Загрузил Oksana Merkulova

AnatomicalNamesEspeciallytheBasleNominaAnatomicaBna 10761076

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PREF A CE
.
A na to mic t e r min ol og y b e g an w h e n p r im it iv e m an fi r st a ssigne d n a me s
T h e s e t e r m s h av e inc r e ase d in n u mb er
t o p a r t s o f t h e h u m a n b o dy
.
u nt i
l
sc i
e n c e o f a n at om y
th e
t e r m ino l ogy
of
b eing
s u b me r g e d
h av e b ee n giv e n t o s om e
h e lp t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r
T h e p u r p ose o f t h is book is t o
,
int e r nat ional B N A t e r m s
b ec ome f amil iar w it h
ms
u p war d s o f
Wh e n
sy nony
th e
sc ie n ce
t h e kno wl edg e
limit e d , t h e
b y it s
n am e s
O ver
.
is in d ang er
th e
of
nu mb er o f
st r u ct u r e s
ni
ci
a nd c li
an
a nd
.
to
t o disc a r d
.
my w a s in
of
o wn
a nat o
a
f or mat iv e
w h en
s t ag e ,
human b ody and it s st r uctu r e s w a s s t ill
At t h e
t ec h nic al t e r m s w a s nat u r ally small
.
v er y
t ime
me t e r ms like novSvAaG Sns x ovSpaiSng w e r e r e p e a t e dly
u se d
in t h e sa me m e an ing a n d t h e r e for e m u st b e c on s ide r e d a s
A r ist o t e l e s h ad a mu ch l a r ge r kn owl e dg e o f a nat omy
t e c h n ic al t e r m s
a nd b y hi
m t h e t e c h n ic a l v o c ab u lar y w a s con s ide r ab l y en r ic h e d bu t t h e
fi r s t o ne who c r eat e d a c om p r eh e ns iv e an at omic l angu age w a s G al e n
I t c an t r u ly b e sa id , t h at un de r h im me dic al sc ie nc e in
o f P e r g amus
g e n e r a l a n d ana t o my in p ar t ic u l a r a tt a ine d a h igh st at e o f p e r f e c t ion
a n d c omp l e t i
H is n omenc l a tu r e d e r iv e d f r om th e G r eek is v e r y ex
on
t en s iv e a n d a v e r y l ar g e p e r c ent ag e o f h is t e r m s ar e st ill in u se
of
H ippoc r at e s
’
so
,
,
.
,
.
.
,
,
.
A f t e r t h e d ec lin e
G
of
r e ece ,
th e
c e nt e r
g e ne r al p r og r e s s sh ift e d
th e f ou n d a tio n o f t h e st ill
of
ho ugh t h e R oma ns g av e u s
ex i
st ing c iv il law t h e y a c complis h e d v e r y l ittl e in me d ic in e Th e me d i
n t h e h a n d s o f st r a nge r s
e sp e c ially G r e ek s a nd
c al a r t wa s en t ir el y i
t e r at u r e
f r eedmen
T h e r e is f o und v er y l it t l e o f me d icine in R oman l i
M ed ic ina w a s p r ob ably n ot a p h y si
and e v e n Ce l s u s w h o w r o t e t h e
t o R ome
B ut
.
a lt
.
,
,
.
ci
an
.
H e w as t h e
b r a nch e s
on o f a n ob l e
sc i
e n ce an d
o f sci
mo r e th a n
a cl e v e r
it h a s b e en
f amily wh o w r o t e boo k s
sa i
d
t h at h is
.
ofip r
ar e
n fies
La tin , b u t
al way s
M edicina
w as
p h y sic ia ns o f his t ime
fi r st o f th e e ight h book
o n a ll y
oc c a s i
po int ing
o ut
he
,
of
A lmo st
use s
G
t h at t h e y w er e
( iii)
th e
r ee k
b o ne s
a ll
and
h ing
Th e
.
h is
of
int e st ine s
t he t e r m s
na mes
m any
n ot
l at ion o f n ot e s o f
comp i
fi r st c h ap t e r o f t h e fou r t h b ook and th e
”
n s h o r t de s cr i
c ont a i
M e dic ina
p t ions
w it h a nu mb e r o f n e w a n a t omic t e r m s
h im
on ve r y
u sed
by
like na pwn Ses ,
int r o du c ed by t h e G r eeks
’
—
.
A N AT O M I CA L N A ME S
iv
M any
t h e t e r m s f o u n d in
of
n om e n c l a t u r e
Ce l s u s
w e ll
means
t he
as
in w r it ing ;
nce
si
u se d
ll
st i
ar e
in
o ur
mic l a ngu age
qu a lity o f t h e ir Lat in wa s by no
na cc u r a t e t e r ms w er e e mb o die d in
a nd i
sci
e nce
T he
.
in g e ner al w e r e con fi ne d t o
u s e d t h e Lat i
n l angu ag e in sp eak ing
sc i
enc e s
th e
m any b ar bar isms
c l a ss i
c,
a n at o
“M e dic in a
’
.
D u r ing t h e me die v al p e r io d t h e
t h e mona st e r ie s , w h e r e th e mo nk s
as
.
of
m e d ic ine w a s
acqu ir e d
b y th e
monks in p ar t d ir e c t l y f r om t h e G r ee k s a n d in p a r t t h r ou gh t h e A r ab ia n s
w ho co mm e nt e d e x t e nsiv e ly up on t he bo oks o f G a l e n w it h o u t a dd ing
a ny t hi
ng no t e w o r t hy
N at u r a lly t h en o u r n ome nc l a tu r e w as in fl u e nce d
so m e wh at b y t h e A r abi
c
a nd w e fi n d som e A r ab i
c h yb r i
d s s u ch as :
s alv a t e lla s aph en a a nd nucha
Th e m ost o f t h ese t e r m s , h owe v er c a n
,
.
,
,
,
.
,
b e t r a c e d b a ck t o t he G
r e e ks
,
.
A nd r é Ve s al , t h e g r e a t r e for m e r o f ana t o my wr o t e in La t in and f or
t h e m ost p ar t u s e d a Lat in t er minology
H e al so u s ed some G r e ek
,
.
m hyo id es , p e r it o nae u m
H is t e r m in ol ogy is o n t h e wh o le g r amma tic ally and philologi
s t omac h u s =
c all y c o r r e ct , al th ough s ome w o r d s m i
g h t b e ob j ec t e d t o l ik e do r s alis
t er m s ;
o fte n
w it h
La t in
ng s,
endi
colu
as
,
,
,
( La t in
La t in
,
d or s ua lis ) ,
ng
e nd i
)
ta s
c av i
Vesal
.
( Latin
ca v u
,
r ec og n i
zed
the
m)
an d e p i
glo tt al is
u n s a t is f a c t o r y
(G
r ee k
c o n d it ion
of
w it h
th e
n e d t h at e x
nome nc l at u r e a nd comp la i
g r e a t n u m be r o f e x
b y v ar io u s a u t ho r s
s t r uct u r e
.
A f t e r Vesal ,
n ew
w e r e d e r iv e d in t h e
sts o f
a na t om i
a nc i
e nt
pla nat io n w as ma d e d iffi cul t b y t h e
ist i
n
g t e r m s ; t h at m a ny d iff e r e nt n a m e s w e r e u se d
and e ve n by t h e same au t h or t o de si na t e a
g
g iv en
discov e r ie s
r e qu i
r ed
c onv en t i
on a l
t h e coining o f n e w t e r m s w h ic h
w ay f r om th e G
t ho s e t im e s w er e not in p osse ss io n
l a ng u ag e s in t im a t e
e no ug
h
T h es e
an d
ner ves
n u me r i
ca l
a t t ac h e d
f ollo w ing t h e m w e r e d e sig na t e d
d e s ig n at ion s w e r e t ake n f r om G
e s,
c e nt u r i
t he 1 5t h an d 1 6 t h
of
of a
t o avo id e r r o r s a n d
Th e f o r a mina in t h e bo ne s , th e m u sc l e s
v e s se l s
r ee k a nd
b u t w it h
e ac
h
Lat in ; b u t t h e
know l e dge
mist ak es
to
o f the
.
t h e b on e s , t h e
o nl y
by
a l en
nu mb e r s
.
b y t h e ph y sic ia n s
n e w d is c ov er y a nd e ac h
'
h ang e in int e r pr e t at ion t h e se nu mb er s h ad to b e ch ange d th e r esul t o f
wh ich wa s a ho p ele ss co n fu s io n
J acobu s S ylv iu s ( J acque s D ubois ) wa s th e fi r st t o giv e n ame s t o most
Lau r e nt iu s Cour t P hy sic ian o f H enr y I V
o f t h e m u scl es v es s e l s e t c
S y l v io h ae c p r im a d e b e t u r l a u s q u o d m u sc u
o f F r anc e j u s t ly s ay s : J
c
,
.
.
,
,
,
.
,
,
m sylv am ac con f usionem in e x qu isit am o r dine m
dig e s se r it e t p r op r iis nominib u s d e s ignar it qu a e nunc ab omnib u s a na
C B a u h in P r o f esso r in B asl e se e m s t o h av e b e en
t o mic is r e tine n t u r
lor um
u
et v aso r u m om n i
,
.
fi r st t o
”
a t h ing
th e
to
,
.
,
ve s
use a d ect i
j
a nd
w ith
the
,
wit h t h e
ng
e nd i
~
end ing
-
ide u s , t o de no t e
ide s , t o denot e
si
mila r t o
”
.
r e fe r r i
n
g
Ca sser ius
A N A TO M I C A L N A M E S
u s e s ar t ai
n oe ide s , c r co e id e s
y
y
se s a
m o e id e a ;
g ia e u s ,
moxo e a a nd
m ilogl ossu s
s p e a k s o f o s s a se sa
m. hy oth y r o id e s st e r not h yr o id eu s
S p ig e l iu s me nt ions t er ms like genio hy o id eu s
a l so
c e r a t ogl o ss u s
; B ucr e t iu s
.
.
s t e r no t
of
,
hy r o id e u s
h y ot h y r o id e s ,
,
,
r a die u s
Th om a s
.
-
,
o e soph a
,
B ar t h o linu s
u s e s s ty lo p h ar y n a e u s ,
g
d e l t oid e s, mas t-o id e u s, pe ct ina e u s , e t c
Th u s t h e
a na t o m is t s u s e d u n s s t e ma t i
c a lly a d j e c t i
ves wi
t h t h e se d iff e r e nt e nding s
y
Lat in w a s p r e f e r r e d by sc ient is t s d u r ing th e e a r l y pa r t o f t h e l gth
c ent u r y , a lt h o ug h s om e a t t e m t s t o u s e t h e mo d er n l a n ua e s w e r e
p
g g
m a d e W e t h er e f or e c an a c c ount f o r t h e f a c t t h a t La t in a n d La t iniz e d
G r e e k w o r d s w e r e r et a ine d in sc ie nt ifi c n om e nc l a tu r e , a nd t h a t n e w
t e r ms w e r e co ine d in t h e c o nv e nt io n al w ay
I nd e e d , t h e La t in an d G r ee k
.
.
.
.
t er m s w er e
be
c o uld n ot
e nd o f
so
f r o m th e
se v e r e d
an d,
ma n
conn e ct e d
m e d ie v al p e r io d
th e
su r ge r y
int ima t e ly
fi
wit h
s ub e ct s
j
e nt i c
sci
t h inking t h at
w h ic h t h e y de s ign a t e d
t h ey
D u r ing t h e
.
t h e b ar b er s w e r e th e ex po n ent s o f c omm on
t h e la ng uage o f t h e c o u nt r y w as u se d
T h us ,
t h e r e f or e ,
,
.
me s b eg an
S om e o f th e c l a ss ic al a n a t om ic b oo k s
w er e t r ansl at e d in t o G e r ma n a s e a r ly a s 1 7 3 3 a s w e r e al so s ome o f t h e
Engl is h a nd F r enc h a na to mies
I n 1 7 8 1 a r ep r int o f V e sal s d r aw ings
w as ma d e by Le v e ling w it h ex p l ana t io n s in G e r man
Le v e ling co ll ec t e d
th e G e r m a n t e r m s a nd t h e ir La t in sy no nym s a l t h o ug h t h e l a t t e r w e r e
G
er
a na t o m ic n a
.
,
’
.
.
M a ny
p a r t iall y t a k e n f r om V e sal
p ig lo t t eu s, g l u t e u s r a d iae u s, s ol ae u s
o nl y
.
,
,
p h ilo log ically f a ul ty
I n t h e R oma n ic co u nt r ie s
an d
l ess
a nd
ot
he r s
su c
h
g r amm a t ic a l ly
ar e
,
a s ar yt ae n oe
.
a d ap t e d
ve s
a d e ct i
w it h t h e
t o t h e l ang u ag e
w it h t h e
j
-
his t e r ms,
of
ng s
e n di
id
an d
I t al ian s id e
id e n , t h e
l angu age
-
n s
e n di
g
-
an d
Abo u t t h e
-
a nd
in Engla nd , t h e t e r ms w e r e mo r e o r
Wh ile t h e G e r mans u se d
o f t h e co u nt r y
a nd
.
-
id e s
id e u s , t h e Engl is h use d t e r m s
F r enc h w it h th e e nd ing s - ide a nd
an d
id ean , th e
-
id e o
-
D ir e c t t r an s l a t io ns int o t h e R om anic
.
int o Englis h , w e r e ad opt e d a s pur ely t ec h nical t e r ms
m iddl e o f t h e e igh t e e nt h c e nt u r y a n a to m ic t e ach ing w as
.
be gun in A me r ica ,
a nd
me
w it h it
v ar i
ed
ca
t r ansl at ions f r om f o r e ig n
Th is g av e r ise t o t h e u s e o f a nu mb e r o f t e r ms f o r t h e same
A ga in t h e same t e r m wa s f r equ entl y u se d f or d iff e r e nt
st r u c t u r e
wo r ks
.
.
st r uc t u r e s
T h is mu l t iplicat ion
.
A me r ica ; in de e d it p r e v aile d t o
T h e r e t h u s p ile d
and F r a nce
.
the
e nce
sci
As
a
of
a na t o
my
of
of
w as
ming d egr ee
u p s u c h a ma ss o f
b ene at h it s
th e t ime
o wn
at
t ec h nic al t e r ms t h a t
t e r mino l ogy
and e ne r gy cons u
r e c all
all
me d in
.
a c qu i
ri
ng
t h a t th e
Car t e sian
s e at o f
w as d e s ig nat e d a s t h e p ine al bo dy , p ineal gl and pine al or gan
t he so u
l
p ar ie t al b od y p a r ie t al g l a n d par ie t al o r gan ; t h ir d e ye m e dian e ye
p a r ie t al e y e p ine al e ye ; c o r p u s p in e al e gl and ula p in eal e ; e p ip h y s is ep i
a
wo r king
vo cab u l a r y o ne n e e d s
p ec u lia r t o
in G er many , Eng l a n d
n ot
a n al ar
s t agge r e d
t yp ic al ill u s t r a t io n
t e r ms
b ut
,
,
,
,
,
p h ys is
ce r eb r i;
,
p e nis
c e r e b r i,
p inu s,
co n a r i
u
m
.
We r e
,
,
t h e sy no nym s f r om
A NAT O MI CA L NA ME S
vi
t h e F r enc h
a nd
ma t e ly fi fty
n ames
t h a t wh ich
ex
G
er
man
t o t h e se, t h e t ot al wo ul d b e
a dd e d
f or th is
o n e s t r uct u r e
Cont r a st t h is
in wh ich o ne
.
e l e c t r ic al s ci
e nc e ,
is t s t o da y in
.
app r o x
i
w it h
t ion
con di
u ni
v e r sa l
fi nd s
m a n d vo l t
S uc h a st at us is s o h a r m f ul t o t e ach ing an d so s tifl ing to r ese a r c h t h at
many a tt emp t s h av e be en ma d e t o f r e e t he st u d ent t e ache r an d inv est i
S ome p r ogr es s wa s ma d e by He nl e G ege nb aur ,
ga t o r f r om t his inc ub us
T h e se
K r au s e S app e y, T e st u t Q ua in M a c a list e r , Wilder a n d o t he r s
t er m s
s u ch as a
mp e r e
oh
,
.
,
,
,
.
,
,
.
,
It
g e ne r al r e c ognit ion
t h u s b e came mor e a n d m or e app a r e nt t h a t any l ist o f t er m s m ust h av e
mor e t h an in d iv id ual p r e s t ige, an d t ha t s om e coop er at iv e pl a n w a s
indiv idual
nec e s s ar y
e ffor t s ,
h o w ev e r
n ev e r o b t a in e d
h av e
,
.
.
p l a n w a s o ut lin e d by t h e G e r man A nat omic S ocie t y a t it s fi r s t
me et ing in Le ip z ig in 1 88 7 , a nd it s o ffic e r s w e r e r e que st e d t o wor k o u t
T h e offic e r s se l e c t e d a r e v is io n Co mmis s io n whic h w a s
th e d e t a il s
S uch
a
"
.
f r om t ime t o t ime,
e nl a r g e d
the
wo r l d
u nt i
l
T h o s e wh o t oo k
.
it in cl u d e d t h e l e a din g
a c ti
ve
an
l ik e r , K o llm a nn , K r a u se ,
v on
Ce r t a in l imit at ions
a
g
t h e a id o f a simpl e
H is,
K ol
v on
M ih alko v ic s
v on
Z u c ke r k a n d l
a nd
v on
,
.
f und ame nt a l p r inc iple s w e r e a gr e e d o n a t t h e
The w o r k w as l imit e d
as t h e w or k p r og r e sse d
w h ich
s t r u c t ur e s
,
,
of
and
b eg inning ; o t h e r s a r os e
t o d esc r ip t iv e h u ma n an at o my ,
t h os e
,
Wa l d e ye r
,
,
H e r t w ig
K u p ff e r , Le bo c q Me r k el
R iid ing e r T h a n e T o ld t T ur ne r ,
,
.
m ist s
in t h e w o r k we r e
p ar t
B ar d e l e b en, B r au n e , Cu nn ingh am, H en ke , O
a n at o
be
can
h and
l ens
.
an d
f u r t he r
b y th e
se e n
Lat in wa s
.
r e st r i
ct e
n a me s o f
d to t he
un aid e d e y e , o r
at
fi
al
ad o p t e d a s t h e o f ci
mo st by
l angu ag e
.
A s t he wor k p r og r e s s e d , a nu mb e r o f r ul e s w e r e a d o p t e d , y e t no n e b e c a me
ons
a r ul e w it h o ut e x ce p t i
Th e mo r e imp or t ant o f t h e se w e r e t h e f o l
.
p ar t t o b e n ame d sh a l l h av e o nly o ne n ame ; t h e n ame m u st
g r amma t ica lly c o r r e c t ; t he name m ust b e as sh o r t a n d s imp l e as p os
l o wing :
eac h
.
be
t h e n am es
si
be
l
s h a ll
t io n s ; r el a t e d t er ms , a s f ar
fe m u r ,
a
ar t e r i
me mor y s ig n s
m p ly
si
be
f e mo r alis ,
as
v ena
c omm iss ion , u n d er
it s w o r k
ov e r a
ab o u t
p e r io d
w er e
t h r oug h
d e cide d
si
on
ex
p l an a
ant on ym s ,
as
d ex t e r ,
s in ist e r
;
.
,
t he r
ei
be
p ossib l e , sh a ll b e s im ila r , f o r e x amp l e ,
f e mo r a lis, n e r vu s fe mo r a lis ; a d j e c t iv e s ,
in g e n er a l , sh a ll b e a r r ange d w it h t he ir
ma j o r m in or ; s u pe r fi cial is, p r o f u n du s
Th e
a n d n ee d no t
on
w as
the
unabl e
t ion o f p r op e r
th e g u idan c e
x
o f si
sel e ct e d
y e ar s
c o r r e sp ond e nc e
it s
F r om
.
Many
.
of
of
W
e di
t or ,
.
Kr aus e
up w a r d o f
,
ex
t ended
Lat in t e r m s
t h e s e t e r m s co u l d n ot
be
ag r e e d o n ,
p e r sonal disc us s ion s b u t h a d t o b e
b a sis o f sp ec ial disse ct io ns
O n one p oint th e Co mm is
or
,
.
to
h
r eac
name s
T h is w as
.
b r ac ke t s f oll owing t h e
de c ision on t h is p o int
o n, a n d
a co nc l u s i
ob ect i
ve
j
.
I
n
so
set tl e d
fi nal ly
names,
me
t h is w as
of
conc e r n i
ng
by
the
mo der n
r e t en
g t h e m in
t ime t h e fi nal
incl u di
n
t h u s leav ing t o
th e
‘
t e x tb ook s t h ey
ar e
AN ATO M I CAL N AMES
include d
I
.
n
t h ey ar e not incl u de d
to
over
Waldey e r
nat i
on
to the
al
spe c i
a
A ft e r
.
the
t e r m h ad b e e n
in
-
c
h ie f
of
n
co n s i
sti
g
j
s ub e c t e d
His
of
to
a
Comm ission,
t he
it w as t u r n e d
Kr ause
,
a nd
t h or o ugh r e- e x ami
mitt e e , t h e w h ole lis t w a s p r e se nt e d f or fi n al c r it icism
A n a t om ic S oc ie t y a t it s ann u a l me e t ing in B a sl e in 1 89 5 A f t e r
by t h is
co m
.
it w a s
fi nally
B a s le N o m ina A n at omic a
th e
h as
h
—
n ea r ly co mpl et e d
list was
tt e e ,
c ommi
t ing
e di
e ac
e di
t or
,
W h en t he
.
de r a t io n
c ar e f u l c o ns i
w as
Kr aus e
t h e t ex tb ook b y
vi
i
.
ad o p t e d
nce
si
b e en kno wn
fi
by it s
or
I t h as
.
o f c ial ab b r e viat ion
BNA
.
as
It
g r eat m a j o r it y o f E u r op e a n an a t o mist s a n d
n ce b e e n acce p t e d Ib y A m e r i
si
sts
ca n a n at o m i
I t is sa f e t o s ay t h a t
g r e a t e r p ar t o f t h e r e c e nt a n a t o m ic lit e r a t u r e o f t h e w o r l d is a c
by
a d op t e d
at o n c e
a
-
.
b l e o nl y
c e ssi
t o t h o se wh o
h av e
t h e m sel v e s w it h t h e B N A
nt e d
acqu ai
D u r ing t h e t w en t y ye a r s s in c e it s a do p t io n ,
f ully s t ud ie d , a nd s ome p er t in e nt sugge st io n s
say s t
te r ms
h at t h e
ho u l d
s
woul d h av e t h e m u s cl es
app l i
cab e
l in
be
s o na
e a ch
t e r m h as b e e n
h av e b e en m a de
v e a na t o
co mp a r a t i
me d t h at th e
t e r m s co u l d
be
my
C h aine
.
B r aun e s u gg e s t s c h a ng ing t h e n ame s o f t h e
p ar at ive myo logy
mila r
o f t h e h an d a n d f oot s o t h a t t h e n ame s co u l d b e u se d fo r si
in d ome st ic
car e
Le sb r e
.
u sed
.
.
in
com
ar t e r ie s
ar ter i
es
ma l s
S ome d ay w e ma y b e abl e t o b r ing abou t t h es e
de sir e d imp r o v e m e nt s, b u t t h is c a nn ot b e d one u nt il h o m ol o gie s a r e b e tt e r
T h e fi e ld s o f comp a r a t iv e o st eol o gy a n d m yo lo gy a r e st ill u n d e r
kno w n
inv es t ig at ion wh il e t h e u nr av el ing o f t h e h omol ogie s o f n uc l e a r m asse s
n t h e cent r a l n e r v ou s s y st e ms o f v e r t e b r at e s sca r ce l y h as
and fi be r t r ac t s i
a ni
.
.
,
b e gu n
.
Ot h er
h ave b e e n m ade conce r ning th e s ign ifi cance o f ce r
B a r d e l e b e n s ay s t h at it is inc on se qu e n t t o cal l t h e gl an d
s ugge st i
on s
t ain t e r m s
V on
.
b eneat h t h e mandib l e
g l an d u l a
“t h alamu s
a
ce r e b r i,
”
s ub
m a ndib u l a r is
opt icu s ,
i
s nce
g l an d u l a
it
”
n ce
si
su b
max ill a r is
Au st e r l it z t a kes
it is no sle e p in g
”
,
w at er
r oom
H a d th e se
.
it is
e x ce p t i
on
.
n s no
co n t ai
n ce
si
;
n a mes
to
ob v i
o u sl y
the
t er m
aq uae d u ct u s
to
b e en
ch a n g e d
by
n ce
mm is s ion wh y sh ou ld t h ey no t h av e d r o pp e d ace t a b u l um
si
”
“
”
it is n o v in eg a r cu p ; h ip p oc amp u s s inc e it is no t a se a h o r s e ; z y gom a
is no t a c r a z y p l e x u s ;
Pl e x u s l y mph a t icu s
si
n ce i
t is no t a n o x y o ke ?
I n sh o r t , an y att e mp t t o
ne r v u s p u de n d u s
is n ot a s h ame fu l n e r v e
h av e sub stitu t e d ob j e ct ive ly cor r ect t e r ms wo uld h ave b e e n in dir e ct
the
co
,
,
,
,
.
t abl e
sui
m
m o f th e Com is s ion
t e r ms f r om t h e many in c u r r e nt
o pp os i
t ion
t o t he
p r ev iou sl y b e en
T r iepe l , a ft er
ai
u se d
f or b if ur c at u s
I ts
m w as t o se l ec t th e m o s t
ch h a d
or f r om t h o s e wh i
ai
usage
.
ca r e fu ll y
t ain t e r m s f or t h ose
.
ng
s t ud y i
t h e B N A,
s uggest s
c ul u s
a do pt e d, n a me l y : a r t i
b ip e nnis fo r bip e n na t u s
f or
a r t icu l at i
o
; b if u r cu s
g l om e r i
; l u mb a r is f o r l um
d or su alis f o r d o r sa l is
f or mis f o r glo mif o r mis ; gl o m e r ul u m f o r gl omer ulu s
W e r e t h e se ch ange s m ad e
b alis ; plic a t u r a f o r p lic a
.
t ut ing ce r
s ub st i
as
s ugge s t e d
by
A N AT O M I C A L N A M E S
vi
ii
T r ie p e l
sa
mo r e
t h ey int r o d u c e n ot hing
,
m e wo r d s
Wer e
t h an
.
n
sp e l l i
g
d iff e r e n t
a
of
t he
.
fi
n ion
sc i
e nt i c o p i
t o s u st a in al l t h e
j
nst t h e
ag a i
b r o ugh t
o ns
o b e ct i
B N A , l e ss t h a n t h r e e p e r ce nt o f t h e t e r m s w ou l d b e a ff ec t e d
A sy s t e m
w hic h s o n ea r ly f u l fi ll s all d em an d s h a s n at u r ally b e c om e a n int e r nat io n al
.
.
an at o m i
c
the
th e
st u d y o f
T h e q u e st io n
l a ng u a g e o f t he
s t a t es t
hat
.
,
t ical
cr i
.
,
t o wh e t h e r t e r m s sh o u l d b e w r itt e n in La t in o r in t h e
as
a ut h o r
is
m at t e r
a
fi
al
of c i
w h il e it s
sl i
g h t est
t he
O n t h e wh ole it may b e s a id t h a t t h e m o r e
B N A t h e m o r e a pp a r e nt b e c om e s it s m e r it s
l a ng u ag e
r e st r i
ct i
on
o f ch o i
ce
The
.
co
l a ng u ag e is La t in, it d o e s
mm ission
ex
w ish t o
no t
p r e s s ly
impo se
t h e t r an sl a t io n o f t h e se t e r m s in to a ny l a n
on
A n at o mist s , h ow e v e r , a r e u s ing qu it e unif or ml y t h e La t in t e r m s,
g uag e
lit at ing t h e d ev e l op ment o f a n at om ic sc ie nce
an d a r e t h e r e by g r e at ly f a c i
.
‘
t h r o ug
h
a co
S in c e t h e
mmon l a ngua g e
B N A h a s b e c o me t h e l a ng uag e
.
h op e fo r t h e
not
on o f
coop e r a t i
ni
c li
ci
an s
th e
o f us e le ss s yno ny m s ?
m is t s m ay t h ey
th e
of
in
a na t o
,
ng
c le a r i
fi e ld
th e
of
th e
p os s i
’
bl e t o fi n d a st u d e n t s t e x t b oo k on a ny c linica l su b j e c t w h ic h e v inc e s t h e
sl i
gh t e s t co n ce r n a s t o t h e u nif o r mit y o f it s an at o m ic t e r m s
t ho us a n d s
At t h e p r e s e nt d ay it is
s c a r c e ly
.
Th e r e
a r e a n um b e r o f r e a s on s
w h y th e B N A
has
'
n ot
b e e n m o r e w ide l y
O n e is b e c a us e t h e t e r m s ar e a r r ange d a c co r ding t o sy st e m s
Mor e ove r in such an
w h ich ma kes it d iffic u lt t o fi n d a giv e n t e r m
n f e r r e d t h at a ll t h e b o n e s s h o u l d b e f o u n d
s i
a r r an g e me nt it n atu r a l l y i
a do pt e d
.
,
.
ho w e v e r
,
is
m u s c le s
th e
A ngiol og ia ;
n s u n de r
vei
e nce ,
a ll
O st eolo g ia ;
und e r
a ll
My ol og ia ;
unde r
t h e n er v e s
e nt i
r ely e r r on e ous
.
,
all
N e u r olo g ia
u n de r
t he
ar t e r i
e s an d
S uch
.
Th e t e mp o r al b o ne
( os
in f e r
an
t e mp o r al e )
g iv en f o r t h e mo s t p a r t o n p p 3 0 3 1 ; t h e s e m i
r c u l a r c a n al s ( c a nal e s s e mi
c ir c u l a r e s ) on p
ci
9 8 ; t h e a u d it o r y o ssicl e s
( oss ic ul a a u dit u s ) o n p 9 9 T he mu scl e s o f t h e h e a d ( m uscu li c ap it is )
an d
it s
vi
si
o n s ar e
s u bdi
—
.
.
.
.
on
p 46 , mu st b e
.
S u ppl e m e nt e d
by t h o s e
pp 59 , 9 5, 9 6 , 9 7 ,
on
.
1 00,
b e f or e
A ngio lo gia p r op e r , pp 67 79 mu st b e e x t e n d e d t o
T his is e qual l y t r u e o f
inc l u de t h e ve ssel s on pp 56 57 , 6 1 , 8 7, 96 , 9 8
vi
si
on s
o t h er div is io n s a n d s ub d i
the
l ist is
co mp l e t e
-
.
.
.
,
.
,
.
A not h e r
t h e se t e r ms
r e as on
is t h at t h e r e is
I t t h er e fo r e is
.
,
,
n ow
h er e
n e c e s sa r y t o
mat ic al ly
ing t he
or i
g in al
a d op te d
b y t h e Anat omic S oc ie ty w as
sy st e
.
f or in cl u ding
or
j
bl e, e x c e p t ing
acce ssi
m ou s
t e r m s wh ich
A g a in t he B N A as
e d b y a n e x h au s t i
acc omp an i
ve
n
ce r t ai
giv es t he de t a il s o f t h e
c ommi
tte e , b u t al so t h e r e asons
t e r ms
or i
ginal
ar e
s c a tt e r e d
.
n ot onl y
T h is
.
G e r man
B N A e qu iv ale nt s
in t h e
d ifficult ie s is t o fi nd th e
sy no ny
.
ng
r e ect i
EN A
a r r an g e d
T h is r epo rt
w r it t e n by W H is
on
o n a n d w o r k o f t h e r e v is i
o r g a niz at i
r epo r t
mp l e t e al ph ab et ic al list o f
c on fi r m a ll t e r ms b
y c on sul t
a co
.
r e po rt
Th e mo st
of
th e t en s
t h r ough th e
h as
se r i
o us
of
a n at o
b een
o f all the
n e v er
t h ou s ands o f
mic lite r at u r e
.
A N A T O M I C AL N A ME S
ix
.
S ome y ea r s ag o t h e au t ho r ex p er ie n ce d g r e at diffic ult y in apply ing t h e
I n or de r t o
E N A t e r m s t o t he v ar io u s st r u ct ur e s o f t h e h uman bo dy
f acilit at e t h is w o r k all t h e se t e r m s w e r e a r r ange d a lp h a b e t ic a ll y a n d c r os s
t ing the p ag e a n d s e r ial n um b e r o f
r e fe r e n c e n ume r al s affi x e d t o e ac h ci
.
,
th e
t e r m in
sam e
it s sy st em a t ic p o sit ion
I n o r d e r t o m ake th e
b l e it w a s t r a nsl a t e d int o E n gl ish
ac c es s i
H is m o r e
s u pp l e
so m e
r ep o r t
by
.
W it h t his
to
.
ma te r ial in h an d
ment th e
alp
z at i
an d a r ea l i
on o f
h ab e t ical
lis t
of
it s
v al u e ,
it w a s d e c id e d
B N A t er ms t h r o u gh t h e
t ion o f
a dd i
t w e n t y t h o u san d sy no n yms , e ac h o f w h ic h b e a r s n u m e r a l s c it ing t h e
'
B N A ter m
va l e nt
e qu i
.
S in c e m os t
t h e La t in
of
s y n o ny m s
h av e
b ee n
col
l e ct e d b y H e nl e, K r a u se , M e r k e l , d e T e r r a, an d o t h e r s, it w as n ot a d if
T h e ga t h e r ing o f
fi c u l t t a sk t o p l a c e t h e se in t h e ir al p h ab e t ic al p os it ion
t h e Englis h t e r m s a n d t h e fi n ding o f t h e ir E N A e qu iv al e n t s w a s a m u ch
.
g r e at e r t as k , a n d in t h is r e s p e c t t h e in d e x is f a r f r o m com p l et e
T he r e al s o h a s b ee n in cl u d e d a B iog r ap h ic a l Lis t c o nt a ining s ome
.
h un d r e d b r ie f
Moo die
s ke t c
he s o f
th e l e a ding
a n at o
mist s
of
ei
g
ht
t h e wo r l d by R oy L
.
.
We
a r e e sp e cia lly
ind e b t e d t o
M a r t in W S ch mid t f o r h e lp in
.
t h e t r an s
M S ch w it al l a S j f or g oing ove r t h e e nt ir e l is t ; t o T om
jon es an d Es t h er B r o d ay f o r much a id ; t o M e ssr s B ir sne r B oelio
C ar ot h e r s F is c h N or woo d W al dm an M is s H all a n d o t h e r s fo r v al u ab l e
a s sist an ce
We wo u l d like wise e x pr e s s ou r obliga t io n s t o th e pub l is he r s
f or t h eir p a inst a king ca r e in t h e p r ep ar a t ion o f t h e w or k
Th e wo r k is p r e se nt e d w it h t h e h o p e t h a t a ll wh o u se a n a t omic n ames
w ill h el p t o co n se r v e t h e e ne r gy w h ich is no w w ast e d in l e ar ning th e t e n s
o f t h o u sa nd s o f a n at omic s y n o ny ms w h e n l e s s t h an fi v e t h ou s a n d t e r m s
w ill d esign at e th e st r u ct u r e s w it h g r e ate r p r ec ision
l a t io ns ; t o A
.
.
,
.
.
,
,
.
-
,
,
,
,
.
.
.
,
CON TEN TS
.
I nt r o d uc t ion
S co p e o f t h e w o r k
P l a n a n d a c h ie v e me nt s o f t h e u n d e r t a k in g
R u l e s f o r t h e a s s ig n m e n t o f n a m e s
N omin a a n a t o m ic a
T e r m ini s it uu m e t d ir e c t io n e m p a r t iu m c o r p o r is in d ic an t e s
T e r m in i g e n e r a l e s
P a r t e s c o r p o r is h u m an i
O s t eo l o g ia
C o l u m n a v e r t e b r a l is
z
.
'
Ep is t r o p h e u s
Os s ac r u m
O s c o c c y g is
Th or a x
Co s t ae
S t e r nu m
T h o r ax
O s s a c r an ii
O s b a s il a r e
O s o c c ip it a l e
O s s p h e n o id a l e
O s t e mp o r a l e
O s p a r ie t a l e
O s fr o nt a l e
O s e t hmo id a l e
C o n c h a n a s a l is in fe r io r
O s l a c r im a l e
O s na s a l e
,
V om e r
O s s a f a c ie i
M ax ill a
O s p a l a t inu m
O s z y g o m a t ic u m
M a n d ib u l a
O s h y o id e u m
F o s s a e c r a n ii
F a c ie s o s s ea
O r b it a e
Ca v u m o r is
F o s s a in fr a t e m p o r a l is u n d F os s a p t e r y g o p a l a t in a
S u t u r a e c r a n ii
S y n c h o n d r o s e s c r a n ii
O s s a e x t r e m it at is s u p e r io r is
C in g u l u m e x t r e m it a t i s s u p e r i o r is
S c ap u l a
C l a v icu l a
S k e l e t o n e x t r e m it a t is s u p e r io r is l ib
.
H u me r u s
R a d iu s
Ul na
C ar p u s
e r a e
.
.
x
CO N T E N T S
ii
C o n t in u e d
N o mina a n a t o mic a
C o nt in u e d
O s t e o l o g ia
O s s a e x t r e m it a t is s u p e r io r is
.
‘
.
.
C o n t in u e d
.
M e t aca r p u s
P h a l a n g e s d ig it o r u m m a n u s
O s s a s e s am o id e a m a n t is
O s s a e x t r e m it at is in f e r io r is
C i n g u l u m e x t r e m it a t i s
.
in f
e r
io
O s c ox a e
O s il iu m
O s is c h ii
O s p u b is
S
kele
t o n
e x
t
m it
r e
a
t is
in f
e r
io
r
is
l ib
e r a e
.
.
F ib u l a
P a t e ll a
T ar s u s ( O s s a
T a lu s
Cal c a ne u s
O s n av ic u l a r e p e dis
O s s a c u n e ifo r m ia
O s c u b o id e u m
.
M e t at ar su s
m p e d is
P h a l a n g e s d ig it o r u
O s s a s e s a m o id e a p e d is
S y nd e s m o l o g ia
Lig a m e n t a c o l um n a e ve r t e b r a l is e t c r a n ii
A r t ic u l a t io a t l a n t o o c c ip it a lis
A r t ic u l a t io a t l a n t o e p is t r o p h ica
A r t icu l at io n e s c o s t o v e r t e b r a l e s
A r t ic u l a t io n e s c a p it u l o r u m
A r t ic u l a t io n e s c o s t o t r a n s v e r s a r ia e
A r t icu l a t io n e s s t e r no co s t a l e s
A r t ic u l a t io man d ib u l a r is
( A r t ic u l a t io n es o s s h y o id e i)
Lig a m e nt a c in g u l i e x t r emit at is s u p e r io r is
A r t ic u l a t io a c r o m io c l av icu l a r is
A r t ic u l a t io s t e r n o c l av ic u l a r is
A r t icu l a t io h u m e r i
A r t ic u l a t io c u b it i
A r t ic u l a t io r a dio u l n a r is d is t a l is
A r t ic u l a t io m a n u s
A r t ic u l a t io r a d io c a r p e a
A r t ic u l a t io in t e r ca r p e a
A r t ic u l a t io o s s is p is if o r m is
A r t ic u l a t io n e s c a r p o m e t a c a r p e a e
A r t ic u l a t io c a r p o m e t a c a r p e a p o ll ic is
A r t icu l a t io n e s in t e r m e t a c a r p e a e
A r t ic u l a t io n e s m e t a ca r p o p h a l a n g e a e
A r t icu l a t io n e s d ig it o r u m m a n u s
Lig a m e n t a cin g u l i e x t r e mit a t is in f er io r is
A r t ic u l a t io s a c r o il ia c a
S y m p h y s is o s s iu m p u b is
A r t ic u l a t io c o x a e
A r t ic u l at io g e nu
A r t ic u l a t io t ib io fi b u l a r is
S y n d e s m o s is t ib io fib u l ar is
A r t ic u l a t io n e s p e dis
A r t ic u l a t io t a l o c r u r a l is
A r t ic u l a t io n e s in t e r t ar s e a e
A r t icu l a t io t a l o c al c a n e o n a v ic ul a r is
A r t ic u l a t io t a l o c a l c a n e a
A r t ic u l a t io t ar s i t r a n s v e r s a
A r t ic u l a t io t a l o n av ic u l ar is
.
.
.
0
0
C ON TEN TS
N o min a
mic a
.
C o nt inu e d
C o n t inu e d
S y nd e s m o l o g ia
Lig a m e n t a cin g u l i e x t r e m it a t is inf e r io r is
an a t o
.
.
A r t ic u l a t io c a l c a n e o c u b o id e a
A r t icu l a t io c u n e o na v ic u l a r is
L ig a m e n t a t a r s i in t e r o s s e a
L ig a m e n t a t a r s i d o r s a l ia é
Lig a m e n t a t a r s i p l a n t a r ia
A r t ic u l a t io n e s t a r s o m e t a t a r s e a e
A r t ic u l a t io n e s in t e r m e t a t a r s e a e
A nt ic u l a t io n e s m e t a t a r s o p h a l a n g e ae
A r t ic u l a t io n e s d ig it o r u m p e d is
My o l o g ia
M u s c ul i d o r s i
M u s c u l i c a p it is
Mu s c u l i o s s is h y o id e i
Mu s cu l i c o l l i
M u s c u l i t h o r acis
M u s cu l i a b d o m in is
M u s c u li c o c c y g e i
Mu s cu l i e x t r e m it a t is s up e r io r is
M u s c u l i e x t r e mit a t is in f e r io r i
B u r s a e e t V a g in a e m u c o s a e
S p l a n c h n o l o g ia
A p p a r a t u s d ig e s t o r iu s
C a v u m o r is
B u cca
V e s t ib u l u m o r is
C a v u m o r is p r o p r 1 u m
Pala tum
T u n ic a m u c o s a o r is
G l a n d u l ae o r is
( G l a n d u l a e s al iv al e s )
S e p t u m l in g u a e
Mu s c u l i l in g u a e
F au c e s
M u s c u l i p a l a t i e t f a u c iu m
P ha r y nx
T u b u s d ig e s t o r iu s
O e sop hagu s
V e n t r ic u l u s
I nt e s t inu m t e n u e
I n t e s t inu m c r a s s u m
I n t e s t in u m r e c t u m
P a n c r e as
Hepar
A pp ar a t u s r e s p ir a t o r iu s
Ca v u m n a s i
N a s u s e x t e r nu s
La r y n x
Ca r t il a g m e s l a r y n g is
M u s c u l i l a r y n g is
Ca v u m l a r y n g is
T u n ic a m u c o s a l a r y n g is
T r a c h e a e t B r o n c hi
Pu l m o
C av u m t h o r a c is
Ca v u m p l e u r a e
C l a n d u l a t h y r e o id e a
G l o m u s c a r o t ic u m
T hy m u s
Co n t inu e d
.
x
CO N T E N T S
iv
N o m in a a n a t o mic a
C o nt in u e d
C o nt inu e d
S p l an c h n o l o g ia
A p p ar a t u s ur o g e nit a l is
O r g a n a u r o p o e t ic a
Re n
A r t e r ia e r e n is
V e n a e r e n is
.
.
.
Ur e t e r
V e s ica u r in a r ia
G l a n d u l a s u p r a r e n a l is
O r g a n a g e n it a l ia
O r g a n a g e n it a l ia v ir il ia
V e s ic u l a
s e m in a
.
l is
F u n ic u l u s s p e r m a t icu s e t t u n ic a e t e s t is
Pr o stata
G l a n d u l a b u lb o u r e t h r a l is
P a r t e s g e n it a l e s e x t e r n a e
.
et
f u n ic u l i S p e r m a t ic i
.
.
Ur e th r a
S cr o tum
vi
r
il is
O r g an a g e nit a l ia m u l ie b r ia
O v a r iu m
.
.
Pa r o o p h o r o n
P a r t e s g e n it a l e s e x t e r n a e
P u d e n d u m m u l ie b r e
G l v e s t ib u l a r is m aj o r
C l it o r is
U r e t h r a m u l iebr is
P e r in e u m
M u s c u l i p e r ine
D iap h r a g m a p e l v is e t d ia p h r a g m a
P e r it on a e u m
.
Cor
A t r iu m d e x t r u m
V e n t r ic u l u s d e x t e r
A t r iu m s in is t r u m
V e nt r ic u l u s s in is t e r
A r t e r iae
A r t e r ia p u l m o n a l is
A o r t a a s c e n d e ns
A r cu s a or tae
A o r t a d e s ce ndens
A r t e r ia car o t is
A c ar o t is
A c a r o t is
co m
mun is
.
.
.
A v e r t e b r al is
A b a s il a r is
A
T r u n c u s t h y r e o c e r v ic a l is
A t h y r e 01 d e a 1 n fe r io r
“
A c e r v ic a l is a s c e n d e n s
A c e r v ic a l is s u p e r fi c ial is
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
A
.
t r a ns v e r s a s c a p u
l ae
.
l
ta e
ur og eni
CO N T EN T S
N omina
a na t o mic a
C o nt inu e d
A n gio l o gia
C o n t in u e d
A r t e r ia s u b c l a v ia
C o nt inu e d
T r u n c u s c o s t o c e r v 1 c a l is
.
.
o
.
in t e r c o s t a
A
A
.
c e r v ic a
.
l is
l is
s up r e
.
m
p r o fu n d a
.
t r a n sv e r sa
ill ar is
A t h o r a c a l is s u p r e m a
A t h o r a c o a c r o m ia l is
A t h o r a c a l is l a t e r a l is
A
A c ir c u m fl e x a h u m e r i a n t e r io r
A c ir c u m fle x a h u m e r i p o st e r io r
A b r a c h ia l is
A p r o fu n d a b r a c h ii
A c o ll a t e r a l is u l n a r is s u p e r io r
A c o ll a t e r a l is u l na r is in fer io r
A
.
ax
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
A
A
A o r t a t h o r a c alis
R a m i V is c e r al e s
R a m i p a r ie t a l e s
A a in t e r co s t a l e s
.
.
.
R a m i p a r ie t a l e s
A p h r e n ic a in f e r io r
A a lu m b al e s
A s a c r a l is m e d ia
G l o mu s c o c cy g e u m
R a mi v is c e r a l e s
A c o e l ia c a
A m e s e n t e r ic a s u p e r io r
A m e s e n t e r ic a in fe r io r
A s u p r a r e n a l is m e dia
A
A s p e r m a t ica in t e r n a
A
A
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
R a m i p a r ie t a l e s
A
A
A
A
.
sacr a
l is l a t e r a l is
.
.
.
g l u t a e a s u p e r io r
g l u t a e a in f e r io r
R a mi v is c e r a l e s
A u m b il ic a l is
A v e s ic a l is in fe r io r
A
A u t e r in a
l is ni
A h a e m o r r h o id a
e dia
A p u d e n d a in t e r n a
A il iac a e x t er n a
or
A e p ig a s t r ic a in f e r i
A c ir c u mfl e x a il iu m p r o fu n d a
A f e mo r a l is
A p r o fu n d a fe m o r is
A g e nu s u p r e m a
A p o p l it e a
A t ib ia l is a n t e r io r
A t ib ia l is p o s t e r io r
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
XV
x v
CO N T E N T S
i
N o min a a n a t o mic a
C o n t inu e d
A n gio l o g ia
C o n t inu e d
V e n ae
V e n a e p u l m o na l e s
V v c o r d is
V e n a c a v a s u p e r io r
V v a no ny m a e d e x t r a
.
.
.
.
.
V
.
ju g u
l a r is
et
5 1 n1 s t r a
in t e r n a
S in u s d u r ae m a t r i
V e na e c e r e b r i
V o p h t h a l m ic a s u p e r io r
V o p h t h a l m ic a in f er io r
fa c ia l is c o mm u n is
V fa c ia l is a n t e r io r
V fa c ia l is p o s t e r io r
.
.
V
.
.
.
V
.
b c l a v ia
V a x ill a r is
su
.
V
V
.
az y g o s
.
in fe r io r
R a d ic e s p a r ie t a l is
R a d ic e s v is c e r a l e s
c av a
.
V e na e p o r t a e
V e n a il ia c a c o m m u n i
V h y p o g a s t r ic a
V il ia c a e x t e r n a
S y s t e ma l y m p h a t icu m
V a s a l y m p h a t ic a
.
.
-
D u c t u s t h o r a c ic u s
Ly m p h o g l a nd u
P l e x u s l y m p h a t ic i
N e ur ol o gia
.
n e r v or u m
S y st e m a
M e d u ll a
S
sp i
na
e c t io n e s
l
cen t r a e
l is
m e d u ll ae
s p in a
l is
Rh o m b e n c e p h al o n
My e l e nc e p h al o n
M e du ll a o bl o ng a t a
S e c t io n e s m e d u ll a e o bl o n g a t a e
V e n t r ic u l u s q u a r t u s
M e t e n c ep h a l o n
Po ns
S e c t io n es p o n t is
P a r s d o r s a l is p o nt is
P a r s b a s il a r is p o n t is
C e r e b e ll u m
H e m is p h a e r ia c e r e b e ll i
V e r m is
S e c t io n e s c e r e b e ll i
I st h m us r hom b e n c ep ha l i
S e c t io n e s is t h m i
-
C e r e b r um
M e s e n c e p h a lo
n
.
P e du n c u l u s c e r e b r i
S e c t io n e s p e d u nc ul i c e r e b r i
C o r p o r a q u a d r ig e m in a
S e c t io n e s c o r p o r u m q u a d r ig e min o r u m
Pr os e n c e p h a l o n
.
P a r s o p t ic a
S e c t io n e s h y p o t h a l a m i
.
.
x
fl
fi
C O N T EN TS
N o min a an at o mic a
C o n t inu e d
C o n t in u e d
N e u r o l o g ia
S y s t e m a n e r v o r u m p e r ip h e r ic u m
.
.
o
P l ex
Plex
us
N
c o c cy g e u s
S y st e ma
.
us
N
.
.
.
b t u r at o r iu s
fe m o r a h s
s acr al i
s
is c h ia d icu s
p u d e n du s
N
C o n t in u e d
n e r v or um
sy
m p at h icu m “
P a r s c e p h a l ica e t c e r v ic a l is s s y m p a t hic i
P a r s t h o r a c a lis s
P a r s a b d o m in a l is e t p e l v ina s s y mp a t h ic i
O r g an a s e n s uu m e t I n t e g u me n t u m c o mmu n e
O r g a n o n v is u s
O culus
N o p t ic u s
B u lb u s o c u l i
T u n ic a fi b r o s a o c u l i
S cle r a
C o r ne a
T u n ic a v a s c u l o s a o c u l i
C h o r io id ea
C o r p u s c il ia r e
I r is
S t r a t u m p ig m e n t i
R e t in a
V a s a s a n g u in e a r e t in a e
Cam e r a o c u l i a n t e r io r
C am e r a o c u l i p o s t e r io r
C o r p u s v it r e u m
L e n s c r y s t a l lina
Z o nu l a c il ia r is
O r g a n a o c u l i a c c e s s o r ia
M u s c u l i o c u l i, F a s c iae
S u p e r c il iu m
P a l p e b r ae
Co n j u n c t iv a
A p p a r a t u s l a c r im a l is
O r g a n o n a u dit u s
A u r is in t e r n a
L a b y r in t h u s me m b r a n a c e u s
D u c t u s c o c h l e a r is
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Vasa
a u r is
1 nt e r na e
La b y r in t h u s o s s e u s
V e st ib u l u m
Co c hl e a
M e a t u s a c u s t ic u s in t e r n u s
C av u m t y m p a n i
P a r ie s t e g m e n t a l is
P a r ie s j u g u l a r is
P a r ie s l a b y r int h ic u s
P a r ie s m a s t o id e u s
P a r ies c ar o t ic u s
P a r ie s me m b r a n a c e u s
Me m b r a n a t y mp a n i
O s s icu l a a u d it u s
S t ap e s
I nc u s
M a ll e u s
A r t ic u l a t io n e s
.
culor u
o ssi
m
a u d it u s
L ig am e nt a o s s icu l o r u m a u d it us
Mu s c u l i o s s ic u l o r u m au d it u s
.
CO N TEN T S
N o m in a
an at o
mic a
C o n t inu e d
.
.
O r g a n a s e n s uu m e t I n t e g um e n t um
O r g a n o n au d it us
C o n t in u e d
T u n ic a m u c o s a t y m p a n ica
T u b a a u d it iv a
co
mm u n e
C o n t mue d
.
.
Meatus
a c u s t icu s
ex t e r n u s
A u r ic u l a
O r g a no n o l f a c t u s
O r g an o n g u s t u s
I n t e g u m e n t u m c o m mu n e
C u t is
E p id e r m is
C o r iu m
T e l a s u b cu t a n e a
Co r p u s c u l a n e r v o r u m t e r m in a l ia
P il i
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
o
o
o
O
O
o
o
O
O
Un g u e s
G
l an du l a e
cut i
s
G 1 g l o m if o r m e s
G l a n du l a e s e b a c e a e
.
M am ma
-
l
r i is
vi
O
O
O
R e g io n e s c o r p o r is h u m a n i
E x p l anat io n s f o r t h e N o m e nc l a t u r e
A cc e nt u a t io n
D e s ig n a t io n s o f p os it io n a n d d ir e c t io n o f p a r t s
G l an d u l a e , l y m p h o g l a nd ul ae , n o du l i l y mp h a t ic i
P a r t e s , t e r min i g e n e r a l e s
O s t e o l o gy
I n fu n dib u l u m e t h m o id a l e
G l a b e ll a
F o s s a s c a p h o id e a
.
Ve r t e b r a e
S u l c i p a r a g l e n o ida l e s
Lin e a in t e r m e d ia
Al a o s s is il iu m
S y n de s m o l o g y
Lig a c c e s s o r 1 u m v o l a r e
L ig c a r p i v o l a r e
L ig c a r p i t r a n s v e r s u m
Lig t a l o c a l c a n e u m a n t e r iu s
.
.
.
.
M y o l o gy
Par s
M
l a c r im a l is
m
o r b 1 c u l a r is o c u
li [ M
q u a d r a t u s l a b 1 1 s u p e r io r is
R a p h e p t e r y g o m a n d i u a r is
M s t e r n o c e id o m a s t o id e u s
F a s c ic u i t r a n s v e r s i [ A p o n e u r o s is p a
H o r n e r i]
.
l
l
b l
l
.
M
.
i
l m a r is ]
m in imu s
L ig f u n d ifo r m e p e n is
I n g u in a l f o v e a e
B ur s a e e t v a g in a e mu co s ae
S p l an c h n o l o g y
hs
T o n s ill a lin g u a
S u l c u s t e r m ina l is l in g u a e ; d u c t u s l in g u a l is ,
.
s c a e nu s
.
.
R e c e s s u s p h a r y ng e u s
B u r s a p ha r y n g e a
A r e a e g a s t r ic a e
P a r s a n a l is r e c t i
N asu s
La r y nx
M a cu l a fl av a
C a r t il a g o c u n e ifo r m is
L ig c r ic o t h y r e o id e u m m e d iu m
A n nu l u s u r e t h r a l is v e s ic ae
.
.
etc
O
C O N T EN T S
x x
E x p l an at io ns f o r t h e N o me n c l a t u r e
S p l an c h n o l o g y
C o nt in u e d
.
C o n t in u e d
.
P ag e s
.
Co ll ic u l u s s e m in a l is
C a vu m p e l v is
P e r it o n a e u m
L ig fal c ifo r m e h e p a t is
P l ic a v e s ic a l is t r a n s v e r s a
B u r s a o v ar ii
A n g iol o g y
.
or
V e n a o b l iq u u a a t r ii s inis t r i
V e n a j u g u l a r is e x t e r n a
V e n a a u r ic u l a r is p o s t e r io r
V e n a e c u t a n e a e b r a c h ii e t a n t ib r a c h ii
V e n a e p a r u m b il ica l e s
.
N eu r o l o g y
D iv is io n s o f t h e b r a in
M e d u ll a s p in a l is
V e n t r ic u l u s q u a r t u s
T a e n ia e v e n t r ic u l o r u m
F a s c ic u l u s l o n g it u d in a l is m e d ia l is
A s c e n d in g a n d d e s c e n d in g ne r v e r o o t s
N u cl e i o f n e r v e s
G y r u s fo r n ic a t u s
F is s u r a h ip p o c a m p i, e t c
G y r u s s u b c a ll os u s
R h in e n c e p h a l o n
O r g a n a s en s uu m
R e s u me
B io g r ap hic a l S k e t c h e s
I nd ex an d S y n on y m R e g is t e r
z
'
‘
.
’
.
1
o f a n a t o mica l n a
T h e l is t s
the
or i
g ina l
S ome
.
of
the
me s h av e b e e n
obv i
ou s
r ep r o d u c e d
or i
g inal
in t h e
er r o r s
f o l l ow in g
42 , N os 34, 3 5 r e ad Ligg instead o f Li
g
45, N os
57 58 r ea d M m ins t e a d o f M
47 , N o 49 r e a d [ S p ig el i] in s t e a d o f [ S p ig e ]
.
.
.
.
.
51
,
.
.
56 No
,
.
.
No 4
r ea d o b t u r a t o r i
s
65
.
r ea
ins t e ad
d fi b r os a inst e a d
of o b t u r a t or i
i
of
fi b r os i s
N o s 74, 75, 76 r ea d V v ins t e a d of V
r ea d V i
n s t ea d o f V v
.
.
.
r e ad
.
N n in s t e a d
.
of
N
.
A B B R E V I A T I ON S
n
ner vi
.
.
Nn
N er vi
.
.
Os s O ssa
.
gl a n d u l ae
Lig
Lig a m e nt u m
.
lig a m e n t i
Ligg Lig a ment a
l ig
.
M M u s c u lu s
.
.
.
o ss
.
.
R R a mu s
.
r
.
.
.
O ss is,
‘
.
Rr
ra
.
.
.
mi
.
R ami
.
V V e na
v
o ss 1u
v e na e
.
.
Vv Venae
.
N
.
N e r v us
.
.
ex a c t
m
.
ly
I N TROD UCTI ON
I
n
the y e ar
1 887
t h e A n at omic a l S
vi
g or o u sly , r e sol v e d at
the
of
r e anat o
e nt i
it s
mic a l
fi r st
o c ie t y,
s e s s ion
no m e n c l a t u r e ,
.
wh ich
n ce
si
h as g r o w n v e r y
s ion
u n d e r t ak e a r e v i
in Le ip z ig t o
an d au t h o r i
ze d i
ts
t h e n e c e s s a r y p r e p ar a t io n s f o r t h e e x e c u t ion o f t h e
ma t t e r
t h is
sugge s t e d
t h at t ime
at
t o b egin
ng
u n d e r t ak i
I
.
h ad
dir e c t or s d ecid e d
t h e b oa r d o f
and
fi
of c e r s
at
A ft e r a
p r e l im in a r y C o mm is s io n o f t w o m e m b e r s
l e ngt hy d is cu ss ion t h e b oar d r e s o lv e d , o n t h e mo t ion o f M r L e u c k ar t ,
t ha t th e o ffi c ial s o f t h e e n t ir e S oc ie t y d isc us s s u c h a n u n d e r t a king 1
fi r st
to
c
hoose
a
.
.
.
Th e r e as o n s f o r
I nde e d
an a na r c
a
hy
ha d
e q u al ly su ff e r e d an d
t er ms
r ev i
s ion
of
r ei
g ne d
w h ic h
t h e n ome nc l a t ur e we r e
un d e r
h er e
wh ic h
ne cessa r i
ly r e t ar d e d
v er y
o bv i
ou s
.
t e a c h e r s a n d p u p il s
inv e s t igat io n
Th e
.
s t oc k
d o w n f r o m p r e v io u s ce nt u r ie s w a s b y it s el f mo r e t h an
ng d ou b l e o r mu lt i
s uffi c i
e nt , a n d w e lo ng h a d b e e n ac c u s tome d t o s e e i
ple
d es ig na t ion s f or m any st r u ct u r e s, e g , M t r ap e z iu s siv e cucu la r is ;
of
hand e d
.
.
N
.
p ne u m og as t r ic us ;
v ag u s s i
ve
.
M pe t r os alp ingos t ap hy linus s iv e l e v a t or
.
p al at i a n d simil a r d ou b l e n a me s w e r e r e p e at e d f r o m t ex t b oo k t o t ex tb ook,
f r om l e ct u r e t o le c t u r e O c casio nal ly t h e l u x u s w e nt c on s id e r ab ly f a r t h e r
n
.
co li
,
d e s ign at ion s l ike V a lv u l a
an d
ve
si
si
ve
ileo c o e c a l is ,
B au h ini,
si
ve
F a l lo p pia e ga v e t o t h e te ac h e r occa s ion f or e x cu r s ion s int o
h ist or ical t er r it o r y and fo r t h e d is cussion o f f os sil p r ior it y que st ion s
T u lpii,
si
ve
.
T he m e r it
b e l ong s t o
.
of
c o n sc iou s
J H e nle
.
,
t o wh om w e
old
w it h t h e se
r upt u r e
ar e
ind eb te d
h ar ml e ss
a l so
f or t h e
t r a d it ion s
su b se quent
g oo d o r ie nt ing d e signat ion s , su c h a s s ag it t al, f r o nt al,
m e dia l , l a t e r al
H e n l e acc ep t e d o nly o n e n am e fo r e a c h s t r u ct u r e a n d
F u r th e r mo r e H enl e
r e l eg at e d
s y n o nym s t o n o t e s be n e a t h t h e t ex t
int r o d uct io n
of
.
.
j
p e r son al
r e ect e d
t e r ms , g iv ing as a
inj u st ic e
1
r e a s on
t h em
by
ob e c t i
ve
t h a t t h e cu r r e nt n ame s o f t e n imp l ie d
h is tor ic al
n ame s
r e p l a ce d
an d
t h r ou g h o u t
j
.
Re p o r t
on
t h e t r a n s a c t io n s o f t h e fi r s t
A n a t o m is c h e r A n z e ig e r V o l
.
II
,
p
.
403
.
m e e t in g
of
the
A na t o m ic a l S o c ie t y
.
A N A T O M I CA L N AM E S
4
I f w e w is h t o b e f r ank, w e mu st
the
an at o
mic al
nome nc l at u r e,
did
s ay
H enl e
t h at
at
no t
.
fi r st
’
t o simp l ify
e ff or t
s
b r ing
the
to
ne ar e r
us
d g oal b u t car r ie d u s f r om it
A t l e ast s inc e t h e pub l ic a t io n o f
H e nle h im s e l f
H e nl e s t e x tb o ok t h e m ix up h as b ecome mo r e ob v io u s
int r od u ce d ma ny n e w nam e s
Wh ile some t e ac h er s immed iately fo l
l ow ed h im, o t h e r s r e m a ine d s t at io nar y , s t ill o t h e r s w e r e e c le c t ic an d m ain
t a in e d t h e ir r igh t t o co in na me s
Th u s t h e co ndit ion g r a du a ll y h as c ome
cov e t e
.
’
-
.
.
.
a b ou t
f r om
sch oo l
t h a t e ac h
o n e u ni
v er s i
ty
to
Th e
h a s it s p ec u l iar l a nguag e
n h is
a no t h e r b e come s t an l e d u p i
g
.
go ing
har d acq uir ed
st u de nt
l it e r a t u r e
kno w l e dge ; e v en th e p hy s ic ia n c a n fo ll o w r ea d ily o nl y t h a t
T h is s t a t e
w hich u s es his o wn ac qu ir e d a nat om ic a l l a ng u ag e
o f a ffa ir s
is
of
t r e as u r y
a ll
.
wh o f os t e r
c o ndi
t io ns
h ar mf u l
so
a na t omy a r e
M o r e ov e r
.
t o in st r uc t ion an d so
h umilia ting
imp r e ss e d w ith t h e
t h e p r op o s it io n t o
do
n e c es s i
ty o f a c
w it h t h is
a w ay
imm e d iat el y f ou nd g e ne r a l app r ob a t io n in th e S o cie ty
B u t w h e n t h e offic er s b ega n t h e
p u t int o a r e so lu t io n
.
d e t a il e d w o r k t h e
the
at
n umb e r a n d
fi r st
d iffi cu l t ie s
imp o r t a nce
t h e sa m e t ime w e h av e
a r e not
in s u r mo u nt abl e
t h e ob e c t
j
in
t h e t h o r o ug h
I t
s oo n
v ie w
.
nu is anc e
ex
S ince t h e n
qu ickly c ame t o l igh t
d iffi c u lt ie s h av e no t a bl y inc r e a s e d ; b u t
.
he d
me mb e r s
th e
c l e ar
v er y
of
w as gl a dly
e c u ti
on o f t h e
t h e go od w il l o f al l int e r est e d a n d
on o f
c oop e r a t i
b e c ame
h a n ge
t h e co nv ict io n t h at th e p r e s ent ob s t a c l e s
I t is n e c e s sa r y , h o w ev e r , f o r t h e a tt ainme n t o f
r eac
h av e
to
t h at
a nd
v er y
the
of
s cie n c e,
to
t o th e
t h e A n at o m ic al S
of
fi
of c e r s ,
t h at
a b ov e
o ci
ety
u nd e r t a king
an
all
.
w h ich
m u ch d e t a ile d w o r k c oul d not b e d o ne o ff h an d ; e v e n le ss
nce t h e a dmin is t r at ion ch a ng es f r om y e ar t o y e ar
I n a p r e s id e nt ial
so s i
n B e r li
n i
n 1 889 I b r o u gh t up f or d isc u s s i
a d d r e ss i
o n t h e mo s t i
mp o r t ant
d iffic ul t ie s w h ich s t oo d in t h e w a y o f a u nif o r m nome n cl a t u r e
T h e r e in
inv olv e d
so
—
.
,
,
.
I emph asiz e d
t h e n ec e s sity of t u r ning o v e r t h e r ev isio n o f t h e a nat om ical
l an gu ag e t o an app o int e d Co mmis sion ; a nd ab ov e all o f s ec u r ing a n
nv e st i a t i
e dit o r w h o w ou l d m ak e t h e n ec e s s ar y i
g o n s his so l e wo r k f o r
I n t h e b u s ine ss m eet ing o f t h e s e s sio n r e f e r r e d t o , t h e
s ev e r a l y e a r s
.
w e r e f o r m a lly
A C omm is sio n w a s a pp o int e d
w h ic h sh o u l d u nd e r t a k e in th e s pir it o f t h e ab ov e m e nt io n e d o p e ning a d
d r e ss t h e r ev is ion o f o u r a na t o mic al t e r ms an d t h e p r ep a r a t io n o f a u ni
k e r w a s ch o se n a s c h a ir m an o f t h e C omm is
v Koll i
f o r m n om e n c l a t u r e
l e O H e r t w ig H is K o ll m a n n M e r k e l S c h w a l b e T o l d t
on w hi
si
s ugg e s t e d
ide as
a dop t e d
.
,
,
.
.
W a ld ey e r
c
h ose n
2
1 889
.
as
a nd
,
,
.
S ec r e t ar y
the
m e mb e r s
T r a n s a c t io n s
of
of
E r g an z u n g s h e f t
th e
sa
me
of t he
,
S oc ie t y
,
,
K
.
v
.
,
,
B a r d e l e b e n2 w e r e
.
A na t o m ic a l S o c ie t y a t it s 3 r d m e e t in g
s c h e r A nz e i
o f t h e An a t om i
V ol I V p
ger
the
.
.
,
.
in B e r l in
13 1
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
6
.
it w as d e c id e d, a f t e r s om e p r e limin a r y e x p e r ime nt s , t o
d e sc r ip t iv e a n a t omy a l on e ; a nd t h is only in s o f a r a s it is t h e
F o r t h is
r e a so n
c on s id e r
ob ec t o f
j
inv e s t iga t ion wit h t h e
nak e d ey e
;
mo st w ith t h e a id o f a
u p t e r ms o f mic r o s c 0p ic
o r at
mp l e h a n d l e n s
T h e f e w a t t e mp t s t o t ak e
a n a t o my
s u c h a s t h e l ay e r s o f t h e c e r e b r al c o r t e x
si
.
me e t ing s
w e r e d is c u s se d in
s e v e r al
o pp o s i
t io n
C o mm is s ion
of
th e
u p o n o u r s e lv e s
t e r ms
e s t ab l ish
is t h e
o nl y
u se o f a
in La t in
.
or
of
t h e r e t ina
w e r e d e fe a t e d t h r ough t h e fi r m
a nd
A no t h e r l imit a t ion w h ich w e imp ose d
n g l e l an u a g e
W e h av e e n deav or e d t o
si
g
.
u po n
t h e a s s u m p tio n t h at e v e r yo ne
m u st b e
p e r m it t e d t o t r a ns la t e t h e s e t e r m s m o r e o r l e ss f r e e ly int o h is o w n
”
l an gu ag e
Th e wo r d
is a l it e r al
B r u st schli
is se l z it z e n f o r t sa t z muske l
.
K op f n ik e r
t h e wo r d
and
no
l at t e r
mat t e r ho w
a
d eu s,
s t e r n ocl e id om a s t o i
f r ee t r a ns l a t io n f o r
cor r e c t
the
fo r m er may b e , m a ny w ill p r e f e r t h e
4
.
T h e qu e s t io n a s t o h o w f ar ou r wor k sho u l d p ar t ak e o f an int er
T h e c on s id e r a
na t io na l ch ar a c t e r w a s o f a m u c h m or e d e lic at e n a t u r e
.
t io n
of
and
I
t his qu e s t io n le d t o
t r y to d e fin e
sh a l l
r ath e r e x
our
p lic it
co r r e sp o n d e n c e a n d
t o w a r d t h e s am e
tude
att i
d isc u s s io n,
in t h e
c l e a r es t
mos t disint e r e st e d m a nn e r p o s s ibl e
Fir st o f a ll it sh ou ld b e e mph as iz e d t hat t h e w o r k o n t e r m inol o gy w a s
b e gu n by t h e A na t o mic a l S o c ie t y an d t h a t t h e s am e u p t o t h e p r e se nt
d a y m u s t b e co n s id e r e d a n a ffa ir o f t h e S o c ie t y
T h e A n at omic a l S o c ie t y a l th o ugh f ou n d e d in B e r lin an d t h u s f ar
h a s h eld it s m e e t ing s o nly in c it ie s w h e r e t h e G e r ma n l a ng u ag e is sp ok e n
h a s no t b e e n f r o m t h e d a y o f it s f ou n d a t io n me r e ly G e r m a n in ch a r ac t e r
I nd e e d t h e l is t o f me m b e r s inc lu d e s n ame s f r om Am e r ica A u s t r o
H u ng ar y B e lg iu m D e nma r k E ngl an d I t al y R u ss ia S w e d e n S w it z e r
l a n d a nd a l s o o n e f r om F r ance A c co r ding t o v B a r d el e b e n t h e p r e se nt
s 1 4 5 G e r m a n a n d 1 2 9 f or e i
I n v ie w o f
m e mbe r ship s h o w
g n m e mb e r s
it s c ons t it uen cy t h e S oc ie t y m igh t p e r h ap s h av e h a d g oo d r e a so n t o
nt e r n a t i
o n al an a t omi
ca l
u n de r t a k e imme d iat e ly t h e e s t a b lis h m e n t o f a n i
”
A F r enc h p r ov e r b s ay s :
l ang u ag e
Qu i t r op emb r a s s e m al é t r e int
t h e r e f o r e in 1 889 ou r S o c ie t y c o nt e mpl at e d o nly u n if o r mit y a mo ng t h e
G e r m an s pe aking a n at o m is t s ; a nd t h e C omm is sion in t h e b eginning was
B ut a s my op e n in g a d d r e s s sh o w s f c o o p e r at ion
c omp o se d o nly o f su ch
w it h a n at om ist s o f o t h e r n at ion a l it ie s w a s c on s id e r e d e sp e c iall y d e sir ab l e
and
.
,
.
,
,
,
,
-
.
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
.
.
,
,
.
.
,
,
.
’
.
.
4
t he G
I
n t h e s e c o n d v o t in g s o n
er
man
Co mm is s io n
5
1
.
c
.
p 9
.
.
q u iva l e n t s o f t h e
t his w as l a t e r l e ft
e
My ol o g y K r au s e
,
a c c ep t e d
u nd o ne
.
ll
st i
L a t in t e r m s
.
d es ir e t o g iv e
T h r o u g h t h e w is h o f t h e
ex
p r e sse d
a
A N A T O M I CA L N A M ES
I n d e e d K r au s e
b e s id e s t h e G
in h is
man
er
fi r st
v olu
t e r ms
me
G
of
on
7
.
M y ological
T e r min o lo gy h as g iv e n,
H e n l e , H y r t l , K r au s e , a n d
eg e nb a u r ,
Lang e r , t h e Englis h t e r m s b y Q u a in a n d t h e F r en c h t e r m s b y S app e y
I n 1 89 0, w h e n t h e A n a to m ic a l S o cie t y an d t h e A n a to mical S e c t io n
.
of
I nt e r n at io nal M e dic al C ong r e s s m et a t th e s a me t im e in B e r lin it
w as b u t a n a t u r a l co n se q u e nce t h a t t h e Commiss ion cam e in t o u c h w it h
t h e a n a t o mist s o f o t h e r c o u nt r ie s a n d a t t h is t im e S ir Wm Tu r n e r
C u n ning h a m R om it é a n d Le b o uc q w e r e r e qu e s t e d t o j o in th e Commis
La t e r in Vien na T h an e w as al s o e nl is t e d
si
on
E sp e c ially t h e l a st
th r e e o f t h e se g e nt l em e n h av e t ak e n p a r t in t h e wo r k o f t h e C omm issio n
w it h t h e g r e a t e s t z e a l a n d int e r e s t no t on ly a t t h a t t im e b u t al s o a t
ng s in M u n ic h
s u b s e q ue n t m e e t i
V ie n n a G ot t ing e n a nd S t r as sb u r g
D e s ir a bl e a s it is t o h av e a sc ie nt ifi c l a ngu ag e wh ich is t h e s a me in all
l and s o f c u l t u r e it se em s t h a t a t p r e se n t t h e n e e d s o f th e v a r io u s c ou n
t r ie s a r e n o t t h e s a m e t h r o u g h o u t a n d w e s h a ll b e o b l ig e d p e r h a p s fo r
the
,
,
.
.
,
.
,
,
.
,
,
.
,
,
,
t im e t o c o m e t o
some
t h e cir c um st anc e s o u r
U nd e r
a n a b s o l u t e l y u n ifo r
d o w it h o u t
mu s t b e
e ffo r t s
to w a r d
t e r m in o l o g y
m
dim inu t ion
a
.
as
Th e A na t omic al S oc ie t y
p os sibl e o f t h e r e m a in ing d iff e r e nc e s
n ap p o i
nt e d a sp e c ia l C omm is s io n in 1 8 9 3 f o r t h e p u r
o f G r e at B r it a i
f ar
as
.
-
ng
o f a d ap t i
po s e
e a r li
er
( 1 890)
qu e st io n
yet
no t
m e mb e r ,
o ns
s ug g e s t i
ou r
S o c ie t y
a
t e r m ino l ogy
of
h an d b u t
M r W ild e r
at
.
,
op in i
on s
Th e
E ng l ish
n ee d s
6
.
of
h av e
p ub lish e d
a
S o me w h a t
on
the
th e E nglish Co mm is s io n
are
Am e r ic a n C omm is s io n
the
,
th e
A m e r ic a n A n a t o m is t s t r ie d it s
of
.
to
an d
se r i
es
hand
it s
ve r y
sm al l
of
ze a l ou s
p ap er s
a nd
p amp
hlet s "
n C omm iss io n is t h e sa m e a s our s
Th e o b j e c t p u r s u e d b y t h e A me r ic a
b u t t h e p at h w a y s t o t h e go a l a r e e ss e n t ially d iff e r e nt f r om t h o se w h ich
Th e p r in c ip l e is co mmo n t h at e ac h p a r t s h all h a v e
w e h av e c h o s e n
ngl e na me a nd t h at t h is n am e s h a ll b e a s s imp l e a n d c h a r
o nl y a s i
Wild e r an d h is c oll eagu e s g o fu r t h e r and w ant
ble
act e r is t i
c a s po ssi
“
t h ou t f a r t h e r a d d it io ns
v e s wi
s u b s t a nt i
n o nym s
o nl y ; i e
m
u
r
e
o
p
T h e y s ay e g p r ae c o r nu a nd p ost c o r n u in s t e ad o f co r nu a nt e r iu s a n d
,
.
.
.
°
J
ou r n a
l
.
,
,
.
po st e r iu s ,
c or nu
.
of
p o s t c av a
An at o m y
of
in s t e a d
a nd
P h y s io l o g y
v e na
.
cav a
1 894
.
p os t e r ior ,
V o l X XV I I
.
et c
At t h e
.
.
A m o n g t h e w r it in g s o f W il d e r , I c it e a s t h e p r in c ip a l o n e s : T h e fu n d a
m e n t a l p r in c ip l e s o i a n at o m ic a l n o m e n c l a t u r e b y B u r t G W il d e r , M D , f r o m
F is s u r a ] d ia g r am s o f t h e h u m a n b r a in
t h e M e d ica l N e w s , 1 9 D e c e m b e r 1 89 1
Ma c r o s c o p ic a l v o c a b u l a r y o f t h e b r a in p r e s e n t e d t o t h e A s s o c o f A m e r ic a n
Am e r ic a n R e p o r t s u p o n A n a
1 89 0
29 D e c
a n a t o m is t s a t B o s t o n, M a s s
i
t o mic a l N o m e n c l a t u r e , 1 889 1 89 0, w it h N o t e s b y W il d e r , C o r n e ll U n v e r s it y
7
,
.
.
.
.
.
.
,
—
,
.
,
,
5 F eb
.
1 892
.
NA M E S
A N AT O M I CA L
8
.
p r e se nt t im e we hav e W il d e r s r e v is ion o f t h e b r ain n omen c l at ur e
ac c o r d in g t o t h e s u gg e s t e d p r in c i
p l e s , a n d t h is fi r s t a t t e m p t p e r m it s u s
’
t o f o r m an o p inion as t o t h e co nse qu e n c e s f ol l ow ing t h e p r ev a il ing e ff o r t
mononym s
t o u se
o n ly
We
.
f u lly
ag r e e
t h a t t h e w o r d T h al a m u s
c ould
b r ie fly in t h e p l ac e o f Th a l am u s op t ic u s w e e v e n do n o t o b j e ct
if in d aily l if e D u r a b e u s e d f o r D u r a ma t e r e nc e p h ali; in al l c a s e s in
u se d
be
B u t we c a nno t a d mit t h at w o r d s
p os sib l e
”
M e d ip ed un cu lu s
f or P e du ncu lu s c er e b e l li a d p o nt e m, in d ic a t e
lingu ist ic or p r a ct ical p r og r e ss
Th e co nt r ac tion o f s ev e r al w o r d s
w h ic h m is int e r p r e t a t io n is
like
ei
th er
in t o
.
.
m ay b e
on e
b ec ome s
mpl ifi c at io n
u nd e r
,
t el eg r aph ic
ab b r e v i
at e d
n e g at iv e
c e r t ai
n c o n d it ion s , a s i
it m ay l a ck cl e ar ne s s a nd t h u s it s p u r p o s e
n e d w or d s r e u ir e s ec i
s uch co i
al e x p l an at ion s
q
p
M e d ip e du nc ulu s w ith ou t qualifi c a t ion is in com
it s h ou l d b e a t l e a s t M e dip e d u nc u l u s c e r e b e ll i a n d p r e f e r a b l e
p r e h en s ib l e ;
.
,
wo u l d b e P e d u n cu lu s me d iu s
t h is
M e d ipe dun culu s m ight b e
f or m e d w o r d
me diu s
P e d u nc ulu s m ed ial is
fo r
as
,
B u t l ike t h e
.
co d e
b e c au se
t o b e comp r e h e nd e d
to
no t
p e du nc u li
’
W il de r s list inclu de s many
c e r e b e l li,
nc e
si
u s e d e qu a l l y
w e l l f o r P e d u n c u lus
P a r s m e d ia ,
fo r
or
b a r b a r o u sly
the
m e d ialis
or
,
.
u ng r a
mmat ical w or d f o r m a t ion s
,
a n d o ne
p hil o log ica l p e d a nt t o b e sh oc k e d b y w o r d s l ike T e r m a
ins t e a d o f Lam ina t e r m in al is ; Po s t r am u s ( f o r R a mu s p o s t e r ior a r b or is
ne e d
be
no t
c e r e b e ll i
a
M an y
w o r d s , l ik e C imb ia
( T r ac tu s p e du n c u l ar is t r a n s
t a s e n c e ph a l i) ; A u l ix
v e r s us ) ; C o e l i
a ( fo r C a v i
( f o r S ul cu s M on r oi)
et c
b y t h e w a y e nt ir e ly n e w ; o r l ik e I s th m u s ( f o r G y r u s
ar e
n a d iff er e n t s e n s e t h an h e r e t o f or e
I d o no t k no w h ow
a nn e c t e n s ) u se d i
w id e a c ir cl e o f A m e r ic a n c oll e agu e s W ild e r h a s b e h in d him
A t a ny
)
,
etc
.
,
.
,
,
,
.
.
r at e
h is m e t h o d l e a d s t o th e
n ing
c oi
of
r e ly
e nt i
an
n ew
an d
f or t h e
m o st p ar t s t r ang e l y sou nding l ang u ag e
O n t h e se g r o u nd s o u r Co m
m is sion c an no t f o ll o w h im w ith o u t r e nou nc ing ou r h is t o r ic al p r inc ip l e s
F r om t h e t im e wh e n t h e sco p e o f ou r u n d e r t a king w a s e nl a r ge d
.
.
t h r o ugh t h e c oop e r a t ion o f
ne e d o f
f e l t th e
E ngl ish ,
c oll ab o r a t i
on
w it h
I talia n
and
F r enc h
o ur
B elg ian
c oll e ag u e s ,
c o ll e agu e s
.
B ut
we
n ce
si
mee t ings w e co u ld b r ing abo u t a c oll ab or a
t io n o nly t h r o ugh t h e r at h er c u mb e r s ome m e d ium o f cor r esp on d en c e
W e c or r es ponded esp e c ially w ith T e s tu t th e memb er o f o ur s oc ie ty I
t r ie d d u r ing my st ay in Par is t o int e r e st M at h ias D uv al in o u r w or k
f oll ow ing a r e so lu t ion o f t h e Co mmiss ion in G ot t inge n in
a n d fi n al l y
t h e l a tt e r d id not
a tt e nd o u r
.
,
.
,
,
1 893 ,
we
ally
o f ci
fi
no m e n c l a t u r e
r e s u lt s
O n ly T e s tu t
a nd
Te stu t t o
an s w e r ed ,
ng
say i
c o o p er at e
w it h
u s on
t h at acco r ding t o h is
th e
c on
Commissio n o n N ome nc l a t u r e c ou l d e x p e ct dignifi e d an d l a st ing
t w e r e r e a ll y int e r n a t io nal , and e a c h m e mb er appo int e d
only if i
v cti
on a
i
.
inv it e d D u v a l
A N A T O M I CA L NA M E S
an
d e l egat e b y h is g ov e r n e nt
T hu s T e st u t
p a r t in t h e w o r k o nly wh en r e qu es t e d t o d o
fi
cou l d
of
m
of c ial
9
.
t ak e
P ub lic
ex
.
so
p l a in ed t h a t h e
b y t h e M inist e r
I n s t r u c t ion I n e a r l ie r l e t t e r s Te st ut h ad ex p r e sse d t h e same
id ea a n d s ugge st e d t h a t t h e G er ma n G ov e r nm e n t m i h t t a ke t h e in itia t iv e
g
in t h is matt e r ; a nd f u r t h er t h at t h e se l e c t io n o f s u it ab l e a n at om is t s f or
m e mb er s o f th e Co mmiss ion migh t b e d el eg a t e d t o t h e A nat omic al S oc iet
y
gov e r nme n t s
co n s i
d e r a t io n s cau s e d t h e Commission
by t h e
v ar i
ou s
T wo
no
.
.
f u r t h e r t h o ug h t t o t h e
me n cl at ur e
T e st ut , inv it ing
as
t o giv e
t h e y migh t
F ir s t , ou r S o c ie t y, w h ic h sol icit ed a n d a cc ep t e d
g l an ce
f r o m A ca d em ie s and S c ie n t ifi c S ocie t ie s f o r t h e a c com
fi r st
at
ap p e a r
s ugg e s t i
on s o f
o n no
co n t r i
b u t ion s
.
p l ish me nt o f it s p l a n s , is o b l ig at e d t o fi n is h t h e w or k b egu n a nd c annot
B e sid e s a s m a t t e r s s t an d it a pp e ar s
p u t it a ll at on c e o n o t h e r s s ho ul d e r s
a lmos t h o p el e ss t o e x
p e c t t o r eac h th e g oal t h r ough th e int e r v e nt io n o f
g ov e r nme nt s
T h e r e e x ist s a p r ece d en t f or int e r na t ion a l a dj ust ment o f scie nt ifi c
.
.
t e r ms in t h e
e s t ab lis
Th e P r e s ide nt
”
oh m ,
mmon
”
t h a t t ime ,
p h y sic ist s
of
Co ng r e ss
s
t h em
1 88 1
of
u nit s
of
m e a s u r em en t s
c
e l ec t r i
.
of
a d op t i
o n o f co
n ce
si
in
t h e F r e nc h R ep ublic , at t h e t ime o f t h e Ex p o s it io n,
f o r e ign c o unt r ies t o s e nd d e l egat e s t o P ar is t o co n sid er t h e
inv it ed
volt ,
hme nt
mp e r e
a
ar e
me a su r eme nt s
Th e e x p r e ss io n
an d t h e e s t ab lish me nt o f t h e i
r v al u e s com mo n
u ni
t s o f e l e c t r ic a l
a
”
,
,
r e su l t
of
t h at
t h e wo r l d p a r t ic ip at e d
h ow s
.
.
in w h ich t h e p r in c ip al
p r int e d r epo r t o n t h e E l ec t r ic al
c on f e r e n c e
Th e
t h a t t w e nt y - e ig h t cou nt r ie s we r e
r e p r e s ent e d
;
a mo ng
Ce nt r al and S ou t h Ame r ic a n : C olumb ia
Cos t a Rica
V ene z u e la e t c a nd A siat ic , like J ap a n, t ot aling ab o ut 2 50 d el eg at e s
In
ou r o p ini
o n t h e m a tt e r s o f a na t o mi
nolo gy ar e e ss e nt iall y dif
cal t e r mi
f e r e nt f r om t h e a ff air s d ec ide d up o n at t h at t ime
O n t h e o n e h a n d it
we r e
,
,
.
,
,
.
.
m ome nt qu it e imp r ob abl e t h at th e v ar iou s g ov e r nm ent s
w ou l d t a ke a su flic ient in t e r e s t in ana t omic al n om enc l at u r e t o m a k e it a n
d er at io n ; o n t h e o t h e r h an d t h e w or k o f r ev ising
ob j e c t f o r c omm on co n si
t ho u sand s o f name s is s o ex t e ns ive t h a t it s acc o mp lish m e nt b y an I n t e r
nat i
n a r ea s onabl e l e ngt h o f
on c ou l d h a r dly b e ex p e c t e d i
on al Commiss i
t ime
B u t ab o v e a ll it r emain s t o b e emp h asiz e d t h at t h e l e gal fix ing o f
m possibl e b ecau se t h e p r ogr e ss o f
od i
s i
a nat omi
c al nam e s f or an y p e r i
s c ie nce it s elf r e qu i
r e s a c on s t an t d ev e l opme nt o f a nat omi
c al l angu age
S c ienc e mu st b e f r ee in it s l angu age and h a s no r eason t o sub mit t o t h e
a uth o r i
t y o f t h e gov e r nment
Up t o t h e p r e se nt t ime t he nom encl at ur e w as p r ov ide d b y in div id ual
M a ny n e w l y s u g
w r it e r s
au t h or s o f t ex t b oo k s an d mon og r aph s
n a di
ff
e r e n t s e n se
n e v e r c a me int o u se oth e r s w e r e u se d i
e
r
d
s
s
t
e
d
w
o
g
t h an t h at o r igina ll y p r o p os e d o t h e r s ag a in w e r e mo r e o r le ss w id el y
app e a r s a t
th e
.
,
.
.
—
.
,
,
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
I O
a dop t e d
The
.
s u cce ss o f
w o r d h as
a
.
f or it s
j u st ifi c at ion
b e en
a l w ay s
int o pl ay a nd n ame s
in t h em se l v es ab so l u t e ly c o r r e c t w e r e a b r up t ly r ep l a c e d b y o th er s
s c a r c e ly a s s i
I f no w t h e A n a tomic al S o c ie t y t r ie s t o b r ing
gn ifi c a nt
int r o duc t io n in t o
s ci
e nc e
.
came
f a s h ion
r ar e l
y
N ot
.
is t ing l it e r a t u r e it
o r de r
int o t h e
co u l d
t h e in div id u al w r it e r s
j u st ifi cat ion
n ames
ex
it s w o r k in t h e
of
w ill
al s o
It
.
ca nn ot
h av e
mu s t m er it p r e f e r e nce t h r ou gh t h e ir
to
ex
I t s l ist s
of
t h e ir p r e c is io n
of
ng
u n de r t aki
it s
su cc e ss o f
p ec t mor e t h a n
l o ok fi nally f or t h e
pr ior i
a
u s e fuln e s s ,
.
I t is n ec es
p r e s s io n a nd t h e l o g ica l co nn ec t io n o f t h e w h ol e sy s t e m
s a r y t h a t t h e a dv a nt ag e s o f t h e s ugg e s t e d n om e n cl a t u r e b e sat is f a c t o r y
ex
.
t o,
a nd
b y , t h e g r e at e s t p o ssibl e n u mb e r
Up o n it s m e r it s o f co u r s e , d ep en d s t h e
ph y sic ia n s
t io n
B u t t h e S o c ie ty
.
it s
up o n
nt
c anno t e x e r c i
se a n y r e s t r a i
mem b er s ; it can
o wn
t e r mino lo gy is
the
su r e r
B ut
e v en
ar e
t he
ex
,
.
a d ap t e d
r e c om
o nly
an at o mis t s
of
acc ep t e d
t e n t o f it s ad op
in t h is
r e sp e c t e v e n
m e nd “ T h e b et t e r t h e
a nd
t o t h e ex is t ing n e e d s o f t e a ch ing
may b e c ome l ac king
ag a i
n
in t h e
of
co u r s e
p e r io d s w ill b e an u nav o idab l e n e c e s sit y
T o r e t u r n t o t h e ab o v e m e nt io n e d q u e s t io n r e g ar ding t h e
o f gov e r nm e n t s in t h e e s t ablish me nt o f a n a t om i
c al n ame s ,
b e p r ec lu d e d e v e n a f t e r t h e co mpl e t ion o f t h e w o r k
S o c iet y
I n d e e d t h e S oc ie t y m igh t b e come t h e p o int
-
.
o ne o r
c o ll e ag u e s
a no th e r
w ou ld
of
the
even
of
t h e gove r nm e nt s
s ugg e s t
ag ai
n
nt e e s ,
app o i
c ons i
d er
the
as
,
a nd
y ear s ,
S o cie t y
r eg u l a t i
on s
s u ch
w o ul d
t h e A n a t om ic al
of
d ep a r t u r e
f o r ins t an c e
,
that
,
s u r el y
si
x
c oop e r at i
on
of
t h e o b j e c t o f an
f r u it l e ss it s
mos t f or mal g o v e r nm e nt al
I f
.
M inis t r y
t h e ir
to
b y t h e S o c ie t y b e ma d e
go v e r nme nt
a n d m u ch l ess w o u l d i
t
co u n c il
h
.
not
a cc ep t e d
r e se ar c
.
r ev i
si
n
on a t ce r t a i
F r e nc h
ne w
it s p r osp e c t s f or g e ne r al a c c ep t anc e a n d l a st ing s u cce s s
b es t p os s ib l e t e r mino lo gy , w h ich c o n f o r m s t o t h e n e e d s o f
t h e p r e se nt day ,
m o v em e n t b y
a nd
of a
,
o ur
n am e s
th e
int e r nat ional
w ou ld
j
no t o b ec t
B ut
y ear s o f w or k
w ill not b e abl e t o
.
p r ev e nt th e d is so l ut ion o f a n o ffic ially e s t a b lish e d l a ngu age a s s oon
t h e sa me n o l ong er c o n fo r m s t o t h e s c ient ifi c ne e d s o f t h e t ime s
as
.
Th e P lan
Th e
fi r st
c l at u r e
o r de r
w as
ne d
ou t l i
e g e n b au r s
’
me s
o f A n a t o my
l is t s
defi
a
b y K r au se
ni
te
w e r e w r it t e n in
G
o f na
.
A chiev e me nts
f
o
t he
Und er ta king
.
t e ch nic al p l an f o r t h e ca r r ying o u t o f t h e w or k on n om en
t o g et
b ook
8
an d
,
tet
si
nc e
an d
al l
f o u n d a t io n
alp h ab e t ic a l
o ok
for
si
x
was
as
b y t h e C o mmiss io n
t h e n a m e s in
or d e r
use d
y e a r s it
a pp r o v e d
t he
in
ve r t i
c al
b as is
r ep r e sente d
G
’
eg e n b a u r s
c o lu
m ns
8
lat e st
n
t ex t
an d
fo r t h e f o r ma t io n
t he
I
.
of
th e
the
t h o r o u g h r e v is io n
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
s yno ny
ms f r om
par al le l
se p a r a t e
es
a n d c opi
w er e
w er e
r e qu e s t e
in
h
e ac
name s
c ol u
ot
M o r e ov e r
in
w e r e t h u s p r e p ar e d
T h e m e mb e r s
Co mm is s ion
.
to t he
in
or
,
mn s
t ex tb ook s p l a ce d
h e r w ide ly u se d
Co mp r eh en siv e t ab l e s
of
m emb e r s o f t h e
u n der s c or e t h e mo s t s u i
t ab l e
se nt
d to
d iv isio n
nu mb e r
a
1 1
.
.
o f t h e n am e s e n u m e r a t e d
it w e r e t h o u gh t b e st , t h e y
c a se
c ou ld
p r op o s e
ne w
m emb e r s w er e r e qu e s t e d to a d d t o t h e p r int ed
lis t s a ny g e n er al o r sp e c ia l r e m ar k s w h ich migh t b e sugge st e d f r o m t h e
in spe c t ion o f t h e t a b l e s a n d t h e n t o r e t u r n t h em at a d e fi n it e t ime t o
K r a u s e Th e fi r st w r itt e n v o t e w a s at t e mp t e d o n My ol ogy a n d t h e r e su l t
ng i
n t h a t by t h e fi r s t v o t e 8
w as en co u r ag i
5% o f t h e n a m e s in q u e st io n
9
v ed a maj o r i
ty
r e cei
n lat e r v ot i
ng s 8 5% o f
a nd i
( a nd in d e e d
.
th e
.
,
,
G
’
eg e n b a u r s
b e s id e s
c olu
a bou t
mn s )
M or e
.
na m e s
ne w
1 00
t h a n 40%
w er e
a cc ep t e d
we r e
s ugg e s t e d
I
.
n
a
m o u sl y
u n an i
s ec o n
;
d p r int e d
p am p h l e t t h e a cc ep t e d, un d e c id e d an d ne w ly s u gg e s t e d nam e s w e r e s e nt
t o t h e m emb e r s o f t h e C ommis s io n a n d t h ey w e r e a l so in f o r me d o f t h e
re
m a r k s ma d e b y
o ccas i
on o f
an
fi r st
u n di
g e st e d
p e r s o n al
of
t he
th e
t io n t o
vo t e
r e si
du u
s e ssi
ons o f
I nasmu c h
.
m
n am e s ,
of
C o mmis s io n
th e
c on f e r e nce o f
fi n is h
in d iv id u al memb er s
th e
.
t h e Co mm is s io n
t h e O s t e ol ogy
and
the
as
t h e se
of
th e
s e c o nd
mmi sio n
Co
on
th e
v o t e al s o
l e ft
s
w r itt e n
w e r e t o b e d is p os e d
of
in
M y o lo g y b e c a m e t h e s u b j e c t
Munich w h ile it w as t h e int e n
Thu s
at
,
A ng io logy in V ie nna
.
Th e
c o n f e r e nc e s
h e ld imme d ia t e ly f oll ow ing t h e y ear ly me e t ing s
e ty
o f t h e A n at o m i
c a l S oc i
t h e r e b y a ffo r ding a n o p p o r t u n it y to e nl a r g e
T h u s in
t h e Co mm iss ion t h r oug h t h e e n list me nt o f a d d it io n al e x p e r t s
Mu nich B r a un e H e nke v Kup ff e r v Mih a lkov ics and R iiding e r ; an d
in V ie nna Z u cker k a ndl b ecame me mbe r s o f t h e C o mmissio n an d p a r
of
th e
C o mm is s ion w e r e
,
.
,
,
,
,
.
,
.
,
d elib e r a t ion s
t ic ip a t e d in t h e
.
h is man ne r w e h a d p r ogr e s s ed so far w it h t h e My ol ogy t h at at
t h e c lo s e o f t h e Mu n ic h co n f e r e nce in J u ne 1 8 9 1 a p amp h l e t c ou l d b e
p u b lis h e d w h ic h con t a in e d a t ot al o f ab ou t 3 00 n a mes ac c e p t e d b y t h e
Th e m e t ho d w h ic h h a d l e d t o r a t h e r sat is f ac t o r y r esu l t s
Comm issio n
in Myo l ogy p r o v e d h ar d ly p r a ct ic ab l e in t h e muc h m o r e e x t e n siv e O st e
r e l y in t h e o t h e r su b di
vi
s io n s o f
o l ogy a nd h a d t o b e ab a nd o ne d e nt i
I
n t
,
,
,
.
a na t o
I
my
.
n t h e seve r a l
w r it t en
v ot es
it w as d emo nst r a t e d,
as
is w el l
u n de r s t oo d
p sy c h ologic al ly , t h at t h e s e c on d an d t h ir d vo t e s o n t h e u n d e c ide d n ame s
Like w is e it a p p ear e d t h a t t h e
did n ot diff er e sse nt ia lly f r om t h e fi r st
.
ma r k s h and e d in a nd th e n e w name s s ugg est e d b y th e me mb e r s o f
t h e C o mm issio n f ou n d o nl y ina d e qu at e co ns id e r at ion an d t h e r e f o r e w e r e
re
,
,
9
S ee p p
.
1 4 a nd
1
5
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
12
w ith o u t f u r th e r inv e s t ig at io n ; a nd y e t j u st t h e se
t o f e x t e n s iv e w o r k d o n e by
a n d n e w na m e s w e r e o f t e n t h e fr u i
most
j
r e e ct e d a l
r em a r k s
r e ly
e nt i
t h o s e w h o h ad
( 1 89 2 )
a nd
ve r b a lly , o n e
a ft er
b y it s m e mb e r s
sugge s t e d
the
of
Co mmis s io n
the
an d
t o d isc uss
t e r ms
kno w l e dge
sp ec i
al
o v e r c o me
to b e
.
bu t l e s s qu ic kly ex e c u t e d
e x ac t e d f r om t h e m e mb e r s
I
.
n
her
,
in V ie nna
a ll t h e r e m a r k s r e c o r d e d
w a s qu ic kly a d op t e d
w o r k h a d al r ea dy b een
r esol u t i
on
M u n ich h a r d
Commiss ion,
the
of
an ot
T his d r a wb a c k h a d
.
ng ly
acco r di
r e s o lv e d
Th e
.
j
s u b e ct
nc e
si
t h ey we r e
o bli
ged,
Kollike r t o l is t e n t o t h e p ap e r s a n d d e mo n
A M t o 6 zoo P M wit h
s tr a t i
on s o f t h e A n a t o m i
c al S ocie t y f r o m
s si
mm e d iat ely a f t e r w a r d h a d t o con f e r o n
only a sh o r t i
n t e r mi
on
a nd i
nam e s u n t il 9 zoo P M
I n V ie nna t h e se s s ion s o n no m e n c l at u r e e x t e nd e d
u n d e r t h e s t r ict r u ling s o f v
.
,
.
.
.
.
,
l
,
.
ll
st i
.
f u r t h e r int o t h e
ni
gh t , a n d r e s u lt e d
in
an ex
h au st io n
th e p a r t o f
d elib e r a t io ns
on
mos t w h o w e r e p r es ent w hich w a s v e r y u n f av or abl e for su ch
I n sp it e o f a ll e ff o r t s t h e Co mmis s io n f ou n d it s e l f s t ill in th e p o s it io n
.
of
p a r t s o f it s ta s k , an d so it fi n al ly a d op t e d t h e
nt in
e x p e die nt o f app o i
g sp e c ia l c ommit t e e s a n d a ssig n ing t o t h e m s u b
Fir s t , in V ie nn a , M e r k e l , Th a ne , a n d To ld t w e r e
d iv isio n s o f t h e w o r k
h av ing
fi nish e d
o n ly
.
r e qu e st e d
to
lymp h a t ic s )
wer e
th e
a r r a ng e
Like w is e
.
a pp o r t i
o ne d
n ames
l at e r
on a
th e
of
v a s c u l ar
M e r kel
oc c a s i
on
t h e an a t o m y o f t h e
r eg i
o ns
.
,
s y st e
m ( v e in s
R iid ing er ,
Th e w o r k ing
S yn de smo l ogy w a s as signe d t o T o l d t a lo ne
T h e app oint m en t o f a spe cial e d it o r ia l c o mmitt e e
and
a nd
T o ld t
th e
ov e r o f
.
V ienn a w a s
commi
tt e e
nome nc l at ur e
d ec id e d
impo r t ant f o r t h e f u r th e r p r og r e s s o f
K r au se , Wa ld e y e r ) w as au t ho r iz e d t o
v er y
( H is
as
,
u po n
a ff a ir s
se e
at
T h is
.
t h at
the
w h o l e b e g iv e n a u nif o r m c h a r ac t e r
A s y st e m at ic
into a w ho l e o f t h e s e p a r at e ly fi nish e d p o r t io n s s e e m e d
as
a
.
w o r king t oge t h er
t o b e a n e c e s s it y b e c a us e t h e
v ote s
t ak e n at d iff er e n t t im e s ,
o ft e n a f t e r
m a j o r it ie s w e r e n e c e s s a r ily f ol
low e d b y cont r adict io n a n d l a ck o f u nif o r m it y
I t al s o h ap p e n e d t h at
v e a ma j o r i
s ome in d i
sp e n sab l e n ame s d id n o t r e c e i
t y a n d r an t h e r isk
ng f r om t h e lis t ; as w a s t h e c a s e
sa p p e a r i
o f di
at t h e fi r s t v o t e o n
Myo l ogy wit h t h e T e nd o m b ic ip it is A dminicu lum lin e ae a lb ae Pl ica
l ong int e r v al s
and
w it h t h e ir
ch ang i
ng
,
.
,
.
,
c ub i
t i a n d oth e r s
Th e
mit t e e w h en it
cou ld no t
ct e d
r es t r i
s
h r ink
go
f r om
Co mm itt e e
h as
be
mu st go f u r t h e r
e v e r y w h er e
,
.
t or ial c om
e di
it s wo r k
t h at it
,
.
I f it
d e ep ly int o t h e
-
a c om p l e t e c
st a r t e d
w or k
so on
b e c am e
a w ar e
t o a smoot h ing o ut o f ir r eg ul a r it ie s , b u t
th e r e qu ir e me nt s imp o s e d it mu st
indiv idual qu e st ion s and if ne c e ssa r y no t
s at i
s
h anging
fi ed
of
t h e name s
a l r e a dy
as s i
gn e d
.
du r ing t h e se l ast t h r e e y e ar s h a s w or ke d a s sid uo u s ly
t r ie d t o c le ar u p a ll t h e d iffi c u lt qu e st ions a n d t o b r ing abou t
,
t h at
,
Th e
an d
uni
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
14
.
H e nl e
G eg e nb aur
V e st ib u lum
F e ne st r a
ov alis
R e c e ss u s
h em isp h ae r ic u s
R e c e s su s
h em ie llip t icu s
C r ist a
R e c e ss u s
c och l ea r i
s
b ul i
v es t i
R ece s su s
co c hl ea r i
s
( I 4)
M a c u l ae
cr i
b r o sae
M a cu l a e c r ib r o s ae
M a cu l a c r ib r o sa
s up e r i
or
M ac u la
M ac u l a e
cr i
b r o sae
( 13)
cri
b r os a
M itt l e r e M ac ul a
me d ia ( 1 3 )
U nt e r e M a c u l a
C an a l e s
sem icir c u l a r es
Ca n a lis
a nt e r i
or
(2)
Vo r d e r e r v e r t ic al e r
B og enga ng ( 1 )
A N AT O M I CAL N A M E S
K r au s e
Langer
Ve st ibul u m
F en est r a
s
ov a l i
R ece s su s
Cr is t a
b u li
v e st i
Macu la
cri
b r os a
s up e r 1 or
Ma cul a
b r o sa
cr i
m e dia
Macul a
cr i
b r osa
in f e r i
or
M ac u l a
o ss e i
b r o sa
cr i
( 1 0)
s up e r i
or
lat e r alis
in f e r io r
(6)
(2)
I
.
Var iou s A u t h or s
S
1
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
6
diff e r e nt f r om t h e
Q u it e
.
th e
or i
g inally a do p t e d c our se o f
Commis s io n
h a s b ee n t h e p r oce d u r e d u r ing t h e p a st t h r e e y e a r s w h ic h is a s f o l lo w s
a t fi r s t t h e m e mb e r s o f t h e C ommi
n t h e ir
ss i
o n w e r e r e q ue s t e d t o s e n d i
sp e ci
al s ugg e s t ion s a nd r e m ar k s o n t h e u n fi nis h e d c h a t e r s b e f o r e t h e
p
fi r st
of
t h at t h e
v ot e s o
t h is
K r a u se
v ot e
a fter
;
sa
me
t he
b e t a ken int o
co u ld
and
vote
a fte r
on a t
co n s ide r a t i
r e su l t s
the
t h e t im e
led
co mp i
w er e
by
mm it t ee p r oc e e d e d p a r t ly in s e s s ion s a n d p a r tl y t h r ou gh
I n t his w ay
co r r e spo n d e nce t o t h e c o n s i
d e r at io n o f th e s ingl e c h ap t e r s
t h e m e r it an d m ea ning o f e a c h t e r m w a s again e x am ine d ; do u b t f u l qu e s
the
,
co
'
.
t io n s w e r e d e c id e d b y
r e f e r e nc e
to t h e lit e r at u r e
t o t h e p r ep ar at io n s
or
in t his w ay a u n if o r m a r r a nge me nt w a s o b t aine d
t h e s o c a ll e d
fi n a l e d it ing
wh ich w a s a g a in go n e o v e r b y t h e Co mm iss io n p ar t l y in
o r a l c o n f e r e nc e s a n d p a r t ly by co r r e sp o n de n ce
and
-
—
—
.
Th e s e
me n t s
th e
r ev is io n s o f
Comm ission in
th e
of
ber s
fi na l
a nd
s ugg e s t i
o ns
s ugg e s t i
o ns,
w e ll
as
ou s
v ar i
J u ly
1 89 4
,
A ft e r
.
a no t
c
h ap t e r s
we r e
s e nt
Th e y in t u r n m a d e
.
w or king
ca r e fu l
her
m em
v ar i
o u s com
t o t he
of
over
t h e e nt ir e w o r k , t h e e d it o r ia l comm it t e e
as
is
t h e se
now
p o s it ion t o l ay b e fo r e t he m e mb e r s o f t h e S oc ie t y t h e fi n a l e dit ing
o f t h e n o me n c l a t u r e
At it s me e t ing , in B ase l , th e S o c ie t y w ill h av e t o
in
a
.
d e cid e w h et h e r it w ill
it s fu ll in flue nc e f o r it s
o wn a n d e x e r t
R u l es
I
co
n t h e c our se o f
mm itt e e h a v e
r ul e s ,
l o w ing
n a me s
al
a n y sp e c i
E a ch p a r t t o
mu st b e in Lat in
t e r p r e t a t ions
F e mu r , A
e r a l, s h all
.
f e mo r a lis , V
be
a r r a nge d
mo r e t h e y
th e
a lt
h o u gh
.
f ar
as
f e m o r alis N
,
w it h t h e ir
.
a n t o ny
1
.
Th e
b e ma d e t h e
t h em
of
no n e
b e c a me
r ule s ar e
Th e
.
Th e
n a m e s sh all
ve
sp e cu l at i
or
a
th e f o l
n ame
o ne
.
as
f u n d am e n t a l
as
co ul d
b e g r amm a t ic al ly c o r r e ct
a n d nee d n o t b e ex pl a na t i
ons
si
g ns
t o r ial
a n d e di
d isc u s s ion s c o nc e r n ing t h e m
and
R e l at e d t e r m s ,
.
w e ll
T h e m o st impo r t a nt o f t h e s e
b e n a m e d s h a l l h av e o n l y
.
:
mp l y m e m o r y
.
w o r k t h e C ommiss ion
ze d
r u l e s c r y s t a lli
e x c ep t i
on
si
be
of
t h e su cc e e d ing w o r k ;
of
w it h o u t
y e ar s
N a mes
f
o
it s
.
t o r ial a s
v e d a t a nu m b e r o f e d i
ar r i
m o r e d e fi nit e l y t h e se
r ul e
x
si
it s
a d op t i
on
t h e A s s ign m e n t
f or
w itho u t h av ing h a d
f ou nd a t io n
t h e n e w ly a r r a ng e d no m e nc l a t u r e a s
acc e p t
in
po s s ibl e , s h a ll b e s im ila r ( e g
f e mo r a l is )
A d j e c t iv e s, in g e n
.
.
.
ms ( e g d ex
.
nis t e r
si
te r ,
.
;
ma j o r
,
'
mino r ; s u p e r fi c ialis p r o f u n dus )
S o m e w ide ly c u r r e nt n a m e s h av e f o r ce d
S u ch a
f r o m t h e r u l e s e n um e r at e d a bo v e
,
.
na t o r iu s o r
c ulty ,
M
.
M
b ut t h e r e
ma sto id eu s
Co mp ar e
a nd
her e
on e a s
M
.
t h er e to d ev iat e
c r ot a ph i
t icob uc ci
p e t r osa lp ingo s t a ph y l in u s c o u ld b e o mitt e d w it h o u t d iffi
c o u l d not b e fo u nd a s h o r t e r t e r m f or t h e v e r y po p ul a r
.
s t er n oc l e i
do
1
us
l
a so
Kr au s e
M o n at s s c h r ift fiir A n a t o m ic
,
.
sy no nym s
O f t he t wo
D ie
und
a nat o
m is c h e
Ph y s io l o g ic
.
V a l v u l a mit r alis
N om e nc l a t u r
V ol
.
X
,
p
.
.
3 13
.
or
I nt e r n a t io n a l e
A N AT O M I C A L N A M E S
Valvu la b ic usp idalis
of
cau s e
po r al is,
t e r ms
me dical
t h e ir
Vo l a
n ei
t
c ou l d
her
u s ag e
b e d r opp e d
Py r a mis
c on s i
d e r a tio n
be
and
P a lma m an u s , N a t e s
b e u s e d t og e t h e r
M o r e ov e r
had t o
of
o ut
P ar s p e t r o sa o s s is t e m
a nd Clu n e s a n d o t h e r s no n mou s
y
y
.
a nd
-
17
.
A
t he
.
m e ning e a m e dia
.
mu st st ill p a ss t h r ough t h e F or ame n sp ino s um inst ead o f t h r o u h t h e
(
g
F o r ame n m e ninge u s m e diu m
) t h e Ram u s au r ic ul ar is v ag i t r av e r se s t h e
Ca na licu lu s ma s to id eu s ; w h ile s in c e H e nl e s t ime t h e N e r v u s f ac ialis
’
h as h ad it s Cana lis f a c ialis
A
co n s i
d e r ab l e
.
div e r g e n ce
t h e u se o f p e r s ona l n am e s
my b u t
al so
anat o
in
.
ot h e r
M ill er it e
e r a l og i
st s sp e ak o f
of
ni
o pi
on s
h a s lo ng
of
H a u sma n it e
etc
,
.
is t e d
c o ncer ni
n
g
a r e m e t no t o nl
y in
me d ic ine
T h e m in
S u c h p e r s o n al n a m e s
n a t u r al sc ie nce s a n d in
,
ex
.
Th e p a t h o l o g is t s sp e a k
d isea se
Th e b o t a n ic a l
S t ok e s p h e n ome no n, o f B ase d o w s o r B r i h t ’ s
g
an d z oolo g i
c a l n am e s o f s e c i
es ar e r i
ch i
n p e r s on a l n a m e s
W e fi nd
p
h e r e a R hy t in a S t e ll er i, a n E quu s B u r ch e l l i a C ap r a F alc one r i an d an
u nli
m it e d n u mb e r o f s imila r ly f o r m e d n am e s T h e z oo l o ist s a nd bo t a n
g
ist s u se su c h p e r s o n al n ame s e v e n if th e e r s o n r e fe r r e d t o h as h a d v e r
p
’
of
’
.
.
,
.
mot e
y
'
o r n o c onn e c t i
on
w it h t h e
s p ec i
es
in qu e s t io n B e s id e s t h e m o t iv e
o f gi
vi
n
g h on or o r c ou r t e sy t o a d e s e r v ing sp e c ia l is t , t h e r e is t o b e t a k e n
int o acc o u nt t h e e a s in e ss a nd h a r m l e ssn e s s o f s u c h r e ad ily o b t a in e d c om
re
p o un d s
of
so u nd s
.
.
The p e r so n a l na me s u s e d in an ato my a r e no t q u it e so h a r ml e ss a s t h e
b o t anic al o r z o o l og ic al o n e s ; t h e y in g e ne r a l a r e s upp ose d t o r e f e r t o
t h o se inv e s t ig a t o r s w h o d isc o v e r e d ,
mor e
Ho w
sp e c i c
the
fi
s uc
n am e s
h
e x a c t ly
d e s c r ib e d ,
or
at
l e a st m a d e
g e n e r a l kn ow l e dg e o f t h e p a r t n am e d a f t e r t h e m
An in
ori
g in a t e w e h av e da ily o cc as io n t o no t ice
.
.
lig h t int o a r eg io n w h ic h u p t o th e t im e w as o nl y
insuffi c ie nt ly kno wn ; an d u nt il h is in v e st iga t ion s h a v e b e e n v e r ifi e d b y
n s a u t h o r it
o t h e r s a nd h av e b ecom e co m mo n s c i
e n t ifi c p r o p e r t y , h e r e m a i
y
v e st i
ga t or
fo r t h e
b r ing s
ne w
T h u s Lu s c h ka n a t u r a lly b e came
d e sc r ib e d b y h im
t h e b o d y f ou n d b y him wh ic h wa s c al l e d t h e co cc yg eal
n o w w h e n th e s i
gn ifi c a nce o f th e b o dy s e em s d ou b t f u l
s t r uct u r e s
t h e spo nso r
fo r
.
g l an d , a n d e v e n
an d i
t s name h a s b ee n
a c co
mp anie s it wit h
g l an d
Mo r eo v e r
”
.
name s o f
t io ns
t he
ol d e r
t he
th er e
c
h a ng e d
G l o mu s
c oc c yg eu m
inv e s t ig a t o r s
n in
r emai
g
and
o ne
“Lu sch k a s
p r o o f o f disco v e r y a s
is no l a c k o f ex ampl e s in
T h e P a nc r e a s A se lli
.
to
t h r oug h
c o c c yge al
’
lit e r a t u r e
ou r
e r r o n eou s
t h e O v u l a N a bo t h i
re
w illing ly
of
in t e r p r e t a
ma in
as
in t h e
d e sc r ib er s w it h t h e ir m ist a ke n m ea ning s
F r om t he a bove in dic at e d e r r o n eou s me t h o d o f u sing p e r s o n al n am e s
w e m u s t n ot b e s u r p r ise d if w e fi nd t h e m e sp ec ially p r o f u s e in t h o s e
r e co r d s o f
o r g an
D e it e r s t h e
,
fi r st
.
T h u s w e h av e h a d
p lo r at io n is ma king r ap id s t r id e s
me th e c e ll s o f Co r t i, t h e ce ll s o f
ng f or a l ong t i
o f h e ar i
wher e
r eg i
o ns
in t h e
t h eir
ex
c e ll s o f
.
Cl au diu s
an d ot
her s
.
I
n
th e
c e r eb r um
we
h av e
th e
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
18
Vicq d Azy r o f M eh ne r t , o f G
o f S c h w alb e
o f B e c h t e r e w a nd o t h e r s
b u nd le
’
of
,
j u st
su c
.
n e w ly
h
ex
r eg i
o ns ,
p lo r e d
; t h e nu cl eu s o f Lu y s ,
f r e qu e nt ly w e fi nd , in
u d de n
,
Q u it e
t h a t t wo
.
lying in
st r u c t u r e s
c l os e
p r ox imity o r o f s im il ar f u n c t ion, t h e o ne w a s s e en a nd d e scr ib e d fir st
by one inv e st ig at o r a n d t h e o t h e r by a not h e r ; in su c h case s , d u r ing t h e
p e r io d o f u n s a t is f ac t o r y dis e nt a ng l e me nt o f t h e u nd e r ly ing f ac t s , r e f e r
t o th e
e nc e
aut
b ecom e s t h e
ho r s
mean s
sa f e s t
of
p r op e r u nd e r st an d ing
th e b a se o f t h e d im
.
mmis su r e s o f G u dd e n a nd M eh ne r t in
c ep h a l o n
H e ns e n s m e dian d isc a nd K r a u se s m emb r a ne in t h e t r a n s
a t e d m u s c l e fi b r e f u r n is h e x am p l e s o f s u ch h e lp f u l d i
v e r s e ly s t r i
sc r i
mi
n at ion t h r oug h app r op r i
at e p e r son al d e s i
A n ot h e r ex amp l e in
gnat io n s
t r o d u c e d b y B r a u n e is t h e d iff e r e nt ia t io n o f t h e l ig a me n t s o f H e n l e a nd
H e sse lb ac h at th e m ar gin s o f th e m e dian ing u in al g r o ov e
B y t h e se
n ame s t h e r e w a s fi r s t e s t ab l ish e d a cl ea r s ep a r a t i
on o f t h e t wo l i
ga me nt s
M any o f t h e t emp or ar ily app r op r iat e p e r so nal n ame s in anato my h ave
To d ay o n e sc a r c el y
b e c om e su p e r fl u o u s a n d h e r e a n d t h er e o b s ol e t e
s p eak s o f S c h n e i
d e r s m e mb r a ne o f t h e nose o r o f a J a co b s m e mb r a n e o f
Th e
co
’
’
,
,
.
.
.
.
’
’
,
t he r e t in a
T ub a E u s t ach u
and
h an d
m a ny
t h e F os s a S yl v ii, t h e
o th e r
n am e s
p e r so na l
z ed
o f o u r n om e n c l a t u r e a n d ar e r ecogn i
p ar t
H e nl e
r emn a n t s
,
a nd
ot h er
O n the
.
as
is w el l k no w n, w a s t h e
of
an
Ev e n t h e
a tt empt
ed
c ar r i
h av e
a ll
in
,
b eco m e
t o d ecl a r e w a r
l ast ing
a
l a ngu ag e s
th e
.
n st
ag a i
t h e se
t en d e d p e r so n al no me n c l at u r e ,
on v e r y v i
g o r ou s ly b y l a t e r a na t o m ist s
m uc h m o r e
or i
gin ally
t his w a r f a r e h as b ee n
fi r st
Z onu la Z in ni
ex
.
h a s b e e n ma d e t o
r e na
me
th e
A c hill es
t e nd o n o f
w h ic h is b ey on d t h e r a nge o f p r io r it y an d w h ich h a s b e c om e a p a r t o f
The
p o p u l a r l a nguage , an d t o p r o v ide it w it h a s t r ic t ly su it a b l e n a m e
.
r e aso n s
ind ee d
w hic h h av e be e n b r ou gh t f o r w ar d
o f a ver y
inj u st ic es
o b se r v e r
f r om
,
.
m o m e n t ou s
n at u r e
ou s
var i
n ame s
Th e
d isc ov e r e r
n aming n o t t h e r e al
M a ny
.
of a
n am e s a r e o f t e n c
p e r s o n al
in v e st ig a t o r s
Lie b e r ku h n
.
’
s
I t a lian s glan ds o f G al eat i th e
f o r t h e I t a l ia ns t h e bo d ie s o f
ca ll e d
by t h e
mans
ar e
p e r s o n a l n am e s a r e
n h ist o r i
cal
o f t e n c o nt a i
n st
ag a i
g iv e n
ho s e n b y
g l an d s
V at e r
,
s t r u c tu r e
’
d iffe r e nt
th e
of
bu t
G
er
etc
.
lat e r
na t ions
man s
s co r p u s cl e s o f
P a cini,
a
ar e
G er
P e r so na l n ame s
th e
in ma ny mo d e r n w r it ing s , mo r e p a r t ic u l ar l y in t h e l it e r at u r e o f t h e sp e
n g r e a t sup er ab u n d an c e a nd t h e r e a r e h e r e fo u n d affi x e d
ci
e s , oc c u r i
al t i
n ame s o f v e r y
l it t l e
fi
ent i c
sc i
imp or t a nc e
.
p e r p e t u at e d o nly in a d e su l t o r y w ay
V e s al a n d H a r v ey a r e w a nt ing in th e l ist s ,
a t om ist s a r e
like
Malp igh i ar e o ft e n r ep eat ed
T h e r e is mu c h t r ut h in t h e se
n am e s o f
Y et th e
.
S om e
ot
h er s
th e
v er y
ol d e r a n
g r e at
n am e s
like Eu st ach i and
.
o f u s a n at o
On
I
a
mist s
f o r m er
s h ou l d
ar e
on
o cc a s i
r eg r e t
v er y
qu it e
av e r se
I h av e
mu c h
t o p e r so na l n ames , ye t m any
t o an e nt ir e ab o l it ion o f s u c h n ame s
ob e ct i
on s
j
.
p r ess ed m y op inions c o nc e r ning t h e same
t h e ab se nce o f all p e r son al na me s in o ur
ex
.
A N AT OM I CA L N AM ES
s ci
ent i c
fi
language
19
.
Co nside r ed p u r ely ob j ect iv e l t h e
y
y fo r m almo st
al way s ve r
y goo d mnemot e c h nic mat er ial
Th e name s o f Poup ar t ’ s
’
G imb e r nat s, a nd Coll es’ l ig ament s a r e r emember e d b
y ev er y s t u de nt
and wh en h e k now s t he nam es h e h as
a d es ir e t o kno w wh at e a c h
f
.
.
,
o
t h es e n ame s
si
gni es
Th e int e r e st in a Li ament um in uinale a Li
g
,
g
g
inguina l e r eflex um, and a Li lacu na r e is c ons id e r a bl le s s
g
O u r daily
y
ex pe r ie nce i
n t h e di
ss e c t i
ng r oom t ea ch e s h o w ea s i
l y t h e se special n ame s
ar e me mor i
z e d and h o w t h e
y b ecome ce r t a in de finit e or ient at ion p o int s t o
wh ich kno wle dg e ma y b e add e d S t ill mor e t h an t h is emine nt l
y p r act ical
vi
ew, t h er e co me s int o consid e r at ion for me
,
pe r so na lly, a ce r t a in f eeling
o f r eve r ence
T his m ay sou n d some w h at a nti uat e d, bu t it oe s a ainst
q
g
g
me t o s ac r ific e to an a r bit r ar ily es t ablish e d r inc i l e names w h ic h for
p
p ,
c ent u r i
e s h av e
Mor eove r I c onsid er it
p r ove d t o b e good and u s e f ul
fi
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
a n a d v a nt a e
g
if t h e
mes
M alp igh i and ot h er s
ar e i
mp r esse d u p on t h e stud en t even in h is fi r st s em e st er Th ese h onor
a bl e na me s o f ou r s c i
e nc e a r e t h e r e b
y p er m ane nt ly fi x e d in t h e memor y
o f p os t e r i
ty and t h r o ug h t h e m t h er e is a wak e ne d in t h e s t u d e nt a c e r tain
histor ical int er e st wh ich st imulat es h im t o fu r th er inv e st igat ion s Whe th e r
t h es e n ames al w ay s st and in t h e ir
p r op er p l ac e s is in my opinion a m att er
o f seco ndar
I t is the p r ov ince o f th e h istor y o f anato my t o
y impor t anc e
t r ace t h e c ou r s e o f t h e ind iv idu al d iscov e r ies an d to a w ar d to each
na
of
F all opp ia, E u st ach i,
.
,
.
.
inv est ig at or h is d es er v e d l au r e l s
2
.
Th e q uest ion wh eth e r o r no t pe r s onal name s s h ou ld b e r et aine d c ou ld
not b e t h e sub j ect o f a v ot e
We h av e finally r eac h ed a comp r omise in
.
s t ea d o f u s i
ng a ut
me s
hor ity
t he o ne s ide
on
th e
or
o t h er
W e h av e
g iv en
wide ly
.
p a r t s and ad d e d t h ereto , w ith in b r ack et s , t h e
u sed p e r sonal n am es
T h is me t h od come s in dir ect c onfl ict wit h t h e p r in
ci
ple o f singl e names , bu t it h as t h e ad va nt age o f leav ing t o t ime t h e
fi nal d ecision o f th e p r esent diff er e n ce s A s far a s t h e r e sult s o f ou r
o b ect i
v e na
j
to
all
.
.
meth od
can
b e f or e s e e n
p e r son al n ame s w ill b e
ll r emain
ot h e r s wi
Th e
n
c er t a i
co
mp l et ely
re
a d ve r s a r i
es o f
p l ac ed b y ob j e c tiv e o n e s, w h ile
a
a
r
n
l
n
i
l
l
h
t
l
e
a
i
n
r
t
c
h
i
e
h
i
i
d
e
l
u
t
e
so
a
a
m
e
s
t
s
a
s
t
a
a
e
v
e
r
s
w
,
,
p
p
I t has al r ead y b een p o int e d o ut t h a t th e Commis sion w ant e d t o c onfi ne
.
.
it sel f
t o d esc r ip t iv e
e x cl usi
v el y
o ff e r e d consid e r ab le
it s bound s t h e r e is
Our
p aucity o f nam e s
r eluct a nt an d no t t o a d d
.
2
j
r e ect
ing
K o ll ma nn
k
s p ea s
t h e au t h o r s n am e s
in
.
at
e nde av o r
mo st
any
my b u t
l at it u de f o r
ei
t
h er
t h r o ug h o ut w a s t o
mo r e
n ames t
ev e n
w it h in
a su r p l u s o r
be
s om e w
h an might b e
ex
h at
p e ct ed
l ik e m a n ne r ( V o t in g l is t s p
I no t o n l y
b u t a l s o r e c og n iz e t h e m a s t h e o nl y me a ns o f r e ma in
.
”
w it h t h e p a s t
na m e s a dd e d a r e p l a c e d in t h e g e n e t iv e fo ll o w ing t h e r u l e s
I nt e r n a t io na l M onat s s c h r ift
o n Z o dl o g ic a l No m e n c l a t u r e
c o nt a c t
T h e p e r s o na l
o f t h e C o mm i
s s io n
fiir A na t u nd P h y s io l
3
fi r st
anat o
in
’
s om e w h a t
mac r oscop ic
.
.
.
1 89 3
.
V o l X, p 94, A r t 4
.
.
.
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
20
f r om
s t u dent s
meant im e h as
p l e tene s s
g oal
d ur ing t h e ir
e ar ly
se
c ar r ie d u s
me s t e r s
f ur the r
.
B ut t h e d e s ir e fo r
.
f u r th er b e y o nd
an d
our
co
m
fi r st
.
impo r t a nt q u est io n wa s t h at a s t o h o w f a r w e s h ou l d
t a k e int o c o ns id e r a t i
o n t h e ana t omy o f me di
c a l sp e c i
al t i
A s is kno w n
es
t h e me d ic al s p ec ia l ist s h a v e b egu n in a v e r y c o mm e n d ab l e w ay t o w o r k
An
e s pec i
al ly
.
e n t ir e ly
o ut
ind e p e n d e nt ly t h e
mo st b r illia nt
ex a
mp l es in t h is
and
ot
he r s )
my
r e sp ec t ,
,
( M e yn e r t
t r ist s a n d n e u r o l ogis t s
ne r
s t ei
a na t o
,
G
of
sp e c i
al
t h e ir
b ee n g iv e n b y t h e p s y chia
Fl e c h s ig , F o r e l , Ed ing e r , Ob e r
u dd e n,
f o llo w e d b y t h e o p h t h almol og ist s
T r o l t sch P o lit z e r , S ieb e nma nn ) , t h e l a r y ngo lo
Th e y w e r e
.
,
.
,
.
mp l y
si
re
t he er a
b e fo r e
h ad
of
ma in w it h
of
us t h e r e co u l d
su i
t ab l e. o ne s
ht
d o ub t
ne e d s
to
o ur
c o nc ess i
on s
to
p u t th is qu e s t io n c l e a r ly
d e c is io n Wh er e t h e s p e c ialist s
o n ce
.
o ur
t ex tb oo k s w e r e n o l ong e r
fi
su f c ie nt
.
h augh t ily ign o r e d b y u s ; w e h av e t o c on s ide r
in t h at w e m u st ac c ep t t h e t e r ms o ff e r e d w h e n
if it b e c ome s n e c e s sar y r e p l ac e t h e m b y mo r e
or ,
,
s t u d e nt
t o d e m an d t h a t h e b e
w hich h e
as
s h ou l d
be
t e nt ,
Th e
.
no
'
de scr ip t io n s in
a d e qua t e ,
ar e
ri
g
ex
A f t e r we h ad
.
m ak e
we
t e r min o l o gy , t h e y w e r e f or c ed t o d o so t h r o ugh
n ec e ss it y c a nn ot
it t o it s f u lle st
t h ey
be
al
sp e c i
a
n e ce ss it y s i
nc e t h e
This
t h e o ld , o r w h e t h er w e s h o ul d
z at i
sp e ci
ali
on
c r e at e d
in t e r p r e t a t io n g iv e n
f r o m t h e t r a d it io nal
t ex t bo ok s, a n d it w a s a que st io n w h e t h e r
ou r
T he
.
h av e
( Leb er ) t he o t olog ist s ( v
T h e a n at o m ic al t e r min ol ogy a n d
g is t s a nd ot h er s
b y t h e se sp ecialist s s om e t im e s d iff e r s v e r y m a r k e d ly
l a nguage
r eg ion s
w h o p as s e s f r o m u s t o t h e c l inic s , h a s t h e
f u r nish e d t h e v ie w p o int s an d t h e l a ngu ag e
s t u di
es a n d
in h is f u r th e r
t h a t it b e n ot inc u mb e n t u p o n
W e h av e
in t h e pl a ce o f a n ob so l et e o n e
n th e n e c e s s ar y co nt act w it h
e n d e av o r e d t h r ou gh con f er e nc es t o ob t a i
n es a n d w e h op e t h at in t his r e sp ec t w e h av e
n v ar i
o u s li
spec i
al is t s i
S p ec ial ist s h av e t ime
f o u n d a su it ab l e b asis f or a mu t u a l u n de r st a nding
a n e w a nat omy
him t o l e a r n
.
.
t ime ag ain assu r e d u s t h a t t h e y
and
a s s oo n
I f we,
an
d to
it
as
cov e r s
fi r st
at
s e l ec t
,
p a r t ly ab and o n
S t ill
by
s
t h is p l an
.
me in
a
obl i
ge d
in t h e
T h er e is in t h e l it e r at u r e
ob sol e t e
ar e
it is f o u nd t h at
so
4
.
h ou l d h av e b e e n
p r e ssions w h ich
o f t e ne r
a r e u se d
we
t o a c c e p t ou r no me nc l a t u r e
p l an t o p r o ce e d st r ict l y c o nser v at iv el y
ng t e r m s a n d t o
c ur r en t t ex t b ook s t h e mo st fi t t i
a do p t e d
h ad
f r om t h e
d n e w n am e s ,
avo i
e s o f ex
ser i
th
e ir n e e d s
ar e r ead y
an d
t h e ir
cou r s e o f
of ou r
r e t e nt i
on
t im e t o
t e x t b oo ks
is
a
s e n s e l e ss
.
p r e s s ions occ u r in t h e t e x tb oo ks w h ich
b y o t h e r s in a no t h e r s e n se ; or ar e b as ed
ex
o ne s en s e,
S u r g ic a l S o c ie t y h a s m a d e k n o w n jt s in t e r e s t in o ur u nd e r
t a k ing in a s p e c ia l w a y , in t h a t in M ar c h 1 89 4 in B e r l in it a u t h o r iz e d v o n
B a r d e l e b e n t o m a k e a r e p o r t o n t h e p r e s e n t r e s u l t s o f t h e Co mm is s io n
T h e l is t o f n a me s su b m it t e d b y v o n B a r d e l e b e n m e t w it h
o n N o m e nc l at u r e
4
T he G
e r ma n
~
.
ver y
fe w
o
bj e c t io n s
fr o m t h is
sour c e
.
A-NA T O M I CA L N A M E S
22
-
Page s 483 51 8
51 9 6 54
—
—
6 55 8 64
86 5 8 72
—
of
to
Th e
.
889 9 52
S pl a nch nology
F ina l
e di
t in
.
s e co n d a n d
A n a t om y
of
t h ir d
over
fi n al
list will
m any
c on t a i
n sc a r c ely o n e- s i
x
t ex t b oo k
lis t
of
co u ld
if
r o ad
b e h ind
us
we
it m ig h t h a v e b e e n
b one s a nd v e s s el s c ou ld
of
m u sc l e s
v ote o n
r e p e t it io n s ,
t he lo ng
st r e t ch
a
P e r h ap s w e
.
nce
si
,
h av e
r e ac
hed
ar e
l
ab e
h o r t ened
h a v e b e en
s
t h e g o a l qu ic k e r
.
a nd
ri
gh t a t
n am e s
t h e b e g inning w e h a d p l ac e d b e
in s t e a d o f f o llo w ing t h e o r d e r o f a
a r r ang e d
fo r d ida c t ic p u r p o s e s
f u ll r e t r osp e ct o f t h e sco p e
we
.
.
Th is is
ly
e a si
,
.
,
.
W ald ey e r
1
Vol
.
,
.
th
s aid
have
ffi c u lt ie s o f t h e
an d d i
Wo r k Ho wev e r I am n ot ce r ta in t h at b y fo ll ow ing a d iffe r e nt p lan we
ckl y a nd sa f el y
Th e ma in t h ing
s h o ul d h av e r e a ch e d t h e g oa l mo r e qu i
w a s t h a t s omebo dy sh o u ld h o l d c on s t ant l y in his h an d s t h e m a ny t h r e ad s
O u r e d it o r in c oop e r at io n w it h o u r c oll e ag u e
w it ho u t ent angl ing t h e m
t o da y
h a s b ee n
X, p
.
3 1 3,
.
.
O ur
u s a n a r r a nge d
n
cer tai
g
.
disp e n s e d w ith
fo r e
d iv isio n s
g
of
as
so
t h e r e ma ining
g
t h e n am e s d e c id e d u p o n u p t o t h a t t ime
n e d in t h e 2 0
con t a i
p amp hl e t s , m ay b e a p p r ox i
lis t
a
e st i
m at e d a t
w it h ou t
.
e di
t in
w e gl an c e b a ck
t h at p o s s ib ly m a ny
see
1
F in a l
n u mb e r o f n ame s
N o w,
S p la nc hno logy
t h e p am p h l et s a r r ang e d in se r ial o r d er f o r t h e vo te ,
ag o , i
n t h e I nt e r n a t io n a l M o na t s s ch r if t f ur A n at o mie 1
,
t h a t n u mb e r
.
s ug g e s t i
on s o n a l l
,
m at e ly
1
8 7 3 888
K r au s e t w o ye ar s
u n d P hy s i
ol og i
c g av e
T he
N e u r o l ogy
Vo t e
.
e di
t in
—
I n d e p en d e n t
1
F ina l
—
S upp lement al
S y n d esmology
S ynd e smology
N e u r olo gy
—
an d
.
abl e
1 893
.
to do t h is in
a
most
e x c el l e n t
m a nn e r
.
AN AT OMI CA L N A M ES
23
.
2 Ter mini,
sit u
dir ect ionem par t l um
m
c or p or is
ind icant es
gener al es
22
L o n g it u din al is
T
r a n s v er s u s
3
2 4 Cr a ni
s
a li
2
26
Cau d a l is
27
S u p e r io r
28
I n fe r ior
29
S
u
e r fi -c ia l is
p
[ s u b l imis ]
3 0 P r o fu n d u s
3 1 Ter mini
.
ad
ex
t r e mit at es sp e ct ant e s
3 2 P r ox ima l is
3 3 D is t a l is
3 5 U l n a r is
3 6 T ib ia lis
3 4 R a d ia l is
3 7 F ib ul a r is
'
l is t s t h e fo ll o w in g c h a r ac t e r s a r e ad op t e d
1
de s ig nate v a r iat io ns ( Var iet a t e s a n at o m ica e )
Ov a l b r ack et s
2
am o n g
Ang ul a r b r a ck et s
c o nt ai
n e x pl a n a t o r y a d d itio n s
in c l u d e d d ou b l e nam e s a n d p e r s o n a l n am es
3 I t a l ic s a r e u s e d f o r on t o g e n e t ic e x p r e s s io n s ( e g M d e cidua
I
1
n a l l o ur
.
.
wh ich
'
.
,
ar e
.
.
.
,
.
,
A
.
m bili
a
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
24
1 Te
2
r
.
m in i g e n e r a l e s
e n ic u l u
m
A c c e s s o r iu s
C or o na
A c in u s
Co r p u s
A d it u s
C o r p u s c u l u-m
A la
C r is t a
A l v e o l us
-
A mp u l l a
D e c u s s a t io
A n g u lus
D o r su m
A nsa
D u c t u lu s
A nt r um
D uctus
Ap e r t u r a
E m in e n t ia
Ap ex
E n d o t h e liu m
A p p e n dix
Ep it h e l iu m
A r cus
E x t r e mit as
Ju nct u r a
I mp r e s s io
7 7 I n c is u r a
7 8 I n fu n dib u l u m
I n t e st in u m
80 I s t h m u s
Ar ea
F a c ie s
8 1 La b iu m
B as is
F as c ia
Lacu n a
B r a c h iu m
F a s c ic u l u s
La m in a
C a n a l ic u l us
F ib r a
C a n a l is
F ib r oc a r t il a g o
Lig a m e n t u m
L im-b u s
Ca p u t
Fis s u r a
Lim e n
C a p it u l u m
Fl e x
Lin e a
Ca r t il a g o
F o liu m
-
.
G
Cr u s
‘
69 G e n u
G lan du l a
7 1 G lo m e r u lu s
G lo m u s
H il u s
74 H u m o r
84 L a t u s
C ap s ul a
C
l
ar u ncu a
ur a
F o ll ic u l u s
90
Liq u o r
Lo b u l u s
-
C au d a
F o r a me n
C a v er na
F o r m a t io
C av u m
Ce l l u l a
F o r nix
M a r go
F o ss a
94 hf as s a
Cir c u l u s
F o s s u la
Cis t e r n a
Fo v ea
Meatu s
9 6 M e du l la
M e mb r a n a
9 8 M e mb r u m
C-o l l u m
Co l u m n a
Co m miss u r a
C or n u
-
64 F o v e o l a
F r e nu l u m
9 1 Lo b u s
M ac u la
Fu ndu s
6 7 F u n ic u l u s
hd u c u s
1 00
M u s c u l tis
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
25
.
N e r v us
R e gio
T r o c hl ea
No d u lu s
Iie t e
T r u ncus
N u c l eu s
R ima
T u b er
O r g a no n
O r ifi c iu m
Ru dimen t u m
T ub e r c u l u m
S e p t u lu m
S e p t um
T ub u l u s
S in u s
T u nica p r o p r ia
Umbo
Os
Os
[ o r is ]
[ oss is ]
O s t iu m
Pap il l a
-
S p a t iu m
Pa r e nch ym a
S p in a
S t r atu m
Pa r ie s
S t r ia
Pe r ic h o n dr iu m
Pe r io s t e u m
S t r om a
P l ex
S u cc us
T u nica
Uv u l a
V a g in a
S u b s t a n t ia
Va l l e c u la
V a ll u m
V a lv u l a
Plic a
S u l c us
Vas
V e l um
Po l us
T a e n ia
V e r t ex
Pr o c es su s
T e gm e n
Pr omin e nt ia
Te la
P u n c t um
T e la
va
co n u n c t i
R a dix
T ela
e l as t ica
R a mu l u s
T or us
R a mu s
T r a b e cu l a
V e s ic a
V e s icu l a
V e s t ib u l u m
V il l u s
V is c u s [ v isc e r a ]
V o r t ex
Ra p h e
T r actu s
Z o na
R e ce ssus
T r ig o n u m
us
j
A N AT O M I CA L N A M E S
c or
p
or
is
h
4 T
E
u
.
m
an
i
r u n c u s
t r
x
e
m it
t
a
e s
V e r t ex
9 S in c ip u t
F r on s
10
O cc ip u t
1
O
P a lp eb r a
c u
l
5 F ac ies
O
27
u s
S u l c u s nas ol ab ia l is
P hilt r um
s up e r i
or
-
P a l p e b r a in fe r io r
‘
R im a p a l p e br ar u m
B u lb u s o c u l i
La b iu m
S u p e r c iliu m
Rim a
S u l c u s in fr a p a l p e b r a l is
C av u m
'
‘
3 N
D or s u m n a si
2
A p ex
A la
s
s u p e r iu s
La b iu m in f e r iu s
o r is
‘
o r is
3 4 Ling u a
3 5 F au c e s
a s u s
nasi
B u c ca
‘
[ Ma la ]
S u lc us m en t o l a b ia lis
na si
M e n t um
Col l u m
C e r v ix
P har y nx
42 P r o min e nt ia l a r y ng e a
‘
O e s o p ha g u s
C a v u m t h or a c is
D o r sum
Co l u m n a
Pe c t u s
Can a lis
Th or a x
M a mm a
51 Pa p il l a m a mma e
-
55 A b d ome n
Cav u m ab do min is
S c r o b ic u l u s co r d is
Umb ilic us
‘
'
v e r t e br a li
s
s pin a l is
A N AT O M I C A L N A M E S
1
P e l v is
C a v u m p e l v is
3 M o n s p u b is
4 Co x a
2
5 N at e s
27
.
6 An u s
a ni
7 Cr e na
8 P e r in e u m
[ C l u ne s ]
~
9 Ex t r emit as
sup er ior
M e t a ca r p u s
A x il l a
1 1
P l ic a
ax
il l a r is
12
P l ic a
ax
il l a r is p o st e r ior
D or s u m m anu s
ant er i
or
3
1
V o la ma nu s
-
A c r o m io n
T h enar
B r a cnh iu m
H y p o t h ena r
-
5 F ac ie s a n t e r io r
1 6 F a c ie s p o s t e r io r
I
17
F a c ie s l a t e r a l is
18
F ac ie s m e dia l is
3 4 D ig it i m a n u s
P o l l e x [ D ig it u s
I ndex
3 7 D ig it u s m e d iu s
S u l c u s b ic ip it a l is l a t e r a l is
S u l c u s b ic ip it a l is m e d ia l is
24
3 8 D ig it u s
Ma r g o
2 6 M ar g o
25
[ D ig i
[ D ig it u s
V]
F ac ie s d o r s a l e s
v o l a r is
40
r a d ial is
4 1 F a c ie s v o l ar e s
42 M a r g in e s r a dia l e s
u l n a r is
M a nu s
28
a n nu l ar i
s
3 9 D ig it u s m in im u s
F a c ie s d o r s a lis
F a c ie s
[ D ig it us
tus I V ]
A n t ib r a c h iu m
"
I]
II]
III ]
C u b it u s
23
[ P a l ma ]
43
M a r g in e s u l n ar e s
C ar pu s
44 Ex t r emit as inf er ior
F e -m ur
46 F a c ies
6 1 T ar s u s
a nt e r i
or
47 F a c ie s p o s t e r io r
48 F a c ie s l a t e r a l is
6 2 M e t a t ar s u s
6 3 D or s u m p e d is
P l a nt a
Ma r go
Ma r go
49 F a c ie s m e d ia lis
S u l c u s g l u t aeu s
65
G
6 7 C alx
enu
p e dis m e dia l is
D ig it ipe dis
52 P o p l e s
53 P a t e l l a
69 H allux [ Dig it us
70 D ig it i I I I V
Cr u s
I]
—
F ac ie s
a nt e r io r
56 F ac ie s p o s t e r io r
57 S u r a
58 M a l l e o l u s l a t e r a l is
59 M a ll e o l u s m e dia l is
60 P e s
p e d is l a t e r a l is
7 1 D ig it u s m in imu s [ D ig i
tus V ]
7 2 F a c ie s d o r s a l e s
7 3 F a c ie s p l a n t a r e s
74 M a r g in e s l a t e r a l e s
7 5 M a r g in e s m e d ia l e s
A N A T O M I CA L N AM E S
1
lo ng u m
O s t e o l o g ia
8 S ync hondr os is
phys eos
b r ev e
p l anu m
e
4 Ca v u m m e d u l l ar e
1 5 M e d u l l a o s s iu m
pi
I
-
M e d u ll a o s s iu m fl av a
1 7 M e d u l l a o s s iu m r u b r a
1 8 F or a me n n u t r ic iu m
16
A p o p h y sis
O s p n e u ma t ic u m
E p ip h y s is
F a c ie s
i
i
a r t cu l a r s
S ub s t ant ia compa c ta
S u b s t a nt ia co r t ic a l is
-
D ia p hy s is
.
C a n a l is
19
n u t r ic iu s
S u b s t a nt ia s p o n g io s a
Col umna
V er t eb r ae
T u b e r cu l u m
ver t eb r al is
c er v i
ca
b r ae
ce r v ica l e s
c a r o t ic u
m [v e r t e
l is V I ]
V e r t e b r ae t h or a c a l e s
F o r a m e n t r a n s v e r s a r iu m
V e r t e b r a e l u m b al e s
T ub er c u l u m p o s t e r iu s
b r a r u m c e r v ic a l iu m ]
Ver t eb r ae
V e r t e b r ae
Co r p u s
F ov ea
F ov e a
s a c r al e s
Pr o c e s s u s
c o c c y g e ae
F ac ie s
co s t a l i
s s up e r i
or
C a n a l is
F ac ie s
v e r t e b r ae
R a d ix
ar c u s
I n c is u r a
I n c is u r a
P r oc e s s u s
n
v e r t e b r al i
s
s u p e r io r
v e r t eb r a li
s
in fe r io r
.
P r o ce s s u s
s p in a lis
T u b e r c u lu m
b r ar um
c er v i
ca l i
u
m]
a c c e s s o r iu s
[ v er t e
52 A t l as
ant er i
or
T u b e r c u lu m
Fov e ae
t r a n s v e r s a l is
ant er i
us
c o s t a r iu s
P r o c e ss u s m a m il l a r is
Ar cus
s pi
no s us
co s ta l is
in fe r io r e s
Ma s s a l at e r a lis
V e r t e b r a p r o min e ns
P r o c e s s us t r a n sv e r s u s
Fov ea
in fe r io r e s
b r a r u m l u m b a l iu m ]
v e r t e b r ae
F o r a m e n in t e r v e r t e b r a l e
S u l cu s
a r t icu l a r e s
ar t i
c u la r e s
P r o c e ss u s
v e r t eb ra l e
Ar cu s
a r t ic u l ar e s s u p e r i
o r es
P r oc e s s u s
in fe r ior
v e r t e b r a lis
F or a me n
s up e
ri
or e s
v er t eb r a e
co s t a l i
s
a r t ic u l a r e s
[v er t e
[ v er t e
F a c ie s
a n t e r iu s
a r t ic u l a r e s s u e r i
or e s
p
a r t ic u l ar e s
in fe r io r e s
F o v e a d e n t is
A r c u s p o s t e r io r
S u l c u s a r t e r ia e v e r t e b r a l is
T ub e r c u l u m p o s t e r iu s
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
30
'
C l iv u s
T u b er c u lu m p har y ng e u m
C o n dy l u s o cc ip it a l is
C a na lis
C a n a l is
c o n dy l o i
deu s
.
43 F o r a me n o p t ic u m
44 P r oc e s s u s c l ino id e u s
45 F is s u r a o r b it a lis
46 A l a m a g n a
su p er i
or
h y p og l os s i
T u b er c u l u m j u g u l a r e
I n cis u r a j u g u l a r is
P r o c e s s u s j u g u l a r is
F
a
i
e
s
r
c
c
e
e
b r a l is
47
48 F ac ie s t e mp o r a lis
49 F a c ie s
50 F a c ie s
o rb i-t a lis
Fo s s a
51 M ar go
z yg o
co n dy l o id e a
P r o ce s su s in t r aju g u l ar is
P lanu m
o cc i
p it a l e
Pl a n u m
nu c
ha l e
P r o t u b e r a n t ia o c c ip it a l is e x t e r n a
oc c i
p it a l is
(Tor us
C r is t a
Lin e a
Lin e a
Lin e a
occi
p it a l is
h ae
nu c h a e
nu c h ae
nu c
E m in e n t ia
)
t e r na
ex
s up r e
s u p e r io r
in fe r io r
'
in t e r n a
S u l c u s s a g it t a l is
S u lcu s t r ansv e r su s
( P r oc e s s us p a r a m a s t o id e u s )
s p h e n o id a l e
Cor pus
S e l l a t u r c ic a
cli
n o id e u s
P r o c e ss u s
c lin o id e u s
me d iu s
p os t e r io r
S u l c u s ca r o t ic u s
Lin g u l a s p h e n o id a l is
C r is t a
sp
R o st r um
h e n o id a l is
s ph e n o ida l e
h e n o id a lis
S e p t u m s in u u m s p h e no id a l iu m
A p e r t u r a s inu s s p h e n o id a l is
Co n c h ae s p h e no id a l es
S in u s
An g u l u s p a r ie t a lis
M ar g o s q u a m o s u s
C r is t a in fr a t e mp o r a l is
F or am e n
r o t u n du
F o r a me n
ovale
62
l a t e r a l is
p r o c e s su s
p t e r y g o id e i
L a m in a
m e d ia l is
p r o c e s su s
p t e r y g o id e i
6 3 F is su r a p t e r y g o id e a
6 4 F o s s a s c a p h o id e a
65 P r o c e s s u s
C liv us
Ala p
a r v a
S ul cus
c
h ia sm at is
v ag i
n a l is
[ V id u ]
70 Ca n a l is p h a r y n g e u s
7 I C a na l is b a s ip h ar y n g eu s
7 2 S u l cu s t u b ae au dit iv a e
73 S u l c u s p t e r y g o p a l a t in u s
74 ( P r o ce s s u s p t e r y g o s p ino s us
[ Civ in ini] )
sp
'
m
68 F o s s a p t e r y g o id e a
6 9 C a na l is p t e r y g o id e u s
s e ll ae
Pr o c e s s u s
m a t ic u s
6 6 H a m u l u s p t e r y g o id e u s
6 7 S u l c u s h a m u li p t e r y g o id e i
F o s s a hy p o p hy se o s
D o r s u m s e ll a e
T u b er cu l u m
ill a r is
M ar g o fr o n t a lis
6 1 La m in a
c r u ci
at a
Os
h e n-o ma x
58 F o r a m e n s p in os u m
59 S p in a a ng u l a r is
60 P r o c e s s u s p t e r y g o id e u s
ma
P r o t u b e r a n t ia o c c ip it a l is
24
52
53
54
55
56
57
sp
ant er i
or
75 O S t e mp o r a l e
76 P
a r s
ma
s
t
o
id
e a
7 7 M ar g o o c c ip it a l is
78 P r oc e s s u s m a s t o id e u s
79 I n c isu r a ma s t o id e a
8 0 S u l cu s s ig m o id e u s
A N A TO M I CA L N A M E S
1
S u l cu s a o c c ip it a lis
F o r a m e n m a s t o id e u m
P a r s p e t r o s a [ P y r a m is ]
F ac ie s a n t e r io r p y r a m id is
F a c ie s p o s t e r io r p y r a m id is
F a c ie s in fe r io r p y r a m id is
A p e x p y r a m idis
.
A ng u l u s
s u p e r io r
midis
p y r a m id is
p y r a m id is
py r a
A n g u l u s a n t e r io r
A n g u l u s p o s t e r io r
S u l c u s p e t r o su s s u p e r io r
T e g me n t y m p a ni
E m in e n t ia a r c u a t a
C a n a lis fac ia l is [ F a l l o pp n ]
H ia t u s c a n a l is fa c ia l is
G e n ic u l u m c a n a lis fa c ia l is
S u l c u s n p e t r o s i s u p e r fi c ia l is
m aj o r is
S u l c u s n p e t r o s i s u p e r fi c ia lis
.
.
m in o r is
I mp r e s s io
t r ig e m ini
in t e r n u s
M e a t u s a c u s t ic u s in t e r n u s
F o ss a s ub ar cu at a
A q u ae d u c t u s v e s t ib u l i
A p e r t u r a ex t e r n a a q u ae d u c t u s
vesti
b
S u l c u s p e t r os u s in fe r io r
I n c is u r a j u g u la r is
P r o c e s s u s int r a ju g u l a r is
F o s s a j u g u l a r is
C a n a l ic u l u s ma s t o id e us
S u l c u s c a n a l ic ul i m a s t o id ei
P r o c e s s u s s t y l o id e u s
V a g in a p r o ce s s u s s t y l o id e i
F o r a m e n s t y l o m a s t o id e u m
F os s u l a p e t r o s a
C a n a l ic u l u s t y mp a nic u s
S u l c u s t y mp a n ic u s
cu li
c ana l i
in fe r io r
Ap er t u r a
t y mp a n ic i
or
ca n a lic u l i
A p er t u r a
s up er i
t y m p a nic i
C a n a lic u l u s c o c h l e ae
c a n a licu l 1
Aper tur a
e x t e r na
co c h l e a e
Po r u s
a c u s t ic u s
.
-
31
.
C a n a l is c a r o t ic u s
C a n a l ic u l i ca r o t ic o t y mp a n ic i
C a n a lis mu s c u l o t u b a r iu s
S e mic a n a l is m t e n s o r is t y m
p ani
S e mica n a l is t u b a e a u d it iv a e
S e p t u m c a n a lis m u s cu l o t u b a r n
Ca v u m t ymp a ni ( v O r gan on
-
.
-
.
au d it u s
)
C a n a lic u l u s c h o r d a e t y m p a n i
Fis s u r a p e t r o t y mp a n ic a [ G l a
s e r i]
F is s u r a p e t r o s q u a m o sa
P a r s t y m p a n ic a
A nn u l u s ty mpan icus
M e a t u s acu s t icu s e x t e r n u s
( S p in a s u p r a m e a t u m )
Fis s u r a t y mp a n o m a s t o id e a
S p in a t y m p a n ica m a j o r
S p in a t y m p a nic a m in o r
P o r u s acu s t ic u s e x t e r n u s
S q u a m a t e m p o r a l is
M a r g o p ar ie t a l is
I n c is u r a p a r ie t alis
M a r g o s p h e n o id a l is
F ac ie s t e mp o r a lis
P r o c e s s u s z y g o m a t icu s
F o s s a m a n d ib u l a r is
66 F a c ie s a r t ic u l a r is
T u b e r c u l u m a r t ic u l a r e
F ac ie s c e r e b r a lis
S u l c u s a t e m p o r a lis m e dia e
.
7° 05 p a r ie t al e
F a c ie s c e r e b r a l is
F ac ie s p ar ie t a lis
lM ar o o c c i it a l is
g
p
Mar go s qu amosu s
M ar g o fr o n t a lis
M a r g o s a g it t al is
A n g u l u s fr o n t al is
A n g u l u s o c c ip it a l is
A n g u l u s s p h e no id a lis
A ng u l u s m as t o id e u s
F or a m e n p a r ie t a l e
A N AT O M I C A L N A M E S
32
“T b
u
N
p a r ie t al e
t e m p o r a l is in fe r ior
er
Lin e a
La b y r in t h u s
La min a p a p y r ac e a
F o r a min a e t h m o ida l ia
6 o s fr ont al e
S q u a ma fr o nt a l is
F a c ie s fr o n t a l is
Pa r s
Pa r s
( Co n c h a n as a lis sup r ema)
C o n c h a n asa l is s u p e r io r
C o n c h a n a s a lis m e d ia
.
t al is
s u p r ao r b i
or b i
t alis
I n c is u r a
et
P r o c e s sus
h mo idal is
P r o ce s s u s l ac r im a lis
S p ina fr o n t al is
P r o c es s us m ax ill a r is
n as al is
P r o ce ss u s
p a r ie t al is
Pr oce s s u s
zy go
u n c ina t u s
52 C o n c h a nasal is inf e r ior
n as al i
s
M ar g o
M a r go
h moidal is
44 H iat us s e m il u nar is
B u l la e t h mo id a lis
A S u l cu s s a g it t a l is
5 S ul c u s t r ansv e r s u s
M ar g o
et
C e ll u l a e e t h mo id a l e s
I n fu n d ib u l u m e t h mo idal e
t e mp o r a lis su p e r io r
WLine a
.
m at icus
et
h mo id al is
56 O s l a cr imal e
C r is t a l ac r ima lis p o s t e r ior
F a c ie s t e mp o r a l is
Line a t e mp or a l is
S u l c u s l a c r ima l is
T u b e r f r o nt al e
H a mu l u s l a cr im a l is
Ar cus
l ia r is
s up e r c i
G la b e l l a
F o r am e n
ve
si
I nc is u r a
s upr a
o r bit al i
s
I n cisu r a
ve
si
F o r a m e n fr o n t a l e
F ac ie s
or bi
t a lis
( S p in a
t r o c h l e a r is )
ma lis
F o s sa
s acc i l a c r i
6 1 Os
F o r a m in a
S u l c us
et
n as al e
n as al ia
h moid a lis
6 4 V ome r
A la
vo
m e r is
F o v e a t r oc h l e ar is
F o r ame n
F or a me n
h mo idal e
e t h mo id a l e
et
F o ss a gl a n d u l a e
F a c ie s c e r eb r al is
a n t e r iu s
66 Ossa f aciei
p o s t e r iu s
l ac r ima lis
67
M ax ill a
Cr is t a fr o n t a lis
S u l c us s a g it t al is
F o r a me n ca e c u m
Co r p u s max il l ae
F a c ie s a nt e r io r
F ac ie s na s al is
F a c ie s or b it al is
S in u s fr o nt al is
F a c ie s infr a t e mp o r a l is
S e p t u m s inuu m fr o n t al iu m
S inu s max ill ar is
Mar g o infr ao r b it alis
Ca na l is infr ao r b it a lis
S u lc u s infr a o r b it alis
F o r amen infr ao r bit al e
S u t u r a infr ao r b it al is
-
3 6 Os
et
h moid al e
3 7 La m in a c r ib r o s a
3 8 C r is t a g all i
3 9 P r o ce s s us al ar is
40 La mina p e r p e ndicu l ar is
F o s sa
cani
na
A NA T O M I CA L N A M E S
( F os sa
33
.
p r ae n as a l is )
I n c is u r a n a s a lis
P r oc e s s u s
or b i
t a l is
Pr o c e s s u s
sp
T u b e r m a x ill a r e
P
F o r a m in a
F a c ie s
a l v e o l ar i
a
C an a l e s
a l v e o l ar e s
Pl a n u m
o r b it a l e
h e n o id a l is
h o r iz
a r s
o n
t
a
l is
n as a l is
F ac ie s p a l a t in a
S p in a n a sa lis p o s t e r io r
M a r g o l a c r im a l is
C r is t a
S u l c u s l acr ima l is
50 O s z y g o m at ic u m
F a c ie s m a l a r is
n a s o l a c r im a lis
C a n a l is
C r is t a
co n c
n a s al i
s
F a c ie s t e mp o r a lis
h al is
P r o c e s s u s f r o n t a l is
F a c ie s
C r is t a l a c r im a l is a nt e r ior
I n c is u r a l a c r im al is
P r o ce s su s t e mp o r a l is
C r is t a
et
P r o ce s s u s fr o n t o s p h e n o id a l is
’
h m o id al is
Pr o c e s su s
z y go
( P r o c e s s u s m a r g in a l is )
m a t ic u s
P r o c e s s u s p a l a t in u s
C r is t a n a s a l is
n as a l is
S p in a
orbi
t a l is
Fo r am e n
z
y g o ma t ic o o r b it a l e
F o r am e n
z
y g o m a t ico fac ia l e
For amen
zy
a n t e r io r
60
go m a t ico t em p o r a l e
M a n d ib u l a
C o r p u s m a n dib u l ae
Os in cis iv u m
C a n a l is in c is iv u s
6 2 B a s is m a n d ib u l ae
S u t u r a in c is iv a
S p in a e p a l a t in a e
P r o t u b e r a n t ia m e n t a l is
T u b e r c u l u m m e n t a le
S p in a m e n t a l is
F o r a m en me nt ale
S u l c i p a l a t in i
P r o c es s u s
Lim b u s
a l v e o la r i
s
Lin e a
s
a l v e o la r i
F os s a d ig a s t r ic a
L in ea m y l o hy oid e a
A l v e o li d e n t a l e s
S e p t a in t e r a l v e o l ar ia
Jug a
S u l c u s my lo h y o id e u s
J u g a a l v e o l a r ia
a l v e o l a r ia
H iat u s m a x ill a r is
F or a m e n in c is iv u m
R a m u s m a n d ib u l a e
A ngu l u s ma n dib ul a e
3 1 O s p a l a t inu m
P
a r s
p
e r
p
e n
F a c ie s
n a s a l is
F a c ie s
ma x il la r is
I n c is u r a
sp
d ic
o b l iq u a
u
l
a r
h e n o p al a t in a
S u l c u s p t e r y g o p a l a t in u s
P r o c e s s u s p y r a m id a l is
is
( T u b e r os it as m a s s e t e r ic a )
( T u b e r o s it a s p t e r y g o id e a )
( C r is t a b u c c ina t o r ia )
I n c is u r a m a n dib u l ae
Pr oce s s u s
C a p it u l u m
c o n d y l o id e u s
[p r o c
.
c o n dy l
F o r a m e n p a l a t in u m m a j
F o r a m in a p a l a t in a m in o r a
m a n d ib u l ae
Co ll u m [ p r o c
man dib u l a e
C a na l e s p a l a t ini
C r is t a co n ch a lis
F o v ea p t e r y g o id e a p r o c
d y l o id e i
C r is t a
et
h m o id a l is
.
.
c o n d y l o id e i
]
-
P r o ce s s u s
]
c or o no i
de u s
.
co n
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
34
F o r a m e n m a n d ib u l a r e
42 F o s s a p t e r y g o p a l a tin a
43 C a n a l is p t e r y g o p a l a t in u s
Lin g u l a m a n d ib u l a e
44 F o r a m e n s p h e n o p a l a t in u m
45 A p e r t u r a p ir ifo r m is
C a n a l is m a n d ib u l a e
s
s u b lin g u a l i
F ove a
sub
( Fove a
Par s
46 C a v u m
47 S e p t u m
m a x il l a r is )
a l v e o l a r is
L imb u s
n asi os se um
M e a t u s n as i c o m m u n is
49 M e a t u s n a s i s u p e r io r
50 M e a t u s n a s i m e d iu s
51 M e a t us n a s i in f e r io r
2
M
a
t
s
n
a
e
u
s
o
5
p h a r y ng e u s
53 C h oa n a e
A lve o l i d e n t a l e s
S e p t a in t e r a l v e o l a r ia
O s h y oid e u m
o s s h y o id e i
10
.
C o r n u m in u s
C o r n u m aj u s
54 R e c e s s u s s p h e n o e t h m o id a l is
55 F o r a m e n j u g u l a r e
14 Cr anium
56 F is s u r a s p h e n o p e t r o s a
57 Fis s u r a p e t r o o c c ip it a lis
58 Fis s u r a s p h e n o o c c ip it a l is
-
C a lv ar ia
‘
P e r ic r a n iu m
L a m in a
ex
59 F o r a m e n l a c e r u m
t e r na
6 0 Fib r o c a r t il a g o b a s a l is
D ip l oe
C a n a l e s dip l o ici
La m in a in t e r n a
F a c ie s
n as i
48
a lv e o l a r i
s
Co r p u s
.
[ B r e s c h e t i]
C r a n iu m
62
(T or u s
p a l a t in u s )
O r b it a
[o s s ea ]
Cr a n iu m
6 1 P a la t u m d u r u m
c e r e b r a le
v is ce r a l e
6 4 A d it u s
o r b it a e
65 M a r g o
s u p r a o r -b i
t a l is
66
V e r t ex
Mar g o
6 7 P a r ie s
F r -o n s
l
in fr a o r b it a l is
s u p e r ior
68 P a r ie s in fe r io r
O c c ip u t
B a s is
c r a n ii
B a s is
c r a n ii e x
69 P a r ie s l a t e r a lis
int e r n a
t er n a
Fos sa
c r ani
i a n t e r io r
Fo ssa
c r a n ii
Fossa
i
c r ani
m e dia
70 P a r ie s m e dia l is
7 1 F is s u r a o r b it a l is
s u p e r io r
72 F is s u r a
in fe r io r
p o s t e r io r
a
c e r eb r ali
Ju ga
I m p r e s s io n e s d ig it a t ae
7 3 S u t u r ae
S ulci v enos i
74 S u t u r a
-
3 5 S u l c i a r t e r io s i
g r a n u la r e s
3 6 ( F o v e o l ae
])
c hi
o ni
3 7 ( O s s a s u t u r ar u m )
3 8 Pl a n u m t e mp o r ale
3 9 F o s s a t e m p o r a lis
40 A r c u s z y g o m a t icu s
4 1 F o s s a in fr a t e mp o r a lis
o r bi
t a l is
[ Pac
c r a n ii
c-o r o n al i
s
7 5 S u t u r a s a g it t a l is
76 S u t u r a l a mb d o id e a
77
78
79
80
m a s t o id e a
S ut ur a
o c ci
p it o
S ut u r a
sp
S ut u r a
s p-h e n o o r b i
t a l is
S ut u r a
h e n oe t h m o id al is
s p h e n o s q u a mo s a
s p h e n op a r i
e t ali
s
8 1 S ut u r a
82 S u t u r a
sp
h e n o fr o n t al is
A N A T O M I CA L N AM E S
H
S utur a
N
( S ut ur a
MS ut ur a
P-
( S utur a
mS t
mS u t
u ur a
(
ur a
s q ua
mo s a
40 F o s s a s ub s c ap u l a r is
4 1 F a c ie s d o r s a l is
‘
fr o n t a lis )
p a r ie t o m as t o id e a
s q u a m o so m as t o id e a
)
fr o n t o e t h m o id a l is
45 A c r o mio n
46 F a c ie s a r t icu l a r is
-
o
Q
S u t u r a fr o n t o l a c r ima l is
O
\
S ut ur a
zygo
m a t ico fr o n t a lis
z ygo
-
S S ut ur a
16 S u tu r a
I 7 S ut ur a
1 8 S u tu r a
1 9 S u t ur a
S ut ur a
S utur a
in t e r n a s a lis
n a s o m ax
,
‘
acr o
mn
s
v e r t e b r al i
ax
il l a r is
super i
or
50 A n g u l u s in fe r io r
51 A n g u l u s l a t e r a l is
52 A n g u l u s m e d ia l is
id a l is
a
v
i
t
a
s
l
e
n
o
C
S3
g
54 C o l l u m s c a p u l a e
[
l a c r im o c o n c h a l is
55 T ub e r o s it a s in fr a g l e n o id a l is
56 T u b e r o s it a s s u p r a g l e n o id a l is
57 I n c is u r a s c a p u l a e
in t e r m a x il l a r is
58 P r o c e s su s
il l a r is
l a cr im o m a x ill a r is
p a l a t o m a x il l a r is
p a l a t o e t h m o id a l is
S y nc h o n d r o s e s
co r a c o id e u s
59 C l a v ic u l a
S u t u r a p a l a t in a m e d ia n a
S u t u r a p a l a t in a t r a n s v e r s a
24
Mar go
48 M a r g o
49 M a r g o
47
m a t ico m a x ill a r is
1 1 S u t u r a e t h m o id e o m a x il l a r is
1 2 S u t u r a s p h e n o z y g o m a t ic a
1 3 ( S u t u r a s p h e n o m a x ill a r is )
1 4 S u t u r a z y g o m a t ic o t e m p o r a l is
I
s u p r a s p in a t a
44 F o s s a in fr a s p in a t a
r o n t ou
t
u
r
f
m a x il l a r is
S
a
\
S utur a
s c ap u l a e
42 S p in a
43 F o s s a
n a s o fr o n t a lis
i
10
35
.
E x t r e m it a s
F ac ie s
c r a n ii
a r t icu l a r is s t e r n a l is
S y n c h o n d r o s is s ph e n o o c c ip it a l is
2 6 S y n c h o n d r o s is s p h e n o p e t r o sa
2 7 S y n c h o n d r o s is p e t r o o c c i
p it a l is
T u b e r o s it a s
28
S yn c h on a r osis in tr a oc cipita lis
pos t er ior
T u b e r o s it as
29
S yn ch ond r os is in tr aoccipit alis
25
’
an ter ior
E x t r e m it as
F ac ie s
66 S k
e
s u
l
e
p
3 0 S y nc h on dr os is in t er s ph e no id alis
3 1 F on ticnl ns fr on t alis [ major ]
3 2 F on tic nl ns o c cipita lis [ min or
3 3 F on tic n lns mas t oid e u s
t a t
s
is
pe
3 7 S capu l a
c o s t a lis
s u
3 8 F a c ie s
3 9 Lin e a e m u s c u l a r e s
r
io
r
is
c o s t a l is
a c r o m ia lis
a r t ic u l a r is a c r o
t
c o r a c o id e a
o n
e r
io
m ia l is
e x
r
is
t
r e
m it
l ib
68 Ca p u t h u me r i
69 C o ll u m a n a t o m ic u m
70 Co ll u m c h ir u r g ic u m
7 1 T u b e r c u l u m m aj u s
72 T u b e r c u l u m m in u s
73 S u l c u s in t e r t u b e r c u l a r is
74 C r is t a
7 5 Cr is t a
t ub e r c u li m a j o r is
t u b e r c u l i m in o r is
76 C o r p u s h u m e r i
a
e r a e
6 7 Hu m e r u s
]
phen oid alis
3 5 Ossa e x t r emit a t is
sup er ior is
e x t r e m i
3 6 C in g u l u m
3 4 F on ticnl ns
s t e r n a lis
t is
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
F a c ies
a nt e r i
or
m e d ia l is
F ac ie s
or
a nt e r i
l a t e r a lis
.
40 C r is t a int e r o sse a
4 1 F a c ie s d o r s al is
F a c ie s p o s t e r ior
M ar g o m e dial is
42 F a c ie s
43 F a c ie s
M ar g o l a t e r al is
v ol a r i
s
m e d ial is
T ub e r os it as d e l t oid e a
M a r g o d or s al is
4 5 M a r g o v o l a r is
S u l cu s
n
.
r adi
al is
46 C r is t a m
S u l c us
n
.
u l na r i
s
47 C ap it u l u m
44
-
C ap it u l u m h u me r i
T r o c h le a h u m e r i
49 P r oc es s us
F os s a
r a d ialis
( Pr oc es s us
1
su p r ac o n dy l o id e u s
7 R ad ius
C or pu s r a dii
Ca p it u l u m r a d u
F ov e a
c ap i
t u l i r a d ii
Co ll u m
r a di
i
C ir c u mfe r e n t ia ar t ic u l a r is
T u b e r os it as r a dii
C r is t a in t e r o s s e a
F ac ie s do r salis
F a c ie s
v o lar i
s
F a c ie s l at e r alis
M ar g o do r s al is
M a r g o vo l ar is
Pr o c e ssus
I n c is u r a
F a cies
51 O
o l ecr ani
c o r o no i
de a
s ty lo i
d eus
u l na r is
52
Co r pus u l na e
Ol e c r a no n
Pr o c e ssu s c or o no id eu s
T u b er osit as u l n ae
I n c isu r a s e milu nar is
I n cisu r a r ad ialis
s t y l o id eu s
)
c a r
s s a
(Os
pi
c ent r a l e
)
53 O s nav ic u l a r e m a nu s
54 T u b e r c ul u m o s s
l a r is
55 O s
56 O s
57 O s
58 O s
.
nav icu
l u nat um
t r iq u e t r u m
p is ifo r m e
mu l t a ng u l u m m a j u s
59 T ub e r cu l u m o s s mu l t an g
.
maj o r is
6 0 O s m u l t a ng u l u m m in us
6 1 O s ca p it a t u m
6 2 O s h a m at u m
63 Ha mu l u s o ss h a m at i
64 E min e n t ia c ar p i r a d ia l is
6 5 E min e n t ia c a r p i u l na r is
.
6 6 S ulcus
ca r p i
67
Me t acar pus
68 O s s a m e t ac ar p alia I
—
V
6 9 B as is
ar ti
cu l ar is c a r p e s
3 3 Ul na
c u l ar i
arti
s
50 C ar p u s
Ep ic o n dy lus l a t e r a l is
F o s sa
u l nae
48 C ir c u m fe r e n t ia
Ep ic o n dy l u s m e d ia l is
F ossa
na t o r is
su pi
.
72
70 C o r p u s
7 1 Ca pit u lu m
O s me t ac a r p al e I I I
73 Pr o c e s s u s s t y lo id eu s
74 P h al an ge s d igit or um ma nus
75 P h a l a nx p r ima
f
76 P h a l a nx
77 P h a la nx
s ecu nda
t er t ia
78 B as is p h a la ngis
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
38
Co rp u s fe m o r is
.
