Загрузил Кристина Щербакова

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GETTINGON
page05
Pastandpresent
verb
forms
Usesof auxiliary
verbs
Relationships
Friendship
Wordspot:gef
Listening:Your pastand
Dresent
Reading:Creat sibling
rivalries
Listening:Characteristics
of a good friend
, ,
o2
Reading:Happiness:facts
and mlrths
Listening:Things that
make you feel good
*;iir,T:-:;'"".,
"1i,
UPSAND DOWNS
feel good
page 16
j
o3
IT ALLWENT WRONG
Narrativetenses
Continuousaspectin
other tenses
Mishaps
C r i m ea n d p u n i s h m e n t
Headtines
Readingand [istening:
News articles
Useandnon-useofthe
passive
PassiVe
formswith
haveor get
Mentalskitls
Wordspot:mrnd
Personal
characteristics
Listening:MentaIski[[s
Reading:W_hat
shapesour
personality?
Reviewof future forms
More complexquestion
forms
Cettingtogether
Coltoquia[
[anguage
Reading:We may have
750 friendsonline,but
we're lonely
Listening:Onlinedating
Perfecttenses
Moreaboutthe Present
perfectsimpleand
continuous
Human achievements
Wordspot:/rrst
page 25
o4
YOURMIND
page35
o5
FACETO FACE
page46
o6
BIGIDEAS
page56
**,:,"r
Study,Practice
& Remember
page131,Audioscriptspage167,lrregularverb
listpage179
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EVENTS
Relativeclauses
Quantifiers
Celebrations
andprotests
SpeciaI
events
Wordspot:take
Reading:We sawhistoryin
the making
Listening:Specialevents
Page 66
o9
GETTINGIT RIGHT
Useandnon-use
of articles PhrasaI
verbs
Differentwaysof givini
Wordspot:right andwrong
emphasis
Page86
11
LIFEISSUES
Page106
HypotheticaI
situations
in
the present
HypotheticaI
situations
in
the past
Reading:How to stand
out from the crowd
Listening and writing:
Takingnotes
Scienceand processes
Wordspot:/fe
Study,Practice
& Remember
page131,Audioscriptspage167,lrregular
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34.
Speaking
andlistening
\r'\)t.rrl! ii ti,ii ;\ti,ri ill.trril:ill.:
1a Read
A-F above.Think
of at teasttwo thingsto say,about
eachone.
b Workin pairs.Teltyour
partnerabout
thethingsyouhavewritten.
Yourpartnercanaskyouquestions.
2a 6i t.1 Listento sixspeakers.which
itemfromexercise
1adoes
eachspeakertatk
about?
mentions
Listenagain.Which
speaker
thetopicsin the box?
Whatdotheysayaboutthem?
workingon a fiLm
3
l0d 1.2 Listenand completethe extractsfrom the recording.
1 We_
thereeverysumrner
for ourhoL.days.
it.
_
2 Nornally
it'sfinebecause
onprogramnes
_
late...Butat themoment
a filn.
_
3 t wasnryfirstjob,but thinkKathy_
differentjobs
beforethat.
-ff
5
6
7
8
threeor four vears.
Somehow
touch.
think we
aboutfiveyears.
We were
to eachotherandwe just
t
sweetln the photoon Facebook.
Reading
Workin pairsanddiscuss
the questions
betowthat
arer€Levanttoyou,
. Wouldyouliketo havea brotheror sister?Why?
. Whataretheadvanta8es
of being
anontychitd?
. Howcloseisyourrelatlonship
withyoursibting(s)?
. Areyousirnilarto eachother?n whatways?
. AreyoLrctoser
to onesibtingthan
the other(s)?
Whichoneandwhy?
. Areyoucompetltive
withyoursibting(s)?
lfyes,
grveexamPles.
Venusand Serena Williams
Workin pairsandLookatthe photos.What
doyou
know(orcanyouguess)
aboutthepeople?
Readthearticleandanswerthequestions.
Whichfamous
sibLings...
1 arefriends
despite
theirrivalry?
2 havecontinued
theirrivatryintootdage?
3 havetakenlegalaction
against
eachother?
4 caused
problems
intheirlocaIcomnrunity
becalse
of theirrivatry?
5 oftencompeted
against
eachotherin impotant
compet
tionsl
6 oftencriticise
eachotherin the firedia?
Read
thearticleagain.Complete
thesentences
beLow.
1 TheaLrthor
of the articlefeltcompetitive
towards
nerstster
Decause
,.,
2 n herautobiography,
boasted
that
I oanFontaine
s h eh a d . . .
3 A lot of people
werewatching
whenOliviade
Havitland...
4 NoelCatlagher
onceattacked
hisbrother
Decause...
5 TheDasstebrotfers
st.rredseparale.o'rpdrie(
6 Somepeop[e
ir Herzogenaurach
refused
to
socialise
witheachotherbecause
...
7 Thewilliams
sisters
arebestfriends
despite
the
factthat...
I Weknowthe authorofthe articleisstilt
cornpetitive
towards
hersisterbecause
.,.
Workin groupsanddiscuss
the qu€stions
below.
. Whichcaseofsibling
rivalry
doyouthinkisthe
mostextreme?Why?
. Whichslblings'achievements
arethemost
impressive?
' Doyouknowanyother
examples
of serious
sibtingrivatry?
Formost people,the longestrelationship
they will
haveis with theirsibling.lt's a shame,then,that we
can't choosethem.As children,my youngersister
and I werealwayscompetingwith eacholher
I wasjealousof her looksand shefelt threatened
by my academicsuccess.But our valrywas nothing
comparedto that of somefamoussiblings.
Take1940smovestarsO iva de Havilland
andJoan
-he
Fo_tdre.
p berweelrlese
conpe iivc.aario.rg']
s sterss thestuffof Holwvoodegend.'l married
first,
wo_t'e Os.a belqFO.v'ado. Aro irI diei's., s1el
.,ldoLbtedly
be ri\^gllbecdLse
I beatl-erto t. Joa1 w ote
n herautobography.
Thekrvalrybecameverypubic
n 1946whenOlivlawonan OscanJoanwasasked
to presentthe awardbut O iviarefLtsed
to evenshake
herhand.'Theyjustdon'thavemuch a common,'
commented
onepersonat thetime.Now n thelr90s,the
sistersapparently
sUlloatheeachotherl
Morerecently,
the rivalrybetweenrockstarsNoeland
LiamGa agherhashitthe news.As partof ihe band
Oasis,theycreatedsomememorabemusic,but
wheneverthey
areinterviewed,
the brothers
cannotresist
puttingeacholherdown.'Thereareonlyiv/othings
wrongwrthLiam,'Noeloacesaid,'eveMhng hesays
andeveMhng hedoes.'Whlethe brothers
wereworkrng
on theirsecondalbum,Liamnvitedsomefriendsto the
studo fora party.Noe waslryingio workandendedup
attacking
Lanrwitha cricketbat.By2011,the brothers
hadstoppedworkingtogeiherandweresuingeachother
- a sorrystuationfor anybrothers
io be in.
Listening
andvocabutary
i:lriondr[rin
la work in pairs.Which
characteristics
belowdolqt
de5cribe
the behaviour
ofa goodfriend?
'I You
cantrustthem,
2 Theyatways
tett youthe truth.
3 Theysometimes
lie toyou.
4 Theyafefun to bewith.
5 Theygossipaboutyoubehindyou. back.
6 Youcanconfidein themaboutyourproblems.
7 Theyatways
keeptheirpromis€s.
b Workin groups.Think
of two morecharacteristics
ofa goodfriend.Which
doyouthinkisthe most
importantcharacteristic
in a friend?
Za rl 0r1.4Workin pairs.You
aregoingto listento three
conversations,
Listento Mazconfiding
in Anna,and
answer
the questions.
1
2
3
4
WhoisBen?
Whatproblem
doesMazhave?
Wha do welea-1abourl4azard Bera. people?
WhatdoesAnna
promise
at theendofthe
conversation?
b rl !r 1.5ListentoJoetalkingto oneof thewomen
fromthe previous
conversation,
andanswerthe
quest|ons,
1
2
3
4
WhoisJoetalkingto?
Whataretheydjscussing?
Whatisthelrattitudetowards
thesituation?
proniseattheend?
WhatdoesJoe
Language
focus2
L!sesof auxi{,iary
verhs
1
Complete
sentences
i-7 fromthe conversations
with the endings
or responses
in the box.
Hesaysheis.
wiLLyou?
lknowshewilt.
isnl it?
oh, areyou?
we do havea goodtime iogether.
r00r1,6tistentoJoetalkingtosomeone
eLse,
and
answerthe questions,
Youdon't thlnk he'sinterested?He say! rhet!
I do lovehim,and_
Youwon't sayanythingto anyone,
Haveyou seenBenand Mazat a[[?
1 Whoisloe tatkingto?
2 Whatisthesuprise
thatlsmentioned?
3 WhatdoesJoe
try to do in the conversation
andwhy?
4 Howdoestheotherperson
respond?
l'm planning
a bit of a sLrrprise
for her.
Its goingto costyoua fortune,
She'lllilethis,
Iistento atlthreeconversations
again.Summarise
the situationbetween
the fourfriends.
Workin pairsanddiscuss
the questions.
' Doyouhavesympathy
for Benor Maz?
' AreAnnaandloe goodfriends
to BenandMaz?
' Should
theysayor doanything?
. Whatdoyouthinkwill happen
between
Ben
andMaz?
2
6i 1.2Listen
andcheck.
1 Und€rtinethe auxiLiaries
inthe endings/responses
in th€ box in exercise1.
2 which auxiliariesin exercise1 are usedto...
1 form tag questions?
4 torm a shortanswertoquestions?
5 avoidrepeatingwords
orsentences?
I ReadStudy 2, page 192
Task
Keepa conversation
going
$"$[il
Speaking
4 Areanyofthe phrases
in the boxin exercise
3
Responding
to how peoplefeel
1
inappropriate
for anyofthe situations?
Civeoneor
two exampLes,
andexpLain
why.
Lookat the Dhoto.Workin
Dairsanddiscuss.Whodo
you turn to if you needa sympath€ticlistener?Why?
t 6d ,.ra,,","n,o fiu. rhrases
saidin two diflerent
way!. Whichsoundsmoresympathetic,a or b?
6i1 1.tg Listento threeshort conversations
ano
answerthe questions.
'| Whatisthe person's
problem
in eachcase?
2 lsthe listener
verysympathetic,
reasonabty
sympathetic
or notverysympathetic?
3 what suggestion{s)
doeshe/shemake?
Checkyou understand
the phrases
in the box.Then
readsituations1-7 belowandchooseoneor two
appropriate
responses
in the boxfor each.
Youmustbereallywonied.
Don'ttakeanynoticeofhim/her.
Don'tworry,it doesn'tmatter.
Trynot to worryaboutit.
Justignorehim/her/it/them.
Theres no pointin gettingupset.
Thatsounds
a$4ull
Howannoying!
Cheerupl
Nevermind.
Catmdown!
z 6i r.rs r"t"n to *'" phrases
b€inssaidi; a
symp.thetlcway.Repeatthe phrasesfromerercise3,
payingattentionto th€ intonation.
Workin pairs.Choose
oneofthe situations
in
exercise
3 andprepare
a conversation
similartothe
onesyou listened
to.
Actout yourconversation
for the class.The
others
listenandsaywhichsituationyouareactingoutand
whetheror notthe listeneris sympathetic.
Writing
Planninganddraftinga biography
stepsdoyougo
A visitofto yourhouse;sembarrassed
because
he's 1 a Workin pai6anddiscuss.What
throughwhenyouwrite5omething
in Engtish,for
spiLted
hisdrink.
exampte
a biography
of a famousperson?
A childtetlsyouthat hisbestfriendsaidsomething
unkindto him.
Yourbestfriendphones
because
she'shada rolv
Tumto page133andreadthe'Fivestepstobetter
with herboyfriend.
writing'.whichid€asdoyoufind us€ful?
4 Yourfriendis in tearsat the endof a sadfitm.
vou'lriendisworriedbecause
hismorherisBoing
intohospitat.
6 Everyore
is laughing
aryourfriend.newhai-style.
7 Yourfriendistoo scared
to goto thedentistby herself
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rei.r tee f9 nress..l ...1 i r strare.l
A psychologst haslivented a phone app which he
c a l m s w i l m a k el s e r sm o r es e l f - a w a raen d a b l e
to make better-infornredlife choices.'Trackyour
' e e : n g s b e e p s' , e , a t
dor po' ., n r"
day. Useresaywhatthey are doing and choose
a w o r dt o d e s c r i b eh o w t h e y f e e ,r e g i s t e r l n g
th€ strensthoflhelrfee inss from one to five.
The inventorstressesthat the app must be usec
d!.in9 the activity(or immediateyafterwards),
as he be ievesthat we often recolect our
fee ings dlfferenty from howwe felt at thetime
IN THISUNIT
Vocabulary
andspeaking
Readthe factsat the top of the page.Thenwork in groupsand
discuss.Do they surpriseyou? Canyou think of any explanations
forthem?
Readthe text aboveabout a new phoneapp.
Answerthe questions.
1 Whatdoeslhe nventor
clairiit y]i[[do?
2 Howdoesit work?
3 Doyouthinkan app[ikethiswoutdb€ useful
to you?
Work in pairs.Lookat the adjectivesbelowthat are usedin the app
andcheckyouunderstandthem.Whichof the adjectivesdo you
rarelyor neverfeet?
amused
awkward
\
DOrec
oepresseo Lmpatrent
dissatisfied
enthLrsrastrc {onety
s[eepy
stressed
frust€ted
gflrmpy
unsociable
upset
cheerful
confident
curious
paniclv
Posrtve
Reading
andspeaking
\.-
Readquotes1-5 and choosethe oneyou agreewith
most.Compareanswerswith the class,
and
l{anoiness is the ineaninc
ter
a"atm
*hore
tt''
'r tU''
".i""* human existen""
end-of
Arir,o,l"
Happiress is like a butterfly! the
more you chce it, the more it wi
escape you. But if you turn 'our
attention to other things, it will come
and sit softly on you shoulder.
HenryDavkllhareau
If you want happiness for d hou! tate a
nap, II yo-uuanr happiness for a day. go
o\n,n€. U you han, happines< for a year,
forrue. rr )ou \anr happines.
:n}]e:'l-a
for a lifetime, help soneone else.
Chineseproverb
l
not in seeking
The secet of happiness is
t""'ro.rrr",
to
more, but in l€arning
"oj""
Anyone who is happy all the time reeds
to see a psychiarrist.
Ananynous
2a Readthe statemenisbelow.Doyou think they are
true or false?
1 S p e _ d i -r go n e r d o e . rr r o l e r o u h o p o . .
than
2 Livingin a sunnycLlnrate
makesyou happier
livingln a cold country.
3 Talkingto strangers
nakesyou feelbetter
4 Daydreaming
nakesyou happy.
than
5 People
who livein citlesaremorernlsefab[e
thosewho live in the country.
6 ThemoreyoL earn,the betteryoufeel
7 lvlenwho do lesshousework
are happlerthan rnen
who do a tot.
a Forcingyoursetf
to smlLemakesyo(rfeelbetter.
b Work in groupsandcompareanswers.
3
Work in pairs.StudentA:readthe articleon this
page.StudentB:turn to page127 and readthe
articte.Discussthe questionsbeLow
. Whichtopicsfromexercise
2a arementioned?
.
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A c ' o r d i 9 r o \ o b e l P z e - wn r r r 9 p ' v c ' o l o g s r o a n e
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M o s rp e o p e r l - n . r " a r c . v r o l l .a e . o . e s k e s s e da r o
e s , a o p ? , h d r c o u . y t o l <W e l o w i t s o f c i a l )
'r e:ciriesoeo on)bdd b yo,' heaIrwirh'Lei
p o l u r i o l a . o o ' e c o { d . 9 . ( " e ) e a l s ob a o r o . y o {
' a o p n e , s .L s
-(olomisL
"9 a soe.a ,manploie.op.
c e o 9 e M a c K e, o 1 . o l e c . e dd a t ao r w h e ' e w t e r
d d why people &e e appy T-e ?eu rs wer" cle" .
c t e s a e t n eJ . r i o p i e s tp a c e sr o i v e i - . f / o . a ' o h " p o r e s s a , b e r g o ' . r c a l e' r o r l r o 0 0 ( r ' e s
' e o r t e v o r r w e l - o en 9 o v o e t " e e - o r . a n o t , , e p o n i '
And which placesmake peop e happiest?Mo!l
ad' e s s '
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
Listening
andvocabulary
l ! ri i \l\ !,[l ]rt r 'l N,l \r '"i i'qrirl..'i$r: r:l
1
A groupof peoptewereasked'Which
thingsin yourlife makeyoufeeLgood
and
whichmakeyoufeeLbad?'Look
at the
mostfrequentanswers
below.lsanything
importantmissing?
rnomeror
Securrry
poodrftrud^sktps
I
-'
,:
'
r
Lr ii;:l
:i:., tll,Iii',I...:.I.,,r,.:I.
havingvarietyand
exciternentin life
t--t ^{ (tAAn,/
myIolbiEs exhaustion
rndint[rG$t$
at/ur,snzfo*e
ohas
being an employer,
not an emplgyee
l " r :i : r l t :'
I r r i , , 1 , i .i i r r . t r r l t l l
lffik/,[milfiluth|
examstress payingtaxes
laeing
lack of
money
Work in g.oups.Maketistswiththe ideasin
ex€rcise1.
. things that make people feel good
. things that make people feel bad
. could be both
Decideifthe phrasesin exerciset havean
opposite.Addthem to the list.
good friendships- lackof friends
criticismfron athers - supportfram athers
Lookatthe threepeopLe
youguesswhich
in the photos.Can
thingsin exercise
1 makethemfeelgoodandbad?
b 0
z.z Listenandcheckyouranswers.
Listenagain.Which
thingsin the boxbetowdoe5eachperson
mention?Are
theygoodor badthings?
spendingtimewithmyfamily
anti-socialbehaviour
havinganactivesocialtife
not havingtimetorelax
growup inteLLeciuat
watchingnrychildren
stimulation
Workin pairsandsummarise
thegoodandbadthingsabout
eachperson's
Life,givingas
muchdetailasyoucan.
Workin pairsanddiscuss.Which
1 and4a
thingsin exercises
doyouthinkmostaffectthe peoplebetow?
. teachers
. enFepreneurs
. youngpeopLe . athletes
. parents
. etderty
peopte
Rudeness
is a big prob/emlor schoolteachers.
Youngpeopleworryaboutexamstress.
Makea list ofthethingsin tifewhichmakeyoufeelgood/
bad,workin groupsandcompareyour
answ€rs,
Task
Do a classsurvev
Preparation
Listening
Lookat the photosandquestions
beLow.
Whatcanyouseein each
photoandwhichquestiondoyou
thinkit relatesto?
W
\\h\Nil$W\HN\\\}hW\T,h$I
rirwrii[\H$Hu$$\H\\ww}\\
sS
2
\D]
6i 2.4Listento fivepeople
answering
oneof the questions,
Whichquestion
doesthe speaker
answ€r?
what reasons
andexamPtes
dotheygive?
Listenagainandtickthe phrases
you
hearin the Usefullanguage
box.
TaskSpeaking
1a Youaregoingto conducta surveyand
taLkabout
the questions
in exercise
1.
Readthe questions
againandthinkof
at leastoneanswerforeach.
2a Yourteacherwill giveeachstudenta question
from
exercise'1.
Youaregoingtocarryout a classsurveyabout
thistopic,First,think
ofsomefottow-upqu€stions
to ask.
> Usefutlanguage
b
b MingLe
with the cLass
andaskyourquestions.
tf possibte,
interviewsix
otherstudents.
Makenotesaboutwhat
3a Workaloneor in pairs.Pr€pare
yourfindings
to 5ummarise
b Thinkabouthowto exptain
your
answers,
Makenotes,usingthe
promptsbetow.
Askyourteacherfor
anywords/phrases
you need.
. Whydoyoufeetlikethis?Areyour
feeljngs
|ational?
. Haveyoualways
fettthisway?
. Haveyouhadanyexperiences
that
havemadeyoufeelthisway?
> Usefutlanguage
a
to the ctass,
Thinkaboutthe ideasbelow.
. anyanswers
that cameupmorethanonce
. thestrangest/most
surprising
youheard
answers
. anyfunnystodes
you heardthat areworthrepeating
> Usefullanguag€c
Taketurnsto summarise
yourfindingstothe ctass.
Did
youaL[havesimitarfeetings
or weretherea widevariety
Findout first
View
1a Whatarethe bestlabour-saving
devices
andetectron
icgadgets
that
2a Youaregoingto watcha videoabouthappiness.
Lookat
thewordsandphrases
betowfromthe video.Dotheyhave
a positive(P)or negative
(N)effecton happiness?
oruogery
b Workin pairs.Dothe Consumer
technotogy
quizbeLow
Consumerteclmology
1 What percentage of Indian householcls
own a television?
a approximately
25%
b appro{mately 50%
c approomately
75%
What percentage of US households don't
orl,n a television?
a approximately
10%
b approximately5%
c appm).rmately1%
How many motor vehicles are there
in the world today?
a around 100million
b aroundonebillon
c aromd ien billion
How many mobile phones are in use
in China?
a ten million
c overone billion
Coonlineto checkyour
answe.s
or
askyourteacher
Search:
lndian/ljS
households
TV
percentage
/ motof vehiclesworld/
mobi[ephonesin lse China
labour-saving
devices
stafingat a screenatlday
b O watchthe videoandanswerthequestions.
1 Whatdoesthescience
of happiness
sayaboutmachines?
2 Whathavelabour-saving
devices
faiLed
to do?
3 Whatdoestechnology
pushout of ouf lives?
4 Whatarethethfeeingredients
of happiness?
3
Watchthe videoagainandchoose
the correctanswers
(bothanswers
maybecorrect).
1 Technology
promises
to bringusdrudgery/
newpossibilities.
2 n a technologicalutopia,
wewouldhavemore
fteetime/ fun.
3 Compared
to 50yea|sago,we nowspendless/ more
timeon househoLd
chores.
4 Because
oftechnotogy,
we nowspendmoretirre
alone/ withotherpeople.
5 On[inecon]munities
makeusrnore/ lesssocialin the
6 Wenow knowthe keyto / a rccipefot happiness.
4 Doyouegreewith the recipefor happiness
in thevideo?
Whatother'ingred
i€nts'doyouthinkareimportantfor a
happyLife?
I
IN THISUNIT
Vocabulary
Lookat the mishapsbeLowand checkyouunderstandthe wordsin
bold.Thinkof more examptesto addto the List.
'
'
.
'
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Youtoseyour keysandlockyourselfout.
YoLget stuckin traffc andrnissan appointment.
YoLsLipon sonreice.
Youtrip and fatt over.
Youget on the wrong train.
Youget confusedand rnakea mistake.
Youfcarbr€aksdown,
Youbangyourhead.
Yo! get lost.
Yo! spiLL
painton yourclothes.
YoLrrun out of petrol.
Youoversteepand missyour train.
Youdropsomethlng
valuable
andbreakit.
Youbofiowsornethingwlthout askinganddamagelt.
Work in pairs.Which of the th ingsin exerciseI hashappenedto
you?Taketurns to saywhercandwhen.
ffmsk
Tella storyfrom two pointsof view
PreparationListening
1 a Lookat the pictur€s.They
showan incidentthat
happen€dto BillandFrank
aftertheyhadbe€nto a
party.Matchthewordsin the boxto the pictures.
taughyourheadoff
thickice
swayalloverthe place
a steephitL
Workin groups.
Canyouguesswhathappened
to BiLlandhisfriend?lsthereaMhingyou don't
und€rstand
fromthe pictures?
2
Workin groups.
croupA:6i 3,4Listento whatBitltotdhislawyer
afterthe incident.
croupB:6i13,1Listen
to whatthe otdladytotdthe
police.listenasmanytimesasnecessaryto
besure
ofthe details.
Makenotesif necessary.
Task Speaking
Practise
re-tellingthe
storywith students
fromthe
samegrouP.
> Us€futlanguage
a andb
2a Workin peirs,onepersonfromGroupAandone
fromG.oupB.Taketurnsto reportwhatBit[andthe
oLdladysaid.
Makea list of diff€rencesbetweenthe two stories
andanyinformation
but
that onepersonmentioned,
the otherdidn't.Compare
yourtistwith the ctass.
> UsefulLanguage
c
Workin pairs.Discuss
the questions
beLow
. Whosesideofthe storydoyoubetieve?
' Werethe poticerightto arrestBitlandhisfriend?
' WhatfurtheractiondoyouthinkthepoLice
tookT
Vocabulary
ti.lrirurn
I
unripuniilltnren
1
Lista5
work in pairsandhavea race.lntwo minutes,
manycrimesaspossibLe.
muroe,...
autgtary,
andcheckthe meaningof
2a Read
the questionnaire
in bold.
thewordsandphrases
youranswers.
3a work in groupsandcompare
Civereasons.
below.
Discuss
the questions
. In whichcases
doyouneedto knowmoreabout
to makeyourdecision?
the circumstances
. Lnwhatcircumstances
shouldajudgebevery
Lenient/harsh?
for the
4a Workin paksandwritetwo moresituations
punishments.
qui:,with possible
b Workatone.Dothe questionnaire.
turn5to discussyour
b Workwith anotherpair.Tak€
your
punishments.
ExPlain
possible
and
5ituations
chotces,
Are you harsh or lenient?
Tick the punishmentyou think is most
appropriatefor eachcrime.
1 A university student buys an essayonline and submits
it as her own. The university recognisesthe essayas
plagiarism.
' Sheshouldreceivea warning. !
. Sheshouldbe expelled.tr
. Sheshould be prosecutedfor fraud. tr
. other(what?)
2 A l2-year-old girl consistently plays truant from
school.The parentssaythat the childwon't listento
them and they are powerlessto help.
. Sheshouldbesuspended.tr
. Sheshouldbe erpelled.!
. Herparentsshouldbe prcsecuted.. other (what?)
3 A famity with eight children are living in a quiet street
They are very noisy and the neighbours complain of
anti-social behaviour. They are renting their house
. The family should be evicted. . The parents shol d be prosecuted. n
' The neighbours should learn lo cope. !
. olher (what?)
for
manis arrested
4 A 2o-year-oid
drink-drivi]lg aftercausinga minor
accident, It's the first time he has been arrested.
. He shonldbe let off with a warning. !
. He shouldlose his licence.I
. He should be given 200 hours of community
seruce. !
A homelessman is afiested for begging in the city
centre.The iocatlawsdo not allowbeggingandhe has
beenarrestedseveraltimesfor the samecrime.
. He should be let off with a warning. !
. He shouldbe prosecuted.. He shouldbe fined. !
. other(what?)
A student is arrestedfor wriiing political graffiti on a
building.
' His parentsshouldbecalled.D
. He shouldhaveio pay for the damage.!
He shouldbe prosecuted.!
other (what?)
A mother of two young children is charged with the
possession of illegal cbugs and found guilty.
. She should be sentenced to six months injail !
. She should be gwen a suspended sentence !
. Her children should be taken into care. f
. other(what?)
Vocabulary
2a Choosethe bestwordto comptetethe phrasesbetow.
Whichartictedoyouthinkeachphrase
comesfrom?
F{endIines
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Workin pairs.Read
the newspaper
headtines
below
andexplaineachstoryinyourownwords
1,T-I."I:*J*3:HJ
Eea\,']/ ra,in set to cause t
severe floodine!
t
bra[!l[?erist
az-year-otd
b ReadartidesA{ quickly.
wereyourpredictions
corect?
ctrm'?
It lrElscall$
totillilEn$alBty
claima pize / a competition
builda nucleatengine/ rcactor
violatesomeone's
fiappiness/ privacy
access
someone's
emailaddress
/ account
reimburse
a debt/perro,
gt thrcugha wedding/ divorce
splitanatom / radiation
buy radioactive
materialsI stuff
payaff a debt / bankaccount
3a ReadarticlesA-C
on page33.Arestatements
1-12
give
true(T)orfatse(F)?whichlinesin the articLes
youthe information?
lost in mazecall999
CouDle
1 Arnanda
knewit wasa winningticketwhenshe
foundit.
TheStaceys
spentallthemoney.
Dorothyhadproofthat it washerticket.
camelotthink Dorothyshootdhavebeen
morecareful.
*:1""T:.i:T"."*.r61f=J
DeathtoLtcLimbsin
aircrash
B
punishment
Theminlmurn
isfiveyears
injai[.
LeonandC[arawerestiL ivingtogether
7 Leonwasn'tClaG'sfirsthusband.
8 Mostpeopleunder25readtheirpartnelsemails.
2a Findwordsin the headtines
whichhavethe sam€
meaning
asthewordsbelow.
1
2
3
4
5
suppofts
backs
promises
isprobabLy
goingto
the numberof people
whodied
peopte's
demands
HandL
totdtheauthorities
whatlie wasdoing.
1 0 Hepubticised
thefacthewasdoingtheexperiments.
1 1 Hedoesn'thavethe nuclear
materials
anymore.
1 2 Fe plans
in thefulure.
lo dono-eexperi'Fenls
whydoyou thinkthewordsin the headLineswere
usedinstead?
3
Workin pairsanddiscussthe
questions
about
headlines
in generat.
1 Whichtenseisoftenusedto talkaboutthe pa5t?
2 Howdo headlines
usualty
referto the future?
3 Whichofthe grammaticalfeatures
betoware
commonty
missing
fromheadLines?
. theverbbe
. atticlesla/anlthe)
. relativepronouns
. nounsanonounpnrases
. auxiLiary
verbs
b work in pairsandcheckyouranswers.
4
5a t d 3.8Listento threenewsstoriesvt4rich
explainwhat
youranswers
happen€din the end.check
to exercise
4
Listenagainandmakenoteson anyother
you hear
information
Readingand listening
6
1
-
Workin pairs.Lookat the newspaper
headlines
and
introductions
on page33.Maketwo guesses
about
whatis happening
in eachstory.
i r A r n ] ,r L e w o n - d n . . L e p h o t o h d , w o n t h e r o c l e r y .
work in pairs.Discuss
the questions
beLow.
. ThethreeanicLes
Onlyoneperson
areatltrLre
stories.
wasnotcharged.Who
doyouthinkit was?
. what doyouthinkhappened
to theotherpeople?
work in groups.
Discuss
th€ questions
below.
. Areyousurprised
bythe outcomein anyofthese
case5?
. Doyouthinktheoutcomeof eachcasewasfair?
Why/Whynot?
. Doyouknowof anyrecent[ega[cases
that hada
controve|5ialoutcome?What
happened?
Speaking
Dealingwith unexpectedproblems
1a (J l.g Listento threeshortconv€rsation5.
Thereisan unexpected
probtemin each.
Answerthe questions,
1 Wl_ere
doe(theconversatior
takepla(e'
2 Whatisthe probtem?
Listenagainandcompletethe
extractsbelow.
Conversation
1
1l_
b u tl c o L r l dbnu' ty at i c k e t .
2 Canl_a
W h y_ t b u y a
_?
ticketnow?
3 Look,
this is _
! I'm nota criminal.
Conversation
2
4 Look,
there'sbeena _.
We didn't
that youwantedto bepaid.
5 | don'tthink
.Youshoutdhavetold
usat thestart,
6 No,you _
really
aren'tyour
_.We
cuStome15,
Conversation
3
7 Whatdo you _you've
It's not
I
Perhaps
|_
givenit to someone
wecouldn't
finda parking
that, but thisisveryunfair.
to
to the manager
Workin pairsanddiscuss.
Howwouldyoudeatwith
eachsituationif it happened
in yourcountry?
lwauld pay the fine and makea
camptatnt
tater
, 6i a.,o,,.,"n,o*nu,"nrenc€ beloweid in two
different ways.How doesthe sp€aker 5oundeachtime:
.alm or angry/annoyed?
I ufderstand
that but I coutdn'tbly a ticket.
z" 6] :.tt tistento,"nt"n.es l-9 from exercise
lt.
Howdoesthe speaker
soundin €ach sentence?
b Practi* sayingthe *ntences.
3a Readthe situationsbeLowWhat
mightyousayin
eachsituation?
Usethe phrases
in boLdin exercise
1b.
' Youparkyourcarandgoshopplng.When
you
comeback,a trafficwardeniswritingyoua ticket.
Youhaveoverstayed
the 3o-minute
limit.
. Youbuysomefoodin a shopbutwhenyo! get
outside,you
reatise
gaveyou
thatthe shopkeeper
too littlechange.
Sherefuses
to giveyouthe rest.
. Youarriveat a hotelwhere
youmadea reservation
fortwo nights.They
havero recordofyour
reservation
andthe hotelisfuLf.
. Youtakea taxi.When
youarrive,
yourealise
that
tFeta, rreters1r\aorkng./oLtl-inlr1eta'i
driver
isasking
toomuch.
. Youtakeyourcomputer
to a fepairshop.When
you pickit up,the mansayshehasspenttwo days
tryingto repairyourcomputer,
but it stiLldoesn't
work.Hegivesyoua biLtfor€120.
Workin pairs.Choose
a situationandprepare
a
conversation,Try
to usethe phrases
in exercise
1b.
c Actout the conversation
for the ctass.
hoveyou got?
2
Whotisthe m ssingnumberin
ihissequence?
9 6 9 5 9 2 8 7 ( ) 7 1
5
Wrifedown os mony possibe
useslor o newspoperos you
con in two minutes.
Turnto poge 126ond sludy
the thingsto buy/doin town'
llstfor one rn nute.Thenclose
yourbookond wlle downo I
6
You hove o woll o gooi ond
o cobboge wh ch oll hove to
be token ocrosso rlvef.Vou
hove o smql fow ng booi
in wh ch you con only toke
one thingwithyou ot o time.
Howevetifthe wof ond goot
ore eft o one, the wolf will eot
the goot. And f ihe goot ond
the th ngs you con
temembeT
3
How mony sidesdoes
th s igure hove?
4
Youore look ng ofier
somechldrenfor the doy
One illle g r, Anno, comes to
you cry ng becouse lhe others
won'i p oy with her Whol do
you do?
o Telltheotherchidrenofffor
be ng meon
b TelAnno lo sod t out hersef.
c Glve Anno o biscul lo moke
her feel better
d Telthe childrenthey con oll
hove o biscult f they promlse
to ploywth Anno.
e otherl
gool w leol the cobboge.
How con you get ocrossihe
rver wllh the h^/oon molsond
ihe cobboge?
7
Howcreotve do you think
you ore?
o
b
c
d
veTycreolNe
creolve
ovefogerycreolve
oboui os creotive os
q pototo
Reading
andspeaking
1a Workin pairsanddiscuss.what
doyouunderstand
or nurture'?
bythe phrase'nature
1-4 betowsupportthetheoryof
Dosentences
natureor thetheoryof nurture?
1
2
3
4
Everythlng
comesfrornourgenes.
arejn ourupbringlng.
Therootsof personatity
Wecant change
whow€are.
ourpersonatity.
Ourenvironment
inftu€nces
paragraphs
dothe pictures
Readthe artic[e.Which
iLtustrate?
M/hat shapes ou
pcil-sonality
ls it lhe result of nature - what we
are born with - or nurture - what we
experience? We search tor the answer.
i i i i i t i i il t r l , i i ! , , j t . i t i i , t : r f ' . _ i , f r , i i r t t r ' i r , l
1 Two and a harthousandyearsago,the ancient
Greeksbelevedthai yourpersonaly
was ths resuliof difierentfluids,
o r ' h u m o . s 'i,n y o l r b o d y ,l k e
b ood, phlegmand bile.
Accordng lo Hippoclates,
didyoulearnabout
work in pairsanddiscuss.what
thethings/peopte
in the pictures?
3
the wordsin
Workin pahs.Checkyouunderstand
boldin the questions
belowThenreadthe articLe
againandanswerthe questions.
traits
whatpersonatity
1 According
to Hippocrates,
for?
werebiteandbtoodfesponslble
last?
2 Howtongdidthetheoryof the'fourhumo15'
3 r'r'|'r
doyor rh 1\ people
Lo,l(Lledoh-erolog<l(
partners?
aboutjob
applicants
andmarrlage
4 ExpLaln
inyourownwords
what'weareallbornas
thisrelate
to the
blanksLat€s'neans.
Howdoes
quotefromSkinner?
crimlnals
who
5 Whatistheconnectlon
between
in the
andchlldren
wereexecuted
ln anclent
China
LIKwhopLay
truant?
support
6 HowdoestheStanford
Pfsonexperlmeni
l L " 1 rr l J - er h e o l ? f r d o) o - \ l t t f a s
'infamous'?
become
7 Accordlng
to nurturetheory,shouldidenticaL
twins whogrowup apartbesimitar?Why/Why
not?what happens
in practlce?
4
the questions.
Workin groupsanddiscuss
. Weblam€ourparents
butwe
for ourweaknesses
Doyouagree?
don'tthankthernfor ourstrengths.
. Howwoutdyoudescribe
yourpersonaLlty
in terms
traitsinthearticle?
of the'bigflve'personallty
. Whathasmost nfluenced
yourpersonality?
I 6i +.: rirt"nto tt'" *ordsbetowandma*the stress.
inyolr language
buthav€adifferent
whi.h tooksimitar
pronunciation?
Listen
againandpractke.
bloodmadeyou brave
wlh mentalillnesseswefe
sometimeslreatedwltlr eeches
in orderio restorethe balanceof
theirhlmors. lt was only n tlre 1glh
centuryihaiscientsts beganto doubtihe
theoryol humors,althoughpatientsmay havenoticed
muchearlerthatiheyweren'tgehingany betterl
By the late 191hcentury,personaliiyhad beencorrecily
'""oro Forar.Tfiswasabgaova,e.b.Lsore
peopletook tioo lar and phrenoogyeme€ed
believed
as a new scence'.PhrenoLogists
thaiihe brainatfectedthe shapeofthe
d,
head,and so byfeelingsomeone's
head,theycoulddiscoverthe
shapeof the r brainand ihereiore
- includlng,lor
theirpersonaliiy
example,how rkelysomeonewas
to commitmurdenAi the height
oi its popularly, phrenoogists
we€ consultedaboutpossible
maniagepartn€rsof io give
a backgroundcheckon job
appicants.Job interv€ws riusthave
beeninterestng n lhosedaysl
havelookedtoour
More€cently, scienlisis
genesas the solrce oi personaliy.Whie ther€
scerranlya link,it s iar rromsmple. Fora start,
a singe genemightbe involvedin manyd fiefeni
- and we havearound
aspectsof our personality
25,000genesin our body.And whenevena
s m p l e t h i n gi k e t h e c o l o uori y o u r s k i n! st h e
r€sultof morethan100d fierenlgenes,imagine
how manyare nvoved in a charactertraii lke
beingopen,extrovert,agreeable,
consceni ous
or ne!rcticthe big five'trats that psychologisis
nowadq,suseto descdbehunranpeGonaliy).
focus2
Language
PRACTICE
i l i t :, i )i,' ,I. j , l i rl i , r , , ,i ,l il , i : ' . t ,i t, ,. , ' t ' , . , r , t t r
'l
1
workin
Read
the text'Thefutureof yourmind.'Then
true
youthinkwitlcome
pairs
andsaywhichideas
2
below.
the questions
Workin pairs.Discuss
. lf yourmindcou[dbemanipulated
in
assuggested
youdownload
f rst?
theart cte,whatskjllwouLd
. Whatideawouldyouplant,
m nd?
andinwhose
. Whose
woLldyoubuy?why?
memofles
picture,
abouteach
LJse
theprompts
to writesentences
1 read/palm
She'shavingher paln read.
Lookat the examplesand answerthequestions.
The chaGctetsrecord thet erperiences.
2 read/horoscope
pressure
4 take/blood
Ihe charactershave bad nenoies erased.
1 who recordsthememori€sin the lirst sentence?
2 who erases
them in the secordsentence?
Findtwo other examptesin the articl€ withrave+
sometl,ing+ pastparticipleandanswerthequestions
I What is thetensein eachexampLe?
2 Howisth s constructio.lsed in otherteises?
Lookat the examplebelow,Noticethatwe canalso
useget insteadof rave in this construction.ll is more
informatthanhavebutthe meaningisthe sam€.Find
an exampLe
whhger + someti,rg + PastParticiplein
5 dye/hair
2
6 paint/nails
Work in pairsand discussthe questions.
we'li,et au bad nemaries ercsed.
. which thingsln the pictures
do/don'tyoudo yourself?
. Doyou or haveyou everhadanything
likethis
s,etc.?
beautician
doneat the opticlan's,
I Readstudy 2, pag€ 141
I sonretimesdye my hair m),seli,b!t I never.ut my
Mm$m
Choosepeopleto go on a spacemission
Preparation$i.cuding
fo[owingthe sucessofth€ Mau
500mision,the Iniemational
spaceAsency(IsA)hasdecjded
to carrYout a noreextended
simulat€dspacemission.
'Mhsion2050witLsend
sden
votnnteers
to tivefor tenyea6
at anislated, top-ssEt desert
to6tion, knownas'Ndaierra'.
Volunteeucannotleavethe
missionunLess
theyaredticly
ilt. ltey canontycontacttheir
faniUesandfriendseverythrce
Ite clinateandhabiiatof
'Novatenn wilLbeadapted
io
reflectwhatisknoM aboutlials
andthe njssjonwitl becLosety
monito.€dbyscientisE,doctoE
andpsychotogists
res€Ehing how
to setuprcalspace
cotonisin the
tuture.lt wittbeprcmotedas an
inportamsymbotof
internationaL
1a Readthe articteaboutMission
2O5O
andsummarise
the maininformation.
s€ctionof nationatities,
Ees
. studyhowp€opleofdiff€rent
sercs,aget reactundertnese
b Workin pairsanddiscuss.What
charaderistics
do
youthinkwilLbemostusefuIin Novaterra?
2a Youhavebeenaccepted
for Mission
20501You
have
. studytheneeds
andbehaviour
ofanychiLdren
bomintothere
. ind outthemostimportant
chalacteristi6that ntturespace
the IsAwill provid€toodcapsules
fortnrceyea6,burthevotunte€6
rhouLdbecome
setf-sufficient
after
this.water emergeicy;edrcat
supptierblanketsandbasic
shetterwitlaLsobeprcvided.rhe
rctunteeEwilLatteid a co|1|5e
@Eringsuruivalskitts,agdcltt!.e
andnEt ajd,butpEcticatshtLs
that vohntets Gn bringwil ot
,;;l
be€n asked
whoshoutdgowithyou.
. Readaboutthe otherninesholtIisted
candidates.
. Circle
the factoEthatyouthinkmakethem
suitable
andunderline
thefactors
thatdonot.
(Unless
statedabove,
atlcandidates
arefreeof
famityties,speakEnglish
andareheatthy.
)
Decide
whichcandidatesyou
wouLd
andwouldnot
liketo spendthe nexttenyearswith.
,,,,.......
l
.,
''..1
i
--..
.' -.. .\. 1r. '1
- - t- .
