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Technical English for Civil Engineers and Structural Designers

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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение
высшего образования
“Томский государственный архитектурно-строительный университет”
Л.П. Даниленко, Ю.Ю. Сильман
TECHNICAL ENGLISH
FOR CIVIL ENGINEERS
AND STRUCTURAL DESIGNERS
Учебное пособие по английскому языку
для студентов старших курсов строительного
и архитектурного факультетов
Томск
Издательство ТГАСУ
2016
УДК 378.69:811.111(075.8)
ББК 74.58 : 81.2я7
Д 17
Даниленко, Л.П. Technical English for Engineers and
Struсtural Designers [Текст]: учебное пособие / Л.П. Даниленко, Ю.Ю. Сильман. – Томск : Изд-во Том. гос.
архит. строит. ун-та. – 2016. –183 с.
ISBN 978-5-93057-696-2
Настоящее учебное пособие предназначено для студентов
старших курсов строительного и архитектурного факультетов. Цель
учебного пособия – совершенствование у студентов практических
умений и навыков чтения и перевода оригинальных технических
текстов по специальности, а также развитие навыков устной речи в
профессиональной сфере общения.
УДК 378.69:811.111(075.8)
ББК 74.58 : 81.2я7
Рецензенты:
О.М. Овчинникова, канд. пед. наук, доцент
кафедры педагогики НИ ТПУ
Э.Н. Гончарова, ст. преподаватель кафедры
иностранных языков ТГАСУ
ISBN 978-5-93057-696-2
© Томский государственный
архитектурно-строительный
университет, 2016
© Даниленко Л.П.,
Сильман Ю.Ю., 2016
CONTENTS
Введение
PART I
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING
Text 1. Civil engineering
Text 2. Structural engineering
Text 2a. Need for and use of structures
Text 3. Structural designer’s work
Text 4. Conceptual design, innovation and planning
Text 5. Aims and factors considered in designing
Text 6. Integration of cost, quality and time
Text 7. 3D-modelling and designing buildings
Text 8. Automation and robotics in construction
Text 9. Building robots
Test for self-examination
ROLE PLAYING “Build your city”
5
7
9
14
17
20
23
26
28
30
34
37
43
47
PART II
BUILDING MATERIALS
Text 1. Building materials
Text 2. Timber
Text 3. Cement and concrete
Text 3a. Durability, workability, and waterproofness
Text 4. Metals
Text 5. Building stone
Text 6. Brick
Text 7. Glass
Text 8. Plastics
Text 9. The options of using timber, concrete and steel
Test for self-examination
49
51
53
56
63
65
70
72
76
77
80
84
3
PART III
PARTS AND ELEMENTS OF A BUILDING
Text 1. Types of structures
Text 2. Steel frames
Text 2a. The use of steel frame structures
Text 3. Tall buildings
Text 4. Constructing a skyscraper
Text 5. Shell and wide span structures
Text 6. Parts and elements of a building
Text 7. Foundations
Text 7a. Classification of foundations
Text 8. Floor systems
Text 8a. Basic floor types
Text 9. Exterior walls
Text 10. An external wall insulation
Text 11. Finishing of exterior walls
Text 12. Roof design
Text 13. Shape of roofs
Text 14. Roof materials
Text 15. Shell roof
Test for self-examination
ROLE PLAYING “My new home”
88
90
94
98
101
105
108
112
114
117
120
122
125
129
131
140
143
147
149
154
157
ADDITIONAL READING
Text 1. Eiffel Tower
Text 2. The Highest Skyscraper in the World
Text 3. New York’s Empire State Building
Text 4. Housing in Britain and the USA
Text 5. Housing in Russia
160
162
163
165
168
VOCABULARY
174
4
ВВЕДЕНИЕ
Данное учебное пособие предназначено для студентов
старших курсов строительного и архитектурного факультетов,
а также для студентов, получающих дополнительную квалификацию “Переводчик в сфере профессиональной коммуникации”.
Пособие может использоваться как для проведения практических
занятий под руководством преподавателя, так и для самостоятельной работы теми, кто хочет научиться читать и переводить
научно-техническую литературу.
Основной целью пособия является развитие навыков чтения
и понимания оригинальной литературы по специальности на
английском языке, расширение словарного запаса, необходимого
студентам для профессионального общения.
В пособии использован современный материал, тексты
отобраны из английских и американских источников с учетом
их информативности и соответствия научно-техническим достижениям. Предлагаемый аутентичный материал способствует
развитию навыков различных видов чтения (изучающее, просмотровое, ознакомительное, поисковое) и навыков работы
со словарем.
Выпускник, освоивший программу бакалавриата, должен
обладать следующими общекультурными компетенциями:
ОК-5: способностью к коммуникации в устной и письменной
формах на русском и иностранном языках для решения задач межличностного и межкультурного взаимодействия;
ОК-6: способностью работать в коллективе, толерантно
воспринимать социальные, этнические, конфессиональные и
культурные различия.
Общепрофессиональными компетенциями:
ОПК-9: владением одним из иностранных языков на уровне
профессионального общения и письменного перевода.
В результате освоения дисциплины обучаемый должен:
Знать: лексический минимум в объеме 4000 учебных
5
лексических единиц общего и терминологического характера,
необходимого для возможности получения информации из зарубежных источников.
Уметь: читать литературу по специальности с целью поиска
информации без словаря, переводить тексты по специальности
со словарем.
Владеть: приемами работы с терминологическими словарями
(в том числе электронными).
Учебное пособие состоит из трех разделов (Part I – Civil
Engineering, Part II – Building Materials, Part III – Parts and Elements
of a Building), дополнительных текстов, англо-русского словаря,
в который включены все слова и словосочетания, встречающиеся
в текстах и упражнениях. Каждый раздел начинается с введения
активной лексики и упражнений после каждого текста, которые
содержат в основном активную лексику и позволяют детально
проработать каждую тему. Неоднократное повторение лексики
способствует интенсивному овладению активным и пассивным
словарем. Тексты сопровождаются комментариями и вопросами
для самоконтроля.
Тесты, которые служат для контроля усвоения студентами
лексических аспектов урока, представлены в конце каждого раздела.
Большое количество текстов и заданий к ним дают возможность
преподавателю варьировать работу в зависимости от уровня подготовки группы и давать индивидуальные задания студентам.
Задачами деловых игр являются активизация лексики по
изучаемой теме, совершенствование профессиональной компетенции студентов и вовлечение их в коммуникативную деятельность. Участие в деловой игре предполагает принятие самостоятельных решений. Дополнительные тексты по тематике и лексике
связаны с основными текстами и предназначены для самостоятельной и индивидуальной работы.
6
PART I
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING
Words to be remembered:
structure – конструкция, сооружение
construction – строительство, сооружение,
конструкция
design – проект, чертеж, дизайн
engineering – конструирование, инженерное искусство
civil engineering – гражданское строительство
structural engineering – проектирование зданий и
сооружений
material engineering – материаловедение
residential structure – жилое сооружение
housing – жилищное строительство
technique – технические приемы/методы
water supply system – система водоснабжения
7
sewerage – канализация, водоотведение
manufacture – производство, изготовление
construction site – строительная площадка
frame – каркас; рама
maintenance – техническое обслуживание,
осуществление профилактического ремонта
installation – установка, монтаж
demolition – демонтаж или снос здания (сооружения)
storey (floor) – этаж
draft – чертеж, эскиз
drawing – чертеж, рисунок
computer simulation – компьютерное моделирование
masonry – каменная или кирпичная кладка
requirement (demand) – требование, потребность
strength – прочность
durability – прочность, долговечность
safety – безопасность
responsibility – ответственность
corrosion – коррозия, ржавление
fire protection – противопожарная защита
availability – наличие, пригодность
tender documents – тендерная документация
bill of quantities – предварительная смета
строительных работ
structural engineer – инженер-проектировщик
customer – покупатель, заказчик
client – клиент, заказчик
contractor – подрядчик
advantage – преимущество, выгода
disadvantage – недостаток
automation – автоматизация
8
robotics – робототехника
casting – отливание; литье металла
welding – сварка
convenient – удобный
to assemble – собирать, монтировать
to disassemble – разбирать, демонтировать
to finish – отделывать, заканчивать, обрабатывать
to equip – оборудовать
to transfer – передавать/переносить (нагрузку)
to carry out – выполнять
to make decision – принимать решение
to take into consideration (account) – принимать во внимание,
учитывать
to estimate load – рассчитывать нагрузку
Task. Read and translate the text, do the exercises given below.
TEXT 1. CIVIL ENGINEERING
Civil engineering describes the profession of designing and
executing structural works helping to make our world a better
place to live. As the technological revolution expands, as the
world’s population increases, and as problems with
environment are multiplied, civil engineering skills will be
needed throughout the world. This branch of engineering covers
different areas including the design and construction of
buildings and houses, dams, tunnels, bridges, canals, sanitation
systems, also the stationary parts of transportation systems –
highways, airports, port facilities, and roadbeds for railroads.
9
It is traditionally broken into several sub-disciplines including
architectural
engineering,
environmental
engineering,
geotechnical engineering, structural engineering, transportation
engineering, municipal or urban engineering, water supply and
sewerage engineering, material engineering, offshore
engineering*, aerospace engineering, construction surveying,
and some others. Each of these areas involves different duties
and different uses of engineers’ knowledge and experience.
Environmental Engineering. The skills of environmental
engineers have become increasingly important as we protect our
natural resources. Environmental engineers transform physical,
chemical and biological processes into systems to destroy toxic
substances, remove pollutants from water, reduce nonhazardous solid waste volumes, eliminate pollutants* from the
air and develop groundwater supplies.
Geotechnical Engineering is required in all aspects of civil
engineering because most projects are supported by the ground.
A geotechnical engineer may develop projects below the
ground, such as tunnels, foundations and offshore platforms.
They analyse the properties of soil and rock that support and
influence the behaviour of these structures. They evaluate
potential settlement of buildings, the stability of slopes and fills,
the effects of earthquakes. They also take part in the design and
construction of dams, embankments and other structures.
Transportation engineering. The quality of a community is
directly related to the quality of its transportation system.
Transportation engineers work to move people, goods and
materials safely and efficiently. They find ways to meet our ever10
increasing travel needs on land, air and sea. They design, construct
and maintain all types of transportation facilities, including
airports, highways, railroads, mass transit systems and ports.
Civil engineers have one of the world’s most important jobs:
they build our quality of life. With creativity and technical skills,
civil engineers plan, design,
construct and operate the facilities
essential to modern life, ranging
from bridges and highway systems
to water treatment plants and
energy-efficient buildings. Civil
engineers solve the problems,
concerned with pollution, traffic
jams, drinking water, energy needs,
urban
redevelopment
and
community planning. They may
work in research, construction
supervision, maintenance or even in
sales or management.
Research is one of the most important aspects of scientific and
engineering practice. Many civil engineers, among them the top
people in the field, work in designing. As we have seen, civil
engineers work on many different kinds of structures, so it is
normal practice for an engineer to specialize in just one kind. In
designing buildings, engineers often work as consultants of
architectural or construction firms.
Becoming a civil engineer is a lot of work but if you like the
idea of being a part of a big complex projects to improve
people’s lives, it could be just the profession for you.
11
Notes:
offshore engineering – сооружения на расстоянии от берега
pollutants – загрязнители
EXERCISES
Ex. 1. Read the following international words and give their
Russian equivalents.
Engineer, engineering, design, designer, designing, project,
architecture, architect, structure, construction, profession,
qualification, practice, industry, management, mechanics,
technique, specialist, specialize, protection, consultant,
material, metal, ceramics, polymer, laboratory, aspect, control,
hydraulic, transport, airport, tunnel, canal, sanitation, energy,
company, firm.
Ex. 2. Match English and Russian equivalents.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Engineer
Designer
Construction
Architect
Civil engineering
Material engineering
Structural engineering
8. Project
9. Management
10. Industry
12
a) проект
b) проектировщик
c) управление
d) исследователь
e) промышленность
f) инженер
g) гражданское
строительство
h) исследование
i) механика
j) материаловедение
11. Research
12. Researcher
13. Mechanics
14. Profession
k) сооружение
l) профессия
m) проектирование
зданий
n) архитектор
Ex. 3. Analyze the information from the text and match
each type of engineering with its scope.
TYPE OF ENGINEERING
1. Civil engineering is …
SCOPE
a) purification, water supply,
control of different fluids and
sewage
2. Structural engineering is … b) studying, creating and
testing building materials and
their composites
3. Water supply and sewage
engineering is …
c) designing and constructing
buildings, roads, bridges
4. Material engineering is … d) constructing permanent
structures like houses,
hospitals, schools
Ex. 4. Find correct answers for the questions.
1. What is engineering?
2. What areas of activity does civil engineering cover?
3. What are the main subdivisions of civil engineering?
13
4. Where can civil engineers work?
5. What’s the most proper place of work for the engineer
who is interested in science?
6. Which profession of civil engineering is the most
prestigious, demanded and well-paid in modern society in
your opinion?
7. What kind of engineering would you like to specialize in?
Task. Read and translate the text using the dictionary.
TEXT 2. STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING
Structural engineering covers the conception*, planning,
designing, drawings and construction for all types of structures,
that support their own weight and the loads they carry, and that
resist extreme forces from
wind, earthquakes, temperature
and others. Bridges, buildings,
and many kinds of projects are
included with this speciality.
Structural engineers develop
appropriate combinations of
steel, concrete, timber, plastic
and new exotic materials. They
also plan and design, and visit projects sites to make sure work is
done properly.
Professional engineers work as a team at any given project
under the overall control of an architect for a building structure.
Don’t think that structural engineers’ work is mechanical or
14
routine in nature; it is useful to consider his/her position in
building construction where the parties involved are:
 the client (or owning organization), who has a need for a
given building and will finance the project;
 the architect, who produces proposals* in the form of
building plans and models (or a computer simulation) to
meet the client's requirements, who controls the project and
who engages consultants to bring the proposals into being.
 consultants (structural, mechanical, electrical, heating
and ventilating etc.), who carry out the detail design,
prepare working drawings and tender documents and
supervise construction;
 contractors, who carry out fabrication and erection of
the structural framework, floors, walls, finishes and
installation of equipment and services.
The structural engineers work as
the members of a team, and to
operate successfully it is necessary
to have knowledge, experience
and the ability to do their work
with great responsibility. Their role
may be summarized as planning,
design preparation of drawings
and tender documents and
supervision of construction. They make decisions about
materials, structural form and design methods to be used. They
are responsible for safety and must ensure that the
consequences of failure* due to accidental causes are limited.
15
Notes:
conception – концепция, понятие
proposal – предложение
consequences of failure – последствия разрушения
EXERCISES
Ex. 1. Give the Russian for:
Conception, fabrication, erection, planning, client, walls, computer
simulation, heating, ventilating, structural framework, floors.
Ex. 2. Give the English for:
Рабочие чертежи, работа в команде, рутинная работа,
ответственная работа, финансировать проект, подрядчик,
соответствовать требованиям заказчика, консультант,
тендерная документация, отделочные работы, руководить
строительством, установка оборудования, отвечать за
безопасность, сократить последствия разрушения.
Ex. 3. Match the terms with their definitions.
1. An architect is …
a) a person who needs a structure and
who finances the project
2. An engineer is …
b) a person who works out the plan
for some kind of structural work (for
example a house, a bridge, a heating
system etc.)
16
3. A structural designer
is …
c) an occupation which requires a
specialized education and training
4. A client is …
d) a specialist who carries out
fabrication and erection of a
structure
5. A consultant is …
e) a member of engineering
profession, a specialist with higher
or special education
6. A contractor is…
f) a specialist who prepares tender
documents and supervises
construction
7. A profession is …
g) a qualified specialist who carries
out architectural designing and
interior solutions
Task. Read and translate the text, do the exercises given below.
TEXT 2a. NEED FOR AND USE OF STRUCTURES
Structures are one of mankind’s basic needs next to food and
clothing, and they are a feature of civilization. The main purpose
of structures is to carry loads and transfer them to the ground.
Structures may be classified according to use and need. A general
classification is:
17
 residential – houses, apartments;
 commercial – offices, banks, department stores, shopping
centres;
 educational – schools, universities;
 social – exhibition halls, theatres, museums, art galleries,
leisure centres, sports stadiums, etc.;
 industrial – factories, plants, warehouses*, power stations,
aircraft hangars* etc.
Speaking of residential construction we must say that the
apartment houses are mostly built to suit urban conditions. Mass
housing* provides home for many families and is at once public
and private. The techniques of construction or the methods by
which structures are formed from particular materials are
influenced not only by the availability and character of materials
but also the total technological development of a society. Presentdays designs for residential construction include all modern
conveniences for a dwelling*; they advocate larger, better built
and better equipped flats and houses. There is a marked
improvement in the heating and ventilating systems as well as in
hot-water supply, kitchen and sanitary fittings*.
Industrial buildings comprise another significant type of
construction. Modern industrial buildings have demonstrated
the advantages of reinforced concrete arches, metal frames, and
glass walls.
Other important engineering structures are:
 bridges;
 towers – water towers*, pylons*, lighting towers* etc.;
 special structures – offshore structures, car parks, radio
telescopes, mining structures etc.
18
Notes:
warehouses – склады
aircraft hangars – ангары для самолетов
mass housing – массовое жилищное строительство или
застройка
facilities – оборудование
dwelling – жильё, жилище
sanitary fittings – сантехника
water towers – водонапорные башни
pylons – опоры
lighting towers – маяки
EXERCISES
Ex. 1. Give the English for:
Характеристика цивилизации, основная потребность
человечества, переносить нагрузку, жилые сооружения,
образовательные и общественные сооружения, городские
условия, коммерческие и промышленные сооружения,
атомная станция, склад, мост, башня, парковка, жилище,
современные удобства, технология строительства, горячее
водоснабжение, отопление и вентиляция, сантехника.
Ex. 2. Match two columns and make up 6 sentences.
Model: An institute is an example of an educational structure.
Bank
Mine
College
industrial
commercial
social
19
Power station
Cinema hall
Apartment
residential
educational
special
Ex. 3. Say if the sentences given below are true or false.
1. Constructing buildings is one of the principle features of
civilization.
2. People’s main needs are food, clothes and dwelling.
3. Technological progress doesn’t influence the techniques
of construction.
4. The systems of heating, ventilating, water supply and
sanitary fittings are getting better and better.
5. The example of a social structure is a swimming pool.
6. Stores, offices and banks are the examples of industrial
structures.
Task. Look through the text and give a short summary.
TEXT 3. STRUCTURAL DESIGNER’S WORK
The aim of a structural designer is to produce designs and
drawings for a safe and economical structure that fulfils its
intended purpose. The designing process includes the following
steps:
1. Preliminary design* and planning. This involves
selecting the most economical structural form and
materials to be used.
2. Detailed design* for a given type and arrangement* of a
structure, which includes:
20
 estimation of loading;
 analysis for the various load cases and combinations of
loads and identification of the most severe design
actions;
 design of the foundations, structural frames, elements
and connections;
 preparation of the final arrangement and detail drawings.
The materials list, bill of
quantities and specification
covering welding, fabrication, erection, corrosion
and fire protection may
then be prepared. Finally
the estimation and tender
documents
can
be
finalized for submission*
to contractors.
Structural designers use knowledge of structural mechanics and
design, computer science, materials, geotechnics, and combine it
with their practical experience to produce a satisfactory design. The
structural designers take advice from specialists, handbooks and
computer software to help them making decisions and to carry
out a complex analysis and design calculations.
Notes:
preliminary design – подготовительный/черновой проект
detailed design – подробный/детальный проект
arrangement – расположение, размещение
submission – предоставление
21
EXERCISES
Ex. 1. Give the English for:
Знания по информатике, математике и строительной
механике; проектировщик; выполнение сложных расчетов;
безопасное и экономичное сооружение; подготовительный
проект; подробный (детальный) план; выбор строительных
материалов; расчет нагрузки; фундамент и каркас здания;
предварительная смета строительных работ; оценка
тендерной документации; принятие важных решений.
Ex. 2. Fill in the gaps to complete the following sentences.
1. Structural designers’ main duty is to prepare the design
and drawings for a … and … structure.
2. The first step in the designing process is …
3. The estimation and tender documents at the final step are
submitted to…
4. To produce a proper design a structural engineer needs
practical… and knowledge in…
5. … help structural designers to make correct decisions
and carry out complex analysis and calculations.
Ex. 3. Without consulting the text 3 write down:
 the role of a structural engineer in the construction
process
 main steps of a designing process
 4 parts of a detailed design.
22
Task. Read and translate the text using the dictionary.
TEXT 4. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN, INNOVATION AND
PLANNING
Conceptual design* in the structural engineering sense* is the
function of choosing a suitable form or a system to bring the
architectural solution* into being. Ideally, conceptual design
should result from a team
effort, where architects,
structural engineers and
service engineers contribute
to the final solution. Modern
architectural practices take this
multidisciplinary approach. The
architectural decisions are
based on functional, aesthetic,
environmental and economic considerations. For example, for an
industrial plant it is the functional requirement*, whereas for an
exhibition building it is the aesthetic aspect.
Novelty and innovation are always desirable. Architects,
engineers and builders always use existing forms of construction,
available materials and the state of knowledge at the time.
