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Reading for the Real World 2

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Reading for
the Real World
2
SECOND EDITION
Reading for the Real World 2 Second Edition
Moraig Macgillivray · Tonia Peters
© 2009 Compass Publishing
All rights reserved. No part of this book
may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
or transmitted in any form or by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording,
or otherwise, without prior permission
in writing from the publisher.
Acquisitions Editor: Jordan Candlewyck
Content Editor: Adam Worcester
Copy Editor: Joanna Weinhardt
Cover/Interior Design: Design Plus
email: info@compasspub.com
http://www.compasspub.com
The authors of this book would like to acknowledge the following writers for
contributing materials to this series: Michael Souza, Michael Pederson,
Paul Edmunds, Paula Bramante, Kandice MacDonald, Barbara Graeber,
Tonia Peters and Moraig Macgillivray.
ISBN: 978-1-59966-421-7
14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6
13 12 11 10
Photo Credits
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Every effort has been made to trace all sources of illustrations/photos/information in this
book, but if any have been inadvertently overlooked, the publisher will be pleased to
make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity.
Contents
Unit 1
Strange & Unusual
Reading 1 :
Reading 2 :
UFOs / 5
An Insight into the Future / 11
Unit 2
Computers & Technology
Reading 1 :
Reading 2 :
Fighting Spam / 17
Using the Body for Identification / 23
Unit 3
Health & Medicine
Reading 1 :
Reading 2 :
Xenotransplantation / 29
A Surge in Cosmetic Surgery / 35
Unit 4
Social Issues
Reading 1 :
Reading 2 :
Soft Drugs in Amsterdam / 41
Morphine / 47
Unit 5
Environmental Issues
Reading 1 :
Reading 2 :
Campaigning for the Earth / 53
Glacier Retreat / 59
Unit 6
Law & Crime
Reading 1 :
Reading 2 :
The Reliability of Eyewitnesses / 65
The Assumption of Innocence / 71
Unit 7
Language & Literature
Reading 1 :
Reading 2 :
Cupid and Psyche / 77
The Truth About Memoirs / 83
Unit 8
Space & Exploration
Reading 1 :
Reading 2 :
The Origin of the Universe / 89
Space Tourism / 95
Unit 9
Sports & Fitness
Reading 1 :
Reading 2 :
Extreme Sports / 101
Personal Trainers: The Fitness Wave of the Future / 107
Unit 10
People & Opinions
Reading 1 :
Reading 2 :
A Superlative Book / 113
Mandela’s Fight Against Apartheid / 119
Unit 11
Cross-Cultural Viewpoints
Reading 1 :
Reading 2 :
Differing Conceptions of Time / 125
Investigating Stereotypes of Men and Women / 131
Unit 12
Business & Economics
Reading 1 :
Reading 2 :
An Office Away from the Office / 137
A Need for Censorship in Advertising? / 143
U N I T
1
S t r a n g e & U nusua l 1
UFOs
Pre-Reading Questions
Think about the following questions.
1.Do you know of any famous UFO sightings in your country? What
happened?
2.What do you think are some natural explanations for UFOs?
3.Is it possible there is intelligent life elsewhere in our universe
besides Earth? Why do you think so?
Vocabulary Preview
Match each word with the correct definition.
1. extraordinary
a. to examine carefully
2. mysterious
b. a person who sees something happen
3. investigate
c. inexplicable; suspicious
4. lunatic
d. to keep secret
5. witness
e. unusual
6. suppress
f. a mentally unstable person
6
UFOs
U
Track 1
FO stands for Unidentified Flying Object. Although many people
associate this term with aliens or spaceships, it can pertain to any
unknown object seen in the atmosphere.
It is commonly believed that UFO sightings began in modern times, but
5
sightings of extraordinary lights and mysterious objects in the sky have been
documented for thousands of years. One of the earliest sightings was in the fifteenth
century BCE, in Egypt, where “foul smelling circles of fire and discs in the sky”
were observed. Centuries later, in 1516 CE in Nuremberg, Germany, more than
200 UFOs of differing shapes, including cylinders, spheres, and spinning discs, were
10
observed. These examples typify the thousands of sightings that have been recorded
over the ages in many different cultures on various continents.
The most interesting part of UFO history has been the latter half of the 20th
century. During World War II, fighter pilots reported many luminescent and
cylindrical UFOs. Sightings of these objects were described by both pilots and
15
high-ranking intelligence officials. Interestingly enough, both the Allies and the
Germans recounted this. At first, they both thought that these UFOs were really
just new weapons made by their enemies. However, when they realized that the
other side was seeing them, too, they concluded that these sightings were UFOs.
Both the British and Germans created committees to investigate. Ultimately, it
20
was determined that these UFOs, nicknamed “Foo Fighters,” were not manmade;
no alternative explanations were offered.
In the late 1940s, following WWII, the “flying saucer”
era began. In 1947, a man named Kenneth Arnold
recounted seeing “nine silvery circular objects” in the
25
sky. He told his story to many people, including the
press. He eventually wrote a book, titled The Coming
3
atmosphere --- air surrounding the Earth
luminescent --- glowing with light
14
cylindrical --- in the shape of a cylinder
15
ally --- a country that sides with another in a war
(Allies - the countries that opposed the Axis powers (Germany, Italy and Japan)
13
in World War II)
19
committee --- a group formed to make decisions
32
42
45
46
55
authority --- a person in command
controversy --- a dispute
non-humanoid --- alien; not human
disband --- to break up
phenomenon --- an abnormal event
of the Saucers. In it, he described the UFOs as flying
saucers because they were shaped like large dishes.
After the book’s release, more and more people reported
30
UFO sightings. Previously, anyone who reported a UFO
was considered a liar or a lunatic. However, because
authorities were receiving countless reports, they decided to set up a committee,
called Project Blue Book, to investigate these sightings.
In the 1940s, the most famous UFO case in US history, the Roswell Crash,
35
occurred. In early July of 1947, an object crashed onto a sheep ranch near
Roswell, New Mexico. All the pieces of the fallen object were collected by members
of the US Air Force, stationed at Roswell Army Air Field. Later in the day, the
commander of the base informed the press that the remains of a “flying disc”
had been recovered. This news spread worldwide in a matter of hours. Strangely,
40
a few hours after the press release, the commanding general of the Eighth Air
Force issued a counter press release asserting that the remains were from a common
weather balloon. This retraction caused a lot of controversy. There were reputable
eye witnesses—including the sheep rancher and an Air Force major—who saw
many items of unknown origin made of strange material. They even claimed to
45
have caught sight of bodies of non-humanoid beings.
Despite this incident and continued UFO sightings, the government disbanded
the Project Blue Book committee in 1969, due to lack of concrete evidence. To
this day, many people think the government is suppressing the truth of what
they collected from the Roswell Crash and of other unexplained sightings and
50
incidences. Over the years, UFO sightings have continued to be reported by
people all over the world, including former US president Jimmy Carter, NASA
engineers, and Japanese businessmen. In fact, it is estimated that every three
minutes, there is a UFO sighting somewhere on the planet. Though most certainly
there are a number of explanations for these UFO sightings, natural or otherwise,
55
more research into this phenomenon is definitely needed.
Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds
629 words
7
8
R eading Comprehension
AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the
reading.
1. ____ The term UFO applies only to spaceships and aliens.
2. ____UFOs did not appear until the latter half of the 20th century.
3. ____ Another term for UFO is “flying saucer.”
4. ____Project Blue Book investigates all UFO sightings.
B Choose the best answer according to the reading.
1. What did fighter pilots report seeing in World War II?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Foul smelling circles of fire and discs in the sky
Hovering, glowing shields
Luminescent and cylindrical UFOs
Silvery, circular objects
2.Why was the Roswell crash controversial?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Because a flying disc crashed into a sheep ranch
Because the Air Force issued two conflicting statements
Because several eyewitnesses changed their stories
Because people mistook a weather balloon for a UFO
3. Which of the following is NOT true?
a.
b.
c.
d.
UFO sightings have declined in recent years.
A former US president claims to have seen a UFO.
Many UFO sightings can be explained by natural causes.
The government has disbanded Project Blue Book.
CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write
them on the lines provided.
1.What happened in 1516 CE in Nuremberg, Germany?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
2. Why did Kenneth Arnold call UFOs “flying saucers”?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
S ummary
Fill in the blanks with words from the list. Use each word only once.
extraordinary
mysterious
investigate
lunatics
witnesses
suppressing
For centuries, 1 ___________ all over the world have reported seeing
2 ___________ objects flying in the sky. Many of these UFOs have
3 ___________ lights and strange shapes. At first, others thought people who saw
UFOs were 4 ___________, but the US government received so many UFO reports
that it set up a special committee to 5 ___________ them. Since then, many people
have accused the government of 6 ___________ information about UFOs.
V ocabulary Extension
Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in
the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list.
Use each word or phrase only once.
abducted
paranormal
extraterrestrial
outer space
martians conspiracy
1. Aliens are sometimes referred to as people from ___________.
2.Science fiction movies and books portray a wide variety of ___________ life
forms.
3. S
ome people claim to have been ___________ by alien visitors and taken
aboard a UFO.
4. _
__________ were some of the earliest science-fiction aliens imagined by
artists and writers.
5.UFOs and ghosts are examples of ___________ activities.
6.Many UFO enthusiasts accuse the government of a(n) ___________ to cover up
UFO information.
9
10
S upplemental Reading
The Truth About UFOs
Track 2
A
5
10
15
20
25
s of 2002, 72 percent of Americans believe the US
government is not telling the public everything it
knows about UFOs. In addition, 68 percent think
the government has knowledge of extraterrestrial life (life
from other planets) and is hiding it from the public. It’s not surprising there has
been more and more pressure on the government to declassify its UFO records.
A variety of different groups have been involved in these efforts.
One of the most recent groups to become involved is CFI--the Coalition for
Freedom of Information. John Podesta, former Chief of Staff to President
Clinton, is one of the many important people in this group. The group’s aim is not
to prove the existence of extraterrestrial life, but to make it easier for scientists
in general to study unexplained aerial phenomena. Podesta and his group have
asked the Pentagon to declassify its UFO records and provide scientists with
data that will help in the study of UFOs.
CFI has requested the release of information on several UFO cases, starting
with the Kecksburg, Pennsylvania, incident. In 1965, a large acorn-shaped
object, about the size of a small car, crashed in a wooded area of Pennsylvania.
Witnesses contacted police and firefighters, but even they were not allowed to
come close to the scene. The United States Army was already on site and in the
process of removing the object. Even though several witnesses could clearly
describe the object when it was in the air, the government claimed the object was a
meteorite. Suspicions of the government’s claim have been raised ever since.
Many groups have been formed to convince the US Government to open
cases such as the Kecksburg event, yet it remains tight-lipped. It has not allowed
these classified records to be made public.
Discussion
Discuss the following questions.
1.Why should citizens have access to classified government records when it
comes to possible UFO incidents?
2.Should the government have the right to protect its citizens by withholding certain
information that could be unnecessary or dangerous for the general public to
know? Why or why not?
U N I T
1
S t r a n g e & U nusua l 2
An Insight into
the Future
Pre-Reading Questions
Think about the following questions.
1.If someone knew the exact date that you would die, would you want them
to tell you? Why or why not?
2.Do you believe the future can be predicted? If so, how?
3.How would knowing what’s going to happen in the future make you feel
more secure today?
Vocabulary Preview
Match each word with the correct definition.
1. ancient
a. unclear
2. prediction
b. extremely old
3. promote
c. monetary
4. glimpse
d. to advance in rank
5. financial
e. a brief look
6. uncertain
f. a forecast
12
An Insight into the Future
D
Track 3
ivination, also called fortune-telling, is the attempt
to discover future events through unconventional
methods. One popular method of divination, found in
both Eastern and Western culture, is palm reading. Through
5
palm reading, a person hopes to find out his or her fate, or
future circumstances. By looking at the lines on the palm of the
hand, a palm reader claims to be able to foretell a person’s life
span, financial success, or marital bliss, among other things.
Although there is no proven connection between the lines on the palm of a hand
10
and a person’s future, palm reading remains popular, along with other divination
practices. Some of these other practices include predicting the future through
astrology (analyzing the stars and planets), tasseography (reading tea leaves) or
numerology (analyzing numbers).
Fortune-telling has a long history. Its earliest examples go back to 4000
15
BCE. The divination practiced at that time, and for thousands of years after, was
often engaged by kings and other rulers. Both the ancient Roman and Chinese
emperors routinely consulted astrologers and other fortune-tellers on important
matters. Chinese court astrologers constantly looked for signs that foretold the
future, since their predictions could influence the royal court in many ways and
20
give them job security. Divination was used to diagnose illnesses, predict what
would happen in battle, interpret dreams, and promote soldiers.
One of the main reasons why divination was so important to people in the
ancient world is that probably at that time humans had very little control over the
world. Even those in the highest positions were still subject to natural disasters.
1
1
5
5
7
17
20
24
divination --- the art of discovering hidden or future knowledge
fortune-telling --- the practice of predicting the future
palm reading --- divination using the palm of one’s hand
fate --- a final outcome; destiny
foretell --- to predict
astrologer --- a person who practices divination through planets and stars
diagnose --- to solve; to discover
natural disaster --- a catastrophe caused by forces of nature
25
36
25
plague --- a disastrous evil or affliction
mastery --- exceptional competence
The causes of such events as plagues or storms were not clearly understood.
Divination provided a sort of control over life. If a person could get a glimpse of
the future, that person could escape at least a little of the uncertainty that would
have worried him or her constantly. A farmer could plan for his future crops,
and an emperor could plan for a war with some amount of certainty that a
30
particular outcome was likely. Since divination could not be disproved and any
failure in the prediction could be blamed on the person making the prediction,
believing in divination was not difficult for the people in the ancient world.
Although unfounded, it is easy to understand that the practice of divination
gave people in the ancient world a sense of control over their environment.
35
However, it is a bit less evident why divination practices should still be so
popular today. Humans have achieved a great amount of mastery over, if not
understanding of, the environment. They are no longer at the total mercy of the
natural world. There does not seem to be any need for the practice of divination
to give the world a sense of order. Even so, human life is still fragile. People still
40
get sick, hurt themselves, and die. They still suffer from financial and emotional
problems, and worry about what the future will bring them.
One thing that has not changed since ancient times is that the future
remains uncertain. Compared to previous ages, humans have a great amount of
control over the present period. With all the new technology and advances in
45
science, humans can predict natural disasters, giving some certainty to the
future. Nonetheless, the simple fact that we do not know precisely what will
happen in the next week, month, or year lends uncertainty to our lives. Since the
great majority of modern people desire certainty and
security, they may try to find ways to achieve these
50
feelings even when there is no way to reasonably
obtain them. Divination then, in all its forms,
fulfills a basic human need; the need to feel secure.
Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds
621 words
13
14
R eading Comprehension
AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the
reading.
1. ____There is a proven connection between the lines on the palm of a hand
and a person’s future.
2. ____Fortune-telling has been used by kings and emperors.
3. ____In ancient times, divination was likely driven by environmental
uncertainty.
4. ____Divination is unpopular today.
B Choose the best answer according to the reading.
1. All of the following are mentioned as methods of divination EXCEPT
a.
b.
c.
d.
Tasseography
Crystal balls
Palm reading
Numerology
2. What was divination used for in ancient China?
a.
b.
c.
d.
To promote emperors and kings
To cast spells on enemies
To prevent natural disasters
To predict the outcome of battles
3. Why does the author say divination is important?
a.
b.
c.
d.
It creates high-paying jobs for many people.
It helps us change the course of history.
It provides a sense of certainty and security.
It is a great form of family entertainment.
CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write
them on the lines provided.
1.What is the purpose of palm reading?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
2. Why was it easy for people in the ancient world to believe in divination?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
S ummary
Fill in the blanks with phrases from the list. Use each phrase only once.
fend off
to control
get a glimpse
quell uncertainty
financial gain
made predictions
Since ancient times, fortune-tellers have 1 ___________ using a variety of
divination methods. Rulers hoped to 2 ___________ of the future, so they could
plan for battles, diagnose illnesses, 3 ___________ plagues, and promote soldiers.
Common ancient peoples wanted 4 ___________, marital bliss, and the ability
5 ___________ some part of their future. Despite technological advances, modern
people want many of these same things. Above all, they want to 6 ___________.
V ocabulary Extension
Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in
the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list.
Use each word or phrase only once.
tarot cards
crystal ball
superstition
prophecy
prophet
Nostradamus
1. In the Bible, a person who foretold the future was called a ___________.
2. A ___________ is a Biblical word for a future prediction.
3. Many people think fortune-telling is just a ___________.
4. Today, many fortune-tellers make predictions using a pack of ___________.
5. Other fortune-tellers like to glimpse the future using a magical ___________.
6.___________ is a Frenchman famous for making several predictions in the 16th
century about future events.
15
16
S upplemental Reading
Technology -- The Modern Divination?
G
Track 4
enerations past have used divination as a means of gaining answers to
the unknown. This is especially true when it was used to predict the
future. Modern technology is so advanced that it can now trace patterns
of history and predict certain outcomes. Scientific data that has been collected is
5
used to make these predictions.
We can look at a few areas where technology has advanced. Many different
types of divination have been used in the past to predict future health. Today’s
technology can track a patient’s medical history, and it can predict and diagnose
patterns of health and diseases. Technology can even make predictions based on
10
children’s genes. For instance, a Colorado company is selling a kit that helps parents
forecast their child’s athletic ability, by testing for a gene associated with strong
athletic performance.
The use of weather forecasting tools is another way modern technology is
replacing the practice of divination. Computers have the ability to predict the
15
types and amounts of precipitation, storms, temperatures, and pressure systems.
IBM is developing a service that can predict weather conditions down to a onekilometer resolution. In time, company researchers hope to be able to predict
the weather on individual streets within a city.
Technology continues to advance and increase as computer programs
20
become more complex. Scientists are using technology
in more specific ways to gain more knowledge about
the way nature works. As for divination, what was
once considered to be supernatural is now seen more
as a form of entertainment.
Discussion
Discuss the following questions.
1.With access to modern technology, is the practice of divination really
necessary today?
2.If you had the ability to alter your children’s genes, would you do so? Why or
why not?
U N I T
2
C o m p u t e r s & Te c hnology 1
Fighting Spam
Pre-Reading Questions
Think about the following questions.
1. Do you have an email account? What do you use it for?
2.Have you ever received unwanted or unsolicited emails? How do you
handle them?
3.What are some ways you can think of to prevent getting unsolicited
emails?
Vocabulary Preview
Match each word or phrase with the correct definition.
1. identical
a. a receiver
2. offensive
b. unpleasant
3. scam
c. annoyance
4. recipient
d. the same
5. irritation
e. to swindle
6. cheat out
f. a fraudulent or deceptive act
18
Fighting Spam
A
Track 5
nyone who has ever had an email account has received spam. Spam is
unsolicited email that is sent as part of a larger group of messages,
all having substantively identical content. Spam has existed for a long
time, but in recent years, the increasing amount of spam has become a much bigger
5
problem than before. Although there are ways to decrease spam, currently the
only way to eliminate spam is by not having an email address.
There are several types of spam: junk mail, non-commercial, offensive and
pornographic, and scams, just to name a few. The most common type is junk
email—mass email from legitimate businesses advertising their products.
10
Although the emails may be legitimate, they are still unsolicited. Non-commercial
spam consists of messages without commercial motive, such as chain letters,
urban legends, and jokes. The emails require the recipient to forward the message
to friends in order to receive good fortune. Offensive and pornographic spam
direct the recipient to an adult website, while spam scams are fraudulent
15
messages designed to swindle people out of personal information for the
purposes of identity theft or criminal activities.
The most obvious negative effect of spam is irritation. It is very annoying to
get unsolicited email. However, if the only effect of spam were irritation, it would
not be such a problem. There are other effects of spamming. Since anyone’s email
20
can be used by spammers, it is very possible that a child may receive either
pornographic images or links to such sites on the Internet. Seniors
may be cheated out of their life savings by schemes
spread by spam. In addition, spam may also
increase the cost of Internet service. Many ISPs
(Internet Service Providers) have to increase their
25
bandwidth and server capacity to handle all
2
6
9
14
15
26
26
unsolicited --- not requested
eliminate --- to get rid of
legitimate --- real
fraudulent --- fake
swindle --- to deceive
bandwidth --- available space
capacity --- ability to hold information
41
47
49
disposable --- able to be thrown away
authenticate --- to verify
circumvent --- to get around; to fool
the spam. This costs more money and may result in higher fees for customers.
There are various ways for people to fight spam. One way is to complain
directly to the ISP used by the spammer. Most ISPs will cancel the spammer’s
30
account if they receive complaints. However, this option is becoming less and
less practical because spammers quickly change ISPs and email addresses. By
the time an ISP gets complaints about spam, the spammer has already moved on
to another one. Another way is to file a complaint with the appropriate
government agency enforcing spam laws. In the United States, the FTC (Federal
35
Trade Commission) investigates all fraudulent spam email. The most obvious
way to fight spam is to make sure that personal email addresses do not become
publicly available. Email addresses should never be placed on public websites
and should only be given out to trusted people and organizations.
Spammers usually get email addresses from newsgroup postings or web-based
40
discussion boards, so if a person wants to use either of these services, it is a good
idea to open up a free disposable email account. If the account is bombarded
by spam, it can be closed and another one opened. Another way is to “munge”
one’s email address. “Munging” is altering the email address so that it can be
read by people but cannot be collected automatically by spammers. For example,
45
catjam@home.net can be written as catjamathomedotnet or c@tj@m at home_
net. Although a person reading the email address can guess the right address, a
computer program will not be able to authenticate the email address. Since
spammers often use software that “guesses” common email addresses, coming
up with a unique email address is another way of circumventing spammers.
50
Finally, software that filters spam can also be used. Some ISPs use filtering
methods as well. However, with filtering, there is always the possibility that valid
email may be removed by mistake. Whatever method is used, the fact remains
that until there are stronger laws against spamming and more effective ways to
punish spammers, spam will continue to annoy, irritate, and
55
disturb.
Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds
651 words
19
20
R eading Comprehension
AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the
reading.
1. ____ Not having an email address is the only way to eliminate spam.
2. ____ Junk email is the most common type of spam.
3. ____ The best way to fight spam is to complain to the spammer’s ISP.
4. ____“Munging” an email address can help reduce spam.
B Choose the best answer according to the reading.
1. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a type of spam?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Ponzi schemes
Scams
Non-commercial
Offensive and pornographic
2. What is the most obvious way to fight spam?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Complain to the FTC
Keep your email address private
Munge your email address
Buy a special spam filter
3. Why is spam dangerous for children?
a.
b.
c.
d.
They could be cheated out of life savings.
It could bring them bad luck.
They could receive pornographic images.
It could steal their identity.
CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write
them on the lines provided.
1.What is non-commercial spam?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
2. Why is a disposable email account a good idea?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
S ummary
Fill in the blanks in the table with the sentences below according to the
category they belong to. Use each sentence only once.
Types of Spam
Junk Mail
Non-commercial
Scam
A.Dear recipient: Forward this email to ten friends, and something good will
happen to you today.
B.Is your job irritating you? Relax! Marissa’s Massage Parlor is now open! Come in
for a discounted massage.
C. Congratulations! You’ve just won $100,000 in the British lottery!
D. Please send us your bank account and credit card numbers.
E. Try Wong’s famous Won Ton today.
F.You must send this identical message to three friends, or the chain will be broken,
and you will be cheated out of your chance to have good luck.
V ocabulary Extension
Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in
the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list.
Use each word or phrase only once.
virus
subject line
phishing
block
bulk mail
opt out
1.People who want to avoid spam can ___________ of receiving certain types of
email.
2. Spam email might contain a(n) ___________ that could disable your computer.
3.___________ is a type of spam scam that directs recipients to a fake homepage
of a real organization, such as a bank.
