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arts students book 1 (1)

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ARTS AND CULTURE
UNIT 1 “What is art”
Lead-in
First take a few minutes to answer these questions for yourself. Then discuss your answers
in pairs or groups. Find out about other people’s ideas and opinions.
1. What is art? How can you define it? Do you consider all creative work to be art?
2. What is its function?
3. Can you call yourself an artist?
4. What do you think of the art shown on this page?
1
Reading 1
WHAT IS ART?
1. Read the passage below. How does it define art?
How best to define art is still regularly debated. Many books and journal articles have argued
over even the basics of what we mean by calling something art. Theodor Adorno claimed, in
1969, "It is self-evident that nothing concerning art is self-evident." Artists, philosophers,
anthropologists, psychologists, and programmers all use the notion of art in their respective
fields, yet give it considerably different definitions.
Furthermore, it is clear that even the basic meaning
of the term "art" has changed several times over the
centuries, and is continuing to evolve during the
21st century as well. Most people would not have
considered the depiction of a Brillo Box or a storebought urinal to be art until Andy Warhol and
Marcel Duchamp, respectively, placed those
objects in the context of art (i.e., an art gallery),
which then associated these objects with a way that
art could be defined.
Art can refer to anything made by someone considered an artist, yet the definition of an artist has
evolved over time and varies based on context. In Ancient Greece, the term for art was "techne,"
though that word did not denote art in the modern sense and was instead applied to human
activities, especially handicrafts and technical work. The most esteemed ancient art forms were
music and poetry, and those were regarded as divinely inspired. Eventually, the idea of art
expanded in scope to include literature, visual art, performing art, and decorative art. But what
exactly does art mean?
The nature of art has been described by philosopher Richard Wollheim as "one of the most
elusive of the traditional problems of human culture." Art has been defined as a vehicle for the
expression or communication of emotions and ideas, a means for exploring and appreciating
formal elements for their own sake, and as representation. Leo Tolstoy identified art as a use of
indirect means to communicate from one person to another. Benedetto Croce and R.G.
Collingwood advanced the idealist view that art expresses emotions, and that the work of art
therefore essentially exists in the mind of the creator. More recently, thinkers influenced by
Martin Heidegger have interpreted art as the means by which a community develops for itself a
medium for self-expression and interpretation.
Art, at its simplest, is a form of communication. It means whatever it is intended to mean by the
artist herself, and this meaning is shaped by the materials, techniques, and forms of the art, as
well as the ideas and feelings it creates. Art can also simply refer to the developed and efficient
use of a language to convey meaning with immediacy and or depth. Art is an act of expressing
feelings, thoughts, and observations. There is an understanding that is reached with the material
as a result of handling it, which facilitates one's thought processes.
/Adapted from https://www.boundless.com/
2
2. Read the text again and fill in the concept-definition map.
3. Discuss the question with a partner.
Which of the definitions of art presented in the text do you find the best or most complete?
3
Language work
1. Study the following graph to find out more about art forms. There are two mistakes in
the way the words are organized into groups. Can you find them?
THE ARTS
Novels
Theatre
Dance
Short
Stories
LITERATURE
Biographies Classical
Cinema
PERFORMING
ARTS
Opera
Drama
Ballet
Concerts:
poetry/rock/
country/western/jazz
FINE ARTS
Painting
Sculpture
 We often include architecture and ceramics within the arts.
The arts (plural) covers everything in the network. Art (singular, uncountable) usually means
fine art, but can also refer to technique and creativity.
E.g.
Have you read the arts page in The Times today? [that part of the paper that deals
with all the things in the network]
She's a great art lover. [loves painting and sculpture]
Shakespeare was skilled in the art of poetry. [creative
ability]
 Dance usually refers to modern artistic dance forms; ballet usually has a more traditional
feel, unless we say modern ballet.
 Remember: a novel is a long story, e.g. 200-300 pages; a short prose fiction, e.g. 10 pages,
is a short story.
2. Which branch of the arts do you think these people are talking about? Underline the
words which helped you to guess.
Example: 'It was a strong cast but the play itself is weak.' Theatre
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
'It's called Peace. It stands in the main square.'
'Animation doesn't have to be just Disney, you know.'
'It was just pure movement, with very exciting rhythms.'
'It doesn't have to rhyme to be good.'
'Oils to me don't have the delicacy of water-colours.'
'Her design for the new shopping centre won an award.'
'I read them and imagine what they'd be like on stage.'
‘The first chapter was boring but it got better later.'
'I was falling asleep by the second act.'
4
Presentation
-ED and –ING adjectives
1. Work in pairs. Look at the photos of the reading material and discuss these questions.
Which do you read for pleasure?
Which do you read for work?
What else do you read?
2. Use the questions to interview your classmates on their reading habits. Find the person
in the class whose reading habits are most similar to yours.
•
•
•
•
•
How many books do you read a year?
Do you enjoy reading? Or do you just read for work or study?
Where or when do you usually do your reading?
Do you usually take a book with you on holiday? Why or why not?
If you do, what kind of book do you usually take?
• What are you reading at the moment? Would you recommend it? Why or why not?
• How do you usually choose books to read?
3. Read the following passage about Choosing a Book to Read and circle the correct form of
the adjectives in bold.
We asked several people the question, ‘How do you choose a book to read?’ Here are their
replies:
1
I judge the book by its cover. If the cover looks interesting/interested, I buy the book.
Sometimes I’m lucky and the book is good, and sometimes I’m disappointing/disappointed.
2
‘I always read book reviews in newspapers and magazines and when I read about a book
that sounds interesting/interested, I write it down in my diary.’
3
‘I don’t take any risks. I always read books by authors I know. I get really
exciting/excited when one of my favourite authors brings out a new book and I buy it
immediately. This way I’m never disappointing/disappointed.”
5
4
‘I read the first page and if it’s boring/bored, I don’t buy the book. If I want to turn over
the page and carry on reading, I buy the book.’
5
‘It’s easy. I never read fiction but I’m fascinating/fascinated by biographies of famous
people. I find strong women in history particularly inspiring/inspired.’
6
‘I tend to choose books written by women. They have a better feeling for characters and
relationships between them, and that’s what I find interesting/interested in a book. Having said
that, I’ve just finished a book by a man and it was brilliant!’
4. Look at your choice of words and answer these questions:
a) Which adjective ending do you use to say how people feel?
b) Which adjective ending do you use to describe the people or things that cause the
feeling?
5. A Listen to a critic commenting on a book and tick the adjectives she uses to describe the
characters and the plot.
characters
convincing
predictable
well-developed
realistic
weak
original






plot
gripping
boring
involving
dramatic
dull
moving
entertaining
informative
confusing
exciting










/From Enterprise, Student’s Book/
B
Now you will hear five people talking about their reactions to books they have read.
For questions 1 – 5, choose from the list A – F. Use the letters only once. There is one extra
letter you do not need to use.
A
B
C
D
E
F
bored
excited
moved
scared
confused
furious
Speaker 1 ______
Speaker 2 ______
Speaker 3 ______
Speaker 4 ______
Speaker 5 ______
6. Say what you should feel about a book and what characteristics it should have for you to
choose to borrow it/buy it/read it up to the end/say it’s one of your favourite.
6
Speaking
1. When did you last go to any of the following places?
1. a museum
2. a concert
3. a film
4. the theatre
Tell your partner about the impression this visit produced on you.
2. Do you prefer reading paper books or electronic ones? Why?
3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of ebooks? Consider the opinion below.
While there are millions of e-books available for download, not every book published is put into
a digital format. The new bestseller that just came out might have to be purchased in paperback
form, or the publisher can choose to make it available as an e-book only. Many e-books are
available for free, or at a lower cost when compared to a huge paperback novel. So a person has
to compare cost to book availability when choosing to go with e-books. However, the
availability of e-books and the convenience of using them may encourage more people to read,
especially in the young. Electronic books take up no space on the bookshelf, but an avid reader
may need to purchase an additional storage or memory device to keep their entire library. As
stated before, e-books come in a variety of formats. E-books may not be able to be returned if the
format is not compatible with the reading device. Paper books can be traded, gifted, resold, and
lent. However, a gift card for an e-book is not as personal as a nicely wrapped paper book, and
an e-book can’t be resold in a garage sale. Some e-books are allowed to be lent from one reader
to another, but only for a short period of time. Money spent on an e-book is an investment that
can be lost if the data is destroyed or if the book was not enjoyable.
/http://e-booksandreaders.blogspot.ru/
4. Look at the results of the survey “Book Reading 2016” presented on the next page.
Discuss the following question with a partner.
What does the survey show about the book-reading landscape in the USA in the recent
years?
5. Present the analysis of the survey to your groupmates.
7
A
B
8
UNIT 2 “Museums”
Lead-in
Describe what you can see in these photos of museums. Which would you like to visit
most? Which would not appeal to you?
•
•
•
•
Henry VIII and his six wives, Madame Tussaud’s, London
Limousine, Librace’s Museum, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
Row of early twentieth century shops, Beamish Open Air Museum, north of England
Roman kitchen, Museum of London
9
Reading
1. Skim the text and say what the main function of museums is.
The Changing Role of Museums in Society (an extract from Glenn Lowry’s
1
speech)
There are those who believe that art museums are nothing more than an attractive facade for
society – a thing that can be sacrificed when times get rough. My goal today is to illustrate the
vital role museums play in shaping society's vision of itself.
The relationship between society and museums is not a one-way street. While both public and
private sectors are responsible for the continued existence of art museums, these institutions also
have a duty to fulfill.
Art museums cannot be isolated in their own world, with their own language and their own
priorities. Art must be made accessible to people. Our goal is to make art museums bring art and
people together.
Museums provide a central arena where individuals can meet in order to look, examine, and
wonder at art and learn in the process that when we judge a work of art we are also judging
ourselves. Museums around the world are taking a long look at the ways in which they exhibit
and interpret the most challenging works of art, and are examining ways to make art more
understandable and enjoyable for a wider audience.
Our goal is to create an environment in which all visitors feel challenged by installations and
exhibitions, I believe that museums must be intellectual and cultural forces for the communities
they serve, but they must also be open and accessible to all people. Visiting a museum should not
simply be an exercise in looking at art. Rather it should be a unique experience where visitors
enter into a dialogue with the objects displayed as well as the thoughts of the people who have
developed the installations or exhibitions. Experiencing art is an emotional and intellectual rather
than a passive activity, and it is a museum's responsibility to encourage this.
Museums also have a responsibility to display art that reflects and represents society. Our society
is composed of rich and different cultures. The achievements that we present must reveal a broad
image of society, not one that reflects only a part of the whole.
However, this presents a real challenge to art museums. Countries, such as England, are
incorporating the art of more recent immigrant populations to reflect the awareness of the
complexity of its society.
Besides, museums are about quality. The mark of a great museum is the quality of its collections
and programs. One need only think of the Louvre in Paris or the Hermitage in St. Petersburg to
1
Lowry, Glenn - Director, Art Gallery of Ontario
10
see this. Great works of art no matter where they come from, or who made them, are those that
can go beyond everyday life to reveal fundamental truths about life.
Thus, museums provide the bridge between art and society. Museums help us express and
evaluate cultural issues, and through this help us realize what is of real value to us as well as
create new values, which is important for our understanding of who we are and what we would
like to be.
/http://speeches.empireclub.org/details.asp?SpeechID=1572&FT=yes /
2. Read the text again and answer the following questions:
1. How many functions do museums perform in society?
2. How seriously do people take museums if they see them as “an attractive facade for society”?
3. What does the speaker mean by saying that “the relationship between society and museums
is not a one-way street”?
4. What can public sectors do to keep art museums working? How can private sectors
contribute to it?