Often it is not a new solution that is required, but the correct
choice and use of a well proved existing structural system that
gives the best answer.
Planning may be described as the practical expression of
conceptual design. The various proposals must be transformed
from ideas and stretches* into drawings consisting of plans and
to give a realistic impression of the finished structure.
23
Computer drafting software is now available to make this work
much quicker than the older manual methods. Threedimensional computer simulation (3D-simulation) with views
possible from all directions gives great assistance in the
decision-making* process. A scale model of the complete
project is often made to show clearly the finished form. The
preparation and presentation of planning proposals are very
important because the final approval for a scheme is often given
by non-technical people such as financiers.
The engineer must also consider construction in any of the
major materials – masonry, concrete, steel or timber, or again in
some combination of these materials for structures, and then
make the appropriate selection. A list of factors that should be
considered at the conceptual and planning stage includes:
 location of the structure and environmental conditions;
 site and foundation conditions;
 weather conditions during construction;
 availability of materials;
 transport of materials and fabricated elements to a site;
 availability and quality of labour for construction;
 degree of supervision needed for construction;
 measures needed to give protection against corrosion and
fire;
 possibility of accidental damage;
 maintenance required after completion;
 possibility of demolition in the future.
The final decision on the form and type of structure and
construction method depends on many factors and cost must be
taken into consideration as well, because cost often remains the
most important.
24
conceptual design – предварительный проект
sense – смысл, понятие, значение
decision-making – принятие решения
solution – решение
functional requirement – требование функциональности
stretch – набросок (зд.)
EXERCISES
Ex. 1. Match English and Russian equivalents.
1. 3D-simulation
2. Multidisciplinary approach
3. Conceptual design
4. Innovation
5. Detailed plan
6. Demolition
7. Aesthetic aspect
8. Novelty
9. Corrosion protection
10. Available material
11. Fire protection
a) новшество, новизна
b) междисциплинарный
подход
c) эстетический аспект
d) снос здания
e) подробный план
f) доступный материал
g) противопожарная защита
h) трехмерное компьютерное
моделирование
i) нововведение, инновация
j) предварительный проект
k) антикоррозийная защита
Ex. 2. Answer the following questions.
1. What does the term “conceptual design” mean?
2. What specialists should be involved in the process of
producing the ideal design?
25
3. Is multidisciplinary approach used in modern practice?
4. Is innovation in construction always necessary?
5. What innovation has come to replace designers’ manual
work? Does it improve this work, making it easier and
faster?
6. What factors should be considered by designers at the
stage of planning?
7. Does the cost of construction play an important role?
Task. Give the written translation of the text.
TEXT 5. AIMS AND FACTORS CONSIDERED
IN DESIGNING
The aim of the design choice is to find the most economical
solution that meets the requirements for the given structure.
Factors to be taken into account include:
 materials to be used;
 manufacture and type of joining*;
 method of erection of the framework* to be used;
 type of floors, walls, cladding* and finishes;
 installation of ventilating/heating facilities*, lifts, water
supply systems, electrical wiring etc.;
 corrosion and fire protection required;
 operating and maintenance* costs.
Aesthetic considerations are important in many cases and the
choice of design may not always be based on cost alone.
Each of the structures can be erected using a variety of
materials, structural forms or systems. Materials are discussed
26
first and then a general classification of structures is set out. All
steel structures must rest on concrete foundations and concrete
shear walls* are commonly used to stabilize multi-storey
buildings.
Notes:
framework – опалубка
cladding – облицовка
facilities – оборудование
maintenance – техническое обслуживание, профилактический
ремонт
joining – соединение, сборка, монтаж
shear wall – стена жесткости
EXERCISES
Ex. 1. Look through the text and express its main idea.
Ex. 2. Give the definitions of the following terms:
 framework
 erection
 cladding
•
•
•
corrosion protection
fire protection
multi-storey building
Ex. 3. Comment in English on the following issues:
 the essence of choice when designing a structure;
 the factors to be considered when choosing a design;
 the importance of cost and aesthetic aspect.
27
Task. Read and translate the text using the dictionary.
TEXT 6. INTEGRATION OF COST,
QUALITY AND TIME
Building system integration* is the act of creating a whole
functioning building which contains and includes building
systems in various combinations. The various criteria including
energy conservation, functional suitability, strength and stability,
durability, fire safety, weather conditions, visual /acoustical
comfort, economic efficiency, quality and time of erection
should be integrated when designing and erecting a building.
The triangle involves cost, quality and time and this is the
client who defines the priority depending on his purposes. For
buildings related to commerce such as shopping complexes
time is usually the top priority to start construction before
certain seasons, or in certain cases, to reduce financing bills,
etc. With a limited budget, cost may be the top priority. Quality
may be emphasized in cases where the building itself is
monumental in terms of height, architecture and appearance. It
is important that economic buildings do not necessarily mean
unsafe buildings. Through proper design, management and
execution, an economic building can provide the required
standard at the lowest cost.
With buildings getting taller, integration between various
aspects in physiology, psychology, sociology, economics, as
well as the available technology is needed. A building needs to
perform* the functions of building enclosure* against
environmental degradation because of moisture, temperature,
air movement, radiation, chemical and biological attack or
environmental disasters such as fire or flood. It also needs to
28
provide interior requirements and the elemental parameters of
comfort for people. To achieve good results it is necessary to
combine all participants involved in the building process from
architects, designers, engineers, building professionals,
manufactures to workmen on the site.
Notes:
integration – объединение, интеграция, целостность
to perform – выполнять
enclosure – ограждение
EXERCISES
Ex. 1. Make up the sentences using the words given below.
1. Time, and, involves, cost, the, quality, triangle.
2. Priority, commercial, such as, centers, the, sometimes,
top, buildings, for, shopping, is, time.
3. Budget, the, limited, becomes, top, with, a, cost, priority.
4. Important, for, quality, very, buildings, is, monumental.
5. Management, proper, when, required, execution, an,
meets, and, design, are, economic, standards, building.
6. Natural, safe, should, temperature, a, protect, and,
building, from, disasters, radiation.
Ex. 2. Ask your group-mates the following questions.
1. How can you define the term “Building system
integration”?
2. What are the main criteria considered when designing
and erecting a building?
29
3. What are the three major factors involved in the triangle?
4. Can quality become the top priority? Give an example of
such structure.
5. Can cost play the main role?
6. Is time involved in the combination of the main factors?
When time is the top priority?
7. Are low-cost constructions always unsafe?
8. What requirements should be considered to make a
building cheap but safe?
9. What specialists are responsible for the safety and
quality of a construction?
10. What natural negative factors and disasters should a safe
building be protected from?
Task. Scan the text to get the full idea of it.
TEXT 7. 3D-MODELING AND DESIGNING BUILDINGS
3-dimensional graphics (from English “3 Dimensions of an
image”) is the section of computer graphics, a set of methods
30
and tools (both software* and hardware*) designed to image
volumetric objects. 3D-modeling* is the process of creating a
three-dimensional model of an object.
Recent development in high technology has reached the point
where 3D-modeling is no longer just an abstract picture and the
service of visualization of projects has become an ordinary
thing. Working with visual material is easier and more
convenient not only for the customer, but also for designers and
architects. Three-dimensional modeling allows to describe the
real territory, the objects and their position towards each other,
it also helps when planning changes in the external appearance*
of a city, placing utilities*, roads and buildings. Today, no one
serious project is done without 3D- modeling. It allows to see
how a building will look at the design stage. Nothing can be
compared with the opportunity to look at your dream even
before the beginning of its implementation*.
Three-dimensional modeling helps correct mistakes and
shortcomings* easily at the design stage that certainly pays off
when constructing a building. 3D-visualization improves
understanding, and information is perceived* easier and faster,
it reduces the process of making responsible decisions. It allows
to calculate and evaluate possible effects of man-made and
natural disasters such as floods, fires and earthquakes.
Modern 3D-modeling and visualization are possible thanks to
up-to-date* software. It allows not only “draw pictures” and
combine different components and spare parts on them but also
calculate their size and other parameters. In other words, now
you can effectively use professional software instead of doing
31
everything by hands (drawing, applying the colour, the texture
and lighting features).
The designing work, depending on its complexity practically
always takes a long time, because engineers of different
specialities are involved in this process. The use of modern,
powerful computers and special software leads to a significant
reduction* in time spent on design work and as a result reduces
the complexity of this work. Using computer-aided design
(CAD)* allows virtual testing of designed objects, which also
reduces the cost of prototyping*.
AUTODESK is one of the leading and the most stable
companies producing high quality software for a long time.
Computer-aided design AutoCad was developed in the1980s,
and still has not lost its significance. Moreover, the company is
constantly developing and improving new versions of its
legendary product.
Notes:
3D-modeling – трехмерное моделирование
software – программное обеспечение
hardware – аппаратное обеспечение
appearance – внешний вид/облик
implementation – ввод в эксплуатацию
to perceive – воспринимать, понимать
up-to-date – современный
reduction – сокращение, уменьшение
utilities – коммунальные сооружения
shortcoming – дефект, недостаток
CAD – система автоматизированного проектирования
prototyping – изготовление опытных образцов
32
EXERCISES
Ex. 1. Match Russian and English equivalents.
1. Software
2. Computer graphics
3. High technologies
4. Service of visualization
5. Design stage
6. Drawings
7. Applying the colour
8. Hardware
9. Prototyping
10. 3D-modeling
a) аппаратное обеспечение
b) изготовление опытных образцов
c) стадия проектирования
d) чертежи
e) нанесение цвета
f) услуга визуализации
g) программное обеспечение
h) трехмерное моделирование
i) высокие технологии
j) компьютерная графика
Ex. 2. Complete the following sentences and translate them
into Russian.
1. 3-D graphics is …
a) easier, more pleasant and
convenient
2. 3-D visualization makes ... b) virtual testing of desired objects
3. Modern 3D-modeling is
possible thanks to…
c) produced by the world’s
famous company Autodesk
4. Computer-aided design
allows …
5. AutoCAD is a high
quality software …
d) up-to-date software
e) the section of computer
graphics
33
Ex. 3. Agree or disagree with the following statements.
1. The term “3D-modeling” comes from English
“3 dimensions” and means “three measurements of an object”.
2. 3D-modeling is still a wonder and only the largest
designing companies can provide such service.
3. The cost for this service is too high and it doesn’t pay off
when constructing.
4. Computer-aided design reduces the cost of prototyping.
5. Manual drawings, applying the light, colour and the
texture have replaced computer simulation and have
made engineers’ work faster and easier.
6. AUTODESK Company is constantly improving its
production and every new version is getting more perfect.
Task. Look through the text and render it.
TEXT 8. AUTOMATION AND ROBOTICS IN
CONSTRUCTION
Construction is one of the most creative and hardest industries.
It can’t excuse the lack* of progress,
technology and engineering knowhow*. The need for construction
industry in automation and robotics
is doubtless. The first large-scale
experiments in the field of robotics
in construction industry started in
the early 1990s. The casting,
erection, joining and finishing of
building components require a high level of skilled manual
34
work on a site. The problem with the shortage of skilled
personnel and the need to increase productivity in the industry
has prompted research and development into robotics in the
construction industry.
Innovations in IT (Information Technologies)*, simulation,
engineering and management software, and object-oriented
programming are opening new possibilities for engineers and
designers. Automation and robotics are referred to the new
technologies that have come to improve the efficiency of work,
make it easier and also to speed up production.
For example, in Japan the leading position of civil engineering
today is primarily explained by entirely automated and
computer-controlled process though workers are still involved
in overseeing operations. The process of construction begins
with the installation of speed platform for covering the upper
floor. Further robots, equipped with computer controlled
systems, accurately install all modules, and automatic machines
weld beams and columns according to the draft. After
installation of intermediate floors integrated stepped platforms
are raised* hydraulically to the next level, and the whole cycle
repeats. The automated system allows not only to reduce day
and night time of constructing, but also to minimize labor costs
(on average, by 30 %) and it practically eliminates* injuries.
Accuracy* for complex technical projects is a guarantee for
predictable* behavior of buildings during earthquakes, strong
wind loads and other tests of strength and stability.
Future of building robots
The ideal situation in future construction world looks like a
space where people and robots co-work and interact with one
35
another. Large volume structures will be built widely with preassembled components. Intelligent* robots will work to
assemble predominantly heavy components. Each robot will be
able to communicate easily with people.
Notes:
lack – недостаток
know-how – секрет производства, умения, навыки
IT – информационные технологии
to raise – сооружать, возводить, поднимать
to eliminate – устранять, ликвидировать
accuracy – точность, правильность
predictable – предсказуемый
intelligent – интеллектуальный, мыслящий
EXERCISES
Ex. 1. Say which part of text 8 gives the answer for the
following questions.
1. Which country takes the leading position in civil
engineering and why?
2. What new technologies contribute to construction industry?
3. What’s the image of the ideal future construction world?
4. Why is there an acute need of construction in automation
and robotics?
Ex. 2. Give synonyms for:
Heavy industry, shortage of progress, drawing, erection,
cladding, automatic machine, professional labour, scope of
36
construction, development, new opportunities, 3D-modeling,
robotics, to set modulus, to co-work with people, to reduce cost.
Ex. 3. Give antonyms for:
Easy project, ground floor, low level, light breeze, fragility of
material, stagnation in progress, ancient technique, past of
construction industry, destruction, unpredictable behaviour,
automated work, routine work, doubtful, to disassemble
components, to reduce productivity, to increase injuries.
Ex. 4. Try to imagine an ideal situation in construction
world in the near future.
How does it differ from the present one? Are robots able to
perform all the work without people’s control and help? Is the
world of robots safe or dangerous in your opinion? Would you
like to work at such design office or construction site? Why?
Why not? Speak about all advantages and disadvantages of this
world.
Task. Look through the text and give a short summary.
TEXT 9. BUILDING ROBOTS
What do we mean by the word “robot”? The word itself was
introduced by the Czech play-writer Karel Capek in the early
part of the last century, having been taken from the Czech word
37
“robota” meaning forced work or slavery. In Capek's play the
robots were humanoid machines. Most robots used in the
construction industry are not humanoids in their configuration.
They often look like a huge arm. Sometimes, that’s the only
thing the robot is made of. This increases its efficiency.
Building robots face* with different demands: they must move
around the site, because buildings are stationary* and of a large
size. They require engines, batteries or motors and drive
themselves. Building robots also face with changing site
conditions and must be reprogrammed with each new condition.
They must be able to function under unfavourable* weather
conditions including variations in humidity* and temperature.
The robot is governed by an AI (Artificial Intelligence)* that
makes certain decisions, and guides the robot to perform certain
tasks in construction industry.
Notes:
to face (with) – сталкиваться с …
stationary – неподвижный
unfavourable – неблагоприятный
humidity – влажность
AI – искусственный интеллект
What Building Robots Can Do
Building robots have components that go into almost any other
complex machine. Robots are extremely smart these days. They
carry out a complex sequence* of operations, but they can also
control their performance. Depending on AI building robots can
carry out different tasks from the simplest repetitive actions to
complex analytical ones.
38
There are some that can create
complex patterns, some that can do
heavy lifting, some that perform
high-speed tasks on small items,
some that perform simple assembly.
Not all robots are created equally.
The level of AI is what determines
the way construction tasks are carried
out. An example is Obayashi’s
“Super Construction Factory” which
integrates the concepts of factory automation into the building
site for steel structures. Building components and materials are
delivered* to the floor under construction through elevators and
are lifted to the exact location of the floor by cranes. Welding
and fastening are then carried out by robots. Upon completion
of one floor, the factory is jacked up* through an internal
climbing system to start work on the next floor. The other
famous system for reinforced concrete building named “Big
Canopy”* integrates technologies of climbing canopy,
prefabricated components, automated
assembly and computerized management systems. Independent tower
crane* posts* are used as four
columns supporting the canopy. The
rise of the canopy is performed by
the climbing equipment* of tower
crane.
Vertical movement of
materials to and from the working storey is performed with the
use of lifts and horizontal movement by hoists*. The movement
of the hoists is entirely automated to improve work efficiency.
39
The main components for constructing a robot:
 AI (Artificial Intelligence). This is the most important
part of a robot, and the part that makes it think. Having
no a clear set of instructions, the robot will not be able to
perform any task without human assistance.
 Structure. It goes without saying that a robot needs a
body to move. Typically the structure is a series of joints
and arms that increases the mobility.
 Muscle System. The muscle system is usually made up
of various hydraulics, suspensions and an electronic
system to get it all moving. This allows the AI to dictate
what it wants the body to do, and then translates that
signal to the “muscles” for a reaction. It works very
similarly as a human body.
 Power. A power cell is another important element which
makes the robot to work. There is no electrical stimulation
without power that makes the muscles or the AI work.
 Senses. Most robots need to receive ordered data for the
AI to make an evaluation and decision of the product
that they are constructing. This is why it is important to
have a series of data receivers that essentially act like
eyes, ears, touch, and even taste. Combined with the
other elements of the robot, this allows it to make the
most accurate and efficient construction decisions.
Notes:
sequence – последовательность
to deliver – подавать, доставлять
to jack up – поднимать домкратом
canopy – навес
tower crane – башенный кран
40
climbing equipment – подъёмное оборудование
posts – стойки, опоры
hoist – лебёдка
EXERCISES
Ex. 1. Match the terms with their definitions.
1. IT
2. AI
3. A robot
a) artificial intelligence
b) a series of arms and joints
c) a series of hydraulics, suspensions,
electronic elements
4. An engine
d) people’s supervision and overseeing
5. A data receiver
e) a complex computerized machine
6. A construction elevator f) information technologies
7. A component
g) a motor that allows a machine
to move and act
8. A robot’s structure
h) a part or an element to construct
or assemble something
9. A robot’s muscle system i) a climbing equipment
10. A human assistance j) an element that allows a machine to
see, hear, taste, smell
Ex. 2. Find the phrase in text 9 to complete the following
sentences.
1.
2.
3.
4.
These days robots are extremely…
Robots can carry out complex operations but they can also…
The level of AI determines…
The world’s famous system of reinforced concrete
building is called…
41
5. The most important component to create a robot is…
6. Robots’ muscle system is made of …
7. Robots’ data receivers act like …
Ex. 3. Answer the following questions.
1. What language did the term “robot” come from? What
does it mean?
2. Who invented this word?
3. Do modern building robots still look like humanoids?
How do they look like?
4. What are the specific requirements for robots used in
construction industry?
5. What sort of work can building robots do?
6. What are robots governed by?
7. Are robots really intelligent now days? Give an example
to prove your answer.
8. What elements does a robot consist of?
Ex. 4. Translate the sentences into English.
1. Первые роботы появились в начале прошлого века
в пьесе чешского драматурга Карела Чапека. Книга
посвящена взаимоотношениям человека и созданной
им машины.
2. В чешском языке слово “робот” означает “каторга,
тяжелая физическая работа”.
3. Современные строительные роботы не похожи на
человека-машину, обычно они состоят из одной огромной “руки”, что повышает эффективность их работы.
42
4. Роботы состоят из тех же элементов, что и любая сложная машина.
5. Современные роботы могут выполнять самые разнообразные задания, начиная с простейших (подъем грузов,
сборка) и заканчивая сложными аналитическими
заданиями.
6. Современные роботы имеют целый набор передатчиков информации, которые позволяют машине видеть,
слышать, осязать, и даже ощущать вкус и запахи.
FOR SELF-EXAMINATION
TEST (part I)
1. Structural engineering is a branch of
a) material engineering
b) civil engineering
2. Structural engineering covers
a) planning, designing, constructing different kinds
of buildings
b) studying structural materials, water supply, air
pollution
3. Structural engineers’ work is
a) routine and mechanical
b) creative and responsible
4. Art galleries, museums, cafes are referred to
43
a) social structures
b) residential structures
5. Aesthetic aspect is more important for
a) exhibition halls and galleries
b) factories and plants
6. When making a project a structural engineer
a) works alone
b) works in a team and needs advice and assistance
of different specialists (architects, consultants,
contractors)
7. Quality of construction, architecture and appearance are
the top priority for
a) monumental buildings
b) warehouses
8. Functional requirement is the top priority for
a) a theatre
b) a hospital
9. Design of a foundation, frame structure, estimation of
loads are discussed at the stage of
a) detailed designing
b) preliminary designing
10. In construction industry novelty is
a) always desirable
b) forbidden
11. Computer simulation
a) gives great assistance in designing process
b) prevents from making correct decisions
12.The matter of demolition of a building in the future
a) isn’t mentioned at the planning stage
b) is always taken into account
13. “A safe building” means a structure that
44
a) gives comfort and cosiness
b) protects from radiation, high or low temperature
and natural disasters
14. While constructing weather and environmental conditions
a) should be always considered
b) don’t influence the final result
15. From English the term “3D” means
a) three dimensions of an object
b) three directions of the movement
16. In modern designing 3D-visualization is
a) an ordinary, widely used service
b) an exclusive, very expensive service.