T r o c h a n t e r m aj o r
3 9 Lin e a p o p l it e a
40 M a ll e o l u s m e d ia lis
F o s sa t r o c h a nt e r ic a
41
T r o c h a n t e r m in o r
S ul c u s m a l l e o l a r is
43 F a c ie s a r t ic u l a r is in fe r io r
44 F a c ie s a r t ic u l a r is m a l l e o l a r is
( T r och a n t e r
t e r t iu s )
Lin e a in t e r t r o c h a n t e r ic a
I n c is u r a
fi b u l ar is
C r is t a in t e r t r o c h a n t e r ic a
Lin e a
45 F ib u l a
a sp e r a
Co r p u s fi b u l a e
9 L a b iu m l a t e r al e
ale
1 0 La b i
u m me d i
C r is t a in t e r o s s e a
C r is t a
Lin e a p e c t in e a
T u b e r o s it a s g l u t a e a
a nt e r io r
C r is t a l a t e r a lis
C r is t a m e d ia l is
F o s s a in t e r co n dy l o id e a
L in e a in t e r c o n d y lo id e a
F ac ie s m e d ia l is
P l a n u m p o p l it e u m
C o n dy l u s m e dia l is
F a c ie s l a t e r a l is
F aci
e s p o s t er i
or
C a p it u l u m fi b u l a e
C o n dy l u s l a t e r a l is
F a c ie s p a t e l l a r is
F a c ie s
Ap ex
E pic o n d y l u s l a t e r a lis
a r t ic u l a r is c a p i
t u li
c ap i
tuli fi
b u la e
M a ll e o l u s la t e r a lis
Ep ic o n d y l u s m e dia l is
F a c ie s
ar t i
cu l a r is
m a ll e o l i
59 P a t e ll a
21
F ac ie s
l
la
a r t ic u l a r is
s u p e r io r
C o r p u s t ib ia e
B a s is p a t e l l ae
A p e x p at e l l a e
F a c ie s
a r t ic u l a r i
s
C o n d y l u s me dia lis
C o n dy l u s l a t e r a l is
F o s s a in t e r c o n dy l o id e a
6 3 T a r s us
a nt e r i
or
O
t a r s i
s s a
F o s sa int e r c o nd y lo id e a p ost e r io r
E m in e n t ia in t e r c o n d y l o id e a
T u b e r c u l u m in t e r c o n d y l o id e u m
m e dia l e
T u b e r c u l u m in t e r c o n d y l o id e u m
l a t e r al e
M a r g o infr ag le n o id alis
T u b e r o s it a s t ib ia e
F ac ie s m e d ia lis
6 5 T alu s
Ca p u t t a l i
Co r p u s t a li
Co l l u m t a l i
T r o c h l e a t al i
70 F a c ie s s u p e r io r
7 1 F ac ie s m a l l e o l a r is me
d ia l is
72 F ac ie s mall eol ar is l a t e r al is
F ac ie s p o s t e r ior
F ac ie s l a t e r a l is
S u lc us t ali
M a r g o m e d ial is
P r o c e s s u s l a t e r a lis t a li
Cr is t a a n t e r io r
Cr is t a in t er o s s e a
F a c ie s
a r t ic u l a r is ca l c a n e a
t e r io r
pos
AN A T O M I CA L N AM E S
1
2
F a c ie s
m e dia
ar t i
c u l ar i
s
S u l cu s m fl e x
.
3 F a c ie s
4 F a c ie s
or i
s
24 O s
c a l c an e a
h a l l u cis l on g i
25
Os
c u nei
fo r
ar t ic u l ar is
c a l c an ea
5 P r o c e s su s p o s t e r io r
6 ( O s t r ig o nu m )
an
c u n e if or
Os
27
t al i
[
b e r is
m e d ia l is
tu
cal c a n e i
13
S u l cu s m fl e x
14
S u lc u s
c ub o id eu m
31
M e t at a r s u s
O s s a m e t a t ar s a l ia I
—
V
3 2 B a s is
tu
3 3 Co r p us
3 4 C ap it u l u m
s I
i
s s m e t a t ar s a l i
o
b
e
r
os
t
as
T
u
35
o r is h al l u c is l o n g i 6 T u b e r o s it a s o s s m e t a t a r s a l is V
3
.
.
c a l ca n e i
5 S in us t a r s i
or
s a nt er i
1 6 F ac ie s a r t icu l a r i
1 7 F ac i
e s ar t icu l a r is m e d ia
or
1 8 F ac i
e s ar t ic u l a r is p o s t e r i
1
23
t er tiu m
.
30
12
S u l c u s m p e r o n ae i
t
r o c h l e a r is )
r
P
o
c
e
s
su
s
(
F a c ie s a r t ic u l a r is c u b o id e a
.
22
me
m
.
Pr o c e s s us l a t e r a l is
b e r is ca l ca n e i
S u s t e n t ac u l u m t a l i
21
s ecun d u
S u l c u s m p e r o n a ei
2 9 T u b e r o s it as o s s c ub o id e i
11
.
Os
28
7 Ca l c ane u s
c al c a n e i
8 C or p u s
9 Tu b e r cal c an ei
1 0 Pr oc e s s u s
20
me
ar ti
c u l ar i
s n a v ic u l a r is
26
p r im u m
c u n e ifor m e
t e r io r
19
39
.
Os
n a v icu l ar e
T u b e r o s it a s
oss
.
p e d is
n a v ic u l a r is
3 7 P h al anges d ig it or u m p e d is
3 8 Ph a l a nx
3 9 Ph a l a n x
p r im a
s ec un da
40 P h a l a n x t e r t ia
4 1 T u b e r o s it a s
u ng u ic u l a r is
42 B a s is p h al an g is
43 Co r p u s p h al a n g is
44 T r o c h l e a p h a l a n g is
45 O s s a s esa mo id ea
A N AT OM I CA L N A M E S
1
Ju n c t u r a
o ssi
u
S yn d e sm
-
4 S ut ur a
V il l i sy nov ial e s
5 S u t u r a s e r r at a
6 S u t ur a s qu a mosa
7 Ha r m o n ia
8 G o mp h o s is
S y n o v ia
Lig am ent a col umnae
b r alis et cr anii
9 S y n c h o n d r o s is
1 0 S y m p h y sis
D ia r t h r o sis
1 2 A r t ic u l a t i
o
A r t h r o dia
1 6 A r t ic u l a t io s ph ae r o id e a
I 7 E n a r t h r o s is
15
1
-
8 G in g l y m u s
19
A r t ic u l a t io
'
in t e r v e r t e
b r al e s
A n nu l u s fi b r o su s
N u c l e u s p u lp o su s
L igg fl a v a
.
4 1 C a p s u l ae a r t ic u l a r e s
Ligg in t e r t r a n S v e r s a r ia
.
Lig g in t e r s p in a l ia
44 L ig s u p r as p in a l e
.
c o c h l ea r is
elli
p s o id e a
21
t r o c h o id e a
22
s e ll a r i
s
A mp h ia r t h r o s is
S yn d es m o s is
C a r t il a g o a r t icu l a r is
Cav u m
ar t i
c u l ar e
D is c u s
a r t ic u l ar is
Laib r u m g l e n o id a l e
M e n is c u s a r t ic u l ar is
C ap s ul a
ver t e
.
20
23
F ib r oc a r t il a g in e s
40
4
l
l o g ia
3 1 S t r a t u m fi b r o su m
3 2 S t r a t u m s y n o v ia l e
P l ica s y n ov ia l is
m
S y n a r t h r o s is
I
o
.
a r t ic u l a r is
Lig
L ig
.
l o n g it u din a l e
ant er i
us
l o n g it u din a l e p o s t e r iu s
S y mp h y s is s a c r oc o c c y g e a
Lig
.
.
s ac r o cocc y g e u
m p os t e r iu s
s up e r fi c ia l e
Lig
.
s a c r oc o c c y g e u
m p o s t e r iu s
p r o fu n d u m
m a n te r iu s
s ac r oc o c c y g e u m l a t e r a l e
L ig p t e r y g o s p in o s u m
Lig s t y l o h y o id e u m
Lig
L ig
.
.
.
.
s ac r o c o c c y g e u
A N ATO M I CA L N AM ES
1 Ar t icul at io at l ant ooc cip i
t ah s
2 Cap s u l ae a r t i
cu l a r es
3 M e mb r a n a a t l an t oocc ip it al is a n
t e r ior
4
M e mb r a na
a t l a n t oocc ip it a l is
p o s t e r io r
5 Ar t iculat io at l an t oep is
t r op hma
36
37
38
39
40
Ca p s u l a
mandib ul ar is
ar t i
cu lar i
s
D isc us a r t icul ar is
Lig t e mp o r o ma n dib u l ar e
Lig s p h e no ma nd ib u l a r e
Lig s t y l o ma ndib u l a r e
.
‘
.
.
.
cinguli ex
t r emit at is
sup er ior is
42 Lig c or ac o ac r omia le
43 Lig t r a n s v e r su m s c ap u l ae s u
p e r ius
44 Lig t r a nsv er su m s ca p u l ae iri
.
.
.
.
.
fe r ia s
.
Ar t icul at iones
3 5 Ar ticul at io
41 Ligg
6 (34 13 511 13 3 ar t ic u l a t e s
7 148 8
8 Li
g ap 1 c 1 s d e n t 1 s
85 t r a n s v e r su m a t l a n t 1 s
9 L2
1 0 Lig
c r u c 1a t u m at l an t 1 s
1 1 M e m b r a n a t ec t o r i
a
Ar t iculat iones
b r al es
41
.
cost over t e
c ap it ul or um
C ap s u l ae ar t icu l ar e s
Lig c ap it u li c o s t ae r a dia t u m
Lig c ap it u li c os t a e in t e r a r t ic u
.
.
l ar e
45 Ar t icul at io acr omio
cl avicul afi s
C a p su l a a r t icu l ar is
Lig ac r om io c l a v ic u l a r e
( D iscu s a r t icu l a r is )
Lig c o r a c oc l a v icu l a r e
50 Lig t r ap e z o id eu m
51 Lig co no id e u m
.
.
.
.
1 7 Ar t icul at iones cost o
t r ansver sar iae
52 Ar t icul at io st er no
cl avicul ar is
C a p su l ae a r t icu l a r e s
Lig t ub e r cu l i c o s t ae
C a ps u l a
.
Lig c o l l i c o s t a e
Lig co s t ot r a n s v e r sa r iu m
ri
us
Lig c os t o t r an sv er sa r iu m
.
.
ant e
.
ar t i
c u la r i
s
D is c us a r t ic u l ar is
L ig s t er n o c lav ic u l a r e
Lig co s t ocl av ic u l ar e
Lig int e r c l av ic u l ar e
.
.
pos
.
t er iu s
Lig l u mb o c o s t al e
F o r am e n co s t o t r an s v e r sa r iu m
.
25 Ar t icul at iones
cost al es
Ca p s u l a e
s t er no
in t e r a r t ic u
Lig
l ar e
Lig g s t er noco s t al ia r a dia t a
M e mb r a n a s t e r n i
Lig g c o s t o x ip h o id ea
Lig g in t er c o s t a lia
r c os t a l ia e x t e r n a
i
n
t
e
Li
2
gg
3
a in t e r n a
r co s t a l i
i
n
t
e
i
L
gg
33
A r t ic u l a t io n e s in t e r c h o n d r a l e s
.
.
.
.
.
.
C a p s u l a ar t icu l a r is
La b r u m g l e no id al e
Lig cor aco h u me r al e
.
c u l a r es
ar t i
s t er no co s t a l e
58 Ar t icul at io h umer i
62 Ar t icul at io cubit i
A r t ic u l a t io h u m e r o u l na r is
A r t ic u l a t io h u me r o r a d ia l is
A r t icu l a t io r a diou ln a r is p r ox i
m al is
C a p s u l a ar t icu l ar is
Lig c o ll at e r al e u l n a r e
L ig c o l l a t e r a l e r a d ia l e
Lig a nnu l a r e r a dii
'
.
.
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
42
R e c es s u s s a c c ifo r m is
2 M e m b r a n a in t e r os s e a
b r a c h ii
3 C h o r d a o b l iq u a
.
3 5 Lig b as iu m [ o s s m e t acar p
in t e r o s s e a
3 6 S p a t ia in t e r o s s e a m e t ac a r p i
I
.
.
ant i
.
]
3 7 Ar t icul at iones met acar p o
p h al ang eae
4 Ar t icu l a t io r ad ioul nar is
d ist al is
C a p s u l ae a r t ic u l a r e s
Ligg c o ll a t e r a l ia
Lig g a c c e s s o r ia v o l a r ia
Ligg c a p it u l o r u m [ O S S m e t a
car p a liu m ] t r a n s v e r s a
38
39
40
41
C a p s u l a a r t ic u l a r is
D is c u s a r t ic u l ar is
R e c e s s u s s acc 1 fo r m is
8 Ar t icul at io manu s
.
.
.
.
42 Ar t icul at iones d igit or um
manus
9 A r t ic u l a t io r a d io c a r p e a
1 0 A r t ic u l a t io in t e r c a r p e a
1 1 C a p s u l a a r t ic u l a r is
1 2 Li
g r a d io c a r p e u m d or sa l e
r a di
1 3 Lig
o car p eu m v o lar e
1 4 Lig
ca r p i r a d ia t u m
I S Li
g c oll at e r a l e c a r p i u ln a r e
1 6 Li
g c o l l a t e r a l e c a r p i r a d ia l e
in t e r c a r p e a d o r s a l ia
I 7 Lig g
1 8 Li
g g in t e r ca r p e a v o l a r ia
1 9 Lig g
in t e r c a r p e a in t e r o s s e a
43 C a p s u l a e ar t ic u l ar e s
44 L igg c o l l a t e r a l ia
.
.
.
45 Ligg
.
t r emit at is
cing ul i ex
.
inf er ior is
.
.
46 M e mb r a n a o b t u r a t o r ia
47 C a n a l is o b t u r a t o r iu s
48 Lig il io l u mb a l e
49 Lig s a c r o t u b e r o s u m
50 P r o c e s s u s fa l c ifo r m is
l
.
.
.
.
.
.
20 Ar t icu l at io
21
C ap s u l a
1 Li
5
g
i
s
i
f
or
m
i
s
p
ossis
52 F o r a me n
53 F o r a m e n
ar t i
cu l a r is
p iso h a ma t u m
p is o m e t a c a r p e u m
2 4 C a n a lis ca r p i
Lig
2 3 Li
g
22
m
is c h ia d ic u m m a j u s
is c h ia d icu m m in u s
s a c ro sp i
no s u
.
.
54 Ar t icul at io
.
25 Ar t icul at ione s
55 Lig g
56 Lig g
57 Lig
met a
c ar p o
C a p s u l a e a r t ic u l a r e s
2 7 Ligg
c a r p o m e t a c a r p e a d o r s a li
a
28 Li
g g c a r p o m e t aca r p e a v o l a r ia
26
.
.
met a car p ea
car p o
p oll icis
3 0 C ap s ul a
in t e r o s s e a
m
p os t e r iu s
b r eve
s ac r o il i
a c um
58 Lig
l o ng u m
p o s t e r iu s
l iac u
sac r o i
.
59 S y mp h y sis ossiu m p ub is
60 Lig p u b ic u m s u p e r iu s
6 1 Lig a r c u a t u m p u b is
6 2 La min a fi b r o c a r t il a g in e a in t e r
.
p u b ic a
int er met a
63 Ar t icul at io
car p eae
3 2 C a p s u l a e a r t ic u l a r e s
3 3 L ig g b a s iu m [ o s s m e t a ca r p
d o r s a l ia
b a s iu m [ o s s
me t a c a r p
3 4 L ig
v o lar i
a
.
.
.
s a c r o iliac a
.
.
c u l ar i
ar ti
s
3 1 A r t icu l at iones
s ac r o i
liaca a nt e r io r a
.
car p e ae
29 Ar t icu l at io
.
s a cr oil iaca.
.
.
.
]
]
64
65
66
67
68
69
cox ae
C a p s u la a r t icu l ar is
La b r u m g l e no id a l e
Lig t r a n s v e r s u m ac e t ab u l i
Lig t e r e s fe m o r is
Z o n a o r b ic u l a r is
Lig il io fe mo r a l e
'
.
.
-
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
Lig
Lig
H
N
is c h io c a p s u l a r e
p u b o cap s u lar e
.
.
3 7 Lig t a l o fi b u l a r e p o s t e r iu s
3 8 Lig c a l c a n e o fi b u l a r e
3 9 Ar t icul at iones int er
.
.
t ar se a e
3 Ar t icul at io g enu
C a p s u l a a r t ic u l a r is
n M e n is c u s l a t e r a l is
w
O M e n is cu s m e dia lis
L ig t r a n s v e r s u m g e n u
\
O
Lig g c r u c ia t a g e n u
O
9 Lig c r u c ia t u m a n t e r iu s
1 0 Lig
c r u c ia t u m p o s t e r iu s
1 1 P l ic a s y n o v i
al is p a t e ll a r is
40 Ar t icu l at io t al ocal
ca neonavicu l ar is
e
S
-
[
I
.
.
.
.
P lic a e a l a r e s
Lig c o l l a t e r a l e fi b u l a r e
Lig c o ll a t e r a l e t ib ia l e
Lig p o p l it e u m o b l iq u u m
Lig p o p l it e u m a r c u a t u m
R e t in a c u l u m lig a r c u a t i
L ig p a t e ll a e
R e t in a c u l u m p a t e ll a e m e d ia l e
R e t in a c u l u m p a t e l l ae l a t e r a l e
12
13
.
14
.
5
16
17
1
.
.
.
18
1
.
9
20
43
.
41 Ar t icul at io t al oca l canea
42
43
44
45
46
C a p su l a
ar t i
cular i
s
L ig t a l o c a l c a n e u m l a t e r a l e
Lig t a l o c a l c a n e u m m e d ia l e
Lig t a l o ca l ca n e u m a n t e r iu s
L ig t a l o c a l c a n e u m p os t e r iu s
.
.
.
.
47 Ar t icu l at io t ar si t r a nsver sa
[ Ch op ar t i]
48 Ar t icu l a t io
49 C a p s u l a
t al onav icu l ar is
s
a r t ic u l a r i
50 Ar t ic u l at io cal c an
eocu b oid ea
51 C a p s u l a a r t ic u l a r is
52 Ar t icul at io cune onav icu
l ar is
21 Ar t icu l at io t ib iofi b ul ar is
53 Lig g t ar si int er os se a
t a l oc a lc a ne u m
in t e r o s
54 L ig
seum
.
.
22
C a p s u la
23
Ligg
.
c u la r i
s
ar t i
c a p it u l i
fi b u la e
M e mb r a n a in t e r o s s e a
24
55 Lig
c r u r is
c u n e o c u b o id e u
.
s eu
m in t e r o s
m
56 Lig g in t e r cu n e ifo r m ia in t e r o s
.
sea
25 S y nd e smosis t ib iofi b ul ar is
Lig
2 7 Li
g
26
.
.
m a l l e o l i l a t e r a l is
m a l l e o l i l a t e r a l is
a n t e r iu s
p o s t e r iu s
M
57 Ligg t ar si d or sal ia
.
58 Lig t a l o n a v ic u l a r e [ do r s a l e ]
59 Lig c u n e o c u b o id e u m d o r s a l e
c u b o id e o n a v ic u l a r e
do r
6 0 Lig
s al e
L ig b ifu r c a t u m
01
6 2 P a r s c a l ca n e o n av ic u l a r is
6 3 P a r s c a l c ane o cu bo id e a
6 4 L ig c a l c a n e o n a v ic u l a r e d o r s a l e
6 5 Ligg n av ic u l a r ic u n e ifo r m ia
d o r s a lia
.
.
.
28 Ar t icul at iones p edis
29 Ar t icul at io t al o
cr ur a l is
Ca p s u l a a r t ic u l a r is
L ig d e l t o id e u m
3 2 Lig t ib io n a v ic u l a r e
3 3 Lig c a l c a n e o t ib ia l e
3 4 Lig t a l o t ib ia l e a n t e r iu s
3 5 Lig t a l o t ib ial e p o s t e r iu s
Lig t a l o fi b u l a r e a n t e r iu s
.
.
.
.
.
.
n
.
.
.
66 Ligg t ar si p l ant ar ia
6 7 Lig p l a n t a r e l o n g u m
.
.
68 Lig g t a r s i p r o fu n d a
6 9 Lig
c a l c a n e oc u b o id e u m
p l an t a r e
70 Lig c a l ca n e o n a v ic u l a r e
p la nt a r e
.
.
.
A N A T O M I C A L N A M ES
44
1
F ib r oc ar t ilag o
2
Lig g n av ic u l ar ic u n e ifo r m ia
p l an t a r ia
n a v ic u l a r is
int er c u n e ifo r mia
.
Ligg b as iu m
d o r s al ia
[ oss me t at a r s ]
Ligg b a s iu m
p l a n t ar ia
[ os s
.
p lan
c u n eocu b oid e u m
p l an t a r e
.
met at a r s ]
.
1 7 Ar t iculat iones met at ar so
ph al angeae
6 Ar t icul at iones t ar so
met at ar seae
7 Ca p s u l a e a r t icu l a t e s
8 Lig g t a r s o me t a t a r s e a d o r s a l ia
9 Ligg t ar s o m e t a t a r s e a p l a n t a r ia
1 0 Li
gg c u n eo m e t a t a r s e a in t e r o s
.
.
8 Ca p s u l a e a r t icu l ar e s
1 9 Li
g g c o l l at e r a l ia
1
.
20
Lig g
21
Ligg
s ea
.
.
t ar s
.
C ap s u l a e
a
a cce s so r i
p l a nt a r ia
c a p it u l or u m
.
]
[ os s me ta
.
t r a n s v e r sa
22 Ar t icul at iones d igit or um
p edis
1 1 Ar t icul at iones int er met a
12
.
S p a t ia int e r o s s ea me t a t a r s i
t a r ia
5 Lig
[ o s s me t a t a r s ]
.
c ub oid eon a v ic u l a r e
3 Lig f
p l an t ar e
.
Ligg b as iu m
in t e r os s ea
.
.
4 Ligg
.
t ar seae
a r t ic ul a r es
C a p s u l ae ar t ic u l a r e s
24 Li
g g c o ll at e r a l ia
23
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
46
1
M
1
p o s t e r ior
t is
c ap i
r e ct u s
.
m in o r
M
2
r ect u s
.
c a p it is
c a p it i
s s u p e r io r
l iq u u s
o b l iq u u s
ob
3
4
l a t e r a lis
'
in fe r io r
t is
capi
5 F a s c ia l u m b o d o r s a l is
6 F a s c ia n u c h a e
M
.
p t e r y g o id e u s in t e r n u s
G a l e a a p o n e u r o t ic a
.
F a s c ia b u c c o p h a r y n g e a
F a s c ia p a r o t id e o m a s s e t e r ica
F as c ia t e m p o r a l is
-
Musculi
46
oss
.
h y oid ei
M d ig a s t r ic u s
.
7 Musculi capit is
M
0
0
ep i
c r an i
us
.
9 M
10
.
49 V e n t e r p o s t e r io r
M s ty l o hy o id e u s
.
fr o n t a l is
my l o hy o id e u s
o c ci
p it a lis
g e n io h y o id e u s
1 1
12
M
1
5 M
1
6 M
p r o ce r u s
n a s a l is
.
53 Musculi coll i
13
Pa r s t r ans v e r s a
14
Par s
l
.
o cu li
7 P a r s p a l p e b r a l is
1 8 P ar s o r b it a l is
m a l is [ H o r n e r i]
1 9 Par s lac r i
M
.
21
M
23
2
4
2
5
M
a n t e r io r
aur i
c u la r i
s
s up e r i
or
(M
.
27
t r an s v e r su s
.
z
t h y r e o h y o id e u s
(M
.
m e n t i)
y g o m a t ic u s
.
31
32 M
M
.
.
g o m a t ic u m
C a p u t in fr a o r b it a l e
C a p u t a ng u l a r e
C a p ut
zy
.
in c is iv i l a b ii in fe r ior is
c o ll i
l o ng u s
c ap i
t s
i
.
s ca l e n u s
a nt e r i
or
s c a le nu s
m e diu s
s c a l e nu s
p o s t e r io r
min im u s )
s c a l e nu s
co l l i
F a s c ia p r a e v e r t e b r a l is
72 Muscul it h or acis
(M
M
.
s t er nali
s
)
p e c t o r a l is ma j o r
7 5 P a r s c l av icu l a r is
.
M m e n t a l is
76 Pa r s
.
s t e r n o c o s t al i
s
min a l is
M p e c t o r a l is m ino r
ma s s e t e r
t e m p o r a l is
p t e r y g o id e u s
l o ng u s
F a s c ia
c ani
nu s
M m in c is iv i l ab ii s u p e r io r is
1
(M
q u a d r a t u s l a b ii in fe r io r is
b u c c in a t or
34
le v a t o r g l a n du l a e t h y r eo i
d e ae )
r ectu s capi
t is a n t e r io r
M q u a d r at u s l ab ii s u p e r io r is
30
35
36
s t e r n o t h y r e o id e u s
.
ri
s or i
us
29
33
M
p o s t e r io r
o r b ic u l a r is o r is
.
m o h y o id e u s
58 V e n t e r s u p e r io r
59 V e n t e r in f e r io r
t r ia n g u l a r is
M
28
s
au r i
c u lar i
o
.
a u r ic u l ar is
22
m a s t o id eu s
s t e r n o h y o id e u s
1
20
s t e r n oc l e id o
.
s e pt i
o r b ic u l a r is
-
P lat y s m a
M
a a r is
d e p r e s so r
.
ant er i
or
48 V e n t e r
77 P a r s
a b do
.
ex
t e r nus
M
.
s u b c l a v iu s
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
1
1
—
0
[
M s e r r a t u s a n t e r ior
M m l e v at o r e s c o s t ar u m
c o s t ar u m
3 Mm lev at or e s
4 1 Lig in g u in a l e [ P o u p a r t i]
4 2 Lig l a c u n a r e [G im b e r n a t i]
43 Lig ing u ina l e r e fl e x u m [ CO I
l e s i]
ing u in a l is s u b c u t a
c o s t a r u m 44 A n n u l u s
.
.
.
longi
le v a t o r e s
b r e v es
M m in t e r co s t a l e s e x t e r n i
in t e r c o s t a l e s in t e r n i
su b c o s t ale s
M t ra n s v e r s u s t h or a c is
D ia p h r a g m a
1 0 P a r s l u m b a lis
1 1 C r u s m e d ia l e
1 2 C r u s in t e r m e diu m
1 3 Cr u s l at e r a le
1 4 Pa r s c o s t a l is
1 5 P a r s s t e r n a l is
H ia t u s a o r t ic u s
H ia t u s o e s o p h a g e u s
C e n t r u m t e n d in e u m
F o r a m e n v e n a e c av a e
b oc o s t a l is m e d ia l is
A r c u s l u m[ H a ll e r il
l a t e r a l is
l u rnb o c o s t a l is
Ar cus
[ H a ll e r i]
F a s c ia p e c t o r a l is
F a s c 1 a c o r a c o c l av 1 c u l a r 1s
.
.
11 6 11 5
.
.
7
18
I
I
9
20
24
M
.
.
ab d o
r ect u s
F a lx
M
Mu sculi ab d ominis
[
]
in g u in a l is
ab d o
ab
59 M
60 M
61 M
.
.
Muscuh
coccy gel
coc c y g e u s
.
sa c r o c o c cy g e u s
a n t e r io r
,
s a c r oc oc c y g e u s
p o s t e r io r
Muscul i ex t r emit at is
M d e l to id e u s
.
M
.
nat u s
s up r a s p i
in fr a s p in a t u s
t e r e s m in or
t e r es
m aj or
s u b s c a p u l a r is
M b ic e p s
b r a c h ii
70 C a p u t l o n g u m
7 1 V a gin a m u c os a in t e r t u
b e r c u l a r is
7 2 C ap u t b r e v e
7 3 La c e r t u s fi b r o s u s
M c o r a c o b r ac h ial is
b r a c h ia l is
M t r ic e p s b r a ch u
77 C a p u t l o n g u m
78 C a p u t l a t e r a l e
79 C apu t m e dial e
.
q u a d r a t u s l u mb o r u m
A nnu l us u mbilic a lis
Lin e a a lb a
n e a e a lb ae
m
i
u lum li
n
i
c
Ad
35
I n s c r ip t io n e s t e n din e a e
Lig s u s p e n s o r iu m p e n is s c li
t o r id is
Lig fu n d ifo r m e p e n is
V a g in a m r e c t i a b d o m in is
Lin e a s e mic ir c u l ar is [ D o u gl a s i]
.
.
58
do m
t r a n s v e r s u s a b d o m in is
.
54
55
56
57
.
m
m as t e r
.
50
51
52
53
sup erior is
p y r a m id a lis
e x t e r nu s
o b l iq u u s
in is
o b li
q u u s in t e r n u s
in is
cr e
47
48
49
45 C YU S s u p e r iu s
46 C r u s in fe r iu s
F ib r a e in t e r c r u r a l e s
T r ig o n u m l u mb a l e [ P e t it i]
Lin e a s e m il u n a r is [ S p ig e ]
F a sc ia t r a n s v e r s a l is
C a n a l is in g u in a l is
A n n u l u s in g u in a l is a b d o m in a l is
Lig
in t e r fo v e o l a r e
[H e s se l
b a c h i]
P l ic a e p ig a s t r ic a
F o v e a in g u in a l is l a t e r a lis
F ov e a in g u in a l is m e d ia l is
F ov e a s u p r a v e s ica l is
62
m in is
a p o n e u r o t ic a
'
.
‘
16
47
.
.
.
A NA T O M I CA L N A M ES
M an c o na e u s
( M ep it r och l eoanco naeu s )
M p r o nat or t e r e s
4 Cap u t h u m er al e
.
1
.
.
5 Cap ut
M flex
.
M
.
alis
o r c ar p i r a d i
9 C ap u t h ume r a l e
1 0 Cap u t ul n ar e
M fl ex o r d igit o r u m sub l im is
.
Cap u t h u me r a l e
1 3 Cap u t r a d i
al e
M fle x or dig it or u m p r ofu n d us
fl ex o r p o ll ic is l o ng u s
12
.
al i
c ar p i r ad i
s
44 F as c ia b r ac h ii
45 S e p t u m int e r mu s c u l a r e
[ hu
48 S u l cu s b ic ip it a lis l a t e ra l is
49 F as c ia a nt ib r ac hii
50 F a s c ia d o r s a l is ma nu s
51 Lig car p i d o r s al e
l o ngu s
.
.
52 A p o n eur o s is p a l mar is
53 F a s cic u li t r a ns v e r s i
54 Lig car p i t r an sv e r su m
—
.
55 Lig
p r o na t o r q ua dr at u s
b r ach io r a dia lis
t ensor
42 F a s cia s u p r a s p in a t a
43 F a s c ia infr a sp inat a
me r i] me dia l e
46 S e p t u m in t e r mus c u l a r e [ hu
mer i] l at e r a l e
47 S u l c u s b icip it a lis m e dia lis
u lnar e
p al ma ris lo n g u s
fl ex o r c ar p i u ln a r is
ex
.
car p iv o l ar e
.
56 C h ia s ma t endinu m
57 V inc u l u m t e n dinu m
t e n so r ca r p i r a d ia l is b r e v is 58 V a g in a e mu c o s a e
v ag i
n al ia
ex t e n sor
digito r u m
co m
59 Lig g
ex
M
.
.
m a nu s
mu m s
M
.
t e n dinu m
J unc t ur ae
21
d ig it i q u int i p r 0
o
t e n sor
ex
p r 1us
ex
60 Ligg
ma nus
6 1 Lig g
t e ns or car p i u lna r is
62
s up i
na t or
ab d uc t or
a nnu l a r i
a
.
.
cr uci
at a
d ig it o r u m
dig it o r u m
dig it o r u m ma n us
Musculi ex t r emit at is
inf er ior is
p o l l icis longu s
p o l l ic is b r e v is
ex
t e nso r
ex
t e n sor p o l lic is l ong u s
t e ns or in d ic is p r o p r ius
63
M iliop so as
.
64
iliacus
p al ma r is b r ev is
67
a b d u ct or
68
p s oas maj o r
p soa s minor
g l u t aeu s max imu s
g l u t ae u s me d iu s
69
g l u t ae u s
70
t e ns or fa sc iae l at ae
71
p ir ifo r mis
o b t u r at o r i
nt er nu s
ex
fle x
or
po ll ic is b r e v is
p o ll ic is b r ev is
a dd u c t o r
p o l l icis
p o llic is
ab d u c t o r
d ig it i q u int i
o p p o ne n s
fl ex
dig it i q u int i b r e v 1 s
o pp o ne ns di
g it i q u int i
or
M m l umb r ic al e s
.
.
int e r osse i d or sal e s
’
int e r o ss ei vo l ar e s
F asc ia ax il lar is
F as c ia s ub s c ap u l ar is
65
u
66
72
73
g eme llu s sup e r ior
g emell u s in fe r ior
74
75
76
77
minimu s
q u a dr at us femo r is
s ar t or i
us
M
q u a d r ic ep s fe mor is
7 8 M r e c t u s f emo r is
.
.
79
va s t u s
la t e r al is
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
M
M
1
'
2
m2
.
v a s tu s
in t er me diu s
44
M fl ex
va s t u s
m e dia lis
45
46
Mm
ar t i
c u l a r is
g e nu
dig it o r u m b r ev is
q u a d r a t u s p l a nt a e
.
.
or
l u mb r ic a le s
p e c t ine u s
a d d u c t o r l o ngu s
47
in t e r o s s e i dor s al e s
48
in t e r os s e i p l a nt a r e s
\
g r ac ilis
a d d u c t or b r ev is
49 F a s cia l a t a
50 T r ac t us ilio t ib ia l is
o
o
a d d u c to r
o
x
a dd u c t o r
k-
n
u
G
1
o b t u r at o r
Ho
M bic e p s
HH
1
.
49
.
4
ex
t e r nu s
f e mo r is
.
M
m ag nu s
min imu s
12
C ap u t l o n g u m
13
C ap u t b r e v e
.
s em it e n d in o s us
mime m-b r a n osu s
15
se
16
t ib i
a l is
17
ex
ant e r i
or
18
t e ns o r d ig it o r u m l ong u
p e r o n a e u s t e r t iu s
19
ex
20
p e r o n a e u s l o ng u s
p e r o n a e u s b r e v is
21
M
22
.
t e n so r
t r ic e p s
23
26
M
h a l lu cis l ong u s
su r a e
g a s t r o c n e m iu s
24 C a p u t l a t e r a l e
2 5 C ap u t m e d i
al e
1
M
.
.
A r cu s t e n din e u s m
28
T e nd o
29
1
.
c al c a n eu s
.
fl ex
or
33
fl ex
or
34
ex
35
36
ex
dig it o r u m l o ng u s
h al l u c is l o ng us
t e ns or h all u cis b r ev is
t e n so r d ig it o r u m b r ev is
alb d u c t o r h a l l u c is
37
38
h a llu c is b r e v is
M ad duct or h a l l u c is
41
3 9 C ap u t o b l iq u u m
40 C a p u t t r a n s v e r s u m
M ab d uc t o r d ig it i q u int i
43
flex
or
.
.
M fl ex
.
La c u n a
dig it i q u int i b r e v is
op p o ne n s di
g it i q u int i
or
v as or u
m
-
[ Fo ss a
60 F oss a iliop e c t in e a
6 1 F asc ia p e c t in e a
6 2 C a n al is fe mo r a l is
63 A nnu l u s fe mo r a lis
64 S e p t u m fe mo r a l e
q u e t i]
65 F o s s a
[ Cl o
o v al is
66 Ma r g o fa l c ifor mis
6 7 C or n usu p e r iu s
p l a nt ar is
32
1
La c u n a mu s c u l or u m
[ A c h il lis ]
31
42
F a s c ia il iac a
Fa s c ia il io p e c t in ea
59 T r ig o nu m fe mo r al e
S c a r p a e m aj o r ]
so l e i
p o p lit eu s
t ib ia l is p o s t e r io r
30
55
56
57
58
s o le u s
27
M
[ M ais s ia t i]
51 S e p t u m in t e r m u s c u l a r e [ fe m
or i
s ] l a t e r a le
52 S ep t u m in t e r mu sc u l ar e [ fe m
o r is ] m e di
a le
53 C a nal is a dd u c t o r iu s [ H u nt e r i]
54 H ia t us t e n d in eu s
[ a ddu c t o
ri
us ]
70
6 8 Co r n u in fer ius
69 Fa sc ia c r ib r osa
F a s c ia c r u r is
7 1 S ep t u m int e r m u sc u l ar e
r ius [ fi b u l a r e ]
a nt e
72 S ep t u m in t e r m usc u la r e p o s t e
r iu s [ fi b u l a r e ]
73 Lig t r a n s v e r s u m c r u r is
74 Lig l a cinia t u m
7 5 Lig c r u c ia t u m c r u r is
76 R e t inac u l u m mm p e r o n ae o r u m
.
.
.
.
su p
.
77 R e t in acu l u m mm p er o nae o r u m
infe r ius
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
50
1
2
F a s c ia d o r s al is p e d is
Ap o n e u r o s is p l a n t a r is
3 Fa s c ic u l i t r a n s v e r s i
n e u r o sis p l a n t a r is
8
I
I
Bu
9 B u r sa m u co sa
O B u r s a m u c os a
I
B u r s a m u co s a
r sa e
e
ap o
t
.
m
V a g in a e
u co sa e
B u r s a m u c o s a s u b t e n d in e a
1 3 V a g in a m u co s a t e n d in is
12
mu s c u l ar is
s u b fas c ia l is
'
V a g ina t e n din u m m m a b d u c
l o ng i e t
e x t e n s o r is
t o r is
b r e v is p o llic is
V a g in a t e n d in u m m m e x t e n
s o r u m c a r p i r a d ia l iu m
V a g in a t e n din is m e x t e n so r is
p o l l ic is lo n g i
V a g in a t e n d inu m m m e x t e n
sor i
s dig it o r u m c o m mu n is e t
e x t e n s o r is in d i
c is
V a g in a t e n din is m e x t e n s o r is
d ig it i m in im i
V a g in a t e n d in is m e x t e n s o r is
c ar p iu l n ar i
s
B m e x t e n s o r is c a r p i r a dia l is
b r e v is
B u r s a e s u b c u t a n e ae m e t ac a r
p op h a l a ng e a e d o r s a l e s
B u r s a e s u b cu t a n e a e dig it o r u m
d o r s al e s
B m fl e x o r is c a r p i u l n a r is
.
.
'
.
.
‘
.
mu s c u li t r o c h l e a r is
B m t e n s o r is v e l i p a l a t ini
B s u b c u t a n e a p r a e m e n t a l is
B
4 V a g in ae m u co sae
5 Lig g a n n u l a r ia
6 Lig g v a g in a l ia
7 Lig g c r u c iat a
.
s u b c u t a ne a
s uib
.
.
.
B
p r o m in e n t ia e
s u b cu t a n ea
.
.
l ar y n g e ae
B
.
B
.
B
.
B
.
m s t e r noh y o id e i
m t h y r e o h y o id e i
.
.
.
s u b c u t a n e a s ac r a l is
.
c o c cy g e a
.
s u b cu t an e a a c r o
m ia lis
s u b ac r o mi
a l is
.
s u b d e l t o id e a
s
c o r aco b r ac h i
a l is
e
in fr as p in a t i
s
s u b s c a p u l ar i
s
s
t e r e t is
a
maj o r is
l a t is s im i d or s i
.
.
B
.
.
m fle x
.
o r is c a r p i r a dia l is
V a g in a t e n d in u m m m fl e x o
r u m co mm u n i
um
V a g t e n d in is m fl e x o r is p o l l i
c is l o n g i
B u r s ae in t e r m e t a c a r p o p h a l a n
.
B
.
s u b c u t a n e a o le c r a ni
.
B
.
in t r a t e n din e a
B
.
ne a ole c r ani
su b t endi
B
.
s u b cu t anea
o le c r a ni
i
e p co n
dy l i
[ hu
m e r i] l a t e r a l is
B
.
sub cutane a
e p ic o n d y l i
m er i] m e d ia l is
B
B
.
.
b ic ip it o r a d ia lis
cub i
t a l is
in t e r o s s e a
[h u
t
.
g eae
V a g in ae t e n d inu m dig it a l e s
B t r o c h a n t e r ica su b cu t a n e a
B
t r o c h a n t e r ic a
m g l u t ae i
ma x imi
B t r oc h m g l u t a e im e d n a n t e
ri
or
.
.
.
'
.
.
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
I
B
t r och
.
.
m g l u t ae i m e dii p o s
.
t e r io r
2
B
B
.
m g a s t r o c n e m n m e d ia l is
B m s e m im e mb r a n o s i
B s u b c u t a n e a m a l l e o l il a t e r a l is
B s u b c u t a n e a m a l l e o lim e d ia l is
B
.
.
-
.
.
m g l u t ae i min im i
m p ir ifo r mis
t r och
.
51
.
.
.
.
.
.
V a g t e n d in is m t ib ia l is
.
.
B
m
.
o b t u r a t o r ii in t e r ni
.
B u r s a e g l u t a e o fe m o r a l e s
w is c h ia d ic a
U
C
J
U
J
m
.
r ec t i
ri
o r is
Vag
.
m
t e n d in is
.
h a l l u c is
m g l u t ae i m a x im i
V a g in a e
fe mo r is
longi
m
t e n d in u m
il ia c a
U
p
m
.
U
m
.
s u b t e n d in e a
w
w
w
w
w
7
u
18
o
I
p
p
p e c t in e i
.
.
b ic ip it is fe m o r is
or
s up e r i
p r a e p a t e l l a r is
sub c ut an ea
c is
p r ae p a t e ll a r is
s u b fa sc i
a l is
p r ae p a t e ll a r is
ne a
s u b t e n di
in fr a p a t e ll a r is
s u b cu t a n e a
in fr a p a t e l l a r is p r o fu n d a
s ub c u t ane a
t u b e r o s it a t is
m
.
s a r t o r ii p r o p r ia
a n s e r in a
2I
m b ic ip it is fe m o r is in fe r io r
22
m
.
.
p o p l it e i
23
b ic ip it o g a s t r o c n e m ia lis
24
m g a s t r o c n e m ii l a t e r a l is
.
h allu
l o ng i
V a g t e n d inu m m m p e r o na e o
s
r u m c o mm u n i
B ur sa
B
s u p r a p a t e l la r is
o r is
-
.
.
.
t ib iae
19
t en
d ig it o r u m p e d is l o n g i
V a g t e n d in is m t ib ia lis p o s
t e r io r is
.
15
ex
d ig it o r u m p e dis l o n g i
V a g in a e t e n d in u m m fl e x o r is
V a g t e n d in is m fl e x
4
.
s o r is
il io p e c t in e a
U
p
I
t e n s o r is
ex
.
.
Z
12
ant e
.
S in u s
t a r si
m
s u b t e n d in e a
.
t ib ia lis a n
t e r io r is
B
.
nea
s ub t e ndi
m
.
t ib ia l is p o s
t e r io r is
B
.
s u b c u t an e a c a l c a n e a
B
.
t e n d in is
c a l ca n e i
[ A c h ill is ]
V a g t e n d inis m p e r o n a e i l o n g i
p l a n t a r is
B u r s ae int e r m e t a t a r s o p h a l a n
.
.
g e ae
B u r s a e mm l u m b r ic a l iu m p e d is
d ig it a l e s
t e n d in u m
V a g in a e
.
p e dis
A NA T O M I CA L N A M E S
52
1
T u n ic a
S p la n
c
h
no
15
a d v e n t it ia
T u n ic a muc o sa
6 La min a p r o p r ia mu co sa e
7 La mina mu s cu l a r is m u
17
E p it h e l iu m
18
En d o t h e liu m
19
s ub
mucosa
22
9 Plic a mu co sa
Mu c u s
S t r o ma
G l a n d u la
L ob u s
Lo b u lu s
T u n ica m u sc u la r is
25
G l a nd u l a mu c os a
T u n ica
26
Mu scu lu s
se r o s a
13
T e la
14
Pl ic a
m
O r g a no n p a r e noh y mat osu m
20 P a r e nc hy ma
24
10
s e r o su
21
c osa e
8 T ela
l o g ia
Lig a m e n t u m
1 6 S er um
a l b u gin e a
T u n ic a fi b r o sa
T u n ic a
.
v isce r u
m
s u b s e r osa
s e r os a
27 App ar at us dig est or ius
28 Cavum
or is
42 R a p h e p a l a t i
B u c ca
Co r p us
a di
p os u m
b uc cae
V e s t ib u l u m
s
or i
C a vu m
p r o p r iu m
R ima
Lab ia
40 P al at u m du r u m
4 1 P al a t u m moll e
o r is
ori
s
o r is
3 5 Lab iu m s u p er iu s
3 6 Lab iu m in fe r iu s
b io r u m
C o mmiss u r a l aA n g u l u s o r is
P al a t u m
43 T u nica mu co s a
F r e nu lu m l a b 11
ori
sup e r i
s
F r e nu l u m l ab ii in f e r io r is
G ing iv a
Car u ncul a s ub ling ua lis
Plic a s u b l ing u al is
P lica e pa l a t inae t r a n s v e r sae
P ap illa inc is iva
'
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
54
I
M
u s c u
M
3 M
2
1
.
.
2
1
0 2
03
2
\
O
O 2
.
2
4
1
c
x
3
l i l in g u a e
g e n io g l o s s u s
h y og lo s s u s
c h o n d r o g l o s sus
s t y l o g l os s u s
l o n g it u din a l is s u p e r io r
l o n g it u d in a l is in fe r io r
t r a n s v e r s u s l in g u a e
v er t i
c a l is l in g u ae
10
F a u ce s
.
4 1 ( B u r s a p h a r y ng e a )
42 R e c e s s u s p ir ifo r m is
43 M s t y l o p h a r y n g e u s
44 F a s c ia p h a r y n g o b a s il ar is
45 T u n ica m u c os a
46 G 1 p h a r y n g e a e
4 7 T o n s il l a p h a r y ng e a
48 F o s s u l a e t o n s il l a r e s
49 T e l a s u b m u c o s a
50 T u n ic a m u s cu l a r is p h a r y n g is
51 R a p h e p h a r y n g is
52 R a p h e p t e r y g o m a n d ib u l a r is
53 M c o n s t r ic t o r p h ar y ng is s u p e
ri
or
54 M p t e r y g o p h ar y ng e u s
55 M b u c c o p h a r y ng eu s
56 M m y l o p h a r y n g e us
57 M g l o s s o p h a r y n g e u s
58 M s a l p ing o p h a r y n g e u s
M
co n s t r ic t o r p h ar y ng i
s me
9
5
d ins
60 M c h o n d r o p h ar y n g e u s
6 1 M c er a t o p h ar y ng eu s
6 2 M c o n s t r ic t o r p h a r y n g is in ie
ri
or
6 3 M t h y r eo p h a r y ng e u s
6 4 M cr ic op h a r y n g e u s
.
.
.
fa u c iu m
V e l u m p a l a t in u m
U v u l a [ p a l a t in a ]
A r c u s p a l a t in i
1 5 A r c u s g l os s o p a l a t in u s
I 6 A r c u s p h a r y n g o p a l a t in u s
Plic a s a lp ing o p a l a t in a
T o n s il l a p a l a t in a
1 9 F o s s u l a e t o n s il l a r e s
S in u s t o n s ill a r is
P l ica t r ia ng u l a r is
F o s s a s u p r a t o n s il l a r is
I s t h mu s
.
-
.
.
.
.
1
.
.
.
.
.
.
M u s c u l i p a l at i e t fa uc ium
ta
s
25 e
26 s
27 a
28 g
24
le v a t o r
t e ns o r
v eli
v e li
65 Tub u s dig est or ius
p a l a t in i
p a l a t in i
6 6 O e s op h a g u s
u v u la e
g l o s s o p a l a t in u s
prh a r y ng op a l a t inu s
'
29 Ph ar y nx
P a r s ce r v ic a l is
P a r s t h o r a c a l is
P a r s a b d o m in a lis
T u n ic a a d v e n t itia
T u n ic a m u s c u l a r is
M b r o n oh o o e s o p h a g e u s
M p l e u r o o e s o p h ag e u s
T e l a s u b m u c os a
T u n ic a m u co s a
7 6 La m m u sc u l ar is m u c o sa e
G l o e s op h a g e a e
.
Cav u m ph a r y ng is
F o r n ix p h a r y n g is
P a r s n a s a lis
P a r s o r a l is
P a r s l a r y ng e a
O s t iu m p h a r y ng e u m t u b a e
3 6 L a b iu m a n t e r iu s
3 7 L a biu m p os t e r iu s
3 8 T o r u s t u b a r iu s
P l ic a s a l p in g o p h a r y n g e a
‘
R e c e s s u s p h ar y ng e u s
m u e ll e r i]
[ R os e n
.
.
.
7 8 V e nt r icul us
[G
aste r
P a r ie s a nt e r io r
P a r 1e s p o s t e r io r
]
A N A T O M I CA L N AM E S
m a j or
no r
v e n t r icu l i m i
C u r va t u r a
Ohy mus
Ch y l us
S u c c u s e nt er ic u s
D uodenum
P ar s s u p er io r
Par s d e sc e n d e n s
Par s in fe r ior
h o r iz o nt a lis
49 Pa r s
fe r io r ]
50 Pa r s a s ce n de n s
F l e x u r a d uo de n i s u p e r io r
Fl ex u r a du o d e n i in fe r io r
F le x u r a du o d e n o j e j u n a l is
M su sp e n so r iu s d u o d e n i
P l ic a l o ng it u din al is d u o d e ni
Pa p il la d u o d e n i [ S a n t o r ini]
G l d u o d e na l es [ B r u n n e r i]
I n t e s t in u m t e n u e m e
8 e n t e r ia l e
v e nt r i
cu l i
C u r vat ur a
1
‘
C ar dia
F u n d us
v e nt r i
cu l i
Co r p u s v e n t r ic u l i
Py l o r u s
Pa r s
c a r d ia c a
P a r s p y l o r ic a
( A n t r u m c ar d iacu m )
A n t r u m p y l o r ic u m
T u n ic a s e r osa
T u n ic a mu scu l ar is
13
S t r at u m l o ng it u dinal e
.
L ig g p y l o r i
1 5 S t r at u m c ir c u l a r e
n c t e r py l or i
1 6 M sp h i
14
.
.
.
17
F ib r a e
o b li
q u ae
V a l v u l a py l o r i
T e l a s u b m u cos a
I n t e st inu m j e j u n u m
I n t e st inu m il eu m
T u n ic a m u c os a
21
La m m u sc u l ar is mu co s ae
A r e a e g a s t r icae
P l ic a e v il l osae
62
F o v e o l ae g as t r icae
G l a n d u l ae g as t r icae
[ p r op r iae ]
G l a n du l a e py l o r ic a e
N o d u li ly mp h a t ic i g a s t r ic i
S uc c u s g a s t r ic u s
nu m t e nu e
2 9 I nt e st i
T u n ic a
s er os a
T u nic a
mu s c ul a r is
S t r at u m l o n g it u dinal e
3 3 S t r a t u m c ir cu l a r e
T e l a s ulb m u c os a
mu c os a
3 6 L am
.
mu s c u l a r is mu c os a e
r c u l ar e s
ci
[ K e r kr ingi]
V il li in t e s t in al e s
G l in t e s t in al es [ Lieb e r k u e h n i]
N o d u l i ly mp h a t ic i so l it a r ii
.
N odu li
ly mp h at ic i
[ P ey e r i]
I
nt e st
in u m
c r as su m
c a e c u
6 3 V al v u l a c o l i
6 4 Labiu m s u p e r iu s
6 5 Lab ium in fe r iu s
66 F r e n u l a v al vu l a e
67 P
( V al v u l a
fo r mis )
68
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
ag g r e g at i 8 1
82
c o li
v er
p r oce s s u s
Colon
Co l o n as ce nde n s
F l e x u r a c o l i d ex t r a
C ol o n t r an sv e r s u m
F l e x ur a co l i s inis t r a
Co l o n d esc e n d e n s
Co lo n s igmo id eu m
P lic a e s e milu n a r e s c o l i
H au s t r a c o l i
T u n ica s e r osa
Ap p e n dic e s e p ipl o ic a e
T u n ic a mu sc u l a r is
T ae n iae co l i
-
‘
m
m if o r m is
v e r mi
p r oc e s s us
r o c e s s u s
69 N o d u l i a g gr eg a t i
for mis
v e r mi
32
Pl ica e
6 1 I nt e s t inum
.
T u n ic a
55
.
A N AT O M I CA L N A M E S
1
2
T ae nia m e s o c o lic a
T ae n ia o me n t a l is
.
40 D uct us p anc r eat ic u s
u s [ S a nt or ini]
ri
3 T a enia l ib e r a
T ela sub mu cos a
T u nic a mu co sa
41
( Pa nc r e as
acc e s s o r iu
a cc e ss o
m)
42 S uc c u s p a nc r eat icu s
“
6 Lam muscu l ar is mu c o sa e
G l in t es t inal es [ Lie b e r k u e h ni]
N odul i ly mp h a t ic i s o l it a r ii
.
43 Hep ar
.
9 I
44 F ac ie s s up e r ior
45 F ac ie s p o s t e r io r
46 F ac ies in fe r io r
nt e st inu m r e ct um
Fl ex
u r a s acr alis
Fl ex
ur a
p er ine alis
A mp u l l a
47
48
r ect i
T u nica mu sc ul a r is
M
M
.
.
sp
a ni
h inc t er
49 F os s ae s ag it t a l es d ex t r ae
50 F os s a v es icae fel l e ae
in t e r n u s
r ec t o c occy g eu s
muco sa
T u nic a m u c o s a
1 8 La m m mu c o s ae
T el a
s ub
.
52
.
G 1 in t e st in al e s [ Lie b e r
k u c h n i]
N odu li ly mp h at ic i
Pl icae t r a n sver sa le s r e c t i
P a r s a n a l is r e c t i
Col u mnae r e c t al e s [ Mo r g a g n u ]
S inus r ec t a l es
A nnu l us h a e mo r r h o id a lis
19
.
26 Pancr eas
Cap ut p anc r e at is
Pr o c es su s u nc inat u s
Wins low i]
I nc isur a p anc r eat is
[ Pan c r e a s
fl
54 F o s s a duct us v enosi
55 T u nica s er o sa
56 Lig t e r es h ep a t is
57 Lig ve nosu m [ A r a nt n]
.
.
58 P o r t a h ep a t is
59 Lo b u s h ep at is d ex t er
60 Lo b u s q ua dr a t us
6 1 Lo b us
cau d at u s
[ S pig eli]
6 2 Pr oc e ss u s p ap ill a r is
63 Pr o c e s s us c au d a t u s
64 Lo b u s h ep a t is sinis t e r
“
6 5 ( Ap p e n d ix fi b r os u s h ep a t is)
66 I mp r e s s io c ar diaca
o
ment al e
I mp r e s s io oes op hag ea
69 I mp r es s io g ast r ic a
70 I mp r es s io d uo denal is
7 1 I mp r e s s io c ol ica
72 I mp r es s io r e nalis
7 3 I mp r e s s io s up r a r enal is
“
L
o
b
l
i
u
h e p at is
74
68
-
‘
s ung
51 F o s s a ve nae cav a e
F o s s a s agit t alis s inis t r a
53 F os s a v e nae u mb il ical is
67 T u b e r
C or p u s p a nc r ea t is
3 1 F ac ie s ant e r ior
3 2 F ac ie s p o s t er ior
3 3 F acie s infer ior
3 4 M a r g o s up er ior
3 5 Mar go a nt e r io r
3 6 M ar g o p ost er io r
T u b er o ment a l e
Ca u da p a ncr ea t is
D u c t us
p anc r e a t icu s
Mar g o ant er ior
I nc isu r a u mb ilical is
[ W ir
75 C ap s u la fi b r o s a [ G l iss on i]
76 R a mi a r t er io s iin t e r lob u l ar es
7 7 V en a e int er lo b u l ar e s
7 8 V e n ae c e n t r a l e s
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
D u c t u s b il ife r i
2 D u c t u s in t e r l o b u l a r e s
3 D u ct u s h e p a t icu s
4 V a s a a b er r a nt ia h ep a t is
5 F e l [ B ilis ]
6 V e s ic a f e l l e a
7 F u n d u s v e s icae fe l l e a e
8 Cor p u s v es icae fe ll e a e
9 C o l l u m ve sic ae f el l e a e
1 0 D u c t u s c y s t icu s
1 1 T u nic a s e r osa v e s icae fe ll e ae
1 2 T u nic a mus c u l ar is v e s ic a e f e l
lea e
c a mu cos a ve s ic a e fe ll e a e
1 3 T u ni
1 4 Pli
c ae t u n mu co s ae v fe l
leae
r al i
s [ H e is t e r i]
1 5 V a lvu l a s p i
1 6 D u c t u s c h o l e d oc h u s
1 8 Lien
1
.
.
17
G 1 mu cos ae b ilio sa e
.
3 5 App ar at us
3 6 Cavum nasi
N ar es
C h o an ae
'
'
S ep t u m
nas i
S e p t u m c a r t il ag in e u m
4 1 S ep t u m me mb r a n ac e u m
V e s t ib u l u m nas i
Limen n as i
S u l c us o l fac t o r iu s
h
n a s al is s u p r e m a [ S an
n
a
o
c
C
(
40
t or ini] )
h a na s al is su p er ior
C on c h a n asa lis me dia
Co n c h a na s a lis infe r io r
M e mb r a na mu c o s a nas i
Co n c
P l ex
us c a v e r nos i co nc h a r u m
Ag g e r nas i
R e c es s u s s p h eno e t h mo id a l is
M e at us na si
a s i s u p e r io r
n
s
t
u
M
ea
54
us
t
u s n a s i me di
M
e
a
55
57
.
F a c ie s d iap h r agm at ic a
F a cie s r e n a lis
F a c ie s g a st r ica
Ex t r e m it a s s u p e r io r
E x t r e m it a s infer io r
Mar g o p ost e r ior
M ar g o ant er ior
H il us l ie nis
T u nica s e r os a
T u n ic a a lb ug in ea
T r a b e cu l a e l ie n is
P u lp a l ie nis
R a mi lie na l e s [ ar t er ia e l ie n
al is ]
3 2 Pe nic illi
N o d ul i ly mp h a t ic i lie n a l e s
[ M a lp ig hii]
( Lie n ac ce s s or ius )
r espir at or ius
56 A t r iu m me a t u s m e d n
57 M ea t u s n as i infe r ior
58 Meat u s nas i co mmu n is
59 M e at u s nasoph ar y ng e u s
‘
R e g io
r e spi
r a t or i
a
R e g io
o l fac t o r i
a
G 1
.
o lfac t o r i
ae
S in u s p a r ana sa l e s
64 S in u s max ill ar is
[ H ig h
mo r i]
6 5 S inu s
sp
h enoidalis
66 S in us fr o nt al is
Ce l lu l a e e t h mo idal es
h mo idalis
I n fundib u lu m e t h moid al e
70 Hiat u s s e milu na r is
B u ll a
G I
.
et
nasal es
72 N a s u s
B a s is
n as i
R a d ix
n a si
ex
t e r nu s
AN AT O M I CA L N AM E S
D or s u m
Mar g o
nasi
na s i
A p ex nasi
A la n as i
S e pt u m mob il e n a s i
n a s i
C a r t il a g in e s
C ar t il ag o s e p t i n a si
s
S p h e n o id a l i
8 Pr oce s s us
l a g in e i
sep t i c a r t i
C ar t il ag o na s i l a t e r a l is
Ca r t il a g o a l a r is maj o r
1 1 C r u s m e dia l e
1 2 C r u s l a t e r al e
C a r t il a g ine s a l a r e s m in o r e s
C a r t il a g in e s s e s a mo id e a e n as i
O r g a n o n v o m e r o n as a l e [ J a c o b
s o ni]
C a r t il ago v o me r o na s a lis
[ a
c o b so ni]
( D u c t u s inc is iv us )
40 A r t ic u l a t io c r ico t h y r eo id e a
4 1 C a p s u l a a r t ic u l a r is c r ic o t hy
r eo i
d ea
42 L ig g c e r a t oc r ic oid e a l at e r a lia
43 L ig c e r a t oc r ic o id eu m a n t e r iu s
c e r a t o c r ico id ea
p ost e
44 Ligg
.
.
.
I l ol a
'
P r o min e nt ia l a r y ng e a
C a r t i1 a g in e s 1 a r y n g is
C a r t il a g o t h y r e o id e a
na [ d e x t r a e t s in is
22 La mi
'
.
cr i
c ot hy r e oid e u m
4 5 Lig
d iu m ]
46 L ig c r ic o t r a c h e al e
47 C a r t il a g o a r y t ae n o id e a
48 F ac ie s a r t ic u l a r is
.
.
[ ca r t il ag inis
t ae n o id ea e ]
49 B as is
J
1 8 Lar y nx
.
50
51
52
53
54
ar y
Cr is t a a r c u a t a
Co ll ic u l us
F ov e a o b l o n g a
F ov e a t r ia ng u la r is
Ap e x
[ c a r t ilag inis a r y
t ae no ide ae ]
55 P r oc e s s u s v o c alis
56 P r oce s s u s mu s c u l a r is
r
t
i
a
C
a
o
c
or ni
cu l a t a
S
an
57
[
lg
‘
-
t 0mm ]
S y n c h o n d r o sis a r y co r n icu l a t a
A t ic u l at io c r ic o a r y t a e no id e a
tr a]
r
L3g c r ic o h ar y n g eu m
su
2 3 I n c is u r a
t h y r eo id e a
p
L g c o r nie u l o p h a r y ng e u m
r
i
r
e
o
p
i
L g v e nt r ic u l a r e
in
2 4 I n c is u r a
t h y r e o id e a
i
Lig v o ca l e
fe r ior
64 ( C a r t il a g o s e s a m o id e a )
2 5 T ub e r c ul u m
t hy r e o id e u m
6 5 C ap s u l a ar t ic u l a r is c r ic oa r y
s u p e r iu s
t ae n o d ea
26 T u b e r c u l u m
t h y r e oid e u m
i
L rg c r x co ar yt a e n o rd e u m p o s
infe r iu s
t e r iu s
2 7 ( Line a o b liq u a )
E p ig l ot t is
2 8 C o r n u su p er iu s
6 8 P e t io l us e p igl ot t idis
29 C o r nu in fe r i
us
T
u b e r c u l um e p i
l
6
ot ti
cu m
i
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m
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r
e
u
F
m
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n
t
h
eo
9
0
o
a
g
(
)
y
3
Lig h y o t h y r e o id e u m l a t e r a l e
70 C a r t il a g o e p ig l o t t ic a
7 I Li
g t hy r eq ep ig l g t t ic u m
C a r t il a g o t r it ic e a
72 L ig g h y o ep l g l o tfil cu n}
Lig hy o t hy r e o ide u rn m e diu m
73 C ar t il ag o c u n eifor mis [ W r is
M e m b r a na hy ot hy r eo id e a
b e r g i]
Ca r t il a go c r ic o id e a
T u b e r c u l u m c u n e ifo r m e [ W r is
ri
4
n
i
s
c
c
o
7
r
r
t
i
l
i
a
A
g
u
s
c
a
6
g
3
[
b e r g i]
id e a e
58
59
60
61
62
63
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
]
3 7 Lamina [ car t ila g in is cr ic o
id e ae ]
3 8 F a c ie s ar t ic u l ar is ar y t a e
no i
de a
3 9 F a cie s a r t ic ul ar is trh y r e o
ide a
75 T u b e r c u l u m c or nic u l a t u m
[ S a n to r ini]
7 6 Mu scu li l a r y n gis
77 M ar y e p ig l ot t icu s
78 M c r ic o t h y r eo ide u s
79 Pa r s r e c t a
.
.
A N AT O M I CA L N A M ES
Par s
1
o b li
qua
59
.
41 Tr ach ea
M c r ic oar y t a e noid e us
( M c e r at o c r ico ide u s)
p o s t e r io r
g
cr i
co ar y t ae no id e u s
l at e r a l is
g
Ve n t r icu l a r is
.
.
et
B r onchi
C ar t il ag ine s t r ac h e al e s
Lig g a nn u l ar ia [ t r ach e a lia ]
P ar ie s m e mb r an ac e a
'
.
G l t r a c h e a l es
B ifur c a t io t r ac-h e ae
.
g
v oc a lis
g
t h y r e o e p ig l o t t ic u s
g
t h y r e oa r y t ae n o id e u s
B r o nc h u s
[ex
t e r n us ]
g
a r y t ae n o i
de u s
g
ar y t ae n o id eu s t r a n s v e r s u s
o b l iq u u s
C av u m l ar y n g is
V a l l e c u l a e p ig lo t t ica
1 1
49 R a mus b r o n c hial is
t e r ia l is
V e s t ib u l u m la r y ng is
T u n ica
.
v o ca l e
.
G l o t t is
R ima g l o t t idis
19
P ar s in t e r m e mb r a n a ce a
20
P a r s in t e r c a r t il ag in e a
22
g ag nn ]
A p p e n d ix
l a r y ng is
[Mo r
c u li l ar y n
v e nt r i
g is
T u n ica mu co s a l a r y ng is
Me mb r a na e l as t ic a l ar y n gis
25
P l ic a
P l ica
mu c osa
mucosa
s ub
54 C 1 t r ac h e al e s
55 G I b r o n c h ial e s
v esti
b uli
V e nt r ic u l u s
C o n u s e l a s t icus
g l o s so e p ig lo t t ic a m e dia n a
g lo ss o e p ig lo t t ica l a t e r a l is
P l ica
Pl ic a
a r y ep i
g l o tt ica
P l ic a
s
c u l ar i
v e nt r i
Pl ic a
s
v oc a li
n e r v i l a r y ng e i
56 Pul mo
B a s is p u lmo n is
Ap ex p u l m o n is
S u lcu s
F a c ies
F a c ie s
F a c ie s
su b c l a v i
us
c os t al is
me dia s t in al is
d ia p h r a g mat ic a
M ar g o a nt e r ior
M a r g o infe r ior
H ilu s p u l mo nis
R a d ix
p u l m o n is
I n c is u r a
a ca
c ar di
Lo b u s
s up e r i
or
Lo b u s
m e diu s
L o b u s in fe r io r
I n c isu r a
in t e r l ob ar is
Lo b u l ip u l mo nu m
3 2 Mac u l a fl av a
A d it u s g l ot t idis in fe r io r
R a m ib r o n c h ia l e s
A d it u s g lo t t idis s up er io r
I n cis ur a in t er ar y t a e n oid e a
B r o n ch io l i r e s p ir a to r n
G I
l a r y ng ea e
or e s
l
r y ng e a e a n t e r i
1
a
G
37
l
r y n g e a e me d ia e
1
a
G
8
3
r y n g e a e p os t e r io r e s
l
1
a
G
39
N o d u l i l y mp h a t ic i l a r y n g e i
.
.
.
.
epar
50 R a mi b r o n c h ia l e s hy p a r
t e r ia l e s
T u n ica m usc u l a r is
T e la
Lab iu m
t e r e t s inis t e r ]
Ra mi b r o n c h ia l e s
A d it u s l a r y ng is
R im a
[ dex
B r o n c h io li
D u c t u li
a lv e o la r e s
Alv e o l i p u l mo nu m
Ly mp h og l a n du l a e b r onc h ia l es
N o du l ily mp h a t ic ib r o nc h ia l e s
Ly m p h og l a n d u l a e p u l mo n al e s
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
1 Cavum t h or acis
F a sc ia
Ca
v u
e n d ot
m
20
h or acic a
pl
21
e u r a e
Cav u m me dia s t ina l e ant e
t er iu s
Cav u m me d ias t ina l e p os
t e r ius
Pl e u r a
5 C up u l a p l e u r a e
6 Pl eu r a p u l mo n alis
7 P l e ur a p a r ie t al is
8 Pl eu r a me d ias t ina lis
me d ia s t i
9 Lamin ae
n al e s
11
P l e u r a p e r ica r diac a
Pl e u r a c os t a l is
12
Pl eu r a diap h r a g mat ica
S in u s p l eur ae
n us p h r e ni
14 S i
c oc o st a l is
Lig
.
S inu s co s t o me dia st in a l is
p u l m o n al e
P l icae
a dip o s ae
I s t h m us g l t hy r e oide ae
( Lo b us p y r amid alis )
.
t er e t
nis t e r
si
]
Lo b u l ig l t hy r e oid e a e
S t r oma g l t hy r e oid eae
.
‘
1 t hy r eo id ea e a c c e s sor iae)
2 9 ( G 1 t h y r e oi
de a ac c e s s or ia
(G
.
.
s up r a hy o id ea
3 0 G l omus
)
car ot icum
31 Thymus
[ d ex
t e r e t s inist e r ]
c en t r a l i
s
Lo b u l i t hy mi
ur op oé t ica
3 7 R en
Mar g o l at er al is
M ar g o me dialis
r e nalis
4 1 S inus r e na lis
F ac ie s a nt e r ior
F ac ie s po s t er ior
Ex t r e mit a s sup er ior
Ex t r e mit as in fer io r
( I mp r e s sio mu s cul ar is )
( I mpr e ss io h ep at ic a)
( I mp r e ssio g ast r ica )
Cap su l a a diposa
T u nica fi b r o s a
T u nica mu s cu l a r is
T ub u li r e n al es
53 T ub ul i r e n al e s
[ d ex
Lo b u s
T r ac t u s
3 5 App ar at us
4 0 H ilu s
.
Lo b u s
V il l i p l e ur al es
S ep t u m mediast ina l e
3 6 Or g ana
22 G 1 t hyr eoid ea
.
10
15
.
c o nt o r t i
u r og enit alis
54 T u b u l ir e n al e s r e c t i
55 S u b s t a nt ia co r t ic a lis
56 S u b st a n t ia m e d u ll a r is
57 Lo bi r e na l e s
58 Py r amides r e nal e s [ M a l p ig h ii]
59 B as is py r amidis
6 0 Pap il l ae r e na l es
6 1 Ar ea cr ib r o s a
6 2 F or a min a p ap ill ar ia
6 3 Co l u mna e r enal es [ B e r t ini]
6 4 Lo b ul i co r t ical es
6 5 Par s r a dia t a [ P r oce s su s
F e r r e ini]
66 Pa r s c o nv ol u t a
6 7 C o r p u scu l a r e n is [ M alp ig h ii]
6 8 G l om er u li
69 Cap s ul a g l o mer uli
70 P e l v is r e n a l is
7 1 C a l y c e s r e na l e s
AN A T O M I CA L N A M E S
62
1
Lob u l i t e s t is
T u n ic a
.
.
S in u s
M
e p idid y mid is
Co r p u s
12
Ca u d a
13
Lo b u li e p ididy mid is
14
D uct u s
s
e p id idy m id i
G
22
fe
r e n s
A mp u ll a d u c t u s d e fe r e n t is
23
D iv er t ic u l a
a
mp u l l a e
24
T u n ica
25
T u nic a mu sc u l ar is
29
a d v e n t it i
a
S t r at um
27
S t r a t u m m e d iu m
ex
t er nu m
S t r a t u m in t e r n u m
T u n ica mu co s a
3 0 D u ct u s
3 2 Co r p u s
3 3 T u n ic a
j
se
min a l is
ve s i
cu l ae s e
min a lis
3 8 ( R u dime n t u m
n a lis )
s pe r
53
54
55
56
F a c ie s
or
a nt er i
F ac ie s p os t e r ior
Lob us [ d e x t e r et
s in i
st er
]
I s t h mu s
p r os t at ae
57 ( Lo b us m e d ius )
58 C o r p u s gl a n d u l a r e
59 D u c t u s p r os t a t ic i
60 S u c c us p r os t a t ic us
6 1 M p r o st a t ic u s
6 2 G l a n d u l a b u l b ou r e t h r a l is
[ C owp e r i]
6 3 C or p u s g l b u l b o u r e t h r a l is
6 4 D u c t u s ex c r e to r iu s
.
t er nae
69 C r u s p e nis
70 D or s u m p enis
.
mat icu s e t
t es t is e t fu nic u l i
51 B as is p r os t a t ae
52 A p e x p r o s t a t a e
67 R a d ix p e nis
68 C o r p u s p e nis
ex cr et o r i
us
s per
m tes tis [H a nt er i]
66 Penis
a
a dv e n t it i
3 7 F u nicu l u s
u ber nacul u
ex
3 4 T u nica mu s c ul ar is
3 5 T u n ic a m u co s a
3 6 D u c t us
cr e
65 Par t es genit al es
e ac u l at or i
us
3 1 V es ic ul a
fu n icu l is p e r m a t ic i]
.
26
28
.
mid is
5 D u c t u li ab e r r a nt e s
1 6 ( D u c t u l u s a b er r a ns s u p e r i
or )
1 7 A p p e n d ice s t e s t is
1 8 A pp e nd i
x
t e s t is
[M or
g a g n ii]
1 9 ( A pp e n d ix e p id id y mis )
2 0 P a r a d id y m is
e
mmu n is
50 P r o s t at a
1
d
et
co
D es ce nsus t es tis
e p id i
d y m idis
t u s
s
ma s t e r
F as c ia c r e ma s t e r ic a [ Co o p e r i]
1 1
u c
midi
v a g in a lis
[ t e s t is
C ap u t
D
ep i
d idy
T u n ic a
t e s t is
10
21
p r o p r ia t e s t is
p a r ie t a l is
4 1 La m in a V is c e r a l is
Lig e p idid y mid is s u p e r iu s
L ig ep ididy mid is in fe r iu s
5 T u n ica p r op r ia
6 R e t e t e s t is [ H al l e r i]
e p id i
dy
v ag ina l i
s
a
40 La min
Pa r e n c h y ma t e s t is
3 T u b u li s e min ife r i c o n t o r t i
4 Tu bu l i se minif er i r e c t i
2
7 D u c t u li e fi e r e n t e s
8 S p e r m a [ S e me n ]
9 E p id id y m is
.
t u nic a e
m a t ic i
p r o c e ss u s
v ag i
7 1 F a c ie s u r e t h r al is
72 G l a n s p e nis
73 Co r o na gl a ndis
74 S e p t u m g l a nd is
75 Co l l u m g l a n dis
A N A T O M I CA L N AM E S
63
.
Pr ae p u t iu m
F r e n u l u m p r ae p u t u
R a p h e p e nis
Co r p u s c av e r n osu m p e n is
Co r p u s c av e r no s u m u r e t h r a e
3 5 Or g ana genit alia mul iebr ia
3 6 O var iu m
3 7 H il u s ov ar ii
3 8 F a c ie s m e d ialis
B ulbu s
M a r g o lib er
4 1 M a r g o me sova r ic us
42 E x t r e mit a s t u b a r ia
43 Ex t r e mit a s u t e r in a
ur et
h r ae
3 9 F ac ie s l a t e r a l is
40
7 H e mis ph a er ia
b u lb i
ur e
t h r ae
8 S ep t u m b u l b i u r e t h r ae
a l b u g in ea
co r p o r u m 44
9 T u nic a
45
c av e r n osor u m
6
4
S e p t u m p e n is
T r a b e cu l a e c o r p o r u m c a v e r n o
47
so r u
m
C av e r n a e
s or u
c or p or u
m
c av e r n o
m
A r t er ia e h e l ic in ae
V e nae ca v er no s ae
Lig s u sp e nso r iu m p e n is
F a sc ia p e nis
G 1 p r ae p u t ia l e s
.
.
S me g ma p r ae p u t u
S t r om a o va r ii
F o l l ic u l ioop ho r ip r im a r n
F o l l ic u l i oop h o r i v e s ic u l o s i
[ G r aafi ]
T h e c a fol l ic u l i
48 T u n ic a e x t e r n a
49 T u nica int e r na
50 Liq uo r fo l l icu l i
51 S t r a t u m g r a nu l o s u m
52 C u mu l u s oop h o r u s
53 O v u l u m
54 Co r p u s l u t eu m
55 C o r p u s a l b ic a n s
56 Lig ova r ii p r op r iu m
.
57 T u b a
Ur et hr a
P
a r s
p
r o s
t
a
v ir il is
t ic a
Cr is t a u r e t h r al is
C o ll ic u l us s e min a lis
U t r icu l u s p r os t a t icu s
me mb
P
a r s
P
a r s c av er no s a
Fo ss a
r a n a c e a
n a v ic u la r is
u r et
hr a e
[ M o r g ag nii]
( V alvu l a fos sae n av ic u l ar is )
O r ifi c iu m u r e t h r ae e x t e r n u m
Lac u n a e
u r e t h r al e s
[ Mor g agnii]
G 1
.
u r e t h r al e s
[ Lit t r e i]
3 1 S cr ot um
3 2 R ap h e s cr o t i
3 3 S e p t u m s cr ot i
3 4 T u nic a d a r t o s
u t e r ina
[ F a l l o pp n ]
58 O s t iu m ab do min a l e t u b ae u t e
r in a e
59 I n fu n d ib u l u m t u b a e u t e r in a e
60 F imb r iae t u b ae
6 1 Fimb r ia o v a r ic a
62 A mp u ll a t u b ae u t e r in ae
6 3 I s t h mu s t u b ae u t e r in a e
64 P a r s u t er ina
6 5 O s t iu m u t e r inu m t u b ae
66 T u n ic a s e r os a
6 7 T u nic a a dv e n t it ia
68 T u n ic a m us cu l ar is
69 S t r at u m lo ng it u d in al e
r
r
m
i
c u l ar e
0
S
t
a
t
u
c
7
7 1 T e l a s ub muc osa
72 T u n ic a mu cosa
73 P l ic a e t u b a r ia e
74 Pl ic ae a m p u l la r es
‘
l
i
P
c
e
i
s
t
h mica e
a
75
76 Ut eru s
77 C o r p u s
u t er i
AN AT O M I CA L N AM E S
64
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
13
F u n du s u t e r i
Ma r g o l at e r al is
F a c ie s v e s ic al is
F ac ies int es t in al is
C av u m u t e r i
O r ifi c iu m int er nu m u t er i
Ce r v ix [u t e r i]
P o r t io su p r av ag in al is [ c e r v ic is ]
P or t io v a g in al is [c er v icis ]
O r ifi c iu m e x t e r nu m u t e r i
1 1 La b iu m a n t e r ius
os t e r iu s
1 2 Lab iu m
p
Ca na lis c e r v 1c 1 s u t er 1
P l ic a e a lm a t ae
p
G 1 Ce r v l c a l e S [ ut e r i]
Pa r a me t r iu m
T u n ica s e r o s a [ Pe r ime t r iu m ]
T u nic a mu s c u l a r is
T u n ca m u scu l ar is c e r v 1c 1 s
i
T u nica mu c o s a
2 1 G 1 u t e r 1 nae
M r ec t ou t er inu s
Lig t e r e s u t e r i
( P r oc e s s u s vag inal is p e r it o
nae i)
o
14
S
I
16
0
I
7
18
19
20
.
22
23
24
.
42
4 1 D u c t ul i t r ans v er si
A p p en d ic e s v e s icu l o s i
g ag nii]
44 Par t es genit al e s
ex t er nae
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
Pu de nd u m mu lieb r e
La b iu m maj u s p u d e n di
C o mm iss u r a la b io r u m a nt e r io r
Co mmissur a l ab ior u m p o s t e
ri
or
F r e nu l u m l ab ior um pu de n di
Rima p u d end i
F ossa nav icul ar is
[ ve s t ib u li
nae ]
v ag i
Lab iu m m inu s pu d e ndi
V e s t ib u l u m v ag in ae
B u l b us v e s t ib u l i
G 1 s eb ac e ae
G 1 v e st ib u l a r e s minor es
O r ifi ciu m va g in ae
.
.
vest i
b u l a r is
[ B ar t h ol ini]
V a gina
F o r n ix va g inae
2 7 P a r ie s a nt e r i
or
2 8 P a r ies p o s t e r io r
nu s ]
2 9 H y me n [ fe mini
3 0 C a r u nc u lae h y me nal e s
3 1 T u n ica mu s c ul ar is
3 2 T u n ic a mu co s a
3 3 N o d u l i ly m p h at ic i vag ina l e s
3 4 R u g ae v ag inal es
3 5 Co l u mna e r u g ar u m
3 6 C o l u mna r u g a r u m p o s t e
ri
or
3 7 Co u mna r ug ar u m a nt e
or
C r u s cl it or idis
C o rp us c l it or id is
G l a n s c l it o r id is
F r e n u l u m c l it or idis
P r ae p u t iu m clit or id is
6 5 S meg ma c lit o r idis
Co r p u s cav e r no su m c l it o r id is
S ep t u m co r p or um c av er no
sor u
m
F as c ia c l ito r idis
Lig s u sp e nso r iu m c l it or idis
.
70 Ur et h r a mul ie b r is
7 1 O r ifi ciu m u r e t h r a e e x t e r nu m
72 C o r p u s s pong io su m u r et h r a e
73 T u nica mu s cu l a r is
S
t r at u m c ir c u l ar e
7
4
3 9 Ep oop h or o n
75 S t r a t u m lo ng it u dina l e
D uct u s ep oop h or il o ng it u dinal is 76 T u n ic a s u b mu cosa
[ G ar t ne r i]
77 T u n ica muco s a
3 8 C a r in a
g in ae ]
40
ma j or
59 C l it or is
26
l
ri
[Mor
43 Par ooph or o n
58 G l
25
.
ur e t
h r alis
A N AT O M I C A L N A M E S
G 1
1
2
u r e t hr al e s
.
C r 1s t a
u r et
h r al is
D
ec
i
d
u
ca
su
l
a
a
r
is
7
p
8 D e cid ua bas al is
'
9 P l acen ta
1 0 P lac en ta
u ter i
na
Pla cen ta
foe talis
12
F u nicu lus
16
.
mbilica lis
T u nica s er o sa
T e l a s ub se r o sa
'
tahs
u r oge ni
17 Per ineum
R a p h e p e r in ei
19 M u s c u l i
p e r in e i
20 D ia p h r a g m a
p e l v is
2 1 M l e v a t o r a ni
22 A r c u s t e n din eu s m l e v a
t o r is a ni
18
.
.
23
24
M
M
.
.
c occy ge u s
sp
h in c t e r
a n i e x t er n u s
Lig a n oc o c cy g eum
2 6 F a s c ia p e l v is
na
a e n d op e l v i
27 F a sci
s p el
2 8 F a s c ia dia p h r a g m a t i
or
v is su p e r i
fa s c ia e
t e n dine u s
29 A r cu s
25
.
p e l v is
o p r o st at ic u m [ p u
L
i
u
b
0
g
p
3
b ov e s ic al e ] me d iu m
cu m [ pu
r os t a t i
b
o
L
i
u
1
p
g
p
3
b ov e s ic a l e ] l at er al e
F a s c ia diap h r ag mat is p e l v is in
.
.
32
fe r io r
3 3 D ia p h
t a ll e
34 M
1
.
P er it on a e u m p ar ie t a l e
P e r it o n aeu m -v is c e r a l e
C av u m p e r it o n a e i
M es ente r i-u m commu ne
M e s e nt e r ium
54 R a dix me s e n t e r n
55 La min a me s e n t e r n p r o
p r ia
M es o c o lon
57 M e so co l o n t r a n s v e r s u m
58 M e soco l o n a s c e n d e n s
59 M e soc o l o n d e s c e n d e n s
6 0 M e s oco l o n s ig m o id e u m
Me s or e c t u m
M e s e n t e r iol u m
p ro c e s s u s
v er
m ifo r mis
M es og as tr iu m
O me n t u m m inu s
6 5 Lig h e p a t o g a s t r ic u m
66 Lig h e p a t o d u o d e n a l e
6 7 ( Lig h e p at oc o lic u m )
Lig g as t r o lie n al e
Lig gast r oc olicum
O m e nt u m ma j u s
B u r s a o m e nt a lis
72 V e s t ib u l u m b u r s a e o m e n
.
.
.
.
.
,
r a
gma
t r a n sv e r s u s
ur o
g
p er in e i
e n
i
t al is
pr o
fu n d u s
m
em
r et h r a e
h
u
i
r
n
M
s
c
t
e
p
35
b r a n a c e ae
i
s u r og eni
m
t
a
r
a
h
i
ci
a
d
a
F
a
s
6
g
p
3
t a l is s u p e r ior
s u r o g e ni
di
a p h r ag mat i
i
c
a
F
a
s
37
t a l is in fe r io r
.
P e r it o n a e u m
46
D u c tus M u el ler i
S inus
.
.
Wolfii
Wolfli
3 C or pu s
1 4 D u ctus
1
15
u
Lig t r a n sve r s u m p e lv is
F as c ia p r o s t at a e
F as c ia o b t u r a t o r ia
F o s s a is c h ior ec t a l is
M t r an s ve r su s p e r in e i s u p e r
fi c ia l is
M is c h io cav er n o s u s
M b u lb ocav e r n os u s
F asc ia su p e r fi c ia l is p e r in e i
.
3 ( D u c t u s pa r a u r e t h r al e s )
o
t o g e n e t ic i
4 T er m1n1
n
5 M e mbr a nae d ecidu ae
6 D ecid ua ver a
11
65
.
73 R e c essu s su p e r io r o m e n
tal is
74 R e ce s su s infe r io r o m e n
t al is
75 Re c e s s u s l ie n a l is
76 Plica g as t r Op a n c r e a t ic a
77 F o r am e n e p ip l o ic u m
[ W in s l o w i]
A NA T O M I CA L N A M E S
L ig plh r e n icoc o l ic u m
Lig p hr e nic o l ie n a l e
Lig
Lig
.
.
21
( Rec e s s u s
.
22
P l ica
p h r e n ico h e p a t ic i)
u mb il ic a lis m e dia
23
P l ica
u
fa lc ifo r me
h e p at is
u m h e p a t is
co r o nar i
.
t r ia ng u l a r e
.
t r ia ng u l a r e
24
d ex t r u m
n is t r u m
si
Pl ic a
mb il ic a l is l a t e r a l is
ep i
g a s t r ica
P l ica p ub o v e s ic a lis
2 6 Plic a v e s ic a l is t r a n s v e r s a
25
Lig h e p at o r e n a l e
( Lig d u o d e no r e na l e )
27
M es or chinm
28
P r oc ess us
R e ce s s u s d u o d e no j e j u na l is
29
Lig l a t u m
.
.
Pl ica d u o d e no j e j u n a lis
( Plica
30
d u o d e n o m e so c o l ic a )
‘
R e c e s s u s int e r s ig mo id e u s
R e c e s s u s il eo c a e ca l is
su pe r i
or
R e c e s s u s il eo c ae ca l is in fe r io r
P l ic a il eoc a e c alis
Fossa
s
caec a li
Re c e s su s
P l ic a
.
31
32
R ece s s u s p a r aco l ic i
( F o s s a il iaco sub fa sc ial is )
per it onae i
uteri
Me so m et r ium
M e s o s a lp in x
M e s o v a r iu m
3 3 B u r s a ovar ica
3 4 Lig su spe nso r iu m
.
ov ar ii
3 5 Pl ic a r e ct o u t e r in a [ D o u g l a s i]
3 6 Ex cav a t io r e ct o u t e r in a [ C av u m
D o u g l a s i]
r e t r oca e c a l i
s
c ae cal i
s
n a li
vagi
s
3 7 Ex
3 8 Ex
o
ca v a t i
v e s ic o u t e r in a
cava t i
o
r e c t o v e s ic a lis
3 9 S p a t iu m
r e t r o p e r it o n a e a l e
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
67
.
,
A n g io l o g ia
2
V as
c o ll a t e r a l e
Vas
a n as t o
m o t ic u m
c o m m u n ica n s
R a mu s
Pl e x
Emissar iu m
u s v as c u l o su s
R et e
v as c u lo su
20
m
21
C o r p u s c a ve r no s u m
V as c a p ill ar e
V as l y mp h a t ic u m
Pl ex u s ly m p h a t ic u s
l
R e t e mir ab il e
Ly mp h o g l a n d u l a
A r t e r ia
N o d u l u s l y m p h a t ic u s
2 4 Cis t e r n a
T u n ic a e x t e r n a [ a d ve nt ic ia ]
26 T u n ica m e d ia
A r t e r i-o l a
V e na
V ena
c u t ane a
V e na
c o mit a n s
T u nic a in t im a
V e nula
Pl e x
us
R et e
ve no su s
v e no su
S in u s
m
28
V a sa
29
V a g in a
v as o r u
m
v as or u
m
3 0 S a ng u is
Ly m p h a
.
[ v e no s u s ]
Cor
B a s is
49 S e p t u m v e n t r ic u l o r u m
50 S e p t u m m u s c u l a r e
c o r d is
=
s t e r no co s t a l is
F a c ie s
F ac ie s d ia p h r a g m a t ica
t r ic u l o r u m
51 S e pt u m
c o r dis
Ap e x
I n c is u r a [ a p ic is ]
or
ant e r i
S u l c u s l o n g it u d in a l is p os t e r io r
S u lc u s
us
c o r o na r i
P e r ica r d iu m
Liq uo r p e r ic a r d ii
m e m b r a na c e u m
ve n t r ic u l o r u
c o r d is
S u l c u s l o ng it u d in a l is
.
E p ic a r d iu m
S ep t u m
m
55 P a r s m e m b r a n ac e a
at r i
or um
56 O s t iu m v e n os u m
57 O s t iu m a r t e r io s u m
58 T r a b e c u l a e ca r n e ae
59 V o r t e x c or d is
6 0 M m p a p ill ar e s
at r i
or u
6I
-
E n d o c a r d iu m
V e n t r ic u l u s
.
.
My o c a r d iu m
co r dis
m
52 A t r iu m co r d is
53 A u r ic u l a c o r dis
'
Ligg s t e r no p e r ic a r diac a
S in u s t r a n s v e r s u s p e r ic a r d n
v en
C-h o r d a e t e n din e ae
6 2 T r ig o n a fi b r o s a
6 3 A nn u li fi b r o s i
s ept i
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
68
1
2
Mm
.
A t r iu m d e x t r u m
i
at r i
d ex t r i
22
N o d u li
m il u n a r is d e x
se
mil u n a r is
v a lv u la r u
~
n
si
s e m il u na
m
v a l v u l ar u
Lu n u l a e
tr a
cav a e
in f e r io r is
m
se
m ilu
n a r iu m
Atr iu m
26
v e na e
s in is t r u
A u r ic u l a s in is t r a
2 8 V a l v u l a fo r a m in is
m
27
-
ov a
l is
o v a l is
V a lv u l a
si
nu s
c o r o n a r ii
29
[T h e
Fo r a m in a
v e na r u
m m in im a r u m
[T h eb e s ii]
'
3 V e nt r icu l u s d e x t e r
V a lv u l a
t r ic u s p id a l is
5 C u s p is
3 6 V a l v u l a s e m il u n a r is s in
is t r a
N o d u l i v a l v u l a r u m s e m ilu n a
r iu m [ A r a n t n ]
L u n u l ae
v a l v u l ar u m
se m i
lu
C u s p is p o s t e r io r
1 7 Cu s p i
s m e di
a lis
16
s u p r a v e n t r ic u l a r i
s
Co n u s
a r t e r io s u s
s in is t e r
tr a
ant e r i
or
C r is t a
V e nt r icu l u s
V a l v u l a b ic u s p id a l is [ m it r a l is ]
3 1 C u s p is a n t e r io r
3 2 C u s p is p o s t e r io r
V a l v u l a e s e m il u n a r e s a o r t a e
3 4 V a l v u l a s e m il u n a r is p o s
t e r io r
3 5 V a l v u l a s e m il u n a r is d e x
b e s ii]
1
an
i m
[ Eu st ach ii]
1
se
m il u n a r is
r u
[ Lo w e r i]
F o s sa
se
V a lv u la
is t r a
23
T u b e r c u l u m in t e r v e n o s u m
9 V a lv u l a
p ul
.
tr a
[ c av a r u m ]
ovali
s
[ V ie u s
m
fo s s ae
se n n ]
A u r ic u l a d e x
V alv u la
t e r io r
V a l vu l a
21
Cr is t a t er min a l is
Limb u s
a
m o n a l is
S u l c u s t e r m in a lis
v e na r u
s e m il u n a r e s
V a l v u l ae
p e c t in a t i
S in u s
.
n a r iu
~
m
3 9 Ar t er ia e
40 A
.
pul
monalis
54 A
Aor ta a s c e nde ns
B u lb u s a o r t a e
S in u s a o r t a e [ V a l s a l v ae ]
A r cu s ao r t a e
I s tfh m u s a o r t a e
Ao r t a d e sc e n d e n s
A c o r on a r ia [ c o r dis ] d e x t r a
53 R a mu s d e s c e n d e n s p o s t e
r ior
.
[ c o r d is ]
s in is t r a
55 Ra m u s c ir c u m fl e x u s
56 R a m u s d e s c e n d e n s a n te
ri
or
R a mu s dex t e r
R a m u s s in is t e r
D u c tu s a r t e r ios us [ B o t a l li]
Lig a m e n t u m a r t er io s u m
45 A or t a
c o r o nar i
a
.
57 A
58
(A
.
.
anony
t h y r e o id e a
59 A
im a )
mmunis
car ot is co
.
60 A
.
car ot is e x
6 1 A t h y r e o id e a
.
62
63
64
65
ma
t e r na
s u p e r ior
R a mu s h y o id e u s
R a m u s s t e r n o c l e id o m a s t o id e u s
A l a r y n g e a s u p e r io r
R a mu s c r ic o t h y r eo id e u s
.
A N AT O M I C A L N A M E S
70
c il i
ar e s
or es
a nt e r i
j
con u nct i
v ales
Aa
Aa
A
.
A
.
A
.
A
.
j
Aa
.
.
R a m i s t e r n al e s
40 R a m i p e r for a n t e s
4 1 R a m i m a mm a r u
s cl er a l es
ep i
s up r aor b i
t a l is
42 R a m i m u s c u l a r e s
43 R a m i c u t a n e i
h m o id a lis
p o s t e r io r
e t h m o id a l is a n t e r ior
et
m e n in g e a
a n t e r io r
p a lp e b r a l e s
.
A r cu s t a r s e u s
md i l
a es
e
s u p e r io r
A r c u s t a r s e u s in fe r io r
A
.
fr o n t a lis
A
.
d o r s a lis
1
4 Aa
.
c e r eb r i
m m u n ic a n s p o s t e r io r
co
I
7
18
c e r ebr
I
mm u n ic a n s
c e r e b r i m e dia
Chor i
o id e a
i
a nt e r i
or
co
44
( Ra m u s
ant e r i
or
A
21
s ub cl av ia
.
.
47 A
ep i
g as t r ic a s u p e r io r
.
49 A
R a m i s p in a l e s
23 A
sp i
n a lis p o s t e r io r
24 A
s p in a lis a n t e r i
or
t h y r e o id e a in fe r ior
.
52 R a m i o e s o p h a g e i
53 R a m i t r a c h e a l e s
54 R a m i g l a n d u l a r e s
c e r v ic a l is a s ce n d e n s
.
56 R a m i s p in a l e s
57 R a m i m u s c u l a r e s
58 R a mu s p r o fu n d u s
59 A
22
.
50 A l a r y n g e a in fe r io r
51 R a m i p h a r y n g e i
v e r t e b r a l is
.
l a t e r a l is )
45 R a m i in t e r c o s t a l e s
46 A m u s c u l o p h r e n ic a
55 A
20 A
c o s t a l is
48 T r u n cu s
nasi
S
16
I
9
3 7 R a m i b r o n c h ia l e s
3 8 A p e r ic a r d iac o p h r e n ica
p ost e r io r e s
con u n ct i
v al e s
.
a nt e r i
o r es
.
c e r v ic a lis s u p e r fi c ia lis
.
.
60 A
.
25
R a m u s m e n in g e u s
26
A
.
c e r eb e l li
27
A
.
A
.
c e r eb e l li
A
.
a u d it iv a
A
A
.
Cir c u l u s
34 A
3 5 Aa
3 6 Aa
in fe r io r p o s t e r io r
b a s il a r is
in fe r io r
a nt e r i
or
in t e r n a
ad
c e r eb r i
.
.
p o s t e r io r
a r t e r io s u s
acr o
6 2 T r u n cu s
63 A
.
s c a p u l ae
m ia l is
c os t oce r v ic a l is
in t e r c o st a l is
supr e
ma
6 4 R a mi d o r s a l e s
6 5 R a m i s p in a l e s
6 6 A c e r v ic a l is p r o fu n d a
.
67 A
[ W ill is i]
68 R a m u s
.
t r ans v er sa
co l l i
as c e nd e ns
Ra m u s d e s c e n d e ns
mamm a r ia in t e r na
m e d ia s t in a l e s
t h y m ic a e
'
.
.
t r a nsv e r sa
6 1 R a mu s
pont e m
or
ce r eb e lli s up e r i
R a mi
.
a nt e r i
or es
70 A
7 1 Rami
.
ax
ill ar is
s u b s c a p u l ar e s
A N A T O M I CA L N A M ES
A
1
t h o r a c al is
.
A
2
s u pr e
ma
t h or ac o ac r o mial is
.
3 R a mu s acr o mia l is
4 R e t e a c r o m ia l e
5 R a mu s d e lt o id eu s
6 R a mi p e ct or a l e s
71
.
36 A
ul nar is
.
A a r e c u r r e nt e s u l n ar es
R e t e a r t icu l a r e cu b it i
A in t e r osse a co m mu n is
A in t e r osse a d o r s a lis
4 1 A in t e r o ss e a r e cu r r e n s
A in t e r oss ea vo l a r is
A m e dia na
R a m i mus c u l a r e s
R a m u s c ar p eu s d o r sa l is
R am u s c a r p eu s v o l a r is
R a m u s v o la r is p r o fu n du s
A r c u s vo l a r is s u p e r fi c ial is
Aa
dig it a l e s v o l a r e s co m
.
.
.
.
.
7 A
t h or ac alis l a t e r a l is
.
8 R ami m a mm ar ii e x t e r n i
9 A
10
1 1
1 2
A
A
A
.
s u b s cap u l ar is
t h or aco d o r salis
.
mfl e x
c ir cu
.
c ir cu
.
m fl ex
a
a
s ca p u l ae
.
.
h u m e r i an t e r io r
mu n es
A a d ig it al e s
.
1
3 A
c ir cu
.
mfl e x
14 A
1
.
a
p r o p r ia e
v o l a r es
h u m e r i p o s t e r ior
51 Aor t a t h or acalis
b r ach ial is
5 A p r o fu n d a b r a ch ii
.
52 R
am
i
v
is
c e r a
l
e s
l
e s
53 A a b r o n c h ial e s
54 A a oe soph age ae
55 R a m i p e r ica r d iac i
A a n u t r ic ia e h u m e r i
R d e lt o id e u s
A c ol la t e r a lis m e d ia
A c o l l at e r al is r a d ia l is
.
.
.
.
.
.
o
21
A
c ol l at e r al is
.
A
c o ll at e r ah s
.
22 A
.
u l n a r is
0
nl n an s
r a dialis
s u p e r ior
1 nf e n o r
56 R
a
mi p
a r
ie t
a
57 R a mi me d ias t in a l e s
58 A a p h r e nic ae s u p e r io r e s
.
59 Aa
.
int e r c o s t al e s
60 R a m i p o s t e r io r e s
A r e c u r r e n s r a d ia lis
6 1 R a mu s s p in al is
R am i m u s c u l a r e s
6 2 R a m i mu scu l a r e s
R a m u s c ar p e u s v o l a r is
m
e di
t
a neu s
m
c
u
s
R
a
u
6
li
r
fi
c
i
a
s
e
l
r
i
s
s
u
m
v
o
a
3
Ra u s
p
s
a li
R a mu s ca r p eu s d o r s a l is
l
at e r
m
s
c u t an e u s
R
a
u
6
l
e
4
o
r
s
a
i
d
ar
R et e c p
a li
s
A a me t ac ar p ea e d o r s a l e s
o r es
R
a m i a nt e r i
s
r
l
e
o
s
a
d
i
t
l
e
s
i
a
Aa d g
m
m
R
i
u sc ul a r e s
6
a
6
ll
c
i
s
i
o
A p r in c ep s p
n e i l at e r a l e s
u
t
a
R
a
m
i
c
6
l
i
s
i
a
r
a
d
i
s
i
i
n
c
7
d
3 2 A vo l a r is
r ale s e t ab
e
c
t
o
s
n
d
u
p
[
A r c u s v o l a r is p r o fu
o m in a l e s ]
d
r
e
s
o
l
a
v
e
A a me t a c a r p e a
or
m
s p os t e r i
R
u
a
68
R a mi p e r fo r a n t e s
.
.
.
.
.
.
A NAT O M I CA L N A M E S
72
1
R a mu s
2
Ra mi ma mmar ii l a t e r a l e s
a nt e r i
or
36 A
3 R a mi c u ta ne i a nt e r io r e s [ p e c
t o r al es e t ab d o m in al e s ]
4 R am i m a mm ar ii m e dia l es
5 Aor t a
.
me s e nt e r ica
.
s u p e r ior
3 7 A a int e s t ina l es
3 8 A p a nc r ea t ico duo d e n a lis
.
.
fe r io r
3 9 Aa
j e j u n al e s
.
40 A a il ea e
minalis
ab d o
.
4 1 A il eo co lica
.
6 R
mi p
a
ie t
a r
a
l
e s
42 A ap p en dic u l ar is
43 A co l ic a dex t r a
44 A c o l ic a m e d ia
.
.
7 A
p h r e nica inf er ior
.
8 R a m i s up r a r e n a l e s
g Aa
R a m us d o r sal is
1 1
R a mu s
.
45 A
46 A
m e s ent e r ic a in f er ior
.
c o l ica s in is t r a
.
47 A a
.
s ig m o id e ae
A h a e m o r r h o id a lis
s
s p ina l i
A
.
su pe r i
or e s
l u mb a l e s
.
10
12
.
.
49 A
me d ia
s acr al is
su p r a r e nal is
.
50 A
l u mb alis ima
13
A
14
G l om u s
.
15
R
1
c oc cy g eu
a
6
.
mi
A
.
v
m
is
A
-
ce r a
l
e s
.
.
.
s p er
m e d ia
r e n al i
s
su p r a r e n al is
52 A
c oe l ia ca
s up e r i
or
(
in fe r io r
mat ic a int e r n a
53 A t e s t ic u l a r is
.
g a s t r ic a s in is t
1 8 R a mi o es op h a g e i
19 A
h e p a t ic a
A
17
.
r a
ov a r ic a
.
A g as t r ic a d e x t r a
21 A
h e pa t ic a p r o p r ia
2 2 R a m us d ex t e r
20
.
55 A iliaca
.
.
54 A
commu nis
.
.
56 A hyp og ast r ica
.
.
ys t ic a
23
A
24
R a mus
.
c
.
27
R a mi p a n c r eat ici
28
R ami du o de na l e s
.
s up e r
A g as t r o ep ip l o ica d e x t r a
3 0 Rami epiploici
.
R a mu s sp in al is
R a mu s ilia c u s
62 A
.
s a c r a lis
nist r a
si
3 4 A a g as t r icae b r eves
3 5 R a m i l ie n al e s
.
l at er al is
R ami spin al e s
64 A
.
ob t u r at or ia
.
.
a
R a mu s lu mb a lis
io r
l ie n a l is
31 A
3 2 R a m i p a n c r e at ic i
3 3 A g as t r o ep ip l o ica
ie t
.
.
29
ar
58 A ilio l umb a l is
s t er
s ini
A g ast r o d u od en alis
2 6 A p a n c r e a t ico d u o d e n
25
57 R a m i p
R a mu s p ub ic u s
R a mu s a n t er io r
R a mu s p os t e r io r
A
.
ac e t ab u l i
l
e s
A N A T O M I CA L NA M E S
A
1
2
gl u t a e a
.
Ram u s
s up e r i
or
s u p e r ior
35 A
s p e r ma t i
c a ex
.
36 A
,
73
.
lig t e r e t is
.
t e r na
ut er i
.
3 R a mu s in fe r io r
4 A
5 A
co
.
6 R
gl ut a e a in fe r io r
.
mit a ns
a
.
n
mi
7 A
8 Aa
37 A
.
is c h ia d ic i
.
v
is c
e r a
l
9 [ Lig a m e nt u m
ale ]
.
e s
39 A
ep i
g a s t r ic a s u p e r fi c ia l is
.
40 A
r cu
ci
.
mfl e x
a
il iu m
su p er fi ci
a l is
4 1 Aa
s u p e r io r es
u mb i
l ic a l e
iliu m p r o fu n d a
3 8 A f emor alis
u m b il ic al is
v esi
ca l e s
c ir c um fl e x a
.
l at er
42 A a
43 A a
.
p u den d ae e x t e r nae
sc r o t a l e s a n t e r i
or es
.
l ab ia l e s
.
a n t e r io r e s
44 R a mi in g u in a l e s
45 A p r o f u n d a f
.
10
A
ve s ical is
.
A d e fe r e n t ia l is
1 1
A
.
A
14
R a mu s
15
R a m us t u b a r iu s
A
.
18
A
0v a r 11
7 A p u d e n d a in t e r na
h a e mo r r h o id a l is in fe r io r
.
.
e
a li
s
47 R a m u s sup e r fi c ia lis
48 R a mu s p r o fu nd u s
49 R a m u s a c e t ab u l i
50 A
h a e m or r h o id a l is m e dia
1
r cu m fl e x a
ci
.
v agi
n alis
.
6
46 A
u t e r ina
13
m o r is
fe m o r is m e di
.
.
12
1
inf e r ior
.
ci
r c um fle x a
fe mo r is l a t e r a l is
51 R a m u s a s c e nd e n s
52 R am u s d e s c e n d e n s
53 A p e r fo r a n s p r ima
54 A n u t r ic ia fe m o r is s u p e r io r
55 A p e r fo r a n s s e c u n d a
56 A p e r fo r a n s t e r t ia
57 A nu t r ic ia fe mo r is in fe r io r
58 R a mi m u s c u l a r es
59 A g e n u s u p r e m a
6 0 R a mi m u s c u l a r e s
6 1 R am u s s a p h e n u s
.
.
.
19
A
20
Aa
.
21
Aa
22
A
.
23
A
.
24
A
.
.
.
p e r in e i
or e s
s c r o t al e s p o s t e r i
l a b ia l e s p o s t e r io r e s
p e n is
u r et
.
.
h r al is
b u lb i u r e t h r a e
A b u lb i v e s t ib u l i
2 6 A p r o fu n d a p e n is
27 A
d o r s a lis p e n is
25
.
.
[ vag inae ]
6 2 R ami a r t ic u l a r e s
.
63 A p oplit ea
.
.
c li
t o r id is
28
A
29
A p r o fu nd a c l it o r idis
A d or s al is c lit o r id is
30
.
.
.
A . g e nu
A g e nu
.
sup e r i
or
l at e r a lis
s u p e r io r
m e dia l is
A g e n u m e dia
A a su r a l e s
.
3 1 A iliaca
.
ex
t er na
.
A g e nu in fe r io r l a t e r a l is
A g e nu in fe r io r m e dia l is
.
32
A
.
e pi
g as t r ica
infer ior
3 3 R a m u s p u b ic u s
3 4 R a mus o b t u r a t o r ius
.
R et e
a r t ic u l ar e
R e t e p a t e ll a e
g enu
AN AT O M I CA L NA M E S
74
A
1
(A
.
t ib ial is
a n t e r ior
t ib ia l is p o s t er io r )
r e cur r ens t i
b ia l is a nt e r io r
A
A m a l l eo l a r is a n t e r ior l at e r a l is
A m a ll e o l ar is a n t e r io r me dia l is
R e t e m a l l eo l a r e m e dial e
R e t e mall eol a r e l a t e r a l e
A d o r sa lis p e dis
A t a r s e a la t e r a lis
A a t ar seae me dia l e s
A a r c u at a
R e t e do r s al e p e d is
A a m e t at a r s e a e d o r s a le s
A a d ig it a l es d o r s a l e s
R a mu s p l a nt a r is p r o fu n d u s
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
6 A
1
t ib ia l is
.
A p er o na e a
A nu t r it ia fi b u l ae
R a mu s p e r fo r a n s
R a mu s c o m mu n ica n s
A m a l l e o l a r is p o s t e r io r l at er
al i
s
R a mi c a l c a n e il a t e r a l e s
A n u t r ic ia t ib ia e
A m al l e o l a r is p o s t e r io r me d i
alis
R a mic a l ca n e ime d ia l e s
R e t e c a l ca n e u m
A p l a n t a r is m e dia l is
2 9 R a mu s p r o fu n du s
3 0 Ra m u s s u p e r fi c ia l is
A p l an t a r is l a t er al is
A r cu s p l a n t ar is
A a me t a t a r s e a e p l a nt ar e s
R ami p e r for a nt es
A a dig it a l e s p l a n t a r e s
.
r ecu r r e n s
.
.
p o s t er ior
‘
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
R a m u s fi b u l a r is
.
3 6 Venae
3 7 Venae p ul monal es
3 8 V v p u l mo n al e s d e x t r a e
3 9 V v p u l monal e s s in is t r ae
.
.
40 Vv
.
cor d is
54 Pl e x u s t h y r e o id e us impa r
55 V l a r y n g e a in fe r ior
.
56 V v t h y m ic ae
57 V V ; p e r ic a r d ia cae
58 V v p h r e n ic ae su p e r io r e s
59 Vv me d ia s t in al es a n t e r io r e s
.
.
co r o n a r iu s
4 1 S in u s
42 V
43 V
44 V
co r d is
.
.
mag n a
p o s t e r io r v e nt r ic u li s inis t r i
ni
o b l iq u a a t r ii s i
s t r i [ Ma r
.
.
s h a ll i
]
45 Lig
46 V
.
ca v a e s in is t r ae
c o r di
s
.
49 V v
v
s
c o r di
.
47 V
48 V v
.
me d ia
6 1 Vv
62 V v
63 V
.
.
or e s
a nt er i
t r ac h e a l e s
o es o p h a g e a e
.
v e r t e b r a l is
.
c a l is
ce r v i
p r o fu n d a
m a mm a r ia int e r n a
66 V v s ub c u t a n e ae ab do min is
6 7 V e p ig as t r ic a s u p e r ior
68 V in t e r-c os t al is su p r e ma
65 V
p ar v a
.
.
d is a nt e r io r e s
s min im a s
c o r di
.
.
64 V
c or
.
60 V v b r o n c h ia l e s
.
.
cav a sup er ior
50 Vena
“
d
i
m
51 VV ”10
‘
n"
ex
t r a et
mist r a
s
52
Vv
53 V
.
.
t h y r e oid e ae infe r ior e s
t h y r e o id e a im a
69 V
.
jug ul ar is
int er na
70 B ul b u s v e n ae j ug ul a r is s u p e r ior
7 1 V c an al icu l i c oc h l eae
.
A N AT O M I CA L N AM E S
1
B ulbu s
v
2
P l ex
p h ar y ng e u s
us
.
j u g u l ar is
in f e r io r
4 1 V e nae
42 V v
3 V v p h a r y n g e ae
4 V v me ning e a e
43 V
.
c er ebr i
5 V v c a n a l is p t e r y g o id e i [ V idii] 45 V v
6 V l ing u al is
46 V v
7 Vv do r sale s lingu a e
47 V v
8 V s u b l in g u al is
48 V
9 V c o mit a n s n h y po g l o s s i
4 V
c e r eb e l l i s u p e r i
or e s
.
.
n fe r io r e s
c e r e b e ll i i
.
c e r e b r i in t e r n ae
.
.
c e r eb r i
.
.
(Vv
10
9
t hy r e o id e a e
.
s u p e r io r e s
)
s t e r n oc l e id o m as t o id e a
11
V
12
V l ar y ng e a
.
.
1
s u p e r io r
3 S inu s d u r a e ma t r is
S in u s t r a n s v e r s u s
1
Co n fl ue n s s inu u m
$
t iv a e int e r n a e
1 6 Vv
a u di
1 7 S in u s o c c i
p it al is
14
.
18
Pl e x
19
S in u s
S in u s
20
.
us
b as il a r is
al e ni
]
.
t e r min a l is
.
b as a l is
.
c
h or ioid e a
o ph t h a l
.
[ R ose nt h al i]
54 V
.
op
mome n in g e a
ht h al mica
s u p e rior
55 V n aso fr on t a l is
56 V e t h mo ida lis a n t e r io r
57 V e t h m o id al is p os t e r io r
58 V l ac r im al is
59 V v mu s c u l ar e s
60 V v vo r t ic o s ae
.
.
.
sa g i
t t a l is
s up er ior
s ag i
t t a l is
in fe r io r
S in us r e c t u s
22 S i
nu s p e t r os u s in fe r i
or
2 3 S in u s p e t r o s u s s u p er i
or
24 S i
nu s c av e r nos u s
nt e r ca ve r n o s u s a n t e r ior
2 5 S in u s i
or
26 S i
nu s int e r c av e r n o su s p o s t e r i
27 S in u s c ir c u l a r is
28 S inu s s p h e n o p ar ie t al is
21
V e n a e d ip l o icae
3 0 V dip l o ica fr o n t al is
3 1 V dipl o ica t e mp o r a lis a n
t er io r
o r a lis p o s
m
i
e
t
i
l
o
c
a
d
2
V
p
p
3
t e r io r
it alis
l
i
o ica o cc i
d
V
p
p
3
3
3 4 E miss ar ium p a r ie t al e
m
m
as t o id e u m
ri
u
E
m
i
s
sa
35
- nd
l
oid e u m
m
o
ri
u
c
m
i
s
sa
6
E
y
3
i
t
al e
ri
u m o c ci
m
i
s
s
E
a
p
37
s hy p og l o s si
c an a l i
R
e
t
e
8
3
m
i
n
i
s ov a l is
f
r
a
t
e
o
R
e
39
c a r ot ic u s in t e r
n
o
s
us
v
e
x
l
u
s
P
0
e
4
29
52 V
53 V
m ag n a [ G
s ep t i p e l l u c i
di
.
50 V
51 V
me d ia
n fe r io r e s
c er eb r ii
.
.
.
c e r eb r i
ce r e b r i sup er i
or es
.
.
44 V v
.
.
75
.
.
.
.
6 1 Vv
.
c il i
ar e s
62 Vv
.
ar e s
c il i
63 V
p o s t e r io r e s
a nt e r i
or e s
c e n t ra l i
s r e t in ae
.
6 4 Vv
65 V v
66 V v
.
.
s c l er a l e s
epi
p a l p eb r a l e s
c o n u nc t i
v al e s a nt e r i
or es
j
67 V v c o n j u n ct iv a l e s p o st e r io r e s
6 8 V o p h t h a l mica in fe r ior
.
.
.
.
.
mmunis
69 V f acialis
co
.
.
7 0 V f a cial is
.
a nt e r ior
.
nu s
71 V
72 V v
73 V
74 V
75 V
76 V
77 V
an g u l a r i
s
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
fr ont al e s
i
t al s
s u p r ao r b i
p a l p e b r al e s
n asal e s ex
or es
sup e r i
t e r nae
p a l p e b r a l e s infe r ior e s
l a b ia lis s u p e r ior
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
76
I
V
2
Vv
l a b ia l is in fe r io r
.
V
m a s s e t e r ic a e
.
3 V v p a r o t id e a e
4 V p a l a t in a
5 V s u b m e n t a l is
V
v
.
Vv
.
.
Vv
.
Vv
V
aur i
cu ar es
a n t er i
or es
t e m p o r a l is
Pl e x
Vv
.
Vv
.
V
.
v e no s u s
s up e r
fic ia l is
v olar i
s
v e no s u s
pr o
v olar es
co
m
mu n e s
V v m e t a c ar p e a e d o r s a l e s
V v m e t a c ar p e a e v ol ar e s
.
.
m e d ia
Vv
.
d ig it a l e s
A r cu s
p r o p r iae
v olar es
v e no si d
sup er i
or
jugu l ar is
53 V
.
ig it a l e s
ex
t er na
.
.
Vv
a u r icu l a r is
a z y g os
.
h emia z y g o s
V h e m ia z y g os
V
o cci
p it a l is
p o s t e r io r
ac ces
so r ia
in t e r c o s t a l e s
.
57 R a m u s d o r s a lis
58 R a mu s s p in a lis
V j u g u l a r is a n t e r io r
Ar c u s v e no s u s j ug uli
( V m e d ia n a c o l l i)
Vv
.
Vv
.
V
V
.
.
t r a n s v e r sa s ca p u l a e
.
v olar i
s
t e m p o r a l e s p r o fu n d a e
.
.
Ar cu s
.
p t e r y g o id e u s
m e n in g e a e m e d ia e
19 V
V
in t e r c a p it u l ar e s
fu n d u s
Vv
dig it a l e s
us
t h y r e o id e a
.
.
A r cu s
t r a n s v e r s a fac ie i
.
V
sup er fi ci
a le s
s t y l o m a s t o id e a
.
V
t e mp o r a l e s
t y m p a n ic a e
.
.
V
Vv
fa c ia l is p o s t e r io r
p a r o t id e a e p o s t e r io r e s
b u l ae
a r t ic u l a r e s m a n d i
.
Vv
.
l
.
.
.
.
.
b a s il ic a
.
m e d ia n a cu b it i
4 1 ( V m e dia n a a n t ib r ac h ii)
42 ( V m e d ia n a b a s il ic a )
43 ( V m e dia n a c e p h a l ic a )
R e t e v e no s u m d or s a l e m a n u s
.
6 V
“
V
ant e r i
o r es
.
.
h ag e a e
b r o n c h ia l e s p o s t e r io r e s
o e so p
l u m b a l is
.
a s ce nd ens
V v b a s iv e r t eb r a l e s
.
26 V
27
V
28
Vv
s ub cl a via
.
Pl ex
-
t r an s v e r s a e
.
i
v er t eb r a le s
ex
te r ni
t h o r aco a c r o m ia l is
.
v e n os
us
64 Pl e x
c o lli
u s v e n o s iv e r t e b r a l e s
a nt e r i
or e s
29
V
V
.
ax
.
Vv
.
c o s t o ax
P l ex
Vv
.
b r a c h ia l e s
Vv
.
r a d ia l e s
Vv
.
u l n ar e s
c ep
in
t e r ni
m a mill a e
6 7 R e t ia
S in u s
v e no sa v er
ver te
b r a les
t eb r a r u m
l o n g it u d i
na l e s
h a l ic a
38 V
t e b r al e s
v e no si v e r t e b r a l e s
us
t h o r a c o e p ig as t r ica e
u s v e n os u s
u s v e n os iv e r
p o s t e r io r e s
il l a r e s
Pl e x
.
65 P l e x
t h o r a c a lis l a t e r a l is
.
Vv
V
il l a r is
i
c a a c c e s s or a
c e p h a li
Vv
.
Vv
.
in t e r v e r t e b r a l e s
s p in a l e s
ri
or es
ex
t e r na e
an t e
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
78
1
V
s ap
.
h ena
V
2
.
V v dig it a l e s c o mm u n e s p e d is
V v m et a t ar s e a e d o r s a l e s p e d is
V v in t e r ca p it u l a r e s
R e t e v e n os u m p l a n t a r e
A r c u s v e n o s u s p l a n t a r is
V v m e t a t ar s e a e p l ant a r e s
p ar v a
.
fe m or o p o p l it e a
.
V v p e r o n ae ae
V v p op l it e a e
V v t ib ia l e s p os t e r io r e s
.
.
.
.
Vv
t ib ia l e s
.
Re t e
v e no s u
A r c us
or es
ant er i
.
m d o r s a l e p e d is
d o r s a lis p e d is
v enos u s
.
Vv
.
Vv
.
d ig it a l e s p e dis d o r s a l e s
digit a l e s p l a n t a r e s
1 7 S y st ema l y mph at icum
1 8 Vasa l y mph at ica
V a s a ly m p h a t ic a s u p e r fi c ia l ia
V a s a ly m p h a t ic a p r o fu n d a
T r u n c u s j u g u l a r is
T r u ncus
s u b c lav i
us
T r u n c u s b r o n c h o me d ia s t in a l is
-
42 Ly mp h o g l a n d u l a e
p r o fu n d a e
c al e s
ce r v i
su p er i
or es
43 Ly mp h o g l a n d u l a e
c e r v ic a l e s
p r o fu n d ae in fe r io r e s
44 L ym p h o g l a n d u l ae l in g u a l e s
ll a r e s
ax i
45
46
s u b s c apu l a r e s
47
p e c t o r al e s
48
epi
g a s t r ic ae
49
cu b i
t a l e s s u p e r fi c ia l e s
T r u n c i l u m b al e s
50
t al e s
cu b i
T r u n c u s in t e s t in a l is
51
t r ac h e a l e s
52
b r o n ch i
a le s
in t e r c o s t a l e s
e ff e r e n t ia
53
54
55
56
S u b s t a n t ia co r t ica l is
S u b s t a nt ia m e d u l l a r is
57
58
ilia c a e
H il u s
Ly mp h o g l a n d u l a e
59
coe
o cc i
p it a l e s
60
c u lar e s
au r i
p o s t e r io r e s
61
g as t r icae s u p e r io r e s
g as t r icae in fe r io r e s
c u lar e s
au r i
or es
ant e r i
62
h e p a t icae
d
ex
t er
D u c t u s l y mp h a t ic u s d
25
V a sa
V asa
t er
D u c t u s t h o r a c ic u s
C is t e r n a
29
ex
c
hy li
Ly m ph o gl a n d u l ae
a ff e r e n t ia
s uib ma x
il l a r e s
fac ia l e s p r o fu n d a e
p a r o t ide a e
ca l e s
c er v i
s u p e r fi c ia l e s
p r o fu n d a e
m e dia s t inal e s p o s t e r ior e s
m e d ias t in a l e s a n t e r io r e s
s t e r na l e s
l u mb a l e s
Ha c a e
p a n c r e a t ico l ie n a l e s
me s en t e r ic a e
m e s o co l ic a e
“
hy p o g a s t r ic a e
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
1
Ly mp h o g l a n dul ae S ac r a l e s
Pl ex
in g u in a l e s
s u b in g u in a l-e s
.
s u b in g u in al e s
su per fi ci
p r o f u n d a-e
p o p l it ea e
( Ly m p ho g l a n d u l a t ib ia lis
ri
0r
)
us
ill ar is
a nt e
l u mb a l is
cus
ao rt i
s ac r a l is
m e d iu s
hy p o g a s t r icu s
c 0e Hac u s
7 Pl ex
8 Pl ex
ax
m a mm a r iu s
al e s
'
us
79
.
us
l y mp h at ici
j ug u l ar is
il ia c u s
ex
t ern us
ing u in a lis
A NA T O MI CA L N A M E S
Ne
l
u r o
.
l o g ia
N e r vu s
1 1
N u c l e io r ig inis
G
12
N u c l ei t e r m in a l e s
ang l i
on
a lb a
R a mu s
S u b s t a n t ia g r is e a
6 S ub s t a n t ia g e l a t in o sa
R a mu s
R a mu s
T a e n ia t e l a r u m
N er v u s
c u t a n eus
Ner vus
ar ti
c u l ar i
s
S u b s t a n t ia
E p e n dy m a
v ent r i
c u lo r u
m
m
N u c l e i n er v or u m c e r e b r a liu m
S u l c u s l imit a n s
'
v e n t r ic u l o r u
1 9 S y st ema
20 Medull a
Par s
3 9 S e c t io n e s
sp inal is
40 C a n a l is
41 S
cer v i
c a lis
l u m b a l is
u b s t ant i
a
g r is e a
c e n t r an s
a n t e r io r
al b a
46 C o l u m n a a n t e r io r
47 Co l u m n a l a t e r a l is
F il u m t e r m in a l e
‘
48 C
V e n t r ic u l u s t e r m in a l is
F is s u r a m e dia n a
a n t e r io r
c o l u m n ae
50 A p e x
ri
o r is
51 S u b s t a n t ia g e l a t in o s a
[ Roland i]
S u l c u s in t e r me d iu s p os t e r io r
F u nicul i me d ull a e
nalis
sp i
a n t e r io r
F u n ic u l u s l a t e r a lis
F u n ic u l u s p o s t e r ior
p os t e
p ost e
'
S u l c u s l a t e r a l is p o s t e r io r
an t e r i
or
"
p os t e r io r
C e r v ix c o l u m n a e
ri
o r is
anter i
or
in t e r m e d iu s
olu mna
49
S u l c u s m e d ia nu s p o s t e r io r
F u nicu l u s
c e n t r a lis
-
C o n u s m e d u l l a r is
( S u l cu s
s p in al is
4 3 C om m iss u r a a n t e r io r g r is e a
44 C o m m is s u r a p o s t e r ior
45 C ol um nae g r iseae
P a r s l u mb a l is
S u l c u s l a t e r a lis
m s p in a l iu m
m e d u ll a e
42 Co mm is s u r a
Pa r s t h o r a c a lis
I n t u m e s c e n t ia
u s n e r vo r u
nev er um c ent r al e
ca l is
ce r v i
I n t u m e s c e n t ia
Pl e x
mm u n ic a n s
a na s t o m o t i
cu s
m u s c u l a r is
co
)
52 N u c l e u s d o r s a l is
l ing i C l a r kii]
[ S t il
,
53 F o r m a t io r e t icu l a r is
54 F u n ic u l u s a n t e r io r
c e r e b r o s p in
55 F a s c ic u l u s
a li
s a n t e r io r
[ py r a mid
-
a l is an t e r i
or
]
A N AT O M I C A L N A M E S
s up e r i
or
F ov e a
1
T r ig o n u m
n
.
.
3 9 N u c l e i n v e s t ib u l a r is
N u c l e u s o liv a r is s u p e r io r
.
h y p og l os s i
S t r ia e m e d u l l a r e s
N u c l e u s l e mn is c i l a t e r a l is
E min e n t ia m e dia l is
F as c ic u l u s l o n g it u din a l is m e di
C o l l icu l u s fac ia l is
Ala
a l is
F or ma t io
ner ea
ci
Ar ea
C o r p u s t r a p ez o id e u m
ac u s t i
ca
Lo c u s
L e m n is c us
c ae r u l e u s
T e g me n
46 Le m nis c u s m e d ia l is
si
t iv u s ]
i q u ar t i
V e l u m m e d u l l a r e p o s t e r iu s
T a e nia v e n t r ic u l i q u a r t i
v e n t r ic u l
O b ex
Lam in a c h o r io id e a e p it h e l ia lis
( A p e r t u r a m e d ia l is v e nt r ic u l l
12
quar t i
1 5 [ Fo r a m e n M a g e n d 1 1 ] )
( Ap e r t u r a l a t e r a l is v e n t r ic u h
P
19
[ V a r o li]
o n s
S u l cu s b a s il a r is
[p o n t is ]
p o nt is )
F a s c ic u l u s
ob l i
q uu s
( F il a l a t e r a l ia
B r ac h iu m p o nt is
24
P
a r s
S e ct iones p ont is
d o r s a l is p o n t is
R ap h e
N u c l eu s
n
.
ab d u c e n t i
s
N u c l e i mo t o r ii n t r ig e min i
.
R a dix d e s c e n d e n s [ m e se n c e p h
a lica ] n t r i
g e min i
.
na l is n
spi
T r act us
N u c l e u s t r ac t u s
g e mim
.
t r ig e mini
n a l is
sp i
.
N u c l eus
R a d ix
n
n
.
fa c ia lis
fa cial is
.
Pa
r s
b
a s
il
3 4 P a r s p r ima
3 5 G e nu [ in t e r nu m ]
3 6 Pa r s s e c u nd a
N u c l e i n a cu s t ic i
3 8 N u c l e i n coc h l e a r is
.
.
n
.
tr i
a r
is
p
o n
Fib r ae p o n t is p r o fu n d a e
F a s c ic u l i l o n g it u d in a l e s
t is
[ py r a
mid a le s ]
N u c l e i p o n t is
53 C
M et e nce ph al on
8
[ sen
47 Lem n is cu s l a t e r a lis
[ a c u s t ic u s ]
F ib r a e p o n t is
q u a r t i)
F as t ig iu m
1
r et i
c u l a r is
e r e
s u p e r fi c ia l e s
b
e
l
'
l
u
m
G y r i c e r eb e l li
S u l c i c e r eb e ll i
V a ll e c u l a c e r e b e l li
I n c is ur a c e r eb e l l i a n t e r io r
I n c is u r a c e r e b e l l i p o s t e r io r
S u l c u s h o r iz o n t a lis ce r e b e lli
F is su r a t r a n s v e r s a c e r e b e l l i
V e 1 m i5
Lin g u l a c e r e b e l l i
6 3 V in c u l a l in g u l a e c e r e b e l li
Lo b u l u s c e n t r a l is
M o n t ic u l u s
66 C u l m e n
67 D e c liv e
F o liu m v e r m is
T ub e r v e r mis
Py r am is [ v e r mis ]
Uv u l a [ v e r mis ]
N o du lu s
H e m is p h a e r iu m
F ac ie s s u p e r io r
c e r e b e l li
7 5 A la l o b u l i c e n t r a lis
7 6 Lo b u l u s q u a d r a n g u l a r is
77 P a r s a n t e r ior
78 Par s p os t er io r
A N AT O M I CA L N AM E S
Lo b u l u s
I
2
se
mil u n ar is
p e r io r
in fe r io r
F ac ie s
20
H il u s
21
N uc l e u s fas t ig ii
4 Lo b u l u s b iv e n t e r
5 T on s il la c e r e b e lli
26
7 ( F lo c c u l i s e c u n dar n )
8 P e d u ncu l u s fl o c c u li
S e c t io n e s
27
c e r eb e l l i
C o r p u s m e d u l la r e
La m in a e m e d u l l a r e s
l
31
S u b s t a n t ia
B r ac h iu m
r ho
mb e nce p h al i
vu
c on u n ct i
j
m [ ce r e
Le m n is c u s
28
L e m n is c u s l a t e r a lis
29
L e m n is c u s m e d ia lis
3 0 T r ig o n u m l e m n isc i
Ve l u m m e d u l l a r e a n t e r iu s
F r e n u lu m
v it a e
A r b or
h mu s
st
b e lli]
a v is
10
I
25
6 F l oc c u l u s
9 N id us
n u c l e i d e nt a t i
N u c l e u s g l ob o s u s
fo r m is
2 3 N u c l e u s e mb o l i
2 4 Ca p s u l a nu c l e i d e n t a t i
s em il u n ar is
3 Lo b u l u s
f e r io r
83
.
v e li
m e d u l l a r is
ant e
i
ri
or s
c or t ica l is
[ L a m in a b a s al is ]
[ S t r a t u m c in e r e u m ]
1 7 [ S t r a t u m g a n g l io su m ]
5
16
I
S t r a t u m g r an u lo s u m
N u c l e u s d e n t at u s
3 3 S e ct ion e s is t h m i
c e r eb r i
]
P e d u ncu l u s
[ v id e
3 4 G a ng lio n in t e r p e du n c u l a r e
3 5 N u c l e u s n t r o c h l e ar is
18
.
3 6 Cer eb r um
3 7 F a c ie s
3 8 F ac ie s m e dia l is
3 9 B a s is c e r eb r i
40
41
50 S e ct io ne s p e d u n c u l i c e r e b r i
51 T e g m e n t u m
co n v e x a c e r e b r i
c e r eb r i
52 S t r at u m g r is e u m c e n t r a l e
F o r mat io r e t ic u l a r is
54 F a s c ic u l u s l o n g it u dina l is m e di
M e se nce ph al on
in
[ F a c ie s
f
e r
io
s
al i
r
55 R a dix d e s ce n d e n s n t r ig e m in i
56 N u c l e u s r a d ic is d e s c e n d e n t is n
t r ig e m in i
]
.
.
F o s s a int e r p e d u n c u l a r is
[ T ar in i]
43 R e c e s s u s
57 N u c l e u s n o cu l o m o t o r ii
58 N u c l e i t e g me n t i
or
ant er i
59 N u c l e us
44 R e c e ssu s p o s t e r io r
S u b s t a n t ia p e r fo r a t a p o s t e r io r
46 P
e
d
u n c u
47 A q u a e d u c t u s
l
u s
c e r e
c er e b r i
n
.
mo t o r ii
o c u lo-
b
r
i
[ S y lv n ]
48 S u l c u s l a t e r a l is
49 S u l c u s
-
'
.
r ub e r
60 D e c u s s a t io n es t e g m e nt o r u m
6 1 D e c u s s a t io b r ac h ii c o n
jun c t iv i
62 L e m n is cu s l a t e r alis
6 3 Le m n is c u s m e dia l is
64 S
65 B
u
b
a s
s
t
is
a n
p
t ia
e
d
n
ig
-
u n c u
r a
li
A NA T O M I CA L N A M E S
84
1
2
3
4
5
6
Co
r
p
o r a
q
u a
d
r
ig
e
m in
La m in a q u a d r ig e m in a
C o l l ic u l u s s u p e r io r
C o llic u l u s in t e r ior
B r a c h iu m q u a d r ig e m in u m
p e r iu s
B r a c h iu m q u a d r ig e m inu m
f e r iu s
.
3 8 S e c t io n e s h y p o t h a l a mi
N u c l e u s h y p o t h a l a mic u s [ C or
p u s Lu y s i]
a
P a r s g r is e a h y po t h a l am i
C o mm is s u r a su p e r io r
[ M ey
n e r t i]
su
Co mm is s u r a
den i]
in
in fe r io r
[G
ud
N u c l e i c o r p or is m a m il l a r is
Fa s c ic u l u s’ t h a l a m o m a m il l a r is
[ V ic q d A z y r i]
F asc ic u l i p e d u n c u l o m a m ill a r e s
46 P ar s t e g m e n t a lis
47 P a r s b as il a r is
A n s a p e d u n c u l a r is
49 A n s a l e nt ic u l a r is
50 P e d u n c u l u s t h a l a m i inf e
7 S e c t io n e s c o r p or u m q u a d r i
g e min o r u m
i
8 S t r at u m z o n a le
9 S t r a t u m g r is e u m c o llic u li s u p e
r io r is
1 0 N u c l e u s c o ll i
c u l i in fe r io r i
s
1 1 S t r a t u m a l b u m p r o fu n d u m
ri
or
12 Pr osencep h al on
1
V
5 1 T h a l a m e nc e p h a l o n
3 D ie n ce p h a l o n
ic u l u s t e r t iu s
A d 1t u s a d a q u a e d u c t u m c e r e b r 1
C o mm is s u r a p o s t e r io r [ c e r e b r i]
F o r a m e n in t e r v e n t r ic u l a r e
[ M o n r o i]
S u l c u s h y p o t h a l a mic u s [ M o n
1 01]
M as s a in t e r m e d ia
R e c e s s u s o p t ic u s
R e c e s s u s in fu n d ib u l i
C o mm is s u r a a n t e r io r [ c e r e b r i]
R e c e ss u s t r ia n g u l a r is
e n
t
r
52 T h
P u l v in a r
l
a
m
u s
T u b e r c u l u m a n t e r iu s t h a l a mi
T a e n ia t h a l a m i
S t l l a m e du ll a r is
La min a c ho r 1o id e a e p it h e l ia l is
.
‘
.
58
-
H y p ot h a l a m u s
P a r s m a m il l a r is h y p
t h a l a m i
C o r p u s m a mil l ar e
a
Metath
a
1a m
u 5
Co r p u s g e nic u l a t u m m e d ia l e
C o r p u s g e n ic u l a t u m l a t e r a l e
x
<
24
o
62
63
64
P a r s o p t ic a h y p o t h a l a m i 6 5
66
T u 'b e r c in e r e u m
67
I n fu n d ib u lu m
6 1 E p it h a l a m u s
C o r p us p in e a l e
R e ce s s u s p in e a lis
R e c e s su s s u p r a p in e a l is
H ab e n u l a
C o mm is s u r a h ab e n u l a r u m
T r ig o n u m h ab e n u l a e
‘
H y p o p h y s is
3 1 Lo b u s a n t e r io r
3 2 Lo b u s p o s t e r ior
T r a c t u s o p t icu s
3 4 R a d ix m e d ia l is
3 5 R a d ix l a t e r a l is
C h ias ma o p t icu m
La m in a t e r m in a l is
68 S e ct ion e s t h al a m e nc e p h ali
69
70
71
72
73
S t r at um
l
z o na e
N u c le u s a n t e r ior t h a l a mi
N u c l e u s m e d ial is t h a l ami
N u c l e u s l a t e r a lis t h a l a m i
La min a e me d u ll a r e s t h a l a mi
A N AT O M I CA L N A M E S
86
1
P a r s m a r g in a l is
S u l c u s s u b p a r ie t a l is
F is s u r a h ipp o ca mp i
G y r u s fo r n ica t us
5 G y r u s c in g u l i
6 I s t h mu s gy r i fo r n ic a t i
7 G y r u s h ipp o ca mp i
8 Unc u s [ g y r i h ip p o ca mp i]
S u b s t an t ia r e t ic u l a r is a l b a
[ A r no ld i]
L o b u l u s p a r a c e n t r a l is
Pr a e cu ne u s
F is s u r a p ar ie t o oc c ip it a l is
F is su r a c a l car in a
C u n eu s
15
C
o r
p
u s
c a
ll
o s u
m
S p l e n iu m c o r p o r is c a ll o s i
T r u n c u s cor p o r is c a ll o s i
G e n u c o r p o r is c a l l o s i
R o s t r u m c o r p o r is c a ll o s i
20 La m in a r o s t r a lis
S t r ia e t r a n sv e r s a e
S t r ia l o n g it u din a lis m e d ia l is
S t r ia l o ng it u d in a l is l a t e r a lis
F as c io l a c in e r e a
25
F
C r u s fo r n ic is
Co r p u s for n ic is
T a e n ia fo r n ic is
C o l u m n a fo r n ic is
3 0 P a r s l ib e r a
nic is
3 1 Pa r s t e c t a
nic is
32
S
e
pt
u
ix
o r n
m
p
e
c olu
c o lu
ll
m na e
mna e
id
u c
u
m
3 3 L a min a s e p t i p e l l u c id i
3 4 C av u m s e p t i p e l l u c id i
35 V
e n
t
r
ic
u
l
us
3 6 P a r s c e n t r a lis
3 7 C o r n u a n t e r ius
3 8 C o r nu p o s t e r iu s
l
a
t
e r a
l is
.
C o r n u in fe r iu s
C o r p u s s t r ia t u m
N u c l e u s c au d a t u s
42 C a p u t n u c l e ic a n da t i
43 Ca u d a n u c l e i c a u d a t i
S t r ia t e r m in a l is
La m in a a fiix a
T a e n ia c h o r io id e a
La m in a c h o r io id e a e p it h e lia lis
Ca l ca r avis
( B u lb u s co r n u p o s t e r io r is )
E min e nt ia co l l a t e r a lis
51 T r ig o n u m c o l l a t e r a l e
H ipp o ca mp u s
F imb r ia h ip po ca mp i
T a e n ia fi mb r ia e
D ig it a t io n e s h ip p oc a mp i
F a s c ia d e n t a t a h ip p o c a m p i
C o mmis s u r a h ipp o ca mp i
-
R h in e n c e p h a l o n
S u l c u s p a r o lfa c t o r iu s a n t e r io r
P a r s a n t e r io r [ r h in e n c e
p h a l i]
Lo b u s o l fac to r iu s
6 2 B u lb us o lfac t o r iu s
6 3 T r a c t u s ol fa c t o r iu s
64 T r ig o nu m o l fac t o r iu m
6 5 S t r ia m e dia l is
66 S t r ia in t e r m e d ia
A r e a p a r o l fa c t o r ia [ B r o c a e ]
S u l c u s p a r o l fac t o r iu s p o s t e r io r
P a r s p o s t e r io r [ r h in e n c e
ph ah ]
G y r u s s u b c a ll os u s [ P e du n c u l u s
c or p o r i
s c a ll os i]
7 1 S u b s t a n t ia p e r fo r a t a a n
t e r io r
S t r ia o lfa c t o r ia l a t e r a lis
Lime n in s ul a e
'
‘
74 S e c t io n e s t e l e n c e p h al i
75 S u b s t a n t ia co r t ic a l is
76 C e nt r u m s e m io v a l e
77 D e c u r s u s fi b r a r u m c e r e b r a l iu m
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
1
F ib r a e
2
a r cu a t a e
c er eb r i
3 4 F a lx c e r e b r i
3 5 T e n t o r iu m c e r e b e l l i
C in g u l u m
3 F a s c ic u l u s lo n g it u d in a l is
su p e r i
or
4 F a s c ic u l u s
in fe r io r
lo n g it u d in a l is
5 F a s c ic u l u s u nc in a t u s
6 R a d ia t io c o r p o r is ca ll o s i
7 P a r s f r o n t a l is
8 Pa r s p ar ie t a l is
9 P a r s t e m p o r a l is
1 0 Pa r s o c c i
p it a l is
12
3 6 F a l x c e r eb e l l i
3 7 D ia p h r a g m a s e l l a e
39
I n c is u r a
13
Pu t a m en
14
G l o b u s p a ll id us
42 C av u m
e p id u r a l e
43 C a v u m
s u b du r a l e
G
19
P a r s fr o n t a l is
c ap s u l ae
c a p s u l ae
in
‘
c a p s u l ae
o c ci
p it a l is
in t e r n ae
22
Co r ona
23
a
53 G
my g d al a e
r a d ia t a
P a r s p ar ie tal is
2 5 P ar s t fi mp o r a l is
2 6 P a r s o cc i
p it a l is
s t r ia t i
c or p o r is
28
R a d ia t io
o c ci
p it o t h a l a m ic a
i]
C o mm is s u r a
3 0 Pa r s
or
a nt e r i
r a nu l a t i
o n e s a r ac h n o id e a l e s
56 S e p t u m c e r v ic al e in t e r m e d iu m
57 P ia m at e r e n ce p h a li
R a d ia t io
29
[ c e r e b r i]
or
anter i
3 1 Pa r s p os t e r io r
58 T e la
Mening es
3 3 D u r a mat er
encep
h ali
c
h o r io id ea
v ent r ic u l i
q u ar t i
59 Pl e x
60
us
o id eu s
c h or i
q ua r t i
T e l a c h o r io id e a
6 1 P l ex
us
ve n t r i
cu li
v e n t r ic u li t e r
tn
c h or i
o id e us
v e n t r icu l i
oide u s
c hor i
v e nt r c u l
t e r t ii
62 Pl ex
32
-
.
27
il
m e du l
54 P ia ma t e r s p in a l is
55 Lig d ent ic u l a t u m
P a r s fr o nt a lis
r at o e t
c e r eb e l lo
[ P a c c h io ni]
24
[G
hali
50 C is t e r na c h ia s ma t is
51 Cis t e r n a in t e r p e d u n cu
l a r is
52 Cis t er n a v e n ae ma g n ae
c er eb r i
in t e r n a e
t e r n ae
N u cleu s
e nc e p
49 C is t e r n a fo s s a e l a t e r a l is
i]
c e r e b r i [ S y lv i
18
21
S p in a l is
48 Cis t e r n a
l a r is
5 Cl a u s t r u m
1 6 C ap s u l a e x t e r n a
1 7 Ca p s u la i
nt e r n a
Par s
t e nt or n
40 D u r a m a t e r s p ina lis
4 1 Fil um d u r a e m a t r is s p in a l is
1
20
[sel
46 C avu m su b a r a c h n o id e a l e
47 Cis t e r n a e s u b a r a c h n o id a l e s
N u c l e u s l e n t ifo r mis
enu
d ia p h r a gm a t is
3 8 Fo r amen
l ae ]
44 A r ac h n o id e a
45 A r a c h n o id e a
T ap e t u m
1 1
87
.
us
l a t e r a l is
63 G l o m u s
cho r i
o id e u
64 A c e r v u l u s
m
i
i
A N A T O M I CAL N A M E S
88
1 S yst ema
2 Ne r
v
icer
3 Nu
e
b
r a
ner vor um
le s
p er iph er icum
3 3 N in fr a t r o c h l e a r is
3 4 R a m u s p a l p e b r a l is s u p e
ri
or
3 5 R p a lp eb r a lis in fe r io r
.
ol f act or n
.
.
.
3 6 G c il ia r
ci
liar e s b r eve s
.
4 N
.
37 Nn
op t ic us
.
38 N
5 N
39 N
40 N
ocul omot or ius
.
6 R a mu s s u p e r io r
7 R am u s in fe r io r
8 R a d ix b r e v is g a ng l ii c ilia r is
.
max ill ar is
m e n in g e u s
.
z
.
e
y g o ma t i
4 1 Ra m u s
p o r a l is
42 R a m u s
s
al i
[ m e diu s ]
z y go
zy
m a t ic o t e m
g o m a t ic o fa c i
43 N u s p h e no p a l a t in i
44 N u a l v e o l a r e s s u p e r io r e s
45 R a m i a l v e o l a r e s s u p e r i
or e s p o s t e r io r e s
46 N infr a o r b it a lis
47 R a l v e o l ar is s u p e r io r m e
.
9 N
10
t r och l ear is
.
D e c u s s a t io
ri
um
n er vo r u m
.
t r oc h l e a
.
.
diu s
48 R a mi
1 1 N t r ig eminu
.
P o r t io m a j or
1 3 G a n g l io n s e m il u n a r e
1 4 P o r t io m 1 n 0r
5 N
.
op
[G
as s e r 1
49 Pl e x
]
ht h al micu s
N t e n t or ii
N l a c r im a l is
R a m u s a n a s t o m o t ic u s
z y g o ma t i
co
N fr o n t a lis
t a l is
s u p r aor b i
20 N
2 1 R a m u s fr o n t a l is
.
52
.
cu
m
n
.
N
.
N
.
su pr at r o c
hl e a r is
n a s o c ilia r is
24
25
26
27
28
R a d ix l o n g a g a n g l n c il i
a r is
N n c ilia r e s l o ng i
N e t h m o id alis p o st e r io r
N e t h mo id a l is a nt e r io r
R a m i n a s a l e s a n t e r io r e s
2 9 R a m i n a s a l e s in t e r ni
3 0 R a mi n a sa l e s
l a t e r al e s
3 1 R a mi n as al e s
me dial e s
3 2 R a m u s n a s a l is e x t e r
.
.
.
nu s
i
d e n t a l is su p e r io r
50 R a m id e nt a l e s s u p e
ri
or e s
51 R a m i g in g iv a l e s s u
p e r io r e s
R a mi p a l p e b r a l e s in fe r i
us
or e s
.
.
22
super
o r es ant e r i
or es
12
1
a lv e o l a r e s
53 R a m i n a s a l e s ex t e r n i
54 R a mi n as a l e s in t e r n i
55 R a m il a b ia l e s su p e r io r e s
56 G
s p
g l io n
p a l a t in u m
an
h
e n o
57 R a mi o r b it a l e s
58 N c a n a l is p t e r y g o id e i
[ V id ii]
59 N p e t r o s u s s u p e r
fi c ia l is m aj o r
6 0 N p e t r os u s p r o fu m
du s
6 1 R a mi n as a l e s p o s t e r io r e s
su p er i
or e s l a t e r a l e s
2
R
6
a mi n a s a l e s p o s t e r i
or es
s up e r i
o r e s me d i
ale s
6 3 N n a s o p a l a t in us
[ S c ar p ae ]
.
.
~
.
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
H
2
u t r ic u l a r is
N
2
a
A 2
5 N
hl
c o c
.
7 N
39 R a m i o e s o p h a g e i
40 N l a r y ng e u s in fe r io r
.
4 1 R a mu s a n t e r io r
4 2 R a m u s p o s t er io r
R a mi b r o n c h ia l e s a n t e r io r e s
e a e
a n g l io n
6 G
3 7 R a m i c a r d ia c i in fe r io r e s
3 8 R ami t r a c h e a l e s
mp u l l a r is s u p e r io r
s l a t e r a l is
a mp u l lar i
a m p u l l a r is in fe r i
or
M2
s p ir a l e
s accu l a r is
.
R a m i b r o n c h ia l e s p o s t e r io r e s
P l e x u s p u l m o n a l is a n t e r io r
8 N gl os soph ar y ng eu s
.
G
a ng l i
on
G
a n g lio n
N
s u p e r iu s
Pl e x
p et r o su m
t y m p a n ic u s
.
I n t u m e s c e n t ia
Pl ex
14
N
.
c a r o t ico t y
[
J
a c o b so n i
]
mp a n ic u s
N
co t
caro t i
.
ym p anic u s
fe r io r
1 6 R a m u s t u b ae
R a n as t o m o t ic u s c u m
.
r icu l a r i n
v ag
.
in
us
Pl ex
us o e s o p h a g e u s
mo
au
55 R a m i lie n a l e s
56 R a m i r e n a l e s
R a mu s
G
jug l a r e
a n g lio n
no do s u m
R
A n s a h y p o g lo s s i
R a mu s t h y r e o h y o id e u s
R a mi l in g u a l e s
c ular i
s
au r i
a na s to
.
mo t ic u s
cu
m
glos
65 N
s o p h a r y ng e o
R a mi ph a r y ng e i
Pl e x u s p h a r y ng e u s
N
l a r y ng e u s
.
‘
or
sup er i
3 1 R a m u s e x t e r nu s
3 2 R a mus in t e r nu s
“
33 R a mu s a n as t o mo t ic u s c u m
n l a r y n g e o in fe r ior e
.
R am i
or es
ca r d iac i su p e r i
Fil a
ra
or
ant e r i
p o s t er io r
G a ng lio n s p in al e
R am u s
a n t e r io r
R a mu s po s t e r io r
R a mu s c o m mu n ica n s
R a m u s m e n in g e u s
N
A nsa e
r e c u r r e ns
sp inal es
R a d ix
C au d a
.
.
d icu l a r ia
R a d ix
( N d e p r e s sor )
.
t e r nu s
.
R a m u s m e n in g e u s
R a mu s
ex
60 N h yp ogl ossu s
R am u s d e s c e n d e n s
vagu s
an g l ion
acc essor iu s
.
R a m us in t e r n u s
R a m i ling u a l e s
G
c o e li
ac i
57 N
R a m i t o n s ill a r e s
.
us
i
s t y lo p h a r y n g e u s
22 N
p o s t e r io r
g as t r ic u s a n t e r io r
P l e x u s g a s t r ic u s p o s t e r io r
R a m i h e p a t ic i
Ra m i ph ar y ng ei
R a mu s
,
R a m i g as t r ic i
R a mi
ra
oe so p h a g e us a n t e r io r
Pl e x
Pl e x
p e r io r
15
p u l m o n a l is p o s t e r io r
us
R a m i o e s o pih a g e i
t y m p a n ic a
u s t ym p a n ic u s
.
na
eq u i
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
Nu
1
.
c e r vic al e s
91
.
N m u s c u l o-c u t a n e u s
42 R a mi m u s c u l a r e s
43 N c u t a n e u s a n t ib r a c h n
l a t e r a l is
N c u t a n e u s b r ac h ii m e d ia lis
N c u t a n e u s a n t ib r a c hii m e d i
a li
s
46 R a mu s v o l a r is
47 R a m u s u l n a r is
.
R a m i p o s t e r io r e s
3 R a m u s m e dia l is
4 R a m u s l a t e r a l is
N s u b o c c ip it al is
N o c cip it a l is m a j o r
( N o c c ip it a l is t e r t iu s )
R a m i a nt e r io r e s
Plex u s
c e r v ic a l i
N oc c ip it a l is m in or
N a u r ic u l a r is m ag n u s
1 2 R a m u s p o s t er i
or
1 3 R a m u s a n t er i
or
N c u t a n e u s co l li
1 5 R a m i s u p e r io r e s
1 6 Ram i i
n fe r i
o r es
N u s u p r a c l a v ic u l a r e s
1 8 Nn
s u p r a c l a v ic u l a r e s a n
t e r io r e s
19 Nn
s u p r a c l av i
c u l a r e s me
dn
2 0 N n s u p r ac l a v ic u l a r e s
t e r io r e s
N p h r e n ic u s
2 2 R a m u s p e r ica r d iac u s
2 3 R a m i p h r e n ic o a b d o m i
nales
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
48 N
‘
.
.
.
.
R a m i m u s cu l ar e s
in t e r o s s e u s
N
[ a n t ib r ac hii]
v ola r i
s
R a m u s p a l m a r is n m ed ia n i
R a m u s a n as t o m o t ic u s cu m n
u lna r i
Nn
d ig it a l e s v o l a r e s c o m
.
.
.
.
mu n e s
-
.
.
.
me d ia n u s
.
Nu
.
dig it a l e s
55 N
.
v ola r e s
pr opr n
u l n ar is
R a m u s c u t a n e u s p a l m a r is
R a m u s d o r s a l is m a n u s
58 N u dig it a l e s d o r s a l e s
R a m u s v o l a r is m a nu s
6 0 R a m u s s u p e r fi cia l is
61 Nn
dig it a l e s
v ola r e s
.
.
co
24 Pl ex
P
p r a c l a v ic u l
t h o r ac a l e s p o s t e r io r e s
.
27
N
28
N
Nn
N
.
N
.
Nn
N
.
N
.
b r achial is
s u
a r s
Nn
us
62 N n
.
.
d o r s a l is
is
or e s
an t e r i
.
s u b s c a p u l ar e s
ill a r is
.
al is
in f
in t e r o s s e u s
b r ac h ii] d or s a lis
R a m u s s u p e r fi c ia l is
72 R a m u s a n a s t o m o t ic u s
n a r is
7 3 N n d ig it a l e s d o r s a l e s
70 N
t h o r a c o d o r s a l is
a r s
r a dial is
.
3 5 R a m i mu s c u l a r e s
r a c h ii l a t e r
b
n
s
eu
u
t
a
N
c
6
3
P
.
v olar e s
N cu t a n e u s b r a c h ii p o s t e r io r
R am i m u s c u l a r e s
N
c u t a ne u s
b r ac h n d o r
an t i
s a l is
R a m u s p r o fu n d us
s u p r a s c ap u l a r is
ax
.
65 N
us
s u b clav i
.
d ig it a l e s
p r o p r ii
R a m u s p r o fu n du s
6 4 R a m i mu s c u l a r e s
s ca p u l a e
t h o r a c a l is l o ng u s
t h or a c a l e s
.
a r
mm u n e s
.
ul
.
r a c
l
a v
ic
u
l
a r
is
74 N u t h o r a c a l e s
a mi po s t e r i
or e s
76 R a mu s c u t a n eu s l a t e r a l is
7 7 R a m u s c u t a n eu s m e d ia l is
.
i
u l u s l a t e r a l is
F
s
c
c
a
8
3
s c ic u l u s m e d ia l is
F
a
9
3
o st er i
or
l
s
i
u
u
c
F
s
c
a
0
p
4
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
92
1
R a mi
[Nn
a nt e r i
or es
cos t a l e s
in t e r
.
N
.
.
cu t a n e u s
fe m o r is l a t e r al is
]
Ra mi mu s c ular e s
3 R a mu s cu t a n e u s l a t e r a l is
l
i
e
c
t
o
r
a
s
e
t
a
b
[p
d o m in a lis ]
4 R a m u s p o s t e r io r
5 R a m u s a n t e r io r
6 R a m i m a m m a r ii l a t
e r al e s
7 N n in t e r c o s t o b r ac h ia l e s
8 R a m u s c u t a n e u s a n t e r io r
[ p e c t o r a lis e t a b
d o m in a l is ]
9 R a m i m a m ma r u m e
d ia l e s
2
.
N n l u mb a l e s ,
10
.
37 N
ob t u r at o r iu s
.
R a m u s a n t e r io r
3 9 R a m u s cu t a n eu s
R a mu s p o s t e r io r
41 N
.
fe m or al is
R a m i c u t a n e i a n t e r ior e s
Ra mi m u sc u lar e s
N s ap he nu s
45 R a m u s in fr a p a t e l l a r is
46 R a mi c u t a n e i c r u r is m e
d ia l e s
.
s a c r al e s ,
cocc y g e u s
N n lu m b a l e s
R a mi p o s t e r io r e s
1 3 R a m us m e dia l i
s
I 4 R a m u s l a t e r a l is
15 Nn
c lu ni
um
47 Pl ex
us sacr al is
.
.
T r u n c u s l u m b o s a c r a l is
N g l u t ae u s s u p e r ior
N g l u t a e u s in fe r ior
N c u t a n e u s fe m o r is p o s t e r io r
52 N n c l u n iu m in fe r io r e s
53 R a m i p e r in e a l e s
.
.
su p e r i
or e s
.
.
R a m i a n t e r ior e s
N n s a c r a le s e t c o c c y g e u s
1 8 R a m i p o s t e r io r e s
1 9 R a m u s m e dia l is
2 0 R a m u s l a t e r a l is
21 Nu
c l u ni
um
m e dii
.
.
54 N
.
is c h ia dicu s
R a mi m u s c u l ar e s
N p e r o n a eu s c o m m u n is
57 R am i m u s c u l a r e s
58 N c u t a n e us su r ae l a t e r
a l is
59 Ra m u s a n as t o mo t ic u s
.
.
22 Pl ex
us
23 Pl e x
l u mb osa cr a lis
us
l u mb alis
R a mi m u s cu l a r e s
il io h y p o g as t r icu s
25 N
R am i mu s c u l a r e s
R a m u s c u t a n e u s l a t e r a lis
R a mu s c u t a n e u s a n t e r io r
.
29
N il io in gu ina lis
.
R a m i m u s cu l a r e s
N u s c r o t a l e s a n t e r ior e s
N n l a b ia l e s ant e r io r e s
.
.
g e nit o fe mo r a l is
l u mb o in g u in a l is
c u s e x t e r nu s
sp e r m at i
33 N
N
N
.
.
.
p e r o n ae u s
N p e r o n a e u s s u p e r fi c ia l is
6 1 R a mi m u s c u lar e s
6 2 N c u t a n e u s d or s a l is m e
.
.
dia lis
63 N
c u t an e u s
.
d o r s a l is in
t e nm e d iu s
d o r s al e s
d ig it a l e s
p e dis
N p e r o n a e u s p r o fu n d u s
6 6 R am i m u s c u l ar e s
6 7 N n dig it a l e s d o r sa l e s h a l
l u c is l a t e r a l is e t dig it i
s e c u n di m e di
al is
N t ib ia l is
69 R a m imu s c u l a r e s
64 N n
.
.
.
.
AN A T O M I CA L N A M E S
94
1 Par s t h or acal is
2
G
a ng li
a
s
.
sy
mpat hici
t h o r a c a l ia
3 N s p l a n c h nic u s m a j or
4 G a ng l io n s p l a n c h n ic u m
.
5 N
s p l a nc
.
h n ic u s m in o r
6 R a mus
7 (N
8 P l ex
9 Pl ex
.
10
Pl ex
r e n a l is
im u s )
s p l anc h n i
cus
aor t i
cu s
us
t h o r aca lis
car d i
ac u s
us
co r o n a r iu s
us
cor
dis
ri
or
1 1
G
[ W r is
acum
c ar d i
a ng li
on
b e r g i]
12
Pl ex
c o r o na r i
us
us
p o s t e r io r
R a mi p u l mo n a l e s
1 4 Pl e x u s p u l mo n a l is
13
Par s
minal is et p elvina
sy mp at hici
ab d o
s
.
us
Pl e x
us
g a s t r ic u s in fe r io r
s u p r a r e n a lis
Pl e x
us
r e na l i
s
Pl e x
us
sp e r
Pl e x
us
ar t er i
ae
Pl e x
us
Pl e x
us
Pl e x
us
Pl e x
us
.
a ng lia
l u mb a l ia
G
a n g l ia
s a c r a l ia
Pl e x
us
cu s
ao r t i
P l ex
us
coe l i
ac u s
G
an g li
a c o e lia c a
G
angli
on
h a e m o r r h o id a l e s
Plex us
ri
or
h a em or r h o id a l is
il iac u s
Pl e x
us
h y p o g a s t r ic u s
Pl ex
us
h aemo r r h o id a l is me d iu s
Pl e x
us
Pl e x
us
p r o s t a t ic u s
d e fe r e n t ia lis
Pl e x
us
u t e r o v a g in a l i
s
Ple x
us
v e si
ca l is
Nn
.
v esi
ca l e s
su p e r ior e s
Nu
.
v es i
ca l e s
in fe r io r e s
u s c ave r n o s u s
us
g a s t r icu s
cav e r n o su s
.
49 N u
p e n is m a
.
c av e r no s i
p e n is mi
no r e s
Pl e x
u s c a v e r no s u s c l i
t o r id is
51 N
p h r e nicu s
2 3 G a ng l i
a p h r e n ic a
P l e x u s h e p at ic u s
P le x
p e n is
jor
s u pe r i
or
c av e r n o s u s
.
cli
t o r idis
maj o r
us
l ie n a lis
supe
us
min al is
p e r iu s
us
s up er i
Ple x
48 N
me se nt e r icu m
Pl e x
ov ar i
cae
or e s
Pl e x
ab do
ma t ic u s
me s e n t e r ic u s s u p e r io r
my e n t e r icu s
s u b mu co su s
m e s e n t e r ic u s in fe r io r
.
G
Pl e x
Pl ex
Nu
a nt e
.
52 N u
.
c av e r n o s i
min o r e s
Pl e x
us
fe m o r a l is
Pl e x
us
p o p lit eu s
c l it o r id is
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
1
m
co m m
'
O
se n su u
ga n a
r
2 Or g anon
e
t
l n te gu m
F ac ie s
3 Ocu l u s
4 N
e la s t i
c a a nt e r i
or
S u b s t a nt ia p r o p r ia
La m in a e l a s t ica p o s t e r io r
m o u r s i D e s c e m e t i]
E n d o t h e liu m c a m e r ae
oculi
ant er i
or
3 8 Tunica
A x is
o cu l
ex
A x is
o c u li
in t e r na
A x is
op t i
ca
Ves zc nl a
3 9 C h o r io id ea
t er na
La m in a
s u p ra c
]
La m in a
ph tha lmica
oph tha l micus
chor i
l l ar s
o c ap i
i
La m in a b a s a l is
chor i
o
( Ra p h e
18 Tunica fi b r osa
oculi
S u lcus
S cl e r a
9
s
co r n e ali
S in u s
v e no su s
c ili
s
ar i
O r ib ic u l u s
'
s cl er a e
[ C a nal is
51 M
,
La m in a fu s c a
cr i
b r osa
( Ra p h e
s c l e r ae
( F u n ic u l u s
i
l ia r is
ci
53 Fib r a e
s c l e r ae
)
54 Pl ex
us
55
27
A n nu lu s
28
'
29
V e r t ex
C or n e a
v ae
c o n u nc t i
j
c or n e a e
r c u l ar e s
ci
[M u e ll e r i]
)
s c l e r ae
.
ci
l ia r s
52 F ib r a e m e r idio n a l e s
[ B r u e c k e i]
S c h l e m m i La n t h i]
La m in a
c il iar e
48 P r o c e s su s c ilia r e s
49 Plic a e c il iar e s
sc ler a e
R im a
id e ae )
46 C o r p u s
C or o n a
1
h o r ioid e a
S p a t iu m p e r ic h o r io id e a l e
La m in a v as cu l o s a
o
Ca licn lu s
va s cul osa
-
v is u s
'
a nt e r i
oculi
M e r id ia n i
[ Line a
[D e
o r is
P o l u s p o s t er io r
A e q uat or
i
[ B ow
m a ni]
.
Pol u s
c o r n e ae
a nt e r i
or
La m in a
5 V a g in ae n op t ic i
6 S p a t ia int e r vag in a lia
7 B ul b us
m
tu
F a c ie s p os t e r io r
E p it h e l iu m c o r n e ae
op t icu s
.
en
u ne
Limb u s
v isu s
95
.
g a ng l io s u s
I r is
M ar go
M ar g o
p u p ill ar is
ci
l ia r is
F a c ie s
a nt e r i
or
ci
l ia r is
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
96
3 5 Ca m e r a
F a c ie s p o s t e r io r
A n n u l u s ir id is m aj o r
P lic a e ir id is
p u p il l ae
sph i
nc t e r
.
C ir c u l u s
C ir c u l u s
vi
t r eu
e r io r
m
.
.
ir id is
o
A hya l oid ea
C a n a lis h y a l o id e u s
F os s a h y a l o id e a
M e mb r a n a h y a l o id e a
43 S t r o m a v it r eu m
44 H u m o r v it r e u s
M d il a t at o r p u p il la e
Lig p e c t in a t u m ir id is
a ng u li
o c u li
3 8 Co r pu s
S t r o ma ir id is
S p a t ia
p st
3 7 Ca m e r a
P u p il l a
.
o cu li a n t e r ior
A ng ulu s ir idis
A nn u l u s ir idis m in o r
M
.
osus
a r t er i
[ F o n t an a e ]
m aj o r
osu s
ar t e r i
m in o r
M e mbr ana pa pillar is
45 L e n s
I
14 S t r at um p igment i
S S t r a t u m p ig m e n t i r e t in a e
16
I
S t r a t u m p ig m e n t i
ar is
s
c or p or i
S u b s t a n t ia l e n t is
47 S u b s t a n t ia c o r t ic a l is
48 N u c l e u s l e nt is
F ib r a e l e n t is
E p it h e l iu m l e n t is
C a p s u l a l e n t is
P o l u s a n t e r io r l e n t is
P o l u s p os t e r io r l e n t is
F a c ie s a n t e r io r l e n t is
F a c ie s p o s t e r ior l e n t is
A x is l e n t is
A e q u a t o r l e nt is
R a dii l e n t is
ci
li
7 S t r a t u m p ig m e n t i ir id is
1 8 Ret ina
Par s
20
Pa r s
o p t ic a
Ora
P a p ill a
Ex
r e t in a e
se r r at a
r eti
nae
c ilia r is
n
.
c av a t i
o
o pt i
ci
p a p il l a e
n
.
o p t ic i
\
M ac u l a l u t e a
59 Z o nu l a
Fov ea
c e n t r a l is
V
s a n
a s a
g
u
in
e a
r e
t in a e
o p t ic i
C ir c u l u s v a s c u l o s us n
[ H a l l e r i]
A r t e r io l a [ V e n u l a ] t e m p o r a lis
n a e s u p er io r
r et i
A r t e r io l a [ V e nu l a ] t e mp o r a l is
r et i
n a e in fe r i
or
n a s a l is
A r t e r io l a
[ V e nul a ]
or
r e t in a e s u p e r i
n a s a lis
A r t e r io l a
[ V e nu l a ]
n fe r i
or
r e t in a e i
A r t e r io l a [ V e n u l a ] ma c u l a r is
s up e r i
or
A r t e r io l a [ V e nu l a ] m acu l ar is
in fe r io r
A r t e r io l a [ V e nu l a ] r e t in a e me
d ial is
c r y s t a llin a
6 0 F ib r a e
6 1 S p a t ia
ci
l ia r is
[ Z inn i]
z onular e s
i
z o n u la r a
.
62 Or g ana
ocul i a cce s
s or ia
63
M u s cul ioc ul i
,
F a s c iae
o r b it al e s
64 M o r b it a l is
6 5 M r e c t us s u p e r ior
6 6 M r e c t u s inie r 1 0r
6 7 M r e c t u s m e dia lis
6 8 M r e c t u s l a t e r a l is
69 Lace r t u s m u s c u l i r e c t il a t e r a l is
70 A nnu l u s t e n d ine u s c o mm u n is
[ Z in ni]
7 1 M o bliq u us s u p e r io r
.
.
.
.
.
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M ES
98
O t o c o n ia
E n d o ly mp h a
P e r ily m p h a
S p a t iu m p e r il y mp h a t icu m
D u c t u s p e r il y m p h a t ic i
D u ctus
c o c h l e a r is
Ca e c u m c u p u la r e
C a e c u m v e s t ib u l a r e
La m in a b a s il a r is
M e m b r a n a v e s t ib u l a r is [ R e is s
n e r i]
Lig s p ir a l e c o c h l e ae
P r o m in e n t ia s p ir a lis
S t r ia v as c u l a r is
S u l c u s s p ir a l is
La b l u m t y mp a m c u m
na n e r v osa
1 6 F o r a mi
L a b iu m v e s t ib u l a r e
G a n g lio n s p ir a l e c o c hl e a e
O r g a n o n s p ir a l e [ C o r t ii]
.
V
A
t iv a
audi
.
in
is
in t e r n a
a u r
a s a
t
e r n a e
R a m i v e s t ib u l a r e s
23 R amu s co c hlea e
o si
2 4 G l om e r u l i a r t e r i
c ochle a e
V v a u d it iv a e in t e r n a e
ol i
sp i
r a l is m o d i
26 V
2 7 V a s p r o m in e n s
b u l ar e s
v e st i
28 V v
22
.
.
.
29
30
V
V
.
.
a q u a e du c t u s
b u li
v esti
c a n a l ic u l i c o c h l e a e
3 1 Lab yr int h u s
os seu s
3 2 V e s t ib u l u m
.
43 C a n a l is s e m ic ir cu l a r is s u
p e r io r
44 C a n a l is s e m ic ir c u l a r is
p o s t e r io r
4 5 C a n a l is s e m ic ir cu l a r is
l a t e r a l is
A mp u l l ae o ss e ae
47 A m p u l l a o s s e a s u p e r io r
48 A m p u l l a o s s e a p o s t e r io r
49 A m p u ll a o s s e a l a t e r a l is
C r u r a a m p u l l a r ia
I
C r us
Cr u s
mmu ne
s imp l e x
co
53 C o c h l e a
Cu p u l a
B a s is co c h l e ae
C a n a l is s p ir a lis c o c h l e a e
M o dio l u s
B a s is m o d io l i
L a m in a m o dio l i
L a m in a s p ir a l is o s s e a
H am u l u s l a m in a e s p ir a l is
S c a l a v e s t ib u l i
S c a l a t y mp ani
H e lic o t r e m a
La m in a s p ir a l is s e c u n d a r ia
C a n a l is s p ir a lis m o dio l i
C a n a l e s l o n g it u d in a l e s m o d i
011
68
M e at u s
a c u st ic u s
int e r n u s
69 P o r u s a c u s t ic u s in t e r n u s
70 F u n d u s m e a t u s ac u s t ic i in t e r n i
7 1 C r is t a t r a n s v e r s a
72 A r e a n fa c ia lis
7 3 A r e a co c h l e ae
74 T r ac t u s s p ir a l is io r
n os us
ami
7 5 A r e a v e s t ib u l a r is s u p e r io r
76 A r e a v e s t ib u l a r is in f e r ior
77 F o r a m e n s in g u l a r e
.
3 3 R e c e ss u s sp h ae r icu s
3 4 R e c e s s u s e llip t ic u s
C r is t a v e st ib u l i
3 6 Py r a m is v e s t ib u l i
3 7 R e c e s s u s co c h l e a r is
38
'
M a c u l a e c r ib r o s ae
3 9 M a c u l a c r ib r o s a s u p e r ior
40 M ac u l a c r ib r o s a m e d ia
4 1 M a c ul a c r ib r o s a in f e r ior
42 C a n al e s
se
mic ir c u l a r e s
o ss e i
78 Cavum t y mp ani
.
79 P a
r
ie
s
t e g
m
e n
t a 1 is
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
1
R ec ess us
2
3 P
a r
ie
s
Par s
j
u
g
e p it y
m p a n ic us
i
c u p u l ar s
u
l
a r
39 S t r at u m
40 S t r a t u m
4 P r o m in e n t ia s t y lo id e a
5 P a r ie s l a b y r in t h ic a
6 F e n e s t r a v e s t ib u l i
m
12
S in u s t y m p a n i
F e ne st r a c o c h le ae
42 Os sicul a
3 F o s s u l a fe n e s t r a e c o c h l e a e
1 4 C r is t a fe n e s t r a e c o c h l e a e
5 P r o c e s s u s c oc h l e a r iior m is
P a r ie s m a s t o id e a
1 7 A n t r u m t y m p a n icu m
1
21
S in u s p o s t e r io r
2 3 A p e r t u r a t y m p a n ic a
a l ic u l i c h o r d a e
“
22
P
a r
a r
28
ie
ie
s
c a r o
m
s
e
t ic
mb
M e m b r a na
I
n c u s
51 P r o c e s s u s l e n t ic u l ar is
52 Cr u s b r ev e
Malleus
M a n ub r iu m m a l l e i
C a p it u l u m m a ll e i
C o l l u m m a ll e i
P r o c e s s u s l a t e r a l is
58 P r o c e s s u s
[ F o ln ]
59 A r t icu l a t io n e s o s s ic u l oru m
a u d it u s
6 0 A r t ic u l a t io in c u d o m a l l e o l a r is
6 1 A r t ic u l a t io in c u d o s t ap e d ia
6 2 S y n d e sm o s is t y mp a n o s t a p e d ia
a
r a n a c e a
t y m p a ni
P ar s fl accida
Pa r s t e n s a
Lim b u s m e mb r a n a e t y mp a n i
Plic a m a ll e ol a r is a n t e r ior
P l ic a m a l l e o l a r is p o s t e r io r
P r o m in e n t ia m a ll e o l a r is
S t r ia m a l l e o l a r is
6 3 L igg
.
o s s icu l or u m a u d i
t us
m a l l e i a n t e r iu s
m a ll e i s u p e r iu s
66 L ig m a l l e i l a t e r a l e
6 7 Lig in c u d is s u p e r iu s
6 4 Lig
65 Lig
.
.
.
.
6 8 Lig in c u d is p o s t e r iu s
69 M e mb r a n a o b t u r a t o r ia
.
[ s t ap e
d is ]
70 Lig
.
.
b as c o s
a n n ul a r e
[M fi x
at or
b a s c os
'
73 M
A nnu l u s fib r o c a r t il a g in e u s
74 M
.
.
t e nso r t y mp ani
st ap e d i
us
s t a p e d is
s t a p e dis
72 M u s c u l i o s s icu l o r u m
Um b o m em b r a n a e t y m p a n i
S t r a t u m cu t a n e u m
'
ant e r i
or
c an
C e ll u l ae m as t o id e a e
C e l l u l a e t y mp a n ic ae
P
s t a p e d is
49 C o r p u s in c u d is
50 C r u s l o n g u m
53
4
5
1 8 P r o m in e n t i
a c a n a l is s e m i
5
5
l
r
li
c ir c u l a r i
s
at e a s
6
5
1 9 P r omi
n e n t ia c a n a lis ia c i
7
5
a l is
E m in e n t ia p y r a m id a l is
F o s s a in c u d is
a udit us
45 C r u s a n t e r iu s
46 C r u s p os t e r iu s
47 B as is s t a p e d is
48
1
20
m
c ir c u l a r e
S t apes
4
3
v e st i
b u li
44 C a p it u l u m
9 S u l c u s p r o m o n t o r ii
1 0 S u b ic u l u m p r o m o n t o r i
i
1 1
r a d ia t u
4 1 S t r a t u m m u co s u m
is
7 F o s s u l a fe n e s t r a e
8 P r o o n t o r iu m
99
.
