Reading for the Real World 2 SECOND EDITION Reading for the Real World 2 Second Edition Moraig Macgillivray · Tonia Peters © 2009 Compass Publishing All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior permission in writing from the publisher. Acquisitions Editor: Jordan Candlewyck Content Editor: Adam Worcester Copy Editor: Joanna Weinhardt Cover/Interior Design: Design Plus email: email@example.com http://www.compasspub.com The authors of this book would like to acknowledge the following writers for contributing materials to this series: Michael Souza, Michael Pederson, Paul Edmunds, Paula Bramante, Kandice MacDonald, Barbara Graeber, Tonia Peters and Moraig Macgillivray. 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Contents Unit 1 Strange & Unusual Reading 1 : Reading 2 : UFOs / 5 An Insight into the Future / 11 Unit 2 Computers & Technology Reading 1 : Reading 2 : Fighting Spam / 17 Using the Body for Identification / 23 Unit 3 Health & Medicine Reading 1 : Reading 2 : Xenotransplantation / 29 A Surge in Cosmetic Surgery / 35 Unit 4 Social Issues Reading 1 : Reading 2 : Soft Drugs in Amsterdam / 41 Morphine / 47 Unit 5 Environmental Issues Reading 1 : Reading 2 : Campaigning for the Earth / 53 Glacier Retreat / 59 Unit 6 Law & Crime Reading 1 : Reading 2 : The Reliability of Eyewitnesses / 65 The Assumption of Innocence / 71 Unit 7 Language & Literature Reading 1 : Reading 2 : Cupid and Psyche / 77 The Truth About Memoirs / 83 Unit 8 Space & Exploration Reading 1 : Reading 2 : The Origin of the Universe / 89 Space Tourism / 95 Unit 9 Sports & Fitness Reading 1 : Reading 2 : Extreme Sports / 101 Personal Trainers: The Fitness Wave of the Future / 107 Unit 10 People & Opinions Reading 1 : Reading 2 : A Superlative Book / 113 Mandela’s Fight Against Apartheid / 119 Unit 11 Cross-Cultural Viewpoints Reading 1 : Reading 2 : Differing Conceptions of Time / 125 Investigating Stereotypes of Men and Women / 131 Unit 12 Business & Economics Reading 1 : Reading 2 : An Office Away from the Office / 137 A Need for Censorship in Advertising? / 143 U N I T 1 S t r a n g e & U nusua l 1 UFOs Pre-Reading Questions Think about the following questions. 1.Do you know of any famous UFO sightings in your country? What happened? 2.What do you think are some natural explanations for UFOs? 3.Is it possible there is intelligent life elsewhere in our universe besides Earth? Why do you think so? Vocabulary Preview Match each word with the correct definition. 1. extraordinary a. to examine carefully 2. mysterious b. a person who sees something happen 3. investigate c. inexplicable; suspicious 4. lunatic d. to keep secret 5. witness e. unusual 6. suppress f. a mentally unstable person 6 UFOs U Track 1 FO stands for Unidentified Flying Object. Although many people associate this term with aliens or spaceships, it can pertain to any unknown object seen in the atmosphere. It is commonly believed that UFO sightings began in modern times, but 5 sightings of extraordinary lights and mysterious objects in the sky have been documented for thousands of years. One of the earliest sightings was in the fifteenth century BCE, in Egypt, where “foul smelling circles of fire and discs in the sky” were observed. Centuries later, in 1516 CE in Nuremberg, Germany, more than 200 UFOs of differing shapes, including cylinders, spheres, and spinning discs, were 10 observed. These examples typify the thousands of sightings that have been recorded over the ages in many different cultures on various continents. The most interesting part of UFO history has been the latter half of the 20th century. During World War II, fighter pilots reported many luminescent and cylindrical UFOs. Sightings of these objects were described by both pilots and 15 high-ranking intelligence officials. Interestingly enough, both the Allies and the Germans recounted this. At first, they both thought that these UFOs were really just new weapons made by their enemies. However, when they realized that the other side was seeing them, too, they concluded that these sightings were UFOs. Both the British and Germans created committees to investigate. Ultimately, it 20 was determined that these UFOs, nicknamed “Foo Fighters,” were not manmade; no alternative explanations were offered. In the late 1940s, following WWII, the “flying saucer” era began. In 1947, a man named Kenneth Arnold recounted seeing “nine silvery circular objects” in the 25 sky. He told his story to many people, including the press. He eventually wrote a book, titled The Coming 3 atmosphere --- air surrounding the Earth luminescent --- glowing with light 14 cylindrical --- in the shape of a cylinder 15 ally --- a country that sides with another in a war (Allies - the countries that opposed the Axis powers (Germany, Italy and Japan) 13 in World War II) 19 committee --- a group formed to make decisions 32 42 45 46 55 authority --- a person in command controversy --- a dispute non-humanoid --- alien; not human disband --- to break up phenomenon --- an abnormal event of the Saucers. In it, he described the UFOs as flying saucers because they were shaped like large dishes. After the book’s release, more and more people reported 30 UFO sightings. Previously, anyone who reported a UFO was considered a liar or a lunatic. However, because authorities were receiving countless reports, they decided to set up a committee, called Project Blue Book, to investigate these sightings. In the 1940s, the most famous UFO case in US history, the Roswell Crash, 35 occurred. In early July of 1947, an object crashed onto a sheep ranch near Roswell, New Mexico. All the pieces of the fallen object were collected by members of the US Air Force, stationed at Roswell Army Air Field. Later in the day, the commander of the base informed the press that the remains of a “flying disc” had been recovered. This news spread worldwide in a matter of hours. Strangely, 40 a few hours after the press release, the commanding general of the Eighth Air Force issued a counter press release asserting that the remains were from a common weather balloon. This retraction caused a lot of controversy. There were reputable eye witnesses—including the sheep rancher and an Air Force major—who saw many items of unknown origin made of strange material. They even claimed to 45 have caught sight of bodies of non-humanoid beings. Despite this incident and continued UFO sightings, the government disbanded the Project Blue Book committee in 1969, due to lack of concrete evidence. To this day, many people think the government is suppressing the truth of what they collected from the Roswell Crash and of other unexplained sightings and 50 incidences. Over the years, UFO sightings have continued to be reported by people all over the world, including former US president Jimmy Carter, NASA engineers, and Japanese businessmen. In fact, it is estimated that every three minutes, there is a UFO sighting somewhere on the planet. Though most certainly there are a number of explanations for these UFO sightings, natural or otherwise, 55 more research into this phenomenon is definitely needed. Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds 629 words 7 8 R eading Comprehension AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the reading. 1. ____ The term UFO applies only to spaceships and aliens. 2. ____UFOs did not appear until the latter half of the 20th century. 3. ____ Another term for UFO is “flying saucer.” 4. ____Project Blue Book investigates all UFO sightings. B Choose the best answer according to the reading. 1. What did fighter pilots report seeing in World War II? a. b. c. d. Foul smelling circles of fire and discs in the sky Hovering, glowing shields Luminescent and cylindrical UFOs Silvery, circular objects 2.Why was the Roswell crash controversial? a. b. c. d. Because a flying disc crashed into a sheep ranch Because the Air Force issued two conflicting statements Because several eyewitnesses changed their stories Because people mistook a weather balloon for a UFO 3. Which of the following is NOT true? a. b. c. d. UFO sightings have declined in recent years. A former US president claims to have seen a UFO. Many UFO sightings can be explained by natural causes. The government has disbanded Project Blue Book. CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write them on the lines provided. 1.What happened in 1516 CE in Nuremberg, Germany? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 2. Why did Kenneth Arnold call UFOs “flying saucers”? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ S ummary Fill in the blanks with words from the list. Use each word only once. extraordinary mysterious investigate lunatics witnesses suppressing For centuries, 1 ___________ all over the world have reported seeing 2 ___________ objects flying in the sky. Many of these UFOs have 3 ___________ lights and strange shapes. At first, others thought people who saw UFOs were 4 ___________, but the US government received so many UFO reports that it set up a special committee to 5 ___________ them. Since then, many people have accused the government of 6 ___________ information about UFOs. V ocabulary Extension Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list. Use each word or phrase only once. abducted paranormal extraterrestrial outer space martians conspiracy 1. Aliens are sometimes referred to as people from ___________. 2.Science fiction movies and books portray a wide variety of ___________ life forms. 3. S ome people claim to have been ___________ by alien visitors and taken aboard a UFO. 4. _ __________ were some of the earliest science-fiction aliens imagined by artists and writers. 5.UFOs and ghosts are examples of ___________ activities. 6.Many UFO enthusiasts accuse the government of a(n) ___________ to cover up UFO information. 9 10 S upplemental Reading The Truth About UFOs Track 2 A 5 10 15 20 25 s of 2002, 72 percent of Americans believe the US government is not telling the public everything it knows about UFOs. In addition, 68 percent think the government has knowledge of extraterrestrial life (life from other planets) and is hiding it from the public. It’s not surprising there has been more and more pressure on the government to declassify its UFO records. A variety of different groups have been involved in these efforts. One of the most recent groups to become involved is CFI--the Coalition for Freedom of Information. John Podesta, former Chief of Staff to President Clinton, is one of the many important people in this group. The group’s aim is not to prove the existence of extraterrestrial life, but to make it easier for scientists in general to study unexplained aerial phenomena. Podesta and his group have asked the Pentagon to declassify its UFO records and provide scientists with data that will help in the study of UFOs. CFI has requested the release of information on several UFO cases, starting with the Kecksburg, Pennsylvania, incident. In 1965, a large acorn-shaped object, about the size of a small car, crashed in a wooded area of Pennsylvania. Witnesses contacted police and firefighters, but even they were not allowed to come close to the scene. The United States Army was already on site and in the process of removing the object. Even though several witnesses could clearly describe the object when it was in the air, the government claimed the object was a meteorite. Suspicions of the government’s claim have been raised ever since. Many groups have been formed to convince the US Government to open cases such as the Kecksburg event, yet it remains tight-lipped. It has not allowed these classified records to be made public. Discussion Discuss the following questions. 1.Why should citizens have access to classified government records when it comes to possible UFO incidents? 2.Should the government have the right to protect its citizens by withholding certain information that could be unnecessary or dangerous for the general public to know? Why or why not? U N I T 1 S t r a n g e & U nusua l 2 An Insight into the Future Pre-Reading Questions Think about the following questions. 1.If someone knew the exact date that you would die, would you want them to tell you? Why or why not? 2.Do you believe the future can be predicted? If so, how? 3.How would knowing what’s going to happen in the future make you feel more secure today? Vocabulary Preview Match each word with the correct definition. 1. ancient a. unclear 2. prediction b. extremely old 3. promote c. monetary 4. glimpse d. to advance in rank 5. financial e. a brief look 6. uncertain f. a forecast 12 An Insight into the Future D Track 3 ivination, also called fortune-telling, is the attempt to discover future events through unconventional methods. One popular method of divination, found in both Eastern and Western culture, is palm reading. Through 5 palm reading, a person hopes to find out his or her fate, or future circumstances. By looking at the lines on the palm of the hand, a palm reader claims to be able to foretell a person’s life span, financial success, or marital bliss, among other things. Although there is no proven connection between the lines on the palm of a hand 10 and a person’s future, palm reading remains popular, along with other divination practices. Some of these other practices include predicting the future through astrology (analyzing the stars and planets), tasseography (reading tea leaves) or numerology (analyzing numbers). Fortune-telling has a long history. Its earliest examples go back to 4000 15 BCE. The divination practiced at that time, and for thousands of years after, was often engaged by kings and other rulers. Both the ancient Roman and Chinese emperors routinely consulted astrologers and other fortune-tellers on important matters. Chinese court astrologers constantly looked for signs that foretold the future, since their predictions could influence the royal court in many ways and 20 give them job security. Divination was used to diagnose illnesses, predict what would happen in battle, interpret dreams, and promote soldiers. One of the main reasons why divination was so important to people in the ancient world is that probably at that time humans had very little control over the world. Even those in the highest positions were still subject to natural disasters. 1 1 5 5 7 17 20 24 divination --- the art of discovering hidden or future knowledge fortune-telling --- the practice of predicting the future palm reading --- divination using the palm of one’s hand fate --- a final outcome; destiny foretell --- to predict astrologer --- a person who practices divination through planets and stars diagnose --- to solve; to discover natural disaster --- a catastrophe caused by forces of nature 25 36 25 plague --- a disastrous evil or affliction mastery --- exceptional competence The causes of such events as plagues or storms were not clearly understood. Divination provided a sort of control over life. If a person could get a glimpse of the future, that person could escape at least a little of the uncertainty that would have worried him or her constantly. A farmer could plan for his future crops, and an emperor could plan for a war with some amount of certainty that a 30 particular outcome was likely. Since divination could not be disproved and any failure in the prediction could be blamed on the person making the prediction, believing in divination was not difficult for the people in the ancient world. Although unfounded, it is easy to understand that the practice of divination gave people in the ancient world a sense of control over their environment. 35 However, it is a bit less evident why divination practices should still be so popular today. Humans have achieved a great amount of mastery over, if not understanding of, the environment. They are no longer at the total mercy of the natural world. There does not seem to be any need for the practice of divination to give the world a sense of order. Even so, human life is still fragile. People still 40 get sick, hurt themselves, and die. They still suffer from financial and emotional problems, and worry about what the future will bring them. One thing that has not changed since ancient times is that the future remains uncertain. Compared to previous ages, humans have a great amount of control over the present period. With all the new technology and advances in 45 science, humans can predict natural disasters, giving some certainty to the future. Nonetheless, the simple fact that we do not know precisely what will happen in the next week, month, or year lends uncertainty to our lives. Since the great majority of modern people desire certainty and security, they may try to find ways to achieve these 50 feelings even when there is no way to reasonably obtain them. Divination then, in all its forms, fulfills a basic human need; the need to feel secure. Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds 621 words 13 14 R eading Comprehension AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the reading. 1. ____There is a proven connection between the lines on the palm of a hand and a person’s future. 2. ____Fortune-telling has been used by kings and emperors. 3. ____In ancient times, divination was likely driven by environmental uncertainty. 4. ____Divination is unpopular today. B Choose the best answer according to the reading. 1. All of the following are mentioned as methods of divination EXCEPT a. b. c. d. Tasseography Crystal balls Palm reading Numerology 2. What was divination used for in ancient China? a. b. c. d. To promote emperors and kings To cast spells on enemies To prevent natural disasters To predict the outcome of battles 3. Why does the author say divination is important? a. b. c. d. It creates high-paying jobs for many people. It helps us change the course of history. It provides a sense of certainty and security. It is a great form of family entertainment. CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write them on the lines provided. 1.What is the purpose of palm reading? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 2. Why was it easy for people in the ancient world to believe in divination? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ S ummary Fill in the blanks with phrases from the list. Use each phrase only once. fend off to control get a glimpse quell uncertainty financial gain made predictions Since ancient times, fortune-tellers have 1 ___________ using a variety of divination methods. Rulers hoped to 2 ___________ of the future, so they could plan for battles, diagnose illnesses, 3 ___________ plagues, and promote soldiers. Common ancient peoples wanted 4 ___________, marital bliss, and the ability 5 ___________ some part of their future. Despite technological advances, modern people want many of these same things. Above all, they want to 6 ___________. V ocabulary Extension Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list. Use each word or phrase only once. tarot cards crystal ball superstition prophecy prophet Nostradamus 1. In the Bible, a person who foretold the future was called a ___________. 2. A ___________ is a Biblical word for a future prediction. 3. Many people think fortune-telling is just a ___________. 4. Today, many fortune-tellers make predictions using a pack of ___________. 5. Other fortune-tellers like to glimpse the future using a magical ___________. 6.___________ is a Frenchman famous for making several predictions in the 16th century about future events. 15 16 S upplemental Reading Technology -- The Modern Divination? G Track 4 enerations past have used divination as a means of gaining answers to the unknown. This is especially true when it was used to predict the future. Modern technology is so advanced that it can now trace patterns of history and predict certain outcomes. Scientific data that has been collected is 5 used to make these predictions. We can look at a few areas where technology has advanced. Many different types of divination have been used in the past to predict future health. Today’s technology can track a patient’s medical history, and it can predict and diagnose patterns of health and diseases. Technology can even make predictions based on 10 children’s genes. For instance, a Colorado company is selling a kit that helps parents forecast their child’s athletic ability, by testing for a gene associated with strong athletic performance. The use of weather forecasting tools is another way modern technology is replacing the practice of divination. Computers have the ability to predict the 15 types and amounts of precipitation, storms, temperatures, and pressure systems. IBM is developing a service that can predict weather conditions down to a onekilometer resolution. In time, company researchers hope to be able to predict the weather on individual streets within a city. Technology continues to advance and increase as computer programs 20 become more complex. Scientists are using technology in more specific ways to gain more knowledge about the way nature works. As for divination, what was once considered to be supernatural is now seen more as a form of entertainment. Discussion Discuss the following questions. 1.With access to modern technology, is the practice of divination really necessary today? 2.If you had the ability to alter your children’s genes, would you do so? Why or why not? U N I T 2 C o m p u t e r s & Te c hnology 1 Fighting Spam Pre-Reading Questions Think about the following questions. 1. Do you have an email account? What do you use it for? 2.Have you ever received unwanted or unsolicited emails? How do you handle them? 3.What are some ways you can think of to prevent getting unsolicited emails? Vocabulary Preview Match each word or phrase with the correct definition. 1. identical a. a receiver 2. offensive b. unpleasant 3. scam c. annoyance 4. recipient d. the same 5. irritation e. to swindle 6. cheat out f. a fraudulent or deceptive act 18 Fighting Spam A Track 5 nyone who has ever had an email account has received spam. Spam is unsolicited email that is sent as part of a larger group of messages, all having substantively identical content. Spam has existed for a long time, but in recent years, the increasing amount of spam has become a much bigger 5 problem than before. Although there are ways to decrease spam, currently the only way to eliminate spam is by not having an email address. There are several types of spam: junk mail, non-commercial, offensive and pornographic, and scams, just to name a few. The most common type is junk email—mass email from legitimate businesses advertising their products. 10 Although the emails may be legitimate, they are still unsolicited. Non-commercial spam consists of messages without commercial motive, such as chain letters, urban legends, and jokes. The emails require the recipient to forward the message to friends in order to receive good fortune. Offensive and pornographic spam direct the recipient to an adult website, while spam scams are fraudulent 15 messages designed to swindle people out of personal information for the purposes of identity theft or criminal activities. The most obvious negative effect of spam is irritation. It is very annoying to get unsolicited email. However, if the only effect of spam were irritation, it would not be such a problem. There are other effects of spamming. Since anyone’s email 20 can be used by spammers, it is very possible that a child may receive either pornographic images or links to such sites on the Internet. Seniors may be cheated out of their life savings by schemes spread by spam. In addition, spam may also increase the cost of Internet service. Many ISPs (Internet Service Providers) have to increase their 25 bandwidth and server capacity to handle all 2 6 9 14 15 26 26 unsolicited --- not requested eliminate --- to get rid of legitimate --- real fraudulent --- fake swindle --- to deceive bandwidth --- available space capacity --- ability to hold information 41 47 49 disposable --- able to be thrown away authenticate --- to verify circumvent --- to get around; to fool the spam. This costs more money and may result in higher fees for customers. There are various ways for people to fight spam. One way is to complain directly to the ISP used by the spammer. Most ISPs will cancel the spammer’s 30 account if they receive complaints. However, this option is becoming less and less practical because spammers quickly change ISPs and email addresses. By the time an ISP gets complaints about spam, the spammer has already moved on to another one. Another way is to file a complaint with the appropriate government agency enforcing spam laws. In the United States, the FTC (Federal 35 Trade Commission) investigates all fraudulent spam email. The most obvious way to fight spam is to make sure that personal email addresses do not become publicly available. Email addresses should never be placed on public websites and should only be given out to trusted people and organizations. Spammers usually get email addresses from newsgroup postings or web-based 40 discussion boards, so if a person wants to use either of these services, it is a good idea to open up a free disposable email account. If the account is bombarded by spam, it can be closed and another one opened. Another way is to “munge” one’s email address. “Munging” is altering the email address so that it can be read by people but cannot be collected automatically by spammers. For example, 45 firstname.lastname@example.org can be written as catjamathomedotnet or c@tj@m at home_ net. Although a person reading the email address can guess the right address, a computer program will not be able to authenticate the email address. Since spammers often use software that “guesses” common email addresses, coming up with a unique email address is another way of circumventing spammers. 50 Finally, software that filters spam can also be used. Some ISPs use filtering methods as well. However, with filtering, there is always the possibility that valid email may be removed by mistake. Whatever method is used, the fact remains that until there are stronger laws against spamming and more effective ways to punish spammers, spam will continue to annoy, irritate, and 55 disturb. Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds 651 words 19 20 R eading Comprehension AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the reading. 1. ____ Not having an email address is the only way to eliminate spam. 2. ____ Junk email is the most common type of spam. 3. ____ The best way to fight spam is to complain to the spammer’s ISP. 4. ____“Munging” an email address can help reduce spam. B Choose the best answer according to the reading. 1. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a type of spam? a. b. c. d. Ponzi schemes Scams Non-commercial Offensive and pornographic 2. What is the most obvious way to fight spam? a. b. c. d. Complain to the FTC Keep your email address private Munge your email address Buy a special spam filter 3. Why is spam dangerous for children? a. b. c. d. They could be cheated out of life savings. It could bring them bad luck. They could receive pornographic images. It could steal their identity. CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write them on the lines provided. 1.What is non-commercial spam? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 2. Why is a disposable email account a good idea? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ S ummary Fill in the blanks in the table with the sentences below according to the category they belong to. Use each sentence only once. Types of Spam Junk Mail Non-commercial Scam A.Dear recipient: Forward this email to ten friends, and something good will happen to you today. B.Is your job irritating you? Relax! Marissa’s Massage Parlor is now open! Come in for a discounted massage. C. Congratulations! You’ve just won $100,000 in the British lottery! D. Please send us your bank account and credit card numbers. E. Try Wong’s famous Won Ton today. F.You must send this identical message to three friends, or the chain will be broken, and you will be cheated out of your chance to have good luck. V ocabulary Extension Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list. Use each word or phrase only once. virus subject line phishing block bulk mail opt out 1.People who want to avoid spam can ___________ of receiving certain types of email. 2. Spam email might contain a(n) ___________ that could disable your computer. 3.___________ is a type of spam scam that directs recipients to a fake homepage of a real organization, such as a bank. 4. Most spam is sent to thousands of users at once as electronic ___________. 5. It’s often easy to identify spam email by looking at the tag in the ___________. 6.Many email programs come with a provision that allows the user to ___________ spam emails. 