\
. cald andsetf{dncientandgood
. protu$orofenqinee
ng
. sjftedmWjchnandsingr
. fi jendly,
butver!inteltedual
and'bookish'
. tendsto beintrolertanduncomnunicative
. beadticiaim
iedtoat (beLow)
. sociable
andwelL-meaning
butvery
i verYextrovertandhumorous
. ver!indivjdua[sticcanberebelLious
. canbeneedyand
aitention{eehng
. fiveyearsin !Sarmy,nowabuitder
. marrjedtosabhna(above)
. strongphysicalty,
but hasputona tot of
t
. dk.ipLinedin a,m!foraSgressive
l
. fornerbaLtroom
dancingchampjon
, friendtywithvsygood peopleskitls
. ha5sufferediiom depressjon
Findout first
View
1a Workin pairs.Read
the information
belowaboutt he differences
between
malesandfemates
andtryto gless
the correctanswers,
2a Youaregoingto watcha videoaboutwhyboysandgirLs
Likedifferenttoys.Whatgender-stereotyped
toys do you
thinkthevideowittmention?
rrrrrrr--rri
I Men versusWomen
I Various scientific studies over the last
I two decadeshave proved that there
are I
differencesbetween boys and girls at
schoolin termsofhow good they are
at
certain skills (aithough we don't know
the reasonsfor thosedi{ferences).
For
example, r6oys / girls tend to be better
at spatialskills,for examplerotating
growup,
Vhen
boys
andgirls
an obiect
in their
mind,
whlle'boys
I
I feeling.
3nen
we
frnd,
that
/
utomen
make
tend
to
judging
what people
I girls are bette! at
more
are money over the long telms when
they invest in the stock market.
We a.lsoturd that amenI uomen are
more likely to have an accident while
driving, despitebeingmore ableto see
detailat a distance.
I
t
I
I
t
T
I
l
I
I
I
L-------r---J
I
I
I
I
I
b O watchthe video.Thenworkin pairsandanswer
the questions.
1 Whatdoestheexperiment
with to(dletsprove?
what doestheexperiment
w;thmonleysprove?
Whymightmalesbeattradedto vehictes
ljke
helicopters
andcars?
Whatdoesthe presenter
conclude
aboutt he
nature-nurtute
de bate?
T
I
I
3
T
Before'15
months,
boysandgirlsdon'tshowa preference
for particutar
toys.
Thefirstexperiment
withtoddlers
isdesigned
to testthe
natureargument.
Thevolunteers
aretrickedintobeUeving
thetoddlers
are
the opposite
sex.
Thefirstexperiment
showsthat nurtureis probabt
important.
Thesecond
experiment
isnewandsurprising.
Dr Hineschosemonkeys
because
shecoutdn'tfindthe
rightkindof chitdren.
Dr Hinesfoundthat bothmateandfemalemonkeys
weremorelikelyto ptaywith ca6,trucksandsoon.
ThecLassic
sc ientifc
viewisstil[supported
by recent
research.
I
I
T
I
I
I
I
I
b Goontinetocheckyouranswers
or
askyourteacher.
Searchr
boysveBusgirlsspatialskills
/
judgingfeelings
women
/ menversus
stockmarket/ drivinS
accidents
Watchthevid€o againandtickthethreesentences
that
aretrue,Correctth€ false
sentences.
4'
Workin pairs.Wereyou
surprised
bythe outcomeofthe
experim€nt?Wha
are
t yourviewsonthe naturc-nurture
debatein termsofchildrenandtoys?
'iilliilliitf
riifrlilf
Vocabulary
i"ii.rll.i
ilttr Ltlrl'L.tr'ii.,t
'l
in A tekepartin the eventsin B?
Whichof the peopLe
Delegatesand speakers
attendconferences.
acqua
ntances
busine5s
associates
cIients
a btinddate
a business
meeting
a ceteDralon
meat
ex-cLassrnates
friends
guests
i dating
website
a o nnerpafty
a familyget together
ar online
forum
party
a housewarmrng
a schooIreunion
a summit
ca[[
a conference
site
a socialnetworking
poIiticalteaders
speakers
reEtves
peopte
lookingfor a partner
strangers
2
in exercise
1.
Matchthe v€rbsbelowto the waysof meeting
. havea business
meefing... . attend
. use
. make
! go on
I thatyou have
3a Choose
threewaysof meetingfromexercise
notes
on
the
topics
below.
experienced
recentLy.l4ake
' whenandwhereit wash-"ld
. whowasthefe
. whetheryou
it
enjoyed
eachevent,but
b Workin groups.
Taketurnsto brieftydescribe
mustguess.
don'tsaywhatit was.Theotherstudents
Reading
andspeaking
work in groupsanddiscuss
beLow.
the questions
. Howimportant
aretheseth ngsin yourinteractlon
wth otherpeople:
yourpnone
soclalnetworking
sites
otherformsof onIne cornraun]cation?
. n whatwaysdo you usethem?
' Havethesethingsjmproved
yoursociatllfe?Why/
Why not?
Readthe introductionto the articLe.Pfedictwhat the
].
writerwil[ sayaboutthe questions
in exercise
3a Readthe articLeand checkyour answers.
'We may have 750 frien
work in pairsandsummarise
how communication
mediaaffectsthe topic betow.
' the a!thor'saailyfouline
' sociaIevents
andgigs
l]kedinnerpartles
' hlsretatonships
wlth hlsfrlends
andgiflfriend
Findthe wordsor sentencesin the artictethattel[
you the thingsbeLow.
-l'par
1
o .o^dr' o(Ftoh<pforedldt.pLop.
(para.
rJ
My phone and laptop are within conslant
touching distance.
2 He receiv€s
newsfrornh s friends
on[]ne
throughoLi
2)
the day.(para.
.ro - or,"a*.(pa-r.2)
3-le "
" c . lo L. e l - "
4 He is not the onlyperson
who feelslonelyin this
way.(pafa.3)
5 Hisphonels not helpingh s relatonshipwlth h s
(para.3)
friends.
6 t's not easyfor hisgirtfrlend
to get hlsattentlon.
(para.4)
7 Hetalksto fr endsonllnewhenheshouldbe
(para.5)
working.
8 Hlsfrlendi d not concentrate
fLrlly
whenhewas
play.(para.6)
watchlngRihanna
9 Heandhlsfriends
can'tglveup socaIrnedla.
(para.7J
work in groups.Readthe factsat the end of the
articteand discussthe questions.
' Doyou knowanyonewho is I kethe althor of the
article?
' Doyou recognlse
in
anyof the thingshe describes
yourown liie?
' W h a t a d v i c e w o u l d ygov ue t o t h ea u t h oaf n d
peopletikehlm?
. Doyou thlnksocat networking
feel
makespeopte
anxlous
andinadeqLrate?
' D o r o ' I r l , o ' 8 P " o P ll"o d a ,r r " o r e l e l l o
theywere n the past?Why/Whynot?
Hespendshis lifeemailing,
texting
andtweeting.So why doesAndy
Jonesfeelso isolated?
1 Whateverl'rndo ng whereverI am, r'l i€ll youaboli t.
\,4/p' on€ a drl 'aptopc'e {i]a- corsld-' 'ou hi q
d l i c - c e w h e t h e . I ne " i . g . d . n ( n g . I e ! h o { e d , d
gigorwalchinglhe foolbal.Beforc| qet up everymomng,
lcheckmy ernai,rnytextsand myTwinerfeed.By the I me
l ' v eg o to u t o f r l r es h o w e rt s t i r n e r o d ot a g a l n .
lrom any oi ihe
2 lhav€ a constanldrp"dripoi nformation
750 onlinefrends and iollowersthal lassocialewth.Yet
lhave neverfeLloneler.Howdoesa 28-yearoldrnangei
llkethis?lam a ralionalproiessionamanwth a beauliiul
girliriendand long-slanding
nrates.
l a m n o l a l o n ei n l e e n g l i k ea n i s a n d . I na r c c e nsl u r v e y
oiyoungpeople,60perceft saidtheyfoundil dfUculllo
makelriends in rcal fe comparedwith on ne.Im way
beyondbeingan awkwardteen,bul I am w red !p mosl
oi llre day,as are rnostot rnyiriends.I go 1opan es pubs
and dinners,but lam ihereony in spirit.Farirornbfnging
me closerlopeople,my phonedrivesrneiurtheraway.
lcan tellyou how manyfo owerslhave on Twitter,
bul
cannoirememberiheasiiime lsaw my housernatesirom
Socalnelworkingand lhe internethas rnademe need
to scrolthrolgh somelhng constanly. l'll be due at the
p u ba t 9 p . m . A 8
t 5 0 p . m .L ' l l s i lb e s t l n g o n n r yb e d
thrmbingonljne.Theni's 9:30,ihen il's closingtimeand
l'm sijllin rnyllai Aone in ihe dark,ldownloadalbums,
thenanolher,blrl barelylsten to lhemilhe ihr is Looking
Whenmy
forlhingsio stenio ralherthanlhe lisl€ning.
long suiferng girlJriend
comesroufd she has io priseme
irom my phoneor lhe lnternet.Themomenlshe'sgone,
my mindwanlsthe hyperaclivity
thai the nterneland
socal neiworkingpfovide.
Listening
andvocabulary
,,.,fliI lr,r itr,t\i:ii
tjrl
1a Workin pairsanddiscuss
the questions.
. Howpopu[ar
ar€ online
dating
websites
inyoLrr
country?
. Doyouthinkpeopte
whousethemarealways
honest
aboutthernselves?
b Lookat theonlinedatingprofitebelow.Canyou
guesswhichinformation
is a lieor anexaggeration?
Age:
27
Height:
175 cm
Blinddntr
flrsuh Pln'tct'. 2(r. libralian.
rnects \rcb desieler,Josh Franlis. J8
Ursula on Josh
Hapes before the date?
JohnnyDeppor ColinFarrell.
lle'sneitherof
First impressians?
p e L ! ,L 5 ' e d o J t a . d - - e t e " t i 1 gt,w d - l o p - g
he'd be wedringa suit, bllt he wasn't,His ollit
Body shape: athletic
Job:
filrndirector
About me: lL_ ard vely-na1.\ot rlo qL et r qfrs
rn,and neverborlng lvlyPAca ls me a'partyanimal'.
Fondol hangingolt with nry mates- someof them
arece ebrUes.Keenon skydvingandparaglidlng.
Lookingtor: A parinerln,crimeto join me on an
advent!re.14ust
be 20 25 yearsold,tall,blonde,
chi ed out andready!o fa ln ovel
Z
0 | 5.2Listento someinformation
aboutontine
datingandanswerthequestions.
1 Whatdo menandwomentendto lieaboutin theif
profite?
2 Whatarethe ctuesthata profi[eis not acc!rate?
3 Whatarethe arguments
ln favourof tying?
3
Listenagainand compLete
the idiomsin botdbelow.
Canyou guesstheir meaning?
Themenhope,presurnably,
thatwomenwillfalt
hopeLessty
in _with
themon the firstdate...
Soifyou wantto knowwhether
a profi[e
thatyo!
are readingls mostlylies,keepan
out fo.
thfeethings.
Thesecanbe a slgnthat soraeone
ls being
with the truth.
Mostonlinedatersknowthattheyhaveto take
whattheyreadwith a pinchof
Telllng
littte_
liesonlnecan
positive
benefit.
6 t's bestnot to stretch the _
4
Work in pairsand discussthe questions.
. Whatarethe advaniages
anddisadvartages
of
ontinedatingwebsites?
. Hasanyoneyou knoweverlsed one?Whatwere
hls/herexperiences?
Remind you of anyone?
N,lyfathen
Conversatian tapics?
Our education,careergoals/favouritefilms,
blah,blah, blah.Slandardfirst date
conveTsations.
Awkward moments?
Therewas a very embarrasslng
incldentwhen
a bit of the obsterhe was eating andedon my
Similaritiesbetween you?
Neitherof us are motivatedby money.
I thlnk that'sa goodthlng.
Marks out of ten?
l' be generolsand give hrm a six,
Anather meeting?
Probabiynot.
Language
focus2
l,tr:li ,l r:: :iI i titI I iiri1 r]i :riririi .iii i)rfl)i1jl
Workin pairs.Readtheartic{eaboutUrsulaand
btinddateanddiscuss.
Whatdoesthearticte
Josh's
describe?
what doesUrsuLa
thinkofJosh?
2a 0 | 5.3loshisbeinginterviewed
abouthisopinion
ofthe date.Listenandmakenoteson hisanswers.
Whoiskinderandwhoiscruet(er
aboutthe other,
lJrsuLa
orJosh?
b Listenagainandwrite the questionsthat the
journaListasked.
Cauldyou tell ne what yoLl were loaking far?
**N*\.\lW;tltiiiW*N,**t
Plana fantasydinnerparty
sldlr,=
,6u
Kla
$
z.AN\
PbP
,l
/d
t $
Preparation t,iliil.$]
utirliil
I
I
YouaregoingtopLan
a fantasydinner
partywith two oth€r students.
Readth6
information.
Whichaspects
of pLanning
do
you thinkwittbemostdifficutt?
Z
0 l' 5.6Listento sixpeoptetalkingabout
whotheywoutdinviteto dinner.Foreach
suggested
guest,makenotesonthe topics
beLow.
. reasors
forinviting
him/her
. suitable
subjects
of conversation
. questlons
to askorthings
to say
3a Listenagainandtickthe phrases
in sectiona
oftheUsefultanguage
boxthatyouhear.
I
b Whosesuggestion
doyouLikebest?
i.
'"
{
l
l
e
uosrad
0
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3
)
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,
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!
1
s
plnoLls
ar'L\
)lurrlll
" ,o D€fqns.Ltlplo^P/arnPo4tl
'''
!o6snr5rp
foqe
puE
3u 1s.r€luttu3^e a^eq^lqeqordll$
' ' ' q l L N l l s ^u\o1 e 3 1 I M
" :iurq10,uoP)
, 3 1 1 ^ u t o r B u (r rooBu ) i r€ Ml € r t 1 . a r ;IPe . M o C
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p
p o o Be s , l ) r L q r( ] , u o p ) r
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ruau.ar;e tulqteat q
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SupXeod5
1se1
7
I
Speaking
I
?;
Writing
Dealingwith problemson the telephone Typesof message
Workin groups.
Discuss
the questions
below.
' Doyouenjoychattingon thephoneor doyou
preferto keepyourcaLls
shortandto the point?
. Haveyouevergot annoyed
or frustrated
when
makinga phonecall?Why?
2
la Lookat messages
A-Eon page55andmatchthem
to descriptions
1-5 below.
1 anernailgivingdetailsof travelarrangements
fora
business
trip
a noteto a famitymernber
or flatmate
a notepushed
undersomeone's
door
aninformalemailto a friend
a text message
to a friend '
hd 5.7Listentothr€e t€Lephone
conversations.
Answeathe
questions
belowfor eachconversation.
1 Whoisspeaking
to who?
2 Whatprobtem
occufs?
3 Howdoestheconversation
en d?
3a Listenagainandcomplete
the sentences.
Putmessages
A-Ein the orderthattheyweresent.
18...5D
c Comptete
messages
A-Ewith the phrases
in the box.
1 Thanks
for _
backto me.
l_amessage_.
Couldyouspeak_
a bit,ptease?
Yourvoiceis
Bythe way,
We rebothrealLydetighted
foryou!l
Hopeyouhada gooddayatwork
l'll beout of the officetomorfow
(Fri)
Please
bemoreconsideraie
infutur€
Can'twaitto seeu bothl
you're_
4 Sorry,
up.
5 Cal ljust_your
naneard
pledse?
l'llhaveto _you
to another
department.
7 lf you'ltjust
me...
_with
I It's_youf
ftights
to lstanbulnext
week.
A ml - a t a
b a dt i m e ?
10
bea
timeto ca[[?
b Lookat audioscript5.7on page172andunderline
otherusefulphrases
for t€lephoning
c r00r5.8Listentothe sentences
inexercise
3aand
pradisesayingthem.
4
Workin pairs.Turnto page129andusethe prcmpts
to prepare
andpractise
aconversation,
Canyoulet m€ knowiftheseflightssuitASAP?
Bestwishes,
2
Readmessages
A-Eagain.Findat Least
oneexample
of the features
betowWhichmessage
isformal?
1 wordsbeingmissed
outto makethe message
shor|er
2 capitallettersandexcLamation
marl6for extra
emphasis
3 simplified'incorred'
spettings
4 useof abbreviations
'&l
Whatinventions
ftavehadthegreatest
impactonth€
uraywelive?Mostpeoplewoutdmentionthe wh€et,
the printingpress,
theintemet.andsoon.Butpause
for
a momentafld
consider
thefoltowinqfivecontendeF.
lh€y shape
ourlivesin wa!'syoumayneverhavethoughtof!
Standard
time
I N T H I SU N I T
0(, sotime hasatwaysexisted,but'standard
tjme'hasn't.Imagine
theworLdioday
ifourctocksweren'tsynchronised.In
the 18thand19thcenturies,
townsaroundth{
worldusediheirownLocattime,
whichwasdifturentfromtownto town.Thismeant
that a inin couLd
arriveinonetownbeforeir hadofficiatLy
teftihe previouson€!In
England,
forexampte,
itwasn't untit 1880that a tawwaspassed
creatjrga'ttandar
time" forthewhotecountry.Timezonesacrossthewortdwereoniysiandardis€d
atl
beginningofthe 20thcenturyr_.
TheLastco!niryt0 adoptinternat
time zoneswasNepal,in 1986.
xunnrngwater
Around4000 yearsagoon the GreekisLand
of Crete,a paLace
wasbuiLtwjth hot ard
cotdrunnjngwat€rthatftowed
fron tapsnadeofsitverandgotd.ThepalaceaLso
housed
thefirst knownflushinqtoitet.Asrecentty
asthe earLy
2othceniury,howev
mosthousesin[uropedidn't havetheirowntojLetorrunnjngwateLOneortwotojL
wouldbesharcdbya whotestreet,andwatercamefroma coftmunatpump.Diseas
andpoorpeBonathygjeneoere
commoi.Thesedays,wefeeLit is onlynaturalrotat
showers,ftushourtojtetsandwaterourgard€ns.WhiL€z,
caused
its ownprobtems,
with eventhe UKfrequentty
findjngitselfin dangerofrun
Thetightbutb
Whenthe electdciight bubnrst appeared
in the 19thcentury,itcamewjth a warni
sjgnto bep{aced
on thewattnexttothe buLb:"Donot attemptto tiqhtwjih a maich
Now,perhaps
morethananyorherobjectinour tives,vvetakeitfor ganted.Lightbr
ittumjnat€ourcihesandroadsat night,r_
andtheyenabteusto do m
n o r ew i t ho u _h e et i m e . l m a g i nyeo u re v e n i n gwsi r h o u r e r c c t lai gc r- , 1
Reading
andspeaking
la Workin pai15
anddiscuss.What
do youthinkhavebeenthe most
importantfive inventionsofthe last 200 years?
b Lookat the photosand the headingsin the articieabove.What
impactdo you thinkeachinvention
hashad?
Readthe articLeand checkyouranswers.Work
in pairsandanswer
the questions
abouteachinvention.
1 Whenvvasit invented?
2 Whatproblemdid t sotv-"?
Europeons
lrovelo theAmericos
inveniion
ol lhewheel
invenlion
ol lhe
prifling
press
Discoverylhol
lhe
Eorlhrololes
round
Buildlng
ol roiwoys
ondsTeom
ships
Listening
Language
focus1
inxF(rr*;xyit
d6te$
Pertect tonsF-s
Howdoyousaythe datesin the box?
Whatapproximate
datesdothe othertime
expressions
referto?
5000Bc
3200BC
I600
1850
the 1860s
2050
the 7th centuryAD
1a Workin pairs.CompLete
sentences
1-5 with anappropriate
dateor timephrase
fromexercise
1 above.
Usethetimetine
to hetPyou.
1 By-,
people
ln ancient
Mesopotam
ia,rad/
have/ will havelnvenrca
thewheetbutthey,adr't /
haven't/ won'thavelearnthowto write.
2 By.............- , Europeans
had / have/ will have
discovered
howthe solarsystemworks,buttheyradr't /
haven't/won'thavear i\,ecin AJsrra.
a
3 By-,
thesteamengine,
railways
andeven
the firstcombustion
had/ have/ wil[havebeen
engine
invented,
butscientists
stlllhadn't/ heven't/ won'thave
discovered
that bacteria
causes
diseasesl
4 Today,at
, \\e had / have/ will havelanded
onthemoonandinvented
theinternet,
butwestitlhadr?/
haven't/ won'thavefaunda cureforthecommoncotdl
5 Scientists
believe
thatwithin_,
weradl
have/ willhavesenta manned
mission
to Marsandfound
a curefor manyserious
illnesses,
butweprobablyradr?/
haven't/ won'thavelearnthowto controltheweather.
the 17thcentury
the mid16thcentury
the tate18thcentury
the nextdecade
or so
within30yea|s
the beginning
of the
21stcent'rry
Workin pairs.Lookat thetimelineof
humanachievements,
pastandfuture,Say
approximately
wheneachhappened/witl
happen,
usingthe phrases
in exercise
1.
Theinrcntianaf the wheelhappenedin
about95AABC
3a Lookat the pastandfuturcachievements
belowTryto matchthemto boxesa-f on
thetimeline.
1 the discovery
that bacteria
causediseases
2 a cureforthecomrnon
cold
3 theinvention
of writing
4 humancontrolof extreme
weatherevents,
likehurricanes
5 thefirstmanned
missiorto Mars
6 thearrivaIof Europears
inAustralia
b 6i 6.t Listenandcheckyour answers.
4
Listenagainandmakenotesaboutwhat
elseyouLearnt.Work
in pairsandcompare
invenlion
of intenol
c0mbusl0n
engine
b Choose
the correctv€rb formsinsentences
1-5.
1 Findan exampLe
in ex€rcke 1b ofthe Pastperfect,the Present
perfectandthe Futureperfect. How is eachtenseformed?
2
look at the timetineandthe sentences
in exercise1b.Choose
the corect answersinthe rutesbelowandfind an exdmpLeof
1 We lse the Pastperfecttodescribe
eventire&/e /rta
particulartinre
in the past2 We usethePresent
perfectto describe
events'belo/erlow /
atthe presentnoment.
3 We usethe Futurepe ect to describe
eventsretore / at a
particular
time in the fuiure.
study1,page1,16
I Read
:.::"
.
,.:::t,
.
.
t
iiii'tt:i
I it ii lri;:l:illii:iit,
(
rre s e n ta n r o e aT o r
a TV programme
ZooTq one the country! leading Tv prcduction
companres,$ making a new series ofshort
programmes called f,'r e Top 50 human achievemenls
Membels of the public are ifllrted to nominate topics
ior lhe progmmmes by submilting a tlEee_minute
video presentation, maLing the case for their choice
Preparation
1
Readthe advertabout aTV seriesthat is
beingplanned.summarisein your own words
whatthe conceptis.
The Tv company will select the best 50 nominations
and use each presentationas ihe basis Ior a tenminute film. Tile films will be shown every
weekday el€ninq for ten weeks aIld at
the end, the public will vote for their
favou te human achievement.
2a work in groups.Matchthe achievement\
betowto the suggestedcategorieson the
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
a
9
10
:::l:tii
4:!
the inventon of the micfochiP
of the py|amlds
the buitding
Candhi
of Mahatma
the leadershiP
Artarctic
the storyof Scottof the
the novelsofTolstoy
rhecdreeo DFI;
the muslcof BobDylan
Spietbe€
the fitns of Steven
the Theoryof Evoution
the riShtto voteior women
Visit our website for more
in{ormation and grddelines.
forthe categories
Thinkofother exampLe5
on the website.Thencomparelistswith
the class.
3a fi s.l Listento five peoptepresentingan
andmakenotes
ideaforthe programme
aboutthe pointsbetow.
. tne sLrDJect
. the categoryof achievement
. the argumentsn ravouf
'):t)tt!tui/t,!itittr!:jititri! tlati :
Task r
I
forthery
a nomination
Youaregoingto present
the foltowing
bearing
programme.
Firstchoosea topic,
in mind.
. Thetopicsho!ldinterest
also
you,butshoutd
andlnsplre
yoLrf
classmates,
whow]llvoteat theendfor
appeatto
te achievement.
theirfavour
. fyoucannot
a topc
canchoose
thlnkof anything,yo!
mentioned
n thlsunit.
already
2
research
factsontine.
lrepare
whatyouwilLsay.lfpossible,
yourteacherfor any
Makenotesaboutthe pointsbetowAsk
you need,
words/phrases
. thebackground
to thlsachlevernent
. whathappened
. theinfluence/impact
it hashaa
' whyyolrflndit nterestng/arnazlng
Listenagainandtickthe phrasesfrom the
boxyou hear
Usefultanguage
4
Work in groupsand discussthe questions.
' Doyolr agreewlth what the sPeakers
say?
to
the
you
more
arguments
Can
addany
onestheygive?
. Whichachieverrents
do you findmost
amazing?
> Uselut
language
a-c
Language
focus2
Moreaboutthe Fresentrrerfect
sinrpleandcontinuous
1 a completethewortdrecordsin the factfile
with the phrases
in the box.
didit in nineminutes
'la He'slandedsuccessfully
andbroken
theworld
recordfor basejumping.
b
le'sbeerlandnBsuccess'rl{y
andbreal:ng
the
worldrecordfor basejumping.
wascarrying300
kilosatthe time
',Dtn
U N U S U A LW O B L D
zooo,ngrisKazelniks
ran20metresin
1 1.40seconds.He
sietasseta newworldrecordwhen
heswam200metres.
Tom..-
LTom
eaOOyOoytecompleted1,868pressups
in onehourin 1993.He ...
,
tnzoo+,sonyaThomas
ate5 kilosof
;.]D
tnzoto,enorewDahtinftated
23
inthreeminutes.
He...
b Turnto page128andcheckyouranswers.
Whichrecorddoyouthinkisthe most
impressive/dangero!s/ridiculous?
2a He'sheaded
the balt2,377timeswithoutdropping
it.
it.
b He'sbeenheading
thebatl2,377timeswithoutdropping
gfownherhairsince'1973.
3a She's
b she'sbeengrowingherhairsince1973.
2
Lookat pictures1-5 onthe ght of more
peoplewhoar€ attemptingor hotdunusual
worLdrecords.choose
thesentence
which
bestdescribes
eachpicture.
la Matchth€ sent€nce!ln €xercise? with the
1 lf an actionhappens
in a momentandis
perfect
comptete,
we usethePresent
simple I .ontinuous.
2 lfan actionis not finish€d,we usethe
Presentpefect s/mple / cont ruous.
3 lf we wantto emphasise
that an actionhas
we use
lastedfor a longtimeor k repeated,
the Presentperfectrinpie / corfinrors.
4 Howeverif we sayhow manytimes
someonedidsomethin&we alwaysusethe
Presentperfectiimple / .orft ooas.
s Lfwe aredescribing
a state(usingverbslike
be,krow, etc.)weusuatlyusethe kesent
pede.t sinple I continuous.
b Choosethe corect answeBto compl€te the
study2,page147
) Read
4a He'sbeena gardener
for 90years.
b He'sbeenbeinsa sardener
for 90vears.
I
I
Findoutfirst
View
1 a Workin pairs.Lookat the tistof Britishheroes
below.
whichhaveyouheardof? Doyouknow
whattheyarefamousfor?
. wilIiamShakespeare
. JOnn
Lennon
. Diana,
Princess
oi Wales
. SirWinston
Churchill
. lsambard
Brunel
Kingdorn
3a Youaregoingto watcha videoaboutlsambar
i5oftenthoughtot as
Brunel,who
Kingdom
Lookatthe photosandread
anunsunghero.
the statementsbelow.Tryto guessthe correct
1 Hismostfamousworkisthe clilton
BridgeI TheCrcatEasten shiP/
Suspension
Paddingtonstation.'
to be
mlstake
isconsidered
2 Hisgreatest
the Clifton suspensionBridgeI TheGrcat
Eastenship I PaddingtonStation.
3 Hediedat the ageof53 / 73/ 93.
BtidgeI TheGrcat
4 TheCWon Suspension
Easte shipI PaddingtonStatio, wa>
fiveyea$afterhediedasa
completed
tributeto him.
1awith
Tryto matchth€ peoplefromexercise
beLow.
the sentences
He/she...
andpopstar.
1 wasa songwriter
2 ledBritainduringtheSecondWorldWat
etc.
stations
s ,hips,
3 designed
andbuittbridges
4 wroteplaysandsonnets,
numefous
charities
5 supported
or askyour
to checkyouranswers
GoonLine
teacher.
/
s€arch:Wittiam
shakespeare
/ lohnLennon
/
ofWales
/winstonChurchiLL
DlanaPincess
Kingdom
BruneL
lsarnbard
2
in the top ten tist
Thepeoptein 1aappeared
Britons.In
whatorderdoyoof'100Createst
thinkthevcamein the list?
b O watchthevideoandcheckyouranswers.
4
workin pairu
watchthe videoagain.Then
p€oPle
and
ofthe
€xptain
the
significance
and
numbers
below.
200yearsago
photograPllers
JohnScottRussell
djrectors
the company
sixmen
38 passengers
53yearsotd
'greatest
mistake'such
WhywasBruneL's
a failure?canyouthinkof anyothergreat
mistakes
famouspeoplehavemade?
fl.),.$il
Speaking
andvocabulary
"l
Lookat thephoto.
Whatkindof eventdoyouthinkir is?Thinkof
fiveothereventsthat drawLarEe
crowdslikethis.
Lookat newsextracts1-8 betow.Checkthemeaningofthe words
in botd-Do the the wordsin botdretateto:
- €vents
peopte
- actlvities
things?
Canyou think of any other wordsrelatedto thesecategories?
I
'l'he
2
Hunarcds
ofsupport€rsclrpped,cheeredandwavedtlags
asihe team$ent paston theirvictory parsde.
3
li.e morchers u';ereaorrr r! plocqrds
aTra bqnnels ac r]r l-r a,--ier [o!
demonstration was lsg.ly peaceftl wilh protestors
campaigning for an end to poverty.
When the ministeraddressedfhe croryd. a iew people booed.
5
The cfowd al tlie festival $'€nt wild rtro
tlie finar ao caoe or.
A 5'n.rariai.rp
ri proleslols
ffcra..ri,rc,.ti-,tclqshedwitht,c a,.
7
Thecarnivalwasrrulyspectacular
withsonanyfloats
and peoplc $,eafjngcostumes.
The stndiuD is usualiy a vcnue lor outdoor conc€rrs
arxi sportnrg evenls, but )csterday the cro\rd were
there to celebrate the ncw )€ar.
Workin pairsanddiscuss.
What'sthe biggestprotestor
celebration
thatyouhavebeento or seenonTV?
_rePuole)
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WESAWHISTORY
IN THEMAKING
Fffi?'?
2 THESUMMER
OFLOVE
1 THEWALL
STREEICRASI{
I :..
A I' THEtrAIROW]
I.IARCH
Duringthe
1960s,
rebettion
againstthe
establishmentgrewin
manypartsof
thewortd,
fromthellnitedStales
io Czechostova
kia,
peopte
Young
beqan
to adoptan
aLtemative
iifeswLechaiactensd
by
ctotlres,
andto protest
against
0dThurday24th
october
1929,attheNewYork
StockExchange
onWatt
s t r e e t! h
, e u n i h i n k a b t e h a p pIenn
oe
nd
e .d a y1,i m j t t i osnh a r e s c h a n s e d
goverrments,
sdchasthe
hands* pricescotlapsed
andthedream
ofweatthwastransfomed
into
theijslrtmareof pov{ty.TheWattSbeetCGsh
tedio a periodof
thousandsofyoungpeopte,,
unempLoymenl
homete$n€s
andhunqsattoverthe
wortd.h the nexr
gathercdintheHajsht-Ashbufy
)i
fewyea6,miltiods
peopte's
ofordinary
Livsweredestroyed.
neiqhbourhoodof
sanFranciscoir
ov€r5,000kma,ray,
in theship-building
townofJarowinth€ north
to promotepeace,
happiness I
eastofEngtand,
unempLoymentanors
skitted
wo{ingmenreached
andtoveiiwhatbecam€
known l
65percentasa
resuLtof
the'creatDepresjon'thatfoLtowedtheWatt astheSumnrer
oftove'.
fiusic
StreetCrash.
h 0ctober
1936,207
menfromJatroweetbutonfoot.
poetryreadjn9s,
fesnvab,
to march
the480kmto London
asa'protestagainststarvation
,
speeches
andtheatre
events
'fLouerpower',Howevs,
TheJarowmarchets
wereqheered
andgivedfoodin ry€rytown
cetebrat€d
byoctober1962ryentrhadtakenan
theypassed
through,
butwhentlr€y reached
partjament,
nothing
L d a q . t t L r a , n F r d d r - qq b u , p i .aca n n a!lo, o .o v e .I n p
a d so o . e f o a. e F .I " r e r w ee q i v p fn e a r 't o r. a e ii , o i
organis€rc
hetda'funer:land
buntaoffin hbe[ed'summer
of Lov€,.
Reading
andspeaking
4a MatchcommentsA-E on page69 to evants1-4.
One event hastwo comments,
1a Workin groups.
Lookat the photosandtittesand
makea tistofanythingyouknowabouttheevents.
canyouguesswhichevenr(s)the
wordsberow
relateto?
the StockExchange
the campaignfor Btackrights
an alternativelifestyle
2a Readaboutevents t-4 aboveand checkyour ideas.
Work in pairsanddiscussthe questions.
'
.
'
.
3
Whenandwhefedidtheseeventshappen?
Weretheseeventsce[ebrations
or protests?
\ ^L ) ^ " " t 1 e p d n c i D a n l ' ( e . e o - d r : - g pg- o
: t".
Wereothercountriesaffected?
Work in pairsand discuss.What do you think it was
like to experience
theseeventsat the time? Thinkof
threewordsto describ€eachevent.
What feelings
of atmosphere
doeseachperson
describe?
5
Readthe texts and commentsagain.Are the
statementsbetowprobablytrue (T) or probabLy
fatse
(F)?Underlinethe wordsthat tettyou.
Events
1 ln 1929,people
didnt belleve
thatthe stock
narket couldcollapse.
2 Ordinarypeople
sympathised
morewith th€
thanthe government
did.
JarrowMarchers
3 Theorgarlsers
of the 'Sumnerof Love'thought
r was a coTnptete
5uccess.
4 TheEastCermangoyeTnment
wasmor€ oTless
fofcedto openits borders.
5 Obarnaonlyjustwon the 2008presidentlal
e[ect]on.
Comments
6 Theclosure
of the shipyards
in ]arrowfetttiKe
a ceathsentence
to the town.
7 Manyolderpeoplein thel960swereshocked
by the way h ppiesdressed.
8 People
in the foffirerEastCermany
dld not
tfustthe governrnent.
9 BeioreObama's
peopledld not
electionbLack
betieve
that topjobswefeopento then.
.
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lH9tN l{Ollf,tu S,VnVSO?
Vocabulary
andlistening
Language
focus2
Spr*ilioIevc.lr't:s
Quantifiers
1
2
1 a Choose
the quantifierthatbestreftectswhat
Workin pairsanddiscuss
the questions.
. Whatcanyouseein the photos?
. Whicheventsdoyouassociate
with?
thesethings/peop[e
. Haveyou beento anyeventsliketheserecenlly?
Harriet,Bethany
andDansaidaboutthe
eventstheydescribed.
Crossoutthe wordthat doesnot matchthe event.Rewriteit
in the correctptace(s).
costumes
floats,crowds,
a+rid€greeFni
speciaI
wedding:
cake,speeches,
a reception,mouTneTs,
musicf€stivali presents,
ad
stewards,
a stage,
theheadline
a party,guests,
cards,
merchandise,
decoGtions
engagement:
hily 91!!"'i"c:
: pyflfl"!i!"y:; i9199::r
l:i:r:p".:tu!
T"-:fi
fair:
oa..oons,
a bridefoodstall,,oLeLes
!
funeral:acoffin'a-erpnory',-ewo..5'.lowe,aralg6nent(
.
3
h!1 z.zYouaregoingtohearthre€
p€opletalking
aboutan
eventfrom exercise
1,but the nam€ of the eventis bleeped
out.Listen
anddecide
whicheventeachperson
istatkingabout.
4
Workin pairs.Makea list of positiveor negative
issues
each
speaker
mentions.Listenagainandcheck.
Harriet
1 Quiteafew of / All of my friendshadhuge
weddings.
2 lhey hadoneor two / hundrcdsof guests.
3 Myfrienddidn'tknowsome/any ol the
guests
at herownwedding.
shehadhadly any/enoughtimeto talk
to herownfriends.
5 We'veinviteda/ew / load5of oldfriends.
6 We't[havea partya coupIeof /several
weekslater.
Bethany
7 Everyone
eatsfar too muchI fat too tittle
presents
I Veryfew I Mostpeople
exchange
9 /o; ralea l,ttle;a lot o/rardy-'o:tl^ek cs.
Dan
10 fhete atetoo many/ plenty of faad stalls.
11 fheteisr't enough/ ary wateravailabLe.
12 lgo to no/ary festivalcan.
b fr z.l Listen
andcheck.
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\*N*)\lwtlxiw*N*w:
Presentideasfor
an event
r,r:rr::lirulur'\,
Preparation $l.,l,iri:lirr5:1
illrr:N
1a Lookat the photos.whicheventsin the boxdothey
show?
dn erribilospots day
( l a r s ; c a( lo n ( e n
streetparty
children's
entertainr.ent
f ancydresscompetition
the Mayor's
Big Evgttt
f o o df e i t v .
summeriair
tlad itionat dancing
Whateventu/llyolrorganise?
TheMayor![r g t\':
ha5beenrunningfor lix years.nthattme,lo.al
'esdentshaveorganisedeventsslrchasconcerls
fai15
andaft exhiblUons
Thiiyeaithe mayor,rvI
Workin pairsanddiscuss
thequestions.
. Whatarethe peoplein eachphotodoirg?
. Haveyoueverbeento (ororganised)
ary events
likethese?
charit-.s Do youhavean deniors!.hafeveni:
What is the Mayor's Big Event?
2a Readthewebsiteandanswerthe questions,
t! af ar.!: elenllfars orgarr.l bt o.a peope ior ..i r..: :
o tf r f c r : r :
A t h e m . f e ft h r ! r : s e dg o e s l o . h r r r y T l e n a rp' a
.on! otorganlifg annpror.r ig:hee!.nl
1 Whatisthe MayolsBigEvent?
2 HowcanyoLrtakepartin the competition?
3 Whichideawittwinthecompetition?
Vfhele does tlle event happe4?
i . a nt a [ ep a . e r t h e i . r n h a a o . a p a . la s h o p F i g . e . r r- e
ar)"!heEe seyou.antr nko'
Readthe advicefor organisers
beLow
andcheckthe
phrases
meaningofthe
in bold.
1 Consider
printingftyersandputtingup posters.
2 Youcanselltickets
fortheevent,chargean
entrancefee or makeit free.
3 Dont ignoreeasymoneyspinnerssuchasselling
Dottled
water,
4 lf you'reputtingon a concertor festivaIthen
you needa headlineact to attract peopleand
encourage
word-of-mouthadvertising.
or
5 Thinkabouttakingout anad inthelocalpaper
sending
outa mailshot.
6 Don'tforget,if therearestaltsat yourevent,you
cancharg€a feeto the stallhotdersfor taking
part.
Doe5eachsentence
describe
a meansof promotion
ora wayof raisingmoney?
Workin pairsanddiscuss.
Whatsortofeventdo
youthinkwouldhavethe bestchanceofwinning
sponsorship
fromthe mayor?choosefromthe
eventsin ex€acise
1a,oryourownideas.
Task tilXr*itftiniry
'ta
Workin groupsof two orthree.YouaregoingtopLar
aneventthenpresentyour
ideas.
Choose
thetypeo:
eventthat you aregoingtoplan.
Discuss
the questions
belowandmakenotesonyour
. Whatwil[bethe rnainattraction
at yo!r event?
. Whatotheractivities
andentertainment
wi[[beor
.
.
.
.
Where
wltlyoustage
theevent?
Whatwittyoudoaboutfoodanddrink?
Howwi[[youpfornote
the event?
Whatproblems
mightyouencounter
andhowwliL
yo! solvethoseproblems?
> UsefulLanguage
a
(
l
I aSEn8uel
lnlasn.
i^qi Zsarorsosr
aqlpB eeplqrlq/rIu/{orno^roJalo^t,ue)no,{)p+!
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o] suorlsenb
)iseruoll€luesald
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lra^..
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qre6
no^
roj Moleqeld(rl
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Jaqloaql ot uetsll
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q .SPnBuPt
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qreo uoltellroJurjo sa)eldqllq/!\ ePpeo z
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a^auoure)eu no^ tM^^oH
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i
o
.
8
u
u
.
p
L
^ Paq $3req1
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t
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Z(^iuoura)pu)013uLo3
sueldtulleri e
3a Findsentenc€s
in the reviewwhichmean
Writing
A reviewof an event
1
Workin pairsanddiscuss.
Haveyou beento seeany
wett-known
bandsorsingersin concert?
lfso,describe
th€
exp€rience.
lf not,whichgroup/singer
wouldyouliketo see?
2a Readthe reviewandanswerth€ questions.
1 Whatdidthe reviewer
[ikeaboutthe concert?
2 Whatdidn'theLike?
b TickthethingsbeLowthat
the reviewer
describes.
WhateLse
doyouthinkheshouLd
havedescribed?
. the reason
. the atmosphere
forgoing
. the reactions
. thesongsplayed
of thecrowd
. howmanypeoplewerethere
. the hightights
. the qualityofthe performance . the negatives
. thenames
ofthebandmembers
Coldplay
3rrn'ttheyoungesl
bandon the Inusicscene.
or
the cooiest,
but they'redcfinrtrlyoneof the besLlivcbands
petfotming
today.Consequently,
assoon2s lk'rcwthry wcre
comingto Toronlo,
wh{:reI live,I booked
my ticketl
standng in thearcra astnight,theatrnosphere
wase ectrc.
Thetwowornen
stUngnextto rnewerecheer
ngands nging
iverybadly)beforethe bandhadevencomeon stage.
Andwhen
theconcert
finally
started
an hourlaterthanp anned,
noone
seemed
to rnind.Theconcerttself rstedfor overtwo houIsard
incudedsome
ofther b ggest
h ts,suchasVivaLaV dai
lhe crowdloved
themal , thoughperhaps
thehighlghtfor me
was'Yelow frorntheirdebutalbunrPorocluie5
5 ng ng along
to thatwiththethousards
of otherfansr thearena
wasan
unforgettable
experence.
Theonlyprobernfor mewasthatthetrbighitsw€renlal that
theyplayed.
0uitea lot of thesongswerefrorntheI atesta bum,
currcnty
standngat thetopofthecharts.haven
t bought
this
albumalthoughthink !,/as
theoniypersofn thearerawho
hadn't.
Asa resu
t, whertheconc€rt
finished,
fet liketd beento
mybesttrlerds wedding
bLrthadn't
beenglvena plece
of wedding
cake.
lt wasa greatexperience
butsometh
ngwasm ssinq.
Nextt meCodplay
arein townI deinitey goagan,but 'l make
sureI knowthelratesta bumoffbyheartbeforehand
andI s t a
blt lurtherawayfrornthetwo wonenwlthtuneessvo cestryingto
singloLrder
thantheleads ngerl
the sameasthe onesbetow.Whatarcthe
differenc€s?
1 Theyredefinitely
oneof the bestlive
bandswhoareperforming
today.
2 Thetwo womenwhoweresittingnextto
mewerecneef
ng...