17. Working with visual material is easier and more convenient
a) only for designers
b) both for engineers and customers
18. 3D-modeling
a) simplifies calculations, reduces work time,
improves understanding
b) complicates calculations, makes the cost of
prototyping higher
19. Computer-aided design AutoCad was developed
a) at the beginning of the 21-st century
b) in 1980s
20. First large scale experiments in robotics started in
a) 1990s
b) 1960s
21. Development in automation and robotics in construction
industry was prompted by the shortage of
a) skilled personnel and big volume of hard work
b) hard physical work and the surplus of qualified staff
45
22. Automation and robotics in construction are opening
new opportunities
a) only for engineers and designers
b) both for specialists in construction and customers
23. The need for construction industry in automation is
a) doubtful
b) doubtless
24. The leading position of Japan in civil engineering is
explained by
a) entirely automated and computer-controlled
constructing
b) favorable climate and geological conditions
25. Automation
a) minimizes labour cost and eliminates injuries.
b) increases time of construction and causes tragic
accidents
26. In modern construction robots look like
a) a huge arm
b) a humanoid machine
27. Robots are governed by
a) a power cell
b) artificial intelligence
28. Up-to-date computerized machines can
a) perform simple repetitive actions
b) carry out complex analytical tasks
29. The muscle system of robots works similarly as
a) a human body
b) a computer
30. The element stimulating a robot the stimulation to move is
a) a power cell
b) a data receiver
46
ROLE PLAYING
Build your city.
The first stage. Give the name to your new city.
The group is divided into teams of 4-6 students. The aim for
each team is to “build” a new logically-organized modern city.
At this stage groups choose names for their cities.
The second stage. Urban project.
The team members should develop the project of building the
city using spatial layouts or drawing paper and pencils and
agree among themselves which objects are to be built in the
47
city. The project should meet all the requirements applied to
urban development in the XXI century.
The third stage. My city.
After the city was built, each team member tries to formulate
the logic of urban development and tells what objects are
erected in the city explaining their position towards each other.
The fourth stage. The arbitrator calls the best project.
The arbiter, selected in advance, valuates all the submitted
projects and calls the best one. When making a decision, the
arbiter should take into consideration:
 the overall impression of the city project (0 –5 points);
 the best city’s name (0 – 2 points);
 the expediency of various facilities construction
(0 – 3 points);
 the logic of urban development (0 – 4 points);
 the presence of such important objects of a city
infrastructure like a highway, an airport, a railway
station, a prison, a city dump and others (1 point for each
object).
48
PART II
BUILDING MATERIALS
Words to be remembered:
brick – кирпич
stone – камень
crushed stone – щебень
sand – песок
sandstone – песчаник
lime – известь
limestone – известняк
clay – глина
cement – цемент
concrete – бетон
reinforcement – арматура
reinforced concrete – железобетон
prestressed concrete – предварительно напряженный бетон
prefabricated concrete – бетон заводского изготовления
49
timber – древесина; пиломатериал
laminate – ламинат, многослойный материал
plastics – пластмасса, пластик
ceramics – керамика, керамические изделия
gravel – гравий
granite – гранит
steel – сталь
marble – мрамор
glass – стекло
glass brick – стеклоблок, стеклянный строительный кирпич
aggregate / filler – заполнитель
alloy – сплав
mixture – смесь
mortar – строительный раствор
density – плотность
property – свойство
ductility – пластичность; вязкость
heat insulation – теплоизоляция
sound insulation – звукоизоляция
porosity – пористость
watertight – водонепроницаемый
artificial – искусственный
fire-resistant – жароупорный, несгораемый, огнестойкий
flexible – гибкий, эластичный, упругий
binding – вяжущий (материал)
curing – выдерживание/вызревание бетона
bearing structure – несущая конструкция
hardness – твердость, прочность
to fasten – скреплять, закреплять
to decay – гнить, разрушаться
to harden – твердеть
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to compress – сжимать, сдавливать
to subject to smth. – подвергать воздействию
to reinforce – усиливать, укреплять, армировать
to collapse – разрушиться, рухнуть
Task. Read and translate the text, do the exercises given below.
TEXT 1. BUILDING MATERIALS
Building materials are materials used for different purposes in
construction. They have certain advantages and disadvantages,
which are taken into account when designing a structure. They
should meet several requirements. In most cases it is important
that they should be hard, durable, fire-resistant and easily
fastened together. The most commonly used materials are steel,
concrete, stone, timber, brick, metal, glass and plastics. They
differ in hardness, durability, fire-resistance, weight, strength,
and cost. Wood, stone, sand, lime, clay are the examples of
natural materials. Cement, concrete, brick, glass, plastics are
referred to artificial i.e. man-made materials.
All building materials are divided into three groups.
1. Main building materials used for bearing structures,
such as timber, rock, artificial stones, different metals.
2. Cementing i.e. binding materials used for joining
different planes such as lime, gypsum and cement.
3. Secondary i.e. auxiliary materials used for the interior
finish of the structure such as glass, plastics, laminate,
ceramics.
51
EXERCISES
Ex. 1. Answer the following questions.
1. What are the most popular building materials?
2. What are the main requirements for building
materials?
3. What properties of building materials should be taken
into account when designing a structure?
4. What groups are building materials divided into?
5. Is concrete an example of a natural building material?
6. Is glass an example of a man-made building material?
7. What building materials are used for bearing
structures?
8. What materials are used for joining different planes?
9. Can plastics be referred to secondary building
materials?
10. What building materials are usually used for
decorative purposes?
Ex. 2. Classify the materials listed below into natural or
artificial.
Natural:
Artificial:
Stone, steel, brick, concrete, gold, gravel, wood, glass, sand,
ceramics, iron, clay, plastics, cement, silver.
52
Ex. 3. Classify the properties of building materials listed
below as advantageous and disadvantageous.
Advantages:
Disadvantages:
High cost, low water-resistance, heat-insulation, fire-resistance,
light weight, durability, low strength, hardness, low cost,
corrosion-resistance, heavy weight, softness, high strength, nonfire-resistance, sound insulation.
Ex. 4. Choose from the block the antonyms for the following
adjectives:
Natural, light, exterior, cheap, disadvantages, weak, primary,
combustible, unstable, main, soft.
advantageous –
artificial –
auxiliary –
interior –
hard –
durable –
heavy –
strong –
fire-proof –
expensive –
Task. Look through the text and tell about timber.
TEXT 2. TIMBER
Timber is the most ancient structural material. On the one hand
if we compare steel and timber, the latter is lighter, cheaper,
easier to work and its mechanical properties are good. On the
53
other hand timber has certain disadvantages. Firstly, it burns and
is therefore unsuitable for fireproof building. Secondly, it decays.
Timber is a name applied to the cut material derived from trees.
Timber used for building purposes is divided into two groups:
softwoods* and hardwoods*. Hardwoods are chiefly used for
decorative purposes, as for paneling*, veneering in furniture*,
and some of them are selected for structural use because of their
high strength and durability. In modern construction timber is
often used for window and door frames, flooring, fences and
gates, wall plates, for temporary buildings* and unpainted
internal woodwork.
Timber cannot be used for
work immediately it has been
felled because of the large
amount of sap* which it
contains. Most of this moisture
must be removed; otherwise
the timber will shrink*
excessively, causing defects in
the work and a strong tendency to decay. Elimination of moisture
increases the strength*, durability and elasticity of timber.
Notes:
softwoods – древесина мягких пород, хвойная древесина
hardwoods – твердая древесина, древесина твердых пород
paneling – обшивка панелями
veneering in furniture – облицовка мебели
temporary building – временная постройка
sap – сок
to shrink – давать усадку
strength – прочность
54
EXERCISES
Ex. 1. Ask your group-mates the following questions.
1. Is timber a very ancient structural material?
2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of timber in
comparison with steel?
3. What two groups is timber used for building purposes
divided into?
4. What purposes is timber often used in modern
construction for?
5. Why cannot timber be used immediately it has been felled?
6. What increases strength, durability and elasticity of timber?
Ex. 2. Say if the sentences given below are true or false.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Timber is a comparatively new material.
Timber as a building material has no one disadvantage.
Mechanical properties of timber are good.
Softwoods are mainly used for decorative purposes.
Hardwoods are characterized by durability and high
strength.
6. Builders can use timber in their work just after trees
have been felled.
Ex. 3. Complete the following sentences.
1. Timber is lighter, cheaper, easier in work than…
2. Timber has two disadvantages, they include…
3. Timber is a name we apply to the cut material
derived from…
4. In modern construction timber is widely used for …
55
5. Before starting work with wood one should remove
the moisture which trees contain because…
6. For paneling and veneering in furniture builders often
use …
Task. Revise active vocabulary and translate the text without
using the dictionary.
TEXT 3. CEMENT AND CONCRETE
Cement and concrete are among the most important building
materials. Cement is a fine, grey powder. It is mixed with water
and materials such as sand, gravel, and crushed stone to make
concrete. The cement and water form a paste that binds* the
other materials together when the concrete hardens.
Nearly all the cement used today is Portland cement, which is
hydraulic cement or one that hardens under water. This cement
was named Portland because it has the same texture as the
natural stone quarried on the Isle of Portland, a peninsula on the
south of Great Britain.
Concrete goes into the making of many things today – house
foundations, wall blocks, ceiling slabs and entire prefabricated
units. The material falls into several classes: very heavy, heavy,
light and very light and they differ in density, mechanical
strength, fillers, etc. However, they all have one property in
common such as heat insulating capacity. This property is
controlled by the coefficient of thermal resistance: the higher it
is, the less heat escapes from the room and the lower the
heating costs run up by the owner.
56
Concrete is fireproof, watertight, comparatively cheap, and easy
to make. When first mixed, concrete can be moulded* into
almost any shape. It quickly hardens into an extremely strong
material keeps the strength for a long time, and requires little
care.
Uses of cement and concrete
Nearly all skyscrapers, factories and many houses stand on
concrete foundations. These buildings may also have concrete
frames, walls, floors, and roofs. Concrete is used to build dams
to store water and bridges to span rivers. Cars and trucks travel
on concrete roads and airplanes land on concrete runways.
Concrete tunnels run through mountains and under rivers.
Concrete pipes distribute water, carry away sewage*, drain
farmland, and protect underground telephone wires and electricpower lines.
Kinds of concrete
• ordinary concrete – обычный бетон
• dense concrete – плотный бетон
• heavy concrete – тяжелый бетон
• prefabricated concrete – бетон заводского изготовления
• ready-mixed concrete – готовый бетон
• cast-in-situ concrete – монолитный бетон
• prestressed concrete – предварительнонапряженный бетон
• reinforced concrete – железобетон
• precast concrete – сборный бетон
• lightweight concrete – легкий бетон
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• aerated concrete – ячеистый бетон
• high-early-strength concrete – бетон быстрого
твердения
• foam concrete – пенобетон
Reinforced concrete is made by casting concrete around
steel rods* or bars*, and steel strengthens concrete. Almost all
large structures require this extra-strong type of concrete.
Prestressed concrete usually is made by casting concrete
around steel cables* stretched by hydraulic jacks*. After
concrete hardens, the jacks are released* and the cables compress
concrete. Concrete becomes the strongest when it is compressed.
Steel cables can also be bent* into an arc, so that they develop a
force in any desired direction, such as upward* elements in a
bridge. Prestressed concrete beams*, roofs, floors are often
cheaper for some uses than those made of reinforced concrete.
Precast concrete is cast and it hardens before being used
for construction. Precasting firms make concrete sewer pipes*,
floor and roof units, wall panels, beams, and girders*, and
transport them to the construction sites. Sometimes builders
make such pieces at the construction site and hoist them into
place after they hardened. Precasting makes possible the
production of concrete building elements.
Aerated concrete contains tiny air bubbles*. These
bubbles are formed by adding half brick* like resinous* or
fatty* materials to the cement, or to the concrete when it is
mixed. The bubbles give the water in concrete enough space to
expand as it freezes. The bubbles also protect the surface of the
58
concrete from chemicals used to melt ice. Such qualities make
aerated concrete a good material for roads and airport runways.
High-early-strength concrete is chiefly used in cold
weather. Concrete is made with high-early-strength Portland
cement, and it hardens much more quickly than ordinary
concrete. High-early-strength concrete is often cheaper to use,
because it cuts the amount of time necessary for its hardening.
Lightweight concrete weighs less than other kinds of
concrete. Builders make it in two ways. They may use lightweight
shale*, clay, pumice*, or other materials instead of sand, gravel,
and crushed stone. Or they may add chemicals which foam and
produce air spaces in the concrete when it hardens. These air
spaces are much larger than the air spaces in aerated concrete.
Foam concrete is one of the lightest varieties of the
mineral. Various processes are used to make it. One of them
relies on natural porous fillers (gravel and crushed stone) and
their artificial substitutes (expanded clay aggregate).
Notes:
to bind – связывать; крепить
to mould – формовать; отливать в форму
sewage – сточные воды
rod – арматурный стержень
bar – арматурный пруток/стержень
steel cable – стальной трос
hydraulic jacks – гидравлический домкрат
to release – расцеплять, отсоединять
to bend – гнуть, изгибать
upward – поднимающийся вверх, восходящий
beam – балка
59
half brick – кирпич-половняк
resinous material – смолистый материал
fatty material – смазочный материал
sewer pipe – сточная труба, коллектор
girder – балочная ферма, балка
bubbles – пузыри (воздуха или газа)
shale – сланец
pumice – пемза
EXERCISES
Ex. 1. Match the words and word-combinations with their
definitions.
1. Cement is …
a) a kind of concrete casting
around steel cables stretched
by hydraulic jacks
2. Concrete is …
b) a kind of concrete casting
around steel rods or bars
3. Reinforced concrete is …
c) a fine grey powder for
making concrete
4. Prestressed concrete is ...
d) a cast and hardened kind
of concrete
5. Precast concrete is …
e) a mixture of cement, sand,
water and gravel
60
Ex. 2. Give the English for:
Механическая прочность, дробленый камень, бетонные
фундаменты, водонепроницаемый, огнестойкий, стены,
пол, крыша, не требовать особого ухода, заливать бетон,
быстро застывать (схватываться), обычный бетон, легкий
бетон, железобетон, тяжелый бетон, готовый бетон.
Ex. 3. Give the Russian for:
Density, heat insulating capacity, a fine powder, a ceiling slab,
dense concrete, prefabricated concrete, foam concrete, aerated
concrete, precast concrete, prestressed concrete, high-earlystrength concrete.
Ex. 4. Complete the following sentences.
1. To make concrete one should…
a) light, very light,
heavy, very heavy
2. Concrete as a building material can
be divided into four classes…
b) heat escapes from
the building
3. The higher is thermal resistance,
the less…
c) an extremely
strong and durable
mass
d) mix cement, water,
sand and gravel
4. Concrete quickly hardens into…
5. Almost all the cement used
nowadays is…
e) Portland cement
61
6. Cars and lorries travel on concrete … f) reinforced concrete
structures
7. Airplanes land on concrete…
g) roads
8. Concrete pipes distribute…
h) it is compressed
9. To strengthen concrete we use…
i) runways
10. Concrete becomes stronger when… j) water to our houses
11. Prestessed constructions are often k) high-early strength
cheaper than…
concrete
12. A cheaper kind of concrete which l) steel
fastens quicker than ordinary one is
called…
Ex. 5. Fill in the gaps with a missing word(s).
1.
2.
3.
4.
Concrete is water-proof, fire-resistant and comparatively…
Heat insulating capacity is controlled by the coefficient of…
… is hydraulic cement which can harden under water.
Almost all houses, factories, skyscrapers stand on
concrete …
5. …protect underground telephone wires and electric
power lines.
6. …makes possible the production of concrete building
materials.
7. The kind of concrete with the least weight is called …
62
Task. Read and translate the text using the dictionary.
TEXT 3a. DURABILITY, WORKABILITY, AND
WATERPROOFNESS
Durability of any material is that property which indicates
whether the material will remain the same or not, even though it
may be subjected to loads sufficient to destroy it. Durability of
concrete is affected by:
 alternate wetting and drying;
 freezing and thawing (промерзание и оттаивание);
 heating and cooling (нагревание и охлаждение);
 capillary water;
 the dissolving of the cement by certain acids (кислоты);
 chemical reaction between certain constituents of
aggregates and the alkalies (щелочь) in high-alkali
Portland cement.
Workability (обрабатываемость) is that property of freshly
mixed concrete which is measured in terms of (с точки
зрения) convenience of placing, handling, and finishing. The
degree of necessary workability will depend on the nature of the
work being done.
There are a number of factors affecting workability:
 cement
 water
 aggregate
 mixing
 admixtures
63
Waterproofing (водонепроницаемость) of concrete is
desirable in order to increase the durability of it. Concrete that
absorbs water is easily subjected to disintegration (распад,
разрушение), owing to the wetting and drying action or to
freezing and thawing while wet. Waterproofing of concrete may
be accomplished at any of the following ways:
 special waterproof cement;
 admixtures;
 richer mixtures and careful gradation of the aggregate;
 small amounts of mixing water;
 proper curing;
 application of bituminous coatings to the surface.
EXERCISES
Ex. 1. Give the definitions for the following terms.
 Durability
 Waterproofing
 Workability
Ex. 2. Look through the text 3a and give the answer.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
64
What factors influence the durability of concrete?
What factors affect workability of building material?
How can builders make waterproofing of concrete?
Is water an enemy of concrete? Why?
Are acids dangerous for concrete?
Task. Translate the text using the dictionary at the end of the
book.
TEXT 4. METALS
There are many types of metals
used for building. Metals began to
be used as building materials not
so long ago. It requires a great
deal of human labor to produce
metals, especially in the large
amounts needed for the building
industry. Before the beginning of
the 19th century metals played
little structural role in the process of construction. They served
mostly for joining parts of buildings. The ancient Greeks and
Romans used bronze for joining slabs of stone. It was only in
the 18th century when the first all-metal structure was built in
Europe. It was a cast-iron (чугун) bridge across the river
Severn, and two centuries after its construction it still carries
heavy modern traffic.
In the first half of the 19th century cast iron and wrought iron
(ковкий чугун) were introduced for industrial construction in
Europe and North America. The famous Eiffel Tower in Paris
was constructed of wrought iron in 1889. By that period several
steel frame skyscrapers had already been built in the United
States. That was the beginning of a new era; a new highly
useful and popular construction material had been born and
introduced into building industry.
All metals, except mercury (ртуть), are hard and fire resistant.
They have some common properties: metals can be pulled
65
(вытягивать), forged (ковать), and melted (плавить). They
are also good conductors of electricity.
Metals are divided into two groups: ferrous (черный металл)
and non-ferrous (цветной металл). Iron, steel and their
various alloys belong to the group of ferrous metals, while the
main component of non-ferrous metals is not iron. Ferrous metals
are commonly used for construction as supporting members.
Steel and other ferrous metals serve as reinforcement.
Steel has come into general use with the development of industry.
Its manufacture requires special equipment and skilled labour.
Structural steel is alloys of iron, with carefully controlled
amounts of carbon (углерод) and various other metals such as
manganese, chromium (хром), aluminium, vanadium,
molybdenum, and copper. The alloying elements control grain
size and hence steel properties giving high strength, increased
ductility and fracture toughness (прочность на разрыв). Highcarbon steel is used to manufacture hard drawn wires (тянутая
проволока) for cables and tendons (трос, канат).
Steel is the best material for reinforcing concrete. Steel
reinforcement is a steel bar or mesh (сетка) of steel wires used
as a tension element in reinforced concrete structures to
strengthen and hold the concrete in tension. It’s impossible to
imagine modern construction without steel reinforcement. It is
widely used for many different types of structures and
components of structures including slabs, girders, beams,
columns, frames, foundations etc.
Copper is a valued building material because of its
advantageous properties: corrosion resistance, durability, low
thermal movement, light weight, recyclability and wide range of
66
finishes. Copper is included into roofing, domes, spires (шпиль),
vaults (свод), wall cladding, joints and indoor design elements.
Aluminium is a considerably new building material. For a long
period it was considered to be rather expensive since its
production required the use of electric power. Because of its
relatively high cost, aluminium was not very popular as a
building material till the middle of the twentieth century. But
now the situation is absolutely different. Aluminium and
aluminium-based alloys are extremely popular and are widely
used in various forms for construction purposes.
The advantages of aluminium, compared with other popular
metals, are its high strength combined with lightness. Highpurity aluminium (about 99 % pure) is soft and ductile but its
great disadvantage is that it is not strong enough. At the same
time it has high corrosion resistance and it is used in
construction of buildings as bright foil (фольга) for heat
insulation, roofing, exterior and interior architectural
ornamentation.
Other metals used for structural purposes include chrome, gold,
silver, and titanium. Their disadvantages are: high cost, not
enough tensile strength and hardness. Therefore they are mostly
used for decoration.
EXERCISES
Ex. 1. Complete the following sentences.
1. Metals as a new building material were introduced in
construction in…
2. The only metal which isn’t hard and fire-resistant is…
67
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
The two main groups of metals are…
The example of a ferrous metal is…
The example of a non-ferrous metal is…
Structural steel is made of…
Steel reinforcement is…
The advantages of copper as a building material are…
The production of aluminium was expensive for a long
period of time because…
10. The disadvantages of aluminium are…
Ex. 2. Choose the correct variant.
1. Metal is…
a) the most ancient building material
b) a rather new building material
2. Producing metals …
a) is an easy process
b) requires qualified labor and special equipment
3. The first all-metal structure was built in…
a) ancient Greece
b) in Europe in the 18th century
4. The Eiffel Tower in Paris was built of…
a) wrought iron
b) steel
5. Metals are…
a) good conductors of electricity
b) bad conductors of electricity
6. The main component of all ferrous metals is…
a) bronze
b) iron
7. The best metal to reinforce concrete is…
68
a) аluminium
b) steel
8. Strength and hardness are the structural properties of…
a) gold and silver
b) steel and iron
Ex. 3. Make up sentences using the words given below.