21 22 S upplemental Reading The Problem with Spammers Track 6 T 5 10 15 20 25 he reason for spamming is to make money, but ironically, most people seem to hate spam and usually delete it without reading it. Thus, it is hard to see how spamming could prove profitable. There is a difference, however, between the companies who advertise with spam and the people who do the actual spamming; the company is less likely to make money than the spammer. For example, a business that wants to advertise its products or services with spam might be inexperienced, so it will typically contract with a “professional” spammer to do the work for them. Spammers usually charge a lot of money for their services, perhaps $375 to spam 500,000 addresses. Because spammers do not need much money to work—only a dialup Internet account, a program to send spam, and a list of email addresses—they will almost always make a profit, whether the company that hired them does or not. The people who write spam-sending software may not be spammers themselves, but their software makes it very easy to send spam. The software is simple and easy to write, and it sells for exorbitant fees. One well-known spam-sending program costs almost $300, which is much more than the time and effort spent designing such a program would usually merit. Spammers can also make money individually by defrauding the people who receive their spam. A common ruse is to promise some product or service for a very low price, but then refuse to deliver it after the customer has paid for it. Clearly, such types of spammers are not good citizens, and honest companies should not become involved with them. If they do, they can lose not only money but also loyal customers. In cases like these, only the spammers profit. Discussion Discuss the following questions. 1.In your view, is spamming an effective way for businesses to advertise? Why or why not? 2.What role, if any, do you think the government should take to protect people against illegal spammers? U N I T 2 C o m p u t e r s & Te c hnology 2 Using the Body for Identification Pre-Reading Questions Think about the following questions. 1. Do you know of anyone who has been a victim of identity theft? 2. How safe do you feel when you shop online or travel on an airplane? 3.What are some pros and cons of using parts of the body as identification? Vocabulary Preview Match each word with the correct definition. 1. advocacy a. to examine with a critical eye 2. scanner b. a slight, difficult-to-notice feature 3. scrutinize c. danger; risk 4. mimic d. a device used to examine minute details 5. subtlety e. to imitate 6. jeopardy f. the act of supporting a cause 24 Track 7 Using the Body for Identification T echnological advances have undoubtedly changed the way we engage in commerce and travel, as well as the way we live our lives. The Internet allows us to shop from locations all over the globe without ever showing our faces 5 or even talking to another person. We can buy and sell stocks online and move enormous amounts of money from one bank account to another at the touch of a button. Worldwide travel is commonplace with people crossing borders on a regular basis. In short, the world is more accessible than it has ever been, but at a cost. 10 How secure are our online transactions? With so many people crossing borders every day, how do we know we’re not letting dangerous people into our country? Improving security is a top issue for many governments and consumer advocacy groups around the world. Biometric identification technology is being developed to recognize individuals, both to protect their own interests and to 15 identify criminals. Biometric identification is not a new phenomenon. Fingerprints are the classic biometric identifier. Police dust a crime scene for fingerprints and then compare their findings to a database of fingerprints of known criminals or to fingerprints of a known suspect. But fingerprints can also be used for security. 20 A fingerprint scanner can be used to grant personnel access to certain areas. Physiological biometrics, such as fingerprints, utilize people’s physical characteristics to identify or recognize them. Other examples include face, palm, and iris identification. Scanning these physical features ensures that the person being scanned is who he or she claims to be. Unlike a personal identification 25 number, which is used to access bank accounts, biometric identifiers cannot be stolen and then used by a thief. Behavioral biometrics can also be used to identify people. Certain behaviors 13 biometric --- pertaining to a measurement of physical characteristics identification --- the act of determining who someone is 16 fingerprints --- unique markings on the tips of the fingers 21 physiological --- having to do with physical or chemical properties of a living thing 23 iris --- the colorful portion of the eye surrounding the pupil 13 29 signature --- a mark representing a person’s name, as written by that person 38 verification --- the act of making sure something is true 44 forge --- to imitate dishonestly; to try to pass off something fake as something real 47 ethical --- moral 50 privacy --- the state of being private are unique to individuals, such as their voices or the way they type. The classic behavioral biometric is the signature. Signatures are used as a guarantee, but 30 with obvious problems. Signatures can be copied, for one thing. Also, people don’t usually scrutinize a signature until a problem is apparent. A person’s voice might be more difficult to mimic. In fact, voice recognition systems do more than just recognize the voice; they recognize the way a person talks. There are subtleties in the way a person speaks that would be very difficult to imitate. 35 Typing patterns, likewise, would be very difficult to observe to the point of mimicking them. Biometric identification has two potential uses—identification and identity verification. Identification occurs when biometric information is used to discover the identity of the person it belongs to. Again, 40 fingerprints at a crime scene would be an example. Identity verification is the process of making sure a person is who he or she claims to be. Today, we use passports to verify our identity when crossing borders. However, passports can be stolen or forged, while an effective biometric 45 identification system would be difficult to fool. It would be much more difficult to forge a fingerprint or an iris than it would be to forge a passport. There are also ethical considerations in developing biometric identification technology. It has the potential to protect consumers when engaging in trade as well as to identify would-be criminals before they can do any harm. However, some 50 worry that individuals’ privacy would be in jeopardy if personal information were to get into the wrong hands. Another danger is that personal information could be abused by authorities. When governments have access to people’s personal information, they can use it to control the population. It goes without saying that people’s freedom and right to privacy will have to be protected as 55 technology advances. Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds 607 words 25 26 R eading Comprehension AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the reading. 1. ____ Biometric identification is brand new. 2. ____ Physiological biometrics can identify people by the way they type. 3. ____ It is difficult to mimic the way a person speaks. 4. ____ Biometric identification can be used to verify identity. B Choose the best answer according to the reading. 1. All of the following are examples of physiological biometrics EXCEPT a. b. c. d. Fingerprints Voices Faces Palms 2. Why is biometric identification important for governments? a. b. c. d. To improve security To abuse individuals To attack other countries To buy and sell stocks 3. What is identity verification? a. b. c. d. Using a signature as a guarantee Discovering who a fingerprint belongs to Watching how a person behaves Making sure people are who they claim to be CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write them on the lines provided. 1. Why are biometric identifiers better than personal identification numbers? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 2. What are two potential uses of biometric identification? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ S ummary Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Select THREE answer choices to complete the summary. First Sentence: Biometric identification technology is being developed to recognize individuals. A.Biometric identification, such as fingerprint scanners, can help protect citizens and capture criminals. B.Police have used fingerprints as a basic technique to identify criminals for hundreds of years. C.Voice recognition systems scrutinize a person’s voice and speech patterns, which contain subtleties that are difficult to mimic. D.Biometric identification includes both physiological identifiers, like fingerprints, and behavioral identifier like signatures. E.Governments frequently abuse this type of identification to control their citizenry and to deny rights to foreigners. F.Advocacy groups are concerned that biometric identification will put individual privacy rights in jeopardy. V ocabulary Extension Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list. Use each word or phrase only once. terrorism impersonate chip fake ID holograph counterfeit 1.Young people often use a ___________, such as a driver’s license, which makes them appear older. 2.One day, people might be identified by a computer ___________ implanted in their skin. 3. Identity theft helps a thief ___________ someone else. 4.Most countries use a(n) ___________ to ensure that identity cards and money are genuine. 5. Biometric identification can help guard countries against ___________. 6. Criminals can pass through airports using ___________ identification. 27 28 S upplemental Reading Face Recognition Technology W Track 8 e generally recognize people by their faces, or photos, which are typically unique to individuals. However, this type of identification can be faulty. People’s appearance changes, and we do not tend to scrutinize 5 photos very closely. Today, biometric technology is being developed to perfect the process of facial identification. Face recognition technology can scan the face for certain features and measure the distances between different parts of the face. These things do not change, so growing a beard or wearing glasses will not fool the scanner. Since it is very difficult to mimic another person’s 10 face, this type of identification is quite reliable. Facial recognition presents a risk of invasion of people’s privacy. Face scanners can be placed in public places, and people’s images can be scanned without their knowledge. This allows their movements to be tracked and can also give criminals information that will help them victimize people. 15 On the other hand, security can be improved by using face scanners in public places. For example, at a large sporting event, cameras can be used to monitor the crowds, secretly capturing images of individuals. These images can then be compared to photos of known terrorists. If a match comes up, the terrorist can be located and removed from the premises before he or she can do any harm. 20 One problem with this idea is that the accuracy of face scanners diminishes when they are tracking people in large crowds. Because the people aren’t posing, the angle may be off. This increases the chances of false positives, putting people’s rights in jeopardy. Discussion Discuss the following questions. 1.When should a government’s right to protect its citizens take priority over a citizen’s right to privacy? 2.Do you think people have a right to privacy when they are in public places, such as parks and sporting events? U N I T 3 H e a l t h & M e dic ine 1 Xenotransplantation Pre-Reading Questions Think about the following questions. 1.Have you ever heard of anyone whose life has been saved by an organ transplant? 2.How would you feel if a friend or family member received an animal’s organ to help them live? 3.Is it right to raise animals to kill so that humans can live? Vocabulary Preview Match each word with the correct definition. 1. sophisticated a. highly specialized 2. fatal b. a particular way of accomplishing something 3. susceptible c. deadly 4. procedure d. to kill 5. replicate e. to copy or duplicate 6. slaughter f. vulnerable; capable of being affected 30 Xenotransplantation O Track 9 rgan transplants have saved millions of lives around the world. Over the years, transplants have become much more sophisticated and now have a very high success rate. The problem is that it is difficult to find organs. People can be on waiting lists for years before receiving 5 their much-needed organ, and many die while waiting. The problem is getting worse, as the demand is increasing while supply is decreasing. The reason for this trend is that the population is getting bigger while accidental deaths are decreasing. Most organ donors are victims of car crashes; they were healthy people with healthy organs who were unfortunately 10 killed. As safety standards improve and as law enforcement more effectively deters dangerous driving, fewer people are dying in car crashes. This is, of course, a positive development, except that it decreases the number of healthy organs available to those who need them. So the medical community is now looking to the animal kingdom for organs that can be used in humans. No doctor to date has successfully performed an animal-to-human organ 15 transplant, known as xenotransplantation. The first major concern is the possibility that the human’s immune system will reject the organ. The human immune system is programmed to reject and attack foreign bodies in order to keep the body healthy. Rejection was a problem in the early days of human-to20 human organ transplants as well. But over the years anti-rejection medicines have been developed with tremendous success. These drugs probably will not work by themselves when the organ of a different species is introduced, so further measures need to be taken. Genetic Modification of the organ 25 seems to be one way to reduce the risk of organ rejection. For example, pigs, which are the ideal 1 organ --- a part of the body with a specific function necessary for survival transplant --- the moving of an organ or tissue from one body to another 10 law enforcement --- officials, such as police, who enforce and uphold laws 16 xenotransplantation --- a transplant utilizing an organ from a different species than the recipient 17 immune system --- the system in the body that protects it from disease 24 genetic modification --- the altering of genes for a specific purpose 1 31 32 42 47 clone --- to create an exact genetic copy breed --- to mate in order to produce offspring receptor --- part of the surface of a cell which allows molecules to enter tissue --- any part of a living or dead body candidate for xenotransplantation, have a gene called alpha-gal, which can be modified to trick the human immune system into recognizing it as human. The procedure has shown success in 30 pig-to-monkey transplants, which makes it promising for humans. After having altered the gene, scientists could then clone the pigs with the altered gene and eventually breed them conventionally. Pigs breed quickly and have large litters, so a large supply of organs ready for transplants could be produced this way. 35 A second concern is the possibility that the donor organ could contain viruses that would infect the human body. Anti-rejection drugs, which would have to be used post-operation to ensure that the body continues to accept the new organ, suppress the immune system. This makes the person more susceptible to infection. Pigs’ DNA contains a virus that is harmless to pigs but could prove fatal to humans. 40 Fortunately, scientists have identified a type of pig that does not carry this virus as part of its DNA. Scientists are also working on ways to prevent the virus from replicating by identifying the receptors that allow the virus to enter a cell. Another animal that seems likely to be a candidate for xenotransplantation is the baboon because it is genetically very similar to humans. This decreases the 45 likelihood of rejection. In fact, baboon-to-human transplants have been attempted, without success. The patients died of virus infections, however, and not because the body rejected the foreign tissue. The main problem with baboon organs is that they carry many viruses. Furthermore, unlike pigs, baboons reproduce slowly, like humans. They do not have large litters, so it would be difficult to breed the 50 numbers of baboons that would be necessary to meet the demand for organ transplants. Another advantage of using pigs is that they do not pose the moral dilemma that baboons do. Of course, some animal activists will argue that it is always wrong to kill an animal for the benefit of humans. But given that pigs are already raised for slaughter, the idea of using them to save human lives will not 55 present a new ethical issue. Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds 653 words 31 32 R eading Comprehension AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the reading. 1. ____ It is often difficult to find organs for transplants. 2. ____ Most organ donors die from heart attacks. 3. ____There have been several successful animal-to-human organ transplants. 4. ____ Baboons are genetically similar to humans. B Choose the best answer according to the reading. 1. Which of the following is true of organ transplants? a. b. c. d. They are not very sophisticated. They do not help save lives. They are usually successful. They are very common. 2. What is the first major concern about xenotransplantation? a. b. c. d. Virus infection Organ rejection Gene alteration Moral dilemma 3. What is the main problem with baboon organs? a. b. c. d. They reproduce slowly. Human bodies reject them. They have lots of viruses. Activists object to using them. CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write them on the lines provided. 1.What makes pigs the ideal candidates for xenotransplantation? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 2. Why is it an advantage that baboons and humans are genetically similar? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ S ummary Fill in the blanks with words from the list. Use each word only once. sophisticated fatal susceptible procedure replicating slaughter Organ transplants have become more 1 ___________ as technology has improved. Today, scientists are on the verge of successful xenotransplantation—the transplant of animal organs into human bodies. Pigs are good candidates for this 2 ___________ because some of them do not have a common virus that usually proves 3 ___________ to humans. Also, since pigs are typically raised for 4 ___________ , most people do not mind killing them to save human lives. Still, xenotransplantation is tricky because of viruses and because animal organs are 5 ___________ to rejection by human bodies. Scientists continue to work on ways to keep harmful viruses from 6 ___________ after transplants. V ocabulary Extension Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in the reading. Fill in each blank with the best words or phrases from the list. Use each word or phrase only once. operation surgery surgeon animal rights kidney registry 1.People who advocate for ___________ believe that animals should not be killed for human research. 2. Organ transplants require a(n) ___________. 3. Someone who has had a heart attack might need open-heart ___________. 4. One organ for which there is a great need for donors is the ___________. 5. A(n) ___________ is a specialized doctor who performs operations. 6.People waiting for organ transplants put their names on a national list, called a(n) ___________. 33 34 S upplemental Reading Building Organs from Stem Cells S Track 10 tem cells are cells that can replicate themselves. In newly fertilized eggs, they create the different tissues that make up the human body, including the organs, bones, muscles, and skin. Embryonic stems cells, derived from 5 embryos, develop into various tissues, while adult stem cells help repair tissues once the body has been formed. Stem cell research promises hope to thousands of people in failing health because stem cells could be used to create therapies for people with serious diseases and debilitating injuries. But despite the potential health benefits, stem cell 10 research is a hotly debated topic. Embryonic stem cells seem to hold the most potential for therapy, but to use embryonic stem cells, the embryo has to be destroyed. Some believe that it is wrong to intentionally destroy a human embryo, because it is a human being. Proponents of stem cell research, however, say that these embryos are being 15 destroyed anyway. Most embryos for research come from those used in in-vitro fertilization, wherein there are often extra embryos that are destroyed or frozen indefinitely, but never used. The main argument in favor of stem cell research is its potential value. If it saves thousands of people, it is worth the cost of the embryos, proponents claim. 20 But opponents counter that adult stem cells can be just as effective in creating therapies. Perhaps the answer lies in obtaining stem cells from embryos without destroying the embryo, a technique that is being studied. However, the use of embryos for research is currently banned in many countries, making progress difficult. Discussion Discuss the following questions. 1.What do you think of destroying embryos for use in stem-cell research? 2. What types of diseases would you like to see a cure developed for? Why? U N I T 3 H e a l t h & M e dic ine 2 A Surge in Cosmetic Surgery Pre-Reading Questions Think about the following questions. 1.Do you know of anyone who has ever had surgery to alter their appearance? How well did it work? 2.Should people have surgery simply to improve their looks? Why or why not? 3.If you could change one thing about your body, what would it be and why? Vocabulary Preview Match each word with its correct definition. 1. temporarily a. able to buy 2. participant b. a ten-year period 3. competitive c. approval 4. affordable d. a person who takes part in something 5. decade e. trying hard to be more successful than others 6. acceptance f. for a limited time 36 Track 11 A Surge in Cosmetic Surgery A ccording to statistics gathered by the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, 11.7 million cosmetic surgical and nonsurgical procedures were performed in the United States in 2007. Americans spent just over $13 billion on cosmetic procedures—$8.3 billion for surgical procedures 5 and $4.7 billion for nonsurgical procedures. Since 1997, the overall number of cosmetic procedures has increased 457 percent. The top three surgical procedures for women were breast enlargement, liposuction, and eyelid surgery, while the top three surgical procedures for men were liposuction, eyelid surgery, and rhinoplasty (nose surgery). Liposuction is the removal of excess fat deposits from beneath the skin. The 10 doctor inserts a cannula (a small tube) into the skin, and a vacuum-like machine removes the fat. People are usually given general anesthesia for liposuction or local anesthesia if they’re only having one area done. Many doctors insist that liposuction is not a cure for obesity. It should be used when diet and exercise do not 15 reduce fat in certain “trouble spots” of the body. That is why the ideal candidate is physically fit, exercises regularly, and is not more than twenty pounds overweight. Liposuction can cost from $2,000 to more than $10,000, depending on the number of areas treated, the type of area treated (body site), and the amount of fat to be removed from those areas. The procedure may be performed on the abdomen, hips, thighs, calves, arms, buttocks, back, neck, 20 or face. In addition to the three most popular surgical procedures, the number-one nonsurgical procedure favored by both women and men is Botox injections. Botox is a drug made from a toxin produced by the same bacteria that 25 causes botulism (food poisoning). The Botox injections 7 breast enlargement --- an operation to make breasts bigger liposuction --- an operation to remove fat 11 vacuum-like --- resembling the actions of a vacuum cleaner 12 anesthesia --- a drug used to render people unconscious during operations 20 abdomen --- the midsection of the body 7 36 baby boomer --- a person who was born soon after World War II scarring --- the marks on the body left by operations 42 precaution --- a step taken beforehand to improve safety 44 board-certified --- having professional credentials 48 cosmetic surgery --- an operation to improve appearance 39 temporarily freeze the muscles that cause wrinkles, giving the skin a smoother look for about four months. The injections are becoming increasingly popular, and some people even 30 throw “Botox parties.” The party is a social gathering at which a doctor injects the participants with Botox. These injections can cost anywhere from $300 to $1,000 per shot. In 2007, 2,445,656 women and 329,519 men had Botox injections. 35 There are many reasons why the number of cosmetic surgeries is increasing. As the Baby Boomer generation ages, its desire to look younger is increasing the demand for all cosmetic surgeries. Baby Boomers think that looking younger will keep them more competitive in the workplace, too. With improvements in medicine and technology, surgeons can perform procedures with less scarring 40 in a shorter amount of time, which makes these operations more appealing. Many customers are also becoming better informed about the procedures and precautions they must take before having cosmetic surgery, which leads to better and safer results for cosmetic surgeries. These precautions include making sure that their doctor is a board-certified surgeon. There are many websites 45 where the public can get information about plastic surgery, including risks, lists of board-certified surgeons, as well as before-and-after photos of people who have had surgery, which increases people’s confidence in the procedures. Another reason for the increase in cosmetic surgeries is that they are becoming more affordable. Costs have decreased somewhat over the past 50 decade. Doctors have also become smarter with their business. Many now offer financing for people who want surgeries but cannot afford to pay all of the money up front. Finally, social acceptance of cosmetic surgery is also growing. In a recent survey, approximately 55 percent of Americans said that they approve of the 55 procedure. About 79 percent of U.S. men and women would not feel embarrassed if their friends and family knew that they had cosmetic surgery. Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds 610 words 37 38 R eading Comprehension AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the reading. 1. ____ Since 1997, the number of cosmetic procedures has increased 47 percent. 2. ____ L iposuction was the most popular cosmetic surgery for both men and women. 3. ____ Botox injections cost $2,000 to $10,000 per shot. 4. ____ C osts for cosmetic surgeries have increased somewhat over the past ten years. B Choose the best answer according to the reading. 1. What do doctors say about liposuction? a. b. c. d. It is not a cure for obesity. It should be the first option to reduce fat. It removes excess fat beneath the skin. It is only for those more than 20 pounds overweight. 2. How long do the effects of Botox injections last? a. b. c. d. For a lifetime For forty days For four months For fourteen years 3. What is one reason for the increase in cosmetic surgeries? a. b. c. d. They are free for those who can’t afford them. Doctors recommend them for nearly all patients. Scars are now considered a type of fashion. They have become more socially acceptable. CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write them on the lines provided. 1. When should liposuction be used? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 2. What is making cosmetic surgeries more appealing? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ S ummary Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Select THREE answer choices to complete the summary. First Sentence: The number of cosmetic surgeries in the United States has increased by more than 400 percent in the past decade. A.Liposuction and Botox injections are two of the most popular kinds of cosmetic procedures for both women and men. B.Baby Boomers, who want to look younger and be more competitive at work, are increasing the number of participants for all types of cosmetic surgeries. C.The cost of liposuction ranges from $2,000 to more than $10,000, depending on the number and types of areas treated. D.Cosmetic surgery has become more affordable and safer over the past decade, causing much less scarring than when it first began. E.In 2007, almost 2.5 million women and nearly 330,000 men had Botox injections, which temporarily smooth wrinkles, often at special parties. F.Social acceptance has also risen, with nearly 55 percent of Americans saying they approve of plastic surgery. V ocabulary Extension Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list. Use each word or phrase only once. nose job vain disfigured superficial syringe poll 1.A recent ___________ showed that 89 percent of the respondents wish they made more money. 2.Many accuse people who have cosmetic surgery of being ___________. 3.Some say cosmetic surgery should be used only for people who are ___________. 4. A ___________ is used to administer an injection. 5.“Your face would look better if you had a ___________,” he told her. 6.