Загрузил александр левковец

Corruption

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CORRUPTION
Classwork Objectives
1.1. What is corruption? Theories and forms of corruption
1.2. Corruption: forms and risk factors
1.3. Corruption prevention and citizen engagement
Individual Work Objectives
1.4. Rendering an article
1.5. Reading some articles of the UN Convention against Corruption
1.6. Self-Test
1.1. WHAT IS CORRUPTION? THEORIES AND FORMS OF CORRUPTION
A. LEAD-IN
1. Explain how you understand the notion “corruption”.
2. Give examples of corrupt behavior.
3. Prove that corruption is rust that may destroy public organizations.
4. Agree or disagree with the statement: “Corruption can’t be combatted once and for all”.
B. VOCABULARY
 REMEMBER! Corruption is contrary to the rules, policies, processes and
norms and it means misuse of entrusted power for
personal gain. A public official illegally or illicitly
uses his(her) power and position of being a public
official to engage in an action that benefits to
him(her) or other people. Corruption is
multifaceted as it can be in different forms.
1B. The word “corruption” and its derivatives have several meanings. Read the following
sentences and translate them into your language.
1. Corrupt judges have taken millions of dollars in bribes.
2. The culture has been corrupted by Western influences.
3. Corruptness is evil for any society.
4. Most politicians believe they are incorruptible.
5. The word “Thursday” is a corruption of “Thor’s Day”.
6. By phonetic corruption not only the form, but the whole nature of language is destroyed.
7. There was a strange smell in the room, high and slightly sweet, like perfume corrupted in the
bottle.
8. There are viruses which can corrupt the data on your hard drive.
9. Young prisoners are being corrupted by the elder, long-term offenders.
10. This official was engaged in corrupt practices.
11. He has been pleaded a corrupter.
12. They say power corrupts.
13. The investigation uncovered widespread corruption within the police force.
14. Perhaps some sectors of public administration are more corruptible than others.
C. READING
1C. Before you read
1. Do you know the reasons for corruption to flourish in this or that society? Are these reasons
numerous?
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2. Can an organization or agency structure and rules favour (cause) corruption?
3. Is it possible to stamp out corruption?
2C. While you read
Read the following text and choose the title for each paragraph. Single out the basics of different
theories of corruption and put them down.
Organizational culture theory Clashing moral values theory
Correlation theory
Bad apple theory
Rational or public choice The
ethos
of
public
theory
administration theory
THEORIES OF CORRUPTION
A.
There are different theories concerning the causes of corruption nowadays and all of them
give profound explanations why people choose to break the law. According to one of them an
individual is portrayed as a rationally calculating person who decides to become corrupt when
expected advantages outweigh expected disadvantages (a combination of possible penalty and the
chance of being caught). Thus, we see that instead of looking for general determining factors, this
theory concentrates on a specific situation of a corrupt official who calculates pros and cons. From
this prospective the measures on combatting corruption should include corruption control that
maximizes the costs of corruption and minimizes the benefits.
B.
The second theory seeks the causes of corruption in the existence of people with faulty
character. The root cause of corruption is found in defective human character and predisposition
towards criminal activity, in other words, causes are rooted in human weaknesses such as greed.
People are assumed to act on the basis of moral values and if a person lives according to ‘wrong’
moral values it directly influences his behavior towards corruption. Unfortunately, when the root
cause of corruption is sought in human weaknesses, ‘strong moral values’ are named as an
antidote, but designing a policy to combat corruption with this medicine seems impossible.
C.
The third theory is not so much interested in the background or motives of the corrupt
official, but in the organization within which the agent is working. It’s stressed that failure in the
“proper machinery” of government, not faulty character, leads public officials to act corruptly.
This theory states that once an organization structure is corrupt, every person who comes in contact
with it also runs a big risk of becoming corrupt. What is more, not becoming corrupt in certain
organizational culture means betraying the group.
D.