4. Most spam is sent to thousands of users at once as electronic ___________.
5. It’s often easy to identify spam email by looking at the tag in the ___________.
6.Many email programs come with a provision that allows the user to
___________ spam emails.
21
22
S upplemental Reading
The Problem with Spammers
Track 6
T
5
10
15
20
25
he reason for spamming is to make money, but ironically,
most people seem to hate spam and usually delete it
without reading it. Thus, it is hard to see how spamming
could prove profitable. There is a difference, however, between
the companies who advertise with spam and the people who do
the actual spamming; the company is less likely to make money
than the spammer.
For example, a business that wants to advertise its products
or services with spam might be inexperienced, so it will typically contract with a
“professional” spammer to do the work for them. Spammers usually charge a lot
of money for their services, perhaps $375 to spam 500,000 addresses. Because
spammers do not need much money to work—only a dialup Internet account, a
program to send spam, and a list of email addresses—they will almost always
make a profit, whether the company that hired them does or not.
The people who write spam-sending software may not be spammers
themselves, but their software makes it very easy to send spam. The software is
simple and easy to write, and it sells for exorbitant fees. One well-known
spam-sending program costs almost $300, which is much more than the time
and effort spent designing such a program would usually merit.
Spammers can also make money individually by defrauding the people who
receive their spam. A common ruse is to promise some product or service for a
very low price, but then refuse to deliver it after the customer has paid for it.
Clearly, such types of spammers are not good citizens, and honest companies
should not become involved with them. If they do, they can lose not only money
but also loyal customers. In cases like these, only the spammers profit.
Discussion
Discuss the following questions.
1.In your view, is spamming an effective way for businesses to advertise?
Why or why not?
2.What role, if any, do you think the government should take to protect
people against illegal spammers?
U N I T
2
C o m p u t e r s & Te c hnology 2
Using the Body
for Identification
Pre-Reading Questions
Think about the following questions.
1. Do you know of anyone who has been a victim of identity theft?
2. How safe do you feel when you shop online or travel on an airplane?
3.What are some pros and cons of using parts of the body as identification?
Vocabulary Preview
Match each word with the correct definition.
1. advocacy
a. to examine with a critical eye
2. scanner
b. a slight, difficult-to-notice feature
3. scrutinize
c. danger; risk
4. mimic
d. a device used to examine minute details
5. subtlety
e. to imitate
6. jeopardy
f. the act of supporting a cause
24
Track 7
Using the Body for Identification
T
echnological advances have undoubtedly changed the
way we engage in commerce and travel, as well as the
way we live our lives. The Internet allows us to shop
from locations all over the globe without ever showing our faces
5
or even talking to another person. We can buy and sell stocks
online and move enormous amounts of money from one bank
account to another at the touch of a button. Worldwide travel is
commonplace with people crossing borders on a regular basis.
In short, the world is more accessible than it has ever been, but at a cost.
10
How secure are our online transactions? With so many people crossing borders
every day, how do we know we’re not letting dangerous people into our country?
Improving security is a top issue for many governments and consumer advocacy
groups around the world. Biometric identification technology is being
developed to recognize individuals, both to protect their own interests and to
15
identify criminals.
Biometric identification is not a new phenomenon. Fingerprints are the
classic biometric identifier. Police dust a crime scene for fingerprints and then
compare their findings to a database of fingerprints of known criminals or to
fingerprints of a known suspect. But fingerprints can also be used for security.
20
A fingerprint scanner can be used to grant personnel access to certain areas.
Physiological biometrics, such as fingerprints, utilize people’s physical
characteristics to identify or recognize them. Other examples include face, palm,
and iris identification. Scanning these physical features ensures that the person
being scanned is who he or she claims to be. Unlike a personal identification
25
number, which is used to access bank accounts, biometric identifiers cannot be
stolen and then used by a thief.
Behavioral biometrics can also be used to identify people. Certain behaviors
13
biometric --- pertaining to a measurement of physical characteristics
identification --- the act of determining who someone is
16
fingerprints --- unique markings on the tips of the fingers
21
physiological --- having to do with physical or chemical properties of
a living thing
23
iris --- the colorful portion of the eye surrounding the pupil
13
29
signature --- a mark representing a person’s name, as written
by that person
38
verification --- the act of making sure something is true
44
forge --- to imitate dishonestly; to try to pass off something fake
as something real
47
ethical --- moral
50
privacy --- the state of being private
are unique to individuals, such as their voices or the way they type. The classic
behavioral biometric is the signature. Signatures are used as a guarantee, but
30
with obvious problems. Signatures can be copied, for one thing. Also, people
don’t usually scrutinize a signature until a problem is apparent. A person’s voice
might be more difficult to mimic. In fact, voice recognition systems do more
than just recognize the voice; they recognize the way a person talks. There are
subtleties in the way a person speaks that would be very difficult to imitate.
35
Typing patterns, likewise, would be very difficult to observe to the point of
mimicking them.
Biometric identification has two potential uses—identification and identity
verification. Identification occurs when biometric information is used to
discover the identity of the person it belongs to. Again,
40
fingerprints at a crime scene would be an example.
Identity verification is the process of making sure a
person is who he or she claims to be. Today, we use
passports to verify our identity when crossing borders.
However, passports can be stolen or forged, while an effective biometric
45
identification system would be difficult to fool. It would be much more difficult
to forge a fingerprint or an iris than it would be to forge a passport.
There are also ethical considerations in developing biometric identification
technology. It has the potential to protect consumers when engaging in trade as well
as to identify would-be criminals before they can do any harm. However, some
50
worry that individuals’ privacy would be in jeopardy if personal information
were to get into the wrong hands. Another danger is that personal information
could be abused by authorities. When governments have access to people’s
personal information, they can use it to control the population. It goes without
saying that people’s freedom and right to privacy will have to be protected as
55
technology advances.
Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds
607 words
25
26
R eading Comprehension
AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the
reading.
1. ____ Biometric identification is brand new.
2. ____ Physiological biometrics can identify people by the way they type.
3. ____ It is difficult to mimic the way a person speaks.
4. ____ Biometric identification can be used to verify identity.
B Choose the best answer according to the reading.
1. All of the following are examples of physiological biometrics EXCEPT
a.
b.
c.
d.
Fingerprints
Voices
Faces
Palms
2. Why is biometric identification important for governments?
a.
b.
c.
d.
To improve security
To abuse individuals
To attack other countries
To buy and sell stocks
3. What is identity verification?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Using a signature as a guarantee
Discovering who a fingerprint belongs to
Watching how a person behaves
Making sure people are who they claim to be
CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write
them on the lines provided.
1. Why are biometric identifiers better than personal identification numbers?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
2. What are two potential uses of biometric identification?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
S ummary
Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided
below. Select THREE answer choices to complete the summary.
First Sentence: Biometric identification technology is being developed to recognize
individuals.
A.Biometric identification, such as fingerprint scanners, can help protect citizens
and capture criminals.
B.Police have used fingerprints as a basic technique to identify criminals for hundreds
of years.
C.Voice recognition systems scrutinize a person’s voice and speech patterns, which
contain subtleties that are difficult to mimic.
D.Biometric identification includes both physiological identifiers, like fingerprints,
and behavioral identifier like signatures.
E.Governments frequently abuse this type of identification to control their citizenry
and to deny rights to foreigners.
F.Advocacy groups are concerned that biometric identification will put individual
privacy rights in jeopardy.
V ocabulary Extension
Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in
the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list.
Use each word or phrase only once.
terrorism
impersonate
chip
fake ID
holograph
counterfeit
1.Young people often use a ___________, such as a driver’s license, which makes
them appear older.
2.One day, people might be identified by a computer ___________ implanted
in their skin.
3. Identity theft helps a thief ___________ someone else.
4.Most countries use a(n) ___________ to ensure that identity cards and money
are genuine.
5. Biometric identification can help guard countries against ___________.
6. Criminals can pass through airports using ___________ identification.
27
28
S upplemental Reading
Face Recognition Technology
W
Track 8
e generally recognize people by their faces, or
photos, which are typically unique to individuals.
However, this type of identification can be faulty.
People’s appearance changes, and we do not tend to scrutinize
5
photos very closely. Today, biometric technology is being
developed to perfect the process of facial identification. Face recognition technology
can scan the face for certain features and measure the distances between different
parts of the face. These things do not change, so growing a beard or wearing
glasses will not fool the scanner. Since it is very difficult to mimic another person’s
10
face, this type of identification is quite reliable.
Facial recognition presents a risk of invasion of people’s privacy. Face scanners
can be placed in public places, and people’s images can be scanned without their
knowledge. This allows their movements to be tracked and can also give criminals
information that will help them victimize people.
15
On the other hand, security can be improved by using face scanners in public
places. For example, at a large sporting event, cameras can be used to monitor
the crowds, secretly capturing images of individuals. These images can then be
compared to photos of known terrorists. If a match comes up, the terrorist can
be located and removed from the premises before he or she can do any harm.
20
One problem with this idea is that the accuracy of face scanners diminishes when
they are tracking people in large crowds. Because the people aren’t posing, the
angle may be off. This increases the chances of false positives, putting people’s
rights in jeopardy.
Discussion
Discuss the following questions.
1.When should a government’s right to protect its citizens take priority
over a citizen’s right to privacy?
2.Do you think people have a right to privacy when they are in public
places, such as parks and sporting events?
U N I T
3
H e a l t h & M e dic ine 1
Xenotransplantation
Pre-Reading Questions
Think about the following questions.
1.Have you ever heard of anyone whose life has been saved by an organ
transplant?
2.How would you feel if a friend or family member received an animal’s
organ to help them live?
3.Is it right to raise animals to kill so that humans can live?
Vocabulary Preview
Match each word with the correct definition.
1. sophisticated
a. highly specialized
2. fatal
b. a particular way of accomplishing something
3. susceptible
c. deadly
4. procedure
d. to kill
5. replicate
e. to copy or duplicate
6. slaughter
f. vulnerable; capable of being affected
30
Xenotransplantation
O
Track 9
rgan transplants have saved millions of lives around the world.
Over the years, transplants have become much more sophisticated
and now have a very high success rate. The problem is that it is
difficult to find organs. People can be on waiting lists for years before receiving
5
their much-needed organ, and many die while waiting.
The problem is getting worse, as the demand is increasing while supply is
decreasing. The reason for this trend is that the population is getting bigger
while accidental deaths are decreasing. Most organ donors are victims of car
crashes; they were healthy people with healthy organs who were unfortunately
10
killed. As safety standards improve and as law enforcement more effectively
deters dangerous driving, fewer people are dying in car crashes. This is, of
course, a positive development, except that it decreases the number of healthy
organs available to those who need them. So the medical community is now
looking to the animal kingdom for organs that can be used in humans.
No doctor to date has successfully performed an animal-to-human organ
15
transplant, known as xenotransplantation. The first major concern is the
possibility that the human’s immune system will reject the organ. The human
immune system is programmed to reject and attack foreign bodies in order to
keep the body healthy. Rejection was a problem in the early days of human-to20
human organ transplants as well. But over the years anti-rejection medicines
have been developed with tremendous success. These drugs probably will not
work by themselves when the organ of a different
species is introduced, so further measures need to
be taken. Genetic Modification of the organ
25
seems to be one way to reduce the risk of organ
rejection. For example, pigs, which are the ideal
1
organ --- a part of the body with a specific function necessary for survival
transplant --- the moving of an organ or tissue from one body to another
10
law enforcement --- officials, such as police, who enforce and uphold laws
16
xenotransplantation --- a transplant utilizing an organ from a different
species than the recipient
17
immune system --- the system in the body that protects it from disease
24
genetic modification --- the altering of genes for a specific purpose
1
31
32
42
47
clone --- to create an exact genetic copy
breed --- to mate in order to produce offspring
receptor --- part of the surface of a cell which allows
molecules to enter
tissue --- any part of a living or dead body
candidate for xenotransplantation, have a gene called alpha-gal,
which can be modified to trick the human immune system into
recognizing it as human. The procedure has shown success in
30
pig-to-monkey transplants, which makes it promising for humans.
After having altered the gene, scientists could then clone the pigs
with the altered gene and eventually breed them conventionally.
Pigs breed quickly and have large litters, so a large supply of organs
ready for transplants could be produced this way.
35
A second concern is the possibility that the donor organ could contain viruses
that would infect the human body. Anti-rejection drugs, which would have to be
used post-operation to ensure that the body continues to accept the new organ,
suppress the immune system. This makes the person more susceptible to infection.
Pigs’ DNA contains a virus that is harmless to pigs but could prove fatal to humans.
40
Fortunately, scientists have identified a type of pig that does not carry this virus
as part of its DNA. Scientists are also working on ways to prevent the virus from
replicating by identifying the receptors that allow the virus to enter a cell.
Another animal that seems likely to be a candidate for xenotransplantation
is the baboon because it is genetically very similar to humans. This decreases the
45
likelihood of rejection. In fact, baboon-to-human transplants have been attempted,
without success. The patients died of virus infections, however, and not because the
body rejected the foreign tissue. The main problem with baboon organs is that
they carry many viruses. Furthermore, unlike pigs, baboons reproduce slowly,
like humans. They do not have large litters, so it would be difficult to breed the
50
numbers of baboons that would be necessary to meet the demand for organ
transplants. Another advantage of using pigs is that they do not pose the moral
dilemma that baboons do. Of course, some animal activists will argue that it is
always wrong to kill an animal for the benefit of humans. But given that pigs are
already raised for slaughter, the idea of using them to save human lives will not
55
present a new ethical issue.
Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds
653 words
31
32
R eading Comprehension
AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the
reading.
1. ____ It is often difficult to find organs for transplants.
2. ____ Most organ donors die from heart attacks.
3. ____There have been several successful animal-to-human organ
transplants.
4. ____ Baboons are genetically similar to humans.
B Choose the best answer according to the reading.
1. Which of the following is true of organ transplants?
a.
b.
c.
d.
They are not very sophisticated.
They do not help save lives.
They are usually successful.
They are very common.
2. What is the first major concern about xenotransplantation?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Virus infection
Organ rejection
Gene alteration
Moral dilemma
3. What is the main problem with baboon organs?
a.
b.
c.
d.
They reproduce slowly.
Human bodies reject them.
They have lots of viruses.
Activists object to using them.
CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write
them on the lines provided.
1.What makes pigs the ideal candidates for xenotransplantation?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
2. Why is it an advantage that baboons and humans are genetically similar?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
S ummary
Fill in the blanks with words from the list. Use each word only once.
sophisticated
fatal
susceptible
procedure
replicating
slaughter
Organ transplants have become more 1 ___________ as technology has
improved. Today, scientists are on the verge of successful xenotransplantation—the
transplant of animal organs into human bodies. Pigs are good candidates for this
2 ___________ because some of them do not have a common virus that usually
proves 3 ___________ to humans. Also, since pigs are typically raised for
4 ___________ , most people do not mind killing them to save human lives. Still,
xenotransplantation is tricky because of viruses and because animal organs are
5 ___________ to rejection by human bodies. Scientists continue to work on ways
to keep harmful viruses from 6 ___________ after transplants.
V ocabulary Extension
Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in
the reading. Fill in each blank with the best words or phrases from the
list. Use each word or phrase only once.
operation
surgery
surgeon
animal rights
kidney
registry
1.People who advocate for ___________ believe that animals should not be killed
for human research.
2. Organ transplants require a(n) ___________.
3. Someone who has had a heart attack might need open-heart ___________.
4. One organ for which there is a great need for donors is the ___________.
5. A(n) ___________ is a specialized doctor who performs operations.
6.People waiting for organ transplants put their names on a national list, called
a(n) ___________.
33
34
S upplemental Reading
Building Organs from Stem Cells
S
Track 10
tem cells are cells that can replicate themselves. In
newly fertilized eggs, they create the different tissues
that make up the human body, including the organs,
bones, muscles, and skin. Embryonic stems cells, derived from
5
embryos, develop into various tissues, while adult stem cells help repair tissues
once the body has been formed.
Stem cell research promises hope to thousands of people in failing health
because stem cells could be used to create therapies for people with serious diseases
and debilitating injuries. But despite the potential health benefits, stem cell
10
research is a hotly debated topic.
Embryonic stem cells seem to hold the most potential for therapy, but to
use embryonic stem cells, the embryo has to be destroyed. Some believe that it is
wrong to intentionally destroy a human embryo, because it is a human being.
Proponents of stem cell research, however, say that these embryos are being
15
destroyed anyway. Most embryos for research come from those used in in-vitro
fertilization, wherein there are often extra embryos that are destroyed or frozen
indefinitely, but never used.
The main argument in favor of stem cell research is its potential value. If it
saves thousands of people, it is worth the cost of the embryos, proponents claim.
20
But opponents counter that adult stem cells can be just as effective in creating
therapies. Perhaps the answer lies in obtaining stem cells from embryos without
destroying the embryo, a technique that is being studied. However, the use of
embryos for research is currently banned in many countries, making progress
difficult.
Discussion
Discuss the following questions.
1.What do you think of destroying embryos for use in stem-cell research?
2. What types of diseases would you like to see a cure developed for? Why?
U N I T
3
H e a l t h & M e dic ine 2
A Surge in
Cosmetic Surgery
Pre-Reading Questions
Think about the following questions.
1.Do you know of anyone who has ever had surgery to alter their
appearance? How well did it work?
2.Should people have surgery simply to improve their looks? Why or why not?
3.If you could change one thing about your body, what would it be and
why?
Vocabulary Preview
Match each word with its correct definition.
1. temporarily
a. able to buy
2. participant
b. a ten-year period
3. competitive
c. approval
4. affordable
d. a person who takes part in something
5. decade
e. trying hard to be more successful than others
6. acceptance
f. for a limited time
36
Track 11
A Surge in Cosmetic Surgery
A
ccording to statistics gathered by the American Society for Aesthetic
Plastic Surgery, 11.7 million cosmetic surgical and nonsurgical procedures
were performed in the United States in 2007. Americans spent just
over $13 billion on cosmetic procedures—$8.3 billion for surgical procedures
5
and $4.7 billion for nonsurgical procedures. Since 1997, the overall number of
cosmetic procedures has increased 457 percent. The top three surgical procedures
for women were breast enlargement, liposuction, and eyelid surgery, while
the top three surgical procedures for men were liposuction, eyelid surgery, and
rhinoplasty (nose surgery).
Liposuction is the removal of excess fat deposits from beneath the skin. The
10
doctor inserts a cannula (a small tube) into the skin, and a vacuum-like machine
removes the fat. People are usually given general anesthesia for liposuction or
local anesthesia if they’re only having one area done. Many doctors insist that
liposuction is not a cure for obesity. It should be used when diet and exercise do not
15
reduce fat in certain “trouble spots” of the body. That is why the ideal candidate is
physically fit, exercises regularly, and is not more than twenty pounds overweight.
Liposuction can cost from $2,000 to more than $10,000, depending on the
number of areas treated, the type of area treated (body site), and the amount of
fat to be removed from those areas. The procedure may be performed on the
abdomen, hips, thighs, calves, arms, buttocks, back, neck,
20
or face.
In addition to the three most popular surgical procedures,
the number-one nonsurgical procedure favored by both
women and men is Botox injections. Botox is a drug
made from a toxin produced by the same bacteria that
25
causes botulism (food poisoning). The Botox injections
7
breast enlargement --- an operation to make breasts bigger
liposuction --- an operation to remove fat
11
vacuum-like --- resembling the actions of a vacuum cleaner
12
anesthesia --- a drug used to render people unconscious during
operations
20
abdomen --- the midsection of the body
7
36
baby boomer --- a person who was born soon after World War II
scarring --- the marks on the body left by operations
42
precaution --- a step taken beforehand to improve safety
44
board-certified --- having professional credentials
48
cosmetic surgery --- an operation to improve appearance
39
temporarily freeze the muscles that cause wrinkles, giving the
skin a smoother look for about four months. The injections
are becoming increasingly popular, and some people even
30
throw “Botox parties.” The party is a social gathering at
which a doctor injects the participants with Botox. These
injections can cost anywhere from $300 to $1,000 per shot.
In 2007, 2,445,656 women and 329,519 men had Botox
injections.
35
There are many reasons why the number of cosmetic surgeries is increasing.
As the Baby Boomer generation ages, its desire to look younger is increasing
the demand for all cosmetic surgeries. Baby Boomers think that looking younger
will keep them more competitive in the workplace, too. With improvements in
medicine and technology, surgeons can perform procedures with less scarring
40
in a shorter amount of time, which makes these operations more appealing.
Many customers are also becoming better informed about the procedures
and precautions they must take before having cosmetic surgery, which leads to
better and safer results for cosmetic surgeries. These precautions include making
sure that their doctor is a board-certified surgeon. There are many websites
45
where the public can get information about plastic surgery, including risks, lists
of board-certified surgeons, as well as before-and-after photos of people who
have had surgery, which increases people’s confidence in the procedures.
Another reason for the increase in cosmetic surgeries is that they are
becoming more affordable. Costs have decreased somewhat over the past
50
decade. Doctors have also become smarter with their business. Many now offer
financing for people who want surgeries but cannot afford to pay all of the
money up front.
Finally, social acceptance of cosmetic surgery is also growing. In a recent
survey, approximately 55 percent of Americans said that they approve of the
55
procedure. About 79 percent of U.S. men and women would not feel embarrassed if
their friends and family knew that they had cosmetic surgery.
Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds
610 words
37
38
R eading Comprehension
AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the
reading.
1. ____ Since 1997, the number of cosmetic procedures has increased 47 percent.
2. ____ L
iposuction was the most popular cosmetic surgery for both men and
women.
3. ____ Botox injections cost $2,000 to $10,000 per shot.
4. ____ C
osts for cosmetic surgeries have increased somewhat over the past ten
years.
B Choose the best answer according to the reading.
1. What do doctors say about liposuction?
a.
b.
c.
d.
It is not a cure for obesity.
It should be the first option to reduce fat.
It removes excess fat beneath the skin.
It is only for those more than 20 pounds overweight.
2. How long do the effects of Botox injections last?
a.
b.
c.
d.
For a lifetime
For forty days
For four months
For fourteen years
3. What is one reason for the increase in cosmetic surgeries?
a.
b.
c.
d.
They are free for those who can’t afford them.
Doctors recommend them for nearly all patients.
Scars are now considered a type of fashion.
They have become more socially acceptable.
CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write
them on the lines provided.
1. When should liposuction be used?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
2. What is making cosmetic surgeries more appealing?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
S ummary
Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided
below. Select THREE answer choices to complete the summary.
First Sentence: The number of cosmetic surgeries in the United States has
increased by more than 400 percent in the past decade.
A.Liposuction and Botox injections are two of the most popular kinds of cosmetic
procedures for both women and men.
B.Baby Boomers, who want to look younger and be more competitive at work, are
increasing the number of participants for all types of cosmetic surgeries.
C.The cost of liposuction ranges from $2,000 to more than $10,000, depending on
the number and types of areas treated.
D.Cosmetic surgery has become more affordable and safer over the past decade,
causing much less scarring than when it first began.
E.In 2007, almost 2.5 million women and nearly 330,000 men had Botox
injections, which temporarily smooth wrinkles, often at special parties.
F.Social acceptance has also risen, with nearly 55 percent of Americans saying they
approve of plastic surgery.
V ocabulary Extension
Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in
the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list.
Use each word or phrase only once.
nose job
vain
disfigured
superficial
syringe
poll
1.A recent ___________ showed that 89 percent of the respondents wish they
made more money.
2.Many accuse people who have cosmetic surgery of being ___________.
3.Some say cosmetic surgery should be used only for people who are
___________.
4. A ___________ is used to administer an injection.
5.“Your face would look better if you had a ___________,” he told her.
6.“Physical beauty is only ___________,” she said.
