Загрузил Оксана Година

Г.Г. Граник С.М. Бондаркенко Секреты пунктуации

Реклама
===jZgbdKF;hg^Zj_gdh
AG:DB
IJ?IBG:GBY
QZklvi_j\Zy
Dgb]Z^eymqZsbokybihklmiZxsbo\\mau
DqblZl_eyf
WlZ dgb]Z h agZdZo ij_ibgZgby dhlhju_ ^hklZ\eyxl \Zf fgh]h
oehihl<g_cjZkkdZau\Z_lkydZdagZdb ij_ibgZgby ihfh]Zxl \ujZ`Zlv
fukebHgZmqblimgdlmZpbhgghc ]jZfhlghklb Hkh[_ggh \Z`gh ^ey \Zk
qlhdgb]Z^Z_l\hafh`ghklvmqblvky[_amqbl_ey
KZfZy\Z`gZy]eZ\Zdgb]b²©Ohly©imlvb^Ze_db^heh]ªWlhimlv
hlagZgbyijZ\beZd\_jghihklZ\e_gghfmagZdm
Fgh]b_ba\Zkmki_ebm[_^blvkyqlhgbmihjgh_ih\lhj_gb_ijZ\be
gb[_kdhg_qgh_i_j_ibku\Zgb_g_]ZjZglbjmxlhlhrb[hd:qlh[ujmdZ
dZd [u kZfZ kh[hc klZ\beZ gm`guc agZd gZ gm`gh_ f_klh qlh[u
]jZfhlghklv©ijbjhkeZddhgqbdmi_jZª\fha]m^he`_gjZ[hlZlvlhqguc
b[ukljh^_ckl\mxsbcf_oZgbafDZdaZklZ\blvwlhlf_oZgbafjZ[hlZlv
b jZkkdZau\Z_l ]eZ\Z ©Ohly ©imlv b ^Ze_d b ^heh]ª ;m^_l eb f_oZgbaf
^_ckl\h\Zlv aZ\bkbl ij_`^_ \k_]h hl \Zk \uihegyy aZ^Zgby mqbl_kv bf
mijZ\eylv
G_dhlhju_ aZ^Zgby \u [m^_l_ \uihegylv ©\ mf_ª ;hevrbgkl\h `_
lj_[m_l j_Zevghc jZkklZgh\db agZdh\ ij_ibgZgby >ey wlh]h g_
h[yaZl_evgh i_j_ibku\Zlv \k_ \ l_ljZ^v h[aZ\_^bl_kv ijhajZqghc
ie_gdhciheh`bl___gZl_dklkaZ^Zgb_fbjZkklZ\eycl_agZdb
JZkklZgh\dhc agZdh\ ij_ibgZgby jZ[hlZ g_ aZdZgqb\Z_lky
G_h[oh^bfh ijh\_jblv __ GZrZ dgb`dZ ^Z_l \hafh`ghklv gZmqblvky
ijh\_jylv k_[y >ey wlh]h kms_kl\mxl hl\_lu dhlhju_ jZkiheh`_gu
q_j_a g_kdhevdh kljZgbp ihke_ dZ`^h]h aZ^Zgby ih^ aZ]heh\dhf
©Ijh\_jvl_k_[yª
L_f dlh ]hlh\blky \ \mau fu kh\_lm_f g_ hldeZ^u\Zlv jZ[hlm k
dgb]hcgZihke_^gb_g_^_ebi_j_^wdaZf_gZfbAZgbfZcl_kvihg_clZd`_
hl\_lkl\_gghdZdaZgbfZxlkykbg^b\b^mZevgufj_i_lblhjhfddhlhjhfm
\l_q_gb_^ebl_evgh]h\j_f_gbZddmjZlghijboh^ylgZmjhdb
@_eZ_f\Zfmki_oh\\jZkdjulbbk_dj_lh\imgdlmZpbb
3
Iho\Zevgh_keh\hagZdZfij_ibgZgby
AZf_qZl_evgucZg]ebckdbc^jZfZlmj];_jgZj^Rhm \ ij_^bkeh\bb d
k[hjgbdmk\hboiv_k]h\hjbeqlh_klviylv^_kylkihkh[h\kdZaZlvkeh\h^Z
b iylvkhl kihkh[h\ kdZaZlv keh\h g_l Z ^ey lh]h qlh[u gZibkZlv wlb
keh\Z_klvlhevdhh^bgkihkh[
Fh`gheb kh]eZkblvky k wlbf aZf_qZgb_f" Ih`Zemc fh`gh gh \k_
lZdb
>_ckl\bl_evghkihkh[h\ijhbag_klbkeh\h^Z`_kZfh_dhjhldh__klv
\_ebdh_fgh`_kl\hIjhbag_k_ggh_\Zfbg_lfh`_l[ulvkihdhcgufbeb
m]jh`ZxsbfaehjZ^gufbebh]hjq_ggufjZ^hklgufbebkdhj[guf<Zr
]hehkfh`_lijbwlhfa\mqZlvfy]dhbebl\_j^hB\k_]hwlh]hijbaZibkb
dhg_qgh g_ i_j_^Zrv B aZibku\Z_lky keh\h lhevdh h^gbf kihkh[hf ²
khklZ\eyxsbfb _]h [md\Zfb Gh <hl h^gh b lh `_ keh\h aZibkZggh_
g_kdhevdhjZa>Z>Z">Z">Z>Z>Z
Ijhbag_kbl_ \ mf_ wlb keh\Z fuke_ggh \kemrZcl_kv \ bo a\mqZgb_
<jy^ebhgbijha\mqZl^ey\Zkh^bgZdh\h
4
<Zf ykgh qlh ^Z k lhqdhc ² wlh kihdhcgh_ ^Z gh wlh kihdhckl\b_
fh`_l [ulv fm`_kl\_gguf j_rbl_evguf beb ]hjvdbf >Z k
\hijhkbl_evguf agZdhf ² wlh ^Z \ujZ`Zxs__ \hijhk khfg_gb_
g_^hmf_gb_ beb ijhkv[m qlhlh iha\heblv >Z k \hijhkbl_evguf b
\hkdebpZl_evguf agZdhf ² kbevgh_ g_^hmf_gb_ \ wlhf kemqZ_ ^Z"
fh`gh ©i_j_\_klbª dZd ©g_m`_eb"ª k \hkdebpZl_evguf ² kbevgh_
qm\kl\h fh`_l[ulvjZ^hklvbeb]g_\ Kfgh]hlhqb_f² wlhg_m\_j_g
ghklv jZkl_jygghklv jZafure_gby dhlhjuf _s_ ljm^gh h[e_qvky \
keh\Zh]hjq_gb_jZahqZjh\Zgb_AZiylZyihke_^Zk\b^_l_evkl\m_lk_cqZk
[m^_l kdZaZgh h lhf qlh bf_ggh ih^l\_j`^Z_lky wlbf ^Z ^\h_lhqb_ ²
kb]gZelh]hqlhihke_^m_lh[tykg_gb_ihq_fmkdZaZgh^Z
AZibkZggu_ gZ [mfZ]_ keh\Z fh]ml \ujZablv ^Ze_dh g_ \k_ qlh
kh^_j`blky \ `b\hc j_qb qlh i_j_^Z_lky bglhgZpb_c iZmaZfb l_fihf
j_qb`_klZfbbfbfbdhcH^gZdh\jZkihjy`_gbbibrms_]hbqblZxs_]h
_klvg_lhevdhkeh\Zghb^hihegbl_evgu_kj_^kl\Z²agZdbij_ibgZgby
AgZdbij_ibgZgbyg__klvqlhlh\g_rg__ihklhjhgg__ihhlghr_gbx
d `b\hc ldZgb yaudZ hgb kZfb dZd [u ©\ujZklZxlª ba yaudZ ba
g_h[oh^bfhklb dZd fh`gh [he__ ihegh b lhqgh \ujZablv \ ibkvf_gghc
j_qbi_j_^Z\Z_fucbfbkfuke
Fukevh lhf qlhihklZgh\dZ agZdh\ ij_ibgZgby ^bdlm_lky kfukehf
l_dklZ \i_j\u_ \ujZ`_gZ hkgh\hiheh`gbdhf jmkkdhc ]jZffZlbdb F <
Ehfhghkh\ufibkZ\rbfqlh©agZdbklZ\ylkyihkbe_jZamfZª
Ijb ihfhsb agZdh\ ij_ibgZgby aZibkZggh_ keh\h \hkijbgbfZ_lky b
fuke_gghijhbaghkblkyqblZxsbf_kebg_iylvx^_kylvxbg_iylvxklZfb
kihkh[Zfblh\h\kydhfkemqZ_g_h^gbfZg_kdhevdbfbLZdbfh[jZahf
agZdb ij_ibgZgby ^Zxl \hafh`ghklv kdZaZlv \ ibkvf_gghc j_qb ]hjZa^h
[hevr_q_ffh`ghaZibkZlv[md\ZfbHgbihfh]Zxl\ujZablvjZaebqgu_
kfukeubhdjZrb\Zxsb_boqm\kl\ZAgZdbdZdbkeh\Z]h\hjylbfubo
qblZ_f\f_kl_khkeh\Zfb:bgh]^Z^Z`_b\f_klhkeh\
Ba\_kl_g nZdl lZdhc ©[_kkeh\_kghcª i_j_ibkdb NjZgpmakdbc
ibkZl_ev<bdlhj=x]haZdhgqb\jhfZg©Hl\_j`_ggu_ªihkeZe jmdhibkv
dgb]bba^Zl_ex D jmdhibkb hg ijbeh`be ibkvfh \ dhlhjhfg_ [ueh gb
h^gh]hkeh\ZZ[uelhevdhagZd©"ªBa^Zl_evlZd`_hl\_lbeibkvfhf[_a
keh\©ª
5
DZdh]jhfghkfukeh\h_bwfhpbhgZevgh_gZiheg_gb_wlbok\_jodhjhldbo
ibk_f Ibkvfh <bdlhjZ =x]h kh^_j`bl b lj_\h`gu_ \hijhku Gm dZd ?
IhgjZ\behkv eb" Fh`gh eb [m^_l wlh ba^Zlv" b lhgdbc xfhj
iha\heyxsbcibkZl_exk^hklhbgkl\hfi_j_ghkblvkhklhygb_lj_\h`gh]h
h`b^Zgby Hl\_l ba^Zl_ey fh`_l bf_lv ijbf_jgh lZdh_ keh\_kgh_
\ujZ`_gb_
AZf_qZl_evgh<_ebdhe_ighWlhemqrZyjmdhibkvdhlhjmxydh]^Z
eb[h ^_j`Ze \ jmdZo Y __ g_f_^e_ggh ba^Zf : fh`_l [ulv ^Z`_ b
lZdh_ Hlebqgh Wlh fg_ ijbg_k_l bajy^guc ^hoh^ K ihfhsvx lZdhc
dgb]byihl_kgxk\hbodhgdmj_glh\gZdgb`ghfjugd_
B \kx wlm ]Zffm fuke_c b qm\kl\ hg \ujZabe h^gbf dhjhl_gvdbf
agZqdhf ©ª hdjZr_gguf h^gh\j_f_ggh b l_f `_ xfhjhf k dhlhjuf
khqbgbek\h_ibkvfhZ\lhj©Hl\_j`_gguoªIjbf_jghlZd`_ihklmiZ_l_
b \u dh]^Z `_eZy iho\Zeblv dh]hgb[m^v b k^_eZlv wlh \_k_eh
ih^gbfZ_l_d\_jom[hevrhciZe_pb]h\hjbl_©<hª
FZe_gvdZy wibklheyjgZy11 rmldZ jZau]jZggZy <bdlhjhf =x]h b _]h
ba^Zl_e_fhdZaZeZkvm^Zqghcihlhfmqlhh[ZmqZklgbdZi_j_ibkdbmf_eb
g_lhevdhklZ\blvghb©qblZlvªl_ohjhrhihgbfZlvagZdbij_ibgZgby
Ijb ihfhsb agZdh\ fh`gh \ujZablv g_ lhevdh lhl beb bghc kfuke
ghbhlghr_gb_ibrms_]hdlhfmhq_fb^_lj_qvLZd_keb\uibr_l_h
dhfgb[m^v qlh hg mfgbpZ \u^_eyy wlh keh\h dZ\uqdZfb kjZam
klZgh\blky ykgh qlh \u g_ m\_j_gu \ \ukhdbo mfkl\_gguo kihkh[ghklyo
wlh]hq_eh\_dZ
Wlb ijbf_ju ihdZau\Zxl gZkdhevdh h[h]ZsZ_l \hafh`ghklb
ibkvf_gghcj_qbohjhr__agZgb_imgdlmZpbb
Ibkvf_ggZy j_qv [_a agZdh\ ij_ibgZgby beb ijb g_ijZ\bevghf
g_iheghf g_lhqghf bo bkihevah\Zgbb hq_gv ljm^gZ ^ey ihgbfZgby <
gZqZe_ijhreh]h\_dZih^h[gu_ljm^ghklb\hagbdZeb^h\hevghqZklhlZd
dZd agZgb_ imgdlmZpbhgguo ijZ\be g_ kqblZehkv h[yaZl_evguf b
[hevrbgkl\h ibrmsbo klZ\beb agZdb ih k\h_fm mkfhlj_gbx AgZlhdZfb
imgdlmZpbb [ueb lhevdh ba^Zl_evkdb_ jZ[hlgbdb b bf ijboh^behkv
g_fZehfmqblvkykjmdhibkyfb^Z`_h[jZah\Zgg_crboZ\lhjh\LZdh^bg
ba ba^Zl_e_c ibkZe =_jp_gm qlh _]h agZdb ij_ibgZgby ² ©kmsb_ agZdb
ijbludZgbyªblhevdhaZljm^gyxlql_gb_
_____________________________
11Wibklheyjguc`Zgj²wlhi_j_ibkdZ.
6
?kebagZdijhims_gbebihklZ\e_gg_ijZ\bevghwlhfh`_lijb\_klb
d k_jv_aguf bkdZ`_gbyf kfukeZ H lZdbo bkdZ`_gbyo jZkkdZau\Zxl ^\Z
ohjhrhba\_klguo©imgdlmZpbhgguoZg_d^hlZªI_j\ucbagboih\_kl\m_l
himl_r_kl\_ggbd_dhlhjuc\fhf_glhiZkghklbfhebeky;h]mbh[_sZe\
kemqZ_ kiZk_gby ©ihklZ\blv klZlmx ahehlmx ibdm ^_j`Zsmxª H^gZdh
dh]^Z hiZkghklv fbgh\ZeZ iml_r_kl\_ggbdm g_ aZohl_ehkv
jZkdhr_eb\ZlvkygZklZlmxbaahehlZbhg^ZejZkihjy`_gb_©IhklZ\blv
klZlmxahehlmxibdm^_j`ZsmxªLZdbfh[jZahfhggbh^gbfkeh\hfg_
gZjmrb\ k\h_]h h[_sZgby i_j_ghkhf aZiylhc kbevgh khdjZlbe k\hb
jZkoh^u
>jm]hc©imgdlmZpbhggucZg_d^hlª]h\hjblhlhfqlh`bagvq_eh\_dZ
hdZaZeZkv \ aZ\bkbfhklb hl lh]h ]^_ [m^_l ihklZ\e_gZ aZiylZy \
ij_^eh`_gbb ©DZagblv g_evay ihfbeh\Zlvª beb ©DZagblv g_evay
ihfbeh\Zlvª : l_i_jv ij_^klZ\vl_ k_[_ qlh \ lZdhf ijbdZa_ agZd
ij_ibgZgby kemqZcgh beb mfure_ggh ijhims_g Lh]^Z wlhl ijbdZa
klZgh\blky^\mkfuke_ggufblhldlh_]hihemqblg_[m^_lagZlvdZd`_
_fm gZ^e_`bl ihklmiblv Kdhj__ \k_]h hg ihiulZ_lky m]Z^Zlv q_]h `_ \
^_ckl\bl_evghklbohl_ebl_dlhhl^Z\Ze
7
jZkihjy`_gb_ Bf_ggh lZdZy kblmZpby hibku\Z_lky \ bklhjbq_kdhf
jhfZg_ F >jxhgZ ©NjZgpmakdZy \heqbpZª < g_f jZkkdZau\Z_lky dZd
Zg]ebckdZydhjhe_\ZBaZ[_eeZb__\haex[e_ggucehj^Fhjlbf_jk\_j]eb
kij_klheZdhjheyW^mZj^Z II,g_ex[bfh]hfm`Zdhjhe_\uBaZ[_eeu?]h
aZlhqbeb\dj_ihklvb\ugm^bebhlj_qvkyhlij_klheZ\ihevamgZke_^gbdZ
H^gZdh kms_kl\h\ZeZ hiZkghklv qlh \hagbdg_l aZ]h\hj k p_evx
hk\h[h^blv dhjhey b ih^gylv fyl_` Ehj^m Fhjlbf_jm b dhjhe_\_
BaZ[_ee_ [ueh [u kihdhcg__ _keb [u W^mZj^Z II g_ [ueh \ `b\uo Gh
gbdlh g_ j_rbeky kh[kl\_gghjmqgh hl^Zlv ijbdZa h[ m[bckl\_ hkh[u
dhjhe_\kdhc djh\b ibkvf_gguc ijbdZa fh] ihiZklv g_ d l_f dhfm
ij_^gZagZqZeky beb ^Z`_ ihkem`blv hjm`b_f ijhlb\ dhjhe_\u Wlbfb
khfg_gbyfbFhjlbf_jih^_ebekykhk\hbf^jm]hf_ibkdhihfHje_lhghf
©Bgufbkeh\Zfbfbehj^²kdZaZe_ibkdhi —\uohlbl_ihkeZlvijbdZa
g_ ihkueZy _]hª Hje_lhg ^h\hevgh [ukljh j_rbe aZ^Zqm gZibkZ\ \
dZq_kl\_ ijbdZaZ h^gm kljhqdm iheZlugb [_a agZdh\ ij_ibgZgby Ba
aZibkb lZdbf h[jZahf hnhjfe_gghcg_evay [ueh j_rblv ^h[jh_ beb g_
^h[jh_^_ehm[blvW^mZj^Z
©?keb =hkih^v ih`_eZ_l ² aZf_lbe Hje_lhg ² lhl dlh ihemqbl
ibkvfh ihcf_l _]h kfuke Gh jZa\_ fh`gh[m^_l dh]hgb[m^v mij_dgmlv
aZlZdh_ibkvfh"ª
LZd dhjhev W^mZj^ ,, klZe `_jl\hc g_ lhevdh iheblbq_kdh]h gh b
]jZffZlbq_kdh]hdh\Zjkl\Z
:\hlqlhjZkkdZaZeDIZmklh\kdbc\dgb]_©AhehlZyjhaZª
IbkZl_ev:g^j_cKh[hevijbg_k\j_^Zdpbx]Za_lu©FhjydªjZkkdZa
bgl_j_kguc ih l_f_ gh gZi_qZlZgguc imlZgufb dZdbfblh
jZa^_j]Zggufb njZaZfb I_qZlZlv _]h \ lZdhf \b^_ [ueh g_\hafh`gh Z
mimkdZlv`ZevDhjj_dlhj;eZ]h\hiulgucba^Zl_evkdbcjZ[hlgbd\ayeky
ihijZ\blv jZkkdZa g_ \u[jhkb\ b g_ \ibkZ\ gb h^gh]h keh\Z B \hl
jmdhibkv\uijZ\e_gZ©Y ijhq_e jZkkdZa bhg_f_e Wlh[ueZijhajZqgZy
eblZy ijhaZ <k_ klZeh \uimdeuf ykguf Hl ij_`g_c kdhfdZgghklb b
keh\_kgh]hjZa[jh^Zg_hklZehkvbl_gbIjbwlhf^_ckl\bl_evghg_[ueh
\u[jhr_ghbebijb[Z\e_ghgbh^gh]hkeh\Z
²Wlhqm^h²kdZaZey²DZd\uwlhk^_eZeb"
— >ZijhklhjZkklZ\beijZ\bevgh\k_agZdbij_ibgZgbyMKh[heyk
gbfb nhjf_gguc dZ\Zj^Zd Hkh[_ggh lsZl_evgh y jZkklZ\be
lhqdbBZ[aZpuWlh\_ebdZy\_svfbeucfhc
8
?s_ Imrdbg ]h\hjbe h agZdZo ij_ibgZgby Hgb kms_kl\mxl qlh[u
\u^_eblv fukev ijb\_klb keh\Z \ ijZ\bevgh_ khhlghr_gb_ b ^Zlv njZa_
e_]dhklv b ijZ\bevgh_ a\mqZgb_ AgZdb ij_ibgZgby ² wlh dZd ghlgu_
agZdbHgbl\_j^h^_j`Zll_dklbg_^Zxl_fmjZkkuiZlvkyª
BlZd mf_gb_ klZ\blv agZdb ij_ibgZgby ² g_hlt_fe_fZy qZklv
\eZ^_gbyibkvf_gghcj_qvxhghlZd`_\Z`ghdZd\Z`gh\hh[s_mf_gb_
\ujZ`Zlvk\hbfukeb\ibkvf_gghcnhjf_
Mf_gb_klZ\blvagZdb^Z_lkyg_e_]dhlZd`_dZdg_e_]dh^Z_lkyb\_kv
ijhp_kk ibkvf_ggh]h \ujZ`_gby k\hbo fuke_c Gh \Zf ykgh qlh gZrm
`bagvk_]h^gyg_\hafh`gh^Z`_ij_^klZ\blvk_[_[_aibkvf_gghcj_qb
Ibkvf_ggZyj_qv\hiehsZ_l\k_[_\k_q_f[h]ZlZ`bagv
hgZ ijbghkbl b gh\u_ agZgby b hiul fm^jhklb b ^h[juc ijb\_l
[ebadbo ex^_c gZoh^ysboky \ jZaemd_ k gZfb ;eZ]h^Zjy ibkvf_gghc
j_qb q_eh\_q_kdbc hiul g_ ijhiZ^Z_l Z dhiblky b i_j_^Z_lky ba
ihdhe_gby \ ihdhe_gb_ BgZq_ q_eh\_q_kdZy dmevlmjZ g_ fh]eZ [u
jZa\b\Zlvky
9
=eZ\Z I
Ohly©imlvb^Ze_db^heh]ª
IjZ\beh — kZfhbgkljmdpby —lj_gbjh\dZ
Qlh gm`gh ^ey lh]h qlh[u ijbclb d imgdlmZpbhgghc ]jZfhlghklb"
I_j\h_ ² wlh a g Z l v i j Z \ b e Z GZ wlhf gZklZb\Ze _s_ < =
;_ebgkdbc ©H[s__ g_agZgb_ ijZ\be ² ibkZe hg ² l _ g_agZgb_
]jZffZlbdb \j_^bl yaudm gZjh^Z ^_eZy _]h g_hij_^_e_gguf b ih^qbgyy
_]h ijhba\hem ebqghklb lml \kydbc fheh^_p ]h\hjbl b ibr_l gZ k\hc
h[jZa_p<nhjfZoyaudZ^he`gh[ulv_^bgkl\h:wlh]h_^bgkl\Zfh`gh
^hklb]gmlv lhevdh kljh]bf bkke_^h\Zgb_f dZd ijZ\bevg__ ^he`gh
]h\hjblv beb ibkZlv lh beb ^jm]h_ Wlh bkdZgb_ ijZ\bevghklb ^he`gh
[ulv^h\_^_gh^hi_^ZglbafZ²^eymki_oZkZfh]hyaudZª
G_dhlhju_ ba \Zk \ ]em[bg_ ^mrb k wlbf g_ kh]eZkgu ijZ\beZ
ijZ\beZfb Z ]jZfhlghklv ]jZfhlghklvx fh`_l [ulv ^mfZ_l_ \u H^gb
ex^b²kqZkleb\qbdb²ibrml\k_]^Z]jZfhlghohlydZd[m^lh\h\k_g_
agZxlijZ\be^jm]b_\umqb\ZxlijZ\beZgZam[hdghwlhg_kiZkZ_lbohl
hrb[hd ©IjZ\beZlh y agZx ^Z qlh lhedm"ª ² `Zeh\ZeZkv gZf h^gZ
rdhevgbpZB^_ckl\bl_evghhgZagZeZijZ\beZ
LZd\q_f`_^_eh"
Ex^b dhlhju_ ibrml ]jZfhlgh \jh^_ [u g_ agZy ijZ\be gZ kZfhf
^_e_ bo agZxl Hgb fh]ml g_ ihfgblv bo keh\_kguo nhjfmebjh\hd g_
ih\lhjylv bo k_[_ ijb ibkvf_ gh hgb mf_xl ^ _ c k l \ h \ Z l v g Z
h k g h \ Z g b b i j Z \ b e \ khhl\_lkl\bb k ijZ\beZfb : wlh ² kZfh_
]eZ\gh_
<kydZy ^_yl_evghklv q_eh\_dZ h[yaZl_evgh ijhl_dZ_l ih ijZ\beZf
h[jZ[hldZ ^_lZeb gZ klZgd_ \h`^_gb_ fZrbg mijZ\e_gb_ kZfhe_lhf
ihevah\Zgb_klbjZevghcfZrbghcb]jZ\ohdd_c >ey mki_rghklb ex[hc
lZdhc ^_yl_evghklb \Z`gh g_ lhevdh ©agZlvª ijZ\beZ l _ mf_lv bo
jZkkdZaZlvghbmf_lv^_ckl\h\Zlv\khhl\_lkl\bbkgbfb
IhdZ q_eh\_d _s_ g_ gZmqbeky ^_ckl\h\Zlv \ khhl\_lkl\bb k
ijZ\beZfb keh\_kgh_ agZgb_ _fm ihfh]Z_l Gh dZd lhevdh wlb ^_ckl\by
klZgh\ylky ijb\uqgufb \oh^yl \ djh\v b iehlv q_eh\_dZ hg fh`_l
iha\heblvk_[_jhkdhrv©aZ[ulvª
10
ijZ\beZg_ih\lhjylvbok_[_\ijhp_kk_jZ[hlugb\kemogb\mf_
H^gZdh ijb bamq_gbb imgdlmZpbb hl agZgby ijZ\be ^h lh]h kqZkleb\h]h
khklhygbydh]^ZjmdZklZ\blagZdbij_ibgZgbydZd[ukZfZkh[hcl_ih
h[jZaghfm \ujZ`_gbx h^gh]h mqbl_ey ©]jZfhlghklv ijbjZklZ_l d
dhgqbdmi_jZª©imlvb^Ze_db^heh]ª
Q_eh\_d \umqb\rbc ijZ\beZ gh g_ mf_xsbc bo ijbf_gylv _s_ \
kZfhfgZqZe_imlb\_^ms_]hdh\eZ^_gbximgdlmZpb_c
>ey lh]h qlh[u ^_ckl\h\Zlv ih ijZ\bem gZ^h gZ hkgh\Zgbb wlh]h
ijZ\beZ ©ihkljhblvª oh^ jZkkm`^_gbb b aZibkZlv _]h \ \b^_ ko_fu
lZ[ebpu beb keh\_kghc bgkljmdpbb ^ey k_[y ² kZfhbgkljmdpbb LZdZy
bgkljmdpbybf__l fgh]hh[s_]h k bgkljmdpbyfb dhlhju_ ijbeZ]Zxlky d
ijb[hjZf beb ZiiZjZlZf lZdbf dZd l_e_\bahj jZ^bhijb_fgbd iue_khk
beb dbghdZf_jZ < bgkljmdpbb mdZau\Z_lky \k_ qlh gm`gh ^_eZlv dZdb_
hi_jZpbb ijhba\h^blv qlh[u ijb[hj jZ[hlZe Djhf_ lh]h h[yaZl_evgh
mdZau\Z_lkyihke_^h\Zl_evghklv\dhlhjhcwlhgZ^h^_eZlv
?kebk^_eZlvg_\k_qlhlj_[m_lky\bgkljmdpbbgbdZdhcZiiZjZlg_
klZg_l jZ[hlZlv Ij_^klZ\vl_ k_[_ qlh \u iulZ_l_kv ih]h\hjblv ih
l_e_nhgmZ\lhfZlmg_gZ[jZ\ghf_jZ
?keb `_ \u ijhba\h^bl_ \k_ g_h[oh^bfu_ hi_jZpbb gh g_ \ lhc
ihke_^h\Zl_evghklb\dZdhcwlhmdZaZgh\bgkljmdpbblhlh`_gbq_]hg_
ihemqblky
<ZfgZijbf_jg_m^Zklkyih]h\hjblvihl_e_nhgmZ\lhfZlm_keb\u
kgZqZeZgZ[_j_l_ghf_jZihlhfkgbf_l_ljm[dmIhijh[mcl_ij_^klZ\blv
k_[_ kdhevdh dhfbq_kdbo b ljZ]bq_kdbo g_^hjZamf_gbc ijhbkoh^beh [u
\hdjm]_keb[uex^bijhimkdZebijbjZ[hl_gm`gu_hi_jZpbbbebimlZeb
boihjy^hd
:l_i_jvihkfhljbfdZdkhklZ\ey_lkykZfhbgkljmdpbydijbf_g_gbx
]jZffZlbq_kdbo ijZ\be AZf_lbf qlh ^ey __ kha^Zgby bgh]^Z [u\Z_l
gm`ghbkihevah\Zlvg_lhevdhlhqlhkh^_j`blky\^ZgghfijZ\be_ghb
lhqlh[uehbamq_ghjZgvr_