5. Why is there a need to bring art and people together? What is the role of museums in it?
6. When will works of art be called challenging? Give examples of such works. Have you ever
been challenged by a work of art (an installation, an exhibition etc.)? What was it?
7. What do museums need to do to make art more understandable and enjoyable?
8. Does a visit to an art museum require much effort? What kind of effort is it?
9. What do people learn when looking at the objects displayed?
10. How do museums reflect the composition of society?
11. What did British museums authorities decide to include in displays? Would you approve of
their decision?
12. What makes a work of art a great one?
13. Give examples of great works of art. Where are they displayed? How accessible are they to
people?
14. What museums are mentioned in the text? What other world-known museums do you know?
Language work
1. Fill in the table with derivatives:
Nouns
Verbs
Adjectives
access
exhibit
understand
display
install
enjoy
collection
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2. Complete the sentences using the words from the table. In some sentences more than one
word can be used.
1.
The Art of the Brick museum show is now touring the U.S. It is the first major
______________ to focus exclusively on the use of the popular LEGO® building block as an art
medium.
2.
The $42-million expansion of the University of Michigan Museum of Art has doubled its
space, allowing more of the museum's collection to be _____________.
3.
Students in this class will deepen their ___________________ of the masters' painting
techniques by copying works of art in the Museum's galleries.
4.
Minneapolis Institute of the Arts membership gives a free pass to their ticketed
exhibitions and _____________ to members-only events and publications.
5.
The Denver Art Museum is interested in making art meaningful and ____________ to
people of all ages and backgrounds.
6.
Museums enable people to explore their____________ for inspiration, learning and
___________. They are institutions that collect, safeguard and make ____________ artifacts,
which they store for society.
7.
Modelled on the protests and celebrations on the National Mall, Jean Shin’s latest
____________ — a crowd in miniature — will be ______________ at the Smithsonian
American Art Museum in Washington beginning May 1.
3. Match the verb from the left column with the noun or nouns from the right:
to create
installations
to exhibit
works of art
to judge
art and people together
to present
a duty
to bring
a work of art
to experience
art
to fulfill
an environment
to develop
a real challenge
Reading 2
Museums
1. Answer the following questions:
1) Are museums in your country free or do you have to pay to go there?
2) Do you think museums should be free, or that people should have to pay to get
in?
2. Read the article on free museum entry in the UK. Are any of your arguments for and
against free museum entry mentioned in the article?
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Ten years of free entry, but can it last?
Maintaining free entry to the UK’s national museums doesn’t come cheap: it costs around £44m
a year to maintain free admission to national museums that previously charged, or around £354m
in total since 1999.
Why is the government backing a scheme launched in 2001 by the Labour government it
routinely criticises for free-spending? The coalition is committed to reducing the country’s
budget deficit, which peaked at more than 10% of gross domestic product before it came to
power in 2010. Yet universal free entry, which Scotland and Wales also introduced in 2001,
seems sacrosanct even though cutting the deficit is one of the coalition government’s mantras.
Attendance boom
Supporters of free entry point to its success in terms of increasing attendance. Across the UK
visits have increased by 51% since 2000, statistics collected by the Department for Culture,
Media and Sport reveal. Visitors are predominantly middle-class, and many in London’s
museums are overseas tourists. Some argue these visitors can afford to pay something, as they do
for many temporary exhibitions. Free entry has widened access, encouraging people to visit who
would be put off by even a low entry charge. The number of visitors from the most
disadvantaged backgrounds now make up 2.5% of the British Museum’s visitors and 5% of the
V&A’s.
When museums do charge, visitor figures plummet, as they did in the 1990s. Introducing a £7
ticket to visit the Royal Observatory led to a 55% fall in attendance.
That said, around 50 million visitors enjoy the 50 free national museums across the UK a year.
This means that £125m could be raised if half that number paid £5 per person: useful income for
hard-pressed directors struggling to balance a budget.
However, charging is unlikely to return because there is a consensus supporting free entry among
directors. The picture was different in the 1990s when opinion was divided, with some directors
ideologically in favour of charging. Treating visitors as customers made institutions more visitorfocused, they argued, and did spur modernisation and improved marketing.
Subsidising tourists
Arguably the visitors who most benefit from free entry are international tourists to London.
Around 18 million overseas visitors enjoyed national museums last year, twice as many as ten
years ago. Some question the value of subsidising tourists who are happy to pay for London’s
other cultural and heritage destinations, be it St Paul’s Cathedral (£14.50) or the Tower of
London (£19.80). The counter argument is that free entry provides wider economic benefits: free
museums contribute to London’s attractiveness as a destination, and the money saved visiting a
13
non-charging museum will be spent on something else in the capital. The altruistic argument is
that free entry is a sign of civilised society (emulated last year by China).
The national museums that withstood the political pressure to introduce charges in the 1990s and
remained free, notably the British Museum, National Gallery and the Tate galleries (except its St
Ives gallery, which does charge), have during the same period seen their visitor numbers rise,
although slightly. This has helped to keep the British Museum, National Gallery and Tate
Modern among the top five most visited museums in the world. With government funding
unlikely to increase any time soon, there are growing fears that while attendance remains high,
the strain on institutions’ budgets—and their staff—will grow also.
By Javier Pes. Museums, Issue 232, February 2012
Published online: 01 February 2012
/Adapted from http://www.elginism.com/
3. Fill in the table below with the arguments for and against free museum entry mentioned
in the article.
FOR
AGAINST
4. LANGUAGE WORK
Select the vocabulary to talk about charging museums and free ones.
charging museums
free museums
museums that previously charged
maintain free entry to national museums
14
Writing
Write an essay discussing the advantages and disadvantages of making museums free of
charge.
Reading 3
Look at the information about five museums A-E in Seoul, South Korea. For which
museum are the following statements true? Write the correct letter A-F next to Questions
1-8.
NB You may write any letter more than once.
Strategy: Read the questions (1-8) carefully to identify the kind of information you
need to find; simply scanning the text for a key word is not enough. Remember the
words in the questions will not always match the words in the passage exactly.
1. This museum also functions as an occasional venue for performing arts. _________
2. You can learn about natural history in this museum.
_________
3. This museum is the only one of its kind in Korea.
_________
4. This is the most high-tech of the museums.
_________
5. A historical building once stood where this museum stands today.
_________
6. This museum contains something for the very distant future.
_________
7. The exhibits in this museum include objects from the distant past.
_________
8. You can take classes one day a week at this museum.
_________
A
Namsangol Traditional Folk Village
Located just north of Namsan Park, this re-creation of a small village depicts the architecture and
gardens of the Chosun Dynasty (1393-1910). There are five restored traditional houses from that
era. A large pavilion overlooks a beautiful pond and an outdoor theatre hosts dance and drama
performances on weekends. There is also a hall displaying traditional handicrafts and a kiosk
selling souvenirs. Recently, a time capsule containing 600 items representing the lifestyle of
modern-day people of Seoul was buried to celebrate the city's 600th anniversary In 2394, it will
be opened!
B
Eunan Museum
This privately-owned museum displays rare specimens of animals, ores, and species of insects
collected from around the world. The building comprises six floors, one under ground and five
above. Among the fauna on exhibition are shellfish, insects, butterflies and birds.The collection
is housed on the lower floors. On the third floor is a library and the fifth floor has a study room
and an ocean exhibition hall. One aim of the museum is to bring animal extinction to the
attention of the public.
C
National Museum of Korea
This is one of the most extensive museums in Seoul, housing art and archaeological relics from
Korean prehistory through to the end of the Chosun Dynasty (1910). Throughout the three-floor
museum, there are 4,500 artefacts on display in 18 permanent galleries. Audio guides, touch
screens, and video rooms all help to bring the ancient world alive here. In addition to regular
exhibitions, the museum offers special educational programs such as public lectures, arts and
crafts classes, and special tours.
D
Seoul Metropolitan Museum of Art
Established in 1988, this museum is located on the former site of Kyonghee-gung palace. There
are four floors with six exhibition halls. The collections include more than 170 Korean paintings,
15
Western paintings and prints. Spend a peaceful and relaxing day amidst beautiful works of art. If
you are an art enthusiast and would like to learn, the museum offers art courses every Friday.
E
Korea Sports Museum
This is the sole museum in Korea dedicated to sports. It displays about 2,500 items tracing back
to 1920, when Korea's first sports organization was founded. You can browse through sports
memorabilia such as badges, medals, photographs, trophies, and mascots related to national and
international sports events. Make sure not to miss the taekwondo-related exhibits.
/From Cambridge Grammar for IELTS, Diana Hopkins with Pauline Cullen/
Speaking
1. Look at the photographs and use some of these words to describe the works of art.
sculpture / sculptor
abstract/representational painting / still life / portrait / landscape
oil painting / sketch / water colour / Old Master
frame / canvas / brush / stroke / palette
intense / brilliant / subtle colours
depict / portray
2. Work with a partner or in groups of three. Your university has decided to buy a work of
art — a painting or piece of sculpture — to display in the reception area. A committee has
been set up to choose what to buy, and the four pieces in the photographs have been
shortlisted. As members of the committee, you have been asked to make a final
recommendation. Discuss which work of art you would like your university to buy. Give
your reasons.
3. Report your decision to the rest of the class. Say if you found it easy or difficult to make
your choice.
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Language Bank
Negotiating
My first choice would be the sculpture.
I really think ... is excellent / outstanding / very
original, don't you?
I couldn't agree more — I particularly like the
vibrant colours/the use of ...
X is a/an brilliant/extremely talented
sculptor/painter.
It's all right if you like that kind of thing, but I
don't think it will appeal to everyone.
Personally, I'm not too keen on/I don't think
much of abstract art.
Shouldn't we choose something that will be
acceptable to a majority?
After all/I mean, most people prefer paintings
they can understand.
Well, what do you think of the still-life, then?
Reporting decisions
We've decided to recommend the painting by ...
All things considered, we feel that...
Presentation
4. Discuss these questions.
1 Do you like going to art
galleries?
2 Do you think 'public art' is
important? Should the state support art in
the community?
3 Do you like abstract art? Do
you think art should always be easy to
understand? Why?
4 Do you have any favourite
artists? Say why you like them.
/Fast Track to
CAE. Student’s Book. Alan Stanton, Susan Morris/
Obligation, necessity, permission and prohibition
1. Match the pictures to the rules given below. Note that there is one extra sign.
A
E
B
C
F
D
G
H
Museum Etiquette #1: When you go to a museum, you are not allowed to bring any food and/or
drink. You can chew a gum or a small candy, but make sure that you do not blow your bubble
gum close to the art pieces. Ask permission first if they will let you do these.
Museum Etiquette #2: You must not smoke inside the museum. If you must have a smoke, do it
outside of the building. Cigarette smoke can damage museum pieces, especially paintings and
other rare artifacts.
Museum Etiquette #3: Generally, you are not permitted to take photographs or videos of the
permanent collection or changing exhibitions. Sometimes, you need to obtain permissions from
the Curator for any photography or video recording. But you are not allowed to use flash
photography as it can also damage rare paintings.
Museum Etiquette #4: You must turn off cell phones before entering a museum. You need to
remember that many museum visitors are interested in looking at the exhibits in a professional,
relaxing environment.
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Museum Etiquette #5: In order to preserve the collections on display, you must not touch works
of art or frames. Even if the item is encased in glass, you are not allowed to touch the case. This
is important, as someone has to clean up all fingerprints, as museums have standards that need to
be maintained.
Museum Etiquette #6: You must not make loud noises by talking or laughing loudly, singing,
whistling, etc. You are allowed to use your iPod unless you get carried away and sing along.