According to the 4th theory there are certain values and norms of society that directly
influence the values and norms of individuals making them corrupt. Because of a clash of values
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connected to one’s private and one’s public role, choices have to be made. The macro morality of
public officials requires them to treat different persons equally, where the micro morality requires
them to favor friends or family wherever possible. Out of obligations to friends or family officials
take bribes, as it is like ensuring loyalty to friends and family rather than because of their selfish
personal gain. Thus, corruption prevention to be effective should concentrate on codes of conduct,
their enforcement and merit system application in public administration, rather than punishments
and threats.
E.
The last but one theory states that there is a combination of several factors that cause
corruption such as social, political, organizational and individual. Among the historical and
cultural variables, urbanization and education are concluded as important influences on corruption.
Among the political explanation, voter turnout and party competition stand out as relevant
influences. The size of the public sector and gambling arrests are considered important
bureaucratic explanations of corruption too.
F.
The last theory is closely connected with the 3rd theory, but it states that New Public
Management approaches in public administration that do not address the ethical dimension of
public service or support virtues like public interest, guardianship, integrity, merit, accountability,
responsibility and truth have subverted the ethos of public organization. Moreover, in some
countries deregulation and privatization have created significant structures for influence-peddling
and have removed agencies that provide for public accountability. Thus, ‘wrong’ morality of a
society leads to corruption.
3C. After you read
Agree or disagree with the following statements.
1.
The micro morality of public officials requires them to treat different persons equally.
2.
According to “Clashing moral values theory” an individual is portrayed as a rationally
calculating person.
3.
All the theories of corruption concentrate on a specific situation of a corrupt official.
4.
Accountability, merit system application, integrity, transparency, guardianship are
considered to be effective in corruption prevention.
5.
It’s easy for a person who comes in contact with a corrupt organization structure to run
counter.
6.
Maximization of costs and minimization of benefits are the best remedies for corruption.
7.
Punishments and threats are the best anticorruption practices.
8.
Greed pushes people to become involved into corrupt practices.
9.
“Bad apple theory” is not so much interested in the background or motives of the corrupt
official, but in the organization within which the agent is working.
10.
The absence of accountability can’t be a factor to cause corruption.
D. DISCUSSION
1D. As there are sectors that are more likely to be corruptible than others, think which sector is the
most corrupted one. Prove your point of view to your group mates.
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Investigation and prosecution
Judicial proceedings
Education system
Utilities
Tax authorities
Medical services
Land management
Registry and permit service
Politics
Public enterprises
City government
Traffic police
E. HOME ASSIGNMENT
Read and render (in writing) the article “World Bank Chief Economist for Africa Denounces
‘Quiet Corruption’ ”.
http://www.lse.ac.uk/IDEAS/publications/Analysis-Archive/ideasToday/06/worldBank.pdf
1.2.
CORRUPTION: FORMS AND RISK FACTORS
A. LEAD-IN
1. What is the major idea of the article World Bank Chief Economist for Africa Denounces
‘Quiet Corruption’ ”?
2. Can you name the risk factors of corruption?
3. What forms can corruption take?
4. Have you ever faced corruption in your life?
B. VOCABULARY
1B. Look though the following forms of corruption. If necessary check the dictionary.
2B. Read the definition of forms of corruption and choose Russian equivalents to each from the
box bellow.
Abuse of power
the act of using one’s position of power in an abusive way.
Abuse
of
property
public usage of items, facilities or premises owned by community or
government for individual purposes.
Abuse of discretion
an error of judgement that is clearly unreasonable, erroneous or
arbitrary and not justified by facts.
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Bribery
the process of giving or taking money to get services or gain influence.
Cronyism
the practice of appointing friends to high-level, esp political, posts
regardless of their suitability.
Embezzlement
the misappropriation of funds that have been entrusted to one for care
or management.
Extortion
the act of securing money, favours, etc. by intimidation or violence;
blackmail.
Favouritism
the practice of giving special treatment to a person or group.
Fraud
the crime of getting money by deceiving people.
Influence-peddling
the illegal practice of using one's influence in government or
connections with persons in authority to obtain favours or preferential
treatment for another, usually in return for payment.
Insider trading
the buying or selling of a security (ценные бумаги) by someone who
has access to material nonpublic information about the security.
Kickback
part of an income paid to a person having influence over the size or
payment of the income, esp by some illegal arrangement.