<Zf ba\_klgh qlh keh`guf ij_^eh`_gb_f gZau\Z_lky ij_^eh`_gb_
dhlhjh_ khklhbl ba ^\mo beb [he__ ijhkluo ij_^eh`_gbc h[t_^bg_gguo
kfukeh\hc p_ehklghklvx b bglhgZpbhgghc aZdhgq_gghklvx Wlh ijZ\beh
g_h[oh^bfhijbf_gylvijbjZ[hl_[md\ZevghkdZ`^ufij_^eh`_gb_f
11
DZd `_ _]h ijbf_gylv" Kljhbf oh^ jZkkm`^_gbb KgZqZeZ gZ^h
hij_^_eblv kdhevdh \ ij_^eh`_gbb ]jZffZlbq_kdbo hkgh\ ?keb h^gZ
agZqbl ij_^eh`_gb_ ijhklh_ _keb [hevr_ agZqbl keh`gh_
Khhl\_lkl\mxsmxkZfhbgkljmdpbxfh`ghihkljhblv\\b^_ko_fu
KZfhbgkljmdpby dhlhjmx fu k \Zfb k_cqZk khklZ\beb ijhklZ <
^Zevg_cr_fgZfijb^_lkykhklZ\eylvb[he__keh`gu_
>eym^h[kl\ZjZ[hlufh`ghk^_eZlvlZdqlh[u\h\j_fy\uiheg_gby
aZ^Zgbc[ueZ\hafh`ghklv\a]eygmlvgZbgkljmdpbxH^bgebl_jZlmjguc
]_jhc \_rZe kibkhd bghkljZgguo keh\ dhlhju_ hg ^he`_g [ue \umqblv
gZ^a_jdZevp_f^ey[jblvy
H^gZdhkZfhihk_[_mf_gb_khklZ\blvb^Z`_aZihfgblvbgkljmdpbx
_s_ g_ h[_ki_qb\Z_l ]jZfhlgh]h ibkvfZ >y^xrdZ Ih^`_j i_jkhgZ`
dgb]bZg]ebckdh]hibkZl_ey>`_jhfZD>`_jhfZ©Ljh_\h^ghceh^d_g_
kqblZykh[Zdbªfh]^Zlvex[hfmq_eh\_dmbgkljmdpbxhlhfdZd\[blv\
kl_gdm ]\ha^v qlh[u ih\_kblv gZ g_]h dZjlbgm H^gZdh dh]^Z hg
ijbgbfZekyaZ^_ehkZfhgqZs_ihiZ^Zefhehldhfihkh[kl\_ggufiZev
pZfq_fihreyid_]\ha^ylZdqlhbgkljmdpby²wlh_s_
12
g_ \k_ Mf_gb_ ijbf_gylv bgkljmdpbxgZ ijZdlbd_ ijboh^bl lhevdh
[eZ]h^Zjyl j _ g b j h \ d _ [eZ]h^ZjyihklhyggufmijZ`g_gbyf
BlZdagZgb_ijZ\beZ²khklZ\e_gb_bgkljmdpbbih_]hijbf_g_gbx
²lj_gbjh\dZ>hklZlhqgheb\k_]hwlh]hqlh[u©]jZfhlghklvijbjhkeZd
dhgqbdmi_jZª">hklZlhqghGhlhevdh
lh]^Z dh]^Z jZkklZ\ey_rv agZdb ij_ibgZgby \ ]hlh\hf l_dkl_
gZijbf_j \ mijZ`g_gbb ba mq_[gbdZ : _keb kha^Z_rv k\hc l_dkl ²
khqbg_gb_ibkvfh^g_\gbd"Lh]^ZagZdbij_ibgZgbyjh`^Zxlky\l_dkl_
\f_kl_khkeh\Zfb
©Ij_^qm\kl\b_ªagZdZij_ibgZgby
=jZfhlgu_ ex^b qZklh ]h\hjyl h qm\kl\_ yaudZ [eZ]h^Zjy dhlhjhfm
jmdZdZd[ukZfZkh[hcklZ\blgm`gucagZdgZgm`ghff_kl_QlhwlhaZ
qm\kl\h" B g_evay eb jZa\blv \ k_[_ wlm kihkh[ghklv ©qm\kl\h\Zlvª beb
^Z`_©ij_^qm\kl\h\ZlvªihklZgh\dmagZdZ"Ihijh[m_fjZah[jZlvky\wlhf
Mf_gb_ ©qm\kl\h\Zlvª agZd ij_`^_ \k_]h k\yaZgh kh kihkh[ghklvx
i j _ ^ m ] Z ^ u \ Z l v l _ d k l Wlh h^bg ba kZfuo [hevrbo k_dj_lh\
]jZfhlgh]hibkvfZ>Z\Zcl_jZkkfhljbfihih^jh[g__wlmkihkh[ghklv
IhgbfZgb_ qm`hc j_qb b kha^Zgb_ kh[kl\_gghc k\yaZgh k
m^b\bl_evghc q_eh\_q_kdhc kihkh[ghklvx ^ey h[hagZq_gby dhlhjhc
kha^Zg p_euc jy^ keh\ ij_^\b^_gb_ ij_^\hkobs_gb_ ij_^m]Z^u\Zgb_
ij_^qm\kl\b_ mij_`^_gb_ ijh]ghabjh\Zgb_ LZd qblZy ij_^eh`_gb_
dhlhjh_ gZqbgZ_lky k l_ fu ij_^m]Z^u\Z_f qlh kdhjh ihke_^m_l
dhlhju_ MkeurZ\ keh\Z ^ey lh]h fu ij_^\b^bf qlh[u Fgh]h
qbke_ggu_ l_ ^ey lh]h lZf ]^_ b l ^ ^Zxl gZf \hafh`ghklv
ij_^\hkobsZlv\dZdhclhkl_i_gbbfukevbbglhgZpbxb\ujZ`Zxsmx
wlm fukev kbglZdkbq_kdmx dhgkljmdpbx b ke_^h\Zl_evgh agZdb
ij_ibgZgbyLZdihkeh\Zf:odZdhcfh`gh[_ahrb[hqghij_^m]Z^Zlv
ij_^eh`_gb_ k \hkdebpZl_evghc bglhgZpb_c b aZjZg__ \gmlj_gg_
gZkljhblvkygZihklZgh\dm\hkdebpZl_evgh]hagZdZ \ dhgp_ij_^eh`_gby
< ^jm]bo kemqZyo fh`gh ih ^Zgguf keh\Zf [_ahrb[hqgh ij_^kdZaZlv
dhgdj_lguckfuke_s_g_aZibkZgguoGZijbf_j<ghy[j_\uiZei_j\uc
imrbklucBebKZfZybgl_j_kgZyhkh[_gghklv\g_rg_]h\b^Z`bjZnZ
²wlh_]h^ebggZy
13
Kihkh[kl\m_l eb mf_gb_ ij_^m]Z^u\Zlv l_dkl ]jZfhlghfm ibkvfm"
Ih`Zemc gb h^bg kqZkleb\uc h[eZ^Zl_ev iyl_jdb ih jmkkdhfm yaudm g_
kfh`_lhl\_lblv\ZfgZwlhl\hijhkQlhijhbkoh^bl\]heh\_ibrms_]h\
lhl fhf_gl dh]^Z _]h jmdZ dZd [u kZfZ kh[hc klZ\bl gZ f_klh gm`guc
agZd"Wlh]hg_kmf__lh[tykgblvgb rdhevgbd gb \ajhkeuc < _]h fha]m
\k_ kh\_jrZ_lky lZd [ukljh b ijb\uqgh qlh hg g_ hkhagZ_l dZd wlh
ijhbkoh^blQlh[uihgylvbhibkZlvwlh[ueihklZ\e_glZdhchiul
<ajhkeuf ]jZfhlguf ex^yf ij_^eZ]Zehkv gZibkZlv ^bdlZgl
Ijh\h^beky wlhl ^bdlZgl g_ kh\k_f h[uqguf kihkh[hf GZijbf_j
^bdlh\Zehkv >_j_\gy ]^_ ihke_ q_]h ^_eZeZkv iZmaZ Q_eh\_d
gZqZ\rbc ibkZlv wlh ij_^eh`_gb_ kjZam `_ klZ\be aZiylmx ihke_ keh\Z
^_j_\gy i_j_^ ]^_ GZ \hijhk ihq_fm hg wlh k^_eZe ibrmsbc hl\_qZe
ijbf_jgh lZd ih\b^bfhfm ihke_ keh\Z ]^_ [m^_l khh[s_gh qlhlh qlh
[ueh \ ^_j_\g_ ih hdhgqZgbb wlh]h khh[s_gby gZ^h [m^_l ihklZ\blv
\lhjmxaZiylmx Z^Zevr_ihc^_lj_qvhlhfdZdZywlh[ueZ^_j_\gy
Ex^b ihfgysb_ ]jZffZlbdm jZkkm`^Zeb lZd keh\hf ^_j_\gy
gZqbgZ_lky ]eZ\gh_ ij_^eh`_gb_ keh\hf ]^_ ² ijb^Zlhqgh_
hij_^_ebl_evgh_dhlhjh_jZaju\Z_l]eZ\gh_Dh]^Zijb^Zlhqgh_dhgqblky
gZ^hihklZ\blvaZiylmxihlhfmqlh^Zevr_ihc^_lijh^he`_gb_]eZ\gh]h
\ dhlhjhf [m^_l kdZam_fh_ d ih^e_`Zs_fm ^_j_\gy b ijh^he`_gb_ oZ
jZdl_jbklbdb^_j_\gb
LZdbfh[jZahf_s_g_agZykh^_j`Zgbyij_^eh`_gbyibrmsbcm`_
ij_^m]Z^u\Z_l b _]h h[sbc kfuke b kbglZdkbq_kdmx kljmdlmjm b agZdb
ij_ibgZgby Lhevdh ih i_j\uf keh\Zf hg m`_ fh`_l khklZ\blv ko_fm
\dexqZxsmxbagZdb
14
B aZibku\Zy ^Zevr_ ij_^eh`_gb_ >_j_\gy ]^_ kdmqZe ?\]_gbb [ueZ
ij_e_klgucm]hehdhgm`_]hlh\dihklZgh\d_\lhjhcaZiylhcihke_keh\Z
?\]_gbc
?keb ]jZfhlghfm q_eh\_d ^bdlh\Zeb gZqZeh ij_^eh`_gby Dh]^Z
fZevqbrdb [jhkb\hgklZ\beaZiylmxi_j_^keh\hf[jhkb\ij_^\b^y
^__ijbqZklguc h[hjhl Djhf_ lh]h hg m`_ ^h]Z^u\Zeky qlh dh]^Z
fZevqbrdb[jhkb\qlhlhh^ghklZeb^_eZlvqlhlh^jm]h_ bebaZgyebkv
q_flh ^jm]bf ijhbahreh qlhlh lj_lv_ LZdbf h[jZahf ibrmsbc m`_
ij_^m]Z^Ze \ kZfhf h[s_f \b^_ b kfukeh\mx b kbglZdkbq_kdmx
kljmdlmjmij_^eh`_gbyb©\jhkrb_ª\wlmkljmdlmjmagZdbij_ibgZgby
WlZkihkh[ghklvij_^m]Z^u\Zlv²\Z`g_crZykhklZ\gZyqZklvmf_gby
jZkklZ\eylv agZdb ih oh^m ibkvfZ g_ hldeZ^u\Zy wlh]h \Z`gh]h ^_eZ gZ
^Zevg_cr__h[^mfu\Zgb_ihke_aZibkb
IZfylvb]jZfhlghklv
Ke_^mxsbck_dj_l \_jghc jZkklZgh\db agZdh\ij_ibgZgby khklhbl \
kihkh[ghklba Z i h f b g Z l v a Z i b k Z g g h _ .
<h\j_fyaZibkbgbh^ghij_^eh`_gb_djhf_kZfuodhjhl_gvdbog_
ijbkmlkl\m_l \ khagZgbb \k_ p_ebdhf k h^bgZdh\hc ykghklvx
AZibku\Z_fZynjZaZ^\b`_lkyq_j_akhagZgb_ibrms_]hdZdghqghcih_a^
q_j_ahk\_s_gguclmgg_evhlq_leb\h\b^gZlhevdhlZqZklvdhlhjZygZoh
^blky \ lmgg_e_ GZqZeh njZau dZd i_j\u_ \Z]hgu ih_a^Z m`_ mreh aZ
ij_^_eu hlq_leb\hc \b^bfhklb Z dhg_p _s_ g_ \t_oZe \ hk\_s_ggh_
ijhkljZgkl\h
Ibrmsbc q_eh\_d \ dZ`^uc ^Zgguc fhf_gl jZ[hlZ_l lhevdh k
©hlj_adhfª ij_^eh`_gby bf_y ijb wlhf g_ kh\k_f hlq_leb\uc ijh]gha
lh]h qlh ij_^klhbl gZibkZlv Hl lh]h gZkdhevdh ohjhrh q_eh\_d
ibrmsbc ^Zgguc ©hlj_ahdª ij_^eh`_gby ihfgbl aZibkZggh_ b
ij_^\hkobsZ_l lh qlh gZibr_l \h fgh]hf aZ\bkbl ijZ\bevghklv
kha^Z\Z_fh]h bf l_dklZ \ lhf qbke_ b ijZ\bevghklv jZkklZgh\db agZdh\
ij_ibgZgby
>himklbf qlh \u aZibkZeb LZf ]^_ ?keb \u kjZam ^h]Z^Zebkv
qlh k_cqZk ihke_^m_l ijb^Zlhqgh_ ij_^eh`_gb_ dhlhjh_ ©\debgblkyª \
]eZ\gh_ lh kjZam `_ ihklZ\bl_ aZiylmx i_j_^ ]^_ Ijh^he`Zy aZibkv
ij_^eh`_gby LZf ]^_ g_[h \klj_lbehkv k a_fe_c ]hjbahgl jh^beky
fheh^hc\u
15
^he`gu ihfgblv k\hx ^h]Z^dm ^h l_o ihj ihdZ g_ dhgqblky
ijb^Zlhqgh_ b hlf_lblv wlh kh[ulb_ ihklZgh\dhc aZiylhc i_j_^ keh\hf
]hjbahgl ij_^eh`_gb_ \aylh ba klbohl\hj_gby F : K\_leh\Z
©=hjbahglª G_^hq_lu ©k[hbª ij_^m]Z^u\Zgby b aZihfbgZgby g_ba[_`gh
ijb\h^yl d hrb[dZf <hl h[jZa_p lZdbo hrb[hd \ jZ[hl_ h^gh]h
rdhevgbdZ ² KZrb G < _]h l_ljZ^yo h[hkh[e_ggu_ hij_^_e_gby b
h[klhyl_evkl\Z\\h^gu_ij_^eh`_gbyijb^Zlhqgu_gZoh^ysb_ky\gmljb
]eZ\guog_\u^_eyebkvk^\moklhjhgZbf_eblhevdhh^gmaZiylmx²gZ
dhgp_GZijbf_jij_^eh`_gb_<^jm]\lhms_ev_]^_M`k\_jgmekyiZek
g_[Z Khdhe KZrZ gZibkZe [_a i_j\hc aZiylhc GZ \hijhk ij_ih^Z\Zl_ey
ihq_fmwlhijhbkoh^blfZevqbdhl\_lbe©Ylhevdhddhgpm^h]Z^u\Zxkv
qlh ibrm dZdhclh h[hjhl b lh]^Z m`_ g_ \kihfbgZx ijh i_j\mx
aZiylmxªMg_dhlhjuordhevgbdh\^_ehh[klhblbgZq_
hgb kjZam ^h]Z^u\Zxlky qlh ibrml h[hjhl beb ijb^Zlhqgh_
ij_^eh`_gb_ kjZam klZ\yl i_j\mx aZiylmx gh ih oh^m ibkvfZ aZ[u\Zxl
k\hx^h]Z^dmbh\lhjhcaZiylhcm`_g_\kihfbgZxlMlZdbordhevgbdh\
\ijb\_^_gghf\ur_ijbf_j_ba©I_kgbhKhdhe_ªF=hjvdh]hl_jy_lky
aZiylZyihke_keh\Zk\_jgmeky
BlZd \ kha^Zgbb ]jZfhlgh gZibkZggh]h l_dklZ \k_ \j_fy mqZkl\mxl
ij_^m]Z^u\Zgb_baZihfbgZgb_
;ehdb
Qlh `_ bf_ggh \u ij_^m]Z^u\Z_l_ b aZihfbgZ_l_" Keh\Z"
Keh\hkhq_lZgby" < hl^_evguo kemqZyo wlh fh`_l [ulv b lZd gh dZd
ijZ\beh \u jZ[hlZ_l_ k p_eufb ]jmiiZfb keh\ Mkeh\bfky gZau\Zlv wlb
]jmiiu [ehdZfb kh]eZkgh ijZ\beZf hgb gm`^Zxlky \ \u^_e_gbb beb
hl^_e_gbb agZdZfb ij_ibgZgby LZd [ehdZfb y\eyxlky b ijhklu_ ij_^
eh`_gby\keh`ghfbh[hkh[e_ggu_\lhjhkl_i_ggu_qe_guij_^eh`_gby
b\\h^gu_ij_^eh`_gby
IhkfhljbfgZijbf_jZodZdij_^eh`_gby^_eylkygZ[ehdb
DlhjZ[hlZ_lkex[h\vxlhl\ghkblihwabx\h\kydmxjZ[hlm.
G = Q_jgur_\kdbc < wlhf ij_^eh`_gbb ^\Z [ehdZ H^bg ² lhl
\ghkbl ihwabx \h \kydmx jZ[hlm Dlh bf_ggh" GZ wlhl \hijhk hl\_qZ_l
^jm]hc[ehdDlhjZ[hlZ_lkex[h\vx
16
<k_lhq_]hdhkg_lkyq_eh\_dhaZj_gh_]h^mrhc`b\hx.
KYFZjrZd <wlhfij_^eh`_gbblh`_^\Z[ehdZ
H^bg ² \k_ lh haZj_gh _]h ^mrhc `b\hx : qlh wlh" >jm]hc [ehd
hl\_qZ_lq_]hdhkg_lkyq_eh\_d.
<h \lhjhf kemqZ_ jZa^_e_gb_ gZ [ehdb g_kdhevdh ljm^g__ q_f \
i_j\hflZddZdhgbg_ke_^mxl^jm]aZ^jm]hfZh^bg\lhj]Z_lky\^jm]hc
b jZkqe_gy_l _]h ihwlhfm ijboh^blky fuke_ggh \hkklZgZ\eb\Zlv i_j\uc
[ehddZdp_eh_
Dh]^Zmibrms_]hq_eh\_dZkihkh[ghklvfuke_gghh[t_^bgylvkeh\Z
\ [ehdb ^hklb]Z_l \ukhdh]h mjh\gy jZa\blby hg kjZam gZoh^bl bo \
j_q_\hf ihlhd_ gZijbf_j \_kv ^__ijbqZklguc h[hjhl Z g_ hl^_evgh
^__ijbqZklb_ b aZ\bkbfu_ hl g_]h keh\Z JZ[hlZ gZ hkgh\_ lZdh]h
jZa\blh]hmf_gbyklZgh\blky]hjZa^h[uklj__bwdhghfg__GZwlhfmjh\g_
ibrmsbcm`_g_ljZlbl\j_f_gbgZh[^mfu\Zgb_lh]h dZdb_ijZ\beZ hg
ijbf_gy_l
Fh`_l [ulv ^Z`_ g_ijhba\hevgh hibjZ_lky ibrmsbc gZ
hjb_glbjmxsb_keh\Z keh\Zih^kdZadb dhlhju_dZd[ukb]gZebabjmxlh
gZqZe_lh]hbebbgh]h[ehdZ
17
Kj_^bgbokhxaukhxagu_mdZaZl_evgu_keh\Zbjy^^jm]boGZgZk
jZ[hlZ_l p_eh_ ©]jZffZlbq_kdh_[xjh ijh]ghah\ª GZijbf_j _keb ohly
lZddZdbl^kem`Zlkb]gZehflh]hqlhfubf__f^_ehkijb^Zlhqguf
ij_^eh`_gb_f dhlhjh_ gm`gh hl^_eblv hl ]eZ\gh]h LZd ij_^kdZau\Z_l
qlhbkhhl\_lkl\mxsmxaZiylmx gZijbf_jlZd]em[hdqlhbeblZd
kbe_g qlh Lhl ij_^kdZau\Z_l dhlhjuc Keh\Z lbiZ ih^gy\ beb
jZa]ey^u\Zy kb]gZebabjmxl h gZqZe_ ^__ijbqZklgh]h h[hjhlZ LZdb_
keh\Z dZd mjhgb\rbc b]jZxsbc himkdZ_fuc h[_sZxl ijbqZklguc
h[hjhl
?kebq_eh\_dgZmqbekymagZ\Zlvwlbkb]gZeu\h[s_fj_q_\hfihlhd_
©qblZlvªbodZdhohlgbdqblZ_lke_^ugZkg_]mlhhgm`_fh`_lg_ijhklh
\b^_lv[ehdbghbij_^\b^_lvboij_^qm\kl\h\Zlv
=jZfhlghklvgZ©dhgqbd_i_jZª
Dh]^Z mf_gb_ ij_^qm\kl\h\Zlv [ehdb b m^_j`b\Zlv bo \ iZfylb
\ujZ[Zlu\Z_lkykdeZ^u\Z_lkygZ^_`gZyhkgh\Z lhc ]jZfhlghklb dhlhjZy
©ijbjhkeZddhgqbdmi_jZª
>Z\Zcl_ihijh[m_fk\hbkbeu\ij_^m]Z^u\ZgbbK_cqZk\uijhql_l_
g_kdhevdhhlju\dh\ij_^eh`_gbcIhijh[mcl_kdZaZlvhdZ`^hfbagbo\
kZfhf h[s_f ko_fZlbq_kdhf \b^_ dZdh\ kfuke ^Zevg_cr_]h l_dklZ b \
dZdmx kbglZdkbq_kdmx dhgkljmdpbx wlhl kfuke [m^_l ©h^_lª JZ[hlZy k
ijbf_jZfb \u kgZqZeZ ihklZjZcl_kv k^_eZlv \k_ \hafh`gh_
kZfhklhyl_evghZihlhfijh\_jvl_k_[yihgZrbfhl\_lZf
;_a ohjhr_]h \eZ^_gby jh^guf yaudhf gb h^bg ba gZk g_ fh`_l
^\bgmlv \i_j_^ gb gZ rZ] gb Fh`gh h`b^Zlv qlh ^Zevr_ [m^ml
i_j_qbke_gul_h[eZklb`bagbdhlhju_g_evay^\bgmlv\i_j_^[_aagZgby
jh^gh]h yaudZ Ke_^h\Zl_evgh fh`gh ij_^m]Z^Zlv h^ghjh^gu_ qe_gu
ij_^eh`_gby k ih\lhjyxsbfky khxahf gb f_`^m dhlhjufb ^he`gZ
klZ\blvkyaZiylZy
>_ckl\bl_evghij_^eh`_gb_dhgqZ_lkylZdgb gZmdm gb l_ogbdm gb
bkdmkkl\h
Dhkfh]hgby wlh <_jhylgh ^Zevr_ [m^_l ^Zgh hij_^_e_gb_
dhkfh]hgbb Ih\b^bfhfm \ wlhf ij_^eh`_gbb ih^e_`Zs__ b kdZam_fh_
\ujZ`_gu kms_kl\bl_evgufb \ bf_gbl_evghf iZ^_`_ Z ]eZ]hek\yadZ
hlkmlkl\m_lI_j_^wlh^he`ghklhylvlbj_
18
>_ckl\bl_evgh \k_ ij_^eh`_gb_ \u]ey^bl lZd Dhkfh]hgby ² wlh
gZmdZhijhbkoh`^_gbbbjZa\blbbg_[_kguol_e
G_[_kgZy f_oZgbdZ dhlhjmx A^_kv \_jhylgh ihc^_l j_qv h lhf
qlhdlhlhk^_eZe\jZa\blbbwlhcgZmdbWlh[m^_lkeh`gh_ij_^eh`_gb_
\ dhlhjhf h^gh ijhklh_ jZkiheh`_gh \gmljb ^jm]h]h GZ^h ihklZ\blv
aZiylmxi_j_^dhlhjmxb^hdhgpZwlh]h[ehdZihfgblvhg_h[oh^bfhklb
\lhjhcaZiylhc
>_ckl\bl_evgh wlh ij_^eh`_gb_ \u]ey^bl lZd G_[_kgZy f_oZgbdZ
dhlhjmx kha^Zeb D_ie_j b Gvxlhg bamqZ_l aZdhgu \jZs_gby g_[_kguo
l_e
BlZd fu ihagZdhfbeb \Zk k \Z`g_crbf k_dj_lhf ]jZfhlghklb ²
ij_^m]Z^u\Zgb_f Gh \u m`_ agZ_l_ qlh ij_^m]Z^u\Zlv g_^hklZlhqgh
GZ^h mf_lv aZihfgblv m]Z^Zgguc [ehd ^h l_o ihj ihdZ hg g_ [m^_l
©aZdjulª gm`guf agZdhf M h^gbo ex^_c wlh aZihfbgZgb_ ijhbkoh^bl
kZfhkh[hc^jm]bf^Z_lkyljm^g__
Fh`ghebjZa\blv\k_[_kihkh[ghklvaZihfbgZlv"B_kebfh`ghlh
dZd" Qlh[u gZclb hl\_lu gZ wlb \hijhku mq_gu_ bamqZeb b kjZ\gb\Zeb
jZ[hlmrdhevgbdh\mf_xsbob g_ mf_xsbo m^_j`b\Zlv \ iZfylb l_dkl
<hl qlh hgb h[gZjm`beb Ij_^eh`_gb_ hklZ_lky \ iZfylb m l_o dlh
©\b^blª_]hWlh^\hydh_\b^_gb_<hi_j\uoykgh_q_ldh_ij_^klZ\e_gb_
kljmdlmju ij_^eh`_gby l_ khklZ\eyxsbo _]h [ehdh\ bo qbkeZ b
\aZbfgh]h jZkiheh`_gby h^gbf keh\hf ©\b^_gb_ª ko_fu ij_^eh`_gby
<h\lhjuoij_^klZ\e_gb_lh]hqlhhibkZgh\ij_^eh`_gbb\\b^_`b\hc
dZjlbgu beb jy^Z `b\uo dZjlbg GZijbf_j ij_^eh`_gb_ DZrlZgdZ
ihpZjZiZeZ ^\_jv gZe_]eZ gZ g__ ]jm^vx b lhlqZk `_ ihqm\kl\h\ZeZ
kljZgguc ih^hajbl_evguc aZiZo aZihfbgZxl l_ dlh k h^ghc klhjhgu
kjZam ©\b^blª qlh wlh ijhklh_ jZkijhkljZg_ggh_ ij_^eh`_gb_ k
h^ghjh^gufbqe_gZfbZk^jm]hcklhjhguij_^klZ\ey_lk_[_g_[hevrmx
ju`mxkh[ZdmgZe_]Zxsmx]jm^vxgZ^\_jvkeurbllbob_pZjZiZxsb_
a\mdbaZf_qZ_ldZdgZklhjh`beZkvDZrlZgdZhl ih^hajbl_evgh]h aZiZoZ
Mf_gb_©\b^_lvªl_dkl²wlhlh`_h^bgbak_dj_lh\]jZfhlgh]hibkvfZ
HlhfdZdjZa\blvkihkh[ghklv©\b^_lvªkljmdlmjmij_^eh`_gbyfu
_s_ [m^_f ]h\hjblv \ ke_^mxsbo ]eZ\Zo Qlh `_ dZkZ_lky kihkh[ghklb
kha^Z\Zlvh[jZau\\hh[jZ`_gbbhgZ^ZgZhlijbjh^udZ`^hfmq_eh\_dm
ghjZa\blZmex^_c\jZaghckl_i_gbMg_dhlhjuo\hkijbgbfZ_fucl_dkl
h`b\Z_l \ khagZgbb kZf kh[hc dZjlbgu djZkdb a\mdb b ^Z`_ aZiZob
\hagbdZ
19
xlg_ijhba\hevghb_kl_kl\_ggh\f_kl_k\hkijbgbfZ_fufbkeh\ZfbM
^jm]bo wlh]h kZfh kh[hc g_ ijhbkoh^bl b hgb jZ[hlZxl k l_dklhf g_
©\dexqZyª_]h`b\h_\b^_gb_bg_jZaebqZy\g_fh[jZah\dZd\dhfgZl_
]^_ g_ \dexq_g k\_l Gh q_eh\_d fh`_l mkbeb_f \heb ©\dexqblvª k\_l b
m\b^_lv gZoh^ysb_ky \ dhfgZl_ ij_^f_lu G_h[oh^bfhklv ©\dexqZlvª
\hh[jZ`_gb_ijbjZ[hl_kl_dklhfhq_gv\_ebdZWlhhlghkblkyg_lhevdhd
ibkvfm gh b d ql_gbx ex[hc ebl_jZlmju dZd om^h`_kl\_gghc lZd b
ihagZ\Zl_evghc
?keb kihkh[ghklv ij_^klZ\eylv k_[_ gZ hkgh\_ l_dklZ ajbl_evgu_ b
a\mdh\u_ h[jZau m q_eh\_dZ jZa\blZ keZ[h hg fh`_l __ jZa\blv
p_e_gZijZ\e_ggh jZ[hlZy gZ^ kh[hc ©QblZlv lZd qlh[u keh\Z
ij_\jZsZebkv \ dZjlbgu Z ]hehkZ ^_ckl\mxsbo ebp a\mqZeb b dZ`^Zy
kljZgbpZ h`b\ZeZ fh`gh gZmqblvky ² ]h\hjbl ibkZl_ev K Ev\h\
IhgZqZemijb^_lky^_eZlvkhagZl_evgh_mkbeb_