Museum Etiquette #7: Whether you treat your pets like your child or as a fashion accessory,
whether big or small, you are not allowed to bring pets inside the art museums.
/http://www.scribd.com/doc/9502672/Museum-Etiquette-What-You-Should-and-Shouldnt-Do-on-Your-Next-Museum-Visit
http://www.helium.com/knowledge/103446-museum-etiquette-how-to-behave-when-visiting-an-art-museum/
2. Match the phrases, a) – g), taken from the text, to the descriptions, i) – iv).
a) you are not allowed to bring any food
i) a present obligation
b) you can chew a gum
ii) necessity
c) you must not smoke
iii) permission
d) you are not permitted to take photographs
iv) prohibition
e) you need to obtain permissions
f) someone has to clean up all fingerprints
g) you are allowed to use your iPod
Language Reference
Obligation
1) Have to
Have to expresses obligation but usually describes what other people, not the speaker, require
(i.e. it is external obligation).
You have to wear a tie if you go to that nightclub. (It's one of the rules.)
I had to go away on business last week. (My boss told me to.)
It is sometimes used when you are being polite and want to make excuses.
I'm sorry but I have to wash my hair this evening.
Have got to is often used instead of have to. It is nearly always used in the contracted form. I've
got to pay the phone bill this week.
Form
- negative
You don’t have to go.
I haven’t got to finish it.
- question
How old do you have to be to drive?
What have we got to do?
The past form of have to and have got to is had to.
2) Must / mustn't
When we think something is important and we want to give strong, direct advice to someone, we
can use must or mustn't. Depending on intonation, must can sound like an order. Mustn't is
used to tell people not to do things.
You must take these tablets four times a day.
You mustn't worry so much.
(Note that the imperative is often more common in everyday language:
Take these tablets four times a day, please.)
18
We often use must when we want to describe what we think is important for ourselves.
I must go home. I want to write some letters.
Must can only be used to refer to the present and the future. Had to is used to refer to the past.
Must is often used in public notices or signs:
Visitors must report to reception. Guests must be signed in at the desk.
Absence of obligation
There are several ways of saying that it is not necessary to do something.
1) don’t have to / haven’t got to
You don’t have to go to lectures. Nobody checks.
You haven’t got to wear a tie.
2) don’t need to / needn’t
Notice that needn’t is not followed by to.
We needn’t hurry.
When talking about the past the most common expressions to use are didn’t have to and didn’t
need to.
I didn’t have to go to bed early when I was ten.
She didn’t need to come in early at night.
Prohibition
Prohibition is expressed by not allowed to, can’t and mustn’t. The first two expressions
generally refer to external prohibition, whereas mustn’t is usually a direct order.
You aren’t allowed to photocopy this book.
You can’t fly unless you are fairly fit.
You mustn’t walk on the grass.
When talking about the past the most common expressions to use are wasn’t/weren’t allowed to
and couldn’t.
I wasn’t allowed to have pocket money.
He couldn’t drive because he wasn’t insured.
Permission
Permission is expressed by allowed to and can.
You’re allowed to smoke in this room only.
You can borrow my car if you like.
Allowed to usually suggests that permission is being given by someone else, not the speaker.
Other points
• Words like just, only, also, always, sometimes etc. come before have to / have got to / need to
but after must:
You only have to do it once. You must only do it once.
• The present perfect form is:
We've had to sell the boat. The restaurant's had to close.
• Other verbs can express obligation or necessity:
I insist that you leave now. (obligation) You are required to leave now. (necessity)
19
Practice
1. Complete these sentences using must or have to and discuss your answers with a partner.
1 I'm afraid I can't come to your party. The boss has told me I _____________ go away on
business.
2) The house looks awful! I really _____________ find time to clean it.
3) You really _____________ stop driving so fast or you'll have an accident.
4) This is going to be an expensive month because I _____________ pay the telephone bill.
5) I hear that in England you _____________ get a licence if you have a TV. It's the law.
5) I _____________ go to bed now or I won't be able to get up for work.
2. Use mustn't or don't have to to complete the sentences.
1) It's OK. You _____________ wear fancy dress to the party if you don't want to.
2) You _____________ in Bill’s car. He gets really angry if you do.
3) Now don’t forget. You _____________ walk on the grass.
4) You _____________ do that. I’ll do that later.
3. What could we say?
Rewrite each of the written notices 1-6 below. Use the verbs you have studied in this unit.
Start each sentence with You.
PLEASE SIGN THE VISITORS' BOOK
You must sign the visitors' book
SHOW YOUR PASSPORT AT RECEPTION
1.
Wear rubber gloves when using this product
2.
Shake bottle for best result
3.
DO NOT LEAVE YOUR BAG UNATTENDED
4.
Remember to take all your
belongings with you when you
leave the aircraft
5.
DANGER – DO NOT TOUCH!
6.
4. Talk about rules and regulations one should be aware of visiting a cinema / a theatre / a
swimming pool / a TV chat show / a park.
20
5. Obligation and permission
a. Read the article and put the correct expression from the box into the gaps.
cannot ride
will not marry
visit may not travel
must be
can only keep
must dress
must sweep
may not
must be at home
should command
The 1901 Teaching Contract for Female Teachers
At the beginning of the 20th century female teachers had a very restricted life. There was a set of
'golden rules' that they had to abide by or risk instant dismissal. The rules were there to make
sure teachers commanded authority and respect, but for women it meant sacrificing a lot of
personal freedom. Nowadays it seems quite incredible that such strict rules should be enforced
on female teaching staff.
1
You _________ during the term of your contract.
2
You _________ company with other women.
3
You _________ authority and respect from your pupils at all times.
4
You _________ between 8 p.m. and 6 a.m. unless attending a school function.
5
You _________ ice-cream parlours at any time.
6
You _________ in a carriage or automobile with any man unless he is your father or
brother.
7
You _________ the schoolroom floor at least once daily.
8
You _________ in plain colours of grey or black and your dresses _________ no more
than 1 inch above the ankles.
9
You _________ beyond the city limits without the permission of the chairman of the
board of school governors.
21
b. Nancy Wilson was a teacher in Valley Road School, Sunderland from 1920 to 1929. Read
her comments about it and complete them with a suitable past expression from below.
had to
couldn't
didn't have to
weren't allowed to
was allowed (to)
were forbidden to
a. I was the youngest of six daughters and like many middle-class girls, I ______________
become a teacher. I had no choice. I ______________ earn a living any other way.
b. My day started at seven o'clock in the morning, when I ______________ sweep and dust the
schoolroom, and we ______________ leave at the end of the day until this task was repeated.
c. I had two grey dresses and I wore one of them every day. It ______________ be grey. Black
______________ also ______________, but we ______________ wear anything
fashionable or colourful.
d. We ______________ ride in automobiles with any men except our father or brothers. This
was no hardship because our family had no car.
e. The most ridiculous rule of all was the one about visiting ice-cream parlours. I can't imagine
why we ______________ go there.
f. Eventually, when I was 29, I did meet and marry a young man, Jack. Then, of course, I
______________ give up teaching. You ______________ continue as a married woman.
6. a. Work in groups. Talk about your school.
 Were your teachers strict?
 What were you allowed to do?
 What weren’t you allowed to do?
b. How did your school differ from the school of your dreams? Together with your partner,
make up a list of rules for an ideal school.
22
UNIT 3 “Cinema and theatre”
Lead-in
City Activities
by Thomas Hart Benton.
The artist gives his view of American society in the 1920s.
1. Read the text and fill in the gaps with the words from the box below. (The first one has
been done for you).
pictures
actors
“stars”
audiences
film
fan magazines
publicity
attraction
film-making
favourite
studios screens
dream
lined up
THE MOVIES
In the 1920s American movies filled the cinema screens of the world. Most were made in
Hollywood, a suburb of the city of Los Angeles in California. Hollywood's big ________ for
film-makers was its clean air and plentiful sunshine. The movies made there were bright and
clear. By the 1920s it had become the ________ capital of the world.
Hollywood movies were made by large companies called ________. The men who ran these
studios were businessmen and their main aim was to make as much money as possible. They
soon found that one way to do this was to standardize their films. When ________ had shown
that they liked a certain kind of film, the studios made many more of exactly the same kind.
Another sure way for a studio to make money was to turn its actors into ________. Stars were
actors who were so popular that people went in crowds to see any ________ they appeared in,
no matter how good or bad it was. A famous star could make any movie a certain success. So
the studios went to great lengths to make their _______ into stars. They encouraged
__________. They set up special _________ departments to get stories about their actors into
the newspapers.
The movies of the 1920s were silent. They spoke in ________, not words, and so their language
23
was international. All over the world, from Berlin to Tokyo, from London to Buenos Aires, tens
of millions of people _________ every night of the week to see their ________ Hollywood stars
– and, without realizing it, to be Americanized.
Hollywood movies showed people a world that was more exciting, more free, more equal, than
their own. To most people this world of the movies remained a _______ world, separate from
real life. But to others it became more. It made them realize, however dimly, that perhaps their
own conditions of life could be improved.
2. Discuss the following questions:
1. There are two different ways Hollywood films influenced people all over the world
mentioned in the text. What are they? Are they the same now?
2. Which kind of influence on Russian people, if any, is taking place at the moment?
3. Do you have a favourite Hollywood film / Hollywood star?
Presentation 1
Suggestions and Advice
1.
Peter and Ann are trying to decide how to spend an evening out. Listen to their
conversation and fill in the missing words.
Peter:
Would you like to go out this evening?
Ann:
Yes, why not? What do you have in mind?
Peter:
1) .............................. going to a concert? The Ragford Symphony Orchestra’s
playing at the Sindican Centre tonight at 7.30.
Ann:
Oh, no! I’m not in the mood for that kind of thing.
2) ................................. going to the theatre?
Peter:
3) ................................. . Oh, maybe not. There is a pantomime on, but it starts at
6.30, and it’s 6.15 now.
Ann:
Oh, I see. Well, 4) .................................... go to the cinema? Rob Roy is on at the
Odeon.
Peter:
That sounds nice. 5) .................................. have a quick snack before we buy our
tickets.
Ann:
That’s a lovely idea. 6) .............................go to the Pierre’s.
2.
How many suggestions are made?
3. Here are some examples of suggestions. Use the conversation to help you fill in the gaps.
Making suggestions:
a) Why ___________ we + infinitive (without to) or
b) We __________ + infinitive (without to)
Replying to suggestions:
c) __________________________ + an alternative suggestion
d) __________________________
e) __________________________
24
Language reference
Suggestions and advice
Use
Suggestions are ideas for someone else to think about. Advice is stronger, and means telling
someone what you think they should do.
Forms
Asking for suggestions
Making suggestions
Responding to suggestions
What shall I / we do? Has
To others, or ourselves and
Accepting:
anybody got any ideas?
others:
That's a good idea.
Why don't you / we etc. go to the That sounds like a good idea.
cinema?
Yes, let's.
You could (always) go to the
Yes, OK.
cinema.
How about / What about going
Refusing:
to the cinema?
Good idea, but I'm busy this
evening.
To ourselves and others:
Hmm, I think I'd prefer to
Let's go to the cinema.
stay in tonight.
Shall we go to the cinema?
Couldn't we stay in tonight?
Let's go to the cinema, shall we?
Asking for advice
Giving advice
Responding to advice
What shall I do?
Accepting:
I think you should
If
I
were
you
I'd
change
jobs.
What do you think I should
That's a good idea.
do?
You'd (had) better
That sounds like a good idea.
What would you do if you
Yes, I'll do that.
were me?
Yes, I could I should.
Rejecting:
That's a good idea but
Yes I could / should but I can't.
I know, but
Practice
1. Thinking about function
Match the suggestions / advice in 1-8 to the responses, a)-i).
