exchange agreement - соглашение об обмене
war damage - ущерб, нанесенный войной.
Имя существительное может иметь в качестве определения два и более
существительных в общем падеже, а существительное в функции определения
может, в свою очередь, иметь определение, выраженное существительным,
прилагательным или причастием. В таких случаях необходимо внимательно
прочитать и проанализировать выражение, чтобы разбить его на составляющие
части. Чаще всего помогает прием чтения от ключевого слова к началу цепочки
слов:
home market prices – цены внутреннего рынка,
engine-driven generator – генератор с приводом от двигателя,
permanent bar magnet – постоянный стержневой магнит,
a super high voltage transmission line – линия передачи сверхвысоких напряжений,
a document-image-processing program – a program which processes images of
documents.
Существительное с предшествующим числительным, служащее определением,
обычно стоит в форме единственного числа:
a five-pound note – банкнота в пять фунтов,
single circuit capacity – мощность одной цепи.
**Упр.1.3.1. Переведите следующие словосочетания, обращая внимание на
местоположение слов.
I.
belt elevator – elevator belt
tube amplifier – amplifier tube
spring balance – balance spring
surface cooling – cooling surface
maintenance equipment – equipment maintenance
pressure gauge – gauge pressure
core transformer – transformer core
ignition spark – spark ignition
routine inspection – inspection routine
calorimeter test – test calorimeter
pressure welding – welding pressure
zone melting – melting zone
II.
application server - server application
call program – program call
call library – library call
array cell – cell array
character identification – identification character
30
data group – group data
library (sub)program – (sub)program library
III.
bank credit – credit bank
construction firm – firm construction
consumption fund – fund consumption
law firm – firm law
business world – world business
quality standard – standard quality
equipment safety – safety equipment
sales discount – discount sales
**Упр.1.3.2. Переведите следующие цепочки слов.
generation system analysts
gas turbine combined cycle
200-to-500 hours-per-year service range
mechanical design problem
liquid nitrogen temperature
lower melting point materials
large primary intermetallic compound particles
cubic centimetre plasma density
demonstration fusion power system
air quality standards emission regulations
super high-voltage supply transmission line
production engineering functional organizational chart
data processing equipment
battery-charging motor generators
automobile repair plant construction project
molten metal extraction technology
a four year degree course
fast growing peace market
**Упр.1.3.3. Составьте словосочетания из предложенных английских слов.
1. поперечное сечение ткани
a) section
b) tissue c) cross
2. спектр эмиссии молекул
a) molecular
b) spectrum c) emission
3. энергия электрона с пульсирующей амплитудой
a) pulse
b) electron c) energy d) amplitude
4. коэффициент сильной абсорбции
a) strong
b) coefficient c) absorption
5. орбитальные научно-исследовательские станции долговременного действия
a) term b) orbital 5. stations d) long e) research
6. долговременное сотрудничество в области науки и техники
a) term b) long c) cooperation d. technical e) scientific
31
7. генератор переменного тока
a) generator b) alternating
c) current
8. мощность ГЭС
a) plant b) power
c) water
9. станция перекачки природного газа
a) station b) gas
c) natural d) transmission
10. вычислительные машины непрерывного действия
a) action b) computers c) continuous
11. программное обеспечение для коллективной работы
a) collaboration b) software c) group
12. запасы топлива всего мира
a) world’s b) resources c) entire d) fuel
13. индекс цен на товары массового потребления
a) price b) index c) consumer
14. совокупный общественный продукт
a) product b) national c) gross
15. 5% скидка за покупку большого количества товаров
a) quantity b) discount c) 5 per cent
16. Московская центральная фондовая биржа
a) Stock b) Moscow c) Central d) Exchange
**Упр.1.3.4. Переделайте предложенные определения согласно примеру.
Пример: A device that scans bar codes is called a bar code scanner.
a. A unit that gives a visual display of information on a screen is called _________
b. A device that reads magnetic cards is called _______________
c. A device that prints using a laser as the light source is called _______________
d. A device that plots graphs is called _______________
e. A unit that holds magnetic disks is called _______________
f. A device that prints using a jet of ink is called _______________
g. The rate of transmission of data is called _______________
h. A package for making presentations using multimedia is called _____________
i. A program which processes data in batches is called _______________
**Упр.1.3.5. Напишите простые короткие объяснения для следующих
словосочетаний, опираясь в качестве примера на задание в предыдущем
упражнении.
a. An input device is _______________
b. An optical character reader is _______________
c. A document sorter is _______________
d. A fibre optics transmission system is _______________
e. A sequence control register is _______________
f. A liquid crystal display is _______________
g. Network configuration information is _______________
h. A multimedia editing software package is _______________
32
Глава 2. Словообразование
В английском языке различают два способа образования слов: словопроизводство,
т.е. образование одного слова из другого, и словосложение, т.е. образование
одного слова путем соединения двух слов.
Слова, образованные словосложением, встречаются в английском языке довольно
часто (newspaper, schoolboy, steamship, father-in-law, red-hot, to broadcast и т.д.),
однако в целом при их переводе и употреблении не встречается столько
трудностей, как при употреблении слов, образованных способом
словопроизводства. Поэтому далее будет рассматриваться в основном
словопроизводство.
2.1. Совпадение разных частей речи по форме
Такое совпадение форм особенно часто случается у существительных и глаголов,
например:
Существительные
answer
class
measure
purchase
Глаголы
to answer
to class
to measure
to purchase
Иногда при совпадении формы существительные имеют ударение на первом
слоге, а соответствующие им глаголы на втором: `increase
to incr`ease
Упр.2.1.1.a Прочитайте слова с правильным ударением.
transport
export
import
conflict
access
to transport
to export
to import
to conflict
to access
record
subject
contrast
object
increase
to record
to subject
to contrast
to object
to increase
Совпадение форм встречается также у прилагательных и глаголов, а также у
прилагательных и наречий, например:
Прилагательные
clean
empty
free
live
Глаголы
to clean
to empty
to free
live
Прилагательные
fast
hard
late
Наречия
fast
hard
late
В некоторых случаях совпадение форм встречается у нескольких частей речи,
например, слово light может быть существительным, прилагательным и глаголом.
33
Упр.2.1.1.b. Из предложенного списка слов выберите
а) слова, которые всегда являются глаголами;
b) слова, которые никогда не являются глаголами;
c) слова, которые могут выступать и в качестве глагола, и в качестве любой
другой части речи (существительного, прилагательного и т.д.)
1.Dream 2. Window 3. Seem 4. Live 5. Cigarette 6. House 7. Become 8. Eat 9. Can
10. Below 11. Laugh 12. Advice 13. Migrate 14. Passenger 15. Begin 16. Large 17.
Continue 18. Trip 19. Smoke 20. Warm 21. Air 22. Dress 23. Must 24. Long 25.
Water
Упр.2.1.2. Определите из контекста, является ли подчеркнутое слово глаголом
или нет.
1. mittens warm the hands
2. the smoke rose to the ceiling
3. those dormitories house the men
4. her laugh hurt my ears
5. the will interests the lawyer
6. his cries fell on deaf ears
7. one can fell on the floor
8. the experiments require live organs
9. secretaries book appointments
10.her dreams came true
Упр.2.1.3. Определите, являются подчеркнутые слова глаголом или
существительным в зависимости от их функции в предложении.
1. In the desert the need for water is of primary importance.
2. Out of darkness came a woman’s cry for help.
3. On a dark night dreams can seem larger than life.
4. A safe place for a will is in a bank deposit box.
5. Since few classrooms have clocks, instructors time exercises with a watch.
6. After a day on the slopes, skiers warm their feet by the fire.
7. An opossum mothers her young carefully during their first weeks.
8. At the last minute, a swift kick by one player tied the game.
9. For the engineering student recent studies are the most relevant.
10.Near the living room windows were stands for the houseplants.
11.When the weather turns warm, youngsters spring from their beds early.
12.When they are unable to reach an agreement, committee members table motion.
13.A country’s military might determines its international policies.
14.Although it takes more money, highway engineers bank sharp curves on all new
roads.
15.To ensure maximum growing time for young rosebushes, plant them in early spring.
16.Unless you place a flat stone under one leg, the picnic table will rock.
34
Упр. 2.1.4. A В ряде пар слов существительное - глагол, некоторые из которых
приведены в таблице, конечный согласный у существительных является глухим
(/s/, /f/, /Ө/), а у глаголов – звонким (/z/, /v/, /ð/). Заполните таблицу
недостающими словами и их транскрипцией. Помните, что в некоторых случаях
меняется произношение гласного звука, а иногда и правописание.
Noun
Verb
/ədvaiz/
advice
to use
abuse
/bili:f/
/rili:v/
grief
/ikskju:s/
breath
to halve
/haus/
safe
/pru:v/
Упр. 2.1.4. B Заполните пропуски одним из слов из упр. 2.1.4. A.
a. It is my personal ___________ that the man accused of the crime is innocent.
b. Let me listen to your chest. Take a deep _________ and say ‘Ah’.
c. You should put your valuables in the hotel __________ .
d. Drug __________ is a terrible problem all over the world.
e. I’ve been so worried about you! It’s such a ___________ to see you at last.
f. ‘What are going to do with this cake?’ ‘Cut it in two. You take _________ and I’ll
take _______ .’
g. Can you show me how to __________ this new coffee machine?
h. She apologized for her behaviour, and said it was because she’d had a lousy day at
work, but that’s no __________ for breaking all plates.
i.People need time to ___________ after the death of someone they love.
j. Take my ____________ . Never marry for money. Marry for love.
35
2.2. Суффиксы в словообразовании в английском языке
2.2.1. Суффиксы отвлеченных существительных
Упр.2.2.1.a. Образуйте существительные от глаголов, добавляя соответствующие
суффиксы.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
-ation
observe
inform
determine
form
examine
oblige
ionise
excite
combine
organise
utilise
exploit
install
confirm
1
2
3
4
5
6
-al
survive
remove
approve
refuse
arrive
propose
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
-ence/-ance
depend
infer
accept
exist
correspond
prefer
occur
resist
appear
assist
accord
refer
perform
persist
1
2
3
4
5
6
-ure
press
expose
please
fail
erase
disclose
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
- ment
conceal
move
agree
judge
advertise
encourage
require
measure
arrange
manage
state
improve
develop
retire
1
2
3
4
5
6
-y
deliver
inquire
enquire
discover
recover
flatter
Упр.2.2.1.b. Найдите существительное, образованное от глагола. Напишите
соответствующий глагол.
1. The man was arrested because of his failure to pay income taxes.
2. The removal of his car was illegal.
3. His father is an art collector.
4. The paper he wrote shows his mastery of the subject.
5. We need your assistance before we can finish repairing this bicycle.
6. Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin brought about significant changes in
plantation life.
7. The departure of the airliner was delayed by stormy weather.
8. At the conclusion of the movie, please remain seated.
9. A group of volunteers will put up the party decorations tonight.
10.His proposal was approved by the head of the company.
36
Упр.2.2.1.c. Образуйте существительные от следующих глаголов. Одни
существительные совпадают с глаголом по форме. Другие образуются с помощью
суффиксов –ment или -al.
Verb: to arrive, to aim, to judge, to invest, to approve, to refuse, to announce, to blame,
to delay, to mistake, to rest, to survive, to develop, to propose, to trouble
Noun: arrival, …
Упр.2.2.1.d. Используя суффиксы –ion, -ment, -ation, -ance, -ssion, -age образуйте
существительные от глаголов, приведенных ниже. Проверьте себя по словарю.
Обратите внимание на ударный слог: во всех образованных существительных он –
предпоследний.
Verb: explain, enjoy, pack, expect, achieve, use, avoid, require, admit, disappoint,
allow, excite
Noun: explan′ation, …
**Упр.2.2.1.e. Заполните пропуски, образовав от приведенной в скобках основы
нужное существительное, используя суффиксы –age, -tude, -ism.
a. A _____ in the hydraulic system was diagnosed. (leak)
b. In mathematics ________ is a one-to-one correspondence. (homeomorph-)
c. These systems are capable of performing ______ of different tasks. (multi-)
d. ______ is a widespread phenomenon in animals and plants, determined by
differences in either genetic constitution, environmental conditions, or both.
(polymorph-)
e. There has been a twenty per cent _____ in the steel industry in the past few years.
(shrink)
f. A decision of this _____ had to have national support. (magni-)
g. Dalton, the physicist, received lavish _____ in his formative years. (patron)
h. _____ is caused by the motion of atomic electrons, which, since they are charged,
constitute a current. ( diamagnet-)
i. Computers have a ______ capacity greater than the human memory. (store)
2.2.2. Суффиксы, используемые для образования слов, относящихся к
человеку
Упр.2.2.2.a. Составьте список из 10 соответствующих пар существительных, одно
из которых является отвлеченным понятием, а другое относится к человеку.
Составьте список суффиксов, относящихся к человеку.
employee
youth
innovator
carpenter
alcoholic
carpentry
youngster
employment
Abstract noun.
service
servant
geology
authoress
geologist
service
sociability
socialite
alcoholism
racket
racketeer
authorship
innovation
Noun referring to people.
servant
37
Упр.2.2.2.b. Объясните разницу между следующими парами слов.
-or/-er
employer
payer
trainer
licenser(or)
grantor
interviewer
-ee
employee
payee
trainee
licensee
grantee
interviewee
2.2.3. Суффиксы прилагательных и наречий
Упр.2.2.3.a. 15 пар слов представлены в случайном порядке. Одно слово в каждой
паре является существительным, а другое – прилагательным. Напишите каждое
слово в соответствующую колонку. Подчеркните 15 суффиксов прилагательных.
Проанализируйте их.
ease
comfortable
careless
fame
death
comfort
Nouns
ease
fame
heroic
truth
trouble
foolish
wooden
Texan
Texas
statue
deathly
care
tradition
truthful
famous
heroism
fool
troublesome
statuesque
active
traditional
supplementary
wood
supplement
action
easy
Adjectives
easy
famous
Упр.2.2.3.b. Суффиксы –ian, -er, -ist используются для обозначения профессий,
суффиксы -y, -ics – для обозначения дисциплин, которые они изучают. Ниже
приводится список дисциплин, людей, которые ими занимаются, и производные
от них прилагательные. Заполните таблицу, используя словарь, если это
необходимо.
Отметьте ударный слог. Ударные слоги могут быть разными в каждой колонке.
Добавьте собственные примеры.
Subject
Person
Adjective
′history
his′torian
his′torical
mathema′tician
′chemist
′science
′physical
bi′ology
phi′losophy
psy′chologist
me′chanical
38
Subject
music
Person
Adjective
′architect
arche′ology
Упр.2.2.3.с. С помощью суффиксов –ness, -less, -ful образуйте от основы слова
прилагательное или существительное, соответствующее русскому эквиваленту из
правой колонки.
a. leaf
b. fear
c. power
d. wonder
e. white
f. kind
g. polite
h. nervous
i. pity
j. fruit
k. care
l. hope
m.serious
n. respect
o. thought
p. end
q. help
безлиственный
бесстрашный
мощный
чудесный
белизна
доброта
вежливость
нервозность
жалостливый
плодотворный
неосмотрительность
безнадежность
серьезность
почтительный
задумчивый
бесконечный
полезный
Упр.2.2.3.d Заполните пропуски требующимся по контексту прилагательным из
предложенного списка.
rocky
silklike
penniless
careless
eventful
musical
yearly
metallic
babyish
stormy
Пример: The yearly cost of the insurance is $452.
1. Polyester is a __________ material.
2. Saturday was certainly an __________ day.
3. The car was badly damaged on the _________ road.
4. Sheila made some _________ mistakes on her income tax.
5. She liked silver and other _________ colours.
6. The _______ old man lived alone in his big house.
7. The piano is his favourite _________ instrument.
8. The seven-year-old boy still behaves in a ______ manner.
9. The __________ sky showed how near the hurricane was.
39
Упр.2.2.3.e. Укажите, какой частью речи (прилагательным или наречием)
является каждое слово из приведенного списка, вписав его в соответствующую
колонку. В списке количество прилагательных и наречий одинаково.
Суффикс -ly может быть добавлен и к существительным, и к прилагательным. В
первом случае образуется прилагательное, во втором – наречие.
worldly easily foolishly beautifully yearly costly womanly
stately
universally carelessly neighbourly cowardly shapely
seriously passively
nervously ghostly lovely friendly enjoyably gladly finally
Прилагательные, оканчивающиеся Наречия, оканчивающиеся
на –ly
на -ly
worldly
beautifully
Упр.2.2.3.f. Определите, правильно ли употреблены подчеркнутые слова.
Пример: We lost the match because we didn’t play very good. – неправильно,
должно быть well.
Ann has been working very hard recently. – правильно.
a. Give my best wishes to your parents. I hope they are well.
b. The children behaved themselves very good.
c. I tried hardly to remember his name but I couldn’t.
d. The company’s financial situation is not well at present.
e. Don’t walk so fast! Can’t you walk more slowly?
f. These instruments are well suited for such measurements.
g. Amperometric titrations are almost carried out by making a few measurements good
before the equivalence point and a few more good after the equivalence point.
Упр.2.2.3.g. Определите, являются ли подчеркнутые слова прилагательными или
наречиями в зависимости от их функций в предложении.
right
high
early
easy
fast
deep
40
a) What’s the right time? b) Right you are! c) He turned right round.
d) Is the answer right or wrong?
a) It’s high time to go. b) The cost of living reached a new high level
last month. c) If you don’t fly high you won’t achieve your targets.
a) He is an early riser. b) It’s better to be too early than too late.
c) The early bird gets the worm. d) Come as early as possible.
a) The article is easy to translate. b) Many people would like to live in
easy circumstances, but a few can. c) Take it easy!
a) My watch is five minutes fast. b) Don’t speak so fast! c) Her tears
fell fast. d) Jack is a very fast runner.
a) The lake was ten meters deep in its middle. b) He walked fast with
his hands deep in his pockets. c) It’s a deep secret. d) Still waters
run deep (пословица). e) He went on studying deep into the night.
hard
long
late
half
quick
slow
well
a) She found it hard to make up her mind. b) It’s hard for foreigners
to master English spelling. c) Regular physical exercises soon made
the boys hard. d) Students are sure that examiners are hard hearted
people. e) He tried hard to succeed. f) The widow was hard hit by
her loss.
a) Don’t be too long about it, do it quickly. b) Stay as long as you
like. c) He wasn’t long in making up his mind.
a) Don’t be late for classes! b) The train was ten minutes late.
c) Post graduate students often keep late hours carrying out their
experiments or calculations. d) Better late than never.
a) This meat is half-cooked. b) Some students are half-dead having
passed the last exam.
a) If you haven’t enough time to eat, have a quick meal! b) Let’s
analyze the projects and find a quick way to solve our problems.
c) Can’t you run quicker? d) I don’t know any get-rich-quick
methods.
a) That clock is five minutes slow. b) We had to buy tickets for slow
train because we failed to book ones for an express train. c) How
slow the time passes! d) You ought to go slow until you feel really
well again.
a) Does this blouse go well with that skirt? b) All’s well that ends
well. c) These people are very well off.
2.2.4. Сравнительная и превосходная степень прилагательных и наречий
Прилага- Сравнительная
тельные степень
+ -er
black
blacker
Правильные
прилагательные,
состоящие из одного
слога
Правильные
односложные
прилагательные,
thin
оканчивающиеся на
согласный после краткого
гласного
Правильные двусложные
прилагательные,
funny
оканчивающиеся на -у
Правильные
прилагательные,
intelligent
состоящие из двух и
более слогов
Превосходная
степень
+ -est
blackest
Удвоение
конечной
согласной + -er
thinner
Удвоение
конечной
согласной + -est
thinnest
замена -y на -ier
funnier
замена -y на -iest
funniest
more/less + adj
more intelligent
most / least + adj
most intelligent
41
Неправильные
прилагательные/
квантификаторы
good
bad
far
little
much
many
better
worse
farther / further
less
more
more
best
worst
farthest/furthest
least
most
most
• Правильные прилагательные, состоящие из двух слогов часто образуют
сравнительную и превосходную степень как односложные прилагательные
clever, cleverer, cleverest
polite, politer, politest
• В односложных прилагательных, которые оканчиваются на немое -e,
удвоения гласной не происходит. Сравнительная степень образуется путем
добавления -r, а превосходная – -st: white, whiter, whitest large, larger,
largest
• После сравнительной степени часто употребляется союз than,
соответствующий русскому союзу чем.
Crime is a much bigger problem in this country than in many other countries.
• Перед превосходной степенью обычно употребляется определенный
артикль. Our local police force is the best in the country.
Наречия
Правильные наречия
Неправильные наречия
easily
badly
early
far
fast
hard
late
often
near
soon
well
Сравнительная
степень
more /less + adv
more easily
worse
earlier
farther/further
faster
harder
later
more often
nearer
sooner
better
Превосходная
степень
most/least + adv
most easily
worst
earliest
farthest/furthest
fastest
hardest
latest
most often
nearest
soonest
best
Упр.2.2.4.a Заполните пропуски, используя сравнительную степень
прилагательных или наречий в скобках.
1. This island used to be much ____________ (green) before the forest fires.
2. Slow down! You're
____________ (fit) than me and I can't keep up!
3. It's actually ___________ (trendy) to wear your hair up this year.
4. As the time for the performance got nearer, I got __________ (nervous).
5. Old people are often __________ (wise) than young people.
6. Matt seems to have got even ____________ (lazy) than he used to be and almost
never studies.
42
7. If the problem gets any ____________ (serious), we may need to inform the manager
about it.
8. If you work __________ (quickly), you'll finish sooner and then you can go home
earlier.
9. Ben says he's feeling much ___________ (well) after his illness.
10. I have even __________ (little) free time this year than I did last year.
11. The news was much ____________ (bad) than anyone had feared.
12. You'll need to be able to run ________ (far) than this if you're going to do the
marathon.
Упр.2.2.4.b Заполните пропуски, используя превосходную степень
прилагательных или наречий в скобках.
1. It was the ___________ (boring) film I had ever seen.
2. Our teacher told us that the student with the __________ (high) mark would get a
prize.
3. Ginger is one of the ____________ (lucky) cats alive – he's been hit by a car three
times and has never been hurt!
4. Out of all the students in my music school, I practise ___________ (often).
5. The Pacific is the ___________ (deep) ocean in the world.
6. That's the __________ (ugly) fish I've ever seen!
7. I was ill before the exam and I did ___________ (badly) out of the whole class.
8. The ____________ (far) I've run in one day is about ten kilometres.
9. But that's the ____________ (crazy) idea I've ever heard!
10. I asked the assistant to show me the ___________ (modern) phone they had.
11. I told the manager that it was the ___________ (bad) hotel I had ever stayed in.
12. Who do you think is the ___________ (little) talented actor to win an Oscar?
Упр.2.2.4.c Выберите правильный ответ из каждой пары.
FIlM REVIEW
Crime Does Pay, the (1) later/latest comedy from director Sam Martin, has to be one of
the (2) little / least interesting films I have ever seen.The acting is terrible and the story
is much (3) worse / worst than Martin's other flop, Escape. Crime Does Pay was
apparently (4) more / most expensive than any other film this year, but it's hard to see
where the money went. The plot concerns a gang of burglars who decide to steal the (5)
more / most valuable painting in the world. Fine, except these criminals are far (6) less
/ least amusing than they should be. There isn't a single real laugh in the whole movie.
When I saw it, even (7) younger/youngest members of the audience thought it was
stupidly childish. Dean Richards, playing Scarnose, does a slightly (8) better / best job
than the others, but there isn't much in it. When will Hollywood realise that as ticket
prices get (9) higher / highest, more people are finding that the (10) well / best form of
entertainment is to spend an evening at home with a DVD?
43
Упр.2.2.4.d Закончите второе предложение так, чтобы оно было близко по смыслу
первому предложению. Используйте выделенное слово и от двух до пяти других
слов.
1. I have never read a better book than this one.
ever
This is the ____________ read.
2. Nobody has ever been this far into the jungle.
This is _____________ has ever been into the jungle.
the
3. I have never worked so hard in my whole life.
It was the _______________ in my whole life.
ever
4. Liam is the tallest boy in the class.
Every other boy in the class _______________ Liam.
than
5. This is the nicest beach along this part of the coast. than
This _________________ the others along this part of the coast.
6. I read that Mount Everest is the highest mountain.
I read that __________________ Mount Everest.
no
7. Has anyone ever been this far north before?
Is ____________________ has ever been?
the
8. The painting Ed did is the ugliest one you can imagine. than
You can't imagine _________________ the one Ed did.
9. This stamp is rarer than any other in my collection. more
The other stamps in my collection ________________ this one.
10. Nobody in the class runs as fast as Pedro.
Pedro ___________________ in the class.
runner
Упр. 2.2.4.e Закончите второе предложение так, чтобы у него был тот же смысл,
что и у первого. Используйте выделенное слово и от 2 до 5 других слов.
1. John is not as intelligent as Jacob.
than
Jacob ____________________________ John.
2. Your house is bigger than mine.
big
My house _________________________ yours.
3. I live nearer the school than you do.
than
You live ____________________________ I do.
4. He doesn’t drive as carefully as my mother.
than
My mother ____________________________ he does.
5. No car is faster than this one.
of
This is _________________________________.
44
6. I have never seen a better film.
the
This is _________________________________ I have ever seen.
7. You won’t find a more reasonable price.
will
This is the ______________________________ find.
8. No form of transport is as comfortable as the train. the
The train _________________________________ form of transport.
9. I can’t type as fast as Alex.
can
Alex ______________________________________ me.
10. If we get there fast it will be better.
faster
The ____________________________________ better.
2.2.5. Суффиксы глаголов
Упр.2.2.5.a. Образуйте глаголы от прилагательных и существительных, используя
соответствующие суффиксы.
-en
-fy
-ize/-ise
black politic false tight character sharp sympathy loose local short pure wide
normal
**Упр.2.2.5.b. Заполните пропуски, необходимой по контексту формой глагола,
образованной от приведенной в скобках основы.
a. Don’t ______ on things which will hardly save you any money. (economy)
b. With the aid of a screwdriver, _____ the two screws at each end. (loose)
c. The final division of Germany was _______ by the completion of the Berlin Wall.
(symbol)
d. This mathematical function is used to ______ the wave functions of elementary
particles. (specific)
e. It is a systematic attempt to ______ our competitive ability. (strength)
f. I ______ with the philosophy students. (social)
g. The only way we are going to compete with the West is to ______ .(industry)
h. The subject is immensely complex, and hard to _____ . (simple)
i. The chalcopyrite structure compounds can _____ either in the ordered or disordered
states. (crystal)
j. 71 % of employees are _____ in Belgium. (union)
Упр.2.2.5.c. Образуйте недостающие части речи. Проверьте себя по словарю.
Обратите внимание на произношение слов.
Noun
creation
Adjective
Verb
basic
conclusion
neutral
specialization
identify
45
Noun
Verb
vaporize
complain
Adjective
Verb
complicate
soft
discovery
preparation
formula
magnet
liquefy
approximate
intensify
tough
radiate
invent
standardize
2.3.Группы слов, производных от одного корня
Упр.2.3.1. Образуйте группы слов (word families), являющихся производными от
одного корня. Заполните ими таблицу, вписывая слова, соответствующие
отсутствующим частям речи. (Не используйте неличные формы глагола –
инфинитив, причастие и герундий). В некоторых случаях возможно больше
одного правильного ответа.
Глагол
0 compare
1
2
3
4 succeed
5
6
7economise
8
9
10 repeat
11
12 deepen
13
14 tighten
Существительное
comparison
energy
Прилагательное
comparative
Наречие
comparatively
quick
basically
electricity
exclusive
sensation
categorically
wide
strongly
Упр.2.3.2. Заполните таблицу и отметьте ударения.
Существительное
0′photograph
1 ′industry
2
3 compe′tition
4 ′criticism
46
Прилагательное
photo′graphic
Существительное,
определяющее
человека
pho′tographer
Глагол
to ′photograph
to in′vent
5
6
7 ′politics
8 ′nation
9
10
me′chanic
′special
to ′analyse
′active
Упр.2.3.3. Заполните пропуски в предложениях необходимым по контексту
словом, образовав его из предложенных слов и суффиксов.
change
instruct
lonely
summary
national
1. The orientation session about hospitals was instructive. (-ive)
2. On the application, please include your name and _______________.(-ity)
3. Weather in Austin, Texas is very ______________ . (-able)
4. Could you please _________________ (-ize) this information in your report?
5. Since his mother died, he has been overwhelmed by _____________ . (-ness)
Упр.2.3.4. Определите, какое из двух подчеркнутых слов в предложении
употреблено в неправильной форме. Исправьте ошибку.
1. Useful (A) prizes will be awarded to students writing the most imagination (B)
essays.
2. Those who answer the questions successfully (A) will be moved into a more rapidly
(B) class.
3. Courses in comparison (A) linguistics are frequently (B) offered at the university.
4. After several years of unhappiness (A) the couple finally separation (B).
5. The firemen’s decision (A) action averted total destruction (B) of the building.
6. The family reported the mystery (A) disappearance (B) of their child to the police
immediately.
7. All poisonous (A) wastes from the chemicals (B) plant were disposed of safely.
8. The builder’s (A) last house is a repetitive (B) of his first one.
9. The agriculture (A) development (B) of a country is a good measure of its progress.
10.Fortunately (A), the mayor has comparative (B) few friends in the business
community.
11.The author of this book is also a well-respected (A) lecture (B).
12.The troupe gave satisfactorily (A) performances of some classic (B) plays.
Упр.2.3.5. Заполните пропуски в предложениях словом из предложенного списка
необходимым по контексту. Некоторые слова могут использоваться больше чем
один раз.
economic
economical
economics
economist
economize
economy
a. If we want a holiday this year we’ll have to __________________ . We’re spending
too much.
b. Every country has its own _______________ problems.
47
c. She’s an _________________ lecturer at Glasgow University.
d. The most ___________ way of heating your house is by using solar energy.
e. The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the minister responsible for the _____ .
f. Naturally he has many professional _________________ to advise him.
g. The world ________________ situation gets more and more complicated.
h. It is usually more ________ to shop in a supermarket than in a small shop.
**Упр.2.3.6. Заполните пропуски в предложениях требуемым по контексту
словом. Возможно, некоторые слова придется изменить.
1. electron, electronic, electronics, electronically
a. An ________ pen is one example of an input device.
b. A computer solves problems _______ .
c. Many _________ students go on to work as engineers.
2. technology, technological, technologically, technologist
a. The computer is the greatest ________ invention of the twentieth century.
b. There are two ______ involved in a clipboard PC.
c. Today’s computers are ______ far superior to those used a few years ago.
3. identify, identifying, identifiable, identity
a. The clipboard’s pattern recognition software immediately _____ the letters and
numbers written by the stylus.
b. Most computer companies will not allow people without an ______ card to enter their
premises.
c. A password is a mechanism for ______ the computer-user and allowing access.
4. compute, computing, computation, computerize, computerization
a. The ________ of the manufacturing division will be expensive in the short term, but
cost-effective in the long term.
b. We should be able to _______ our profit for next year fairly accurately with the new
program.
c. I could tell from all the _____ on the board that a maths lesson was in progress.
5. consider, considered, consideration, considerable, considerably
a. We’ll have to ______ using another company if they can’t provide the software we
need.
b. The company has invested a _____ sum of money in ergonomic workstations.
c. The CEO has submitted this proposal for your ______ .
d. This computer is ______ faster than the old one.
6. apply, applying, application, applicant, applicable
a. We have interviewed five _____ for the new position.
b. The last part of the form is not _____ to foreign students.
c. My student is thinking of _____ for a government grant to continue his research.
d. The new book uses business ______ to teach computer studies.
48
7. explain, explained, explaining, explanation, explanatory
a. The package includes an _____ booklet.
b. The instructions are very clear and do not require any further _____ .
c. It will only take a couple of minutes to _____ how the program works.
d. If you are new to this system, almost everything will have to be _____ .
8. depend, depending, dependent, dependence, dependable, dependably
a. The company has supplied us _____ for over ten years.
b. We have to reduce our _____ on imported goods.
c. This is very _____ equipment, we have never had a serious breakdown.
d. Today, many companies ______ more on FAXes than on mail.
9. connect, connected, connecting, connector, connectivity, connection
a. _____ is an important concept in global communication.
b. He only got that contract because he has _____ in the government.
c. Make sure the _____ is not loose before you call a service technician.
d. Once the new telephone lines are _____ , our system should be more efficient.
10. create, created, creating, creation, creativity
a. The ______ of this database will give us a huge advantage over our competitors in
the long run.
b. The procedure for ______ a new file is very simple.
c. The new position we are advertising is going to require someone with enormous
______ .
11. generate, generated, generative, generation
a. Exercises can be quickly _____ using this program.
b. Our company is working on a new ______ of software products.
c. This development is sure to _____ great interest.
12. access, accessed, accessible, accessibility
a. All user requests to ____ a database are handled by the database management system.
b. _____ to the computer room is restricted to authorized personnel.
c. Those files are not _____ unless you know the password.
13. analyse, analysed, analysis, analyst
a. When a text is ______ , all pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, and verb forms are
automatically identified.
b. This _____ shows that most PC users are not aware of the full potential of the
software products they buy.
c. The DBMS first receives the request and _____ it for syntax errors.
14. correct, correctly, correction, corrective, correctness
a. If an error occurs, it is important to take ______ action immediately.
b. The “spell check” facility checks the _____ of your spelling.
c. The data were entered _______ , so the result must be accurate.
49
15. detect, detection, detectable, detective
a. There were ______ traces of radiation in the water sample.
b. The analyst could not _____ any errors in the system.
c. She tried to escape _____ by disguising herself.
16. sense, sensor, sensation, sensitive
a. An infrared ______ detects the presence of intruders in the building.
b. The probe is _____ to heat and light.
c. The new system caused a _____ when it was launched last month.
2.4. Приставки латинского и греческого происхождения
Многие слова современного английского языка содержат приставки латинского и
греческого происхождения. Понимание значений этих приставок помогает
овладению словарем и способствует развитию языковой догадки. Рассмотрим три
категории приставок: приставки времени и пространства, приставки качества и
условия и приставки количества.
Приставка
Time and Position
ad-, ac-, an-, ag-, af-, ap-, atab(s)anteapocatacircumcom-, con-, col-, cordediaen-, emex-, ec-, ef-, esextrain-, il-, im-, irinter-,
intro-, intraob-, opperipostpreprore-, retrotrans-
50
Значение
Пример
to, toward
before, in front of
away from, off
down
around
together with
away from, down
across, between
in
admit, accurate, attracive
abstract
antecedent
apologize
catastrophe
circumstance
connection
dehydrated
diameter
employee
out
beyond
not
between
within
against
around
later
before
toward
back
through
escape
extraordinary
immigrate
intermission
introduce
opponent
periscope
postscript
precede
progress
retract
transport
Quality and Condition
anticontradisheterhomohypermalmispseod(o)-
in opposition to
opposed to
not
other
same
excessive
bad
wrong
false
antisocial
controversy
disloyal
heterogeneous
homogeneous
hypersensitive
malpractice
miscarriage
pseudointellectual
Number and Amount
bindi-, dudemi-, semi- hemimon(o)multi-, politri-
two
two
half
uni
many
three
binoculars
dichromatic
semicircle
monogram
polygon
triangle
Упр.2.4.1. Соотнесите слово, содержащее латинскую или греческую приставку, с
его значением.
1. monologue
2. dilemma
3. nonconformist
4. malevolent
5. antagonistic
6. reciprocal
7. colleague
a. worker in the same occupation
b. actively in opposition to
c. showing ill will
d. a choice between equally unacceptable alternatives
e. a long speech by one person
f. refusing to live within the established norms of society
g. affecting both sides mutually
Упр.2.4.2. Образуйте слова, соединив приставку с корнем. Переведите их на
русский язык.
1. uni
2. com
3. super
4. sym
5. hemi
6. multi
7. tri
a. versity
b. logy
c. media
d. sphere
e. abundant
f. metrical
g. passion
51
**Упр.2.4.3. Заполните пропуски префиксом из предложенного списка, так чтобы
получилось требуемое по контексту слово.
auto
micro
de
mini
dec
mono
inter
multi
maxi
semi
mega
sub
a. Most people prefer a colour screen to a ____ chrome screen.
b. A _____ byte equals approximately one million bytes.
c. Once you finish your program, you will have to test it and ____ bug it to remove all
the mistakes.
d. The introduction of ____ conductor technology revolutionized the computer industry.
e. If a computer system has two or more central processors which are under common
control, it is called a _____ processor system.
f. The _____ imal system is a number system with a base of 10.
g. When the user and the computer are in active communication on a graphics system,
we refer to this as _____ active graphics.
h. All you have to do is to move the ____ imal point one digit to the left.
i. Large books and even sets of books can be put on a single _____ chip.
j. ____ meter measures small length with great accuracy.
k. A ____ circle is one half of a circle.
l. Hydrogen was ____ stituted by oxygen.
m.The theory was thought to hold for ____ molecular compounds.
n. ____ organisms, which are abundant everywhere, are of immense importance to all
living things.
o. ____ rail systems are expensive to install and are currently only used for special
purposes.
p. Many of the West’s large _____ national companies have substantial operations in
the poor African countries.
q. The company now has 40% of the American _____- computer market.
r. Both monetary policy and fiscal policy can be used to ____ flate the economy.
s. The ____ polist can obtain a high profit by restricting supply and demanding a high
price.
t. A ____ pression is characterized by low profits, investment and high unemployment.
2.5. Образование антонимов. Схемы словообразования
Антонимы многих слов в английском языке образуются путем добавления разных
префиксов (приставок). Например: attractive – unattractive; advantage–
disadvantage; polite – impolite; correct – incorrect; understand - misunderstand.
Прилагательные, образованные от существительных с помощью суффикса less,
обозначают отсутствие качества, на которые указывают исходные слова.
Например, harmless «безвредный», т.е. не причиняющий никакого вреда.
Некоторые способы словообразования проиллюстрированы на схеме.
52
unimaginative
⁄

\
unimagine -ative
|
|
|
to form
root
to form
the opposite word the adjective
tasteless
/
\
taste -less
|
|
root
to form adjective
word
meaning “without”
Упр.2.5.1. Заполните пропуски в следующем задании, предварительно образовав
от приведенной в скобках основы нужную форму слова.
Пример: Artists are creative people. (create)
a. John is ___________________ hardworking. (extreme)
b. I did not like the food. I found it most _____________ .(please)
c. She was arrested because she was driving _____________ .(care)
d. It was very ________________ of him not to help you.(kind)
e. My wife likes the colour blue, but I find it _____________ . (attract)
f. He’s a lucky man. He’s been _______ married for eight years. (happy)
g. I bought a new car because the old one was so __________. (rely)
h. The dancer was superb. She gave a ____________ performance. (fault)
i. The passengers were frightened when the pilot flew _________ close to a building.
(danger)
Упр.2.5.2. Образуйте антонимы с помощью префиксов in-, im- и un- и запишите
их в виде трех колонок в соответствии с использованным префиксом.
likely
exact
common
direct
plausible
known
pleasant
contaminated
ininvalid
certain
pure
visible
able
accurate
even
friendly
identified
possible
perfect
practical
active
complete
satisfactory
patient
sufficient
imimpossible
true
equal
suitable
stable
reasonable
favourable
sane
determined
valid
usual
appropriate
convenient
significant
mistakable
usable
flexible
ununlikely
Упр.2.5.3. Образуйте антонимы от предложенных слов с помощью
соответствующего префикса.
inunimdis___frequently, ___loyal, ___comfort, ___specific, ___real, ___probably,
___available, ___assemble, ___suitable, ___proper, ___fit, ___occupied, ___order,
___distinguished
53
Упр.2.5.4. Образуйте антонимы от предложенных слов с помощью префиксов,
имеющих отрицательное значение (un-, in-, il-, im-, ir-, dis-, non-, mis-).
to connect
to pronounce
to arrange
to agree
to manage
acceptable
honest
fatal
competent
honoured
ferrous
negotiable
employed
necessary
legal
regular
applicable
certified
profitable
active
expensive
informed
effective
agreement
maturity
stability
*Упр.2.5.5. Добавьте префикс или измените суффикс, чтобы образовать
антонимы следующих прилагательных, глаголов и существительных:
to believe
to pack
to like
to appear
to approve
to lock
to connect
useful
reliable
painful
experienced
tidy
mature
harmful
importance
efficiency
sense
material
probable
responsible
**Упр.2.5.6. Прочитайте следующие предложения, найдите слова с префиксами и
объясните значение префиксов.
a. Floppy disks are inexpensive and reusable.
b. If a printer malfunctions, you should check the interface cable.
c. The multiplexor was not working because someone had disconnected it by mistake.
d. Improper installation of the antiglare shield will make it impossible to read what is on
the screen.
e. After you transfer text using the “cut and paste” feature, you may have to reformat
the text you have inserted.
f. You can maximize your chances of finding a job if you are bilingual or even
trilingual.
g. Peripheral devices can be either input devices (such as keyboards) or output devices
(such as printers).
h. Your pay rise is retroactive to the beginning of June and you will receive a biannual
bonus.
i. The octal and hexadecimal systems are number systems used as a form of shorthand
in reading groups of four binary digits.
2.6. Слова, производные от латинских и греческих корней
Многие слова современного английского языка являются производными
латинских и греческих корней. Изучите значение наиболее употребительных
корней, приведенных в таблице.
54
Корень
Latin Roots
act ,ag, ig
alter
anni, annu, enni
aqua, aque
arm
art
audi
ben(e)
capit, capt
ced(e), ceed, cess
cent(i)
clam, claim
corp
cred
dict
duc(t), duce
Значение
Пример
go, do, move
other
year
water
arm, weapon
art, craft, skill
hear
good, well
head, chief
go, yield, surrender
hundred
cry out, declare
body
trust
speak
lead
activate, agitate, navigate
alternative
anniversary, annuity
aquatic, aqueduct
army, alarm
artificial, article
auditorium
benefit
capital, captain
proceed, success
centimeter
proclaim
corporation
credit
dictionary
conduct, reduce
fin
flu(x)
fort, forc
grad, gress
junct, join
liber
loc
luc, lumin
man(u),
medi
mem(or)
miss, mit(t)
mob, mot, mov
mor(t)
ped
pend, pens
pon, pos(e)
port
scrib(e)
similar
ter
test
tract
vid
ver(i)
vit, viv
limit
flow
strong
go, step, walk
join
free
place
light
hand
middle, between
remember
send
move
death
foot
hang, weigh
put, place
carry
write
like
earth
witness
draw
see
true
life
finish
fluid
reinforce
gradual, progress
conjunction
liberation
locate
lucid, illuminate
manipulation
medium
memory
transmit
mobile
mortgage
pedestal
suspension
position
portable
describe
similar
territory
testify
attractive
evident
verdict
vitamin
55
Greek Roots
arch
auto
bio
chron
cosm
dem
dog, dox
dyn
erg
gram, graph
hydr
log(ue)
meter
morph
nom(y)
op(t)
orth
phil
phos, photo
psych
soph
techn
therm
tox
ancient, chief
self
life
time
order, world, universe
people
teaching, opinion
power
work
write
water
word, speech, study
measure
form, shape
rule, law
eye
straight
love
light
mind, spirit
wisdom
art, skill
heat
poison
monarch
automation
biography
chronometer
cosmic
democracy
dogma
dynamism
energy
diagram
hydrant
logical
geometry
morphology
economics
optician
orthodox
philosopher
photon
psychology
sophistry
technical
thermodynamics
intoxicated
Упр.2.6.1. Соотнесите слова с их определениями.
1. immobilize
2. finite
3. fortify
4. commemorate
5. memorandum
6. pedestrian
7. revitalize
8. autonomous
9. dogmatic
10.amorphous
11.sophisticated
56
a. controlled by a single teaching or doctrine
b. a person who is walking
c. having no specific or recognisable shape or form
d. functioning independently
e. to prevent from moving
f. not naive; complex, as a piece of machinery
g. limited or bordered by time or any measurements
h. to make stronger
i. a note or record of events written as a reminder
j. to honour the memory of smth or someone
k. to put new life into
Упр.2.6.2. Соотнесите латинский / греческий корень с его значением и
производным.
1. bio
2. fort
3. chron
4. port
5. ced
6. scrib
7. ali, alter
a. time
b. go
c. write
d. life
e. carry
f. another
g. strong
a. disport
b. alibi
c. procession
d. bionics
e. synchronize
f. comfortable
g. transcription
Упр.2.6.3. Из предложенного ряда выберите слово, которое является синонимом
подчеркнутого слова.
1. One recent advance confirmed that Alzheimer’s disease is sometimes inherited.
A made valid B questioned C diagnosed D made doubtful
2. Video compression is sending not a complete colour portrait for each frame, but
rather a shorthand version that describes the difference between the current frame and
the previous one.
A preceding
B already seen C viewed
D following
3. The International Union of Biological Sciences met in Amsterdam to discuss how
many species there are, and how many there will be if the environment is altered in
various ways by man.
A is changed
B is polluted
C is made worse
D is affected
4. Almost half of U.S. newspaper editors say that dinosaurs and humans lived
contemporaneously.
A peacefully
B for a short period of time
C at the same time
D destroying each other
5. Establishing an appropriate correspondence between time and the path position
parameter is an important condition in controlling the path of the robot arm.
A approximate B proper C precise
D the closest
6. It wasn’t until language researchers began computer programs that the importance of
lexical ambiguity came to be understood.
A having an emotional component B having two or more possible meanings
C having a pictorial component
D having an idiomatic character
7. The negative charge of an electron slightly distorts the lattice of the metal.
A expands B makes weaker C changes the usual form D contracts
57
2.7. Обзорные упражнения
Упр.2.7.1. Используя слово, данное в скобках в конце каждого предложения,
заполните пропуски требующимися по смыслу производными словами.
Пример: Sorry. Eleven o’clock is inconvenient time for me. (convenient)
a. It is more _______ to buy a big packet of cornflakes than a small one. (economy)
b. John Jameson is a famous _________ who stole five million pounds from a bank.
(crime)
c. I’m quite an _____ person. I play a lot of sport and go running every day. (energy)
d. ________ your own business can cause a lot of financial worries. (manage)
e. Churchill was not only a famous ________ but also a respected ________ . (politics;
history)
f. The surgeons tried to do their best to save his life, but unfortunately the operation
was _____________ . (success)
g. I understand _________________ what you’re saying. (perfect)
h. Jane’s ________________ as director came as no surprise. (appoint)
i. A holiday in America can be _______________ cheap. (surprise)
j. The ________ of the Hollywood actor, Jimmy Halton, was announced last night.
(die)
k. My colleagues are very pleasant, but the manager is a little _________ . (friend)
l. I _____________ this morning, and was late for work. (sleep)
m.There have been great ____________ in medical care in the last twenty years.
(improve)
n. _______________ is one of my favourite activities. (cook)
o. Some people have a great fear of ________________ by plane. (travel)
p. My car isn’t very _____________. It’s always letting me down. (rely)
q. I wrote ______________ letters of application, but got no reply. (end)
r. I apologize for the mistake made by my office. There appears to have been a slight
________ . (understand)
s. Burning coal is an __________________ way of heating a house. Gas is much
cheaper. (economy)
t. I’ve just been told some ________________ news. (astonish)
u. In _________________ with most other countries, Britain has a very high rate of
heart attacks. (compare)
v. We have to keep our costs as small as possible. We have so many ____________
trying to take our customers away. (compete)
w. There are very few _____________ places left on earth. Man has been nearly
everywhere. (explore)
x. There is extreme _______________ in many Third World countries. (poor)
y. I recommend the _______________ of the house. It’s delicious. (special)
z. He was dismissed for ___________ . He lost the order of a very important customer.