39
40
S upplemental Reading
Smiling Around the World
Track 12
P
5
10
15
20
25
lastic surgery can be helpful for correcting birth defects in children. An
organization called Operation Smile provides reconstructive plastic
surgery to poor children all over the world. Reconstructive surgery is
performed on abnormal parts of the body caused by birth defects, developmental
abnormalities, injury, infection, tumors, or disease. The surgery is generally
performed to improve function but may also be done to give a child a normal
appearance.
Operation Smile provides children born with cleft lips, cleft palates, and
other facial deformities with free reconstructive surgeries. Doctors and nurses
from around the world volunteer their time for two weeks on a medical mission.
During a typical international medical mission, 300-500 children receive full
medical assessments, and 100-150 children are surgically treated.
This organization was founded in 1982 by Dr. William Magee Jr., an
American plastic surgeon, and his wife, Kathleen Magee, a nurse and clinical
social worker. The couple traveled to the Philippines with a group of medical
volunteers to repair children’s cleft lips and cleft palates. The Magees saw the
need, and Operation Smile was born. The goal of the charity is to improve the
lives of children by improving their appearance, building up their self-esteem,
and restoring their dignity.
Since 1982, more than 120,000 children and young adults with facial
deformities have been treated by thousands of volunteers
worldwide. In addition, thousands of medical professionals
have been trained globally. Operation Smile currently has a
presence in fifty countries and has nearly 4,000 credentialed
medical volunteers ready to donate their time and talent.
Discussion
Discuss the following questions.
1.Why do you think people choose to volunteer time, sacrifice money, and
travel thousands of miles to help others?
2.What’s a fair way to decide who qualifies for free medical treatment and
who doesn’t?
U N I T
4
Social Issues 1
Soft Drugs in
Amsterdam
Pre-Reading Questions
Think about the following questions.
1.What is your opinion on the drug laws in your country? Are they too
lenient or too strict?
2. Have you, or people you know, ever used marijuana?
3.Are some drugs less dangerous than others? How can we tell which
ones are worse than others?
Vocabulary Preview
Match each word with the correct definition.
1. legalize
a. use
2. consumption
b. to give credit
3. addiction
c. to allow by law
4. prohibit
d. a strong desire to do or have something regularly
5. toleration
e. a condition of allowing
6. attribute
f. to ban; outlaw
42
Soft Drugs in Amsterdam
I
Track 13
n almost every country, citizens have strong opinions
concerning drug legislation. Proponents of legalizing
drugs believe the consumption or sale of some or all
drugs should be legalized. They say that “soft” drugs, such
5
as marijuana, are no more dangerous than alcohol and
advocate for the legalization of small amounts of drugs for personal consumption.
Anti-drug activists, on the other hand, caution against the use of those drugs to
both individuals and to society, insisting that the legalization of drugs increases
crime, drug abuse, and addiction. What, then, is the truth?
The Netherlands has a unique approach to its drug policy. It is directed by the
10
idea that every human being should be able to make their own decisions regarding
personal health. The Dutch drug policy recognizes that drug use cannot be completely
eliminated. It also recognizes that there are legitimate medical reasons for drug use,
such as smoking marijuana to diminish nausea associated with chemotherapy
15
treatment. Therefore, it distinguishes between soft drugs, such as marijuana,
and hard drugs such as heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamines, which often
lead to addictions. All hard drugs are prohibited, but laws permit soft drugs to
be sold in coffee shops and used in “hash bars,” as long as the buyer is at least
eighteen years old and no more than five grams are sold in a single transaction.
What are the results of these liberal drug policies? Studies show that
20
decriminalization of the possession of soft drugs for personal use and the
toleration of sales of controlled substances have not resulted in higher levels of
use among young people. The extent and nature of the use of soft drugs does not
differ much from other Western countries. As for hard drugs, the numbers of
25
addicts in the Netherlands are low compared with the rest of Europe. And they
are considerably lower than those in France, the United Kingdom, Italy, Spain,
2
drug legislation --- laws pertaining to the regulation of drugs
proponent --- a person in favor of something
14
nausea --- a sick feeling in the stomach
14
chemotherapy treatment --- radiation designed to kill cancerous tumors
16
methamphetamine --- a type of drug used as a stimulant
21
decriminalization --- the act of making a crime no longer punishable by law
2
35
40
50
53
intravenous --- pertaining to injection into a vein
intervention --- the act of interfering with a condition to modify it
sterile --- clean
syringe --- a device used with a needle to inject drugs
and Switzerland.
Dutch rates of drug use and addiction are lower, in every category, than
those of the United States, even though the US aggressively tries to prevent drug
30
use by setting severe penalties for using or selling illegal drugs, even soft ones.
Marijuana use in the Netherlands is half that of the United States—2.5 percent
in the Netherlands vs. 5 percent in the US—and lifetime heroin use in the
Netherlands is less than half of that in the US (0.3 percent vs. 1.1 percent).
Drug-related deaths and the spread of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency
35
Syndrome) among IV (intravenous) drug users are also lower in the Netherlands
compared to the US, or even to other European countries such as France,
Germany, Spain, and Sweden. Overall, the Netherlands has the fewest drugrelated deaths in all of Europe.
Although the lower drug statistics may be attributed to liberal policies, the
40
Netherlands places a high priority on intervention and prevention of drug use.
For addicts who are Dutch citizens (or from the Dutch Antilles, Morocco, or
Surinam, a former Dutch colony), there are methadone programs to help them
quit. These programs have minimal requirements for admission and make very
few demands on the clients. This encourages many addicts to seek help. Once
45
addicts are enrolled, it provides the government an opportunity to share important
information on how to prevent the spread of diseases such as HIV (Human
Immunodeficiency Virus), AIDS, and Hepatitis B. Because
these diseases are typically spread by dirty needles, the
Dutch also have a needle exchange program. Intravenous
50
drug users trade in old needles for new, sterile ones.
Amsterdam, the Netherlands’s largest city, currently
operates fifteen needle-exchange units. Hundreds of
thousands of used syringes are exchanged for clean ones
every year, which is extremely helpful in preventing the
55
spread of diseases.
Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds
624 words
43
44
R eading Comprehension
AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the
reading.
1. ____Marijuana is classified as a “soft” drug.
2. ____ Hard drugs are prohibited in the Netherlands.
3. ____The Netherlands has the highest number of drug-related deaths in
Europe.
4. ____ All Dutch drug addicts can take a special program to help them quit.
B Choose the best answer according to the reading.
1. All of the following are examples of hard drugs EXCEPT
a.
b.
c.
d.
Methamphetamines
Heroin
Cocaine
Alcohol
2. Who can buy soft drugs in the Netherlands?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Any Dutch citizen
Anyone with enough money
Anyone age 18 and older
Anyone buying five grams or more
3. What percentage of people use marijuana in the Netherlands?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Two-and-a-half percent
Five percent
Twenty-five percent
Fifty percent
CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write
them on the lines provided.
1.What is the idea behind the Netherlands’s drug policy?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
2. Why do methadone programs encourage addicts to seek help?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
S ummary
Fill in the blanks with phrases from the list. Use each phrase only once.
addiction rate
attributed to
consumption of
compassion for
give up
to legalize
In many countries, there are campaigns 1 ___________ drugs. The Netherlands
is one country that has allowed legal 2 ___________ soft drugs, such as marijuana,
while prohibiting hard drugs, such as cocaine and heroin, which can lead to addiction.
As a result, the country’s 3 ___________ is lower than other countries that do not
tolerate any drug use. These statistics can be 4 ___________ not only the
Netherlands’s liberal policies but also its 5 ___________ hard-drug addicts. Special
programs encourage addicts to 6 ___________ drugs, while also providing them
with clean needles to prevent the spread of disease.
V ocabulary Extension
Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in
the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list.
Use each word or phrase only once.
pot
shoot up
withdrawal
get high
coke
war on drugs
1. Hard-drug addicts go through a period of ___________ while trying to quit.
2. People like to ___________ on drugs because it makes them feel good.
3. ___________ is one of the most common slang names for marijuana.
4. Heroin users often ___________ with a needle and syringe.
5. The US is waging a(n) ___________ to help control illegal substances.
6. This type of ___________ does not refer to the popular soft drink.
45
46
S upplemental Reading
Tough Turkey
T
Track 14
urkey is one of many countries that has suffered from
problems due to drug abuse in the last few decades.
Part of the reason for this is the country’s location
along the Balkan Route, a popular path for drug trafficking.
5
Recently, Turkey has taken a tougher stance regarding
substance abuse and is considered to be a global anti-drug
trafficking leader. In fact, Turkey is listed as the second most
successful country, after China, in exposing illegal drug trade.
Penalties for drug offenses in Turkey are severe, and convicted offenders
10
can expect long jail sentences. Anyone caught with even a very small quantity of
drugs for personal use may be tried and could face six months to two years in
prison. Purchasing or selling larger amounts can result in prison sentences from
ten to twenty years, with inpatient treatment. Certain substances require an
enhanced punishment of twenty years imprisonment. Drug traffickers face the
15
most severe penalties of all: twenty years to life imprisonment and heavy fines.
As a result of its harsh drug penalties, Turkey has seen a drastic reduction
of substance abuse and now views drug abuse as a relatively small problem.
Marijuana (a drug considered to be the gateway to harder drug use) is most
prevalent, used by almost two percent of the population, followed by amphetamines
20
at 0.2 percent, opiates at 0.05 percent, and finally, cocaine at 0.03 percent.
Though recent numbers have revealed a slight increase in use of hard drugs
compared to other more industrialized European countries, the overall drug
usage and crime rate in Turkey remains very low.
Discussion
Discuss the following questions.
1.How important is it for countries to fight the illegal drug trade?
2.What are the laws and penalties regarding drug usage in your country?
U N I T
4
Social Issues 2
Morphine
Pre-Reading Questions
Think about the following questions.
1.Do you know anyone who has ever been addicted to drugs? What were
the consequences of their addiction?
2.Why do you suppose people like to use drugs, even when they know that
drugs are bad for their health?
3.What is the best way to help someone addicted to morphine or heroin?
Should the government help pay for their cure?
Vocabulary Preview
Match each word with the correct definition.
1. perceive
a. an intense longing or desire
2. advent
b. to become aware of through the senses
3. derivative
c. a coming into being or use
4. prescribe
d. a recurrence of symptoms after improvement
5. craving
e. a thing that comes from something else
6. relapse
f. to authorize medical prescriptions
48
Morphine
M
Track 15
orphine is a very potent drug known as an opiate that is used in
the field of medicine to relieve pain. Opiates naturally occur in
poppy seeds, or they can be synthetically manufactured. They
work on the area of the brain that perceives pain, thus reducing the patient’s
5
experience of it. Because it is such a strong drug, it is meant to be used only by
people in severe pain. This is because the side effects are significant, and the risk
of addiction is high. Morphine can be taken as needed for certain types of pain,
such as a bad injury, and it can also be administered continuously for relief of
chronic pain such as that experienced by cancer patients.
Friedrich Wilhelm Adam Sertürner was the German pharmacist who first
10
isolated morphine. He called it morphium after the Greek god of dreams. Although
it is not a hallucinogen, as the name might imply, it is more than just a pain
reliever. Morphine also produces a euphoric mental state and relieves anxiety.
As such, even people who do not suffer from chronic pain may find enjoyment
15
from morphine, making it a popular street drug. Before the advent of heroin, a
morphine derivative, morphine was commonly abused. But because heroin is more
potent and faster acting, it replaced morphine. Even today, when heroin addicts
have trouble finding their drug, they often use morphine as a substitute.
Interestingly, morphine was used early on to treat opium addiction,
20
and even alcoholism, until it was realized that it was more addictive
than both of those drugs.
Because it is so addictive, doctors must exercise caution when
prescribing morphine. When used to alleviate pain in people who are
dying, addiction is not a concern, and the drug can be used to make
25
the patient more comfortable during his or her final days. However,
1
potent --- very strong
opiate --- a drug derived from the poppy plant
3
synthetic --- artificial; made by chemical process
9
chronic --- continuous or recurring frequently
12
hallucinogen --- a substance that causes the user to see or hear things
that are not there
13 reliever --- a thing that brings respite
13
euphoric --- feeling intense happiness and excitement
1
26
analgesic --- a drug used to alleviate pain
withdrawal --- the state of being without a drug on which one is
dependent
50
alleviate --- to ease
28
when used as an analgesic in patients who are in severe pain but not dying,
precautions should be taken. Doses and frequency of doses should be closely
monitored, as well as the patient’s withdrawal symptoms. There are two main
indicators of addiction—withdrawal and tolerance. Tolerance occurs when a
30
patient needs more and more of a drug to achieve the same effects. Withdrawal
occurs when the body shows signs of needing the drug. In the case of morphine
this includes nausea, diarrhea, fever and chills, watery eyes, runny nose, headaches,
body ache, tremors, and irritability.
Not only is morphine physically addictive, it is also psychologically addictive.
35
A morphine addict, having gotten through eight to twelve days of withdrawal
without resorting to morphine use, is no longer physically addicted. The body
becomes accustomed to not having the drug and resumes normal functioning. The
cravings, however, will persist because the person has become psychologically
dependent on the drug. They crave it and have a difficult time functioning without
40
it. This can often lead to severe depression and anxiety. Many people have difficulty
sleeping and even develop amnesia. Self esteem is diminished as the person copes
with living life without the help of a drug.
Not surprisingly, relapse is very common among morphine addicts, particularly
if the factors in their lives that led them to drug abuse are not changed. A study of
45
morphine addiction in rats showed that if the rat’s environment was enriched after
removal of morphine doses, it more easily coped with psychological withdrawal.
Clearly, in treating morphine addiction, it is essential that the patient’s environment
is altered to one that does not encourage morphine use.
To summarize, morphine is a highly effective drug that can be used to
50
alleviate pain, but it should be used under the close supervision of a doctor.
The risk of addiction is high, and withdrawal is a painful process—the
psychological element of which can last a lifetime.
Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds
629 words
49
50
R eading Comprehension
AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the
reading.
1. ____Morphine is a type of opiate.
2. ____ Morphine was first isolated by a Greek pharmacist.
3. ____ Doctors must be careful in prescribing morphine to dying patients.
4. ____ Morphine is both physically and psychologically addictive.
B Choose the best answer according to the reading.
1. Which of the following is true of heroin?
a.
b.
c.
d.
It is less potent than morphine.
It is a hallucinogen.
It is derived from morphine.
It was named after a god.
2. Why must doctors use care in prescribing morphine?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Because it relieves anxiety
Because it is very addictive
Because it causes severe pain
Because it is very expensive
3. What causes morphine cravings?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Physical addiction
Psychological dependence
Depression and anxiety
Insomnia and amnesia
CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write
them on the lines provided.
1.How can doctors know when someone is addicted to morphine?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
2. How long does physical withdrawal from morphine addiction usually last?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
S ummary
Fill in the blanks with words from the list. Use each word only once.
perceives
prescribing
advent
cravings
derivative
relapse
Morphine and its 1 ___________, heroin, are powerful drugs that affect the
area of the brain which 2 ___________ pain. Doctors must be careful when
3 ___________ morphine because it is highly addictive. Morphine was a popular
street drug before the 4 ___________ of heroin, which is faster-acting and more
powerful. Morphine addicts often suffer a(n) 5 ___________ after their physical
addiction has been cured, caused by powerful psychological 6 ___________.
V ocabulary Extension
Here are six words that are related to the topic but are not in the reading.
Fill in each blank with the best word from the list. Use each word only
once.
opium
dealers
smack
hypodermic
tracks
kick
1. One common street name for heroin is ___________.
2. Morphine and heroin users inject the drugs with a syringe, or ___________ needle.
3. It takes lots of support to ___________ heroin addiction.
4.___________ is an addictive drug, which, like morphine, is made from poppy
seeds.
5. I ntravenous drug users have repeated needle-entry scars, called ___________,
along their veins.
6. Heroin is sold on the street by drug ___________.
51
52
S upplemental Reading
Should Drugs Be Legal?
A
Track 16
t age eighteen, Americans can legally purchase cigarettes, which contain
the drug nicotine. At twenty-one, they can buy and
drink beverages with alcohol, another type of drug. At
no age, however, are they legally allowed to buy and consume
5
other kinds of drugs, such as marijuana, cocaine, or heroin.
Many people think this policy is hypocritical. They wonder why
the government should choose which drugs to sanction and
which to ban.
The typical response is that drugs like marijuana and cocaine are unhealthy.
10
But so are cigarettes and alcohol. Smoking, for instance, is the leading cause of
death in the US, killing more than 440,000 people each year, according to the
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The CDC estimates that drinking
alcohol leads directly to about 35,000 annual deaths and indirectly to thousands
of others. Studies show that, used in moderation, marijuana and cocaine are no
15
more harmful than cigarettes and alcohol.
Practically, proponents of legalization say that legalizing drugs would
improve the economy. The US receives billions of dollars each year from taxes on
cigarettes and alcohol, while spending billions fighting the illegal drug trade. If the
government legalized drugs such as cocaine and marijuana, then it could tax them
20
and also stop spending money trying to catch and imprison those who sell them.
Of course, some people say that instead of legalizing all drugs, the government
should make all drugs illegal. The trouble is that, as long as the drugs are
available, people will choose to take them, legally or not.
Discussion
Discuss the following questions.
1.What is the drug policy in your country? Do you agree with it?
2.Should drugs be legalized? Why or why not?
U N I T
5
E n v i ro n m e n t a l Issue s 1
Campaigning for
the Earth
Pre-Reading Questions
Think about the following questions.
1.What, in your opinion, are the major problems facing the Earth’s
environment today?
2.What are the best ways to help solve these problems?
3.If people disagree with government decisions, how should they express
their disagreement? Why would this method be effective?
Vocabulary Preview
Match each word with the correct definition.
1. conduct
a. at risk
2. precede
b. unchangable
3. destruction
c. delicate
4. fragile
d. the state of being ruined
5. irreversible
e. to go or come before
6. endangered
f. to lead or direct
54
Campaigning for the Earth
I
Track 17
n 1971, a small boat set sail from Vancouver, Canada, to Amchitka, one of
the Aleutian Islands connecting North America and Asia. It was a gesture
of non-violent protest against a nuclear test that was to be conducted by the
United States government. The crew on the Phyllis Cormack included a doctor, a
5
geographer, an engineer, a political science teacher, a deep-sea diver, a social
worker, a photographer, and three journalists. Vehement opposition of the test
from politicians, scientists, government and environmental agencies, as well as
the residents of the Aleutian Islands, had been staged for months preceding the
launch of the Phyllis Cormack. Despite the protests, the US refused to change its
10
plans to conduct the test.
Sadly, the ship and her crew did not reach Amchitka and failed to prevent
the nuclear test from occurring. Although Amchitka had not had any inhabitants
since the mid-nineteenth century and there was no imminent danger to humans,
the explosion caused tremendous suffering to local wildlife. It also caused wide-scale
15
destruction of the island, including a crater more than one mile wide and sixty
feet deep. The voyage of the Phyllis Cormack did not succeed in stopping the
nuclear test, but this peaceful demonstration did have a very positive outcome.
It attracted world-wide attention and gave birth to the international movement
called Greenpeace.
Today, Greenpeace is an international, non-profit
20
organization with offices in more than forty countries
throughout Asia, Europe, North and South America,
and the Pacific. Its headquarters is in Amsterdam, the
Netherlands. Each office has its own board of directors
25
and agenda based on the unique needs of the region.
Greenpeace representatives from around the world meet
3
nuclear --- pertaining to or involving atomic weapons
stage --- to produce; to cause to happen
12
inhabitant --- one who lives in a specified place
17
demonstration --- protest
20
non-profit --- not trying to make money
25
agenda --- ideological plan
8
32
confrontation --- a clash; conflict
activist --- a person who acts for a cause
36
contaminant --- a thing that pollutes
53
logger --- a person who cuts down trees for a living
32
each year to discuss environmental issues and concerns of the global
community. According to its website, “Greenpeace exists because
this fragile earth deserves a voice. It needs solutions. It needs
30
change. It needs action.” Greenpeace is committed to making the
public aware of environmental abuses. It seeks change through
creative, non-violent confrontations between activists and those
responsible for harming the environment.
Greenpeace is currently working in six major areas where there is significant
35
threat to the environment. The first two areas address radiation and chemical
contaminants. As its initial action against the nuclear test on Amchitka
demonstrated, Greenpeace stands firm in its commitment to end the production
and use of nuclear weapons. It also aims to eliminate toxic chemicals that are
released into the environment.
40
The third area of concern is the threat posed to the environment by genetically
engineered food ingredients, which cause irreversible biological pollution and
many types of health risks. In 2002, Greenpeace published the True Food Guide.
This helps consumers to select their foods by rating food companies according to
their willingness to use genetically engineered ingredients in their products.
45
A fourth item on the Greenpeace agenda is the protection of marine life. Of
particular concern are commercial fishing practices that do not protect endangered
species. Greenpeace is also engaged in educating the world community about the
effects of global warming.
Finally, Greenpeace actively supports measures that will protect the remaining
50
ancient forests of the world. With more than 80 percent of the world’s forests
already gone, preserving what we have left seems more urgent than ever. In a
recent victory, the Maisin people of Collingwood Bay, in Papua New Guinea, won
a three-year legal struggle to deny loggers access to their land. Greenpeace played
an important role in defending the interests of the Maisin in the court case.
Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds
590 words
55
56
R eading Comprehension
AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the
reading.
1. ____ The Phyllis Cormack saved wildlife on Amchitka.
2. ____ Greenpeace works to protect the world’s environment.
3. ____ Greenpeace wants to eliminate toxic chemicals.
4. ____ Less than 20 percent of the world’s forests are already gone.
B Choose the best answer according to the reading.
1. Which of the following was NOT on the crew of the Phyllis Cormack?
a.
b.
c.
d.
A social worker
A teacher
A politician
An engineer
2. Where is Greenpeace headquartered?
a.
b.
c.
d.
In the United States
In more than 40 countries
In Vancouver, Canada
In the Netherlands
3. Why are some people concerned about genetically engineered food?
a.
b.
c.
d.
They say it causes biological pollution.
They say it tastes bad and is poisonous.
They believe it releases toxic chemicals.
They believe it destroys ancient forests.
CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write
them on the lines provided.
1.How does Greenpeace seek change?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
2. What did Greenpeace do in 2002?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
S ummary
Fill in the blanks in the table with the sentences below according to the
category they belong to. Use each sentence only once.
Greenpeace Areas of Concern
Genetic food
Protect Marine Life
Preserve Forests
A.The Maisins in Papua New Guinea legally deny loggers access to their fragile land.
B.Greenpeace fights irreversible biological pollution by producing company ratings
to help people select their groceries.
C.A Greenpeace boat pulls up next to a boat that is hunting endangered whales and
precedes to harass it.
D.Greenpeace members conduct a demonstration on a farm growing modified rice.
E.Greenpeace boycotts tuna fish producers, chanting “Save the dolphins.”
F.A Greenpeace protestor ties himself to a tree that a logger wants to cut down,
preventing its destruction.
V ocabulary Extension
Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in
the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list.
Use each word or phrase only once.
acid rain ozone layer extinction biodegradable greenhouse effect pollutants
1. Many scientists think the ___________ is warming the Earth’s temperature.
2. ___________ has harmful effects on plants and water animals.
3. Several animal species face ___________ due to environmental damage.
4. The ___________ protects the Earth from radioactive sun rays.
5. ___________ products decompose naturally and merge with the Earth’s soil.
6. Automobile exhaust, burning coal, and litter are all types of ___________.
57
58
S upplemental Reading
Peace Ships
M
Track 18
uch of the essential work of Greenpeace would
be impossible without its small fleet of three
ships: the MV Arctic Sunrise, the SV Rainbow
Warrior, and the MV Esperanza. At the end of 1996,
5
Greenpeace prepared the Arctic Sunrise for the icy conditions of Antarctica. The
hull was rounded so the ship lifts out of the ice instead of being crushed by it. Since
its design allows the ship to travel icy waters, it is mostly used for campaigns in
the polar regions of the Earth.