1. Bronze, slabs, Greeks, joining, of, Romans, stone, the,
used, and, ancient, for.
2. Fire-resistant, metals, mercury, hard, all, are, and,
except.
3. Light-weight, are, corrosion-resistance, main, copper,
durability, of, advantages, the.
4. Popular, a, was, the, century, its, material, 20th, high,
aluminium, not, building, until, because of, cost, the,
middle of.
5. Titanium, mainly, decoration, gold, for, used, silver,
are, chrome.
Ex. 4. Ask your group-mates the following questions.
1. Why did metals play little structural role in building
industry before the 19th century?
2. What was the first all-metal structure and what kind of
metal was used for its construction? Does it exist now?
3. When and where did the mass production of iron start?
4. What are the common properties of metals?
5. What are the main groups of metals? What are they
used in construction for?
69
6. Where is steel used in modern construction?
7. Why is copper considered to be a valuable building
material?
8. What are the advantages of aluminium and its alloys
and the sphere of their applying in construction?
Task. Look through the text and give a short summary.
TEXT 5. BUILDING STONE
Stone belongs to one of the oldest building materials used by
man. Almost all famous buildings of classic times, of the
medieval and Renaissance (Ренессанс, эпоха Возрождения)
periods and of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries
were erected of stone. The art of making any structure in stone
is called stone masonry*. It is characterised by many
properties. It has mechanical strength, compactness, porosity,
sound and heat insulation and fire-resistance. Building stone
ranks in importance with steel as a building material. Stone is
used for the foundations, walls, and steps of buildings, for the
supports of piers* and bridges, and for finishing and decorating
all types of structures.
Crushed stone* is mainly used as an aggregate of concrete and
in road construction. Crushed stone is quarried stone crushed
into small pieces suitable for such uses as the surfacing of roads
and industrial construction.
Dimension stone* is stone in natural blocks or slabs cut in
definite shapes and sizes. Builders expect good dimension stone
to last at least a hundred years. The best dimension stone has
70
the fewest pores* of air cells, making it able to resist the
wearing* effects of weather. Dimension stone includes granite,
limestone, sandstone, and marble.
Granite is one of the strongest of all the building stones. It is
used particularly for basements, columns and steps and for
entire facades. Its colour may be grey, yellow, pink or deep red.
It is used extensively in the construction of public buildings.
Limestone is a hard building stone that can be cut easily and
shaped with saws, and even lathes*. These dark yellow or grey
stones are sometimes placed over the rough stonework of a
building to make an attractive surface. Limestone is also used
for sills*, floors, steps, and cladding*.
Sandstone is easy to work and is used for the same purposes as
limestone. Sandstone that is well-cemented with silica* is
probably more durable and weather resistant than most other
building stones. The durability of sandstones depends largely
on cementing material.
Marble is the most elegant building stone. Pure marble is white
with black, grey, green, pink, red, and yellow veins. Builders use
marble to make monuments and tombstones, and to decorate
stairways, fire-places, floors, and paneling.
Notes:
stone masonry – кладка из природного камня
pier – столб, опора, пилон
сrushed stone – щебень
dimension stone – штучный камень, точно-обработанный
камень
71
pores – поры
wear – физическое изнашивание, износ
lathes – пила и токарный станок
sill – подоконник
cladding – отделка
silica – кремнезем, кварц
Task. Give the written translation of the text.
TEXT 6. BRICK
Types of brick
Brick was known many thousands of years ago. It is an
example of artificial building material. Brick is divided into two
general groups: (1) building brick (обыкновенный кирпич),
and (2) refractory brick (огнеупорный кирпич). Building
brick can differ in size, though
individual countries set their
own standard measurements. For
example, the majority of building
bricks in the British Isles measure
6.5 cm thick, 10.25 cm wide and
21.5 cm long. In Russia the sizes
of a standard brick are: thickness
– 6.5 cm, width – 12 cm and
length – 25 cm. Refractory brick
varies widely in size, but is
usually slightly larger than building brick.
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Building brick is subdivided into face brick (облицовочный
кирпич) and common brick. The highest quality and most
attractive building brick is called face brick. This brick is used
in highly visible areas of structures, such as the interior or
exterior walls of houses. Face brick comes in a variety of
colours and surface textures, and it is extremely uniform in
shape and size. Most of it is made from high-grade fire clay
(высококачественная и огнеупорная глина). Off-colour and
slightly defective brick is called common brick. Common brick
is used in less visible places than face brick.
Refractory brick, also called refractories, can withstand
temperatures between 1100°С and 2200°С. It is also highly
resistant to chemical damage, physical wear and thermal
cycling (rapid changes in temperature). Refractories are used in
a wide variety of structures, including fire-places and industrial
furnaces (производственные печи). Refractories differ in
composition according to their use. The main types are made
from such raw materials as alumina (окись алюминия), carbon,
chrome ore (хромовая руда), dolomite, fire clay, magnesite
(магнезит), silica (кварц), and zircon.
Stucco
Stucco (стукко, прочная цементно-известковая штукатурка)
is a plaster-like material applied to outside walls. It forms a
hard protective covering. Stucco usually consists of sand, water
and a cementing mixture. Workers usually apply three coats,
using trowels (мастерок). Stucco can be applied in many
finishes and colours.
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EXERCISES
Ex. 1. Match English and Russian equivalents.
1. Stone masonry
a) облицовочный кирпич
2. Face brick
b) щебень
3. Crushed stone
c) известняк
4. Granite
d) штукатурка, гипс
5. Sandstone
e) кладка из природного камня
6. Refractory brick
f) мрамор
7. Dimension stone
g) штучный камень
8. Marble
i) гранит
9. Limestone
j) обыкновенный кирпич
10. Stucco
k) огнеупорный кирпич
11. Building brick
l) песчаник
Ex. 2. Find the word with the most common meaning in
each line. Try to remember its Russian equivalents.
1. Face brick, refractory brick, common brick, brick,
building brick.
2. Marble, sandstone, stone, granite, limestone, crushed
stone, dimension stone.
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3. Silver, steel, wrought iron, titanium, cast iron, mercury,
metal, copper, chrome, aluminium.
Ex. 3. Say if the sentences given below are true or false.
1. Stone as well as wood is one of the most ancient
building materials.
2. Crushed stone is considered to be more valuable than
dimension stone.
3. Limestone, granite, marble, sandstone are all the
examples of dimension stones.
4. Builders use one coat of stucco to finish outside walls.
5. The most attractive and the highest quality building
brick is called refractory brick.
6. Clay is the main component for producing bricks.
Ex. 4. Complete the following sentences.
1. Almost all famous buildings of classic times, the
Renaissance, the 18th and the 19th centuries were built
of…
2. The advantages of stone as a building material are…
3. The examples of dimension stone are…
4. The most elegant building stone is…
5. Brick is made of…
6. The two main groups of brick are…
7. The size of a building brick in the UK is…
8. Refractory brick can withstand the temperature of…
9. The special instrument builders use to put stucco is
called…
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Ex. 5. Translate the following sentences into English.
1. Искусство создания сооружений из камня называется
каменной кладкой.
2. Основные характеристики камня – это механическая
прочность, компактность, пористость, звукоизоляция, теплоизоляция и огнеупорность.
3. В современном строительстве камень широко
используется для фундаментов, стен, полов,
лестниц, опорных сооружений, отделки и декорирования зданий.
4. Люди используют кирпич как строительный материал
уже много тысяч лет.
5. Штукатурку готовят из песка, воды, цементирующей
смеси и широко используют для внутренней и внешней отделки стен.
Task. Look through the text and speak about glass manufacture.
TEXT 7. GLASS
Glassmaking is considered
an art form as well as an
industrial process. Clear
windows have been used
since the invention of glass
to cover small openings in
a building. Glass panes
(панель, оконное стекло)
provided humans with the
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ability to both let light into rooms and to keep from rainy
weather outside.
Glass is generally made from mixtures of sand and silicates in a
very hot fire stove called a kiln (обжиговая печь), and it is
very brittle (хрупкий). The use of glass in architectural
buildings has become very popular in modern culture. Glass
“curtain walls” (наружная стеклянная стена) can be used to
cover the entire façade of a building, or it can be used to span
over a wide roof structure in a “space frame”. Glass brick was
invented in the early of the 20th century.
Task. Read and translate the text, do the exercises given below.
TEXT 8. PLASTIC
Plastic is usually organic polymer with high molecular mass
derived from petrochemicals (нефтехимические вещества),
but there is plastic which is partially natural. Plastic is a
building material consisting of a wide range of synthetic or
semi-synthetic organics that can be moulded into solid objects
of diverse shapes. Plasticity is the general property of this
material.
Plastic has appeared comparatively recently but, owing to its
valuable and diverse properties, has found a wide application in
construction and many other industries (machine-building,
aviation, textile industry, etc.). Plastic combines all the fine
characteristics of a building material with good insulating
77
properties. It is no wonder that architects and engineers have
turned to it to add beauty to modern houses and offices. Application
of plastic in the building field widens from year to year.
With respect to physical and mechanical properties at a normal
temperature of 20 °С all plastics are divided into rigid (жесткий),
semi-rigid, soft and plastic. As to the number of constituents
plastics may be classified as simple and complex. In the
building field we usually deal with complex plastics, e.g.
plastics consisting of a polymer and other components.
Due to their relatively low cost, ease of manufacture, large
assortment, and water-resistance, plastics are used in an
enormous and expanding range of products, from paper clips to
spaceships. In some fields they have already displaced many
traditional materials, such as wood, stone, leather, metal, glass,
and ceramics. The world’s first fully synthetic plastic was
bakelite (бакелит, жесткая пластмасса) invented in New
York in 1907 by Leo Baekeland who introduced the term
“plastic”. Many chemists contributed to the materials science of
plastic, including Nobel winner Herman Staudinger who has
been called “the father of polymer physics”.
The main properties of plastic are:
 durability;
 cost effectiveness;
 recycling;
 energy saving;
 safety;
 ease of installation and maintenance.
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EXERCISES
Ex. 1. Give the Russian for:
Glassmaking, clear window, glass pane, glass roof, safety of
plastics, organic polymer, high molecular mass, relatively low
cost, piping, bakelite, synthetic and semi-synthetic organics,
partially natural, petrochemicals.
Ex. 2. Give the English for:
Смесь песка и различных силикатов, хрупкий материал,
обжиговая печь, изобретение стекла, стеклянный
строительный кирпич, пропускать свет, простота при
установке и в уходе, пластик, пластичный, пластичность,
водонепроницаемый материал.
Ex. 3. Answer the following questions.
A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Is glass a new building material?
What is glass made of?
What sort of equipment is necessary for producing glass?
When was glass brick invented?
Where is glass used in modern construction?
B
1. What is plastic and what is this material usually derived
from?
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2. What is the most common property for all types of
plastics?
3. Where are plastics applied in modern construction?
4. What are the main advantages of plastics as a building
material?
5. Can plastic displace traditional building materials in
future? How can you prove your opinion?
Task. Translate the text without using the dictionary.
TEXT 9. THE OPTIONS OF USING TIMBER,
CONCRETE AND STEEL
There are three of the most common building materials in the
world: steel, concrete, timber.
STEEL
Steel products are ones of the most widely used building
materials in construction today, mainly because they are
diverse, durable, and available, and no matter what kind of
project you are working at.
Steel as a structural material has a high strength/weight
proportion; the dead weight (собственный вес) of steel
structures is relatively small. This property makes steel a very
attractive structural material for:
 high-rise buildings;
 long-span bridges;
 structures located on soft ground.
80
Ductility. Steel can undergo large plastic deformation before
failure, thus providing a large reserve strength. This property is
referred to as ductility. Properly designed steel structures can
have high ductility, which is an important characteristic for
resisting shock loading such as blasts (взрыв) or earthquakes. A
ductile structure has energy-absorbing capacity and it will not
be suddenly collapsed. It usually shows large visible deflections
(прогиб, отклонение) before failure or collapse.
Properties of steel can be predicted with a high degree of
certainty. Steel in fact shows elastic behavior up to a relatively
high and usually well-defined stress level. Steel properties do
not change considerably with time.
Advantages of steel.
 Steel structures can be erected quite rapidly.
 Steel structures in general can be repaired quickly and easily.
 Steel is highly suitable for prefabrication and mass
production.
 Steel can be reused after a structure is disassembled.
 Steel buildings can be easily expanded by adding new
bays or wings. Steel bridges may be widened.
 Steel structures have relatively good fatigue (усталость)
strength.
Disadvantages of steel in certain cases.
 Steel structures may be more costly than other types of
structures.
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 The strength of steel is reduced when heated at
temperatures commonly observed in building fires. Also,
steel conducts and transmits heat from a burning part of
the building quite fast. Consequently, steel frames in
buildings must have adequate fireproofing.
 Steel structures are subjected to air, water and corrosion
and should be painted regularly. Application of weathering
and corrosion-resistant steel may eliminate this problem.
 Steel members are in general more subjected to
deformation than reinforced concrete compression
members.
TIMBER
The building industry is increasingly recognising the potential
results available from working with environmentally focused
products i.e. timber, that combine clean aesthetics and structural
properties.
Advantages of timber.
 Timber is an excellent insulator: brick-built houses are
also known to have outstanding insulating properties, but
timber surpasses them.
 Timber is an elastic material: in comparison with brick
or concrete walls, timber walls don’t have to be very
thick. A 20 cm wall, for example, is strong enough to
protect against the winter cold, if it has a proper treatment.
 Timber houses are very attractive; they don’t need
special decorative finishes.
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Disadvantages of timber.
Timber is vulnerable (уязвимый) to vital forces like
termites (термиты), woodworms (личинки
древоточца) or wood ants (муравьи).
 Natural forces like the sun, fire, water and etc. can have
unfavorable effect on timber.
 Timber is subjected to shrinking (усадка) and swelling
(набухание, вспучивание). Timber has a natural ability
to absorb water which is also known as hygroscopy.

CONCRETE
Concrete is an artificial stone-like material used for various
structural purposes. It is made by mixing a binding material as
cement and various aggregates i.e. inert materials, such as sand,
crushed stone, pebbles (галька, мелкий булыжник), gravel,
shale, etc with water and allowing the mixture to harden by
hydration (гидратация – присоединение воды к ...).
Advantages of concrete.
 Concrete is economical when ingredients are readily
available.
 Long life of concrete and relatively low maintenance
requirements increase its economic benefits.
 It is not subjected to corrosion or decay as other building
materials.
 Concrete has the ability to be moulded or cast into
almost any desired shape.
 Concrete is non-combustible material which makes it
fire-safe and able to withstand high temperatures.
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 It is resistant to wind, water, and insects. Therefore,
concrete is often used for storm shelters.
Disadvantages of concrete.
 Concrete has a relatively low tensile strength compared
to other building materials.
 Low ductility.
 Low strength-to-weight ratio.
 Concrete is subjected to cracking (трещинообразованию).
FOR SELF EXAMINATION
TEST (part II)
1. The properties of building materials
a) aren’t very important when designing a structure
b) should be always taken into consideration
2 Cement, brick and concrete are the examples of
a) artificial building materials
b) natural building materials
3. High cost and low fire-resistance are
a) advantages of main building materials
b) disadvantages of main building materials
4. The only renewable natural building material is
a) wood
b) clay
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5. Durability, strength and heat-insulation are the properties of
a) stone
b) timber
6. The drier is the cut wood
a) the greater is its strength
b) the less is its strength
7. Hardwoods are usually used for
a) bearing structures
b) decoration and veneering
8. In cut trees water content is
a) constantly increasing
b) constantly decreasing
9. Aluminium is
a) a poor conductor of electricity
b) a great conductor of electricity
10. Russia is
a) extremely rich in timber, clay, metals and rock
b) very poor in these resources
11. The components for producing bricks are
a) sand and water
b) clay and mortar
12. The building material used for foundations is
a) stone
b) laminate
13. Plastics are
a. modern building material
b. ancient building material
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14. In modern construction the variants of plastics are
a) extremely wide
b) very limited
15. Cement and lime are referred to
a) binding building material
b) secondary building material
16. The most popular type of cement nowadays is
a) Pozzolanic cement
b) Portland cement
17. When concrete is compressed it becomes
a) weaker
b) stronger
18. The kind of concrete chiefly used in severe climate is
a) high-early-strength concrete
b) foam concrete
19. The famous Eiffel Tower in Paris was constructed of
a) wrought iron
b) cast iron
20. Corrosion is the prime enemy of
a) metals
b) bricks
21. The best material for reinforcing concrete is
a) steel
b) iron
22. Aluminium wasn’t popular in construction till the
middle of the 20-th century because of
a) its lightness
b) its high cost
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23. A kiln is used when producing
a) glass
b) plastics
24. The building material derived from petrochemicals is
a) cement
b) plastics
25. Marble, granite, limestone are the examples of
a) dimension stone
b) crushed stone
26. The most attractive and the highest quality brick is called
a) refractory bricks
b) face bricks
27. The auxiliary building material made of sand, water and
cementing mixtures, applied for interior and exterior
finishes is
a) clay
b) stucco
28. In ancient times bricks were made by
a) burning in a kiln
b) drying in the sun
29. Iron and steel belong to
a) ferrous metals
b) non-ferrous metals
30. The building material never used for fireproof structures is
a) artificial stone
b) timber
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PART III
PARTS AND ELEMENTS OF A BUILDING
Words to be remembered:
girder – ферма, главная балка
truss – ферма, стержневая несущая конструкция
slab – плита
beam – балка
pillar – столб, колонна
span – пролет, расстояние между опорами
foundation – фундамент
basement – цоколь, подвальное помещение
floor – межэтажное перекрытие, этаж
exterior wall – внешняя стена
roof – крыша
partition – перегородка, ненесущая внутренняя стена
ceiling – потолок
support – опора, несущая конструкция
column – колонна
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shape – форма, вид
formwork – опалубка
substructure – подземная часть сооружения
superstructure – надземная часть сооружения, надстройка
premises – помещение
flexibility – гибкость, упругость, эластичность
plasticity – пластичность
cladding – облицовка, наружная обшивка
joist – прогон
arrangement – размещение, расстановка
crack – трещина, раскол
damage – повреждение, разрушение
failure – разрушение
skyscraper – небоскреб
bar – стержень, арматурный пруток
dead load – постоянная нагрузка (собственный вес)
live load – временная нагрузка
gravity load – нагрузка от собственного веса
settlement of foundation – оседание фундамента
heaving – вспучивание, выталкивание пласта породы или
конструкции из грунта
freezing – промерзание
thawing – оттаивание
pitch – скат, уклон
to bend – изгибать, гнуть
to transmit – передавать (нагрузку)
to increase – увеличивать(ся), повышать
to reduce – уменьшать, понижать
to separate – разделять
to cover – накрывать, покрывать
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Task. Read and translate the text, do the exercises given below.
TEXT 1. TYPES OF STRUCTURES
In structural engineering structures are classified
by the way they resist loads:
 masonry structures* – load bearing walls resist loads
transmitted to them by floor slabs;
 framed structures* – a steel or concrete skeleton
collects loads from plate elements and delivers them to
the foundation;
 shell structures*– a curved surface* covers space and
сarries loads;
 tension structures* – cables are stretched between
anchor structures* membranes;
 pneumatic structures* – a membrane tightened to the
ground is supported by internal air pressure.
by the material used: concrete and reinforced concrete
structures, steel structures, masonry structures, wooden/timber
structures.
concrete frame structures
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steel frame structures
load bearing masonry
wooden framed structures
Concrete and reinforced concrete structures are the most
common ones (both by volume and by application). In modern
construction industrial prefabricated concrete elements are used
for erection of residential, public and industrial buildings, and
many civil engineering projects. Reinforced concrete is widely
used in construction of waterworks*, road and airport paving,
foundations for industrial equipment, tanks*, towers, silos* etc.
Steel structures are mainly used for frame-span buildings and
structures for shops with heavy crane equipment, high-capacity
storage tanks, bridges, towers and others. Application of steel
and concrete structures in some cases is similar. A significant
advantage of steel structures compared with reinforced concrete
ones is their smaller mass. This determines their use in areas of
high seismic activity, inaccessible areas* of the Far North,
desert and mountainous areas, etc.
The main applications of masonry structures are walls and
partitions. Buildings made of brick, natural stone, small blocks,
etc. satisfy the requirements of industrial construction less than
the large-size structures. Therefore, their share in the total
91
volume of construction is gradually reduced. However, the use
of high-strength brick, reinforced masonry i.e. masonry
structures reinforced with steel bars or concrete elements can
significantly increase the carrying capacity of buildings with
stone walls. The use of brick masonry and ceramic
prefabricated panels greatly increases the degree of
industrialization of construction and reduces the complexity of
the construction of buildings from stone materials.
The main direction in the development of modern timber
structures includes the construction of buildings from the
glulam i.e. – laminated timber*. Possibility of industrial
manufacturing and obtaining the necessary dimensions of
structural components by gluing* determine their advantages
compared to other wooden structures. Carrying and protecting
glued structures are widely used in agricultural construction.