“Physical beauty is only ___________,” she said. 39 40 S upplemental Reading Smiling Around the World Track 12 P 5 10 15 20 25 lastic surgery can be helpful for correcting birth defects in children. An organization called Operation Smile provides reconstructive plastic surgery to poor children all over the world. Reconstructive surgery is performed on abnormal parts of the body caused by birth defects, developmental abnormalities, injury, infection, tumors, or disease. The surgery is generally performed to improve function but may also be done to give a child a normal appearance. Operation Smile provides children born with cleft lips, cleft palates, and other facial deformities with free reconstructive surgeries. Doctors and nurses from around the world volunteer their time for two weeks on a medical mission. During a typical international medical mission, 300-500 children receive full medical assessments, and 100-150 children are surgically treated. This organization was founded in 1982 by Dr. William Magee Jr., an American plastic surgeon, and his wife, Kathleen Magee, a nurse and clinical social worker. The couple traveled to the Philippines with a group of medical volunteers to repair children’s cleft lips and cleft palates. The Magees saw the need, and Operation Smile was born. The goal of the charity is to improve the lives of children by improving their appearance, building up their self-esteem, and restoring their dignity. Since 1982, more than 120,000 children and young adults with facial deformities have been treated by thousands of volunteers worldwide. In addition, thousands of medical professionals have been trained globally. Operation Smile currently has a presence in fifty countries and has nearly 4,000 credentialed medical volunteers ready to donate their time and talent. Discussion Discuss the following questions. 1.Why do you think people choose to volunteer time, sacrifice money, and travel thousands of miles to help others? 2.What’s a fair way to decide who qualifies for free medical treatment and who doesn’t? U N I T 4 Social Issues 1 Soft Drugs in Amsterdam Pre-Reading Questions Think about the following questions. 1.What is your opinion on the drug laws in your country? Are they too lenient or too strict? 2. Have you, or people you know, ever used marijuana? 3.Are some drugs less dangerous than others? How can we tell which ones are worse than others? Vocabulary Preview Match each word with the correct definition. 1. legalize a. use 2. consumption b. to give credit 3. addiction c. to allow by law 4. prohibit d. a strong desire to do or have something regularly 5. toleration e. a condition of allowing 6. attribute f. to ban; outlaw 42 Soft Drugs in Amsterdam I Track 13 n almost every country, citizens have strong opinions concerning drug legislation. Proponents of legalizing drugs believe the consumption or sale of some or all drugs should be legalized. They say that “soft” drugs, such 5 as marijuana, are no more dangerous than alcohol and advocate for the legalization of small amounts of drugs for personal consumption. Anti-drug activists, on the other hand, caution against the use of those drugs to both individuals and to society, insisting that the legalization of drugs increases crime, drug abuse, and addiction. What, then, is the truth? The Netherlands has a unique approach to its drug policy. It is directed by the 10 idea that every human being should be able to make their own decisions regarding personal health. The Dutch drug policy recognizes that drug use cannot be completely eliminated. It also recognizes that there are legitimate medical reasons for drug use, such as smoking marijuana to diminish nausea associated with chemotherapy 15 treatment. Therefore, it distinguishes between soft drugs, such as marijuana, and hard drugs such as heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamines, which often lead to addictions. All hard drugs are prohibited, but laws permit soft drugs to be sold in coffee shops and used in “hash bars,” as long as the buyer is at least eighteen years old and no more than five grams are sold in a single transaction. What are the results of these liberal drug policies? Studies show that 20 decriminalization of the possession of soft drugs for personal use and the toleration of sales of controlled substances have not resulted in higher levels of use among young people. The extent and nature of the use of soft drugs does not differ much from other Western countries. As for hard drugs, the numbers of 25 addicts in the Netherlands are low compared with the rest of Europe. And they are considerably lower than those in France, the United Kingdom, Italy, Spain, 2 drug legislation --- laws pertaining to the regulation of drugs proponent --- a person in favor of something 14 nausea --- a sick feeling in the stomach 14 chemotherapy treatment --- radiation designed to kill cancerous tumors 16 methamphetamine --- a type of drug used as a stimulant 21 decriminalization --- the act of making a crime no longer punishable by law 2 35 40 50 53 intravenous --- pertaining to injection into a vein intervention --- the act of interfering with a condition to modify it sterile --- clean syringe --- a device used with a needle to inject drugs and Switzerland. Dutch rates of drug use and addiction are lower, in every category, than those of the United States, even though the US aggressively tries to prevent drug 30 use by setting severe penalties for using or selling illegal drugs, even soft ones. Marijuana use in the Netherlands is half that of the United States—2.5 percent in the Netherlands vs. 5 percent in the US—and lifetime heroin use in the Netherlands is less than half of that in the US (0.3 percent vs. 1.1 percent). Drug-related deaths and the spread of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency 35 Syndrome) among IV (intravenous) drug users are also lower in the Netherlands compared to the US, or even to other European countries such as France, Germany, Spain, and Sweden. Overall, the Netherlands has the fewest drugrelated deaths in all of Europe. Although the lower drug statistics may be attributed to liberal policies, the 40 Netherlands places a high priority on intervention and prevention of drug use. For addicts who are Dutch citizens (or from the Dutch Antilles, Morocco, or Surinam, a former Dutch colony), there are methadone programs to help them quit. These programs have minimal requirements for admission and make very few demands on the clients. This encourages many addicts to seek help. Once 45 addicts are enrolled, it provides the government an opportunity to share important information on how to prevent the spread of diseases such as HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), AIDS, and Hepatitis B. Because these diseases are typically spread by dirty needles, the Dutch also have a needle exchange program. Intravenous 50 drug users trade in old needles for new, sterile ones. Amsterdam, the Netherlands’s largest city, currently operates fifteen needle-exchange units. Hundreds of thousands of used syringes are exchanged for clean ones every year, which is extremely helpful in preventing the 55 spread of diseases. Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds 624 words 43 44 R eading Comprehension AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the reading. 1. ____Marijuana is classified as a “soft” drug. 2. ____ Hard drugs are prohibited in the Netherlands. 3. ____The Netherlands has the highest number of drug-related deaths in Europe. 4. ____ All Dutch drug addicts can take a special program to help them quit. B Choose the best answer according to the reading. 1. All of the following are examples of hard drugs EXCEPT a. b. c. d. Methamphetamines Heroin Cocaine Alcohol 2. Who can buy soft drugs in the Netherlands? a. b. c. d. Any Dutch citizen Anyone with enough money Anyone age 18 and older Anyone buying five grams or more 3. What percentage of people use marijuana in the Netherlands? a. b. c. d. Two-and-a-half percent Five percent Twenty-five percent Fifty percent CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write them on the lines provided. 1.What is the idea behind the Netherlands’s drug policy? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 2. Why do methadone programs encourage addicts to seek help? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ S ummary Fill in the blanks with phrases from the list. Use each phrase only once. addiction rate attributed to consumption of compassion for give up to legalize In many countries, there are campaigns 1 ___________ drugs. The Netherlands is one country that has allowed legal 2 ___________ soft drugs, such as marijuana, while prohibiting hard drugs, such as cocaine and heroin, which can lead to addiction. As a result, the country’s 3 ___________ is lower than other countries that do not tolerate any drug use. These statistics can be 4 ___________ not only the Netherlands’s liberal policies but also its 5 ___________ hard-drug addicts. Special programs encourage addicts to 6 ___________ drugs, while also providing them with clean needles to prevent the spread of disease. V ocabulary Extension Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list. Use each word or phrase only once. pot shoot up withdrawal get high coke war on drugs 1. Hard-drug addicts go through a period of ___________ while trying to quit. 2. People like to ___________ on drugs because it makes them feel good. 3. ___________ is one of the most common slang names for marijuana. 4. Heroin users often ___________ with a needle and syringe. 5. The US is waging a(n) ___________ to help control illegal substances. 6. This type of ___________ does not refer to the popular soft drink. 45 46 S upplemental Reading Tough Turkey T Track 14 urkey is one of many countries that has suffered from problems due to drug abuse in the last few decades. Part of the reason for this is the country’s location along the Balkan Route, a popular path for drug trafficking. 5 Recently, Turkey has taken a tougher stance regarding substance abuse and is considered to be a global anti-drug trafficking leader. In fact, Turkey is listed as the second most successful country, after China, in exposing illegal drug trade. Penalties for drug offenses in Turkey are severe, and convicted offenders 10 can expect long jail sentences. Anyone caught with even a very small quantity of drugs for personal use may be tried and could face six months to two years in prison. Purchasing or selling larger amounts can result in prison sentences from ten to twenty years, with inpatient treatment. Certain substances require an enhanced punishment of twenty years imprisonment. Drug traffickers face the 15 most severe penalties of all: twenty years to life imprisonment and heavy fines. As a result of its harsh drug penalties, Turkey has seen a drastic reduction of substance abuse and now views drug abuse as a relatively small problem. Marijuana (a drug considered to be the gateway to harder drug use) is most prevalent, used by almost two percent of the population, followed by amphetamines 20 at 0.2 percent, opiates at 0.05 percent, and finally, cocaine at 0.03 percent. Though recent numbers have revealed a slight increase in use of hard drugs compared to other more industrialized European countries, the overall drug usage and crime rate in Turkey remains very low. Discussion Discuss the following questions. 1.How important is it for countries to fight the illegal drug trade? 2.What are the laws and penalties regarding drug usage in your country? U N I T 4 Social Issues 2 Morphine Pre-Reading Questions Think about the following questions. 1.Do you know anyone who has ever been addicted to drugs? What were the consequences of their addiction? 2.Why do you suppose people like to use drugs, even when they know that drugs are bad for their health? 3.What is the best way to help someone addicted to morphine or heroin? Should the government help pay for their cure? Vocabulary Preview Match each word with the correct definition. 1. perceive a. an intense longing or desire 2. advent b. to become aware of through the senses 3. derivative c. a coming into being or use 4. prescribe d. a recurrence of symptoms after improvement 5. craving e. a thing that comes from something else 6. relapse f. to authorize medical prescriptions 48 Morphine M Track 15 orphine is a very potent drug known as an opiate that is used in the field of medicine to relieve pain. Opiates naturally occur in poppy seeds, or they can be synthetically manufactured. They work on the area of the brain that perceives pain, thus reducing the patient’s 5 experience of it. Because it is such a strong drug, it is meant to be used only by people in severe pain. This is because the side effects are significant, and the risk of addiction is high. Morphine can be taken as needed for certain types of pain, such as a bad injury, and it can also be administered continuously for relief of chronic pain such as that experienced by cancer patients. Friedrich Wilhelm Adam Sertürner was the German pharmacist who first 10 isolated morphine. He called it morphium after the Greek god of dreams. Although it is not a hallucinogen, as the name might imply, it is more than just a pain reliever. Morphine also produces a euphoric mental state and relieves anxiety. As such, even people who do not suffer from chronic pain may find enjoyment 15 from morphine, making it a popular street drug. Before the advent of heroin, a morphine derivative, morphine was commonly abused. But because heroin is more potent and faster acting, it replaced morphine. Even today, when heroin addicts have trouble finding their drug, they often use morphine as a substitute. Interestingly, morphine was used early on to treat opium addiction, 20 and even alcoholism, until it was realized that it was more addictive than both of those drugs. Because it is so addictive, doctors must exercise caution when prescribing morphine. When used to alleviate pain in people who are dying, addiction is not a concern, and the drug can be used to make 25 the patient more comfortable during his or her final days. However, 1 potent --- very strong opiate --- a drug derived from the poppy plant 3 synthetic --- artificial; made by chemical process 9 chronic --- continuous or recurring frequently 12 hallucinogen --- a substance that causes the user to see or hear things that are not there 13 reliever --- a thing that brings respite 13 euphoric --- feeling intense happiness and excitement 1 26 analgesic --- a drug used to alleviate pain withdrawal --- the state of being without a drug on which one is dependent 50 alleviate --- to ease 28 when used as an analgesic in patients who are in severe pain but not dying, precautions should be taken. Doses and frequency of doses should be closely monitored, as well as the patient’s withdrawal symptoms. There are two main indicators of addiction—withdrawal and tolerance. Tolerance occurs when a 30 patient needs more and more of a drug to achieve the same effects. Withdrawal occurs when the body shows signs of needing the drug. In the case of morphine this includes nausea, diarrhea, fever and chills, watery eyes, runny nose, headaches, body ache, tremors, and irritability. Not only is morphine physically addictive, it is also psychologically addictive. 35 A morphine addict, having gotten through eight to twelve days of withdrawal without resorting to morphine use, is no longer physically addicted. The body becomes accustomed to not having the drug and resumes normal functioning. The cravings, however, will persist because the person has become psychologically dependent on the drug. They crave it and have a difficult time functioning without 40 it. This can often lead to severe depression and anxiety. Many people have difficulty sleeping and even develop amnesia. Self esteem is diminished as the person copes with living life without the help of a drug. Not surprisingly, relapse is very common among morphine addicts, particularly if the factors in their lives that led them to drug abuse are not changed. A study of 45 morphine addiction in rats showed that if the rat’s environment was enriched after removal of morphine doses, it more easily coped with psychological withdrawal. Clearly, in treating morphine addiction, it is essential that the patient’s environment is altered to one that does not encourage morphine use. To summarize, morphine is a highly effective drug that can be used to 50 alleviate pain, but it should be used under the close supervision of a doctor. The risk of addiction is high, and withdrawal is a painful process—the psychological element of which can last a lifetime. Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds 629 words 49 50 R eading Comprehension AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the reading. 1. ____Morphine is a type of opiate. 2. ____ Morphine was first isolated by a Greek pharmacist. 3. ____ Doctors must be careful in prescribing morphine to dying patients. 4. ____ Morphine is both physically and psychologically addictive. B Choose the best answer according to the reading. 1. Which of the following is true of heroin? a. b. c. d. It is less potent than morphine. It is a hallucinogen. It is derived from morphine. It was named after a god. 2. Why must doctors use care in prescribing morphine? a. b. c. d. Because it relieves anxiety Because it is very addictive Because it causes severe pain Because it is very expensive 3. What causes morphine cravings? a. b. c. d. Physical addiction Psychological dependence Depression and anxiety Insomnia and amnesia CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write them on the lines provided. 1.How can doctors know when someone is addicted to morphine? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 2. How long does physical withdrawal from morphine addiction usually last? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ S ummary Fill in the blanks with words from the list. Use each word only once. perceives prescribing advent cravings derivative relapse Morphine and its 1 ___________, heroin, are powerful drugs that affect the area of the brain which 2 ___________ pain. Doctors must be careful when 3 ___________ morphine because it is highly addictive. Morphine was a popular street drug before the 4 ___________ of heroin, which is faster-acting and more powerful. Morphine addicts often suffer a(n) 5 ___________ after their physical addiction has been cured, caused by powerful psychological 6 ___________. V ocabulary Extension Here are six words that are related to the topic but are not in the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word from the list. Use each word only once. opium dealers smack hypodermic tracks kick 1. One common street name for heroin is ___________. 2. Morphine and heroin users inject the drugs with a syringe, or ___________ needle. 3. It takes lots of support to ___________ heroin addiction. 4.___________ is an addictive drug, which, like morphine, is made from poppy seeds. 5. I ntravenous drug users have repeated needle-entry scars, called ___________, along their veins. 6. Heroin is sold on the street by drug ___________. 51 52 S upplemental Reading Should Drugs Be Legal? A Track 16 t age eighteen, Americans can legally purchase cigarettes, which contain the drug nicotine. At twenty-one, they can buy and drink beverages with alcohol, another type of drug. At no age, however, are they legally allowed to buy and consume 5 other kinds of drugs, such as marijuana, cocaine, or heroin. Many people think this policy is hypocritical. They wonder why the government should choose which drugs to sanction and which to ban. The typical response is that drugs like marijuana and cocaine are unhealthy. 10 But so are cigarettes and alcohol. Smoking, for instance, is the leading cause of death in the US, killing more than 440,000 people each year, according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The CDC estimates that drinking alcohol leads directly to about 35,000 annual deaths and indirectly to thousands of others. Studies show that, used in moderation, marijuana and cocaine are no 15 more harmful than cigarettes and alcohol. Practically, proponents of legalization say that legalizing drugs would improve the economy. The US receives billions of dollars each year from taxes on cigarettes and alcohol, while spending billions fighting the illegal drug trade. If the government legalized drugs such as cocaine and marijuana, then it could tax them 20 and also stop spending money trying to catch and imprison those who sell them. Of course, some people say that instead of legalizing all drugs, the government should make all drugs illegal. The trouble is that, as long as the drugs are available, people will choose to take them, legally or not. Discussion Discuss the following questions. 1.What is the drug policy in your country? Do you agree with it? 2.Should drugs be legalized? Why or why not? U N I T 5 E n v i ro n m e n t a l Issue s 1 Campaigning for the Earth Pre-Reading Questions Think about the following questions. 1.What, in your opinion, are the major problems facing the Earth’s environment today? 2.What are the best ways to help solve these problems? 3.If people disagree with government decisions, how should they express their disagreement? Why would this method be effective? Vocabulary Preview Match each word with the correct definition. 1. conduct a. at risk 2. precede b. unchangable 3. destruction c. delicate 4. fragile d. the state of being ruined 5. irreversible e. to go or come before 6. endangered f. to lead or direct 54 Campaigning for the Earth I Track 17 n 1971, a small boat set sail from Vancouver, Canada, to Amchitka, one of the Aleutian Islands connecting North America and Asia. It was a gesture of non-violent protest against a nuclear test that was to be conducted by the United States government. The crew on the Phyllis Cormack included a doctor, a 5 geographer, an engineer, a political science teacher, a deep-sea diver, a social worker, a photographer, and three journalists. Vehement opposition of the test from politicians, scientists, government and environmental agencies, as well as the residents of the Aleutian Islands, had been staged for months preceding the launch of the Phyllis Cormack. Despite the protests, the US refused to change its 10 plans to conduct the test. Sadly, the ship and her crew did not reach Amchitka and failed to prevent the nuclear test from occurring. Although Amchitka had not had any inhabitants since the mid-nineteenth century and there was no imminent danger to humans, the explosion caused tremendous suffering to local wildlife. It also caused wide-scale 15 destruction of the island, including a crater more than one mile wide and sixty feet deep. The voyage of the Phyllis Cormack did not succeed in stopping the nuclear test, but this peaceful demonstration did have a very positive outcome. It attracted world-wide attention and gave birth to the international movement called Greenpeace. Today, Greenpeace is an international, non-profit 20 organization with offices in more than forty countries throughout Asia, Europe, North and South America, and the Pacific. Its headquarters is in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Each office has its own board of directors 25 and agenda based on the unique needs of the region. Greenpeace representatives from around the world meet 3 nuclear --- pertaining to or involving atomic weapons stage --- to produce; to cause to happen 12 inhabitant --- one who lives in a specified place 17 demonstration --- protest 20 non-profit --- not trying to make money 25 agenda --- ideological plan 8 32 confrontation --- a clash; conflict activist --- a person who acts for a cause 36 contaminant --- a thing that pollutes 53 logger --- a person who cuts down trees for a living 32 each year to discuss environmental issues and concerns of the global community. According to its website, “Greenpeace exists because this fragile earth deserves a voice. It needs solutions. It needs 30 change. It needs action.” Greenpeace is committed to making the public aware of environmental abuses. It seeks change through creative, non-violent confrontations between activists and those responsible for harming the environment. Greenpeace is currently working in six major areas where there is significant 35 threat to the environment. The first two areas address radiation and chemical contaminants. As its initial action against the nuclear test on Amchitka demonstrated, Greenpeace stands firm in its commitment to end the production and use of nuclear weapons. It also aims to eliminate toxic chemicals that are released into the environment. 40 The third area of concern is the threat posed to the environment by genetically engineered food ingredients, which cause irreversible biological pollution and many types of health risks. In 2002, Greenpeace published the True Food Guide. This helps consumers to select their foods by rating food companies according to their willingness to use genetically engineered ingredients in their products. 45 A fourth item on the Greenpeace agenda is the protection of marine life. Of particular concern are commercial fishing practices that do not protect endangered species. Greenpeace is also engaged in educating the world community about the effects of global warming. Finally, Greenpeace actively supports measures that will protect the remaining 50 ancient forests of the world. With more than 80 percent of the world’s forests already gone, preserving what we have left seems more urgent than ever. In a recent victory, the Maisin people of Collingwood Bay, in Papua New Guinea, won a three-year legal struggle to deny loggers access to their land. Greenpeace played an important role in defending the interests of the Maisin in the court case. Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds 590 words 55 56 R eading Comprehension AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the reading. 1. ____ The Phyllis Cormack saved wildlife on Amchitka. 2. ____ Greenpeace works to protect the world’s environment. 3. ____ Greenpeace wants to eliminate toxic chemicals. 4. ____ Less than 20 percent of the world’s forests are already gone. B Choose the best answer according to the reading. 1. Which of the following was NOT on the crew of the Phyllis Cormack? a. b. c. d. A social worker A teacher A politician An engineer 2. Where is Greenpeace headquartered? a. b. c. d. In the United States In more than 40 countries In Vancouver, Canada In the Netherlands 3. Why are some people concerned about genetically engineered food? a. b. c. d. They say it causes biological pollution. They say it tastes bad and is poisonous. They believe it releases toxic chemicals. They believe it destroys ancient forests. CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write them on the lines provided. 1.How does Greenpeace seek change? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 2. What did Greenpeace do in 2002? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ S ummary Fill in the blanks in the table with the sentences below according to the category they belong to. Use each sentence only once. Greenpeace Areas of Concern Genetic food Protect Marine Life Preserve Forests A.The Maisins in Papua New Guinea legally deny loggers access to their fragile land. B.Greenpeace fights irreversible biological pollution by producing company ratings to help people select their groceries. C.A Greenpeace boat pulls up next to a boat that is hunting endangered whales and precedes to harass it. D.Greenpeace members conduct a demonstration on a farm growing modified rice. E.Greenpeace boycotts tuna fish producers, chanting “Save the dolphins.” F.A Greenpeace protestor ties himself to a tree that a logger wants to cut down, preventing its destruction. V ocabulary Extension Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list. Use each word or phrase only once. acid rain ozone layer extinction biodegradable greenhouse effect pollutants 1. Many scientists think the ___________ is warming the Earth’s temperature. 2. ___________ has harmful effects on plants and water animals. 3. Several animal species face ___________ due to environmental damage. 4. The ___________ protects the Earth from radioactive sun rays. 5. ___________ products decompose naturally and merge with the Earth’s soil. 6. Automobile exhaust, burning coal, and litter are all types of ___________. 57 58 S upplemental Reading Peace Ships M Track 18 uch of the essential work of Greenpeace would be impossible without its small fleet of three ships: the MV Arctic Sunrise, the SV Rainbow Warrior, and the MV Esperanza. At the end of 1996, 5 Greenpeace prepared the Arctic Sunrise for the icy conditions of Antarctica. The hull was rounded so the ship lifts out of the ice instead of being crushed by it. Since its design allows the ship to travel icy waters, it is mostly used for campaigns in the polar regions of the Earth. The SV Rainbow Warrior is perhaps the most famous Greenpeace ship. It is 10 named for a Native American prophecy that tells of a time when human greed will make the earth sick and a mythical band of warriors will come down from a rainbow to save it. The ship has been used to challenge environmental crimes, to relocate the population of a South Pacific Island contaminated by radiation, and to sail against whaling, war, and global warming. In 2004, it provided disaster 15 relief to victims of the tsunami in Southeast Asia. The MV Esperanza is the latest and largest vessel of the Greenpeace fleet. “Esperanza” means “hope” in Spanish, a word that carries special meaning for Greenpeace supporters everywhere. Since its original builders and owners did not share in the concern for environmental issues, it was necessary for 20 Greenpeace to modify the ship. Greenpeace workers removed asbestos, installed diesel engines, modified the refrigeration and air-conditioning systems, and reduced its CO2 emissions. It took many months to make the ship as environmentally friendly as possible. Discussion Discuss the following questions. 