The SV Rainbow Warrior is perhaps the most famous Greenpeace ship. It is
10
named for a Native American prophecy that tells of a time when human greed
will make the earth sick and a mythical band of warriors will come down from a
rainbow to save it. The ship has been used to challenge environmental crimes, to
relocate the population of a South Pacific Island contaminated by radiation, and to
sail against whaling, war, and global warming. In 2004, it provided disaster
15
relief to victims of the tsunami in Southeast Asia.
The MV Esperanza is the latest and largest vessel of the Greenpeace fleet.
“Esperanza” means “hope” in Spanish, a word that carries special meaning for
Greenpeace supporters everywhere. Since its original builders and owners did
not share in the concern for environmental issues, it was necessary for
20
Greenpeace to modify the ship. Greenpeace workers removed asbestos, installed
diesel engines, modified the refrigeration and air-conditioning systems, and reduced
its CO2 emissions. It took many months to make the ship as environmentally
friendly as possible.
Discussion
Discuss the following questions.
1.What do you think about Greenpeace’s tactics of using its own ships to
challenge the ships of companies that Greenpeace believes are doing
environmental harm?
2. Does Greenpeace spend too much money on its ships?
U N I T
5
E n v i ro n m e n t a l Issue s 2
Glacier Retreat
Pre-Reading Questions
Think about the following questions.
1.What do you know about global warming?
2.How is the water supply in your country? What would happen if
there was a shortage of water?
3.Have you ever seen or visited a glacier? What did it look like?
Vocabulary Preview
Match each word with the correct definition.
1. compressed
a. to move back or away
2. sustain
b. to suck up or take up
3. recede
c. packed tightly
4. looming
d. to keep at the same size or rate
5. absorb
e. overwhelming; intimidating
6. daunting
f. difficult to avoid
60
Glacier Retreat
G
Track 19
lobal temperatures are rising as a result of
carbon emissions, which trap greenhouse
gases in the atmosphere. One of the first
things to be affected by global warming is the large masses
5
of ice known as glaciers. The higher temperatures not
only cause the glaciers to melt, they reduce the snowfall as well. Glaciers are
formed when snow gets compressed under more snow and the lower layer of
snow freezes, creating a large mass of ice. If some of the surface of the glacier
melts during warmer weather, that’s okay as long as more snow falls to replace
10
what was lost. But sustained warmer temperatures mean that more ice is melting,
and less snow is falling. So the glacier cannot sustain its mass; in other words, it
shrinks. We call this phenomenon glacier retreat because as the mass gets
smaller, it seems to be retreating.
Why do receding glaciers have scientists and environmentalists so concerned?
15
First of all, most of the Earth’s supply of fresh water comes from glaciers. The
normal melting of glaciers during seasons of warmer temperatures provides
fresh water to people, animals, and plants. If the glaciers are not able to sustain
their mass, there will be less fresh water available for people to drink and use for
raising crops. This could spell disaster for human populations around the world.
Furthermore, while the disappearance of glaciers would mean diminished
20
fresh water supplies, the process of this disappearance is causing floods and rising
water levels. Most glaciers are located at higher elevations because of the colder
temperatures found there. So when the ice melts, gravity propels the water
downward via rivers and streams. More melting means more water is entering
25
the river system, which may be unable to bear the increased volume, thus resulting
2
carbon emissions --- pollutants entering the air as a result of
burning fossil fuels
2
greenhouse gases --- pollutants that trap heat in the atmosphere
5
glacier --- a large mass of ice
12
retreat --- the moving back of something
26
equilibrium --- a state of balance
contaminate --- to soil, stain, corrupt, or infect
34
irrigation --- the use of water on crops
36
arable --- able to be farmed
49
prominent --- particularly noticeable
50
catastrophe --- a disaster; a terrible situation
30
in flooding. The ecosystem is out of equilibrium, disrupting life for all of the
people and animals reliant on the water supply. Once the water reaches the sea, it
raises the water level, threatening settlements located in coastal areas. In addition,
sea water can get into the ground water supply, further diminishing fresh water
30
supplies as the sea water contaminates the fresh water with salt. Floods and
rising water levels are displacing thousands of people, and the trend is expected
to continue.
In addition to destroying settlements and forcing people to relocate, the
melting of glaciers will destroy the farms that once relied on them for irrigation.
35
This presents a looming problem for the world’s food supplies, as the disappearance of
arable land diminishes food supplies for millions. Furthermore, the disruption to
the ecosystem affects fish and other animals. For example, corals rely on sunlight,
and as the water level rises, their exposure to sunlight decreases. Fish that feed
on the corals face reduced food supplies, and their numbers decline, adversely
40
affecting the fish, birds, and animals that feed on them.
The accelerated loss of glaciers, itself caused by global warming, compounds
the effects of global warming. Glaciers absorb about 20 percent of the sun’s heat
and reflect the rest back. But when they disappear, the earth below that gets
exposed, absorbing 80 percent of the sun’s heat and only
45
reflecting 20 percent back. So the Earth’s temperature
increases, making the problem worse. Projections for the
future are daunting, as demand for water is expected to
increase as population grows and as temperatures rise.
Glacial retreat is perhaps one of the most prominent
50
indications that an environmental catastrophe is on the
horizon. It is likely in the next few decades, according to
experts.
Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds
589 words
61
62
R eading Comprehension
AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the
reading.
1. ____ Greenhouse gases trap carbon emissions in the atmosphere.
2. ____ Most of the fresh water on the Earth comes from glaciers.
3. ____ Receding glaciers are beneficial for farmers.
4. ____ Glaciers absorb about 80 percent of the sun’s heat.
B Choose the best answer according to the reading.
1. What happens when a glacier cannot sustain its mass?
a.
b.
c.
d.
It melts.
It shrinks.
It advances.
It compresses.
2. Why are receding glaciers a concern?
a.
b.
c.
d.
They are the chief cause of global warming.
They will contaminate the world’s salt water.
They disrupt the equilibrium of the ecosystem.
They are making the Earth colder and colder.
3. When do experts predict that an environmental catastrophe will happen?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Within the next few decades
Sometime in the 22nd century
Within the next seven years
By the end of summer in 2012
CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write
them on the lines provided.
1. How will receding glaciers affect farms?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
2. How would the disappearance of glaciers affect the Earth’s temperature?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
S ummary
Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided
below. Select THREE answer choices to complete the summary.
First Sentence: One of the first things to be affected by global warming is the large
masses of ice known as glaciers.
A.Glaciers absorb about 20 percent of the sun’s heat, but if they disappear, the
Earth will absorb 80 percent of this heat, posing a looming catastrophe.
B.Glaciers are formed when snow gets compressed under more snow and the lower
layer of snow freezes, creating a large mass of ice.
C.Melting ice from glaciers is propelled by gravity from high elevations downward
into rivers and streams that feed the oceans.
D.Sustained warmer temperatures cause the glaciers to melt and less snow to fall,
which causes glaciers to shrink or recede.
E.Receding glaciers threaten everything that depends on fresh water, since most of
the Earth’s fresh water comes from glaciers.
F.Melting glaciers dump more water into rivers and seas, which raises the water
levels and also the daunting threat of throwing the ecosystem out of balance.
V ocabulary Extension
Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in
the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list.
Use each word or phrase only once.
fossil fuels
carbon footprint
solar radiation
methane
Kyoto Protocol
carbon dioxide
1.Greenhouse gases absorb ___________, which is another name for sunlight.
2.___________ is the most common type of greenhouse gas, released when we
burn many fossil fuels.
3.___________ is the most dangerous type of greenhouse gas because it traps the
most heat in the atmosphere.
4.A ___________ is a measure of the effect human activities have on the
environment.
5.The burning of ___________ releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.
6.The ___________ is an international agreement that seeks to limit world
greenhouse gas emissions.
63
64
S upplemental Reading
Drowning Polar Bears
Track 20
T
5
10
15
20
25
here is perhaps no place on Earth where the effects of global warming
are more evident than in the Arctic. Covered in ice, this region has been
the first to feel the effects of a looming environmental catastrophe as
greenhouse gases trap heat in the atmosphere, causing temperatures to rise and
glaciers to melt.
The large masses of ice are home to polar bears, who hunt on the edges of
the glaciers. They eat mainly seals, who swim in the icy water beneath and are
caught when they surface through holes in the ice to breathe. In a normal summer,
as the temperature rises, the glaciers retreat to the north, but the polar bears do
not follow them. Instead, they leave the glaciers for the
shore, where the temperatures are warmer and the seals
are plentiful. They have to swim to make this journey, and
as the glaciers retreat further and further, the polar bears’
voyage from glacier to land gets longer. Though they are
strong swimmers, the increasing distance has resulted in polar bears drowning
as they try to swim ashore for the summer months.
Not only are polar bears drowning, they are also having trouble hunting
because the thinner ice tends to get deformed more easily, making hunting seals
more difficult. The polar bears’ lack of nourishment not only threatens their
lives, but it also makes reproduction less successful, so new generations of polar
bears are not being born to replace the dying ones. As polar bear populations
decrease, the ecosystem is thrown out of equilibrium. With fewer polar bears to
eat seals, seal populations increase. They then eat more fish, threatening those
populations. As fish populations diminish, so do food supplies for all the people,
birds, and animals that depend on them for nourishment.
Discussion
Discuss the following questions.
1.Some people claim that the effects of global warming are exaggerated.
Do you agree?
2.Besides harming the ecosystem, what are other potential adverse effects
of melting ice in the Arctic?
U N I T
6
Law & Crime 1
The Reliability of
Eyewitnesses
Pre-Reading Questions
Think about the following questions.
1.Describe a time when you and another person saw something together
and later remembered what you saw differently. How did your
perceptions differ?
2.Have you ever been punished for something you didn’t do? How did it
make you feel?
3.When two people tell you different versions of the same event, how do
you decide which person to believe?
Vocabulary Preview
Match each word with the correct definition.
1. convict
a. something complicated or intricate
2. innocent
b. to declare guilty
3. inaccurate
c. to wear down
4. consciously
d. faulty
5. complexity
e. knowingly
6. degrade
f. not guilty
66
Track 21
The Reliability of Eyewitnesses
I
n 1984, Ronald Cotton was convicted of rape and sentenced to prison.
The victim identified Cotton as her attacker and went on to
testify twice against him even after seeing Bobby Pool, the
man who boasted of committing the crime. Ten and a half years
5
after the conviction, DNA testing proved that Pool was the rapist
and that Cotton was innocent. Cotton was one of an estimated
4,250 Americans who are wrongfully convicted of crimes
based on inaccurate eyewitness identifications each year.
How reliable are eyewitnesses? How much importance should
10
juries place on eyewitness testimony? Over the past fifty years, scientific
research has revealed that eyewitness testimony is often an incorrect account of
what actually took place. Scientists now know that the human mind does not act
like a video camera, recording and replaying everything within its viewfinder.
Rather, human memory is a complex process, vulnerable to distortion at every
15
stage. The gathering of information into memory involves a three-step process,
and errors are possible at each step.
During the first step, an event is perceived, and “bits” of information are stored
in memory. Since the human mind can’t process and retain every possible piece
of information, it consciously and unconsciously determines which details are
20
stored in the memory, according to where the viewer’s attention is focused. In
the second step, the brain sorts and retains the memories for later retrieval. In
the third and final step, it is possible for us to search our memory “files” and
locate information.
The type of event observed is significant in determining the accuracy of
25
details the eyewitness is able to recall. Important event factors include the length
of the observation and the complexity of the event. If an observed event is fairly
1
rape --- forced sexual intercourse
testify --- to bear witness; to give evidence
8
eyewitness --- a person who sees something happen
10
testimony --- a declaration made under oath
13
viewfinder --- a camera part that shows the area of the subject to
be included in the picture
14 distortion --- the state of being twisted out of normal shape or position
3
32
perception --- awareness through physical sensation
wield --- to carry; to brandish
47
intervene --- to come between
52
misconception --- a mistaken notion or idea
41 simple, such as two people fighting in the street, it is relatively easy for an eyewitness
to recall details accurately. However, if the event involves several people fighting,
it becomes much more complex, and eyewitnesses experience much greater
30
difficulty in correctly remembering what happened.
Experiments have shown that fear, stress, and anxiety can disrupt the normal
perception process and distort the memory. Under stress, people focus only on
details they feel are most important. “Weapon focus” is an example. If someone
is faced with a gun, he or she is much more likely to focus attention on the gun
35
rather than on the person holding it. Additionally, our expectations have an
effect on perception. People tend to see and hear what they expect to see and
hear. In a fascinating experiment, subjects were shown a photograph of several
people standing in a subway train. Among the people, a white man holding a
razor was apparently arguing with a black man. When asked to describe what
40
they had seen, subjects often inaccurately remembered that the black man had
been wielding the razor. This is because most people would expect a black man
to commit a crime.
Memory can also become distorted while in storage. Since memories degrade
over time and portions of an event can be forgotten, people creatively fill in the
45
gaps created by long-term memory loss. This is because the human mind prefers
a “complete” picture. An individual’s memory can also be altered during the storage
step by intervening occurrences. For example, a witness may read or hear about
a crime he or she witnessed. The mind tends to incorporate this after-the-fact
information and combine it with the previously stored memory.
50
Recently, courts have begun to acknowledge the problems with eyewitness
reliability. Sometimes judges allow expert testimony to educate jurors about
common misconceptions with eyewitnesses’ memories. A common saying in
the United States legal system is, “Better to let ten guilty people
go free than send one innocent person to jail.”
Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds
627 words
67
68
R eading Comprehension
AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the
reading.
1. ____DNA evidence reversed Ronald Cotton’s rape conviction.
2. ____ Simple events are easier to recall accurately than complex events.
3. ____ “Weapon focus” is an example of memory distortion.
4. ____ Memories cannot be altered once they are stored in the brain.
B Choose the best answer according to the reading.
1. Why are about 4,250 Americans wrongly convicted each year?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Because of DNA testing
Because of unreliable juries
Because of racial prejudice
Because of eyewitness mistakes
2. What happens in the second step of gathering of information into memory?
a.
b.
c.
d.
We can search and locate information.
The brain perceives an event.
The mind acts like a video camera.
The brain sorts and stores memories.
3. How does stress affect memory?
a.
b.
c.
d.
It consciously improves and clarifies people’s memories.
It causes people to focus only on the most important details.
It causes us to see and hear what we expect to see and hear.
It enlarges the “viewfinder” we each have inside our brains.
CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write
them on the lines provided.
1.What has science discovered over the past fifty years?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
2. Why do people try to fill in the gaps for things they don’t remember clearly?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
S ummary
Fill in the blanks with phrases from the list. Use each phrase only once.
eyewitness testimony
fill in the gaps
relatively easy
over time
three-step process
wrongfully convicted
Over the past fifty years, thousands of innocent Americans have been
1 ___________ of crimes due to inaccurate 2 ___________. Scientific research has
revealed that the act of remembering is a(n) 3 ___________ and that the accuracy
of memory depends on the complexity of the witnessed events. For simple events, it
is 4 ___________ for the mind to sort and store information, both consciously and
unconsciously. But since memory degrades 5 ___________ , it is subject to distortion
even after the events have been stored. When this happens, people tend to
6 ___________ by combining new information with their stored memories.
V ocabulary Extension
Here are six words that are related to the topic but are not in the reading.
Fill in each blank with the best word from the list. Use each word only
once.
evidence
confess
sentence
plaintiff
defendant
trial
1. US law guarantees that people accused of a crime get a fair ___________.
2.Eyewitness testimony is one type of ___________ used to prove guilt or
innocence.
3. A(n) ___________ is the person on trial who has been accused of a crime.
4. Some criminals admit their guilt when they ___________ their crimes.
5. A(n) ___________ is the person at a trial who is accusing someone of a crime.
6. He is serving a twenty-five-year ___________ for rape and robbery.
69
70
S upplemental Reading
Misidentification
Track 22
I
5
10
15
20
25
n traditional police lineups, as many as 40 percent of witnesses can end up
misidentifying a suspect. This happens even if the real criminal is not
there. “Most witnesses see a lineup as a multiple choice test. They assume
one of the suspects must be the right answer,” says Rod Lindsay, a psychology
professor and specialist in issues of eyewitness identification. If witnesses are
brought to the police station and presented with a lineup, they will often make a
“relative judgment.” This means that the witness will choose the person in the
lineup that closely resembles their memory of the perpetrator, which may be the
wrong person.
Many have called for changing the way suspects are identified. One such
change is to present witnesses with a lineup that does not include any real suspects.
If the witness does not misidentify any of the first six “suspects,”
chances are greatly increased that they will make an accurate
identification in the following lineup. Non-suspects included in the
lineup should resemble the eyewitness’s description. This ensures
the suspect is not singled out.
Another change is to get rid of the traditional lineup. Instead of
showing several “suspects” at once, witnesses are shown suspects or
photographs of suspects one at a time. Research has shown this method decreases
the rate at which innocent people are identified.
Finally, immediately following the lineup, the eyewitness should provide a
written statement articulating the level of confidence in the identification. Also,
videotaping the identification protects innocent suspects from any misconduct
by the lineup administrator and ensures the legitimacy of the process. Both
methods ensure that witnesses are not randomly picking a person.
Discussion
Discuss the following questions.
1.How do police handle suspect identification in your country? Do you agree
with this method?
2.Which of the proposed changes to traditional police lineups do you like best?
Why?
U N I T
6
Law & Crime 2
The Assumption
of Innocence
Pre-Reading Questions
Think about the following questions.
1.When people are arrested in your country, what rights do they have?
2.Should a person accused of a crime be considered innocent or guilty?
Why?
3.Do you believe that people are basically honest and respectful of
society’s laws? Why or why not?
Vocabulary Preview
Match each word with the correct definition.
1. guilty
a. to accept as granted or true
2. assume
b. to throw away
3. preserve
c. having committed a crime
4. dignity
d. a person regarded with suspicion
5. suspect
e. to keep intact; to protect
6. discard
f. the state of being honored or esteemed
72
Track 23
The Assumption of Innocence
T
wo basic forms of legal systems exist. In one form, a person is viewed
as innocent of any crime until evidence is presented that proves he or
she is guilty. This form is known as “innocent until proven guilty.” The
second basic form assumes a person is guilty of the crime he or she has been
5
arrested for, and proof must be given to clear the person’s name. This form is
known as “guilty until proven innocent.”
The belief that anyone who is accused of a criminal offense should be
considered innocent until proven guilty is an important part of universal human
rights law and is laid down in Article Eleven of the United Nations Universal
10
Declaration on Human Rights. In countries operating under the “innocent until
proven guilty” system, society has decided that it is better to allow a guilty person
to go free than to imprison an innocent person. The presumption of innocence
is a testament to the belief that people are basically honest and respectful of
society’s laws. This system also aims to preserve the human dignity of
15
accused persons.
Under the system of “innocent until proven guilty,” the charge
made against any person is not evidence of guilt. This means the
law does not require a person to prove his innocence or to produce
any evidence at all. The government has the burden of proving
20
guilt beyond a reasonable doubt. If it fails to do so, the person is
regarded as not guilty of the crime.
In the United States, a jury is formed to render a
verdict for court trials. Jury members are summoned
from the general population and consist of individuals
25
who typically have little or no legal training. It is therefore
necessary to ensure that the persons sitting on the jury are
12
presumption --- an attitude or belief dictated by probability
burden --- legal responsibility
22
jury --- a body of persons sworn to give a verdict in a trial
23
verdict --- a jury or judge’s finding or decision
23
court trial --- the action of trying to prove a case in a court of law
23
summon --- to call upon for a specified action
19
27
obligation --- a duty or responsibility
allege --- to assert without proof
35
element --- a part of something bigger
39
defendant --- a person accused of a crime
34
aware of the obligations each side has in presenting
their case. In the United States, jury members may be
read the following explanation regarding the “burden of
30
proof” in a legal case:
“The defendant enters this courtroom as an innocent
person, and you must consider him to be an innocent person until the State
convinces you, beyond a reasonable doubt, that he is guilty of every element of
the alleged offense. If, after all the evidence and arguments, you have a reasonable
35
doubt as to the defendant’s having committed any one or more of the elements of
the offense, then you must find him not guilty.”
Proof “beyond a reasonable doubt” means that a reasonable person would
consider the accused criminal guilty. The law does not require the State to prove
a defendant guilty beyond all possible doubt. On the other hand, it is not sufficient
40
to prove that the defendant is probably guilty. In a criminal case, the proof of
guilt must be stronger than that. It must be beyond a reasonable doubt.
A reasonable doubt is an actual doubt, not an imaginary doubt. For instance,
a person might be accused of stealing something from someone’s home. There
were no witnesses to the alleged crime, and the police did not find the accused
45
person’s fingerprints at the scene. Police arrested the person when he tried to sell
one of the items that were stolen, but the suspect said that he found the stolen
item discarded in a bush. In this case, there might be reasonable doubt whether
the suspect really did find the item or actually stole it.
Jury members should be guided only by a full and fair evaluation of the
50
evidence. Whatever the verdict may be, it must not be based upon speculations.
Nor should it be influenced in any way by bias, prejudice, sympathy, or a desire
to bring an end to the duty of the jury.
Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds
624 words
73
74
R eading Comprehension
AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the
reading.
1. ____“Guilty until proven innocent” is part of the United Nations Universal
Declaration on Human Rights.
2. ____An “innocent until proven guilty” system requires a person to prove his
or her innocence.
3. ____ Jury members are citizens with advanced legal training.
4. ____ In the US, an accused person must be proven guilty beyond any doubt.
B Choose the best answer according to the reading.
1. Under the "innocent until proven guilty" system, what is true?
a.
b.
c.
d.
It is better to free a guilty person than imprison an innocent one.
It is better to imprison an innocent person than free a guilty one.
The defendant enters the courtroom for trial as a guilty person.
The defendant can be freed only if there is insufficient doubt.
2. Where are jury members summoned from?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Top-rated law schools
The general population
Federal prisons and jails
Special training schools
3. Which of the following is true of “proof beyond a reasonable doubt”?
a.
b.
c.
d.
It is a real or imaginary doubt based on witness testimony.
It is sufficient to prove that the defendant is probably guilty.
A reasonable person would consider the defendant guilty.
A reasonable person would question the defendant’s guilt.
CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write
them on the lines provided.
1.What does the presumption of innocence testify to?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
2. What should guide jury members in returning a verdict?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
S ummary
Fill in the blanks in the table with the sentences below according to the
category they belong to. Not all sentences will be used.
Types of Legal Systems
Innocent Until Proven Guilty
Guilty Until Proven Innocent
A.It aims to preserve the human dignity of accused persons.
B. Proof must be provided to clear a person’s name.
C. The accused suspect is jailed for a minimum of two years.
D. It assumes people are basically dishonest and will break laws.
E. In a trial, the burden of proof lies on the government.
F. To reach a verdict, jurors must discard all doubt.
V ocabulary Extension
Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in
the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list.
Use each word or phrase only once.
hung jury
appeal
double jeopardy
perjury
Fifth Amendment right
mistrial
1.A(n) ___________ results when jurors cannot agree on a verdict.
2.If a witness lies while giving testimony, he or she can be convicted of
___________.
3.Defendants and witnesses can use their ___________ in order not to testify
against themselves.