Dhg_qgh h[jZau klZgml \hagbdZlv \ \hh[jZ`_gbb g_ kjZam Z
bgh]^Z _^\Z \hagbdgm\ [m^ml mkdhevaZlv IhdZ \ujZ[hlZ_rv \ k_[_
ijb\uqdm \b^_lv \ keh\Zo dZjlbgm i_j\h_ \j_fy kbevgh mklZ_rv Gh
mkbeby \hagZ]jZ^ylky KljZgbpu dgb] h`b\ml jZkp\_lml djZkdZfb
gZihegylkya\mdZfbbaZiZoZfbª
Dh]^Z \u ijb\udg_l_ fuke_ggh ©h`b\eylvª l_dkl lh ihemqbl_
h]jhfguc \ub]jur ijb _]h aZihfbgZgbb b ke_^h\Zl_evgh ijb _]h
]jZfhlghcaZibkb
BlZd agZgb_ ijZ\be mf_gb_ ^_ckl\h\Zlv \ khhl\_lkl\bb k gbfb
kihkh[ghklv ij_^m]Z^u\Zlv aZihfbgZlv fuke_ggh ©h`b\eylvª l_dkl b
[ukljh gZoh^blv [ehdb \ ij_^eh`_gbb ² aZeh] mki_rgh]h h\eZ^_gby
imgdlmZpb_c
:qlhijhbkoh^blkl_fb,dlh,dZd]h\hjbeDml_cdbg\dhf_^bb>B
Nhg\babgZ©G_^hjhkevª©m[hyeky[_a^guij_fm^jhklbªbg_hk\hbe\k_]h
lh]h qlh g_h[oh^bfh ^ey ]jZfhlghc jZkklZgh\db agZdh\ ih oh^m
ibkvfZ"LZdb_ rdhevgbdb h[uqgh ibrml [_a agZdh\ Z bo jZkklZgh\dm
hklZ\eyxl gZ ihlhf ?keb \j_fy hklZ_lky hgb i_j_qblu\Zxl l_dkl
h[^mfu\Zxl _]h b klZ\yl qlh fh]ml ?keb `_ \j_f_gb \ h[j_a ² ^_eh
iehoh <ujmqblv fh`_l lhevdh kihkh[ bah[j_l_gguc \ klZju_ \j_f_gZ
h^gbfhkljhmfguf]bfgZabklhfdhlhjucgZibkZekhqbg_gb_[_aagZdh\\
dhgp_ bah[jZabe fgh`_kl\h aZiyluo lbj_ b ^\h_lhqbc Z ih^ gbfb
ih^ibkZe©FZjrihf_klZfª
20
=eZ\Z II
KZfu_e_]db_agZdbij_ibgZgby
Fukebqm\kl\ZbagZdb
<B>Zev\_ebdbckh[bjZl_evjmkkdbokeh\kha^Zl_evfgh]hlhfgh]h
©Lhedh\h]h keh\Zjy `b\h]h \_ebdhjmkkdh]h yaudZª kqblZe agZdb
ij_ibgZgby lZdbfb `_ iheghp_ggufb yaudh\ufb agZdZfb dZd [md\u
©AgZdhiheh`_gb_ ]jZfhlu ibkvfZ aZdexqZ_l \ k_[_ agZdb ibkvf_ggu_,
beb[md\ubagZdbij_ibgZgbyª²ibkZehgDZdh\h`_©]_h]jZnbq_kdh_
iheh`_gb_ªimgdlmZpbhgguoagZdh\" M gbo _klv ljb baex[e_gguo f_klZ
h[blZgby
I_j\h_ ² wlh dhg_p ij_^eh`_gby A^_kv ihk_ebebkv q_luj_ agZdZ
\hijhkbl_evguc \hkdebpZl_evguc lhqdZ b fgh]hlhqb_ <lhjh_ ²
]jZgbpZ f_`^m ijhklufb ij_^eh`_gbyfb \ khklZ\_ keh`gh]h AgZdh\
dhlhju_a^_kvh[blZxllh`_q_luj_aZiylZylhqdZkaZiylhc^\h_lhqb_b
lbj_ Lj_lv_ ²©ijhkljZgkl\hª \gmljb ijhklh]h ij_^eh`_gby A^_kv
fh`gh\klj_lblvg_lhevdhaZiylmx^\h_lhqb_
21
beb lbj_ gh b lZdb_ kjZ\gbl_evgh j_^db_ agZdb dZd dZ\uqdb kdh[db
fgh]hlhqb_
< wlhc ]eZ\_ j_qv ihc^_l h agZdZo dhlhju_ klZ\ylky \ dhgp_
ij_^eh`_gby Fgh]b_ ba \Zk g_ [Zemxl wlb agZdb \gbfZgb_f gZ^ gbfb
hkh[_gghg_ aZ^mfu\Zxlky bo ijbgylh kqblZlv e_]dbfb Ihkfhljbf lZd
ebwlh
Dlh g_ ijhdebgZe klZgpbhgguo kfhljbl_e_c dlh k gbfb g_
[jZgb\Zeky"Dlh\fbgmlm]g_\Zg_lj_[h\Zehlgbojhdh\hcdgb]b
^Z[u \ibkZlv \ hgmx k\hx [_kihe_agmx `Zeh[m gZ ijbl_kg_gb_
]jm[hklv b g_bkijZ\ghklv" Dlh g_ ihqblZ_l bo ba\_j]Zfb
q_eh\_q_kdh]h jh^Z jZ\gufb ihdhcguf ih^vyqbf beb ih djZcg_c
f_j_ fmjhfkdbf jZa[hcgbdZf" DZdh\Z ^he`ghklv k_]h ^bdlZlhjZ
dZdgZau\Z_l_]hrmleb\hdgyav<ya_fkdbc"G_gZklhysZyebdZlhj]Z"
Wlhl imrdbgkdbc l_dkl bkihevah\Zgguc \ dZq_kl\_ ^bdlZglZ
aZqZklmx g_ hkbeb\Zxl ^Z`_ \uimkdgbdb rdheu ohly agZdhfkl\h kh
agZdZfbdhgpZij_^eh`_gbyijhbkoh^bl\i_j\hfdeZkk_
<b^yijhims_gguc\hijhkbl_evgucbeb\hkdebpZl_evgucagZdqZklh
m^b\ey_rvky©BdZdf_gym]hjZa^behhrb[blvky\lZdhf e_]dhf kemqZ_"
IjhdeylZy g_\gbfZl_evghklvª H^gZdh [he_agv kbfilhfhf dhlhjhc
y\ey_lky ©g_qm\kl\bl_evghklvª d agZdZf dhgpZ ij_^eh`_gby ]hjZa^h
k_jv_ag__Ex^bkljZ^Zxsb_wlhc[he_agvxdZdijZ\behb\kh[kl\_gghc
ibkvf_gghc j_qb g_ ihevamxlky \hijhkbl_evgufb b \hkdebpZl_evgufb
agZdZfb gZibkZggu_ bfb l_dklu bglhgZpbhggh [_^gu fhghlhggu
H[uqghlZdhcq_eh\_dg_mf__lb\ujZabl_evghqblZlv\kemoh^ghh[jZagh
©[hjfhq_lª klbob \umq_ggu_ gZbamklv beb ©hl[ZjZ[Zgb\Z_lª bo dZd
kdhjh]h\hjdm Ijhlb\ lZdh]h ql_gby ijhl_klh\Ze _s_ : K =jb[h_^h\
Z\lhjnjZaudhlhjZyklZeZdjueZlhc
©QblZcg_lZddZdihghfZjvZkqm\kl\hfklhedhfkjZkklZgh\dhcª
Hldm^Z [_j_lky ©g_qm\kl\bl_evghklvª d \hijhkbl_evguf b
\hkdebpZl_evguf ij_^eh`_gbyf" Ij_`^_ \k_]h hl g_^hklZlhqgh]h
ijhgbdgh\_gby\kfukeibkvf_gghcj_qbghkbl_e_fdhlhjh]hy\eyxlkyb
agZdb <kihfgbl_ i_j_ibkdm <bdlhjZ =x]h k ba^Zl_e_f Wlhc i_j_ibkdb
g_ [ueh [u _keb [u ibkZl_ev b ba^Zl_ev g_ mf_eb ©qblZlvª agZdb
ij_ibgZgbyihgbfZlvaZdexq_gguc\gbokfuke
22
<hijhkbl_evguc b \hkdebpZl_evguc agZdb ihfh]Zxl \ujZ`Zlv
qm\kl\Z ©G_qm\kl\bl_evghklvª d wlbf agZdZf k\yaZgZ k hlkmlkl\b_f
wfhpbhgZevgh]h hldebdZ ©hlau\qb\hklbª gZ jZ^hklv ]hj_ ]g_\
\ujZ`_ggu_ Z\lhjhf <kihfgbf i_j\mx kljhnm klbohl\hj_gby F X
E_jfhglh\Z©;hjh^bghª
— KdZ`bdZ^y^y\_^vg_^Zjhf
Fhkd\ZkiZe_ggZyih`Zjhf
NjZgpmamhl^ZgZ"
<_^v[ueb`ko\Zldb[h_\u_
>Z]h\hjyl_s_dZdb_
G_^Zjhfihfgbl\kyJhkkby
Ijh^_gv;hjh^bgZ
?keb dlhlh ba \Zk aZibku\Zy wlb kljhdb ih iZfylb g_ klZ\bl
\hijhkbl_evguc b \hkdebpZl_evguc agZdb \ dhgp_ ij_^eh`_gbc Z wlh
kemqZ_lky ^hklZlhqgh qZklh agZqbl ibrmsbc g_ \^mfZeky \ \hijhk
aZdexq_gguc \ klbohl\hjguo kljhqdZo E_jfhglh\Z g_ hlha\Zeky gZ
\ujZ`_ggu_\gboqm\kl\Z
Ke_^kl\b_f ©g_qm\kl\bl_evghklbª d kfukeh\hc b wfhpbhgZevghc
klhjhg_l_dklZy\ey_lky©g_qm\kl\bl_evghklvªdbglhgZpbb<f_kl_kl_f
bglhgZpbyijbkmlkl\m_l\ex[hcnhjf_j_qbb\mklghcb\ibkvf_gghc
?_ gm`gh lhevdh gZmqblvky ©keurZlvª hkhagZ\Zlv B lh]^Z l_dkl [m^_l
©a\mqZlvª \ \Zr_f khagZgbb H[ wlhf ibkZe ba\_klguc ikboheh] G B
@bgdbg ©Dh]^Z fu qblZ_f ih\_klb jhfZgu beb ^jZfZlbq_kdb_
ijhba\_^_gbyfu\gmlj_gg_keurbf]hehkZ^_ckl\mxsboebpbZ\lhjZ<
lhc f_j_ \ dZdhc wlb ijhba\_^_gby hlh[jZ`Zxl `bagv hgb ijhgbdgmlu
`b\hc bglhgZpb_cª BlZd \gbfZgb_ b \hkijbbfqb\hklv d kfukem
qm\kl\Zf b \ujZ`Zxs_c bo bglhgZpbb ² \hl qlh g_h[oh^bfh ^ey
ijZ\bevghcihklZgh\dbagZdh\ij_ibgZgby\dhgp_ij_^eh`_gby
Ijh\_jvl_ k_[y _klv eb m \Zk wlZ \hkijbbfqb\hklv" GZibrbl_ ih
iZfylb lh qlh \u emqr_ ihfgbl_ ihke_^gxx kljhnm ©JZafure_gbc m
iZjZ^gh]hih^t_a^ZªG:G_djZkh\Zbeb^\_kljhnubaklbohl\hj_gbyF
XE_jfhglh\Z©Kf_jlvihwlZªghg_kgZqZeZZkhkeh\Zm[bl
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk 25).
?keb\k_gm`gu_agZdbgZf_kl_agZqbl^_eZg_lZdm`iehobGhg_
hq_gv]hj^bl_kv<ujZ[hlZeb\ev]hlguo
23
mkeh\byodh]^Z\Zr_\gbfZgb_m`_[uehh[jZs_ghgZgm`gu_agZdb
L_i_jv fu i_j_c^_f d ih^jh[ghfm jZa]h\hjm h \hijhkbl_evguo b
\hkdebpZl_evguoij_^eh`_gbyo
AgZdihegucaZ]Z^hd
©Qlh lZdh_ \hijhkbl_evguc agZd" ² ihrmlbe h^gZ`^u ihwl F :
K\_leh\²WlhkhklZjb\rbcky\hkdebpZl_evgucª
FuihgbfZ_f]em[hdbckfukeaZdexq_gguc\wlhcrmld_ghgbdZd
g_ fh`_f kh]eZkblvky k ij_^klZ\e_gb_f h \hijhkbl_evghf agZd_ dZd h
k]hj[e_gghf klZjbd_ <hijhkbl_evguc agZd \_qgh fheh^ b ihehg kbeu
ohlybkms_kl\m_lklhevdh`_kdhevdhkms_kl\m_lq_eh\_q_kl\h
Ex^bihklhygghaZ^Zxl^jm]^jm]mbkZfbk_[_fgh`_kl\h\hijhkh\
Wlh g_m^b\bl_evgh \hijhku ² ^\b]Zl_ev q_eh\_q_kdh]h ihagZgby
Q_eh\_dm ijbkmsZ ]em[hqZcrZy ihlj_[ghklv hldju\Zlv magZ\Zlv b
h[tykgylvg_ihgylgu_^eyg_]hk\hckl\Zby\e_gbyhdjm`Zxs_]hfbjZ
;hevr_ \k_]h aZ^Zxl \hijhkh\ fZe_gvdb_ ^_lb ^ey dhlhjuo \k_
hdjm`Zxs__bogh\hbaZ]Z^hqghG_kemqZcghibkZl_ev;@bldh\gZa\Ze
bo ©ihq_fmqdZfbª Hkljh b iuleb\h kijZrb\Zxl ih^jhkldb <kx `bagv
klZ\yl \hijhku b bsml hl\_lu gZ gbo mq_gu_ Ihklhyggh kijZrb\Zxl h
q_flh ^jm] ^jm]Z ex^b \ ih\k_^g_\ghf h[s_gbb \ [ulm <k_ wlh
fgh`_kl\h\hijhkh\fh`ghjZa^_eblvihkfukemgZq_luj_]jmiiu
I_j\Zy ]jmiiZ ² wlh \hijhku dhlhju_ aZ^Zxl dh]^Z ohlyl qlhlh
magZlv
Dlhijba\_a^Zobijbemg_
LZdiha^gh_^_lgZdhg_"
:KImrdbg
Q_cdhgvijbfqZekyaZiZe_gguc
BiZegZdZfgbm\hjhl"
FXE_jfhglh\
<lhjZy]jmiiZ²wlh\hijhkugZdhlhju_^Zxlml\_j^bl_evgucbeb
hljbpZl_evguchl\_l
DmfmrdZfg_kljZgghwlh
>ZjZ[hlZeZevlu\e_lh"
B:Djueh\
24
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk 23.
=^_gZjh^lZfbklhgWok_j^_qguc
Qlh`_agZqbll\hcklhg[_kdhg_qguc"
Luijhkg_rvkyevbkiheg_gguckbe
Bevkm^_[ih\bgmykvaZdhgm
<k_qlhfh]lum`_kh\_jrbe²
Kha^Zei_kgxih^h[gmxklhgm
B^moh\ghgZ\_dbihqbe"
G:G_djZkh\
M[blDq_fml_i_jvju^Zgvy
Imkluoiho\Zeg_gm`gucohj
B`Zedbce_i_lhijZ\^Zgvy"
Km^v[uk\_jrbekyijb]h\hj
G_\uevki_j\ZlZdaeh[gh]gZeb
?]hk\h[h^guckf_euc^Zj
B^eyihl_objZa^m\Zeb
QmlvaZlZb\rbckyih`Zj"
FXE_jfhglh\
***
Bebfuom`_^jm]bomjh^bebkv"
Bebg_^jm`ghp\_ebdhehkbebkv"
G:G_djZkh\
Lj_lvy ]jmiiZ \hijhkh\ Zevl_jgZlb\gu_ lj_[m_l hl\_lZ gZ \u[hj
kijZrb\Zxsbc gZau\Z_l ^\Z ij_^f_lZ beb [hevr_ Z hl\_qZxsbc
^he`_g\u[jZlvqlhlhh^gh
<b^yl²fZe_gvdZylhqdZ
IhdZaZeZkv\^Ze_d_
LhebqmjdZlheb[hqdZ
Ijhieu\Z_lihj_d_"
:LL\Zj^h\kdbc
Q_l\_jlZy ]jmiiZ ² wlh \hijhku gZ dhlhju_ g_ h`b^Zxl hl\_lZ
Q_eh\_d aZ^Z_l bo dZd [u jZafureyy k kZfbf kh[hc \kihfgbl_
agZf_gblh_ ©;ulv beb g_ [ulv"ª ]eZ\gh]h ]_jhy ljZ]_^bb < R_dkibjZ
©=Zfe_lª beb`_ijb\e_dZyhkh[_g
25
gh_ \gbfZgb_ d lhfm h q_f b^_l j_qv LZdb_ \hijhku gZau\Zxlky
jblhjbq_kdbfb
M\b`mevh^jmavygZjh^g_m]g_l_gguc
BjZ[kl\hiZ^r__ihfZgbxpZjy
BgZ^hl_q_kl\hfk\h[h^uijhk\_s_gghc
<ahc^_lebgZdhg_pij_djZkgZyaZjy"
:KImrdbg
H<he]Zdheu[_evfhy
Ex[beebdlhl_[ydZdy"
G:G_djZkh\
KZfu_jZaghh[jZagu_\hijhkufh]ml\klj_lblvky\f_kl_©ih^h^ghc
djur_cª \ h^ghf b lhf `_ om^h`_kl\_gghf l_dkl_ Ihijh[mcl_
hij_^_eblv dZdb_ \hijhku bkihevah\Ze : K Imrdbg \ klbohl\hj_gbb
©P\_lhdª
P\_lhdaZkhorbc[_amoZgguc
AZ[uluc\dgb]_\b`my
B\hlm`_f_qlhxkljZgghc
>mrZgZihegbeZkvfhy
=^_p\_e"dh]^Z"dZdhc\_kghx"
26
B^he]hevp\_e"bkhj\Zgd_f²
Qm`hcagZdhfhcebjmdhx"
Biheh`_gkx^ZaZq_f"
GZiZfylvg_`gh]hevk\b^Zgvy
BebjZaemdbjhdh\hc
Bevh^bghdh]h]meygvy
<lbrbihe_c\l_gbe_kghc"
B`b\eblhlblZ`b\Zeb"
Bgugq_]^_bom]hehd"
Bebm`_hgbm\yeb
DZdk_cg_\_^hfucp\_lhd"
Dh]^Z \u gZmqbl_kv e_]dh hlghkblv \hijhk d lhc beb ^jm]hc
kfukeh\hc]jmii_\Zf[m^_le_]dh\u^_eylv\hijhkuihkfukem\ex[hf
l_dkl_
G_j_^dh \hijhkbl_evgu_ ij_^eh`_gby \dexqZxl
Keh\Z
ki_pbZevgu_
\hijhkbl_evgu_
keh\Z
dhlhju_
dhlhju_
kb]gZebabjmxl \hijhk_ dlh qlh g_m`_eb jZa\_ eb b
ihfh]Zxl
l^
kijZrb\Zlv
Fu m`_ ]h\hjbeb \ wlhc dgb]_ h keh\Zokb]gZeZo
hgb^Zxl\hafh`ghklv\dZdhclhkl_i_gbij_^m]Z^u\Zlv
bfukevbbglhgZpbxbagZdbij_ibgZgby
Ex^bdhlhju_gZmqbebkvqblZlvkb]gZeuyaudZlZd`_\gbfZl_evgh
dZd hohlgbd qblZ_l ke_^u a\_j_c b ilbp ijb \klj_q_ k lZdbf kb]gZehf
kjZamij_^m]Z^u\Zxl\hijhkbl_evgucoZjZdl_jij_^eh`_gby
Hkeh\Zodhlhju_ihfh]ZxlkijZrb\ZlvjZkkdZaZgh\klbohl\hj_gbb
KYFZjrZdZ
?klvmf_gyr_kl_jdZkem]
Ijh\hjguom^Zeuo
B\k_qlh\b`my\hdjm]²
<k_agZxyhlgbo
HgbihagZdmfh_fm
Y\eyxlky\gm`^_
Ah\mlboDZdbIhq_fm
DlhQlhDh]^Zb=^_
GZkZfhf^_e_wlbokeh\g_r_klvZ]hjZa^h[hevr_Ihijh[mcl_bo
\kihfgblv
<kemqZ_aZljm^g_gby\hkihevamcl_kvke_^mxs_cih^kdZadhc
27
GZah\bl_ keh\Z ihfh]Zxsb_ kijhkblv \ dZdhf f_kl_ qlhlh gZoh^blky
magZlv \ dZdh_ f_klh gZ^h ijhclb beb ijh_oZlv \uykgblv ba dZdh]h
]hjh^Z ijb_oZe q_eh\_d magZlv h \j_f_gb dZdh]hlh kh[ulby \uykgblv
ijbqbgmlh]hbebbgh]hy\e_gby
GZah\bl_ dhjhl_gvdh_ keh\h ihfh]Zxs__ aZ^Zlv \hijhk gZ dhlhjuc
hl\_qZxl^Zbebg_l
<kihfgbl_ keh\Z iha\heyxsb_ kijhkblv h `b\hf kms_kl\_ h
g_h^mr_\e_gghfij_^f_l_hqbke_ij_^f_lh\boihjy^dh\hfghf_j_ijb
kq_l_
GZah\bl_ keh\h ijb ihfhsb dhlhjh]h fh`gh magZlv h dZq_kl\_
ijh^_eZgghcjZ[hlu
<kihfgbl_ dZdb_ keh\Z ihfh]Zxl kijhkblv h ijbagZdZo ij_^f_lh\
boijbgZ^e_`ghklbdhfmgb[m^vhlhfkdZdhcp_evxqlhlh^_eZ_lky
:l_i_jvkZfh_ljm^gh_gZah\bl_keh\Z\ujZ`Zxsb_h^gh\j_f_ggh
\hijhkbm^b\e_gb_
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_l 1 gZk 41).
Bgh]^Z \hijhkbl_evgu_ ij_^eh`_gby kljhylky [_a \hijhkbl_evguo
keh\BomagZxlihkfukembbglhgZpbb
;_kihdhcgucagZd
;_kdhg_q_g fbj q_eh\_q_kdbo qm\kl\ jZ^hklv ]g_\
BmagZdh\
[u\Z_l kljZoi_qZev<mklghcj_qbwlbqm\kl\Zi_j_^Zxlg_lhevdh
gZkljh_gb_ keh\Z gh b \ujZ`_gb_ ebpZ `_klu a\mqZgb_ ]hehkZ <
ibkvf_gghc j_qb ©ghkbl_e_fª kZfuo jZaghh[jZaguo qm\kl\
kem`bl\hkdebpZl_evgucagZd
GZrZj_qvfh`_l\ujZ`Zlvfgh]hohjhrboqm\kl\jZ^hklv]hj^hklv
lhj`_kl\h h^h[j_gb_ Mkeh\bfky gZau\Zlv ij_^eh`_gby \ujZ`Zxsb_
wlb qm\kl\Z ©jZ^hklgufbª Ijhqlbl_ ijbf_ju b ihijh[mcl_ hl\_lblv
k_[_dZdh_bf_gghbaqm\kl\\ujZ`_gh\dZ`^hfbagbo
IDjZkmcky]jZ^I_ljh\bklhc
G_dhe_[bfhdZdJhkkby
>Za^jZ\kl\mxlfmau^Za^jZ\kl\m_ljZamf
Lukhegp_k\ylh_]hjb
DZdwlZeZfiZ^Z[e_^g__l
Ij_^ykguf\hkoh^hfaZjb
LZdeh`gZyfm^jhklvf_jpZ_lble__l
28
Ij_^khegp_f[_kkf_jlgufmfZ
>Za^jZ\kl\m_lkhegp_^Zkdjh_lkylvfZ
>jmavyfhbij_djZk_ggZrkhxa
HgdZd^mrZg_jZa^_ebfb\_q_g
MjZFuehfbf]gmlkyr\_^u
HkeZ\gucqZkhkeZ\guc\b^
?s_gZihj²b\jZ][_`bl
:KImrdbg
,,=hjh^qm^guc]hjh^^j_\gbc
Lu\f_klbe\k\hbdhgpu
BihkZ^ub^_j_\gb
BiZeZlub^\hjpu
NG=ebgdZ
Dkh`Ze_gbx\gZr_cj_qbbgh]^Z\ujZ`Zxlkybg_^h[ju_qm\kl\Z
Lh]^Z\\hkdebpZl_evguoij_^eh`_gbyoa\mqZlg_m^h\e_l\hj_gb_mij_db
m]jhau gZkf_rdZ hkdhj[e_gb_ Wlh ©k_j^blu_ª ij_^eh`_gby Ijhqlbl_
ijbf_jubaihwabb:KImrdbgZbhij_^_ebl_dZdb_qm\kl\Z\ujZ`_gu
\gbo
>mjZqbgZluijhklhnbey
G_mf_elu\aylv\udmiZkju[db
:oluf_jadh_kl_deh
Wlh\j_rvlufg_gZaeh
B\ke_^jZa^Zeky]hehkrmfguc
©Dm^Zlu\blyavg_jZamfguc"
KlmiZcgZaZ^yg_rmqm
DZdjZagZoZeZijh]ehqmª
Gh\blyavagZf_gbluc
MkeurZ]jm[u_keh\Z
<hkdebdgmek\Z`ghklvxk_j^blhc
©FheqbimklZy]heh\Z
KeuoZeybklbgm[u\Zeh
Ohlveh[rbjhd^Zfha]mfZeh
Y_^m_^mg_k\bsm
:dZdgZ_^mg_kimsmª
<hkdebpZl_evgu_ ij_^eh`_gby fh]ml \ujZ`Zlv lj_\h]m kljZo
ij_^mij_`^_gb_ h[ hiZkghklb ©a\Zlvª gZ ihfhsv Ihijh[mcl_
hij_^_eblvdZdb_qm\kl\Z\ujZ`_gu\ijbf_jZo
29
HkZ^ZijbklmiAeu_\hegu
DZd\hjue_aml\hdgZQ_egu
KjZa[_]Zkl_deZ[vxldhjfhc
:KImrdbg
Wc[_j_]bl_kvLheklydb
Ijbrebihke_^gb_^_gvdb
Moh^bl_[_]bl_kiZkZcl_ky
Wcih`Zjgu_[_]bl_
Ihfh]bl_ihfh]bl_
XDHe_rZ
DBQmdh\kdbc
< \hkdebpZl_evguo ij_^eh`_gbyo fh`_l \ujZ`Zlvky lZd`_ b ]hj_
i_qZev kh`Ze_gb_ `Zeh[Z <kihfgbl_ kp_gm ba imrdbgkdhc ©KdZadb h
ahehlhfi_lmrd_ªpZjv>Z^hg\b^blk\hbof_jl\uokugh\_c\hgab\rbo
f_qb^jm]\^jm]Z
PZjvaZ\ue©Ho^_lb^_lb
=hj_fg_ihiZebkv\k_lb
H[ZgZrbkhdheZ
=hj_kf_jlvfhyijbreZª
?kebq_eh\_d\b^blqlhlhkljZggh_ g_h`b^Zggh_g_h[uqgh_ lh hg
\ujZ`Z_l kbevgh_ m^b\e_gb_ < lZdbo kemqZyo hg ijhbaghkbl
©m^b\e_ggu_ª ij_^eh`_gby Hkh[_ggh qZklh b kbevgh m^b\eyxlky ^_lb
Wlhohjhrh\ujZ`_gh\^_lkdhcihwabb<hlijbf_jlZdh]hij_^eh`_gby
:oihkfhljbl_klj_dhaZe_lblgZ\_jlhe_l_
: l_i_jv ihijh[mcl_ hij_^_eblv dZdb_ qm\kl\Z \ujZ`_gu \ dZ`^hf
baijb\_^_gguoij_^eh`_gbc
,Qlhkemqbehkv"QlhaZdjbd"
²Wlhlhg_lmq_gbd
HgmiZekh[ju\Z
\j_dm²
Ihfh]bl_q_eh\_dm
>y^yKl_iZ\wlhljZa
MlhiZxs_]hkiZk
K<FboZedh\
,, <hevdZ Dhkluevdh\ gZr_e gZ ^g_ Fhkd\uj_db g_h[udgh\_gguc
]ebgyguckhkm^DeZ^DeZ^khklZjbg
30
gufb\_sZfbbf_xsbfbgZmqgh_agZq_gb_<hlwlha^hjh\h
Ih EBEZ]bgm
,,,©:oluh[`hjZ:oaeh^_cª²
Lml<ZkvdmIh\Zjmdhjy_l
IkZjbdjbqZl©:olbj_[ylZ\hjª
DZdboa\_j_cdZdbolZfilbpyg_\b^Ze
DZdb_[Z[hqdb[mdZrdb
Dhay\dbfmrdblZjZdZrdb
H^gbdZdbamfjm^^jm]b_dZddhjZee
B:Djueh\
<hkdebpZl_evgufbfh]ml[ulvg_lhevdh
ij_^eh`_gby\ujZ`Zxsb_qm\kl\Z<kihfgbfh
ij_^eh`_gbyodhlhju_gZau\Zxlky
ih[m^bl_evgufbhgb\ujZ`ZxlijbdZadhfZg
^mlj_[h\Zgb_bebijhkv[mGZijbf_j)
FheqbmklZeykemrZlv.