Notes:
masonry structure – каменная конструкция
framed structure – рамная/решетчатая конструкция
shell structure – оболочковая конструкция
tension structure – натяжная конструкция
pneumatic structure – пневматическая/надувная
конструкция
curved surface – изогнутая/искривленная поверхность
anchor structure – анкерная опора
waterworks – водопроводная станция; фонтан
tanks – резервуар
silos – бункер
inaccessible areas – труднодоступные территории
laminated timber – клееная древесина
to glue – склеивать
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EXERCISES
Ex. 1. Match English and Russian equivalents, defining the
types of structures.
Shell structure
Tension structure
Pneumatic structure
Masonry structure
Framed structure
Concrete structure
Reinforced concrete structure
Timber structure
Steel structure
пневматическая
железобетонная
стальная
деревянная
натяжная
оболочковая
рамная
каменная
бетонная
Ex. 2. Give the English for:
Плита перекрытия, каменные стены и перегородки,
анкерная опора, нагрузка от собственного веса, дорожное
покрытие, значительное преимущество, гористая местность,
территории с высокой сейсмической активностью,
труднодоступные территории, конструкции из клееной
древесины, высокопрочный кирпич, общий объем
строительства, укрепить стальными прутьями, снизить
трудоемкость, увеличить несущую мощность, использовать
в сельскохозяйственном секторе.
Ex. 3. Give the answers to these questions.
1. What does the classification of structures in engineering
depend on?
93
2. How are all the structures divided according to the way
of resisting loads?
3. What are types of structures according to the material used
for their construction?
4. Which of them are mostly used in modern construction?
5. What is the main advantage of steel structures compared
with reinforced concrete structures?
6. What are the advantages of glulam-laminated timber
structures compared to ordinary wooden structures?
7. Does the use of masonry structures increase?
8. What structures are advisable to build in mountainous,
desert and seismically dangerous areas? Why?
Task. Read and translate the text using the dictionary.
TEXT 2. STEEL FRAMES
Steel framing is a construction technique that uses steel
supports to form the basic shape, or “skeleton” of a building.
The steel frame provides structural support for other building
elements, including siding, roof, floors, walls, and the weight of
occupants. Steel framing is an alternative to other construction
methods, including wood framing. The development of this
technique made the construction of skyscrapers possible.
A steel frame is comprised of vertical members, known as
columns, as well as horizontal members, or girders. Both
columns and girders are typically made from I-beams*, which
are steel beams shaped like the capitalized letter “I”. The shape
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of an I-beam provides superior strength and structural support
for the other elements of the building.
Building elements that are not subjected to high loads may be
formed from steel pipes or tubes, which weigh less than I-beams.
Because of their high strength steel joists, or trusses are often
used to build roof supports. These elements are joined together
using bolts, rivets* or welding techniques to ensure a strong
connection.
Steel structure
Most steel structures are done with a type of steel called mild
steel*. Mild steel is a material that is extremely strong. This
huge strength is of great advantage to buildings. The other
important feature of steel framing is its flexibility. It can bend
without cracking, which is another great advantage, as a steel
building can flex when it is pushed them from side to side by
wind, or an earthquake. The third characteristic of steel is its
plasticity or ductility. This means that when subjected to great
95
force, it will not suddenly crack like glass, but slowly bend out
of shape. This property allows steel buildings to bend out of
shape, or deform, thus giving warning to inhabitants to escape.
Failure in steel frames is not sudden – a steel structure rarely
collapses. Thanks to these properties steel in most cases
performs far better in earthquake than most other materials.
However one important property of steel is that it quickly loses
its strength in a fire. At 500 °С (930° F), mild steel can lose almost
half of its strength. This is what happened at the collapse of the
World Trade Towers in 2001 (New York). Therefore, steel in
buildings must be protected from fire or high temperature; this
is usually done by wrapping it with boards or spray-on material
called fire protection.
The frame needs to be protected from fire because steel softens
at high temperature and this can cause the building to partial
collapse. The columns are usually encased* by masonry,
concrete or plasterboard*. The beams may be encased by
concrete, plasterboard or sprayed with a coating to insulate
them from the heat of the fire. Bricks, stone, reinforced
concrete, architectural glass, sheet metal and simply paint are
used to cover the frame in order to protect the steel from bad
weather.
Notes:
I-beams – двутавровая балка
rivets – заклепки
mild steel – строительная сталь
to encase – полностью закрывать, обрамлять, вставлять
plasterboard – сухая штукатурка
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EXERCISES
Ex. 1. Give the definitions for the terms:











steel framing
skeleton of a building
skyscraper
column
girder
I-beam
rivet
mild steel
deformation
crack
collapse
Ex. 2. Choose the phrase in the text to complete the sentences
below.
1. A construction technique which uses steel supports to
make a skeleton of a structure is called…
2. Vertical members comprised in steel framing are known
as…
3. Horizontal members comprised in steel framing are
called…
4. Steel can be protected from bad weather by…
5. Steel can be protected from fire by…
6. Flexibility of steel structures means…
7. Ductility of steel structures means…
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Ex. 3. Translate the following sentences into English.
1. Строительство небоскребов стало возможным благодаря применению стальных каркасов.
2. Колонны и фермы обычно делают из стальных
двутавровых балок.
3. Для большей части стальных конструкций используется исключительно прочный материал – строительная
сталь.
4. Сталь не выносит высоких температур, поэтому стальные конструкции должны иметь надежную противопожарную защиту.
5. При температуре выше 500º даже сверхнадежная
сталь теряет до половины своей прочности.
6. Каменная кладка, бетон, сухая штукатурка обычно
служат изолирующим средством, защищая стальные
конструкции от пожара.
Task. Give the written translation of the text.
TEXT 2a. THE USE OF STEEL FRAME STRUCTURES
ͯ
Let us consider a single-storey building with 5×8 m. in
dimension. Let us first build the structure with four columns at
the corners, beams spanning between the columns, and a 150 mm
ͯthick concrete slab at the top using concrete. Such structure
would weigh about 800 kg/m², or 32 tons i.e. 32.000 kg in total.
If we built the same structure using steel instead of concrete,
with a sloping roof covered with corrugated metal sheeting
(обшивка из рифленого металла) with insulation, it would
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weigh only about 65 kg/m². The steel framed building will
weigh only 2.6 tons i.e. 2.600 kg. So the concrete building is
over 12 times heavier! This example is given for single-storey
structures. In multi-storey structures, the difference will be less,
as the floors in multi-storey steel buildings are built of concrete
slabs for economy – but the difference is still significant.
This low weight of steel frame buildings means that they have
to be firmly bolted to the foundations to resist wind forces;
otherwise they could be blown away like deck (терраса, большая
лоджия) umbrellas!
Steel construction is mostly often used in:
 high rise buildings because of its strength, low weight,
and speed of construction;
 industrial and warehouse buildings because of its ability
to create large span spaces at low cost;
 residential buildings in a technique called light steel
construction;
 temporary structures as these are quick to set up and
remove.
Advantages of steel structures:
 they are super-quick to build at site, as a lot of work can
be pre-fabricated at the factory;
 they are flexible, that makes them very good at resisting
dynamic (changing) forces such as wind or earthquake
forces;
 a wide range of ready-made structural sections are
available, such as I, C, and angle sections;
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 they can be made to take any kind of shape, and used
with any type of material;
 a wide range of joining methods is available, such as
bolting, welding, and riveting (заклёпочные работы).
Disadvantages of steel structures:
 they lose strength at high temperatures, and are subjected
to fire;
 they are subjected to corrosion in humid or marine
environment.
EXERCISES
Ex. 1. Make a list of advantages of steel frame structures.
Ex. 2. Make a list of their main disadvantages.
Ex. 3. List the types of buildings where steel framing is used.
Ex. 4. Say if the sentences given below are true or false.
1. Steel frame construction is fast and rather cheap.
2. A steel structure is many times heavier than a concrete
structure.
3. Prefabrication makes construction super-quick.
4. Flexibility of steel structures prevents them to resist
earthquakes and high winds.
5. Steel structures are not subjected to fire and corrosion.
6. There are different techniques of assembling steel
structures.
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Task. Look through the text and give a short summary.
TEXT 3. TALL BUILDINGS
In Russia the term “tall building” describes the structure with
more than 50 meters height (14 floors and more). In the
structural engineering sense, the multi-storey building may be
defined as “tall” when the horizontal loading due to wind or
seismic effects becomes the most important consideration in
design. The first high-rise buildings appeared in Russia in
1950s. Thousands of very tall buildings scrape the sky in all big
cities of the country. From economic point of view, the
construction of skyscrapers is certainly beneficial, especially in
the areas with shortage of land.
However there are some minuses
and they are rather essential:
maintenance of high-rise buildings
costs twice higher than ordinary
buildings; high-rise buildings are
negative for human health; the
load on engineering communication
is much bigger and if a crack
happens in such structure the risk
of its collapse increases greatly.
Tall building
There are also problems with parking place and proper system of
fire protection and evacuation. Three modern achievements
have contributed to making tall buildings safe and successful:
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 the design of efficient lateral load-resisting systems
which are essential elements of all such structures to
resist wind and seismic loads, and reduce damp vibration*;
 the modern methods of computer analysis including
modeling the structure for static and dynamic analysis,
coupled with model testing in wind tunnels* and on shaking
tables* so that behaviour can be accurately predicted*;
 the development of rapid construction methods in
concrete, prefabrication techniques, drainage work* etc.
One tall building can replace a large area of low-rise buildings,
and it can give chance for other constructions such as
community centers, sport centers. Tall buildings are used for
offices, hotels, apartment houses, hospitals, department stores
etc. and often for combined use, e.g. offices/apartments.
Architects and engineers planning a tall building need to
consider the following general restrictions on design:
 building regulations and planning laws for the city –
sometimes the maximum building height is limited;
 intended occupancy – this influences the floor loading;
 the transport of people is primarily vertical, requiring a
central core*. The design of tall buildings was only
possible following the invention of the electric lift;
 fire protection of the structural frame in steel buildings is
provided with sprinklers* and they have an easy and
speedy evacuation system;
 heating or air conditioning is essential. This requires
space between floor slabs and suspended ceilings*;
 services (lighting, electricity supply, telephone,
computer networks, water, and waste disposal) form an
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important part of design and must be considered at the
planning stage. Services can be set in prefabricated wall
and floor units during their manufacture.
The foundation of tall buildings can be expensive depending on
site conditions because heavy loads are delivered onto small
areas. Cellular rafts* or multi-storey basement foundations are
commonly used where the space under building provides car
parking. The foundations may be placed directly on the soil or
be supported on piles or on caissons* under thick slabs.
Very often the erection of the tall structure has to be carried out
on a restricted site. This influences the design and limits the
size of components to be fabricated. Low- to medium-rise
buildings can be erected with independent tower cranes located
around the area. For tall buildings, erection must make use of
the structure itself.
Notes:
damp vibration – затухающее колебание
wind tunnel – аэродинамическая труба
shaking table – вибрационный стол, виброплощадка
to predict – предсказывать
drainage work – работа по осушению
central core design – конструкция здания с центральной
секцией, в которой размещены шахты лифтов
и коммуникации
sprinkler – огнетушитель
suspended ceiling – подвесной потолок
cellular raft – сплошной плавающий фундамент
caisson – кессон, свая большого диаметра и глубокого
заложения
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EXERCISES
Ex. 1. Give the Russian for:
Prefabrication, rapid construction technique, tall building,
multi-storey structure, multi-storey basement foundation,
cellular raft, caisson, wind tunnel, shaking table, vertical
loading, maximum building height, planning laws, building
regulations, central core, sprinkler, easy and speedy evacuation,
heating and air conditioning, suspended ceiling, to reduce damp
vibration, to predict accurately.
Ex. 2. Match two columns to complete the following sentences.
1. When designing a tall
building, engineers and
architects should…
a) the most important
consideration in design is
horizontal loading because of
high winds and seismic effects
2. The maximum building
height is sometimes limited
by…
b) planning laws of a city and
building regulations
3. A building is called “tall”
when…
c) cellular rafts or multi-storey
basement foundations
4. To provide a car parking
under the building, it’s
better to use…
d) can be set in prefabricated
walls or floor units
5. Such services as lighting,
electricity supply, computer
networks…
e) consider some general
restrictions
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Ex. 3. Agree or disagree with the following statements.
1. Rapid construction techniques, prefabrication, computer
modeling have greatly contributed to safe and successful
erection of tall buildings.
2. Tall buildings are usually erected for such structures as
schools and kindergartens, theatres and libraries.
3. Concrete framed structures and masonry are the most
popular for tall buildings.
4. The invention of electric lifts gave the start to the
construction of tall buildings.
5. Piles and caissons, being the basic elements of a tall
building are used to support a roof.
Task. Give the written translation of the text.
TEXT 4. CONSTRUCTING A SKYSCRAPER
In Russia the term “skyscraper”
describes a very tall building with
a steel frame higher than 100
meters (more than 25 floors).
New methods in the design and
construction of skyscrapers have
been closely related to the development of computers. Engineers use
computers to solve complex problems involved in such construction
projects.
Skyscraper
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Computers do this work quickly by breaking the design down
into a limited number of pre-calculated elements.
Before construction begins, engineers determine the strength of
the soils that will be under a new building. Using this
information they can design a foundation properly. Mobile
diggers (землеройные машины) begin excavating soil after the
building site is cleared, leveled, and drained of water. When the
excavation is finished a footing (a base) and a superstructure are
built. Most steel elements used in the superstructure, such as
beams, girders, and columns are brought to the site prefabricated.
The first reinforced concrete skyscraper in the world was built
in 1902–1903 in Cincinnati, Ohio (the USA). It was the first
time when a 16-storey structure demonstrated safety and economy
of reinforced concrete frames for high-rise construction.
Concrete was chosen as a structural material chiefly for
economics. It offered the equivalent of steel frames in load
bearing capacity and other physical properties and it was rather
cheaper. Engineers all over the world watched with great
interest as construction proceeded successfully along its 16storey route. Today this building is recognized by engineers as
having revolutionized the building industry.
EXERCISES
Ex. 1. Translate the following words (word combinations)
into English.
Проектирование и строительство небоскребов, стальные
балки, фермы, колонны, железобетонный каркас для высот106
ного здания, экономичность и безопасность строительства,
определить твердость почвы, рассчитать нагрузку на фундамент, расчистить строительную площадку, использовать
землеройные машины, начать революцию в строительной
промышленности.
Ex. 2. Put these questions to your group-mates.
1. What kind of a building can be considered as
“a skyscraper”?
2. When and where was the first skyscraper built? How
many floors did it have?
3. What is the role of computer technologies in designing
skyscrapers?
4. What did the first reinforced concrete skyscraper
demonstrate?
5. What building materials are used for erecting
skyscrapers?
6. What does the process of erecting skyscrapers include?
7. Which skyscraper is the tallest building in the world by
the moment? What country is it situated in?
8. Is the number of storeys in skyscrapers limited?
9. Would you like to have an apartment in a skyscraper?
What floor would you prefer to live on? Why?
10. Do skyscrapers make our cities’ image uglier or nicer?
107
Task. Scan the text to get the full idea of it.
TEXT 5. SHELL AND WIDE-SPAN STRUCTURES
(оболочковые и большепролетные конструкции)
Shell structures
A shell structure is a thin curved membrane or a slab usually
made of reinforced concrete that functions both as a structure
and a covering. The term “shell” is used to describe the
structures which possess strength and rigidity due to their thin,
natural and curved form such as a shell of an egg.
Shells may be
round, elliptic
or parabolic in
cross
section.
Owing to the
easiness of their
manufacture the
first type is used
more frequently.
Shell structure
Cylindrical shells may be subdivided into:






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single-span shells supported on two diaphragms;
multi-span shells supported on more than two diaphragms;
single-barrel shells (одноцилиндровая оболочка);
multi-barrel shells consisting of several single-barrel shells;
plain (гладкая) shells, and
ribbed (ребристая) shells.
The
most
popular
diaphragms are trusses,
solid beams, bowstring
arches (раскосые арки)
and frames. The material
which suits mostly for
construction of a shell
is concrete because it is
a highly plastic material.
When mixed with water
it can take up any shape on centering or inside formwork. Small
sections of reinforcing bars can readily be bent to follow the
curvature of shells. Once cement has set and concrete has
hardened, a membrane or a slab acts as a strong, rigid shell
which serves as a structure and a covering to the building.
Advantages of shells:
 very light form of construction, for a span of 30 m.
required shell thickness is 60 mm.;
 dead load can be reduced thus economizing foundation
and supports material;
 esthetically it looks better over other forms of
construction.
Disadvantages of shells:
 problem of shuttering (опалубка);
 greater accuracy in formwork is required;
 skilled labour and supervision is necessary.
109
Wide-Span structures
Wide-span buildings and structures are ones that cover area
using long-span components of 36 m. and more meters. Theaters,
concert halls and sports halls, exhibition halls, garages, hangars,
shipbuilding factories, aircraft manufacturing and other
constructions with spans of basic load bearing components of
50 meters or more belong to wide-span structures. Beam
systems, trusses, frames, arches, hinged (навесной) and other
building elements are used for these structures.
Wide-span structure
Advantages of wide-span structures:
 strength and durability of structures;
 easiness of construction.
Disadvantages of wide-span structures:
 high cost compared with alternative structure systems;
 problems with the number and complexity of joints;
 problems of fire protection.
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EXERCISES
Ex. 1. Translate these word-combinations into Russian.
Curved form, elliptic in cross section, long-span components,
complexity of joints, trusses, frames, arches, hinged elements,
supporting system, beam systems, problems of shuttering,
structural efficiency, esthetically attractive building.
Ex. 2. Give a definition of the following word combinations
“a shell structure” and “a wide-span structure”.
Ex. 3. Make a list of advantages and disadvantages of shell
structures and wide-span structures.
Ex. 4. Answer the questions given below.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
What two functions does a shell structure perform?
Why is it called “a shell”?
What are the main shapes of shell structures?
Which of them is the most widely used? Why?
What building material is the most suitable for
constructing a shell? Why?
6. What kinds of buildings are usually erected by the
method of wide-span construction?
7. What special constructive elements are applied for widespan structures?
111
Task. Give the written translation of the text.
TEXT 6. PARTS AND ELEMENTS OF A BUILDING
Despite the significant difference between the buildings for
different purposes, both in appearance and in the internal
structure, they consist of some interrelated architectural and
structural elements performing very specific functions.
A building has two main parts: the substructure i.e. the part
below ground and the superstructure i.e. the part above ground.
The substructure is usually called a foundation. It includes the
basement walls, even though these may extend above the ground.
Both the substructure and the superstructure help to support the
load i.e. weight of the building. The dead load of a building is
the total weight of all its parts. The live load is the weight of
furniture, equipment, stored material of a building, and
occupants who live there. In some regions, the wind load of a
building is important if the structure has to withstand
(выдерживать) storms.
Basic elements of a building can be subdivided into the
following groups:
 the bearing elements, that receive basic loads arising in
a building;
 non-load-bearing elements, which divide premises, and
protect them from atmosphere influence and keep a
certain temperature in a building;
 elements which combine both bearing, and non-loadbearing functions.
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The main elements of a building:
 a foundation
 walls
 floorings
 a roof
 partitions
 stairs
 windows
 doors
Construction elements of a building:
1 – foundation; 2 – walls (external and internal); 3 – basement floor; 4 – flooring;
5 – partition; 6 – open roof; 7 – the roof; 8 – staircase; 9 – windows; 10 – door
113
EXERCISES
Ex. 1. Give the definitions to the terms below.









Substructure of a building
Superstructure of a building
Live load
Dead load
Wind load
Bearing element
Non-load-bearing element
Flooring
Partition
Ex. 2. Make a list of all the basic elements of a civil building.
Ex. 3. Check your answers to ex. 2 and using the text show
these elements in Fig. “Construction elements of a building”
Task. Translate the text using the dictionary.
TEXT 7. FOUNDATIONS
Foundation (fundamentum) being a part of a building is a
building load-bearing structure*. This main element receives all
loads from overlying designs and distributes them on the base*.
As a rule, it is made of concrete, stone or wood. Foundations
are put below the level of freezing the ground to prevent their
114
heaving. Spread foundations (the foundation which is above
level of freezing the ground) are applied on unheaving grounds
for constructing easy wooden structures. Such type of a
foundation is applied basically for small garden houses,
summer baths and economic constructions.
Foundations are the chief means of supporting a building and
transmitting the loads from a building structure to the ground.
They carry both dead and live loads. Building loads can be
vertical or horizontal and cause overturning, and the foundation
must resist bearing and uplift loads*. The correct choice and
design of foundations is essential. In case a foundation is not
accurately calculated, differential settlement may occur*. This
can cause structural failure or damage and even collapse of the
whole building. The type of a foundation to be used depends on
the ground conditions and the type of structure adopted. Strip*,
socket*, pier*, pile* and slab* foundations are applied in
building industry. They are precast, monolithic and precastmonolithic ones. The foundation choice depends on seismicity
of a district, the ground and architectural decisions.
Manufacturing of concrete foundations is possible at
temperature above 5°С that imposes essential restrictions on
seasonal performance of work. Work at lower temperatures is
possible with the use of electrowarming up technology.