(care)
58
**Упр.2.7.2. Найдите слова с суффиксами и определите, какой частью речи они
являются.
a. A programmer designs, writes and tests programs for performing various tasks on a
computer.
b. A systems analyst studies organizational systems and decides what action needs to be
taken to maximize efficiency.
c. Laser printers are preferable to other types of printing devices because of their speed
and quietness.
d. The microcomputer we have purchased does not have a FORTRAN compiler. It is
programmable in BASIC only.
e. We decided to computerize the entire plant to give each division more independence.
f. Spooling is a way of storing data temporary on disk or tape until it can be processed
by another part of the system.
g. Turning your office into a paperless environment may be expensive at the beginning
but can produce big savings in the long run.
h. Software developers are producing increasingly sophisticated applications for a
growing global market.
2.8. Тесты к разделу “Словообразование”
Упр.2.8.1. Каждое предложение содержит одну грамматическую ошибку.
Отметьте вариант, который Вы считаете неправильным.
1. She sings lovely (A) and everybody (B) praises (C) her singing (D).
2. Interest in (A) automatic data processing has grown (B) rapid (C) since (D) the first
large calculators were introduced in 1950.
3. Ordinary (A) a tornado breaks up (B) suddenly and dissipates (C) less than four hours
after it has formed (D).
4. To the men who (A) worked so hard (B) on the project, the news was (C) profound
(D) disappointing.
5. This (A) is the mostly (B) beautiful girl I have seen (C) for a long time! (D)
6. Over (A) 50% of Ford Motor Company’s (B) employers (C) and 45% of IBM’s (D)
for instance, live outside of US.
7. The relative (A) rich countries that (B) belong to the Organization of Economic
Cooperation and Development comprise (C) 15 % of the world population but enjoy
(D) 75% of world output.
8. In order for one to achieve the desired results in this experiment, it is necessary that
he (A) work (B) as fastly (C) as (D) possible.
9. During (A) hibernation bears (B) lose (C) between fifteen and thirty percent of their
body weigh (D).
Упр.2.8.2. Выберите вариант ответа, который вы считаете правильным.
1. As office manager of Commercial Manufacturing Corporation, Wayne Thomson is
responsible for _____________ twelve clerks and typists.
a) supervision b) supervisory c) supervising
59
2. The __________ rapid pace of technology transfer has led to a growing number of
firms possessing the same product or process technology.
a) increasingly b) increased c) increasing d) increase
3. Pollution is the presence in soil, water or air of substances _______ to health or to
human beings or animals.
a) objective b) objectionable c) harmless d) harmful e) harming
4. The student must see that knowledge is ___________ to growth and change.
a) subjective b) subjected c) subject d) subjecting
5. Because money growth is a main determinant of inflation, a sharp expansion in a
country’s money supply, which tends to stimulate inflation, would cause its currency to
___________ .
a) depreciate b) appreciate
6. Conversely, monetary contraction would cause the currency to __________ .
a) depreciate b) appreciate
7. The company dealing with tourism has hired some _________ .
a) travel agents b) travelling agents
8. X-ray are able to pass through objects and thus make ______ details that are
otherwise impossible to observe.
a) it visible b) visibly c) visible d) they are visible
9. _____ of the state of a material, the molecules of this material are continuously
moving.
a) with regards to b) regarding c) regarded
d) regardless
Упр.2.8.3. Заполните пробелы в тексте словами в подходящей по контексту
форме, используя слова, предложенные справа для каждой строки
соответственно. Вариант (0) указан как пример.
Home-workers
According to government research, more people are
working from home than ever before. (0) Consequently,
there has been an increase in (1) _____ among those people
who no longer have to travel to their place of (2) _____ .
Office workers spend their day (3) _____ by friends and
colleagues, while home-workers (4) _____ meet anyone
face to face. The most direct means of (5) ____ a homeworker has with the world (6) _____ is the telephone. The
fax and the internet are two more (7) _____ links that can be
used, although they still rely on the written, rather than the
(8) _____ word. What a home-worker really wants is the
(9) _____ of a human voice, not the
(10) ____ bleeps of a computer.
60
CONSEQUENCE
LONELY
EMPLOY
SURROUND
RARE
COMMUNICATE
OUT
TECHNOLOGY
SPEAK
WARM
DIGIT
Глава 3. Местоимение
3.1. Формы местоимений
Личные местоимения имеют 5 форм: именительный (И), объектный (О) и
притяжательный (П) падежи, абсолютную форму притяжательных местоимений
(АП) и форму возвратных местоимений.
Упр.3.1.a. Заполните пропуски в таблице недостающими формами местоимений.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Именит.
I
_______
_______
she
_______
we
_______
_______
_______
Объектн.
me
you(ед.ч.)
________
________
________
________
________
________
one
Притяжат.
my
_______
his
_______
_______
_______
your(мн.ч.)
_______
_______
Абсол. притяж.
mine
________
________
________
несуществ.
________
________
theirs
_______
Возвратн.
myself
_______
_______
_______
itself
_______
_______
_______
________
3.1.1. Местоимения в именительном падеже
Местоимения в именительном падеже употребляются:
~ в качестве подлежащего в простых предложениях и в главной и придаточной
частях сложных предложений;
~ при сравнении подлежащих 2-х предложений;
~ в конструкциях типа: It was he at the door.
Упр.3.1.1. Определите предложения, в которых местоимения употреблены в
правильной форме.
a. It was I whom called you last night.
b. It is true that I am taller than he.
c. It must have been he whom the police arrested.
d. If you were me would you lend him money?
e. My teacher thinks that I am more intelligent than him.
3.1.2. Местоимения в объектном падеже
Местоимения в объектном падеже употребляются:
~ в качестве прямых и косвенных дополнений к глаголам;
~ в предложных дополнениях;
~ при сравнении дополнений двух предложений.
Упр.3.1.2.a. Заполните пропуски нужным объектным местоимением.
a. Our parents worry about my brother more than about ______ .
61
b. Mary asked us not to leave without ______ .
c. The doctor _______ he visited specialized in eye diseases.
d. If I see ________ tonight, I will tell him to call you.
e. No one likes that waitress because it takes _______ so long to bring the food.
Упр.3.1.2.b. Определите предложения, в которых местоимения употреблены в
правильной форме.
a. The students whom live across the street make a lot of noise .
b. No one knows what happened except you, Flassy, and I.
c. It must have been he whom we saw at the movie.
d. This is a good picture of him.
e. I think that the teacher knows whom took these photographs.
3.1.3. Притяжательные местоимения
Притяжательные местоимения выражают принадлежность и употребляются перед
существительным (в качестве определения) и перед герундием.
Абсолютная форма притяжательных местоимений используется:
~ вместо существительного в функции подлежащего или дополнения;
~ после глагола to be и предлога, чтобы указать на принадлежность;
~ при сравнении 2-х дополнений одного класса, имеющих разных владельцев.
Например:
It is her diskette. Yours is on the shelf.
Here is your CD, but where is mine? I
found an old resume of yours in this file.
Their PC can calculate derivatives faster than ours.
Упр.3.1.3.a. Заполните пропуски притяжательным местоимением необходимым
по контексту.
a. He doesn’t realize that ______ whistling annoys the class.
b. The person ______ car I just hit is going to be very angry.
c. Charlotte insisted the coat was ____ .
d. The queen greeted _____ subjects outside the palace.
e. I brought my car, but Phil refused to bring _____ .
f. The little boy dropped his ice-cream, so his mother gave him _____ .
g. I did _____ best on the homework.
h. Didn’t you tell me that a friend of ____ is staying with you?
Упр.3.1.3.b. Прочитайте предложения. Найдите предложения, в которых
местоимения употреблены неверно и исправьте ошибки.
a. The student whom forgot his books is going to be unhappy tonight.
b. Her mother reminded her three times to do her homework.
c. Your cat is much larger than me.
d. The director has no idea whose car is blocking his.
e. If I can do my homework you should certainly be able to do yours.
f. George brought a friend of his to class yesterday.
62
3.1.4. Возвратные местоимения
Возвратные местоимения употребляются:
~ в функции прямого дополнения после ряда глаголов, показывая, что действие
переходит на само действующее лицо: He defended himself bravely. (Он храбро
защищался). She hurt herself. (Она ушиблась).
• После некоторых глаголов возвратные местоимения часто опускаются: to
wash, to dress, to shave, to bathe, to hide: I washed, dressed and shaved. (Я
помылся, оделся и побрился).
~ в функции прямого и предложного дополнения после ряда глаголов,
соответствуя возвратному местоимению себя (себе, собой) в русском языке:
He bought himself a new coat. (Он купил себе новое пальто).
She spoke very little of herself. (Она очень мало говорила о себе).
He used to talk to himself.
(Он часто говорил с собой).
• После глаголов feel, behave (чувствовать себя, вести себя) и некоторых
других возвратное местоимение не употребляется: He feels well. (Он
чувствует себя хорошо).
~ для усиления значения существительного или местоимения, к которому они
относятся. В этом случае они могут стоять как в конце предложения, так и после
слова, значение которого они усиливают: You said it yourself. You yourself said it.
(Вы сами это сказали).
Упр.3.1.4. Заполните пропуски нужным возвратным местоимением.
a. He knows it _________ .
b. I understand your interest for this work. I’m so much interested in it ______ .
c. Jane is able to do it ________ .
d. Bring back the textbook. I need it ________ .
e. She has a habit of checking everything for ________ .
f. Boys, I’m leaving. Finish the work by _________ .
g. She’ll understand the situation _________ .
h. We shall do everything _______ .
i. Don’t take any medicine. Your headache will pass by ________ .
j. Go there and you’ll see everything for _______ .
k. He’ll get a ticket only for _______ .
l. John is making a mistake, I suppose. Later on he’ll be angry with _______ .
m.We prefer living by _______ .
n. The governor ________ will speak at the university.
o. That woman has put _______ in a difficult position.
p. Be careful! Don’t cut __________.
3.1.5. Обзорные упражнения по формам личных местоимений
Упр.3.1.5.a. Выберите местоимение необходимое по контексту из двух,
предложенных в скобках.
a. The director will hire the person (who, whom) has the best credentials.
b. The first ones in line were Nancy, Jim and (he, him).
63
c. His shoes are much newer than (her, hers).
d. They offered their seats to you and (I, me).
e. It was (she, her) who asked the question.
f. No one was surprised at (him, his) winning the contest.
g. There should be no secrets between you and (he, him).
h. (Who, Whom) was it that asked that question?
i. Beverly is a good friend of (me, mine).
j. The picnic won’t be any fun without you and (they, them)
k. I can’t figure out (who, whom) is on the phone.
l. John did all the homework by (him, himself).
m.Everyone but (he, him) did well on the test.
Упр.3.1.5.b. Определите, какой из подчеркнутых элементов предложения
содержит ошибку. Не всегда ошибка связана с неправильным употреблением
местоимения.
a. Jan Sibelius, a Finnish(A) composer(B), captured the spirit of him(C) country in his
music(D).
b. The injured(A) passengers on the airplane that(B) crashed found themself(C) miles
from the nearest(D) hospital.
c. Sequoya, whom English(A) name was(B) George Guess, invented(C) a syllabary for
the Cherokee(D) language.
d. Regarding(A) as the creator of the historical(B) novel, Sir Walter Scott captured
his(C) readers’ imagination with his(D) stirring tales.
e. At the age of(A) 26, William Shakespeare married(B) a woman who was eight years
older(C) than him(D).
f. The Queen of England she keeps(A) her(B) crown in the Tower of London where(C)
both tourists and English citizens can view it(D).
g. Faced with(A) the possibility of a water shortage during the summer month, the city
has asked it(B) citizens to limit(C) their use(D) of water.
h. As the population of Africa continues(A) to grow(B), animals will continue
to lose(C) theirs(D) native habitat.
3.2. Правила согласования местоимений
1) Два слова, соединенных двойным союзом both - and или два или более
слов, соединенных союзом and, соотносятся с местоимением во множественном
числе:
John, Mary and I are returning to our class.
Both John and Ann have passed their test.
Если подлежащим является местоимение each или every, то подлежащеесказуемое и характеризующее местоимение употребляются в единственном
числе:
Every man and woman is eligible to vote. Each student and teacher has
the textbook.
2) Неопределенные местоимения являются местоимениями единственного
числа и согласуются с глаголом в единственном числе. Любое из местоимений 364
го лица единственного числа может быть использовано вместо такого
подлежащего в зависимости от смысла предложения.
some any no every А также
each
- body
- one
- thing
somebody
anybody
nobody
everybody
someone
anyone
no one
everyone
something
anything
nothing
everything
either
Everyone must do his homework.
Neither of these books is very new.
neither.
He never puts anything back in its place.
Местоимение all, синоним местоимения everybody, является местоимением
множественного числа.
3) Когда два слова соединены разделительными союзами either … or,
neither … nor, not only … but also, то число сказуемого и местоимения
определяется по той части подлежащего, которая ближе к сказуемому:
Either the students or the teacher will give you his book.
Neither the professor nor the assistant-professors discuss their preparation for
lectures with students.
4)Выражение all of + (the) noun имеет единственное число, если
существительное неисчисляемое: All of the money is in bank.
и множественное число, если существительное исчисляемое:
All of the books have been thrown away.
5) Местоимения several, many, both, few являются множественными и
согласуются с глаголом во множественном числе.
6) Местоимение no употребляется перед существительными в единственном
и множественном числе. No = not a или not any:
I have no ticket = I haven’t a ticket.
I found no mistakes in your work. = I didn’t find any mistakes in your work.
I have no time to study this approach. = I haven’t any time to study this approach.
В качестве местоимения-существительного употребляется местоимение none,
которое заменяет как исчисляемое существительное в единственном и
множественном числе, так и неисчисляемое существительное:
Are there any defects in the sample?
No, there are none.
Упр.3.2.1. Употребите everybody или all.
1. ____ are so happy today! 2. _____ is so happy today! 3. _____ of them are bright
scientists. 4. ______ is present. 5. _____ of these research workers has his field of
research. 6. _____ the students have their holidays in July and August. 7. Where are the
children? _____ of them are outdoors. 8. ____ of them is so serious. 9. Where are _____
the boys? 10. ______ is so busy at present.
65
Упр.3.2.2. Прочитайте следующий текст. Сколько местоимений в нем
встречается?
Everybody, Somebody, Anybody and Nobody
This is a story about four people named Everybody, Somebody,
Anybody, and Nobody. There was an important job to be done
and Everybody was asked to do it. Everybody was sure
Somebody would do it. Anybody could have done it, but
Nobody did it. Somebody got angry about that, because it was
Everybody’s job. Everybody thought Anybody could do it but
Nobody realised that Everybody wouldn’t do it. It ended up
that Everybody blamed Somebody when Nobody did what
Anybody could have done.
Упр.3.2.3. Заполните пропуски местоимением необходимым по контексту.
a. Anyone who wishes can bring ______ husband to the party.
b. You can tell from the blood on the bench that someone on the football team hurt
_____ .
c. Both the cat and the dog spend _____ days outside.
d. Everyone should sit quietly until _____ is asked to speak.
e. Anyone who turns in a paper late will have _____ grade lowered.
Упр.3.2.4. Определите, какой из подчеркнутых элементов предложения содержит
ошибку и исправьте ее.
a. Each of the companies claims their products will outlast its competitors.
b. The recording equipment and their carrying case were never put back in their proper
place.
c. His family was shocked when James killed themselves.
d. That chain of discount stores will lose customers if it doesn’t improve their service
department.
e. The New York Times, renowned for their news coverage, recently increased its
readership.
f. Neither the students nor their teacher was happy with his test grades.
g. Just offstage stood the conductor and its assistants with their equipment.
h. The secretary put the letter back in her envelope and filed it.
i. Unlike his predecessor, the president feels it is in their country’s best interest to
reduce taxes.
j. Alaska’s North Scope has found itself full of geologists and its seismic equipment.
3.3. Вопросительные местоимения и относительные местоимения
3.3.1. Относительные местоимения
Местоимения, которые вводят определительные придаточные предложения,
относятся к предшествующим существительным. Выбор такого местоимения
зависит от определяемого существительного:
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who, whom - относятся к людям и домашним животным;
which - к предметам, собирательным существительным и к животным;
that, whose - применимы ко всем типам существительных.
Упр.3.3.1.a. В следующих примерах укажите те, в которых относительные
местоимения употреблены правильно. В остальных исправьте ошибку.
a. …… woman which ……
b. …… musician whom ……
c. …… actress that ……
d. ……. silver who ……
e. …… acrobat that ……
f. …… uncle which ……
g. …… antelope whose ……
h. …… disaster whom ……
i. …… arrival who ……
j. …… surgeon whom ……
k. The river which divides Texas and Mexico is the Rio Grande.
l. A friend recommended the doctor which is treating my son.
m.The beautician who does her hair is very good.
n. The senator which introduced the bill was defeated in the last election.
o. Tigers who live in Africa are endangered.
p. The artist whose works are on display is a native Texan.
q. The tape dispenser that Phyllis borrowed was mine.
r. The rain whom the crops needed never came.
s. The advantages of which he spoke are numerous.
3.4. Употребление неопределенных местоимений и их производных
Употребление неопределенных местоимений и их производных зависит от того,
является ли утвердительным, вопросительным или отрицательным предложение,
в котором они используются. Местоимение some и его производные
употребляются в утвердительных предложениях, а any в отрицательных
предложениях, общих вопросах и условных предложениях.
Some (а не any) употребляется в специальных вопросах, а также в общих
вопросах, если они содержат просьбу, предложение, приглашение или
спрашивающий рассчитывает на положительный ответ:
Would you like something to add?
Can I have some cold water?
Did someone just knock at the door?
*Упр.3.4.1. Заполните пропуски местоимениями some, any и их производными
(something, somewhere, someone, anyone, anything).
a. A Did you buy _______ at the shops?
B No, I didn’t have ______ money.
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b. A
B
A
c. A
B
d. A
B
A
e. A
B
Can I have ______ to eat, Mum? I’m starving.
Look at the fridge. I think there’s _______ cheese.
There isn’t ______ in the fridge. It’s completely empty.
Did you meet _______ interesting at the party?
Yes, I met _______ you know. Carlos, from Spain.
I bought ______ meat and ______ grapes.
Did you buy _______ cooking oil?
I couldn’t. They didn’t have ______ .
Have you got _____ scissors?
Yes. They are _________ in the kitchen, but I’m not sure exactly where.
Упр.3.4.2. Заполните пропуски местоимениями, образованными комбинацией
some, any, no, every + one, body, thing, where.
a. Put the picture _________ .I don’t mind where.
b. Does _______ want a game of tennis?
c. What’s the noise? Can you hear _______ screaming?
d. I’m going to the shops. Do you want ______ ?
e. You look familiar. Haven’t I seen you ________ before?
f. She left the room without saying _______ .
g. Is there _______ quiet we can go to talk in private?
h. This doesn’t look a very nice restaurant. Can’t we go ______ else?
i. I must have asked fifteen people, but ________ knows the answer.
j. Midas was a king in Greek mythology. _______ he touched turned to gold.
Упр.3.4.3. Заполните пропуски предложенными словами. Некоторые слова можно
использовать больше, чем один раз.
any, anywhere, everywhere, somewhere, nothing, everyone / body, anyone /
body, someone / body, everyone / body, anything, no-one / body
“Is ______ (1) here?”, said Mrs Thomas to the students on the coach. “Is _____(2)
missing?” “I think _____ (3) is missing “, replied one student. “It’s Peter.” “Does
_____ (4) know where he is?” asked Mrs Thomas. ______ (5) answered. Mrs Thomas
asked Mr Smith to go back into the museum to look for Peter. Ten minutes later Mr
Smith returned alone. “I can’t find him _____ (6)”, he said.
“I looked _____ (7)”. “Did Peter say ______ (8) to _______ (9)?” said Mrs Thomas to
the students.
“No, ______ (10) at all”, muttered several students. “_______(11) suggestions?” said
Mrs Thomas.
“I think ______ (12) should go and look for him. One of us is bound to find him”,
suggested another student. “He must be ______ (13)” “But where?” said Mrs
Thomas. “He could be _____(14).”
So _______ (15) got off the coach, went back to the museum and spread out to search
for Peter. After a few minutes _____ (16) found him, still engrossed by the museum
fascinating exhibits.
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3.5. Употребление местоимений this, that (these, those), another, other
Указательные местоимения this, that имеют форму множественного числа these,
those, а местоимение another употребляется всегда только с существительным в
единственном числе. Местоимение other употребляется как с единственным, так и
со множественным числом существительного и имеет при себе либо
определенный артикль, либо не имеет артикля в соответствии с правилами
употребления артиклей. Существует также существительное множественного
числа the others – другие, остальные.
Упр.3.5.1. Поставьте в пропуски одно из местоимений (the) other, another, (the)
others.
a. I lost my watch, my pen and some _____ things.
b. The village is on ______ side of the river.
c. You are wet through. Change into ______ clothes.
d. I must put on ______ coat before going to the party.
e. ~ Have you any ______ books on the subject?
~ I am sorry, but there are no ______ .
f. Take this chair away and bring me ______ .
g. Give me _____ glove.
h. “Is there _____ train to Kiev this evening?” “Yes, there is one that leaves at
midnight and there are two ______ that leave early in the morning”.
i. He took two books and left _____ on the table.
j. I saw Michael just _____ day in Hyde Park.
k. Heather goes to her cottage in the country every _____ weekend.
3.6. Местоимения much, many, little и few другие квантификаторы
В качестве местоимений-прилагательных эти местоимения употребляются
следующим образом:
Исчисляемые
Неисчисляемые
существительные
существительные
Много: many: Do you study many plant much: I haven’t much work to do
cells?
today.
Мало:
few: He has few friends.
little: I have very little time.
~ Much и many употребляются главным образом в вопросительных и
отрицательных предложениях. В утвердительных предложениях much и many
употребляются только, когда они определяются словами very, rather, too, so, as,
how или когда они служат подлежащим или определением к подлежащему: There
are too many pages in this article.
Many people attended the meeting.
В других случаях в утвердительных предложениях употребляются выражения
• a lot (of), lots, plenty (of) c исчисляемыми (во множественном числе) и
неисчисляемыми существительными: We have plenty of time.
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• a great/good deal of, a large/small amount of с неисчисляемыми
существительными: Russia exports a great deal of timber.
• a great/good/small number of c исчисляемыми существительными (во
множественном числе).
~ A little переводится как немного, а a few – немного, несколько:
Please give me a little water.
We have a few experimental results.
~The little переводится как то небольшое количество, а the few – те несколько,
те немногие:
Gold is one of the few metals which are found in a virgin state.
*Упр.3.6.1. Найдите и исправьте ошибки в следующих предложениях. Помните,
что глаголы и указательные местоимения, относящиеся к неисчисляемым
существительным, употребляются в единственном числе, а сами существительные
не имеют формы множественного числа и не употребляются с неопределенным
артиклем.
a. How much of the tourists actually realises the problems they cause?
b. Little of the soils can be used for cultivation now the trees have been cut down.
c. A large number of equipment are needed to camp at the bottom of the Grand Canyon.
d. A large number of rainforests is being cut down every year.
e. Much governments believes that nuclear power are the key to future energy
problems.
f. The Park Ranger gave me several good advices about camping in the national park.
g. The amount of traffic are causing too many congestions in major cities.
h. A great number of research has been done into the pollution produced by the cars in
cities. Unfortunately, very few of them are taken seriously by politicians.
*Упр.3.6.2. Перефразируйте предложения, используя слова few, a few, little, a
little. Сделайте другие необходимые изменения.
a. Help yourself to a biscuit. There are one or two left in the tin.
b. My days are so busy that I don’t have much time for relaxation.
c. She’s exceptionally generous. Hardly anyone gives more money to charity than she
does.
d. There’s a tiny bit of butter left, but not much.
e. He keeps trying, although he doesn’t have much chance of success.
f. “I’m afraid you need three or four fillings,” said the dentist.
g. He must have made a hundred clocks in his life, but only one or two of them ever
worked properly.
h. She wasn’t very hungry. She just had one or two spoonfuls of soup.
3.7. Обзорные упражнения на местоимения
Упр. 3.7.1. Выберите требуемый по контексту вариант
a. I have three dogs. All/Every of them love going for a walk, but neither/none of them
likes being brushed.
b. You can borrow either/each the Renault or the Rover. They're all/both in the garage.
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с. My two daughters are each/both good at languages, but none/neither of them can do
maths at all.
d. I have a shower every/each day.
e. I've got thirty people in my class, and every/each student is special to me.
f. 'How much are the roses?' 'One pound either/each.'
g. I have any/no idea how I spend all my money. At the end of every/either month, it's
all gone.
h. I know every/each word of his songs by heart.
i. There are fifteen rooms in this hotel. Each/Every room is a little different.
j. You can have either /each an orange or an apple, but you can't have either/both.
k. 'Tea or coffee?' 'Either /Neither, thanks. I've got to rush.'
1. 'Red wine or white?' 'Either /Neither, whichever is open.'
m. I know either/both Robert and his brother, but I don't like both/either of them.
n. 'Can you help me with my homework?' 'Sure. None/No problem.'
о. I have four brothers. Every/Each of us is different.
**Упр.3.7.2. Заполните пропуски требуемым по контексту местоимением из
предложенного списка. Некоторые местоимения могут употребляться несколько
раз.
a) it
b) their
c) its
d) all
e) some
f) another
I. Chinese people have made the most successful study of earthquakes because China
has had the world’s worst earthquakes. Two times in (1) _____ history, in 1556 and in
1976, more than half a million people lost (2) _____ lives in earthquakes. In the winter
of 1974-1975 there were readable signs twice. Almost (3) _____ the people left the
cities, but the earthquake did not happen. Two months later the experts again warned
the people. (4) _____ were unwilling to leave (5) _____ homes. (6) ______ thought
(7)______ was (8) ________ false alarm. However the police evacuated the dangerous
areas. This time a severe earthquake did happen. Thousands of lives were saved.
g) who; h) every; i) everybody; j) what; k) which; l) a few
To know (9) _____ is going on in the world is (10) _____ person’s right today, but it
was once the luxury of (11) _____ leaders. Even so, the knowledge of events was slow
in getting to the privileged class. Today, a world wide system of communication makes
news available quickly to nearly (12) ____ (13) _____ can read, to (14) _____ person
(15) ______ has a radio, to (16) _____ (17) _____ can watch TV.
a) this
b) another c) neither … nor d) which
f) both … and
g) all
h) its
i) us.
e) some
II. (1)____ years ago mathematicians (2) ____ over the world observed the 100th
anniversary of the first proof of the prime number theorem. (3) ____ famous theorem
tells (4)____ what proportion of the positive integers are prime numbers. The
emergence of number theory as a by-product of numerology is analogous to that of
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(5)____ great science, astronomy, (6)____ owes (7)____ origins to a pseudoscience,
astrology. Numbers that aren’t prime are composite, except that the number 1 is (8)____
prime ____ composite. This theorem has grown into a vast and beautiful branch of
mathematics that for centuries has attracted the attention of (9)____ amateur ____
professional mathematicians.
3.8. Тесты на местоимения
Упр.3.8.1. Выберите правильный ответ (в некоторых случаях правильным может
быть больше, чем один вариант).
1. I’m going to a wedding on Saturday. __________ is getting married.
A a friend of me
B a friend of mine
C one my friends
2. What time shall we _________ this evening?
A meet
B meet us
C meet ourselves
3. They live on a busy road. ___________ a lot of noise from the traffic.
A it must be B there must be
C there must have
D it must have
4. He’s lazy. He never does ________ work.
A some
B any
C no
5. “What would you like to eat?” “I don’t mind ________ - whatever you have got.”
A something
B anything
C nothing
6. We couldn’t buy anything because ________ of the shops were open.
A all
B no one
C none
D nothing
7. When we were on holiday, we spent __________ money.
A a lot of
B much
C too much
8. __________ don’t visit this part of the town.
A the most tourists
B most of tourists
C most tourists
9. I asked two people the way to the station but _______ of them knew .
A none
B either
C both
D neither
10. It was a great party. ________ enjoyed it.
A everybody
B all
C all of us
D everybody of us
11. The bus service is very good. There’s a bus ________ ten minutes.
A each
B every
C all
12. A black box is a device _______ internal workings are immaterial and __________
behaviour can be examined only at its input and output terminals.
A that
B those
C which
D whose
Упр.3.8.2. Определите, какой из подчеркнутых элементов предложения содержит
ошибку
1. The more (A) profits US corporations earn in another (B) countries, the less (C) they
need to care (D) about infrastructure and education in their country.
2. Any (A) material that (B) carries an (C) electric current even a straight wire - exhibit
(D) all the characteristics of the passive circuit elements: resistance, capacitance and
inductance.
3. We are not against him (A) being (B) present (C) at the coming (D) conference.
4. Both (A) of airliners (B) arrived (C) on (D) time.
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5. Among pure pharmaceuticals (A), the earliest to be isolated from (B) natural (C)
sources they were (D) the alkaloids.
6. My friend makes (A) less (B) mistakes in English than (C) I do (D).
Упр. 3.8.3. Заполните пропуски выражением необходимым по контексту из
предложенного списка.
a) much
e) few
b) a great deal c) many
d) some
f) most
g) several h) little
To smoke or not to smoke?
The problem of smoking is (1)_____ under discussion. Some people smoke, (2)_____
don't. (3) _____of those smoking wish to give it up, and a great
(4) _____heavy smokers often make (5)_____ attempts before they give up either
smoking or the attempts. It requires not a (6)_____ will power and (7)_____ of
determination. So only (8)_____ succeed. And those (9)_____ say that they have felt so
(10)______ better ever since.
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Глава 4. Предлог
Так как в современном английском языке падежные окончания почти полностью
отсутствуют, то предлоги играют важную роль, являясь одним из главных средств
выражения отношения существительного (или местоимения) к другим словам в
предложении. Предлоги выражают пространственные, временные, причинные и
др. отношения. Многие предлоги имеют несколько значений: at the table, at 5
o’clock, to laugh at sb. Некоторые глаголы могут употребляться с различными
предлогами, меняя свое значение в зависимости от предлога: to look at sb –
смотреть на кого-то; to look for sb – искать кого-то; to look after sb- присматривать
за кем-то.
Предлоги также входят в состав большого числа словосочетаний и выражений.
Некоторые глаголы в английском языке требуют после себя предлога, в то время
как после соответствующих им русских глаголов предлог не употребляется: to
wait for smb.- ждать кого-то; to listen to smb.- слушать кого-то. С другой стороны,
в английском языке есть ряд глаголов, которые не требуют после себя предлога,
тогда как соответствующие им русские глаголы употребляются с предлогами: to
follow smb. - следовать за кем-то; to enter smth.- входить в.
Предлоги бывают простые (of, for, on), сложные (below, between), составные (in
front of, out of).
Предлоги обычно ставятся перед существительными, к которым они относятся,
однако в ряде случаев могут стоять после них, а также в конце предложения:
This is a picture on the wall.
What street do you live in?
This novel is much spoken about.
Следует также отличать случаи так называемого несвободного, фиксированного
употребления предлогов в том или ином сочетании слов:
on duty, on foot; а также широкое употребление послелогов, то есть предлогов,
обязательных для ряда глаголов и стоящих после них: (to laugh at, to listen to и
т.д.)
Можно выделить три относительно большие группы предлогов: предлоги
времени, предлоги места, предлоги направления.
4.1. Предлоги времени
Ниже перечислены основные предлоги времени.
on – on Sunday, on the tenth of February, on sunny Wednesday morning
in – in two days, in September, in the morning/evening/ afternoon
at – at 7 o'clock, at noon
by – by 3 o'clock, by the end of the month
from … till – from early morning till late at night
since – since 5 o'clock, since midnight
for – for an hour, for ages
during – during the lecture, during the break
before – before the bell, before winter
after – after the break, after classes
till (until) – till May, till the end of the year
between – between one and two o’clock
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Упр.4.1.1. A Заполните пропуски правильным предлогом in, at или on.
a. I get up early ____ the morning and go to bed late ____ night.
b. I’m so bored. There’s nothing to do ___ weekends.
c. He went swimming ___ Sunday morning, and ____ the evening he played squash.
d. I love going for walks ____ summer. It’s still light ___ nine o’clock.
e. I take my annual holiday ____ June, but I have a few days off ____ Christmas.
f. He usually starts work ____ 9.30, but ____ Friday he starts ____ 8.30.
g. I was born ____ 18 January 1954.
h. People exchange presents ____ Christmas Day.
i. This house was built ____ the nineteenth century.
Упр.4.1.1.B С какими выражениями времени используются указанные предлоги?
Продолжите списки.
in the morning
___________
___________
at night
___________
___________
on Sunday morning
________________
________________
Упр.4.1.3. Все предложения этого упражнения относятся к прошедшему времени.
Заполните пропуски требуемым по контексту словом из предложенного списка. В
некоторых случаях предлог не требуется.
ago
last
in
for
at
when
on.
Пример: I arrived home at six o’clock last night.
I saw Jane -- yesterday.
a. I was born in Africa _____ 1970.
b. My parents moved back to England ____ I was five.
c. We lived in Bristol ____ three years.
d. I went to college three years ___ .
e. I found a flat on my own ____ last year.
f. I usually go home ____ the weekend.
g. I didn’t go home ____ weekend because some friends come to stay.
h. They arrived ____ three o’clock ____ the afternoon.
i. ____ Saturday evening we went out to a concert.
j. ____ we got home we listened to some music.
k. We got up late ____ Sunday morning.
l. ____ the afternoon we went for a walk.
m. I bought a car a few weeks ____ .
n. I had an accident ____ last night.
o. It happened ____ 7.00 ____ the evening.
p. I took my car to the garage ____ this morning.
Упр.4.1.4. Употребите нужные предлоги времени.
____ February; ____ Monday; ____ 11 o’clock; ____ night; ____ the daytime; ____
March; ____ an autumn day; ____ what time? late ____ the evening; ____ Friday;
75
____ the XYIII century; ____ June; ____ the afternoon; ____ 2 o’clock p.m.; ____ the
1st Sunday; ____ a fine September day; ____ Friday evening; ____ noon; (через) ____
a fortnight; ____ the 2nd ____ December; ____ midnight; _____ sunny summer
morning.
Упр.4.1.5. Заполните пропуски словами while (1), during (2) или for (3).
While - это союз, за которым следует придаточное предложение (подлежащее +
сказуемое). Если говорят “X happened while Y happened”, то это означает, что
события X и Y случились в одно и то же время.
Пример: I met Peter while I was studying at university.
During - это предлог и за ним следует существительное. Значение его то же, что и
у while - в течение, во время: during the film /lesson / afternoon / football match.
Пример: I worked on a farm during the holidays.
Словосочетания с while и during отвечают на вопрос When? - Когда?
Словосочетания с for отвечают на вопрос How long? - Сколько времени? Как
долго?
Пример: I lived there for three years / six months.
Следует помнить, что a while - существительное, означающее период времени: for
a while, for a long while.
a. I fell and hurt myself ________ I was playing tennis.
b. It started to rain ________ the match.
c. We played tennis _______ two hours.
d. I worked in Italy ______ three years.
e. _____ the summer I stayed on a farm in Tuscany.
f. I learned Italian _____ I was there.
g. We went on holiday to Florida _____ three weeks.
h. ______ the day it was very hot, but it was cool at night.
i. We went to Disneyland _____ we were there.
j. We had a lovely meal yesterday. We sat at the table _____ three hours.
k. _____ the meal we exchanged news.
l. _____ I was talking to Barbara, I learned that Tony was in hospital.
Упр. 4.1.6. Заполните пропуски одним из следующих предлогов времени.
at
on
in
for
since
during
by
until
a. Jack has gone away. He’ll be back in a week.
b. We’re having a party _____ Saturday. Can you come?
c. I’ve got an interview next week. It’s _____ 9.30 ________ Tuesday morning.
d. Sue isn’t usually here ______ weekends. She goes away.
e. The train service is very good. The trains are nearly always ____ time.
f. It was a confusing situation. Many things were happening ____ the same time.
g. I couldn’t decide whether or not to buy the sweater. _____ the end I decided not to.
h. The road is busy all the time, even _____ night.
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i. I was woken up by a loud noise _____ the night.
j. I saw Helen _____ Friday but I haven’t seen her ____ then.
k. Brian has been doing the same job ____ five years.
l. Ann’s birthday is _____ the end of March. I’m not sure exactly which day it is.
m.
We’ve got some friends staying with us ______ the moment. They’re staying
____ Friday.
n. If you are interested in applying the job, your application must be received ____
Friday.
*Упр.4.1.7. Заполните пропуски соответствующим предлогом времени.
a. I lived in Paris ________ five years, ____ 1970 _____ 1975.
b. Beethoven began his musical education _____ the age of five.
c. We never see our cat. _____ the day it sleeps, and it goes out _____ night.
d. I don’t usually go out _____ the evening, except ______ Monday evening, when I go
to play snooker.
e. Generations of my family have lived in the same house ____ 1800.
f. ~ A How long are you staying here?
~ B _____ the end of the month. Then I have to go home.
g. I mustn’t forget my library books. I must take them back _______ the 24th.
h. I’m just going out to get a newspaper. If anyone rings, tell them I’ll be back _____ a
few minutes.
i. Are you going away _______ Easter, or are you staying at home?
j. I met my husband in Wales. ______ the time, I was working in a travel agent’s.
4.2. Предлоги места и направления
Основные предлоги места:
on – on the desk, on the wall
in – in the room, in the street
at – at the window, at the meeting, at the table
near – near the door, near the wall
by – by the river
over – over the table, over the sea
above – above the sofa
beyond - beyond the lake, beyond the forest
across – across the street
under – under the table, under the bed
between – between two chairs, between the doors
among – among the students, among them
behind – behind the house, behind the tree
across – across the street, across the river
in front of – in front of the house, in front of the column
through – through the window, through the glass
Предлоги направления:
to – to the library, to the south, to the park
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towards – towards the forest, towards the house
from – from the table, from the north
along – along the street
into – into the room, into the box
out of – out of the house, out of the drawer
off –off the table, off the wall
Упр.4.2.1. Употребите нужные предлоги места.
____ the South; ___ the stadium; __ the corner; ___the post-office; __ the factory; 8.
What are the office hours ____ you?____ the meeting; __ the sky; __ the hostel; __ the
station; __ the fifth floor; ____ the concert; ____ the picture; ____ the apple-tree; __ the
forest; ___the newspaper; __ Ottawa; ____ the chemist’s; ____ the USA; ____ the air.
Упр.4.2.2. Заполните пропуски соответствующим предлогом.
at
on
in
by
of
to
a. I’d love to be able to visit every country _____ the world.
b. “Have you read any books _____ Margaret White?” “No, I’ve never heard of her.”
c. “Is there a bank near here?” “Yes, there’s one _____ the end of this road.”
d. Tim is away at the moment. He’s ______ holiday.
e. You’ve got a dirty mark ____ your cheek. Have a look _____ the mirror.
f. We went _____ a party ______ Linda’s house on Saturday.
g. Bombay is _____ the west coast of India.
h. Look at the leaves ______ the tree. They’re a beautiful colour.
i. “Have you ever been _____ Tokyo?” “No, I’ve never been _____ Japan.”
j. Mozart died _____ Vienna in 1791 _____ the age of 35.
k. “Are you _____ this photograph?” “Yes, that’s me, _____ the left.”
l. We went ______ the theatre last night. We had seats _____ the front row.
m.
“Where’s the light switch?” “It’s _____ the wall _____ the door.”
n. What time did you arrive _____ the party?
o. I couldn’t decide what to eat. There was nothing ___ the menu that I liked.
p. We live _____ a tower block. Our flat is _____ the fifteenth floor.
q. “What did you think of the film?” “Some parts were a bit stupid but ____ the whole I
enjoyed it.”
r. When you paid the hotel bill, did you pay ___ cash or _____ credit card?
s. “How did you get here? ____ the bus?” “No, _____ car.”
t. A “I wonder what’s _____ television this evening. Have you got a newspaper?”
u. B “Yes, the TV programmes are _____ the back page.”
Упр.4.2.3. Заполните пропуски требуемым по контексту предлогом из
предложенного списка.
above across against
beneath
beside
among
onto
around
over
behind
out of
a. The cowboy leant _____ the bar in the saloon, drinking a beer.
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towards below
b. She took her purse _____ her bag and paid the taxi driver.
c. Our cat just loves to curl up ________ the fire and go to sleep.
d. The view from the top of the mountain was breathtaking. We could see the town and
the river ______ us, and people who looked like ants.
e. Last night the temperature fell to three degrees _____ zero.
f. The burglar heard a noise coming from upstairs, so he hid _____ the curtains.
g. The dog jumped _____ my lap, and settled down for a good sleep.
h. The hunter froze as the tiger started running ____ him. He had nowhere to hide.
i. She has beautiful works of art all ____ her house, even in the kitchen and the
bedroom.
j. These days, politicians like to walk ____ the crowds, shaking hands and saying one
or two words.
k. He climbed _____ the wall and ran _____ the field.
l. The plane took off and was soon flying _____ the clouds.
4.3. Предлоги, которыми пользуются, когда речь идет о способе путешествия
Это предлоги by, on и in . При использовании предлога by между предлогом и
словом, определяющим способ путешествия (air, sea, car, bus и т.д.), нет ни
артикля, ни притяжательного местоимения. Предлог on употребляется, если есть
артикль или притяжательное местоимение (on the train, on my bicycle, on his horse)
(Исключение - on foot). Предлог in используется так же, как и on, но только с
автомобилем, как средством передвижения (in the taxi, in your car).
*Упр.4.3.1. Выберите соответствующий предлог.
a. I saw him riding into town on / by his bicycle yesterday.
b. He’d rather go on / by bus than drive there himself.
c. She sent him home in / by a taxi.
d. That’s much too far to travel on / in foot.
e. Did you take the tunnel to France, or did you go on / in the ferry?
f. She rode through town on / by her horse.
g. Let’s go home in / by taxi - I can’t be bothered to walk.
h. She sometimes gets sick when travelling on / by sea.
i. He flies round the world in / by his own private jet.
j. The quickest way to get there is on / by air.
Упр.4.3.2. Закончите второе предложение так, чтобы оно имело то же значение,
что и первое. Используйте выделенное слово и от двух до пяти других слов.
a. Air travel frightens many people.
plane
Many people find travelling ___________ frightening.
b. The train is the quickest way to get to London from here. on
The quickest way to get to London from here ________ train.
c. Sometimes it is quicker to walk than to drive to work.
foot
Sometimes it is quicker to go to _________ than to drive.
d. The bicycle is my favourite form of transport.
by
I prefer __________ than any other way.
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e. We used the car that belonged to my uncle to drive to Wales. drove
We _____________ my uncle’s car.
4.4. Предложные сочетания
4.4.1. Существительные и прилагательные с последующими предлогами
Многие существительные и прилагательные требуют после себя определенных
предлогов, образуя устойчивые сочетания, которые необходимо запоминать.
Выполнение следующих упражнений позволит повторить наиболее типичные
сочетания существительных и прилагательных с последующими предлогами.
Упр.4.4.1.a. Заполните пропуски соответствующим предлогом из предложенного
списка.
for
in
with
between
into to
of
about
a. I got a cheque _____ five hundred pounds in the post today.
b. There has been a rise _____ the number of violent crimes.
c. Have you seen this photo _____ my daughter? Isn’t she beautiful?
d. The difference _____ you and me is that I don’t mind hard work.
e. I can think of no reason _____ such strange behaviour.
f. It took a long time to find a solution _____ the problem.
g. Could you give me some information _____ train times?
h. I’m having trouble _____ my car. It won’t start.
i. She’s doing research _____ the causes of tooth decay.
j. This is a machine _____ grinding coffee.
Упр.4.4.1.b. После многих прилагательных в составном сказуемом с глаголом to
be используются предлоги. Выберите правильный вариант.
a. Who isn’t present ________ the lesson?
A on
B at
C from
b. Why are you afraid ________ him?
A of
B C with
c. Are you angry _______ her?
A on
B at
C with
d. What is John ill ________ ?
A with B by
C e. John Smith is proud ________ his progress in Russian.
A with B of
C by
f. I am quite sure ________ good results of our research.
A in
B with
C of
g. The old woman is seriously ill. All are afraid ________ her.
A of
B for
C h. I am sorry _______ the girl. She isn’t able to pass the exam.
A for
B about C -
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Упр.4.4.1.c. Заполните пропуски соответствующим предлогом.
a. The plan has been changed but nobody seems to know the reason ____ this.
b. Don’t ask me to decide. I’m not very good ____ making decisions.
c. Some people say that Sue is unfriendly but she’s always very nice ____ me.
d. What do you think is the best solution ____ the problem?
e. There has been a big increase _____ the price of land recently.
f. He lives a rather lonely life. He doesn’t have much contact _____ other people.
g. Paula is a keen photographer. She likes taking pictures _____ people.
h. Gordon got married ____ a woman he met when he was studying at college.
i. He’s very brave. He’s not afraid ____ anything.
j. I’m surprised ____ the amount of traffic today. I didn’t think it would be so busy.
k. Thank you for lending me the guidebook. It was full ____ useful information.
l. Please come in and sit down. I’m sorry ____ the mess.
m.
She was angry ____ me _____ breaking her best plate.
n. Canterbury is famous ____ its ancient cathedral.
o. Bill is jealous ____ anyone who has something he hasn’t.
p. I’m very proud ____ my two daughters. They are so clever.
q. You’re very different ____ your husband. I thought you’d be quite similar ____ each
other.
r. Are you excited ____ going to Greece?
s. Many foreigners find driving in Britain quite difficult. They’re not used ____ driving
on the left.
t. You are responsible ____ your own actions.
u. Sweets are bad ____ your teeth, but fruit is good ____ them.
v. I’m terribly short _____ time.
4.4.2. Устойчивые выражения с предлогами
Другую большую группу устойчивых предложных сочетаний образуют предлоги
со следующими за ними существительными. Именно в таких словосочетаниях
происходит немотивированное употребление или отсутствие артикля перед
существительным (см. раздел 1.8 настоящего пособия).
Некоторые словосочетания меняют свое значение зависимости от используемого
предлога. Например, выражение at the beginning (of the story) означает в начале с
хронологической точки зрения. А выражения in the beginning и at first
подразумевают противопоставление, то, что обстоятельства позднее изменятся.
Выражение at the end (of the story) означает в конце с хронологической точки
зрения. А выражение in the end подразумевает разрешение некой проблемы или
неопределенности, о которой речь шла ранее.
Когда используются наречия finally и eventually, то это означает долгое ожидание
результата, положительного или отрицательного. Выражение at last предполагает
долгое ожидание положительного результата.
Сравните следующие пары предложений.
a. John and Anita got married at the beginning of May.
In the beginning, the marriage worked well, but problems soon began to emerge.
b. At the end of the war, the soldiers all went home.
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We had a long and bitter argument, but in the end I realized he was right after all.
c. I burnt the meat and dropped the vegetables, but the meal turned out all right in the
end.
At last the waiter brought them their meal, but by then it was cold.
*Упр.4.4.2.a. Заполните пропуски одним из данных предлогов. Запомните
получившиеся предложные словосочетания. Цифры показывают, сколько раз
следует использовать данный предлог.
in x 4
on x3
out of x2
for х2
at
by
a. After running up the stairs he was __________ breath.
b. My sister and I are very different. We don’t have much ______ common at all.
c. I don’t want to go to Franco’s Restaurant again. We always go there. Let’s go
somewhere else ____ a change.
d. I don’t dislike Jane. ______ the contrary, I’m very fond of her.
e. _______ general I go abroad for my holidays, but occasionally I stay at home.
f. It always pays to buy high-quality goods. _____ the long run it’s cheaper.
g. You most certainly cannot borrow my car. It’s completely ______ the question.
h. This is a very important decision. All our lives are _____ stake.
g. I went on holiday _____ my own because sometimes I like being _____ myself.
k. I’ll do it tomorrow. No, _____ second thoughts, I’ll do it today.
l. I’ll love you _____ ever!
m. Thank you ____ advance.