1.What do you think about Greenpeace’s tactics of using its own ships to challenge the ships of companies that Greenpeace believes are doing environmental harm? 2. Does Greenpeace spend too much money on its ships? U N I T 5 E n v i ro n m e n t a l Issue s 2 Glacier Retreat Pre-Reading Questions Think about the following questions. 1.What do you know about global warming? 2.How is the water supply in your country? What would happen if there was a shortage of water? 3.Have you ever seen or visited a glacier? What did it look like? Vocabulary Preview Match each word with the correct definition. 1. compressed a. to move back or away 2. sustain b. to suck up or take up 3. recede c. packed tightly 4. looming d. to keep at the same size or rate 5. absorb e. overwhelming; intimidating 6. daunting f. difficult to avoid 60 Glacier Retreat G Track 19 lobal temperatures are rising as a result of carbon emissions, which trap greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. One of the first things to be affected by global warming is the large masses 5 of ice known as glaciers. The higher temperatures not only cause the glaciers to melt, they reduce the snowfall as well. Glaciers are formed when snow gets compressed under more snow and the lower layer of snow freezes, creating a large mass of ice. If some of the surface of the glacier melts during warmer weather, that’s okay as long as more snow falls to replace 10 what was lost. But sustained warmer temperatures mean that more ice is melting, and less snow is falling. So the glacier cannot sustain its mass; in other words, it shrinks. We call this phenomenon glacier retreat because as the mass gets smaller, it seems to be retreating. Why do receding glaciers have scientists and environmentalists so concerned? 15 First of all, most of the Earth’s supply of fresh water comes from glaciers. The normal melting of glaciers during seasons of warmer temperatures provides fresh water to people, animals, and plants. If the glaciers are not able to sustain their mass, there will be less fresh water available for people to drink and use for raising crops. This could spell disaster for human populations around the world. Furthermore, while the disappearance of glaciers would mean diminished 20 fresh water supplies, the process of this disappearance is causing floods and rising water levels. Most glaciers are located at higher elevations because of the colder temperatures found there. So when the ice melts, gravity propels the water downward via rivers and streams. More melting means more water is entering 25 the river system, which may be unable to bear the increased volume, thus resulting 2 carbon emissions --- pollutants entering the air as a result of burning fossil fuels 2 greenhouse gases --- pollutants that trap heat in the atmosphere 5 glacier --- a large mass of ice 12 retreat --- the moving back of something 26 equilibrium --- a state of balance contaminate --- to soil, stain, corrupt, or infect 34 irrigation --- the use of water on crops 36 arable --- able to be farmed 49 prominent --- particularly noticeable 50 catastrophe --- a disaster; a terrible situation 30 in flooding. The ecosystem is out of equilibrium, disrupting life for all of the people and animals reliant on the water supply. Once the water reaches the sea, it raises the water level, threatening settlements located in coastal areas. In addition, sea water can get into the ground water supply, further diminishing fresh water 30 supplies as the sea water contaminates the fresh water with salt. Floods and rising water levels are displacing thousands of people, and the trend is expected to continue. In addition to destroying settlements and forcing people to relocate, the melting of glaciers will destroy the farms that once relied on them for irrigation. 35 This presents a looming problem for the world’s food supplies, as the disappearance of arable land diminishes food supplies for millions. Furthermore, the disruption to the ecosystem affects fish and other animals. For example, corals rely on sunlight, and as the water level rises, their exposure to sunlight decreases. Fish that feed on the corals face reduced food supplies, and their numbers decline, adversely 40 affecting the fish, birds, and animals that feed on them. The accelerated loss of glaciers, itself caused by global warming, compounds the effects of global warming. Glaciers absorb about 20 percent of the sun’s heat and reflect the rest back. But when they disappear, the earth below that gets exposed, absorbing 80 percent of the sun’s heat and only 45 reflecting 20 percent back. So the Earth’s temperature increases, making the problem worse. Projections for the future are daunting, as demand for water is expected to increase as population grows and as temperatures rise. Glacial retreat is perhaps one of the most prominent 50 indications that an environmental catastrophe is on the horizon. It is likely in the next few decades, according to experts. Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds 589 words 61 62 R eading Comprehension AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the reading. 1. ____ Greenhouse gases trap carbon emissions in the atmosphere. 2. ____ Most of the fresh water on the Earth comes from glaciers. 3. ____ Receding glaciers are beneficial for farmers. 4. ____ Glaciers absorb about 80 percent of the sun’s heat. B Choose the best answer according to the reading. 1. What happens when a glacier cannot sustain its mass? a. b. c. d. It melts. It shrinks. It advances. It compresses. 2. Why are receding glaciers a concern? a. b. c. d. They are the chief cause of global warming. They will contaminate the world’s salt water. They disrupt the equilibrium of the ecosystem. They are making the Earth colder and colder. 3. When do experts predict that an environmental catastrophe will happen? a. b. c. d. Within the next few decades Sometime in the 22nd century Within the next seven years By the end of summer in 2012 CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write them on the lines provided. 1. How will receding glaciers affect farms? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 2. How would the disappearance of glaciers affect the Earth’s temperature? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ S ummary Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Select THREE answer choices to complete the summary. First Sentence: One of the first things to be affected by global warming is the large masses of ice known as glaciers. A.Glaciers absorb about 20 percent of the sun’s heat, but if they disappear, the Earth will absorb 80 percent of this heat, posing a looming catastrophe. B.Glaciers are formed when snow gets compressed under more snow and the lower layer of snow freezes, creating a large mass of ice. C.Melting ice from glaciers is propelled by gravity from high elevations downward into rivers and streams that feed the oceans. D.Sustained warmer temperatures cause the glaciers to melt and less snow to fall, which causes glaciers to shrink or recede. E.Receding glaciers threaten everything that depends on fresh water, since most of the Earth’s fresh water comes from glaciers. F.Melting glaciers dump more water into rivers and seas, which raises the water levels and also the daunting threat of throwing the ecosystem out of balance. V ocabulary Extension Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list. Use each word or phrase only once. fossil fuels carbon footprint solar radiation methane Kyoto Protocol carbon dioxide 1.Greenhouse gases absorb ___________, which is another name for sunlight. 2.___________ is the most common type of greenhouse gas, released when we burn many fossil fuels. 3.___________ is the most dangerous type of greenhouse gas because it traps the most heat in the atmosphere. 4.A ___________ is a measure of the effect human activities have on the environment. 5.The burning of ___________ releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. 6.The ___________ is an international agreement that seeks to limit world greenhouse gas emissions. 63 64 S upplemental Reading Drowning Polar Bears Track 20 T 5 10 15 20 25 here is perhaps no place on Earth where the effects of global warming are more evident than in the Arctic. Covered in ice, this region has been the first to feel the effects of a looming environmental catastrophe as greenhouse gases trap heat in the atmosphere, causing temperatures to rise and glaciers to melt. The large masses of ice are home to polar bears, who hunt on the edges of the glaciers. They eat mainly seals, who swim in the icy water beneath and are caught when they surface through holes in the ice to breathe. In a normal summer, as the temperature rises, the glaciers retreat to the north, but the polar bears do not follow them. Instead, they leave the glaciers for the shore, where the temperatures are warmer and the seals are plentiful. They have to swim to make this journey, and as the glaciers retreat further and further, the polar bears’ voyage from glacier to land gets longer. Though they are strong swimmers, the increasing distance has resulted in polar bears drowning as they try to swim ashore for the summer months. Not only are polar bears drowning, they are also having trouble hunting because the thinner ice tends to get deformed more easily, making hunting seals more difficult. The polar bears’ lack of nourishment not only threatens their lives, but it also makes reproduction less successful, so new generations of polar bears are not being born to replace the dying ones. As polar bear populations decrease, the ecosystem is thrown out of equilibrium. With fewer polar bears to eat seals, seal populations increase. They then eat more fish, threatening those populations. As fish populations diminish, so do food supplies for all the people, birds, and animals that depend on them for nourishment. Discussion Discuss the following questions. 1.Some people claim that the effects of global warming are exaggerated. Do you agree? 2.Besides harming the ecosystem, what are other potential adverse effects of melting ice in the Arctic? U N I T 6 Law & Crime 1 The Reliability of Eyewitnesses Pre-Reading Questions Think about the following questions. 1.Describe a time when you and another person saw something together and later remembered what you saw differently. How did your perceptions differ? 2.Have you ever been punished for something you didn’t do? How did it make you feel? 3.When two people tell you different versions of the same event, how do you decide which person to believe? Vocabulary Preview Match each word with the correct definition. 1. convict a. something complicated or intricate 2. innocent b. to declare guilty 3. inaccurate c. to wear down 4. consciously d. faulty 5. complexity e. knowingly 6. degrade f. not guilty 66 Track 21 The Reliability of Eyewitnesses I n 1984, Ronald Cotton was convicted of rape and sentenced to prison. The victim identified Cotton as her attacker and went on to testify twice against him even after seeing Bobby Pool, the man who boasted of committing the crime. Ten and a half years 5 after the conviction, DNA testing proved that Pool was the rapist and that Cotton was innocent. Cotton was one of an estimated 4,250 Americans who are wrongfully convicted of crimes based on inaccurate eyewitness identifications each year. How reliable are eyewitnesses? How much importance should 10 juries place on eyewitness testimony? Over the past fifty years, scientific research has revealed that eyewitness testimony is often an incorrect account of what actually took place. Scientists now know that the human mind does not act like a video camera, recording and replaying everything within its viewfinder. Rather, human memory is a complex process, vulnerable to distortion at every 15 stage. The gathering of information into memory involves a three-step process, and errors are possible at each step. During the first step, an event is perceived, and “bits” of information are stored in memory. Since the human mind can’t process and retain every possible piece of information, it consciously and unconsciously determines which details are 20 stored in the memory, according to where the viewer’s attention is focused. In the second step, the brain sorts and retains the memories for later retrieval. In the third and final step, it is possible for us to search our memory “files” and locate information. The type of event observed is significant in determining the accuracy of 25 details the eyewitness is able to recall. Important event factors include the length of the observation and the complexity of the event. If an observed event is fairly 1 rape --- forced sexual intercourse testify --- to bear witness; to give evidence 8 eyewitness --- a person who sees something happen 10 testimony --- a declaration made under oath 13 viewfinder --- a camera part that shows the area of the subject to be included in the picture 14 distortion --- the state of being twisted out of normal shape or position 3 32 perception --- awareness through physical sensation wield --- to carry; to brandish 47 intervene --- to come between 52 misconception --- a mistaken notion or idea 41 simple, such as two people fighting in the street, it is relatively easy for an eyewitness to recall details accurately. However, if the event involves several people fighting, it becomes much more complex, and eyewitnesses experience much greater 30 difficulty in correctly remembering what happened. Experiments have shown that fear, stress, and anxiety can disrupt the normal perception process and distort the memory. Under stress, people focus only on details they feel are most important. “Weapon focus” is an example. If someone is faced with a gun, he or she is much more likely to focus attention on the gun 35 rather than on the person holding it. Additionally, our expectations have an effect on perception. People tend to see and hear what they expect to see and hear. In a fascinating experiment, subjects were shown a photograph of several people standing in a subway train. Among the people, a white man holding a razor was apparently arguing with a black man. When asked to describe what 40 they had seen, subjects often inaccurately remembered that the black man had been wielding the razor. This is because most people would expect a black man to commit a crime. Memory can also become distorted while in storage. Since memories degrade over time and portions of an event can be forgotten, people creatively fill in the 45 gaps created by long-term memory loss. This is because the human mind prefers a “complete” picture. An individual’s memory can also be altered during the storage step by intervening occurrences. For example, a witness may read or hear about a crime he or she witnessed. The mind tends to incorporate this after-the-fact information and combine it with the previously stored memory. 50 Recently, courts have begun to acknowledge the problems with eyewitness reliability. Sometimes judges allow expert testimony to educate jurors about common misconceptions with eyewitnesses’ memories. A common saying in the United States legal system is, “Better to let ten guilty people go free than send one innocent person to jail.” Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds 627 words 67 68 R eading Comprehension AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the reading. 1. ____DNA evidence reversed Ronald Cotton’s rape conviction. 2. ____ Simple events are easier to recall accurately than complex events. 3. ____ “Weapon focus” is an example of memory distortion. 4. ____ Memories cannot be altered once they are stored in the brain. B Choose the best answer according to the reading. 1. Why are about 4,250 Americans wrongly convicted each year? a. b. c. d. Because of DNA testing Because of unreliable juries Because of racial prejudice Because of eyewitness mistakes 2. What happens in the second step of gathering of information into memory? a. b. c. d. We can search and locate information. The brain perceives an event. The mind acts like a video camera. The brain sorts and stores memories. 3. How does stress affect memory? a. b. c. d. It consciously improves and clarifies people’s memories. It causes people to focus only on the most important details. It causes us to see and hear what we expect to see and hear. It enlarges the “viewfinder” we each have inside our brains. CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write them on the lines provided. 1.What has science discovered over the past fifty years? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 2. Why do people try to fill in the gaps for things they don’t remember clearly? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ S ummary Fill in the blanks with phrases from the list. Use each phrase only once. eyewitness testimony fill in the gaps relatively easy over time three-step process wrongfully convicted Over the past fifty years, thousands of innocent Americans have been 1 ___________ of crimes due to inaccurate 2 ___________. Scientific research has revealed that the act of remembering is a(n) 3 ___________ and that the accuracy of memory depends on the complexity of the witnessed events. For simple events, it is 4 ___________ for the mind to sort and store information, both consciously and unconsciously. But since memory degrades 5 ___________ , it is subject to distortion even after the events have been stored. When this happens, people tend to 6 ___________ by combining new information with their stored memories. V ocabulary Extension Here are six words that are related to the topic but are not in the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word from the list. Use each word only once. evidence confess sentence plaintiff defendant trial 1. US law guarantees that people accused of a crime get a fair ___________. 2.Eyewitness testimony is one type of ___________ used to prove guilt or innocence. 3. A(n) ___________ is the person on trial who has been accused of a crime. 4. Some criminals admit their guilt when they ___________ their crimes. 5. A(n) ___________ is the person at a trial who is accusing someone of a crime. 6. He is serving a twenty-five-year ___________ for rape and robbery. 69 70 S upplemental Reading Misidentification Track 22 I 5 10 15 20 25 n traditional police lineups, as many as 40 percent of witnesses can end up misidentifying a suspect. This happens even if the real criminal is not there. “Most witnesses see a lineup as a multiple choice test. They assume one of the suspects must be the right answer,” says Rod Lindsay, a psychology professor and specialist in issues of eyewitness identification. If witnesses are brought to the police station and presented with a lineup, they will often make a “relative judgment.” This means that the witness will choose the person in the lineup that closely resembles their memory of the perpetrator, which may be the wrong person. Many have called for changing the way suspects are identified. One such change is to present witnesses with a lineup that does not include any real suspects. If the witness does not misidentify any of the first six “suspects,” chances are greatly increased that they will make an accurate identification in the following lineup. Non-suspects included in the lineup should resemble the eyewitness’s description. This ensures the suspect is not singled out. Another change is to get rid of the traditional lineup. Instead of showing several “suspects” at once, witnesses are shown suspects or photographs of suspects one at a time. Research has shown this method decreases the rate at which innocent people are identified. Finally, immediately following the lineup, the eyewitness should provide a written statement articulating the level of confidence in the identification. Also, videotaping the identification protects innocent suspects from any misconduct by the lineup administrator and ensures the legitimacy of the process. Both methods ensure that witnesses are not randomly picking a person. Discussion Discuss the following questions. 1.How do police handle suspect identification in your country? Do you agree with this method? 2.Which of the proposed changes to traditional police lineups do you like best? Why? U N I T 6 Law & Crime 2 The Assumption of Innocence Pre-Reading Questions Think about the following questions. 1.When people are arrested in your country, what rights do they have? 2.Should a person accused of a crime be considered innocent or guilty? Why? 3.Do you believe that people are basically honest and respectful of society’s laws? Why or why not? Vocabulary Preview Match each word with the correct definition. 1. guilty a. to accept as granted or true 2. assume b. to throw away 3. preserve c. having committed a crime 4. dignity d. a person regarded with suspicion 5. suspect e. to keep intact; to protect 6. discard f. the state of being honored or esteemed 72 Track 23 The Assumption of Innocence T wo basic forms of legal systems exist. In one form, a person is viewed as innocent of any crime until evidence is presented that proves he or she is guilty. This form is known as “innocent until proven guilty.” The second basic form assumes a person is guilty of the crime he or she has been 5 arrested for, and proof must be given to clear the person’s name. This form is known as “guilty until proven innocent.” The belief that anyone who is accused of a criminal offense should be considered innocent until proven guilty is an important part of universal human rights law and is laid down in Article Eleven of the United Nations Universal 10 Declaration on Human Rights. In countries operating under the “innocent until proven guilty” system, society has decided that it is better to allow a guilty person to go free than to imprison an innocent person. The presumption of innocence is a testament to the belief that people are basically honest and respectful of society’s laws. This system also aims to preserve the human dignity of 15 accused persons. Under the system of “innocent until proven guilty,” the charge made against any person is not evidence of guilt. This means the law does not require a person to prove his innocence or to produce any evidence at all. The government has the burden of proving 20 guilt beyond a reasonable doubt. If it fails to do so, the person is regarded as not guilty of the crime. In the United States, a jury is formed to render a verdict for court trials. Jury members are summoned from the general population and consist of individuals 25 who typically have little or no legal training. It is therefore necessary to ensure that the persons sitting on the jury are 12 presumption --- an attitude or belief dictated by probability burden --- legal responsibility 22 jury --- a body of persons sworn to give a verdict in a trial 23 verdict --- a jury or judge’s finding or decision 23 court trial --- the action of trying to prove a case in a court of law 23 summon --- to call upon for a specified action 19 27 obligation --- a duty or responsibility allege --- to assert without proof 35 element --- a part of something bigger 39 defendant --- a person accused of a crime 34 aware of the obligations each side has in presenting their case. In the United States, jury members may be read the following explanation regarding the “burden of 30 proof” in a legal case: “The defendant enters this courtroom as an innocent person, and you must consider him to be an innocent person until the State convinces you, beyond a reasonable doubt, that he is guilty of every element of the alleged offense. If, after all the evidence and arguments, you have a reasonable 35 doubt as to the defendant’s having committed any one or more of the elements of the offense, then you must find him not guilty.” Proof “beyond a reasonable doubt” means that a reasonable person would consider the accused criminal guilty. The law does not require the State to prove a defendant guilty beyond all possible doubt. On the other hand, it is not sufficient 40 to prove that the defendant is probably guilty. In a criminal case, the proof of guilt must be stronger than that. It must be beyond a reasonable doubt. A reasonable doubt is an actual doubt, not an imaginary doubt. For instance, a person might be accused of stealing something from someone’s home. There were no witnesses to the alleged crime, and the police did not find the accused 45 person’s fingerprints at the scene. Police arrested the person when he tried to sell one of the items that were stolen, but the suspect said that he found the stolen item discarded in a bush. In this case, there might be reasonable doubt whether the suspect really did find the item or actually stole it. Jury members should be guided only by a full and fair evaluation of the 50 evidence. Whatever the verdict may be, it must not be based upon speculations. Nor should it be influenced in any way by bias, prejudice, sympathy, or a desire to bring an end to the duty of the jury. Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds 624 words 73 74 R eading Comprehension AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the reading. 1. ____“Guilty until proven innocent” is part of the United Nations Universal Declaration on Human Rights. 2. ____An “innocent until proven guilty” system requires a person to prove his or her innocence. 3. ____ Jury members are citizens with advanced legal training. 4. ____ In the US, an accused person must be proven guilty beyond any doubt. B Choose the best answer according to the reading. 1. Under the "innocent until proven guilty" system, what is true? a. b. c. d. It is better to free a guilty person than imprison an innocent one. It is better to imprison an innocent person than free a guilty one. The defendant enters the courtroom for trial as a guilty person. The defendant can be freed only if there is insufficient doubt. 2. Where are jury members summoned from? a. b. c. d. Top-rated law schools The general population Federal prisons and jails Special training schools 3. Which of the following is true of “proof beyond a reasonable doubt”? a. b. c. d. It is a real or imaginary doubt based on witness testimony. It is sufficient to prove that the defendant is probably guilty. A reasonable person would consider the defendant guilty. A reasonable person would question the defendant’s guilt. CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write them on the lines provided. 1.What does the presumption of innocence testify to? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 2. What should guide jury members in returning a verdict? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ S ummary Fill in the blanks in the table with the sentences below according to the category they belong to. Not all sentences will be used. Types of Legal Systems Innocent Until Proven Guilty Guilty Until Proven Innocent A.It aims to preserve the human dignity of accused persons. B. Proof must be provided to clear a person’s name. C. The accused suspect is jailed for a minimum of two years. D. It assumes people are basically dishonest and will break laws. E. In a trial, the burden of proof lies on the government. F. To reach a verdict, jurors must discard all doubt. V ocabulary Extension Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list. Use each word or phrase only once. hung jury appeal double jeopardy perjury Fifth Amendment right mistrial 1.A(n) ___________ results when jurors cannot agree on a verdict. 2.If a witness lies while giving testimony, he or she can be convicted of ___________. 3.Defendants and witnesses can use their ___________ in order not to testify against themselves. 4. Losers in a court trial can ___________ the verdict to a court at a higher level. 5.A person cannot be tried twice for the same crime, a concept called ___________. 6. A(n) ___________ occurs when a judge, lawyer, or juror makes a serious error. 75 76 S upplemental Reading Innocence Project T Track 24 he Innocence Project was created in 1992 by two law school professors in the United States. It is a non-profit legal clinic handling cases where DNA testing of evidence can yield 5 proof of innocence after a person has already been sent to jail. Most clients of the project are poor and have used up all of their legal avenues for relief. All Innocence Project clients go through an extensive screening process. The process determines whether DNA testing of evidence could prove their claims of innocence. 