]
au d i
t us
.
A N AT OM I CA L N AM E S
1 00
.
T u nica mu c os a t y mp anica
32 Aur icul a
2 ( G 1 t y mp an ic a e )
3 3 Lob u l us au r ic u l a e
3 P lica m a l l eo l a r is p o s t er ior
3 4 Ca r t il a g o a u r ic u lae
4 Plic a m all eo l a r is a n t e r io r
3 5 H e l ix
5 R e c e s su s m e mb r a n ae t y mp a ni 3 6 C r us h el ic is
ant e r i
or
3 7 S p in a h e l ic is
6 R e c e s s u s memb r an ae t y mp a ni 8 Ca u d a h e l ic is
3
s uper i
or
39 A nt h e l ix
7 R e ce s s u s me mb r a n a e t y mp a n i 40 Fo s s a t r ia n g u l ar is [ a u r ic u l ae ]
p o s t e r io r
4 1 Cr ur a a n tlh e l ic is
8 P l ica in cu dis
42 S cap h a
9 P l ic a s t ap e d is
43 Co n c h a au r ic u l ae
1 0 M e m b r a n a t y mp a n i se c u n d a r ia
44 Cy mb a c o nc h a e
45 Cav u m c o n c h a e
1 1 Tub a au dit iva
46 Ant it r a g u s
[ Eu s t a c h ii]
47 T r ag u s
1 2 O s t iu m t y mp an ic u m t u b ae a u
48 I n c isu r a a n t e r ior [ au r is ]
d it iv a e
49 I nc isu r a in t e r t r a g ic a
v ae
1 3 P a r s o ssea t u b ae a u dit i
50 ( T u b e r c u l u m au r ic u l a e [ D a r
v ae
1 4 I s t h mu s t u b ae a u dit i
w ini] )
1 5 C e l l u l ae
p n e u m a t icae t u 51 ( A p e x a u r icu l a e [ D ar w in i] )
b a r iae
52 S u l c u s au r icu l a e p os t e r io r
t ub ae a u d i 53 ( T u b e r c u l u m su p r a t r a g ic u m)
c a r t il a g in e a
1 6 Pa r s
t iv a e
54 I s t h mu s c a r t il ag in is a u r is
t iv a e 55 I n c isu r a t e r minal is a u r is
1 7 C a r t il ag o t u b a e a u di
1 8 La min a [ c a r t il aginis ] 56 F is s u r a a n t it r ag o h e lic in a
me d ia l is
57 S u l c u s a n t h e lic is t r an s v e r s u s
n is ] l a t
n a [ c a r t il a g i
1 9 L a mi
58 S u l cus c r u r is h e l ic is
e r a l is
59 F ossa a n t h e l icis
60 Emine n t ia c o n c h a e
20 La m in a me mb r a n ace a
6 1 E mine n t ia s c ap h a e
2 1 T u n ic a mu co s a
6 2 E min e n t ia fo s sae t r ian g u l a r is
2 2 G 1 m u c o s ae
c i t ub a r n 6 3 Li
2 3 N o d u l i ly m p h a t i
gg a u r icu l ar ia [ V a l s a l v a e ]
1
‘
.
.
.
.
24
O s t iu m p h ar y ng e u m t u b ae
d it iv a e
25 Meat us
26
Po r u s
au
.
.
.
acust icu s ex
cu s e x
a cu st i
t er nu s
t e r nu s
I nc is u r a t y mp an ic a [ R iv in i]
2 8 M e a t u s a c us t ic u s e x t e r n u s c a r
27
67
68
69
70
t il a g in e us
29
64 Lig a u r ic u lar e a n t e r iu s
6 5 Lig a u r ic u l ar e s u p e r ius
66 Lig au r ic u l a r e p o s t e r iu s
M h e l ic is m aj or
M h el ic is minor
M t r ag icu s
( M p y r am id alis aur ic u l a e
[ u ng iD
1M
an t it r a g 1 c us
lM t r a n s v e r su s au r ic u l a e
M ob liq u u s au r ic u l a e
( M inc is u r a e h elicis [ S a nt o
C a r t il a g o me a t u s ac u s t ic i
nis me a
I
i
r a e c a r t il a g i
n
c
s
u
0
3
ex t er n 1
a c u s t ic i
t us
[ S ant or in i]
i
n a t r ag i
m
L
a
1
3
71
72
73
74
.
.
.
.
J
.
.
.
.
.
ni
ri
])
AN A T O M I CA L N A M E S
1 02
G 1
1
.
min os a e
C e r u m en
D u c t us l ac t ifer i
ce r u
2
.
11
S inu s l ac t ife r i
La c fe min inu m
3 G l a nd ul ae
4 S eb um
c u t an e u
5
s eb ace ae
m
M a mma
6 Pap ill a ma mm a e
7 C o r p us ma mm a e
Co l o s t r um
A r e o l a m amm ae
15
G 1
s eb ac eae
16
G 1
a r e olar e s
.
[ Mo nt g om
er i
i
]
'
8 Lo b i ma mma e
9 Lo b u li ma mmae
.
Mamma
( M a mm ae
b r es
ir il is
acc e s s or ia e
c t v ir il e s ] )
v
[ mu lie
A N AT O M I C AL N A M E S
I
R e g io n e s
a uc t o r i
bu s
2
Lin ea m e d ia n a
a n t er io r
Lin e a m e dia n a po s t e r io r
4 Line a s te r n a l is
5 Lin e a p a r a s t e r n a l is
c o r p o r is
Me r k e l
‘
,
1 03
.
hum
an
R iid ing er , To l d t
6 Lin ea m a m ill ar is
7 Lin ea a x il l ar is
1
-
8 Lin e a
sc ap u l a r is
i
A N A T O M I CA L N AM E S
1 04
.
R egio f r ont alis
R e g io p a r o t id e o m as s e t e r ic a
s
2 2 Fo s s a r e t r o m a n dib u l ar i
R e g io
R
R
e g io n e s
p it is
c a
-
su p r a o r b i
t a l is
R e gio p a r ie t a l is
R e g io o c c ip it a l is
25
R e g io t e m p o r a l is
R e g io
e
l
Re g io
ne s
fa
c
ie i
n a s al is
s up er i
or
l ab ia lis infe r io r
me n t a l is
me nt al is
p a lp e b r a lis
su p e r ior
p al p e b r a l is in fe r io r
infr a or b it a l is
b u cc a lis
ma t ic a
R e g io t h y r eo id e a
R eg io su p r a s te r n a l is
Fo ss a j u g u l a r is
R e g io s u b m a x ill a r is
Fo ssa
R e g io
c a r o t ic a
do
s t e r no c l e i
ma s t o id e a
3 5 F o s s a su p r acl a v ic u l a r is
min or
t a l is
o r bi
zygo
29
30
o r a lis
l a b ia lis
su b
R e g io h y o id e a
2 7 Regi
o s u b h y o id e a
R e g io l a r y n g e a
a u r icu a r is
g io
R e g io
26
R e g io ma s t o id e a
R
g io n e s c o l l i
R e g io c o l l i a n t e r io r
e
R e g io
c o l lil a t e r a l i
s
3 7 Fossa
cu l ar is
s u p r ac l a v i
m aj o r
3 8 T r ig o nu m o mo c l a v ic u l a r e
R e g io c o l l i p o s t e r ior
40 R e g io
nuc
hae
1
A N AT O M I C A L N A M E S
06
1
R eg io
2
c u b it i
R e g io
p o s t e r ior
o l ec r a ni
3 R eg io
ti
cub i
4 R e g io
c u bit i
5 R e g io
a nt i
b r a c h ii vo l a r is
6 R eg io
an t i
b r achn
d o r s a lis
7 R e g io
8 R eg io
a nt i
b r a chn
s
r a dia l i
a nt ib r a c h n
u l n ar is
l a t er al is
me d ial is
9 R e g io d o r s a l is ma nus
1 0 R e gi
o v o l ar is ma nu s
R e gio n e s dig it a l e s
[ m an u s ]
.
21
R e g io fe mo r is
22
R e g io g e nu
me dia lis
a n t e r ior
Re g io p a t el l a r is
2 4 R eg i
o g e nu p o s t e r i
or
2 5 F os s a p o p l it e a
23
26
R e g io
cr ur i
s a nt e r i
or
R e g io
cr u r is
p os t e r io r
28 R e g i
o su r a lis
29 Re i
g o c r u r is l at e r al is
3 0 R e g io c r u r is m e dia lis
27
3 1 R e g io m a ll e o lar is l a t e r a l is
3 2 R e g io m a l l eo l a r is m e d ia l is
3 3 R e g io r e t r o ma ll e o l a r is
1 2 R e g io n es d o r s a l e s dig i
l a t e r a lis
t or u m
3 4 R eg io r e t r o ma l l eo l a r is
m e d ial is
1 3 R egi
o n e s u ngu ic u l a r e s
R
e gi
o c a lc a n e a
3
5
i
i
m
1 4 R eg i
o n e s v o l ar e s d g t o r u
6 R e g io d or s a lis p e d is
3
1 5 R e g io n e s
e x t r e m it a t is
R e g io p l a nt ar is p e d is
7
3
in f e r io r is
3 8 R e g io n e s dig it a l e s p e dis
1 6 Re g i
o f e mo r is an t e r i
or
3 9 R e g io n e s d o r s a l e s dig it or u m
1 7 F o s s a s u b in u in al i
s
g
p e d is
1 8 R eg i
o fe m o r i
s l at e r a lis
40 R e g io n e s u ng uicu l ar e s
1 9 R e g io t r o c h a nt e r i
ca
4 1 R e g io n e s p l a n t a r e s dig it o r u m
20 R eg i
o f e mo r i
s p o s t er i
or
p e dis
1 1
A N A T O M I CA L N A M ES
1 07
.
EXPLANA TI ON S F OR THE N OMEN CLATURE
.
Th e mea ning o f t h e n am e s in t h e su bmit t e d l ist s c a n b e in f r r
e
e d in
a l ar ge ma j o r i
ty o f c ase s f r om t h e n e w er c u r r e n t t e x t b oo k s o f a na t om
y
e sp ec iall
y t h a t o f G ege nb au r wh ic h f r om t h e b eg inn ing w a s ma d e t h e b asis
o f t he p r o o s e d l is t
T h e r e a r e h o we v e r in a nat o m n u me r o u s names
p
y
t o w h ic h d iff e r e n t t ex tb ook s
M o r eo v e r , t h e
g iv e d iff er e n t m ea n ing s
Co mmiss ion h e r e an d t h e r e w e nt b e o n d t he c u r r ent l u s e d t ex tb ook t e r ms
,
.
,
,
.
A no t h e r
of
th e
y
o b e ct o f
j
t h e f ollo wing
mbiguou s
old e r a
ne w t e r m s
y
p l anat ions is t o e s t ab lis h t h e m e aning
a n d to
g iv e r e aso n s f o r t h e int r o du c t ion o f
ter ms
b y t h e C ommis s ion
ex
It
.
seems
a nd
u po n a t
will po ss ib ly p r o v e
no t c la i
m t o o ff e r
ne w er
t o t h is e nd
Th e
c op i
e s ar e
hau st iv e lit e r a r y
gi ing
vi
ew o f
.
v
lit e r a t u r e
ex
d e sig na t e d
o n ly
.
d e fi nab l e
in
f ar
so
r e qu ir e
ma d e by t h e
The
oc c asi
ons
and
p l ana t ions d o
T h ey h av e r at h e r t h e
t e r ms an d o f r e f e r r ing
as
it
ex
app ea r s
p l an a t ion s t a k en f r om t h e r e c o r d s
t h o se e d it e d b y Kr ause
t o be
of
th e
me c es
n
v ot i
g
Mu n ic h
t h e C o mm is sio n h a d d ecide d t o giv e t h e
dia cr it ical ma r k s, e t c , in o r d e r t o m ake su r e o f c o r r ec t
A CCEN T UAT ION
vo we l s ce r t a i
n
r ep or ts
c l ea r ly
fur t he r
l at e r
on
.
ex
a
sugg e s t ions
p r e se nt , will t u r n up ag a in
w o r t hy o f be ing d ev e lop e d
p r act ic al e n d in
t o t h e o l d er a nd
sa r y
to be
t h e l a t t e r w h ic h , al t h oug h
of
.
d ec id e d
me
to
ment t o r ep or t o n some p r e liminar y w or k
Commission Und o u bt e dly t h e r e a r e som e
no t
.
.
I
n
.
I n t h e v ot ing 00p ie s o n m yo lo gy, t h e r e f or e , t h e r e a r e t o
p r onu nciat ion
b e fo u nd : M m r h omb o id eu s , g en io- h y o id eu s , so lé u s I n t h e fi n al e dit ing
O ne d o e s no t kno w w h e r e
o u s r eason s
su c h ma r ks w e r e r e m ov e d f or v a r i
t o b eg in o r wh e r e t o st op , e g , c er v ic is , co c c yg eu s , p e r f or ans, p r oc é r u s ,
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
t h or ac is
.
I
n s o me
w or d s t h e
h ar d
is
on
acc e nt u at i
man w e p r ono unce it Rad ie sch en b u t in
G
t h e w or d s t a k e n fr o m t h e G r e e k o n e mu s t u s e
I
n
-
er
,
kn o w n in th e Lat in l ang u a ge , e g ,
t abula t ions a r e no t o nl y int end e d fo r
.
.
To t h e la tt e r t h e se
be
r
s tu d e nt s
si
g ns o f ac c e nt u at io n,
nt ell i
almost uni
gible
A s is kn ow n
.
p iy a mov,
in
eac
su c
h
h
p r e ss a s in r a dicis
I t al ian it is r adice I n
to
ex
.
.
ac c e n t s
w h ic h
t r ig0nu m
b ut
al s o
.
ar e u h
F ina l ly t h e
f o r f or eigne r s
.
in div id u al wo r d s , w ou l d
na t ion
p r onou nc e s Lat in in
not e nt ir ely co n for m
its p e c ulia r way and t h e G e r man acc ent u at io n d oe s
Classical ph ilologist s fi nd it imp o s sib le t o c on
t o t h a t o f t he o ld Ro ma n
ve
ol l ea gu es w h e n t h e y do not kn o w t h e n at i
n
c
n wit h f or e i
v e r se in Lat i
g
Th e r e a r e al so s ome wor d s c once r ning t h e a ccent u at io n o f w h ic h
t o ngue
e se c a s e s r e s ol ut ion s c annot
I
n
t
r
d
cc
o
h
h
a
i
n
n
o
t
r
e
l
v
a
m
s
e
es
n
i
e
li g u s t s t
se r e a son s it s eeme d a dv isabl e
l
l
t
e
r
a
F
o
h
i
n
i
o
d
c
s
e
u
t
a
i
n
a
b
o
i
bl
r
ss
b
g
y
po
.
.
.
o
.
to
t e nt ir e l y ac c e n t u at ion
om i
m ar ks
.
( Kr )
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
1 08
A mong th e
ing t h e
b el o w,
and
gene r al na t ur e t h at o f v Kolliker
”
“
b e h in d and
in f r ont ,
p r e s sions
on s o f a
suggest i
abol i
t ion o f
”
.
t h e ex
is th e f a r t h e st
.
r e ac
h ing
W e sh a ll
.
lat er
s p eak o f
r e g ar d
a b ov e
t h is sugfl
'
Fo r t h e t ime b eing it s con summat ion is t o be consid e r ed a t as k
ges t io n
f or t h e f u t u r e, s ince t h e Com mission h as alway s in it s s ev e r al v o t ings
.
t h e p r inc ip le ex pr es se d in t h e su gges tio n
I t is, however , o f
int e r e s t to f ol low th e met h o d t h r ou gh wh ich v Koll ik er av o ided, b y a
r e e ct e d
j
.
.
fi t t ing ch ange o f name many o f t h e diffic u lt ie s r esu lting f r om h is p r in
ci
pl e T h u s h e sugg est s
M s e r r a t u s d o r s a lis m aj or [ in s t e a d of p os t ic u s c au d a lis ] M s e r r a t u s
d o r s a l is minor [ in s t e a d o f po s t ic u s c r a nia l is ] M r e c t us nu c h ae m aj o r
[ ins t e ad o f M c a p it is d o r s al is m a j or ] , M ob l iq uu s cap it is a n d M
n s t e a d o f M o b liq u us c a p it is c r a nia l is an d c a u d a l is ]
o b l iq u u s a t l a n t is [ i
M r e c t u s c o ll i ma j o r [ in s t e a d o f M r e c t u s c ap it is v e n t r alis m aj or ] M
n s t e a d o f M s e r r a t u s v e n t r a li
s e r r a t u s ma g n u s [ i
s m aj o r ]
A n o t h e r s u g g e s t io n r e l a t in g t o t h e o r ie n t at io n o f p a r t s o f t h e b o d y
A c c or d ing t o t h is sugge st ion we sh ould r elinqu ish a s u m
is b y Kr au se
n a t u r a l t h e nor m a l po s it ion o f t h e f o r ea
r m wi
t h l at e r a lly t u r n e d r a d ius
and c h oo s e t h e v ar i
ou s d es i
g n at ion s fo r p ar t s o f t h e a r ms in su c h a
Th is c an
way t h at t h ey a r e a dap t e d t o any po sit ion o f th e a r m in space
b e ob t aine d b y sub st it u t ing t h e a dj ect iv e s r a d ialis and u l nar is f o r
,
.
,
.
,
.
s
.
.
.
.
,
.
~
1
.
,
.
.
.
.
.
,
.
lat e r a lis
a nd
w it h t h is, w e
and
N
o f the
I f we
.
W hile
.
as
N
app r eciat e
w e f ul ly
i
a ppli
cat on
OF
G N ATI O N S
th e N
h oul d d e s ignat e
.
c ut
t o c on fu sio n with th e
w e de e m it s
D ES I
s
Mu sculoc u t ane u s
dably
u n a vo i
r ad i
alis
ci
ple ,
.
.
uln a r i
s
.
la te r a l is
l ea d
B u t a s s oon a s we t r y t o p r o c ee d co nsist e nt ly
med ialis
meet wit h th e d ifficu lt y t h at we al r e a dy h av e a N r adial is
”
the
AN D
cut a ne u s
b r ach ii
ant i
it w ou ld
b r achii r a dialis,
ant i
.
b r anch e s o f th e N
’
d es ir ab ility o f Kr ause s pr in
c u tan e o u s
t o o p r e c ar iou s
POS I T ION
.
.
.
D I RECTI ON
OF
PART S
.
de s ig n a t io n s T r a n sv e r s al is me an s t r a n sv e r s e t o t h e
i f t h e or g a n in
ax is o f t h e b o dy ; T r a n s v e r s u s , t r an s ve r s e t o t h e ax s o
o n b et w e e n
u s is u s e d w h e r e a p o s it i
h
o r d I nt e r m e d i
T
e
w
t
i
o
n
e
s
u
q
med ial is an d l ate r a lis is t o b e indicat e d in o r der t o avoid a j ux t apo sit io n
ecti
ve
s
Th
e
a
d
li
n
e
di
a
i
a
d
m
d
u
m
e
s
j
n
o
r
d
i
s
ou
n
d
w
r
i
l
a
l
s
h
i
m
e
s
of t
g
y
M e d iu s h as b e e n r e t a in e d t o d e s ig n a t e a p o s it io n b et w e e n an t e r ior a n d
n t e r nu s
r b et we e n ex t e r nu s a nd i
i
or
o
r
t
e
os
p
i
on t o r epl ace t h e
u
e
s
t
h
m
a
d
t
e
s
e
é
ll
i
k
er
K
v
e
v
i
n
d
a
b
o
n
t
o
e
e
g
g
s
m
A
,
w or d s ant e r ior a n d p o s t e r io r b y V e nt r al is a n d D o r s alis w h e r e v e r it is
Of t h e
ng
o r ie n t i
.
.
.
.
ompar at iv e anatomy and e sp ecially t o th e anatomy
mal s i e wh e r e th e ex pr es sion ant er ior and p ost er ior
ani
I n t h is se n se w e sp eak o f
t o th e u pr igh t p os it ion o f man
d esir ab le t o
c
o f d om est i
ap ply only
r e f er t o c
,
.
.
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
1 10
.
developed body l ie s in t h e ma r gin o f t he sno ut f old nose be ak
,
,
(
As f ar a s de s ignat ions o f d ir e ct ion in t h e t r unk ar e c oncer ned t h e h it h er to
u s e d ap p os i
t iv e s C r a nia l a n d Ca u d a l a r e s u ffi c ie n t
.
G l a n d ul a e
Ly m p h o g l a n d u l a e
.
N o d u l i l y mp h at ic i
.
.
O ur nomenclat ur e co nt a in s b e s id es G lan dulae the L m ho lan dulae
,
,
y p g
and it s hould b e em h as iz e d t h a t t h e l at t e r d esi n
p
g at ion wa s n ot a dopt ed
wit h ou t v igo r ou s o ppo sit ion T o ldt e s e c iall a d voc at e d wit h r eat fe r vor
p
.
y
t h e ex p r ess io n N od i l mp h a t ic i
y
g
Commiss io n
Bu t in it s l as t b a llot t h e
lar ge m a j or ity a n d as I t hink c o r r ect ly
.
d r oppe d t h is t er m by a
,
Th e r ecognit ion o f t h e mo st g e n e r a l c h a r a c t er ist ic s o f
gland s o ff e r e d
ma ny d iflic u lt ie s to t he o l d e r a na tomis t s I n th e fo r e r ou nd w er e alw a s
g
y
s ta nd i
ng d e finit e f o r m an d com a c t s t r u c tu r e a s indicat ed b
,
p
y th e La t in
4
wor d
l
n
a
d
u
l
n
a
a
l
d
a
so
as
i
t
a
e
a
r
s
b
h
r
t
e
ee
k
G
Lat er ,
g
,
pp
y
esp ec i
al ly o n t h e s t r e n th o f Ru sc h s i
n j e ct i
on s, t h e r i
c h nes s i
n v e s sel s
g
y
.
.
’
w as d es ignat ed
d eg r e e t h e
c
as
ma in
th e
h emic al
c h a r a ct e r is t i
c
act i
on o f
all
of
gl ands
I
.
fo r mat ion
t h e g l a n d s an d t h e
l e s se r
n no
of
al
sp eci
d iff e r e nt f r o m b loo d w e r e p o int e d o ut a s essent ial p r oper t ie s "
Th e main d iffi cu lty in t h e e st ab l ish m e n t o f p r ecise c h ara ct e r istic s f or
gla nds w as for a l ong t im e b as e d on t h e ex ist e nce o f gl and s w ith out
se cr et i
ons
,
“inc om
M e c k e l c a ll e d t h e l a t t e r
p l e t e gl a n d s
ni
an d w as o f t h e “
n t h em t h e l ymp h v e s sel s t ak e t h e pl ace o f
Op i
on t h at i
“Then E H W eb e r in a t hor oughly cl ear and well
ex cr et or y d uc t s
t h ough t o u t a r gumen t a dv o ca t ed t h e div is ion o f th e gl ands int o t w o
ma in g r oup s ; t h e V e s s e l g l a n d s a n d E x c r e t or y gl and s o r t h e g l an d s
w it h a n d t h e g l a n d s w it h o u t e x cr e t o r y d u c t s w h ic h d iv is io n h a s s ince
e x c r e t or y
du c t s
.
J
.
Fr
.
.
.
,
.
,
,
b e e n g e n e r a l l y acc e p t e d
L y m p h g l a nd s a nd B l o o d
W eb e r
.
or
B lo o d
,
su b d iv id e d
v es sel
.
.
on
g land s
.
p o t h es is w as t h a t t h e v e ss e l g l a n d s c o n s is t t h r o u g h ou t
b e co m e s int e l lig ibl e t h a t h e c o u n t e d a mo n g t h e m a n
p l ace nt a
3
4
Aay v
'
He
"
c a ll s
T h is Ar c h iv e
t h em V e s s e l nod e s
1 8 92,
int o
gl a nd s ; a mo n g t h e l at t e r h e
Th is fu ndament al div ision is
th e t hy r e o id, t h ymu s a n d s pl ee n
’
fou n d a l so in J Mull e r s au t h o r it a t iv e w o r k
co unt e d
t h e v e s se l g l a n d s
or
J Miil le r
.
’
s
hy
o f v es s e l s , s o
lik e t h e
o r g an
V e s s e l g an gl ia ,
it
a nd
her e
p 400, ff
.
.
A cc o r d in g t o t h e O p in io n o f a fr ie n d w h o is a n a ut h or it y in p h il ol o g y
is t o b e d e r iv e d fr o m t h e s t e m 48 w h ic h c o nt a ins t h e id e a o f full nes s o r
s a t ie t y
J
.
Co mp ar e h e r e t h e d e fi nit io n s o f g l a n d s b y
F r M e c k e l , H a n db u ch d e r
Me ns ch l ich e n Anat o mic H all e 1 8 1 5, I , 62 7 an d b y E H W e b er in H il de
’
B r au n s c hw e ig 1 83 0, I , 43 2
b r and We b e r s H and b u ch d e r A n a t o m ie
5
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
647
I n fa v o r o f h is c o nc e p t io n Me ck e l m e nt io ns, b e side s
t h e r ic h ne s s in l y mp h v e s s e l s o f t h e o r g a n s in q u es t io n, t h e fa c t t h at t he
a dr e nal g l a nd , t h e t hy r e o id g l a nd a n d t h e t h y m us , lie n e a r t h e t h or a c ic d u ct
°
Me ck e l l
,
7
J
oh
.
.
c
.
.
,
Mu ll e r d e G
.
l a ndu l a r u m
u
s e c e r ne nt i
m
s t r u c t u r a.
Le ip z ig
1 83 0
.
A NA T O M I CA L N AM E S
w it h h e
I I I
.
a dopt e d a
d es ig n a t io n in a d e n o lo g y w h ic h w as u s e d a t fi r s t in
s u r g e r y , a n d t h e n in n e u r o l o
T he
g y fo r t w o diff e r e n t s t r u c t u r e s
”
w or d
o c cu r s in t h e Wo r k s o f H i
g a ng l io n
pp o c r a t e s a n d G a l e n
A c co r din g to a s t a t e m e n t b
H r t l 8 t h is w o r d s e e m s t o h a v e b e e n
.
.
used
y
y
s w e l lin g s
t o d e s ig n a t e t h o s e
m on ly
call
,
t e n d o n s h e a t h s , w h ic h w e co m
of
T h e o r ig in o f t h e w o r d is u n k n o w n
g a ng l ia
Th e com
p a r is o n o f t h e s w e ll in g s o f t h e s y m p a t h e t ic t r u n k w it h t h e s e s o c a ll e d
g a ng lia is fo u n d in G a l e n
Th e app licat io n o f t h e w o r d an l ion t o v e sse l l a nd s w as t h e r e fo r
e
g g
g
a w ide r a pp li
c at i
on o f t h e o r i i
g na l me a ning , w h e r eb y o u r u n d e r s t a nding
o f t he o r g a n s in
B u t if no w , p e r h a p s in c ons "
q ue st ion g a in e d b u t l it t l e
qu e n ce o f w r ong h isto l ogical a s sump t io n s, t h e G e r m a n ex p r e ssion
”
N e r v enk no t e n
is a pp lie d t o n e r v o u s g a n g lia if in co n n e c t io n
”
w it h it o n e h as s p o k e n o f
f
G e as s k n o t e n
and
La t in iz e d t h e s e
.
.
-
.
.
,
“G
”
e fa s s k n o t e n
t h e n t h is is
a c
fr o m t h e f a c t s
t
h an ge
( r esp
.
ap p e a r s
N o di l y mp h a t ic i)
q u e s t io n a b l e e it h e r
.
g l a n d s w it h a n d w it h o u t e x c r et o r y d u c t s w a s d e e p l y
int r o d u ct io n o f t h e c e l l d o c t r in e int o h ist o l ogy
I t is
.
fi r st imp or t ant
t o b e n ote d t h a t t h e
iv e
p r e s s io n w h ic h
”
of
by t h e
a l ly a c c e t e d c
p
o f ex
v a s c u l ar e s
t h e d e r iv a t i
on
or
T h e d o c t r in e
a ffe c e d
in t o
“N o d i
h ar ac t e r is t ics
a nd e ss e nt ia l o n e , v i
z :
adv a nc e
b e y on d t h e hith e r t o g e n e r
n e w a nd in d e e d v e r
y d e c is
gl a n d s w a s a
th at a l l o r g a n s d e sign at e d
of
g l an d s p o s se ss a
ce l l ul a r p a r e n c h y m a
W it h th e p r og r e ssing in v e st igat ion s o f h is t ol ogis t s
t h e imp o r t anc e o f g l a n d c e ll s f o r se c r e t ing gl a n d s c am e mo r e a n d m o r e
as
.
Pa g e
it a q u e
27
l
g a n g ia
v a s cu l a r i
a
l is v a s is c o n fl a t a e s u n t
q u ib u s l iq u o r e s a d v e c t i
so
ex
in
,
q
t a n u am
v asor u
p er
l
m g lom e r e s s
inn u m e r a m in im a
”
“S u nt au t em
v as cu a
.
d iv id u nt u r
ut
d e in d e in c o m m u n e m c ir c u l um r e v eh a n t u r
g l a n d u l a e h u ju s g e n e r is , s e u g a n g l ia v a s c u l a r ia d u p l ic ia :
I I
G a n g l ia v a s cu l a r ia l y m p h a
I
G a n g l ia v a s c u l a r ia s a n g u in e a
”
is m a d e b y F r e n c h
T h e e x p r e s s io n
G a n g l io n s l y m p h a t iq u e s
t ic a
.
,
J
.
.
mist s p r e v iou s t o th e t im e o f oh M iil l e r e g by Cl oq u e t
A n at o m ie
1 8 22
I I
500 w h e r e a s B ic h a t A n a t o m ie d e s c r ip t iv e
a n at o
.
.
I I I
,
.
.
43 1 ,
sp ea
ks
.
ll
G
of
.
,
,
st i
.
l
a nd e s
des
a
b
sor
b
a n t s.
”
I
n
th e
fi rst
T r ait é
1 8 02
de
Ed
.
.
edi
t io n
of
E d I I I , 3 52 I fi n d t h e f o ll o w in g
C r u v e il hie r s A n a t o m ie d e s c r ip t iv e 1 834
“
T h e ly mp h at ic v e ss e l s c o nt ain s ma ll g ang l if o r m b o die s
r ema r k s :
g l ande s
ly mp hat ic g ang l ia f r om t h e a nal o gy
co ng lo bé e s o f t h e
a n c ie n t s
c a ll e d t o day
w hic h S o e mm e r in g h a s e s t a bl is h e d b e t w e e n t h e s e e n l ar g e m e nt s a n d t he n e r v e
’
F r a nk f u r t , 1 792 p 43 8 t h e st r u ct
I n T h S o e mm e r ing s G e f assl eh r e
g angl ia
Th e e x p r e s
u r es w er e c all e d
su ct i
o n v e s s e l g l a n d s ( G l a ndu l a e c o ng l ob a t a e )
si
o n G a n g l ia l y m p h a t ic a d o e s n o t y e t o c cu r , b u t t h e r e is f o u n d t h is r e m a r k
’
.
.
,
,
,
,
.
.
.
,
.
,
.
“T h e
y ( s u ct io n v e s s e l g l a n d s ) b e l o n g t o t h e su c t io n v e s s e l s a s t h e n e r v e
S u c h v a g u e a n a l o g ie s w e r e p e r m is s ibl e in t h e p r e
g a n g l ia t o t h e n e r v e s
h is t o l o g ic a l t im e o f t h e p a s t c e n t u r y ; t o d a y t h e y a r e n o l o n g e r j u s t ifi a b l e
8
H y r t l O n o m a t o l o g ia a n a t o m ic a W ie n 1 880 p 3 2
,
.
.
,
,
,
.
.
A N AT O M I CA L N A M E S
1 12
in t o t h e f or eg r ou n d
of
u ni
c ell u l a r
e na bl e d
to
a nd
g l an d s
s ub s t it ut e
we
soo n
ca
.
me
t o t h e p oint o f sp ea king e v e n
wit h ou t s e c r e t ing d u c t s w e w e r e
Fo r t h e gl ands
e nt ir e ly p r e c i
t h e r to
se h i
s t olo gi
c a l t e r ms f o r t h e h i
“
of
v e sse l no d e s
I n a ll t h e se o r g a ns t h e r ic h a cc umu l a
.
g u e ide as
t ion o f c ell s p r o v e d a n ev e r f a ilin
B ut b ey ond t h is
g ch a r a ct e r is t ic
w e s oo n a r r iv e d a t c o n c l u s io n s w h ic h w e r e imp o r t an t for t h e c h a r a c
va
.
.
t e r iz a t ion a n d
c la ss i c at i
on o f
T h r ough o ntoge ne t ic r ese a r c h w e
gland s
a r e t augh t t h a t a ll sec r e t i
ng g l an d s o r i i
g nat e f r om e p it h e l ia l l a ye r s ; t hu s
it is t h at t he con cept io n o f e p it h e lial c el l a nd gland c e ll as w ell as ep it h e
l ia l l ay e r a nd gl a nd u la r l aye r a r e no l ong er sh a r p l y d is t ing u ish abl e
fi
.
.
A mo ng t h e g l a n d s o f ep ith el ial nat ur e an d
t hy r e o id a n d t h e h yp op h y s is ce r e b r i, i e
.
cou nt e d am ong t h e
gl and s which
e a r ly p e r iod
v e sse l
or i
gin ally
g l an d s
”
.
po ss esse d
ex
.
or i
gin
ar e
o r g an s
wh ich
th e
a ls o
co unt ed
h it h e r to
w er e
Th e t h y r e oid an d h yp o p h y sis
c r e to r y d uc t s b ut l os t t h e m at
ar e
an
.
J u st
as
t h e gl an d s o f e pit h e l ia l o r igin
for m
b e e n p o ss ib l e s inc e t h e fi ft ie s t h r ou gh t h e r e s e a r c h e s
B ill r ot h , my se l f , H F r e y , F S ch midt a n d o t h e r s , t o
.
ot he r
dis t in c t l y
o r g a ns
f u ll
.
c h ar a ct e r ist i
c,
a nd
f or which t h e d e s ig na t ion
s e n se o f
a s v as cu l a r
g r ou p o f gl a n du l ar
gl a n d s is t o b e r e t a ine d in t h e
n a t u r al ,
,
ap p a r a t u s ,
mu c ou s m emb r an es
wh ic h w e
P e y er
’
s p ec i e d
fi
b y th e
th e
nce
si
it ar y f ollicl e s
f ollic l e s ,
s
of
sol
,
p r e s e n t N o d u l i l y m p h a t ic i Th e co mm o n g r ou p in g o f t h e s e
f o llo w e d f r o m t h e s imil ar it y o f t h e ir h ist ol og ic a l st r u c t u r e
.
t o th e
r el a t ion
su e
”
9
an d
l at e r
on
A s id e f r om t h e
.
occu r s al so
in t e st in al
d isc a r d e d
etc
.
o ur
st r u c t u r e s
and
t h e ir
m in t h at t h ey all giv e r is e t o ce ll s w h ic h a r e
T he
into t h e v e ins o r int o th e l ymp h v e ssel s
v a scu l a r s y s t e
,
g iv e n o ff d ir e ct l y e ith e r
ne
c ti
ssu e o f g e nu i
c h a r ac t e r ist i
a d e no id ,
an
-
fo ll ic u l a r
d e s ig n at ion
t o t hem
.
t h o s e sm a ll o r g an s in s e r t e d int o t h e
t r ac t a n d o t h e r
l e ss
co nt r as t
T o t h is g r ou p b e l o ng th e s pl e en , t h e l ymp h gl an d s,
l ymp h o id f o ll ic l e s a t t h e r oo t o f th e t ong u e a nd all
th e w o r d
t h ymu s , t o n s ils , t h e
no t
g r oup , so it h as
ic ke , Koll ik e r ,
o f Br i
a n at u r al
K ollik e r
.
gl and s I h av e p r e v io u sly cal le d
“
a dd e d t o t h is t h e t e r m
c yt oge ni
s
c ti
v as c ul ar
ment io ned gla ndul ar
ab o v e
in d iffu se dist r ib u t ion,
e sp ec iall y
o r g an s , a d e n o i
d
t issu e
in t h e mu cou s memb r ane
of
U nt e r s u c h u n g e n u b e r d ie z u m Ly mp h s y s t e m g e h o r ig e n D r u s e n in
B d X , p 3 3 4 ff u n d U n t e r s u c h u n g e n iib e r
S ie b o l d u n d K ol lik e r s Z e it s c h r if t
T h e e x p r e ss io n
N o du l us
d e n B a u d e r P e y e r s ch e n D r us e n B d X I , p 423
l y m p h a t ic u s I h a d ap p r ov e d o f b e ca u s e t h e w o r d fo ll ic l e a l w ay s cau s e d diffi
c u lt i
es
O n e m a y s p e a k o f fo ll ic l e s p e r h a p s in t h e in t e s t in a l t r ac t b u t n o t a t
l s N e v e r t h e l e s s it is t o b e e m p h a s iz e d t h at t h e d e s ig na t io n
a l l in t h e t o n s i
n l y t o t h e fi x a t io n fl u id s w h ic h a t
N o du l u s
o w es it s p r e s e n t p o p u l a r it y m a i
T h e t is s u e o f t h e fr e s h N o d u l i is g e n e r a ll y
p r e s e nt ar e s t r o ng l y h a r d e n in g
l o o s e r t h a n t h at o f it s s ur r o u n din g s T h is is t r u e t o a g r e a t e x t e nt o f t h os e
“
”
m a s s e s w h ic h I e a r l ie r c a ll e d V a cu o l es o f l y m p h g l a n d s a n d t h e int e s t in a l
“
”
m
c
n
ar
n
d
u
Se o d y
o
les
f o ll ic l e s w h ic h F l e mm in g h a s r e n a e d
9
H is
.
’
.
.
.
.
’
.
.
.
.
.
.
’
.
.
-
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
1 14
T o n s il l a t u b a r ia
T o n s ill a e in t e s t in a l e s
N o d u l i ly mph a t ic i
T hy mu s
Lie n
l a n d u l a e a p e r t ae
( in c l O v a r iu m )
G
.
.
G l a n d u l a e c l a u sae
Ly m p h o g l a n d u l a e
T o n s ill a e
T o n s il l a p a l a t in a
T o n s il l a p h a r y n g e a
T o n s il l a l in g u a l is
[ P e y e r i]
G l a n d u l a t hy r e o id e a
G l a n d u l a s u p r a r e n a l is
H y p o p h y s is
m e t onl y w it h div id e d a pp r o v al
A s m at t e r s w e r e
ng t h e C o mmis s i
on d i
s t an d i
d no t w ant t o e n t e r int o t h e qu e s t io n o f t h e
I f I h a d o nce m o r e t o ex p r e s s my p e r s ona l c on
c l as s ifi c a t i
on o f g la nd s
v ic t i
n g o f t h e g l a n d s I s h o u l d d o it
o n o f t h e mo s t a p p r o p r ia t e g r o u p i
The
s ugg e s t i
on
.
.
.
in t his f o r m
.
G l a n d u l a e e p it h e lia l e s
G 1 e v e h e nt e s [ a p e r t ae ]
G 1 c l au sae
T h y r e o id e a
H y p o p h y s is
G 1 s u p r a r e na l e s
G l a n d u l ae
a d e n oid e a
.
Lym p h og l a n d u l a e
N o d u l i ly m p h a t ic i
T o n s ill a e
T hy m u s
Lie n
.
.
S in c e
a
d e cis io n
mo s t
t h e que st io n o f t h e
on
l
v a s cu a r e s
g l and s int o one
I f in r e c e n t t e x t b o o k s , s p l e e n
t r ue
v a sc u la r
]
a p p r op r i
at e
g l an d s w a s d ec line d b y t h e C ommis s ion , I sh o u l d h av e
to u c h ing u p o n it ag a in w e r e it n ot t h a t t h e imp or t a n c e
[ O r ga na
d iv is io n
ne d
r e f r ai
of
of
f r om
b r ing ing t h e
mm on g r o u p is s till in t h e f o r egr ou nd
a n d t h y mu s a r e s t ill t r a d it io n a l l y p u t t o
co
.
g et h e r wit h t h y r e oid a n d s u p r a r e n al a s v a s cu l a r gla nds , o r if in on e c h a p t e r
n a not h e r t h e sp l e e n , in a t h ir d , t h e t h ymus
o f t h e boo k t h e ly mp h n o d e s , i
,
t h e n ag ain t h e t on sil s a nd
in g t h a t
a ll
t h e s e p ar t s a r e
b e h ind
.
Ho w
us
t h e se
is
su c
then
s
l
w e d e s ign at e t h ese
h all
c a ll
to
t o da y , b e st
o r g an s
s y st em a n d
v as c ul ar
a l lo w e d
h
c lo s e l y r e a t e d
me ntion
a n a t o m ic al l y
a r e r e m ai
ning
t r e at e d, w it h ou t
t o each
oth er
,
.
p r e ssion f o r t h e m
The old
c ular e s ?
e ve n
ar e
p h y s iol og ic ally , t h e n in my O p inio n w e
fi c de v elopment wh ich no w lie s almo s t fou r decad e s
o f sc i
e nt i
l a t ion t o t h e
l o ng e r
g l an d s
s
an d
h is tologic ally
a t a st age
Peye r
’
;
.
c
c an
I
s
N o du s
of
s t an d
b l oo d , if w e
no
ex
v as
g l a n d s , it s e e m s t o m e
a nat omi
c al a nd phy s i
ol ogi
cal po s it i
on o f
h a r ac t e r iz a t io n
c an
re
ar e
r e all y a n a pp r op r i
a te
a s v a s c u la r
t h e diff e r e nc e b e t w ee n e pith e lial and
t h a t it ea sily
in d ir ect
t h e spl ee n a n d t h ym u s b e c all e d N o d i
de sign at es t h e
an d
w h ic h
t h e f o r mat ion
t h e m gl and s ?
a nd
o r g an s
be ma d e
c l ear
to
a ny s t ud ent
.
v ascu l ar
gla nd s
AN AT O M I C A L N AM E S
P a r t es
T he
T e r m in i g e n er al e s
.
1 15
.
.
h ap t e r P ar t e s c or p or is g iv e s a c l as s ifi c at io n of t h e p r in c ip a l
r egion s o f t h e b ody wh i
c h a r e ex t er n ally di
ngu ish ab le
Many o f the
st i
t e r ms h e r e e n umer at e d occur a ga in in t h e spec ial ch apt er s
T h e nar a n d H y p ot h e nar w e r e r e t a in e d in t h e Par t e s al t h o u g h as
Kr au se po int s ou t ( Absth p 6 3 ) Hyp ot h enar means th e p alm o f th e
han d wh ic h c an b e used for d r inking T h enar mean s th e mu scul ar t issu e
o f t h e fl a t of t h e h and or th e f oo t
T h e l oose usage among ana t omist s
o f t h e t wo w or d s fo r t h umb p alm an d li
t tl e fi nger palm is s aid t o h av e
or i
Kollike r ( A bsth p 1 50) h as s ugg e st ed
gin a t e d w ith Riolan
Th e nar p oll ic is and Th enar dig it i min imi; Toldt Th enar and A nt it h e n ar
T h e l is t o f T e r mini g e n e r a l e s c o mp r is e s t h os e e x p r es s io n s w h ic h r e
W or ds s uc h a s P e t io l u s
p e a t e dl y o c c u r in a n a t o m ic al d e s ig n a t io n s
w h ic h o c c u r s o n ly o n c e h a v e b e e n o m it t e d
D is c u s is dis c M e nis cu s is c r e s ce n t
c
.
.
,
.
.
.
.
,
.
.
.
,
.
,
.
,
.
O s t e ol o gy
I
ex
pl a n at io ns
I n fu n d ib u l u m
.
divis ion, w e may
t h is o ft e n r evised
n
,
c on
fi ne
o ur s e lv e s
to
a
f ew
I
g iv e
.
et
h moidal e
F or t he
.
ex
p l a nat ion
of
t h is t e r m
An
S appey ( Tr ait é d Ana t o mie, 3 e dit I p
op e ning a t t h e an t e r i
or e nd o f t h e middle n as al me at u s conn ec t s it w it h
t he an t e r io r e t hmoid al cell s
The most imp or t ant o f t h e l a tt e r r ep r e s ent s
the d es c r ip t io n
of
’
.
.
.
.
th e
co
war ds
mmu nica t ing
and
is wid e r
is, t h e r e f or e ,
upp er e nd
one
h and
,
.
ab ov e
call ed
into th e
Th is
ng
op eni
ce ll ,
w h ic h
mp ar ed
in f undibulu m
t h an b e lo w , h a s be en
in f undibul u m
The
.
elo ngat es
co
to
a
f unn e l
o p ens
up
and
w ith it s
I t s lowe r e n d, o n th e
S inu s f r ont alis
n asal m e a t u s, on th e ot h e r h an d int o t h e
c or r esp on ding
l e a d s into th e middle
f r om b e l o w
.
”
S inu s m ax ill a r is
S ee t ex tb ook b y La nge r To ldt ( 5 e dit p
G l a b e ll a A s K r a us e 3 h as p o in t e d o u t t h is w o r d is u s e d s o m e t im e s
fo r th e sp ace ab ov e t h e A r cus sup er c iliar es, at o th er t ime s f or th e sp ac e
b et w e e n t h e l at t er a nd t he f r ont al p r o t ub er anc e, again f or th e sp ace l ying
lia r e s ( t h e
abov e t h e r oo t o f t h e no se and b et we e n t h e t wo A r cu s su p e r ci
-
.
.
.
.
The
S t im n ase nw u l st o f t he Fr ank for t Ant h r opological Agr eement )
Commiss io n und e r st ands t he w or d in t he l ast sense
F os s a s ca ph oid e a l aminae me d ia l is p r o c pt e r y g o ide iis, acco r din g t o
4
n
T h a e, th e c av ity wh ich gives o r igin t o th e M t ensor v eli p al at ini
V e r t eb r ae
T h e co mmis s io n h as a d d e d t o t h e ir l is t t h e P r o c e s s u s
G egenb auer call s t h at p ar t o f
t r ans v er su s a nd th e Pr ocessu s c o sta r ius
.
.
.
.
.
.
“
Thi
s
A r c hiv e
1 88 1 ,
Q u a in s Ana t omy
’
p
.
420
1 0 cd
.
.
,
II
,
p
.
45
.
.
A NA T O M I C A L NA M E S
1 16
t h e P r oce ssu s t r a nsve r s u s r e ma ining ,
e s s u s c o s t ar i
us,
P r o c e ssu s l a t e r a lis
e qu a l s
t r a nsv e r s u s
P r oc
.
P r oc
.
is : P r o c e s su s l a t e r alis
l at e r a l is
c os t a r iu s
a f te r
.
th e d e d uc t ion o f t h e P r oc
T h e r e fo r e , G
.
)
l
e qu al s
wh e r ea s t h e
c
.
eg en b a ue r s
P r o c es s u s
ar r a ng e m e n t o f
t r ansv e r
.
’
( Ab st h
c o s t ar
.
p
La nge r
.
S u l c i p a r a g l e n o id a l e s a r e , a c c o r d ing t o Loh r f t h e g r o ov e s w h ic h
s e r v e fo r t h e a tt ac h me nt o f t e n d i
no u s mass es and ar e f ou nd e sp e cially o n
t h e ant er io r a nd p ost er ior p ar t o f th e F ac ie s a u r ic ul a r is o s s ilium
Th e
a nt e r i
o r g r oo v e w a s g e n e r al ly d es i
gnat e d as S u l cu s p r a é a u r ic u l ar is ( K r )
’
'
.
.
.
Line a in t e r m e dia
o ss i
s
[ c r is t a e
ilium fo r me r ly d e s ignat e d
as
il iu m is t h e b r oa d
ex
Ala
os s is
il iu m ] is t h e m u s c l e lin e
o s s is
La b iu m m e diu m
t he
Ala
.
p a n d e d p o r t ion
S y n d e s m o l o gy
of
.
of
t h e iliu m
.
.
A s m e nt io ne d b e f or e S y nd e smo l ogy in it s p r e s e nt f or m is t h e c r eat ion
o f c oll eagu e T o l d t , w h o fo u nd e d his sugge s t i
o n s t h r o ug h o u t o n n e w p r e p a
r at i
on s
O nl y
.
f o r t h is
Lig
w h ic h
ea c h
c
a
h apt e r
n u mb e r
m
Hyr t l
r e la t i
on
p l anat ions
ar e
nece ssar y
.
A r t ic u lat io me t ac a r po ph al ang ea
d ir ec t
ex
p l a n t ar e ] is t h e s t r o ng fi b r e m as s e s
ar t ic ul ar c ap su l e o n t h e v ol ar s u r f a ce o f
[r esp
v ola r e
t h e thick ening o f t h e
ca u s e
sp ec i
al
of
.
a cce s s o r iu
.
limit e d
w it h t h e Lig v ag in al e s t a nd s in
n
co r r e sp ond i
( Lig t r an sv e r su m,
g fl e x or t e n d o n
Lange )
w ith t h e
“t e ndon
an d
.
.
.
p u ll e y
Lig c a r p i v o l ar e is t h e Lig c a r p i v o l a r e c o mmu n e o f t h e t e x t b oo ks
L ig c a r p it r a n s v e r su m is t h e Lig c ar p iv o l a r e t r a n s v e r s u m s ive p r o
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
p r ium
T h e L ig
.
t a l o c a l c a n e u m a nt e r iu s
.
is
( T ol dt )
s t r e ng t
a
h e ning
b a nd
C ap s u l a a r t ic u l ar is t al oc a lca nea a nd is t o b e
f o u n d in t h e S inu s t a r s i imme d iat el y a t t h e a nt e r io r s ide o f t h e A r t ic
t a l o c alc a ne a a nd some dis t ance b eh ind t h e Li
g t al oc al can e um int e r o s seum
of
th e
a nt e r i
or
of
pa r t
th e
.
.
.
( Toldt )
M y ol ogy
P a r s l ac r ima l is m
t ur e
of
f
or b ic u l a r is
0c
.
[ M H om e r i]
.
.
I f t h e mu s c ul a
dissec t e d f r om t h e side o f t h e o r b it t h e r e is f o u n d
l ach r yma l sa c a qu ad r angu l a r mu scl e p la t e wh ich is kno wn
th e e y e lid b e
b e h ind t h e
as
.
.
H or ne r
mar gin is
’
s
m u s cl e
att ac
h ed
.
Th e
to
h eight
th e
t h e me dial
pl at e is 5 6mm
l a c r imal is o f th e l ac h r ym al bo ne
of
Cr ist a
th e
-
.
,
.
La t e r al w a r d t h is mu sc l e p l at e p asse s ov e r t h e med ial cor ne r o f th e ey e
I n or de r t o f ollo w
d e s int o t wo c r u r a go ing ov e r into t h e l ids
vi
and di
.
“
A
na t om is c h e r
Anz e ig e r
1 894,
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.
1 7,
p
.
52 1
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
1 18
F ig
a
1
.
.
.
F a s cicu l i t r an sv e r si [ ap o n e u r o s is p a l mar is ]
’
d r awmg f r o m B r a u n e s u np ubl ish e d w o r k
B r a u ne
.
’
s
Lig
.
na t a t o r iu m
af te r
.
I
M u n ic h
n
in st a t e d int o it s
c a ll s
t his
M
the
.
ri
gh t s
s u gg est ion s
we r e
co l li o r
M
as
m as t o id e u s w a s
te of
sp i
all a nt ag o n is t i
c
t is , sin ce
c ap i
he
s o l e m n ly
a g a in
on s
s u gg e s t i
.
re
Th e ile
.
"
it int o t wo p o r t io n s
t e r nu s
Th e f ollo w ing
s ep a r a t e d
N u t a t o r in t e r n u s
and ex
.
in b y m emb e r s o f t h e Comm is s io n : M q u a d r i
st e r n o c l ci
d o o c c ip ito ma s t o id e u s b y v B a r d e l eb e n ; M
h a nd e d
.
c ol l i b y v
bic e p s
in
mu sc l e N u t ato r e s
w hic h h e d iff e r e nt ia t e d
ce p s
s t e r n o c l e id o
.
—
.
.
K ollike r ; M
.
o b li
qu u s co ll i b y
To l d t
.
F a s c icu l i t r a n s v e r s i [ a p o n e u r o s is p a l m a r is ] a r e n o t t o b e c o n s id e r e d
t h e c o m m o n t r a n s v e r s e fi b r e s o f t h e a p o n e u r o s is s in c e t h e n a m e is
,
fo r t h a t l ig a m e n t w h ic h B r a u n e ( in m y o p in io n w it h a m o r e
T h is l ig a m e n t w h ic h
um
app r op r i
a t e e x p r e s s io n ) c a l l e d Lig n a t a t o r i
c
ho se n
.
.
so
fa r
as
I
k n o w w as
im p o r t a n c e
a nd
im m e dia t e l y
s
B r aune
t h e s k in a n d
.
I
a dd a
S a pp e y
s
’
s t r a nd s o f B r a u n e s
h ow s
a
sy st e m
u n in t e r r u p t e d l y
jo in in g
Lig
.
w or k
he d
n a t a t o r iu m
s p ac e a l
t o the
fi b r ou s
mo s t
b a n d s l y in g
A
of t h e fi ng er s
.
.
A
to
s u gg e s t i
ve
.
“b a n d e l e t t e s
b e g inn in g
the
him
st ar t
S o e mm e r in g s r e v is e d A na t o m y V o l I I I 1 , p 1 80
° Ue b e r
B e d eu t ung d e r
d ie A n a t o m ic u n d p h y s io l o g is ch e
T h is A r c h iv e 1 887 , p 1 55
ap o n eu r o s e
” T r a it é d 'A na t o m ie 1 8 6 I I
3 63
7 ,
, p
7
I
n
Th
.
p ic
9
f
o
n
d
i
n
is
u
S app e y
b a s e s o f t h e fi ng e r s ,
b ands,
up t o
a c c o r d in g
T h e se t r an sv e r s e b an d s
l
.
is t e n c e
.
t r a n sv e r s e
fi ll t h e
ex
w o r k b y M G r a p o w " d o ne u n d e r
s k e t c h o f t h e l ig a m e n t w h ic h is m a d e
ng
s t r a n d s r u n ni
of
it s
to
as
fibr ou s
the b ases
a
s u n p u b lis
’
B e t w e e n t h e l o n g it u din a l
fi ng e r s
p en
by B r aune
t r a n s v er s e
s t r o ng
it is fou n d in
of
d ir e c t io n
of t he
w h ic h
of
d r a w in g f r o m B r au n e
a ft e r a
tur e
s
co n s is t s
u n de r
h o r t m e n t io n
’
,
fir st
a pp r e c i
at e d
of
”
.
the
fr o m t h e
’
.
.
.
.
.
.
,
.
.
Pa l mar
A N AT O M I CA L N A M ES
h e ad s
of t h e
o lo g i
cal
me t a c a r p a l b o n e s
si
g n i c a nc e
fi
s t r a n d s o f -t h e
Lig
r ests
By B r au ne
.
on
t he
1 19
.
and
G
w t h e ir p h y s i
a r e b et w e e n t he
r ap o
fac t t h a t t h e r e
n a t a to r iu m a n d t h e
p a l m a r fa s c ia p r o p e r , s u ffi c ie n t
of v e i
n s , w h er e b y t h e a r r a n e me n t
g
.
in t e r s p a ce s for t h e pen e t r a t io n
a c qu i
r es th e i
mp o r t a n c e o f a s u c t io n -app a r a t us
.
S c a l e nu s minim u s is t h e s m a ll m u s c l e p u s h ing in b e t w e e n t h e p l e x u s
b r ach ial is a nd th e A r t sub c l av ia, an d wh ich e x t ends f r o m t h e t r an sv e r se
p r oc es s o f t h e 6t h , o r o f t h e 6 t h an d 7 th , c e r v ica l v ert eb r a e t o t h e fi r st r ib
a n d h as a f u r t h e r a tt a c h me n t t o t h e a ex o f t h e
The m u sc le h a s
p
p leu r a
.
,
.
al r ea
dy b e e n d es c r ib e d by A lb in I t s imp or t an c e as a t e n so r o f th e apex o f
t h e pl eu r a h as b e e n e mp h as iz e d e sp e c ial l b Z u c k e r k an dl 1 I n 60 ca dav er s
y y
Z u cker kan d l f oun d t he mu s cl e p r e se n t 2 2 t im e s o n b ot h s ides m is sing
1 7 ti
me s o n bot h s id e s pr ese nt 1 2 t im e s on t he r igh t sid e o nly an d p r e s ent
.
.
,
,
,
Wh enever the mu scl e is wanting th e r e is
9 t imes o n t he l e f t side on ly
f o u nd in it s p lace a l ig ament wh ich r u ns f r om t he low e r c e r vic al ve r t e
.
b r ae t o t he
v e r t eb r a l e
fi r s t r ib an d to t h e
o f Z u c k e r ka n d l
a p ex
of
t h e pleu r a
t h e L ig c o s t o p l eu r o
—
.
.
Liga m e n t u m fu n d if o r m e p e n is
Lu s c h k a 2 h as de s c r ib e d u n d e r t h e
n ame Li
g s usp en so r iu m p e n is s up e r fi c ial e, s iv e e last ic u m, a b r oad b and
.
.
co nsi
ng
st i
Linea
a lmos t
e nt i
r ely
fi ng e r s w id th abov e t he
b r a n c h es w h ic h m e e t a g a in
al b a a b out
’
3
p e nis w it h t w o
t ic b a n d is o ft e n fo u n d
m ay
fibr e s
el a st ic
of
s t r o ng l y
t o t he s c r o t um
w h ic h
,
or i
ginat es
mph ysis
sy
u n d er
d e v e l op e d
t he
an d
a
a nd e
sa
me
p ar t
n ea r
th e
mb r aces t h e
T h is
.
of
it s
e las
fibr es
O n B r au ne s a n d my s u gg e s t io n s t h e
a p p a r a t u s in a fo r m e r b al l o t ( A b s t h p 1 49 ) w as d e s i
g nat e d a s F u n d a
p e n is , a n e x p r e s s io n wh ic h t h e e dit o r ia l s t a ff l at e ly c h a ng e d t o Lig
a ls o r a d i
at e
’
.
.
.
.
fu nd ifo r m e
Th e
.
c h ap t e r o n
dis c u ss io n s in
I
n gu ina l
M u n ic h
f ov e a e w a s
e ff e c t t
to the
s et t l e d
h at t h ey
b y t h e Co mmis s io n in it s
a c c e p t e d o nl y
t w o I u gu i
m e d ial , a n d d e sig n a t e d t h e fo v e a me dia nw a r d
fr o m t h e L ig a m e n t u m u mb ilic ae l a t e r a l e a s F o v e a su p r a v e s ic al is
S ch walb e h a d comp iled fo r t h e b allo t in qu es t ion, a t ab ulat e d r esum é o f
t e r ms f r om e leve n G e r m an fo u r F r enc h a n d t wo Englis h t ex t b ook s
El ev en o f t h e s ev e nt een m e nt ione d aut h or s dist inguis h e d t h r e e inguin al
F iih r c r R ich et and
f oss ae o r f ov e ae ; a l at er al a me dian and a m edial
nal
fo v e a e ,
a
l at e r a l
and
.
,
.
.
,
,
,
S appey d e s ignat e d t he mo st me dianwar d o f th e t h r ee fov eae b y th e spe
c al i
s
ci
al nam e F ovea p u bo v e si
I nt imat e ly c onn e ct e d w ith th e me dial ingu inal fovea a r e th e t wo st r u ct
’
’
nguis h e d as H e nl e s an d H e s se l b a c h s li
st i
u r es w h i
c h B r au n e h ad di
ga
me nt s a n d w h ic h a r e r e g is t e r e d in o u r l is t s a s F al x [ a p one u r o t ica ] in
.
H is a n d B r a u n e, Z e it s c h r ift fu r A n at o m ic 11 n d E n t w ick e l u ng s g e s chic h t e
1 8 77 , V o l
I I , p 56 if
2i T o o r a hi
p g p s c h e Anat o m ic d es B e cke ns , p 3 20
1
.
.
.
.
.
A N AT O M I C A L N A M E S
1 20
.
[ H e s s e lb a c h i]
g u in alis a n d a s Lig in t e r fo v e o l a r e
n e e d h er e a s e c ia l d i
s c u s si
on
p
.
T he se
.
s t r u ct ur es
.
A fte r
re
mo v a l
of
t h e p e r it o n e u m
f r o m t h e p o st e r io r s ur f ac e , o n e fi nd s,
na l w a ll , b e t we e n t he p o i
n t o f j u nct ion o f
ab d o m i
b y p r o p e r t e ns io n o f t h e
th e M r e c t u s a n d t h e in t e r na l ing u in a l r ing t wo b a nd s o f s t r o ng ly d ev e l
Th e o n e b r o a d en ing d o wn w a r d s a n d u p w a r d s , f o r m s t h e
op e d fi b r e s
.
,
.
,
m e dial b o r d e r
t h e in t e r n a l ing u ina l
of
ri
ng ,
h ap e d b r o ad e n ing o f t h e t e n d on o f t h e
t h e s e fi b r o u s b an d s d e s ig na t e s t h e o n e
s
,
th e
r e ct u s
ot h e r
c kl e
ap p e a r s as a s i
B r a une , w ho
.
b o r d e r ing
fi rs t
t h e r ec t u s
on
s ep a r a t e d
as
H enle
ligamen t , t h e one bo r d e r ing o n t h e ingu inal r ing a s H e s s e lb ach s
’
H e nl e s and H e ss e lb ac h s lig am e n t s 3 a r e b r oa d l y jo in e d t o P o u p a r t
’
’
'
me nt
B e t w e e n H e n le
.
sp a c e
’
s a nd
H e sse l b ac h
’
s
l ig a m e nts t h e r e l ie s
w it h l oo s e t issu e in t o w h ic h t h e
fi ll e d
fi ng er
can
be
ng ,
ri
gu in al
ms
t h e in se r t e d
a nd
is t h e n
finge r
c l o se ly
an
liga
int e r
s
e as ily
I f t h is l oo s e
T h is in t e r s p a ce is t h e m e d ia l in g u in a l f o s s a
ing th e f o ssa b e r e mov e d o n e c an p e ne t r a t e f r om h e r e t o t h e
.
s
B oth
.
’
’
p r e s se d
t is s u e c l os
in
t e r n al
ex
c o n st r i
cted
.
b y t wo
p r o t r u d ing b a n d s l y ing on e b e h ind t h e o t h e r ; po st e r
’
’
ior ly c o ns t r ic t e d b y H e nl e s a nd H e s s e lb ac h s l ig ame nt s , a n t e r io r l y b y t h e
’
’
m a r g in o f th e ex t e r n al ing u in al r ing H e ss e l b a ch s an d H e nl e s ligame nt s
s y st e
o f s h a r p ly
.
T h e w id e r t h e l a t t e r l iga
lie in t h e p o s t e r io r w all o f t h e ingu in al c a na l
m e nt b ec ome s , t h e m o r e th e r e g ion o f t h e me d ial ing u inal f o s s a is
r e ct
o n t o w a r d t h e f o r m at i
on o f di
n a r r ow e d , a nd t h e l e ss is t h e dis p o s it i
.
ingu inal
st u de n t s
h e r niae
A ll t h e se
.
in th e d issec t ing
r oo
t io n s
c on d i
m by
ar e
p r ep a r a t io n
F ig
d emo n s t r a t e d t o t h e
ly
ea si
f r om t h e p ost er ior
-
de
si
.
2.
.
S ur r ou nding s o f medial ing u inal f o ssa e , f r o m p r ep ar at ion f r om p o st e r io r side
’
=
P i F a l x in g u inal is [ H enl e s l ig am en t o f
A d = A dm in ic u l um l in ea e alb ae
’
=
B r aune ]
L H Lig in t er f o v e ol a r e [ H e s s elb ach s l ig am ent o f B r au n e ]
nis
V d = Va s de f er en s
r ect u s a b do mi
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
He s se lb ac h s l igam e nt
de s ign a te d b y B r aun e a s
mo st sp le ndidly sho w n in d iff e r e nt pl at e s ( I I I , I V, X X I , and XV )
4
H e sse lb ach s w o r k wh ich h as b e c ome f un d ame nt al in h e r nio logy
Th e
is
’
st r uc tu r e
,
of
’
.
3
4
B r au n e , D a s V e ne n s y s t e m d c s m e n s c h l ic h e n K o r p e r s 1 884, T ex t , p 66
Unt e r s uc h u n g e n iib e r L e is t e n u nd S c h e nk c l b r iic h e , W iir z b u r g 1 8 1 4
.
.
.
A N AT O M I CA L N AM E S
1 22
fo r m e r
n ame
s in ce
hav e
we
c
h an g e d
.
in t o F a l x
[
a p o n e u r o t ic a
in
]
T h e l ig a m e n t u m in t e r
g u in a l is fo r r e as o n s s oo n t o b e d is c u s s e d
fo v e o l a r e a l w ay s c o n t a in s a r c h e d a s c e n din g m u s c l e fi b r e s w h ic h a s a
.
r ule can
M
b e t r a c e d d ir e c t l y in t o t h e
d e s ig
t r a n s v e r su s ; t h e y w e r e
.
ma t e d b y B r au n e fo l l o w in g Lu s c h k a , a s M p u b o r e c t a l is
I w is h e d
t o t a k e t h e s a m e in t o o u r l is t a s M in t e r fo v e o l a r is , b u t r e m a in e d w it h
t h e m in o r it y
,
.
.
.
.
The
b y t h e w ay
H e s s e l b ac h
a
’
lig am e nt s
B o t h fi b r ou s b and s h ol d, a s B r a une h as sh o w n ,
v e r y d e fi ni
t e r e l a t ion t o t h e M t r an sv er s u s ab d omin is
’
I n t h e p r ep a r a t ion fr om t h e a n t e r ior s id e H e nl e s ligament is sh own
’
s
.
.
nu at i
a s a n a r c h e d c o nt i
on of
is
on
incomp l e t e
o nly a n
,
p r epar at io n m a de f r om b e h ind g iv e s ,
p ic t u r e o f t h e r e l at io nsh ip o f H e nl c s a n d
illu s t r a t ion b ase d
ab ov e
nu o u s
co n t i
t e n do n
w it h t h e
l a t e r a l t e n d on
m ay
s h ea t h o f
b a ch
M
the
of
th e
t he
as
B r au n e
t r ans v e r s u s
.
r e ctu s
o ut
th e
ex
Th es e
.
the
of
th e
r ec t u s
t he
Th e
.
r ec t u s a n d r e ach
l ig a me nt ,
s
sh ea t h o f
M
o
fi b r es
up p e r
of
t r an sv e r sus
.
fi r st
t h e sh e a t h w it h t h e
of
of
a n d at
ind ir e ct ly w it h it s
a n d o n ly
c on ne c t i n
b eh ind t h e l o w e r b un d l e s
ex t e n d ,
'
t h e t end on
H e nl e h a s p o int e d
.
.
H e sse lb ac h
’
s
l ig ame nt
t h e t r an s v e r s u s, t o th e post e r io r
m ar g in
of
t h e l in e
D o u gl a s
of
H e s s el
.
p r e ss e s it , a pp e a r s as th e p elv ic ins e r t io n
t ion s a r e ill ust r a t e d in Pl a t e I Q
co n d i
of
of
Th e m e dial ingu inal f o s s a is, t h e r e f o r e
t o b e int e r p r e t e d a s a n o p e n ing in t h e in ser t ing t e n d on o f t h e M t r a ns
H e s se lb a c h s l ig ame nt , a n d a
c h li
e s b e t w ee n a l a t e r al l e a f
v e r su s w h i
B r au n e
’
l a r ge A t l a s
s
Ve in s
of
.
,
‘
.
’
me d ial l e a f
w hich is
H e nl e
—
o nl y
in th e
’
s
l ig am en t
h an d s
of a
As
.
fe w,
I
a
s uppl e m e nt
B r a u ne
to
’
Pl a t e
s
,
g iv e a s k etc h o f t h e r el at ion s, a f t e r
I n or d e r t o
ma d e b y S p al t eh olt z
p r ep a r a t io n f r o m t h e a nt e r io r s id e
’
nd t h e r e l a t i
on s o f H e nl e s li
a t p r e s ent o u r
z e f r o m b ehi
r e cogn i
g ame nt
’
F alx ing u in alis
t o th e M t r a n sv e r su s , H e s se l b a c h s lig a me nt s h o uld b e
a
.
—
—
.
l oo s e ne d f r o m it s l o w e r
f ar
v e r sus a s
as
it l ies
a t t ac
c lo se
B u r s ae
T his
c
h ap t e r
,
as
ab o v e
T h e f u nda m e nt al r u l e s
T h e B u r sae m uc os a e
.
hm ent
'
an d
s ep ar at e d
to
it
et
V a gina e mu c o s a e
t r a ns
.
.
,
w e r e t h e f oll o w ing
.
le d
c ompi
me ntione d w a s
by
coll eag ue
T ol dt
.
5
V ag in ae t e n dinum
a nd
f r om t h e M
a r e cons i
de r e d s e p ar at el y
.
A mong t h e l at t e r ar e c ou nt e d t h e c lo s e d muc o u s sa c s w h ic h s ur r o u nd
n t h e ir c ou r se
T he
e n t ir e ly o r f or th e mo s t p a r t , o ne o r se v e r al t e n d o n s i
t u at e d a t th e e nd s o f t e n d ons , o r inse r t e d b e t we e n t e n do ns a nd
s ac s , s i
,
.
b on e s ,
f r o m t h e V aginae t e nd inu m
m t ibialis an t e r ior is l ie s in t he c ou r s e o f t h e t en don
a r e s e p a r at e d a s
B u r sa e
g t h e Vag ina
s mu scl e wh e r e t h e l att e r
o f thi
Th u s,
e
.
.
ne ae
su b t en d i
.
.
r u ns u n d e r n e a t
T h e s e p r in c ip l e s a nd t h e fo ll o w in g
m a n u s c r ip t o f c o ll e a g u e T o l d t
5
.
ex
p
h
t h e Li
g t r an sve r sum a nd
l a na t io ns
.
w er e
ta
ke n
fr o m t h e
A NA T O M I CA L N A M E S
m
1 23
.
Ag ain, th e B u r s a [ subt end inea ] m t ib ialis ant e r io r is is f ou nd
b e t w e e n t he t e r m inat ion o f t h e t end on a nd t h e u n der ly ing bo ne B ur sae
s ub t e n d i
nea e a r e f ou nd al so w h e r e t e n
dons w in d ar ound b one s
B e s id e
t h e B u r sae mu c osae su bt e n d inea e , t h e r e ar e d istin uish ed :
g
c r u c 1 at u
.
.
.
.
B u r s a e muc
.
s u b cu t an eae ,
mu scula r e s,
su b
s ub fasc i
al e s
T h ey,
h owev e r
a r e not se p ar at ed
,
.
in t h e l ist b ut
ar e a r r ang ed and cl as
T h e V a g ina e t e n d in u m a r e a ll e n u me r a t e d
o n a c c ount o f t h eir p r a ct ic al i
mpor tan c e Of t h e B ur sae m ucosae o nly
t ho s e a r e list e d w h ic h
s ifi e d acc o r d in g
to
r egi
ons
.
.
a
of
Acco r d ing
.
t h e c ase s ,
t o p r ev io u s ex p er ience s occur
c
Ar c
.
p e r ienc e ar e
o f s p e c ial mo r ph o l ogical
ex
w e r e for me d
names
A ll
d er iv at io n
—
ce nt .
w h ic h
or
b A cco r ding t o
.
in mor e t h an 3 0 40 pe r
p r act ical imp or t ance
p hys iolog ica l int e r est
of
or
wh ic h
or
,
.
m e p r inc ip l e s bot h a s t o signifi c a nc e
e a sy if occas ion deman d s t o con s t r uc t
a ft er
the
sa
I t is t h e r e f or e
,
nam e s f o r t h os e mu cou s b u r sae wh ic h ar e no t co n t a i
ned in t h e l ist
B u r s a su b c u t a ne a p r om in ent iae l a r y ng e a e is g iv e n b y V e r n e u il a s
I t is sit u at ed ( al mos t ex clu sivel y
B s e r osa ant e t h yr e oid ea subcut ane a
in m al es ) in f r o nt o f t h e sup e r ior p a r t o f t h e t h yr e oid ca r t ilage an d is
an d
.
,
.
.
.
by t he P r o minent ia l ar y ngea
m s t er noh y o id e i is a n a m e g iv e n b y Ple nk
ap p ar ently c a u se d
B u r sa
.
.
.
I t l ies in t h e
i e unp air e d o r pair e d 1 and j u st
me d ian plane o r at eit h er side o f it
be h ind t he at t ac hment o f t h is mu scl e on t h e in f e r io r b or d e r o f th e h y o id
—
—
.
b on e
V er neu il
.
c all s
it B
giv e n it t h e
t hy r eohyo id ea a nt e r ior
ot
he r s h av e
.
P le n k )
as
B
.
ve si
cul ar i
s
.
W G r ub e r a n d
p r o f u nda
d e a , s iv e t h yr e oid ea, siv e
names : B in f r a h yo i
B y Rosenm iille r it is giv en ( in a r e fe r e nc e t o
se r osa subh yoid ea
.
.
.
.
m
.
st er noh y oid ei
.
m o r e fr e q u e n t ly t h a n t h e fo r me r ; it
l ie s l at e r ally und e r t h e g r e at hor n o f th e h yoid b o ne and is c ov er e d b y t h e
T h e au t h o r s c a l l it B t h y
u pp e r e x t r e m it y o f t h e M t h y r e o h y o id e u s
B ur sa
m
.
t h y r e oh y oid e i o c c u r s
.
.
r eo hy o i
de a
p r o fu nd a
B u r s a mu c
si
ngle
B
.
l a r ge
m
car p i
.
III
.
s iv e
l a t e r al is
su b acr o m ia l is
s p ac e
.
.
d ea
a n d s u b d el t o i
o ft e n u n it e
fo r ming
.
e x t e n s o r is c a r p i r a d ialis
b r e vis l ies
on
t h e B a s is
met a
o ss i
s
.
t he
O s p is ifo r me
B m fi ex
s
or is c a r p i u l n a r i
l ie s
B m fl ex
s
o r is c ar p i r a d ia l i
lie s in t h e S ul c u s os s is n av ic u l a r is
U n d e r t h is d e s ig n at io n is in c l u d e d
.
.
.
.
B ur s ae gl u t a e ofe mo r a l e s
t h e B u r s a g l u t a e o fa s c ia lis
B il ia c a
.
a
su b t e nd ine a
T r o c h ant e r m inor
.
.
l ie s
.
.
of t h e
at
on
aut
hor s
a lso
.
t h e in s e r t io n
of
t he
M
.
ilio p s o as
on
the
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
1 24
B m p e c t in e i is lik e w is e
se r ti
on o f t h e mu s c l e o f t h e
.
.
B
on
m ino r
t h e T r o c h a nt e r
me
sa
n am e
.
p r a e p a t e ll a r is s u b fa sc ia l is is t h e B p a t e l l a r is
h ar t ( B p r ae p a t e l lar is me d ia sive sub ap on e u r otica
.
.
t e n so r qu ad r ic ep s
B
t he
a nd
I t l ie s b e t w ee n t h e t e ndon
t ib ia
B
)
M
It
.
.
ex
of
M
th e
t en
s o r qu a d r i
c ep s a nd t h e s u r f ace
ex
.
.
.
.
and
p at e l la e
.
t he
.
a n s e r in a
.
mon
at t a c h
t e n d in o s u s
in u s
r ub e r
.
inf r a p a t el l ar is p r o fu n d a lie s b e t w e e n t h e Lig
.
G
.
p a t e l l ar is p r o fu n d a o f
n ea o f W
su b t en d i
G r ub e r )
B
.
B
W
of
Lin
.
.
t h e p a t ell a
ia
of
a l is o f
s u b fa s c i
t e ndinous ex p an sion o f t h e
pr a e p a t e l l a r is s u b t e n d in e a is t h e
Lu s c h ka ( B p r ae pa t e ll ar is p r o fu n d a siv e
of
p o in t
.
.
lie s b et w ee n t h e F asc ia l at a
at t h e
l ie s
me nt
t o t h e t ib ia o f t h e
T h is
.
p a n s io n fo r me d b y t h e
M m g r a c il is s a r t o r iu s a n d
u nd e r t h e t e n d in o u s e x
p a n s io n is
ex
.
c a ll e d
,
by
so
me
a nat o
m is t s P e s
co
se
m
mi
a nse r
6
.
S p l an c h no l o g y
A s T o n s ill a l in gual is t h e C o
b e l o n g ing t o t h e
S in u s
r oo t o f
t e r m ina lis ,
S u l cu s
fi
c l as s i e d
a c cor d ing
to t he
fo ll ic u la r g l a n d s , F o l l icu li l in g u
all
t h e t o ng u e
.
l in g u a l is ) ,
( D uctu s
P l ica
t o n s ill ar is ,
s si
on
W al d ey e r
s u gg e s t i
o n o f co ll e a g u e
a le s ,
mmi
.
t r ia ng u l a r is ,
thyr e ogl os s u s ,
D uc tus
l l a r is
su p r a t o n s i
F ossa
Co n
.
my A nat omy o f H uman E mb r yo s
( Vo l I I I Le ip z ig 1 885) f r om wh ich the accomp anying p ict u r es ( Fig s
Th e b o dy an d t h e r o ot o f th e t o ngu e ar ise f r o m
4 5 a n d 6 ) a r e t ak e n
t w o or ig inal ly s e p a r at e d a nl ag e n : Th e b o d y f r o m a n u np a ir e d t h ic k en
in g in t h e fl oo r o f t h e o r a l ca v it y ( t h e T u b e r c u l u m im p a r ) t h e r o o t o f
t h e t o ngu e f r om t h e c o al es c e nc e o f p r ol if e r a t io ns f r om t h e s e cond a nd
ng
c e r ni
.
t h e se
s t r u c tu r e s
,
r e fer
to
.
,
.
,
,
I m ay
,
t h ir d ph a r y ng e a l a r ch e s
t he r e
an l ag e n
the
t e r mina t e s
f r ont
of
P apill a e
of
ei
t
At t h e b o und a r y line b e t we en
t h r o ugh ou t l if e , a n a ngul a r b r ok e n
de
si
h er
m a in s a s a r ul e
t e r m ina l is l in gu a e
re
f u r r o w , t h e S u l c us
on
,
T h e p o s t e r io r
le th e ant er ior
c ae cu m w h i
in th e Fo r am e n
A r c u s p al at oglo ssu s o n
n f r on t
v a ll at a e li
e s 5 8mm i
th e
.
-
—
.
t h e b o dy p r op e r o f t h e t o ngue
.
eit
her
of
th e
si
de
Th e
.
D u ct u s lingu al is, o f t en e x t end s t o
in th e dir e ct ion o f t he h yo id b one
d e pt h
a
of
V2
T h is d uc t is
.
-
g la n d
a
( Fig s
.
4
and
La ng e r -T o l d t A na t o mic , 5
e dit
.
,
p
.
23 5
.
t e r minat e s in
e nd
ar c e d
h
lin e
to I
a re
c
m
.
of
th e
on
r e gi
m
a
or
e ve n
caecu
d u ct , t h e
mo r e
mnant o f t h e e mb r y
fi r st month e x t end e d
D u c tu s t hy r e oglo ssu s, w h ic h at t h e end o f th e
f r o m t h e o r o ph a r yng e al c av it y t o t h e me dian a nlage
o ni
c
t h e fu r r o w
S u l cu s t e r m in al is in t h e
F r om th e F or am e n
.
end of
of
.
t h e t hy r e oid
AN A T O M I CA L N A M E S
1 26
F ig
T o ng u e
caecum
of a
.
F ig
4
.
.
6 m o nt h f o e t u s
-
and o f a n a du
lt
5
S ul cus t er min al is
.
F o r am en
a nd
.
A r e a e g a s t r ic a e a r e e l e v a t io n s o f t h e m u c o u s m e m b r a n e
st oma c h w hi
c h co r r e sp o n d t o gl a n du l a r
g r ou p s ( A b st h ) ex is t ing
n t h e E t a t m ame lo nn é b u t al so u nd e r ot h er co n d i
all y i
t ion s
.
of
th e
e spe c i
.
Pa r s
t r ea t e d
b oo k s
of
a n a l is
S a pp e y
.
m a r gin
tio n s t h e
m ay
S p hin c t e r
ly
e as i
S app e y
hes
b e c ome th e
say s o f
mo r e
Mo r gag nis
’
3 8 , as a
a n i int e r nu s
as
an i a r e
( Rib es )
a
s ea t o
.
su c
h
V al v u l a e
r u le
-
f or med
p r a c t ic a l imp o r t a n c e , is
d et a ile d w ay t h an in G e r m a n t ex t
of
r egi
o n,
m ie s in
d e sc r ib e s
C ol u mna e
fi stu la e
a nd
7
a n at o
e s t ab lis
t he
of
T his
.
in F r e nc h
w h ich h e
an i
r e ct i
5
or
Th r ough
.
Th e
se
6
milu n a r e s
,
T h ey lie
.
a u n ion o f
at
an d
the
t h e lo w e r
t h e ir t e r m in a
nu s e s s u r r ou nd e d
si
f in f ec t io n
t h e n u mb e r
b y V al v u l ae
n
r e su l t i
g a b sc e s se s
.
t he
ns o f
ve i
th e
r e ct u
m t h at t h e y
ar e s t r o ngl y
d ev el ope d
in t h e lo w e r quar t e r o f t h e t ub e , e spe c ia lly in th e r eg io n o f t h e semilu n ar
f ol d s o f t h e mu cou s me mb r a ne H e r e t h e y f o r m t h e Pl ex u s h ae mo r r h oi
.
d al is ; f r e qu e nt ly t h e p o int o f o r ig in of t h e s w ell ing s c a ll e d h a e m or r h o id s
By mac er at io n o f th e mu c ou s m emb r ane o f th e e x c ise d and s t r e t c h e d
c al v e nou s b r an c h es
r ec tum on e a l wa y s fi n d s a g r eat numb e r o f v e r t i
.
w h ic h
vi
e ns
7
Th e s e
f r o m t h e l ow e r mar gin o f th e M sphinct e r int e r nu s
k e dilat ion s v a r ying in s iz e f r o m t h at o f a
o f t e n h av e am p u ll a l i
ri
se
.
.
-
T r a it é d A n a t o m ic d es c r ip t iv e 3 ,
’
e d it
.
1 879 ,
V o l I V, p
.
.
283
.
A N AT O M I CA L N A M ES
mil l e t
lat e r
se ed
on
to t h at o f
l e nt il
a
b e c om e t h e
S uch d il at io n s
.
s t a r t in g
p o in t s
F ig
Pl ica t r iang ul a r is
Our
r ectu
co l le c t i
on
m ma d e b y E H
.
espe c i
a lly
ar e
c on t a i
ns
w e ll
s
.
an d
F o ssa
an
o l de r
We b e r
ho wn
.
in
.
of
6
h a e m o r r h o id a l
ll
Her e
T e s t ut
’
s
8
.
in t h e
adu
lt
.
s ee n
—
us
s w e ll in g s
a nd
t h e nu m er ou s p e r p e n dic u l a r
ri
s e f r o m t h e d en se p l e x u s e s o f t h e
ar e
.
pl e x
d e sc r ipt io n
h il d r en
( d r y ) inj ect e d p r e p ar at ion o f th e
wh ic h t h e v e no u s r oo t s in t h e P a r s a n al is
-
h aemor r h o id al
c
.
b r a nc h e s, d e sc r ib e d b y S app e y , w h ic h
si
nu s a n d t h e n e mp t y i
n t o c ir c u l ar v e ss el s 3 4 c m
p r epar at ion s h ow s a ls o t h e a mp ul l a l ike d ila t io ns
t he
in
occ u r e v en
s u p r a t on s i a r is
.
1 27
.
th e
a b ov e
of
th e
a nu s
T h is
.
s m a ll v e in s o f
.
of
v e s se l s
t he
of
t h e P ar s
ana lis
r e ct i
is mo r e
d e t a ile d t h an S app e y s a nd a t th e s am e t ime ac comp an ie d b y e x cell e nt
ill u st r a t ions
Th e l e ngt h o f t h e Par s analis in ma n is 3 c m , in w om a n 2
’
.
c
m
as
.
Th e l o w er p a r t o f it is
Th e M
b y a n e las t ic r ing
.
f ar
as
t h e S p h inc t e r
r e s p o nd s
r ec t u
w h at
to t he
m int o t h e
ab o v e
ex
r eg i
on
.
t e r nu s
of
n
ou t er s k i
.
b y t h e S p h inct e r a ni e x t e r nu s
int e r nu s d oe s not r ea c h d o wn as
s u r r ou n d e d
.
sp
.
h inc t e r
Th e lo w e r m ar gin
of
t h e a n u s , a t t h e l e v el o f t h e
t h e fo r me r
m u co u S me mb r an e
t r a n sit ion o f t h e
B y inj e ct ion
of
’
the
ns
v ei
V a l v ul a e
of
c or
th e
t h e r e is fo un d s ome
se
milu n ar e s
,
a s yst e
m
mp u ll a lik e d il a t e d v e sse l s w h ich j o m t o fo r m a c ont inu o u s w r ea th
T h e y l ie in t h e T e l a s u b m u co s a and t h e siz e o f t he amp u l la e v a r y f r om t h at
Th e ampu ll a e a r e t h e b eg inning s o f
o f a mi
lle t s ee d t o t h at o f a p e a
h a e mo r r h o id al s w e l l in g s a n d n ev e r a r e a b s e n t in a d u l t s b u t ( in
Figu r e 1 3 74 o f T e s t u t
o p pos i
t ion t o S app ey ) may b e in t h e ne wbor n
d a l is r e ac h ing u p t o t h e lev e l o f t h e
s h o w s t h e de n s e Pl e x u s h aem o r r h o i
of a
-
.
,
'
.
.
E
‘
T r a it é d A n a t o m ie h u m a in e
’
1 893 ,
V ol
.
I I I
,
p
.
553
a nd
f
57 8 i
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
1 28
ri
dg e o f
ing
t h e sp h inc t er
( Anast omo se s
v ei
ns
t om o s e s
F r om
.
he r e
s u s- sp hi
nc t e r ie nne s a nd
w it h T es tu t
’
s
illu st r at ions
t h er e f o ll ow
o u t wa r d
s o u s- sp hi
nc t e r ie nne s
t r an s
—
.
in
s t inc t ion
con t r a di
nct e r ic nne s
sphi
m
t h e v e ins o f t h e
of
)
r ec t u
ar e
to
a na s
c o mp a r e d
To b e
.
d r a in
t ar y
s ol i
al s o
t ho s e
wh ic h Lu s chka g iv es ( p 2 1 5) in his To p ogr A nat omic d e s B e c k e ns
H e nl e 9 h a s d e s c r ib e d t h e h is t olog ic al r el a t ion s o f t h e Pa r s an al is r ec t i
.
.
.
.
.
The m u co u s m emb r ane
d ist ing u is h e d f r om t h at
t h e col umnae a n d t h e ir int e r v e n ing sp a c e s ar e
ng abo v e : t h r o u g h
o f th e p a r t s o f t h e r e c t u m l y i
of
t h e p r e se nce o f n um e r ou s , p ar tly coal esce d
p ap ill a e , b y t h e a b
th e
o f g l a nd s an d by t h e p r e s enc e o f t h ick st r at ifi e d s quamous ep i
Lo n g it u d in a l b u n d l e s o f s mo o t h mu s c l e fi b r e s c au s e t h e e l e v a
s e nce
l iu m
.
v a scu l ar
1
m u c o u s m e mb r a n e
W K r a u s e d e s cr ib e d s im il a r ly t o
H e nle t h e mu co us memb r a n e o f th e Pa r s a nalis r ect i T o t h e smo ot h
m u sc l e bu nd le s conta ine d in t h e c ol umn s he g iv es in a no t e t h e n am e
S u s t e nt a t o r t u n ica e mu cos a e o r D il a t at or a n i int e r n u s T h e S p h in ct e r a n i
int e r nu s e nd s a t t h e b eginn ing o f t h e co lu m n s a s sh own in a n ill u st r a
ti
o n by He nl e ( l
F ig
c
Lie b e r k tih n s g l a n d s d o n o t e x t e n d
t io n s
of
t he
.
.
.
.
’
.
.
.
.
I omit th e simila r st at e me nt s in ot he r
S phinc t e r int e r nu s
r ece n t a nat o mi
I n r egar d t o th e t r an s itio n o f t h e ep ith e liu m,
c al wo r k s
K r ause no te s t h at b et we e n t h e int es tinal ep it h e liu m a nd t h e s t r at ifi e d
fa r
as
th e
as
.
.
t
ep i
h e lium o f
th e
t h eliu m ab ou t 2
mm w ide ; wh er e a s
.
t h e an u s t o t h at o f t h e
e p id e r
mis
t anea ,
a na li
s
th e la tte r o f wh ich
of
G 1
a nd
.
a ube r ,
R
3
cir c umanal es
w h ic h
ms
D eb ie r r e
.
ano r e c t a li
s
”
a nd
a
2
d is t ingu ish es
Lin ea
a no c u
to
d e s c r ip t io n t h e P a r s
a b ov e
mmit t ee
s u r r ou n ds
g r a d ual on e
.
A n n u l u s h a e m o r r h oid a l is
co
se e
C o l u mn a e
t h e r e g io n o f t h e
ed i
to r ial
a
be id en t ic al wit h t h e Linea sin u os a
b ey on d wh ich t h e r e app ear h a ir s , se b ace ous gl an ds
A cc o r d in g t o t h e
the
is
,
Line a
t w o se r r a t e d b or d e r lin e s : a
”
d ema r c at io n o f t r an s itio nal e p i
t h e t r ansit ion o f t h e ep it h eliu m o f
t h e r e is a line o f
a nu s
,
r e ct al e s,
of
t h e S in u s
Th e l a t t e r t e r m is
4
.
a n a lis r e c t i c o
a nd
the
in t r o du ce d b y
E
s
a nnu lar t h i
ng
ck e ni
n ew ly
w e de not e b y it t h e
a nd
r e ct a l e s ,
mp r is e s
t h e o p e ning p r o p e r o f t h e a n u s an d w h ic h
is
c au s e d
T h e S in u s r e c t a l e s l ie a t t h e u pp e r
S p h inc t e r e x t e r n u s
m a r g in o f t h e A n nu l u s h ae mo r r h o id a lis a n d b e t w e e n t h e m a r e th e
Th e annu lu s is t h e b e ar er o f th e l ow e r p ar t o f t h e ve no u s
c ol umn ae
by th e
s
.
.
P l ex
us
h ae mo r r ho id al is
.
Eing e w e id e l c h r e , p 1 80
1 A n a t o m ic I I
,
p 463
’
’
2 Tr i
t
m
n
é
e
l
e
e
t
i
r
n
l
a
a e d A at d e
h o mme 1 89 0, I I , 42 5
8 A na t o m i
I p 609
c d es M e n s c h e n 1 89 2, V o l
4 T e st ut c i
t es a s sp e c ial wor k s on th e anu s th o se o f D ur et H e r mann, S ym ing ton
n
a nd Qu a i
’
5
-T o d
l t s Ana t o mic , 5 e d it p 3 06
S e e Lang e r
9
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
,
.
.
,
.
.
,
.
.
A N A T O MI C A L N A M E S
1 30
nfl i
t h e r e ar ose a c e r t a in c o
ct i
n th e u se o f t h e t e r m
Ch o r d ae
u nd e r
s t oo d
r e o a r y t a e n oi
de a
v oc al e s o r
but
Ligg
o t h er s , and a
“v oc al
de s ignat e d b y t h e t er m
F r an ke l , w h o c al l s
glo t t is
S om e
.
ch or d
t o t h is
u nd e r
h or s
th y
.
l a r yn g o l o g is t s ,
a l ly
e sp e ci
re
e nt i
th e
au t
t h e e l a s t ic Ligg
v o c ali
a o nl y
.
m o ng t h e m
a t t e nt i
on
.
.
s u r r ou n d ing
l ip
r e m ar k s
cont r a d ic t i
on,
the
t h at
it w ou l d p e r h ap s h av e b ee n b et t er t o h av e h a d a spe c ia l n a m e f o r t h e
e nt ir e s t r u c t u r e ; y e t l a t e r o n h e d is r e ar d s t h e
g
p r e se nt at io n s o f t h e a n at
st s
o mi
ob e c t s
fo r t h e w ho l e
A
t o t h e a pp licat ion o f t h e t e r m
s t r o ng ly
j
an d
v oc a l s t r u c t u r e
v o c al
c
h or d
.
m an d simp lifi e d n om e ncl a tu r e in t h is p r ov inc e is indisp e ns ab l e
o ld d es i
g nat io n s o f G l ot t is v e r a a nd G l o t t is sp u r ia a s w e l l a s t h e
un if o r
Th e
.
,
msy d e sig nat ions o f Ligg t h y r eo a r yt ae no id e a su p e r ior a a n d in f e r io r a
a n d o t h e r s m a y o n th i
on b e t h r o w n ov e r b oa r d wi
t h o ut h es it at io n
s o cc a s i
T h e na m e s ac c e pt e d b y th e Co mmis s io n a r e
L a b iu m v o c a l e fo r t h e e n t ir e p r is m a t ic s t r u c t u r e
P l ic a v oca lis f or t h e fo l d o f m u c 0u s m e m b r a n e
c lu
.
.
,
,
Lig
M
.
.
v ocal e
v oc a l is
G l o t t is fo r
fo r t h e
e l a s t ic
b an d ,
fo r t h e m u s c l e ly in g in t h e
t h e v o cal app ar at u s and
vo c a l
l ip ,
R im a gl ot t id is fo r v o c a l s l it
Th e l a st t w o t e rm s a r e , t h e r e fo r e , d ist ing u ish e d in
.
O S , t h e m o u t h ; a n d R im a o r is t h e
Th e p h ys icia n s appl y th e mo r e
,
( po u chb a nd )
a d op t i
on
P l ica
L ig
M
.
.
t o the
f al se
v o c al
o r a l s l it
mil a r
si
se n s e a s
.
c on v e nien t
Ta s ch e nb and
wo r d
t h e ol d e r
c h or d s o f
a
a nat o
m ist s
B y it s
.
w e h av e
v e n t r ic u l a r is
T as c h e n fa l t e
v e nt r i
cu l a r e
[ fa l s e
[su p
T as c h e n b a n d
.
T a s c h e n fa l t e n m u s k e l
v e n t r icu l a r is
v o c al
c
h or ds ]
,
t h y r e o a r y t e n o id
[ l ow e r fi b r e s
of
ar y e
p ig l o t t id e a n m u s c l e ]
S inc e t h e slit , s u r r ou nde d b y th e t w o f als e v oc al co r d s ,
t h e G l o tt is
s p u r ia o f ol de r a n a t om i
f o r ms t h e ex it o f t h e v e s tib u l u m , it is c a ll e d
st s
.
t h e R im a
v e st i
b uli
.
Mm
T h e fo r m e r
.
t h y r e o a r y t a e no id e i o f t h e a u
t h o r s a r e n o w a s fo ll o w s
M
t he M
th e
.
.
M
t h yr e oa r yt ae n o id eu s int e r nu s
th y r e oa r yt ae no id eu s
ex
t he
M
M
.
.
t hy r e o a r y e p ig l ot t ic u s
( H e nl e )
t hy r eo a r yt ae no id eu s sup e r ior
M acu l a fi av a d e s ig n at e s t h e
a nd
at
t h e an t e r io r
p l ac e
e n d o f t h e Li
g
mu co u s m e mb r an e giv e s
sts o f a
si
t ub e r cl e
.
t hy r eo ar y t ae noid e us,
or
m e d ialis
( K r au se )
v oc a l e ,
w h ic h
s
t o t h e l a t t e r a y el l o w ish t in t
o f el as t i
c
v ent r i
c ula r i
s
o f a n e l a s t ic n o d u l e S it u a t e d
.
v o ca l i
s,
( H en l e )
t e r nu s
M
th e
.
h ining
.
Th e
.
w it h in
th r ou gh th e
no d u l e c o n
t issu e wh ic h Lu sch k a and F r an k e l int er p r e t e d
A N A T O M I CA L N AM ES
fi b r ous
as
car t i
lage
Macul a lut c a
B
F r ankel
Wit h t h is Macula
.
ns
r e m ai
wh ich
fl av a is
unnamed
.
in
131
.
not to
list ,
o ur
be
a
conf us ed
name
t he
w h ich
giv es t o t h e r e t icu l ar c a r t ilag e al so sh ining t h r o ugh t he
muco us memb r ane at th e p ost e r ior e nd o f t h e Lig vo cale and wh ich c ove r s
th e ant er io r end o f t he P r o c vo c alis c ar t ar y t ae no ideae Kr
(
.
7
.
.
Car t il a g o
c ar t i
lage,
c u n e if or
.
mis [ W r is b e r g i]
h as l at ely be en
o b ec t e d
j
T h e d e s ig n at io n,
.
by F r éinkel
W r isb er g s
’
8
becau se th e c ar t ilage
was a lr eady kno wn t o Mor g agn i a nd Campe r
A f t e r th e c ar t ilage h as
b e e n for su c h a l o ng t ime c a ll e d a ft e r W r is b e r g , a c h an g e o f n a m e a p
F r an k e l h ims e l f s u gg e s t s l e av ing t h e n a me
pe ar s t o b e ina d v is abl e
Car t cune ifor mis A s for t h e r e s t I r e fe r t o t h e v ie w s e x p r e sse d in
to
.
.
.
.
the
,
p e r s o n a l na me s
c r icot h y r e o id e u m [ m e diu m ] is
int r o d u c t io n in
r e g ar d t o
T h e Lig
p endent l igament , b ut t h e
.
mar gin
a n t e r ior
of
.
no t
e sse n t ia l ly
in d e
an
ma ny
t h at st r uct u r e wh ic h
mis t s h a v e d e s ig n a t e d a s C o n u s e l a s t ic u s T h e r e fo r e in p r e p ar a
t ions f r om t h e ant er i
o r s id e it s d e ep e r l at e r al m ar gi
ns a r e l ost inf er ior ly
w it h o u t d e mo n s t r abl e o u t l in e s T h e e n t ir e c o nus is b r o ug h t in t o v ie w
a nat o
if
.
a ft e r c u t t in g a w ay a
p ar t
s id e t h e
.
,
of
t h e p l a t e o f t h e t h y r eo id ca r t il ag e , o n e
M m cr ic oa r y t a e noide us l a t e r a lis t h y r e o
T h e n it app e a r s a s a y ell o w is h o b l iq u e
d eus an d v oc alis
a r y t ae n oi
mem b r an e w h ic h is c onnec t e d b e h in d w it h t h e Car t a r y t a e no id e a in
fr on t wit h t h e Car t t h y r e o id e a a n d in fe r io r ly t h r ou g h o u t w it h t h e
Ca r t c r icoid ea Th e u pp er ma r g in o f t h e co n u s fo r ms t h e Lig vocal e
S ince t h e ent ir e T el a submu c o sa o f t h e l ar y nx is r ich in elast ic t issue
it is d esignat ed by Laut h T ou r t u a l Lu s c hka an d ot h er s in it s ent ire ty as
Me mb r ana e l as t ica l a r y ngis T h e Co n u s e l a s t ic u s is t h e low er p ar t
le th e u pp er p a r t inclu ded b et we en t he
ca w h i
of t h i
s Memb r ana el ast i
P lica a r y e p igl o t t ic a a n d t h e Lig v e n t r ic u l a r e is cal l e d t h e M e mb r a na
Of t h e s e n a m e s t h e M e m b r a n a q ua d r a n g u l ar is a n d
qua d r a ngul a r is
re
mov es fr o m t h e
.
,
.
.
.
.
,
,
.
.
.
,
,
,
.
.
.
Co nu s
el ast i
cus
,
,
w er e
not ac cep t e d
by t h e Co mmission
Ar ch iv fu r La r y ng o l o g ie 1 89 4, B d I , p 1 4
° Ar ch i
v fi
ir Lar y ng o l o g ie B d I I H e ft 2
9 Co nus e l a s t i
n t in g
c us w as in c l u d e d in t h e l a s t p r i
7
.
.
,
”
.
.
.
.
of
t h e E NA
—
Ed
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M ES
1 32
F ig
7
.
.
.
La r y nx w ith p r ep ar ed Co nu s e l a st ic u s
T h e up p e r ma r g in o f t h e Conus f o r m s
Lig v o c a l e , t h e a nt e r io r m ar g in f o r m s t h e Lig c r ico t hy r eoid eum me d ium
C t h Car t t h y r e o id e a,
C cr C ar t c r ico id ea,
C a Ca r t il ag o a r y t a e no id e a
C e Co n u s e l as t ic u s ,
L v Lig v ocal e,
L c t Lig c r ico thy r m e d iu m
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
A n nu l u s
.
,
.
.
.
.
.
u r e t h r a l is v e s ic a e
I f t h e b l a dd e r
.
l engt h w is e f r o m in f r ont t h e b ou nd a r y
of
b ot h
and u r e t
hr a b e
s t r uct ur e s
is
op e ne d
sh o w n
by
a
p r o t r u ding a nnu l a r t h icke ning wh ic h w e c al l t he A nnu l u s u r e th r alis
T h e mo r e pow e r f ul t h e m u sc ul at u r e o f t h e bl ad d e r a nd t h e mo r e
v e si
cae
.
it is
I t
cont r ac te d , t h e
mor e p r om ine nt b ecome s t h is r ing s h ap ed t h icke ning
.
fi r s t p a r t o f t h e u r e t h r a ; n e v e r t h e le s s w e s h a l l s p ea k
sa m e r i
gh t o f a n Annu l u s u r e t h r alis v e sicae as w e spe ak o f a
sur r o u n ds
w it h t h e
t he
,
I t is for m e d b y t h e s t r o ng mu scl e b u ndl e s , su r
n di
n
ng in w i
r o undi
g loo p s t h e u r e t h r a l op ening, w h ic h w e w e r e h it h er t o
T h e Co m
a cc us t o me d t o d e si
g n a t e a s M s ph inc t e r v e s ic a e int e r n u s
mission d r o pp e d t h is d e signat ion and th e f u t u r e mu st t ell wh et h e r t h is
P o r t io
nal is u t e r i
v ag i
.
.
b e disc a
r ded
n ame r eall y c a n
.
.
T h e t r a n s it ion f r om bl a d der to
Wh e r e
a
hr a
w a ll
f ol ds
and
hr a
is
mpl est
si
t h e T r ig onu m Lie ut au di t ap e r s t o w a r d th e
n umb e r
ur e t
ur et
.
of
of s
mal l f an l ike
-
T he se
ar e
t h e lat t e r
—
.
ar e c onn e c te d
f or m in
the
C r is t a
w it h
in
j
a
l o ngit u dinal
u r e t h r a l is
e ach o t
on
c on u n c t i
mu cou s f ol d s p a s s
ng
co nv e r g i
co n t inu e d
in t h e f emal e
ng o f t h e u r e t h r a ,
o p eni
I
.
n
w it h t h e la t t e r
a
the
v er y
int o t h e
ov e r
r idge o n
nu me r o u s
h er by
.
th e po st e r io r
u r et h r a t h e s e l i
t t le
d e lic at e
c r o ss
b r idges
fi ne me sh wo r k
.
Th e
mu scul a r r ing lying at t h e t r a nsit ion fr om b l a dd e r t o u r et h r a g r adual ly
O n it s inn e r s u r f a ce st ar t ing
d imin ish e s and b lend s wit h t h is n et wor k
f r o m t h e f un dus o f t he b l a dde r t h e r e o r iginat e s a lo ngitudinal fib ro u s
.
,
,
l ay e r w h ic h
h e s d ee ply
r ea c
int o t he
hr a
ur e t
.
AN A T O M I CA L N A M E S
1 34
F ig
.
8
.
.
Dia phr agma p e ly is
F d i F a s c ia d iap h r a g m in f e r io r
.
Mu se l ev at o r ani
M c c M u s c c o ccy g e u s
M p M u sc p ir if o r m is
M o i M u s c ob tu r at or int e r nus
La
.
1
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Pd
.
.
s
.
.
F as cia d iap h r agm
.
.
in f r o nt
.
Th e
t iss u e w h ic h
p ar t
in it s
at e d
o f st r i
t issu e
S ph inc t e r
v e si
ca e
a c cept e d
By
wh ic h
u pp er
fi br e s
m u sc ul ar
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
s up er ior
ng o f
c l os i
.
F p F a sc ia p e l v is
F o F a s c ia o b t u r a t o r ia
S p h a e S p h inc t e r an i
.
.
.
.
.
.
t h is c l asp t o a
n
su r r ou n di
g
t he
a nd
int e r n u s
ng
ri
h as
p r o st at ic
ar e
t io n
n
c o ns i
st i
g
I sthmu s
.
c onn ec t s
m o r e p r o min e n t
l ob e s
of
an
is
b y m u s c ul a r
n it s l o w e r
a nd i
e ff e c t ed
ex
t e r nu s
.
at
of
p ar t
as
th e
t h e ot h er
ur et
hr a
Th e Commis sio n h as
M
as
n ot
p r os t at icu s
n a r r o w s t r ip o f su b s t a n ce
r e t a in e d o n ly
p r o s t at ae w e u n d e r s t a n d t h e
is p r e sent b e t w ee n t h e e nt r a nce o f th e
w h ich
.
.
I s t h mu s
j
t er nus
p a r t c o n s is t s o f s moo t h fi b r e s
H e nl e h a s d e sign at e d t h is as w el l
t h e s e t e r ms , b u t
i a nd
e ac u l a t o r i
ex
th e t wo l at e r al
t h e ir
b a se s
ind ep en d e nt
.
t he
ur e t
l ob e s
.
hr a
of
.
an d
th e D uct u s
t h e or g a n, w h ic h
T h e L ob u s m e d iu s is
p r omine nc e
ex
t ending
a v ar i
a
f r om
t he
A N AT O M I CA L N A M E S
F ig
A n t e r io r h al f
T r ig o n u m
of
lv is
B u l bu s
th e p e
l
.
a nd
u r o g e nit a e
.
co r p
c av
.
.
,
.
the
levato r
is c h iu m
T hey
.
t h e p r o s t at e
The
an a t o
sh ou
Ed
—
C o ll ic ul u s
mist s
co
,
mu s cle s
a ni
ld
6 F a scia in f e r io r diap h r a g m a t is
7 F a s cia o b t u r at o r ia
8 F a s cia p r o s t a t ic a
9 F a s cia s up e r io r t r ig o n i u r o g e n it a l is
O F a s cia in f e r io r t r ig o n i u r o g e nit a l is
.
.
.
.
.
I
.
T he
.
.
.
.
u r e th r a e
.
B l a d de r , P r o st at a ,
th e
t h r o u gh
.
.
.
.
se ct io n
.
.
of
F r o n t al
.
F a s cia p e l v is
2 A r c us t e ndin eu s m l e v a t o r is
3 A r cu s t en din eu s f a scia e p el vis
4 F a s c ia en d op e l v in a
5 F a scia s upe r io r diap h r a gm at is
1
9
.
1 35
.
he r e
ar e
.
.
r ep r e s e nt e d
in t h e
cur v e
.
o p p o s it e
as
a t t a c h in g
to the
r am i o f
d ir e c t io n f o ll o w ing t h e m a r g in
.
se
.
mp r ise s
min a l is
,
the
,
acc or d i
ng
g a l l in a g in u s o f t h e o l d e r
u s u a l d e sc r i
p t io n , t h e r ou nd is h
Ca p u t
t o th e
p r omine nc e o n w h ic h o p e n t h e V e sic u l a p r o s t a t ic a a n d t h e D u ct u s
i t og e t h er w ith a l o ng it u din al c r e s t r ea c h ing int o th e u r e t h r a
e jac u l at o r i
to
or
r e t ai
n
t h e p ic t u r e
of
t he
A cc o r ding t o t h e d e scr ip t ion
f r o m th e U v u l a
v e si
cae
h ea d
t o th e
.
We
D e cidu a
t he
s
s u lar i
in s t e a d
D e cid u a bas a lis inst e a d
wer e
de r e d
co n s i
wer e
acce p t e d
r e a s on
of
t o d r op t h e
of
D
t h e b ill
.
.
by
an e
,
.
re
flex
a and
s e r o tina
.
.
I
n th e
g r e at m aj o r it y o f th e Co m mis sion
n a me D e cid ua v e m
a
.
b all ot ing t h ey
Th e r e w a s
no
.
A c c o r d in g t o T o l d t t h e C o ll icu l u s s e m ina l is a n d t h e C r is t a ur e t h r a l is
H is C r is t a t h e r e fo r e c o m p r is es o n l y t h e
p a r t s o f t h e C ap u t g a ll in a g in is
3
ar e
an d
m ine nt gy necol ogist
na
r e fl ex a a n d s e r o t i
so e as i
l y m is
su i
t ab l e n a m e s
A f t e r s o me c on
r e qu e s t e d
t o b e su it ab l e fo r t h e p u r p ose
by
h e ad
.
w er e
D
th e
,
ex
p
ca
s ni
pe
p a g e I 3 3 t h e C r is t a u r e t h r a lis e x t e n d s
l o w e r p r os t a t ic p a r t s o f t h e u r e t h r a an d
w it h t h e C r is t a a s a lo c a l e nl a r ge m e nt 3
p r e ssion s D e c id ua
int e r p r e t e d b y b eg inn e r s , b y mo r e
si
d e r at io n th e t e r m s
r e p l a ce
to
the
on
t h e C o ll icul u s se m inal is b l e nd s
M e mbr a n ae d e cid u a e
of
l ow e r
.
p ar t
o f our s
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
1 36
.
C a v u m p e l v is O ur n o m e n c l a t u r e d iff e r s fr o m t h e cu s t o m a r y o n e in
s ev e r a l p o i
nt s
I t is ba s e d o n a st r ict sep a r at io n o f D iaph r a gma p e l v is
a n d Tr i
go n um u r oge nit a l e , a nd a s w e b eliev e is e a sily a pplie d
.
.
.
,
t h e p el v ic c av ity is e ffec t e d b y a mu sc u l ar
l e v at or ani a n d M coc cyg e u s, wh ic h h as b e e n
Th e in f e r io r t e r m inat io n
of
f u nn e l f o r m e d b y t h e M
v e r y a pp r o p r i
a t e ly d e s i
g n at e d b y H M e y e r a s D iap h r a g m a p e l v is
T h is musc u lar f u nne l is c ov e r e d b y t w o s h eat h s o f f a sc ia , th e u pp er o f
w h ic h we c a ll P a r s d ia p h r a g m a t ic a fa s c ia e p e l v is , a n d t h e l o w e r o n e
.
,
.
.
.
.
F a s c ia in fe r ior d ia p h r a g m a t is p e l v is
T h e r e l a t io n s o f th e F a s c ia p e lv is a r e k nown
ou r
.
It
.
l at e r a l
st s o f a
co n s i
p or t io n c ov e r ing t h e M l ev a t o r a ni a nd al so p a r t l y t h e M
int e r nu s , a n d o f a no t h e r p o r t io n r eac h ing t o t h e p e lv ic v isc e r a
h a s d e signa t e d t h e s e t wo po r t io ns as Pa r s p a r ie t alis an d P ar s
.
o bt u r a t o r
.
Lu sc hka
.
v is c e r al i
s
.
A t t h e p o in t w h e r e t h e o n e p a r t s ep a r at e s f r om t h e o t h e r , t h e r e lie s t h e
A r c u s t end ine u s o f t h e f as c ia
Th is ant e r io r l y is c ont in u e d in t o t h e Lig
.
t e r a le
p u b o p r o s t at ic u m l a
“
”
an d
wo r d s
p a r ie t a lis
p o st er io r ly
“v isc e r a lis ” a r e
a nd
b r a n e s ; b e s id e s w e p r e fe r t o S p e a k
P a r s e n d o p e l v in a o f t h e p e l v ic fa s c ia
of
.
S p in a isc h ii T h e
a p p li
e d o nly t o se r o u s m e m
j oin s
th e
.
P a r s d ia p h r a g m a t ic a
a
T he lat t e r t e r m w a s
an d
a
o r ig in a t e d
is g e n e r ally use d by th e p r esent V ienne s e s ch ool
Th e p r in c ip al
u s c l e o f t h e p e lv i
c di
aph r agm , t h e M
le v at or ani,
ori
gin at e s f r o m t h e po st e r ior s u r f a ce o f t h e p ub is a n d f r o m a t en d inou s
a nd
b y Lange r
ar c
m
.
.
int e r w ov en in t h e F a sc ia
h
t o t h e u pp e r p e lv ic
of
tur e
th e
ar c
h
r ea c h es
ob t u r a t o r i
us,
Can alis
w a ll o f
m a r gin ( th e
.
is t h e A r c u s t e n din e u s m u s c u l i l e v a t o r is
ar ch
T his
; bo t h l imb s o f t h e a r c h r e a ch
p ost e r ior u p t o t h e Lin ea t e r m in al is )
a
o b t u r at o r i
t h e p e lv is
in
in
ot
ex
he r
ani
.
Th e
cu r va
t r e me c a se s a lm o s t u p to t h e l e v e l o f t h e
c ase s
it
ex
t e n d s d e e p l y d ow n t o t h e l a t e r al
4
.
T h c p r e s e n c e o f t h e A r cu s t e n d in e u s m u s cu l i l e v a t o r is , it s in d e p e n d e n c e
fr o m t h e p e l v ic fa s c ia a n d t h e a s c e n t o f it s p o s t e r io r l im b u p t o t h e Lin e a
4
il iu m , I
B r a u n e a n d H is L e it fa d e n fiir d ie
h av e d is cu s s e d in
W hen w e
P r a e p a r a n t e n d e r a nat o m is c h e n A n s t a l t in L e ip z ig 1 883
(p
d e m o n s t r a t e in o u r a n a t o m ic a l l a b o r a t o r y t h e L e v a t o r , in a n y a s y mm e t r ic a ll y
of
a r c ua t e
the
.
div id e d p e l v is , t h e s e c o n dit io n s in e a c h p r e p a r a t io n a r e c l e a r l y b r o u g h t in t o
R e c e n t l y K o ll m a n n co n sid e r s t h e L e v a t o r a n i as o r i
v ie w
g in a t in g dir e c t l y
fr o m t h e Lin e a a r cu a t a A t h in c o n t inu a t io n o f t h e F a s c ia o b t u r a t o r ia r e a c h e s
.
.
f r o m t h e A r c u s t e n d m u s c u l i t o t h e Lin e a
w h ic h
c o nt inu a t i
on
be
in t e r p r e t e d m o r p h o l o g ic a ll y b u t n o t p hy s io l o g ic a ll y a s t h e t e n d o n o f t h e
T h e a r ch o f t h e t e n d o n ma y b e s h o r t e n e d b y t h e a s c e nt o f t h e
Le v a t o r
m u s c l e b u t it n e v e r ca n b e a b s e n t s in c e u n d e r all c ir cu m s t a n c e s t h e r e is me c e s
M o r e o v e r Lu s c h k a
a n d V as a o b t u r a t o r ia
s a r y a n e nt r a n ce s p a c e fo r t h e N
.
ar c u a t a
c an
.
.
.
s t a t es
( T o p o g r aph
L e v at o r
a nd
a nat o
mic
dc s
l
a ni o r i
g ina t e s a o n g a n e x
B eck e ns,
T tib ing en
q u is it e l y
s e m i u n ar
do e s
l l
is t
inj u r in g it
no t r e g u a r y e x
m u s c l e w it h o u t
”
,
.
nc e
si
l
1 86 4,
p
.
)
1 45
th at
l ine
of
t he p e
t e n dineu s
of
t h e f as c ia
Ar cu s
t h is s t r ip a s
t h a t a d ir e c t c o n t inu a t io n w it h t h e
t a inl y
the
.
'
l
a r u e ca n
l v ic
t he
fa s c ia
“c e r
b e d e t a c h e d fr o m
A N A T OM I C A L N A M E S
1 38
F ig
An t e r io r w all
.
.
1 0.
lv is
L p p Lig a
p r e p a r e d f r o m t h e p o s t e r io r s id e
m en t a p u b op r o s t at ica Th e t w o Lig g l a t e r a lia c u r v e up w a r d, t h e m e d iu m, cu r v e s
d o w nw a r d
O n t h e e f t t h e p r o on g a t io n o f t h e Lig p u b o p r o st a t ica at er a e o f t h e
is a id a r e
O n t h e r ig h t it is cu t o ff
On th e
A r cu s t e n d in e u s f as c ia e
in e o f o r ig in o f t h e e v a t o r a n i is s h o w n an d f o r s o m e dis t an c e
r ig h t t h e c u rv e d
O n t h e e f t is sh o wn
f o o w s t h e mar g in o f t h e T r ig o n u m u r o g en it a e ( T r u g )
M o i M u s c o t u r a t or int e r nu s, wh ich o n
e v a t o r is
t h e A r c u s t e nd m
th e p e
of
.
.
.
.
.
l
.
.
e it h e r
a
s id e
is
fl ex
or
l
.
ly
on
l
b
l
ll
c au d ae
Ex
.
bl e
v is i
l
.
.
l
.
.
p a r t ia y
l
.
l
ll
as
l
.
.
l
.
b
.
.
ce p t i
on ally
t h e r e e x ist s
an
in dep end e nt
s
mal l
mu scl e wh ich e x t e n d s f r om t h e il ia c p or t ion o f th e Line a t e r mina lis t o
t h e l at e r al m a r g in o f t h e sac r u m an d w hich o v e r l ie s m e dially t h e M
.
I g iv e a sk e t ch o f s u c h an ac c e ss o r y
discov e r e d no t lo ng ag o in t h e d is se ct ing r o om
c occ yge us
.
M
.
iliosa c r alis, w h ich I
.
F ig
.
1 1
.
La te r al p e lv ic w all w ith t h e in t er io r v iew
l a M l e v a t o r a ni
A t m
A r cu s t e n d in m l ev at o r is
.
.
M
.
.
.
of
l
t h e D ia p h r a g ma p e vis
.
.
.
.
.
.
Mu se co ccy g eu s
O i M ob t u r at o r int
M p M u se p ir if o r mis
I 3
I s a mu s c u l a r b an d des cending in d e p e nd e nt l y f r o m th e il iu m
th e s acr u m wh ich p a r t ially ov er l ap s t h e M coccy g e u s
.
.
c
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
,
Th e T r igo nu m
st r e t c
53
hes
as a
u r o g e n it al e
5a
( D ia ph r a g m a
d e n s e p l a t e in t h e fo r m
D iap h r a g m a
,
l
u r o g e ni
ta e
w as
l at e r
of a n
su
u r og e n i
t al e
to
.
o
f H enle )
in co mp l e t e t r ia ng l e , t r a n s
b s t it u t e d
fo r T r ig o n u m
l
u r o g e ni
ta e
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
ve r se ly
t h e p u b ic a r ch a n d
ac r o s s
l e av e s
it s
at
1 39
.
u pp e r
m ar gin
o nl y ,
j u st
b e low t h e Lig a r c u atu m, a s p ace f or t h e p assag e o f t h e V en a d o r s al is
Th e T r ig o nu m is f u l ly d e mo n st r a t e d f r om b el ow
p e nis ( s iv e c lit or id is )
in th e mal e if o n e h as smoo t h ly r e mov e d t h e Co r p or a c av e r nosa p e nis
.
.
t h e B u lb u s u r e t h r a e
a nd
I t s f r am e wo r k
.
c on s ist s o f
two
s t r o ng
t h e F a s c ia e t r ig o ni u r o g e n it a l is s u p e r ior e t in f e r io r
p late s,
ar e f u s e d t o g e t h e r a t t h e ir u p p e r a n d l o w e r m a r i
g ns and
Th e s e
.
flat
a
.
.
m a r g in
p r o t r u d ing
M
of
p e r in e i
t r a n sv e r su s
.
e n c lo s e
T h e Lig a m e nt u m t r a n sv e r s u m p e l v is is fo r m e d b y t h e
ns
o f t h e ir upp e r m ar g i
T h e l ow e r j u nc t io n l ie s a t t h e f r e el y
s p ace
j u nc t ion
f asc ial
and
T r ig o n u m
the
su p e r fi c ia lis
.
T he
imme dia t e ly
sp a c e
ab ov e
b et we en th e
t he
tw o
p l a t e s o f f a s c ia e is t r a v e r s e d b y t h e m e m b r a n o u s u r e t h r a w it h it s M
s p h in c t e r u r e t h r a e m e m b r a n a c e a e
I n t h is s p ac e lie t h e M t r a n s
.
.
.
p r o fu n d u s , C o w p e r s g l a n d s a n d n u m e r o u s v e n o u s p l e x u s e s
lo ng t h e l a t e r a l mar g in s r u n t h e N d o r s a lis p e n is an d t h e A r t p e n is
A b ov e t h e T r ig o n u m u r og e n it al e t h e r e l ie s in t h e ma l e t h e P r o st at a ,
’
v e r su s
.
.
.
the
ve
c o nne ct i
w h ic h , F a s c ia p r o s t a t ic a , u n it e s b e l o w
t h t h e Pa r s endo
s up er i
o r , a n d a b ov e w i
c a ps u le o f
t is s u e
w it h t h e F a sc ia t r ig
.
u r oge n
.
.
p elv in a f a sc iae p el v is
T h e s t a t e m e n t s o f t h e t e x t b oo k s
.
ng
co n c e r n i
t he
F a s c ia p e r ine i
u nde r s t a n d by
p r o p r ia a r e s o d iff e r e n t fr o m e a c h o t h e r , a n d s o h a r d t o
th e st u de nt , t h a t w e p r e f e r r e d t o e nt ir e l y o mit th e name
.
I t is
u s u a l ly
d e e p p e r inea l f a s c ia co n sist s o f a p ost e r io r s ingl e
Th e p o s t e r ior s ingl e p l a t e is o u r
p l at e a nd a n a nt e r io r div ide d o n e
F asc ia in f er ior d iap h r agm at is p e lv is ; t h e a n t e r io r div ide d o n e co n sist s
B u t t h e s ugge st e d p r e s e nt at io n is
o f t w o F a s c ia e t r i
g o n i u r og e n it a lis
u n d e r s t oo d
t h at t h e
.
.
in
of
w ay
no
a
t h o r o u gh o n e :
To l dt
6
,
f o r in s t a nce ,
co u nt s
t h e u pp e r f asc ia
t h e T r ig o nu m , a n d t h e r e f o r e n at u r a lly a l so t h e F asc ia p r os t at ic a , as
p e lv is ; w h e r e as G eg e nb a u e r c on s id e r s t h e r e g io n o f t h e
de e p p e r ine al f asc ia as ex t e n d ing b e y on d t h e P r ost a t a u p t o t h e Liga
“
D iv id e e t im p e r a
h ol d s g oo d
Th e p r incipl e
me nt a p u bo p r o s t a t ic a
of
p ar t
th e F
.
.
f o r g oo d d e sc r ip t io ns , a nd f r om my ex pe r ie n c e t he st u de nt s v e r y
t ion s t h r oug h a
on o f t h e r el at iv e condi
soon c om e t o a c l ea r c o nc e pt i
t
al e
n
m
r oge ni
o
u
u
sep ar at e s t u d y o f t h e T r i
g
Th e c onc e pt io n an d n o me nc l a t u r e appr ov e d o f b y t h e Commissio n
d iff e r s o nl y in im mat e r ial p o int s f r om t h o s e w h ich c olleagu e s T ol d t a nd
Z ucke r k and l h ad s u gg e st ed t o t h e Commission
a l so
.
.
D ia p h r a g m a
r e c t al e
M c o c cy g e u s
D ia p h r a gm a u r o g e n it a l e M t r a n s v e r s u s
M
.
l e v at o r
ani an d
.
.
.
1
.
2
.
F asc ia p e r ine i
F a s c ia p e n is
.
L e h r b u c h , p 405
.
.
s up e r fi cial is
.
p e r in e i p r o fu n d u s
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
1 40
3
4
.
F asc ia
.
F a sc ia in f e r ior
diap h r ag m a t is
su p er i
or
r e c t a li
s
d iaph r agma t is
6 F asc ia in f e r ior diap h r agm at is
Pa r s
Pa r s
Th e Pa r s
r e c t a lis ,
diaph r
8
.
the
mat ic a
in f r a d iap h r agm a t ica
su p r a d iaph r ag
an d
.
p h r agmat ica f o r ms wit h t h e F su p e r ior diaph r
F p e lv is p a r ie t a lis ; t h e Pa r s in f r a d iaph r wit h t h e F in f e r io r
.
t h e conn e c t ive t is su e cov e r ing
na
en d Op el v i
s ta t ica an d t h e
( Lang e r )
of
th e
.
C avu m is ch io r e c t al e
.
To it b e lo ng s t h e Ligg pubop r os
F a s c ia p e lv is v isc er alis
.
.
.
9 Lig t r a nsv e r su m p e lv is [ Winsl o wi]
1 0 A r c u s t e n di
neu s o b t u r a t o r i
us
.
.
.
.
t h e S ep t u m )
”
p e r ine a l f a s c ia e
Th e F asc ia
to th e
no t
.
.
.
F asc ia
.
t r iang ul ar e ur e
.
.
s u p r adi
a
r e ct a li
s
.
[ Lig
isch io
.
o b t u r a to r i
a
.
[ Ligament u m
u r og e ni
t al is
.
7 F ascia
.
u r oge nit al i
s
.
t h r ae ]
.
r e c t alis
5 F as c ia su p e r io r d iap h r ag mat is
p r o st a t ic u m ]
.
( or
‘
r e c t ov e s i
c ali
s
b el ong s t o t h e Pr ost at a
a nd
.
"
i
i
i
r
n
W e av o d ed, d ffe g f r om H e nle, t h e t er m Diap h r agma u r ogenit ale
b e c a u se t h e t e r m do e s no t fi t t his sca r c e l y mo v a bl e p l at e
T h e D ia
.
ph r agma p el v is lik e t h e d ia ph r agma o f th e t r u nk s h ou l d b e a n a p p a r a t u s
w h ic h h e lp s t o acc ompl is h t h e co nt r a c t io n o f t h e c o nt a in e d inne r sp ac e
Th e M t r a n sv e r s u s p e r in p r o f c a nno t
p r e s su r e
ng in t h is r e sp e ct
e nt i
r e mo d e o f a c t i
on d o a ny t h i
n al
a b d om i
in
ing to it s
.
.
.
a c cor d
.
P e r it o n a eu m
al
a sp ec i
.
As
.
d is c u s s ion
M e mb r a n a
8
t h e p e r it o n ae u m so me fe w n a m e s
r e gar ds
r e q u ir e
.
m e s e n t e r u p r o p r ia is
t h e c o n n e c t iv e t is s u e l a y e r
l e ft
r e m ov a l o f
b ot h p e r ito n e al lay e r s, w h ich is t h e c a r r ie r o f t h e blo od
‘I
a nd l ymph v e sse l s , t h e l ym p h gl an d s , t h e ve i
ns a n d a d ip os e t is sue
a ft er
-
.
M es en ter ium
l o op
mmu ne is
th e
t h e int e s t in e whic h l at t er
of
th e Colo n
as c e nd e n s a nd
o m e n t a lis
Th e B u r s a
or
s up e r i
a na r r ow
S piege l
co
’
s
and
me sent e r y
s ur r ou nd s a
t r a nsv e r su m
lob e
ex
of
th e d uo d enum
an d
1
is d iv id e d int o t h e V e s t ib u l u m, t h e R e c es s u s
t end s
and ov er
par t
.
t h e Rec e ssus in f e r ior
p a ssa g e
t h e e mb r yo nic u mb ilical
of
.
F r om t h e f o r am e n
of
m e dian w a r d be l o w t h e P r o c e ssu s
Winslow
cau d at u s o f
t h e Par s s up e r ior d u o d e n i an d b e yo n d t h e
T h is t e r m w a s l a t e r a c c e p t e d b y t h e C o mm is s io n
° T h is w a s c h a n e d t o La m ina i
Ed
n t h e fi na l l is t
g
9
T o l d t ( 5 An ti v o n La n g e r - T o l d t ) A na t o m ic , W ie n
7
—
.
Ed
o n,
h ea d
.
—
.
.
.
1
H is
,
W a s c h s t hu msv e r h
me n s c h l ic h e r E m b r y o n e n
T o l d t , B au
A n a t o m ie
a nd
.
de s G
I I I
,
p
.
e k r os e s ,
3 2 fi
.
1 89 3 ,
etc
.
3 21
W ie n
p
,
.
.
1 8 79 ,
an d
A N A T OM I CA L N A M E S
1 42
b u t h as b e e n
ne w ,
or
b y F r e n ch
u se d
au t
r u n s ob li
qu e ly ove r
P a r a m e t r iu m
T he
.
the
e
.
.
,
is t h e
p e r it o n e a l
c o nst an t
mp ty b l a dd e r ( A b sth )
.
p r e s s io n w as
ex
f al cifo r me
( Ligame nt u m
S app ey T e st u t )
ho r s
g r a n d e f a ux du fo ie ; s e e C r u v eil h ie r ,
P l ic a v e s ic a l is t r a n s v e r sa [ W a l d e y e r ]
f ol d w h ic h
.
of
in t h e in t e r e s t
a c c ep t e d
the
B y P a r am et r iu m is d e s ignat e d
ph y s ic ia n s w h o spe ak o f a p ar ame t r it is
t h e l o o s e t iss ue w hic h s u r r o u n d s t h e p r o m in e n t v e s s e l p l ex u se s ly ing
.
.
b e s id e t h e
u t e r u s a nd
sp a c e
an d
Co r p u s
l ay e r s
B u r sa
.
I ts
.
lat um
.
o v a r ii a n d
e n d ex
upper
inv est ig at io n s ,
u t e r ine
.
o v a r ic a
F os s a
[ Cl au d ii]
,
.
t h at t h e
t h e o v a r ie s , lie s
a nd
C l a u d iu s , 6 in
.
t
h
on e i
g y e ig
b as e d
c o n t e n d e d v e r y e n e r g e t ica ll y
l ig am e nt s
co n v e r g in g
b e t w e en t he
t ends
u t er i
Ue b e r d ie Lage d e s Ut e r u s
p ap e r ,
w id e
uter i
t h e Lig
of
I t o cc u p ie s t h e t r i
p ar t o f t h e v ag in a
na , t h e C oll u m u t e r i,
v a u lt o f t h e v ag i
upp e r
l a t e r a l f r om t h e
ang u l a r
t he
th e
c l os e
s
a
h or t
mor t em
in c l u d ing it s
ht
s
o
t
p
uter us,
t o t h e p o st e r io r u p p e r
Th e ov a r y is sa id t o lie
p e l v ic w all l ike t h e l u ng s t o t h e c o s t a l w a ll
h o r iz o nt a lly o r w it h a s ligh t ly in c lin e d ax is in t h e sh a ll o w g r oo v e o f t h e
F o s s a o v ar ii, w h ic h l a t t e r is s a id t o b e s u n k in t h e a dip o s e c o n n e c t iv e
.
t iss u e at t h e u pp er
of
is
ex
it
sa i
d
t ilio n is
m ar g in
of
th e V as a g l u t ae a
of
to be
e nt i
r e ly
sup
se p ar at e d
h al f
A c co r din g t o C l a u d iu s
p a t h ol og ic a l
u nt e n a b l e
co n d it i
on s
as
a n a t o m ist s ,
is
of
r e f e r e nc e
p e l v is ,
.
,
t h e o th e r
f r e e b ac k w a r d
of
t h e a x is
an
.
.
ob l i
qu e
.
.
,
p o s it io n
.
Th e
ar c
I n f u nd i
l ie
m
on
ta ;
th e
n
en t e r i
g
s t r ic t
mp ar e
th e
co
inv e st ig a t o r s,
a ny r e a l
d iff e r e nces
t h e l at e r al w a ll o f t h e
one
s u r f a ce
is d ir e c t e d
m a r gin fo r w ar d
is
of
v e s se l s
al
th e
of
a nd
8
t h e o v ar y an d t h e
.
.
su s
Th e
.
.
.
.
.
G e s e ll s c h a ft 1 888 p 4 5 ff
V e r s a mml u n g d e r a n a t
T his A r c h iv e 1 88 1 , p
H is U e b e r d ie L a g e d e r w e ibl ic h e n E ie r s t oc k e
W al d e y e r , A n a t An z e ig e r 1 886 p 44
B er ic h t e d e r
2
.
.
,
.
.
'
.
.
3 98
to
ut e r u s t h e o v a r y
.
.
th e
most p a r al l e l
s a p p e y m a k e s a d is t in c t io n b e t w e e n h is g r a n d e f au x a n d t h e Lig
p e n s o r iu m ; t h e fo r m e r bl e n d s w it h t h e l a t t e r a t t h e m a r g in o f t h e l iv e r
umbi
lic a lia
e
a
r e t h e t h r e e Li
f
u
x
S
a
f
i
t
e
a
o
e
t
s
g
g
p
p
y
p
6 Z i
M e dic in , 1 865 B d X X I I I , p 248 if
ir r a t io n
e t s c h r ift fi
7
ly
mp r e
ls
.
.
nce
si
co
ov a r y
p o s it io n s
ova r y
.
ist s
ex
a tt ach e d
ax 1 s o f
c
a s y mme t r i
n
l o ng e r
no
l at e r a l w a r d t h e
I
O va r iu m
p r ov e n t o b e
o f gyn e c ol o gis t s a n d
e sp e c ial l y
ov a r i
es
Th e
T h e l o ng itu d in a l
th e b od y
th e
u t er i ar e
A mo ng t h e l a t e r
7
imm ed ia t el y b e l o w t h e Line a
me d ianw a r d
t ak e s
m e nt h a s
s t at e
may
o ne
B a r d e l eb en
ov a r i
es
t o th e
of
t h at th e
so
an t e fl e x e d
and
t ed
h e n s iv e w o r k b y K
8
n
n
t
m
i
t
s
the r e
n
l
o
i
t
a
d
a
a
o
s
,
gy e c o g s s
in
t h e p oint
t h e F o s sa o v ar ii an d b e h in d t h e
t h r ough t h e inv e s t ig a t ion s
wh ic h
fa c e
su r
dow nw a r d
a nd
T h e l at t e r
n
co n ce r ni
g
of
in f r ont
an d
f r om t h e in t e s t in e s b y t h e A l a v e sp er
t h e T u b e f o ll o w s t h e u pp e r m a r g in o f
a nt e v er
.
s h ow n
.
.
b ac k w a r d
t h e ov a r y a n d t h e n t u r n s
b u l u m lie s in t h e l a t e r a l
p ir ifo r m is
Th e a n t e r io r
.
A cc or d ing t o Cl au diu s
.
M
the
.
,
.
.
.
A N A TO M I CA L N A M E S
sur r o u n di
ng
fol d for m fo r it ,
as
well
as
1 43
.
f or the t ub es,
a
kind
o f su sp end
ing l ig a me n t ,
t h e L ig su s p e n s o r iu m ov a r i o f t h e Co mmis s io n
S inc e th e st at ement s o f Clau diu s c oncer n ing th e posit ion o f the
.
.
o var y
pr ove d t o b e unt en able w e ar e no lo nger j u st ifi e d in sp e aking o f a F os sa
c a [ Cl au di
o v ar i
i]
The g r eat maj o r ity o f t h e t ex t -b ook s avoid t h is t er m
.
W
a l d ey er ,
w ho
9
.
ll u se s
st i
it , is in
ac c o r d
wit h t h e
ne w st andp oint ,
d e fi ne d
Th e
gar d s h is c oncep t ion o f t h e po sit io n o f t h e ov ar y
Fossa o v a r ic a r e f e r r e d t o b y him, t h er e f o r e , c anno t c oinc ide a s t o loca
t ion a nd d ir e ct ion wit h t h e F ossa o f Cl au d ius
ab ov e ,
re
as
.
.
Th e B u r s a
o va r ii is n o t
la tt e r is d e sc r ib e d
f or me r
nam e ,
as a
to b e
c o n fu s e d
d eepe n ing in t h e f a t
u n d e r st a nd a n
we
w it h t h e F o s s a
of
ov a r i
ca ,
t h e pe l v ic w all
t uat e d
si
int r ap e r it o nea l ly
By t h e
.
po u ch
w h ic h
.
T h us,
Th e f u r t h e r at t ach ment
g R aub e r g iv e s th e follo wing de s c r ip t io n :
t one um wh ic h r ec e iv e s th e ov a r y in
o f th e o v ar y is ca u se d b y t h e p er i
t h e B u r s a o var ic a , w h ic h is s it u a t e d in t h e p o s t e r io r
a s h a l l o w po u c h
e
1
.
.
,
l ame ll a
t h e f r ont all y pl a ce d Lig l at u m u t e r i l ying in th e po st e r io r
”
I f o r my par t d o n ot accept t he f r ont al
p ar t o f t he l at er al p elv ic w all
of
.
.
u t e r i l at u
posit io n o f t he Lig
pelv ic cavity and is
.
at t a c
h ed
m her e
latt er with it s l at e r al p or t ion s in a
wh ile it s middle p ar t f o llows t h e mov e
,
th e l a tt e r , app r o a ch a
I n spit e o f t h is d iff er ent conc ept io n o f t h e po sitio n
t ion giv e n b y R a ub e r o f t he B ur s a
c on s ide r th e d e fi n i
.
.
.
th e Lig l at um , I
i as a p e r it one al f ol d t o b e
ov ar i
of
.
u n d e s t o o d a s a s l it
u p wa r d ,
sl
it is
of
lik e
s p ac e
f or war d, b ackw ar d
c au s e d
t h e ov ar y
by th e
a tt ac
ant e v e r si
on o f
at e
v e r y app r op r i
an d
-
T h is B u r sa is t o b e
.
s u r r o u n d s t h e o v ar y
w h ic h
hment o f
l ike
t
s li
Th e
.
it is wid e r t h an t h e
t o t he
mor e or l es s sagit t al po s it io n
ment s o f th e u t e r u s , an d w ill , e g in
h or iz on t al po s ition
u ph e l d , sinc e
T he l at er al
p ar t ly me d ianwa r d
M e sov ar ium a t th e ant er ior mar gin
al s o
the
s p a ce s
.
in fr o n t
o f, a b o v e , an d
ov e r l ie
of
.
t he
t h e B u r s a is
“
W
1
a
b e h in d t h e
b y t h e loo p l ik e ma n n e r in w h ic h t h e t u b e s u r r o u n d s
B u t s in c e t h e l at t er , a s I at t h a t t im e e x p r e s s e d it , m a y
t s m e d ia l s u r fa c e , lik e a p air o f c u r t a in s , t h e r e g io n
ov ar y a t i
ov ar y ar e c a u s e d
t h e o r ga n
l a t e r a lw ar d ,
l dey e r l
,
.
n gl y
c o r r e sp o n d i
c
.
p
.
e nl ar g e d
( F ig
.
44
.
R a ub e r , Le h r b u c h d e r A na t o m ic
.
Le ip z ig
1 892 ,
II
,
p
.
67 3
.
A N A T OM I C A L N A M E S
1 44
F ig
S ch ema t ic sk e t ch f o r th e
Ov Ov a r iu m
I T I s t h mu s T ub a e
I n f I n f un d ib ul u m
Ll Lig l a t um u t e r i
.
ex
.
p
12
.
l a na t ion
.
.
M s M e so sa l p inx
M o M e s ov a r iu m
.
.
.
.
.
B l B u r sa ov a r ii, p ar s l at e r al is
B m B u r s a o v a r ii, p a r s m e d ial is
.
.
.
.
are
s ep a r a t e d
f r om
o th e r
e a ch
A n g io l o gy
I f w e w is h t o
c o n ne c t
w it h it s d e v e l o p m e n t w e m u s t
of
m u sc u l a r
th e
t h e one
.
.
m o r p h o l o g ic d e s c r ip t io n
-
st a r t
w it h t h e in it ia l
Th e t w o limb s
.
b y t h e M es o v a r ium
of
t h e l o op
of
l ik e
l oop
c r o ss e a ch
th e
h ear t
c o n dit io n
ot
and
h er
l imb is p l a c e d b e h in d t h e o t h e r e ff e r e nt
T h e f o r m er
Th e p os
to w a r d t h e l e f t , th e l att e r asc e nd s t o w a r d th e le f t
.
.
l imb
v e nt r i
cle ,
of
t ub e
the
.
a ff e r e nt
d e sc e nd s
t e r io r
.
.
.
.
t h e B u r sa o v ar ii
.
.
C or
of
.
.
pa r ts
.
of
the
t h e ao r t a
p u l mo na r y
r ou n d s t h e
th e h ea r t
a nt e r i
or
ns
co nt ai
t h at
of
Th e b ulb l a t e r
.
ar t e r y
e
A
.
t h e anl a g e o f t h e
an d
t h e l e ft
t h e r ig h t v e nt r ic l e a nd th a t o f t h e
on
b e c o m e s div id e d int o t h e
ng s h a p e d
ri
mb r y onic h ea r t
at r i
a
tube
ao r t a and
S u l c u s in t e r v e n t r ic u l a r is
and o n
t h e inner
su r
b u lb
th e
e ar ly s u r
f ace t h e r e
c or r e
t h e m u sc u l ar S e pt u m int e r
p r o t r u ding f ol d o f t h e w all ,
T h is p r im a r y r in g l ik e s u l c u s is p r e s e r v e d in t h e fu l l y
v e n t r ic u l a r e
I t st a r t s a s th e S ulc u s int e r ve nt r icu l ar is a nt e r io r , e x
d ev e l o p e d h e a r t
sp o n d s
t o it
a
.
.
t ends
u nd e r
the A
.
nist r a
co r on ar i
a si
a nd
b eh ind t h e
r o ot o f
t h e ao r t a
in t o th e po st e r ior int e r v e nt r ic ul a r g r oo v e an d en d s n e ar t h e a pe x o f t h e
h ea r t c losing t h e r ing Th e mu scu la r S ep t um int e r ve nt r icu l a r e o f the
h e ar t also f or ms a close d r ing, w h ich p as ses b y t h e C analis aur icu la r is
.
at
t h e r igh t , an d
b y t h e b ul b
of
th e
ao r t a at
t h e l e ft
T h at p a r t o f t h e
a or t a ca n b e t r ace d
.
S ep t u m mu sc u lar e e nd ing at th e e nt r anc e o f t h e
t h r o u g h o u t l ife a s a dis t in c t l y p r o t r u d ing t h ic k e n ing
—
,
the
L im b us
A NA T O M I CA L N A M E S
1 46
F ig
.
1
3
.
.
P o st e r io n h al f o f h uman h e ar t h a r d en e d in ch r o m ic acid
Th e fi g ur e s h o ws
t h e d emar ca t io n o f t h e S in u s v en a r u m by t h e Cr is t a t e r mina l is ( C ) an d t h e
j unct ion o f t h e S ep t u m in t e r me d ium d e s cending f r o m th e a t r iu m with t h e S ep t um
.
,
.
mu sc ul ar e
l
.
int e r ve nt r icu a r e
.
O f t h e p ar t s o f th e d ev e l op e d h ea r t d e signat e d b y sp e c ial n ames in
t h is o n t o g e n e t ic r e v ie w , t h e S in u s v e n a r u m , t h e S u l c u s a n d t h e Cr is t a
t e r m in a l is a n d t h e
V e na
v ein
3
a
d eg e n e r a t e d
w h ich
c a v a e s in i
st r ae
3
s u p r av e n t r icu l ar is
ar e
in c l u d e d in t h e l is t
M a r s h al l
o b l iq u u a a t r ii s in is t r i d e s i
gnat e d
is
s in i
str a
C r is t a
so
~
re
m n a nt
me t im e s p e r s is t s
b y t h e E n g l is h as
of t he
e mb r y o n ic
V
c av a
.
as
a
t h in l ig a m e nt
t h e L ig
—
.
’
.
s
s up
V
.
.
.
.
Q ua in s A nat o my
'
,
10
E d it
,
b y S c h a e fe r
and
T han e
,
V ol
.
I I
,
P ar t I I
,
p
.
A N A T O M I CA L N AM E S
F ig
1 42
.
1 4.
.
Post er ior v ie w o f an in j e ct ed h u m an h ea r t
Th e fi gur e s h ows t o the r ig ht
S ul cu s ter mina lis ( S ) which t e r mina t e s th e ve nous sac, an d be l ow t h e V cava
in f er io r , th e App endix a u r icu la r is ( A ) ; on t h e l e f t a t r ium is se en t h e Lig v
c a vae si
nist r a e ( L)
.
.
.
.
.
T r ig ona fi b r os a
ar e t h e
N o du l i v a l v u l ae mit r a l is
of
H en l e
.
V e na ju g u lar is ex t e r na , V e na ju gu l ar is a nt e r io r , V e n a me d ia na
c o ll i a n d
A r cu s v e n os u s j u gu l i
O n a ccou n t o f t h e v ar iab l e
ns i
r e l at i
t is h ar d t o p ict ur e a n a b solutel y
ons o f t h e su p er fi c ial j u gu l ar v e i
t y p ic a l c o n dit io n 4 T h e V j u gu l a r is e x t e r n a is t h e t r u nk o r ig in at in g
f r om t he V a ur ic u lar is and V occ ip it alis, wh ic h is connec t ed by a s h or t
I t d es c e nds closely
int er me dia t e b r anch w it h th e sy st em o f f acial v e in s
domas toideu s a t an acut e
u nde r th e p l a t y sma, c r os se s t h e M s t er nocl e i
nd i
t s Ca p c l av icul a r e a nd u suall y op ens int o
a ngl e , ex t en d s d eepl y b e h i
A p air e d v ein ly ing in f r o nt o f th e M s t e r nocl eido
t h e V subc lav ia
mastoid eu s wh ic h is o f t en d esigna t ed a s th e V s u bcut anea colli, we call
.
.
.
,
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
,
H c r e w e may r e fe r
Ed it , V o l I I , P a r t I I
‘
10
,
.
,
to the
p
.
51 4
.
ill us t r a t io ns b y T h a n e in
Q ua in s A nat o my
'
,
1
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
48
V
the
a n t e r io r
j u gul a r is
.
fac il is
j o ins
w it h t h e
sy s t e
m
the
of
V
.
V e n a me nt al is ; b e l o w it g e n e r a l ly
t e r na and r uns ab ov e or b elow t h e M
r e ce i
v es
a nd
a n t e r ior
A b o v e it
.
.
t he
in t h e V j ugula r is e x
s t e r n oc l e id o m a s t o i
Th e t e r m V m e d ian a c oll i w a s u s e d b y t h e
deu s
Ol d e r a nd l at er a na t omist s as syno nymo u s w it h t h e V j ugu l a r i
or
s an t e r i
Op e ns
.
.
.
“
.
.
.
A cc or d ing t o t h e c onc ept io n O f t h e C ommission t h e t er m V med iana c olli
is t o b e r e ser ve d f or t h e some wh a t se l d om v a r ia t ion O f a n unp a ir ed tr u nk
.
.
A r cu s
w h ic h is f ound
an t e r ior e s ,
a
j u g u l i is
v e n osu s
Vv
t h e t r a n s v e r s e u nio n o f th e
me t ime s in th e j ugular fo ssa
m es
and so me t i
so
lit t l e h ig h e r up
V e n a au r icu l ar is p os t e r io r
T h is v e in e mp t ie s in t o t h e V j u g u l a r is
t e r n a a nd t h u s d ep a r t s f r om th e h omo nym o u s a r t e r y ; n ever th el ess it
.
.
ex
j u g u l ar e s
.
.
.
r e t a in s
n am e
it s
V e na e
th e n a m e s
sup e r
b r ac h ii
cu t a n e ae
Of
fl uous
t h e cu ta n e o us
th e O l d ,
a nd
c ult y
on
ns
vei
t o t h e s t u d e nt
inapp r op r iat e t e r ms, V
.
th e
e ty
ar e
we ll
a w ar e
t h e a dv isa b ility O f t h is c h a ng e o f n ame s
to
mak e
c ep
h al ica
wh ic h is
of
e n t ir e ly
d iffi
t h a t t ime
al o n e c a n
d e cid e
.
Th e p a r u m b il ica l v e in s , d e s ig n a t e d p a r t ly a s
’
’
S app ey s and p a r t l y as B u r ow s ve ins, r e maine d up t o t h e mo st r e c e nt
t im e s su b j ec t s o f d isc u ssion , an d t h ey nee d a d e t ail ed ex pl a nat ion
At
Vv
p a r u m b il ic a l e s
m ol o g y
a d ap t
a n d ag a i
n a n d a r e al wa y s a s ou r c e O f
B ut w e
.
v er y
t r ie d t o
c u t an eo u s ner v e s an d
t o th e
n a me s ,
.
.
.
in t r u t h
Th e l a t t e r
V b a silic a
myt h ic al, a r e co n f use d t im e
a nd
W e h ave
b r ac h ii
a nt i
ct
.
.
.
fi r st I may
giv e t h e d esc r ip t io n w h ic h B r a u ne giv e s in h is
’
I f t h e Lin e a al b a b e incis e d
S a pp ey s v e in s ( 1 c p 6 3 if )
’
f r om th e u mb ilicu s t h er e is f o und a fib r ou s c a n al ( R ic h e t s
.
.
can al
)
in w h ich , in
,
of
b u nd l e
s
mall
.
.
t ion
a ddi
.
T h e se
.
.
i
v e ns,
w h ich l a tt e r
Amo ng t h e s e S app e y s v eins, on e u sually
b e me nt ione d
nt o t h e po r t a l sy s t em o f t h e l i
v e r an d
s o n e l e ad s i
si
z e ; th i
.
ep i
ga st r ica
su p e r i
or
ar e soo n
to
ex ce ll s
b y it s
c at es
co mmu ni
t h r o ugh th e V e na p ar u mb ilic a l is
I t s v alv e s ar e t u r ne d t o w a r d t h e l iv e r
ipho ide a
ll qu e st io nable , b u t t h inks t h at
v e r s ti
o n to th e l i
r el at i
x
l ic al
u mb i
d e s ignat e d b y B r au ne Vv
f ou r o r fi v e small t r u nk s wh ich
’
.
on
up w ar d s
ar e
T h e y c omp r is e
p a r u mbil ic al e s [ S app ey ]
’
t h c u t aneou s ve ins and B u r ow s
c on n e c t w i
w it h th e l e f t V
or
t o t h e u mb ilical ve in , t h e r e r u n s a w h o l e
v e ssel s
v e n ou s
wk
.
B r au n e l e av e s it s
.
ng
an O p e ni
int o t h e
n
n g e ne r ally d oe s no t occu r , no r h a s it an Op eni
umb ilic al ve i
g int o t h e
S inu s v e nae por t a e O nly o nce w as it f ou n d t o e mp t y int o t h e umb ilical
.
B r au ne po int s t o his f u r t h e r inv e st igat ions c on c e r ning t h e po r t al
Th ese inv e s t igat io n s h e w a s u nabl e t o p u b lish , b ut in o ur inst i
s y st em
Th e se
t ut io n t h e r e ex ist u np ub lish e d d r a wings int end ed f o r t he wor k
n
v ei
.
.
.
.
5
I t is t h u s d e s ig na t e d b y Ra u b e r , Ana t o mic
1 89 3 ,
Vo l I I
.
,
p
.
181 .
1
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
50
F ig
1
.
.
F ig
5
.
F ig
.
.
1
6
.
15
.
R ep r e se nt a t ion O f t h e sy s t em o f v e in s o f t h e a b dom ina l w all a s d escr ib e d b
y
’
B u r o w in t h e h u ma n f o et u s
I h av e int r od uce d
( I M ull e r s A r c h iv e
s p e cial nam e s f o r t h e d i
v is i
o ns o f t h e s y s t e m t o m a k e e a s ie r t h e e x p l a na t i
o n and
w it h o u t cl a im t o p e r m an e nt a dop t ion
h at B r au n e ca ll s B u r o w ’ s v e in s a r e th e
W
’
V v u m bil ic o v e s ic a l e s
B ur o w s v ein o f B a umg a r t e n is t h e V s up r au mbil ica lis
V u V e na u mb il ic al is
A n u A nn u l u s u mb il ical is d o tt e d
V s u V e n a s u p r au mb il ic al is
V e g i V ep ig as t r ica in f er io r
V e n V e n a ep ig ast r icoumbil icalis
V v n V v e sica e um bil ic al is
Ves u V es u r ina r ia
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Fig 1 6
S ch em e o f t h e v e ins o f t h e ab d om in a l w a ll a nd O f S a pp ey s v e in s in th e a du l t ;
'
’
c o ns t r uc t e d a f t e r B r a u n e s a n d p a r t ly a f t e r B a um g a r t e n s d a t a
V u V en a mb ilic a lis o bl it e r at e d w ith t h e e x cep t ion o f a s ma ll r ema ining
.
.
'
.
q
.
.
c a na
.
V s u V e n a s up r au mbil ic a l is
V v p u S S a pp e y’ s p a r umb il ical v e ins
V e g i Ve na e p ig a s t r ic a in f e r io r
V pu x
V en a p a r u m b il ic al is x iph o id ea
th e V e p ig ast r ica s up er io r
V eg s
V u v V e na e u m bil ic o v e s ic al e s
V u e V e n a um b il ico ep ig ast r ica
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
co
mp lic at e d
b ec o m e s t h e q u est io n
n ot e
r e ad s
9
.
n
a n d u nc e r t a i
of
the
so call e d
th e
h uman
-
t h an th e qu e st io n o f
’
B u r ow
ns
s v ei
.
S ap pe y
B u ro w
'
s s
'
s
h o rt
8
T h e V e na
he s
w ith
.
ns
v ei
r ea c
.
a na s to-m o s i
ng
.
.
M uc h m o r e
.
( B r au ne )
epi
g ast r ic a O f
the l ev el O f th e umb ilic us
T his A r c h iv e
1 83 8,
p
.
44
.
a
fo et u s giv e s O ff b e fo r e it qu it e
b r a nc h r u nning inwar d , wh ic h j oining
A N A T O MI CA L N A M E S
a
b r a nc h f r o m t h e
ng
c or r esp ond i
cl o se ly a d a c e nt
j
and
c av i
ty ,
e
Vv
”
B ur ow
.
ep i
gas t r ic a e
.
as
’
u
.
mp t ie s in to
int o t h e liv e r
th e
to t he V
ot
mb ilical is
t he
V
d r a wing
s
f ar
as
s
ho w s
s
th e
u
l it t l e
ne
ute r i
1
.
.
v e s ic ou
3
.
4
.
des
si
A
r is i
ng
th e u r a c h u s ,
T h e r e f or e B u r o w
.
’
m
con s is t s
s sy s t e
.
Vv
as
co n ne c t e d
w ith t h e V v
c p iga s t r ic o u m b ilic a l e s
.
l it t l e t r u n k fo l l o w ing t h e b l a d d e r
a
co
p e l v ic pl ex u se s t h e r e com es a n u np air e d ve in t o
a f t er a f or k e d d i
vi
si
th t h e t wo
o n an a s tom o se s w i
Fig 1 5 )
t w o l it t l e t r u nk s
b e d es ig n a t e d
2
e nt r a nc e
an d
mb il ic u s w h ic h
t r u nk s c oming f r om t h e
( se e
Of
b e f or e it s
v e ss e ls
a nd
.
f r om t h e
ab d omin al
in t h e
m ing f r om
l ic u s, a n d f r om t h is
u mbi
n
sm a ll t r u n k a c co mp a ny i
g
t h e t wo
po int o n ar e a n a st omose d t o f or m a commo n
t h e V u m b il ic a lis
B u t a lo ngs id e t h e b l a d d e r
.
t r u nk w h ic h is
a
r u ns
h o r t ly
b e lo w t h e
sep ar a t e d
it
as
um b il ic alis
.
fo r ms
d e,
si
h er
1 51
.
m b il ica l is
j u n c t io n
.
w h ic h m ay
.
a nd
V
.
m o t icu s
.
t he u r a chu s, o r
a
.
ri
ng n e ar
t h e u mb il ic u s ,
r e d co l l e c t i
a n u np a i
ng v e s se l
in g in t o t h e V
i
e pi
g ast r cae,
.
u
mb ilic a l is
,
ly ing
t he
V
t h e C ir c u l u s
t h e u mb ilic u s a n d emp t y
a bo v e
l ica l is
s u p r au m b i
.
a nas t o
[ im p a r ]
.
H e n c e it f ollo w s t h at t h e t e r m B u r o w s v e in s is amb ig u ou s a nd b y t h is
ng s
n a m e v a r iou s au t h or s u n d e r s t o o d d iff e r e n t t h i
B au mg ar t e n u nd e r s t a nd s b y B u r o w s v e ins a n u np air ed t r u nk a sc e n d
ing a bo v e t h e u m bil ic u s and O p e n ing int o t h e V u mb ilic a l is B au mga r te n
d e mo ns t r at e d t h is t r u nk a s c on s t antl y occ u r r ing in c h ild r e n so on a f t e r
b ir t h ; h e s u r m is e s t h a t t he s a m e al w ay s p e r s is t s in t h e a d u l t and t h a t
it m ay p a t h olo gic all y w id e n in c ir r h o s is o f th e liv e r
’
.
’
.
.
.
B r a u n e diff e r s in h is de s cr ipt ion
Of t
he se
t ion s
c o nd i
sp e ak s
in th at h e
W h at B r a u n e de s ig nat e s b y t h is nam e
in t h e p l u r a l
l icu s f o ll ow ing t h e u r a ch u s a nd a n st om o s ing
n s b e lo w t h e umb i
a r e v ei
B r a u ne w a s a l wa y s a b l e t o d em o n st r at e o n e
w it h t h e Vv e p iga st r ic a e
Of
B ur o w
’
ns
s v ei
.
.
.
or
mo r e
a nd a
su c
w e ake r
a d u lt
lit t l e t r u nk s in t h e
h
h t o ne T h e s e
h old s g oo d f or
ri
g
.
; in
t r u nk l e t s
o n e c a se
c an
a
l e ft
s t r on g e r
b e inj e c t e d
o n ly
one
d o wn w a r d
tr u nkl e t s t o t he Vv e p iga s t r ica e
B r a u ne w as ne v e r ab l e t o find in t h e a du l t a c l ose d v e nou s r ing o n t h e
inn e r sid e o f t h e u mb ilic u s , b u t h e su cc e e de d r ep eat e dly in fi l l ing f r om
n th e n e i
s ub cu t a n e ou s pl e x u s e s i
gh bo r h oo d o f t h e u mbil ic u s t h e v e in s
and
the
s am e
th e
.
.
,
an d
l e ad ing d o w nw a r d t o t h e bl a dd e r
Vv
the
r i
a
t
ep i
s
cae , a n d u pw a r d s
g
.
th e p a r umb ilic al v e in s
A s ma tt e r s th u s st a nd it is b e t t e r t o d r op t he name
.
an d
t o sp e ak o f
wh e r eby th e
t h e d ir ec t ion
upw ar d,
.
.
u m b il ico v e s ic a l e s
fi
si
gn i c anc e o f
Of
th e b l oo d
I s h ould
T h is V
Vv
s up r au
l ik e t o
t h e s e n a me s
c u r r e nt
.
s u gg e s t
mb ilic al is
and
Vv
h all
a l so
s
F or th e
i
ve n o
t h e n am e
V
.
.
ns
s v ei
u mb il ic oe p iga s t r ic ae ,
imm e dia t ely d e sig na t e
f B u r ow
s u p r au
ngl y r u n s u p
a cc o r di
Of B u r o w
’
t o it s
’
s s y st e
m b ilic a l is
j u nc t ion
m go ing
.
wit h t h e
A N A T O M I CA L N A M ES
1 52
p ar u mbilic al
B r au n e,
ns
v ei
on e e x ce l s
a n y r el a t i
on O f
t e n ds t h a t t h e
migh t
a s o ne
d e s ignat e d
la tt e r
by
a
B u r ow
’
d e r ab l e
c on s i
t o t he or ig inal
S ap p ey
ie
.
.
,
n o t see m
ac c ep t
ze
si
Wh ile
.
l ica lis ,
u mb i
.
s v e in s
as a r e
ng
a c co r d i
(th e
to the
m n an t
t o S app ey
a nd
S app ey d en ie s
B au mg a r t en
c on
V p ar u mb il ica l is ma j o r
mino r es ) is al w ay s to b e
of
.
th e V
l ic a l is
u mb i
.
T h is
.
m e t o b e p r ov e n b y B a umga r t e n Ev e n
at a ll O b v i
o u s h yp o t h e s is O f B au mg ar t e n
to
t h e , n ot
may
V e in
’
V
st i
nc t ion
c ont r adi
n,
s v ei
d oe s
w ill
O f t h e l att er ,
.
mo r e
s t r o ng e s t o f
t e r m it in
as
o ne
S app ey
ns
v ei
h is
c o n t e nt i
on
t h e n , if
of
.
.
,
o ccas io n al ly
h igh j unc t io n r eac hing
n c om p r e h e n s i
it nev e r t h e l e s s r em
ain s i
bl e h o w a c h anne l
ver
u p to t h e l i
p ost e r ior ly dir e ct e d t o t h e V umbilicalis co u l d op e n any wh e r e e l se b u t
into t h e S inus v e n a e p o r t a e
I f I s u mma r iz e t h e p o int s imp o r t a n t f o r
t h e n om e nc l a t ur e a nd e st ab lish e d b y Ob s er vat io n in t h e a dul t t h e n t h e r e
B ur o w
t h at
’
s
h
a ve
a
,
.
.
ex
is t s
:
A B OVE
U M B I LI CU S
TH E
p a r u m b il ic al e s
b ilica l r egio n t o t h e liv e r
I Vv
.
p any ing t h ese Vv
2
.
V
Op e n s
s u pr a u
.
int o t h e
d e s ign-at e s
as
.
upp e r
“
e nd
3
.
TH E
w h ic h
t r u nkle t s
ns
ve i
th e
V
p r e s e nt
’
l ica lis
u mb i
.
Of
so
V
th e
n
Vei
s,
)
w h ic h
( B aumg ar t en
.
me
.
.
t r u nk l et s o f th e
s up r au
mb ilicalis )
.
:
.
m b il ico ve s ical e s ( B r a u n e
u
O p en
in to t h e
cal
ve si
or
’
B u r o w s v e in s ) o n e or
Wit h t h ese
p elv ic p l ex u s e s
’
s,
.
ana s t omO -s e a t ac u t e ang l e s t h e
4 V v u m b il ic oe p ig as t r ic ae w h ic h
Vv ep ig ast r ic a e in f e r io r e s p r o f und a e
.
.
B ur ow
s,
S c h al t v e n e n
ind epend ently
s ub st an c e
m
A ecom
u
U M B I LI C U S
The V v
mor e
ar e
of
’
fr o m t h e
a sc e n d
a nd
mb ilic al is ( B au mg a r t e n
int e r c a l at e d
F ur th er t h er e
w ih ch
p e ne t r at e into it s
p ar u mbilica l e s t h e r e a r e :
ng
n s O p en i
a b do min a l v e i
BELOW
[ S a pp e y i]
.
op en o n
b ot h
s id es
in t o t h e
.
.
bo ve t h e u mb ilic u s ca r r y t h e blo od u pw a r d t o t h e
T h e v e ins ly ing
l iv e r o r t o th e V e p iga st r ic a su p e r io r s inist r a ( B r a u ne )
b el o w t h e u mb il icu s ca r r y t h e b l oo d d o wnw a r d int o t h e p e lv ic pl ex u s or
T h e p a r u mb ilic al v e ins a s w ell as t h e ve in s O f
int o th e Vv ep ig a s t r ica e
v e ssel s
The
l ying
a
.
.
.
.
g r ou p s
r eg i
on
3
a nd
4
or i
g inat e
in
cu t aneo u s v enou s
p l ex
u ses
in th e
lic al
u mb i
.
Fo r
O b v iou s -r e a so n s o u t O f all
'
th e
v e s sel s
b r ou gh t u nd er discu s s mn,
t a k e n in t o o u r l is t s in t h e
p a r u mb il ca l e s [ S ap p e y i] w e r e
W e c ould not dec id e t o t ake up th e Venae por tae
s e ns e o f B r au ne
I n my op inion it is n e ce ssa r y fi r st O f
o r e s o f S appe y
a e s up e r i
acces s or i
nj e ct i
ons o f t h e ir r e l at io ns to th e
al l t o h av e c l e ar e r p roo f d one b y fi ne r i
o nly
the Vv
.
.
.
l o b ul e s
of
t he l iv er
.
A N AT O MI CA L N AM ES
1 54
impo r t ant
s t r uct ur e s
Ob e c t i
o n ab l e
j
con c ept i
on
th e
Of
se c t i
o ns
c r os s
.
.
p r in c ipl e is
al
n a m at e r i
Obt ai
T h e l at t e r
f ar t h at it woul d b e p r e f er abl e al so to
a nd d e s c r i
p t ion o f t he int e r nal nu cl e i and t r a c t s
in
so
t ime b e ing we ar e o nly p ar t ia lly ab l e to
d o t h is
Fo r t h e
.
f or th e p r e sent , t h e
p e die nt
a nd
p ic t u r e s o f c r o ss s ec t io ns se r v e a s a n av a ilab l e e x
T w o y ear s ago I d isc us s e d our plan o f div ision O f t h e b r ain,9 an d I
hav e h e r e only to r ep eat in e s se nc e wh at I t h en s aid B ase d o n o nt o
.
-
.
g e ne sis, w e h av e r e t a in e d t h e t h r e e m a in p a r t s O f v B a er , w h ich w e c all
R h o m b e n ce p h a l o n, M e s e n ce p h a l o n, a n d P r o s e nc e p h a l o n
T he lar g e
.
.
b r a in
C e r eb r u m
or
of anat o
my
th e R h o m b e n c e p h a l o n w e
a nd t h e
M e t e nc e ph al o n
nar r o w
p ar t
a nd
fo ss a
se co n d ar y
I
me d u lla r e
I s t h mu s
e nd
of
,
.
w h ic h is t h e
t h e r ho mbo id
a nt e r i
us
Th e P r os e nc ep h alo n is d iv id e d in t o
.
t e r ms
T he
.
p r im a r y
and
p r ima r y and seco n d a r y h in db r ain, we r e avoid e d
ce r e b r al t u b e o f t h e h u man emb r yo O f t h e fo u r t h w e ek
t r a n sv e r s e
n s
ri
g
t o b e d iv id e d in t o a
s o a l so
p ar t s I n
M y el e n ce p h al on
a l so
p r im itiv e
si
x p ar t s o f t h e b r ai
n
s iv e
in d e p e n d e n t p a r t , t h e
sur r o u n d ing t h e u pp er
T e l e n ce p h a l o n
an d
f o r eb r a in,
n th e
the
dis t in g u is h e d b e s id e t h e
n a me d
t o wh ich b e l ong amo ng o t h er st r u c t u r e s t h e B r achia con j u nc t iv a
D ie n c e p h a l o n
t he
mp r is e s t h e t w o l a s t
an
t h e b r a in
of
th e V e lum
a nd
,
co
.
e nu
( F ig
d o r sa l
m e r at e d
a b ov e a r e r e p r e s e n t e d a s s i
x
E ac h
.
of
a n d a v e nt r a l
in t h e b r ain t h e d ev e l op me nt
of
t h e se r ing s
h alf r ing
-
.
t h e n e r v ou s
As
s u cce s
we m ay s u p pos e
in t h e sp inal co r d
su b st an ce
is
co n
fi ne d
m idd l e por t io n
O f t h e fl oo r a n d t h e r oo f ( th e fl oor p l at e and t h e r oo f p la t e ) f or t h e m os t
Th e Lam ina ch o r ioid ea ep it h e lia l is O f
p ar t r e m a in t h in a nd e p ith e l ial
t h e t h ir d a nd f o u r t h v e nt r ic l es t h e Lamin a t e r mina l is an d t h e T ub e r
n e r eu m a r e s u c h m e d ia n p a r t s o f t h e w a ll o f th e pr i
ci
mitiv e t u b e w h ic h
h av e r emain e d t hin Pon s Ch iasma C or pu s callo s um Lamin a quad
ri
g e mina and Ve r m is c e r e b e ll i app a r e nt ly f or m e x cep tions to t h e ab o ve
r ul e
H o w t h e s e app ar ent e x cept ion s a r e b r o u ght ab out , must r emain
t o t h e t w o l a t e r al h al v e s
of
th e w all
of
t h e t ube , w h ile t h e
.
,
.
,
,
,
,
.
u nd iscu s se d
h er e
.
T wo l a t e r a l l o ngit u d ina l g r o ov e s e ar ly m ar k off th e mar gin o f t h e
v e nt r a l a nd d o r sa l h a lv e s o f t h e c e r eb r al t ub e ( th e b asal p l a t e s and al a r
T h e s e a r e t h e S u l c i l im it a n t e s
A ll
p l a t e s o f m y fo r m e r p a p e r s )
.
mo t or
.
medianw a r d
S u l c i limit ant e s , b u t t h e
a li
e d o r sal o r l at e r al w a r d f r om t h e s e
so c al le d s e n so r y g a ngli
I n the
f u lly d e v e l op e d b r a in t h e ma r ginal gr o ov e s a r e p r e se r v e d almost t h e e nt ir e
le ngt h ; in p l ac es t h e b a s al p l at e s a r e r a ise d b y a r ch ing s u pw a r d o r f u sio ns
nuc l e i
l ie
v e n t r al o r
of
th e
—
.
Of
t h e a d j ac e nt r egion s Of t h e wall
ma r ginal gr oov e s d iv e r ge
n e r e ae
ci
o
.
S up er io r l y t h e y
Th is A r c h iv e
1 89 3 ,
p
.
.
I
de
al ong s i
acco
172
11
.
mp
any
n
t h e C al amu s
the
sc r i
p t o r iu s
me d ial ma r gin
Of
th e t wo
th e
Al ae
t h e Emine nt iae t e r et e s as f a r as
A N AT O M I C A L N A M E S
t h e t r ansit ion in t h e
A qu ae du ct
1 55
.
B ot h Fo v eae in fer ior
.
and
or
su p e r i
m o f m a r ginal g r oov e s
B et w e en t h e fo v eae is in
na l g r o ov e
c h t h e ma r g i
c l u d e d t h e a r c h e d m a s s o f t h e A r e a ac u s t i
c a by w h i
is p ar t ly co v e r ed I n t h e r egio n O f t h e I sth mu s t h e fl oor o f t h e m ar g inal
g r oov e s is ve r y mu c h r a ise d b y f u sio n o f th e wa ll s H e r e t h e c ons t it u e nt
b el o ng t o t h e
sy s t e
.
'
.
.
p a r t s o f t h e o r igin ally v ent r al h alf o f t h e t ub e ar e p u s h e d int o t h e
A s im ilar co n d it ion
o f th e do r sa l h al f an d t h e l at t e r p u s h e d a sid e
.
in t h e midb r a in, in t h e l ume n
a l so
.
of
w all
T h a l a m e n c e p h al o n
he r
o n e it
si
de
int o
v e nt r i
c le
t h e t h ir d
and
H y p ot h al am u s
in t h e R e ce s s u s
o p t icu s
b r ain
th r o u g h t h e
c at e d
a r ea s in di
s e ct ion
mon th w ith
.
of
1
a
h er
s id e
or
an d a s up e r i
t h e l at e r a l
p ar t ,
.
7
.
h u ma n
em
bry o
at
t h e en d o f th e
I M y e l e n ce p h al on
I 2 Par s do r salis
.
1
1
.
Pa r s
.
l is
v ent r a
.
.
.
.
I I M e t e nc e ph a l o n
I I 2 C e r eb e llum
.
II
1
.
Po ns
.
.
.
.
I I I I s t h mu s
III 2
.
.
III
.
1
.
Pe d u n c u l i
ce r eb r i
.
the
T h e S u l c i Mo n r o i t e r m in a t e
.
.
,
ist s
in t o t h e S u l c u s
m a n n e r div id e s
infe r ior
an
F ig
M e dia n
ei
t
on
ch a r ac t e r i
sti
c
a s t r ic t ly
w h ic h in
,
ex
wh ic h t h e t wo ma r ginal g r oo v e s a r e
At t he ant e r io r e nd o f t h e a qu a ed uct
Of
p r e s ent t h r ougho u t it s e nt ir e l e ng t h
t h e m a r g in a l g r o o v e s a r e co n t in u e d
M on r o i
ty
c av i
.
B r a ch ia
me d a nt
.
.
.
c on unct i
v a,
j
fi r st
A N A T OM I C A L N A M E S
1 56
IV
IV
1
.
IV
.
.
V
V
1
.
.
2
.
Co r po r a quad r igemina
V 2 Th al amus
V 3 M e t at h al amus
.
.
.
.
.
.
t h a l amus
VI
VI
1
.
.
P ar s
.
a nd
V 4 Epi
.
.
.
T e l e nc e p h a l o n
hyp ot hal ami
o pt i
ca
.
D ie n c e p h al o n
hypoth al ami
Pa r s m am ill ar is
.
M e s e n c e ph al o n
.
Pe d u nc uli c er eb r i
.
.
VI
VI
.
.
.
2
.
C
.
st r i
at u
m
.
3 Rhine ncep h al on
P allium
and
.
VI
.
4
.
.
F ig
.
1 8.