*Упр.4.4.2.b. Заполните пропуски соответствующим предлогом.
a. At two thousand pounds, the car looks like a bargain. It’s _____ very good condition.
b. Don’t talk to me at the moment. Five bills arrived in the post today. I’m _____ a bad
mood.
c. ____ average, I spend about thirty pounds a week on food.
d. The house was _____ fire, but the blaze was soon brought _____ control.
e. As I’m the deputy, I’m _____ charge of the office while the manager is away.
f. I can see the arguments for capital punishment, but personally I’m not ____ favour of
it.
g. Don’t give me any money for it. You can have it _____ nothing.
h. It’s a good idea ______ theory, but I don’t think it’ll work _____ practice.
i. When you go away, you’ll keep ____ touch, won’t you? I want to hear all your news.
j. I don’t think you dropped the vase _____ accident. I think you did it ____ purpose.
Упр.4.4.2c. Переведите следующие выражения на английский язык:
решение проблемы; наоборот; в общем; в среднем; в конце концов; сам по
себе; случайно; намеренно; отвечать (быть ответственным за что-либо); в
пользу чего-либо; навсегда; в теории и на практике; отличаться от; иметь много
общего; быть в цейтноте; хорошо уметь (что-либо сделать); заранее.
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*Упр.4.4.2.d. Заполните пропуски соответствующим словом или выражением из
приведенного списка
at the beginning
in the beginning
at the end
in the end
finally
at first
eventually
a. After the operation, he went home to recuperate. ______ he made good progress, but
his condition soon began to deteriorate.
b. ____ of the film, we are introduced to the two main characters, Bill and Sarah
Cunningham.
c. Damain told me the other day that he wants to be an astronaut. I didn’t believe him
______ , but then I realized he was serious!
d. She spent days trying to decide what to do. She _______ decided that the best course
of action was to do nothing.
e. I’ve spent thousand of pounds trying to get my driving licence, and now, after
seventeen goes, I’ve got it ________!
f. They tried hard to make the marriage work, but their hearts weren’t in it, and they got
divorced ________ .
g. The story jumps around from place to place, and there are characters introduced who
don’t seem to be connected. ________ , you have very little idea of what it was all
about.
h. I had to wait weeks for the cheque to come, but it arrived ________ .
4.5. Глагол и предлог
Можно выделить следующие типы комбинаций глагола с частицей.
1. Глаголы с закрепленными предлогами.
2. Глаголы с последующим предлогом или наречием, совпадающим по форме с
предлогом, образующие новую лексическую единицу, которая часто имеет
несколько значений. Количество таких комбинаций глаголов с последующим
предлогом или наречием (послелогом) (phrasal verbs) в английском языке очень
велико.
4.5.1. Глаголы с закрепленными предлогами
Упр.4.5.1.a. Заполните пропуски соответствующим предлогом.
a. I applied ____ the job that I saw advertised ____ the paper.
b. I think you’re quite right. I absolutely agree _____ you.
c. They are arguing ____ who’s going to win the World Cup.
d. Water consists ____ hydrogen and oxygen.
e. After six months of working overtime, she succeeded _____ paying off her debts.
f. It took him a long time to recover ____ the injuries he sustained in the car crash.
g. I’d like to complain ____ the manager _____ the state of my room. It isn’t very tidy.
h. Compared ____ many countries, the cost of living in Spain is quite low.
i. She was concentrating so hard _____ her book that she didn’t hear me come into the
room.
j. Do you believe _____ reincarnation? I do.
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k. Who does that car belong _____? It’s in my way.
l. Could I speak ____ you for a moment ____ our plans for next month? It’s rather
important.
m.
Gold is not affected ____ moisture.
n. The work was divided ____ four students.
o. The ship cruises ____ Odessa and Batumi.
Упр.4.5.1.b. Закончите вопросы необходимым предлогом.
a. What are you worrying ________?
i. Who do you agree ________?
b. What do you hope ________?
j. Who did you cooperate ________?
k. Who have you just danced _______?
c. What exam are you preparing ________?
d. Where are you hurrying ________?
l. Who has it happened ________?
e. Who are you waiting ________?
m. Who have you learned it ________?
f. What are you listening ________?
g. What railway station does this train arrive ________ ?
h. What have you congratulated John _________ ?
Упр.4.5.1.c. Задайте вопросы по образцу (не к подлежащему).
Пример: I’m waiting.
Who are you waiting for?
a. Sh! I’m listening. What ____________ ?
b. Jane’s talking. Who _____________ ? What ___________ ?
c. Sh! I’m thinking. What ______________ ?
d. They’re looking everywhere. What ______________ ?
e. She’s going on holiday. Who _____________ ?
f. I’m going out. Who _____________ ?
g. I had a dream last night. What ________________ ?
h. I had an argument with Bert yesterday.
What ________________ ?
i. Jerry ‘s in love. Who _____________ ?
j. Sophie’s getting married. Who ___________________ ?
Упр.4.5.1.d. Преобразуйте утверждения в вопросы к выделенным словам.
Пример: Who are you looking at? I’m looking at that man.
a. ________________________ She’s talking about politics.
b. ________________________ I’m waiting for the postman to arrive.
c. ________________________ He works for the American government.
d. _______________________ I’m writing to the Prime Minister.
e. ________________________ She was angry with her husband.
f. ________________________ The house belongs to Mr Briggs.
g. ________________________ The letter’s for you.
h. ________________________ I stayed with some friends.
4.5.2. Глаголы to be и to get с предлогами и наречиями
Глаголы to be и to get являются одними из “рекордсменов” по количеству
идиоматических выражений, которые они образуют с предлогами и наречиями.
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Ниже дан ряд значений глагола to get с послелогами:
to get up - to climb (e.g. a wall)
to get sth off - to remove (e.g. a stain)
to get off - to leave (e.g. a train, a bus)
to get back - to return
to get in - to enter
to get away - to escape
to get through - to pass with difficulty
to get in touch with - to make contact (e.g. on the phone)
to get on with/ get along – to be friendly to sb
to get at (sth) – to manage to reach sth
to get sb down – to make someone feel depressed
to get on – used for asking or talking about how well one has done a
particular activity
Упр.4.5.2.a. Закончите предложения нужным предлогом или наречием из
предложенного списка.
away
back
out of
over
up
out
in
off
a. Many people are ________ work in the north-east of England.
b. Don’t phone for the next few weeks. I’ll be ________ on business.
c. I should be ________ on the 10th of March.
d. I was ______ all the night with the baby. She just wouldn’t sleep.
e. It had been a long winter, but at last it was nearly ________ .
f. I phoned you, but there was no reply. You must have been _______ .
g. Are you sure? I’ve been ______ all day, and I didn’t hear the phone.
h. We’re ____ sugar. Could you get some more when you go to the shops?
i. I’m ________ to Italy tomorrow, so I won’t see you for a while.
Попробуйте передать смысл предложений с помощью синонимов.
Например: Many people are out of work in the north-east of England
Many people are unemployed in the north-east of England.
Упр.4.5.2.b. Закончите следующие предложения, используя фразовые глаголы на
основе глагола get.
a. I must put this vase in a place where the children __________ .
b. I know I shouldn’t let this comments ________ but I can’t help feeling upset.
c. How are you ________ in your new job?
d. A How __________ with your flatmate?
B Not very well at all. He is a smoker, and I can’t bear the smell.
e. Jim’s only just beginning to __________ his disappointment.
f. My house was burgled yesterday. The burglar managed to _______ .
g. The police were called, but the burglar ______ .
h. We were in the capital when war broke out. Naturally we _____ .
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i. The journey was terrible. We didn’t _____ until three in the morning.
j. Someone spilt wine on the carpet, but I _____ .
k. I’ve been trying _____ to you for ages, but you’re always engaged.
4.5.3. Другие глаголы с послелогами
Упр.4.5.3.a. Повторите значения некоторых фразовых глаголов с глаголом look.
Заполните пропуски правильной формой глагола look с нужным предлогом или
наречием.
to look after – to take care of someone or something
to look for – to search for someone or something
to look out – attention!
to look through – to read something quickly
to look up – to try to find a particular piece of information looking in a handbook
or a dictionary
to look forward to – to feel happy and excited about something that is going
to happen
a. Baby-sitters are people who _________ babies while parents are out.
b. I wonder what “scratch” means. I’ll _________ in the dictionary.
c. A What are you doing on your hands and knees?
B I _________ my glasses. Have you seen them anywhere?
d. Look _________! That box is going to fall on your head!
e. It’s a great pleasure to meet you. I’ve heard a lot about you, and I ________ meeting
you for a long time.
f. I looked these data ______ .
g. I looked some figures _____ in the textbook.
Упр.4.5.3.b. Прочитайте примеры из словаря, поясняющие значение фразовых
глаголов с глаголом put. Заполните пропуски, используя нужную форму
соответствующего фразового глагола.
The fireman soon put the fire out. Please put this call through to the manager. Put
your books / toys away. Put the rent up by 50p (a week). The mere smell of garlic
put him off his supper.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
I’m sorry. I didn’t realize I couldn’t smoke here. I ______________.
Why don’t you buy your car now? They’re going to ____________ soon.
Hello, operator. Could you _________ extension 301, please?
I’ll dry the dishes if you _________ . I don’t know where they should go.
The violence in America _____________ going there for my holiday.
Упр.4.5.3.c. Замените глаголы в этих предложениях глаголом to put и нужным
предлогом или наречием из данных ниже.
away
Пример:
86
back
off
out
up
He placed the money on the table.
He put the money down on the table.
with
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
It is difficult to extinguish electrical fires. __________________
I don’t know how you can tolerate so much noise. ______________
Please replace the books on the shelves. ______________________
We have postponed the meeting until next week.________________
Could you please tidy all your clothes? ______________________
Упр.4.5.3.d. Познакомьтесь со значениями словосочетания “bring smb / smth up”.
Bring smb / smth up, (a) educate; rear: She has brought up five children. If children
are badly brought up they behave badly. (b) vomit: ~ up one’s dinner. (c) call attention
to : These are facts that can always be brought up against you, used as evidence against
you. These are matters that you can ~ up in committee. (d) (mil) summon to the front
line: We need to ~ up more tanks. (e) ~ for trial: He was brought up on a charge of
drunken driving. (f) cause to stop suddenly: His remarks brought me up short /sharp /
with a jerk.
Какие из значений (a),(b),(c),(d),(e) или (f) использованы в следующих
предложениях?
1. I thought you brought up a very interesting point at the end of the lecture
2. Her mother died in childbirth and she was brought up by her father.
3. The war is going badly. We need to bring up more soldiers.
4. The journey was so bumpy that the baby couldn’t help bringing up her breakfast.
Упр.4.5.3.e. Заполните пропуски глаголом to turn с нужным послелогом из
предложенного списка.
over
off
down
on
a. It grew dark and I turned ____ the light.
b. In heavy snowfall the truck turned ____ .
c. My tea was ready and I turned ____ the gas.
d. The lamp was too bright and I turned it ____ .
Упр.4.5.3.f. Заполните пропуски, выбрав нужные глагол (из строчки А) или
предлог (из строчки В). Поставьте глагол в необходимую форму. Цифры
показывают, сколько раз используются в упражнении глагол или предлог.
A fill
B out
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
give
back
put
on
try
away
look x3
turn
up x4 down x2
fall
round
after
You look tired. Sit ____ and have a cup of tea.
I’m looking for yesterday’s newspaper. Did you throw it ______ ?
______ on your warm coat. It’s cold today.
Could I _____ on these shoes, please? Size nine.
Turn ____ the music! It’s too loud!
Don’t forget to _____ off the light when you come to bed.
87
g. I live in Bristol now, but I grew _____ in Leicester.
h. Have you heard? Tony’s going _____ with an Italian girl called Sophia.
i. Could you _____ in this form, please, and sign it at the bottom?
j. Come _____ ! Hurry _____ ! You’ll be late for school.
k. I’m _______ forward to meeting her very much.
l. Pick ______ your litter! Don’t drop it on the street!
m. Don’t worry about the baby. I’ll look _______ her while you’re out.
n. What a pretty dress! Turn _____ ! Let me look at it from the back.
o. _____ out! The glass is going to fall! Oh! Too late!
p. John! Wake ____ ! Can you hear a noise downstairs?
q. I’m _____ for the car keys. Have you seen them anywhere?
r. I’m going to take these shoes _____ to the shop. The heel has broken already.
s. She _____ off her horse and hurt her wrist.
t. I used to smoke, but I ____ up last year.
Упр.4.5.3.g. Употребите необходимые послелоги.
a. You should think the plan ____ .
b. Let’s put it ____ for the next week.
c. Look this word ______ in the dictionary.
d. He rings her ____ almost every day.
e. I can’t begin this work because it may take ____ a lot of time.
f. It’s a nasty habit, believe me. You should give it ____ as soon as possible.
g. “I want to buy this pair of gloves.” “Try them ____ first.”
h. I just can’t make _____ my mind about the trip.
i. How are you getting ____ ?
j. How are the young men getting ____ ?
k. “Do you think John is able to do this work?”
“I think he is ____ to it.”
l. After my disease I have to catch ____ with the group.
m. I dropped _____ at the photographer’s.
n. The Browns moved ____ last November. They live in a suburb now.
o. I picked Jane ____ on my way to the hostel.
p. We showed the stranger _____ .
q. Pick me ___ on your way to school.
r. Shall we drop ____ or pass ____ .
s. I’ll be back in the town the day after tomorrow. I’ll drop ____ at your place.
4.5.4. Классификация фразовых глаголов
Фразовые глаголы «Phrasal verbs» в различных словарях и пособиях
классифицируются различными способами. В этом разделе дается их простая
классификация, в которой выделяется 4 типа:
• Тип 1: phrasal verb не имеет дополнения: take off, (a) make a start in jumping. (b)
(of an aircraft) leave the ground and rise: The plane took off despite the fog.
• Тип 2: дополнение находится между глаголом и предлогом: turn smth on, start
the flow of (liquid, gas, current) by ~ing a tap, switch, etc: T~ the light / radio on.
Дополнение может менять свое положение.
88
• Тип 3: дополнение следует за предлогом: look for smb / smth, (a) search for; try to
find: Are you still looking for a job? Дополнение не может менять своего места.
• Тип 4: после фразового глагола употребляется дополнение с предлогом: look
down on smb / smth, regard as inferior: Why do the English look down on everything
foreign?
Упр.4.5.4.a. Сопоставьте phrasal verb из колонки А с его определением в колонке
В. Ответьте на вопрос, к какому типу (2 или 3) они относятся.
A
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
to talk over a problem
to try out an idea
to go off a person / food
to call off a meeting
to give up smoking
to look into a problem
to get over an illness
to turn down an offer
to look after a child
to work out a sum
B
1. to recover from
2. to experiment with
3. to cancel
4. to stop
5. to discuss
6. to care for
7. to refuse to accept
8. to like no longer
9. to investigate
10.to solve
Упр.4.5.4.b. Поставьте местоимение it на нужное место.
a. Jan had a problem with her finances, so we talked ___ over ____, and now it’s fine.
b. I had an idea for reorganizing the system. We tried ____ out ____, and it worked
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
well.
I used to love ice cream, but since I found out how it’s made, I’ve really gone ___ off
___ .
We were due to have a meeting on Thursday, but we’ve had to call ___ off ____
because the chairperson’s ill.
I wish you wouldn’t smoke. Why don’t you give ____ up ____ .
I’m sorry to hear about your problem with the Tax Office. I promise I’ll look ___ into
___ as soon as possible.
The best thing for backaches is rest. Don’t worry. You’ll soon get ___ over ___.
The job looks very attractive. You’d be a fool to turn ____ down ____ .
That ring is extremely valuable. Make sure you look ___ after ____ .
I need a calculator to see how much money I’ve got in my account. I can’t work ____
out ____ in my head.
89
*Упр.4.5.4.c. Заполните пропуски предложенными комбинациями предлогов или
предлога и наречия.
away with
in with
on with
out of
down on
up to
away from
back on
up against
a. We’ve run _________ sugar. Could you buy some more?
b. Please don’t let me disturb you. Carry ___________ your work.
c. We must try to cut ________ the amount of money we spend. We just can’t make
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
l.
ends meet.
Keep _____ me! I’ve got a terrible cold, and I don’t want to give it to you.
When I look _______ my childhood, I realize what a happy time it was.
She’s such a snob. She looks ____ people who have to work for their living.
The only people she looks _____ are her grandparents.
Children grow __________ their clothes so quickly. It costs a fortune to clothe them
properly.
The government have come _______ a big problem in their economic policy. The
unions won’t co-operate, and management doesn’t approve of what they’re trying to
do.
Face _______ the facts, Joey, and stop living with your head in the clouds. You’ll
never get anywhere if you don’t work at it.
The antique table is very beautiful, but it doesn’t fit _____ the rest of the furniture,
which is modern.
He tries to get ______ doing anything around the house by charming everyone, but
they’ve all learnt his tricks.
Упр.4.5.4.d. В данном упражнении обе части фразовых глаголов используются
буквально. Заполните пропуски предложенными наречиями или предлогами.
away
out
on
down
off
up
in
a. I’d better write your telephone number _______ . I’ve got a terrible memory.
b. Don’t run _______ . Come here! I want to talk to you!
c. The bird’s cage wasn’t closed properly. It managed to get _____ , and unfortunately
it flew ____ . We haven’t seen it since.
d. When Mrs Johnson died, she didn’t have a penny. She’d given all her money ______
to charity.
e. I don’t feel like cooking tonight. Shall we eat ______ ?
f. The soup doesn’t taste very nice. If I were you, I’d put some more salt _____ .
g. A button has come _____ my shirt. Could you sew it back ____ for me?
h. It has just started to rain, and the washing is hanging outside. Could you help me to
bring it ____ ?
i. Hello. It’s Peter, isn’t it? I hardly recognized you! You’ve shaved ____ your beard.
j. Kate’s having a birthday party this afternoon. Could you help us to blow _____ some
balloons?
k. I fell _____ my horse and dislocated my shoulder.
l. And my wife fell ____ stairs! One disaster after another!
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m. The wind was very strong last night. It blew ____ a tree in our garden.
*Упр.4.5.4.e. Многие фразовые глаголы имеют синонимы латинского
происхождения. Фразовые глаголы являются менее формальными, тогда как
слова латинского происхождения более формальны и буквальны. Догадайтесь о
значении фразовых глаголов в следующих предложениях и найдите для них
соответствующий синоним латинского происхождения из предложенного списка.
a. I was badly beaten up when I tried to break up a fight outside a pub last night.
b. You should tell the police that it wasn’t your fault. I’ll stick up for you, don’t worry.
c. Soon there will be no import duties within the Common Market. They’re going to do
away with them.
d. Government forces in Walliland have put down a revolt by a group of soldiers.
e. The business went through a lean period at the beginning of the year, but things are
picking up now.
f. Looking after six kids all day has completely worn me out!
g. Many old people are taken in by bogus officials, who call their houses, find a
pretence for looking round and then steal their property.
h. I was told off for being late again this morning. If it happens again, my pay gets
docked.
i. We’ve bought an old house which isn’t in very good condition, but we’ll do it up bit
by bit.
j. Don’t believe her when she says she’s got stomach ache. She’s putting it on. She just
wants to get out of going to school.
k. I had a very unhappy childhood, but the delights of being an adult and a parent have
made up for that.
l. I can’t solve the riddle at all. I give in. What’s the answer?
m. The government is going to set up an inquiry into the condition of Britain’s prisons.
n. Police have ruled out murder, but are still holding several people for questioning.
o. He’s a great mate of mine. He’s the kind of friend who’ll stand by you through thick
and thin.
Список синонимов латинского происхождения.
1. compensate for ___________
9. establish_______________
2. exhaust _________________
10. exclude _______________
11. improve _______________
3. deceive _________________
12. decorate_______________
4. defend __________________
5. pretend _________________
13. surrender ______________
6. abolish _________________
14. support ________________
15. assault ________________
7. reprimand _______________
8. suppress ________________
*Упр.4.5.4.f. Затруднения, которые приносят многочисленные и многозначные
фразовые глаголы иностранцам и самим носителям языка, тонко подмечены
английскими журналистами. Далее в качестве примера приводится статья Майлса
Кингтона, опубликованная в газете The Independent и написанная в форме урока
91
английского языка по теме Фразовые глаголы. Перед чтением сделайте ряд
упражнений.
I. Догадайтесь о значении следующих фразовые глаголы, фигурирующих в статье.
a. My sister has written, asking if we can put her up for a few days whilst she’s in
London.
b. Paul was left ten thousand pounds in his grandfather’s will, so he set himself up as a
photographer.
c. This bad weather’s really getting me down.
d. The flat isn’t very nice, but I can put up with it until I find somewhere better.
e. The family dog was old and crippled, so they decided reluctantly that they had to
have her put down.
f. Let’s meet on the 20th . Put the date down in your diary so you don’t forget it.
g. James Gregory was sent down for ten years for his part in the robbery.
h. Peter thinks I’m trying to get off with his girlfriend, but I don’t find her very
attractive. Anyway, I wouldn’t do a thing like that to a mate of mine.
i. Have you seen how Jane is always putting him down? Either she criticizes him for
the way he dresses, or the way he eats or the way he speaks, and she makes him feel
such a fool!
j. “I’ve been set up,” thought Alice. “Joe told the director that I was incompetent, then
altered the accounts making it look like my handwriting, and now I’ve been accused
of stealing money!”
k. Jeremy, who is a very good mimic, was sending up the Director and the way he
screws up his face when he talks, when the Director himself came into the room. You
could have heard a pin drop!
II. Сопоставьте фразовые глаголы с предложенными определениями.
1. to depress, make miserable ____________
2. to send to prison _____________
3. to establish a business __________________
4. to provide a bed for someone for a short while _________________
5. to imitate someone in such a way as to make them appear foolish ________
6. to write down ______________
7. to kill (an animal) out of humanitarian reasons ______________
8. to tolerate _________________
9. to begin a romantic or sexual relationship with someone ____________
10. to make someone appear guilty in order to get them into trouble ________
11. to make someone seem foolish by criticizing and ridiculing them _______
III. Прочитайте статью и выполните после-текстовые задания.
Miles Kington
Could I say to the vet, “Here is my cat, please have her sent up?”
Learning English as a Second Language
Part 597: Dealing with political pollsters.
Please help me. What do I say if I'm stopped in the street by a man asking questions
about elections? This was happening to me all the time during the general election.
92
You say: ”Put me down as a Don’t Know”.
Put me down as a Don’t Know, I see. What exactly does that mean?
It means you don’t want any more questions.
I see. What does “put me down” mean?
It means, write me down on paper.
But in lesson 413, you told me that “put down” means to make a lot of fun of. Your
sentence was “Every comedian thinks it is funny to put down Val Doonican.”
Yes, well, it means that as well.
So maybe the man asking the questions will make fun of me?
No, no.
And in lesson 512, you said that “put down” also means to have your favourite animal
killed. Your sentence was: “We are taking our cat to the vet for him to be put down.”
Did I? Well, yes, it means that too.
So I am afraid that the man asking the political questions will have me painlessly killed
when I say “Put me down as a Don’t Know.”
No, no, he won’t do that, I promise.
If “put down” means to make fun of, suppose “put up” means to take seriously.
No, no. It means to accommodate for a few days. Here is another sentence for you: “My
mother has written to say she is coming to stay with us, so we will have to put her up for
the weekend.”
That is a bit like a sentence I remember from lesson 87. “I do my best to put up with
your mother.”
Ah, yes, that’s put up with.
What does “put down with” mean?
Nothing.
Could I say “Set me down as a Don’t Know”?
No. “Set down” means to let someone off a train at a railway station.
And “set up” means to let them on the train at the railway station?
Mmm, not exactly. Actually, it means something the police do when all else fails. Here
is another sentence for you. “I spent three years in jail because the police set me up for
the Croydon job”.
Would they do that?
Not if you’d really done the Croydon job. “Set up,” by the way, also means to give
someone lots of money. For example, my parents set me up as a teacher of English as a
second language.
But the police would not give you lots of money for the Croydon job?
No, I think not.
Would it be possible to say to this man in the street: “Send me down as a Don’t
Know?”
Well, not really, “Send down” means to put someone in prison.
Oh, I see. The police set you up first and then they send you down.
Yes. Well, not quite. The police set you up, but the judges send you down.
This is all done to make more jobs?
Yes, I think so.
Well, if “send down” means to put you in prison, does “send up” mean get someone out
of prison?
93
Not exactly. In fact, not at all. “Send up” means to make a lot of fun of.
Ah, just like “put down”. So the sentence from lesson 413 could also be: “Every
comedian thinks it is funny to send up Val Doonican”?
Very good, absolutely right. Spot on.
And I could also say to the man in the street: “Send me up as a Don’t Know.”
No.
And I could say to the vet: “Here is my cat - please have her sent up”?
No.
English is very difficult to learn as a second language.
Believe me, English is very difficult to teach as a second language. It gets me down
sometimes.
Get down? You mean, as in the phrase: “Get down and boogie”?
Where did you learn to speak like that?
In a disco in the West End, where I also learn English as a second language.
Ah, no, that is American as a second language. Oh, just look at the time. I think that is
enough for today’s lesson. I must get off.
Get off with whom?
I will deal with that in our next lesson.
IV. После прочтения статьи постарайтесь ответить на следующие вопросы.
1. Каким образом “преподаватель” подшучивает над
~ проводящими опросы общественного мнения по политическим вопросам?
~ Val Doonican (конферансье с характерной привлекательной внешностью)?
~ тещей и свекровью? ~ полицией?
~ американским английским?
2. Что привело в замешательство студента в конце “урока”?
3. Какие идиоматические выражения “преподаватель” объяснял хорошо, а какие
плохо?
4.6. Обзорные упражнения на предлоги
Упр.4.6.1. Заполните пропуски соответствующим предлогом.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
He invested all his money _______ stocks and shares.
Could you throw that book ______ me, please? I’d like to have a quick look at it.
They thanked him ____ being so kind.
They invited us _____ their wedding, but we couldn’t go.
I warned him _____ the dangers of driving without a seat belt.
They provided me ______ food and bed, which was very kind.
The smell of the food reminded me ______ when I was a child.
He spent all his money _____ fast cars and gambling.
*Упр.4.6.2. Заполните пропуски в текстах соответствующим предлогом.
Education
When my grandmother was at school, she had to learn everything (a) _______ heart,
and even years later she could recite countless poems (b) _______ memory. She was
discouraged (c) _____ thinking (d) ______ herself, and concentrated simply (e) ______
94
learning facts. The teachers were very strict (f) ______ pupils in those days. My
grandfather confined (g) ______ me that he was expelled (h) ______ school (i) ______
playing truant just once.
It is always worthwhile for government to invest (j) _______ education. Nobody should
be deprived (k) _______ a good education, and everybody should benefit (l) ______ it.
Nothing can compensate (m) ______ a bad start in life. Pupils (n) ______ public
schools still account (o) _____ many of the students at Oxford and Cambridge
University. Until quite recently these universities seemed to be prejudiced (p) ______
pupils from state schools. Many people objected very strongly (q) _____ this and at last
things are changing.
I had no intention (r) ___ staying (s) ___ at university after I had finished my first
degree. I finally succumbed (t) ___ parental pressure, but only (u) __ protest, and
carried out research (v) _____ the life of Baudelaire.
**The urge to get
Electronic intelligence is being built into more and more (a)____ the items we use every
day, (b)___ the office, (c)___ home, and (d)___ school. The utility of many of these
gadgets could greatly increase if, in addition to built-(e)____ intelligence, they were
able to link (f)___ other devices to either pass (g)____ information or pick (h)____
control signals or data. An obvious example is the notebook computer that’s taken on
business trip and then brought (i)____ (j)____ the home or office. When getting ready
(k)____ a trip, businessmen might want to load some information, such as background
(l)___ sales prospects and perhaps directions (m)___ getting (n)____ their sites, (o)____
the device that they will be carrying so that they can refer (p)____ it along the way.
Moreover, appliances (q)____ your toaster (r)____ your coffee maker will be linked
(s)___ your alarm clock, so that you are awakened (t)___ the smell of coffee. On your
evening commute home, you can signal your home to turn (u)____ the lights, start the
evening meal (v)____ the microwave, and so on. All of this will be managed (w) ____ a
home “control center” or an entirely new system.
4.7. Тесты на предлоги
Упр.4.7.1. Выберите правильный вариант из предложенных. Иногда возможно
более одного правильного ответа.
a. I’ll be in London next week. I hope to see Tom ________ there.
A while I will be B while I am C during my visit D during I am
b. Fred is away at the moment. I don’t know exactly when he’s coming back but I’m
sure he’ll be back _______ Monday.
A by B until
C on
D before
c. I’ll be at home _____ Friday morning. You can phone me then.
A at
B on
C in
d. I’m going away ______ the end of January.
A at
B on
C in
e. When we were in Italy, we spent a few days _______ Venice.
A at B to
C in
f. What time did they ______ the hotel?
95
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
l.
m.
n.
o.
p.
q.
r.
s.
t.
A arrive to
B arrive at
C arrive in
D get to E get in
Tom’s away at the moment. He’s _____ holiday in France.
A at
B on
C in
D for
We travelled ______ 6.45 train, which arrived at 8.30.
A in the
B on the
C by the
D by
Have you read any books ______ Agatha Christie?
A of
B from
C by
The accident was my fault, so I had to pay for the damage ___ the other car.
A of
B for
C to
D on
E at
Why were you so unfriendly ____ Tessa? Have you had an argument with her?
A of
B for
C to
D with
I’m not very good ____ repairing things.
A at
B for
C in
D about
I don’t understand this sentence. Can you _____ ?
A explain to me this word
B explain me this word C explain this word to me
If you’re worried about the problem, you should do something _____ it.
A for
B about
C against
D with
“Who is Tom Madely?” “I’ve no idea. I’ve never heard ____ him.”
A about
B from
C after
D of
“What time will you arrive?” “I don’t know. It depends ____ the traffic.”
A of
B for
C from
D on
I prefer tea ____ coffee.
A to
B than
C against
D over
They gave me a form and told me to ____ .
A fill in
B fill it in
C fill in it
They got ___ the train at Los Angeles.
A out of B from C off
D with
The force that holds neutrons and protons together in the atomic nucleus is one
manifestation of the strong interaction ____ hadrons.
A among B between
C within
D throughout
Упр.4.7.2. Заполните пропуски в тексте соответствующим предлогом из
предложенного списка.
a) on b) between c) for d) without e) at f) inside g) along
The blue-and-white trains which run every half an hour ____(1) Tokyo and Osaka are
the fastest trains in the world. They are not only very fast but very comfortable. Only
those who have booked seats can travel ____(2) the train. It was not possible to run
more trains ____(3) the old lines so the Japanese build a special line ____(4) the new
fast trains. It is very good indeed. You can eat and drink ____(5) difficulty ____(6) 220
km an hour. You can know the speed because there is a speedometer ___(7) the
carriage.
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Глава 5. Глагол
5.1. Система глагольных времен действительного и страдательного залога в
английском языке
5.1.1. Таблица времен глаголов
Основные трудности, связанные с выбором правильной формы глагола,
объясняются наличием в английском языке 26 (!) времен действительного и
страдательного залогов.
Таблица времен глаголов
PRESENT SIMPLE
Употребление
Примеры
Настоящее состояние дел
My sister lives in Washington.
Общеизвестный факт
The sun rises in the east.
Регулярно происходящее действие и
(или) установившийся распорядок
I listen to the radio in the mornings.
He generally buys a lot of historical
books.
My flight leaves at 10:00.
Будущее действие, происходящее по
расписанию или по программе
Типичные указатели времени:
usually, sometimes, seldom, never, every day, from time to time, often, at times, и др.
PRESENT CONTINUOUS
Употребление
Примеры
Действие, происходящее в момент речи
Andrew is watching TV (right now).
Действие, происходящее в течение
настоящего периода времени или его
промежутка
My sister is living in Washington.
He is writing a new article.
Запланированное действие в будущем
He is taking his examination on Friday.
Негативные привычки
I am always forgetting about his birthday.
Типичные указатели времени:
at the moment, now, today, at present, still
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PAST SIMPLE
Употребление
Примеры
Единичные/разовые законченные
The mail came early in the morning.
действия в прошлом
Постоянные ситуации в прошлом
John worked in advertising for ten years.
Действие, регулярно
We jogged every morning before classes.
происходившее в прошлом/
прошлые привычки
Описание последовательных
She ran out of the house, jumped on her bike
событий в прошлом/ основные
and rode off.
события повествования
Общеизвестные факты и истины
Crosswords didn’t become popular until the
прошлого
1930-s
Типичные указатели времени:
yesterday, a minute (day, week …) ago, last year (month, week …), the day before
yesterday
PAST CONTINUOUS
Употребление
Примеры
Действие, продолжавшееся в момент
другого, более быстрого действия.
I was reading when the telephone rang.
Событие, происходившее в
определенный момент или в течение
некоторого промежутка времени в
прошлом
Длительное состояние или
повторяющиеся действия в прошлом
Запланированное действие в прошлом
We were discussing the problem at ten
o’clock last morning.
Daniel was playing computer games all
morning yesterday.
She was looking very ill.
I was meeting lots of people at that time.
Nancy was leaving for Chicago but had to
make a last-minute connection.
When we were young my brother was
always borrowing my toys.
Ulla and her friends were playing
Monopoly while we were cooking in the
kitchen.
Тhe sun was shining and the birds were
singing. Lisa opened her window and
looked out.
Раздражающие привычки в пошлом
(обычно с always)
Два действия/события, происходившие
в одно и то же время в прошлом
Дополнительная информация в
повествовании/рассказе
Типичные указатели времени:
when, while
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PRESENT PERFECT
Употребление
Действие, начавшееся в прошлом и
продолжающееся до настоящего
момента (часто с for или since)
Если в настоящем важен результат
действия в прошлом
действие, случившееся в
неопределенный момент в прошлом
описание жизненного опыта
сообщение новостей
Примеры
~ Jacky has lived in Maine all her life.
~I’ve been here since Monday.
~He’s known her for two weeks.
~No cure for cancer has been found yet.
~You've changed. What have you done to
yourself.
He’s just met Dr Wittner.
~ She has never attended an international
conference.
~ We have flown across the Pacific four
times.
~ Have you ever organized press
conferences?
Seven people have been killed in the train
crash.
Типичные указатели времени:
just, already, never, yet, ever, for, since, so far, this week/month, year up to now, lately,
recently
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
Употребление
Действие, начавшееся в прошлом и
только что закончившееся, налицо
результат действия
действие, начавшееся в прошлом и
продолжающееся в настоящем
действие, повторяющееся длительный
период в прошлом и продолжающееся в
настоящем
общее действие, которое происходит
без уточнения конкретного времени
Типичные указатели времени:
for, since, How long…?
Примеры
Have you been ranking the lawn? There’s
grass all over your pant legs.
Laura has been studying for two hours.
~Simon has been smoking since he was
fifteen.
~I have been phoning you all morning.
I’ve been thinking about going to college
next year.
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PAST PERFECT
Употребление
Действие в прошлом, произошедшее
раньше другого действия в прошлом
Примеры
Tom had left hours before we got there.
Действие, совершившееся до
определенного момента в прошлом
I had finished it by 5 p.m.
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS
Употребление
Длительное прошедшее действие, с
указанием его длительности,
совершавшееся в момент наступления
другого действия в прошлом
Длительное прошедшее действие,
закончившееся перед моментом
наступления другого действия в
прошлом
Примеры
I had been working for an hour before
you came.
He felt tired as he had been looking
through the paper for several hours.
SIMPLE FUTURE (will)
Употребление
Описание событий и ситуаций в
будущем
Решение, принятое в момент речи
Предсказание вероятного события в
будущем, сделанные не на очевидных
основаниях/ фактах
Со словами и фразами типа probably, I
think
Предложения
Просьбы
Примеры
They will take English lessons twice a
week next term.
The bag looks heavy. I’ll help you with it.
(подчеркивая решение)
You will pass the test. (I think so.) (more
formal)
I wonder what will happen.
I’ll help you with your physics homework,
if you like.
Will you help me with my physics
homework?
Типичные указатели времени:
Tomorrow, next week, (month…), in a day, (year…), perhaps, probably, possibly, I
think, I am sure, I wonder
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TO BE GOING TO
Употребление
Факты, относящиеся к будущему
Предсказания, сделанные не на
очевидных основаниях/ фактах
Решения, принятые в момент речи
Сообщение об уже намеченных планах
и намерениях
Предсказания, сделанные на очевидных
основаниях
Примеры
The website is going to come on line next
week. (more informal)
In the future, everyone is going to have
their own flying car. (more informal)
I’ve decided! I am not going to get a new
DVD player just yet.(подчеркивая
намерение)
I’am going to be a famous doctor, one
day!
It sounds like the plane’s going to take off
in a few minutes.
FUTURE CONTINUOUS
Употребление
Примеры
Продолжительное действие в
At noon tomorrow, I’ll be giving a lesson.
определенный момент будущем
Продолжительное действие, которое
I’ll be preparing for my examination in
будет совершаться в отрезке времени,
May.
но не непрерывно
Недлительное действие, когда
He’ll be meeting us near the laboratory.
выражается уверенность в его
совершении
Типичные указатели времени:
at noon, at 5 o'clock, at midnight, at that moment
FUTURE PERFECT
Употребление
Действие, которое еще не совершилось,
но произойдет раньше определенного
момента в будущем.
Типичные указатели времени:
by, before, until
Примеры
By the time we arrive he will already have
started the presentation.
FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS
Употребление
Подчеркивается продолжительность
периода времени, который пройдет до
определенного момента в будущем
Типичные указатели времени:
by, for
Примеры
By May, my father will have been
working at the same job for thirty years.
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Упр. 5.1.1. Укажите, в каком времени употреблен глагол в каждом предложении.
1. A stranger approached me and asked for a light.
2. People have been watching TV since the 1930s.
3. I’ll come round and see you this evening.
4. They are broadcasting the match live.
5. I had never seen The Flintstones before.
6. Millions of people have seen The Flintstones on TV.
7. My dad tells us really funny stories.
8. I had been watching TV all evening.
9. Rosie was wearing a new skirt at the party.
10.We’re going to see The Flintstones at the cinema tonight.
Упр. 5.1.2. Выберите правильный вариант из каждой пары.
1. I can’t come to the phone – I have/ I’m having a shower.
2. I’ve decided I will/ I’m going to be an actor one day.
3. I finished/ I’ve finished my dinner. Can I go out now?
4. I watched/ I was watching TV when suddenly the phone rang.
5. She looked/ She has looked lovely. She was wearing/ She wore a long, red dress.
6. Before I went to London I had never been / I have never been abroad before.
7. Come in! I had just been reading/ I’ve just been reading that book you gave me.
8. It has/ It had been raining all night and in the morning the streets were flooded.
9. I had been waiting/ I had waited in the rain for ages when she finally turned up.
10. When you’ve finished/ you had finished eating, can you wash the dishes?
Упр.5.1.3. Определите, соответствует ли грамматическое время глагола
указателю времени. Исправьте ошибки.
a. So far no uniform international policy against terrorism is established.
b. Some of the city's swimming pools were closed since the end of last summer.
c. From time to time even the healthiest individual needs to have a complete physical
examination.
d. The city council is for some time now considering widening that street.
e. By this time next year, most students will leave school and return home.
f. Up until now, no cure for cancer is found.
g. It has been raining steadily since yesterday.
h. At the time of his death, John Kennedy has still been in his forties.
i. In the early part of the 20-th century, immigrants are coming to America in great
numbers.
5.2. Времена Present Simple и Present Continuous
При выполнении следующих заданий следует помнить, что ряд глаголов,
характеризующих состояние, как правило, не употребляются в длительном
времени. Это
102
~ глаголы умственной активности: know, realise, suppose, understand, believe,
remember, forget, think, assume, consider, expect, agree, mean, doubt и др.;
~ глаголы эмоций: like, dislike, love, hate, envy, prefer, wish, want, care, need, satisfy
и др.;
~ глаголы обладания: have, own, belong, contain, consist и др.;
~ глаголы восприятия: see, hear, smell, taste и др.;
~ глаголы существования (existence): be, exist
~ глаголы со значением «казаться» : appear, look, resemble, seem, sound и др.
Однако многозначность этих глаголов не делает это правило абсолютным.
Упр.5.2.1. Определите, в правильном ли грамматическом времени употреблен
глагол.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
I get up at seven in the morning.
I'm liking black coffee.
He's speaking three languages.
I think Mexico's a beautiful country.
Restaurants are staying open late in Spain.
We usually eat at one o'clock.
He's having a flat near the centre.
What are you thinking of Shakespeare?
I'm so dirty I need a bath right now.
Peter's in the kitchen. He cooks breakfast.
What are you thinking about?
Упр.5.2.2. Закончите следующие предложения, употребив каждый глагол дважды:
один раз в Present Simple, а другой - в Present Continuous.
have
a. He ______ four cars, all of them Rolls-Royces.
b. I _______ lunch with my mother tomorrow.
think
a. What ________ you _______ of Stiven Spielberg's latest film?
b. You're day-dreaming. What ___________ you __________ about?
expect
a. I ______ an important phone call from America. Could you tell me when it comes?
b. I _____ you're hungry after so much hard work. Shall I get you something?
appear
a. He _________ to understand what you say to him, but when you ask him a question,
he isn't so sure.
b. Roy Pond _________ at Her Majesty's Theatre in the role of King Lear.
smell
a. Something ___________ good in the kitchen. What's cooking?
b. Why __________ you __________ the meat? Do you think it's gone off?
weigh
a. I need to know how much the meat _____ to know how long to cook it for.
b. Why _____ you _____ yourself? Do you think you've put on weight?
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see
a. I _________ what you mean, but I don't agree.
b. She ________ a solicitor about her aunt's will.
have
a. I usually pick up languages quickly, but I ____ difficulties learning Chinese.
b. He __________ more clothes than a department store.
look
a. It ________ as if it's going to rain.
b. What are you doing on your hands and knees? ______ you ______ for something?
think
a. What _________ you ________ of doing when you leave here?
b. How much ________ you _________ it would cost to fly to Australia?
Упр.5.2.3. Заполните пропуски требуемым по контексту глаголом: hear, listen to,
see, look at, watch в нужной форме. С глаголами hear и see часто употребляется
can или can't.
a. I have a lovely view from my room. I _________ the whole city.
b. A What's Peter doing?
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
B He ________ music in his bedroom.
In winter I like ___________ the photographs of my summer holiday.
In the evening I usually __________ the news on television.
I find it difficult to sleep because I __________ the traffic all night.
Can you speak louder? You're speaking so quietly that I _______ you.
____________ that strange man over there! What's he doing?
Please __________ what I'm saying. It's very important.
A Where's Maria?
B Over there. She ________ the picture on the wall.
Oh dear! Where are my glasses? I __________ anything without them.
Упр.5.2.4. По правилам английской грамматики в придаточных предложениях
времени и условия с союзами if, when, as soon as, until, before, after, whenever,
unless и др. вместо будущего времени употребляется соответствующее настоящее
время.
Соедините следующие предложения, используя слова в скобках.
Пример: She'll pay me back. She'll get some money. (as soon as)
She'll pay me back, as soon as she gets some money.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
I'll wait here. You'll get back. (until)
Give me a ring. You'll hear some news. (when)
The TV programme will end. I'll do my homework. (after)
I'll go to work. I'll have a bath. (before)
She'll be in Paris. She'll visit friends. (while)
The lesson will end. I'll go home. (as soon as)
I won't leave the house. The postman will call. (until)
104
h. Can you feed the cats? I'll be away. (while)
i. I'll tell you about the holiday. I'll get back. (when)
j. I'll study English. I'll speak it perfectly. (until)
5.3. Употребление Past Continuous и Past Simple
Повторите случаи употребления Past Continuous и Past Simple по таблице. В
сложноподчиненных предложениях эти два времени могут использоваться
вместе, если
~ длительное действие в прошлом прерывается другим действием в прошлом:
We were playing in the garden when it started to rain.
~ действие в прошлом происходит во время другого более длительного прошлого
действия или состояния:
While I was working for the Health Service I decided to give up smoking.
Упр.5.3.1. Выберите правильный вариант из каждой пары.
Пример: The flight lasted / was lasting three hours.
a. It was 8.00 in the morning. A lot of people stood / were standing at the bus stop,
waiting to go to work.
b. A magnificent oak tree stood / was standing in the middle of the garden.
c. I studied / was studying politics at university.
d. He studied / was studying the effects of radiation when he suddenly died.
e. When I woke up this morning it rained / was raining.
f. It rained / was raining every single day of the holidays.
g. I asked him what he thought / was thinking about.
h. I thought / was thinking the play was extremely good.
i. A What did you do / were you doing with that electric drill?
B I was putting up some book shelves in my bedroom.
j. A What did you do / were you doing with that electric drill?
B I put it back in its box in the tool cupboard.
k. A What did you do / were you doing before you took this job?
B Nothing, actually. I only left school a few months ago.
l. A What did you do / were you doing in my bedroom just now?
B The light was on, so I just went in to turn it off.
m. The poor chap died / was dying. All we could do was to comfort him.
n. The poor chap died / was dying early last morning.
Упр.5.3.2. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в требуемое по контексту грамматическое
время (Past Simple или Past Continuous).
a. I _______ (watch) TV when Mark ______(phone).
b. What _____________ (you/do) at the time of the murder?
c. She _____________ (jump) into the river and ___________ (rescue) the drowning
boy.
d. I _____ (see) my first baseball game while I _______ (live) in New York.
e. Where __________ (you/go) when you ___________ (get off) the train?
105
f. We ________ (ring) the police because the neighbours _________ (play) their
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
l.
m.
n.
o.
music too loud.
He ____________ (write) the whole composition during the lunch hour.
She ___________ (write) to her brother when he ____________ (walk) through
the front door.
___________ (you/work) in Spain this time last year? Yes, I ___________ (go) out
there in 2008.
Mum and Dad ______ (sleep) when I _________ (get) home last night.
What _____ (that news reader / say) just then? I don't know. I _______ (not / listen).
Someone ________ (take) a photo of me while I ___________ (have) a bath.
“__________ (you / see) the match last night?” “No. I ________ (try) to get some
work done.”
We ________ (not/know) what to do when the computer ______ (break down).
It __________ (rain) outside and the children __________ (cry), so we
___________ (decide) to play a game.
Упр.5.3.3. Прочитайте предложения. Найдите предложения, в которых глаголы
употреблены в неправильном грамматическом времени и исправьте ошибки.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
The kitchen caught fire while we were having dinner.
The sun shone so we decided to go for a walk.
I'm afraid I wasn't hearing what you said.
Alan read a newspaper when he heard a strange noise.
She was knowing she was being followed.
The boss walked in while I played a computer game.
I was walking home from work when a dog attacked me.
He was reading the entire book, from start to finish, in two hours.
What did you do when you saw someone trying to steal your car?
I didn't see the last goal because I looked at the sky at the time.
5.4. Present Perfect или Past Simple?
Упр.5.4.1. Определите, с какими указателями времени следует употребить Past
Simple, а с какими - Present Perfect.
1. the day before yesterday; 2. a week ago; 3. in the past; 4. at that time; 5. lately; 6.
today; 7. a minute ago; 8. just; 9. since; 10. never; 11. this year; 12. so far;
13.yesterday; 14.just now; 15.ever; 16.last Wednesday; 17.last night; 18.not yet;
19.up to now; 20.last century; 21.this century.
Упр.5.4.2. Поставьте глагол в скобках в требуемое по контексту время. (Present
Perfect или Past Simple).
1. ... you ever (to visit) ... Hungary? 2. Our group ... (to tour) Yugoslavia this month. 3.
The film ... (to produce) a good impression on me. 4. A fortnight ago the theatre ...
(to produce) a new play.