Example: You should try doing more exercise. b)
1 Why don’t we go to Hawaii this year? … a) That's a good idea. She's always losing hers.
2 You shouldn't work such long hours. … b) Yes, you're right. It would do me good.
3 Don't think about her. …
c) Yes, or we could go somewhere cheaper.
4 We could get her a new pen …
d) We could, but I think I'd prefer to watch TV.
5 Shall we go out tonight? …
e) That's sensible advice, but I can't forget her.
6 Why don't you ask her to meet you? … f) I know, but I've got a lot to do.
7 Let's go for a walk, shall we? …
g) Do you think so? If I leave it much longer I
8 You could always put the decision off a
might miss my chance.
little bit longer. …
h) Hmm. I'm too shy to do that.
i) Yes, good idea. I need some fresh air.
25
2. Getting the forms right. Use the verbs in brackets, and the instructions to complete the
conversation.
Ask for advice
Give advice
A: What do you think I should do?
B: It's a difficult situation, but if I were you I’d think (think) about it.
A: I have, and I just don't know what to do. That's why I'm asking you.
Give advice
B: Well, you 1.__________ always __________ (accept) both jobs now.
Reject advice
A: 2. ____________________ that's just delaying the decision.
Make a suggestion B: Well then, perhaps you 3. __________ (write) a list for each job with
advantages and disadvantages.
Accept a suggestion, A: That's a 4. __________. 5. __________ we __________ (do)
make a suggestion it now?
Accept a suggestion, B: Yeah, OK. 6. __________ (start) with the local job, and then do
make a suggestion the overseas one, 7. __________?
Refuse a suggestion A: Yes, or we 8.__________ (do) each one together, comparing
the positive and negative points as we do it.
What is A's problem? ________________________________
3. a) Work with a partner. Together think of a real or imaginary problem.
Example: I want to speak good English, but I'm shy speaking to strangers. What shall I do?
b) Now divide into two groups, with one from each pair in each group. Ask each student in
your new group for advice about your problem, and give them advice about theirs.
c) Go back to your partner and compare the advice you have been given. Decide who gave
the best advice.
Speaking
Going out
Look at the following advertisements, then work with a partner and plan your Saturday
evening out together.
Saturday 14 May
USEFUL LANGUAGE
What would you like to do?
Do you fancy going to the cinema?
Why don’t we go to the disco?
Let’s have a hamburger.
We could always stay at home.
What/How about eating out?
Shall we see a new play at the Theatre Royale tonight?
RESPONDING TO SUGGESTIONS
POSITIVELY
NEGATIVELY
OK/Right/All right
!!! When you say ‘No’ to a suggestion, it is
That sounds fine/great ...
polite to give a reason, or suggest
Good idea!/That’s a good idea...
something else instead !!!
That sounds like a good idea to me...
I don’t think that’s a good idea...
I’m not in the mood for...
How about ... instead?
I’d rather (do smth)
I’d prefer to (do smth)
26
SYNOPSIS
Following on from the events in Furious 7, the gang of professional street racers are taking to equall y as
exotic locations, rivalling the likes of Rio de Janeiro and Dubai from previous films in the franchise.
This time around, Dominic Toretto and his crew will be tearing up the streets of Cuba in Fast 8, although
the film will also see the guys and gals nipping in between traffic in New York.
With a whole host of famous Fast and Furious faces returning to the roads, fans can expect to see the
likes of Tyrese Gibson (2 Fast 2 Furious) as Roman Pearce, Lucas Black (The Fast and the Furious:
Tokyo Drift) as Sean Boswell, and Dwayne Johnson (Fast Five) as DSS Agent Luke Hobbs.
Fast 8 marks the second ever film in the franchise not to star the late Paul Walker (The Fast and the
Furious), however, he is still viewed as very much a part of the cast, with Vin D iesel commenting that
“Paul Walker used to say that [an eighth film] was guaranteed (…) [Furious 7] was for Paul, [the eighth
film] is from Paul.”
F. Gary Gray directs his first movie in the Fast and Furious franchise, having recently directed the box
office successes of Law Abiding Citizen and Straight Outta Compton.
27
EVERY SATURDAY MAY 2017
28
13 – 14
MAY
13-14, 2017.
2017
13
14
29
Listening
Films
1. Look at the pictures of four films below. What type of film do you think each is? Choose
from the following list.
romantic comedy
science fiction
gangster
action
thriller
western
love story
war
horror
comedy
family
A
B
C
D
2. Listen to six people describing how they feel about a film they are just about to see.
Which film (A, B, C or D) is it?
30
3. Underline the word or phrase each person used to describe their feelings.
1 'A bit / Totally / Extremely nervous, actually.'
2 'Yeah, distinctly / utterly / a little uneasy, I must admit.'
3 ' I ' m looking forward to being scared / nervous / frightened to death.'
4 'To be scared / afraid / bored stiff - hopefully.'
5 ‘I feel completely / terribly / quite apprehensive.'
6 "] expect it to be absolutely / quite / very terrifying.'
Listen again and check.
Look at the two other options in the phrases above. Cross out the option that doesn't
form a common collocation and tick the option that does. Use your dictionary if
necessary.
I) 'A bit / Totally / Extremely V nervous, actually.'
4. Work with a partner. Look at the adjectives in the box and decide which ones fit
sentence frame A and which ones fit sentence frame B.
amazing boring brilliant disappointing dreadful
funny good
interesting ridiculous spectacular
entertaining extraordinary
A (gradable adjectives): The film was quite, very, extremely __________________________.
B (absolute adjectives): The film was quite, absolutely ________________________________.
How does the meaning of quite change in A and B?
5. Listen to the six people from Exercise 2 being interviewed after the film. What
was the general reaction?
6. Read the script of the listening below and fill in the gaps with the exact words used by
the speakers.
EXPRESSING OPINIONS ABOUT FILMS
1
I: So, how was it for you?
Gl: (1)_______________ disappointing. I wasn't the least bit scared, and you know from the start
that everybody dies, so there's no (2)_______________. Anyway, the (3)_______________ are
so annoying that I felt like killing them myself. It does not live up to the (4)_______________.
2
I: What did you (5)_______________ of it then?
Bl: (6)_______________ rubbish. My girlfriend fell asleep, and I spent the last half of the movie
with my eyes shut - not because it was scary - but because the camera angles made me feel sick.
Don't see it if you suffer from motion sickness. In fact, just don't see it.
3
I: So were you frightened to death?
B2: No way. After all the hype, it was a (7)_______________ letdown.
31
4
I: What did you think?
G2: Over-hyped nonsense. I spent most of the time waiting for something to happen. I feel
(8)_______________ disillusioned.
5
I: Did the film live up to your (9)_______________?
G3: No, it didn't. I don't think I've ever been so bored in my (10)_______________ life, and I
still haven't got a clue what it's about. In fact, there's no story to speak of. This film is a perfect
example of hype over (11)_______________.
6
I: Your verdict?
B3: A (12)_______________ waste of time. I was bored out of my mind. The website was much
more (13)_______________ than the film.
7. To express your opinion about something you also need verbs like ‘love’, ‘dislike’,
‘enjoy’ etc. Add more verbs showing attitude to the list given below.
most negative
most positive
dislike
love enjoy
8. Study the examples below and fill in the rule.
 Ann hates flying.
 She loves to make new friends everywhere she goes.
 Why do you dislike living here?
 I don’t like people shouting at me. (=I don’t like being shouted at.)
 I love meeting people.
 She can’t bear being alone.
 I can’t bear to participate in quarrels.
 They enjoy dancing.
 Tom doesn’t mind working at night.
 I can’t stand being addressed like that.
After verbs ________, ________, ________we can use either –ing or to.
Verbs ________, ________, ________, ________ can be followed by –ing only.
Speaking
Films
1. You are going to tell your partner about a movie you have seen.
Ask yourself the questions below.
Think about what to say and how to say it.
Tell your partner about the film.
a) What was the name of the film?
b) Who was in it and who directed it?
c) When and where did you see it?
d) Who did you see it with?
e) What did you know about the film before you saw it?
f) What did you particularly like or dislike about the film?
g) Were there any characters you could identify with?
h) Were there any characters who annoyed you?
i) What was the best/worst part of the film?
j) Would you go and see another film by the same director?
32
2. Discuss the following questions with a partner.
What’s your favourite way to watch a movie? Do you usually go out to a movie theatre or
watch it at home? Why?
3. Look at the graphs “Cinema Attendance in the UK” below. Discuss the following
question with a partner.
What do the graphs show about the changes in cinema attendance in the UK since the 1930s?
4. Present the analysis of the two graphs to your groupmates.
33
Presentation 2
Language of Politeness
1. In the conversation below, two guests are visiting friends at their house. Read the
conversation and answer questions a), b) and c).
a) There are four speakers, A, B, C and D. Which ones live at the house, and which ones are
visitors?
b) Does everyone know everyone else? How do you know?
c) A says, 'Shall I just put these upstairs?' What do you think these are?
A: Actually, I wonder if they're in. Oh, they are in.
B: They obviously are.
C: Hello.
A: Hello.
C: Come in.
B: I'm Mike.
C: How are you?
B: Fine.
A: Shall I just put these upstairs?
C: Well, yeah. Can you put them in our room, please?
A: Sure.
C: How were the roads?
A: Oh, fine. No problem.
B: No problems. No.
A: Are you in there, Alison? Mmmm. Hello there.
D: Hello.
A: Do you mind if I put my bag here?
D: Oh, go ahead. Want a cup of tea?
A: Yeah.
2. Match these questions from the conversation to their functions.
a) Shall I just put these upstairs?
i) a request
b) Can you put them in our room, please?
ii) asking for permission
c) Do you mind if I put my bag here?
iii) an offer
3. Which words are missing from this offer from the text?
............ Want a cup of tea?
4. Without looking back at the conversation, can you remember how the phrases in
Exercise 2 were answered?
Language reference
The way we make a request, ask for permission or make an offer depends on:
■ the relationship between the people involved, and
■ how likely it is that we will get a positive answer.
34
Requests
A request is when we ask someone to do something:
e.g. William, would you make me a cup of coffee?
We use the modal verbs can, could, will or would in requests:
e.g. Can you put them in our room, please?
Could I have a cup of tea, please?
Would you pass me the salt?
Would you mind phoning the doctor for me?
Will you come with me to the dentist, please?
In informal, spoken English we sometimes make requests using Do you want to ... or Would you like
to ...:
A: Do you want to get me a glass of water?
B: Yes, OK.
We often add just in spoken English:
Would you like to just open a window for me?
Sometimes we use Can / Could I have ... with the meaning Can you get it for me?:
Can I have my suitcase? (Can you get my suitcase for me?)
Requests are often longer when the situation is more formal, and / or there's a strong
possibility of a negative response.
Compare:
Can you give me your pencil for a minute? (informal, likely to get a positive response)
This is a huge favour, but I was wondering if you could lend me your music system for the party?
(more formal, less likely to get a positive response)
Here are some other expressions to make requests longer and more polite:
Would it be possible to borrow your car tonight?
Do you think you could help me?
Responses to requests
√ Positive responses:
We use expressions such as: Yes, of course. Sure. Yeah. OK. No problem.
χ Negative responses:
If you can't do something, apologise and give an excuse:
Can you pick me up from the station? Oh, I'm so sorry, but I can't. Our car is at the garage.
Asking for and giving permission
We use Can /Could/ May I... to ask if it is all right to do something:
A: Can/ Could/ May I give my homework in late?B: Well, all right, since you've been unwell.
We can also use other more formal expressions:
Would you mind if / Would it be all right if I went out tonight?
Do you mind if I/ Is it all right if I go out tonight?
We use can to give permission: You can borrow the car whenever you want to.