T his a s w e ll a s s e v e r a l o f t h e fo ll o w in g fi g u r e s w e r e t a k e n fr o m t h e p ap e r
u b e r d ie a ll g e m e in e M o r p h o l o g i
e d e s G e h ir n s
( t h is A r c h iv e ,
B r A r ch o f P on s
P s H y p o t h al am u s ( Pa r s sub
C O Ch ias ma op t icum
t h a l a mic a )
C s t Co r p u s s t r iat u m
R Ol f ac t or y l o b e
E Emin e ntia int e r p e d uncu l a r is O f
v R A n t e r io r O l f a ct o r y l ob e
I s t h mu s
h R Po s t e r io r o l f ac t o r y l ob e
F ch F is s u r a ch o r io idea
R g R eces su s g e niculi ( R e g io n o f th e
P i F o ssa in t er p e du n c ul ar is
g enicu l a t e p r o min en c es )
R p R e ce s s u s p os t e r io r
R m R e ce s su s ma m ill ar is
R a R ece s sus a nt e r io r
R i R ece s su s in f un d ib u l i
R o R ec es su s o p t icu s
H b T e gme nt al t hick en ing
b Ce r eb ellar h emisph e r e s
S m S u l c u s M on r o i
T e T ub er c ine r e um
I I sth mu s
Th Th al amu s
L t Lamina t e r minal is
Z Ep ip hy sis a nl ag e
M Co r p us mamill ar e
Mh Ro of o f mid b r a in
‘
'
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
As is kno w n th e d iff er ent p ar t s O f t he c er eb r al t ub e par ticip ate in it s
f ur t h e r d e v e l op ment in v e r y u nequ al degr ees Wh ile some par t s like t h e
n f ar b eh i
nd ,
na l e minenc e s and t h e H ypo t h al amu s r e mai
i
m
i
a
r
e
u
d
g
q
ke th e h emisph e r es O f th e c e r ebr um and c er eb ellum gr eat ly su r
ot h e r s l i
T
h
nat ing
h
ngs b y t h e ir p owe r ful gr owt h
e p ar t s or i
i
r r o un d i
i
r
s
u
a
e
t
ss
g
p
.
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
1 58
t h e ot h e r s t o t h e l a st t r ansv e r se
i
r ng O f
.
t h e p r imit iv e c e r eb r al t ub e
We
.
diff e r e nt ia t e t h at p a r t O f th e H ypo t h a l amu s b el onging to t h e D ie ncep h alon
as P a r s m am ill ar is , t h a t p a r t b e l o n g in g t o t h e T e l e n c e p h a l o n a s P ar s
o p t ic a
On
.
in d e s c r ip t io n s
not
t h e s m a ll
a c c ou n t o f
,
of t h e
w a ll
F ig
M e d ia n
ber s
se e
F ig
s e c t io n
.
17
t e nt o f t h e t otal
p u t m u c h w e ig h t
m ay t h e s am e a s
b o t h p ar t s a n d w e
o p t ic a h y p o t h a l a m i a s p a r t
.
ex
t h r ou g h t h e
a du
lt
on
o ne
mu st
t h e g e n e t ic d iv is ib il it y
h e r e t o fo r e
of
r eg i
on
t h e t h ir d
c o n s id e r
t he
v e n t r ic l e
of
Pa r s
.
.
h u m an
b r a in
For
.
ex
p
l a n a t io n
of nu
m
.
T h e Th a l amen c ep h al on , ly ing ab ov e th e S ulcu s Mo nr o i is div id ed in t o
t h e T h a l a mu s p r o p e r , t h e E p it h a l a m u s a n d t h e M e t a t h a l a mu s
Th e
.
m p r is e s t h e g e n icu l a t e b o d ie s a n d t h e ir s u r r ou n d in g s Th e E p i
t h a l a mu s c o m p r is e s t h e h a b e n u l a r s t r u c t u r e s a n d t h e C or p u s p in e al e
l at t e r
co
.
.
me C or p u s p in e a l e w as r e t a in e d for t h e r e as o n t h a t b y it a
T h e w o r d E p ip h y s is
q u it e d e fi n it e fo r m o f E p ip h y s is is d e s ig n a t e d
is a g e ne r al t e r m u se d f o r diff er e nt ou tg r ow t h s o cc u r r ing in th e r oo f o f
The
old na
.
t h e P r ose nc ep h a lo n
b r at e
m al s ,
a ni
epi
p
.
I
r o o f - r eg i
on O f
th e
n
th e D ie n c eph al on , in
ve r t e
g r o w o u t f r om a t le a st th r e e d iff er e nt pl ac e s :
1
nd
T h e Co r p u s pine al e o r igin a t e s a t
an d b e h i
h y se s
in f r o nt , in t h e middl e
'
.
.
mp a r at ively l at e
Th e p a r t s o f t h e h emisph e r es e a r ly d iff e r e nt ia t ing f r o m ea ch o t h e r a r e
A ll t h e
t h e P a ll iu m, t h e C o r p u s s t r ia t u m a n d t h e R h in e n c e p h a l on
t h e po st e r ior e nd
of
t he
c l e , an d
v en t r i
it
app e ar s c o
.
.
ot
h er
h e ir
I h av e
a nd t
1
h o r n o f Ammon Co r pus c allosum e t c a r ise l at e r
h ist o r y n e e d s h e r e no discu ssio n
mar y p ar t s o f t h e
n t e d h e r e t h e s y n c p t ic al t ab l e s o f th e p r i
r epr i
p ar t s , F o r nix
T h is A r c hiv e
,
,
,
.
1 89 2 ,
p
.
3 66
.
.
,
A N AT O M I CAL N A M E S
br a in p u bli
s he d o n an e a r l i
e r c ommon
“
wit h t h o se us e d in F ig s 1 7 ,
,
.
an d
.
mar k
re
1 9, 20
.
i
1 5g
nu me r a ls
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
1 60
M e d u l l a s p inal is
of
t he
cor d
The
t r ac t
We
T h e t e r m F u n icu l u s is
.
; F a s c ic u l u s fo r it s
s in g l e
tr acts
used
L at e r al pyr a m id a l
l a t e r a l is
a n t e r io r
and
A nt e r ior p y r a m id al t r a ct
F a s c ic u l u s c e r e b r o s p in a lis
c a l le d
fo r t h e l a r g e d iv is io n
.
an d
c o n v e n t io n a l
ar e
.
.
t o d o t h is
b ecau se t h e s t u dent s, as ex p e r ienc e s ho ws ,
al way s h av e d i
ffi cult y in d ist ing u ish ing f r om e a ch o t h e r t h e c onc ep t io n s
o f t h e p y r a mid s py r am ida l c or d s , p y r amid al t r ac t s an d al s o ev e nt u al ly ,
T h e py r am ids, ac co r ding t o t h e ol d e r c on cep t io n
p y r a m id al c e l l fi b r e s
2
O f B ur da ch,
a r e e x t e r n ally mar k e d O ff
p ar t s in t h e M e d ul l a o blo ngat a
w er e
o b li
ged
,
.
.
s o c al l e d
Th e
—
p y r am id al
u p on
a pp e a r
sup e r
co r d s ,
in t h e
in s p e c t io n
fi cia l
m a s s es b e l o ng in g t o t h e p y r a mid s
m id a l co r d s o f t h e P o n s T h e s e ,
b e lo w
mar k
up w ar d, a nd
a
S inc e
in
is k n o w n, in c r e as e in b u l k fr o m
m a ny
ot
he r
c o r ds o f
t h e c e nt r a l s y s t e m ,
p a t h w a y w h ic h is e n t e r e d b y fi b r e s O f a d iff e r e nt c h a r ac t e r
’
F l e ch s ig s f undame nt al r e se ar c h e s on t h e o r g aniz a t ion o f t h e
.
c e nt r al sy s t e
u sed
t h u s l ik e s o
a
n
as
.
wh ic h
c or d s
p r o l o n g a t io n o f t h e fi b r ou s
t h is s e n s e w e s p e a k o f t h e p y r a
as
I
.
fib r ou s
Ol d er se n se , a r e
m
,
t h e t er ms p y r ami
d al c or d a nd p y r amidal t r a ct
mor e
ll
a sti
f r om t h e c e nt r al
p y r amid al t r act s
al s e n s e
spe c i
co nv o l u t i
on s O f
h av e been
f o r t ho se fi b r e-b u n dl e s w h ich d esce nd
th e
c er e b r u
m int o th e sp inal
c or d
.
Th e
in t h e py r amidal co r d
o f t h e P on s , f or m o nly o n e p a r t a nd n ot a ve r y l ar g e p ar t O f i
The r e
t
’
B u t a r e l at ion b et we en F l ech sig s
f or e th e c o nc ep t io n s a r e diff e r e nt
p y r amidal t r ac t s a nd t h e p y r am idal c e ll s o f t h e c er eb r u m c an b e e s t ab
of
F l ec h sig
,
alt
h ough
n ed
co nt a i
.
.
lish ed
B ut
nc e
si
her e
t h e f o r me r
a l so
t h er e is
f r o m p r o c e ss e s o f t h e py r amidal cel l s
p ossib ilit y o f a conc ise de s igna tion since a p r e
or i
gina t e
no
.
dominant p ar t o f t h e p y r amidal c ell s O f t h e c e r ebr al c o r t ex h a s not h ing
I f w e de signa t e t h e
in co mmo n w it h th e p y r amid al t r act s O f Fle c h sig
l at t e r a s F a sc iculi c e r eb r o spinal e s w e ar e in h a r mo ny w it h t h e alr eady
or
F asc icu li c e r eb e ll osp inal e s
ng l at e r al c er eb e ll a r t r ac t s
ex i
st i
Th e
.
.
g r o und
b un dle
S t r angr est e
or
of
F lec h sig we
h ave
t r an slat ed
as
F a s c icu l i p r o p r ii
.
V e nt r icu l us qu ar t u s
p a r t s : a P a r s infe r ior
.
a nd a
[ C al amu s
v ent r i
cl e
s cr ip t o r i
us
is div id e d in t o t h r e e
]
,
a
P a r s int e r m e d ia ,
T h e mo s t in fe r io r p a r t b e l o ng s t o t h e M e d u l l a
a nd i
s sur r ou nde d by t h e Co r po r a r e s t ifo r mi
a
At t h e p oint
P ar s
ob longat a
T h e fou r t h
wh e r e t h e s e
s u p e r ior
.
.
a r e s u r r ou n d e d
b y th e N
t h e Pa r s int e r me dia b eg ins ,
and
coc
.
f ur t h e r
h l e ae
and
is
on
t h e R ec essu s l at e r al is ,
el o ng at e d
into t h e
r eg i
on
Th is is th e b r o a de st p a r t o f t h e r h omb oid
b e t we en t h e B r ach ia po nt is
fo s s a , b ut it pa s s e s o v e r into t he nar r o w p or t ion a t t h e u pper e nd O f
Th is na r r ow por tion, t h e P a r s sup e r ior , b elongs t o
t h e F ov ea s up e r ior
.
.
B u r dach, B au u n d L e b e n d e s G e h ir ns
b e t w e e n Py r a mid s a nd Py r amid a l c o r d s
2
.
.
II
,
p
.
32
.
B ur dac h d ist ing u is h es
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
1 62
O f s ep a r at i
on
t h e t a en iae
e r ly
me r a t ed
wer e
si
d er ed
t ub e ;
th e t a enia e
t h e r e fo r e
al s o
T h ey
und e r
m a r gin s
ar e
mu s t
t h ey
in d ic at e
p r e s e r ve d
a v ar i
e ty
ev e r y w
e ve r yw
h er e
st r i
ae
n am e s
of
.
f or m
he r e
,
clo sed
r e c u r r en t
l in e s
.
t h e line s o f d em ar cat ion b e t we en int r a
su r
f ac e
t r a ns it io n al seam s a r e t h r o ugh ou t
f r o m t h e me d u llar y
h ems w h ic h f or m
M or p ho lo g ic al ly c on
fi ne lin e ar
as
t h e ar t ifi cial o p e ning s in t h e b r a in
Of
t r av e nt r icu l ar p a r ts o f t h e
an d ex
sh ar p
e nu
ar e
.
wh ic h
th e b r a in
of
o ur
Th e t ae n ia e
.
diff e r e n t ia t e d
n om en c l a t ur e
w ith t h em
ar e c o nn ec t e d
as
We
.
t h er e
d is t ing u is h t h e T a e nia t h al ami f r om t h e S t r ia m e d u ll ar is ; t h e
T aen ia c h o r io id e a ne a r t h e Lam ina a ffi x a f r o m t h e S t r ia t e r m in a l is t h e
fo r e
T ae n ia f or nic is
fi m b r ia e f r o m t h e F or nix
et
n s at
v e nt r icu li q u ar t i b eg i
Th e T a enia
an d
t h e O b ex
,
t h e F imb r ia
.
p a sses in f r ont
of the
Fu nic u l u s g r a cilis an d t h e F u nicu l u s c u n e a t u s , a nd go e s
o b li
qu e ly o v er u po n t h e C o r p u s r e s t ifo r m e which l at e r ally s ur r ou n d s it
A S t h e m a r g in O f t h e R e ce s s u s l a t e r a l is it d e s c e n d s d e e p l y t o wa r d t h e
en d
th e
Of
.
,
b ase
,
b u t fu r t h e r
a
j o in t s
t h e c e r e b e l l u m fo l l o w ing t h e
sta
V e l u m m e d u l l a r e p o s t e r iu s
I t s m e dia l
p o in t w h ic h t o n g u e l ik e a s ce n d s o v e r t h e N o d u l u s
F lo c cu l u s
fo r m s
on
an d t h e
.
lk
e nd
of
the
p ie c e
.
T h e T aenia
cl e
v e nt r i
a
t he
Of
t h ir d
nuo u s
co nt i
st r i
p
f o r m s w it h t h at
v e nt r i
cl e
in w h ic h w e
of
the
l a t er al
d ist ingu ish t h r ee main
c an
p ar t s
th e T ae nia t h al am i,
t he T ae nia
c
h or ioid e a
th e T a en ia f or n ic is
a nd
a nd
fi mb r ia e
.
T h e T ae nia th al a mi b eg in s in f r on t O f t h e C p ineale and f oll ow s o n
ei
t h e r sid e t h e f r e e m a r gin o f th e S t r ia m e d ull ar is it c ont inu e s into t h e
.
pl a t e w h ic h l in e s t h e Pl ex
al
n a r r ow ep it h e l i
F ig
Cr o ss
s ect ion
t h r o u gh t h e
T el a
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
The fi gu r e sh o w s th e t r an sit io n
Pl ex u s c h o r io id e i
.
l i t et t u
a nd
.
.
of
th e
it s
on
it s
s u r r o un d i
ng s
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
med iu s
.
S t t S t r ia t e r m in a l is
V t V e n a t e r m in a l is
L La mina a ffi x a
1
T ae n ia th al ami
2 T a e n ia c h o r io id e a
3 T a enia f o r nicis
.
.
21
d e a v e nt r icu
ch o r io i
I I Lat e r al v e nt r icl e
I I I Th ir d v e nt r ic l e
Cc Co r p u s c a ll o s um
F F o r nix
T h Th a l amu s
S t m S t r ia me dull a r is
.
.
u s ch or i
oi
d eu s
.
T a eniae int o th e
epi
the
l ia l p l at e
of
th e
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
1 63
.
At th e For amen Monr oi, t h e T aenia t h al ami t u r ns
b ac kw ar d int o t h e T aenia c h o r io id ea 5
Th e l a y e r O f s ub st anc e wh ic h c ov e r s t h e V t er minalis cont inu e s as a
t h in l a m e l l a o v e r t h e a d j o in ing p a r t o f t h e o p t ic t h a l a m u s a s La m ina
u n der
su r
f ace
.
.
.
’
a ffi x a
T h e n w it h
6
.
c h or io id e a
T a e n ia
l at e r a l is
fr ee p r oj e c t ing m a r g in it p a s s e s
in t o t h e e p it h e l iu m o f t h e P l ex u s
T h e w id t h
.
b ac k w a r d s
an d
t h e in f e r io r
Lamina
O f th e
t h e n de c r e a se s ; it
h o rn
ov e r
a
t h e T a e nia
fi r st
affi x a a t
n s at
at t a i
it s
c h or i
oi
d ea l ie s clos e
as
t he
c h o r io id e u s
inc r ease s f r o m in f r ont
In
max imu m 5 6 m m
—
.
t o th e
S t r ia t e r m ina l is
"
Cau d a c o r po r is st r iat i
int o t h e in f e r ior h o r n as f ar a s it s a nt e r ior e nd
H e r e it t u r n s into t he
ma r g in O f t h e F imb r ia h ipp oca mp i a nd is c ont inu e d into t h e T ae n ia
T h e t w o t ae niae o f th e fo r nix fi nal ly j o in in t h e m e dian l ine
f o r nicis
T h e T a enia
d e s c e nd s
ch o r io id e a
alo ng s i
de
t he
.
.
th e f o r a me n
ab ov e
Lam ina
Th e
Mo n r o
Of
is ,
a ffi x a
.
l at e l y
as
e
mp h a s iz e d by H o c h st e tt e r
8
,
lik e t h e
e pi
'
p l ex u s a nd l ik e t h e f o r n ix a n d t h e S e p t u m
I t s o r ig in a l
p e ll u c id um , a r em n an t o f t h e m e d ial w al l o f t h e h em is p h e r e
ng cr oss s ect i
on
r el at i
on t o th e T h a l a m u s ca n b e se e n f r o m t h e acc o mp a ny i
t h el iu m O f t h e l a t e r al
v a sc u l a r
.
Of
mont h s
t h e b r ain O f a t wo
l
Al l b lo od
cu l a r l y
v e ss e s
mb r y o
.
( Fig
.
t h e b r a in p ene t r a t e it s
n
ent e r i
g
T h is is t r u e
.
Ol d e
al s o O f
ex t r av ent r i
t h e o pt ic t h a l amu s a n d
ng
v e s s e l s e nt e r i
th e
s u r f a ce
T h is v e in ent e r s t h e ex
V e na t e r m ina l is
c o r n e r o f t h e f r e e s u r fa c e o f t h e T h a l a m u s ; t h e c u r v e d
t h e T ae nia c h o r io ide a a n d th e T a e nia f o r n ic is
al l y o f
e s p ec i
or
ant er i
b et w e e n
the
s t r o ng
.
t r e me
a ng l e
.
La rm h a
Fig
S ch eme f o r d emo n st r a t ion
L amina c h o r io ide a ep it h e lia lis
Of
th e
.
22
.
l
of
r e a t io n s
S t r ia e
th e
,
T a eniae
an d
t he
.
A
5
by G
v er y
b eau t ifu l ill u s t r at io n
t h is
of
on
c o n d it i
is t o b e fou n d in t h e w o r k
Pl VI
S p u r z h e im
0 L a m in a c o r n e a a ft er S c h w a lb e
N e r v e nl e h r e , p 507
D e t a il e d d e s c r ip t io ns a r e fo u n d in M ih a lk ov ic s, E n t wick elung s g e s c hic h t e
a
ll
a nd
.
.
.
de s G
e h ir n e s
.
L e ip z ig
1 8 7 7,
p
.
.
.
.
1 15
.
A
z e ig e r , V o l X , N r
h
r
n
m
i
s
c
e
a
t
o
A
n
i
h
e
n
t
C o m p ar e
R
e ic h e r t s a y s c o n
8
1
1
N
r
d
I
b
i
i
t
o
3
5
r
t
a
i
n
i
n
t
,
p
o
t
e
,
2
n
m
n
e
a
d
,
g
p
9, p
9 5,
y
“
I n r e a l it y t h e l a t e r a l v e nt r ic l e o p e n s o u t
c e r n in g t h e s a m e ( 1 c ) I I , p
40 :
T h e r e f o r e it a l w a y s r e m a in s a n a r t ifa c t
w a r d l y a t n o p l a c e in t h e a d u l t
if o n e p u s h e s t h e O p t ic t h a l amu s t h r o u g h t h is ar t ifi c ia l s l it in t o t h e l a t e r a l
H o c h st e t t e r
3
’
s
p ap e r
.
.
.
.
l
v e n t r ic e
”
.
.
.
.
.
.
A N A TO M I CA L N A M E S
1 64
.
Like t h e Vent r iculu s sept i p ellucid i t h e smal l ca nal in wh ic h t h e V
t e r m in a l is r u n s a l o ng s id e t h e S t r ia t e r m in a lis m ay b e d e s c r ib e d a s a
.
,
,
p a r t o f th e e x t e r n a l s u r fa ce
sect ion t h r oug h t h e T h al amu s a n d t h r ough t he Cor p u s
co n s t r i
cted
A
( F ig
c r oss
.
.
) mu s t
21
k e on e it h er
st r i
mo s t me d ia n w a r d
c l o s e ly
c
m
f t h e m e d ia n pl ane t h r e e t ae n ia e,
t h a l a mi a n d fu r t h e r l at e r a l w a r d t h e
si
de O
T ae n ia
im at e d T ae n ia
a pp r ox
F r om t h e
t he
at u
st r i
h o r io id e a
et
fo r n ic is
.
d e sc r ip t ion it fo l lows t h at t h e T ae nia ch or io ide a only
app ar e nt ly b elong s t o t h e T h al amu s ; i
n r ea li
ty it is p a r t O f t h e T el en
ceph alon
abo v e
.
F a sc icu l us l on g it u d in a l is m e d ia l is is t h e
it u d in al b u n dl e
Of
c al l y a nd an ato
mic ally t h e
t h e d e s ignat io n
f or t h e
t h e neur ol og is t
n
n
as c e n d i
g
t h at o f
.
s e nso r y
Th e
.
o f a c e nt r a l o r i
g in O f
th e
n al
sp i
is, t h e r e fo r e ,
T r ac t u s
r o ot s ,
t r ig e m ini
t r ig e m in al
p o st e r io r l o ng
t o b e o nt og e ne t i
t r ac t s an d
v er y
ng
c on f u s i
n
t r ig e m in i,
.
d e sc e n din g
a nd
s p in a l is
N uc l e u s
it
.
fas cic ul us
p
on o f
c or r e ct co nc ep t i
A s c e n d in g
r oo t ,
”
o lder
a nd
s e n s or y ne r v e s
n al is
spi
mo d e
of
it w as b as e d
.
Wh e n
.
d e s ig n a t io n w a s
the
on
l at e r t h e
h ypo th e sis
ori
g in o f
th e
in t h e g anglia b ecam e k now n, it was e a s y e no ugh t o
in t o d e s c e n din g
a s c e n d ing r o o t s
W it h s u c h a n inv e r
ne r v e s
the
c h a ng e
s io n o f
T his b un dl e p r o v e s
or
c ont inu a t i
o n o f t h e a nt e r i
“ o st e r io r
as
s o - ca l l e d
.
t h e d e s ig n a t io n s , e s p e c ia ll y
in t h e
c as e o f
th e
N t r ig em in u s
.
,
o ne
d e sce nding f r om t h e m id b r ain
“
”
n al
A s a nat u r al ex p e d ient t h e r e r e sult s t h e d e sig n a t io n
sp i
fo r t he
n
r oo t s r unn i
S u c h sp in al r o ot s b el ong no t o nl y t o
g t o t h e spinal co r d
t h e N t r ig eminu s b ut a lso t o th e N u v e st ib ul a r is, int e r me diu s , g lo ss o
Th e spinal r oo t s O f t h e l ast n a me d n e r v e s f or m
p h ar yng eu s and v agu s
co
me s in to
co n
fl ict
wit h th e mo t or
r oo t
.
.
‘
.
.
.
t h e T r act us so lit a r iu s
of
b y t r act s
N u cl e i
n
t ar ii
s ol i
.
.
gr a y
T h es e
.
m at t e r
v e st i
b ul ar is
—
n al
sp i
r oot s a r e
t h r o ug h out
t h e N uc l e i t r ac tu s sp inalis nu
lat e r al is
and
na l is,
sp i
and
t he
.
a cc om p a n i
ed
tr i
g emin i, t h e
N u cl ei t r ac t u s
A NA T O M I CA L N A M E S
1 66
N u c l e i n c o ch l ear is
N n c o c h l ea r is v e n t r a l is
N u cl e u s n co c h l e a r is d o r s al is
[ D e it e r s ]
.
.
.
.
[ nu c l
.
t u b e r c u l i a c u s t ic i]
N u c l e i n v e st ib u l a r is
N ucl e us n v e st ib u lar is su p e r io r
[ F l ec h s ig , B ec h t e r e w ]
N ucl eus n v e s t ib u 1a r is l a t e r a lis
.
.
.
.
N u c l e u s n v e s t ib u l a r is me dia l is
[ S c h w al b e ]
N u c l e u s n v e s t ib ul ar is s p in a lis
[ R a d ix d e s ce n d e n s ]
N u c l e i t r a ct u s s o l it a r ii [ N I X , X
nt e r me dii]
et N i
N ucl e i t r act us s p inal is n t r ig e min i
.
.
.
.
.
h ipp oc ampi,
G y r u s for nicat u s, su b d iv id e d in t o G
cingu li a n d G
Th is lo b e B r oc a
cor r e spo nd s to t he
o f B r o ca
g r a nd lo b e limbiqu e
”
l
ci
r co nvo u t io n d u c o r p s cal l e ux
r convo l ut i
on
d iv id ed int o a
ci
a nd a
.
.
.
”
d e l h ipp ocamp e
B y me an s o f t h e R h ine nc e ph alo n, wh ich bor de r s , wit h
ngul i
nd t h e S ub st a nt ia
t h e A r e a p aro l facto r ia ( B r oc a e ) , up on t h e G
ci
, a
p e r f or ata la t e r alis , wh ic h b or d e r s up on th e G h ippoc amp i, th e t wo e nd s
’
.
.
.
the G
Of
fo r nicat us
.
j o in te d
ar e
t o fo r m a closed r ing
Th e G y r us
s ends a d ee p b r anc h
m a r g in o f t h e b e m is
.
by th e S u l cu s c ingu li, w h ic h
t h e R amu s mar g inal is , p a s t t h e P r a e c u n e u s t o t h e
p he r e wh ile it s d ir ect cont inu a t io n r u n s al ong t he Pr aec uneu s as an in
T h e fo r m e r ly s O-c a l l e d S u l c u s ca l l o s o
s
c o n s t a nt R a mu s s u b p ar ie t al i
ci
ngu l i is sur r ou nde d
.
i
p a r t o f th e S ulcus cinguli and it s R amu s
’
mar ginalis S ch walb e in h is n e ur ology ( p 53 6 ) h as c alled B r oca s lob e
l imb iq ue t h e L ob u s fa l cif o r m is a n d b e s id e s a tt r ib u t e d t o it t h e for m a
rr ar g i
nalis co nsiste d o f
th e
fi r st
.
.
mar gin al
m , t h e F o r n ix inc lu d ing
t he Fimb r ia and F ascia de nt at a , a nd t h e S ept u m p ellucidum
F is s u r a h ipp ocampi, P e s h ipp oca m p i F is su r a c a l c a r in a, Ca l c ar
T r ig o n u m c o l l a t e r al e a n d Em in e nt ia
F is s u r a c ol l at er alis
a v is,
c ol l at e r a l is
T o t h e n ame s r e p r e se n t in g t h e l at e r a l fi s sur e ( p r ima r y
fi ssu r e ) t h e r e cor r e sp ond th r ough ou t t h e s imil ar ly name d t hickenings o f
t io n o f t h e
ar c
h
,
th e Co rp u s
c a ll o s u
,
.
,
,
.
the
wal l B ut t h e p r inc ip l e ca nno t b e c a r r ie d t h r ough g en e r ally
pa r ie t o occ ip it a lis c o r r e sp o n d s t o t h e inw ar d a r c h ing
v e nt r i
cul a r
.
T h e Fis su r a
of
t h e occ ip it a l
p o s t er ior is
The
a nd
.
r adi
at io n o f
t h e Co r p u s
t h e F os s a s y l v ii
of
c a ll o s u
c or r e s p o n d s
the embr yonic Fis sur a
m in t h e B ul b u s
t o t he
hor io ide a
C or pu s
c or n u
m
fr om
st r ia t u
.
pu sh e d a way
th e sur face by t he Co r pu s c allos um r ep r e se nt s t h e n ar r o
w g r o ov e b e
t ween th e Taenia f or nic is an d t h e T aenia c h or ioidea
Th e
( Fig
upp er
p ar t
c
,
.
.
l ow er p ar t of th e p r imitiv e F issu r a c h or io id e a j oins th e l owe r l imb o f
t h e Fissu r a t r a ns v e r s a c e r eb r i Th e l a t t e r fi s s ur e l e a d s in t o t h e in t er
ng C c all o sum and F or ni
sp ace b et ween t he h emi
sp h e r es, incl u di
x o n o ne
.
.
.
t he par ts O f th e D ienceph al on a nd
B e for e t he r e mo v al o f t h e m e n ing e s ,
si
de , and
si
de
e p it
.
h el ial l ay e r s
int o
an ex
G y r us
at t ac
h ed
t r av e nt r icu l ar
su b c a ll os u s
.
Me s enceph alon
and
t h e t e a r ing
on
the
ot
a w ay o f
h er
the
t o t h e m , t h e F iss u r a t r an s v e r sa l e ad s o nly
r egi
on
.
Pe du nc ul u s
c o r p o r is
c al l o s i a n d
P e d u ncu l us
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
p e l l u cid i, a r e t h r e e t e r ms fo r o ne
n ee d a mo r e d e t a il e d ex
The
pl anat ion
s e pt i
an d
the
7
.
sa
me
w h ic h
s t r uct u r e
name s
d esign at e t h at r ounde d
pr ot ub e r an ce , wh ic h d el imit e d by a d eep gr oo ve, is v isibl e imme d iat el y
a nt e r i
or t o th e C ommi
s su r a a nt er i
o r a nd th e upp er en d of wh ic h f ol l o w s
c losely t h e Ro st r um o f t h e Co r us c a ll o sum w h i
le th e lo wer en d r e ac he s
p
t o t h e me dial c or ner O f t h e S u bst a n t ia e r fo r a t a l at e r a lis
p
.
,
.
O f th e t h r e e n am e s, Pe d u ncul u s c or por is c allosiis t he Olde st Accor d
ing t o C r u v eilh ie r and H e n l e it is t o b e t r a c e d b a ck to Vic q d Az y r
T he r el at ions o f t h e Ped u nc ul u s in qu es t ion to th e Co r pu s ca ll o sum a r e
.
’
.
pr es se d b y t h e f a ct t h at f r om t h e f or mer o n e it h e r s ide a fib r e bu n dl e
1
c o nt i
nu e s i
n th e S t r i
n
l
i
i
n
l
a
o g t ud
a li
a i
s med i
s o f t h e Co r p u s c all o su m
ex
.
p r o b a bly fi r s t p oint e d ou t th e r e l at ions t o t he S ep tu m p e llu c idum
bu t t h is inv est igat or h as at t h e same t ime, in h is j oint wo r k w it h S pu r z
G
a ll
h e im
,
t r a c e d t h e p o s t e r ior
e nd O f
this
fibr e
Uncu s
t r a c t up t o t he
of
,
th e
G y r u s hip p oc a mp i and ill u st r at ed it by a n ex ce ll e nt pic t u r e 2
G all
d e scr ib es a fib r o u s ne r ve b u ndl e r u nning fo r w ar d f r o m t h e ap ex o f t h e
.
t emp o r al
l ob e , w h ich t u r n s me dianwa r d
Ch ia sma , an d r uns al o ng in f r ont
a ft e r
the
of
it s
th e
or i
g in,
asce n d s
Commissu r a
ove r
a nt e r i
or
.
b r oad e n s t o a t h in n er v ou s me m
b r ane, w h ic h f or ms w it h t h at o f t h e o p p osit e s id e t h e S ep tum p e llu cidum
G a l l d oe s n ot u se th e na me P e du ncu l u s sept i pel l u c idib u t t h e nam e occu r s
a
h
la t er in t h e w or k o f B u r d a c , wh o r e f er s t o G all s d e scr ipt io n , but in
F ar t h e r
on
t his
fib r e
t r act d iv id e s
a nd
.
’
d e sc r ipt ion f ollow s t h e r ev er se d ir ec t io n Acco r d ing t o B u r d ach
nu e s f r om t h e S ept u m to wa r d t h e b a s a l su r f ac e
na c o nt i
a my el at e d l am i
Th e t r act
ns t h e fi b r e s f r om th e c e r eb r al t r unk
n and j o i
o f t he b r ai
n p ar t in t h e Uncu s and in p a r t in t h e r oo f
o r ly i
t h u s f or me d e nd s p o s t e r i
h is
o wn
.
.
t h e in f e r io r
of
It
h or n
is no t e wo r t h y t h at fo r
.
d e r abl e
a cons i
t ime th e
mist s
an a t o
ne gl ect e d
p elluc id i, siv e co r p or is cal lo si, t o
t h e t e mp o r al lo b e a s d e s c r ib e d b y G all a n d B u r dac h , u nt il t h e y w er e
Fo r
n b r ou g h t t o p r omine nc e by B r oc a, Z u ck e r k andl a n d my se l f
ag a i
t he
r e l at i
ons of
t h e Pe dunc ul u s
s ep t i
.
a
f ull
su r v ey O f
o pt i
cu s
is
t h e s e r elat io n s t h e
n e c essar y
re
moval
the Ch iasma
Of
and
T r ac t u s
.
Th e G e r m an aut h or s su c c e e ding B u r dac h h av e , for t h e mo st p a r t , ac
d i I t is u se d in
t
h
e Pe du nc ul u s se p t i p el lu c i
t
i
n
f
n
a
o
o
s d e si
cep t e d h i
g
t h is se nse by A r no ld , Valent ine , C Kr a u se an d, f u r t h e r mo rp, by R e ich e r t
’
’
in his g r e a t wo r k on t h e B r a in V ic q d A zy r s Pedunc ul u s cor p or is c al
.
,
.
.
p 9 3 a nd p 1 3 2
H e n l e N e r v e n l e h r e B r au n s ch w e ig
2
P a r is
G a ll a n d S p u r z h e im, A n a t o m ic u n d P hy s io l o g ic d e s G eh ir n e s
G all s p ic t u r e w h ich I d id n o t k n o w b e f o r e
1 8 1 0, I 2 p 6 24 a nd Pl X I I I
t h t h e, o n e I h a v e p u b l is h e d in my t r e at is e
a g r e e s in a l l e s s e nt ia l p o int s w i
c k e l u ng d e s m e ns c h l ic h e n G e h ir n e s ( Fi
g
o n t h e F o r m e nt w i
8 Bur dac h
1 35
r ne s , I I , p
u nd Le b e n d es G e h i
, B au
.
.
,
.
.
.
’
,
.
.
,
,
.
.
.
A N A T OM I C A L N A M E S
1 68
.
by th e F r e nch a n ato mist s ( Cr uv eilh ier , S appey , Te stut
and o t h er s )
and H enl e al s o p r e f er r e d t h i
Up to t h at t ime we
s t er m
h ave to d e al wit h t wo t e r ms fo r th e same s t r uc t u r e w hich wa s unifor mly
d e scr ibe d by all aut ho r s a s lying in f r ont o f t h e Commiss ur a an t er ior ,
in it s shar ply d e fine d p a rt , b u t w ho s e t er mina l p a r t is t r ac e d f ar the r b y
losi was
r et ai
ned
.
,
'
me t h an by
her s S ch wal be s neu r ology h as c on sider ably c omplicat e d
t h e s it u a t io n in t h at indep en dently f r om e ac h o t h er a r e d e sc r ibe d a
Pedu nc ul u s c or p or is ca ll o s iand a Pe d u ncul u s sep t ip ellucidi4 S ch walb e s
Ped uncu lu s co r po r is c a ll osi is th e st r uct ur e a l so d esc r ib e d by ot h e r s
u nd er t h is name but his P e duncu lu s s ep t i pe l lu c i
di is somet hing n e w
S ch walb e d esignat es by th is name th e cont inu at ion O f t h e pl at e o f w h it e
me d u lla o f t h e S ep t um into the me d u lla o f t h e a d j a ce nt conv olu t ions o f th e
f r ontal lob e as it ap p e ar s in f r o nt al s e ct ion S c h w albe says in a d e scr ip
’
ot
so
.
,
’
.
.
,
.
t ion O f a f r o nt al s ec t io n r unning b e t we e n t h e Ro st r um c o r p o r is c allo si and
t h e columns O f t h e Fo r nix
c o nt i
nu ou sl y
,
t h a t th e wh it e l amell a e o f t h e
into th e w h it e
sub st a nce
b e tween t h e b ase
gr ay cor t ex o f th e lo we r
On e has de s ignat e d t h is
nucl eus and th e
su r fac e o f
t h en add s
cont inu a t i
on
:
the f r o nt al lo b e
”
”
S ep t um p r oceed
of t h e l ent icular
Of
and
medullar y
me a t fi r st
t he
Ped unc ul i sep t i pellu c id i t h is
O ne
m a de
r at he r
dou b t f ul wh e th er o r no t t h e r e h a d c r ept in a co n f u sion in
S c h wal b e s wo r k in t h at t he st r u c t u r e descr ibed by t h is inv e stigat or as
P edu nculu s s ep t i pellu cid i might b e th e s t r uc t ur e t hus d e s ig nat e d by
f o r mer au t h or s Th e p e duncl e o f th e O l de r au t h or s is a pr omine nt plast ic
The p ed u nc le o f S c hw al b e is a c r oss se ct io nal
t h ick ening o f t h e su r f a c e
lamell ae
as
.
’
.
-
.
T h e p e du n c l e O f t h e a u t h o r s t u r n s b a c k w a r d t o t h e S u b s t a nt ia
Th e p eduncle o f S ch walb e
p e r for at a l at e r alis and t o th e t empor al lob e
t u r ns lat e r a lly int o t he med ullar y su b s t ance o f th e f r ont al lo b e
We can simultaneo u sly b r ing to v ie w in a pr op e r ly cut se ct io n ( Fig
fi gu r e
.
.
.
.
24
ol d and
the
)
an d
t h e w h it e
of
l ay e r
4
G
.
S ch walbe s Pe dunculu s sept i pellu c id i B etw e n t h e l a t t e r
n g o f t h e P e d u n cu l us a u t o r u m , t h e r e lie s a t h in
c ove r i
g r a y mat t e r
’
.
.
S c h w a lb e , N e r v e n l e h r e , p 49 3 , p 502
.
.
a nd
F ig 3 1 5
.
.
A NA T O M I CA L N A M ES
7O
1
c u l or u m
sep t i as
fl u ous
s u pe r
s t r u ctu r e s
w e ll
as
H e nl e
’
s
Comm issu r a b a s co s
.
Co r p u s
same
w ay
s p o n din g a r e a s
as ot
m ( T h e L a m in a r o s t r a l is o f o u r l is t )
u n it e s t h e m e d u ll a r
y ma s s e s o f t h e a dj a
v e st i
gat ion s on
her
p ar t s
of
t he
the
and
Co r p u s
t h e O l f ac t o r y
h av e
me
co
to
c e nt r e , a n d
d e s ig nat e
in t h e
the
in
s t r uc t u r e
Zu c ke r k and l 8 and o f W Tu r ne r 9 as w ell
in v e s t ig a t io n s h av e p r o v e d t h a t t h e o l fa c t o r y b r a in
.
as
an
in v e s t ig a t io n s
of
as
my
or
Rh in e n c e p h a l o n
'
,
is t o b e d is t in g u is h e d
t h e Palliu m
dec r e as e s
c r e a ses o r
2
.
3 85 ff
1
o nt og e n e t i
c
p a r t in d e p e n d e n t fr o m t h e r e s t o f t h e h e m is
Th e b u lk o f t h e olf a ct or y p ar t o f t h e b r a in in
as a
ng t o
a cco r di
B r o c a, R e c h e r c h e s
7
qu es t io n
.
of
—
co r r e
t h e s e inv e s t ig a
c ou r s e o f
.
ph e r e
u n it e
,
,
,
,
m
of
in p e n d e n t g y r u s
t h e G y r u s su b ca l l os u s
R h in e n ce p h a l o n
T h e c o m p a r a t iv e a n a t o m ic a l
7
s u b ca l l o s u s ,
G y r us
c a l l os u
.
t h e Pe du ncul u s sept i p el lu c idi a nd P e d u n c ul u s
b e e n fu n d a m e n t a l l y c h a n g e d b y t h e m o r e r e c e n t in
c o r p o r is c a l l o s i h a s
B r oc a
v er y
.
T h e in t e r p r e t at ion
we
a pp e a r
c a ll o s u
T h e g r oov e l ik e c u r v e d p l a t e
ce nt c o r t i
c al r eg i
o n ; a l s o t h e A r e a B r o cae
t io n s
a l b a,
f or t h e y d e s ign a t e b y no me a n s ind ep e nd e nt ly d iff e r e n t ia t e d
Wh at h as b e e n d es ign at e d by th ese n am es is t he end p la t e o f
,
t h e R o s t r u m o f th e
in t h e
.
su r
le s
t h e d e v e l op me n t o f th e se ns e in qu e s
ce ntr e s
O
l fa c t ifs
R ev u e d A n t h r O p O l
’
.
1 8 79 ,
p
.
.
°
U e b e r d a s Rie c h c e nt r u m, S t u t t g ar t 1 887 , p
15
s ay s
F in a ll y I w is h t o m e n t io n t h e G y r u s s u b c a ll o s u s , b y w hic h d e s ig na t io n I
u n d e r s t a n d t h a t p a r t O f t h e m e di
a l w a ll o f t h e h e m is p h e r e w h ic h is in s e r t e d
b e t w e e n t h e fr o n t a l e n d Of t h e G y r u s fo r nic a t u s a n d t h e R o s t r u m o f t h e
C o r p u s c a ll o s u m a n d w h ic h u p t o t h e p r e s e n t t im e w a s w r o n g l y c a ll e d P e d u n c
Th e G y r us s u b call o s us is no t c o n fi n e d t o t h e j ust
ulus
co r p o r i
s
ca ll o s i
d e s c r ib e d s m a ll a r e a b u t it p r o c e e d s o u t w a r d , in t h e s h a p e o f a r ib b o n- l ik e
str i
p w h ic h is adj a c e n t t o t h e p o s t e r io r m ar g in o f t h e L a m ina p e r fo r a t a t o
t h e p o in t o f t h e t e m p o r a l l o b e w h e r e it m e e t s t h e o u t e r o l fa c t o r y r o o t
The
Z u c k e r k a n dl
p l ac e o f j u n c t io n is s o m e t im e s m a r k e d b y a s m a ll t u b e r c l e
T h e n a m e P e d u n c u l u s c o r p o r is c a ll o s i f o r t h e s t r u c t u r e
fu r t h e r s a y s p 60 :
o n t h e m e d ia l w a ll o f t h e h e m is p h e r e is n o t w e ll c h o s e n, fo r it f o r m s j u s t a s
l it t l e a p e d u n c l e f o r t h e C o r p u s c a ll o s u m a s d o e s a ny o t h e r p a r t o f t h e m e dia l
M o r e o v e r t h e t e r m d o e s n o t p e r t a in t o t h e G y r u s
w a ll o f t h e h e m is p h e r e
l ik e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e p ar t o f t h e h e m is p h e r e in q u e s t io n T h e r e fo r e it w o u l d
b e b e t t e r t o c all t h e winding p o r t ion acc o r d ing t o it s p o s it io n t h e G y r u s
"
o
ll
s
u
s
s u b ca
9
S ir W T u r n e r t h e C o nv o l u t io n s o f t h e B r a in
V e r h a n d l u ng e n d e s
C o n g r e s s e s in B e r l in , 1 890 V o l I I p 8 ff
in t e r n m e d ic
W H is , F o r m e n t w ic k e l u n g d e s m e n s c h l ic h e n G e h ir ne s L e ip z ig 1 889
T h is A r c h iv e 1 89 2 , p
Z ur a ll g e m e in e n M o r p h o l o g ie d e s G e h ir n s
p 7 1 4 ff
Z u c k e r k a n d l,
B
.
,
.
,
,
.
.
.
,
.
.
.
.
.
,
.
.
.
,
,
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
,
.
3 46 ff
.
2
T h e t e r m s Rh ine n ce p h al o n
T u r ne r
it
l
.
T he
e x c u de d
o n of
O l d c o n c ep t i
the
I nsul a
.
and
th e
P a ll iu m
b r a in
ar e
m a nt l e is
t a k e n in
so
t h e s e ns e
m e w h at
of
W
.
n a r r o w e r , s in c e
A N A T O M I CA L NA M E S
t io n
the
B r oc a in t h is
.
la t t e r
.
of
r ega r d
dist ing uish ed
w h ic h T u r n e r
s u b di
vi
de d
an o smat ic a nd o sm at i
c
in t o m ic r o s m a t ic
M a n b e l o ng s t o t h e m ic r o s m a t ic
c e p h a l o n t h e r e fo r e s h o w s a c o m a r a t i
v e ly
p
m a t ic
.
mals
a ni
.
,
b e lo n g s ,
,
n o t o n ly t h e
B u lb u s , T r ac t u s
1 71
.
an
and
m acr os
his R hin e n
and
w e a k d e v e l o p m e nt
d T r ig o nu m
b r a ins ,
.
u
o lfa c t o r i
T o it
mt h
,
e
S u b st a n t ia p e r fo r a t a l a t e r a lis, b u t al s o th e s o c all ed P e d u nc u l u s c o r p o r is
c al lo s i
t h e p r e s ent G y r u s s ub callos u s
n g in
a n d a s m a l l a r e a ly i
f r o nt o f it , t h e A r e a B r o ca e o r p ar o l fa c t o r ia
Th e d e s ig n a t io n o f a
-
—
—
.
G y r u s s u b c a l l o s u s w a s o r ig in a t e d b y Z u c k e r ka n d l ,3 a n d it w a s in t r o
d u c e d b e cau s e t h e p a r t in q u e s t io n r e p r e s e n t s a p a r t O f t h e c o r t e x a n d
d o e s n o t s t a n d in t h e r a t h e r in d e fi n it e r e l a t io n o f t h e p e d u n c l e e it h e r
to the
the
C or p u s
G y r us
c a l l os u
m
s ub c allosu s
s u r fa c e o n l y a
Co mp a r a t iv e
t h in
S e p t u m p e l l u c id u m C r o s s
s h o w in t h e i
r in t e r io r g r a
y ma t t e r ,
the
or
c or t i
cal
a n ato m i
cal
.
l ay e r
ex
of
w h it e m a t t e r
p l a nat io ns
s e c t io n s o f
and at
t he
.
t h e R h in e n c e p h alo n a n d
of
it s
t o t h e G y r u s fo r nic a t u s ( t h e l o b e l im b iqu e o f P B r oc a ) a r e
f ou n d in t h e inv e st ig at ion s o f B r oc a , Z u c k e r k a n d l a n d T u r n e r , t o w h ic h
r e la t i
ons
I
h er e
m e r it
.
r e fer
a s
.
B u t t h e d e v e lopme n t
h o r t disc u ssion
f o r th e
As
e a r ly a s
t h e b e g inn ing
cep
h alo n is d iffe r e nt iat e d
of
of
th e
hu ma n
pl an at ion o f t h e
s e c on d mo nt h , t h e
ex
th e
f r om t h e
a nt er i
or
R h in e n cep h al o n m ay
t io n s
a nat om i
c a l co n di
.
a nl ag e o f
e nd o f
th e
p r o t u b e r a n c e a pp e ar ing b e s id e t h e Lamina t e r m inalis
’
ni
ca ) ( Fi
a f u r r o w ( T u r n e r s F is su r a r hi
gs 2 5 and
.
3
Z u c k er k a n d l ,
l
.
c
.
p
.
1 5 a nd
p
.
60
.
t h e Rh ine n
h e misph e r e
as a
a n d s u r r ou n d e d
Th e
by
a nt e r i
or
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
1 72
F ig
.
2 5.
.
La te r al v iew o f t h e b r ain o f a f o u r a n d o ne-h al f w e ek s o l d h u man
C ons t r u c t ion a l s k e t ch
La b e ling a s in Fig 1 8 a n d in a d dit io n
Hp An l ag e o f h y p op hy sis
RI Lip o f R h o mb enc ep h al o n
H s C e r e b r a l h em isp h e r e
S t P e d u ncl e o f C o r p u s s t r iat u m
M s A nl a g e o f Ve r m is o f cer eb ell um
Zh D ien ceph al o n
M o M e du ll a ob l ong a t a
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
mb r y o
.
.
.
e
.
.
.
.
fi r st t ur ns d or sal w a r d an d t h e
p o s t e r io r h a l f ar e s e p ar at e d f r om e ac h ot h e r b y an in c is ur e w hich is
Th e
al s ur f a ce ( F i
e s p e cially s t r ongly m a r k e d o n t h e me d i
g s 1 8 and
a nt e r i
n c o nt a ct wit h t h e l at e r f o r me d f r o n t al lo b e
o r ol f a c t o r y l ob e is i
a n d t he p o st e r i
o r w it h t h a t o f t h e t e m p o r a l l o b e
A b o v e t h e p o s t e r io r
n t h e w a ll o f t h e h e m is ph e r e
ol f ac to r y lo b e dev e l op s t h a t d e p r e ss i
on i
Wit h th e p r o
w h ic h w e l at e r o n d e sig na t e a s F ossa S ylv ii ( F ig
g r es sing d e v e l o pm e nt o f t h e h emisph e r e s th e a nt e r io r o l fa c to r y l ob e is
mor e a nd mor e disp l ace d t ow a r d s th e b as e b y t h e f r o nt al lob e and fi n all y
Th e a nt er ior a s w ell a s
l ie s de e p e r t h an t h e po st e r io r O l f a ct or y l ob e
h al f
of
t h e R h ine ncep h al on , wh ich at
,
.
.
.
.
,
t h e po st e r ior Olf act or y lob e, co ns is t s o f a p ar t t u r ned t owa r d th e b ase
F r om the b asal p ar t o f th e a nt e r io r
ng m e dian wa r d
an d a p a r t l ooki
.
o l fa c t o r y
o nu
m
under
l ob e
'
ar e
o l fa c t o r iu
L ob u s
d ev e lo p e d
:
t h e B u lb u s , t h e T r a c t u s
m w h ic h w e in c l u d e in
ol fa ct o r i
u s.
a nar r o w er
a nd
a n at o
t h e T r ig
mic a l
s e ns e
A N A T O M I C AL N A M E S
1 74
.
D iag r am f o r t h e r e p r e s e n t a t io n o f t h e r e la t io ns o f th e an t e r io r and p o st e r io r
o l f ac t o r y l o b e s ( v R
a n d h R ) t o eac h o t h e r an d t o t h e l o b e s o f t h e c e r e b r a l
h e m isp h e r e s in d iffe r e nt s t ag es o f d ev e l op m e n t
F Loc a t io n o f Lob u s f r o n t a l is
0 Lo c a t io n o f Lo b u s o ccip it al is
P Lo cat ion O f Lo b us p a r ie t al is
T Loc at ion o f Lo b u s t emp o r al is
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
z o n u l ar i
a.
I
.
.
O r ga n a
S p a t ia
.
.
s e n su u
m
mo de
n r e g ar d t o t h e
.
the
Z o n u l a Z in nii in t o t h e l e n t ic u l a r c a p s u l e
t we e n t h e fi b r e s ( f o r m e r l y d e s c r ib e d a s C a nal e s
r e ce nt ly
p ub lish e d
b y S c hOn
.
"
or
upp e r
.
.
.
of
M all e u s
M a l l e u s b et w e e n
t he
,
t h e Lig
a n d u n de r
.
th e
st r a t e d
t h at D ar w in
the
in mam mal s
as
’
r eces s
s t r u c t ur e s
no t
to
s
.
p oint
S c h o n,
.
w as
.
T h r o u g h t h e in v e s t i
mov e d wh ich
re
u nt i
l r e c e nt l y
al l y
es p e c i
S c h w alb e h as
d e mo n
h igh e s t po in t o f th e
D ar w in s co r ne r ( t h e A p e x v e r us
o c c as ion al l y at t h e h i
g h e st p o int O f
r e f er e nc e
w it h
T h e p o int a pp e a r ing
is d e s ign at e d b y S ch w albe in
S c h w al b e )
3 60 if
u nc e r t aint y
r e f e r en c e
t er n al ca r , b u t w it h
S at y r
wh il e p o s t e r io r l y it
p r om ine nc e o f t h e e a r c o r r e s p on d s t o t h e ap e x O f
t u din al m e asu r e m e n t s , mor ph ol ogic ally
a n d t h a t l o ngi
,
’
A nt e r io r l y
.
s
mp a r abl e mu s t b e m ad e
the ear
t e r nu m
an d
f"
.
Of
M e mb r an e fl ac cid a
m all e i e x
w it h t h e p o st e r io r r e c e ss
T u b e r c u l u m a n d A p e x au r ic u l a e [ D a r w in i]
ex
co
s u p e r ior
g at io n s o f G S ch w al b e t h e
ex is t e d in r e g ar d t o t h e se
co
m p ar e t h e p ap e r
Pe t iti)
°
co nn ect e d
c ar
of
t h e s p a ce s l y in g b e
and
t h e sp a c e is cu t O ff f r om t h e a n t e r io r t ymp anic
is
fib r es
.
t h e P r oc e s su s b r e v is
t h e n e ck o f t h e
th e
of
is t h e m e d ia n t y m p a n ic r e c e s s o f W
t ymp a nic r e c e s s o f P r u ss ak T h is is t h e sp a c e o v e r
R e c e s s u s me mb t y m p
Kr a us e
in s e r t io n
of
to t h e
’
r e f e r en c e
t o it s
r Ol e
in
a nt i
qu e a r t
9
.
Z o nul a
Or a
a nd
s e r r at a
.
A n a t o m is c h e r
A nz e ig e r
,
Vol
.
X, p
.
.
A n a t o m ie I I p 3 3 1
8
C o m p a r e t h e ill u s t r a t io n in S c h w alb e s A n a t o mic d e r S inn e s o r g a n e
E r l a n g e n 1 887 , p 51 3
’
9
lb
S ep a r a t e
B e it r a g e z u r A nt h r o p o l o g ie d e s O h r e s
h
e
s
Co m p a r e S c w a
V o l I in w h ic h t h e r e a r e
n t fr o m t h e F e s t s c h r ift f o r R V ir c h o w 1 89 1
r epr i
’
n
c
u
r
r
e
c
f
D
a
r w in s a p e x
e o
fo u n d s t a t is t ic s c o n ce r n in g t h e fr e q u e n c y o f o c
7
,
.
.
’
,
.
.
.
.
,
.
,
.
A N A T O M I CA L NA M E S
P il i
The
.
si
g ni c a n c e
Of
fi
1 75
.
t h e w or d s
La n u g o , C a p il l i e t c , ma y b e
h a irs o f t h e n o s e , T r a gi t h e h a ir s
t a k e n fo r g r a n t e d
V ib r is s a e a r e th e
o f t h e e x t e r n a l a u d it or
y c a n a l , H ir c i t h e a x il l a r y
.
CON CL
Th e C o mmis s io n
n o w c o n s id er s
by t h e S
U S I ON
h a ir s
.
.
o n n om e n c l a t u r e a
p p o in t e d
t h e t ask
e nt r u s t e d
N o min a
oc ie t y , t h e
.
,
T r u ly t h e w or k is
to
b y t h e A n a t om ic a l S oc iety
it c on c l u d e d a nd a f t e r it s ap p r o v al
an a t omica
is to b e
mme nd e d fo r ge n e r a l
r ec o
p e r f e c t , b u t th e C ommis sion m a y as se r t t h at
it h a s w o r k e d a ss id uo u s ly a n d f a it h f u l l t o com l e t e it
M o r eov e r , it is
y
p
fi r mly c o nv in ce d t h a t b y it s gene r al a c cep t an ce , o u r ana tomic al langu ag e
co mp a r e d w it h t h e
p r e s e nt o ne w ill g ain c o n s id er ab ly in s imp l ic it y a n d
no t
.
,
c le a r n e s s
A c c o r ding t o
.
n ame s
o ne
—
hal f
w il l b e
it s e l f is
an
d if
t io n
w h ic h
of
ar e
m or e
s y n o ny m s
t he
of
t h e st u d en t
n o t an
at
and
th e
u se
me
fo r th e
e qu al
imma t e r ia l
it is b r ou g h t
co
.
a d op t e d u n c h a n g e d
mem or y
n a me s ,
Of
O ne
.
a n es t i
ma t e
r e s ult
K r au s e ,
mp l e t e
n s ab ou t
c o nt a i
of
t h em,
I f w e m ay h op e t h at o u r l is t s o f n am e s
u s e o f sch oo l s , t h e n t h i
ll b e f o r t h e
s wi
nam es
ng o f ov e r
s av i
I f , w it h t h e
.
lis t
our
t e x t b ook s h as
a dop t i
on O f
t h a t t h e t e r m s u se d
ab ou t
t im e
to a
of
h av e
Th is b y
e s t a b lish e d
the
.
o nl y o n e
m e a n ing ,
g en e r al p r inc ipl e s r eg ar ding t h e f o r m a
o f an a t om ic a l n ame s h av e g ain e d g r o u n d, t h e n t h e r e s ul t s
sa
n
c er tai
l m o r e imp o r ta nt
I t may b e e sp e c ia l ly e mp h as iz e d t h at o ur u nd e r t a king h a d t o h av e in
vi
e w t h e c r ea t i
on o f a c ommo n langu age f o r sch ool s Th e p r og r ess ing in
v e s ti
g a t ion s n e e d on t h e ir p ar t o f t e n sp e c ia l t e r m s f or t h e ir l u c idity ,
w ill b e
l
st i
.
.
w h ic h in
no
w ay
m
cl a i
to
e nt e r
use o f s c
int o th e
h ool s
.
M any
t e r m s u sed
p l ana t io n of ne w d isc ov e r ies b e ar f r om th e b eginn ing t h e ch a r
T o r e s t r ic t t h is la ng u ag e
on
s ion a l m e a n s o f e x p l an a t i
ac t e r is t i
c s o f p r ov i
in th e
ex
.
of
t h e inv e st ig a to r in
it is l e ft t o
h e r h a nd
s u p e r fl u ou s
ev e r y
to
ot
.
w ay is
a ny
e n t ir e ly
t e a c h e r t o u s e his
t
o mi
su c
h
o wn
n a me s o f th e
B u t t h is mu c h
can a n d
b e yo nd
ou r
p l an
M o r e ov e r
.
t e r ms in h is l ec t u r e s,
lis t s w h ic h
mu st b e o b t ain e d
app e a r
,
or
,
on t he
h im t o b e
to
t h a t t h e t e r m s w h ic h
b e s imp l e a nd not
t h out c e r t ain s ac r ifi c e s o n t h e p ar t
h
i
T
s c a nno t b e d on e w i
a mbi
u
o
u
s
g
H e w h o h a s sp o k e n
nd i
o f th e i
vi
du al ; a n y co mp r omis e ex p ec t s s u c h
us
all h i
s lif e o f a M cu c u ll a r is h as t o b e c ome u se d t o t h e M t r ap e z i
w e d a ily
u s e and
w h ic h w e
h an d
ove r
to
ou r s t u d e n t s
.
.
.
.
.
d iffi cul t ie s , w h ich c annot b e ov e r co me by go o d will al on e,
n comp at i
bl e w it h t h e sc ie n
ng nam e s p r ov e t o b e i
st i
ar i
s e o nl y w h e r e e x i
We hop e t h at a ft e r all th e c a r e w h ich
t ifi c conv ic t ion s o f t h e in div id ual
w as t ak e n in t h e c h o ic e O f t h e n ame s , th e nu mb e r o f su ch n a m e s wh ich
Wit hout b eing
ll b e only a l im it e d o ne
c a nn ot b e g en e r a l ly ac cep t e d wi
Mo r e
ser i
ou s
.
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
1 76
ne
ov e r sangu i
n am e s,
we b elie v e t h a t w e
whic h w ill
u s say a
hu nd r ed
s
h ou l d b e
ab l e
.
r e d uc e
to
t h e numb e r o f
g e ne r al accept ance, t o a s mall nu mb e r l e t
T his wo uld b e , in c o m
at mos t a f e w h u ndr e d
not r e c e iv e
or
,
.
p a r iso n t o t h e p r e sent co ndit io ns a t any
su c h a r e si
d uu m ma y in t ime b e t ot ally
r ate , a v e r y
f or tu nat e
r e sul t , a nd
mila t e d
I t is e sp ec ia lly n e c e ssa r y t o r eco gn iz e f u nd ame nt al r u le s f or t h e f u r t h er
B ut a h a r m o n io u s g r o w th w il l n o
g r ow t h o f t h e a n a to m ic al l angu ag e
as s i
.
'
.
longe r
A nd
al
O ff er any sp e ci
h e r e w it h
diffic ult ie s if
once
t h e N o m in a a na t o m ic a
pr ope r found at ion s a r e l a id
m a y b e m o s t u r g e n t ly r e c o m
.
mend e d
l if e
t o t he g oo d will o f e ach o ne int e r est ed
Th e r e e x ist s in scient ifi c
ng s h on or
on o f w h i
ch not o nly b r i
a c ommo n spir it , th e m a nif est at i
.
an d sat i
s f act i
on
Th e
ac
t o the indiv id u al , b u t
acc e p t an c e o f a c ommo n
h iev e d
as s u c
h
al so
l a ngu ag e f o r
e n ti c
an act o f s c i
fi
p r og r e s s
sc
p u b lic
a nd
p r osp e r it y t o
ho ols mu st b e inte r p r et e d
ri
sp i
t
.
a ll
.
a nd
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
1 78
'
.
A b a n o , P ie t r o di ( P e t r us A p o n e n s is , Pie r r e d ’A b a n o , A p o n o , P e t e r
’
A b a no , P e t r u s d A b a n o )
A n I t a l ian ph y sic ia n a n d p h ilo sop h e r
vo n
.
Con c ilia to r diff e r ent ia r u m p hilo sop h o r u m ,
o f 1 496 , fi r s t p ub lis h e d in 1 47 2 , t h e r e is t h e fi r s t p r int e d illus t r a t io n o f
T h is fig u r e w a s e v id en t ly ma d e w it h t h e h e lp
t h e ab d ominal mu s c l es
1 2 50- 1 3 1
I
5
.
his t r ea t is e
n
.
of a
disse c t io n
fi f t e en
t h r oug h
A b an o
This m e d ico ph ilo s oph ica l w o r k h a d,
t ion s in f olio
ed i
-
.
to 1 6 1 5, g o n e
.
st u die d
m e d ic in e
m at h e m at ic s in Pa r is wh e r e h e w a s
in philo so ph y an d med ic ine
D u r ing h is
a nd
,
g r ant e d t h e d eg r e e o f d oc t or
tt l e
s t u d e nt d a y s t h e sc ie nc e s w e r e b u t li
h is r e t u r n h is l ea r n ing w a s r e c ogn iz e d
.
c u lti
vated
He
.
many y e ar s
up
I t a ly t h ough a f t e r
w it h d ist in ct io n f o r
in
s er ved
,
p r o f e ss o r o f m e d ic ine in t h e Univ e r sit y o f P a d u a a c h a ir
m
H e is t he a u th or o f sev e r al ot he r wo r ks
e sp e c ially c r e a t e d f o r hi
”
C o nc ilia t o r
b es id e s h is f a mo u s
as
.
.
H is
of
a
c hi
ef
me d ic in e
w id e
t he
n
at t e mp t i
g
int e r e s t s w e r e in
an d
p hilo s op h y ,
fi el d t hat
an d
in t h is
h e b e c am e kn ow n
ac qu i
tt e d .
in qu is it ion b u t w as
le
r e c on c i
his
e n d e av o r
as
At
to
a
h e r e t ic
st u d ie s r a ng e d s uc h
He was
.
t r ial ,
a s e c o nd
t h e diff e r e nt id e as
a ft e r
t r ie d b e f o r e
h is d eat h his
,
mn e d t o b e b u r n e d H is f r ie nd s h ow ev e r f e a r ing t h is
h a d se c r e t ly r emo v e d h is b o dy s o it w a s b u r n e d in effigy
H e s e em s t o h a ve b ee n an a r d ent
Lit tl e is kno w n o f his p r iv at e lif e
b o dy w as
c o nd e
.
,
,
.
,
.
is kno w n t o h av e t r av e ll e d t o Con st antinopl e fo r t h e p u r pose
o f l e ar ning t h e G r e e k l a nguag e
C oncilia t or d ifi er e n tiar nm phil os oph or nm e t pr a e cipn e m e di
M (in t on e, 1 472 , in fol io R epr in t e d in 1 476 an d 1 483 a t
c or mn
Ve nic e ; a t P a d u a in 1 49 0, a t P ar/1 a in 1 49 0 a t Ve nic e in 1 49 6,
1n 4
1 565
1 n f ol io a nd a t G ies s e n in 1 6 1
5 f
D e v e11 e n1 s e o r n mqn e r e me d iis l ib er M an t on e, 1 472, 1 n olio
R epr in te d 8 time s b efor e 1 6 79
s t u d e n t and
.
’
.
.
,
'
'
°
,
'
’
.
,
,
.
Ab d o lla t if ( Ab d a l l a t if, A b d e l l e t if A b d u l La t if, Ab d e l La t h y f )
A c e l eb r at e d A r a b ia n ph y sic ia n a n d t r av e l l e r a n d o ne o f t h e most
t e r s o f his t im e , w a s b o r n a t B ag d a d in 1 1 6 2 , an d die d a t
no u s w r i
v o lu m i
-
-
.
,
,
H e ea r l y b e cam e w e l l v e r s e d in g r amm a r p h il
j u r isp r u d e n c e and poe t r y and lat e r t u r n e d t o p h ilosoph y an d
o l og y
H e w en t t o D am ascu s t o e nj oy th e s o c ie t y o f t h e l e a r n e d a nd
m e d icin e
l a t e r t r a v e l e d e x t e n s iv e l y in E g y p t an d w r o t e acc o u n t s o f t h e f a min e
nu nd at ion o f t h e N il e in 1 2 00 and d e sc r ib e d t h e mo nu
c a u se d b y t he i
H e wa s o ne o f th e c ir cl e o f l e a r ne d
me nt s a n d p eopl e o f t h a t c ou nt r y
m e n S a lad in gat h e r e d a r oun d him in J e r u sal em
Ab dollat if t augh t me d ic ine a nd p h ilosoph y at Ca ir o a nd at D amasc u s
H is l ov e o f t r av el l e d h im in h is o l d ag e t o v isit
f o r a numb er o f y ear s
W h ile in Egypt h e w as
diffe r e nt p a r t s o f Ar me n ia and A sia Mino r
ne d t h at t h e
n a c e me t e r y wh en h e a sce r t a i
ng s om e h um a n bo ne s i
s t udy i
the
sa
me p l ac e in
1 23 1
,
.
,
,
,
.
,
.
.
.
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
1 79
.
p iece ; t h a t t h e s acr um t h ough s ome t imes
co mp o s e d o f se v e r al , is m os t g e n e r all y o f on e ; an d t h a t G al e n, in w h o s e
l o we r
is f o r me d
jaw
w r it ing s h e , in
w e ll
co
of
one
mmo n w it h
ot
is mis ta k e n w h e n h e
v e r se d ,
H e is t h u s th e
o n ly o n e o f
th e
a sser t s
H ipp oc r at e s
in t h e
ce n t u r y
an atomy o f
a t t e m pt e d
t he
su r g e on ,
the
wr it ings
of
al e n
G
co
b o r n in R iez ,
in Fl ande r s in t h e l at t er
a ser i
e s o f v olu
an d
me s
of
-
h al f o f t h e
1 697
He
.
se v e n t eent
f ac e t io us t u r n
h
on
the
H e did
p ar t s o f t h e bo d y w r it t en in v e r s e
e s , b u t t h e f o ll o w ing p a r t s a r e k no w n
se r i
n ot
var i
ou s
mp l e t e t h e
liv e t o
A m il it a r y
.
fi eld h o spit al
He
.
copy
.
A b e il l e , S c ip ion
se r ve d
.
A r ab ia n s , inc lu ding Av ice n na , A b u lcas is ,
A v e r r o es, wh o d id mo r e t h an
an d
p h y sic ian s o f his t ime , w a s
t h a t t h e se b one s a r e n ot s ingl e
h e r A r ab ian
a
.
,
N ou o e ll e his t oir e d e s 03 s el on l e s anciens e t l es mod er n es,
This is a n a t t e mp t to d e sc r ib e
s , 1 68 5, 1 n
c h ie d e we r e , P ar i
e nr i
p o e t ic a lly t h e v a r io u s sk ele t al el e m ent s o f t h e b o d y, b a se d o n t h e
w o r k o f D u l a u r e ns
,
'
’
.
A na t omie d e l a t et e e t d e s e s par ties , P ar is 1 6 89 in
B iogr a phie M é dfca l e h as t h e f o llo w ing e x a mp l e o f h is p oe t r y
,
,
The
Ces d ent s q u e l a g e g at e, au m o m e nt
S o n t p a r l e u r j u s t e a r r a ng e m e n t
L e p l us ag r é a bl e o r ne m en t
D u n e b e ll e p e t it e b o u c h e
T o u t l e m o n de s e n f a it h onn e u r
E t je dis , s ans l e u r f a ir e o u t r ag e,
q u il
’
l e s t o uch e ,
’
.
’
,
Q u e r ie n
Q u e leur
A b e l , Cl e r k
B r it is h
e m b ass y
w h ic h is
.
to
n
’
e ff a c e
c a r ie
et
t ant l e s
leur
ts
at t r ai
n o ir ce u r
du
v is a g e
.
A n E nglis h me dic al n a t u r al is t wh o a cc omp an ie d t h e
C h in a in 1 8 1 6 a nd a ft e r h is r e t u r n p ub l ish e d a r e po r t
in t e r e s t t o b io l o g is t s
of
P er s o na l o bs e r v a tions ma d e du r ing t h e pr ogr ess of the
B r itis h e m bas s y t hr ou g h C hina , a n d on its v o yag e t o a nd fr om
th a t c ou n tr y in t h e y e ar s 1 8 1 6 1 7, Lond on, 1 n
.
-
Ab e r n e t h y ,
1
76 4
-
1 83 1
.
Jo hn
H e w as
.
a
A Lo n d o n
p r o fe ss or
su r g e o n
an
d t ea ch er
o f s u r ge r y an d
an ato
my
of
an a t o
my
,
t o t h e R oy al
I n G e o r ge M ac il w ain s b iog r ap h ic al m e m
C oll e g e o f S u r ge on s
t h e r e is giv e n a n int e r e st ing
n
oir o f A b e r ne t h y ( N e w Y o r k , 1 8 53 , i
n
n t h e ear l y d a y s o f t h e
a c c ou nt o f t h e me t h od s o f a nat o mic a l t e a c h i g i
Ab e r net h y did som e inv e st ig at iv e w or k o n th e ab sor b e n t s
l gt h c e n t u r y
l m h at ics and p ubl ish e d a n accou nt o f his st u die s in t h e P h il osop h ic al
’
.
(
y
p
)
T r an sac t ions O f t he R o yal S oc iet y
F as cia of= s u bpe1 it one ol in
.
A c h il l e s w a s
f or h is
sa f et y
a
G
r ee k
t h at h e w a s
fr on t of
th e A
.
ex
t
.
17
.
w a r r io r , w h o s e p a r e n t s w er e s o d e s ir ou s
d ipp e d in t h e r iv e r S t yx , all bu t h is h eel b y
A N A T OM I CA L N A M ES
1 80
w h ic h h e wa s
at
h e ld
T r oy by th e
sp ot
,
a nd c a
ar r ow o f
me
ou t
.
imp e r v iou s to wo u nd s
P ar is, w h ic h
him in h is
s t r u ck
H e w as kill ed
.
o nly v u l n e r ab l e
.
Tend o A chillis=
Tend a
calcaneus
.
A n I t a l ia n ph il oso p h e r a n d
ana t omist , 1 46 3 1 51 2 H e w as b o r n at B ologn a on t h e 2 9 t h o f O c t ob e r
H e stu d ie d fi r s t in his o w n c ount r y t h en w ent t o Pa r is w h e r e
h e sp ent t h r e e y e a r s
In
I t is no t kno wn wh er e h e r e ce ive d h is d eg r e e
A ch il l ini
( A c hillinu s )
,
A l e ss a n d r o
.
.
-
.
,
.
.
t o th e p r o f e s sor sh ip o f p h ilos
d , o f m e dic ine, a t B ol ogn a
o p h y , a nd it is s a i
H e r e t a in e d t h is po st u nt il
1 506 , w h en h e w as no m ina t ed t o a p r o f e sso r sh i a t P a d u a , wi
t h a n a nn ua l
p
h e wa s
1 48 5,
nte d , at
app o i
the
ag e o f 22 ,
'
.
h on o r ar iu m
o f 2 50
A ch illini w a s
d u c at s
.
ce l e b r at e d
as
b e c am e kno wn as t h e
fi r s t at B ologn a t o av ail
l ectu r e r
a
an d
H e a nd Mu n dinu s w e r e th e
th ems e lv e s o f t h e p e r m is s io n g iv e n b y F r e d e r ic k I I t o diss e c t d e a d b od ie s
H e w as g r e at ly e st e em e d b y h is c ont empo r a r ie s an d w as c al l e d t he gr e a t
A r is t ot l e
s e co n d
.
.
A c hillinu s
an d
al l y
e sp eci
,
H e w as
a
t h oug h
a
a na t o
my w it h
p up il
wh e n
and
r efer r i
ng
lat e r
a co
to
h is
in disp u t a t io n
nu s ( M on d ino ) ,
o f M u nd i
ab i
l it y
mme n ta to r
.
g r eat a d mir e r o f t h e A r ab ian ph ilosoph y h e p u r su e d
l l b e a l w ay s known a s t h e
s uc h f e r v or t h a t h i
s n a me w i
w h o d es c r ib e d t h e t ymp an ic bo ne s, t h e incns and
s t s o f se v e n b on e s ; h e
s h o w e d t h a t t h e t ar su s c o n s i
I
fi r st
s ta
he
r edi
scov e r e d
an d
f o r nix
.
.
n
1 503
th e
t he in f u n d ib u lu m ; an d h e wa s f o r t u na t e eno u gh t o ob se r v e
‘
t h e co u r s e o f t h e c e r e b r a l
c or nu a
pes
H e m e nt io n s
( Ve nt r ic u li ce r eb r i)
t ie s
c av i
t h e o r ifi ce s
( Wh ar t oni)
of
Wh ar t o n s
’
int o th e in f e r io r
d uct s
( D u ct u s
su b
H e kn ew t h e ileo c a e c al v al v e a nd his d es c r ip
t ion s o f t h e d u od enu m il eu m an d c o l o n s h o w t h a t h e w as b e t t e r ac
q ua in te d wit h th e sit e a nd d isp o sit io n o f t h e s e v is c e r a th an any o f h is
p r e d e ce s so r s o r cont e mp o r ar ies
T h e ph ilos oph ic al w r it ing s o f A c h illin i h av e b e en col l e c t e d into a
t h t h e f oll owing t itl e
singl e v o l u me wi
m ax illa r e s
-
,
,
.
,
A A c hillini oper a
Venice, 1 508, in folio
H is anatomic al w r it ing s
a
omni
.
in
nnu m c ol lec ta, c u m a nn o ta tionibus ,
.
h av e b ee n issu e d
wit h t h e follo w ing t itl e s
I n M u nd ini
C or por is h u ma ni ana tomia , Ve nice 1 51 6, ih
A na t o mica e
B ol ogna , 1 52 4 ih
A nat ornia m a nn o ta tion es
A chillini B on onie ns is : e d ita e per fr a tr e m
ann ot a tion es magni A l
P hilotheu m e t impr e ss ae B onon ia e pe r H ier ony mnm d e
oh
B ene d ictis, anno 1 52 0 d ie 23 s ept e mbr i, in s mall
,
'
J
,
,
.
,
,
.
,
A c k e r m a n n,
1 76 5 1 8 1 5
—
.
J ac ob
S t ud ie d in
F id el is
G
.
W iir zb e r g
,
er
ma n
t h e n in
anat o
Main z ;
mis t
l at e r
a nd
st u
st ,
b o t a ni
de nt
of
P
.
A N A T OM I CA L NA M E S
fiaz
of
his in fo r ma t ion f r om A r istot l e
n ume r ou s t r ave l e r s
A ct ins
of
in A f r ica
and
a nd
Pliny ,
Egypt
an d
g iv ing
ac cou n t s
of
.
M e s op o t a mia w as
A mid a in
.
p h y s ic ia n w h o
liv e d d u r ing t h e e a r ly p a r t o f t h e 6 t h c e nt u r y ( 502- 57 5 A
He
e d a t A l ex a n d r i
s t u di
a an d was p h si
y c ian t o th e cou r t a t Co ns t an t inop l e
,
r e ek
G
a
,
.
.
H e w as a comp ile r o f
b e ing mad e w ith g r ea t
t h e wo r k s o f p r e viou s
a nd
ca r e ,
acco
h is
a u t h or s ,
mp a nie d b y h is
l a t ion s
c o mp i
o wn ob s e r va t io n s
.
Eigh t o f his b oo k s w e r e issu e d f r om t h e A ld in e p r e s s in Ven ic e in 1 53 4
A l t h o ugh A e t iu s ma d e n o a dv anc e s in a na t o my his w or k s a r e o f int e r e s t
.
t h e a n a t o m ic al w r iting s o f p r ev io u s a u th or s
w r it ings a r e d is cu sse d in d e t ail by t h e B iogr aph ie M e d ica l e
in th a t t h e y
co n ta i
n
H is
.
’
.
A g as s iz , A l e x
so n
and er
Lou is A gas s iz ,
of
A n A m e r ic a n
.
g is t
A ssist a n t in t h e
1 83 5 1 9 1 0
—
.
H ar v ar d ,
z oo lo
mb r y ol o g is t
M u s e u m o f Com
and
e
,
H e l a t e r a s sume d c h a r g e o f
ng in th e La ke S u p e r i
c op p e r m in i
or r eg ion H e r e t ur ne d in 1 874 t o t h e
cu r a t o r s h i
p o f t h e M u s e u m o f C o mp a r a t iv e Z o o l o g y ; dir e c t o r 1 902 1 9 1 0
D u r ing th e l a tt e r y e a r s h e u nd e r t oo k a g r eat m a n y e x p l or ing an d c oll ec t
ing e x p e d it ion s w h ic h r esu l t e d in m a ny c o nt r ibu t ion s t o g e ol ogy z o o l ogy
a nd b o t a ny
F ound e d a bio l ogic a l st at ion a t N e wp o r t
H e is th e au th o r
mp o r t an t m emo ir s
o f a numb e r o f i
E m br y o l ogy of t h e s tar fi s h es B os t on 1 865
On the d ev e l op
You ng s tag es of oss e ous fis h es
men t of t h e flou nd e r s 1 8 78
1 8 78
E mbr y ol ogy of t h e A e n oph or a 1 8 74
B iog r a phy : L e tte r s a nd R e c oll e c t ions of A l ex a nd er A g ass iz
p ar at iv e
Z o o l og y
at
1 86 0
—
65
.
.
—
.
,
.
.
.
,
.
,
.
,
,
.
,
.
,
Edite d by G
.
A ga s s iz , Lo u is
R Ag as s iz
.
—
J ean
-
B os t on,
.
iii
1 9 1 3,
A S w is s A m e r ic a n z o o l o g is t a n d
M u se um o f Comp ar at iv e Z oology at
R u d o lp h
'
-
.
p a l e on t ol ogist ; f o u n d e r o f t h e
B o r n a t M o t ie r s , S w it z e r l a n d
H a r v a r d U n iv e r s it y
Liv e d in
.
H e st u d ie d comp ar at iv e a nat om y in
U n it e d S t a t e s f r om 1 846 1 8 73
Z iir ich H e id el b e r g a nd M iinch e n I n 1 8 3 1 p r o f e ss or o f nat u r al h ist or y
I n 1 846 h e came t o N or t h A m e r ica w h e r e h e w as su c
at N e u f c h a t e l
n B os t o n Ch ar l est on a n d C amb r i
dge
At t h e l att e r
ce s s i
v el y p r o f e sso r i
p la c e h e w a s p r o f e s so r o f z ool ogy a nd g e ol o gy a t H a r v a r d U niv e r sit y
Au t h o r o f num er o u s cont r ib u t io n s t o z oo l ogy p a l e o nt ol ogy
1 847 1 8 73
H e w as a n act iv e m an in t h e sc ie nt ifi c wo r k o f h is t ime
a n d g e o l og y
C o nd uc t e d many e x pl or ing ex pe dit ions t h e r e s u l t s o f wh ic h a r e s to r e d
Fo und e d a t t h e is l and
in t h e H a r va r d M u s e um o f Compa r a t iv e Z ool ogy
H e w a s g r e at ly
ke se t he fi r st b iol ogic a l s ta t ion in N o r th Ame r ic a
o f P e ni
int er e st e d in t he fi sh e s and p ub lish ed ex t e n s iv e ly on f o ss il fi sh e s e sp ec iall y
—
.
.
,
,
,
.
.
,
,
—
.
,
,
.
.
,
.
.
.
R e c h er c h es s u r les poiss ons fos s ile s,
B ibliogr aphia Z ool ogica e t G e ol ogica , 1 854
.
v ol s
8 43
1 8 44
5
Contr ibu tions to the
.
1
—
.
A N A T OM I CA L N A M E S
N a tur a l H is t or y
f
th e
Unit e d S
1 83
.
Embr y ol ogy of t he Tes
t u d ina t a v ol 1
pt 2, 1 857 Es s ay on Class ifi ca tio n, 1 859
B iogr aphy : Life a nd C or r es ond enc e, e dite d b his wi e,
p
y
f
Eliza be th C A gas s iz , 2 v ols, 1 88 ; Li e Le tt er s and Wor ks , b
5
f ,
y
Ju les M ar c ou, 2 vols, 1 89 6
,
.
o
.
,
ta t e s :
.
.
.
.
H ay es
An A me r ica n p h y s icia n, 1 8 1 8 1 892 S t u die d
in t h e Unive r sit y o f P ennsylv ania, wh e r e h e l at e r b ec ame r o f e s s or o f
p
c l in ica l s u r e r
H e was int e r est e d in the d evelopme nt o f
g y an d me d ic in e
A gn e w , D
.
—
.
.
.
t h e P h il a d e lp h ia
ar r a n
geme n t
S c h ool
,
Aich ol t z
an d
b r o ugh t
t h e Lond on D is sec t or , wh ic h
of
mu sc l e s b lood
of the
Anatomy ,
of
in
1 868
a ne w
ned a co nc ise ac count
c o nt a i
ligament s
v e ssel s, ner v es , vi
sce r a an d
( A ic hh o lt z )
o ut
.
An A u s t r ia n p h y sician , 1 520
1 588
H e su c ce e d e d La t z in t h e Co llegium A lb e r t inu m o f A natomy in
Vie nna and f r om 1 558 80 h e h e l d d em onst r at ions in anat omy
,
J oh a n n
,
.
.
—
.
A k e n s id e ,
N ov e m b e r 9 ,
a n d die d on
M ar k
1 72 1
.
J u ne
Ed inb u r g h f o r
A B r it is h po e t , b o r n
H e a t t a in e d muc h f ame
23 ,
He
1 77 0
.
on e se ss ion ,
N e w cas t l e
at
.
—
o n-T y n e o n
p hy s ic ian an d a p oet ,
e d t h e ol ogy at th e U ni
s t u di
ve r si
ty of
as a
t h e n w ent t o Ley d e n t o
it w a s t h e r e t h at h e w r o t e his f am ous t h e sis
s t udy
me dicin e
a nd
( D iss er tatio
t h e fo e tu s
on
,
h u mani, L eyd en, 1 7 44 ih
I n 1 753 t h e
U n iv e r s it y o f C am b r idg e b e st o w e d o n h im t h e d egr e e o f doc t o r o f m e di
c in e
H e b ec am e a f e ll ow o f th e Coll ege o f Phy sician s in 1 7 54 H e is
de
or t u e t
inc r e m e n t o
foetus
,
.
.
t h e au t ho r o f o ne a na t o m ic a l w o r k e nt it l e d :
t h e lymph a tic
f
a nd u s e o
v e ss e ls ,
L ond on,
1
O bs er v a tions
757 in
,
on
th e or igin
Mo nr o t h e
t h oug h t w e r e
w h ich
yo u ng e r c r it ic is e d a n d in w h ich h e point e d ou t w h at he
inacc u r ac ie s
I n 1 7 56 A k e n s ide r ead t h e C r oo nian l e c t ur es
H e w as
’
p h y s ic ia n in c h ie f t o S t T ho m as Ho sp it al and a me mb er o f t h e r oy al
-
.
.
.
soc i
e ty
.
H e is mor e w ide ly kno wn
magina tion
as
t he
au t
hor
of
Th e Pl e asur es
”
p ub lis h e d in 1 744
Lif e
B iogr aphy :
Wr itings and G enius of A kens id e
B u c k e, 1 8 3 2
B iogr aphie M e dicol e ; Encycl ope d ia B r itt anica
t he I
.
,
,
’
.
A lb e r t
.
f
o
by
.
S e e A l b e r t u s M a g nu s
.
M ic h e l A ph y s ic ia n a nd l a w y e r o f H all e 1 682 1 757
H e st u d ie d t h e olog y at Al td o r f a n d b ecame v e r se d in medic ine n at u r a l
h is to r y ph ilos ophy and j u r isp r u d e nc e B e t w e en 1 703 and 1 7 55 Alb e r t i
p u bl ish e d u p wa r d s o f 3 00 c o nt r ib ut io n s so m e o f w h ic h make b r ie f r e f er
s d ay
Th e B iogr aphie M é dica l e
e n c e s t o t h e an a to m ic al kno w l e dg e o f h i
lis t s t h e se p ub l ic at io ns and giv e s sh or t d iscus sions o f t h e mo r e impor t ant
A l b e r t i,
—
.
,
,
,
,
.
,
,
.
o ne s
.
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M ES
1 84
Alb e r t i, S o l omo n
A G e r m a n p hy sic ia n
is said by H aller to h av e b e en a st u d ent
.
He
.
a n d a na t o
mis t , 1 540
Fabr icius
of
1 600
—
ab
.
Aqu ap en
d ent e, t hough t h is is d enie d b y t h e B iogr aphie M ed icole
H all e r al so
at t r i
b ut es t o him the distinct ion o f fi r st d esc r ibing and figur ing t h e v al v e
’
.
H e is gener ally ac c r e dit ed wit h a good descr ipt ion o f th e
p apillae o f t he kidney s a nd o f t h e hum an e ar in his : H is t or ia pler ar u m
qu e huma ni cor por is pa r tia m me mbr a tim s cr ipta Wittember g, 1 58 3
iii
Th e r e ar e some ne w p l a t e s e sp ec ia l ly on the ear and kidney s b u t
most of the ill ust r at ions ar e bor r owed f r om Vesalius
of
t he colon
.
,
,
'
,
,
.
A l b e r t ini, I pp olit o F r a n c is co A n I t a l ia n anat omis t a nd p h y s ic ia n ,
1 66 2 1 746
H e was bor n at Cr ev al cor e in t h e t er r ito r y o f B ologn a H e
e d me d i
ne u nde r M alp i
s tu di
ci
g hi, a n d l at e r b ec ame p r o f e s sor o f me d ic ine
.
—
.
.
in B ologna
c
h u r ch
He late r
.
H e h as l e f t
.
me dic in e
r eno u nce d
_
w or k
a
on
the
t o ent e r t h e se r v ice
he ar t wh ich is
of
'
the
o f some anat om ica l
I t is ent it le d : A nima dver s ion es s uper qu ibus dam difi icilis
r e s pi
r a ti
s viti
is, a la es a cor dis e t pr ae cor dior u m s tr u ctur a pend entibus
oni
B ol ogna, 1 7 48 T his wo r k h as b een t r an sl a t ed int o F r ench and G er m a n
int e r e st
.
.
.
.
Al b er t u s Ma gnu s ( kn o w n al so a s Al b e r t t h e G r eat , Alb e r t vo n
B ol l st adt , Albe r t us Teu th onic u s F r at e r Alb er tu s de Colonia, Alb e r t u s
R a t isbonensis, an d Alber tu s G r o t us ) , w as a celeb r at ed G er man p hil
o s 0p h er , 1 1 93 1 280
He r ece ive d in st r u c t ion in t he wr it ings o f A r is t ot l e
,
—
.
at
P adua,
and
b ecame
a
memb e r
of
th e D ominican or de r
in
1 223
.
He
Col og ne R eg ensb u r g F r eibu r g, S t r as sbu r g, a nd
H il de sh e im
H is v oluminou s w r it ings on logic , ph ysic, me taph ysic s
tics, nat ur al h isto r y a n d t h eo logy w e r e p ublish ed at Lyo n m
e t hic s , poli
21
f ol io v olume s b y t h e D omin ic an Pe t e r J ammy, wit h th e t it l e :
”
H e sy st em a t iz e d th e w hol e o f Ar ist ot l e s
A lber tiMagni oper a omnia
t augh t and p r each e d at
,
,
.
,
’
.
w o r ks
of
t hey we r e pr esent e d to h im in Lat in t r ansl at ion s wit h t h e no t e s
Th e anat omic al t er m Vena papillar is is
Ar ab ian comment ator s
as
th e
.
t ed
accr ed i
t o t h is w r it e r
.
Biog r aphy : Al ber t us M agnus,
s chaf t, 1 857, by
oachim S i
g har t
J
n
s ei
Le ben
ne
u nd s ei
Wiss en
.
A n Eng l is h a r t is t w ho p ub l is h e d, fr om
Alb in, El e az ar
llu st r at ed vol ume s on bir ds, insect s, and fi sh
1 794, h and somely i
.
1 73 1 t o
.
Al b ini,
1 830
1 846
—
G iu s epp e
.
An
I t al ian
He was bor n at Mil an
th e anat omic al inst it ut e
.
7
B r uecke
at
at
t ies
un i
v e r si
.
mis t
a nd
p h y siol og is t ,
H e st u die d at Pav ia in 1 845, and in
o f Pa n i
z za
He was as sist ant to
s p e nt some t i
me in visiting var iou s
Vienna , a ft er wh ic h h e
I n 1 857 h e was p r o fe sso r
a n at o
.
of
ph ysiology
at
Kr ak au
,
th en
1
A N AT O-M I CA L N A M E S
86
b e c am e
a t t r ac t ed
t o the
s t u dy
anat omy
of
R uy sc h wh o t augh t h im t h e t e ch niqu e
h a d b e en
w ent , in
ca r r i
ed
1 7 1 8,
t o g r e a t p e r f e c t ion
to P ar is t o
w it h
s t u dy
of
al l y
e sp ec i
ed
s t ud i
an d
w it h
h is w o nd e r f u l inj e c t io n s , w h ic h
W insl o w
of
ce
adv i
On the
.
.
S é n ac
and
t o p a ss som e y e a r s in P a r is, b u t a t t h e e n d o f
o f th e Univ e r s it y o f Le y d e n, o n t h e r e t ir e m e n t
his f a t h e r h e
H e h ad h o p e d
.
m o nt h s t h e c u r a to r s
m ba c k
o f R au cal l e d h i
t o H ollan d as p r o f e s s o r e x t r a or d in a r y o f s u r g e r y a n d a n at omy
S h o r t ly
ng H o ll an d th e u n iv e r s i
a f t er r eac h i
t y g av e h im his d o c t o r a t e , w ith o u t
ei
t h e r ex amin a t io n o r t h e s is , t h u s illu s t r a t ing t h e g r e a t c o n fi d e nc e t h e y
x
si
,
.
Th e
I n t h is t h ey w e r e no t d is appo in t e d
p l a c e d in h is p r omis e d ab ility
w h ic h
in augu r al a dd r e ss
Or a tio inaug u r a lis d e a na t o me c o mpar a t a
.
A lb in u s d eliv e r e d
c l e ar l y s
.
.
h ow e d t h at
h is w a s
m a st e r m ind
I
72 1
h e s ucc ee d e d his f ath er , on t h e r e c omm end a t io n o f B oe r h a av e , wit h t h e
I n 1 7 45 h e w as giv e n t h e c h air o f t h e r a
t it l e o f p r o f e ss o r in o r d ina r y
,
a
.
n
1
.
H e d evot e d fi f ty y e ar s t o his wo r k a t t h e Univ e r sit y
p eu t ics
ng h is l if e s wo r k at t h e age o f s e v e nt y t h r e e
c l o si
.
’
Le y d e n ,
of
-
.
A lb inu s g av e
ne w
a
d ir e c t io n t o t h e
st u d y
an a t omy
of
.
T h is w as
m e o f t h e imp u l se g iv e n b y B o e r h a av e t o t h e s t u d y o f
H is a na t om ica l d e sc r ip t io n s a r e c l ea r and h e e mp l o y e d t h e
m e d icin e
b e s t a r t is t ic t a l e nt f o r t h e illu s t r a t io n o f h is w o r k s T h e a r t o f an a t om ic al
t h e n e c e ss a r y
o u tc o
.
,
.
ne d
r em ai
illust r a t io n h a d
the
s in c e
ona r y
s ta ti
w or k
of
V e s a l iu s
an d
E u s t achiu s , b u t A lb inu s b r ou gh t it t o g r e a t e r p e r f e c tion , e s p e c iall y in h is
ch h i
s f ame
o n wh i
H is t or ia mu s cu l or u m h ominis L ey d en 1 73 4 in
,
,
a s a n an a t o
mis t
r e st s
.
,
p r e f ac e A lb inu s s t a t e s t h a t h e m a d e in t h e
m s el f H a ll e r c o ns id e r e d
o ns h i
r ec or d e d ob s e r v a t i
I
n th e
hu man b ody all o f th e
Th e w o r k w as t w ic e r e p r int e d
t h is w or k o n e o f t h e g r ea t e st o f it s kind
n t o F r e nc h b y T a r in in 1 753
a nd t r a n sl a t e d i
Th e infl u en c e o f Al b in u s in b r inging fo r wa r d t h e imp or t a nc e o f
.
.
.
,
h u man
my in m e d ic ine w a s
a na t o
in
s t u d ent s
g u id e
a d a u d it or es
s u os
h u ma n or u m
Le y de n,
fo r
,
v e na
a z yg os ,
1 7 51 ,
in
flo r ins
.
r e g al
a t er i
is
f o lio
Al binus
ab
F ab r ic iu s
Eu st ach ius
M
.
.
w it h t h e
1 746,
libe ll us
v er y
H e is
.
H e p ub l ish e d a n a na t om ic al
g r eat
t it l e : D e os s ibus c or por is h u ma n i
th e
.
-
au t
h or
m
vas i
s c hy li
f er i c u m
al so
Ta bu l ce
of :
os s i
u
in giant f olio ; Ta bu l ce
int e r c os t a libus , aliis qu e vicinis pa r tibus , Le y d e n,
T h e pl a t e s o f t h is magnifi c e nt wo r k c ost
1
7 53
,
e di
t e d al so
th e wo r k s
A qu ap end e nt e,
w ell
as
H ar v ey an d
anat omi
cal
p l at e s
V e s al iu s,
of
as
th e
of
,
of
of
.
F oss a innomina ta ( S capha)
M s pinalis c er v icis
s er r atus
.
.
.
.
M int er oss eus pr ior indicis
.
P r ocess us
a cu tus
h elicis
.
A G e r ma n p h y s ic ia n , b o r n in H o l
A l b inu s , Ch r is t ia n B e r n h a r d
H e b e came a p r o
Th ir d s on o f B er nh ar d Alb inu s
l an d 1 6 96 1 7 52
His only im
f e s so r o f m ed ic in e in th e Univ e r sit y o f Ut r e c h t in 1 747
.
—
,
.
.
.
.
A N AT O MI CA L N A M E S
18 ,
7
.
p or tant p ublic at ion o f a nat omical int er e st is : D e a na t ome e r r or es
d e teg e nte in me dic in a or a tio, Utr e ch t, 1 723 , in
in wh ic h h e s h o w s
t h e imp or t anc e o f d is sec t ing t h e h u ma n b o d
n
i
sc ov e r i
n
s
i
a
ll
i
d
ec
e
g
y
y
p
,
th e
c au s e s an d e ff e ct s o f
d is e a se
.
Alb inu s , F r ie d r ic h B e r n h ar d
1 7 1 5 1 7 78
S e c on d
—
.
of
s on
A G
.
B e r nh a r d
b r o t h e r , B e r nh a r d S ieg f r ie d, in t h e
U niv e r s ity
c al
a n at o m i
of
Ley d e n in
nt
s t a n dp o i
c
h a ir
man
.
ana t o
A lb inu s
mis t
He
.
a n d su r g e o n ,
su cc eed e d
h is
o f a n a t omy a nd s u r g e r y a t
H is w r it ing s
1 770
ar e no t
impor t ant f r om
th e
an
.
J o h a n n W il h e l m
A G e r m a n a n a t o m is t 1 703 1 73 6
s t u di
ed m e d i
t h W e d el Te ich mey er a n d H amb e r ge r ;
c in e in J e na wi
Al b r e ch t ,
He
er
—
.
.
,
,
H e w a s ca ll e d f r o m E r f or d to G o et t inge n
in 1 73 4 as p r o f e ss or o f anat o my su r ge r y a n d b o t any
H e w as t h e p r e
H is w r itings ar e r a t h e r me ag e r f o r
d e c e s s o r t o A lb r ec ht v o n H a ll e r
h is d a y b u t h e h as l e f t t wo wh ic h p o ss e s s some an a t o mic al int e r e st
Obs er v a t io n e s a n a t omica cir c a d u o ca d a v e r a ma s cu lin a Er f or d 1 73 0;
Tr ac t a t us d e t e mpes t a t e c u i a dje c t a o bs er v a tio cir ca vas a ly mpha tica
a nd a t
and
P a r is
S t ras sb u r g
.
,
.
,
.
,
,
,
.
Er f or d
v e ntr ic u li/ins titu ta ,
1
73 1
,
i 8
n-
°
m is t o f H a mb u r g , 1 8 51
1 89 4
H e is k no w n fo r h is discov e r ie s in co mp ar at iv e o st eol ogy H e is
t h e au t h o r o f so m e 7 5 st u d ies in comp ar a t iv e a n a t o m y o f w h ic h t h e f ol
l o w in g m a y b e m e nt ion e d : S ur l a v a l e u r m or ph olg iqu e d e l a r t icu l a tion
ma n dibu lair e B r u x e l les 1 885; S u r l es qu a tr es os max illair es B r ux e lles
Alb r e c h t , P a u l
.
A
co
m p a r a t iv e
anat o
.
.
’
,
1
,
,
,
885
.
( Ab u l ca s is
A l b u ca s is
Ka s e m Kh a l a f b e n Ab r a s
vi
us ,
A lb u k ais m A b u l q u as im Ab u l c a s e m , Ab o n l
s G a l a f A l sah a r a
al Z ah a r av i B u c a s is B u l c a s i
’
,
,
,
,
,
,
A f a m ou s A r ab ian sur
Al s a r av iu s , Al sc h a r av iu s, Al sa h ar an u s )
n, b or n in El Z ah r a , n e a r Cor d ov a , in 9 1 2 ; th e e x a c t d at e
o f S pai
.
g e on
-
his d e at h b e ing u n c e r t a in t h ough
A lt a s r if ( a t
p a r t o f his w o r k
in 1 51 9 w it h t h e t it l e : Libe r t h e or icae
of
t a ins
so
me
anat omic al
por t io ns, c
u su al ly
Th e fi r st
p l a c e d at 1 03 1
w h ic h w a s t r an sl at e d int o Lat in
n e c n on
.
pr ac tica e A ls a har avii,
h iefly following G alen
con
.
M o s al i A n Ar me nian p h y s icia n w ho liv e d ab ou t t h e mid
d l e o f t h e t h ir t ee n t h c ent ur y a n d w a s p r act ic ing me dic ine in B ag da d
H e d ev ot ed h imsel f
w h e n t ha t c it y w a s t ak e n by t he T a r t a r s in 1 2 58
“
se
D e pas s io nibu s
a n d h as l e f t a t r eat i
e sp e c i
a ll y t o oph t h alm o l ogy
”
wh ic h is a c omfi l at io n o f t he anat omic a l a n d m e dic al
o cu l or u m liber
n at u r e o f t h e e y e f r om A r ab ia n Ch a ld ea n J e w ish a n d I ndian s ou r ce s
A l c a na
.
,
.
,
,
,
,
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
1 88
Al cme on
( Alkm aio n
Alcma n )
,
A G
.
r e ek
.
w r it e r
of
Cr o tona,
“
ca
.
H e wa s o ne o f th e d isc iple s o f Pyt h ago r as a nd m ad e
p h ilosop h y t h e ma j or p ar t o f h is l if e s int e r e st s, al t h o ugh h e w a s m u c h
int e r e st e d in me d ic ine
H e is r ep ut e d t o h av e b ee n th e fi r st t o w r it e o n
0
55 500
B
C
.
.
,
’
.
p h y siol ogic al
n e r v e and
s u b e c t s a nd
is
ac c r e di
ted
th e o bser v at io n
of
t h e Eu st ac h ian t u b e in th e go at
j
A l c oc k , T h o m a s
St
J ame s
.
’
w or kho u se
An Eng l is h p h y s ic ia n
in Londo n, 1 8 1 3 1 82 8
Canal
a s
foss a
.
=
pac e in the
,
1 83 3
.
S u r g e on t o
ou t er
fas cial
w a ll
f
o
th e is chior e ct al
.
A l d r o v a n d i, Uly s s e
o f t h e mos t l a bo r i
ou s
co
H e w a s b or n
at
ea r ly ag e s
—
.
.
f
o
1 7 84
op t i
c
th e
of
—
An
.
o ne
w ith t h e d iscov e r y
.
I t al ia n
mp ile r s
a nd
B ol ogna
d is t ing u ish e d f am ily
n a t u r a l ist ,
1 522
—
wr it er s in
on
H e w as
1 605
na t u r a l
.
h ist or y
of
t he
t h e 1 1 t h o f S ep t emb er
Un d er t h e in fl ue nc e o f R ond el e t his
a t t en t i
o n w as a t t r a c t e d t o N a t u r a l H i
s t or y an d t o t h is fi e l d o f st udy h e
d ir e ct e d his a t t e nt io n wit h t h e r esu lt t h a t h e b e c a m e k no w n as t h e
mod e r n Pl iny H is w r it ing s which a r e e n or m ou s sh o w a c ompl e t e l ack
of
a
ve r y
.
,
.
of
,
f acu l t y
t ical
a ny c r i
ar e
inc l u d ed w it h t h e
,
t h e p a r t o f t h e au t h o r
on
a c t u al
f ac t s
o f n at u r e as
M an y f ant a s t ic
.
he
r ep r e s e nt s
t h em
t al e s
.
At
B o log na h e w a s g r a nt e d t h e d e g r e e o f d o c t o r o f me d icin e in 1 553 , and
t h e yea r f oll owing w as app oint e d t o t h e ch a ir o f l ogic , t h e n o f p h ilo sop h y
,
t h e n b o t any
an d
H is
.
es
st u d i
w e r e w e ll
s u pp o r t e d
b y th e
s e na t e o f
t h e y ass ist e d in t h e pu b l ic a t io n o f h is w o r k s in s eve r al
b ir d s , in s ec t s, mammal s
f olio
B ol og na
,
me s
.
v ol u
mon st e r s , wh ich w er e
w r itt e n in Lat in w it h l ong an d cu mb er some t itl e s , we r e s eve r al t ime s
n
Th e mu se um fo und ed by Aldr ova ndi
r e p r int e d d u r i
g t h e 1 7th c ent u r y
A ll
of
h is w o r k s
on
and
.
in B ol ogna
ll ex
st i
A li Abb a s
ist s
.
( Al i I b n
a l- Abb a s a l -
M aj u s ) ( H a l y Abb as )
,
A dis
.
Ar ab ic p er io d
H e liv e d du r ing th e
H is c h ie f w or k is a l M al iki
t e nt h ce nt ur y ending h is c ar ee r in 994
I t is ch ie fl y int e r e st ing f r om t h e
Lib e r R egis o r t h e Kingly B ook
n t h e s e ct i
cal di
sc u ss i
on s i
on on oph th al
a r r angement o f th e a nat om i
t ingu ish e d Pe r s ia n ph y s ic ian
of
th e
.
—
.
,
,
.
mology
.
Al i B e n I
( J e s u H al y )
sa
h t h a l mo l og is t s
w as
o n e of
t he
mos t imp or t ant
of t h e
w h o l ive d in B a g d a d in t h e fi r s t h a lf o f t h e
H is w o r k o n o p h t h a l mo l o g y w a s in g e n e r a l u se fo r
e lev e nt h c ent ur y
l l in u s e a m o ng t h e A r a b s
e s a n d is s t i
T h is w o r k in
s e v e r al c e nt u r i
A r a b ia n
op
,
.
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
1 90
of
t h is
y ie ld e d ma ny o t h e r wise unknown g r o up s
fi r st p ap e r d eal t wit h t h e o cc ur r e nce o f h uman
nce
si
wh ic h h a s
r e gi
o n,
.
ma mm al s A megh ino s
r em a i
ns an d i
mpl e me nt s ming l e d w it h q u at e r n a r y m ammal s o f Ar g ent in e
T h at his e ar l y int e r e s t c ont inu e d f or man y y e a r s is sh ow n by a p ap e r
p u b l ish e d in 1 9 1 1 r ev ie wing t h e e nt ir e s ubj e c t o f f os sil m an in S o u t h
A m e r ic a u p t o t h e y e a r o f h is d eath
Ameghino a cc om p lish e d a n ama z
ing amo u nt o f w o r k in t h e f a c e o f t h e d ir es t d iffi cu lt ie s s u pp o r t ing his
r e s e a r c h e s b y t h e p r o ce e d s o f a sma ll s t a t ion e r s sh op i
n La P l a t a w o r k
ing in t h e r e a r o f h is sh op r e mov e d f r om lib r ar y f a c ilit ie s a nd f o r m any
H is wo r k fi r st
y ea r s e s t r a ng e d f r o m t h e n at ur alist s o f h is own co u nt r y
r ec e i
n F r a nce
H e w a s d ir ec to r o f t h e Mu se o N a cional
v e d r e cogn it i
on i
1 9 02 1 9 1 1 ; w a s a me mb er o f m any l e ar n e d s o c ie t ie s
o f B u e nos A ir e s
a t h om e a nd a b r o a d a n d a t his d e at h w as h o no r e d b y a p ub li
c f un e r a l
T h e c it y e r e ct e d a s t r ik ing m o n u me nt t o h im
H e w as a p r o lifi c w r it e r
’
of
.
.
,
,
.
,
’
,
,
,
.
-
.
—
,
.
,
.
p ub lish e d 1 79
ge ol ogy , r a ng ing f r o m
c on t r i
b u t ions
h av ing
many h u n d r e d s
of
v er t e b r at e
to
s m a ll
p ag e s ,
p a p e r s o f a f e w p ag e s
a ll r i
c hly ill u s t r at e d
p a l eo nt o lo gy a n d
t o l ar g e f o lio s o f
.
6 00 pp ,
La A n tig iie d a d d el H ombr e en e l P l a ta, 2 vols , in
C ou
s a n d B u en os A ir es , 1 88 0 1 88 1
25 pl a t e s a n d 7 00 figs , P a r i
tr ibu c ion a l c on o cimie n t o d e l os ma mif e r os fos il es d e la R epublic a
A r g en tina, 2 v ols , folio, 1 06 0 pp and ov er 2 000 figu r es on 9 8
pl a t es 1 889
B iog r aphy : D oc t or F l or e n tino A meghin o, 1 854 1 9 1 1 , by
Juan B A m br os e t ti in A na l es d e l M us e o N a cional d e H is tor ia
N a tu r a l d e B u e nos A ir es, Tomo x x ii, ( s er 3 a , t x v ) p v ii lx x ii,
1 9 1 2, wit h por tr ait ; s e e al s o P op S ci M onth ly, M a r c h, 1 9 1 2
-
.
.
—
.
,
'
’
.
.
.
,
—
.
-
.
.
( A m e n, A m u n )
Am m o n
s u p p os e d t o
t h e ol d
g iant s ,
a nd
b e th e
sa
me
as
.
O ne
Z eus
or
of
th e
.
.
.
c
J upit e r
.
h ie f o f t h e
E gy p t ia n d e it ie s ,
A cco r d ing t o
one
f or m
of
m y t h t h e go d s o f G r e e c e a f t e r b e ing o v e r p o w e r e d b y t h e
wh e r e J u p it e r as s u me d t h e for m o f a r am,
e s ca p e d in t o Egyp t
r ee k
G
,
,
wa s w o r s h ipp e d b y t h e Egy pt ian s as a d e it y
’
Ammon s h or n= H ippoca mpus major
.
Am u s c o,
.
J e a n V a l v e r d e ( J o a n V a lv e r d e d e H am u sco )
A S p an
p r ov ince o f
.
H e w as b or n in th e
ish an at o mist o f t h e 1 6 th ce nt u r y
P a le nc ia , S p ain , a nd b e came on e o f th e mos t c e l eb r at e d ana t om ist s o f
H e a cco mp anie d t h e ca r d in al J o an o f T ol e do t o
h is co u nt r y a nd t im e
-
.
.
his ph y sic ia n, a nd w h il e t h e r e h e t ook l e s s ons in anat omy u nder
o n o f s ev e r al h u man
i
n t h e d iss e c t i
i
m
e
h
d
c
t
i
n
t
r
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ld
C
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R
,
ll
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n t h e asc e nd e n c y
l
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f
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G
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r
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p
u s a nd t augh t hi
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o f V e sa l i
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A
R ome
as
.
.
s t r ac t o f t h e w o r k o f t h is au t h o r ,
n
a
b
h
n
i
s
a
a
n
h
d
i
S
li
s
e
u
b
H
e
es
p
c ov e r i
p
s tor i
a d e l a compos i
cion del
h
o l omb o ( H i
C
f
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t
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w
i
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m
b
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p
.
A N AT O M I CA L N A M E S
c u er
po h u man o
R o me
,
1 556,
,
or i
g in a l ob se r v a t ion s o n
mu sc l e s
O n t he
.
th e
ad v i
ce
th e
C o l o mb o
I t wa s
.
int o S p ain ,
t h e 1 6 t h c e nt u r y
A mu ss a t ,
a nd
A na x
J ean Z u l ema
the
,
t r a n sl a t e d int o
d is c ip l e s
an d
t h e w or k
au t
ad
in P ar is,
(
r epu t e d
t h e b r a in
by
,
sai
d
ot
m e d ic ine
of
h er s
to
be en t he
r eg a r d e d
b loo d v e s s e l s a s
c omb at e d t his id e a
.
lo s t , b u t
e n t it l e d :
n
ce r t a i
( Le ip z ig
s ays
fi r st
A n d e r na c h ,
.
T h e maj o r it y
f r ag m e n t s
pos to in
J o h a nn W in t h e r
of
t h e w r it ing s
t o h im
at t r i
b u t ed
as
H a ll e r
d ist in c t
v on
G
.
er
.
1
He
h av e b e e n
a nd
in
p o e m on
co mpen d io d e ll e
ma n p h y s ic ia n ,
,
s u r ge on
a
,
Par is
1 4 78
—
1
574
.
.
.
.
a ng lion
of
73 9 in
.
,
1 73 2
—
1 7 77
.
A
stu
1 1 t h ce r e b r al n e r v e s
.
pe tr os u m
A n d r e a e , T o b ia s
B r emen
P es ar o,
.
si
a
0
K a r l D a n ie l A G e r m a n a n at o mis t
H e dist ing u is h e d t h e 9 th , 1 0th and
s
st r uc t ur e s
G
at
v er s i
,
=
of
v e nt r i
cle s
the
t h e p a s s ag e o f b il e int o th e lu ng s,
t h e ca u s e o f t h e m a j o r it y o f f e v e r s
m e dic in e in Lo u v a in S t r a ssb ur g
Os s ic le s of Wor mian bon es
’
a nd
,
of
An d e r s ch ,
d
w as imp or t an t
and
obser ve
to
L A na t omico in P ar nas s o,
ex
an
,
h e m a d e d is s ec t io n s
’
t i d e l c or po u ma n o,
.
b ee n th e t u r ning p o int in
o f the o r i
g in o f t h ing s f r om
Plu t a r c h
.
h av e
ag o r a s
by S c h a u b a c h
P r o f e ss or
of
h av e
to
-
my
of
1 7 96 - 1 8 56
ph ilo s oph y b y A n ax
P er ic l e s , t h e p oe t Eu r ipid e s , S oc r a t e s
a nd
ag o r a s a r e
'
to
.
A n d e r l ini, Lu c iu s F r a n co is A c it iz e n o f B o l o g n a an d
no, p ub lish e d
n t h e d u c h y o f U r bi
c it y o f S aint A ng e l o i
dent
se r v i
ce
—
s ec r e t s o f
mir er s
A n ax
.
c op p e r
He
42 8 B
ime n e s an d la t e r h a d
500
.
p
42
by
he r
.
of
p l e u r al c a v it ie s
A r is t o t l e l a t e r
ar
t
ei
I t al ian
t r an s
g r e a t mas t e r s
g r e at d is cov e r ie s
s ur g e on
C l a z o m e n ae , in A s ia M in o r
of
m in u t e p a r t s
in t h e d ev e l op m en t
an a t o
ho r
t he
of
p h ilo sop hy , a nd his d o c t r ine
p av e d t h e w a y f o r t h e A t om ic T h e or y,
h isto r y
c oll e c t e d
.
H is in fl u en c e is
.
of
A p r ominent
—
a g or a s
T h e mis t o cl e s
th e
fi cial
.
w as init ia t e d in t o t h e
A n ax
M e r c ur ial i
m ake kno wn t h e r e t h e
to
Va lv u la pyl or ica
of
s up e r
.
a n a to my
h e is
an d
t h e u t e r us ,
’
w a s in t h e in t r od u c t io n
th e
al so
so m e
.
an a to my
as
and
has
l at ion
c omp i
T h is
.
hor o r by A nt oine T ab o Th e w o r k w as illu st r at e d w it h
o f fi g u r e s d r a wn b
A m usco s g r e a t
y G a sp a r d B e z e r r a
au t
plat e s
folio )
c u t an eo u s v e i
n s,
of
l a t e d t h is wo r k int o La t in
in
191
.
w as
.
et
tempor a le
.
m a n p h y s ic ia n 1 6 3 3 1 68 5 H e w as b o r n
n F r a nk f o r t a n d e r O d e r
ne i
ci
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ss
o
r o f me d i
r
o
f
p
A G
er
-
,
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-
—
—
,
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
1 92
.
Pr ed ec esso r t o Al binu s, t h e eld e r , an d a c c r e d it e d wit h a s s is t
ing him in t h e e r ect ion o f t h e fi r s t a na t omica l t h e at e r
H e w as a g r ea t
c h amp i
on of th e p hil osop hy o f D escar t e s
1 674
1 68 0
—
.
,
.
.
S ee M ich e l a ng el o B u o nar r o t i
A ng e l o
t
.
.
A ng licu s , B a r t h o l o mae us
h is
“D e
pr opr ie ta tibus
r er u
A p h y s ic ia n w h o in 1 48 5 p u b l is h e d in
w r itt e n a bou t 1 2 60 on e o f t h e fi r s t
.
m
,
,
an at omical s ub ect s
wood c u t s ill u st r at ing
j
A n t o mm a r c h i
.
A n I t a l ia n p h y s ic ia n,
1 7 80 1 8 3 8
P r o se c to r t o P ao la M a sc agni ( 1 7 52 1 8 1 5) t h e p r o f e ss o r o f
an a t om y a t F lor e n ce
Ant omm a r ch i e dit e d ( 1 8 1 9 ) t wo o f t h e a r t is t ic
v o l u me s o f M a s ca n is a na t omi
es
H e l at e r w as p h y sic ian t o N apol eon I
g
at S t
H el e na a nd r ep o r t e d on h is a u top sy
T h e wo r ks e d it e d b y
A nt omm a r ch i a r e : P r o d r omo d e ll a gr a n d e an a tomia s e con d a oper a
F r a n ce s c o
.
—
—
.
.
’
.
.
,
.
,
pos tu ma di P a ol o M a s cagn i pas ta in or din e e poblica ta a s pes e di u na
S ocie ta innomina t a d a F r a n cis co A n t ommar chi Fl or e nce 1 8 1 9 pe tit
,
,
,
in
-
f olio
T h is w o r k w a s
.
,
,
ac c om p a ni
ed
by
a
f olio
o f 20
,
p l at e s :
Tav o l e
d i al cu n e par ti or ga nic h e d e l cor po u ma n o d egli a nima li e d ei
v eg e ta bili es pos t e n e l pr od r omo d e ll a gr an d e an a t omi
a d i P a o l o M as
T h e pla t e s w e r e d r a wn a n d p o s s ib ly
Fl or enc e, 1 8 1 9, in fo lio
c ag n i
,
fig u r a t e
,
-
.
e n g r av e d
scop ic
T h e y il l u s t r a t e g r o s s a n d m ic r o
body, a nd o f a nimal s a n d pl a nt s
b y A n t o in e S e r a n t o n i
.
f eat u r e s
of
the
h u m an
A nt o niu s d e l l a T or r e ,
A qu a pe n d e nt e
.
M a r cu s
S e e M a r ca nt o n io d e ll a T o r r e
.
S e e F a b r ic iu s , H ie r o n y m u s
.
( A r a n t iu s , A r a nz i)
.
.
G iu l io C e sa r e ( J u l es C e s a r )
An
I t alian ana t om ist 1 53 0- 1 589 Phy s ician t o P op e G r egor y X I I I and one
o f t h e mos t c el eb r a t e d a na to mis t s o f t h e 1 6 th c e n tu r y
H e w a s b or n a t
A r a nz io
-
,
.
.
,
.
a n d s t u di
e d unde r
B ol ogna
Ve s al iu s
his mo st d ist ingu ish e d f o llo w e r s
t ime
.
.
at
He
P a dua ,
an d
l a t er b e c a m e
o ne o f
t ook his d oct or at e in B ol og n a
a nd
p r o f e s s or o f m e d ic ine and s u r g e r y
H e r e t a ine d t h is p o s it io n
v er si
t y o f B ol ogn a at t h e a ge o f 2 7
a t t h e U ni
I n spit e o f his el ev at io n in r ank h e cont in u e d t o ex t e nd
fo r 3 2 y ea r s
a s
h or t
a f t e r w ar d s
was
el ec t e d
.
.
a nd co n
to
fir m
t h e w or k
A r anz io f o r t h e
of
fi r st
V e s a liu s in
co r r e ct
h uman
a cc oun t o f
my
a n at o
the
We
.
a n at o
my
ar e
of
ind eb t e d
th e
u t er u s
d u r ing ge st a t ion and o f th e f oe t u s an d pl ac ent a ( D e h u ma n o foe t u
Th is wo r k w a s r e p r int e d fi v e t im e s
n
o pus c ul u m B ol ogna, 1 564, i
w it h in t h e n e x t c e n t u r y a n d w a s t r a n s l at e d in t o F r e n c h b y F r a n co is
,
Pl a zzo ni
.
H e wa s th e fi r s t
t o sh ow, wh il e yet a st ud e nt
t h at t h e
A N A T O M I CA L N A M ES
194
h e w a t c h e d t h e d e v e l op m e n t
of
th e
c
h ick
.
in t h e
; k n e w t h a t d r o ne
e gg
b ee s d ev e l op w it h o u t p r e v io u s f e r t iliz at ion a n d r e c ogniz e d t h e m o v e
T h o s e o f h is w r it ing s w h ic h d e a l w it h an a t o my
m e nt s o f t h e f e t al h e a r t
.
G
D e H ist or ia A mmaliu m;
)
1
ar e
A nima liu m
en e r a tion e
t
w h o is t h e
in d e x
A ms t er d a m,
aut
1
of :
hor
72 1
A
.
Umbilicu s
.
,
sa i
d
H e is a l so t h e
g u id e t o t h e w or k s o f Ruy sch
pr aepar a tor iu m R uys chii, A ms ter dam, 1 73 3 , in
A r l t , Ca r l F e r d in a n d , R it t er
vo n
to be
au t
.
1 81 2
—
1 887
H e w a s b or n
.
A V ie nn e s e
.
w as p r o f e s so r
t h e sam e in
o f o p h t h a l m o l og y
V ie nna
Oph th a l mol og ie
a
1 88 3
,
a nd
,
A r tl,
O b er g r aup e n,
at
d ep r es s io n
—
1 88 7
of
of
on th e
1 8t h
mic or u m
Ca ta l ogus
h t h al m o l og ist
B oh emia
He
,
.
1 849
—
1 8 56
;
fiir
nu s of
si
t h e A r chiv
m ic al l it e r at u r e f o r t h e
int e r n al s ur f ac e o f t h e l a c h r y ma l sa c
is k n own in
.
in d isp e n s ab l e
P r ag u e ,
H e w a s t h e f ou n d e r
t he
an a to
of :
op
T ip lit z ,
n e ar
in t h e U nive r s it y
.
of
an
ho r
,
l an g u a g e s
.
D ut ch
T h is is
725 in
1
—
Tr ac h ea
.
n e a r ly all
p h y s ic ia n
F r id er ici R u ys c hii oper u m
G is b e r t
I sbr and
A r l e b out ,
,
B r eg ma
.
)
b ee n t r an sl a t e d in t o
h av e
Diaphr ag ma
c en u r y
The
.
u n cou n t e d e d i
t ion s a n d
D e P ar tibu s A nima liu m ; 3 ) D e
w r it ings o f A r ist o t l e h av e g one t h r o ugh
2
a n at o
.
A m a n d d e R o n s il , G
aca d e my o f s u r g e r y and
eor g e s
A F r enc h
.
p r o f e s s or
su r g e o n, a
me mb er
of
the
in t h e Ecol e d e S a in t - C o me in P ar is
.
H e w as a m e mb er o f t h e C oll eg e o f S u r g e ons in Lon
7 74
H e is t h e au t h or o f : Tr ea tis e o n
d on , w h e r e h e sp e nt so me t ime
h e r ma phr od it es L on d on 1 750, an d A Dis cou r s e on t h e I mpor t a n ce of
H e d ie d in
1
.
.
,
,
A n a t omy, Lond on,
1
76 7
A r n ol d , F r ie d r ic h
1
890
.
S t u d e nt
in st it u t e
b ur g,
1 840 ;
G
.
er
T ie d em a nn
of
Z u r ich
at
.
,
1 83 5
.
in T iib inge n ,
H a ndbu c h d er
ma n
a nat o
mis t
p h y s io l og is t , 1 803
r e ct or o f t h e a n a to m i
an d d i
ca l
Pr o f e sso r
.
P r o f e sso r
o f a na t o
an d
my
and
p hy siol o gy in F r e i
H eid elb e r g 1 8 52 1 8 76
A na t omie F r e ibu r g 1 8 45 51
1 845 ;
—
,
.
Ta bu lar a na t omi
cd
Tur ici 1 8 3 8 1 8 43
A na t omis c he t ind ph y s iolog is ch e Un ter
s u c h u ng en
u e ber
d as A ug e d es M e ns ch e n, H e id e l be r g
1 83 2
I c on es ne r vor u m capitis , H e id e l ber g, 1 8 6 0
K opf t eil d es v eg e ta
tiv e n N e rv ens ys t ems , H e id e lber g
A pex
c ol u m e l l e
Ar ter ia phr e nic o cos talis ;
ty mpa nica
a n te r ior
F as cic u l u s Ar n o l di
Fibr a ar c u a t a?
or bita l e s c hias
ma tis
F or a me n zyg oma tica or bit al e
G a ng lion o ticu m ;
in t e r
cr u r al e x
s planc hnicu m
G u ber na c u lu m ta li
La mina a r c tic
v er s o ;
v itr e a ch or oiden ;
s u pr a ch or oid en
Lig a men t u m a r tic
bif ur ca tu m ;
big eminum ;
c ar pi r a d ia le ;
car pi
pu bis ;
la cinia tu m me ta ta r s i;
c ommune ;
jugale oss s es am pe d is ,
tr ansv er s ar iu m
s acr oco c cyg e u m ;
tr ig e min u m ;
pos t e r ius ;
,
1
,
.
—
,
.
.
.
,
.
.
-
.
.
.
-
.
~ —
.
~
—
.
.
—
.
—
—
—
'
.
.
.
—
A N A T O M I CA L N A
-v
ola/
r e ar
cu l u s
tic
ca r
.
pi M embr a na
ex
.
MES
et
ter n a
1 95
.
me dia
v ag i
na
M us
.
l ev a t or hu me r i in te r ior ;
u r e t hr al i
s
phal oph ar y ng eu s ;
N e r v us A r n old i
c e r e br a li
s
t e n t or ii
N u cl eu s n er v u s f a ci
P r oc e ss u s n as al is
ali
s
P y r a mis A r n ol di R a mu s c er vic ali
s ;
c omm u n ica ns A r n ol di;
l a biom en ta lis ;
mus cu l o a ur ic u l ar is
S nbs ta n tia f er r ugin e a ;
r e tic u l ar i
s
S u l cu s ce n tr a lis m o dioli
Tr a b e cu la l a min a; s pir a lis
Tu nica pr opr ia f ollicu li Z o na f as ci
c u l a ta ;
r e ticu l ar i
s
Z onula A r n ol di
’
ce
—
—
.
'
'
—
,
,
.
.
.
.
—
.
—
.
.
J
.
—
Ar n ol d ,
Pr o f e sso r
.
.
m a n p at h o l o g ic a n a t o m ist
o f p a t h o l og i
c a n a t om y a t U n i
ve r s ity o f H e id e l b e r g
u l iu s
B e it r ag e
A
.
G
er
1 83 5 1 9 1
5
1 866 1 9 1 5
1 8 74
Ue ber
—
,
—
.
,
En t w ic kl u ng s g e s c h ich t e d es A u g e s
P las mas tr u kt u r e n u n d ih r e fu n ktion e l le B e d e u t u ng 1 9 1 4
B iog r aphy : N e kr ol‘og v on P E r ns t, in “F olio h a ema t al
L eipzig, 1 9 1 5, x ix , A r ch , 2 2 0 225
z ur
,
.
.
.
,
.
.
—
.
A r t ed i, P ie r r e
fi r st
th e
at
lif e , b ut
Up sa l a
c o l l eg e
s oon
to
A S w e dis h
.
of
H e r no s a nd w ith
t h is
ab a n d o n e d
fo r
w it h w h o m h e w o r k e d
—
.
s t u die d
t h e id e a o f e n t e r ing eccl es iastic
na t u r a l
an d s t u die d u n t i
l
He
1 705 1 73 5
hist o r y ,
a nd
w it h Linn é , w it h w h o m he b e c a m e
st u d y
A m s t e r d am
n a t u r a l is t ,
in
1 72 8
v er y
h e w a s d r o wne d in
w ent t o
f r ie n dly
an
d
a c an al n e ar
mine r a l s a n d mamm al s b u t
soo n d e v ot e d hi
s ti
m e t o t h e s t u dy o f fi sh e s
H e w r o t e a Phil os oph ia
ic h t hy ol ogica w h ic h h e d e dic a t e d t o L inn é a n d l e f t a qu a nt it y o f m a nu
He
.
fi r st
c h o s e at
-
the
s tu d y o f
,
.
ic h t h yo l ogy which w a s p u t int o s h a p e a n d p u bl ish e d in La t in
H is w or k w as p r in t e d in 1 7 3 8 an d a m or e compl e t e e d it ion
b y Lin n é
H is w or k is im
w as b r o ug h t ou t in 1 78 9 9 2 b y J ea n J u l e s W a lb a um
sc r i
pt
ou
.
—
po r t a n t
as
b e ing
A s ch , G
He
st
g e on
e
s
—
p io n ee r in v e st igat ion in ic h t h y ol ogy
eo r g e s
T h o ma s d
ud ie d me dic in e
in
—
mp e r or
pina lis
c
.
G
at
.
A R u s s ia n
ng e n u n d e r
oet t i
ar
my
H al le r
.
su r g eon,
a nd
1
72 9
1 8 07
—
lat e r b ec ame
of
c ou n c i
lo r
.
su r
to t h e
H is D is s e r ta tio inau g u r a lis d e pr imo par e n e r v or u m me d u llae
is h igh ly spok e n o f b y H all e r
G oe t ting en 1 750 in
mist
,
1 58 1
p a r t o f h is lif e
h e die d o n t h e
( A s e l liu S)
A s e ll i
or
—
1 6 26
at
.
,
,
,
’
t o t h e R u s s ian a r m y a nd h a d t h e t it l e
h ie f
A s e l l io
a nat o
a
.
.
H e w a s b or n
M ilan
2 4th o f
,
,
wh er e h e
A p r il,
t aug h t a na tom y an d su r g er y at
G
a sp ar d
(G
a sp ar e
)
.
An
I t a lia n
Cr emona a n d p a sse d th e g r e a t e r
w as h el d in h igh e s t e em an d wh e r e
at
,
f or ty fi v e y ear s
He
y e a r s w it h g r e at s u c c e ss
1 6 2 6 , a t t h e ag e o f
Pav ia f or
so
me
-
.
.
mo r e mod e s t man t h an th e ma j o r ity o f t h e
o f t h e 1 6 th c e nt u r y a nd m a d e no g r eat b oas t s o f h is d is
mp or t ant I n Pav ia o n th e 2 3 r d o f J u l y 1 6 2 2
e s w h ich w e r e v e r y i
c ov e r i
wh ile d em on s t r at ing f o r som e f r ie n d s t h e r e c u r r e nt ne r v e s in a r e c e nt l y
H e is s a id
a n a t o mi
st s
,
to
h av e b e en
a
.
,
,
,
A N AT O MI CA L N A M E S
1 96
.
f e d dog, on o p en ing t h e abd ome n A se llio p e r ce iv e d
wh it e fi l ame nt s r am if ying t h r ough ou t t h e m e se nt e r y
g r e at n umb e r o f
A t t h e mo ment h e
a
.
t o ok t h e m f o r n e r v e s b u t
milk l ike fl uid
o n c u tt ing s ome o f t
hem
he
saw
issu e f o r t h
a
H e w a s o v e r j oye d a t t h e acc id e nt al d isc ov e r y o f t he
l a ct e al v esse l s o f t h e mese nt e r y
H e soon r e cog niz e d t h at t h e s e v e ss el s
ar e f o r th e t r a n smi
ss i
o n o f t h e c hy l e
H e ob ser v ed t h e or ig in o f t h e s e
v e sse l s i
n t he in t e r nal memb r an e o f t h e i
nt es t in e w h ic h c ont ai
ne d t h e
-
.
.
.
B ut h e co n f u se d t h e e nt ir e su b j e c t b y r ega r ding
p a r t ly d ig e st e d fo o d
t h e m e s e n te r ic ly mp h nod e s a s a p anc r ea s , b e l iev ing t h at t h e l a c t e al
ve ss el s ar os e i
n t h e p ancr e as a nd w e r e t r a n smit t e d t o t h e liv er
A se ll io
.
.
p ub lis
h ed in
his imp o r t ant a n d ep och making w o r k d esc r ib ing t h is
s , qua r to v as or u m
t h e t itl e : D e l a c tibus s eu l a c t e is v e ni
1 6 27
disc ov e r y , w it h
-
me s ar aic or um g e n er e n ov o inv e nt o Dis s e r ta tio ; qua s e nte ntiae a na
t o micce mu l tw ve l per pe r a m r e cept ce conv ellu n t ur v el pa r u m per ceptce
T h is w o r k w a s t h r e e t im e s r ep r int e d a nd in
illus tr an tur M ila n iii
1 6 45 i
I t is al so c on
t w as pub l ish e d in f olio w it h t h e w o r k s o f S p igh e l
T h e n ame o f A se l lio
t a ine d in t h e Th e a tr u m a na t omic u m o f M a ng e t
is conn ect ed w it h t h a t o f Th o m a s B a r t h o l in a nd O l a iis R ud b e c k in d is
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
.
.
t ing u ishing t h e nat u r e
of
th e
c
hyl if er ou s
v e ss e l s
of
th e
me se n t e r y
be e n c o n s id e r abl e disc u s s ion a s t o w h at p ar t e a c h
p la y e d in t his w o r k
lymph g lan ds in t h e mes en ter y
P a ncr e as of
t h e r e h as
t h e se
of
an d
m en
.
.
A ssez at ,
1 8 76
Jules
j ou r n al is t
a nd
ant
h r o p o l og is t
1 83 2
,
.
Tr iangl e
poin ts
A t r ey a
of
A F r e nc h
.
me dicine
f
o
I n dia n p h y s ic ia n
A n Ea s t
an d
wh o w r o t e
a nd n as a l
,
oi
c e nt u r y
B udd ha ,
H o e r nl e
,
ancie n t
I
nd ia,
a
sa i
d
.
d u r ing th e 6t h
fa mo u s s y s t e m
b on e s o f t h e h u m a n
w h o fo u n d e d
a
goo d d e s c r ip t ion o f t h e
h an d e d d own in his w r it ing s as t h e y
bo dy wh ich h a s b e e n
A t r e y a is
b y G h a r a ka
t emp o r ar y
ng n as ion a nd a lv e ol ar
conn e c ti
.
.
,
lines
=
to
t au gh t in
h a ve
ar e
int e r p r e t e d
J
th e T a x ila
u ni
v e r si
ty
w h e r e t h e f amou s p h y s ic ian iv ak a ,
is sa id to h av e be e n o ne o f h is s t u d ent s
B C
.
.
,
a co n
.
A F Ru d olf
°
O x f or d , in 8
.
.
A u e r b a c h , Le o p o l d
.
,
A G
er
1 9 07,
ma n
S tu dies in the M ed icine
a na to
mis t in B r e s l au
Au ss e r o r dnt l ic h , p r o f e s sor o f n e u r op at h o l ogy
n 1 8 64 5
cu s i
cov e r e d t h e pl ex u s mye nt e r i
at
B r esl au ,
,
1 8 28
1 87 2
—
.
f
o
1 89 7
.
H e dis
—
.
Ue ber
ei
ne n
Unter s u chung e n
P l ex us gangliosus my og as tr icus, Car ls bad 1 863
u nd B l u tg efa s s e d es D a r ms
u eiber di
e Lymph
,
.
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
1 98
n a tu r a l
2 v ols ,
.
d e l os qu a dr u ped os d e l P a r aguay y R io d e l a P l a ta
in 4
,
M ad r id
,
1
8 02,
°
—
A z ou t , A d r ie n
(I
La t in A uz otius )
n
A
.
ce l e b r
at e d m a t h e m a t ic ia n
ph y s ician o f t h e 1 7t h c e nt ur y , b o r n at R o ue n a nd d ie d a t Pa r is in
1 69 1
H e w a s on e o f t h e fi r s t m e mb e r s o f th e ac a d e my o f sc ie nce in
and
.
H e is t h e a u th o r o f a l e t t e r wh ich is o f int e r e st in co nn e c t ion
Epis tol a ad P e cqu etu m d e v as is l act e is e t
w it h t h e ly mp h a t ic s y st em :
s 1 657, in
r e c ept ac u l o c hy li P a r i
P a r is
.
,
,
Azyr
’
S e e V ic q d A z y r
.
A z z o g u id i, G
l o g na
m a in ( 1 740
A b r il l ia n t p h y s ic ia n
of
B0
E l e ct e d p r o f e s s o r in t h e a n c ie nt u niv e r s it y a t B o l o ng a at t h e
H e w a s l o v e d a nd r e sp e ct e d b y h is in t im a t e s a n d c ol l eagu es
.
o f 24
er
.
ag e
.
.
Obs er v a tiones
u te r i cons tr u c tione
ad
B a ch m ann , A u g u s t u s
S
.
,
R iv inu s , A u g u s t u s
ee
B ac h t is c h ua , D s c h ab r il b e n , w a s
9 t h c e nt u r y b eg a n t h e t r a n sl at ion
fi nish e d t h e t ask
th e
m per tin en tes B ol og na
,
an
th e
of
A r a b ia n
a na t o
my
,
.
a n at o
of
G
mis t
ale n
wh
o,
b ut
in
n eve r
.
( B e h r ) K ar l
B aer
,
new emb r yol ogy
E r nst
ve
a n at i
v on
( 1 792
T h e fa t h e r
of
t he
E st h l and , in t h e B a l t ic S e a p r ov in ce s
v e ly p r o f e s s o r a t D o r p at K on i sb e r , a nd S t
o f R u ss i
a an d w as su cce s s i
g
g
P r o se ct or t o B u r d ach in K onig sb e r g 1 8 1 7 ; P r o f e sso r o f
P e t er s be r g
,
wa s
of
,
.
.
,,
Z oo l o gy in Kon igsb e r g ; in
m ic ia n f o r Z oo lo gy in S t
P e t e r sb e r g ; l a t e r ; 1 84 1 52 P r o f e sso r o f c omp ar a t iv e an a t omy in t h e
Ac ad e m y o f Z o olo gy ; A n a t omy a n d Ph y s io l ogy in t h e s am e p l ace
In
t h R u d ol f W ag n e r h e w a s in st r u m e nt al in c a l ling t og et h e r
co nju c t io n w i
in 1 86 1 t h e fi r st Co ng r e ss o f A nth r op 010g ist s
1 8 34
—
67
a ca d e
as
.
—
,
.
,
.
,
Vo n B ae r an d Ch r ist ia n P an d e r w e r e s t u d e nt s o f D o llinger in W ur z
b u r g a nd it w a s t h r ou gh th e infl ue nc e o f v o n B a e r t h a t Pa n d er t ook u p
V o n B a e r s infl u e nc e on mo d e r n em b r y o l ogy
t h e s t u d y o f de v e l o pm e nt
h a s b ee n w ide ly c omme nt e d o n T h e f oll o w ing m ay b e b r ie fl y men tion e d :
,
’
.
.
Vo n B ae r gr e at ly e n r ich e d t h e fi el d o f e mb r yol og y b y s e t t ing a h igh e r
s h e d t h e g e r m l a y e r t h e o r y ; ma de c om ar a t i
s t a n d a r d o f w o r k ; e st ab li
ve
p
emb r yo l ogy poss ibl e ; disc ov e r e d t h e mam ma lian o v u m a n d ob se r v e d t h at
t h e n o t o c h o r d oc c u r s in a l l v e r t e b r a t e a n im al s M in o t s a y s o f V o n B ae r
-
,
t h at
h e wor ke d
out
“almost
.
as
f ully
as
was po s sibl e
at
t h is t ime, t h e
A N AT O M I CA L N A M E S
g e n e s is
g e tt ing
of
all
th e p r in c ip a l
t h e t r ut h
at
1 99
.
f r o m th e ge r m l ay e r s , in st inc t iv ely
gr e a t g eniu s cou l d h av e done
or g a ns
as o nly a
—
.
D e ov ima mma lium a t qu w h omin is en es i Li s iw, 1 82
g
7 Ue be r
p
E nt a nc k e lu ng sg e s chic h t e d e r Tier e B e o bac h tu n u n d R e ex io n
g
fl
1 82 8, I
T eil ; 1 83 7, I I Teil ; 1 888, I I I Teil h er au s e eben v on
g g
,
S tie d a K onig s b er g
D ie M e t a m or ph os e d e s E ies d e r B a tr achie r
v or d er E r s ch ei
nun
g d es E mbr y o u n d F olg er u ng en a us ihr fur d ie
Th e or ie o er E r z e u g u ng A r c h A na t u Ph s , 1 8
R e d en I
y
34
Te il
oh
S w a mme r d a m s L e be n u nd Ve r dien s t e u m d ie Wis
s ens c h af t
P e t e r s bu r g 1 8 6 4 B e itr ag z ur E n twic ke l imgsg es c hic h te
d e r S ch il d kr ot e n A r c h A na t u P hys , 1 8 3 4
Vor l e s u ng en iiber
A n t h r opo l ogie, 1 B d , K onigs b er g , 1 82 4, mit 1 1 Taf
C avity of th e s eg me n ta tion cav ity of t h e bl as t u l a
Ves icl e
of=
th e ov u m
B iog r a phy : N a c hr ich t e n u b
L e ben u S c hr if te n d es
D r K a r l E r ns t v on B a e r mitg e t h v on ih m s el bs t
Ver ofi e n tlic h t
v o n d e r R it t e r s c ha t Es th l a n ds 2 A u s
B r a u ns ch w eig
f
g
1 88 6,
L S tie d a K E v B a e r , ein e biog
51 9 S m P or tr
S kiz z e, B r a u ns c hw 1 8 78
L a cy ( W A ) Von B a er a n d th e R is e
o
f E mbr y o l ogy P op S ci M on , 1 9 05
.
.
.
.
,
—
.
J
’
.
.
,
.
.
.
.
.
.
’
.
.
.
,
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
=
.
.
.
.
'
.
,
.
.
‘
.
.
.
.
.
—
.
.
.
.
.
.
—
.
.
.
,
B a g a r d , C h ar l e s
.
.
.
.
.
A F r e n c h p h y s ic ia n b o r n a t N a n c y 1 696 1 772
H e w a s a n a c t iv e m an in t h e in t ell e c t ua l l if e o f his t im e a n d is int e r e st ing
t o a n a t omis t s on accou nt o f his d iss e r t a t ion :
De
u t e r o,
Ju le s
B a il l a r g e r ,
1
806
—
1 89 1
F o un d e r
.
1
ne r v e ux
,
d u plici in f ce min a
N a n cy, 1 753 , in
u t er o
u t r oqu e
—
.
F r a n co is G
-
—
a b r ie l
.
m
ves ti
g ns
A Fr e nch
B a il lie , M a t t h e w
K no w n ch ie fl y
bid hu ma n
a na t o
b o d y L on d on,
1
,
J o hn H unt e r
a nd
my
79 3
f
so
o
.
c or
tica le
cir con
d es
.
,
on
me
f
o
t he
mos t impor tan t par ts
; b r oth e r
er
an d
F r e nc h
B a illie w a s
.
B aill ie t h e p o e t e ss ,
F ell o w o f th e R o y al C oll ege
J o a nn a
to
J oh n H u nt e r
ma n
,
R ich ar ds on
—
D is cipl es
t h e h u ma n
f
o
se v e r al e d i
t io n s a nd
T h is wo r k w ent t h r ou gh
,
B iogr a phy:
f
o
a
a nd
of
w as
st u d e n t
of
n ep h e w
to
Ph y s ic ians
E s cu lapius ,
‘
z
v ol
.
2,
.
pp
.
1 9 01
554 572
—
;
A F r en c h
ne
ci
s t or y an d m e di
e d l a w n a t u r al h i
s tu di
B a l b ia n i, Ed o u a r d G
—
He
s y s t em e
A n E n g l is h p h y s ic ia n a n d a n at o mist 1 76 1
cal a n a t om y : T h e mor
s p a t h ol o g i
acc ou n t o f h i
.
I t alian G
t r a n sl a t e d int o
W ill iam
in P a r is ,
.
.
.
in
843
,
82 3
a lie n is t
-
R e c h e r c h es s u r to s tr u c tur e d e l a c ou che
1 89 0
v ol u tions d a c e r v e a u
S tr id e B a illar g er i
B an d of B aill a r g er
1
fce condit atis
A n-na l e s M é d ic o p sy ch o lo giqu e s d u
t he
of
vi
s o cu
.
,
e r ar d
.
e
mb r y o l o gis t
at
,
1 82 5
P a r is , w h er e h e
r ece i
v ed
A N AT O M I CA L N A M E S
200
h is
M D in
1 854
.
.
C l a ud e B e r n a r d
ol ogy
g is t s
at
th e
at
M u se um
1 86 7
,
mic r o scopiqu e
and
mp a r at iv e
P r o f esso r
.
t h e Co ll é g e d e F r a n c e , 1 8 74
F o und e r w it h R anv ie r
.
h istological l abor at o r y
Chie f t ec h nic ia n fo r t h e
.
O ne
.
H e nnegu y
.
o f co
the
of
embr y
fi r st F r e nch c yt o l o
A r c h iv e s d Anat omie
’
the
of
of
”
.
B ody
ne
v it e lli
f
o
=
bo dy, the y olk
nu c l e u s o
t he egg
f
.
M a it la n d
A b r illia n t E n g l is h e m b r y o l o g is t
1 8 5 1 1 8 82
S t u die d w it h M ic h ae l F o s t e r a t Ca mb r idg e ; w it h An t on
D o h r n a t t h e N ap l e s Z oo l ogic al S t at io n ; w a s a s t u d e nt a nd f r ie n d o f
F e llo w a n d l ec t u r e r o n a nim al m or p h ol ogy at C amb r idg e ;
H u x l ey
F r a n c is
B a l fou r ,
,
.
—
.
.
m al
o f an i
Pr o f e s s or
m o r ph o l ogy,
1 882
.
A M on og r aph on th e d ev e lopme n t of th e e l as m o br an ch fis h es,
1 8 78
C ompar a tiv e E mbr y o l ogy, Lon d on ,
1 88 0 8 1
L on d o n
Tr a ns la t e d in t o G er ma n, 1 88 1 by D r C Ve t t er
B a lf ou r and
P a r ker
On t h e s tr u c t u r e a n d d eve l opme n t of L e pid os t eus
Tr a ns R oy S oc L on d o n, 1 8 8 2
C o mpar is on of t h e e ar ly
P hil
n the d evel opme n t of v er te br a t es
s t ag es i
Qua r t J ou r n M icr os
S ci, v ol 1 5, 1 8 75 Ele men ts of E m br y ol ogy, by F os t e r a nd B al
f ou r , 1 874
'
—
.
,
.
.
,
.
.
—
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
,
.
.
.
.
.
A n E ng l is h p h y s ic ia n wh o in 1 578 p u b lis h e d
The his t or y of ma n s u c ke d fr om th e s ap of the mos t appr ov e d
ana t omi
s ts L ond on 1 578 in
B a n is t e r ,
J e an
.
,
,
,
,
,
J o h n A n e min e n t
t o J oh n B ell in Edinb u r gh
B ar c l ay ,
A ss ist ant
,
S c o t t is h
.
Lec t u r e r
.
m is t , 1 760
n Edi
ana t omy i
nb u r gh
a na t o
on
,
N e w ana t omic a l n om en cl a tur e , E dinbu r g h 1 8 03
D es cr ipt ion
E din bu r gh, 1 8 1 2
of th e a r t er ie s o f t h e h u m an b ody
S e r ies of
ngs r e pr es e nting t h e b one s of t h e h u ma n s ke l e t o n, w ith t h e
e ngr av i
ma ls E dinbu r g h 1 8 1 9
s ke l e t on of s o me of t h e l ow e r a ni
B iog r a phy : I n tr o du c t or y l e c t u r e s to a c o u r s e of a n a t omy d c liv
er e d b y t h e la t e J o hn B ar cl ay
With a memoir of t he lif e of th e
E din bur g h, 1 8 2 8
a u thor
,
.
.
,
,
.
,
.
.
.
A G e r m a n a n a t o m is t a n d su r g e ou 1 8 1 9
1 897
S t u d ie d a nat omy and p h y s io l ogy w it h J oh a nn e s Mull e r S ch l e mm
Tie d em a nn a n d B is c h o ff in B e r lin and H eid e lb e r g
I n 1 843 an a t o m ic al
p r ose cto r in G ie sse n , p r iv a t do c ent w it h Bis c h o ff to 1 848 a t wh ic h t ime h e
B ar d e l e b e n , A d o lf
v on
-
.
,
.
,
,
.
'
w as ma de
ma ny
au ss e r o r d l
p ro f e ss or
.
.
D id muc h t o
a dva n ce s u r g e r y
in G
er
.
Ue ber d ie Lag e d e s B lin d da r ms b e im M e ns ch en 1 8 49
B iog r aphy A na tomis c her A nz e ig er
Bd 1 1
pp 3 03 3 05
P ag e l
G ur l t H ir s ch
.
,
.
.
.
,
—
.
.
'
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
2 02
.
A fa mou s t h e o l o g ia n
C as p a r S e n io r
( 1 585 1 62 9 ) w h o f ou nd e d , at t he U n iv e r s ity o f C op e nh age n, a p r o t e s
t h t h e membe r s o f t h e r el at e d f amily W o r m
sor i
al d yn as t y , w h i
ch , wi
t augh t in t h e U n ive r s it y int o t h e 1 8 th c e n t u r y u p t o t h e t im e o f t h e
B ar t h o lin
( B a r t h o lin u s )
,
.
,
—
,
,
d est r u c t ion
of
B a r th o l in S
e ni
or,
,
Un iv e r sity in
the
(
1
58 5
—
1 629
)
Ca sp ar B a r t h o l in,
,
,
an d
t h e W if e o f O l e
go o d
h ag e n t h r ough o ut
.
S
t h e e nt ir e
1 7t h
vi
ce
the
,
.
,
.
.
,
s t u d e nt s ,
a ll
”
t en d ed ov e r
ex
v ol
No
2 5,
.
w as t h e f at h er
,
C o p en
b u t , t h r o u gh t h eir
.
2 76 ,
p
T h om a s ,
of
E ur op e
.
.
E r asmu s ,
an d
W h o m w e r e p r o f e s sor s in u n iv e r s it ie s
T h e l o ng t e r m s o f se r
n f ami
ly r e ca l l s a s im ilar r e c o r d f o r t h e M u n r o s a t
o f t h e B a r th o l i
of
.
U n iv e r s ity
Le y d e n
in
f am e w h ich
a
C a sp ar B a r t h o l in , S e n io r
b ot h
C a sp a r B a r t h ol in, S e nio r
of
c e nt u r y ,
M ille r J oh n s H op s H o sp B u ll
.
O le
,
u ni
v e r si
ty
b r ough t t o t h e ir
(W
( 1 6 55
,
t h e f am ily o f B a r t h o lin, w h o n o t o n l y t a u gh t a t
r e a so n , o f
E r as
)
S e nior , w e r e t h e da ugh t e r s o f T h o m a s F incke ,
D a ne s t o t h is d a y a r e ex c e e d ingl y p r o u d , a n d w it h
“Th e
( 1 56 1
Th e w if e
Wo r m
J u nio r
1 6 80
—
,
( 1 667
,
(
16 16
C asp a r
Wilh e lm W o r m ( 1 6 33
,
,
me n w e r e :
T h e se
.
T ho ma s B a r th o l in ,
m u s B a r t h ol in ( 1 6 2 5
O l e Wor m S e nio r ( 1 58 8
W o r m J u nio r
1 72 8
of
E d inb ur g
a nd
th e
A lbinu s f am ily
Univ er s ity
th e
at
of
.
C asp a r B ar th o l in, S e nio r , w a s p r o f e s so r o f m e d ic in e a t C op e nh ag e n
n 1 624
Th e f o ll o w ing w o r k s a r e a t t r ib u t e d
1 6 1 3 ; a nd o f t h eol og y i
.
to him
A na t omicce ins tit u tiones c or por is h u ma ni u tr iu s qu e s e x u s
h is t o r iam e t d e cl ar a tion e m ex hibe n t es cu m pl u r ibu s n ov is o bs er v a
tionibu s opinion ibu s n e e n a n il lus tr ior u m qu ae in a n t hr opo l ogia
s ionib u s
Witt e mber g , 1 6 1 1 , in
o ccur r u n t c on tr ov er s ia r u m d e ci
C ontr ov er s ice a na to micce e t afiin ce n o bilior es e t r ar ior es
G os lar
1 63 1 , in
,
,
,
,
,
.
,
.
B ar t h o lin , C a s p a r ,
J u n io r
D a n is h
.
a n a t o m is t ,
,
1 6 55 1 7 3 8
Son
—
.
Pr o f e ss o r o f me dic ine
S u cc e s s or t o his f a t h e r
a na t om y a n d o f p h y s i
v er si
ty o f Cop e nh ag e n, 1 6 7 5 1 701
c s a t t h e U ni
Lat er G e ne r al P r oc u r e ur f o r t h e U niv e r sit y and p h y s ic ia n t o t h e king
of
T h o m a s B ar t h o lin
.
.
,
—
.
.
E x e r cita tion es mis ce llan ce v ar ii ar gu m en tii impr imis ana t omi
D iaphr agma tis s tr u c t u r a n ova
Ley d en, 1 6 75 in
A cc es s it
ci
“
modu s n ov u s pr cepa r ancli v is cer a per inje c tion es liqu id or u m c u m
P ar is 1 6 76 in
ins tr u me n ti n ovi d e s cr iption e
D e ov ar iis
m u lier u m e t g ener a tionis his tor ic" e pis t ol a a n a tomica R ome, 1 6 77
D e olf a c t u s o r g a n o, C openhag e n 1 6 79 in
A nu s cer e br i C a ps u la a tr ibiliar ia D u ctus s u blingu alis G l an
d u la v e s tibu lar is major
,
.
.
,
'
,
.
,
,
,
,
.
.
,
,
.
.
.
.
B a r t h ol in , T h o m as
-
S teno
( S t e ns e n )
.
.
D anis h
P r o f e s sor
of
an at o
mis t
m at hmat ic s
,
1 61 6
at
th e
1 680
A t e ach e r o f
U niv e r s it y o f C op e n
—
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
203
.
h ag e n 1 647 ; p r e v iou sl y p r o f e s sor o f ph ilology 1 646 ; o f anat omy 1 648
B a r t h olin s t u die d a nd t r av e l ed w id e l y a nd b ec am e on e o f th e most c e l e
b r a t e d t e ac h e r s o f his d ay H e sh a r e s w it h R u d b eck and A se ll it h e r e c og
ni
t ion o f t h e l ymp h a t ic sy st e m
H e w a s o n e o f th e fi r st t o acce p t and
.
,
.
.
d e f e nd H a r v e y
’
ide a s
s
ng
c o nc e r ni
H e is
l ar ge ly de aling w it h an ato my
r c ulat i
ci
on
th e
of
t h e b l oo d
.
mor e t h an six ty t r e at ise s
an d ma n y o f t h e m t r eat ing o f ne w discove r ies
A na t omia ex G as par di B a r t hol ini par e n tis I ns tit u tionibus
u m q u e r e ce n ti
or u m e t pr opr i
is o bs er va tionibu s l ocu ple t a t a
omni
Le y d en 1 6 41 in
D e l a c t e is th or acis in h o min e br u tis qu e
s
n u pe r r ime o bs er v a t i
d is pu t a tio : R es pnd M ic h a el a Lys e r C open
hag en 1 652
Vas a ly mph a tic a in hlo min e n u per inv e n ta C ope n
H is tor iar u m a n a t omicar u m e t me dic ar u m
hag en 1 654 in
D e in t eg u
r a r ior u m c en t u r ia I
et
C ope n h ag en 1 654 ih
D e u s u t ho r a cis
men tis cor por is hu mani C open h ag e n 1 655 in
Opus cu la n ov a a na t om
e t eju s par tiu m C ope n h ag e n 1 6 57 iii
ica d e l a c t e is t h or acicis e t ly mph at icis vas is in u nu m v ol u m e n
C ope n hag en 1 6 7 0 ih
compr e he n s a a u c t a e t r e c og nita
t he
a ut
ho r
of
,
.
’
,
,
.
,
,
’
,
.
,
,
.
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
.
,
,
m e d ic in e a t
B e c am e p r o
C op en h ag e n L ey d e n O x fo r d Lo nd on P ar is a n d L e ip z ig
H e l e f t s u n d r y p ub l ic at ion s am ong
f e sso r o f h is t o r y a t Co p e nh ag e n
t h e m o n e w h ic h is c o n c e r n e d w it h o b se r v a t io n s o f w o r m s in v in ega r
B a r t h o l in ,
T h om a s
( J u n io r )
,
—
S t u d ie d
1 6 90
.
.
,
,
,
,
1 6 59
,
.
.
B a r t h o l om a us ,
J e an
B a u d e l o qu e ,
G l a n v il l e
von
—
Lo u is ,
S e e A n g l ic u s , B a r t h a l o maeu s
.
S e n io r
P a r is ia n
.
g y n e co lo g is t ,
.
1 746
1 810
.
C oning a ta
B a u d e l o t , Em il e
Membe r
of
th e
.
ex
t e r na
.
A Fr e nch
A c a demy
of
ve
co m p a r a t i
S c ien c e
n e u r o l o g is t ,
.
R e ch er c h e s s u r l e s ys t eme n er v eu x d es pois s ons P ar is 1 883 ,
’
B
u
l
o
t
s pu blica
in f olio e dite d by E mil e B lan ch a r d w ith lis t of a de
tions a n d a s hb r t biog r aphic a l s ke tc h
,
,
'
,
,
.
B au h in , C a s p a r
.
A S w is s
st an d
a n a t om i
b o t a nist
1
,
560
—
1 6 23
.
I
n
h e p ub licl y dis s ec t e d t h e h u man c a dav e r ; w a s ma de d oc to r o f: medi
H e b e c ame s o p r o fi c ie nt in l a ngu age s a nd s cie nce t h at
n e t h e s ame y e a r
ci
nt e d P r o f e ss o r o f
v e l y a pp oi
ssi
u
c
ce
s
as
w
h
i
e
i
e
c
t
i
n
t
v
h
a
l
s
e
t
B
as
a
y
,
G r e e k 1 582 ; o f a na to m y an d b o t any ( a c h a ir c r eat e d e sp e c ia l ly f o r h im )
in 1 589 ; in 1 596 p h y sic ia n t o F r e d e r ic D u ke o f Wit t e mb e r g ; in 1 6 1 4
t y p h y sic ia n
n e a nd sh o r t l y a f t e r w a r d s c i
ci
c a l m e di
r o f p r a ct i
r
f
s
so
o
e
p
nd b ot any
n s
H
i
s wr i
i
t
t
m
a
n
a
o
a
fi
r
e
e
w
d
t
u
f
s
o
ld
s
e
i
t
e
r
i
v
y
f
a
o
g
H s
y
1 580
.
,
,
,
.
.
04
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
,
d eal w it h m e d ic ine , b o ta ny
m e nt ion is m a d e
anat omy
an d
.
Of h is
.
mical wr it ings
an at o
of
D e h u ma ni cor por is par tibus ex ter nis, h o c es t univ er s alis
me th odi a na t omicce qu am a d Ves a liu m a ccomod avit, libe r pr imu s ,
mu l tis n ov is , iis d e mqu e r a r is o bs e r va tionibu s pr opr iis r efer tus
B as e l 1 588, in
Th e a tr u m a na t o micu m infi nitis l ocis a u c t u m, a d
mor bos a ccom-o do tu m, e t a b e r r or ibu s a b au c tor e r epu r ga tu m,
obs er v a tio n ibus e t fig u r is a liqu o t n ov is illus tr a tu m, B as el, 1 59 2
D e os s iu m na t u r a B ase l, 1 6 04, in
Va lv u la c o li
.
,
_
.
,
.
B au h in , H ie r o n y m
1 66 0
P r o fe s s o r
.
of
anat o
my
B as e l,
at
65
—
.
B au h in ,
a n at o
H e in r ic h
m ist
’
f at h e r
J o h a nn C as p ar
c h a ir
s
606
Ca sp a r B auhin
of
so n
,
1
.
in t h e
u ni
ty
v e r si
f e w g e ne r a l dis s e r t at ion s
1 6 29 1 66 0
on
a
.
( 1 560
H e wr ote
.
A
1 68 5
—
me dic ine
.
S wis s p h y s ic ia n a n d
H e s u cc e e de d to h is
impo r t anc e
no t h ing o f
P r o f e sso r
o f an a t o
my
s av e
B ase l,
at
—
.
B au r , G
g is t
1 8 59— 1 8 9 8
,
S ie b o ld ,
B ay e r ,
v on
Car u s ;
n at
ag ai
a nd
his t o lo gy
me ;
B or n
.
1 884
,
.
Mu nic h h e
nb r o lo gy
ei
p al eont o logy w it h K a r l v on Z it t e l , a nd
K a r l v o n K u p ff er , w h ose a ssist ant h e b e
s t u di
ed
w it h
t o P r o f e s so r
assis t ant
9 0,
—
W e is s w as s e r
at
A n A m e r ica n p a l e o n t o lo
B o h e m ia , in t o a fa m ily
.
S t u d ie d in U n iv e r sit y o f M un ich ( 1 8 78 ) u n de r
a nd N ag e li; a t Le i
p z ig u nd er Le u c k a r t , C r e d n er ,
f o r it s l ea r ning
n ot e d
ca
H e r ma n C a r l Lu d w ig
e or ge
O
C
.
.
M a r sh Yale Un iv e r sit y ;
,
9 2 d o c e nt o f comp a r at iv e o s t eo l ogy a nd pa l e o nt o logy at Cla r k U ni
v e r si
t y ; 1 89 2 9 8 , p a l eont ol ogy at Univ e r s it y o f Ch ic ago
Au t h or o f 1 44
1 89 0
—
,
—
.
t o c omp ar at iv e a nato m y an d p al e ont ol ogy
b u t io n s
cont r i
.
B iog r aphy : G e or g e B a u r’ s lif e a n d wr itings A m e r N a tl v ol
3 3 n o 3 85 1 899 pp 1 5 3 0 with por tr ait a n d lis t of pu blica tions
S e e a ls o S CI EN C E, 1 89 8, N S , 8,
by Wm M or t on Wh ee l er
pp 68 70
.
.
.
.
,
—
.
,
,
.
,
,
.
.
.
.
,
—
.
.
B e al e , Lio n e l S m it h
E n g l is h p h y s ic ia n a n d d e n t is t ,
P r o f e ss o r o f ph ysiology an d p at h ol og ic al a natomy in Lo n d on
’
o f t h e p r inc i
p l e s an d p r a ct ic e o f me d icine a t K ing s C oll ege
.
.
1 82 8
—
1 89 6
.
P r o f e sso r
.
D ie S tr u ktur der e infa c hen G e w e be ( Tr ans Leipzig,
On s ome poin ts in t h e a na t
A na t o my of t he d en ta l tis s u es 1 865
A tr ea tis e on th e phys io log ica l
a my of t h e li
ver , 1 8 55 L on d on
a na t omy of th e l u ng s , L ond on, 1 86 2
.
.
,
.
,
.
C e ll s
f
o
z
bipolar
f
ce lls o
th e h ear t
.
.
A NA T O M I CA L N A M E S
2 06
.
With a n appendix of cas es and con
R oya l S ocie ty of Lond on
s e as es
Edin bu r gh, 1 83 6
s a l ta t io ns on n er v ou s d i
N er v e of a br an c h of th e br a chia l pl e x u s s upplying th e s er
N e r v u s th or a ca lis l ong u s
r a t u s mag n u s mu s c le
B iog r aphy : S ir C h ar l e s B el l t h e ma n an d his w or ks
Joh ns
H opkins H os pita l B u ll e tin, vol 2 1 n o 23 1 , 1 9 1 0 pp 1 7 1 1 8 1 , by
S e e a ls o : B u ll , J ohns H opk H osp , v ol 2 5,
Eug en e R Oor s on
pp 1 85 1 89 wit h fig u r es
.
.
.
.
=
.
.
.
,
—
.
.
.
,
,
.
.
.
.
.
.
—
.
B ell,
of
J ohn
S c o t t is h
.
a nat o
mist
and s u r g e on , 1
76 3
1 8 20
—
.
B r ot h er
l ike h im p os se s se d o f an u ncomm on a r t ist ic gif t ,
llu s t r at io n o f h is w r it ing s
H e w as o n e o f th e
e mplo y e d in t h e i
o f t h e mo d e r n s ur g e r y o f t h e v a s c u l a r sy s t em
H e op ene d
Ch a r l e s B e l l ,
w hich h e
a nd
.
f o u nd e r s
a
.
,
.
p r iv at e
sc
hool
m y in E dinb u r gh in
o f a na t o
A na t omy
,
1 79 0
.
t h e h u m an
body, 3 v ols , 1 793 1 803 , e dite d by
f
P r in cipl es of s u r g e r y, 1 8 01 1 8 07
Ch ar l es
M u s cl e of= a ban d of mus cu l ar fi br es on the w all of th e
bl a dd e r
B iog r aphy : J ohn B e ll, S u r g e on
B u ll , J ohns H opkins H os
pita l, v ol 23 pp 2 41 250, 1 9 1 2
o
—
.
-
.
.
.
.
.
—
.
A n E ng l is h ph y s ic ia n, w h o w r o t e
Lon d on, 1 7 1 7 in
B e ll in g er , F r a nc is
t us d e
foe tu
nu tr it o,
”
B e ll ini, Lo r e nz o
Bor n
at
F l o r e nce
A
.
.
.
,
.
Tr ac ta
a
,
( Lau r e n t io )
s t u d e nt o
An
.
I t a l ia n
a nat o
mis t
f O liv a , R e di a nd B o r r e lli
.
1 6 43
,
—
1 704
.
P r o f e s so r
of
P r o f e s so r o f a n a t o my
p hil o so p h y a n d t h e o r e t ic a l m e d icine in Pis a , 1 66 3
in P isa , 1 66 3 1 693
Ph y sic ian t o th e G r an d D u ke Co sm o o f T u sc any ;
.
—
.
ph y s ic ia n t o t h e P op e , C l em e n t
a n, a s a p o e t
a na t om is t , a s a ph y s i
ci
c
h ie f
chie
fly
kno w n f or his w o r k
the
on
o f t h e t o ng ue a s t as t e o r ga ns , a nd
Ex er cita tio
1 662 iii
a na t o
H e b ec ame w id el y kn ow n a s an
a nd sch ol a r
A s a n anat om is t h e is
k idn e y s
H e r e c og niz e d t h e p ap ill ae
XI
.
.
.
de s c r ib e d t h e ir
mica d e
s t r uc tu r a
c onn e c t i
on
et
r e nu
us u
w it h
ne r v e s
m Fl or en c e
,
.
,
,
1 6 65
d e pr e h ens u m B o l og na
L au r en tii B e llini oper a omnia
in 1 2
Venice 1 7 08, ih
Tu bu li r e n al es r e c ti D u c ts of= t he s t r aig h t tu bu les of t he
kidn ey
Liga me nt of a fas cic u l u s of t he caps u l ar lig am e n t of
t he hip
B iog r aphy : N o tiz ie e dite e d ine d it e d e ll e v ite e d e l l e oper e d i
M ar ce llo M alpighi e di Lor e nz o B e llini G ae tano A t ti, B ol ogna
1 8 47
G
us tu s
n oviss ime
o r g an u m
,
,
,
-
.
.
,
.
=
.
.
.
,
.
B e ne d e n , E du a r d
of
Pie r r e
J o s eph
v an
v an
B
.
,
.
A B e l g ia n
b or n
at
e
mb r y o l og is t
Lo u v a in
.
1 856
—
,
19 10
S t u d ie d in Le y de n
.
a nd
S on
be
A NAT O M I CA L N A M E S
me
p r o f e ssor t h e r e
“A r c ive s de B i l
”
o ogi
e,
h
ca
a
2 07
.
La t e r p r o f e sso r in Liit t ich
w it h v an B amb e k e
.
Ed it o r
.
of
the
.
R e c h e r ch es s u r l a c ompos itio n e t l a s i nifi ca tion d e l oe uf
g
b as é es s u r l e tu d e d e s on mod e d e for ma tion e t d es pr e mie r s ph e
n omen es e m br onn a ir e s B r u x ell e s 1 8 0
L a ma t u r a tion d e l o e u f,
,
y
7
l a e cond a tion e t s e s pr emie r es ph as es d a d év e l o e m e n t e mb r y on
pp
f
n air e d es ma m mi cr e s d a r es d e s r e c h e r c h e s
f
p
faites ch ez te l apin
B r u x e ll es , 1 8 75
C o n tr ibu tion a l h is t oir e d e la v é s icu l e g er mi
na tiv e e t d u
br y onna ir e 1 8 76
pr e mier n oy au e m“
B iog r aph y : N e kr ol og in A r c hiv e s d e B io l o ie, 1 9 1 0
g
’
’
’
’
.
,
’
’
,
’
.
.
,
.
B e n e d e n, Pie r r e
1 83 1
c u r ato r
f e s so r
of
of
the
Jo s ep h
v an
mu s eu m
of
—
z o ol o
gy in G
A B e l g ia n
.
z o o l o g is t , 1 80
9
1 894
—
in Lou v a in ; 1 84 5 p r o
o f z ool ogy a nd p al e o n t ol ogy
1
;
n
h ist or y
na t u r a l
846 p r o f e ssor
n
a t Lo u v a i
K no w n ch ie fly f o r h is s tu die s in p ar as it ol og y , a n d
w it h G e r v a is , o f co n t r ib u t ion s t o t h e p a l eo nt o l ogy o f t h e w h al e s
e nt
I
.
au t
.
h or
,
)
,
.
Os t e ogr aph ie d es
P ar is , 1 868 77
c
vi
van ts
é tac és
et
f oss iles ( with
G
er vai
s
—
.
B e n e d e tt i, Al e s s a n d r o
A c e l e b r a t e d I t a lia n p h y s ic ia n a n d
t om ist b o r n in Legn an o , n e a r Ve r on a , in Lom b a r d y ; 1 46 o P 1 52 5
.
a nat o
Pr o
—
.
of
f e ss or
my
P a d u a , t h en V e nic e
at
a n at o
H e ma d e
t omic a l t h e a t e r in P a d ua
a n a t om y ,
but le f t
an
int e r e st ing w o r k
A n a t omice
Venice, 1 49 3 , in
B é r au d , B r u n o
-
s iv e
Jean Jacqu es
1 47 0
—
of
1
An
5
su r g e r y a t
.
d is cov e r ie s in
no o r i
gin al
:
A F r e n ch
—
.
B e r e n g a r io d a C a r p i, J a co p o
B a r e ng e r
a na
.
.
Va lv e
.
.
fi r st
the
of
h is t or ice cor por is h u man i libr i qu in qu e
This w or k w en t t hr ou gh s ev e r a l e d it ions
Lig a me n t u m pe r ica r dii
gar 1u s
F ou n d e r
.
f
o
K r a us e
=
( J ac q u e s )
s ur g e o n,
’
Kno w n
.
1
82 3
s v a lv e
a l so
1 86
—
5
.
.
as
B a r en
B or n a t C a r p i ( c a
C a r p e n s is
P r o f e s so r
t e n s iv e c omm e n t a t o r o f M o n dino s w o r k s
C a r pi
.
C a r pu s
.
.
.
’
ex
.
P a v ia
and
“
B ol o g n a
.
c al l s
F all o pio
h im t h e
fi r st
r e st o r e r
h av e dis s ect e d mo r e t h an 1 00 b od ie s ; t o h av e
an d t o h a v e b e e n t h e fi r s t t o
i
t
o n o f t h e l a r yn x
r a t e d e sc r i
n
n
a
cc
u
i
v
e
a
p
g
H is chie f co nt r ibu t io n is :
in t r o du c e a na t o m ica l fi gu r e s in h is w o r k s
o f a n at o
my
.
H e is
sa
id
to
.
C omme n t ar ia , cu m a mpliss imis a d d itionibu s , s u pe r a na t omia
M un din i c u m t ex tu eju s in pr is tin u m nitor e m r e d ac to B ol og n a,
Tr ans l a t e d in t o Eng lis h an d pu b lis h e d in Lond on
in
1 52 1
P age l a nd S u d h oI f, p 2 06
in 1 664, in
l
,
,
,
.
.
A c e l e b r a t e d G e r m a n a n a t o m is t a n d
B e r g e n , Ka r l A u gu s t v o n
b ot anist bo r n a t F r a nk f u r t a n d e r O d e r ; 1 704 1 76 0 S tu die d a t t h e U n i
P r o f e sso r e x t r a o r din a r y
v e r si
t y o f Le y d e n w it h B oe r h a av e a nd Alb inu s
.
-
-
-
—
.
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M ES
2 08
of
b ot a n y
sa m e
the
at
44 ( a s su cc e s so r t o h is f a t h e r , J o h an n
s u cc e d e d G o el i
c k e a s p r o f e s s or o f p a t h o l ogy a n d
p l ac e
1 73 8
g B e r g e n ) wh e n h e
t h e r ap e u t ic s , a ch a ir w h ic h b e
G
eo r
d e a t h in
H e de se r v e s
1 760
.
.
—
fi ll e d
w it h d is t inc t ion t o t h e t im e
r an k e d
t o be
a
mo ng t h e b est
a na t o
of
his
mis t s
of
H e is dis t ing u is h e d p r inc ip a lly f o r h is r e s e ar ch e s o n int e r cos t al
n the
He
n e r ve s t h e v e n t r ic l e s o f t h e b r a i
p ia ma t e r an d th e a r a c h n o id
w as a m an o f d e e p p e ne t r a t io n a n d h a d a t al e nt f o r a c c ur at e o b se r vat io n
his d a y
.
.
,
,
.
D iss er t a t io in au g u r al is d e ne r vi int er cos t a li F r a n cf or t s u r
L O d e r , 1 73 1 , ih
P r og r a mma s e u E x er cit a tio s pla nchn o l og ico ana t omica, q u a
v e n tr ic ul or u m c e r e br i l a t e r a liu m n‘ov a m s i
s tit ta bu l a m
F r an cf or t
1 73 3 , iii
P r ogr a mma s iv e Ex e r cit a tio m e ning ol o
s u r L O d er
g ica qu a d e s t r u c tu r a piwm a t r is in t e r a lia n ov om n e c hac be nu s
F r a ncfor t s u r L Od e r , 1 73 6, in
t r a d it o bs e r va tion em
s am
vi
-
.
’
-
,
.
’
-
,
,
’
-
.
,
B e r g e n,
Joh ann
G
a
.
-
v on
e or g
A mem b e r o f
p r e c e d ing
f u r t a h d e r O d e r t h e ch a ir
—
—
(Jean
G
d ist ingu ish e d f a m ily b e
of
F at he r
.
occ u p ie d
,
o f a n a t o m y a nd
—
de)
e or ge s
the
in F r ank
b o t a ny , in w h ich h e w a s
su c
H e d ie d in 1 73 8 H e is th e au t h o r o f nu mer ou s m e d i
o ne d
ca l d is se r t at i
o n s am o ng w hi
ch m a y b e me nt i
D is s e r t a t io d e c on ception e f oe t us h u ma ni Witt en ber g 1 688
o
cee d e d
b y his
so n
.
.
,
,
,
D is s er ta tio d e cir cu la tio ne s a ng u inis , a lia s a c or dis pr e l o h o die
s imu l a vi v as or u m c on tr a c tili d e d u c ta F r a n kf u r t am- O d e r , 1 7 05,
o
.
—
,
in 4
-
o
B e r ge r ,
J o h a nn G
o t t fr ie d
1 7 56
P r o f e ss o r
at
.
A G
er
m a n p h y s ic ia n b o r n
H al l e
at
,
U niv e r sit y in W itt e nb e r g an d in Le ip z ig ;
He
S aid t o h av e b e e n t h e fi r st t o s h o w t h e mu s c l e fi b r e s o f t h e ir is
is t h e a u t h o r o f n u m e r o u s d is se r t a t io n s a m ong w h ich a r e t o b e n ot e d
D is s er ta tio d e c or d e Wit t em b er g 1 6 88 in
°
D is s er t a tio d e ov o e t pu ll o Wit t e m be r g 1 689 in 4
1
6 59
—
.
th e
'
.