3 No onewhowassittingin thearena
seefired
to mind4 Quitea lot of thesongswerefromtheir
latestatburn,
whichis currently
stardingat
thetop of the charls.
5 I'Ltsit a bit furtherawayfromthetwo
womenwithtuneless
voiceswhowere
tryingto singlouderthan
theleadsinger.
Crossout wordsfromth€ relativeclauses
in
thesentences
betowif possibLe.
1 I feltsorryfor the peopte.#herrere
queuing
intherainto geta ticket.
2 Thebandwholwaswatching
onthemain
stagewereawiul,
3 Theperson
whowassittingnextto rnefell
asLeep.
4 Who'sthatgirtinthe crowdwhoiswaving
at u5?
5 Thebandthatwearelisteningto
are
looking
fora newdrummer,'
6 l haven'theardthissongthatisptaying
now
7 | knowthat guywhoisplayingdrumson
stage.
I Wheredidyoudownload
that musicwe're
Listening
to?
4a Thinkofa festivat,play,comedyshow,etc.
thatyou havebeento or seen,Makenotes
on thetopicsin exercise
2b.
Organise
yournotesinto paragraphs,
then
writethe firstdraftofyour review
5a Writea finaldraftofyour reviewusingthe
checktist
betow.
Haveyouusedinterestingandrichlanguage
to describethe event?
Haveyou usedrelativeclausescorrectly?
Arethe spetting,
grammarandpunctuation
Haveyou incLuded
informationaboutsome
of the topicsin exercise2a?
Workin pairs.Swapreviewswitha partn€r
andtaketurnsto give€achotherfeedback
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Workin groupsanddiscuss.Which
ofthe myste;ies
beLow
most
interestyou
whenyouchoose
a film,book,etc.?Why?
. ghoststories
andthesupernatural . detect]ve
stories
. mysteries
. reallifemyster]es
ofthe naturaL
world
Workin pairs.Checkyou
understand
the phrases
in the box.Think
of examples
ofthre€ofthesethingsandteLlthe class.
a supernatur.levent
an unexpLained
natu.at phenomenon
a tragic incident
anunfortunatemishap
an amazingcoin idence
a mysteriou5
disappearance a stupidpubLicityltunt
a practicaljoke
thatwenttoo far
ReadstorybeginningsA-E
on page77.Workin pairsandanswer
the questions
beLow
1 Whichphotosrelateto eachstory?
2 Whefeandwhendid/does
eachstorytakeplace?
3 Whatstrange
eventsdoesit describe?
4 Matchthetopicsin exercise
2 to eachstory.
5 Howdoyo! thinkeachstoryends?
4a Matchthe storyendingsl-5on page77with storybeginnings
A-E.
b Workin paksanddiscuss
the questions.
. Didyoupredicttheendings
correctly?
' Whichstrange
events
sti[[appeaf
to beunexplained?
. Haveyouchanged
yourmindaboutthe besttopicfrom
exercise
2 to descrlbe
eachstory?Exptain
why.
Workin pairs.Findthewords/phras€s
beLow
in the storiesand
expLain
in yourownwordswhattheymean,usingthe contextto
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toited(texrB)
3 tormentea
(textB)
4 the baby's
fallwasbroken
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potentiallydeadty(text D)
faked(text 2)
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work in pairsanddiscuss,
Haveyoueverwondercd
bboutanyof the questions
below?Doyouknowthe
answers
to anyof them?
. Whycan'twetickleourselves?
. Whydowe hiccup?
. canwe catcha coldfrombeingcold?
' Whydowe steepwalk?
Readthe articlebelowandcheckyourideas.Didyou
learnanythingnew?
i , : r ' r ,l
1 Lookatthe website.Why is .a, corr€ctin 1 butnot2?
I
2
rr l, :r'rr'
Findmodalsin the websitethatmean:
1 lt i5necessary have to
2 it is not atlowed
3 it is not iecessarv/itboDtional
4 it is a goodjdea,the rightthingto do'
5 it is a badideaor'the wrongthingto do'
ii \itiijiri,
3
I l
\ . . r i r iri l , 1 . ,f , , i | , , r r i . ,
l'4atchthe modalsyou chosetothe meanings betow.
1 it seemscertainthat this is vue
2 thisispossibty
true
Readthewebsiteagainandchoose
the correct
modaIverbs,
3 i t s e e m cs e d a i nt h i si s n ' t n u e
4 this is a genealposibility4
Why is ca, correctin 8 butnotpossibl€in 7 in
I ReadStudyl, page 152
Dr Jord.an Wiley answers the questions you've always vfondered aboutl
I flnd behg ti(kled horrible,
so tnis might seem like a
strange question, but ... nnt
can't I tickle myselfl
Askedbr Josirqfenion
Inlef€stingquestion.Josn.Il
oth.r !.o!lc rcar,/sto..ad iickle
us then logicaly r'. sirol[d 'zcan
- so{.hI 3muntz'f,/ car'f iel The
/D€ able to d.kle ourselves
rcasonis simlle lor somethirrg
to tickleus, ilamwt/mightbc
nnexpecied.\\'hen ne ticldeouselves,our bmn js easjlr.scaD/
abae ,o predicl lhc fcelru, so our bodr ncvcr le€ls ticlded.
I sometimes get loud hircups when I'm in a restaurant.
$rhat causes them? Askedb) tbr.snith
Ii fu/,azA/ rrst beembanassing
to getioudhi..upsin pnblic.Whrt
iype of food a.elou eati.g rvhcnthcy stan?You r'rigit / .a, be
aller€jcto it. Hiccupscomefroma ldSemuscleh )'ourcheslcdlled
the diaphngni.If it eetslnllated. it 3.atr / Iras to startmoving i. a
je*y !ay. caNinS hiccnps.To frake lhen go a\!ay yor erusrn" /
.lot't haw to do anyrhine tbe' go ar.y natur.lly andrdely last
long(althouthore pe6ondid hale.n.tt.ck Nhichlasled68 yca'si).
My aunt often says to my daueltte\ 'You'll (atch a cold if
you go out in this weathei' Can you really catch a cold
from being cold? Askedb,! ela brooks,ll
The shor! an$ver,Eva,is no rou cant, .nd rour aun!
t\r.an't/ shouldn't try ta keepyour daushrerindoors.Someone
ttshould/ niqht tell het rharvjrusescausecolds,rot rhe
weatherIn fact,cold virusespreferwarn, indoor corditions,so
children(andaduhs)really l2may/ otghtto
go ortdoois a! n!.h as possible,evenin winter
$lhy do $€ 6leep$alk? My flatmate does it and I
s n m e l i n c . f r n d l e r A 5 l c c po r r h c L i l . h e n l l o o . i n
the morning. Askedby younis_khm
Ir 13can't/ alaesn\ haw to lie rery nice lor xour flahnateto
wake up in a slrange foom in the moftng but shc {.ouklD't /
snoztdn',worNioomxch [a]thoughshersmal/m6tnnd
it easierio loct her door at night). No one knowsfor sure
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I Musth't t.^ve lour
molho,
it'! v.rJ frgeht,
Listening
andspeaking
i i r r r r r j 1 i t : t j \ , r t i i t l i r )\
la Lookat the pictures
abouta womanwho
in the box
disappeared.
Matchthe words/phrase5
with the pictures.
a prescriptionfor rnedicine
to vanishcompletety
rne PGgue
Work in pahs.Readthe beginningofthe story and
guesswhat happened,
usingthepictures.
The'Great Exhibition',Pads1889.The city was
packedwith visitors.Two lvealihyEnglishladies,
Eleanor Redwood and her mother Clara. arrived
in dreciry lookingfor a hotel.They wereon their
way backio Londonfrom India.
r! lr 8.2 Listenandcompareyour ideas.Were
your
predictionscorrect?
3a work in pairsandanswerthe questions
below.
1
2
3
4
WhyhadEleanor
andclaraRedwood
leftIndia?
Whathappened
whentheyarrlved
at thehotel?
Whathappened
whenEleanor
ca[[ed
thedoctof?
Where,
$/hyandhowwasEleanor
sentto get
thenedicine?
5 How[ongdid
thejourney
take?
6 Whywasshesurprised
whenshegot back?
7 whatdidshefindin room342?
whenshewentto theBritlsh
8 Whathappened
Embassy
with hefstory?
9 WhataboutwhensheretLrrned
to Britain?
10 Didsheevertracehermother?
b Listenagainandcheck.
below.
Workin groupsanddiscuss
the questions
. Whatdoyouthlnkhappened
to }4rsRedwood,
andwhy?
. Whatdoyouthlrkaboutthewaythehoteland
BritshEmbassy
treatedEleanor?
. DoyouthinkEleanor
waslnsane?
(] s.t Listento a possibLe
exptanation
for the
disappearance.
Doyoufind it convincing?
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Task
U I S C U S St W O M V S T E T I E S
PreparationReading
andvocabulary
Lookat the Dictures
andreadthe introductions
to
two classic
mysteries.When
andwheredidthese
mysteriestake ptaceandwho wasinvolved?
2
Workin pairs.Checkthe meaningofthewordsin the
boxbetow.l4atch
the wordswith thetwo stories.
a Soldendisc
gangsters
a UFO
to benaitedshut
a beamof tight
3a Workin pairsorgroupsof four.Student/PairA:
Turnto page128andreadthe storyof lsidorFink
Student/Pair
B:Turnto pag€130andreadthe Story
of TravisWalton.
b Makenotesonthe topicsbetow.
. whothestoryisaboutandwhathappened
to them
. whoelsewasinvolved
andwhattheydid
. important
detailsandctues
TaskSpeaking
ltl
Youaregoingto tell your story to studentslvho have
not readit. Practisetetting
it, individualty
orwith
your partnerfuk your teacherfor anywords/phrases
you need.Checkanydetailsyouarcstil[notsureol
> ljsefullanguag€
a
2a Workin pai6or groupsoffourwith students
whohavereadthe otherstory.Taketurnsto tell
yourstories,Answer
anyquestions
the other
students
have.
> UsefulLanguage
a andb
Discuss
questions
1-6 undereach
storyintroduction.
> Usefullanguage
c
3
Summariseyour
ideastothe cLass.
DidyouatLreach
similarconctusions?
> usefullanguage
d
4
Workin pairs.Turn
to page129andreadwhatpeople
havesaidaboutthesecases
sincetheyhappened.
Discuss
the questions
below.
' Whichcasedo expefsnowagreeabout?What
solutionhavetheycomeupwith?
. Whatalternatives
havebeensuggested
in the
othercase?
. Didyourctass
comeupwith anyofthe
sameideas?
. Haveyouchanged
yourmindabout
whathappened?
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Findout first
View
16 Workin pairs.Readaboutthefamous
mysteries
betowOnedetaitin each
description
is incorrect.Which
detaiL
doyouthinkit is?
2a YouaregoingtoWatcha videoaboutthe Bermuda
Triangle.Where
isthe Bermuda
Triangte?
Whyis it
famous?
answers
O Watchthevideoandcheckyour
to exercise
2a.
Thenanswerthe questions
betow
In 2002theshipTheMary[elestevr'as
found
in caLm
waters
in theAtLantic
ocean.
lt wasin
g00d.0 ditonandw:lhplenty
o'_ood
onboaro.
The.argo
andvaLlabLes
wereuntouched
b!t
theseven
crewwefemissing,
aLonq
withone
Lifeboat.
Theywereneverfound.
1 WhatdidCot!mbus
seewhenhefirstlaiteo
Inrome
Befrruda
Triang[e?
2 WLarisqtrdnge
about ,F a) r1e(h p( d.dppea-l
3 Whichthreeplaces
markthe boundaries
oftheTrlangle?
4 Howmanyptanes
andpeopte
wereinvotved
in Fllght19?
5 According
to the pilot,whatproblems
weretheyhaving?
6 Whatevenraddedto the rrysteryof Ftighr19?
3a Thesenumbers
anddatesfromthevideoareincorrect.
TheVoynich
manuscript
waswrittefin the
15thcentury.
lt contains
1,240pages
of
iLtustrations
andinformation
aboutptantsand
theirmedicaluses.
Theplants,
however,
do
notmatchanyc!fientlyknowfandthetextis
writlen
in a language
thatis!nknown.
Watchthe videoagainandcorrectthem.
. tholsands
of lives
. 100ships
, MgA
. 1,000,000
square
miles
. 15thDecember,
1945
. 19nrlnLtes
later
CoonLine
to checkyouranswers
or
askyourteacher.
Workin pairs.Checkyouranswers
andexplainthe
significance
of eachnumber
Search:
l'4aryCeteste
/Voynich
manuscript
Canyouthinkofany possibLe
explanations
for the
BermudaTriangle
mystery?Would
youtravetthroughit?
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Reading
andspeaking
1
Workin groups.
Doyouthinkthe quotationistrue?
I you want to be successfuIin life,it is necessaryto
' get yoursetfnoticed.
Za Which ofthe actionsbeLoware likelyto getyou noticed?
. wearlngclothesthat are differentto otherpeople's
. rnakingeyecontactwith peoplewhenyou fi|5t meet them
. relerfingto irnportantpeoplethatyoLrknow(of claimto know)
. listeningcarefullyto what otherpeoplesay
. sayingpubLlcty
whatyo! believe
in,evenif it's!npopular
. keeping
youropinions
to yo!fse[fandavoiding
maklnga fuss
Readthe articleon page87.Whichideasfrom exercise2a are
mentioned?Whatother ideasdoesthe author mention?
Readthe afticleagainand answerthequestionsbelow
1 Whyshoutd
you tookpeopLe
in the eyewhenyou make
an entfance?
2 Whyshouldn't
you moveyoLrhands?
3 Why is lt a goodldeato holdyourbreathwhenenterlrga room:
4 Why canlt be usefulto nertion the nar.esof otherexperts?
5 How canlanguagehelpyou to soundlikean expert?
6 Whenis it a badldeato btuff?
7 In what wayswas RosaPafksa leader?
8 Howaretr!e leadersdiffercntfrom'a lonevolcein the wildemess
9 Why are narcissists
badleaders?
Workin pairsanddiscuss.
Howserious
doyouthinkthisarticteis?
Whichpieceof advicedoyouthinkis most/least
usefut?
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'I
Workin pairsanddiscuss.
Haveyouever
beento ajob interview?What
questions
did
theyaskyou?Whatwouldyouexpecttobe
askedin a job interview?
a Readthe exampLes
of weirdinteNiew
questions
askedatjob interviews
in partA
onthe teft.Which
could/couldntyou
answer?
b Workin pairs.Discuss
the questions
below
thencheckyouranswers
in partB.
. Whatkindof companies
tendto usejob
interview
questions
likethese?
Whatdoyouthinkisthepointof them?
Whatisthe bestwayto respond
ifyou are
askedquestions
Likethisin aninterview?
How rnary people woutd you say
thete ate at univelsiry in rhe Utr/
Mexico/yoE coutry?
3
6i s.t completettrearticlewith a/ar,the
or o (noarticLe).Then
listenandcheck.
i l l \ ; t r : , , r 1\ , . r i ! r I l r I r . I : , \ : l r : r i i . r i , t i { r \ L r f l
Fofmanyjob seekers
g€tting
around'-world,
'job with 3top international
company
{ike
aCoogleisspinnacte
of theirambition.
Butwithso
6_
rnanytalentedapplicants
howdoes
company
find
7brightest
andbestcandidates?
'n a
- b$ 15ye;rs rherehasbeen,trendamongst
top companies
towards
asking'o_ weirdandwacky
questions
jobinterviews,like
inrrtheonesabove.
r?ideaof thesequestions
isto testr3creativity
and
quickness
of a candidate,
andto findout moreabout
rawaythatr5candldate
thinks.
Mostcandidates
areunlikely
to give16
honestanswerto17
I
I
L
-stereotypical interviewquestion
Like'What
is
r3biggest
your
faiturein
life?'Butin answering
a question
like'WhatwouLd
I findin yourrefdgerator
fightnow?'theymay
revealmore
abour" _
kindo'pe6onthartheyare.5o
whatare'?o
correctanswers
to thesesortsof questions?
'zr_
According
to
ProfessorAbdul
Khalid,
of
z'?LondonlJniversity,
manyofthemdo not haverightor
wronganswersi23- mostimportant
thingistackling
'?aquestion
inteLLigently.When
it comesto weirdinterview
__
oueqlions,
ir seems orly w-ongan(weris
'l don'tknow.'
Lookatthesevenrulesbetow.Findanother
exampleof eachrutein the questionsandarticle.
We usea/arwhen...
1 the nounis oneof manylnd it hasn'tbeen
mentioiedbefore.
Far nany job seekets,settins a job with a
tap campanyis thei ambition
Z the nounhasbeenmentionedbefore.
... ta find aut nate about i/re way that the
3 the nounis unique(or uniquein that context).
For manyjab seeketsa.aund the warld
lf Holltwood made a novie abaut you.lile
wha wauld play the lead .ale?
4 the ioun is definedby a phraseorclausethat
follows(€notphrase,a relativectaus€,
etc.).
+ha iaaa -t r|'a<a ^ ,-.h^^.
the kind af person that they are
5 the adjectivebeforetheioun defiiesit, for
example,i1ht, wrang, etc.
the coftect answel
the fist lsecond tine, etc.
Therek no artlclewhen..,
6 a pluraloruncountable
noLrnG usedto makea
Why a.e th. nanhole coversrcund?
7 the nounis a singularpropername.
rl'c Gaagle ,hc Londan Unive.sity
I ReadStudy 1, page 155
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Language
focus2
1 a Work in pairsand discuss.Haveyou evergivena
presentation?lfyes, how did you feeLand how did it
go? lf not, wouldyou liketo?
1 Lookat the wordsyou addedto the conversationand
answerthe questions.
1 w h i c ho f t h ef o ! r w o r d s y o !a d d e dg o i n f r o n to f . r
adje.tveto makeit stronger?
car yo! thinkof ary
otherwordswhichmakeadjectives
stronger?
2 What isthe dljferencebetweenJoandrr.h?
3 Findan exampleofan extra auxiliaryverbthat adds
Readthe conversationbetweenSophieand PauL.Why
is Paulnervous?WhatadvicedoesSophiegive,
4 F i n dt w o n r o r €e x a m p l e s s l m i L at hr teop h r a sien b o l , l
Whatlneedissynpathyri9htna\9.
5 Whichwofdscai b€ addedto giveemphasis
tu
0 0r9.3 Listenandwrite the missingwords
(marked^) in the conversation.You
may needto
changesomeother words.Whateffect do these
wordshave?
C ReadStudy 2, page |56
PRACTICE
Match5entences1-10 with repliesa-j.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
l'm exhausted.Let'sstay ln andwatcha fllm.
I tike living here becauseit's n€ar the centre.
Thanks
for everything,
we'vehada niceevening.
sLrppose
you want to seeLiz.
Whyare we nsde on sucha beautifLlday2
OuchlThls
toothls painfuL.
l l - d ls . l l t l - : sb r o l " rg l a .l w h a t h a v e y o beendoing?
,olr t-ierdwas loveLy.I hope .or I _ re I n ag" 9 Comeon, [et'sgo to that newclub.
1 0 I think you o!ght to apotogise
to her
PAUL:
Thank you for coming. Before I start, I'd
just like to say how wonderful you aU
look loday ... oh dear
SOPHIE: What areyou doing?
Oh, I haveto give a presentaiionin class
tomo ow I'm ^ nelvousl
SOPHIE: 1^4ry^ arcyou nervous?
PAUL:
1Mht, Becausepublic speai<ingis ^
ierrii/ing. of course.
Don't be ^ a wimp. There are only nine
studentsin your class.
You're calling me a wimp? ^ yor! ^
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
YesI wi[[.I th]nkhe enjoyedthe evening
aswell.
Wel[,you wantedto spendthe dayat a mlseLrm
Why sho!tdI apotoglse?
| didn'tstart the trouble.
Yo! rewelcome.
ComeagalnsoonL
YoLrknowyou needto go to the dentist's.
l o o l l t h i n kl ! . r e ^ e \ a _ r. 0 1 e t , r e a r , r - " "
Oh,you re boring thes€days. want to go out.
That'strue,but it getsnoisy at night.
No actlallyI wantedto seeyou.
Dont blameme I didn't breakitL
0 1 9.4 How canyou givethe phrasesn botdmore
emphasis?Li5tenandcompareyour answers.
cried in the toilet before your lastjob
SOPHIE: That was ar'l ^ important interview It
was different.
^ I need ^ sl,mpathy right now, not
PAULI
cdticism.
SOPHIE: You're right. I'm ^ sorry. I ^ slnpathise.
\//hen I'm stressed,^ helps ^ to take
deepbreathsand listento sometelaxing
Oh, OK, thank . .- and then you go and
cry in the toilet?
Paull
1 sentencestressis importantfor givingenphasis.Li5t€n
againandmalkthewordsthatareespe.ialtstressed
on
audioscript9.4on page17s.
I m absoLutelyexhausted.Let'sstay in ...
ah,yau rc sa boring thesedays.lwantta ga aut.
2 Wolk in pairsandpractisesayingthe conversations.
Work in pairs.Chooseone of the conversations
in
exercise1a and extendit to six or eight lines.Tryto
usedifferentwaysofgiving emphasis.
> Unit 9, Study& Practice2, page156
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-''''-
KMmItr
Collectand presenttips
>
How
toprepare
foraiobint€ryiew
yolrtime
> Howto
manage
))
Howto
chooss
therightcareel
> Howtohave
ahappy
romantic
rctationship
))
How
l0dross
torsuccess
intie workptacG
)) Howto
beagood
lfiend
))
Howtotearnaloreign
tanguago
yoursociat
improvs
> Howto
tife
))
Howtoh€succe$ful
inexams
togetlit andstayfit
)) How
))
y0urcotleagues
Howt0
impress
andh0ss
> Howto
e.thealthilyand
cheapty
Preparation
neading
1
Workin groups.
Lookat thewebsiteaboveand
discuss
th€ questions
betow
. Whatkindofwebsiteis it?
. Doyoueverlookonwebsites
fortipsabolt things
youneedto do?lf so,whathaveyou lookedup
recently?
' Whichsection(s)
onthiswebsite
wouldyoufind
particularly
usefut?Why?
. Tryto thinkof onetip foreachtopicon
thewebsite.
2a Matchthe tipsfromthewebsiteon page93to th€
correctsections
in thewebsite.
Workin pairsanddiscuss,
Doyouthinkthetipsgive
goodadvice?
Readthe tipsagainandund€rLineten
usefulphrases
for givingadvice.
TaskSpeaking
1a Workin pairs.Choose
a topicfromthewebsit€that
interests
you or chooseanothertopicthat you both
Brainstorm
asmanytipsasyoucanforthe topic.Ask
yourteacherfor anywords/phrases
youneed.
Minglewith the ctass.
Taketurnstotalkaboutthe
topicandyourtips.Makenot€sofanygoodideas
you hear.
Prepare
a shorttalk,givingadviceaboutyourchosen
topic.Reviewyour
tipsandsetectthe bestones.
DecidehowyouwiLlpresentyourtips.
> Usefullanguag€
a-c
Workin groups.
Listento eachother'stipsandmake
notesonwhateachstudentsays.
Voteon the most
usefulsetof tips.
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Speakinp
Sriggestio-ns
andadvice
1
questions.
work in pairsanddiscussthe
. Doyouknowanyone
whoisfedupwith
theirjob?
Why?
. Whatadvicewouldyougivethem?
2a rl 0l 9.7Lisaisfedupwith herjobasa PA,
Listento herconversation
with herfriend
Amyandchoose
the correctanswers
below.
1 Lisawantsa job that isbetterpaid/ morc
live[yand i nteresting.
2 Lisa/ Amy comes
upwiththe ideaof
becoming
anestateagent,
3 AmythinksLisahastherightpersonal
qualities/ the fight qualificationsfol
thejob.
4 Lisais unenthusiasticI intetestedbut a
littteunsure
aboutthe idea.
5 Amysuggests
appt ngforjobsontine I
contactinganacquaintance
fot advice
b l0ll 9.8 Now Listento Lisa'sconversation
withJenny,
Alex'smum.Choose
the correct
1 Je^nyis unwitting/happy to adviseLisa.
2 shesaysthat quatifications
are/ arenot
the mostimportant
thing.
3 shealsomentions
,nteior design/
computetskills.
4 Hermainsuggestion
isdoirga
collegecourse/ getting someparttime experience,
3a Tryto completethe sentencesbetowfrom the
conversations.Then
tistenagainandcheck.
Conversation
1
1 Any
?
2 Thismightsounda bit strange,
but haveyou3
4
5
6
7
I
Yououghtto
, youknow
Yeah,
You
lool online,I
Or why
intoanestateagent's
andjustask?
| knowwhatyou
why havea chatwithher?
Conversation
2
1 I'dlike_aboutcareers.
2 l justwondered
if you'vegot_
about_
do?
3 Youshould_
lookintothat.
4 Tobehonest,
is oersonatitv
5 Obviousty,
to havegoodcomputer
skitls.
6 l woutdrecommend
,
_
youtry to get
7 Youknowwhatlwoutdadvise?
_that
a weekendjob
with a localestateagent's.
8 That'sa reatLy
goodidea,_
of that.
9 lf I wereyou | _
in the area.
to alltheestateagenCs
10That'sgreat,thankyou,
yolr advrce.
b 6-i g.g M"t h th"r"ntencesin exercise
3ato the categones
below.
Thentistenandcheck.
. asking
for adviceandsuggestions
. Sivingadviceandsuggestions
. respondingto
adviceandsuggestions
Practise
Doanyphrases
sound
sayingthesentences.
particuLarly
forrnalor informaL?
4 WorkinA/Bpairs.Turn
to page129andactout oneof the
situations,
u0llYesr'1
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Jallal SurJe^ora^llelnradsv
3u;11.r6
NEWSPAPERS
ANDMAGAZINES
UKnewspaperreadershiFis
declining
I n l h e U K a n dt h € U S A , l . b t o i d ! '
higher circutationthan !roadih.i
2013
2010
.g
2000
50
s
Themagazinefithihehiqhe5t<ircotation
In mostnewspapers,
in theUSAis for peopLe
over50.IntheUK, covet€g€of foreign
itsaTVtistingsmaqarine.
newshasdecreased
itsa carmagazine.
InG€rmany,
andloreign
(orresp0rdont5have
In Canada,
it'sa cooKngmagazine.
tosttheirjobs.
Bycontrast,there
r{;*
l'50
ii
:rvI
entedainment
news.
iLr5lrxGstL_
APq
.i.1,.
I cooKrxc
Reading
andvocabulary
Workin pai|5andhavea race.Scanthe mediainfographic
and
answerthe questions
beLow
1
2
3
4
5
6
Whatklndof peopLe
readthemostpopuLar
nragazine
in thetlSHowrnuchtimedoteenagers
spendin frontof a screen?
Howmuchof ouronllretlmeisspentonsocial
media?
Whathashappered
to entertainment
newsin newspapers?
Whois mostlikelyto watcha horrorfitm?
Howmuchvideoisuploaded
ordownloaded
every
rninute
(becarefutl).
7 Whatkindof newspaper
ismostpopular
intheUK?
8 Whatsortof programnres
areprobably
the mostpopularin Ind:
9 Whatsortof websiteisTwitter?
Readthe infographic
morecarefulty
andcheckthemeaningofthe
wordsin bold.workin pairsanddiscuss.Which
information
doyoL
find most/least
surprising?
Why?
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Listening
Questionsaboutthe media
Workin pairs.Readquestions
1-10aboutthemedia.
Whichthr€equestions
you
would
most[iketohear
ananswerto?
1
2
3
4
5
6
Whocontro{s
the nedia?
HowcanI protectmy privacy
onLine?
WillwestiLlreadnewspapers
in the future?
Howhasthe internetaffected
thewo{d of media?
Whatwitlhappen
tory in the future?
Doesthe mediareflectwhatwethinkor control
whatwe think?
7 Doesthe mediaportraywomenin a negative
way?
8 Howdoesthe mediainfLuence
us?
9 Whatisthe futureof books?
'10 lsTVbadfor
chitdren?
rl0r 1O.1Listento aninterviewwith a professor
of
mediastudies.Which
qu€stions
dothe caLLers
ask?
Arethe foltowingstatements
true(T),fal5e(F)or is
therenoinformation(Nl)?Listenagainandcheck.
'I lhe term mass
media'includes
the intemet.
2 h tne fJtLre.therewiltbefewerthansixmajor
mediacorpo€tions.
3 Newspaper
editorsusedto bemorepowerful
4 WegetaLtournewsfrombigmediacorporations.
5 Mediaismoreinte€ctivenowthanin the past.
'1986
6 Thetop-ratedTV
showin the UKin
wasa
soaPopera.
7 Tabloid
circutation
hasfattenin mostcountries.
That might be
whatI said ...
I'lu,tit wasn't what I meantl
When public figures talk to the media, sometinres
the words don t quite come out right. Here are
lome of ou! fa!'ourite examples.
I 'l owea lotto myparents,especially
my
motherandfather,'
Australiangalfer
2 'Theleadcar is absolutely
unique,exceptfd
theonebehindit, whichis ideniical.'
FomulaOnel\lotarspaftcammentatar
3 'll youexcludethe killings,
Washington
now
actuallyhasa verylowcrimerate.'
ex-L4ayoraf Washingtan
4 'Wereyoupresentwhenyourphotograph
w6
taken?'
Lawer questioning
witnessn court
'Smoking
people,
5
kills
andif you'rekilled,
you'velostan importantpartofyourlifo.'
American
acrrcssandanli smokngcampatgrw
6'l'd liketoplayforanltalian
clublike
Barcelona.'
Eritishfootballer
Z 'Theword'genius'is not applicable
in foolb*
A geniusis a guylikeNormanEinstein.'
AmericanFoatballer
4a Arethe thingsMonicamentionsevidentinyour
country?
Choosethree
orfourquestions
in exercise
1 to
discuss.
Language
focus1
Reportingpeople'sexactwords
Wo* in groupsanddiscuss.
Doyouknowanypubtic
figureswhoar€famousfor sayingthingsthat don't
makesense,when
speakingto
the media?
2a ThearticLe
quotes
abovecontainssomeunfortunate
that havebeenreportedin the media.Readthe first
one.Whydoesn'tit makes€nse?
b Workin pairs.Readquotes2-13.Whichdoyou
likebest?
Matchreportedspeech
sentences
a-e beLow
to five
ofthe directouotesin the articte.UnderLinethe
Dartswhicharedifferentin the reDorted
versions.
a Themayortoldjournatists
that if youexcluded
the kjttings,Washington
actuatly
hada verylow
crimerate.
Thelawyerasked
thewitnesswhethershehad
beenpresent
whenherphotograph
hadbeentakerl
Theactress
saldthatsmoking
kitlspeopLe
ar'rd
addedthat ifyou arekilled,thenyouhavetostan
importantpartofyour[ife.
The[awyerasked
thewitnesshowhisfirstmafiiage
hadended.The
witnessreptied
that it hadended
with death.The
lawyerthenasked
whosedeath
hadendedthe marriage.
Theminister
saidthathedidn'tknowwhat
hehad
said,butthat heknewwhathethoughtandthat
heassumed
thatthatwaswhathehadsaid.
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01 ?lp€r\r
Language
focus2
\I,ilr'[ir, t$ul\: riuwllillrirritilr.".
u,hili: gr,l'n$\s riil li
1
Workin pairsanddiscuss.
DoyouwatchceLebrity
interviews
onTV?Doyouknowanythingaboutthe
famousinterviews
in the photos?
Read
the text on the rightabouttwo of the most
famousryinterviews
of aLLtime.
Comptete
the text
with the phrases
below.
confesseito making
admittedbeing
admittedthat
invited Rich.rdNixon to be explainedthai
accusedher husbandof having
b 6i to.s Listenandcheck.Why
doyouthinkeach
interviewwas
soshocking
atthe time?
Readquotes1-€.Canyouguesswhichthreeare
fromthe Dianainterviewandwhicharefromthe
Nixoninterview?There
aretwo extraquotes,
1 Mypoliticall]fe
lsover(accept
I deny/ invite)
2 hadb!limiaforanumberofyears.
ladnh/denylrefuse)
3 | letdownmyfriends.
| letdowrthecountry.
\invite/ confess/ accuse)
4 l'm notgolrgto ta[kaboutmy private[ife.]tt too
petsonal.
(admit/ rcfuse/ confess)
dontseemyself
beingqu€en
ofthiscountry.
lexplainI inviteI deny)
I didnotcommit,
in myviewan...offence.
\confess/ deny/ accuse)
7 | can'ttolerateit lthemedialbecalseit s become
abnslve...
\denyI invite/ accuse)
I IoJld yo , |(e to saya DI rtoredbou(
ll-e.r:Tes
youcornmitted?
(/rylre/ explain
/ tell)
b Choose
the bestverbin brackets
in exercise
3ato
reporteachquote,
1 Theverbsin exercise2. summarisewhatpeoplesay
without repeatingeveryword. t'4atchthemto patterns
1 verb+ object+ t at assuresomeoneihat
4 v e r b+ p r e p o s i t i o+ng e r u n d
5 verb+ objed + preposition
+ geru.d
6 verb+ infinitive(withfo)
Tverb+ object+ infinitive
2 Checkthe meaningofthe verbsbelow Matcheachveo
to a Patternin exercise1,
suggest
recommend claim
agree
apologise
btame
offer
pointout
I ReadStudy 2, page 159
Diana, Princess of Wales
WhenDiono,
Pflncess
olWoes,wos
inlerv
ewedonlelevis
on n
November
l995,shewos
slillmoffled
lo
Pr
nce
Chorles
Diono
rin ovewilh
someone
elseduring
hermorroge
cnd
'llrereloTionship
p
hodbeenrnore
lhono frlendslr
A t . e 5 0 mIeT p r r e
_0.,op"oo's".p^.f trnttF:
w0m0n
ond_lhe
stress
hodedTooneoling
disorder.
Coming
iromlhefuiure
oueenofEngond,ih s wosexfroord
nory
Thehou ongnleryiewcoused
o medio
yeor,
siormThefoliowing
Diono
ondChorles
d vorced
ondlwoyeors
oler,she
d edino cor
croslrn Porls.
Richard Nixon
young
ln 1977,
Brlshrepoder
Dovid
fto$"
iniervewed
president
onlelevis
on ExLJS
Nixon
wosreported
lo
hovebeenpoid5600,000
p us20percent
oftheprofits
torhis
invovemenl.ll
pehops
become
lhemosllQrnousTV
nleru
ew
ot olll meondwos
evenmodenloo lim,Nixou
lrodesigned
lhepresdency
n 1974otlefbengoccused
ofcommttl
ng
7_
Inthe nleru
ew,Nixon
"_
ihecrmesond
ne
.lou"e
I oooo1"onj rir!t ., r rol
t'ptuo er re
e€
peopie
Amercon
downondhe
o ol ol bodiudgmenls
Theinlerv
ewsWere
hugey successlul
ondmodeFrcslfomous.
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Preparation iilrl ,itiintr,irr. ,f, ri!lri.rliri.,ri'
1 a Workin smatlgroups.Lookat the photosandheadLines.
Makethreeguesse5
aboutwhateachstoryis about.
Lookat the wordsandphrases
in the box.Tryto guesswhjch
artictetheyarefrom,
rorensic
investigators
violatesomeone's
privacy
graphicviolence
ratlngs
undermine
parentalauthoriry
theAdvertising
St.f iaris A!thority
2a Workin threegroups.CroupArR€adarticte1.CroupB:Read
articte2. CroupCrReaderticte3.Whichheadline
(A,g or C)
doesit relateto?
Reedthe articteagainandmemorise
asmuchinformation
as
youcan.Compare
whatyouremembea
with anotherstudent
fromyourgroup.
Task l)i1:rr,',,n!,ir
r,i1
1 a Youaregoingto 5ummariseyour
articteto otherstudents,
thenl€ada discussion
aboutit. practise
summarisingthe
aruclewithyourpartner.
> UsefuL
language
a
Thinkof at leastfourdiscussion
questions
to askoth€r
students
aboutyourarticle,
> Usefutlanguage
b
Da you thinkemployersshouldtry ta find an about
candidates'
personallives?
Whatda you thinkabautvialenceon f\/?
2
Workin groupsofthreewith students
whoreadother
articles,Take
turnsto summariseyour
articlesandaskand
answer
yourdiscuss
ionquestions,
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View
1a Workin pairs.Dothe fitmand
photography
quizbetow
2a Youaregoingtowatcha videoaboutd€v€Lopments
in
fiLmtechnoLory.
youwatch,readthe definitions
Before
betowandtry to choose
the correctanswet
stow-motionfootage
WEWWWS@MW,@MruM
a filmmaking
technique
in whichthe actionhappens
slower
NMDFHWNO@&$PWK
When was the frst 3D fltn tnade?
a 1922 b 1970 c 2008
I
6
wlren were the fusi moving colour
UnageE produced?
a 1849 b 1902 c 1938
'when
was the fr3t camera phone
ifivented?
a 1997 b 2002 c 2007
wlen was the the
a 1726 b 1826
'When
$,as the flst
created?
a 1975 b 1985
first photograph taken?
c 1926
aligital carnera
c 1995
@When was th€ lhe
fi5t bfktng flIlr made?
a 1887 b 1907 c 192?
? When tyas the first DVD solat?
a 1976 b 1986 c 1996
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or
asKyourteacher,
Searchi
first3Dfilrnlcolour
film/
camera
phone/photograph/digltat
camera/talking
motionpicture/DVD
/ fasterthanh rcaI life.Thismeansthatyoucan see
eventsin detailwhichnorrnalty
happen
tooslow / tart.
time-[apsefootage
a fiLmmakingtechnique
in whichthe actionhappens
slower/taste. thanin reaL
[ife.This
means
thatyoucan
seein detaiIevents
whichnormally
happen
overa
short/ Iongpetiod.
a time-sticephotograph
a2Dl3Drecordof a momentin time.You
seea single
momentin timefromoneangte/ manydiffetentanglesO watchthevid€oandcheckyouranswers.
Watchthe videoagainandanswerth€questions.
1 Whatdid Eadweard
Muybridge
showforthefirsttime?
2 Howmanyframespersecond
isa)norrnalfilm,
b)slow-motion
footage?
3 Howdoyoumakea filmthat showsfruitrottingin
30 seconds?
4 Howdoyoutakea time-slice
image?
5 Whatmightwe beabteto do bytheyear3,000?
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r3
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situationson the website.WhichthingswouLdbe beneficiaIto the
world andwhich woutd be harmfut?
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atquroqlu qr$)JoarE unoq alou p@dsor. Etl
ptnoaI ']. np,!a^ot,tu Japunsrnoq.soqr lE p!.ds
ol.tqP aq l.uptnoaI iaFlroq aq ptnoMstq])ut!r I
) ,(l€)
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o q seq
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suolFnts/CreurBelu!
ot /tlolaqsluaululoraqt q4et{ e€
Interferingwith nature
Sixty-fivemitlionyearsago,dinosaurs
wereroamingtheearthwhenanasteroidstruck.causingdrainaticctimate
yealsago,eadyhuman
change
andwipingthemout,Seventy-four
thousand
beings
almostsuffered
thesanefate
whenlllountToba
i n northern
Sumatra,
Indonesia
erupt€d,
triggeringa ten-year
votcanic
wintera(osstheplanet.
Gtobal
catastrophes
arenothingnew.blt forthefirsttimein history,
humans
inaybemaHnq
thetechnotogicat
advanaes
to prevent
5omeof th€m.
IIIE IIIRTAI FiOII CLIiIIIIE CHANGE
THETHREAT
FROM
ASTEROIDS
Ctimatechangeis
ausedbythe
Solutiont!vo:
stjruptlreoceans
h 1908,anasieroid
measuring
extremely
hiqbterebofdangdous rirettectua
(quite
about40
metfesin
diameter
tVedtures,
a company
smaLttoran
sieojd) struck
sibefia
l " r ' r v F ( 1 5! ir40 r e l rl o r o n b a '
particula{y
(co,)
adm djoxide
andcaLrsed
eiomousdamaqe.
Nad
wdminq,h;spop6m
sLobar
Itisestimaledlhaiave,ao€otobat
i...-,-^-*.-^^
^,.
ittanded
on
Beijinq,
NewYo*,
or
. , , - , . r " " , r r ' f c i L b P se. a c h
'
anyoth€rli rgecjty,it wouldhave
oDoJrroone,reto 9 r d u. I
(
y
t u oa n d d e g c ebr ! t Le e l oo '
desboyed
it. 5owhalp€paGnons
r
o
.
r
.
r
u
p
r
p
o
c
e
.
.
.
W
h
y
.
rler
th' rentury.eaUt1owlheefl"tu yourightoewoloerng aourowe
shoutd
wemake
ta preventtuture
coutdbedtastrophic,butaEwe wanttoOottrisi,qqam,tneanswer
awaeoftheposjbLesotutions? jsscientjfi
cattyvaul.Thebottom
of
Solution
orq buitda huaenuctear
th,"oceanis
atmost
fteezins
andby
''.'...''.'..:-ltil|'nq''.0(o'dwdlelaortd(one
&ob
ftsa simFtesolunon:
usea nudear
t ol h e 5 u r l ad. e
n dd b s o rhbe qa n d
ctaryasitsoonds,aEoupof C0,,aidsocooLrhepEnc
bonbto destroy
anapproaching
a6de-ilsFomBriti:hun;versih€sstercid.Thissolution
woutd
probabtyworktor
snaiter
astercids
i \ @lirve
ychso
o i p e . ' e lLdoD v ar L o e D d . ( o o n . ' 1t 'o_'e r b : r n rp L d
butahugenudearbombwouLd
be
p u n p er o ' n o u s q . r r i i t $ a n o r e c n n ? r y 0 o $ - _ D _ ' w
needed
forlrryerones,
andthatis
"oftoxicchemicals,auchassutphur
ou.d
Risks:thetubeswouLddisruptand
a dangerin
itseltWhatlfthe6ckel
po$ibty
djonde,
iiio theatmospherc.
d$ircyra life,andtlre
faitedandrhebombfeLtto
eath?
Surprisingty,
thereisgoodscience phnmaynotwork.
Tlreotherdanger
isihattheast€f
oid
behind
theidea.
ft echemicats
nrightnotbedesircyed
bui wolld
iosit
thleerstoDbumino
wo!rtd
forma prote.tive
liyerarcund Solutron
splitintotwoorthrcebig
pieces.
theeadhthaiwoutdrcftecisunLight
!e!5
Then
w€wouLd
havenotonehuge
andsocoottheearlh,muchtikethe
probtem
butihree
bis,Gdioactive
Thisisundoubtediythebesisotuijon
effects
ofavotcanjc
suption.
butisiieattytikeLyto
happeninth€
cosbaround$l0bittionayear. neainrire?
Cosi:bittions
andbittions
ofdoth6.
Costlunknown,botintheshortt€inBenefi
BenefiirrthisplanwouLdproduce
ir: it maybeouronlyoption
iiwouLdprobablyinvotv€qLobat if there*n'i much
atmostjnstanrfesutrs.
tire before
an
Risk:rcLGdoes
have
alnostwip
outhumani\rinihepstthrolgh Beiefits:ifsasinpteaid€ffective $sksrdowe
reatlywantto
buitda
thetoxicchemicalirete*edinrheplai.
bonbthatcouLd
deshoy
theplineil
Risks:
it mayatready
betoolrte.
without6djcaLaction,
ihjspLan
j6t mean'do
could
nothing'.