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5. When ... you (to finish) ... school? 6. I ... (to happen) to see John the other day. 7. I
… (to start) writing my book two years ago. 8. I … (to write) half of it since. 9. We …
(to witness) great progress in space research this century.
Упр.5.4.3. Поставьте глагол в скобках в требуемое по контексту время. (Present
Perfect или Past Simple).
a. Barbara Lively________ (write) a lot of books. She ________ (write) her first one
fifteen years ago.
b. ______________ you ever ___________ (try) Indian food?
c. I _____ never _____ (be) to Japan. When _____ you _____ (go) there?
d. I ____________ (live) in London for eight years, and I don't want to move.
e. He __________ (live) in Oxford for two years, and then in 1995 he _________
(move) to London.
f. We ____________ (meet) Tim and Maureen three years ago. How long
_________ you _________ (know) them?
Упр.5.4.4. Вставьте одно из предложенных слов в каждое предложение .
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
ever, never, for, since, already, just, yet
He's worked there many years, 1986, I believe.
I have loved anyone as much as I love you.
We've known Paul two years. Have you met him?
I've known him we went to school together, but I've met his parents.
We have sold two hundred tickets and there is still a month to go before the concert.
I have visited New York. I’m looking forward to going.
Have you thought of learning to fly?
I have received my exam result. It came ten minutes ago.
Janet hasn’t finished with the camera. She needs it tomorrow.
Упр.5.4.5. Задайте вопросы, используя глаголы в нужном по контексту времени
(Present Perfect или Past Simple).
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
How long __________ you __________ (live) in your town?
___________ you ever __________ (drink) champagne?
How many foreign countries ___________ you ___________ (visit)?
Where ___________ you _________ (go) on holiday last year?
How long ____________ you ____________ (know) your best friend?
Упр.5.4.6. Употребите глагол в скобке в нужном по контексту времени (Present
Perfect или Past Simple).
a. Carlos (1)_______ (come) to London before Christmas. When he (2)________
(arrive), he (3)________ (go) to stay with some friends. He (4)_________ (be) in
London for several months, and he's going to stay until the autumn.
b. A I'm looking for Susan. (5)___________ you ___________ (see) her?
B I (6) _____ (see) her yesterday, but not today. (7) _______ you ________ (look)
in the coffee bar?
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A Yes. I (8) ___________ (go) there before I (9)_____________(ask) you.
c. A John, you know I (10)____________ (borrow) your bicycle last night. Well, I'm
afraid I (11)____________ (lose) it.
B That's awful! Where (12)______ you _______ (go)? What time (13) ______ it
______ (happen)?
A Well, I (14)________ (leave) your house at 8.00, went home and
(15)_________ (chain) it outside my house. Someone must have taken it during the
night. I (16)________ (phone) the police, and they're coming soon.
B OK. You can tell them what (17) _______________ (happen).
5.5. Страдательный залог
Времена страдательного залога образуются при помощи вспомогательного
глагола to be в соответствующем времени и формы причастия прошедшего
времени (Past Participle).
Как и в русском языке, страдательный залог употребляется, когда в центре
внимания находится лицо или предмет, который подвергается действию, а не
лицо или предмет, который совершает действие. Формой выражения лица или
предмета, производящего действие, является косвенное дополнение с предлогом
by (или with, если косвенное дополнение обозначает инструмент или орудие
труда) : The images are computed by a four-processor system.
Non-destructive observation of specimen surface microstructures down to 10 nm or less
can be carried out with an electron scanning microscope.
Страдательный залог также употребляется в тех случаях, когда необходимо
описать какие-либо процессы, а также когда лицо, совершающее действие,
неизвестно или когда считают ненужным его упоминать:
Business letters are usually written on special forms.
This educational networking project is designed for self-managing groups of students,
teachers and resource administrators.
Для всех рассмотренных времен существуют конструкции в страдательном
залоге. В страдательном залоге отсутствует форма Future Continuous, а также
времена группы Perfect Continuous. Ниже дана таблица времен в страдательном
залоге.
Present
Simple
I am invited.
Past
I was invited.
Future (will)/
to be going to
I’ll be invited.
I am going to be
invited
I should be invited.
Future in the
Past
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Continuous
I am being
invited.
I was being
invited.
—
—
—
Perfect
I have been invited.
I had been invited.
I’ll have been invited.
—
I should have been
invited.
При употреблении страдательного залога следует помнить, что в английском
языке, как и в русском, есть переходные (которые могут иметь при себе прямое
дополнение) и непереходные (которые не могут иметь при себе прямое
дополнение) глаголы. Переходные глаголы могут употребляться как в
действительном, так и в страдательном залоге. Непереходные глаголы
употребляются только в действительном залоге.
Упр.5.5.1. Прочитайте следующие предложения и решите, является
подчеркнутый глагол переходным или непереходным.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
l.
m.
n.
o.
p.
q.
The rule doesn’t apply.
His dream came true.
The temperature was slowly rising during the experiment.
The government raised taxes on imported goods.
He succeeded in solving the problem.
We all breathe, eat and drink.
The conference opens at 9 a.m. on Monday.
The computer weighs some 1.5 kg.
It costs 1.3 thousand dollars.
The Australians don’t like cold weather.
Babysitters look after children.
In the course of Soviet period people never really elected their authorities.
She made herself a cup of tea.
The teacher makes students prepare for every lesson.
The student put down an unknown word in his dictionary.
Our state will hardly pay off all its debts soon.
Look at the timetable to know when the train arrives at the station.
Упр.5.5.2. Переделайте предложения так, чтобы они содержали сказуемое в
страдательном залоге.
a. You should open the wine about three hours before you use it.
b. Somebody had cleaned my shoes and brushed my suit.
c. We use this room only on special occasions.
d. You must not hammer nails into the walls without permission.
e. Someone switched on a light and opened the door.
f. Somebody had slashed the picture with a knife.
g. Why didn't they mend the roof before it fell in?
h. Someone will serve refreshments.
i. Someone has already told him to report for duty at six.
j. No one can do anything unless someone gives us more information.
k. People are spending far more money on food now than they spent ten years ago.
l. The organizers will exhibit the paintings till the end of the month.
m.
It is high time someone told him to stop behaving like a child.
n. They are pulling down the old theatre.
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Упр.5.5.3. Переделайте предложения так, чтобы они содержали сказуемое в
страдательном залоге. Если в исходном предложении есть прямое и косвенное
дополнение, сделайте косвенное дополнение подлежащим в новом предложении.
Пример: They gave her a clock. She was given a clock.
a. Someone will give you your tickets at the airport.
b. People asked me a lot of questions about my background.
c. Someone usually shows airline passengers how to use a life jacket at the beginning
of the flight.
d. If somebody offers you a cheap camera, don't buy it. It's probably stolen.
e. Someone will tell you what you have to do when you arrive.
f. My parents advised me to spend some time abroad before looking for work.
g. Pleased to meet you. People have told me a lot about you.
h. In a few years' time, my company will send me to our New York office.
Упр.5.5.4. Переделайте предложения так, чтобы они содержали сказуемое в
страдательном залоге, упоминая исполнителя, где необходимо. Если в исходном
предложении есть прямое и косвенное дополнение, сделайте косвенное
дополнение подлежащим в новом предложении. Обратите внимание на
предложения j, m, где переход от актива к пассиву осуществляется с помощью
вспомогательного глагола should.
a. Who wrote it?
b. They showed her the easiest way to do it.
c. Lightning struck the old oak.
d. Titian couldn't have painted it as people didn't wear that style of dress till after his
death.
e. Did the idea interest you?
f. The lawyer gave him the details of his uncle's will.
g. They used to start these engines by hand. Now they start them by electricity.
h. Students are doing a lot of the work.
i. The Prime Minister was to have opened the dry dock.
j. They recommended opening new factories in the depressed area. (should)
k. Anyone with the smallest intelligence could understand these instructions.
l. We will not admit children under sixteen.
m. They suggested making the tests easier. (should) .
n. Compare clothes which we have washed with clothes which any other laundry has
washed.
**Упр.5.5.5. Страдательный залог часто используется, когда в центре внимания
находится лицо или предмет, который подвергается действию, при описании
процессов или когда не важен исполнитель. Переделайте предложения так, чтобы
они содержали сказуемое в страдательном залоге, и подумайте, какой залог
уместнее использовать в каждом случае и почему.
a. Dr Brown widely used statistical methods in his field.
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b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
I am going to submit a paper to the program committee.
Landau introduced the conception of energy density matrix in 1927.
We have processed the data obtained with the help of a computer.
This procedure reduces the energy losses.
Visualisation specialists often use conceptual illustration and data-driven
visualizations interchangeably.
g. They projected graphics in stereo onto three walls and the floor.
h. They are displaying both input circuit parameter values and output signal in the
same space.
i. A biologist can link cells together into networks, and even systems of networks, to
explore how the brain's circuits work.
j. People have used numbers for record-keeping and commercial transactions for
centuries.
k. They maintained these conditions throughout the experiment.
l. Everyone may use this program both to explore precomputed datasets and to
interactively steer supercomputer simulations.
m. Participants wear stereo glasses to view the images in 3D.
n. In a recent article in Science, authors have discussed the difficulty of evaluating
numerical simulations.
o. A group of researchers has created these models recently using General Neural
Simulation System, a versatile software package developed a decade ago.
p. Nobody can do science without computers.
**Упр.5.5.6. Переделайте предложения так, чтобы они содержали сказуемое в
страдательном залоге. Начните предложения с указанных слов.
a. You have sent us the wrong items again. (The wrong ….. )
b. You should have delivered this consignment last week.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
(This consignment …)
Someone broke two of the VDUs during transportation. ( Two ….. )
You should have sent the documents by registered post. (The documents…..)
A faulty connection could have caused the problems with the hard disk. (The
problems ….. )
You omitted the manuals from the order. (The manuals ….. )
You delivered the printers over three weeks late. (The printers ….. )
We will not pay the invoice until this problem is rectified. (The invoice ….. )
Упр.5.5.7. Переделайте предложения так, чтобы они содержали сказуемое в
действительном залоге. Если исполнитель не указан: "This door must be kept shut”
(школьное объявление) – введите его: "Students must keep this door shut”.
a. Numerous investigations have been published about this subject.
b. This speed limit is to be introduced gradually.
c. The runways are being lengthened at all the main airports.
d. By tradition any sturgeon that are caught by British ships must be offered to the
Queen.
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e. Last year a profit of two million pounds was made in the first six months but this
was cancelled by a loss of seventeen million pounds which was made in the second
six months.
f. The ship was put into quarantine and passengers and crew were forbidden to land.
g. This scientific theory has now been proved to be false.
h. Why wasn't the car either locked or put into the garage?
i. It is being said that too little money is being spent by the government on roads.
j. Your money could be put to good use instead of being left idle in the bank.
Упр.5.5.8. Поставьте глаголы в газетных сообщениях в требуемую по контексту
форму.
Castle fire
Winton Castle (a) _________ (damage) in a fire last night. The fire, which
(b)__________ (discover) at about 9 o'clock, spread very quickly. Nobody
(c)____________ (injure) but two people had to (d) _____________ (rescue) from an
upstairs room. A number of paintings (e)_____________ (believe/ destroy).
It (f) _____________ (not/know) how the fire started.
Shop robbery
In Paxham yesterday a shop assistant (a)_______________ (force) to hand over $500
after (b) ______________ (threaten) by a man with a knife. The man escaped in a car
which (c)_____________ (steal) earlier in the day. The car (d) ____________
(later/find) in a car park where it (e) ____________ (abandon) by the thief. A man
(f)_____________ (arrest) in connection with the robbery and (g)_____________
(still/question) by the police.
Road delays
Repair work started yesterday on the Paxham-Longworth road. The road (a) ________
(resurface) and there will be long delays. Drivers (b)_________ (ask) to use an
alternative route if possible. The work (c)_________ (expect) to last two weeks. Next
Sunday the road (d)________ (close) and traffic (e)__________ (divert).
Accident
A woman (a)_____________ (take) to hospital after her car collided with a lorry near
Norstock yesterday. She (b)______________ (allow) home later after treatment. The
road (c)_____________ (block) for an hour after the accident and traffic had to
(d)______________ (divert). A police inspector said afterwards: The woman was
lucky. She could (e)_______________ (kill).
Упр.5.5.9. Поставьте глагол в скобках в нужном по контексту времени и залоге.
Пример: My car was stolen (steal) last night.
Joseph Ford, the politician who (a) __________ (kidnap) last week as he was driving to
his office, (b) __________(release) unharmed. He (c) _______ (examine) by a doctor
last night, and (d) _____(say) to be in good health. Mr Ford (e) _____ (find) walking
along a small country lane early yesterday evening. A farmer (f) _______ (see) him,
recognized who it was, and (g) __________ (contact) the police. When his wife (h)
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__________ (tell) the news, she said, "I am delighted and relieved that my husband (i)
________ (find)." Acting on information received, the police made several arrests, and a
man (j) ________ (question) in connection with the kidnapping.
*Упр.5.5.10. В следующих предложениях некоторые глаголы (но не все)
употреблены в действительном залоге, хотя страдательный залог был бы более
уместен и наоборот. Измените те предложения, которые по Вашему мнению
нуждаются в исправлении, имея в виду, что пассивные конструкции также
используется, если хотят сделать утверждение безличным, чтобы, например,
избежать ответственности за сообщение неприятного известия. Сравните два
следующих утверждения, которые может сделать компания.
Пример:
We have awarded our staff a twenty per cent pay rise.
Unfortunately, the number of staff will be reduced by fifty per cent.
a. Someone built this bridge in 1901.
b. No one has seen the escaped prisoner since a guard was knocked out by him and he
ran away.
c. A secretary has invited me to Buckingham Palace to collect an award!
d. Someone wants you in reception.
e. The telephone, which was invented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876,
revolutionized man's ability to communicate.
f. The closure of the workshops will make a lot of men redundant.
g. At interviews, people ask you quite searching questions.
h. Alexander Graham Bell was a scientist and inventor. The telephone was invented
by him in 1876, and he also worked on early radio transmitters.
i. Scientists working in California have discovered a drug which stops premature
aging. They will now manufacture the drug commercially, and it should be available
soon.
j. Nobody must take reference books out of the library.
k. The Health Service has prospered under this government. It is true that we have
closed hospitals and spent less money, but the system is now streamlined.
l. A tiger was found roaming in a suburban garden today. Mrs Ethel Templeton found
the tiger while she was hanging out her washing.
m. We broke a few cups while you were away. Sorry. They'll be replaced. Apart from
that, we didn't do much damage at all.
n. I'm a fantastically successful author. I have sold over one million copies of my
books.
o. Doctors have given him six months to live.
5.6. Present Perfect Simple и Present Perfect Continuous
При употреблении этих времен следует помнить, что Present Perfect Continuous
подчеркивает длительность действия, в то время как Present Perfect Simple
подчеркивает факт совершения действия.
Упр.5.6.1. Выберите правильное предложение из каждой пары.
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a. 1 I've cut my finger!
2 I've been cutting my finger!
b. 1 Have you heard Paul Simon's latest record?
2 Have you been hearing Paul Simon's latest record?
c. 1 She's tired because she's shopped all day.
2 She's tired because she's been shopping all day.
d. 1 Sorry. I've broken one of your glasses.
2 Sorry. I've been breaking one of your glasses.
e. 1 How long have you had this book?
2 How long have you been having this book?
f. 1 They have lived here for three years.
2 They've been living here for three years.
Упр.5.6.2. Соедините строчки из столбца А с соответствующей строчкой из
столбца В.
A
Ann's been sunbathing.
She's been shopping.
She's been working in the garden.
She's been reading for hours.
She's been watching a sad film.
She's been waiting for hours.
She's been doing the housework.
She's been decorating the
bathroom.
She's been cooking.
She's been bathing the children.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
B
She's furious.
She's got paint in her hair
She's crying.
Her back hurts.
She hasn't got any money left.
She's a bit burnt.
She's soaking wet.
The house smells of onions and
garlic.
9. Her eyes hurt.
10. Everything's spotless.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Упр.5.6.3. Употребите глагол в скобках в нужном по контексту времени (Present
Perfect или Present Perfect Continuous.)
a. I'm exhausted. I ________ (work) all day, and I ______ (not finish) yet.
b. I _________(visit) many countries in the last five years.
c. Someone ________ (take) my books. I ________ (look) for them for ages, but I can't
d.
e.
f.
g.
find them anywhere.
I _________ (shop) all morning, but I _________ (not buy) anything yet. I haven't
seen anything I've liked.
The best book I _________ ever ________ (read) is One Hundred Years of
Solitude by Gabriel Marquez.
A You're filthy! What __________ you _________ (do)?
B I ________(work) in the garden. I ________ (plant) all the vegetables for next
year.
I _______ (wait) for two hours, but nobody _________ (arrive) yet.
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Упр.5.6.4.A Задайте вопрос с How long...? для следующих предложений и
решите, какое время нужно использовать, Present Perfect или Present Perfect
Continuous. Если оба времени возможны, используйте Continuous.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
I live in the country.
I play a lot of tennis.
I know Jack well.
I work in Italy.
I have an American car.
How long ______________________ ?
How long ______________________ ?
How long ______________________ ?
How long ______________________ ?
How long ______________________ ?
Упр.5.6.4.B Для каждого из пяти предложений из предыдущего задания задайте
вопрос в Past Simple , используя подсказки.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
When __________________ move ___________?
How old ___________ when __________ started _________ ?
Where __________________ meet _____________?
Why ___________________ decide ________________?
How much _____________ pay _________________?
Упр.5.6.5. Поставьте глагол в требуемом по контексту времени (Present Simple,
Present Continuous, Present Perfect Simple или Present Perfect Continuous).
Пример: I have been learning (learn) Italian for the past three years, but there's still a
lot I don't understand (not understand).
a. A Oh dear! Look out of the window. It __________________ (rain).
B Oh no. I _______________ (not bring) my umbrella.
b. My uncle _______________ (know) everything about roses. He ____________
(grow) them for 35 years. Now he ______________ (try) to produce a blue one.
c. I _______________ (listen) to you for the past half an hour, but I'm afraid I
_______________ (not understand) a word.
d. A What's the matter, Jane?
B I _________________ (read) in my room and the light isn't very good. I
________________ (have) a headache. It's really hurting.
e. A What are you doing?
B I ________________ (write) a letter.
f. A You _______________ (sit) at the desk for hours. Is it a difficult letter?
B Yes. I ________________ (decide) to resign from my job.
g. A But how do you know you don't like it? You ________ only ______ (do) it for a
week.
B I do like it. But I _____________ (offer – passive) a better one, and I'm going to
accept it. It's in Brazil, and I_________ always ___________ (want) to go to
Brazil. I ___________ (not like) living in cold climates.
h. A But how ___________ you _________ (know) if you'll like it there? You
_____________ never (be) out of England before.
B That doesn't matter. Some friends of mine _____________ (live) there at the
moment. They'll look after me.
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i. A You're very lucky, really. I _______________ (try) to find a job for months. I
___________ (be) to endless interviews, and I ____________ (turn down –
passive) each time, but you got two jobs in a week.
B Well, obviously you ______________ (apply) for the wrong kinds of job. Don't
worry. You'll find one soon.
j. I ______________(hope) so.
5.7. Past Simple и Past Perfect
Past Perfect употребляется для выражения действия, которое уже совершилось до
определенного момента в прошлом:
We carefully examined the samples which they had sent us.
Сравните, как меняется смысл предложения при описании с использованием этих
времен последовательности событий в прошлом:
When we arrived at the stadium, the match started (Мы успели вовремя и
ничего не пропустили).
When we arrived at the stadium, the match had started (На самое начало матча
мы опоздали).
Упр.5.7.1. В каждом предложении поставьте глаголы в скобках в нужном по
контексту времени: один – в Past Simple, другой – в Past Perfect.
Пример: He died (die) after he had been (be) ill for a long time.
a. I ____________ (thank) her for everything she __________ (do).
b. When I got to the office, I _________ (realize) that I _________ (forget) to lock the
front door.
c. When they _______ (finish) their work, they _________ (go) home.
d. I _______ (call) you at 8.00, but you _______ just __________ (go) out.
e. I took my family to Paris last year. I _____________ (be) there as a student, so I
___________ (know) my way around.
f. When I _________ (listen) to the news, I ______ (go) to bed.
Упр.5.7.2. Соедините следующие пары предложений, используя союзы в
скобках. Замените время одного из глаголов на Past Perfect.
Пример: I had a bath. I went to bed.(after)
After I'd had a bath, I went to bed.
a. I read the letter. I threw it away. (when)
b. He passed his driving test. He bought a car. (as soon as)
c. I took the book back to the library. I finished reading it. (when)
d. I didn't go to bed. I did my homework. (until)
e. I spent all my money. I went home. (when)
f. I read the book. I saw the film. (before)
g. Her children left home. She started writing. (after)
Упр.5.7.3. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в Past Simple или Past Perfect.
Пример: When we returned to the car we saw (saw) that someone had smashed
(smash) the windows.
116
a. I ________ (realise) I __________ (lose) my purse when I opened my bag.
b. He ________ (lose) the squash game because he _________ (never / play) squash
before in his life.
c. David ____________ (buy) his ticket the week before, so I don’t understand why he
___________ (try) to get in without paying.
d. By the time she __________ (be) eighteen she ___________ (visit) nearly every
capital city in the world.
e. Paula ________(drop) the cup she was holding and ________ (burst) into tears.
f. Why _____________ (you / not speak) to Jim at the meeting yesterday? Because he
_______________ (leave) by the time I got there.
g. Sally was upset when _________ (you / not / eat) any of her birthday cake. I
_______ (not / can) help it. I __________ (just / eat) a huge meal.
h. You _______________ (look) happy when you were talking to Jackie last night.
Yes. I _________________ (not / see) her for six years.
i. “It _________ (take) nearly four hours to drive to the garden party, and when we
____________ (get) there they ____________ (refuse) to let us in!”
“Why?”
“Because we _______________(forget) to bring our invitations.”
j. Johnny ___________ (spend) seven years of his life in prison before he ______
(realise) that the things he _______ (do) to get there were wrong. He _______ (rob)
banks, he _______ (burgle) houses, he ________ (steal) cars. But, fortunately, he
___________ (never / kill) anyone.
Упр.5.7.4. Закончите второе предложение так, чтобы у него было значение,
подобное первому. Используйте выделенное слово и от двух до пяти других
необходимых слов.
a. Barry was very excited because it was his first time on television.
never
Barry _______________ before, so he was very excited.
b. The children ran over the bridge to see the fire engine, but it was no longer there.
had The fire engine __________ time the children ran over the bridge.
c. He looked familiar to me, but in fact he was a complete stranger.
met
Although he looked familiar to me, I ___________________ before.
d. After they had had the contract read by a lawyer, they signed it.
before
They had the contract read by a lawyer _________________ it.
e. Staying in a five-star hotel was a new experience for us.
stayed
We __________________ in a five-star hotel before.
f. They arrived at the cinema just in time to see "The End" come up on the screen.
just The film ________________ by the time they arrived at the cinema.
g. He had to write over fifty letters to get an interview.
had
He got an interview only after ___________________ over fifty letters.
h. She left the office after turning off all the lights.
turned
After __________________ all the lights, she left the office.
i. When we arrived at the house, Dan had just left.
soon
Dan left the house and __________________ after.
j. I checked that I had my passport with me before I left for the airport.
after
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I left for the airport ________________ that I had my passport with me.
Упр.5.7.5. Закончите следующие предложения или добавьте свое, используя
глагол в Past Perfect.
Пример: When I arrived home, I was starving. I hadn't had anything to eat all day.
a. Tom was furious with Alice because she ______________________.
b. James inherited a small fortune from his father, but a year later he didn't have a
penny. __________________.
c. She was fined $ 200 because she ____________________.
d. When I saw him, he was pale and shaking like a leaf. ______________.
e. He was two hours late for the wedding because ______________.
f. I didn't know her name, but the face was familiar. I was sure __________.
g. I couldn't answer any of the exam questions, although __________.
h. James was very proud of his eighteen-year-old son, who _________.
Упр.5.7.6. Выберите правильный вариант из каждой пары.
Пример: Everybody knew he had stolen / had been stealing from his employer for
years.
a. I knew the facts of the case because I had read / had been reading the report.
b. My eyes ached because I had read / had been reading for three hours.
c. The children were filthy. They had played / had been playing in the garden, and
they were covered in mud.
d. I was very nervous at the beginning of the match. I had never played/ had never
been playing with her before, and I didn't know how good she was.
e. Donald excelled himself as a cook. He had cooked / had been cooking a wonderful
Spanish dish.
f. Donald was very cross. He had worked/ had been working in the kitchen all
morning, and none had offered to help.
Упр.5.7.7. Составьте предложения, используя слова в скобках. Используйте
следующие глагольные времена: Present Perfect, Present Perfect Continuous, Past
Perfect, Past Perfect Continuous.
Пример: Ann is sitting on the ground. She's out of breath. (she / run) She has been
running.
a. Where's my bag? I left it under this chair. (somebody / take / it)
b. We were all surprised when Jenny and Andy got married last year. (they / only /
c.
d.
e.
f.
know / each other / a few weeks)
It's still raining. I wish it would stop. (it / rain / all day)
Suddenly I woke up. I was confused and didn't know where I was. (I / dream)
I wasn't hungry at lunchtime so I didn't have anything to eat. (I / have / a big
breakfast)
Every year Bob and Alice spend a few days at the same hotel by the sea. (they / go /
there for years)
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g. I've got a headache. (I / have / it / since I got up)
h. Next week Gerry is going to run in a marathon. ( he / train / very hard for it)
5.8. "Used to" и "would" для выражения повторяющегося действия или
обычного состояния в прошлом
Used to используется, чтобы выразить обычные, повторяющиеся прошедшие
действия и состояния, которые продолжались в течение некоторого периода
времени в прошлом, но в настоящее время уже не происходят.
Примеры: Last winter I used to spend a lot of time in the library. (повторяющееся
действие)
He used to be very short-tempered. (состояние)
Would употребляется со всеми лицами единственного и множественного числа
для выражения повторного действия в прошлом в значении бывало, при этом
употребление would не подчеркивает, что в настоящее время действие уже не
происходит. Would нельзя использовать, чтобы передать прошлые состояния.
(Неправильно сказать: *He'd live in a lovely cottage).
Если действие в прошлом совершилось лишь раз, и, следовательно, не является
привычкой, нужно использовать Past Simple.
Упр.5.8.1. Соедините строчки из колонки А и В. Закончите предложение в
колонке В, употребляя used to для выражения повторяющихся действий или
обычного состояния в прошлом.
Пример: d-1, It used to follow me everywhere.
A
a. I was very fit when I was young.
1.
b. The teachers at my school were horrible. 2.
c. My sister’s room was so messy.
3.
d. I had a dog when I was a kid.
4.
5.
e. My family had some lovely holidays.
f. When I was young we didn’t have a car.
6.
g. And we didn’t have central heating.
7.
h. My uncle was a pilot for British Airways. 8.
B
________ follow me everywhere.
_________ go everywhere by bus.
_______ freeze on winter morning.
___________ fly Concord.
______ never ______ tidy it at all.
___________ do a lot of exercises.
___________ hit the pupils.
______ go camping all over Europe.
Упр.5.8.2. Составьте предложения с used to. Обратите внимание на образование
отрицательной конструкции didn't use to.
Пример: This town's so ugly. It used to be so pretty.
There are so many tourists. There didn't use to be any tourists.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
The houses are very expensive.
The streets are dirty.
There is so much litter on the streets.
The car parks are always full.
There is a lot of traffic on the roads.
It's noisy at night.
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g. Andy's changed! He's so miserable!
h. And he's really mean.
i. He's badly-dressed.
Упр.5.8.3. Составьте краткие ответы с never used to, и скажите , что на самом
деле имело место в прошлом.
Пример: Jeremy drinks beer and whisky. (lemonade)
He never used to. He used to drink lemonade.
a. Henry drives like a maniac. (carefully)
b. Tessa spends a fortune on clothes! (very careful with her money)
c. The children fight a lot these days. (get on well)
d. I think Kate tells lies. (tell the truth)
e. Margaret gets up at 11.00. (the first one up in the morning)
f. The tape recorder keeps stopping. (work perfectly)
Упр.5.8.4. Употребите глагол в скобках в нужном по контексту времени (Past
Continuous или used to…).
Пример: I haven't been to the cinema for ages now.
We used to go a lot. (go)
Ann didn't see me wave to her.
She was looking in the other direction. (look)
a. I ___________ a lot but I don't use my car very much these days. (drive)
b. I asked the driver to slow down. She _______________ too fast. (drive)
c. Rose and Jim met for the first time when they ______ at university. (study)
d. When I was a child, I ______________ a lot of bad dreams. (have)
e. When the phone rang, I __________________ a shower. (have)
f. "Where were you yesterday afternoon?" " I _________ volleyball." (play)
g. "Do you do any sports?" "Not these days. I _________ volleyball." (play)
h. George looked very nice. He _______________ a very nice suit. (wear)
Упр.5.8.5. Заполните пропуски требуемой по контексту формой used to:
утвердительной, вопросительной или отрицательной.
a. There _______ be a beautiful old building where that car park is now.
b. __________ have a Saturday job when you were at school?
c. She ________ be so moody. It’s only since she lost her job.
d. __________ play cricket when you were at school?
e. My grandfather never ___________ get so out of breath when he climbed the stairs.
f. Julie __________ be as slim as she is now. She’s been dieting.
g. Where ____________ go out to eat when you lived in Madrid?
h. ___________ smoke 60 cigarettes a day? How did you give up?
* Упр.5.8.6. Выберите вариант ответа, который вы считаете правильным. Иногда
правильными могут быть несколько вариантов.
1. We ________ Auntie Jean every time we went to London.
A visited
B used to visit
C would visit
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2. I __________ long blonde hair when I was first married.
A had
B used to have
C would have
3. Pam ___________ out with Andy for six months but then she ditched him.
A went
B used to go
C would go
4. We ____________ coffee and croissants every morning for breakfast.
A had
B used to have
C would have
5. We __________ to each other every day when we were apart.
A wrote
B used to write
C would write
6. He ___________ to me for 25 years and then stopped.
A wrote
B used to write
C would write
7. In the old days people __________ you if you were in trouble.
A helped
B used to help
C would help
8. I ___________ living so close to the sea.
A loved
B used to love
C would love
9. Dave _________ Molly three times if she wanted to go out with him.
A asked
B used to ask
C would ask
10. I ___________ questions in class. I was too shy.
A never asked
B never used to ask
C would never ask
5.9. Способы выражения будущего времени
Действия в будущем времени могут быть выражены с помощью:
• вспомогательных глаголов shall и will:
“I’ll come,” he said. (решение, принятое в момент разговора).
“He’ll win”, I’m sure. (предсказание);
• c использованием формы to be going to:
We are going to play tennis. (намерение).
It is going to rain. (предсказание);
• времени Present Continuous:
She’s meeting her publisher. (запланированное действие);
• времени Present Indefinite:
My flight leaves at 10:00. (будущее действие, происходящее по расписанию).
Упр.5.9.1. Используйте will или be going to. Иногда возможны оба варианта
a. Look out! We _____________ crash!
b. "There's the doorbell."
"I ______________ go."
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c. We promise that if you vote for us we ______________ double your income in
twelve months.
d. "It's very cloudy, isn't it?" "Yes, I think it ________________ rain."
e. The next train to arrive at platform six _______________ be the delayed 7.32
service for Bristol.
f. I wonder what she __________________ do next.
g. "Can somebody answer the phone?" "I _______________."
h. A Poor Sue went to hospital yesterday.
B I'm sorry to hear that. I ____________________ send some flowers.
i. A This room's very cold.
B You're right. I _________________ turn on the heater.
j. A Oh dear. I can't do this homework.
B Don't worry. I ________________ help you.
k. A It's John's birthday tomorrow.
B Is it? I can't afford a present but I ___________ buy him a card.
l. A How old are you?
B I'm 64. I _________________ retire next year.
m. A Why are you leaving so early?
B Because the teacher gave us a lot of homework and I _________ do it very
carefully.
Упр.5.9.2. Закончите следующие предложения, используя will или be going to и
любые другие необходимые слова . Иногда возможны оба варианта.
a. A I've got to phone a Paris number. Do you know the code?
B No, _________________ in the directory for you.
b. A What are you doing over the Easter holidays?
B Absolutely nothing. We _________________ rest.
c. A Did you hear the weather forecast?
B Yes. _____________ cold at first, then _____________ a little warmer this
afternoon, and this evening _________________ some light showers.
d. A Why did you buy a house in such terrible condition?
B It was cheap. We _______________ modernize it from top to bottom, and we
_____________ into a restaurant. What do you think?
e. A If you are elected, what ________ your party ______ about unemployment?
B We have carefully considered this issue. When we are elected, as we most
certainly ________ be, we __________ create half a million new jobs.
f. A What are you doing here? Annie's expecting you for lunch.
B I completely forgot! I__________ a ring, and tell her I ____________ be late.
Thanks for reminding me.
g. A How will the proposed tax increase on petrol affect your business?
B To be perfectly honest, we haven't thought about it yet. We ____________ cross
that bridge when we get to it.
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Упр.5.9.3. Употребите глаголы в скобках в нужной по контексту форме будущего
времени.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
There's no point in running now. We ________ (miss) the bus anyway.
Yes, I'll come out this evening. I _______________(not/work).
You can relax. The match ______________ (not/start) until four o'clock.
I __________ (go) to the market this afternoon. Do you want anything?
Are you OK, Donna? You look like you ________________(faint).
You realise that the boss _______________ (not/like) this, don't you?
I ________________ (cook) dinner this evening - as usual.
She _______________ (look) for a new flat next year.
Don't worry. The shops _________ (not close) until eight o'clock tonight.
Упр.5.9.4. Закончите второе предложение так, чтобы его значение было подобно
значению первого предложения. Используйте выделенное слово и от двух до
пяти других необходимых слов.
a. Simon intends to join the police force when he leaves school.
is When Simon leaves school _______________ the police force.
b. He is such a bad driver that he is almost certain to have an accident soon.
going I think _____________ an accident soon because he is such a bad driver.
c. The departure time for the train is 8.35.
at The train _________________ 8.35.
d. I have arranged to meet my bank manager in the near future.
am I _______________________ soon.
e. They say that if the cows are lying down, rain will soon follow.
is They say that if the cows are lying down, it means that ________ rain.
f. What do you intend to do with all that money?
are What _______________________ with all that money?
g. He has decided never to drink whisky again.
is He ___________________ whisky again.
h. We have not arranged to do anything in particular this weekend.
are We ___________________ anything in particular this weekend.
i. I do not intend to help him, even if he pays me.
am Even if he pays me, I ___________________ him.
j. The film is scheduled to begin at four o'clock.
not The film ___________________ until four o'clock.
Упр.5.9.5. Употребите глагол в скобках в требуемой по контексту форме
будущего времени (I am doing, I do, I’m going to do, will, won’t, will (shall) be
doing).
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
I feel a bit hungry. I think ________________(I/have) something to eat.
Why are you putting on your coat? ____________ (you/go) somewhere?
What time __________________(I/phone) you this evening? About 7.30?
Look! That plane is flying towards the airport. ________ (it/land).
We must do something soon, before _____________ (it/be) too late.
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f. I'm sorry you’ve decided to leave the company. _______ (I/miss) you when
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
l.
m.
n.
_________ (you/go).
________ (I/give) you my address? If ______ (I/give) you my address,
______(you/write) to me?
Are you still watching that programme? What time ________ (it/end)?
____________ (I / go) to London next weekend for a wedding. My sister
________________(get) married.
I'm not ready yet. _________ (I/tell) you when __________ (I / be) ready. I
promise ________________ (I / not / be) very long.
A Where are you going?
B To the hairdresser's. __________ (I / have) my hair cut.
She was very rude to me. I refuse to speak to her again until ___________(she /
apologise).
I wonder where ______________________ (we/live) ten years from now.
What do you plan to do when ______ (you / finish) your course at college?
*Упр.5.9.6. В придаточных предложениях времени и условия употребите глаголы
в скобках в нужном по контексту времени (Present Indefinite или Present Perfect).
В некоторых предложениях оба варианта возможны.
Пример: When you have read (read) my book, could you give it back to me?
Of course. As soon as I've finished (finish) it, I'll give it to you.
a. I won’t be in touch unless there __________ (be) something urgent to tell you.
b. The children won’t go to bed until they ____ (have) a glass of milk.
c. You’ll phone me before you ________ (go) away, won't you?
d. A When are you going to the pub?
B When I ______ (finish) this work. I’ll take about another hour.
e. If you ________________ (not hurry up), we’ll be late.
f. I’ll come to London as soon as you _____ (find) somewhere for us to live.
g. I'm sure you’ll feel a lot better after you ______ (take) your medicine.
h. We’ll have dinner as soon as all the guests _______ (arrive).
i. You won’t forget to lock the door if you ______ (go) out, will you?
j. I won’t le you go until I ____________ (tell-passive) the truth. Which of you did it?
*Упр.5.9.7. Употребите глаголы в скобках в нужном по контексту времени (Future
Simple, Future Perfect, Present Simple или Present Perfect).
When we (pass) our exam we'll have a holiday.
When I (finish) the book I'll lend it to you.
After I (be) here for a year I'll ask for a rise.
Don't drive at more than 50 k.p.h. till your car (do) 4,000 kilometres.
When you (do) 4,000 kilometres you can drive it at 70 k.p.h.
When we (see) the cathedral we'll go to the museum.
He (not let) you out till you have finished your homework.
Hotel receptionist: When you (sign) the hotel register the porter will show you your
room.
i. By the end of the month 5,000 people (see) this exhibition.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
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j. By next April I (pay) $3,000 in income tax.
k. I suppose that when I come back in ten years time all these old houses (be) pulled
down.
l. The strike leader said, "By midnight 500 men (come) out on strike."
m. At your present rate you (burn) all that coal by the end of the month.
n. The treasurer said, "By the end of the year all our debts (be paid) off.”
5.10. Сочетаемость глаголов и существительных
Употребление таких часто используемых глаголов, как take, make, do, have,
вызывает иногда определенные трудности. Выбор глагола часто определятся
следующим за ним существительным (прямым дополнением), а не только
словарным значением глагола.
Упр.5.10.1. Образуйте правильные выражения, используя глаголы make и do.
Затем закончите предложения, используя нужное выражение в соответствующей
форме.
1 _____ a mistake
2 _____ nothing
3 _____ a noise
4 _____ one’s best
5 _____ money
6 _____ a will
7 _____ friends with
8 _____ sense
9 _____ my homework
10 _____ the housework
11 _____ a complaint
12 _____ up my mind to
13 _____ business with
14_____ a phone call
15_____ an exam
16 _____ progress
17_____ a speech
18 _____ a mess
19 _____ sure that
20 _____ someone a favour
Could you ______ ? Could you give me a lift to the station?
At first I found English difficult, but now I’m beginning ________ .
Customer to waiter: “I think you _____ . My bill should be $5, not $15.”
I _______ a lot of ______ with the Chinese. They are good customers of mine.
Can you understand these instructions? They _______ to me.
It took me a long time to decide, but I have finally _______ to accept the job.
Sh! Don’t _______ . The baby’s asleep.
Hello. I’d like ______ . There’s no hot water in my room.
Before going on holiday you should _______ all windows and doors are shut and
locked.
j. A You must try harder.
B I’m _______ .
A Well, it’s not good enough.
k. Yesterday the Prime Minister _______ in the House of Commons.
l. It took me hours to clean your room. If you ______ again, you can clean it up
yourself.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
*Упр.5.10.2. Заполните пропуск нужной по контексту формой глаголов make или
do.
a. You can’t rely on him. He is always ______ excuses for never getting things done.
b. Just a minute, I have to ____ a call.
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c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
The recent cable break has ____ a lot of damage.
You either know the answer or you don’t. It’s no good ____ guesses.
Which modern languages are you ____ ?
We _____ an agreement and you’ve broken it.
I’ve got a lot of jobs to ____ this morning.
I shouldn’t employ him. He’s always ____ trouble.
We‘ve been studying this radiation for a year, but we haven’t ____ much progress.
A car that size only ____ about 10 miles to the gallon.
Упр.5.10.3. Заполните пропуск нужной по контексту формой глагола have +
существительное из списка. Обратите внимание на то, что в сочетаниях типа
have breakfast / lunch артикль не употребляется (исключение: have a meal).
drink row look swim bath breakfast word day game time supper
Пример: “Would you like to have a drink?”
“Yes, please. I’m very thirsty.”
a. “Did you watch TV last night?”
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
“No, I _________ and went straight to bed.”
“Did you _______ a good _______ of tennis?”
“Yes, I won 6-0, 6-2.”
“Bye, Mum. I’m going out now!”
“Goodbye, darling. _______ a nice ______ !”
“Did you ______ ______ this morning?”
“No, I got up too late. I just had a cup of coffee.”
I’m going to ______ a ________ and wash my hair. I feel dirty.
I have a swimming pool at home, so if you want to _______ a ________ , just come
round.
“Did you ______ a good ______ at the office, dear?”
“No, I didn’t. The boss was very angry with me.”
Peter and I always argue. We don’t agree about anything. Yesterday we ______ a
______ about politics.
I’ve got my holiday photographs. Do you want to ______ a _______?
John! Could I ______ a _______ with you for a minute? There’s something I want to
ask you about.
Упр.5.10.4. Для глаголов, совпадающих с существительным по форме,
конструкция have + a + noun обозначает однократное действие. Герундий
используется для обозначения повторяющегося действия.
Пример:
I had a talk with Susan last night.
Talking to someone about a problem usually helps to solve it.
Составьте по два предложения для каждого из следующих слов, одно с
герундием, а другое с have + a + noun.
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ride
drink
look
wash
quarrel
walk
shave
smoke
sleep
try
swim
______________________
______________________
______________________
______________________
______________________
______________________
______________________
______________________
______________________
______________________
______________________
____________________________
____________________________
____________________________
____________________________
____________________________
____________________________
____________________________
____________________________
____________________________
____________________________
___________________________
Упр.5.10.5. Образуйте словосочетания глаголов have, take, make и do с
существительными и словосочетаниями из предложенного списка, написав их под
соответствующим глаголом.
take
your time
have
a good time
a good time
a mistake
homework
your time
a comparison
a suggestion
an arrangement
your temperature
progress
a recommendation
a rest
a favour
a proposal
dinner
a headache
an experiment
my best
the floor
a cold
a reservation
make
a mistake
an appointment
a good job
housework
lunch
friends
sure
advantage
heart trouble
research
a bath
do
homework
a trip
a speech
an effort
medicine
money
an airplane
a bet
a difference
a bus
a turn
an exam
place
part
notes
a promise
a chance
a cough
reservations
use
your seat
Упр.5.10.6. В большинстве предложений подчеркнутый фрагмент содержит
ошибку. Исправьте ошибки. Найдите правильные предложения.
a. The decision that is done will depend largely on what recommendations the teaching
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
staff makes to the director.
Unless a patient takes his medicine regularly, he is unlikely to do fast progress
toward full recovery.
The president has not yet made several key appointments in the judiciary branch.
Remarkable advances have been done recently in medicine.
Sleep scientists are still making research on various types of sleep disorders.
Candidates for high-level political office are unlikely to do promises which they
cannot keep.
If you want to make money you’ve got to take chances.
Several proposals have been done concerning a new nuclear power station.
The fact that the space shuttle is reusable shows the progress that has been done in
space technology.
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5.11. Глаголы, близкие по написанию или значению
Использование ряда глаголов вызывает трудности из-за того, что их значения
либо написание близки. Часть этих глаголов неправильные и иногда одна из форм
неправильного глагола может совпадать с формами других глаголов.
Упр 5.11.1. Заполните пропуски в таблице недостающими глагольными формами.
Инфинитив
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
sit
set
lie
lay
rise
raise
fall
feel
fill
2-ая форма
(Simple Past)
sat
Причастие II
sat
Причастие I
sitting
Обратите внимание на то, что за глаголами sit, lie, rise никогда не следует прямое
дополнение, и они не употребляются в страдательном залоге.
Упр.5.11.2. Выберите правильный вариант из каждой пары.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
The flag was risen/ raised to the top of the pole.
The campers got up as soon as sun had risen/ raised.
The defendant rose/ raised and faced the jury.
The old man has sat/ set on the park bench all afternoon.
The pastry chef sat/ set the pies on the counter to cool.
The pies had been sat/ set out on the counter to cool.
The old tools had lain/ laid away in the basement for years.
The tools were lain/ laid away in the basement.
As soon as the child lay/ laid his head on the pillow, he fell asleep.
Lying/ Laying in the driveway was a bicycle.
Упр.5.11.3. Заполните пропуски нужной по контексту формой глагола fall, feel
или fill.
1. I _____ hungry. (Past Ind.) 2. The prices for vegetables and fruit _____ in July. (Past
Ind.) 3. Everybody _______ pity for the old sick man. (Pres. Ind.) 4. In spring the sick
man ______ much better. (Past Ind.) 5. I didn’t _____ like going to the club that night.
6. Her black straight hair _____ over her shoulders. (Past Ind.) 7. I _____ the glass
with water. (Past Ind.) 8. The leaves _____ in September and October. (Pres. Ind.) 9.
How are you _____ today?
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Упр. 5.11.4. Заполните пропуски нужной по контексту формой глагола lie или
lay.
1. Last night I ______ the book on the desk. It ______ on it now. 2. The old woman
had a poor health. She ______ ill for a long time. 3. He ______ his hand on my
shoulder. (Past Ind.) 4. In summer we often _____ in the sun. (Present Ind.) 5. Don’t
_____ in bed all the morning! 6. The book _____ open on the sofa. (Past Ind.) 7. It’s
night. The city _____ quiet. 8. The mother ______ the new-year present near her
daughter’s bed. (Past Ind.) 9. He is still a young man. Life ______ before him. 10.
She knows where her interests _______ . 11. London ______ on the Thames. 12. I
_____ my things into the suit-case. (Past Ind.).
Упр. 5.11.5. Заполните пропуски нужной по контексту формой глагола rise или
raise.
1. He ______ very early. (Pres. Ind.)
2. They ______ from the table. (Past Ind.) 3.
He _____ his voice but it was too noisy in the hall to hear it. 4. His voice _____ . 5.
Some hills _____ beyond the lake. (Past Ind.) 6. Don’t do it, it may ______ your
temperature. 7. The price for flowers ______ a little. (Past Ind.) 8. She ______ her
eyes. (Past Ind.) 9. The hair ______ on his head. (Past Ind.) 10. In spring the river
______ . (Pres. Ind.) 11. He ______ his hat and said “Good morning” to me. 12. I
______ my glass to your health. (Pres. Cont.)
Упр. 5.11.6. Определите залог сказуемого в каждом предложении
(действительный или страдательный) и правильно ли употреблен подчеркнутый
глагол. В случае ошибки – исправьте ее.
a. The motorist ran over a child’s toy that was lying in the street.
b. The old box that had laid in the attic for ten years was covered with dust and
cobwebs.
c. The flag was raised to half-mast to honour the dead soldier.
d. The bathmat lying on the floor is over ten years old.
e. Prices of citrus and fruits were risen because of the severe frost.
f. Metal tools which lie outside in the rain will eventually rust.
g. No sooner had the moon risen than a cloud obscured it from view.
h. The seedlings should not be set out until after the last frost.
i. His fear of a relapse was lain to rest by the doctor’s words.
j. Presuming the price of silver would soon raise, investors bought large quantities of
the metal.
k. By lying motionless, an animal can more easily camouflage itself.
l. Clocks should be sit forward one hour when daylight saving time ends.
m. Although the rent was raised twice, it is still lower than one might expect.
n. These bricks were obviously laid by a very careless worker.
o. Having been risen in a small town, the writer was at his best when describing scenes
of rural America.
p. Kittens which are not raised around humans are difficult to tame completely.