There are three main types of foundations:
Spread foundations are long slabs of reinforced concrete
that extend beyond the outer edges of a building. Such
foundations are not as firm as those based on a solid rock. The
footing areas in contact with the soil must be of sufficient size
to spread the load safely over soil and to avoid excessive
115
settlement of foundations. Any such settlement would cause
walls to crack.
Pier foundations are heavy concrete columns that go
down through free topsoil to a bed of a firm rock. This bed may
also be sand, gravel, or firm clay.
Pile foundations are columns of steel, concrete, or wood.
Machines that are called pile drivers* hammer* columns down
as deep as 60 meters to a layer of a solid soil or rock. These
columns transmit* the building load to a supporting soil. Most
skyscrapers are supported by rock foundations.
1
2
3
4
Constructions of foundations
1 – slab foundation; 2 – strip foundation; 3 – pier foundation; 4 – pile foundation
Notes:
bearing load – рабочая (несущая) нагрузка
base – основание
bearing foundation – несущий фундамент
uplift load – подъёмная нагрузка
to occur – происходить, случаться
spread/shallow foundation – фундамент мелкого заложения
116
strip foundation – ленточный фундамент
socket foundation –фундамент стаканного типа
pier foundation – фундамент на столбах, пилонный
фундамент
pile foundation – свайный фундамент
slab foundation – плитный фундамент
pile drivers – копер для забивания свай
hammer – молот для забивания свай; забивать сваи
transmit – передавать нагрузку
Task. Translate the text and do the exercises given below.
TEXT 7a. CLASSIFICATION OF FOUNDATIONS
The choice of the type of a foundation depends on:
1) purposes
 Bearing foundation.
 Combined (комбинированный) foundation that is
capable to carry out functions of seismic protection, in
addition to bearing functions.
 Spread/shallow foundation.
 Deep foundation.
 Special foundation: for example, antiseismic foundations.
2) material used
 Stone foundation:
 Reinforced-concrete foundation:
117
precast;
monolithic.
 Wooden foundation
 Aerated foundation (ячеистобетонный)
Classification of foundation
1 – block foundation; 2 – monolithic foudation; 3 – brick foundation;
4 – foundation made of concrete blocks; 5 – foundation on heaving grounds;
6 – foundation on unheaving grounds.
3) a basis of design





118
Pier foundation (concrete, brick or masonry)
Foundation of a “socket” type
Strip foundation (precast or monolithic)
Deep foundation (заглубленный)
Shallow foundation (малозаглубленный)
 Pile foundation (precast or monolithic)
 Pile-and-beam foundation (свайный фундамент
с ростверком)
 Slab foundation
 Continual (континуальный) foundation is like a circle
or a square. Usually they serve as supports for bridges,
silos, storage bins (бункер для хранения материалов) etc.
EXERCISES
Ex. 1. Match English and Russian equivalents.
Socket foundation
Pier foundation
Pile foundation
Shallow foundation
Deep foundation
Strip foundation
Slab foundation
Combined foundation
Continual foundation
Bearing foundation
свайный фундамент
континуальный фундамент
комбинированный фундамент
ленточный фундамент
заглубленный фундамент
фундамент мелкого заложения
фундамент стаканного типа
пилонный фундамент
плитный фундамент
несущий фундамент
Ex. 2. Complete the following sentences.
1. A part of a building which takes loads and transfers them
to the base is called…
2. For light and economic construction on unheaving
grounds it’s possible to use…
119
3. Seismic and ground conditions, architectural decisions
and the type of a structure influence the choice of…
4. Use of electro-warming up technology helps to…
5. To hammer piles down workers use…
6. Most tall buildings stand on…
7. Combined foundations carry out two functions: loadbearing and…
Ex. 3. Find the answers for the following questions in the text.
1.
2.
3.
4.
What is the principal function of any foundation?
What materials are used for foundations?
What kind of loads does a foundation carry out?
Why is it so important to design and build a proper
foundation?
5. What types of foundations are mostly used for
construction industry?
6. What factors influence the foundation choice?
7. What does the classification of all foundations depend on?
Task. Read and translate the text for getting specific information.
TEXT 8. FLOOR SYSTEMS
Flooring is a horizontal internal protective structure which divides
a building into storeys. As a rule, it is a load-bearing structure.
120
The floor system generally serves two purposes.
 Primarily the floor carries vertical dead and imposed
load* and transmits these loads through beams to the
columns/walls.
 The floor also has to act as a horizontal diaphragm that
ties the building together, stabilizes the walls and
columns, and transmits horizontal wind load to rigid
frames or shear walls.
The aims in design of the floor system are:
 to deliver the main vertical loads safely by the most
direct and efficient route to the columns/walls without
excessive deflection or vibration;
 to have the necessary horizontal strength/rigidity;
 to achieve a homogeneous arrangement and spacing of
beams, that will reduce costs;
 to accommodate necessary services while constructing –
this reduces overall building costs;
 to have adequate resistance to or protection against fire for
all components.
The layout of the floor depends on the shape and structural
system used for a building. In steel-framed structures the
column defines the flooring divisions. Primary beams* are put
between the columns and may form the part of the main vertical
structural frames. As to spans, secondary beams* may be
provided to subdivide the intercolumn areas. Column spacing*
normally varies from 4 to 8 m. in rectangular-shaped buildings
and it can be much greater. Secondary beams are normally
spaced at 3 to 4 m.
121
Notes:
imposed load – приложенная/временная нагрузка
to accommodate necessary service – размещать необходимые
коммуникации
column spacing – расстояние между колоннами
primary beam – первичная балка
secondary beam – промежуточная или второстепенная балка
Task. Read and translate the text using the dictionary.
TEXT 8a. BASIC FLOOR TYPES
 Intermediate floor (типовое/междуэтажное
перекрытие)
 Basement floor (надподвальное перекрытие)
 The attic floor (чердачное перекрытие)
Intermediate floor separates residential floors from each other.
Intermediate floor is an important choice of the floor structure.
You may need extra load-bearing walls or pillars under the
ceiling for reducing the span or the load. The most important
requirement is also soundproofing. Waterproofing is sometimes
also needed.
Floorings are subdivided into:
 ribbed flooring;
 precast flooring;
 the monolithic reinforced-concrete flooring;
122
 precast-monolithic flooring;
 caisson flooring (кессонное перекрытие).



Types of flooring
Types of floorings widely applied now are the following:
 prefabricated panels;
 prefabricated reinforced concrete beams, metal and
wood beams;
 monolithic reinforced concrete, precast-monolithic slabs.
Materials for flooring
The flooring may be of stone, brick, reinforced concrete.
Wooden floorings are seldom used now and basically when
erecting single-storey buildings. Reinforced-concrete floorings
are widely used in the form of precast structures, monolithic and
precast-monolithic ones.
123
Requirements to flooring
Flooring designs should meet the following standard
requirements: durability, fire resistance, sound insulation and
thermal protection. Protection against moisture penetrating into
internal designs of flooring in damp premises (lavatories) is
provided with embedding of a special waterproofing layer.
EXERCISES
Ex.1. Answer the questions to the text.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
What is flooring?
Are floors considered to be load-bearing structures?
What are the functions of floors in a building?
What does the layout of the floor framing depend on?
How can floor types be classified?
What building materials are used for flooring?
What are the main requirements of flooring?
Ex. 2. Choose the correct variant to complete the following
sentences.
1. Flooring is
a) vertical external protective design of a building
b) a horizontal internal protective design of a building
2. Floors protect all the components of a building from
a) fire
b) rain
3. To subdivide the inter-column areas, builders use
a) primary beams
b) secondary beams
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4. The attic floor is the space between
a) the last storey and the roof
b) the basement and the first storey
5. One of the most important requirements for floors is
a) soundproofing
b) waterproofing
6. The layout of the floor depends on
a) the shape and structural system used for a building
b) homogeneous arrangement and spacing of beams,
that will reduce costs
7. Wooden floorings are suitable for
a) single-storey buildings
b) high-rise building
Task. Look through the text and give a short summary.
TEXT 9. EXTERIOR WALLS
Typical exterior walls have one face to outside the house
(exterior elements) and one face to inside the house. Not all
exterior walls are load bearing, but in most cases they serve as a
definite structural function like supporting the roof. There are
different types of exterior walls and they are assembled using
various construction methods.
Load-bearing walls and columns of a house transfer in turn live
and dead loads from the roof to the foundation, which in its turn
transfers these loads to the ground. Resistance is also needed to
lateral forces from wind and seismic occurrences, which can
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cause deformation and displace buildings from their
foundations. These loads are taken into account in the design of
buildings.
Designs of exterior walls of civil and industrial buildings are
classified according to: static function, material used, the
constructive decision.
1. Static function
a) bearing walls;
b) self-bearing walls;
c) not bearing walls.
Bearing external walls take a dead load and loads from
adjacent structures of a building (floorings, parting (смежные)
walls, roofs, etc.) and transfer them to the foundations. At the
same time they carry out bearing and protective functions.
Self-bearing external walls take a vertical load only from a
dead load (including load from balconies, bay windows
(эркер), and other wall elements) and transfer them to the
foundations through intermediate supporting structures and
simultaneously they carry out bearing and protective functions.
Not bearing external walls on each floor (or through some
floors) rest on adjacent supporting structures of a building –
floorings, a frame or walls. Thus, these walls carry out only
protective function.
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Bearing and not bearing external walls are applied in buildings
with any number of floors. Self-bearing walls rest on their own
foundations; their height is limited because of possible mutual
deformation of external walls and internal structures of a
building. The higher the building, the more difference in
vertical deformation, therefore, in panel houses self-bearing
walls are applied at height of a building no more than 5 floors.
2. Material used:
stone walls are made of brick (clay or silicate) or stone being
the oldest, long-lasting, and most universal materials. They are
applied in buildings with any number of floors. Brick is a
predominant building material because of its low maintenance,
non-combustibility, availability, moisture resistance, and
aesthetic appearance. Stone blocks are made of a natural stone
(limestone, a tuff (туф), etc.) or artificial materials (concrete, a
lightweight-aggregate concrete – бетон на легких заполнителях).
concrete walls are made of the concrete of high specific weight
of class В15 and higher, or the lightweight-aggregate concrete
of classes В5 ÷ В15. When erecting not bearing external walls
the foam concrete, the porous concrete class В2 ÷ В5 are also
used. Concrete walls are applied in buildings with any number
of floors.
wooden walls are applied in low-rise buildings. For their
erection pine timbers in diameter 180 ÷ 240 mm or bars with
cross-section 150×150 mm or 180×180 mm, as well as board or
plywood (фанера) panels with thickness of 150 ÷ 200 mm are
used.
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3. The constructive decision:
a) single layer walls;
b) two-layer walls;
c) three-layer walls.
The quantity of layers of external walls in a building is defined
by the results of thermo-technical calculation. In order to meet
modern standards on a heat preserving it is necessary in the
majority of regions of Russia to project three-layer structures of
external walls with an effective heater.
EXERCISES
Ex. 1. Give the English for:
Внешняя стена, несущая стена, смежная стена, пенобетон,
фанера, внутренняя обшивка, различные методы сборки,
универсальный, долговечный строительный материал,
передавать нагрузку на фундамент, вызывать деформацию и смещение здания с фундамента.
Ex. 2. Give the Russian for:
Live load, dead load, flooring, a concrete wall, a wooden wall, a
single-storey building, a low rise building, for a building with
any number of floors, moisture resistance, to support a roof, a
noncombustible material.
Ex. 3. Find the correct answers for these questions.
1. Are all exterior walls considered to be load bearing?
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2. What are the major factors to be considered when
designing exterior walls?
3. What does static function include?
4. How is stability of self-bearing external walls provided?
5. What building materials are usually used for exterior
walls?
6. How is the quantity of layers in external walls defined?
7. How many layers should be applied for the best effect of
heat resistance?
Task. Look through the text and tell about wall insulation.
TEXT 10. AN EXTERNAL WALL INSULATION
An external wall insulation system is a thermally insulated,
protective, decorative exterior cladding (облицовка, покрытие)
procedure involving the use of expanded polystyrene
(полистирол), mineral wool (силиконовая шерсть, шлаковата),
polyurethane foam (пенополиуритан) or polystyrene foam
(пенополистирол), topped off with reinforced cement, mineral
or synthetic finish and plaster (штукатурка).
The thickness of thermal insulation depends on the type
required in order to create a partition with a heat transmission
factor. When calculating the actual insulation requirements,
consideration must be given to current Building Regulation
Standards. Consideration must also be given to possible risks.
Special attention is paid to concrete beams or lintels
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(перемычки) which act as thermal bridges (тепловой мостик)
being poor insulation.
External wall insulation systems generally comprise:
 an insulation layer (an element which helps to achieve
the requisite thermal performance);
 a protected weatherproof finish (usually a render –
штукатурка), although tiles, and decorative boards can
also be used. Insulating render can also be an advantage
in certain locations.
EXERCISES
Ex. 1. Match Russian and English equivalents.
Insulation system
Thermal insulation
Poor insulation
Decorative cladding
Partition
Mineral wool
Polyurethane foam
Plaster
Waterproof finish
штукатурка
декоративная облицовка
водоотталкивающее
покрытие
пенополиуретан
термоизоляция
система изоляции
плохая изоляция
шлаковата
перегородка
Ex. 2. Complete the following sentences. Try to do it without
consulting the text.
1. An external wall insulation system is…
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2. The thickness of thermal insulation depends on…
3. Building Regulation Standards should be taken into
account when…
4. Possible risks should be also…
5. Concrete beams or lintels serve as…
6. An insulation layer helps to…
7. For waterproof finish builders usually use…
Task. Read and translate the text without the dictionary.
TEXT 11. FINISHING OF EXTERIOR WALLS
The façade of any building is very important thing. It is an
architecturally-style element of the house we always pay
attention to. The important task is to create an image of the
house, using elements of an architectural decor.
Finishing of facades is an external shape of a building. Now at
the market of building materials advanced technologies and
modern kinds of facing materials are more often applied.
Certainly, modern buildings should be durable and beautiful,
cosy and warm, fireproof, strong and original.
The facade can be faced with plaster, putty (замазка,
шпаклевка), painted or finished with various siding elements.
The choice of various finishing materials for facades depends
on intended purpose of the building. For example, a salon can be
glassed, an office – finished with siding, a plant – just painted.
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Siding. The word “siding” is borrowed from the American
English language. Siding is not only a material (as many people
consider), it is also a system, a modern technology of facing the
façade by different or a
certain covering materials.
Finishing by siding allows
considerably to improve the
appearance of a building
thanks to processing of
panels (обработка панелей)
by various paints and vanish
coverings.
Siding
Siding is very modern, new building material. For the first time
siding was used in the USA at the end of 1950s. Very soon this
material has become very popular at the building markets of
America and Canada, and than in
Europe. In Russia siding appeared
in the 1990s and its popularity is
constantly growing. Siding carries
out not only protective function from
atmosphere influence, but also
makes a building harmonious and
attractive.
Siding
Siding is easy to work with. It helps to hide large defects on a
building. Neither sunlight, nor humidity, neither wind, nor snow
with rain, influence the siding; this material is capable to
withstand temperatures from –50°С to +50°С. Siding is much
cheaper, than other finishing materials for facades of buildings.
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Siding basic elements are panels which are usually fastened on
house walls. In the bottom the panel is fixed by a special strip
invisible even in a ready house. Joints from the face side hold
panels. Windows and doors are usually faced with special verge
boards (фронтальная доска) which are also referred to siding.
Various facing materials are used for an ornament of facades;
the most popular being natural and artificial stone, ceramic
granite, a decorative brick, a ceramic tile, marble, clapboard, a
facing brick, paint, vanish materials and others.
•
•
•
•
•
A vinyl siding
A metal siding
A natural and artificial stone
A ceramic granite
A decorative brick
•
•
•
•
•
A ceramic tile
Marble
A clapboard
A facing brick
Paint and varnish materials
Vinyl siding
One of the most economic, aesthetically attractive and effective
kinds of finishing materials
for facing the facades of
buildings is a vinyl siding.
This material is functional,
simple in installation, and
it is produced in a wide
range of colours. Besides a
traditional vinyl siding, a
metal siding is applied to
facades of buildings.
Vinyl siding
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The vinyl siding is an excellent material for finishing of facades
of the house. It is popular because of its excellent unique
quality. Thanks to various mixes the given material resists
various climatic changes.
Vinyl (plastic) siding is plastic wall panels with the thickness of
1 mm. The surface of this material, which is also called
clapboard, reminds a tree structure. The vinyl siding does not
undergo the influence of solar rays and does not decay.
Advantages of vinyl siding.
 The siding is nontoxic and incombustible, resistant to the
various atmosphere phenomena and chemicals.
 The siding does not change its colour, does not subject to
corrosion and does not break under the influence of low
temperature.
 The siding is easy to work. Dirty panels of siding need to
be washed out from a hose (шланг) and the house will look
as a new one.
 Thanks to simplicity of installation, the light weight,
convenient transportation the siding can be fixed
at any season of the year.
Metal siding
The metal siding is also very widely used. As a finishing
material it possesses excellent properties which allow to keep
the house in the ideal state for a long time. A metal siding is
made of steel which at first is processed at low temperature, and
then galvanized at high temperature. After these procedures the
steel is covered with special polymers.
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Metal siding is one of the simplest ways to improve a facade of
the whole building, thanks to high speed technology of
installation. It has a lot of advantages.
Metal siding is:
 friendly to environment;
 strong;
 saving colour for a long time;
 durable;
 not combustible;
 resistant to temperature changes.
A natural stone
Natural stone is a beautiful, durable, strong and harmless
building material. Besides, a stone building becomes not only
graceful, but also strong enough.
The important indicator of a natural stone is its wear resistance.
It resists various corrosive elements of environment, such as
salts or acids. Stone is advisable for erecting constructions in
cities, where the atmosphere is saturated with salts and acids.
Except physical properties, a natural stone has aesthetic
appearance which defines the exterior of the buildings erected.
Granite and marble belong to a natural stone. Thanks to their good
qualities: strength, hardness, density, very low water-saturation,
these stones are widely used for facing the buildings.
A ceramic tile
Now the ceramic tile is also considered to be really attractive, like
a royal building material, as it helps to decorate any house.
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The ceramic tile mixture is very simple: the quartz (кварц) sand
which gives hardness to a material, clay which does a material
plastic enough, and other materials. The types of ceramic tile
are so different that it is very difficult to find an identical tile.
A decorative brick
Certainly, the decorative brick has a considerable quantity of
various colour shades. So you may have opportunities to choose
certain colour for your own house. It is possible to draw
beautiful drawings on such brick if you desire. Besides, this
brick has very good reliability. Decorative brick will remain the
same for many years. It is covered with a special mix and the
moisture doesn’t destroy it.
Marble
Marble is used both for interior, and for exterior finishing work.
Marble is durable, resistant to temperature changes and
moisture content. Marble, practically, is eternal (вечный),
though requires protection against harmful environment. For
this purpose the use of special means is desirable: the stone
impregnations (пропитка), clearing mixtures, mastics, even
ordinary beeswax. Window sills, steps, pavement tile are made
of marble. Marble columns and the walls faced with a noble
stone underline the importance of a construction and its high
status.
Clapboard (вагонка)
The most widespread facing material now, especially at a
finishing work in wooden houses, is such unique material, as
clapboard. Actually, clapboard occupies a special place among
facing materials.
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Wooden clapboard is a decorative board which is intended for a
sheet work of walls and doors. Wooden clapboard is a nonpolluting material made of timber. Keeping all useful properties
of timber, clapboard is not only decorative element, but it also
gives a beautiful appearance.
A facing brick
Now brick is used not only to erect strong houses, but also to
finish buildings outside. The brick used for facing can have any
colour. The facing brick can resist very low temperature, even
in the conditions of the extreme north. Besides, it perfectly
absorbs moisture. The facing brick can be slightly roundish, and
can be in the form of usual rectangles.
Paint and varnish materials (лако -красочные материалы)
Paint and varnish materials are multi-compound mixtures
(liquid, paste or powder mix). These materials are subdivided
into varnishes (лаки), first coats, putties, paints (including
enamels – эмаль).
EXERCISES
Ex.1. Match the terms with their definitions.
Exterior wall is …
a) a multi-compound
mixture used for facing a
façade
Façade is …
b) a natural material used
for decorative purposes
mostly in wooden houses
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Siding is …
c) a slab with one face to
outside and another one to
inside of the house
Varnish material is …
d) a modern building
material and technology of
finishing a façade
Wooden clapboard is …
e) the front architecturallystyle element of a building
Ex. 2. Put the following questions to your group-mates.
1. Is it important to pay special attention when designing a
façade of a building? Why?
2. What facing materials do you know?
3. What can you say about their properties?
4. Which of them would you prefer for finishing your own
house or office?
5. What does the term “siding” mean? What language does
it come from?
6. What does the choice of facing materials depend on?
7. Does siding really help to improve the architectural
image of a building?
8. What are the most popular building materials used for
siding?
9. Can you list the main advantages of siding?
10. Does it have any disadvantages? What are they?
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Ex. 3. Match two columns to complete the sentences.