4. Losers in a court trial can ___________ the verdict to a court at a higher level.
5.A person cannot be tried twice for the same crime, a concept called
___________.
6. A(n) ___________ occurs when a judge, lawyer, or juror makes a serious error.
75
76
S upplemental Reading
Innocence Project
T
Track 24
he Innocence Project was created in 1992
by two law school professors in the United
States. It is a non-profit legal clinic handling
cases where DNA testing of evidence can yield
5
proof of innocence after a person has already been
sent to jail. Most clients of the project are poor and
have used up all of their legal avenues for relief. All Innocence Project clients go
through an extensive screening process. The process determines whether DNA
testing of evidence could prove their claims of innocence.
10
DNA testing has been a major factor in changing the criminal justice system.
It has provided scientific proof that the American justice system convicts and
sentences innocent people. It has also proven that wrongful convictions are not
isolated or rare events. In the year 2000, the governor of Illinois put a temporary
halt to all executions in that state. The governor’s action was due to growing evidence
15
that the death penalty was not being applied fairly in his state. In Illinois, thirteen
prisoners were freed from death row after their innocence was proven. Five of
these cases were proven through DNA testing.
In April 2002, after two years of exploring the issues, a committee set up by
the governor of Illinois to study problems in the legal system released its findings.
20
In the conclusion of the report, the committee wrote: “The Committee was unanimous
in its belief that no system, given human nature and frailties, could ever be made
that would work perfectly and guarantee absolutely that no innocent person is
ever again sentenced to death.” This statement attests to the continued need for
such organizations as the Innocence Project.
Discussion
Discuss the following questions.
1.Because innocent people are sometimes wrongly convicted, should the death
penalty be abolished? Why or why not?
2.What avenues do prisoners in your country have to prove their innocence?
U N I T
7
L a n g u a g e & Lit e ra t ure 1
Cupid
and Psyche
Pre-Reading Questions
Think about the following questions.
1. What is a famous myth that you like? Why do you like it?
2.In your view, what relationship should love have with wisdom?
3.Have you heard of Cupid? With which holiday is he usually
associated?
Vocabulary Preview
Match each word with the correct definition.
1. rumor
a. to pierce slightly with a sharp point
2. hideous
b. unverified opinions or reports
3. descend
c. to go down
4. prick
d. ugly
5. melodious
e. a tender attachment; fondness
6. affection
f. sweet; pleasing
78
Cupid and Psyche
V
Track 25
enus, the goddess of beauty and love, heard rumors of a mortal
named Psyche who many claimed was more beautiful than herself.
Venus was filled with jealousy and ordered her son, Cupid, to shoot
Psyche with one of his magic arrows, which would make her fall in love with the
5
most hideous monster on earth.
Cupid descended to Earth, but as he was taking aim at Psyche, his finger
slipped, and he pricked himself with the tip of his own arrow, which caused
Cupid to immediately fall deeply in love with Psyche!
Cupid informed Psyche’s family that it was the will of the
10
gods for Psyche to climb to a mountaintop and be united in
matrimony with a terrible monster.
When Psyche reached the mountaintop, it was dark, but
she felt a warm wind and was suddenly transported to a
magnificent palace. After a relaxing bath and a sumptuous
15
meal, accompanied by melodious music that seemed to come from nowhere,
Psyche fell asleep.
For the next several nights, Cupid visited her, always arriving after dark and
departing before dawn. Though she could not see her new husband, Psyche loved
him. Cupid told her it was unnecessary to view his face, provided she trusted him
20
and returned his affections.
The passage of time, however, piqued Psyche’s curiosity. So one night,
after Cupid was asleep, she lit a lamp to illuminate his face. Upon glimpsing
her husband’s lovely demeanor, her hand trembled with delight, causing a drop
of hot oil to fall onto Cupid’s shoulder, awakening him. Clutching his shoulder, he
25
said, “I loved you and asked only for your trust; but when trust is gone, so love
must depart.” With that, he flew back to Venus, who greeted her son with a burst
1
11
14
21
22
23
mortal --- a person who dies
matrimony --- the state of being married
sumptuous --- rich; delicious
pique --- to arouse
illuminate --- to supply or brighten with light
demeanor --- an outward manner
30
31
35
50
desperation --- despair
condescend --- to assume a superior air
trepidation --- apprehension; fearfulness
fulfill --- to complete
of rage for deceiving her and imprisoned him in her palace.
As soon as Cupid deserted Psyche, the magnificent palace vanished, leaving
the poor girl alone on the frigid peak. After wandering night and day in search of
30
her lost love, Psyche finally approached the temple of Venus, in desperation.
There, the goddess angrily condescended to help only if Psyche succeeded in a
difficult task. She commanded the trembling and fearful maiden, “Take this box
and go to the underworld and ask the queen of that realm, Persephone, to put a
little of her beauty in the box for you to bring back to me.”
35
Psyche set off on her venture, full of trepidation. Suddenly, she heard a
voice, which commanded her to give a coin to Charon, the ferryman, who would
take her across the river Styx bordering the underworld. The voice also ordered
her to give a cake to Cerberus, the fearsome three-headed watchdog that guarded
the underworld. “Above all,” said the voice, “once Persephone has placed some of
40
her beauty in the box, do not open it!”
Psyche obeyed the voice’s commands, and after collecting a bit of beauty from
Persephone, she rushed to return the box to Venus. But once again, she could not
control her curiosity, so she lifted the lid of the box and was immediately overcome
by a deep and heavy slumber.
45
Meanwhile, Cupid managed to escape the palace of Venus through a
window, and no sooner had he flown outside than he saw Psyche’s prone,
motionless body. He darted to her side, embraced her, and lifted the heavy sleep
from her body and placed it back into the box. He told her to carry the box to
Venus and promised to return shortly, at which time all would be well.
50
Overjoyed, Psyche hurried to fulfill her task, while Cupid flew to Jupiter,
the king of the gods, and begged him to bless his marriage to Psyche. Jupiter not
only agreed but also granted Psyche immortality to match her husband. Thus,
with the marriage of Cupid and Psyche, Love and the Soul (which is what
“Psyche” means in Greek) were happily united at last.
Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds
658 words
79
80
R eading Comprehension
AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the
reading.
1. ____ Cupid made a mistake as he was trying to shoot Psyche.
2. ____Psyche angered Cupid by looking at his face.
3. ____ Venus refused to help Psyche.
4. ____ Jupiter made Cupid mortal to match Psyche.
B Choose the best answer according to the reading.
1. Why was Venus jealous of Psyche?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Venus knew that Psyche wanted to marry her son Cupid.
She heard rumors that Psyche was more beautiful than her.
Psyche succeeded in the difficult task Venus asked her to do.
Mortals told Venus that Psyche wanted to be immortal, too.
2.Why did Cupid leave Psyche when they were in the palace?
a.
b.
c.
d.
He did not like her face.
She played a trick on him.
He couldn’t trust her anymore.
He fell in love with Persephone.
3. How did Psyche get across the river Styx?
a.
b.
c.
d.
She gave a coin to Charon.
She gave a cake to Cerberus.
She opened Persephone’s box.
She was carried by Cupid.
CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write
them on the lines provided.
1.What did Venus command Psyche to do?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
2. What happened when Cupid and Psyche were married?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
S ummary
Fill in the blanks with words from the list. Use each word only once.
rumors
prick
descends
melodious
hideous
affection
The goddess Venus becomes jealous when she hears 1 ___________ that a
mortal named Psyche is more beautiful than she is. She sends her son, Cupid,
to shoot Psyche with an arrow, which will cause her to fall in love with a(n)
2 ___________ monster. Cupid 3 ___________ to Earth, but his finger slips,
causing him to 4 ___________ himself with his own arrow. This causes him to fall
in love with Psyche, so he lures her to a mountaintop, where a sumptuous meal and
5 ___________ music help earn Psyche’s 6 ___________. But when Psyche
breaks his trust, Cupid flies away. After several adventures, however, they get
married, and Psyche becomes immortal like Cupid.
V ocabulary Extension
Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in
the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list.
Use each word or phrase only once.
eros
fairy tale
hell
Mount Olympus
allegory
folktale
1. Some critics see Cupid and Psyche as a(n) ___________ of Platonic thought.
2. ___________, which means romantic love, is the Greek word for Cupid.
3.A(n) ___________ is a story that typically involves princesses, magic, and a
far-fetched sequence of events.
4.A(n) ___________ is a timeless story circulated among a particular group of
people.
5.In Greek Mythology, the king of the gods dwelled on ___________.
6.The “underworld” in the story of Cupid and Psyche is commonly referred to as
___________.
81
82
S upplemental Reading
Beauty Is in the Eye of the Beholder
C
Track 26
upid and Psyche is one of the most popular
Greek myths and has spawned several
modern adaptations. One of the most
popular is “Beauty and the Beast,” a fairy tale in
5
which the love of a beautiful girl transforms an ugly
beast into a handsome prince.
Like Psyche, the girl in “Beauty” goes willingly to the
home of a hideous monster, who treats her well. Unlike
Cupid, however, the beast in “Beauty” is truly ugly, so the girl
10
repeatedly refuses his offers of marriage. It is only at the end of the story, when
the beast has died, that the girl’s loving tears break an evil spell and magically
transform him into a prince.
Child psychologist Bruno Bettelheim interpreted both stories as metaphors
for the development of human consciousness. In his view, myths touch children
15
at a deep level, where their sexual anxieties lie. Stories about Cupid and Psyche
help reconcile the human aspects of wisdom and sexuality. For example, the use of
a monstrous husband assures children that their fear of intimacy as something
beastly is perfectly normal. As the story develops and the characters learn that
their partner is a lovely person despite their appearance, so will children.
20
Thus, when the girl in “Beauty” discovers that her “beast” is really a
handsome prince---like Psyche when she discovers that Cupid is a god---she is
reassured that sex is potentially beautiful. This is the first step in realizing that a
healthy relationship is more than sex and that both partners must live a full life
as equals to be truly happy.
Discussion
Discuss the following questions.
1. Do you agree with Bruno Bettelheim’s view that myths are very powerful?
2. Must couples “live a full life as equals” to be truly happy? Explain.
U N I T
7
L a n g u a g e & Lit e ra t ure 2
The Truth
About Memoirs
Pre-Reading Questions
Think about the following questions.
1. Which types of books do you like to read? Why?
2.Have your parents or other relatives written about their childhood
memories? If so, did you enjoy reading them?
3.Why do you think people like to read about other people’s lives?
Vocabulary Preview
Match each word or phrase with the correct definition.
1. compelling
a. essentially; basically
2. absent
b. profits
3. genre
c. a discussion marked by opposing views
4. inherently
d. not present
5. controversy
e. forceful; demanding attention
6. bottom line
f. a category of literature
84
The Truth About Memoirs
A
Track 27
memoir is a type of autobiographical writing. The word “memoir” is
a French word that means “memory.” In a memoir, an author recalls
meaningful experiences in his or her life. While the memoir is a subclass
of the autobiography genre, it is actually quite different from an autobiography. An
5
autobiography is a work of nonfiction that is a comprehensive, chronological
account of a writer’s entire life story. An autobiography usually requires research
of dates, places, and events, while a memoir is shorter and focuses on a part of a
writer’s life recalled from memory. A memoir presents pivotal, life-changing
events that have shaped the identity of the writer. While an autobiography is an
10
objective retelling of facts, a memoir tends to be more emotional. With a compelling
plot and an almost literary rendering of the real-life characters, a memoir reads like
a novel.
An early example of a memoir is a book published in England in 1821 called
Confessions of an Opium-Eater by Thomas DeQuincey. The book describes in
15
detail DeQuincey’s addiction to opium and alcohol. It was widely read, not only
for the incredible details of addiction it presented but also for the clues into the
psychology of addiction. A modern-day example of a memoir is by Frank
McCourt. In his book Angela’s Ashes, McCourt recounts his childhood in
Ireland and New York City. McCourt grew up poor, with a
20
mostly absent father and a mother, Angela, who raised
her children despite tremendous financial and personal
obstacles.
The memoir is a genre with a wide appeal. But why
are memoirs so popular? One reason is that people are
25
inherently curious about other people. We might know
the intimate details of the lives of only a handful of
1
3
5
8
11
18
22
autobiographical --- based on the author’s own experiences
subclass --- a category that is part of a larger category
chronological --- ordered by time
pivotal --- very important
plot --- the story line
recount ---to remember and tell in detail
obstacle --- a difficulty; a hurdle
31
38
49
insurmountable --- too difficult to overcome
post-partum --- after birth
re-classify --- to assign again to a category
people such as our family members or our close friends.
When we read a memoir, we can enter into the world of the
writer and find out what it is like to experience something
30
we may never experience: an incredible adventure, a great
loss, or a seemingly insurmountable problem.
Memoirs are appealing because true stories are more
powerful than fictional stories. For example, if we read
one of Elie Wiesel’s memoirs that tell about the time he
35
spent in a Nazi concentration camp, we are struck by the
fact that this is a real person who has lived through great adversity to tell his
story. Brooke Shields, an American actress, wrote a memoir entitled Down Came
the Rain in which she chronicles her debilitating struggle with post-partum
depression. Women who have had a similar experience were able to see that other
40
people struggle with the same things.
Are memoirs entirely truthful? Memoirs are mostly written from memory,
and it is natural that memories fade over time. Events can be forgotten, left out,
or told in a way that might be different from how they really happened.
However, as readers we should be able to trust the writer to be truthful most of
45
the time. Several memoirs have turned out to be partially or completely untrue,
which has disappointed countless readers. Marlo Morgan wrote a book called
Mutant Message Down Under about her supposed experiences living with
Aboriginal people in Australia. It was discovered that several parts of the book
were fake, and the publisher had to re-classify the book as fiction.
50
In spite of some controversy surrounding the truthfulness of memoirs, they
remain a compelling literary form that will undoubtedly continue to touch readers
in a fundamental way. Publishing companies are starting to do background checks
on authors to verify the events presented in memoirs, but are not about to give up
on a genre that has contributed so substantially to their bottom line.
Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds
619 words
85
86
R eading Comprehension
AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the
reading.
1. ____ A memoir is a chronological account of the writer’s whole life.
2. ____An autobiography is less emotional than a memoir.
3. ____ Frank McCourt wrote one of the earliest memoirs.
4. ____ Memoirs are not always completely accurate.
B Choose the best answer according to the reading.
1. How does a memoir differ from an autobiography?
a.
b.
c.
d.
It is a comprehensive account.
It requires factual research.
It is written by someone else.
It is shorter and more emotional.
2.Why does the author say that memoirs are appealing?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Because truth is more powerful than fiction
Because we don’t like to read about other people
Because they do not read like a novel
Because they are an objective retelling of facts
3. What did Brooke Shields write about in Down Came the Rain?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Addiction to opium
Childhood poverty
Australian Aborigines
Post-partum depression
CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write
them on the lines provided.
1.Why are memoirs sometimes not truthful?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
2.What happened when parts of Mutant Message Down Under turned out to be
fake?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
S ummary
Fill in the blanks in the table with the sentences or phrases below according
to the category they belong to. Use each sentence or phrase only once.
Autobiographical writing
Autobiography
Memoir
Both
A.An author is writing about his or her own life, of which people are inherently
curious
B. A chronological, comprehensive account
C.A compelling story about absent parents, which reads like a novel
D.Creates controversy because it’s sometimes untrue
E.A genre that enriches publishers’ bottom line
F. Requires research of dates, places, events
V ocabulary Extension
Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in
the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list.
Use each word or phrase only once.
biography
ghost writer
book clubs
pseudonym
true crime
anonymous
1. ___________ is one of the best-selling genres in the United States.
2.Many famous books have been written by authors using a different name, or
___________.
3. In a(n) ___________, someone else writes the story of the book subject’s life.
4.A(n) ___________ is a person who writes a book that someone else takes
credit for.
5.Groups that like to read and discuss books together are called ___________.
6.The author of one famous US book, Primary Colors, did not give any name at all,
choosing to remain ___________.
87
88
S upplemental Reading
The Education of Little Tree
I
Track 28
n 1976, the memoir The Education of Little Tree, by
Forrest Carter, instantly became a best seller. It is the story
of a boy who was raised by his Cherokee grandparents.
They gave him the name Little Tree. The book centers on the
5
time Little Tree was age five and six and learned about Native
American values like honor, simple living, and respect for
nature. He was later put into an orphanage, where he faced
discrimination for his Native American ways. Little Tree was eventually released
from the orphanage, but the experience taught him about the harshness and
10
prejudices of the world.
Suspicions about the book and its author began when members of the
Cherokee Nation identified many inaccurate facts in the book. Further investigation
revealed that The Education of Little Tree is not a memoir at all. It is a complete
work of fiction. Forrest Carter is actually Asa Earl Carter, who was a former
15
member of several white supremacist organizations. Carter also worked as a
speechwriter for George Wallace, an Alabama governor who favored segregation.
After Carter himself ran unsuccessfully for governor of Alabama in 1970, he
changed his first name and embarked on a writing career.
Despite the false pretenses under which the book was written, The Education
20
of Little Tree has sold millions of copies and is still regarded as a book of great
literary merit. In 1991, it won the prestigious American Booksellers Association
“Book of the Year” award. This raises the question of whether a book that was
written in such a deceptive way should be validated at all by awards or admiration
of any kind.
Discussion
Discuss the following questions.
1. Did The Education of Little Tree deserve to be honored as “Book of the Year”?
2.Can you think of other situations in which an author misrepresented himself
or herself? What happened?
U N I T
8
S p a c e & E x p lora t ion 1
The Origin of the
Universe
Pre-Reading Questions
Think about the following questions.
1.What are some great scientific discoveries that you know about?
Why were they important?
2.In which ways does science help us understand about our lives?
3.Is it important to know about the formation of our universe? Why?
Vocabulary Preview
Match each word with the correct definition.
1. origin
a. unstoppable
2. debate
b. able to be seen
3. significantly
c. argument or dispute
4. collapse
d. to cave in or give way
5. unavoidable
e. in an important way
6. observable
f. the beginning
90
The Origin of the Universe
T
Track 29
hroughout recorded history, the origin of the universe has been a topic
of ongoing controversy. In particular, debate has centered around how
---or if---the universe began. One school of thought, especially held by
Jewish, Christian, and Islamic religions, is that the universe was created. Thus,
5
there was a time when there was no universe, and equally, there will be a time
when there will be an end to the universe.
On the other hand, some people, like the Greek philosopher Aristotle, did
not like the idea of the universe having a beginning. He preferred to believe
that the universe had existed and would exist forever and that it was eternal and
10
perfect. One thing that these two schools of thought originally had in common
was that no matter what the origin or the ending of the universe, the universe
itself was static and unchanging. In fact, this was a natural belief to have since
recorded history is so short that the universe has not changed significantly in all
that time.
In the 19th century, however, evidence began
15
to challenge the idea of a motionless, unchanging
universe. At this time, Boltzmann, the German
physicist, formulated the Second Law of
Thermodynamics. This states that the total amount
20
of entropy, or disorder, of the universe always increases with time.
Therefore, the universe must be changing in some way for its entropy to
increase. Also, according to Newton’s Law of Gravity, each star in the universe
ought to be attracted to each other and thus start falling together and collapsing
at a central point. If the universe were motionless, the result would be an
25
unavoidable collapse.
In the 1920s, US astronomer Edwin Hubble observed a critical phenomenon
that increased our understanding of the universe. Using a powerful new telescope,
he identified a group of celestial objects outside our own galaxy. By observing
7
12
28
philosopher --- a person who seeks wisdom or enlightenment
static --- unmoving
celestial --- relating to the sky
29
30
34
35
44
47
56
wavelength --- a measure of distance in a wave
recede --- to move back or away
assumption --- a fact taken for granted
expansion --- the act of becoming larger
dense --- thick
cosmic --- coming from the universe
inflate --- to fill with air or gas
the Doppler Shift of these stars---the way the wavelengths and colors of their
30
light changed due to their motion---he realized that they were receding from our
own position in the universe. In fact, all the observable galaxies were moving
away from each other! Furthermore, the more distant the galaxy, the faster it was
moving away. This observation implied that the universe was expanding.
Hubble’s observation led to the assumption that at some point, all matter
35
in the universe was close together. The event that started its expansion is
referred to as the Big Bang. According to the Big Bang theory, time and space did
not exist prior to the beginning of the expansion. Thus, the age of the universe can
be calculated from the distance and the velocities of the stars traveling away from
us. Due to experimental uncertainties, a definite age still cannot be given for the
40
universe; however, the age of the universe is calculated to be between ten to
twenty billion years old.
The Big Bang theory has led to many other theories and predictions in science.
Physicist George Gamow realized in the 1940s that the early universe must have
been extremely hot and dense. As the universe expanded, it would cool down,
45
and the initial hot radiation should eventually be observable as uniform radio
waves throughout space. In the 1960s, Robert Wilson and Arno Penzias discovered
cosmic uniform radio waves that implied a temperature of about 3 degrees above
absolute zero (Kelvin). Later, technology enabled scientists to take very detailed
measurements of this radiation. They confirmed that it is extremely uniform, is of
50
the shape predicted by theory, and has a temperature of 2.7 degrees Kelvin. This
observation provides strong support for the Big Bang theory.
Another interesting result of the Big Bang theory relates to the movement
of the galaxies. Though the universe is expanding, the galaxies themselves are not
moving. Instead, it is the space between the galaxies that is expanding, while the
55
galaxies themselves remain still. It’s much like points drawn on the surface of a
balloon. When the balloon inflates, only the material stretches out and separates
the points. The points themselves do not actually move.
Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds
676 words
91
92
R eading Comprehension
AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the
reading.
1. ____ People have always agreed on the origin of the universe.
2. ____The universe would collapse if it was not moving.
3. ____ Edwin Hubble discovered that the universe is expanding.
4. ____ The universe is expanding, but galaxies are not moving.
B Choose the best answer according to the reading.
1. What did Aristotle believe about the universe?
a.
b.
c.
d.
It began with the Big Bang.
It was eternal and perfect.
It was slowly expanding.
It is fifteen billion years old.
2.What does the Second Law of Thermodynamics state?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Each star in the universe is attracted to one another.
All galaxies are moving away from each other.
Entropy in the universe increases over time.
There are uniform radio waves throughout space.
3. What is the significance of the discovery of uniform radio waves?
a.
b.
c.
d.
It confirms Aristotle’s belief.
It supports the Big Bang theory.
It breaks the Second Law of Thermodynamics.
It contradicts Newton’s Law of Gravity.
CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write
them on the lines provided.
1.What belief did religions and Aristotle hold in common?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
2.What critical phenomenon did Edwin Hubble observe?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
S ummary
Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided
below. Select THREE answer choices to complete the summary.
First Sentence: New evidence seems to have steeled an age-old debate about the
origin of the universe.
A.No matter what one believed about its origin, all sides agreed that the universe
itself was static and significantly unchanging.
B.For years, religious devotees and philosophers had debated whether the universe
was eternal or if it had a definite beginning point.
C.Scientific discoveries in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries indicated
that the universe began with a gigantic explosion.
D.The Second Law of Thermodynamics indicated that the observable universe must
be changing in some way for its entropy to increase and for it to avert an
unavoidable collapse.
E.In the 1960s, scientists confirmed the existence of hot radiation in space, lending
powerful support to the Big Bang theory.
F.Though the universe is expanding, the galaxies remain still, and it is the space
between the galaxies that is moving.
V ocabulary Extension
Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in
the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list.
Use each word or phrase only once.
Milky Way
cosmology
observatory
optical
solar system
philosophy
1. The galaxy that includes the Earth is called the ___________.
2.My ___________ of life is “Don’t worry, be happy.”
3.___________ is a branch of science that deals with questions about the
universe.
4.A(n) ___________ houses huge telescopes used to watch stars and planets.
5.A(n) ___________ telescope is used to gather and focus light and wavelengths.
6.The sun and the eight planets that orbit around it are called the ___________.
93
94
S upplemental Reading
Before the Big Bang
T
Track 30
he Big Bang Theory raises profound philosophical
questions. For centuries, scientists believed that
the universe was eternal, while religious believers
held otherwise. The Christian and Jewish bibles both start
5
with, “In the beginning, God created . . . the universe and
everything in it.” This implies that there was, indeed, a time
when the universe did not exist.