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5.12. Обзорные упражнения на времена и залоги
Упр. 5.12.1. Выберите правильный вариант из каждой пары.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
l.
m.
n.
o.
p.
q.
r.
Everything is going well. We didn't have / haven't had any problems so far.
Margaret didn't go / hasn't gone to work yesterday. She wasn't feeling well.
Look! That man over there wears / is wearing the same sweater as you.
Your son is much taller than when I last saw him. He grew / has grown a lot.
I still don't know what to do. I didn't decide / haven't decided yet.
I wonder why Jim is / is being so nice to me today. He isn't usually like that.
Jane had a book open in front of her but she didn't read / wasn't reading it.
I wasn't very busy. I didn't have / wasn't having much to do.
Mary wasn't happy in her new job at first but she begins / is beginning to enjoy it
now.
After leaving school, Tim found / has found it very difficult to get a job.
When Sue heard the news, she wasn't / hasn't been very pleased.
This is a nice restaurant, isn't it? Is this the first time you are / you've been here?
I need a new job. I'm doing / I've been doing the same job for too long.
"Ann has gone out."
"Oh, has she? What time did she go / has she gone?"
"You look tired."
"Yes, I've played / I've been playing basketball."
Where are you coming / do you come from? Are you American?
I'd like to see Tina again. It's a long time since I saw her / that I didn't see her.
Bob and Alice have been married since 20 years / for 20 years.
Упр. 5.12.2. Определите, какой из подчеркнутых элементов предложения
содержит ошибку.
a. New York City has been (A) the capital of New York State
until (B) 1797 when (C) the state capital was moved (D) to Albany.
b. The advantages of computerized typing (A) and editing (B) are now being extending
(C) to all the written (D) languages of the world.
c. Rubber can be made (A) too (B) elastic that it will stretch (C) more than nine times
its (D) normal length.
d. Since (A) their high vitamin and low calorie content (B), mushrooms
are included (C) in certain diets (D).
e. Leave (A) me tell (B) a (C) funny story I've heard (D).
Упр.5.12.3. Выберите наиболее подходящий по контексту вариант. Иногда более
чем один вариант является правильным.
1. When is your meeting with Mr Thomas?
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a. I’ll see him at 10 a.m. tomorrow.
b. I’m seeing him at 10 a.m. tomorrow.
c. I see him at 10 a.m. tomorrow.
2. What time is your train?
a. It leaves at 7.30 p.m.
b. It’s going to leave at 7.30 p.m.
c. It is leaving at 7.30 p.m.
3. I’m going to phone for a pizza. Do you want one?
a. Yes, I’ll have one too.
b. Yes, I am going to have one too.
c. Yes, I have one too.
4. Goodbye.
a. Goodbye. I’m going to see you soon.
b. Goodbye. I’ll see you soon.
c. Goodbye. I see you soon.
5. … and what about the third day of our tour of Mogul India?
a. On the third day you travel by train to Agra.
b. On the third day you are going to travel by train to Agra.
c. On the third day you’ll be travelling by train to Agra.
6. Look at the skater! I think she’s in danger!
a. Yes, the ice breaks!
b. Yes, the ice is going to break!
c. Yes, the ice will break!
7. You must be looking forward to going.
a. Yes, this time next week I’ll be spending all day on the beach.
b. Yes, this time next week I am spending all day on the beach.
c. Yes, this time next week I spend all day on the beach.
8. Bill is standing for election next month, isn’t he?
a. Yes, but he doesn’t win.
b. Yes, but he won’t win.
c. Yes, but he won’t be winning.
9. John is getting very nervous. Why is that?
a. He’ll perform in the concert on Saturday.
b. He is performing in the concert on Saturday.
c. He’ll be performing in the concert on Saturday.
10. You like Charles Dickens, don’t you?
a. Yes, next year I’ll read all his novels again.
b. Yes, next year I am going to read all his novels again.
c. Yes, next year I’m reading all his novels again.
11. Does Michael know about the change of date?
a. No, but if I see him I’ll tell him.
b. No, but if I see him I’m going to tell him.
c. No, but if I see him I’ll be telling him.
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12. Have you bought your new house yet?
a. Yes, we are moving next month.
b. Yes, we’ll move next month.
c. Yes, we move next month.
13. You look pale. Are you all right?
a. I’ll be sick!
b. I’m going to be sick!
c. I’m being sick!
14. Your new radio doesn’t work.
a. I know. I’m going to take it back.
b. I know. I’ll take it back.
c. I know. I’ll be taking it back.
15. … so I’m afraid we can’t refund your money, madam.
a. I’m not satisfied. I’ll take this matter further.
b. I’m not satisfied. I’m going to take this matter further.
c. I’m not satisfied. I’m taking this matter further.
Упр.5.12.4. Выберите наиболее подходящий по контексту вариант. Иногда
возможно больше чем одно правильное решение.
A Hello, Henry. How are you?
B Fine. And you?
A: Not so bad, thanks. Listen, I'm ringing to try to arrange a meeting with you. (a) I'll
be coming/I'm coming/I come to London next Wednesday to see some customers.
(b) I'm going to see/I'll see/I'm seeing them in the morning. (c) Will you be/are
you/are you going to be free any time in the afternoon?
B: (d) I won't be/I'm not/I'm not going to be in London, I'm afraid. (e) I'll go/I'm
going/I'll be going abroad for a few days on business.
A: Oh, where (f) do you go/will you go/are you going ?
B: To Germany. I have a meeting in Bonn. My company (g) will open/opens/is
opening a new office there next year.
A: Mmm. Sounds exciting. When (h) do you go/are you going/will you go ?
B: On Monday evening, and (i) I'm not back/I won't be back/I'm not going to be back
until Thursday morning.
A: Oh, well. I could stay overnight and see you then. What time (j) is your plane
getting in/does your plane get in/will your plane get in?
B: 10.40, so if I get a taxi, (k) I'll be/I am/I could be in my office at 12.00.
A: On second thoughts, don't do that. (l) I'll see/I'll be seeing/I'm going to see you at
the airport. We can talk there. (m) We finish/we're finishing/we'll have finished by
2.00, probably, so then we can have something to eat and I can get the 3.00 shuttle
back to Manchester. How does that sound?
B: Fine. We'll sort it all out then. Thanks for ringing. Bye.
A: Cheerio. (n) I see/I'll be seeing/I'll see you on Thursday. Have a good trip.
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*Упр.5.12.5. В приведенных диалогах примерно половина форм будущего
времени употреблена неверно. Найдите ошибки и исправьте их. Иногда возможно
больше чем одно правильное решение.
Пример: A What are you doing this weekend?
B Nothing. I stay at home. / I'm staying.
a. A I'm terribly sorry! I've spilt coffee on your carpet. It'll stain.
B Don't worry. I'm getting a cloth to wipe it off.
b. A What do you do when you've finished this course?
B I'm going back to Spain.
c. A Have you got a job in Spain?
B No. I'll go back to university. I have to finish my final year.
d. A Am I disturbing you if I ring tonight?
B Not at all. I won't be doing anything important.
e. A What time does your train get in?
B At 11.00. If it's late, I'm going to miss my appointment.
f. A Have you decided what you'll do if you don't get the job?
B I do a retraining scheme.
**Упр.5.12.6. Употребите глаголы в нужном по контексту грамматическом
времени.
A car: past, present and future
It is a self- propelled road vehicle. The search for a means of replacing the horse as a
means of transport (1)____ (begin) seriously at the beginning of the 18th century, when
Newcomen and Watt (2) ____ (show) that steam could be harnessed to produce power.
A working steam carriage(3) ____ (build) in 1808. But an effective horseless carriage
(4) ____ (need) a smaller efficient power source. This (5) ____ eventually ____
(provide) by two German engineers who in 1876 (6) ___ (patent) the Otto-cycle
internal-combustion engine.
In 1890 Daimler and Benz (7) ____ (sell) the motorized dog cars that were the
forerunners of the modern car.
By the start of World War I some 130 000 cars (8) ____ (register) in the UK.
Nevertheless, motoring was still the preserve of the rich.
Since the 1950s competition throughout the world (9) ____ (be) fierce. In the UK
major competitors in world mass markets now (10) ____ (include) the Rover Group,
Jaguar and Ford.
The future of the private car is uncertain: world reserves of oil (11) ____ (diminish)
at present, the cost of the car (12) ____ (rise). It may be that the petrol supplies (13)
____ (hold out) until an economical alternative (14) __ (find) and that traffic (15) ___
better ___ (manage) or it may be that the private car (16) ___ again ____ (become) the
privilege of the rich.
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The microwave background radiation
In 1949, two of Gamow’s students, Ralph Alpher and Robert Herman, (1) ____
(calculate) that the temperature of the microwave background radiation today (2) ___
(be) about 5K. Remarkably, this prediction (3) ____ (ignore) by observational
astronomers for the next 15 years! The microwave background radiation (4) ____
finally ___ (discover) accidentally in 1964 by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson while
they (5) ____ (measure) noise inherent in radio receivers. They (6) ____ (make) an
extremely sensitive radio receiver, but wherever they (7) ___ (look) in the sky, they (8)
____ (find) that it was a little hotter than they (9) ___ (expect). It turned out that they
(10) ____ (discover) the microwave background radiation.
Since this discovery there (11) ____ (be) many observations of this radiation to try to
detect variations in temperature along different lines of sight. One of the remarkable
facts of astrophysics to emerge over the last more than 30 years (12) ___ (be) the
extraordinary smoothness of this fossil radiation. We now (13) ____ (know) that the
temperature of the radiation (14) ____ (vary) by less than one part in 30,000 on an
angular scales, once one (15) ___ (make) the correction for the Doppler effect. The
amazing smoothness of the microwave background radiation (16) ___ (tell) us that the
universe is “simple” in the sense that it is both homogeneous and isotropic. In other
words, if we (17) ___ (look) at the content of a small volume of the universe and (18)
____ (compare) it to any other such volume, the average properties (19) ____ (be) the
same.
5.13. Тесты на времена и залоги
Упр.5.13.1. Выберите вариант ответа, который вы считаете правильным.
Present and Past
a. _________________ this week? "No, she's on holiday."
A Is Susan working
B Does Susan work
C Does work Susan
b. I don’t understand this sentence. What __________ ?
A does mean this word B does this word mean C means this word
c. John __________________ tennis once or twice a week.
A is playing usually B is usually playing C usually plays D plays usually
d. How _________________ now? Better than before?
A you are feeling
B do you feel
C are you feeling
e. It was a boring weekend. _______________________ anything.
A I didn't
B I don't do
C I didn't do
f. Tom _________________ his hand when he was cooking the dinner.
A burnt
B was burning
C has burnt
Present Perfect and Past
a. Jim is away on holiday. He __________________ to Spain.
A is gone
B has gone
C has been
b. Everything is going well. We _________________ any problems so far.
A didn't have
B don't have
C haven't had
c. Linda has lost her passport again. It's the second time this ________________.
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A has happened
B happens
C happened
d. You're out of breath. ___________________________?
A Are you running
B Have you run
C Have you been running
e. Where's the book I gave you? What _____________________ with it?
A have you done
B have you been doing
C are you doing
f. We're good friends. We __________________ each other for a long time.
A know
B have known
C have been knowing
D knew
g. Sally has been working here ___________________.
A for six months
B since six months C six months ago
h. It's two years ____________________ Joe.
A that I don't see B that I haven't seen
C since I didn't see D since I saw
i. They _________________ out after lunch and they've just come back.
A went
B have gone
C are gone
j. The Chinese __________________ printing.
A invented
B have invented
C had invented
k. Ian ____________________ in Scotland for ten years. Now he lives in London.
A lived
B has lived
C has been living
l. The man sitting next to me on the plane was nervous because he ________ before.
A hasn't flown
B didn't fly
C hadn't flown
D wasn't flying
m. ____________________ a car when they were living n London?
A Had they
B Did they have
C Were they having D Have they had
n. I ________________ television a lot but I don't any more.
A was watching
B was used to watch
C used to watch
Future
a. ________________ tomorrow , so we can go out somewhere.
A I'm not working
B I don't work
C I won't work
b. That bag looks heavy.____________________ you with it.
A I'm helping
B I help
C I'll help
c. I think the weather __________________ be nice later.
A will
B shall
C is going to
d. "Ann is in hospital." "Yes, I know. _____________________ her tomorrow."
A I visit
B I'm going to visit
C I'll visit
e. We're late. The film _____________________ by the time we get to the cinema.
A will already start B will be already started
C will already have started
f. Don't worry ___________________ late tonight.
A if I am
B when I am
C when I'll be
D if I'll be
Упр.5.13.2. Выберите вариант ответа, который вы считаете правильным.
a. The famous book by Frederick W. Taylor Scientific Management
_______________ in 1947.
A had been written
B has been written
C was written D is written
b. Over the last thirty years, a new approach to management ___________.
A has been developing B is developing
C is developed D was developed
c. Jack Richards left the company he _____________ with for ten years in order to set
up his own business.
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A has worked
B had worked
C has been working
D have worked
d. “Shirley used to exercise a lot, didn't she?”
“Yes, she had _________________ exercises every day until last month.”
A been done
B doing
C been doing
D did
e. “Why do you ask if I _____________________ ?“
“Because you smell of cigarettes.”
A had smoked
B smoked C have been smoking
D had been smoking
f. Hurry up. The train _____________ in a minute.
A leaves
B left
C will leave
D will be leaving
g. ___________ you ____________ any interesting films lately?
A have ... seen
B did ... see
C do ... see
D will ... see
h. We __________ to live in the country, but now we live in town.
A used
B got used
C were used
D use
i. I usually read the newspaper while I ____________ for the bus.
A wait
B am waiting
C have waited
D have been waiting
j. Refrigerating meats _______________ the spread of bacteria.
A retards
B retarding
C to retard
D is retarded
k. The team __________________ the experiment by September.
A will carry out B will be carried out C will have carried out D will be carrying
out
l. The plane was so heavily loaded that it could not ____________.
A arouse
B raise
C rise
d arise
m. Since 1965 many measurements of the microwave background ________ .
A have been made
B were made
C had been made
D are being made
n. If costs ________________, profit margins necessarily contract.
A rise
B raise
C raised
D are to rise
o. A firm should always compare the cost of the alteration of its product with the cost
of lost sales if no alteration _________________.
A will be made
B is made
C were made
D was made
p. These aggressive exporters are willing to take short losses in the belief that in the
long run, once their position in export markets ____________, their costs will be
lowered and they will be able to earn excess returns.
A has been established
B was established
C were established D will be
established
q. Look up, the storm clouds ____________________.
A form
B are formed
C are being formed
D are forming
r. Even before the end of the 2nd World War, there __________ considerable
planning for the post-war economic system.
A has been
B was
C had to be
D had been
s. I ______________________ my paper shortly.
A have written
B wrote
C will write
D am writing
t. He has been to London _______________________.
A formerly
B lately
C not long ago
D recent
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Глава 6. Модальные глаголы
6.1. Общие сведения
Модальные глаголы передают отношение к действию (возможность, способность,
необходимость, запрет и др.), выраженному смысловым глаголом. В сочетании с
инфинитивом смыслового глагола они употребляются в предложении в роли
составного глагольного сказуемого.
He can do it himself.
I must speak to him.
~ Модальные глаголы не имеют неличных форм и имеют не все формы, которые
существуют у смысловых глаголов. У некоторых модальных глаголов есть
заменители, которые употребляются в тех формах, которых не существует у
модального глагола: must = have to; can = be able to.
He might be able to deliver his paper in English at the coming conference.
~ В третьем лице единственного числа настоящего времени модальные глаголы не
имеют окончания -s.
~ В большинстве случаев инфинитив, следующий за модальным глаголом,
употребляется без частицы to.
~ Для того чтобы задать вопрос или образовать отрицательную форму не
требуется вспомогательный глагол. Исключение составляет выражение
have to.
Must he go there?
No, he needn’t.
Но: Do all applicants have to have an interview? You don’t have to use Power Point
for your presentation at the seminar.
Чтобы успешно применять модальные глаголы, помимо этих хорошо известных
правил их употребления необходимо знать некоторые детали, которые, может
быть, не столь часто упоминаются в учебниках и пособиях, однако очень важны
для понимания сути и функций модальных глаголов в английском языке.
1. Одно и то же отношение к действию можно передать с помощью разных
модальных глаголов. Поэтому, прежде чем использовать модальный глагол,
следует оценить, например, “степень” долженствования (требование жесткое,
средней степени или более мягкое) или “вид” долженствования (в силу общих
норм, обстоятельств, договоренности или моральных норм), степень
вероятности протекания события и пр.
2. Практически каждый модальный глагол многозначен. Его значение
определяется контекстом высказывания или формой следующего за ним
инфинитива.
3. Отрицательная форма, которая для большинства модальных глаголов
образуется путем добавления частицы not, часто имеет самостоятельное
модальное значение. Например, для выражения высокой степени вероятности
протекания события используется глагол must. Если же мы в такой же степени
уверены, что событие не может произойти, то употребляется глагол can’t.
4. Следует также иметь в виду, что отношение к действию можно передать с
помощью некоторых словосочетаний, например: would rather (do)
(предпочтение), had better (do) (совет), it’s high time to do (упрек).
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6.2. Таблица случаев употребления модальных глаголов, их эквивалентов и
вспомогательных глаголов в модальном значении
Значение глагола
Форма глагола в настоящем
(будущем) времени
1.Должествование, обязанность, необходимость
а. Высокая степень
must (в случае личной
необходимости
необходимости что-либо
сделать):
• I must work harder.
Have to (в силу общих норм и
правил):
• To become Doctor of Science
every post graduate has to defend
his thesis.
* Для выражения будущих
обязанностей употребляются
will have/need to: You'll
have/need to be more careful
about what you eat in future.
b. Более слабая
should/ought to, shouldn’t/ ought
степень
not to
необходимости,
• You should avoid doing some
совет
things contradicting common
sense.
had/’d better (употребляется,
чтобы дать совет в
конкретной ситуации, когда
возможные негативные
последствия): You’d better go
now or you will be late
c. Критика прошлых
поступков или
—
поведения в
прошлом
d. долженствование is (am, are) to:
по договоренности
• The train is to arrive at 7 a.m.
или установленному • If we are to profit we have to
порядку
develop our own ways to succeed.
Форма глагола в
прошедшем времени
had to:
• I had to work hard to
pass the 1st Certificate
English exam.
• Why did you have to resit your exam in
economics?
—
should/ ought to + have
done:
• You should have
listened to my advice.
was (were) to have done:
• He was to have come.
(but he failed)
2. Запрет, отсутствие разрешения
a. Запрет
b. Отсутствие
разрешения
138
mustn’t:
• You mustn’t tell somebody the
news. It’s a secret.
can't (cannot)/is not (are not)
allowed/may not (в более
—
couldn't/were not or was
not allowed:
Значение глагола
3. Отсутствие
необходимости в
настоящем
3.1.Отсутствие
обязанности или
необходимости в
прошлом
4. Способность
Форма глагола в настоящем
(будущем) времени
формальных ситуациях):
• You can’t smoke here. It’s not
allowed.
• The retailer may not sell that
book below the publisher's price.
needn't / don't have to/ don't
need to
• You needn't / don't have to
/don't need to pick up that
prescription from the chemist as
I'll get it while I'm in town.
Форма глагола в
прошедшем времени
• We couldn't go into the
library after 5 pm.
• They were not allowed
to come back late.
—
needn't
( + perfect infinitive)*/
didn't have to / didn't
need to
I needn't have gone /I
didn't have to go / didn't
need to go to the doctor.
*(действие было
совершено, хотя в этом
—
не было необходимости)
I didn't have/need to go to
the doctor because I
suddenly felt better. (I
didn't go.)
I didn't have/need to go to
the doctor but I went just
to be on the safe side. (I
did go.)
can, can’t:
could:
• She can read English quickly but • She could play the piano
she can’t speak English fluently.
when she was three.
was (were) able to,
managed to (для
выражения того, что
однажды удалось в
прошлом):
• A.S.Griboedov was able
to enter Moscow
University when he was
13.
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Значение глагола
Форма глагола в настоящем
(будущем) времени
5. Разрешение,
can, may (в более формальных
позволение
ситуациях), could:
• When you’ve finished you can
go home.
• May I ask you a question?
• Could I use your dictionary for a
moment?
6. Вероятность событий
a. Абсолютная
will, won’t:
уверенность
• Is that the phone? It’ll be John.
He said he’d ring around now.
• Don’t take the cake out of the
oven. It won’t be ready yet.
Форма глагола в
прошедшем времени
could, was (were) allowed
to:
• I could go to anywhere
when I was a child.
• I was allowed to do
whatever I wanted when I
was young.
will (would), won’t
(wouldn’t) + have done:
• You say you stayed in a
hotel near the lake? That
would have been my
parent’s hotel! What a
coincidence!
• It won’t have been Peter
you met at the party last
night. He was ill in bed.
b. Наиболее логичная must, can’t, couldn’t:
must, can’t + have done:
интерпретация
• You must be joking. I don’t
• He must have got lost.
ситуации на основе
believe you.
He can’t have known the
имеющихся фактов, • She can’t be well today. She had way.
несколько менее
a sore throat and high temperature
определенная, чем в yesterday.
предыдущем случае
c. Обоснованное
should/ ought to, shouldn’t/
should/ought to + have
ожидание того, что
done:
ought not to
что-то случиться при • Brenda should/ought to be
• Where’s Henry? He
условии, что все
home by now.
should/ought to have
произойдет по плану • This homework
been here ages ago!
shouldn’t/ought not to take you
too long (if you have understood
what you have to do).
d. Невысокая
may, may not:
may, may not + have
вероятность события • We may go to Greece for our
done:
holidays, but we may not have
• Where is Ann? She may
enough money to go abroad this
have overslept.
summer.
e. Еще меньшая
might, might not, could:
might, might not, could +
уверенность в
• You could (might) be right but I have done:
предположении
doubt it.
• She might have decided
• The American film could be
not to come.
worth seeing but it might not be
• She might not have
admirable.
forgotten.
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Значение глагола
7. Просьба
8. Предложение
9. Намерение,
неизбежность
10. Упрек
Форма глагола в настоящем
(будущем) времени
could, can, would, will*:
• Can you lend me 5 pounds until
tomorrow?
• Will you give me a lift?
• Could (would) you explain this
rule for me?
*Выражения просьбы с
помощью Will /Could /Would
несколько более вежливо, чем с
помощью Can
will, shall:
- What shall I do for you?
- I want someone to do a lot of
typing for me.
- Will I do?
will, won’t:
• I’ll pay back tomorrow.
• The car won’t start.
might, could:
• He could be more industrious.
• You might at least offer her
help.
Форма глагола в
прошедшем времени
—
—
wouldn’t:
• He was angry because
she wouldn’t lend him
any money.
could /might/ should/
ought to + have done:
• You could (might) have
done it yesterday.
6.3. Глаголы, выражающие долженствование
Обратите внимание на категоричность запрета, выражаемую mustn’t и отсутствие
необходимости совершать какое-либо действие, выражаемое needn’t и don’t have
to.
Упр.6.3.1. Заполните пропуски нужным по контексту модальным глаголом
(mustn’t или needn’t).
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
You ___________ give Freddy any more sweets or he won’t eat any tea.
The doctor said I ____________ go back to the hospital; my leg is all right.
You ___________ make any sandwiches for me. I’m not hungry.
She ___________ fill in a new application form, we have the other one.
You ___________ mention this to Kate, or she’ll get upset.
She __________ bring a doctor’s certificate, she was only away for one day.
You ____________ take any more aspirins, you’ve had four already.
Tell her she ______________ open any letters marked “personal”.
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Упр.6.3.2. Заполните пропуски нужным по контексту модальным глаголом (have
to, don’t have to или should). Все предложения связаны с темой “Посещение
Америки”.
When you go to America
a. you ________ get a visa.
b. you ________ apply for a visa at least one month before you go.
c. you ________ book a hotel room before you go, because there are usually a lot of
vacancies.
d. you ________ get a work permit if you want to work there.
e. you _______ visit San Francisco, because many people think it is the most beautiful
city in America.
f. you _______ change your money before you go, because there are a lot of 24-hour
banks.
g. you _______ hire a car, because it’s the easiest way to travel, and petrol is cheap.
h. you _______ have special injections before you go.
Упр.6.3.3. Заполните пропуски нужным по контексту модальным глаголом
(положительной или отрицательной формами must, have to, had to, have had to,
should).
I really do think you ___________ get your hair cut.
Careful, darling. You ___________ play with matches. They’re too dangerous.
My wife suddenly became ill in the middle of the night and I ____ call the doctor.
I’m overweight. The doctor said I _________ eat too many sweets or potatoes.
I like Saturday because I ___________ get up early.
A. Why have you got so much money on you? You _______ keep it in the bank.
B. I know. But today’s the day I _________ pay my employees.
g. It’s my mother’s birthday next week. I _______ remember to buy her a present
and a card.
h. No one likes __________ work at weekends.
i. You _______________ come with me if you don’t want to. I don’t mind going on my
own. You stay here if you like.
j. I have a really bad memory for phone numbers. I ___________ look them up in the
book every time.
k. When I was at school we __________ wear a uniform. Everybody hated it.
l. You ______________ touch electrical appliances if you’ve got wet hands. You could
kill yourself.
m. She has a private income. She ______ never ______ do one day’s work in the whole
of her life.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
Упр.6.3.4. Проанализируйте ситуации, когда уместно использовать форму to be to
для выражения долженствования по договоренности, правилам внутреннего
распорядка или по расписанию. Поставьте вопросы к выделенным словам.
a. He was to give a talk on the properties of the Moon minerals.
b. Petrov was to meet an American businessman at 2 p.m.
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c. The engineers of the team were to design and construct a new machine for
agriculture.
d. I was to fly to Moscow the other day.
e. The undergraduates were to have a class in the gym.
f. We were to write a test and hand it to the teacher.
Упр.6.3.5. Задайте расчлененные вопросы с was, were + инфинитив с to.
Пример:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
The meeting ____ to begin at 6.
The meeting was to begin at 6, wasn’t it?
They ____________ to have their exams on Wednesday.
Lucy ____________ to speak at the meeting
He _________ to show the guests round.
Bob ________ to come back by Friday.
They ________ to produce the new machine two months ago.
The competition _________ to go on for at least 4 days.
Упр.6.3.6. Словосочетание had better + инфинитив без to выражает совет, для
конкретной ситуации. Дайте подходящий совет, употребляя had better (not) .
Пример: It’s too late. You had better go home now.
a. John has a bad toothache. He __________ .
b. The undergraduates are having a test today. They ___________ .
c. It’s raining cats and dogs ( идет проливной дождь ). You ___________ .
d. Bob wants to study German but he doesn’t know what to begin with. Bob,
_________ .
e. Olga’s English pronunciation isn’t too good, she has a thick accent. What to do about
it? ______ .
*Упр.6.3.7. Заполните пропуски нужным по контексту модальным глаголом
(положительной, отрицательной или вопросительной формами must, need или
have to).
a. A. What time _________ we ____________ leave for the airport?
B. It’s only a thirty-minutes drive, so we _______ go until about 3.30. I __________
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
do my packing I haven’t started yet!
I have an interview for a job next week, but before the interview I _______ have a
medical examination.
How did you damage your bike? You ______ learn to look after your toys. When I
was your age, I ____________ clean my bike every night.
There’s a new Indian restaurant just opened that you should go to. It’s wonderful!
You ____________book, though, because it’s so popular already.
I’m sure she didn’t mean to upset you. You _______ take things so personally.
I hate _________ get up on cold, winter mornings.
I hate _________ tell you this, but you’ve just got a parking ticket.
I have perfect teeth. I ____________ never __________ have a single filling.
I think I’ve put on weight. I ___________ watch what I eat in future.
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j. I don’t think a career in the army would suit me. I ______ wear a uniform, for a start.
k. You _____________ worry about me. I can look after myself.
l. The doctor said I’ve got conjunctivitis. I ______ put drops in my eye three times a
day.
m. What a wonderful meal that was! You _____________ gone to so much trouble!
n. I got something for my cough from the chemist's, so I ______ go to the doctor’s.
o. I was very concerned about how my daughter would find going to her new school,
but I ____________ worried, because she loved every minute.
p. You _________ take out travel insurance, but it’s a good idea, just to be on the safe
side.
6.4. Упражнения на модальные глаголы, выражающие разрешение и
возможность
Упр.6.4.1. Заполните пропуски нужным по контексту модальным глаголом
(положительной или отрицательной формами can, could, to be able to).
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
In my country you ____________ get married when you are 16.
Women ___________ vote in England until 1922.
Last night I __________ get into my house because I had forgotten my key.
I phoned the Gas Board because I thought I ___________ smell gas, which is very
dangerous.
“Hello. Is that the dentist? ___________ I make an appointment to see you, please?
I’m learning car mechanics because I want ___________ to service my own car. It
costs a fortune if you send it to the garage.
Many night animals ______________ see very well, but they have a highly
developed sense of smell.
If you __________ do this exercise, you’re very clever!
Упр.6.4.2. Ниже даны два диалога с перепутанными репликами, в которых один
человек просит разрешения, а другой дает его. В одном диалоге Mr Roberts и Mr
Thomas разговаривают в офисе, а в другом диалоге разговор идет между отцом и
сыном. Поставьте реплики в правильном порядке, сформировав два диалога.
Обратите внимание на различия при выражении позволения что-либо сделать.
Диалог 1.
Диалог 2.
~Mr Thomas: Mr Roberts? Could I have ~Son: Dad, can I have the car tonight?
a word with you?
~Father: No, you can’t. I need it.
~Mr Roberts: Yes, what is it?
a. But I’m taking Dave to see his girlfriend in hospital.
b. Yes, what is it?
c. I told you. I need it.
d. It’s not a very convenient time at the moment.
e. Well, as you know, my father can’t walk very well, and he needs to go into hospital. I
was wondering if I could have a day off work?
f. Thank a lot, Dad. I won’t be home late.
g. Oh, please. He won’t be able to go if I don’t give him a lift.
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h. That’s very kind. I’ll make up the time, I promise.
i. No, you can’t. I need it.
j. Mr Roberts? Could I have a word with you?
k. I’d be terribly grateful. He wouldn’t be able to go if I weren’t there to help him.
l. All right. I suppose I can walk. The exercise will do me good.
m. Well, if that’s the case I suppose you should.
n. Dad, can I have the car tonight?
Упр.6.4.3. Заполните пропуски нужным по контексту модальным глаголом из
предложенного списка. Каждое слово можно использовать только один раз.
can may might
must don’t have to needn’t ought
rather
want
Foreign students in Britain (1) ________ usually stay with family or they (2) _______
be able to find a cheap hotel if they’d (3) ________ be on their own. Those who (4)
_______ to improve their English very quickly normally stay with a family. Students
who come to Britain for more than three months (5) _______ register with the police. If
you stay for less than three months, you (6) ________ register at the police station. All
foreign students (7) ________ to register with a doctor although it is not compulsory.
You (8) ________ need medical help during your stay. If you fall ill, you (9)
_________ go directly to a hospital unless it is a serious emergency. Phone your doctor
first.
6.5. Степень вероятности протекания события
Степень вероятности протекания события помогает определить ситуация. Чтобы
дать вероятностную оценку прошлым событиям, необходимо употребить
перфектный инфинитив.
*Упр. 6.5.1. Употребите глагол в скобках в нужной по контексту форме:
will
must
might
may
could
won’t
can’t
do, be doing
a. There’s no point in phoning him this afternoon. He _________ (work) in the garden,
and he __________ (not hear) the phone.
b. Don’t forget your umbrella. You never know, it __________ (rain).
c.~ A I hope we ___________ (not disturb) Pat when we drop in tonight.
~ B Don’t worry. She _____ (not work). She told me yesterday she never works in
the evening.
d. It’s a crazy idea but it _____________ (work).
e. ~ A I have invited Jane to the party on Saturday.
~ B She ____________ (not come). She hates parties.
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f. ~ A I’ve bought three kilos of cheese for the party.
~B That’s rather a lot, isn’t it? They ___________ (not like) cheese.
g. ~A Why haven’t you gone to the airport? I thought you were going to Rome.
~B I’m sure the plane _____________ (delay – passive). The weather’s too bad.
h. Be careful with the dog. She turns a bit nasty sometimes, and _______ (bite) you.
Упр.6.5.2. Перефразируйте предложения, заменив подчеркнутые выражения на
модальные глаголы must, can’t или might с нужной по контексту формой
инфинитива.
Пример: I’m sure Harry’s at least sixty.
Perhaps he’s having a party.
Harry must be at least sixty.
He might be having a party.
a. I’m sure he hasn’t retired yet. He still leaves the house every morning.
b. I’m sure he isn’t very well off. His house is in a terrible mess.
c. Perhaps he spent all his money when he was younger.
d. I’m sure he does a lot of gardening. His garden looks beautiful.
e. I’m sure he’s read a lot of books about gardening. He’s certainly an expert.
f. I’m sure he’s working in his garden now. I can hear someone digging.
g. Now I can hear voices. Perhaps he’s talking to Miss Appleby.
h. No, I’m sure it isn’t Miss Appleby. It’s two men’s voices.
i. They’re shouting. Perhaps they are having an argument.
j. They’re talking about money. Perhaps Harry owes the other man some money.
k. Now I can’t hear anything. I’m sure they’ve gone inside.
l. My God! A gun shot! I’m sure Harry killed him!
m. No, there’s Harry outside, so it wasn’t Harry who was shot.
n. There’s a siren. I’m sure this is the police arriving.
o. Look at all those lights and cameras. Ah! Now I understand. They were making a
film!
Упр.6.5.3. Поставьте себя на место детектива, расследующего ограбление в доме
Смитов. С помощью соответствующих модальных глаголов выскажите
предположение о ситуации.
“I wonder how the thief got in. He (a) __________ used a ladder or he (b) ________
had a key. Ah! What’s this? Broken glass by the kitchen door, and the door has been
unlocked. He (c) _________ broken the window, put his hand inside, and turned the
key. That (d) __________ made a noise. I wonder if the neighbours heard anything?”
(He goes next door to talk to the neighbours, and knocks on the door.)
“There is no reply. I suppose they (e) _________ be on holiday, or they (f)
___________ watching television.”
(He listens at the letter-box.)
“I can hear voices. Someone (g) _________ in. Rather odd.”
(He goes back to the Smith’s house.)
“Now I wonder what was stolen. I don’t think the Smith family is terribly well off, so
the thief (h) _________ found a lot to steal. It was clever of him to come in just after
Mrs Smith went shopping. He (i) ___________ known she would be out. What was
146
that noise? It came from upstairs. The burglar (j) _________ not _______ left the house
yet! He (k) __________ hiding upstairs! I’d better go and see.”
Упр.6.5.4. Закончите второе предложение так, чтобы оно имело значение,
подобное первому. Используйте выделенное слово и от 2 до 5 других слов,
нужных по смыслу.
a. It is possible that you gave her the wrong number.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
might
You __________ the wrong number.
It is not possible that Richard knew about this.
have
Richard ________ about it.
Perhaps Susan didn’t want to come to the party.
may
Susan ________ to come to the party.
There is a possibility that Mary forgot about the meeting.
could Mary _______ about the meeting.
I am certain that he wasn’t telling the truth.
must
He _______ lies.
He might have seen the film already.
has
Perhaps ________ the film.
The police say his death was definitely not an accident.
been The police say his death ______ an accident.
There is no doubt that he was driving too fast at the time.
must He ________ too fast at the time.
Perhaps Colin was in the bath when you phoned.
might
Colin ________ in the bath when you phoned.
It is possible that she did not receive my letter.
may She ________ my letter.
Упр.6.5.5. Выберите правильный вариант из каждой пары.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
I’m not certain, but it might/must have been half past four.
You must/can’t have been sunbathing all week - you haven’t got a tan.
Why don’t you sit down? You may/must be exhausted after such a long journey.
She can’t/must have gone on holiday. She’s got too much work to do.
It can’t/must have been Tom who left the lights on. He’s always doing that.
Laura may/can’t have tried to phone earlier, but I don’t know for sure.
He must/might have picked up this gun because his fingerprints are all over it.
She can’t/could have eaten that whole cake herself – it was huge!
6.6. Обзорные упражнения на модальные глаголы
Упр.6.6.1. Прочитайте предложения. Определите функцию модального глагола,
сопоставив букву предложения с номером соответствующей функции.
Пример: a. She can dance but she can’t sing. a. – 8.
1- request; 2- offer; 3- intention; 4- strong obligation; 5- mild obligation; 6- prohibition;
7- no obligation; 8- ability; 9- permission; 10- certainty; 11- possibility.
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a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
l.
m.
n.
o.
Could you do something for me? I have a problem.
I think you should write and apologize.
What time do you have to start work?
She could read when she was three.
Will you lend me some money?
I’ll pay you back tomorrow.
Could I use your phone for a moment?
You must hold it very carefully. It’s very fragile.
You mustn’t drive if you’ve been drinking.
Give me your suitcase. I’ll take it to the car.
~ Thank you, doctor. Shall I come in a week?
~ Only if absolutely necessary.
They must have been arrived. Their car is in the drive.
They must be in bed.
They can’t be out at this time of night.
You can’t consult your neighbour at the exam.
*Упр.6.6.2. Заполните пропуски требуемым по контексту модальным глаголом
(положительной или отрицательной формой can, could, might, must, should,
would) и глаголом в скобках. В некоторых предложениях следует использовать
перфектный инфинитив.
Пример: ~ A I’m hungry.
~ B But you’ve just had lunch. You can’t be hungry already. (be)
~ A I haven’t seen our neighbours for ages.
~ B No’ They must have gone away. (go)
a. A What’s the weather like? Is it raining?
B Not at the moment but it ______________ later. (rain)
b. A Where has Julia gone?
B I’m not sure. She ___________ to the bank. (go)
c. A I didn’t see you at John’s party last week.
B No, I had to work that evening, so I ___________ .(go)
d. A I saw you at John’s party last week.
B No, you didn’t. You _____________ me. I didn’t go to John’s party. (see)
e. A When did you post the letter to Mary?
B This morning. So she ______________ it tomorrow. (get)
f. A When was the last time you saw Bill?
B Years ago. I _______________ him if I saw him now.(recognise)
g. A Did you hear the explosion?
B What explosion?
A There was a loud explosion a few minutes ago. You __________ it.(hear)
h. A We weren’t sure which way to go. In the end we turned right.
B You went the wrong way. You ___________ left.(turn)
Упр.6.6.3. Составьте предложения, используя слова в скобках.
a. Don’t phone Ann now. (she might / have / lunch)
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b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
l.
She might be having lunch.
I ate too much. Now I feel sick. (I shouldn’t / eat / so much)
I shouldn’t have eaten so much.
I wonder why Tom didn’t phone me. (he must / forget)
Why did you go home so early? (you needn’t / go / home so early)
You’ve signed the contract. (it / can’t / change / now)
“What’s Linda doing?” “I’m not sure.” (she may / watch / television)
Ann was standing outside the cinema. (she must / wait / for somebody)
He was in prison at the time the crime was committed, so (he couldn’t/do/it)
Why weren’t you here earlier? (you ought / be / here earlier)
Why didn’t you ask me to help you? (I would / help / you)
I’m surprised nobody told you that the road was very dangerous. (you should/warn)
George was in a strange mood yesterday. (he might not / feel / very well)
Упр.6.6.4. Выберите предложение, которое точнее передает смысл исходного
предложения.
а. Nissan is to announce on Monday a further modest rise in jobs at its plant in the north
east England city.
A The aim of Nissan is to announce on Monday a further modest increase in jobs at
its plant.
B Nissan must announce on Monday a further modest rise in jobs at its plant.
C Nissan announced on Monday a further modest rise in jobs at its plant.
b. If the new investment project is to be adopted, it must be approved by the Board.
A No doubt the project has been approved by the Board.
B If the project is adopted it must be approved by the Board.
C For the project to be adopted it must be approved by the Board.
*Упр.6.6.5. Заполните пропуски требуемым по контексту модальным глаголом
(will, won’t, must, can’t, should) и соответствующей формой инфинитива глагола
в скобках.
A. OK. Don’t worry about the phone. I’ll answer it. It (a)_____ (be) David ringing me
about tonight’s meeting.
“Hello. 37885.”
“Hello John. It’s David. I tried ringing you earlier, but I got no reply. You (b)
___________ (be) out.”
“I haven’t been out all morning. You (c) ____________ (get) the right number. Never
mind. What’s about the meeting? How many people can we expect?”
“There (d) ____________ (be) quite a few, judging by the number of enquiries we’ve
been having. One thing’s worrying me. I haven’t heard from the speaker, Joan
Bakewell. I’m sure she (e) __________ (forget), but it isn’t like her not to get in touch.
Shall I give her a ring?”
“Not now, no. She (f) ___________ (teach). You’d better wait an hour or so.”
“I’ve bought twenty bottles of wine for the party afterwards. That (g) __________ (be)
enough, don’t you think?”
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“Yes, plenty. I’ll see you later, then. Bye.”
“Bye.”
B. “You (h) ___________ (be) very excited about your new book.”
“Yes, I am. It (i) ____________ (sell) quite well if the publishers’ research is accurate.”
“It (j) ____________ (take) you a long time to write.”
“About three years, yes.”
“What about your first book?”
“I’m not terribly sure, but it (k) ____________ (do) very well, because it hasn’t been
reprinted, and the first print run was only five hundred copies.”
“Better luck with this one!”
“Thanks!”
C. “My bank statement says I’m overdrawn. There (l) __________ (be) some mistake.
I (m) ______________ (get) through a whole month’s salary already!”
“We (n) ____________ (spend) too much money on the house lately.”
“But how come I’m overdrawn?”
“It (o) ____________ (be) the desk we bought. It was over eight hundred pounds.”
“How much have you got ?”
“About four hundred pounds.”
“Oh, well. That (p) _____ (get) us through to the end of the month if we’re careful.”
D. “Do you think Joey (q) ____________ (get) my letter yet?”
“She (r) ___________ (receive) it by now. I haven’t heard of any hold-ups with the
post. When did you send it?”
“Last week. I just wonder why she hasn’t rung to tell us how she intends to pay us back
the money she owes us.”
“She (s) ____________ (think) up a good excuse as to why she can’t, I bet.”
*Упр.6.6.6. Заполните пропуски требуемым по контексту модальным глаголом
(may, might или could) и соответствующей формой инфинитива глагола в
скобках. В некоторых случаях возможно использование каждого из трех глаголов.
I. I wonder why Alan didn’t buy me anything for my birthday. I suppose he (a)
________ (forget). Or he (b) _______ (think) that now I’m getting on. I don’t like to
be reminded of my advancing years. On the other hand, he (c) _________ (not
forget)! He (d) __________ (give) me a present this evening when I see him. Oh no!
He (e) _______ (plan) a surprise party, as he did last year. What a disaster that was! I
hope he isn’t doing it again!
II. Every time I phone Jane, it’s engaged. It’s very annoying. I suppose she (f)
____________ (try) to phone me while I’m phoning her. I’ll wait a while.
III. I can’t help worrying when Jack is late back home. I always think that he (g)
__________ (have) an accident, and that he (h) __________ (lie) on the side of the road
with ambulances and police cars all about him. I know it’s irrational. Wait a minute!
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It’s Tuesday today, isn’t it? He works late some Tuesdays. He (i) ___________ ( not
leave) the office yet. I’ll give him a ring.
IV. I wonder why Helen has got all these books on Greece from the library. I suppose
she (j) __________ (think) of going there on holiday. On the other hand, she (k)
__________ (not get) them out for herself. They (l) ___________ (be) for Henry. He
(m) ____________ (write) a project on Greece for his geography course.
*Упр.6.6.7. Заполните пропуски требуемым по контексту модальным глаголом
(could, managed to или соответствующей формой be able to).
a. What’s forty-eight divided by eight? I ______ never ____ to do sums in my head.
b. ___________ drive has changed my whole life. Now I can go wherever I want
without having to worry about public transport.
c. I had a row with Sheila last night about nuclear arms. I __________ understand the
point she was trying to make, but I still didn’t agree.
d. A girl was drowning, but I jumped in and I __________ save her. I ___________
swim since I was six.
e. The view was breathtaking. You ___________ see right across the valley to the hills
in the distance.
f. Why don’t you stop smoking? You __________ do it if you tried.
g. Ann’s operation was very successful. The doctors say she _________ walk again in
few weeks.
h. I’m learning Russian because I want ______ talk to people when I go there next
year.
**Упр.6.6.8. Заполните пропуски требуемым по контексту модальным глаголом
(could, may, must, have to, should) и соответствующей формой инфинитива
глагола в скобках.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
Einstain’s theory predicted that the universe was not static, but it _____ (be) either
expending or contracting.
Because the universe is expanding it ______ (cool), which means that it _____ (be)
much hotter when it was young.
Therefore, a significant fraction of the universe____(consist) of nonbaryonic
matter.
There were no longer free electrons to absorb and scatter light, and photons _____
(travel) freely through the universe.
These fluctuations _____ (cause) by something that happened even earlier.
We _____, however, (be) careful about taking these models too seriously; they all
_____ (be) wrong.
6.7. Тесты на модальные глаголы
Упр.6.7.1. Выберите вариант ответа, который вы считаете правильным. В
некоторых заданиях возможно более одного правильного ответа.
a. The fire spread through the building quickly but everybody ______________ .
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b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
A was able to escape B managed to escape
C could escape
The phone is ringing. It ______________ be Tom.
A might
B can
C could
Why did you stay at a hotel when you went to New York? You ____________ with
Barbara.
A can stay B could stay
C could have stayed
I’ve lost one of my gloves. I ___________ it somewhere.
A must drop B must have dropped C must be dropping
D must have been dropping
Take an umbrella with you when you go out. It _____________ rain later.
A may B might
C can
D could
What was wrong with you? Why _______________ go to hospital?
A had you to B did you have to
C must you
There’s plenty of time. You __________ hurry.
A don’t have to B mustn’t C needn’t
It was a great party last night. You __________ come. Why didn’t you?
A must have B should have C ought to have D had to
I think all drivers _________________ seat belts.
A should wear B had better wear C had better to wear
Упр.6.7.2. Выберите вариант ответа, который вы считаете правильным.
a. The author ________ extremely ambitious indicating only desirable targets instead of
attainable ones.
A. must have been
B.ought to have been
C. should have been
D. was to have been
b. The company is considering whether any new products ____________ to the line for
sale in foreign countries.
A need to be added
B should be adding
C need add
D ought to add
c. Price restrictions __________ prevent firms from using the strategies they consider
optimal in achieving their ends.
A may
B should C must
D ought to
d. If you have a high blood pressure, you __________ stop eating salt and go on a
saltless diet.
A had better
B are better C need better
D may better
e. You _________ go out without coat.
A are better not B were better not C better not
D had better not
f. “When _________ we ________ expect you?”
“Soon after half past five.”
A are ____ to
B must ___ ___
C do ______ have to D need _____
g. Don’t contradict her. You _________ respect her old age.
A are to
B have to
C should
D ought to
h. All the samples of new products must be ready by Friday because the exhibition
__________ on Saturday.
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A is to open
B has to open
C should be open
D should open
i. Travelers __________ their reservations well in advance if they want to fly during
the Christmas holidays.
A had better to get
B had to get better
C had better get
D had better got
j. Thanks to a letter of credit the importer is able to buy without ________ in advance.
A having to pay
B having paid
C have paid
D have to pay
k. Because of variety of developing countries participated in OPEC, their potential
impact ___________ no longer _________ .
A had _____ ignored
B could _____ be ignored
C had ____ to be ignored
D should _____ have been ignored
l.“I am going to visit Ann.”
“You __________ to telephone her first”
A ought
B might
C should
D must
m. The Ford theatre where Lincoln was shot _________ .
A must restore
B must be restoring
C must have been restored
D must restored
n. If we __________ succeed, we need to change the structure of our company.