B : Djueh\ Kfbemcky ]hkm^Zjugy ju[dZ : K Imrdbg Wlb
ij_^eh`_gby fu fh`_f ^ey k_[y gZau\Zlv ij_^eh`_gbydhfZg^bjuª b
ij_^eh`_gby©ihijhrZcdbª
<ke_^mxsboijbf_jZo\u[_aljm^Zkfh`_l_bojZaebqblv
<klZgvihjZgvr_\klZgvihjZgvr_
\klZgvihjZgvr_
dh]^Z^\hjgbdbfZyqZlm\hjhl
Lum\b^brvlum\b^brv
dZd\_k_euc[ZjZ[Zgsbd
\jmdbiZehqdbde_gh\u_[_j_l
>Z\Zcl_\hkdebpZlv
^jm]^jm]hf
\hkobsZlvky
<ukhdhiZjguokeh\g_gZ^hhiZkZlvky
;Hdm^`Z\Z
,, GZrdeZkkaZgyeemqrb_f_klZ\i_j\hfjy^mihlhf\ aZe_ klZeh
l_fg_lv b gZqZeZkv dZjlbgZ Hldm^Z gb \havfbkv ihy\bebkv [_eu_
hnbp_ju bo [ueh hq_gv fgh]h b hgb gZqZeb klj_eylv b djZkgu_
klZeb aZsbsZlvky M f_gy ijyfh aZs_fbeh k_j^p_ y g_ \u^_j`Ze
\uo\Zlbek\hcibklhe_lbaZdjbqZeqlh[uehkbe©I_j\ucdeZkk
31
©<ªH]hgvªB\k_j_[ylZ^hklZebim]Zqbkijh[dZfbb^Z\Zc[ZoZlv
JZbkZ B\Zgh\gZ b ?e_gZ Kl_iZgh\gZ [_]Zeb ih jy^Zf b djbqZeb
©I_j_klZgvl_[_ah[jZagbqZlvIj_djZlbl_ª
>y^_gvdZ k eukbghc aZdjbqZe ©Mkihdhcl_ \Zr kmfZkr_^rbc ^hfª
Dh]^Z[_euog_klZeh\b^ghydjbdgme
©Ij_djZlblvh]hgvª
:\ihg_^_evgbddh]^Zfuijbreb\rdhemgZk\k_ofZevqbr_ddlh
[ue \ dbgh kh[jZeb \ [hevrhf aZe_ >bj_dlhj \klZe b kdZaZe
©K^Z\Zchjm`b_ª
Ih<X>jZ]mgkdhfm
<hkdebpZl_evgu_ ij_^eh`_gby mihlj_[eyxlky \ l_o kemqZyo dh]^Z
ex^b h[jZsZxlky ^jm] d ^jm]m ah\ml ^jm] ^jm]Z klZjZxlky ijb\e_qv d
k_[_ \gbfZgb_ ijb\_lkl\mxl dh]hgb[m^v a^hjh\Zxlky ijhsZxlky
\ukdZau\Zxl jZaebqgu_ ^h[ju_ ih`_eZgby Hij_^_ebl_ qlh \ujZ`_gh \
ke_^mxsboijbf_jZo
1.1. A^jZ\kl\mcie_fy
FeZ^h_g_agZdhfh_
IjhsZc`_fhj_G_aZ[m^m
L\h_clhj`_kl\_gghcdjZku
KdZ`bfg_dm^_kgbdex[bf_p[h]h\
Qlhk[m^_lky\`bagbkhfghx"
A^jZ\kl\mcdgyavlufhcij_djZkguc
Qlh`lulbodZd^_gvg_gZklguc"
:KImrdbg
,,Ijb^bl_dgZfHlm`Zkh\\hcgu
Ijb^bl_\fbjgu_h[tylvy
IhdZg_iha^gh²klZjucf_q\gh`gu
Lh\ZjbsbFuklZg_f[jZlvy
::;ehd
,,,A^jZ\kl\mc]hklvyabfZ
,9Yex[exdh]^Zijb\klj_q_
FuagZdhfufbjh^guf
©K^h[jufmljhfª
©>h[juc\_q_jª
©>h[jhcghqbª²]h\hjbf
32
BKGbdblbg
?kebdqZxbevdh[_^m
<^hf\hc^_f²
G_ex[hqlhev
IhdehgykvkdZaZlvkhk_^yf
©QZc^ZkZoZjª
©Oe_[^Zkhevª
>Z`_klZ_`mjZ\ebghc
Me_lZxs_chlgZk
Ihh[uqZyfklZjbgguf
Fudjbqbf
©<kqZkleb\ucqZkª
:YYrbg
Bgh]^Z
\
ij_^eh`_gbyo
\klj_qZxlky
©\hkdebpZl_evgu_ª keh\Z LZdb_ keh\Z ² kb]gZe d
ihklZgh\d_\hkdebpZl_evgh]hagZdZ<hlhgbZohcZcwc
ZmhowoZ]ZmjZmnh]hm\uZcZcZc
>Z\Zcl_ jZa[_j_fky dh]^Z hgb mihlj_[eyxlky <kihfgbl_ dZdh_ ba
wlbokeh\\ujZ`Z_lkbevgmxjZ
33
«<
hk
de
bp
Zl
_e
v
g
u_
ke
h\
Zª
^hklv lhj`_kl\h dZdb_ keh\Z ihfh]Zxl \ujZablv m^b\e_gb_ bkim]
h]hjq_gb_kh`Ze_gb_`Zeh[mgZ[hevbebmklZehklv
GZah\bl_keh\Zihfh]Zxsb_a\Zlvex^_cH^ghbagbobkihevam_lky
qlh[u hdebdgmlv q_eh\_dZ dhlhjh]h \u \b^bl_ ^jm]h_ ² qlh[u iha\Zlv
q_eh\_dZdhlhjh]h\ug_\b^bl_ gZijbf_j\e_km <kihfgbl_ dZdh_ keh\h \ujZ`Z_l h^gh\j_f_ggh m^b\e_gb_ b
\hkobs_gb_
GZah\bl_ f_`^hf_lb_ mihlj_[ey_fh_ qlh[u ijbklu^blv j_[_gdZ b
f_`^hf_lb_dhlhjh_bkihevam_lkyqlh[ukdZaZlvqlhlhaehjZ^gh_ \jh^_
IhiZeky Bgh]^Z \ dZq_kl\_ f_`^hf_lbc mihlj_[eyxlky bf_gZ
kms_kl\bl_evgu_DZjZme;Zlxrdbb ^j
©<hkdebpZl_evgufbª bgh]^Z fh]ml [ulv keh\Z k dhlhjufb fu m`_
klZedb\Zebkv dZd k \hijhkbl_evgufb dZdhc dZd qlh Wlb keh\Z dZd
Zdl_ju kihkh[gu b]jZlv jZagu_ jheb \ \hijhkbl_evguo ij_^eh`_gbyo
hgb ihfh]Zxl kijZrb\Zlv Z \ \hkdebpZl_evguo ihdZau\Zxl qlh
kh^_j`Zgb_ ij_^eh`_gby hdjZr_gh kbevguf qm\kl\hf GZijbf_j \
ij_^eh`_gbb DZd fu \Zk `^Zeb qm\kl\h h`b^Zgby `_eZgby \klj_qb
a\mqbl]hjZa^hkbevg__q_f\ij_^eh`_gbbFu\Zk`^Zeb<ke_^mxsbo
ijbf_jZo \u e_]dh aZf_lbl_ wlh mkbe_gb_ qm\kl\Z [eZ]h^Zjy
bkihevah\Zgbxkeh\dZdqlhbdZdhc
=hem[mrdZdZdohjhrZ
GmqlhaZr_cdZqlhaZ]eZadb
B:Djueh\
DZdhc[hevrhc\_l_j
HoDZdhc\bojv
GGFZl\__\Z
BlZdfu\klj_lbebkvkbgl_j_kgufyaudh\ufy\e_gb_fh^gbbl_`_
keh\Z fh]ml b]jZlv jZagu_ jheb b kem`blv kb]gZeZfb jZaguo agZdh\ \
dhgp_ij_^eh`_gbyIhwlhfmgZqZ\ibkZlvij_^eh`_gb_khkeh\ZdZdbeb
dZdh_ g_ gZkljZb\Zcl_kv Z\lhfZlbq_kdb gZ ihklZgh\dm \hijhkbl_evgh]h
agZdZ \ dhgp_ Z \^mfZcl_kv \ kfuke b ijhgbdgbl_ \ gZkljh_gb_
\ujZ`_ggh_\h\k_fij_^eh`_gbbp_ebdhf
34
IhklZ\bflhqdm
©Lhqdm ihklZ\blv e_]q_ \k_]hª ² gZ\_jgh_ ^mfZ_l_ \u b k
©e_]dhklvx \ fukeyo g_h[udgh\_gghcª klZ\bl_ __ qZklh ^Z`_ \f_klh
\hijhkbl_evgh]h b \hkdebpZl_evgh]h agZdZ IhklZ\blv lhqdm b \ kZfhf
^_e_g_ljm^ghghlhevdhlh]^Zdh]^Z\ZfaZjZg__ba\_klgh]^_dhgqZ_lky
ij_^eh`_gb_ =hjZa^h ljm^g__ _keb dhg_p ij_^eh`_gby gZ^h gZclb
Ihijh[mcl_ jZkklZ\blv lhqdb \ klbohl\hjghf l_dkl_ ba dgb]b : L
:jkbjbyb=F>fbljb_\hc©AZgbfZl_evgZy]jZffZlbdZª
«Dbk_evlZf\Zjylbaj_abgu
lZfrbgu^_eZxlba]ebgu
dbjibqlZf`]mlbafhehdZ
l\hjh]]hlh\ylbai_kdZ
kl_dehlZfieZ\ylba[_lhgZ
iehlbgukljhylbadZjlhgZ
h[eh`dblZfbaqm]mgZ
lZf\ZjylklZevbaihehlgZ
djhyljm[ZobbaieZklfZkku
ihkm^m^_eZxlbafykZdhle_lu
kljyiZxlbakZ`b
lZf\Zdkm^_eZxlbaijy`b
ijy^mllZfgbldbbakmdgZ
dhklxfurvxlbalhehdgZ
dbk_evlZf\Zjyl
M^Zehkveb\ZfihklZ\blvlhqdblZdqlh[ul_dklklZeihgylguf"
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_l 2 gZk 41).
L_i_jvdh]^Z\Zfyk_gwlhl©nhdmkklhqdZfbªihijh[mcl_ijh^_eZlv
_]hkZfbgZ^jm]bol_dklZo
?^yllZf\bedZfbdhfihl
lZfivxlbaqZr_d[ml_j[jh^
baoe_[ZkkujhflZfdhle_lu
bafykZk\_`_]hdhgn_lu
kgZqbgdhckeZ^dhckmiknZkhevx
\lZj_edZo\k_lZf\Zjylkkhevx
<j_d_lZfju[ZgZ[m]j_
fuqbldhjh\Z\dhgmj_
35
kh[ZdZeZ_lgZaZ[hj_
ih_lkbgbqdZ\dhjb^hj_
b]jZxl^_lbgZkl_g_
\bkbldZjlbgZgZhdg_
mahjubg_y\i_qmjd_
]hjyl^jh\Z\jmdZo^_\qmjdb
gZjy^gZylZfdmdeZ\de_ld_
jmqghcs_]heih_lkZen_ldb
lZfgZklhe_e_`Zldhgvdb
dabf_]hlh\yllZfhqdb
e_`Zl^ey[Z[mrdbl_ljZ^db
\k_]^Zkh^_j`Zlky\ihjy^d_
?keb \Zf m^Zehkv jZkklZ\blv lhqdb lZd qlh l_dkl klZe ihgylguf
agZqblfufh`_fkihdhcghdhgqblvwlm]eZ\mbihklZ\blvlhqdm
<hl fu k \Zfb b \kihfgbeb ©kZfu_ e_]db_ª agZdb ij_ibgZgby <u
^mfZ_l_qlhwlhg_lZdm`\Z`ghqlhwlhimklydb"GhgZ\klmibl_evguo
wdaZf_gZo aZ wlb ©imklydbª kgb`Zxl hp_gdb : dZd h[b^gh ih]hj_lv gZ
©imklydZoªEmqr_m`\k_jv_akgbfbiheZ^blv
36
=eZ\Z III
GZq_f^_j`blkyij_^eh`_gb_
<ihbkdZo]jZffZlbq_kdhchkgh\u
QblZy ij_^u^msmx ]eZ\m \u m[_^bebkv qlh jZkklZ\blv ^Z`_ kZfu_
e_]db_ agZdb ij_ibgZgby \ dhgp_ ij_^eh`_gby g_ lZd m` e_]dh gZ^h
\^mfu\Zlvky \ kfuke l_dklZ Gh _s_ [he__ gZijy`_ggh ijboh^blky
jZ[hlZlvgZ^imgdlmZpb_c\k_j_^bg_ij_^eh`_gbyA^_kvgZ^h\uqe_gylv
fuke_ggh[ehdbbkdZlvbo]jZgbpu\khhl\_lkl\bbkijZ\beZfb\u[bjZlv
gm`gu_agZdbHklZgh\bfkyij_`^_\k_]hgZhkgh\guo[ehdZo²ijhkluo
ij_^eh`_gbyo\oh^ysbo\khklZ\keh`gh]h
Ba q_]h khklhbl lZdhc [ehd" ?]h k_j^p_\bghc y\ey_lky _^bgkl\h
kdZam_fh]h b ih^e_`Zs_]h ²] j Z f f Z l b q _ k d Z y h k g h \ Z
ij_^eh`_gby <hdjm] g__ ]jmiibjmxlky \lhjhkl_i_ggu_ qe_gu
h[hkh[e_ggu_bg_h[hkh[e_ggu_
37
=jZffZlbq_kdZyhkgh\Z\_^_lk_[y\ij_^eh`_gbbdZd\hd_Zg_qm^hx^h
ju[Zdbl gZ dhlhjhf \k_ ^_j`blky ?keb \u gZmqbl_kv [ukljh gZoh^blv
]jZffZlbq_kdb_ hkgh\u \Zf e_]dh [m^_l jZkklZ\eylv l_ agZdb ij_ibgZgby
dhlhju_©ihk_eyxlkyªf_`^mijhklufbij_^eh`_gbyfb\khklZ\_keh`gh]h\
wlhf kemqZ_ ijhklu_ ij_^eh`_gby klZgh\ylky qZklyfb keh`gh]h JZkkfhljbf
oh^jZkkm`^_gbc
BlZd _keb hkgh\Z h^gZ ij_^eh`_gb_ ijhklh_ ?keb ^\_ beb [hevr_
²keh`gh_
: \_ebdZ eb ij_fm^jhklv ² gZclb ]jZffZlbq_kdmx hkgh\m
ij_^eh`_gby" < g__ \oh^yl kdZam_fh_ b ih^e_`Zs__ ba\_klgu_ k
gZqZevghcrdheu©Wlhkh\k_fg_ljm^ghª²kdZ`mlfgh]b_ba\Zk
Ihkfhljbl_ lZd eb wlh <uibrbl_ ]jZffZlbq_kdb_ hkgh\u ba
ke_^mxsboij_^eh`_gbc
,<k_ihgylghklZjbdm
KlZjbdmqZkh\sbdm
Bahdhr_qdZj_agh]h
Kgh\Zkeurblky©dmdmª
38
K<FboZedh\
,,Ohaybgl\hcbfbebagZf_gbl
Bmg_]h]hkl_c[u\Z_l\^hf_fgh]h
BdZ`^ucmeu[Zykvghjh\bl
L_[yihr_jklb[ZjoZlghcihljh]Zlv
K:?k_gbg
,,,>_j_\gy]^_kdmqZe?\]_gbc
;ueZij_e_klgucm]hehd
G_fh]hgyf[Zhlohj_y
DZdfugb[bebkvhlebqblv
:KImrdbg
,9<_q_jIhe_H]hgvdb
>Zevgyy^hjh]Z
<<FZydh\kdbc
9H\jZ]]^_ijhl_dZeZj_dZ[uelZd]em[hdqlhj_[ylZg_fh]eb
\b^_lve_kZGZrex[bfuc]hjh^mdjZrZ_la_e_guciZjdIh^gy\rbc
f_qhlf_qZbih]b[g_l Ihkeh\bpZ
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_l 1 gZk 43).
?keb \u kijZ\bebkv k wlhc jZ[hlhc [_a hrb[hd fh`_l_ k iheguf
ijZ\hf kqblZlv k_[y fheh^phf <Zf ij_^hklZ\ey_lky \hafh`ghklv
ijhimklb\ \ wlhc ]eZ\_ k ² gZqZlv qblZlv ©EmdZ\u_ª qe_gu
ij_^eh`_gbyª
?keb hrb[db [ueb g_ \iZ^Zcl_ \ mgugb_ hrb[db ² ©^_eh
`bl_ckdh_ª dZd kdZaZe [u DZjekhg dhlhjuc `b\_l gZ djur_ Hgb ^ey
lh]hbkms_kl\mxlqlh[uboij_h^he_\Zlv
M g_dhlhjuo ba \Zk \klj_qZxlky lZdb_ hrb[db ]^_lh g_ hdZaZehkv
ih^e_`Zs_]h]^_lh©ihl_jyehkvªkdZam_fh_]^_lh \f_klh ih^e_`Zs_]h
ih^q_jdgmlh^hiheg_gb_Z\dZdbolhkemqZyoaZ]jZffZlbq_kdmxhkgh\m
ij_^eh`_gbyijbgylukeh\Zg_bf_xsb_gbfZe_cr_]hhlghr_gby^jm]d
^jm]m
©LZd eb m` wlh kljZrgh"ª ² kijhkbl_ \u Dhg_qgh kf_jl_evghc
hiZkghklb lZdb_ hrb[db g_ lZyl Gh dh]^Z g_\_jgh gZc^_gZ
]jZffZlbq_kdZy hkgh\Z ij_^eh`_gby g_evay ijZ\bevgh m\b^_lv [ehdb
Lh]^ZbihemqZ_lkyqlhijhklu_ij_^eh`_gbyhrb[hqghijbgbfZxlkyaZ
keh`gu_Z\keh`guog_ijZ\bevghhp_gb\Z_lkydheb
39
q_kl\h qZkl_c qlh ijb\h^bl d hrb[dZf \ ihklZgh\d_ agZdh\ bo
hdZau\Z_lky[hevr_bebf_gvr_q_fgm`ghIhke_^kl\bywlh]hhibkZgu\
klbohl\hj_gbbKYFZjrZdZhagZdZoij_ibgZgby
BaaZgZkdZjZxlkljh]h
=jZfhl__\fheh^uo²
L_odlhklZ\blkebrdhffgh]h
BebfZehaZiyluo
KZfuc gZ^_`guc imlv ijb ihbkd_ ]jZffZlbq_kdhc hkgh\u
ij_^eh`_gby lZdh\ kgZqZeZ gZ^h gZclb kdZam_fh_ ihlhf aZ^Zlv hl g_]h
^\hcghc\hijhkdlh"qlh"Keh\hdhlhjh_©hldebdg_lkyªgZwlhl\hijhk²
ih^e_`Zs__?keb\u[m^_l_aZ^Z\Zlv^\hcghc\hijhkg_k\yau\Zy_]hkh
kdZam_fuflhfh`_l_e_]dhihiZklv\eh\mrdmbijbgylvaZih^e_`Zs__
ijyfh_^hiheg_gb_
Ihijh[mcl_ ©g_ aZ[em^blvkyª f_`^m ih^e_`Zsbf b ^hiheg_gb_f \
ij_^eh`_gbyo JZgvr_ \k_o [_j_] m\b^_e xg]Z b NZkZ^ ^hfZ mdjZrZeb
dhehggu Ijhke_^bl_ aZ l_f dZd bf_ggh \u reb d ih^e_`Zs_fm b
ihcf_l_qlh\Zk©\_ehªkdZam_fh_BgZq_bg_fh`_l[ulvihlhfmqlh
40
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y
1) Kf\hijhkgZk
JZa\_g_m`_eb
2) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
Dbk_evlZf\ZjylBaj_abgu
lZfrbgu^_eZxlBa]ebgu
dbjibqlZf`]mlBafhehdZ
l\hjh]]hlh\ylBai_kdZ
kl_dehlZfieZ\ylBa[_lhgZ
iehlbgukljhylBadZjlhgZ
h[eh`dblZfBaqm]mgZlZf
\ZjylklZevBaihehlgZ
djhyljm[ZobBaieZklfZkku
ihkm^m^_eZxlBafykZ
dhle_lukljyiZxlBakZ`b
lZf\Zdkm^_eZxlBaijy`b
ijy^mllZfgbldbBakmdgZ
dhklxfurvxlBalhehdgZ
dbk_evlZf\Zjyl
***
lhevdh ih^e_`Zs__ gZau\Z_l lhl ij_^f_l h dhlhjhf jZkkdZau\Z_l
kdZam_fh_
Wlh hq_gv ohjhrh h[tykgbeZ h^gZ fZe_gvdZy ^_\hqdZ dhlhjmx
kijhkbeb ©=^_ ih^e_`Zs__ \ ij_^eh`_gbb EbkbpZ \b^bl kuj — ebkbpZ
bebkuj?»
²Gmdhg_qghebkbpZ²hl\_lbeZ^_\hqdZ²Kujg_fh`_l\b^_lv
mg_]h]eZadh\g_lm
LZd qlh hlukdb\Zy ih^e_`Zs__ \ ij_^eh`_gbyo h xg]_ b h nZkZ^_
^hfZ\u^he`gu[uebjZkkm`^ZlvlZd
m\b^_e d l h " q l h " ² xg]Z AgZqbl xg]Z ² ih^e_`Zs__
MdjZrZebd l h " q l h " ² dhehggudhehggu²ih^e_`Zs__
GZc^bl_]jZffZlbq_kdb_hkgh\u\ke_^mxsboijbf_jZoIhijh[mcl_
g_i_j_imlZlvih^e_`Zs__b^hiheg_gb_
41
1. JZkklhygb_ ij_h^he_\Z_l dhgv ij_iylkl\b_ ij_h^he_\Z_l \hey 2.
FZeZy e_gv [hevrh_ ]hj_ ijbghkbl 3. Bghc yaud f_^ ijbg_k_l
^jm]hc[_^mgZdebq_l 4.>_j_\hq_j\vbagmljblhqbl 5.DhjZ[_evgh_
^_eh dhjZ[_evsbd agZ_l 6. >\_jb ihjh`^Zxl kd\hagydb [helmgu
ihjh`^Zxl [_^u 7. Ohjhr__ g_ aZ[u\Z_lky ohjhr__ b \h^Z g_
mg_k_l
Ihkeh\bpu
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_l 2 gZk 43).
Fgh`_kl\hh[ebqbcih^e_`Zs_]h
JZkkfhljbl_ ke_^mxsb_ ij_^eh`_gby
dmjkb\hf ih^e_`Zs__ \u^_e_gh
1MlhiZxsbco\ZlZ_lkyaZkhehfbgdm Ihkeh\bpZ
2. Ihevah\Zlvky j_amevlZlZfb ljm^Z lh\ZjbsZ [_kq_klgh < :
Kmohfebgkdbc H^bg g_ ih^gbf_l ijhklh_ iylb\_jrdh\h_
[j_\gh < < FZydh\kdbc Ihq_fm kemqbehkv wlh" < <
FZydh\kdbc Qlhkljykehkvml_lb<Zeb" K<FboZedh\ <k_
b^ml l_i_jv \ iZeZlu : K Imrdbg <gh\v ©k_]h^gyª gZklZeh k
mljZ b m`_ g_ \_jg_lky ©\q_jZª K Y FZjrZd AZkf_ylvky
^h[jufk\_leufkf_ohffh`_llhevdh]em[hdZy^h[jZy^mrZ G<
=h]hev
L_i_jv \Zf g_ljm^gh khh[jZablv dZdbfb qZklyfb j_qb fh`_l [ulv
\ujZ`_ghih^e_`Zs__<u[m^_l_ijZ\u_kebhl\_lbl_kZfufbjZagufb
_kebhgbhl\_qZxlgZ\hijhkudlh"qlh"aZ^Zggu_hlkdZam_fh]h
L_ dlh mimkdZ_l wlh ba \b^m jbkdmxl ©g_ magZlv ijb \klj_q_ª
[hevrh_ dhebq_kl\h ih^e_`Zsbo Z \ j_amevlZl_ g_ m\b^_lv [ehdb b
©ihl_jylvªg_dhlhju_agZdbij_ibgZgby
DZdb_ `_ bf_ggh ih^e_`Zsb_ qZs_ \k_]h g_ magZxlky ijb \klj_q_"
DZd ijZ\beh bfb hdZau\Zxlky f_klhbf_gby g_ hlghkysb_ky d jZajy^m
ebqguo \hijhkbl_evgu_ b hlghkbl_evgu_ dlh qlh mdZaZl_evgu_ lZ
l_ lhl hljbpZl_evgu_ gbdlh gbqlh g_hij_^_e_ggu_ dlhlh
g_dlh b l ^ LZdb_ ih^e_`Zsb_ e_]dh fh]ml \uiZklv ba ihey aj_gby
©ijhiZklvªZwlhkg_ba[_`ghklvx\_^_laZkh[hc©ihl_jxª
42
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y
1)KfaZ^Zgb_gZk 38.<uibkZgu]jZffZlbq_kdb_hkgh\uij_^eh`_gbc
ih^e_`Zs__\u^_e_ghdmjkb\hf
I.
<k_ ihgylgh keurblky ©dmdmª II. Ohaybg b fbe b agZf_gbl
]hkl_c [u\Z_lfgh]h dZ`^uc ghjh\bl ihljh]Zlv ,,, >_j_\gy
[ueZij_e_klgucm]hehdkdmqZe?\]_gbcG_fh]hghlebqblv
fu [bebkv ,9 <_q_j ihe_ h]hgvdb ^hjh]Z V. 1. H\jZ] [ue
]em[hd ijhl_dZeZ j_dZ; j_[ylZ g_ fh]eb \b^_lv MdjZrZ_l
iZjd. 3. Ih^gy\rbcih]b[g_l
2)KfaZ^Zgb_gZk 41.<uibkZgu]jZffZlbq_kdb_hkgh\uih^e_`Zs__\u^_e_gh
dmjkb\hf
1. Ij_h^he_\Z_ldhgvij_h^he_\Z_l\hey. 2. E_gvijbghkblYaud
ijbg_k_l^jm]hcgZdebq_lQ_j\vlhqblDhjZ[_evsbdagZ_l
6. >\_jb ihjh`^Zxl [helmgu ihjh`^Zxl Ohjhr__ g_
aZ[u\Z_lky\h^Zg_mg_k_l
***
ijhkluo ij_^eh`_gbc \ khklZ\_ keh`gh]h b khhl\_lkl\_ggh
\u^_eyxsboboagZdh\
Qlh[u h]jZ^blv k_[y hl ih^h[guo ©ijhiZ`ª ihijh[mcl_ gZclb
]jZffZlbq_kdb_hkgh\u\ke_^mxsbo^Zgguogb`_ij_^eh`_gbyo
WlhlfZevqbdex[blljm^
Wlhlqbklbl\Ze_gdb
<<FZydh\kdbc
2. <k_djbqZl_fmkfhklZ
<k_khk_^bagZxlgZk
K<FboZedh\
Lhllmjbkl[eZ]hihemqghi_j_ijZ\bekyq_j_aj_dmWlhlmiZe\\h^m
\f_kl_ k jxdaZdhf <k_ `b\h_ lyg_lky d khegpm <k_ klboeh Wlh
i_gb_ jZaghkbehkv ^Ze_dh^Ze_dh Wlh fg_ hq_gv gjZ\behkv Qlh f_^
e_gghjZa]hjZ_lkylh`Zjq_]hjblOhjhrhkf__lky
43
lhldlhkf__lkyihke_^gbcDlhhohlbekygZhe_gylhlgZaZcpZg_
kfhljbl
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_l 1 gZk 45).
Hkh[_ggh qZklh ©ijhiZ^Zxlª l_ ih^e_`Zsb_ \ keh`guo
ij_^eh`_gbyodhlhju_©jZ[hlZxlªkhxagufbkeh\Zfbl_h^gh\j_f_ggh
b ijbkh_^bgyxl ijb^Zlhqgh_ ij_^eh`_gb_ d ]eZ\ghfm b y\eyxlky
ih^e_`Zsbfb <hl ijbf_j lZdhc ijhiZ`b :e_dk_c ;hqZjh\ ki_rbe \
ahhiZjdd[_]_fhlm Ghkbdmdhlhjuc [he_e A^_kvih^e_`Zs__\h\lhjhc
]jZffZlbq_kdhc hkgh\_ ² dhlhjuc [he_e ² g_j_^dh l_jy_lky Z
\u^_ey_lky eh`gZy hkgh\Z ² :e_dk_c ;hqZjh\ ki_rbe [he_e qlh fh`_l
ijb\_klbdihl_j_aZiylhci_j_^dhlhjuc
Ihijh[mcl_ [_a ihl_jv gZclb ]jZffZlbq_kdb_ hkgh\u \ ke_^mxsbo
ij_^eh`_gbyo
Lhldlhh[ma^Ze]g_\ih[_^bekbevgh]h\jZ]Z
2. Ebrvlhldlhghqvxi_j_ijZ\eyekyq_j_aj_dmhp_gblykguc^_gv
?klv g_[hevrZy ilbqdZ dhlhjZy fbjgh khkms_kl\m_l k
djhdh^behfHgZ\ude_\u\Z_lhklZldbibsbdhlhju_aZklj_\Zxlm
g_]hf_`^mam[h\
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_l 2 gZk 45).
Ih^e_`Zs__fh`_l[ulv\ujZ`_ghkhq_lZgb_fkeh\
:ldZqboZkih\Zjbohc
Kk\Zlv_c[Z[hc;Z[Zjbohc
HdhehpZjykb^yl
:KImrdbg
A^_kvih^e_`Zs__khklhblbak_fbkeh\hghaZgyeh^\_klbohl\hjgu_
kljhqdb
L_i_jv ihijh[mcl_ kZfhklhyl_evgh h[gZjm`blv lZdb_ ih^e_`Zsb_
Gh[m^vl_[^bl_evgu<ijbf_jZokdhlhjufb\uk_cqZk[m^_l_jZ[hlZlv
fgh]h©eh\mr_dª
Bljb^pZlv\blya_cij_djZkguo
Qj_^hcba\h^\uoh^ylykguo
:KImrdbg
>_kylvghq_cih^jy^
Hge_qblg_kqZklguoa\_jyl
DBQmdh\kdbc
:rd\Zemg_k\fhj_
>_kyldZ^\Zrexihd
GGFZl\__\Z
44
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y
1) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk 43.<uibkZgu]jZffZlbq_kdb_hkgh\uih^e_`Zs__
\u^_e_ghdmjkb\hf
1. FZevqbdex[blWlhlqbklbl <k_djbqZl Khk_^bagZxl
Lmjbkli_j_ijZ\bekyWlhlmiZe@b\h_lyg_lky<k_klboeh
I_gb_jZaghkbehkvWlhgjZ\behkvQlhjZa]hjZ_lkylh]hjbl
Kf__lkylhl; dlhkf__lkyDlhhohlbekylhlg_kfhljbl
2 KfaZ^Zgb_gZk<uibkZgu]jZffZlbq_kdb_hkgh\uih^e_`Zs__\u^_e_gh
dmjkb\hf
1. Lhl ih[_^be dlh h[ma^Ze Lhl hp_gbl dlh i_j_ijZ\eyeky ?klv ilbqdZ dhlhjZy khkms_kl\m_l HgZ \ude_\u\Z_l dhlhju_
aZklj_\Zxl
2) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk 44.<uibkZguih^e_`Zsb_
Ljb^pZlv\blya_cHgRd\ZeHgZLukyqb]eZalukyqb
eZ^hr_d>h`^b>_kylv^g_cYLjbdZieb
***
Hqdh\kihe^x`bgu
HgZk_[_^hklZeZ
B:Djueh\
F_gyhdjm`Zllukyqbm^b\e_gguo]eZa
Bijhlygmlkydhfg_lukyqbl_ieuoeZ^hr_d
HH>jba
>_kylv^g_creb^h`^bWlb^_kylv^g_clygmebkvhq_gv^he]h
Y m\b^_e gZ kl_de_ ljb dZieb ^h`^y M iZiu ljb dZieb miZeb kh
reyiu <:E_\bg
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_l 3 gZk 45).