35
Offers
We use these expressions to say we will do something for someone:
Can I help you?
Shall I open the door for you?
I'll post those letters for you.
Would you like me to speak to him on your behalf?
1. Recognising function
Decide if questions 1-10 are a request (r), offer (o) or asking for permission (p).
Example: Can I look at the newspaper a minute? .. r..
1) You don't look too good. Shall I call a doctor for you?
2) I'm sorry to be a nuisance, but would it be all right if I spread these papers on the table
here? It'll only take a couple of minutes?
3) This train's running rather late. Would you like me to go and ask what's happening?
4) Would you post these letters for me on your way to work?
5) I know you hate giving bad news. I'll tell him if you like
6) Would you mind being a bit quieter, only I've got a headache?
7) Could I use your phone for a minute?
8) Would you mind if I had a quick look at your newspaper?
9)
Can you pick up some milk for me when you go out?
10)
Do you want to lay the table for me?
Which extracts sound like people who know each other well?
2. Making offers, requests and asking for permission
Use situations and instructions 1-8 to make offers and requests and ask for permission.
Example: The phone is ringing. Offer to answer it.
Would, you like me to answer the phone?
1. Someone is carrying heavy bags. Offer to help.
____________________________________________________________________
2. You're writing a letter to a travel company. Request their brochure.
____________________________________________________________________
3. You're in a friend's house. It's hot. Ask permission to open the window.
____________________________________________________________________
4. Your friend needs to go to the airport. Offer to drive him / her there.
____________________________________________________________________
5. You're at a restaurant table with friends. Request the salt.
____________________________________________________________________
6. You need a day off work. Ask your boss for permission.
____________________________________________________________________
7. Your brother has a broken arm. Offer to tie his shoelaces.
____________________________________________________________________
8. Your new neighbour is playing loud music late at night. Ask her to turn it down.
____________________________________________________________________
36
3. Preparing for a holiday
A couple are preparing for their holiday. Fill in the gaps in their requests and offers using
words and expressions from this unit.
A: Just two days to go. Can you switch the TV off?
B: Why?
A: Well, I was _______________(1) if we could spend a few minutes thinking about what we
need to do before we go.
B: Oh, yes. OK. Would you like ____________(2) to collect the tickets in the morning?
A: Yes, please. And do you ____________(3) you could go to a bank and get some money?
B: Oh, sorry, I ____________(4) The bank's too far from the office. I can't get there in my coffee
break.
A: OK, ____________(5) go to the bank. ____________(6) you stop at a shop on your way
home and get some first aid supplies? You know, plasters, sun cream, insect repellent - that sort
of thing.
B: No ____________(7). ____________(8) you check and see if we've got aspirin and travel
sickness pills?
A: Sure. ____________(9) I phone to check the airport terminal?
B: Thanks, yes. And ____________(10) get the suitcases out.
A: Oh, good. I can never remember where you keep them.
4. Work in pairs and make short dialogues. Do the following tasks in turns:
a)
Ask your friend to book a table at Racheros Tex-Mex Eatery for tonight. Explain why
you can’t do it yourself.
b)
Ask your younger sister to call the Odeon Cinema to find out how long the films are and
what seats are available.
c)
Ask the Skate Hire Assistant at Kingsway Roller Rink to find another pair of skates for
you, you need a pair one size bigger.
d)
Ask the waiter at the White Rhinoceros if it’s possible for you to smoke there. Ask her
for an ash-tray.
e)
Ask a gentleman at the next table not to smoke as that is a non-smoking area at the Video
Cafe.
f)
Ask a strange young couple if you can join them at their table at the White Rhiniceros as
all the other tables are occupied.
37
Presentation 3
Talking about ability
1. The four extracts below all talk about different abilities. Match Extracts 1-4 with topics
a)-d).
a) learning a new dance
b) acquiring new artistic skills
c) being a gifted musician
d) developing various talents despite challenges
1. Ms. Walsh has a talent for music. She has perfect pitch, can hear a melody once and pick it out
on the piano and can sing pieces of classical music, such as Brahms's Requiem, by heart.
She can sing 2,000 songs in 25 different languages and once brought a Bosnian porter at the
airport to tears by singing him a song in his native tongue.
http://www.wsf.org/family/news/singing.htm
2. Elbé van Rooyen exhibited her work for the first time at the age of fourteen; even at this early
stage her unique talent had already become evident. After completing her studies at two
universities, she built a career as an executive in the corporate world. This demanding life,
however, could not separate her from her passion for painting. She was so talented, so creative.
She could paint, she could act, she could write. As her reputation as an artist grew, she decided in
1999 to devote all time and effort to her art.
http://www.saartistsonline.co.za/
3. Art departments can teach students how to become better artists, become experts in art history,
or teach them how to teach art education in the classroom. Students will be able to take classes in
each of these disciplines, but must choose one of these programs in order to earn their degree.
Art students will be able to master their skills as painters, sculptors, ceramic artists, or
photographers.
http://www.jobprofiles.org/programs/arts-humanities/art.htm
4. Four or five of them made it look easy. And I followed this young man, and he’d got the jeans
and the shirt on and the right kind of boots, and he could do it perfectly. And he said to me,
“When the music’s really quick like this”, he said, “do the steps a bit smaller.” When I came out
of there, I managed to get a lift home from somebody who did not live far from me, and they
brought me all the way home.
2. Which of the underlined phrases in the extracts:
■ express ability (or inability):
a) in the present?
b) in the past?
■ are about ability (or inability):
a) to do something at any time?
b) to do something on one occasion?
38
Language reference
Ability
Expressing present ability
We use can / cannot / can't:
Sally Warmer, of Darlington, can squeeze juice from an orange between her shoulder
blades. Be able to is also possible:
Bob is able to help aeroplanes park without using hand signals.
Expressing ability in the future
We use will be able to to make predictions:
By 2050 people will be able to learn a language by taking a pill.
Expressing ability with perfect forms
We use be able to:
He's been able to speak fluent French since he was a child. (present perfect)
If she'd been able to type she might have got the job. (past perfect)
Expressing past ability
We use different verbs for general and specific past ability:
■ to describe ability at any time in the past (general ability) we use could, couldn't or (not) be
able to:
Alex the parrot could / was able to name more than 40 objects.
I couldn't / wasn't able to dance until I met you.
■ to describe ability on one occasion only in the past (specific ability) we use couldn't (but not
could), (not) be able to, (not) manage to:
I wasn't able to phone her last night.
I managed to get a lift home after the party.
I didn't manage to phone him yesterday.
I couldn't get out of bed on Monday morning.
General ability
Specific ability
could, couldn't, be able to
couldn't, be able to, manage to
Manage to means you are able to do something, but only with difficulty:
I managed to start the car, but only after ten minutes of trying.
Notice the different negatives of manage to:
I didn't manage to get out. (I wanted to get out but I couldn't)
I managed not to see him. (I tried not to see him and I succeeded)
1. In sentences 1-10, do the underlined verbs and expressions refer to the past, present or
future or are they a perfect form? Do they talk about general (g) or specific (s) ability?
Sentence
Example: When I was a child I was able to stand on my
head easily.
1. I managed to get a doctor's appointment yesterday.
2. New research suggests that people will soon be able to
lose weight by taking pills.
3. People are able to do all sorts of things today that were
impossible only 30 years ago.
4. My uncle can't hear very well.
5. Sue was unable to understand why I wanted to keep that
39
Tense
General ability (g) or
specific ability (s)
past
g
old chair.
6. I didn't manage to phone my sister last night.
7. I haven't been able to run since I broke my leg last year.
8. Tyrannosaurus Rex was able to bite with the force of a
lorry on each tooth.
9. I'm not able to do the tango. It's really difficult.
10. My friend Alice lost her house keys yesterday, but she
was able to climb in through the bathroom window.
In three sentences the verb or expression of ability can be replaced with could or couldn't.
Which three sentences?
2. Choosing the best form
Underline the correct verb or verb phrase. (Sometimes both are possible.)
Example: Animals can / manage to communicate with each other.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
I managed to / could persuade him to come to the restaurant with us.
She managed to / could persuade anybody to do anything.
I couldn't / didn't manage to understand the instructions for the game.
Pierre wasn't able to / couldn't wash the car because he had to leave early.
'I can smell / I'm smelling something burning,' said Natasha.
To be an airline pilot you must be able to / can react quickly in difficult situations.
Rebecca won't be able to / can't come at the weekend after all.
I've been able to / can drive since I was 17.
3. Completing a text
Fill in each gap in the sentences below with a verb of ability. (More than one is possible for
most of the gaps.)
• Monkeys can count up to nine, and 1.__________ recognise which groups of objects are larger
than others. Scientists have shown that animals 2. __________ think, even though they
3.__________ talk.
Humans 4. __________ look at groups of four or fewer objects and know how many things are
in the group without having to count. Researchers found that the monkeys 5. __________ count
to four, so they were then tested on five to nine objects. They did just as well. They
6.__________ do this, the researchers say, because they had learnt some rules about numbers and
counting.
• Some years ago in Atlanta, Georgia, a bonobo chimpanzee called Kanzi 7. __________ slice
his food by breaking a rock into small pieces and using a sharp part to cut with.
• British experimenters tested sheep's abilities by showing them photographs of each other. Now
we know that sheep 8. __________ recognise each other from photographs.
/From Developing Grammar in Context. Mark Nettle and Diana Hopkins/
40
Speaking
Sea Battle
1. Look at the grid below. Highlight seven boxes containing the abilities which you have or
used to have earlier in your life. Do not show your partner your grid!
2. Work in pairs and ask each other in turns about the abilities given in the grid you think
your partner may have. (e.g. Can you perform modern dances?) Your aim is to find the
seven boxes your partner highlighted. If you hit one, find out some details about the
partner’s abilities. (e.g. How long has he or she been able to do sth? Why did he or she give
it up? Has he or she ever received any prize (or has somehow been praised) for his or her
ability?)
Use the other grid to keep a record of your partner’s answers.
The pair which finds all the seven highlighted boxes of each other and can give a detailed
description of each other’s abilities – WINS!!!
dance folk
dances (Oriental,
Latin etc)
watch foreign
movies without
dubbing or
subtitles
show sb the
sights in my
native city (or
Moscow)
make models
from plasticine
or clay
write short
stories or poems
learn and recite
poems
play a musical
instrument
draw with pencil
dance modern
dances
take professional
photographs
participate in
discussions in
foreign
languages
perform songs
put professional
make-up on sb
or style sb’s hair
write for-andagainst essays
construct objects
with lego bricks
knit, weave or
sew
write reviews
perform on stage
paint in oil
(watercolors etc)
do origami
grow flowers or
arrange them
beautifully
do magic tricks
(card tricks)
do computer
design work
(design a website)
read books in
foreign
languages
your special
ability
41
ADDITIONAL EXERCISES
Vocabulary
ARTS
1. Study the information in the box and do the following exercise.
Use of the definite article
When we refer to a performing art in general, we can leave out the article.
E.g. Are you interested in (the) cinema/ballet/opera/theatre?
But: Would you like to come to the cinema/ballet/opera/theatre with us next week?
(Particular occasion)
Definite article or not? Fill the gap with the if necessary.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
The government doesn't give enough money to .................. …… arts.
She's got a diploma in …… dance from the Performing Arts Academy.
I've got some tickets for …… ballet. Interested ?
…… art of writing a short story is to interest the reader from the very first line.
I can't stand …… modern poetry; it's so pretentious.
I was no good at …… art at school. What about you?
2 . Each one of these sentences contains a mistake of usage of words connected with the
arts. Find the mistake and correct it. You may need a dictionary.