,
,
,
,
,
B e r g ma n n , E r n s t
o f s u r ge r y a t
v on
1 87 1
D or p at ,
A G
.
er
,
man
; in 1 878
at
,
s u r g e o n , 1 83 6
1 908
—
W iir zb e r g
an d
in
Pr o fe s s o r
.
B e r l in
1 882 a t
.
C h or d ce v ol u bil es
C ommiss u r a pos t cer eb r i
C on d u c t or
F as cicu lu s r a d ior u m
s on or u s
Conu s a qu a du c t us ce r e br i
F ibr ae B e r gman ni F ilam en ta l a t e r a lia e t pe r pe ndic u lar ia
0r
P e ct e n B e r g m anni P e d u nc u l us fi a b e l li
g a non pne u m a tic u m
f or mis P enicillus B er g man ni P s al te r ium B er gmanni R e c es
s us cy mbi
for mis S ca la r hy thmica S ur cu lus dich ot omi Te la
fi lipend u la Tr ig onu m d ur u m e t moll e Ver ticilliu m B er g manni
B iogr aphy : Er ns t von B er gmann, v on Ar end B uchhol tz Leip
zi
g , 1 9 1 1 , in
‘
.
.
,
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
F r e n ch p h y s io l o g is t , 1 8 1 3 1 8 78
L e gorzs s ur l es ph é nomé n es d e la v ie 1 8 78
d u c tus pan cr ea ticu s a c c ess or ius
Ca na l o f ; d u ct of
B e r n a r d , C la u de
.
A
no t e d
—
,
.
=
.
.
A NA T OM I CA L N A M E S
2 10
a na t o my
in Tu r in
in t h e d ir e ct ion
J u dging f r om his w r it ing s
p a t h o l o g ical st r u c t u r e s
.
of
.
h is int e r est s w e r e l a r g el y
.
H is t or ia h epa tica s e u d e h e pa tis s tr u c tur a u s ibus e t mor bis
opu s a na t omic u m
phys iol ogic u m e t pa t hol ogic u m Tu r in 1 7 1 0
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
in
D u c t u s l a cr y ma le s
tio n es Tur in, 1 7 1 5, in
c e r e br i
n ovi, e or u m a n a t ome ,
u s us ,
D em o ns tr a tio
mica
,
mor bi c u r a
n u u m ba s i
si
s
,
a n a to
.
M ar ie F r ango is X av ie r D u r in g t h e s h or t p e r io d o f s e v e n
B ic h at d ev o t e d to his sc ie nt ifi c s t u d ie s h e c a m e t o b e r e c og
B ic h a t ,
l
-
.
y ear s which
niz e d as o n e o f
d ep a r t m e n t
car e e r a t
-
of
th e
t he f or emo s t b io logist s
th e
A in
he
F r anc e , N o v e mb er
,
1 1 th,
B or n in T h o ir e tt e ,
.
e nd e d
he
1 77 1 ,
his
3 0 ( 1 801 ) h av ing e x hibit e d u n u s u a l t a l e nt s f o r
app l i
c a t ion t o t h e p u r s u it o f his f av o r i
t e sc ie n c e
.
w int er B ich at
o ne
ex a
m ine d 600 b o die s in
c on
in p a t h ol ogy
H e w a s a s tu d e nt o f D e s au lt t h e
in P a r is in 1 79 3 , w h o s e a s s is t a n t h e b e c a m e a n d wh os e w o r k s
with h is
s u r g eo n ,
t im e
all
e a r ly a g e o f
p r o l o n ge d a n d int e n se
I t is s a id t h a t d u r ing
ne c t i
on
of
s tu d i
es
.
,
,
e d it e d o n
t h e d eat h o f t h at
s u r g eo n
in
I
1 79 5
.
n 1 79 7
h e w as
nt e d
ap p oi
p r o f e s s or o f an at omy in P a r is w h ic h p o s it io n h e h e ld t o th e en d o f h is
B ic h at b eg an t h e p u b lic a t io n o f h is r e su l t s in 1 800, b u t d u r ing t h e
lif e
c ou r s e o f t h e n e x t y ea r h e sl i
pp e d on t h e dis s e ct ing r oo m st a ir s a nd
.
die d f r o m g a st r ic d e r a ng em e n t
H e is b e s t kno wn as t h e f ou nd e r o f th e
n e w sc ie n c e o f H i
s t o l ogy
al t h ou gh h e d id n o t emp l oy t h e mic r o s c o p e
.
.
,
H e div ide d t h e t is s u e s in to 2 1 ( non m ic r o sc op ic ) v a r ie t ies A t th e ag e
ci
an t o t h e H ot e l D ie u
w h ic h p o s it io n g av e him
o f 2 8 h e b e c a m e ph y s i
m any ne w o pp or t u n it ies f o r th e a dv an c e m ent o f his w or k
H e w a s one
o f t h e fi r s t t o int r o d u c e o p e r a t iv e s u r g e r y
T r ait é d e s m e m br an es e n g en é r a l e t d e d iv e r s e s me mbr a n es e n
T his w o r k w a s a l m os t im m e d ia te ly
par ticu lier P a r is 1 8 00 iii
t r a ns l a t e d in t o G er man a n d w e n t thr ou g h s ev e r a l e ditions in t h e
-
.
,
.
.
'
,
,
,
,
,
or i
g ina l
.
A n a t omie g en e r a l e appliqu é e a l a phys io l ogie e t a la med icine,
P ar is 1 8 01 2 v o l iii 8
Th is w or k a ls o w a s t r a ns l a t e d in to G er
man a n d w en t thr ou g h s e v e r al e ditions in t h e or ig ina l
Ana t omie d e s cr iptiv e P a r is , 1 8 01 1 8 02 in
C a na lis B ic ha ti ( Cis t e r na V M a g n ce
F or am en B ic ha ti
Lig ame n t u m B ich a ti s a cr os pin os u m ( s a cr oilia cu m)
P r o t u b er an tia
B ic h o l i C or pu s a dipos u m bu c cce
F is s u r e of = s pa c e be l ow t h e
c or pu s ca ll os u m
B iog r a phy : B ich a t
Johns H opkins H os pita l B u ll e tin v ol 1 4
n o 1 49 pp 1 9 7 2 01
1 9 03 with por tr aits a nd tit l es o
f w or ks B y
Willia m S y dney Th ay er
N o tice his t or iqu e s ur l a vie e t l e s tr av a u x d e M a r ie F r X av
Tr ait é d e s M e mbr an es e tc pa r B ic h a t
B ic ha t, in
N ou v e l l e e di
t ion a u g me n t é e d u n e n o tice , e t c par M H uss on, P a r i
s 1 8 02, 8v 0,
A nn x i
’
’
-
,
,
.
.
—
,
,
.
.
—
.
.
.
.
.
,
.
,
—
.
,
.
,
,
.
.
-
.
,
.
,
,
.
’
.
.
.
,
.
,
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
21 1
.
B icha t, his Lif e, R es e a r ches a n d Char ac ter , by Al ber t C Ey cl es
h ymer
I n ter s ta t e M e dica l J ou r n al , v ol x v, N o 7, pp 1 - 2 0, 1 9 08,
with por tr ait and bibliogr aphy
.
.
.
.
.
.
B idd e r , H e in r ic h F r ie d r ic h
G
.
er
ma n
a na t o
mist in D or p a t
,
1810
89 4 P r of e sso r o f anat omy at D or p at 1 8 3 6 42 o f phy siology at D or p at ,
1 843 6 9
D e Cr ann c onf or ma tion e D or pa t 1 8 47 N e u e B eoba cht ung en
u ber d ie B ew eg u ng en d e s w e ich e n G a u me s D or pa t, 1 83 8
Ue ber
die M a lpigis ch en K or per d er N ier e D or pa t 1 8 46
( B id d e r u nd
Ku pfi er ) Un te r su chu ng en u e ber die Te x tu r d es R il ekenmar ks
L eipzig, 1 8 47
G ang l ion Bidder i
on e of two g ang li
a on th e car di
a c ner ves
in the s eptu m be tw e e n th e a tr ia ju s t a bove t he atr iov e ntr icu la r
s ept um
1
—
.
,
—
.
,
.
,
.
,
,
.
,
,
.
=
“
.
B id l oo , G
o d e fr o i
(G
ov e r t
)
Ce l e b r a t e d
.
m is t
a n d s u r g eo n o f
a n at o
H oll and living in Amst e r d am w h e r e h e w a s b o r n in 1 649
,
.
,
He
e nd e d
his
Le y d e n in A p r il , 1 7 1 3 A s t u d e n t o f R u y s c h ; l e c t u r e r in a n a
t omy and su r ge r y in Le yd en, 1 6 94 t o th e e n d o f his life
Ana t omia cor por is h u ma ni ce n tu m e t qu in qu e ta bul is per a r ti
fi cios iss imum G d e Lair es s e a d v iv u m d e lineatis, d e mons tr a ta
s ex plica t a, plu r i
mis qu e hac te nu s
v e te r u m r e cen tior u m qu e inv e n ti
R epr inte d in
n on d e tr a ctis il lus tr a ta A ms t e r da m, 1 6 8 5, in f ol
Opu scu la omnia ana t omic a
Ley den in 1 73 9 ; in Utr e c h t in 1 750
t a L e y d e n, 1 7 1 5
r ur g ica, e dita e t in e di
chi
c ar ee r a t
.
.
,
,
.
.
,
.
.
,
B ies ia d e ck
t omis t ,
1
i
,
A l fr e d
83 9 - 1 8 88
F ossa of =
v on
.
P o l is h p h y s ic ia n
and
p at h o lo gic
a na t o
.
fos s a iliacos u bf as cialis
B ige l ow , H e nr y J a c o b
B os t o n
.
Ligament um yps ilofor me
.
s u r g e o n,
S e pt u m
.
—
1 890
.
f e mor is
.
S u r g e o n in Ly o n w h o p u b lis h e d in 1 664
Qu a tr ains ana t omiqu es d es os e t d e s mus cl es d a cor ps hu main
s cou r s s u r la c ir cu l a tion d a s ang , Ly on, t u
ens embl e u n D i
time t , Cl a u d e
.
B is ch off, T h e o d o r Lu d w ig W il h e l m vo n
Pr o f e s so r o f an at o my
st , 1 807 8 2
e mb r y ol ogi
—
.
G
.
an d
er
m an
an at o
p h ysiology
mist
at
,
and
H e id el
G ie s s e n 1 843 44 ; anat omy and ph y siolo gy at
be r g 1 8 3 6 43
G ie ss en, 1 844 54 ; anat omy in M u n ic h 1 8 54 78 He w a s on e o f t h e fi r st
t o demons t r at e c ell div ision in a n im al t issue s
Entwickelu ngs ge s c hic te d er S iiug e thier e u nd d es M ensch e n
Ue b er d ie B il d u ng d es S ciu ge tier eis u nd s ein e S te l
Leipzig, 1 8 42
lung in d er Z el lenl e hr e S itz u ng s b d K B ayr A ka d filr Wis s e n
n t er s u c h u ng en u e b er d es Kaninch e
U
2
1
86
2
s chf t , bd 1
3
p 4
B r au nschw 1 8 46 ; d es
1 8 43 ; d es H u n d esc ies
ne ies B r au ns c hw
M e er schweinche ns G iess e n 1 852 ; d es R e heies, G iess e n, 1 854
an at omy at
—
,
—
,
—
—
.
,
.
,
'
.
.
.
.
,
.
,
.
,
.
.
.
.
,
.
,
.
,
.
.
A NAT O M I CA L N AM ES
212
d en ne ue s te n M itt eilung en
S a u g e t hie r eier M u nc hen, 1 877
cor on a r ad i
of
a ta
H istor is ch kr itis ch e B em er kung en
tib er d er s te Entwicklu ng d e r
Tu nica f olliculi Cr ow n
.
.
B izz oz er o, G iu lio
Red
'
B l a es
zu
’
.
,
.
A n I t a l ia n p h y s ic ia n , 1 846- 1 901
nu cl e ate d r e d bl ood cor puscl es
.
f
ce lls o
.
.
S e e B l a s iu s
.
.
.
H e n r i- Ma r ie -D u c r o t ay d e
F r e n c h z ool ogis t a nd
a nt h r op ol og i
st
1 777- 1 850
An illu s t r iou s na t ur alist kno wn c h ie fly f o r
h is Os te ogr aphy a n e no r mo u s w o r k o n c omp a r at iv e o st eology
H e w as
bo r n a t A r qu e s , near D iepp e , S ept emb e r 1 2 1 7 77
A st u dent o f Cuv ie r
B l a invil l e ,
.
.
,
.
,
.
,
,
h e t o o k t he deg r ee M D in 1 8 08 a n d in 1 8 1 2 h e was appoint e d t o t h e
ch a ir o f ana t omy a nd zo ol ogy i
n th e F ac u l t y o f S ci
In
e nces at P ar is
1 8 3 0 h e succee d e d La mar c k i
n t h e c h a ir o f n at u r al h is tor y , and succ ee de d
.
.
.
mp ar at iv e anat omy in
He was a v oluminou s wr it e r
ye a r s
mo nu ment t o his name
C uv ier in
w h ich
1 83 2,
co
h air h e h eld for
his O st eogr aphie is
and
.
c
an
18
immen se
.
Pr odr ome d u n e n ou v e l l e d is tr ibu tion method iqu e d u r egne
ma l, 1 8 1 6 O s t eogr aphie ou D es cr iption I c on ogr aphique c om
a ni
par é e d u S qu el et te e t d u S ys t e me d e n t air e d es M ammif er es r é cen t es
les pour s e r v ir d e B as e a l a Z ool ogie e t a la G e ol ogie
e t foss i
Thi
s i
s a n en or mous w or k of 8 f olio v olu me s, 4 of whic h ar e
dev ote d t o 3 23 lith og r aphic pl a t es of t he s kel e tons of mammal s
pr inte d in el ephan t f olio, 1 83 9 H is toir e d es S cie nces na tu r e lles
ou M oy en Age, 1 845
Ear s of = as ymm e tr y in s iz e or s h ape
‘
’
B iogr aphy I n Vol I Tex t e of t he Os te og r aphie, ther e is
1 83 9
Etud e s ur la Vie e t l es Tr a vau x d e M d e B lainville
an
’
.
’
.
,
.
.
.
.
.
,
.
B l a n din,
1
8
79 1 849
P h il ipp e- F r é d é r ic
Par is ian
.
.
a nat o
mist
an d
.
s u r g e o n,
.
Tr ait é d Ana tomie t opog r a phiqu e, B r ux
G ang l ion
G landul a ling u alis a n t er ior
’
.
ell es ,
1 83 7
.
max illar e
s ub
.
A D ut ch
B l ankaa r d ( B l an c ar d, B l a nc a r d u s ) Et ie nn e (S t e ph e n)
p h y s ic ia n o f t h e 1 7t h c e nt u r y ( 1 650 1 702 ) wh o d e mo ns t r a t e d b y inje c
t io n in 1 6 75, t h e cont inu it y o f ar t e r ial a nd v eno u s c apill ar ies
( S ee
.
,
—
.
D om enico de
Mar ch ett i )
.
Tr actat us nov us d e cir cu l atione s anguinis per fi br as , n e c n on
de va lvu lis in iis r eper tis A ms ter d am 1 678 ih
A na t omia pr ac tica r a tionalis s ive var ior u m ca daver u m monbis
denot ar a m a nat omica inspe c tio, L eyd en, 1 688, in
'
,
,
-
,
,
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
214
H e t r av e l e d
c
h ie f
ex
t ensive l y,
as
w as t h e
in H oll and
uni
v e r si
t ie s
G
and
c u s t om a t
e r m an y
.
t h a t t im e , an d
He
.
s e tt l e d
si
te d
vi
t he
in Am s t e r d am
; b e c ame p r o f es s o r o f p r a c t ic a l m e dic in e in Le y d e n in 1 6 58 t o
hil e in Ams t e r d am h e h a d s t u d ie d a t t ent ive l y
s u cc e e d Alb e r t K yp e r
in
1 63 2
.
W
H e lm on t on w h ic h l a t e r , h e e s t ablish e d
ne, i
n w hic h h e w a s a mo ng t h e fi r st t o inc l u d e p a t h olo
a s y s t em o f me d i
ci
T h is
g ic al a n at omy o n t h e b a s is o f h is n u m e r o u s d is s e ct io n s o f c a da v e r s
H e d e s c r ib e d m o r e c a r e fu lly t h a n h a d p r e
w o r k a t t a in e d g r e a t fa m e
n , a n d e sp e c ia l ly t h e
vi
o u sly b e e n d o n e th e v a r io u s p a r t s o f t h e b r a i
H e fo l l o w e d w h a t w e t o d a y r e g a r d a s t h e
s in u s e s o f t h e d u r a m a t e r
t h e w r it ings o f D e sc a r t e s a n d
v an
,
.
,
.
.
in p r opo s ing his id e a s w it h r e s e r v at io n
D is pu ta tionu m m e dica r u m d e cas , pr ima r ias cor por is h u mani
f u n c tione s na tu r al es ex a na tomicis pr a ctieis , e t chy micis e x pe r i
m e n tis d e d u c tas c omple e te ns : q u or u m I ag it d e a lime n tor u m f e r
me n ta tion e in v en tr ic u l o
I I d e c hyl i c i
( Ley de 1 659 , in
f aecibus a lvinibu s s e cr e tione, a t qu e in la c t eas v en as pr opu ls ion e in
in t e s t inis pe r f e c t a ; I I I d e chy li mu t a tio n e in s a ng u in e m eir cu lar i
s ang u in i
s m o t u, e t c o r di
s , a r t e r iar u m qu e pu ls u ; I V
d e s pir itu m
m a liu m in c er e br o c e r e be ll o qu e c onf e c tiou e, per n er v os dis tr i
an i
bu tion e a t qu e us u v ar io ; V d c lie nis e t gl a nd u l or u m u s u ; VI d e
bilis e t h e pa tis u s u ( L ey d en 1 6 6 0, in
VI I d e r e s pir a tion e
us u q u e pu l m on u m ; VI I I
d e v a s is lymph a ticis e t lymph a ; I X d e
fe br ibus pr ima ; d e fe br ibu s a l ter a A ms t e r d a m, 1 663 , Ley d en,
1 6 70, in
t r u e p r inc ip l e s
o f s c ie n c e ,
.
,
.
.
.
,
,
.
.
.
.
,
.
.
.
.
B o e ck e l ,
J ean
1
.
w a s b o r n in A n v e r s
.
A n a t om e,
s t a d t 1 58 5
53 5
—
1 6 05
.
P r o fe s s o r
si
ve
P h y s ic ia n t o t h e
ty
ci
m e d ic in e in t h a t
c it y
of
d e s cr iptio par tiu m
c or
of
H a mb u r g ;
.
por is h u ma ni H elm
,
.
,
B o e c l e r , P h il ipp e H e n r i A p h y s ic ia n a n d a n a t o m is t o f S t r a s s
Pr o f e s so r o f a n at o my a nd s u r g e r y in t h e U niv e r sit y
b u r g 1 7 1 8 1 759
w h ic h c h a ir h e fi ll e d w it h dist inc t ion
o f S t r assb u r g
H e p u b lish e d a
.
—
.
,
.
,
d iss e r t a t io n
tle d z
e nt i
D is s er ta tio d e g la nd u lar u m t hyr oid ece thy mi e t
°
n a tu r a e t f i
iiic tionib u s
S tr as b ou r g 1 753 , in 4
,
,
B o e d e c k e r , K a r l F r ie d r ic h
B e r l in
1
,
B u ff a l o
846
—
1910
.
P r o f e ss o r
su
pr ar e nal iu m
,
W il h e l m
of
e
D e n t is t in N e w Y o r k
.
mb r yol ogy in
U niv er sit y
th e
,
B oe h m e r , P h ill ip p e A d o l p h e
—
‘
of
.
The a na t omy an d pa th ol og y of th e t e e th 1 8 9 4
D e s kr iptiv e u n d topog r aphis ch e A na t o mie d e s M e ns ehen
( with H eitzman n
1 71 7
and
1 789
.
.
H is f a th e r w a s d ir e ct o r
A
th e
1 9 04
m e d ic a l e d u c a t o r o f H a ll e
U niv e r s it y and c h anc e ll or o f
no t ed
of
.
,
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
t h e p r inc ip al it y
b e ca m e
s u c ce s s i
v e ly ,
p r o fe s so r
de an
c ilo r
M agd eb u r g
of
of
a nat o
my in
t h e fac u l t y
of
K ing
t o th e
fi r st
of
of
He
.
m e dic ine a n d
of S ax e V Ve im a r ;
ph y s ic ia n t o t h e D u k e
t h e U nive r s it y o f H a l l e , in
me d ic in e
P r u s s ia
an d
,
fir st
an d
de an
l ast p o s it ion u nt il h is d e at h , N ove mber
w r it er o n m e d ic al s ub j e ct s
—
1 74 1
p r o fe s s o r ; in
the
of
u n iv e r s i
ty
I s t , 1 789
5
s t u dy o f
th e
e nt e r e d
21
.
1 78 7
1
76 9
cou n
H e h e l d t h is
nou s
a v ol u mi
.
H e w as
.
; in
.
nce ana t omicee d e q u a t u or e t
bi
n u e r a mi
ui
s ex
q
q
r
ar cu ar t e r ia magn ae a ds ce nd en tibu s Le i z ic k, 1
I ns t itu
p
7 41 , ih
t ion es os te o l og ice, in u s u m pr ce le c tionu m a c a d e mic a r u m cu m ic o ni
b u s a na t omicis
H a ll e 1 751 , in
E pis t ola an a tomica pr o bl e m
a ti
c a d e d u c tibu s m a mmar u m l a c ti e r i
f a, ex pe r iment o n ov o c on
fi r ma ta L eipz ig, 1 742, in
O bse
va tion es
,
‘
,
,
,
.
B o e r h a a ve , H e r m a n n
su b e ct s ,
w h o is
j
b e d s id e t e ac h ing
s a id
to
O ne
.
( 1 668
h e r of me d ica l
met h o d o f clinical
not e d t ea c
int r o d u ce d th e mo der n
h av e
of
A
m ost g ift e d
th e
of
th e D ut ch
me d ic al inv e st i
g at o r s , h e w a s n ot e d f o r h is st u d ie s in a na t omy , p a t ho l og y, z oo logy a nd
me dic in e H e w a s b o r n a t Vo or hou t , n ea r Ley d e n H e d ilig ent ly s t u die d
.
.
micr os cop ic
an at o my
b e c am e
an d
int e r e st e d in t h e
so
in l if e h e gat h e r e d S w amme r d am s c omp le t e w r it ings
l ish e d t h e m , in 1 73 7 , u n d e r t h e t it l e
B ib lia N a t u r ae
’
g if t e d w it h
a
t ion
e r u di
I t is
.
h igh
w h il e h e w as
a
Ley de n
lit y
o r d e r o f abi
s aid
t h at
in
e l oc ut i
o n , an d
h e l e c tu r e d
s ub ec t ,
j
t og e t h e r
la t e
and
p ub
B oo r h aav e w a s
.
w as
t h at
a
m an
of
imm e n s e
m e dic in e f or fi v e h o u r s a d ay
v e r si
n t h e Un i
ty o f
an d b ot an y i
on
p r o f e ssor o f m e dic ine
I n 1 7 1 4 h e w a s ma de
r e c to r
of
In
Un iv er s it y
n
o f me d ic in e a n d i
th e
.
5 h e su cc ee de d Bid lo o in t h e c h a ir o f t h e p r a c t ic e
A f t e r his
1 7 1 8 t h e s u b j e c t o f c h e m is t r y w a s p l ac e d u n de r his dir e c t io n
d e at h , in 1 7 3 8, t h e c it y o f Le y de n e r e c t e d a mag nifi ce n t to mb t o his
mem or y, w it h th e in s c r ipt ion : S a lu tifer o B oer ha av ii g e nio s a cr u m
171
,
.
.
B o e r h aav e h a s l e f t
h
h
i
l
s
o
o
y
p
p
int e r e st
a
n umb e r o f
l a r ge
w r iting s
Th e f o ll o w ing m ay b e me nt ion ed
.
m e d ic ine b o t a ny
on
,
as
b e ing
of
a n at o
,
a nd
mic al
:
I ns titu tion es m e dica in us us ex er cita tionis a nn uce d o mes tic a s
E pis t ol a a d R u y s chiu m c l ar is simu m pr o s e n t e nt ia
Le y d e n, 1 708
M a lpig hian a d e f a br ica g lan du lar u m in c or por e hu man o A ms ter
H is t or ia ins e c tor u m s iv e B iblia na t u r ae d e J S w am
d a m 1 72 2
m er da m tr a d u it en La tin par G au biu s av e c u n e pr ef a ce d e B oe r
Ope r a an a t omic a e t c h ir u r gic a And r e a e
L ey d e n 1 73 7
haav e
Ves a lii cu r a H B oer haave, e t B S A l bini, Leyd e n, 1 725, 2 vo ls,
in f olio
G l an ds of = s w e a t gla nds
B iogr a phy : T h e gr e a t D u tch pa th ologis t a n d phys ician, H er
E din b M e d J ou r n ,
mann B oer haave , 1 668 1 73 7 ; a r e tr os pe ct
D is c ipl e s of [ E s c u
v , pp 3 75 3 85; R ic har ds on
1915 n s , x i
lapiu s vo l 1 pp 9 5 1 07, 1 9 01
,
.
,
.
,
.
,
,
,
.
,
.
.
.
,
.
.
.
—
.
—
—
.
,
.
.
—
,
,
.
.
.
.
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
216
B oe t t ch e r , A r t h u r
e r m an
G
.
a na t o
mis t
.
1 83 1
,
1 8 89
—
.
E n t wic kl u ng u n d B a u d es G e h b r l a by r in th es , D r es d en, 1 8 69
Ce lls
Canal of zz minu t e ca n a l be tw e e n u tr icl e a nd s acc u l e
l ay e r of ce lls on bas ilar m e mbr a ne of c oc h l e a
Cr ys t a ls of
of =
r
G ang lion of = on v es tibu lar br an ch of c oc h l ea/
s per m cr y s tals
’
o
u
nn
n er v e
S pa ce f
C ot
ius s pa ce
S u l c us lig a s pir alis
’
.
'
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
A D u t c h p h y s ic ia n b o r n a t W o lfe n
H e b ecam e p r o f e s s o r o f a n at omy , s u r g er y a n d b o t any
b iitt e l 1 6 7 2 1 7 1 9
n 1 69 8 ; t h en p r o f e s so r o f p at h ol ogy a t H e lms t adt a nd l a t er
a t G ie ss en , i
p r o f es sor o f m e d ic in e
D iss e r t a tio
D iss er t a tio d e v oeis or g a no, Ley d en, 1 69 7 in
D is s er t a tio d e r espir a tione f o e tu s
d e oss ibu s G ies s e n 1 69 8, in
in u ter o, H el ms t ad t 1 702, in
J u le s
B o e t t ic h e r , A n d r é
-
.
—
.
,
.
,
,
,
'
,
B o gr o s,
J e an
-
A nnet
M emoir e
F r enc h
.
an at o
m is t
1 7 86— 1 82 3
,
to s tr u c t u r e d es n e r fs P ar is ,
S pa tiu m r e t r oing u ina l e ( r e tr oper it one a le)
sur
,
B o j a nu s , Lu d w ig H e in r ic h
1
776
—
1 82 7
.
I
A G
er
P r o f e s s o r in t h e U niv e r sit y
of
n t r od u c tio
P a r eg on
in
a d an a to
ana t ome n
me n
'
,
.
868
,
.
Un te r s u chu ngen
I bidem 1 868
1 8 1 5,
,
ih
,
.
the
p h y s io l o g y in
1
vi
su al pu r pl e
of
.
Z ahnpu lpa ( Ar ch M ikr os A na t
.
die
,
m a nima liu m
A na t ome t es tu dinis
40 pla t es
o b s e r v a t io n s o n
u be r
mis t
.
Wilna
P r o fe s s o r
d ie
tibe r
a n at o
i v er te br a t or u
cr a ni
( 1 849
M a d e imp o r t a n t
.
1 804
,
,
82 7, in
mp a r a t iv e
,
par a tam
,
,
n t e r s u c h u ng e n
1
W ilna
—
J
5
1 8 76
co
c om
tes tu dinis,
,
B o l l , F r a n z C h r is t ia n
Ro m e in
ma n
fa ceins Wilna 1 8 2 1 in
Wilna 1 8 1 9 1 82 1 2 fas c in f olio
c om ar a tion e m
p
eu r opa ce
.
1
.
Endigu ng en
d er
.
.
,
P u lpan er ven,
-
.
,
Ams t e r da m ; 1 73 8
1818
Pr o f e s s o r o f a nato my a nd s u r ger y in th e f amo u s A t h enaeu m in
Am st e r d am 1 77 1 1 79 8
H is wo r k e nt it l e d : D e con tinu a tionibu s me m
’
br ana r u m L eyd en 1 763
is r ega r d e d a s th e fo r e r u nne r o f B ich at s
Tr ait é d e s M e mbr anes
Bo nn gav e an ex c e ll e nt d iscu ssio n o f t h e dis
t r ibu t ion o f th e c e ll ul ar m emb r ane s
B onn , A n dr ea s
S ur g e on
.
a nd
a nat o
m is t
of
.
—
,
,
.
,
.
.
B onn e t , A ma d e e
.
F r en c h
s u r g e o n , 1 802
—
1 8 52
.
Caps u l a bu l bi Ten oni
.
O n e o f t h e g r e a t e s t co m p ar a t iv e z oo l o g is t s a n d
H e pr o p o s e d
ph ilo sop h ical n at u r al is t s o f th e i8th ce nt u r y ( 1 72 0
”
in his
C or ps or g ani
s es
t h eor ie s o f de v e l opme nt w h ic h h av e b e e n o f
B o nn e t , C h ar l e s
.
A N AT O M I CA L N A M E S
218
of
B r ab ant , in t he
x
si
.
dat e s bet ween wh ic h h e
l iv e d do not seem t o b e known, b u t 1 53 0 is u s u ally as signe d for his bir t h
which t ook pl ace in A st i, in Pie dmont
H e st u die d me dicine in I t al y
’
u n d er Lan f r anc , T r i
ncav el l a a n d F allop i
To t h e l att e r s infl uence w e
o
’
may t r ac e B ot allo s int e r est in a n at omy H e is u sually ac cr e dit ed w it h
t h e d isc ov e r y o f t h e duct u s a r t e r iosu s and t h e for amen ov ale, accoun t s
n hi
o f wh i
s wo r k :
c h a r e t o b e f oun d i
t eent h
c en t u r y
Th e
.
ex a ct
,
.
.
.
J
Oper a omnia me dica e t chir u r gica L eyde n, 1 6 60, in
t e d by o h v an H o o r n e
e di
D u ctus a r t er ios u s ( Lig a me n tu m ar t er ios u m)
F or a men
was
T h is
,
.
.
oval e
.
M ar c J e a n
B our g e r y ,
g eo n ,
1 849
1 79 7
—
b e a u t ifully
A F r ench
-
H is
.
Tr ait é
plat es
c olo r ed
.
of
sy s t e
m a t ic
anato
m is t
a n d s ur
”
w a s illu s t r at e d b y nu me r ou s l ar ge
n h e a l t h an d dis ea se
o r g an s i
the
.
an d
.
Tr ait é c ompl e t d e l A na t omie d e l H omme , P ar is , 1 83 2
8 v ols f olio
Lig a men tu m pos t s u per fi cial e g enu
Lig ame ntum pu bis
u s cr u ci
ri
a tum
’
’
—
1 8 44,
.
.
.
.
an t e
.
B ov e r i, T h eo do r
l gy at
p e r ime nt al
z oo o
Wiir zbur g
.
z ool ogy
.
A G
.
er
m an
in
a
ve
a na t i
d l at e r z oo logy a t Mu n ic h
d ir ect ion o f R ich ar d H e r t w ig,
o ph y a n
th e
—
Bov e r i w a s
H e was
.
v er te b r a t es
At t he
.
a ge
Pr ofe ss or o f
p io ne e r wo r k er in cytol ogy and ex
los
ed p h i
o f B av ar i
a, and fi r st stu di
’
H e w r o t e h is do ct o r s t h esis und e r
s t , 1 862
c y t o log i
1 91 5
t h e s t r uc t ur e o f th e n e r v e
on
t h ir ty h e wa s cal led t o
of
.
fib r e s
Wue r zb ur g
to
S emp e r in t h e c h a ir o f z oo l ogy a nd comp ar ativ e anat omy H er e
h e r e ma ine d f or t he r e st o f h is lif e w it h th e e x c ept io n o f f r e qu ent t r ip s
He
t o th e z oolog i
on s o f s o u t h e r n E u r op e, esp e ci
al ly N ap l e s
c al s t a t i
al so made a sh or t v isi
t t o t h e U nit e d S t a t e s
When We ismann r es igne d
s uc c ee d
.
,
.
.
h is p r o fe ssor sh ip a t F r e ib u r g B ov e r i w as c alle d t o succ eed him b ut
Lat e r th e d ir ec t o r ship o f t h e n e w r esear ch l ab or a to r y o f t h e
d e cl ine d
Ka ise r -W ilh e lm G e sell sc h a f t in B e r lin w a s off e r ed t o h im H e fi r st ac
,
.
-
.
d, w or ked ou t th e wh ol e o r g aniz at ion and b r ough t t og eth er a st aff
I n 1 9 09 h e wa s r e c t o r m ag nifi cus at th e Univ e r s it y o f
t h en declin e d
Wuer zbur g and among oth e r nume r o u s h onor s confe r r e d upon h im w as
Bo v e r is
a me mbe r s h i
p in th e Ame r ica n N at ion al Ac ad emy o f S cienc e s
c ont r i
bu t ions t o c ytology we r e v e r y impo r t ant and his st u dies in t h is
fi e ld we r e epoch making H is c y tologic al w or k was alway s interm ingl e d
w it h st ud ie s in ex p e r iment al e mb r y o l ogy his f av or it e ob j ect s b e ing se a
B ov e r ipubl ish e d r el at iv ely f ew p ap er s
n eggs a nd A s car is emb r y os
u r ch i
c e pt e
,
.
,
’
.
.
,
.
abo u t
fo r ty , b ut
of
,
th e se th e r e ar e
por t a nt , and a sur p r isingly
t h e p r ogr ess o f c yt ology
.
l a r ge
very
f e w wh ic h
nu mb e r o f
H is most
t h em
n o te d
c ould
be
t ut e
cons t i
publ ic at ions
call e d u ni
m
l and mar ks
ar e
h is
in
“Z ell
A N AT O M I CA L N A M E S
s t u d ie n,
w h ic h h e p ubl ish e d in s e v e r a l p a r t s
his t or is c h e Wes e n
a l so d e se r v e s m e n t i
on
219
.
D ie Or g anis men
H is
.
al s
.
S cienc e, N S
.
B ow m a n,
C h es h ir e ,
1 89 2
—
t h e n p r o f e s so r o f
.
W illia m
S ir
1 81 6
v ol
.
liii,
x
no
E n g l is h
.
.
anato
S t udied in Bir m ingh am
.
my
2 63 - 2 70, 1 9 1
pp
1 1 04,
.
m is t
a nd
.
of
S ur g eon
Lo ndon
and
6
P r os e ctor ,
.
p hy s io l ogy at K ing s Co ll ege , Lo n do n
P hys io l og ical a n a tomy a nd phy s io l ogy of ma n, 1 8 45 1 856
Le c t u r e s on t h e par t s of th e e y e , L on d on, 1 8 49
On t he minu t e
s tr u c t u r e a nd mov e men ts of v ol u n t ar y m usc l e P hil
Tr ans R oy
S o c L on d on, 1 8 40, pp 457 501 , 4 pl a te s
On th e s tr u c tu r e a nd
us e of t h e M a lpi
g hia n bo dies of th e kidn e y, w ith o bs e r va tions on
th e cir cu la tion th r o u g h th a t gland
P hil Tr ans 1 8 42
a n at o
and
’
.
—
.
.
.
,
.
.
—
.
.
.
.
B o y e r , A l e x is
P a r is ia n
.
.
757
su r g e o n , 1
-
.
.
1 83 3
He
.
s t u di
e d s u r ge r y
D e sa u lt ; b e c a me su r g eon t o t h e H ot e l D ieu ; p r o f e sso r
o f op e r a ti
v e s u r g e r y at t h e Eco l e d e S a n t é
p r o f e s s o r o f cl inic al s u r g e r y ;
imp e r ial f am ily su r g eo n t o N ap ol eo n ; B a r o n o f t h e Emp ir e
After th e
w it h Lou is
and
.
f a ll
of
N ap o le on h e w as
t o Lou is
s u r g e on
X VI I I
,
C har le s
X
,
and
Lou is
Philip p e ; in 1 8 3 5 h e su c c e e d e d D esc h am p s as s u r ge on in c h ie f t o t h e
H op it a l d e l a Ch a r it é , w h e r e h e t au gh t a n a to my , p h y s io l og y a n d s u r ge r y
Tr ait é compl e t d a na tomie, o u D es cr iption d e t ou t e s l e s pa r t es
d u cor ps h u m a in P ar is, 1 79 6 1 79 9 4 v ols in
a n t er ior t o t h e thy r ohyoid me mbr an e
B u r s a of
-
-
.
’
—
.
,
,
.
J o h a n n F r ie d r ic h A z ool o g is t in S t P e t e r s b u r g
“
Me d iz inisch e n Z oolog ie
A u t h o r wit h C R at z e bur g o f
B r an d t ,
1 8 79
1
82 9
.
1 83 3
—
18
—
91
.
.
.
er
.
'
S t ud ent o f
n L e ip z ig
o f s u r ger y i
1 89 2
fe s s o r
W il h e l m G
E H W eb e r
Ch r is t ia n
.
.
.
,
.
,
B r au n e ,
—
B e r l in ,
An A u s t r ia n g y n e c o l og is t
P r o f e sso r o f g yn eco logy in V ien n a 1 8 56
C a n a lis n eu r en t er icus
Canalis cer v ica lis
F e r n w al d
v-o n
.
1 83 1
1 8 02
.
B r a u n, C a r l , R it t e r
1 8 22
,
,
,
.
,
.
.
1 86 6
—
,
,
1 89 2
m an
C
.
a n at o
Lu dw ig
m is t
and :
and
s u r g eo n ,
V ir c ho w
.
Pr o
.
Topogr a phis ch A n a t omis ch es A tlas n ach D u r c hs chnit t e n a n
i
D
e L ag e d es Ut e r us u n d
1 8 72 ; 1 8 75 ; 1 888
v er n
a
a
d
r
r
C
e
o
g f
C hir u r g is ch es an a t omis ch e Taf e ln, L eipzig , 1 8 75
F e t u s 1 8 72
Ven ens y s t e m d e s me ns ch lic hen K or pe r s , 1 8 8 4
M u s cu lu s pu bor e c talis
B iog r aphy : A na t omis ch er A nz eig er , B d 7, p 440, 1 892 ;
Ar chiv f A na t u P hys iol A na t A b th , ahr g 1 89 2 p 23 1
-
.
,
.
—
.
.
,
.
J
.
.
b er t
B r e s c h e t G il,
mo n t
.
He
s u cc ee d e d
.
.
.
.
.
Fr enc h
C r uv e ilh ie r
a n a t o m is t ,
as
.
.
.
.
1
p r o f e s s or
,
.
.
784 1 845 B o r n in Cl e r
n Pa r i
o f a n a t o my i
s, and
—
.
A NA T O M I CA L N A M E S
2 20
l at e r b ecame d ir e cto r
of
Par is
Univ er sity
esp ecially in t e r e s t e d i
n p at holog ical a n at omy a n d is
He w a s
.
co ns i
d e r ed
.
th e
of
a n at o
mical l abor ato r ie s in
th e
,
,
b y Ch iar i ( N
.
<9
P Bd
.
.
II
p
,
p a t h ol ogist
as a
.
.
Es s a i s u r l es v e in e s d e r a c liis ; r e c he r c h es s ur la f or ma tion d a
ca l ; cons id é r a tions e t o bs e r v a tions a n a t omiq u es e t pa t h ol og iqu es
P a r is 1 8 1 9
A r c u s ex t an t t r ans v er s alis ( v e n osus ju g a li) Ca na le s dipl oici
S inu s me d ian u s
Hia tu s c ochl ea e ( H e lic otr e ma)
Venae m es ol o
bied e
,
.
,
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
B r o c a, Pau l
in P a r is ,
the
1 82 4
“S oc ie t é
A
.
ce l e b r a t e d a n a t o
D isc ov e r e r
1 880
—
.
d A nt h r op o logie ,
’
”
mis t
h r o p o l og is t a n d s u r g eo n
sp eech ce n t e r s and fou nd e r o f
t he
of
ant
,
,
1 86 0
.
A t las d ana t omie d es cr iptiv e d a c or ps hu main, 1 8 41 1 866 S ur
l e pl an h or iz on ta l d e l a té te P a r is , 1 8 73
A r e a par o lf a c tor ia
B r eg ma
D aer y on
G yr u s d iag onalis
La m bd a
M u s cu l us amyg d alog l os sus,
l u mbos ty l oid e us
I nion
M e t opion O belion Oph r y on Opis thion
A ng l e ar e a cap ce n te r c onvol u tion fi ss u r e-pou c h s pa ce
vi
s u al
plan e
’
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.
.
,
.
.
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.
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-
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.
.
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B r o d ie ,
J
G
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or d o n
Lig ame n t
G
B r o c s-ik e ,
an d
P r o s ec t o r
f
o
u s t av
E din b u r g h
.
m is t
1 78 6
,
—
1 81
tr a ns ver s e h u me r al lig ament
=
G
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er
man
a na t o
o f a n a to my
p r o f e sso r
a na t o
mis t
in B e r l in
8
.
.
B er l in ,
in
1 8 53
.
L e hr buch d e r n or m a l en ana t omie, B er lin, 9 t h e d , 1 9 1 0 D er
mens ch lich en K ar pe r B er lin 4th e d , 1 9 1 0
Ue ber die f einer e
S tr u c t u r d es n or ma l en K n och e ng ew e bes
F a s cia clav ipe e to r a lis
M u sculus ar y ta en oid e us obliquu s
P lica ve n osa
P r o c e ss us f al ci a x ill ar is
Pl a nu m infr a t e mpor a l e
R e cess u s il e ocaeca lis
v e n os us
Tr ig onu m
par ajejun al es ;
om oc lav icu l a ir e ;
o m o tr a pe z oid e u m
Tu ber
c olli m e d ia n u m
nu s ca l can ei
c u lu m anony iu u m maju s e t mi
.
.
’
.
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.
.
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~
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B r o n n , H e in r ic h G
st s
z o op a l eo n t o logi
He
s t u d ie d
of
G
eo r g
er
in H e idelb er g
.
.
O ne
of
the
many w a s b o r n in H e id elb er g
,
I
n 1 82 8
1 83 3 o r d
Leo nh a r d
t ol ogie,
”
of
.
t he
N eu e s
1 8 3 0 1 862
J ah r b uc h
f ur G
,
( 1 800
p r o f e s sor in H e ide l
s u cc e e d e d Leu c k a r t a s p r o f esso r
h e b e c am e
p r o f e sso r a n d in 1 8 3 2 h e
c al
o f z oolo gy a nd dir e c t or o f t h e zo ol og i
ber g ;
t h e gr e at e s t
an d o n e of
fir st
a
.
o
.
c o ll ec t i
ons
eol og i
c,
.
A
co - f ou n d er
Min er alogie
u nd
w it h
P al e o n
—
.
Unter
Or dnu ng en des Tier r eiches 1 8 53 1 8 62
su chu ng en ue be r d ie E n twickl u ngsg es chic h t e d er or g a nis ch en We l t
w dhr e nd d er B ild u ngsz eit u ns er er Er d obe r fi cic h e S tu t tg ar t, 1 858
K las s e n
u nd
—
,
.
~
’
,
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M ES
2 22
A
co
mple t e Tr ea tis e
Lond on
,
1
68 1
,
B r ow n
1
8 3 1 , th e
in
folio
R ob e r t
l
.
1 773
1 8 58
—
He
.
saw ,
in
.
ar m a n a n a t o m is t , 1 8 1 9
G
.
in th e H u man B ody,
th ey appe ar
as
A n E n g l is h b o t a n is t ,
in o n e o f t h e o r chid s
.
ce l l n u c e u s
B r uch , G
M us c les
th e
f
o
.
—
94
.
Un t e r s u c h u ng e n z u r K e nn tnis s d e s h or nig en P igme n ts Z u r ic h
,
Foll ic u l u s
B ase l
a nd
G ie s se n,
l a t e r in G ie s s e n
L a mina, I lI
W ilh e l m
Ka r l
B r u ch ,
,
1 81 9
.
H is t o l o g is t an d a n a t o m is t in
P r o f e s s o r o f an a t o my in B ase l 1 8 51 55
.
—
.
,
.
ly mpho id g l an d s in t h e pa lpe br a l
l a mina bas alis of H e nle s m e mbr ane
G l a n ds of
M e mbr an e of
B r ue cke,
m br an a
Lu d w ig
1 8 84
—
e
,
j
.
’
.
W ilh e l m
Er n st
c on u n c ti
va
R it t e r
,
v on
G
.
m an
er
anat o
m is t
and
ph y s io l ogy an d m ic r o
scop i
c a na t o my i
n Vi
e n n a , 1 8 49 ; ph y si
o l ogy a t K on i
gs b u r g
A n a t omis ch e B es chr eibu ng d es A ug a pf e ls , B e r lin, 1 847
G r u nd z iig e d er P hys iol ogie u nd S ys t e ma tik d er S pr a c hla u t e,
ph y s io l og is t in B e r l in ;
1819
—
1
89 2
.
P r o f e s sor
of
.
.
M
B r u e c ke i ( F ibr a mer idiona l is mu s cu li ciliar is)
t h e r e tin a e x cl us iv e of t h e r o d s a n d c on e s
Tu nic of
B iog r a phy : A na t o mis ch e r A nz eig er , B d 7 p 6 0 1 8 9 2
u s cu lu s
=
.
.
B r u n n , A lb e r t
W ald e ye r
v on
P r o f e sso r
.
.
.
G
er ma n
o f a n ato m y at
a n at o
G
m is t
,
1 8 49
n en,
oe t t i
g
.
1 87 2
.
,
1 89 5
—
,
.
S t u de nt
of
.
D a s Ve r h cil tnis s d er G e l e n kkaps e ln zu d en Epiphys en d e r Ex
tr emit at en kn o c h e n L e ipz ig, 1 88 1
M em br an a olfa ctor ia N es ts of
gr oups of e pith e lial c e lls in
mal e u r e thr a
’
'
'
.
,
.
.
B r u nn e r ,
J o h an n Ko n r a d S w is s
.
anat o
m is t
1 6 53
,
—
1 72 7
.
P ro ie s
my in t h e U niv e r s it y o f H e id elb e r g I n P ar is h e w a s a s tu
H e t h e n v is it e d t h e u n iv e r sit ie s in G e r m an y a n d in
d e nt o f D u v e r n ey
H oll a nd at th e t ime o f S w amme r d am a nd R uy sc h
sor
o f a na t o
.
.
.
D is s e r t a tio d e pan a c eis H eid e l ber g 1 6 86 ih
P hys iol ogica d e gl and u lis d u o d e ni eog ita ta, H e ide lber g
,
,
,
-
Diss er ta tio
G la nd u l ce
B u ck , G
u r don
F a s cia
.
f
o
d e g lan d u la pitu itar ia, H eide l be r g,
d u o d e n a l es
.
N ew Yor k
a
fas cial
su r g e o n ,
s he a t h o
f
1 807
—
th e
1 8 77
penis
.
.
1
,
1
68 7, in 4
-
°
68 7
,
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
W il l ia m
B u c kl a n d ,
dean
W e s t m in s t e r
of
D e v o n sh ir e ,
ton
I
.
and
n 1 80 1
was
h e wa s
.
A n E n g l is h g e o l o g is t a n d p a l e o n t o l o g is t ,
1 7 84 1 8 56
H e w a s b o r n a t A x min s t e r in
—
,
.
e d u c a te
d
ele c t ed
by
C ol l ege , O x f or d w h e r e , in
1
,
h oo d
h e had
e ar l y
he
at t r a ct e d
su c c e e d e d
w as
hib it e d
ex
e l e ct e d
th e
at
ex a
an c ie n t
min at ion
ra
m m a r S c h o ol
a s sc
808 h e b e c am e
,
t as t e f o r na t u r a l
a
G
a
ho la r
f e l lo w
of
T iv e r
C or pu s C h r is t i
F r o m ea r l y b oy
of
.
s c ie nc e , a n d
t o g e o l og y t h r o u g h t h e l e c t u r e s
on
at t ent i
h is
was
D o c t or K idd , w h o m
of
I n 1 8 1 8 he
3 a s r e a d e r o f m in e r a lo gy in O x f o r d
r ea d e r s hi
I n 1 8 24 h e b e ca m e
p in g eo lo gy in O x fo r d
in
to
223
.
181
a
.
.
p r e s id e n t o f t h e G e o lo gic a l S o c ie t y o f Lo nd on a nd w a s sh o r t l y a f t e r
w ar d p r e sen t e d t o t h e l iv ing o f S to k e Ch a r ity , ne ar W h it e ch u r ch , H a nt s
w h ic h
th e
h im t o de v o t e th e
e n a bl e d
co ll e c t ing
of
m e m o ir s
s e v e r al
m ine r a l s
I
.
n
and
1 84 5
n
s u c c ee d i
g
t w e nt y y e a r s t o
n s,
r ema i
f o s s il
nt e d
app o i
h e w as
an d
st u d y
whic h h e p u b lish e d
t h e d e an e r y o f W es t
on
to
m in s t e r
H is co ll e c t ions a r e a t O x f o r d no w kno w n a s t h e
H e is th e au t h o r o f a n u mb e r o f m e m o ir s o n
Mu s e um
.
,
B ucklan d
,
.
v e r teb r at e
p a l e o nt ology e sp ec ia l ly o f t h e Pl e ist o ce ne
R e liqu ia D ilu via nce ; o r O bs er v a t ion on t he Or g an ic R e ma ins
a n d Dil uv ia l G r av e l
a n d on o t h e r
ss u r e s
c on t a in e d in C aves , F i
g e o l og ica l ph en o m e na , a t t e s ting t h e a c t ion of a n Univ e r s a l D el ug e
L on do n
Th e B r idg e w a t e r Tr e a tis es o n
2 n d e dit ion 1 8 2 4 ih
t h e P ow e r , Wis d o m a n d G ood n ess of G o d as ma n if e s t e d in th e
G e ol og y an d M ine r a l ogy co ns ider e d w it h
Tr e a tis e VI
Cr e a tion
2 v ol s
P hila de lph ia, 1 8 3 7, in
r ef e r e nc e t o n a tu r al Th e o l og y
.
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
.
.
.
.
.
B u c r e t iu s
A G
.
an d
S p ig h e l iu s
er
m a n m o n k w h o in
C a s s e r iu s
,
1 62 7
e d it e d
t h e w o r ks
of
.
A n E n g l is h z o o l o g is t 1 8724 903 S t u d ie d
K no w n f o r h is s t u die s on t h e lif e
ni
t y Col l e ge a n d at C am b r id ge
at T r i
h isto r y an d d e v e lo pm e n t o f Le p ido s ir e n a nd Polyp t e r u s , w hic h h e in
B u d gett ,
Jo h n S a m u el
.
,
.
.
v es t i
g at e d
by
fi e l d ex p e d it io n s t o S ou th Am e r ica an d A f r ic a
of J oh n S a mu e l B u dg e t t B a lfo u r s t u d e n t a t th e
es of
a se r i
.
,
Th e Wor k
Univ e r s ity of C a m br idg e e dit e d by G r a ha m K er r , Cam br idg e
B iog r aphica l s ke t c h pp 1 55 by A E S hipl ey
1 9 07
,
,
,
—
,
.
,
.
.
.
.
A n a n a t o m is t o f t h e 1 8 1 h c e n
B u e t t n e r , C h r is t o p h e T h e o p h il e
I n
S t u d ie d m e d ic in e a t H all e
t u r y , b o r n ne ar K oe n ig sb u r g , 1 708 1 77 6
n e in Ko e nigsb u r g ; a n d
ci
o r d o f m e di
1 7 3 4 h e w as e l e c t e d p r o f e ss or ex
in 1 73 7 anat om y , w h e r e h e h a d t h e u s e o f a n an a t om ic al t h eat er
D is s e r ta tio d e pe r it on ce o K o e nig s bu r g 1 73 8 ih
G e s ammt e ana t omis ch e Wa hr ne hmu ng e n, K o e nigs ber g, 1 769 ,
.
—
.
.
.
.
.
,
,
,
tu
F r e n c h n a t u r a lis t
Le c l e r c d e , Co mt e d e
B u tt o n is n o t r e ga r d e d as a s e r io u s inv e s t ig a t o r , a l t h o u gh
1 707 1 7 88
T h e r e is a n e x t e n siv e
h is w r it ing s in na t u r a l his t o r y a r e o f impo r t a n ce
n t h e B iog r a ph ie M ed ic al e
ca t io n s i
ac c o u nt o f B u ffo n a nd a lis t o f his p u b l i
B u ff o n , G
s
e o r g e s - Lo u i
—
.
,
—
.
.
,
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
22 4
B u r d a ch ,
1 847 .
I
C h ar l e s F r é dé r ic
.
A n a t o m is t in K o e n ig s b e r g
.
1 7 76
,
p r o f e s so r o f ana t omy , p h y s io logy a n d m ed ic in e in D o r p a t
1 8 1 4 a n a t om y an d p h y s io l ogy in Kon i
g sb e r g
B er ich te v on d er a na t omis ch e n A ns tal t zu K oe nig s b er g
Le ipz ic k 1 8 1 7 1 8 2 4, ih
3 pl
Vom B a u e u nd L e be n d es G e hir ns
Leipzic k, 1 8 1 9 1 82 5, 3
1 0 pl
v ols tu
B a u d e s G e hir n s e t R u c k e nmar ks 1 8 1 9 1 8 2 5
D ie P hys iol og ie a ls E r fa h r u ngs w is s ens chaf t
L eipzick, 1 8 2 6
1 83 2, 3 v ols in
1 0 pl
F as cicu l us cune a t u s
F ibr e s of
F u nicu lu s o liv ce
N u cl e us
of =
P e d u n cu l u s s epti pe ll u cidi S tr a t u m nig r u m
Ope r c u l u m
n 1 81 1
.
.
—
,
.
—
.
—
.
.
.
,
.
.
.
=
.
.
.
.
m a n a n a t o m is t 1 801 1 8 76 S o n o f t h e p r e
P r o f e ss or oi a na t o my in K onig s b e r g 1 844
B e it r ag z u r mikr os kopis c h e n A na t o mic d e r N er v e n 1 83 7
A n thr opol ogie f ur d as g e bild e te P u blik um 1 8 41 47
B u r d a ch , Er n s t
ng
ce d i
.
.
G
.
er
—
.
,
.
,
.
,
—
.
,
B u r n s , A l l an
S c ot ch
.
mis t 1 78 1
l iga me n t of
anat o
F al eif or m pr oc es s
or
-
,
1 81 3
.
S pace
.
.
B u r ow , Kar l A ugu s t v on
G e r m a n s u r g e o n in K on ig s b e r g ;
1 8 74
G e ne r a l p h y s ic ian t o t h e a r my o f P r in ce C h a r l e s F r e d e r ich
D e v a sib us s a ngu if er is r a nar u m
Ve na B u r owi
1 809
.
.
.
.
.
B a r t h el e m y
C ab r o l
w r ot e
.
A Fr enc h
sur g eon of
t h e 1 6t h c e nt u r y w h o
an
A lpha be t
a na t o
C a l d a n i, Le o p o l d o
o f an at omy
P r o f e s so r
I
~
mique, Tou r non
Ma r c
’
c on es ana t
ex
as
1
59 4
.
I t a lian a n a t o m is t 1 72 5 1 8 1 3
s u cc e sso r t o Mo r gagn i 1 77 1 1 8 05
A nt o n io
in P a d u a
,
—
.
,
—
,
.
.
.
ptimis
o
n e o t er ie o r
o
.
Ve ne t
Ve ne t 1 8 02
pe r ib
,
,
pr oces s
p ale o nt ol og ist ,
a nd
a nt
1 81
4
,
.
,
.
.
f
o
t he cor a coid
,
Petr us)
a nd
.
a r t ist ,
D u t c h p h y s ic ia n a n a t o mis t ,
1 7 22 1 78 9
H e w a s b or n in
—
.
gen iu s , h av ing
es
sc i
e nt ifi c s t u di
a v e r sa t i
le
w ell
as
f or
.
a
t ast e f o r dr a wing , p a int
S tu die d
u nd e r
B oe r h aav e
.
of
,
—
a nd
t r av el ed
—
p h ilo sop h y m e d ic ine a n d su r g e r y in F r a ne k e r , 1 749 ; o f
in Am s t e r d am, 1 7 55 6 1 ; o f t h eor e t ic al me dic ine , a nat omy , s u r
P r o f e sso r
ge r y ,
( Pie t e r
h r op ol ogist
b ecame
s cu lp t u r e , a s
me d ic in e
.
1 8 01
,
.
C am p e r , P e t e r
ing ,
.
.
.
.
L e yde n
.
,
8 1 3 f o l M ax 4 'bd e mit 2 6 4 t afe ln ; E x plica tio
f ol 5 bd e
I ns tit u t iones A na t
Tom I , I I Ve n e t , 1 78 7
Liga men t of
ar i
ng fr om th e in t e r na l b or d er
si
1
.
ex
b o t a ny
in G
t e nsive ly
'
a nd
H e wa s v er y w e alt h y and
lar ge c ollect ion o f ske l et o ns Amo ng
r o ni
g e n,
1 7 63
g at h e r e d
a
—
73 ;
.
A NA T O M I CA L N A M E S
226
.
Cas s e r io ( C as s e r iu s ) , G iu l io
A n I t a l ia n a n a t o m ist ,
H e e n t e r e d t h e s e r v ic e o f F a b r ic io ab A q u a p e n d e n t e a s
s e r v a n t , a n d l a t e r ( 1 6 04 ) su c c e e d e d h is m a s t e r as p r o fe s s o r
1
.
at
Pa d u a
He
.
s t u d ie d
H e d is cov e r e d t h e
as a li
game nt
e s p e c ia l ly
m us cl e
us
st a p e di
t h e o r gans o f
and
v o ic e
545
—
1 61 6
.
d o me s t ic
a
o f anat o
an d
my
h e a r in g
.
d e sc r ib e d th e du ctus pa r o tid e us
.
D e v o eis a ditu s qu e or g a nis his t or ia a na t omica, F er r a r e, 1 6 00
Ta b u l ce a n a t o micce LX X VI I I cu m s upple me n t o X X
in f ol 3 7 pls
t a b u lar u m D a n
B u cr e tii, q ui e t o mniu m ex plica tiones o ddidit
Ta bu l ar d e f or m a t o fo e tu , A ms te r d am, 1 6 45,
Ve n ice 1 62 7, in f ol
in f ol
,
.
.
.
.
,
.
He
a l so
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o n an at o
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my
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fi n ish e d
P er f or a t e d mu s cl e
.
.
P er f or a ting
.
n e r ve
.
C e l s u s , A u r e l iu s C o r n e liu s
H e l iv e d in t h e fi r s t h a l f o f t h e
I s t c e nt u r y B C ( 3 0 B C 2
5 A D ) Kn o wn a s th e Cicer o me dic a r u m
o n a c co u nt o f t h e p u r i
t y o f h is La t in
H e w a s t h e au th o r o f n o s e p a r at e
.
—
.
.
.
.
.
.
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c al
a n a t om i
t r eat ise ,
b u t h is wo r k
De
M e dicina
Libr i VI I I
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ns a
co n t ai
g r ea t m any a nat o mica l d e sc r ip t ions , fr o m w h ich w e m a y in f e r t h a t h e
w as a c qu a in t e d w it h t h e m a in f a c t s o f v isc e r a l an a t o my
Th is w o r k u nd e r
.
t h e t it l e
M e dicina
Th e r e a r e
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p r int e d
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st e nc e
was
on e
of
fi r st me d ic al
th e
1 05 e di
t io n s o f
th e w o r k s o f
b oo k s t o b e
Ce l s u s
st i
ll
in
.
S ept u m tr ansv e r s u m
S ca t u la ( S capu l a)
( D iaphr agma)
Lin e a
.
a lb a
(G
a la x
ia)
.
.
C e sa l p in o
( Ce s a l p in u s
C a e s a lp in u s , C e s a l p in ) A n dr é A n I t a l ia n
na t u r a l is t a n d p hil oso p h e r o f t h e R e n a is sa nc e , 1 51
H e w as p r o
9 1 6 03
f e s s or o f b o t a ny a t t h e U niv e r s it y o f Pis a
P h y s ic ia n t o Pop e Cl eme nt
VI I I
H e is sa id to h av e m a de imp or t ant o b ser v at ion s u p on th e c ir cu l a
'
,
.
,
—
.
.
.
t io n
of
th e b l oo d
C h a r r ié r e ,
in t h e
e a r ly
.
J os e p h
h al f
'
of
703
.
A F r e n c h p h y s ic ia n
t h e 1 8 t h ce nt ur y
A n a t omie
1
de l a
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H e w r ot e
.
vell e d e l h omme
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Tu ber cl e
f
o
of
M e dic in e
at
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tu ber c u l u m
=
C h au s sie r , F r a nco is
f a c u lt y
s es
d epe nd a nc es P ar is
,
,
.
C h as s a ig n ac , C h a r l e s M a r ie Ed ou a r d
th e
in P a r is
an
de
et
an d s u r g e on
.
F r e nc h
P a r is
.
.
A P a r is ia n
c ar oti
cu
s u r g eo n ,
P r o f e s s or
s u r g e o n , 1 805
m
.
1
746
—
o f an at o
1 82 8
.
Pr o fe s s o r in
mv A ca d e my
of
A r t s,
A NA T O M I C A L N A M E S
at
D ij on ,
P ar is
an at om y
and o f
a nd
p h ys iology
at
227
.
t h e p ol yt ec h nic s c h oo l in
.
M e moir e
ha l o mes e n ter iqu es , in
M em
p
’
d e l A c ad d e D ijon, 1 782 M e m oir es s ur l a s tr u c t ur es e t l es u s ag es
d es epipl o ons , in
M e m d e l A c a d d e D ijon, 1 78 4
Ta bles
°
s y n optiq u e s : 1
d e l a z o on o mie on pla n g e n er a l d e s c ou r s d a na t o
°
mie e t d e z ool ogie ; 2 d u s qu e l e t te ; 3 d es mu s cle s ; 4° d es ar te r ies ;
°
°
°
°
i
5 d e s v e n es ; 6 d es ly mpha tiqu e s ; 7 d e s ne r fs ; 8 d u n e r f tr is
°
pla nc h niqu e 9 “d es hu m e u r s ou fluid es anima ux ; 1 0 d es s olid es
°
or g a n iqu e s ; 1 1
d e l a f or ce vital e ; 1 2 d e la s eme io t iq u e d e la
°
°
s a n t é e t d e l a ma la d ie ; 1 3
d e s f on c t ions ; 1 4 d e l a d ig es tion ; 1 5
°
d e s me s u r e s r e la tiv es a l a c c o u ch e me n t ; 1 6 d e l a cco u c he me n t ;
°
1 7
d es m e t h o d e s n os ol ogiqu es ; 1 8
d e la ne u r a lgie , 1 0 d e s
h e r nies 1 789 1 8 1 1
Lin e of =
th e me dian anter o-pos ter ior line of t h e cor pu s c a l
l os u m
s ur
l es
om
va i
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.
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C h e s e ld e n ,
W il l ia m
A n E n g l is h p h y s ic ia n , w h o
.
p u b l ish e d :
Th e A na to my of th e H u ma n B ody , L ond on,
w o r k w e n t t h r o u g h s ix e dit io n s
Os t e og r aphia
b on e s, Lo n d on, 1 73 3 , f ol io
in t h e
,
1
8t h
c e n tu r y ,
.
1
T h is
a n a t o my of t h e
7 1 3 in
,
or
.
C h o p a r t , F r a n co is
J oin t of
A
.
ar
s u r g e on
-
o f co
1 743
mp a r a t iv e
.
An
anatomy a n d
On t h e n er v e s of t h e
G l an d u la Ciaccio
cor n e a,
1
—
79 5
.
C h opar ti
ticu l us ta r s i tr a ns v e r s u s
Ciac c io , G iu s e p p e V in c e n z o
P r o fe s s or
in P a r is ,
I t a lia n
anat o
m is t
hist o l og y in B ol ogna
L on d on,
1
863
1
,
82 4
1 90 1
—
.
.
.
.
I t a l ia n a n at o m is t
Civ inin i, Filipp o
1 844
P r o f e sso r o f a na t o m y a n d s u r ge r y ;
Lig a m e n tu m pt er yg ope tr os u m ;
pte r yg os pin os u s
of
.
the
a nd o f
.
l
gt h
c e ntu r y
,
p a th ol o gy in P is t oja
.
pter yg os pinos u m P r oce s s u s
.
.
J e a n Lou is R e n é A nt o in e Ed ou a r d A F r e n c h p r o t o
S t u die d m e dic ine and n a t u r al h ist o r y w it h Jo h a nn e s
z o ol og i
s t 1 8 3 2 1 8 70
M u e lle r an d C G Eh r e nb e r g H e ac c omp a n ie d o h M ijll e r on an ex t e n
C l ap ar é d e ,
-
-
J
-
—
.
—
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,
.
si
v e ex
t h e c oast s o f
p e dit io n a lo ng
p a r at iv e a nat om y
E tu d es
1
86 1
.
.
.
in
1 8 62 a t
s ur
G
enf
1 855
S w e d e n in
.
P r o f e sso r
o f co
m
.
l es inf us oir es
et
l es r hiz opodes, G
f
en
.
2 vols
.
,
1
858
.
An a n a t o mis t in En g l a n d
C l a r k e , J a c o b A u g u s t u s Lo c k h a r t
H e b e c am e w e l l kn ow n
n P imlic o an d Lo n don , 1 8 1 7 80
an i
ci
an d p h y si
He
f o r h is r e s e a r c h e s o n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e b r ain a nd sp in al c or d
.
,
—
.
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
2 28
.
p u blish e d t h e r e s u l t s o f his stu die s in P h ilosop h ic a l T r a ns ac tio ns
R oy a l S o c ie t y o f Lond on f o r 1 8 51 a nd 1 86 3
of
th e
.
C olu mn a Cl ar kii
F u nicu l us
g r a cilis : C or pu s r es tif or me
d or s a lis col u mnw c ance pos te r ior is ( S tilling i,
-
‘
.
,
c u ne a t u s
Cl ar kii)
N ucl e u s
.
.
C l a u d iu s , F r ie d r ic h M a t t h ias
fe s so r
o f a n at o
my in Kiel
C e l ls
an d
G
.
er
ma n
Mar b u r g
in
a n at o
mis t
1 822
—
,
69
Pr o
.
.
mn a r ce lls on th e floor of t h e d u ctu s coch le ar is
s li
Canalis
g h t d epr ess ion on e ith e r s id e of t h e ov a r y
co l u
f
o
F os s a of
a
gang lionar is
.
.
.
W ilh e l m
A G e r m a n z o o l o g is t , 1 83 5 1 899
S t u d ie d m e dicine an d n at ur al hist o r y in G ie s s e n an d M a r b u r g
I n 1 858
I n 1 8 7 3 h e w a s c alle d t o
he w a s p r iv a t d oc ent f or z oology in M ar b u r g
t h e p r o f e s s o r s h ip o f z ool ogy a t V ie nn a, w h e r e h e r e ma ine d f o r 2 3 ye a r s
C l au s , C a r l F r ie d r ic h
—
.
.
.
.
.
Kn own f or his s t u d ie s o n m e du sa e
Un te r s u ch u ng e n iiber die Or g a niz a tion
.
M e d u s e n P r ag
und
En twic ke lu ng d er
883
B iogr a phy : Ver h d K K zo ol G e s e l ls ch
Vie nn a, 1 8 99
H ofr a t C ar l C l a u s A u to biogr aphie bis 1 8 73
Voll e nd e t v on P r o
f ess or A l th M ar b u r g, 1 99, w it h 3 por traits
,
,
1
.
.
.
.
.
.
,
.
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.
.
C l e r c , D a n ie l l e
.
A p r ac t ic ing p h y s ic ia n
B iblio t h ec a
A S w is s p hy s ic ia n,
a t G e ne v a
1 6 52
1 7 28
—
B or n
.
at
G
e n e va
.
.
mica
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1
688, in
2 v ol
f olio
.
A F r e nc h a n a t o mis t ,
C l o q u e t , H ipp o l y t e
Pr o f e s s o r o f a nat omy in P a r is
th e f o l lo w ing
Tr a it é d a na t omie d es cr iptiv e , Par is ,
e d itions
.
to
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1
.
B r o t h er
1 840
78 7
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.
.
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1 81
6
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in
83 5,
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si
.
Cl o q u et ,
f e sso r
J ul e s -G
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.
A
=
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1
790 1 88 3
P ro
—
.
my an d su r ge r y in P a n s
M e moir es s ur la me mbr an e papillair e P ar is 1 8 1 8
C l o qu e t i
Liga
G la nd u la
G a nglion
hya l oid e u s
Canal is
men t u m ter es C a pitu li cos tce M u s cu lus ten uis ( s acr ococcyg e u s
S pina pu bis
S ept u m C l oq ue ti ( femor a l e )
a n te r ior )
o f a na t o
.
,
.
,
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
A n E n gl is h z oo l o g is t in Lo n d o n ,
C o bb ol d , T h o ma s S p e n ce r
Known f o r impor t ant w r it ing s on int e r nal p ar a sit e s o f man,
1 8 28 1 886
.
—
.
publis
hed
1 87 2
—
,
C o h n h e im
P
f
of
.
J u l iu s F r ie d r ic h
p a t h ol og ical anat omy
,
r o e ssor
3
.
G e r ma n p a t h o l o gis t 1 83 9
in Kie l B r e sl au a nd Le ipz ig
—
,
,
.
1 8 84
.
Well
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
23 0
my
my
.
p a l eont o l ogy o f v e r t e b r a t e s, a r e v e r y e x t e n s iv e ,
n u mb e r i
ng n e a r ly 7 00 t it l e s , v a r in
y g in imp or t ance f r om no t e s o f a f e w
l ine s t o t h e l ar ge qu ar t o o f th e G eo l og ica l S u r v ey o f ov e r 1 000 p ag e s
a n d 1 00 li
t h og r ap hic p l a t e s
H is id e a s o f t ax onom y an d p hilo s ophy m ay
a n at o
tax
,
a nd
o no
.
b e g l ea n e d f r om his
vo lu
me
g e n e r a l w or k s
The Ver t e br a ta of t h e Cr e t a c e ou s F or ma tions of the We s t,
R ept of t h e Unit e d S ta tes G e o l ogica l S u r v ey, v ol I I , Wa s hing to n,
1 8 75 il l
Th e Or igin of t h e F itt es t E ss ay s o n Ev o l u tion N e w
Yor k, 1 88 7 in
a s er ies of 2 1 e s s ays
Th e M e ch an ica l C aus es of
t h e D ev e l opme n t of t h e h ar d P ar ts of th e M a mm a lia J o u r n M ar
ph ol og y, v ol I I I , pp 1 3 7 2 7 7 1 889 S yl la bu s of L e c tu r e s o n G e ol
ogy a n d Pa l e on tol og y , P hil a d e lphia , 1 89 1
B iog r a phy : Ed w ar d D r in k er C ope N a tu r al is t, a Ch apt er in
t h e H is t or y of S cien c e, A mer ic an N a t u r a lis t, 1 8 9 7
A ls o S cie n c e,
M ay 7t h 1 89 7
F or lis t of tit l es s e e :
1 9 02
H ay, O P
B ibliogr aphy a n d C a t a l og u e of f os s il Ver t e br a tes
B u ll 1 79, U S
G e ol S u r v , pp 3 9 70
o f e ss ay s an d
ot h e r
h is
.
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.
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.
.
,
.
.
.
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.
.
.
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C op h o
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An
au t h o r
th e
of
of
t h e t itl e
m an
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This w or k w a s
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A n a t om e
por ci ex
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C o r t i, M a r c h e s e A l fo n so
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b r ill ia nt
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n e t ee nt
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p on e nt s
ce n t u r y
of
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in
1 53 7
to b e
.
,
w it h t h e t it l e
He
mp a r e d
Eich m a n n
.
u nd e r
.
mis t in P a r is
1 83 7
—
,
is
r eg a r d e d a s o ne o f
an d an a t o
associ
at e d
w it h th e
“R e c h er ches
:
st u d i
e d u n d er
1 908
.
fil r
H y r t-l
of
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mo s t
of
t he
C or ti in
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wiss e ns c haft
f or g on e d e l
s ur
d ir e c t ion
t he
th e
m ic al kn o wl e dge
Z eits c hr ift
t h e e a r w hic h h e d e s c r ib e d in 1 8 51 in t h e
lic h e Z ool ogie
”
ma mmifer es
oh
by
a r e co
,
t h e p h y siol ogic a l
n am e
a n a to
J
t h e h og
,
.
H is
h an db ook
I t a l ia n h is t ol o g is t w a s b o r n in
o f J u n e 1 822 ; an d d i
ed i
n R o me o n
a
,
w e ll- k n o w n m e d ie v a l
An
.
mb a r ana in S a r d inia o n t h e 1 5th
t h e 1 9 th o f F e b r u a r y 1 88 8
C o r t i is
G
S a l e r n it a n
vi
s ce r a o f
A F r e n ch
-
t he
of
a nat o
tr a d itione C oph o nis
‘
C o r n il , A n d r é V ic t o r
m is t
I t al ia n
A na t ome P or ci, in w h ic h t h e
tl e d :
e nt i
t o t h ose
1 08 5
I I ( ca
wh o
sch o o l ,
.
at
’
o u ie
d es
V ie nn a ,
an d
I t is t h ou gh t t h at ab o u t 1 8 50 h e
l a t e r b e ca me h is p r o s e c t o r , 1 848 1 8 49
nfl u e nce o f J oh ann e s M u e ll er in B e r l in
c am e u n d e r t h e i
La t e r h e w e n t
t o U t r e ch t w h e r e h e w o r k ed w it h S ch r od e r v an d e r K ol k H a r t ing a nd
—
.
.
,
V e r lo r e n
.
H e lat er w a s
at e d
as s oc i
hist ologic al inv est igat ion s I n
t io n o f w h ic h
no t e a c h ing p o s i
.
w it h Ko e llike r
Cor t i r e t u r ned t o
know a nyt h ing
1 8 52
we
and
G ege nb a u r in
T u r in, b ut h e h eld
.
Or g anon s pir a le C or tii)
B iog r a phy : M a r c h e s e Alfons o C or ti Ein biog r a phisch er
An
Ver s u ch v on Jos e f S c lzafi er Wien mit d e m B il d e C or tis
a t omi
s c h er A nz e i
pp 3 68 3 82 1 9 1 4; B ei
g er B d 46 no
.
,
,
,
.
—
,
.
,
.
.
,
A NA T O M I C A L N A M E S
tr a e g e
f
r ie d
B iog r a phie d e s M ar c h es e A lf on s o Cor ti by G o tt
A r chiv f d G es ch d N a t u r w u d Te ch nik,
n er
ei
eu
.
B r iickn e r
—
.
B d 5 PP 69 7 1 )
I
—
'
23 1
.
;
9I 3
.
.
.
.
.
.
'
C o s t e , J e a n J ac q u e s M a r ie Cy p r ie n V ic t o r
A F r e n c h e mb r y o l o
S t u die d in Pa r is w h e r e h e de v o t e d h im se l f e sp e c ial l y
g ist 1 8 07 1 8 7 3
t o e mb r y o l ogy
In
P r o f esso r o f em b r yo l ogy in t h e Co l lé g e d e F r a nc e
-
-
—
-
.
—
,
.
.
1 8 51
he
.
D e Bl a inv ill e in t h e A c a d e my
suc c e e d ed
S cie nc e
R e c h e r c h e s s u r l a g en er ation d e s m ammif cr es , s u iv es d e
This
r e c h er c h e s s u r l a f or ma tion d es e m br y o ns
P a r is 1 83 5
ess ay w as gi
v e n a g ol d m e d a l b
E m br y
y th e A ca d e my of S cie n ce
o l ogie c ompa r e e
C ou r s s u r l a d e v e l oppe m e n t d e l h omme e t d es
a n ima u x
P a r is 1 83 7
H is t oir e g en er al e d u d é v e l oppe m e n t d es
cor ps or g an i
s es P ar i
s , 1 8 47 1 853 , 2 Th l e w ith a t las i
n f olio
of
.
.
.
,
.
'
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.
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C o t u n n iu s
om is t ,
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1
on
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Co t u g n i-o )
( Co t u g no ,
8 22
P r o f e s so r
.
t h e in t e r n a l
e ar
of
.
D o m e n ic o
,
I t a l ia n
An
.
my in N ap l e s
a n at o
anat
K no w n fo r h is
.
.
D e a qu aed u c tibu s a u r is hu m ani N apl es , 1 76 1
A gu nl a la by r in t hi ex t er ni N e r v a s C o t u nniu s
ly mph a tic u s
.
,
.
S
.
a ccu s e n d o
.
C ow p e r ,
W il l ia m
T o h im h a s b e e n
Lo n d o n
.
a nd
su r geon
a n at o
m is t
,
1 666
1 709
—
.
t h e d isc o v e r y o f t h e g l an d s w h ic h b e ar his
a tt r ib u t e d
He
b u t w h ic h w e r e p r o b a b l y o r igina ll y d is c o v e r e d b y J e a n M er y
It
is kno w n f o r t h e magn ifi c e n ce o f t h e w o r k s w hich h e p u bl ish e d
is st at e d b y T u r ne r th a t h e w a s n ot al w ay s c ar e f u l t o g iv e c r e d it f o r
I t s e em s c e r t a in t h at so m e o f t h e p l a t e s p u b
w or k wh ich h e b or r o w e d
name,
.
.
.
l ish e d b y him w e r e t h e w o r k o f B idl o o
M y ot onia r ef or ma ta or a n ew a dminis tr a tion of a l l the
Th e a n a t omy
mus cl es of th e h u man body L on d on, 1 694 in
of th e h u ma n bo dy w ith fig u r es d r aw n af t e r t h e li
fe by s ome of
I t is s a id t ha t t h e
Ox f or d 1 69 7 in f o l
b e s t m as t e r s in E u r ope
pla t es in t his w or k a r e be a u tif u l b u t tha t th ey a r e no t a ll th e w or k
a n d t h a t th e m ajor ity of t he m b e l ong t o B id l o o
of C ow pe r
G l a nd u l a r u m gu a r u m d a m nu per d e te c t a r u m d u c t u u mqu e e ar u m
°
n
1 7 02 in 4
e x cr e t or ior u m d e s cr i
ptio c u m fig u r is L on d o
.
,
,
,
.
,
,
.
,
.
,
-
,
,
He
is
th e
au t
ho r
o us
a l so o f v a r i
G l a nd u la b u l b ou r e t hr alis
I r is h
C r a m p t o n S ir P h il l ip
lin e fr om th e
Lin e o f
.
,
=
M u s cle
C r oo k s
p r int e d
,
f
o
=
ng
r a dia ti
:
E l ia s
.
fi br es
P u b lis h e d in
s
,
m al l e r t r ea t ise s
_
.
.
s u r geon,
o
—
pen: of t he
f
o
1 7 77
th e
1 81
ciliar y
5 the
in E ngl a nd in t h e E ngl is h l a ng uage
car
.
1 8 58
.
tila g e
mu s c l e
fi r st
f
o
t he l as t
r
ib
.
.
a n a t o m ic a l
t r e a t is e
A N A T OM I CA L N A M E S
23 2
W il l ia m
C r u ik s h an k ,
an d
Lon d o n
1 745 1 800
A n a t o m is t
.
.
E d inb u r g h
of
p h y s ic ia n
and
—
,
A na to my
1 78 6, i
n
C r u v e ilh ie r ,
.
th e
f
o
a bsor
bing
t h e h u ma n b o dy, Lond on,
v ess els o
f
A na t o mis t , p a t h o l o g is t
J e a n ( 1 79 1
in Pa r is, P r o f e ss o r in P a r is
p hy s i
an d
.
Tr a it é d a na t omie d e
C ou r s d é t u d e s a na t o miqu e s, 1 83 0
A n a t omie d a s ys t eme n e r v e u x 1 8 45
s cr i
ptiv e, P ar is , 1 863 1 87 1
A r t er ia ca l ca n ea ex t
A mphiar t hr os is
s
re
r a d iopa lma r i
s capu lar i
s pr opr i
a
G l a nd u l a f o r a minis o b t u r a
c u r r e ns in t er na
la c r ima lis pa lpe br a lis
Lig a me n t u m a dipos u m g en u ;
t or ii;
in t er os s e u m c os t o ve r t e br a l e, c r ur is e t g e n u ;
occi
pito epis t r o
pa te ll a e a n t e r ius ;
pos te r ius me dian u m ;
pu bis in
phicum ;
v e r t e br al e pos t ( sac r oilia cu m)
Line a a l ba a n oc o c cyg ea ;
fer ius ;
M u s cu l us a bd u c t or h a ll u cis ;
a bd u c t or o bliq u u s ;
a u r ic u l a r i
s
“
a n t er ior e t a n tic u s pr of u n d us
c l e id oh y o id e u s ;
ex t e n s or t r i
c eps
s c al e n u s pos t ,
thy r e o
pte r yg opha r yng e us ex t
fe mor is ;
t r a ns v er s o an alis ;
cr icoar y tae n ;
v a s t u s e x t br a c h i
i P ar s or bi
P l e x u s ju g u l ar is pos t ( v e r t e br al is e x t
t opa lpe br a lis
P lica a di
posa g e nu ( s y n ovial is pa t ) P or tio fu nicu la r is R a mus a br a chi
n e r v i fa c ialis ;
a li
s;
s u per ior
palpe br alis e t tr oc hle ar is ;
S inu s v jug u la r is in t ;
pr ofu nda b r a chii R h ape me diana
Tr u n c u s v en os u s a lv e o lar is
v e n os u s
T u nic a v ag ina l is pr opr ia
t es tis
Ve nce m e dia n te inf ( cer e br i inf er ior es ) ;
jugu l ar es
t e mpor omax ill ar is ;
t hy r e olar y ng e e ;
v e ntr icu lar es ;
pos t
Z o na a tr ioven tr icu lar is
v e r te br ocos tal es
’
’
.
—
.
.
,
—
.
.
.
—
.
.
—
.
-
-
.
.
—
—
—
,
’
—
.
.
.
.
.
.
-
—
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
—
.
.
C u nn in g h a m ,
at
.
.
.
B or n
.
.
—
~
x
C r ie ff
.
D a n ie l
J oh n
D emo nst r at or
.
S c o t t is h
A
.
ana t omy ,
of
a n at o
m is t ,
Univ e r s ity
of
1 8 50 1 909
—
.
Edinb u r gh ,
8 2 ; p r o f e sso r o f a nat o my , R o y a l Co ll eg e o f S u r geo ns , D u blin,
T r init y C oll e ge D ub lin , 1 88 3 1 903 Univ e r sit y o f E d inb u r gh ,
1 882 83
1 9 03 1 9 09
a s s uc ce sso r t o S ir W i
lliam T u r ner
E d it o r o f t h e J ou r na l
o log y
o f A n a t omy a nd Ph y s i
1 8 74
—
-
—
,
—
.
,
.
M an ual of pr a c tical Ana tomy 6 th e dition
,
A na t omy 1 9 02 o5, 09, 1 4
Oper cu lu m fr on to or bital e
B iogr aphy : B r it M e d J ou r n , 1 9 09, v ol
por tr ait A na t omis ch er A nz eiger , B d 3 5, p
—
—
.
f
o
—
.
,
,
Tex t book
1 91 4
,
—
.
.
.
.
.
C u v ie r ,
la
.
no t e d
A
omist ,
D o ub s
1 76 9
—
e o r g e s - L e o p o l d- C
F r e n ch
1 832
H e wa s b or n
.
ass i
st ant
an at omy
h r et ie n
z oologi
st,
T h r o ugh t h e in t e r e s t s
.
p o int e d
p a r at iv e
at e d
ci
G
.
.
wit h Lac é pé d e
—
.
F r é d é r ic D a g o b e r t , B ar o n d e
p aleo nt o logist a nd c omp ar a t iv e anat
of
-
—
Mo nt bé liar d in
at
,
G
,
‘
t h e d e p a r t me n t
of
S a int H ill air e h e w as ap
th e ag e d p r o f e ssor o f c o m
e ofi r o y
-
H e was
’
and
,
1 09 ,
M e r t r u d at t h a t t ime
in th e M u s eu m d H is t o ir e N at u r ell e
to
pp 53 57 with
2,
.
D aub ento n in th e f o u nding
.
of
t he
a s so
N at io nal
A NA T O M I CA L N A M E S
234
.
h as g on e thr oug h a l ar ge n u mber of e ditions and is t od ay r egar ded
a s on e of the gr ea t E ngli
I t has b e en tr ans
s h bio l ogica l class ics
l at e d in t o ma ny m od er n l a ng u ag es
D es cen t of M an 1 8 7 1
B iogr aphy : Life a nd l e tt er s of Ch ar l e s R ober t D a r win, by his
s on, 3 v ols , 1 8 87
M or e L e tter s of Char les D ar win, 2 v ols , 1 9 03
.
,
.
.
.
D a r w in, E r a s mu s
was b o r n
at
.
.
.
A m an
.
Sc ie n ce
of
El t o n in N o tt ing h a m s hir e
a nd a
p o e t , 1 73 1
1 802
—
t h e 1 2 t h o f D e ce m b er
on
He
H is
.
.
mos t imp or t ant w o r k : Z oon omia or th e La w s o f o r g anic Lif e Lon d on,
1 794, in
c ontai
n s a s y s t e m o n p at h o l o
gy a n d a t r e a t is e o n g e ne r at ion
B iog r a phy : R ic ha r d s o n : D iscipl es of E s cu lapius v ol 2 pp
674 693 1 9 01
,
,
.
,
.
.
,
—
.
,
D a u b e n t o n , Lo u is
H e was
-
J e an M ar ie
A
-
.
no t e d
n a t u r a l is t , 1 7 1 6
Fr ench
wit h B u tt on in t h e p r e p a r a t io n o f t h e H is t oir e
”
n a t ur e ll e
g e n er a l e e t par tic u lier e, w h ic h fi r st app e a r e d in 1 749 1 76 7 , in
D au b en t o n s sh a r e o f t h e wo r k w as t h e a n at omical d e s cr ip
3 6 v o l u me s
t io n s o f v a r io u s an im al s
H e dis s e c t e d r e p r e se nt at iv e s o f 1 8 2 sp e c ie s o f
1 8 00
.
ass o c ia t e d
’
—
’
.
.
qu a d r u p e d s
M e d ic ine in
H e b e c am e l e c t u r e r
.
1
77 5,
h e w a s k eep e r
his
r e s ea r ch es
of
7 54 8 1
th e
ca b i
n e t o f n at u r al
h is t o r y
v e a n at o m y o f
co mp a r a t i
M émoir e s
in h is o wn
in P a r is
f o ss il
r ese a r c
Th e
.
of
he s
r e s ul t s o f
m al s h e
a nd r e ce nt a ni
d e L A c a de mie d e s
’
S cience s
b e tw een
—
.
A ng l e
an
-
imp or t an t wo r k
D a v is ,
in Lon d o n
Josep h
Line
an d
f
o
D a v a in e , C as im ir
f or
ac t i
ve ly e ng ag e d
b e s id e s b e ing
int o
h ist o r y in t h e C o ll ege
na t u r a l
and
p ub lis h e d in t h e
1
on
pol ogical poin ts
A F r e n c h z o ol o g is t 1 8 1 1
int e st in a l p ar as it e s pu blish e d in
J o s ep h
on
a n t hr o
f
o
B e r n ar d
—
.
,
A n E n g lis h
.
a nt
th e
on
1 882
.
s kul l
.
K no w n
1 860
.
h r o p o lo g is t
,
1 80 1
—
1 88 1 ,
.
D e it e r s ,
Ot t o
D o c e n t in B o nn
F r ie d r ic h
Ka r l
.
G
er
m an
a n at o
mis t
1 83 4
—
,
1 86 3
.
.
Un ter suc hu ng e n
u ber
G
r n u nd
e hi
R u c kenmar k B r a u nschw eig ,
,
865
C ells of= c e lls in t he or ga n of Cor ti N u c l e u s of t h e l a t e r a l
cells
P r ocess of
P ha lang es of
ne u r ax on
v e s tibu l ar n u c l e u s
la t e like s tr u c t ur e s in th e or gan of C or ti
Te r min a l fr ame s of
p
’
u niting D e it e r s ce l ls with H ens e n s ce lls
1
=
.
.
.
=
.
-
’
.
d e Ke t h am,
D e m o c r it us ,
Jo h an nis
a
G
.
,
J o h annis d e
p h il o s o p h e r o n e
b o r n at Ab d e r a , 494
r e ek
A t omic ph il osoph y, w a s
S e e Ke t h a m
,
_
of
the
( 460 )
.
fo u n d e r s
B
.
C
.
of
t he
H e wa s
a
A N AT O M I CA L N A M E S
c o nt e
s ai
d
of
mpo r a r y
t hat t h e
of
S oc r at e s
d is co v e r y
of a
t he k ing dom o f P er sia
a nat o
mis t
Top ly
.
no t ed
fo r his wo r k
Cu vier
.
the
on
s pe a
ks
P ar is
re
_
flex
anat omy
ions
my
o cu l i
st
1
g r eat t h a t h e
th e
th e
c
in Pa r is
o nce
fi r st
co
mp ar ativ e
hameleon
.
( 1 702
w h o is
p at h ol ogy o f t he e y e
pr o long a t ion o f th e scl er ot ic,
He
.
is
cor ne a
la lame
sur
of
as
s ep a r ab l e
car ti
l agin eu s e
77 0 in
M e mbr a ne of
l a mina bas ali
s pos ter ior
the liu m camer ae ante r ior
,
so
a nd
d emonst r a t e d t h at t he cor ne a is not a
o b s er ved t h at th e p o s ter i
or l ay er o f th e
N ou ve lle s
was
him
of
an anato
A F r en c h
.
o f st u d
y
t r ue c a us e wa s
g r eat er t h an t he p o s se s sion
h e w r ot e
s ays
D emo u r s , Pie r r e
H is love
.
23 5
.
and
.
d e la
’
cor n ee ,
,
( D es ceme ti)
.
.
E nd o
.
D enonv il l ier , C h ar l e s- Pierr e
Aponeur osis
D e sau l t , Pie r r e
H e was t h e
t each e r
-
f
A
.
r e tr ov es i
cal
o
J os e p h
an d a sso c i
at e
wo r k s
of
M edicole
an ex
t en sive
.
—
.
,
.
Bic h a t ,
a ft er
t h e d eat h
of
D e sau lt ,
th e l at t er
Les Oe u vr es ch ir u r g icales d e D es a u l t, in 3
Th e r e is
1 872
.
my in F r anc e
comp l e t e
—
.
e
c r e at o r o f s u r g i
c a l a na t o
p u blish ed t h e
f ascia
1 808
min e nt F r e n c h s u r g eon 1 744 1 795
of Bi
c h at
H e is s aid t o h ave b e e n t h e
An
.
in Pa r is ,
su r g e o n
a cc ount o f
t h e l ife
of
v ol s
.
in
,
D esau lt in t h e B iogr aphie
'
.
min e n t p h ilo s o p h e r w h o w as b o r n in La
H aye in T ou r ain e on th e 3 l st o f Mar ch 1 59 6 and die d in S toc kh ol m
D e sc a r t e s t o u c h ed on n e a r ly ev e r y ph a se
o n t h e 1 1 t h o f F e b r uar y 1 6 50
lo so p h ical a n d scient ifi c t h ought o f his d ay and it is not su r p r ising
o f ph i
His ph ys iol og ic al and
t o fi nd h im int er e s t e d in anat omy a n d ph ys io l ogy
”
La F or ma t ion d a F oe tu s
L H omme
tl e d :
s e s ent i
a nat omi
c al t r e a t i
w e r e fi r s t p ub lis h e d in 1 6 6 4 b y C l er s elier
Tr ac ta t us d e H omine
P er h aps his most impo r t a nt pr odu c t ion for t h e u se o f sc ient ifi c wor ke r s
“
is his D is c our s d e la me t h od e pour bien c ond uir e sa r ais on e t cher cher
Tr a ct a tus
I n his
w h ic h a pp ear e d in 1 63 7
l a v é r it é d a ns les s cienc es
”
t h e r e ar e s ev e r al ver y good figur es o f th e b r ain u se d t o
d e H omin e
D e sc a r t e s , R e né
.
An
e
,
,
,
,
,
,
.
.
’
,
,
.
,
’
.
,
,
e luc i
d at e
h is f anc if ul id ea s
of
t h e n at u r e
o f n e r ve
imp u l s es
d iscu sse d t he g e ne r al b ea r ing o f D e scar t e s id eas in his
”
D iscour s e in : M e thods a nd R es u lts, p 1 66, 1 89 0
’
.
He
Hu x le y h as
essay o n
th e
.
Pr o fe ssor in
Plhy s ic ia n in Par is 1 73 2 1 8 1 0
d iscov e r ed, o r a t l east d esc r ibed t h e memb r ane o f D esceme t
D e s c e met ,
Par is
J
.
.
ea n
,
.
—
,
.
,
A N A T OM I CA L N A M E S
23 6
al t
h ou g h
Lo n d on
.
t h is
wa s p r ob ab ly fi r s t d isc ov e r e d b y B ene dict D u dd ell,
o c ulis t
T h e m em b r an e was a l so e a r ly n o t e d b y D em ou r s
'
.
a
.
La min a
D e t h a r d in g ,
ca
e l as t i
G
eo r g e s
m e dic in e
.
B or n
.
S t r a l s u n d , P r u s s ia ,
at
1 67 1
—
1 747
.
Co p e n h ag en h e b e c a m e
fi r s t , p r o f e ss o r , t h e n d e an o f t h e f a cu l ty o f m e d ic ine
Or a tio d e id e a v e r i a n a t omici, R os t oc k, 1 6 7 7, in
D is s e r t a
tio d e f on ta n e lla inf a n tu m, A l t d or f 1 655 in
P r o g r a mma a d
a na t o mia m i
n c or por e mas cu lino ins t itu e n da m invitons , R os t o c k,
1 7 01 , iii
Pr o f ess or
of
at
R o s t oc k ,
1 6 97
—
at
1 73 2
.
,
,
D e t h a r din g , G
R o s t ock ,
1 69 9
suc c ee d e d
him
1
—
7 84
Wh e n
.
R o s to c k
at
D is s e r ta tio d e
s er ta tio d e c o r por e
B e n s in g ,
M eu r s
Ch r is t o p h e
e or g es
A n t o in e
S on
.
h is f a t h e r
of
t h e p r e c e d in g , b o r n in
c a ll e d
was
to
C op e nh ag e n h e
p r o f e s so r o f m e d icin e
g land u l a ing u ina ti R os t oc k, 1 746 , in
h u ma no s e mper m u t a bili, R os t o c k, 1 752
as
.
D is
,
D ut ch
A
.
p h y s ic ia n ,
1 61 2
—
1 6 66
.
B or n
.
at
H e s t u d ie d a t th e U niv e r s ity o f Le y de n a nd b ec ame p r o f e sso r
n H ar d e r w i
o f m a t h e m a t ic s i
c k th e n phys i
cs a n d m a t h e ma ti
c s a n d th en
me d ic in e H is w or k s d o no t a tt e s t d e e p inq u ir y in to th e s u b j e ct s p u r su e d
H e w a s th e au t h o r o f nu m e r ou s t r e a t ise s a nd dis s e r t a t io n s som e o f w h ic h
.
,
,
,
.
.
,
t r e at o f a nat o mica l
T h e f oll o w ing m ay b e m e nt ione d :
E x a me n a n a t omes a na to mice B ils ia n ce, s e u e pis t ol a d e
°
mo tu, G r onig e n 1 665, in 1 2
sub e c t s
j
.
c hy li
-
,
D ie m e r b r oe ck , I s b r a n d d e
w as b o r n in
a n at o my
A D u t c h p h y s ic ia n ,
M ont fo r d in H ollan d H e w a s p r o fe s sor
.
.
U t r e c h t f o r t w e nt y f ou r
ng to a d v a n c e p at h o l ogica l an a t omy
some th i
A na t ome c or por is h u mani Utr e ch t 1 6 72 in
an a t omica e t me d i
ca Utr e c h t 1 685 in f o lio
in t h e
u ni
ty
v e r si
at
-
1 609
—
1 6 74
He
.
m e dic ine and
H e d id
y ea r s
of
.
.
,
,
,
D io c l e s
( D io kle s )
t he a u t h o r o f
of
th e
the
e
mb r yo
,
of
c a u se
gy n eco l ogy
a
a nd
a nd
C ar y s t u s
H ep l v
l ab or
a nd
iwv,
He
.
ot
h er
mnia
3 60 B C ) is
w h ich t r e a t s o f t h e d ev e l op me nt
d iscu sse s m e n st r u at io n ab o r t ion s ,
a n d of
ax e
o
E ub oe a
p oint s
( ca
w ell k n ow n
.
in
.
mo d e r n
.
at
of
A p o ll o nia in C r e t e ,
A t h en s
m po r ar y
a c o nt e
ter ms
of
Oper a
.
,
,
f e m a l e disea s e s
sev e r e
D io ge n e s ,
w h o liv e d
wor k :
,
,
amn ion an d c
ab ou t
of
460 B
A n ax
h or ion
.
C
ag o r a s
.
.
a c e l e b r a t e d n at u r a l
ph il o s o p h e r
H e w a s a p u p il o f A nax im e ne s
H e is s aid t o h av e p r op os ed th e
f o r t h e f o e t al m emb r ane s
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
2 38
F eb r u ar y ,
u nd e r
1
F r o m t h is
1 874
.
s t at i
on
t h er e
“Z ob l o
t h e imp e t u s o f D o h r n s in fl u e nce :
F a u na
F l or a d es G
u nd
issu e d t h r e e
ar e
’
8 79
.
f
o l e s v on
gis ch e r
N ea pel u nd d er
Ja h r es be r ich t
,
angr e nz e nd e n
M e er es a bs chnitt e ; M itth eilu ng en a us d er Z ool ogis che n S ta tion
Z ugl eic h e in R epe r t or iu m fur M it t el me er ku nd e 1 879
the
z oo log i
cal
s t at ion a t
N ap l e s
a nd
of
th e w o r k
N e ape l,
an
Th e b e s t
,
ac c o u n t o f
fo u nd e d
al s ,
se r i
d o n e th e r e
h as b e e n g iv e n b y Ch a r l e s A t wo o d K o f o id in :
Th e B iol ogica l S t a tions
B u l le tin n o 4 1 9 1 0 w h o l e nu mbe r 440, U S B u r e au of
of E u r ope
Ed u ca tion, pp 7 3 2 w it h ph o t og r aphs pla ns a n d bibliogr aphy
,
.
,
,
.
,
.
—
.
,
D oh r n is h im se l f t h e
y e ar s
ther e
.
,
m a ny z ool og ic al st u d ie s a nd h is e a r lie r
w e r e sp e nt in t h e s t u d y o f em b r y o l o gy o f t h e ar t h r o p o d s
I n 1 8 75
a pp e a r e d h i
s p ap e r
O n t h e O r ig in of th e Ve r t e br a t a a nd o n t he
a u t h or o f
,
.
'
,
P r in cipl e
f
o
th e
C h a ng e in F u nc tion,
w hic h h a s b ee n
r eg ar d e d as o n e o f
H e sp e nt mo r e t h a n a qu a r t e r o f a c e nt ur y
h is mo s t imp or t a nt s t u d ie s
T o D oh r n
w o r king a t t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e o r ig in o f th e v e r t e b r at e s
H is s tu d ies o n
v e r t e b r a t e s w e r e t h e d e s ce n d ant s o f c h ae t op o d w or m s
.
.
.
t h is
r e su l t e d
j
s ub ec t
Ur g es c hich t e d es
in
es
ser i
a
Wir be lthier kor per s
of
'
,
1
p u b lic at io ns,
25
8 79
1 9 07
—
S tu dien
zur
.
B iog r a phy : A n t on D o hr n, by Th B o v e r i, in G e d a c h tnis r e de ,
g e h al t e n a uf d em I n t e r n a tio n a l e n Z o ol og e n K o ng r es s in G r ae a m
B d 3 5, pp 59 6 6 03 ,
1 8 , A u g u s t, 1 9 1 0; A n a t omis ch er A n z ei
g er
w ith t it l es of 8 0 c on tr ibu tions ; P opu l ar S cie n ce M on t hly, 1 9 1 0,
pp 9 9 1 01 , w ith por tr ait S cien ce, N ove m ber 1 0th, 1 9 1 1
.
—
—
.
.
.
—
.
.
D o m e nico d e
D o nn é , A l f r e d
mic r osc op ic al
M a r ch e t t i
S e e M a r ch e t t i, D o me n ico d e
.
A F r e nc h
.
s t u d ie s
.
a n at o
mis t
1 801
,
1 8 78
—
.
K n ow n fo r h is
.
.
R e ch e r c h es micr os copiqu es s u r l a n a tu r e d es mu cu s ,
C our s d e micr os c opie compl emen t air e, 1 8 44 wit h a tlas
C or pu s cl es
1 83 7
.
’
,
.
A n E n g l is h p h y s ic ia n a n d a n a t o mis t 1 6 7 5 1 742
He is t h e
o f Lo n d o n ,
p r act ice d ob s t e t r ic s a nd t a u gh t an a t om y
au t h o r o f sev e r al in t e r e st ing a n ato mical wo r ks among w h ich may b e
J am es
wh e r e h e
D ou g l as ,
—
.
,
,
.
”
,
me nt ione d :
My ogr aphice
mpar a tce spe cime n or a compar a tive d es cr iption
Lond on 1 707 in
n a ma n and a q ua d r u pe d
of a ll th e mus cles i
B ibliog r a phice a na t o mic a s pe cimen s e u ca t a log u s omniu m pe ne
a u t or u m q u i r e m an a t omica m ex pr of e s s o v e l o bit e r s cr i
ptis il l us
A d e s cr iption of t he per itoneu m
t r ar u n t L on d on 1 7 1 5 in
Lond on 1 73 0 tu
Ex cav a tio t er min a li u t er ina
P ouc h ( cu l d e s ac) of
S emi
Plica t er min a li u ter ina
Line of
Linea s e micir
l una r fol d of
S eptu m
s
c u la r i
co
,
.
,
,
?
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
-
-
=
-
.
=
.
.
.
=
A N AT O M I CA L N A M E S
D o y é r e , Lo u is
A F r e n c h p h y s io l o g is t
.
E min en c e
e n t er s a m u s cl e
J a m es
D r ak e ,
M emb er
H e wr o te
f
o
a
=
181 1
s li
g ht
1 8 63
—
.
e lev a ti
on
w her e
ner v e
a
.
A
no t e d
En g l is h p h y s ic ia n , in Lo n d o n 1 667 1 707
R oy a l S oc ie t y a n d o f t h e Co ll eg e o f M e d ic in e in Lo n d o n
th e
of
hill oc k
or
,
23 9
.
.
—
,
,
.
.
a
N e w S ys t e m of a n a t o my L o nd on, 1 7 07 in 2 v o l
This w or k
w en t th r oug h thr e e e ditio ns a nd w as a u g me n t e d t o 4 v ol u mes
,
,
.
.
D r e l in c o u r t , C h a r l e s
1 6 97
o
P r o f e sso r
.
my in
1 66 9
pute d to
n ot e d
b e en t h e
h av e
b or n
m e d ic ine in t h e
of
H e is
.
W as
.
f or h is
fi r st
C h ar e n t o n
at
uni
v e r si
ty at
r e se a r c
h es
t o d e s c r ib e t h e
,
1 66 8
Le y d e n ,
on
v al v e
P a r is ,
near
;
1 63 3
o f a n at
g e n e r at io n a nd is
eu s s e n
o f Vi
re
.
A n a t o micu m pr ce l u diu m qu o d L u g d u ne ns iu m in a mphit h e a tr o
°
a dhib u it L ey d e n 1 6 7 0, i
s u a m a d pr ima m a n a t omes
n 12
D e h u mani f oe tu s me mbr anis hy pomne ma ta, Le y de n 1 685
,
-
,
,
.
,
D r y a nd e r ,
1 6th
th e
,
d ie d
c e nt u r y ,
on e o f
J o h a n n ( Eic h m a n n J o h a n n )
fi r st
1
Pr o f e s so r
560
.
an a t o
m is t
of
the
my a t M ar b u r g
H e w as
a n at omy o f t h e h u m a n b o d y
a n ato
t o sh o w t h e
fi gu r e s
t o u se
of
An
.
.
.
H e b a s e d his w o r k o n t h e d issec t io n o f t w o c a d av e r s d on e in
H is fig u r e s o f th e co lon c aec u m a n d ap en dix a r e f a ir l y ac cu r a t e
,
1
53 5 6
—
.
.
,
A na t omia pa r s pr ior in qu a me m br a a d c a pu t s pe c tan t ia
I ll u s tr a t e d with
M ar bour g , 1 53 7
e t d e line a tu r ,
ce ns e n t u r
pla tes
,
.
re
20
.
D ub er , G
1 89 2
.
u s t av
W il h e l m J o h a n n
P r o f e ss o r in S t oc kh o lm
t h e Lapl an d e r s
D u b o is
c on f use d
L ou v ill e
.
.
.
( d u B ois ,
S y l v iu s ) J a c q u e s 1 478 1 555 [ O ft e n
D u b o is w a s b o r n a t
B-o é ( 1 6 1 4
a l s o c al l e d
wit h F r anc o is d e l a
H e w a s th e
t e ac h e r
Ha lle r
a nd b e c a me
R oy al C oll e ge
A ut ho r
.
A S w e dis h a n a t o m is t 1 8 22
o f a l a r g e w o r k o n Lap l an d a nd
von
say s ,
.
of
—
V e s al ius
H e h ad
P r o f e ssor
.
no t
.
,
,
h ing
bu t
o f a n a to
c on t e m p t
my in t h e
f or
al l n e w
”
H e dist ing u ish e d
t t e r a d v e r s a r y o f V e sa l iu s
a bi
d isc o v e r ies
d mu c h t o p er f ec t a nat o m ic al
nv ol u nt a r y mu sc l e , an d di
v o l u nt a r y f r o m i
no me nc l at u r e
.
.
D u d d e l l , B e n e d ic t
A n E n g l is h
.
M e m br ane of
=
L a mina
o c u l is t , o f
ca
el as ti
t h e 1 8 t h c e nt u r y
pos t e r ior ( D es ce me ti)
.
.
A N AT O M I CA L N A M E S
2 40
B u g es , A n t oine - Lo u is
1 83 8
at
A F r e n c h p h y s ic ia n
c s , t h en o f p a t h o l ogy
o f o bs t e t r i
P r o f e ss or
.
M ontp e llie r
.
.
a n d z o ol o g is t ,
of
D ean
.
1 797
t h e f a c u lt y
.
Tr a it é d e P hys iol og ie compa r ee d e l h omm e e t d es anima u x ,
R ec h er ch es s u r l os t e ol ogié e t la my ol og ie d es B a t r a cie ns
1 83 8
‘
i
a l e u r s d fi er en ts ag es, P ar is, 1 83 4, in
with 2 0 pla t e s
'
’
'
.
’
.
M on ce a u
D u h a me l d u
H e n r i Lo u is
A F r e n c h p h y s ic ia n a n d
,
p h y s io lo g is t bo r n in P a r is 1 700 1 78 1 H e is p a r t icu l a r ly in t e r e s t ing as
b e in g on e o f t h e fi r s t t o ex p e r im e n t o n t h e g r o w t h o f bo ne w it h t h e u s e
H e w r o t e a t r e at ise o n t h e g r o wt h o f t h e m ad d e r p l an t, a nd
o f m a dd e r
os t e u m
a l s o con c e r ning t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p e r i
—
.
—
.
,
,
,
.
.
Tr ait é d e l a g ar a nce e t d e s a c u l tu r e, avec l a d es cr iption d es
é tuv es po u r l a d e s s é ch e r e t d es m ou lins pou r la pu lv e r is er , P ar is ,
757
1
D u j a r d in , F e l ix
at
R e n ne s in
f e sso r
1
Fr e nch
.
P r o fes so r
860
.
o f z o olo gy a t
n a t u r a l is t ,
m in e r a l ogy
of
t h e f acu l t y
b or n
o f sc i
e nc e a t
T ou r s in
at
1 8 39
T ou lo u se in
at
1 80 1 ,
Pr o
.
ng
c o r r e sp on d i
R e nne s ;
d ie d
m em
H e is k no wn e sp ec ia lly f o r his m ic r o sop ic
a
H e wa s o n e o f th e fi r s t to r ec og
o ns p a r t icu l ar ly o n I n fus or i
o b s e r v at i
ni
z e t h e n a t u r e o f p r ot o p l asm
be r
of
1 8 59
t h e in s t it u t e ,
.
.
,
.
A F r e n c h p h y s ic ia n
f a c ul t y o f m e d icin e a t M o nt p e llie r
D ul a u r e ns , A n d r e
.
A r l es
Ch a nce llor
.
the
of
mica h u mani c or por is e t
1 59 5
in
Ope r a omnia
1 62 7
H is t oir a
tiu m E r f or t
,
F r a n cf or t,
a na t o
,
,
B or n
at
.
ng u lar u
si
m
ana t omica
j
e us
et
par
me dica
,
.
D u m é r il , A n d r é -M a r ie C o n s t a n t
min e n t F r e n c h z o olo g is t
1 7 74 1 8 44
T e a c h er o f
B o r n a t A mie n s
a nd com p a r at iv e an at om is t
1 79 3 ; 1 794 p r o s e ct or i
n t h e sc h ool o f m e d ic ine i
n
a na t o my a t R oue n
P a r is ; 1 800 p r o f e s so r o f a n a t om y a nd ph ys io l o gy w h ich c h a ir h e o ccu p ie d
H e suc ce e d e d Cuv ie r a s p r o f e sso r o f na tu r al h is t or y
f o r s ix t e e n y e a r s
in t he Eco l e c e nt r al e du P a nt h e on a n d l a t e r La c ep ed e as p r o f e sso r o f
An
-
.
e
—
.
,
.
,
,
,
.
_
h e r p e t ology
a nd
ich th y o l ogy
at
th e
Ro i
J ar din du
.
Es s a i s u r l es moy e ns d e per f e c tion er e t d e t endr e l ar t d e
’
Z o ologie an aly tiqu e ou M é th od e
l a na t o mis t e P a r is 1 8 02 , in
n a tu r e ll e d e c la s s ifi c a tion d e s a nima u x
P ar is 1 8 06 in
P r oje t
’
d u n e n o me n cla tu r e ana t omiqu e , pu blic e n 1 793 d ans l e M ag asin
e n cy cl ope d i
qu e
’
.
,
,
.
,
,
’
,
.
D u m o r t ie r , B
.
C
.
,
w as
one
of
t he
fi r st t o ob s e r v e ( 1 83 2 )
( C on fe r v a a u r ea )
div ision w h ich h e sa w in th e t h r e ad a lga
M emoir e s ur la s tr u c tur e compar e e d es
w ith 2 pla t es
B r ux e ll e s 1 83 3 in
v é g etaux
,
’
.
anima ux
’
,
’
.
,
,
c e ll
.
et
de s
A N A T OM I CA L N A M E S
D uv e r ney ,
On e
of
-
mad e by his
D is cove r ed t h e
.
’
B a r t h olin
u ic
h ar d
A F r e nc h
.
an at omis t s o f
the g r e at est
co v e r i
es
Roi
J os ep h G
mp o r a r ie s
a nat o
1 648
—
,
1 73 0
.
ve r i e d ne ar ly a ll t h e
P r o f esso r
.
mis t
fi
F r anc e, h e
c on t e
.
d is
my J ar din d a
o f anat o
,
gl an d s in t he cow, t o wh ic h t h e t e r m
app lie d i
n t h e h uman f emal e
He al so d e
n al
vul vo-v a g i
gl a nds h a s b e en
sc r i
b ed t h e d ecu ssat ion o f t h e p r y am id s
Tr ait é d e l or gan e d e l ou ie, c on te nan t la s tr u ctur e, l e s u s ag es
’
l
m
a
l
a
d
i
e
u
a t es
s d e to t e s l e s pa r t es d e l or e i
ll e, P ar is , 1 683 , in
Oeuvr es ana tomiqu es , P a r is, 1 76 1 2 vol , iii
wit h 3 0 pls
G la nd u la v es tibu l ar is major ( B ar tholini)
F or amen epipl o
s
.
.
’
’
,
.
.
.
D wig h t , T h o ma s
A n A m e r ica n
mist ,
Bo r n in
B o st on, stu die d a t H ar v ar d , wh e r e h e r e c e iv e d th e deg r ee o f M D in
1 86 7
I ns t r ucto r o f compar at iv e an at omy , H ar var d, 1 872 ; lect ur e r an d
l a t e r p r o f e sso r o f a nat omy in M e dic a l S c h oo l o f M aine , B ow d oin , 1 8 72
76 ; in st r u cto r in h ist ol ogy, H a r v a r d M e d ic al S ch ool , 1 8 74 80 ; t o p o
g r ap h ic anat omy , 1 880 8 3 ; Pa r kma n p r o f e ssor o f an at omy , 1 883 1 9 1 1
.
a na t o
1 843
1 91 1
—
.
.
.
.
—
—
—
.
N o t e d f o r h is
nu m er ou s
g r ap h ical
s t u di
es
in
c ont r i
but ions
a n at o
h u m an
to
my in Ame r ic a
el ement s , aut
h u m a n sk el et al
ati
on s o f
v ar i
a n a t o my .
hor
of
Pioneer wor ke r in t o p o
.
F r oz en S e ctions of a C hil d N e w Yor k, 1 881 , in
B iog r a phy : Th omas D wig h t, M D , LL D , P ar kman Pr o
feas or of A nat omy, H ar var d M e dical S chool, A nat omical R ecor d,
vol 5, n o 1 1 , 1 9 1 1 , p 53 1 w ith por tr ait and bibliogr aphy
,
.
.
.
.
.
H e was int e r e st e d in
.
s u r g er y ,
H all e ,
S
u
1 81 1
.
pplemen ta
A c a d e my
10
.
mp ar a tiv e
am
a d ana t omi
A G
er
ma n
y e ar s p r os ecto r
su r g eo n
my
a n at o
in S ax
ony ,
Pr o f e sso r
.
of
potis simu m
mpar a tu m Le ipzig
co
,
,
m is t , 1 799 1 83 9
S t u d e nt o f
in a n at omy ; 1 83 7 l ib r ar ia n in J os eph s
a na t o
—
.
.
D ie Lehr e
pla tes
de n H a ar en, Vie nna,
v on
1 83 1 ,
2 vol
.
in
I
4
.
E b n er , V ic t o r
( Rit t e r
v on
~
S tu d ent o f B r iicke
n I nn sb r u ck, 1 873
e mb r yol ogy i
1 842
—
1 8 88
co
A
.
.
Eb l e , B u r loh a r d
Rom e r , f o r
.
,
D z on d i, C h ar l e s H e n r i ( K a r l H e in r ic h )
1 7 7 0- 1 8 3 5
.
V ie nne s e h is t o lo gis t ,
Pr o f e ssor o f h ist ol ogy a nd
R o t e n s t e in )
an d
R oll e tt
1 888
.
.
; p r o f e s so r o f
histology
in V ie nna,
.
G l ands of = mu cou s glands in the tongu e
R e ticul um of =
thr ead -like lines in the d e ntine
ni
s emi
fer ous tu bu les
.
.
.
F ibr ils of = fin e
n th e
a ne twor k i
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
E ck e r , A l e x
my
o f a nat o
and
ander
A G
.
p h y s iol ogy
er
ma n
a n at o
B a se l ,
at
1 84 5
mis t
1 816
,
1 88 7
—
P r o fe s s or
.
in F r e ib u r g,
49
—
243
.
1 8 50
87
—
.
D ie A na t omie d e s F r os ch es , B r au ns c hw eig , 1 86 4 1 882
C onvol u tion of : pos t er ior o c cipital
F iss ur e of = oc cipital
fiss ur e P l ug of = an ing r ow th of y olk ce lls
—
.
.
.
.
E h r e n b e r g , C h r is t ia n G
P r o f e s so r in B e r lin
ma king wo r k :
( 1 83 8 )
On
.
D ie I
w h ic h is
o t t fr i
ed
n us ions tie r c h e n
f
a ls
vo ll k o
H e w as in s t r u m e nt al in th e
J o h ann
—
e r ec t i
on of
th e
a na t o
1
,
79 2
mic a l in st it u te
J o h ann
ep o c
.
h
.
A n a t o m is t in S t r a s s b u r g
.
S e e D r y a nd e r ,
.
1 79 5 1 8 76
mmen e Or g a nis men
f un d ament al signifi ca nc e in b io l ogy
of
E is e n m a nn , G
e r m a n z o o l o g is t ,
p lo r ing t r ip t o Egypt h e b e ga n his
an e x
Eh r m a nn , K a r l H e in r ic h
E ic h m a nn ,
A G
.
—
1 8 78
.
.
.
ma n p h y s ic ia n a n d t e a c h e r o f
n S t r a s sb u r
a n a t omy i
D u r ing h is m e d ic al c ou r se h e v is ite d
g 1 69 3 1 7 3 8
t h e u n iv e r s it ie s in H o ll an d F r a n c e a n d G er many
I n 1 7 3 3 h e w a s ma d e
p r o f e sso r o f p hy s ic s in t h e U niv e r s it y o f S t r asb ou r g ; f r om 1 7 3 4 56 h e
w as p r o f e sso r o f s u r g e r y a nd a nat o my ; an d f r o m 1 7 56 6 8 h e w as p r o
H enr i
e or g e s
A G
.
er
—
.
,
.
,
—
—
f e sso r
p a t ho l ogy
Ta bu l a’ ana t omic a qua tu or u ter i d u plici o bs e r v a tion e m r ar i
D e g la n d u la t hy r oid ea,
s t e n t es , S tr as b o u r g, 1 752, in f olio
or u m s i
S t r as b ou r g 1 742 , in
of
.
.
,
g e Vin e r
A na t omy
( 8 th
E l l is , G
t ion s of
e or
at
c
F r a n k f or t
D e mons r a
A n E n g lish p h y s ic ia n ; w r o t e
“
th G
H Fo r d
on 1 8 79 ) a nd w i
I llus tr a
e d it i
.
J e an S ig is m u n d
-
ah
—
de r O d e r
o f no t e
A G
.
1 86 7
,
.
a
,
h u ma ni pr opor tion e d e
in
wo r k
a
,
.
er man
h e b ec ame
-
H e w r ot e
A n t h r opome tr ia
hemis t
L on d o n,
,
.
.
,
2 v ol s
t ions of diss e c tions ,
E lsh olz ,
.
p h y s ic ia n
p h y s ic ia n
,
1 62 3
,
a
cal
o f a n t h r opo l ogi
—
1 6 88
.
b o t an ist
int e r e st ,
B or n
a nd
a
e n t it l e d :
de mu t ua me m br an or u m cor por is
Pa du a, 1 654,
n er v or u m ha r monia, l ib ell us
v e,
si
.
A G r e e k p h il o s
A g r ig e n t u m ( 490 43 0 B
b u t it is r epo r t e d
ng s l it t l e is k n own
o ph er
o f w h ose l if e a nd w r it i
t h a t h e ma de o b se r v a t io ns o n t h e ph y siol ogy a nd a na t omy o f t h e h u m an
E m p e d ocl e s
of
—
.
,
,
bo dy
e ar ,
.
H e is
an d
t he
sa id
e ar
to
h av e
disc o v e r e d th e m e mb r a nou s l a by r inth
b on e s ; b u t
t r a dit io na l t h a t t h e s e
so
mu ch
of
w h at is
n
ob se r v at ion s a r e u n c e r t a i
.
s ai
d of
of
the
Emp ed ocl es is
A N A T O M I CA L
2 44
E r a s is t r a t u s
H e is
r ep u t e d
h uma n
th e
b r a in ;
n er v e
th e
p h y s ic ia n in A l e x a n d r ia 3 3 0 2 50 B C
th e fi r s t t o m ak e a compl e t e dis se c t io n o f
r eek
—
b e en
th e
v al v e s o f
t he
he a r t
and
,
.
.
on
s e n sa t i
of
s a id
mo t ion
a nd
j ej unu m ; d iscov e r e d th e lymp h a tic v e sse l s in th e
t h a t h e l ik ew is e d ist ingu is h e d n e r ves into t h o s e o f
th e
N one
.
of
his w o r k s
w it h H e r ophil u s t he b e ginning
h ar e s
( E t ie n n e ) ,
E s t ie nn e
B o r n in Pa r is
d e t ec t t h e
.
v a lv e s
Cha r le s
.
ar e
t a nt
ex
as
in t h e
fir st
e nt ir e
r a n k o f a n a t -o
he
a na t om y
.
F r e n c h p hy s ic ia n , 1 503 1 564
cap s u l e o f G lis so n ; w as t h e fi r s t t o
—
.
r e cogni
z ed
of
l ength
r e pu t e
A
H e d isc ov e r e d t h e
in t h e h e p at ic v e in s ;
t h r o ug h t h e
c an al
By
.
int o sy st emat ic
o f r e sea r c h
t hat t h e o e s op h agu s
t r ac h e a w e r e diff e r e nt st r u c t ur es ; a nd w as o n e o f t h e
h im
a nd
t issu e
c onn ect iv e
dis ting u is he d t h em b y t h e
tr icu spid a nd s ig m oid ; st u d ie d p ar t ic ul a r ly t h e s h ap e an d s t r uct u r e
b r a in, a n d it s d iv isio n s, ca v it ie s a nd me mb r an es
H e l ikene d th e
t he
the
in t h e
e sp e c ial ly
,
.
.
,
l ac t e al s ; dis t ingu is h ed b e t we e n
gy r i t o t h e f o ld s
me s e nt e r y I t is
s
.
H e m a d e m a ny impo r t a nt d is co v e r ie s
.
r e cogni
ze d
;
n am e s
of
h ave
to
b od y
saw
A G
.
NA M E S
m is t s
H e is
.
a lso
t o d emo n s t r a t e
fir st
t h e sp inal c o r d
r eg a r d s
T u r ne r
.
a nd
k n o wn
S t e p h an u s
as
.
D e dis s e c tione pa r tiu m cor p’or is h u ma ni libr i tr es , u na cu m
fi g u r is e t in cis ionu m d e cl ar a tionibus a S t ephano Riv er ia P ar is
1 546 i
n f olio
,
,
.
,
E t ie n n e , G
e o ff r e y
S t H il a ir e
E t t m u ll e r ,
M ic h e l
E r ns t
.
.
e o ff r o y
S ee G
.
A G
er m an
St
H il a ir e
.
p h y s ic ia n ,
1 6 73
—
.
1 73 2
.
Pr o
I n 1 706 p r o f e sso r o f anat omy and
m e dicine in Leip z ig 1 702
n 1 7 1 9 p r o f e sso r o f ph y s i
ol ogy ; i
n 1 7 2 4 p r o f e ss or o f p a t ho l ogy
s u r ge r y ; i
a nd in 1 7 3 0 d ir e c t or o f t h e a c a d e my
D is s e r t a tio d e cir cu la tibne s ang u inis in f o e t u Le ipzig 1 7 1 5
D is s er ta tio d e ce r e br i membr anis L e ipzig 1 72 1 in
in
f e s so r
of
.
,
,
.
,
,
,
,
,
,
( Eu s t ac h i E u s t a c h iu s Eu s t ac c h i E u s t a c h ) B ar t ol om
A c e l eb r a t e d I t alian a na t o m is t 1 52 0 1 574 P r o f e s so r o f a nat omy
m eo
Tu r n e r say s h e div ide s w it h V e sal ius
ci
an t o t h e P o p e
a t R o me ; p h y s i
H e is t h e fi r st
t h e h onor o f c r e at ing th e s c ie n c e o f h u m an anato my
t o h a v e s t u die d acc u r at e l y t h e a n at omy o f th e t ee t h a nd t h e p h e nome na
t ion ; w as t he fi r st t o discov e r th e me m
o f t h e fi r s t an d seco n d d e nt i
b r a no u s coch l e a t e nso r t ymp ani mu s cl e su p r a r e n al c a p su l e vent r ic le s
n h um an and c omp a r a t i
on s i
ve
o f th e l ar ynx a nd h e ma d e ot h er ob se r va t i
I t h as b ee n s aid t h at if
ma r y impo r ta nc e
a na to my w h ich w e r e o f p r i
Eu s tac h iu s h ad b ee n p e r mit t ed t o p ublish h is r e su lt s du r ing his lif et ime
t s p r e se nt s t at e t wo c e nt u r ie s e a r lie r
an a t omy w oul d h av e d e v el op e d t o i
E u s t a c h io
,
,
,
,
—
.
.
,
.
.
,
,
,
,
.
‘
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M ES
2 46
mis t a nd p h y s ic ia n o f T ur in
S tu die d wit h D u v e r ney and Mer y in Par is
P r o f esso r in
F ant o ni,
1 67 5 1 7 58
—
Piedmont
.
.
J ean
A
.
ce l eb r a te d
anat o
,
.
.
A na t omia
Tu r in,
1
71 1 ,
cor por i
s
hu maniad
us u
m theatr imediciaccomodata
.
in
F e l l er , C h r e t ie n- G o t t h o l d A p h y s ic ia n a t B u diss in , 1 755 1 7 88
Dis s er ta tio d e u t e r o c anin a L e ipz ig, 1 78 0, in
Vas or u m
l ac te or u m a tqu e ly mph a tic or u m a na t o mic a-physiol ogica d es cr iptio,
L eipzig, 1 784, ih
—
.
.
,
me dic ine
a t t h e Un i
v er si
t y in P a v ia
H e w a s t h e fi r st t o d es c r ib e t h e f e ma l e
He is t h e au thor o f n o especial wor k in anatomy bu t
gona d s a s ova r ies
”
anat omi
c al o b s e r v a t i
on s a r e f o u nd i
n his
Pr a ctica P avia 1 47 1 ; and in
”
his
Ex pos itiones s uper v ig es ima m s ecu nd am f e n Ca nonis A vice nna ,
M ilan 1 49 4 in folio
F e r r ar i d a G
r ad o,
G ia mm a t e o
1 43 2
—
.
1 472
.
P r o fe ssor
of
.
.
'
,
,
.
,
F e r r ar o,
of
de
au t ho r o f a
.
D u e a na t omie , u na d e lli me m br i
B ol ogna 1 6 73 , ih
cavalli
.
o f anat o
a s succ e ssor
to
e
vi
scer e,
l
’
’
d el l
a l tr a
II
ossa
,
F er r e in, A n t o in e
Pr o fe sso r
A p h y s ic ia n in t h e t ime o f P h illipp e
w o r k o n t h e an a t o my o f th e h or se :
J ean-B ap t is t e
S pa in, is t h e
’
,
A Fr ench
.
my
an d
Winslow
a na t o
at
su r g e r y
mis t
ph y s ic ia n , 1 6 93 1 769
J a r d in d es plant e s, in Par is,
th e
and
—
.
.
la s tr u c tu r e du f oie e t de s es v aisse aux , 1 73 3
Ob s er va
D e la
t ions s ur le n ouv e ll es a r t er ie s e t v eine s lympha tiqu es 1 741
f or ma tion d e l a v oix de l h omme 1 741 S u r les mouvements de
l a mdch oir e infer ie u r e 1 744 S u r l a s tr u c tu r e d es v is c er es nommes
gland u l eux , e t par ticu lier e me n t s u r ce ll e d es r e ins e t du f oie, 1 746
F or a m en
Lig ament
C hor da vo ca lis
Pyr amid
Cana l
( P r ocess us par s r aida ta l obu l or u m r enalium) Tu bes
S
ur
.
.
,
’
.
,
’
.
,
.
.
.
.
.
.
F ie l d in g , G
e or g e
M e mbr ane
F l eisc h mann G
,
23 r d
in
H u n s l e y A n E n g lis h a na t o mis t
mem ve r sic ol or tape t u m
of =
o t t fr ie d ,
.
.
.
.
1 80 1
—
1 87 1
.
.
,
w as b o r n in E r l a ng e n, B av a r ia , F e b r u ar y
H e w as g r ant e d h is d o cto r at e in the c ity o f his b ir t h
I n 1 804 h e b ec ame v ice p r o f e s so r in t h e anato mical t h eat e r in
He was int er est e d in mu scl e v a r iat ion s and is th e auth o r o f
( 1 777
1 800
-
.
Er langen
.
D e ch ondr ong enesi
Le ich e noeffn ung e n, Er la ng e n 1 8 1 5 in
ae e t d e s itu o es ophagi a bn or mi nonnulla
Er lang en,
as per a ar t er i
1 820, tu
B ur sa of = an inc ons tan t s e r ou s bur s a a t the l ev el of the
fr enum lingua
,
,
.
.
A N AT O M I CA L N A M E S
W a lt h e r
Fl e mmin g,
1 843
1 906
—
A
.
S t u die d in B er l in
.
G
er
a nd
ma n
2 47
.
st
ana t o mi
Ro st ock
a s s is t an t
Pr iv at e
.
micr o s c op is t
and
in
,
z o ol ogy
S e mp e r a t W iir z b e r g , 1 869 ; a s s ist ant in th e p h y s iol og ic al
l a bo r a t or y at A ms t e r d am 1 86 9 70
P r o sec t or in an ato my a t P r agu e ,
18
Au ss e r o r d l p r o f e sso r o f h is t olog y a nd emb r yol ogy a t M un d e n ;
73
t o P r o f e ss o r
—
,
.
.
.
H e nk e in P r agu e ; 1 8 76 o r d p r o f e s s or o f a na t omy
a nd d ir e ct or o f th e a n a to m i
nst i
c al i
t u t e a t K ie l a s succe ss or t o V
o n Ku p
Fl e mming a t t a in e d emine nc e in th e s t u dy o f th e c e l l h is to log ic al
p ie r
inv e st ig a t io n s a n d in t e ch n iqu e H e is t h e au t h or o f so m e 9 0 c ont r ib ut ion s
in
1 87 5 s u c c e e d e d
.
.
,
.
to
h istology
a nd
t ec h niqu e
.
R eg e n e r a tion d e r G ew e be , 1 88 5
Ue ber die
C hr om os ome nza hl b e im M ens ch e n, 1 89 7
F l e m ming s F l u id
B iogr aph y : A n a t o mis c h e r A nz eig e r B d 2 8 , pp 41 59 w ith
b ibliog r aphy a n d por tr a it, by D r F G r af v S pe e
S t u die n
u e b er
.
.
’
.
—
,
.
F l int , A u s t in
.
A m e r ica n p h y s ic ia n
.
A r ca d e
f
0
vas cu l a r
=
F l oo d , V a l e n t in e ;
Lig a me n t
o
I r is h
f
a
=
ac h e s
.
.
,
.
.
p h y s io l o g is t , 1 8 3 6
mis of kidn ey
a t bas e s of py r a/
an d
s u r g e o n , 1 8 00 1 847
.
—
por tion of t h
M a r ie J e an P ie r r e
.
cor a c o h u
c
.
m e r al e
.
A F r e n c h p h y s io l o g is t in P a r is ,
W as a st u d e nt o f Cuv ie r b y w hom h e w as chos e n in 1 82 8
1 79 4 1 86 7
t o d e liv e r a c ou r se o f le c t u r e s o n n a t u r al h ist o r y in t h e Co l l ege d e F r a n ce
F l ou r e n s ,
-
-
.
—
.
,
.
I
he
'
n 1 83 0
d u R o i,
1 83 2
.
n a t u r al
a nd o n
H e w as
h ist o r y
A ca d emy
ex
d e d Cu v ier as l e c t ur e r o n h u ma n
Cu v ie r s d e a t h b e c a m e p r o f e sso r o f
s u cc e e
’
th e
mp ar at iv e
a
J a r din
an at o
my
,
,
.
S c ie nc e d u r ing h is lif et ime
of
co
th e
p e e r o f F r a nc e in 1 846 ; 1 8 55 p r o f e sso r o f
W as an act iv e m emb e r o f t h e
C o l l eg e d e F r a nc e
c r e at ed
at
a n a t om y a t
H e wa s
.
a
v er y
su c c e s s f u l
p e r ime nt e r
R e ch e r c h e s s ur le d év e l oppe men t d es os e t d e s d en ts ,
A n a t o mic g en e r a l e d e l a pe au e t d e s m e m br an e s mu qu eus e s ,
M e moir s d e a na tomie e t d e phys iologie compa r é es , 1 8 44
N o d u s vita lis
.
’
8 45
1 8 43
1
.
.
’
’
.
.
W il l ia m
l g is t a n d a n t h r o
n e in D u bli
n a nd
n S t r at f o r d st u d ie d m e d ic i
B
or n i
8
1
8
1
1
i
s
l
o
t
o
9
9
3
g
p
I n 1 8 59 assis t a nt an d t e a ch e r o f a nat omy a t t h e M id dl e s e x
Lon don
H o sp it al in London ; 1 860 cu r at o r o f th e H unt e r ia n M u se um in t h e R oy al
Col l eg e o f S u r g eo n s ; in 1 8 70 p r o f e sso r o f comp ar at iv e a nat om y a nd
S ir
F l ow er ,
H e nr y
.
E n g l is h
—
,
.
,
z oo o
"
.
h
p y siolo gy
Dir ec t or
as s u c ce s s or
of
many y ea r s
o
f
t o R ic h a r d
th e N a t u r a l
p r e sid e nt o f
1 8 84
O w e n ; in
H is t o r y Mu s e u m
at
he
s u c ce e d e d
S ou t h Ke nsingto n
Z oologic al S ociet y
Os t e o l ogy of M a mma lia
t h e Lo nd o n
I n tr o d u c tion t o th e
the n er ve s of th e h u man body
,
,
1
86 1
.
O w en
.
as
For
.
1 8 70
.
D iagr ams
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
248
F ludd , Ro b e r t ,
Ke n t Engla n d
,
c a ll e d
.
a l s o d e Fl u c t i
b u s, w as b o r n
574 1 6 3 7 Kn o wn a s a th e o so ph is t
A na t omice a mph ith e a t r u m efiig ie tr iplici, m or e
var ia, d es i
gna tu m, F r a nkfor t 1 633
,
1
M il g a t e
at
'
,
—
.
.
c on dition e
et
.
/
.
,
( F oe s )
F ws iu s
M e t z Lo r r a in e ;
at
,
,
1 528
59 5 I n a t ime o f po l it ic a l r e v olu t io n s a n d in sp it e o f p ecu nia r y d ith
c u lt i
m e to pu r su e h is m e dic al p r a c t ice a n d r e v is e a n d e d it
e s h e f o u nd t i
1
.
H ippo c r at es G a le n O r ib a s iu s a n d ot h e r e ar ly w r it e r s H e
h a d a cc e s s t o manu sc r ip t s in t h e V a t ic an and in t h e l ib r a r y at F o nt ain e
T h e F r a nk f u r t e dit ion o f H ipp oc r a t e s ( 1 59 5) is t h e mo st l e ar n e d
b l eau
l e Lit t r é
an d v a l u a b l e t r an s l a t io n a n d co mmen t a r y p r i
or to t h at o f Emi
t h e wo r k s o f
,
,
.
,
.
( 1 83 9
F o h m a n n, V in c e n z
t o T ie d em a nn in
.
A G
H e id e l b e r g ;
er
man
a na t o
m is t
1 79 4 1 8 3 7
Pr os e ct or
—
,
.
3 7 p r o f e ssor o f a n a t omy in Liit t ich
D a s S a u g a d e r s ys t e m d e r Wir b e l thier e , H e id e lbe r g , 1 8 2 7 in
f olio 1 8 pl A na t omis che Un te r s u ch u ng en u e be r die Ve r bind u ng
d er S a u ga d e r n mit d e n Ve n en, H e id e l ber g , 1 82 1 , ih
1 82 7
—
.
,
.
,
F ol , H e r ma n n
wit h Cl ap a r é d e ,
H a ecke l
a nd
I s l an d s
.
He
.
.
A F r e nc h
a nd on
He
acco
h is
i
l
z oo o
g st ,
adv i
ce
w e nt t o
mp anie d t h e l a t t e r
1 845- 1 89 5
.
J ena
S t u die d in G
t o st u dy w it h
on
on a n e x c u r s i
t oo k h is d egr ee in B e r lin in 1 86 9
.
I
n 1 8 76
G
e ge n b au r
to t h e
h e w as
e nf
C anar y
c al l e d
to
H e f ou nd e d , in 1 8 84, th e
p r o f e sso r o f c o mp a r at iv e e mb r y olo gy
on
an d i
n th e s ame y e ar b e g an t h e p u b lic at i
R e c ue il Z oologiqu e S u is s e
“
L e hr buc h d er v er ge lic h e nd e mikr os kopis c he A na t omie mit E in
o f hi
s
G
en f a s
.
,
In
H is tol ogie u nd H is tog enie
V ill a f r a nc a a s a s so c iat e d ir ec t or o f t h e z ool og ical s t at ion
B iog r aphy ; An a tomis che r A nz eig er B d 1 0 pp
1 89 5
l
s c h us s e
to
v er g l e i
ch end en
d er
.
Fol w e nt
.
.
,
.
,
1
43
-
1
44,
.
A V e n e t ian a n at o mis t , 1 6 1 5
C e c il e ( C e c il io )
w as e du ca t e d a t P a du a a n d sho r t l y a f t e r his r et u r n t o V e nic e
c h h e h el d unt i
r o f a nat omy w h i
l
v e n a c h ai
er , and g i
c h ev a li
( F oliu s )
F ol li
1 6 50
.
He
wa s ma d e
'
h is deat h
.
,
.
S a ng uinis a
N ov a a ur is in t er nae d elin ea tio, Venic e 1 6 45
de x tr a in s inis tr u m cor dis ven tr icu lu m d eflu e n tis facilis r e per ta
ma d
s in l a c te as nuper pa t ef ac tas v e nas a ni
vi
c u i n on v u lg ar i
c
°
h 4
D is c or s o a na t omic'o n el
1 6 9, i
r ae ponit u r , Venic e
v er s io
3
p
’
e s opr a l a g en er az ion e e l us o
qu a le s i c on tie ne u na nu ova opinion
°
d el la pingu e dine Ve nice , 1 6 44, in 4
M us cu lus aur is e x te r nus P r oces sus ant mallei
.
,
—
,
.
.
.
( F e l ix ) A n I t a lian an a t o mis t bo r n n e ar T y r o l
P ro f e s s or o f p h ilosop hy U niv e r s ity o f Pisa ; d ir e c to r nat u r al
F o nt a na , F e l ic e
1 73 0- 1 805
.
,
.
,
,
A N A T OM I CA L N A M E S
50
G
ae r t n e r
G
afi
S ee G
.
w h o p u blis h e d
a
a g li
a r d i,
G
wo r k
A n A r a b ia n
.
A D
.
al en
(G
D o min iq u e
a na t o
A p r o fe s s o r
1 7 t h ce nt u r y
.
mis t
th e h ea d
.
t h e 1 2 t h c e nt u r y
of
a n d ey e
.
m e d ic in e in t h e C o l leg e d e
of
.
inv e n tis ill u s tr a ta R ome,
no v is
,
) C l a u d iu s
alenu s
Th e mo s t
.
a na t om y o f
th e
on
l a S ap ience , at R o m e in t h e
A na t ome os s iu m
G
H e r m an n T r e s c ho w
ar t n e r ,
M u h a m me d e l
ki,
.
,
A G
.
c e le b r a t e d o f a ll
1
,
t he
r ae c o
Ro m a n
-
—
a nci
e nt a n a t o
689 in
mis t 1 3 0 200
H e w as bo r n at
ana t o
m ist s
.
,
—
,
P er g am us, in M y sia a n a nc ient p r o v ince o f A s ia M in o r
Ab ou t h is t we n
t ie t h y e a r h e w e n t t o S my r n a t o s t u d y u nd er t h e a na t o m ist an d ph y s ic ian
P e lop s a n d t h e p h ilo s op h e r Alb inu s
H e w e nt t o Rom e in 1 64, wh e r e
h e b ega n h is c ar e e r a s a p h y s icia n ; l e a v ing t his c it y a f t e r f o u r y e a r s t o
,
.
,
.
be c om e p h y s ic ia n t o M a r c u s A u r e liu s in V e nic e
H e r e t u r ne d t o R o m e
in 1 70 A D , w h e r e ma ny o f h is imp or t a nt t r e a t is e s w e r e w r it t e n
H e is
.
.
th e
so
.
.
r epu t e d a u t
me
of
these
h or
ar e sp u r i
o us
b o dy b ut t h a t m o st
of
h is
f r o m h is
.
I t is
s ai
d
se p a r a t e
th at G
ons
ob s e r v a t i
th at
con c ede d
is , h o w e v e r ,
o r g ans
mo r e t h a n 500
of
a l e n ne v e r
we r e ma d e
o pp o r t u n i
t ie s
h is
wo r k s , b u t it
on
fo r
s ee
d iss e c t e d
g l a d ia t o r s w e r e n ot
o f t h e b o d y a r e m ar v el o u s
a
of
t h at
h u man
l o w er m amma l s
ob s e r v a t i
ons
a tt e nd a nc e o n
ms
.
It
liv ing
H is d is
c on s i
d e r ing th e t ime
n egl e c t e d
.
m a n y sy s t e m s
H is work is t o b e lo oke d u p on a s th e r ep osit o r y o f
a t w hic h h e w r ot e
s da y a nd w h ile it is d iffi c u l t if n ot im
al l a na t o m ical k no wl e dge o f h i
e u ss ion s o f
.
,
,
’
p o s s ib l e , t o s e l e c t th o se p a r t s w hic h a r e d is t in c t ly G al e n s o w n , his w or ks
t ing a n d d ige s t ing o f all h e f o u nd , e it h e r in th e lit e r a
s h o w a ca r e f u l e d i
t u r e o r in d issect ing
Th e wo r k
.
of
G
ale n
h a s be e n wid e ly
a nd
vo l u
mi
d isc u s s e d f o r t h e p a s t 1 800 y e a r s an d th e lit e r at u r e o n h is l if e a nd
H is w r it ing s a r e d iscu s s e d in N ( 9 P b y R ob e r t
w r it ing s is e no r mo u s
F uch s B d I p 3 79 ff ; h is s t ic t ly a na t omica l co n t r ib u t io ns ar e b r ie fl y d is
n o u s ly
.
.
.
,
cu sse d
,
.
.
p 803 ; a n a cc o u nt o f his l if e a nd w or k s
w o r k s o f G al e n w e r e th e u l t im a t e s ou r c e o f
b y T ur ne r , E ncy B r it
.
is giv e n in B io M e d
autho r i
t y in a na t omy ,
.
Th e
.
I
,
w el l
as
Mid dle Age s
,
.
a s ot
h e r med ic al
su b e ct s ,
j
t h r ou g h o u t t h e
H is w r it ings o r igin ally in G r e ek h av e b e e n
T h e co m
t e d r e v ise d a nd p r in t e d m any t ime s in m any l a nguages
e di
p l et e lit e r at u r e o n G al e n w ill f or m a lib r a r y in it se l f
P ar e nce pha l on
G land u l a inn o mina t a
C or pus
ps all oid es
( C er e br u m) P r oc ess u s be lonoid eu s ( s agit talis ) Omopla ta ( S c ap
Vena magna
Ve n tr icu l u s la r yngis
R a mus a nas t omo ticus
u l a)
wh o l e
th e
of
,
.
,
.
,
.
.
.
‘
.
.
G
a ll ,
fo under
F r anz
of
.
.
.
J os e p h
p h r e no logy
,
.
A G
1 758
—
e r m an
1 8 28
.
a nat o
.
mis t p h y s io l o g is t
.
H e w as b or n
at
and
T ie f e nb r u nn
t he
ne a r
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
P fo r z h eim, B a de n ;
r ece i
v ed
h is d eg r e e
V ienna wh e r e h e
at
p r a c t ic e and b eg a n his l e c t u r e s o n p h r e no lo gy
w h e r e h e sp e nt t h e n e x t t went y y ear s , sa v e f o r
I
.
e l sew
h er e
l e ct u r e t o u r s
on
2 51
.
st a r t e d
h is
h e w ent t o P ar is
n 1 807
o ns
ex cu r s i
t o Lo n do n and
.
S ur l es f u n c tions d u cer ve au e t s ur c ell es d e cha cu ne d e s es
par ties av e c d es o bs er v a tions s u r l e pos s ibilite d e r e conn aitr e les
ins tinc ts l es pe nc ho ns l e s t a l eu s ou l e s dis pos itions m or a l e s e t
in t e l l e c tu e ll es d e s h ommes e t d es a nim a ux par l a config u r a tion d e
l eur cer v e au e t d e l e u r t et e P a r is, 1 8 22 iii
’
,
,
,
,
G
G
F r a n c is
al t o n ,
r a n d so n o f
f o r h is
a n ce st r al
A d is t in g u is h e d E ng l is h s t a t is t ic ia n 1 8 2 2 1 9 1 1
D a r win an d t h e c ou s in o f Ch a r l e s
W ell kno wn
—
.
in
.
h e r e d ity b y
in h e r it a n c e is
H is wo r k is b eing
.
,
E r asm u s
r e s e ar c h es
,
t h e s t at ist ic al
t h e w e l l k no w n id ea s
o ne o f
b y K a r l P ear so n
ed on
ca r r i
m e t h od
G
.
’
alto n s
m o de r n
of
of
sc i
enc e
.
.
N a tu r al I n h er it an ce 1 889
D el t a of
a w e l l mar ke d tr i
a ng l e in a fi ng er pr i
nt
B iogr a ph y : M e m or ies of my Lif e by F r a nc is G a l t on
Yor k, 1 9 09 in
w it h l is t of 1 83 title s a nd por tr aits
,
law
.
-
.
,
,
N ew
.
.
m in e n t I t a l ia n p h y s io l o g is t 1 7 3 7 1 798
In
1 76 2 h e w a s ap p o in t e d pu b l ic l ec t u r e r o n a n at omy in B ol ogn a
H e in
He
v e st i
g at ed t h e o r gan s o f h e a r ing a nd t h e g e nit o u r ina r y t r a c t o f b ir d s
is w e ll k no w n f o r h is c e l e b r a t e d t h e o r y o f a n im a l e l e c t r ic it y A c omp l e t e
q uar t o e d it io n o f h is w o r k s w a s p u bl is h e d in 1 84 1 2 b y t h e A c ad e my o f
G
Lu ig i
a l va ni,
An
.
e
-
.
,
.
-
.
.
—
S c ie nc e
G
the
of
I n s t it u t e
ar e n g e o t ,
Re né
of
B o l og n a
.
de,
J a c q u e s ‘C r o is s a n t
-
—
w as
b or n
V it r é
at
H e s t u d ie d m e d icine w it h Win sl ow M é r y
B r e t agn e F r a nc e , 1 68 8 1 7 59
H e b e c ame a no t e d s u r g e o n o f his d ay an d h a s w r it t e n a :
a n d T h ib a u t
S pla n c h nol og ie ou Tr ait é d an a t omie c o n ce r n a n t l es vis cé r es
P ar is 1 72 8, in
—
.
,
,
.
’
,
,
,
G
1 79 0
—
ar t n er ,
18 3 4
B e nj a m in
at
S t T homas
.
an d at
C op e n h a g e n
,
mis t
,
.
D u c tu s
G
Ph y s ic ia n
.
a r t ne r
(G
e
pooph or u l ong it u d in a l is
ae r t n e r
) H e r mann
,
.
T r e s c h ow
.
A D a n is h
anat o
1 78 5 1 82 7
—
G
as k e l l ,
f o r h is
W al t e r
r e s ea r c
hes
N a pl e s , N ov emb er
Lu d w ig in Liep z ig,
H o l b r oo k
in t h e
I st ,
1
1 874
fi eld
of
An
E ng l is h
v er t eb r at e
p h y s io l o g is t , k n o w n
p h y l og e n e sis , w a s b or n at
D ie d S e p t emb e r 7 t h
Pr o f e ssor o f p h y s io logy
847
.
.
.
,
1914
at
.
t he
S t u d ie d wit h
Univ e r sity o f
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
2 52
C amb r idg e ,
th e
1 888
H is m o r p h ol ogic al
1914
—
.
c r ani
a l a nd s p i
n a l ne r v e s
ori
g in o f t h e n e r v ou s s y s t e m
t h eo r y
of
u r e a nd
of
t h e o r ig in o f
f u nc t ion
A r t h r op o d s
of
c on s i
der
v e r t e b r a t e s, a n d
v e r t eb r a t e s ,
bas e d
d iff er e nt p a r t s
th e
s tu di
es on
h a d l e d him t o
in
.
homolog ie s
th e p r obl e m
of
of
the
this ag ain l e d h im t o t h e
m ilar it y in
t h e clo se
on
t he
si
o f t h e v er t e b r at e
st r u c t
b r a in w it h t h ose
.
Th e Or ig in of Ve r te br a tes, L ond on, 1 9 08, ih
B iog r a phy : Wal t e r H ol br o ok G as k e ll, in
P r oc R oy S o c
L o n d on, s B , v ol 8 8 , n o 3 6 06, pp x x vii- x x x vi, 1 9 1 5; s e e als o
H e ar t, L on d on, 1 9 1 4 1 9 1 5, v i, 1 por t
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
—
.
G
L a u r e n t iu s
J o h a nn
a s se r ,
P ir m in iu s )
( A c h il l e
A
.
G
er
man
p hy s ic ia n w h o a t t a ine d m u c h f am e a s a m e dic a l c on su l t ant , 1 505 1 577
P r o f e s so r o f a n a t o my in V ie nn a
T he G a s s e r ian g angl io n w a s d e sc r ib e d
b y a s t u d e n t o f h is
—
,
.
.
.
a ng l i
on s e mi
l u n ar e
G
I
1 849 ,
n
w he n
me mb e r
a
of
A lb e r t
au d r y ,
G
of
.
A F r e nch
.
v e r t e b r at e
in t h e M useu m
e ng ag ed
p a l eo n t o l o g is t ,
the
int e r e s t s in h uman p al e o nt ology b e ga n in 1 8 59 an d u p to
lish e d 1 5 e s s ay s d ealing w ith v a r io u s asp e ct s o f t h e a ncie nt
He was
a
m a n w ith
e a r ly a tt r a c t e d
th e
’
p h ilo s op hic t r e n d
n
a tt e n t ion o f D a r w i
a
r ea d
g e ol ogiques
phil os ophiqu e
.
t olo gic al
,
f a ct s
mind
of
I
a nd
n 1 8 72
M o nd e
E n ch a in e m ent d u
wo r k
”
’
in
a nd
.
his
B u ll e t in
G
.
”
au d r y s
’
h e p ub
1 9 07
h u m an
r ac e s
.
c on t r i
b u t io ns
be c ame p r o
1 8 78 app e ar e d wh at is p er h ap s h i
s m ost
.
f e sso r in t h e mu s eu m
w ide l y
—
N at u r al H isto r y ; h e b e cam e
of
S o cié t é G é o log iqu e d e F r a nce
t o th e
c on t r i
b ut e d m a ny o f h is p a l e o nt ol og ic a l p ap e r s
w h ich h e
1 908
1 8 27
G
au d r y
a nima l
d a ns l es t e mps
“Es s ai d e
S o me ye ar s l at er app e ar e d his
P a l e ont o l ogie
wh ic h is o n e o f th e mos t u se f u l p r e se nt at ion s o f p al e on
mpo r t anc e
o f e v ol u t i
o na r y i
G a u d r y wa s an e ar n est
’
.
p r o du c e d so m e 2 1 8 c ont r ib ut ion s t o p al eo nt ol og ic a l a n d g eo
log ic al l it e r a tu r e , o i wh ich mor e t h an h alf de al t w it h v e r t eb r at e p al eon
w or k e r
t ology
a nd
.
Biog r aphy : A lber t G au dr y, N o tic e n e cr ol og iqu e, in B ul l d e l a
S ocie t e G é ol og iqu e d e F r a nce, 4 s er ie, t X, pag e 3 51 , ann é e 1 9 1 0,
with por tr ait and lis t of es says
’
.
’
'
’
.
.
An
D A g ot y , J a cq u e s
H e is
e nd o f t h e 1 8t h c e n t u r y
a u t ie r
G
th e
pl at e s
’
.
.
.
ar ti
st
c
w h o l ive d in P a r is t o w a r d
hie fl y
know n fo r his
mic al
a na t o
H e d ie d in Par is at an adv anc e d ag e, in 1 785
Ess ai d an a tomie e n t a bl e aux impr imes P ar is 1 745 in fol
My ologie c omplet e ou D es c r iption d e t ous l es mus cles du c or ps
A na t omie com
Te x t by D u v er ney
humain P ar is 1 746 in f ol io
s , 1 748 i
n folio
d
e l a t é te e t d e t ou tes l es par tes d u c er v e au P ar i
e
t
e
i
p
.
,
’
’
,
,
,
,
.
,
,
,
,
.
.
,
,
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
2 54
G
t ow a r d t h e
at so m e
to
B e r n a r d in o
e ng a ,
e nd o f
id e a
.
An
I t a lia n
t h e 1 7 th cen t u r y
m is t
H e w as
.
t h e c ir cu l at ion o f t h e
of
ana to
.
b l oo d ,
an d s u r g e o n
in R o m e
fir st
t o a r r iv e
one o f
th e
an d a t t r i
b ut e d
t h e d is cov e r y
Pau l S a r p i
.
A na t o mia c hir u r g ic a s iv e, is t or ia an a t omica d e ll os s i e m e s coli
d e l c o r po u man o c ol la d e s cr iz ione d e v a s i R om e 1 6 7 2 in
A na t o mia per u s o e d in t e llig e nz a d e l d is ig n o r e ce r ca ta n o n s ol o
s u g l i os s i e mos co l i d e l c or po u man o me di
s mos tr a t a a n co r a s u ll e
s t a t u e a n tic h e piu ins ig ni, R ome 1 6 1
9 , ih f ol
’
,
’
‘
,
,
,
,
-
,
,
-
.
,
e nn a r i,
G
F r a n c e s co
.
An
D e pe cu liar is tr u c tu r a
1
78 2
,
( 1 6 72
Bor n
all o f
,
w h ic h
.
G
of
72 5 1 8 1 0
.
H o nn e u r
f am il ia r
C u v ie r
He
ban d
Vic q d A zy r
’
-
’
s
,
.
’
1 8 44
1 7 72
—
of
,
d e l h omm e , d e s
1 778, in
ou ie
S a in t - H il a ir e , Et ie nn e , w as
na t u r a list s ,
.
’
mo s t
on e o f t h e
He was
a
me mb e r
of
re
ptil es
et
ce l e b r a t e d
t h e Lé g io n d
’
-
p r o f e s so r o f z oo l ogy a t t h e J a r d in d u R oi, wh e r e h e b e c am e
wit h t h e m amma l s a n d b ir d s
H e b e c am e a g r eat f r ie nd o f
,
.
and
an d
,
.
,
e o ff r e y ,
s
S on
—
D is s e r ta tion s ur l or ga ne d e l
poiss ons A ms t er d a m e t P ar is ,
F r e n ch
e us
Et ie nn e F r a n co is
in P a r is A s t u d e n t o f z o o l o g y a n a t o m y
h e a t t ained so me su cc e ss
1
’
d es
.
.
—
m e dic ine in
an d
c e nt u r y
m or bis F or u m,
j
qu e
e nn ar i
Et ie n n e L o u is
e o ff r e y ,
e o ff r oy
por tion of B aillar g er
’
o u ter
.
G
c er e br in onn u l li
s
t h e 1 8th
.
B a n d of
b an d
S tr ia G
G
aa n t o m is t o f
I t a lia n
t h e y w r o t e imp or t an t
t oge t h e r
C u v ie r
'
s u b s e q u en t l y
s y nt h e t ic a s op p ose d
o f e v ol ut ion a r y
f ac t s
t o the
b e c am e
m e mo ir s in
o pp o ne n t s
me t h o d
an a t l yt i
c
in
a
na t u r al
d is c u ss ion
h is t or y
of
.
th e
ng a t a conc ept i
vi
o f ar r i
on
.
Phil os ophie
ana t omiqu e,
P ar is ,
1
8 1 8, in 8
-
°
A F r e n c h z o ol og ist , s o n o f t h e
G eo ff r e y S a int -H il a ir e , I s id or e
H e t a ugh t z o ology an d t e r at ology a t Par is ; su c
p r ece ding , 1 8 05 6 1
n de s Pl a nt es ;
s t o r y in t h e J a r di
s f at h e r a s p r o f e s s or o f n at u r al h i
c e e de d h i
.
—
.
in sp ec t o r ge ne r al o f th e u niv e r sity ; in 1 8 50
f ess or o f z ool ogy at t h e f acul t y o f sc ie nc e s
s u cc e sso r
t o B lainv ill e
as
pr o
.
H is t oir e g ene r al e e t par tic u lier e d es
ma u x 3 v ols
c hez l h omme e t l es ani
’
tion
’
’
’
,
.
,
a no
ma lies d e l
1 83 2
—
3 7 8vo
,
’
or g ani
za
.
A n a n a t o mis t o f t h e 1 5t h c e n
G ab r ie l e ( Z e r h i Z e r b us )
t ur y c o nt e mp o r a r y o f Ach illini a n d B e r e nga r io d a Ca r p i P r o f e sso r o f
medicine in Padua, 1 473 77 ; o f log ic and p h ilosoph y to 1 483 He dis
G
e r b i,
,
.
.
,
—
.
A N A T O M I CA L N AME S
c ov e r e d
sto
m ac h
2 55
.
th e p u nc t a l a c r im al is ; d e sc r ib e d in d e t a il t h e
,
and
He d ie d in
w r ot e
e x c e ll e n t
d e s c r ip t ion s
of
mu sc l e fi b r e s
t h e b l oo d
v e s s e l s a nd
of
the
m u scl e s
.
1 505
.
A n a t omice cor por is h u mani e t s ing u l'o r u m illins m e mb r a n or u m
libe r Ve n ice 1 502, in f ol
A n a t omia inf a n tis e t po r ci ex t r a ditio n e
C oph on is M a r bou r g 1 53 7 iii
,
,
.
,
G
e r dy ,
,
P ie r r e N ic o l as
,
P a r is ia n
-
.
su r ge on ,
1
79 7
—
1 8 56
.
A a t om ie d es f or me s e x t ér ie u r es P ar is , 1 8 2 9
n
F ibr e s
F o n ta n e ll e
H y oid f os s a l n ter a u r ic u la r l oop Lig
a me n t u m s us pe ns
ax i
ll ce
Tu be r cu l u m
Tr ig on u m ca r o tic u m
,
.
.
.
.
G
1 81 1
a nd
e r l ac h ,
1 8 77
—
B e r l in
e r l ac h ,
o f a n a t om y
1
c es s
he
e r l ac
t io n
h
in H a l b e r s t a d t ,
su r g eon
n a r y sc
ve t e r i
in H a no v e r
h oo l
.
,
.
von
A G e r m a n a n a t o m is t 1 82 0 1 89 6 P r o fe s s o r
1 8 50 9 1
H e a l s o t a ugh t p a t h o l ogic a l an a t om y
—
.
in E r l a ng e n,
.
,
-
—
.
and
.
.
w as
his
of
the
.
mie d es A u g es 1 8 8 0
L ig a me n tu m a nn u la r e bu l bi
J o se p h
t is su e s , wh ic h w as
G
of
~
H e d isc ov e r e d t h e me t h od o f inj e ct
p h y sio l og y u nt il 1 8 72
bl o o d v e s s e l s wit h a mmo n iu m c a r m in e a n d g e l a t in
I n t h is p r o
acc i
de nt a lly d iscov e r e d t h e v alu e o f c ar m in e a s a d y e f or s t a ining
86 5,
ing t h e
V e t e r in a r y
.
ana t o
zur
.
in
.
d ir e c t o r
an d
.
.
B eitr a g e
Va lvu l a
G
.
A n d r e as C h r is t ia n
P r o f e s so r
.
.
o ne of
a l so o n e o f
su b e c t
j
e a r li
e s t a d v a nc e s
th e
th e
fi r st
to
h is t olog ical t e c h niq u e
p h ot om ic r og r aph s in t h e il lu s t r a
u se
in
.
.
H a nd bu c h d er A llg emein e
Tons il
N e tw or k
i
n t h e a ppe n dix
n
d
o
u
f
u nd s
pez ie ll e G
E u s t a c hian t ons il
.
.
8 48
s ome time s
e w e b e l eh r e ,
Va lv e
f
o
1
.
.
G e r ma n
A c ont e mp o r a r y o f V e sa l iu s
P liny w as b or n a t Z ur ich 1 516 1 56 5
G e sne r s cont r ib u t io n t o t h e a dv an c e m ent o f an at o m ic al s u b j e c t s w a s t h e
H istor ia A nima liu m
H is
1 551
int r od u c t ion o f g oo d illu st r at io n s
Locy sa y s o f him
o a n d 9 53 fi gu r e s
s t e d o f 4 500 p age s f ol i
1 58 7 con s i
“H e w as th e b e s t z ob l o ist b e t w e e n A r ist ot le and J oh n Ray t h e im
g
G
e s ne r ,
Co nr a d
A
.
st ,
c e l eb r a t e d n a t u r a li
k n ow n
as
the
—
.
.
,
,
’
.
.
,
,
,
med iate p r e de c e sso r
of
Linnae u s
”
.
I n 1 867 h e
A n I t a l ia n a n a t om is t , 1 840 1 898
G ia c o m in i, C a r lo
w as a ss is t ant t o R e st ellini in t h e a nat om ic a l in st it u t e at T u r in ; in 1 87 1
h e w a s in c h ar g e o f t opo gr aph ic a n a t o m y ; s u cc ee d e d D e l o r e n z i as p r o
—
.
.
f e s so r
ex t r ao r d
.
a nd
l at e r
or d
.
p r o f es so r
of
d e scr ip t iv e
h um a n
a na t o
my
,
A NA T O M I CA L N A M E S
2 56
1 88 0 1 89 8
H e is
—
c
h ie fly
.
n eu r o l o g i
c al
G
th e
mical
n u m e r ou s
of
hor
s t u dio
d ell e cir conv ol u zioni cer eibr ali,
S u l c er v ell o d i u n Cimpanz e, 1 889
88 4
B an d
B iog r aphy : A na t omis ch e r A nz e ig e r , B d
w it h bibl iog r aphy
e dition, 1
b u t ions,
c on t r i
an a t o
.
al l a
u id a
a ut
.
.
1 8 78,
2n d
.
.
1
.
5, pp
55
1
.
1
—
6 4,
1
89 8,
.
An
G ia nn u z z i
.
C e l ls
Cr es c e n ts
.
mis t l gt h
D emil u nes
I t a l ia n
a na t o
.
G
.
H as s a ll s
C or pu s cl es 0f
Tr a c tus s olit ar iu s
bu ndl e of
’
S p ain
in
m is t
1 88 6
1 8 47
—
,
pus cl es
.
R es pir a t or y
.
.
—
.
,
.
.
G im e n o , P e d r o
s t u di
ed
in P a r is
w as f o r
Lig a men tu m tr iang u lar e
.
.
.
1
y e ar s p r o f e s s or
st ap es
of
1 86 1
n
1
549 h e
m a na tomen hu ma ni c or p
o mnib me d
s
candid a ti
Va l e n
iu s
.
.
.
.
-
-
1 8 08
R e ch e r ch es
1 87 5
—
A P ar is ia n
-
.
.
a na t o
miques
sur
su r g e on of
le
cor
ps in
.
Or g an
par a didymis
f
o
G ir ar d i M ic h e l e
,
my in Pa du a
a n at o
An
.
a fte r
P r ol u s io d e
G l as e r ,
I
.
u ni
v er s a
m A l b in C a r do z o C a z a d o
P o r t ug u e s e b ir th ,
né,
n o mmi
my in V al e nc ia
.
a oc h i
G ir a l d é s ,
”
a n at o
.
J
549
,
,
D ia l og us d e r e me d
per s tr ing ens, s u mme ne ces sar
cia,
.
A S p a n is h a n a t o m is t o f t h e 1 6 t h c e n t u r y
He
Lo u v ain a nd Pavia u nd e r D u b o is B r a ch e liu s V e s a l ius ,
,
20
d es c r ib e d t h e
f e sso r
anato
.
Lig a me n t u m l a c u na r e
a nd
ma n
S p a n is h s u r g e o n in M a d r id 1 742 1 790
B a r c e l ona , S p a in
S u r g e on t o t h e K ing o f
G im b e r n a t , A n t o n io d e
a n a t o my
er
c o nc e n t r i
c cor
=
of
.
.
G ie r k e , H a n s P a u l B e r n h a r d
P r o f e sso r
c e nt u r y
,
I t a lia n
A r t er y
panicu s
,
mis t
73
in P a r m a
,
1
or i
g ine n er v i in t er c os ta l es ,
b o t a ny
A S w is s
.
at
B asel
ty mpanic
f
o
a n at o
M o r g a g ni t h e n
J o h a n n H e in r ic h
o f a n a t o my a n d
.
a n at o
1
—
1 79 7
P r o fe s s o r
.
of
.
F l or ence ,
mis t
1
1 6 29
—
,
79 1
.
1 6 75
.
Pr o
.
a r t er y
F iss u r e
.
fis s u r a pe tr oty m
f
o
.
G l is s o n , F r a n c is A n E n glis h a n a t o mis t 1 59 7 1 6 77 Pr o fe s s o r o f
T h e name o f G lis so n
dge , l a t e r p h y s ic ia n in Lo nd o n
a nat o my in C amb r i
Ca p sul e o f G l isso n in th e liv e r
is assoc ia t e d w ith t he
—
.
.
.
.
.
A na t omia he pa tis cu i pr cemitt u n t ur qu ce d a m a d r e m
s s u bji
ciu n t ur
ver s e spe c ta n tia e t a d ca l ce m ope r i
cam u ni
Lon don, 1 654, ih
de lympha e d u c tibus nu per r e per tis
Capsu la fi br os a h epa tis
,
,
.
.
mi
ana to
n onnu l la
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
2 58
.
d ic u nt u r ha u d minu s , qu a m ov ipar a,
d u c er e , L ey d e n, 1 6 72, iii
Ope r a om nia L e y d e n 1 6 77 iii
F ol lic l e
F ollicu l u s ooph or us v es cicu l osu s
D uc t u li effe r e n t es t es tis
vi
v i ar a
p
ab
,
,
,
or i
g ine
ovo
m
,
=
f
Ves s els
.
o
=
.
r a ch t ,
G
J a co b
de r
v an
A D u t c h p a in t e r
.
t h e 1 7t h c e n t u r y w h o
of
p ub l is h e d
A na t omie d e r
G r av e nh aag, 1 63 4,
f olio
h e t mens ch el ijke Lig chaa m
v an
.
.
R ic h a r d D u g a r d
A n E n g l is h a n a t o m is t 1 80 1 1 86 5
o f a n at om y a nd ph y s iology a t S t
Th om a s H o sp it a l , Lon d o n ,
T e ac h e r
—
lijke d e el en
r ai
n ge r ,
G
1 842
u ite r
—
.
.
,
.
60
.
E le m e nts of g e n e r al a n a t o my, L ond on, 1 82 9
O bs er va tions o n th e s tr u c t ur e a n d f u n c tio n of th e
L ond on 1 83 7
.
,
r at i
ol e t ,
G
a n at omy ,
Lo u is -P ie r r e
p h y sio log y
f ast ,
r a t t an,
Jo h n
1 8 00 1 87 1
pinal
c or d,
.
a nd
P a r is ia n
.
l
An
.
I r is h
a n a to
P a r is
zoo o
gy at
R a dia t o t h a la mo occipita lis
G
s
ap o t
mis t
181
,
1 8 65
5
—
T au g h t
.
.
.
and ant
h ecar y
h r o p o l o g is t in
B el
,
—
G
.
A n E ng l is h a n a t o mis t , 1 8 25 6 1
o f S u r g e o n s ; l e ct u r er o n an at om y a t S t G
H e nr y
r ay ,
Ro ya l C ol l e g e
F e ll o w
—
.
.
.
M e dical S ch ool Lo n do n
,
t he
H o s p it al
’
e o r ge s
.
A na t omy D e s cr iptiv e
,
N e h e m iah
of
a nd
A pplie d,
1
9 th
e dition , 1 9 1
3
.
T h e fo u n d e r s
A n En g l is h b o t a n is t 1 6 2 8 1 7 1 1
c a n a t omy w e r e G r e w, H oo k e , M alp i
c r os co p i
o f mi
gh i a nd S wamme r d am
G
r ew ,
—
.
.
,
.
G
1 89 0
.
bu r g ,
r u ber ,
W e n c e s l au s
Le o p o l d
.
An
a n at o
m is t in P r a g u e
1 81 4
,
P r o se ct or t o H y r t l , a t P r ag u e , 1 844 47
P r o f e s s or in S t Pet e r s
t u t e fo r
1 8 55, as s uc c e s so r t o Pir o goff a s d ir e c t o r o f t h e I n st i
—
.
.
p r act ic al
my ; 1 8 58 p r o fe s sor o f p r ac t ical anat omy
B eitr ceg e z u r a na t omie d es K eil be ins u nd S chl af e n be ins
an at o
.
,
St
.
P e t er s bu r g 1 8 59
B e o ba c h t u ng e n aus d e r me ns chlic h e n u nd v e r g l e ic h end e n
A na t omie 1 8 79 1 88 9
Ar t er ia pr of u n d a a nt e br achn ( me diana) F ov ea fascia e ilia ca e
s ph e n ope tr os u m pos te
Lig amen t u m mes e n t er ic o mes o c olicu m
r iu s
M e mbr ana o b tu r a tor ia f or
la ce r i
M us cu lu s a n cona e u s
min imu s ( e pitr och le ar is ) ;
c e r v ic o c os t oh u me r a lis
infr as ca p
min or ;
u la r i
s
mas t oid ea max il l ar is ;
me nt o hy oide u s
Os
,
.
—
,
.
.
.
'
-
—
~
,
.
.
.
-
—
'
—
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,
—
-
fi
-
.
A N AT O M I CA L N AM E S
car pi inter me diu m
Ossicu lu m
.
ca e ci r e tr os t e r n
S
.
u tur a
per nu me r ar ium car pi S a ccus
s phe no o cci
pit
( pe tr obasilar is)
su
e tr o
p
2 59
.
.
'
—
.
Vena mar g ina lis v en tr icu li s inis tr i Ve n t er bifi s s u s
Biog r aphy : A na t omisch er A nz eig er B d 5 p
.
,
G
B e r n h ar d A l o y s v o n
G e r ma n
o f P sy ch i
atr y i
n Z ur i
c h and M u ni
ch
u d d e n,
fessor
.
,
.
.
a l ie n is t ,
89 0
1
.
86
1 824
—
.
Pr o
.
.
Ex per ime n tal u nt er su c hung e n u e ber das S ch a ed elw a chs tu m
1 8 74
G anglion in t er ped u n cu l a r e
Commiss u r a infe r ior ; pos t er ior
chias ma tis ; pos t er ior me du ll ae s pinali
s
.
.
.
.
G
1 574
u e nt
I
.
n
he r
Pa r is,
G
ué r i
n,
s ur g er
ad
Jo hann
minis tr a tiones
A l p ho n s e
y in P a r is
F ol d of :
S in u s
g l and s
A Fr ench
.
t e a ch e r o f V e sa liu s and
1 52 7 ,
A na tomica e
the
A n d e r n ac h ,
von
A F r en c h
.
G
of
al en
ana t o
R on d e l e t
.
m ist ,
1 48 7
T r an s l a t o r
of
P r o fe s s o r
of
.
s u r g e o n,
1 81 6
95
—
.
.
Val v u la f os s ae nav icul ar i
s
of
D iver ticu l u m be hind G
S k ene
Valv e
’
=
.
u id i
G lan ds of
n s
u er i
fold
.
’
=
.
s
.
V id u s V idiu s ) w a s b o r n in t h e
b eginning o f t he 1 6t h c e nt u r y and d ie d in 1 569 P r o f e s sor in t h e C o ll eg e
d e F r anc e ; in P isa 1 547
H e p o s s e s s ed a gr e a t r e p u t at ion among h is
G
u id o
G
( a l so
k now n
as
,
.
.
,
mpor ar ies ;
an d
c o nt e
Vid u s
v enit,
Vid iu s
r em ar k s
D u v al
vi
d it,
Vid us
of
vicit
h im,
v al
ar r i
his
on
in Fr anc e
”
.
D e A n a t om e c or por is hu mani, libr i s ept e m Venice,
A r te r ia
F for ame n
N er v es
Canalis
1 61 1
,
.
.
G
G
u ldb e r g,
He
u s t av
Ado lp h
.
.
a n a t o m is t
A S w e d is h
.
.
an d z o o l o g i
st,
d me dic ine in C h r istiana, a n d in 1 879 w a s e l e c t e d
an a
I n 1 883 h e st u die d
n Ch r ist i
c al mu s e u m i
co n s e rva to r o f th e z o o l og i
t h Ed ua r d v an B ene de n a t
v e a n a t om y and e mb r y o logy w i
comp a r at i
Liit t ic h ; in 1 88 5 h e st u d ie d w it h H e r t w ig an d H a e ck e l ; in 1 887 a ssis t an t
t o A lb e r t v Kollike r in Wiir z bu r g ; in 1 888 p r o fe s so r o f anat omy in t h e
Th e au t h or o f nu me r o u s c ont r ib ut ion s t o
Univ e r s it y o f Ch r ist ian a
t t en in G e r man S we dish a n d F r e nch
a n at omy an d z ool ogy w r i
1
854
—
1 9 08
.
e
s tu di
.