10 DNA testing has been a major factor in changing the criminal justice system. It has provided scientific proof that the American justice system convicts and sentences innocent people. It has also proven that wrongful convictions are not isolated or rare events. In the year 2000, the governor of Illinois put a temporary halt to all executions in that state. The governor’s action was due to growing evidence 15 that the death penalty was not being applied fairly in his state. In Illinois, thirteen prisoners were freed from death row after their innocence was proven. Five of these cases were proven through DNA testing. In April 2002, after two years of exploring the issues, a committee set up by the governor of Illinois to study problems in the legal system released its findings. 20 In the conclusion of the report, the committee wrote: “The Committee was unanimous in its belief that no system, given human nature and frailties, could ever be made that would work perfectly and guarantee absolutely that no innocent person is ever again sentenced to death.” This statement attests to the continued need for such organizations as the Innocence Project. Discussion Discuss the following questions. 1.Because innocent people are sometimes wrongly convicted, should the death penalty be abolished? Why or why not? 2.What avenues do prisoners in your country have to prove their innocence? U N I T 7 L a n g u a g e & Lit e ra t ure 1 Cupid and Psyche Pre-Reading Questions Think about the following questions. 1. What is a famous myth that you like? Why do you like it? 2.In your view, what relationship should love have with wisdom? 3.Have you heard of Cupid? With which holiday is he usually associated? Vocabulary Preview Match each word with the correct definition. 1. rumor a. to pierce slightly with a sharp point 2. hideous b. unverified opinions or reports 3. descend c. to go down 4. prick d. ugly 5. melodious e. a tender attachment; fondness 6. affection f. sweet; pleasing 78 Cupid and Psyche V Track 25 enus, the goddess of beauty and love, heard rumors of a mortal named Psyche who many claimed was more beautiful than herself. Venus was filled with jealousy and ordered her son, Cupid, to shoot Psyche with one of his magic arrows, which would make her fall in love with the 5 most hideous monster on earth. Cupid descended to Earth, but as he was taking aim at Psyche, his finger slipped, and he pricked himself with the tip of his own arrow, which caused Cupid to immediately fall deeply in love with Psyche! Cupid informed Psyche’s family that it was the will of the 10 gods for Psyche to climb to a mountaintop and be united in matrimony with a terrible monster. When Psyche reached the mountaintop, it was dark, but she felt a warm wind and was suddenly transported to a magnificent palace. After a relaxing bath and a sumptuous 15 meal, accompanied by melodious music that seemed to come from nowhere, Psyche fell asleep. For the next several nights, Cupid visited her, always arriving after dark and departing before dawn. Though she could not see her new husband, Psyche loved him. Cupid told her it was unnecessary to view his face, provided she trusted him 20 and returned his affections. The passage of time, however, piqued Psyche’s curiosity. So one night, after Cupid was asleep, she lit a lamp to illuminate his face. Upon glimpsing her husband’s lovely demeanor, her hand trembled with delight, causing a drop of hot oil to fall onto Cupid’s shoulder, awakening him. Clutching his shoulder, he 25 said, “I loved you and asked only for your trust; but when trust is gone, so love must depart.” With that, he flew back to Venus, who greeted her son with a burst 1 11 14 21 22 23 mortal --- a person who dies matrimony --- the state of being married sumptuous --- rich; delicious pique --- to arouse illuminate --- to supply or brighten with light demeanor --- an outward manner 30 31 35 50 desperation --- despair condescend --- to assume a superior air trepidation --- apprehension; fearfulness fulfill --- to complete of rage for deceiving her and imprisoned him in her palace. As soon as Cupid deserted Psyche, the magnificent palace vanished, leaving the poor girl alone on the frigid peak. After wandering night and day in search of 30 her lost love, Psyche finally approached the temple of Venus, in desperation. There, the goddess angrily condescended to help only if Psyche succeeded in a difficult task. She commanded the trembling and fearful maiden, “Take this box and go to the underworld and ask the queen of that realm, Persephone, to put a little of her beauty in the box for you to bring back to me.” 35 Psyche set off on her venture, full of trepidation. Suddenly, she heard a voice, which commanded her to give a coin to Charon, the ferryman, who would take her across the river Styx bordering the underworld. The voice also ordered her to give a cake to Cerberus, the fearsome three-headed watchdog that guarded the underworld. “Above all,” said the voice, “once Persephone has placed some of 40 her beauty in the box, do not open it!” Psyche obeyed the voice’s commands, and after collecting a bit of beauty from Persephone, she rushed to return the box to Venus. But once again, she could not control her curiosity, so she lifted the lid of the box and was immediately overcome by a deep and heavy slumber. 45 Meanwhile, Cupid managed to escape the palace of Venus through a window, and no sooner had he flown outside than he saw Psyche’s prone, motionless body. He darted to her side, embraced her, and lifted the heavy sleep from her body and placed it back into the box. He told her to carry the box to Venus and promised to return shortly, at which time all would be well. 50 Overjoyed, Psyche hurried to fulfill her task, while Cupid flew to Jupiter, the king of the gods, and begged him to bless his marriage to Psyche. Jupiter not only agreed but also granted Psyche immortality to match her husband. Thus, with the marriage of Cupid and Psyche, Love and the Soul (which is what “Psyche” means in Greek) were happily united at last. Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds 658 words 79 80 R eading Comprehension AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the reading. 1. ____ Cupid made a mistake as he was trying to shoot Psyche. 2. ____Psyche angered Cupid by looking at his face. 3. ____ Venus refused to help Psyche. 4. ____ Jupiter made Cupid mortal to match Psyche. B Choose the best answer according to the reading. 1. Why was Venus jealous of Psyche? a. b. c. d. Venus knew that Psyche wanted to marry her son Cupid. She heard rumors that Psyche was more beautiful than her. Psyche succeeded in the difficult task Venus asked her to do. Mortals told Venus that Psyche wanted to be immortal, too. 2.Why did Cupid leave Psyche when they were in the palace? a. b. c. d. He did not like her face. She played a trick on him. He couldn’t trust her anymore. He fell in love with Persephone. 3. How did Psyche get across the river Styx? a. b. c. d. She gave a coin to Charon. She gave a cake to Cerberus. She opened Persephone’s box. She was carried by Cupid. CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write them on the lines provided. 1.What did Venus command Psyche to do? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 2. What happened when Cupid and Psyche were married? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ S ummary Fill in the blanks with words from the list. Use each word only once. rumors prick descends melodious hideous affection The goddess Venus becomes jealous when she hears 1 ___________ that a mortal named Psyche is more beautiful than she is. She sends her son, Cupid, to shoot Psyche with an arrow, which will cause her to fall in love with a(n) 2 ___________ monster. Cupid 3 ___________ to Earth, but his finger slips, causing him to 4 ___________ himself with his own arrow. This causes him to fall in love with Psyche, so he lures her to a mountaintop, where a sumptuous meal and 5 ___________ music help earn Psyche’s 6 ___________. But when Psyche breaks his trust, Cupid flies away. After several adventures, however, they get married, and Psyche becomes immortal like Cupid. V ocabulary Extension Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list. Use each word or phrase only once. eros fairy tale hell Mount Olympus allegory folktale 1. Some critics see Cupid and Psyche as a(n) ___________ of Platonic thought. 2. ___________, which means romantic love, is the Greek word for Cupid. 3.A(n) ___________ is a story that typically involves princesses, magic, and a far-fetched sequence of events. 4.A(n) ___________ is a timeless story circulated among a particular group of people. 5.In Greek Mythology, the king of the gods dwelled on ___________. 6.The “underworld” in the story of Cupid and Psyche is commonly referred to as ___________. 81 82 S upplemental Reading Beauty Is in the Eye of the Beholder C Track 26 upid and Psyche is one of the most popular Greek myths and has spawned several modern adaptations. One of the most popular is “Beauty and the Beast,” a fairy tale in 5 which the love of a beautiful girl transforms an ugly beast into a handsome prince. Like Psyche, the girl in “Beauty” goes willingly to the home of a hideous monster, who treats her well. Unlike Cupid, however, the beast in “Beauty” is truly ugly, so the girl 10 repeatedly refuses his offers of marriage. It is only at the end of the story, when the beast has died, that the girl’s loving tears break an evil spell and magically transform him into a prince. Child psychologist Bruno Bettelheim interpreted both stories as metaphors for the development of human consciousness. In his view, myths touch children 15 at a deep level, where their sexual anxieties lie. Stories about Cupid and Psyche help reconcile the human aspects of wisdom and sexuality. For example, the use of a monstrous husband assures children that their fear of intimacy as something beastly is perfectly normal. As the story develops and the characters learn that their partner is a lovely person despite their appearance, so will children. 20 Thus, when the girl in “Beauty” discovers that her “beast” is really a handsome prince---like Psyche when she discovers that Cupid is a god---she is reassured that sex is potentially beautiful. This is the first step in realizing that a healthy relationship is more than sex and that both partners must live a full life as equals to be truly happy. Discussion Discuss the following questions. 1. Do you agree with Bruno Bettelheim’s view that myths are very powerful? 2. Must couples “live a full life as equals” to be truly happy? Explain. U N I T 7 L a n g u a g e & Lit e ra t ure 2 The Truth About Memoirs Pre-Reading Questions Think about the following questions. 1. Which types of books do you like to read? Why? 2.Have your parents or other relatives written about their childhood memories? If so, did you enjoy reading them? 3.Why do you think people like to read about other people’s lives? Vocabulary Preview Match each word or phrase with the correct definition. 1. compelling a. essentially; basically 2. absent b. profits 3. genre c. a discussion marked by opposing views 4. inherently d. not present 5. controversy e. forceful; demanding attention 6. bottom line f. a category of literature 84 The Truth About Memoirs A Track 27 memoir is a type of autobiographical writing. The word “memoir” is a French word that means “memory.” In a memoir, an author recalls meaningful experiences in his or her life. While the memoir is a subclass of the autobiography genre, it is actually quite different from an autobiography. An 5 autobiography is a work of nonfiction that is a comprehensive, chronological account of a writer’s entire life story. An autobiography usually requires research of dates, places, and events, while a memoir is shorter and focuses on a part of a writer’s life recalled from memory. A memoir presents pivotal, life-changing events that have shaped the identity of the writer. While an autobiography is an 10 objective retelling of facts, a memoir tends to be more emotional. With a compelling plot and an almost literary rendering of the real-life characters, a memoir reads like a novel. An early example of a memoir is a book published in England in 1821 called Confessions of an Opium-Eater by Thomas DeQuincey. The book describes in 15 detail DeQuincey’s addiction to opium and alcohol. It was widely read, not only for the incredible details of addiction it presented but also for the clues into the psychology of addiction. A modern-day example of a memoir is by Frank McCourt. In his book Angela’s Ashes, McCourt recounts his childhood in Ireland and New York City. McCourt grew up poor, with a 20 mostly absent father and a mother, Angela, who raised her children despite tremendous financial and personal obstacles. The memoir is a genre with a wide appeal. But why are memoirs so popular? One reason is that people are 25 inherently curious about other people. We might know the intimate details of the lives of only a handful of 1 3 5 8 11 18 22 autobiographical --- based on the author’s own experiences subclass --- a category that is part of a larger category chronological --- ordered by time pivotal --- very important plot --- the story line recount ---to remember and tell in detail obstacle --- a difficulty; a hurdle 31 38 49 insurmountable --- too difficult to overcome post-partum --- after birth re-classify --- to assign again to a category people such as our family members or our close friends. When we read a memoir, we can enter into the world of the writer and find out what it is like to experience something 30 we may never experience: an incredible adventure, a great loss, or a seemingly insurmountable problem. Memoirs are appealing because true stories are more powerful than fictional stories. For example, if we read one of Elie Wiesel’s memoirs that tell about the time he 35 spent in a Nazi concentration camp, we are struck by the fact that this is a real person who has lived through great adversity to tell his story. Brooke Shields, an American actress, wrote a memoir entitled Down Came the Rain in which she chronicles her debilitating struggle with post-partum depression. Women who have had a similar experience were able to see that other 40 people struggle with the same things. Are memoirs entirely truthful? Memoirs are mostly written from memory, and it is natural that memories fade over time. Events can be forgotten, left out, or told in a way that might be different from how they really happened. However, as readers we should be able to trust the writer to be truthful most of 45 the time. Several memoirs have turned out to be partially or completely untrue, which has disappointed countless readers. Marlo Morgan wrote a book called Mutant Message Down Under about her supposed experiences living with Aboriginal people in Australia. It was discovered that several parts of the book were fake, and the publisher had to re-classify the book as fiction. 50 In spite of some controversy surrounding the truthfulness of memoirs, they remain a compelling literary form that will undoubtedly continue to touch readers in a fundamental way. Publishing companies are starting to do background checks on authors to verify the events presented in memoirs, but are not about to give up on a genre that has contributed so substantially to their bottom line. Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds 619 words 85 86 R eading Comprehension AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the reading. 1. ____ A memoir is a chronological account of the writer’s whole life. 2. ____An autobiography is less emotional than a memoir. 3. ____ Frank McCourt wrote one of the earliest memoirs. 4. ____ Memoirs are not always completely accurate. B Choose the best answer according to the reading. 1. How does a memoir differ from an autobiography? a. b. c. d. It is a comprehensive account. It requires factual research. It is written by someone else. It is shorter and more emotional. 2.Why does the author say that memoirs are appealing? a. b. c. d. Because truth is more powerful than fiction Because we don’t like to read about other people Because they do not read like a novel Because they are an objective retelling of facts 3. What did Brooke Shields write about in Down Came the Rain? a. b. c. d. Addiction to opium Childhood poverty Australian Aborigines Post-partum depression CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write them on the lines provided. 1.Why are memoirs sometimes not truthful? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 2.What happened when parts of Mutant Message Down Under turned out to be fake? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ S ummary Fill in the blanks in the table with the sentences or phrases below according to the category they belong to. Use each sentence or phrase only once. Autobiographical writing Autobiography Memoir Both A.An author is writing about his or her own life, of which people are inherently curious B. A chronological, comprehensive account C.A compelling story about absent parents, which reads like a novel D.Creates controversy because it’s sometimes untrue E.A genre that enriches publishers’ bottom line F. Requires research of dates, places, events V ocabulary Extension Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list. Use each word or phrase only once. biography ghost writer book clubs pseudonym true crime anonymous 1. ___________ is one of the best-selling genres in the United States. 2.Many famous books have been written by authors using a different name, or ___________. 3. In a(n) ___________, someone else writes the story of the book subject’s life. 4.A(n) ___________ is a person who writes a book that someone else takes credit for. 5.Groups that like to read and discuss books together are called ___________. 6.The author of one famous US book, Primary Colors, did not give any name at all, choosing to remain ___________. 87 88 S upplemental Reading The Education of Little Tree I Track 28 n 1976, the memoir The Education of Little Tree, by Forrest Carter, instantly became a best seller. It is the story of a boy who was raised by his Cherokee grandparents. They gave him the name Little Tree. The book centers on the 5 time Little Tree was age five and six and learned about Native American values like honor, simple living, and respect for nature. He was later put into an orphanage, where he faced discrimination for his Native American ways. Little Tree was eventually released from the orphanage, but the experience taught him about the harshness and 10 prejudices of the world. Suspicions about the book and its author began when members of the Cherokee Nation identified many inaccurate facts in the book. Further investigation revealed that The Education of Little Tree is not a memoir at all. It is a complete work of fiction. Forrest Carter is actually Asa Earl Carter, who was a former 15 member of several white supremacist organizations. Carter also worked as a speechwriter for George Wallace, an Alabama governor who favored segregation. After Carter himself ran unsuccessfully for governor of Alabama in 1970, he changed his first name and embarked on a writing career. Despite the false pretenses under which the book was written, The Education 20 of Little Tree has sold millions of copies and is still regarded as a book of great literary merit. In 1991, it won the prestigious American Booksellers Association “Book of the Year” award. This raises the question of whether a book that was written in such a deceptive way should be validated at all by awards or admiration of any kind. Discussion Discuss the following questions. 1. Did The Education of Little Tree deserve to be honored as “Book of the Year”? 2.Can you think of other situations in which an author misrepresented himself or herself? What happened? U N I T 8 S p a c e & E x p lora t ion 1 The Origin of the Universe Pre-Reading Questions Think about the following questions. 1.What are some great scientific discoveries that you know about? Why were they important? 2.In which ways does science help us understand about our lives? 3.Is it important to know about the formation of our universe? Why? Vocabulary Preview Match each word with the correct definition. 1. origin a. unstoppable 2. debate b. able to be seen 3. significantly c. argument or dispute 4. collapse d. to cave in or give way 5. unavoidable e. in an important way 6. observable f. the beginning 90 The Origin of the Universe T Track 29 hroughout recorded history, the origin of the universe has been a topic of ongoing controversy. In particular, debate has centered around how ---or if---the universe began. One school of thought, especially held by Jewish, Christian, and Islamic religions, is that the universe was created. Thus, 5 there was a time when there was no universe, and equally, there will be a time when there will be an end to the universe. On the other hand, some people, like the Greek philosopher Aristotle, did not like the idea of the universe having a beginning. He preferred to believe that the universe had existed and would exist forever and that it was eternal and 10 perfect. One thing that these two schools of thought originally had in common was that no matter what the origin or the ending of the universe, the universe itself was static and unchanging. In fact, this was a natural belief to have since recorded history is so short that the universe has not changed significantly in all that time. In the 19th century, however, evidence began 15 to challenge the idea of a motionless, unchanging universe. At this time, Boltzmann, the German physicist, formulated the Second Law of Thermodynamics. This states that the total amount 20 of entropy, or disorder, of the universe always increases with time. Therefore, the universe must be changing in some way for its entropy to increase. Also, according to Newton’s Law of Gravity, each star in the universe ought to be attracted to each other and thus start falling together and collapsing at a central point. If the universe were motionless, the result would be an 25 unavoidable collapse. In the 1920s, US astronomer Edwin Hubble observed a critical phenomenon that increased our understanding of the universe. Using a powerful new telescope, he identified a group of celestial objects outside our own galaxy. By observing 7 12 28 philosopher --- a person who seeks wisdom or enlightenment static --- unmoving celestial --- relating to the sky 29 30 34 35 44 47 56 wavelength --- a measure of distance in a wave recede --- to move back or away assumption --- a fact taken for granted expansion --- the act of becoming larger dense --- thick cosmic --- coming from the universe inflate --- to fill with air or gas the Doppler Shift of these stars---the way the wavelengths and colors of their 30 light changed due to their motion---he realized that they were receding from our own position in the universe. In fact, all the observable galaxies were moving away from each other! Furthermore, the more distant the galaxy, the faster it was moving away. This observation implied that the universe was expanding. Hubble’s observation led to the assumption that at some point, all matter 35 in the universe was close together. The event that started its expansion is referred to as the Big Bang. According to the Big Bang theory, time and space did not exist prior to the beginning of the expansion. Thus, the age of the universe can be calculated from the distance and the velocities of the stars traveling away from us. Due to experimental uncertainties, a definite age still cannot be given for the 40 universe; however, the age of the universe is calculated to be between ten to twenty billion years old. The Big Bang theory has led to many other theories and predictions in science. Physicist George Gamow realized in the 1940s that the early universe must have been extremely hot and dense. As the universe expanded, it would cool down, 45 and the initial hot radiation should eventually be observable as uniform radio waves throughout space. In the 1960s, Robert Wilson and Arno Penzias discovered cosmic uniform radio waves that implied a temperature of about 3 degrees above absolute zero (Kelvin). Later, technology enabled scientists to take very detailed measurements of this radiation. They confirmed that it is extremely uniform, is of 50 the shape predicted by theory, and has a temperature of 2.7 degrees Kelvin. This observation provides strong support for the Big Bang theory. Another interesting result of the Big Bang theory relates to the movement of the galaxies. Though the universe is expanding, the galaxies themselves are not moving. Instead, it is the space between the galaxies that is expanding, while the 55 galaxies themselves remain still. It’s much like points drawn on the surface of a balloon. When the balloon inflates, only the material stretches out and separates the points. The points themselves do not actually move. Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds 676 words 91 92 R eading Comprehension AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the reading. 1. ____ People have always agreed on the origin of the universe. 2. ____The universe would collapse if it was not moving. 3. ____ Edwin Hubble discovered that the universe is expanding. 4. ____ The universe is expanding, but galaxies are not moving. B Choose the best answer according to the reading. 1. What did Aristotle believe about the universe? a. b. c. d. It began with the Big Bang. It was eternal and perfect. It was slowly expanding. It is fifteen billion years old. 2.What does the Second Law of Thermodynamics state? a. b. c. d. Each star in the universe is attracted to one another. All galaxies are moving away from each other. Entropy in the universe increases over time. There are uniform radio waves throughout space. 3. What is the significance of the discovery of uniform radio waves? a. b. c. d. It confirms Aristotle’s belief. It supports the Big Bang theory. It breaks the Second Law of Thermodynamics. It contradicts Newton’s Law of Gravity. CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write them on the lines provided. 1.What belief did religions and Aristotle hold in common? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 2.What critical phenomenon did Edwin Hubble observe? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ S ummary Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Select THREE answer choices to complete the summary. First Sentence: New evidence seems to have steeled an age-old debate about the origin of the universe. A.No matter what one believed about its origin, all sides agreed that the universe itself was static and significantly unchanging. B.For years, religious devotees and philosophers had debated whether the universe was eternal or if it had a definite beginning point. C.Scientific discoveries in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries indicated that the universe began with a gigantic explosion. D.The Second Law of Thermodynamics indicated that the observable universe must be changing in some way for its entropy to increase and for it to avert an unavoidable collapse. E.In the 1960s, scientists confirmed the existence of hot radiation in space, lending powerful support to the Big Bang theory. F.Though the universe is expanding, the galaxies remain still, and it is the space between the galaxies that is moving. V ocabulary Extension Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list. Use each word or phrase only once. Milky Way cosmology observatory optical solar system philosophy 1. The galaxy that includes the Earth is called the ___________. 2.My ___________ of life is “Don’t worry, be happy.” 3.___________ is a branch of science that deals with questions about the universe. 4.A(n) ___________ houses huge telescopes used to watch stars and planets. 5.A(n) ___________ telescope is used to gather and focus light and wavelengths. 6.The sun and the eight planets that orbit around it are called the ___________. 93 94 S upplemental Reading Before the Big Bang T Track 30 he Big Bang Theory raises profound philosophical questions. For centuries, scientists believed that the universe was eternal, while religious believers held otherwise. The Christian and Jewish bibles both start 5 with, “In the beginning, God created . . . the universe and everything in it.” This implies that there was, indeed, a time when the universe did not exist. British biologist Richard Dawkins argues in his book, The God Delusion, that such an idea is pure nonsense. Though Dawkins stops short of saying God 10 absolutely does not exist, he writes that the existence of a divine creator is highly improbable. God would have to be extremely complex, Dawkins notes, and the more complex something is, the less probable it is. Dawkins claims that the theory of evolution and descent by natural selection can explain how everything in the world was made and why many things are so 15 complex that they appear to be designed. Dawkins also argues, in the latter half of his book, that science can even explain human morality. Critics answer that most of Dawkins’s arguments are philosophical rather than scientific, and accuse Dawkins of being a poor philosopher. They say that attributing the world’s complexity to random chance is much more improbable 20 than the existence of God. Also, they note that nothing in Dawkins’s book denies that God could have guided the process of evolution. Philosopher Alvin Plantinga claims that Dawkins contradicts himself. “By Dawkins’ own definition of complexity,” writes Plantinga, “God is simple and not complex. Therefore, God’s existence is more probable than Dawkins supposes.” Discussion Discuss the following questions. 