Example: The scene at this theatre projects right out into the audience. not 'scene' but 'stage’
(the place where the actors perform)
1. What's the name of the editorial of that book you recommended? Was it Cambridge
University Press?
2. 'I wandered lonely as a cloud' is my favourite verse of English poetry.'
3. He's a very famous sculpture; he did that statue in the park, you know, the one with the
soldiers.
4. Most of the novels in this collection are only five or six pages long. They're great for
reading on short journeys.
5. There's an exposition of ceramic at the museum next week.
6. The sceneries are excellent in that new production of Macbeth, so dark and mysterious.
7. What's in the Opera House next week? Anything interesting?
42
3. Complete the chart by adding words from the list given below it. Some may go in more.
There is an additional column for you in case you have another group of words.
literature
sculpture
chapter
script
act
comedy
CD
concert
singer
microphone
short story
premiere
screenplay
scenery
stage
lighting
music
theatre
cinema
auditorium
performance
encore
sound-track
drama
rehearsal
scene
picture
play
trailer
magazine
opera
audience
exhibition
musical
first night
landscape
novel
canvas
role
character
biography
subtitles
horror
illustration
set
screen
edition
love story
cast
art
thriller
brush
programme
matinée
poetry
musician
science fiction
orchestra
western
costume
watercolour
volume
pop
tragedy
plot
This chart can be used as a word bank on Arts and Culture. Add new words to the columns
while studying the Unit and revise those which are there.
43
Vocabulary
Music, art and literature
A
Forms and people
Forms
Music
classical
pop/rock
Person
composer
songwriter
Art
painting
sculpture
painter
sculptor
artist
(general)
Literature
the novel
short stories
poetry
plays
novelist
short story writer
poet
dramatist/playwright
writer
(general)
B Music
Classical music: e.g Beethoven's piano concertos, Schubert's symphonies. Beethoven and
Schubert are both composers (= people who write classical music) and most of their music is
played by an orchestra (= large group of musicians including violins, cellos, etc.) which is led
by a conductor, e.g. Georg Solti or Loren Maazel, as leader. Some music also has a choir. (= a
large group of singers)
Opera (= a play in which the words are sung): e.g. La Boheme by Puccini, Carmen by Bizet.
Rock and pop music: e.g. U2, Bon Jovi, Maria Carey. This music is performed (played to an
audience) by groups/bands, e.g. Bon Jovi, Simply Red. Most groups have a lead singer, a lead
guitarist (guitar with six strings), a bass guitarist (four strings) and a drummer.
Solo artists (= people who perform alone, e.g. Madonna) play with a backing group and some
of them are singer-songwriters (=they write and perform/play their own songs).
Jazz: e.g. Duke Ellington, Miles Davis, Stan Getz.
C
Musical instruments and musicians
D A hit record
A hit record is a song that is very popular and bought by many people, e.g. ‘Bohemian
Rhapsody’ was a hit single for Queen, and ‘Angel’ was a hit single for Robbie Williams. Groups
and solo artists also produce albums (= make a collection of songs, usually 8-12, on one CD).
‘Sergeant Pepper’ by the Beatles is one of the most famous albums ever made.
These are also common phrases we use to talk about popular music.
Craig David’s new album is out next week. (= you can buy his new album next week)
They plan to release a new record (= put it in the shops for people to buy) for Christmas.
Have you heard the latest album by Stereophonics? (= the most recent/newest album)
Kylie Minogue’s new single is number one. (= the most popular record in the shops this week)
Which is your favourite track on the album? (= the song on the album you like the most)
Has your taste in music (= the type of music you like) changed in the last ten years?
44
E Art
If you want to see the paintings of a famous artist, you need to go to an art gallery or museum.
There you can see individual paintings and sometimes an exhibition (= a collection of paintings
by one painter or school of painters, e.g. the Impressionists), e.g. There's a Monet exhibition at
the National Gallery next week.
There are many different types and styles of painting:
a portrait (= a painting of a person)
a self-portrait (= a painting of the artist by himself/herself)
a landscape (= a painting of part of the countryside)
an abstract painting (= a painting that is not realistic)
1. What are or were these people? (painter? sculptor? novelist? poet? dramatist?
songwriter? composer? conductor? rock star? pop star? musician? singer? pianist? etc.)
Some of them may be more than one of these things.
1
2
3
4
5
6
Leo Tolstoy
7 Giuseppe Verdi
William Wordsworth
8 Mick Jagger
Henrik Ibsen
9 Milton Nascimento
Yukio Mishima
10 Paul Tortelier
Anton Chekhov
11 Paul Simon
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 12 Mark Knopfler
13
14
15
16
17
18
Henry Moore
Jorge Luis Borges
Pablo Picasso
Saki
Leonard Bernstein
Alberto Giacometti
2. What do you call the people who play the following instruments?
piano
guitar
drums
violin
cello
flute
3. What types of painting are these?
4. Fill in the gaps with the correct word.
1 Do you play a musical _________________?
2 A: Do you like _________________ music?
B: Yes, very much.
A: And who's your favourite _________________?
B: It's hard to say, but I love Bach and Vivaldi.
3 I sang in a _________________ for years. We performed in churches all over
the country.
4 Their new CD is _________________ next week. I’m sure it’ll go to number
_________________.
5 Their first single was very popular, but they haven’t _________________ an album
yet.
45
6 I think their _________________ album is brilliant, and much better than their
last one.
5. Use the context and your own knowledge to fill the gaps in these sentences and dialogues.
1 He used to be conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic _________________.
2 Robbie Williams was in a ________ called Take That before he became a ________.
3 Elton John _________________ piano, and writes and _________________ all his own
songs.
4 I think ‘Hey Jude’ or ‘I want to hold your hand’ is the Beatles’ biggest selling hit
_______________, but ‘Sergeant Pepper’ is probably their most famous ______________.
5 There's going to be an _________________ of his paintings at the new art _________.
6 She used to _________________ her own songs but now she mainly ______________
material written by other people.
7 I haven't been to the _________________ since I saw The Marriage of Figaro last year.
8 I think The Great Gatsby is Scott Fitzgerald's best _________________.
9 His first _________________ was performed in a very small theatre.
10 Keith Richard has been _________________ guitarist of the Rolling Stones for over 30
years.
11 Duke Ellington is one of the greatest _________________ pianists ever.
12 ‘Waterloo’ was one of Abba’s most famous hit _________________.
13 Eric Clapton sings on his albums, but he first became famous as a _______________.
14 Before he became a solo artist, Sting was the _________________ singer with Police.
6. Complete this story of Craig David’s early years.
Craig David was born and grew up in Southampton, on the south coast of England. As a teenager
he used to write his own (1)_________________ on a Dictaphone, and his
(2)_________________ in music at that time ranged from Terence D’Arby to Michael Jackson
and Stevie Wonder. His first (3) _________________ was ‘Human’, a version of the song that
was a (4) _________________ for the ‘Human League’. After that David became better known,
and his first album was (5) _________________ in summer 2000.
7. Answer these questions. If possible, ask someone else the same questions.
1
2
3
4
What sort of music do you like best?
Who’s your favourite singer/group/composer?
What was the last record or album you bought?
Has your musical taste changed in the last few years?
46
8. Underline the most suitable word or phrase.
a. I like this book, and I've read six capitals/chapters/prefaces already.
b. It's not a proper drawing, only a rough/plan/sketch.
c. The play is very long but there are three breaks/intervals/rests.
d. At the cinema I don't like sitting too near the film/screen/stage.
e. We heard a piece by Mozart performed by a German band/group/orchestra.
f. Her second book was very popular and became a best buy/seller/volume.
g. I like the painting but I can't stand its ugly border/frame/square.
h. Robert's new book will be broadcast/published/typed in August.
i. I liked the acting, and the costumes/dressing/outfits were good too.
j. The best act/place/scene in the film is when Jack meets Kate.
9. Complete each sentence with a word from the box. Use each word once only.
announcer
composer
critic
director
editor
novelist
playwright
sculptor
author
conductor
a. The orchestra would not be so successful with a different _______________ .
b. I want a book on art, but I don't know the name of the _______________.
c. We must see the new film by that Italian _______________.
d. The _______________ said that the sports programme is on after the news.
e. Harry writes for the theatre, but he is not only a _______________.
f. We saw some interesting metal objects made by a French _______________.
g. That's a nice piece of music. Who is the _______________?
h. Peter Smith was the only _______________ who wrote in praise of the film.
i. Charles Dickens is probably the best known British _______________.
j. The _______________ of the newspaper usually decides what it contains.
10. Complete each sentence by putting in, on, at or out of in each space.
a. Harry Smith is hard _______ work writing his new screenplay.
b. The music was terrible and the singer was _______ tune.
c. I can't tell what that is _______ the background of the picture.
d. Jane's new book is coming out _______ paperback next year.
e. Is there anything good _______ Channel 4 this evening?
f. The school put on Hamlet _______ modern dress.
g. The critics found Joe's kind of writing rather _______ date.
h. In the last scene, all the actors are _______ stage together.
47
11. Complete each sentence with a word from the box. Use each word once only.
current
electric humorous
modern
public
gripping live popular
readable
special
still
dull
a. No recording can be as good as a _______________ concert in my opinion.
b. It was a very _______________ story and made me laugh a lot.
c. I couldn't put that book down, it had such a _______________ plot.
d. Most people find it difficult to understand _______________ art.
e. My favourite television programmes are about _______________ affairs.
f. Of course it's possible to like both classical and _______________ music.
g. Everyone enjoyed the _______________ effects in the Star Wars films.
h. I don't buy books because there's a good _______________ library nearby.
i. We both found it a very _______________ film I'm afraid.
j. George doesn't paint people, but mainly does _______________ life paintings.
k. It was an interesting book, and very _______________.
l. Unfortunately the boy upstairs is learning the _______________ guitar.
12. Choose the most suitable word or phrase to complete each sentence.
a. Susan's first painting was a/an _______ portrait.
A) self B) own C) selfish D) auto
b. We all enjoyed the play so much that we _______ for ten minutes.
A) booed B) screamed C) applauded D) handed
c. Peter sings every Sunday in the local church _______ .
A) concert B) chorus C) opera D) choir
d. I bought this book mainly because it has a very attractive _______ .
A) folder B) cover C) coat D) wrapping
e. The play was a success and had very good _______ in the papers.
A) reviews B) critics C) advertisements D) notes
f. If you can't find what you are looking for in the book, use the _______.
A) preface B) directory C) list D) index
g. The average _______ watches television for about 15 hours a week.
A) viewer B) audience C) spectator D) observer
h. First we see their faces from far away, and then we see a _______ .
A) side by side B) foreground C) replay D) close up
i. Please note that the next programme is _______ for children.
A) unusual B) unsuitable C) unmistakable D) unreasonable
j. All the members of the _______ had a party after the play was over.
A) scene B) cast C) circle D) drama
48
13. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the
space in the same line.
The school play
Congratulations to all involved with the school (1) production of
PRODUCE
The Woman Next Door. The (2)______________ was carried out by the ADVERTISE
Art Department, and the posters were very (3) ______________ . We
IMAGINE
certainly have some very (4) ______________ students in our school!
ART
Many people helped with building and painting the (5) ______________
SCENE
and the play was written by the English Department, who
managed to create an (6) ______________ story, with excellent songs.
AMUSE
The music was written by Sue Porter, who also (7) ______________ the
COMPANY
singers on the piano. Everyone enjoyed a thoroughly (8) _____________
ENTERTAIN
evening, and there was a long round of (9) ______________ at the end.
APPLAUD
Jim Barrett gave a brilliant (10) ______________ as Sergeant Moss, and
PERFORM
Liz Aitken was a delightful Mrs Jump. Well done everyone!