British biologist Richard Dawkins argues in his book, The God Delusion,
that such an idea is pure nonsense. Though Dawkins stops short of saying God
10
absolutely does not exist, he writes that the existence of a divine creator is highly
improbable. God would have to be extremely complex, Dawkins notes, and the
more complex something is, the less probable it is.
Dawkins claims that the theory of evolution and descent by natural selection
can explain how everything in the world was made and why many things are so
15
complex that they appear to be designed. Dawkins also argues, in the latter half
of his book, that science can even explain human morality.
Critics answer that most of Dawkins’s arguments are philosophical rather
than scientific, and accuse Dawkins of being a poor philosopher. They say that
attributing the world’s complexity to random chance is much more improbable
20
than the existence of God. Also, they note that nothing in Dawkins’s book
denies that God could have guided the process of evolution. Philosopher Alvin
Plantinga claims that Dawkins contradicts himself. “By Dawkins’ own definition
of complexity,” writes Plantinga, “God is simple and not complex. Therefore,
God’s existence is more probable than Dawkins supposes.”
Discussion
Discuss the following questions.
1. Do you agree with Dawkins that God is a delusion? Why or why not?
2.Can science explain human morality? How? If not, what does explain it?
U N I T
8
S p a c e & E x p lora t ion 2
Space Tourism
Pre-Reading Questions
Think about the following questions.
1.Describe a unique vacation you have taken. What made it unique?
2.If you had a chance, would you like to go into space? Why or why not?
3.Do you think people will one day live on other planets? Would you
like to?
Vocabulary Preview
Match each word with the correct definition.
1. estimate
a. to hold without crowding
2. millionaire
b. a person with a net worth of $1 million or more
3. weightlessness
c. having no gravitational pull
4. facility
d. a building
5. habitable
e. able to be lived in
6. accommodate
f. to guess
96
Space Tourism
O
Track 31
ne ideal of early human forays into space was the potential colonization
of distant planets. That goal still seems far off, but today, ordinary
people with enough money can visit space.
In 1998, a United States company called Space Adventures started selling
5
space flights in the world market. The flights aren’t cheap---they cost an estimated
$20 million---but the company has sold almost $170 million worth of “tickets”
and helped send six people into space. At first, these travelers were called “space
tourists,” but they objected to that term. Many said that they performed research
while in space and assisted cosmonauts with scientific experiments. Later,
10
NASA and the Russian Space Agency agreed to refer to the citizen voyagers as
“spaceflight participants.”
In April 2001, US millionaire Dennis Tito became the first such participant
to purchase a ride on a space ship. Traveling on the Russian ship Soyuz TM-32,
Tito visited the International Space Station for seven days, orbiting the Earth
15
128 times. In 2002, South Africa's Mark Shuttleworth also traveled into space on
a Russian ship. In 2009, a Hungarian, Charles Simonyi, became the first citizen
to make a repeat space journey.
Space Adventures plans to offer a full array of
space flight experiences. A suborbital flight costs
20
about $100,000. These flights will soar to the edge of
space---more than sixty-two miles above the Earth--where the engines shut down for five minutes and
passengers experience weightlessness while they gaze at the
Earth below. A trip around the moon sells for $100 million, with stops at special
25
“spaceports” along the way. In the future, the company plans to sell space walks,
in which spaceflight participants can cavort in space while tethered to the ship
by a special line.
1
9
18
19
26
26
potential --- possible
cosmonaut --- a Russian astronaut
array --- a variety of choices
suborbital --- non-orbiting
cavort --- to frolic; to play
tether --- to tie to
29
29
32
41
entrepreneur --- a person who starts and takes the risks of a
new business
aerospace --- a science dealing with the Earth’s atmosphere
and the space beyond
pod-shaped --- shaped like pea shells
module --- an operable unit of a space vehicle
Space Adventures isn’t the only company devising plans to launch ordinary
citizens into space. Spanish entrepreneur Xavier Claramunt, a former aerospace
30
engineer, plans to open the world’s first space hotel, called “Galactic Suite,” in 2012.
For $4 million, guests can stay three nights, watching the sun rise fifteen times a day
while crawling around in Velcro suits that stick to the walls of the pod-shaped
structure. The hotel will be able to accommodate six guests at a time and will orbit
the Earth once every eighty minutes. Claramunt estimates that there are currently
35
about 40,000 people in the world who can afford a
vacation at Galactic Suite.
American entrepreneur Robert Bigelow,
meanwhile, is designing a different type of space
facility. His company, Bigelow Aerospace, wants to
40
launch a series of habitable complexes in the suborbital
atmosphere. His firm plans to unveil its first module, called Sundancer, in
2011. Sundancer will be able to house three people. Bigelow hopes to launch a
larger module that can accommodate six people soon after. By joining modules
together, larger complexes can be crafted to hold up to fifteen people. Bigelow
45
hopes to rent space in orbital modules for foreign countries to conduct scientific
research. Suborbital modules would be available for ordinary people who want a
unique vacation. Compared to Galactic Suite, the Bigelow space complex is a relative
bargain. A four-week stay is projected to cost $15 million, in 2012.
At least two other companies, Virgin Galactic in America and EADS Astrium
50
in Europe, are developing “rocket planes” for commercial passenger flights.
These aircraft will go almost seventy miles into the air---above the international
Earth-space boundary---and reach speeds of Mach 3. Virgin Galactic hopes to
offer civilian space flights as early as 2009. It has already sold 200 seats for a
two-and-a-half hour inaugural flight on its rocket plane, the VSS Enterprise, at
55
$200,000 apiece.
Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds
617 words
97
98
R eading Comprehension
AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the
reading.
1. ____ In 1988, Space Adventures started selling space flights.
2. ____Mark Shuttleworth was the first space-flight participant.
3. ____ Guests in “Galactic Suite” will be able to watch fifteen daily sunrises.
4. ____ “Rocket planes” will fly above the international Earth-space boundary.
B Choose the best answer according to the reading.
1. About how much does a suborbital flight cost?
a.
b.
c.
d.
$100,000
$20 million
$100 million
$4 million
2.Which of the following is NOT true of “Galactic Suite”?
a.
b.
c.
d.
It will orbit the Earth once every eighty minutes.
A five-night stay costs $4 million.
Guests will wear Velcro suites that stick to walls.
It can accommodate six guests at a time.
3. When might the first civilian space flights start?
a.
b.
c.
d.
In 2012
In 2010
In 2020
In 2009
CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write
them on the lines provided.
1.Why did space travelers object to the term “space tourists”?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
2.Who is the first spaceflight participant to go into space twice?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
S ummary
Fill in the blanks with phrases from the list. Use each phrase only once.
hitch rides
near future
to accommodate
up to
three-night stays
blast off
Millionaires can now 1 ___________ into space, and soon ordinary people will
be able to experience weightlessness as they 2 ___________ on special “rocket
planes” that will soar seventy miles into the atmosphere. In the 3 ___________,
guests will even be able to book 4 ___________ in a special space hotel, at an
estimated cost of $4 million. This facility will be able 5 ___________ six guests at
a time. Meanwhile, planners are creating another type of habitable space hotel that
can hold 6 ___________ fifteen people. Soon, we will be able to take vacations
that are truly out of this world.
V ocabulary Extension
Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in
the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list.
Use each word or phrase only once.
lucrative
lunar
Star City
commercial
X Prize
age
1.The ___________ Foundation will pay $20 million to the first team that can
successfully land and operate a vehicle on the surface of the moon.
2. ___________ is a term that refers to the moon.
3. Space tourism is ushering in a new ___________ of travel experiences.
4.The first ___________ spaceport is being built in the United Arab Emirates.
5.Space tourism has the potential to be a very ___________ business.
6.Russian cosmonauts train at the famous ___________ complex for their
journeys into space.
99
100
S upplemental Reading
Robot Astronauts
S
Track 32
ince men first walked on the moon in 1969,
fewer and fewer people have traveled into
space. Instead, robots have become the
main agents of space exploration. Many people
5
argue that it is unnecessary for humans to venture
into orbit again, while others claim robots will never
be as effective researchers as real people.
Proponents of robotic exploration point out that space travel is dangerous.
For example, in 1986 and 2003, fourteen US astronauts were killed in the two
10
separate incidents when their space shuttles exploded.
Space travel is also expensive. It’s estimated that the cost of space shuttle
launches has averaged $1.3 billion, which would pay for two or three unmanned
missions. In addition, critics say that the international space station sits too
close to Earth to yield useful scientific information. Robots, on the other hand,
15
can go deeper into space and survive in harsher conditions.
Manned space flight proponents concede this is true, but claim that human
exploration is still valuable. Robots can provide only raw data; humans can
interpret the data and conduct spontaneous follow-up tests and experiments,
preventing the need for a robotic return trip. Robot critics note that twenty-one
20
of thirty-one robotic missions to explore Mars since 1960 have failed and that
only five have met their original goals. Space missions crewed by astronauts
succeeded almost 90 percent of the time. Moreover, critics say that costs for
unmanned missions are cheaper now but will rise as we develop more complex
computers, telescopes, and robots.
Discussion
Discuss the following questions.
1.Do you think it’s necessary to send human scientists into space? Why or why
not?
2.Is space exploration necessary at all, or could the money be better spent here
on the Earth?
U N I T
9
S p o r t s & F i t ne ss 1
Extreme
Sports
Pre-Reading Questions
Think about the following questions.
1.What types of sports do you like to play? Which do you like to
watch?
2. Who is an athlete you admire? Why?
3.Do you think the framework and rules of team sports are oppressive?
Vocabulary Preview
Match each word with the correct definition.
1. steepest
a. to blend or combine
2. element
b. most difficult
3. equipment
c. to publicize by radio and TV
4. defy
d. apparatus
5. incorporate
e. a component
6. broadcast
f. to challenge
102
Extreme Sports
F
Track 33
or most of us, when we think of sports, we think of joining a volleyball
team, playing basketball at a neighborhood court, or taking tennis lessons
at a local fitness club. But for some, sports mean something different:
skydiving from an airplane thousands of feet above ground, scaling a tall wall of
5
ice, or snowboarding down the steepest of hills. Such sports are called “extreme
sports.” Extreme sports are activities, mostly practiced by young people, that
involve great speed or height, present a certain element of danger, and require
specialized equipment, such as a surfboard, airplane, or rock-climbing gear. They
are generally not team sports. They are practiced by individuals
10
who, rather than helping a team to victory, push themselves to
their own physical limits, defying personal and environmental
obstacles to achieve a personal goal.
Extreme sports have always been considered part of
counter-culture. Disenfranchised youth were fed up with the
15
status quo. Traditional sports presented a narrow framework,
with rules and regulations that seemed oppressive. Extreme
sports gave people the opportunity to do what they wanted, how they wanted.
For example, instead of going scuba diving, which places an emphasis on safety
and the proper use of equipment, why not try “free-diving” which enables one to
20
reach great underwater depths without the assistance of a breathing apparatus.
Instead of jumping over hurdles in a track-and-field race, why not try “free
running,” a sport in which participants incorporate natural obstacles, like a wall
or a cliff, into their running, resulting in graceful stunts along with speed and
agility?
Those who are not prone to risk-taking might wonder what appeal these
25
sports have. Psychologists say that some people actually crave the adrenaline
14
15
20
24
25
26
disenfranchised --- made to feel unimportant or powerless
status quo --- the accepted way of doing something
apparatus --- equipment designed for a particular use
agility --- the ability to move quickly and easily
prone --- having a tendency
adrenaline rush --- a feeling of excitement
27
29
33
42
endeavor --- an attempt
metabolism --- chemical changes in the body by which energy
is burned
insurmountable --- impossible to overcome
lament --- to cry out in grief or pain
rush that comes from risk-taking endeavors. Adrenaline is a substance the
body produces when a person is in a stressful, dangerous, or frightening situation.
It results in an increased heart rate and metabolism, and sweating.
30
Psychologically, an adrenaline rush can produce a sense of euphoria that can
actually be addictive, like a drug. Psychologists believe that these sports give
people the feeling they are unstoppable and able to defy the odds. As a result, there
is an incredible sense of accomplishment when a seemingly insurmountable
feat is accomplished.
35
Extreme sports have experienced a great rise in popularity. The X Games,
held every summer and winter, are the Olympics of extreme sports. They are
viewed by millions worldwide, and some of the athlete’s faces are the same faces
you might see in Olympic events, like snowboarding or ski jumping. Fewer
young people take up baseball, soccer, or American football in favor of sports
40
like cave diving, kite surfing, or bungee jumping.
Because they have become so popular, extreme sports are big business,
which many athletes lament. What were once thought of as “fringe” activities
have now become mainstream ones. Corporations have realized that they can
make a lot of money by buying expensive advertising time during the X Games or
45
hiring a well-known athlete to endorse a product. Extreme sport fashion has also
become a huge money-maker for corporations. Although there are no regulated
uniforms in extreme sports, the fashion world has influenced what the athletes
wear. The loose, baggy clothing by big-name designers, along with the accessories
such as sunglasses, hats, and gloves, are pricey, lending weight to the argument
50
that extreme sports has “sold out” to corporate greed.
Although extreme sports may still be unknown to many,
they will soon be a part of all of our lives. It is likely that we will
soon see these sporting events broadcast as much as basketball
or baseball games. Athletes will continue to push the limits of
55
what we ever thought humanly possible, and the world will sit
back and watch, in admiration, amazement, or possibly horror.
Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds
633 words
103
104
R eading Comprehension
AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the
reading.
1. ____ Extreme sports require special equipment.
2. ____Extreme sports are part of the status-quo.
3. ____ An adrenaline rush can be addicting.
4. ____ Extreme sports are Olympic events.
B Choose the best answer according to the reading.
1. All of the following are true of extreme sports EXCEPT
a.
b.
c.
d.
They are dangerous.
They involve great speed or height.
They are typically team sports.
They provide a sense of accomplishment.
2.What is “free diving”?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Jumping from a 100-foot diving board
Scuba diving at no cost
Swimming to the bottom of the ocean
Going deep underwater without a breathing device
3. How often are the X Games held?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Every four years
Each summer and winter
In the fall and spring
Twenty-four hours a day
CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write
them on the lines provided.
1.What do psychologists think about extreme sports?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
2.Why do athletes lament extreme sports becoming big business?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
S ummary
Fill in the blanks with words from the list. Use each word only once.
steep
elements
equipment
defy
incorporate
broadcast
Extreme sports 1 ___________ danger, grace, agility, great speeds, and heights
into activities that have become exceptionally popular, especially among young
people. These competitors use 2 ___________ such as natural obstacles and
3 ___________ hills to challenge their athletic abilities. Usually they need special
4 ___________, such as a surfboard or airplane, to perform their feats, many of
which seem to 5 ___________ belief. Extreme sports have become so popular;
they are now 6 ___________ regularly on mainstream TV.
V ocabulary Extension
Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in
the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list.
Use each word or phrase only once.
risky
bungee jumping
endorsement
ratings
cutting edge
alternative
1. ___________ was one of the first examples of an extreme sport.
2. Many extreme sports are ___________ to participants’ health.
3. Kobe Bryant’s ___________ helped sell the basketball shoes.
4.In the 1990s, grunge became a popular type of ___________ music for young
people.
5.The Olympics are very popular; they always draw high TV ___________.
6.Extreme sports are on the ___________ of the athletic evolution.
105
106
S upplemental Reading
Vice or Virtue
T
Track 34
The virtues of extreme sports have been much
extolled, but the downside has also been discussed
at length. Extreme sports have been credited for
encouraging participants to set goals and work hard to achieve
5
them. While this may be true, critics of extreme sports claim it is irresponsible to
advocate that young people---the majority of extreme sport participants---participate
in something that is inherently dangerous.
Young people tend to believe that they are invincible. Injury and death seem
like things that could never touch them, when in fact, they might be staring them
10
right in the face. But it can be argued that sports in and of themselves are
dangerous endeavors. Injuries suffered from playing sports such as ice hockey,
rugby, and American football are common and well-documented. The benefit
that sports of any kind bring to individuals outweighs the risk, which is why
sports have always been a part of our lives and always will be.
15
Critics also argue that because extreme sports are usually individual,
rather than team sports, young people no longer acquire the valuable lessons
that conventional team sports can teach. For example, bungee jumping is a
solitary activity. One does not learn how to work as part of a team, which is a
skill that is invaluable to all areas of civic and professional life.
20
In addition, many believe that since the boundaries and rules in extreme
sports are always shifting, young people do not learn to play by the rules in life.
Extreme sports proponents, however, argue that in the real world, nothing
advances or changes for the better unless someone “pushes the envelope.”
For better or for worse, extreme sports are here to stay. They will continue
25
to evolve and change, and they will continue to be the focus of lively debate.
Discussion
Discuss the following questions.
1.What do you think of extreme sports?
2.What lessons can be learned from sports, both team and individual?
U N I T
9
S p o r t s & F i t ne ss 2
Personal Trainers:
The Fitness Wave of the
Future
Pre-Reading Questions
Think about the following questions.
1.What are three things you do to improve your health?
2. Have you ever been to a fitness club? What did you think of it?
3.Would you consider paying someone to help you improve your
physical condition? Why or why not?
Vocabulary Preview
Match each word with the correct definition.
1. motivation
a. a restraint or boundary
2. client
b. to give someone or something a name
3. technique
c. a method of doing something
4. limitation
d. a customer
5. obesity
e. a reason for doing something
6. tag
f. the state of being extremely overweight
108
Personal Trainers: The Fitness
Wave of the Future
Track 35
E
very year, millions of people try to lose weight or get in shape, but lack
the time or motivation to get to a fitness club or complete an exercise
program at home on a regular basis. Many of those same people have
probably considered hiring a personal trainer, a fitness professional who guides
5
clients through individualized workouts. Most personal trainers work in fitness
clubs, but some conduct business in their own private studios, or in the homes of
their clients. The job of a personal trainer is to teach safe and effective exercise
techniques that are designed for the specific needs and limitations of the client. A
trainer can be hired for short-term or long-term periods, depending on the client’s
10
needs.
Mark Jenkins is a personal trainer who has become famous for his work
with musicians Sean “P. Diddy” Combs, LL Cool J, Mary J. Blige, Missy Elliot,
and Beyoncé. He gets these superstars in shape for the rigors of performing
nearly every night.
“I have built my reputation on getting my clients in their best ever condition
15
in the shortest amount of time,” Jenkins said. “Part of my success
has to do with knowledge, motivational skills, and ability to
connect with people . . . but most of my success has to do
with the mind state of the person I am training . . . The truth
20
about health and fitness is that you have to want to get off
the bench and be a participant in life, not a spectator! . . .
This is my celebrity-training secret: I only take on clients who
have this passion or are open to and truly desire change.”
In recent years, more people than ever have developed a fitness passion. In
25
the United States, there is an ever-growing demand for fitness products and
services, which is the result of a number of factors. For one, there is an increasing
population of people over age fifty-five who want to stay fit. In addition, there is a
growing obesity problem among adults and children alike---a problem Jenkins
13
21
25
rigor --- a tiring task
spectator --- a person who watches
ever-growing --- consistently increasing
34
37
41
43
43
47
53
self-esteem ---a feeling of worthiness
virtue --- a just, good thing
misconception --- a wrong idea
anatomy --- the study of the human body
kinesiology --- the study of body movement
certification --- qualification; sanction
cadet --- a student in a national service academy or private military
school
can identify with. As a child, he was so overweight that other children teased
30
him by chanting, “suck in the gut.”
“No one believed that fitness would be as huge a market as it is now, but
being a fat kid, I knew there had to be a whole bunch of other fat kids like me
with the same issues and problems,” Jenkins said. “What people don’t realize is,
not only is obesity a health problem, but it also affects your self-esteem, so it
35
can quickly turn into a psychological problem as well.”
Finally, there is an acceptance among Americans that spending money on
fitness is not only good but also a virtue. The demand for all things related to
fitness has created a great demand for personal trainers, which is expected to
increase 27 percent in the United States by the year 2016, according to the US
40
Bureau of Labor and Statistics.
It is a common misconception that a personal trainer is simply an exercise
partner or a “cheerleader” for a person wanting to get into shape. To become a
personal trainer requires taking courses in anatomy, physiology, kinesiology,
injury prevention, training techniques, and emergency techniques like CPR.
45
It can take anywhere from six months to two years to become a certified trainer,
depending on the program. There are a number of organizations that offer personal
trainer certification, and some are better than others. Some programs, for
instance, offer certification after the completion of online courses and do not
require practical experience or an internship. Obviously, a program that
50
requires more than just book knowledge will produce better-prepared and more
knowledgeable trainers.
Jenkins, for example, sharpened his personal training skills in the US Navy,
helping a fellow cadet who was threatened with discharge for being too heavy.
“He was my first ‘victim,’” Jenkins joked. If the trend for personal
55
trainers continues as predicted, he will have many more.
Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds
669 words
109
110
R eading Comprehension
AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the
reading.
1. ____ Personal trainers are becoming more popular in the United States.
2. ____It takes six months to two years to become a certified personal trainer.
3. ____ Personal trainers usually work with clients in small groups.
4. ____ Mark Jenkins is famous for his work with professional athletes.
B Choose the best answer according to the reading.
1. What does Mark Jenkins attribute most of his success to?
a.
b.
c.
d.
His training techniques
His knowledge
His clients’ state of mind
His motivational skills
2.Why was Mark Jenkins’s teased as a child?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Because he used to be very fat
Because he was so strong
Because his pants kept falling down
Because he wanted to be in the Navy
3. Why is the demand for health and fitness increasing in the US?
a.
b.
c.
d.
More people age fifty-five and older want to stay fit.
The price for personal trainers keeps dropping.
Children aren’t concerned about being overweight.
People consider personal trainers a waste of money.
CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write
them on the lines provided.
1.What is the job description of a personal trainer?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
2.What is predicted by the year 2016?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
S ummary
Fill in the blanks with words or phrases from the list. Use each word or
phrase only once.
take into account
come in
in vogue
teased with
get in shape
workouts
Many people in the US want to 1 ___________, but they lack the time or
motivation. This is where personal trainers 2 ___________. Personal trainers
teach effective exercise techniques as they guide clients through individualized
3 ___________. They design programs that 4 ___________ their clients’
limitations and fitness goals. One reason personal trainers are 5 ___________ is
that Americans suffer from an obesity epidemic. They want to avoid labels like the
one personal trainer Mark Jenkins was 6 ___________ as a child. Personal trainers
require extensive training before they become certified. The demand for personal
trainers is expected to increase 27 percent by the year 2016.
V ocabulary Extension
Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in
the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list.
Use each word or phrase only once.
works out
hit the gym
cardiovascular
body fat
weight lifting
core
1. I’m going to ___________ on my way home.
2. ___________ is a great way to build stronger muscles.
3. Many people want to reduce their percentage of ___________.
4.She’s in good shape because she ___________ regularly.
5.Exercises designed to strengthen the midsection---the ___________---are
popular today.
6.In addition to lifting weights, it’s important to take care of your ___________
health.
111
112
S upplemental Reading
Exergaming
P
Track 36
arents often face a difficult time prying children away from video screens
and getting them outdoors for some good old-fashioned exercise. Today,
they might not have to. Exergaming, a combination of video games and
physical movement, is becoming a hot fitness trend all
5
over the world.
Exergaming was popularized in recent years by the
Nintendo Wii. This game system allows players virtual
participation in sports like baseball, tennis, and bowling.
But the roots of exergaming extend into the 1980s. The first exergaming device,
10
Computrainer, led stationary bike riders on a trip through a virtual landscape.
Similar “virtual reality” systems followed, but they proved too expensive and
complicated for the average person.