1. Do you agree with Dawkins that God is a delusion? Why or why not? 2.Can science explain human morality? How? If not, what does explain it? U N I T 8 S p a c e & E x p lora t ion 2 Space Tourism Pre-Reading Questions Think about the following questions. 1.Describe a unique vacation you have taken. What made it unique? 2.If you had a chance, would you like to go into space? Why or why not? 3.Do you think people will one day live on other planets? Would you like to? Vocabulary Preview Match each word with the correct definition. 1. estimate a. to hold without crowding 2. millionaire b. a person with a net worth of $1 million or more 3. weightlessness c. having no gravitational pull 4. facility d. a building 5. habitable e. able to be lived in 6. accommodate f. to guess 96 Space Tourism O Track 31 ne ideal of early human forays into space was the potential colonization of distant planets. That goal still seems far off, but today, ordinary people with enough money can visit space. In 1998, a United States company called Space Adventures started selling 5 space flights in the world market. The flights aren’t cheap---they cost an estimated $20 million---but the company has sold almost $170 million worth of “tickets” and helped send six people into space. At first, these travelers were called “space tourists,” but they objected to that term. Many said that they performed research while in space and assisted cosmonauts with scientific experiments. Later, 10 NASA and the Russian Space Agency agreed to refer to the citizen voyagers as “spaceflight participants.” In April 2001, US millionaire Dennis Tito became the first such participant to purchase a ride on a space ship. Traveling on the Russian ship Soyuz TM-32, Tito visited the International Space Station for seven days, orbiting the Earth 15 128 times. In 2002, South Africa's Mark Shuttleworth also traveled into space on a Russian ship. In 2009, a Hungarian, Charles Simonyi, became the first citizen to make a repeat space journey. Space Adventures plans to offer a full array of space flight experiences. A suborbital flight costs 20 about $100,000. These flights will soar to the edge of space---more than sixty-two miles above the Earth--where the engines shut down for five minutes and passengers experience weightlessness while they gaze at the Earth below. A trip around the moon sells for $100 million, with stops at special 25 “spaceports” along the way. In the future, the company plans to sell space walks, in which spaceflight participants can cavort in space while tethered to the ship by a special line. 1 9 18 19 26 26 potential --- possible cosmonaut --- a Russian astronaut array --- a variety of choices suborbital --- non-orbiting cavort --- to frolic; to play tether --- to tie to 29 29 32 41 entrepreneur --- a person who starts and takes the risks of a new business aerospace --- a science dealing with the Earth’s atmosphere and the space beyond pod-shaped --- shaped like pea shells module --- an operable unit of a space vehicle Space Adventures isn’t the only company devising plans to launch ordinary citizens into space. Spanish entrepreneur Xavier Claramunt, a former aerospace 30 engineer, plans to open the world’s first space hotel, called “Galactic Suite,” in 2012. For $4 million, guests can stay three nights, watching the sun rise fifteen times a day while crawling around in Velcro suits that stick to the walls of the pod-shaped structure. The hotel will be able to accommodate six guests at a time and will orbit the Earth once every eighty minutes. Claramunt estimates that there are currently 35 about 40,000 people in the world who can afford a vacation at Galactic Suite. American entrepreneur Robert Bigelow, meanwhile, is designing a different type of space facility. His company, Bigelow Aerospace, wants to 40 launch a series of habitable complexes in the suborbital atmosphere. His firm plans to unveil its first module, called Sundancer, in 2011. Sundancer will be able to house three people. Bigelow hopes to launch a larger module that can accommodate six people soon after. By joining modules together, larger complexes can be crafted to hold up to fifteen people. Bigelow 45 hopes to rent space in orbital modules for foreign countries to conduct scientific research. Suborbital modules would be available for ordinary people who want a unique vacation. Compared to Galactic Suite, the Bigelow space complex is a relative bargain. A four-week stay is projected to cost $15 million, in 2012. At least two other companies, Virgin Galactic in America and EADS Astrium 50 in Europe, are developing “rocket planes” for commercial passenger flights. These aircraft will go almost seventy miles into the air---above the international Earth-space boundary---and reach speeds of Mach 3. Virgin Galactic hopes to offer civilian space flights as early as 2009. It has already sold 200 seats for a two-and-a-half hour inaugural flight on its rocket plane, the VSS Enterprise, at 55 $200,000 apiece. Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds 617 words 97 98 R eading Comprehension AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the reading. 1. ____ In 1988, Space Adventures started selling space flights. 2. ____Mark Shuttleworth was the first space-flight participant. 3. ____ Guests in “Galactic Suite” will be able to watch fifteen daily sunrises. 4. ____ “Rocket planes” will fly above the international Earth-space boundary. B Choose the best answer according to the reading. 1. About how much does a suborbital flight cost? a. b. c. d. $100,000 $20 million $100 million $4 million 2.Which of the following is NOT true of “Galactic Suite”? a. b. c. d. It will orbit the Earth once every eighty minutes. A five-night stay costs $4 million. Guests will wear Velcro suites that stick to walls. It can accommodate six guests at a time. 3. When might the first civilian space flights start? a. b. c. d. In 2012 In 2010 In 2020 In 2009 CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write them on the lines provided. 1.Why did space travelers object to the term “space tourists”? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 2.Who is the first spaceflight participant to go into space twice? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ S ummary Fill in the blanks with phrases from the list. Use each phrase only once. hitch rides near future to accommodate up to three-night stays blast off Millionaires can now 1 ___________ into space, and soon ordinary people will be able to experience weightlessness as they 2 ___________ on special “rocket planes” that will soar seventy miles into the atmosphere. In the 3 ___________, guests will even be able to book 4 ___________ in a special space hotel, at an estimated cost of $4 million. This facility will be able 5 ___________ six guests at a time. Meanwhile, planners are creating another type of habitable space hotel that can hold 6 ___________ fifteen people. Soon, we will be able to take vacations that are truly out of this world. V ocabulary Extension Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list. Use each word or phrase only once. lucrative lunar Star City commercial X Prize age 1.The ___________ Foundation will pay $20 million to the first team that can successfully land and operate a vehicle on the surface of the moon. 2. ___________ is a term that refers to the moon. 3. Space tourism is ushering in a new ___________ of travel experiences. 4.The first ___________ spaceport is being built in the United Arab Emirates. 5.Space tourism has the potential to be a very ___________ business. 6.Russian cosmonauts train at the famous ___________ complex for their journeys into space. 99 100 S upplemental Reading Robot Astronauts S Track 32 ince men first walked on the moon in 1969, fewer and fewer people have traveled into space. Instead, robots have become the main agents of space exploration. Many people 5 argue that it is unnecessary for humans to venture into orbit again, while others claim robots will never be as effective researchers as real people. Proponents of robotic exploration point out that space travel is dangerous. For example, in 1986 and 2003, fourteen US astronauts were killed in the two 10 separate incidents when their space shuttles exploded. Space travel is also expensive. It’s estimated that the cost of space shuttle launches has averaged $1.3 billion, which would pay for two or three unmanned missions. In addition, critics say that the international space station sits too close to Earth to yield useful scientific information. Robots, on the other hand, 15 can go deeper into space and survive in harsher conditions. Manned space flight proponents concede this is true, but claim that human exploration is still valuable. Robots can provide only raw data; humans can interpret the data and conduct spontaneous follow-up tests and experiments, preventing the need for a robotic return trip. Robot critics note that twenty-one 20 of thirty-one robotic missions to explore Mars since 1960 have failed and that only five have met their original goals. Space missions crewed by astronauts succeeded almost 90 percent of the time. Moreover, critics say that costs for unmanned missions are cheaper now but will rise as we develop more complex computers, telescopes, and robots. Discussion Discuss the following questions. 1.Do you think it’s necessary to send human scientists into space? Why or why not? 2.Is space exploration necessary at all, or could the money be better spent here on the Earth? U N I T 9 S p o r t s & F i t ne ss 1 Extreme Sports Pre-Reading Questions Think about the following questions. 1.What types of sports do you like to play? Which do you like to watch? 2. Who is an athlete you admire? Why? 3.Do you think the framework and rules of team sports are oppressive? Vocabulary Preview Match each word with the correct definition. 1. steepest a. to blend or combine 2. element b. most difficult 3. equipment c. to publicize by radio and TV 4. defy d. apparatus 5. incorporate e. a component 6. broadcast f. to challenge 102 Extreme Sports F Track 33 or most of us, when we think of sports, we think of joining a volleyball team, playing basketball at a neighborhood court, or taking tennis lessons at a local fitness club. But for some, sports mean something different: skydiving from an airplane thousands of feet above ground, scaling a tall wall of 5 ice, or snowboarding down the steepest of hills. Such sports are called “extreme sports.” Extreme sports are activities, mostly practiced by young people, that involve great speed or height, present a certain element of danger, and require specialized equipment, such as a surfboard, airplane, or rock-climbing gear. They are generally not team sports. They are practiced by individuals 10 who, rather than helping a team to victory, push themselves to their own physical limits, defying personal and environmental obstacles to achieve a personal goal. Extreme sports have always been considered part of counter-culture. Disenfranchised youth were fed up with the 15 status quo. Traditional sports presented a narrow framework, with rules and regulations that seemed oppressive. Extreme sports gave people the opportunity to do what they wanted, how they wanted. For example, instead of going scuba diving, which places an emphasis on safety and the proper use of equipment, why not try “free-diving” which enables one to 20 reach great underwater depths without the assistance of a breathing apparatus. Instead of jumping over hurdles in a track-and-field race, why not try “free running,” a sport in which participants incorporate natural obstacles, like a wall or a cliff, into their running, resulting in graceful stunts along with speed and agility? Those who are not prone to risk-taking might wonder what appeal these 25 sports have. Psychologists say that some people actually crave the adrenaline 14 15 20 24 25 26 disenfranchised --- made to feel unimportant or powerless status quo --- the accepted way of doing something apparatus --- equipment designed for a particular use agility --- the ability to move quickly and easily prone --- having a tendency adrenaline rush --- a feeling of excitement 27 29 33 42 endeavor --- an attempt metabolism --- chemical changes in the body by which energy is burned insurmountable --- impossible to overcome lament --- to cry out in grief or pain rush that comes from risk-taking endeavors. Adrenaline is a substance the body produces when a person is in a stressful, dangerous, or frightening situation. It results in an increased heart rate and metabolism, and sweating. 30 Psychologically, an adrenaline rush can produce a sense of euphoria that can actually be addictive, like a drug. Psychologists believe that these sports give people the feeling they are unstoppable and able to defy the odds. As a result, there is an incredible sense of accomplishment when a seemingly insurmountable feat is accomplished. 35 Extreme sports have experienced a great rise in popularity. The X Games, held every summer and winter, are the Olympics of extreme sports. They are viewed by millions worldwide, and some of the athlete’s faces are the same faces you might see in Olympic events, like snowboarding or ski jumping. Fewer young people take up baseball, soccer, or American football in favor of sports 40 like cave diving, kite surfing, or bungee jumping. Because they have become so popular, extreme sports are big business, which many athletes lament. What were once thought of as “fringe” activities have now become mainstream ones. Corporations have realized that they can make a lot of money by buying expensive advertising time during the X Games or 45 hiring a well-known athlete to endorse a product. Extreme sport fashion has also become a huge money-maker for corporations. Although there are no regulated uniforms in extreme sports, the fashion world has influenced what the athletes wear. The loose, baggy clothing by big-name designers, along with the accessories such as sunglasses, hats, and gloves, are pricey, lending weight to the argument 50 that extreme sports has “sold out” to corporate greed. Although extreme sports may still be unknown to many, they will soon be a part of all of our lives. It is likely that we will soon see these sporting events broadcast as much as basketball or baseball games. Athletes will continue to push the limits of 55 what we ever thought humanly possible, and the world will sit back and watch, in admiration, amazement, or possibly horror. Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds 633 words 103 104 R eading Comprehension AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the reading. 1. ____ Extreme sports require special equipment. 2. ____Extreme sports are part of the status-quo. 3. ____ An adrenaline rush can be addicting. 4. ____ Extreme sports are Olympic events. B Choose the best answer according to the reading. 1. All of the following are true of extreme sports EXCEPT a. b. c. d. They are dangerous. They involve great speed or height. They are typically team sports. They provide a sense of accomplishment. 2.What is “free diving”? a. b. c. d. Jumping from a 100-foot diving board Scuba diving at no cost Swimming to the bottom of the ocean Going deep underwater without a breathing device 3. How often are the X Games held? a. b. c. d. Every four years Each summer and winter In the fall and spring Twenty-four hours a day CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write them on the lines provided. 1.What do psychologists think about extreme sports? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 2.Why do athletes lament extreme sports becoming big business? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ S ummary Fill in the blanks with words from the list. Use each word only once. steep elements equipment defy incorporate broadcast Extreme sports 1 ___________ danger, grace, agility, great speeds, and heights into activities that have become exceptionally popular, especially among young people. These competitors use 2 ___________ such as natural obstacles and 3 ___________ hills to challenge their athletic abilities. Usually they need special 4 ___________, such as a surfboard or airplane, to perform their feats, many of which seem to 5 ___________ belief. Extreme sports have become so popular; they are now 6 ___________ regularly on mainstream TV. V ocabulary Extension Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list. Use each word or phrase only once. risky bungee jumping endorsement ratings cutting edge alternative 1. ___________ was one of the first examples of an extreme sport. 2. Many extreme sports are ___________ to participants’ health. 3. Kobe Bryant’s ___________ helped sell the basketball shoes. 4.In the 1990s, grunge became a popular type of ___________ music for young people. 5.The Olympics are very popular; they always draw high TV ___________. 6.Extreme sports are on the ___________ of the athletic evolution. 105 106 S upplemental Reading Vice or Virtue T Track 34 The virtues of extreme sports have been much extolled, but the downside has also been discussed at length. Extreme sports have been credited for encouraging participants to set goals and work hard to achieve 5 them. While this may be true, critics of extreme sports claim it is irresponsible to advocate that young people---the majority of extreme sport participants---participate in something that is inherently dangerous. Young people tend to believe that they are invincible. Injury and death seem like things that could never touch them, when in fact, they might be staring them 10 right in the face. But it can be argued that sports in and of themselves are dangerous endeavors. Injuries suffered from playing sports such as ice hockey, rugby, and American football are common and well-documented. The benefit that sports of any kind bring to individuals outweighs the risk, which is why sports have always been a part of our lives and always will be. 15 Critics also argue that because extreme sports are usually individual, rather than team sports, young people no longer acquire the valuable lessons that conventional team sports can teach. For example, bungee jumping is a solitary activity. One does not learn how to work as part of a team, which is a skill that is invaluable to all areas of civic and professional life. 20 In addition, many believe that since the boundaries and rules in extreme sports are always shifting, young people do not learn to play by the rules in life. Extreme sports proponents, however, argue that in the real world, nothing advances or changes for the better unless someone “pushes the envelope.” For better or for worse, extreme sports are here to stay. They will continue 25 to evolve and change, and they will continue to be the focus of lively debate. Discussion Discuss the following questions. 1.What do you think of extreme sports? 2.What lessons can be learned from sports, both team and individual? U N I T 9 S p o r t s & F i t ne ss 2 Personal Trainers: The Fitness Wave of the Future Pre-Reading Questions Think about the following questions. 1.What are three things you do to improve your health? 2. Have you ever been to a fitness club? What did you think of it? 3.Would you consider paying someone to help you improve your physical condition? Why or why not? Vocabulary Preview Match each word with the correct definition. 1. motivation a. a restraint or boundary 2. client b. to give someone or something a name 3. technique c. a method of doing something 4. limitation d. a customer 5. obesity e. a reason for doing something 6. tag f. the state of being extremely overweight 108 Personal Trainers: The Fitness Wave of the Future Track 35 E very year, millions of people try to lose weight or get in shape, but lack the time or motivation to get to a fitness club or complete an exercise program at home on a regular basis. Many of those same people have probably considered hiring a personal trainer, a fitness professional who guides 5 clients through individualized workouts. Most personal trainers work in fitness clubs, but some conduct business in their own private studios, or in the homes of their clients. The job of a personal trainer is to teach safe and effective exercise techniques that are designed for the specific needs and limitations of the client. A trainer can be hired for short-term or long-term periods, depending on the client’s 10 needs. Mark Jenkins is a personal trainer who has become famous for his work with musicians Sean “P. Diddy” Combs, LL Cool J, Mary J. Blige, Missy Elliot, and Beyoncé. He gets these superstars in shape for the rigors of performing nearly every night. “I have built my reputation on getting my clients in their best ever condition 15 in the shortest amount of time,” Jenkins said. “Part of my success has to do with knowledge, motivational skills, and ability to connect with people . . . but most of my success has to do with the mind state of the person I am training . . . The truth 20 about health and fitness is that you have to want to get off the bench and be a participant in life, not a spectator! . . . This is my celebrity-training secret: I only take on clients who have this passion or are open to and truly desire change.” In recent years, more people than ever have developed a fitness passion. In 25 the United States, there is an ever-growing demand for fitness products and services, which is the result of a number of factors. For one, there is an increasing population of people over age fifty-five who want to stay fit. In addition, there is a growing obesity problem among adults and children alike---a problem Jenkins 13 21 25 rigor --- a tiring task spectator --- a person who watches ever-growing --- consistently increasing 34 37 41 43 43 47 53 self-esteem ---a feeling of worthiness virtue --- a just, good thing misconception --- a wrong idea anatomy --- the study of the human body kinesiology --- the study of body movement certification --- qualification; sanction cadet --- a student in a national service academy or private military school can identify with. As a child, he was so overweight that other children teased 30 him by chanting, “suck in the gut.” “No one believed that fitness would be as huge a market as it is now, but being a fat kid, I knew there had to be a whole bunch of other fat kids like me with the same issues and problems,” Jenkins said. “What people don’t realize is, not only is obesity a health problem, but it also affects your self-esteem, so it 35 can quickly turn into a psychological problem as well.” Finally, there is an acceptance among Americans that spending money on fitness is not only good but also a virtue. The demand for all things related to fitness has created a great demand for personal trainers, which is expected to increase 27 percent in the United States by the year 2016, according to the US 40 Bureau of Labor and Statistics. It is a common misconception that a personal trainer is simply an exercise partner or a “cheerleader” for a person wanting to get into shape. To become a personal trainer requires taking courses in anatomy, physiology, kinesiology, injury prevention, training techniques, and emergency techniques like CPR. 45 It can take anywhere from six months to two years to become a certified trainer, depending on the program. There are a number of organizations that offer personal trainer certification, and some are better than others. Some programs, for instance, offer certification after the completion of online courses and do not require practical experience or an internship. Obviously, a program that 50 requires more than just book knowledge will produce better-prepared and more knowledgeable trainers. Jenkins, for example, sharpened his personal training skills in the US Navy, helping a fellow cadet who was threatened with discharge for being too heavy. “He was my first ‘victim,’” Jenkins joked. If the trend for personal 55 trainers continues as predicted, he will have many more. Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds 669 words 109 110 R eading Comprehension AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the reading. 1. ____ Personal trainers are becoming more popular in the United States. 2. ____It takes six months to two years to become a certified personal trainer. 3. ____ Personal trainers usually work with clients in small groups. 4. ____ Mark Jenkins is famous for his work with professional athletes. B Choose the best answer according to the reading. 1. What does Mark Jenkins attribute most of his success to? a. b. c. d. His training techniques His knowledge His clients’ state of mind His motivational skills 2.Why was Mark Jenkins’s teased as a child? a. b. c. d. Because he used to be very fat Because he was so strong Because his pants kept falling down Because he wanted to be in the Navy 3. Why is the demand for health and fitness increasing in the US? a. b. c. d. More people age fifty-five and older want to stay fit. The price for personal trainers keeps dropping. Children aren’t concerned about being overweight. People consider personal trainers a waste of money. CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write them on the lines provided. 1.What is the job description of a personal trainer? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 2.What is predicted by the year 2016? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ S ummary Fill in the blanks with words or phrases from the list. Use each word or phrase only once. take into account come in in vogue teased with get in shape workouts Many people in the US want to 1 ___________, but they lack the time or motivation. This is where personal trainers 2 ___________. Personal trainers teach effective exercise techniques as they guide clients through individualized 3 ___________. They design programs that 4 ___________ their clients’ limitations and fitness goals. One reason personal trainers are 5 ___________ is that Americans suffer from an obesity epidemic. They want to avoid labels like the one personal trainer Mark Jenkins was 6 ___________ as a child. Personal trainers require extensive training before they become certified. The demand for personal trainers is expected to increase 27 percent by the year 2016. V ocabulary Extension Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list. Use each word or phrase only once. works out hit the gym cardiovascular body fat weight lifting core 1. I’m going to ___________ on my way home. 2. ___________ is a great way to build stronger muscles. 3. Many people want to reduce their percentage of ___________. 4.She’s in good shape because she ___________ regularly. 5.Exercises designed to strengthen the midsection---the ___________---are popular today. 6.In addition to lifting weights, it’s important to take care of your ___________ health. 111 112 S upplemental Reading Exergaming P Track 36 arents often face a difficult time prying children away from video screens and getting them outdoors for some good old-fashioned exercise. Today, they might not have to. Exergaming, a combination of video games and physical movement, is becoming a hot fitness trend all 5 over the world. Exergaming was popularized in recent years by the Nintendo Wii. This game system allows players virtual participation in sports like baseball, tennis, and bowling. But the roots of exergaming extend into the 1980s. The first exergaming device, 10 Computrainer, led stationary bike riders on a trip through a virtual landscape. Similar “virtual reality” systems followed, but they proved too expensive and complicated for the average person. In 1998, Konami’s fun and affordable “Dance Dance Revolution” brought exergaming into the mainstream. Players stand on a platform and tap colored 15 arrows with their feet in tune to musical and video cues. Today, fitness clubs, schools, and community centers throughout America offer exergaming machines. Some schools even substitute exergaming workouts for traditional PE classes. Though parents are happy to see their children exercising, many still worry. 20 “Exergames burn calories, raise heartbeats, and offer a physical benefit for kids,” said Lisa Hanson, co-director of a Florida research laboratory. But she added that it is unclear whether active gaming offers the same benefits as traditional workouts. A British study found that many Wii games, for example, don’t provide intense enough exercise. Discussion Discuss the following questions. 1.Have you tried Exergaming? What do you think of it? 2.Are exergames a good substitute for PE classes or other traditional sports? Why do you feel this way? U N I T 10 P e o p l e & O p inions 1 A Superlative Book Pre-Reading Questions Think about the following questions. 1.Do you, or someone you know, have an unusual talent or skill? Describe it. 2.Who is the best soccer player in the world right now? The fastest runner? The richest singer? 