.
.
.
,
Ue ber d as C e ntr aine r v ens ys te m d er B a r t e nw al e Chr is tia na
G r u n d tr ae k af m e nn e s ke ts ana tomi Chr is tiana 1 89 3
1 885
Etu d es s u r l a D ys s e me tr ie mor ph ol og ie e t f on c tion ell e ch ez l h omme
e t l es v er t e br es s uper ie u r e s 1 89 7
Biogr aphy : A na t omis ch er Anzeiger B d 3 2 pp 506 51 2 wit h
bibliog r aphy
,
,
,
.
.
,
’
’
’
,
.
,
.
,
—
.
,
.
A n Eng l is h a n a t omis t in C a nt e r b ur y 1 804
1 8 82
A no t e d a n a to mist and p h y s iol o gis t Hunt er ia n pr o f es so r o f c om
p a r a t iv e anat omy and ph ysio logy
G
u lliv e r ,
G
eor g e
,
.
.
.
.
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M ES
2 60
G
J ustus G
u nz ,
-
o t t fr ie d
A
.
ph y sio logy , ana t omy
a n a s t om o s is o f t h e e p i
g a st r ic
f e ssor
wit h
of
s y st e
mat ic
G
er
u t h r ie ,
G
ana t omy a nd
J a me s
dis e as e s
p at h ol o g ic a l
M u s cu l us s phin ct er
G
F e lix
uy o n ,
I
s th
-
mu s
fa br ica
my
u r e t h r ae
J e a n C as imir
—
u t er i
.
P or tia
.
54
—
,
H is w r it ing s d e al
.
.
lactis Leipzig,
,
.
1 78 5 1 8 56
On t h e
—
”
Pr o
.
H e dis cov e r e d th e
.
me mbr ane
s u r g e o n,
1
.
83 4
.
me mbr an a c e ce
P a r is ia n
1 71 4
e t s e cr e ti
one
o bt ur a t or
Lo n do n
.
a n at o
t h e nec k of t h e bl add e r ,
f
o
mis t
in Le ip z ig
a n d m am m ar
y a r t e r ie s
a n a t omy a nd
eo r g e
a na t o
a n d s u r ge r y
D is s e r ta tio d e ma mmar u m
1 73 4, iii
Lig ame nt of
par t of the
G
man
.
.
s u r g e on,
1 83 1
cer a t i
na u ter i
.
H aa s e , J o h a nn G o t t l ie b w a s b o r n a t L e ip z ig 1 7 3 9 1 80 1
I n 1 774
w a s m a d e p r o f essor ex t r ao r and in 1 78 0 p r o f e sso r o f a na t omy a n d
—
he
.
,
,
.
su r g e r y
Leip z ig
at
.
Z o otomice spe cime n, s is t e ns c ompar a tione m c lav ic u l ar u m a ni
man tiu m br u tor u m cu m h ominis , L eipzig , 1 766 , ih
C er e br i
n er v or u mqu e c or por is h u ma ni a n a t o me r e pe t ita, c u m d u a b u s ta bu lis ,
L e ip ig 1 78 1 , iii
nt es tin or u m a bs or b entibus
D
s c u ti
s et i
e v as i
z
’
l
x
i
e
b
u
s
u
l
m
h
a
t
i
h
n
n
n
s
a
n
t
i
c
e
m
e
c
i
s
e
l
v
i
u
m
a
n
c
e
a
o
t
a
t
i
o
a
o
a
s
,
,
p
q
y p
p
L eipz ig, 1 786, in f o lio
‘
,
‘
.
H a b ic o t , N ic o l a s A c r e d u l ou s p h y s ic ia n in P a r is in t h e 1 6 t h 1 7t h
c en t u r y w h o b e c am e f a mo u s f or h is s upp o se d disc ov e r y o f t h e bo ne s o f
T h e b on es w e r e t h o se o f a Pl eistoc e n e e l e ph an t and
g ian t m e n in 1 6 1 3
t h e r e app e a r e d f r om t h e p r e ss b e t w e e n 1 6 1 3 1 6 1 8 a l a r ge n u mb e r o f
-
.
,
.
,
—
p a mph l e t s d e s c r ip t iv e o f t h e
”
Rex
H is w o r k s a r e o f int e r e st
a nd
b o ok s
B ac ch u s
o si
ty
c ur i
.
H is l ett e r
.
o nly
of
th e
f r om t h e
nt o f
s t and po i
.
G iga n t os t é ol ogie ,
1 6 1 3, in
B io
o s t e ol ogy
“T h eu to
M ed
t o Louis
ou
XIII
D is c o u r s
s ur
l es
os
d
’
un
g é a n t, P ar is ,
de sc r ib ing t h e d iscov e r y is g iv e n in t h e
.
An E ng lis h a na t o m is t a n d s u r g e o n 1 53 0 1 600 H e
w r o t e th e fi r s t wor k u po n anat omy ( in 1 56 5) p ublis h ed in E ngl an d in
t h e Engl ish t ongu e as a n a pp e nd ix o f 96 p age s t o h is t r ans lat io n o f Lan
H a ll e J o h n
,
—
.
.
,
,
f r an c
’
s
Ch ir ur g ia Pa r v a
.
B iog r aphy : J ohn H alle, Ana tomis te , Chir ur gien, Mo de r nis t
B os t on M e d and S u r g J our n , v ol 1 72, pp 575 579, with figs ,
.
.
1 91 5
.
.
.
—
.
.
.
A NA T O M I CA L N A M E S
2 62
H a n n ov e r , A d o l p h
A D a n is h
.
a nat o
.
mis t in C o p e n h a g e n
1
,
81 4
S t u d e nt o f J o h a nn e s M u elle r , in B e r lin
Wo r k ed in C op e nh age n
n mi
c r o s c op ica l a n a t omy , 1 840 53
as pr i
v a t d oc e n t i
I n 1 8 56 h e r e c e iv e d
t h e M o n t h y o n P r iz e f o r h is inv e st iga t ion s in t o t h e a n a t o my an d p h y s i
1 89 4
.
.
—
.
o l o gy o f
ol ogy
th e
eye
K now n
.
al s o
f o r his
st u di
es
h e lm inth
a nd
in p at ho l ogy
.
De
mu s cu lis n er vis a ur is e x
n er v i f a cia lis C ope n h ag en 1 83 9
til ag inibus ,
car
n er v i v ag i e t
,
,
t er na a t qu e d e n e x
u
.
,
H a r d e r J o h a nn J a c o b
A S w is s a n a t o m is t b o r n a t B a s e l , 1 6 56
1 71 1
H e s t u d ie d m e d ic ine in B ase l Lyon G e ne v a an d P a r is
I n 1 6 78
p r o f e s s o r o f r h e t o r ic 1 686 p r o f e s so r ph y s ic s 1 68 7 p r o f e s so r o f an a t o my
,
.
,
.
,
,
an d
b o t a ny
K nown fo r
mo r e
a ls o
as
o f t en
,
.
,
,
703 p r o f e s s o r o f t h e t h e or y o f m e dic in e in B ase l
h is w o r k o n t h e g l an d wh ic h som e t im e s o c c u r s in m a n a n d
in b ir d s a n d m a mm a l s in t h e inn er ca nt h u s o f t h e e y e
He
in
an d
1
.
.
d e s c r ib e d t h e
in t h e d u r a m at e r w h ic h
j
ob e c t s
t h e Pa c c hio n a n b o die s
a r e c ommonly
k no w n
.
D e ce r e br i h u ma ni s tr u c t u r a n a tu r a li, B a s e l 1 7 1 0, iii 4
A pia r iu m o bs er v a tion ibu s me dicis c e n t u m ac phy s icis ex per i
men tis r ef e r t u m, B as el 1 68 7
G l a n d u l a H ar d e r i
-
°
,
~
.
,
.
H a r t e n k e il
J e a n-J a c q u e s
,
w it h S ieb ol d
studi
ed
M é d ico chir u r gic a l e
-
,
a nd
B or n
.
D e s a ul t
'
w h ic h
.
I
n
M ay e nc e
at
he
1 79 0
,
1
e st ab li
sh e d
ty
e n oy e d c o ns id e r ab l e c e e b r i
j
76 1
l
1 8 08
—
the G
a z e tt e
.
B e r n ha r d S igf r id A l bini his t or ia mus cu l o r u m h ominis ;
no tis qu e il l u s tr av it B ambe r g and Wilr z bur g , 1 78 4
,
He
.
e didit,
.
,
mis t 1 83 1 1 893
H and bu ch d er An a t omie d es M e ns ch e n S tr as s bu r g 1 88 1
A na t omic d es me ns ch lic hen K opf es S tr ass bu r g 1 888
P o u c h of
pe lvis of g a ll bl a d d e r
B iog r aphy : A n a t omisc h er A nz e iger B d 8 p 543 1 89 3
H a r t m a n n , Ro b e r t
.
G
er
m an
a nat o
—
.
,
,
,
.
,
,
.
.
,
H ar t s oe k e r
,
N ico l as
.
A
c e l eb r a t e d
.
,
p h y s ic ia n ,
.
.
,
p h y s ic is t ,
an d
mic r og r ap h e r o f G ou d a H oll an d w as b o r n M ar ch 26th ( 1 6 56
H e w a s p r o f e s s or o f m a t h e mat ics and ph iloso ph y in Amst er d am at th e
m e t h at H u ygh e n s w a s in Le y d en H a r t s oeke r is th e au th or o f
sa me t i
d som e mic r oscopic al wo r k
c s a nd d i
opt r i
s e v e r al imp o r t ant p ap er s o n d i
He imp r ov e d t h e mic r oscop e in som e par tic ular s ; d is cov e r e d t h e sper ma
n
l ike fi gur e s o f th e spe r ms
h
m
a
n
k
s
e
e
oe
n
r
i
t
i
i
z
e
d
L
e
u
w
z
d
c
c
t o oa a
,
,
,
,
.
.
’
.
W il l iam
Th e discov e r e r of t h e c ir c u l a t io n o f t h e b l o o d ;
English e mb r yol ogist , b o r n at Folk e st one , o n t h e sout h coast o f E ng
l a nd, 1 578 1 66 7 S t u died anat omy and phy siology at P a du a wit h Fab r i
H a r ve y
—
,
.
.
A N A T O M I CA L N AM E S
ci
us
A qu ap e nd e nt e , w h o
ab
2 63
.
t h a t t ime
wa s p e r fect ing h is kno wl e d ge
o f t h e v a lv e s o f t h e
H e w a s g r a nt e d a n M D by C amb r idg e
ve in s
U n iv e r s ity in 1 602
H e b e c am e p r o f e s so r o f a n a t omy a n d p h y s iol ogy
a t t h e R o y a l C o l l eg e in 1 6 1 5, w h e r e h e c o n t i
nu e d his s t u d ie s o n t h e ac t i
on
at
.
.
.
.
,
he a r t and b lood ve ss els ; w a s p hy s ician t o J am e s 1 and Ch ar l e s
I K ing C h ar l es p lac e d th e d eer in t h e r oyal par ks at H ar vey s d is
W h en h e w as 68 h e r e signe d all his ap p ointment s and p r ac t ic e
p osa l
a n d d e v ot e d h i
m se lf t o t h e s t u d y o f ge n e r a t ion
H e d e m on s t r at e d h is
of
the
’
.
.
.
ide a s
of
th e
v e r t eb r ate s,
i
c r cu lat i
on o f
w e ll
as
in t h e
as
in ma ny f or m s
t h e b loo d
ck
ch i
e
mb r y o
of
inv e r t eb r at e s
B e s id e s h is wo r k
.
an d
t he
on
my h av ing inv e st iga t e d t h e
x t
H e s t u d ie d t h e e m b r y ol ogy
s t r u c tu r e o f so me s i
y sp e c ie s o f a nimal s
H e d e sc r ibe d
o f ins e c t s a s w e l l as v e r t e b r a t e s t h e c hic k a nd t h e d ee r
H is e mb r y ol ogical o b s er v a t ion s a r e cont a in e d in h is
t h e b l as to d is c
”
Lo n do n 1 6 51
G e ne r at io ne A nim al iu m
E x e r cita tio a na t omic a d e motu cor dis e t s ang u inis in a n ima li
R epr in t e d wit h comm en ta tions in
bus F r a n cfor t 1 6 2 8 in
1 67 1 ;
1 63 9 1 6 43 1 6 45 1 6 47 1 66 1
Ex e r cita tion es d e g ene r a tione animal iu m q u ibu s a cce d u n t
e m br a ni
s ac h u mo r ibus
d
e c on ce ptia n e
r
t
u
d
m
m
d
o
e
u
c
e
d
a
e
p
q
S ev e r a l times r e pr in t e d
L ond on 1 6 51 in
B iog r a phy : H oll er B ibliot h ec a an a t o mic a T om e 2 p 3 63 ;
‘
r
s
l
L
ocy B io l ogy a nd its M a k er s ;
o
o
n
t
M
m
i
V
e
H ux l ey S cie ifi c
4;
C ar us G es chic h t e d e r Z o ol og ie p 3 8 1 ; B io M e d ; En cy B r it ;
“
<
5
P ; B r oo ks B u ll J ohns H opkins H os p v o l 8
a
N
G ar ; H e ;
1 89 7 ; Li
f e of H ar v ey by D A r cy P ow er ; Willis H ar ve y s w or ks
in S y d en ha m S ocie ty ; A u br e y L e tt er s of e mine n t P e r s ons L on d on
”
“
1 8 79 ; R ic h
R 0” of t h e Colleg e of P hys icians
n
1 8 1 3 ; M unk i
sc i
ar ds on D i
ples of E s cu lapius v ol 1 pp 1 3 1 9 1 9 01
h e d id m u c h in
c ir c u l a t io n
v e a na t o
c om p a r at i
,
.
.
,
,
-
.
,
,
,
,
,
,
.
,
,
,
,
,
.
,
,
,
,
,
-
-
-
.
,
-
.
.
.
.
.
,
.
.
,
,
.
.
.
.
,
’
,
.
,
’
-
,
,
,
,
,
—
.
,
,
.
,
.
,
H ar w o o d B u s ic k A n En g lis h p h y s ic ia n a n d t e ac h e r o f a n a t o my
P r o f e sso r o f an a t omy a t t h e U n iv e r sity o f C am
b o r n a t N e w ma r k e t
.
,
,
.
b r idg e,
t h e C ol l e g e
1 7 8 5 ; ch anc ell o r o f
A S ys t e m
n
1 79 6 i
f
o
mpar a tiv e
co
D o w ning in
of
ana t omy a nd
1
806
.
phys iol ogy Ca mbr idg e
,
,
,
J o s e p h ( R it t er v o n A r t h a ) B o h e m ia n
n P r agu e
o f O p h t h al mol ogy i
F ol d or Valv e of
plica l a cr ima lis
H as n e r
P r o f es so r
,
,
1819
—
92
.
.
=
H a s sa ll , A r t h ur H ill
1 8 1 7- 1 894
o culi
st ,
.
A n E n g lis h p h y s ic ia n b o r n in T e dd in g t o n
,
.
,
.
Th e micr oscopic ana tomy of t h e h u man 'bo dy in h e a l t h a nd
T h is w a s t h e fi r st Eng lish b oo k o n
d is e as e L on d on, 1 8 46 2 v ols
micr osco p ic a na t omy
C on c entr ic c or pu s cl es of = in t h e medu lla of th e f ollic l es of
t he t hymus
,
,
.
.
.
A NA T O M I CA L N A M E S
2 64
H a v e r s , Cl o p t o n
.
A n E n g l is h p h y s ic ia n k no w n fo r h is r e s e a r c h e s
o n b o n e , 1 6 50 1 702
H e d esc r ib e d th e so -c all e d s ynov ial gl and s and p r o
p o se d a t h e or y o f d ig est ion
.
—
.
.
Os te ol ogia
n ova, or s ome new obs er v a tions o
to t h e m
pa r ts b e l onging
t he
C a n als
G l an d s
.
H a w o r t h , S am u e l
t h e au th or
.
and
L ond on 1 69 1 , in
La m el lae
S pace s
S ys t e m
.
.
,
.
.
.
An Eng lis h p h y s icia n
‘
the b ones,
f
of
t h e 1 7t h
c e nt u r y
is
of
A n t hr apol ogia ;
or
a
phil os ophical d is cour s e
concer ning
man
,
H e b e n s t r e it J e a n Er n s t
A G e r m a n p h y s ic ia n a n a t o m is t n a t u
r al i
s t an d t r a v e ll e r
b or n a t N eu st ad t , 1 703 1 7 57
P r o f e ss or o f an a
t omy a nd s u r g e r y, 1 73 7 ; o f p at ho l ogy
1 746 ; o f m e d ic i
ne ,
n
1 748 i
th e Univ e r s it y o f Le ip z ig
H e is th e au th or o f nu me r ou s disser t at ion s
a mong w h i
c h m ay b e m e n t i
on e d
,
.
,
,
—
,
.
,
.
Dis s er ta tio d e a r t e r iar u m c or por is hu ma ni c anfi nu s , Leipzig
1 73 9, in
P r og r amma d e v ag inis v as or u m, L eipzig , 1 740, in
Pr a
P r og r amma d e vas is s ang uinifer is o cu li, Le ipzig 1 742 ih
An t hr opal ag ia
g r amma d e m e d ia tino pos tico, L e ipzig, 1 743 , ih
f or e ns is s is tens me d ici, cir ca r e mpu blica m c au sas qu e dic end as of
fi ciu m, cum r er u m ana t omicar u m ac phys icar u m, qu ae iliu d a ttine nf,
e x pas itia nib us, L ei
pz ig, 1 751 , in
,
,
,
-
,
G e r ma n p h y s io l o g is t w a s b o r n in Ma r ie n
w e r d e r 1 8 3 4 1 89 7
S t u d ie d in K 6n ig sb e r g H a ll e B e r lin a s st u d e nt o f
P r o f e sso r o f p h y s iol ogy and h istol ogy in
Vo lk m ann D u B o is R e ymo nd
H is st u die s a r e co n t a ine d in th e
B r esl au , 1 8 59 - 1 8 97
S t u die n d e s physiol ogis ch e n I ns titu t e in B r es lau, 4 v olu mes
L eipz ig 1 8 6 1 68
in g as tr ic g l an ds ; Cr es c en ts or d e milu n es = G ia
C e l ls af
in t h e u r inif e r ou s t u bu le s
n uz z is c e lls ; R ods of
B iogr aphy : A na t A nz B d 1 4 pp 1 8 2 4 1 89 8
H e id e n h a in R u d o l f
,
,
.
—
,
.
,
,
,
-
.
,
.
,
,
—
,
.
=
’
.
—
.
.
.
,
,
.
.
,
m a n p h y s ic ia n w h o b e c a me p r o fi c ie n t in
H e w as b o r n in F r a nk fo r t
b ot a ny a nat o my a n d s u r g e r y 1 68 3 1 758
n
S t u d ie d a t Le y d e n w it h B oe r h a av e a n d A lb inu s ; a t Am st e r
a m Ma i
d am w it h R u y sc h G omme l in a nd R au P r o f e s s or o f an at omy a n d su r g er y
t y o f A lt d o r f t h en o f sur ge r y in H e lms t adt
ve r s i
a t t h e U ni
H e is t er
,
Lo r e n z
.
A G
er
—
.
,
,
-
.
.
,
.
D iss e r ta tio d e tu nica c h or oid ea, H ar d er wy k, 1 78 0 in
C ompe ndiu m a na t omicu m, ve teru m r e ce n tior u mqu e obse r va tiones
br ev issime compl e c te ns , A l td or f, 1 7 1 7, ih
Va lves of
D iv e r ticu lu m of = S in us j ug ula r is ex ter nae
i
n cys tic d uc t
l
o
d
s
f
,
‘
.
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
2 66
S ys t e ma tis c he A na t omie 3
in 6 7 7 1 79
,
’
’
v ols
.
B r a u ns c hw eig ,
.
R epr in ted
1 8 55
.
’
,
,
.
A gr e a t m a ny s t r u c t u r e s a r e a s soc iat e d w it h th e n am e o f H e nl e
A mo n g w h ich D e T e r r a ( Vad em e c u m A n a to mic u m ) m e nt io n s t h e
.
fo ll o wing
:
momax ill ar is ;
A r t er ia
v es tibu la r i
A nsa
s
s a ph e na ma g na
c ol la t s uper ior ;
B acil li a cu s tici C an alis cr u
v o mer o b as il ar is
r a l is ;
C e r v ix
Ca v u m or is
( phar yng e us )
s u b th a l a mi
C or pu s r e s tif or m e ;
pe d u n c u l or u m C or p
C r is t a in cis iv a
Fibr a e a ns a tae
cu m
F iss ur a o ccipit a lis pe r pe nd
F oss a s u bing u inalis
H ia tus
G lan d u l a e
( par ie to occipita lis )
I n cis u r a f a lcif or mis ;
max ill ar is
ilia ca ;
pa l a t ina ( s ph e n o
La m ina o r bit a lis
L iga me n t u m a cce s s o r iu m ; a c cess
pala tinu m)
m e dia l e ;
a cc l a t r a dia l e e t u ln ar e ;
ar c u a tu m ca r pi;
c api
t u li r a dia t u m ( ca pit c os t w r ad )
c apit u l or u m vol ar i
a;
car pi
d or s pr of
c ol li c os t ce ;
cor ac a cl av icu l ar e a n t ;
e as t ov er
ing u in a l e in t er nu m ;
t e br a l e r a d ;
in t e r m e t aca r pe a ;
in t e r
m e ta ta r s e a oss e a ;
pa t ell ae;
plica s ynov ia lis pa t ;
pu baf e ma
r a dia t u m c os t ee ;
r al e ( pu bo capu lar e) ;
r e fl e x u m ( i
ng u in a l e )
r a l e coc hl e a e ;
s pi
s u s pens or iu m l a t pe nis ;
ta r s eu m tr an sv
tibiofi bu la r e a nt er iu s ;
t e mpor o m a n d ibu la r e ;
tr a nsv er s u m
o bliqu a f e mor i
Lu n u l a
s
pe lv is Line a a lba m is chioc oc cyg ei;
la cr ima l is M e mbr a na
M u s cu l us an c ona e u s br ev is ;
a u r icul ar i
s
la cr ima lis a n t er ior ;
s up ;
in t e r oss e u s v o la r is pr imu s ;
lin
l ong u s a tla n tis ;
or bicu lar i
s
ma l ar is ;
o r bit a li
s;
gu a lis ;
n a lis ;
s a c r os pi
tr ans v er s i t h or a cis
pr ae r e c ta lis ;
pos t ;
tr a ns v er s us per in a e i
N av icu l a
N er v us d or s a lis s ca pu la e ;
o r bit ali
man dibu l ar es ;
s;
pu d e n d us l ong u s inf e r ior N o r ma
Or ifi ciu m hym e nis ( v ag inae )
Os pu b ois c hia dicu m ;
fr ontalis
tr a pe z ium
P l anu m inf r aor bita l e
P l ica s y n ov ia lis pa t e l lar is
P r oce ss u s occu l tu s oss ma x ill a r is ;
s;
r es t i
s y n ovia l i
f or mis ;
n a li
v ag i
s o ss
R a mus inf e r ior ass is c h ii e t as s
s ph e n oida lis
m ediu s n ves tib u li;
ph ar y ng e i ling u a les S inu s r ha m
pu bis ;
tr a ns v e r s us pe r ic ar d ii S pir a infe r ior
bo id a lis ; t ar s i;
S tr a t u m
Tu b e r c u l u m ; o b tur a t or iu m in
S u l cus in t er a r tic u l a r is ; per ona e i
s
s ca pu l ar i
v e r t e br a l i
s;
z yg o
fe r iu s Tu b er os itas cos ta lis ;
ma tica
ce r e br i an ter ior es ;
hypog a s
Vena a n ony ma iliaca ;
A ng u l u s
e th
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tr ica
.
B iogr aphy : A r c hiv f Ana t u P hys iol , A n a t A bth , Leipzig ,
1 89 2 pp 1 3 2, by Wil h elm H e n k e
G u r l t I I ir s c h s B iogr aphis c hes
L ex ikon, I I I p 1 53 by Wa ld ey er
.
.
.
.
-
-
.
,
’
-
.
,
,
hist ology o f
Cana l of
.
,
H e n s e n V ik t o r
G
p h ys io l ogy at Kiel 1 86 8
ing , th e
.
.
.
,
.
the
P r o fe s s or o f
m a n p h y s iol o g is t 1 8 3 5
H e inv e s t igat e d th e p h y s iology o f h e a r
cal d e v el o pme nt
s e nse o r g an s a n d e mb r yol o gi
er
,
.
,
joining the fir s t par t of the each
in t he or g an of C or ti D is c
Ce ll of
l e ar can a l wit h th e s accu l e
d u c tu s c ons o cians ( H e ns e ni)
D u c t of
( D u c tus r euniens )
in the sar comer e
Line af
in the pr imitime s tr e a k
Kn ot of
in me mbr a na t ec t or ia
S tr ipe of
=
a v er
tic al
ca na l
.
.
=
.
.
.
,
=
=
.
.
.
A N A T O M I CAL N AM E S
H en sing
B or n
Wil h el m
F r ie dr ic h
,
G ies sen w h er e h e be came
G
.
er
ma n
2 67
.
a nat o
mis t
1 745
1 71 9
—
.
.
p r o fe ssor in 1 743 1 745
Dis se r ta tio d e per it on wo, G iess en, 1 742, ih
D is ser tatio d e
apophys ibu s c or por is hu man i G ie s s e n, 1 7 2
D is s e r ta tio d e oment o
4
et co la , G iess en, 1 745, in
Lig a m en t of
l ef t s u per ior colic ligament
at
a
—
.
,
.
.
H e r a clit u s
o ns
o f s en s at i
of
Kn o w n for h is t h eo r y
( 556 460 B
H all er - B ibliot h e ca A na tomica , T om e I , p 1 4
E p h e su s ,
S ee
.
ca
1 8 93
—
.
.
.
H e r b st , E r n s t F r ie d r ic h G
t ingen, 1 803
—
u s t av
A G
.
er
man p h y s ic ian in G
oet
.
Ue ber d ie P a cinis chen K or per chen un d ihr e B e d e u tung,
Cor pu s c le s of
tac til e c or pu s cles in bir ds
’
1 8 48
.
=
.
H er op h il u s
a nd r i
an sc
l iv e d 3 3 5
n ame is
—
h o ol
280
G
a
and
,
B
.
C
u u al l y
o f th e
wh o
,
al t
.
T op l y
h ou g h
r eg ar ds
b r ain,
the
of
his t ime
v e nou s
c ala
mu s
a s u nc e r t a
in
.
H is
H e d ist ingu is h e d th e
nu s ( to r c u l a r H e r op h ili)
si
w it h E r a s ist r at os
b r a in , t h e mening es ,
cl e s
v e nt r i
us ,
.
p hy s ic ia n w h o t au g h t in t h e fa mou s A l ex
He
initiat ed s y s t emat ic r e s ea r c h in a nat omy
r e ek
a s soc i
at e d
s
m aj or pa r t s
p l ex
,
.
,
c er e b r al
s cr i
pt or iu s ,
ne r v e s ,
; d is t ingu ish ed t h e t h ickn e s s o f t h e ar t e r ie s
h e ar t , v ascu l a r s upp ly o f th e t e st is ( s e e Toply, p
a ll b e e n l ost , b ut th e k nowl edg e t h a t h e a tt a ined h as b ee n
ac n e r v e s
sen sor y n e r ve s , c ar d i
s t r uc t ur e o f
the
His wo r k s h av e
'
.
p r e se r ved in t h e w r it ing s
Tome
I
,
.
of
G
( se e H alle r B iblioth e ca Anatomica
al e n
,
p 59 1 774 an d P ag el a n d S u d h of , p
T or c u lar H er ophil i C onflu e ns s inuu m)
.
.
,
,
,
H e r r ick , C l a r e n c e Lu t h e r
.
A n A me r ica n
.
co m p a r a t i
ve
anat o
mis t
geol ogy a nd n a t ur al h ist o r y
v e r si
t y, 1 884 1 889 a nd 1 892 1 896 ; Un iv e r s ity o f Cin
s on U n i
at D e ni
i
l
f
s
r
f
b
1
8
1
r
h
i
c
a
o
o
e
so
o
o
o
i
t
o
f
C
n
1
8
1
i
v
er
s
U
n
i
1
8
8
n at ,
ci
9 92
g , p
gy,
y
9
9
H e wa s g r ant e d th e degr ee o f Ph D at t h e Univ e r s it y o f Minn esot a ,
st ,
and neu r ol og i
1
8 58
—
1 9 04
P r o f e ss o r
.
of
—
—
—
.
.
1 898
Mex ico
ol ogy,
”
1 89 7
1 901
—
,
1 89 1
t he
of
Pr e sid e n t
.
of
B u ll et in
;
ty
u ni
ver si
t e r r it or ial
F o un d e r
.
.
of
the
“J our nal
at
Al b u qu er que ,
of
Co m p a r ativ e N eu r
t he S c ie nt ifi c Labo r at or ie s
of
N ew
D eniso n U ni
H e is t h e aut h o r o f numer ous cont r ib u t ions t o nat u r al
h ist or y an d t o comp ar at iv e neu r ology ; many o f th e l at t e r b eing p ub
l ish e d in t h e J ou r nal o f Comp ar a t iv e N eu r ology
Con tr ib u tions t o t h e C ompar a tiv e M or ph ol ogy of the ce ntr al
N er vou s S ys tem I I llu s tr a tions of the A r chit e c t onic of th e C er e
J our n C omp N e u r ol 1 5 1 4 4 pla tes I I Topog r aphy
bellu m
I bid 1 1 4 3 7 2
n R e ptil es
s t ol ogy of th e B r a in of c er tai
and H i
s t ol ogy of t h e B r ai
n of cer
I
T
opog r aph y a nd H i
I
I
1 89 1
e
s
l
a
t
p
ve r si
t y,
1 885
.
.
.
—
.
.
.
,
,
.
,
.
—
.
,
.
.
,
,
,
A N AT O MI CA L N AM E S
2 68
.
F is h es I bid, 1 , pp 1 49 1 82, 4 pla t es , 1 89 1
The M eta
phy s ics of a N a tur alis t, G r a nv ill e, Ohio, 1 9 1 0 in
“
B iog r aphy : Clar e nce L u t h e r H er r ic k, in
B ulle tin o f the
S cie ntific L a bor a t o r ies of D e nis o n Univ er s ity, val x iii, ar t 1 ,
pp 1 3 3 , with por tr ait and bibliogr aphy, 1 9 05
t ain
G
anaid
—
.
.
.
,
.
.
—
.
.
H e ss e l b ac h , A d a m K as p ar
f e s s or
o f s u r g e r y and c
H e sselb ac h
G
.
er
h ie f physic ian
ma n
1 788
su r g e o n ,
in B amb e r g,
—
s on o f
1 856
Pr o
.
F r anz Kasp ar
.
Ligamen t u m inter f oveal e ;
ingu inal e in t er nu m
F ove a
.
.
H e s s e l b a c h , F r a n z K a s p ar
A G e r ma n su r g e o n a n d p h y s ic ia n,
1 7 54 1 8 1 6
P r osec t or t o S iebo l d in H e idelb er g 1 7 88
Pr o f e s so r o f
ir z b u r g
H is son, A d am K asp ar , att ained dist inc t io n as a
s u r g e r y a t Wi
.
—
.
.
,
.
su r geon
.
Valls t A n l e it u ng z ur Z er glie der u ngs ku nd e, 1 8 06 8
A bh
A na
C h ir
u e ber d
Ur s pr ung d er Le is t en
br uc ke 1 9 06
Ligame nt u m inter f ave al e
Tr iangl e of
a n ar e a i
n a bd omen
—
.
.
—
.
.
.
.
.
,
.
H e s s l in g, Ka r l T h e o do r
in B e r l in
.
A G
er
.
ma n
a na t o mis t , 1 8 1 6
.
H e u s ing er , Car l F r e id r ic h
K no w n fo r h is s t u die s in h is t ol ogy ,
anat o my
zoo t omy
ph y siol ogy , anth r op ology and p a t h ological an at omy,
1 79 2 1 8 83
H e w a s p r o fe s so r o f anat omy a nd ph y s iology in Wiir zbur g,
.
,
,
—
.
t o D oll inge r ; t h e n in
1 824 29 , a s s ucc e sso r
—
Mar bu r g
.
De
S ys te m d e r H is t ol og ie E is ena ch, 1 82 2 2 4, in
4 pls
or g an og eni
a J en a
1 823 , in
B er ich te v an der za a t omis chen
A ns tal t e u Wil r z bur g, Wiir z bu r g 1 82 6, in
8 pl
—
,
,
,
‘
.
,
H e w s on , W il l ia m An Engl is h a na t o mis t b or n at H ex h a m 1 73 9
A me mb e r o f t h e Royal S oc ie t y o f Lond on a n d public l e ct u r er o n
1 7 74
H e wr ot e a n int e r est ing w or k o n th e l y mph at ics, ent itl e d
an ato my
Ex per ime n ta l inqu ir ies on t h e pr opor tions of t he bl oo d with
x
r el a ti
ve to t he lym
s ome r e mar ks o n its na t ur e a nd a n appen di
pha tic sys te m in bir ds fis hes and a mphibious animals Lond on
1 7 7 1 , ih
pt I I containing a d escr iption of th e lympha t ic s ys tem
in hu man s u bjec ts and animals with obs er va tions on t he lymph
L ond on 1 77 4 in
Biogr aphy : R ich ar ds on Disciples of E s cu lapius, v ol 2, pp
2
53 553 ; 1 9 01
.
,
,
,
.
.
,
.
.
,
,
,
,
.
,
,
,
He y
,
W ill ia m
.
Lig amen t
E ngl ish
f
o
=
th e
s u r g e o n at
u
.
.
,
Le e ds ,
ppe r b or d er
f
o
1 73 6
t he
sa
—
1 81 9
.
phe nous
o
pe ning
.
A N A T OM I C A L N A M E S
2 70
)
4)
1
De l
D es
’
mie Ve nice
a n at o
,
1 542
,
2
;
ne s
ve i
5) D e l a d ent it ion,
Ch or da m ag n a
)
Du
et c
.
; 3 ) D e la
co eu r
n a tu r e
d es
05
;
.
.
H is ,
W il h e l m ( T h e
e mb r y o lo g is t ,
Vir c h o w
o l ogy
th e
I
.
1 83 1
1 9 04
—
s t u d e nt
of
an a t o mis t
M ue lle r , R emak
e r ma n
o h a nne s
an d
and
.
1
Wilh elm
.
f ur A n a t o m ie
J
G
p r o f es s o r o f a n a t omy an d p h y si
o f a n a t o my i
n Le i
p zig, a nd d ir e c t o r o f
or d
8 72 p r o f e sso r
tut e
E d it o r , wit h
a na t o m ic a l in s t i
at
B as e l ;
A
.
e min e n t
An
.
h e w a s m ad e
1 8 57
n
El d er )
”
B r a u ne ,
of
A r ch iv
t he
H e t o ok an a ct iv e p a r t
in t h e r ev is ion o f t h e a n a t omical t e r mino l ogy
H e su gge s t e d in 1 8 89 t h e
n t m e nt o f a c omm is s i
o n o n N ome n cl a t u r e a nd t h e C o mm i
a p p oi
on o n
ss i
N om e n cl a t u r e w a s app o int e d w it h K ollik e r a s ch air man w it h P r o f e s s o r s
O H e r t w ig H is Ko llm a n n, M e r kel S ch wa lb e , T o ldt W a ld ey e r a nd
I n 1 89 5 t h e A na t om ical S o cie t y v o t e d t h e a d op t io n o f
B a r d el e b e n
v
t h e r ep o r t o f t h e C omm issio n o n N o m e n cl at u r e at t h e me et ing in B a se l
Th e e x p r e ssio n EN A is an a bb r e v ia t e d t it l e f o r th e l ist o f so m e 4 500
H is w r ot e t h e r e po r t o f th e
a n at o m ica l t e r ms a c c e p t e d a t t h is m e e t ing
A r chiv f iir
C omm is sio n in t h e s ame y e a r a n d it w a s p u b lish e d in t h e
”
J ah r gang 1 89 5 S upp l eme nt B and ( Ana
A n at om ie u nd P h y s io l ogie
“
D ie A na t omis ch e N ome nc la tur e
N omina
t o m is c h e A b t h e ilu ng )
P hy siol ogie ,
u nd
1
87 5
1 9 04
—
.
.
,
.
,
,
.
,
.
,
,
,
.
,
.
,
,
.
,
.
.
A na t o mica
”
.
A n a t o mie d C or nea 1 8 56
B eitr a eg e zur n or ma l e n u pa t h
Ue be r d e r s te Anlag e
Cr ania h e lv e tica with L R utimey er 1 865
Uns er e K br pe r f or m u d phy s iol
d es Wir be l th ie r e ie s 1 868
E mbr y o ne n
P r o b l e m ihr er E n ts t e h u ng 1 8 75 A n a t omie m ens c hl
1 88 0 5
P lica ma ll eol ar is
D u c tus thyr e og l ossus
A r e a pr a e l o bu la r is
S pa tia ly mpha tica
S u l cu s in te r me dius v e n
( me mbr ty m an t
tr icu li
.
.
.
,
.
'
.
,
.
,
.
.
.
,
.
.
.
,
.
,
—
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
H ob ok e n N ic o l a s
,
1 6 3 2- 1 6 78
P r o f e s sor
.
A t H a r d e r w yk ,
1 66 9
—
von
A G
m e dic in e
of
1 6 72
.
ma n p h y s ic ian b o r n in U t r e c h t
n U t r e ch t
1 66 3
an d mat h em at ic s i
er
,
,
,
.
.
N av u s d uc t u s s aliv alis Bl as ia nu s in luce m pr o tr ac tus Utr e cht
1 6 6 2 in
C on ta ins l e t ter s f r om B las iu s an d H aba ke n r e la tiv e
A na t o mia
to t h e d is cover y by S te ns e n of t h e duc tu s par o tid e u s
v um pr opr ia a u t hor i
s a d vi
s
n w h u man ce, quin d e cim fig u r i
s e cu n di
G ood d e s c r iption
manu d e line a tis il lu s tr a t a Utr e c h t, 1 669, in
of t he place nt a, and o th er d e cid uce
,
,
,
.
.
.
H oe v e n
1 80 1 - 1 868
.
,
J
an
v an
.
de r
.
A D utc h
l
i
z oo og st ,
b or n
at
R o tt e r da m,
S tu d ie d in Le yd e n wh e r e h e w as g r ant ed his d oc t o r at e in
A N AT O MI CA L N A M E S
1 82 4
I
.
h e b ec am e
n 1 82 6
in R ott e r d am
a
.
o
"
.
pr o
f es so r ,
271
.
1 8 3 5 1 86 8
—
p r o fe ssor
o f z o o l ogy
Know n fo r h is p h ilo sop h ica l v ie w s
Ta bu l e r e g n i anim a lis a ddit us c las s iu m or dinu mq u e c ha r a c t e r
.
.
,
ib us L e yd e n
mu t a tiones in
,
,
H o ff m a nn
f e s so r
o f a na t o
,
8 28 ta bl es , in f o l
c h am e l e on t e L ey d e n,
1
my in B a s el
s tu d e n ts
.
A S w is s
.
T r an s l at or
d e s cr iptiv e
f
o
b or n
ad
ill us tr a nd as
5 pi, cal
th e G
.
m is t
er
pr a ctical
.
1 82 7
1
—
,
m a n e d itio n
an a t omy
col or is
87 7
Pr o
.
Qu a in
of
’
s
th e u s e of
f or
.
H o ff m a n n , J o h a n n M o r it z
ng ,
c ed i
a n a t-o
of
an d
co n es
83 2, in
1
,
E r n s t E m il
E le me n ts
I
.
,
'
Al t d o r f ,
G
.
e r man
a n a t o m is t ,
t he pr e
of
son
S u cc e e de d his f a th e r as p r o f e sso r
o f a nat omy a n d bo t a ny a t A l t d o r f t h e n p r o f e sso r o f m e d ic in e 1 709 1 7 1 3
I d ea ma chin ce h u manta a na to mic a ph ys iol og ica a d o bs e r va
t ion e s r e ce n tior es c onf or m a t a e t a d me t h od u m l e c tion u m s al e nniu m
A l td or f 1 703 in
a cc omo d a t a
at
1 6 53
—
1 71 3
.
—
,
.
,
-
,
,
.
,
,
B o r n in
A G e r m a n a n a t o m is t a n d b o t a n is t
H o ff m a nn M o r it z
P r o fe s so r o f a n a t om y a n d s u r g e r y 1 648 in
F iir s t e nw a l d 1 622 1 69 8
T h om as B a r t h o lin a tt r ib u t e s t o h im t h e dis c ov e r y o f t h e
Al t d o r f
.
.
,
—
,
,
.
,
.
bed to
u su a ll y a s c r i
d u c t , w h ich is
p a nc r eat ic
W ir su ng
.
S y nops is ins titu tion u m ana t o micar u m e x sa ng u inis n a t u r a
ta m d e c l a r a ns or d ine d is s e c tio n is c ommo d o
i
m
l
e r ar u mqu e v i
r
t
u
a
p
p
A c c e dit d e lin e a tio a na t o m es phys io pa t h a l og ic o c h ir u r gic ce A l td or f,
1 66 1 , in
D u c t u s pa n cr e a ticu s
D u c t of
,
.
,
-
—
.
.
H o ld e n
Lu t h e r
,
A
M an u a l
Line
f
,
La ng er
a nd
au t
hor
f
G
f
er
ur r o
m is t
f
o
a n a t o mis t ,
ma n
h ist or y
o f s ev e r al e ss a y s o n t h e
,
th e
w in t h e g r oin
p r o f e s s o r o f a n at o my
1 88 2
,
.
a nato
t h e D is s e c tion
o
a
o
H o l l M o r it z
A n E ng l is h
.
1816
1 9 05
.
H u ma n B o dy N e w Yor k
,
,
.
S tu de nt
1 8 52
in I
—
n n sb r u ch , 1 8 89
o f an atomy
in G
of
Hy r t l
r az
.
An
.
D ie M u s ke l n u n d P os cie n d e s B ec ke nau sg angs, in B ar d e l e ben
H a n d b u ch
R ec ta l d iaphr ag m
’
s
.
.
H ol m e s
an d
p o et
1 809
—
,
O l iv e r
ge nial
1 89 4
.
W e n de l l
a u t oc r a t
of
.
t he
H e w as p r o f e s so r
A n A m e r ic a n
b r e akf a s t t ab l e
o f anat o
my
a nd
a n at o
,
wh o
m is t
p h y s ic ia n ,
liv e d in B ost o n,
p h y siol ogy
at
,
D a r t mo ut h ,
A N A T OM I CA L N A M E S
2 72
.
Par kma n p r o f e ssor o f a na t omy a t t h e H a r v a r d Me d ic al
S ch ool , 1 847 82 , wh e r e h e b e c am e a mo s t su cc e s s f u l lec t u r e r
M e dical Ess ays 1 883
B iog r aphy : O liv e r We n dell H a lm e s in ohns H opkins H os p
B u ll v ol 5, N o 42 pp 85 88, by Wm Os l er
Lif e a nd L e t t er s
of Oliver We nd e l l H olm es by
o h n T M or s e
1 83 9
47 ,
—
a nd
—
,
.
,
.
J
.
,
,
H o me
J
.
—
.
.
,
.
.
.
.
.
A n E ng l is h p h y s ic ia n a n d a n a t o mis t , 1 76 3
A ss oc ia t e d w it h J oh n H u nt e r , a nd r e t aine d p o ss e s s io n o f t h e
1 83 2
m u se u m a n d m anu sc r ip t n o t e s o f H u nt e r
Pr o f e s so r o f a na t omy a n d
Ev e r a r d
,
.
.
.
in t h e R oy al Co ll ege
su r ge r y
p hy sic ian s
of
an d su r g e o n s
L ec tu r es on compar a tiv e a na t omy, Lond on
qu a r to v ol u mes , wit h 3 7 1 pla t e s
1
,
.
81 4
—
1 8 28,
6 lar g e
.
M any
h is mem oir s
of
R o y a l S o c ie t y
in t h e Ph iloso phic al T r ans a c t io n s
of
t he
.
L o be
f
o
me dian l obe of th e pr os ta te
=
.
A n E ng lis h m ic r o s co p is t in L o n d o n
,
fi r s t r ecogn ize d t h e p r imit ive fi b r illae in m u s cl e
H o o k e R ob e r t
He
ar e
.
1 63 5 1
—
,
703
.
.
M icr og r aphia
,
s om e
or
bodie s by magnify ing gl ass e s
J
,
phys iol ogica l d es cr iptions
L on d on, 1 665
f minu te
o
'
.
mis t b o r n a t A m
1 62 1 1 6 70
P r o f e s so r o f a nat omy and su r ge r y a t Am st e r d am
s t e r d am
1 6 3 3 ; t h e n p r o f e sso r o f a na t omy an d s u r g e r y a t Le y d e n
H e w as o ne
n m a n an d d esc r i
o f t h e fi r s t t o o b s e r v e t h e t h o r a ci
c d uc t i
b e d th e d u c t u s
ll a r is w hic h w a s sub s e qu e nt l y k no w n a s Wh ar t on s d u c t
He
s u b m ax i
d is cov e r e d t h e m ammar y d u c t s in 1 6 52
H o or n e
an v an
,
A
.
c e le b r at e d
D ut c h
a n at o
,
—
,
.
,
.
,
’
.
,
.
D e d u ctibu s s a liv a libu s d is pu ta tion es , L ey d en, 1 656
M icr oc os m u s s e u br e vis man u d u ctio ad his t or ia m
h u ma ni in g r a tia m dis cipu l or u m e dit a
L ey d en, 1 6 6 0, in
D u c tu s t h or a cicus
.
,
cor
por is
.
,
.
H o r n e r W ill ia m E d mo n d s A n A m e r ica n
S tu die d m e dic in e a t Ed inbu r gh an d Ph il a d el phia
,
.
mis t 1 793 1 8 53
B ecame p r osect o r t o
p r o f e s s or o f a n at omy
a nat o
.
Wist a r
—
.
,
S u c c ee de d P hy s ick as
H is s uc ce s s o r w as J ose ph
in t h e Un iv er s it y o f P e nn sylv a n ia in 1 8 3 1
’
H or ne r d isc ov e r e d th e t a r s i mu s c l e ( H or ne r s mu scl e ) s upp ly ing
Le idy
th e l a c r imal ap p a r at u s ( Ph ila : J o u r n M e d a nd Ph y s S oc , 1 8 2 4, v o l 8 ,
l
l
a r y o d o r if e r o u s gl a nd s o f t h e n e r o
ed t h e a x i
H
e al so s t u di
g
p
,
D o r sey
and
Phy sick
.
.
,
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
A tr e a tis e on s pe cial
vol s , P hil a d e lphia, 1 8 40
P ar s l ac r ima lis mus e
.
a nd
g e n e r al
an a t o
my 5th
,
e diti
on,
.
.
or
bicu l ar is
ocu li
( H or ne r i)
.
in
2
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
2 74
t h e S hr e w
(S
v u lg a r i
s
or e x
L
vol
I bid,
.
.
.
8
1
53 7, pl a tes
3 5, pp 4
.
t
i
s
B iog r a phy : A na tomis ch er A nz e ig er , B d 48, N a
2 08, by F r a nz K eib e l, with B ib liog r aphy
.
pp
.
.
5
2 01
.
H u e ck , A l e x
o f a n a to my
Pr o f e sso r
F r ie d r ic h
ander
Lig a me n t
in D o r p at
f
o
f
o
u te r u s
H u mb o l d t
S inu s
.
,
I te r
f
a
m an
f
and
ngl y
o f e x c ee di
t h e f oll owing t o
c h a r d ce a n t er iu s
a na t o
my
.
mis t
1 8 02
1 842
804
1 8 74
—
,
1
—
a r ou n d
f
o
.
B ar o n
ander ,
v on
A
.
d is
He
—
r an
ge
in t e r e st s ,
of
.
is thmus
t r av e l e r , w as bo r n in B e r lin , 1 769 1 8 59
w id e
.
.
in P a r is ,
Cir cl e
in ty mpanu m
fo s s a
o
a nat o
su r g e o n
F r ie d r ic h H e in r ic h A l e x
t ing u ish e d n at u r alist
wa s
.
m an
pe ctin a tu m ir idis
A F r en c h
—
o
er
.
l ig a me nt u m
=
H u g u ie r , P ie r r e C h a r l es
Ca n a l
A G
.
an d
.
co nt r i
bute d
h e h as
:
R e c u e il d o bs er v a tions d e z ool ogie e t d a n a to mie c ampar é e,
P ar is , 1 8 03 1 83 2 1 4 livr ais ons in 2 v ols in
l
p
5
7
’
B iog r aphy : K a r l B r u h n s lif e of H u mbo l d t, in 3 vols , Le ipzig ,
’
’
‘
—
,
.
,
.
,
.
1 8 72
.
H u nd t , M a g n u s
f e sso r
an ato
Le ip z ig
at
A p h y s ic ia n
.
Pl at n e r
.
s ay s
of
t h at
M ag d e b u r g
H u nd t w as
1 449
,
t he
—
1 51 9
fi r st
Pr o
.
to p ublish
mical pl a t e s b ut h e w a s p r e c e d e d b y M und ino in 1 428
°
A n t hr opo l og iu m d e h ominis dignit a t e 1 501 L eipz ig in74
B iog r a phy : H a ll e r B iblio t he ca Ana t omical Tome
1 53 ,
1 7 74; C h a u lan t p 2 3
.
,
,
.
,
,
—
,
,
H u nt e r , J o h n
B r ot h e r
to
t h e p oe t e ss
bor n
at
.
W illiam
J oann a
An
.
.
a n at o
H u nt e r
mis t
u nc l e
,
a n d su r g e o n o f
to
-
.
1 72 8
—
M att h e w B aillie ( 1 76 1
B a illie , b r o t h e r in l aw t o Ev e r a r d H ome
Long Cal d e r w o o d , S c o t l and
William
Lo n d o n ,
a na t om y
.
and
H e wa s
-
A ssist an t in
1 79 3
.
t o h is
b r ot h e r
c e ase d o n l y w i
th
H e r e b e ga n h is int e r es t in an at o my wh ic h
H e o b se r v e d t h e d e sce nt o f th e t e st is in th e foet u s t r a c e d
h is d ea t h
t h e r amifi ca t io n s o f t h e na sa l a nd o l f act o r y n e r v e s ex p e r ime nt ally t est ed
I n 1 76 7 h e w a s ma d e f e llo w o f
wh e t h e r v e in s co ul d a ct as ab so r be nt s
T each e r o f E dw a r d J e nn e r in 1 7 70 ;
t h e R oy al S oc ie ty o f London
’
.
.
,
,
.
.
A b e r ne t h y
and
A st l e y C oo p e r w e r e
h is
als o
s t u d e nt s
.
I t w ill
no t
be
p os sib l e t o giv e a n id ea o f th e h u g e am o u nt o f e x p e r ime nt al inve st iga
H is m u se u m f or me d t h e nu c leu s f or th e
t io ns c ar r ie d on b y H un t e r
f amou s H un te r ian mu se um o f t h e R oy al Coll e ge o f S u r g eon s , o f Lond on
.
.
O bs er v a tions on c er tain par ts of the a nimal (e conomy, L ond on,
h
1 786, i
N a tur a l H is t or y of t he h u man t ee th, Lond on, 1 77 1
us
G u ber nacul um tes tis
can ali
Cana l of
s a d d u c t or i
.
.
.
A N AT O M I C A L N A M E S
275
.
B iogr aphy : R ich ar ds on D is ciples of E s ca la pius , v ol 2 pp
1
0
R ohr er , J ohn H u nt er : his lif e and la b or s B u ll
5
53 1 1 9 01
o hns H opki
ns H ospit a l vol 25
pp 1 0 2 4, 1 9 1 4, with por tr aits
,
J
.
,
,
.
.
,
.
—
.
,
H u nt e r
W ill ia m
,
.
.
A dis t in g u is h e d p h y s io l o g is t a n d a n a t o mis t ,
an d t he fi r s t gr e a t t e ac h e r o f an a t om
S t u die d
y in E ngl an d 1 7 1 8 1 78 3
in Edinb u r g h a nd Lo nd o n wh e r e h e b e came ass ist a nt t o D r J a me s
,
.
—
.
,
.
D ougl a s
He
.
t ed
vi
si
Le y d e n
l iam H e w so n was his
ass is t a nt a f t e r
H e is k nown ch ie fl y f or h is
A na to my
plat es
insp e ct e d t h e w o r k
an d
h is b r o t h er
my
a na t o
of
ar
my
.
.
th e h u man g r av id u te r us , Lon d on,
r epr es en t ing th e o bjec ts n a t u r a l s i
ze
,
Wil
.
w e nt t o t h e
t h e g r av id u te r u s
f
775 w it h 3 4
1
,
.
Lig a me n t
Line
M e mbr an e
B iog r a phy : R ichar d s on D is cipl es
3 43 , 1 9 01
.
.
Ais cu l apiu s ,
f
o
,
—
J oh n
o
.
3 22
A lbinu s
of
v ol
pp
1,
.
.
.
H u s c h k e E m il
,
A G
.
p r o fe s s o r
e r m a n a n a t o m is t ,
my
o f a n at o
1 79 7
—
1
8 58
Lo d e r s
.
’
suc
58
Dis s e r ta tio q u azdam d e or g anor u m r es pir a t or ior u m in a ni
maliu m s er ie me ta mor ph os i g en er a tim s cr ipta e t d e v es ica na ta
t or ia pis ciu m qu a es tio
Jena 1 8 1 9 ih
D e pu l m on u m q u a d
r u pli
c it a t e
Je na 1 82 4 in
B e itr ag e z u r P hys iol ogie u n d
pl
N a tu r ges chich t e
Weimar 1 82 4 in
C omm en ta tio d e
4 pl
pe ctin is in oc u l o aviu m po tes t a te a na t omica e t phys iologica J e na
1 82 7 iii
pl
A u d it or y te e th
F or amen
Lig a me n t
Car tilag es
Valve
cesso r a t
J ena
as
1 82 7
—
,
.
,
.
.
,
,
,
,
,
.
'
.
,
.
,
.
,
.
,
.
.
H u x l e y T h o m as H e n r y
.
.
.
A n E n g l is h b io l o g is t , a n a t o m is t , p a l e o u
,
H e was b or n at E aling, M iddl e sex ,
t ol og ist an d p h ilosop h e r , 1 8 2 5 9 5
Engl a n d
H e like D a r w in , e a r ly in l if e sp e nt s ome y e ar s in a v o y age
-
.
—
.
.
,
pl o r a t ion o n H M S
f e sso r o f n at u r a l h is t or y
o f ex
M ine s
.
,
and
he
.
h el d
t h is
.
R a tt l esn ake
and
I
.
n 1 8 54
p al e ont ol ogy
the
at
nt e d
app o i
he was
pr o
J er my n S ch o ol
of
H e w as
po s t u nt il his r e t ir e me n t in 1 8 8 5
U n iv e r s it y o f Lo nd on H u nt er ia n p r o f e ss o r o f
.
F u lle r ia n p r o f e ss or t o t h e
T e a c h e r a nd
comp ar at i
v e a na to my at t h e R o y al Cb ll ege o f S u r g eons
F r ie nd a nd c o r r e sp on de nt o f D ar win , wh ose st a u nc h
f r iend o f B al fo u r
,
.
.
h is mo st imp or t ant co nt r ibu t io n s w a s th e
H ux ley w as
int r o du c tion o f l abo r a tor y b iol ogy int o t h e p ublic sc h ool s
t h e a u th or o f ma ny m e mo ir s o n c omp a r a t iv e a nat om y , a n d p al e ont o l ogy
su ppo r t e r
h e b e ca m e
.
O ne
of
.
.
His
fi
ent i c
sc i
h av e b ee n g at h e r e d by S ir Ray Lanke st er int o
t ing s in to 1 4 v o l u me s o ct av o
H is
s o t h er w r i
and h i
p ublic a tion s
4 qu a r t o v o l u m e s
mo r e int e r e st ing m e moir s f r om
,
M an s
.
a n a n at o
mic al
s t an dp o i
nt ar e :
On Ce r tain Er r or s r es pe c ting
Plac e in N a tu r e 1 863
th e S t r uc tu r e of th e H e a r t a t tr ibu te d t o A r is t o t l e N a tu r e, 1 8 79
M anu al of th e A natomy of ver te br a te d Anima ls, 1 8 7 1 On a kith
’
,
.
.
,
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
2 76
er to u nd es cr ib e d s tr u c tu r e
ca l
G
az e t t e,
M
I
,
1 3 40
( Ju ly
c os to- hu me r ali
s
.
.
in t h e h u ma n ha ir
s he a t h,
M e di
L on don
,
S tr a t u m H ux l eyi
a nd Le t t e r s of Th omas H ux l ey, 2 vols
ley N e w Yor k a nd L ond on 1 9 1 3 , ih
B iogr aphy : Life
his s on, L e o nar d H u x
.
.
.
.
by
,
,
H y at t , A l p 'h e u s
A n A me r ica n z o o l og is t a n d p a l e o n t o l o g is t ,
1 8 3 8 1 9 02
H e w as b o r n a t Wa s h ing to n D C and in 1 8 56 a t t h e age
o f 1 8 h e e n t e r e d Y al e U n i
v er s i
A f t e r one y ea r h e w ent t o H a r v a r d
ty
t o s t u d y w it h Lo u is Ag a ss iz an d wa s g r a d ua t e d in 1 862
H yatt w a s
.
—
.
.
.
,
,
.
.
,
cus to d ian a n d c ur a t o r o f
H is t o r y f r om
r o ut i
ne
1 8 70 1 902
H is
—
.
fi
ch i
ef
s cie nt i c
w er e t h e d e v e lopm e nt
w or k ,
S oc ie ty o f N at u r al
in t e r e s t s , a s id e f r o m h is
ammo n oid c ep h alo p o d s ,
t h e c oll e c t ion s o f t h e B ost o n
of
the
mem oir s w h ic h
d e a t t e n t ion f r o m p a l eo n t o log ist s w or king in simila r
a t t r ac t e d w o r l d w i
fi e l d s N o t only did h is w o r k att r ac t t h e a tte nt ion o f th is c las s o f wo r k e r s
b u t t h e b r oa d b io log ic al p r inc ipl e s u n d e r ly ing a ll o f h is inv e st ig a t io ns
b r ough t f a v o r a ble co mme nt f r om many wh o se int er e st s w e r e q uit e
d iv e r se f r om h is o w n
P r o ce e d ings; of th e B os t on S ocie ty of N a t u r al H is tor y v ol 3 0
N o 4 pp 41 3 43 3 1 9 02
t h e f os s il f o r m s , a nd h e w r ot e a numb e r o f
e spe c i
al l y
,
.
.
.
,
,
—
.
,
.
,
.
Hy r t l , J o s e f
A n e m ine n t a n at o mis t in Pr ag ue a n d V ie n n a
H e w a s b or n at Eis enst a dt in H ungar y ; s tu d ie d in V ienna
1 8 1 1 1 8 94
P r o f e sso r o f a na t omy a t P r ague 1 8 36 ; in V ie nn a 1 844 74
1 83 1 3 5
H a n dbu ch d e r t opog r aphis che n A na t omie Vienna 1 8 47 C ar
1 8 73
D as A r a bis ch e u n d H e br ais c h e in d er
r os ions A na t omi
e
A n a t omie Vie nna 1 8 79
On o ma t o logia a na t omic a Vienna 1 88 0
D ie al t en d e u ts ch e n K u ns tw or t e d er A na t omie Vie nn a 1 8 8 4
A r ticu l a tio c ar pi s up ( r a dio ca r pea)
A r t e r ia a nas t omo tica
Canalis s ph e nopa la tin us ( s e micir cu l a r is s up e t phar y ng e u s )
- l a mi
r a li
r a li
na e spi
s ( s pi
s modioli
) C ollu m fi bu lae F as c ia pel
vi
s c er a l i
s ( e n d ope lv ina) ;
t r ansver s a ( tr ans v er s alis )
s vi
F iss a r a
tr ansv
ioc cipit a li
s
F r e tu m or is
Lig a m e nt u m in te r tar s e u m ;
tr iangu l ar e u r e thr a e
M us cul u s lat er alis nas i;
l
e
u
r
a
o es a
p
s ty l oa u r ic u lar i
s;
s u s t e n t a t or capiti
s ( s te r n o cl eid o
phag e us ;
P or us cr a nio nas al is ;
cr ot a ph itico bu ccin a t or i
us ;
op
ticu s
P r o ces s u s par acon dyl oid e u s ( par a mas t odie u s )
pn e u ma ti
z yg ama tico o r bita li
s
R a mus a u r icul o fr‘on ta lis
cu s
S u tu r a
i
r u n cu s t ibi
l
t
i
c
r
u
c
a
t
a
a
l
a
t
i
n
a
T
a
a
a
(
p
p
pe r onaeus
B iogr aphy : A na t Anz B d 9 p 773 1 89 4
'
.
,
,
—
.
,
—
—
,
.
.
,
‘
.
,
,
'
.
,
,
.
,
,
.
,
,
,
.
-
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
—
—
-
—
‘
.
-
—
-
.
.
.
.
.
I ngr a s s ia s
and anat omist ;
f essor
of t he t
l 1 560
unt i
.
,
,
.
,
.
,
G iov a n ni Fil ip o ( I ng r a s s ia )
wa s bor n
h eo r y
an d
at
Recalbu t o ,
An
Pa l e r mo,
I t al ian
p h y s ic ia n
1 51 0- 1 58 0
Pr o
.
me d ic ine a nd o f a natomy in N ap l e s
in anato my and med icine w e r e so popul ar
p r act ice
He r e his lectur e s
n e ar
.
.
of
2 78
A N AT OM I CA L N A M E S
J
a s o l in i,
J u les
.
s t u d e n t a n d s u cc es s o r
A
o f a n a t om y a n d s u r g e r y a t
C a l ab r ia ,
I t a ly
N apl es
to
H e w as b or n
.
a na t omicce e t os t e ol og i
a
in per icar d io ; cl e ping u e din e in g e n e r e
por is ch ol e d ochis e t v es ica f e ll e a N apl es ,
e s s e ni
us
( Je ss en
H e w as b or n
and
in
W it t e n b e r g
P r agu e
H e is
.
J
B e c a me
f or h is w or k in
t o h av e b e e n t h e
C h r is t ia n G
cs,
ob s t et r i
s ch w a ng er n
J
ne a r
—
6 00 a bs s e
Wit ten ber g,
o t t fr ie d
1 8 56
.
.
A G
H e w as
.
von
6 01
1
.
556
I t a ly
,
t h e u n iv e r s it y a t
ce
o r g an s o f v o i
s o l e mn ite r
1
)
L e ip z ig , in
at
t o d e sc r ib e t h e
1
iii
1 573 ,
c e l e br a t w
.
his
ih
,
er
m a n p h y s ic ia n k n o w n
a
p r o f e sso r
at
Le ip z ig
.
’
'
-
.
Jo h ann G
B or n
A G e r m a n a n a t o mis t , 1 8 3 8 1 89 2
n e a nd w h e r e h e l at e r b e came
stud i
e d me d ic i
e or g
,
of
577
de
p
( Jo hann
de
e b a’r o r g a n
S t r as sb ur g wh e r e h e
p r o f e sso r
779
1
fi r st
s a di e ;
cor di
d es M e ns ch e n u na cl er S au g e t hier e im
u nd ni
ch t s c h w ang e r n Z u s tan d e, L ei
pz ig , 1 808
Ue be r d as G
oe s s el,
h a ir
-
r e c t o r a n d c h a n c e ll o r o f
.
Johann
) J ean
1
S t u d ie d m e d ic in e
.
,
oe r g,
,
e s s e n s ky
or
B r e s l au
at
.
s ai
d
,
A n a t omice P r ag ce a nno
tor ia ; d e os s ibu s tr a c ta t u s
J
c
S a nt a E u f e mia , in
N apl e s ,
,
J
.
at
par va ; d e
a qu a
De
in t h e
I n g r as s ia s
.
Qu es tiones
1 62 1
.
t op o g r aphic
—
.
.
an a to
my
.
L e hr bu ch d e r t opogr aphis ct hir u r gis chen A na t omie , B onn,
1 88 4 1 89 2
B iog r aphy : Ana t omis ch er A nze iger , B d 8, p 9 2 , 1 893
~
—
.
.
J o ne s
,
T hom as
W har t o n
.
D is cov er e d t h e g e r min a l
.
.
cle o f
vesi
th e
mammalian egg in 1 8 3 5
.
On t he ova of w omen a nd ma mmif e r ous a nima ls as th ey ex is t
in t he ov ar ie s b ef or e impr eg n a tion ; a n d on th e d is cov er y in t h e m
nje in t h e
of a v es ic l e an a l ogo u s to t h a t d e s cr ib e d by P r of P ur ki
ma tur e egg of the bir d Pr oc R oya l S oc , L on d on, P I I I , p 3 3 9/
3 40. 1 83 5
,
.
J
os e p
h i W il h e l m
,
.
An
.
.
.
a n at o
mis t
of
.
.
R o s t o c k , w as b or n
1 763
at
H e w a s p r o sect o r o f a nat omy a t G oe t t inge n an d b e came
c s a t t h e Un i
ty o f
ve r s i
ne
a n d o b s t et r i
m
e d ici
o f a n a t om y
f
or
r
o
e
s
s
p
His w r it
Ro st ock in 1 79 2 ; in 1 8 08 h e b e c am e c h ie f milit a r y su r ge on
in s sho w h is int er e st in ob s t et r ic al a nat omy
B r o ns w ic k
.
,
,
.
,
g
.
D e conc e ptione a bd omin ali vu lgo s ic d ic ta, G oe t ting en, 1 78 4
Obs e r v a tion u m ad ana t omiam e t ar te m o bs te tr ician spe c tan tiu m
s atur a, H el ms tae d t, 1 785 in
Ana t omie d er S a e ug e thier e, G oet ting en, 1 78 7, ih
.
,
J
un g,
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
Ka r l G
o f an at omy
u s t av
in B ase l
a n a t o mis t ,
A S wis s
.
279
.
1 793,
—
1 864
P r o fe s s o r
.
.
A nima d v er s ion es d e os s ibus g e ner a tim
B as e l,
M us cu lus pyr amidalis a ur icula ; in t er tr ag ic us
1
.
82 7
.
Ke il l , J a m e s
1 819
.
A n E ng l is h p h y s ic ia n , b o r n a t Ed inb u r g h ,
P r ac t ic e d a t N or t h amp t o n
H e is th e au t h or o f
1 7 63
.
.
The A na t omy of th e h u ma n bo dy a br ’ dg d L ond on, 1 69 8
A n ac c ou n t of a nima l s e cr e tion, t h e qu a n tity of b l ood in the
h u man b o dy, a n d mu s cu lar mo tion, 1 708
Lon don
’
.
,
”
.
K e r c k r in g
1 6 40 1 6 9 3
a nd
.
Kn own f or h is
.
a n a t o m is t ,
D u t ch
A
.
Phy sic ian in A mst e r d am , l at e r in t h e
—
T u s c any
T h eo dor
,
.
f o r his
st u d i
es o f
o ns on
o b se rv a t i
th e
b or n
H a m b u r g,
at
ser v i
ce o f
v asa v aso r u
th e D u k e
of
m in t h e h or s e
t h e d e v e l opm e n t o f t h e s k e l e to n in t h e
fo et u s
.
Ope r a o mn ia a na t omic a L e y den, 1 7 1 7, iii
S picil e g iu m a n a t om icu m con tin e ns obs er v a tionum, e tc , A m
s t er d am, 1 6 7 0 ih
A n t hr opog e n ite ich n ogr aphia s iv e c o nf or ma tio f oe tu s a b ov o
u s qu e
ad
oss i
fi ca tionis pr in cip°ia in s u pple me n tu m Os te og e nim
f ce t u in A ms t e r d am 1 6 7 1 , in 4
Plic a? cir cu lar e s ( Va lv u l ae conniv en tes)
N a d u li va lv u l ar u m
,
.
,
,
’
,
-
.
,
.
.
K e t h a m, J o h a n n is d e
( d e K e t az )
.
Pu b l is h e d t h e
.
fir st
il l u s t r a t e d
m e dic a l t r e at is e in f o l io co nt a in ing 6 w ood c u t s
Th is w o r k co nt a in s a
fig u r e o f f e m al e an a t o my sh ow ing a f oe t u s in th e ut e r u s The e ditio ns
ne d al so t h e a n a t omy o f M u ndinu s
a f t e r 1 493 co n t a i
.
,
,
.
.
F as cicu l u s M e d icin ae, Ve nice, 1 49 1 in f o lio
B iogr a ph y : L ocy Wm A , A na to mic al I l l u s tr a tions bef or e
J ou r n of M or ph ol , v ol 2 2, n o 4 pp 9 53 9 57, 1 9 1 1
Ve s a liu s
,
.
,
.
.
—
.
.
.
.
.
,
.
K ey , E r n s t A x e l
B or n in
1 83 2 1 9 0 1
no r m al h is t o l ogy w it h
o l og i
cal a n a t o m y w ith
H e n r ik A S w e dis h p a t h o l o g is t a n d a n a t o m is t
S m a l an d
S t u d ent at Lu n d 1 848 ; 1 8 60 st u d ie d
Max S ch ult z e in B on n ; in 1 86 1 h e s t u d ie d p at h
m y at
”
Ar k iv ,
I n st itut e
—
.
the
o
1 862
C a r o lina
,
.
,
.
V ir c h o w
.
.
'
p r o f e s so r o f p a t h o l ogic a l a n at
“
N o r d iskt M e dic in skt
o f th e
n 1 8 62
I
Ed it or
.
S tu d ie u in d e r A na t omie d es N e r ve ns y s t e ms u n d d es B in d e
a l ar g e a nd mag nifi ce ntly ill u s
u s tav R e tzius
i
t
h
G
e be s ;
w
e
w
g
t r a te d w or k
—
.
K ie l m e y e r ,
1 844
.
l es
ra
T e ac h e r
or ts
pp
s es ,
or g a ni
C h a r l e s F r é d é r ic
A u tho r
o f Cu v ie r
d es
de
-
.
f
or c es
o f an
or gani
qu e s
A
.
F r e nc h
n a t u r a l is t ,
imp o r t ant w o r k
e n tr e
e ll e s
cl ans
la
tle d :
e nt i
’
s er ie
1 765
S ur
d es é tr es
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
2 80
Kie r n a n F r a n c is
,
S pa c e
f
o
A r ea
Kil ia n
A n E n g l is h p h y s ic ia n , 1 800
in t er l o bu l ar s pa ces in t h e live r
1 8 74
—
.
=
W
K ie s s e l b a c h ,
.
G
.
f
on
o
m an l a r y ng o l o g is t ,
t h e nas al s eptu m
.
.
1 83 9
er
.
H e r m a n n F r ie d r ic h
G e r m a n o b s t e t r ic ia n
Line of
a t t h e pr omon t or y o f t h e s a cr u m
,
.
63
1 8 00
—
,
.
.
K l e in e n b e r g N ik o l au s
,
Lib a u in K u r l a n d
at
o
my
at
P a l er mo
at
M e s s ina
S t at ion
.
an d
,
I
er
P r o fe s s o r
.
n 1 8 79
in
A G
.
of
p r o f e ss o r
a na t o
m is t
l
and
z oo o y
g
1 842
—
,
S tu d ie d
.
at
1 89 7
B or n
.
ve
co m p a r a t i
o f z o ology a n d c o
Pal er mo
1 895 a t
ma n
anat
an at o m y
mp a r a t iv e
th e N ap l e s
Z ool ogic a l
ne i
M ollu s c hi
.
S
lu
u ll o s vi
s te ma n er v os a
si
ppo d el
per if er ico
Biog r aphy :
A nz
,
N ikol a u s K l e in en b er g, by P au l M ay e r
B d 1 4, pp 2 6 7 2 7 1 , 1 89 8, w ith bibl iog r aphy
A na t
.
.
—
.
,
.
.
.
Kna c k s t e d t , C h r is t o p h e El ie H e n r i A s u r g e o n in B r o n s w ic k
H e is th e a u t h o r o f : Os te ol ogie o d er B e s c hrei
G e r many 1 749 1 799
bu ng d e r K n och e n d es mens c h lich en K o e r per s
B r onswic k, 1 78 1 in
,
.
—
.
,
,
.
,
mis t in Edin b u r g h , S c ot l a n d 1 79 1 1 862
H e w a s t h e fi r st t o t ea c h g e ne r al a n at omy f r om t h e d e s c r ip t iv e , h isto log ic
a n d c omp ar at i
v e angl es
H e wa s su b j ec t e d to con s id e r ab l e n oto r ie t y an d
K n ox
~
R ob e r t
An
‘
,
.
a na t o
—
.
,
.
ng
sc an d al o wi
t o his
w it h t h e
c o nni
v ance
o ni
r es u r r e c t i
st s
Th e R a c es of M an, 1 850
A n a t omica l S tu dies of the B ones
Ar tis ts London, 1 833
.
.
Koe l lik e r , R u d o lf A l b e r t
z oo l og i
st ,
p hy siol ogy
M uscles f or
t he
f
us e o
.
,
a nd
and
1817
—
a nd
1 9 05
.
ve
co mp a r a t i
vo n
A G
.
P r os e cto r f o r
a n at o
ma n a n a t omis t h is t o l o g is t
H e nl e 1 843
Pro f e sso r o f
er
,
.
,
47 ; W iir z b u r g,
gr eat e st h ist o lo gis t s o f t h e l a st
my in Z u r ic h
1 846
—
,
H e is r ega r d e d as on e o f th e
d mu c h t o a dv an ce b iology in g en e r al h e is r egar d e d al so
c e nt u r y , a n d d i
s ti
me and his t r e at is e o n
st s o f h i
as on e o f t h e g r e at e s t e mb r yo l ogi
a s o n e o f th e fi r st t o demon
ri
t
H
w
h
m
e
e
n e r al e mb r yo l ogy is o f h i
e
g
g
m al c ell s
v is i
o n in a n i
s t r at e ce ll d i
En twic kl u ngsg eschich t e d es M e ns ch en u n d der Thier e Le ipzig
1 8 47
—
1 905
.
.
.
,
,
M ikr os kopis ch e Ana tomie Leipzig 1 850 4
H andbuc h d e r G ew e bel ehr e d es M ens che n Leipzig
—
.
,
,
,
e dition, 1
88 9
,
1 852,
6 th
.
B owman s gl ands Lay er
G lands of
os te obl as ts
C e lls of
S tr a tu m in t er me dium
Liga mentu m cir c u l ar e
in t he ir is
of =
n ea
e ticu lu m of =
ne u r ol og ia
R
u bs tan ti
a f er r ugi
r)
S
e
L
a
( y
’
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
A N AT O M I CA L N A M E S
2 82
Ka r l
K r au s e ,
F r ie d r ic h
T h eo do r e
G
A
.
.
er
ma n
a n at o
m is t
in
H a nn ov e r 1 797 1 86 8
Pr o f e sso r o f anat om y in th e schoo l o f su r ge r y
a t H a nn ov e r
H an d bu ch d e r m e ns chlich en A na t omic H ann ov e r 1 83 3 3 8
L e ipz ig 1 9 05 S y nop
e dit e d an d a u g me n t e d by Wil h e lm K r a u s e
l l u s tr a t a n er vor u m s ys te ma tis g a ng lios i in capit e h o minis
si
s ic on e i
H a nn ov e r 1 83 9
A r cus t ons illa r is
F ibr ocar tilag in es f a l cif or m e s ( M e nis ci
Lig a me n t u m pis om e t a c ar peu m ;
s a cr o c occyg e u m me
g e nu )
a li
et
u l na r i
s;
M u s c u lu s cor a coce r vica lis ;
c or acor a di
s
d iu m
- u r e t h r a li
Tu
n a tu s
s tr ans v er s us R amus s upr as pi
S cyph u l u s
—
.
,
.
—
,
,
,
.
,
.
.
.
,
.
—
.
.
.
.
n ica
f olliculi
K r a u s e W il h e l m
.
,
in G
B e r l in
o e tt ing e n a nd
o f a n a t omy
f e s so r
m in e n t G e r ma n a n a t o mis t ( 1 83 2
S on o f K a r l F r ie d r ich T h eo d or K r a u se
An
.
in G
e
—
.
.
oe t t i
ng e n a nd
B e r lin
1 909
)
Pr o
.
H an d
N e u r ol og ie d e r o be r e n E x t r e m it at en
Le ipzig , 1 865
i
bu ch d er A n a t omie d e s m e ns ch e n u n t e r M itwir ku ng v o n W H is u n d
W Wald ey e r u nd u n ter Ve r w eis u ng a uf d en H and a tl as der A na
t omie v on We r n e r S pa l t e h o l tz , 1 89 9 1 9 05 4 vols in
A r cu s d or s alis pe dis
C r is t a mu s cu
C orpu s cu l a b u l bif or mia
)
n
a
o
o
n
u
a
l
a
t
i
a
t
r
a
s
v
er
s
F
s
s
a
u
b
v
e
s
i
l
i
s
G
l
a
n
d
l
a
la cr i
la r is ;
ca
p
p
ty mpa nica
Lig a me n t u m ca l
m alis a cc ess or ius
C l m u c os ae;
n ter oss e u m l a t ;
c os t o tr a ns v
d u c tu s
br e v e ;
can e o n av ic u l ar e i
v e n os i;
tar s ocal ca n e u m d or s a l e ;
po plite u m s u p ( ar c u a t u m) ;
t r ia ng u l a r e
Lin e a s e micir c u l ar is s u p L o bus inf an t c er e be lli
M em br an a f e n es tr a ta r e tinae ;
M us
pigm e n ti pig men ti ir idis
s;
c or a c or a d iali
s e t c or a c ou ln a r i
s;
l a bii
c u lu s c or a c o ce r v ic al i
t r a ns
qu a dr ig e min u s b r a c hii;
qu a dr ig e min u s ca pitis ;
n a lis l ongi
N u cl e us pe d u n c u li c er e br i;
r espi
r a t or iu s
ver s os pi
Os mu l t a ng u lu m a cc es s or iu m ;
Os tiu m tr ach ea l e
qu a dr a tu m
l a r y ngis
P l e x u s a ns e r inu s
P o r tio r e ct a ;
r e fl ex a
P r o ce ss us
us ;
me dialis ca lcan ei;
a n om a l u s me di
o cc u l t a s oss max illa r i
s
R a d ix d es ce n d e ns n g l os s o ph
S inu s s phe n oid al is
S u l ci tr ir a
T or u s u t er i Va s a a ber r an tia
dia ti S u tu r a tr a nsv oss occipitis
h e pa tis
'
.
.
.
.
,
—
.
,
.
.
.
.
,
.
.
.
-
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
—
—
—
.
.
—
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Ku e h n e
,
W illy
M u scl e
G e r m a n h is t o l o g is t 1 8 3 7 1 9 00
s pi
n e ur omu s cu la r s pi
nd l e of
ndle
—
1 8 29
p r o f es s o r
b e r g,
t he
1 8 76
aut
of t he
—
of
—
1 9 02
.
W il h e l m
v on
S t u d e nt
of
my in K ie l
an a t o
1 8 80 ;
.
,
.
Ku p ff e r , K a r l
o l o gis t ,
—
.
in
M u n ich
,
A G
.
er
m an
a nat o
Bidd e r , P r o s e c tor
1 8 67
P r o f e s s or
.
of
at
1 880 1 9 02 , a s s u c c e sso r
h or o f many m e moir s
fi sh e s
ou s
o n v ar i
ph ase s
a nd
D or p a t ,
a na t o
e
mb r y
1 8 58
66 ;
Konigs
—
my in
'
t o B isc h ofl
—
,
m is t
.
H e is
all y
o f emb r yol ogy , e sp ec i
.
Tex tu r d es R u ecke nmar ks
En twic klu ng s e in e r F or me leme n te , L eipzig, 1 8 57
Kopfes , 1 89 5
E n twic klu ngsg e s c hic ht e d
C el l u lae K u pffe r i
Ves icl e
Un ter s u chu ng en
ue ber
d
.
.
.
.
.
.
u.
A N AT O M I C A L N A M E S
H e nr y
L a caz e - D u t h ie r s ,
n
—
1 901
.
.
nat u r a l
n 1 86 3
h is to r y
he was
I
.
n 1 8 54
ca l l e d
p r o f e s sor
h is tor y mu s eum in
t o t h e na t u r a l
1 8 72
h e f ound e d ,
”
p é r ime nt a l e ,
R o s co ff o n t h e
ex
H e is th e
and
his
at
own
me y e a r
th e
sa
B r it t any ,
coas t o f
ex
“A r chiv e s
p en se , th e
f ou n d e d t h e
a n d e st a b l is
hed
a
in
an d z o ol ogy
b o t a ny
of
t h e p r o f e ssor s h ip in t h e S o r b onn e f r om 1 8 69 t o th e e nd
h el d
I
1 82 1
z oo l o g s t ,
-
st u dy o f
I
i
F r en ch
o f ex
b ut w a s
.
A
.
S t u d ie d me dic ine in P a r is ,
p e r ime nt a l z ool ogy in F r a n c e
in fl u en ce d b y d e Bl a inv ill e a n d M iln e E dw a r d s t o t ake up t h e
F ou n d e r
Lill e
de
2 83
.
P a r is,
a nd
h is lif e ,
of
Z oologie
de
Z ool og ical S t a t ion
l ab o r a t o r y
at
at
B an y u l s
me r o u s c ont r ib u t ion s t o t h e a n a t omy o f m o l lu sc s
a n d e sp e c i
a l ly t h e e mb r y ol ogy a n d n e u r olo gy o f m ollu sc s
L es a s cidie s s imple s d e s c o t e s d e F r a n ce 1 8 74
B iogr aphy : N e kr ol og im A r c hiv es d e Z ool ogie e x pé r imen ta le
a u th o r
a sc i
d ia n s
o f nu
.
,
.
.
,
,
X
,
1 9 02
La c é p é d e
F r e nc h
1
.
B e r nar d G
-
,
n a t u r alist a n d
A f r ien d
82 5
.
o
79 5
1
ma in Et ie nn e d e Lav ill e
-
-
w r it e r , w a s b or n
f B u ff o n
R o i, in
J ar d in du
-
er
.
G
an d
A g e n in
at
D au b e n to n
r a nd c
,
hanc e llo r
of
de
d ie d
Ep ina y ,
1 7 56
at
A
.
o f z oo logy at
P r o f esso r
.
C o mt e
t h e L égio n
-
d H on n e u r
th e
’
.
El og e lzzs t or iqu e d e D au ben t o n P a r is 1 79 0 ih
H is t oir e n a tu r e l l e d e s poissons P a r is 1 79 8 1 8 03 5 v ol
B iog r aphy : L El oge his t o r iqu e d e M l e C o mt e d e La c eped e
P a r is in
'
,
,
,
—
,
,
.
,
’
.
,
,
A G e r m an
J o h a nn e s
S t u d e n t o f J oh ann e s M u e ll e r
B r a u n sc h w e ig 1 8 3 2 1 860
C l ap ar é de o f impo r t an t c o n t r ib u t ions on t h e I n fu s or ia an d
L a c h m a nn , K a r l F r ie d r ic h
.
—
.
.
,
,
z oo l o g i
st
in
A u t h o r , w ith
R h iz op o da
.
A F r e n c h p h y s ic ia n , t h e
L a e nn e c , R e n é T h eo p h il e H y a c in t h e
inv e nt o r a nd disc ov e r e r o f th e s t et h osc op e , b o r n at Q u im p e r , 1 7 8 1 1 82 6
H e is t h e au t h o r o f a
P r o f e s s o r o f m e d ic in e in t h e Co l lege d e F r a n c e
-
-
.
—
.
.
b u t ion s
n u m b e r o f co n t r i
R ic h ar d so n,
v ol
.
1
,
p 3 1 9,
.
M e moir e
f oie
1
.
L a gu n a ,
8 03
wh ic h
1 9 01
c on te na n t
ar e
,
D isc ipl e s
list e d in
a n d am o ng
of
ZE sc ul apius ,
”
t h em is h is :
la d es cr iption d e la membr ane pr opr e d a
.
A n dr é s
a
( La c a n a ,
Lu ca n a )
U n iv e r s it y
.
I
490
(9)
—
B o r n at
a n d P a r is
1 560
.
o f S alamanca
S e g o v ie S p a in H e s t u die d a t t h e
A t P a d u a h e w as
t e d t h e u niv e r sit ie s o f I t aly a n d G e r ma ny
and v i
si
at e d w i
t h R ealdo Colo mb o ; w a s h ono r e d in R o me b y P op e Le o X
a sso c i
H e is th e a u th o r o f s e v e r al d isse r t at ion s on th e wo r k o f G al e n H is b est
.
,
,
,
.
.
.
b u t io n t o a n at o my s e em s t o
co n t r i
A na t omica m e t h o d n s
h
1 53 5, i
s
ar i
P
l
i
a
t
o
p
.
,
,
be
s eu
de
s e c ti
on e
h umani c or por is
con t e
m
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
2 84
L al l e ma n d , C l a u d e F r an co is
A F r e nc h
-
B odie s
con cr e tions
f
o
L a l ou e t t e , P ie r r e
P y r a mid
L a ma r c k ,
de
in th e
s u r g e o n , 1 790 1 853
—
nal v es icl es
s e mi
A p hy s ic ia n in P ar is ,
.
1 71 1
—
1 742
me dian l obe of the thyr oid g lan d
f
o
J e a n B a p t is t e
A d is t ingu is h e d F r e nch
.
.
.
—
—
—
—
n a t u r a lis t ,
.
.
.
Monne t t e
Pie r r e A n t o in e d e
,
ev o l u t i
o n is t ,
an d
.
c
h ev a l ie r
1 744- 1 8 29
.
A sso c ia t e d w it h B u fl o n , D aub e nt o n, C u v ie r , G e o ff r e S a int H il air e a n d
y
La c ep ed e a t t h e J a r din d e s Pl an t e s , w h e r e h e w a s p r o f e s sor o f n a t u r a l h is
'
-
t or y
.
I
h is id ea s
Philosop h ie
his
n
of
Z oo logique
w hich o r gan ic
th e w ay in
t h at h e inv e nt e d t h e t e r m
mu t ab ilit y
p ar a r ie s
of
sp e c i
es ,
H e is t h e
.
Z ool ogie
,
p u b l ish e d in 1 8 09, h e p r e p os e d
e v ol u t i
o n h a s w or k e d
I t is s aid
.
”
One
.
of
the
in wh ich h e w as b it t e r ly
au t
hor
Phil osoph iqu e ,
H is t oir e
b iol og y
”
”
o f nu
fi r st
t o b e liev e in t h e
o ppo s e d
m e r ou s w o r k s
b y h is
hist or y
on n a t u r a l
,
is
c o n t a ine d
n a t ur e ll e
.
in :
ma ux
an i
d es
m
H is
co nt e
s ans ve r
’
t e br é s, P a r is
1 81
5
his id e as w er e giv e n f or th e fir s t tim e in his :
S ys
t e m e d e s a nim a ux s a ns v er te br e s 1 8 01
H is P hil os ophie Z ool og
iqu e w a s iss u e d in 1 8 09 in 2 v ols ih
H e is a ls o t h e a u t h or of
an i
mpor tan t me m oir e n tit l e d :
R e ch er ch es s u r l or g a nis a tio n d es
c or ps v i
v a ns par tic u lier e me n t s ur l e ur or i
g in e , s u r l a cau s e d e l e u r
d év e l oppe m en t d es pr og r é s d e l e u r compos ition e t c e lle qu i a m en e l a
”
m or t P ar is 1 8 02, in
B iog r aph y : L a mar c k, Th e F ou n d er of Ev ol u tion, H is Lif e and
Wor ks w ith Tr a ns la tions of his Wr itings on Or g anic Evo l u tion,
by P a c kar d 1 9 01
1
82 2 ,
a l th oug h
’
.
,
.
,
’
’
,
,
,
,
,
.
,
L a n c is i, G io v a nn i M a r ia
t h e P op e
( I nnoce nt X I
,
.
An
I t a lia n
1 6 54
in
—
1
an at o
mis t
P r o f e ss or
72 0
.
p h y s ic ia n t o
an d
o f an a t o my at
S ap ie n c e in 1 684 ; in 1 7 00 h e wa s fi r st p hy s ician t o P op e Cl e m e nt
Wh ile in R ome h e wa s as s ocia t e d with M alpigh i T o z z i, a n d G allia ni;
w as in c o r r e sp o n d e nce w it h B e ll ini B oe r h aav e M o r g agn i, H e is t e r
,
,
,
,
,
XI
.
a nd
an d
h e r e minen t me d ic al me n H e w a s as sist e d in h is wo r k by Pop e
I nn o c e nt X I I t o who m is att r ibu te d th e fi r st o b se r v at io n o f th e cir cu l a
t ion o f t h e b l oo d w it h t h e micr oscop e a n d th e d isc ov er y o f b l oo d c ap il
l a r ie s a n d c o r p u s cl e s ; in wh ich h e w a s p r ob abl y s t imul at ed b y La nc isi
Th e l att e r is t h e au t ho r o f a nu mb er o f w or ks in a nato my pub lish e d in
fo lio s an d qu a r t os Am o ng t h em may b e m e nt ioned :
ma ny
ot
.
,
,
.
,
.
A na t omia c or por is hu mani a d us u m t he a tr i ac commod a ta,
A n a t omia per u s o c d in t e llig enz a d e l dis eg n o,
Tu r in, 1 7 1 1 , ih
R om e,
r icer ca ta n on s ol o s u g li oss i e m os cu li d e l c or po u mano e tc
This w or k r e calls the fa mou s B r idg ew a t er tr ea tis e s
1 69 1 in f ol
mes
Tab u lar ana tomicce clar iss imi vir i B ar th ol omcei
of l a t er ti
_
,
—
,
.
.
.
A N A T O M I CA L N AM E S
2 86
L a n gh a n s , T h e o d o r
e r man
G
.
.
p a t h o l o g is t a n d a n a t o m is t , 1 8 3 9
’
f or ming Lang han s Lay er ( cov er ing
'
C e l ls of
pl acen tal
the
poly g onal
vi
ll i
)
.
Mer e
L a t h am , P e t e r
ce ll s
A n E n g l is h p h y s ic ia n , 1 789 1 8 7 5
H e a r t L on d on 1 8 45
ng t o th e
a r e a on t h e ch e s t cor r e spon d i
—
.
D is e as e s of t h e
an
Cir c l e of
per icar dia l d u l ln es s
:
.
,
.
,
f
ar ea o
.
L au m o nie r ,
G
J e an
B a p t is t e
—
G
ang lion o
f
La ut h , E r ne s t Al ex
1 8 03
a ng lion ca r o tic u
a ndr e
A G
.
er
m
s u r g eo n ,
1
749
—
1818
.
.
m a n p h y s io l o g is t
a nd anat o
p h y s iol og y in S t r a s sb u r g
H andbu ch d e r A na t o nzie S t u t tg ar t 1 83 6
M é mo ir e s u r l e s v ais s e a ux ly mpha tiqu e s d es ois ea u x e t
m a nier e d e l e s pr epa r e r , P a r is 1 8 2 5, in
A ppe ndix e pid idym id is C a nalis D u c t u s a b e r r a ns t es tis
=
r
m
e
n
e
n
l
i
u
v
o
S
s
os
u
s
c
er
a
e
s c aph oc u n e i
s
S c hl e mmi
(
)
f
1 83 7
—
P r o f e s s or
A F r en c h
.
.
of
m is t
,
.
,
.
,
s ur
la
,
.
L a u t h , T h o m as
L ob s t e in , D e sa u l t , H u nt e r
of
a na t o
S a nt é ,
my
1 7 9 4,
a nd
in S t r a ss b u r g
to
m an
er
va ni
a,
1
82 2
—
1 82 3
C an a l
Co l l e g e
e or ge
S chl e mm
f
S
—
Lig ame nt
.
f
o
=
v ol
l ig
( Up
.
tr ans
.
.
G
eo r ge
.
A n A m e r ic a n p h y s ic ia n a n d a n a t
H o m e r in th e U n iv e r s it y o f P e nnsyl
.
1 86 7
A n E ng lis h a n a t o mis t a n d s u r g e o n in
P r o f es so r o f a n a tomy an d su r ger y a t t h e R oy al
.
.
u r g eon s
H is tor y
Jaus
,
.
a n a to
J
f M an
o
L eb e r , F e r d in
of
.
.
,
S e e V al e t t e S t
.
W ill iam
C ompar a tiv e
S tu d e nt
1 76 1 86
78 4 ; p r o f e s so r
a t t h e Ec ol e d e
.
1 78 3
of
of
1
,
,
o
A s s is t a n t t o
L aw r e n c e , S ir
Lo n do n
,
S t u d e nt
.
.
G
.
an a t o
,
,
,
79 1
1 826
my
o f a n a t om y
of
,
La w r e n ce J a s o n V a l e n t in e
1
—
m ol og ie 1 79 8 als o H a ll e 1 8 05
l a n a t o mie S tr as s bur g 1 8 1 5 in 4
I
e t s y n d es
Can a l of
s
v e r s u m a tla n ti
o m is t ,
,
1 758
.
,
.
mis t
p r o f esso r
1 78 5 ;
H is t oir e d e
t h e time of B a r th o lin
La V a l e t t e S t
a na t o
D e m on s t r a t o r
.
su r g e r y ,
M yo l ogie
.
.
A G
.
Lig
.
os ,
1
81 6
—
my Phy s iol ogy Z ool ogy
1 81 8
E dl e r
P r o f e s so r
,
,
th e N a tur a l
.
v on
of
an d
.
An
anat o
an a t o m y
at
mis t in V ie nn a
1 72 7
—
t h e u n iv e r sit y in
1 808
.
V ie nna ,
—
.
Vor l es u ng e n
u e b er
d
.
Z er g l ie d e r u ngs ku ns t ,
2n d
ed
.
,
Vienna,
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
Le B oe
S e e B oe
.
.
L e c a t , C l a u d e N ic o l a s
( L e C at )
-
G
ul
f of
287
.
th e bu lbou s
A F r enc h
.
u r e t hr a
768
1 700 1
sur g e on ,
—
.
.
‘
A n E ng lis h p h y s ic ia n 1 79 3 1 8 7 7
“
Lo nd o n
Th e mor bid a na t omy of t h e
Lee, R o b er t
o b st e t r ic s
a
in
L on d on,
,
G
f
1 63 2
n e nt
em i
An
.
—
1 72 3
H e d isc o v e r e d
c anal s ,
d e nt a l
cer vica l
D ut c h
the
an
of
one
b lo o d
g a nglion
at omist
a nd
its
u t er us
of
( A n t o in e A n to n iu s
.
th e
or
p h y s ic ia n a t D e lf t ,
m ic r o sc o p ic al o b s e r vat io n s
.
ae
st r i
s k e l e t al
in
e x c ise
ma n
,
.
d id R ob e r t B u r n s
as
,
t he
,
mu sc l e t h e
sp e r m at o z o a
$1 2 5
.
t h is p ost f o r 3 9 y e a r s , a n d t h e
c o nt r i
b u t e d ov e r 3 7 5 p a p e r s a n d l e t t e r s t o t h e R o y al S o c ie t y
se v e r al
War d )
B e n j a m in
Ais cu la pius
1,
pp
1 2 7,
—
wit h
por tr ait
a nd
pie d by Lacy
co
—
al t
—
.
w a s l e a r n e d in p h y s ic
h e wa s, f o r his t im e ,
,
an o r th od ox
m e d ic in e b y
of
p r o f e ss or
ev er y
a re
Lo n d o n ,
of
figu r e s of his appar a tus
fi
r e s fr om L e eu w e nh o e c k s w or k
u
f g
s ay s
its M a ke r s pp 77 88
,
He
.
,
1 08
.
.
.
o
a nd
r e g u l ar
.
th e
in
,
h e ld
R ic h a r d s on ( S ir
S c ienc e in Pa r is
”
2,
1 885
A s c le p ia d
v ol
( D is cipl es of
of
’
co
B iol ogy
a
,
pies
and
v ol
A c a d e my
t he
to
A n t o nj
Le e u w e nh o eck
p e r y e ar
sti
p en d w a s p a id h im t ill h is d e at h
s al a r y o f
,
an d
)
and
Jo h ann H am
s t u d e nt ,
be a dl e ,
v on
,
n at u r alis t
,
c or p u sc l e s ,
H e h e l d t h e h u mb l e p o s t
o f S c o t l a n d a t t h e sma ll
of
.
t h e p io n e e r s in
t h r ou g h h is
an d
P r o fe s s o r
.
( Le e w e n h o e c k )
H e w as
.
83 8
1
ang lion o
L e e u w e nh o e c k
v an
.
,
.
”
ppe nd age s
—
.
ma r kab l e
sy s t e
m
of
m ist
not
t r a in in g , h e
l in e h e w r it e s
a nat o
h ou gh
s
ho w s t h a t
”
.
N a tu r ku n d ig e We r ke n D e lf t 1 69 6 ih 4
B iog r aphy : H ol l er B iblio th e c a A na t omica
"
-
,
,
,
-
T ome I
,
,
p 6 06
.
.
min e n t p a l e o n t o l o g is t b io l o g is t a n d a n a t
O ne o f th e m ost n o t e d t e a ch e r s o f a na t o my o f t h e
1 8 2 3 1 89 1
o m is t
i
n W W
H
st o r y o f p r ae
K
ee
e
S
e
P h il a de lp h ia S c ho ol o f A na t om y
(
P r o f e ssor o f an a t om y at t h e U n i
Ph il a d e lp h ia
t ical A n a t o m
J o sep h
L e id y ,
.
An
e
,
,
—
.
,
y,
ty o f
v e r si
.
.
,
.
,
,
P e nn s yl v a n ia ,
to
a s su c c e s so r
H o m e r w h ic h
r
c h ai
,
W ill ia m
he
fi ll e d
f or
P e p p e r , b y F N Th or p e , P h il ad e lp h ia ,
o l ogy ,
b
u t ion s t o b i
r o f 599 c o nt r i
o
u
t
h
a
s
t
e
w
a
h
H
e
1
0
1
1 9 04, p p
in clu d ing p r o t o z ool ogy p ar asit o l ogy h u m an a n a t om y v e r t e b r a t e p a l e on
s
h
av e g e e n g a t h er e d b y hi
n
t
es
i
t
o
w
h
e
r
s
i
a
f
h
s
l
o
i
t
e
s
t
Th
e
,
t o l og y
p p
ll
ec t i
o n s x l v i, n o 1 4 77 ,
h
o
n
C
u
l
eo
s
a
e
l
M
i
sc
n
i
n
t
so
a
i
m
S
n
so
(
3 8 y e ar s
.
( S e e l if e
of
.
.
.
,
,
,
,
.
.
,
.
El e me n tar y T r e a tis e on H u m a n A na t om y
M us cu lu s ex te ns or br evis
.
,
1
889
.
'
A N A T O M I CA L N AM E S
2 88
.
B iog r aphy Th e Life a n d Wor ks of J oseph Le idy, b y H enr y
C C hapma n 1 9 07
S cie nc e N S , v ol 2 6, n o 6 76 p 8 1 2
H F Os bor n B iog r aphical M e moir of Jos eph Le id y N a t l A ca d
S ci ( B iog M om”) v o l 7 pp 3 3 9 3 9 5 1 9 1 3 w it h por tr ait a n d
b l og r aphy
S e e a ls o P op S ci M on thly, vol 1 7, pp 68 4 69 1 ,
.
—
.
,
.
,
.
.
.
.
.
.
'
.
.
,
.
.
,
—
.
.
ggg
,
,
,
—
.
L e nh o s s é k,
.
J os e p h
v on
.
An
.
.
.
.
a n a to
m is t
of
1 81 8
B u da p e s t ,
—
1 8 88
.
V ie nna ; t h en f or 9 y e a r s as s is t an t in
a na t o m y a t t h e U n i
t y o f B u d a p e s t a nd b e ca me p r o f e s s o r e o o f
ver si
t op o g r ap hic a na t o my a n d l ate r s t u die d in V ie nn a u n d e r H y r t l a n d
S t u d ie d
a n at o
my
u n de r
B er r es
at
B r uecke
H e was
.
c all e d
fi v e ye a r s when he
t o p o g r a p hic a n a t omy
Vie nn a
p r o f e s s o r o f a n a t o my f o r
p r o f e s so r o f d e s c r ip t iv e a nd
Kl au s e nb u r g
to Pe st
r e tu r n e d
,
Ue ber
to
.
.
,
as
as
w h ich p os it io n h e h e ld u nt il h is d e a t h
d e n f e ine r e n B a u d e r s ogenn an t en M e d u ll a
.
,
-
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pinalis
.
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L e o n a r d o d a V in c i wa s
a n e m in e n t
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ar t i
st , a n a t o
m is t
,
e ng i
H e w a s b o r n a t t h e C a s t l e V in c i in
51 9
M ar c
t h e v a l l e y o f t h e A r no a b o u t m id w a y b e t w e e n Pis a a nd F l o r e nc e
A nt o nio d e ll a T o r r e is s u pp o se d t o h av e b e e n t h e t e a ch e r o f Le on a r do
n ee r
in v e n t o r ,
an d
1 452
1
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.
,
in
my
a na t o
of
f r at io n
,
and
A n a t omy
his
se r vi
ces
his
.
.
,
d iffi c u l t ie s in th e w ay
Bl a e t t e r ,
ac k sc h a th ( M e d
( M ed
sa y s :
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of
ar e
fo r t h e il l u s
ar ti
st
an
as
M c M u r r ich h o w e v e r
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the r e
I V p 3 46 ,
h as b e en su gge s t e d b y
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secur ed
h av e
to
s uc
1 9 02 ,
.
h
a
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b e lie f
x x v,
pp
.
Lib
.
.
,
I t
7 70
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772 ) t h at V e s a lius p l ag ia r iz e d t h e d r a w in g s in h is
This is d e nie d b y M c M u r r ich ( M e d
h uman i,
f r o m Le o n a r do
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Le o n ar d o s m a nu s cr ip t s a nd d r aw ing s in a n at omy
Lib I V 1 906 p
.
.
,
h av e
,
.
.
,
b e e n p ub lish e d u nde r t h e f o l lo w ing t it l e s
L e s M a n us cr its d e L e ona r d d e Vin cid e l a B iblio t h equ e R oy
a l e d e Win d s or : D e l A n a t o mie F e u ille ts a pu b lies par Th e od or e
‘
S a ba ch nikofi av e c Tr a du c tion e n Lang u e F r ancais e Tr a ns cr its e t
A n no t e s pa r G iov a nni P iu ma ti pr e c e d es d u n e E tu d e par M a t hias
in f o lio
1 89 8 1 9 01
Le on ar d o da Vin ci
D uva l P a r is 5 v o ls
Tr a dici f og li d e ll a R oy a l Libr a r y di
Qu a d e r ni d A na t omia
Winds or P u bblica ti d o Ov e C L Vang ens ten A F o na hn,
H H ops tock, 1 9 1 1 1 9 1 4, C hr is tiania 4 v ols in f olio
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at
.
,
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or i
gin a l
Wind so r
m an u s c r ip t s
an
d dr a w ing s
ar e
.
in t h e R o y al Lib r a r y
.
L e onar d o d a Vin ci an d
Biogr aphy : M cM ur r ic h J P 1 9 06
Ves al iu s, M e d Lib v ol 4 pp 3 38 3 50 I n th e bibliog r a phy a t
t h e e n d of t his paper is g iv en a compl e t e lis t of r efe r e n ce s t o the
l ife a nd a na t omic a l w or ks of Le onar d o d a Vinci E ncy
B u ll J ohns H opkins H os pita l vol 2 2 p 1 40
—
,
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.
—
.
.
,
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.
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,
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,
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S ee
M a r c ant onio d ella
r e fe r en c e s
.
Tor r e
and
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,
D ur e r
.
.
.
for
ot
he r
b iog r aph ical
A N A T O M I CA L N A M ES
2 90
.
I n 1 846 a s sis t a n t in th e p h y s io lo g ic al
p e c ially int e r est e d in t h e fi sh e s
inst it u t e ; in 1 848 p r o s e c t or in t h e an a t o m ic al in s t it u t e ; in 1 8 57 p r o f e s so r
.
ve
o f z o ol o gy a nd c o mp a r a t i
th e
m e dical f a c u l t y
in s t it u t e w ith
a n a t om y
v on
at
a n ato
B o nn
my
T ub ing e n ; in
at
ve
o f c om p a r a t i
d ir e c t o r
a nd
La V al e tt t e S t
G
.
p r o f e s so r in
a n a t o m y in t h e
1 8 75
in
e or ge
h uma n
n or m a l
of
c h a r ge
.
L e h r bu c h d e r H is t ol ogie d e s M e ns ch e n u n d d e r Tier e F r a nk
f ur t, 1 857 D ie au g en ah nlich e n Or g an e d e r F is c he B onn 1 88 1
Z u r K e n n tnis s d e r Z ir be l u n d P a r ie t a l or g an e F r a n kfu r t 1 8 9 0
H e nl e s ce lls
D u c t of
C e l ls of
Wolfiian d u c t P r imi
bu n d le s of mu s cu l ar fi br es
tive cylind e r s
B iog r a phy : A na t A nz B d 3 2 pp 503 506 1 9 08 ; S itz u ng s
be r ich t e d N ie d er r h e in G es f N a t u r
H c ilk B on n, 1 9 08 ;
u
M unc h med Woch e ns chr if t N r 1 8, 1 9 08
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in B e r l in , kn o w n
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ons ,
o b s e r v at i
171 1
1
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n 1 740
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ted
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si
Pa r is
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.
A G
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er
m a n p h y s ic ia n
and
7 56
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G
a ub i
us
v a s cu l a r
his
A lb in u s in B e r lin,
s t u d e nt o f
and
a n at
a nd
f o r h is w o n d e r f u l inj e ct io n s
,
S o c iety
,
.
740 a n d o f B oe r h aav e , V an S w ie t e n ,
Lo n do n a n d e x h ib it e d his m ar v e l o u s
1
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.
.
.
Jo h a n n
L ie b e r k u e h n ,
m ic r o sc op ic al
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o m is t
.
I
.
n 1
73 8 h e
ted
v is i
inj ec t ion s t o t h e R oyal
.
D is s er t a tio
Diss er t a tio d e va lv u la c oli, Le y d e n, 1 73 9 in
d e f a br ica c t a c tion e v ill or u m int es tin or u m t cniu m L ey d e n 1 745
Th es e tw o tr e a tis es w e r e pr in t e d in o n e vol u m e in 1 78 2
in
L on d on in
A mpu l la of
G l a n du l a e int e s tin al es ( Cr yptae
F o ll icu lw)
b lin d e nd of a la c t eal
,
,
,
,
,
,
.
.
.
Lie u t au d ,
Jo s ep h
A
.
F r ench
p h y s ic ia n
b o r n in P a r is
ph y s ic ia n t o Lou is X V a nd XV I ,
t r ib u t e d t o t h e a d v a n ce m e nt o f p at h ol og ic a l
numb e r o f a u t op sie s
a n a t o m is t ,
a nd
He
( 1 703
a n a t om y
fi r st
co n
t h r o u gh t h e g r e a t
h e p e r fo rm e d
E s s ais a na t omiqu es a nt e na n t l his t oir e ex ac te d e t ou t e s l es
par tie s qui compos e n t l e cor ps h u main, A ix , 1 742, in
Cor pus
tr ig onu m
Cu s pis v a lvu lar e
S eptu m v alvu l ar e
Tr ig onu m
.
’
.
.
.
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Linn a e u s , C ar o l u s
n at u r a list ,
1 7 07
—
La t e r
1
w as b or n
at
( Kar l
R a sh u l t
von
,
Lin n é )
An
n ent
e mi
S w e d is h
in t h e p r ov inc e o f S mal a n d, S w e d e n
la
th e u niv e r s it y at Lu n d l at er at U p s a
778 I n 1 72 7 h e w e nt t o
h e v is it e d v ar io u s u niv e r sit ie s in G
.
.
,
er
ma ny
and
H oll a n d
,
an d
,
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at
h ow e d his MS S o f th e S ys te ma N a tur cc t o G r o noviu s wh o
T h is w a s fi r st iss u e d as 8
t pub l ish e d a t his ow n ex p e ns e
o r d e r ed i
f ol io sh e e t s a nd t h e w or k sa w 1 2 augment e d e d it io n s d u r ing t h e lif e o f
Lat e r a s a p r o f e s so r a t t h e U niv e r s it y o f Up s ala Linnae u s
th e au th or
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s
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A N AT O M I CA L N A M E S
f am e
as a
l e ct u r e r in cr e a s e d t h e
r ep r e se n t ing
f r om
st u d e n t s
a ll
t h e u niv e r s it y f r om
r ole o f
of
p ar t s
t h e w o r ld
mos
f ou nd biol ogy a c ho as and l e f t it a
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H e p r opo se d t h e t e r m
g r e a t h ost o f w or ke r s in a ll l and s
H omo s apie ns f o r ma n B e s ides th e S ys t e ma n a tu r ae, wh ic h w ent t h r ou gh
nu me r ou s e dit io ns , h e w as t h e au t ho r o f ove r 200 e ss ay s o n p l a nt s an d
s
t r u ct u r e b y
a
.
.
m al s
a ni
.
L is f r a n c ,
J ac q u e s
A F r enc h
.
m emo ir s
cal
aut o r o f s u r g i
h
s u r ge o n
p r om o t e r
a nd a
tar s o- mc ta t ar s cc
A r tic u la tion es
s cal e ni
in P a r is ,
of
1
su r g i
c al
790 1 847
my
an a t o
Lig ame n t u m
.
An
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.
Tu be r c u l u m
.
.
L iss a u e r , H e in r ic h
A G
.
er
ma n
n e u r o lo g is t ,
1 86 1 - 1
89 1
.
L is s a u er i
Z ona
.
Lit t r é , A l e x is
s u r g e o n a n d a n a t o m is t ,
A Fr e nc h
.
1 6 58
—
1
72 6
.
He
d esc r ib e d th e t r ia ngu l a r s p a c e o f th e b l a dd e r a n d d e mo n st r a t e d t h e
H e is o f t en c o n f u se d w it h t h e f ollo wing
u r e t h r al gl an d s
,
.
.
u r e t hr a l e s
G l an d u l ce
M ax im il ie n P au l Em il e
L it t r é ,
sc
h ol a r
,
Tr ig onu m
.
1 8 01
1 88 1
—
Litt r é fin
.
1
83 9 6
—
e m in e n t
An
-
—
.
.
1
Fr ench
m e d ic a l
p u bl ish e d in Pa r is , h is 1 0 v o lu me
Th is is t h e m o st sch o l a r ly e d it io n
,
f H ip p o c r at e s
Th is
t ing s o f t h is an c ie n t a u t h or w h ich h a s y e t b e e n is su e d
o f th e w r i
P a gel say s :
w o r k inau gu r a t e d a n e w ph a se in t h e s t u dy o f H ipp o c r at e s
J e de r d e r tib e r H ip p ok r at e s mit sp r e c h e n will , mu ss d ie Lit t r é sch e
t ion o f
edi
t h e w r it ing s
o
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.
Au sgab e in H and e n h ab e n
L ob s t e in ,
p at
J o h an n G
p r o f e ssor o f
1 819
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angl i
on
L ob s t e in ,
b u rg,
1 7 3 6— 1
p at
J o h an n
78 4
A G e r m an
C h r is t ia n F r ie d r ic h M a r t in
Pr osec t o r in S t r as sb u r g , 1 796
1 777 1 8 3 5
.
—
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h olo g ic al
.
a n a t om y
Pla cen ta
v ela
F r ie d r ic h
D e m o n st r a t o r
.
.
eor g
in S t r a s s b u r g ,
h olog ist
u nd s tud i
er en
.
.
me n tos a
.
A p h y s ic ia n
n
o f a n a t o my i
.
o f anat omy an d su r ge r y as s uc ce sso r t o
a n d a n at o
Eise nma nn
I
mis t
n 1 76 8
S t r as s
at
pr o f e ss or
.
Diss er t a tio d e n er vo s pin ali a d par v ag u m a c c e ss or io S tr as
D iss e r ta tio d c v a l v u l a Eu s ta c hii S tr as bou r g ,
bour g, 1 76 0, ih
S tr a s bo u r g 1 7 73
Diss e r t a tio d e n e r v is d u r ce ma tr is
ni4
1 77 1 i
D iss e r ta tio
D iss e r t a tio d e lie n e S tr as b our g 1 774, in
ih
d e h epa t e S tr as bou r g 1 775, in
,
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A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
29 2
J u s t u s C h r is t ia n
Lo d e r ,
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1 753 4
83 2
J ena ;
1 8 03 06 ,
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A na t omis ch e Taf e ln, We imar
4 B d e Tex t F olio
G r u nd r is s e d e r A na tomic Je na,
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L ou is , A n t o in e
1 72 3
1
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of
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79 7
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F r e nch
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ph y s io lo gy
A ca d emy o f S c ien c e
th e
of
.
h is t o l o g is t
A S w e dis h
.
H e is k n own f o r h is d isc ov e r y
t o ng ue o f mammal s
of
p h y s io l o g is t
I n 1 764 h e w a s ma d e
H e is t h e aut ho r o f
s ur ge on
.
on s u r g e r y an d s u r g ic al a nat omy
wor k s
a nd
.
and
t he t a st e
p h y s iol o g is t , 1 864
fi b r e s in t h e pap illae
.
1 69 1
—
P r o f e s so r
s ec r e ta r y o f
L ow e r , R ic h a r d
1 63 1
n e nt
e mi
An
.
.
L ov é n , O t t o C
1 9 04
mis t
.
.
nu m e r ou s
anat o
,
K on ig s-b e r g , th e n in S t P et e r sb u r g ; t h en in Mos cow
p e r m a ne n t
d
77 8 o p r o f e s so r o f a na to my s u r g e r y a n d o b s t e t r ic s in
p r o f e ss or o f a nat o my and s u r g e r y in H al l e, l a t e r in
n
—
in P a r is ,
an
s u r g e on
A n E ng l is h a n a t o m is t , a n d p h y s ic ian in Lo n d o n
H e st u die d
b o r n in T r em e r e C o r n w a ll , E ngl a nd
,
.
H e w as
.
.
,
me d ic in e a t O x for d w h e r e h e w o r k e d w it h W il lis I n
e ty
Kno wn f or his s t u die s
a m emb e r o f t h e R o ya l S o c i
1 66 7
.
,
on
.
h e b ec ame
t h e h ear t
Tr a c ta tus d e c or d e ; it em d c mo tu e t c olor e s angu inis ,
in c u m tr ans itu , L ond on, 1 669 , in
Tu ber c u lu m in te r v e nos u m
Tr u ncu s inn omina tus
.
.
.
e t c hy li
Te nd o
c or di
s.
Lu c a e , S a m u e l C h r is t ia n
fur t
-
m M ain
a
1 78 7
r ec t o r o f
the
1 82 1
—
—
,
er m a n
A G
.
P r o f e sso r
.
M e dico clinic I ns t it ut e
-
p h y s icia n , b o r n a t F r a nk
n M ar b u r g , and di
o f me d ic in e i
a nd o f
the
hosp ital
.
O bs e r v a tion es a na t omica cir ca n er v os ar t er ias a d eu ntes , F r a n k
A na to mis ch e Un t er s u ch u ng e n d e r Thy mu s in
fu r t 1 8 1 0 ih
M e nsc h e n u n d Thier c n F r a n kfu r t 1 8 1 1 ih 4
A na t omis che
B e m e r ku ng en u e be r d ie D iv e r ticu l a a m D a r mca na l, u nd u e ber die
t
l e n d er Thymus
N ur e mber g, 1 8 1 3 ih
~
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,
-
.
,
,
.
,
W il h e l m
L u d w ig , K a r l F r ie d r ic h
Liep z ig,
1 846
;
1816
1 849
—
1
Pr o f e s sor
89 5
.
p r o f e s so r
of
my
of
a na t o
co
a nd
.
A G
mp ar at ive
ph y sio l ogy
m a n p h y s iol o g is t in
an at omy i
n M ar b ur g
,
,
Ziir ich ; 1 8 55 p r o
; 1 86 5 p r o f e ssor o f p hy siol ogy
f esso r o f z o ology a n d p h y siology a t V ie nna
a t Le i
p z ig w h ic h po sit ion h e h e ld unt il 1 89 5
t ingu ish e d in m ed ic ine
.
,
er
at
Memb e r
of a
f amily dis
.
Le hr bu ch d er Phys iologic d es M ens che n, 1 862 1 869
G a nglion
N l ar yng o v ag o car diacu s ( d epr ess or cor dis )
—
.
-
.
.
.
A N A T O M I CA L NA M E S
2 94
H ot el Die u ,
t he
F ou nd er
p r o f e s s or
and
Co l leg e d e F r a nce
p é r im e nt al e Pa r is 1 8 2 1 3 1
me dic ine
of
“J ou r nal
.
th e
at
.
d e ph y sio l ogie ex
,
,
A na t omic d es s ys t emes ne r v e u x d es a n ima u x
v e r t é br es ,
M é moir e
a ppl i
qu e a l a phy s iol og ic a t a l a o ol Og ie P a r is 1 82 1
s s e au x
ly mph a tiqu es d e s ois e au x
s u r l e s v ai
P ar is , 1 8 1 9
A pe r t ur a me d ia na v e n tr ic u li qua r ti ( M ag e n d ii)
S pa ces of
=
be tw e e n th e pia a n d a r a ch n oid
B iog r a phy : A B iog r a phy of F r a nc o is M ag e n d ie , M e d Lib ,
I V, p 45 1 9 06
th e
of
‘
—
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.
,
,
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
,
M a ie r R u d o l f
,
Au th o r
.
A G
.
er
m a n p h y s ic ia n
o f a t e x t b oo k o f
p a t h o l o g is t ,
and
p a t h o log y
S in ns of
an inf u n dib u li
for m d epr ess ion
of t h e l a c h r y ma l sac
1 82 4
—
1 88 8
.
-
.
.
fa c e
on
t h e in te r n a l s u r
~
.
M a is s ia t
J a c q u e s H e n r i ( 1 805
A F r ench
-
,
P ar is , p r o f e s so r in P a r is
M e d icin e
Cur at or
.
of
co lle ct i
o ns
th e
of
a n a t o m is t
th e S
c h oo l
in
of
.
Tr a c tus il io tibialis
M a j o r J oh a nn
D a n ie l
,
ne ,
ci
bo r n
I t al y
vi
s it e d
Pa d u a
B r e s lau ,
at
,
A G
.
1 6 3 44
693
ma n p h y s ic ia n a n d t e a c h e r o f m e di
H e s t u d ie d at W itt e nb e r g Le ip z ig a nd
er
.
,
,
h e t o ok h is d e g r ee at t h e U niv e r s it y
n e at t h e U n iv e r s it y o f Kie l , wi
t h c h ar ge
o f m e dici
w h er e in
P r o f e ssor
.
.
1 66 0
H e w as call e d t o S t o c kh o lm
t h e b o ta nical g a r d e n s
D iss e r t a tio d e pu lm o n e , Witt e n be r g, 1 655, in
M emor iale
'
M al a c a r n e
of
my
Kie l
1
,
66 8, ih
M ic h e l e V in ce n z o G iac int o ( 1 744
-
,
of
.
.
ana tomicu m,
of
A c qu i,
P r o fe s s o r
—
8 3 ; p r o f e s s or o f su r g e r y a n d o b s t e t r ic s at
P a v ia , t h e n s u r ge r y in Pa d u a
O n e o f t h e f ou n d e r s o f s u r gic a l a n a t om y
n
a n d a s t u d e n t o f c o m p ar a t iv e an a t om y , e sp e c ial l y o f t h e b r a i
H e w r ot e
a n ato
at
1 775
—
.
.
g oo d d e sc r ip t ion o f t h e c e r eb e ll u m
N u ov a espos iz d v er a s tr u t t u r a d e l c er v e l e t t o u man o, Tu r in,
N e r v o e n c efa l o t omia, P av ia, 1 79 1 ,
1 776
En cef a l o t di a l c u nt
1 79 5
D e ll e ope r e d e m e d ici e d e c er u s ici
q u ar d u p M an t
r on o pr i
ma d e l s e c X VI n eg li s ta ti d el la r
c h e n a c qu er o o fi or i
2 v o ls
a, 1 78 6 1 789
c asa d iS av oi
Pyr amid of =
a l o b u l e on t h e u nd er s u r f a ce of t h e cer e be l
s u bs tan tia per f or a t a pos t e r ior
N od u l u s
l u m S pac e of
a lly
a n e sp e c i
.
.
.
.
.
’
.
.
,
’
,
.
,
.
,
=
.
.
M al gaig n e J o s e p h F r an co is
—
,
1 86 5
.
Pr o f e ss o r
.
A F r e nch
o f s u r gi
c al a n a to my
in P ar is
s u r g e on
.
in P ar is ,
1 806
.
Tr ait é d Ana t omie c hir ur gica le P a r is, 1 83 7
th e
F os s a of
fossa car otica Tr iang l e of
tr iangl e
’
,
.
.
.
su
per ior
car o tid
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
295
.
M a l p ig h i M a r c e l l o An I t a l ia n a n a t o mis t w a s b o r n
co r e n ea r B o l og n a
I t al y M a r c h l oth 1 628 d ie d in Rome
,
.
,
,
st u d i
ed
a l so
B o lo g n a ,
at
m e d ic in e
,
in
a nd
1 6 53
he
mad e f or
ck
chi
th e
d em on st r at e d t h e
wer e
ex
t e n s ive
an d s p l ee n
d eg r e e
t he
doc t o r
of
of
h is
p ub l ish e d an e sp e c ia lly
.
t h e l u ng s
of
st r u ct u r e
and
p hy sic ia n to Po p e I n no c e nt X I I
on s
s o b se r v a t i
o f em b r yo l o gy an d hi
as
t h e a d v a nc e m e n t o f t his
n am e
H e m a d e m an y
.
r e ce i
v ed
.
M e ss in a ; 1 666 B ol og n a ; to R om e
M alp igh i wa s on e o f t h e f ou nd e r s
on
.
,
,
I n 1 6 56 p r o f e s so r o f me d ic ine a t B o lo g n a ,
p h ilo s o p h y
d u r ing t h e sa me y e ar ; in 1 6 59 r e c a ll e d t o B o l ogn a ; 1 662 a t
an d
in Pis a
,
Cr e v a l
He
1 694
at
,
is
H is
.
s c ie nc e
I
.
o ns
o b se r v at i
g l an d s
kid ne y
on
d w it h po r t io n s o f t h e
in comp a r at iv e a na t o my a nd h a s
a s s oc i
ate
o b se r v a t io n s
fi n e m o nog r a ph
he
1 66 1
n
the
on
a n at o
my
of
lk- wo r
si
th e
m
.
Th e l e t
D e pu l m onibu s d u a e pis t ol a , B ol og na, 1 66 1 , in f ol
Th ey w e r e r epr in t e d by B a r th o lin
ter s w e r e a d d r es s e d t o B or e lli
D e r e nib as , B ou on
s tr ea ti
s e o n t h e l u ng
a t C ope nh ag en in hi
De
Epis t ol a ana t omica d e cer e br o B ol ogna 1 66 5, ih
1 66 6
f or ma tion e pu ll i in ov o diss e r ta tio e pis tolic a L ond on, 1 6 73 , ih
Oper a o mnia, L on d on, 1 686, 2 v ol , ih f ol
C or
B o dy of = cor pu s c l e ; caps u l e of = c a ps u l e of s pl e e n
coi
l
r en i
l
o m e r u l es of =
l
of c a pill ar y Ibl o o d ves s e ls
u
s
c
u
u
m
s
G
p
’
Lay er of z th e d e e per por tion of t h e e pi
a r ou n d M s c aps u l e
d er mis P y r a mid of = pyr amis r ena lis R e t e mu cos u m S t r a t u m
=
u
o
e
e
S
t
r
a
t
u
T
t
l
m
i
m
a
t
a
i
n
s
n
i
S
t
n
vum
e
r
m
i
a
t
p
)
f
f
(
g
g
in lu ng
s icl es of =
l
m
e
u
l
u
s
V
e
r
o
g
D is cipl es of E s c a la pius , v o l 2
B iog r aphy : R ic h a r ds on
B
i
o l ogy a n d its M a k er s , p 58, 1 9 08
Ca r us
1
1
L
a
c
6
0
,
9
y
p 73
H oll e r B iblio the ca An a
G es c hich t e d er Z oo l og ie, p 3 9 4, 1 8 72
tomica , To me 1 , p 48 6 1 774
-
.
.
,
.
.
,
,
,
-
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
'
—
.
-
.
.
.
,
.
-
.
.
.
M an g e t
.
,
A l a b o r io u s b ib l io g r a p h e r a t G e n e v a ,
H e c ol l e c t e d a ll th e p r inc ipal a n at om ical w r it ing s o f th e 1 7 th
1 6 52- 1 742
s c e r a a nd or g a n s o f se n s e
c ent u r y , giv ing e sp e c ia l e m ph a s is t o v i
B iblio the ca a n a t omica , s iv e r e c e ns in a na t omia inven t or u m
t hesau r us l ocu pl e tiss imu s G e n ev a 1 685, 2 v ol in f o lio
J e an J ac q u e s
-
,
.
.
.
'
.
,
,
.
M ar c ant onio d e l l a T or r e ( A nt o niu s M a r c u s A n t o n iu s d e ll a T o r r e )
P r o f e s so r o f a n a t o m y
An I t alian a n at om is t o f V e r o n a
S u p p ose d t o h av e b ee n th e t e a ch e r o f Le o n a r do
a t P a du a an d P av ia
d a V inc i and t o h av e s e cu r e d t h e se r vic e s o f t h is f amou s a r t ist in t h e
.
,
.
illu st r at ion
h is
of
“Anat om
y
H e po int e d
.
ou t
t he
s t r ong
mu s cu l a r
h
c h r e t u r n s w h en
t
e b l oo d w h i
t
t
a
e
e
d
h
h
h
s
r
v
n
d
o
b
a
a
r
t
h
e
t
e
e
r
f
r
a
c
t
o
a
c
;
h
th e h ear t o p e ns is no t t h e s ame a s t h at w h ic h cl ose s t e valv e s
B iog r aphy : Ue ber M a r c A n ton io d e l la Tor r e u n d L e onar d o
K von M ar x
d a Vinc i d ie B egr iind c r d er bild lich en A n a to mic
.
.
Ab h an d l d k G es e lls c h d Wiss ens ch
Einig es u e ber d ie B ezie h ungen Ve sal s
,
.
.
.
.
.
’
.
G ot ting e n, iv 1 8 48 1 850
c u Le onar d o d a Vinci u n d
'
—
.
.
.
29
6
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
M ar co An t onio d el la
zu
A bth
.
pp 3 72
1 9 04,
,
Ma r c h a n d
,
—
.
F e lix
A dr e nals
o
Tor r e
Ar ch
3 8 4 ( A F or s ter )
f
er
f
.
.
A G
.
.
.
Ana t u P hys iol Ana t
S ee als o Ch a u l a nt, p 5
.
,
.
1 846
,
b od ies in t he br oad lig amen t
a d r e na l
y
.
.
.
.
.
m a n p a t h o l o g is t
a ccess or
.
.
Ma r ch e t t i D o me nic o d e A n I t al ia n a n at o mis t a t Pa d ua 1 626
1 688
A s s oc ia t e d w it h Ve s ling
P r o f e ss or o f a na t omy at Pa dua
1 649 8 8
O n e o f th e fi r s t t o m a ke inj e c t ions o f bloo d v e s s el s
S o n and
,
,
.
.
.
,
—
.
.
s u c c es so r o f
mog ast r ic
t h e f ol l o w ing
To h im is
.
a t t r ibu t e d
w h ich h e d iv id e d in t o
16
t h e d isco v e r y o f th e p neu
p a r ts
A n a t omia , c u i r es pons ion es a d R iol a n u m a n a t o micu m P ar is
ie ns e m in ips iu s
anima d ver s ionibu s
c on tr a
Ves ling iu m a dd itae
s un t, P a d ua, 1 652, in
ner ve,
M a r c h et t i P ie t r o d e ( S e nio r )
,
59 3
r
ch ai
1
1 6 73
—
F at h e r
.
of
th e
Te n dinis
e d ita, P ad u a,
flex
1
-
,
in P a du a
.
pollicis
or i
s
I t a l ia n a n a t omis t a n d s u r g e o n
his t e ac h er a nd p r e d e c e s sor in t h e
An
.
a b o v e a nd
o f s ur g e r y a nd o f a n a t om y
.
ab
e qu o
m
e vu ls i
o bs er va ti
o s eor si
,
658, ih
M a r inu s
mis t w h o liv e d
d ur ing th e r e ign o f N e r o ( 44 6 8 A
G al e n c all s h im th e r e st or er
o f a n a t omy a nd s ay s h e w r o t e a n acc u r a t e d e sc r i
p t io n o f t h e mu s cl e s,
t h at h e d is cov e r e d t h e g la nd s o f th e me s e nt e r y a n d t h a t h e enr ich e d
n e u r ol ogy w i
t h sev e r a l d is co v e r ie s
H e is sa id t o h av e w r itt e n a n an at omy
in 20 vo l ume s t h e s u b s t anc e o f wh ich is p r e se r v e d in t h e w r it ing s o f
Toply ( p 1 84 ) g iv e s t h e f o l lo wing diag r a m to ill u s t r a t e t h e r e
G al e n
A
p h y s ic ia n
no t e d
a n d a n at o
'
—
.
,
,
.
,
'
.
.
l a t io n s
M ar inu s G
of
,
al en
P e l op s
and
al so :
( S ee
.
B r it ; H all e r B ib l ioth e ca A na t omic a , T ome
-
1
,
B io
.
M ed
.
; Ency
.
p 8 0,
.
M a r in u s
Ko int o s
N u mis ia nu s
S at y r o s
l]
Pelop s
I
,
3
2
G
M ar io t t e
be r
the
of
th e
b lind
,
E dme
A c a d emy
spo t
in th e
.
P r io r
of
of
S c ie nc e
na
r eti
al e n u s
the
at
.
st er o f
Cl o i
,
ne a r
mem
a nd
H e d isc o v e r ed
.
O t h n iel Ch a r l e s
H e w a s bo r n
M a r t in
P a r is
N ouvel les d é couve r t e t ouchan t l a
Mar sh
S a in t
Lockpo r t ,
vue,
P a r is,
1 668
.
An Am e r ic a n p a l eo nt o l o g is t 1 83 1 1 899
N e w Yo r k a nd r ece iv e d his e ar ly aca d e mic
—
,
.
,
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M ES
298
M a r t ia nu s
( M a r t ia n o s
( 3 04 B C ) an
,
M a r t ia l io s
.
M a r t ia lis )
,
d is c ip l e
A
.
of
mis t in R om e A c co r d ing t o G a l e n h e
w a s t h e a u t h o r o f t w o w o r k s on a n a t o my w h ic h ar e l o s t
G al e n asc r ib e s
t o h im a w or k e nt it l e d :
D e A n a tomia Er as is t r a ti
Er a s is t r a t u s
.
.
ana t o
.
.
,
.
M a r t in B e r n ar d in B o r n at P ar is 1 629 d u r in g t h e r e ig n
M é d icis S o n o f a n apot h ecar y an d h imse l f a ch em is t
,
de
.
,
.
M a r t in
L
,
d es d ents, P ar is ,
n a t ur e
M a r t in e z C r is o s t o mo
,
u n d e r t oo k
a r t is t s
l es d e n ts , P a r is ,
s ur
6 79 , ih
1
12
—
°
.
D e to
f or
M a r ie
.
D is s e r ta tion
he
of
,
th e
1
83 9
.
A S p a n is h a r t is t 1 6 50 1 6 94 A t V a l e n c ia
p r ep a r a t ion o f a n a n at omica l w or k o n h u m a n a nat o my
—
.
.
,
.
figur es
N o u v e ll e s
hu ma in, P a r is
d e pr opor tions
et
d
f
an a t o
mie d u
cor ps
.
M a s c a gni Pa o l o
,
An
.
I t al ia n
a n a t o mis t ,
B or n
1 752- 1 8 1 5
.
at
774 p r o f e ss or o f an at o my in S ie na I t a ly a s su cc e s sor
to T ab a r r a ni; 1 8 00 in P isa ; 1 80 1 1 5 in F l or e nc e in ch a r g e o f an at omy ,
He
ph y s io logy an d ch e m ist r y in t h e g r e at h o sp it al S ant a M a r ia N u ov a
w r o t e t h e m o s t c o m p l e t e w o r k o n l y m p h a t ic s e v e r p u b l is h ed
Cast e ll e t o
I
.
n
1
,
,
—
,
-
.
.
Vas or u m ly mpha tic or u m c or por is hu ma ni his t or ia c t icono
T avole fi g ur a te di
gr aph ia S ie n n e 1 78 7 ih f ol wit h 41 pla t es
a l c u n e pa r ti or g a nic h e d e l c or po u ma no d eg l i a nima li e d ei veg e ta
bili e s pos t e n el pr o dr om o d e ll a g r an d e a n a t omia d iPa ol o M as cag ni
F l or en c e 1 8 1 9 in f ol
B iog r a phy : S e e C h o u lan t pp 1 43 1 47
-
.
,
,
,
.
,
,
,
—
,
.
,
—
Ma s sa
died
I
569
,
.
.
,
A p h y s ic ia n o f t h e 1 6 t h c e n t u r y b or n a t V e nic e
N o t e d f o r his s t u d ie s o n
T ook his m e dic a l d egr e e a t P a d u a
N ic o l a s
,
,
.
.
.
th e ana t omy o f th e st omac h a n d t h e p r o st a t e
I
mia
n tr o d u c t or iu s
Ve nic e
,
1
ana t o
,
s eu
.
d iss e c tionis
c or
por is h u mani
,
°
53 6 in 4
-
,
M au ch a r t B u r k h a r d D av id
,
Liga m e nt
f
o
M au t h n e r Lu d w ig
.
A G
Lig a men tu m
=
er
ma n
a la r e
a na t o
mis t
1 696
,
—
1 751
.
.
A u s t r ian p h y s ic ia n, 1 840 1 894
,
Ce lls of ; S h ea th of = a fi n e mem br an e s u r r ounding the
n d e r of a ne r v e - fi br e, and s epar a ting it f r om t he whit e
cyli
s tance of S chwann
—
.
.
.
is
s ub
ax
A N A T O M I CA L N A M ES
M a y e r A u g u s t F r a n z J o s e p h K ar l
,
G
at
r e if s w a l d ,
my
a n at o
1 78 7
1 86 5
—
An
.
a n a to
P r o s e c to r in B e r n ,
.
and
299
.
1
m is t w h o w as b o r n
81 3 ;
1 81
5 p r o f es s or
p h y sio l ogy ; in B o nn 1 8 1 9 6 5
Ue be r H is t olog ie u ein e n eu e Einte ilung d e r
me ns c hlic h e n K or pe r s , B onn, 1 8 1 9,
of
—
.
G
'
.
e w e be
dcs
of a nat o
my
'
M a y e r F r a nz X a v ie r
S on
-
,
at
G
r az ,
1 82 4
63
—
.
of
Mic h ael M
.
M a y e r J o h a n n Ch r is t ian A n d r e as
,
1 801
P r o f e s so r
.
P r o fe s s o r
.
o f a nat o
my
a nd
A G
.
er
man
b o t a ny in B e r lin
a nat o
mis t
1
,
747
.
B e s chr eibu ng d es g a nz e n m e ns chl ich e n K o r pe r s B er lin a nd
L e ipz ig
1 783 1 794
K u pf er tafe ln
A n a t omis ch phys iol og is c h
A bhan d l u ng v on G e h ir n, R ue c ke nmar k u n d Ur s pr u ng d er N e r v e n,
°
B e r lin , 1 779 in 4
,
-
—
.
,
.
-
-
,
M ay e r
Jo h a n n I g n a z
-
,
1 73 1 , t h e a na t om ic a l t h e a t e r
von
M a y e r sb a c h
in P r ag u e ,
at
h is
He
.
o w n ex
r e c on s t r u c t e d ,
p e n se
M ay e r M ic h a e l P r o s e c t o r t o P r o c h a s k a 1 800 ;
t e a c h e r o f a n a t o m y 1 79 1 1 8 3 0 in V ie nn a
,
.
in
.
p r o fe s s o r in
1 81 0 ;
—
.
,
M ay e r
P r agu e
in
.
191 0
.
doc t o r a t e
S ie g mu n d
H is t o l o g is t in t h e G e r m a n U niv e r s it y a t
B or n at B e ch t h e im n e ar Wor ms in 1 8 42 ; d ie d at I nnsb r u ck
H e s t u d ie d a t H e id e lb e r g G ie sse n a n d T ubing en r e c e iv ing h is
,
.
,
,
,
,
at
’
t h e l a t t e r p l ac e , u n d e r Lu s ch k a s d ir e c t io n,
n g as
c h oo s i
h is
H e la t er st u die d p h y s iol ogy w ith H e l m h ol t z ,
ga nglio n
B r iic ke , Lu dw ig a n d Co h nh e im I n 1 8 70 h e w e nt t o P r ag u e a s assist a n t
M ay e r p lace d
t o E w al d H e r ing w ho su c c e e d e d Pu r k in j e at t h at p l ac e
t h e s is t h e
c ar o t id
.
.
.
t h e g r e a t es t e mp h asis in his w o r k u p on p h y s iol ogy a nd
t est ifi e d b y h is l is t o f 6 2 e s s ay s o n th e s e su b j ec t
h is tolog y
as
is
.
S t u d ie n z ur P hys io log ic d es H er z e ns u n d d er B l u tg e fa ss e,
H is t olog is c h es Tas ch e n bu c h, P r ag 1 8 8 7
1 8 7 1 1 8 79
B iogr a phy : A na t omis ch er A nz eig er , B d 3 8, pp 8 7 9 3 , w ith
lis t of pu blica tions
—
.
,
.
—
.
.
.
M e ck e l J o h a n n F r ie d r ic h ( S e n io r ) ( 1 7 1 4
D emon st r at o r at B e r lin
Alb r e c h t v on H a ll e r
A
,
,
.
1 7 51
;
1 7 53
s t u de nt
of
1 7 73
pr o
ac t d e
—
H e w r o t e t h e fi r st e x
sc r i
p t ion o f t h e N t r ig em in u s discov e r e d t h e G angl io n sph e nop al at in u m
( G angl M ec ke lii M a j u s ) a s w e ll as t h e G anglio n s ubm ax ill a r e H e w as
f e s so r
o f a na t o
my
a s s u c ce sso r
t o B u dd eu s
.
.
.
.
mis t s : Ph ilip p F r ie d r ich M w h o w as
p r o f e s so r o f an at o m y a nd s u r g e r y a t H a l l e , 1 756 1 803 ; J o h a nn F r ie d r ic h
M ( J u n ior ) p r o fe sso r o f a nato my an d su r ge r y a t H all e 1 78 1 - 1 8 3 1 ;
t h e p r og e nit o r
of a
f a m ily
o f an a t o
.
—
.
,
,
,
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E 1
3 00
A u g u s t A lb r ech t
M e ck el
1 82 1
1
.
.
p r o f e ss o r o f an a t omy a t
,
H e m sb ac h
v on
1 8 56
—
M
( se e
p at h ol ogic a l
,
Toply p
a na t o
.
B e r n,
mis t
H e inr ic h
1 790 1 8 2 9
—
t h e Ch a r it é , B e r lin,
at
'
.
,
Diss er t a tio d c qu int o par e n er vor u m ce r e br i G o t ting en, 1 748,
ih
with 2 pla t e s
B an d of
lig a me n t t o ma ll e us
Cav ity of : b e tw een lamin a
D iv er ticu lu m of
r c ma i
ns of th e o mph a l oen te r ic
of d u r a ma t er
G a nglio n of
du c t
g a ng lion s ph e n opa la tin u m ; g ang lion s u b
B an d
max ill ar e
Ligame n t of
S pace of = cavity
,
.
:
.
=
.
=
.
=
.
.
.
M e c k e l J o h a n n F r ie d r ic h ( J u n io r ) G
F r ied r ic h M e c ke l a G e r m an s u r g e o n a nd
,
mist
a n at o
,
o f an a t o
f e s so r
mist
a n at o
my
a n d s u r g e r y at
H alle
,
t h e el de r
r a n d so n o f
.
1 78 1
1 83 1
—
,
A
.
1 78 1
—
J o h a nn
1 83 3
Pr o
.
ve
n ot e d c om p a r a t i
.
A bhan dl u ng e n a u s d er v e r g l eiche nd e n u n d me n s c hlic h e n A n
H a ll e 1 8 05 ih
B e itr ag e z u r v er gl e ic h e n d e n A n
a t o mic
H a n d bu c h d e r pa th o
L e ipz ick 1 8 08 1 8 09 2 v o l ih
a t o mic
L eipz ic k, 1 8 1 2 1 8 1 8, 3 vo l ih
S ys t em
l ogis ch e n A n a t o mic
H a lle , 1 82 1 1 8 33 , 6 tom es e n 7
d cr ve r g l e ic h e nd e n A na t omic
d o n t l es tr ois pr e mie r s on t é t é tr a d u its e n 6 tome s , pa r
v ol in
P ar is 1 8 28 1 83 0 in
D is s d es cr ip
Ries t e r c t A S a ns on
co mpar a t i
va
br c v c m c ontine ns
L eipz ic k,
tion e zn ex
a n a t omia
L eipzic k, 1 82 6,
1 82 3 in
Or nit h or hy n ch i par ad ox i d es cr iptio
in f ol 8 pl
P l ane of
Ca r til ag e of = car tilag c of mandibu l ar a r ch
R od
c r a niome tr ic pl ane cu tting t he a lv e ol ar a n d au r ic u lar poin ts
of
ca r tilag e
l
.
,
,
—
,
.
.
,
—
.
.
—
.
.
.
—
.
.
,
.
,
’
.
.
,
-
.
.
.
.
.
M e ck el
,
B or n in B e r l in,
an d s u r g e r y
1 7 56
—
T h e od or e
F r e d e r ic
P h il l ipp e
1 803
A t H a ll e , in
.
M e e k A n t h o ny
,
o f a n at o m y a t
An
.
m
,
and
w as
fi r st
a n at o
Le y d e n
t h r o u gh t h e lymph a t ic s
sy s t e
of
on
p r e ce d in g
the
of
803 , p r o f e s so r
.
an at om y
.
D isse r ta tio d c la byr inthi
f e sso r
1
S
’
.
to
mis t
con te n ti
s,
Le y d e n
at
a
nu mb e r
of
S tr as bou r g,
is
d is cov e r ie s
inj ec t l y mph at ics w it h me r cu r y
1 777,
Pr o
( 1 650
emb r y o
S h o w e d t h at t h e
.
M ad e
.
aur i
s
not n our ish e d
on
l ym ph at ic
.
M e ib om ( J u n ior ) ( M e y b au m Me ib omiu s ) H e in r ic h A D u t c h
Th e d is c ov e r e r o f th e M e ib omian
1 6 3 8 1 700
c ian
s t a nd p h y s i
a n at omi
1
,
.
,
,
—
.
,
P
r o f e s s or
d
n t he e y eli
nds i
l
a
g
Th e a u t h o r o f
in H e lm st a e d t
.
.
of
nu me r o u s
D c v a s is pa l pe br ar u m
G l and u l a t ar s ica
.
me dic in e
( al so
ge n e r a l
s t o l a,
novi
s epi
h isto r y an d poe t r y )
s ci
e nt ifi c d isse r t at i
on s
of
.
H e lms tad t
'
,
1
666 ih
,
A N A T O M I CA L N AM E S
3 02
M ey e r G
1 8 1 5 1 89 2
H e r ma nn
e or g
,
.
G
.
er
ma n
anat o
m is t
my in Z iir ich 1 8 56 89
A n a t omic d c s M e ns c h e n 3 r d
P r o f e s so r
—
v on
.
o f a n at o
and
st,
o l og i
p hy s i
—
,
.
L e h r bu ch d cr
1 8 73
cd
a n d M e c h an ik d es K n oc h e ng cr ii
s t es L ei
pz ig 1 8 74
Lin e
O r g a n of = a co lle c tion of g la nd s o n t h e
in floor of e x ter nal a u dit or y ca na l
S inus of
.
,
,
,
S t a tik
.
.
,
.
t ong u e
.
=
.
M e y n e r t T h e o d o r H e r m a nn
1 8 33
,
in V ie n n a
Mich el an g e l o
D e cus s a tio
.
B u o n ar r ot i
89 2
P r o fe s s o r
.
F l or en ce
He
t r e me ly
e n d e d an e x
a ct i
ve
A mo ng h is m a n y in t e r e s t s
M ich el a ng el o
S o muc h
.
R om e
and
so,
of
p s y c h ia t r y
Bor n
.
at
at
at
s to
m ach
ne e r ,
e ngi
C ap r e s e , M a r ch 6 t h ,
R om e
my w as
.
ar ch i
t ect,
C o ndiv i t e ll s
as
d is s ec t ion inj u r e d h is
I t a l ia n
c ar e er
an a t o
,
F as cic u l u s
.
An
.
a n d s c u lp t o r o f
of
1
.
Co mmis s u r a
h abit s
—
F eb r u a r y
on
t ime
on e
t o s u c h an
ex
t is t ,
1 47 5
.
1 564
.
p a ss ion w it h
H is p r o l on g e d
a
t hat :
u s,
1 8 th ,
ar
t e nt t h a t h e lo s t t h e
I t is t r u e h o w e v e r , t h a t h e
p ow e r o f e a t ing a n d d r in king t o a ny p r ofi t
b e c am e s o l e a r n e d in t h is b r an ch o f kno w l e dg e t h a t h e h a s o f t en e nt e r
.
t a in e d t h e id e a
sh o u ld
ex
of
co
mp o s ing
h au st iv e ly
t r e at ex
a
o f a ll
t e r na l a s p e c t o f t h e limb s , t h e
dis c o u r se
wor k fo r
th e
,
sc ul pt o r s
m ov e m e n t s
a n d so
b ones,
of
the
f or t h ,
p ain t e r s , w h ich
h u m an b o d y , t h e
an d
ng a n
addi
ing e nio u s
t h e t r u t h s disc ov e r e d b y him t h r o u gh t h e inv e s t ig a t io n s
u p on
i
M ic h el a ng e lo o f t e n con f e r r e d on an at omical s ub j ec t s
m a ny y e a r s
wit h t h e f am ou s an at om is t R e a l do C o l omb o w ho w a s in s t r u m e nt al in p r o
ng f or him t h e b o dy o f a n e x c e p t i
o n a lly w el l f o r m e d y o u ng M oor o n
cu r i
w hich t h e a r t is t w a s ab l e t o m a k e a nu mb e r o f imp o r t an t ob s e r vat io n s
of
.
,
-
,
.
B iog r aphy : Vit a d i M ic h e la ng e l o B u o n a r r o ti S cr it ta d a
T h e Lif e of M ich e l
A s canio C o n d iv i P is a : N C a pur r o 1 8 2 3
v e s of th e B u on a r
e ng e l o B u ona r r o ti b as e d on s t u d ie s in t h e ar c hi
ly a t F l or e n ce b y J ohn A d ding t on S y mond s N ew Yor k,
r o ti f ami
1 89 3
2 vols
ih
,
.
,
.
,
,
,
.
,
,
,
M ih alk ov ic s V ic t o r
,
von
( Mih a l ko v ic s
G ez a )
.
A H u n g a r ia n
a n at
mist , 1 844 1 899
B o r n in P e st ; in 1 86 9 1 872 h e w a s a s sis t ant in t h e
nst i
t u t e in B u d ap e s t w it h J o s e p h v Le nh os s ek
an a t o m i
cal i
S t u d ie d in
o
—
—
.
’
.
.
Vie nn a w it h T ol dt a ft e r w a r d s w it h Lu d w ig in Le ip z ig a n d in 1 8 7 3 in
S t r a s s b u r g I n 1 87 5 h e w a s c all e d t o t he U niv e r s it y o f B u d ap e st a s p r o
,
.
mb r y ology ; in 1 878 h e w a s o r din a r iat fo r e mb r y
o lo gy an d t o p o g r a p h ic a n a t o m y a n d dir e c t o r o f t h e in s t it u t e 1 89 2 a s
H e is t h e a uth or o f 2 3 co nt r ib u t io n s t o
t o Lenh oss é k
s ucc e s s o r
fe s s o r
ex
t r ao r d ina r
.
of e
'
,
.
e
mb r y o lo gy
an d
h is t o l o g y
.
En twic ke l u ng s g es chic h te d cs G ehir ns L eipzig, 1 8 7 7, ih
A na t o mic u nd H is t o l og ie d cs M cns c he n, B u d apes t, 1 8 9 8
B iogr aphy : A natomis cher A nz eig e r , B d 1 6, pp 3 49 3 52 , 1 899 ,
with bib liogr aphy
,
.
—
.
.
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
M il n e
-
E d w ar d s , H e n r i
.
m e dic in e
at
a lt
he
I
h o u gh
1
84 1 b e
n at u r a l i
s t , 1 8 004
P a r is , w h e r e h e w as g r ant e d t h e d e gr e e
h a d d e v o t e d h im se lf c h ie fl y t o t h e s t u d y
m emb e r
n 1 83 8
A Fr e nc h
3 03
.
fi ll e d
of
the
th e A c a d é m ie d e s
.
M D in 1 8 2 3
o f n a t u r a l h is t o r y
of
J ar din
th e
.
.
S c ie nc e s in t h e p l a c e
ch a ir o f e nt omo l o
gy at
S t u d ie d
88 5
C u v ie r
of
d e s P l a nt e s ,
I
.
and
,
.
n
in
b e c a m e p r o f es so r o f z o o l ogy an d p h y sio l ogy
H e p u bl ish e d n um e r
ou s o r i
g in a l m e m o ir s o f im p o r t a nce in t h e A nna l es d es S cien ces N a tu r
e ll cs , a j o u r n a l h e h i
mse l f as s ist e d in e d it ing f or 50 y ear s
1 8 4 1,
.
.
M in o t C h a r l e s S e d g w ic k
,
H e w a s bo r n
on
A n A m e r ic a n
.
e
t h e t w e nt y t hir d o f D e ce m b e r
m b r y o l o g is t
at
-
1
,
8 52
1 91 4
—
Wo od b ou r ne
.
W e st
in
Mas sach u se t t s in t o a f am ily n o t e d f o r e x c e ll e nt a t t ainm e nt s
I n 1 868 M ino t b e ga n h is s c ie nt ifi c c a r e e r b y j o in ing t h e B o s t o n S o c ie t y
o f N a t u r al H i
s t o r y w h e r e h e b e c am e a n e n t h u s ia s t ic e n t om olog ist
In
t h e s a me y e a r h e e n t e r e d t h e M a s s a c h u se t t s I n s t it u t e o f T e c h n o logy
n
a li
zi
sp e c i
g p a r t icu l a r l y in c h e m is t r y t h ou g h h e d id so m e g o o d w o r k in
mic r oph ot og r ap h y o f t h e p a r t s o f ins e c t s in t h e l ab o r at or y o f p h y sic s
R ox b u r y
,
,
.
,
.
,
.
.
I
n
1
8 72 h e
f oll o w ing
e nt e r e d
su
t h e g r ad u a t e
sc h oo l o f
H a r v a r d Co l l e g e
mm e r h e w a s w it h A gas siz in P e n ik e s e
T h e y e ar f o ll o w ing
Lu d w ig a n d Le u c kh a r t ;
.
8 7 5) M ino t w e n t t o Le ip z ig t o s t u d y w it h
nt e r o f 1 8 7 5 76 a t W iir z b u r g w it h S e mp e r ,
sp e n t t h e w i
(
1 87 3
—
in th e
an d
,
1
st u die d
and
—
in
A f t e r h is r e t u r n t o Am e r ic a h e r e c e iv e d t h e
b r ie f p er io d
de g r e e o f S c D in 1 87 8 f r o m H ar v a r d A f t er t w o y e a r s h e b e c ame , a t
in em
su c c e ss i
v e ly l e c t u r e r
t h e H a r v a r d U n iv e r s it y M e dic al S c h o o l
P a r is f o r
a
.
.
.
.
,
b r y o l o gy
and
p a t h o l og y a n d s u r g e r y 1 8 8 0
or al
in s t r u c to r in
a nd e m b r yol ogy , 1
88 3 8 7 ; a
1 89 2
1 88 7 92 ; p r o f e ss or
e mb r y o l o g y
v e a n at omy , 1 906 1 9 1 4
o f co mp a r a t i
in
h is t ol ogy
—
—
—
,
,
p r o f e s so r
zs i
s t an t
1 9 06
in s t r u c t o r
83
—
of
hist o l o gy
J ame s S tillman
;
an d
p r o fe sso r
—
.
I
n
1 886
M in ot de s ign e d
a
r o t ar
y mic r o t om e w h ic h h a s
nc e
si
co me
I t w as p r im a r l y f o r c u t t ing s e r ia l s ec t io n s o f e mb r y o s
in t o g ene r al u se
H is int e r e s t in t h is im p or t a nt a dd it ion t o m od e r n h ist ol og ic al t e ch n iqu e
w as u n f a iling a n d in l a t e r y e ar s h e imp r o v e d t h e o r igin al de sign, b e s id e s
.
.
per
f e ct ing
a n ew
H is H u ma n
l ish e d in
it b e a r s
1 89 2
on
v e d a nd
c ei
.
p r e c is io n m ic r o t om e
E mbr y ol ogy, t h e r e su l t
.
T h is w a s
t h e p r ob l e m
in
1 89 4
u se d a f t e r o t
he r
of
of
d e v e l o pm e n t
h u ma n
w a s t r a n sl a t e d int o G
mo st l a st ing f e at u r e s
be
of
a
m a ny y e a r s l ab o r , w a s p u b
v e s u mm a r y o f e mb r y o l og y a s
c om p r eh e n s i
’
er
m an
.
.
T h e w o r k w a s w el l
O ne
of
re
t h e g r e at e s t a n d
t h is w o r k is t h e b ib liog r a ph ic p o r t ion , w h ic h w ill
p ar t s o f
t h e wo r k h a v e
b een
w o r k in th e f o llow ing y e a r ( 1 89 3 ) b y a
E m br y o l ogy o f 1 2 7 qu a r t o p ag es
’
h
W il e M inot s int e r e st s w er e l ar gely
s u p e r se d e
d
H e f o ll o w e d
.
B ibliog r a phy
t h is
f
o
t
v e r e br a t e
.
t r ib ut e d
mu c h
of
v al u e
t o ge n e r al b io l ogy
e
.
mb r y ol ogic a l
H is w o r k
,
yet h e
on
c on
se n e s e n c e ,
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
3 04
g r o w t h , t h e n a t u r e o f s ex
in v e s t igat io ns a r e s umm e d
an
d D e a th
A S t u dy in
.
.
T h e se
ques t ion s is o f a h igh t yp e
up i
n his w o r k
Th e P r o bl e m of A g e, G r ow t h
So
Cy t omor ph os is, N e w Yo r k , 1 908 , in
an d o th e r
.
b r oa d w a s his g r a sp o f mo d e r n b io l ogic al s cie n c e t h a t h e w as r e g a r d e d
ng
as a z o o l og is t , a n e nt o mo l og is t a p h y s i
olog is t , a n d a n e mb r yo log is t , h a v i
-
,
co n t r i
b ut e d
imp or t a nt
M inot d id mu c h
s c op i
c a na to
H is
my
t ie s
acti
vi
He
t o e a c h o f t h e s e p h ases
fi
sc i
e nt i c s o c i
eti
es
ze d
r e cog n i
r ec e i
v ed
le a d e r
of
.
in mic r o
e sp e c i
ally
in p l a nn ing m a ny l a b o r a t or ie s
a nd assoc ia t io n s w a s so no t a b l e t h a t
a l so
.
b io log ical w o r k e r s in Am e r ica
d eg r e e
h on o r ar y
the
b iolo gy
of
t o a dv an ce l ab o r at o r y t e ach ing ,
H e w a s ins t r u m e nt al
.
in t h e
h e b e c am e t h e
s t u d ie s
LL
of
.
D
.
.
f r om Y a l e in
1 8 99
;
S c D f r om O x f o r d in 1 902 ; LL D f r o m T o r ont o in 1 9 04 a nd f r o m
A t t h e Univ e r s it y o f J e na ( 1 9 1 2 1 9 1 3 ) h e r ep r e
S t A n d r e w s in 1 9 1 1
c a a n d p r e s e nt e d
s e n t e d as e x ch a ng e p r o f e s s o r , t h e a n a t omis t s o f A me r i
th e r e su l t s o f A m e r ic an a na t o m ic al r e se ar c h T h e s e le c tu r e s w e r e p ub
.
.
.
.
—
.
.
,
,
.
lish e d in
ot
1
889 ; A La b or a t or y T ex
th e D e v e l opm e n t
a nd
fi f ty
f
o
M inot is t he
P r o bl e ms
B iol ogy
f
o
A mo n g
.
Uter us an d E m br y o
t boo k of E mbr y o l ogy 1 9 03 ; N or mal P l a t es o f
R a bbit 1 9 05 in
b e s id e s some o n e h u n d r e d
w o r ks t o b e me nt ion e d
her
M od e r n
in b oo kl e t f o r m
1913
au th o r o f
,
,
th e
,
,
sh o r t e r
p u b lica t ion s
B iog r aphy : S cien ce 1 9 1 4, v ol 40, pp 9 26 9 2 7 ; P r oc B os t
S oc N a tl H is t , 1 9 1 5, vol 3 5, pp 79 9 3 ; S cie nce, 1 9 1 5, v ol 41 ,
pp 7 01 704; B os t on M e d a nd S u r g J ou r na l, 1 9 1 4, v ol 1 7 1 , pp
9 1 1 9 1 4 an d 1 9 1 5 v o l 1 72 , pp 46 7 470; A n a t omica l R e c or d, v ol
1 0, n o 3 , 1 9 1 6, pp 1 3 3 1 6 4, wit h p or tr a it a n d bibliogr aphy
.
—
.
.
.
.
,
—
.
.
.
.
.
.
—
.
.
.
.
—
.
—
,
,
.
.
.
—
.
.
.
M it s u k u r i K ak ioh i A J ap a n e s e
-
,
.
z oo l og i
st, 1 8
58
—
1 909
H is fa mil y
.
f o r g e n e r at io ns h a d p r o duc e d p r o m ine nt sc h ol a r s a fid e sp e c ially p h y s i
ci
an s
M it su kur ian d t w o o f h is b r oth e r s w e r e amo ng t h e fi r st w ho s ou gh t
t r a in ing in f o r eig n u niv e r s it ie s , a n d h e o w e d h is t r a in ing l a r g e ly t o t h e
-
.
Un it e d S t a t e s H e
in 1 8 7 5 h e e nt e r e d
.
r e ce i
v ed
his
fi r st
f o r eign
on
e d u ca t i
in H ar t f o r d t h e n
,
S h effi e l d S c ie nt ifi c S ch o ol f r om w h ic h h e t ook
Th e same y ea r h e m a t r icu l a t e d a t J oh ns H opkin s
his Ph B in 1 8 79
t h B r oo k s a n d N e w ell M a r t in f o r f o u r y e a r s
a nd st u d i
ed w i
H e s uc
.
.
the
,
.
.
,
de d
T o ky o
W h itm a n
cee
,
lish e d
in th e D ep a r tment o f Z oo l ogy at t h e Un iv e r sit y o f
e nc e
a nd su b s e qu e nt ly w as cl ean o f th e c ol l eg e o f sc i
H e e s t ab
an
.
imp o r t a nt b iol og ical
st a t i
on at
M isaki
,
a ss ist e d
in b u il ding
up
fi sh er ie s b u r e au and in g e ner al b r o ugh t t h e s t udy o f z o ology t o a h igh
l ev el in J ap an H is r esea r c h es c ove r ma n y b r anch e s o f z ool og y b ut h is
a
,
,
.
mos t impo r t an t
co nt r i
b u t io ns
w e r e t o th e
e mb r y ol ogy
of
t he
r epti
le s
.
h e w r ot e impor t ant e c ono mic t r e a
t ise s o n oyst e r cul t u r e a nd p e a r l fi s h e r ie s , an d at th e t ime o f his dea t h w a s
T h e f o llo w ing
ng a mo nog r aph o f t h e h ol ot h u r ia n s o f J ap an
compl e t i
b u t io n may b e ment ioned a s indicat ing t h e t yp e o f h is r e se ar c h es
c ont r i
B e sid es his
st r i
ctly
fic
e n ti
sc i
st u d ie s
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
3 06
M on r o Al e x
h is
ng a n d
c e di
ye ar s
T e r t iu s )
in t h e
s u c c e ss or
in t h e U niv e r s it y
1 8 01
Ed inbu r gh fr o m
of
,
He
.
s t u d ie d a t
He
.
ta
ug ht in t h e
H e w as t h en
l
u nt i
t o T ex
c a ll e d
1 846 , o r a
—
of
s p ide r s
t e r e st s r a ng ing t h e w ho l e
J ou r nal
M or p ho lo gy
of
an d
fly
t ho u g h
c hie
fi e ld
z oo logy
of
1 908
—
.
,
t
W il lia m
,
in D ub l in,
st e r i
an
ci
1
79 7
—
cy t olo gy ,
wit h
.
v ol
,
F e t h e r s t on
1 8 59
G l a nd u la a r e olar is
b y M s G l a nds
.
1 89 8
1 9 03
—
.
t he r e
H e wa s
.
z oo o
.
w it h t h e h ab it s ,
h e h a d w id e in
t or
co - e di
of
t he
.
B iog r aphy : S cie n c e N S
M on t go m e r y
O Her t
t o Pe nn sy lv ania as p r o f e s sor o f
1 903,
,
,
1 894, a t t h e a g e
in
.
1 8 73
ne d
o f z oology a n d r e m ai
p r o f e s so r
.
d e v e l op m e n t
i
z oo l o g s t ,
P enn syl v ania f r om
of
D u r ing th e l as t t w o y ea r s o f h is lif e h e
z oo l o i
H is pu b lis h e d e s s ay s d eal
g c al in s t it u t e
an d
D
.
o f 1 25
p e r iod
W a l d ey e r
B e r lin w it h
h is Ph
Mo n r os h eld
’
l gy
d e s ign e d an d com ple t e d a
r e tu r n ed
w h en h e
1 908 ,
of
Univ e r sity
a s as
1 72 1
A n A me r ic a n
.
ved
an d o t h er s , a n d r ec e i
w ig , S c h u l z e
of 2 1
r
,
Un iv e r s it y
the
The t h r e e
.
the pr e
m e dic ine
su r ge r y and
J
.
M o nt go m e r y T h o m as H a r r is o n
191 2
1 846
—
of
S on
( 1 7 73
an at o m y ,
ch a ir o f
E d inb u r gh ,
of
in t h e Univ e r s ity
sw ay
( Monr o
an d e r
,
.
3 8,
.
.
no
.
pp
9 71 ,
.
2 07 2 1
—
p h y s ic ia n
An
I r is h
f
pa pu lar
1 913
4
,
and
.
ob
.
Tu ber cl es
.
o
for me d
e l e v a t ions
’
.
.
M o r a n d S au v e u r F r a n co is
,
F or a m e n
c a cu
A Fr e n c h
.
su r geo n
H ippoca mpu s min or
m
.
M o r g a g n i G io v a n n i B at t is t i A n I t a l ia n
.
,
g ist
1 6 82
1
—
,
ac t e d
77 1
R eg ar de d
.
p r o s ec t or
as
P r o f e ss o r
to
as
C a l car
.
anat o
m is t
t h e f o u n de r o f p ath ol ogica l
V a l s al v a , w h o m h e
suc c e e de d
as
av i
s
1 69 7
.
and
a na t o
p a t h ol o
my
.
He
d emon st r at o r
.
H is mo st f amou s w o r k is
my in P a dua 1 7 1 5
s c d ibus c t cous i
s m or bor u m per an a t ome n i
nd ag a tis libr i V
o f a n ato
De
Ve nic e
in P a r is ,
,
,
76 1
H e v e r ifi e d all t h e imp or t ant d isc ove r ie s o f his c ont emp or ar ie s H e
is a l so t h e au th o r o f nu m e r ou s w o r k s d e a ling w it h an at om ical qu e st io n s
n t h e B io M e d
a li
s t o f wh ich may b e fo u nd i
1
,
.
.
,
.
B iogr a phy : M e d Lib ,
ci
pl es of E sca lapiu s v ol 1 ,
.
.
'
,
p
.
2 7 0,
1
N u m e r ou s
9 03
.
v ol
.
4 p 41
pp 283 3 01 ,
.
.
,
—
.
,
1 9 01
.
R ic ha r ds on
M e d Lib ,
.
.
—
D is
v ol 1 ,
.
.
mical
s t ru ct u r e s
an at o
ar e
at e d
a s so ci
wit h th e
name o f
M or g agni
.
A ppen dix tes tis
Car tilag e of =
midd le lo be of pr os ta te C olu mna
.
.
in la r ynx
Car u ncl e of
r ec ta li
s
C oncha nasa lis su
.
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
3 07
.
F or a men c ae cu m
F oss a navicu lar e u r e th r a
F r e nul u m valvu l a coli G lan d u l a u r e thr a l e s
G l o bu le s of = be
n ea t h cr ys tall i
n e l e ns
H u mor of = in c r ys ta l line l e ns
H y d a tid
of =
appe n dix
t es tis ; appen d ix
v es icu l os us
Lacuna u r e t hr alis
Liqu or =
hu mor
N a du l a s valv ul a s emilu n ar is
R e tina cu l u m
S in u s r cc talis = Utr icu lu s ma s c u linus
S ph e r es
B u l bus olfac
t or ius
Valve
Vc ntr icu lu s l ar y ngis
pe r ior
Cr ypt
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
e or g e
,
an d anat omist
.
.
M o r t o n S amu e l G
gist
.
A n A m e r ica n
.
in P h ilade lph ia,
1
799
-1
8 51
c r ani
o l og i
st ,
p a l e o n t o lo
.
Cr ania A mer icana, 1 83 9
Cr ania E gyptia ca,
tion s of pulmonar y c ons u mption, 1 83 4
.
8 44
1
I ll u s tr a
.
.
M u e ll e r H e in r ic h
,
o f an at omy
in
A G
.
Wiir z b ur g
er
man
a n at o
mis t ,
1 82 0- 1 864
P r o f e s so r
.
.
A r t er ia h e licina penis
M Compr ess or l e n tis F ibr a
l ar es mus c ciliar is
M us culus or bitalis Tr ig onu m
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
M u e ll e r H e r ma n n F r a nz
A G er m a n h is t o l og ist
Know n fo r M u el l er s F l u id a t issu e fix a tive
,
r cu
ci
.
1 866 - 1 898
,
.
’
,
.
Mu e l l e r J o h a nn e s Pe t er
,
1 801
—
er
man
a n a t o mis t a n d
p h y s io lo g is t ,
most dist inguish e d p h ysi
H e b ec am e known a s on e o f th e
o f G er many
ne d a w i
a n d g ai
d e r ep u t a t io n
1 8 58
o l ogis t s
A G
.
.
st
as an e mb r y o l og i
,
a nd n a t u r alist
Pr iv a t d ocent in t h e
u ni
ty a t
v e r si
—
.
B onn in
1 824
I
.
n 1 826
p h ysiol ogy in th e same u niv er sity,
F r om 1 8 3 3 1 8 58 he fi ll e d w it h dist inc t io n, t h e
n 1 83 0
and p r o f e ssor i
ty o f B e r lin
F o u nd e r
ol ogy a t th e Uni
ve r s i
r o f a n atomy and p h y si
c h ai
ir A n at omie, Phy siol og ie und wisse nsch a ft lich e M e dicin,
v fi
o f t h e A r ch i
h e b ec am e
ex
t r aor din a r y p r o f es sor
-
of
—
.
,
.
B er l in ,
1 83 4
H and ba nk d e r P hys iol ogic d es M e ns c hen
Un ter
1 83 4- 1 8 40
,
.
De
die Einge w eid e d er Fis c h e, B er lin, 1 8 45
m
a f or ma tion e i
n h omin e
ccer nen ti
u m c a r u m qu e pr i
l
a
n
r
u
m
s
d
u
l
a
g
malib u s Leipzig, 1 83 0
a t qu e ani
Caps u le
Canal or d u c t of = D u ct u s par ur e tcr iu s pr imor da lis
o =
C
aps u la g l om er u li
f
Biogr aphy : En cy B r it ; N 6 P , B d I I , p 3 70; W B
B u ll J ohns H op
Pl a tt, J ohann e s M il ll er , A Univ e r sity Teac her
kins H os pita l, vol 7, p 1 6 1 89 6 P op S ci M onthly, LX X I I , N o
6, une, 1 9 08
s uc hu ng en
i
ibe r
.
.
,
.
'
.
J
M u n d inu s
M u nr o
.
.
.
,
.
I
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
S e e M o nd ino
S e e M o nr o
.
.
,
B idlo o
.
.
.
M uy s W e 1je r W il l e m ( 1 682
of
.
.
n 1
709 p r o f e ssor o f
B or n in S t ee nw y k
math e mat ic s ; 1 7 1 2
,
al so
S t u d e nt
me dicine an d in
.
,
A N A T OM I CA L N A M E S
3 08
the
1 720
s ub e c t o f c
j
t o give a
fi be r
sci
ent i c
h emis t r y
de sc r ip t io n
fi
a dd e d ,
was
of
.
He was the fi r st
s t r uctu r e o f th e mus c l e
in F r ane ker
t h e fi b r ill ar
.
.
ex
l nv es tiga tio
s tat 1 73 8, i
ii
fa br icce
par tib mus cul os
qu ce in
,
dampenen tib
.
.
.
Mar t in ( 1 6 75
A Le ip z ig p h y s ic ia n a n d a n a t o mis t
H e d e scr ibe d th e gland s o f th e n eck o f t h e ut e r us , a l so c all ed N ab ot h ian
f ol l icl es, egg s, o v a or ov u le s ; t h e y a r e minu t e r et e nt io n cyst s r e sult ing
f r om t h e closur e o f th e Op ening s o f t h e u t e r ine gl ands
N a b ot h ,
.
.
N a ge li, Car l
A G
.
er
ma n b o t a n is t
p or t ant o b se r v at io ns o n ce l l
h ave o b ser ved cell division
s t r u c t ur e
.
,
1 81 7
—
K n ow n fo r his im
hav e b ee n the fi r st to
1 89 1
S a id t o
.
.
N e e dh am ,
Jo h n
f or h is micr oscop ic
B ecame
Par is
.
a
T ub e r v il l e
.
ob s e r v a t ion s
me mb e r
of
the
A n E n g l is h e cc l es ias t ic w h o is n ot e d
H e visit e d B uffon in
( 1 71 3
R oy a l S oc ie t y of London, 1 747
.
M icr os copical dis cover ies
N e e d h a m,
sc r ibe d
o f the
W alt er
t he p l ac e nt a
p ar o tid duct
.
1 69 1 ,
—
.
r e cogni
z ed
w ho de
t h e na tur e
ana t o mica
M
.
.
s
de
A Pa r is ia n
f or ma to f oe tu
s u r g e o n , 1 807
a ni s u
pincter
,
—
per ior
L ond on,
1 8 73
1 66 7,
i 8
n-
°
.
.
Pr o
G e r ma n a n a to mis t , 1 742 1 777
e ss en
o f anatomy and sur ge r y in G i
D escr Anat ar t er in innomina t a? e t t hyr oid ece imre 1 772
Ar ter ia thyr oid e a ima
N e ub aue r ,
f esso r
745
.
N é l at on, Au g u s t e
.
1
A n E n g l is h p h y s ic ia n ,
a nd f oe t al b lo o d v esse l s ; a nd
Dis quisitio
Linea
L on d on,
,
J o h a nn
Er n s t
—
.
.
.
.
.
,
.
.
H e w as for a
A J ap a n e s e z o ol o g is t 1 874 1 909
es
numb er o f year s an as sist ant t o D r K ishin o uy é in t h e I mp er ial F ish e r i
B ur eau in T okyo H e is not e d f o r his s t u d ie s o n pear l fi sh e r ies, and the
met h od of se cr e t ing p ear l s f r om t h e oy st e r mantle Th e publicat ions of
N ish ikawa include impor tant cont r ib ut ions t o our knowl edge o f J apanese
fi sh es str uct ur al , syste mat ic an d emb r yological He is especially note d
for h is stud ies on t he d evelopment o f t h e f r ill e d sh ar k, Chlamyd os elac hus
N is h ik aw a , T
—
.
.
,
.
.
.
.
,
neus
angui
.
A NAT O M I CA L N A M E S
3 10
a nd
is
fir st
G
of
sai
d
fi r st t o d e sc r ib e t h e m e mb r a na t ymp ani Th e
S o me
b asiu s w as p u b lish e d in P a r is in 1 556
o f Or i
h av e b e e n
to
r e e k e di
t io n
t h e w r it ing s
of
th e
'
.
O r ib a s iu s
ar e
l ost
.
Tom e I
-
~
—
1 8 92
B or n
.
p
1 13
.
,
Tome I I
.
,
A n E n g l is h a n a t o m is t a n d p a l e o n t o lo g is t ,
A ss is t an t cu r a to r o f t h e
La nc a st e r , E ngl and
O w e n , S ir R ic h ar d
1 8 04
,
774
1
;
.
.
H oller B iblio th e ca A na tomica
P 73 9
.
at
.
.
H u n t e r ia n m use u m ; 1 8 34 p r o f e s sor o f c o mp a r at iv e ana t om y a t S t
B a r t h ol om e w s H o sp it a l ; H unt e r ian p r o f e sso r o f t h e sa m e s u b j e c t at t h e
.