G_[hevrh_hlklmie_gb_\aZsblmriZj]Zehd
<h \k_ \j_f_gZ b m \k_o gZjh^h\ rdhevgbdb b klm^_glu ^_eZxl
riZj]Zedb b bah[j_lZxl jZaebqgu_ kihkh[u ih^kdZahd B k lZdbf `_
mihjkl\hfohlvb[_aj_amevlZlghij_ih^Z\Zl_eb[hjxlkykwlbf:fug_
[hj_fkyfugZ\Zr_c
45
klhjhg_ b ohlbf \Zf ihfhqv Ihlhfm qlh g_mf_eh_ bkihevah\Zgb_
©kiZkZl_evguokj_^kl\ªfh`_l^Zlvh[jZlgucj_amevlZl
G_\_jbl_"<hl\Zf ijbf_j ba dgb]b D B Qmdh\kdh]h ©K_j_[jyguc
]_j[ª M ]_jhy dgb]b [ueZ Z[khexlgZy ]jZfhlghklv q_]h g_evay [ueh
kdZaZlv h _]h h^ghdeZkkgbdZo GZ^\b]Zeky ^bdlZgl dhlhjh]h h`b^Zeb k
m`Zkhf =_jhc j_rbe \ujmqblv k\h_]h lh\ZjbsZ Lbfhrm Hg ijb\yaZe d
k\h_fm[hlbgdm\_j_\hqguco\hklhl[mfZ`gh]haf_yZ^jm]hc_]hdhg_p
²dgh]_lh\ZjbsZ©>_jgmjZa²aZiylZy>\Z²\hkdebpZl_evgucLjb
²\hijhkbl_evgucQ_luj_²^\h_lhqb_Ihgye"ª²ihykgbehg
<u^mfdZ bf_eZ mki_o Ke_^mxsbc ©]jZfhl_cª ijhlygme
kb]gZebaZpbxhllbfhrbghcgh]bdk\h_cDg_fmijbkh_^bgbekylj_lbc
bkdhjhwlhl©l_e_nhgªho\Zlbeg_fZemxqZklvdeZkkZ
GZ ijhly`_gbb \k_]h ^bdlZglZ ]_jhc \hkihfbgZgbc ^_j]Ze ^_j]Ze b
^_j]Zegh]hclZdqlh^Z`_\]eZaZol_fg_ehbwlbkb]gZeui_j_^Z\Zebkv
^Zevr_hlh^gh]hmq_gbdZd^jm]hfm
B\hlijbf_jujZ[hlml_odlhihevah\Zekywlbfbih^kdZadZfb©<hl
^_gv dh]^Z ^h[e_klguc B]hjv \_^msbc" \hckdZ ba e_kh\ b [hehl m\b^_e
qlh\ihe_]^_"klhyeb\jZ]bih^gyehkv"aeh\_s__h[eZdhiueb"ª
B^Z`_lZd©<lhl^_gvdh]^Z^h[e_klgucB]hjv\_^msbc\hckdZba
e_kh\b[hehlm\b^_eqlh\ihe_]^_klhyeb\jZ]bih^gyehkvaeh\_s__
h[eZdhiu"ebhgkdZaZedZdkeZ^dhmf_j_lvaZhlqbagmª
>h]Z^Zebkveb\u\q_f[uehg_kh\_jr_gkl\hwlhcih^kdZadb"
=jZfhlguc fZevqbd ibkZe f_^e_ggh b ih^Z\Ze kb]gZeu \
khhl\_lkl\bb kh k\hbf l_fihf ibkvfZ ^jm]b_ ibkZeb [uklj__ gh g_
^mfZyZagZdbklZ\beblZf]^_boaZklZ\Zekb]gZe
Ijbf_jgh lZd \Zk fh`_l ih^\_klb b g_m^Zqgh khklZ\e_ggZy
riZj]ZedZ
RiZj]ZedZ ^Z_l iheh`bl_evguc wnn_dl ijb lj_o mkeh\byo <h
i_j\uogZ^hmf_lvkbkl_fZlbabjh\ZlvfZl_jbZebmeh`blv_]h\djZldmx
q_ldmxaZibkv<h\lhjuogZ^hmf_lvkhklZ\blvgZhkgh\ZgbbwlhcaZibkb
jZa\_jgmluc jZkkdZa <lj_lvbo emqrZy riZj]ZedZ g_ lZ dhlhjZy \
dZjfZg_ZlZdhlhjZy\]heh\_
46
H^bgbagZb[he__m^h[guo\b^h\riZj]Zedb²wlhlZ[ebpZ
K_cqZk fu ih^jh[g__ jZkkdZ`_f \Zf h khklZ\guo kdZam_fuo : ih
oh^mjZkkdZaZ[m^_fmqblvkykhklZ\eylvriZj]Zedm
<fbj_kdZam_fuo
DZdmxbgnhjfZpbx\ufh`_l_ba\e_qvbah^gh]h]eZ]heZ
G_kh\k_f
gZijbf_jba]eZ]heZijhqblZeZ">hklZlhqghkms_kl\_ggmx<h
ijhklh_
i_j\uokfukeh\mx e_dkbq_kdmx bf_gghijhqblZeZZg_miZeZ
ijhklh_
bebg_aZfmjeudZeZ<h\lhjuo^_ckl\b_ijhbahreh\ijhrehf
]eZ]hevgh_
<lj_lvbowlhk^_eZeZhgZl_g_dlh`_gkdh]hjh^Zb^_ckl\b_
kdZam_fh_
kh\_jr_gh_xh^ghc
1 g_k_l gZ k_[_^hklZlhqgh
BlZd ]eZ]he \ ex[hfba lj_o gZdehg_gbc1
[hevrhc ]jma kfukeh\mx e_dkbq_kdmx gZ]jmadm b ]jZffZlbq_kdmx ²
bgnhjfZpbx h \j_f_gb qbke_ ebp_ Z lZd`_ jh^_ _keb ]eZ]he klhbl \
ijhr_^r_f \j_f_gb Ihbklbg_ jmkkdbc ]eZ]he ² fZkl_j ih ih^gylbx
ly`_kl_c Gh \ ^jm]bo yaudZo fh`gh gZclb b g_ lZdh_ LZd \ yaud_
bg^_cp_\ie_f_gbgmldZ]eZ]hedjhf_\k_]hlh]hqlhkhh[sZ_lgZrg_k_l
bgnhjfZpbx h lhf \ukhdbc q_eh\_d beb gbadbc eukuc hg beb g_l b
kljZ^Z_lebgZjmr_gbyfbaj_gby
BlZd]eZ]he\ex[hfbalj_ogZdehg_gbc\jmkkdhfyaud_g_k_l^\_
gZ]jmadbkfukeh\mxb]jZffZlbq_kdmx
__________________________
11=eZ]hefh`_lklhylveb[h\g_hij_^_e_gghcnhjf_eb[h\h^ghfba
lj_o gZdehg_gbc baty\bl_evghf mkeh\ghf khkeZ]Zl_evghf beb ih\_eb
l_evghf
=eZ]heu \ baty\bl_evghfgZdehg_gbbh[hagZqZxl ^_ckl\by dhlhju_
ijhbkoh^beb ijhbkoh^yl beb [m^ml ijhbkoh^blv gZ kZfhf ^_e_ baf_
gyxlkyih\j_f_gZfbfh]mlklhylv\gZklhys_fijhr_^r_fb [m^ms_f
\j_f_gb
=eZ]heu \ mkeh\ghf khkeZ]Zl_evghf gZdehg_gbb h[hagZqZxl
^_ckl\by dhlhju_ j_Zevgh g_ ijhbkoh^yl gh fh]eb [u ijhbkoh^blv ijb
hij_^_e_gguomkeh\byo
=eZ]heu \ ih\_ebl_evghf gZdehg_gbb h[hagZqZxl ^_ckl\by
kh^_j`Zsb_ijbdZaZgb_bebijhkv[m
47
Dh]^Z hg aZgbfZ_l k\h_ f_klh \ ij_^eh`_gbb lh klZgh\blky
i j h k l u f ] e Z ] h e v g u f k d Z a m _ f u f bkijZ\ey_lky k ^\mfy
gZ]jmadZfb
GZqbgZ_fkhklZ\eylvriZj]Zedm
DZdmxbgnhjfZpbx\ufh`_l_ba\e_qvba h^gh]h ]eZ]heZ gZijbf_j
ba]eZ]heZijhqblZeZ">hklZlhqghkms_kl\_ggmx<hi_j\uokfukeh\mx
e_dkbq_kdmx bf_ggh ijhqblZeZ Z g_ miZeZ beb g_ aZfmjeudZeZ <h
\lhjuo^_ckl\b_ijhbahreh\ijhrehf<lj_lvbowlhk^_eZeZhgZl_
g_dlh`_gkdh]hjh^Zb^_ckl\b_kh\_jr_gh_xh^ghc
Ijhklh_]eZ]hevgh_kdZam_fh_g_\k_]^Ze_]dh^Z_lky\jmdb:\q_f
ijbqbguwlboljm^ghkl_c"
<hi_j\uo \ g_^hhp_gd_ lh]h qlh kdZam_fuf [u\Z_l ]eZ]he \
e x [ h f g Z d e h g _ g b b G_dhlhju_ ba \Zk e_]dh gZoh^yl \
ij_^eh`_gbb kdZam_fu_ lhevdh \ lhf kemqZ_ _keb hgb \ujZ`_gu
]eZ]heZfb \ baty\bl_evghf gZdehg_gbb Z ijb \klj_q_ k ]eZ]hehf \
ih\_ebl_evghf gZdehg_gbb g_ \hkijbgbfZxl _]h dZd kdZam_fh_
GZijbf_j \klZ_l beb \klZe kqblZxlky kdZam_fufb Z \klZgv g_
kqblZ_lky
<h\lhjuo\g_magZ\Zgbb]eZ]heh\fZexlhd_klv[uedhlhju_lh`_
\uklmiZxl\jhebkdZam_fuo
Ihijh[mcl_ gZclb \ ^Zgguo ij_^eh`_gbyo ijhklu_ ]eZ]hevgu_
kdZam_fu_bh[tykgbl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
Mf bf_c ohlv fZe_gvdbc ^Z k\hc F =hjvdbc G_ kemrZcl_
gbdh]^Zl_odlh]h\hjbl^mjghh^jm]bobohjhrhh\Zk EGLheklhc AgZcwlhlieZf_gvkxguo^g_c
48
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y
1) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk 48.<uibkZgukdZam_fu_
Bf_cG_kemrZcl_]h\hjblAgZc`be;ue
klhyeh
2) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk 49.<uibkZgukeh\Zihke_dhlhjuoklhylaZiylu_
1. Ih]h^bH[jhdIhkfhljb<e_kmL_[y
***
lZyky`be\]jm^bfh_c FXE_jfhglh\ ;ueihe^_gvbkhegp_
klhyehijyfhgZ^]heh\hc <<;bZgdb
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_l 1 gZk 49).
:l_i_jvjZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgbykZfhklhyl_evghG_©l_jycl_ª
kdZam_fuobaZiyluo
Ih]h^b\urexdl_[_\gmdZ;m^_ll_[_h[jhddhebaZohq_rv
IhkfhljbdZdhgoehihq_l=^_lh_klv_ev\e_kmih^_evx[_edZ
H[b^_edlhl_[ykdZ`b
:KImrdbg
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_l 2 gZk 49).
Dh]^Z fu fh`_f k m\_j_gghklvx kdZaZlv qlh fZexldZ [ue —
kZfhklhyl_evgh_kdZam_fh_"Lh]^Zdh]^Z_]hfh`ghaZf_gblvkbghgbfhf
GZijbf_j I_j_^ ^hfhf [ueb p\_lu gZoh^bebkv p\_lu jhkeb p\_lu ?s_ijbf_j;ueZ`ZjZ@ZjZieueZGZ^Zq_[uehwlh <FZydh\kdbc AZf_gZ fh`_l \u]ey^_lv lZd KlhyeZ `ZjZ Ijhbahreh wlh Kemqbehkv
wlh
LZdZy aZf_gZ dZd eZdfmkh\Zy [mfZ`dZ ihdZau\Z_l qlh fZexldZ
]eZ]he²kZfhklhyl_evgh_kdZam_fh_
Bgh]^Z dh]^Z ]eZ]he jZ[hlZ_l \ ij_^eh`_gbb
kdZam_fuf hg gb \ baty\bl_evghf gb \ mkeh\ghf gb \
ih\_ebl_evghf gZdehg_gbb \ h^bghqdm ^\mo gZ]jmahd
hkbeblvg_fh`_l
Ihijh[mcl_\uibkZlvkdZam_fu_gZijbf_jbalZdh]h
l_dklZ
49
Lh`_
]eZ]hevgh_
kdZam_fh_
ghg_ijhklh_
ZkhklZ\gh_
<h \j_fy wib^_fbb ]jbiiZ aZ[he_eb dblu dhlhju_ gZoh^bebkv gZ
dZebnhjgbckdhchd_Zgbq_kdhcklZgpbbKZg>b_]h
E_q_gb_ dblh\ bf__l fgh]h ljm^ghkl_c fhjkdb_ ]b]Zglu g_ mf_xl
iblvfbdklmjmbaeh`_qdbhgbg_kh]eZrZxlkykihdhcgh`^ZlvihdZ
\jZq ihklZ\bl bf ]hjqbqgbd Dblu g_ ih^ieu\Zxl d f_^k_klj_
dhlhjZy^_j`bl\jmdZorijbpki_gbpbeebghfZlZ[e_ldbZkibjbgZ
hgbg_`_eZxl]ehlZlv
<jZqb ^he]h ^mfZeb dZdmx ihfhsv fh]ml ijbgylv hl gbo wlb
h]jhfgu_ `b\hlgu_ b kdhjh \uoh^ gZr_eky Khljm^gbdb
hd_Zgheh]bq_kdhc klZgpbb klZeb ijylZlv e_dZjkl\h \ fZe_gvdbo
ju[hd dhlhjuo ex[yl ih_^Zlv dblu b dblu ih]ehsZeb e_dZjkl\h k
h]jhfgufm^h\hevkl\b_fKdhjh`b\hlgu_klZeb\ua^hjZ\eb\Zlv
Ba`mjgZeh\
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_l 1 gZk 53).
Ijhkfhljbl_ \uibkZggu_ \Zfb khklZ\gu_ kdZam_fu_ b kdZ`bl_ \
dZdhcnhjf_klhyl]eZ]heug_kmsb_hkgh\gmxkfukeh\mxgZ]jmadm
?keb \ZrZ gZ[ex^Zl_evghklv b khh[jZabl_evghklv \Zf ihfh]eb \u
^h]Z^Zebkv q l h h k g h \ g m x k f u k e h \ m x g Z ] j m a d m g _ k m l
] e Z ] h e u \ g _ h i j _ ^ _ e _ g g h c n h j f _ bgh]^Z wlm nhjfm
gZau\Zxlb g n b g b l b \ : qlh ^_eZ_l ^jm]hc ]eZ]he" Hg ihfh]Z_l kdZam_fhfm [_j_l gZ k_[y
] j Z f f Z l b q _ k d m x g Z ] j m a d m b g_dhlhjmx qZklv kfukeh\hc ?fm
dZdihfhsgbdmb^ZghgZa\Zgb_\ k i h f h ] Z l _ e v g u c LZdbf h[jZahf k h k l Z \ g h _ ] e Z ] h e v g h _ k d Z a m _ f h _
h[t_^bgy_l ^\Z ]eZ]heZ ]eZ]he \ g_hij_^_e_gghc nhjf_ b
\kihfh]Zl_evguc]eZ]he
<uibrbl_]eZ]heu\oh^ysb_\khklZ\gh_]eZ]hevgh_kdZam_fh_\^\Z
klhe[bdZ \ i_j\uc klhe[bd \kihfh]Zl_evgu_ ]eZ]heu \h \lhjhc ²
]eZ]heu\g_hij_^_e_gghcnhjf_
,Mf__l\hegZ\^Ze_d_hla_feb
Kihdhcgh^_j`ZlvgZk_[_dhjZ[eb
Ylh`_ohl_egZ\heg_ihe_`Zlv
Ghfhj_g_fh`_lf_gym^_j`Zlv
<Hjeh\
50
,,H^gZiehoZy]jmrZfh`_lbkihjlblv\kxdhjabgmBohjhrbc
dhgvfuqZlvg_fh`_l
Ihkeh\bpu
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_l 2 gZk 53).
:l_i_jvihijh[mcl_\uibkZlvhkgh\ubake_^mxsboij_^eh`_gbc
KlZy khjhd fh`_l aZ]gZlv he_gy Q_eh\_d klj_fblky ih^gylvky
\\_jo \h^Z klj_fblky l_qv \gba ?keb lu ihjmqbrv ^_eh
[_a^_evgbdm hg l_[y `_ mqblv gZqg_l B hl fZehc hrb[db [_^Z
fh`_l ijbdexqblvky Dlh ijb\ud dmlZlvky lhl ay[g_l Dheh^_agZyey]mrdZg_fh`_l]h\hjblvhg_[_KlZyfur_cfh`_l
bkdmkZlvlb]jZH^bg^mjZdaZ[jhkbldZf_gv\dheh^_pklhmfguo
g_ kmf_xl ^hklZlv Qlh dhl ijh]ehlbe lh]h kZf e_\ \_jgmlv g_
kfh`_l
Ihkeh\bpu
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk
IhagZdhfvl_kv [he__ [ebadh k \kihfh]Zl_evgufb ]eZ]heZfb DZdmx
qZklv kfukeh\hc gZ]jmadb hgb g_kml" Qlh[u ihgylv wlh kgZqZeZ
\gbfZl_evghijhqlbl_gZa\ZgbydhehghdlZ[ebpu
GZqZehdhg_p
bebijh^he`_gb_
^_ckl\by
Kihkh[ghklvbeb
g_kihkh[ghklv
kh\_jrblv
^_ckl\b_
GZf_j_gb_
`_eZgb_beb
g_`_eZgb_
kh\_jrblv
^_ckl\b_
I_j_`b\Zgby
bfukeb
ihih\h^m
^_ckl\by
1
2
3
4
L_i_jv ijhqlbl_ kibkhd ]eZ]heh\ b ihijh[mcl_ kZfhklhyl_evgh
jZkij_^_eblvboihdhehgdZflZ[ebpu
@_eZlv ^mfZlv fhqv mf_lv gZqZlv klZlv `Z`^Zlv gZ^_ylvky
[hylvky dhgqblv kmf_lv jZamqblvky mobljblvky ijbgylvky
klZjZlvkyijh^he`blvklu^blvkykh[bjZlvkygZf_j_\Zlvkyj_rblv
imklblvkyij_djZlblv]hlh\blvkygZmqblvkyf_qlZlvohl_lv
51
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk Bgh]^Z khklZ\gh_ ]eZ]hevgh_ kdZam_fh_ fh`_l h[oh^blvky b [_a
ihfhsb \kihfh]Zl_evgh]h ]eZ]heZ Lh]^Z \ _]h khklZ\ \oh^yl g_dhlhju_
djZldb_ ijbeZ]Zl_evgu_ dhlhju_ \iheg_ kijZ\eyxlky k jZ[hlhc
\kihfh]Zl_evgh]h]eZ]heZ
GZijbf_j ^he`_g ijb_oZlv \ugm`^_g mclb kihkh[_g jZ[hlZlv
]hlh\hlijZ\eylvkyh[yaZgy\blvkyjZ^\b^_lv
IjhqblZcl_l_dkl<uibrbl_baij_^eh`_gbckdZam_fu_
H[_avygu kihkh[gu ih^he]m kfhlj_lv dbghnbevfu h `b\hlguo
Nbevfuijhh[_avyghgb ]hlh\u kfhlj_lv p_eufb qZkZfb H^gZ`^u
ijb ^_fhgkljZpbb nbevfZ h `b\hlguo gZ wdjZg_ ihy\bebkv af_b b
h[_avygu lZd i_j_im]Zebkv qlh ex^b \ugm`^_gu [ueb ij_djZlblv
nbevfH^gZfZe_gvdZyh[_avygdZlZd[hyeZkvkfhlj_lvgZwdjZgqlh
hgZ ^Z`_ kijylZeZkv \ m]he ;_^gy`dZ [ueZ jZ^Z aZe_alv gZ jmdb d
i_j\hfm`_ih^hr_^r_fmq_eh\_dm
Ba`mjgZeh\
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_l 2 gZk 55).
:l_i_jv\uibrbl_bal_dklZhkgh\uij_^eh`_gbc
I_j\hdeZkkgbd ^he`_g y\blvky \ rdhem gZ oh^meyo Hg \ugm`^_g
^_eZlv wlh \ khhl\_lkl\bb k ijZ\beZfb ijb_fZ \ rdhem E_ck_jZ \
Ehg^hg_Fu]hlh\uihgylvwlhlj_[h\Zgb_\rdhe_mqZlky[m^msb_
Zjlbklu pbjdZ Ijb ihklmie_gbb \h \lhjhc deZkk rdhevgbd h[yaZg
\hclb\rdhemgZjmdZo>bj_dlhj]hlh\ijbgylv\lj_lbcdeZkkl_o
dlhfh`_l\hclb\_]hdZ[bg_lihgZlygmlhfmdZgZlm
Ba`mjgZeh\
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_l 3 gZk 55).
<uibrbl_ ba l_dklZ hkgh\u ij_^eh`_gbc MdZ`bl_ f_klh agZdh\
ij_ibgZgby
Ex^bgZqZebmqblvkykqblZlv\g_aZiZfylgu_\j_f_gZZmqbeZbokZfZ
`bagv>j_\gb_ex^b^he`gu[ueb^h[u\Zlvk_[_ibsmhohlhcHgb
kh[bjZebkv hohlblvky gZ djmigh]h a\_jy \k_f ie_f_g_f ihlhfm qlh
gbdlh g_ kfh] [u kijZ\blvky k gbf \ h^bghqdm Qlh[u ^h[uqZ g_
mreZex^b^he`gu[uebhdjm`blv`b\hlgh_kh\k_oklhjhg
52
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y
1)
Kf aZ^Zgb_ gZ k
KdZam_fu_ jZaguo ij_^eh`_gbc hl^_e_gu lhqdhc k aZiylhc.
AZ[he_ebgZoh^bebkvbf__l g_ mf_xl iblv g_ kh]eZrZxlky `^Zlv
ihklZ\bl g_ ih^ieu\Zxl ^_j`bl g_ `_eZxl ]ehlZlv ^mfZeb fh]ml
ijbgylv gZr_eky klZeb ijylZlv ex[yl ih_^Zlv ih]ehsZeb klZeb
\ua^hjZ\eb\Zlv
2)
3)
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk 50.
,Mf__l
ohl_e
g_fh`_l
^_j`Zlv
ihe_`Zlv
m^_j`Zlv
,,Fh`_l
G_fh`_l
bkihjlblv
fuqZlv
KfaZ^ZgbygZk 51.
1. KlZy fh`_l aZ]gZlv Q_eh\_d klj_fblky ih^gylvky \h^Z
klj_fblky l_qv Lu ihjmqbrv hg mqblv gZqg_l ;_^Z fh`_l
ijbdexqblvky Dlh ijb\ud dmlZlvky lhl ay[g_l Ey]mrdZ g_
fh`_l ]h\hjblv KlZy fh`_l bkdmkZlv H^bg ^mjZd aZ[jhkbl
klh mfguo g_ kmf_xl ^hklZlv Dhl ijh]ehlbe e_\ \_jgmlv g_
kfh`_l
***
Lmlhgbg_fh]ebh[hclbkv[_akq_lZ>j_\gb_g_mf_ebkqblZlvijb
ihfhsb pbnj gh hgb fh]eb ihdZaZlv qbkeZ gZ iZevpZo jmd ?klv b
k_cqZk gZ a_fe_ ie_f_gZ dhlhju_ ijb kq_l_ g_ fh]ml h[hclbkv [_a
ihfhsbiZevp_\
Ba`mjgZeh\
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_l 1 gZk 57).
<uibrbl_ ba ^Zgguo keh\hkhq_lZgbc lhevdh l_ dhlhju_ \
ij_^eh`_gbbfh]ml[ulvkhklZ\gufb]eZ]hevgufbkdZam_fufb
I_j_klZermf_lv[m^mibkZlvij_djZlbermfgZqbgZxsbcbamqZlv
gZqZebamqZlvgbq_]hg_^he`_g^he
53
`_g ih^gylvky jZ^ \klj_q_ jZ^ ihfhqv [m^m ijbgbfZlv ]hlh\
ijbgylv
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk Kh[_jbl_ ©jZkkuiZggu_ª ij_^eh`_gby b \u^_ebl_ bo hkgh\u
KhklZ\vl_bagbok\yagucl_dkl
R_dkibjZ\j_f_gZjhebbkihegylvh[uqZc\hfm`qbguaZij_sZe
[uebb]jZlv`_gsbgZfb\l_Zlj_`_gkdb_^he`gu
b \h\j_fy bgh]^Z gZqbgZeb g_ mki_\Zeb Zdl_ju rmf_lv gZqZlv
ki_dlZdevajbl_eb
ihlhfm qlh gZ ihl_ji_lv ]eZ\gZy ih[jblvky h^bg lh]^Z im[ebdm
]_jhbgy kp_gm ijhkbe g_ mki_eZ dhlhjuc ba Zdl_jh\ \uoh^be
g_fgh]h_s_b
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk GZ\_jgh_ dlhlh ba \Zk \u^_ebe hkgh\u h[uqZc aZij_sZe
b]jZlvbbh^bg ba Zdl_jh\ \uoh^be b ijhkbe ihl_ji_lv b k\_jb\ k\hx
jZ[hlm k hl\_lhf ijbr_e \ g_^hmf_gb_ >Z\Zcl_ jZa[_j_fky k wlbfb
ijbf_jZfb \f_kl_ =eZ]he aZij_sZe hlghkblky d ih^e_`Zs_fm h[uqZc Z
]eZ]he b]jZlv h[hagZqZ_l ^_ckl\b_ dhlhjh_ fh]eb kh\_jrZlv `_gsbgu
LhqghlZd`_h[klhbl^_ehb\h\lhjhfijbf_j_H^bgbaZdl_jh\\uoh^be
bijhkbeghihl_ji_lv^he`gZ[ueZim[ebdZL_i_jvgZ^__fky\k_fykgh
ihq_fm\wlboijbf_jZokdZam_fu_ijhklu_Zg_khklZ\gu_]eZ]hevgu_
: l_i_jv ihlj_gbjm_fky Ij_^eZ]Z_f \Zf \uibkZlv ba ij_^eh`_gbc
kdZam_fu_ Ihfgbl_ qlh wlh aZ^Zgb_ k eh\mrdhc dhlhjZy khklhbl \ lhf
qlhkdZam_fu_^Ze_dhg_\dZ`^hfij_^eh`_gbbkhklZ\gu_]eZ]hevgu_
Yijb]eZkbelh\ZjbsZihb]jZlvkhfghc\rZofZlu
2. GZ dZgbdmeu fu kh[jZebkv ih_oZlv d [Z[mrd_ K [hevrbf
ljm^hf hl_p aZklZ\be Xjm k_klv aZ mjhdb OhaycdZ ihijhkbeZ
]hkl_c k_klv d klhem DZdhc ih^jhklhd g_ f_qlZ_l ihe_l_lv \
dhkfhk[Ym]h\hjbehlpZdmiblvfg_nhlhZiiZjZl
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_l 4 gZk 57).
: l_i_jv ihkfhljbl_ dZd fh`gh meh`blv \ riZj]ZedmlZ[ebpm \k_
kZfh_]eZ\gh_qlhfumagZebhkhklZ\ghf]eZ]hevghfkdZam_fhf
54
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y
1) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk 51.Ghf_jZkhhl\_lkl\mxl]jZnZflZ[ebpu
GZqZlv klZlv dhgqblv ijbgylvky ijh^he`blv imklblvky
ij_djZlblv Fhqvmf_lvkmf_lvgZmqblvkyjZamqblvky mobljblvky @_eZlv `Z`^Zlv f_qlZlv ohl_lv klZjZlvky kh[bjZlvky gZf_j_\Zlvky
j_rblv]hlh\blvky>mfZlvgZ^_ylvky[hylvkyklu^blvky
2) KfaZ^Zgb_ 2 gZk 52.KdZam_fu_jZaguoij_^eh`_gbchl^_e_gulhqdhck
aZiylhc
Kihkh[gu kfhlj_lv ]hlh\u kfhlj_lv ihy\bebkv i_j_im]Zebkv
\ugm`^_gu [ueb ij_djZlblv [hyeZkv kfhlj_lv kijylZeZkv [ueZ jZ^Z
aZe_alv
3) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk 52.Hkgh\ujZaguoij_^eh`_gbcjZa^_e_gulhqdhck
aZiylhc
I_j\hdeZkkgbd ^he`_g y\blvky hg \ugm`^_g ^_eZlv fu ]hlh\u
ihgylv mqZlky Zjlbklu rdhevgbd h[yaZg \hclb^bj_dlhj ]hlh\ ijbgylv
dlhfh`_l\hclb
***
55
>Z\Zcl_\kihfgbfi_k_gdm;Hdm^`Z\u
H^bgkhe^ZlgZk\_l_`be
DjZkb\ucbhl\Z`guc
Ghhgb]jmrdhc^_lkdhc[ue
<_^v[uekhe^Zl[mfZ`guc
Qlh khh[sZ_lky h khe^Zl_ \ ihke_^gbo ^\mo kljhqdZo
qlh hg [ue beb qlh hg [ue b]jmrdhc" Qlh khe^Zl [ue beb
qlhkhe^Zl[ue[mfZ`guc?
Fu gZ^__fky qlh \uhl\_lbeb lZd h[ wlhfkhe^Zl_ khh[sZ_lky qlh
hg[ueb]jmrdhcqlhhg[ue[mfZ`guc
Keh\hkhq_lZgby [ue b]jmrdhc, [ue [mfZ`guc g_kml kfukeh\mx
gZ]jmadm\f_kl_h[t_^bgb\rbkv\kdZam_fh_dhlhjh_khklZ\e_ghba^\mo
beb lj_o [u\Z_l b [hevr_ keh\ ?kl_kl\_ggh qlh hgh gZau\Z_lky
khklZ\gufGh\hlebqb_hlkhklZ\gh]h]eZ]hevgh]hkdZam_fh]hhkgh\gmx
gZ]jmadmg_kmlbf_ggu_qZklbj_qbMHdm^`Z\uwlh\i_j\hfkemqZ_bfy
kms_kl\bl_evgh_ Z \h \lhjhf ² ijbeZ]Zl_evgh_ < wlhc jheb fh`_l
hdZaZlvkyex[ZyqZklvj_qbdhlhjZy\uklmiZ_l\jhebbf_gbkms_kl\b
?s_h^gh
khklZ\gh_
kdZam_fh_
ghg_
]eZ]hevgh_
Zbf_ggh_
56
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y
1) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk 52.
Ex^b gZqZeb mqblvky kqblZlv \j_f_gZ Z mqbeZ `bagv Ex^b
^he`gu [ueb ^h[u\Zlv Hgb kh[bjZebkv hohlblvky ie_f_g_f ihlhfm
qlh gbdlh g_ kfh] [u kijZ\blvky Qlh[u ^h[uqZ g_ mreZ ex^b ^he`gu
[ueb hdjm`blv Hgb g_ fh]eb h[hclbkv >j_\gb_ g_ mf_eb kqblZlv pbnjghhgbfh]ebihdZaZlv?klvie_f_gZdhlhju_g_fh]mlh[hclbkv
2) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk 53.