3.Why do you think some people have an almost insatiable need to be recognized? Vocabulary Preview Match each word with the correct definition. 1. achievement a. to get 2. resolve b. lasting; durable 3. obtain c. a worthy accomplishment 4. classify d. a device to slow a fall from an airplane 5. parachute e. to place in categories 6. enduring f. to clear up 114 A Superlative Book T Track 37 he Guinness Book of World Records is a compilation of the highest, and sometimes lowest, achievements in every imaginable category. It contains facts, such as the hottest and coldest places on Earth, the largest lizard, and 5 the oldest language, as well as human achievements: the largest cake ever made, the highest jump, and the longest marriage. Some activities, like standing on one leg the longest or blowing the biggest bubblegum bubble, have been created simply to get into the book. These sorts of things have clearly fascinated many people. If the number of copies sold 10 is a guide, the Guinness Book of World Records is one of the most popular books in the world. About 94 million copies have been sold since it was first published in 1955, making the book second in popularity only to the Bible. It has been sold in 100 different countries and translated into thirty-seven languages. The Guinness Book of World Records was begun for the purpose of settling 15 disputes in bars. The idea belonged to Sir Hugh Beaver, who was the managing director of the Guinness Brewery, which still produces the famous Guinness stout (dark beer). On a 1951 hunting trip, after shooting at, and missing, a group of golden plovers, Sir Hugh and his party became engaged in a discussion about whether the plover or the grouse was the fastest game bird in Europe. 20 The discussion was not resolved at the time, but it caused Sir Hugh to ponder that many such discussions might take place in the bars across the United Kingdom, where Guinness stout was served. He thought a book that could answer questions about superlatives (the tallest, fastest, longest, etc.) would not only be popular but could help to market his company’s product as well. Sir Hugh contacted Norm and Ross McWhirter, who ran a London research 25 1 3 15 18 19 20 23 24 compilation --- a collection category --- a class or division dispute --- a disagreement plover --- a small bird that lives near the sea grouse --- a small bird that is hunted and shot for food and sport ponder --- to think deeply superlative --- a word denoting the highest degree market --- to publicize 30 39 storehouse --- a room or building where things are put for storage distinctive --- notable agency. The brothers compiled a list of facts, and the first edition, called The Guinness Book of Superlatives, was published in August 1955. By Christmas of that year, the book was at the top of the British bestseller lists. One year later in America, David A. Boehm, the founder of Sterling Publishing Co., discovered a 30 storehouse full of copies of The Guinness Book of Superlatives. Boehm decided that the book could be successful in America, so he went to Britain to obtain the rights. Boehm renamed the book the Guinness Book of World Records because he thought Americans wouldn’t be able to understand the word “superlatives.” The book was successful immediately and quickly became famous throughout 35 the world, earning the company $1.7 million per year. In 1989, Boehm sold the book rights back to Guinness for eight million dollars. Many of the facts in the Guinness Book of World Records are concerned with science and the natural world and are, therefore, unlikely to change. Because most of the Earth has been explored, and many of its distinctive plant 40 and animal species have already been classified, it is unlikely that, for instance, a lizard larger than the Komodo dragon will be discovered. But in the area of human achievement, records will continue to be made and broken---a fact that has given hope to a great many people who want to be noticed. Of course, there are some, like Olympic athletes, who set new records simply because they are 45 excellent at what they do. However, there is also a sort of community of people who spend much of their time deliberately trying to set world records and get their names into the book. Some choose dangerous or highly difficult tasks, such as deep-sea diving without oxygen or jumping off mountains 50 with parachutes. There are many others who choose obscure activities, like bicycling backwards or balancing wine glasses on their chins. This combination of strangeness and achievement is perhaps one of the most appealing and enduring aspects of the Guinness Book of World Records. Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds 653 words 115 116 R eading Comprehension AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the reading. 1. ____ The Guinness Book of Superlatives was begun to make money. 2. ____The book has been translated into more than 100 different languages. 3. ____ The first edition was published in December 1951. 4. ____ Many facts in the book are unlikely to ever change. B Choose the best answer according to the reading. 1.Where did Sir Hugh Beaver get the idea for The Guinness Book of Superlatives? a. b. c. d. On a hunting trip In a bar At a brewery In America 2.What did Norm and Ross McWhirter do? a. b. c. d. They produced Guinness Stout. They changed the book’s name. They bought the American rights. They compiled a list of facts. 3. All of the following are true EXCEPT a. b. c. d. The Guinness Book of World Records contains facts and achievements. David Boehm resold the rights to the book for eighty million dollars. More than ninety-four million copies of the book have been sold worldwide. Sir Hugh Beaver envisioned the book as a Guinness marketing tool. CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write them on the lines provided. 1. Why did David Boehm rename the book? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 2.How much did the book earn Boehm’s company each year? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ S ummary Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Select THREE answer choices to complete the summary. First Sentence: The Guinness Book of World Records, one of the most popular books ever published, has an interesting history. A.The book is a compilation of natural facts about the Earth and also classifies human achievements in a wide variety of categories, both legitimate and dubious. B.David A. Boehm, the founder of Sterling Publishing Co., obtained the American rights to the book after he found copies of the original publication sitting in a storehouse. C.Sir Hugh Beaver, managing director of the Guinness Brewery, got the idea for a “book of superlatives” to resolve bar disputes while on a bird-hunting expedition. D. T he Guinness Book of Superlatives, published in 1955, quickly became a bestseller and received its current title from American publisher David A. Boehm. E.There is also a community of people who spend much of their time deliberately trying to set obscure world records, such as jumping off mountains with parachutes. F.Since its inception, the book, with an enduring mix of quirky facts and unusual human achievements, has become second only to the Bible in worldwide popularity. V ocabulary Extension Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list. Use each word or phrase only once. comparative record adjudicator copyright claims verification guidelines 1.After someone applies for a world record, Guinness can send ___________ of the record within six weeks. 2. “I’m taller than Henry” is an example of a ___________ sentence. 3. To set a Guinness record, there are several ___________ to be followed. 4.Guinness receives more than 65,000 world-record ___________ each year. 5.Only one company holds the ___________ for the book. 6.A ___________ is a Guinness judge who can verify a world record immediately upon completion. 117 118 S upplemental Reading Worthy of Recognition? C Track 38 reating the largest popcorn sculpture, completing twenty-seven thousand jumping jacks in five hours, skipping the fastest five kilometers while holding a tiger’s leash, as well as 5 eighty-six other astounding feats, are held by one man in the Guinness Book of World Records. Ashrita Furman is a former economics major who dropped out of Columbia University, yet he has still made somewhat of a name for himself. Furman, wanting to enhance his spiritual life, changed his name from Keith 10 to Ashrita. His desire to surpass human limitations brings attention to him in unique ways. At the age of fifty-four, Furman continues to break thirty-five to forty records a year in an attempt to challenge his own limits. He holds records for activities ranging from tearing the most shirts in a minute to completing the fastest mile on a pogo stick in Antarctica. 15 Why does Ashrita Furman attempt to break so many records? While these feats for which Furman holds records are fascinating and amazing, are they really worth the funds needed to carry them out? While there are those who enjoy the thrill of competition and strive to be unique in their pursuit of fame, is the publicity necessary when the cost of the 20 record-breaking attempts can be so high? Injuries, financial obligations, and failure can be devastating. On the other hand, an average person can be fascinated by the courage, skill, and sometimes oddity of world-record breakers. Discussion Discuss the following questions. 1.Is it necessary for time, money, and energy to be spent on so many obscure record-breaking attempts? 2.Can record-breaking attempts by someone help to improve the lives of others? U N I T 10 P e o p l e & O p inions 2 Mandela’s Fight Against Apartheid Pre-Reading Questions Think about the following questions. 1.What types of racial discrimination exist in your country? Have you encountered any personally? 2.Would you be willing to go to prison for a cause you strongly believed in? 3.How much do you know about Nelson Mandela and apartheid in South Africa? Vocabulary Preview Match each word with the correct definition. 1. discriminate a. a legal judgment 2. section b. to object or complain 3. urban c. to barter; to try to agree 4. protest d.to make a difference in treatment based on anything other than individual merit 5. conviction e. city-like 6. negotiate f. a part of a larger whole 120 Mandela’s Fight Against Apartheid Track 39 A partheid was a system of legal racial segregation enforced by the National Party government of South Africa between 1948 and 1990. It allowed the ruling white minority in 5 South Africa to segregate and discriminate against the vast majority: Black Africans mostly, but also Asians and other people of mixed races. Under apartheid laws, South African blacks not only had voting rights taken away but were also forced to live in a small section of the country unless they had a “pass book.” The “pass books” were designed to regulate movement of 10 black Africans in urban areas. It was during these times that Nelson Mandela rose up as a major speaker against the evils of apartheid. In 1944, at the age of twenty-six, Nelson Mandela joined the African National Congress (ANC), a party formed to increase the rights of the black South African population. At the time, the ANC was considered an organization 15 with a polite and conservative approach to protesting apartheid. Under the Program of Action started in 1949, the ANC began turning to boycotts, strikes, and civil disobedience as weapons in the fight against apartheid. In 1952, as volunteer-in-chief of the ANC’s Campaign for the Defiance of Unjust Laws, Mandela organized the fight against discriminatory laws in South Africa. Though 20 his participation in this campaign brought Mandela a criminal conviction and a suspended prison sentence, it earned him increased respect among his fellow freedom fighters. He was then elected a deputy president of the ANC. During this period, Mandela came to the conclusion that violence was inevitable, since the government met peaceful demands with force. Thus in 25 1961, Umkhonto we Sizwe (translated Spear of the Nation, and also abbreviated MK), was formed. Mandela helped coordinate sabotage campaigns against 1 1 16 17 24 26 apartheid --- a South African system of segregation racial segregation --- t he separation of people of different races or skin colors boycott --- to refuse buying or using something as a form of protest civil disobedience --- non-violent form of protest inevitable --- unavoidable; surely going to happen sabotage --- deliberate destruction of property or slowing down of work 28 44 46 46 paramilitary --- a fighting force patterned on military training oppressor --- a person who holds down or restrains others prejudice --- unreasonable feelings, opinions, or attitudes regarding a racial, religious or national group narrow-mindedness --- lacking tolerance or breadth of vision military and government targets. Mandela also raised funds for MK abroad and arranged for paramilitary training of group members. In 1962, Mandela traveled abroad illegally to gather support from leaders of 30 other countries for the anti-apartheid struggle. Upon his return, he was arrested and handed a five-year jail term. While serving his sentence, he was charged with other crimes in a separate trial and received a life sentence. Mandela continued to demand equality from the confines of Robben Island Prison, a maximum-security prison on a small island off the coast. In prison, Mandela quickly recognized that 35 short trousers were given to black prisoners while long trousers were given to non-black prisoners, a reminder of the differences in status. After two weeks of protesting, Mandela found long trousers in his own cell. Yet he continued to demand the same rights for other black prisoners. While in prison, Mandela rejected an offer of release on the condition that he renounce armed struggle by 40 stating, “What freedom am I being offered while the organization of the people remains banned? Only free men can negotiate. A prisoner cannot enter into contracts.” It was Mandela’s firm belief that the struggle for freedom was not only for the oppressed but also for the oppressors. “A man who takes away another 45 man’s freedom is a prisoner of hatred,” observes Mandela in his autobiography. “He is locked behind the bars of prejudice and narrow-mindedness. I am not truly free if I am taking away someone else’s freedom, just as surely as I am not free when my freedom is taken from me. The oppressed and the oppressor alike are robbed of their humanity.” 50 After twenty-eight years in prison, Nelson Mandela was released in 1990. In 1991, he became president of the ANC. In 1993, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for helping to end apartheid. Finally, in 1994, Nelson Mandela was elected president of South Africa 55 and remained in that office until June 1999, when he retired from public life. He now lives in Qunu, Transkei, the village where he was born. Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds 648 words 121 122 R eading Comprehension AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the reading. 1. ____The African National Congress was formed to increase black people’s rights. 2. ____Nelson Mandela spent time in prison while volunteering for the ANC. 3. ____ Spear of the Nation was a non-violent protest group. 4. ____ Mandela was released in 1990 after thirty-eight years in prison. B Choose the best answer according to the reading. 1.What was the purpose of “pass books” under apartheid? a. b. c. d. To monitor minorities’ voting rights To check black people’s bank accounts To regulate black people's movements To allow minorities to stage boycotts 2.Which weapons were NOT used under the Program of Action? a. b. c. d. Strikes Sabotage campaigns Boycotts Civil disobedience 3. Why was Nelson Mandela given a five-year jail term in 1962? a. b. c. d. For traveling to other countries For leading paramilitary training For sabotaging government property For inciting civil disobedience CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write them on the lines provided. 1. When was apartheid in effect in South Africa? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 2.Why did Nelson Mandela decide to endorse violence to fight apartheid? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ S ummary Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Select THREE answer choices to complete the summary. First Sentence: Nelson Mandela was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993 for his role in helping South Africa end the system of apartheid. A.Apartheid was a system of legal racial segregation enforced by the National Party government of South Africa between 1948 and 1990, particularly in urban areas. B.Beginning in 1949, the African National Congress started using boycotts, strikes, and civil disobedience as weapons in the fight against apartheid. C.Mandela negotiated to end apartheid as a member of the African National Congress, and then joined a more militant group called Spear of the Nation. D.For Spear of the Nation, Mandela helped plan sabotage campaigns against the government and arranged for a section of the group to get paramilitary training. E.Even after his conviction and imprisonment in 1962, Mandela continued to speak out against injustice until he was released in 1990, when apartheid ended. F.While in prison, Mandela protested because black prisoners were discriminated against, receiving short trousers while whites got long ones. V ocabulary Extension Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list. Use each word or phrase only once. bigot civil rights rural hunger strike integration sit-in 1. ___________ is the opposite of segregation. 2.The prisoners formed a(n) ___________ and vowed not to eat until they received better food. 3. Farmers live outside cities in ___________ areas of the country. 4.During the ___________, the students occupied booths and refused to leave the restaurant. 5.Like Martin Luther King in America, Mandela demanded equal ___________ for black people. 6.A(n) ___________ treats black people with hatred and intolerance. 123 124 S upplemental Reading Pure Democracy N Track 40 elson Rolihlahla Mandela was born on July 18, 1918, in the small South African village of Qunu. His father, Henry, was chief counselor to the tribe’s leader, and also a sort of “unofficial priest.” Mandela’s father rejected the prejudice those in his tribe, the 5 Xhosas, held against the Mfengu tribe, which was better-educated and more “Western” than other tribes of the region. Chief Henry befriended two Mfengu brothers, George and Ben Mbekela. George Mbekela, a retired school teacher, suggested Mandela be sent to school. There, he was given his English name, Nelson, according to the prevailing custom 10 in African schools at the time. When Mandela was twelve years old, his father died. The tribe’s leader, Dalindyebo, became Mandela’s guardian and began grooming him for leadership. Mandela attended tribal meetings in the Great Place, where issues of concern to all village citizens were discussed and voted upon. Mandela observed how Dalindyebo 15 would open meetings by addressing his “amapakati,” or “the middle ones,” who were sent to represent the interests of local clans. After explaining why the meeting had been called, Dalindyebo would give the floor to the amapakati. Then he would remain silent until each person had had his say. Even when opinions were hostile with regard to his own practices and 20 beliefs, Dalindyebo would listen patiently until all opinions had been voiced. He would then offer a summary of what had been said and help the group to achieve consensus amid the differing points of view. Mandela credits his early exposure to this process, “democracy in its purest form,” as the crucible of his principles and practices as a political activist and leader. Discussion Discuss the following questions. 1.Do you think Nelson Mandela was correct in calling the meetings at the Great Place “democracy in its purest form”? Why or why not? 2.What is a childhood experience that has shaped your life? U N I T 11 C ro s s - C u l t u r al V ie wp oint s 1 Differing Conceptions of Time Pre-Reading Questions Think about the following questions. 1.How important to you is it to be on time? 2.If you could tell a foreigner only one thing about your culture, what would it be? 3.Have you ever experienced a cultural misunderstanding based on time? What happened? Vocabulary Preview Match each word with the correct definition. 1. evidence a. absolutely necessary 2. interact b. inflexibly 3. socialize c. touchable 4. tangible d. to talk informally 5. rigidly e. to work together 6. indispensable f. indication or proof 126 Track 41 Differing Conceptions of Time C ulture is a shared system of ideas that a society has about how the world works and how people should act. The culture of our society has a great influence on what we think, feel, and how we act. In fact, some cultural anthropologists even think that culture is a kind of template for our 5 thinking and feelings. It is thought that culture even creates the rhythms of our societies. According to anthropologist Irving Hallowell, there is no evidence that man has an inborn sense of time. Hence, people’s temporal concepts are a result of their culture. In fact, a study showed that by three months of age, children have 10 been fully adapted to their temporal culture. This temporal culture forms the basis for people’s language, music, poetry, and dance. As well, a people’s rhythm is an attractor for other people who share the same pace of talk, movement, music, or sport---resulting in a stronger cultural bond. Of course, cultures differ in how daily events are scheduled 15 and in how different parts of the society interact. One type of cultural temporal perception is called polychronic. This kind of perception is often a characteristic of southern cultures, such as in Mediterranean or Arab countries. These cultures emphasize the involvement of 20 people and a variety of processes rather than strictly following a preset schedule. Polychronic people seldom feel that time is wasted or lacking. They tend to do many things at the same time and are easily distracted from the task at hand. They are more committed to people than time schedules. For polychronic people, work time is not clearly separable from personal time, so business meetings will often be 25 a form of socializing. Also, they are inclined toward very close relationships with people and like to build lifetime relationships. 4 4 8 10 17 17 anthropologist --- a scientist who studies human beings template --- a pattern or model inborn --- instinctive temporal culture --- the culture of time perception --- an awareness through physical sensation polychronic --- working on multiple activities at the same time 27 41 49 monochronic --- linear compartmentalized --- organized frivolous --- silly; wasteful Monochronic cultures, on the other hand, are oriented toward tasks and schedules. Characteristically, this monochronic approach is often seen in northern cultures; for example, in 30 northern European countries or in North America. Monochronic people feel that time is tangible and inflexible, and such cultures may follow the belief that “time is money.” They do one thing at a time and concentrate on each thing in sequence. Time and job commitments are very important to them, and they tend to follow plans rigidly. 35 As well, monochronic people clearly separate their work and personal social time. More accustomed to short-term rather than lifetime relationships, monochronic people value privacy highly. As you might expect, people from polychronic and monochronic cultures have difficulties in adjusting to each other, and often have cultural 40 misunderstandings. For example, because monochronic culture is highly compartmentalized, monochronic people tend to sequence conversations as well as tasks. They would not, for instance, interrupt a phone call in order to greet another person who just came into the room. In contrast, polychronic people can carry on multiple conversations at the same time. They would consider 45 it rude not to greet a third person, even though they were talking on the phone. Such cultural misunderstandings are very much apparent in the business world. Being late to an appointment, socializing during business meetings, or taking a long time to get down to business is normal in Saudi Arabia or France. But to an American or German, these kinds of business practices seem frivolous. 50 As temporal culture researchers have noted, many millions of dollars have been lost in international business dealings simply because monochronic and polychronic people do not realize that two such different temporal cultures even exist. Ultimately, with the increase in the globalization of business, entertainment, and even living, learning and understanding the differences in cultures will become 55 an indispensable part of our lives. Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds 613 words 127 128 R eading Comprehension AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the reading. 1. ____ It is thought that culture can help create minds and emotions. 2. ____Evidence shows that we are born with a sense of time. 3. ____ Polychronic time is typical of southern cultures. 4. ____ Monochronic people seldom feel that time is wasted or lacking. B Choose the best answer according to the reading. 1. What is true of temporal culture? a. b. c. d. It forms the basis for physical appearances. Children adapt to it by the age of three months. It has negligible impact on our everyday lives. Anthropologists disagree whether it exists. 2.What is true about polychronic people? a. b. c. d. They follow a preset schedule. They rarely, if ever, arrive late. They value privacy highly. They do many things at once. 3. What is true about monochronic people? a. b. c. d. They don’t stick to schedules. They can be easily distracted. They separate work and social time. They pursue lifetime relationships. CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write them on the lines provided. 1.Why do monochronic people tend to sequence conversations as well as tasks? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 2.What have temporal culture researchers noted about international business dealings? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ S ummary Fill in the blanks in the table with the sentences or phrases below according to the category they belong to. Use each sentence or phrase only once. Temporal Cultures Monochronic Polychronic A.Characteristic of Mediterranean countries B. Interacts with many people at once C.Views time as tangible D. People and processes are indispensable. E.Doesn’t socialize during business meetings F. Evidence indicates they follow plans rigidly. V ocabulary Extension Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list. Use each word or phrase only once. acculturate trait norm custom mores faux pas 1.He committed a social ___________ by arriving a half-hour late for a business meeting in Germany. 2.Eating quietly is a social ___________ in America. 3. Wearing turbans is a cultural ___________ of Arabic countries. 4.In China, setting off fireworks are a New Year’s ___________. 5.___________ are a group of social norms that form a country’s moral standards. 6.It was difficult for Tony to ___________ to life in Japan. 129 130 S upplemental Reading Cultural Clashes C Track 42 ultural clashes and misunderstandings occur most often from misinterpreting contextual information. Different cultures place varying degrees of emphasis on contextual information. Contextual information is gathered from the environment during communication. 5 There are generally two types of context cultures: high-context cultures and low-context cultures. High-context cultures, like those in Japan, China, or Arab countries, assign a lot of importance to the environment surrounding a message; consequently, the meaning of the message itself is often implicit. In order to understand what is being said, the speakers must first understand the situation 10 and the participants’ relationship to each other. These cultures place less value on words, so words are used generously. In contrast, low-context cultures, like Germany or America, place importance on the message itself, which must be quite explicit. For low-context speakers, communication is more detailed and specific, since external factors are not 15 emphasized nearly as much. Every word is meaningful. The effects of contextual differences are very apparent in the business world. For example, a business contract from Japan would tend to be short, since much of the information is implied and understood within the high-context Japanese 20 culture. This culture would expect you to understand its “unwritten” rules. A contract from America, however, would not take anything for granted. It would tend to be longer and much more detailed. More explanation would be needed to make sure that there were no misunderstandings. Discussion Discuss the following questions. 1.Have you ever experienced, or heard about, a culture clash? What happened? 2.What steps should companies take to avoid cultural clashes in the future? U N I T 11 C ro s s - C u l t u r al V ie wp oint s 2 Investigating Stereotypes of Men and Women Pre-Reading Questions Think about the following questions. 