A have to
B must
C should
D are to
o. No two corporations have the same name. For example, if the company’s name is
Maxwell Manufacturing, no other company _____________ under that name.
A must get incorporated B should become incorporated
C need be incorporated
D may incorporate
p. If you have a credit card you __________ carry a lot of cash with you.
A must not
B do not have to
C have not
D might not
q. This rule _____ here. It’s an exception.
A doesn’t apply
B is not apply
C shall not be applied D must not have been applied
Упр.6.7.3. Определите, какой из подчеркнутых элементов предложения содержит
ошибку.
a. “Black box” is a device whose (A) internal workings (B) are immaterial: its (С)
behavior must (D) be examined only at its input and output terminals.
b. Whoever (A) inspected this (B) radio should have put (C) their (D) identification
number on the box.
c. When a patient’s blood pressure is much (A) higher than (B) it should be (C), a
doctor usually insists that he will not (D) smoke.
d. The more (A) profits US corporation earn in another (B) countries, the less (C) they
need to care (D) about infrastructure and education in their country.
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Глава 7. Прямая и косвенная речь. Правило согласования времен.
Типы высказываний. Глаголы речи
7.1. Прямая и косвенная речь
Косвенную речь используют тогда, когда хотят избежать цитирования. С
грамматической точки зрения предложения с косвенной речью – это сложные
предложения, в которых придаточное предложение является дополнением.
Сказуемым главного предложения часто является глагол речи (say, tell, report) или
умственной активности (know, believe, wonder). Дополнительное придаточное
предложение может вводиться с помощью союза that, wh-words, или if/ whether:
The Dean said that science courses required a laboratory period. The professor has
explained how shock waves were formed. Do you know which answer is correct?
Главное предложение никогда не отделяется от придаточного запятой; знак
препинания в конце предложения определяется типом высказывания главного
предложения: точкой в случае утверждения и вопросительным знаком в случае
вопроса.
7.1.1. Правило согласования времен
Правило согласования времен запрещает использовать в придаточном
дополнительном предложении формы настоящего и будущего время, если в
главном предложении сказуемое выражено глаголом в одном из прошедших
времен. В таблице показано, каким образом обычно изменяются времена при
переходе от прямой речи к косвенной в этом случае.
Прямая речь
Present Simple (“I live”)
Present Continuous (“I am living”)
Present Perfect (“I have lived”)
Present Perfect Continuous:
(“I have been living”)
Past Simple (“I lived”)
Past Continuous:
(“I was living”)
Going to (Future) (“I am going to live”)
Will- Future Simple (“I will live”)
Can (“I can live”)
May (“I may live”)
Must (“I must live”)
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Косвенная речь
Past Simple (He said he lived)
Past Continuous (He said he was living)
Past Perfect (He said he had lived)
Past Perfect Continuous:
(He said he had been living)
Past Perfect (He said he had lived)
Past Perfect Continuous:
(He said he had been living)
Was going (He said he was going to live)
Would (He said he would live)
Could (He said he could live)
Might (He said he might live)
Had to (He said he had to live)
Указатели времени и места меняются следующим образом:
Прямая речь
«today»
«now»
«here»
«this»
«tonight»
«tomorrow (night)»
«next week»
«last week»
«yesterday»
«ago»
Косвенная речь
that day
then
there
that
that night
the next / following day (night)
the following week
the previous week
the previous day
previously / before
Если сказуемое в главном предложении употреблено в настоящем или
будущем времени (Present Simple, Present Perfect, Future Simple), в придаточном
предложении сохраняется то время глагола, которое требуется по смыслу, т.е.
соответствует тому времени, в каком было сделано высказывание в прямой речи.
Scientists agree that global warming is a serious problem. Measurements have
indicated that the average temperature of the earth has risen in the past one hundred
years. Further research will prove that carbon dioxide is largely responsible.
Упр.7.1.1.a. Преобразуйте высказывания в косвенную речь.
a. “I’ll see you in the morning, Helen.”
b. “The trousers have to be ready this afternoon.”
c. “I left my umbrella here two days ago.”
d. “I think it's going to rain tonight.”
e. “I’ve attended two conferences this year.”
f. “I’ve visited several genetic laboratories.”
g. “I’ve given two lectures at Prinseton University.”
h. “I’m writing my thesis now.”
i. “I’m studying an interesting problem.”
g. “I’ll start my next paper with the statement of the
problem.”
k. “My paper will consist of four sections.”
l. “In the introduction I’ll outline the present state
of research in the field of immunology.”
Peter told Helen ___________
Paul told the dry-cleaners_______
Susan told them___________
William said_____________
He stated _______
He said ________
He told us _________
He replied ___________
He thought____________
He is sure ______
He said ________
He pointed out __________
Упр.7.1.1.b. Преобразуйте высказывания в косвенную речь, используя модальные
глаголы.
a.
b.
c.
d.
“You can't park here” The police officer told Jack that he couldn’t park there.
“I can ring the Bank Manager.”
She said __________
“I may go abroad.”
She said ___________
“We must observe the experimental conditions.”
He pointed out ________
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e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
“I can’t promise you my assistance in this matter”. He told me__________
“I may not be able to send you a copy of my paper shortly.” He warned me____
“I must think about it.”
He said ________
“I can’t do anything about it tonight.”
He warned __________
“I must write an account of my work.”
He realized _________
“The parcel ought to be here by the end of next week.”
Brian said________
Упр.7.1.1.c. Преобразуйте высказывания в прямую речь, используя требуемые по
контексту модальные глаголы (must, mustn’t, needn’t, ought to, had better).
a. There’s a fantastic film on at the Odeon. Advise your friend to see it before it’s too
b.
c.
d.
e.
late.
Tell your friend not to drive her car till it’s insured.
You are going to play tennis with a friend at the tennis club. Tell him it isn’t
necessary for him to bring any tennis balls as the club supplies them.
Your friend has just received his bank statement. He’s sure it’s incorrect. Advise him
to telephone the bank.
Tell your Venezuelan friend that she needs a visa to go to France.
7.1.2. Отклонения от правила согласования времен
Случаи отклонения от правила согласования времен:
• в определительных придаточных предложениях, а также придаточных
причинных и сравнительных предложениях глагол может употребляться во
временах Present и Future: My brother told me about the book which you are
reading. He was not able to translate the article because he does not know English
well enough. He refused to go to the theatre as he will have an examination in
Economics in a few days. It was not so cold yesterday as it is today.
• глаголы must, should и ought (в случае выражения приказания или совета) а
также глаголы might и could употребляются в придаточном предложении
независимо от того, в каком времени стоит глагол главного предложения: He
tells (told) us that we mustn’t cross the road against the red light. He says (said) that
I ought to send her a telegram at once. I tell (told) him that he should consult a
doctor.
• глагол в дополнительном придаточном предложении выражает общеизвестный
факт: Galileo proved that the earth moves (moved) round the sun.
• в научной и технической литературе после глаголов типа to believe, to assume,
to suggest, to express, to maintain, и т.д., которые по своему значению не
констатируют общеизвестную истину, а указывают на предположительные
факты: The author suggested that the main valency chains of lignin are built up by a
repeating 2-ring system.
**Упр.7.1.2. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в нужном по контексту времени.
a. They held that this observation _____ (show) the reaction to be intermolecular.
b. Kelner discovered that visible light ____ (have) the remarkable ability of restoring
viability.
c. It was noticed that some water ____ (distill) at the beginning of the distillation.
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d. It was supposed that hydrate formation ____ (play) a part in the aqueous
polymerization.
e. He was modeling the simplest possible chemical reaction – hydrogen exchange, in
which a hydrogen atom ____ (slam) into a hydrogen molecule and _____ (replace)
one of its two atoms.
f. It was found that other derivatives ____ (not result) in higher yields.
g. He established the formula of the alcohol and suggested that saponification of the
ester (under rather drastic conditions) _____ (proceed) as follows.
h. It was shown that the velocity constant ____ (be) unaffected by an increase in
viscosity of the reacting mixture of over 2,000 fold.
i. Gauss deduced the fundamental theorem from Proposition 30 in Book 7 of Euclid’s
Elements, which ____ (state) that if a prime ____ (divide) a product of two integers,
then the prime must also divide at least one of the factors.
7.2. Повелительные конструкции в косвенной речи
Повелительные конструкции в косвенной речи выражаются через инфинитив.
Отрицательная форма повелительного наклонения do not заменяется
инфинитивом с частицей not.
Просьбы в косвенной речи можно передать двумя способами
~ используя if: “Will you move over please, Jim?” – He asked Jim if he would move
over.
~ с помощью инфинитива с частицей to: He asked Jim to move over.
Упр.7.2.1. Преобразуйте высказывания в косвенную речь, используя глагол to tell
в случае приказания и глагол to ask в случае просьбы.
Пример: “Come in.”
She asked me to come in.
“Don’t go there.”
She told (asked) me not to go there.
a. “Don’t sit down by the window.”
g. “Ask at the station.”
b. “Ring me up this evening.”
h. “Have another piece of cake.”
c. “Look in the cupboard.”
i. “Write to Head Office about it.”
d. “Take a couple of aspirins.”
j. “Explain to them what happened.”
e. “Don’t be late, please.”
k. “Don’t open the book.”
f. “Take it back to the shop where you bought it.”
*Упр.7.2.2. Преобразуйте высказывания в косвенную речь.
a. “If you see him ask him to ring me”, she said.
b. “When you are driving away look into your driving mirror before turning right”, said
my instructor.
c. “Get the car off the road or to the verge if you have a puncture. Don’t leave it on the
road”, said my father.
d. “If the lift should stop between two floors press the emergency button”, he said.
e. “If you don’t like the programme switch to another channel”, I said to her.
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7.3. Глаголы речи
Более точное значение или оттенок сказанного могут быть переданы в косвенной
речи выбором соответствующего глагола речи. Следует иметь в виду, что кроме
предложенных ниже в упражнениях, можно использовать и такие глаголы как to
beg, to instruct, to claim, to demand, to offer, to promise, to refuse, to threaten, to
admit, to suggest, to scream, to whisper, to stammer, to mumble, to swear, to yell, to
boast, to sigh и ряд других. Однако, следует помнить о грамматических
конструкциях, которые употребляются после данного глагола речи. Возможные
грамматические конструкции представлены в таблице. Некоторые глаголы могут
употребляться в двух и более конструкциях.
Грамматическая
конструкция
verb + object +
infinitive with to
Глаголы
Примеры
ask advise beg encourage
invite tell remind warn
She advised me to go to the doctor
He refused to talk to me.
verb + object + that
promise agree refuse
threaten
say claim admit promise
deny explain
tell remind warn
verb + ing
deny admit suggest
verb + infinitive
with to
verb + that
She claimed that she was
innocent.
She reminded us that we had
an appointment.
She suggested going to the
cinema.
Упр.7.3.1. Заполните пропуски глаголами to say, to tell, to speak, to talk и to
address в прошедшем времени.
a. The boy _______ me his name.
b. She _________ it in French. She _________ good French.
c. John and I ________ on different subjects.
d. I _______ “Good-bye” to them and left.
e. Professor Sedov _______ at the congress.
f. The friends _______ about their future investigation.
g. The foreigner ________ us in Italian.
h. Bob ________ me the time.
i. The head of the state _______ on the television last night. He _______ all the
people.
Упр.7.3.2. Заполните пропуски нужной по контексту формой глаголов из
предложенного списка.
say
tell
explain
speak talk
reply
I met Mr Brown in the street the other day, and we stopped and (a) _______ for a while.
He (b) ________ me that his wife had been taken into hospital. When I asked him how
she was, he (c) __________ that she was getting better.
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He wondered why I hadn’t been to the tennis club for a few months, so I (d) _______
that I’d been very busy lately and just hadn’t had time.
“There is something you must (e) ___________ me,” he said. “How many languages
can your son (f) _________ ?”
“Four,” I (g) ________ . “Why?”
“I know your son has some very funny stories to (h) ___________ about learning
languages and living abroad. We’re having a meeting of the Travellers Club next week,
and I’d like him to (i) _________ at it”.
I (j) ___________ I would (k) __________ to my son about it, and promised to get back
in touch.
Then we (l) _________ goodbye and went our separate ways.
Упр.7.3.3. Преобразуйте высказывания в косвенную речь, используя каждый
глагол из предложенных один раз. После всех указанных глаголов может
употребляться грамматическая конструкция verb+object+infinitive with to.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
ask tell warn urge remind invite persuade
advise
“I think you should accept the pay rise,” Sir Albert Pringle said to the shipbuilder’s
leader.
“We really must stay united,” Peter Arkwright said to his members.
“Don’t forget to come to the meeting,” Sir Albert said to his secretary.
“Be careful of the press. They often make mistakes,” said a colleague to Peter
Arkwright.
“I think we should return to work,” said Peter. “Well, if you think it’s a good idea,
we agree,” said shipbuilders.
“Please reconsider this offer,” Sir Albert said to Mr Arkwright.
“Stop work!” Peter Arkwright said to the builders.
“Have lunch with me,” said Sir Albert to Peter.
7.4. Вопросы в косвенной речи
При обращении специального вопроса в косвенную речь производятся
следующие изменения: вопросительный знак опускается; вопросительное слово
становиться союзом, соединяющим главное и придаточное предложения;
вопросительный порядок слов заменяется порядком слов повествовательного
предложения; соблюдается правило согласования времен.
Общие вопросы в косвенной речи требуют соединительного союза “ли” - if или
whether между главным и придаточным предложениями. Порядок слов прямой,
правило согласования времен используется, если сказуемое главного
предложения употреблено в прошедшем времени.
Прямая речь
wh- question
What's your favourite sport?
wh- question
Where do you live?
yes/no question
Косвенная речь
I asked him what his favourite sport was.
They asked her where she lived.
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Do you want some more cake?
yes/no question
Are you coming shopping this afternoon?
Can you help me do my homework?
She asked him if he wanted more cake.
She asked if/whether she was going
shopping that afternoon.
She asked him if he could help her do her
homework.
Упр.7.4.1. Задайте специальные вопросы в косвенной речи.
a. “What time does the film start, Peter?”
b. “Why did you apply for this job ?” asked the
sales manager.
c. “When will I know the results of the
examination?”
d. “How does the photocopier work?”
e. Where are you going for your holidays?
f. “When I see him, what shall I say?”
I asked Peter _______________
The sales manager asked me
___________
Maria asked the
examiner_____________
I asked the salesman
______________
My friend asked me ____________
I asked my colleague ___________
Упр.7.4.2. Задайте общие вопросы в косвенной речи.
Пример: “Are you a student?”
She asked me if I was a student.
a. “Do you want to go abroad?”
b. “Do you think it will be possible to get a job abroad?”
c. “Do you intend to go to Germany?”
d. “Are you going to answer any advertisements?”
e. “Is there a chance you might continue with your studies?”
f. “Is John trying to get a job?”
g. “Have you been to the Labour Exchange?”
h. “Aren’t you tired of doing nothing?”
i. “Haven’t you got any plans at all?”
j. “Are you definitely going to leave home?”
k. “Do you watch television every evening, Chris ?”
l. “Are you enjoying your flight?
m. “Have you ever been to Japan, Paul ?” Sue asked Paul________________
**Упр.7.4.3. Преобразуйте прямую речь в косвенную.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
“I can’t turn this screw,” said Ann. “Will you do it for me?”
“Would you tighten the bolt?” said Ann, handling me a spanner.
“Would you mind discussing this question at the seminar?”
“Shall I explain my recent results?”
“Will you help me with translating the article please?”
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Упр.7.4.4. Задайте вопросы в прямой речи.
The job interview
a. The interviewer asked Bill why he wanted to change his job.
b. First, the interviewer wondered if Bill was pleased with his job.
c. He needed to know what sort of translation Bill had ever been engaged in.
d. He was interested in how much Bill would like to get for his job.
e. He asked why Bill thought the company might be interested in hiring him.
f. He wanted to know what Bill’s career goals were.
g. He doubted if Bill was qualified enough for the job.
h. He asked if Bill could prove his experience with letters of recommendation from his
previous job.
7.5. Прямое и непрямое цитирование в письменной практике для научных
целей*
Прямое и непрямое цитирование является важным инструментом при написании
научных статей и отчетов для поддержания ваших собственных выводов.
Предварительный анализ имеющихся в литературе данных по вашей теме должен
найти соответствующее отражение в вашей работе. При этом важно не допустить
плагиата, т.е. использования идей других авторов без ссылки на источник
информации.
В соответствии с темой данной главы мы рассмотрим пунктуационное
оформление прямых и непрямых цитат.
Упр.7.5.1. Прочитайте следующий абзац, обращая внимание на использование
прямых цитат для поддержки основного тезиса.
Drugs and the Olympic Games
It is no secret that performance-enhancing1 drugs have been used by Olympic athletes
for decades. In 1993, the head of the International Olympic Committee's medical
commission, Prince Alexandre de Merode of Belgium, stated, “I believe that as many as
10% of all Olympic athletes are regular users of performance-enhancing drugs” (qtd. in
Bamberger and Yaeger 63)2. Despite rigorous3 drug testing of Olympic athletes, the use
of banned performance-enhancing substances has become more widespread than ever. It
is clear that if athletes want to win, they must consider using drugs. In a 1997 article in
Sports Illustrated magazine, Dutch physician Michel Karsten is quoted as saying,
“There may be some sportsmen who can win gold medals without taking drugs, but
there are very few.” According to Dr. Karsten, who says he has prescribed anabolic
steroids to hundreds of world-class athletes over the last twenty-five years, “If you are
especially gifted, you may win once, but from my experience you can't continue to win
without drugs .The field is just too filled with drug users" (qtd. in Bamberger and
Yaeger 62).
_________________________
1
enhancing: improving
161
2
qtd. in Bamberger and Yaeger 63: This form of in-text citation means that the words in
quotation marks were spoken by Prince Alexandre de Merode and were quoted on page
63 of an article written by two people named Bamberger and Yaeger.
3
rigorous: strict
7.5.1. Употребление глаголов речи при прямом цитировании.
Пунктуационное выделение прямых цитат
Известные вам глаголы речи: insist, report, suggest, claim, maintain, say,
write
declare, mention, state, а также выражение according to, которое может
употребляться вместо глагола речи, при введении прямой цитаты на письме
1) могут находиться до цитаты, в середине цитаты или после нее.
Dr. Karsten said, “________________________________.”________________
“______________,” the doctor stated, “_______________”
“____________________________________,”declared the president of the
International Olympic Committee (IOC).
2) Глаголы речи могут употребляться в любом грамматическом времени.
3) Всегда приветствуется включение источника цитаты в предложение.
According to a report published by the IOC, “ _______________ .”
1. Правила пунктуации прямых цитат могут быть достаточно сложными. Для
типичных случаев правила таковы:
~ кавычки должны открывать и закрывать цитату;
~ выражение, вводящее цитату, отделяется от нее запятой;
~ обычно запятые (и точки) ставятся перед первыми кавычками и перед
вторыми.
According to Sports Illustrated, “The use of steroids – and other, more exotic
substances such as human growth hormone (hGH) – has spread to almost every sport,
from major league baseball to college basketball to high school football.”
“The use of steroids – and other, more exotic substances such as human growth
hormone (hGH) – has spread to almost every sport, from major league baseball to
college basketball to high school football,” according to Sports Illustrated.
• Важным исключением из этого правила является случай, когда после
прямой цитаты в скобках указывается источник информации. В этом случае
точка ставиться в самом конце после скобок.
Prince Alexandre de Merode of Belgium, stated, “I believe that as many as 10% of all
Olympic athletes are regular users of performance-enhancing drugs” (qtd. in Bamberger
and Yaeger 63).
2. Первое слово цитаты, также как и первое слово предложения, пишется с
заглавной буквы:
Dr. Donald Catlin, director of a drug-testing lab at UCLA, stated, “The sophisticated
athlete who wants to take drugs has switched to things we can't test for.”
3. Если цитата разбивается на 2 части, обе части заключаются в кавычки и
отделяются запятыми. С заглавной буквы пишется только первое слово в
предложении:
162
“The use of steroids – and other, more exotic substances such as human growth
hormone (hGH) – has spread,” according to Sports Illustrated, “to almost every sport,
from major league baseball to college basketball to high school football.”
4. Если часть цитаты опускается, то используется знак эллипса (…):
According to Sports Illustrated, “The use of steroids ... has spread to almost every
sport, from major league baseball to college basketball to high school football.”
5. Если у вас есть весомые причины добавить слова в оригинальную цитату, то
они указываются в квадратных скобках:
Commenting on the difficulty of detecting drug use among Olympic athletes, the
director of drug testing for the U.S. Olympic Committee at the 1984 and 1988
games declared, “The testers know that the [drug] gurus are smarter than they
are.”
Упр.7.5.1.1 Расставьте знаки препинания в следующих предложениях,
содержащих прямые цитаты. Не забудьте о случаях, когда слова пишутся с
заглавной буквы.
1. Dr. Yixuan Ma, a well-known astrophysicist who has been studying black holes, said
it is one of the most interesting phenomena we astrophysicists have ever studied.
2. As she explained in black holes the laws of nature do not seem to apply.
3. A black hole is a tiny point with the mass 25 times the mass of our sun
explained Ma’s associate, Chun-Yi Sui. Black holes are created by the death of a very
large star she stated.
4. It is an invisible vacuum cleaner in space she added with tremendous gravitational
pull.
5. According to Dr. Su, if a person falls into a black hole, he will eventually be crushed
due to the tremendous gravitational forces.
6. Time will slow down for him as he approaches the event horizon1 she said and when
he reaches the event horizon, time will stand still for him.
___________
1
event horizon – the point of no return in a black hole
7.5.2. Непрямое цитирование
Упр.7.5.2.1.A Прочитайте текст, обращая внимание, как непрямые цитаты
поддерживают главные идеи. Обратите внимание на времена глаголов в главных
и придаточных предложениях.
Seeking a Spouse on the Web
The global reach of the Internet is helping expatriate citizens of India find
marriage partners. Most Indians prefer their partners to come from the same region of
India as they and to have similar religious and socioeconomic backgrounds. For young
Indians who live abroad, searching for a suitable wife or husband becomes quite
difficult. They often must depend on their families back home in India to find them
mates. However, computer scientist Raj Baronia, who lives and works in Silicon Valley
163
in California, has developed a site on the World Wide Web to help called Indolink. In
an interview, Baronia said that he had developed Indolink to allow Indians living abroad
to take responsibility for finding their own marriage partners rather than having their
parents do it for them. He estimated that about half of Indolink ads were placed by
marriage seekers themselves, rather than by family. Baronia also said Indolink allowed
them to search not only in India but also in expatriate communities around the world
(qtd. in Bentley). For example, Sandeep Gupta, a young computer programmer from
Toronto, is seeking a wife through Indolink. He is looking for intellectual women, and,
according to Gupta, anyone he meets on the Internet will probably be professional and
educated. He added, “I am planning to fly to New York soon to meet a young woman I
met through Indolink” (qtd. in Bentley).
Упр.7.5.2.1.B Ответьте на вопросы.
1. Сколько непрямых цитат содержит текст?
2. Какие глаголы речи или фразы вводят непрямые цитаты? В каких случаях
опускается союз that?
Упр.7.5.2.2 A Преобразуйте следующие прямые цитаты в непрямые с учетом всех
правил превращения прямой речи в косвенную, о которых шла речь в этой главе.
1. Television channel KSA General Manager Jim Burns said, “Not everyone can attend
college in the traditional way; therefore, taking courses via television will offer many
more students the chance to earn a college degree.”
______________________________________________________________
2. Pre-med student Alma Rodriguez said, “I miss being on campus, but I have to work
and take care of my family.”
_______________________________________________________________
3. Other students said, “Last year, we spent several hours a day commuting to and from
school. Now we don't have to do that.”
______________________________________________________________
4. Computer engineering student Amir Mehdizadeh stated, “I can choose
when to study and how to study without pressure.” He also said, “I will take
two more telecourses in the fall.”
______________________________________________________________
Упр.7.5.2.2 B Преобразуйте все прямые цитаты из текста о применении допинга
спортсменами высшего класса (Упр.7.5.1.) в косвенные.
7.5.3 Письменная практика
Напишите короткий абзац, который развивает тему, изложенную в главном
предложении. Используйте прямые и непрямые цитаты для поддержки своей
точки зрения.
164
Используйте элементы, организующие текст, для связи ваших предложений. Не
забудьте сослаться на книгу или статью, которые послужили для вас источником
информации.
Упр.7.5.3.1 A Изучите пример, показывающий, как основную мысль абзаца
превратить в связный текст, содержащий прямые и непрямые цитаты для
поддержки высказанного мнения.
Topic
Sentence
Main point
The increased use of computers in business has been accompanied by a
costly increase in computer crime.
Computer criminals cost business a lot of money.
Quotation
Main point
Quotation
“The financial losses to business from computer thefts will exceed $15
billion in 1998.”
Computer criminals steal not only money but also information.
“It is not just the money they steal; they steal data, and data is power.”
Source
A book by Meredith Bruce, Cybercrime, page 185.
Completed
paragraph
The increased use of computers in business has been accompanied by a
costly increase in computer crime. The losses to victims of computer
crimes are very high. In her book, Cybercrime, author Meredith Bruce
claimed that the financial losses to business from computer thefts
would exceed $15 billion in 1998. Computer criminals steal not only
money but also information. For example, they steal confidential
business records, customer lists, and corporate plans. As Bruce stated,
“It is not just the money they steal; they steal data, and data is power”
(Bruce 185).
Упр.7.5.3.1 B Напишите абзац на заданную тему.
Topic
Sentence
Main point
Computers cannot be compared to human brains.
Quotation
“It has been estimated that the information processing capacity of even
the most powerful supercomputer is equal to the nervous system of a
snail – a tiny fraction of the power available to the supercomputer
inside the human skull.”
Main point
The kinds of processing are different, too.
Quotation
“Computers find it easy to remember a 25-digit number but find it hard
to summarize the gist of [children’s story] “Little Red Riding Hood,”
and humans find it hard to remember the number but easy to summarize
the story.”
The human brain is more powerful than any computer.
165
Main point
Quotation
Source
Human brains also have the advantage of being inside humans.
“They [human brains] can soak up terabytes of information over the
years as the humans interact with other humans and with the
environment.”
An article by Steven Pinker in U.S. News &World Report, August 1825, 1997, page 64.
7.6. Обзорные упражнения
Упр.7.6.1. A Прочитайте текст. Заполните пропуски придаточными
предложениями из предложенного списка.
I had a most strange experience a few weeks ago. I was sitting at home, when at about
nine o’clock there was a knock on the door. I wasn’t expecting anyone, so I wondered
(a) _______ . I opened the door, and there was this man, wearing an old raincoat. I
asked him (b) ______, but he didn’t tell me at first. He wanted to know (c) __________
in the house, which I thought was an odd question. Anyway, I said I was, because
everyone else had gone out for the evening. Then he asked (d) ________, so I said that I
wanted to know who he was before I’d let him into my house, which is only natural,
after all. Anyway, he didn’t answer, but looked up and down the street. By this time I
was getting a bit worried, and I wondered (e) _______ , because this chap seemed a bit
suspicious. But he told me (f) _______. He was a policeman, and he showed me his
card to prove it. He said that the police were watching the people who lived in a house a
few doors away, and he asked me (g) __________ .
I said I didn’t. I’d seen them a few times, but I hadn’t spoken to them. Then he wanted
to know (h) _________ , so I said ‘a few weeks’. I’d seen their furniture van on the day
they moved in. Then he explained (i) ___________ . He asked me if he could stay in my
front room and watch the street for a while, so I showed him in. I asked him (j)
_________ , and he said it was because they suspected of being drug smugglers. I
couldn’t believe it. He stayed for three hours, and then left. Anyway, a few days later, I
read in the paper that the police had arrested them.
1. if I knew them
2. if he could come in
3. why he was watching them
4. who it could be
5. who he was
6. what he wanted
7. if I should call the police
8. if I was alone
9. what he wanted to do
10. how long they’d been living there
Упр.7.6.1. B Задайте вопросы в прямой речи.
166
*Упр.7.6.2. Преобразуйте прямую речь в косвенную, употребляя глаголы из
предложенного списка. Проверьте по словарю, какая грамматическая конструкция
употребляется после данных глаголов.
agree decide insist refuse admit apologise deny offer
remind advise confess doubt promise suggest
a. “No, it's not true, I didn't steal the money!”
Jean denied stealing the money/that she had stolen the money.
b. “Why don't we go to the cinema this evening?”
Peter_______
going to the cinema/that they went to the cinema.
c. “Yes, of course, I'll give you a lift, Helen.”
Liz _________ to give Helen a lift/that she would give Helen a lift.
d. “I've broken your pen. I'm awfully sorry, Jack.”
David _______ for breaking Jack's pen.
e. “Don't forget to post my letter, will you, Sue?”
Diana _________ Sue to post her letter.
f. “Let me carry your suitcase, John.”
Harry ________to carry John's suitcase.
g. “All right, it's true, I was nervous.”
The leading actor ________ (to) being nervous/that he had been nervous.
h. “I don't think Liverpool will win.”
Vanessa _______whether Liverpool would win.
i. “If I were you, Bill, I'd buy a mountain bike.”
Stephen________ Bill to buy a mountain bike.
j. “Don't worry, Martin, I'll bring your book back.”
Leslie ___________ to bring Martin's book back/Martin he would bring his
book back.
k. “No, no, you really must read that article!”
Dick__________ on my reading that article/that I should read that article.
l. “Right. I'll take the brown pair.”
Andrew___________to take the brown pair.
m. “No, sorry, I don't want to lend you my camera.”
Alex _________ to lend me his camera.
Упр.7.6.3. Закончите предложения в косвенной речи так, чтобы смысл
высказывания не изменился.
a. “Sue, can you remember to buy some bread?”
Paul reminded Sue to buy some bread.
b. “I don't really think it'll snow tomorrow.”
I doubt_______________
c. “I'm sorry I didn't phone you earlier.”
Jill apologised______________
d. “I really think you should see a doctor, Chris.”
William advised___________
167
e. “No, I'm sorry, I won't work on Saturday. Definitely not!”
Catherine refused ___________
f. “Let's go out to the pub for lunch, shall we?”
Wendy suggested ____________
g. “It's not true! I have never been arrested.”
Larry denied ___________
h “If you like, I'll help you do the decorating, Bob.”
Ann offered ___________
i. “I’ll definitely take you to the park on Sunday, children.”
Tom promised the ______________
j. “Yes, all right, I'll share the bill with you, Dave.”
Brenda agreed ________________
**Упр.7.6.4. Исправьте ошибки, связанные с нарушением правила согласования
времен и пунктуации, в следующем тексте. В общей сложности Вы должны
сделать 21 исправление.
A College Lecture
1
Professor Sanchez gave a lecture on transistors last Tuesday. 2First, he explained
what are transistors. 3He said, that they are very small electronic devices used in
telephones, automobiles, radios, and so on. 4He further explained that transistors control
the flow of electric current in electronic equipment. 5He wanted to know which popular
technological invention cannot operate without transistors. 6Most students agreed, it is
the personal computer. 7Professor Sanchez then asked if the students know how do
transistors function in computers. 8He said that the transistors were etched into tiny
silicon microchips and that these transistors increase computers’ speed and data storage
capacity. 9Then he asked the class when had transistors been invented? 10Sergei guessed
that they were invented in 1947. 11The professor said that he is correct. 12Professor
Sanchez then asked what was the importance of this invention? 13Many students
answered that it is the beginning of the information age. 14At the end of the lecture, the
professor assigned a paper on transistors. 15He requested that each student chooses a
topic by next Monday. 16He suggested that the papers are typed.
7.7. Тесты на правило согласования времен
Упр.7.7.1. Выберите вариант ответа, который вы считаете правильным.
a. “How often do you attend your English classes?” – I ask John.
A I wonder how often does John attends his English classes.
B I wonder how often John attends his English classes.
C I wonder how often attends John his English classes.
D I wonder how often John attend his English classes.
b. “She has been unwell this week, hasn’t she?”
A I wonder if she has been unwell this week.
B I wonder if hasn’t she been unwell this week.
C I wonder whether has she been unwell this week.
D I wonder has she been unwell this week.
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c. It takes me twenty minutes to get to school.
A I wonder how long it takes you to get to school.
B I wonder how long does it take you to get to school.
C I wonder how long does you take to get to school.
D I wonder how long do take you to get to school.
d. They say John was in Japan in September.
A Where they say John was in September?
B Where do they say John was in September?
C Where do they say was John in September?
D Where they say was John in September?
e. “It was a long conference, wasn’t it?”
A I wonder was the conference long or short.
B I wonder whether the conference is long or short.
C I wonder if it was a long conference.
D I wonder a long or short conference was.
f. The ‘Consumer Price’ Index lists _____.
A how much costs every car
C how much every car costs
B how much does every car cost
D how much are every car cost
g. Hello, Jim. I didn’t expect to see you today. Sonia said you ______ ill.
A are
B were
C was
D should be
h. Ann ___________ and left.
A said goodbye to me
B said me goodbye
C told me goodbye
i. I don’t understand this sentence. Can you ______ ?
A explain to me this word
B explain me this word
C explain this word to me
j. " When will the new product be ready?"
They asked me _____.
A when would the new product be ready
B when will the new product be ready
C when the new product would be ready
k. "Why has it taken so long to develop?"
They asked me _____.
A why it has taken so long to develop
B why it had taken so long to develop
C why had it taken so long to develop
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l. "When does the demonstration start?"
Do you know _____?
A when does the demonstration start
B when will the demonstration start
C when the demonstration starts
m." Did they like the idea of joint venture?"
He asked me if _____.
A they liked the idea of joint venture
B they had liked the idea of joint venture
C they like the idea of joint venture
n. "Why did you apply for this job?"
He asked me _____.
A why did I apply for that job
B why had I applied for that job
C why I had applied for that job
o. "When will I know the results of the examination?"
She asked the examiner _____.
A when she will know the results of the examination
B when she would know the results of the examination
C when would she know the results of the examination
p. "Are there better goods available?"
We were interested if _____.
A there were better goods available
B there are better goods available
C better goods were there available
170
Ключи к упражнениям
Глава 1. Существительное
Упр.1.1.1.c. a. I haven’t got a computer. b. I am not a chemist, I am a biologist. c. You made
a very bad mistake. d. It is a convincing result. e. Do you keep a record of the results? f. I work
in a theoretical research team. g. I’ve got a very good idea. h. It is a standard method.
Упр.1.1.1.d. a. the, - ; b. the, the; c. the; d. the; e. the, the; f. -,the, the; g. the; h. the, the, the;
i. -, the, the; j. the; k. the.
Упр.1.1.1.e. a. the, the; b. a; c. the; d. the; e. a; f. a, the; g. a, a, the, the; h. the, the,
the, -; i. the, the; j. a, a, a, the, the; k. a, a, an, the; l. the, the; m. an; n. the, the; o. a;
p. the, the.
Упр.1.1.1.f. a. potatoes; b. the potatoes; c. friends; d. parties; e. children, things;
f. restaurants; g. photographs; h. the photographs.
Упр.1.1.1.g. a. the; b. -; c. the; d. -; e. -.
Упр.1.1.2 a. a, -, an; b. a; c. a; d. -; e. a; f. a little; g. -; h. a; i. -; j. -, a.
Упр.1.1.3.a. a.the (a) work of an author; the knowledge of a subject; the (-) articles of a
scientist; the data of the authors; the students of a university; a man of science; the (a) teacher
of mathematics.
b. the mountains of the Crimea; the metals of the Urals; the electric power stations on the
Angara; the Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine; the forests of Siberia; many areas of our
planet.
c. the history of Art; the progress of science; the importance of education; the doctor's degree;
the forms of vegetable life; the interest for ecology; the population of the planet.
d. the (-) cars of the (a) train; means of transport; the purpose of the visit; the clerks of the (a)
hotel.
Упр.1.1.3.b. a. the; b. a; c. the; d. a; e. the; f. the; g. a; h. the; i. the; j. a.
Упр.1.1.3.c.
a. Number hundred and two, the house next door to us, is for sale. It’s quite a nice house with
big rooms, the back windows look out on the park.
b. Professor Jones, the man who discovered the new drug that everyone is talking about,
refused to give a press conference.
c. Peter Piper, a student in the professor’s college, asked him why he refused to talk to the
press.
d. The ship you were speaking about has just come onto the port. She has been at sea for a
long time. Look: the captain has just come on deck.
Упр.1.1.3.d. a. -; b. -; c. the; d. a; e. the; f. the; g. the, -; h. -.
171
Упр.1.1.4.a.
a. ”Where’s the coffee?” It’s in the cupboard.
b. Tennis is a very popular sport
c. We went for a swim in the river. The water was very cold.
d. I don’t like swimming in cold water.
e. You must visit the art gallery. The paintings are very beautiful.
f. Money doesn’t always bring happiness.
g. English is the language of international business.
h. Women are often better teachers than men.
i. In Britain coffee is more expensive than tea.
j. We had a very nice meal in that restaurant. The cheese was especially good.
k. Most people still believe that marriage and family life are the basis of our society.
l. They got married but the marriage wasn’t successful.
m. I know someone who wrote a book about the life of Gandhi.
n. Life would be very difficult without electricity.
o. Do you know the people who live next door?
p. Are you interested in art or architecture?
q. Two of the biggest problems facing our society are crime and unemployment.
r. I hate violence.
Упр.1.1.4.b. a. a; b. -; c. -; d. the; e. a; f. the; g. -; h. a, a, a; i. the, -; j. -, the, -, -.
Упр.1.1.4.c. a. A, an, -; b. -; c -, -; d -, -; e. The, the, the, a; f. -; g. -, the, the; h. -;
i. the, -; j. The, the.
Упр.1.1.4.d.
a. We’re having lamb for lunch.
b. The sheep gave birth to a lamb in the middle of the night.
c. Would you like a cake?
d. No, thanks. I don’t like cake.
e. This suit is made of very fine cloth.
f. Can you get a cloth, please? I’ve just spilt tea on your carpet.
g. I went to a talk on the Russian revolution last night. It was very interesting.
h. There has been talk of redundancies at the British Shipping Company.
i. Service in restaurants isn’t as good as it used to be.
j. The Health Service is suffering from severe cutbacks.
k. The Times is one of Britain’s oldest newspapers.
l. Time and tide wait for no man. (поговорка)
m. I don’t usually like poetry.
n. But here’s a poem I do like.
o. Do you want ice in your whisky?
p. The ice at the North and South Poles is said to be melting little by little.
Упр.1.1.4.e.
a. some advice; a suggestion
b. news; an interesting announcement; some interesting information.
c. a thunderstorm; some bad weather.
d. some luggage; a suitcase.
e. some accommodation; a room for the night.
f. some strange equipment; a strange machine in his laboratory.
172
g. some music; a tape.
Упр.1.1.5.a.
a. Of all those to whom he appealed one was actually not in a position to do anything for him;
another was afraid; a third was calculating eagerly to drive a hard bargain; a forth was too
deliberate, anxious to have much time.
b. Two people would have to hold the chair, and a third would help him up on it, and a forth
would hand him a nail, and a fifth would pass him up a hammer.
c. Professor Earle Fox ignored for a second time a buzzing signal from the secretary in the
adjoining office.
d. Mr Pickwick was perfectly aware that a tree is a very dangerous neighbour in a
thunderstorm. He had a tree on his right, a tree on his left, a third before him, and a fourth
behind.
e. Our apartment is on the third floor.
f. You are the forth visitor asking where room 40 is there.
Упр.1.1.6.a. a-the blind; b-the dead, the injured; c-the rich, the poor; d-the unemployed; e-the
sick.
Упр.1.1.6.b.
2. a German,
the Germans
3. a Swiss,
the Swiss
4. a Russian,
the Russians
5. a Chinese,
the Chinese
6. a Brazilian,
the Brazilians
7. an Englishman (woman), the English
Упр.1.1.7.a. a.. the, -, the; b. the, the, -; c. -, the, -; d. -, the; e. -, an; f. -; g. the, a; h. -, -, -; i.
the; j. -, the; k. -, the; l. -, the.
Упр.1.1.7.b. a. -, -; b. the, the; c. -,the, -; d. the; e. -, -; f. -, the; g. the, the; h. -, the, -; i. the, ; j. -; k. the; l. the, -, -; m. -, the, the; n. the, the, the; o. -, -, the.
Упр.1.1.7.c. I. 1. -; 2. -; 3. -; 4. a; 5. the; 6. the; 7. -; 8. the; 9. the.
II. 1. the; 2. -; 3. -; 4. the; 5. the; 6. -.
Упр.1.1.8.a. I. a. -, a, the; b -, a, a; c. -, -, the; d. -, -, -; e. an, -, -, -; f. an, the, -an, the; g. the,
the, the, -, the, the; h. the, a, -,the, -, -, -, -.
II. a. a; b. the; c. a, the, -, the; d. the, a; e. a, the, -, a, the; f. a, a, -; g. the, a, the, -, -, the.
III. a. -; b. -; c. -; d. a; e. a; f. -; g. -; h. -, -; i. a; j. -; k. -; l. the; m. the; n. a.
IV. a. -, -; b. the, a; c. the, -; d. the; e. the, a; f. the, the; g. a, a; h. -, a; i. -,a; j. -, a, -.
Упр.1.1.8.b.
a. The book on that shelf is an interesting one about history.
b. It is pleasant to play a game of tennis on the summer afternoon.
c. The butcher opposite the library always sells good meat.
d. Honesty is the best of all virtues.
e. Peter travelled in a third-class carriage with some Americans.
173
f. When the Titanic was crossing the Atlantic she struck an iceberg which tore a huge hole in
her bow. The captain ordered the crew to help the passengers into the boats.
g. Everywhere man has cut down forests in order to cultivate the ground, or to use wood as
fuel or as a building material.
h. But interference with nature often brings disaster: tree-felling sometimes turns fertile land
into a dustbowl.
i. People think that lead is the heaviest metal, but gold is heavier.
j. You can fool some of the people all the time, and all the people some of the time; but you
cannot fool all the people all the time.
k. We have a very good train service from here to the city centre and most people go to (their)
work by train. You can go by bus too, of course, but you can’t get a season ticket on the bus.
l. “I’d like to see Mr Smith please.” “Do you mean the Mr Smith who works in the box office
or another Mr Smith?”
Упр.1.1.8.c. a. one, a; a; b. a, a, one, a; one, a, a, a; c. a, --, an; d. a, a, a; e. --, one;
f. a, a, --; g. a, a, one; h. a, one, a, a, a; i. one, an, an.
Упр.1.1.8.d.
a. Jane, has anyone ever told you that you’ve got lovely fingers?
b. I’m very interested in history, especially the history of Western Europe.
c. What lovely weather we’re having! It’s such a nice day!
d. We’re trying to sell our house. Some people came to see it on Saturday, and they were
quite interested, but the people who saw it on Sunday morning were very rude and said
they didn’t like it at all.
e. Did you remember to buy some bread while you were out at the shops?
f. Crossing the English Channel can be quite unpleasant in bad weather.
g. The people who live on the floor above ours work in a government ministry.
h. What’s the government going to do about unemployment?
Упр.1.1.8.e. Предложения c, d, g, h, i, k, n, s,t - правильные.
a. He lived in the United States for ten years.
b. John has cut his leg and needs some stitches.
e. It was the first time I had crossed the equator.
f. This is the only one left but you can have it.
l. The harder we work, the more money we make.
m. The Smiths are coming round to dinner tonight.
o. It’s very disappointing news but that’s life.
p. Eating chocolate always gives me pimples on my face.
q. What is on the radio this afternoon?
r. John plays football very well.
Упр. 1.1.8.f. You can’t teach managers 1. the; 2. the; 3. -; 4. -; 5. -; 6. -; 7. -; 8. -; 9. the; 10. ; 11. -; 12. -; 13. -; 14. -; 15. -; 16. a; 17. -; 18. -; 19. the; 20. a; 21. the; 22. a; 23. -; 24. the; 25.
the; 26. -; 27. -; 28. a.
Garbage 1. the; 2. a; 3. -; 4. -; 5. -; 6. -; 7. -; 8. a.
Tax 1. -; 2. a; 3. -; 4. -; 5. -; 6. the; 7. -; 8. -; 9. a; 10. the; 11. -; 12. the; 13. -; 14. -; 15. the; 16.
-;17. the; 18. -; 19. the; 20. -; 21. -; 22. -; 23. the; 24. -; 25. -; 26. a (-); 27. a; 28. –
174
Sources of funds for businesses 1. -; 2. -; 3. a; 4. -; 5. -; 6. a; 7. a; 8. the; 9. a; 10. an; 11. a;
12. -; 13. -; 14. a; 15. a; 16. the; 17. the; 18. the; 19. -; 20. the; 21. the; 22. -; 23. a; 24. -; 25. a;
26. the; 27. the; 28. the; 29. the; 30 -; 31. the
Упр.1.2.1. boys, ladies, days, potatoes, parties, watches, glasses, cities, churches, addresses,
sandwiches, keys, videos, ways, wolves, leaves, halves
Упр,1.2.2.a. children, people, women, teeth, sheep, mice, feet
Упр.1.2.2.b. a. are; b. is; c. is; d. are; e. are; f. are; g. are; h. are
Упр.1.2.3.a. Предложения : a, c, e, f, g – правильные; b. attracts; d. is; h. is
Упр.1.2.3.b.
He couldn’t give me many details.
When I moved into my flat, I had very little furniture.
There isn’t much accommodation to rent in this town.
I haven’t got much luggage. It’s in the boot.
I had a few minutes to spare, so I browsed round a bookshop.
Very few experiments have been done to find out the cause.
It’s very quiet in my area. There isn’t much traffic.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
Упр.1.2.4.b. a. are; b. are; c. are; d. are; e. are; f. is
Упр.1.2.4.c. a. phenomenon; b. data; c. hydrolysis; d. synthesis; e. thesis; f. nucleus;
g. minima; h. locus; i. basis; j. bacteria; k. formula; l. analyses; spectra.
Упр.1.2.4.d. a. conditions, condition; b. honour, honours; c. pain, pains; d. terms, term; e.
experience, experiences; f. good, goods; g. saving, savings; h. quarters, quarter;
i. lengths, length; j. ground, grounds; k. damage, damages; l. youths, youth.
Упр.1.3.3. 1. tissue cross section; 2. molecular emission spectrum; 3. pulse amplitude electron
energy; 4. strong absorption coefficient; 5. long term orbital research stations; 6. long term
technical and scientific cooperation; 7. alternating current generator; 8. water plant power; 9.
natural gas transmission station; 10. continuous action computers; 11. group collaboration
software; 12. entire world’s fuel resources; 13. consumer price index; 14. gross national
product; 15. quantity 5 per cent discount; 16. Moscow Central Stock Exchange
Упр. 1.3.4 a. A visual display unit; b. A magnetic card reader; c. A laser printer; d. A graph
plotter; e. A magnetic disk holder; f. An inkjet printer; g. A date transmission rate; h. A
multimedia presentation package; i. A batch processing program
Упр. 1.3.5 a. A device that inputs information; b. a device that reads optical characters; c. A
program that sorts documents; d. A system for the transmission of fibre optics; e. A register for
the control of sequences; f. A device that displays using liquid crystals; g. Information for the
configuration of a network; h. A software package/a package of software for editing
multimedia
175
Глава 2.Словообразование
Упр.2.1.1.b. a) слова, которые всегда являются глаголами: seem, become, eat, migrate,
begin, continue;
b) слова, которые никогда не являются глаголами: window, cigarette, below, advice,
passenger, large;
c) слова, которые могут быть разными частями речи: dream, live, house, can, laugh, trip,
smoke, air, dress, warm, air, dress, must, long, water
Упр.2.1.2. Глаголы в предложениях 1, 2, 3, 9.
Упр.2.1.3. Глаголы в предложениях 5,6 (warm),7,11,12,14, 15 (plant),16 (place, rock).