14. Complete the compound word in each sentence with a word from the box. Use each
word once only.
back
book
circle
fair
operas
ground
piece
rehearsal
scripts
biography
a. Edward's third book is usually considered his master piece.
b. A lot of people enjoy watching soap_______________ on television.
c. I found the Prime Minister's auto_______________ very interesting.
d. Some of the actors still did not know their lines at the dress_______________.
e. I won't buy the book until it comes out in paper_______________.
f. We had very good seats in the dress_______________.
g. There is a black cat painted in the fore_______________ of the picture.
h. Writing film_______________ is rather like writing for the theatre.
i. I was fined because I forgot to return my library_______________.
j. The scene showed them on a roundabout in a children's fun_______________.
/
49
Vocabulary
Adjectives ending in –ed and -ing
1. Choose the correct word.
Example: I was disappointing / disappointed with the film. I had expected it to be better.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Are you interesting / interested in football?
The football match was quite exciting / excited. I enjoyed it.
It's sometimes embarrassing / embarrassed when you have to ask people for money.
Do you easily get embarrassing / embarrassed?
I had never expected to get the job. I was really amazing / amazed when I was offered it.
She has really learnt very fast. She has made astonishing / astonished progress.
I didn't find the situation funny. I was not amusing / amused.
It was a really terrifying / terrified experience. Afterwards everybody was very shocking
/shocked.
9. Why do you always look so boring / bored? Is your life really so boring / bored?
10. He's one of the most boring / bored people I've ever met. He never stops talking and he never
says anything interesting / interested.
2. Choose the correct word in the statements and decide which type of entertainment each
comment refers to.
Example: ‘I was amazed / amazing when I walked into the place. The sounds, themes and
colours in the games were beyond my expectations.’ (amusement arcade)
1. ‘The most amused / amusing part of the show was the clowns. They were very funny.’
2. ‘The big wheel was really excited / exciting. I could see the whole city when we were at the
top.’
3. ‘I had been told that the conductor was the best in the world, but I had a terribly boring /
bored evening.’
4. ‘Richard Richardson’s epic was very entertained / entertaining; the script and the soundtrack
were excellent.’
5. ‘The play got such good reviews in the newspapers that Marbel was convinced / convincing
she would enjoy it.’
6. ‘It was so disappointing / disappointed; the costumes were awful and the ballerinas were the
worst I’ve ever seen!’
7. ‘I found the section on Roman art by far the most interested / interesting part of the
exhibition.’
8. ‘I was shocked / shocking! Why do they keep lions and tigers in such small cages?’
9. ‘It was a thrilled / thrilling performance. The singing and acting were the best I’ve seen in a
long time.’
50
Grammar
Modal verbs ‘Obligation and Permission’
1. Choosing the right form
Fill in the gaps 1-8 in the conversations below, using ways of expressing obligation and
necessity you have learnt in this unit.
A: Do you fancy going for a pizza?
B: I can't, I’ve got to make some phone calls and do some packing. I just haven't got time.
A: Oh, I'm hopeless at this. I'm giving up.
B: Oh, you 1._____________ say that! It's just a matter of practice. Everyone finds driving
difficult at first.
A: What's the matter? What are you trying to do?
B: It's this word processor. I want to make a table with shaded boxes, but I can't get it to work.
A: Oh, you can do it like that, but you 2. _____________.Just use 'Autoformat'.
A: Any holiday plans?
B: Yes, I've booked a safari in Kenya. You've been, haven't you? What do I 3. _____________
take?
A: I 4. _____________ remember to phone Judy later. She's off to the States tomorrow and I
want her to get me some bits and pieces.
B: Oh, is she? I'll try and remind you.
A: Here. This is for you.
B: Oh, Joe! It's beautiful, but I can't accept it. You made it, didn't you?
A: Yes, I did, and you 5. _____________ accept it. I absolutely 6. _____________ that you do.
A: What 7. _____________ you _____________ do in your new job?
B: It's not very different from the old one, but now I have more responsibility, that's all.
A: How is your brother these days?
B: Oh, not very good really. He's 8. _____________ give up work because of his bad back.
A: Oh, I am sorry to hear that.
Must - Have to - Have got to
Must is used when the speaker decides what it is necessary to do. I must buy some new
clothes. (I say so. I decide what to do.)
Have to is used when the necessity comes from outside the speaker or when others decide
for the speaker what it is necessary to do. He has to be at work at 9.00. (The boss says so.)
Have got to has the same meaning as have to but it is used in spoken English. "Mum, I've
got to go to the library."
Must is stronger than have to and indicates urgency and importance. I must meet Jane
tonight. (It's very urgent that I meet her.) I have to meet Jane tonight. (I need to meet her.)
Must is used only in the present or future. I must go to the meeting tomorrow. It borrows
the rest of its tenses from have to. She had to be present at the lecture last Monday.
51
2. Fill in the gaps with must or have to.
"Welcome on behalf of Newton Industries. I'd like to explain a few of the factory rules. Mr
Newton has said we 1. _______________ wear overalls at all times. He wants us to arrive at 8
am and we 2. _______________ clock in. There is a possibility of working overtime but you 3.
_______________ decide whether you want to work extra hours. Mr Newton insists that we 4.
_______________ have fifteen-minute breaks every three or four hours but we 5.
_______________ choose when we would like those breaks. There is a problem with parking.
The city insists we 6. _______________ use the public garage. They believe
parking on the grass is too damaging to public property and I 7. _______________ say I agree.
Finally, as far as health insurance is concerned, you 8. _______________ register as soon as
possible. Are there any questions?"
3. Permission and prohibition
Rewrite the signs below, using one of the following expressions:
are/aren't allowed, can/can't, mustn't. Sometimes more than one
answer is possible.
1. You _________________ to smoke in the toilets.
2. Customers _________________ use their credit cards.
3. You _________________ to visit before 5 p.m.
4. You _________________ go in unless you are a member.
5. You _________________ take any photographs.
6. You _________________ to stay up to two hours.
4. Obligation, prohibition, permission (past)
A daughter (D) is asking her mother (M) about her life when
she was young. Use expressions of obligation, prohibition and
permission in the past to complete the dialogue below.
D: When you were young (1 wear) were you allowed to wear make-up?
M: No, certainly not. Not until I was about 20. And I (2 wear)________________________ the
clothes that my mother bought me.
D: How awful! And (3 stay) ________________________ at school until you were 16?
M: No, it wasn't illegal to leave before 16, as it is now. In fact most children (4 leave)
________________________ school at 14 because their parents wanted them to earn money.
D: (5 go out) ________________________ with boys when you were my age?
M: Only if a grown-up was with you. You (6 go) ________________________ out alone to
discos as you do now, oh no!
52
Grammar
Suggestions and advice
1. Completing conversations
Add the missing line in conversations 1-8 below.
Example:
A: I'm fed up.
B: Well, perhaps that's your fault. You never do anything.
A: OK then. Let's go out for a meal and then on to a club tonight.
B: Great idea. You sound more positive already.
1
A: Have you told anyone else about this problem?
B: No, I'm not sure who to talk to.
A: ________________________________________________________________
2
A: It's Rory's birthday next week. Any ideas for a present?
B: No, I'm useless at presents. Why don't you think of something?
A: Well, I had one idea. ______________________________________________
3
A: Sandra, you know about these things. I've won some money, and I'm not sure what to
do with it.
B: Why don't you open an Internet-only savings account? They give very good rates.
A: ________________________________________________________________
4
A: What are you doing tomorrow night?
B: Nothing. Why?
A: Do you fancy going out somewhere?
B: Definitely. _______________________________________________________
5
A: I'm cold. Are you?
B: A little bit. It would be nice to get a hot drink somewhere, wouldn't it?
A: Yes. ____________________________________________________________
6
A: What do you think Simon and Nicky should do about living in that tiny flat now
that they're having a baby?
B: ________________________________________________________________
7
A: I can't sleep at night these days.
B: Really? Do you know why?
A: No. I just lie there with thoughts going round and round in my head.
B: ________________________________________________________________
8
A: Jake keeps asking for a pet, you know. Do you think we should get him one?
B: Oh, dear. I'm not too keen. It's a huge responsibility. And anyway I don't like cats or
dogs much. I suppose something small and easy to look after would be OK.
A: ________________________________________________________________
2. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of (not) have to, ought to or must(n't) and the verbs
in brackets.
Teacher: Do you think it's a good thing for young people to travel to different countries
before settling down to a job?
Student: Yes, I think it's a really exciting and interesting thing to do.
Teacher: What 1.__________________ (you/think) about if you're going to go travelling?
53
Student: Well, you 2. __________________
(consider) lots of things first. For example,
you 3. __________________
(have) enough money in the first place, so you
4.__________________ (work) a bit first to save some money. Then another
important thing to consider is who to go with. You 5. __________________
(travel)
with a friend, but it is probably safer and less lonely if you do. Also, you
6. __________________ (learn) a bit about the countries before you go. It's a good
idea to research cultural issues, so that you don't offend people by your behaviour. If you
go to Nepal, for example, you 7. __________________ (shout) or raise your voice in
public, and you 8. __________________ (always/walk) around a
Buddhist temple in a clockwise direction. You 9. __________________ (find out)
these things before you go.
Teacher: What things 10. __________________ (you/arrange) before you travel?
Student: Well, to visit some countries you 11. __________________ (have) a visa, so you
12. __________________ (organise) that before you go.
Grammar
Language of politeness
Modals of social interaction
Uses
Making Requests
Asking for
Permission
Giving Advice and
Making
Suggestions
Explanations
Would is a softer
request than will,
and could is softer
than can. In general,
formality is shown
by using would and
could rather than
can and will.
May and might are
more formal than
can and could.
While must has the
feeling of a
requirement or very
strong advice, might
and could make the
advice seem more
like a suggestion
than a required
action.
Examples
Would you mind
helping me?
Would you help
me?
Could you help me?
Can you help me?
Will you help me?
Might I speak with
Bruce?
May I speak with
Bruce?
Could I speak with
Bruce?
Can I speak with
Bruce?
You must arrive on
time.
You should arrive on
time.
You ought to arrive
on time.
You might arrive on
time.
You could arrive on
time.
54
Meaning
more formal
less formal
more formal
less formal
stronger
weaker
1. First, complete the items in this activity with appropriate modal auxiliaries. After each,
indicate whether your sentence is formal or informal.
Example
Will you pass the mashed potatoes, please?
Informal (for example, as a request to a family member at the dinner table).
1. You _________ see a doctor. That lump looks suspicious.
________________________________________________________________________
2. _________ I shut the window? It's really cold in here.
________________________________________________________________________
3. _________ Billy come with us to the movie this afternoon?
________________________________________________________________________
4. Every citizen _________ vote in a presidential election.
________________________________________________________________________
5. You _________ try meditating to lower your blood pressure.
________________________________________________________________________
6. I just loved San Francisco. You really _________ go there if you have the chance.
________________________________________________________________________
7. _________ I have this dance?
________________________________________________________________________
8. Mr. President, _________ I be permitted to say a few words?
________________________________________________________________________
9. If you don't like the color, you _________ always bring it back for another.
________________________________________________________________________
10. Reverend Weir, _________ you give me permission to ask for your daughter's hand in
marriage?
________________________________________________________________________
Grammar
Can and Be Able to expressing ability
1. Fill in: was/were able to, could(n't), had been able to, will be able to or can.
1. You _____________ run much faster when you were younger.
2. On entering the house I _____________ smell something burning in the kitchen.
3. If you work quickly, you _____________ finish on time.
4. When we lived on the coast, we _____________ swim in the sea every day.
5. If Gordon _____________ find his way out of the jungle, he would have survived.
6. Last week he _____________ arrange a meeting with the Prime Minister.
7. I'm not usually very good at tennis, but yesterday I _____________ beat my brother.
8. Tom _____________ finish this today, won't he?
9. He _____________ fix the tap so he called a plumber.
55
2. Underline the most suitable words. Sometimes both options are possible.
1. He's a concert pianist and he can / manages to play all Beethoven's sonatas.
2. When I lived in a small town I was able to / could walk almost everywhere, but now I
live in the capital city I need a car.