1.Are men and women treated differently in your culture? In what ways? 2.In your opinion, what are the three most important characteristics for a man to have? For a woman? 3.Is it all right for young boys to play with dolls? Why or why not? Vocabulary Preview Match each word with the correct definition. 1. assign a. to give to 2. examine b. suitable; fitting 3. evaluate c. to look closely 4. comparison d. an evaluation to find similarities and differences 5. appropriate e. to show; to display 6. exhibit f. to determine the value or condition 132 Investigating Stereotypes of Men and Women Track 43 G ender stereotyping means assigning people “male” and “female” roles. This occurs in all cultures, in both public and private interactions. Researchers have studied the characteristics of males and females. They have examined how men and women behave in various interactions involving only 5 women, only men, and mixed groups of men and women. They have also looked at the way media portrays men and women. They hope to encourage better understanding between sexes. The goal is to help people overcome the barriers of gender stereotypes. One in-depth cross-cultural investigation carried out in the early 1980s 10 examined the patterns of gender stereotypes in twenty-five different countries. About 5,000 men and women were asked to evaluate a list of adjectives typically used to describe men or women. Individuals designated the adjectives as having either a positive or negative meaning. Then, based on the responses, the researchers examined all 15 the male adjectives together and all the female adjectives together. Researchers found out that countries evaluated the adjectives differently. In countries such as Italy, Peru, Australia, and the United States, more female adjectives were rated positively than were male adjectives. On the other hand, countries such as Japan, Malaysia, Israel, and 20 Nigeria rated more male adjectives as positive. The researchers used these findings to learn about stereotypes in each separate culture. The study revealed that men were labeled with negative adjectives. Specifically, the majority of countries (nineteen of twenty five) rated most of the male adjectives as negative. In comparison, few of the female adjectives were 25 judged as negative. Masculine adjectives typically described the ability to use tools, to solve problems, and to do work. Males were described as assertive, controlling, or logical. Feminine adjectives described the ability to communicate, 6 8 13 25 26 27 portray --- to depict or describe gender stereotypes --- accepted beliefs about males and females designate --- to choose or assign masculine --- male-like assertive --- bold; confident logical --- making sense 29 41 41 48 altruistic --- helping others peer --- a person with equal standing perpetuate --- to carry on; to make something last verbal --- vocal to show feelings, and to develop relationships. Females were described as passive, supportive, and altruistic. 30 The goal of such research is to help overcome stereotypes. But this is not easy. Parents begin to establish roles for boys and girls even before birth. For example, they will decorate a boy’s room in blue and a girl’s in pink. They will choose masculine wallpaper, toys, and clothes for boys, and feminine decorations, dolls, and dresses for girls. 35 And within 24 hours of birth, researchers have found that parents begin to describe boys and girls differently. Girls are usually called “pretty” and “friendly.” Boys are “handsome” and “smart.” As a result, children learn appropriate roles and exhibit behavior suitable to their gender. Stereotypes are continually reinforced in pre-school years, and gender differences become obvious by the time children 40 reach the age of five. Parents, teachers, and peers all play a part in perpetuating stereotypes in children. At home, parents have been observed to reward gender-appropriate play and punish gender-inappropriate play in their children. For example, girls were most often encouraged to play with dolls and toy pots or picnic supplies. 45 Boys tended to be punished for playing with dolls and instead were encouraged to play with toy vehicles and military toys. Stereotypes also seem to play a part in how children are punished both at home and in schools. Boys are more often hit for punishment while girls receive loud verbal punishment. The negative result of gender stereotyping has been the focus of much 50 educational research. Many researchers have claimed stereotyping has led to fewer girls studying degrees related to math and science in university. Stereotypes have also been suggested as a contributing factor to boys being labeled as “bad students” in school more often than girls, thus leading to more boys than girls dropping out of high school. In both instances, stereotypes have been linked to 55 critical choices boys and girls make in school directly affecting their futures. Changing gender stereotypes might help students lead better lives. Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds 629 words 133 134 R eading Comprehension AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the reading. 1. ____ Gender stereotyping occurs in twenty-five different countries. 2. ____In a 1980s study, people in different countries evaluated adjectives similarly. 3. ____ In most of the countries, female adjectives were judged negatively. 4. ____ Teachers are mostly to blame for gender stereotyping. B Choose the best answer according to the reading. 1. What is true about gender stereotyping? a. b. c. d. It occurs in all cultures. It applies to animals as well as people. It starts in high school. It affects men more than women. 2.Which of the following was NOT designated as a male adjective? a. b. c. d. Assertive Logical Altruistic Controlling 3. What is the goal of studying male and female roles? a. b. c. d. To help overcome stereotypes To change people’s behavior To reform international media To destroy the education system CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write them on the lines provided. 1.In which countries were male adjectives rated more positively than female ones? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 2.How do researchers claim that stereotyping has affected girls’ education? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ S ummary Fill in the blanks in the table with the phrases below according to the category they belong to. Use each phrase only once. Gender Stereotypes Male Female A.Assigned adjective of “logical” B. Thought to exhibit passive behavior C.Appropriate to play with toy vehicles D. Pink bedrooms, in comparison to blue E.Evaluated as “friendly” F. Examined and labeled “assertive” V ocabulary Extension Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list. Use each word or phrase only once. gender-neutral like father, like son androgynous like a girl be a man tied to his mother's apron strings 1.I can’t tell if that ___________ person is a man or a woman. 2.Mr. Smith and his son Jim both have hot tempers, which just goes to show, ___________. 3.The new ___________ dress code does not distinguish between men and women. 4.“You throw ___________,” Bob yelled to Dave during baseball practice. 5.When Ben hurt his finger, his father told him to ___________ and stop crying. 6.Billy’s not brave enough to try. He’s still ___________. 135 136 S upplemental Reading Gender and Sex T Track 44 he terms “sex” and “gender,” although used by many people to mean the same thing, are now used in social research as two distinct classifications. Sex is determined by biology and is defined by genes and physical 5 characteristics of the body. Biologists can determine the sex of an organism by looking at that organism’s body and how it mates with others of the same species. The physical characteristics of the organism are used to establish if the organism is male or female. Gender, on the other hand, is related to a person’s sexual identity and is 10 socially and culturally constructed. For example, when a person follows the socially defined roles for males in a culture, society identifies that person’s gender as male. However, individuals can define gender for themselves. Some people, called transvestites, like to dress and act like members of the 15 opposite sex. Others actually have operations that change their organs into those of the opposite sex. These are called transgender persons. Recently, there has been a growing movement in the United States to make transgender an official designation for a third type of gender. This label would also include transvestites. Complicating this matter is the designation people 20 choose to express their sexual preferences. Heterosexual refers to men mating with women. Homosexual refers to sexual activities between persons of the same biological sex (not gender). And bisexual pertains to sexual activities with either men or women. Neither a person’s sex nor gender necessarily indicates his or her sexual inclination. Discussion Discuss the following questions. 1.What distinctions between sex and gender exist in your country? 2.Should people be allowed to choose their own sex and gender, including altering their natural biological organs? U N I T 12 B u s i n e s s & Ec onomic s 1 An Office Away from the Office Pre-Reading Questions Think about the following questions. 1.If you could take all your school classes online from your home, would you? Explain your answer. 2.What’s a typical working day like for employees in your country? 3.Do many employees in your country work from their home? Do you think working from home is a good idea or a bad one? Explain. Vocabulary Preview Match each word or phrase with the correct definition. 1. gobble down a. in the middle of 2. amid b. knowledgeable about something 3. surpass c. to eat quickly 4. incur d. to put into effect 5. implement e. to go beyond 6. savvy f. to become responsible for 138 Track 45 An Office Away from the Office F or many adults, a typical work day might be as follows: The alarm goes off at 6:00 a.m. You dress yourself in expensive work clothes, gobble down breakfast, and start off on your long and stressful commute to the office. You spend your day at your desk, attempting to complete your tasks 5 amid co-worker chitchat and office politics. Then, you make your way home through the commuter crowds. You have just enough time for a few hours of relaxation before you have to get up and repeat the process all over again the next day. For these people, telecommuting might be seen as the answer to the daily stress and frustration of office jobs. Telecommuting, also known as teleworking or working from home, is a term 10 that refers to the use of telecommunication to work away from the company’s office, most often at a home office. Few people telecommute full time, but a growing number of companies are allowing their employees to work from home at least part of the time. The Wall Street Journal reports that the number of 15 people worldwide who telecommute at least one day per month has risen from about 22 million in 1998 to about 82.5 million in 2007, and this number is expected to surpass 100 million by the beginning of the next decade. Employers have met this growing demand to work 20 from home with both acceptance and resistance. On the one hand, employers understand that offering telecommuting opportunities is a way to cut costs. Despite the initial cost incurred from setting a telecommuter up with the appropriate technology, there are long-term savings. The average office space costs 25 an employer about ten thousand dollars per year for each worker, according to the Industrial and Technology Assistance Corporation (ITAC). In addition, offering telecommuting opportunities reduces absenteeism, increases productivity, 3 18 20 27 27 commute --- the ride to and from work decade --- a period of 10 years (e.g. 1980 - 1990) resistance --- opposition to something absenteeism --- the rate of people absent from work or school productivity --- the rate at which goods or services are produced 28 30 43 44 53 retention --- the act of keeping, having, or maintaining recruitment --- finding and hiring workers in a company micro-manager --- a manager who wants to be involved in every detail of his or her staff’s work delegate --- to assign responsibilities to other people flexibility --- the ability to change or adapt as needed and improves employee retention. Workers are happier and less stressed. Therefore, they work harder and are more loyal to their employers. Employers 30 also see telecommuting as a powerful recruitment tool to attract top talent. In a survey of top company CFOs, Robert Half Technology cited telecommuting as second only to salary when deciding whether to take a job. On the other hand, employers are aware of the fact that telecommuting poses some risks. First of all, allowing confidential company information to leave 35 the office can pose privacy and security concerns. A study done by the Center for Democracy and Technology showed that companies often do not fully implement telecommuting security policies. In addition, telecommuters are not properly trained in protecting company data. Another risk has to do with the work style of the telecommuter. A successful telecommuter has to be independent, 40 self-motivated, and disciplined. A telecommuter who needs constant supervision and feedback will not be successful. This will cost the company in the long run. Finally, it is more difficult to manage a telecommuter than an on-site worker. A manager of telecommuters cannot, for instance, be a “micro-manager.” The manager must be willing to delegate responsibility. In fact, companies are 45 finding it necessary to train their managers in managing telecommuters. Experts predict that telecommuting will become a standard in the corporate world, as workers continue to demand it. A technologically-savvy generation that is entering the work force has a different idea of how work can get done. This generation readily accepts, and even expects, telecommuting opportunities. In 50 addition, the population worldwide is increasing, but the capacity of roads and public transportation does not necessarily keep up. This will make commuting to work only more difficult and frustrating. Lastly, the growing number of two-income families increases the need for job flexibility in order to balance family and work life. The trend toward 55 telecommuting is clear, but the long-term effects on corporate culture and the individual worker are still unknown. Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds 641 words 139 140 R eading Comprehension AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the reading. 1. ____ The number of telecommuters is steadily rising. 2. ____Employers have mixed feelings about telecommuting. 3. ____The average employee office space costs an employer about $100,000 a year. 4. ____ It is less difficult to manage an onsite worker than a telecommuter. B Choose the best answer according to the reading. 1. All of the following are mentioned as benefits of telecommuting EXCEPT a. b. c. d. Decreased absenteeism Improved attention Increased productivity Happier workers 2.According to Robert Half Technology, what is a candidate’s top consideration when deciding whether to take a job? a. b. c. d. Salary Benefits Telecommuting Vacation schedule 3. What is one risk of telecommuting? a. b. c. d. It could cost companies more in the long run. It decreases employee retention. It hurts company recruitment. It’s difficult to protect company data. CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write them on the lines provided. 1. What does the Wall Street Journal predict about the number of telecommuters? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 2.What did a study by the Center for Democracy and Technology show? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ S ummary Fill in the blanks with words or phrases from the list. Use each word or phrase only once. gobbling down incur amid implementing surpass savvy As the number of worldwide telecommuters stands ready to 1 ___________ 100 million a year, the days of 2 ___________ breakfast and racing off to work might be numbered. 3 ___________ a number of reasons why telecommuting is more popular is that employers typically 4 ___________ long-term savings from 5 ___________ telecommuting policies. Though there are risks for employers, most allow, and even encourage, telecommuting as a way to please a new generation of computer- 6 ___________ workers. V ocabulary Extension Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list. Use each word or phrase only once. workforce self-employed traffic jam daycare videoconference nine-to-five 1.Tim joined a rock band because he didn’t want a ___________ job. 2.More and more women are joining the ___________ these days. 3.Working at home helped save the Jones’s thousands of dollars in ___________ costs for their child. 4.I don’t work for anyone; I’m ___________. 5.We’ll be talking with Mr. Yakamatsu via ___________. 6.The ___________ extended for more than three miles. 141 142 S upplemental Reading Work-from-Home Scams I Track 46 f you search the Internet for “work-from-home” opportunities, you will find hundreds of jobs promising fast cash with limited effort. These companies are seeking people to assemble products, mail letters, or make 5 telephone sales calls. The problem is, many are illegitimate and may actually scam you out of your own money. There are several things to watch out for when considering a work-fromhome job. First, be wary of any organization that asks you for an initial investment. For example, if the job is to assemble products, you might be asked to 10 purchase the instructions and materials up front. When you return the assembled products, they tell you they do not meet specifications. You are out of money, with no chance of profiting from your initial investment. Another scam is when the company offers to advance your salary as a supposed sign of good will. You deposit the check in the bank, and before the check has cleared, the company 15 tells you they accidentally overpaid you. After you have paid back a portion, you discover their check was not legitimate. Now you have paid money from your own pocket and do not have any money from the company. A good rule is to stick to jobs that require some skills, like a license or certificate, or some experience. It might be worthwhile to get the qualifications 20 you need so that you can legitimately make money later. Also, ask the company to provide references who can tell you about their work experiences. If the company cannot, or will not, do this, it is probably illegitimate. Working from home can be a wonderful opportunity, but as with any job, you want to be sure it will be something that is beneficial and improves the 25 quality of your life. Discussion Discuss the following questions. 1.What is a popular employment scam in your country? 2.Who, in your opinion, bears more responsibility for a work-at-home scam: the company that commits the crime, or the person who falls for their tricks? U N I T 12 B u s i n e s s & Ec onomic s 2 A Need for Censorship in Advertising? Pre-Reading Questions Think about the following questions. 1.Are there advertisements in your country that are not true? Describe one. 2.Is it OK for the government to censor the media? In what circumstances? 3.Should children be protected from viewing certain advertisements and TV programs? If so, how? Vocabulary Preview Match each word with the correct definition. 1. violence a. being presented with, or made known 2. exposure b. unsuitable 3. inappropriate c. a business sector 4. regulate d. to set rules and guidelines 5. industry e. physical force that injures or abuses 6. misleading f. deceiving 144 A Need for Censorship in Advertising? Track 47 M ost people admit that what we see in the media affects the way we think and act, and most agree the media has a negative effect on children. Violence in television programs and movies is said to stimulate violent behavior in children. Over the years, some leaders have suggested creating laws to help protect 5 children from exposure to inappropriate TV shows and movies. In particular, a report by the Federal Trade Commission of the United States examined how violent entertainment was marketed to children. It was surprising that companies routinely target children as their primary audience, even when movies and games are rated 10 inappropriate for young people. This report upset people all over the country, including politicians who responded by calling for new laws to regulate entertainment industries. But it is not easy to create such laws. The US Constitution guarantees freedom of the press and freedom of speech. It has always been difficult to balance the power of laws against the freedoms of individuals and 15 companies; so rather than create new laws, the entertainment industry was told to regulate itself. This was actually the same solution suggested in the early 1970s, when people first became concerned about advertisements. There were protests against many advertisers at that time. People 20 claimed that some ads were not true and also that children should not be exposed to ads for cigarettes and alcohol. So the national advertising community devised a plan to avoid possible censorship by the government. Advertisers agreed to set up a new agency, called the National Advertising Review Council (NARC). People from within the industry would review ads of all companies. NARC’s 25 official purpose is to maintain standards of truth, accuracy, morality, and social 4 11 13 15 18 22 stimulate --- to spark; to arouse politician --- a person whose career is politics press --- news reporters, publishers, and broadcasters entertainment --- music, movies, or TV amusement advertisement --- a presentation that sells a product or service censorship --- the act of preventing or modifying a publication or broadcast 27 39 49 51 branch --- a division publication --- the act of bringing before the public self-regulation --- control by oneself or itself, as in an economy or business organization intercession --- the act of intervening or mediating responsibility in advertising. There are two branches within the organization. The National Advertising Division (NAD) is like a police force, investigating complaints of false advertising and then working with the advertiser to correct a 30 false ad. The other branch is the National Advertising Review Board (NARB). It reviews cases in which the NAD and advertisers cannot agree. The NARC is run by various national advertising associations. This type of self-regulation avoids the problems of government censorship. The NARC is not the only way the advertising industry regulates itself. The media in which 35 advertising appears also works as a kind of censor. Television stations all have departments for reviewing ads before the ads are allowed to be shown on the air. This is true for radio stations as well. Likewise, magazines and newspapers review ads before publication. They want to make sure both the products and the content are 40 appropriate for their audiences. In fact, some publications even go so far as to test every advertised product to make sure the claims in the ads are true. A third level of regulation exists with the advertisers themselves. Advertising agencies want the public to have confidence in their ads. Therefore, most advertisers rely on market research to verify the claims made in advertisements. If consumers 45 learn about misleading claims, they can sue the advertisers. This is why most large advertising agencies employ in-house lawyers for reviewing ads. In addition, the advertising industry has several national associations that keep an eye on the practices of all advertisers. All of the above levels of self-regulation have created a fairly reliable system 50 for maintaining a high standard of advertising in the United States. Government intercession is not necessary. The chairman of the Federal Trade Commission claims, “It [The advertising industry] has the best self-regulatory system of any industry in the United States.” Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds 595 words 145 146 R eading Comprehension AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the reading. 1. ____In response to the Federal Trade Commission report, the US government created new laws to regulate the entertainment industry. 2. ____NAD and NARB are part of NARC. 3. ____NARB investigates complaints of false advertising. 4. ____ Self-regulation works well in the US advertising industry. B Choose the best answer according to the reading. 1. What does the US Constitution guarantee? a. b. c. d. Regulation and censorship The protection of children Freedom of speech and press Government intervention 2.What is the main function of the National Advertising Review Board? a. b. c. d. Investigating complaints Correcting false ads Reviewing cases Censoring the press 3. Why do various media review ads prior to publication? a. b. c. d. To make sure they can censor them To ensure they are appropriate To test all advertised products To be able to charge more money CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write them on the lines provided. 1. What was surprising about the Federal Trade Commission report? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 2.What can happen if consumers find out about misleading advertising claims? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ S ummary Fill in the blanks with phrases from the list. Use each phrase only once. go so far claim that fine line in-house call for on the air Because most people agree that exposure to violence is inappropriate for children, some politicians 1 ___________ the government to regulate the entertainment industry, which has been accused of targeting children with violent ads. However, this isn’t easy. There is a(n) 2 ___________ between regulation and censorship, which is against US law. But because people 3 ___________ some ads are untrue or misleading, the advertising industry has set up an effective form of self-regulation. Many TV stations have 4 ___________ lawyers to review ads before they go 5 ___________. Some media agencies 6 ___________ as to test all advertised products before publication. These measures and others have created a high standard of advertising in the United States. V ocabulary Extension Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic, but are not in the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list. Use each word or phrase only once. libel obscenity First Amendment unconstitutional national security Bill of Rights 1.The ___________ to the Constitution guarantees US citizens freedom of speech, press, and religious belief. 2.The jury ruled that banning the advertisement was ___________. 3.When the magazine claimed Ms. Watkins had cheated, she sued it for ___________. 4.The pastor objected to the picture of the naked woman, calling it a form of ___________. 5.The first ten amendments to the US Constitution are collectively referred to as the ___________. 6.The government stopped publication of the article by showing that it would endanger ___________. 147 148 S upplemental Reading Guess What A Track 48 controversial advertisement for a home-furnishing mall in Nanjing, China, is printed with huge Chinese characters that say, “What will you think of after you are well-fed and well-dressed?” These words are 5 followed by “Guess ...” in smaller characters. The answer is given in even smaller characters: “It is home furnishings.” While this looks innocent enough to people unfamiliar with Chinese culture, for Chinese people, the advertisement has a clear sexual meaning. There is a well-known Chinese saying: “After being well-fed and clothed, one thinks of sexual pleasure.” 10 Critics of the ad argued that the billboard is immoral in that it might “stimulate people’s lust,” and because the implied meaning would be clear to anyone reading the ad, many called for its immediate removal. The head of the advertising company that designed the billboard saw nothing to censor in the ad, noting that it had been approved by relevant authorities and 15 deemed absolutely legal. “In modern times, the ancient saying should be interpreted in more innovative ways,” he said. “After being well-fed and clothed, I think we have a lot more to think about than sex. For instance, we can buy houses or go traveling. It is quite logical for us to say that after being well-fed and clothed, one thinks of furnishing houses.” 20 An official from Nanjing Administration for Industry and Commerce merely stated, “We have approved this billboard. When we decide whether an advertisement is acceptable or not, we mainly see whether there is any obvious word related to pornography and immoral deeds and thoughts, or any word that tries to exaggerate the advertiser and debase competitors. We cannot do anything 25 about this kind of advertisement.” Discussion Discuss the following questions. 1.What role should the government take in regulating the content of advertisements for private companies? Why do you feel this way? 2.Can you think of a recent ad that was controversial in your country? What was done about it?