Money laundering
the process of creating an impression that large amounts of money
obtained from illegal activity originated from a legitimate source.
Nepotism
favouritism shown to relatives or close friends by those with power or
influence.
Patronage
the power to grant different political favours.
Speed money
money given to get the work done faster or in advance.
Russian equivalents
превышение
служебных произвол
полномочий
растрата, хищение
назначение на должности не кумовство,
торговля
по деловым качествам
семейственность влиянием
инсайдерская
[внутренняя]
торговля
назначение
знакомству
взятка,
подкуп
должностного лица
на
злоупотребление
госимуществом
C.
"откат"
пост
по покровительство отмывание
денег
плата
за вымогательство мошенничество
ускорение дел
READING
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1C. Before you read
1.
2.
3.
What are the characteristics and ingredients of corruption?
What types of corruption may one single out?
Name the spheres of public administration that are the most vulnerable to corruption.
2C. While you read
Read the text to check your answers. Find out words to match the definitions below.
1. ordinary; everyday; (§2)
2. freedom or authority to make judgments and to act as one sees fit; (§2)
3. to weaken gradually; (§4)
4. the act of buying; (§3)
5. erroneous, improper, or unorthodox application; (§1)
6. based on agreement and conspiracy; (§2)
7. capable of being physically or emotionally wounded or hurt; (§3)
8. minor, inessential; (§1)
9. concealed or secret; (§2)
10. unfavourable or negative; (§4)
11. given or confide to somebody. (§1)
CORRUPTION: TYPES, FORMS, RISK FACTORS
1. Over the past two decades, the negative impact of corruption on development has been
increasingly recognized. Economic research shows that although corruption occurs both in rich
and poor countries according to the UN its definition is the same everywhere. Corruption is misuse
of entrusted power for personal gain. The types of corruption are numerous and one may speak
about political (grand) or petty (bureaucratic), systemic or quiet, active or passive.
2. The formula of corruption includes three elements: monopoly, discretion and
accountability. Monopoly allows someone to control the supply of a public service. Work-related
discretion gives power for an individual to abuse a monopoly position. Absence of accountability
makes corruption possible in principle. Moreover, corruption has some unique characteristics.
First of all corruption is covert, it means secret. Secondly, it is collusive, as people agree to
participate. Thirdly, corruption is contextual and commonplace, as it may happen anywhere and a
variety of factors may cause it.
3. It’s common knowledge that law enforcement and government procurement are the most
vulnerable spheres to corruption in public administration. But the variety of corruption forms
(bribery, embezzlement, abuse of public property, nepotism, extortion and etc.) makes us conclude
that there are several risk factors contributing to corruption. All the risks can be classified into
individual, work-related, organizational and environmental. Thus, poor leadership, behavior of
colleagues, societal norms, as well as personal values, emotions or economic circumstances are
examples of risk factors.
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4. Corruption is evil, as it regularly has one or more adverse consequences. It negatively
affects economic growth, encourages conflicts, violates human rights, fosters anti-democratic
environment and undermines the delivery of humanitarian and reconstruction assistance. What is
more it is an obstacle to consolidating peace. Of course, the fact that corruption is correlated with
different negative phenomena does not necessarily mean that corruption causes them. But these
negative phenomena go hand in hand with corruption.
3C. After you read
1. What is the UN’s definition of corruption?
2. Agree or disagree: “Bribes and speed money are examples of petty corruption”.
3. Name the elements of corruption.
4. What does it mean that corruption is covert and collusive?
5. Prove that corruption is dangerous and adverse for democratic society development.
6. What does it mean that corruption is commonplace and contextual?
7. Agree or disagree: “Vote-buying is an example of political corruption”.
8. Give examples of risk factors that may cause corruption.
D. DISCUSSION
1D. Express your point of view on the following questions.
1. Is quiet corruption destructive?
2. Is it possible to eradicate corruption forever?
3. How effective do you think preventive measures can be? Give examples of preventive
measures introduced in Belarus and other countries to combat corruption.
4. Generally speaking, do you think the world is becoming a more or a less corrupt place?
2D. In pairs / groups, decide whether the following are examples of petty or grand corruption.