,'.s!i"ir,i,T1ffi
li.
E'
:::"i*
nd
Solution
tworbuitda qiait umbrett!
r! !!r!e
American
HJayi"lelosh
9eophysicist
haspoposed
bliidingagiant
umbretliin
space,
onekjtomeffe
wide.Theaim
isnottosiop
astercids
€inin9downonomhmds
butntherto coLtect
andfocus
sobr
enersy,
ratlrer
likea maqnj[,in!
slas.Thisensqycouldbefocurd
onanasteroid
andovertime,
it
fton ea'th.It
woutd
deit€djtaway
wouLdtakeatLeastayeartowork,
Costa fewbiLtiondoLlau.
Ben€fi
isritwouldr'tb€a dangerio
Risk5:
it miglrttaketoo
Long
io wo*.
soLution
three:donothina
andhop€
Auyexpensi!€
solutioihas
probtems.
rse decide
to blitd
a hugenucLedbomb
oragiant
pays?
umbreita,who
Whocontrcb
it?Sotheopnontodo
nothinq
isalways
tlresimplest
aid most
attEctive.
thequ$nonis,isittlre
Risks:ifan
astercid
does
threaten
earth,wewon'thavethetechnotogy
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tulpeex
Task
issue
Discuss
a controversial
PreparationListening
ofmedical
Youaregoingto discuss
threedifficuttcases
€thics.Lookat the photoson Page111andthe key
vocabutarybetowTryto gue5swhat eachcaseis about.
Case1
to bebullied
seLf-esteem
PeerPressure
plasticsurgery
drugs
to prescribe
Case2
attentiondeficit hyperactivity
(ADHD)
disorder
easilydistracted
0epen0ency
probtems
behavioural
long-termeffects
Case3
a lifetong
smoker
a life-threatening
illness
lifeexpectancy
valuefor money
thetaxpayer
theagingpoputation
2a 6D tt.g Listenandcheckyou.ideas.
muchof eachcasesummarycanyou
wo* in pairs,How
complete?
c Listenagainandcomplete
the ca5esummanes.
Readthe fact file.\lr'hichcasedo you think eachfact
relatesto?
Task Speaking
OotionA
1
Workin pairs.Choosethe casethat mostinterestsyou.Think
of thre€or four argumentsfor 6ndagainstthe surgery/drugs/
you need.
treatm€nt.fuk yourteacherfor arrywords/phrases
> Usefullanguage
a andb
2
yourarguments
for and
workwith anotherpair.ExpLain
reachan
against,
anddiscr.rss
themwith yourgrcuP,Tryto
agreement
aboutlvhatshouldbedone.lfyouhavetime,
discuss
anothercase
in a similarway.
> ljs€ful languagea-c
3
case,andyour
for andagainstthe
Present
the arguments
restof the classthink?
conclusions,
to the class.Whatdothe
OptionB
croupA:Think
about
1a workintwogroups.
the arguments
lol thesurgery/drugs/
ineachcase.
croupB:Think
treatment
againstsurgery/drugs/
aboutthearguments
treatmentin eachcase.
work in pairswith a studentin yourgroup.
Thinkof asmanyarguments
asyoucanfor
eachcase.Askyour teacherfor anywords/
phrasesyou need.
> usefuttanguage
a andb
Workwith otherstudentsin yourgroupand
comPare
tdeas.
Workin pairswith a studentfrom the other
group.Discuss
eachcasein tum,givingyour
persuade
arguments
for or against,Tryto
yourpartnerofyoursideof the argument.
WhatisyourreaLpointof view?Compare
yourviewswith the class.
> Usefullanguage
b andc
-:uotlsanbftI aql
a
rqnous
raleqepcltqnd6ursnecs!3se33ql ^q/l^
:IEs sluouoddos,ZrO leqn
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luaulFrl
:spa3u
pue queaq s,x sry\t
:punorqcEq leuosrads,x srl
lHvl.!wnsSsvc
a
--
FF-
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Language
focus2
HypotheticaIsituationsin the past
'I
with?why?
Read
thequotes.which
doyoumostagree
Neverregret. If it's good,it's wonderful.
If it's bad, it's experience.
Victoria Holt, author
The stupid thingsyou do, you regret ... and if you
don't regretthem,maybeyou're stupid,
Katharine Hepbutn, actress
regrets
does
2a Read
thetextontheright.Whose
it describe?
to page
b whatwordsdoyouthinkaremissing?Turn
What do p€opleregret whenthey cometo
the end of their lives?Bronnie Wa{e, a carer
from Australia, recordedthe regretsof her
patientr in her blog ln spirationand Chni.
Here are the top ffYe,
a
in the past.Tryto guessthe missing
words.
1 she
sed ves'if
asled
herout.
2 |
folLowed
my
beherenowif | parentswishes.
3 lf I
keptin touchwith her,we_
be
friendsnow.
4 lf | _
seen
teftworkontime,| _
ny children
beforetheywentto bed.
2a.
Matchsentences
1-4to regretsa-e in exelcise
c fi tt.+ Listenandcheck.which
spealers
expressregrets?
Lookat the sentenceswth ilonly or Iwish in etet.ise
2a. Do they referto thingswhichhappenedor didn't
which verb form foLLowsf only andI wish?
Za which sentencesin exercise3a referto the pastonty?
which referto the pastandthe present?
whichvelbforms are usedin eachcase?
3 compLetethe sentencesbelowin two ways,one
referringto the pastandthe otherto the present,
usingthe wordsin brackets.
1 lf l'd beena bit mo.eambitious,
I
(beprcnoted / benanasel.
2 lf th€y hadn'tsuppr€ssedtheirfeelings
for €achothel they (geftoget efl
3 lf she'dmademoreof an effortto keepin contaci,we
l,ot losetouch I stillbeftiends).
I ReadStudy2, page162
y I'd had the courage to live a life ttlle to
, not the life odrers expected of me.'
. It's very important to ty to honour at least some
ofyourdleams.
b'Iwishlhadn'tworkedso
. This came from every male paiient that I nursed.
c
l l o n l ) l d h d dr \ e c o u r a p er o e \ p r e s sm )
Many people suppressedtheir
in order to
peace
keep the
with others.
'I wish I'd stayed in touch rviih my
.
126 and check.
situations
3a Thesentences
betowreferto hypothetical
'ffor
d
. Ii all comesdown to love andrelaiionshipsin the
'I wishthatI hadlet myselfbe
. Many peopledid not realiseuniil too late thai
is a choice.
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t)trfvud
Speaking
Reportingopinions
Pn01EsI\
Workin pairsanddiscuss.Why
areanimalsusedin
medicalresearch?
Whatarethe mainarguments
for
andagainst,
doyouthink?
2
public
! 0r11.6Listento a report€rsummarising
opinionpollson animalt€sting.Complete
the four
questions
whichth€ presenter
asks.
1 W h a t d o t h e?
...
whatelsedo...?
Whatdopeople
feelabout...
?
4 Howwoutdyou...?
3
Listenagainandchoosethephraseyou
hear.
1 Recent
rcsea/c,/ op,hiorpol{ihavegivennewlife
to thedebate
onanimaItesting.
2 Atounloneinlive / orei, fe, peopLe
believe
that
it is neveracceptable.
3 Aquarter/ Three-quarferr
of people
thinkthat
experiments
on monkeys
andotherprimates
shouldnot beallowed.
4 Motethar thrceout offive / four out offive
peopte
thinkthatexperiments
whichcause
severe
suffering
or painshouldbebanned.
A 'for andagainst'essay
5 )ustoverhalf / underhalt thepeoptepolledalso
saidthat expeiments
on newmedicines
should
I Workin pairsanddiscussthe
questions
below.
bealtowed.
6 Thevastmajoity / Atiny minority of people,avel
1 Howmanysituations
canyouthinkof where
90percent,
areagainst
testingcosmetics
onanirrals.
animals
areusedfor entertainment?
zoos,
7 Onthe whole / Aenetallyspeaking,it's a ol,ixed
bullfights,
...
picture.
Butthe results
showthatmoreandmore
2 Canyouthinkof anyarguments
for or against
peopte
areconcerned
aboutanimaltesting.
usinganirnals
for entertainrrent?
Writing
4
Readthe research
beLow
aboutDublicoDinion
on
smokingbans.Rephrase
it usinglanguage
from
€xercise
3.
85%of peoplearenon-smoke$.
65%of peoDlesupporta banofl
snoking tn aUpublicplace6.
In 2001,only 35%of p€opte
supported*e ldea,
48%.of DeoDle
supporta banon
35%of peoplethink smoking
shouldbemadeconptetety
iltegal.
95%of psoplethink that the
Inbimum ageto buycigarettes
shortdbe 16or hi{her.
5a Workin pairs.StudentA:You
area presenter
on a
radionewsshow.StudentB;Youarea reporterwho
issummaris'ngthe
res€arch
on a smokingban.Act
out aninterviewsimitartotheonein exercise
2,
b Swaprolesandrep€at.
2
Readthefor andagainstessayon page115.
Summadsethe
arguments
on bothsides,Werc
any
the sameasyours?
3
Choose
the bestansweG
betowto completeth€
essayon page115.Sometimes
bothanswers
ar€
possibte.
t howevet
/ although
2 Arfhst / Fnstofall
3 lt'sinpoftanttoremenber
/ Dan'tfarget
4 SecandLy
I Second
5 Lastly
/ Iast
6 ontheatherhand
/ however
7 forexampLe
/ suchas
I Furthernorc/ Whatismore
I Another
argument
/ Also
lOln conclusian
lTo summarise
11lnmyopinion
/ Tomynind
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Reading
andvocabulary
lianxe
1
Workin pairsanddiscuss.Are
you interested
in ceLebrities?
Whataboutyourfriendsandpeoplein yourcountrygenerally?
2a Workin pairs.Checkthe
meaning
ofthe phrases
in boldbelow.
Thenchoose
fiveof the sentences.Wlite
the nameof a
petsonfor eachsentence,
wetl-known
He/She...
. hasbeena househotd
namefor decades.
. drawshugecrowdswherever
goes.
he/she
. is/wasanovernightsensation,
. hasbeenspaashed
acrossthe newspapers
recentty.
. hasa reputationfor actinglikea diva.
. trieshardto stayin the mediaspottight.
' is itt-equipped
to deatwith the pressure
of fame.
. istryingtomakea comeback.
Workwith a newpartnerTaketurnsto saythe namesonyourList
andguesswhyyour
partnerchosethatperson.
2e]llujapouu0a)uenllul
peqPro PooBe ,(luleuselluqalar
elv ,
oqlulluelrodru!os
2puo^urapoul
euro)oqs^eqsartlqalol)utqt no,(op,{q/ .
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ro PuqleqM'osJl 2snouleJ
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ra^. no,(oC .
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trMoLsnt^]lper e u yed alet no,(p;n016
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)lo A
:c
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'
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I
focus1
Language
,..1.
r'r,t|'\{I,r]Ili.:rrt.]r\:linfirrititt*r
reaLLy
lf someone
work in pairsanddiscuss.
kindof
a cetebrity,what
wantsto become
personatity
aretheytiketyto have?Haveyou
evermetanyonelikethis?
t
gotoacLub
to c€tebrate,
Its afiiendt bnthdayand
shewantsto
Whatdoyou
do?
butshe's
iotsurewhere.
bump
Likelyto
whereyou're
a Younrggeslgoing
somewheretun
2
areintloduced
to vadousnewpeople
Youarcata parVwhercyou
2a Workin pairsanddotho quiz.
usingthekeybetow
b Addupyourscores
to page130andcheckthe quiz
then
turn
go.You'rc
suggestions
aboutwhereto
Youdonl tikemaking
to lindoutif youhavethekind
conclusions
decide.
happytoteiotherpeopte
Doyou
personatity
to become
a ceLebrity.
of
go.If its not'the
enddecidesto
Yo!wajtandseewhereyourfi
it
says?
agree
with
what
rightphcetobeseen',you'ttmakeanexcuseaiddosomethrng
namesand
b€rpeopLe's
a Youmakea biqeffortto remem
somethingaboutthem.
r-.memberpeopteveryw€lL.
b Youfeettoo
neryousto
betierthanyou
rememberyou
c Youexpectotherpeopteto
- thatt whatusuaLLy
happens.
remeriberthem
having
andtheyare
someofeweatihy,
Afrieid ofyoursismarryjng
goabout
guesis.
Howdoyou
a bigweddinq
withrichandfamous
choosjng
anoutfitforthebigday?
ptanri'rgtow€arand
tookfor
a Youaskotherpeoptewhattheyar€
3
butjthasiobe
speciattoweat
b Youtookforsomething
ir theiuture.
thatyoucarwearagain
something
anoLrtfrtthatouilhines
c YouputaLotofeffortintofinding
rightpeopLe
eLse,
inctuding
thebridellripressingthe
everyoie
atevenlllikethjsh exfienr€lyimportant
4
Woutdyou
be
despentetoinrpress
Youmeetsom€onewhoyou're
preparedtoteLttiesaboutyourseLf
to makethe ghtimpression?
asyouare,th€nthafstough
a No.lfpeopLedon'trespectyou
whatifpeopLefoundout?
b YouwouLdn'tdaretetttjes
c Whynot,ifit hetpstoqetyoufoticed?
5
ata sociat
A ratherbonngex clasmateheadstowardsyou
qathe rg. Howdoyourcact?
ndsomeone
f otto remember
himaid quicktyfi
a Yo!pr€tend
g to tatkto.
morejnterestif
move0i
makeaiexcuseto
b Youhaveafrierdtychat,then
whowon'tmindtatkingto you.
to ind someoie
c YouarereLiryed
Underlineallthe infinitives(to + verb)in rhe
quiz andcircleattthe gerunds(verb+ -i,9).
Matchverbpatterns1-'10belowto other
You suggest 9oin9 sonewhetetun.
+ gerund
2 preposltion
. . . put effatt into ffnding an autfrt
t h a ti s t h e s u b j e cotf a s e n t € n c e
3 agerund
Being famausb the lastthing yau
4 verb(+ object)+ inflnltii,e
A repotter asksyou to be in a phota.
Yar nake an ellort to remembel
6 adjedive+ iniinltive
Youre likely to bump inta ftiehd..
7 too + adjectlve+ inflnltive
Yar'rc taa sensibleto wotry abart it.
why someone
I an infiniuvethat describes
doessomething(infinitlveof purPoseJ
It's alldo.e to attract attenlton.
e Gane)wherelane/kins + \adie.tive +)
. . . suggestionsabout where to go
10 v€rb+ (objecr)+ infinitivewithoutfo
You let athet people de<ide.
I ReadStudy 1, page 164
6
Youarcat a chanryMnt anda reporterfromthe tocatneffipaper
asksyouto bein a photograph.Howdoyouread?
butyou
keenonbeinsphotognphed,
a Youaren'tespecjalty
pradjsjng
in ftontofthe
b Youposehappity.You'vespentages
tookgreatin plrotos
mirrorsoyoualways
hidebehirdsomeoretatt.
c Youmanageto
Q 1a: =2 b = 1 c = 3Q, 2 : a =b2= l c 3 0 3 : a = 1 b-=32,
b'2 c1,06:a=2b=3c=1
Q4:a=2b=1F3,Q5:a=3
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Language
foeusZ
Whichcetebrity
currentlyearnsthe nrostT
Complete
ih€ articlewith the phrases
below
I ookaLt'repnotos.WhdL
do you knowaboureacl
person?fyou'renot surewho eachpersonis,check
on page'130.
Readthe articleandmatchdescriptions
A-Ewith the
celebrities
in the photos.
Shedied 50 yearsago but achievedimmoria ity
A
through her rolesin {ilmssuchas SomeLikeit
Hat.
as an actor but shefound it hardto deal
with the pfessureo{fame and somedirectorsfound
her unprofessional.
Hef deaih at the age of 36 was
sufioundedin mystery.Sincethen,she hasbecome
'the most iconicperson
in the world'accofdingto
imageexpens, and sheis still regularlyvoted the
__
womanthat
- Her imagecurrentlyearns
around$27 milliona year.
Not n"ry peoole know thar he $a.red ou.ras
p
v
ai ushergLid;ngpeopleLotrei- seatsi'r a
cinemain Memphis.A recordingof lhat's A/right got
him noticedand he becamean overnightsensatton,
adoredfor his good looks,and changingthe face of
popularmusicforeverTowafdstheend of his life, his
,later
careerweniintodeclineand'
photographsof him showthat he had become
a-,
bloated and unhealthy-looking.
However,
he
stillmakesover $55 milliona year.
Togerhe'wit1 l-isba'ro Le rccoroedl-isdebut
,^
\,
d b,T n ten aoLr.s
whle sLHef;-gtrom a cotd.
The songshe wrote made him a livinglegendbut in
1975'andinsteaddevotedhimselftolooking
;riirii;it;11
i:tiirilll
i
iiirn] ii
'
'
.
.
.
.
.
he hatedbeingcriticised
slredesperateLy
!",/anted
to be takenserious!
sheotiens€emed
to be suffering
he bec€me
notorioLs
for not lookingafterr -.:
he decdednot to focuson muslcanymore
nroslm€nwo!Ldliketo havemet
despte havingdiedln 1977
after hisyoung son.Fiveyearslater,just as he was
makinga comeback,he was shot dead in NewYork.
He stillsells
millions
of albumsandearnsarouno
$12milliona year.
Fe maoe ^:s musca oebut at t^e age of six,
l\
l/
6"6 1'u6t;r 1rr11.;iw'le l he wdsjust 11 ye",s
going
old,
on to becomethernostfamouspersonon
the planet.However,he found the mediaspotlight
difficult,and "
in the press.Incredibly,
in o€arn,
he may be makingrnoremoneyfromtouringthan
whenhe wasa'ive.thanksto a stageshowbear-9
hisname.Aong with salesoJhismusic,he now earns
about $170 milliona year
B . - , " 1 9 8 3s, h eg o r h e r ' / s r b : 9 b . e d (
F
E
,r ihe age or 16 whena reco.d.corpany
executiveheardher demo tape by accident,and
gavehe- a reco.di-gcont|acr.Sre d€velopeda
reputationfor beinq unreliable,
and
from
drink or drug problemsbut her songsand
pedormances
were often brilliant.Tragically,
she
died of alcoholpoisoningat the age ofjust 27.
Duringher liJetime,
albumssuchas Backto B/ack
earnedher $10 million,but after her death,shewill
probablyearnmuchmore.
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j
1 Work in groups. Ta.keturN to choc€ dd speak about a topic from one ot the carrts. Each ropic can !e chosen ddly orce,
2 The speaL€r mat attempr ro speal on rhe ropic without hesitation or .epetnion.
3 Th€ sp€ali€r wim three points if they speal for 30 s€conds dd I Opoinrs if rhey sp€ak for a mirute, Anotter member of
tb. group should k€ep time,
4Ifth€sp€alieriesitat$forloolongorrepeatsthesameiitea/point,anothe!grouphembercansay,cha:ll€nee',Ifthe
group m.mbers aAree,the speake. loses a point. Tll€ sp€aker shodd rhen try to .ontitr!€ spealing for iI€ remaining rime.
'o
plnor'
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to
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pue3u;uols!'tuotlelpdoJd
3u11eads
Findoutfirst
View
1a Workin pairs.Try
to comptetethe
factfileaboutMalawiby choosingthe
correc answers,
2a Youaregoingtowatcha videoaboutMartha,agirlfrom
Scottand
whochanged
the Lives
ofchiLdren
in Matawi.
Lookatthe pictur€s.
Howdoyouthinksh€didthis?
FACTFILE
MALAWI
Populationl
Arcund15 / 55 / 125
miLlion
Lif€expectancyl
55/65/75yea"s
Averageamount
to liveon perday:
60pence/t6/t16
Percentage
of adutts
who canread:
34/54/74
Extraordinary
fact:
20%of landis
coveredby a desert/
water / aforcst
b Coonlineto checkyouranswers
or ask
yourteacher.
Search:Malawistatistics
/ Malawifactfile
O wat€hthe vid€oandput the eventsin the order
theyhappen€d.
a l'4artha
andherfamilyftewto Malawi.'
b l"lartha's
[oca[counciL
herfromtakingphotos.
banned
c MartharaisedoverI100.000tl-rough
do'rations
on
herslte.
d shestarteda blogaboutherschooL
dinners.
e Manhabecame
fedupwith herschooldinners.
f Themoneywasusedto builda kitchenin l"latawi.
g Thesitebecame
evenmorepopuLar
h Thebtogwentvirat.
Matchthe startof a phrase
fromthevideotoanending.
Thenwatchthe videoagainandcheckyouranswers.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Martharaised
Hersimple
blogwon
Marthapostedphotos
Shedidn'texpectto hit
Herlocalcouncilbannedher
Thedonations
rolled
Marthaandfamity
decided
to
I ManyMaLawians
live
9 Twothousand
children
a the headlines
at the
ageof nine.
b fromtakingphotos.
c headto Matawi.
go hungry.
d Longer
e rnoneyto buymeals
in Malawi.
f on60pa day.
g wo{dwideattention.
h to herblog.
I in.
Workin pairs.Useyouranswers
to exercise
2band3 to
retetlthe storyof Marthaandherblog.
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ri.,lt'l.li.iil:i:ii.\,i1,"i,iiliiiiLr;t*,'\ii\ri-.lr,N\\,
ll,l,ilii,.lur\\,rl.-\l1*
Unit1:Wordspot
i " r ,r , y . 1
r,li .lr'riir::f t,, rri't,r ',,,
Iilrili. !.],,ir
:111
StudentA
'l
Unit 4: Language
focus1
'l
Rewrite
thesepassive
sentences
in a more
conversational
styte,usingtheactiveformandthe
AskStudentB the questions
below.StudentBshould
givethe answers
in brackets,
word5in brackets.
1 Whatphrase
withger meansto improve'?
(getbetter)
2 WhatphrasaIverb
withgetmeans'to
contin!e
with'?(getonwith)
3 whatdopeopte
hopeto getontheirbirthday?
\Pfesenrs]
4 Whatcanyo! getifyou don'thavea map?
(gettost)
5 Whydopeople
sonetines
notlaugh
at a joke?
(theydon'tgetit)
6 What's
theopposite
of'Leave
thehouse',
(gethorn,C
P
AnswerStudentB'squestions.
Unit4: Vocabulary
andlistening
i :r
,.'
'
I r''
!a,"gzfoj"1/{i2t1w2
new toothbrvrh
poti leiterj
ligl^+bvlbs
blr+6aat c^ra for 6r^^^f
€^v€lo?et
Unit 11:Language
focus2
. , 1 1 , 1 . r , ,l l i r ' i i : , t l : ,I i
wh:t do people regret when they.ome to the en l
of th.ir live! aronnieW.re, a (arer from Aurtralia,
rcco'ded the regret! of her patiot in her blog,
lr?tEtton drd Cttqt.Here .re the top five.
a 'lf only l'd had the courageto live a life true to mys€lf,
not the life oth*s ei?€ctedof me.'
. lt s very imponant to trf to honourat l€asrsme of
b
Thoneloy-wycarA
have y assgorl Tholot laVen
c
d
colle.t Arf cle^^i^g
.heer€
:
e
'l wirh I hadnt work€dsohard.'
. Thjs cameiiom everymalepati€nt that I nursed.
'r only I'd had the courageto eryr€$ my feelings.'
. Manyp€opl€suppressed
thei feelingsin orderto
k€epth€ p€acewjth orheE.
I wish1d stayedin touchvith my friends.'
. lt all comesdoM to loveandrelationshipsin the end.
'l wish lhat I had let myselfbehappier.'
. Manypeopie
didnot realise
untiltoolatethat
happines is a choice.
'ctl
'qtEe 'a^rrc aera atddv
tzvs
66
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Unit 1:Wordspot
Unit 8: Task
StudentB
StudentA
AnswerStudentA'squestions.
AskStudentAthe questions
betow.StudentAshouLd
givethe answersin brackets.
1 lf it s too far to walk,andyou can't afforda iaxi,
whatcanyo! get?(getthe b!s)
2 Whatphfasal
veb with gel meanshavea gooa
(getor wettwth someone)
relationship'?
3 Whatphfase
is lhe opposiie
of get better'?
lSerworse)
4 Whatwlll probabty
happenf youwatkfor ten
(you'ltget tired)
kitornetres?
5 lfyou afetravelling
in a lift and t stopsbetween
floofsth€nlr...?(getsstuck)
6 What'sthe oppositeof leavework'?(getto work)
Unit 5: Language
focus2
'1 n 2009,
AgrisKazelniks
ran20rnelres
ln 11.40
seconas.
Hewascarrying
300kgat thetlme
2 fom Sietas
seta newworldrecord
whenheswam
200metres.
Hedid t Lrnderwater
press
3 Paddy
Doyle
completed
T,868
Lrps
in one
hourln 1993.
Heonlyusedonearm.
qe6(6;16
4 r 2 0 0 4S o r , a r o r r d . d l " . t 8 o
Sto
d i d i t i n n i n em n l r t e s .
L-eF
5 l r 2 0 0 a l d - " . ! D d h I d l " d . ) b a l l o o r'
r n l n u t e sH
. e L r s e dh i s r o s e .
Unit 6: Wordspot
Whichexpression
withtrJi...
1 'ra"r're are 1"" i g"
or " o gL-'
2 meansinitia[[y
?
3 isthe opposite
of lastthlngat night'?
4 meansthe thjngor placethatyo! or wantmost?
q
mpi.!
nrrha
L,an,ho.t.
r
r,,7
6 meansyou fatlin lovew th someone
assoonas
you meeithem?
7
|.lFir. L-
i
r.o --ra
a-r'ro
,.'(o-
I < l - - d " d o t p e o p l e o - r h r g , r " . r , o u g er L
h"
yo! first seethem?
O
i( : r,,.a
^f
r mn
a ma.li.il
..ra7
10 nreans'before
everyth
ngelse'?
iIr,riilrr
r : l ; I , i ,r
On9th l\r.rch1929,
the bodyof31-yearoldlsldorFinkwasround
in the b.ck roomof the laundryheownedon FifthAvenue,
N e w ' o \ . I r I w " s d ni n m q r d n r r . o 4m o d e r n d a / L i t h u a n r c
andit s€ems
that hehadveryfew fr endsandnofamlly.on that
ev€ning,
hehadmadesewrallaundrydeliveries
beforeGturninq
to hk livingquarters
at 10;15p,m.At 10:30hisneighbour
heard
( r . a r 5 b - t r c 9 , n s | - o B r " ndoe q d e d
oG | | epo'ir
Apoliceoificerhappen€d
to be nearbyandmanagedto.each
thesceneonlya few minut€safterthefi6t(reams had been
heard.Afterintervi€wingtheneighbo!ritheofiicertriedthe
front doorbut foundthat it hadbeenlockedf.onthe inside.
Testingthewindows,hefoundthemallnailedshutonthe
insidqtoo. Becausethe
wlndowsweretoo 5mallioran adutto
g e t t h r o l g h , t h ep o i i c e o f f i c e r a 5 ka esdm al b o y t o c l i m bi . a n d
Theoffker wasfinallyabletoget intothe apadmentandsurvey
the (ene. Fink!body1ayon the flooi ten metresfromthe
dooeay.Therewerethreegunshotwoundstothe
body:nro
in the chestandone in hisleftwrist.How€vbrtherewasno gun
in the apartment.
andno valuables
hadbeenstolen:therewas
moneybothin Flnk'spocketand
in h scashreginer
Ihe polkesearched
rhe pfemkesforhiddendoo6, blt none
werediscovered.
TheyinvedigatedFink'sba.kground,but
foundno (onnections
with lhegangsteBwhotetrorired
muchof NewYorkatthattime.However,
Finkwascertainly
frishtenedofsomething:he had madethe laundryinto a krnd
of fortre$.Allthe windowshadheavt,iron barr.nd it was
equippedwiththe bestlocksthatmoneyco!ldbuyNoohewaseverarrested
forthe murderofkidorFinkand no
motivewaseverfound,Iwoyearslaterln a radiointervi€wthe
oftker in charseofthe investlgation,
commissioner
Mukooney,
dedaredthecase'an
unsolvable
mystery'andto thisday it
r€mainsin the'unsolvedcaseylilesof NewYorkclq Police.
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Unit8: Task
Unit 12:Language
focus1
StudentB
9 1l*iirfs nr Fess
O n 5 t h N o v e m b e r1, 9 7 5 ,
a forestryworker caled
Travs Wa ton was driv ng
home through the woods
n e a rS f o w f l a k eA, r z o n a
with six of his co leagues,
go den disc about six
meireswide suddenly
appeared,hoverins
a h e a do f t h e m .T h e
s e v e nr n e ns t a r e c l r n
amazenent.Then Travis
did somethingextraordnary.He got out ofthe truck
and wa ked towardsthe d sc. was afraid it would fy
awayand wou d m ss the chanceof a lfetli.e,' ne
As Travisgot c oser,the disc made a oud no se. Ihen,
a c c o c ol ir o " e e - m - o b - o . o b . - 9 - .
lghl shot out from the disc and he d Travs above the
grouid before throw ng h m backwards.He anded
severa metresawayand d dn't move. 'Let'sget olt of
h e r e l ' s c r e a m eodn e o f t h e m e n i n t h e t r ! c k a n d t h e y
After a sho.t dlstance,the mei stopped and decided
t o 9 0 b a c ka n d i n d t h e i rJ re n d .W h e ni h e y g o t r o
wherethe d sc had been, it was gone, aid so was
Travls.The police were soon invoivedand searches
began Blt no trace of him cou d be fou.d.
A s t h e d a y sp a s s e dp, o i c e b e c a m es u s p i c o u so l t h e
menl story.A lof the men were g ven a le detector
test, which they al passed.Then, {ve daysatrerrhe
dlsappearance,Travs'sbrothetsin-aw recelveda
p h o i e c a l : ' T h i ss T r a v i sa n d n e e dh e l p .C o m ea n d
g e t m e . ' T r a v lw
s a sf o L r . do n t h e f l o o ro f t h e p h o n e
b o o t hw e a r i n gt h e s a m ec o t h i n ga sw h e nh e h a o
disappeared.He seemedafraidand !pset and kept
t a l k i n ga b o u la l e n sw l t h t e i i i f y i n ge y e s .H e t h o l g h t
he'd on y been gone for a few hours.
Alter he recoverecl,
Travisto d an exvaord narystory
o t b e l n gi i s i d et h e U F O N e d e s c r i b e d
s t r a n g ea l e n s
w l l h e n o r m o u sb r o w ne y e sa n d h ! m a n sw h o s m i e o
but said noth ng Soonafterthe event,Traviswas
9: .
"
r- d-r.c
o. -\'. F-
o.ao
A av
,o. -
. l.-6
he tooktwo more tests,both of wh.h he passed.
Yo! lack confidence,and tend to hide behlnd otner
peop e (sometimeslltera yl). You wotry too much aboL:
w h a t o t h e rp e o p e i h i n ka n d a r e t i g h t e n e dt o s l a n d
oLr'ro- te.ro^d B-n9'a-o.. s.te a,..1-n9
the world yo! wou d enjoy.There! noth ng wrong with
that, but try to be ieve ln yo!rself a bit more.
I t y o ! d o n ' t ,n o o n e e s e w l l l
Celebtity potential: A/10
A -
a ^
7 to rJ pslnTs
Yo! are seli-confdent and comfortab e ln your own
sk n and yo! a waystryto treat other peop e with
consderation Yo! are Jartoo sensibe to wony aboui
b - 1 9 ' . - o i , I r o - a . - a r - -- o i - l - e t h a r s g ' e d (
b u t y o ! a r e . ' t 9 o i n 9t o o s ea n y s l e e po v e rl t l
Ce/eb/ity potenlialj 5/l0
14 to 18 Boiil'ts
Y o ! a r es ! p r e m ey c o n n d e ntth a t o t h € rp e o p l ef i n d
yo! fascinating,and almost everythng you do is done
to attract attention.Getti.g not ced is more mpo.tani
t o y o u t h a . o t h e rp e o p e s f e e l n g s .( O t h e rp e o p e ' s
fee ligs don't rea ly maiter to yo!.) Perhapsyou' I get
. . r n d r a e . b c rb L o . - a r - 1 0 i t o - e , a r . e
Celebtity poLential:1Ai1A
Unit 12:Language
focus2
- 01 eft ro igl'r. 1.,1
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Fu.ddpq prqMstuiqrioj p.snsrpi,l3d rsed.ql .
tr3#3d ]sed 9
(Mouaraqrl]or\ t,uopI
'rspdaW ul .{alatdu.ror
=) 'r ee( o ro! ahdp'uls utp.:to^ I
(MouaraqllJoMllls | =) 'rpan a^t.ol arode6utsupa],]oa.^,1
'3tduF rsedsqrasn3^{'$ed aqr
uraur4]o Potraop€qstu[e aqlrsap01'1]3tr3olussardaq1.sn
.^{ lu.sard aql 01dn au!1Jopolad e r3^o$nupor uolDeuelt .
'.ra
6aozut uaq alaq )ade o6e l)1a .taLuansl4aaf)$e1
'sldutslsedaql qlrM
pasnuato arPsasPrLld.uq3raql lsed .$ ut ,tlolatduo) Suraq
seaas./r{qrtqMsaPrsrosuolperot pssnslstdutslsPdaql .
(Moul qll/"\rellluerunue | =) ,a.eadpue)ejape Lue^eql
(Mouu.torq s!t.l Fq =) 6at)aq uatdq r,eqs
'^
ou
et.r
ruPlrooutro
ruP
ltls st1t ru.s.rd .qr or P3)uI stlnq
'$ed aqr ut paGddequorDeue uaqMpasnsr
D.Jr.d ru.ssrd3tu .
'ppd
aq
olut
ud
e
,\ubpphr
tdtt^ 6uale6u!^!rPre^i
6op
'.Fldurorut IPls aLlosul
se.as a^ 1eqlro '$ed aql ut aurlllo lutod e lP s$r;ord u! 3r3M
aql .
1Pqlsa1€Fio suotDPaqlrsapor pasnstsnonuryor15Pd
]e auoqpbaqs tepleteaf)eltdtaqu luheiaqiE^al tua^ aueI
'poopapunro pi1elsuauo
srP.uaddPq
uope oqr uaq^ autlaql .t€tduoc sPaasaMreql
FPo.ql u!salElsrosuotlrPsqpsap ol p3snstalourtslsPdaql ,
snonulluor lsEd Pue qd!!!slsed
z
(porodporrolrero] =) aphrq,{q 6uluo u,t taa lqtnq'
(op^lt€ns. re!^\ sls L.t1-)-yar' ot ulut aqt 4et t Ai?uoN
'.uD
ro PolFd P.Iull
e €^o Sutu.ddeq
ro .Flduorut '&produlr see.s .M rpqr sButqr
rol P.snsrsnonurluolu.sard.ql'!.uPurad se.es .M leqrrc
^tretn? uaddeqleqr s3ulqirojpasnsratdulstuosirdsqrolq/r
snonulluor lues d Pue apurlspasard t
sruJo,q.ro^luasE.roPuels€d
aldur!s lsPd Pue pa#€d lueserd I
Z Choosethe corect verbfoffi.
I
PRACTICE
2
Whenlwasyounger,lraveplayed/ play I usedtoplay
footbaltonthe beachwith nry fiiends.
1 write an auxiliaryverbin the.offect positionln each
In his20s,Michaet,as lived/ Ityed/ ,sed to live in the USfor
1
2
3
4
Thetestwasn'iasdifficultasweexpected,^
it?
Youdon't tikeMadaverymuch,you?
Katewasnt keenon sportbefore,but shenow.
A: Steves decidedto lookfor a newjob.
B: h€?What madehim wantto leave?
5 A : D i d y o us e ea n ) , t h i r g u n u s u at lhi n
ep a * , l . 4 rB a l l ?
8: Yes,l. Therewasa groupof young menactingsuspiciously.
6 l4a na LookwelLshe?
7 A: We haventbeenherebefore.
B: you?ThafssurprGing.
Ihis week,Kateis iooklr9 atet / Iooksaftet I
us€dfo rookatrer the shopfor the owne..
Unfortunately,th€ coicert tad statted I statted I
usedto$artwhen we gotthere,sowe missedthe fiBtsong.
I Md / wasrcading/ usedto readthe newspaper
ihe other
day,whenI sawan int€resiingjobadvertisemenr.
6 I haveseen/ sa\a/ usedto seeNeil yesterday.
Can I call you backtaier?We're having / have | havehad
Did it rain / Waslt hining / H8 it ralned when you Last
Does/ t / Has this umbrellabelong / belonging I belonged
2 Rewfitetheunderli.edverbswith an auxitiary,to giv€ th€
sentenc€gr€dterempha5is.
lenjovedth€ concertLastnight,itwas realtygood.
t dtderja)tthe.ance11lan niltht.n )tas reallyaaad
I llovevouf new hairstvle.
2 Atexrnske!me taugh.
3 I be3l!!you ihe first time.
4 l lhiob/oute right.
5 | Wsilcd for you for ages.
6 You$csk SoodErglishl
Usesof auxiliaryverbs
Auxiliaryverbs
areoftenusedto enrphasise
things,showinterest,
askquestions
or avoidrepetition.
ldo hateitftlleh nr' ncigibaupiayshr!husic$ lt\ri
Lnt!rc 1<lidln& thcdaar
3 lvatch5entences
1-10to responses
a-j.
Youcanshowinterestin whai sonreoiesaidby respondingwith
a shortquestion
usinganauxitiaryved. Theauxiliaryverbmust
agreewiththetenseandpenonofthe mainsentence.
A: I re qat \ir:dtattJ.hiklter
8r ijr/eyorl Horkrr.tr
A: u1e.ridr t 1r/ierlret/a, .r r ll.
Bt Re.l!!,.lidntyar. r,ltyron
Noticeherethat positivequestions
areusedwithpositive
senteices,
andnegativ€questions
areusedwith negative
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
the listener
Questiontagsatthe endofa statementencourage
to espond.Here,negativequestions
areusedwithpositive
sentences,
andpositivequestions
with negativesentences.
r.t Neft qnbe.ed(+)yfu keys,hown t(-)yor?
tr i\r't \ ). \,Pt)/ri.e day,is (+)i!?
lf thereis no doubtaboutthe sratement,
rhevoicegoesdown.
\
li Br't arcly tic. day hitl
lfthere is an elementofdoubt,ihevoicegoesup.
a I haven'tbut the childrenhave.
lar'rli rcnjetnL,eted
\/au leo, hsv;n t,/.ua
. To avoidrepetition
W€ alsouseauxiliaryverbs
to avoidrepeatingwhole
phrases.
i)uLIhastalntyltiendsdidn
trttaye.lrheliltn vctytrt.t1L,
t
(= enjoyrhe film verymuch)
''1-..
r.r. ,.t.
-,,.-"..f1-,
/)!r lleran.rfado€s (= u'rde6taidltalian)
Thisiscommonin answeru
toyeslro questions.
A: qave!o!o.'i.,v!rr horr.tr!/tl,er?
B: t!r, a.nri4i, rialj (= donemy homework)
DoesAmy likecats?
Wewentto Parisat theweekend.
Doyou takesugar?
A r € y o us u r e y o uw a n t t oc o m e ?
| was21 yesterday.
HaveyouseenStarlrekl/?
Areyoujapanese?
We'vegot fourcats.
l'm goingshopping.
CanI getyou anything?
Didyou spe6ktoSarahyesterday?
c
d
e
r
g
h
ldo needsomesugar.
Yes,ldo wantto, honestLy.
ldo, butlohn doesn't.
lanr but Kimisn't.
OhlDidyou?
Really?
Wereyou?
j
Yes,ldid.
rno^uasataqrru€DrJlP
1s.ru
zuPrPPuor.sPUP
Etqe i+st . oqps&rs a^!r.qr aolol .^eq ptnoqs
puapl$aq p rpqls.nlFnb.qr tnoqpqder;pfd e r+t/\ €
uorl?r4rmdpxE reururerS3rq:dq LoI
1r{?3qc gErp l€rry .mo^ it! r ol {r€qpa.J .r{r aso
lJ€rp I€rL{ s
eeuoJ qJaa tcalb, eut,pasn,I a.ntI dLraqD4tlrlrd
LlhLoM pestxI aanq Jast nn,at I ttl| an-qdnrotn
ra4eq D eraql v :ser].ns suousanb{sY Jlasrno,{
lr {iraqtr ro luopnls €qtou€ o11JR4rno,{ aoqs
{rsqpaeJ pw tuppa{c
t
'lrLmr
au4
€
urqld
!J?rp
tsru e 31u1t
rJBJP1TIJ 8
.
ii. r, jli.rr
r r:itli
:.ri 1r 'l
'suoltlsod€rd
,(]essa).u
r(uer€quaueus€ru. as
a|ourexa
srlrn ]' rrorrreaqta p€snaquerPqt lsll
.qr u!sqra^rq3!5rseit r€ puH z
ProM.sdlqsuoDeFr,
i
lsnrlol 5 l
. rloodns
t
l).d$r
:
e^lpn4s.P
or t
z :
.t duool
:
'an!rn4s mo^
tg luop qr+I$
s"opr ,{u€
prlSol
mo-{
.^ourau
r.pro
e
olln
s€€pr
tnd
tu.mrrruls
A
.^rp€h!
..
t
cFi
'.tqel€qlJors .qr
aFtdruor01&luolrrtpe asnz,o€Lroli)tp
EtuFn $oqrtM
ar.Furornor(uersqro^/sa^lpolpE
3ulsslu{ueurMoH !
'apnpn
xq8nunon s3ldul?r. pu8 sJrdol aql lsr1
uol?BuroJut tqraqrat pua E\mdard I
2aonol /(pp.{p no^ op sdsrs t|)!q/t\ qslt?u3ut Il.^!paj,5
.rou €r!401no^dPq lla aoleq sd.ls.^$.qr
sProarq3! oqrBulpuu
seaPr
rnol Bursrue8ro
lf .fvud
z
se.Ptqr$dnSutuor .
reuuPr3 .
I
3u llauos Suropdn pu. or
srse..tdternreuSuBq
Su,lFds
.se€ptuaornor(F lslt aqr uorr.sooq)
iqslt8ul
u€rrthqrtM su.jqord uouuo) rsou rno,(arereqrr\ !
rureBeRurql.uosoPor
ttHlo
ol sdaF a ll
3u!l!.r^a.ronaq
SurIEs
sr.uo.uosleqM
r.l or
)l]oaorl.lor
P.111.3or
l)n$r.3or
ssau|rue
r. o 1.3or
{roanof qrrMuor.a or
iloouos qra (lFA)uo1.3or
tsollr3 ol
'tuasad
e
F6
/ t!ft^o p6 ro{ dlatt11,11
ltd slqralpl 9
auusea 3q',^ltnnuEql
'ajoql
Sul^t
ulq
Aes
I uaqapet!],o6 | Itoqt e 106| S
suollerutenbauros1a3
01p.au no^qolraraqerr6 | )e'!qta6 ortuel1,na(! t
'\te q h6ue p6
1(Epol$u3tr.dxa
ButualqSfle slnb peit| €
/rrrrstort
't!L!1!
lpt uoF6 / qol aqlrai I iauoXuuntes,leql z
'PIoteta6
| $o1ta6t|,rat^eNresaq13)erl,uop no^lt I
aserqdtsaq3qr .soorp t
3!o.@os$tut
ol
qrnrr.qlll3lor
SunFe
tutP tr e
ruoauosD.dsaol
uaopauoauos
tndol
auoauosaqPolor
'/1^ou
1l
BJrliS u.t f rjodoqrnq pto) peq{ perp pp.t..