3. They worked all night and could / managed to finish the report just in time.
4. The protestors didn't manage to / couldn't persuade the president to change the law.
5. Next year she can / will be able to join the club, but she's not old enough yet.
6. In my country it can / is able to get very cold in the winter.
7. I was nearly late as the bus didn't come, but luckily I could / managed to get a taxi.
8. I hope that I will be able to / will manage to do some sightseeing when I'm in New York
next week on business, but I've got a busy schedule.
9. She didn't get good enough grades to go to her first choice of university but she could /
was able to get a place at another one.
Grammar Revision
1. Which of the words in the box will fit the sentences? Often there is more than one
possibility.
will
must
should
may
can
ought to
have to
could
might
a. You _________ get your hair cut. It's much too long.
b. _________ I ask you a question?
c. Young children _________ be carried on this escalator.
d. You _________ never get a seat on this train. It's always packed.
e. I _________ already speak five languages fluently.
f. You'll _________ work much harder if you want to pass.
g. You _________ leave your valuables in the hotel safe.
h. You _________ be over lm 60cm tall to be an air hostess.
2. Underline the correct answer.
a. You don't have to / mustn't use cream in this sauce, but it makes it much tastier.
b. I couldn't / wouldn't watch my favourite TV programme because Sue rang up for a long chat.
c. I'm afraid I cannot/may not come to your wedding as I'm on holiday in Australia.
d. I was able to / could get 10% off the marked price by paying in cash.
e. You don't have to / mustn't say a word about this to your mother. It's a surprise.
3. Fill in the gaps below with the correct form of (not) have to, must, (not) need or should.
1
2
A: I'm going to Florence next week so I ____________ to buy a guidebook.
B: Ah, well, you're in luck. You ____________ buy a book because I've got a small
guide to Florence I can lend you.
A: What's Mike doing these days?
B: He's studying really hard. He ____________ pass his exams in order to get the
56
3
4
5
6
promotion his company have promised him.
A: ____________ (you) wear a uniform at work?
B: Yes, and I find it rather strange because I've never worn one before. When I was at
school we ____________ wear a uniform although the girls ____________ wear skirts
and not trousers.
A: The rules for university fees have just changed. I was really lucky because I
____________ pay for my education, but unfortunately my brother ____________ pay
when he goes to university next year.
B: Yes, I know. My sister will be affected too.
A: The bread's in the oven. Can you remind me to get it out in 20 minutes? I
____________ forget like last time when I burnt the loaf.
B: I'm sorry. I'm afraid I ____________ go now, so I won't be able to remind you. Can't
you set a timer?
A: Oh, ____________ (you/really) go? I'd hoped you'd stay to lunch and have some of
my bread!
A: I've just joined the tennis club. They've got all sorts of rules, you know.
B: Really? Like what?
A: Well, you ____________ wear white clothes on the courts, of course. But the really
silly rule is that you ____________ turn your mobile off as soon as you arrive at the club.
I don't want to do that - what if I'm needed at work or something?
B: Perhaps they don't know you're a doctor. You ____________ tell them.
4. Read the extract. Decide if the underlined phrases are correct or not. Tick (v) them if
they are right and correct them if they are wrong.
Pollution is causing enormous problems all over the world these days. Governments 1.need to
act quickly to stop this problem before it is too late.
The first thing I believe we 2. absolutely should do is reduce the amount we use our cars. Our
governments 3. must to encourage us to use public transport In my country, public transport is
not very reliable, so the first thing that governments 4. have to do is to ensure that buses and
trains are a viable alternative to the car. They 5. also should reduce the costs to the public of
travelling on public transport
However, it is not only the government that 6. needs to make an effort. All of us 7.should make
some effort to reduce pollution. First of all we 8. ought try to walk or cycle if we can, rather
than using our cars. In the past people 9. must walk or cycle because they did not have cars. It is
a shame that we have become so dependent on cars now. Secondly, we 10. should trying to
share car use with our friends and colleagues.
All of us 11. will must make some changes to our lives if we want to reduce pollution.
Fortunately, we 12. mustn't make big changes to make big improvements in the situation.
1 _____________
2 _____________
3 _____________
4 _____________
5 _____________
6 _____________
7 _____________
8 _____________
9 _____________
10 _____________
11 _____________
12 _____________
57
5. Necessary or not necessary?
Make sentences using must, mustn't, should, (not) have to and needn't based on the
situations below. In some case there is more than one possibility.
a) It's Simon's first day in a new job. It's late and he's still in bed. What does his mother say to
him?
'You must get up or you'll be late! You mustn't be late on your first day!'
b) Susan really hates getting up early and today is Sunday. Why is she happy?
________________________________________________________________________
c) The restaurant you went to last night was fantastic. Recommend it to your friends.
________________________________________________________________________
d) Tell your visitor not to drink the water from the tap. It's not safe.
________________________________________________________________________
e) Your son doesn't want to take the medicine the doctor recommended. You are insistent.
________________________________________________________________________
f) You are going to a dinner party. Ask someone if it's necessary to take a present for the hostess.
________________________________________________________________________
IN OTHER WORDS
It's forbidden to smoke in hospitals. - You mustn't smoke in hospitals.
Let's go for a walk. - Shall we go for a walk?
Was it necessary for Ann to leave the party that early? - Did Ann need to/have to leave the
party that early?
Shall I help you with the dishes? - Would you like me to help you with the dishes?
It isn't necessary to do the ironing today. - You don't have to/don't need to/needn't do the
ironing today.
Would you mind if I used your phone? - May/Might I use your phone?
6. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. Use
the word given in the brackets and other words to complete each sentence. You must use
between two and five words. Do not change the word given.
1. I'll carry that bag for you. (like)
Would _________________________________________________________ that bag for you?
2. I advise you to drive more slowly. (should)
You ___________________________________________________________________ slowly.
3. It would be a good idea for you to leave early. (should)
You _____________________________________________________________________ early.
4. Driving without headlights is forbidden. (drive)
You ________________________________________________________________ headlights.
5. Let's go shopping in town. (about)
What _________________________________________________________________ in town?
6. You are not allowed to leave until the exam has finished. (mustn't)
You _______________________________________________________ the exam has finished.
7. I'd better start saving for my summer holiday. (should)
I ________________________________________________________ for my summer holiday.
8. You mustn't take photos in the cathedral. (allowed)
You ______________________________________________________ photos in the cathedral.
58
9. It wasn't necessary to get dressed up, so we didn't. (need)
We _____________________________________________________________ get dressed up.
7. Paraphrase the following sentences, using modal verbs so that they are as similar in
meaning as possible to the first ones.
1. The teacher gave me permission to leave the room.
The teacher said I could leave the room.
2. In the end, I couldn’t make it to the party because I had too much work to do.
______________________________________________________
3. At school, she was the fastest runner in her class.
______________________________________________________
4. Although I’m good at physics, I don’t think I’ll manage to pass the exam.
______________________________________________________
5. We weren’t obliged to attend all the classes because some of them were optional.
______________________________________________________
6. If I don’t find a job soon, I won’t be able to pay the bills.
______________________________________________________
7. “All telephone calls made from the office must be paid for,” said the manager.
______________________________________________________
8. The traffic warden said we weren’t allowed to park the car outside the bank.
______________________________________________________
9. I think you can manage without a pullover I this winter.
______________________________________________________
10. Oxygen masks were essential when they got to the top of the mountain.
______________________________________________________
8. Write what each person would say in each situation using modals. Sometimes more than
one answer is possible.
1. A student has just come into the class and left the door open. It is noisy outside. You say to
him: _________________________________________________________________________
2. You have opened the kitchen window to let in some fresh air. Your sister, who is recovering
from a bad cold, comes in. You say to her: __________________________________________
3. Your friend wants to pay for your dinner. You tell her it's not necessary. ________________
4. A friend from Portugal phones to tell you she will be coming to England for two weeks next
summer. You want her to stay with you. You say to her:________________________________
5. You're going on holiday. Your sister wants to take so many pairs of shoes that her suitcase
won’t fasten. You ask if it is necessary. ____________________________________________
59
Vocabulary
Likes and Dislikes
1. Put in a suitable verb in the correct form, - ing or to ... Sometimes either form is possible.
1. It’s nice to be with other people but sometimes I enjoy being alone.
2. I’m not quite ready yet. Do you mind ___________________ a little longer?
3. When I was a child, I hated ___________________ to bed early.
4. I don’t enjoy _____________________ letters. I can never think what to write.
5. I need a new job. I can’t stand ____________________ any more.
6. Caroline never wears a hat. She doesn’t like ________________ hats.
7. When I have to catch a train, I’m always worried that I’ll miss it. So I like ________________
to the station in plenty of time.
Vocabulary
Cinema and theatre
A Theatre
At the theatre you can see plays, e.g. Hamlet by Shakespeare, or musicals, e.g. Phantom of the
Opera by Andrew Lloyd Webber. In a play the cast (= the total number of actors) is usually
quite small, but musicals often have a very large cast.
One difference between the theatre and cinema is that you usually book (= reserve) tickets in
advance (= some time before the actual performance) if you are going to the theatre. Another
difference is that the audience (= the people watching the play/musical) clap at the end of the
performance. This does not usually happen (in Britain) at the end of a film.
B Cinema
Plays are performed on stage, films are shown on screen. In your country, films in English are
either shown with subtitles (= there is a translation across the bottom of the screen), or they are
dubbed (= the English is removed and replaced by actors speaking in your own language).
Films are set (= take place) in many different periods and places, e.g. Room with a View is set in
the early part of the 20th century; Blade Runner is set in the future. And when people talk about
films, they often talk about the director, e.g. Spielberg, Bertolucci; and the stars, the most
important actors and actresses, e.g. Tom Hanks and Jodie Foster.
C Types of film
western: a film about America in the 19th century; often with cowboys and Indians
war film, e.g. Born on the 4th of July
action film, e.g. Indiana Jones
horror film, e.g. Dracula; Frankenstein
comedy: a funny film that makes you laugh
science fiction film: about the future
romantic comedy: love story and funny
romance: a love story/about a relationship disaster movie: e.g. Titanic
thriller: an exciting story often about a crime
60
D Describing plays and films
Journalists write articles in which they give their opinion of new films and plays. They are called
critics, and their articles are called reviews. These are some words they may use:
moving: producing strong emotions, often of sadness; a positive word
violent: includes lots of scenes with fighting and death
powerful: has a big effect on our emotions
gripping: exciting and very interesting
good fun: used to describe a film that may not be very serious or important but is enjoyable
slow: boring
brilliant/superb acting (= fantastic acting)
an awful/dreadful film (= terrible)
a complex plot (= story with many ideas)
1. Look at the picture of your visit to the theatre
and answer these questions.
1
2
3
4
Did you sit in the stalls or circle?
Which row were you in?
Were you next to an aisle?
Did you have a good view of the stage?
2. What word or phrase is being defined?
1 A play or film in which part of the story is sung to music.
2 The total number of actors in a play or film.
3 The people who watch a play at the theatre.
4 What these people do with their hands at the end of a play.
5 The person who makes a film.
6 Journalists who write articles about films and plays.
7 The name of the articles they write.
8 The translation of the story of a film across the bottom of the screen.
9 To reserve tickets before the performance.
10 The most important actors or actresses in a film.
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