Упр. 2.1.4. A
Noun
advice /ədvais/
use
/ju:s/
abuse /əbju:s/
belief
/bili:f/
relief /rili:f/
grief
/gri:f/
excuse /ikskju :s/
breath /breӨ/
half
/ha:f/
house
/haus/
safe
/seif/
proof
/pru:f/
Verb
to advise /ədvaiz/
to use /ju:z/
to abuse /əbju:z/
to believe /bili:v/
to relieve /rili:v/
to grieve
/gri:v/
to excuse /ikskju:z/
to breathe /bri:ð/
to halve /ha:v/
to house /hauz/
to save /seiv/
to prove
/pru:v/
Упр. 2.1.4. B a.belief; b.breath; c.safe; d.abuse; e.relief; f. a half, a half; g.use; h.exuse;
i.grieve; j.advice
Упр.2.2.1.b. 1-fail; 2-remove; 3-collect; 4-master; 5-assist; 6-invent; 7-depart; 8-conclude; 9decorate; 10-propose.
Упр.2.2.1.c. aim; judgement; investment; approval; refusal; announcement; blame; delay;
mistake; rest; survival; development; proposal; trouble.
Упр.2.2.1.d. enjoyment, package, expectation, achievement, usage, avoidance,
requirement, admission, disappointment, allowance, excitement.
Упр.2.2.1.e. a. leakage; b. homeomorphism; c. multitude; d. polymorphism; e. shrinkage; f.
magnitude; g. patronage; h. diamagnetism; i. storage.
Упр.2.2.2.a. Существительные, относящиеся к человеку:
servant, employee, alcoholic, servant, racketeer, innovator, youngster, authoress, carpenter,
geologist.
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Упр.2.2.3.a. Прилагательные: comfortable, careless, heroic, foolish, wooden, Texan, deathly,
truthful, famous, troublesome, statuesque, active, traditional, supplementary, easy.
Упр.2.2.3.b.
Subject
′history
mathema′tics
′chemistry
′science
′physics
bi′ology
phi′losophy
psy′chology
me′chanics
‘music
′architecture
‘arche′ology
Person
his′torian
‘mathema′tician
′chemist
′scientist
′physicist
bi′ologist
phi′losopher
psy′chologist
me′chanic
mu’sician
′architect
‘arche′ologist
Adjective
his′torical, historic
‘mathe’matical
′chemical
′scientific
′physical
‘bio’logical
‘philo’sophical
‘psycho’logical
me′chanical
‘musical
′archi’tectural
‘archeo’logical
Упр.2.2.3.c. a. leafless, b. fearless, c. powerful, d. wonderful, e. whiteness, f. kindness,
g. politeness, h. nervousness, i. pitiful, j. fruitful, k. careless, l. hopeless, m. seriousness, n.
respectful, o. thoughtful, p. endless, q. helpful
Упр.2.2.3.d. 1-silklike; 2- eventful; 3- rocky; 4-careless; 5-metallic; 6-penniless; 7-musical; 8babyish; 9-stormy.
Упр.2.2.3.e. Прилагательные: worldly, yearly, costly, womanly, stately,
cowardly, shapely, ghostly, lovely, friendly.
neighbourly,
Упр.2.2.3.f. Правильные предложения: a, e, f .
b. The children behaved themselves very well.
c. I tried hard to remember his name but I couldn’t.
d. The company’s financial situation is not good at present.
g. Amperometric titrations are almost carried out by making a few measurements well before
the equivalence point and a few more well after the equivalence point.
Упр.2.2.4.a 1.greener, 2.fitter, 3. trendier/more trendy, 4. more nervous, 5.wiser,
6.lazier, 7.more serious, 8. more quickly, 9. better, 10. less, 11. worse, 12. farther/further
Упр.2.2.4.b 1. most boring, 2. highest, 3. luckiest, 4. most often/the most often,
5. deepest, 6. ugliest, 7. worst/the worst, 8. farthest/ furthest, 9. craziest,
10. most modern, 11. worst, 12. least
Упр.2.2.4.c 1.latest, 2. least, 3. worse, 4. more, 5. most, 6. less, 7. younger, 8. better,
9. higher, 10. best
Упр.2.2.4.d 1. best book that I have ever, 2. the farthest anybody / the farthest anyone /the
furthest anybody/ the furthest anyone, 3. hardest I have ever worked, 4. is shorter than, 5.
beach is nicer than, 6. no mountain is higher than, 7. this the farthest north anybody / this the
farthest north anyone /this the furthest north anybody/ this the furthest north anyone 8. an
177
uglier painting than/ a painting uglier than, 9. are more common than/ are commoner than, 10.
the fastest runner
Упр. 2.2.4.e. 1.is more intelligent than; 2.is not so/as big as; 3.farther from the school than;
4.drives more carefully than; 5.the fastest car of all; 6.the best film; 7. most reasonable price
you will; 8. the most comfortable; 9.can type faster; 10. faster we get there the
Упр.2.2.5.a. blacken, politicise, falsify, tighten, characterise, sharpen, sympathise, loosen,
localise, shorten, purify, widen, normalise
Упр.2.2.5.b. a. economise; b. loosen; c. symbolised; d. specify; e. strengthen; f. socialise; g.
industrialise; h. simplify; i. crystalise; j. unionized.
Упр.2.2.5.c
Noun
creation
base (basis)
conclusion
neutralization
identification
specialisation
Noun
vapour
complain
discovery
preparation
formula
magnet
radiation
invention
Adjective
creative
basic
conclusive
neutral
identical
special
Verb
vapourize
complain
discover
prepare
formulate
magnetize
radiate
invent
Упр.2.3.1.
№
Глагол
energize
1
2
quicken
3
base(basis)
4
succeed
5
electrifies
6
exclude
7
economize
8
sensate
9
categorize
10 repeat
11 widen
12 deepen
13 strengthen
14 tighten
Упр.2.3.2.
178
Verb
create
base
conclude
neutralize
identify
specialise
Adjecive
complex
soft
liquid
approximate
intense
tough
standard
Существ.
energy
quickness
base
success
electricity
exclusion
economy
sensation
category
repeat/repeatability
width
depth
strength
tightness
Verb
complicate
soften
liquefy
approximate
intensify
toughen
standardize
Прилагательное
energetic
quick
basic
successful
electric(al)
exclusive
economic(al)
sensational
categorical
repeated
wide
deep
strong
tight
Наречие
energetically
quickly
basically
successfully
electrically
exclusively
economically
sensationally
categorically
repeatedly
widely
deeply
strongly
tightly
№ Существительное
1 ‘industry
2 in’vention
3 compe’tition
4 ‘criticism
5 ‘mechanism
6 ‘specialty
7 ‘politics
8 ‘nation
9 a’nalysis
10 ac’tivity
Прилагательное
in’dustrial
in’ventive
com’petitive
‘critical
me’chanical
‘special
po’litic(al)
‘national
ana’lytic(al)
‘active
Существительное,
определяющее человека
in’dustrialist
in’ventor
com’petitor
‘critic
me’chanic
‘specialist
poli’tician
‘nationalist
‘analyst
‘activist
Глагол
to in’dustrialize
to in’vent
to com’pete
to ‘criticize
to ‘mechanize
to ‘specialize
to po’liticize
to ‘nationalize
to ‘analyze
to ‘activate
Упр.2.3.3. 2. nationality; 3. changeable; 4. summarize; 5. loneliness.
Упр.2.3.4. 1. imagination-imaginative; 2. rapidly-rapid; 3. comparison-comparative;
4. separation-separated; 5. decision-decisive; 6. mystery-mysterious; 7. chemicals-chemical;
8. repetitive-repetition; 9. agriculture-agricultural; 10. comparative-comparatively; 11. lecturelecturer; 12. satisfactorily-satisfactory.
Упр.2.3.5. a. economize; b. economic; c. economics; d. economical; e. economy;
f. economists; g. economic; h. economical
Упр.2.3.6. 1. electronic; electronically; electronics;
2. technological; technologist; technologically;
3. identifies, identity, identifying,
4. computerization, compute, computation
5. consider, considerable, consideration, considerably
6. applicants, applicable, applying, application
7. explanatory, explanation, explain, explained
8. dependably, dependence, dependent, depend
9. connectivity, connectors, connection, connected
10. creation, creating, creativity
11. generated, generation, generate
12. access, accessibility, accessible
13. analysed, analysis, analyse
14. correction, correctness, correctly
15. detectable, detect, detection
16.sensor, sensitive, sensation
Упр.2.4.1. 1. e; 2. d; 3. f; 4. c; 5. b; 6. g; 7. a.
Упр.2.4.2. 1. a; 2. g; 3. e; 4. f; 5. d; 6. c. 7 b
Упр.2.4.3. a. mono; b. mega; c. de; d. semi; e. multi; f. dec; g. inter; h. dec; i. micro; j. micro;
k. semi; l. sub; m. multi; n. micro; o. mono; p. multi; q. mini; r. de; s. mono; t. de.
Упр.2.5.1. a. extremely; b.pleasant; c. carelessly; d. unkind; e. unattractive; f. happily;
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g. unreliable; h. faultless; i. dangerously.
Упр.2.5.2.
in- : invalid, insane, inexact, invisible, inappropriate, indirect, inactive, inconvenient,
inaccurate, incomplete, insignificant, insufficient, inflexible
im- : impatient, impossible, impure, imperfect, implausible, impractical
un- : unlikely, uncertain, untrue, unequal, unusual, uncommon, unsuitable, unable, unstable,
unreasonable, unpleasant, unfriendly, unidentified, uncontaminated, unmistakable,
unsatisfactory, uneven, unknown, unfavourable, undetermined, unusable
Упр.2.5.3.
infrequently, disloyal, discomfort, unspecific, unreal, improbably, unavailable, disassemble,
unsuitable, improper, unfit, unoccupied, disorder, undistinguished
Упр.2.5.4.
to disconnect
to mispronounce
to disarrange
to disagree
to mismanage
unacceptable
dishonest
nonfatal
incompetent
dishonoured
non-ferrous
nonnegotiable
unemployed
unnecessary
illegal
irregular
inapplicable
uncertified
nonprofitable
inactive
disagreement
inexpensive immaturity
uninformed instability
ineffective
Упр.2.5.5.
to disbelieve
to unpack
to dislike
to disappear
to disapprove
to unlock
to disconnect
useless
unreliable
painless
inexperienced
untidy
immature
harmless
unimportance
inefficiency
nonsense/senseless
immaterial
improbable
irresponsible
Упр.2.6.1. 1. e; 2. g; 3. h; 4. j; 5. i; 6. b; 7. k; 8. d; 9. a; 10. c; 11. f.
Упр.2.6.2. 1. d, d; 2. g, f; 3. a, e; 4. e, a; 5. b, c; 6. c, g; 7. f, b.
Упр.2.6.3. 1.A, 2.A, 3.A, 4.C, 5.B, 6.B, 7.C
Упр.2.7.1. a. economical; b. criminal; c. energetic; d. managing; e. politician, historian; f.
unsuccessful; g. perfectly; h. appointment; i. surprisingly; j. death; k. unfriendly; l. overslept;
m. improvement; n. cooking; o. traveling; p. reliable; q. endless; r. misunderstanding; s.
uneconomical; t. astonishing; u. comparison; v. competitors; w. unexplored; x. poverty; y.
specialty; z. carelessness.
Упр. 2.8.1. 1. A 2. C 3. A 4. D 5. B 6. C 7. A 8. C 9. D
Упр.2.8.2. 1. c; 2. a; 3. d; 4. b; 5. a; 6. b; 7. a; 8. c; 9. d.
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Упр.2.8.3. 1. loneliness; 2. employment; 3. surrounded; 4. rarely; 5. communication; 6.
outwards; 7. technological; 8. spoken; 9. warmth; 10. digital
Глава 3. Местоимение
Упр.3.1.1. Предложения b, c, d- правильные
Упр.3.1.2.a. a. me; b.her; c. whom; d. him; e. her.
Упр.3.1.2.b. Предложения c, d- правильные
Упр.3.1.3.a. a. his; b. whose; c. hers; d. her; e. his; f. hers; g. my; h.
Упр.3.1.3.b. Предложения b,d,f, g – правильные
a.The student who forgot his books...
c.Your cat is much larger than mine.
Упр.3.1.4. a. himself; b. myself; c. herself; d. myself; e. herself; f. yourselves; g. herself;
h.ourselves; i. itself; j. yourself; k. himself; l. himself; m. ourselves; n. himself; o. herself; p.
yourself
Упр.3.1.5.a. a. who; b. he; c. hers; d. me; e. she; f. his; g. him; h. who; i. mine; j. them; k.who;
l. himself; m. him.
Упр.3.1.5.b. a. C; b. C; c. A; d. A; e. D; f. A; g. B; h.D.
Упр.3.2.1. 1.all; 2.everybody; 3.all; 4.everybody; 5.everybody; 6.all; 7.all; 8.everybody; 9.all;
10.everybody
Упр.3.2.2. 29 (+4).
Упр.3.2.3. a.her; b. himself; c. their; d. she, he; e. his, her
Упр.3.2.4. a. their → its; b.their (carrying case)→ its (carrying case); c. themselves→ himself;
d. their → its; e. their → its; f. his → their; g. its → his; h. her → its; i. their→ his; j. its →
their.
Упр.3.3.1.a. b,c,e,g,j,k,p,q,s – правильные фразы.
a,f,l,n – who,that. h,i,o – which, that. d – that/ whose.
Упр.3.4.1. a. anything, any; b. something, some; anything; c. anyone, someone; d. some,
some, any, any; e. some /any, somewhere.
Упр.3.4.2. a. anywhere; b. anyone; c. someone; d. anything; e. anywhere (если нет
уверенности), somewhere (если есть уверенность); f. anything; g. anywhere; h. somewhere;
i.nobody; j. everything.
Упр.3.4.3. 1.everybody; 2.anybody; 3. someone / somebody; 4.anybody; 5.nobody / no-one;
6.anywhere; 7.everywhere; 8.anything; 9.anybody; 10.nothing; 11.any; 12.everyone (каждый)
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/ everybody (все вместе); 13.somewhere; 14.anywhere; 15.everyone / everybody ;
16.someone / somebody
Упр.3.5.1.a. other; b. the other; c. other; d. another; e. other, others; f. another; g. the other; h.
another, others; i. the others; j. the other; k. other
Упр. 3.6.1.
a. How many of the tourists actually realise the problems they cause?
b. Little of the soil can be used for cultivation now the trees have been cut down.
c. A large amount of equipment is needed to camp at the bottom of the Grand Canyon.
d. A large number of rainforests are being cut down every year.
e. Many governments believe that nuclear power is the key to future energy problems.
f. The Park Ranger gave me a lot of/ a great deal of good advice about camping in the national
park.
g. The amount of traffic is causing too much congestion in major cities.
h. A great deal of research has been done into the pollution produced by the cars in cities.
Unfortunately, very little of it is taken seriously by politicians.
Упр. 3.6.2. a. There are a few left in the tin. b.… I have little time for relaxation. c. Few
people give more money to charity than she does. d. There’s little butter left, but not much. e.
… he has little chance of success. f. “I’m afraid you need a few fillings,” said the dentist. g. …
but only a few of them ever worked properly. h. She just had a few spoonfuls of soup.
Упр.3.7.1. a. All, none; b. either, both; c. both, neither; d. every; e. each; f. each; g. no, every;
h. every; i. Each; j. either, both; k. Neither; l. Either; m. both, either; n. No; o. Each.
Упр.3.7.2. I. 1-c; 2-b; 3-d; 4-e; 5-b; 6-d; 7-a; 8-f.
9-j; 10-h; 11-l; 12-i; 13-g; 14-h; 15-g; 16-h/i; 17-j.
II. 1-e; 2-g; 3-a; 4-i; 5-b; 6-d; 7-h; 8-c; 9-f.
Упр.3.8.1. 1. B; 2. A; 3. B; 4. B; 5. B; 6. C; 7. A,C; 8. C; 9. D; 10. A,C; 11. B; l2. D
Упр.3.8.2. 1. B; 2. D; 3. A; 4. B; 5. D; 6. B.
Упр.3.8.3. 1.a; 2. d; 3. f; 4. c; 5. g; 6. h; 7. b; 8. e; 9. e; 10. a.
Глава 4. Предлог.
Упр.4.1.1. a. in, at; b. at; c. on, in; d. in, at; e. in, at; f. at, on, at; g. on; h. on; i. in.
Упр.4.1.2. in the afternoon / the evening / spring / 1998 / 14-th century; at 3.30 / Christmas /
my / weekends; on my birthday / Christmas Day / workdays.
Упр.4.1.3. a. in; b. when; c. for; d. ago; e. -; f. at; g. last; h. at, in; i. on; j. when; k. on; l. in; m.
ago; n. -; o. at,in; p. -.
Упр.4.1.4. in February; on Monday; at 11 o’clock; at night; in the daytime; in March; on an
autumn day; at what time? late in the evening; on Friday; in the XYIII century; in June; in the
afternoon; at 2 o’clock p.m.; on the 1st Sunday; on a fine September day; on Friday evening; at
noon; (через) in a fortnight; on the 2nd of December; at midnight; on sunny summer morning.
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Упр.4.1.5. a-1; b-2; c-3; d-3; e-2; f-1; g-3; h-2; i-1; j-3; k-2; l-1.
Упр.4.1.6. b. on; c. at, on; d. at; e. on; f. at; g. in; h. at; i. during/in; j. on, since; k. for;
l. at; m. at, until; n. by
Упр.4.1.7. a. for, from, to; b. at; c. during, at; d. in, on; e. since; f. until; g. by; h. in; i. at; j. at
Упр.4.2.1. in the South; at the stadium; in/at the corner; at the post-office; at the factory; in the
meeting; in the sky; in the hostel; in/at the station; on the fifth floor; at the concert; in the
picture; in the apple-tree; in the forest; in the newspaper; in Ottawa; at the chemist’s; in the
USA; in the air.
Упр.4.2.2. a. in; b. by; c. at; d. on; e. on, in; f. to, at; g. on; h. in/on; i. to, to; j. in, at; k. in, on;
l. to, in; m. on, by; n. at; o. on; p. in, on; q. on; r. in, by; s. on, by; t. on; u. on
Упр.4.2.3. a. against; b. out of; c. beside; d. beneath; e. below; f. behind; g. onto;
h. towards; i. over; j. among; k. over, across; l. above
Упр.4.3.1. a. on; b. by; c. in; d. on; e. on; f. on; g. by; h. by; i. in; j. by
Упр.4.3.2. a. by plane/on a plane; b. is on the (train); c. work on foot; d. travelling by bicycle;
e. drove to Wales in
Упр.4.4.1.a. a. for; b. in; c of; d. between; e. for; f. to; g. about; h. with; i. into; j. for
Упр.4.4.1.b. a-B; b-A; c-C; d-A; e-B; f-C; g-B; h-A
Упр.4.4.1.c. a. for; b. at; c. to; d. to; e. in; f. with; g. of; h. to; i. of; j. at/by; k. of; l. about;
m. with, for; n. for; o. of; p. of; q. from, to; r. about; s. to; t. for; u. for, for; v. of
Упр.4.4.2.a. a. out of; b. in; c. for; d. on; e. in; f. in; g. out of; h. at; i. on, by; j. on; k. for; l. in
Упр.4.4.2b. a. in; b. in; c. on; d. on, under; e. in; f. in; g. for; h. in, in; i. in; j. by
Упр.4.4.2.c. a solution to the problem; on the contrary; in general; on average; in the end,
after all, at last; by himself; by chance, by accident; on purpose; to be responsible for; in
favour of; for ever, for good; in theory and in practice; to differ from; to have much in
common; to be terribly short of time, to be pressed with time; to be good in something; in
advance
Упр.4.4.2.d. a. in the beginning/at first; b. at the beginning; c. in the beginning/at first;
d. finally, eventually; e. at last; f. in the end; g. at the end; h. in the end, eventually
Упр.4.5.1.a. a-for, in; b-with; c- about; d-of; e-in; f-from; g-to, about; h-with; i-on; j-in; k-to;
l-to, about; m-by; n-among; o-between.
Упр.4.5.1.b. a. about; b. for; c. for; d. to; e. for; f. to; g. at; h. on; i. with; j. with; k. with; l. to;
m. from/through
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Упр.4.5.1.c. a. What are you listening to?; b. Who is Jane talking to? What is Jane talking
about?; c. What are you thinking about?; d. What are they looking for?; e. Who is she going on
holiday with?; f. Who are you going out with?; g. What was your last night dream about?; h.
What did you argue about?; i. Who is Jane in love with?; j. Who is Sophie getting married to?
Упр.4.5.1.d. a. What’s she talking about? b. What are you waiting for? c. What does he work
for? d. Who are you writing to? e. Who was she angry with? f. Who does the house belong to?
g. Who’s the letter for? h. Who did you stay with?
Упр.4.5.2.a. a. out of; b. away; c. back; d. up; e. over; f. out; g. in; h. out of; i. off
Упр.4.5.2.b. a. can’t get at it; b. get me down; c. getting on; d. do you get on with; e. get over;
f. get in; g. got away; h. got away; i. get back; j. got stains off; k. to get in touch with you
Упр.4.5.3.a. a. look after; b. look it up; c. am looking for; d. out; e. have been looking
forward to; f. through; g. up
Упр.4.5.3.b. a. I’ll put my cigarette out; b. put up the price; c. put me through; d. put them
away; e. put me off
Упр.4.5.3.c. a. put out; b. put up with; c. put them back; d. put it off; e. put them away
Упр.4.5.4.d. 1-c; 2-a; 3-d; 4-b.
Упр.4.5.3.e. a. on; b. over; c. off; d. down
Упр.4.5.3.f. a. down; b. away; c. put; d. try; e. down; f. turn; g. up; h. out; i. fill; j. on,up; k.
looking; l. up; m. after; n. round; o. look; p. up; q. looking; r. back; s. fell; t. gave
Упр.4.5.3.g. a. over; b. off; c. up; d. up; e. up; f. up; g. on; h. up; i. on; j. along; k. up; l. up; m.
in; n. out; o. up; p. round; q. up; r. in, by; s. in
Упр.4.5.4.a. A a b c d e f g h i j
B 5 2 8 3 4 9 1 7 6 10
Тип 2 2 3 2 2 3 3 2 3 2
Упр.4.5.4.b. a. talked it over; b. tried it out; c. gone off it; d. all it off; e. give it up;
f. look into it; g. get over it; h. turn it down; i. look after it; j. work it out
Упр.4.5.4.c. a. out of; b. on with; c. down on; d. away from; e. back on; f. down on;
g. up to; h. out of; i. up against; j. up to; k. in with; l. away from.
Упр.4.5.4.d. a. down; b. away; c. away, out; d. out; e. up; f. in; g. off; h. in; i. off; j. up;
k. off; l. down; m. away
Упр.4.5.4.e. a-15; b-4/14; c-6; d-8; e-11; f-2; g-3; h-7; i-12; j-5; k-1; l-13; m-9; n-10;o-4
Упр.4.5.4.f. I, II: a-4; b-3; c-1; d-8; e-7; f-6; g-2; h-9; i-11; j-10.
IV: 1. He suggests the best answer to give to political pollsters is that you don't know who you
are going to vote for so that they don't ask any more questions.
- He suggests that Val Doonican is an easy person to make fun of.
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- There are many popular jokes in English about the difficulties of getting on with one's
mother- in -law. The teacher illustrates the meaning of to put up with in the context of trying
to tolerate one's mother- in- law.
- He suggests that the police can be corrupt, and arrange for innocent people to appear guilty if
they can't find actual proof.
- He suggests that American English and British English are different.
2.The teacher says I must get off, which means I must leave. The student has learned to get off
with meaning to begin a romantic or sexual relationship with someone.
3. The following are taught badly.
To put down is to make fun of, but in an extremely negative way. Both meanings of to set up
are badly taught. To send up means to make fun of through imitation. To get down (meaning
to depress) and to get off (meaning to leave ) aren't taught at all.
Упр.4.6.1. a. in; b. to; c. for; d. to; e. about/of; f. with; g. of; h. on
Упр.4.6.2. Education: a. by; b. from; c. from; d. for; e. on; f. with; g. to; h. from; i. for;
j. in; k. of; l. from; m. for; n. from; o. for; p. against; q. to; r. of; s. on; t. to; u. under; v. into
The urge to get interconnected: a. of; b. in; c. at; d. at; e. in; f. to; g. on; h. up; i. back; j. to;
k. for; l. on; m. for; n. to; o. into; p. to; q. from; r. to; s. to; t. by; u. on, off; v. in; w. by
Упр.4.7.1. a. B,C; b. A; c. B; d. A; e. C; f. B,D; g. B; h. B; i. C; j. C; k. C; l. A; m. C; n. B; o.
D; p. D; q. A; r. B; s. C ; t. A
Упр.4.7.2. 1. b; 2. a; 3. g; 4. c; 5. d; 6. e; 7. f
Глава 5. Глагол
Упр. 5.1.2. 1. I’m having; 2. I’m going to; 3. I’ve finished; 4. I was watching; 5. She looked,
She was wearing; 6. I had never been; 7. I’ve just been reading; 8. It had; 9. I had been
waiting; 10. you’ve finished
Упр.5.1.3. Неверно: a, b, e, f, h, i.
a. has been established; b. have been closed; e. will have left and returned; f. has been found;
h. was; i. were coming
Упр.5.2.1. Неверно:b,c,e,g,h,j.
Упр.5.2.2. a. He has; I am having. b. What do you think; What are you thinking.
c. I'm expecting; I expect. d. He appears; Roy Pond is appearing. e. Something smells; Why
are you smelling. f. the meat weighs; Why are you weighing. g. I see; She's seeing. h. I'm
having; He has. i. It looks; Are you looking. j. You're guessing; I guess. k. What are you
thinking; how much do you think.
Упр.5.2.3. a. I can see; b. He's listening to; c. I like looking at; d. I usually watch; e. I can
hear; f. I can't hear; g. Look at; h. …listen to…; i. She's looking at; j. I can't see.
Упр.5.3.1. a. were standing; b. stood; c. studied; d. was studying; e. was raining; f. rained; g.
was thinking; h. thought; i. were you doing; j. did you do; k. did you do; l. were you doing; m.
was dying; n. died
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Упр.5.3.2. a. was watching, phoned; b. were you doing; c. jumped, rescued; d. saw, was
living; e. did you do, got off; f. rang, were playing; g. wrote; h. was writing, walked; i. were
you working, went; j. were sleeping, got; k. did the newsreader say, wasn't listening; l. took,
was having; m. did you see, was trying; n. didn't know, broke down; o. was raining, were
crying, decided
Упр.5.3.3. Предложения а, g, i – правильные
b. was shining; c. couldn’t hear, d. was reading; e. knew; f. was playing; h. read; j. was looking
Упр.5.4.1. 1.Past Simple.; 2.Past Simple; 3.Past Simple; 4.Past. Simple; 5.Pres.Perf.;
6.Pres.Perf.; 7.Past Simple; 8.Pres.Perf.; 9.Pres.Perf.; 10.Pres.Perf.; 11.Pres.Perf.;
12.Pres.Perf.; 13.Past Simple; 14.Past Simple; 15.Pres.Perf.; 16.Past Simple; 17.Past
Simple; 18.Pres. Perf.; 19.Pres.Perf.; 20.Past Simple; 21.Pres.Perf.
Упр.5.4.3. a. has written, wrote; b. have … tried; c. have never been, did you go; d. have
lived; e. lived, moved; f. met, have you known.
Упр.5.4.4.
He's worked there for many years, since 1986, I believe.
I have never loved anyone as much as I love you.
We've known Paul for two years. Have you ever met him?
I've known him since we went to school together, but I've never met his parents.
We have already sold two hundred tickets and there is still a month to go before the
concert.
f. I have never visited New York. I’m looking forward to going.
g. Have you ever thought of learning to fly?
h. I have just received my exam result. It came ten minutes ago.
i. Janet hasn’t finished with the camera yet. She needs it tomorrow.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Упр.5.4.5. a. have you lived; b. have you ever drunk; c. have you visited; d. did you go; e.
have you known
Упр.5.4.6. a. came, arrived, went, has been; b. have you seen, saw, have you looked, went,
asked; c. borrowed, have lost, did you go, did it happened, left, chained, phoned, happened.
Упр.5.5.3. a. You will be given your tickets at the airport.
b. I was asked a lot of questions about my background.
c. Airline passengers are usually shown how to use a life jacket at the beginning of the flight.
d. If you are offered a cheap camera, don't buy it. It's probably stolen.
e. You will be told what you have to do when you arrive.
f. I was advised by my parents to spend some time abroad before looking for work.
g. I have been told a lot about you.
h. In a few years' time, I will be sent to our New York office.
Упр.5.5.8. Castle fire: a. was damaged; b. was discovered; c. was injured; d. be rescued; e.
are believed to have been destroyed; f. is not known.
Shop robbery: a. was forced; b. being threatened; c. had been stolen; d. was later found; e. had
been abandoned; f. has been arrested; g. is still being questioned.
Road delays: a. is being resurfaced; b. are asked / are being asked / have been asked; c. is
expected; d. will be closed; e. will be diverted.
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Accident: a. was taken; b. was allowed; c. was blocked; d. be diverted; e. have been killed.
Упр.5.5.9. a. was kidnapped; b. has been released; c. was examined; d. is said; e. was found; f.
saw; g. contacted; h. was told; i. has been found; j. is being questioned.
Упр.5.5.10. Следует исправить предложения a, b, c, f, i, j ,k, m, o.
В предложении d пассивная конструкция допустима, но это хороший пример
разговорного английского.
В предложении l можно использовать два варианта, в зависимости от того, что хочется
подчеркнуть:
Mrs Ethel Templeton found the tiger. Или The tiger was found by Mrs Ethel Templeton.
Предложение n приемлемо, если автор считает это допустимым.
Упр.5.6.1. a-1; b-1; c-2; d-1; e-1; f-2.
Упр.5.6.2. a-6, b-5, c-4, d-9, e-3, f-1, g-10, h-2, i-8, g-7.
Упр.5.6.3. a. have been working, haven't finished; b. have visited; c. has taken, have been
looking for; d. have been shopping, haven't bought; e. have ever read; f. What have you been
doing, have been working, have planted; g. have been waiting, has arrived.
Упр.5.6.4.A a, b, d – Present Perfect Continuous.; c, e – Present Perfect.
Упр.5.6.5. a. It is raining, I haven't brought; b. knows, has been growing, is trying; c. have
been listening, haven't understood; d. have been reading, have (have got); e. I am writing; f.
have been sitting, I have decided; g. have only been doing, have been offered, have always
wanted, don't like; h. do you know, have never been, are living; i. have been trying, have been,
have been turned down, have been applying; j. hope.
Упр.5.7.3. a. realised, had lost; b. lost, had never played; c. had bought, tried; d. was, had
visited; e. dropped, burst; f. didn't you speak, had left; g. didn't eat, couldn't help, had iust
eaten; h. looked, hadn't seen; i. took, got, refused, forgot / had forgotten; j. had spent, realised,
had done, had robbed, had burgled, had stolen, had never killed.
Упр.5.7.4. Возможные ответы: a. Had never been on television; b. Had gone / left by the; c.
Had never met him; d. Before they signed; e. Had never stayed; f. Had just finished; g. He had
written; h. She (had) turned off; i. We arrived soon; j. After I had checked.
Упр.5.7.6. a. had read; b. had been reading; c. had been playing; d. had never played; e. had
cooked; .f had been working.
Упр.5.7.7. a. Somebody has taken it. b. They had only known each other (for) a few weeks. c.
It has been raining all day. / It has rain all day. d. I had been dreaming. e. I had had a big
breakfast. f. They 've been going there for years. g. I've had it since I got up. h. He has been
training very hard for it.
Упр.5.8.1 a-6, b-7, c-5, d-1, e-8, f-2, g-3, h-4
Упр.5.8.4. a. used to drive; b. was driving; c. were studying; d. used to have; e. was having; f.
was playing; g. used to play; h. was wearing.
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Упр. 5.8.5. a. used to; b. Did you use to; c. never used to/didn’t use to; d. Did you use to; e.
used to; f. didn’t use to; g. did you use to; h. Didn’t you use to
Упр. 5.8.6. 1.A,B,C; 2.A,B; 3.A; 4.A,B,C; 5. A,B,C; 6.A; 7. A,B,C; 8.A,B; 9.A, 10. A,B,C
Упр.5.9.1. Future Simple: b,c,e,g,h,i,j,k.
Упр.5.9.2. a. I'll look; b. are going to; c. It'll (is going to), it'll (is going to), there'll be; d. are
going to, are going to; e. will (is), do (going to do); will, are going to; f. I'll give, I am going to;
g. will
Упр.5.9.3. a. are going to miss; b. am not working; c. doesn't start; d. am going; e. are going to
faint; f. isn't going to like; g. am cooking; h. is going to look; i. don't close.
Упр.5.9.4. a. he is going to join; b. he is going to have; c. leaves / depart at; d. am meeting my
bank manager; e. it is going to; f. are you going to do; g. is never going to drink; h. are not
doing; i. am not going to help; j. does not begin.
Упр.5.9.5. a. I'll have; b. Are you going; c. shall I phone; d. It's going to land; e. it is; f. I'll
miss / I'm going to miss…you go / you have gone; g. Shall I give…I give…will you write; h.
does it end; i. I'm going …is getting; j. I'll tell…I'm…I won't be; k. I'm going to have / I'm
having; l. she apologises; m. we'll be living; n. you finish.
Упр.5.9.6. a.is; b. have had; c. go; d. I've finished e. don't hurry; f. you find / have found; g.
you've taken; h. arrive / have arrived; i. go; j. I've been told.
Упр.5.9.7. a. have passed; b. have finished; c. have been; d. has done; e. have done / do; f.
have seen; g. won't let; h. sign; i. will have seen; j. will have paid; k. will be / will have been; l.
will have come; m. will have burnt; n. will have been paid.
Упр.5.10.1. 1. Make a mistake; 2. Do nothing; 3. Make a noise; 4. Do one's best; 5. Make
money; 6. Make a will; 7. Make friends with; 8. Make sense; 9. Do my homework; 10. Do the
housework; 11. Make a complaint; 12. Make up my mind to; 13. Do business with; 14. Make a
phone call; 15. Do an exam; 16. Make progress; 17. Make a speech; 18. Make a mess; 19.
Make sure that; 20. Do someone a favour.
a do me a favour; b to make progress; c you’ve made a mistake ; d have done (a lot of)
business with; e don’t make sense; f made up my mind; g make a noise; h to make a complaint;
i make sure that ; j doing my best; k made a speech; l. make a mess
Упр.5.10.2. a. making; b. make; c. done; d. making; e. doing; f. made; g. do; h. making; i.
made; j. does.
Упр.5.10.3. a. I had supper. b. Did you have a good game of tennis? c. Have a nice time! d.
Did you have breakfast? e. I’m going to have a bath. f. If you want to have a swim. g. Did you
have a good day? h. We had a row. i. Do you want to have a look? j. Could I have a word with
you?
Упр.5.10.4. Возможные ответы.
Horse riding is a hood fun. I had a ride on Jane’s horse.
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Drinking too much alcohol is bad for you. Would you like to have a drink?
Looking for a job may be very frustrating. Have a look this photograph. Do you recognize
who it is?
My little son enjoys washing. I’ll just have a wash, then I’ll be ready.
Try to avoid quarreling with anybody. What’s the matter? Have you had a quarrel?
Walking in the early morning is one of life’s great pleasures. We had a lovely walk this
morning. …
Упр.5.10.5.
take
a trip
medicine
an airplane
place
part
advantage (of)
a turn
notes
a bath
a bus
your seat
one’s temperature
the floor
have
a rest
dinner
lunch
a chance
a cold
a headache
a cough
heart trouble
reservations
make
a comparison
a suggestion
an arrangement
a proposal
an appointment
a good job
friends
sure
a speech
an effort
money
a bet
a promise
progress
a recommendation
a reservation
a difference
use (of)
do
housework
my best
a favour
an exam
an experiment
research
Упр.5.10.6. Предложения c, g – правильные.
a. the decision that is taken; b. to make fast progress; d. advances have been made; e. doing
research, ; f. to make promises; h. proposals have been made; i. the progress that has been
made
Упр.5.11.2. a. raised; b. risen; c. rose; d. sat; e. set; f. set; g. lain; h. laid; i. laid; j. lying.
Упр.5.11.3 1.felt; 2.fell; 3.feels; 4.felt; 5.feel; 6.fell; 7.filled; 8.fall; 9.feeling.
Упр.5.11.4. 1. laid, lies; 2. lay; 3. laid; 4. lie; 5. lie; 6. lay; 7. lies; 8. laid; 9. lies; 10. lie; 11.
lies; 12. laid.
Упр.5.11.5. 1. rises; 2. rose; 3. raised; 4. rose; 5. rose; 6. raise; 7. rose; 8. raised; 9. rose; 10.
rises; 11. raised; 12. am raising.
Упр.5.11.6. Предложения а, d, e, g,h,i, l, n, o – правильные
b lain; c. setting; f. were raised; j. laid; k. rise; m. set; p. raised.
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Упр.5.12.1. a. haven’t had; b. didn’t go; c. is wearing; d. has grown; e. haven’t decided; f. is
being; g. wasn’t reading; h. didn’t have; i. is beginning; j. found; k. wasn’t; l. you’ve been; m.
I’ve been going; n. didn’t she go; o. I’ve been playing; p. do you come; q. since I saw her; r.
for 20 years.
Упр.5.12.3. 1. b; 2. a; 3. a; 4. b; 5. b/c ; 6. b; 7. a/b; 8. b; 9. b/c; 10. b;. 11. a/b; 12. a; 13. b;
14. a; 15. a.
Упр.5.12.4. a. I'm coming; b. I'm going to see / I'm seeing; c. Will you be / are you; d. I won't
be; e. I'm going; f. are you going; g. is opening; h. are you going; i. I'm not back / I won't be
back; j. does your plane get in; k. I'll be / I could be; l. I'll see; m. we'll have finished; n. I'll
see you.
Упр.5.12.5. a. I'll get a cloth; b. What will you do / are you going to do / are you doing; c. I'm
going back to university; d. Will I disturb / be disturbing you; e. I'll miss my appointment; f.
I'll do / I'm going to do a retraining scheme.
Упр.5.12.6. A car. 1. began; 2. had shown / showed; 3. was built; 4. needed; 5. was …
provided; 6. patented; 7. were selling / sold; 8. were registered/ had been registered; 9. has
been; 10. include; 11. are diminishing; 12. has risen/is rising; 13. will hold out; 14. is
found/has been found; 15. is (better) managed/has been (better) managed; 16. will become.
The microwave background radiation. 1. calculated; 2. would be; 3. was ignored; 4. was
finally discovered; 5. were measuring; 6. had made; 7. looked; 8. found; 9. expected; 10. had
discovered / discovered; 11. have been; 12. has been; 13. know; 14. varies; 15. has made; 16.
tells; 17. look; 18.compare; 19. will be.
Упр.5.13.1.
Present and Past. a. A; b. B; c. C; d. B, C; e. C; d. A.
Present Perfect and Past. a. B; b. C; c. A; d. C; e. A; f. B; g. A; h. D; i. A; j. A; k. A; l. C;
m. B; n. C.
Future. a. A; b. C; c. A,C; d. B; e. C; f. A.
Упр.5.13.2. a. C; b. A; c. B; d. C; e. C; f. D; g. A; h. A; i. B; j. A; k. C; l. C; m. A; n. A; o. C;
p. A; q. D; r. B/D; s. D; t. B.
Глава 6. Модальные глаголы
Упр.6.3.1. a. mustn’t; b. needn’t; c. needn’t; d. needn’t; e. mustn’t; f. needn’t; g. mustn’t; h.
mustn’t.
Упр.6.3.2. a. have to; b. have to; c. don’t have to; d. have to; e. should; f. don’t have to; g.
should; h. don’t have to.
Упр.6.3.3 a. should; b. shouldn’t; c. had to; d. mustn’t / shouldn’t; e. don’t have to; f. should,
have to; g. must; h. having to; i. don’t have to; j. have to; k. had to; l. mustn’t; m. has … had
to.
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Упр.6.3.7. a. do we have to; don’t have to / needn’t, must; b. have to;c. must,; d. must, have to
/ need to; e. mustn’t; f. having to; g. to have to; h. have … had to; i. ‘ll have to / must; j. would
have to; k. don’t have to / needn’t / mustn’t; l. have to; m. needn’t have ; n. don’t /didn’t have /
need to; o. needn’t have ; p. don’t have / need to.
Упр.6.4.1. a. can; b. couldn’t; c. couldn’t; d. could; e. could; f. to be able; g. can’t; h. can / ‘ve
been able to.
Упр.6.4.2. Диалог 1: j,b,e,d,k,m,h. Диалог 2: n,i,a,c,g,l,f.
Упр.6.4.3. 1. can; 2. may; 3. rather; 4. want; 5. must/ have to; 6.needn’t/don’t have to; 7.
ought; 8. might; 9. needn’t.
Упр.6.5.1. a. will be working, won’t hear; b. may / might / could rain; c. won’t disturb, won’t
be working; d. might / could work; e. won’t come; f. may / might not like; g. will be delayed;
h. may / might bite
Упр.6.5.2. a. He can’t have retired; b. He can’t be very well off. c. He might have spent…; d.
He must do a lot of…; e. He must have read…; f. he must be working…; g. He might be
talking…; h. It can’t be Miss…; i. They might be having…; j. Harry might owe…; k. The must
have gone…; l. harry must have killed…; m. It can’t have been Harry; n. This must be…; o.
They must have been making… .
Упр.6.5.3. a. might / could have; b. might / could have; c. may / could have; d. must have; e.
might / could; f. might / could be; g. must be; h. can’t have; i. must have; j. might not have; k.
may / might / could be.
Упр.6.5.4. a. might have given; b. can’t have known; c. may not have wanted; d. could have
forgotten; e. must have been telling; f. he has already seen; g. can’t have been; h. must have
been driving; i. might have been; j. may not have received
Упр.6.5.5. a. might; b. can’t; c. must; d. can’t; e. must; f. may; g. must; h. can’t.
Упр.6.6.1. a-1; b-5; c-4; d-8; e-1; f-3; g-1; h-4; I-6; j-2; k-2; l-10; m-10; n-10; o-6.
Упр.6.6.2. a. could / might rain; b. might / could have gone; c. couldn’t go; d. could / can’t
have seen; e. should get; f. wouldn’t / might not recognise; g. must have heard; h. should have
turned.
Упр.6.6.3. c. He must have forgotten; d. You needn’t have gone home so early; e.
It can’t be changed now; f. She may be watching television; g. She must have been waiting
for somebody; h. He couldn’t have done it; i. You ought to have been here earlier; j. I would
have helped you; k. You should have been warned; l. He might not have felt very well.
Упр.6.6.4. a-B; b-C.
Упр.6.6.5. a. will be; b. must have been; c. can’ have got; d. should / will be; e. won’t have
forgotten; f. will be teaching; g. should / will be; h. must; i. should; j. must have taken; k. can’t
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be doing; l. must; m. can’t have got; n. must have been spending; o. will / must be; p. should /
will get; q. will have got; r. should / must have received; s. will be thinking.
Упр.6.6.6. a. may / might / could have forgotten; b. may / might think / have thought; c. may /
might not have forgotten; d. may / might / could give / be giving; e. may / might / could be
planning / have planned; f. may / might / could be trying; g. may / might / could have had; h.
may / might / could be lying; i. may / might not have left; j. may / might / could be thinking; k.
may / might not have got; l. may / might / could be; m. may / might / could be writing.
Упр.6.6.7. a. have never been able; b. Being able to; c. could; d. manage to, have been able to;
e. could; f. could; g. will be able to; h. to be able to.
Упр.6.6.8. a. had to be; b. must be cooling, must have been; c. may consist; d. could travel; e.
must have been caused; f. must … be, may / might / could be
Упр.6.7.1. a. A,B; b. A,C; c. C; d. B; e. A,B,D; f. B; g. A,C; h. B,C; i. A
Упр.6.7.2. a. A; b. A; c. A; d. A; e. D; f. A; g. D / C; h. A; i. C; j. A; k. B; l. A; m. C; n. D; o.
A;p. B; q. A
Упр.6.7.3. a. D; b. C; c. D; d. B
Глава 7. Согласование времен
Упр.7.1.1.c (возможные ответы)
a. "You ought to see that fantastic film at the Odeon before it's too late";
b. "You mustn’t drive your car till it's insured";
c. "You needn’t bring any tennis balls to play tennis at the tennis club because the club
supplies them";
d. "You had better telephone the bank to get details about your bank statement";
e. "You must get a visa to go to France".
Упр.7.1.2. a. showed / shows; b. has; c. (should) distill; d. (should) play; e. slams, replaces; f.
(should) not result; g. (should) proceed; h. (should) be; i. states, divides
Упр.7.3.1. a. told; b. spoke, addressed; c. said, spoke; d. talked; e. said; f. spoke; g. talked; h.
addressed; i. told
Упр.7.3.2. a. talked; b. told; c. said / replied; d. explained; e. tell; f. speak; g. said / replied; h.
tell; i. speak; j. said; k. speak; l. said.
Упр.7.3.3.
a. Sir Albert Pringle advised the shipbuilder’s leader to accept the pay rise.
b.Peter Arkwright persuade his members that they really must stay united.
c. Sir Albert reminded his secretary didn’t forget to come to the meeting./ Sir Albert
reminded his secretary not to forget …
d. A colleague warned Peter Arkwright to be careful of the press.
e. Peter urged them to return to work. Shipbuilders said they agreed if he thought it was a
good idea.
f. Sir Albert asked Mr Arkwright to reconsider that offer.
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g. Peter Arkwright told the builders to stop work.
h. Sir Albert invited Peter to have lunch with him.
Упр.7.4.3.
a. Ann said that she couldn’t turn that screw and asked me to do it for her.
b. Ann asked me to tighten the bolt handling me a spannel.
c. He asked if I would mind discussing this question at the seminar.
d. I asked if I should explain my recent results.
e. She asked me to help with translating the article.
Упр.7.4.4.
a. "Why do you want to change your job?"
b. “Are you pleased with your job?”
c. “What sort of translation have you ever been engaged in?”
d. “How much would you like to get for your job?”
e. “Why do you think the company may be interested in hiring you?”
f. “What are your career goals?”
g. “Are you qualified enough for the job?”
h. “Can you prove your experience with letters of recommendation from your previous job?”
Упр.7.5.1.1
1. Dr. Yixuan Ma, a well-known astrophysicist who has been studying black holes, said, “It is
one of the most interesting phenomena we astrophysicists have ever studied.”
2. As she explained, “In black holes the laws of nature do not seem to apply.”
3. “A black hole is a tiny point with the mass 25 times the mass of our sun,” explained Ma’s
associate, Chun-Yi Sui. “Black holes are created by the death of a very large star,” she stated.
4. “It is an invisible vacuum cleaner in space,” she added, “with tremendous gravitational pull.”
5. According to Dr. Su, “If a person falls into a black hole, he will eventually be
crushed due to the tremendous gravitational forces.”
6. “Time will slow down for him as he approaches the event horizon,” she said, “and when he
reaches the event horizon, time will stand still for him.”
Упр.7.5.2.2 A 1. Television channel KSA General Manager Jim Burns said that not everyone
could attend college in the traditional way; therefore, taking courses via television would offer
many more students the chance to earn a college degree.
2. Pre-med student Alma Rodriguez said that she missed being on campus, but she had to work
and take care of her family.”
3. Other students said that the previous year, they had spent several hours a day commuting to
and from school. They added that now they didn't have to do that.
4. Computer engineering student Amir Mehdizadeh stated that he could choose
when to study and how to study without pressure. He also said that he would take
two more telecourses in the fall.
Упр.7.6.1. a-4; b-6; c-8; d-2; e-7; f-5; g-1; h-10; i-9; j-3.