5
S u te l o u p o o S a q u a r p l t p n o
iaseald
'auo{.a^.
ql$
srcB
rqs 3u,o3/sei,0.^ s lru €
')10/l{rno^
qr^/,
13BpueSuqlprdo$ no.(u€:, z
'
.ui Su.rlrdsIeMtPs rq ssoqr,u 3te. I
l3^o
dn uo mo
3e@oroe oaalor
aDqM,(ue
luto?1,ui (dLrts!.EPlJE)
uouuo) urrol e 3^Eq(lou)or
)i)eqrtaqr
Puqaq.uo.uos lnoqedBsolor
.uo.uos qllMuo rai (1ou)or
uMoP uo
3uoauos,qp€uarearql
1a€lor
or roLadns/o!ajurlaal or
.uosuor qr M rno llel or
drqsuoirqa. r:rurs.p s
€lo3uos ur sPuuor01
.uo€uos qth .l.duor o1
.uo.uos sPeMoru.tor^.q o1
.^rlroidnsaqo1
.uo.uos ro snoPaf3qot
suoauosor PfoF PneIoliq or
qla .q or unj aq 01
.uo.uos or osoPaq ol
lPFA
e r u . . u o s ti i . q t ) x o q . q t u r p j o M D a x o r e q rq I A
aoFq s€ru.!.s .q1 .1.td!uor puptsll pFA egra ol €
SdtHsNo[\n]t
2 Commonsuffixesfor adj€ctiv€s
Formingadjectives
, , . . t . . .. t : . t -.. . .
: -able*,-ibLe
'I Prefixes
usedto form opposites
. "l
- a n t .- e . r ,
-ed
'
-fut
'
-k
I
: 'we
i -'
: 'ine
:
: ive
'Notethatthese prefixescanalsobe usedwithsomeverbs,
e.g.disagtee,unlock.
responsible
I miserable,
physicdlpsvcho.ogicdl
.e.r... ..
depressed,
talented
: : successful
!- pow€rful,
-
:
enthusiastic,
scientific
::
i insecure,
unsure
--- !'--'- -'- '
r exciting,
frustrating
'
I tess
;-t-a"otooa,
: l"afy,in tf'" *rong l
: nFma4aSed
, way
:
! der
rcft+op non
snoti.s
i oveFcooked
'
without,1or
: toomuch
, 0",,-
0",;-*";'
arte,
, tr*
t"-*".
U"ror"
i p-
;"-
-
sell
I undeF
; pro+uropean
I
.,",10.,".n-g"i ugur
. self-conra.n-
: ,"U,'na,o 'u"i,
: unneFcooked
! notenough
g".ar.",,,0"r", coo*,"-0";"0
bad/badly
I infavourof
:
oad--erEre.
ie."o
l
aggressive.
ntensive
resttess,
(= withou!/
hopetess
cruTPl:w::r:y.
..
mis-
p l e a s a rvt ,o . e n t e, r f i c i e n
r This
"v suffixsometimesmeans'canbe'(wasrable= canbewashed)
REMEMBERI
N,lany
adjectives
to describe
tuetings
havebothaf lrgandan edform.
The-ed formiescribeshowyoufeel.
Inverytircd thisnoming
The-lngfom d€scribes
whatmakesyor feetthatway
Lookiigafterbabiescanbev€ryti ng.
Fowev€r,
not atl-ed/-1,9 adjectives
havebothforms.
Benisa verytalentednai.ian.
ronu|at ely,herlllnes isnt catching.
I PRACTICE1
1 Add prefix€sto form the oppositeof the adjectivesbetow.
Dal
3
Loyal
6
7
8
9
10
frjendly
2 Choosethe corr€ctdefinition.
1 anri wat = agalnst / in favoutofwal
2 non'violent= agairsf/ wi#od violence
= rooco"tdent I notco,fidentenough
3 oveFconfident
4 pre-paid= paidfortnadvanceI aftewatds
s post-natat=be&'e / afer birth
6 misinformed= gtve, tne wrong infornation / intomed agaln
3 Whichword in eachgroupdoesnot beLong
with the suffix?
1
z
3
4
s
succe*-| power I talent
fuL
confid-/ pe5ist lpleasent
disappoint-| enthusiast-| pessinist- ic
health-/ inpon lwealthy
hape-| inagine lpenniless
'latPqser)e uo
o3 ueqllrtSr.a asotlo treMrou€qe srot,(lsalllrnotrg3Lreqf,
/uoaD5r.rnduor
Pjo 1rio4! rts a rno,(Ieq puadsueqlio{rol ralFq s re
q s . 4o r t lu a s r r s x .a l e r p u Er n oo 3 1 P q l ) u l qnr o ^ l , u o c
'al0oacM.u rieu
,o ^eMretndode auo)lq sequoor teq.1.uralu ueutof
- e o s r - . e .oc PL e l r r q eJ o ! r r o u P U e. i l e as . L { 3 . . 1 ro l
o3leq1pu!,ss.ulLtrl.q1a^ordut or qe^roq^ .ldo.d ^ueh t
'urol,!t€tll u!€q
Ptnoqsqrlqa PIoqu!spro/{ aq1.ul!.Pun
!€3EUeua.u r.ql sPrEMol-lo
1ole l1.l ltels altl
raBEUeuaa! i aql or .trlsott tua^araa ltels aqr 9
'.rt}}o
!e 5L.r.l
lsod.ql lo
'.rulo
aql^q P.Ioldu. sLaH S
Fod
'
l r o ^ P U E r r . P uune rI
' s n o t x u P o s anr P
o ^ f q a P u e r r . P u nu e )I t
'
asop^'r.^ Pa^Eq Puelou
'spuatrlasopfi3^ ua.q s^PMtP
a^e't Pue^ou €
'
,o rot e 3^eqot psauro,('qolsrqloPo.L
' a ^ , l e . J {) r a ^ . q o r p a a !r o { ' q o l s r q lo P0 1 z
. d d , qF . p r r , o f D r c
.
JPllq:e sP{ddeqno^.r€r' !
.,sru
eqr
serues
llatduol
.qlsueaur I os unoue qrta€ru€ruasPuor.s.r.11
5
6
8
E
urot qra^.!tt seiuresaql{lpexa 3resuro! raqlo^ueh
iUfAW3U3U
uo4 sunourrerlsqe
urol ot P.sn^tuouuor^'3^s tta/- .
'sqr.^uort surouDerlsqe
urol 01P.snuortosltua&- .
surouurroJ
o1Pasr
r.u areuosePueuot uo!r(s)-uoll- .
' . l l ] : j ] ] .
s.^lpatpeuor] sunouuro] o! p.$ eref-pue ha!-'Ir!- .
z
9
i.ql saurq.uros
P!€ sla|aqsi.tdoadaqurs.pol Posn5ltsl- .
sruP- arqs- ssau luau-
ririr
i: r,!r:i
r i.!. r!,.lri. !i
-.r
i
'sunouDe4sqe.uos rtllM
Pue
sarSotoaprro
suor8ll.iretn.!pd aq|lrsapol pasnualo 1 e5t .
'xoq €q1!rs€xlt ns aqr qIAMotaq suno!.qr ar.tduo:) L
|i:] l] 1..]]].]:
I
z lftl)vud
l i
'atdoodueo^\rsqsdrqsuorlpFr
ro aJ|jo spoEd qtM
Palraruor.soql^Ie radsesunoupersq€ uroJ 01p.snsLPoor/-
r r o . r / ! 1 ,\ t i 1 ! . r ! i r ! r t i ' : ! r : i r : ri i r r r r l i r r r . r r
,:lrirjtr.lrr,r.r.rti
:uoIesl3^uor uiro
'qorrelnrruea
ti.ri llirir r:l
: ]| il].l. ]1Ji] illj:r
i ii].i
i]
: s l s tl o r u M u t . q u e )a s a ! . l
'sorlaluas€Flcuor olu $d
1ou.r€ tarl^ffe ro seopru.q^ .
e op reqr s?ulglroatdoadro, p.sn uauoere.ro-pu€uP!ra- .
( p a u l e r B u r os qlo , . 1 u^ o e a d= ) i . , , r , 1
( p a f o l d u sr t o r t ^ u o s r a =
d) ..',i'rL r
'p3rlrotad stuotDeue uoqa uo uorao € aqlDsap01p.snttae- .
:]]i' :.:i.
.
e a Pl e q l a q u t r s a0P
1 u n o u . l S ! L s osut . r 3 r t 1 u a q M
t ! r ! t i . ! | . , / r i rI J rr i : r ! r r i rr:r : . 1 . | r r tr:ri r .
(or.rl€^tltuUuLaql
asn1ouuer./^) sEaPpE4sqPro serlr^nrE
teralo3aq!trs.Por
r p a s^nt u o u u o rs 1 t a l o t p r o ' a r ! . l ! . sa q l r oD a f q o r op . f q n sa l l
ser3q!. !no! e sE.{eMalues.ql ur Pasns (uro} 6u!) PunraB.u
l u o r o r 4 e u r S u r p usaa ^ D . f p p
uo4 sunourrerFqeuro} ol P3snusrjo.re t ua- PuP.)uP- .
sunouroJ sexl ns uouu.rol L
spuniet pue sunouBulurol
sPUnreD
z
t[
2 CompLete
the sentences.
ADJFCTIVES
TO DESCRIBE
FEETINCS
behaviourcreeps fortuie giggle
nap security socialtife
I Thesitlypictureonlake'sT-shidmadeeveryone
2 Mygrandparents
are80, but stitlhavean active
3 Lotadecidedto join the civilseryice
because
ofthe
WORD' WITHPREFJXES
THATCHANCETHE
MEANINC
il
ThatmaskyouarewearingreaLly
givesme the
5 Whenhisfatherdied,Alistairinheriteaa
6 I t h i l k t h e c l - i l d r e sn r o u a i a ( e d
oero?wegu
out, or th€y'llbeiired.
7 Our re gtbouB havebeei reporredtolhe polke for
anti-social
goodandbadthingsin life
Usinga dictionaryfor wordbuilding
OIHER
1 Usethe extractsbetowto find...
. the pasttense,-irg form andthkd pe6on(ne,ire, 14
. the nounfromiafit andiis opposite.
' thFe adjedi!erf or sdr,'s'.f,nd the ditleren(ein
meaning,
andthe oppositeofeachone.
.:'ri.lj.rinn ,qc,rai.pli.l dt
i l e o l - o p' , - - becauselou have achieved somethi4
toppasite = di\s.rti2f.t 7ianl
sat.isfn dory \ setras'f.ektari\ adl sonetlxig that is
satistactory secnB good enoLtghfor a pardcular sitraiion
lopposiie = zTaarisjacrolgl
to €iggle
satistied \,sEtraslard\
arrj plcsed becausesomethtughas
happened as you wanL.of becausevou have golrwhat
you e?nt lopposiie = .iAearis]tedl
I PRACTICE
s{tisfl \,setrasfar\ ! satisfied, satisf}irg, saiisfresto mak-"
someonepleasedb) doing what thcy Mnl
,: rl r.r L.1r
i fi
2
3
5
6
7
8
9
l0
11
12
13
'14
hostitity
sdlisryinE \ setFsfar rrj\dlj makhg you leel pieased
and happy. b-a.auseyox have got Rhat you wanted
loppasite - unsatLsJuins)
2 Completethe sentences
belowwith a word retatedto
sattt. Foreachmissingword,think about...
. whetheryouneeda verb,noun,adjective,
etc.
. ifthere is morethanoneadjective,
nounform,etc.Make
surcyouchoosethe wordwhichmakessense
in the gap.
. iryou needto addany prefix€s,
suffixes,
(there
etc.
may
be mor€thanone).
1 ltwas very_to
beatourrivalsUnitedin the final.
2 Althoughwe colld stitldo better,our overaltprogress
has
fit
3 Thereis much_
4 Thisworkis_
s He's_with
[iil\\N
with the government
overrecent
. Yo! wilt needto do it again.
the investigation,
andwantsa new on€
-!oP ruo{I eqr rno s{e{ eqra4flrd
Jo
udaqpttt I suqtxd sn^ I p ap4 puEpEs 3q.'eseq1pesn5 eq
'.tnoq mo[ olu
iuBpEn,
Plnoa I
IDdq 'n peluea P,I JI
-\.axgqs N $ 8ulloot uaq p.tE paryot tH paryot pp$e
I
I
.aseeld'nq?ruuu.pr euoseosr ptnoJ.
'wrq p4so p.r 3qtrtsasoa pr{s? oi 'doteq u?ursod
/
r/
1,
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o.rq) Jol 6tuq {B n t{rit uaaqp.I I potlt I | 8u!q u.rt
'pr€s3q
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L
'ueuqsod
eql
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rI
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uelo uotrernP
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p {.q1
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€
iaqlo
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'snonulruo)
D.!ad rsedro rralr€d $ed 'snonut o) lsed
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Ma] p roj Fqlo qreaM.q 4uo ^.qr.paupur lot ^.q1uaq,M
.{psol lerta.pr).p
l,upipllrs uqol '!)..ds s,upur15eqsrqerol.q srnoqoMl
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oqruraop!|M
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5
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up eppurfIeuU
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aq.l
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rau
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aurortlo8
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rsede utsl$ e uleu aqrseqlrssp
snonultuor$ed PueaFurls$ed L
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6u!-+qa^ + da /te^
'r.pJoproa.qr atuep or p3au{€urnol sqra^aqtp€riol
'snonuDuo)
rr.rradrsedro €tdutspoll€drsedsql utaq
plnoqsaotaq.ruaussqre. utsqr6^€tduls|sed€Ll1lo6uo L
I tftrfvud
sosu.l o !lElleN
I
2 Eachpah of sentences
beLowi5 correct.what is the dlfterence
betweeneachpak?
Continuousaspectin other tenses
subjed+ have/has
been
+ 1ng
Continuous
vetufoms can:
' emphasis€
that an actionlastsfor sometime.
t've.utn,yfingetr(= ac:.ianlasts
for ontya moment)
t'vebeencuttihgJne\toad.l=actionlastsfor somerime)
. describe
an actionthat is in progress
but not complete.
Ithiik t'Uwatcha filhr tonloiloyi.(= a completeaction)
Dant.allne tll be watchingr,rr. (= jn proCress
at rhat tim€)
. emphasisethatan
actionis repeated.
tntls tauthr trDthttg F on e)
t'vebeeniogingy.u aUinotnl,gr(= sev€rat
times)
' describe
a situationwhKl-is tenporary.
shell stayvilh het\ittq afterlrte,iity. (= perhaps
Longterm)
shett bestayihgat het sistets iro6e tdr.1/e,vday!.(= temporary)
REMEMBER!
. l i y o t 'g i v e t h e n u m b e ruorfn e s t h a t s o m e t h l n g h a p p e n e d y o !
alwaysLrsethe
simpleform,notthe continuous.
B€rarwDnihrfeOrcafs
NOT ]te t|+ia!*raal*#tsr / r,ee on:a/!.
t.attett.ya,five tln)esye\tela!
NOT / r{€++.4*9 '7o!,ve uiel leilerd.l.
. Verbsthatdescbestatesareiot lsuatlyusedin the continuous
form (seeUiit 1,5tudy1)
I PRACTICE2
Choosethe best alternativein the conten.
g I've beenhutting I hutt my an.
2 Youseemout of breath.Haveyo! beenrunning/ run?
3 Shedidnl hearthedoorbellbecauseshedied
I watdrying
4 l le bought I beenbuylng this new scooter Doyou like it?
s weve finhhed / beenfintiti,g our work. can we go
5 Thistime nextweeL l'ltr.aval/ betravellingto Ausvalial
7 The Au5rralianswimmer hasbeenwinning / won the gold
medaltwicebefor€A fthad nined / been.aining atl night, so everywherewas
1 a Kristinas goneto the $/m.
b Kristinatbeengoingtothe $/m.
2 a Hechangedhismind.
b HewaschanginghG
mind.
3 a shehadphonedmy parentsse.retly.
b shehadbeenphoningmy parentssecretly.
4 a 1'llwritethercportattheweekend.
b I'llbe wdtingthe reportat the week€nd.
5 a ll€ft whenheariived.
b lwas teavingwhen
he arrived.
3 Tickthe bestr€lponse,a, b or c.
1Ar Wherewereyouat seveno clocktastnight?
B: a I haddinner.Why?
b I washavingdinner.Why?
c Ive beenhavingdinner.Why?
2A: What'stheprobiemwithyourthumb?
Br a I'vebeenbrcakingit.
b l'd brokenit.
c l'vebrokenit.
3A: Wh€n! the besttimeto phone?
B: a Oh anytime.Wewon'tdo anlthingspecial.
b Oh anyiime.We don'tdo anythingspeciat.
c Oh anytime.We wont bedoinganJthingspeciat.
4A: Haveyou spokento MrsO'Brienyet?
B: a No,Ive beentryingto get hersincenineo'clock.
b \ o . I m t r v i n S t o8 e tl - e rr n c e . i n eo r l o c k .
c No,ltied to get hersincenineo'clock
5A: Oh no,l'velost my wallet.
B: a Whenhaveyou lastbeenusingit?
b Whenwereyoulastusingit?
c Whendid you lastuseit?
6 A: Youtooktired.
B: a Yes,I'vebeenrunning
c Yes,l'verun.
7A: What'syouraddress?
B: a l'm stayingwithmy parentsatthe moment.
b lstaywith my parentsatthe moment.
c Ive beenstayingwithmy parentsat the moment.
8A: Didthey offeryou a ptaceat univeBity?
B: a Yes,andl'vebeenaccepting
it.
b Yes,andl'veacceptedit.
c Yes,andlacceptit.
9A: lneedth's Letterponing.
b l'lt be doingit.
< l ' l l d oi t .
10A: woutdyou likea doughnut?
8 : a N o t h a n l s . I v eb e e ne a t i n gb B c L i tasl l m o r n i n g .
b Nothank,I've eatenbiscuitsaLlmorning.
c N ot h a n k , l a t eb i s c u i tasl L m o r n i n g .
liT$r
! r r : . r .r r l l r ! i r r- i . r 1 , r i i ! , 1
.8t ezeduo stt1f,N
Pue
spPrrss.uddeH uorJ suolle)ouor tnl.sn ro arou p qpN t
pna{Jb
pltrlal sr\n als I pn?{ rEroFara
tuLLa
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pm{ 'r}a rpDr rp.rqcJuen€u./xet
spoo8.IoJaLrousEqrns 8mr]:uos lnr6 ol iapro ln
3ldoadtm-{'3raplo aur.1{1 Io rlrp,(4/ pn".rJ
'suolFrotp. rnol
Pull pnel, F, Ilru! /tueuolplp .q1 le toot E
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pasna^lDatpeue
rart, qr a p3snd^ti;rpe L?
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a'prpr{rra
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_ pu!, pu!
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ir)i..t,riir!,
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ct
if
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unou+ a^t1ralpe .
- u.rJo arPsuollProlo) qslltu!
u!ternr€upunosol do^ d13qlIASurla pueqr..dsrno,(
utsuo!*rolo, BuFn laqr.Bor rhrro ,qranba4 leqr
spm^r ou jo oMtjo uoltpurquror€ sruorr€)ollo)V I
suo!lp)ollo) SuUoqrueurar
puetugrglop
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uosradPisrnquFr 01
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ualel seq^uuer8^N
llo
lto
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lno
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e .^t3rarraB01
Surueh s 3^rararratol
€retrolut u3l4 3qo1
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ol P.truau.s3q or
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€
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| 5
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I
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Useand non-useof the passive
1 Theactiveand the passive
. In active
sentences,
thesubject
istheageni(o. doer')ofthe
I 'i L :r
l , rf , r ': \ . , i i r , i
l r r ri l , : r . ; :
(subject)
(verb) (obFct)
. In passivese.terces,thesubject is notthe agent of theverb.
I i . : l . :' , j l r L r r L l i r i . r , r t , , i i 1 r l r !
(subject) (verb)
(us*t)
. Ihe passive
isformedwithbe+ pastpadiciple.
. In moreformaltexts,the pasive is prefeiiedbecause
it is
te$ p€6onal.Thisisespecially
true ln newspapers
and n
r . i e . t i i L .t e c h . ( a lo . d c a d e T k$ r i r - 9 . T h e. o l o wr g p a $ \ e
constructions
areparticutarly
commoni. this kindofformat
writing.
i ,,r:rii,r,., i) j
:f,:r,:l
3 ALternatives
to the passiv€/.voiding
the passive
Inintorr. speech
we'ar alod Lrngthepass:ve
oyusing"
subjecr
llkewe,you,they,
people,
someone,
etc.Thissounds
more
peBoraLand
frlendly.
Comparethefoltowiigpairsof
seniences.
r i : r i r r : i r L 1 , Ir r . r | i r . r . i i f i i r i , , : r ' j
i.,Ll
l i r h f . , i ) 1 . : : , r L r : r , r i r , i : . r : i r :i t l , i I i r i r i ) . r , : r
it is makng
\ ' , ' . ri , ' r , | Li j j r ( i r r l j L rl , r r ; r . i r . . r , , r r : r r r i
i r r f i ! n ! i r L L \ ' r rri. r ' . . , r r i r i r .i : . , r : i . r i f i . r f , . r . ,
i itwillmake
:
.
.
'
i making
I PRACTICE
1 Choosethe corectverb forms.
It must be true -
I read it in the tabloids
2 Reasonsfor using th€ passive
. T h em a i nt o p i co f r h e s e r t e r cles n o t t h ea g e n t . I E
n nglish,the
mair topicofthe sentence
normalLy
comesar the beginniig,aid
new informauonaboutthe topiccomesat the end.
r i : i . : , , r . i , ' r r r ' , i r ' i . : , i r : l ( F r o ra
n profile
ofCameron,
who isthe rnaii topicofthesentence.)
lfthe agentis not the maintopicof the sentence,
we usethe
' , r ' . r i : i , ! i ! . r r . L i r \ r : , r , i . . , r . r: . ( F r c ma na r t k l ea b o u t
Avararwhichisthe maintopicof the sentence.)
. Theagentis !nknown,unimpodanior obvious.
I I . \ , . . r , n : r ) ' . r " . i L ' i . .(r= w e d o n ' tk n o w w h od i dt h i s )
i r i r i i i . , i . r r i r i r , . . : , i i r , ( = i t l n o t i m p o r t a n t w hdoo e sr h i s )
, i r i , \ \ r i : , l r r n , i ( = i t s o b v l o u s t hpeo l k ed i dr h i s )
REMEMBER!
Jwe lndldethe ageft in the sentence,we
lse by.
MagisrraG IsabelleLe Tessiet 'sentenced / bd,s
sez,€nc€d her old school teacn€r in Ronen,France
Iast week. He Torced / D6tolced
to wiie 'I must not
breat the speediimit 25,000times.
Lars Hombery md Anka Edlurd of Kaxlstadt, SFed€n
ih.tae decided / haDe been dzciileal ta
Eet 'Mned.
aiier spending 19 hours sluck jn a lilt together erlier this
month. Before fheir ord-"al they .haal not int oiluceal /
had noa been introdwe.l.
The State of Andhft Pradesh in lndia %as passed / ha!
be€u ,oised a law saling lhaL myone vho 6catch€s /
t.3caugnt cheating in school etmslttiil
send I wlll be
sent to pnson for ten yeaxs.
Failed pllof Lariy Waliers rattacheal / u6 aftacheal
42 helium ba.loons to a kjtchen chat and spent 14 11ous
flying above Los Angeles earli€r thjs week. Mr WalLers
wha'\had tumed doun / heal been tumeal aloun by
the US air lorce b€caus€of bad eye sjght roo,moa, lrtt /
b6 elmost hit by teo plar€s rJier he i'DteD/
Dc blolon Lnexp€ctedly in ihe djrcctlon oi the
N\N\\N
isa^arno{ pa$al ra8 ptnoqtnol )
is.,(. r no,(1so}Ptnoqsno^ q
ipatsars.^. rro,(1a3Ptnoqsnoi !:€
'rr pear
uBF
r,ub
saop
leql
t
2.(e5
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z 1 r p a r t e d 3 r . ^rpsqe l n o ^ p r u
pa q / )
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a l r r i P d $ e l n o ^ P r Pu . q t e : €
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vrlM saru€las.qt €lalduor or sr6)pprqu!srduod aqr asn !
plr{.,i1
r.i.Ir !Lirif I .!rirr ,:i I |l,rrrr.d il',.rili rl ii.i
i i i r L ; r o l r r . , , l4r i / , i i i r i . i r i r d x J j l i L l r r,ri j , r . . r , { , r i j r i
'luespaidun
are
telBsn ol uaddeqq)rqMsturqljo
'luapr]re^q
u.ddeq
reqrs8utqlrol.tdr)|lJpd
rsed+ r.6.sn a,1^.
i.! Jrln,iir) rlL.li.rr I'jt irr,,i
:t!rr.irjirri,!nj. ri4 ].i"i.!rtijir,i
' a u e so q i s r B u l u e aauq 1 1 n q
teu|olul
.roL! sl1 .tdr)qrpdlsed + p.Iqo + ra6asr orlp upr.n .
.!irti{t(tu)ur,tirrrirotiTra/,11!!,,/irr'ir'i,,,i:rrrJri,r,fLarrr.;rr\i,
.auopSurql.uroso^eqo1
rlnrulip se^ ttu.qa.ldpr}led lsed+ Dafqo+ ra6la eq osnol .
ri/l:ir:,ir
r. i, n
. r,i,, r Diirriln
iJi)r,
tIir(
if Ll
rn roJop or sldo.dr.qlo ^ed aMBurqFuostnoqe
)lel orpasnstetdDr]Jed
rsed+ pafqo + a eq uroj a^rssed
aq.L.
;af pue a ealq1!^ surol allsspd
'relsl
-q
sr.Ouour
n€J
1r1
€
raq
(u.rntar)
-,r
,{auourraH
pio
.l"psl
(,{es)
aqt
,,{FsEaos
-,
(aarerep ql€nsn
lou)
Ii r{euou queurol$
plo 0Ll1Llll,r
reruEa
satnmu,,!€J e rls€r Ln(roJ prpd)
-zr
ste{rq laq ruerw ot aueld e (preoq)
eqs\e uos.jrppb( ts"fie, d
d lod dJ.'rJedP,euuort rdl,tj dr,
drrl
tlur'!
DLIE
rreodoe,pt
lD
s
uosru€pv ter.ll (pug) -1eqs
{auoul
,dq dn IJrd ot t"pJo -ll , Lfi,vJ I
-e
dus
ucrj\\ trq sru| pBrLerxos d,tJ rd^oluet| asmc eql roJ raq Lllrr\ T a €al pue rallat aunIoJ
eqt ol,buoru aru a{el o} pepoauaqst€qt pue
'sllrdq rr^d (q r.uolr ldq
-,
f e uo ( dJe.O
esm, a l}?ql u?ruoa eLIlpap?n$ad 'iZ ,uosuepv
?,{uos 'armIoJ rarl,{.ropl{\ plo-xEad-tge (rcI)
-,
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(Iq4J -.
oqs
:Ie$p
oB?
sreed,!tal
(lsefie)
?
-!
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]/
.sr.),erq ur (.^rssedjo
.^!De) q$^ lqtlo r.lrol D€ror aqr qla sdp;.qr €t.Fuof
'xoqeqr u!sqr^aql6sn sa)etd
€s€q119auopr.B lo.^pq no^ tpqr Sulqr.uo rsEalle €rlm
fouour uo asJnt aaolueJ
ol sro.IJiorollel-ormuoJ
ie3rl )paqr Puaur
xPM rnr a^p ualqBprts adEqs(;r) op
2 Which.haracteristics/mentaL
skittsare not desirabLe/
necessary
for eachPerson?
TYPISOFINTILLIGENCE
1 A capeniershoutdhaveemotionalintel\gence
/
nathenatkal skilk / spatial intelligence.
2 A mountaineerk.estlient /selt ufficient / extrcve4.
3 A bossshouLdbe a.rogart / .aln / good in a tean.
4 A mathematician
needslogic/ oryanisationalskills
/
p rc bIen -solvins ski lls.
5 The perfect gi friend/boyftierd is axention-teeking /
hunorcus I needy.
visuaLApatial
intelligence
to havesometh
ngonyourminn
3 Tickthe b€stsentenc€for eachsituation.
'I
youfsister,.ndshehasbeen
Youar€shoppingwith
tryingto decidewhichdresstobuy for half an hour.
d P l e " 5red l e J p y o u , n i n o l
:
b Ple"5e.l-dn8eyour niaar'
2 Y o un e e dt o t a t k t o y o l r p a d n e r a b o u tpar o b l e m .
a 'l'.1ymind'sgoneblank.'
f
b 'l'vegot something
on my miid.'
Youryoungerbrotheristryingto find out aboutyournew
gidfriend/boyfriend,
butyou dontwanttotellhim.
a I\4indyolrown bus'nessl'
fi
b I dontmindl'
!
YourflatmatehasLosthergla$es- againl
a Youteso absentmlndedL'
!
b Youre openminded!
!
5 Asmallchildhashis handnearadoorthatis ctosins
a Mindyourfingerd
L'
!
!
PIRSONAICHARACTERISTICS
OTHER
io takeyourbloodPressure
Guessingmeaningfrom context
Decideif ea.hword betowin botdis a noun,verb,
adjectiveoradverb.H€reissomeinformationto heLp.
. typicalendings
for differenttypesof words
adlectites, ive, fut, - ibte
-ion,
-ne$,-ance
nouns:
advelbs:'t
. wordswhichcomebefore...
nouns:a,t e,adltcrves
et .)
vetus:auxjtiary
or modatv€rbslbe,have,nay, shauL,t,
l iRAcitai
1 ComDletethe tabtewith the noun/adiective
form5.
i adje.tiv.
: noun
Do polygraphs work?
rorLnteer
-N
:
Polvgraphs, also called 'li€ detectors . ar€ far'1ion
infa.[ible. Th€rmeasure c€riainph]siological
ehaues su.h ashedt raie and bloodprcssue,
n'hi.h are couelated {ith bing. Thc Lelief ls thln
deceptiv€ msr'-.fs producc llr,vsiologicu.lresponses
Lhat cm b. ditrerentiated lron trutlilul ones.
Cc ain rulesand proc€duresshouldbe dgomusly
,plled id'en trkiulobgralh tests.l om sta(, ihe
pers.in\!ho administersihe test shouldnot be the
one $'hojudgesfte rcsutts.and idealh 'nore thm onc
pefsonshouldoller an interyretation
2 Thinkof a word thdt couldr€placeeachword in bold.
'uaqr
ps,leql,qe3^
n
o
^
o
l
)
e
e
d
s
e
.
p
r
p
o
o
3
's,unw)ata eat
ntlAI a^eelsl
no^.iolaq ]snflpr p au.^r3leqM no^ I.l rssenB
| .{snq^r d oq o1,f,qru, / {p)r,, s,l qs.
Pegaqltu / stxl
)9re4 a$ aserut rnol noqe .^eal ralFq pialt
2aullleqarnoqv 1e.r3 aq plnoMiPql
'qlt no^t s,unu rno^ !uo4 dnnotpldn,!
t dn noKtt4d ot 6u!o6u,tzt auq Jofruald ro8 a ,.^
leqlos'aarql punore-qd,(v le !.]tqauldddp s,
/ sdorp,,ialsrs^h Maqdaufu q , rarseg
s,\'a ypt I a^tpor6ulobw,/0,paptrapa^,1,oN
z.url Fetprp aMa uter aq1
etel no[ oO / aryr q 6u!o5no,{ar% 2a]oq1ra3 ol
Moqnoqp Bnoqlno.{a^€q,fe^\ aq1I€ .^lrrexl
zqnPurleqrool lsrttrnol
olSuro8ueql rueuodur|.rouraq plnorleqMIa/^
'
puerslaPun
ot 6u!o6t,.4t
.luel]odut^Ieor
/Pu4 apunn.gr dns u,
8ulqlauros
i,t reqil.r or SuJo
6 at / at ,tt- u.tr
'.
ealllur
/ e^P.lt,! Putwl,uoh/pulul,usaops
urnNrns Lu,tiqeaf'" 33rq}Ieq rnoqea^e.l
olo^eq P,tsueaureql * uuH a)rop,o a^H
'au!uo
P3)req)
Fnta ,I" . Ure sr.rprst//,rersor6u!o6s,t+\at
''' aur1.qi uo spGdap os ^eprnresuo
I
s,uJnur
^u re r.^o qrunlrr?qn,aa / 6u! eqd.e(.
" P.requrau.rai
rsnf3^,trnq 'r.te.' ola^olpil
2ool €uruor ^)uel noft parepuoalsnlI
'Mo$i no^.rns L!,ts€',(1rlf?rd
! / 6ulre4 aez
p€rlun fePrnlPsuo qrreu lteqroolrsrusrqol ures
h\a\daufu.Ierot6ulo6ut I qel ,ltsl8qp)
ur,tuosFr .ql iu.lsl iSutopnor .r.ao!] ,preq]!
:5tt,Jvl
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itl €t.tr\t alat[\r;lt.,i
'
.t
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tr.t
tt
/f b'rri'ri?irir' .r ii(rirf'',i(ti'
l;lt4.t\,:
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^upw
sassqdraqro 9
i'ri prr!r |ifj
r ri.r.'lr ;rir dr ldstia! r)rlt 14
1][
1r.)
'
ln ^lntti ttl
l
t
.
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lt$Sutqriuos
leqlFa83nsor sFanb.r a)eur.M uaqMp.snoslesturolstr.
t)rrl r |^t .!1rd rii'roiio{ !,ri rd),.rl
t r t:tr.t
ttr.l
lt,
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ro
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r
ro
Lretd
reln)trpd
r(uprnoqla
teurou sqr lo rpd seriq
Lraddeq
srn l.qrisna/1^
I $ reqrSurqFuosrol snonutruo)
snonu$uor
srnrnl s
:o!vHlN
:S]NVI
...,$.,.t.
'pasnstolduF
ru.sard.qt ,pexuXIEPlllouoaq
seqro .lq eFuro rPlnturelo lled sr.rnlnlaql uruorl]pup !aq/
aloullslu€s3rdt
,iprrii/ ,r!.rit.r.ir'r
:ctvHlE
t :Y
ir i.li.rl
rtrn)li ai.r,i
'urol o?6qo63+ 01par.l.rd
!.uo sLsnonurrorNasardaw,06slqr.^ uleu sLtlu3q/ .
(p33u€reuaaqseqnq1=) rrit
:S]NYf
:otYH)u
:stNvt
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L
ti.lurvu.i.l
'f r/nii!.q
nr(eqr)xooficl..'rt_I
U,irpry?
hr t)al atqeriitu )ri ite)q d:i4ory/ts,rr!rnl !x/r!/
!1! igr'/] roj !)ro!/r lrrd| !|r ^]\lotpann.!li.].tt).t.r t\!.)
.F 'al u!q)a. :' Fq I t " teqt atueq.poo6e t,daqt: - 01punoq
aq o1.-01h$tD(un)aqolt or ,/ej]ar ag or 5e qrnsi.rnml
€qrlnoqesuorptpord
ateu ol seserqd
raqlo](!p(llarearaql .
1]!\'
'sinrnJ.ql
.
1noqepeJ atdurlse ss.idxaot .
u4 asna^\
I nt/:a1 ,,!.rtt1.tdt)ntti t|l1)ltu/at6u!obr \uttt Na[.t nr'',l
'Bulue.luutaruarajlp
^ueurul
ruprroduJou sraraLtl,saser
'uaatai6tt
tan!],.tlta.rrtu,t ,ir./rr.rrod :€
'tla isn a^ i3ruapt^.
lu3s.rd u€Lllraq*r suo4ppadxa
PuesJaNquaorno uo p.spqsruo]1'pardaqruaq/\ .
(ItladorduaqlSuL&re)lou.r,no^aasup) t=)
Itrlirpjro!;..no,{1nrrd)d.ro./rd.rp (, brrtodaJro{ ir4d,7:rf/l
'or 611063snflPnsn a^\
'luas d aql uraru.pt^o.uos uo p.spqsruorptpardaql uaq/ .
'arnrnliqluoqe suotlrrpard
a)€ur01 .44pueor 61106
asnat
trtaLLt rttunt.a LLl
i
=)
'.r rLiti rrir:t.r t.t,.t Artat ut.
(uoBualulleFua8
iii,
sru.ua;uere al uuapuoqe )llPt01
I asn^luo no parull .rou r rnonuluor lua$rd 3qtlo 3rn aql .
itpr)t \). tt)r|.,4 / it.t.r)::.:;n
at hutoft.u,l
'.rflnt
iq1$oqe
u€r
lu3$r 3rt11opeeFuror 6l]106.sns^EMlp
)let or snonuquor
10\lPtrL.cta. s s 1ol ror r.d.ro rq- pLpor 6,,oblo as. aqj
iufaw3uttu
,ilrl)l,tr. I' r, rtr!1,\',dr/ i li.lr.ra, a/.l
'3rnln,(sqrq p.E!ere
a^eq3^^ButqFuosrnoq€
ol snonuluorlFsard 3q1.snil
Tel
snonu$uo) ]uacard E
l")t))?u jat at 6!to$.ta^aru,l
'arnrryrpsusql u roluelsrp.q rpur uorlrp
aq|arnrnJ.$rol suollu.lu!1u3$rd*.rdxi or or 6ulo635narl
016uloDz
'pe.rsu3lauls
sql ast
tsaluna)uas2uoasse
ruasd
ra
ttun
'te6uotsea,e.utt.ttp' olaq'uaq^
l!r.*
u!^an t,uoa
iura!!3W3d
r,t.iajteLitI1.ron.i
n.taH
t, a9t. stlt tr.r''I-- n,i
'srsttopue$sruo]d pasn
ro]
oslp
r!rr14
);teinat aaat,1
lt,l
p roJi"oalrd asnir'
€ur)ieads
lo tliLuouraqlrespeuuorst).p
IIIIA I
ernlnl €ql u! suolslraPPUPsuPld
surroloJnu,lo /r a| au
suollrlPs.rd
5 Other ways of asking questions
Morecomplexquestionforms
1 Compound questions
, Alret what ot whi.h, you..n u5ea nounto folm questions.
Whichrestaurantdidyau
go to7
What infarmatiandayou heed?
. After,o4 you €anusean adjectiveor adved to fom questions.
How tunwonhy doyou thihkhe is?
How quicklycanyou 9et herc?
2 Questions
with pr€positions
Some
verbs
andadjectiv€s
takeprepositions,
forexample,
ret o,,
takabour,
of etc.Thepreposition
comes
aftertheverb
ftightened
or adjedive.Don'tomitthe preposition.
lVhatirereyau talking aboutT
vrhatareyou frightened otr
3 Statements and negative questions
. Statemendwith a risingintonationoftenfunciionasquestions.
Theyar€oftenusedto expresssurpise
atwhatsomeonehas
just saidorto checkinformation.
A: lbaughtthreepaiBafshoes.
t
Bt rau baqhtthreeparsafthaet?
At Sophiearived yesterday.
/
B: Sheadvedyesterdat?
Ithoughtshewas
a tihgtoday.
. Negativequestions
alsoexpress
surpdse,
an opinionorcheck
that infonnation is iorect.
Didntyou liketheboak?
Dantyou thinkitwaukJbe betterlfyau taLked
ta her?
Daesnt it statt at two?
. Noticethe way we answernegativequestions.
Didh'tyou hearwhatI sald?
No,ldidnt. (Whatdidyausay?)
Yes,I did. (Yousail we were late )
Ihe wods on earth,exactly,precliet can be usedto makea
Whaton earth areyau doing?
whereefrctly/pre.isely dayau thinkh is?
I PRACTICE2
I CompLet€
the questions.
I
2
3
4
5
5
7
8
9
l0
Whrchcafedovou wantlo !oto?
How
do vou lnow her?
food
are
you goingto taketo ihe picnic?
washewhenhesawyou at the station?
-sulPrised
areyou
flyingin to?
-ailPoft
Whatarevou thinl,ino
?
W h oi 5 s h em a r i e d _
?
Whatarethev famous
?
WhoEreyoushouring_
?
How
havevouknownher?
2 Wrlt€ a negativequestionto expresssurprlseat what th€
lp€aker !ays. Use the verbs in brackets.
1 A: Thatwasan awfulfitm.
4 Didnt vouLikeit? llike)
2 A: ldidnt knowshewasgettingmaiiied.
(tell)
B: -?
3 A: l'm silltdoingmy homewoft
(finish)
& -?
4 A: can I borowyour mobitephone?
(havegot]
B: _?
s Ar Canyou explainitagain?
(unde6tand)
B: _?
5 A: Hetlo.Whatsyour name?
Br
? We met lastyear.(rcmembe4
3 R€writeth€ questionstomakethem indk€ct.
1 what doesshedo for a living?
Davauknowwhatshedaesfor a llvinq?
2 HowoLdisyoursister?
4 Indirectquestions
. lndirectqueslionsareoftenmorepoliteor morefomal than
normatquestions.
usephras€s
likecouldyo! tell meat the
5tartof the question.
we useaffirmatjvewordord€rin indkect
Couldyoutellnewherethebankis?
Doyoukhowifthatrcstauantisopen?
lwanted to khow whatyau thoughtof her.
. Otherphrases
canbe usedfor indked questions:
/worder...'
TeLlne ..j canyou rcnind ne --.?tl'd likelLoveto know...
rel newhenyouatereadyta Leave.
cahyou rcnind ne what tine out flight is?
. Don'tus€do or did in the Present
simpteandPastsimple.
I wantedto kno9|whatyou thinkaf hel
NOI t wantedto knawwhatdidjes+hi* af het.
. Us€torwhefrerforyei/,o quesiions.
cauldyoutelLneifthe.e s a banknearherc?
Dayouknowwhethetthemeeting's
gaingahead?
Haveyou beenleamingEngLish
fo. Long?
coutd-?
Howgoodarcyour liste.ingskiLls
in EngLish?
t_.
WhenwilLyoube finishedin th€ bathroom?
D
o
?
Arcyou goingto go out this evening?
D
o
?
Howdo you say Of.ourse'jn your language?
Coutd_?
Do_?
N,N\\N
'qll)lsBu!u.rs!l
rno^ a^o/u.r! ot rfil 01op 013u!o3areno{ teq/v\ssnrslc q
ipalqns eql spreMol
apnlDp Fq/rlq slieql 2rnoqe3u!)tprra)pad5aqls!
suoasanb
rarseaSuqse[l}'llnr]Jrp oolsur..s
1€q/1^
Surue$|]Ell pro^\,ta^epueFrapunol Sul(lr pro^v
'3.r, rol ^ltP3.l
PPeotuaoP
iq !€) ,(oFlol ro lt./,^ro^q.ldu€xa roj 's)roa rtsset)
^upl{ a8En8uplrno,(
uroruatsl orqu ptnoa no,{reqr
)ooq €.sooql .uoqdreLlrslo rafeld €dH rno^ uo rp)
rno^ ur1rol Surua$!lpue)ooq otpn€upBut{nqrapFuol .