In 1998, Konami’s fun and affordable “Dance Dance Revolution” brought
exergaming into the mainstream. Players stand on a platform and tap colored
15
arrows with their feet in tune to musical and video cues.
Today, fitness clubs, schools, and community centers throughout America
offer exergaming machines. Some schools even substitute exergaming workouts
for traditional PE classes. Though parents are happy to see their children
exercising, many still worry.
20
“Exergames burn calories, raise heartbeats, and offer a physical benefit for
kids,” said Lisa Hanson, co-director of a Florida research laboratory. But she
added that it is unclear whether active gaming offers the same benefits as traditional
workouts. A British study found that many Wii games, for example, don’t provide
intense enough exercise.
Discussion
Discuss the following questions.
1.Have you tried Exergaming? What do you think of it?
2.Are exergames a good substitute for PE classes or other traditional sports?
Why do you feel this way?
U N I T
10
P e o p l e & O p inions 1
A Superlative
Book
Pre-Reading Questions
Think about the following questions.
1.Do you, or someone you know, have an unusual talent or skill?
Describe it.
2.Who is the best soccer player in the world right now? The fastest
runner? The richest singer?
3.Why do you think some people have an almost insatiable need to be
recognized?
Vocabulary Preview
Match each word with the correct definition.
1. achievement
a. to get
2. resolve
b. lasting; durable
3. obtain
c. a worthy accomplishment
4. classify
d. a device to slow a fall from an airplane
5. parachute
e. to place in categories
6. enduring
f. to clear up
114
A Superlative Book
T
Track 37
he Guinness Book of World Records is a compilation
of the highest, and sometimes lowest, achievements in
every imaginable category. It contains facts, such as
the hottest and coldest places on Earth, the largest lizard, and
5
the oldest language, as well as human achievements: the largest
cake ever made, the highest jump, and the longest marriage.
Some activities, like standing on one leg the longest or blowing the
biggest bubblegum bubble, have been created simply to get into the book. These
sorts of things have clearly fascinated many people. If the number of copies sold
10
is a guide, the Guinness Book of World Records is one of the most popular books
in the world. About 94 million copies have been sold since it was first published
in 1955, making the book second in popularity only to the Bible. It has been sold
in 100 different countries and translated into thirty-seven languages.
The Guinness Book of World Records was begun for the purpose of settling
15
disputes in bars. The idea belonged to Sir Hugh Beaver, who was the managing
director of the Guinness Brewery, which still produces the famous Guinness
stout (dark beer). On a 1951 hunting trip, after shooting at, and missing, a group
of golden plovers, Sir Hugh and his party became engaged in a discussion
about whether the plover or the grouse was the fastest game bird in Europe.
20
The discussion was not resolved at the time, but it caused Sir Hugh to ponder
that many such discussions might take place in the bars across the United
Kingdom, where Guinness stout was served. He thought a book that could
answer questions about superlatives (the tallest, fastest, longest, etc.) would
not only be popular but could help to market his company’s product as well.
Sir Hugh contacted Norm and Ross McWhirter, who ran a London research
25
1
3
15
18
19
20
23
24
compilation --- a collection
category --- a class or division
dispute --- a disagreement
plover --- a small bird that lives near the sea
grouse --- a small bird that is hunted and shot for food and sport
ponder --- to think deeply
superlative --- a word denoting the highest degree
market --- to publicize
30
39
storehouse --- a room or building where things are put for
storage
distinctive --- notable
agency. The brothers compiled a list of facts, and the first edition, called The
Guinness Book of Superlatives, was published in August 1955. By Christmas of
that year, the book was at the top of the British bestseller lists. One year later in
America, David A. Boehm, the founder of Sterling Publishing Co., discovered a
30
storehouse full of copies of The Guinness Book of Superlatives. Boehm decided
that the book could be successful in America, so he went to Britain to obtain the
rights. Boehm renamed the book the Guinness Book of World Records because
he thought Americans wouldn’t be able to understand the word “superlatives.”
The book was successful immediately and quickly became famous throughout
35
the world, earning the company $1.7 million per year. In 1989, Boehm sold the
book rights back to Guinness for eight million dollars.
Many of the facts in the Guinness Book of World Records are concerned
with science and the natural world and are, therefore, unlikely to change.
Because most of the Earth has been explored, and many of its distinctive plant
40
and animal species have already been classified, it is unlikely that, for instance, a
lizard larger than the Komodo dragon will be discovered. But in the area of
human achievement, records will continue to be made and broken---a fact that
has given hope to a great many people who want to be noticed. Of course, there
are some, like Olympic athletes, who set new records simply because they are
45
excellent at what they do.
However, there is also a sort of community of people who spend much of their
time deliberately trying to set world records and get their names into the
book. Some choose dangerous or highly difficult tasks, such
as deep-sea diving without oxygen or jumping off mountains
50
with parachutes. There are many others who choose obscure
activities, like bicycling backwards or balancing wine
glasses on their chins. This combination of strangeness
and achievement is perhaps one of the most appealing and
enduring aspects of the Guinness Book of World Records.
Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds
653 words
115
116
R eading Comprehension
AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the
reading.
1. ____ The Guinness Book of Superlatives was begun to make money.
2. ____The book has been translated into more than 100 different languages.
3. ____ The first edition was published in December 1951.
4. ____ Many facts in the book are unlikely to ever change.
B Choose the best answer according to the reading.
1.Where did Sir Hugh Beaver get the idea for The Guinness Book of
Superlatives?
a.
b.
c.
d.
On a hunting trip
In a bar
At a brewery
In America
2.What did Norm and Ross McWhirter do?
a.
b.
c.
d.
They produced Guinness Stout.
They changed the book’s name.
They bought the American rights.
They compiled a list of facts.
3. All of the following are true EXCEPT
a.
b.
c.
d.
The Guinness Book of World Records contains facts and achievements.
David Boehm resold the rights to the book for eighty million dollars.
More than ninety-four million copies of the book have been sold worldwide.
Sir Hugh Beaver envisioned the book as a Guinness marketing tool.
CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write
them on the lines provided.
1. Why did David Boehm rename the book?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
2.How much did the book earn Boehm’s company each year?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
S ummary
Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided
below. Select THREE answer choices to complete the summary.
First Sentence: The Guinness Book of World Records, one of the most popular
books ever published, has an interesting history.
A.The book is a compilation of natural facts about the Earth and also classifies
human achievements in a wide variety of categories, both legitimate and dubious.
B.David A. Boehm, the founder of Sterling Publishing Co., obtained the American
rights to the book after he found copies of the original publication sitting in a
storehouse.
C.Sir Hugh Beaver, managing director of the Guinness Brewery, got the idea for a
“book of superlatives” to resolve bar disputes while on a bird-hunting expedition.
D. T
he Guinness Book of Superlatives, published in 1955, quickly became a bestseller and received its current title from American publisher David A. Boehm.
E.There is also a community of people who spend much of their time
deliberately trying to set obscure world records, such as jumping off mountains
with parachutes.
F.Since its inception, the book, with an enduring mix of quirky facts and unusual
human achievements, has become second only to the Bible in worldwide popularity.
V ocabulary Extension
Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in
the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list.
Use each word or phrase only once.
comparative
record adjudicator
copyright
claims
verification
guidelines
1.After someone applies for a world record, Guinness can send ___________ of
the record within six weeks.
2. “I’m taller than Henry” is an example of a ___________ sentence.
3. To set a Guinness record, there are several ___________ to be followed.
4.Guinness receives more than 65,000 world-record ___________ each year.
5.Only one company holds the ___________ for the book.
6.A ___________ is a Guinness judge who can verify a world record
immediately upon completion.
117
118
S upplemental Reading
Worthy of Recognition?
C
Track 38
reating the largest popcorn sculpture,
completing twenty-seven thousand jumping
jacks in five hours, skipping the fastest five
kilometers while holding a tiger’s leash, as well as
5
eighty-six other astounding feats, are held by one man
in the Guinness Book of World Records. Ashrita
Furman is a former economics major who dropped out of Columbia University,
yet he has still made somewhat of a name for himself.
Furman, wanting to enhance his spiritual life, changed his name from Keith
10
to Ashrita. His desire to surpass human limitations brings attention to him in
unique ways. At the age of fifty-four, Furman continues to break thirty-five to
forty records a year in an attempt to challenge his own limits. He holds records
for activities ranging from tearing the most shirts in a minute to completing the
fastest mile on a pogo stick in Antarctica.
15
Why does Ashrita Furman attempt to break so many records? While these
feats for which Furman holds records are fascinating and amazing, are they really
worth the funds needed to carry them out?
While there are those who enjoy the thrill of competition and strive to be
unique in their pursuit of fame, is the publicity necessary when the cost of the
20
record-breaking attempts can be so high? Injuries, financial obligations, and
failure can be devastating. On the other hand, an average person can be fascinated
by the courage, skill, and sometimes oddity of world-record breakers.
Discussion
Discuss the following questions.
1.Is it necessary for time, money, and energy to be spent on so many obscure
record-breaking attempts?
2.Can record-breaking attempts by someone help to improve the lives of
others?
U N I T
10
P e o p l e & O p inions 2
Mandela’s Fight
Against Apartheid
Pre-Reading Questions
Think about the following questions.
1.What types of racial discrimination exist in your country? Have you
encountered any personally?
2.Would you be willing to go to prison for a cause you strongly
believed in?
3.How much do you know about Nelson Mandela and apartheid in
South Africa?
Vocabulary Preview
Match each word with the correct definition.
1. discriminate
a. a legal judgment
2. section
b. to object or complain
3. urban
c. to barter; to try to agree
4. protest
d.to make a difference in treatment based on anything
other than individual merit
5. conviction
e. city-like
6. negotiate
f. a part of a larger whole
120
Mandela’s Fight Against
Apartheid
Track 39
A
partheid was a system of legal racial
segregation enforced by the National Party
government of South Africa between 1948
and 1990. It allowed the ruling white minority in
5
South Africa to segregate and discriminate against the
vast majority: Black Africans mostly, but also Asians and other people of mixed
races. Under apartheid laws, South African blacks not only had voting rights
taken away but were also forced to live in a small section of the country unless
they had a “pass book.” The “pass books” were designed to regulate movement of
10
black Africans in urban areas. It was during these times that Nelson Mandela
rose up as a major speaker against the evils of apartheid.
In 1944, at the age of twenty-six, Nelson Mandela joined the African
National Congress (ANC), a party formed to increase the rights of the black
South African population. At the time, the ANC was considered an organization
15
with a polite and conservative approach to protesting apartheid. Under the
Program of Action started in 1949, the ANC began turning to boycotts, strikes,
and civil disobedience as weapons in the fight against apartheid. In 1952, as
volunteer-in-chief of the ANC’s Campaign for the Defiance of Unjust Laws,
Mandela organized the fight against discriminatory laws in South Africa. Though
20
his participation in this campaign brought Mandela a criminal conviction and a
suspended prison sentence, it earned him increased respect among his fellow
freedom fighters. He was then elected a deputy president of the ANC.
During this period, Mandela came to the conclusion that violence was
inevitable, since the government met peaceful demands with force. Thus in
25
1961, Umkhonto we Sizwe (translated Spear of the Nation, and also abbreviated
MK), was formed. Mandela helped coordinate sabotage campaigns against
1
1
16
17
24
26
apartheid --- a South African system of segregation
racial segregation --- t he separation of people of different races or
skin colors
boycott --- to refuse buying or using something as a form of protest
civil disobedience --- non-violent form of protest
inevitable --- unavoidable; surely going to happen
sabotage --- deliberate destruction of property or slowing down of work
28
44
46
46
paramilitary --- a fighting force patterned on military training
oppressor --- a person who holds down or restrains others
prejudice --- unreasonable feelings, opinions, or attitudes
regarding a racial, religious or national group
narrow-mindedness --- lacking tolerance or breadth of vision
military and government targets. Mandela also raised funds for MK abroad and
arranged for paramilitary training of group members.
In 1962, Mandela traveled abroad illegally to gather support from leaders of
30
other countries for the anti-apartheid struggle. Upon his return, he was arrested
and handed a five-year jail term. While serving his sentence, he was charged with
other crimes in a separate trial and received a life sentence. Mandela continued to
demand equality from the confines of Robben Island Prison, a maximum-security
prison on a small island off the coast. In prison, Mandela quickly recognized that
35
short trousers were given to black prisoners while long trousers were given to
non-black prisoners, a reminder of the differences in status. After two weeks of
protesting, Mandela found long trousers in his own cell. Yet he continued to
demand the same rights for other black prisoners. While in prison, Mandela
rejected an offer of release on the condition that he renounce armed struggle by
40
stating, “What freedom am I being offered while the organization of the people
remains banned? Only free men can negotiate. A prisoner cannot enter into
contracts.”
It was Mandela’s firm belief that the struggle for freedom was not only for
the oppressed but also for the oppressors. “A man who takes away another
45
man’s freedom is a prisoner of hatred,” observes Mandela in his autobiography.
“He is locked behind the bars of prejudice and narrow-mindedness. I am
not truly free if I am taking away someone else’s freedom, just as surely as I am
not free when my freedom is taken from me. The oppressed and the oppressor
alike are robbed of their humanity.”
50
After twenty-eight years in prison, Nelson Mandela
was released in 1990. In 1991, he became president of
the ANC. In 1993, he was awarded the Nobel Peace
Prize for helping to end apartheid. Finally, in 1994,
Nelson Mandela was elected president of South Africa
55
and remained in that office until June 1999, when he retired from public life. He
now lives in Qunu, Transkei, the village where he was born.
Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds
648 words
121
122
R eading Comprehension
AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the
reading.
1. ____The African National Congress was formed to increase black people’s
rights.
2. ____Nelson Mandela spent time in prison while volunteering for the ANC.
3. ____ Spear of the Nation was a non-violent protest group.
4. ____ Mandela was released in 1990 after thirty-eight years in prison.
B Choose the best answer according to the reading.
1.What was the purpose of “pass books” under apartheid?
a.
b.
c.
d.
To monitor minorities’ voting rights
To check black people’s bank accounts
To regulate black people's movements
To allow minorities to stage boycotts
2.Which weapons were NOT used under the Program of Action?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Strikes
Sabotage campaigns
Boycotts
Civil disobedience
3. Why was Nelson Mandela given a five-year jail term in 1962?
a.
b.
c.
d.
For traveling to other countries
For leading paramilitary training
For sabotaging government property
For inciting civil disobedience
CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write
them on the lines provided.
1. When was apartheid in effect in South Africa?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
2.Why did Nelson Mandela decide to endorse violence to fight apartheid?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
S ummary
Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided
below. Select THREE answer choices to complete the summary.
First Sentence: Nelson Mandela was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993 for his
role in helping South Africa end the system of apartheid.
A.Apartheid was a system of legal racial segregation enforced by the National Party
government of South Africa between 1948 and 1990, particularly in urban areas.
B.Beginning in 1949, the African National Congress started using boycotts, strikes,
and civil disobedience as weapons in the fight against apartheid.
C.Mandela negotiated to end apartheid as a member of the African National
Congress, and then joined a more militant group called Spear of the Nation.
D.For Spear of the Nation, Mandela helped plan sabotage campaigns against the
government and arranged for a section of the group to get paramilitary training.
E.Even after his conviction and imprisonment in 1962, Mandela continued to speak
out against injustice until he was released in 1990, when apartheid ended.
F.While in prison, Mandela protested because black prisoners were discriminated
against, receiving short trousers while whites got long ones.
V ocabulary Extension
Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in
the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list.
Use each word or phrase only once.
bigot
civil rights
rural
hunger strike
integration
sit-in
1. ___________ is the opposite of segregation.
2.The prisoners formed a(n) ___________ and vowed not to eat until they
received better food.
3. Farmers live outside cities in ___________ areas of the country.
4.During the ___________, the students occupied booths and refused to leave
the restaurant.
5.Like Martin Luther King in America, Mandela demanded equal ___________
for black people.
6.A(n) ___________ treats black people with hatred and intolerance.
123
124
S upplemental Reading
Pure Democracy
N
Track 40
elson Rolihlahla Mandela was born on July 18, 1918, in the small
South African village of Qunu. His father, Henry, was chief counselor
to the tribe’s leader, and also a sort of “unofficial priest.”
Mandela’s father rejected the prejudice those in his tribe, the
5
Xhosas, held against the Mfengu tribe, which was better-educated and
more “Western” than other tribes of the region. Chief Henry befriended
two Mfengu brothers, George and Ben Mbekela. George Mbekela, a
retired school teacher, suggested Mandela be sent to school. There, he
was given his English name, Nelson, according to the prevailing custom
10
in African schools at the time.
When Mandela was twelve years old, his father died. The tribe’s leader,
Dalindyebo, became Mandela’s guardian and began grooming him for leadership.
Mandela attended tribal meetings in the Great Place, where issues of concern to all
village citizens were discussed and voted upon. Mandela observed how Dalindyebo
15
would open meetings by addressing his “amapakati,” or “the middle ones,” who
were sent to represent the interests of local clans. After explaining why the meeting
had been called, Dalindyebo would give the floor to the amapakati. Then he
would remain silent until each person had had his say.
Even when opinions were hostile with regard to his own practices and
20
beliefs, Dalindyebo would listen patiently until all opinions had been voiced. He
would then offer a summary of what had been said and help the group to achieve
consensus amid the differing points of view. Mandela credits his early exposure
to this process, “democracy in its purest form,” as the crucible of his principles
and practices as a political activist and leader.
Discussion
Discuss the following questions.
1.Do you think Nelson Mandela was correct in calling the meetings at the Great
Place “democracy in its purest form”? Why or why not?
2.What is a childhood experience that has shaped your life?
U N I T
11
C ro s s - C u l t u r al V ie wp oint s 1
Differing
Conceptions of Time
Pre-Reading Questions
Think about the following questions.
1.How important to you is it to be on time?
2.If you could tell a foreigner only one thing about your culture, what
would it be?
3.Have you ever experienced a cultural misunderstanding based on
time? What happened?
Vocabulary Preview
Match each word with the correct definition.
1. evidence
a. absolutely necessary
2. interact
b. inflexibly
3. socialize
c. touchable
4. tangible
d. to talk informally
5. rigidly
e. to work together
6. indispensable
f. indication or proof
126
Track 41
Differing Conceptions of Time
C
ulture is a shared system of ideas that a society has about how the
world works and how people should act. The culture of our society has
a great influence on what we think, feel, and how we act. In fact, some
cultural anthropologists even think that culture is a kind of template for our
5
thinking and feelings. It is thought that culture even creates the rhythms of our
societies.
According to anthropologist Irving Hallowell, there is no evidence that man
has an inborn sense of time. Hence, people’s temporal concepts are a result of
their culture. In fact, a study showed that by three months of age, children have
10
been fully adapted to their temporal culture. This temporal culture forms the
basis for people’s language, music, poetry, and dance. As well, a people’s rhythm
is an attractor for other people who share the same pace of talk,
movement, music, or sport---resulting in a stronger cultural
bond.
Of course, cultures differ in how daily events are scheduled
15
and in how different parts of the society interact. One type of
cultural temporal perception is called polychronic. This kind
of perception is often a characteristic of southern cultures, such as in
Mediterranean or Arab countries. These cultures emphasize the involvement of
20
people and a variety of processes rather than strictly following a preset schedule.
Polychronic people seldom feel that time is wasted or lacking. They tend to do
many things at the same time and are easily distracted from the task at hand. They
are more committed to people than time schedules. For polychronic people, work
time is not clearly separable from personal time, so business meetings will often be
25
a form of socializing. Also, they are inclined toward very close relationships with
people and like to build lifetime relationships.
4
4
8
10
17
17
anthropologist --- a scientist who studies human beings
template --- a pattern or model
inborn --- instinctive
temporal culture --- the culture of time
perception --- an awareness through physical sensation
polychronic --- working on multiple activities at the same time
27
41
49
monochronic --- linear
compartmentalized --- organized
frivolous --- silly; wasteful
Monochronic cultures, on the other hand, are oriented
toward tasks and schedules. Characteristically, this monochronic
approach is often seen in northern cultures; for example, in
30
northern European countries or in North America. Monochronic
people feel that time is tangible and inflexible, and such cultures
may follow the belief that “time is money.” They do one thing at a
time and concentrate on each thing in sequence. Time and job
commitments are very important to them, and they tend to follow plans rigidly.
35
As well, monochronic people clearly separate their work and personal social
time. More accustomed to short-term rather than lifetime relationships,
monochronic people value privacy highly.
As you might expect, people from polychronic and monochronic
cultures have difficulties in adjusting to each other, and often have cultural
40
misunderstandings. For example, because monochronic culture is highly
compartmentalized, monochronic people tend to sequence conversations as
well as tasks. They would not, for instance, interrupt a phone call in order to
greet another person who just came into the room. In contrast, polychronic
people can carry on multiple conversations at the same time. They would consider
45
it rude not to greet a third person, even though they were talking on the phone.
Such cultural misunderstandings are very much apparent in the business
world. Being late to an appointment, socializing during business meetings, or
taking a long time to get down to business is normal in Saudi Arabia or France.
But to an American or German, these kinds of business practices seem frivolous.
50
As temporal culture researchers have noted, many millions of dollars have been lost
in international business dealings simply because monochronic and polychronic
people do not realize that two such different temporal cultures even exist.
Ultimately, with the increase in the globalization of business, entertainment, and
even living, learning and understanding the differences in cultures will become
55
an indispensable part of our lives.
Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds
613 words
127
128
R eading Comprehension
AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the
reading.
1. ____ It is thought that culture can help create minds and emotions.
2. ____Evidence shows that we are born with a sense of time.
3. ____ Polychronic time is typical of southern cultures.
4. ____ Monochronic people seldom feel that time is wasted or lacking.
B Choose the best answer according to the reading.
1. What is true of temporal culture?
a.
b.
c.
d.
It forms the basis for physical appearances.
Children adapt to it by the age of three months.
It has negligible impact on our everyday lives.
Anthropologists disagree whether it exists.
2.What is true about polychronic people?
a.
b.
c.
d.
They follow a preset schedule.
They rarely, if ever, arrive late.
They value privacy highly.
They do many things at once.
3. What is true about monochronic people?
a.
b.
c.
d.
They don’t stick to schedules.
They can be easily distracted.
They separate work and social time.
They pursue lifetime relationships.
CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write
them on the lines provided.
1.Why do monochronic people tend to sequence conversations as well as tasks?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
2.What have temporal culture researchers noted about international business
dealings?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
S ummary
Fill in the blanks in the table with the sentences or phrases below according
to the category they belong to. Use each sentence or phrase only once.
Temporal Cultures
Monochronic
Polychronic
A.Characteristic of Mediterranean countries
B. Interacts with many people at once
C.Views time as tangible
D. People and processes are indispensable.
E.Doesn’t socialize during business meetings
F. Evidence indicates they follow plans rigidly.
V ocabulary Extension
Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in
the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list.
Use each word or phrase only once.
acculturate
trait
norm
custom
mores
faux pas
1.He committed a social ___________ by arriving a half-hour late for a business
meeting in Germany.
2.Eating quietly is a social ___________ in America.
3. Wearing turbans is a cultural ___________ of Arabic countries.
4.In China, setting off fireworks are a New Year’s ___________.
5.___________ are a group of social norms that form a country’s moral
standards.
6.It was difficult for Tony to ___________ to life in Japan.
129
130
S upplemental Reading
Cultural Clashes
C
Track 42
ultural clashes and misunderstandings occur most often from
misinterpreting contextual information. Different cultures place varying
degrees of emphasis on contextual information. Contextual information
is gathered from the environment during communication.
5
There are generally two types of context cultures: high-context cultures and
low-context cultures. High-context cultures, like those in Japan, China, or Arab
countries, assign a lot of importance to the environment surrounding a message;
consequently, the meaning of the message itself is often implicit. In order to
understand what is being said, the speakers must first understand the situation
10
and the participants’ relationship to each other. These cultures place less value
on words, so words are used generously.