’
R oy al Co l l ege
S u r g eo n s,
of
1 83 6
; S
d ep a r tm e n t in t h e B r it is h M u se u m,
p a r a t iv e
my
a na t o
a nd
p a l e o n t o lo gy
t h e n a t u r a l hist or y
nt e n d e n t o f
up er i
1
8 56
A
.
v o lu
mino u s
on c om
w r it e r
.
P a lae on t ol ogy or a s ys t e ma tic su mmar y of e x tin c t anima ls
E d in b u r g h 1 8 6 0
A r ch type and
an d t h e ir g e ol og ic a l r e la tion s
On t h e
h om o l og ies of the v e r t e br a t e s ke l e t on L ond on 1 8 47
v ols
1 3,
L on d on, 1 866 1 8 68, ih
an a t o my of v e r t e br a t e s
O d o n t og r aphy ; or a tr e a tis e on t h e compa r a tiv e an a t omy of th e
t e e th Lo n d on [ 8 40 1 8 45
B iogr aphy : Lif e of S ir Ric h ar d Ow e n, I by h is g r a n d s on, 2 v ols ,
1 89 4
H ay B ibl iogr aphy a n d c a tal og u e of f os s il v e r te br a t es B u ll
1 79
U S G e ol S u r v pp 1 8 5 1 9 2 1 9 02 ( l is t of title s )
S ir
R ich a r d Ow e n ; h is lif e an d w or ks , by C W G R o hr e r
B u ll
John s H opkins H os pita l v ol 2 2 , pp 1 3 3 1 3 9 1 9 1 1
,
,
.
,
,
.
,
—
—
.
,
—
,
,
.
-
.
.
,
—
.
.
,
.
.
,
.
,
.
.
.
.
—
.
,
( P av iu s ) , P ie r r e
P aa w
a n a t o my
F ab r ic iu s
1 589
—
t h e Univ e r s it y
at
A q u ap e n d e n t e
ab
1 6 1 7,
P r imitice
,
1
0n e 0 f t h e
.
t ed
vi
si
66 5
—
1
f o r em o s t
A
72 6
of
a nat o
b o die s w h ic h b e a r h is
,
564
S t u d ie d
an d s t u d i
e d w ith
—
1
61 7
.
o f a n a t o my an d
o
f
th e
b ot a ny in L ey d e n ,
a n a t om i
c al t h e at e r
He
.
o s t e o l o gy
micce d e huma ni cor por is
.
1
P ad u a
a na t o
b e c a me t h e f r ie nd
a nd
P r o f e s so r
.
A mst e r dam
R o st ock ;
of
f o r h is k now l e dg e
P a c c h io n i, A n t o in e
g io , Lomb a r dy
at
.
,
n t e n d e nt o f
su p e r i
wh e r e he w a s
e sp e c ia lly no t e d
was
B or n
.
.
c e l eb r at e d
I t a l ia n
.
oss ibus ,
anat o
Leyd en,
La nc isi
.
mist s
na m e ,
of
kno wn
Ph y s ic ian in Tiv ol i
his t ime
as
1 689 ,
R om e
an d
D iscov e r e d th e
.
6 1 5,
m is t b o r n in R e g
S t u die d in R ome with M a l pigh i in
.
1
a r ac
an d
h noid
t h e gl an d s o f P a cchion i
.
D iss e r t a tio e pis t ol ar is d e g l an du l e s congl o ba tis d u r a me ningis
h u ma na ind e gu e or tis ly mpha ticis a d pia m me ning e n pr o d u ct is
R ome 1 7 05 in 8
F ov e ol ae g r anu l ar e s
G r a nu la a r ac hn oidica
Biog r aphy : H all er B ibliot h e c a A na t omica To me I l , p I , 1 776
’
,
,
.
.
,
.
.
-
,
P acini, F il ip p o
Pr o f e ss o r
of
.
An
d e s c r ipt iv e
I t a lia n
a nd
,
a n a t o m is t
c
ar t i
st i
.
in F l o r e n c e ,
my
a na t o
,
t h en
of
1
.
81 2
—
1 88 3
.
t o p og r a ph ic
A N AT O M I C A L N AM E S
a n a t om y a n d
p u sc le s
of
h ist ol og y
V at e r ,
a nd
1 847
,
1 88 3 ,
—
w r ot e
a
in F lor e nce
He
.
goo d d e sc r ip t ion
31 1
.
of
r e d es cr i
be d
t h e r e t ina
th e
co r
.
N u ov e r ich e r c h e micr os c op s t ess itu r a in t d el la r e tin a , B o
l og n a , 1 8 45
S u l l a s c ope r t a di M on n er e t d ei pr e tes i mu s coli d ell e
v alv ol e s e mil u n d e l cu or e , F l or en c e 1 8 0
,
5
Cor pus cu l u m l a me ll os u m ( P a cinii, Va ter i)
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
m a n p h y s ic ia n a n d m e d ic a l h is
t o r ia n 1 8 51 1 9 1 2
B or n at P ohln ow in Pom e r a nia , o f J ew ish p ar e nt s
H e st u die d me dic in e in t h e U n ive r s it y o f B e r l in w h e r e h e w a s as s oc ia t e d
w ith H e lmh o l t z , D u b o is R e ymond V ir c h o w H ir sc h a n d T r a u b e
H is
P a ge] ,
J u l iu s
Le o p o l d
A G
.
er
—
,
.
.
-
.
,
d oc t or
’
s
t h e sis
wa s
a
M e diz inis c hen S ch u le
h ist o r ic al st u d y :
im 1 8 J a hr h u nd e r t
I
,
m e dic al h is t o r y
d er
G ot tinger
1 89 1
h e b eg a n
p r o f ess or
es c h ich t e
G
n
U niv e r s it y o f B e r lin r e c e iv e d a
shi
P ag e l h a s b e e n v e r y
p in 1 89 8 w h ich h e r et a in e d u nt il h is d e at h
n t h e p r o du ct i
s t o r y ; e sp e c i
ve i
ac t i
on o f w o r k s o n m e d i
c al h i
ally t o b e
”
no t e d is th e 3 v o l um e w o r k :
H an d bu ch d e r G es c hic h t e d e r M e diz in
t e a c h ing
th e
at
,
.
w it h N eu be r g er
B us c hma nn
and
h er v or r ag e nd e r A e r t z e d es
d ie G
e s c hi
c h te
1
d er M e d iain,
89 7
P a n d e r , H e in r ic h C h r is t ia n
f r ie n d s
p a r t ly
t h r ough
d e v e l o p m e nt
th
e ex
65
.
He
—
.
f el l o w
an d
.
p e ns e s
Pa n d e r
1 794 1 86 5
05
.
an d 1
v-o u
-
pa l e ont olog ist ,
.
“B io
Jahr h u nd er ts
9
1
1 9 02
—
and
g r aph is c h es Lex ik on
1 9 03
Einfiihr u ng in
.
,
91 5
.
A G
.
,
v on
er
man
e m b r y o l o g is t
at e d
a s soc i
B ae r wer e
B ae r
vo n
.
s
as
un d e r D oll inge r at W u r z b u r g an d it w as
in fl u enc e t h a t Pa nd e r b e ga n h is st u die s o n
st u d e n t s
’
an d
,
mpl e p r iv at e m e an s ma de it p o s s ibl e f or him t o b e a r
I n S t P e t e r s b u r g 1 8 2 3 2 7 ; 1 8 42
or k
llu s t r a t ing h is W
of i
H is
a
—
,
.
.
H is w o r k o n t h e fo ssil fi s h es o f th e D ev on ia n is
c on fi r m e d Wo lff s t h e o r y o f t h e g e r m l ay e r s
of
t h e b es t t yp e
.
’
.
B eitr a e g e z u r En tw ic ke l u ng s g es c hich te d e s H u e hn ch e ns im
Wur z bu r g 1 8 1 7 ( ha n ds ome ly illus tr a te d ) 1 0 pl fol Dis
B ie
ina u g s ist ens his t or ia m me t amor ph os es qu am ov u m
s er ta tio
Wur z bu r g 1 8 1 7 ( u nill u s tr a te d )
ine a ba t pr ior ib 5 d ieb s u bit
in
Ue ber die P l a co d er men d es d ev onis c hen S ys te ms S t
P e t er s b u r g, I 857, iii
N uc l e u s of = n er v e ce lls b ene a th th e tha la mu s
Biogr aphy : L o cy B iol og y a nd its M a ke r s p 2 1 8 ; C ar u s
G es chich t e d e r Z o ol ogie, p 62 1 ; H ay Bibliog r aphy an d c a ta l og u e
G eol S u r v , p 1 93
of f os s il ver t e br a te s, B u ll 1 79, U S
,
,
.
,
,
.
.
.
.
.
.
,
,
,
.
.
.
,
,
'
.
-
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
A
A n I t a lia n an a t o mis t , 1 78 5 1 86 7
P a n iz z a , B a r t o l omm e o
f r ie nd o f M asc ag ni an d B u f a lin i; st u d e nt o f At t i C a ir oli, V o lp i S c ar p a
\
Mo nt eggia P alle t t a ; w it h S car p a in 1 8 1 4 in Pav ia ; 1 8 1 7 , p r o f e ss or o f
—
.
.
,
,
,
,
,
,
\
A NA T O M I CA L N A M E S
312
anat om y
in P av ia
the
e sp e c i
a l ly o n
K n ow n f or
.
m
v as c u l ar
sy st e
F or a me n P anizace
in cr o codile
h is
of
co
=
s t u die s
th e
an a tomy,
ve
co mp ar at i
in
c r o cod i
le
.
.
mmu nica tion be twe en tw o bl ood
v es s e ls
.
P a ns ch , A d ol p h
Kiel ,
A G
.
er
ma n
a na t o
m is t
,
1 84 1 7 -1 887
P r o se c t o r in
.
p r iv at d o ce nt ; p r o f e s so r ex t r a or din a r y
M od el l d es
D e s u l cis e t gy r is in c e r e b s imia r e t h orn, 1 866
me ns ch l G r oss hir ns , K iel, 1 8 78 D ie F u r ch en u nd Wuls te a m
B e it r a eg e a M or ph ol ogie
G r os s hir n d e s M e ns c h e n, B er lin, 1 8 79
d e s G r o ss hir ns d er S ang e t hier e , L e ipzig, 1 879
G r u ndz iige d er
A n a t omie d es M e ns c h e n, B e r lin 1 88 1
F iss u r e of
fr om ce nt r al fi ss ur e to occipital l obe
1 86 5
1 866
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
,
.
P ar a c e l s u s ,
h e im )
in t h e
A S w is s
.
-
,
.
,
,
.
,
-
,
r esi
gn
b e c a u se h e did
m eth o d s
b r e a k a w a y f r om t h e
h is
—
S ch wy z , S w it z e r l an d n ear Z iir ich t h e s on o f a p h y s ic ian
o f m e d ic i
n e a n d c it y p h y s ic ia n a t B a s e l 1 52 7 1 52 8 , w h e n h e
w a s f o r ce d t o
in t r o d u ce
‘
-
ca nt o n
P r o fe s s o r
to
H o h en
( A u r e ol u s T h e o p h r a s t u s B o mb a s t u s v o n
B o r n a t E in sie d el n
p h y s ic ian 1 490 ( 9 1 o r 9 3 ) 7 1 54 1
-
n ew
of
t eac hing
t r a dit ion al
t e ac h G
He was
.
me t ho d s
of
O
p
att emp t e d
fi r st
and
to
t o a tt e mpt
t eac h ing , b u t
.
-
-
th e
l ea r n ing
mnia m e dic o chy mico c hir u r gica G
er a o
b ut
l
a e n,
o ne o f
d u r ing his lif e t ime
n e d no su cc e s s
e ffor t s a tt a i
m fo
no t
,
e n e v a, 1
658, 3
vols
,
.
H o es e r B d 11 p 7 1 giv es a fu ll accou n t of P ar a c e ls us with
f u ll bibliogr aphy H oll er B iblio th ec a A na tomic a, Tome I , pp 1 58,
739 1 774
.
,
,
.
,
-
.
.
,
P a r é , A mb r o is e
min e n t F r e n c h s u r g e o n 1 51 0 1 590 O ne
t io n al me t h o d s
o f t h e fi r s t s u r g eo n s t o b r e a k a w a y f r o m t r a d i
W hile in
P a r é w a s a m an mu ch
P ar is h e v isit e d S yl v iu s d e B oe t h e a nat om ist
h ono r e d by t h e r oy al ty H e c ont r ib ut e d t h e f ollow ing t o a n atom y
A n a t omie u niv e r s e l l e d u cor por is hu ma ni c‘omp P ar A P ar e,
An
.
e
—
,
.
-
.
.
,
.
'
.
,
I
56 1
.
.
D is cipl e s of E s cu lapiu s,
B iog r aphy : R ichar ds o n
H oll er B iblio th e ca a na tomica, Tome I
pp 1 76 1 9 2, 1 9 01
v ol
—
1
p
-
—
.
.
.
,
.
I
,
1 9 7,
7 74
P a r k e r , T h o m as
An E n g lis h z o o l o g is t 1 8 50 1 89 7
He
w as bo r n in Lon don t h e e ld e st son o f Wil liam Kit c h e n Pa r k e r F R S ,
P a r k e r r e c eiv e d his e ar l y t r ain ing
th e re now ne d c omp ar at iv e ost eo l og ist
ne s 1 8 68 1 8 7 1
B ec ame S cie nc e M a s t er at th e
a t t h e Ro y al S c h oo l o f M i
J e ffr ie s
—
.
,
.
,
,
.
.
.
.
—
.
,
B r amh am Coll ege
.
I
n
1 872
he
r e tu r n e d
t o Lon do n
at
t h e r e que s t o f
H ux l ey a s D emo n st r ato r in B iology in th e Ro y al Col le ge o f S c ie nc e and
h e h eld t h is po st unt il, in 1 880 h e w a s appoin t e d t o t h e p io f e ssor sh ip o f
,
A N AT OM I CA L N A M E S
3 14
Kasa n
1 86 3
,
; in G
er
many
w hic h d at e he b e came d ocent in his
1 868 , a t
,
.
Ka san ; soo n a ft e r war d s p r o f e s so r o f h ist ol ogy at the Wa ldimir
Un iv e r s ity in Kiew ; in 1 870 0r d ] p r o f e s so r
H is pub licat ions r e l a t e to
mic r osc op y and h is tol ogy
t o logy
at
.
.
P e t it , A n t o i
ne
F e r r e in in th e
s u c ce e d e d
w r it ing s
A F r ench
.
c
s u r g e on a n d a n a t o
hair
of
imp o r t a nt
ar e not r eg ar d e d a s
F r a nco is P o u r fo u r
P e t it ,
an a t o
du
-
my
the
at
t h e s ub j e ct
.
.
S patio
P e t it ,
b er
J e an
-
a
z onu l ar i
Lou is
S inu s
.
A Fr e nch
.
of
J o h ann Con r a d
h au s e n,
1 6 53
—
1
71 2
Pr o f e s so r
d u Ro i
.
1 664
74 1
anato m y o f
d e sul to r y w r it
s om e
1
—
.
.
in P a r is ,
1 674
Me m
1 760
—
.
.
S w is s
not e d
of
-
.
f Vals alva
r
h e t o r ic
S tu die d w it h D uv e r ne y in Par is
n t e st i
ne , kno wn as Pe ye r s p at c h e s
s m all i
h au s e n
He
H is
.
.
A
.
o
s u r g eo n
L on d o n
Tr ig onu m lu mbale
P ey e r ,
1 794
.
t h e R oy al S ocie ty
of
J ar din
F r e n c h p h y s ic ia n,
st u di
e d e spe c i
al ly th e
ing s
on
—
A
.
th e ey e
a n at o
1 71 8
.
my w ith D uv e r ne y H e
H e h as l e f t
a n d t h e m ech ani
c s o f v is ion
S t u die d
mis t ,
,
.
.
a na t o
mis t b or n
,
S c h a ff
at S ch afi
at
ph y sics
D is cov er e d t h e glan d s
logic
and
of
th e
’
.
g landu lis in tes tin or u m,
e ar u mque us u e t afi e c tionibu s S ch afi h aus en, 1 6 77
N ad u li ly mpha tici s olita r ii N od uli ly mpha tici agg r e g a ti
Ex
a na t omica
er ci
ta tio
—
m ed ica
de
.
,
.
.
h is
.
,
my
a n at o
o r g an s o f
of
h e ad
,
t h e b o dy b e sid es
a nd ab do
t h or ax
J
B iogr aphy : L ocy,
bef or e Ves alius, our n
fi gs 6 7 8
—
—
.
Wm
.
.
int e r nal
.
A
.
,
A na t omical
1 91 1 ,
f M or phol
o
.
,
vol
.
22, no
I l lus tr a tion
4, pp 9 6 1 9 62,
—
.
.
.
P h y s ick , P h il ip S y n g
l a delph ia , 1 768
omy in P h i
o f su r g e r y a nd anato
my
de sc r ib ed t he diver t icul a
An A me r ic a n
.
—
1 83 7
.
A
s u r geon an d
s t u d e nt o
f
t ea c h e r
J ohn H unt er
U niv e r s ity o f P ennsylv ania,
o f t h e r e c t um 1 8 3 6
at
t he
Picc ol omini, A r c h ang e
He
me n
th e
p ub l is h e d
fi gu r e s o f
fig ur e showing
l ar ge
o ne
1 499 ,
ns
cont ai
,
s ep a r a t e
1 6 26
w ho , in
J o h ann e s A j u r is t o f Le ipz ig
P h ilosoph ie N at u r alis
in f olio ; w h ich
P e y l igk ,
,
o f a nat
P r o f e s so r
1 805 1 8
He
.
—
.
.
An I t alia n p h y s ic ian , b or n at F e r r a r a ,
He
p r act iced med icine a nd t augh t anat omy in R ome
.
.
A N AT O M I CA L N A M E S
315
.
m in t o w h it e a n d g r e y s u b st a n ce ;
a n d t h a t t h e ao r t a d id n ot p ier c e t h e d iap h r ag m
A n a to mica; pr ae l e c tion es e x plica n tes mir ifi ca m c or por is h u mani
fa br icam R ome 1 586 m f ol
r e cog n i
z ed
th e
th e
s ep ar a t i
on o f
c e r eb r u
.
-
,
P in e l ,
,
at
A
.
—
.
“D e s car t e s
as t h e
in his t h ir tie t h
Pin e l is k n o w n
.
t h e ol og y , b u t
s t u die d
.
,
F r e n c h p h y s ic ia n , 1 7 55 1 8 2 6
S t u dent o f
p h il osop h ic a l id e a s h e d ev e l op e d int o h is f amo u s a n al yt ic a l
Ph il ip p e
B ar t h e z w h ose
m et h o d
,
To u l o u s e
and
M ont p e l lie r
.
M e d ic in e
”
H e fi r st
ne
s t u dy o f me dici
of
.
h e b eg a n t h e
H e t h e n w en t t o P a r is , wh e r e h e pu r su e d
h e cam e t o b e r e c ogn iz e d and , a f t e r h o l ding
y e ar
h is st u die s in p o v e r t y La t e r
imp or ta nt p r act ic ing p osit io n s , h e b ec a m e p r o f e s so r o f pa t h o lo gy in th e
Ec ol e d e P a r is H e is s a id t o h av e s u gge st e d t o B ic h at t h e id e a o f dis
.
.
t ingu is hing t h e d iff e r e nt t is su e s
t o t h at o f B ic h a t
mu co sa gl a nd s
ex ac t
an
mu cos a
n,
ski
,
et c
a n a ly s i
s
is t h e m o s t
P ine l d is t ingu ish e d f e ve r s
.
kno w l e dg e
of
t h e t is su e
me mb r ane s
t h e s e r ou s
,
of
the
st o
compl e t e
mach
,
p r io r
int e s t in e
,
p r op e r d iagno s is d e p e nd e d
a ff e ct e d
H e d iff e r e nt iat e d t h e
th a t
a nd n e r v e s , a n d s t a t e d
,
on
H is
.
a
.
ce ll u l ar
t iss ue , t h e p ar e nc h yma , mu scl e ,
.
N os og r aphie phil os ophiqu e ou l a M e thod e d e l a n a ly s e ap
pliqu e e a l a m ed icin e P ar is 1 789 in 2 v ols 1 8 03 in 3 v ols
B iog r a phy : R S e me l aign e : A lienis t es e t ph ilan thr opes
L es
P a r is , 1 9 1 2, ih
P ine l e t l es Tu k e
’
’
’
.
,
,
.
,
,
’
.
.
.
Pir o g off
anato
mis t
,
1
( Pir o g r o v ) , N ic o l a s I v a n ov it c h
81 0
—
1 88 1
mé dico c h ir u r g ic al e
E sp e cial ly
-
a na t o
my b ase d
P r o f e sso r
.
.
t he
on
A R u s s ia n
.
L A c a dé mie
’
o f a n a t om y a n d s u r g e r y a t
f o r h is l a r ge w o r k
no t e d
me t h od
on
c r o s s - s ec t i
t op og r aph ic
on
H e fo u n d e d
‘
.
in st it u t e in S t P e t e r sb u r g
A na t om e topo gr aphic a s e c tionibu s pe r
tr iplici d ir e c tion e d u c tis ill u s t r a ta
c ong el a t u m
n 5 v ol s
1 859 i
a n a n at o
mic al
.
.
,
hu man u m
P e tr opoli 1 852
c or
,
pus
,
.
.
,
P l iny t h e
s u r g eon an d
Ro m a n
n a t u r a l is t
the
—
E lde r
(
23
—
79 A
D
.
.
) Caiu s
Pl in y w as an
Pl iniu s S ec u ndu s w as b o r n at N ov u m Com u m ( C omo )
in d u s t r io u s c om p il e r , b u t h e w as n o t lik e A r isto t l e a ma n o f o r ig in al
O f his m any w o r k s t h e N a tu r a lis H ist or ia in t h ir t y se v e n
r e se a r c h
T h is
b o ok s h as alon e b e e n p r e se r v e d, a nd in a ne a r ly co mple t e st at e
a o f R o ma n k no wl
no u s t r e a t ise p r o f e sse s t o b e a n e n cy cl o p ae d i
vo l u mi
o ns o f t h e G r eek s
nl y b as e d on t h e r e se ar ch e s and sp e c u l at i
e dg e, m ai
.
,
,
—
.
.
.
P o ir ie r , P au l
1 907
—
J u l ie n
.
A F r e nc h
su r geo n
an d
an a t o
mis t
,
1 8 53
.
Tr ait é d a na to mie hu maine P ar is
r o m nas ofr on tal ang le
Line of
f
’
,
=
,
1 899, in
to a lit tle
5
v ols
.
a bove
,
l ambda
.
A N A T O M I CA L N AM E S
316
P o l l ar d , H e n r y B a r g m a n
l a r d w as
o ne o f
as ex e mp l i e d
S ilu r o id
the
A n E n g lis h z oo l o g is t , 1 868 1 896
Pol
m ost p r omising y ou ng m e n in comp a r a t iv e a na to my ,
th e
b y his
fi
cu lt i
v at i
on o f
w a s d r o w ne d
the
sc i
e nc e
e or g es
in t h e
nat u r a
a n at omy
1 83 2
1 742
—
R oy a l C oll eg e
a nd
1
,
Th e
.
su r ge r y
'
l
s ur
e n ce
B ar o n
,
Pr o f e s sor
.
F r ance ,
of
du Ro i
t h e k ing
of
ye ar
co
mp a r a t iv e
l hist or y
th e
z oo lo
1
8 79
gic al
—
an o i
d,
G
y e a r s h e d ev o t e d t o
x
si
his lif e
a n a t om y o f
of
l a s t ing
v al u e
He
.
.
a na t o
m is t
1 83 3
,
m e dic in e
a nd
of
p r o f e s sor
1 89 4 ,
s t at i
on c on n ect ed
.
n 1 86 5
I
.
1 89 4
—
co
m
w it h t h e
.
P o r t a l , A n t o in e
J a r d in
of
mp a r a t iv e
mp lish e d mu ch
hist o r y mu seu m ;
D ir e ct o r
.
M e moir e
P a r is,
l
ac co
2 8t h
co
D u r ing t h e
s t u di
e d n at u r a
,
mu seu m
he
th e
.
A F r e nc h
.
B o r n in R o u e n w h e r e h e
p a r at ive
.
c on t r i
b u t ion s o n
D ov e r in t h e
at
P o u ch et , G
a ss i
st ant
—
.
M a r s ip ob r a nc h fi sh e s
a nd
.
776 ,
au t
,
1 772
o f an
1
,
868
.
A F r e n c h p h y s ic ia n a n d a n a t o m is t in
n e ( a n a t om y a nd s u r e r ) in t h e
o f m e di
ci
g y
; p r o fe s s o r
of
h uman
a nat om y
at
t he
A nt o in e P e t it ; 1 78 8 , ph y sic ia n t o
imp o r t a nt w o r k o n t h e h is t or y o f anat om y
to
s u cc e s so r
as
h or
.
ph al e d es E d en tes P ar is
.
H is toir e d e l an a tomie e t d e la chir u r g ie P a r is 6 tomes 1 770
1 773 in
T oply s pe a ks of this as a v e r y impor tan t w or k
’
,
,
,
'
.
,
H e h a s w r itt en
B iogr aphie M e dicol e
al so a
l a r ge
nu mber
o f ot
h e r memoir s lis t ed
in t h e
’
.
M Caps u l ar is
.
s u bbr a ch i
a li
s
’
P ou p a r t , F r a n co is
A F r ench
.
.
a na t o
mis t
a nd
s u r g eo n
in P ar is ,
Known o n ac c ou nt o f h is d e sc r ipt io n o f th e l ig ame nt in his
Chir u r gie c ompl et e P ar is 1 69 5 iii
P ou par t s lig am e nt
Lig ame n t u m ing u inal e
B iog r aphy : H oll er B iblio th eca A na t omica Tome I
p 765,
161 6
—
1 7 08
.
,
,
,
’
.
-
,
Pow e r ,
D u blin
on
John Hutc h
as an e
t h e N e r vus
Pr ax
f r om
min e nt
pticus
o
ns
v ei
.
1 9 01
sur g e on ,
mis t
.
1
Au t h o r
806
—
1 863
o f an
Kn o w n in
.
impo rt ant wor k
.
C os ( 3 3 5 B C ) w a s t h e fi r s t to dis t ing u is h ar t e r i
es
H is book on a nat omy is l ost , b u t his wo r k is p r e s e r v ed in
G
a le n
in st r uct o r
.
.
.
P r e nt iss , Ch a r l e s
n
I r is h
c al a n ato
sur gi
a g o r as o f
t h e w r it ings o f
I
An
.
.
,
W il lia m
my
o f a n at o
.
at
An Am e r ic a n
th e
a n at o
mis t
1 874
—
,
H ar v ar d M e dic al S c h ool
.
191
5
.
La t e r
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
318
p h y sio l ogy in Al de r sg at e S ch o ol
f e sso r
of
sa
ph y s ic ia n
me
1 83 1
—
36
an d su r g eo n
M e d ic ine
of
H is b r o th e r
.
1 82 9
Lo n d on,
,
Q u ain
Rich ar d
,
.
3 1 ; pr o
n e nt
an e mi
—
w as
,
.
Th e M u s cl e s o f t h e H u ma n B od y, L ond on, 1 83 6
E l e m en ts of A na t o my , 4th e dition, 1 83 7, l 1 t h e dition,
.
Q
g is t
u a t r e fa g e s
an d
ant
h r opo logist
P a r is M u se u m
of
J
d e B r é au ,
e an
1 810
1 8 92
—
,
L0u is A r m a n d d e
~
N at u r a l H ist o r y
~
P r o f e s so r
.
of
.
1 91
4
.
A F r e n ch
z o o lo
h r opo logy
in t h e
a nt
.
R a ppo r t s u r l e pr og r es d e l a n t hr opol ogie 1 86 7 Les pyg me es
L es pé c e h u ma in e 1 8 77
H is t oir e g é n é r al e d es r a c es h u
1 88 7
main es 1 889
Cr a nia e t hnica 1 8 75 79
A ng le oi
pa r ie ta l a ng l e
’
’
’
.
,
,
’
,
.
.
—
.
,
=
Q
u e c k et t ,
Jo h n
on e o f t h e e ar l y t e x
.
A n E n gl is h p h y s ic ia n 1 8 1 6
t b oo k s o n m ic r o s c op ic a n a t o my
,
on
eor g e
.
C or pus c l es
H is t o l ogy
R a t hk e ,
1
79 3
.
p r o fe s sor
my
an a t o
G
e sc
of
at
h ic ht e
=
f th e
on e o
M a r t in H e in r ic k
a n at o
Z oolo gie
p
H e p u b l is h e d
.
—
a n at o
.
m is t
M ies che r
ce
er
ed
s t u di
,
'
s
a n at o
ph a lic
1 801
m is t
an t o
6
.
1 88 7
1 8 49
—
,
m is t
and e
.
.
1817
1 814
—
,
mb r y o l og is t
( S ee
.
.
1 829
;
z oolo g y
p r o f e sso r o f
E v o n B a er
0 as
K
to
.
.
in G ot t ing en
—
1 88 4
—
t u be s
a ng l es
m an
1 83 5
su c c e sso r
as
,
8 50 52
A G
.
my in D o r p at ;
K on ig sb u r g
der
1
A D utch
.
B o r n in D a nz 1g,
1 860
—
f
o
,
A n E ng l is h
or t u b e s of
R a nk e , H a n s R u d o l p h
A ng le
1 86 1
—
.
L e c tur es
R a in e y , G
.
,
—
,
35
an d
Ca r u s
.
A bh andlu ng z u r B ild u ngs
u n d E n twic ke l u ngs g es chich te d e s
E n tw icke
M ens che n u n d d e r Thier e L eipzig 1 83 4 in
7 pl
D ie E n tw ic ke
l u ng sg es chic h te d e r N o tt e r ( Oo l u b e r n a tr ix ) I 83 9
l u ng s ges chic h t e d er S c lzild kr é t e n 1 8 48
Un t er s u ch u ng e n tiber d e n
K or pe r bau u n d die E n tw ick e l u ng d e r Kr o ko dile 1 866
D iv er ticu
C olu mns of = a t a n t e r ior en d of c h or d a d or s a lis
a n e c t o d e r mic pou c h in b u c c o ph a r y ng e a l
l u m, po u ch or po cke t of
F olds of
r e g ion of e mbr y o
fo lds of mes od e r m w hich comple t e
t h e r ec tu m
C ar tilag e
,
,
,
.
.
,
’
.
,
,
.
‘
.
=
—
.
.
.
( R av iu s ) Jo h a n n e s J ac o b u s A D u t c h s u r g e on
1 668 1 72 1
S t u die d in Le y d en t h e n u nd e r D u v e r ney
R au
ist
Pa r is
,
.
,
—
.
.
P r o f e sso r
1 7 1 7 , as s
ucce s so r
,
of
m y me dicine
a n at o
t o B idlo o
,
and
s u r ge r y
at
a n d a n at o
an d
Mé r y
Le y d e n ,
m
in
1 71 3
.
D e o r igine e t g e ne r a tion e d entiu m, Le y d e n 1 6 9 4 in
E pis t ol a d u w d e s e pt o s cr o ti a d R u ys chiu m, A ms ter d a m,
,
Pr o ce s s us gr a cilis
a n ter ior
( 07
c
nza ll e us
)
.
,
1
699
,
A NA T O MI CA L N A M E S
Rea u m u r , R e n é A n t o in e , F e r c h a u l t d e
H e was
.
o f t w e nt y - fi v e
mitt e d
H e wa s
ad
.
t o th e
Aca d e my
.
S c ie nce
of
ma ny s ide d inv e st igat or
a
g is t , 1 68 3
in P a r is a t t h e age
A F r e nc h
-
1 757
3 19
.
z oo l o
b e cam e p r o fi cie nt
issu e d a l ar ge w o r k o n
-
an d
mol ogy g e n e r al z o ol ogy a nd p hy sic s H e
”
n
i s e ct s
M émo ir es p ou r se r v ir a l hist oir e nat u r e lle d e s in se ct e s 6
vo l s , P a r i
s
1 7 3 4 1 742
H e cr e a t e d a lar g e z oo l ogical mu se u m in P a r is
w h ic h lat e r b e c am e t h e p r op e r t y o f t h e J a r d in d e s P l a nt e s
in
ent o
,
.
’
,
—
.
,
.
.
S
l es
1
o
l e s d ive r s e s
ur
mar s
etc
,
.
,
pr od u c tions qu i s e f on t d a ns l es é cr é vis s es
P ar is
e n tr e au tr e s s u r c e lle s d e l e ur s ja mbes
et
71 4
B iogr aphy :
re
.
M emoir e s
’
A ca d
se
.
H is t
.
757 p
1
,
2 01
.
,
,
,
.
m a n p a t h o l o g is t
a nd h is t o l og is t k no w n fo r his i
nv e s t i
g at io n s on t h e l ymp h a t ic sy st e m
1 83 3 1 9 1 0
B o r n a t G u t e r sl o h in W e s tp h a l ia ; st u die d a t th e U niv er s it ie s
R ec klin gh a u s e n , F r ie d r ic h D a n ie l
vo n
A G
.
er
,
—
.
of
W iir zb u r g
B onn ,
an d
Co h n
and
B e r l in ; w or ke d w it h R u d ol f V ir c h o w
in p a t h o l ogy , t h en v is it e d t h e Un ive r s it ie s o f Vie nn a , R om e a n d
P a r is
I n 1 8 58 6 4 h e w as a s s is t a nt at t h e B e r l in P at h ol ogic al I n s t it u t e
h e im
—
.
.
3 2 h e w a s c all e d t o Kon ig sb e r g a s o r d e nt lich e r p r o f e sso r o f
p a t h ol o gy ; l at e r a t S t r assb u r g a s dir e c t or o f t h e p a t h ol ogic a l in s t it u t e
D ie Ly mphg efcis s e u nd ihr e B e zie h u ng z u m B in d e g e w e be,
B er lin 1 8 62
C an a ls of R e c kling h a us e n
B iog r aphy : A na t o mis ch er A nze ig er B d 3 7, pp 509 51 1 , 1 9 1 0
At the
age o f
.
'
.
,
.
—
.
,
R e d i, F r a n ce s co
ob se r v a t io n s o n
low e r
m al s
a ni
an d
,
Kar l
of
S t ud e n t
p r o f e ss or
K
of
ar l
E r n st
h u m an
B r e s l au
a s s u c c e sso r
t ut e
st i
1 8 58
;
B o g is l a u s
an d
co
Th
of
in
B aer ,
v on
v
M iiller s
con
mb r yol ogic a l
J
G
oh
mp a r a t iv e
.
e
He
.
fi r m e d H a r v ey
es o f
s t u di
’
s
in s e ct s
.
g e ne r az ion e d e g li ins e t ti, F l or ence,
A
.
1 69 7
m ad e
a ll a
Es per ienz e in t or n o
1 668, in
R e ic h e r t ,
1 626
A r ez z o,
of
—
.
.
.
er
m an
st ,
a n a t om i
Mu e ll er
an at o my
,
in
1 81 1
—
1 883
.
F r o r iep ; 1 843 53 ,
D o r p a t ; 1 8 53 58, in
R
—
.
—
S ie b o ld d ir e c t or o f th e p h y s iolo g ic al in
n e d a mic r ot ome
n
D
e si
i
n
B
e r li
l
a
c
e
g
p
,
.
.
.
B er lin 1 83 6 48
dic tis br a n ch ia lib
D e em
o n a c h t e n A m hi
r
d
K
e
s
e
d
e
s
o
h
i
c
h
t
e
n
s
es
c
k
e
l
u
l
n
w
i
c
E
t
Vg
p bien,
pf
g g
D os E n tw ic kl u ngs l e be n im Wir b e l t hier
K onigs bu r g 1 83 8 in
D e r B au d e s m ens c hlic h e n G e hir ns Le ipz ig , 1 859
r e ich e 1 8 40
M e mbr ana
R e ce ssus
M a cu la cr ibr os a qu ar to
C ar t ilag o
c u li
v e n tr i
br y on u
m
ar c u b
s ic
.
—
.
.
,
.
,
,
.
,
.
,
.
.
.
.
R e il ,
a nat o m y ,
t he
J o h a n n C h r is t ia n
7 59
b r a in w h ic h
1
—
1813
.
.
A G
H e w r ot e
a pp e a r e d
in t h e
o ne
1
8t h
ma n p h y s ic ia n a n d
m p o r t an t
o f t h e m os t i
er
c e nt u r y
,
.
P r o f e ss o r
of
st u de nt
of
t r e at is e s on
m e dic in e in
A N A T O M I CA L N A M ES
3 20
H a ll e
in
an d
B e r lin
A mo n u ment w a s
.
.
t o R e il in t h e
e r e ct e d
ci
ty o
f H alle
1915
.
m a na t omicar u m f as cicu l us pr imu s d e s tr u c tu r a
n er v o r u m H a ll e 1 79 6 in f ol
I ns u l a S u bs ta n tia inn om in a ta
Tceniol a
Tr ig on u m l e mnis c i
A ns a pe d u n cu l ar is
S u l c us cir c u l ar is
Ex
e r cita tion u
,
,
.
,
.
.
.
R e is c h ,
ph ic a
so
"
G
a b d om e n
7 73
—
n
sh o w i
g
1 82 8
F r a n co is
br on ch ia l t u b es
R e is s n e r , E r n s t
1 878
—
th e
D a n ie l
A G
.
er
man
a n a t -o
,
micr os c opic s mooth mu s cl e fi br es in t h e s ma l les t
.
A G
.
ma n
o f a n at o m y
P r o-f e s s o r
.
er
a n a t o m is t
in D or p a t
in B e r l in
,
,
.
R e ma k ,
.
J u l iu s
Er ns t
1 8 49
—
191 1
er
,
.
.
ma n
n e u r o l o g is t ,
son
of
R ob e r t
.
R e m a k , R ob e r t
Jo h a nn e s M u el l e r
A G
.
Do r p a t
and
.
D e a ur is in t er nw f or ma tio n e D or pa t 1 851
M emb r an a ves tibu lar is Fibr e
Cr is t a
R e m ak ,
m is t in B e r l in
.
M u s c les of
1 82 4
M ar gar ita P hilo
504 in h is
int e r nal a n at o my o f t h e t h o r ax a nd
1
.
R e is s e
is e n ,
1
.
P u b l is h e d in
.
ill u s t r a t io n
an
,
r eg o r
.
.
A
.
n e u r o l o g is t
in P o s e n,
1 81 5
—
65
.
S t u d en t
of
S ch onl e in
O bs e r v a tion es a na t omicce e t micr os c opicae d e s y s t e ma tis n e r vos i
s tr u c t ur a
B e r ol 1 83 8 in
Ue be r e in s e l bs tan d ig e s D ar m
N e r ve n s ys t e ms B er lin 1 8 47
Un t er s u c hu ng en u e ber die E n twic k
r b e l thi
e r e B e r li
n 1 8 55 f ol
e lu ng d e r Wi
P l ex us
Fibr ae
G anglia
N u cl e ar div is ion
;
as s ist ant
to
.
’
,
,
,
,
,
R e t z iu s , A n d r e as A d o l f
h o lm ,
.
-
.
.
a n a t o m is t ,
A S w e d is h
.
o f a n ato my a n d a nt
P r o f e s sor
796 1 86 0
1 8 40 6 0
1
.
,
.
.
R et z iu s ,
~
.
,
,
fa t h e r
h r op ology
of
G
u s t av
in S t o ck
—
.
Ue be r d Z us a mme nhang d er P ar s th or a c n s ympa th mit d en
Wu r z e ln d er S pina lner v en 1 83 2
Om l efv c r ns fi n a r e byg na d 1 8 44
A pe r t u r a l a t e r a lis v e n tr icu li
Cav u m pr aeper it on ea le
E mi
F as cia
F u nicu lu s s e par a ns
s ( tr i
n en tia m e dial i
G yr us
g o ni)
olf a c t or ius l a t e t m e d
s;
in tr a lim b us ;
antic e n tr a li
a mbie ns ;
M e mbr ana per icaps u
lu na r is
Lig a me n tu m f u n dif or m e
s e mi
P ar s oper cu l ar is
P a lliu m inf er ius
Ve nce
l ar is
.
.
.
.
.
,
.
,
.
.
.
.
.
'
.
.
—
.
.
.
.
R haz e s
A n A r abia n
an a t o
mist 9 23
,
.
.
M u h amm e d b e n Z a ke r ijja e r R az i)
( Th e d at e s o f h is de at h ar e giv e n as : 9 2 3
( Ab u B e k r
( R az e s )
.
-
.
,
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
3 22
R ob y ,
st ud e nt
f e sso r
J o se p h
of
of
O l iv e r
an a t o
my
p h y s io lo gy
an d
at
Wend ell
a nd
my
E mm a nu e l
st u die s o n
su r g e r y
An
.
o f a na t o
H ol me s
Un iv e r sity
R o l a n d o , L u ig i
f e s so r
A me r ic a n
An
.
at
t he
a na t om i
st,
at
I t a l ian
—
a nat o
Un iv e r sity
.
B r ow n Un iv e r s it y ,
M a r yl a nd
1 843
,
F e ll o w
1 860
1 807
B o w do in C oll ege ,
at
of
.
1 83 7
1 828
a n a t om y
43 ;
—
Pr o
.
60
—
.
mis t in T u r in
1 773
,
1 83 1
—
Pr o
.
T u r in ; p h y s ic ia n t o K ing Vict o r
n e in S a ss a r i; kno w n f or his
o f m edi
ci
S ar d inia ; p r o f e s s o r
t h e b r a in a nd sp in a l co r d
of
of
.
S ag g io s opr a l a v e r a s tr u t tu r a d e l c er v e ll o d e ll u om o e d eg li
a nimal i e s opr o l e f u nz ion id e l s ys t e ma n e r v os o S as s ar i 1 8 0 , ih
9
H u ma ni cor por is fa br icce a c f u n ction u m a nalysis a d u mbr a t a, T ur in,
1 8 1 7 iii
A ng l e
A r e a of
pr e cen tr a l an d pos tce n tr al c onv o l u tions
C e l ls
oh me d u l l a o bl on a t a
C ol u mn of
F iss u r e of
s u l cu s
g
s
S u bs t a n tia g e l a tinos a
c e n tr ali
Oper c u lu m
P o ints
Tu ber
cu l u m
’
,
,
,
,
,
=
.
.
=
.
-
=
.
.
.
.
.
.
W il h e l m
R o ll e r , C h r is t ian F r ie d r ic h
A G
.
er
m an
a l ie n is t ,
1 802
N ucl e u s la t er a lis an t er ior , med iu s e t pos te r ior
N u cl e us
n en tia; m e dia li
R a d ix a s c e nd e ns N g l oss opha r y ng e i
s
.
.
R o l l e t , A l ex
ander
S tr oma
R os e l
1
von
705 1 759
.
colo r l e s s s tr o
f
o
R o se nh o f,
ma of
1 83 4
—
e r y t h r ocy t es
J o h a nn
Au gu st
A
.
G
1 903
er
man
l g is t ,
n at u r a l
z oo o
on
“H is t or ia
.
.
.
N o t e d fo r h is b e a u t ifu l ly ill u s t r a t e d w o r k s
—
mi
.
A n A u s t r ia n p h y s io l o g is t ,
.
e
s
na tu r a li
H is mos t imp or t a nt wor k is p e r h ap s
”
r an ar u m n os tr a ti
um
w hich app e a r e d in 1 758 w it h a n in t r o d u ct io n b y
A lb r e ch t vo n H all e r a n d is s p ok e n o f a s a n a r t is tic m a st e r piece H e h a d
h ist o r y
.
,
.
t h e p l at e s ne ar ly
fi nish
it
fi nish e d
fo r
l a r g e w or k
a
on
liz ar d s , b u t d id
no t
live to
.
R os e nmu el l e r ,
m is t in Le ip z ig
1 794 p r os e c t o r ; 1 802 2 0 p r o f e s so r o f a na t omy an d su r g e r y
1 7 7 1 1 8 20
A n a n at o m is t o f m any int e r e st s h e h a s w r itt e n a numb e r o f
in Le ip z ig
imp or t ant t r e at ise s w h ich h av e adv ance d t h e s c ienc e o f a n at omy
J o h an n C h r is t ian A G
.
er
man
a n at o
.
—
—
.
,
.
.
la chr y ma liu m par tiu mqu e e x ter nar u m ocu li
h u mani d e s cr iptio ana t omica Leipz ig 1 79 7 ih
Ou a d am d e
s e m br y on u m e t f ce tu um h u ma n or u m, L eipz i
ovar ii
g 1 8 02 , ih
C hir ur gis ch ana t omis ch e A bb ild u ng en f iir A e r tz e u n d Wu nd ae r tz e
Weimar 1 8 05 1 2 in f ol 3 pts H and bu ch d er A na t omie Le ipzig
H e a ls o tr ans la te d th e w or k of A l ex an d er M onr o on
h
1 8 08 i
t h e bu r s ce of th e h u man body, in t o G e r man
Or g anor u m
,
,
,
,
-
,
—
,
,
,
,
.
,
.
,
A N A T O M I CA L N AM E S
323
.
F oss a
G l and u la
G l l a cr imalis inf er ior
M s t e r no-a bd om
ina lis
Or ganon
Va lvu l a P ar ovar ium Epoophor on R e cess us
phar yng eus Plica la cr imalis
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
R e il
.
.
A G e r m a n a n at o mis t 1 780 1 82 9
o f a nat omy a n d p hy si
ol ogy in G r eif s w a l d , 1 820
A st u d ent o f
R ose nt h a l , F r ie d r ic h C h r is t ia n
P r o fessor
.
.
—
.
.
,
.
.
Ca na lis
ve la ta
G
.
Ven a;
ang li
on.
as cend en te s
Vence basalis
.
.
.
W il h el m
A G e r ma n s u r g eo n, 1 8 1 7 -1 888
n M a r b u r , Z u r ic h and B e r l i
s u r ge r y i
n
g
H a nd bu ch d e r a na tomis c h e n Chir u r gie 1 883
C hir ur g is ch a n a t omis ch es Vad e me cu m
Line a Ros er -N el a t on
R o se r ,
V
.
.
P r o fe ssor
.
of
.
.
,
.
.
A S w e dis h p h y s ic ia n a n d a nat o mis t 1 63 0- 1 702
P r o f e s s or o f
ne in t h e Univ er sity o f Up sala , 1 6 60 9 0
e dici
He dis
c ov e r e d t h e l y mp h at i
cs in 1 6 51 , a f t e r d is s ect i
ng som e 400 ani
m al s T h ese
h a d s inc e t h e t ime o f A se l li been con f u se d w it h th e l act ea l s
H e w as
R u d b e c k , O l au s
m
.
.
,
—
.
.
.
al so
mical t h e a t er at Up sal a
discove r y o f th e lymp h at ics
th e f ou n d e r o f an
med t h e
al so cl ai
a na t o
.
Tho mas B ar t h olin
.
D is s e r ta tio d e cir cu la t ion e s a ng u inis We s ter as 1 652
E x er cita tio a n a tomica e x hibens du c t u s n‘ov os h e pa tic as a qua
e t v as a gl an d u l a r u m s e r os a cu m fi g ur i
s a en ei
s e t o bser va tion
Wes ter as, 1 653 , in
a na to mm s
,
s os ,
ibus
,
.
R u d ol p h i, Kar l A s mu n d
S t u d ie d m e d ic ine in G
re
A G
.
ifs w a l d
man p a r a s it o log is t
an d
790,
1
,
er
t her e
on
.
.
my
H e w as
at
B e r lin, w h er e h e f ou n d e d
on e o f
w a s t h e t e ac h e r
p ar asit ology
most
th e
of
s u cc e s s f u l
.
Pr o f essor
F Ar nold , T h
.
.
.
pr o fe s sor
1 8 10
mu s eum
n h is t i
me H e
o f z oolo gy i
.
.
His w r it ings de al
.
.
c
h iefl y wit h
.
R u e d in ge r , N iko l a u s
1 896
1 83 2
—
an a nat om ic al - z o ol og i
cal
t e ach e r s
Jo h an nes Mue ll er
1 77 1
,
p r e s e nt e d a t h e s is
1 797 h e w a s a
0
In
in t e s t in a l w o r m s fo r h is d o c t o r s t h e s is
p r o fe sso r in G r e if s wald ; 1 808 or d p r o f es s or o f me dic ine ;
’
o f a nat o
.
,
.
.
A G
er
m an
a na t o
my in M un ch en
o f an a t o
W
.
L B ischo ff
.
in
1 8 55
mis t in M u n c h en
1 88 1
,
—
96
.
p r os e ct o r t o
S t u d e nt
B isch off
of
,
1 83 2
H e nl e
,
.
A tlas des per ipher en N er v e nsys tems, 2 nd c d , 1 8 72 A tlas des
mens chlichen G eh b r or g anes, 1 866 75 Topog r aphis ch chir ur g is c he
B eitr a eg e zur A na t omie d es
Ana tomie d es M ens ch en, 1 8 72 78
Ver d auu ngsappar a t es , S tu t tgar t, 1 8 79 B e itr a eg e z u r M or phol ogie
A n a tomie d er H ir n u n d
d es G au mens eg e ls S tu ttgar t 1 8 79
Ue ber die Ver br eitung
R u e ch enmar ks n er v e n, M u e nc h en, 1 868 72
.
’
—
.
—
.
.
,
,
.
—
.
.
A NA T O M I CA L N A M E S
3 24
.
d es S y mpathicus, M u enchen 1 863
K ur s us d er topogr aph An ato
mie, 4th a ufl 1 899
Ligg
s a cc u l or u m
Tr ig onu m c ar otic u m;
um
olf a ct or i
Canal es s e micir cu lar es
B iog r aphy : A na tomis ch e r A nz e ig er , v ol 1 3 , pp 21 9- 23 2, 1 89 7
.
.
,
.
.
.
.
.
.
( R h up hos )
R u fus
who l iv e d d u r ing t h e
int o mo t o r
to
h av e
of
Ep h e su s , w as
o f T r a j an
53
r ei
gn
a nd se nso r y
1 17
—
; wa s t h e
c el eb r at e d
a
A
G
He
.
nol ogy
anat omical t e r mi
p h y s ic ia n
d iv id e d n er ve s
r ee k
t o d e s cr ibe t h e opt ic c h ia sma
fi r st
s aid
f or mulat e d
t he F allopia n t u b es in th e sh eep ;
r ecog ni
zed
.
.
.
an
“
.
B iog r aphy
Anat omis ch e We r ke des R huphos u nd G al e n os ,
E r s t e d e u ts c h e Ue b er s e tz u ng v on R o be r t R itter v Toply A na tom
is che H ef t e, B d 25, e r s t e A bt h pp 3 51 3 9 8, 1 9 04
.
''
.
—
.
M au r o
.
.
.
,
.
An I t al ia n b io l o g is t in Pavia , 1 776 - 1 849
D es cr izion e anat omic a d eg li or ga nid ell a cir cola zione d el le s ala
man dr e a qu a tiche P avie 1 8 1 7 in 4 pl A mour s d es s al a ma nd r es
a qu a tiqu es e t d ével oppe me n t d u t etar d d e ces s ala mand r es d e u i
s
l oe uf jus qu a l a nimal par fait M ila n 1 8 2 1 , in
5 pl D é ve l o pe
me n t d e l a g r enou ill e c omm u n e d epu is le moment d e sa n ais s a nce
iu s u a s on é ta t ar fait
M ila n 1 826 ih
q
p
4 pl
B las t opor us
C oel en te r on
R usc on i,
.
.
—
.
,
,
.
,
,
’
’
’
.
.
,
,
’
.
.
,
.
.
R u t im ey er ,
,
A G e r m a n co mp ar at iv e an at omis t a nd
Ex t r a o r dinar iat a t t he U niv er sity o f B e r n,
p al eo nto l og is t, 1 825 1 89 5
1 8 53
O r d ina r ius fo r z oology and c o mpar ativ e anat omy a t B a s e] 1 855
”
C c f o u nd e r o f t he Ar c h iv e s f iir An th r opol ogie, and th e e dit or o f t h e
His p al e ont olo gical stu dies ar e o f t h e h igh e st t yp e
Cr a nia H e l v et ica
’
”
I t wa s u nd e r t he infl uence o f R iit ime ye r s
O dont ogr aphie ,
t h at
Kowal ev sky c ompl e te d h is memo ir s o n f o ssil mammal s
Lu dwig
.
—
.
.
.
,
-
‘
.
.
.
B eitr ag z ur K enn tniss d er f os s il en Pf er d e u nd e u einer ve r
g l eiche nd en Odon tog r aphie d er H u fthier e im Allg emeinen B as el,
1 8 63
Ue ber die H er ku nf t u ns er er Thier we l t, Eine Z ooge o
B as e l a n d G en eva, 1 867
g r aphis ch e S kizz e
B iogr aphy : Ana t omis ch er A nz e ig er , B d 1 1 , pp 508 51 2 1 89 6
”
“
A u tobiogr aphie, in K l ein e S chr if ten, B ase l, 1 89 8
,
.
.
.
—
.
.
.
.
mis t o f d ist inc t io n 1 63 8 1 73 1
Pr o fesso r o f anat omy and bot any a t Amst e r dam
B or n at Th e Hague
He wa s a st ud e nt o f
wh e r e h e fo r med t h e fi r st anat omical mu s eum
S w amme r d am f r om wh om h e l e a r ne d t he inj ect io n me t h od w h ic h h e
He discove r ed t h e
n the for mat io n o f h is museum
v el y i
u s e d ex t e nsi
R u y sch , F r e der ic k
.
A Dutch
a nat o
—
.
,
,
.
.
.
b r onch ial
ar t e r y
; th e inter nal plat e
of
th e ch or oid
.
Acces
D ilu cidatio va lvular um in v asis lympha ticis e t lact eis
La H ay e, 1 665;
scr u n t qu wdam obs er va tiones a na t omicce r ar ior es
.
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
M ar ie
S ap p e y ,
1 8 96
.
P r o f e sso r
-
P h il ib e r t C o n s t a n t
A F r e nc h
-
o f an a t o
my in Pa r is
,
1
.
.
8 59 - 6 8
a nat o
m is t
1 81 0
,
.
A n a t omie P hy s iol og ie, P a t hol og ie d es Vois s eau x ly mpha tiqu es
c h e z l h o m m e e t l es v er t e br es , 1 8 7 4
Tr a it é d a na t omie d es cr iptiv e P ar is 1 8 76 79
’
S u r l a c onf or ma tion e t la s tr u c tu r e d e l u r e tr é d e l hlomme,
P ar is 1 8 54
A ns a
C or n u f r on ta l e ;
d al e
F os s a
s ph en oi
oc ci
pita l e ;
pa r ie t a lis F os s u l a s u pr apyr a mid a lis G l an d u la e ciliar es M us cu
l u s occipit os t aphy lin us ;
N u c le u s
s phin c t e r pr aepu ti
i
N otes
P apill a e c or ol lif or mes ;
P ar s
r u ber
h e mis ph a er ia l ing u a e
l a cr imal is pa lp ;
oc u l a r i
s pa lp ;
S u l cus
pa lpe br a lis g l l a cr
or bit opa l pe b s u p Tes t e s ( C ollic u li inf e r i
o r es )
B iog r aph y : A na t omis ch er A nz e ig er , B d 1 2, 1 59 , 1 89 6
,
'
.
’
—
,
.
,
’
.
,
-
—
.
.
.
.
.
—
.
.
—
.
.
—
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
S c a r p a , A n t o n io
st u d e n t o f
U n iv e r s it y
ner ve
( 46
52
or
)
1 83 2
—
A
.
—
,
—
,
—
1 81 2
an d
( 1 79 4 )
t ion a n d b e au t y
the
a n a t o m is t , 1 747
I t a lia n
M or g agni; 1 7 72 83 p r o f e ss or o f anatomy and su r g e r y a t t h e
o f M o d e na ; 1 78 3 1 803
p r o f e ss or o f a n a t o my in P a v ia a l s o
1 78 7
s ur g e r y ,
An
.
.
t he
Ph y s ic ia n t o N a p o l e o n
H is wo r k o n t h e e igh t h
sp l a nc h ni
c n e r v e s , in ge n e r a l e x ac t n e ss o f d e s c r i
p
.
n ,
o f e ng r av i
g
cm
ga ngl io n
o ti u
,
has
b e en
n ev e r
su r p a s se d
H e d isc ov e r e d
.
.
An a t omica dis qu is ition es d e a u d itu e t olfa c tu P av ia 1 78 0
Ta bu l ar n ev r ol og icw a d ill us tr a n d u m his t or ia m car d ia c or u m
in f ol
ne r v or u m P av ia 1 79 4 in f ol
D e S tr u ct u r a f e n es tr a r o t u n d a e
a u r is e t d e ty mpa n o s e cu n d ar io a n a to mica e o bs er v a tione s
M o d e na
1 772 in
A r te r ia nas opa la tina
Ca n al e s s e micir cu lar es
G ang lion v e s
tibu la r e ;
t e mpor a l e
F as cza c r e mas t e r ica ;
in te r c o lu mnar i
s
I n tu me s ce n tia g a ng liof or mis
Lig am e n t u m tr ia ng u lar e
Liqu or
N e r v u s n as opa la tinu s
S inu s e llipticu s
S u l cu s n as opal a tinu s
Z ona
Tr ig o n u m
B iog r aphy H oll er
Biblio the ca A na tomica Tome H p 69 6,
1 776
R ich ar d s on
D is cipl e s lof Ais cu lapiu s, v ol 1 pp 1 43 1 57
w it h por tr ait, 1 9 01
,
,
,
-
.
-
,
,
,
.
.
,
,
.
.
—
—
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
—
,
.
,
,
—
—
.
.
.
,
,
.
S ch a a r s ch m id t , A g u s t u s
A G e r m a n s u r g e o n a n d a n a t om is t b o r n
P r o f e ss or o f a n at o my a nd su r ge r y at t h e U ni
a t H a ll e , 1 7 20
‘
.
v e r si
ty o f
B u t z ow , w h e r e h e
al so e s t ab l is
h ed
a
sc
ob st et r i
ci
a ns
h o ol f o r
.
my h av e long b e e n c on sid e r e d c l assics
M y ologis che Ta
Os t e ol ogis c h e Ta b e ll e n H a ll e 1 7 46 in
S pl a nch nol ogis ch e Ta b ell en H al le 1 748
be ll en H al le 1 747 in
N e u r ol og is c h e Ta b ell en H a ll e 1 750 ih
ih
A d e n ol ogis c he
Ta be ll e n B er lin 1 751 , ih
S ynd es mol ogische Ta bel le n B er lin
1 752 in
H is wo r k s
on a n a t o
.
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
S c h a ch e r
G
,
P o l y ca r p G
ang lion ciliar e
.
ott l i
eb
.
G
er
ma n p h y s ic ia n
1 6 74
—
,
1 73 7
.
A N A T O MI C A L N A M E S
3 27
.
Z a d e h M e h e m m e d A t au ll a h A T u r kis h p h y s ic ia n w h o
st u d i
n e in I t a l
e d me di
ci
y a n d w ho p ub l is h e d in 1 8 2 0 a w o r k in T u r k ish
t h e t it l e o f w h ic h t r a n sl a t e d int o G e r ma n r ead s :
—
S c h a n i,
‘
-
.
,
S pieg e l d er K b r per in d e r A na to mic d e r G lie d e r d es M e ns ch e n
1 82 0, in f ol io w it h 56 cop er
p pl a tes
'
,
,
.
S ch e in e r , C h r is t o p h e r
A G e r m a n p h y s ic ia n
b or n in W al d , in S w a b ia , 1 59 5 H e w r o t e t h e fi r s t
t h e r e l a t io ns o f t h e o p t ic n e r v e t o t h e ey e b a ll
.
m a t h e m a t ic ia n
an d
.
d e s cr ip t io n
ex a c t
,
of
.
O cu l u s
tur ,
M u h l d or f
,
S ch e u ch z e r ,
B o r n in
Z u r ic h
S ir H a n s S l o a n
of a
1
6 1 9, in
H e made
Lo n d o n
f o ssil man , l at e r
P is ciu m
s
of
b ot a n y
,
a
h o wn
at
l e tt e r
r e lat i
n
g th e
A G
.
mal t iss u e s
a
Z u r ic h
,
er ma n
of
t he
r a dius v i
s u al s e r u i
i
p h y s ic ia n
1 6 72
—
,
sa l a m a n d er
g ia nt
.
1
7 08 ih 4
-
.
°
,
b o t a n is t
-
—
,
am -
c e ll ul a r
1 88 1
1 804
M a in
Pr o
.
He
.
na t u r e o f
sh a r e s
p l a nt
an d
.
B e itr a e g e z u r P hy t og en es is M u ll er s A r chiv B er lin
pp 1 3 7 1 76, 2 pl
( L a ter r epu blis h e d b y the S y d e nham S
’
,
,
83 8
o cie ty ,
1
,
—
.
.
S c h l e m m, F r ie d r ic h
a n a t om y
1 73 3
p e t r ifa c t io n s a n d w r o t e
dis co v e r y o f t h e s k e le t on
F r a nk f u r t
a nd
w it h T h eo d o r S ch w a nn th e d is c ov e r y
a ni
m an
c o l l e c t io n o f
qu er u l m,
D or p a t
,
er
b y Cu v ier t o b e
J aco b
J e na
.
lar ge
v in d ic i
ce e t
S ch l e id e n , M a t t h ias
f e s so r
a
G
A
-
of
in qu a
,
J o h a n n J ac o b
.
,
f u n d ame n tu m optic u m
s eu
,
in B e r l in,
A G
.
1 83 3
er
ma n
anat o
m is t ,
1 79 5 1 858
—
.
P r o fe s s o r
.
A r t er iar c apitis s u pe r f ic on n ova B er lin 1 83 0 f o l
B eme r ku ng e n u e ber d a ng e bl O hr kn o t en ( G a ng lion o ticu m)
.
.
.
.
ang lion r
,
.
,
.
.
Can alis G
v e n os a s cl er ae
,
hachitic o-c occyg e u m
.
Lig am en t u m
,
S in us
.
.
A G e r m a n b o t a n is t a n d
C as im ir C h r is t o p h e
Pr o f es sor o f a na t omy an d b ot a ny , in E r l ang e n,
s t 1 7 1 8 1 79 2
o mi
H e is th e a u t h o r o f s ev e r al anat omic a l m emo ir s
S c h m id e l
.
,
—
.
,
anat
1 7 43
.
.
Diss er t a tio d e
n er v o
discov e r e r
b r a ne s
of
,
1
754 in
,
1 4 ( 1 0) 1 6 80
r m a n a n at o m i
s
t
1
6
e
A
G
,
,
Th e
tt e nb er g a n d p h y sic ian to t h e El e c t or o f S ax on y
at W i
b e d t h e lining m e m
an mem b r an e ; d e sc r i
o f t h e S c h n e id e r i
S c h n e id e r Co n r a d V ik t o r
P r o f e s so r
in ter cos tali Er l ang en,
—
.
.
.
the
na sal
it ar y memb r ane,
f os sae, t h e p it u
a nd n e r v e s
dist r ib u t e d
A NA T O M I CA L N A M E S
3 28
‘
One
t he
of
fi r st
f r om th e b r ain
d eny th e G
to
al eni
c
.
id ea t h at
c at a r r
h al disch ar ge s
.
Dis s e r ta tio d e os s e cr ibr ifor mi, e t s e ns u ac or g ano o d or a t u s e t
D is
mor bis a d u tr u mqu e s pe c tan tibu s Wittenbe r g , 1 655, ih
s er ta tion e s ono t o mica e d e pa r tibus , q u as v a ca n t, pr i
n ci
pa lior ibus
capit e, h epa te , c u m o bs er va tionib us a d on a t omiom, necn on
c or d e
°
n e n tibus , Witt e n b er , 1
a d a r t e m me d en d i pe r ti
543 , in 8
g
M e mbr an e of = pituitar y me mbr ane
S ch ne id er ian mem
br a ne
,
,
,
-
—
.
S ch r e ger ,
1 7 68
1 83 3
—
H e in r ic h T h e o d o r
Ch r is t ian
A
.
D a n is h
a n at o
m is t
,
.
Ver s u ch
ei
ner
A na tomie d es A u g e s
v e r g l eich e nd en
Th r a e n en or g an e , L e ipz ig 1 8 1 0 in
Line of
c on ce n tr i
n e s ca us e d b
c li
y
t u bu l e s n e a r t h e s u r fa c e of t h e d e ntin e
,
der
u nd
,
bending
a
o
th e d e ntina l
f
.
S ch r o e d e r
o m ist ,
of
1
7 97
—
th e b r a in
d e r K o lk ,
v an
1 8 62
J ac ob
H e is kno w n
.
e sp e c ially
an d s pin al c o r d , a n d
Waar n e mingen
e n ov er
h ar e n
h is
of
co nt r i
b u t io n s
u
s t u dy o f
a n at
t h e st r uc t u r e
t o emb r yo l o gy
.
he t maa ks e l v an d e me ns ch elijke P la cen ta
bl oe ds -oml oop, A ms te r d a m, 1 851
.
.
A G
K a r l A u g u s t S igismu n d S ch u l z e
S
f o r his
A D ut ch
.
ov e r
S ch u l t z e , B e r na r d S ig is mu n d
S on
Lu d o w Co n r a d
pe r f e ta tian
u nd
M e dizin
w iss e ns ch
F ol ds of
n f ol d
of cor d in t o pl a cen ta
.
S
u
,
I
f
o
a
er
ma n gy n e c o l o g is t
,
1 82 7
.
per fe cund a tion
( J en ais ch e
.
mniotic mem br ane
at
Z e it
.
f
.
poin t of ins er tion
.
A G e r m an a n a t o mis t , 1 79 5
S ch u l t z e , C a r l A u g u s t S ig is mu n d
1 8 77
S t u d ent o f J F r M eckel an d his p r os e ct o r , 1 8 1 8 2 1 p r o f e sso r o f
n F r ei
b u r g ; 1 8 3 1 68 in G r e if swal d , al s o d ir ect or
o logy i
a n a t om y a n d p h y s i
.
—
.
.
.
,
—
of
t h e ins t it u t e
lin
,
( al so
co mp
.
a n at
.
)
S ys t e ma tis c h es H a nd buc h d er
°
n 8
1 82 8, i
v e r g l eichend en
A na t omie
B er
.
—
S ch u l t z e
,
M ax J oh a n n S ig is mu n d
.
A G
er
ma n
ana t o
mis t
,
1 82 5
K a r l Augu st S igism u n d S ch ul t z e ;
I n 1 8 54 p r o f e s so r a t H all e ;
t h J oh ann e s M u el l e r in B e r l in
a l so w i
c al in s t i
tu te
1 8 59 1 8 74 p r o f e ss o r o f a n at omy a n d d ir ect o r o f t h e a n a t om i
”
I n 1 86 5 h e f o u n d e d th e A r chiv fiir mikr os kopis c he A na t omie
at B o nn
t or u nt il 1 8 74 w h e n it w a s c ont inu e d b y h is
c h h e w a s t h e e di
o f wh i
1 874
.
S on
,
st u d e n t a n d
p r ose c t o r
of
.
—
,
.
,
S ch u l t z e w a s t h e
La V al et t e S t G e o r ge an d W ald e ye r
mp o r t ant z ool ogic al a nd anat omic a l me moir s ,
numb e r o f i
s ucce ss o r
of
a
.
.
aut
a
hor
mo ng
A N A T O M I CA L N A M ES
3 30
b r o ugh t h im w or l d wid e f am e
fi eld s
in t h es e
-
King
at
’
Co l l ege
s
D r ag ons
:
n
.
t h e A ir , L on d on,
f
o
1
,
,
in t e n p ar t s ,
1 888 1 8 9 6 , a r e t h e m o s t
—
A f r ic a
g eol ogy in Q u e en s Co ll eg e , Lo ndo n ;
1 896 h e w a s p r o f e s so r o f g eol ogy a n d
H e is t h e au t h or o f a p op u l a r acc oun t o f
and
’
H is R e
9 01 in
t h e S tr u c tu r e Or g a niz a tion a nd Cl as s ifi ca tion of t h e R e ptilia,
p u b lish e d in t h e T r a ns ac t io ns o f t h e R oy a l S oc ie t y o f Lo n d on ,
t h e p t e r o d a c ty l s
t h e ear l y
of
.
,
.
t io n
H is
.
H e w a s f or many
B r it is h M u seu m o f N a t u r a l H it o r y an d in 1 87 6
y e ar s an a ss ist ant in t h e
w a s p r o f e ss o r o f g e og r aph y
l a t e r d e a n o f t h e sc h oo l
I
s e ar c h es on
inv es t iga to r
an
as
t e ac h e r w e r e non e t h e l e s s imp or t ant
se r v i
ce s as a
m in e r al ogy
.
\
v a lu a b l e so u r ce s o f
M esoz o ic
an d
in f o r ma t io n
l a t e P a l e oz oic
t h e o r ga n iz a
on
r ep t i
l e s , e sp e cia lly o f
S
ou t
h
.
M ag az in e D e cad e V
w ith por t r a it an d bibl iog r aphy
e ol ogica l
G
,
,
,
v ol
I V, N o 51 6,
.
.
Jun e
1 9 01
,
,
.
S e e s s e l , A lb e r t
A n A m e r ica n
.
M em p h is T e n n e ss e e
G e r m an y w h e r e h e w a s
in
.
,
Yo r k
as
na me
is
S e esse l
’
m b r y o l og is t 1 8 50 1 9 1 0
B or n
S tu d ie d in Ya l e U niv e r sit y ; t h en w e nt t o
as s i
s t an t t o W i
lh e lm H is 1 87 6 77
I n N ew
e
—
.
,
—
.
,
H is
p r a c t ic ing p h y s ic ia n , sp e cializ ing in n e r v ou s dise a se s
k n o wn t h r ough h is d isco v e r y o f t h e d iv er t ic u lu m, kno w n as
a
.
p o c ke t , in th e b u c co ph r aynge a l memb r an e
Z u r E n tw ic ke l u ng s g e s ch ic h te d er Vor d er d ar ms , 1 8 77
B iog r aphy : A na t omi
s ch er A n z e i
g er , B d 3 8 , p 3 50, 1 9 1
s
.
.
.
S e mp e r
z ool ogy
at
of
of
the
Kar l
m an
r e tu r n
an d
z o ol ogy
er
co
to
t r av e l
g is t ,
W iir z bu r g
mp ar at iv e
1 83 2
—
1 89 3
a na to
in
my
1 86 9 ,
I
.
.
z oolo
e le ct e d
h e w as
1 88 9
n
1
s t u d y in g
A ft e r
.
gic al
~
r
o
p
h e w a s dir e c t or
mic al in s t it u t e
B et w e e n 1 862
c o nt r ib u t ion s f r om t h e p e n o f S e mp e r
z oo l og i
c a l- a n a t o
a nd
z oo l o
h e t r av e l e d in t h e Ph ilip pin e s m a k ing
O n his
.
appea r e d nu m e r o u s
z oology
A G
.
W iir zbu r g
ob s e r v a t ion s
f e s sor
,
.
.
an d
on e
,
1 89 5
th er e
mb r yol ogy
,
.
E n tw ic kl u ngsg es c hic ht e d er A mpu l lar ia
Utr e ch t
,
,
1 8 62
.
A F r e n c h p h y s ic ia n
S e r r e s , A n t o in e Et ie nn e R é n a u d A u g u s t in
A u t ho r o f t h e c e n t r if u g al t h e o r y o f d ev el op ment
Pa r is , 1 786 1 86 8
-
-
—
.
in
—
.
w h ic h h e
u s ed
to
A ng l e
ex
f
o
pl a in t h e d e v e lo pme nt o f mo n s t e r s
me t afacial angl e G ing ival g lan ds
.
.
M ig u e l
( M ic h a el S e r v e t u s )
.
p h y s ic ian,
ol emic , w a s b o r n in 1 51 1 at Tu d e l a in N av a r r e ; r ec eiv e d h is
n
d
r
i
e
s
t
a
p
p
d oc t o r at e a t th e Un iv e r s it y o f Pa d u a ; 1 53 6 h e p r ac t ic e d m e d ic in e in
H e b e came inv olve d in a r elig io u s c on t r ov er sy
P a r is l at e r in V ienna
S e r v et o
,
w it h
ous
v ar i
,
( S er v e t)
.
A
.
pe r so ns , not ab ly
Calv in ; w as t w ice
mne d
c on d e
t o d e at h a n d
A N A T O M I CA L N AM E S
w as
fi n al l y
b u r ne d
b oo k
fi ft ee n th
t h e l u ng s b y
t h at
m e an s
e sc ap e d
h av e
s t ak e
on t he
his w or k S e r v e t o
of
a ll co p i
es o f
th e
at
a 7t h
sa y s
of
33 1
.
O c t ob e r
553
1
,
I
.
n th e
t h a t t h e b loo d p a s se s t h r o u g h
Cal v in o r d e r e d
p u l mo nar y v e ins
w r it ing o f S e r v e t u s b e d e s t r oy e d
B u t a f e w c op ie s
th e
of
th e
ar t e r i
e s a nd
.
.
.
Ch r is tianis mi r e s tit u tio, Vie nna, 1 553 in
B iog r aphy : E n cy
B io M e d ; J o h ns H opkins H ospital
B u ll e tin v ol 2 1 pp 1 1 0 by Wm Os l er
G es chich te d be r u e h m ten
S pan is ch en A r t z t es M icha e ls S er v e to, by J L v M as h e l m, H e lm
s tcid t, 1 750
,
.
.
.
—
.
,
.
,
,
.
.
.
.
.
.
’
.
Mar c o
S e v e r in o ,
I t alian
an at o
N ap le s
mis t
O ne
.
1 580
—
,
1 6 56
fi r st
the
of
( M ar c us
A u r e l io
P r o f e ss or
.
s c ie n t i c
fi
-
of
a n a t om y
ve
co mp a r a t i
a n at o
An
m e d ic ine
and
m ist s
.
at
.
h ominis ,
N apl e s , 1 6 29 , in
Z oot omia d em o cr itea, id es t a n a tome g en er alis
libr is qu in qu e d is tinc ta N u r e m ber g
t o tiu s a n iman tiu m opifi cu
1 645, in
H is t or ia
ana t o
mica
A u r e liu s S e v e r in u s )
o bs e r v a tio qu e
,
m e dica
s c er a ti
ev i
,
W il lia m
,
,
A n E n g l is h an a t o mis t a n d p h y s io l o g is t , 1 8 02
P r o f e s so r
T e a c h e r o f ph y sio lo gy a t Univ e r s it y C o ll e ge , Lo n d o n
1 880
o f a n a t o m y in Ed inb u r gh ; 1 8 36 74 p r o f e s s o r o f a n a t omy a n d p h y s io l og y
S h ar p e y ,
.
.
.
—
J on es Q uain
El e me n ts o f d es c r iptive a nd pr a c tic al an a t omy f or t h e u s e of
n)
s tu d e n ts L on d on 1 8 2 8 ( w it h R ic h ar d Qu a i
c onn e c ti
v e ti
ss u e fi br e s by w hich t h e per ios t e u m i
F ibr e s of
s
a s s uc ce sso r
to
.
,
a ttac h e d t o
th e
.
,
,
u n d er
ly ing b one
.
A n E n g l is h a n a t o m is t , 1 8 1 4
S ib s o n , F r a n c is
A pone u r os is
G r oove
A or tic v es tibu l e
—
.
’
.
.
.
1 876
.
N otch
.
A G e r ma n z o o l o g is t , 1 804
S ie b o l d , K a r l T h e o d o r E r n s t v o n
S t u die d in B e r l in a nd G ott ing e n w it h R u d olph i a nd Bl ume nb ac h
1 88 5
P r o f e s so r o f z oo l ogy comp ar a t iv e a na t omy v e t e r in ar y m e dicin e at
.
.
.
,
,
E r l a ng e n ,
M iin ch en
.
1 840 ;
1 84 5 a t
in
H e w as
F r e ib u r g ;
at e d
as so c i
ss e ns c haf tlic h e
u
r
w
i
f
1 8 50 at
B r e sl a u ,
a nd
w it h Ko e ll ik e r in f o u n ding t h e
Z ool ogie
,
”
1
8 49
in
1 8 53
at
Z eits c hr ift
.
Le hr bu ch d e r ver g leic h e nd e n A na t omie d er w ir be ll osen Tie r e
B er lin 1 8 48
Wahr e P ar th enag enes is beiS chme tter ling en u nd B ienen, Leip
zi
g , 1 86 1
,
.
,
.
S k ene, A lex
g ist ,
1 83 8
—
1 900
an d e r
J o h ns t o n C h a l m e r s
.
G la n d s
f
o
par aur e thr al g lands
.
A n A me r ic an g y n e c ol o
A NAT OM I C A L N A M E S
332
.
S o e mmer ing , S a m u e l T h o ma s
O n e o f t h e mo s t a b l e a n d m o s t
e ner ge t i
c anat omi
st s o f G e r many , w as b or n at T h or n , J anuar
y 2 5, 1 755
H e is known as one o f th e f ou nd e r s o f su r gical a nat o my
His g r ea t
wo r k was l at er r ev ise d by a numb e r o f G e r ma n au t h or s and b e cam e
t h r ough t h e r ev isio n one o f th e mo s t accu r at e and e lab or at e w or k s p u b
.
.
.
lish e d
on
th e
su b e ct up
j
Car ol in u m
to
1 844
.
H e wa s
in Ka ssel ;
t eac h e r
my
o f a na t o
and s u r g e r y
9 7 , p r o f e s so r o f anato my a nd
ph y s iol ogy in M a inz ; 1 804 20 h e l iv e d in Miinch e n a nd lat er in F r a nk
f ur t-am-Main, w h e r e he die d in 1 8 3 0, th e z u d o f Ma r ch
at
th e
1 7 84
—
—
.
Vom B au d es mens ch lich en Koer per s F r ankfur t,
Ue b er d os Or g an d er S e el e Koenigs ber g 1 79 6
1 79 1
,
,
96
—
.
.
,
Ta bu l w bas eos enc epha li F r an kfur t, 1 799 tu -fol
F ov ea ce n tr alis
S u bs ta nt ia nigr a
G r ay s u bs tance
Lig a
m ent N er v e M a cul a lu tea M us culus cu r v a t or c occygis ;
hy o
a den oid e u s
Opis th ena r
P apilice conica l ing u ae
P or tia d u r a e t
mollis par is s eptimi S u l cu s s upr afr on talis
Biogr a phy : S e e Ch ou la n t, pp 1 3 1 1 3 9
,
.
.
.
.
.
,
.
—
.
.
.
~
.
.
.
—
.
S oemm e r in g,
t h e p r e c ed ing
Wil h
el
m
A G
.
er
.
man p hy s ic ia n
,
1
793
-
1 87 1
.
S on
'
of
.
D e ocu l or u m h ominis, a nimaliumqu e s ec tio ne h or iz on tali
G oe t ting e n 1 8 1 8, in lar g e f olio, 3 pl
A b bil du ng e n d es Kar pf eng e hir ns, edite d by Wm S
.
.
,
.
S o r anu s
Ep h e s u s ,
of
ed
s t u di
m e d ic ine
d u r ing t h e r eig ns o f t h e e mpe r or s T r a j a n
hims e lf by his r e s e a r ches on t h e f e mal e
Al ex
and H adr ia n
at
t h an t h o se
of
G
a n dr i
a,
and
l ive d
H e dist inguish e d
on
H e ap
o f g en e r at i
.
o r gan s
.
p ear s to h ave d is se ct e d th e h uman s u b j ect ; and t h is
r ea so n wh y h is d e s c r i
p t ions o f t he se pa r t s ar e mor e
a cc u r a t e
.
app ear s
to b e
copi
ou s an d
on e
mor e
al en
.
S p al l anz ani, La z a r e
A no t e d t r ave l er , t e ac h e r a nd w r it e r o f
I t aly , 1 729 1 799 I n 1 754 pr o fess or o f logic, me t aph y sic s and G r e ek a t
t h e Unive r s ity o f R eggio ; 1 760 a t M o dena ; 1 768 p r o f e ssor o f na t ur al
h ist o r y at Pavia, t o wh ich h e w as ca lle d by Mar ia T h e r e sa H e aug
.
—
.
.
me nt e d the mu seum at Pav ia gr eat ly b y t he r e sul ts o f numer ou s j our ney s
H e point ed out ex p e r iment ally t h at t h e sp e r matozoa ar e e s sent ial t o f e r t il
iz at io n and h e ma d e n u mer ous physiolog ic al ob ser vat ions o f gr eat v al ue
,
.
.
D ell a zione d el cu or e ne vasi s anguini bu ov e osservazioni
M odena, 1 768 tu
D isser tazioni di fisica animale e vege tabil e, M od ena, 1 78 0
’
’
,
,
,
.
S p ie g h el , An d r ie n Van de r ( S p ig e liu s S pie g e , S p ig el ,
A B elgian a na t omist , 1 578 1 62 5 B or n at B r ux elle s Pr o f e ssor
,
—
.
.
o f an a t
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
3 34
S t e ns e n
( N ico l au s )
1 63 8
1 6 86
—
burg
.
( S t eno
S t é n o n,
,
a n at o
,
,
h o r t e r , p r ies t ,
M un st e r , H a m
ex
,
Liv e d in F lo r e nc e , C op enh a g e n, H an ov e r ,
S t u d ent o i T h oma s B a r t h olin, 1 6 56 in Cop en h age n ;
.
in A m st e r d a m
While
.
w it h B la sius,
N ie l s
S t e no n is , S t e no niu s ) ,
,
mist ph y sic ian p r o f e s sor
A D an ish
.
S t e no n e
.
a n d an
inm a t e
of
of
B lasiu s
ho u se S t e nse n
his
,
d is c ov e r e d t h e d u c t us par o tid e us in th e h e ad o f a sh eep
Obse r v a tion es a na t omicce, qu ibu s v ar ia or is o cu l or u m e t
nar iu m vas a d es cr ibu nt u r , n ov iq ue s a livce, l a cr y mar u m e t m u ci
f on te s d e t eg u n tu r e t n ov u m B ils ii d e ly mpce mo tu e t u s u com
ment u m e x a mina tu r e t r ejicit u r L ey d e n 1 662 , ih
Ob s e r va tion u m a na t omic ar u m d e m u s cu lis e t g l a n d u lis s pe ci
men c u m epis t olis d e a n a t omia r ajce e t v ite l li in in t es tin o pu lli
D e s olid o in tr a s o lid u m n a t u
tr a ns itu C ope n h ag e n, 1 66 4 in
r a l it e r con t e n t o
d iss er t a tio nis pr od r o mu s F l or e n ce 1 669 , in
The fir s t a na t omica l d is cus s ion of th e n a tu r e o f f oss il s har ks
D is cou r s s u r l a n a t omie d u ce r v e a u P ar is , 1 669 in
D u c t u s par o tid e u s
F or a m en in cis iv u m
P l ex us
Ve nce
v or ticos ce
“
B iog r a phy : B io M e d ; N ie ls S tensen by W S M ill er , im
B u l l J oh ns H opkins H os pital v ol 25 n o 2 76, pp 44 51 , w it h
bibliog r a phy a n d por tr aits of N iels S tens e n T h omas B ar tho lin an d
P l e nk er s W
D er D ane N ie ls S te ns e n, F r ei
G e r a d u s B l as ius
bur g 1 88 4
.
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
.
’
,
,
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
,
—
.
.
,
.
.
,
,
-
.
S t eph anu s
.
,
S e e E st ie nn e, C h a r l e s
S t il l in g , B e n e d ic t
on
=
.
,
A
.
A G
.
s u r g eo n a n d a nat omist
t h e b r a in an d
er
man
in C as s el
n al co r d
spi
.
s u r g e o n a n d a n a t-o
a nd
V ie nna
mis t
1 8 1 0 1 8 79
—
,
Kno wn f or his
.
r e s ear c
.
he s
.
Un t er s u ch u ng e n u b d Tex tu r d es R u c k e nmar ks L e ipzig
1 8 42
Un ter s u ch u ng e n u b d B au u d Ver r ich tu ng e n d es G e h ir ns
Cl ar ks co l u mn F l e e ce
C ana lis hy a l oid e u s C e lls or c o lu mn
N u cl e us
R aph e
S inu s r h om b oid a lis
G e la tin ou s s u bs ta nce
.
.
.
,
,
.
.
.
.
:
.
.
.
,
.
.
.
.
Pr o fe s s o r
A B e l g ian a n a t o m is t , 1 8 55 1 89 7
S t o cq u ar t , Al fr e d
H e p ub lish e d nu m e r ou s c ont r ib u tio ns o n th e
o f an at omy in B r u ss e l s
a noma l i
e s o f t h e b l oo d v esse l s , mu s cl e s a n d n e r v e s
—
.
.
.
.
B o r n in W ur z
S t oh r , P h il ipp A G e r m a n a n a t omis t 1 849 1 9 1 1
A ssist ant t o J B u dge in G r e if sw al d a t
S t u die d w it h Kollike r
bu r g
P r osect o r in comp ar at iv e anato my h is
th e anat o mic al inst it u t e, 1 8 74
ir zb u r g 1 8 77 ; in 1 88 2 p r os e ct or in h u m an
to logy an d emb r yol ogy a t W i
—
.
,
.
.
.
.
,
.
,
a n at o
my
at
th e ne wly
e r ec t e d a n a t o
mic al in st itu t e in
Wiir zb ur g
.
Pr o s ecto r
c an ato my 1 88 4 1 889 ; p r o f esso r o r d a t t h e an a
ex t r ao r d o f t opo g r a ph i
t om ic al inst it u t e in Z u r ich ; 1 89 7 p r o f e sso r o f anat o my at Wiir zb u r g a s
ker Kn ow n f o r his stu d ie s in h ist ology a n d e mb r y olo gy
s u cc e sso r t o Koll i
Ue be r d en
Le hr bu ch d er H is t ol ogie , 1 88 7 ; 1 4th au fl 1 9 1 0
Conus ar ter ios u s d er S e la chier , Chimcir e n u nd G anoid e n 1 8 76
B eitr cig e z u r mikr os kopis ch en Ana tomie d es mens chlich en Kor per s
—
.
.
.
.
.
.
‘
,
,
.
’
.
A N AT O M I C A L N A M E S
33 5
.
Ue ber d ie G las hau t d e s H aar balg es ; c
Ue be r d e n
feiner en B au d e r r espir at or is ch en N as ens chl e imhau t Wur z bu r g
1 885
A Tex t b oo k of H is t ol ogy, a r r a ng e d u pon a n e mbr y ol ogic a l
bas is b y F r e d er ic k T L ewis an d P hilipp S t b hr 2n d e dition
P hila
d elphia 1 9 1 4 in
B iogr a phy : P hil ipp S to hr
A na t Anz B d 40 pp 551 556
with bib liog r aphy 1 9 1 2
)
a
.
R e tina ; b)
.
.
.
,
.
,
.
,
.
,
,
—
.
.
,
.
.
,
,
.
,
S u sr u t a
.
A n East
m e d ic a l w o r k in t h e
6 th c entu r y B C wh ic h h as c e r t a in p a s s ag e s r e l at ing t o h um a n o st eol ogy ,
as h i
s w or k s h av e b e en int e r p r e t e d b
y G h ar ak a in his Comp e nd iu m
.
Amst e r d am
1 63 7
—
,
e sp ec i
al l y
c a r r ie d
J
an
a
.
met ho d
.
A D ut ch
.
m e th od
w ell in t h e b loo d
th e
wr ote
n a t u r a l is t
H e disc u s s e d th e
1 6 80
to p e r f e c t t he
fi r st
s u r ge on,
.
S w a mmer d a m,
th e
I n dia n
'
.
on
v es s el s
of
int e r est e d in t h e
t he ut er u s
of
a
mis t b o r n in
lymp h a t ics wa s
anato
v al u e o f
inj e c t ing b l oo d
g r eat d egr e e
a n at o my o f i
n s ec t s
to
an d
th e
,
wh ich
v e s s els ,
.
p e r f ec t io n
.
,
h e did
H is s t u d e nt R uy sc h
H e w as e sp ec ia lly
.
h is t or ia ins e ct or u m in cer t as cl a s s es r e d a c ta
e mpli
s e t ana t omic o v ar ior u m anima l cu l or u m e x a min e
t a bulis il l u s tr a ta, L eipzig , 1 752, in f ol
E d ite d by
B ib lia
na tu r a , s iv e
n e c n on e x
a e n eis q u e
,
.
B oer haave
.
S w e d e nb or g ( S v e d b e r g ) E m a n u e l A S w e dis h p h il o so p h e r 1 688
1 77 2
S t u d ie d in t h e Un iv e r s it y o f U p sal a in Lon d o n in H o ll a n d a n d
l at e r e l se w h e r e w h en h e d e v o t e d s o m e t im e t o t h e p r o bl em o f d is c o v e r ing
t h e n at u r e o f t h e s ou l an d sp ir it b y m ea n s o f an a tom ic a l s t u d ie s
He
,
.
.
,
,
,
,
,
.
mic al lit er a t u r e o f h is d ay a n d sou gh t
H is inqu ir ie s r e su l t e d
t h e as s ist a nc e o f t h e b es t t e a ch e r s o f h is t im e
in t h e p r o d u c t io n o f o n e o f t h e most r e m a r k ab l e a n a t omic a l t r ea t is e s o f
h is c en t ur y H is a n a t o m ic al s t u die s s ee me d t o h av e l e d u p t o his t h e o l og
ic al in t e r e st s t o w hich h e d e v ot e d t h e r ema in de r o f his l if e
(E c o n o mia R e gni A nima lis D e F ibr i d e Tu nica A r a ch n oid ea
s Fibr a r u m ag it ; a na t omic e
e t d e M or bi
phys ice e t ph il os ophice
R e pu b lis h e d l a te r ( 1 741 4 1 745) in
pe r l u s tr a ta Lo n d on 1 740 1 741
t w o v ol u me s a nd in 1 8 47 a t hir d v ol u m e w as pu blis h e d by J J G
“
Wilkins on in Lon d on I n this w or k h e an ticipa t e d th e th e or y
”
ma d e ma ny n e w
l a t er a nn o u n ce d by Wolff
of e pi
g enesis
a n d impor t an t o bs e r v a tions on t h e br a in w hic h w e r e in a d v a n ce
s B oe r h aav e D es c a r t e s a n d Vie us s ens
of t h e s ta t e men ts of Will i
H e la t er pu blis h e d his obs e r va tions on th e br a in in a s e par a t e w or k
”
w as w e l l
nt e d
a c qu a i
w it h t h e
a n a to
,
.
‘
.
.
,
,
,
,
,
,
—
—
.
,
,
.
,
.
.
.
,
,
,
,
,
.
“D e
,
C cr e br o, w hic h w a s la t er t r ans la t e d in 1 8 8 2 1 88 7 in t o E ng
lis h Iby D oc t or R u d olf L Tafe l an d pu blis h e d in tw o vol u m es w it h
Th e B r a in c ons id er e d a n a t omica lly phys iol og ica lly a n d
t h e title :
I
Th
a lly
e C er e br u m a n d its P ar ts
o
s
o
hi
c
I ] Th e
i
l
h
p
p
He
P it u itar y G l and the C er e bellu m a n d t h e M e d u l la o bl ong a t a
D e P er ios te o e t d e M a m
is als o th e au th or of : D e A nima agit
—
,
.
,
,
.
,
,
.
.
.
,
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
336
.
mis ; D e G e n er a tion e ; D e P ar tibus G enitalibus u tr ius que S e a us e t
d e F o r ma t ion e F ce t u s in Ut er o ag it
B iog r aphy : E ma nu e l S w e d en bor g s I nv e s tig a tions in N a tu r a l
'
,
.
’
S cie nce a n d t h e B as is f or h is S ta t e me n ts c on cer ning t h e F u nc t ions
n, by M ar t in R a ms tr om
of th e B r a i
Univ er s ity of Ups al a 1 9 1 0
E ma nu e l S w e d e n bo r g H is Life Te a c hings a nd I nfl u e nce, by
G e or g e Tr obr idg e, L ond on
'
,
.
,
,
,
.
S y e ne s is
t he
fi r st
Cy p r us w as , ac c o r d ing t o A r is t o t l e
discove r t h e l a r ge b lo od v esse l s
to
.
S y l v iu s ,
S
2,
.
J ac ob us
He
—
e
ch i
,
B oe
ee
.
fly
w it h
S e e D u b o is ,
.
J ac q u e s
.
A F r e n c h p h y s ic ia n a n d
w r o t e a n e x c e lle nt h is t or y o f
T a r in , P ie r r e
d e al
.
.
S y l v iu s
1 72 5 1 7 6 1
( H is t I I I
of
.
a n a t o my a n d
p h ys iolo gy
st
e n cy cl o p e di
a n at o
my
in P a r is
,
H is w r it ing s
.
.
A n thr opo t omie ou l A r t d e dis s e quer , P ar is , 1 750 D ic tion
v i d u n e biblio t h e q u e ana t o miqu e e t phys iol o
r e a na t o miqu e
s ui
ai
Os t e ogr aphie, ou D es cr iption d es os
g igu e P ar is 1 753 , in
M y og r aphie o u D es cr iption d es mu s cle s P ar is 1 753
P a r is 1 753
H ia tu s F a ll opii
F os s a in t er pe d u ncu la r is
F as cia d en t a t a
S u bs ta n tia per for a t a pos t e r ior
S t r ia te r minal is
Vel u m me d u l
l ar e pos t er iu s
’
.
,
’
,
,
,
.
,
,
,
,
.
,
.
.
.
.
.
.
T e ich ma nn ,
s e c to r
Lu d w ig
ng e n ,
o e tt i
in G
ma n h ist o l og ist 1 82 5 1 895
o f a nat omy in K r akau , 1 86 8
A G
.
p r o f e s sor
er
—
.
,
.
D as S a ugad er sys te m v om a na t
S tandpun kte , Leipzig ,
B iog r aphy : A na t omis c h e r A nz e ig er , B d 1 1 , p 42 3
.
.
T e ich me y e r , G
er
Pr o
ma in F r e d e r ic
p r o f e s s o r o f e x p e r im e nt a l p h y sic s ; l at er
l 1 746
a nd su r g e r y a t J e na u nt i
.
.
I n 1 71 7
ma n p h y s ic ia n
p r o f essor of a nat omy bo t a ny
A G
.
.
1 86 1
er
.
,
.
El e me n ta
1 7 1 8, i
n
T e n on,
1 72 4
—
1816
m emo ir s
-
R ene
.
Fir st milit ar y
.
S al p e t r ie r e
J a c q ue s
ce,
anthr opol ogi
H e is
.
the
s eu
A F r e nc h
in
su r g e o n
a uth or
the or ice cor por is hu mani,
s ur g e on
1 744,
and
numer o u s
of
and
oc u l is t
l at e r
s u r gi
c al
c
J ena
,
in P a r is
,
h ie f
s u r g e on
and
a nat om ical
at
.
Me moir es
s ur
l
’
a n a to
mie la pa th ologie
,
1 8 06,
in
Ca psu l e
.
F a s cia bu l bi
.
et
la
chir ur gie,
S pa tiu m in t e r fas cial e
.
P a r is
,
A N A T O M I C A L NAM ES
33 8
1816
—
f old s
49
.
Was
th e
fi r st
to
s
.
t h e neur al ax
h ow t hat
comp osed o f
is is
t wo
.
Ana tomie u nd Bild u ng s g es chichte d es G e hir ns im F aetu s d e s
M ens ch en n e bs t einer ver g l eich end en D ar s te l lu ng d es H ir n ba u e s
in d en Th ier e n N u r e mber g 1 8 1 6, in
Z o o l og ie , H eid e l be r g
1 8 08 1 8 1 4 iii-8
An a t omie d es F is c hh e r zens, H eid elbe r g,
3 vols
l
,
,
,
—
.
,
G la n d u l a
f
ar ter y o
ve s tibu lar i
s
r e ti
na
major
Vesicl e
.
.
N erv e
c en tr al
in
f
o
.
T o d d , R ob e r t B e nt l ey
Pr o
An E n g l is h p h y s ic ian, 1 809 1 860
f e s so r o f p hysiol ogy a nd o f gener al a nd mo r bid a n at om y in King s Co l
leg e L nd on ; ph y s ic ian t o th e We st e r n D ispe nsar y F e llow o f t h e Ro y al
o
Co lle ge o f Phy s ic ian a nd S u r geons
He , wit h William B owman p u b
“
lish e d a
P hysiol og ical A nat omy a nd P hys iol ogy o f Man Phil a d e l
To d d is t he e dit or o f th e w ell kno wn
The Cy cl o
phia 1 857, ih
pe dia of Anat omy a n d Physiol ogy 1 83 6 1 859 in 5 v ols Lond on, ih
—
.
.
’
,
,
.
,
,
-
,
—
,
T o me s , S ir
.
An E ng l is h d e n t is t , 1 8 1 5 1 89 5
D enta l A nat omy, 7th e d 1 9 1 0, e dited a nd r ev is e d by his s on
Ch ar l es
Fibr ils of
G r anu lar l ay er
pr ocess es f r om th e od on toblas ts
ne
ou t er l e ss d e ns e l ay er
of d en ti
P r o ce s s of = fi br ill a r
bf =
pr oces s ar ou nd a n enamel cell
Jo h n A
—
.
.
.
,
.
.
.
.
T op inar d, Pau l
A F r enc h
.
L Ant hr opo l ogie,
’
angle.
Ophr ys pinal
point
1 8 76
a n t h r op olog i
st , 1 83 0
—
El e men ts d A n t hr opol ogie g ené r al e,
’
.
Line
f
o
=
be tw een g l a bel la
S e e M ar ca nt o nio
.
J o s e ph
,
.
.
T r a ub e, Lu d w ig
The
1 876 .
me n ta l
.
A n E ng l is h o t o l o gis t 1 8 1 5- 1 866
M te ns or tympani
Cor neal c or pu scl es
—
and
.
T o y nb e e ,
1818
.
’
Mar cu s Ant o niu s d e lla
T o r r e,
191 2
aut
.
ho r
B eitr aege ,
S pace
f
o
=
W e nz e l
.
.
.
A G e r ma n p h y s icia n o f R a t ib o n in S il es ia,
mental p at h ology
o f nume ro u s wo r ks o n ex p er i
.
”
B er lin,
on ches t
1 87 1
—
1 8 78 .
.
An A u s t r ia n p hy s ician , 1 8 1 9 1 8 72
R e c ess us d uod e no
in l eft s u per ior colic ar ter y
Ar ch of
M
us cul us su s pens or ius d uo
R
e tr o per itoneal h e r n ia
li
s
e
u
n
a
jj
F os s a s u b ccecalis
eni
T r e it z ,
—
.
.
=
.
.
.
'
.
.
A N AT O M I CA L N A M E S
T r e m b l e y , Ab r a h a m
k no w n f or h is
A F r e nc h
.
st u die s o n r eg e n e r a t ion
T r e v ir a n u s ,
(
o t t fr ie d
G
R e in h o l d
B r e mé , w h e r e h e w a s b o r n ,
w r it ings in b io lo gy
1 776
n a t u r a lis t ,
1 700 1 784,
—
in f r e sh w at e r H y d r a
.
.
in
—
,
A G
-
.
er
,
—
f
o
.
,
=
.
.
.
T u e r c k , Lu d w ig
A n A u s t r ia n
.
Tr a c tu s t e mpor opontilis
pin alis
an te r ior
F as cia
T y s on ,
1 7 08
.
f
o
Ed w a r d
i
r o lo g s t ,
p
P l as ma
.
ce ll
.
P r o f e sso r
A n E n g l is h p h y s ic ia n ,
D e nonvilliei’ s a pon e ur os is
1 81 0
78
F as cicu lus
—
.
1 79 7
—
.
.
1 843
ce r e br o
es
a n t h r o p o l og i
c al s t u di
.
.
A n E n g lis h a n a t om is t , b o r n a t
o f an a to my at t h e R oy al Co ll ege
N ot e d f o r his
.
ne
.
T y r r e l l , F r e d e r ic k
Lo nd o n
.
m a n o t o l o g is t 1 8 2 9 1 8 90
P oc ke ts or r e c ess es
s paces i
C or pu s c les of
n ty mpa n u m
folds in tympanu m R e c es s u s me mbr ani ty mpani
T r o e l t s c h , A n t o n F r ie d r ic h
—
N a tur
f u er
,
1 6 49
.
ph y s ic ia n a n d t e ac h e r o f
Kno w n fo r his p h ilo s ophical
B iol og ie od er P hil os ophie d er l e b e nd e n N a tu r
for s che r u nd Air z te G ot ting en, 1 8 02 1 82 1 , in 6 v ols
s
w h o is
A
.
1 83 7
—
3 39
.
S u mm e r s e t
,
S u r g e on s ,
of
.
O r a ng Ou ta ng , s iv e H omo s ylv e s tr is ; or the An a t o my of a
P y gmie c o mpar e d wit h th a t of a M on key, an ape and a ma n, |
Lond o n, 1 699 in
G l an d u lae o d or if e r ce
“
M an s P lace in N a tur e, f or a dis cuss ion of
S e e H u x l ey ,
Tys on s w or k
-
,
.
’
’
.
U r s inu s ( B e e r ) L e o n ar d
,
f e sso r
aut
hor
of
b o t any
Leip z ig ,
1 6 52, t
h en
p h y s ic ia n
,
1 61 8
ph ys iol ogy in
1 6 56
—
1 664
Pr o
.
H e is t h e
.
of
De
cor
V a l e n t in , G
B or n
at
e r m an
A G
.
at
por is hu mani pr opor tione L e ipzig
,
a b r ie l
G
u s t av
.
A G
e r ma n
s tu d i
e d u nd er
B r e slau , w h e r e h e
,
1
643 , in
ph y s io l o g is t
Pu r kin j e ,
1 8 28
—
—
,
1 88 3
.
I n 1 83 6
32
f o r fo r t y fi v e
.
h e w a s p r o f e ssor o f ph y sio logy at B e r n, and w o r ke d h e r e
it e d f r om
Ed
F
o r a f e w y e a r s h e t au gh t ana tomy
ar
s
e
y
R ep e r t o r iu m f ur An at omie u n d Ph y s iolo gic
.
.
1 828
-
1 836
—
43 t h e
.
E n tw ic klu ng s g es chich t e d es M ens chen mit
R il e ks ic h t d er En twickl u ng d er S d uge thier e u nd Vogel
v er gl e ich
B er lin an d P ar is , 1 83 5
H a n dbu c h d e r
.
.
.
V a l e nt in i
b or n
at
( V e le n t in )
G ie s se n ,
1 6 57
—
M ic h ae l
,
1 72 9
.
B e r nar d
P r o f e sso r
of
.
A G
p h y sic s
at
er
ma n
th e
a n at o
mis t
Univ e r s it y
,
of
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
3 40
.
G iess en 1 696 p r o f e s so r o f me dic ine wh ich h e h el d t ill his d eat h in
H e is th e a u t h o r o f nu m e r ou s disser t at ion s r e la t ing t o m e d icine
1 7 29
,
.
.
A mphit he a tr u m z oot omicu m F r a nkfu r t
C or pus cl es
G a ng lion
M e mbr ane of =
,
.
V al e t t e S t G
1 83 1
191 1
—
87 5
A d o l f F r e ih e r r
Fo r 50 y e ar s
.
’
A G
.
er
Univ e r sit y
t eac h er in t h e
a
la
v on
.
,
-
.
e or ge ,
.
72 0 in fol
S ch wann s s he at h
1
,
man
mis t
F r om
a n at o
B onn
of
.
.
,
Max
S c h u lt z e h e w as d ir e c t or o f t h e a n a
t omical in s t it u t e a t B o nn , fi r st a s soc iat e d wit h Le y dig ( t o 1 88 7 ) a nd
t h e n a l o ne
I n 1 8 6 5 M ax
S c h u l t z e h ad f o u n d e d th e A r ch iv fiir
mikr os k opis ch e A n a tomie w h ich h e e d it e d u p t o 1 8 74 wh e n La V a l e tt e
1
—
1 9 07
as
to
succ e s so r
.
.
,
eo r g e a s s u m e d
St G
.
b ut was la te r
( sin ce
1 907
)
,
t h e e d it or ship , w hich h e
a sso c i
ated
W ald e y e r
w it h
t h e e dit o r s o f t h e
a nd
j our nal
f o r man y y e a r s ,
H er t w ig, wh o a r e n ow
held
O
.
alo ne
.
D ie S per ma tog en es e be i d e n S a u g e tier en u nd d e m M ens ch e n
B onn 1 89 8
B iog r a phy : A na t omis cher A n z eige r , B d 3 8 p 2 9, 1 9 1 1
.
,
.
( V a l l is n e r iu s )
V a llis n ie r i
z oolo
gist ,
1 66 1
—
1
p r o f e s so r
A n t o n io
,
,
.
B o d y ph y s ic ian t o t h e P op e
71 1
n
ne i
n T ur i
ci
o f m ed i
—
.
,
M a r ia
V al sa l v a , A n t o n io
—
1 72 3
P r o f e ssor
.
A
fi
v e r i ed
,
.
p h y s ic ia n
at
a nd
R egg io
r o f e sso r o f
R ome
a nd
in
m e d icin e
w e ll
’
as
as
.
I s t or ia d e lla g en er azion e d e ll
ve r mice ll i s pe r ma tici o d e l la u ov a
s ter ilitd e d ei s u oi r e me di
Venice,
,
1 666
I t a lia n
M od e n a
S t u d ie d a t S c a n dia n o
h e a r d t h e l e ct u r e s o f M a lp igh i P
.
1 700 1
.
,
An
.
73 0
B o log n a , wh e r e h e
in P a du a ,
.
of
a na t o
a n a t om y
mic al
1
72 1
m emo ir s
on
He
.
w h ic h h as
mis t b o r n
of
,
c ad av e r ,
o ne o f
I mo l a
,
1 707
Mo r gag ni h e
v er i e
fi
an d
th e
at
B o lo g n a ,
th e w or ks o f
h as w r itt en
ev e r app e a r e d
fine
.
a n a t -o
t he
on
tr a t ta to, n e l
U niv e r s ity
the
d e’
d e ll a
s e si
a
,
c on u h
,
I t al ia n
at
s t a t em e n t s
f r om t h e l it e r at u r e
e ar
,
.
t a t ion s
ci
th e
An
.
mo d eg li animali
uo
M alp igh i I n e dit ing
s t u d e nt o f
th e
l
’
mo st
d th e
co mpl e t e
.
D e a u r e hu mana tr a ct a tus in quo in t eg r a eju s de m aur is fa br ica
m u l tis nov is inven tis e t ic onis mis ill us tr a ta d es cr ibitu r B ol og na
h
1 7 04 i
Antr um mas t oideu m
Lig amen tu m a ur icu l ar ia
S inus aor ta
Z on a
Tae nice
Lamina bas ilar is
,
,
,
.
.
V a l v e r d e d e H a mu s c o
V an G
eh u c
.
h t e n Alb e r t
V a n H o o r ne
,
.
.
S e e A mu s c o
.
.
S ee G
S e e H o or ne
.
.
.
.
e h u ch t e n ,
A l b er t
v an
.
A N AT O M I CA L N A M E S
3 42
w as
of
a sc
h ol a r
a n d a c l a ss i
c
H ippo c r a t es
a po t
h ec ar y
D u b o is
al e n
Lou v a in,
of
a nd
G
,
p h y sician, know n f or his t r ansl ation s o f p ar t s
an d
Rh a z e s
T h e f a t h e r o f A n d r e a s w as
.
Mar gar e t
to
Un iv e r sity
.
G unt h e r
A u s t r ia
of
a nd
von
b e g an t h e
A nd e r nach
st u dy
at
cl as s i
cs
ed
st u d i
V e sa liu s
.
Pa r is )
( in
t h e age o f 1 4
.
o f anat omy
I
n 1 53 6
th e
at
w it h
h e w e nt
Ve nice w h er e h e s t u d ie d h uman ana tomy w it h t h e u t most z e al , a n d
b e f o r e h e w as 22 y e ar s o f a g e he w a s c all e d to P a d ua t o g iv e p u b lic
d e m ons t r at io n s in a na t o my ; a f ter sev e n y ea r s h e wa s call e d t o B o lo gn a
a nd f r om t h e r e t o P is a
H is lar g e w or k in anat omy w as h er a l d e d b y
to
.
t he
in
app ea r an ce ,
1 53 8 ,
th e Ta bu l ae A na tomic a ,
of
c om po s e d
x
si
of
p l at e s , an d his l a r g e D e hu mani c or por is fa br ic a, app ear e d in 1 542
The p la t e s w h ic h ill u s t r at e th is
p r in te d a t B asl e b y J o h n O p o r inu s
.
s p l en d i
d
C a l c ar ,
w or k w e r e d r a w n,
a s t u d e nt o f
T it ian
an d
I
.
n
po ss ibly e ng r a v e d , b y J oh n S t e p h a n d e
1 554 h e wa s c a ll e d t o t h e c ou r t o f S p a in
me year s b u sy w it h h is w o r k as
”
n
A r ch ia t r u s
an d in an s w e r i
g t h e c r it ic ism s b r ou gh t ag a ins t h im as a
p la g ia r is t ; it b e ing s t a t e d t h a t h e h ad d e r iv e d h is w o r k f r om G al e n
b y Ch a r l e s V w h e r e h e
r e si
de d
,
fo r
so
,
,
,
E u s t ach iu s , Le o n ar d o d a Vinc i a n d
t h at
V e saliu s w as
ot
h er s
d ilige n t diss e ct o r
a
I t is ,
.
an d
h o w ev e r
it is
ve r y
,
w el l kno w n
n
ce r t a i
t h at t he
in h is g r e a t w or k a r e h is o w n
H e d ie d in a sh ip
w r e c k on t h e 1 st h of O c t ob e r , 1 564, on o ne o f th e I o nia n is l a n d s , w h e r e
t h o f V e nic e , r e cogniz ing t h e b ody o f V e saliu s , g av e
a fr i
e nd ly go ld s mi
d iss ect io n s
h im
a
s h ow n
.
mo d e s t b u r ial
.
And r e w Ve s a lti d e c or por is h u ma ni f a br ic a libr o r u m epit o me
D e h u ma n i c o r por is fa br ica libr i s e pt u m
B as e l 1 542, ih fol
A n a t o micar u m G a br ielis F a l l o pii o bs er
B as e l 1 543 ih f o l max
va tion u m e x ame n M a d r id 1 56 1
F or ame n Ve s al ii
F u nd u s
Fibr oca r tila g o in t e r a r ticu la r is
M us cu l u s a nis calpt or
M
n ar i
ae
G la nd u l ae Ves a lu
v e s icae u r i
Os s a Ves alii P r ocess u s ver mif or mis c er e be lli
s e d e m a t t ol e ns
S in u s c or pus c all os i
Dis cipl es of E s cu la piu s v ol 1
B iog r aph y : R ic har ds on
R o t h A n dr e as Ves a liu s B r u x elle ns is
pp 76 9 4 with por tr ait
th e e d ition of 1 89 2 t h e s ta n d ar d s our ce of kn owl e d g e of Ve sa liu s
r ef er ences to h i
s di
s times
c on ta ins bib liog r a phy
an d hi
ffer ent
por tr aits the r es u r r e c tion b one e tc
,
-
,
.
,
—
,
.
.
,
.
,
,
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
—
,
.
,
—
.
.
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
.
I n 1 63 2 p r o
V e sl in g J oh a nn A n I t a l ia n a n a t o mis t 1 59 8 1 649
f e sso r o f a na t o m y at P a du a s oon a f t e r w ar d s d ir ec t or o f th e b o t anical
d
e is s ai
t
o h av e o b se r v e d t h e d e v el op me nt o f t h e e x t e r n al
H
r d e ns
a
g
—
,
.
,
.
,
.
o r g an s o f
th e
h uman f oe t u s
S yntag ma
us u
.
mic u m pu blicis d is s e c tionibu s in
ana t o
,
m apta tu m P a d u a 1 6 41 ih
Lin ea m e dia s cr oti
,
,
,
.
au dit or u
m
A N AT O M I CA L N A M E S
V ica r y , T h o m a s
w r ot e
3 43
.
A n E ng l is h p h y s ic ia n,
of t h e fi r s t En li
g s h a n a t o m ic a l t e x t b o o k s
The An a tomie of th e b odie of men, 1 548
—
.
‘
o ne
.
V ic q d A z y r , F e l ix
A P a r is ia n a na t o m is t 1 748
b r il lia n t p r e de ce ss or t o C u v ie r
H e w a s s e c r et a r y t o
Me d e cine in P a r is con su l t ing p h y s ician to t h e qu e e n
—
,
.
,
,
B u ffo n in t h e F r e n c h A c a d em y ,
He
.
.
’
.
1 56 2
Th e mo s t
1 794
.
th e
A c a d e my
of
and
s u cc e ssor
to
H e s tu d ie d e sp e c ia lly th e s t r u e
“
t u r e o f b ir d s
i
H u x ley sa d o f h im :
H e may b e c on sid e r e d as t h e
”
f ound er o f t h e mo d e r n s c ie n c e o f a n ato my
S ys t em e a na t o miqu e d e l E n cy cl ope d ie me t h odiqu e P ar is
1 79 2 1 8 3 2
with a tl as
O e u vr es d e Vic q d A zyr
4 vols in
1 7 88
.
.
.
'
'
,
,
’
—
.
,
.
,
P ar is , 1 8 05, 6 v ol in
F as c icu l u s t h a l am oma mil lar is
F or a me n c aecu m
s e miova le
Lin e
Vicq d A zyr i
,
.
Ce n tr u m o v a l e
C or pus nig r u m
.
.
.
C e nt r u m
F or a me n
.
.
’
.
.
V id u s V id iu s
u id o
S ee G
.
u id i
G
.
V ie u s s e n s , R a y m o n d d e A F r e n c h a n a t o m is t , 1 64 1 1 7 1 6
in M o n tp e llie r an d in P a r is
H e w as not e d f o r his c on st a nt
P h y si
—
.
ci
an
a pp li
ca
.
t ion t o t h e
of
.
S c ienc e
my
s t u d y o f a na t o
mist
a s ana t o
a nd
in
1 68 5
h e w as
ad
mitt e d
t o t h e Ac ad e my
.
Tr ait é d e l a s tr u c t u r e d u c oe u r To u l o u s e, 1 7 1 5
N e u r ol ogia
h oc es t omn iu m h u ma ni cor po r is n er v or u m s imu l a c
u ni
v er s a li
s
na l is d e s cr iptio an a t omic a, Ly on, 1 6 85
c e r e br i me d u ll a e qu e s pi
N ov u m vas or u m cor por is h u mani s ys t e ma , A ms t er d a m
in f ol
1 705 iii
Tou l ou s e , 1 7 06
N o uv e lle s d e c ou v er t e s s ur l e coe u r
A ns a s u b c la v ia
Limbu s f oss a e ov alis
C e n tr u m ova le
P l e x u s c‘oe lia c us
A nnu l u s
F or omin a v e nar u m minimar um
I nn omina t e car d ia c v e ins
Va lvu la
Ve lu m m e d u ll ar e a n te r iu s
Ve n tr icu lu s s e pti pell u cidi
.
,
,
,
,
,
-
.
,
,
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
V in c i, Le o n a r d o d a
R u d o lf
V ir c h o w ,
a nt
h r opolog ist
A s sis t a nt in
I
n 1 847
u nd
v ol u
f iir
me
he
,
1 82 1
a na t o
—
.
G e r man p a t h o l o g is t a n d
S t u dent a n d ad mir e r o f J oh ann es Muell e r
Lu d w ig
1 902
my
S e e L e o n a r d o d a V inci
.
A
.
.
.
t o R ob e r t F r or iep , w h om h e su cc e ed e d in
“
f o u nd e d t h e A r c h iv
M edizin
klinis c h e
Ka r l
,
”
1 846
.
fur pa th ol ogic A na t omie u n d P hys iol ogic
wh ic h in 1 903 h ad a t t ained t o t h e 1 70t h
'
.
1 8 60,
Lond on
Uber die
C e ll u la r P a tho logy ( tr ans )
Entw ic kl u ng d es S ch dd e lgr u nd es , B er lin, 1 857
G land u la Vir chowi
C or pu s cu la H ass al Vir ch owi
Ce ll u l ce
N or ma t empor a lis
Os epac ta l e
Lig ame n tu m navitr apeziu m l a t
S pa tiu m
pr opr ium Pia mat er Vir chow i P r ocessus le mu r ians
.
,
.
-
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
3 44
.
Vir ch owi S u bs ta n tia in t er media S u lcu s popl it eus
Tu bero s itas
max illa ma lar is
B iog r aphy : R u d olph Vir ch ow S miths onia n R ept , 1 9 02 pp
6 41 659
( D e u ts che R unds chau D e cember
.
.
.
-
.
.
,
.
,
-
—
.
,
V ogt , K ar l
e r m an
A G
.
,
b iolog ist , b or n in G ie s se n,
E mbr y ol ogie d e s S a lmones
1 817
—
1 89 5
.
'
H is t N a t d e s pois s ons d eau,
N eu ch a t el 1 8 42
Unt e r s u ch u ng e n iiber
’
.
.
.
d ou ce d E u r ope c e n tr al e,
d ie E n twic ke l u ng s g es chich t e d es G
s t e tr i
c ans ) , S ol ot h u r n, 1 8 42
’
.
,
e bu r ts h el e r kr
f
ob
( A ly tes
b te
.
V oig t ,
C h r is t ia n A u g us t
Lin es
A n A u s t r ia n
.
st,
a n at o m i
1 8 09
1 890
—
.
.
V o lk m a nn , A lfr e d
W ilh e l m
A G
.
er
m a n p h y s io l o g is t
1 800 1 8 7 7
—
,
Pr o f e sso r in Le ip z ig , D or p a t a nd H all e , kno wn f o r his r e se a r c h e s
n e r v ou s s y s t e m , t h e ph y s iol ogy o f th e e e, an d t h e mov e m e nt
y
bloo d
.
on
th e
of
the
.
D ie S elbs ta n dig keit d es sympa th is ch en N e r v e ns ys t ems d ur ch
a na tomi
s ch e Un t e r s u ch u ng en nachg e wies en, L e i
pzig , 1 842
Cana l es Vol kmanni
.
.
W il h e l m
V o n K u p ff e r , K a r l
W a g e ne r
,
G
ui
do
A G
.
Know n f or his st u d ies
musc l e fi b r e s
er
S e e K u p ffe r
.
ma n
z oo l o g is t
int est inal p ar asite s
of
M ar b u r g
in
a nd
W il h e l m
K ar l
,
t h e m inut e
1 82 2
,
v on
1 896
—
.
.
st r u c t u r e o f
.
W a gn e r
G e r m an p h y s io lo g is t a n d z o ol og is t ,
e d in E r l ang e n, W i
ir z b ur g an d in
s t u di
Ru do l f
,
.
B or n in B e y r e u th ,
I n 1 83 3 o r d
Cuv ie r
1 805 1 864
—
.
with
1 827
p r o fe sso r o f z ool ogy a t E r l ang en ; in 1 840 p r o
f e sso r o f p h y siolo gy, c o mp a r a t iv e an at omy a n d z oology in G ot t ing en, as
s u c ce sso r t o Blu me nb ac h
.
.
.
'
Z u r ve r g leich e nden Phys iologie d e s B l u tes , Leipz ig, 1 833 ,
in
Le hr bu ch d er ver g l eich en d en A na t omie
L eipzig, 1 83 4,
ih
H a n d a tlas d er v er g l
A n a t omie
1 8 41
Pa r tiu m e le
men t or u m or gan or um, qu ce s un t in h omine a t qu e animalibus
mens iones micr ome tr ica , Le ipz ig, 1 83 4, in
Cor pus c u la Wag ner i G y r us par ietalis inf S u bcu neus
.
'
.
.
,
.
W al t e r ( T h e
—
1 81 8
.
El de r )
S t u d ent
,
of
.
J o h an n G
Ch r
.
Th
.
o t t li
eb
.
B iittne r ,
.
B o r n in K o e n ig s b e r g ,
an d
J
.
F
M e c kel
.
.
Pr o
I n 1 802 h e sol d
fe sso r o f anat omy in M e d ico-su r gic al co llege, B e r l in
t o t h e King o f P r u ssia his co ll e c t ion o f anat omical spec ime ns numb er ing
2868 : I t is sa id t h at h e d is sec t e d mor e t h an 8 00 ca d a v e r s
Epis t ana t d e v enis ocu li,
Van d e n B l u ta d er n d es A ug es
B er lin 1 778
.
.
.
,
.
.
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M ES
3 46
W e b e r M o r it z I g n a t z
m a n a n a t o m is t 1 795 1 875 P r o s e c t o r
v e and
o f an a tomy ; 1 8 3 0 p r o fe s s o r o f co mp ar a t i
,
in B o nn ;
1 82 5
pat h olog ica l
p r o f e sso r
a n a to
my
.
G
.
er
—
.
.
.
A na t A tl as d M e ns c hl K or per s in n o t G r D u ss e ld or f 1 83 01
1 833
H a n dbu ch d e r A na to mie L e ipzig 1 8 45
E l e men t e d e r
A n a to mie B onn 1 8 2 6 1 83 2
a ll g
u
s pez
D ie Le hr e von d er
Ur u n d R ass ef or me n d e r S ch eid el u nd B e c ken D us s e l d or f 1 83 0
A r t er ia a u d it iva e x t
F os s a myl o hy oid ea
Lig a me n t um an
n u l ar e inf e t pos t ;
c u bit ol u na r e
sa
pr ofu n d um ca r pi
P l ex u s pla n tar is pr of
cr o coccyg e u m pos t
P r o ce s s us ty mpani
R e t e v e nos u m m ir a bil e
S inu s s ig m oid e u s ( tr ansve r s us ) ;
t en
t or ii
S u t ur a l ongit impe r f e c ta
Ve n ce as ce n d e n tes ( We be r i) ;
cu t a n ea
cu t a n e a
c ommu n i
s
fr on tis mag na ;
f acialis an t ;
major e s c er e br a l es e t ce r e br i;
f a cialis cu tan e a mag na ;
.
.
.
.
.
.
,
,
.
.
,
-
.
.
.
,
.
.
,
'
.
.
,
,
.
'
—
"
—
.
,
,
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
—
.
—
r e ct"
—
Z ‘o n a
.
W eb e r W ilh e l m
p h y sics
of
W e is ma nn
p hilo s oph e r
d ie d
G
at
,
der
.
A G
.
er
m a n p h y s ic is t
83 1 9 1
me ns c hlich en G
1
—
.
e w e r ksz eu g e,
”
1
—
1 7,
,
c
h e mis t r y
a nd
1914
m e d ic ine
t h e dis t ing u ish e d a n at o m ist
of
,
.
co
,
W eb e r
an d
1 8 3 4 , a nd
A t t h e Un iv e r s it y
ming
H e nle
of
a ll y u nd e r
e sp e c i
a nd
,
,
.
i
l
—
,
83 6
.
z o o og s t
'
s tu d i
ed
in s t r u c t io n
,
A u g u s t F r ie d r ic h L e o p o l d
A G e r ma n
b or n a t F r a n kf o r t on t h e M a in J a nu a r y
-
Pr o
—
.
w as
he
1 8 04
91
With Ed u a r d F r ie d r ich
F r e ib u r g in B r e isg au , N ov e mb e r 6
ng e n
o etti
th e
,
G ott ing e n,
at
“M e cha nik
th e au t h o r o f
bicu lar is
Edu a r d
,
f e s so r
or
r e ce i
ved
th e r e
h is d eg r ee o f M D in 1 8 56
B eg a n t h e p r a c t ic e o f m e dic ine a t F r a nk
f o r t a nd b e c a me p r iv a t e p hy s ic ia n t o A r c h d u k e S t e ph an o f Au st r ia a t
H e stu die d z oolo gy at G ie ssen u nd e r Le u ckar t , a n d
S c h am b u r g P ala c e
.
.
.
,
.
b e ca m e p r iv at do c e nt in z o o l ogy a t th e U niv e r s ity o f F r eib u r g in 1 86 3 ,
e isma nn w i
ll b e r e memb e r e d
wh e r e h e sp e nt t h e r e m a ind e r o f his l if e
W
.
e
ch i
fly
f o r h is t h e o r ie s
of
h e r e d it y
H is
.
es t
e ar l i
w r it ings
j
t h is
on
s ub e ct
dat e f r om t h e y ea r 1 88 3
Th e G er m P las m A Th e or y of H e r e dity, tr ans la te d by
Vor tr a eg e u e ber
W N e w t on P ar ker N e w Yor k, 1 893 ih
D e s ce n d e nz t h e or ie 1 9 02
B iog r a phy : A ug us t We is mann a biogr aphica l and cr it ica l
n G
C on klin, S cience, N S , v ol x li, N o 1 069,
s ke tc h by Ed wi
.
-
,
.
,
,
.
,
,
.
.
pp
.
91
7 9 22
.
.
.
1 91 5
—
.
,
W e it b r e c ht J o sia s
With D uv er noy in
1 747
.
,
.
G
er
ma n
1 72 5 as
Adj un ct f o r ana t omy a n d in 1 7 3 1
f or h is st u die s in synd esmology
,
a n at o
mist in S t
.
Pe t e r b ur g ,
1 702
S t u de nt d e r Ak a d in S t Pe t e r sb u r g
A ca d e mic ian f o r p h ys iol ogy
Know n
.
.
.
.
.
S ynd es mologia s iv e his tor ia lig ament or um
Er l ang e n, 1 8 04, tu
tr opoli 1 742
,
.
cor
p hum
.
.
Pe
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
3 47
.
A ppar a t us lig a men t os u s
Appe ndix lig inf s a cr ois chia d ici
La ce r tu s me dius L ig a m e n tu m a c c e ss cu biti;
a n t e br ac hi
i;
cal
ca no cu b oid e u m ;
c a lca n e o fi bu l ar e ;
d el t oid e s
Weit br e ch ti;
l a t e r al e e x t er nu m ;
fi bu la? pos t ;
cer vicis
cos t a
( cos to
ma ll e oli
me ta tar s i
n av icu l ar e c u b oi
d eu m ;
os s is me t a t ar s i t er tii;
planu m ;
pos t er ius l ong u m ;
r e c t u m l o ngit u di
nale ;
tr a ns
t e r e s s inu os ;
pr is ma ticu m ;
ver s a l e
tr a ns v er s u m car tila g ine u m s e mil u n ( tr ans v e r s u m
tr apez oid e u m We it br e c h ti;
tr ia ngu l ar e s c a pu l ae ( tr a ns
g e nu )
ve r s u m s capu l ae )
M ass a l ig ame n t os a t ar s i M e m br ana int e r
na li
P l anitie s lig a m en t os a l a ta r h omb
s
s pi
Plicce al if or mes g en u
( a lar es ) P r oces s u s alif or mis g en u
0
.
.
.
.
.
.
-
-
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
.
.
.
.
.
.
W e l ck e r
1 82 2
—
1 8 98
.
H e r ma n n
,
Bor n
.
at
A G
.
er
man
anat o
G ie s se n , w h e r e h e
mis t
an d
r e ce i
ved
ant
fi r st
h is
A u ss e r o r de n t l p r o f e s sor a nd p r o se c to r in H a ll e
S c h u l t z e , l a t e r O r d ina r iu s, a nd t h e n d ir ec t or o f th e
t r a ining
.
M ax
is t h e
.
,
e du cat i
o n al
as s u c c e s so r
to
mic al ih
a n at o
La t e r h e r e tu r ne d t o G ie s s e n a n d t h e n w as s u c
H e id elb e r g
t o V o lkm a nn as d ir e ct or o f th e A nat omic al I n st it u t e in H all e
He
b u t io ns t o anato my, pa t hology, a nt h r op
au t h o r o f n u m e r o u s c o nt r i
tute,
st i
ce sso r
h r op o l o g is t
at
.
.
ology and
te c h niqu e
.
D ie A s ymm e tr ie n d er N as e u nd d es N as e ns ke l e ts 1 882
S c hill e r s S c h ad e l u n d T o t enmas k e ne bs t M itt eilu ng en iib er
S ch iid e l u nd To t e nm as ke K an t s , 1 88 3
B iog r aphy : A n a t o mis ch er A nz e ig er , B d 1 4, pp 1 02 1 1 2, 1 89 8
with bibliog r aphy
.
,
’
,
’
.
—
.
.
,
.
W e nz e l J os e p h
,
anato my a nd
A G
.
p h ys iology
at
man
M ainz
a na t o
er
ms it
1 768
—
,
Pr o fe s s o r
1 808
.
of
.
B e o ba ch t u ng e n u e ber d en H ir nanha ng fa l lss u e c htig er P er
P r od r o mus einer Wer kes u e ber d as
s on e n, M ay e n c e , 1 8 1 0, in
D e pe ni
H ir n d e r M ens ch e n u n d Thie r e n Tubing en 1 8 06, in
tior e s tr u c t u r a ce r e br i h um a nor u m e t br u tor u m, Tu bing en 1 8 1 2
in f ol 3 0 pl a tes
Ve n tr icu l u s c er e br i pr imu s
,
,
,
,
.
,
.
W e r ne k ing
G iessen
A
.
G
er
ma n
a na t o
mis t
,
1 798
—
Pr o fe s s o r
1 83 5
.
in
.
Commis s ur a
W e r nick e , K a r l
A r ea
S
R egion
.
.
.
Wer nekingi
.
A G
er
m an
n e u r o l o g is t ,
Fie ld
F ibr es
C en ter
na lis ;
u l cu s fr on t omar gi
.
.
W e st ph al , K a r l F r ie d r ic h O t t o
N u c le u s
.
.
G
.
1 848
—
R a d ia tio
o cci
pitalis
1 905
.
pit othalamica
oc ci
an t er ior
e r m a n n e u r o l og is t ,
.
.
1 83 3
—
1 890
.
A NA T O M I CA L N A M E S
3 48
W h ar t on
in Lo n d o n
T h o m as
,
A n E ng l is h
.
a na t o
mis t
.
1 6 1 0 - 1 673
,
P hy sic ia n
.
.
A d e n og r aph ia s iv e g la nd u l ar u m t a tiu s
L on d o n 1 656
D u c t u s s u bm a x ill a r is
Je lly of Whar t on
.
wa s b or n in
por is d es cr iptio
,
,
,
W h it m a n
cor
,
C h a r l e s O t is
A n A m e r ica n
.
Woo d st o ck Main e
.
i
l
z oo o
g st ,
D e c emb er
1 842
He
1 91 0
—
.
H e e a r ly
n t e r e s t in b ir d s an d w hile
sh o w e d a n i
y e t a b oy h e p r o cu r e d a nd m ou nt e d
a v e r y fi n e co l l e c t i
o n o f t h e b ir d s o f M ai
ne
H e se c u r e d his e a r ly
n
ni
a c a d e m?c t r a i
g a t B o w d o in C o ll eg e , a f t e r w hich h e t a ugh t in t h e
W e s t f or d A c a de my 1 868 72 I n B o st o n 1 87 3 h e c am e un d er th e in
,
,
1 4t h
.
—
,
flu enc e
.
,
,
of
Lou is Ag as s iz an d wa s o n e o f t h e fi f t y st u d e nt s w h o , in J u ly
a n d A ugu s t ( if t h a t y e a r , a tt e n d e d t h e su m m er sch o ol o n t h e is la nd o f
P e nike se
I
.
1 875
n
h e w e nt t o t h e Un iv e r sit y
z ool ogy
wit h Leu c k a r t
in
h is t h e s is b e ing
Le ip z ig to
of
a n d r e ce i
v ed
his d e g r ee o f d o c t or
Embr y o l ogy of C l eps in e, in
of
h ma king co nt r ib u t ion O n h is r e t u r n t o Ame r ic a
f e llo w sh ip in J oh n s H opkins U niv er sit y b u t in t h e s am e
he
1 8 78 ,
,
Th e
:
a n ep o c
.
,
t h e p r o f e s so r ship o f
z ool ogy
Mo r s e
t he
at
Univ e r sity
of
T ok y o ,
so
s tu d y
p h ilo so p h y
me
r esp e c t s
ned a
ob t a i
y ea r
as
acc ept e d
s u cce s so r
main e d in J ap an f or t wo ye a r s d u r ing
w h ic h t ime h e l a id t h e f o un d a t io n o f mo d e r n z ool ogy in J ap a n
A f t er
l ea v ing t h e Univ e r sit y o f T okyo Wh it m an spe nt so me mont h s in st u d y
ing w it h D oh r n a t t h e N a p l es Z oo lo gic al S t a t io n d u r ing wh ic h t im e h e
p r o d u ce d an int e r e s t ing p ap e r : A Contr ibu tion t o the E mbr y ol ogy
Life his t or y a nd Cl ass ifi ca tion of th e D icy emids 1 88 3
A f t er his r e t ur n
t o Am e r ic a h e s e r v e d a s a s sist ant in t h e M u seu m o f C o mp a r a t iv e Zo o lo gy
1 88 2 86 d u r i
ng w h ic h t i
me h e p r o duc e d some o f his most
at H a r v ar d
imp o r t a nt c ont r ib u t io ns an d it w as h e r e t h a t his int e r e st in t h e d ev el op
me nt al ch a r ac t er s o f th e egg s o f v e r teb r at e s w as fi r st ar ou se d , an int e r e st
w h ic h h e ma int aine d t h r o u gh o u t h is l if e
H is int e r e st in t h e sub j e c t is
c t h at hi
s s t ud e n t s t u r n e d
sh ow n by t h e numb e r s o f me moir s on t h is t op i
r ect i
on
F r om 1 886 1 889 h e act e d as dir ec t or o f t h e
o u t u nd e r h is di
t o P r o f es so r E S
.
.
.
He
re
,
.
,
,
,
-
,
,
.
—
,
,
,
.
J
—
.
Lake Lab o r at or y
at
Milwauke e Wisco ns in
Ed w a r d Ph e lp s A llis,
s f o u n d e d an d
a n d A ll i
r
.
,
,
it w as
and
wh ich had b e en f ou nd e d b y
d u r ing t h is p e r io d t h at Whit ma n
,
J our nal of M or ph ology Th is j ou r nal
h e c ar r ie d t h r ough e igh t e en v olumes 1 887 1 903 w h en it w a s t empo r a r ily
s t ar I n st i
t u t e o f Ph ila d elph ia
su sp e n de d t o b e t a ke n up l at er b y t h e W i
Th is w a s a p ione e r b iol ogical j ou r nal in Ame r ic a a nd in it
Wh itman set a h igh st and ar d wh ich h as had a mar ked influence on
I n 1 898 h e e st abl ish e d iii co op er at io n w it h W M
Ame r ic an b iology
Wh eel er t h e Z oological B u ll etin ( lat e r th e B iological B u lletin ) w h ich
was int end ed fo r th e p r ompt p ub lic at ion o f sh o r t e r p ap e r s on b iological
ed i
ted
th e
.
-
,
,
,
,
.
,
,
.
,
.
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
3 50
W ill is
Th o ma s
,
1 6 75
—
w h e r e h e b e c ame
w it h H a r v e y
’
A n E ng lis h p h y s ic ia n a n at o mist a n d c h e mis t ,
a t G r eat Be d w i
n in W i
l t sh ir e
S tu d ied at Ox fo r d
.
,
B or n
.
.
.
,
w it h H ar v e y
a s so c i
at ed
a nd
b ec ame muc h imp r e sse d
wa s e le c t e d p r o f esso r o f
I n 1 66 0 h e
g r e a t d iscov e r y
n at u r a l p h i
l o sop h y a t Ox f o r d Univ er s it y , a f t e r w ar d b e came
s
.
a
f amo u s
H e wa s
p r ac t ic t ione r in Lo n d o n , t h o ugh h e wa s in l itt l e f a v or a t c o ur t
on e o f t he fi r s t E ng l is h p hy s i
ci
ans t o u s e t h e m i
c r o s c op e f or me di
c al
.
‘
r e s ea r ch
H e w as
.
a id e d
Wr e n
S ir Ch r ist op h e r
a nd
in h is
s t u d ie s o n
th e b r a in b y Rich ar d Lo w e r
.
Cer e br i a na t ome, cu i a ccess it n er vor u m d es cr iptio e t u s us ,
Lond on 1 6 6 4 ih
A n t r u m py l or icu m v e n t r icu li
C e n tr u m n e r vos u m
Ch or d a
C ir c u l us a r t e r ios u s
t r a nsv er salis
P e n ta g on u m
I n cis u r a s e pti
N a cces s or iu s Will is i
P r o t u ber an t ia b as il ar is
pe ll u cidi pr ima
( P ons Va r oli) Tu nica n e r v e a l Villis i
B iog r aphy : R ich a r d s on
D is cipl es of Ais cu l apiu s v ol 2 pp
Th omas Willis ( 1 6 2 1
by Ed w ar d
59 2 6 1 6 w it h por tr a it
W A d a ms in M e dical Libr ar y a nd H is tor ica l J ou r nal v ol 1 ,
p 2 65 with por tr ait
,
,
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
f
.
.
—
.
,
—
.
,
.
,
.
.
,
.
,
W il s on J a m e s
,
A
.
c e l eb r at e d
Lo n d o n
a na t o my
in t h e H u n t er ian S ch ool in G
H is
J am e s
so n ,
.
,
J ame s Wil son
A r t h ur
a
p ar t
of
a n at o
u r e t hr ce
of
p h y sic ia n
a n o te d
my fo r h is d e scr ipt ion
t h e cons tr ic tor
t e ac h e r
a nd
S t r e e t in Lond on
b e c ame
of t h e
.
.
Wils on s
’
.
my L ond on
and s ur g ica l a na t o
P r ac tica l
W in d is ch ma nn
Wind mill
W il son ( 1 79 5
is k no wn in
mu s c l e wh ich is
r e at
s ur geon
'
,
.
A G e r m a n a n a t o m is t ,
C a r l J o s e p h H ie r o ny mu s
1 77 5 1 8 3 9
P r o f e sso r o f p h ilo s oph y and h ist or y a t M ainz
D e penitior i aur is s tr u ct ur a in a mphibia, Leipzig, 1 83 1 , ih
3 pl a t e s
,
.
—
.
.
.
Win
mis t r e s id e n t in P a r is ,
H e e r ect ed in 1 745 a n
P r o f e sso r o f a n at omy in Par is
1 669 1 7 60
c al t h e at e r in Pa r is a n d b e c ame a no t e d t e ac h e r o f a na t omy
a nato m i
sl ow ,
J a co b
B e nig nu s
.
A D a nis h
a na t o
,
—
.
.
.
Ex pos ition ana t omiqu e d e l a s tr u c t ur e d u
M any times r epr in te d Obs er va tions s u r la
s , 1 729
na tion, P ar i
s u pi
.
ps humain 1 73 2
r o t a tion
pr ona tion
c or
,
.
,
,
.
hor o f an impor tant memoir d e aling wit h th e str ue
A bha n d
w h ic h w a s issu e d in G er ma n u n de r t h e t it l e :
He is a l so t h e
tur e
of
l ung e n
in
the
h ear t
u e ber
M em
.
de
,
au t
das H er e , die halbmondf Kl appen, d en B lu tl au f im F oc tas,
”
A ka d d Wiss ens c hf t
.
.
.
.
H is biogr aphy is give n by P or ta l
I V p 466,
,
.
sq
.
,
H is toir e d e l
’
ana to
mie
,
A N A T O M I CA L N AM E S
Wins lowi
F or a men
tu m
in te r os s
v on
W ir s u ng
Wins lowi
F r e nu m
Lig a m e n
M us cu lu s ge nioph ar yngeus ;
pu bis
per is taphy l o
pr os ta ticus P an cr eas S t ell u lce vas culos a
.
.
.
.
.
phar yng eus ;
W int h er
Hia tu s
3 51
.
.
A nd e r n a c h
.
.
S e e And er n ach
.
.
A G e r ma n a na t o m is t in Pa d u a,
g
1 643
Pr o s ect or t o V e sling in Pa d ua
P r o f esso r o f anato m y in
Pa du a Disco v e r er o f t h e p anc r e at ic d u c t
G
J o h a nn
,
eor
.
—
.
.
.
.
Fig u r a ductus c iju s d cu m mu l tiplicibus s u is r amu lis v ov it er
in pa ncr e a t e in d ive r s is cor por ibus h umani o bs er v a tis P a d u a 1 6 2
4 ,
in f olio
S e e C h au l an t
G es chich te d er A na t omie, p 9 1
D u ct us pancr e a ticus
.
,
,
.
.
.
.
W ist ar
o f a n at omy
C as p ar
,
A n Ame r ic a n
.
in t h e Univ e r s it y
I nst it ut e o f An at omy
in his h onor
and
of
anat o
mis t
Pe nn sylvania ,
1 760 1 8 1 8
Pr o fe s s or
—
,
1 79 1
—
1 81 8
.
Wist ar
Th e
.
B iol ogy in Ph ilad e lp h ia
named
w as
.
A S ys t em
W olff
P r o fe s s o r
o f t he
f
o
An a t omy,
K a sp ar F r ie d r ic h
,
of
a n at o
mo de r n
my
science
.
81 1
—
1 81
h er s
e diti
ons
)
,
2 vols
mb r yo l o g is t ,
.
int
,
1 73 3
—
1 794
.
F o u n de r
p hy s io l o gy in S t P e t er s b u r g
o f emb r yol ogy
He w a s th e fi r st to dist inguish
.
.
.
l ay er s
V o n B a er
“I t
.
t h at :
g en er a tionis
on w h i
c h we po s sess
o f sc ie nt ifi c ob se r v ati
and ot
e
a nd
“Th e or ia
Hall e r
4 3
A R u s s ia n
p r oper ly in t e r p r e t t h e ge rm
a nd
1
of
sa i
d
W ol ff s
’
is th e g r ea t e s t mast e r piec e
H is v ie ws w e r e oppo se d by
.
.
The or ia gener a tionis, 1 759
( I na ug u r al Diss er ta tion ) D e
f or mation e in tes tin or u m N ov a C ommen tar A cad s e P e tr opo lit
Von d er eig en thiimlich en u nd
P e tr op T XI I , and XI I I , 1 768
wes en tlich en Kr af t der v eg e t a blis che n s ow ohl als a u ch d er a ni
Uber die B ild u ng d es
malis ch en S u bs tanz P e ter s bu r g, 1 789
Uber se tz t v on F r M er kel
D ar mka na ls im be br u te ten H iihn chen
1 81 2
‘
Camer a ar ter ios a Wolfli
Ur e t er pr imor d alis ( D u ctus Wolfil)
R en pr imor da lis
( C or pus Wolgi)
B iog r aphy : Cas par F r ie dr ic h Wo lf a nd t he The or ia g en er a
tionis by Wm Wh e el er , in Wo od s H ol e B iologica l L ec tur es 1 89 8,
p 265
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.
'
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,
.
.
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.
’
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,
.
,
.
W or m
O l e ( S e nio r ) A D anis h an a t o m is t in Cop e n h a ge n, 1 588
1 654
S t u died in G e r ma ny I t aly, F r ance and in B asel w it h B au h in I n
los op hy in Co p enh age n ; in 1 624 in th e me d ical
1 6 1 3 , p r o f esso r o f p h i
,
.
-
.
,
.
A NAT O M I CA L N A M E S
3 52
f ac u l t y
or
s e ni
Ca sp ar B a r th o lin,
anat o mi
c a l m u s e u m a t C op e nh ag e n
to
a s s u cc e sso r
.
f a mo u s
of a
F o un d e r
.
.
H is t or ia
r ar i
or
M u s ei Wor miani Lndg
.
,
Ca t al og u s M u s e i Wor mia ni H af n
Oss icu la Wor mi S u tu r a Wor mi
.
,
.
W r is b e r g H e in r ic h
P r o f e s s or
A G
.
gy n e co logy and an at o my
of
D es c r iption e
f ol
1 655,
.
.
.
.
A u g us t
,
1 6 42
,
B at
.
me
a na t o
e
er
in G
m an
ana t o
—
O bs s
76 4
1
,
.
1 73 9
—
,
1 808
1 76 4
ng en,
o e tt i
mbr y onis
m is t
a na t
.
1 808
.
.
d e qu in t o
.
d e n e r vis qu i ex c od d u r a m m a tr e m
ingr e di f a ls o d ic u n t u r
C t a b a e n e a G otting e n 1 7 77 ih
,
A n as t o mos is Wr is be r g i A ns a m e m or a bilis
Ca r tilag o c u n e i
C or pu s cu l a
C o r pu s
pa mpinif or m e
f or mis
( Epooph or on)
F il a me n ta n e r v e a
G a ng lion c a r dia c u m mag n u m
L a c er tu s r e c
L e mnis cu s
Lig a me n tu m
N er v u s acc es s or ius ;
t u s ( m e dius )
R a mu s
P or tio in t er me d ia
in t e r nu s m ino r ( c u ta n e u s b r ac h ii)
mag n us n med ian i Tu ber cu lu m cun eif or me
n e r v or u m e n c e ph a l i e t
par e
.
.
.
.
,
,
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
—
.
.
.
.
W y m a n J e ff r ie s
,
in
s t r a t or
an a to
.
A n A m e r ica n
.
my t o
Jo h n
C
an at o
W a r r en
.
at
mis t 1 8 1 4 1 8 74
D e mo n
H ar v a r d M e d ic al S c h o o l ;
—
,
.
H ar v a r d Un iv e r sity 1 8 47 74
A n a t omy o f t h e N e r v ou s S y s t e m of R ana pipie ns Was hing t on
iii
1 8 52
O n a ba tr a c hia n r e ptil e fr om t h e C o a l f or m a tio n
1 857
Th e o s te o l ogy a n d my o l og y of D id e lphy s v ir g inia na with
n
a n appen d i
x
B os ton 1 8 72
on t h e br a i
B iogr aphy : R e ma r ks o n t h e Lif e of P r ofe ss or J effr ie s Wy m a n
by As a G r a y P r o c B os t S oc N a tl H is t v ol 1 7 pt 1 p 9 6
“
efi r ies Wy man
a n a t o mi
st
Lea ding A me r ica n M en of S ci
in
”
ence
p 1 71 1 9 1 0
H e r se y p r o f e s so r
o f a n ato
my
at
—
.
,
,
,
,
,
.
,
.
J
,
'
-
.
.
.
.
.
,
.
,
.
,
.
,
,
.
,
.
,
.
,
Z a go r s k y , P et e r
.
A R u s s ia n
ana t o
mis t
1 846
1 764
—
,
P r o fe s s o r
.
my in M o s c o w a nd S t Pe t er bu r g
A u t h or o f a t e x t b oo k
tt e n in R u s s i
a n a n d o f cont r i
ana t omy w r i
b u t io n s t o T e r a t ol ogy
a na t o
.
.
of
of
.
Zang
C h r is t o p h B o n ifa c iu s
,
A r e a pr ces e ll ar is
Z a u fa h l , E mm a n u e l
A
sur ge on
S pol iu m
.
An
.
.
in V ie nn a
,
1
7 72
—
1 83 5
.
Z ang i
.
o t o lo g i
st
in P r a g u e ,
1 83 7- 1 9 1 0.
Plica Z a uf a h li
.
Z e r bi,
( Z e r b is
,
Z in n J oh a n n G
,
f e s so r
1 7 53
—
of
59
.
Zer b u s)
o t t fr ie d
me dic in e in t
A
s tudent o f
.
.
S ee G
er b i
,
G
A G
man
a nat o
er
t inge n, a n d
H all er
ab r i
e le
dir e ct o r
.
m is t
o f th e
Pr o
759
b ot a nical gar dens
1 72 7
—
,
1
.
,
.
D e lig a me n tis cilia r ibus pr ogr amma G o t ting e n 1 753 in
D es cr iptio a na t omica ocu li komini iconibus illus tr a ta , G otting en,
,
,
,
A N A T O M I CA L N A M E S
3 54
h o no r s d ur ing h is lif e
soc ie t i
es
a nd
wa s
a
memb e r
.
at e of
a n d a ss oc i
many l e a r ned
.
.
P a l eon togr aphica, B d 50,
Z u c k e r k a n d l , E m il
an at o
my in G
A G
.
n en
oe t t i
g
er
pp 3
1 9 04,
.
ma n
2 8,
—
.
a na t o
m is t
with por tr ait
1 849
—
,
.
P r o fe s s o r
1 91 0
.
.
Z u r M or ph ol og ie d es G e s ich ts cha e d els S tu ttg ar t, 1 8 75
An
a t omic d er M u n d h ohl e u nd d e r Z tzhn e
Wien, 1 89 1 A tl as d e r
A n a t omie d es M e ns ch e n, 1 9 04
t opogr
A s t ape dia
G l an d u l a
G yr u s ma r g ina lis
M is chioca u
d al is R a mu s v olar is pr of s up S pina s u pr a me a tu m Tu be r c u lu m
molar e
.
,
‘
’
.
,
,
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Z s igm o n d y , A d o l f
n u m e r ou s
p ap e r s
on
.
B o r n in P r e s s b u r g
t h e a na t omy o f t h e t ee t h
.
( 1 81 6
A u t h or
of
I NDEX AND S YNON YM REG I S TER
Th e ind e x
a n a t om ic a
l
co
m pr is e s
t h e EN A t e r m s
a ll
t e r m s w h ic h h a v e
Te r ms in h e a v ier t y pe
t r a ns l a t io ns
a nd
mo s t
a nd
qu iv a l e n t s in t h e
in it a l ic s a r e t h e
e
EN A
.
t h e La t in
of
a nd
Engl is h
.
La t in ENA t er m s
t h eir
or
lit er a l
.
l igh t e r t y p e a r e s y nony m s f or t h e BNA t e r m s
num e r a ls a ffi x e d cit e t h e p a ge a nd nu mb e r of t h e E N A
Ter m s in
Th e
.
p os it io n
d e n t ica l t e r m s w it h d iff er e nt
t er m in it s
sy s t e
m a t ic
t h a t t h es e t e r m s h a v e
b een
u s ed
.
I
as
l
nu mer a s
m s f or d iff e r e n t EN A t er m s
t e r m s a r e q ua lifi ed b y
s y n on y
S om e
s h ow
.
This ind ica t e s
ear
b e co me o b s ol e t e
B r a c k e t s P a r en t h e s e s a nd I t a l ics h a Ve b e e n r et a in ed in
in t h e s y s t em a t ic l is t s ; fo r t h e ir s ig nifi ca n ce s e e f oo t n ot e
l ie r
w h ich h a s
u s age
.
.
t h e B N A t e r ms
,
p
,
.
23
as
f oun d
.
r e n is
A b d omen
A cr om ia n
3 5 45
A cr omion 27 1 3
A cr omion
A b d om en
A cces s or iu s 24 2
A cces s or y
Acces s or y 24 2
of
—
A cer vul us , Acer vu l i
s cap u a e
Acer v ul u s , Ace r v ul i
br a in
cer ebr i
8 7 64
A cet a b u l um 3 7 9
A cet a b u l um
a r t icu l a r s u r f a ce 0 f
42 6 5
ca r t il a g in ou s m a r gin of
fi b r o car t il a g in ous l iga me nt
cot y l o id
of
—
—
l
v es s e s
I nf er ior
g
—
,
—
l ot t idis
S
5 1 z40
br i
8 4 :1 5
a qu a e d uct of ce r e
ce r e
—
e n t r a nce of
s u p e r ior
—
of
l ar y nx
l a r y ngis in f er ior
l ar y ngis s u per ior
of l a r y n x
3 4 64
or b it a e
—
—
59 1 5
—
En t r a n ce of
pe l v is 3 7 62
—
or
b it
—
—
6 4 57
A d min icu l u m, A dm in icu l a
v a g in a e
—
( 3 55)
—
l ot t is
g
59 3 4
59 : 1 3
E nt r an ce
—
Ma l p igh ii G O 67
—
up er ior e nt r an ce of
l ar y ngis
—
of
—
—
.
,
m
99 1
99 1
—
Ent r ance t o
a d a qu a e d u ct u m , S y l v ii
a d inf u n d ib u l u m
59 3 3
gl ot t idis inf er ior
—
l iv er
s
r e na l i
a nt r u
a d a qua e d uct u
of
Acinu s , Acini
Acinu s , Acini
h e p a t is
56 :7 4
o f k id n e y
l ien a l is 57 :3 3
l ienis 57 3 3
3 5 45
m
\
a
ad
nt r u m, S ie b enm a nn
a d a n t r u m t y mp a n icu m
to
-
f oss a of
o f in t e r n a l f e m or a l ca n a l
l una t e s u r f ace of 3 7 z1 2
A ch ill e s , b u r s a oi 51 :4O
b u r s a of ca l ca nea] t end on of
4 9 z28
ca l ca n e a ] t e nd on of
A cie s t h a l a m i o p t ici 8 4 : 56
—
Acr omion of s cap ul a
A dit us, Adit u s
E nt r ance, E nt r a nc es
a d a nt r u m
z
—
bl ood
s ca p ul a
l
8 7 64
—
cr u r a ]
—
—
—
f or
Ma l pig h1 1
r e n is ,
26 55
—
l
g ot t is
b r um
I N D EX
3 56
.
AMP U LLA
AD MI N I CU LU M
l inea e a lbae
S t ay
of
[ A dvent icia ]
na si
wh it e
Wing
l ine
b it a l is os s
ilium
oss
67 25
—
or
S ee T unica
[ Advent icia ]
ex
t e r na
Wing
8 2 22
pon t is 8 2 1 1
p t e r y go id e a os s s ph eno id a l is
29 :1 1
s a cr a l is , I n gr a ss ia e
s a cr i
of
b ulb
of ey e
of
A est h e s io l og ia
95 1
—
of
1 00 6 2
—
Wing Wings
,
lb a l a t e r a l is
a lb a m e d ia l is
a
t h y r eo id ea e
l l o b u le
o f cer e
be ll i 8 2 7 5
cer e b e ll u m
—
58 22
b e llu m
oss
8 2 :6
«
.
34 8
s u p er ior is
—
3 3 :26
—
—
—
l es
v e n t r icu l i
A lv eu s A l v e r
.
t e r mina
.
—
l l b l
l is
—
—
.
o u e of
in f e r ior is
59 7 7
p
p u l mo n a r y 59 77
p u l mon is 59 7 7
p ul monum 59 7 7
Al v e ol i of l u ngs
d es ce nd ens os s s ph en o id a l is
il ii
o f il iu m
in f e r ior o ss S p h en o id a l is
l a t e r a l is o s s s ph e n o id a l is
l in gu l a e cer e b ell i 82 6 3
l ob ul i cent r alis cer eb el l i
in g of ce nt r a
55 24
—
m a x ill a r is
.
a r ie t a
As h l ik e w ing
59 7 6
—
Ma ca l is t er
—
55 :24
,
car ch e
l
mmu n is
97 6 3
ur o ge n it a l is
63 23
u t r icu l os u s
9 7 63
Amph ia r t h r os is 4 0 23
Amph ia r t h r osis
co
—
—
m agna , cer eb r al s ur f ace of
ma gna, or bit al sur f ace of
ma gn a oss sph enoid al is
—
—
.
m a g na ,
ma gna,
ol d
la r y ngis
of l un gs
m ax ill a e
—
r e at
'
g a s t r ic u s
-
G
mer
vo
d en t a l es max ill a e
D ent a l a l v eol i of max ill a
a ur i
s
l um
of
Alv eol us , Al v eol i
Al v eol us , Alv eol i
d ent a l , of ma n dibl e
d ent a l , of ma x il l a
d ent a l e s ma nd ib ul a e
D ent al a l v e ol i of m a nd ible
—
W
mer
A l v e ol u s ,
—
—
vo
Wing
A g me n, Agmina
P e y er i 55 41
55 41
P e y er ia na
Al a , M a e
car t i a g in is
0:46
mer is
of nose
l
ce r e
l is
vo
p er p e nd icu a r is
o f c en t r a
s p h e n o id a
.
—
—
l
oss
.
A gg e r , A gg er es
n a r iu m
57 :51
n a si
R id ge
m
t e mp or a l is o s s s p h e no id a l is 4
of t h y r oid ca r t il a g e
66 3 1
v es p e r t il ion is
S l 12
—
s a cr u
s u p e r ior
lens
of
3 0:6 0
—
9 6 57
E q ua t or
—
.
9 5 :1 0
—
ciner ea
—
—
b ulbi ocul i
E q ua t or
of
b one
b one
s ph e n oid
of
p ar v a ,
p ont is
d e f e r e ns
A equ a t or e s
A f t e r b r a in
b one
s ph e n oid a l is
.
u r e t e r is
—
il iac
—
of u r e t e r
l ent is
of
.
—
A e q u a t or ,
l is
p a l a t ina o s s
p a r v a e , I ng r a ss ia e 3 0 3 9
p ar v a os s s p h en oid a l is
S mall w ing of s ph e noid
—
va s
s p h e n oi
da
.
.
A d v e n t it ia
o f F a ll op ia n t u b e
54 z7 0
o f o e s op h a gu s
o f s em in a l v e s ic le
6 3 z6 7
t u b a e F a 110p iac
of
of nos e
wing
of s ph e noid
b one
b one
s ph en omax ill a r y s ur f a ce
of
s ph e n o id
Amph ia r t h r o sis , C r u v eil h ier
Amp ul l a , Amp ullae 24 7
Ampul l a , Amp ul l a e
.
40 1 0
—
of
ch y
magna, t empor al s ur f ace of
minor os s sph enoida l is
—
li
d uct us d e f e r ent is
Ampull a of d ef er ent d uct
3 58
I N D EX
AN G LE
AN N
med ia l
m e d ia l
of s ca p u a
Lu d ov ici
,
of
mand ib ul a e
nfi n on o f
of
l
,
b
Angl e
eye
m ou t h
l
,
p a r iet a l ,
o f p e lv is
r e o id e a e
l b one
b one
of
mast oid eu s
M as t oid
p a r ie t a
of sp h e noid
p os t e r io r in f e r ior ,
p a r ie t a l
of
b on e
—
—
pu b ic
of p u b is
of r ib
S ph e n oid al ,
of s t er n um
of
p a r iet a l
1
b one
b co s t a l
b s t er n a l
su p e r ior
of
,
d u od e n u m
p e t r o u s p or t io n o f t e m
po r a l b on e 3 l :8
su p e r ior ,
of
p y r a mid of t emp or a
—
b on e
,
s u p e r ior
,
t e m por a
l
l
of s ca p u a
l
l
a
of
an g e
l b one
—
l
l
l
—
l
m ed ia l is h u m e r i
m e d ia l is t ib ia e
n a sa l is
97 20
—
p a r iet a l is
Occip it a l a ngl e of p a r ie t a l b one
oculi l a t er a l is
Lat er a l a ngl e of ey e
ocul i me d ia l is
M edia l a ngl e of ey e
o cu l i m in or
ocu l i n asa l is
o cu l i t e m p or a l is
9 7 :1 9
or is
Ang l e of mout h
p a r iet a l is oss s p h e n oid a l is
P ar iet a l a n gl e of s p h en oid b one
p os t er ior py r a m idis os s t emp or a l is
3 1 21 0
P os t e r ior
angl e
of
py r amid of
occipit a
l is
os s
.
of
of
,
b
ey e
l
26 57
—
—
An gl e
p ub is
3 1 :9
py r a mid is a nt e r ior
31 1 0
p y r a mid is p os t e r ior
3 1 :8
p y r a mid is s u p er ior
s ca p u l a e in f e r ior
3 5 50
s ca p u l a e l a t e r a l is
of
—
—
—
oss
.
l
t emp or a is
3 1 39
—
—
Ant er ior
p or a
l
l b
b o ne
t em po r a l
.
t emp or a
on e
p r a ecor d ia l is , T o d t
p u is 3 7 55
3 5 52
—
A ng ul u s , An gul i
Angl e, Angl es
a cr om ia l is
3 5 63
a nt er ior p y r amid is
l
ang e of
l b one
p y r amid
of
t em
l
m e d ia l is
3 5 52
s ph en oid a lis os s p a r ie t al is
S p h enoid al a ngl e of p a riet al
s t er ni
sca pu a e
cos t ae
—
.
Angl e of r ib
d u o d e n i in f e r ior
f r ont a lis os s p ar iet al is
F r ont a l a ngl e of p ar iet a l b one
car t il a g i
in fe r ior
n is
t h y r eoide a e
An gl e
.
in f er ior d u od e n i
inf erior s ca p ul ae - 3 5 50
Inf er ior angl e of s capul a
inf r a s t e r na l is t h or acis 29 6 3
I nf r a s t er na l a ngl e of t h or ax
ir idis 9 6 3 6
Angl e of ir is
la t er a l is h u m er i
l a t er al is s capul ae
La t er a l a ngl e of s cap ul a
l a t er a l is t ib ia e
of
bpu b icu s
s t e r nu
b one
m
3 7 55
s u b s t e r na l is
29 63
su p er ior d u o d e n i
s uper ior py r amid i
s
3 1 38 2
S up er ior a ngl e
su
—
—
os s
.
of
t emp or a l
—
—
.
58 26
p ar iet a is
.
of
s u p e r io r ,
s u p e r ior
oss
t hy
—
s u b pu b kr
su
—
l
ca r t i a g i
n is
p a r iet a
m a x i a e in f e r ior is 3 3 7 3
med ia is s ca p u ae 3 5 5 2
M ed ia a ng e of s ca p u a
ll
l
po s t e r ior , of p e t r ou s p or t io n o f t e m
p or a l b o n e
p os t er ior , of p y r amid of t emp or a l b one
$1 no
p os t er io r s u p er ior , o f p a r iet a l b on e
su
m a nd ibl e
of
mar g inis in f er ior is
na s a L o f e y e
occip it a
29 48
—
t i ia
ULU S
sy
b one
pu b is
mph y se os
l
t emp or a is
py r amid
t h or acis 29 6 3
Annu l u s , Ann u l i
a b d o mi
n a l is
47 44
a r t er ios u s cor dis d e x t er
Lu sch ka - 6 7 6 3
of
—
—
l
a t r io -vent r icu a r es
—
6 7 :63
et
s inist er ,
I N D EX
3 59
.
AN N U LU S
til a gin e u s 9 9 3 1
ca r t il a in is cr ico id ea e
g
ca r
t endine u s
—
l
ca r t i a g in is
t r a c h ea e
c il ia r is
95 50
c onj unct iv a e
95 28
Common t en dinous
t e n d inos u s 9 9 z3 8
58 3 6
—
59 42
—
j
t y mp a n icu s
l is 49 63
f emor a l is 4 9 :63
F emor a l r ing
3 1 :52
—
Ty mp a nic r ing
t y mp a n ic u s 3 1 51
u mbil ica l is
:3 3
—
—
—
fi b r oc a r t il a g in e s
cor d is
p an i
F ib r ocar t il a g in ou s
Umbilica l
67 63
—
memb r ana e
fi b r oca r t il a gin eu s
t ym
r ing
of
mem
int er v er t eb r a l is
fi b r oca r t il a gine u s
r
ing
of u r e t h r a
u r e th r a e
t y mp a nu m
of
Z inn]
t y mpa n ic
of con unct iva
b r a ne
[ of
t r a ch ea e
—
cr u r a
r ing
—
—
Ring
AN T I T H EN AR
communis [ Z inn i]
6 1 51
ur et h r al is
6 1 51
r e t h r al r ing
—
—
U
v a l v u l os u s
67 56
V ie u s s e n ii 6 8 :6
Z inni 9 6 z7 0
An s a , A ns a e
Loop , Loops
—
—
fi b r os i cor d is 6 7 z6 3
Fib r ou s r ings of h ea r t
fi b r os u s fi b r oca r t il a ginis int e r v e r t e
b r a l is
F ib r ou s r ing of in t e r v er t e b r a l fi b r o
ca r t il a g e
—
fi b r os i in t er p u b ica
42 62
fi b r os u s L u s ch k a
42 6 2
fi b r os u s m e m b r a na e t y m p a n i
'
—
—
fib
fibr ou s
h e ar t
nt e r v e r t e b r a l d isc
, of i
f o v ea e o v a l is c or d is , Lu s ch k a
h a e m or r h oid a l 56 25
h a emor r h oid a l is 56 25
r ous ,
of
—
—
H a emor r h oid a l r ing
ing uina lis a b domin a l is 47 52
Ab d omina l in guina l r ing
in g u ina l is a n t e r ior 47 44
in g u ina l is cu t a n e u s 47 44
in g u in a l is e x t e r n u s 47 44
—
—
:
—
—
ing u in a l is in t er nu s 47 52
in g u in a l is p o s t er ior
47 52
ing uin a l is s u b cut a n eu s 47 44
S u b cut ane ou s ing uina l r ing
—
—
—
in t e r a u r ic u l a r is
in t er nu s ir id is
—
68 6
—
ir id is minor
Les se r r ing
of
ir is
ir id is pu pill a r is
o f ir is , g r e a t er
of
ir is ,
l e s s er
1iga m e nt os i 59 43
42 47
o b t u r a t or iu s
o v a l is c or d is
~
—
ll
p u pi a r is
ir idis
l
9
ce r v ica l is s u e r fi ci
a lis
9 0 62
p
Ha lle r i 8 9 56
Ha ll e r i S a pp ey 9
h y p ogl os si
Loop of h y p ogl os s us
ce r v ica e s
—
—
—
-
—
in f r a h y o id e a
l ent icul a r is
—
Lent icul a r
ner v i
9 0 62
l oop
h y p og l os s i
l
n e r v or um s p in a iu m
Loop s
of s p ina
n er vor u m s p ina
l
—
l
9 0 75
n e r ves
l iu m
—
90 7 5
p ed u n cu a r is 84 :48
P ed uncu a r oop
B e i ii S 4 48
s a cr a e s
90 75
l
su
~
l
l
—
l
—
b cl avia [ Vieus senii]
S ub cl av ian l oop [ of
—
s u b c l a v ia l is
93 63
Vieu s s ens ]
9 3 63
—
m a x il l ar is
S S 49
V ie u ss e n ii 9 3 6 3
Vie u s s e nii 6 8 6
o f V ie u s s e n s
9 3 z6 3
s u pr a
—
—
—
ir id is c il ia r is
ir id is ex t e r nu s
ir id is in t e r n u s 9 6 3
ir id is maj or
G r ea t e r r in g of ir is
A
—
—
A n t e b r a chiu m
—
27 22
An t er ior 23 :13
Ant e r ior
—
Ant h e lix
Ant h el ix
f os sa of
l imb s of
Ant ib r a ch ium
An t ib r a ch ium
Ant ih e l ix , Qu a in T I OO 3 9
A n t ipr os t a t a 6 2 6 2
An tipr os t a t a , Win s l ow 6 2 6 2
27 3 3
Ant it h en a r
—
—
—
I N D EX
3 60
I
A N T TR A G
.
APER T U R A
US
Ant it r a gus
d es cending
d e sce nd ing,
68 5 1
—
Ant it r a gu s
Ant r um , A nt r a 24 : 1 0
a
bd omin a l
p or t ion
of
—
Ant r um, Ant r a
d es ce nd ing p or t ion o f 68 :51
d e s ce nd ing , t h or a cic po r t io n o f
in ne r m a r g in s of s e m il u n a r v a l v es
—
a ur i
s
ca r dia c
ca r d iacu
m)
is t h mus
( Ca r d iac an t r um)
3 2 45
e t h m oid a l e
l un u l a e
f r on t a
s a cr o -coccy g e a
—
l
Hig limor e
—
ca na
—
ex
—
—
of
55 1 0
ll
m a x ill a r y b on e
s u pe r ior
t y mp anic 99 : 1 7
t y mp anicum 99 1 7
Ty mp a nic an t r um
ex
—
Va l s a l v a
Va l sa l va e 99 1 7
of V
ViHis
W il l is i 55 1 0
Amm 2 fl 6 z z
Anus
.
—
—
—
l is
t y mp a ni
ch o r d a e
t er na a qua ed uct us
3 1 224 2
b li
vest i u
Ex t e r n a l ape r t ur e of a qua e du ct
v e s t ib ul e
t er na ca nal icul i coch l e ae
E x t er n a l ap e r t ur e of ca na l icu l us
of
of
l
coch ea
—
of
72 1 2
—
—
—
—
v a l v es of
—
ma s t oid 99 1 7
ma s t oid e u m 99 1 7
p y l or ic 55 :1 0
py l or icum 5 5 : 1 0
l
mil un a r
—
—
l
of s e
6 8 z50
Th or a cic aor t a
t h or acic 7 1 5 1
t h or a c ic a
7 1 51
Ap er t u ra , Ap er t u r a e 24 z1 1
Ap er t u r e, Ap e r t u r e s
—
l
—
t h or aca l is
—
P y or ic a nt r um
p y or icu m v e nt r icu i
in s u p e r ior m a x i a
of
sin us of
57 z64
High m or i 57 6 4
ma s t oid 9 9 1 7
ma x ill a r y 57 :6 4
m a x illa r y , h ia t u s of
m ax illa r y , or ifice o f
of
of
licu li t y mpa n ic i
ca n al icu l i t y mp a nici
t er n a
inf er ior
ca n a
ex
—
3 1 :3 7 :
Inf er ior a p er t ur e of t y mpanic
ca na l icu l us
in f er ior ca na l is t y mp a nic i
in t e r na ca n a licu l i t y mp a nici
int er na ca n a l is f e mor a lis 49 58
l a r y ngis 59 1 3
l at er al is v ent r icul i qua r t i)
( Lat e r a l a p er t u r e of f ou r t h vent r i
—
:
—
B a r t h ol in
B a r t h o l in i 84 1 5
ce r e b r i, B a r t l iol in i
of
—
cl e
84 1 5
—
Vieu s s e n i 8 4 1 5
o f Vfie u ss e n s
zl nv iL t r a ns v er s e p r oces s o f
A or t a e , ol d
A or t a, Aor t ae
A or t a , Aor t a e
72 5
a b d omina l
a b d ominal is
Ab d omina l a or t a
a d sce nd e n s
a r ch o f
ascend ens
As cen ding a or t a
6 8 46
a s cending
68 z46
a s ce nd ing p or t ion o f
b ulb of 68 z47
d es cend ens
De s cending a or t a
d es ce n d e ns a b d o m in a l is
d es cend e ns t h o r a ca Hs
d es cend en s t h or a cia 7 l z51
—
—
—
—
—
—
)
medial is v ent ricul i qu ar t i [ F or amen
Ma gend i] ) 8 2:1 4
( Med ial a per t ur e of f ou r t h v ent r i
cl e [ F or a me n of Ma g endie ] )
—
b it a e 3 4 6 4
3 7 62
p e l v is a b d om ina l is
pe l v is m e dia
p elv is m inimi in f er ior
p el vis [ min or is ] inf er ior
Inf er ior a p er t u r e of [ l es se r ] p elv is
p el v is [ min or is ] s up er ior
S up er ior a p er t u r e of [ l ess er ] p el
or
—
—
vis
l
p e v is
p er in ea
l is
3 7 63
—
pir if or mis
Pir if or m ap er t ur e
si
nu s m ax ill a r is
s inus s ph e noid a l is
30 38
Aper t ur e of s ph enoid a l s inu s
s pina l is
28 3 0
s pu r ia ca na l is f acia l is
31 15
—
—
—
3 62
I N D EX
.
AP EX
p os t e r ior h or n o f g r e y m a t t e r
s ina l co r d
p
p r os t a t a e 6 2:52
Ap ex of p r os t a t e
of
APPA R AT U S
of
—
of
p r os t at e
o f pr o s t a t e gl a nd
p ul monis
Ap ex of l ung
o f s a cr u
sa t yr
b one
t oot h
i, S c hwa
“
lb e
[ gl
1 00:51
—
d ex t r ae ]
of [ r igh t ] s up r a r e na l gl and
.
ool n e r
—
—
—
—
Wool ner
T
—
—
t on g u e
of
—
-
m
s up r ar ena lis
of
—
—
b one
Ap ex
65 3 2
—
.
of s acr al
—
per ina ea lis s upe r ior
p er in ea l
per ine a l , s u p e r fi c ia l
p er inea l, s u per ior
p ha r y ng ea l
phar y ngis 54 :44
54 44
ph ar y ngo b a sil a r
ph a r y ng o -b a s il ar is 54 44
p l ant ar 50 2
pl ant a r is
P l an t ar a pone ur osis
media
pl ant ar is ex t er na
p r os t a t ic , l a t er a l 6 5 3 6
p u bio r e c t a l is 6 5 3 6
of
s u p e r ior
l ev a t or
s u r f a ce
of
mu s cle 6 5 28
t emp or a l 46 45
t emp or a l is 46 45
v e r t e br a l
46 5
ve r t e b r a l is
46 5
of Z inn
96 z6 0
Apoph y s is , Ap oph y s es 28 :9
Ap oph y s is , Ap op hy s es
of conch a
conch a e
400 60
h el icis
of h e l ix
o f I ng r a s s ias
l e nt icu la r , of h en s
l enticu l a r is incudis 99 51
od ont o id
29 :2
od on t o id ea
os s iu m
pt er y go id
pt er y go id ea 3 0 6 0
Ra w ii
App a r a t u s , Appar at u s
acoust ic
9 7 57
a ud it or y
97 57
diges t iv e 52 27
diges t or iu l 52 27
D iges t iv e a pp ar a t us
ge nit o u r ina r y G O 3 5
l a ch r y m a l
l a cr ima l
l acr ima l is
La cr imal app ar at us
ligament osus t ar s i, W Kr au se
s
p y r a mid of t e mp or a l b one
py r a m id is oss t e mp or al is
Ap ex of py r amid of t emp or a l
r ad icis d ent is
Ap ex of r oot of t oot h
of r igh t sup r a r ena l gl and
of
.