'.lnosar
Poot
'ule8v
p
qtMildo.d
t
oql
sa3€n8uellsru
raq1o
Furalur
{q ua)pdsqs|;ut or uarsllor/01'sra)ipadr
qst:ut.^rrEU
rou aie ploMoqr!!sF)€ds qsr8ul lo,( ofpulsp aql
Lo
,'6Eli-uEa-qtlE-IT!r"1
p.^eq .e d€) I
€l-ddEi-dF?lj
t'6trrlll/$
iFj-uoiF.l.l
sEioT/\ aur ot8ut-\jl^otlJ1Er
€ 3ur^pqar,a/v\ 9
F
loo.r)5lerP3,(
^ u u r i q o r p s r r o q M . t o o 3r0o t ^ ! e o e d u t ^ e aq r . , ^ 5
siqtIE-rEq-Tpa-fi-qEEE6EEo
s eqs t
utnt M@t t-fnq-FEqlTE16! s,aH €
'tutua^ostitl
to-FlTrr €d, a{-IM-5tr6"1ii6-FF
e uo Suro8u.t z
.r,t.:li.,r,.,r::;,!irri
r_t
'tli-q-F5Fi.F--{'ujjJJlN
e s.lt I
ru.Frllp e'{IMsaserqdp.ulF.pun aqr aretdat L
'lserqd
'puqeapun
oqissan;
oltur
luopno.(Fqrspro^joaureau
..-".._--,.._,il_"1_V-L_a-l
'sproM
'sproMueljodut 3qr uo snroj .
pas$as
oql
^Iensn
'lntasn^'a eq uer o}rqq pus aqnrno^spqrns
)n
$!sq./
utpaFa$rutoreno,(rtdorpasooqt qsuButur
dllr o3pt^suoqrleMrc or uo$t pue,(ep,ia^aouuuo09
raaN or
ino{ol]nrasn
rsou ua.s aoteq sdlr rqt ,o rit!q/V\ '{pp &o^a lq alrrll
e 3ulstrred r(q sugtsSulu.rslt rnor( s^oldtu! uer nol ez
.tPql asqto
'Mou)l,uop
tsp$M^!eur oot.rp araql
arrarre uorotlrPPUersrpunl,uP)
raqr.Bora3raurlle sproMaqt ..
aseJool )l?aosalooed
,qslt8ut ualodspu€$$pun
013u!,(|tuaqa lulelduor uouuor lsou rno^ s! rpq^l L
4oiuosaollorsr3Mollol a^eqor
.reElSexa ol
p-poluaoP
or
(di AutqFuot aBrPWor
.rer.Prsuor3q 01
!'HIO
silr rqa Lq![] ]]4 o1
e qrLM;uqFuot qer 01
qrnrraqr q)r.4t 01
rcl o arc ueaariol
f- qlfr) a^olul lFs.t.doq ne, 01
qrnn 3'I qrlA loLuolora aqo1
sNolol
s111s
rnoi(tu1,ro.rdu1
3u1ue1s11
euuoB
rbirnr plor 03 ol
raulavr. te
ur pe3q{u ?uop s,.qs/s,.q
(lpe) o pa]]tqr/(^)no lqror
azoo!
(&epl) .q or
1noP3ssalls
(ptesauoauorleqa +)qlt.q or
sr. trpsnor.Bueprcturi^3 ue doo) lniarer.€ I
jqril oqr qr$ rtuouotraBur.qno,{a$ rc an4 rpqrst I
'uqrtw
pto)
oB
orSutoB
u,l
..t
o)
dn
i
lBdo1sor 3uto3ur,r 9
'puoll ;utlrs-:uot e s,.H .ulr tuot e utLl uaoq a^,t
I
laddadlo |])lld e qllMrr qe.Ls^esaqsreqMa^.Fq l,uoc t
'3I
q$|
enlq
e
sea
rt re.'t o1paileM eq reqMutq plol I €
'ltq e q1n4r.q Suiq)Frrss,iqs r.q .^6u.q 1.uop
I z
pusuJ1'.q rturqr$ .^ot ut ^lsraldt.quelet a^,i !
'Proatraxol
2rq8rlv
tDvncNvltvtnoo110)
:uor^ q.ru.ruas qrp. u!proaauo €
€qr qIA r!.ret&t
iSurppr)iisnf:€
'lno
P3ss.4s^llelor u,i il,uoo :V
eFuuore aoroq tuer'^eM.$ fE alqurars,leql :€
'^ouou
sMoloq
stre4e
oH
urpFq
^u
rtlerol s,3H:v
Surop
eauo)MoH :€
'^ enrre saleu lsaq.{u auoqltaFsdn^Iear u,t :V
Jo
;dn 5,1Pq/te^uol,{.H ;€
i
uol,lq;Hv
;v
|..u
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auo a)etder
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ss.tl!qeuror uollesr.^uo)slqt qlhat z
Perfecttenses
l;,!*itlli]: ;;";J;";.; ; ;;;;"
: ;";;;;i;;;
Past
. p6rfe.t
: Vshel^ad
'
affiled
futur.
. perf€ct
: l / h ew i l l h E v e l w o r i h a v e
:
anived
arived
t,ad yoJ
. arrived"
'WillyoLhale
. p.*..t
1asn1d-ived . he arrledl
arruea
I l"adni
arived
. arriveo"
^, *,i*"**
'tt *" Oo.ts il rime.Tl'eys.ow a(l.onsbslqe
a padiculariimein the present,
pastorfuiure.
1 Presentperfect
ThePresent
perfectlinksactionsii the pasttoth€ preseit.
<
PresentPerfect *Y+iutlre
beforeiow
This can happenin a nunrberofways.
. Theactioi is noi finished,
butcontinuesintothe present.
(= andwe stitllivehercnow)
WehavelivedhereaUou,Liver.
. Theadion took placein a periodof time whichis not finished.
WeveaLlbeehillthisyeat.\= this yearis not finished)
I ve beenta kaLyseveftL
tunes.(= in my lire)
. Theactionhappened
veryrecenttyandis still news.
Theyvejusthada baby.
. T h er e s J l tos f d p a s a
r d i o na r es r i l l i r p o a a nnr o w .
Ive lostmyhabileph.hel
. ThePresent
perfectis oftenfoundwiththesetimephrases.
atready eyet lot jun rcve. since safal
thisnranth/nohihd/weel today yet
REMEMBER!
lfyou elate th€ actionto a speclfic
pastunre,usethe Pastsimple.
t fitnnlet jahi v)hpr,
I was21/ in 20A,:i
Pastperfect
PastPerfect r-'--
3 Futur€perfect
TheFuture
perfect
link tlvoactions
ortimesin theflture.
.
'
'-------.''-=='-=
past now
the pastofthe future
pointin the futur€
We usethe Futureperfectwhenwe tookforwardto a time in the
fuiureandthenthinkaboutsomething
that will becompleted
beforethat time.lt k oftenintroduced
with by + futuretimephrase
Caft,eoverabautten.WelI haveeatenbythen.
a y t h e l i m e t m s o . n o p p tl l h a u p e a n e d c. . 9 1 o . ) . a !
N o t i c e t h e w o r d o r d e rFouf t u r e p e r f e c t q u e s t l o n s .
1 2 3
witl you havef i nished by tana rcw7
l.i,mc!Cf1
1 Lookatsentences1-3. Arestatementsa-. true (T),false(F)
or lt isn't sure(Ns)?
1 They'vetivedin Francefor neadytlvo yeals.
a Tl-eylive n F_a.ceiow.
b Tl-eyused!o l:vei. F.ance
c Tl-eyroved to Francearou.dtwo yea-sago.
2 DavehadhadhisdinnerwhensaLlyarrivedhome.
a Davefr. +Fd eatin8be'o'eshearived hone.
.
b Davewar earrg w.en sle ariled hom€.
:
,. Shearived beforeDavesdinner.
3 We Llhaveraisedmorethan€100,000bythe endoflanuary.
a w F f a v e . i r a k e d€ 1 0 0 . 0 0 0 y e r
t
b wp llhave€100,000beforeFebuary
t
c we !e alreadyra sed€100.000.
.
2 CompLete
the sentences
with the correctform of the verbsin
ThePastperfectlinksapoi.t in the pastwith a time furth€rii
the past.lt describes
actionsthathappened'beforethe
past'.
,
W€ canaho usecLauses
with bythetine,when,et .
fhe pattyhadfihishedbythetinte tarived.
we wentan halkt.ywhenwe'dfinished
autexan5
Noticethatwhenwe usebe&reandalteathe orderof eventsis
obvious,
so the Pastperfectis not alwaysnecessary.
trehenbetedta lockupbeforelwentta b€d
--i
,
,
pasrmonreir
shehadbeenittfat sanetire bet'arc
\he died.
Whenlgot hamethe caIhades.aped.
l.4anyof the time phrases
perfect
oftenusedwith the Present
arealsousedwilhthe Pastpe ect.
Hadyauev.rseehthenan bet'arc
tllarnight?
t4atyhadn t beenabrcadfot nanyyeart.
We canuseby+ pasttimephras€s
withthe Pastperfect.
B y e i g h t o ' . l o c k ) d ' tg ' \ , , h a dn t a n a g etdo e a . "
1 Thegrassis exlremelydry,it
(not rain)for we€ks.
2 we
(sitl at the tablefor about25 minutesbefore
anyonecameto takeour order,
3 B y t h e t i m eh e w a s f i v e , J o e
( t e a r n ) t po l a y t h e
gurtar.
4 at the endof next month,we _
(live)in this flat for
(make)
s lt wasno goodtryingio peuuadehim - heup hismiid a longtimeago.
6 come andcallforme aboutseven,l {finish)my
homeworkbythen.
/ l d o n t t h i n kl w o u t dr e c o g n i sAei i t a a n ym o r e (notsee)herfor yeaB.
l-
real3qlIq lorllrq
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aatupeq.e.l?^eq1!a/ paqcear
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z
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'par€ada.r
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t€ ll
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'o4
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snonu!luol
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I
2 Completethearti.t. with wordsin the box.
ACHITVIMTNTS
to foundan organisation,
etc
to developa th€ory/machine,etc.
to teada poliricalgroup,
etc.
to makesomethin8
possible
to donatemoneyto.harity
had influence means
enable make cause take had
No one doubis thal modern technologJ'has
'
a t'ug€ impact ]_working
life, bui has
ril
a positive or negatjve i
? nroil
and ihe intem€t I
us lo comu catewith
colleaguesall ovef the world jn an i]rsiml, but
th€J fu!€ also 6
to a cL hue where we
earect insmntresponses.Becauseof globa]tine
dllT€rcnces,
this can resull r_
a sjtuaiion
ilhere peopleend up workinglaie md unsoclable
hous. Similarly,nobile phones.
it possible
for us to be airav from ou| iiesks nithout
collcaguesor clienls hto{ing that $e are actualy
on the beach.but ftose rvework Rith also
jt tor granted tiEt they can get hold ot
xs whenevcrtheyneed to. Thisr0_ihat
it is
hdder to siiich offftom work comptercty,
and
can _
a lot ol disruprion to family lile.
I
to raise6oney for charty
to set/break
a {newlworldrecord
TIM€PHRASES
jn the earLy/mid/Late
16thcenrury
3 Wfite the nounforns ofthe verbs.whid nounsand
verbsarethe same?
OTHER
to takelomethlnSfor gGnted
I PRACTICE
'l Decide
if eachpair of sentences
meanrhe sane thing.If
not, what h the difference?
1 a
b
Z a
b
3 a
b
4 a
b
BradPitt hasraiseda lot of moneyfor chadrz.
BradPiti hasdonateda lor of moneyto charity.
Wewill probabt lind a cur€withinthe nexttenyeau_
We will probabt find a curewithinthe nexrdecade.
Thedetective
discovered
a srrangestory.
Thedetectiveinventeda srrange
story.
Penicitlin
hasenabledusto curemanyitlnesses.
Penicitlin
hasmadeit possible
for usto curemany
5 a
b
6 a
b
TheconquercEexptorcdthe Westernlslands.
TheconqueroB
defeatedthe Wesrernlslands.
Mobilephoneshavetransformed
our lives.
l'{obitephoneshaveinfluenced
our Uves.
lmprovingyour speakingin the classroom
1 Asyour EngLish
be.omesmoreadvanced,
it is importantto
improveyour a.curacyandfluencywhenspeaklng.which
tips wiLLhetpmak€youmorea.curate,ftuento.both?
1
2
3
4
AtwaysuseEnglish
durirgpairandgroupwork
ALways
useEngtish
to askquestions
in ctass.
Try to speakasmuchasyou canduringctassdkcussions
In class(andat home)listento the prcnunciarion
oi nen
wordsandphrases
andpractisesayingthem.
5 Tryto thinkin English
whenever
yo! can,andrry to avoi.
trarnatingwordfor wordfromyourown language.
6 cive fullansweBratherthanansweringwith
a wordor
7 Askyourteacherto writ€ downimponantcoffections
andtellyou aboutthem afteryards
8 WherepossibLe,
takea few momenrsto planwhatyou
aregoingtosayandthinkof the bestwords,grammar
structures,
etc.lo express
whatyou wantto say.
9 Listenwhenyourteachercorredsotherstudentr.
2 Whichthfee suggestions
couldyou work moreon?
iiix\l
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u a a qs e q ' s P ! . d . P
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PA
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:rrili
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:illi lr ! i lrr 1r!!rg$ i iLir,1! )!.{rr'.i! ixr r rl}ri q r l !!Lr rfr.,r
(reqt''Plqa)sSurtll'
'(uaqla .Jaq^ a'aL!^'oq/r
'reqr'q'q^) unouord3^l€Fr € 3!En seull puesareld'suorssassod
'.tdoad s8utq1uoq€loBeurolutsn a^r; r.sneP3^[elal
tPraua9L
aql (ratp,!€ss.r.u I pue).roJaqseuuotrore3ra!l iase)slql
u t u o l r € u r o j uer4 x a s . ^ t t r r - r n o q € S u f l E l s r e . M u o e a d / 8 ! r t l l
3w saurn.uos
q)lrt/r\snIa101^res.)au lou slasnelra^Llelar
(seuuo) qra) s€snep.^!rp|d 3u!u!t.P-uoN
sasnelfaA!lPl€u
Q u a n t i f i e r s w i t h c o u n t a b t e ua n cdo u n t a b l e n o u n s
Quantifiers
Countable and uncountabLenouns
. Noursir English
areeithercounrable
or uncountable.
tf€ rour js
u n c o u n t a bilred,o e sn o th a v ea p t u r a l f o r m .
. somenounsir English
havecountabte
anduncountabte
forms.
L. r i , , i l i i ,r . L " i : ; r : i : . . ' r , : , i . ; r , $ r r i f : r ( = u n c o u n t a b l e )
: r.::ri I ri,'ir:|.i,.iflj (= countable:
cupso/cotree)
. Someuncourtabte
nounshavea pttratforrnwh]chis differertin
ii]iLi..|'.
jjL.
''.r.1
i].ij
1.] ]ii l],|hil]|Lll
(= urcountabletphysicatham)
rri, I f. ii.r r ir liN,ji,i!j l= ptuat:financiaL
Quantifie6with countabtenouns
. sevent, one ot two, a <ouple,a
few quite a few veryfew
Afew, a coupLe
andonear twa altmean a snr.I number,.
I :rr :. rr ! rl ii!
i I Nr|l\:
or'r.!\r !r
seyeralmeansmorethana few.
"lh
r,...r,! rjl
Noticethat a/ew andqrtrea few emphasise
the positive.
. \ : i I i n $ r r : r r : : t \r , l i j r i l , I r : f n r
wheteasfew andveryfe\r enphasise
rhat it is a smarnurnDer.
I j r ! i r L .r \r , r ' . r i i \ i ; r r r r i r : . r i.. \ ' r i f r . f r i r r i r r i r l
. nany, a nunber ol toadsof, hundrcdsof, doens of, erc.
T h e sa
e r ea l L u s ewdi t hp t u G t c o u n t a bntoeu n s .
Manyanda numbetofarcusedin moreformalsitrarionsto iatk
abouta large,nonipecificn!mber.
Loadsaf, hundreds
of anddaze,ro/are mosttyusedinformaly.
Ioo nary is usedwith co!nrableiouns to mean,morethanwe
i ' . , .j : i r i r : fr | r , i r , , , : i r . j
Quantifierswith uncountablenouns
' a little, very little, (guite) a bit of
A little ard a bitof rcfetto uncounrable
nouns abdoltendsto
be usedin conversarion
andinforrnatsiruatiors.
i r . , I r r i i l r . )r r t . f i j r L j i l r rli. r i i , r r , i r : r r r r rr,:r . :
r i ) r .I r i l r i r I . I ' f r . I r f . t r f i ;
L/frlelyeryllttleemphasises
a smaltquanrtry.
I i ! r l Lr I' r il , r 'r ' i i , .i l .: , i
Quireabdolis usedto emphasiserhe
positiv€.
We cannorsay
i r r :r r ( t L . r ) l irjl r r r . : l i , r i J . J l i r i
. much,a gteat deal of, loadsof
Muchis usedtotalkabortlargequarriries.tt is usedwirh
uncountable
nounsandis maintyusedin qu€stions
andneg.tives.
4 greaidealo/ is usedin fornralcontexls
- toadjo/ is infolmal.
I , . ' . r f , 1 , . : i r i L l i \ ri ) j r , r r | , r r r r .:., i
t I ir, I r,!, r . l
"
: i rr,i irrfri i1ri,. iii
Ioo nrc, is usedwith urco!ntablenounstomean morelnan
i
. i::l!fi
r r fi i :..iri tir:
r i r L r r r. r ; r , ,
Alorofis usedwith bothcountableard uncountable
nours.tt is
usedLess
in formalsituations.
tt is not usualLy
usedin negative
sentences
aid qu€stio.s.
lofs otis lsed in the sameway.
. 1i,i " f . l r r . . ' r r r ' , : , . r ; r r . . I. i i i , i .
E oughis usedwith borhcountableanduncountabte
.orns ro
mean asmuchaswe need.
Plertyof means'morethanwe need.
rr;. r:riirrriii
-r:
I r.
\irrL. ji)i.riir
jirr jr:,i. irrrfti!:,r
r:f.t
someanda/ryarebothusedwith pluralanduncounliorenouns,
andin positiveandnegativesenrences.
somerefersto a limitedquantityornumber.tt canbefollowed
jlfi
r..i ii , ilrirrl: iri
il|
i , r Li r r r i :$ ! r , , , r r r r r i r l J i
it,r,tr:iirLri:r,rl
4ny refe6to an urtimitedquantityor number.With a positive
,.,r i, i rr.ij i.,rr,r.,rir i\ .1i). :.;i: (= all of them,ii doesr't
Whereaswitha negativeverb,it means.one.
r,.
li
...II\
I,'iILi |i.,jLr,
rf
i.
(= none)
z
l'inacirCr
1 choosethe phrasewhichis closesrin meaningtothe ones
1 slvqalpeople haveappliedforthejob.
hundreds/ loads / note than a few
2 lhere aretoo marv peoplein the recording
studio.
dozensof / hundrcdsof I norc than weneed
3 We haveveN little tiflre beforerhe busteaves.
enoughI not nuch / plentyof
-5is
4
Drojelrhd, a rea€v!o\r r( a C]c!&eat of money.
a bit of I a lot of / not enough
5 Youcanget a freemapat4ytourjst office.
attofthem / noneofthem /someofthem
6 Dont buy aiy morefood,we ve got p!e!E.
enough/ norethanenough/toonuch
7 Heeatsani/thing.
everything / roth ing / @thin thi ngs
8 ldon't like5g!ie of herrecentsongs.
all/cettain/'tl,ost
2 Choosethe quantifierwhich cannotbe used.
1 Iherc atea bit of / a few / qu ite a few / sevenI rhin$ ta say.
2 I hete is a bit ol / a little / vety fittle / very few norey teft.
3 lherc weteabitof / asrcatdealof / hundrcdsof/ roadsof
peoplewaitirgforthe teamat the airport.
4 Ihete s enough/ much / plenty of / too nuch sahi. the sarp.
5 | foolishlydidr't foltowa / any / no / someal the adliceI
wasgiven.
6 knewsomeofthe peopteir the room,buta/es /ary /
nary / 5oDeof them r'd nevermet befor€.
'LlsllBulu.todsrno^ !^ordur!01p.dpq
seqt qrnu ^{oqsru3Pn$raqroqrlaereduor pu€ stesse
uaqf qtuour€rc,uoI &1PUPseeP!€qt lo €Lro€sooql z
'urofu€rno^leqr e3iP
lP)olrno^ urqnltrqsnButrc aSuEqt(auorreea^uore Pull 9
'rr^Psor eoq
Peaqrnox
urisqrprd puEuetdpue',{eso13^eqlq3turno{leqr Bulill
' o p u q a q i s u r t e u | 1 r r er r F . ^ t u n r n o ^ 1 es r u . P n r s
u3!..,o1oluaorrno,(uI ststrno101SuqeidslroM 1e)
qsll8utasno1.^eqrq8tu no^3r3qMsuooPnNlotutql
'Suqeads
a)l|lsrou ua4osrqsn;ut lo
at^15aql'8u|1!a.re no^ qtnoqlv slu3u.rLlor.l!M Pue
utPa$aralular€no^D.iqns e lnoqeunroj aulluoue ulof
'ule8e
asFPrd',0es.)au
1l
u.lsll uoLlr
PueulPSP
Jt uoaeDunuordrnor()trort)
jtaeno^ Pnoleit SulP€r .srpeld No!-c^c aq1uo rl
ol ua$!lpuPl llun uo4 orpneJo uoFr3s}loqs€ esooq:)
'uollelrunuord
F.!o)
r no^u! otPneaql o13uru.lsll
oql paqr o1tuPUorprP-ruru
eqr anDerd
Iq ouroqle sproaMaulouoBer)unuord
rno^ ol u.lsll 01
5a)4srL1r
Dalor PUe:ulPro.ar
Fqresl rno^ )isPpu€'1e${es Ih no,(leqM.sorud Pue
uetd'rra 'doldeyauoqd
.Iqow )nof8usn a6pl 6u!In)
uo4 qsel Sur)iP.ds
.qi SuroPjPtno^ ulu ro Prorel
'nor(rol atqlssod.rereqr eot.q
seipt aql )l)tl ftluno, uao rnor(q I oP01anlssodM
s! r! $q 'uroo.rssPtr
3qt 3plslno?u!)Feds.slrr€d ol r.lsP€
qrnurs! 1!'/Orunor3u!)e.d5-qs!tBu!
ue ut 8u!^!lalE no^ ll L
sBulqt ,
,{uoluarar
E prerEtde
E
&opt^ p reot,e uoolEqe uroor3aptrq
reuueqP uotlPrlsuouap
e rte]e uolldararE
p
rorerrads
ulllor
€
€Llnlso)
e lPraunlP
prsM4se €urnou E apered
e oslPueqrrau
'/\^ol.qsalro;aNr .qr o1xoq aqlu!sproM 3ql qtlPh !
1}r)vud
I
!]HIO
aug ino(.leror
(^r^ErpNU e) dn al?r or
{FnoFsturqr.uos qe} ol
.)qd€lel01
)roa.rue
te Bs.Je
uel e
rlele
ruPdlFUaBeSuoue
uotrerorap
e
.lnfore
u,,rore
or
ial3r!er!a uP.SreLp
le^!ur4e
uoorSaprqe
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uoolPqa
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^leti^luueue
s-tNlI l tvDtds
(11uoorssep eql epgslnoqs;18ug
a^eM eruels
urolar taqar an.nb aloluord lsalord .pEred
r3q1PB3t€rorap dep raaqr alerq3tar uStEduel
asurol unou3qr.ie tPqA\ 2urol
u n o u . q l s Pe u e s . q l p u . r P x o q3 q 1 u l s q r . ^ . ^ $q r l q ^ \ €
sruoredrtaql
$lte8e qset)/ pq t ualeduet e ara, sr.Seuoar^uew 9
-tred
aql
ularetd
looqrslenuue
/ te.se / uedZunerU.],l5
'raqpur sLq/ooroqd
e / Dle / dn saryr ay sqleu le PooS^tqur.l 1 33rD
'pt d. aq ot
Pa^eMI Paddelt
/ pa.r{, pue^uoleq aql oluo rno.uetr tul) 3q1 €
'sreef
)nat
fra^a
a'etd
I go / rred otEl sldulto 3tt1 z
'waads stq ,nd aPzu
/
/PIP luiPts.rd.qr seruotFaraasroPrlsuouaPaq1
'sraMsue
rs.q .q1 $oo'tf z
a^eMe/.^eM or
(.psed),Golrhe
ueSolse
lsureSe!o|lP!are
lsureSe$a1ord e/lsaprd o1
uorlouoroe/apuoro o1
PereldE
lnt{otlot
plMo301
qxsdseqe(F^3or
Aull3qte8et.qplor
arerqu. ue/.)eiqui or
qla qsepol
deF 01
Faqr 01
uotre4.lar e/ore4alar ol
u3eduer e/u8edub or
rtuou3ratre
r3uue!e
iPAoD I $arPpe or
s.lsttotd oNv sNotj vt€il]f,
4 Could
Couldalsoexpresses
possibility
in threeways.
. Ability(asth€ pan of cn) rte.ouldak!a,1l,Mlko, i1L bttthdaj:
itu
. Pemissioncooid/rrrirr.tlor r npreril
. Present/future
po$ibilityo/ t:.16e lctuldbegk\tg.
Overviewof modalverbs
Mustexpresses
necessity.
Thee arerwo typesof necessity.
. Obligation
I m q r t 4 . / r o m . r o y I f e g o tt . b ea t ' n a t Ie a t l ) l t t n o n a v .
Musr,t means'obligediot to'l not altowedto'.
rou nustn tsaoke itilerc!\/eu.oul.l4at aficl
S May
Generally,
r?ay(,ot) expresses
possibility
in two ways.
. Pemission(mainlyin first person:formaL)
Mayt\tearla \:aD
rna tnan,rri?
. Prcsentfutu€possibiLity
Therenay bea \!.nr laa!
REMEMBER!
Haveta andhavegat ta alsoexpressobltgatio..Murr often expresses 6 Might
an obugation
that comesfromthe speakerwhiLehavefo/havegorfo
. Presenvfuture
express
possibilityty. $ighttee),au latet.r'r'eli\eewhat
anobLigation
that com€sfrornsomeone
orsonrerhing
eLse.
rrrdJt9o/r.rrerr., /r'.it.i.. (= havedecided
this)
. Pemission(ratheroidjashianed)Might t atkyor Laipeal upa tifite?
I veqat ta be.r ,'i.k'.. li t.tf .hirr rl.trin]
(= my bossdecided
this, hav€aneartynreeting,
ek.)
Theldeathatsomething
isnot necessary
isexpressed
bydor'rhayefo.
REMEMgER!
f.ti dan t hafeta bLr!. ti.i.t;ll.i., tl.ti t tatila
. Thediffer€nt
degrees
of probabiliry
expressed
bymodatverbs
can
besrmmaised
tikethis.
Herelnustrneansiromthe evidence
tam surethisistru;'.
H es r a i e h t | | . r i t gh i sp h o n e] l e m u t b e h a n i c e t i n g .
lf we wantto saysomethingis logicaltyimpossible,
we usecar't.
Sur.lyh..anl be 6a,heariy iaaksabautla!
2 Shouldlshouldn't
Shorld;susedfor obligations
that arenot strong it is not
necessaryto
do someihingbut it is'a goodidea'orrightthing.
v.u dtould beiti be.lbyna,r (= this isthe dChtrhinC)
| 4outd'ir
r , l - r r l o t d g o o dr d e d )
".
REMEMBER!
. srouldcan
befoLtowed
bya conrinuous
form.
. r h ( r1 / n . I e L . . . , 1 n- ,
. Ougrrtuhasthe
samemeariigassrorld.
(-1orl
far auEhr ta be in betl by h.t/'.
3 Can
Canexpresses
possibilityin threeways.
. Ab'lity
5hpcanipp.kflaent tjetn.n (= sheis abtetospeakcerman)
Bearle fo alsoexpresses
ability.
r-ne'3ableior,realflrer,r (ier"rr
Whenthe sentence
needsan infinitive(e.g.afterwarf or aftef
anothermodalverb),usebeableta, not can.
lvanttab4 ableto ling Liketrel
CabI iktetnrT fot a h.nlerti (= is it possibLe
ro irteriupt?)
tt 5vetulat ir nlitn1.t,brt itcak bet.ezirl i1||ijt€t.
Noticethatca, is not usedro talkabourspecificpossibitities
eitherin the presentor in the future.
La.Jkni rli..t pboarl i I coukti nay I'hight Lt,ii nve
NOTr..l rrrr..Li/th.r.r lr+t,:)t1!h ..
I tcAgr.-r
i
'l Tick
sentencea orb whichis ctosestin meaningto the fhst.
1 Yo! sho!ldn'tsayanything.
a lt s notagood id€atosayanything.
b lt s forbiddento sayanything.
Youm!stn't sayanlthing.
a lsayyor're not altowedtosayaiything.
b lt s not necessaryto
sayan)4hiig.
Th'scan'tbethe rightwayl
a l'm surethatthis isntthe rightway.
b Peftapsthis isn'tthe rightway.
Youdonl haveio tetlhim.
a lt3 not necessaryto
rellhim.
b lt s prohibitedtotellhirn.
ThatmustbeTim arthe door.
a I m surethEtt Tim at the door.
b Perhaps
that'sTim at rhe door.
a lt som€times
snowsin lvarch.
b Perhaps
itwiltsnow in l4arch.
Thematchcoutdbe ponponed.
a Perhapsthe
matchwaspostponed.
b Perhapsthe
matchwiLlbepostponed.
!
D
!
tr
tr
.
tr
D
-
n
tr
D
!
n
isSeurll.qP.Bueq)
'$qroP ,$!! rot e (Inq)-.qe)
q
{BFlduo) s,eqs
,o
'qol^{ou
raq
utlPurs
)oot ol pep.dx.
.qP) e s
sea.qs sp seqrorrdru ro rolP ({nq)aluuvq
.uoBs,rpo)rrtl suoq (o8)' V e dr e ) . q l u r
rt'ruve t
| r ss , r e ) r r t lr u o q ( o t ) 'sau!,o
suazop
-))elPUe
era^ q
al.q uaaq3^.I€qr- rsol (ra8)
...rqt rq
-)ref
riq iq p,,(3qrptes,(aqr- lsot (l€4
PUee$A P €
.rruo pqsFutsrurpd Iu-3uDrp.ur (^pnd tq
8ullp^ell oBor papDaptrnq':uDrFu (fPnls)-le
Z
':uoq
u.t]1
no^
aruF
ro3
nolq
rno.{(a sal)
uaasr,ua eq I tloa re s.ssprS
'o3e
6qr
saFulur
^{.t
e
u.qrrq
-nole
u!uiqr Mest-)roa le sa$etBrnoI(3^Eat
L
'rrqre4 ut sqa^ aqr uol pallor
ro
.qr puetepou rsedlrpldorddg uEqr!,$sde;.'D q.lduol
' .qMauosrsol1o3a equ?l
/ap{{e@ 3qs'qortN or p.uaddPqr,reqaMou)il,uoPan 9
.
suollrnllsuliqr ol uolusrlP arour
PtPd. etl$nu I a eL!Hnolls3/\^-ssaurPur.r,.ar;puo \ oN 5
',(etsot utq p.)loj euooN or pilu€a
.q aulr,(up esnort3qr
lalarzqrqEu
/a ert noDpl ea v
'no^rol €ru3t$dx.
lnj.l^Pu€ @eqa^eq$nu
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'3utr uo uo[Ersaqr 01F orgsnr
Luppo)
'ped aql uo rujerl ,(uP^lPrPqse/t\araql z
t ol e eL!ruplp eM os
'p3ruEM
luoq
lPqt
I
Fuoqd
P.P!^ord
I
Isetuot splno {prs otpe{/prro, |'ra8eu.alPseaIu3ql
lepour $eo p.!o, .r.tl.sooql I
z r)trf,vudI
'{al,alqe&u ateataq- ue^peu!papoqa eqotr46noaA4
'atd!)rred
+ anpqo r/rnos! otrqfno,o $ed aql
rspd
(1 PtPno,(lnq 'Paplpoo8Plusea s!q1=)
ipq.alun laaPaqtlal a eql,uPlnoqsno^
(r!oPr,llPtPnof rnq 'Paplpoo8e seMs!$ =)
'inotua na[ a]olaqtoopaqlpapol a^eq
Plnoqsna{
'aldDlledrsed+ a p./ptroqsstplnoqsjoi!ro, rsed3q1
a^eqolrqdt oPuea^eqnnoqs
=)
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,aPPele tnoqtw\tPM?€tfi)a^oP.qulP a eqLuet ^aqt
(p3|l3ddeq
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PD,o/tq6lu/[eu '{aql
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srqrleql urerar suri.s I ,!p)3ol=)
'pauaddetl
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.siql
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ro
lo
e etl$nw'a eq (lou) 1q6w
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'r,uPtP rnq'u6ddeqol tu!qi.uos
I
rr €tqtssod
sP^ r! uaq^rpasns!aneqP,,or turollsed 3q.L'
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ut p:sn .q uer o, aJqel{rsP,l4
Puer,upt,o,
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'p.!n[u!
t^eD ol arqese^/or padeueu aq
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'uolserrorlJp3dse uo plp^llnlssarrns
no,{lertA lnoqe )flpr or p.sn de or atqe te^ pre 01pabeueN .
(uotse))orElnrFed,{ueuo rou '^roaqrut=)
'PaNe$a^ )a^eu.rl^06pueauo) ppD./A
)Ut)adsrou 's.qlllqelerauaS
uoqP tler or P.sn^luo I p,not .
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PPD st t]er lo $ed 3qI
PIN03
'u1oJlune)Pe^ o1.^ett
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sossaJdx3
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rsr@u3q/\^
lqr ol Bulpro))e suro, rsPdlu.r.rrlP €^eq $uFuros
qePoN
slePou lsed
.PUoa
aqr
'1lal
sv I
auo
fluo
s!
ar.qr
u! arnreaDFarPraql3q
I
'IEMe
suos I
uiaqljo
sarFurolq
!! ateui, e ll.us
suPUnq
paqrld-q8lqqeu f.ql 9
^q pr€aqaq-qrlqaspunos
'pll^t
aqr
ulrnre€D
- no^
stqlrE.urnofJt{]MolsleMp
l]eq ro lltrs^ers
dunlor
rte aqtutsirl.u ost rnoqP
sarl
slqe.qplno^{.lltirnrPir)slqlseqBtqsedunf
'uoostruru.
puesleurlup
puelF.rers,puoM
3qrlo auoq rl
3q'uroq8u!.q enoqu!qr!/iilP
,o
.)pu faql z
,(atDisno.q $^!l ]]oqsraqr ,o rsour.r.11
'q/uq
rl I
ooLF^o re ulr
fU^eu
re3!1 .srollol PueFleluld
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1{Untssod.uo uEqr
ou.q {p!u !qr) 9a tppoue qrlr,rsde3.qr.retduot
uaql r\otaquolleurroru!.'$or xoqaql u!qeurlue.qlqtlEN z
2 compt€te the gapswith €xtreme adjectives.
MYSTIRIES
AND ODDITIES
1 Thegroupwereso far away,altwe couldseeweresome
figuresin the fardistance.
_
2 lt wasa(n)_
momentwhenviot€ncebrokeout
betweenthe policeanathe demonstrators.
3 The crowd werc reaLly_
when the fefere€sent off
the hometeams captain.
4 We weresittingrightin the front row,so at timesthe
noiseof the groupwas
Thefilm wasso_
thai manymembeEofthe
audience
walkedout beforetheend.
Pictures
ofthe concenwereprojectedonto a
vdeo screen,
so everyonecoutdseeperfectiy.
Themarchlastedforhoursandafterthey'dbeen
walkingfor sucha longtime everyone
was_.
Theeveninggotoff to a grearstarrwith a _speech
by the prin.ipalthe whoteaudience
waslaughing.
Therewerehugequeuesatthefoodstalli,so by rhe
time we got to the frontwe wereabsolutely
.
1 0 All herguestsagreedthat Lucinda
looked
in her
EXTREME
ADIECTIVES
OTHIR
Memorisenew vocabulary
'l
l.i*CrrcF
1 Replace
the uf,derLined
phraseswithaword/phraseinthe
boxwith the samem€anins.
a naturalphenor.enonmysteious a myth
eyewitness UFO practicaljoke
Doyou beLievethat
story?lthink it's somethinswhicha
tot ofpeoplethinkistrue but actuaLlListrtue.
l d o n t t h i n ki t s s o m e t h ' nt g
h a th a o o e nnsa t u E l t y a nids
not strangein anvway.
Thatt extraora
inary.lt s reallyhardto undeBtandwhar
happened.
Wasthat a iqkqlhalrou dont tell buiwhereyouacruallv
do something
to someone.
5 she was the p€ag!_whaE\qi leppr!.
6 It looked Likea spaceshiottrcElnqlher+Laret.
NNN
when hemorisingn€w vocabutary,
5urprisingid€asand
imagesa.emoremerno.ablethan ordinaryones,so use
them to improveyourvocabulary.Readthe ideasbetow.
Which do you think is most effective?
1 Whenyou arelearningnewwordsor phrases,
fom
a su?risingmentalpicture
to helpyou.ForexampLe,
to rememberthe phraseprb licity stunt, inaqine a
megaphone
(a symbolofpublicity)jumpingacros a iver
on a motorbike(asymbolofastunt).
2 Recordnewwordsin a vocabulary
notebook.
Lookar it
rcgutarlyandmakenewsent€nces
inyour mindusingthe
3 f,1ake
ridiculous
fiymes with wordsor phEsesthat you
aretryingto lea.n.(Youmight€ventry to setthemto
Thisisyou fnst exquisitevisit,isit?
coonline andgo to a searchengine.
Typein a wordthat
you aretryingto remember
andseewharimagescome
up.Choosethemostmemorable
image,print it out and
writethe wordon the page.
Wite newwordson Post-itnotesandsrickthemto your
fridge,bedroomdoor,€tc.
Personatise
wordsthaiyouwantto remember.
Usethem
lo saysomethingaboutyouEelf.
'festyoutself.
Research
showsthat testingis an effective
way of rememberingnew
information,
andthe harderthe
test,the bettefyou wiLlremember.
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2 Completethe text with a/an,fre ornoarticle (6).
The UK's haxdest working man?
'_ hadestwo*ing Irm jn ,_ UK has decided to
take life I
little easier Jmes Mcsponm has retired
s a- only police oftce. on s_ Liny lslmd of Gighain
6- north'west ScotLuid. However.he will continue to
sere Gigha's200 inlubitants in r_ ftmber of oLher
roles, for he is also 3 onk posLmEn,,_ ambulance
man, r0_ shopkeeperand 'r_ taxi driver for
r'?- islad. ipoljce job wasnt denulrding, he told
ta-TiiDiEs. ls,people on the island are ar either 16
relaties or ,friends, so 13 crime is u*nomrl
3 Adda or tne to the sentences
below wherenecessary.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
l0
My brotherworksast€vel represeitative
in Canada.
President
of USAhasresigned!
Sahara
is largestdesertin Afdca.
Hewaslastpe6onto seevictimalive.
l'ltseeyounextweek.
Weatheris betterin southofcountry.
| livenearhospital.
He'llbeherein monring.
Canlhavetwo ticketsfor 9 p.m.film?
My dreamls to retireto tropicalistandsomewhere.
Different ways of giving emphasis
1 Intensifiers
Abetut 9, conptetety,reaA to
We usethesewordsto add€mphasis
to adjectives.
rJrf,i,.f, i{.i. ii irsil(rt?t x/ilri;ri
AbsaLutely
a.d.anpleteLyareusuallyusedonly with ungGdabte
(forexample
adj€ctives
/arfasflc,.trtl, etc.)whichaheady
describe
ai extremeorabsolutequality.
i,.11.i./ .. .. /..ci {NOT.}*r*€1J.9€€dl
lr! r,x i! ri /i.r/ D,rtlr.'r,rr.r r,,J ftrrDi.rel/iyirl.
(Nor espl€&'j€d)
far is usedfor emphasis
with too + adje.tiveot too muchlnany+
ri i.i:n r0.,rirr.li r/arlrh
We alsouse/ar with comparative
adjectives.
)/or'r .rii I r;r]d' rrrii / d ,r),|lal.rd
2 So and such
50 is usedbeforeadjecrives
to intensifythem. nr,r?,i,r rn iL{ir/l
s,c, is usedbefo€ an adjective+ noun.
It.'? rr.i!riaind, l,-'.LnrirlL?r.!xr,1
A/4, areusedafterruch.ir rtir((iJ r ii r.tirrrli)'l
Noticethat with muchlmary
r/f !. iiiLrri''nrl!q.li rrii
3 Useof auxiliaryverbs
WeoftenaddanauxiLiary
verbin theposiuv€
for emphasis.
l.r!i trllo d.eJ nr.;i.rr,.r i.rrqri.
We also use auxiliaryverbs in the positiveto emphasisea contlast.
doriN:rir, r/ri.flir;.r ijIiiI.{iori.itirnr
Adniig.eally beforethe auxitiaryalso adds emphasis.
I rc.ilv do ;rroio.l. l.r'llr!t /irif r)!,i..1.
4 Cleft sentences
Theusualwordorderfora sentence
in EnglGh
G subject+ verb+
o b j e c+t ( a n v e r b ipahl l a s e1) .i ; r . - J o ,rrp r r . i l l N n i . i l l i , i ) , i , i i . i r i r
However,if we wantto emphasisethatwe
likehGsenseof
humour(rnorethananlthingelseabouthim),we canusea cLeft
sertencethatbeginswjth a wharclauseandtheverbbe.
ll tr r Jti,!enturr arbo,iijo') isr:.r , r.I t. .,'ltrr., r.
Similarty,
if we wantto emphasise
a pafticutarperson(morethan
anyoneels€J,
we usea cteftsentence
withir+re + n o.
l.iir N1N
rtriidr.i 1'lcj:,r/lrr, ri!rit 5nltsrr wfoJr.rJr nrst ofirii
Ita pronounis used,the objectpronounis moreusualthanthe
subjectpronoun,
rhoughsomeconsider
thG incorrect
riirJ,i,! | r.i.'r,rd',.
5 Emphatic questions
nfomaLly,we canusethephraseo, ea.t,?aftera wr- question
wordto emphasise
surp.is€,annoyance,
or the fact that we do not
knowthe answertoa questioi.
j , fi r ' r .o v p 1 , f . / r r d i l l i ! r D d c d n ! a r l l r r r i ! , r r r ! b r . t r r l
I PRACTICE2
l
Choosethe corect word5.
1
2
3
4
5
6
Thatry programme
wasabsolutely/ conpleteIy / so funny.
Believe-rle,| rea(y / did | ,ave try to phoneyou.
That/ What/ WhichI likedaboutrhe film wasthe acting
He|ft|What smy sanwhobtheexperton computers.
Whatat I in / on eadhdo you meanby askingme that?
joumeythat we
lI wasso I su.h / veryan uncomfortabLe
couldntsteepat atl.
7 Your new girlfriend k .ornpletely I really I absolutely nice.
I lt s lat / tu / su.h r,]'orcdifficultthanyo! thinkto gei a
goodjob thesedays.
9 That new exhibition is yery | such/ absolutely )nctedi6le.
10 Ldolsoltarbelieveyou.Youdon't havetorcpeatyouuetl
2 CompLetetheconversation,
addingemphasis
to B'sreplies.