I_j_klZermf_lvgZqZebamqZlv^he`_gih^gylvkyjZ^ihfhqv]hlh\
ijbgylv
3) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
<h\j_f_gZR_dkibjZh[uqZcaZij_sZe`_gsbgZfb]jZlv\l_Zlj_b
`_gkdb_ jheb ^he`gu [ueb bkihegylv fm`qbgu Bgh]^Z Zdl_ju g_
mki_\ZebgZqZlvki_dlZdev\h\j_fybajbl_ebgZqbgZebrmf_lvLh]^ZgZ
kp_gm \uoh^be h^bg ba Zdl_jh\ b ijhkbe im[ebdm ihl_ji_lv g_fgh]h
ihlhfmqlh]eZ\gZy]_jhbgy_s_g_mki_eZih[jblvky
4) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk 54.
Ijb]eZkbe Kh[jZebkv ih_oZlv AZklZ\be IhijhkbeZ F_qlZ_lihe_l_lvM]h\hjbe
***
l_evgh]h beb ijhbahreZ hl bf_gb kms_kl\bl_evgh]h Z lZd`_ bfy
qbkebl_evgh_<wlhc`_jhebfh`_l\uklmiblvbijbqZklb_lZd dZdhgh
hnhjfe_ghdZdijbeZ]Zl_evgh_
DZd^_eylgZ]jmadmkeh\Z\wlbokdZam_fuo"
;ueg_k_l]jZffZlbq_kdmxgZ]jmadmAZlhkfukeh\hckh\k_fg_g_k_l
: bf_ggu_qZklb j_qb ²b kfukeh\mx b qZklv ]jZffZlbq_kdhc lZd dZd
mdZau\ZxlgZqbkehbjh^ih^e_`Zs_]h
Ihwlhfm kdZam_fh_ khklZ\e_ggh_ ba wlbo qZkl_c gZau\Z_lky
k h k l Z \ g u f b f _ g g u f k d Z a m _ f u f , Z _]h qZklb ² ] e Z ] h e k\yadZbbf_ggZyqZklv.
Ijh^he`Z_fkhklZ\eylvriZj]Zedm kfk 57
<uibrbl_ ba keh\hkhq_lZgbc lhevdh l_ dhlhju_ \ ij_^eh`_gbb
fh]ml[ulvkhklZ\gufbbf_ggufbkdZam_fufb
AZ\ljZ ijb_^m [m^m ]hkl_f gZqZe ^mfZlv [ue aZ^mfqb\uf ohqm
^hfhcmg___klv_klvfh_gZb\ukr__^hklb`_gb_
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_l 1 gZk 61).
<_jg_fkydgZr_fm[mfZ`ghfmkhe^Zlbdmb\uibr_f\k_kdZam_fu_
ba kljhq_d dhlhju_ ijb\_^_gu gb`_ <hae_ dZ`^h]h kdZam_fh]h
gZibrbl_dZdh_hgh
Hgi_j_^_eZlvfbjohl_e
Qlh[[uekqZkleb\ufdZ`^uc
:kZfgZgblhqd_\bk_e
<_^v[uekhe^Zl[mfZ`guc
;Hdm^`Z\Z
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_l 2 gZk 61).
<uibrbl_bal_dklZhkgh\uMdZ`bl_f_klhagZdh\ij_ibgZgby
< ^Ze_dmx^Ze_dmx ihjm jmqgu_ @b\hlgu_ [ueb @b\hlgufb
>bdbfbKh[ZdZ[ueZ^bdZybDhjh\Z[ueZ^bdZybH\pZ[ueZ^bdZyb
\k_hgb[ueb^bdb_ij_^bdb_Hgb^bdh[em`^Zebihfhdjuf>bdbf
E_kZf Gh kZfZy ^bdZy [ueZ >bdZy DhrdZ HgZ [jh^beZ ]^_ lhevdh
hgZohl_eZihlhfmqlhhgZ]meyeZkZfZihk_[_Q_eh\_dlh`_[ue^b
dbcHggbdh]^Zg_[ue[ujmqguf_keb[u_fmg_ihfh]eZ@_gsbgZ
IhJDbiebg]m
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_l 3 gZk 61).
HohlZaZkhklZ\gufbkdZam_fufbbf__lh^gm[hevrmxljm^ghklv_]h
qZklbfh]mlklhylvg_jy^hf_kebbojZa^_eyxl^jm]b_keh\ZHgbfh]ml
^Z`_hdZaZlvky\jZaguodhgpZoij_^eh`_gbyB^eylh]hqlh[u\ueh\blv
bo gm`gh ykghihgbfZlv qlhbf_ggh khh[sZ_lkyh ih^e_`Zs_f b dZdh_
keh\hkgbfkbglZdkbq_kdbk\yaZghIjb\_^_fijbf_ju
Hlebqbl_evghchkh[_gghklvxijhn_kkhjZ[ueZ_]hex[h\vd^_lyf
J_amevlZlhfwlhcex[\bd^_lyf[ueZkdZadZ©:ebkZ\KljZg_qm^_kª
58
B \ i_j\hf b \h \lhjhf ij_^eh`_gbb qZklb bf_ggh]h khklZ\gh]h
kdZam_fh]h [ueZ hkh[_gghklvx [ueZ j_amevlZlhf hl^_e_gu ^jm] hl
^jm]Z
QZklbkhklZ\gh]hkdZam_fh]hfh]ml[ulvjZa^_e_gub[he__k_jv_aghc
ij_]jZ^hc ?keb \gmljv ij_^eh`_gby aZ[jZeZkv ©fZlj_rdZª lh qZklb
khklZ\gh]h kdZam_fh]h fh]ml hdZaZlvky ih jZagu_ __ klhjhgu GZijbf_j
lZdEmqrbfqlhgZoh^behkv\dhfgZl_[uefZd_liZjmkghcyolu
I_j_ibrbl_ ij_^eh`_gby jZkklZ\eyy agZdb ij_ibgZgby b
ih^q_jdb\Zyhkgh\u
I KZfufb hqZjh\Zl_evgufb kms_kl\Zfb k dhlhjufb fg_
ijboh^behkv \klj_qZlvky [ueb [_eho\hklu_ ]gm I_j\uf qlh y
ihiulZeky k^_eZlv \ dZq_kl\_ ijb_fghc fZl_jb [ueh \kdZjfeb\Zgb_
q_luj_ogh\hjh`^_gguo_`Zl
Ih>`>Zjj_eem
,,K_^vfhcieZg_lhcdhlhjmxihk_lbeFZe_gvdbcijbgp[ueZA_fey
Ih:K_glWdaxi_jb
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_l 4 gZk 61).
Jhevk\yahdfh`_lb]jZlvg_lhevdh]eZ]he[ulvghb^jm]b_]eZ]heu
gZijbf_j ^_eZlvky klZlv klZgh\blvky y\eylvky kqblZlvky
dZaZlvky[u\ZlvgZau\ZlvkyhdZau\ZlvkyhklZlvky
Ih^q_jdgbl_hkgh\u\ij_^eh`_gbyoJZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
1. < kheg_qgu_ hdly[jvkdb_ ^gb fu qZklh klZgh\bfky k\b^_l_eyfb
hk_gg_]h ihe_lZ iZmlbgu Wlb e_lysb_ gblb y\eyxlky kj_^kl\hf
i_j_^\b`_gby ih \ha^mom ^ey f_edbo iZmqdh\ Ba `mjgZeh\ >\Z^pZlv iylv heh\ygguo khe^Zlbdh\ ijboh^bebkv ^jm] ^jm]m
jh^gufb [jZlvyfb = ; :g^_jk_g Ijbgp_kkZ k^_eZeZkv
dhjhe_\hc q_f hgZ [ueZ hq_gv ^h\hevgZ = ; :g^_jk_g
Kg_`gZydhjhe_\Zm`_g_dZaZeZkvDZxe_^yghcl_i_jvhgZij_^
klZ\eyeZkv _fm kh\_jr_gkl\hf <h \j_f_gZ I_ljZ , kZfhe_lhf
gZau\ZekyiZjhfdhlhjucoh^beihi_j_dj_dbihljhkm<ijhrehf
\_d_keh\h©kZfhe_lªklZehgZa\Zgb_fldZpdh]hq_eghdZZkdhgpZ
ijhreh]h klhe_lby hgh y\ey_lky gZbf_gh\Zgb_f e_lZl_evgh]h
ZiiZjZlZ
Ba`mjgZeh\
59
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk =eZ]heu dhlhju_ fu i_j_qbkebeb gZ k \ jZaguo ij_^eh`_gbyo
fh]mlb]jZlvjZagu_jheb\h^gbo²ijhklh]h]eZ]hevgh]hkdZam_fh]h\
^jm]bo²]eZ]heZk\yadb\khklZ\ghfbf_gghfkdZam_fhf
<uibrbl_kdZam_fu_baij_^eh`_gbc
<bkys__ \ m]em iZevlh \ kmf_jdZo ihdZaZehkv q_eh\_dhf AZ
ih\hjhlhf ^hjh]b ihdZaZeky klZjuc ^hf Ihke_ hle_lZ klZb gZ
[_j_]m hklZeky `mjZ\ev k ihehfZgguf djuehf Hg hklZeky
h^bghdbf KgZqZeZ FbrdZ k [hevrhc hklhjh`ghklvx klZgh\beky
gZoh^mebGhkh\j_f_g_fhgklZgh\bekym\_j_gg__
<x`ghf]hjh^_dZ`^mx\_kgm[u\Z_ldZjgZ\Ze
WlhlijZa^gbd[u\Z_lhq_gvdjZkhqgufKlZjrbc[jZlkem`be\h
nehl_RZeZrkem`begZ^_`gufm[_`bs_fhl^h`^y
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_l 6 gZk 61).
©Ihkljhcl_\iZjuª]eZ]heuk\yadbbbf_ggu_qZklb
KlZe[u\Z_lhklZekyhq_gvohjhrmq_guf^jm]hf
2. ;uey\ey_lky_klvgZr^he]aZgyljmdh\h^bl_e_f
3. HdZaZeky gZau\Z_lky [m^_l keZ\guf lh\Zjbs_f ©H]hg_dª
\ajhkeuf
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_l 1 gZk 65).
FZe_gvdZyih\_klvhkh\k_ffZe_gvdhf]eZ]he_[ulv,
dhlhjuc[u\Z_lg_ihoh`gZkZfh]hk_[y
DZd wlh lZd ² ]eZ]he g_ ihoh` gZ kZfh]h k_[y" Qlhlh g_ \_jblky
fh`_l_ kdZaZlv \u Gh fu m\_j_gu qlh \u kfh`_l_ _]h h[gZjm`blv
GZc^bl_ \ ke_^mxsbo ijbf_jZo b \uibrbl_ h^bg b lhl `_ ]eZ]he \
jZaguoh[ebqbyo
H[eZdZ[_]mlgZ^fhj_f
Dj_ig_l\_l_jau[vq_jg_c
;m^_l[mjy²fuihkihjbf
Bihfm`_kl\m_fkg_c
60
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y
1) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk 58.
;m^m]hkl_f[ueaZ^mfqb\uf_klvgZb\ukr__^hklb`_gb_
2) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk 58.
Ohl_e i_j_^_eZlv khkl ]eZ] [ue kqZkleb\uf khklbf \bk_e
ijhkl]eZ] [ue[mfZ`guc khklbf 3) Kf aZ^Zgb_ gZ k .
Jmqgu_ @b\hlgu_ [ueb @b\hlgufb >bdbfb Kh[ZdZ [ueZ ^bdZy b
Dhjh\Z [ueZ ^bdZy b H\pZ [ueZ ^bdZy b \k_ hgb [ueb ^bdb_ij_^bdb_
Hgb [em`^Zeb >bdZy DhrdZ [ueZ kZfZy ^bdZy HgZ [jh^beZ ]^_ hgZ
ohl_eZ ihlhfm qlh hgZ ]meyeZ Q_eh\_d lh`_ [ue ^bdbc Hg g_ [ue [u
jmqguf_keb[ug_ihfh]eZ`_gsbgZ
4) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk 59.<uibkZguhkgh\ubihdZaZghf_klhaZiyluo
1.1. ;_eho\hklu_ ]gm [ueb kms_kl\Zfb ijboh^behkv \klj_qZlvky
« kms_kl\Zfb k dhlhjufb « [ueb « <kdZjfeb\Zgb_ [ueh
i_j\ufyihiulZekyk^_eZlvI_j\ufqlh «[ueh«,,A_fey[ueZ
ieZg_lhcFZe_gvdbcijbgpihk_lbe«ieZg_lhcdhlhjmx«[ueZ«
5) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk 59.<uibkZguhkgh\umdZaZghf_klhagZdh\ij_ibgZgby
1. Fu klZgh\bfky k\b^_l_eyfb Gblb y\eyxlky kj_^kl\hf
i_j_^\b`_gby>\Z^pZlviylvkhe^Zlbdh\ijboh^bebkv[jZlvyfb
Ijbgp_kkZ k^_eZeZkv dhjhe_\hc q_f hgZ [ueZ ^h\hevgZ Kg_`gZy
dhjhe_\Zg_ dZaZeZkv e_^yghc hgZij_^klZ\eyeZkv kh\_jr_gkl\hf IZjhf gZau\Zeky kZfhe_lhf « dhlhjuc oh^be Keh\h klZeh
gZa\Zgb_fZ«hghy\ey_lkygZbf_gh\Zgb_f
6) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk 60.
1. IhdZaZehkv q_eh\_dhf IhdZaZeky HklZeky HklZeky
h^bghdbf KlZgh\beky KlZgh\beky m\_j_gg__ ;u\Z_l ;u\Z_ldjZkhqgufKem`beKem`bem[_`bs_f
***
61
LZfaZ^Zevxg_ih]h^u
?klv[eZ`_ggZykljZgZ
G_l_fg_xlg_[Zk\h^u
G_ijhoh^bllbrbgZ
GYaudh\
Dh]^Z\kl_iyoaZklZghfklZg
;jh^bebhj^udhq_\u_
;ueoZgHljhdboZgKujqZg
>\Z[jZlZ[Zlujbebob_
:GFZcdh\
?keb\u^h]Z^Zebkv\q_fkmlv^_eZlh\u\uibkZeb]eZ]heu [m^_l,
_klv b [ue Wlh h^bg b lhl `_ ]eZ]he dhlhjuc \ jZaguo \j_f_gZo
\u]ey^blihjZaghfm
Bgl_j_kgh qlh wlhl ]eZ]he g_ lhevdh baf_gy_lky \ jZaguo \j_f_gZo
^h g_magZ\Z_fhklb Hg b]jZ_l jZagu_ jheb \ jZaguo ij_^eh`_gbyo dZd
Zdl_j \ jZaguo ki_dlZdeyo \ h^ghf ² wlh ]eZ]hek\yadZ \ khklZ\ghf
]eZ]hevghfbkhklZ\ghfbf_gghfkdZam_fhf\^jm]hf²kZfhklhyl_evgh_
kdZam_fh_ijhklh_]eZ]hevgh_
DZd `_ bo jZaebqblv" <u ihfgbl_ qlh ]eZ]he [u\Z_l
kZfhklhyl_evguf kdZam_fuf _keb hg \ h^ghf ba lj_o gZdehg_gbc
kijZ\ey_lkyh^bgk^\mfygZ]jmadZfb
kfukeh\hcb]jZffZlbq_kdhcIhdZaZl_e_f_]h^\hcghc\ughkeb\hklb
y\ey_lky kihkh[ghklv d kbghgbfbq_kdhc aZf_g_ GZijbf_j ;m^m \_q_jhf
hq_gve_]dhaZf_gblvgZIjb^m\_q_jhfIhy\exkv\_q_jhfbl^?keb`_
]eZ]heg_kijZ\ey_lkykZfk^\mfygZ]jmadZfblhhgg_fh`_l\h^bghqdm
[ulv kdZam_fuf Z [u\Z_l lhevdh ]eZ]hehfk\yadhc <u wlh \b^_eb gZ
ijbf_j_[mfZ`gh]hkhe^ZlbdZdhlhjucg_ijhklh[ueZ[ue [mfZ`guc,
g_ijhklh[ueZ[ueb]jmrdhc
LZdqlh_keb]eZ]he[ueh^bgkijZ\ey_lkykhkfukeh\hcgZ]jmadhcl
_ khh[sZ_l h ih^e_`Zs_f \k_ g_h[oh^bfh_ lh wlh i j h k l h _
] e Z ] h e v g h _ k d Z a m _ f h _ Z _keb fh`_l khh[sZlv \k_ g_h[oh^bfh_
lhevdh\f_kl_k^jm]bfkeh\hflhwlh] e Z ] h e k \ y a d Z DZd \u ^mfZ_l_ ihq_fm fu lZd k_jv_agh aZgbfZ_fky kh\k_f
fZe_gvdbf ]eZ]hehf" Bf_ggh ihlhfm qlh hg lZdhc fZe_gvdbc <u
qZkl_gvdhg_h[jZsZ_l_\gbfZgbygZfZexlhd[ulv[ue_klvdZd[m^lh
hgb\h\k_bg_]eZ]heug_kdZam_fu_:ihl_jy\boba\b^m\ul_jy_l_b
ihgbfZgb_
62
\k_c kbglZdkbq_kdhc dhgkljmdpbb qlh \_^_l d g_ijZ\bevghc
jZkklZgh\d_agZdh\:wlh\k\hxhq_j_^vg_ih\urZ_l\ZrborZgkh\gZ
wdaZf_gZo
Ba ke_^mxsbo ijbf_jh\ \uibrbl_ ]eZ]heu g_ ihoh`b_ gZ kZfbo
k_[yHij_^_ebl_dZdbfbkdZam_fufbhgby\eyxlky
?klv\hk_gbi_j\hgZqZevghc
DhjhldZygh^b\gZyihjZ²
<_kv^_gvklhbldZd[uojmklZevguc
Bemq_aZjgu\_q_jZ
NBLxlq_\
G_lbg_ih^qm`^ufg_[hk\h^hf
Bg_ih^aZsblhcqm`^uodjue²
Y[ueZlh]^ZkfhbfgZjh^hf
LZf]^_fhcgZjh^dg_kqZklvx[ue
:::ofZlh\Z
;m^mlahjbkf_gylvkyaZdZlZfb
;m^_lkhegp_dZlblvky\a_gbl²
MfbjZlvgZfkhe^ZlZfkhe^ZlZfb
<hkdj_kZlvgZf²h^_luf\]jZgbl
::=Zebq
?klv\j_fyijbjh^uhkh[h]hk\_lZ
G_ykgh]hkhegpZg_`g_cr_]haghy
HghgZau\Z_lky[Z[v_e_lh
B\ij_e_klbkihjblkkZfhx\_kghx
HN;_j]]hevp
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_l 2 gZk 65).
< hlju\d_ ba klbohl\hj_gby BhkbnZ ;jh^kdh]h gZr g_ ihoh`bc gZ
kZfh]h k_[y ]eZ]he \klj_qZ_lky b \ ijhklhf ]eZ]hevghf b \ khklZ\ghf
bf_gghfkdZam_fuo
IjhsZc
IhaZ[m^v
Bg_h[_kkm^v
:ibkvfZkh`]bdZdfhkl
>Z[m^_lfm`_kl\_ggufl\hcimlv
>Z[m^_lhgijyfbijhkl
63
64
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y
1) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk 60.
KlZemq_guf[u\Z_lhq_gvohjhrhklZeky^jm]hf
;ueaZgyly\ey_lkyjmdh\h^bl_e_f_klvgZr^he]
3. HdZaZeky keZ\guf lh\Zjbs_f gZau\Z_lky ©H]hg_dª [m^_l
\ajhkeuf
2) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk 63.
1. ?klv;ueZ[ue;m^mlkf_gylvky[m^_ldZlblvky?klv.
Wlhijhklu_]eZ]hevgu_kdZam_fu_
3) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk 63.
1. >Z [m^_l fm`_kl\_gguf ^Z [m^_l ijyf b ijhkl ² bf_ggu_
khklZ\gu_kdZam_fu_>Z[m^_l]hj_lv^Z[m^_l]j_lv>Z[m^ml
^Z[m^_l²ijhklu_]eZ]hevgu_kdZam_fu_
***
>Z[m^_l\hf]e_
>eyl_[y]hj_lv
A\_a^gZyfbrmjZ
>Z[m^_lgZ^_`^Z
EZ^hgb]j_lv
Ml\h_]hdhkljZ
>Z[m^mlf_l_eb
Kg_]Z^h`^b
B[_r_gucj_\h]gy
>Z[m^_lm^Zqml_[y\i_j_^b
;hevr_q_fmf_gy
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_l 3 gZk 65).
Gm\hlfubijhieuebq_j_al_fm©KdZam_fu_ª:wlh\ZfriZj]ZedZ
kf k QblZy khihklZ\eycl_ __ fuke_ggh k l_fb agZgbyfb dhlhju_
hleh`bebkv\\Zr_c]heh\_?keb\uh[gZjm`bl_qlhg_mk\hbebq_]hlh
\_jgbl_kvdwlhfmjZa^_embih\lhjbl__]h
65
©EmdZ\u_ªqe_guij_^eh`_gby
Bgh]^Z kdZam_fuf ih^e_`Zsbf beb ^jm]bf qe_ghf ij_^eh`_gby
fh`_l hdZaZlvky mklhcqb\h_ g_jZaeh`bfh_ khq_lZgb_ keh\ dhlhjh_
gZau\Z_lky n j Z a _ h e h ] b a f h f DZ`^uc ba \Zk gZ\_jgydZ agZ_l k
^_lkl\Zbmihlj_[ey_l\k\h_cj_qbg_fZehnjZa_heh]bafh\ih\_kblvghk
aZ^jZlvghkkehfy]heh\m[_aaZ^gbogh]bl^
NjZa_heh]bafu hq_gv \ujZabl_evgu Hgb qZklh ijhbaghkylky k
oblj_phc k emdZ\kl\hf Bo mihlj_[e_gb_ ^_eZ_l j_qv g_ lhevdh [he__
h[jZaghcghb\_k_ehchahjghc<umqblv`_bo\k_g_\hafh`ghiheguc
i_j_q_gvnjZa_heh]bafh\fh`_lkhklZ\blvlhekluclhfIhwlhfmihoh^m
jZ[hlu fu ijhklh g_fgh]h ihlj_gbjm_fky \ mf_gbb jZkihagZ\Zlv b
ihgbfZlvnjZa_heh]bafu
Ihijh[mcl_ ih^h[jZlv d dZ`^hfm ba njZa_heh]bafh\ i_j\h]h
klhe[bdZih^oh^ys__ihkfukemkeh\h\h\lhjhfklhe[bd_
, de_\Zlvghkhf
dZdkg_]gZ]heh\m
\ue_l_ehba]heh\u
\qZkihqZcghceh`d_
g_h`b^Zggh
f_^e_ggh
^j_fZlv
aZ[ue
©Ihkljhcl_ \ iZjuª njZa_heh]bafu b ]eZ]heu bf_xsb_ lhl `_
kfuke
II. 1) ih\_kbeghk
2) ^_j`ZeyaudaZam[Zfb
3) \klZ\ey_liZedb\dhe_kZ
4) gZ^me]m[u
5) imkdZeiuev\]eZaZ
6) gZklmiZegZiyldb
7) \lbjZehqdb
am[gZam[g_ihiZ^Z_l
9) k^_eZebafmobkehgZ
\am[ZogZ\yaeh
11) gZr_e^hjh]mdk_j^pm
h[fZgu\Ze
ijbmgue
ihfZedb\Ze
^h]hgye
h[b^_eky
o\ZklZeky
f_rZ_l
ihgjZ\beky
gZ^h_eh
ij_m\_ebqbe
aZf_ja
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk 69).