Упр.7.6.2. a. denied; b. suggested; c. agreed; d. apologised; e. reminded; f. offered;
g. admitted/confessed; h. doubted; i. advised; j. promised; k. insisted; l. decided; m. refused
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Упр.7.6.3.
a. Paul reminded Sue to buy some bread. b. I doubt if /whether it'll snow tomorrow. c. Jill
apologized for not phoning me earlier. d. William advised Chris to see a doctor. e. Catherine
refused to work on Saturday. f. Wendy suggested going out to the pub for lunch. g. Larry
denied ever having been arrested. h. Ann offered to help Bob do the decorating. i. Tom
promised the children that he would take you to the park on Sunday. j. Brenda agreed to share
the bill with Dave.
Упр.7.6.4.
A College Lecture
Professor Sanchez gave a lecture on transistors last Tuesday. 2First, he explained what
transistors were. 3He said that they were very small electronic devices used in telephones,
automobiles, radios, and so on. 4He further explained that transistors controlled the flow of
electric current in electronic equipment. 5He wanted to know which popular technological
invention could not operate without transistors. 6Most students agreed that it was the personal
computer. 7Professor Sanchez then asked if the students knew how transistors functioned in
computers. 8He said that the transistors were etched into tiny silicon microchips and that these
transistors increased computers’ speed and data storage capacity. 9Then he asked the class
when transistors had been invented. 10Sergei guessed that they had been invented in 1947.
11
The professor said that he was correct. 12Professor Sanchez then asked what the importance
of this invention was. 13Many students answered that it was the beginning of the information
age. 14At the end of the lecture, the professor assigned a paper on transistors. 15He requested
that each student choose a topic by next Monday. 16He suggested that the papers be typed.
1
Упр.7.7.1. a-B; b-A; c-A; d-B; e-C; f-C; g-B; h-A; i-C; j-C; k-B; l-C; m-B; n-C; o-B; p-A.
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ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 1. СЛОВА, ВЫЗЫВАЮЩИЕ ЛОЖНЫЕ АССОЦИАЦИИ
Ниже приведен список слов, схожих по написанию и/или звучанию, которые
нередко путают друг с другом.
1.Accept (v)/Except (prep):
• They accepted my invitation.
• Everyone except me attended the meeting.
2. Advice (n)/Advise (v):
• His advice was very useful.
• I advised him to buy a car.
3. Affect (v)/Effect (n,v):
• Pollution affects (= influences)everyone.
• Arbitrators have effected (=caused to happen) a settlement of the dispute.
• The effect (=result) of the drug is well-known.
4. Complement /Compliment (v,n):
• A subject complement follows the verb 'to be'.
• The brown walls complement the generally dark effect of the room.
• She got many compliments on her new ring. She complimented him on his
cooking.
5.Effective/Efficient (adj):
• His efforts to improve the design have been very effective (= having noticeable or
desired result).
• The secretary had an effective (=striking) appearance.
• The new manager is rather efficient (= works well, without wastes.)
6. Farther/Further (adj, adj/adv): both words refer to distance; only further is used to
mean more time, degree, or quantity.
• Chicago is farther/ further north than Austin.
• I will give you further information later.
7. Formerly/Formally (adv):
• St Petersburg was formerly called Leningrad.
• You are too formally dressed for an outdoor picnic.
8. Later (adj,adv)/Latter (pron.,adj.) /Last (adj)
• The movie began later than we expected.
• December is the last month of the year.
• Both Frank and Philip are very much alike, but the latter is more intelligent.
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9. Lay/Lie (v):
• Lay (laid, laid, laying)
• Lie (lay, lain, lying)
He laid the book aside.
He lay down on the bed.
10. Personal (adj)/Personnel (n)
• It's difficult to discuss personal (=private) problems.
• All personnel(=staff)must attend.
11.Precede/Proceed (v):
• The subject usually precedes (=comes before) the verb.
• After a brief interruption, we proceeded (=continue) with class.
12.Principal (n,adj)/Principle (n)
• The principal (=primary) side effect of the drug is drowsiness.
• He has been principal (=director) of that high school for many years.
• The experiment demonstrated a basic scientific principle.
13. Quiet (adj)/Quite (adv):
• After the children left, the house was quiet.
• The film was quite good.
14. Raise/Rise:
• Raise (raised, raised, raising) They raised the flag.
• Rise (rose, risen, rising)
Prices have risen sharply.
15.Statinary (adj)/Stationery (n)
• The weatherman said that the warm front would be stationary for several days
and then it would move west.
• She wrote a letter on university stationery (=special writing paper).
16. Thorough (adj)/ Through (prep)
• The report was very thorough (=complete).
• He walked through the room.
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ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 2. ТЕСТЫ
ТЕСТ 1
I. Соотнесите слово латинского происхождения с его определением.
1. memorandum
2. media
3. agenda
4. proclamation
5. credibility
6. fortify
7. conjoined
8. immobilize
9. dissimilar
a) not alike
b) the quality of being trustworthy
c) a short note
d) to bring to a halt
e) the various means of communication operating between events and the
general population
f) a list of things to be done in the future
g) an official statement or announcement that informs or honours
h) to strengthen
i) attached, combined or united
II. Заполните пробелы в тексте словами в подходящей по контексту форме, используя
слова, предложенные справа для каждой строки соответственно.
Violent Weather
Thousands of storms occur _____(10) all over the world, often
accompanied by thunder and lightning. The _____(11) storms can
cause considerable damage leading to _____(12) and delays. In
comparison with storms, cyclones occur extremely _____(13) only
about 30-100 times a year, but their winds can reach 200 kph,
which makes them very _____(14). Cyclones occur in regions near
the equator and are _____(15) outside tropical areas. Nowadays,
advanced radar equipment enable weather forecasters to predict the
path of a cyclone with _____(16). People who are living in places
that will be hit by the cyclones can be given a _____(17) to
evacuate the area or at least to take shelter. _____(18), nothing can
be done to protect their homes and property.
DAY
BAD
CANCEL
FREQUENT
DANGER
KNOW
ACCURATE
WARN
FORTUNATE
III. Определите, какой из подчеркнутых элементов предложения содержит ошибку.
19. Jack had (A) always been thinking (B) he would become (C) a doctor; but his parents
wanted (D) him to study law.
20. Massive credit-card debt (A) is a (B) late- twentieth-century (C) phenomena (D).
21. Seldom (A) I have (B) wasted as much time as (C) when (D) I watched that movie.
22. If John would have (A) studied (B), he would have (C) passed (D) the course.
23. I insist (A) that (B) my proposal is (C) considered (D) formally.
24. Contrary to earlier belief (A), King Richard III of England is (B) now
thought have (С) been (D) an effective monarch.
25. The balance of nature shouldn’t disturbed (A), but sometimes it is (B) affected (C)
negatively by development (D).
26. You should know (A) that you can (B) do well in this class, but you’d better (C)
to work (D) harder.
197
IV. Выберите наиболее подходящий по контексту вариант.
27. Few children, fortunately, get diseases like polio and scarlet fever anymore
because/because of immunization programmes are widespread.
28. Despite/Although his youth, he had a very mature approach to life.
29. The opposition parties voted against the proposal and thus/therefore prevented it from
becoming a law.
30. It’s possible to take a vacation on a budget; for instance/on the contrary you can go
camping.
31.There is no defect in the fuel system of the car. Hence/Also the fault appears to lie with the
electrical system.
32. Some people think they will be able to remember everything. Indeed/In fact, they’ll forget
a great deal.
33. Fines are a good way of punishing people. However/Since, they are of no use if they
cannot be paid.
V. Заполните пропуски соответствующей формой глагола в страдательном залоге.
34. The proposal for refinancing the city’s debt____ (be going/present) at the week’s city
council meeting.
35. The air conditioner ____ (fix) by tomorrow afternoon.
36. The wheel ____ (think) to have been invented three or four thousand years ago.
37. All children ____ (must/vaccinate) before they start school.
38. My son took a lot of unnecessary courses. I think he ____ (should/advise) better.
39. I remember____ (send) a letter by a man, who complained my article was prejudiced
against his country.
40. ____ (pay) monthly, I find annual bills hard to pay.
VI. Выберите правильную глагольную форму (инфинитив/герундий) в каждом
предложении.
41. To appreciate/Appreciating someone else’s situation, one has to walk in that person’s
shoes for a while.
42. Do you ever regret to have left/having left your last job?
43. I regret to inform/informing you that you were turned down.
44. The judge instructed me to be/being more attentive to the evidence.
45. I advise you staying/to stay out of their way.
VII. Выберите слово, которое больше остальных подходит по смыслу к предложению.
46. The difference in their computer skills was attributed to the generation _____.
a) space
b) difference
c) gap
d) hole
47. The cost of _____ has risen dramatically.
a) life
b) lives
c) alive
d) living
48. There is a strong movement supporting the abolition of the death _____ .
a) penalty b) punishment
c) discipline d) condemnation
49. Unemployment _____ is paid to people who are unable to find any work.
a) security b) money
c) service
d) benefit
50. Coal, oil and other similar _____ resources may eventually be replaced by solar energy.
a) nature
b) nature’s
c) natural
d) native
198
TECT 2
I. Cooтнеситe кopeнь латинского происхождения с его значением и производным.
1. phon
a) mind
a) antipathy
2. dyn
b) feeling
b) dialogue
3. log
c) sound
c) megaphone
4. path d) power
d) psychoanalysis
5. psych
e) between e) thermodynamics
6. medi
f) speech
f) intermediate
II. Заполните пробелы в тексте словами в подходящей по контексту форме, используя
слова, предложенные справа для каждой строки соответственно.
Breaking Barriers Through Sports
Sports are a great force for _____(7) in the USA and, of course,
throughout the world. In large cities like Chicago, where there is
sweeping ethnic _____(8) along with enormous differences in class
and _____(9) background, the local sports teams pull people
together and make them feel like a close _____(10). The same is
true nationally, for network and cable coverage of football, baseball,
and basketball makes the teams and _____ (11) seem like an
everyday part of life. And on a global scale, the Olympic games
briefly unite countries in a peaceful _____ (12) in which everyone
agrees on the rules and standards of _____ (13).
UNITE
DIVERSE
EDUCATION
COMMUNAL
PLAY
COMPETE
EXCELLENT
III. Выберите правильный вариант.
14. My friend has everything accept/except ambition.
15. Prices have risen/raised by 10% this year.
16. We should device/devise a scheme for protecting the neighbourhood from burglars.
17. Your data/datum differ from mine.
18. You must be explicit/ implicit when you explain the rules of the contest.
19. An efficient/ effective secretary works without wasting time or energy.
IV. Выберите наиболее подходящий по контексту вариант.
20. Although/Despite local companies are cheap, they are not as reliable as international
companies.
21. The fans cheered immediately/as soon as they saw their favourite player.
22. Temperatures are likely to fall as/ consequently cold weather is moving in from the north.
23. Working from home is comfortable and convenient. On the other hand/ By contrast, one
may miss the chance to discuss things with colleagues.
24. The lawyer says that they intend to take me to court if/unless I pay the bill immediately.
V. Выберите предложение самое близкое по смыслу с исходным.
25. You would have won the essay contest if you had typed your paper.
A) You didn’t win the essay contest even though you typed your paper.
B) You didn't win the essay contest because you didn’t type your paper.
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C) You won the essay contest in spite of not typing your paper.
D) Typing your paper made you win the essay contest.
26. It is unlikely that the results of the elections will be made public before tomorrow morning.
A) Tomorrow morning is probably the earliest that anyone will know the results of the
elections.
B) Before tomorrow morning we will probably know the results of the elections.
C) The results of the elections will most likely be made known before tomorrow
morning.
D) We will probably not be told the results of the elections tomorrow morning.
27. After she had already signed a year's lease, she found another apartment that she liked
much better.
A) Having already signed a year's lease for her apartment, she found another one more
to her liking.
B) She signed a year's lease for her apartment because she liked it.
C) Although she didn't like her apartment, she still signed a year's lease.
D) When she found an apartment she liked better, she signed a year's lease for it.
28. Less is known about the cause of the common cold than about the causes of many more
serious diseases.
A) The causes of less serious diseases than the common cold are better known than it is.
B) We know less than we should about causes of the cold and more serious diseases.
C) We know less about the cause of the common cold than we do about the causes of
more serious diseases.
D) The cause of the common cold is better known than the causes of more serious
diseases.
29. Taking notes, even incomplete ones, is usually more efficient than relying on one's
memory.
A) Because notes are usually incomplete, it's more efficient to rely on one's memory.
B) It is usually more efficient to take incomplete notes than to rely on one's memory.
C) Taking incomplete notes is usually less efficient than relying on one's memory.
D) One's memory is usually more efficient than incomplete notes.
VI. Заполните пропуски соответствующей формой глагола в страдательном залоге.
30. Plastic bottles_____(should, take) to the local recycling centre.
31. A new item _____ recently _____(add) to the product range.
32. Green-marketing strategies _____(develop) by many companies now.
33. We are interested in _____(inform) about new developments.
34. The portrait is known _____(to paint) by an Italian.
35. It _____(believe) that a horse shoe brings luck.
36. After your complaint _____(deal with), you will hear from us.
VII. Определите, какой из подчеркнутых элементов предложения содержит ошибку.
37. The states require that every (A) citizen registers (B) before voting (C) in an (D) election.
38. The new model costs (A) twice as more than (B) last (C) year’s (D)
39. The officer at the bank (A) told (B) his customers that (C) there was (D) several kinds of
accounts available.
40. The bell signalling (A) the end of the class rang loud (B), interrupting (C) the professor's
closing (D) comments.
41. Until recently (A), women were (B) forbidden by (C) law from owning (D) property.
200
42. Professor Baker told her class that a good way (A) to improve (B) listening skills
is (С) to watch (D) television.
43. If one had thought about the alternatives, you (A) would not have chosen (B)
such (C) topic for a term paper (D).
44. The scientist is often interested (A) in (B) a problem, disregarded (C) possible
consequences of its (D) solution.
45. If linking (A) to (B) a colour monitor, this laptop can be used (C) as (D) a desktop model.
VIII. Заполните пропуски соответствующими модальными глаголами из предложенного
списка.
сan
may
should
needn’t have
must have
46. Confidential documents _____ not be photocopied without prior approval.
47. If you don't accept the offer today, we _____ not guarantee that it will be available
tomorrow.
48.The money was sent a week ago; it _____arrived by now.
49.You _____ not sign the document until you have read it through.
50. I _____spent so much time trying to convince him.
TECT 3
I. Cooтнеситe кopeнь латинского происхождения с его значением и производным.
1. ter
2. gress
3. flu(x)
4. pos(e)
5. scrib(e)
6. trib
a) place
b) write
c) earth
d) step
e) pay
f) flow
a) fluent
b) expose
c) describe
d) territory
e) contribution
f) progression
II. Заполните пробелы в тексте словами в подходящей по контексту форме,
используя слова, предложенные справа для каждой строки соответственно.
Though love of sports is _____ (7) the same regardless of
culture, two factors that colour U.S. sports in a special way
are money and individualism. Playing _____ (8) sports in the
USA is big business. People are _____(9) to talking about
how much money a star player makes a year or how much an
advertiser will pay for 30 seconds of _____ (10) time on a
Super Bowl TV broadcast. The other factor is individualism.
People love the story of the _____(11) individual who rises
from a deprived background to become a sports legend.
Sports are a _____(12) arena where achievement isn’t
dependent on race, birth or _____(13) class.
BASIC
PROFESSION
ACCUSTOM
COMMERCE
DETERMINE
DEMOCRACY
SOCIETY
III. Выберите правильный вариант.
14. The applicant for the job was willing to accept / except a salary of 20.000$.
15. A stationery / stationary target is usually easier to hit than moving one.
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16. The director of personal /personnel isn't particularly friendly.
17. My advice /advise to you is to get a second opinion before you make a decision.
18. We have already had quite/quiet enough disharmony in the organization.
19. Immigrants coming to this country must adapt /adopt to new ways of living.
IV. Выберите наиболее подходящий по контексту вариант
20. Before/Until Columbus sailed to America, he obtained money from the Queen of
Spain.
21. Mercury is a metal whereas/although it is a liquid at room temperature.
22. English is a Germanic language whereas/although French is descended from Latin.
23. There had been robberies in the neighbourhood, so/so that everyone locked their
doors.
24. I locked the door so/so that nobody could come in.
V. Выберите предложение самое близкое по смыслу с исходным
25. Had the announcement been made earlier, more people would have attended the
lecture.
A) Not many people came to hear the lecture because it was held so late.
B) The lecture was held earlier so that more people would attend.
C) Fewer people attended the lecture because of the early announcement.
D) Since the announcement was not made earlier, fewer people came to hear the
lecture.
26. No one except the graduate assistant understood the results of the experiment.
A) All of the graduate assistants understood the experiments.
B) The experiments were not understood by any of them.
C) Only the graduate assistant understood the experiments.
D) All but one of the graduate assistants understood the experiments.
27. Travelling on one's own is often more expensive than taking a guided tour.
A) An expensive guided tour costs more than travelling on one's own.
B) Travelling on one's own costs less than taking a guided tour.
C) It costs less to take a guided tour than to travel on one's own.
D) Because guided tours are expensive, they cost more than travelling on one's
own.
28. While attempting to smuggle drugs into the country, the criminals were
apprehended by customs officials.
A) Attempting to smuggle drugs into the country, customs officials apprehended
the criminals.
B) Criminals who were attempting to smuggle drugs into the country
apprehended customs officials.
C) Customs officials apprehended the criminals who were attempting to smuggle
drugs into the country.
D) Smuggling drugs into the country, customs officials attempted to apprehend
the criminals.
29. The manager is sure to have found the right man for this position.
A) The manager has no doubts that he has found the right man for this position.
202
B) No doubt, the manager has found the right man for this position.
C) No doubt the manager will find the right roan for this position.
D) The manager is not sure that he has found the right man for this position.
VI. Заполните пропуски соответствующей формой глагола в страдательном
залоге.
30. The minister _____ (say) to be in favour of decreasing corporate tax law.
31. You _____(may, offer) a bonus in December if sales are high.
32. We expect that all the paintings in the exhibition ____ (sell) by the last day.
33. All employees _____(forbid) to talk to the press, but many did so.
34. These samples will have ____ (test) before a certificate is issued.
35. The goods will ____ (send) by rail.
36. The missing file ____just _____ (find).
VII. Определите, какой из подчеркнутых элементов предложения содержит
ошибку.
37. When a country in (A) an early stage of economic (B) development, investments in
fixed (C) capital are vital (D).
38. The more the relative humidity reading rises (A), the worst (B) the heat affects (C)
us (D).
39.Interest in (A) automatic data processing has grown (B) rapid (C) since (D) the first
large calculators were introduced.
40. Some executives insist that (A) the secretary is (B) responsible for writing (C) all
reports as well as (D) for balancing the books.
41. Students often (A) support themselves (B) by (C) babysitting, working in restaurants,
or they drive (D) taxicabs.
42. None (A) of the (B) initial (C) ideas were accepted (D).
43. They made us to work (A) extremely (B) hard (C) in (D) my previous job.
44. If well (A) maintaining (B), this machine should give you years (C) of
trouble-free (D) service.
45. Imagine (A) what would happen if all the world's (B) stock exchanges (C) crash (D).
VIII. Заполните пропуски соответствующими модальными глаголами из
предложенного списка
needn’t have
won't have to
couldn't
must not might have
46. If you open a bank account in the Bahamas you _____pay income tax.
47. Twenty years ago you _____buy a computer as cheaply as you can now.
48. By this time next year we _____relocated to outside London.
49. Unauthorised personnel _____pass this point.
50. I _____gone out after all. It wasn't necessary.
203
ТЕСТ 4
I. Соотнесите слова греческого происхождения с их дефинициями
1.
2.
Chronograph
Prognosis
3.
4.
5.
Cosmopolitan
Misanthrope
Anachronism
6.
7.
8.
Autonomous
Sophisticated
Technology
a) a forecast or prediction
b) the application of pure science to the handling of specific
engineering problem
c) functioning independently of outside interference or control
d) a digital clock or watch
e) someone who has travelled a lot and feels at home in any part
of the world
f) having a lot of experience of life, good judgement; not naïve
g) an individual who hates or mistrusts everyone
h) something that seems to belong to the past, not the present
II . Заполните пробелы в тексте словами в подходящей по контексту форме,
используя слова, предложенные справа для каждой строки соответственно.
Electronic Revolution
There are a great many fundamental questions about _____(9)
revolution. Using Internet as an example, such questions include
who, if any, will or should "control" or "_____"(10) it. At
present no one does and no government does. Questions of
copyrights and _____(11) property are of obvious concern.
Some people are extremely concerned that areas which might be
_____(12) constrained with "traditional" media, for example
pornography, or racist literature, can _____(13) travel anywhere.
Police organizations are having to grapple with the fact that
_____(14) crime has not been slow to adapt to new
communication _____(15) (and that "arresting PC" doesn't
help). And among teachers and parents there are usual worries
that it will all mean a " new _____"(16).
COMMUNICATE
DIRECTION
INTELLECT
LEGAL
EFFECT
ORGANIZATION
TECHNOLOGICAL
ILLITERATE
III. Выберите наиболее подходящий по контексту вариант.
17. By using coupons, you can get a discount on a lot of things such/such as groceries
and toiletries.
18. Despite/In spite of the delay, they arrived on time.
19. Classes will be cancelled tomorrow because/because of a national holiday.
20. He has a profitable hotel business. In addition/As well, he owns several restaurants.
21. The weatherman had promised sunny weather, but in fact/ indeed, it rained all day.
22. We worked hard, but nevertheless/ however we were unable to finish the job in
time.
IV. Заполните пропуски соответствующей формой глагола в страдательном
залоге.
23. Deliveries _____ (make) every Tuesday.
204
24. When I went to the shop, I was told that the photos _____ (not developed) yet.
25. A book _____ (write) now by a team of writers will be published next month.
26. The Constitution of the USA specifies that a nationwide census, "a head count" of
all Americans, _____ (must, take) every ten years.
27. In many southern ports passengers are not allowed to land before _____ (examine)
by a quarantine doctor.
V. Образуйте от предложенных в скобках глаголов требуемую по контексту
форму.
The USA is one of the few countries that (28) _____ (have) no national "official"
language. English is the common language by use, but it's not the national language by
law. About 32 million Americans (29) _____ (speak) a language other than English at
home. If you meet a man in New Mexico who speaks Spanish as his first language, he
could be a recent immigrant (30) _____ (arrive) in the USA only a few years ago, or his
grand parents could (31) _____ (arrive) in the USA a hundred years ago. It could also
be that his ancestors (32) _____ (live) in the area before the thirteen British colonies
(33) _____ (establish) on the East Coast. A so-called foreign accent (34) _____ (not
mean) necessarily that an individual is a foreigner.
VI. Выберите предложение самое близкое по смыслу с исходным.
35. The paper to be discussed at the seminar is concerned with new facts about
corrosion.
A) The paper on new facts about corrosion will be discussed at the seminar.
B) The paper on new facts about corrosion was discussed at the seminar.
C) The paper on new facts about corrosion is being discussed at the seminar.
36. If the meter had not failed, we should have made all the measurements required.
A) The meter was in order and we made all the measurements required.
B) The meter was out of order and we failed to make all the measurements
required.
C) We shall be able to make all the measurements required provided the meter
doesn't fail.
37. Henry must have all devices checked before starting his work.
A) It's Henry's duty to check all the devices before starting his work.
B) The lab. assistant must check the devices before Henry starts his work
C) It's quite probable that Henry checked all the devices before starting his work.
38. More money was allocated for industrial research than for any other item in this
year's budget.
A) The allocation of less money for research than for industrial items occurred in
this year's budget.
B) This year we allocated more money for other items in the budget than for
industrial research.
205
C) We allocated more money for industrial research than we did for other items
in the budget this year.
39. Federal funds will not be made available unless the governor declares a state of
emergency.
A) There is a state of emergency because the governor has not received any
federal funds.
B) Since no federal funds are available, the governor will have to declare a state
of emergency.
C) If the governor declares a state of emergency, federal funds will be made
available.
40. Maxwell is said to have applied the ordinary laws of mechanics to molecules.
A) They say, Maxwell applied the ordinary laws of mechanics to molecules.
B) Maxwell said that he had applied the ordinary laws of mechanics to molecules.
C) Maxwell said that he applied the ordinary laws of mechanics to molecules.
41. The head of the department wishes his team had started the experiment by
September.
A) The team had started the experiment by September.
B) The team had to start the experiment by September.
C) The team had not started the experiment by September.
42. Having signed the papers the manager called the secretary in.
A) The manager called the secretary in after he had signed the papers.
B) The manager called the secretary in before signing the papers.
C) The manager called the secretary in while signing the papers.
VII. Определите, какой из подчеркнутых элементов предложения содержит
ошибку.
43. The Department of Fine Arts has (A) been criticized for not having (B) much (C)
required courses for (D) this semester.
44. Psychology Today is (A) interesting (B), informative, and it is (C) easy to read (D).
45. The registrar has requested that each student and teacher sign (A) their name (B) on
the grade sheet before submitting (C) it (D).
46. Nowhere (A) can we see such rapid (B) progress like (C) in (D) computing
technique.
47. Over (A) a hundred (B) people applied to (C) the (D) job.
48. In spite of a tremendous (A) amount (B) of electronic (C) gadgetry, air traffic control
still depends heavy (D) on people.
49. Try (A) as I may (B), I could not pass (C) my driving (D) test.
50. None of (A) the (B) members (C) of the committee has not arrived (D) yet.
206
ТЕСТ 5
I. Соотнесите корень латинского происхождения с его значением и производным
1. anni, enni
2. cent(i)
3. fort, fore
4. loc
5. sign
6. urb
a) hundred
b) place
c) year
d) mark
e) city
f) strong
a) dislocate
b) significant
c) century
d) suburbs
e) reinforce
f) millenium
II. Выберите правильную форму.
7. Television is now our dominant entertainment media/medium.
8. The third addition/edition of the text was much better than either of the first two.
9. This matter will require further/farther study.
10. Athletes should except/accept defeat gracefully.
11. No one knows what the long term effect/affect of acid rain will be.
III. Заполните пробелы в тексте словами в подходящей по контексту форме, используя
слова, предложенные справа для каждой строки соответственно.
The money earned by some professional athletes does not seem
so_____ (12) when one thinks that only a very few of the _____
(13) will ever make it to a professional team. And once there,
they will only have a few years to play. They know that they
will be _____ (14) by someone who is faster, bigger, or _____
(15). Professional players' organisations are therefore very
concerned with such things as _____(16) benefits and pensions.
More and more, they are also concerned with getting a good
_____(17), with acquiring skills that will allow them _____(18)
good jobs when their playing days are over. Increasingly,
universities have enforced rules which require athletes to be
properly_____(19) in academic programmes in order to
_____ (20) for a university team. If the students do not meet
academic standards, they are not_____(21) to take part in sports
IMPRESSION
GOOD
REPLACE
GOOD
RETIRE
EDUCATE
FIND
ENROLL
QUALIFICATION
ALLOW
IV. Выберите наиболее подходящий по контексту вариант
22. English is a Germanic language whereas/although French is descended from Latin.
23. We should book in advance because/so that we won't need to worry about space on the
ship.
24. The closure of the factory was due to/owing to a lack of orders.
25. She is efficient as well as/as well extremely clever.
26. The majority of people, which/whose houses are centrally heated, contribute to global
warming.
27. In addition to/In addition a profitable business he owns several restaurants.
207
V. Подберите эквиваленты русским модальным глаголам.
28. Good ideas (следует) be written down before they are forgotten.
29. A scientist (может) freely choose his line of research.
30. They didn't meet yesterday, so they (не могли) have made the decision then.
31. The goods are faulty so we (не должны) pay for them.
32. David (должно быть) have taken your books by mistake.
VI. Определите, какой из подчеркнутых элементов содержит ошибку.
33. The U.S. Congress consists (A) of (B)both the Senate (C) as well as (D) the House of
representatives.
34. A bankruptcy (A) maybe (B) either voluntary (C) nor (D) involuntary.
35. Each number in a binary system (A) are (B) formed (C) from only two (D) symbols.
36. Each package that (A) is not proper (B) wrapped (C) has to be returned (D) to the sender.
37. Most scientists (A) expect (B) major (C) development in the near future
take place (D) in biology.
38. Primary (A) tropical forests are supposing (B) to have been little, if at all (C),
affected (D) by man.
39. The project abandoning (A), the leadership (B) in (C) this field passed (D) to another
institute.
40. If they were not (A) able to reschedule (B) the debt (C), they would certainly have gone
bankrupt (D).
VII. Выберите предложение самое близкое по смыслу с исходным.
41. If my friend were to attend the conference he would hear a few interesting papers.
A) Supposing my friend attends the conference he will hear some interesting papers.
B) It was advisable for my friend to attend the conference to hear some interesting
papers.
C) My friend didn't attend the conference and didn't hear the papers.
42. They replaced the part for the machine to work better.
A) The machine worked better after replacing the part.
B) They replaced the part though the machine worked better.
C) They replaced the part in order that the machine might work better.
43. Once the corrosion started in the metal, it propagated through the structure.
A) One day the corrosion appeared in the metal and propagated through the structure.
B) After the corrosion started in the metal it propagated through the structure.
C) The corrosion started in the metal immediately and propagated through the structure.
44. No failure is to take place in the device unless the operator is not skilled enough to handle
it.
A) The device is so foolproof that its work doesn't depend on the skill of the operator.
B) The device can work without failure if the operator is a skilled one.
C) The device is not to work properly because the operator is not experienced enough to
handle it.
45. They must have this device repaired.
A) They must repair this device by themselves.
B) They must take the device to the repair shop.
208
C) They have probably repaired this device.
VIII. Употребите глагол в нужном по контексту времени страдательного залога.
It is not known exactly when gunpowder (46) _____ (invent). It is known for a fact that rockets
and fireworks (47) _____(make) by the Chinese long before gunpowder was used in Europe.
Gunpowder (48) _____ now _____(replace) by modern explosives, but it (49) _____still
_____ (use) for making fireworks, just as it (50) _____ (be) by the Chinese.
ТЕСТ 6
I. Соотнесите корень латинского происхождения с его значением и его
производным.
1. alter
2. annu, enni
3. manu
4. vers, vert
5. vid
a) see
b) other
c) year
d) hand
e)turn
a) convert
b)evident
c)alternative
d)millennium
e)manufacture
II. Выберите правильную форму
6.
7.
8.
9.
The foreword /forward was missing from my copy of the new book.
Tomorrow I will be formally/ formerly installed in office.
Our principal / principle problem is lack of funds.
We must device /devise a way for predicting what questions will be on the tests.
III. Заполните пробелы в тексте словами в подходящей по контексту форме,
используя слова, предложенные справа для каждой строки соответственно.
The Nobel Prize takes its name from its founder, the Swedish
_____(10) and engineer Alfred Nobel, who was the
_____(11) of dynamite. _____(12), the reason for his
invention was to promote peace. He claimed that he wanted
_____(13) a substance or a machine of such frightful
_____(14) for wholesale devastation that wars should
thereafter become altogether impossible. Seeing that his
invention was being used for _____(15) opposite purposes,
he determined at _____(16) to produce some good from the
vast amounts of money his invention had _____(17) him, and
so he established the Nobel Prize.
CHEMISTRY
INVENT
IRONY
PRODUCTION
EFFECTIVE
TOTAL
LITTLE
EARNINGS
IV. Расставьте предложенные слова, так чтобы восстановить смысл цитаты.
a) important
b)absurd c)insignificant
d)obvious
e)true
First, you know, a new theory is attacked as (18)_____; then it is admitted to be
(19)_____, but (20)_____ and (21)_____; finally it is seen to be so (22) _____that its
adversaries claim that they themselves discovered it.
William James
209
V. Поставьте глагол в скобках в соответствующую форму страдательного залога
23. The boxes _____ (not pack) yet.
24. Luckily by the time we got there the painting _____ (not sell).
25. The new ship _____ (launch) next week.
26. James should _____ (tell) the news a long time ago.
27. Jane is fortunate now _____ (give) a scholarship last month by her government.
28. I don’t enjoy _____ (laugh) at by other people.
29. Mary _____ (think) not to have accepted the job.
VI. Заполните пробелы в пословицах наиболее подходящими по смыслу
модальными глаголами.
30. Friends _____ meet, but mountains never.
31. He who would search for pearls _____ dive below.
32. What’s done _____not be undone.
33. People who live in glass houses _____ not throw stones.
34. You _____ lead a horse to water but you _____ not make it drink.
VII. Поставьте глагол в необходимую по контексту форму.
35. This allowed him _____ (follow) the rules.
36. She is considered _____ (be) the finest pianist of her generation.
37. I appreciate your _____ (try) to help.
38. _____(report) of his discovery he excited the curiosity of his colleagues.
39. The history of the last 30 years shows him _____ (do) very well.
40. If you had really wanted to come, you could _____ (leave) a few hours earlier.
41. If Mr Smith _____ (not come back) , he’ll phone you.
42. They demanded that he _____ (leave) at once.
43. I wish I _____(spend) more time swimming last summer.
44. I’d rather you _____(not watch) television while I’m reading.
VIII. Выберите правильную форму.
45. The economic situation was poor. We thus / therefore postponed our plans for
expansion.
46. At first/Firstly I didn’t enjoy the work. It took me a long time to get used to it.
47. In spite of /Although he failed many times, he didn’t give up.
48. Because / Because of the extreme difficulty of the exam, many students failed.
49. There may be other planets in the universe like Earth, e.g./ i.e. planets with oxygen
and water.
50. The lawyer says that they intend to take me to the court if / unless I pay the bill
immediately.
210
ТЕСТ 7
I Соотнесите корни латинского происхождения с их значениями и производными.
1. pater
2. cord, cour
3. alter
4. medi
5. mod
6. scrib
7. tract
8. urb
a) middle
b) write
c) father
d) heart
e) another
f) city
g) measure
h) pull, draw
a) prescription
b) subtract
c) immoderate
d) expatriate
e) encourage
f) alternative
g) suburban
h) medieval
II Заполните пропуски словами в подходящей по контексту форме, используя слова,
предложенные справа для каждой строки соответственно.
Home Phones Still Going Strong
Both scientific and sociological research _______(9) indicate that,
although the Internet has _______(10) the way the people work, at
a more personal level the more old-fashioned ways of
_______(11) are not being threatened by the new technologies.
_______(12) to statistics, a person who uses the Net at home to
send and receive e-mails talks on the phone for 19 minutes on a
Sunday – a mere one and a half minutes less than someone who
does not use the Internet ______(13). Psychologists say it’s all to
do with how _______(14) the Internet is, as opposed to the much
greater _______(15) of the human voice to convey a person’s
emotions. Things are very different at the workplace. It’s
estimated that _______(16) telephone usage in the UK has fallen
_______(17) (by more than 40%) since 1995, indicating that the
Internet is seen as a more _______(18) way to communicate with
colleagues.
CLEAR
FORM
COMMUNICATE
ACCORD
DOMESTIC
PERSON
ABLE
CORPORATION
DRAMA
RELY
III Выберите правильный по контексту вариант.
19. As / As far as modern sculpture is concerned, Henry Moore is undoubtedly the greatest.
20. 21.Academic writers have responsibility; with regard to / in particular, they must provide
evidence for their claims. Writers of fiction, and yet / however, are free to construct fictitious
worlds.
22. The Internet crosses international boundaries. What’s more / However, it allows
anonymity.
23. The Internet is a great tool for information sharing, and some search engines, in terms of /
namely Google, are now household names.
24. The stolen artworks usually turn up, sometimes many years later, despite / though the
police don’t always catch the thief.
25. While / Once you have agreed on price, make sure there are no hidden or extra charges.
26. Frozen foods are usually cheap, nevertheless / whereas fresh produce can be quite
expensive.
211
IV Определите, какой из подчеркнутых элементов содержит ошибку.
27. The more cars we use, more (A) polluted (B) our environment becomes (C).
28. If you go into (A) business with relatives, it tends to (B) put a strain on their (C)
relationship.
29. Providing (A) the business ventures are successful, he shouldn’t (B) have
to declare (C) bankruptcy.
30. No one didn’t know better (A) than the Romans (B) how to gain political influence through
(C) the use of engineering and architecture.
31. Knowing (A) that he would not live to see (B) the completion of his masterpiece, Gaudi left
coloured drawings of his vision for future architects follow (C).
32. Homing (A) pigeons are able to return, weeks later (B), to the place from what (C) they
came.
33. The modern ethic (A) has resulted to (B) more (C) stressful lifestyles.
34. Children lived (A) in rural areas are likely (B) to move to the city as (C) adults.
35. The (A) British Airways London Eye, also known (B) as the Millennium Wheel, opened in
1999, and is the larger (C) observation wheel in the world.
36. Many businesses nowadays, including (A) some of the big city banks, let their workers to
wear (B) casual clothes to work on (C) a Friday.
V Заполните пропуски соответствующей формой глагола в страдательном залоге.
37. Guide dogs ___ first ___ (use) by soldiers who had been blinded during World War One.
38. I regret to inform you that your application for visa ___ (turn down).
39. Leonardo’s sketchbooks, with notes often ___(write) in mirror form, were full of ideas for
his inventions.
40. We ___ (suppose) to be at the presentation.
41. If the bill ___ (pass) by both parliamentary houses, then it becomes law.
42. The quarterly accounts not___ (finalise), the auditors were unable to present their report.
43. This area ___(monitor) by closed circuit cameras.
44. We require that all receipts ___ (submit) to the committee for approval.
VI Выберите наиболее подходящий по смыслу модальный глагол.
45. Wikipedia is a free open-source encyclopedia, which basically means that anyone
can/must log on and add to it or edit it.
46. They will/won’t pay the invoice until the dispute has been resolved.
47. Any stressful situation causing emotions such as fear or panic should/may stop us sleeping.
48. Applicants for this intensive course may/must have good keyboarding skills.
49. We sent the invitations by second-class post. They can’t receive / can’t have received
them yet.
50. I would/will rather you didn’t smoke in here.
212
ТЕСТ 8
I Соотнесите слова содержащие, префиксы латинского или греческого
происхождения с их дефинициями.
1. Retrospect
2. Extraterrestrial
3. Hyperactive
4. Irrational
5. Polyglot
6. Dialogue
7. Illustrative
8. Periscope
a) a conversation between two or more parties
b) serving to explain or clarify
c) senseless or absurd
d) from beyond the limits of the earth
e) a review of things that have already occurred
f) a long tube with mirrors used to look over the top of smth.
g) unable to remain stationary
h) a multilingual person
II Заполните пробелы в тексте словами в подходящей по контексту форме,
используя слова, предложенные справа для каждой строки соответственно.
GM Crops
The debate about _____ (9) modified crops rages on. Those excited GENETICS
DEVELOP
about this new _____ (10) claim that it’s the only way to solve the
problem of food supply to parts of the world where at present
STARVE
people are dying of _____ (11). Special strains of plants can be
RESISTANCE
created, for example, _____ (12) to drought or to certain pests. At
the same time, chemical pesticides are no _____ (13) needed, so it’s LONG
better for the environment too.
KNOW
Opponents are worried about the _____ (14) effects of GM foods
on our health. While in the short-term eating GM food appears to
HARMFUL
do no _____(15), it’s not yet possible to predict how future
GENERATE
_____(16) may be affected. They also fear that seeds from GM
SURROUND
plantations will unavoidably pollinate the _____ (17) vegetation.
Playing around with genes, they argue, is not a game, and may
TELL
result in _____ (18) damage to the
HUMANITY
_____(19) race and to the environment.
III Выберите правильный по контексту вариант.
20. Despite/ although the severity of the earthquake, relatively few buildings were
damaged.
21. Cost increased such/so rapidly that we abandoned the research.
22. Whenever/during we discussed the product launch we had disagreements.
23. While/ As there are millions of different software programmes available, only a few
become internationally successful.
24. In order that/ In order to understand design objectives, it is necessary to consider
the ultimate function.
25. We have chosen the best architects in order that/ in order to we can be sure of good
results.
26. Fluctuation in exchange rates causes instability. In addition/ Finally, it makes
forecasting more difficult.
213
IV Определите, какой из подчеркнутых элементов содержит ошибку.
27. If you refer at (A) the appendix at (B) the end of the contract, you will find (C) all
the numbers of the components.
28. The shareholders could do a choice (A) between independence and prosperity or the
uncertainty of being taken (B) over by a (C) large multinational.
29. Carbon dioxide emissions are mainly responsible (A) for (B) the depletion of ozone
in atmosphere (C).
30. The burning of fossil fuels cannot be allowed (A) to continue (B) unchecking (C).
31. They won’t ban GM products (A) unless they are not (B) proved (C) harmful.
32. Immediate (A) recognition of a discovery depends largely on (B) its been made (C)
at a proper moment.
33. Throughout (A) history science has experienced many ups and downs but never
before man has (B) witnessed such progress in such a (C) short time.
34. Whoever (A) finds treasure are entitled (B) to part of its (C) value.
35. In the middle of the nineteenth century Karl Friedrich Gauss, the brilliant German
mathematician, suggested that (A) the human race shall (B) try to communicate with
other (C) intelligent races.
36. Many of the senior staff are right (A) concerned about (B) their (C) pensions.
V Заполните пропуски соответствующей формой глагола в страдательном залоге.
37. Some people ___ easily ___(influence) by other people’s opinions.
38. The entertainment industry and the military are already the most important
developers of virtual reality applications, but to prosper, the technology needs ___(take
up) by the business world.
39. Electrons,___ negatively ___(charge), usually orbit as close as possible to the
positively charged nucleus.
40. The Opposition have asked for fuel taxes ___(reduce).
41. The sportsman deeply regretted not ___(select) for the Olympic squad.
42. The proposed legislation ___(think) to be unworkable at present.
43. It’s time something ___(do) about this problem.
44. The research ___(carry out) over a period of six months.
VI Выберите наиболее подходящий по смыслу модальный глагол.
45.The prognosis for a disease is an estimate of its likely future course and whether it
can/must be cured.
46. Legally, all institutes of learning can/must be equipped with smoke detectors.
47. Airlines use soothing music before a flight to relax passengers, especially those who
is able/may feel nervous about flying.
48. Publishers will have to/ need rethink their methods of enforcing copyright because
of the ease of copying computer files.
49. She can’t/ can’t have fixed the computer, it’s still not working properly.
50. You should/ would consider a private pension.
214
Ключи к тестам
Тест 1
1.c 2.e 3.f 4.g 5.b 6.h 7.i 8.d 9.a 10.daily 11.worst 12.cancelations 13.infrequently
14.dangerous 15.known 16.accuracy 17.warning 18.unfortunately 19.B 20.D 21.B 22.A 23.C
24.C 25.A 26.D 27.because 28.Despite 29.thus 30.for instance 31.Hence 32.In fact
33.However 34. is going to be presented 35.will have been fixed 36.is thought 37.must be
vaccinated 38. should have been advised 39. being sent 40. Being paid 41.To appreciate
42.having left 43.to inform 44.to be 45.to stay 46.c 47d 48a 49.d 50c
Тест 2
1 - c - c 2. -d - e 3. - f - b 4. -b - a 5. -a -d 6. -e -f 7.unity 8. diversity 9. educational 10.
community 11. players 12. competition 13. excellence 14.except 15. risen 16. devise 17. data
18. explicit 19. efficient 20.Although 21. as soon as 22. as 23. On the other hand 24. unless
25.B 26.A 27.A 28.C 29.B 30.should be taken 31. has been added 32. are being developed 33.
being informed 34. to have been painted 35. is believed 36. has been dealt with VII. 37.B 38.
B 39.D 40.B 41.B 42. C 43. A 44.C 45.A 46.may 47.can 48. must have 49. should 50. needn’t
have
Тест 3
1.- c -d 2.- d - f 3.- f - a 4.- a - b 5. - b - c 6. - e - e 7. basically 8. professional 9. accustomed 10.
commercial 11. determined 12. democratic 13. social 14. accept 15. stationary 16. personnel 17.
advice 18.quite 19. adapt 20 Before 21. although 22. whereas 23. so 24 so that 25.D 26. C 27 C 28
C 29 B 30. is said 31. may be offered 32. will have been sold 33. were forbidden 34. been tested 35.
be sent 36. has (just) been found 37. A 38. B 39. C 40. B 41. D 42. D 43. A 44 B 45 D 46. won’t
have to 47. couldn’t 48. might have 49. must not 50. needn’t have
Тест 4
1.-d) 2. -a) 3.- e) 4.-g) 5.- h) 6. - c) 7. -f) 8. b) 9 communication 10. direct 11. intellectual 12.
legally 13. effectively 14. organized 15. technologies 16. illiteracy 17. such as 18. In spite of
19. because of 20. In addition 21. in fact 22. nevertheless 23. are made 24. had not been
developed 25. being written 26. must be taken 27. being examined 28 has 29. speak 30.
having arrived 31. have arrived 32. had been living 33. were established 34. doesn’t mean 35.
A 36. B 37. B 38. C 39. C 40. A 41. C 42. A 43.C 44. C 45. B 46. C 47. C 48. D 49.B 50. D
Тест 5
1. c -f 2. a-c 3. f-e 4. b-a 5. d-b 6. e-d 7. medium 8. edition 9. further 10.accept 11. effect
12. impressive 13. best 14.replaced 15. better 16. retirement 17. education 18. to find 19.
enrolled 20. qualify 21. allowed 22. whereas 23. so that 24.due to 25. as well as 26. whose
27. In addition to 28. should 29. may 30.could not 31. need not 32. must 33. D 34. D 35.
В 36. В 37. D 38. В 39. А 40. А 41.B 42. С 43. В 44. В 45. В 46. was invented 47.
were made 48. has been replaced 49. is used 50. was
215
Тест 6
1.b-c 2.c-d 3.d-e 4.e-a 5.a-b 6.foreword 7.formally 8.principal 9.devise 10.chemist 11.inventor
12.ironically 13.to produce 14.effectiveness 15.totally 16.least 17.earned 18.b 19.e 20.21. d /c
22.a 23.have not been packed 24.had not been sold 25.will be launched 26.have been told 27.to
have been given 28.being laughed 29.is thought 30.may 31.must 32.can 33.should 34.may, can
35.to follow 36.to be 37.trying 38.having reported 39.to have done 40.have left 41.doesn't
come back 42.leave/should leave/left 43.had spent 44.didn't watch 45.therefore 46.At first
47.Although 48.Because of 49.i.e. 50.unless
Тест 7
1.c -d ; 2.d –e; 3.e –f; 4.a-h; 5.g-c ;6.b-a; 7.h-b; 8.f-g; 9.clearly 10.transformed
11.communication 12.According 13.domestically 14.impersonal 15.ability 16.corporate
17.dramatically 18.reliable 19.As far as 20.in particular 21.however 22.What’s more
23.namely 24.though 25.Once 26.whereas 27.A 28.C 29.A 30.A
31.C 32.C 33.B 34.A 35.C 36.B 37.were used 38.has been turned down 39.written 40.are
supposed
41.is passed 42.having been finalized 43.is being monitored 44.be submitted 45.can 46.won’t
47.may 48.must 49.can’t have received 50.would
Тест 8
1. – e 2. – d 3. – g 4. – c 5. – h 6. – a 7. – b 8. – f 9. genetically 10.development 11.starvation
12.resistant 13.longer 14.unknown 15.harm 16.generations 17.surrounding 18.untold 19.human
20.Despite 21.so 22.Whenever 23.While 24.In order to 25.in order that 26.In addition 27.A
28.A 29.C 30.C 31.B 32.C 33.B 34.B 35.B 36.A 37.are influenced 38.to be taken up 39.being
charged 40.to be reduced 41.having been selected 42.is thought 43.was done 44.was carried
out 45.can 46.must 47.may 48.have to 49.can’t have 50.should
216
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