B: f.4etoo. What Like_
is livingoutdoors.
Yes,it's _too
expensive
for us.
Why didyou buythat painting?
Yo!te not interestedin what l'm saying.
B : l_
wantto knowabouiyourday,blt Ine€dio wo*.
lhate waitingfor buses.
B:
6 A: Jorgethrewa rock.t Pedroroday
B: What
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a)el tas ra8 rno,(ptoi{ atEur uEstPur Y
su^uoDe
O]'IION
laasue €ntssod auo ulqr 3lolu .q ,(pu aj€'.tr '€ tlor} unou
puevuorlqli^e qr!^ aot.q sa)uaru€saqr .r.Fuol z
DNIIL]9
Thev€rbark is mostcommonlyus€dto reportquestions,
but
wondet andwant to know ate sometim€sused,too. Question
wordsareusedasconjunctionsto
iniroducereportedquestions.
ilr.rr.1|.c ii/Led(1,-,r.1
'rrlrrc ri: /ridbe.rn.
il,q sBn&dro iror4 r./,it' tinteti iat!;raied h.nt!
Withyeilro questions
t or whet e/ areused.
,r r ^4 rdricd if v/!{Jfter)n | \tart.!l .t c.t ( n\1Nnp :tn4il
Reportingpeople'sexactwords
l Changeoftense
Whenwereportwhatsomeone
said,theve|bfoms generally
moveonetenseintoth€past,
/lfinn/c tlriii llrri I drrr.lotr0;: ti!ht \ljeitd.'lwill.at1ln.tc
5r-" J.id . hdJi.nd./r/'a, L/irir/i{i rv doing wasrirrt, ird lnat
Pa'impre( dd)
..P
:*l',llpll ry",t
Presentcontinuous(/ rn doing
Past contiauous(t w8 doind
-::4,
?ese.r perfectl/hrvedore)
Pa$ perfectf/haddom)
) :
,....:::::i.::::.:::::.:::.::.1::.:.:::.::::1.i...::::.:.--t:::.::.-,,,:.I:..::,:
, Pasrpedectfrrr,addo,e)
Pastco.t'lLoJs l/wasdolrg)
Pastpedectco.tinuous
,
:
:
4 Otherchanges
in reportedspeech
,
)
i............................
..
: (!h .d.!.":.!.d:!!9...
............
..........:
. :.ll:h"8"e9::jl!:......
i...13:l.eif-i.t-(1ridd9t"l
. isgoingta
, musl
, ro chaneeposslble
:
, wautd
.'
In both cases,thatcan be omitted.
!
Pasts mplef/did)
pe{ecl .on -inuous
. Pasr
( th a db e e nd o i n s )
'
will
REMEMBER!
say does not take a direct object,but fell atwaysdoes.
ii. ra irri?il/l:ll l. ',!r! ib.!i riir.. (r.,ii.
NOT/i.i€sfr. /LtilJ,r. d !e rer rrirr.t-".t/!.ii.
tt.: tnld)ne ltl at)tc ttn( irt!".r!d,r Ni!. ! i:i..i,.
.....
vasooirgrc
. Whenw€ reportwhatsomeonesaid,we needto showany
chang€s
inthesituation(e.9.a changein speakertimeor place)
ydo rl.af lir.r,:arlaiel., t..rar.
Diredspeech:/ r1/i.rlp
Reported
speech
the nextday:
' ' 'lyD,) r.l!t,'nF.
yrr\da./
. Herearesometyp'calchanges
of time phGs€sin repo.ted
speech.
Noticethatth€ydo not happenautomaticallyit
depends
on the situation.
hadta
ThePastcontinuous
fiequentlydoesnotchangein reportedspeech.
REMEMBER!
. Thechange
oftenseoftenhappens
because
wharthepe6onsald
rij riir./rrrrrJn ir.,tr?rld i,rd !t r,l,o.,ir/.,lrr i.r! irf'tJ!rf.Jr,'!1.
' f whatthe pe6or saysisstitltruereteva.tnow we oftendon't
change
tenses.l li te i.rel?/rru D.fr..l.
ir,rt;.irjn,.1lb.iir..
(= the rieetingisstitlin the future)
' t is po$ibleto change
but it is oftendoneln
tensesin suchcases,
moe formalconte*ls.
'irrn;,/!a!rr"a,rarrtrJ frJLl..pl'ttnrity
ixe nt.ri.t 3at'i
he , tiri:t.tr :.ii th.! L.i 4.t| .dtc.wt Na3a hr,i.ti. .t,r.:tt rrii'i
(probably
in a fewspaperoronthe news)
. lf the reponingvedis ir the prcsentt€nse,there
is no change.
I.ltnr)sityttrnnitthr ilu ".] t.httlii
2 Reported qu€stions
Because
reportedquestions
areiot €aLquestions,
the wordorder
isthe sameasin statements.
Wi{lytr tiriiBta ii(tiL iirtst:r.c! ilaj,arrrtnit ):i€'J
rre i'rr'n;t; rt ;J(.r/ il rDrjylvorl<l:.tt i nt nt fi,lht tt . ..!..
3 Some common reportingverbs and the constructions
used after them
. say:/l(:Jfnrlt,ir, /".,r ei.iriig ,s r,!r t.t)
. t€t[ rlfi././rre irnd) nii f/.j.rt1],irn r,rrcf/Jil
. . . . " -1 . . 1 .
. .
. . J
. reply:tlrc /ql]lr,trlrlrr rr, rt.n a. t.t .tir .i n titrirl(l
, add.:hr atit'lln1at ifr. tu^ii.{ti il,ilil14 !r/r/r.r.rri.
'...:::. ..........
that day/Iastruesday,et .
the daybefare/thepreviousday
the ne\t day/thefouowing day
theyear beforclthe prcviousyeal
the nonth beforelthefoUawingnonth
I anhaurbefatelan
houtearter
. Howeverwe oftenomit the time reference
if it is not important.
ly..tr airh!! tr x:la4th,. t,'l).. itrktvcrir!
'I
l tc.nn. ) 1..t :^ii ihzt r:htt\|.rc '.nI'rk)h r:p.n lltu NertieL
I PRACTICE1
1 Corect the underlinedmistakes.
I ThejournaList
lqkl the primeminister!tL!sk!e!! anything
2 rhe ministersaldjournalists
tas!yearhe!sil!resignif his
poticyi5 notsuccessful,
but he is stitlin hisjob.
3 Ihe manager
tqkl that histeamhaddonethen bestye$r4by
but jl the othersidehadsimptyptayedbetter.
4 Journalists
4kEl the ministerwhenwillhe makehisdecision.
5 rhe president
saidhej5 speaking
to otherleadeutater!h!!
dayto discuss
how they wtillreact.
l
(^uap)aroJ.qi?€rreu rno ! suorqordou peq3/14I
(asnl., uorrp8[sa^ur
eql uoqp )]e1r,!oa.r
9
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(asturord)flLtFnororfisou]].epur aq1!1e3r$.^urL./r t
(isrSotode]
)..Mraqlo.qr^eae F):r1 aqraorttl | ^rrosuit €
(1s.ffins)zo.pt^p qr1eMpueui rttru Frnb e a^eqaMleqs z
: i , r i
i !
i i ti , i r l
( p u ! u a , a ^ o l ' . . € t da l p te u t F ) r t 1 a q 1 $ do l r e q u a u r a t L
'slqrerq u! sqr.^ BuEodar .ql BuFnu€qr €l!r^\au
PtPs
a^eqxqtrurr9o$ .q1 ! | sr.rrueq, eqlsalonb auos €r€.raH
. . i r ri r i r , r r
.
,.. , r:
,, i r r i .
I l|
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,
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PUesPu .3 3^DP3aN
iu3aw:Wtt
lue^'putaal raPta rye ttai este)
i : i , lr r , , r i , r , t : r t l u /
e^!l!u!ru!+ pafqo + qra^ I
'aat6e:one)
luateang esladd tallo pueuap'appap
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-0.
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'aurEj prolq?l
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per{
(i)lEtu)
d panFp la^aaoq'sprrsJo para$ns
-*
Iaql ssa.qs
ar{} ra^o iu?ftuor al]l (ans)
Flmu
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-rL
sadoq l13ql Susl"l xq lsa^rr.'raU$mJ/11oi3Mc)
pasnit€ qll8ue eldno? .qJ s3ll'r laql (.rlrolloJox a^?q
'tuar4uodd"slp r{rnlu os
,{aqt)
1nq
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pesfolodE l?tJl.]]olopu€l)
erdnoJ a'! (asruJ)
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-iL
palurr sstu€duioJr1J l!le^3s
Fldnor arll)
r|{3!4ra1u]?r6npxa L'?roJ urnlar u Flor{ r€ls-.^u ! ur
-,,
paraJJoprorqet € ral"rpauur!
dn s$ql aql (]nd)
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p.ropro nlx rsnomd (lno.{€E
Au+r)
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rsnu sra{Ji] rsol l"rtl p3le}s qrnj.d s.Itu aw ($arq
t{eq}s1loJ)
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'raFl qaaa xis Buu3dd?LLse{ ]€qa Foq? sDd€ds43u
-s
pauea pu? isnor{
1,\€ (uror,r,nou/ardno? aw)
rsqt ol suer ro1€311s3^ur
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r€qa rEld:a pue lopuDc -!
pap?n .d I?x
(qrnor Lala8/prrEqsnuJ3q)
]3IIr€a s{3a^! p€^as {ee? sra{ct] .r{1 (aoq})
-,
p.tTurp? uaql Ju4s luaa u-{!"lt.i
aqumu mo
sr,laqJ iuo.r aiLa/A,paueal's pw dn padunfiql
I' 68 r?, Zr €-j ar!6 s€qunu 3qJ dn tr€au sEA
uq?p ot rplq,!\ ui poll.d qruou-F,s .qt .snEJaq il\rlnb
{Jq.I
r d J d c r d r . d q p r ql d q , G L o r " L ,( u N )
'1?rt1
paur?N
pr.'?
rauu$
aq!
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puorl?N ump C)ltrEJ)
z puettus tsea qlou Io
"
?arE4ar]11n
auoauros
1",r{1pi?s u1aIIIrq s{3u ^J.rlJ,
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-,
paFatnrs uxli"t l
aoN lsrg s4.u aqt (q]1?d)
pueqsnq€q lnq 'o3pr € qrl?r ot pallrBe lsnt aqs
'8wa^a auo
rauolt
to8 lloJ .{qI uartr\\
rya\ uo{ palu
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'sqr. .qllo urro,lr.xor .q1tuFn tuo$.'{r.ratduo) L
z t)tr)vud I
:at Jal
a^lltutJu!+ qr€A 9
luo auaauotaPnpJbuo. tol auoauosaaetq:are)
punre8 + uolltsod€rd + palqo + qra^ 5
li r'.,,,
.asp)
lai traho uo)slsu!hJ as!6otode
:ssalror
r . i r r , \ r :f, i l j r : i l : i L l r n.r. , ,r i : : ,
Purua8+ uo[lsod€.rd + qro^ t
l7u.wwoeJ tsa66ns[uaP :osP)
\ , r 1 r I I r ) L r i \ l i : ) r r , r f i rLrrf:)) ) . : : . ' . . v u p e
+ qrs^ €
PunraB
lapene ad a ntte'uJe^ :o+)
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(lP{r) + l)efqo + qra^ z
Q'a66n'Ies' puauaa$!' istsu!'ulelduo atep aarbe:aqe)
,f : rrrr,f r Irl.\lr:|ri(lrrrri.ir:r:rledx.
lP$ + qra^ !
'1ue]]odur
sl ur41€d.uo ueql
lsour.ql Jo.uos are.r. H alqlssod
eq ol a^PqpuP^re^
.roLU'rqra^aurosqltl ^lar€red.sPoureat
sqra^ar.qlMolloJ1erjlsuralPdaql Proaao^aSuFod.r lnoqla
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{es aldoadteqr* esg.reuruns
+eql sqra1
I r ,r t : | r r : '
ii:,,.,:,r i:,rir!rrril:rirrirr
L i,r\ irtr!!,r\
i r , r .l , i f r ! . j \ . i , , , I r , i r , r L : , Ii r . ) | r : . i i
'ppepuerye
el AetBulsnplesuosr.d q)eareqM!od.!
q
' l t n e t l u r o us r s s a us l q l B u r u S t s a rt o r u a r u l o u . ^ e qI I
Jo
z u 8 s a0r 1 8 uo ; n o f a r v 9
'ao€fauoF
pr
p.ldopE$nfa^Eqa,\ s
stoueu
FH'pltqr
r11rno
'IauourSu|ssrur
aqrlnoq€Mou) no^ plc t
erarsturu
zsnro uoql firuno) arttuni 01lsnl1no{op oqM's)tol €
'a^3|aqol preqalrnbreql
Pu$I a^.lt.q olPreq alrnDreqrPuttlllasrapParrnolo lsoN z
' p l l o s l r o rs a 8 e r r e u r n o
'p.ro^rptu .3.re aa teqr snounr aql ol qln4ou sraraq.L
!
lue!r!1!lode ro ^r!q.l.r
e 'Flteurnolp :ao|€qsaiualussaql plpslurqr nor(op oqf pz
to por.ray (men/wonen, etc.)
way
in a negauve/positive
to controlwhat p€opt€think
whydon tyou go andtalk to her?
terms,
B : l c a n t , W e ' r en o t o n _
Shesaidthatyou we.ehavingsomeproblems.
B: Shedoesn'tknowwhatshes 6 A: lr€ailyhatepartieswhe.eldon't knowanyone.
B : l . 4 et o o . l h a t em a k i n g s m a-t.l
3 Matchtheverbsin the box for lummarisingwhat p€opte
sayto Phrases1-€.
admit warn deny recommend
agree apologiseoffer accuse
VERBS
THATSUMMARISE
WHATPEOPLI
SAY
actionsspeaklouderthanwords
1
2
I
4
5
6
7
8
youtell a fri€ndthat theyshoutdtry a goodnewrestaurant
you sayihai yourclassmate
brokethe computer,not you
yoL tellsomeoneto be care_ur
be(ause-hefood s sP'cy
you teltyourteach€rthat you didn'tdo your homework
you s6ysorryfor something
that you did
you saythatsomeone
is rightandyou thinkthesame
you tell yourfriendyou will hetpthem movehouse
you saythatyoudidn'tbreakyourfriend'spen
Effective revisiontechniques
to knowwhatyou aretalkinS
list of
1 How do you .evisefor an Engtishexam?.Makea
to speakhiShlyof someone
2 Lookatthelist of revisiontechniquesbetow.Tickthe
onesyou find effective.Crossthe onesyou don't think
authority
to undemineParental
.
.
I PRACTICE
1 What connectsthe wordsin eachgfoupbelow?Whatare
the differe.cesbetweenthe words?
1 dramase es soapopera talentshow
; r , r1 , , : r r i r i i l r . i i rI r , i r N r . , i
2 brcadsheettabloid
3 circuLationreadeBhip
a microbtoggingsocialmedia
s a foreigncotrespondentan editor
2 CompLete
the conversations.
this weekend.
1 A: I'm SoingtocteanaLlthewindows
B: Adions _than
words.
2 A: I reallylikeher.she'sverysmart.
B: She
3 A. ldon'iwantto offendanyone,so lshouldkeepquiet
8: No-eo on.
volr mind.
andwod lisisin the
Readihe grammarsummaries
.
Study& Practice
sections.
Studyin shortpeiodsofabout 20 30minutes.Most
tr
peoplecantconceni€tefor muchlongerthanlhat.
Carryyourvocabulary
bookwith you andcheckit
o
regularly(e.9.whentravellinson a but.
youBetireadingout wordsor grammar
Record
n
frcm the book.
examples
!
Studywitha friendandtesieachother.
Lookat similarexampapersfromlhe pastandtry io
n
completethem in the altowedtime.
whiLeK€epyourselfengagedwiihnewtechnlques
Forexample,
switchfromstudyingthegrammar
sayingn€wwords. tr
summaries
to rccordingyouu€lf
l'4akea revisionplansothatyouknowwhatyouare
Revise
d lrflle andoftenra'.errhar lor LorSsession!.
stoptryingto leamnew
Asyour€xamcomesnearer,
the ihingsyouhave
thingsandfocuson consolidating
tr
n
I
.
shows
Don'i alwaysstudyinthesameplace.Research
that studyingina varietyofplacesis morceffective. .
Whichtechnique5do you intendto usein the future?
'rtztul!
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Ie
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/
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Pl,oM
uL,rrralEP.snualo
ureu 3q1ut 3^oqesesarualuaslEuoqrPuor
srlsedlFrun oql
lear!n,sLllPaller$uD.uros sl slql
::i,ji!o iri;ft.rir d1d(trri+rr.r5un r,ll - L Jtrr:11irl!rJ r1
"Fed
,i,r.r,
r i r . l 1 , r |t l r i t t ' r : r ) t r ^ t r r . - i , r r 1 1 l r
i
r
,
i
.
r
t
l
'lsedaqrorut3sLral
auo)req oB3a 'arn$y ssord
trleutSeul.]ote.llaqlodlqrnoqe3uflPr@q,r
aql ! | s!o9pn1ts
suoltPn]ls
letlrsqrod{Hr
/l qr!,,r'\
u! sqra^aqr p !!ro, 1r.!o) .Llr qrla s€ruau.s .qr .l€ldluof, L
luassrdaql u! suollenllslerlleqlodrh
I
t ll|lf,vud
4 l €te fartoo muchlunch6ndl feelrealtysick.
5 | failedmy examsbecause
I didn'tdo anywork.
6 | wentcountrydancingandbrokemy legl
Hypotheticalsituationsin the past
. when w€ talk hypothetjcatly
aboutthe pastwith /, y'ort and
/ w5h,the Pastsimplebecomes
the Pastperfect.
IJarl! / t ||ishthad thoughtabatt i n1at..arefulltl
( = b u tl d i d n ' t )
tfto!'d lold tnerb.utthe ptobleneailiet,twautdhave.tan€
sancthntg.haut ir (= butyou didn'ttell me aboutit)
. In conditionalsentenc€s,
if the mainclauseabo refeutothe
past,lvorldhave+ pastparticipleis used.
lf .u.b-"n pla!-4hadntgotinjtE.l u,ewouldhavewar
REMEMBER!
Aswith presenthypotheticalsiruatla$, night haveandcoutdhave
areoftenusedinsteadofworldrave.
ti h. hatlnt beehiijltel v tnight/.ouldhaver.i.
. Noticethat in th€ sentences
above,boththe rtctauseand
to havea
the mainclauseref€rto the past.lt is alsopossibte
sentenc€
wherethe y'clauserefe6to the pastandthe main
]f weli setoff eatli€r lpast),r/e dbe,t t/reloiel iDr (preseni)
Altenativety,th€y'claus€may refertothe present,andth€
mainclalseto the past.
he'vou/d,'t ,avegot
I Dans fat:tre.wasnt ttlebars(present),
Matchsentencebeginnings1-10 with sentenceendingsa-j.
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Wewouldn'tbe late
lgorwouldhavebeenembaiiassed
if
Youcouldhavefinishedyourdissertation
by now
LfPeterhadwo*ed hardec
Lfyoud cometo the play,
lfyou d askedClara,
lf you hadn'tbeenweariig a seatbelt,
lf Kevinhadspentmoretime plactising,
5tevemighthavegot prcmoted
a ifyou werent so Lazyl
b if suehadnt takenso muchtime gettingrcady.
he couldhavecaughtthe train.
d he'dheardyou saythat.
if he weremoretatented.
f you mighthaveenjoyedyourseLf.
t he couldbein a muchbetterjobnow
you woutdhavehurt yourself.
i l'm suresh€wouldhavehetpedyou.
j hecolrldhavebecom€a professional
pianist.
4 choosethe correctanswers.
I wishwe d bought / would l,ave6or9lrt betier tickets. I
cant seevery welt from here.
Howwoutdyou havefelt if soneonehadtreatedI would
I PRACTICE2
l Completeth€ sentence5
with the corect fom of the verbsin
1 lfyou
(ietl)meyouwantedone,| -
(buylyou
(brjndyou a presentbackfrcm my holidaysif I
(have)some
moneyLeft.
(get)to the restaurant
if I
3 We
beforeit closed,
(not follow)to yourdirections.
(have)a job
4 lf he _(notfail)alL
hisexams,he -
tl I had known I known you werecoming I woutd havernet
4 ll only I wouldn't havelost | ,adrot lort my iemperl
5 ll you stay I had stayed till the end of the film, you might
z |
s He {neverdo)anythingsostupid,if hisfriends
(not encourage)
him.
_
(know)you we€ coming|
(wait)foryou.
6 lf I (take)aphotoofwhat happened,
perhapsyou
7 lf I _
(believe)me?
(noibe)
(listen)towhat ltoldyou, you
8 lfyou in thls situationnowl
2 Thinkof two wishesthat the speakersbetowmight make.Use
/ wisrltorly to start the lentences.
1 l'velostmy job and I can'taffordto paythe rent.
t \ x i s thh a d ni 1 a l rt n r j . b .
lfDnlylha.tpnoughntoneyt.paythercnt
2 f,1yfamiLyhav€movedtoihe countryandlcanl drive,so I'm
3 l'velostmy phoneandI haven'twlitten rny friends'numbers
ll cattiona done I had done hetter in the interview she
coutdhavegot th€job.
\NewouldhavebeenI wouldbethereby now if we hadi't
got stuckin the t6ffic.
our tast hotidaywould re / wo uld havebeen gteat if the
weatherhadbeenbetter.
lf I had seenyou walkingalong the toad I night havegiven /
1 0 Now HenrywGhes
he w€rr / radgore to universjty.
N\.\N
'rs!tproa.ql u!sr.Msue
.rno,(
lraq) q
aruaruas ^8iaua a,rll ra^\od
quoq fruEpadxe ure.$o arnssardralpd
prpn8 srrtstts uoldru€ t€nl teluaqr sset8
'q.a/\^ ,\ a, lx.u lqr u! u€ql €slrterd
pue'8utp!.r lno{a ordu!ol op sp) nolieqr sButql
oar ssooq) 2op no{t.uop/op tsl.qr u!€utql qrtq/r\
'rxa1aql
3^eqno^l6{P pear
tr
Paqsluu
a^€qnoffq/{jogurod uleu e$€sueuuns pue
'u.1
.pq^
aq' to SurPu€FraPUn
]PFU.8e 133or ^r1
'ual oqrSutpueFaPunolluP]lodu!^'3^ oqoi
tr
uraasrcrnrorl|q' ssalun'sproauaoqun arouSl
',!alalduor
!
puPrsFpun
SurPeelordaa)ipue
r.uplpno,(saserqd
^ oull,uop no,(proMPpuu no^ iu$ /t'a€ dols
'P.qslu!a
,no^
!
ltlun anulluorpuerX31PpParo13u1qe ll€srno^Fs
'pp3rnof se
llasrno^olsproaaql^Ps
U
S u r p e a r anr eo , ( s e p e a q r n o { u t p r o M q ) e . . r e t s u P r l
!
'sr.dedhau
tButqrlue srap$r p.pert
n
$itsq.M - qstSul utuer no,(sEqrnu sPPe.!
'uMop1!Mols
llla reql $tro
.qr rno ssorl {rualrlrFlpaads3uP€3rrnor(.^odt!l
IIA)utqr noI lPqt aol.q 5e3P!oql)p[ arnulu e sPo^{
ooz-o5Lrnoqps!pe.dsBulpearpooSv'{tlu.PHa Pear
ot ruerrodu! s,r!'qslttul ut )roa ro {pnrs or 1ueanortt !
xq 8u!,qtu8eu,
rtxol rtue)lo ssoJ llss l3ad purM
urar-8uol arP^ld tslu aln €Ir re€Pn! rPlos
' € x o qu ! P l o M ep u ev x o q u l P r o a
e Sulsnsunoupunoduor urol ui'{l rs!] P.roM.qrF^o:) PL
1f rt)vud
I
ltHLo
.J[.re^!rd ]no^
.lI le.r ul
InrlIP.r l.leu 01
.sP.sP3u|u.rParql-al|l
e
loirel.{ e
PreiS.l[ e
(rF'uoDquEbtous)suoPltle
Du€ru.s.lI e
.tll3]ll
&uet .drc 4t
aulr.t! elo.rueqrrql
url Hrlll\ slsvlHd
poadsAu!peorJno^ tu!^oJdiul
]DNVHI ONVStSSllOld lSll)SlO OrSSll
prenBs]!le I
la)pelajl e
orarnqllor o1
Pquor o1 t
dund 01 €
rrattsr o1
{&suaiPtos
ry)tua|])rlxol
FAod put/rt
FnllFsol Z
uorldnrartue)lo^e quroqreal)nue
qenbqrreaue .l!lsprorarse ue L
'sr€asuerno^ rol suosP€r
dnor; qrp. u!rno 5uo ppo aql oultr€punZ
$qSSu tru8eue
sFnllLssoi
.lenbqrr@us
.3ueq, a1Eulll
aqoonaPr s
.)f1sP@a1seu?
slsstfold
oNv ])N!Ds
Useof gerundsand infinitives
1Ge.und5
crammaticaLty,
gerunds(the-lng formof the velb)areusedii the
sameway asnou'rs/Proiouis.
(SeeUnlt 2,study2 for a comparison
betweenihe useofgerunds
. Asthesubj€ctorobjectofthe sentence.
Iaa rf;!trhiinhathitl! i\ ba'1f.t ,/outskij
she: vet! qaal atoraanisingthinqs
l]?..r.d wirlo,l t,\dkr9.
. Certainvelbsarefoltowedbythegerund.These
include:
a.Jrrir..!.'rJi,rd. .orside/:di.y, enj.)!,h3te,int.9ine,!ikc,
ttstke tbre (da)ii)ni1tt. rtrs, p/a.r^e,rJl nrqg-"rr
. ThereareaLso
somenounphras€s
whichtakea gerund,for
exanptethavedifficuLE,havetrcublet\/t te havinqtroublercatukinane||\tafj
. Therearealsoa numberofusefulpatiems
wiih /r+ gerund.
/tr woifhreeDgth.qartehj n' J!, ret
it sro,rd inltD! roie. i/r! doil'r.lange ter.ntrC.
Thefollowingnounsarefoltowedby the infinitivewith io: cr.rce,
decisian,effon, apportunity, ti ne.
iietle5t{irinceloy/rtlre!?aDe.. !t)&eie.or.lrdlt
ile\, €.itnr.d. ar ettori to nr{e rrl'ee1Jlro,re
Sonething / nowherc, etc. + infinitive
We oftenuseth€infinitivewith fo aft$words ljkenoore,rorhdg,
nowhere,something,sanewhete,what, where, etc.
fhetet.s northereto buy a n.!4p.perrt !/,;ritne d,lght
rr.rl.))/aa!;k. ro@ethinrttoeatbetarcyauQal
We usean infinitivewithtoto explainwhy someonedoes
something-to €xpress
purPose.
/tr,eler
i gore,rl fo ,'uyr ,.wJpaper
ln moreformalEnglish,
we can usein otdetto.
Ir\e5 h.!. bee,nrreasediro/derfu red!.! irflitiof
REMEMBERI
W€iormthenegative
i.finitive
wlth,of + ro+ v,orb
I toldyaunot to dothat.
3 Infinitives without to
ifin itiveswithout io areused:
REMEMBER:
Notlceihenegatve
formofthegerund.
lwanttoachieve
inmottalibJ
thrcugh
natdying.
2 Infinitiveswith to
Iniinitivesarenotgenerallyusedasth€ subjectofsent€nces.
They
aremostcommont usedin the foltowingconstructions.
C€rtainverbsae fotlowedbythe infinitivewith to. Themost
impottant in llde: affont, aqrce,decide,expect,hope,manage,
offeL plan, pretend,pronise, rcfuse,seem,tentl, thrcaten,want.
u.tt )trt,d,..an,e ,t
.da
d
:
".
5l1erefrss,tf,, arswef ary guerrDNrjboLill-!r erqa.le4ert.
r.an't wairIor fhe!r..t-{d
\'.ri nusthavebeenwalting{ot a lan! tine
. attet hadbetter andwauld GtheL
\{. drertergo /ro e rovl
r'di" al,erwdtcr.i r(/?o !l;j.t. ro tijecnt.tna
. aftetlet, nakeaft help.
she,the krd nfpe&h Nhr reailj"na/<eiyocli.,g1,
'jthtnlv.i a tee.aqer,hy par-.rtJ,A'er{etDre5f./ortlarc.
i:anyorhelptflecattyihe:tir.nJesto f,. crrl'
(* Theinfinitivewith ro is alsopossible
here.)
I PRACTICE1
l Are the verbsandphrasesin the box fottowedby the gerund,
lvlanyadjectives
arefollowedby an infinltivewith fo.
/r! earvtss.e !r!'r/,. sr)€-"rjo J!r.ei3|!1.
ri. u/alr'ref,rsftos,iqqesranewapptat.h.
Thrcecommonconstrucljions
with adjective+ infinitivewiihfo
. toa + adje.live + infinitive
t
r r o " , r c " i c r , . e d l a r P i t r JL
"
. ,of + adjective+ eroug, + infinitive
trlnfi.isr'f oki $rzr9l to croorr on/rs o!,
. adjective+/or + pe6on+ infinitive
i r'seijr/torpeop{er$.:ri'ti.,/dmdrctr .re I th. intp.n.l
the infinitiveorthe infinitiv€wlthout fo?
offer enjoy too lazy practise wouldrather
havetrouble wouldbetter refuse oldenoueh
suggest miss Let don'tmind goodat seem
it s wodh agree pretend
. infinitivewitho!t ro
'^ppqrrtqu.u {u uo ua^t83qo18u!D.dx.ur,l I
ftpar l,ua^eqI uaqa .' .^eq ol puaFrdI sautlauros I
aou lqB! " aq 01.)t ^Iesr p,l 9
_
'aou
u8u !s|;ul tudPnrsueql aqreqrerp,l I
' or
aruoI t
rnoqq;rau^u
or
lou
)tP
Peq
o1.)ll
raSunofseM uaq^ ' 01,\or{paureala^pq
E
P,l
_
Lz
PtorSutaq.1eq
.. lupM1snf Bururour
aql utdn qer\ luaq/.. ,
t
'no{ro} an4 ueqr Dieu ol s.ruaru.s a^!l.ralduol
snouetjo sa^I .le^trd .ql ut a.raretuJ
Zatdoed
tou t u.t4u! or rouatltrt noqt erP3u3t11
)u!qr no{ oc 9
'uaasagorl aaso*.retd aqls,lt .r.ql o3 soliuq.l.r lo
speot's,orPad
uesre PooBf|elnrlred l,usrPoorsqr qBnoqrlv 5
'a\a ua
Pseeq a^eqor I p3se!,a eqors:u Lots,rl
adoqs,ra'taposlda1sel.ql u aasa^eq01/ ue.t dulaqrEll P,t t
EruadrP)e sPPerJoAere{ot| 6uDpo agorese$al ou
Mal3ql lo.uo .raag. sqor / 3qor5lqSnoqlsl prol uoslreH €
'^etdaql Suunp
sarnprdqet / qetor,lou 5np3)s€lueuerunouu€lql z
iua!] pqse 6ulaq / 5u!1P. dols atdoaduaqa slPrlrron a e{
or / trolr.r ot, aurtl aq1'la.rls lLlr ut qderSorn€rr.qr rol parse
^lqPqords,ll qSnoqlv !
aq or
ol setuqaFrro} 8ut,(ouue
/
{se
'surcl qr.^ D.xor €q1€sooq) L
Zijri5tud_l
' u $ ] s n o n u r u o )a q l u t p a s np u s l P u n r a S . q I
iLr!r.!o.i oer/ri/rFrir! !o 6uj4 oq ,r./1.Jp,r
rorrFt 6oF?t[itq o] nri.rraf r!;ri tql
'suoqrn4suora^luuul
ur rnonur o) ruas.rdaql pParturs.^4luuulsnonuFuorasnal
lo
sulroj snonulluof, t
drqr raasfry Brli.qo;u
/
u;r.'I fsiriirnq I r.u/a,r 'p3plo^eu4ro
oslesipunr.SD3]rad3ql
srpueteuror ,(ra^spunosrnq'atqlssod
1/itrr.(, rr^4ou,onevraqr,p/tDrii
'or 1noqrlaurot a^olulJU!rrafadalli)rloN
enE{oF ln r. i
artDt)t tpLtltq rdatrl ut t9rl / itr,,&Ju.8 pa45.,^
oi alll ,,r
adrrrrr-!r !,/ Jl{o ;alod iJrer\
'ssnepurPuraqllroJ3q.u|le oleal .sneir a^4ruuul
.rlrueqM (aldlltied lspd + r/eq o, .^trtullurpsrrsd 3q1asn3/rA
suro, p.rr.d E
(punre8.^Fsed).p.l r[r41Platbor.,i r.]!il !'/5
(o1lnoqll/,\a^fluuu!e^ssed)rlrrcu/u rltsqr.!r.!iP-/P.H
(or qla .^rirulruta^tssed)n,ol. V.l tq oi nrlni Di,'i
'ul]oj a^Lss€d
puesa^4rutlul
aqr ur pasnaq uer spuruoB
surro}.^!ssPdz
$,,rijr ?fli.?tno,qr /'irFi.r.ir,! nraurt or ld!4 i
'xrfr .f oiro!jor(pi.l
i
'ur.roJ.^rleBeuoql utposn aq uer sPuiFS puPse^|llullul
slulo, a^rP8sN !
su.ro1pun.retpueerlllu!,ul tuoJa#lo
P!a)Fe'\ trti Suttioqt.tj albtttlcld tt,t
16^^suEUn'
e.+M PuesuolFanDrqllo uar asooq) q
?le3u deeqr
'poo; e r.B ol ssnoqrno{rFu araqMluearaqrsl tl
;qsli8ul utsaou3qr puP$FPunor nofiot fsear sl E!
osntarnofoc zL
Bul^13
ZeeB&q01^aLrour
z q s l S utte a d so r r o . l t r M o l s l q n o 4 . r o u3 ^ e qn o / ( o C ! l
iqsll8ul t6dsolsstrrud no^oPareqMpueuiq/t Ol.
tuSru1e
alq lno,(ersot uosploleo,(-gl rno,(lal nof plno,\^ 6
SullrlqpsuaP qlFNno^6^€H 8
iauoaLuos
aql ut s)eee arouraq o1Pualnof oC I
a3utuarcro Suturour
zaourq8u
ro A.LqrlPMaqraqFrno^plno/t 9
aq1Suurns
r3urslur
au.rs|rollPllPr r.q no,(arv 5
ol Ploool.qr.^3uPrno^)urqlno.{oO
eFsrerBut3uEqr
leq/v\ E
Ztulopsreqno^op)iro^asnoq
ePlqr3u'rofe aqorslu nof oc z
no^.rereq/ I
tlrl1oPorSuluueld
aPuDt33,\\8ururor
'uaqr p.ro)
Puesalelslur
€ql pull aot.q suolFsnb.ql ut sa)srstluua^.te€rEalaqt PE
au (e)n)-Faur
t i u o f r s ^ . l u P MI z L
aruP.ru.SlqP (.'let)
r a p r ou t ' o i e t r q€ , q r e de r e ( a ^ r r e ) - F q l e r
f l n o MI l l
..u (ar|lou)
r l d o i d . t p u l l a r e , t r B u t . { a u r o(sp u t , )
{4 t'uorserrolue]lodut uero} r|Jlnoue 8u1^nqur,Lil oL
'8ulFararulsrou
Punos
j]3s^u rnoqesa[ I.1 sautFtr]os| 6
rl3sIu (sleL!)
'o1)ler
o
l
s
n
o
u
P
,
ouoou s,aFqrajaqMs.!!ed or (o3)-PuPrs1,uer
8
14out
qroM rou are^.ql )utql I u .tdo3dsiou3ts.u$3uos I I
'.rou
u.qr
iu
(alepardde){qeur)-Fpro
3)eL!saurFuos I e
u,au (..t
(ltp^\)-.tdoad
rarer ft! ur.ur dlaqplnorfaqlU;noql!
trojta lePadsealeu PtnoM 5
Jr.uoouosor3)tu (aq)01^pp.r(F )-rnoq
u€ ueqrerou puads.(Ueln;or
| ?
'ure oqM
L
-uawpadxa
(r.quaua,
t . l d o a dM a ur a a l ut u s q r €
'au (arouSt-aldoad
aqteo z
'olqPuolqse,Lun
ro
deaqrPqool
os'rFrpFoM | !
'^essaDuq.l') req/1
teqtllrp.inersro qntr e or (o3)-
'(oirnoq]lMroqr!v!sr.)rprq u!sq$^aqllouroJ
atlu!,u!ro pun$8€qr qI,' aoFq saru€ru€s.qrer.iduol z
hlvhercareeris in nec[ne
itL-equipped
to deaLwith ...
sptash€d
acmssthe newspapem
CONFIDENCE
to becomfortable
in yourown5kin to not losesleepoversomething
CompLete
the sentences
with an appropriateword
rlyou're
1
a Soodpubhcspeakeryou
canalways
a crowdto Listen
to you.
2 Thestorywas
acrossaltthe newspapeG.
3 ls Daa€nDavres
really
a comeba(\?| Lhought
he hadreriredfor good.
4 |_
my debuton the stagein my schoolptay.
5 l wouldnt
any deepoverit. ltt not a bigdeal.
5 Hackinginto someonetphoneis itlegal.Yo! shourd
legalaction.
_
7 Didyou
comp€nsation
aftertheaccident?
8 Asa cetebrity,
you constantlyhaveto_
forphotos.
9 Perhaps
you shoJldbuy a newiuir loryour interuiew
Youhaveto _the
dght imprcssion.
3 Thereare six mistakesin the text b€low.Findth€
mistakes and corect rhem.
to hldebehindotherPeopte
My cousin Ch]oe
CELEBRITIES
AND THEMEDIA
to accusesoneone wrcngly
to havea riShtto privacy
to haveanextra-marita
I affair
to be a hyPocite/hypocriticat
to havea stDng fanily image
to buUyandtese someone
to hackintosomeonetphone
My cousin Chloe is an actress and singer Even
when she was a child it was clear that she wa,nted
to be in th€ media light. 'I'm gojng io be a live
legend,' sh€ said. She'snoi a legend yet, bui she
doesrDv€ a rccord dealing. I didn'i ihir* it was
very good. a.lthonghI didn't tell her thai. Shel
supremely conndenl and very happy in her o$n
slrin. Nonetheless,I think she'[ find the pressnre ol
lamous hard it isnl easvhaving every detail of your
life \,ashed across the nenspapers.
OTHER
to be introduced
to someone
makethe right impresion
I PRACTICE
1 Completeth€ conversations
with the nounform of
the adjectives in boLd.Use . dictionary to help you if
1 A: I'm obs€ssedwith
Angelinajoti€.
B: Why do you havean
with her?
2 A: lwish lwas moreconfident.
8 : l d o n l t h i n k y o ul a c k
3 A: Hes a Legendary
guitaris!.
- I haven'theardof him.
B: He can'tbe muchofa
4 A: lwantto becomeimmortatthroughmy songs.
B: Brt you canr sing.r'laybeyou co.rldachieve
in
5 ti she becamefamouswhenshewasstiltateenager.
B: Howdidsheachiev€
?
6 A: she'ssohypocriticat.Sheshoutdn'taccuseme of
thingsthar shedoes.
B : l k n o w l t h i n k s h e ta _ , t o o .
7 A: Im feetinga bit paranoidtoday.
B: What is causingyour
?
Englishoutsidethe classroom(3)
1 PeoptetearningEnglishhavean advantageoverpeoplein
the past- th€ internet.Tickthe thingsyou havetried.
'l
Waichvideosin English
on siteslikeYouTube
or Vimeo.
2 Downloadpodcasts
exampte,
from
BBC)
on topics
ihe
for
that interestyou3 somegroupsotrsociatnetworksoEaniseouringsand
otheroppo*unitiesfor peopleto meetandpractisetheir
English.
Signup to oneof thesegroups.
4 Findonliie practiceexercises
thai coverthe grammaror
vocabulary
thai you arenudyingin class.
5 Readaboutinteresting
subjects
on websites
tikeWjkipedia.
6 Goto an onlinecorpusandtype in someof the words
you arelearning.Iheresuttswjll showyouhow the words
areusedby native-Engtish
speakeEandwhatotherwords
coltocate
with them.
7 Try a language-exchange
websitewhereyou helpa
native-Engtish
speaker
Leamyour language,
andthey hetp
you learnEngLish.
8 Readthe newsfrom an Enelish-tanguag€
newswebsite.
9 Listento an English-language
radiostationontine.
2 Whichofthese nethodswillyou usein the future?
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Audio script
i
Oh no,soyou dont actuaLLy
knowwhyyou feLLoui?
N o , t w a s w e Lw
L ,e w e r e , l t h l n k wwee r ea r g u l nagb o ust o m e t h
ng
rhathappened
to usin the pan rhat we obviously
hadn'ibroughr
up
Somerhingto
dowith the fam Lymaybe?
Yes,yeahfanything t w LL
derinteiy hayebeento do with ihe famity
Andwhenwasir twas at chr srmas,jid you say?
But think cos because
qu te
itwas NewYear'sEveyoute feeLing
emotionatandah,excitable
an,l ..
l.l: Andii wasyours ster?
w: Yes,butwearguequ re a lotanyway.Ainwe re friendsnow.
3
W=Woman
M=l'1an
w : W h a t s t h e i d e a L a g eet o
e t m a r r i eadn d w h y ?
M: wett dont nec$sariLy
beLele ihat therecan idealaeetogel
m a d e dU
. m , l m e a ns o n em e nf e e L t h a r r h en ye e nt o b e a L t t l eb t
olderbeforethey get ma( eti and um,a tot of womenfeelthattheyte
'"dd ro8e -d
"d" d
mean,er,in um€sgoneby,peopLegot
maniedquileyoung,andum er
you know,erm thin[ my parentseot mariedwhenthey wer. a Lot
yolnger er dont know ldon i the answertoihisquesuon,l'msorry.
U N I T1 R E C O R D I N1G
3
A: ...andmostof the peoplerhereseemveryfriendLy,
so,yeah attthat
A r l i t j u s t i h a l . . w e L Ld, o n ' tw a n tt o s o u n d
a ri f m m o a n n g a l r e a d y
oranythlngbut vegot a bir ofa probtemwith my bossomehow.
It'sa bit harnio expLain.whenyou
first meeiher sheseoms
perre.ityn ce you know,goodfun,andyoungand
everyrhlngbut
ldont know Shes got thiswayof kindof ignoringwhateversay.
s h e d o e stn3 c t o a L d
L tyc i s e m e ,n o t o p e n Lbyu t s h e j s t d o s n t
seemto takeanyor my soggestions
verf seriouny
A: Yeah,weil,l'msupposedtobeheras!istantmanager,
notrome
juniorwhodoesnt knowanythineaboutthejob
B: Thatsolnls awful.Baveyou edtatkingioanyoneelseabouiir?
A : w e I n o n ' t k n o w d o ni f e e l a s f l ' m r e a L w
L ye LeLn o u g h
enablishen
rhereyet
A: ..well,iJwehurrywemehijlsreeiihere.Oh,no
A i L . o k lL o o ka t t h er . a f f k l i s j u s t s o l d . o h d o n ' t b e L e v e i tm. e a n
how 5 anyonesuPPose.
toget around.