NjZa_heh]bafu fh]ml [ulv b ih^e_`Zsbfb b kdZam_fufb b
\lhjhkl_i_ggufbqe_gZfb
LZd dZd keh\Z \h njZa_heh]baf_ ij_^klZ\eyxl kh[hc _^bgh_ p_eh_
ijbjZa[hj_ij_^eh`_gbybih^e_`Zs__njZa_h
66
eh]baf b kdZam_fh_njZa_heh]baf
ih^q_jdb\Zxlkyp_ebdhf
hgb \u^_e_gu dmjkb\hf)
1. Wlhl q_eh\_d g_ e_a_l aZ keh\hf \ dZjfZg Hiylv gZqbgZ_lky
kdZadZ ijh [_eh]h [uqdZ Gbdblm dZd \_ljhf k^meh k \_jZg^u
<DD_lebgkdZy
Bgh]^Z njZa_heh]bafhf [u\Z_l \ky ]jZffZlbq_kdZy hkgh\Z p_ebdhf
< ^Zgguo keh`guo ij_^eh`_gbyo lZdb_ njZa_heh]bafu \u^_e_gu
dmjkb\hf
1. Mf_gy\_jhylghaZr_emfaZjZamfbygZibkZekh\k_fg_lhqlh
ohl_e :IQ_oh\ DZd]eygmehgqlh^_eZ_lkygZmebp_]eZaZ
mg_]hgZeh[ihe_aeb\ba]ohohldjbdb :KGh\bdh\Ijb[hc
MIZ\eZk_j^p_aZf_jeh \hehku klZeb ^u[hf ijb wlhc fukeb
:NIbk_fkdbc
DZd \b^bf agZgb_ njZa_heh]bafh\ ihfh]Z_l gZoh^blv
]jZffZlbq_kdmxhkgh\mij_^eh`_gbyZagZqblb\_jghjZkklZ\eylvagZdb
ij_ibgZgby \ keh`guo ij_^eh`_gbyo dhlhju_ khklhyl ba ^\mo beb
g_kdhevdboijhkluo
Ihlj_gbjm_fky _s_ g_fgh]h \ ihbkdZo ©emdZ\uoª qe_gh\
ij_^eh`_gby
67
Hlju\db ij_^eh`_gbc “ihl_jyeb ^jm] ^jm]Z”Ihfh]bl_ dZ`^hfm
gZclbk\hxiZjm
Hq_eh\_d_dhlhjuckbevgh]hjZkie_q
bkim]Zeky]h\hjylqlhmg_]h«k\ZebeZkv
Hlhfdlhhq_gv[ukljham[gZam[
m^bjZ_l]h\hjylqlhmg_]h«g_ihiZ^Z_l
Hq_eh\_d_^jh`Zs_fhliyldb
oheh^Z]h\hjylqlhmg_]h«k\_jdZxl
?kebq_eh\_dbkiulu\Z_l[hevrh_^mrZ\iyldb
h[e_]q_gb_lh]h\hjylqlhmg_]h«mreZ
?kebq_eh\_dihiZe\g_eh\dh_
iheh`_gb_lh]h\hjylqlhhgk[bekykgh]
?kebq_eh\_dmlhfbekyhloehihl
b[_]hlgblh]h\hjylqlhhg«k_e\dZehrm
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk
BkijZ\vl_i_j_imlZggu_njZa_heh]bafu
<jZlZjvgZr_cdhfZg^ug_m^Zjbe\dZehrm
<jZlZjvijhlb\gbdZk_eebphf\]jyav
FhcfeZ^rbc[jZlkh\k_fhl[bekyhlgh]
BaaZg_]hfuk_]h^gyk[bebkvkjmd
©EmdZ\u_ª qe_gu ij_^eh`_gby fh]ml [ulv g_ lhevdh ]eZ\gufb gh b
\lhjhkl_i_ggufb Hkh[_gguc bgl_j_k k lhqdb aj_gby imgdlmZpbb
ij_^klZ\eyxlkh[hch[klhyl_evkl\Z\ujZ`_ggu_njZa_heh]bafZfbkimkly
jmdZ\Z kehf ]heh\m keh`Z keh`b\ jmdb dZd \_ljhf k^meh b l ^ < hl
ebqb_hlihoh`bogZgbokjZ\gbl_evguob^__ijbqZklguoh[hjhlh\hgbg_
\u^_eyxlkyaZiylufbGZijbf_j\ij_^eh`_gbbKeh`b\\_sb\q_fh^Zg
iZkkZ`bj \ur_e ba dmi_ \u^_e_g aZiylhc ^__ijbqZklguc h[hjhl : \
ij_^eh`_gb_<k_ex^bdhlhju_h[kem`b\ZeblhidbdhleubfZrbgu g_
klhyeb keh`b\ jmdb : Gh\bdh\Ijb[hc keh`b\ jmdb — njZa_heh]baf
hgaZiylhcg_\u^_ey_lky
< ij_^eh`_gbb B dm^jb bo [_eu dZd mlj_ggbc kg_] : K Imrdbg
ihklZ\e_gZaZiylZyi_j_^kjZ\gbl_evguªh[hjhlhfdZdmlj_ggbckg_]:\
ij_^eh`_gbbG_ijbkeZ\ij_^\Zjbl_evgh]hibkvfZgbdh]hg_ij_^mij_^b\
k\ZebekyhgdZdkg_]gZ]heh\m BKLmj]_g_\ h[klhyl_evkl\hdZdkg_gZ
]heh\maZiylhcg_\u^_ey_lkylZddZdhgh\ujZ`_ghnjZa_heh]bafhf
68
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
I de_\Zlvghkhf^j_fZlv
dZdkg_]gZ]heh\mg_h`b^Zggh
3)\ue_l_ehba]heh\uaZ[ue
\qZkihqZcghceh`d_f_^e_ggh
II.1)ih\_kbeghkijbmgue
2)^_j`ZeyaudaZam[ZfbihfZedb\Ze
3)\klZ\ey_liZedb\dhe_kZf_rZ_l
4)gZ^me]m[uh[b^_eky
5)imkdZeiuev\]eZaZo\ZklZeky
6)gZklmiZegZiyldb^h]hgye
7)\lbjZehqdbh[fZgu\Ze
8)am[gZam[g_ihiZ^Z_laZf_ja
9)k^_eZebafmobkehgZij_m\_ebqbe
\am[ZogZ\yaehgZ^h_eh
11)gZr_e^hjh]mdk_j^pmihgjZ\beky
***
: l_i_jv ihlj_gbjmcl_kv Ijh\_jvl_ kmf__l_ eb \u gZclb
njZa_heh]bafu \ ij_^eh`_gbyo < kemqZ_ aZljm^g_gbc ihevamcl_kv
©RdhevgufnjZa_heh]bq_kdbfkeh\Zj_fjmkkdh]hyaudZª<I@mdh\Zb
: < @mdh\Z Ihfgbl_ qlh h[klhyl_evkl\Z q_f [u hgb gb [ueb
\ujZ`_gu ihqlb \k_]^Z hlghkylky d kdZam_fhfm Ihwlhfm jZkkfhlj_gb_
ij_^eh`_gbcgZqbgZcl_kihbkdh\]jZffZlbq_kdhchkgh\u
<^Zgguogb`_ij_^eh`_gbyogZc^bl_njZa_heh]bafu
JZkdju\jhlhgih^klZ\be_]hih^kljmx\h^u
=h\hjbehgeZ^ghbkdeZ^ghb\k_kemrZeb_]hjZkdju\jhl
AgZ_rvebluaZq_fyijbkdZdZekx^Zkehfy]heh\m\q_jZihmljm" B
KLmj]_g_\
IjhqblZcl_ ljb ij_^eh`_gby Ihq_fm \ i_j\hf ba gbo aZkmqb\ jmdZ\Z
\u^_e_ghaZiylufbk^\moklhjhg\h\lhjhf²aZiylZyklhbllhevdhi_j_^
wlbfbkeh\Zfb\lj_lv_f²\hh[s_g_klhbl"
,,Hl_phldjuedjZgbaZkmqb\jmdZ\ZklZefulv
jmdb
69
Lu^he`_g\uclb\ihe_aZkmqb\jmdZ\Zljm^blvky
Fu^he`guaZkmqb\jmdZ\Zijbgylvkyg_f_^e_gghaZkha^Zgb_gh\h]h
ijh_dlZ
IjhqblZcl_ ij_^eh`_gby GZc^bl_ \ujZ`_gby k khxahf dZd Ihq_fm
h^gbbagbo\u^_e_guaZiylufbZ^jm]b_²g_l"
,,,=eZaZm\heqbpuk\_lbebkvdZd^\Zh]hgvdZ :IQ_oh\ L_ly
GZlZrZ aZf_lbeZ qlh fu h[Z oh^bf dZd \ \h^m hims_ggu_ b klZeZ
m]h\Zjb\Zlv fZfm qlh[ fu k Fbrdhc hklZebkv _s_ ih`blv G G
Ghkh\ =mkZju \havfbl_ _]h >Z kdZaZlv gZr_fm e_dZjx qlh[ hg
i_j_\yaZe_fmjZgmb[_j_]_]hdZda_gbpmhdZ :KImrdbg
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk IhklZjZcl_kv
g_
i_j_imlZlv
h[klhyl_evkl\Z
\ujZ`_ggu_
kjZ\gbl_evgufb^__ijbqZklgufbh[hjhlZfbbnjZa_heh]bafZfb
YkdZdZeZkehfy]heh\mkebrdhfklh\_jklqlh[um\b^_lvkyk\Zfb
I : IeZ\bevsbdh\ Hgb iju]Zeb ih \_jldbf [j_\gZf jbkdmy
k\Zeblvkyghgbdlhg_k\Zeb\Zeky <DD_lebgkdZy JZa\_fukimkly
jmdZ\Z`b\_f" >BNhg\babg ?]h`_\dZ`^hfk_e_agZxldZdh[
emie_ggh]h : B Dmijbg Y gZ^_yeky gZ wlb ljhibgdb dZd gZ
dZf_ggmx ]hjm y ^mfZe qlh gZklZg_l dZd \ :leZglbq_kdhf hd_Zg_
mf_j_gguc`Zjjh\gucbihklhygguc\_l_j B:=hgqZjh\ Gbdlh
g_kb^_ekeh`Zjmdb\k_]j_[eb <D:jk_gv_\ B\ZgI_ljh\bqg_
kZ^bl_kvgZk\h_]hex[bfh]hdhgvdZgZfg_dh]^Z
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk GZg_ihgylghfyaud_
H^gZ`^u ZdZ^_fbd E < S_j[Z ij_^eh`be klm^_glZf jZah[jZlv lZdh_
ij_^eh`_gb_=ehdZydma^jZrl_dh[m^eZgmeZ[hdjZbdmj^yqbl[hdj_gdZ
KgZqZeZ klm^_glu gbq_]h g_ ihgyeb Gh E_\ <eZ^bfbjh\bq ihdZaZe bf
qlh ba wlh]h ij_^eh`_gby fh`gh ba\e_qv fZkkm bgnhjfZpbb <hi_j\uo
\uykgblvdZdb_^_ckl\bykh\_jrZebkvl_gZclbkdZam_fu_>_ckl\by\
wlhf ij_^eh`_gbb h[hagZq_gu keh\Zfb [m^eZgmeZ b dmj^yqbl : dlh wlh
k^_eZeb^_eZ_l"²Dma^jZDZdZy"²=ehdZyWlhy\gh`b\h_kms_kl\h\
_^bgkl\_gghfqbke_`_gkdh]hjh^ZDma^jZ[hevrZy beb\ajhkeZy [hdj
\b^bfhlh`_aZlh[hdj_ghd²y\ghfZe_gvdh_`b\h_kms_kl\h
70
K[hdjhfhgZmijZ\beZkv©\h^bgijbk_klª²rl_dh[m^eZgmeZAZlhk
[hdj_gdhf\hablky²dmj^yqbl<kxwlmkfukeh\mxbgnhjfZpbxbakeh\
k dhjgyfb g_ kms_kl\mxsbfb \ jmkkdhf yaud_ fu ©ihq_jigmebª ba
kmnnbdkh\ b hdhgqZgbc keh\ Z lZd`_ ba kbglZdkbq_kdbo k\ya_c f_`^m
gbfbIj_^klZ\vl_k_[_qlhkms_kl\m_llZdhcyaud\dhlhjhfijbklZ\db
kmnnbdku b hdhgqZgby jmkkdb_ kbglZdkbk lh`_ jmkkdbc Z dhjgb \Zf
g_ba\_klgu >Z^bf wlhfm g_kms_kl\mxs_fm yaudm mkeh\gh_ gZa\Zgb_
©]ehdbcª Kmf__l_ eb \u jZa[bjZlv ij_^eh`_gby gZ ©]ehdhfª yaud_"
Ihijh[mcl_gZclbih^e_`Zs__bkdZam_fh_\ke_^mxsboijbf_jZo
Fheykguc [heh^bevgbd i_j_f_oZe dm\bpm Ih fZe__ ijh\_dgmeb
i_j_lyxsb_ky [j_^heZ]b <_e_gsbd mfZsbe i_j_dmiZxsmx
ijhmlx`bevgbpm
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk FugZ^__fkyqlhbgZ©]ehdhfªyaud_m\Zk\k_ihemqbehkvijZ\bevgh
71
=eZ\Z IV
Lbj_\gmljbij_^eh`_gby
F_`^mih^e_`ZsbfbkdZam_fuf
Ih^e_`Zs__ b kdZam_fh_ k\yaZgu l_kg_crbfb
Ke_^
bkq_agm\r_c ©jh^kl\_ggufbª hlghr_gbyfb ² kfukeh\ufb b
k\yadb ]jZffZlbq_kdbfb KdZam_fh_ ihlhfm b gZau\Z_lky
kdZam_fuf qlh hgh ©kdZau\Z_lª ² jZkkdZau\Z_l
khh[sZ_lhih^e_`Zs_fH[Z]eZ\guoqe_gZij_^eh`_gby
©^\b`mlky\h^ghcmijy`d_ªbg_kmlhkgh\ghckfuke_]h
Kms_kl\mxl eb dZdb_eb[h ljm^ghklb \h \aZbfhhlghr_gbyo f_`^m
ih^e_`ZsbfbkdZam_fuf"Kms_kl\mxlBij_`^_\k_]h²ijbbf_gghf
khklZ\ghfkdZam_fhfHghdZd\uihfgbl_khklZ\e_ghba]eZ]heZk\yadbb
bf_gghc qZklb < jheb ]eZ]heZk\yadb h[udgh\_ggh \uklmiZ_l ]eZ]he
[ulv < bf_gghf khklZ\ghf kdZam_fhf hg ijbkmlkl\m_l qZs_ \k_]h \
ijhr_^r_f \j_f_gb GZijbf_j Hlebqbl_evghc hkh[_gghklvx
ijhn_kkhjZfZl_fZlbdb[ueZ_]hex[h\vd^_lyf
< gZklhys_f \j_f_gb ]eZ]hek\yadZ ihqlb \k_]^Z himkdZ_lky b
ih^e_`Zs__ hklZ_lky gZ_^bg_ k bf_gghc qZklvx GZijbf_j GZ^_`^Z ²
fhcdhfiZka_fghc Bai_kgb
Lhevdh \ hq_gv j_^dbo kemqZyo ]eZ]hek\yadZ [ulv mihlj_[ey_lky \
gZklhys_f \j_f_gb Wlh [u\Z_l \ dgb`ghc gZmqghc j_qb GZijbf_j
D\Z^jZl _klv jZ\ghklhjhggbc ijyfhm]hevgbd < h[uqghc j_qb ]eZ]he
k\yadZ[ulv\gZklhys_f\j_f_gbebrgbcg_gm`gucGbdhfmba\Zk^Z`_
\ ]heh\m g_ ijb^_l kdZaZlv qlhgb[m^v \jh^_ ©GZ^_`^Z _klv fhc dhfiZk
a_fghcªGh]eZ]hek\yadZg_\k_]^Zbkq_aZ_l[_kke_^ghBgh]^ZgZf_kl_
_]h bkq_agh\_gby hklZ_lky lbj_ Hgh klZ\blky f_`^m ih^e_`Zsbf b
kdZam_fuf : ljm^ghklb \hagbdZxl hllh]h qlh h ihklZgh\d_ wlh]h agZdZ
ij_ibgZgby ©]jZffZlbdZ gZ^\h_ kdZaZeZª \ h^gbo kemqZyo _]h klZ\blv
gm`ghZ\^jm]bog_l
?keb \u ohjhrh ihfgbl_ dh]^Z klZ\blky lbj_ f_`^m ih^e_`Zsbf b
kdZam_fufijbklmiZcl_dlj_gbjh\d_ kfkZ[ac ?kebaZ[ueblhihkfhljbl_q_f\ujZ`_gu]eZ\gu_qe_guij_^eh`_gby
\^Zgguoijbf_jZo
72
>h[jh_gZqZeh²iheh\bgZ^_eZ Ihkeh\bpZ
K_fv ² aZ]Z^hqgh_ qbkeh KZ^u kZ`Zlv ² `bagv mdjZrZlv
Ihkeh\bpZ G_mf_lvohjhrh\ujZ`Zlvk\hbofuke_c²g_^hklZlhd
D>Mrbgkdbc
GZ^__fky qlh \u \kihfgbeb hkgh\gh_ ijZ\beh h ihklZgh\d_ lbj_
L_i_jvihiulZcl_kvjZkklZ\blvagZdb\^Zgguoij_^eh`_gbyo
Ihfhqv[eb`g_fmba\_^ZlvjZ^hklv<k_^_kylviZevp_\g_fh]ml
[ulv h^bgZdh\hc ^ebgu H^bg ^h[uluc hiul \Z`g__ k_fb fm^juo
ihmq_gbc Ohl_lv agZqbl fhqv Imklhc dhehk \k_]^Z d\_jom ghk
^_j_l GZkdhjh ^_eZlv i_j_^_eu\Zlv Klh ljmkh\ [m^ml `_jl\hc
h^gh]h ojZ[j_pZ <_d ijh`blv \kydh_ i_j_`blv M e`b gh]b
dhjhldbAZ\k_[jZlvkygbq_]hg_k^_eZlv
Ihkeh\bpu
,, =em[hdZy j_qv lboZ agZxsbc q_eh\_d kdjhf_g Mf h^_`^Z
dhlhjZy gbdh]^Z g_ baghkblky AgZgb_ jh^gbd dhlhjuc gbdh]^Z g_
bkq_jiZ_rv Fgh]h a\_a^ mdjZr_gb_ g_[Z fgh]h agZgbc mdjZr_gb_
mfZAZ]hjhx_klv_s_]hjuaZfm^j_phf_klv_s_fm^j_p>jm`[Z
k ohjhrbf q_eh\_dhf emgguc k\_l ^jm`[Z k iehobf af_bguc y^ LmqZfkhegpZg_aZdjulv\hcg_fbjZg_ih[_^blv
Ihkeh\bpu
,,,Bfyl\h_ilbpZ\jmd_
Bfyl\h_ev^bgdZgZyaud_
H^gh_^bgkl\_ggh_^\b`_gb_]m[
73
Bfyl\h_iylv[md\1
FyqbdihcfZggucgZe_lm
K_j_[jyguc[m[_g_p\hjlm
FBP\_lZ_\Z
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk ?keb m \Zk g_ [ueh hrb[hd ijbklmiZcl_ d ql_gbx fZl_jbZeZ ih^
aZ]heh\dhf©Ke_^hklZ_lkyg_\k_]^Zª
?kebihklZgh\dZlbj_aZljm^gy_l\Zkijh^he`bl_lj_gbjh\dm
,<kljZgZo<hklhdZk[hevrbfm\Z`_gb_fhlghkylkydklZjbdZf;ulv
klZjbdhf [hevrZy q_klv GZa\Zlv dh]hgb[m^v klZjbdhf agZqbl hdZaZlv
_fmm\Z`_gb_,,;ulv\_`eb\ufh[yaZgghklvdZ`^h]hq_eh\_dZHq_gv
\Z`gh_ ijhy\e_gb_ \_`eb\hklb iha^hjh\Zlvky i_j\uf G_ hl\_qZlv gZ
ijb\_lkl\b_\_jog_\hkiblZgghklb,,, >_eh ibkZl_eyijhlb\hklhylv
kljZ^Zgbx \k_fb kbeZfb \k_f lZeZglhf >_eh om^h`gbdZ jh`^Zlv
jZ^hklv D = IZmklh\kdbc =eZ\gZy aZ^ZqZ bkdmkkl\Z ih^gbfZlv \
ex^yoqm\kl\hkh[kl\_ggh]h^hklhbgkl\Z <DD_lebgkdZy
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk KlZ\blv beb g_ klZ\blv lbj_ f_`^m ih^e_`Zsbf b
kdZam_fuf ² wlh aZ\bkbl _s_ b hl keh\ dhlhju_ fh]ml
klhylv i_j_^ kdZam_fuf ?keb gZ wlhc l_jjblhjbb
hdZau\Zxlky lZdb_ keh\Z dZd \hl beb wlh i_j_^ gbfb
h[yaZl_evghklZ\blkylbj_GZijbf_j >_j_\_gkdb_^_lb
² wlh hq_gv ex[hiulgu_ kms_kl\Z 2) F_edbc hk_ggbc
^h`^v²\hlkms__[_^kl\b_^eyju[heh\Z
H^gZdh _klv keh\Z dhlhju_ hlghkylky d lbj_ g_ijbyag_ggh b \ bo
ijbkmlkl\bbwlhlagZdg_klZ\blky
IjhqblZcl_ ke_^mxsb_ ijbf_ju b k^_eZcl_ \u\h^ i_j_^ dZdbfb
keh\Zfbf_`^mih^e_`ZsbfbkdZam_fufg_klZ\blkylbj_
Ke_^
hklZ_lky
g_\k_]^Z
=heh\Z[_aagZgbcdZdnhgZjv[_ak\_qb Ihkeh\bpZ
Q_eh\_dg_mq_gucqlhlhihjg_lhq_guc Ihkeh\bpZ
________________________________________
1FP\_lZ_\ZibkZeZwlhklbohl\hj_gb_ijb^_j`b\ZykvklZjhchjnh]jZnbb;ehdt
74
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y
1)Kf.aZ^Zgb_gZk 68.
1. H q_eh\_d_ dhlhjuc kbevgh bkim]Zeky ]h\hjyl qlh m g_]h ^mrZ \
iyldbmreZ
2.lhfdlhhq_gv[ukljhm^bjZ_l]h\hjylqlhmg_]hiyldbk\_jdZxl
3.0 q_eh\_d_ ^jh`Zs_f hl oheh^Z ]h\hjyl qlh m g_]h am[ gZ am[ g_
ihiZ^Z_l
4.?kebq_eh\_dbkiulu\Z_l[hevrh_h[e_]q_gb_lh]h\hjylqlhmg_]h
]hjZkie_qk\ZebeZkv
5. ?keb q_eh\_d ihiZe \ g_eh\dh_ iheh`_gb_ lh ]h\hjyl qlh hg k_e \
dZehrm
6.?kebq_eh\_dmlhfbekyhloehihlb[_]hlgblh]h\hjylqlhhgk[beky
kgh]
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk²MdZaZgughf_jZij_^eh`_gbc
,NjZa_heh]bafu
,,>__ijbqZklguch[hjhl
NjZa_heh]bafuAZiylhc\h\lhjhfij_^eh`_gbbjZa^_e_gu
h^ghjh^gu_qe_gu\uclbljm^blvky.
,,,NjZa_heh]bafu
KjZ\gbl_evgu_h[hjhlu
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
1. Y kdZdZeZ kehfy ]heh\m k ebrdhf klh \_jkl qlh[u m\b^_lvky k
\Zfb I:IeZ\bevsbdh\ Hgbiju]Zebih\_jldbf[j_\gZf
jbkdmy k\Zeblvky gh gbdlh g_ k\Zeb\Zeky < D D_lebgkdZy JZa\_ fu kimkly jmdZ\Z `b\_f" > B Nhg\babg ?]h `_ \
dZ`^hf k_e_ agZxl dZd h[emie_ggh]h : B Dmijbg Y
gZ^_yeky gZ wlb ljhibgdb dZd gZ dZf_ggmx ]hjm y ^mfZe qlh
gZklZg_l dZd \ :leZglbq_kdhf hd_Zg_ mf_j_gguc `Zj jh\guc b
ihklhygguc\_l_j B:=hgqZjh\ Gbdlhg_kb^_ekeh`Zjmdb
\k_ ]j_[eb < D :jk_gv_\ B\Zg I_ljh\bq g_ kZ^bl_kv gZ
k\h_]hex[bfh]hdhgvdZ gZfg_dh]^Z
4) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk<uibkZgu]eZ\gu_qe_guij_^eh`_gby
;heh^bevgbd i_j_f_oZe Ijh\_dgmeb [j_^heZ]b <_e_gsbd
mfZsbe
***
75
;_j_adb\e_kmlhqgh^_\mrdb\kZjZnZgZo>_lkdb_
]eZa_gdb[m^lhp\_lu\ihe_K_j^p_g_dZf_gv(Ihkeh\bpZ Dmj]Zgu\kl_ibkeh\ghki_eu_Zj[mau F:Rhehoh\
Ihijh[mcl_jZkklZ\blvagZdb\ke_^mxsbo©hlj_adZoªij_^eh`_gbc
bgl_j_kgZyhkh[_gghklv`bjZnZwlh_]h^ebggZy
H]jhfgucdbl\h\k_g_?]hh]jhfgZyiZklvg_
hdjZkdZoZf_e_hgZwlhkj_^kl\h;uklju_gh]b
aZcpZ_]h_^bgkl\_ggh_Fgh]b_af_bkh\k_fg_
jZkkdZaZeqlh\medZgwlhhq_gvhiZkghklv
ihlhfmqlhghkhjh]wlh\_kvfZagZebqlhkehg
kZfuc
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk BlZd klhedgm\rbkv k khklZ\guf bf_gguf kdZam_fuf \u ^he`gu
hij_^_eblv ijZ\bevgucimlv j_r_gby aZ^Zqbh ihklZgh\d_ lbj_ GZ wlhf
imlb[m^_lg_kdhevdhrZ]h\dZ`^ucbadhlhjuogZ^hh[^mfZlvWlhlimlv
bwlbrZ]bfh`ghbah[jZablv\\b^_ko_fu kfk H^gZdh keh\Z dZd [m^lh lhqgh keh\gh klhysb_ i_j_^ bf_gguf
khklZ\guf kdZam_fuf ij_^klZ\eyxl hiZkghklv b fh]ml kijh\hpbjh\Zlv
hrb[dmWlhijhbkoh^blbaaZlh]hqlhhgbg_j_^dhijbkh_^bgyxllZdb_
kbglZdkbq_kdb_ dhgkljmdpbb dhlhju_ \u^_eyxlky agZdZfb ij_ibgZgby
² kjZ\gbl_evgu_ h[hjhlu b ijb^Zlhqgu_ ij_^eh`_gby GZijbf_j \
ij_^eh`_gbb <ha^mo qbkl b k\_` dZd ihp_emc j_[_gdZ aZiylZy
h[yaZl_evgh gm`gZ Z \ ij_^eh`_gbyo ;ue e_k dZd khg b Kg_] dZd khg
aZiylmx klZ\blv gb \ dh_f kemqZ_ g_ ke_^m_l ihlhfm qlh \ i_j\hf
ij_^eh`_gbbhgZhl^_ey_lkjZ\gbl_evguch[hjhlZ\^jm]bog_lh[hjhlZ
<ij_^eh`_gbbH^m\Zgqbdkeh\gh`b\h_ahehlhaZiylZyg_gm`gZlZddZd
fubf__f^_ehkhkdZam_fuf<ij_^eh`_gbb=jhfijh]jhohlZeihg_[m
keh\gh dhe_kZ ih [meu`ghc fhklh\hc aZiylZy klZ\blky \ h[yaZl_evghf
ihjy^d_lZddZdwlhkjZ\gbl_evguch[hjhl
< ibkvf_gghc j_qb kjZ\gbl_evgu_ h[hjhlu b ijb^Zlhqgu_
ij_^eh`_gby k wlbfbkeh\Zfb \klj_qZxlky ]hjZa^hqZs_ q_f kdZam_fu_
ihwlhfmm\Zkh[jZam_lkymklhcqb\Zyijb\uqdZdihklZgh\d_aZiylhci_j_^
dZd qlh [m^lh b l i Wlb keh\Z dZd [u ©ijbly]b\Zxlª d k_[_ aZiylmx
Ijb
76
77
\klj_q_khkdZam_fufb©hkgZs_ggufbªlZdbfbkeh\Zfb
ijb\uqdZfh`_lkjZ[hlZlvijhlb\\Zkblh]^Z\u[_a^mfgh
ihklZ\bl_aZiylmxf_`^mih^e_`ZsbfbkdZam_fufZwlh
g_^himklbfhIhwlhfmm\b^_\khxaudZdqlhlhqgh
keh\gh[m^lhdZd[m^lhk^_eZcl_hklZgh\dmb
aZ^mfZcl_kvqlhijbkh_^bg_ghwlbfbkeh\ZfbkjZ\gbl_evguc
h[hjhlijb^Zlhqgh_ij_^eh`_gb_bebkdZam_fh_
<u[hjijZ\bevgh]himlbfh`ghbah[jZablvlZd
Ihijh[mcl_ihlj_gbjh\Zlvky\wlhfmf_gbb
,<_j[ex^g_agZ_lqlhhg]hj[ZlOjZ[jhklv[_amfZqlhdhjZ[ev
[_a ]jmaZ LZ _^Z ohjhrZ qlh k\hbf ljm^hf aZjZ[hlZgZ Q_eh\_d
g_mq_guc qlh lhihj g_lhq_guc KlZ^h [_a iZklmoZ qlh kZ^ [_a
kZ^h\gbdZ Lh qlh fZeh \Zjbehkv hklZ_lky kujuf Mq_guc
[_a^_evgbd qlh lmqZ [_a ^h`^y ?` kqblZ_l qlh m _]h kugZ r_jkldZ
fy]dZy G_j_rbl_evguc q_eh\_d qlh g_aZdZe_gguc f_q Jhl [_a
am[h\ qlh f_evgbpZ [_a `_jgh\h\ Iehohc ^jm] qlh ^ujy\Zy rm[Z
KdZaZggh_keh\hqlh\uims_ggZyklj_eZ
Ihkeh\bpu
IIL_i_jvEmgZ[ueZ\b^gZlZddZdhgZ[u\Z_l\b^gZ\l_e_kdhikA_feb
HgZ [ueZ dZdh]jhfguc k\_jdZxsbc djm] G_agZcdZ b kZf g_ agZe dZd
ijhbahc^_l ihkZ^dZ gZ Emgm Ihgqbd ohl_e qlhlh kdZaZlv gh yaud
keh\gh h^_j_\_g_e \h jlm Z ]heh\Z klZeZ dZd imklh_ \_^jh DZ`^uc
ohl_ek\hbfb]eZaZfbm\b^_lvdZdk\_lblky\l_fghl_emggucdZf_gv
IhGGGhkh\m
78
,,, =eZaZ m kh[Zdb dZd qZcgu_ qZrdb gh lu g_ [hcky G_ mki_e khe^Zl
hihfgblvkydZdkh[ZdZ\_jgmeZkvkijbgp_kkhc
Ih=;:g^_jk_gm
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk BlZd fu k \Zfb \kihfgbeb ijZ\beh h ihklZgh\d_ lbj_ f_`^m
ih^e_`Zsbf b kdZam_fuf \kihfgbeb b p_euc jy^ ^hiheg_gbc d wlhfm
ijZ\bemL_i_jvfukh[jZeb\f_kl_\k_kemqZbhdhlhjuoreZj_qv<ZrZ
aZ^ZqZ ² gbq_]h gb k q_f g_ i_j_imlZlv b ijZ\bevgh jZkklZ\blv agZdb
ij_ibgZgby
Dhj_gvmq_gby]hj_dZieh^u_]hkeZ^dbIjb\uqdZ\lhjZygZlmjZ
G_aZdhgq_ggh_ ^_eh qlh dhgv h lj_o ih^dh\Zo G_ bkijZ\blv
hrb[dm agZqbl kh\_jrblv gh\mx I_rbc dhgghfm g_ lh\Zjbs B
ohjhr__keh\hohjhrhh^bgjZa>eyfmjZ\vy^Z`_eh`dZ\h^uhd_Zg
IhiuldZg_iuldZJh^bgZfZlvqm`[bgZfZq_oZ
H^gZabfZgZjh^bg_emqr_klZ\_k_ggZqm`[bg_
DjmlZy]hjZfmq_gv_^eydhgydjmlhcq_eh\_dfmq_gv_^eyex^_c
>himklblvhrb[dmijhklmihdg_ijbagZlvhrb[dmij_klmie_gb_
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk Ihkeh\bpu
:_kebkdZam_fh_ijhiZeh
DZd \u m`_ m[_^bebkv bkq_agh\_gb_ ]eZ]heZk\yadb ijbqbgy_l
fgh`_kl\h oehihl Qlh[u j_rblv [ulv beb g_ [ulv lbj_ gZ f_kl_
©ijhiZ`bª gm`gh mq_klv fgh`_kl\h k_jv_aguo h[klhyl_evkl\ : qlh
ijhbkoh^bl_kebbkq_aZ_lg_k\yadZZkZfhkdZam_fh_"BebdZdhcgb[m^v
^jm]hcqe_gij_^eh`_gby"
Ij_^eh`_gb_ klZgh\blky g _ i h e g u f GZijbf_j L_jdbg ² ^Zevr_
:\lhj — \ke_^ : L L\Zj^h\kdbc A^_kv hlkmlkl\mxl kdZam_fu_ lbiZ
_^_l^\b`_lkybebhlijZ\ey_lkyIhq_fm`_hgbhlkmlkl\mxl"Bf_ggh
ihlhfm qlh hgb e_]dh \hkklZgZ\eb\Zxlky ih kfukem bo [_a ms_j[Z ^ey
ihgbfZgbyfh`ghhimklblv
HklZ_lkyebgZf_kl_©ijhiZ`bªke_^\\b^_lbj_"Bgh]^ZhklZ_lkyQlh
gm`ghqlh[u_]hijZ\bevghihklZ\blv"
79
Ljb \_sb gZ[ex^Zl_evghklv ohjhr__ ihgbfZgb_ kfukeZ qblZ_fh]h b
\hh[jZ`_gb_ GZ[ex^Zl_evghklv ² ^ey lh]h qlh[u aZf_lblv hlkmlkl\b_
keh\Z\ij_^eh`_gbbIjhgbdgh\_gb_\kfuke²qlh[uiheghklvxihgylv
ij_^eh`_gb_g_kfhljygZijhimkdkeh\<hh[jZ`_gb_²qlh[ufuke_ggh
©mkeurZlvªdZd a\mqbl ij_^eh`_gb_ k dZdhc bglhgZpb_c hgh
ijhbaghkblkygZdZdbokeh\Zo^_eZ_lkykfukeh\h_m^Zj_gb_bdZda\mqZl
wlb \u^_e_ggu_ ih kfukem keh\Z ?keb ]h\hjysbc q_eh\_d ohq_l
ijhbag_klb k hkh[uf agZq_gb_f l_ keh\Z dhlhju_ ke_^mxl aZ
ijhims_ggufb hg ^_eZ_l iZmam ih^q_jdb\Zxsmx agZqbl_evghklv
ihke_^mxsbokeh\<ujZablv__ijbibkvf_ihfh]Z_llbj_
H[jZlbl_\gbfZgb_<ke_^mxsboij_^eh`_gbyoijhims_gukdZam_fu_
bihklZ\e_gu\f_klhgbolbj_i_j_^kZfufbagZqbl_evgufbkeh\Zfb
>_j_\h keZ\blky ieh^Zfb q_eh\_d ² ljm^Zfb KlbjdZ hqbsZ_l
h^_`^mjZa]h\hj²k_j^p_<[_^_ojZgbfm`_kl\hZ\^h\hevkl\_
²kdjhfghklv
Ijhqlbl_\ujZabl_evgh \kemobeb ijh k_[y ke_^mxsb_ klbohl\hjgu_
hlju\db aZf_lvl_ ]^_ \ gbo ijhims_gu keh\Z ©IjbkemrZcl_kvª d
iZmaZfJZkklZ\vl_\hlju\dZoagZdbij_ibgZgby
F_^vhldebdZ_lkyDhjhqdZoe_[Z
A\hghfOjmklhf
>_j_\h>h`^bd
Rmfhfa_e_gufE_i_lhf]jmklguf
(HH>jba
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk GZk\_l_\k_@mjZ\ev
GZ\k_
GZlhsbc
Ihoh`_DjZgih^t_fguc
Af_yDhlihehkZluc
GZj_f_rhd GZib`Zfm
Badh`bYgZl_[y
EmgZ :lu
GZdjm]euc]eZaGZfZfm
H]jhfguc
(JK_n
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk 80
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y
1) KfaZ^Zgb_gZkMdZaZgughf_jZij_^eh`_gbc
,Lbj_klZ\blky
Lbj_g_klZ\blky
,, =em[hdZy j_qv lboZ agZxsbc q_eh\_d kdjhf_g Mf ² h^_`^Z
dhlhjZy gbdh]^Z g_ baghkblky AgZgb_ ² jh^gbd dhlhjuc gbdh]^Z g_
bkq_jiZ_rvFgh]ha\_a^²mdjZr_gb_g_[Zfgh]hagZgbc²mdjZr_gb_mfZ
AZ]hjhx_klv_s_]hjuaZfm^j_phf_klv_s_fm^j_p>jm`[Zkohjhrbf
q_eh\_dhf²emgguck\_l^jm`[Zkiehobf²af_bgucy^LmqZfkhegpZg_
aZdjulv\hcg_fbjZg_ih[_^blv
III. Bfyl\h_²ilbpZ\jmd_
Bfyl\h_²ev^bgdZgZyaud_
H^gh_^bgkl\_ggh_^\b`_gb_]m[
Bfyl\h_²iylv[md\
FyqbdihcfZggucgZe_lm
K_j_[jyguc[m[_g_p\hjlm
2) KfaZ^Zgb_gZkJbfkdbfbpbnjZfbmdZaZgughf_jZl_dklh\
, Lbj_ \h \lhjhf b lj_lv_f ij_^eh`_gbyo ,, ,,, Lbj_ \h \k_o
ij_^eh`_gbyo
3) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
bgl_j_kgZyhkh[_gghklv`bjZnZ²wlh_]h^ebggZyH]jhfgucdbl
\h\k_g_?]hh]jhfgZyiZklvg_«hdjZkdZoZf_e_hgZ²wlhkj_^kl\h
;uklju_ gh]b aZcpZ ² _]h _^bgkl\_ggh_ Fgh]b_ af_b kh\k_f g_
«jZkkdZaZeqlh\medZg²wlhhq_gv«hiZkghklvihlhfmqlhghkhjh]²
wlh\_kvfZ …agZebqlhkehg²kZfuc
***
L_i_jvdh]^Z\Zfijb^_lkyibkZlvk\hckh[kl\_ggucl_dkl khqbg_gb_beb
ibkvfh \u fh`_l_ ihevah\Zlvky _s_ h^gbf kj_^kl\hf \ujZabl_evghklb ²
lbj_ gZ f_kl_ ijhims_ggh]h keh\Z Hgh ihfh`_l \Zf i_j_^Zlv b iZmam b
agZqbl_evghklvke_^mxsboaZiZmahckeh\
81
JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby\l_dklZo
G_mf_euc gZ^__lky gZ ^jm]bo mf_euc gZ k_[y IZ\ebg
h]ey^u\Z_lky gZ k\hc o\hkl q_eh\_d gZ k\hb ihklmidb JZ[hlysbc
ijbghkblihevam\k_fe_gb\ucgbdhfm
JZ[hlmij_h^he_\Zxlmf_gb_fljm^ghklbkh]eZkb_f
=\ha^v[_j_`_lih^dh\mih^dh\ZdhgydhgvojZ[j_pZojZ[j_phlqbagm
<_sv ohjhrZ gh\Zy Z ^jm] klZjuc Kbeu fh]ml bkkydgmlv agZgby
gbdh]^ZDjZkhlZdhgy\[_]_djZkhlZq_eh\_dZ\ijZ\^_
Ihkeh\bpu
,,Ih^ZknZevlh\hcfhklh\hcFhkd\ue_`bl[jmkqZlZyfhklh\Zyih^g_c
[meu`gZy ih^ [meu`ghc [j_\_gqZlZy GZ h^ghc ba p_gljZevguo mebp
Fhkd\u f_ljhkljh_\pu h[gZjm`beb ©keh_guc ibjh]ª ba ^_\ylb
fhklh\uodhlhju_e_`Zlh^gZih^^jm]hc
,,, KZfh_ [hevrh_ [ex^h gZ k\_l_ `Zj_guc \_j[ex^ Wlh eZdhfkl\h
h[uqgh_ mdjZr_gb_ k\Z^_[gh]h ibjZ [_^mbgh\ >ey _]h ijb]hlh\e_gby
\Zj_gu_ycpZ lmrZlky \ ju[_ ju[Z \ \Zj_ghc dmjbp_ dmjbpZ \ `Zj_ghf
[ZjZg_Z[ZjZgaZi_dZ_lky\\_j[ex`v_clmr_
,9 M fgh]bo gZjh^h\ p\_lu bf_xl kbf\hebq_kdbc kfuke H^gb p\_lu
hebp_l\hjyxl kqZklv_ ^jm]b_ i_qZev G_dhlhju_ p\_lu k\yaZgu k
ihwlbq_kdbf ij_^klZ\e_gb_f h p_ehc kljZg_ OjbaZgl_fu \uau\Zxl \
\hh[jZ`_gbbYihgbxehlhkBg^bxZlxeviZgu=heeZg^bx
Ba]Za_l
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk 82
=eZ\Z V
©B]jZffZlbdZimklbeZkv
kZjbnf_lbdhcieykZlvª
KbglZdkbq_kdbckq_l
Qlh[u ih oh^m ibkvfZ [ukljh ©meZ\eb\Zlvª ^_e_gb_
Ljm^gheb
ij_^eh`_gbc gZ hkgh\gu_ [ehdb gZ^h g_ lhevdh ©\b^_lvª
kqblZlv
dZ`^uc [ehd gh b kjZam hij_^_eylv kdhevdh bo \
^hiylb ?