1. It’s very important to create a) panels which are fastened
an attractive image to the front on walls, windows and
side of a building because…
doors of a building
2. Siding appeared in the
middle of the last century
and…
b) a façade is the first thing
everybody pays attention to
3. This material gives a
building beauty, harmony but
it also…
c) this material becomes
more and more popular
4. Siding is economic,
functional, and easy-to-work
and it also helps to…
d) hide large defects on a
building
5. The basic elements of
siding are…
e) protects it from
atmosphere influence
6. Siding isn’t afraid of high
and low temperature so it…
f) can be installed in any
season
7. Siding is considered to be a
very durable and long-lasting
material because it…
g) resists chemicals, fire,
moisture, doesn’t decay and
doesn’t lose its colour
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Task. Look through the text and give a short summary.
TEXT 12. ROOF DESIGN
Roof is a building envelope, which provides protection from
weather, notably snow, rain, as well heat, wind and sunlight.
The performance of a roof is a key to the integrity of the
structure, the comfort and well being of the occupants. Roof
failures can occur from earthquakes, fire, snowstorms. Damage
is also caused by saturation from ice damming (ледяной затор)
and wind-blown moisture into attic space (чердачное помещение).
There are many roof styles that can be used for a house. In fact,
it's quite common to combine several styles on one house. The
roof makes up the basic personality of the house whether it is
made of tile, metal, slate or wood. Based on the roof you can
usually get a general idea how the house will look like.
The characteristics of a roof depend on the purpose of the
building that the roof covers, the available roofing materials,
the local traditions of construction, wider concepts of
architectural design and practice, and may also be governed by
local or national legislation. In most countries a roof protects
primarily against rain. A verandah may be roofed with material
that protects against sunlight but admits the other elements. The
roof of a garden conservatory (оранжерея, зимний сад)
protects plants from cold, wind and rain but admits light.
Design elements
The elements of a roof design are:
 the material;
 the construction;
 the durability.
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The material of a roof may range from banana leaves, wheaten
straw (солома) or sea grass to laminated glass, copper,
aluminium sheeting and precast concrete. In many parts of the
world ceramic tiles have been the predominant roofing material
for centuries.
The construction of a roof is determined by its method of
support and whether the roof is pitched or not. The pitch (скат,
уклон) is the angle at which the roof rises from its lowest to
highest point. Most domestic architecture, except in very dry
regions, has sloped, or pitched roofs. Although modern
construction elements such as drainpipes may remove the need
for pitch; roofs are pitched for reasons of tradition and
aesthetics. So a pitch partly depends upon stylistic factors, and
is partially connected with practical function.
Some types of roofing, for example thatch roof (тростниковая
крыша), require a steep (крутой) pitch in order to be
waterproof and durable. Other types of roofing, e.g. pantile roof
(кровля из желобчатой или голландской черепицы), are
unstable on a steeply pitched roof but provide excellent weather
protection at a relatively low angle.
Pantile roof
Pantile roof
141
In regions where there is little rain, a flat roof with a slight runoff (сток) provides adequate protection against an occasional
heavy rain (ливень). Drainpipes also remove the need for a
sloping roof.
The durability of a roof is a matter of concern because the roof
is often the least accessible part of a building for repair and
renewal, while its damage or destruction can have serious
effects.
Parts of a roof
There are two parts of a roof: its supporting structure and its
outer skin (внешний слой/обшивка) or upper weatherproof
layer. In some buildings the outer layer is also a self-supporting
structure. The roof structure is generally supported upon walls.
Roof Styles
Throughout the history and especially throughout the past
couple of hundred years the styles of roofs vary from area to
area. There are different designs, styles and shapes of roofs.
They should correspond to structure to be covered. Some of the
most primary needs that a structure demands from a roof are
protection from the weather, general design suitability with the
existing structure, and placing the internal elements such as
piping, electrical wiring, ventilation, insulation.
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Task. Read the text and give a short summary of it.
TEXT 13. SHAPE OF ROOFS
Shape of roofs differs greatly from region to region. The main
factors which influence the shape of roofs are the climate and
the materials available for roof structure and the outer covering.
The basic shapes of roofs are flat (плоская), gable
(двускатная), hip or hipped (четырехскатная), arched
(арочная) and domed (купольная). There are many variations
of these types. Roofs constructed of flat sections that are sloped
are referred to as pitched roofs (скатные крыши), generally, if
the angle exceeds 10 degrees. Pitched roofs, including gabled
and hipped roofs, make up the greatest number of domestic
roofs. Some roofs follow organic shapes, either by architectural
design or because of a flexible material used in the
construction.
Illustrations of common roof shapes
Flat roof
Shed roof
Pitched roof
143
Gable or saddle roof Tented or pavilion roof
Gambrel roof
Hip (hipped) roof
Half-hip roof
Saw-tooth roof
Rhombic roof
Rainbow roof
Barrel roof
144
Conical roof
Spire
Onion dome
Welsh spire
Flat Roof.
Flat roofs are common especially for commercial buildings.
Flat roofs are definitely the simplest roofs to build because they
have a little pitch. Waterproofing is very important for flat roofs.
Shed Roof (односкатная крыша).
A shed roof is basically a flat roof but has more pitch. It is
frequently used for additions on houses.
Gable Roof (двускатная крыша).
Gable roof design is one of the more simple styles of roofs. The
gable roof style looks like an inverted /upside down V. Gable
roofs are not ideal for areas with high wind because they can
easily catch the wind like a sail would. Gabled roofs also offer
larger space for an attic.
Hip (hipped) Roof (четырехскатная, вальмовая или
шатровая крыша) is a widespread and popular type of roof. It
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creates a solid and attractive profile when combined with a low
and stretched structure. A hipped roof has four sides and a
gentle slope. Hipped roofs are a common residential style roof.
This type of roof is more difficult to construct when compared
to flat and gable roofs because it has a more complicated truss
and rafter (стропила) structure. Hipped roofs can be both
square and rectangular.
Half-Hipped Roof (полувальмовая крыша)
Mansard Roof (мансардная крыша).
A mansard roof is a French design and is more difficult to
construct than the hipped or gable roof. A mansard roof is a
“historic” variation of a hipped roof. These types of roofs are
unusual, but offer plenty of interior space for an attic.
A-Frame Roof (крыша А-образной формы):
This type of roof is very popular for churches, cottages, homes,
and other structures. The roof acts as both the roof and the walls
for a structure.
Shed roof (шедовая крыша). A shed roof is similar to a flat
roof, but uses a steeper pitch which allows for better drainage. Shed
roofs offer lots of design options.
Arched roof (арочная крыша). Arched roofs offer excellent
structural strength, an unusual and eye-catching design.
Nowadays, arched roofs are typically made of curved steel.
Domed roof (купольная крыша). Circular roofs can take many
shapes – either flat or pitched, or even domed. Domed roofs are
strong, unusual and may be expensive and complicated to
construct.
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Saw-tooth roof (пильчатая крыша).
Saw-tooth roofs were traditionally an industrial/warehouse type
of roof. They are now increasingly popular in houses, thanks to
the amount of daylight they allow.
Curved roof (криволинейная крыша).
Curved roofs, most commonly made of steel in modern designs, offer
the opportunity to add organic curves and a softer, rounder look to
the house.
Task. Translate the text using the dictionary at the end of the
book.
TEXT 14. ROOF MATERIALS
The choice of material is an important aspect in roof
construction. Some materials are more common in certain areas
and some materials are ideal for different types of roof
pitches/slopes while others are not good for definite roof slopes.
The three main roof slopes that determine the material used are
flat roofs (no slope or a very slight slope), low slope, and steep
slope (крутой наклон).
The most widely used materials for roof construction.
Asphalt Shingles (битумная кровельная плитка) are the
most common steep-slope residential roofing material used for
roofs. Asphalt shingles vary in quality and price.
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Metal
Metal is a very common material used for roofs. There are
many different types of metal roofing (металлическая кровля)
systems. The types of used metal vary from zinc to steel,
copper, aluminium, and tin.
Tile (черепица):
Tile is one of the most expensive materials used for roofs.
Although the traditional clay tile is probably the most well
known tile material it is not the only one. Other materials that
are used to create tile products are metal, concrete, slate (шифер),
and various synthetic compositions.
In the recent past steep-sloped residential roofing selection was
relatively simple: the choice was between asphalt shingles,
cedar shingles (доска обшивки из кедра), clay and possibly
concrete roofing tiles, or, rarely slate. Today, these basic
choices are available, but these materials have developed
considerably, particularly laminated asphalt shingles, new tile
shapes and colours, and new protective shingles treatment. In
addition, a whole new set of materials has come into use
including metal shingles, tiles, fiber-cement and plastic profiles
that imitate wood and slate. Low-slope roofing systems have
also developed with the increased use of modified bitumen
membranes (покрытие строительным битумом) and singleply roofing (однослойное кровельное покрытие) systems.
Roofing tile is differentiated by its shape and composition. Its
other important characteristics are breaking strength, absorption
or porosity, resistance to freeze-thaw, joining methods, and
installation details. The porosity of roof tiles is very important
148
in climate with a repetitive freeze-thaw cycle. The more porous
a roof tile is, the more water it will absorb. Water that freezes in
a roof tile can cause the material crack.
The roof installation method should be based upon roof slope,
type of roof deck, climate, seismic considerations, local
building codes, and manufacturer’s recommendations.
Task. Scan the text to get the full idea of it.
TEXT 15. SHELL ROOF
(покрытие или крыша в виде свода-оболочки)
A shell roof is a common type of a roof that is made from thin
material. The roof is curved and it is used to cover large, onestorey buildings. As it is usually aesthetically pleasing, a shell
roof is commonly used in public buildings. Shell roofs are
useful when the inside of the building is open and does not contain
walls or pillars that could support a flat or pitched roof. The shell
roofs are especially advantageous in industrial and civil
buildings where large unoccupied areas of about 30×30 m or
more are to be roofed over without intermediate supports. Shell
roofs economize materials and have a smaller self-weight in
comparison with roofs made of such structures as roof slabs,
trusses, beams, arches and secondary roof trusses. Shell roofs
are expensive architecturally. Thin shell roofs are commonly
cast in-situ.
The floor space under a shell roof can be made much larger
than the floor space below another type of roof. This is because
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the curve in the roof adds additional structural support, allowing
the roof to be heavier and larger. It is an ideal roof structure for
office buildings and public buildings, such as libraries, theaters
and recreation centers.
These roofs have interesting aesthetics and can be used to
beautify a building. The Sydney Opera House in Australia is the
most famous example of a building with a shell roof.
Sydney Opera House
It is good practice to use prestressed structures in shell roofs.
Shell areas subjected to biaxial (двуосное) compression should
be checked for stability, cracking-resistance under loads, and
also for strength. Prefabricated members should be checked for
strength under loads at manufacturing and transporting.
Though the shell roofs have many advantages, they are quite
costly to build. The slope of the roof and the curve of the arch
must be carefully designed to keep the building stable. A shell
roof does not work well on buildings with many levels, as the
entire structure of the roof must be built on a single level.
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There are also problems with lighting and ventilation in these
types of roofs because they do not let skylight into the structure
and it is difficult to install overhead (верхняя, подвесная)
ventilation.
This type of roof is difficult to design and it is expensive. A shell
roof is relatively thin and does not require support beams. The
cost of materials for this type of roof can be considerably lower
than the materials required for either a flat or a pitched roof.
EXERCISES
Ex. 1. Match Russian and English equivalents.
Roof designing
Verandah
Shell roof
A-frame roof
Half-hipped roof
Saw-tooth roof
Curved roof
Domed roof
Mansard roof
Flat roof
Gabled roof
Pitched roof
Hipped roof
Shed roof
Arched roof
Conservatory
оранжерея
плоская крыша
А-образная крыша
полу-вальмовая крыша
пильчатая крыша
криволинейная крыша
сводчатая крыша
мансардная крыша
арочная крыша
купольная крыша
односкатная крыша
проектирование крыши
двускатная крыша
четырехскатная крыша
скатная крыша
веранда
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Ex. 2. Choose the correct variant and put it down.
1. Roof failures can be caused by
a) sun, hot and cold temperature
b) fire, storm, earthquake
2. The pitch is
a) the angle of a slope
b) the material for finishing roofs
3. Flat roofs are usual in the regions with
a) much rain
b) little rain
4. Gabled roofs look like
a) inverted A-frame
b) inverted V-frame
5. A hipped roof has
a) 4 sides and a gentle slope
b) 2 sides and no slope
6. A mansard roof was designed in
a) Spain
b) France
7. The porosity of roof tiles is very important in
a) hot climate areas
b) cold climate areas
Ex. 3. Translate the following sentences into English.
1. Во многих странах мира черепицу веками используют
для кровли крыш.
2. Крыша оранжереи должна защищать растения от ветра,
дождя, холода, но хорошо пропускать свет.
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3. Арочные и купольные крыши выглядят красиво,
необычно и всегда привлекают внимание.
4. Построить мансардную крышу гораздо сложнее, чем
шатровую.
5. В коттеджах и церквях часто делают крыши А-образной
формы.
6. Самый подходящий материал для строительства
оболочковой крыши это бетон.
7. Проектирование и строительство оболочковых
конструкций – это один из самых сложных и дорогостоящих процессов.
8. При строительстве оболочковых конструкций часто
возникают проблемы с электрической проводкой и
надземной вентиляцией.
Ex. 4. Say if the sentences given below are true or false.
1. Metal, tile, slate and wood are the main material for
roof designing.
2. There are two main parts of a roof: a supporting
structure and an outer skin.
3. Available materials and climate are the major factors
which influence the choice of a roof shape.
4. The simplest roof for designing and constructing is a
domed roof.
5. Gabled roofs are ideal for the areas with high winds.
6. Asphalt shingles are the most expensive building
material for roofs.
7. Shell roofs are ideal for concert halls, theatres and
libraries.
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FOR SELF- EXAMINATION
TEST (part III)
1. Reinforced-concrete structures are rather
a) lighter than steel structures
b) heavier than steel structures
2. The carrying capacity of a building increases
significantly by
a) insulating system
b) reinforcing masonry
3. The construction of skyscrapers became possible
thanks to the technique of
a) steel framing
b) suspended ceilings
4. Most steel structures are made of special type of
steel called
a) strong steel
b) mild steel
5. Flexibility and plasticity are the properties of
a) glass
b) steel
6. Ductility is the property that doesn’t allow a steel
structure to
a) collapse
b) withstand winds
7. Steel structures can be protected from fire by
a) plastics and glass
b) plasterboard and concrete
8. Temporary structures are the buildings that are
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a) set up and removed quickly
b) erected for centuries
9. Steel structures lose strength at
a) very low temperature
b) very high temperature
10. A structure is considered as “a tall building” when
the number of floors exceeds
a) seven
b) fourteen
11. It became possible to construct skyscrapers thanks
to the invention of
a) steel reinforcement
b) electric elevator
12 Mobile diggers are the building machines used for
a) excavation of soil
b) assembling parts of a building
13. The first skyscraper in the world was built in
a) the USA at the beginning of the 20th century
b) Europe in the middle of the 20th century
14. “A shell structure” has received its name because it
reminds the shape of
a) an egg
b) a square
15. The most suitable building material for shells is
a) concrete
b) iron
16. The technique of wide-span construction is often
used for such structures as
a) sport halls and garages
b) residential buildings
17. The substructure of a building is its
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a) roof
b) foundation
18. The superstructure of a building is its part
a) above the ground
b) under the ground
19. The weight of furniture, equipment and occupants is called
a) live load
b) dead load
20. Skyscrapers usually stand on
a) spread foundations
b) deep foundations
21. Intermediate floors are the slabs which separate
a) residential floors from each other
b) internal floor space
22. Floors in multi-storey buildings are usually made of
a) reinforced concrete
b) wood
23. The main purpose for external bearing wall is
a) decoration and aesthetics
b) protective and transferring loads
24. The most universal materials for external walls are
a) aluminium sheeting and laminate
b) stone and concrete
25. “Exterior cladding” of a façade is
a) renovation or repairing of inside space
b) facing outside walls with decorative and
protective materials
26. Siding is
a) a ground at the back side of a building
b) a building material and the technology of
facing buildings
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27. Siding first appeared in
a) Canada in 1980s
b) the USA in 1950s
28. A roof can be defined as
a) an exterior protective envelope of a building
b) a basement of a building
29. A pitched roof is
a) a damaged roof
b) a slopped roof
30. The most widely used roofing materials are
a) concrete, cement and stucco
b) ceramic tile, metal sheeting and slates
ROLE PLAYING
My new home
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Activity A
Your students are going to buy a new house, ask them to list off
their priorities. For example:
 It must be made of brick (concrete, timber). (Why?)
 It must have … floors. (Why?)
 My flat must be on the ground (first, last) floor. (Why?)
 It must face the South (Why?)
 It must have a lot of natural light
 It should have a nice view/nice location
 It must be near the countryside
 I prefer a house to a flat (Why?)
 It must have amenities nearby (parks, mountains, culture
centres, sports centres )
 I want to get much privacy
 I would like to live in a tough area (Why not?)
 My flat has to be in the city centre (Why?)
After having made the comments on each requirement for a
new house ask a student to rate them in importance. Debate the
needs/priorities of single people as opposed to married couples
with children. Each phrase of a student must be supported by
explanation. No short answers.
Activity B
Let students make a list of their priorities inside the house. For
example: the most important things for me are:
 A balcony (Why?)
 Two bathrooms!
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A big TV
An enormous bed
A really comfortable sofa
Book shelves
A space kitchen
A fire place (Why?)
Distribution of the house (the lay-out), having the
bedroom far from the kitchen or living room (Why?)
Activity C
Ask students to name two or three amenities they consider
essential for them. For example:
 Sports centre
 Public transport
 Mountains
 Open country
 Shopping centre
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ADDITIONAL READING
TEXT 1. Eiffel Tower
The Eiffel Tower is one of the world’s most iconic monuments,
with millions of visitors
coming to admire it every
year. The Eiffel Tower is a
Parisian
landmark
and
technological
masterpiece
(шедевр) in construction
history. When the French
government was organizing
the centennial (столетие)
exposition of 1889 to
commemorate the French
Revolution, a competition
was held for a suitable
monument. More than 100
projects were presented and the centennial committee accepted
a project of the noted bridge engineer Gustave Eiffel. It was a
984 feet (300 meters) tower of open-lattice wrought iron
(сварочное железо с открытой решеткой), which exited
interest.
Such structure had never been built. At the time of its
construction, the Eiffel Tower was the tallest building in the
world. It was twice as high as the dome of St. Peters’s in Rome
or the Great Pyramid of Giza. In contrast to such older
monuments Eiffel’s tower was raised in two years, two months
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and five days with a small labour force and at low cost. Using
advanced knowledge of the behaviour of metal arch and metal
truss forms under loading and including wind forces, the
structure made a revolution in civil engineering and
architectural design. Parisian residents originally hated the
Eiffel Tower calling it an eyesore. Despite long-continued
protests it ultimately proved itself aesthetically.
The tower base of four semicircular arches dictated partially by
engineering construction and also by Eiffel’s artistic sense,
required elevators to lift on a curve. The glass-cage machines
designed by Otis Elvator Company of the United States became
one of the principal features of the building, establishing it as
one of the world’s prime tourist attractions.
Interesting facts about the Eiffel Tower.
 It weighs 7,000 tons.
 There are 1,710 steps to reach the top.
 The tower is not painted one uniform colour; every
seven years 50 – 60 tons of paint are applied to protect
the tower from corrosion.
 The Eiffel Tower was only meant to stand for 20 years,
but the French military and government began using it
for radio communication and later for telecommunication.
 It’s not just a tourist attraction. The Eiffel Tower has
housed a newspaper office, a post office, scientific
laboratories, a theatre, and the first level becomes an ice
rink every year.
Now it is a symbol of Paris and offers a wonderful view of
the city.
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TEXT 2. The Highest Skyscraper in the World
(Tower of Dubai)
The highest skyscraper in the world “Burj Dubai” (Tower of
Dubai) was built in the United Arab Emirates. The official
height of the famous tower is 828 meters. The total construction
costs $ 1, 5 billion. Inside the complex there is available place
for luxury apartments, offices, and shopping centers. The
majority of the area is given for
office space. The basic premises
of the skyscraper were handed
over to offices, but there are hotels,
restaurants, viewing platforms,
and pools in the tower. The
designer of the tower was the
American
architect
Adrian
Smith, whose main task was to
mix Islamic traditions and
contemporary Western solutions.
Construction proceeded at a speed
of 1–2 floors per week. The
skyscraper stands on foundation;
its thickness being 50 meters and weight – 110 tons. Special
grade (марка) of the concrete that can withstand temperatures up
to +50 C has been developed. It was poured only at night, and
ice was added to the solution. 230,000 cubic meters of concrete,
39 tons of steel, 142 thousand square meters of glass were
required for the construction of the building.
The tower itself can generate electricity: it uses a turbine,
rotated both by the wind and by solar panels. In addition, the
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building is equipped with special protection from the sun and
reflective glass panels, which reduce the heat inside the premises.
There are 49 high-speed elevators and eight escalators for the
convenience of residents, staff of many offices and visitors. For
example, one of the main elevators lifts passengers to a height
of just 504 meters at speed of 9 meters per second.
TEXT 3. New York’s Empire State Building. The World’s
Famous “Cathedral of the Skies”
New York City is situated at the mouse of the Hudson River on
the East coast of the USA. The heart of the city is the island of
Manhattan, where, in the Midtown
and Downtown districts, the
buildings “scrape” the sky. One of
these skyscrapers is the Empire
State Building. Like the Statue
of Liberty and Brooklyn Bridge,
it is instantly recognized as a
symbol of New York – a symbol
which demonstrates the power,
energy and excitement of one of
the world’s most-loved and
most-hated cities.