OK Ok.Calmiown, caLmdownl
w i L L y osut a p t e L L n g n e ct !a l md o w n ?r i s s o a n n o y l n 8 c. .o. m e
Look,theresno pojntin gettingupseiabout t. ti3 ru3hhour.
Theretboundtoboa Lotoftrarric.
Yesan! whenwerurnupan hourLate,can maeinetheytegonna
oK, comeon,wete not goingtobean hourLare.ltettyouwhat, U
a c a l L a ntde l t t h e mw e t e s i u c I i nt r a f f c o
, K?
eivethem
Y e a ho, K , l m e a nt h e r e s n om
t u c he l s e w e c adnoi s r h e r es,h o r r o f
buyjnga pr vateheL.opter mean!he traffc in thistown isju5t..
B: Simon?ts Lindahere
A : O h h i . . .f i o w si t g o n g ?
B: Theresa bit ofacrisis,a.iuatly.Thals why l'm ringng.ldont [now
A: oh, dear.Youhayent lockedyouEelfout againhaveyou?
3r No,no,its .. it! Tony
B; He shouldhavebeenbackhou6ago. meanhes alwaysherewhen
g e t n f r o m w o r k , a t w a y s , ah ne d' s l u s t n o t h e rHee r d r a p p e a r e n
A: WetL,
nevefnin! I m surehelLcomeback.Heatways
does,noesnt he?
B: Yeahbut,youneverknowwhat mighfvehappenen.
rmeanhe'snor
usedio bengout on h 3 owi.
A : H a v e y oL
u o o k eudn n e r t hbee d ? r h a t s w h e h
r eew a sL a s r t i m e .
B: of.ou6e lhave.No,hes noi in the flat.He! gone.ljustdon'tknovl
A: Look,L nda,try not to worryaboul r t-ie! probablyoutwith
oneof his
girttrlends
or somelhng Haveyou@|Len
h n? Necouldbe nfiegaden.
3r Yeah, ve Looked
everywhefe.
He'snot in anyofh5 usuaLplaces.
UNIT2 RECORDING
2
t = F r a n k eR = R i . k N = N a n . y
F: Yeah,weLLCue$itsallthe normaL
stufflor a stunentreatty.Having
anacuvesoclallire
makesne happyannmyfriendsaremportant.
c o o d f r i € n d s h i p s a r e a L w a y r i n p o n a n t , a r e n t t hwehy a? tEerG
me . . . ?
wetl, gues LG myibje.t I jusienloytheinteLLectuaLstlnularion
of
phiLosophy
evenlfthe tutorsarea bit . .razysometmes
B u t t h eo t h e rs i n eo f i r t h a t d o n t e n l o y s o m u . h i s t h e L o n e l i A
n el l $
thoselatenigh$nunyingonmy own.Andsometimesyou know,
get netuolsaboutexams taiLed
my Lasroneso. well,examstresss
derlniteLy
a probLenfor me.Andrguess d tiketo meermorepeopte.
fs like,weLL
La.kol.onf dencecanholdme backa b t, sometme'
R: Lets srartwih therhingrtha! makemeteeLbad.
What reauyhare
i3lackofneep.li teavesmellst erhau5ted.
An,ibecau5efrsorired
faLLasleep
n theevenngwhen rhouLnbe relaxng.50,yeah,
not
havngtlmeto rcLax
is aGoa probLem.Ihe
otherthingthar annoysme
s cr t c 5miiofr my famity,lrom my wlfe n particuLar
sheworkslong
hoursiyouknow shesa cu.ren.ytraderln rhe . ty, sosomerimes
when
s h e c o m ehro m eh e r c o n p l a i nct sa nr c a L L y w im
nd
eup.
BurrheposiiivesderlniteLy
ourwei8hthe negarlves.
tmean warching
mychitdrengrowup r the mostlmponantthingin thewo.Ldto me,
ipenningsomuchiime with them even fil isa bitethaustng AndL
enjoybelngablt oJa nof-.onformkt.l'm the ont dadaroundherewho
o o l . ae . t e . i o . " n o. " ! . b . 8 " b . a i l l e , ^ . .
N : B e i n g t hC
e E Oo f a b g c o m p a n y h aast o to f a d v a n i a g e
o sr c, o u r e .t s
m y c o m p a n y a nndo b o l y t e um
s e l v h a t t od o . T h a f n
s u m b e r o nfeo r
m e rl L k eb e i n g a en m p t o y enf o, ra i e n p l o y e eY o uk n o w , l d o n tl i G
f n gp e o p lbeu i l d o i t l f h a v e i o . T h eonf,c o ! 6 e ,f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y
makesme Jeetgood earna goonsabry, bot I wolk hard ro deierue
it Mycompanynoes
marketresearch
for .orporate.tient!so,yes,l'm
the laceofthe company.ltlan importantroLe.
s o w h a ! f r a k em
s efeeLbaW
d ?e L fLi r, i n g p e o p ltkee s a i d . a n d , w e t t
personaLly
th n(thetaxesin thiscountryaretoo hlgh so, no nont
likepayingtaxes,
butthen whodoes?And Bues worryaboutwhere
socieryk eo ng.l worryaboutant socaLbehaviouronihesireers
Thai
m a k em
s e f e e L b a d . A LaLLiLnt h o u gm
h , h a p p y w t hL i f e .w o r k h a r a
dnd
UNIT2 RECORDING
4
1
-c"-a,eafe^lria8.h.,
" b u , p , o b . bol - c o r , b $ " .
".
tearewoutd
bespi!ets um, just reaLLy
reaLLy
hatethem um,the
s m a LoLn e sa r e n 'st ob a db u t u m , w h e n y ogue t a ,a b i g o n eL k ei n t h e
b a r hi f y o ul i n di t n t h e b a i h w h e ng o n , u m t h a f s j u s t r e a LrLeya L L y
horible,um and cn'tfeauy, um, wouLdnteverwaniiotouchone
o r a n y t h i ntgi k et h a t ,u m r o m e i i m eusm
, , l g e ta h , s o n e b o d y t o C
l no
beroreme if lthinkrhatthere'sa l keLhood
that therem ght bea rp ner
'a'oon r-.bu'r", h.l
' L " p ' o b d bol /r . o !
r
r bgg".'
2 r'lyproblemi thatnea yeverythingmakesme glgglebecauset
nepenns
on my mood,tlepends if lve noihan muchsleeptorerample
oh my goodness
then ljusr cani holdthe Biggles
in andihe more
s e r l o ui sl k , u m ,L i k ief m a t w o r k o f i o m e i h n g , l h e w o 6 e t h e g i g g l e s
C e . b e . .da L n o ^ ' . o - . p D o . d d r . dto S o i r s o m e b os da J. s
.o
"'rC."r f.d d,"r...Cin-..-a ie-tre-area.a
higherandl'm atworkandiisa really mportantmeetlngand m a
Lttlebtt red,thenrjust goro pieces,
ii s t.rribLe,andsomebody
can
'vegoneann cannorstopeither,
lusi Lookat oe the wrongway and
annthe more trytoslopthe horelnposible ltis anditteven
happeningnow
brilliant.
3 thinkir'sfa
r t o s a y t h a t a mg o v e m ebdy t m e . t h i n k l r e s e n t
but it s trueandthe ideaof be nglalejusl-l6t makesme,makesme
- well
really,retly sire$ed.Ia[vaystry annget a,ah,get somewhere
a l w a l sf i y t o g e tw h e r e m g o i n g a t L e a s t h a l f a n h o u r l n a d v a n c e
be.ause,the
ideaof beingLatejust you [now theret a,rheres a
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Audio script
B: Thatsright cfeg LeonWalker,
you'llremember,
wasthe manlrom
Rochester
HiLLs
ln r'lichigan
whowas.hargedbackin2010,wthhackng
into hiswifes emaiLaccount.
Hemalntained
h s nno.ence
bur hiswife
cLarawentontetevision
roiaLkabouthowviolared
shehanfet. weLl,
creg,two yearsaftq Leonwascharged
annrlehtbeJore
hewasdueto go
onlriaL,Pro5ecuto6
haveunexpectedt
droppen
rhecharges
againstLeon.
Andth€ reason?tturns outthat cLarahadbeenreadlng
herhusband
s
terr messaBes
whiLe
lheywerestiLLma(led
andhadadmittedio th s n
anemaiL.
Leondes.rbedhimselras relieved
but angry.
ArAstonishlng
newslNow overto oufsportrderkwherelamehasrome
B . . . a d l h " . " o . ' < e n . e. o r e s p od e ' P o b e aI " L L h e " 1 1
the studiow th me Robeft,beforewe caichup on aLLrhe
Latest
devetopmenls
in the wofldotsclencecanyouteLlfre what happened
A: Yes,absotuteLy
Don weLL,
asourlktenetsprobablyremember,
Ri.hard
Handlwasthemanwhorrledio set up a mininu.learrea.torin
hisklt.hen.UsngradioactvemateriaLs
rhat he'nbought,Mr Handt
attemptedto splitlheatomandhe postedthe resuttsonline,alongwith
the nowjamouspidureoi hi5cookerafterrheexperiment.
A : O f c o u 6 ew h e n r h ep o L c e w e raeL e r t et o! w h a tM r l l a n d l w a s n o i n g ,
theyconfiscated
alLhknudearmateriaL
andhiscompurer.
Mr HandL
facedthe ProsPeci
oJup to rwo yearslr prison,so,asyou sayDon,
wharhashappenedlohih? weLL,
the afsweris absoLutely
nothing
sincethey conrrcaie! his Gnioactive
materiatseverat
monrhsago,
neilherlhepoL.enorthe Swe!ishRadlation
Author!y havebeenii
touch.so it tookslikeNlrHandLwonlbeproiecutedafterarl
B: WeLLthat! goodnewsJoramateurscientsts guessNow ontothis
week! olherscience
storiesRob...
UNIT3 RECORDING
9
A: Ticketspt€aseThankyouTickets,
pLease
Yourticket,sn?
'm
Br
sorrybut donthaveone.Themachineat the stalion
,d: Youneedavalidtckel sir,othetukeyou'llhaveto paya Is0fine.
B : l l n d e r 5 t a n d t h abtu t r c o u l d tnb u y a t . k e t l h e m a c hn e w a s n t
A: Wherenid you boardthe train,5ir?
A: Thereta ticketoff ceat that station,sn.YoucouL!haveboughtyouf
B : t d o e s nt o p e nu n t i t e i g h t o ' c l o . k at n
hd
istrain
L € f t a7t . 3 0L. o o k , l w a n r
t o b u y a i i c k e t , I hh a p p y t op a yf o r o n en o w b u t c a n ' t b u y o n e i l i h e
you havebeensuchgoo! companyrhatforyou it s onLyf2s.
c: Yes,mytouE. hopeyouthoughtitwasworththemoney.
A : O h ,r i g h t , y e s ,l ,s e e . .e. f r . . .
S: Lookthere'sbeen. misunnerstanding.
We didnt reausethatyo!
C: WeU,irt onLyf2s. t s mor€ol a gift reattylheLpyououtwth an
informative
tour andyou heLpme out wlrh a smattgift.
3: ldon tthinkthats fair YoushouldhavetoLdusai ihe srart.
c: Didntyou enjoythe iour? Nlostof my customeEare...
B: Thats the thing yoosee.Wearent yourcustoned
C: Well,Look.lcansee
it'slusta bitola m su.dersran!inC
andlappreclate
wliaiyou resayng.L€ts cattit 120
B: No,you don't understand.
we reallyaren'tyourcustometr.
Thankyou
foryourtihe but wete norBoingto payyou for t. comeon.lwant to
go backtothatroomwiththe Romancoins.
B:
A:
B:
Ai
B:
A:
B:
A:
Hettowe bookedarabtefoftwo.Thenames PoLeP O L E.
Ri8ht...yes,
right.Ms Pole.Thattabtewar for e ght o cLocl,wa!nt t?
Yes,e ght ottock.Thats rght.
WeLLlnafraidwe hadto SiveyourtabLe
away.Asyou see,we re v.ry
busyan! we werent 5ureif youwerecomlngsowe hadro giveyou.
t a b L e t o r o m e oenles e .
what doyou meanyouvegivenftlosomeoneelse? bookedit.
e ,a d a m , W e g a
W e L Li sr a l m o sqru a r t e r t o n i nm
e tL o ! o f c u s t o m e r s
bookingannnot turningupso generaLLy
I anyoneis morethan halfan
ho!r Late,
we givetheirtabLeto someone
eLre.
oh, honestly.ltsnotmyfaultthatwecoutdnl finda parklfespace.
unnetsbndthat,madamandl'm reaLLy
sorry.Butasyoucansee,were
Br rcan seethat, but thisis veryunfair.Perhap5Ineed
to speakro
Ai Bearwlthmea minuie,madam,andl'ttseewhatwe.an do Perhaps
one.r our customeBwho bookenfor 3.30wonr shoy up. fyoujusi
t a k ea s e a a
t t t h eb a r . .
UNIT4 RECORDING
5
A:
B:
A:
B:
RedLandStallSeeices
H e L L om. t r y i n g t o h i rae n e wP A a n dw a s w o n d e i n g i f y o u c o u l d h e l p .
CertainLys the PASolnetoworkwith you?
Yesthats rlghr. ve hada few appticat
onsbut
go fron here mean,can havetheappLicants
intetulewed?
A: certainLyWecanprovldea detaitedreportonea.happLicant.
You.a.
evenhavethe r peBonalitles
asse$ed.
A r A n n y o uc a nh a v et h er ! Q t e i e d a s w e l lf y o u w a n t e v e n
A: Well,l'msorrysirbut l'm Iustnoingmyjob.Youhaveto havea ticket
beforcyou boardthe train.
B: CanLmakea suggestion?
why don t I buya tlcketnowandilien
B: 1"1mh,
ir aLLsoundseood
canyou sendmesomeinformation
about
howmuchit attcosts
A: orcouEe Letne takeyour emailaddres.
A: 1...donl ih nk so,sir f you don'i havea ti.ket haveto f neyou.
B: Lookthk is ridiculou3.l'mnoi a crlminal.lwanttopayfo. my tic[er]
A: ...well...allrightsr.Buijustthsonce.whereareyourraveLLingto?
N = newsreader
B = science
coiiespondeni
N: Thisweekit hasbeenreportedthariheMars500 spacenission'has
Ar Wow!what a hugespace,
'Landed
aftermorerhan 17nonths With usto discu$th s fascinating
si Yes,beautifuL.
so muchto explore,
erpe mentis ou. science
coirespondent,
DavidS mpson.Davin,for
c: Thismu5eum
wasont openedin 201Oyouknow rt'stheLargest
n
thoselGtene6who a.e noi famlllarwth the MaE 500missloncould
UNIT4 RECORDING
6
C: Yes,it houres$me ofthe mostimportantRomanartifactsin the world.
canshowyouroundsomeofihehighLighrs
ifyou Llke
A : W e t L , ewr h a t d o y o ut h i n kB e t h ?
B : E r O Xl h e a n , l f y o u ' vgeo tt h et i m e .
c : o h , s u r es, u r e . I t i k e tsoh o wp e o p treo u n d . c o m e ofno,t l o wm e . t L t a k e
y o u f i r s t t o , .a i d a L L ot h
f osecoinswtrefoundbyalarmerwhowd
diSeingup h s rieLdLWhat
a Luckyguyhuh?
Br WowLHow interesting.
c; 50,herewearebackwherewestarte!.
A: weLL,
thaik you somuch.IhatwasfeaLty
kindoryou.
c: oh, dont mentlonit. You[now, usually.haree
€30tormytoursbut
s: wettthe MaB 500nlssionw6 {tuattya simuLatedspace
m$on
in whichrix internationaL
voLunteersthreeRu$ianstvvoother
Europeansand
a chineseman5pen1520
daysinaspacecapsuLe
burled
beneaiha carpark n asuburbofMoscow
N: Andwhat exactlywasthe polnrofthat?
s: weLL5centistswaniento studyrhephysi.aLand
especallythe
psychotoeicaLeffects
ofspendlngthatamouniof t me in the
confinement
and ioLatlonofa spacecapsuLe,
whichG or cou6ewhata
spacecrewwoutdhaveto do lfthey gaveltedto Marsfor exanple.
N; Aid why is ihat usefuL?
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Audio script
becaseromepeoplej6t ae fuiny, otherpeopteaien't.AndIm reaLLy
interested
to knowwhatthat magicalingredient
is and tyou.ani€ach
It or if hes atwaysbeenfunnywhlchprobabLy
hehas.Andwhat doeshe
preferliketo,um,to do most,un, standup in front of an audience
or
movlesan! ry or ntery ews I d be intereste!to knowthe answer,un to
Ah,lf I couldchoose,
um,som€onetoinvitelthlnk it wouLnbe,ah,
NlotherTheresa,
um,Ithink itt som€one
thats alwaysah,fascinated
me,um,having- havingrravelled,
ah,quitea loi andseenwhatyousee
ln, un in countriesthar
arent yourownandthe povertyandtheillness
thinkit s,um,guiteamazlngthatsomeonegave
uptheirwhoteLifeto,
thatt reaLLy
ah,to try andaddress
that problem.And,ah,it s someone
fas.inatedme lor!uite a lonetime.l'daskherwhyshechoseio, um,to
giveup herlife ann,ah,andhelpotheE um. .lihinkthat shed be,um,
justso fascinatingtotalkto,
um,andlttsomeone reattyadmiresod
m€.
kindol liketo saythankyoufor- for the inspi.atlontharshe'sgiven
l! loveto neet 14arilyn
Monroe,solwould deflnitetyinviteher,and
that beautifulann
the f rst reasonwouldbebecause
to havesomebody
amding in a roomwouldjustbephenomenal
anda oneoft, andlthen
coulda5kherquestions
Likewhat colourlipsticki, the bestredthatyou
girlie!uestionsthatyou couldaskbut then d ask
canget,andaLLthose
herstulf abouthermovi€care€randwhether,um,shefeLttikeshed
everbeenin loveand,um,whothosepeoptewouLnbethat shereally
felt sheloved.and thinkl'd askherif shehadn'thavebeen,um,ir she
hadnt havedienwhenshed d what shewouLdhavelikedto havegone
lwould chooseanyklngor queenfrom historybut probably,
um,I
peEonto hav€at my dinnerpany wouldbe
thinkthe mostinteresting
the Firctbecause
therewouL!beso muchto askher
QueenElluabeth
aboutandihet sucha fasclnating,
um,figureun, fiEtof allld llketo
askherhowshenanagedto besucha poweful qleenfor so Longwhen
be nEawomanin thosedayswasdlfficuttenough;and,um,howshe
maintained
um,andof cou6eId like
hefpower,um,overallthoseyeats,
to askheraboutherdayto daylife andall thos€nomestic!etaiLsllke,
^ o . h ed b t .r o b - u \ hh . - a a t l o o w d . . h p b d l d
u-de he wiSo.you knowso manyinteresting
deiaiBwhich thinkwouldbe,itwouk
beamaziigtofind our the truth aboutrhemand,um,andhowshe
reaLLy
felt aboutbeingQueenot Enghnn,um andwhatthatmeant
5 Um,iflcould invlteanybodywantedto a dinnerparty,er,thinkl
wouti inviteDavldB€ckham.
Be.ausenotontisheextremelyEood
Looklng,
um,butaGolthink he'dhavesomereallygoodstorlesto tell
aboutpLaces
he'dbeenandp€opt€he'dmetand,un,you know,the
wo d Cupandwhat it feeGlike,just what it feeLs
liketo bea5famous
ashe is,reaLLy.Andwhat
hGtilet Llke,ruppose.Yeah
he'dbe really
Br Yesits chrisrineFord,andthepostcode
isr4Na6DK.
C OK that s flneandhowcanwe helpyouthis nornlnS?
you sentme a bluwhichI ihlnk paidthreeweeksago,butyouve
Br WeLL,
sentfre a letterwhichsaysthat unLe$lpay itwithinsevendaysyou Ll...
c: sorryto stopyouthere. llhavetoputyouthroughtoanorher
department
aswe don'tactuaLLy
dealwithinvoceswhlcharemorethan
thfeeweeksoLd.fyou'lljust bearwith me...
D: Hetto,CustomerServlce
Department.
Br Yes,it's abouta letteryou senime.Thecusiomerreference
G V29O
6 3 6 Ka n n s e n t y o u . . .
pLeas€?
oi Canyoujust confirmyour nameandpostcodeforme,
B: velustg venaLLthis
man.Do Ihave
information
to anotheryoung
to gothroughallthk again?lt's MNa6DKandmy nameis chfttine
F o . dN
. o wa b o utth i sb i l l y o us a y h a v e n t p a i d , n o w l k n o w l n a l e t h e
D: sorryisthat M Ior Mlchael,
N forNi8et...
A: Yes,heuo,LindaBatesspeakinE.
B: Hi, it tJaneMarkham
Ilightsto
lrom AdonisTravel.t s regardingyour
lstanbulne*!wee( vejusl got a coupteofquerles...
A oh, ye5.Hetlo.oh sorry,justa second...NolNotiherelwhere lroLd
you by the bookcase...
sorry...
S: Yes,ljustwantedio knowlfyou'd dinn taklnga fllShta bit laterthan
theonewedhcu$e!...
C: Mum?l'4um?Naveyou seenmytEine6 anpvhere?
A: Please,lont ntenuptmewhen monthe phone,yessorry,youwere
B: No,dor'tworry...amlcalljngarabadum
Le
cL a
? LbLa c kL a t ei rf i ! s
A : D o y o u m i n di t t j u s t t h a t t h e r e a r e s o m e l e l i v e r y m e n , a n d , , . w i t t y o u
B : N o p . o b l e m . . . w h e n w obuel dag o o d t i m e t o
call?
a: oh, ifyou givelt aboutan hourthingswillhave
setileddowna bii...
B: oK, lLspeaktoyoutater.
UNIT6 RECORDING
1
Ihe Mesopotamians
wereprobablythe first peopleto inventwriring in
about3,200EC,
that it wasaLsoinv€ntedseparately
althoughitG believed
in severaldifiefentplaces- by the Ancientchineseandthenlaterby the
tribeswhoLivedin modemdayM€xlco.
2
Bythe midnGof 16thcentury,Araband
European
astronomershad
discovered
a greatneaLabout
howour solarsystemwork5.How€verat thk
po nt, Europeans
stiLLhadn'tfiavelle!
to manypartsof theirown planer.
cotumbusha!onLyanivedin theAmercasin 1492,Australiawasni
Hello?Hetto?sorry?Y€s,that! righ! thisis stephenLloyd,yes,thanksfor
gettlngbackto me..yeah,um,It€ft a message
discovered
wasnt
ea ieraboutthe furnltlre
by Europeans
untilthe 1fth century,andAntarctica
exploreduntilthe 13rhand19rhc€nturiesL
thatyou rerupposedto
bedeuvering
to meat the en! ofthisweek...andI
3
w o n d e r e d. l. f. s o r r y ? . . . n o , n o i i ! j u s t t hmaot n a t r a n a n d l k e e p t o s l n g
you ...we,we keepgoin€intotunnels...I said keeplo5ingyouwheneve.
Bythe middleofthe 19thcentury,we hadmadebi€advances
in scence
which
^" go inroa 1 n e (orl. )or speal.p a b' pha.. No,,olr Lor p b
andengineering.In
r860the lirstcombusrion
enginewaslnvented,
v e r y f a i n t . . y e a h , y et a
hh
a t 5 b e t t e r y e a h , , . y e a h , l c a n h e a r y o u p e r f e d tLed
y to the inventionof the motorcar.However,
we sull hannt dkcovered
yeah...sorry,yousaidthatyouI benefveringthefurnituE
that bacteracausediseases,
on Friday,
isthat
an! di!n't realisethat we reenedto washour
handsin orderto preventthespreadofgermsLltwasn
t unrittheworkof
righi?Aboutwharime?sorry?No,yourvoicehasgoneveryfaint.,,lcan
publkhedinthe ls60sthatthis leawas
the Frenchman
LouGPasteurwas
hafdlyhearyou...sorry,youre breaking
up. shau| .. shaLLrneyou back?
put foruard,annev€nthen manyscientktslnitiaLty
dismGsed
hisideasas
LookIm golngtocaltyoubackoK? HeUo?
HelLo?
UNIT5 RECORDING
7
A: FelLo,thankyou fo. phoningcasLlne.Youhavethreeoptions:ifyou
wanttoenquireaboutnewGasProiucis,Press1. fyou haveanenquiry
aboutan outstanding
bitt,Press
2.
Thankyouwete nowgoingtoconnectyouto oneof our saLes
team.
B: HeLLo,
weLconeto CasLine.My namet Andy,howGn helpyou?
yes,Im caUlng
!eLLo,
aboutmy biLL
Haveyou got your clstomerreference
number,ptease?
Um...yeah,il s V290636K,
oK,just g€tyour fiLeupon the screen.
can ljust confnmyour name
Today,at the beginning
of the 21stcenturywe havemaneth€mosi
€rtraordinary
technologiGlaivances
We have nventedthe aeroplane,
tandedon the moon,inventedcompute6andihe wondwidewebaswetL
piecesofrechnoLogy.
ascountless
otheramazing
Floweverbizairely,
we
haven'tyerdiscov€red
a cureforth€ commoncold.A scientlficbreak
which
throughhasrecenttybeenmadeat cambidgeUnive6itythough,
meansthata curemaybefoun! ln the nextdecaleor sol
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5
Audio script
B: No, reatly.I couLdn
t nana€eany more.
Ar oK. Maybe Llfin!h tthen.
2
A A-/^"y^tle ^",^ar.e
Ohr
IdsosoO BeUa ger
B: oh, don tworry, satly.lcanwashlt wh€n gethome.
A: t wasreallystupi!olme
B: lt doesn'imatter.Thesethingshappen.
3
A:
B:
A:
B:
HiBeLLa.
ftsbeenawh Lehasntit? How haveyoubeen?
O h ,h l t h e r e .m f n e t h a n l sH o wa r e y o ! ?
Oh,goodgood.Youknow,sameoLd
$me oLd,
so ...wow ...it! beena Longtime.when q4 the lasttime
A: oh at that partyatJakes housetrhink.
B: oh, thafs right.And how s everythinggoing?Youknow,job,home
Ar Yes,everlthlng!fine,ihanls.we'vejust movedhouseand..
B: Thatmani5realtyannoyinel
A: who,lames?My newboyfriend?
B: ls heyour newboytiienn?
oh sorry,l didnt realise.l hopeldidn t
A: No,notat aLLNk laughsveryannoying.
B : l a m e s L C o uytodu t u r ni t n o w na b i t ?
5
A: so, anyway,bytheiime loundoutwh€rehewaslwasgoingcrazy
wlthworry.lmean,hes ioordlnarycat,asyou know He! got such
a sweetPeronaL
ty. Anlway...
B; sally,sorryto interruptyoubul lthink there'ssomeoneat the
A: oh, dont worry.I tLhold l'msureyouwanttoknowwhat
h a p p e n ej ndt h e e n d L
Bi weLLy€s,
but knowyoure reauybusysoldonlwanttokeep
you.Ill caltyou il I get a chancenextweek.
A: Oh,oK Bettasure.
l
UNIT8 RECORDING
2
A iew lats berorethe creai Exhlolti." c"'. ** a* io ri",t, t*o mlL,n
"
Lades,claE Redwood
andheriwenty-yeaFold
dauehter
Eleanorarlvedin
the clq,on theirwaybackto London
f.om ndia,wheretheywereescapng
the larestoutbreak
ol the pLague.
Neitherwoman
couldrpeakfruch French
an! it wasverydifficulr
to finda
hoteLroom
but aftersearching
lor sometne theyeventuaUy
managed
to
booktheLast
rwo roomsavailable
at oneofthe mosrfamoushotelsln Pars
Afterarrivingatthe
hotetbothwomens gnedrheregister,
andwereshown
upiotheir roons.Themotherwasgiven
room342,a partj.uLady
luxurols
roomnecorate!with beautifuL
.edvetveicurrans.
Ahon lmmediately
however,
the motherfell iLLand
they hadto caLlthe
hoteLsdoctorHe€xamine!l'1tsRedwood
carefuLly,
the. calledthe hotel
mana€sandspokeu€eitLyto himin French.
Eleanor
didnt undeEtand
whattheyweresayingbut aftera lew minutes,
the doctofexplainen
in
Englirhthat hecouLdntLeave
MfsRedwood
be.auseshewasioo iLl,$ he
gaveEleanora
prcsdipiionandaskedhe.to goandfetchrhe menicine
her
motherneede!,whlchwasavaiLabLe
ontyat hissurgery
onrheothersineof
ThedocrorLentEteanor
h s owncarlagero traveLln,
bufthejourneywas
trlstGtlngt sLow,
andit wasfo!r hou6beforeEleanorfinaLLy
returned
with the nedlclne.sherushedinrothe hotelfoyerannasken
the manager
anxlously
howhermorherwas.
Themanagsdaredat herbLankly.
Whatde
youtatkingabouiManam
h eea?s k e n . ' l [ n o w n o t h nygoouf r m o t h e f . Y o u
arivedhereatone.Thehoteldocto.aGodeniedev€rme€tinghermother,
annwhenEteanor
insiied on seeingthehotelre8Cter,
ontytheyoung
wohant slgnature
wa5there
Eleanor
hanagedto persuade
theF ro takeherbackioroom342,but her
motherhadvanished
annihe roomwasempty,Evenmoremystero!st, the
d€corations
appeared
to havebeeicompLetetrepLaed,
andthe bsot flL
redvetvetcunains
haddisappea.ed
gi{ rushedto the BrltishEmba$yto iell he.story,butofliclab
ThedGtraught
retused
ro believeher Eleanor
becameevermorefranti.wlthworry,ann
whensheretu.n€dtoBritainshewasdecLared
iisaneandputnamental
hospitatNowever,
rhegirLcontinued
to insisrthaiha stdryw6 tlue,aid
docto6neverfound
anyoiherevinence
thatshewasmenraLLy
lU.Eventually
shewasreleased
but hermothers bodywa neverfound
UNIT8 RECORDING
1
UNIT8 RECORDING
3
1
0ofishsleep?Ihe answersyes ..andno Fishdont .toseihen eyesand
dreamllkehumanr,andromeoi them,suchassharkshaveto keepmoving
or they dle.Butfsh do seemto belessactivephysicaLty
andmenratty,
at cenaintihesandthisseemsto performthe samefunctionassteepin
so what is the explanation
forihis strangedisappearance?
Manyexperts
in hGtoricat
mysterles
beLievethat
MG Renwood
mlghthavebroughrrhe
backwithherfrom h!ia. ithi3 newshadbecomewideLy
known,
PLague
itwould certainlyhaveruinedthe 6reat Exhbitioi,5o the hotelnanager
mlShthaveconspired
wirhthe do.torto keeptheteiriblenewia secfet.
They.ertal.tynun haveconspired
togetherin somewayor other.
However,
the BritishEmbassy
Letthe youngwomandowndkgracefutty,
theyshouLd
havelnvenieated
hersrorymorefllly at the veryteast.on
the otherhann,sufelythe hoietstaffcan'thavedisposen
of the bonyand
fedecorated.oom
342 njust four houts?PedapsafterattEteanor
was
insaneandshemadeihewholestoryup.Butin th case,whaidldhappen
tohermother,andwhywasshenevertra.edagain,deadoraLive?
2
why don'tpolarbears'feetfreeze?
PoLar
bearsareprobabLythe
best
insulated
animakon lani. Theyhaveaboutl0 cm of fat beneathrheirthick
fur.Theirfeetarecoveredin furtoo asw€LLas
a thicklaye.ofdeads[in
whichProte.tsrhemwhentheycomeinto contactwiththe ice.Thats why
3
c a na t o u d 5 0 h dk i L L y o u
Y?e si,t . a n .s o u n db e c o m epsa i n l u l a t a r o u n d
130neclbek- alet enginearound20 or 30 metresawaymakesthis kind
ot sounn.At aroun!120lecibelsyour eardrums
burstanna sounnoJ200
decibels
wiLtprobabty
k LLyou.
c a n h u m a n s c a t c h d k e a s e s f r o m pH
Lu
an a
t sn?s c a i ' i c a r c h d i s e a s e s
causedby virusesor bacteriaifom plantshoweverthey
canhavean aLLergic
reactontothen. tvery summerniLLions
of peoplesulferfrom hayrever
andthis k causedby plants.
5
Why do chiulpeppers
tastehot?Theytastehor because
ofa chemicat
in
them calledcapsaicin
This.hemicaL
trlcksyour bodyinto thinkingir is
beingburned,
evenwhenit isa.tuaLLy
nor.Thecapsici doerrhaim you
Itk atLinyourmiid. Because
q!allties,capsacini ure! by
oJirs unusual
the pollc€in somecounfiiesin a speciat
form ca[enpepperspray.lt.auses
tenPorarybtindne$but doesnt do anylong,termdamage
UNIT8 RECORDING
6
Twenty-flve
yeatsagoyou couldn'tsendemaitsandtexts.so nowyou
cancontactsomebody
reallyurgentlyannget a qulckresponse,
but
iwenq,JiveyeaEagoyou couLnn
t.
S o m e t h i n cgo u t d o t h e nt h a il c a n s t i U d o n o iws s p e a k l t a l i a
wne.
livedin Mitanfor fouryeaEwhenlwar youngann becamefluentthen
Well, m the morherofum teenagech Ldren
annsofrethingldldnt
havetodotenyea6ago,which havetodo nowissupedisechiLdren
s
homeworkandlhus! sayirt on€ofthe mostifustratngtasks could
Yeste.dayalworkhadtoulkto somebody
becausethe.e'd
beena
cofrplaintaboutthem. !idn'twantto doir becausereallyllkethai
pe6on,but,wett it s partor mylob,so hadto do it.
U m , L s h o u l d h a v e p o s tLeedt at e r t h j s a f t e r n o o n a n d l f e m e m b e r
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Audio script
M: weLl,orcolrselts ntraduced
a totof newwordsroourLanguage
oh wettl'm certainlyalLofthoserh ngs
J I . . . a n d o b v i o u st sl ya s e n t h l t o h a v e e o o d c o m p u l e r s k i l l s , a n d t h e r e Who hadheardof m.robloegingbeforerhentehet?Bui mofe
nterneihasmademeda moreinteracnve.
urenotvery
lmpodandy beLiev,"the
d a y i y o un e e d C o o ! d i g i t a L p h o t o g r a p hsyosikfyl Lo G
Medause!to bea one-waypro.essthey spokeandweLiened
takingacou6e.
Eoodwitha camera,woutdrecommend
Now irl muchmoreti[e a d alogueEveryan]cLehasrea.l.r.omment
No actually cando borholthosethings.
beLowlt, ev.ry .oncertisrevlewed
aid discu$edonrwliier
WelL
t h a is g o o d. . .m m m . Y o uk n o w w h al tw o u l d a d v i s lew?o u l d
' ggFr' o
madeusall moresepaGte
Unfo.tunately,lthinkthe
lnternet
hasalso
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andLnenlngtodlfferentthings
from eachothe..we re all watchinC
showingpeopleroundhouses.
A Lotof enateagenrshaveextrastatr
just forthe weekend,
YoungaduLtsnawprobably!ontevenrem.mbertherimewhen
becusetheyre so busythen. thinkthatwooLn
andthentalkedabout
everyone
watchedthe sameth nc on relevGion
bereallyuseful,thai wayyou canseewhetheryou.eaUyLkeit and
tthe ne!!day at workor college.n l9a6thetoP ratedTVrhowl.
obvously t wouldgiveyoua b i or experience.
rhe UKgot30 mlLLonvleweEthafs halfthe populauon.rwenry
Thatr a reallygoonldea,lhadnlthoughrof ihat.Thankyou.How do
file yea6 Laterihetop ratedshow8ot le$ ihan haLrthai nlmber
y o ut h i n kl s h o u l da p p t ?
anymore.We
As a so. ety wejust ion t shde the sameerperienc€s
lf wer€you,I d just wriie to aUthe esiateagenfsln rhe areaw th
war.h andLnento dfferentlhl.gs.
your cv, ieLLingthem
a b t aboutyourselfandwhatyou wantto do,
P : o K i h a n k sM o nc a ,a n d i h a n kDsa m i afno r r h a t q u e s t i owne v e g o i
you'Uf ndsomethng.
l'msureif youiry hardenough,
youradvl.e.
!o moveoi, we'veontygotlime lor onemorequestion,lihnk,wh.h
appreciate
Thai3grealthankyou,I reaLLy
k fram Lisaln Eilnburgh
andgoonluck,ihopeyouf ndsomethng
J i YoureweLcome
U N I T1 OR E C O R D I N1G
P = P r e s e n t e lr' 4= M o n i c a E = E w a n F = F r e d
H = H a n n a hD = D a m i e nL " L i s a
3 leveokn c a
P: Andnowii!tlheforQu'zrheFrped.ourexpertthisw
o reo u r l i s t e n esbh er i a s
L L bfea m i L i a r t o r o m
J e s s oM
p .o n i c a w
workedata numberoftopuK unvetrities.
Coodio haveyouon the programme
l"lonlca.
P: so I'lonca,ourfnn questloncomesfrom
a callern southwales
P: Whats yourluenion foroufexpert,Ewan?
E; O(,well, a questionve atwayswantedto a5k s:whoactualty
M: Hi Lisa.Whai s your question?
L: weLL,you
mentioned
newspapebeaier Theytehavnea frardtme
ofthings.wittwe stlllreadne$pape6 ntherulure?
nihe Lart
M: Mostcountrles
have5een
a dfop n newspapercir.uLatlon
tewyeaG particuLarly
broansheeir.
Theytef nd nglt nuch riarderio
s o t u i v e a nnda n y h a v e g o n e o u tbo6f n s s . f s n o t j 6 t i h e t o $ o r
makeaLmost
90% ol
readersthatisa problem.lnrhe us newspapeG
theirmoneyfrom anvertislng.
when cncuhtiondfoF, fewetPeoPle
wantto advertkein the newspaper
andtheywont payasm!.h io
io talklo you andtlia.ks
P: oK thanksl'4onca FarcinatngasaLways
for takingpan li Qdn!/leErparr.Now it s ume for travelnewr cary,
U N I T1 OR E C O R D I N4 G
1 Theweath€rfore.ansaidiiwasgoingto be nicetoday.
l'4:wettEwan,theslmple
answe.is:ltdepennsn sofre.ounirie5
2 Thepoti.eofficerroldusrherewasnoih ngto worryabout.
the government
.ontroGthe meda.In othercolntres it s Prvare
3 our tea.hersaldlhe testwasBo ng!o beeasy
individuals
orcompanieswho
ownii.Whatwe caltmassmedla
4 cLareroLd
me shewasstayingin tonight
iowadaysaLsoincLudesihe
nternetandyou.ouLdarguerhatwe
s J o i n i e s a i d t hdeo n e y w a rh i s
a L L o w i t h a t b e . a u s e w e c a n a l l s e t o p a w eHboswi ieev ei hf e r e a r e
6 s h e 5 a iidh e c o u t d nal l f o r d r o c o moeu rf o r a m e a L w i tuh,
.ertalntysomeverytargemediacorporato.s rhd own andcontroLa
l o i o f w h a tw e s o ea n dh e a r .n t h e U S a r o u n d z 5 y e a c a 8 o t h e r e w - " r e 7 Rl.ksaidhewouldbehomeearly.
3 Alextoldme she'dpassen
theexam
5 0 m a j o r m e d l a c o r p o r a iN
i oonws t h e r e a r e j u s t s l x ,
P: Doesthal answeryourquenionEwanl
E : Y e s . .l.i h i n k i t d o e s , t h a n k s .
P: crear stuff.Nowonto Fredfron Bristol.
Fr Thank5
Doug.l'lonica,m !nterestednyourop nion.Doesthetreda
_
oh" "o[.t
vh. .
. " d o l d s e . oo a ^ 3 ( - o . l d . n i \ "
refle.twhatwethinl or doesth. media.ontroLwhatwe think?L
.
r8e J Lo.h"nee.-e shapeol "" 10 . 'hou8 o onao. e o' d'
mean,you knou io wejusi rh nk abourihe thingsthat the meda
girlsschooLhas
thar peerpre$ureto look
bullie,iherabourt, sheJeels
wantsusto rhinkabout?
aitra.tlveis veryiirong a.n shesaysthe issues affectinghefselr-esteem
M: Ah,lheeternalquesuon,
Fred t usedto besaidthal the mon
annma[ingherdepre$ed.t is MissK s ambtionto becomea corporate
powerfulpe6oninthecounrrywasthenewipaperenltorbe.ause
LawlerandshebeLleves
tharhernosewiLl
aGoaffed hercar€erprospects.
he,andiiatwayswasa he decdedwhatwentonthetronr page
parenrs
HerweaLthy
don'tbeLlevethai
hefnoser sucha serousprobLem
andsodecidedwhaiwaiimportantandwhatwasnt. Howeverthe
i5at least21,asshemayteeL
annfeeliharsheshouLd
waituntiL5he
internethashadan impa.t Now,anyone.an(eare newsWth the
ror
theyhavesaidrhartheywiLLPay
differenny
aboutft byrhen.However,
.amerain ouf rmartphanes
we .an re.orda h gh def nitionvideoor
ihe 5ureery
lf doc.o6aereethat t is in theirdaughtersbestlnterests.
an eveni uploanit to ihe lnrernetandheypresto,peopleattoverrhe
w o r L cda n s e eB. i g m e d icao r p o r a t o n s abreei n g c u t o ust i.t e sL k e
A sir-yeaFold
boy s, hasbeendiagnosed
by doctorswith atbnr on defict
gLobaLvoicesonLlne
orgarebringnBthenewsdire.tlyrromihe people
have
dkorder(ADHD)andprescriben
a newdrugwhichhewitLprobabLy
.
^ ' o d e e p e e n . e I i l s i d e^ a 7 o - e s ' o d p a s o i o - . ^ e
ro ta[e untitheGan adutrThedrugis noi tholghi to teadto dependeicy,
to your questionwhiLethe melia doesstill contol whatwe thinkto
but the lonetermeffectsarenot fuLLy
know. llis mother,whois seParated
someextenr,peopLe
afenowabLetoure the medlato retLe.twriai
is keento try
fromhisfatherandwhoha5custodyoflhe rihreechiLdren,
hk Llfebothat schootann
the drug.Shesayshisprobtemr bantyaffectine
P That! a fascinaring
iiea. mustche.kitout Thanksforthat
atrchooL,
k alreanyfaLLng
behindotherchlldren
ai home.He s,iistracred
q u e s u oFnr e i . N o w w e h a v D
e a m l ainn L e e d H
s .i D a m l a nW h a t 5
n hisschooLwork,
annhk. rea.he6a.eunsympatheiic
al home,hGbad
behaviour
.aus.s.onstanrsrre$,andhs mothersaysthat the onLything
D: Oh,yes,eryoumentlonedhowthe
ntehet has.hangednews,
gamesH s rather,wholivesl00
that keepsh m .alm k pLaying
computer
thjngs?Howhasn
Monica.NoweLsehasthe
internei.hanged
[iLometres
away,is againsihimtakingihenrug Hesaysihal hk soni5
affectedthe worldol media?
just a iohaLboy whoiee,is!o moveto a mor. disclpllned
schoolwth
nore
a calmerworkingenvronm.nt andthat heneensto pLayoutside
games.
insteadof $ayingindoorsandpLaylng
computer
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