In contrast, low-context cultures, like Germany or America, place importance
on the message itself, which must be quite explicit. For low-context speakers,
communication is more detailed and specific, since external factors are not
15
emphasized nearly as much. Every word is meaningful.
The effects of contextual differences are very apparent in
the business world. For example, a business contract from
Japan would tend to be short, since much of the information
is implied and understood within the high-context Japanese
20
culture. This culture would expect you to understand its “unwritten” rules. A
contract from America, however, would not take anything for granted. It would
tend to be longer and much more detailed. More explanation would be needed to
make sure that there were no misunderstandings.
Discussion
Discuss the following questions.
1.Have you ever experienced, or heard about, a culture clash? What happened?
2.What steps should companies take to avoid cultural clashes in the future?
U N I T
11
C ro s s - C u l t u r al V ie wp oint s 2
Investigating
Stereotypes of Men
and Women
Pre-Reading Questions
Think about the following questions.
1.Are men and women treated differently in your culture? In what
ways?
2.In your opinion, what are the three most important characteristics
for a man to have? For a woman?
3.Is it all right for young boys to play with dolls? Why or why not?
Vocabulary Preview
Match each word with the correct definition.
1. assign
a. to give to
2. examine
b. suitable; fitting
3. evaluate
c. to look closely
4. comparison
d. an evaluation to find similarities and differences
5. appropriate
e. to show; to display
6. exhibit
f. to determine the value or condition
132
Investigating Stereotypes of Men
and Women
Track 43
G
ender stereotyping means assigning people “male” and “female” roles.
This occurs in all cultures, in both public and private interactions.
Researchers have studied the characteristics of males and females. They
have examined how men and women behave in various interactions involving only
5
women, only men, and mixed groups of men and women. They have also looked at
the way media portrays men and women. They hope to encourage better
understanding between sexes. The goal is to help people overcome the barriers
of gender stereotypes.
One in-depth cross-cultural investigation carried out in the early 1980s
10
examined the patterns of gender stereotypes in twenty-five different countries.
About 5,000 men and women were asked to evaluate a list of
adjectives typically used to describe men or women. Individuals
designated the adjectives as having either a positive or negative
meaning. Then, based on the responses, the researchers examined all
15
the male adjectives together and all the female adjectives together.
Researchers found out that countries evaluated the adjectives
differently. In countries such as Italy, Peru, Australia, and the
United States, more female adjectives were rated positively than were male
adjectives. On the other hand, countries such as Japan, Malaysia, Israel, and
20
Nigeria rated more male adjectives as positive. The researchers used these findings
to learn about stereotypes in each separate culture.
The study revealed that men were labeled with negative adjectives.
Specifically, the majority of countries (nineteen of twenty five) rated most of the
male adjectives as negative. In comparison, few of the female adjectives were
25
judged as negative. Masculine adjectives typically described the ability to use
tools, to solve problems, and to do work. Males were described as assertive,
controlling, or logical. Feminine adjectives described the ability to communicate,
6
8
13
25
26
27
portray --- to depict or describe
gender stereotypes --- accepted beliefs about males and females
designate --- to choose or assign
masculine --- male-like
assertive --- bold; confident
logical --- making sense
29
41
41
48
altruistic --- helping others
peer --- a person with equal standing
perpetuate --- to carry on; to make something last
verbal --- vocal
to show feelings, and to develop relationships. Females were described
as passive, supportive, and altruistic.
30
The goal of such research is to help overcome stereotypes. But
this is not easy. Parents begin to establish roles for boys and girls
even before birth. For example, they will decorate a boy’s room in
blue and a girl’s in pink. They will choose masculine wallpaper,
toys, and clothes for boys, and feminine decorations, dolls, and dresses for girls.
35
And within 24 hours of birth, researchers have found that parents begin to
describe boys and girls differently. Girls are usually called “pretty” and “friendly.”
Boys are “handsome” and “smart.” As a result, children learn appropriate roles
and exhibit behavior suitable to their gender. Stereotypes are continually reinforced
in pre-school years, and gender differences become obvious by the time children
40
reach the age of five.
Parents, teachers, and peers all play a part in perpetuating stereotypes in
children. At home, parents have been observed to reward gender-appropriate
play and punish gender-inappropriate play in their children. For example, girls
were most often encouraged to play with dolls and toy pots or picnic supplies.
45
Boys tended to be punished for playing with dolls and instead were encouraged
to play with toy vehicles and military toys. Stereotypes also seem to play a part
in how children are punished both at home and in schools. Boys are more often
hit for punishment while girls receive loud verbal punishment.
The negative result of gender stereotyping has been the focus of much
50
educational research. Many researchers have claimed stereotyping has led to
fewer girls studying degrees related to math and science in university. Stereotypes
have also been suggested as a contributing factor to boys being labeled as “bad
students” in school more often than girls, thus leading to more boys than girls
dropping out of high school. In both instances, stereotypes have been linked to
55
critical choices boys and girls make in school directly affecting their futures.
Changing gender stereotypes might help students lead better lives.
Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds
629 words
133
134
R eading Comprehension
AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the
reading.
1. ____ Gender stereotyping occurs in twenty-five different countries.
2. ____In a 1980s study, people in different countries evaluated adjectives
similarly.
3. ____ In most of the countries, female adjectives were judged negatively.
4. ____ Teachers are mostly to blame for gender stereotyping.
B Choose the best answer according to the reading.
1. What is true about gender stereotyping?
a.
b.
c.
d.
It occurs in all cultures.
It applies to animals as well as people.
It starts in high school.
It affects men more than women.
2.Which of the following was NOT designated as a male adjective?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Assertive
Logical
Altruistic
Controlling
3. What is the goal of studying male and female roles?
a.
b.
c.
d.
To help overcome stereotypes
To change people’s behavior
To reform international media
To destroy the education system
CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write
them on the lines provided.
1.In which countries were male adjectives rated more positively than female
ones?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
2.How do researchers claim that stereotyping has affected girls’ education?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
S ummary
Fill in the blanks in the table with the phrases below according to the
category they belong to. Use each phrase only once.
Gender Stereotypes
Male
Female
A.Assigned adjective of “logical”
B. Thought to exhibit passive behavior
C.Appropriate to play with toy vehicles
D. Pink bedrooms, in comparison to blue
E.Evaluated as “friendly”
F. Examined and labeled “assertive”
V ocabulary Extension
Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in
the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list.
Use each word or phrase only once.
gender-neutral
like father, like son
androgynous
like a girl
be a man
tied to his mother's apron strings
1.I can’t tell if that ___________ person is a man or a woman.
2.Mr. Smith and his son Jim both have hot tempers, which just goes to show,
___________.
3.The new ___________ dress code does not distinguish between men and
women.
4.“You throw ___________,” Bob yelled to Dave during baseball practice.
5.When Ben hurt his finger, his father told him to ___________ and stop crying.
6.Billy’s not brave enough to try. He’s still ___________.
135
136
S upplemental Reading
Gender and Sex
T
Track 44
he terms “sex” and “gender,” although used by many people to mean
the same thing, are now used in social research as two distinct
classifications.
Sex is determined by biology and is defined by genes and physical
5
characteristics of the body. Biologists can determine the sex of an organism by
looking at that organism’s body and how it mates with others of the same
species. The physical characteristics of the organism are used to establish if the
organism is male or female.
Gender, on the other hand, is related to a person’s sexual identity and is
10
socially and culturally constructed. For example, when a
person follows the socially defined roles for males in a
culture, society identifies that person’s gender as male.
However, individuals can define gender for themselves.
Some people, called transvestites, like to dress and act like members of the
15
opposite sex. Others actually have operations that change their organs into those
of the opposite sex. These are called transgender persons.
Recently, there has been a growing movement in the United States to make
transgender an official designation for a third type of gender. This label would
also include transvestites. Complicating this matter is the designation people
20
choose to express their sexual preferences. Heterosexual refers to men mating
with women. Homosexual refers to sexual activities between persons of the same
biological sex (not gender). And bisexual pertains to sexual activities with either
men or women. Neither a person’s sex nor gender necessarily indicates his or
her sexual inclination.
Discussion
Discuss the following questions.
1.What distinctions between sex and gender exist in your country?
2.Should people be allowed to choose their own sex and gender, including
altering their natural biological organs?
U N I T
12
B u s i n e s s & Ec onomic s 1
An Office Away
from the Office
Pre-Reading Questions
Think about the following questions.
1.If you could take all your school classes online from your home,
would you? Explain your answer.
2.What’s a typical working day like for employees in your country?
3.Do many employees in your country work from their home? Do you
think working from home is a good idea or a bad one? Explain.
Vocabulary Preview
Match each word or phrase with the correct definition.
1. gobble down
a. in the middle of
2. amid
b. knowledgeable about something
3. surpass
c. to eat quickly
4. incur
d. to put into effect
5. implement
e. to go beyond
6. savvy
f. to become responsible for
138
Track 45
An Office Away from the Office
F
or many adults, a typical work day might be as follows: The alarm goes
off at 6:00 a.m. You dress yourself in expensive work clothes, gobble
down breakfast, and start off on your long and stressful commute to
the office. You spend your day at your desk, attempting to complete your tasks
5
amid co-worker chitchat and office politics. Then, you make your way home
through the commuter crowds. You have just enough time for a few hours of
relaxation before you have to get up and repeat the process all over again the
next day. For these people, telecommuting might be seen as the answer to the
daily stress and frustration of office jobs.
Telecommuting, also known as teleworking or working from home, is a term
10
that refers to the use of telecommunication to work away from the company’s
office, most often at a home office. Few people telecommute full time, but a
growing number of companies are allowing their employees to work from home
at least part of the time. The Wall Street Journal reports that the number of
15
people worldwide who telecommute at least one day per month has risen from
about 22 million in 1998 to about 82.5 million in 2007, and this number is
expected to surpass 100 million by the beginning of the
next decade.
Employers have met this growing demand to work
20
from home with both acceptance and resistance.
On the one hand, employers understand that offering
telecommuting opportunities is a way to cut costs.
Despite the initial cost incurred from setting a telecommuter up with the
appropriate technology, there are long-term savings. The average office space costs
25
an employer about ten thousand dollars per year for each worker, according to the
Industrial and Technology Assistance Corporation (ITAC). In addition, offering
telecommuting opportunities reduces absenteeism, increases productivity,
3
18
20
27
27
commute --- the ride to and from work
decade --- a period of 10 years (e.g. 1980 - 1990)
resistance --- opposition to something
absenteeism --- the rate of people absent from work or school
productivity --- the rate at which goods or services are produced
28
30
43
44
53
retention --- the act of keeping, having, or maintaining
recruitment --- finding and hiring workers in a company
micro-manager --- a manager who wants to be involved in
every detail of his or her staff’s work
delegate --- to assign responsibilities to other people
flexibility --- the ability to change or adapt as needed
and improves employee retention. Workers are happier and less stressed.
Therefore, they work harder and are more loyal to their employers. Employers
30
also see telecommuting as a powerful recruitment tool to attract top talent. In
a survey of top company CFOs, Robert Half Technology cited telecommuting as
second only to salary when deciding whether to take a job.
On the other hand, employers are aware of the fact that telecommuting
poses some risks. First of all, allowing confidential company information to leave
35
the office can pose privacy and security concerns. A study done by the Center for
Democracy and Technology showed that companies often do not fully implement
telecommuting security policies. In addition, telecommuters are not properly
trained in protecting company data. Another risk has to do with the work style
of the telecommuter. A successful telecommuter has to be independent,
40
self-motivated, and disciplined. A telecommuter who needs constant supervision
and feedback will not be successful. This will cost the company in the long run.
Finally, it is more difficult to manage a telecommuter than an on-site worker. A
manager of telecommuters cannot, for instance, be a “micro-manager.” The
manager must be willing to delegate responsibility. In fact, companies are
45
finding it necessary to train their managers in managing telecommuters.
Experts predict that telecommuting will become a standard in the corporate
world, as workers continue to demand it. A technologically-savvy generation that
is entering the work force has a different idea of how work can get done. This
generation readily accepts, and even expects, telecommuting opportunities. In
50
addition, the population worldwide is increasing, but the capacity of roads and
public transportation does not necessarily keep up. This will make commuting to
work only more difficult and frustrating. Lastly, the growing number
of two-income families increases the need for job flexibility in
order to balance family and work life. The trend toward
55
telecommuting is clear, but the long-term effects on corporate
culture and the individual worker are still unknown.
Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds
641 words
139
140
R eading Comprehension
AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the
reading.
1. ____ The number of telecommuters is steadily rising.
2. ____Employers have mixed feelings about telecommuting.
3. ____The average employee office space costs an employer about $100,000 a
year.
4. ____ It is less difficult to manage an onsite worker than a telecommuter.
B Choose the best answer according to the reading.
1. All of the following are mentioned as benefits of telecommuting EXCEPT
a.
b.
c.
d.
Decreased absenteeism
Improved attention
Increased productivity
Happier workers
2.According to Robert Half Technology, what is a candidate’s top consideration
when deciding whether to take a job?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Salary
Benefits
Telecommuting
Vacation schedule
3. What is one risk of telecommuting?
a.
b.
c.
d.
It could cost companies more in the long run.
It decreases employee retention.
It hurts company recruitment.
It’s difficult to protect company data.
CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write
them on the lines provided.
1. What does the Wall Street Journal predict about the number of telecommuters?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
2.What did a study by the Center for Democracy and Technology show?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
S ummary
Fill in the blanks with words or phrases from the list. Use each word or
phrase only once.
gobbling down
incur
amid
implementing
surpass
savvy
As the number of worldwide telecommuters stands ready to 1 ___________
100 million a year, the days of 2 ___________ breakfast and racing off to work
might be numbered. 3 ___________ a number of reasons why telecommuting is
more popular is that employers typically 4 ___________ long-term savings from
5 ___________ telecommuting policies. Though there are risks for employers,
most allow, and even encourage, telecommuting as a way to please a new generation
of computer- 6 ___________ workers.
V ocabulary Extension
Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic but are not in
the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list.
Use each word or phrase only once.
workforce
self-employed
traffic jam
daycare
videoconference
nine-to-five
1.Tim joined a rock band because he didn’t want a ___________ job.
2.More and more women are joining the ___________ these days.
3.Working at home helped save the Jones’s thousands of dollars in ___________
costs for their child.
4.I don’t work for anyone; I’m ___________.
5.We’ll be talking with Mr. Yakamatsu via ___________.
6.The ___________ extended for more than three miles.
141
142
S upplemental Reading
Work-from-Home Scams
I
Track 46
f you search the Internet for “work-from-home”
opportunities, you will find hundreds of jobs promising
fast cash with limited effort. These companies are
seeking people to assemble products, mail letters, or make
5
telephone sales calls. The problem is, many are illegitimate
and may actually scam you out of your own money.
There are several things to watch out for when considering a work-fromhome job. First, be wary of any organization that asks you for an initial
investment. For example, if the job is to assemble products, you might be asked to
10
purchase the instructions and materials up front. When you return the assembled
products, they tell you they do not meet specifications. You are out of money, with
no chance of profiting from your initial investment. Another scam is when the
company offers to advance your salary as a supposed sign of good will. You
deposit the check in the bank, and before the check has cleared, the company
15
tells you they accidentally overpaid you. After you have paid back a portion, you
discover their check was not legitimate. Now you have paid money from your
own pocket and do not have any money from the company.
A good rule is to stick to jobs that require some skills, like a license or
certificate, or some experience. It might be worthwhile to get the qualifications
20
you need so that you can legitimately make money later. Also, ask the company
to provide references who can tell you about their work experiences. If the
company cannot, or will not, do this, it is probably illegitimate.
Working from home can be a wonderful opportunity, but as with any job,
you want to be sure it will be something that is beneficial and improves the
25
quality of your life.
Discussion
Discuss the following questions.
1.What is a popular employment scam in your country?
2.Who, in your opinion, bears more responsibility for a work-at-home scam: the
company that commits the crime, or the person who falls for their tricks?
U N I T
12
B u s i n e s s & Ec onomic s 2
A Need for
Censorship in
Advertising?
Pre-Reading Questions
Think about the following questions.
1.Are there advertisements in your country that are not true?
Describe one.
2.Is it OK for the government to censor the media? In what
circumstances?
3.Should children be protected from viewing certain advertisements
and TV programs? If so, how?
Vocabulary Preview
Match each word with the correct definition.
1. violence
a. being presented with, or made known
2. exposure
b. unsuitable
3. inappropriate
c. a business sector
4. regulate
d. to set rules and guidelines
5. industry
e. physical force that injures or abuses
6. misleading
f. deceiving
144
A Need for Censorship in
Advertising?
Track 47
M
ost people admit that what we see in the media affects the way we
think and act, and most agree the media has a negative effect on
children. Violence in television programs and movies is said to
stimulate violent behavior in children.
Over the years, some leaders have suggested creating laws to help protect
5
children from exposure to inappropriate TV shows and movies. In particular, a
report by the Federal Trade Commission of the United States examined how violent
entertainment was marketed to children. It was surprising that companies routinely
target children as their primary audience, even when movies and games are rated
10
inappropriate for young people. This report upset people all over the country,
including politicians who responded by calling for new laws to regulate
entertainment industries. But it is not easy to create such laws. The US
Constitution guarantees freedom of the press and freedom of speech. It has always
been difficult to balance the power of laws against the freedoms of individuals and
15
companies; so rather than create new laws, the entertainment industry was
told to regulate itself.
This was actually the same solution suggested in the early
1970s, when people first became concerned about advertisements.
There were protests against many advertisers at that time. People
20
claimed that some ads were not true and also that children should
not be exposed to ads for cigarettes and alcohol. So the national
advertising community devised a plan to avoid possible censorship
by the government. Advertisers agreed to set up a new agency, called the
National Advertising Review Council (NARC).
People from within the industry would review ads of all companies. NARC’s
25
official purpose is to maintain standards of truth, accuracy, morality, and social
4
11
13
15
18
22
stimulate --- to spark; to arouse
politician --- a person whose career is politics
press --- news reporters, publishers, and broadcasters
entertainment --- music, movies, or TV amusement
advertisement --- a presentation that sells a product or service
censorship --- the act of preventing or modifying a publication or broadcast
27
39
49
51
branch --- a division
publication --- the act of bringing before the public
self-regulation --- control by oneself or itself, as in an economy or
business organization
intercession --- the act of intervening or mediating
responsibility in advertising. There are two branches within the organization.
The National Advertising Division (NAD) is like a police force, investigating
complaints of false advertising and then working with the advertiser to correct a
30
false ad. The other branch is the National Advertising Review Board (NARB). It
reviews cases in which the NAD and advertisers cannot agree. The NARC is run
by various national advertising associations. This type of self-regulation avoids
the problems of government censorship. The NARC is not the only way the
advertising industry regulates itself. The media in which
35
advertising appears also works as a kind of censor.
Television stations all have departments for reviewing ads
before the ads are allowed to be shown on the air. This is true
for radio stations as well. Likewise, magazines and newspapers review ads before
publication. They want to make sure both the products and the content are
40
appropriate for their audiences. In fact, some publications even go so far as to
test every advertised product to make sure the claims in the ads are true.
A third level of regulation exists with the advertisers themselves. Advertising
agencies want the public to have confidence in their ads. Therefore, most advertisers
rely on market research to verify the claims made in advertisements. If consumers
45
learn about misleading claims, they can sue the advertisers. This is why most large
advertising agencies employ in-house lawyers for reviewing ads. In addition, the
advertising industry has several national associations that keep an eye on the
practices of all advertisers.
All of the above levels of self-regulation have created a fairly reliable system
50
for maintaining a high standard of advertising in the United States. Government
intercession is not necessary. The chairman of the Federal Trade Commission
claims, “It [The advertising industry] has the best self-regulatory system of any
industry in the United States.”
Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds
595 words
145
146
R eading Comprehension
AMark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the
reading.
1. ____In response to the Federal Trade Commission report, the US
government created new laws to regulate the entertainment industry.
2. ____NAD and NARB are part of NARC.
3. ____NARB investigates complaints of false advertising.
4. ____ Self-regulation works well in the US advertising industry.
B Choose the best answer according to the reading.
1. What does the US Constitution guarantee?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Regulation and censorship
The protection of children
Freedom of speech and press
Government intervention
2.What is the main function of the National Advertising Review Board?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Investigating complaints
Correcting false ads
Reviewing cases
Censoring the press
3. Why do various media review ads prior to publication?
a.
b.
c.
d.
To make sure they can censor them
To ensure they are appropriate
To test all advertised products
To be able to charge more money
CFor the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write
them on the lines provided.
1. What was surprising about the Federal Trade Commission report?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
2.What can happen if consumers find out about misleading advertising claims?
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
S ummary
Fill in the blanks with phrases from the list. Use each phrase only once.
go so far
claim that
fine line
in-house
call for
on the air
Because most people agree that exposure to violence is inappropriate for children,
some politicians 1 ___________ the government to regulate the entertainment
industry, which has been accused of targeting children with violent ads. However,
this isn’t easy. There is a(n) 2 ___________ between regulation and censorship,
which is against US law. But because people 3 ___________ some ads are untrue
or misleading, the advertising industry has set up an effective form of self-regulation.
Many TV stations have 4 ___________ lawyers to review ads before they go
5 ___________. Some media agencies 6 ___________ as to test all advertised
products before publication. These measures and others have created a high standard
of advertising in the United States.
V ocabulary Extension
Here are six words or phrases that are related to the topic, but are not in
the reading. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list.
Use each word or phrase only once.
libel
obscenity
First Amendment
unconstitutional
national security
Bill of Rights
1.The ___________ to the Constitution guarantees US citizens freedom of
speech, press, and religious belief.
2.The jury ruled that banning the advertisement was ___________.
3.When the magazine claimed Ms. Watkins had cheated, she sued it for
___________.
4.The pastor objected to the picture of the naked woman, calling it a form of
___________.
5.The first ten amendments to the US Constitution are collectively referred to as
the ___________.
6.The government stopped publication of the article by showing that it would
endanger ___________.
147
148
S upplemental Reading
Guess What
A
Track 48
controversial advertisement for a home-furnishing
mall in Nanjing, China, is printed with huge
Chinese characters that say, “What will you think
of after you are well-fed and well-dressed?” These words are
5
followed by “Guess ...” in smaller characters. The answer is
given in even smaller characters: “It is home furnishings.” While this looks innocent
enough to people unfamiliar with Chinese culture, for Chinese people, the
advertisement has a clear sexual meaning. There is a well-known Chinese
saying: “After being well-fed and clothed, one thinks of sexual pleasure.”
10
Critics of the ad argued that the billboard is immoral in that it might “stimulate
people’s lust,” and because the implied meaning would be clear to anyone reading
the ad, many called for its immediate removal.
The head of the advertising company that designed the billboard saw nothing
to censor in the ad, noting that it had been approved by relevant authorities and
15
deemed absolutely legal. “In modern times, the ancient saying should be interpreted
in more innovative ways,” he said. “After being well-fed and clothed, I think we have
a lot more to think about than sex. For instance, we can buy houses or go traveling.
It is quite logical for us to say that after being well-fed and clothed, one thinks of
furnishing houses.”
20
An official from Nanjing Administration for Industry and Commerce
merely stated, “We have approved this billboard. When we decide whether an
advertisement is acceptable or not, we mainly see whether there is any obvious
word related to pornography and immoral deeds and thoughts, or any word that
tries to exaggerate the advertiser and debase competitors. We cannot do anything
25
about this kind of advertisement.”
Discussion
Discuss the following questions.
1.What role should the government take in regulating the content of
advertisements for private companies? Why do you feel this way?
2.Can you think of a recent ad that was controversial in your country? What was
done about it?
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