When the 102-storey structure was built in 1932, it was the
tallest building in the world (1,454 feet – 443 meters). From the
top, on a clear day, you can see over a 50-mile radius. Its towering
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height and distinctive Art Deco style made the Empire State
Building an instant success with the public. This building
remains uniquely fascinating. It’s an internationally known
landmark in New York City. It offers inspiring views around
the horizon to visitors from around the world, night and day, in
wet or dry weather.
There are two floor observatories: on the 86th and 102nd floors.
The 86th floor observatory, 1,050 feet (320 meters) has a glassenclosed area, which is heated in winter and cooled in summer.
High powered binoculars are available on the promenades for
the convenience of visitors at a minimal cost. A snack bar, food
and drink vending machines and souvenir counters are also
located in the 86th floor observatory.
Standing on the 102nd floor, 1,250 feet i.e. 381 meters above the
streets below, visitors can see the surrounding countryside for
distances up to 80 miles on clear days.
Interesting facts about the Empire State Building.

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It is the world’s greatest TV tower – 1, 454 feet.
Visibility 80 miles on a clear day.
Ships can be seen 40 miles at sea.
73 elevators operate at speed ranging from 600 ft. to
1,200 ft. a minute inside 7 miles of shafts (шахта
лифта или вентиляции).
1,860 steps on stairs from street level to 102nd floor.
6,500 windows.
One of the world’s eight wonders (the only one built in
the 20th Century).
Volume of the building is 37,000,000 cubic feet.
 2,000,248 square feet of rentable area.
 Almost 2 million visitors from every state in the United
States and nearly every foreign country visit the “top of
the Empire State” each year.
TEXT 4. Housing in Britain and the USA
In Britain families like to live in houses rather than in flats or
apartments (“apartment” is American English word). 78 % of
people live in houses and only 21 % live in flats. Most houses
are made of brick. Most people live in two storey semidetached houses (жилой дом на две семьи). Sometimes when
people get older they move to a bungalow (бунгало,
одноэтажная дача с верандой) which is a house with only
one storey. A country cottage made of stone or a mansion
(большой дом, особняк) is only a dream for a lot of people.
Almost everybody in Britain dreams of living in a detached
house (отдельный дом); that is, a house which is a separate
building. The saying “An English-man’s home is his castle” is
well-known. It illustrates the importance of ownership and the
desire for privacy.
Houses, not flats
A large, detached house ensures not only privacy. It is a status
symbol. Such a house is an unrealistic dream for a lot of people.
But even a small detached house, surrounded by garden, gives
the required suggestion of rural life (жить в сельской
местности) which is dear to the hearts of many British people.
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Most people try to avoid living in blocks of flats (what the
Americans call “apartment blocks”). Flats, they feel, provide
the least amount of privacy. With a few exceptions, mostly in
certain locations in central London, flats are the cheapest kind
of home. The people living there are those who cannot afford to
live anywhere else.
The dislike of living in flats is very strong. In the 1950s
millions of poorer people lived in old, cold, uncomfortable
houses of nineteenth century, often with only an outside toilet
and no bathroom. During the next twenty years many of them
were given smart new “high rise” blocks of flats with central
heating and bathrooms, were much more comfortable and were
surrounded by grassy open space. But people hated their new
homes. They said they felt cut off from the world.
British house
British house
In other countries millions of people live reasonably happily in
flats. But in Britain these high-rise blocks (also known as
“tower blocks”) could not have been a success, because they do
not suit British attitude. At the present only 4 % of the
population lives in high-rise blocks. And only 20 % of the
country’s households (семья, домочадцы) live in flats of any kind.
166
American homes
American homes are among the biggest and the best ones in the
world. Many of them have a garage for one or two cars, a big
modern kitchen, a living room, and a playroom for children.
Upstairs there are two bathrooms and three or four bedrooms.
Some families have two homes.
They have one house or apartment
in the city or suburbs. They live and
work there. But they have another
home near the sea or in the
mountains. They go to their second
home on weekend and for vacations.
American house
Americans who live in the towns and cities often move.
A family stays in one house for four or five years, and then they
move again. Some people move because they want a bigger or a
smaller home. In American suburbs, families come and leave
all the time.
American house
American house
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Americans are always trying to make their homes better. They
take a lot of time to buy furniture and make their home
beautiful. They buy books and magazines about houses and
furniture. They work hard on their homes in the evenings and
on weekends.
TEXT 5. Housing in Russia
The construction sector is one of the most important sectors of
the economy, which accounts for about 3% of Russia's Gross
National Product. Housing is one of the leading branches of the
construction industry in Russia, especially in densely populated
and rapidly developing regions.
In the Soviet Union, nearly all the housing stock of urban areas
was owned by the state. Private property was prohibited in
urban areas, and in rural areas the size of private houses was
strictly limited. Local authorities were responsible for renting
apartments. Rental payment was extremely low and, in most
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cases, was not enough to pay maintenance costs. Housing
destruction was very rapid.
Privatization started in the 1990s, and by the middle of 1990s
more than half of Russia’s housing was privately owned. Living
conditions of people considerably improved. The floor space of
homes per person steadily increased. Private housing also
contributed to construction boom. For example, the
construction of private housing tripled in urban areas and nearly
doubled in the rural areas.
Most Russians (74%) live in cities. What are the urban homes
like? Are these apartments or private houses? Do people prefer
to live in the center or in the suburbs? Let’s explore.
Downtown or Suburbs?
Cities’ historical centers are usually cozy and beautiful. Living
in the historical center is
considered to be prestigious and
more convenient because you
needn’t spend hours in traffic
jams getting to work and home.
But there are certainly some
minuses such as the poor
quality of air, the traffic
situation and high prices for
apartments. Moreover downtowns can’t provide homes for a lot
of people. Any city always needs more residential housing:
buildings that could fit as many inhabitants as possible,
standing close to each other with a basic infrastructure such as a
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kindergarten, a school, a medical center, a couple of stores, a
playground for kids and
maybe a park (if you are
lucky). As a result “sleeping
districts” are growing in
cities and towns. 99 % of
Russian citizens live in
apartments, not private
houses.
How about living in the suburbs?
Some people have a cottage.
The Russian equivalent for
the American “country
house” is the word “dacha”
People in Russia do not
move to suburbs when they
start families and want to
raise kids as in American
way of life. People just want
to have an apartment in the
city as the permanent home and a dacha as a summer-house for
weekends. They also have a good opportunity to grow trees and
flowers, fruit and vegetables on their own ground. And those
people, who live outside of the city, but work in the center are
heavily penalized for the opportunity to have fresh air by sitting
in traffic jams on their way to and from work for many hours
every day.
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What is the typical apartment like?
The way one describes apartments in Russia differs from the
US way of describing apartments. We do not count bedrooms,
we count rooms. So, we have one, two or three room
apartments. In the rare case there are 4 or 5 room apartments.
The notion of a “studio” has appeared recently. Usually one
room is a living or a dining room, and one or two ones are
bedrooms. Most standard apartments have one or two balconies,
one bathroom, 2 bathrooms are considered to be chic.
Types of apartment buildings.
“Stalin buildings” (built
during Stalin’s time) are
apartments with thick brick
walls and floorings, good
heat-and- sound insulation,
big isolated rooms, high
ceilings and high ground
floor. These buildings can’t
be considered as “typical”
because of great diversity
of planning and designs.
But these buildings have
not only pluses; all of
them are very old and need
serious renovation.
5 storey – buildings or “pyatietazhki”, built in the 50s – 70s are
super small – the goal of the government at that time was to get
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rid of “communal housing” (several families, sharing one
apartment.) These apartment buildings are named
“khruschevki” after Nikita Khruschev, who ruled the country at
that time.
The buildings
were erected to serve for 25
years but in many cities and
towns they are still used even
without
reconstruction.
Though a part of these
buildings
have
been
demolished and their former
residents got apartments in
new modern buildings.
The next level up is “devyatietazhka” – a nine-storey building,
also made of large building blocks. Typical 9-storey building of
the 60s-80s has 1-3 room apartments and these apartments are
bigger than in the earlier version. However, they are still very
small – a 3-room apartment could be around 60 square meters.
More modern residential housing may have up to 21 floors, but
they are also built of panels
(the house is assembled
quickly, like Lego blocks).
Apartments in such houses
are bigger but in general they
are not that much different
from the earlier versions.
People strongly prefer to live
in brick houses (they are still
considered the buildings of improved comfort) or houses built
under more modern technology, called “monolith” (when the
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skeleton of the house is filled with concrete. New modern
buildings are rather expensive, some of them are nice, have
individual non-standard apartment planning, gyms in the
building and indoor garages and parking, private security and
other benefits.
Rent or Property?
Every family decides this problem in their own way: sharing
one apartment with several generations of a family, buying or
renting a flat or a house.
If you want to buy, so there are two options – either to buy a
“second-hand” apartment, that is much cheaper and do the
renovation it needs, or buy an apartment in a new building and
be ready to see only grey concrete walls. No floors, no papers
on the walls, no electricity, no bath and of course – no kitchen.
Also be ready to look for a team of construction workers to
install all the wires, smooth the concrete walls, do the concrete
floors and later do all the renovation – from floors to ceilings.
And one more problem: a super overpriced mortgage (15 – 20 %
interest rate!) that you’ll be able to pay back in 20 – 30 years.
A lot of families dream about their own home and extra-high
interest of mortgage does not stop people from buying a flat.
Most people rent apartments and prices vary by the city and the
district within the city, and the price is relatively high,
compared to the average salaries. Renting apartments is not a
good business for landlords as well because there are no laws
which protect them from tenants destroying the apartment and
there are no fixed prices for this service.
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VOCABULARY
admixture – примесь, добавка
abutment – опорная стена
accommodate (v) – размещать
accuracy – точность; правильность
advantage – преимущество, выгода
aerated concrete – ячеистый бетон
aggregate – заполнитель
alkali – щелочь
alloy – сплав
anchor structure – анкерная опора
appearance – внешний вид
applied load – внешняя нагрузка
arch – арка
arrangement – расположение; размещение; устройство
artificial – искусственный
assemble (v) – собирать, монтировать
attic space – чердачное помещение
automation – автоматизация
available – имеющийся в наличии, доступный
basement – цоколь, подвал
bar – стержень, арматурный пруток
beam – балка
T-beam – тавровая (железобетонная) балка
bearing load – рабочая (несущая) нагрузка
bearing wall – несущая стена
bearing foundation – несущий фундамент
bend (v) – изгибать, гнуть
bending strength – прочность на изгиб
bill of quantities – предварительная смета строительных работ
binding – вяжущий (материал)
blast-furnace slag – шлак доменной печи
brick – кирпич
174
bridge – мост
brittle – хрупкий
bubbles – пузыри (воздуха или газа)
canopy – навес
cantilever – консоль
carry out (v) – выполнять; осуществлять
cast (v) – отливать (металл)
cast-in-situ concrete – монолитный бетон
cast iron – чугун
cement – цемент
central core design – конструкция здания с центральной
секцией, в которой размещены шахты лифтов
и коммуникации
ceramics – керамика
choose (v) – выбирать
civil engineering – гражданское строительство
cladding – облицовка, наружная обшивка
clapboard – вагонка
clay – глина
client – клиент, заказчик
climbing equipment – подъёмное оборудование
coarse aggregate – крупный заполнитель
collapse – обрушение (здания)
column – колонна
compress (v) – сжимать, сдавливать
compressive strength – прочность на сжатие
computer simulation – компьютерное моделирование
conceptual design – предварительный проект
concrete – бетон
consequence – последствие
construction – строительство, сооружение, конструкция
construction site – строительная площадка
contractor – подрядчик
contribute to (v) – способствовать ч.-л.; внести вклад в…
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convenience – удобство; устройство; приспособление
corrosion – коррозия; ржавление
cost – цена, стоимость; затраты
cover (v) – покрывать
crack – трещина, раскол
creative – творческий
crushed stone – щебень
curing – выдерживание/вызревание бетона
curtain wall – навесная наружная стена
curved surface – изогнутая/искривленная поверхность
customer – клиент, покупатель, заказчик
damage – повреждение; разрушение; ущерб
damp vibration – затухающее колебание
dense concrete – плотный бетон
dead load – постоянная нагрузка (собственный вес)
decay (v) – гнить
deliver (v) – подавать, доставлять,
demand (v) – требовать
demolition – снос, демонтаж (сооружения)
density – плотность
design – проект, чертеж, дизайн
design load – проектная нагрузка
detailed design – подробный/детальный проект
dimension stone – штучный камень; точно – обработанный камень
disassemble (v) – разбирать, демонтировать
disadvantage – недостаток
dissolve (v) – растворять(ся)
draft – проект; эскиз
drainage work – работа по осушению
drawing – рисунок; чертёж
ductility – пластичность; вязкость
durability – прочность, долговечность
dwelling – жильё, жилище
3-D modeling – трехмерное моделирование
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elasticity – упругость
eliminate (v) – устранять, ликвидировать
encase (v) – полностью закрывать, обрамлять, вставлять
enclosure – ограждение
engineering – конструирование, инженерное искусство
environmental disaster – экологическая катастрофа
equip (v) – оборудовать
erect (v) – возводить; сооружать
estimate (v) load – рассчитывать нагрузку
face (v) – сталкиваться с….
face brick – облицовочный кирпич
facilities – оборудование
failure – разрушение, повреждение
fastening – закрепление/скрепление
ferrous metal – черный металл
filler – наполнитель; заполняющий материал
fine aggregate – мелкий заполнитель
finish (v) – отделывать, заканчивать, обрабатывать
fireproof – огнестойкий, огнеупорный
fire protection – защита от огня, огнестойкая отделка
fire-resistance – огнестойкость
fire safety – противопожарная безопасность
flexibility – гибкость, упругость, эластичность
floor – этаж, межэтажное перекрытие
foam concrete – пенобетон
formwork – опалубка
foundation – фундамент
frame – каркас; рама
framed structure – рамная/решетчатая конструкция
framework – каркас; рамная конструкция
freezing – промерзание
functional requirement – требование функциональности
girder –главная балка, балочная ферма
glass – стекло
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glass brick – стеклоблок, стеклянный строительный кирпич
glue (v) – склеивать
granite – гранит
gravel – гравий
gravity load – нагрузка от собственного веса
grid – сетка, решетка
hammer – молот для забивки свай, забивать сваи
harden (v) – твердеть
hardware – аппаратное обеспечение
hardwoods – твердая порода древесины
heat insulation – теплоизоляция
heaving – вспучивание
heavy concrete – тяжелый бетон
high-early-strength concrete – бетон быстрого твердения
highway system – автомагистральная система
hoist – лебёдка
housing – жилищное строительство
humidity – влажность
implementation – выполнение, ввод в эксплуатацию
incombustible – огнестойкий, невоспламеняющийся
increase (v) – увеличивать(ся), повышать
installation – установка, монтаж
insulation – изоляция
intermediate floor – межэтажное перекрытие
jack up (v) – поднимать домкратом
joining – соединение
joist – прогон
know-how – секрет производства, умения, опыт
lack – недостаток; отсутствие
laminate – ламинат, многослойный материал
lateral load – поперечная нагрузка
lime – известь
limestone – известняк
lightweight concrete – легкий бетон
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live load – временная нагрузка
load – нагрузка
maintenance – техническое обслуживание, профилактический
ремонт
make decision (v) – принимать решение
management – управление, руководство
manufacture – производство, изготовление
marble – мрамор
masonry – каменная или кирпичная кладка
material engineering – материаловедение
mercury – ртуть
mesh – сетка
metal – металл
metal frame – металлическая рама/каркас
mixer – бетономешалка
mixture – смесь
moisture – влага, влажность
mоrtar – строительный раствор
mould (v) – формовать
occur (v) – происходить, случаться
opportunity – благоприятная возможность
ordinary concrete – обычный бетон
paint (v) – красить, окрашивать
partition – перегородка, ненесущая внутренняя стена
perceive – постигать, понимать
performance – выполнение, производительность
pier – пирс, столб, опора
pier foundation – фундамент на столбах, пилонный фундамент
pillar – стойка, колонна
pile – свая
pile foundation – свайный фундамент
pitch – скат, уклон
plastics – пластмасса, пластик
plasticity – пластичность
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plywood – фанера
pneumatic structure – пневматическая/надувная конструкция
pollution – загрязнение
pores – поры
porosity – пористость
precast concrete – сборный бетон
predictable – предсказуемый
prefabricated concrete – бетон заводского изготовления
preliminary design – предварительный/черновой проект
premises – помещение
prestressed concrete – предварительно напряженный бетон
primary design – первичный, основной проект
prompt (v) – подсказывать, побуждать
property – свойство
proposal – предложение
quarry (v) – добывать камень из карьера
raise (v) – возводить, сооружать; поднимать
ready-mixed concrete – готовый бетон
reduction – понижение; ослабление; уменьшение
refractory brick – огнеупорный кирпич
reinforce (v) – армировать, усиливать
reinforced concrete – железобетон
reinforcing bars (rods) – арматурные стержни
reinforcement – арматура
release – расцеплять, отсоединять
render – штукатурка
require (v) – требовать
residential structure – жилое сооружение
resistance – сопротивление, стойкость
responsibility – ответственность
robotics – робототехника
rod – стержень
roof – крыша
secondary beam – промежуточная или второстепенная балка
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safety – безопасность
sand – песок
sandstone – песчаник
sanitary fittings – сантехника
sense – смысл, понятие, значение
separate (v) – разделять, отделять
sequence – последовательность
settlement of foundation – оседание фундамента
sewer pipe – канализационная труба
sewerage system – система канализации
shaking table – вибрационный стол, виброплощадка
shale – сланец
shape – форма, вид
shear – сдвиг
shear stress – скалывающее (сдвигающее, срезывающее)
напряжение
shear wall – стена жесткости
sheet – лист (напр. стекла, металла)
shell structure – оболочковая конструкция
shingle – дранка, кровельный элемент, тонкая доска обшивки
shortage – нехватка, недостаток
shortcoming – недостаток; дефект
shrink (v) – давать усадку
shuttering – опалубка
siding – сайдинг, обшивка, облицовка
sill – подоконник
skyscraper – небоскреб
slab – плита
slab foundation – плитный фундамент
slag – шлак
slate – шифер
smart – сообразительный, умный
socket foundation – стаканный фундамент
software – программное обеспечение
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softwood – древесина мягкой породы
solution – решение; раствор
sound insulation – звукоизоляция
span – пролет
spread/shallow foundation – фундамент мелкого заложения
sprinkler – огнетушитель
steel – сталь
steel cable – стальной трос/канат
stone – камень
stone masonry – каменная кладка
storey (floor) – этаж
stretch (v) – растягивать(ся), тянуть(ся); набросок, чертеж
strength – прочность
stress – напряжение, усилие
strip foundation – ленточный фундамент
structure – конструкция, сооружение,
structural engineering – проектирование зданий и сооружений
structural engineer – инженер-проектировщик
stucco – стукко, прочная цементно-известковая штукатурка
для наружного применения
subject to (v) – подвергать(ся) воздействию
substructure – подземная часть сооружения
superstructure – надземная часть сооружения, надстройка
support – опора
supporting structure – несущая конструкция
suitability – пригодность, возможность применения
submission – предоставление
suspended ceiling – подвесной потолок
take into consideration/account – принимать во внимание, учитывать
technique – технические приемы/методы
temporary building – временная здание/постройка
tender documents – тендерная документация
tensile strength – прочность на растяжение
tension structure – натяжная конструкция
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timber – древесина; пиломатериал
thawing – оттаивание
torsion – кручение, вращение
tower crane – башенный кран
transfer (v) – передавать (напр. нагрузку), переносить
transmit (v) – передавать
truss – ферма
uplift load – подъёмная нагрузка
ultimate load – предельная (разрушающая) нагрузка
up-to-date – современный
upward – поднимающийся вверх, восходящий
utilities – коммунальные сооружения
varnish – лак
water-cement ratio – водоцементное отношение
water content – содержание воды
waterproof – водонепроницаемость, водонепроницаемый
water supply – водоснабжение
watertight – водонепроницаемый
wearing – изнашивание; износ
welding – сварка
wind tunnel – аэродинамическая труба
withstand (v) – выдерживать, противостоять
workability – обрабатываемость
working stress – допускаемое напряжение
wrought iron – ковкий чугун
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Учебное издание
Людмила Петровна Даниленко
Юлия Юрьевна Сильман
TECHNICAL ENGLISH FOR CIVIL
ENGINEERS AND STRUCTURAL DESIGNERS
Учебное пособие
Редактор: Е.Ю. Глотова
Оригинал-макет подготовлен авторами
Подписано в печать 12.01.16.
Формат 60х84/16. Бумага офсет. Гарнитура Таймс.
Усл. печ. л. 10.69. Уч.-изд. л. 9.68. Тираж 300. Заказ № 1.
Изд-во ТГАСУ, 634003, г. Томск, пл. Соляная, 2.
Отпечатано с оригинал-макета в ООП ТГАСУ.
634003, г. Томск, ул. Партизанская, 15.
184
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