How would you punish the offenders?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
Giving a policemen money to escape a motoring fine.
A construction company boss rewards a politician to win a big contract.
A cousin is hired for a job for which he is less qualified than other candidates.
A country’s leader misdirects aid into his own bank account.
A company employee finds a way to secretly receive two salaries a month.
A tobacco company illegally contributes money to a political party.
A customs official allows a flu-infected chicken into the country for $100.
A company CEO fakes accounts, which causes the company’s collapse.
E. HOME ASSIGNMENT
Read the information in the articles (from 7 to 14) of the UN Convention against Corruption
and put down the general elements of policy for the prevention of corruption.
https://www.unodc.org/documents/treaties/UNCAC/Publications/Convention/08-50026_E.pdf
1.3.
CORRUPTION PREVENTION AND CITIZEN ENGAGEMENT
A. LEAD-IN
1. Do you know which countries in the world are the most corrupted ones?
2. Are there similar grounds or factors among the most corrupted countries?
3. Which countries are the least corrupted in the world?
4. Is there any country that is completely free from corruption?
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B. READING
1C. Before you read
1. Do you know your country’s CPI?
2. What methods are effective in corruption prevention?
3. What measures are undertaken in your country to combat corruption?
2C. While you read
Read the following text and fill in the gaps with the missing parts that are in the chart.
A
to break corruption chain in an organization
B
will not solve the problem
C
to investigate and punish it
D
using training and education campaigns
E
proactive measures
F
but preventive measures
G
not only casting a vote every few years
H
shine the light
I
without citizen involvement
J
participate in decision-making
CORRUPTION PREVENTION: APPROACHES, METHODS, CITIZENS AND MASS
MEDIA INVOLVEMENT
Nobody would argue that total elimination of corruption is an unrealistic goal that is likely
to be disproportionately costly, rigid and risk compromising human rights. 1) … should be
undertaken any way. There are several approaches as for corruption prevention. The first one,
called educational approach, aims to alter the attitude and values of citizens and civil servants 2)
… and engaging the media.
According to organizational approach strengthening internal control systems such as
auditing to detect corruption and staff rotation are those measures that are obligatory to be taken
3) … . Advocating harsher penalties for corrupt practices and creation of independent anticorruption agencies are effective corruption remedies from the point of view of judicial approach.
There are also approaches offering to raise civil servants’ salaries, introduce more definite
separation of powers in terms of judiciary and the state, increase transparency of budget spending,
etc. But whatever approach we choose one must take into consideration that 4) … it will be difficult
to combat corruption.
All in all, methods of corruption prevention can be divided into reactive, preventive and
proactive. The first group is used after corruption has been discovered, as they are worked out 5)
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… . Preventive actions are undertaken before corruption is found, as they are intended to make
corruption more difficult. Whereas, 6) … are long term activities that occur before the corrupt acts,
but address the enabling environment for corruption.
In many countries citizens are seeking a deeper engagement in public life, 7) … . They
want to be included in the decisions that affect their lives. Thus, answering the question why
involve citizens it’s necessary to admit that we should involve citizens as they can help policy
makers understand the context of corruption, 8) … , offer new and adequate ideas and participate
in auditing and whistleblowing.
On the other hand, it’s also important to use mass media as they can expose corruption,
explain the importance and benefits of a corruption-free society and 9) … on local governments,
civil society originations, political parties, elections, government allocations, etc. Moreover, if we
want to fight successfully against corruption everyone should be actively involved in the process,
as just pumping up money in ineffective measures 10) … .
3C. After you read
1. Dwell upon the approaches on corruption prevention.
2. Describe the methods of combatting corruption given in the text.
3. Explain why it is necessary to involve both citizens and mass media in the war against
corruption.
D. DISCUSSION
Work with your partner and decide which of the following ways of fighting corruption are the
most effective. Give an argumentative answer.
7 WAYS TO FIGHT CORRUPTION
1. cut red tape;
2. engage citizens;
3. use the power of modern technology;
4. apply severe punishments to corrupt officials;
5. use both local and nationwide measures;
6. educate people;
7. reform public administration sector.
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OR WORLD BANK CHIEF
ECONOMIST FOR AFRICA DE
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