—
of
of r oot
p er ina ea l is sup er fi cia lis
1 00z50
—
—
I OO 50
i
—
—
A p oneur os is, Ap oneu r os es 4 5 3 3
Ap oneu r os is , Aponeur oses
of b ic e p s mu s cl e
cr u r a l
49 7 0
cr u r is
49 7 0
d eep o f l eg
d ia ph r a gma t is , Lu s ch k a 47 :1 8
e picr a n ia
46 42
e p icr a n ia l
46 42
f a l c if or m, of r e ct u s a b d omin is mus cl e
—
—
—
,
—
—
—
f a l c if or mis m r e ct i a b dominis
f e mo r a l 49 :49
f e mor a l is 49 :49
in t e r c h ondr a l , e x t er na l 41 3 2
int e r ch o nd r a l , in t e r na l 41 3 3
in t e r cos t al , ex t e r n a l 41 3 2
in t er c o st a l , int er na l 41 3 3
is ch io -p r os t a t ic 65 37
is ch io pr os t e t ic a 6 5 3 7
ischio r e ct a l 6 5 3 2
ischio r e ct a l is 6 5 3 2
la t er a l is pr ost a t a e 65 3 6
mu s cu l i a ni s u pe r ior
mu s cu l i b ic ip it is
mu s c u l i l e v a t or a n i s u p er ior
mus cu l i q ua d r ig e min i b r ach ii
of o ccip it o -f r on t a l mu scl e
97 7
or b it o -o c u l ar
97 :7
or b it o oc u l a r is
.
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
-
—
-
—
—
—
-
—
p al ma r
pal ma ris
P al mar a p oneur osis
per ina ea l is 65 3 7
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
-
—
.
l igame nt osu s v er t e b r ar u m co ll i
l igam e nt os us We it br ech t 41 = 1 1
~
,
o pt i
c
r espir at or ius
R espir a t or y
r espir a t or y —
t one
a ppar at us
57 3 5
p r o ducing
a n"
I N DE X
3 63
.
AP P AR AT U S
l 60 3 5
u r og e nit a l is
60 3 5
U r ogenit al ap p a r at us
v e r t e br a r u m co ll i l iga m e nt os u s
u r og enit a
t un ica e
—
va gin a
l is
’
AR ACH N OI D
t es t is , H u s ch k e
—
“
of v en t r ic l e
v en t r icu
—
—
—
—
l
l
fibr ou s
I fib r ous
l
of
co o n
,
a t t a ch e d
,
of
of
t es t is
of
t e s t is
l iv e r
l
of
of
a p p e n d a ges
e po o
ph ot on [ of M or ga gni]
x i
p h o id 29 z52
29 52
x ip h oid e s
’
A pp l e , A d a m s 26 42
A qu a e d u ct of ce r e b r um, of S y l v iu s
—
l ar y nx
of v en t r ic e of
l
Ves icul ar
M or ga gn i
of
v e s icu ar ,
l iv er
to
li l a r y ngis
App end a g e of ve nt r icl e of l a r y nx
v e r m icu l a r i
s
v e r mif or m
55 z6 7
v e r m if or m is
v e s icu l os i
e p oop h or i
[ Mor ga gni1 ]
App en d a ge , Appe nda ges 24 :1 3
of e p id id y mis
6 2 z1 9
e p ip l oic
55 8 0
e pip o ic ,
l a r y nx
of
—
e p oop h or on of
M or gagni
App en d ix , Ap p endices 24 :1 3
App en d a g e, App end a ges
a u r icu l a r , o f h e a r t
a u r ic u l a r , l e f t , o f h ea r t
a u r ic u l a r
ri
g h t , of h e a r t
ca e ca l
55 67
c a e c a l is
55 :67
d ia ph r a gma t is 47 :1 1
13
—
—
b
of v e s t i ul e
A qu a e d u c t u s , A q u a d uct u s
c e r eb r i [ S y l vn]
Aqu a ed u ct of ce r e b r um
s
,
viu s
—
47
—
m 29 52
29 52
e n s if or m is
—
e p id id y m a
l
,
Lau t h
62 1 8
ol d
ep id id y mid is
.
)
—
( App end a ge
e
l
ep idid y m is
of
La u t h
)
—
6 2: 1 6
—
l
p id id y m id is
v e s icu o s u s
—
62 1 9
55 8 0
e p ip oica e
—
E pip l oic
l
epi
p oica e
co
a pp end a g es
li
fibr ou s o f l iv er
g l a n d u l a e t h y r e oid e a e
g l a nd u l a e t h y r e o id ea e
of
liver )
,
lig
.
inf e r ior
—
,
G O 24
ol d
—
—
m a j or is
s a cr o - is ch ia d ici
We it b r ech t
ma j or is,
42 50
—
Mor ga gn ii 64 42
Mo r g a gnii 62 :1 8
mu c r o na t u s 29 52
—
—
—
—
—
62 1 8
t e s t icu l a r is
t es t is 6 2: 1 7
—
—
—
App en d a ge s of t es t is
6 2: 1 8
t e s t is [ M or g a gnii]
Appe nd a ge of t es t is
ga gni]
—
—
La u t h
t e s t is ,
o f t h y r eoid gl a n d
—
—
s a cr o -ischia d ic i
.
A qu e d u ct , A q u e d u ct s
o f ca na l icu l u s o f coch l e a a nd of v e s
t ib u l e 3 1 23
o f c e r e b r u m , e n t r a n ce t o
of coch l ea
3 l z40
of coch l e a , e x t er n a l or ifi ce o i
3 l z23
o f C ot u nn iu s
9 7 60
e n d o l y mp h a t ic
F a l l o pp ia n 3 1 1 4
o f S y l v iu s
o f S y l v iu s , e n t r a n ce t o
o f v es t ib u l e
o f v e s t ib u l e , e x t er na l or ifi ce o f
Aqu u l a , A qu u l a e
98 2
a u d it iv a
au dit iv a e x t e r na 7 9 8 z3
a u dit i
v a in t e r n a
Cot u nn ii 9 8 3
l a b y r int h i ex t e r na 9 8 3
l a b y r int h i int e r n a 9 8 2
l a b y r in t h i me mb r a n a ce i 98 2
A r ach n oid of b r a in
cr a n ia l
87 4 5
8 7 44
s p inal
—
fi b r os us h ep at is )
( F ib r ou s app end ag e
in f er ior l ig
S y l v ii 8 3 47
v es t ib ul i 3 1 :23
Aqu a ed u ct of vest ib ul e
97 6 0
v es t ib u l i m e mb r a n a ce u s
v e s t ib u l i os se u s
—
—
e p id id y m id is ,
9 7 60
—
31 14
k nee of
—
of
d id y m id is ,
e pi
l
coch l e a e o s s e us
co ch l ea e os s e u s
e n d ol y m p h a t icu s
F a l l op p ii
F a l l opp i,
—
'
]
coch e a e
—
e n s if o r
[ of S y l
—
[ of Mor
—
—
—
I ND E X
3 64
AR CH
ARA CHN OI D
of
s pin a
l
l u mb o
c or d
Ar a ch n o id e a , A r a ch no id ea e
en ce p h a l i 8 7 45
Ar a ch noid
lis
87 44
—
S pina l
Ar a nt iu s ,
ca n a
d u ct us
b r ain
of
a r a ch noid
l
oi
v en os u s
l
mil un ar
d u ct
v e no u s
of
l ig a me nt oi
A r b or A r b or es
m e d u ll a r is v e r m is
v it ae cer e b e ll i
Ar b or vit ae of
v it ae of ce r e b e ll u m
l
v a v e s of —
68 z3 7
of
d ia ph r a g m
,
in t er na
l
,
of
d ia p h ra gm
l a t er a l of Ha ll er
lumb ocos t al me dia l of H a ll er
ma l ar 3 3 z50
28 3 1
ne u r a l o f v e r t e b r a
or b it a l of f r on t a l b o n e
p a l a t ina 54 :14
54 1 5
p a l a t ine a n t e r ior
54 1 6
p a la t ine p os t e r io r
p a l a t o g l o s s a l 54 1 5
pa l a t o p h a r y ngea l 54 1 6
p a l m a r d ee p
p a lm ar s u pe r fi cia l 7 1 48
of
p e l vis
p h a r y ng o e p ig l ot t ic 54 1 6
l umb ocos t a l ,
,
,
,
—
—
—
h e m is p h a e r ii
u t er i
,
—
56 57
—
,
-
83 1 3
—
-
b
ce r e ell u
m
—
,
8 3 :1 3
ce r e
,
b e ll i
-
—
ph ary n g Opa l a t ine
v it a e o f u t e r u s
p l a nt ar
pl a n t ar
A r c a d e s d ent a l e s
a tl as
fir s t
ce r v ic a
l
v er
te
br a
l
a n t e r ior
,
54 :16
l
car p a
l
k
l l
a r t er ia l
su p er fi c ia l
ca r p a l d or s a l
of col on
l
pa lma r
l
d en t a l
d en t a l
d ent a l
d ent a l
d or s a l
58 3 6
—
47 41
,
inf er ior
o f m a n dibl e
53 45
o f m a x ill a
sup e r ior
,
of
t endin ous,
t e n din ous ,
—
,
l
ex t er na l
ex
t ar s al , sup er ior
t en dinou s 4 5 3 8
t end in ou s , e x t e r n a l ,
—
l
,
t er n a
f oo t
d ia ph r a gm a t ic
t e n d inous , o f
—
47 21
d ia p h r agm
F a ll op ia n 47 41
f em o r a l , s u pe r fi cia l 47 41
fibr ous , of s ol e us m u scl e
o f f oo t , d or s a l d igit a l
o f f o ot , p l a nt ar
gl os s opal at in e 54 :1 5
in f e r ior p a l pe br a l
int er na l d ia ph r a gm a t ic 47 20
int er na l t e nd in ou s , o f d ia ph r a gm
—
—
—
—
j ug ular
,
54 1 6
,
—
,
—
—
29 61
—
l
28 :59
—
,
58 3 6
of cr icoid car t i ag e
cr u r a
l
~
cost a e
cr ic o id
—
—
,
—
l
43 1 6
p o p l it e a
p os t er ior , of at as
p o s t er ior pa a t ina
p u ic
of p u is
—
—
,
l
—
,
,
—
co s t a
74 3 2
d ee p 7
b
o f r ib s
d or sa l 7 8 8
s u b cu t a n e ou s
3 7 55
s u b pu b ic
3 2:20
s u p er cil ia r y
70 10
s u p er ior p a l p e b r a l
s u p r a or b it a l o f f r on t a l b o ne
t a r s a l inf er ior
t e r ia l , d e e p p a m a r
idn e y
61 6
a r t e r ia , o f
74 32
a r t e r ia , p a n t a r
ar
of
—
b
of aor t a
a r t e r ia
:
—
—
A r ch , Ar ch es
an t e r ior , of
a n t er ior , o f
:
,
,
v it a e
,
—
ve nou s
v it a e
l
l
,
7
-
cos t a
-
t er na
ex
,
—
—
n od u es of s e
l
—
7 7 :3 5
7 7 z3 5
of
—
cos t a
-
lu m b o
—
s pina
.
a nt e r ior
h or izont a
l
—
76 :23
f as cia
in t e r n a l ,
of
of
p el v is
of
d ia ph r a gm
an i
mus cl e
d or s a l
f a scia
t end inous ,
of
l evat or
t end inou s ,
of
l u mb o
v en ou s ,
of s o eus
—
v e n ou s , o f
v e nou s ,
-
mus cl e
l
d ee p p a l ma r
7
d igit al
t endin ous,
v e n ou s ,
d ia ph r a gm
of
d igit s
d or s a l ,
c u t a ne o u s ,
ve nous ,
d or s a l , d ig it a l
d or s al , of f oot
o f d or s u m o f f oo t
o f fi nger s
of j u g ul ar
v e n ou s ,
of
v en ous ,
p l a nt a r
v en ou s ,
v enous ,
v e n ou s ,
v e n ou s ,
k idn e y
of
f oot
3 66
I NDE X
.
AR CU S
d or sa l is p e d is
ve n osu s
s u p e r fi cia lis
Ve n ou s
ar ch
v e n o su s
ve n ous ar ch
r en u
m
l
b a s iu m py r a mid um
v e n os i v e n t r a e s
r e nis
v er t e
l
b r ae
A r ch
vol a r is
p r ofu nd u s
l
l
v ol a r is
7 6 z46
—
7 1 :3 3
—
l
D e ep
ficia l
7 1 :48
z
S u p er fi cra l
z y gom a t icu s
Z y gom a t ic
p r of und us
v o a r a r ch
l
v en ous
v ol ar
—
7 6 :46
a r ch
—
a r ch
82 7
ma mm a r y g l a nd
of
n ip
oi
l a t er al
med ia l
27 :1 8
—
s u r f a ce of
s ur f a ce of
su r f a ce of
sur
face
of
1 05 1 2
—
l
wh it e su b s t ance of f or
nica t e gy r us oi
Ar t er ia , Ar t er iae 68 3 9 ;
Ar t e r y , Ar t e r ie s
a b d o min a l is e x t e r n a
73 3 7
a b d omin a l is su b cu t a n e a
73 3 9
a b d om in a l is s u b c u t a ne a H a ll e r i
73 39
a ce t a b u l a r is
7 3 49
a ce t a b u li 7 2 6 8
Ar t er y of acet a b ul um
a ce t a b u l i a
c ir cu mfl ex a e f e m or is me
d ia l is 7 3 49
a cr omia l is
71 2
a cr omio t h o r a c ic a
71 2
a d ip o sa e cor d is
r e t icu a r
—
l
of
coch ea
—
b
60 61
c r ib r osa m e dia
cr ib r os a s u e r ior
98 7 5
p
cr ib r os a p a p ill ae r e na l is
Cr ib r if or m a r e a of r ena l
—
—
—
:
—
—
—
l
A r ea
of
f a cia
ll a
p api
g as t r ica e 55 22
G as t r ic a r e a s
11 f a cia is
.
—
—
-
l
n e rv e
p a r ol f act or ia [ B r oca s ] - 8 6 6 7
P a r olf act or y a r e a [ of B r oca ]
p r a e se l l ar is 3 0 42
v e n t r icu l i q u a r t i
8 1 59
v e s t ib u l a r is in f e r ior
98 7 6
nf er ior ves t ib u l a r a r e a
v e s t ib ul a r is s up e r ior
98 7 5
S up er ior v es t ib ul a r a r ea
—
—
I
—
A r ea , Ar eas
82 7
acoust ic
82 7
a u d it or y
a u dit or y , of cer e b r a l
—
a d ip o s a e
a
.
r e n a l is
a d ip os a r e n is
a d v e he ns
l
—
l
a v e o a ris
—
l
61 8
inf er ior
69 47
—
Inf er ior al v eola r
a v e ol a r is
l
al v e o a r e s
su p e r ior
—
a r t er y
6 9 59
s up e r ior e s
—
cor t ex
B r o ca
Ant er ior s up er ior a l v e ol a r a r t e r ies
a lv e ol a r is su p er ior p os t er ior
6 9 59
P os t e r ior s u p e r ior al v eol a r a r t er y
a n a s t o m ot ica b r a ch ii 7 1 20
a n a s t om ot ica m a n a
73 59
g
a n a s t o m o t ica m a gna , Q u a in- 7 1 21
angul a r is
6 9 20
Angul ar a r t er y
a nony ma
6 8 57
Anony mous a r t er y
—
—
l
of coch ea
b r a l c or t ex
o f p a pill a o f k id n e y
of r ena l p apill a
o f ce r e
b if or m
cr ib r if or m
of f acia l ner ve
,
,
an t e r ior e s
—
—
cr i r
—
—
Ar ea
,
s u r f a ce of
f as cia of
int e r na l s u r f a ce
Ar nol d,
coch e a e
c o ch l e a r
1 02zl 4
—
d e e p f a s c ia o i
e x t er na
s u r f a ce
A r mp it
—
of
ple
l o2zl 4
—
27 : 1 5
48 z44
of
ou t e r
2
l
m a mma
of
of
p os t er ior
A cou s t ic a r ea
B r o ca e 8 6 6 7
.
—
l
Ar ea , Ar eae
Ar ea , A r e as
cr i r osa
mamma 1 02zl 4
mammae 1 02:1 4
—
a r ch
vo a r is v en osu s s u p e r fi cia l is
—
,
a nt er ior
v ol ar
v en ou s
a cus t ica
,
Ar m
s u p e r fi cia l is -
uper
—
Ar eol a
b lim is
v o a r is v enosu s
l
blimis
a r ch
v o ar
v o a r is s u
S
su
of v e r t eb r a
D eep
—
of
vo a r is
v e n os u s
—
,
6 1 zl 5
—
z
—
,
,
78 :1 3
—
l ant a r
qu e a t b a s e of na il l o1 55
p a r ol f a ct or y of B r oca 86 67
s e mil u n a r
a t b as e o f n a il
l 01 z55
o f t r i em in a l n e r v e
g
ve s t ib ul a r
inf er ior 98 7 6
v es t ib u l a r s u e r ior
p
Ar eo l a A r e ol a e
,
j u gu l a r
of
pl a nt a r is
v en os u s
gast r ic
Op a
j u gu l i
ve nos us
P
ART E R I A
—
—
I N D EX
3 67
.
ARTER I A
.
ma b r a ch io
a n on y ma il ia ca
a n o ny
-
ce p h a
l ica
68 57
—
p o s t er ior e s 7 1 :53
s in is t r a
7 1 53
s u p e r ior e s
70 3 7
—
—
b r onch ia le s
pp e nd ic a l is 7 2 42
a pp en d icul a r is
7 2 42
App en d icu l a r a r t er y
a r cif or me s r enis
a
a r c if o r
m es
a r t e r ie s
of
B uccinat or
p edis
Ar cu a t e a r t er y of f oot
a r t icu l a r is
ca it u l i fi b u l a e
p
p r op r iar
a r cua t a
ca p i
t uli
69 58
—
k idney
T h e il e
fi b ula e,
b u lb i
b u lbi
a r t er y
ur e t h r ae
Ar t e r y of b u lb of u r e t h r a
b ulb i v es t ib ul i [ vaginae ]
Ar t er y of b u lb of v e s t ibu l e
v agina ]
b u lbina
l
t er n a
ex
inf er ior
gen u
[ of
7 3 :24
—
b u lbo ca ve r nos a
bu lbos a 7 3 24
bu lb osa 7 3 25
b u lbo u r e t h r a l is
-
a r t icu a r is
70 3 7
—
58
—
r e nu m
l a r is
su p er ior e s
b u c ca l is 69
b uccina t or ia
—
Ar cif or m
—
b r on ch ica e
—
t icu
b r on ch ia l e s
b r o nch ia l is
a or t a
ar
ARTE R I A
7 3 24
—
—
—
l
a r t icu a r is
t er na
ex
s u p e r io r
g enu
-
c a l c a n ea e
l
a r t ic u l a r is
ar t ic u l a r is
a r t icu l a r is
a r t icu a r is
a z yg os
ge n u
ge n u
r e cu r r e n s
s u per
-
fi c ia l is
7 3 :59
—
s u p e r io r
e nu
g
7
int er na
p r im a
a r t icu l a r is g e n u s u r e m a
7 3 59
p
a r t icu la r is
in t er na in f er ior
ge nu
—
—
7 4 26
—
l is
p t er y goide i [ V idii]
Ar t e ry
of
p t er y goid
Vidiu s ]
ca na
7
ge nu
l
c a su l a r is
p
ca p s u l a r is
ca ps u l a r is
ca p s u a r is
96 3 9
in f e r io r
—
l
a s p er a
int e r na
s u p e r ior
g e nu
s u p er i
or
a t r a b il ia r is
—
t er na ,
ex
a ud it iv a
I
M
.
J W e b er
.
int e r n a 7 0:29 ;
nt er n a l au d it or y a r t e r y
—
l
a nt e r ior es
l
a nt e r ior es
a u r icu a r e s
ce r e
br a l is
ca r ot is comm unis
—
—
7 2 :8
—
69 6 9
69 68
6 8 59
car ot id
Z
ar t e r y
in f er ior e s
c a r ot i
s
co
m
ca r ot is
ex
t e r na
Ex t e r na l ca r ot id a r t er y
ca r o t is f a cia l is
6 9 z6 8
ca r ot is int er n a
nt e r na l ca r ot id a r t er y
—
I
a u r icu ar e s
s u p er ior e s
c a r ot is
p im it iv a
d or sa is
r
P os t e r ior a u r icu l a r ar t e r y
69 45
au r icul ar is p r of u n d a
D ee p au r icu l a r a r t er y
l
ca r ea d or sa l i
s
p
ca r p e a v o l ar is
car p i d or s a l is
ca u d a l is
72 1 2
ax
ca v e r nos a
ca r pea
l
a ur icu a r is
p os t er ior
6 9 29
—
—
—
—
genu
b as il a r is 7 0:27
—
l
l ica 68 59
ce r e b elli inf e r ior
c eph a
a r t er y
7 1 :1 4
r a ch ia is
—
B r ach ia ]
6 8 59
p e n is
6 9 :7
c a v i t y mp a n i
ce nt r a l is r e t ina e
Cent r a l ar t er y of
il l a r is 7 0 7 0
Ax ill a r y a r t er y
B as il a r
—
—
a z yg os
b
[ of
mmu n is d e x t r a
c a r ot is co m
u n is s in is t r a
7 2 49
a u d it iv a
a u d it iv a
l
7 2 51
—
—
m pa nica
Common
26 44
—
ca r o t is
c an a
m e dia
ca r o t ico - t y
a r t icu ar is
7 3 24
—
—
Ant er ior
ar t ery
b r a ch ia l is pr of u nd a Lu s ch k a
b r onch ia l es 7 1 :5 3
B r on ch ia l a r t er ies
b r onc hia l es a nt e r ior e s 7 0 3 7
—
,
—
—
b r on ch ia l is d ex t r a 7 1 53
b r on chia l e s in fe r ior e s 7 1 53
—
—
71 15
:
a nt er ior
inf e rior
b ell um
cer e b ell i inf er ior
P os t er ior
r e t ina
ar t er y
cer e
of
ce r e
p os t er ior
inf e r ior
a r t er y
b ell um
cer e b ell i s upe r ior
S up e r ior
of
a r t e r y of c er e
b ell um
3 68
I N D EX
.
ARTER IA
br a les
ce r e b r a l is
70 1 4
69 68
ce r e br a lis a nt er ior
70 1 7
ce r e b r a l is me dia
ce r e b r a lis po st er ior
70 3 2
cer e br a lis t r a nsver sa
70 1 9
cer eb r i 7 0:1 4
Ar t er ies of cer eb r um
cer eb r i ant er ior
7 0:17
Ant er ior a r t er y of cer eb rum
cer e
—
mfl ex
cir cu
ARTER I A
il ium
a
s up er fi cialis
—
S
—
—
—
—
—
b
cer e r i
media
Middl e
b
a r t er y of cer e r um
b
p ost er ior
P ost erior a r t ery of cer eb r um
ce r e b r i t r a nsve r sa
7 0: 1 9
cer vicalis asce nd ens
Ascending cer vical ar t er y
cer vica l is d e s ce nd e ns pr of u n d a
s u e r fi cia l is
cervica l is
d e scend ens
p
—
l is
D e ep
7 0 66
pr of unda
—
cervical a r t er y
lis superfi cial is
S up er ficial cervica l a r t er y
ce r vica l is t r a ns v e r sa
7 0 67
cer v ica
—
ch or ioid ea—
7 0:1 6
Ch or ioid al a r t er y
hor ioid ea
c
a nt er ior
ch or ioid ea infer ior
cil iar es ant er ior es
Ant er ior
l
ci ia r es
m flex
a
.
in fe r ior
6 9 21
cir cum fl ex a m s t e r no-c le id o -ma s t oid ei
inf e r ior 6 9 23
c ir cu m fl e x a r a d ia l is
7 1 :41
cir cumfl ex a sca pul a e
71 11
Cir cumfl ex a r t er y of s capul a
c lit or id e a
7 3 28
cl it or idis
7 3 28
Ar t er y of clit oris
—
.
—
—
—
—
cer e ri
cer vica
cir cu
mfl ex iliac a r t er y
m s t er no-cl e id o -ma st oid ei
cir cu
up er fi cial
l
—
ci ia ry
—
—
72 1 2
coccyge a
-
cochl ea e
98 23
7 2:1 6
—
coel ia ca-
Coe lia c a r t er y
colica d e x t r a
Righ t col ic ar t er y
d ex t r a inf e r ior 7 2x 41
c ol ica me d ia
Middl e colic ar t er y
col ica s i
nist r a
Le f t col ic a r t er y
c ol i
ca su p er i
or a cce s s or ia
co l l a t e r a l e s d i it a l e s
7 1 50
g
co ll a t e r a l is ex t er na
71 1 9
co ll a t e r a l is ma g na
71 1 5
coll a t er a lis med ia
7 1 :18
Middl e coll at er al ar t er y
coll a t er a l is r adial is
7 1 19
R a dial coll a t er al ar t er y
c o lla t er a l i
s r a d ia l is ex t er n a
71 :1 9
c oll a t e r a l is r a dia l is in f e r ior
coll a t e r a l is r a d ia l is su er ior
p
col l a t er a lis ul nar i
s inf e r ior
Inf er ior ul nar coll a t er al art er y
co ll a t er a l is u l nar is
pr ima
co ll a t e r a l is u l n a r is s ecu nd a
coll a t e r a lis ul na r is s u e r ior
p
S uper ior ul nar coll a t er al ar t er y
come s n
isch iad ici
com e s n
me d ia ni 7 l z43
c ome s n
p h r enici
c omit ans n is ch iadi
ci
A ccomp any ing a rt er y of is ch iad ic
col ica
—
.
—
—
70 1 6
70 1 6
—
—
ar t er ie s
—
med ia e , Cr uve il h ie r
p os t er ior es b r ev es
S h or t post e rior cil iar y a r t er ie s
l iar es p ost er ior es l ongas
ci
Long post er ior cil iary ar t e ries
na l is - 7 3 3 7
cir cu mfl ex a a b d omi
7 3 :50
cir cu mfl ex a f e mor is a nt er ior
cir c u mfl ex a f emor is e x t e r na
7
cir cu mflex a f e mor is int er ns
s l a t er al is
cir cumfl ex a f emor i
Lat er a l cir cumflex a r t e ry of t high
ciliar es
—
—
f emor is medial is
Medial cir cumfl ex ar t e r of t h igh
y
ci
r cu mfl ex a fe mor is p os t e r ior
cir cumfl ex a h umeri a nt er ior
Ant e:ior cir cumfl ex ar t er y of h u
cir cumfl ex a
mer us
7 1 13
cir cumfl ex a h umer ipos t er ior
Post er ior cir cumfl ex ar t er y of h u
—
.
—
.
.
.
ne rve
mmunicans
co
ant er ior
b
cer e r i
—
mer us
um
cir cu mfl ex a il i
a
mmunicat ing
co
b m
a r t er y
of
cer e r u
mmu nicans p ost er ior
co
il iu m ex t er na 7 3 40
a il iu m int e r n
cir cumfl ex a il ium pr of und a
D eep cir cumfl ex il iac a r t e r y
mfl ex
ci
r cu mfl ex
ci
r cu
Ant er ior
b
cer e r i
—
P ost er ior
ce r e
c on c h a r u
communicat ing ar t er
y of
b r um
m
na s i
I NDEX
3 70
ART E R IA
e p is cl e r a l es
70 4
E p is cl e r a l a r t e r ies
l
ART E R I A
l
g enu s up er ior a t e r a is
La t er a s up e r ior a r t e r y
—
e th moid al is a n t e r ior
.
l
70 7
—
M ed ia l
Ant er ior e t h moid a l ar t er y
70 6
et h moid a l is p os t e r ior
P os t e r ior et h m oid a l ar t er y
e t h m o idv
e ae
e t h m o id e a a n t e r ior
70 7
e t h m oid ea
70 6
po s t e r ior
f a c ia l is 6 8 6 0
f a c ia l is a n t e r ior
69 1 3
f a cia l is pr o f u n d a
6 9 44
f a cia lis t r a n s v e r s a
69 3 8
f emor a l is
73 38
s up e r ior
s u p er ior
g e nu
—
med ial is
s up er ior
g enu
a r t er y
pr o f u n d a
s u p r e m a-
7 3 z59
igh e s t a r t e r y of
g a nd u ar es 7 0 54
g ome r u i G l 8
gl ut aea inf e r ior
g en u
l
l
—
—
—
H
l
l
gl u t a ea
—
of
k nee
k ne e
7
—
2
k ne e
—
—
Inf e r ior gl ut e al
—
of
a r t er y
s up e r ior
74 1 7
f os s a e ce r e b r i m e d ia
7 0: 1 9
f ossa e , S y lv ii
f r ont a l is 7 0: 12
F r ont a l a r t er y
S up er ior gl ut ea l ar t er y
h a e m or r h o id a l is e x t e r na
73 1 8
h ae m o r r h oid a l is in t er i m 7 2 48
h a emor r h oid a l is in f e r ior
7 3 :1 8
Inf er ior h a emor r h oid a l a r t er y
h aemor r h oid a l is med ia 7 3 :1 6
M idd l e h a em or r h oid a l a r t e r y
h a emor r h oid a l is s u p e r ior
7 2 48
S up er ior h aemor r h oid a l a r t e r y
h e l icina e , Miil l er i 6 3 1 3
h el icinae p enis
Hel icin e a r t er ies of p enis
f u nicu l a r is
h ep a t ica
—
—
F emor a
l
a r t er y
l
f e m o r a l is
f e mo r a l is
p r of u n d a
fi b u l ar is
74 1 8
f e m o r a is
—
fi b u l a r is
—
—
c omm u n is
su
—
7 3 :45
—
p e r fi cia l is
s u p e r ior
7 3 :3 8
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
l
7 2 53
i s p er m at ici-
f u n icu
ga s t r ica e
H epa t ic
73 3 5
b r eves
h e pa t ica
S h or t gas t r ic
gas t r ica d ex t r a
R igh t gas t r ic
a r t e r ie s
a r t er y
m u nis
72 1 9
7 2 21
—
h ep at ica p r op r ia
ep at ic a r t er y p r op er
h u m er a lis 7 1 1 4
h u m er ar ia
71 1 4
h y a l oid e w 9 6 :3 9
Hy a l oid a r t e r y
h y oid e a 69 9
h y p oga s t r ica 7 2 56
yp ogas t r ic a r t ery
il eae 7 2:4O
l ea c a r t er ies
il eocol ica
—
—
—
—
—
g as t r oep ipl oica d ex t r a 7 2 29
R igh t gast r oe p ip oic a r t er y
—
g as t r oepipl oica s inis t r a 7 2 3 3
Lef t ga s t r oepipl oic a r t e r y
—
g e nu a zy g os
g e n u inf e r ior ex t er na
g e nu in f er ior in t e r n a 7
genu inf e r ior l a t er a l is
La t er a l inf e r ior a r t er y
l
l
of
—
—
—
H
—
I
il ia ca
il ia ca
il ia ca
—
73 3 1
a nt er ior
co
ex
t er n a4
E x t e r na
of
k nee
k nee
media
a r t er y
mmu nis
Common il iac
il ia ca
—
g enu inf e r ior me dia is
Media inf er ior a r t er y
—
Il eocol ic
l
g e nu
g e nu
ge nu
ge n u
g e nu
com
H
g as t r ica in f e r ior d ex t r a 7 2 29
g a s t r ica in f e r ior s in is t r a
gas t r ica s inis t r a 7 2 : 1 7
Lef t ga s t r ic ar t ery
g as t r ic a s u p er ior d ex t r a 7 2:20
g a s t r ica su p er ior s in ist r a 7 2 1 7
gas t r od uod ena l is 7 2 25
G as t r od u od enal a r t er y
Midd l e
a r t er y
—
—
genu
7 2: 1 9
—
—
a r t er y
3 z3 1
l il iac
a r t er y
il ia ca in t e r na
il ia ca p a r v a
il ia c a p o s t er ior
il ia ca p r im it iv a 7 zz55
iliol umb a lis 7 2 58
l iol umb ar ar t ery
inf er ior p r o f u nd a b r a c h ii,
—
—
a r t e r y of
k ne e
r e cu r r e ns
s u pe r fi cia l is
—
7 3 59
s u pe r ior
ex
s u p e r ior
int er n al
s u p e r ior
int er ns
t er na
—
.
I
in f r a cost a l is
7 3 65
s ec u n da
~
inf r a or b it a l is
—
7 0 44
69 6 0
Inf r a or bit al
ar t er y
Ma ca l ist er
I N D EX
37 1
.
ARTER I A
in f r a s ca p u
la r is
in gu ina l e s
inno m in a t a
int est inal es
71 9
7 3 44
—
—
—
68 57
70 1 9
—
—
7 1 59
—
is ch ia d ica
r
r
:
—
—
—
—
—
int e r me t a ca r p e a e d or s a l e s 7 1 29
in t e r m e t a c a r pea e p a m a r e s
7 1 :3 4
—
—
—
in t e r m e t a t a r s ea e d or s a e s 7 4 1 3
in t e r o ss e a a c c e s s or ia
7 1 :4 3
—
—
—
—
7 1 :4 2
—
a n t ib r a ch ii
j ej unal es
Jej una l ar t er ies
lab ia l es ant er ior es v ulva e 7 3 z43
Ant er ior l a b ia l a r t er ies of vul v a
l a b ial is inf e r ior or is 6 9 : 1 8
In f er ior l a bia l a r t er y of mou t h
l ab iale s p ost e r ior es v ul v ae
P os t e r ior l a b ia l a r t er ies of v u l va
l a bia l is su p er ior Ot is 6 9 1 9
S up er ior l a b ia l a r t e r y of mouth
l acr ima lis 6 9 7 2
La cr ima l a r t e ry
l a cr ima l is a c cess or ia 69 7 2
l ar y ngea inf er ior 7 0 50
Inf er ior l ar yn gea l a r t er y
la r y ngea in f er ior Liv ini 68 z65
l a r y ngea me dia Lu sc h k a
l a r y nge a post e r ior 7 0 50
l ar y ngea supe r ior
S up er ior l a ry ng ea l a r t er y
l iena lis 72 3 1
—
—
l
73 4
72 3 9
—
—
l
—
—
—
a n t e r ior
:
—
Int er cost a l a r t er ies
int er cos t a l e s a n t e r ior e s 7 0 45
in t er cos t a l es p os t e io es
71 6 0
in t er cos t a l is p r im a 7 0 63
int e r co s t a l is s u pe r ior
7 0 63
int er cos t al is s up r eme 7 0 63
H igh est int er cos t a l a r t er y
int er l ob a r e s r enis 6 1 :5
Int er l ob ar ar t er ies of k idney
int er l ob u l a r es r enis 6 1 :7
Int er l ob ul ar ar t er ies of k idney
int er os s ea
in t e r o s s ea
72 37
Int est inal ar t er ies
int e s t in a l es il ia ca e 7 2 40
in t e s t in a l e s i1e ae 7 2 40
in t e s t ina l es j e j u na l es 7 2 3 9
—
in su l a r is
int er cos t a l es
—
ART E R I A
a cce s s or ia
—
,
,
in t e r o s s e a
in t e r oss e a
ant i
b r a ch ii a n t e r ior
in t e r o ss e a
in t e r o ss ea
int er os s ea
a n t ib r a c hii ex
a n t ib r a c h ii
a n t ib r a ch ii
—
l
d o r sa is
t e r na
in t e r n a
7l
—
42
z
a nt ib r a ch ii p os t e r ior
s u p e r fi cia l is
a n t ib r a ch ii
in t e r o s se a
.
l
ant i
b r a ch ii v o a r is
in t e r os s e a
com
Ling ua l a r t er y
l o b u l a r e s h ep a t is
7 1 :3 9
—
—
Comm on in t er os se ous a r t ery
int e r oss ea d or s al is a nt ib r ach ii
D or s a l int er osseous
ar
a r t ery
of
in t e r os se a e m e t a car p i d or sa l es
in t e r o s s e a e m e t a ca r p i in t e r n i
in t e r o s s ea e
f or e
—
7 1 29
la r e s
met a t a r s e a e
d or s a l es
a r t er y
—
—
—
in t er o s se a
7 1 :4 3
7 1 :42
s u p e r fi c ia l is
:
z
—
—
of
:
—
—
in t er os se a v ol a r is
V ol a r int e r oss eou s a r t er y
int er os s e a e v ol a r es
int er o s sea v ol a r is a n t ib r a chii
—
—
—
—
int er o ss ea p a l ma r is 7 1 42
in t e r os s e a e p e r f or a nt e s 7 1 :3 5
in t e r o s s e a e p l a nt a r e s 74 3 3
in t e r o s se a p os t er io r a n t ib r a ch ii
56 76
l o bu l a r e s r e n is
l umb al es 7 2 9
Lumb ar a r t er ie s
l umb a l is ima
Low e st l u mb a r a r t e r y
lu mb a l is ima d e x t r a 7 2 1 3
lu mb a l is ima s inis t r a
l u m ba l is quint a 7 2 l 3
l u mba l is s a cr a l is 7
m a gn a p oll icis
m a ll e ol ar is a n t e r ior ex t e r n a 7
m a ll e ol a r is a n t e r ior int e r n a 7 4 5
mall e ol ar is ant er ior l a t er a l is
La t er a l a nt er ior mall e ol a r a r t er y
ma ll eol ar is a nt er ior m e dial is
Me d ial ant er ior ma ll eol a r a r t er y
mall e ol ar is p ost er ior l at e r al is 74 22
La t er a l p os t e r ior mall e ol ar a r t e r y
mall eol a r is p os t e r ior me dia l is
—
in t er o ss eae p er f or a n t es 7 1 3 5
int e r os s ea r ecu r r ens a nt ib r a ch ii
R ecu r r en t int e r oss eous
f or e a r m
of ut erus
—
m
in t e r os s e a e m e t a ca r p i v o
S p l enic a r t er y
l ig t er et is ut er i
Ar t er y of r ound l ig ament
l ingu alis 6 9 8
—
in t er os s e a
mu nis
—
Med ia l
p os t e r ior
m a mm a r ia e x t e r n a
ma ll eol ar
mam mar ia int er na
I nt er nal mammar y
a r t er y
ar t er y
I N D EX
3 72
.
AR TE R I A
A RTE R I A
ma mma r ia l at er a l is 7 0 44
m a n d ib u l a r is 6 9 47
m e t a car p i 7 1 3 4
m e t a t a r s ea 7 4 :1 1
me t a t ar se a e d or s al es
—
—
—
—
ma s s e t er ica 69 54
Mass et er ic a r t e r y
ma s t o id ea e 6 9 3 2
ma x ill a r is ex t e r na 69 :1 3
Ex t e r na l ma x ill a r y a r t er y
—
—
69 1 3
6 9 47
G Q 44
—
m a x ill a r is in f e r ior
ma x il l ar is int er na
—
—
Int e r nal
m a x im a G
max ill a r y
l
—
mu s cu l a r is m a gna
—
7
—
mu s cu l a r is ocu l i
m u s cu l o a r t ic u l a r is
a r t er y
6 8 z45
a e ni
7 3 60
7 0 46
-
—
mu s cu l oph r enica
Mus cu l oph r enic
m ed ia n a 7 1 :43
M ed ian ar t e r y
me dia n a a nt ib r a ch ii
7 4 : 13
ar t e r ie s
Dor sa l me t a t a r sa l
me t a t a r s e a d or s a l is p r im a
met a t a r s e a e pl a nt a r es
P l a nt a r met at a r s a l a r t er ies
Mu l l e r i G S 1 3
m u s c u l a r e s g e nu inf e r ior e s
—
ma x ill ar is f a c ia l is
—
—
—
su pe r fi cia l is
ar t e r y
my l o h y oid ea 6 9 48
m y om a s t oid e a G e g en b a u r
—
69 3 5
—
,
me d ia na pr of u nd a
G
a n t ib r a c h ii,
ru
b er
l is 7 0 1 3
na s a l is l a t e r a l is
69 20
na sa l is la t er a l is ex t e r n a
na s a l is m e d ia T h e il e
69 67
n a sa l es p o s t er ior e s
n as a l is p o s t e ior
n a s a l is p os t er ior c om m u n is
n a s a l is p o s t er ior l a t e r a l is
na sa les p os t er ior e s l a t e r a l es
na s a
—
:
—
m e dia n a r e t in a e M a gnu s 9 6 z3 4
m e d ia s t in a e p os t er ior es 7 1 57
m e d ia s t ina l es a n t e r ior es 7 0 3 5
—
,
—
,
—
Ant e r ior me dias t ina l
a r t er ie s
m e dia s t in a l e s p o s t e r ior e s
m e d ia s t in ica e
—
r
7 1 57
—
69 6 6
—
a n t e r io r e s
m e dia s t inica e p os t e r ior es 7 1 57
m e n in g ea a cces sor ia 69 51
me nin gea ant er ior 7 0 8
An t er ior meningea l a r t er y
—
e t s ep t i
—
,
P os t e r ior
—
menin gea media
M idd l e meningea l
I
ar t er y
69 5
—
25
—
72 36
7 2 45
mesent er ica in f er ior
Inf e r ior mes en t er ic a r t e r y
mesen t er ica s u p er ior 7 2 3 6
S up er ior mese nt er ic a r t e r y
me t acar p eae
7 1 45
nu t r it ia
nu t r it ia
nu t r it ia
—
me t a ca r p eae v ol a r e s 7 1 :3 4
Vol a r met aca r p a l a r t er ies
me t a c a r pe a v ol a r is pr ima T an d l er
—
,
.
l
v ol a r is
pr o f u n d a
p r o f u nd a
m a gna t ib ia e
l
v o ar is s u
bl imis
p el vis
b
t ib ia e
t i ia e
l
s u pe r ior
r a d ia
l is
—
7 4 :2
b t u r at or ia 7 2 6 4
Ob t u r at or a r t e r y
occip it a l is
69 22
Occipit al ar t e r y
o
—
—
oes op h a geae—
u na r i
s
74 24
—
7 1 54
Oes oph a gea l ar t er ies
oe sop h a g ea e in f e r ior e s
72 1 8
oph t h a l mica
Oph t h a l mic a r t e r y
—
me t aca r pe a
l
—
d or s a l es
v o a r is
of r e na
—
D or sa l met a ca r p a l a r t er ies
m e t a ca r p ea u l n ar is 7 1 49
m et a ca r p ea
m e t a ca r p e a
f emu r
N u t r ien t a r t er y of t ib ia
n u t r ic ia t ib ia e m a g n a
n u t r it ia f e m or is in f e r io r
n u t r it ia f e mor is su p er ior
7 3 :54
nu t r it ia ma gna“f e m or is
7 3 57
—
—
of
N u t r ie nt a r t er ie s of h u mer us
nut r icia e p elv is r e na l is
N u t r ient a r t er ies
nu t r ic ia e r e n is
nut r icia t ib iae
—
m e t a ca r p ea d or s a l is
f em u r
—
.
—
of
—
m e n in gea p os t e r io r e x t er n a
m e n in g e a p os t e r ior int e r na
me n t a l is 6 9 49
M en t al a r t er y
m e s a r a ic a in f e r ior 7 2:45
—
a r t er ies a nd
f emor is inf er ior
nf er ior nu t r ie n t a r t e r y
nu t r icia f em or is s u p e r ior
S up er ior nu t r ien t a r t e r y
n u t r icia fi b ul ae
74 :1 9
N u t r ient a r t er y of fib ul a
nut r iciae h ume r i 7 1 1 6
—
s u pe r ior
l
nut r icia
P os t er ior m eningea l a r t er y
m e n ingea p os t e r ior 6 9 :27
m e s a r a ica
nas a
a r t er ie s of s ep t um
me ninge a p a r v a
meninge a p ost er ior
l a t er a l
I ND EX
3 74
.
ARTER I A
p u d end a int e r na
n t e r na l p u d e n d al
p u l mona l is 6 8 4 0
a r t er y
—
P ul m ona r y
l mo na l is
p u l mo n a l is
p u l mo n a l is
pu
co
—
68 : 40
d ex t r a 6 8 41
s in i
str a
68 :42
p y l or ica 7 2 20
q u a d r ic ip it is f e mor is
r a d ia l is
7 1 22
R a d ia l a r t er y
—
—
—
.
—
l is
r a d ia l is
r a d ia
a cce s sor ia
ind ic is
l
Int er na l s p er mat ic a r t er y
sph en op a l a t in a
G Q 66
S p h enop a l a t ine a r t e r y
—
s
h
n o -S in os a
e
p
p
s p ina
lis
6 9 50
—
a nt e r ior
7 0:24
—
An t er ior s pin a l a r t er y
s pina l is p os t er ior
7 0 23
P os t er ior s p ina l a r t er y
s p in os a
6 9 50
s p l e n ic a
72 31
s t a ped i
a , Z u ck er k a n d l
69 33
s t er n a l e s
p o s t e r io r es 7 0 3 9
s t er nocl e id oma s t oid ea
6 9 21
S t e r n ocl eid oma s t oid a r t er y
s t e r n o c l e id o m a s t o id eus
s u p er ior
—
~
—
Cr u v e il hier
r a d io - p a l m a r is ,
69 1 2
r e c t a is
73 1 8
r e cu r r e ns in t e r n a , Cr u v e i h ie r
r e c u r r e n s in t e r ossea
7 1 : 41
l
—
-
r a d ia t a e r e nis
r a n in a
t e r na
ex
—
a r t e ry
mm u nis
ma t ica
73 3 5
Ex t er na s p er m a t ic a r t er y
s p e r m a t ica int e r na
7 2 52
s p er
I
AR TE R IA
—
—
l
—
—
-
-
—
r e cu r r en s
r a d ia
R a d ial
r e cu r r e n s
l is
r e cu r r e nt
r a d ia
l
s t y om as t oid e a—
7 1 :23
—
l is
ar ter y
p os t er ior
b l a nt er ior
An t e r ior t ib ia l r ecu r ren t a r t er y
r e cu r r ens t ib ia l is
p os t e r ior )
( P os t er ior t ibia l r e cu r r ent a r t er y )
r e cu r r e nt e s u l na r e s
7 1 :3 7
Ul na r r ecu r r ent ar t e r ies
r e n a l is
R ena l a r t er y
r ecu r r e ns
t i ia is
—
r e n a l is
r e na
l is
dex t r a
s in is t r a
—
—
b co s t a lis 7 0 44
s u b cu t a n ea a b d om in is
s ubl in gua l is
6 9 :1 0
S ubl ing ua l a r t ery
s u b ment a l is
69 : 1 6
S ub me n t a l a r t e r y
s u b sca p u l ar is
7 1 :9
S u b scap u l ar a r t e r y
s u b s ca p u l a r is
71 10
su
—
r e t r o - cos t a
—
—
:
p e d is m e d ia l is
s u er fi c ia l is
p
p er ina e i 7 3 : 1 9
s u p e r fi cia l is v o l a
r e
7 1 :26
s u p e r io r
pr o f u n d a b r a c hii, Ma ca l is t er
s u per fi cia l is
k idney
of
l is
—
7 0 44
—
—
r e v e he ns
m e d ia
lis l a t er a lis 7 2 6 2
La t er a l s a cr al ar t e r y
s a cr a l is l a t e r a l is in f er ior
sa cr a l i
s l a t e r a l is su p e r ior
sa cr a l is m ed ia
7 2 :1 2
Middl e s acr a l ar t er y
s a cr a
—
ma x ill ar e s 6 9 6 1
s u p r a me t a t a r s e a
74 9
s u pr a
s a cr o - c o ccy g ea
—
—
72 6 2
in f er ior
s ca p u l ar is p os t er io r
7 0 67
ca pu l a r is p r o p r ia , Cr u ve il h i
er
or
7 0 60
s ca p u l a r is s u p e r i
7 3 42
s cr ot a l es a nt e r ior es
—
—
—
l
l
a r t er ies
p os t er ior e s 7 3 20
P os t e r ior s cr ot a l a r t e r ies
s cr ot a es
moid eae
—
m p os t er ior e s
—
7 2 47
S igmoid a r t er ies
s
s p er ma t ica d e f er e n t ia l i
—
—
:
—
72 1 2
s cr ot a
b it al is 7 0 5
S u p r a or b it al ar t e r y
s u pr a r e na l is a or t ic a
7 2 49
s up r a r e na l is
inf er ior 7 2 5 1
Inf er ior s up r a r en a l a r t e r y
s up r a r e na l is m edia
7 2 49
Middl e s up r ar enal a r t ery
s u pr ar e na l e s s u er ior e s
72 8
p
su pr a s ca u l ar is
70 60
p
su pr a or
—
s ca p u l a r is
Ant er ior
—
—
—
s e p t i n a r iu
73 39
—
—
A r t er ies
s ig
S t y l oma s t oid a r t er y
s ub cl avia
7 0 20
S ub cl a v ia n a r t e r y
s u b co n j u n ct iv a l es
70 4
—
r e n is
s a cr a
69 3 0
6 9 :6 7
—
—
—
s u p r a t ar s e a e
l
ent a e s
—
S ur a l
l
au r a es
enr a l e s
in t er n a e
—
74 1 0
73 67
a r t er ies
l a t er a l e s
m e d ia l es
—
—
7 3 :67
7 3 67
s ur a l e s
p r o f u nd ae
aur a l e s s u e r fi cia l e s
p
t a r s ea e x t er na 7
—
—
73 67
I N D EX
ARTER I A
t a r sea in t er na
ARTER I A
t h y r eoid ea inf er ior 7 0 49
nf er ior t h y r e oid a r t e r y
t h y r eo id ea
in f er ior ,
Cr u ve il hier
—
I
t a r s e a e in t e r na e
l a t er a l is
Lat er al t a r s al a r t er y
t a r s e a l a t e r a l is a nt e r ior
t ar s ea l a t e r a lis p os t e r ior
t a r s e a ma j or
t a r s e a e med ia l es
Med ia l t ar s a l a r t e r ies
t ar s e a
t h y r e o id e a in tima
t h y r e oid e a me d ia
t h y r e o id e a p r o f u nd a
6 8 58
t h y r e oid e a s u p e r ior 6 8 6 1
S up er ior t h y r e oid a r t er y
t i ia is a nt er ior
—
—
b l
t a r s ea e min o r e s
t a r se a p o s t e r ior
t emp or a l is m e d ia
M id dl e t emp or a l ar t e r y
69 :42
t e m p o r a l is m e d ia
Ant e r ior t ib ial
l
p r of unda
t ib ia l is a n t ica
7 4 zl
t ibia l is p os t er ior
74 :1 6
P os t er ior t ib ia l a r t er y
t ib ia l is p os t e r ior is 7 4 1 6
—
a nt er ior
Ant er ior de ep t emp or a l a r t e r y
t emp or al is p r of und a p os t e rior
—
b l
ll
t i ia is p o s t ica
t o n s i a r is
69 1 5
—
ca r p i a n t e r ior
t r a n sv e r sa
p i d or s a l is
ca r p i p os t er io r
ca r p i v ol a r is
7 1 25
coll i
t r a ns ver s a
P os t e r ior d eep t emp or a l a r t e r y
t en or alis s u p er fi cia l is 69 3 6
m
S
—
up er
fi cia l
t e mp or a l is
l
t e m p or a is
t em p or a l a r t e r y
a n t e r ior
s u p e r fi cia l is
s u p er fi cia l is
a r t er y
—
—
t emp or a is
3 75
.
p o s t er ior
ca r
t r a nsve r sa
t r a n sv er sa
—
t r a nsv e r s a
T r ansv er se
of ne c
a r t er y
k
t r a ns v e r s a f a ciei- 69 3 8
T r a nsv e r s e a r t e r y of f ace
t r a n s ve r s a p e r in a e i 7 3 1 9
—
t r a ns v e r s a s cap ul a e 7 0 6 0
T r a n s v e r s e a r t e r y of s ca pul a
t r a n sv e r s a l is cer v ic is 7 0 59
t r a n sv e r s a l is
h u mer i,
M a ca l is t e r
l a r is 7 2 53
T es t icu l a r ar t er y
t es t icu
—
t h or a ca l is in t e r n a
t h or a ca l is
.
70 3 4
7 1 :7
—
l a t er a l is
—
—
—
La t er a l t h or acic a r t er y
t h or acal is s up r ema 7 1 :1
igh es t t h or a cic a r t er y
t h or a c ic a e x t e r n a l ong a
t h o r a c ic a h u m e r a r ia 7 1 2
b ar ia 7 3 :1 5
t u b o o v a r ic a
72
tu
—
H
-
t h o r a c ica in t e r n a
t h or a c ica
t h o r a c ica
l on g a
l onga
t h o r a c ica
m in or
—
—
—
t y mpa n ica
t y mp a n ica
—
t h or a c ica in t e r na
—
54
6 9 46
a n t er ior
—
70 34
Ant er ior
7 0z44
t y mp a n ica ,
t y mp a n ica ,
6 9 46
t y mp anic ar t er y
Ar n o l d
Ar nol d
inf er ior 6 9 7
—
t y mp a nica
n f er ior t y mp a nic a r t e r y
t y mp a nica p os t e r ior 6 9 3 1
P os t er ior t y m p a nic a r t er y
t y mp anica s up e r ior
6 9 53
S up e r ior t y mp anic a r t e r y
ul na r is
—
I
71 2
t h or a c ic a p os t e r ior
t h o r a cica pr im a
t h or a cica s e cu n d a
t h o r a c ica s u pr e m a
t h or a c ica t er t ia
t h o r a cico a cr o m ia l is 7 1 2
71 1 0
t h or a c ico -d o r s a l is
t h or a coa cr omia l is 7 1 2
—
—
-
—
—
—
—
—
T h or acoacr omia l a r t er y
t h or a cod or s a lis 7 1 1 0
Th or a cod or s a l a r t e r y
t h y mica e 7 0:3 6
Th y mic a r t er ies
t h y mica im a , V e r s a r i 68 z58
t h y r eo id e a a cce s s or ia 6 8 58
—
—
—
—
t h y r e oid ea ima )
( Low es t t h y r eoid
Ul nar a r t e r y
umb il ica l is
73 7
Umb il ica l ar t er y
ur et h r a l is
7 3 23
U r et h r al a r t er y
—
u r e t r a l is
u t er ina
)
7 3 :1 2
—
U t erine
na
u t er i
ar t ery
a or t ic a
u t er o - ov a r ica
v a gina
a r t er y
7 3 :24
—
lis
—
Va gina l
—
—
7 2z54
7 2 54
7 3 13
a r t er y
I N D EX
3 76
ARTERY
ARTER I A
l is inf er ior
na l is s u per ior
va gi
v e l i pa l a t ini
va g i
na
t emp or al is
nf e r ior
73 10
7 3 :1 3
—
—
ve nos a e
ve r
.
micu l ar is
—
7 2 42
7 0 21
b l is
Ver t eb r a l a r t er y
7 3 :1 0
vesical is inf er ior
Inf er ior vesical ar t er y
ve s ica lis infi ma
vesical es sup er ior e s
S up er ior vesical a r t er ies
73 1 0
v e s ico va gina l is
v e s t ibu l i 9 8 :22
v er t e r a
—
—
—
-
—
—
—
Vidia na 69 6 3
Vidii 69 z6 3
vo l ar es commu ne s
—
—
—
l
ind icis r a dial is
Ra dia l v ol ar a r t er y of index
Z inn i 6 9 z7 1
6 9 40
zy g omat icoor b it alis
Zy gomat icoor b it al a r t er y
Ar t er iol a , Ar t er iol ae 6 7 9
Ar t eriol e, Ar t eriol es
ma cu l ar
c ent r a l is
r e t in ae ,
inf er ior
b r anch oi
nf er ior n a s a l br a n ch
ce nt r a l i
s r e t ina e , i
0f
96 z3 1
r et i
na e ,
inf er ior t e m por a l
ce nt r a l is
br an ch oi 9 6 :29
ce nt r a l is r e t inae , med ia l b r a n ch of
v o a r is
—
—
—
—
—
l is r e tinae super ior ma cu lar
b r anch of 96 z3 2
na sa l
cent r a l is
r e t inae
s up er ior
br anch of 96 z3 0
t e mp or a l
cent r a l is
r e tinae
supe r ior
br a nch oi
ce nt r a
inf erior
I
ar t er iol e
t empor a l
[ or
v enul e ] of r et ina
t emp or a l is r et inae s up er ior
S up e r ior t empor al a r t er iol e [ or
v enu l e ] of r et ina
Ar t er iol e, Ar t er iol es 67 9
o f in f e r ior nas a l r e tina
macul a r , inf erior 9 6 :3 3
ma cul a r , sup er ior
a sa l r e t ina
o f me d ia l n
medial , of r et ina
n as al , inf e r ior , of r et ina
nas a l , s up er ior , of r e t ina
6 1 :1 1
s t r a igh t , of k idney
na
o f s u p er ior na s a l r e t i
na
o f s u p e r ior t e mpor a l r e t i
t emp or al , inf e r ior , of r e t ina
t empor al , s up er ior , of r et in a
Ar t er y , Ar t er ies
a b d om ina l , ex t e r na l
7 3 37
a b d om in a l , s u b cu t a n eo u s
7 3 :3 9
accomp a ny i
ng,
isch ia t ic nerve
of
r et i
nae
,
—
—
a cco
mpa ny ing,
bu l ar 7 3 49
a ce t a b u l a r
72 68
of a cet a b u l um
a cr om ia l
71 2
a ce t a
—
—
—
m io -t h or acic 7 1 2
a cr omio -t h or a cic, a cr omia l
a cr o
a cr o
—
mio t h or acic,
br anch
of
br anch
d es cending
-
of
—
,
sciat ic ner ve
of
h u mer a l
a cr om io - t h or a ci
c,
br anch
of
—
,
med ia na
96 3 4
r e ct ae r enis
S t r aigh t ar t er iol es
Ar t er iol a ; [ Venul a ]
ma cul aris inf er ior
Inf er ior ma cul ar
of
k id ney
mio -t h or a cic, pect or a l
br a nches
of
'
l
[ or
l
[ or
a r t erio e
l ]
s up er ior
macular
he a r t
a d ipos e , o f k i
d ne y 6 1 :1 0
a fi e r ent , o f
gl ome m l u s
al v eol a r , ant er ior s up er ior
a l v eol a r , inf er ior
a lve ol ar , p os t er ior s uper ior
a lv e o l a r , s u e r ior - 6 9 59
p
a na s t omot ic a ma gna
7 3 :59
a n a s t omot ica ma gn a , of Qu o in
a ng ul a r
6 9 20
an ony mous
68 :57
a nony m ou s, b r ach io -ce ha l i
c- G S :57
p
a no ny m ou s , il ia c
7
a nt er ior , of cer eb r um
7 0:1 7
a nt er ior communicat ing, of cer e b r um
—
ar t e r io e
l ]
nasa lis r et inae inf er ior
Inf er ior nasal ar t er iol e
—
[
l ]
or venu e
of r et ina
lis
br a nch es
ad i
p o se , o f
venu e
nas a
th or acic
1
venu e
S upe r ior
mio -th or a cic,
oi
a cr o
—
macul ar is
a cr o
r et i
nae supe r ior
S up er ior nasal a rt er iol e [ or v enul e]
of r et ina
r et ina e medial is
Medial ar t eriol e [ or venul e ] of
r et ina
—
—
—
—
a nt er ior
inf er ior ,
b ll um
of cer e e
3 78
I N DEX
ART ERY
cir cumflex
p ost er ior ,
,
h umer us
of
.
AR TER Y
l
cr ur a l
il ia c
a ur a
,
mflex , p os t e r ior of t h igh
ci
r cu mfl e x , r a d ia l
cir cumflex , of scapul a
71 11
c ir cu
bit a l
cu b it a l
cu
—
lit or is
of cl it or is
d eep
c occyg e a l
72 1 2
coch l e a r
98 :23
coe l iac
7 2:1 6
col ic l eft
c ol ic mid dl e
col ic r igh t
c o l ic r i
ght in f er ior
c ol ic s u p er ior acce s s or y
c oll a t er a l d i it a l
7 1 50
g
co lla t er a l e x t e r na l
71 1 9
c oll a t er a l
gr e a t 7 1 :1 5
coll a t er a l mid dl e
7 1 18
c o ll a t er a l r a dia l ex t er n a l
co l l a t er a l r a d ia l inf er i
or
c oll a t er a l r a dia l
s u pe r ior
c ol l a t e r a l u l n ar
fi rst
c ol l a t e r a l u l nar
s e co nd
of c
d eep ,
d ee p ,
—
—
,
,
,
—
,
—
,
,
,
,
mmu nica t ing,
co
mmu nicat ing
br um
co
,
j
l
con j unct iva l
va
con u nct i
71 1 9
ant er ior
,
—
of
br u m
ce r e
l pa lmar
d ig it a l pr op er of h a nd
d ig it a l p r op er pl a nt ar
d ig it a l t ib ia l int er na l
d or s a l of cl it or is
d or s a l d igit a l common
d or s a l digit al of f oot
d or s al digit al of h a nd
—
cor ona r y ,
—
ma ll eol a r
7 4 22
p ost er ior
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
—
ma lle ol ar
—
d ig it a
—
—
cor o na r y ,
7l 5
d e nt a l , a nt e r ior
d en t a l , a nt e r ior su per ior
69 :6 1
d e n t a l, in f e r io r
d e nt a l , p os t e r ior
6 9 :59
d e n t al , su pe r ior , ol d
dia phr a gma t ic 7 2 7
d ia ph r a gma t ic, inf er ior
72:7
d ia p h r a gma t ic, s u pe r ior 7 1 : 58
d ig it a l . c oll a t er a l pl a nt ar
d ig it a l , common, of f o ot
dig it a l , comm on pa l ma r
d igit a l , common vo l ar
7 l z49
d ig it a l , ex t er na l , of f oot
—
—
70 2
7 0:3
or
, p ost er i
cor ona r y , a nt er ior
68 52
ng, pos t e r ior
co r o na r y , d escend i
c o r on a r y , i
n f e r ior , o f l owe r l ip
cor o n a r y , int er na l
68 52
cor on ar y , l ef t of h ea r t
c or o na r y , l e f t , o f s t oma ch
c o r on a r y , of
l ower l ip
,
7 1 z1 5
—
a nt er ior , o f ce r e
p os t er ior
—
—
,
,
b r a chium
ce r e b r u m
clit or is
—
—
,
,
of
l
—
,
,
of
d e t o id
,
—
7 1 :3 6
s e cond
—
—
,
,
of
d eep , of
d eep, of penis
de ep , of t h igh
d eep , of t ong ue
d ef er ent ial
7 3 :1 1
—
,
b r a nch
cy s t ic
,
,
mus cu l o -ar t icu l ar
cr u r a ]
,
,
,
,
la t er a l
p os t er ior , o f h ear t
c or onar y , r igh t , of h ear t
c o r o n ar y , r i
gh t , o f s t omach
c or o na r y , s u per i
or
c or on a r y , of u p per l i
p
7
o f cor pu s call os u m
cav er nosu m
of
cl it or is
o f cor pu s
c o r o nar y ,
—
d or s al ,
d or s a l ,
d or s al ,
of
f oot
o f ha l l u x
74 zl 3
of nose
7 0:1 3
d or sa l , of pe nis
d or sa l , r a d ia l , o f index fi nger
d or s al , r a d ia l , of poll ex
7 l z3 0
d or s al , of t ongu e
d or sa l , u l na r , o f p oll ex
7 I :3 O
d u od e n al 7 2 3 8
—
—
—
—
—
d u od e na l , inf er ior
72 3 8
e fi e r e n t , of
glo mer u l u s
—
‘
o i c or pu s ca v er nosu
m b r y onic, of l ens
e m u l ge nt
7 2 50
of
e p ig a s t r ic
e
m of p en is
cav e r nosu m of u r e t h r a
cor p us
—
—
73 3 2
epi
g a s t r ic,
l
cos t a l
co s t a l
7 1 59
, fi r st
s u p er ior
,
c
7 3 35
cr e mas t er i
o f cr e s t of pu b is
d G S 65
c o-t h yr oi
cr i
cos t a
—
—
—
d eep
e piga s t r ic, d ee p, cr ema st er i
br a nch
c
of
7 3 z3 5
e pi a s t r i
c , d ee p , f uni
cu l a r b r a nch o f
g
:3 5
e p iga s t r ic , d e ep
t est icu l ar b r a nch o f
:3 5
—
.
I N D EX
ARTERY
e pi
ga s t r ic, e x t er na l 7 3 3 7
e is gas t r ic, e x t er na l in f e r ior
p
e pigas t r ic, inf er ior
73 3 2
e igast r ic , in f e r ior d ee
p
p
e pi a s t r ic , in t e r na l
73 32
g
e p igas t r ic, s u pe r fi cial
73 39
epi
ga s t r ic , s u p er fi cia l , il ia c b r anch
3 79
.
ARTER Y
high es t , of knee
h um e r a l 7 1 1 4
h u mer a l , d eep
hu me r a l , gr ea t er cir cum fl ex
7
h u me r a l , l e s s er cir c u m fl e x
h umer a l , t r a nsv er s e 7 0 6 0
h y al oid 9 6 3 9
h y oid
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
of
—
e pigast r ic , s up er ior
h y p ogas t r ic
ep is cl er a
h yp oga s t r ic,
il eac 7 2 z40
—
l 70 4
e t h moid a l a nt e r ior
e t h moid a l p os t er ior
f a cia l 68 6 0
f a cia l 6 9 1 3
f a cia l a nt e r io r
f ac ia l d e ep
f a cia l p os t e r ior 6 9 :3 8
f a cia l t r a ns ve r s e 6 9 3 8
F a llopia n 7 3 1 2
f emor a l
f e mor a l c o mm on
f e mor a l d e e p
f e mor a l su p erfi cial 7 3 3 8
—
Hea l
,
—
,
,
—
,
—
,
—
,
,
—
,
7 0:12
f u nicu l ar
7 2 53
ga st r ic, l ef t
ga st r ic, l e f t in f e r ior
g a s t r ic, l e f t s u p er ior
g a s t r ic, r igh t
—
—
g a s t r ic ,
ga s t r ic,
—
—
r igh t
inf er ior
r igh t
s u pe r i
or
g ast r ic, sh or t
ga st r oduod ena
ga s t r oepip oic,
l
7 2:20
—
7 2 25
l ef t
r igh t
—
l
ga s t r oepipl oic
Gl 8
o f gl om e r u l u s
glu t ea l 7 3 1
g l ut ea l inf er ior
is ch ia dic b r anch
gl u t ea l inf e r ior
,
—
—
z
—
—
—
—
—
,
,
,
of
gl u t e al , su pe r ior
7 l z3 1
gr ea t , o f p ol l e x
h a emor r h oid a l , ex t er na l 73 1 8
h a emor r h oid a l , inf er ior 7 3 : 1 8
h a emor r h oid a l , int er n a l 7 2:48
—
,
—
—
—
—
—
1
—
h a emor r h oid a l ,
h a e mor r h oid a l ,
h aemor r h oid al ,
l
midd l e
—
r e ct a
l
—
7 3 :1 6
1
73 1 8
1
sup er ior
1
h e icine, of
h e pat ic 7 2 1 9
[
h epa t ic,
—
—
—
—
h epa t ic,
h ep a t ic ,
—
—
p enis
h ep a t ic,
il e ocolic 7 2:41
il ia c
iliac, a no n y mou s
il ia c, a n t e r ior
il iac, comm on
il iac, a ur a l
ilia c, d ee p cir cumfl e x
il ia c, ex t er nal
il ia c, int e r n a l
il iac, pos t e r ior
il iac, pr im it ive
il iac, s m a l l
il iac, s u p e r fi cia l cir cumfl ex
il iol umb ar 7 2 58
inf er ior , d e e p , of b r a ch iu m 7 l z20
inf er ior , e x t e r na l , of k n ee
inf er io r , int er na l , of kn e e
inf r a co st a l 7O 44
inf r a or b it al
infr a or b it a l , a nt er ior , d e n t a l b r anch e s
0f
infr as ca pu l a r
:9
inguina l 73 44
innomin a t e 68 57
insu l ar 7 0 1 9
int er cos t a l 7 1 :59
int er cos t a l , a nt er ior 7 0 45
int er cos t a l fi r s t 7 0 6 3
int er cos t a l , h igh est
int er co s t a l , pos t e r ior i 7 1 6 0
int er cos t a l , s u per ior 7 0 6 3
int er cos t a l , su per ior , p r o pe r
int er l ob ar , of kidney
int er l ob ul a r , of kidney
int er me t a ca r p a l , d or sa l 7 1 :29
int er me t ac a r pa l , p al m er 7 1 3 4
int er me t a c a r p a l , v ol ar
71 34
int er me t a t ar sa l , d or s a l 74 1 3
int er me t a t ar s a l , p l an t ar 7 4 3 3
in t er os se ou s , acces s or y 7 l :43
inte r os s e ous , a n t er ior 7 1 :42
int er os s e ou s, a nt er io r p a l mar
int er os s e ou s , a nt er ior , v o l a r
int er oss e ou s, common 7 1 :3 9
int er os s e ou s , d or sa l , o f f oot
—
—
—
divis io n o f
7 2:21
co mm on
d e sce n d ing d iv is ion o f
t
r o -d uod e n a l b r a nch
a
s
g
a sce nd ing
1
—
—
—
of
—
h ep a t ic, pr op e r
73 9
—
—
,
fi b u la r
f r ont al
7 2 56
obl it er a t e d
I N D EX
3 80
ARTER Y
int e r o s se ou s , d or sa l ,
int er os s eous, dor s a l ,
int er os se ous ,
ex
ARTERY
ma ll eol ar ,
ma ll eol a r
h an d
of
f or e ar m
of
t e r na l,
o
ma ll eol a r
—
,
mall eol ar ,
ma lleol ar
f or e ar m
of
,
me t a ca r p a l
int e r o ss e ou s,
met acar pa l
int er os se ou s,
mal l eol ar ,
mall eol a r ,
d or sa l
,
int e r na l
,
int e r os s e ous , met aca r p a l , v e l ar 7 1 3 4
int er os s e ou s ,
me t a r t a r sa l , d or sa l
—
—
—
,
ma lleol ar ,
f or ear m
f
int er na l 7
cor o na r y , ex t er n a l
e x t e r na l
74 4
int er na l 7 4 5
l a t er al ant erior
l a t e r a l p ost er ior
l a t e r a l pos t e r io r
m e d ia l ant er ior
me d ia l p ost er ior
a n t er i
or
,
malleol a r
int er na l ,
int e r o ss e ou s ,
.
ma mma r y , e x t e r na l
ma mmar y , e x t e r na l
mammary , in t er nal
ma mma r y in t er na l ,
a
,
bdomin a l br anch
of
p a l ma r
74 3 3
p l a nt a r
p er f or a t in g 7 1 3 5
pos t e r ior , o f for ear m
in t e r o s s e ou s ,
int e r o ss e ou s ,
in t e r o s se ou s ,
int er os se ou s ,
of
int e r o s s e ou s, r ecu r r e n t ,
f o r e ar m 7 1 41
in t e r oss e ou s , s u per ficia l
p os t er ior ,
.
of
f or ea r m
int er os se ou s, v el ar
in t e r o s s e ou s , v ol ar 7 1 :34
in t e r o s s e ou s , v ol ar , o f f or e a r m
68 56
in t e r v e n t r icu l ar , an t e r io r
68 53
in t er v en t r icu l ar , po s t e r io r
int e s t in a l 7 2 37
int e s t in a l , il ia c
70 19
ins u l a r
is chia d ic 7 3 4
jejuna l 7 2 3 9
of kid ne y
l ab ial , ant erior , of v ulv a
l a bia l, inf e r ior , of mouth
l ab ia l , p os t e r ior , of v u lv a
l a b ial , s upe r ior , of mouth
l a ch r y m a l 6 9 7 2
l a ch r y m a l , a cce s s or y 6 9 7 2
l acr imal 6 9 7 2
l ar yngea l , inf erior
l a r y n ge a l , post er ior 7 0:50
l a r yn g ea l , s uper ior
l at er al inf er ior , of kn ee
l at e r a l su p er ior , of k nee
of l ig am ent , r ound, of ut e r us
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
l
l
I
l
l
I
—
—
—
—
lingu al
,
,
,
a nt er ior
b r a n ch e s
of
mammar y
in t er nal ,
m e d ias t ina l
m e dia s t inal
of
in t er na l , t h ym ic
,
ma mma r y , l a t e r al 7
ma mma r y , pos t er ior ex t e m al
—
ma nd ibu la r
6 9 47
—
masset er ic
69 54
—
ma st oid 69
max ill ar y , ex
—
32
max illa r y inf er ior
max ill ar y
max ill ar y
l
t e r na
69 :1 3
69 47
—
—
,
int er nal
int e r na l , dee p
,
br a nch of 69 z45
,
ex
t er n a l
l
a u r icu a r
—
max ill ar y in t er na l , ma sse t er ic
0f
—
max ill ar y , int e r na l t ympa n ic
,
0f
—
b r anch
6 9 z54
b r anch
6 9 z46
medial inf er ior ,
of
k nee
medial s up er ior , of
median 7 1 :4 3
media n of f or e a r m
knee
—
,
medias t ina l
7 1 55
mediast inal , ant e rior 7 0 3 5
me dias t in a l , p ost er ior 7 1 57
meningea l , a c ces s or y 69 51
meningeal , ant er ior
me ningea l , g r e a t
meningeal , mid d l e 6 9 50
meningea l , m idd l e , t y mpa n ic
—
—
—
—
—
0f
—
6 9 z53
—
7 4 :4
br a nch e s
Oi
l
mesar iac, inf er ior
mes ar iac , su p e r ior
—
b r a nch
7
—
—
7 0 25
ment al
l
a nt er ior
,
of
meningea l , p os t er ior
—
l umb ar
ma ll e ol a r
ma ll e ol a r
ma mma r y
in t er n a l ,
meningeal , post erior
l ingu a l , d e ep
l umb a r
lu mba r , fi f t h 7
l umb ar , l owest
s a cr a
,
b r a nch es
f or ear m
—
I
ma mma r y
—
r e cur r ent ,
ep i
ga s t r ic
of
—
in t er osse ous,
l
mammar y , int er na l ,
—
72:45
7 2:3 6
mesent er ic, inf erior
mesent er ic, s uper ior
br anch
3 82
I N D EX
ART ERY
p l a nt a r
l
r a d ia l
d e ep
digit a l
,
pl an t a r ,
p a nt a r , d ig it a
p a nt ar , d igit a
.
r ad i
a
l
l colla t er a l
l
l co mm on 7
p la nt a r d ig it a l m e t a t a r s a l
p l a n t a r e x t e r na l 7 4 3 1
p l a n t a r in t e r n a l 74 28
p l a nt a r l a t e r a l
p l a nt a r med ia l
p op l it ea l 7 3 63
po pl it ea ] e x t er n a ] su per ior
b r a n ch oi 7
p opl it e a ] int er na l su p e r ior
b r a nch o i 7 3 65
p os t er ior of cer eb r um
,
of
r a n in e
—
,
s u p er
,
ior
—
7 1 :1 7
in d ex fi n g e r
k idn ey
of
69 1 2
—
r a n in e , o l d
,
l
r e ct a l
r e ct a l
r ect a l
r e ct a
—
,
—
,
,
,
—
l
a r t icu a r
,
—
ar
,
t icu
l ar
73 1 8
—
inf e r ior
mid d l e 7
,
s u p e r ior
,
r ecu r r en t , ant er ior t ib ia l
r e cu r r en t , in t e r os s e ou s
7 1 41
r ecu r r e n t , of k n e e
,
—
—
r e cu r r e n t ,
p os t e r ior t ib ial
r a d ia l
7 1 :23
r a d ia l , p o s t er io r
r ecur r ent
u nar
r e cu r r en t ,
r e cu r r e nt ,
z
—
co
r a d ia t e ,
,
,
ll at er a l
,
ART E RY
,
p os t er ior , communica t ing , of cer e
b rum
l
r e na l
—
l
,
r ena
b ll um
of
inf er ior ,
p os t er ior ,
cer e e
b r a n ch e s o f
o f r e t in a
ce nt r a l
69 7 1
r e t r o c os t a l
7 0 44
nu t r ie n t
,
:
—
,
l a t er a l
p os t er ior ,
p os t e r o
o f n o s e a n d s ep t u
,
pe r ica r d ia
-
l
m
l l a t er al
s a cr a l mid d l e
—
l
p t e r yg oid
th um
of
l
s ca p u l a r
sca p u l a r
s ca p u l ar
s ca p u l ar
s ca p u l a r
s ca p u l a r
s ca p u l ar
sca p u l a r
of
ar
m
l
p t er y goid ca n a , of Vidius
er
o
t
p
yg pa l a t ine 6 9 6 2
of
—
b
p u ic
o f p u ic
pu d e n d a
p u d e nd a
b
l
l
p u d end a l
p u d ic,
pu dic ,
p u d ic
,
co
mmon
l
int er na l
ex
t er n a
—
,
co
p u d ic ,
pu d ic ,
p u d ic,
7 3 :1 7
t er n a
p ul mona r y
p u l m on a r y ,
pu l mo na r y ,
lu na r
d ee p 7 3 :41
in f er ior
—
,
s u p er fi cia l
,
7 3 :41
—
—
—
—
l
—
,
—
mmon 6 8 40
inn e r ma r g in s
co
S p er
mat ic, int er n al
s p er
ma t ic ,
—
l
—
of
se
mi
6 8 z3 8
l
S p h e n o -s
r igh t
mil un ar
se
l
v a ves
pin ou s
—
s p inal , a n t e r ior
l
s pina l
s pi
na
a n t er ior
,
pos t er ior
7 0 23
—
,
—
st e
s
,
t e r n o -cl e id o -ma s t o id
s t r ai
g ht ,
e
71 1 9
S Q 21
m a s t oid , in f er ior
—
l
—
70 39
—
m ocl eidomast oid
s t er n o - c e id o -
,
—
oi
—
,
,
p or t ion
6 9 66
69 50
—
p os t e r ior
s p in o u s
69 50
sp l e nic
72 3 1
s t er n a l ,
p os t er ior
—
.
oi
7 2 52
—
t es t icu l a r
s ph enop a a t i
ne
l e ft
,
,
—
,
—
—
,
7 0 59
—
—
py l or ic 7 2 20
qu a dr ice ps of f emu r
r a d ia l
7 1 i22
r ad i
a l a ccess or y
a cce s sor y
d e ep
r a d ia l
7 1 19
r a d ial colla t er al
x ter nal
coll a t e r a l
r a d ia l
in f e r ior
r a d ia l coll a t er a l
,
p os t e r ior
—
v a v e s of
p u l m o na r y ,
p u lmon a r y ,
p ul mon a r y ,
,
71 9
—
p os t e rior 7 3 20
o f s e p t u m o f n o se
s igmoid
72 47
s p er ma t ic
7 2 52
s p e r ma t ic, d e f er e n t ia l
73 1 1
s p er ma t ic, ex t e r na l
73 3 5
s cr ot a
,
,
in f er ior
—
-
mm on
l
e x t e r na l
e x t e r na l
e x t er n a l
in t e r n a l
ex
7 3 41
—
,
,
d or s a
70 69
p os t er ior
or
7 0 67
, p os t e r i
s u p e r ior
7 0 60
,
70 60
, t r a n sver s e
s cia t ic
73 4
s cr ot al , a nt e r ior
cr es t
,
,
l
d or s a l
dor sa l
s ca pu a r ,
6 9 57
—
72 1 2
7 1 :1 1
—
b
su per ior ,
7 2 :1 2
—
s a cr o - coccy gea 1
—
p r incip a ,
pr of u nd a ,
,
,
7 1 41
p os t e cu r r e nt
p r im it iv e 6 8 59
-r
—
r e v e h e nt
s acr a
7 1 55
—
-
l
of
k id ne y
mas t oid
st y o
—
,
~
69 3 0
su
—
pe r ior
69 23
I N DEX
ART E RY
s t y l o m a s t oid
b r a n ch
t y mp a nic
-
,
ART E RY
t ar sal , media l 7 4 :1 0
t a r s a l , p os t er ior
t ar s a l , s m a ll 7
t e mp or a l , a n t e r ior
69 :40
of
b clavian 7 0 20
su b c on j u n c t iv a l
70 4
s u b co n j u n ct iv a l e p is cl er a l b r a n ch e s
su
—
—
—
—
,
su
b conj u nct iv a l
l
l b r a n ch e s
sc er a
,
b cos t a l 7 0 44
su b cu t a n e ou s a b d om in a l
73 39
s u bl ing u a l
69 1 0
s ub me nt a l
69 1 6
s u b s ca p u l a r
71 9
s u b s ca p u l a r
71 1 0
s u b sca p u l a r
d e s c e ndin g b r a n ch
su
—
of
t e mpo r a l ,
oi
a n t er ior
s u p e r ior
l d e ep ant er ior
6 9 55
t empo r al d eep p os t e r ior
t emp or a l mid d l e
t e m p or a l m id d l e
t emp or a l s up er fi cial
69 3 6
t e mp or a l s u p er fi cial a nt e r io r
t e m p or a l s u per fi cia l p os t e r ior
6 9 43
t emp or a l
z y om a t ico or
s u p e r fi cia l
g
bit a l b r a nch of 69 z40
t es t icu l a r
7 2 52
t es t icu l a r
7 2:53
t h or a c ic d or s a l
t emp or a
,
,
,
,
—
,
—
,
—
—
,
,
—
,
—
,
—
,
,
-
—
,
,
—
,
3 83
.
—
of
—
—
b s ca p u l ar long b r a n c h o i
br a n c h
s u bs cap u l a r
p os t e r io r
su
,
su
,
,
b s ca pu l a r
ficia l
s u p e r fi cia l
s u p e r fi cia l
s u p e r fi c ia l
s u p er
b r a n ch
t h or a c ic
,
of
t h o r a c ic , fi r s t
oi
t h o r a cic , g r e a t
t h or a cic, h igh es t
kn e e
m ed ia l o f f oot
of
,
,
,
p e r in e u m
v o l ar
7 1 26
b ell um
d e e p o f br a ch iu m 7 l zl 9
d e e p o f kn e e
e x t e r na l o f k n e e
in t er na l o f k n e e 7 3 6 5
pr o f u nd a d e ep b r an ch o f
supe r ior , of cer e
s u p e r io r ,
s u per ior ,
s u p e r ior
—
,
,
,
s u p e r io r
,
s u p e r ior
,
—
su p e r ior ,
,
m u s cu l a r
t h or a c ic, in f er ior
—
t h or a cic , in t e r n a
l
b r a nch
t h or acic ,
t h or a cic ,
71 7
70 3 4
—
l a t er al
l e s ser 7
l ong 7
long e x t e r na l
—
—
—
,
7 1 :1 0
t h or a c ic , p os t e r ior
t h or a c ic , s econ d
t h or a cic ,
s h or
t h o r a cic ,
s
t h o r a c ic ,
s u pe r ior
t h or a c ic,
su pr e me
t
m a ll er
7 1 :1
—
t h or a cic , t hir d
0f
p m a x ill ar y
su pr a m a x ill a r y
su
:
,
p r o f u nda ,
l
t h or a c ic ,
—
,
t h or a c ic , h u m e r a
t h or a cic,
of
,
7 1 :1
—
ra
t h or a c ic o
6 9 59
69 61
—
—
—
:
—
,
a cr o
mial
—
,
—
,
—
,
—
:
—
,
71 2
71 1 0
—
—
—
t h y mic
—
70 36
t h y mu s gl an d
t h y r epid , inf er ior
th y r eoid , l ow es t
of
,
t h y r eoid , s up er ior
t h y r o id , a cce ss or y
,
t h y r o id , d e e p
,
t h y r oid , in f e r ior
—
—
,
—
l
t h or a coacr omia l 7 1 2
t h or acod or s a l 7 1 1 0
o f t h u mb
t h or a cico - d o r s a
b it al 7 0 5
7 2 49
a or t ic
s u pr a r e n a l
7 2 51
s u p r a r e na l inf er ior
7 2 49
s up r a r ena l middl e
72 8
s u p e r ior
s u pr a r e n a l
7 0 60
s u pr a s ca p u l a r
74 1 0
s u pr a t a r sa l in t er n a l
sur al
7
su r a l d e e p
la t er al
su r a l
m e dia l
sur a l
7 3 67
s u p e r fi c ia l
s ur a l
o f S y l v ia n f oss a
t ar s a l a n t e r ior l a t er a l 7
t ar s a l e x t e r n a l
su p r aor
-
6 8 :6 1
—
7 0 49
—
t h y r o id , in f e r io r ,
6 8 58
—
of
Cr u v e ilhie r
l a r y ngea l
t h y r oid , in f er ior ,
68 6 5
b r a n ch of
—
—
,
,
t a r s a l , gr ea t er
t a r s a l , in t er n a l
t a r s a l , l a t er a l
74 1 1
t a r s a l , l a t er a l , a n t e r ior
7
t a r s a l , l a t er a l po s t e r io r
t h y r o id , lo w e s t
t h y r oid , m idd l e
t h y r oid ,
su p e r ior
t h y r o id ,
s u p e r ior
—
—
,
t a r sa
l l e s se r
,
b l
t ib ia l
t i ia
,
,
an t er ior
n u t r ie nt
—
,
68 6 1
l a r y nge a l b r a n ch
of
I N D EX
3 84
ART E RY
t ib ia l p os t e r ior
t ib ia l
p os t e r ior
b r a n ch o f
ART I CULAT I O
l l
v u va
,
,
t o ng u e
of
t o ngu e , d e e p
of
t o n gu e , d or sa
lla r
t o ns i
in t er n a
,
l
m a lle ol a r
7 4 z25
—
of
of
t r a ns v er s e ,
c e r v ic a
t r a ns v er se ,
of
t r a ns v er s e ,
pa
a n t er ior
,
,
d or s a l
,
p o s t er ior
,
vo a r
ma t icoor b it al
l
—
—
7 0 67
—
of
a cr o
M a ca l is t e r
7
k
of nec
t r an sv e r se,
l
a st r aga lo
a s t r a ga l o
l
s ca p h o id ea
—
43 40
4 1 :5
l
a r t icu a t ion
l a t e r a l is
—
41 5
—
-
—
—
l
u ln a r
ca r pa l
p os t e r ior
u l nar c oll a t e r a l inf er ior
u l na r
coll a t e r a l in t e r n a l
ul na r coll a t er a l sup er ior
u mb il ical
73 7
Ca l can e ocu b oid
l
a r t icu at ion
c a p it is
,
m
ca p it ul or u m
ca p it u l or u
c os t a l i
u
cos t ar u
Ar t icul a t ion s
car pi in f e r i
or
c a r p i prim a
,
—
7 3 23
c a r pi s e c u n
7 3 :1 2
a or t ic
l br a nch
4 3 41
—
-
u na r
cer v ico -v a g in a
—
-
—
u t er in e ,
-
At l a nt oep is t r op h ic
-
—
,
-
p r op r ia
41 1
At l ant ooccip it al ar t icul a t ion
a t l a n t o o d o nt oid e a
41 5
b r a c h io -ca r p ea 42 9
b r a ch io r a d ia l is 41 64
b r a ch io u l n a r is 41 6 3
ca l ca n eocu b oid ea
4 3 50
—
,
-
43 41
—
—
—
,
l
ca l c a n e a
ca l ca n e o
a t l a nt ooccip it al is
—
,
—
a t a n t o - e p is t r o p hic a
—
,
41 :45
—
—
—
,
-
a t l a nt oep is t r oph ica
p e r in e u m
t r a ns v er se, of s ca pu l a
t u b o ov ar ia n 7 2 54
t y mp a n ic 69 6 9
t y mp a nic, a nt er ior
6 9 46
6 9 :7
o f t y mp a n ic ca v it y
69 7
t y m pa nic, inf e r ior
t y mp a nic , p os t er ior
69 3 1
6 9 53
t y mp an ic, s u p er ior
-
mio S p in a l is
a s t r a g a o c a ca n ea
of
t r a ns v er s e ,
u t e r in e ,
69 40
—
—
l
f ace
of h u m e r u s ,
t r a n sv e r s e ,
—
Zinn
—
t r a nsv e r se ,
car
t r a ns v e r s e ,
ut er ine
7 3 :21
Ar t h r od ia 4 0:1 5
Ar t h r od ia
Ar t icul a t io, Ar t icu l a t ion es 4 0: 12
Ar t icul at ion, Ar t icu l a t ions
41 45
a cr om ia l is
41 45
a cr o m ia l is a cc id e nt a l is
4 1 :4 5
a cr omiocl a v icu l a r is
A cr omiocl av icu l ar ar t icul a t ion
69 1 5
—
—
,
—
zy g o
l
l
ca r p a l
ca r p a l
ca r p a l
u r e t h r al
p os t er io r
—
t r a n s ve r se ,
—
.
3
m 4 1 13
—
l it t l e
of
h ea d s of
b
ri s
da
car pi s u
oi
m
p e r ior
ca r pi s u per ior ,
y r t l 42 9
ca r p ome t a ca r p e ae
4 2 25
Ca r p ome t a car p a l a r t icul a t ions
ca r p ome t a ca r p ea p oll icis
4 2 29
Ca r p ome t acar p al
a r t icul a t ion
t h umb
C h op ar t i 43 47
coch l ea r is
4 0:1 9
H
—
—
of u t er u s
o f v a gin a
—
v a ginal
l
v a g ina l
v a g in a
,
in f e r ior
,
s u p e r ior
7 3 :1 0
—
—
73 1 3
—
o f va s
de f e r e ns
v e n ou s
74 3 7
v er m ic u l a r
7 2 42
o f v e r m if or m a ppe n d ix
v er t eb r al
7 0 21
—
Coch l e ar ar t icu l at ion
comp osit a
4 0:1 4 2 :
Comp os it e a r t icu l a t ion
cos t o st er n a l es
41 25
cos t ot r a n sv e r sar ia e
4 1 17
Cos t ot r ans v er s e a r t icul at ions
cos t ove r t e b r al es
4 1 12
Cos t over t eb r al a r t icul a t ions
—
—
—
-
—
l
v e sica l
inf er ior 7 3 1 0
,
u p er ior
, s
v e s ico -v a gin a l
73 1 3
v esica
—
—
—
9 8 22
b l
v e s t ib u l a r b u lb
ve st i u ar
of
Vidia n
—
—
—
o f v a gina
c ox a e
6 9 :6 3
l com mon
v ol a r digit al common
vol a r d igit a l pr oper
r a d ia l
of ind e x
v ol ar
vu lva l a n t e r ior
v o ar
—
c ox
,
Ar t icul at ion of h ip
o f e m o r a l is , B u is s o n
-
m a n d ibu l ar is
,
,
cr a n io -
,
,
cr a nio -v er t e
,
,
,
fi nger
br a l is
cr icoa r y t a en oid e a
—
—
Cr icoar y t aenoid
~
—
42 6 3
41 3 5
41 :1
58 59
l
a r t icu a t ion
of
3 86
I ND EX
.
ART I CULAT I O
ART I CULAT I ON
t ar s omet a t ar se ae
44 6
—
t ar s o
-
l
n a v ic u a r is
—
l
T a r s om e t a t a r s al
a r t icu a t ions
43 52
—
ll a r is
l
a r t icu a t ion
T r och oid a
l
l
—
:
—
:
—
,
—
-
—
-
—
-
—
,
-
-
-
—
—
-
—
-
-
ia l 41 5
a t l a nt oe p is t r op h ic
41 :5
a t l a n t o e p is t r op h ic , l a t e r a l
41 5
a t l an t ooccip it a1 -4 1 1
a t l a n t o o d on t o id
41 5
a t lo a x ia l
41 :5
o f a u d it or y os s icl e s
9 9 : 59
a t l a nt o -ax
—
—
-
—
-
—
—
—
b a ll [ of G e r m a n a n a t om is t s ]
b a ll a nd s ock e t
o f b o nes of f oot
br ach io ca r p a l
9
br a ch io r a d ia l 41 64
br a c h io u l na r 41 63
ca l ca n e o a s t r a ga l oid
43 41
ca l ca ne ocu b oid
43 50
ca r p a l fi r s t
42 9
ca r p a l
inf er ior
ca r p a l
s e c o nd
ca r p a l su p e r ior
,
-
-
~
-
—
-
—
—
:
—
,
,
,
,
met a car p al
ca r p o
42:25
—
m e t a car p a l , fi r s t
met aca r p al ,
c h on d r o- s t e r n a
l
—
—
C h op a r t 43 z47
4 0:1 9
coch l ea r
40 1 9
coch l e a r t h r os is
-
—
'
—
mpou n d
l
c on d y l o id
4 0:1 4
40:1 4
—
c on d y a r t h r o s is
—
58 40
—
b it a l 41 62
c u b it o r a d ia l in f e r ior
c u b it o r a d ia l s u e r ior
p
cune onav icul a r
43 52
of d ig it s of f o o t
—
—
—
4O 20
l
s t e r na l
—
c os t o -
—
—
,
41 :65
—
of
d igit s of h a nd
of
b w
ell ip s oid a l
4 0 20
e p hi
p pia l 40 22
f e m or a l 42 63
el o
—
—
—
f e m o r o t ib io pa t e ll a r
o f fi n ge r s
fi r s t , of f oot
-
-
—
4 3 :3
of
f oot
of h a nd
o f h ea d
h e ad s o f r ib s
of h ip
of hi
p , c o t y l oid l iga m e nt o f
of h ip , gl en oid l ip of
4 2z6 5
h um e r or a d ia l 41 :6 4
h ume r oul nar 4 1 63
of h u mer us
of h ume r us , gl e n oid l ip of
il e o s a c r a l 42 54
in cu d oma ll e ol a r
99 6 0
incu d os t a p e d ia l 9 9 6 1
of
—
—
—
-
-
—
—
m a ll e u s
of
in cu s
a nd
of
incu s
a nd st a p e s
int er car p al
—
9 9 :6 O
—
4 2 :1 0
int e r ch ond r a l ,
b
of r i s
int er cos t a l 41 3 4
int er met a ca r p a l 42 3 1
in t e r m e t a t a r sa l- 44 1 1
in t e r ph a l a n g ea l o f fing er s
in t er p h a l a ng e a l o f t oe s
int er t a r s a l 4 3 3 9
of kn e e
of l it t l e h ead s of r ib s
—
—
,
42 29
b
—
mand ib ul ar
4 1 35
—
m a x ill a r y 41 3 5
m e dio t ar s a l 43 47
o f m et a c a r a l bo ne s
p
m et a ca r po -car pa l 42 25
—
-
—
—
met a car p oph a l a ngeal
41 1 3
bon es
me t at ar s oph al angeal
41 25
na vicu l o -c u ne if o r m
4O 20
co st o -ce n t r a
-
42 4
,
t h um
41 25
of
ca r p o
co
la t er a l
,
,
—
58 40
—
-
be r cu l i cos t a e
A r t icu l at ion Ar t icul at ions 4 0:1 2
a cr o m ia l
4l 45
a cr omia l
a ccid e n t a l
41 45
a c r omiocl avicu l a r
4 1 :45
a c r om io s p in a l
41 45
a n kl e
a s t r a ga l o ca l ca n e a l
43 41
a s t r a ga l o ca l c a n e a l
43 41
p r o p er
a s t r a g a l o c a l c a n eo s c a p h o id
4 3 40
a s t r a g a l o n av icu l a r
43 48
a s t r a g a l o s ca p h o id
43 4 8
a s t r a a l o sca h ol d
c a lc a n e o c u b o i
d
g
p
mp osit e
c r ic o - t h y r o id
cu
tu
co
58 4 0
cr ic o -t h y r oid ,
a r t icu a t ion
58 5 9
—
cr icot h y r eoid
—
t r oc h o id e s
of
—
cr icoar y t aen oid
43 :25
—
42 6 3
—
-
b
b
o
p
—
-
t i io -fi b u l a r is in f e r ior
t i io - fi b u l a r is su p er ior
t r och oid ea
ca r
—
,
t ib iofi b u l ar is
-
b r al 4 1 12
cox o f e m o r a l o f B u is s on
cr a nio ma n dib u l a r
41 3 5
41 1
cr a n io v e r t e b r a l
cos t ove r t e
-
t e mp or o - ma x i
Tibiofi b u l a r
41 1 7
cos t ot r ansv er s e
of
me t a t a r s a l
—
—
—
42 3 7
44 :1 1
43 52
I N DEX
ART I CULAT I O N
41 1
oc cip it a l
occ i it o a t l a n t a l
41 1
p
41 :1
o ccip it o a t l oid
of oss icl e s of h e a r ing
p e t r o o c c ip it a l 3 5 27
p h a l a ng e a l 42 42
of pis if or m b o ne
ant e r o -
i
s o -c u ne if or m
p
p iv o t
o f pu b is
l
b od y
inn e r
r a d ioca r p a
l
l
-
42 4
s acr oi ia c
4 1 :6 5
—
41 6 5
—
403 48
4 2 54
—
l
m
l
41 :45
—
f
se co n d , o f
s h ou
mp l e
l d er
oot
At l a s
a r t ic u a r
z
z
of
su r f a c e
—
3 8 z7 0
At l as
28 z56
co n d y l o id f oss a e o f
d ent a l f ov ea of
d e n t a t e p r oce s s o f
in f er ior a r t ic u l ar f a ce t s o f 28 z57
in f er ior a r t icu l ar f o s s a e o i
inf e r ior a r t icu l ar s u r f ace s of
od o n t o id p r oces s o f
28 z56
s u p er ior a r t icu l a r f a ce t s o f
s u p e r ior a r t icu l a r f o s s a e o f
sup er ior a r t icu l a r f ov eae of
n u se s o f
28 z56
s u pe r ior a r t icu l a r s i
—
l
4 0:1 6
40 1 9
s p h e r oid a
—
—
l
l
4 1 52
4 1 z25
s t e rn oc av icu a r
s t e r n ocos t a
l
—
—
—
t a l oca l ca n e a l 43 4 1
43 40
t a l e ca l ca ne a ] , a n t er io r
43 41
t a l c ca l c a n e a ] p o s t e r ior
t a l oca l can e ona v icul a r 43 40
—
-
—
-
—
—
,
—
l ocr ur a l 43 29
43 48
t a l onavicu l a r
t a l o t a r s a l 43 40
t a r s a l t r a n s v e r s e o f Ch o p a r t
t a r s o ca l ca n e a l 4 3 50
43 29
t a r so cr u r a l
44 :6
t ar s omet a t a r s a l
43 52
t a r so n a v ic u l a r
41 3 5
t e m p or o m a n dib u l a r
41 3 5
t e m p or o m a x ill a r y
ta
—
—
-
—
—
,
,
-
'
—
43 z4i
—
-
—
—
-
—
-
—
-
—
t ib iofi b ul a r
43 21
—
-
fi b u l ar , p r ox im a l
fi b u l a r , s u p er ior
-
—
—
t ar s a
l
of
t r ansv e r se,
t r och oida
l
—
t ar s us ,
4 0 21
of
t oes
of
t u b er cl es
of
t y mp a nic
—
—
—
43 21
of
Ch op ar t
h ear t
l a r y ngis
59 1 4
l ar y nx
of
l ef t
of l e f t
of
—
l
a u r ic e
midd l e meat us
of
mea t us medii nasi
n ose
At r ium of mid dl e meat us
Mill er 59 7 6
—
b
os s ic l es
of r i s
p os t e r ior , o f
p os t er iu s
—
3 8 65
h e a r t 68 26
co r d is
6 8 z26
—
—
p mon a l e 68 :26
p u l mo na r y 68 26
ul
w r is t
A s t r a ga u s
43 21
43 29
—
At r iu m , A t r ii
a n t er ior
6 8 :1
6 7 52
cor dis
At r ium of h ea r t
d ex t r um
Righ t a t r ium
d ex t r u m cor dis
gl o t t id is 59 1 4
of gl ot t is
of
t ib io fi b u l a r , in f e r io r
l
z
28 52
—
si
-
o ff
—
scr e w
-
—
p os t er ior ca l ca ne a l a r t icu la r
3 8 z7 5
oi
su p e r ior s ur f a c e of t r och l e a o f
43 52
—
s ca p u l o - c av icu a r
t ib io
t ib io
t ib io
3 8 z7 0
oi
5
sca p h o - cu n e if or
l
3 9 :4
—
t r och l ea
m a ll e ol a r f a ce t
s a dd e
s pir a
oi
of
of
—
40 21
—
f a ce
f a ce t
—
—
l
s ur
la r
s u r f a ce
—
-
s a cr o - coccyge a
t icu
t icu l ar
l f a ce t o f
in t er n a l a r t ic u l ar s u r f a ce o f 3 9 l
int e r na l ma ll e ol a r f a ce t o f 3 8 7 2
la t er a l ma ll e ol a r f a ce t of 3 8 7 2
m idd l e a r t icu l a r f a ce t o f
m id d l e a r t icu l ar s u r f a ce o f
n a v icu la r a r t icu l a r f a ce t o f
o u t er m a lle ol a r f a ce t o f
p o s t er ior ca l ca n e a l a r t icu l ar f a ce t
4 2:9
—
dis t al
r a d io u l na r , in f er ior
r a dioul na r , p r ox im a l
r a d io u l n a r , s u p e r ior
of
of
f a cet
3 8 z6 7
—
in t er na l
r a diou na r ,
l
of
ar
s u r f a ce of
a r t icu a r
42 20
—
m e d ia l
m e d ia l
a nt er o -
—
l
l
ar t icu ar
l
—
y
l
a n t er ior ca ca n e a l a r
—
-
—
ca ca n e a
ATR I UM
—
-
r ot a r
l
a nt e r ior
—
-
.
—
—
of nos e
I N D EX
3 88
ATR I UM
Q ua in
.
in t e r n al ,
r igh t
l ens
of
l
t er mina l
o f r igh t
r igh t ,
l ent is
a u r ic e
cr est of
m
s rnis t r u
m
a t r iu
Lef t
of
m e dian,
of
—
—
—
—
old
of
h ear t
,
80 1 9
—
li ex t er na
E x t er nal ax is of ey e
ocul i in t er na
95 1 3
I nt er nal ax is of ey e
—
opt ic
op t ica
95 :1 4
Op t ic a x is
—
—
ea r
lens
eye
ocu
A t t ic o f mid dl e ear
A t t ic u s 9 9 :1
A t t ol e n s a u r em
At t r a h e n s a u r e m 46 20
A u l a v is c e r is r egent is 67 :41
A u r eo l a m a mma e , Cha u ss ie r
l
A ur icl e, A u r icl es 26 :1 4 ;
ca r til a g e of
of
l
e ye
9 6 56
—
Ax is
n eu r a
s in is t r u m cor d is
of
BARTH OL I N
pel vis
p elv is 3 7 64
A x is of p el vis
s a git t a l , o f
y
t h or a c ic 7 1 :2
t h y r o id 7 0 48
t h yr o id ea 7 0 48
v er t ica l , o f
of
—
'
e e
lef t of h ea r t
l ob ul e of
—
,
—
p r o pe r
r igh t , of h e a r t
A u r icu a , A ur icu ae
l
l
—
eye
—
26 1 4 ;
1 00 3 2
Au r icl e, Aur icl es
old
a u r is ,
cor d is
67 53
A ur ic e of h ear t
c or d is d e x t r a
—
l
c or d i
s
s inist r a
d ex t r a car d ia
R igh t au r icl e of h ear t
s inis t r a c or d is
6 8 z27
Lef t aur icl e of h ear t
A ur is , A u r as
—
E a r , Ea r s
ex
—
m esocol ic
97 z58
—
Int er nal
—
om e n t a
ea r
me d ia
l
—
p os t e r ior
Ax ill a
Ax ill a
—
56 :1
56 2
56 :1
pos t er o l a t er a l 56 2
t
os
er
o
median 56 1
p
u
h
o
f emor a l 43 2
p
r et a i
ning, of a r cuat e l ig ament
r et a ining, of cut is
r et aini
ng, inf er ior , of per onea l m us cl es
—
—
Ax ill a
h a ir s of 1 01 z3 5
is
a r t er ia l , cos t o -cer v ica l
a r t e r ia l , t h or acic
71 2
—
Ax
—
—
t e r na
in t e m a
B a ck
B ack , B a ck s
o f h a nd
B a g, t es t ic u l a r
B a l a nu s - 62 7 2
B a n d , B a nd s , a nt er ior , o f c ol on
o f col on, l ongi
t u dina l 55 : 8 2
f r ee , of colo n
il io -t ib ia l , o f Ma is s ia t 49 50
is chio -ca ps u l a r 43 1
—
—
of
l
ce r e br o -s p i
na
l
l
—
SO 19
o f co c h ea
l
98 57
coe l ia c - 7 2 1 6
3 7 65
co n j u ga t a
3 7 :65
con j u ga t a , Roe der er
3 7 :6 5
conj u g a t e
d ian S O 1 9
e nceph a l o -r h a ci
na l
SO 19
e n cep h a l o -spi
na l is
e n ce p h a l o-s p i
ex t e r nal , of e y e
c o ch e a e
pa t ell a
r e t a ining ,
, of p a t e ll a
r et aining, s up er ior , of p er oneal mus
cl es 4 9 z7 6
s e r ou s
52 1 5
z on u l ar
42 68
B ar b e 1 01 :3 2
B ear d
B a r bu l a hir ci
B a r th ol in , a nu s o i
du ct of
gl a nd o f 64 z58
r et aining,
at as
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
l at er al
medial
,
of
I N D EX
90
B ERT I N
r e nal col umns
B ic h a t b od y o f
ca n a l of
fis s u r e of
B OD
—
,
d ent a t e,
52z3 0
d en t a t e , o f
d en t a t e , o l iv a r y
d e nt icu la t e S G 56
of ep idid y mis
6 221 1
Eu s t a chia n t u b e
f a t , o f ch ee k
of
fi b r o - s p ongy ,
fi b ul a
fi m b r ia t e d ,
fi mb r ia t ed ,
[ B il e ]
S e e F el
25 6 5
l add er
ga ll
g a ll b od y
ll
m u cou s gl a n d s in
u r in a r y ,
of
—
6 1 z44
in a r y ,
u r ina r y ,
a nt e r ior
gl a nd o f
B l ood
B l u m en b a ch
me d u l l a
of
o
bl onga t a
o
l iv a r y
of
8 1 :42
—
u t er in e
tu
be
ll bl a dd er
l a t e a nt e r io r 84 59
g e n icu l a t e e x t e r na l 84 6 0
8 4 59
g e nicu l a t e inf er io r
g e nic u l a t e in t e r n a l 84 59
g en icul a t e l a t er al 8 4 6 0
g enicul a t e m e d ia l 84 59
84 6 0
g e nicu l a t e p os t e r ior
84 60
g e nicu l a t e s u p e r ior
g l a n d u l a r o f Ma l p igh i
gl a n d u l a r of p r os t a t e
of
ga
ge nicu
f u nd u s of
in f u n d ib u l u m o f
ir v u l a o f
v e sica l g l and s of
u r in a r y ,
B l a n d in ,
b as e
ba s e of
b ody of
u r ina r y ,
83 1 9
—
h ippoc a mp u s
of
fi mb r ia t e d ,
fi mb r ia t e d ,
o f F or d
of f or nix
6 1 :29
u r in a r y ,
b e ll um
of
g a l h f os s a of
g a , f u nd us of
—
p e n is
of ce r e
fi m b r ia t e d ,
,
u r ina r y
of
of
57 5
—
1 00: 1 3
—
f a t , o f o r b it 7
of f e mur
l
tu
of c e r e
—
Bie
—
Y
—
t r a ch e a
B if ur ca t ion of t r a ch ea
B ige l ow
Y l ig a me nt o f
B
b ell u m
m e d u ll a o bl ong a t a
of
B if u r ca t io, B if u r ca t ion e s
of t r a ch ea
[ B il is ]
.
lingual gl a nd
—
,
:
—
,
—
,
—
,
—
,
of
—
,
—
,
:
—
,
a nt er ior
,
par t
of c
l iv u s
of
,
,
p o s t e r ior
p
ar t
of
c
l ivu s
of
B ody , B od ies
a d ip ose , of ch e e
a d ip os e , of or
of
h e a r t 67 :48
igh mor e 6 1 :74
of
—
H
k
—
t est is
b it
of
6 1 :7 4
—
h ume r us
of
a nv fl
h y a l o id
of
l l r a n t iu s
of
a s t r a ga u s
h y p o th a l m ic
of h y oid b
of
—
ca u d a t e
—
ca v e r nous
ca ver n ous , o f c on ch a
57 z50
u r e t h rae
—
f e ma l e
s u pe r fi c ufl
o f v a g in a
of
ca v e r n ou s ,
ca v e r n ou s ,
ca v er n o u s ,
c il ia r y
—
9 5 46
—
9 5 47
l
b el lu m
c il iar y
ol iva r y
of cl it or is
coccy ge a l
o f cor pu s ca ll o s u m
9 6 45
c r y st a ll ine
ci iar y , of cer e
,
—
—
—
ca v e r n o u s , v e s t fl nfl a r
—
o ne
b o ne
—
c a r ot id
l
84 3 9
—
b ulb our et h r a l gl a nd
ca l ca n e us
ci ia r y
96 3 8
il iac
o f il iu m
3 7 :1 5
of incu s
in n o m in a t e 6 2 20
int er c a r o t id 6 0 3 0
3 7 :3 3
of isch iu m
l a t er a l , o f pe nis
of l a t er a l v e n t r icl e
l e nt icu la r 83 1 9
o f l ow er ja w
’
Lu s ch k a s 7 2 1 4
of Lu ys
S ee N u cl e us h y p oth a
l a micus 8 4 3 9
Ma l p ighia n , o f k idn e y
of mamma
of
l fig e n fina l
of b on e of is ch ium
of
—
—
l
—
8 3 :1 9
S ee Me dia s t inum
mammar y
84 :26
m a mmill a r y 84 26
of mandibl e
of ma x ill a
—
—
ma x ill ar y inf e r ior
,
I N D EX
B OD
39 1
.
Y
max ill ar y s u per ior 3 2 68
med ul l a r y , of cer eb ell um
m ed u ll ar y ,
of
cer e
b r al
Henl e
s tr ia t e d, of
—
,
of s t oma ch
h emis ph e r e
B ON E
b t h a la mic of Henle 84 :39
s u pr a r e na l
61 52
of sw e a t gl a nd
1 01 z64
of t al us
t a r s a l in f er ior o f e y el id
t ar s a l s u per ior of e y e l id
su
—
,
—
me d u lla r y , of v er mis
of me t aca r p a l b on e
of met a t ar s al b on e
mu co u s 1 01 1 4
—
,
—
of n a i
l
,
1 01 z53
n er v ou s , o f
p e nis
n er vou s , o f cu t is
o f o cc i it a l bo ne
p
th y m ic
t h y r eo id
.
87 53
P a cc h ionia n, d e pr ess io ns f or 4
P acinia n I OI 23
4 z3 6
—
pa mp inif or m, o f Wr is b er g
of p a ncr eas
p a p il l a r y , of cor ium 1 01a 1 7
p a p ill a r y , o f Ma l pigh i
p a r t s of
of p enis
of
p h a l a nges o f fi nger s 3 7 :1
of
ph a l a nge s of t oes
of ph al anx of d igit s of f oo t
of ph al anx of d igit s of h and
p inea l
p it u it ar y 84 :3 0
p it u it ar y , a n t er ior l ob u l e o i 8 4 z3 1
p it u it a r y , p e d u ncl e o f 84 z29
p it u it a r y , p os t er ior l o b e o f 84 z3 2
p it u it a r y , p os t e r ior l ob u le o f
of b one of p ub is
of
pu b is 3 7 :41
p y r a mida l , of me du ll a 8 1 :1 7
p y r a mida l, o f t e s t is 62 :1 3
qu ad r igeminal 8 4 :1
qu a d r ige mina l, a nt er ior 84 3
qu a dr igemina l , inf er ior 84 4
q u ad r igemina l, p ost er ior 84 4
qu a dr igemina l , su per ior 8 4 :3
of r a dius
3 6 :18
r e st if or m
r e s t if or m, o f Cl ar k e
r e t icu l ar
1 01 1 4
83 1 9
r h omb oid , ce r e b e ll a r
v ar y
r h omb oid , ol i
81 42
of r ib
of s e minal v esicl e
of s ph enoid b one
63 5
s p ong i
o -v a s cu l a r
s p on gy , inf er ior
s p on gy , o f ma l e ur e t hr a
s p ongy , of p e nis
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
t h y r o id
t h y r oid,
a cc e ss or y
t h y r o id,
a cces sor y
of
t ib ia
of
t ong ue
of
st er num
—
—
6 0 29
6 0 28
t r a p ez oid
of ul na
bl adder
of ur ina r y
of u t er us
b
of ve r t e r a
V ic q d ’ Azy r 8 3 z6 4
v it r e ou s
96 3 8
w h it e
w h it e , of Q ua in 84 z26
of W o l ff
Wolfi‘ia n 65 1 3
y e ll ow , o f o v ar y
B one , B on es
of
—
—
—
—
b u l ar 3 7 9
a cr o mia l
35 45
a la r
a ce t a
—
—
ph e noid 3 0 41
a r ticul ar sur f ace of
a s t r a g a l o id
3 8 65
b as il ar 29 66
ba s il ar , ol d
br ea s t 29 50
of b ut t ock
br egm a t ic 3 1 :7 0
ca l ca n e a l
39 7
c a n c e lla t e d
28 1 3
cap it a t e
36 61
ca r pa l
3 6 51
ca r p a l , ce nt r a l
ca r p a l , fi r s t
car p a l , f ou r t h
ca r a l ,
p
gr ea t
ca r pa l , int er me dia t e
ca r p a l , r a di
al
ca r p a l, s econd
ca r p a l , t hir d
a l i« s
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
'
—
6 0 22
6 0 22
-
—
,
—
63 4
—
—
P a cc h ionia n
,
t e nd in ou s
—
l iva r y 81 21
o l iv a r
y l ow er
o f o s ca l cis
o
,
ca r p a
l
,
l
u nar
ce nt r al —
3 6 52
cocc
yge a l 29 :25
of coccy x
—
co
llar
—
3 5 59
—
3 6 55
I ND EX
3 92
.
BON E
BON E
cos t a
l
29 3 1
—
of cox a
l
cr a n ia l
c r a n ia l
cr a n ia
t er n a
ex
,
l l a m ina
of
la t e of
int er n a l l a m in a o f
cr a n ia l o u t er
p la t e o f
cr a n ia l
s ma ll r ou n d e d d e pr ess io n s
"
inn er p
,
—
,
,
,
fr ont a l , in t er na l s u r f a ce o f
f r ont a l , or b it a l s ur f a ce of
f r o n t a l , p os t e r io r s u r f a ce o f
f r on t a l, t em p or a l cr e s t o f 3 2 1 8
f r on t a l , t e m p or a l r idg e o f
f r ont a l , t emp or a l s ur f a ce of
h ama t e 3 6 6 2
h au nc h 3 7 :7
of
—
—
of cr a nium
h ip
l l amin a
int e r na l l a m ina
of cr anium, e x
of cr a nium ,
b
cu b oid
c u c k oo
cr i r if o r m
—
of
t er na
—
3 4 :1 7
m,
cu n e if or m ,
c u n e if or
o f ca r
pu s
ilia c
ilia c,
il ia c,
il ia c,
of car
pu s,
3 6 56
—
m , fi r st
ol d
of
l
au r icu ar s ur f a ce of
b ody
of
t er n a
ex
l
l
l
l ip
of
3 7 :1 9
—
i ia c , pr o c e s s o f 3 7 :1 6
i ia c, w ing of 3 7 z1 6
cu ne if or
m , e x t er n a l 3 9 26
c u n e if or m
in t e r n a l 3 9 24
cu n e if or m , m id d l e
3 9 25
c u n e if or
3 5 67
—
b od y
h y oid,
3 2 36
29 25
—
l
h y oid
of
3 9 27
-
h u m er a
—
—
—
cu n e if or
inc is iv e 3 3 1 9
of inf er ior ex t r e mit y
inn om ina t e 3 7 7
e ct o - c u n e if or m
in t er ma x ill a r y 3 3 1 9
in t e r m e dia t e 3 6 55
—
—
,
—
m, s econd
cu n e if or m, t h ir d
e p a ct a
l
—
3 9 26
—
e n t o -cu n e if o r
—
m
—
3 9 24
—
—
34 37
—
—
e p a ct a l ,
p r op er
32 36
e t h m oid
e t h m oid , cr ib r if or m p l a t e
e t h m o id , h o r izo nt a l p l a t e
e t h mo id , l a t e r a l m a s s o f
—
eth
of
of
3 2z3 7
3 2z3 7
—
—
—
p er p e nd icu l ar
moid ,
int er par iet a l 29 7 5
is ch ia l 3 7 3 2
is chial , b od y of
ja w, l o we r
ja w, u pp er
la ch r y m a l , h a m u l ar p r oce s s o f
l a ch r y m a l , l a ch r y m a l cr e s t o f
l a ch r y ma l , u n cin a t e p r o c es s of
pla t e
of
3 2 z57
l acr imal 3 2 56
l e nt icu l ar 9 9 51
le n t icu l a r o f h a nd
le nt if or m 3
l in gu al
10
l o ng
Innat e
ma l ar 3 3 z50
ma l a r ch e e k s ur f a ce o f
m a l ar e x t er n a l su r f ace o f 3 3 z51
ma l a r or b it a l su r f a c e of
ma l a r o u t er s u r f a ce o f 3 3 51
ma l ar su p er o in t er n a l s u r f a ce
—
et h
m oid
et h
moid a l
,
e t h m oid a
v er t ica
l
l
e t h moid al
e t h mo id a
—
,
,
,
l pl a t e
of
3 2z40
—
—
32 36
b
cr i r if or
,
m
l amina
b it a l pl a t e o i
p er p end icul a r
of
or
l amina
—
—
et h moid a
l
,
mil unar
se
op ening
of
,
—
,
f a ce
f a cia l
f e m or a l
3 8 45
fi b ular
o f fi n ger s
of fl a n k s
flat
f r ont a l
f r o nt a l, a n t er ior s ur f a ce of
f r ont a l , ce r eb r a l s ur f ace of 3 2z3 0
f r ont a l , et h moida l incisur e of 3 2z1 1
f r on t a l , e t h mo ida l n ot c h o f
f r on t a l , ex t e r na l su r f a ce o i
f r ont a l , f or a men ca ecum of
f r ont a l , f r ont al su r f a ce of
f r ont a l , inf er ior s ur f a ce off
of
,
z
—
,
—
,
oi
—
m a l a r , t e m po r a l
ma st oid
su r f a c e of
30 76
ill a r y 3 2 6 7
ill a r y , in f er ior
ill ar y , in fe r io r ,
a v e o ar
m a x ill ar y , inf er ior ,
a veo a r
ma x
ma x
ma x
—
—
—
3 3 60
l
l
l
l
b or d er
of
—
—
ma x ill ar y , in f e r ior ,
l ine o f 3 3 67
m ax illar y inf e r ior
—
,
ex
mar g in o f
t er na l
o
bl iqu e
z
,
inf er ior
b or d er
of
I ND EX
3 94
BONE
p a l a t ine
p a l a t ine
p al a t ine
l
,
conch a
,
e t h m oid a
,
max ill ar y
cr es t
l
'
of—
s3 z1 o
cr es t of
3 3 z42
—
s u r f ace of
dicul a r p or t ion
p a l a t in e, na s a l cr e s t
p er pen
l
p r e f r on t a
pr e f r on t a
h or iz dnt a l
of
—
—
p a r iet a
p a r ie t a
l
l
—
l
l
p a r ie t a l
pa r ie t a l
p a r ie t a
p a r ie t a
pa r ie t a l
,
s ph e n o
—
p a l a t ine
,
in f er io r
,
n ot ch
an
of
c er e
se
inf er ior
se
p a r ie t al , in f er ior
of
gl e
of
pr e s ph e n o id a l 3 O 24
p t e r y g o id 3 0 6 0
p t er y go id , o d
p u b ic
p u b ic, inf e r ior r a m u s
—
l
l
l
p a r iet a l
p a r ie t al
p a r ie t a l
m icir cu l ar
l in e
m icir cu l ar
t emp or a l
l ow er
se
r
id ge
l ine
m icir cu l ar
l
,
ma s t oid
,
m a s t o id m a r g in
,
occip it a
,
,
of
'
3 7 z4 9
—
p u b ic, sp in e o f
p ub ic, s y m ph y s ea l su r f ace
of pu b is
pu h o isc hia d ic, o f
l
s acr a l
s acr a l
s acr al
s acr a l
r a dia
of
of
3 7 z5 1
—
l
a n g e of
l
p a r ie t a l , p ost er ior
ar
s a cr a
l la t er a l
a r t icu a r
,
,
t icu l ar
,
l
p el v ic su r f a ce
r e n if or m
,
l
s ca pu a r
se
of
l
s u pe r ior
d or sa l s u r f ace of
in t e r v er t eb r a l f or a min a
t r an sv er s e
s ca p h o id , ce n t r a l
sca p h o id , o f f oot
s c a h o id , of
a d
p
3 1 z7 8
p a r ie t a l su r f ace of
p os t er ior inf er ior a n gl e
s ur f a ce of
l la t er a l
l
s a cr a l
3 1 t80
—
l
a u r icu ar
sa cr a
sa é r al ,
of
oi
a n g e of
,
old
of
s u r f a ce
of
f a ce
of
of
r id ge o f
—
,
,
3 6 53
—
,
3 6 56
—
of
sa cr a
p a r iet a
p a r ie t a
—
py r a
3 l z7 2
—
,
,
.
mid a l
p y r a m id a l
of
3 1 z7 1
—
p ar ie t a l , in t e r n a l su r f a ce o i
p a r ie t a l l o w er s e m ic ir cu l a r l in e
p a r ie t a l
32 1 2
of v
B a r d eleb en
,
ill a r y S S 1 9
—
Hen l e
in f e r ior
a n t e r ior
,
,
max
l
l
3 6 57
3 1 :7 0
br al s ur f ace
e x t e r n a l s u r f a ce
f r on t a l a ngl e of
,
pr e
—
-
p a l a t ine , p a l a t ine s ur f a ce of h or iz ont a l
3 3 z47
p or t ion of
p a l a t in e , p a l a t in e n o t ch o f 3 3 z3 5
p a l a t in e, s p h enop al a t ine incis u r e oi
p a l a t in e ,
l
of
3 3 z46
—
—
p os t u na r
s u r f ace
p or t ion of
ph a l a ng ea l , of h a nd
p isif or m 3 6 57
pneumat ic 28 5
of
—
nas a
BON E
—
p a l a t ine, nasa l s u r f a ce of p er p en d icu
l a r p or t ion of
3 3 z3 3
p a l at ine,
.
s ur
of
l ine s
of
h n
35 37
—
mil u na r
s es a
moid
s es a
moid,
3 6 55
of f
—
o ot
,
of
h a nd
s h in
a ng e o f
s h or t
p a r iet a l ,
p a r ie t a l ,
p ar iet a l ,
p a r iet a l ,
p a r iet a l ,
p ar iet a l ,
l
p a t el a r
pe v ic
—
l
sp h enoid a ng e of
s u p er i
or
su
p er ior
su p er ior
u pp e r
l
s e m ic ir cu ar
l
s em icir cu a r
u pp e r
27 z53 ;
ma s t oid
et r o-
of
f
of
s ph en oid
3 0:24
—
r
id ge
l ine
l in e
r
of
w ing
sph enoid ,
S p h e n o id ,
w ing
of
id ge
of
of
gr ea t er
of
b a sil a r gr oove of
b od y of
ce r e b r a l
s u r f a ce
s ph en oid ,
of
s u r f a ce
3 0z40
—
of
gr ea t
of
s ph enoid ,
f or a m en
s p h enoid ,
f or a me n
l
ova e of
r ot u nd u
m
gr e a t wing of
s p h enoid , gr e a t er w in
g of
s ph e n o id , in f r a t e m or a l
s u r f a ce
p
g r ea t w ing o f
s ph e n o id
l a t er a l w ing of
of
s ph e n oid ,
,
p h a l a n g ea l ,
l ine
s ku ll
S p h e n o id , a nt e r ior
micir cu l a r
t emp or al
l
p el v ic l a t e r a l
p
l
se m icir c u a r
se
of
3 1 z7 9
—
oot
,
of
I N DEX
BON E
l es se r
m a j or
s ph e no id ,
w ing
f or a men
s p h en oid , opt ic
b it a l
s p h e n oid , or
s ur
f a ce
j ugul a r f os s a of
t emp or a l j u gul ar in cis ur e of
t e m p or a l j u g u l a r n o t c h o f
t emp or a l ma st oid incisu r e of
t e m por a l ou t e r s u r f a ce o f s qu a mou s
,
,
of
,
,
po r t io n
of
of
g r e a t w ing
of
s p h e n o id ,
b it a l
or
w ing
of
p a r iet a l a ngl e of
s p h en oid , p t er y g oid f os sa of
S p h enoid , s ca p h oid f ossa of
3 0z64
s ph e n oid, s ma ll w ing of
S p h e no id , s u p e r ior s u r f a c e o f g r e a t er
w ing o i 3 0z47
s p h e n o id , s u p e r ior w in
g of
s ph e n o id , t e mp or a l s ur f a c e of g r ea t er
w in g of
s p h e n o id , t e m p or a l w ing o f
3 0z46
s p h e n o id , t o n g u e o f
S p h e n o t u r b in a l
3 0 39
s p o ng y
32 36
s on g y , in f er ior
p
s p o n gy , s u p e r ior
3 2 49
29 7 5
s u b occip it a l
of s up e r ior e x t r e mit y
3 0 24
s u p r a p h ar y n ge a l
s p h e n oid ,
—
—
—
-
—
—
—
—
of
ta
—
t emp or a l , p os t er ior
p or t ion o f
t e mp o r a l, p o s t e r ior
p or t ion of
t emp or a l , p os t er ior
mid
lus
l
t ar sal
tar sal
t a r sa l
,
,
,
t emp or a l ,
t e mp o r a l ,
p or t ion
su p er ior
a ng e
l
,
su p er ior
b or d er
p o r t ion o f
t e mp or a , t e m p or a
l
l
p e t r ou s
of
a ng e
l
py r amid
of
an g e
b or d e r
of
of
s u r f a ce
a n t e r ior
p e t r ou s
p e t r ou s
o r t ion o f
a n t er ior s u r f ace of
t e m p or a l
t e m p or a l ,
t icu l a r f o ssa
a r t icu l ar f ov ea
ar
of
p y r amid
3 1 z65
3 l z6 5
—
of
—
l a u r icu l ar fi s su r e o f
t e m p o r a l b a s il a r s u r f a ce o f p et r ou s
,
,
p or t ion o f
—
3l
inf e r ior
p or t ion o f
,
inf er ior
:
5
of
f a ce
p e t r ou s
of
e
qu a
t r igemina l
t em p or a
l
,
t y mp a n ic
imp r es s ion
of
ca v it y
of
—
t oes
34 10
—
t r a p e z iu m ,
int e r na l
s u r f ace
m ou s p or t ion
of
s ur f a ce of
of
of
H enl e
l e s se r
3 6 :6 0
—
t r a pez oid ,
Ly ser
3 0 60
e nl e
of
t r a p ezoid ,
of
—
la r
t r iangul ar
t r iq uet r a l
t u r b ina t e
t u r b in a t e
t u r b in a t e
t u r b in a t e
t u r b in a t e
t u r b in a t e
t r ia ngu
—
t y m pa nic
of
H
—
,
Ly s er
3 6 56
of
t ar s us
—
39 6
3 6 56
,
3 2 52
high es t
,
in f e r ior
,
midd l e
,
su p e r ior
,
su p r e
—
3 6 z58
—
3 2 52
—
—
—
me
—
3 2 50
3 2:49
3 2 48
3 1 51
l
u l na r
pe t r ou s
m 3 6 62
u n c if or m , h a m u l a r p r oces s
u n cif or m, u n cin a t e
pr oces s
u n cif or
sur
3 6 58
u na r
mid
py r a
of
t e m p or a l ,
p y r a mid
of
of
,
—
t emp or al ,
of
,
s ur
l
t r a p e z o id
t e mpor a l , a nt er ior
p or t ion o f
t emp or a l
l
t emp or a
t r a p eziu m,
of
l
l
m ou s p or t ion
—
—
t em p or a
pe tr ou s
of
,
t e mp o r a
of
t empor a l 3 0 7 5
t e m po r a l , a nt e r io r
p or t io n o f
t emp or al , a n t er ior
t e m p or a
py r a
of
of
a ng e
l
t r a p e ziu m
t r a p e z iu m ,
,
of
of
b l
t ar s us
p
f os sa
l
s u p er ior
t h ir d
,
s u r f a ce
b
t on gu e
l
p e t r ou s
su a r cu at e
s e co nd
t e mp o r a
s u r fa ce o f
t h igh
t i ia
3 8 21
3 8 64
fi r st
—
pe t r o u s
of
3 8 :6 5
—
of
Of
O
t em p or a
b o r de r
29 56
s ut ur es
t ar s a
of
l
of
t emp or a l , p a r iet a l incisur e of
t e m p o r a l, p a r ie t a l n o t c h o f
t em p or a l , pos t er ior an gl e of
t e mp or a l , p os t e r ior a ngl e o f p e t r ou s
p or t ion o f
—
s u p r as t e r na
BON E
t emp or a l ,
of
w ing of
ph e n o id ,
s ph e n oid , m in or w in
g of
s h e n oi
d , n a v ic u l a r f o s s a
p
S p h e n o id
o ccip it a l
S
39 5
.
f a ce
of
s qu a
—
u n cin a t e
vo
me r
—
3 6 62
3 2:6 4
—
of
—
of
3 6 z6 3
I N D EX
39 6
.
BOR D ER
BONE
YVor n u
an
of w r is t
x
ip h o id
ne
e
29 z46
—
f e ne s t r a r ot u nd a
f r on t a l , o f p a r ie t a l bo
f r on t a l , o f S p h e no id bo n
inf er ior , o f in f e r ior m a x ill a r y
of
ma t ic 3 3 50
3 3 z5 1
z y g om a t ic, m a l a r sur f ace of
3 3 z53
zy g oma t ic, or b it a l s u r f ace of
3 3 z52
zy g om a t ic, t emp or a l su r f a ce of
zy go
—
b one
—
—
—
B or d e r , B or d er s
of
bu lu m
a ce t a
a cu t e , o f
h ve r
a ve o a r
of
l
l
,
in f e r io r m ax ill a r y
b o ne
in f e r ior ,
in f er io r ,
of
in f e r ior ,
of
l
l
a l v e ol a r
a l veo l a r
,
mand ibl e
of ma x ill a
,
o f su p e r ior
m a x il l a r y
b on e
l iv er
l u ng
56 :47
—
ma n d ibl e
inf e r icr , o f ov a r y
inf e r ior , o f p a r ie t a l
inn e r , o f f oot
bone
h u me r u s
of
inner ,
a v eo a r , of
of
in t er n a l ,
in t er na l,
fi b ula
o f k id n e y
of
int e r n a l , of s ca p u l a
in t e r na l , o f t es t is 6 1 72
int e r na l , o f t ib ia
l a ch r y m a l , o f s upe r ior m ax illa r y
—
l
t h y r eo id
of fi b u l a
o f ov a r y
of
p a n cr ea s
o f p a r ie t a l
of
a ngu a r ,
a n t e r ior ,
u n3
a n t er hn y
a n t er ior ,
a n t e r io r ,
a n t er
a n t er ior
l bo ne
of
,
t il a ge
bone
p e t r o u s p or t ion
of
p or a
c ar
of
,
t em
l
sca p u a
l
t ib ia
,
of
s p e en
—
—
m
ne
-
—
—
ax
l
of
i l ar y ,
bu r ie d
of
,
l
of
c on cav e ,
l
s ca p u a
n ai
c on u nc t iv a
of
con u n c t iv a
w ing
,
of
,
—
,
,
,
o u t er
t es t is
ne
ne
l bone
,
f r on t a l bo
o f p a r ie t a l bo
,
of
of
cu r v e d ,
l
t e m po r a
l
of
S p e en
w in g
of n os e
'
p a l m a r , o f ul na
p a l peb r a l , a nt er ior 97 21
p a lp eb r a l , p os t er ior 97 22
p ar iet a l , o f p ar iet a l bo
p a r iet a l , of s qu a m ou s p or tio n o f c c
ci i
p t a l bo
p a r ie t al , o f t e mp or a l bo
p a r ie t o f r on t a l , o f a l a m a gn a
p os t er ior , o f gr ea t w ing o f s ph en oid
—
ne
ne
t es t is
ex
t er na
,
of
fi bu la
ex
t e r na l ,
of
gr e a t
bo ne
of
e x t e r na l
'
w ing
h u m er u s
,
y
t er na L o f k id
t er na l , of sca pu l a
t e r na l , of t e s t is
t e r na L of
t er n a L o f
f os sa
fr e e , of
h u m er u s
—
of
,
,
o f n os e
f oot
of
ou t er , o f
cor nea
l
c or on a l
cor on a l
of
S p h e n o id
—
co r on a
ex
of
lu ng
conv e x
ex
,
ou t e r , o f
,
ex
,
j
con v e x
ex
,
ou t e r ,
c fi o v ar y 4 6 3 z40
ex
—
j
of
of
s
,
,
co n v e x
qu a mou s por t ion d f oc
cip it a l bo ne
l a t er a l o f sc a p u l a 3 5 48
l a t e r a l o f u l na
m a l a r o f s p h e no id bo ne
m a m ill a r y o f o cc ip it a l bo ne
ma x il l a r y o f oc cip it a l bo ne
m e d ia l o f r a diu s
of memb r ane of t y mp a nu m
99 z3 1
n a s a l of f r on t a l bo ne
ob t u se
o f s pl e e n
occip it a l
o f p ar ie t a l bo ne
o ccip it a l
of t e m p o r a l bo ne
o r b it a l
of S p h e n o id bo ne
of
,
ou t e r , of a l a
of
l bo ne
,
1 01 z56
—
gr e a t
bone
p a r ie t a
,
-
-
of
,
,
57 :25
3 8 :3 7
a n t e r io r , o f
a n t e r o ex t er n a L of fi b u l a
a n t e r o in f er ior , of s q u a m o u s p or t io n
of t e
por a l bo
a n t er o in f e r ior , o f t e s t is
3 8 :47
a n t e r o in t er n a l , o f fi b u l a
a n t e r io r
l a m bd o id
la mbd oid
b on e
ov a
—
of
3 6 :5
ne
tflna
l
u na
l is
ov ar y
,
of
Vieus s ens
s ph enoid
ne
~
bon e
p os t e r ior , of o v ar y
p o s t er ior , of p a n cr ea s
p os t er ior , o f p a r ie t a l bo ne
p os t er ior , of pe t r ou s p or t ion
por a l bo ne
p o s t er ior , o f s p l e e n
t
r o -ex t e r na l , o f fi b u l a
o
s
e
p
of
t em
3 98
I N D EX
BRANC H
mo t ic
ana s t o
of
,
l a r y nge u s
in t er na
l b r a n ch
wit h
su per ior
n
.
of
n
.
.
l at er al
a nt er ior , of
br anch es
l ar yn
ge u s in f e r ior
ana s t omot ic, of n a u r icu l ot emp or al is
w it h n f acia l is
.
a nt er ior ,
BRANCH
of
nn
left
of
p e ct or al
int e r cos t a es
cut ane ou s
l
.
a r t er y
cor on a r y
.
a n as t o
mot ic
of
,
n
a cu s ticu s ex
a nas t om ot ic,
l
t e r nu s
of
n
w it h
f a c ia is
.
.
l
w it h
gl oss 0ph ar y ngeus 8 9 56
a na s t om ot ic, of n f acia is w it h p
t y mp an icu s 8 9 5 1
l
w ith
of
n
l ex u s
l oss oph ar y ng eus
b r anch of n
a u r icul a r
a n t er ior ,
a n t e r ior
of
n
ma t icu s
zy go
mot ic,
w it h
n
a na s t om ot ic,
l a r y n g eu s
.
of
n
l
n
j or is
—
in f er ior
h y p og os s us 8 9 25
a n a s t om ot ic , o f n
m a ndi
a n t ib r a ch ii
9 1 46
c u t a n eu s
.
br a ch ii
9 l z46
l ar y n g eus
of n
ma
inf e r ior
.
a nt e r ior , of
a n t e r ior ,
nu
a n t e r ior ,
a n t er ior
,
w it h
a nt e r ior
,
n
cu t a n e u s
.
l um b a l e s
n ob t u r a t or iu s
nu S p ina l e s
.
w it h
l
.
s u p er ior
lingu al is
.
ma g n u s
ce r vica e s
.
—
n
a n t e r ior , of
l a r y ngeu s
.
w it h
8 8 :1 8
—
of n
a n as t o
l acr imal is
.
n
of
,
a nt e r ior ,
mot ic,
nu
of
.
.
.
of
t h or a cal es
a r y n ge a
o f r e cur r e n t
.
l
l
n er v e
—
b u l a r is
.
f a cil is
a n as t omot ic, of
n
of
media lis
.
va g us
ana s t o
l
a u r icu a r is
.
ant er ior , of nn
g
.
n
.
—
a nas t om ot ic,
of
a cu s t icu s
.
n
—
.
a n t er ior , o f n
a nt e r ior ,
8 9 68
—
f acia is
.
n
of
s u p er ior
p r of u nd a
ar
t er y
.
l
u n ar is
me dianu s w it h
.
n
.
motic,
of n
o pt h t h a l
.
m icu s w it h
ma t icu s
a
au d it iva
.
mot ic,
of
a nas t o
n
gl os s op h a r y nge us
a n a st omot ic,
p e r on e a
b
n
.
9 0 27
—
l
w it h
v ag u s
.
p er on ea ner v e
a n a s t om o tic , p u ic,
inf er ior
73 33
l
mmon
of
,
of
a
co
e p ig a s t r ica
.
—
a n a s t o m ot ic ,
of
t r a ns v e r se ,
p os t er ior
mot ic,
a n as t o
of a
u t e r ina
l
of
a n t e r ior ,
of a
aa
a
.
t ib ia l is
n
r a dia
.
lis
of
ticu lar , e x t e r n a l s u p er ior , o f p op
l it e a l a r t er y
a r t icu l a r ,
c ir c u mfl e x
int e r n a l
of
ar
ar
t ic u
t er y
la r
ant e r ior ,
"
,
.
t h y r eoid ea
a s cen ding ,
,
la r
7 3 49
—
in t e r na l
,
y
o f midd l e
,
,
of
s up er ior
s u p e r ior
t hy
l
a r t icu l a r
a r t icu a r
of o
,
b t ur a t or
a r t er y
po s t er ior
c ir c u
of
,
coccy g e a
of
in f e r ior
of
ne ons
t al es
a nt er ior , of
n al
l
in t er na l
l a t er al
l a t er a l
l
max il l a r y
n er v e
a scending,
cu t a n eou s
ne r v e
as cend ing ,
a nt erior ,
b r um
of
a
l a t er a lis
a
b dominal
of
-cu
aa
l at er al
of
.
mi
ab d o
int er cost al es
p ect or a
aa
7 2 :6 8
—
mfl ex
ar
p r o f u nd a
ar
t er y
as ce n d ing ,
.
l
,
l at er a l fi ssur e
S y l viu s
of
of
cir cu
.
mfl ex
f emor is
a
7 3 51
of
a
.
t r a ns v e r s a
lli
co
int er cos
.
t a ne ous
of nu
cut a
a s ce n ding,
of
a nt e r ior
c ir cu
mfl ex
ar
t er y
a s ce nd ing,
7 3 z51
of e x t e r n a l
c ir cu
mfl e x
ar
t er y
a sc en d i
ng,
7 3 z51
—
—
b r anch e s
ar t er y
n er ve
b r anch es
b r anch es
a n t er ior , of
p op
t er y
—
a nt e r ior ,
fl ex
cir cu m
a r t icu ar , of s u p e r ior
t er y
of
of
of
,
a r t er
of cer e
a n t e r ior
su p e r ior
o
.
a
r eoid a r
a n t er ior
b t ur a t or ia
ov a r y
,
ar t icu
int er c os t al e s
.
to
,
ar
of
u nar ,
a n t er ior ,
a n t er ior
coch e a
.
l it e a l
a nt e r ior ,
l
int er na t o
l
of a g enu su p r e m a
ar t icu l a r
br a nch of
of
a ce t a b u l a r
ob t u r a t or a r t e r y
ar t icu l ar
a n a s t o mot ic
a r t er y
of
74 :22
—
.
a r t icu ar ,
zy g o
.
of
9 1 52
—
a na s t o
n
n
cu t ane ous
of
int e r cos t al es
a s c e n ding , o f
il io
-
l u mba r
is chiu m
—
3 7 z3 5
ar t e r y
I ND EX
B R A NC H
B R A NC H
ma n d ibl e
a s ce nding, o f
car d i
ac,
infr a or b it a l is
a s ce nd in g o f S y l v ia n fi ss u r e
a s cend ing , o f t r a ns ve r se cer v ica l a r
t ar y
a ur icul a r , a n t er ior , of a
t emp or a l is
sup er fi cia l is
69 3 9
a ur icu l a r , of a a u r icul a r is p ost er ior
of
a s ce n di
ng ,
n
3 99
.
of
l a r y ngea l
r ecur r e n t
ne r ve
.
.
car dia c, s up er ior , of n
car ot icot y mp a nic, of a
ca r ot is
int er na
cer vica
l
in t er n a l , o f s u p e r ior
ga ngl ion 93 :3 7
car p a l,
a nt er ior ,
of r a dia l
ce r v ica
l
ga ng
—
.
.
s u p e r ior
car o t id , ex
t er n a l ,
v a g us
.
l ion
of
93 45
—
car ot id ,
—
aur icul a r , of a
l
a u r icu a r ,
ar
l
lis
occip it a
.
d ee p ,
t er y
a ur icu a r ,
int er na l ma x ill a r y
of
l
ca r pa
g lo s s o ph a r y ngea l
of
-
l
of
l
a ur icu l o
.
aur icu a r , of n
-
l
l ef t
of
cor on a r y
6 8 55
—
-b asil a r
h
a
r
n
o
p
y g
of
,
m a g nu s
v a g us
.
v e nt r icu a r ,
ar t er y
b a sil ar
l
au r icu a r is
n
.
l
car p al
ca r pa l
ar t er y
l
ca r p a l
a nt e r ior ,
b r onch ial ,
of
a
of
n
va gus
.
mammar ia int er na
.
d or sal , of
dor sal , of
post er ior ,
,
,
,
,
b r onch i
ep a r t er ia l
oi
—
—
,
,
h y p ar t er ia l
,
of
,
p os t e r ior ,
l ung
—
59 48
59 49
59 50
of
n
a
l is
r a d ia
.
l
u nar is
.
of
r a dia
l
,
r a dia
,
u l nar a n t e r ior
,
v o a r , of a
,
,
l
ca r p a l
ca r pa l
c ar p al
l
v ol ar
l
ar t e r y
a r t er y
a n t er ior
of a
r a di
a lis
.
ul n a r is
.
l of h y pogl os s a l ner ve
ce r vica l of n f a cia l is
cer v ica l of oc cipit a l a r t e r y
ce r vica l
of
t r a ns v er sa
p os t er ior
col li
“
c er v i
ca l s u per fi cia l
7 0 68
c er v i
ca l of
th y r e o cer v ica l
t r u nk
,
.
,
,
a ..
,
,
59 :73
—
a
,
,
ce r vica
b r onch ia l
b r onch ia l
b r onch ia l
b r onch ial
b r onch ial
a r t er y
u n ar
post er ior r a d ia l
p os t er ior , o f u l na r
c ar p a
car pa
b r onch ia l,
l
of
,
ne r v e
car p a
a u r icu a r ,
a nt e r ior
,
a r t er y
—
.
v agu s
,
-
,
b r onch ia l
of v a g u s ner v e , of
,
Lus ch ka
.
-
,
l
ca ca ne a
l
.
t er na l ,
of
int e r n a l,
of
ex
,
f a cia l
of
,
,
p enis
p er onea l
ne r v e
mfl ex
cir cu
l
l
,
ar t er y
post e r ior t ib ia l
pos t er ior t ib ia l
ner v e
of
l a t er al ,
cal cane al ,
i
c r cu
a
.
p er onae a
l
l at er al
cal canea
l
l
l
ca l ca ne a l
ca canea
of n
medial ,
,
,
,
,
ci
r cu
me d ia l ,
m idd l e
,
of
a
of n
of
.
.
per ona e a
t ib ia l is
p er onea l
of a
mflex
,
c ir cu
mfl ex
l
coch l ea r
,
of
gl oss o
-
l
l
,
midd l e
t er y
cap su l ar of
ar
car diac,
—
,
of
7 4 :26
a r en is
—
.
inf e r ior ,
of
p ost er ior
t ib ia l
6 1 :1 0
n
.
r ecur rens
m fl ex
ph ar y ngea l
l iac
,
of
,
of
a
.
a u d it iv a
ar
n er v e
int er na
p ost er ior g a s t r ic p l ex
mmunicat ing, of
communicat ing , of
co mmu nica t i
ng o f
co
n er v es
—
us
8 0:1 3
l
v es s e s
a c ou s t ic ne r v e
w ith
f acia l ner v e
ng, of a p e r onaea
communicat i
c ommu nica t i
ng, of
ga ngl io n oticu m
w it h ch or da t ympa n i
com mu ni
cat ing,
of
ga ng l ion ot icum
w ith
n
a u r ic u l o t e m or a l i
s
p
.
ca cane a
er y
cor on ar ia s inis t r a of
l a t er a l
of
,
ar t e r y
.
t
coch e a r , of a cou s t ic ner v e
t ib ial is
.
,
ar
t er y
coe
ca caneal ,
l
h e ar t
ne r v e
ca ca nea
ce r v ica
—
b uccal , of n f acia l is
b u cco-l a b ia l , s u p e r ior ,
b u lb o ca v er n ou s o f a
ca l ca ne a l e x t e r n a l o f
pina l , of a sce nd ing
ar t e r y
7 0 56
c er vico -v a gina l ,
of
u t e r in e
ce r v ico -s
.
-
I N D EX
400
BRANCH
BRANCH
c om
mu nica t ing ,
gangl ion
of
ot icu m
pin os u s
n , o f n f a ci
a l is w it h n
c omm u n ica t i
g
a cu s t ic u s
of Ar nol d
f a cia l is wit h n
co m m un ica t ing, of n
gl os s o p h ar y ngeu s— 8 9 56
f a cial is w it h
c omm u n ic a t ing,
of
n
p le x u s t ympa nicu s
co mm u n ica t in g, of n
gl os so ph ar y n
g ene w it h aur icul a r br a nch of
w it h
n
s
.
,
.
-
.
m mu n ic a t ing,
of
co
n
of
p er ior w it h
n
c omm u n ica t ing , o f
cut a neous,
l ingua l is
.
n
.
—
.
.
mm u nic a t ing,
n
.
il ioh y po
gast r icus
p ect or a l,
b r anch es of aa
ant er ior
cu t an eou s,
t er ior
l
of
an
int er
.
cost a es
c ut a ne ous,
su
h y p o g l os s u s 8 9 25
m edia n u s w it h
c om m u n ic a t in g , o f n
n u l n a r is
of
co
of
a nt e r ior ,
wit h
l ar y ngeu s
.
l ar y ngeu s
n
f emor al is
.
a n t e r ior
—
n
.
t h or a ca l e s
.
inf e r ior
w it h
m a t icu s
mmu n ica t in g ,
nu
p ect or a l , o f a n t e
of
in t e r cos t a l
ri
or
d iv is ions
72 3
a r t er ies
cu t a n e ou s , of cir cu mfl ex n er v e
cu t a neou s ,
d or s a l , of u l n a r n e r v e
lacr ima l is
n.
z y go
.
of
cu t a n e ous, a nt e r ior , of n
cu t a n e o us ,
v a gu s
.
br a nch es
a n t e r io r
of
a nt er ior ,
.
.
n
cu t a n eous ,
.
.
co
.
n
.
per o na e u s
oi n r a d ia l is
of nn spinal es
of n t ib ia l is
n , of n
va gus w it h u
commu n ica t i
g
gl osso p h a r y ngeu s 9 0 27
sub max ill ar y
c omm u nica t in g,
of
g an gl ion w it h n l ingual is
c om mu n ica t ing , o f su pe r ior p r of u n da
a r t er y
71 1 7
co
mmu n ica t ing, of u l na r a r t e r y
ng,
c omm u n ica t i
commu nicat ing ,
c o mm u n ica t in g,
.
.
.
.
.
b d omina l
l at er al
a
,
of
an
’
t e r ior
in te r
b r an ch es of a a
cos t a l e s
7 1 :6 7
cut ane ous, l a t e r al , of n
il ioh yp oga s
t rim s
cut aneou s, l a t er al p ect or al , of a n t er ior
b r anch e s of aa int er cos t al es
.
—
.
.
l a t er a l
c u t a ne ou s ,
r ior
p e ct or a l , o f
o f int er c os t a l
div is ion s
a nt e
ar t e
r ice
—
.
—
l at er al
cut aneous ,
b r anch es
of
l l a t er a l
,
of
,
a
.
mammar ia
t er ie s
t u na
cr e
cr e
m a s t e r ic
m a s t e r ic
,
,
of
of
cr icot h y r e oid,
d eep
d eep
of
a.
ep igas t r ic a r t e r y
epi
ga st r ic a r t e r y
t h y r eoide a
cr u r a
cu
l
,
bit a l
l
f emo r a l
-cr ur a
e
n
i
t
o
g
of
cr u r a l ,
g e n it o
o f mi
d dl e
of
,
-
f or ea r m
—
c u t a ne ous ,
s p ir a
7 1 64
l ow er ex t er na l ,
—
l
cu t aneous ,
ms
su p er ior
of
m u s cu l o
n er ve
menial ,
of
n
.
s aph en u s
of
e
medial ,
b r anch es
s up e
m
l ar yngeu s
.
,
cu t ane ous ,
ri
cr ico t h y r e o id , of n.
p os t er ior
t h or a cal es
o f p os t e r ior
pr i
o f int er cos t a l ar
ma r y d ivis ions
in
l
.
oi
,
b r anch es of nu
cu t a ne ou s
la t e r a l
,
cost a
aa
l at er al
cut aneous,
p os t er ior
int er cos t a e s
of
,
cut ane ous,
of
medial
b r anch es
of
aa
.
p os t er ior
int er cos t al es
of
,
of nu
.
p os t er ior
t h or aca l es
n er ve
cu t a neou s ,
ne r ve
cu t a ne ous ner v e o f
vi
s ion
med ia] ,
of
p os t e r io r d i
int er cos t a l a r t er ie s
of
91 46
cu t ane ou s, of a .
mammar ia int er na
cu t a neous ,
middl e,
of
a n t er ior
cr u r al
ner ve
b dominal ant erior of nn
int er cos t al es
a b d omina l l a t e r al
of nn
cut aneous
int er cost al es 92:3
cu t ane ous ant e r ior ab d ominal of a n
t e r ior b r anch es of a s int er cos
t a l es
cu t ane ou s, a
,
,
,
—
,
.
.
.
cu t a neou s , of
mu scq
cu t a ne ou s n e r ve
-
b t ur at or ius
cu t aneous
pect or al ant e r ior
int er cost a l es
cut aneous
pect or a l l a t er a l
int er cost al es
cut ane ous, of n
,
,
.
o
,
,
,
,
of
nu
.
of
nu
.
I N D EX
402
.
BRANCH
BRANCH
l
ex t er na l
ex
t e r na
t h or a ca l is
o f p os t e r ior d iv is io n
of n
,
,
v ica
ex
l
t er n a
l
bar
l
of
p os t er ior div is ion
of
t e r na
u
of
,
f e m or a
n
of n
,
l
l
.
l
z y go
m a t ic us
i
n
o - cr u r a
e
t
g
a
b l
l
il ia c,
ilia c,
of a
il io h yp o ga s t r ic
of
-
il iol umb a l is
n e r ve
7 2z6 1
—
.
il io h y po ga s t r ic n e r ve
o f s up er fi c ia l e p iga s t r ic a r t er y
of
-
.
b l
r ior
a
.
in f e r ior ,
gl ut a ea s u p e r ior
a r t er y
of g u t ea
of n cu t a n eus col i 9 1 :1 6
inf er ior ,
of
t emp or a l is
of
a
.
l
in f e r io r ,
ner ve
.
of
il iac,
in f er ior ,
t i ia is p os t e r ior
t i ia is p os t e
s u p e r ior , o f a
of
f r on t al ,
a r t er y
f a c ia is
.
.
of
,
fi b ul a r ,
fi b ul a r ,
l ingu a l
of
of
,
l
l
f a c ia l
s u p e r ior ,
h y po ga s t r ic,
ner v es
—
f a cia
h y oid ,
.
lu m
p os t e r io r p r im a r y d iv is io n
91 76
of t h or a cic n er v e s
m a gn u s
a ur icu a r is
f a c ia , o f
ex
of
a
s u p e r ior
t h y r eoid ea
h y oid,
cer
ne r v es
of
,
.
l
l
.
n
l
—
ocu om ot or iu s
.
fi cia l
in f e r ior ,
o f s u pe r
in f e r io r ,
of
in f e r ior ,
o f v a gu s
in f e r io r ,
of v es t i u a r
in f er ior ,
o f zy go
c e r v ic a
l
n er v e
s up e r fi cia l is
f r ont a l , of n f r ont al is
f r o nt a l , of o p h t h a l m ic a r t e r y
f un ic u l ar , o f d e ep e p iga s t r ic
.
ar
t er y
t r ige m in a
of
n er v e
n er v e
b l
in f r a - h y o id ,
ga s t r ic, of n va gu s
as
t
r
o
d u o d e na , o f h e p a t ic
g
l
ne r v e
m a t ic
n er v e
su p er ior
h y oid
a r t er y
.
l
a r t er y
ll a r y of f a cia l n e r ve
in f r a or b it a l o f f a cia l ne r v e
inf r a p a t ell a r of n s a p h enus
ingu ina l of a f emor a l is
ing u ina l o f cr u r a l a r t e r y
inn er
of
s u r a or b it a l
ne r v e
p
int e r cos t a l a n t er ior o f in t er n a l
in f r a -m a x i
,
-
l
g e n it a l
ge nit a
of
,
-cr u r a
t
e
n
i
o
g
n er v e
t
e
n
i
o
f e m or a
g
of
,
l
,
l
,
n er v e
,
.
.
,
g e nit a l ,
pos t e r ior
of
cu t a n eou s
ne r v e
gingiva l ,
in f er ior , of inf er ior d e n t a l
pl ex u s 89 3 1
gingiv a l , s u p er ior , of su p er ior d ent a l
pl ex us 88 5 1
gl a nd ul a r , of a ma x ill ar is ex t er n a
—
—
-
,
,
ma r y
,
ar
ma m
t er y
in t er cos t a l , a nt er ior , of int e r cos t a l
ar t er ie s
7 1 65
int er cost a l , of a m a mma r ia int e r n a
—
.
.
g
g
l a ndul ar
l andul ar
of
,
l a n d u lar
gl a nd u l a r
.
of a .
,
g
a
of n
,
of
,
t h y r eoid ea inf e r ior
t h y r e oid ea
lingu a l is
s u b m a x ill ar y
,
l u mb a r
of
,
gl u t ea l
,
of
s a cr a
of
cu t a n e ou s,
s
l
ar
t er y
n er v e s
n er v e s
ma ll
s cia t ic
p os t er ior
l
ga st r ic
pl
ex us
l a t e r a l fi s s ur e
of ce r eb r u m of S y l vius
h or iz ont a l a nt er ior of S y lv ian fis s ur e
h or izont a
a nt er ior ,
oi
,
,
,
h u me r a l ,
h y oid, of
of
a
.
in t e r l o b u l a r ,
int er l ob u l a r ,
ar
t er ie s
int e r n a l ,
h e p a t ic a r t er y
of l iv e r
o f in t e r n a l in g u i
na l n er v e
int er n a l ,
of
int er n al ,
int er nal ,
of n
in t er n a l ,
of
of
t h or a c ico -a cr omia l
l in gual is
int er na l ,
m idd l e
of
ce r v ica
n er ve
h ep a t ic, of
int er cos t a l
of
.
l u t ea l cu t a neou s
II I I I
g l u t e a l cu t a ne ou s
g
sup er ior
in t er cos t a l ,
n er v e
acce s s or iu s
.
n
l
c u t a neo u s
l a r y ngeus
.
sup e r ior
d iv is ion s
p os t er ior
of
ne r v e s
p os t er ior p r imar y div is io n
o f t h or a cic ne r v e s
int er na l , of t h or a c ic n er v e
int e r oss eou s , int er na l , o f n m e d ia n u s
of
.
int er oss e ou s ,
l
v o ar ,
of
n
.
med ia nu s
ar t er y
in t e r ve n t r icu l a r , o f l e f t
t er v 68 z56
—
cor o n a r y
ar
I N DEX
B R AN C H
ischia dic ,
inf er ior gl u t e a l
of
403
.
BRANCH
ma l ar
ar t er y
b it a l
of or
,
ne r v e
m a l ar o f zyg om a t ic
m a ll e ol a r , e x t e r na l,
n e r ve
,
j ug u l a r
gl os s o ph ar y nge a l
of
,
n er v e
-
t er y
l a b ia l , of il io -ingu in a l n er v e
l a bial , inf er ior , of n m ent a lis
l a b ia l , o f p u dic ner v e
l ab ial , sup er ior , of n inf r a or bit a lis
ar
ar
74 z22
—
m a ll eo l a r , in t er na l,
.
p e r o n ea l
of
t er y
74 25
—
mamma r y ,
p os t er ior t ib ia l
of
of a
.
mammar ia
in t er na
.
l ar y nge a l
ge a l
l a r y n ge a l
l
of s u p er ior
,
l ar y n
of
in f er ior ,
,
y
l
of s u p er ior
l ar y n
su p e r ior ,
o f s u pe r ior
lar yn
,
of
aa
l a t er a l
,
s u p er ior
of
,
,
t h y r o id
of
ar t e r y
ce r vi
s up er ior
l at er a l
of
nu
of
nn
an
.
—
p os t er ior b r anch es
l umb al e s 9 2: 14
l a t er al , of p ost er ior b r anch e s
of
l
s a cr a es
of
—
p
c yg e a l
of
n
os t e r io r
div is ion
of
of n
ma s s e t e r ic,
.
c oc
lum
n er v e s
p o s t er ior p r ima r y d iv is ion
o f t h or a c ic n e r v e s
l e f t , of a h ep a t ica pr opr ia
l ef t , of a pu lmonalis
l it t l e 25 21
l ingu a l , a s cend ing, of n v a gu s
ling ua l , of n gl ossoph a r yngeu s
.
.
—
.
.
l ingual
l ing u a l
l ing u a l
h y p ogl os s us
of n l ingu al is
h y pogl os sa l
of
p a p ill a r y ,
of n
,
.
.
,
,
.
,
cent r a
lis
r et i
of v . cent r a
lis
r et i
c ent r a
l is
r e ti
of a
inf e r ior ,
ma cu l ar , in f e r ior ,
.
n ae
s u p e r ior
,
of a
.
s u pe r io r , o f v . c e nt r a
l is
r et i
na e
ma l a r ,
m a la r ,
of
of
m
mas t oid ,
of a
m a s t oid,
m as t oid ,
of a
m a s t oid
of
m e d ia l ,
int er cos t al e s
f a cial is,
m an d ibl e
of
,
l
aur icu a r is
.
ar
of
occipit a
.
gr e a t
lis
p os t er ior
l
a u r icu a r
pos t e r ior
n er v e
l
aur icu a r
l is r e t ina e
m e dia l of v ce nt r a l is r e t in a e
media l of p os t er ior b r a nch es
cervica l e s
9 1 :3
medial of p os t er ior b r an ch of
of a
a r t er y
cent r a
.
,
.
,
of
nn
.
—
,
—
med ial
p ost e r ior
l umb al es 92:1 3
,
n
.
coc
92: 13
cy geus
f a cia l
or
ne r v e
b it a l b r a n ch
ic n e r v e
med ia l ,
of
b r anch es
of
nu
b r anch es
of
nn
.
of
l
p os t er ior
9 2 19
es
—
media l
of
sa cr a
oph t h a l
~
l
ne r v es
po s t er ior p r im a r y div is io n s
o f t h or a cic n e r v e s
,
of
m e dia l of v ce nt r a l is
me d ia st ina l
a n t e r ior
ma mmar y a r t er y
r e t in a e
.
,
of
.
p os t er ior p r im ar y d iv is ions
of cocc y gea l n e r v e
me dia l , of p o s t er ior p r im a r y division s
o f l u mb ar n er ve s
m e d ia ] , o f p o s t er ior pr im a r y div is ions
of
na e
,
.
6 9 z54
s acr a
na e
m a cu l a r ,
of aa
int e r cos t a l es
in t er n a l m a x ill a r y
of
—
.
,
macu l a r
t er y
media l ,
b s ca pu l a r a r t er y
of a il iol umb a l is
su
,
.
—
n e r ve
l ong of
l umb a r
ma cu l a r
of nn
.
n er v e
of
of a nt er ior c ut ane
.
m a r gin al ,
of
,
int er cos t a l es
.
92 20
of p os t e r ior d iv is ion
bar
l a t er a l
.
cu t ane
m a n dib u l a r , o f f a cia l n er v e
m a nd ib u l a r , of l ingu a l ne r v e
m ar gin a l of n r a d ia l is s u p e r fi c ia l is
—
,
of nu
mammar y , med ial ,
,
—
l a t er a l
l a t er al
of
,
b r anch es
ou s
of
,
b r an ch es
int er cos t a l e s
.
ma mmar y , medial ,
p os t e r ior b r a nch e s
91 4
cerv ica l e s
l at er al , of pos t e r ior b r anch es
9 2 20
coccy g e us
l a t er a l
of a nt er ior
b r anch es
ous
ner ve
of
,
t h or acal is
a
n er v e
la r y ngoph a r y ngeal
ca l g a ngl ion
l a t e r al ,
mammar y , l a t er a l,
mamma r y
,
in t e r na
,
inf e r ior t h y r o id
7 0 50
—
of
ex
—
n e r ve
a r t er
l a r y ng ea l
g ea l
lar y nge a l
g ea l
l a r y nge a l
t er n a
ex
,
t e r na l ,
l at er al is 7 1 :8
ma mmar y ,
,
of
,
—
7
int er na l
I N D EX
404
BRANCH
m e d ia s t ina l ,
t er y
mu scu la r
mu scul a r
ar
7 0z3 6
—
med ia s t in a l
t er y
med ias t ina
to
int e r na l m a mm a r y
of
int er na
of
,
l
ma mm a r y
l
t h or a cic
of
,
a u ricu
d e e p r a d ia l n e r v e
o f e x t er na l p op lit e a l
ner ve
mu s cu l a r of g r ea t s cia t ic ner ve
mu scu l a r , o f int er n al p op l it e a l
ne r ve
l umb a r p l ex us
o f mu s c ul o-cu t a ne ou s
ner ve
of
,
,
ar
t y mp a n u m ,
8 9 :1 8
ot e mp or a is
l
l
of a
.
m e ning eal ,
of a
.
meningeal ,
a or t a
of
mening eal ,
of
n
.
mus cu l ar ,
—
lis
ver t e b r a l is
of
a cce s s or y ,
a
of ar
meningea
.
a s ce n ding
of
ph a r y nge a l
m
m u s cu l a r ,
of
,
of
m u s cu l a r ,
occipit a
media
ar
BRANCH
,
memb r an e
me n inge a l
.
m u scu l o -cu t a ne ou s
of
l eg
mu s cu la r ,
mu scu lo -sPir a l
of
n e r ve
n er v e
t er y
m e ning ea l, m id d l e ,
lar y
mu s cul ar ,
inf er ior m ax il
of
ner ve
me ninge a l ,
midd l e,
of
ma nd ibu l a r
m us cul a r ,
mus cul ar ,
ill ar is
of n f e mor a l is
of n
ax
.
.
of
n
il ioh y p oga s t r icus
.
ner v e
meningeal ,
mening ea l ,
of nn
of n
l
s pina es
.
.
va g us
.
muscul ar , of n il ioinguin al is
mus cul a r of nu in t e r cos t al e s
mu scul ar , of n is ch ia d icus
mus cul a r , of n me d ianus
mus cu l ar , of n mu s cul ocut aneus
,
m e n ing e a l , o f O pht h a l mic ne r v e
m e ning ea l , of ph a r y ng o b a s il a r
88 1 6
a r t er y
—
-
.
.
.
.
me ninge a l
s
,
la r y
,
s ma
a r t er y
mening ea l
of
in t e r na
l
m a x il
t er y
ar
me ninge a l
ma ll ,
ll
of
,
m idd l e m e n inge a l
6 9 51
—
of
,
m ax ill a r y
su p er ior
n er v e
m e ningea l ,
m ent a l , of
m idd l e , o f
mus cu l ar
—
m u s cu la r
mu s cu l ar
,
,
muscu l a r ,
br a l
me nt al is
o f v er t e
n
n
.
.
a r t er
y
ner v e
ar
b r anch es
int e r cos t a l es 7 1 6 6
m u s cu l a r , o f a nt e r ior cr ur a l
,
s ion s
mu scu l a r
,
muscul a r
,
of
t er y
of
of a a
.
ne r v e
pr ima r y d ivi
in t e r cos t a l a r t er ie s
tib ia l
a nt e r ior
of a
l is
cervica
.
per ona eus pr of un d us
,
.
.
of n .
of n
of n
p er ona eu s
.
of n
r a d ia
.
.
mmunis
co
s up er fi cial is
lis
t ib ia l is
ul na r is
p er one a l n e r v e
of p os t e r ior b r a nch es of a a
int er cos t a l es 7 1 :6 2
mu s cu l a r , of p os t e r ior p r ima r y d iv i
s ion s
int e r cos t a l a r t er ies
of
of
.
—
a n t er ior
of
n
mu s cu l ar ,
mus cu l ar ,
—
mu s cu l a r
mus cul a r , of
mu s cu l ar ,
a na s t o
of a nt e r ior
p er ona e us
mu s cul ar ,
m us cul ar ,
mot ic
of
n
mu s cul a r
t r ig e min u s
8 0:1 5
o f a c c e s s or y
mus cu l ar , of
ne r v e
a s cendens
m u scu l ar ,
mus cu la r
,
o f s c ia t ic ner v e
o f s u er ior
p
pr o f u nd a
a r t er y
m u s cu l a r , of t h or a cic ne r ve s
mu s cu la r , t r a n s v e r s e t er m ina l , o f in
t e r n a l c ir cu mfl e x a r t e r y
mu s cu lo a r t icu l ar , of c r ur a l a r t er y
-
mus cul ar , of a f emor al is
mus cul ar , of a gen u su pr ema 7 3 z6 0
muscul ar , of a mamma r ia int er na
.
—
.
.
muscul ar , of a occipit al is
mu s cul a r of a oph t h al mica
mu scul ar , of a r a dia l is
mus cul ar , of a ul nar is
mus cu la r o f cir cu mfl e x ne r v e
mus cu l ar of cr ur a l a r t er y
mu s cu l a r , of cr u r a l ne r v e
mus cu l o
-
l
a u r icu ar ,
cu l a r
my l oh y oid
of
pos t e r ior
au r i
ner ve
,
l
l
of a . a veo ar is
inf er ior
.
,
.
my l oh y o id ,
of
my l oh y oid ,
of
my l oh y oid ,
of
inf er ior
l
l
a ve o a r
ne r ve
.
.
inf er ior d e nt a l
a r t er y
,
,
inf er ior d e nt a l
n er v e
406
I N D EX
B R A NC H
pect or a l ,
l a t er a l
of
,
nn
in t er c os t a l es
.
.
B R A NC H
p ost er ior , of l at er a l cu t ane ous p ect or a l
b r a nch es of 1111 int er cost al es
.
pe ct or a l , p os t er ior ,
of
int e r co s
nn .
t a l es
l s uper fi cia l
t a l es
p ect or a
,
p er f or a t ing,
ta
l es
of
,
nn
in t er c os
.
—
,
,
a nt er ior , o f n n
,
l at er al fi ssur e of cer e
b r um of S y lvius 8 5 :1 7
p os t er ior of l a t er a l pe ct or al cut ane ous
b r a nch es of a a int e r cos t a le s
of
p ost e r ior ,
in t e r co s
.
mammar ia
.
p os t er ior ,
of
l at er a l
vo
p os t e r ior ,
of
l ef t
met a t a r s ea e pl an
p os t e r io r ,
of
p os t e r ior ,
of
a r t e r ies
p os t e r ior ,
of n. aur icul ar is
pe r f or a t ing, of pa l mar in t e r os s eous
ar t e r ies
71 3 5
p e r ica r diac, of n ph r enicus
p er ica r dia c, of t h or acic a or t a
p er ineal , of n cu t aneus f em or is p os
p os t er ior ,
p os t e r ior ,
p ost e r ior ,
of 1111 . cer vica es
p os t er ior ,
p os t er ior ,
p os t er ior ,
p os t e r ior ,
p os t er ior ,
l umb al es 92:1 2
of n ob t ur a t or ius
of nn s a cr al es
of nu sp i
na l e s
p er f or a t ing,
oi a.
p er f or at ing,
of
se
l aw s
p er f or a ting,
t a r es
p e r f or at ing,
p er for a t ing,
of aa
of a
.
int er na
met acar p eae
.
—
.
.
t er ior
p e t r osal , sup er fi cia l , of a meningea
media
ph ar y ngeal, of a ph a r y nge a a scend ens
.
.
ph ar y nge al,
of a
ph a r y ngeal , of n gl oss 0ph ar yn g eus
p o s t e r ior ,
p os t er ior ,
ph ar y ngeal ,
p ha r y nge a l ,
p os t er ior ,
.
ph a r y ngeal ,
of n
.
vagus
of nint h n e r ve
of
cor ona r y
a r t er y
lumbar
a r t e r ies
7
—
middl e cir cumflex
a r t er y
cr a nia
t ent h
l
n e r ve
magnus
l
of n
coccy ge us
.
of
p os t er ior ,
t h y r eoide a in f er ior
.
a r t er y
p er ona e a
.
digit a l p l a nt a r
of
l
sa cr a
n
of nn
.
l ar y ngeus
inf er ior
—
.
.
.
.
of nn
t h or a cal es
of pos t er ior a u r icu lar
.
a
of r a d i
l
of r ight
of
su
a r t er y
ner ve
cor ona r y
b scapu l ar
ar t er y
ar t e r y
p ost e r ior , of su per fi cia l t emp or a l a r
t er y
69 z43
p o s t e r ior , of S y lv ia n fi s s u r e
pr im a r y , of n t r igeminu s
p t er y g oid, of a max ill a r is int e r na
—
p h r enicoabd ominal ,
of
p l ant ar , deep, of a
.
n
.
ph r enicus
d or sa lis p edis
.
.
t o p ons, of a b asil a r is
pont a l , o f b as il ar a r t er y
p os t er ior , of a cous t ic ne r v e
p ost er ior , of a a int er cos t a l es
p os t er ior , of a ob t ur a t or ia
p os t er ior , of a t h y r eoid ea s up er ior
of
p t er yg o id,
.
of
p ub ic,
midd l e me ningea l
epigas t r ica
a.
a r t er y
inf er ior
.
.
p ub ic,
p ub ic,
.
p os t er ior ,
oi
p ost er ior , of
dor sal
int er nal
s p ina
l
of
,
.
~
d e ep
e p iga s t r ic
a r t er y
33
p u d end a l ,
cu t a ne ou s n er v e
.
of
:
n er ve s
la cr ima l ner v e
of l a t er al ab d omin al cut a
neous b r a nch es of aa int er cos
t al es
post er ior of l at er al cut ane ous a b dom
inal b r anch es of nu in t er cos t al es
pos t er ior ,
p ost er ior ,
b t ur at or ia
of a. o
ex
t er na l ,
of
genit o femor a l
ner v e
pu l monar y ,
a nt er ior , of va gus ner ve
p ul mo na r y , of car diac pl ex us
p u lmo nar y , p ost er ior , of v agus
r a d ia
l
,
of
muscu lo -spir a l
r e cu r r e n t , of ex
t er ie s
ner ve
n er v e
t er na l int e r oss eou s
ar
I N D EX
407
.
BRAN C H
inf e r ior ma x ill ar y
of
r e cu r r e nt ,
m a n d ib u l a r
r e c u r r e n t , o f o h t h a l m ic
p
r e cu r r e n t ,
of
r e cu r r e n t , o f s in a
p
r e c u r r e nt , of su
l
ner v e
ne r v e
n er v e
l
r e na l
r ena l
of
,
,
of
,
of
p e r ior ma x ill ar y
n er v e
l
l
.
of
,
l
,
.
a
.
.
l mas t oidea
a nt e r ior int e r co s t a l
of a
of
genu
of
a
st y o
.
ma mmar ia
.
ma s t oid ,
sup er ior
l
l
of
,
l
c a r ot id
l
s t y l oph a r y ng eal
l
geus
s u b co s t a l ,
su
of
,
a r t e r ies
su
l
s cr ot a l
s cr o t a
l
l
,
l
o ccip it a
of
n
l
pos t er ior
l
s cr ot a
l
t h or a cic
of
t er y
~
n e r ve s
a r t er y
t er n a l
ex
m ax ill a r y
69 1 7
—
b max ill a r y
of
,
su
b ma x ill ar y
b scap ul ar of a a x ill a r is
s u e r fi cia l o f a n as t o mo t ica
p
su
n e r ve
g ang
,
.
m a g na
ar
t er y
cu t a neou s n e r v e
s upe r
p u dic n er v e
s e cond a r y , o f n t r ig e minu s
s inu -v e r t e b r a l , o f s p in a l n e r ve s
,
ar
gl os s oph a r y n
.
,
s cr ot a , o f
l
lion
i io in gu ina ne r v e
in gu ina
o f in t er n a
of
,
—
l
9 0z1 9
—
,
ar
t er na
ex
f a cia l is
.
bl ime of r a d ia l
su b ma x ill a r y
of
ar t er ies
t h y r eoid e a
.
6 9 z26
—
s t y oh y oid, of n
t r a n s v er s a c o ll i
t r a n s v e r s a s ca p u l a e
ci iar y
t er y
in t e r na
t er y
ar
l
'
a
of
s t er no - c e id o - ma s t oid ,
su p r ema
b conj u nct iva l
su
n e r ve s
68 6 3
—
,
sc er a
of
s t er no -c e id o - m a s t o id ,
l
a nt e r ior
of
,
s t er na
—
l
h ep at ica p r op r ia
p u mona is
.
s ca p u a r , o f a
l
,
.
s a p h e nous, of a
s c er a
l
p os t er ior
6 9 z3 3
s t er noc eid o
liac pl ex us
l e ss er s pl a n c h nic n er v e
n s 
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