ij_^eh`_gbb
Ihwlhfm
mf_gb_
hkms_kl\eylv
kbglZdkbq_kdbc ©kq_l \ mf_ª ² h^gh ba hkgh\guo
©khklZ\eyxsboª]jZfhlghklb©ijbjhkr_cddhgqbdmi_jZª
DZdkhkqblZlvkdhevdhijhkluoij_^eh`_gbc\keh`ghf"DZd[m^lh[u
kh\k_fijhklhkdhevdh]jZffZlbq_kdbohkgh\klhevdhbij_^eh`_gbcGh
\ imgdlmZpbhgguo aZ^ZqZo kq_l ^h ^\mo lj_o beb iylb fh`_l hdZaZlvky
]hjZa^hljm^g__q_f\fZl_fZlbq_kdbo
Ihijh[mcl_ khkqblZlv dhebq_kl\h ij_^eh`_gbc \ ke_^mxsbo ijbf_jZo
l_dklu^Zgu[_aagZdh\ij_ibgZgby J_\_leba\_jv\e_km]emohf
Ljm[blebjh]]j_fbleb]jhf
Ih_leb^_\ZaZohefhf
GZ\kydbca\md
K\hchldebd\\ha^mo_imklhf
Jh^brvlu\^jm]
:KImrdbg
GZwlmdZjlbgmlZdkhegp_k\_lbeh
J_[_ghd[uelZdmfhjbl_evghfZe
DZd[m^lh\k_wlhdZjlhggh_[ueh
DZd[m^lh[u\^_lkdbcl_ZljyihiZe
G:G_djZkh\
DZdlhjZai_j_^lheihx
Khie_f_gguo]hj
MDZa[_dZkRZl]hjhx
;ue\_ebdbckihj
HggZkljhbl^ufguod_ebc
IhmklmiZf]hj
<]em[bg_l\hboms_ebc
83
AZ]j_fbllhihj
B`_e_agZyehiZlZ
<dZf_ggmx]jm^v
>h[u\Zyf_^vbaeZlh
<j_`_lkljZrgucimlv
M`ijhoh^yldZjZ\Zgu
Q_j_al_kdZeu
=^_ghkbebkvebrvlmfZgu
>ZpZjbhjeu
FXE_jfhglh\
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk =jZffZlbq_kdbc kq_l \ mf_ lZd `_ dZd b fZl_fZlbq_kdbc lj_[m_l
lj_gbjh\db JZa\blv \ k_[_ kihkh[ghklv kqblZlv ij_^eh`_gby fh`gh
^\mfy imlyfb I_j\uc imlv ² kZfbf qblZlv ih dgb]_ b jZa[bjZlv
keh`gu_ij_^eh`_gby\_^vjZa[hj\i_j\mxhq_j_^vlj_[m_l\uykg_gby
ijhklh_ ij_^eh`_gb_ beb keh`gh_ Z _keb keh`gh_ lh kdhevdh \ g_f
ijhkluo <lhjhc imlv ² kq_l ij_^eh`_gbc \hkijbgbfZ_fuo gZ kemo
dh]^ZqblZ_ldlhlh^jm]hcWlhb_klvkh[kl\_gghkq_l\mf_
DZdh\u ij_bfms_kl\Z kq_lZ \ mf_" <k_ mf_gby dhlhju_ \u
ijbh[j_lZ_l_ jZ[hlZy k l_dklhf gZoh^ysbfky i_j_^ ]eZaZfb ohjhrb
lhevdh lh]^Z dh]^Z \u jZkklZ\ey_l_ agZdb ij_ibgZgby \ mijZ`g_gbyo \
dhlhjuo hgb ki_pbZevgh ijhims_gu Gh agZqbl_evgh \Z`g__ gZmqblvky
]jZfhlgh aZibku\Zlv l_dkl khklZ\e_gguc \Zfb kZfhklhyl_evgh : d wlhc
]jZfhlghklb ]hjZa^h gZ^_`g__ ijb\h^bl bf_ggh kq_l \ mf_ Fuke_ggh
jZa[bjZy ij_^eh`_gb_ \u ihg_\he_ ^he`gu m^_j`b\Zlv _]h \ iZfylb ^h
l_oihjihdZg_kijZ\bl_kvkjZ[hlhc:lZdh_m^_j`Zgb_\iZfylbdZd\u
ihfgbl_ ² h^gh ba hkgh\guo mkeh\bc e_]dh]h b _kl_kl\_ggh]h ]jZfhl
gh]h ibkvfZ LZd qlh lj_gbjmykv \ kq_l_ ij_^eh`_gbc gZ kemo \u
jZa\b\Z_l_k\hxiZfylv²p_gg_cr__k\hckl\h^eyex[h]h^_eZdhlhjuf
\Zfijb^_lkyaZgbfZlvky\`bagb
Ihijh[mcl_ijh^_eZlvwlmjZ[hlmkhke_^mxsbfbij_^eh`_gbyfb
,Ghi_kgxbgmx
H^Zevg_ca_fe_
<habefhcijbyl_ev
Kkh[hx\k_^e_
F:K\_leh\
84
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y
1) KfaZ^Zgb_gZkMdZaZgughf_jZij_^eh`_gbc
,G_laZiyluo
<_j[ex^ g_ agZ_l qlh hg ]hj[Zl LZ _^Z ohjhrZ qlh k\hbf ljm^hf
aZjZ[hlZgZLhqlhfZeh\ZjbehkvhklZ_lkykujuf?`kqblZ_lqlhm_]h
kugZr_jkldZfy]dZy
,,L_i_jvEmgZ[ueZ\b^gZlZddZdhgZ[u\Z_l\b^gZ\l_e_kdhikA_feb
HgZ [ueZ dZd h]jhfguc k\_jdZxsbc djm] G_agZcdZ b kZf g_ agZe dZd
ijhbahc^_l ihkZ^dZ gZ Emgm Ihgqbd ohl_e qlhlh kdZaZlv gh yaud keh\gh
h^_j_\_g_e \h jlm Z ]heh\Z klZeZ dZd imklh_ \_^jh DZ`^uc ohl_e k\hbfb
]eZaZfbm\b^_lvdZdk\_lblky\l_fghl_emggucdZf_gv
IhGGGhkh\m
,,, =eZaZ m kh[Zdb dZd qZcgu_ qZrdb gh lu g_ [hcky G_ mki_e khe^Zl
hihfgblvkydZdkh[ZdZ\_jgmeZkvkijbgp_kkhc
Ih=;:g^_jk_gm
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
Dhj_gvmq_gby]hj_dZieh^u_]hkeZ^dbIjb\uqdZ²\lhjZygZlmjZ
G_aZdhgq_ggh_ ^_eh qlh dhgv h lj_o ih^dh\Zo G_ bkijZ\blv hrb[dm ²
agZqbl kh\_jrblv gh\mx I_rbc dhgghfm g_ lh\Zjbs B ohjhr__ keh\h
ohjhrh h^bg jZa >ey fmjZ\vy ^Z`_ eh`dZ \h^u ² hd_Zg IhiuldZ g_
iuldZJh^bgZ²fZlvqm`[bgZ²fZq_oZH^gZabfZgZjh^bg_emqr_
klZ\_k_ggZqm`[bg_DjmlZy]hjZ²fmq_gv_^eydhgydjmlhcq_eh\_d²
fmq_gv_^eyex^_c >himklblv hrb[dm ² ijhklmihd g_ ijbagZlv hrb[dm
²ij_klmie_gb_
Ihkeh\bpu
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
F_^vhldebdZ_lkyDhjhqdZoe_[Z
A\hghfOjmklhf
>_j_\h²>h`^bd²
Rmfhfa_e_gufE_i_lhf]jmklguf
(HH>jba
***
85
,,BaEb\_jimevkdhc]Z\Zgb
<k_]^Zihq_l\_j]Zf
Km^Zmoh^yl\ieZ\Zgv_
D^Ze_dbf[_j_]Zf
<ur_eklhjh`baklhjh`db
Ih^f_lZ_lhg^hjh`db
KYFZjrZd
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk >hdZdboij_^_eh\gZ^hjZa\b\Zlvk\h_mf_gb_kqblZlv
LZbgkl\_ggh_
qbkehk_fv ij_^eh`_gby\mf_"Kdhevdh]jZffZlbq_kdbohkgh\gZ^h
\u^_eylvgZkemobi_j_kqblu\Zlv©h^gbffZohfª"
Mq_gu_^Z\ghh[jZlbeb\gbfZgb_gZkljZggh_ijbkljZklb_q_eh\_q_kl\Z
d qbkem k_fv Ihq_fm ex^yf m^h[g__ \k_]h qlh[u \ g_^_e_ [ueh k_fv
^g_c" Hlq_]h \her_[guc p\_lhd gZau\Zxl p\_lbdk_fbp\_lbd" Ihq_fm \
kdZadZomdhjhey[u\Z_lk_fv^hq_j_cZ\i_kg_²ml_sbk_f_jhaylv_\"
Ihq_fm wlh qbkeh lZd qZklh ih\lhjy_lky \ ihkeh\bpZo K_fv [_^ ² h^bg
hl\_l K_f_jh h^gh]h g_ `^ml M k_fb gyg_d ^bly [_a ]eZam AZ k_fv
\_jkldbk_eyoe_[Zlvbl^"
Kihkh[ghklv aZihfgblv kjZam ohly fh`_l [ulv b g_gZ^he]h
hij_^_e_ggh_ dhebq_kl\h dZdbogb[m^v ij_^f_lh\ ^ey jZaguo ex^_c
khklZ\ey_l“ l_ hl iylb ^h ^_\ylb_^bgbp >ey q_eh\_dZ _kl_kl\_ggh
jZ[hlZlv g_dhlhjh_ dhjhldh_ \j_fy \ mf_ k lZdbf dhebq_kl\hf
fZl_jbZeZIhwlhfm_keb\u^h[v_l_kvlh]hqlh[m^_l_ijZ\bevghkqblZlv
ijb \hkijbylbb gZ kemo iylv ² k_fv ij_^eh`_gbc \u jZah\v_l_ \ k_[_
ghjfZevguc _kl_kl\_gguc ^ey q_eh\_dZ h[t_f lZd gZau\Z_fhc
djZldh\j_f_gghciZfylb
: lZd dZd ijZdlbq_kdb \Zf j_^dh ijb^_lky ibkZlv hq_gv ^ebggu_
keh`gu_ ij_^eh`_gby \dexqZxsb_ [he__ iylb ijhkluo [m^_f kqblZlv
qlh ©gZ `bagvª \Zf \iheg_ o\Zlbl mf_gby kqblZlv ^h iylb fgh]b_
agZdhfu_gZfrdhevgbdbgZqbgZxlg_^hkqblu\Zlvij_^eh`_gbydh]^Zbo
[hevr_lj_o <ijhq_f_kebkq_lhdZ`_lky^ey\Zkm\e_dZl_evgufaZgylb
_f fh`gh \u[bjZlv keh`gu_ ij_^eh`_gby khklhysb_ ba [hevr_]h
dhebq_kl\Zijhkluo
?s_g_fgh]hihlj_gbjm_fky\kq_l_
,<k_qlhfh`_lkZfZygZbmfg_crZyfZrbgZ\eh`_gh\g__q_eh\_dhf
DZ`^Zy\uqbkebl_evgZyfZrbgZkha^Z_lky
86
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y
1) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
GZk\_l_\k_
GZ\k_
Ihoh`_
Af_y²
GZj_f_rhd
Badh`b
EmgZ²
GZdjm]euc]eZa
H]jhfguc
@mjZ\ev²
GZlhsbc
DjZgih^t_fguc
DhlihehkZluc²
GZib`Zfm
Y²gZl_[y
:lu²
GZfZfm
JK_n
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
G_mf_euc gZ^__lky gZ ^jm]bo mf_euc ² gZ k_[y IZ\ebg
h]ey^u\Z_lky gZ k\hc o\hkl q_eh\_d — gZ k\hb ihklmidb JZ[hlysbc
ijbghkbl ihevam \k_f e_gb\uc ² gbdhfm JZ[hlm ij_h^he_\Zxl mf_gb_f
ljm^ghklb ² kh]eZkb_f =\ha^v [_j_`_l ih^dh\m ih^dh\Z — dhgy
dhgv — ojZ[j_pZojZ[j_p ²hlqbagm<_svohjhrZgh\ZyZ^jm] — klZjuc
Kbeufh]mlbkkydgmlvagZgby²gbdh]^Z DjZkhlZdhgy²\[_]_djZkhlZ
q_eh\_dZ²\ijZ\^_
Ihkeh\bpu
II. Ih^ ZknZevlh\hc fhklh\hc Fhkd\u e_`bl [jmkqZlZy fhklh\Zy ih^
g_c ² [meu`gZy ih^ [meu`ghc ² [j_\_gqZlZy GZ h^ghc ba p_gljZevguo
mebp Fhkd\u f_ljhkljh_\pu h[gZjm`beb ©kehzguc ibjh]ª ba ^_\ylb
fhklh\uodhlhju_e_`Zlh^gZih^^jm]hc
,,,KZfh_[hevrh_[ex^hgZk\_l_ — `Zj_guc\_j[ex^WlheZdhfkl\h²
h[uqgh_mdjZr_gb_k\Z^_[gh]hibjZ[_^mbgh\>ey_]hijb]hlh\e_gby\Zj_gu_
ycpZlmrZlky\ju[_ju[Z — \\Zj_ghcdmjbp_dmjbpZ ²\`Zj_ghf[ZjZg_Z
[ZjZgaZi_dZ_lky\\_j[ex`v_clmr_
,9 M fgh]bo gZjh^h\ p\_lu bf_xl kbf\hebq_kdbc kfuke H^gb p\_lu
hebp_l\hjyxl kqZklv_ ^jm]b_ ² i_qZev G_dhlhju_ p\_lu k\yaZgu k
ihwlbq_kdbf ij_^klZ\e_gb_f h p_ehc kljZg_ OjbaZgl_fu \uau\Zxl \ \h
h[jZ`_gbbYihgbxehlhk² Bg^bxZlxeviZgu²=heeZg^bx
Ba]Za_l
***
87
^eylh]hqlh[uh[e_]qblvljm^q_eh\_dZkwdhghfblv\j_fy mkdhjblv
j_r_gb_ keh`guo aZ^Zq K_]h^gyrgb_ kZfhe_lu e_lZxl kh
k\_joa\mdh\ufbkdhjhklyfbih^gbfZxlky\ukhdh\g_[hblj_[mxlky
dhehkkZevgu_ jZkq_lu qlh[u hij_^_eblv dZd \_kv kZfhe_l _]h
hl^_evgu_ qZklb [m^ml \_klb k_[y ijb [hevrbo gZ]jmadZo <k_ wlh
jZkkqblZlv [_a ijbf_g_gby \uqbkebl_evghc l_ogbdb k_]h^gy
g_\hafh`gh
,, Ijh]jZffbjh\Zgb_ \lhjZy ]jZfhlghklv Q_eh\_d mqblky ]jZfhl_
g_ ^ey lh]h ebrv qlh[u jZa[bjZlv \u\_kdb Dgb]b hldju\Zxl i_j_^
gbf h]jhfguc fbj dmevlmju B ijh]jZffbklkdZy ]jZfhlghklv
ihe_agZ g_ lhevdh ^ey lh]h qlh[u ijh\h^blv jZkq_lu hgZ ijb\b\Z_l
hkh[mx oZjZdl_jgmx ^ey \_dZ dhfivxl_jh\ dmevlmjm fure_gby
dhlhjZykihkh[gZk^_eZlvwnn_dlb\g__\kydmx^_yl_evghklvq_eh\_dZ
k\h_h[jZaghaZhkljblv_]hfukev ©GZmdZb`bagvª
,,,Bg^b\b^mZevgucdhfivxl_jfZrbgZdhlhjhcfh`_lihevah\Zlvky
dZ`^ucba\ZkWlhg_[hevrhcq_fh^Zgqbddhlhjucijbkh_^bgy_lkyd
h[uqghfm l_e_\bahjm d we_dljhZiiZjZlZf hg \dexqZ_l b \udexqZ_l
bo\aZ^Zggh_\j_fy©aZihfbgZ_lªl_i_j_^Zqbdhlhju_\ug_mki_eb
ihkfhlj_lv Ba]Za_l
: l_i_jv ihijh[mcl_ ih^kqblZlv dhebq_kl\h qZkl_c b jZkklZ\blv agZdb \
ij_^eh`_gbyogZg_kms_kl\mxs_f©]ehdhfªyaud_
,9 Lboh fbkbdh\ klZy ]jmkl_eZ \h f]e_ a_e_gZ\db ojxsZeb ihjhc
?keb[Zg^Zfhklijhem`^Z_lij_^dhiZklb_lh\_evqbdbi_j_]j_lZxlqlh
hgh[\_g^Z_lf_g_e_fu<q_ibjhq_ebehi_gvybbo]Zj[h\u_lh\_klu
bjqZeb gZ \_j[_gqZluo g_kldZo Z \Zj]ZgmrdZ [ueZ g_fhdm^jZy b gb
dhfmhgZg_ehfgb\beZkv
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk ?kebih^e_`Zs__bebkdZam_fh_
g_hldebdgmehkv
Ij_^klZ\vl_ k_[_ \u aZ^Zeb hl kdZam_fh]h \hijhku
DZdb_[u\Zxl
ij_^eh`_gby dlh" qlh" Gh gb h^gh keh\h \ ij_^eh`_gbb g_
hldebdgmehkv gZ gbo LZdbo keh\ ijhklhgZijhklh g_
hdZaZehkvGZijbf_j
J_[ylZf g_ kb^_ehkv gZ f_kl_ >jm]hc kljZgguc
kemqZc\u
88
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y
KfaZ^Zgb_gZkMdZaZghdhebq_kl\hij_^eh`_gbc
1) 5. 2) 4. 3) 1; 2; 1; 2.
2) KfaZ^Zgb_gZkMdZaZghdhebq_kl\hij_^eh`_gbc
I. 1. II. 1) 1; 2) 2.
3) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
I.2; 2; 4; 1.II. 1; 2; 1; 4. III. 2; 4. IV. 2; 3; 4.
***
bs_l_ kdZam_fh_ Z _]h g_l b \ ihfbg_ GZ f_kl_ lhevdh ih^e_`Zs__
gZijbf_j<hlfhy^_j_\gy
LZdb_ ij_^eh`_gby ]jZffZlbq_kdZy hkgh\Z dhlhjuo khklhbl lhevdh ba
h^gh]h ]eZ\gh]h qe_gZ ih^e_`Zs_]h beb kdZam_fh]h gZau\Zxlky
h^ghkhklZ\gufb
Hij_^_ebl_dZdb_bawlboij_^eh`_gbch^ghkhklZ\gu_
,H^gZeZklhqdZg_^_eZ_l\_kguIhke_^jZdbdmeZdZfbg_fZrml
Lhjhieb\ufex^yfg_o\ZlZ_lfm^jhklb>_ehfZkl_jZ[hblky
Ihkeh\bpu
,, GZc^b k_[_ b^_Ze fm`_kl\Z b g_hlklmigh ke_^mc _fm
<:Kmohfebgkdbc GhqvL_fghlZF_jpZxsb_\^Ze_d_h]gb
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk BlZd \ ihbkdZo ih^e_`Zs_]h b kdZam_fh]h \u fh`_l_ \klj_lblvky k
ij_^eh`_gbyfb\dhlhjuog_hdZ`_lkylh]hbeb^jm]h]h²kh^ghkhklZ\gufb
ij_^eh`_gbyfb
JZ[hlZy k ij_^eh`_gbyfb lZdh]h jh^Z [m^vl_ gZq_dm Ijb hlkmlkl\bb
ih^e_`Zs_]hhq_gve_]dhijbgylvaZg_]h^hiheg_gb_
H^ghkhklZ\gu_ ij_^eh`_gby \ k\hx hq_j_^v ^_eylky gZ
kdZam_fhklgu_bih^e_`Zsgu_.
AZibrbl_dZ`^h_ij_^eh`_gb_\khhl\_lkl\mxsbcklhe[bdlZ[ebpu.
89
KdZam_fhklgu_ij_^eh`_gby
Ih^e_`Zsgu_ij_^eh`_gby
1
2
IWfZe_\ucdj_klbd\i_lebp_
Bk_jhclm`mjdbkmdgh
DZdb_i_qZevgu_ebpZ
BdZdwlh[ueh^Z\gh
Kg_]Zkg_]Zkg_]Z
:ghqv^he]Z
Bg_jZklZxlgbdh]^Zkg_]Z
=<B\Zgh\
,,Ijh^he]h\Zlucbl\_j^uch\Ze
Q_jgh]hieZlvyjZkljm[u
XgZy[Z[mrdZDlhp_eh\Ze
<ZrbgZ^f_ggu_]m[u"
LhkdZihjh^bg_>Z\gh
JZah[eZq_ggZyfhjhdZ
Fg_kh\_jr_ggh\k_jZ\gh
=^_kh\_jr_gghh^bghdhc
;ulv«…
FBP\_lZ_\Z
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk IhagZdhfvl_kvkhriZj]Zedhcihh^ghkhklZ\gufij_^eh`_gbyf kflZ[e
gZ k : l_i_jv jZa\_jg_f wlm riZj]Zedm \ jZkkdZa <_^v kfuke
bkihevah\Zgby riZj]Zehd \ lhf b khklhbl qlh[u gZ bo hkgh\_ kha^Zlv
kh[kl\_ggucjZa\_jgmlucjZkkdZa
Ih gZebqbx ]eZ\guo qe_gh\ ij_^eh`_gby ^_eylky gZ ^\mkhklZ\gu_ b
h^ghkhklZ\gu_ H^ghkhklZ\gu_ [u\Zxl kdZam_fhklgufb ]^_ _klv lhevdh
kdZam_fh_ b g_l ih^e_`Zs_]h b ih^e_`Zsgufb ]^_ gZh[hjhl _klv
ih^e_`Zs__bg_lkdZam_fh]h
KdZam_fhklgu_ij_^eh`_gby^_eylkygZ[_aebqgu_bebqgu_Z ebqgu_
²gZhij_^_e_gghebqgu_bg_hij_^_e_gghebqgu_
<i_j\mxhq_j_^vjZkkfhljbf[_aebqgu_
?s_ gbdhfm g_ m^Z\Zehkv ih^h[jZlv ih^e_`Zsb_ d lZ
HgblZdb_
jZagu_wlb dbf kdZam_fuf dZd gZijbf_j jZkk\_eh \_q_j__l
[_aebqgu_ kf_jdZehkvohq_lkyMgboih^e_`Zsbog_lhevdhg_lgh
ij_^eh`_gby bg_fh`_l[ulvBlZdijbagZdb[_aebqgh]hij_^eh`_gby
lZdh\u
90
<b^uij_^eh`_gbc
>\mkhklZ\gu_
ij_^eh`_gby
?klv
kdZam_fh_
b
?klv
ih^e_`Zs__
Ex[ex
hlqbagmy«
;_aebqgu_
?klv
kdZam_fh_
b
2.G_lbg_
fh`_l[ulv
ih^e_`Zs_]h
KdZam_fh_
fh`_l[ulv
\ujZ`_gh
[_aebqguf
]eZ]hehf
Fg_
g_a^hjh\blky
keh\Zfbg_l
g_[uehg_lm
Ghg_lm
qm^_k«
g_aZ\bkbfuf
bgnbgblb\hf
;ulv[uqdmgZ
\\_j_\hqd_
keh\hf
khklhygby
<e_km[ueh
lboh
ebqguf
]eZ]hehf\
[_aebqghf
agZq_gbb
IZog_lk_ghf
gZ^em]Zfb
H^ghkhklZ\gu_ij_^eh`_gby
KdZam_fhklgu_
Ebqgu_
Hij_^_e_ggh
G_hij_^_e_ggh
ebqgu_
ebqgu_
?klv
?klvkdZam_fh_
kdZam_fh_
b
b
G_l
G_l
ih^e_`Zs_]h
ih^e_`Zs_]h
b
b
<hdhgqZgbb
<hdhgqZgbb
kdZam_fh]h
kdZam_fh]h
©`b\_lª
©`b\_lª
g_hij_^_e_ggh_
hij_^_e_ggh_
ih^e_`Zs__
ih^e_`Zs__
^_ckl\b_
\uihegy_ldlhlh
Ex[ex^ufhd
kiZe_gghc
Hldjuebhdgh
Dlhlh\uihegbe
`gb\u«
^_ckl\b_fu\u
hgbbl^
Ih^e_`Zsgu_
GZau\gu_
?klv
ih^e_`Zs__
b
G_l
kdZam_fh]h
Ghqv
lmfZg«
DjZkgZy
iehsZ^v
H[h[s_gghebqgu_
Ex[brv
dZlZlvky±
ex[bbkZghqdb
\hablv
Kheh\vy
[Zkgyfbg_
dhjfyl
?klvkdZam_fh_
b
G_lbg_fh`_l[ulvih^e_`Zs_]h
KdZam_fu_ m [_aebqgh]h ij_^eh`_gby [u\Zxl jZagufb Ihijh[mcl_
baf_gblv ih ebpZf ]eZ]heu jZkk\_eh \_q_j__l kf_jdZehkv ohq_lky G_
ihemqbehkv"?kl_kl\_gghwlh[_aebqgu_]eZ]heu
BlZd fu mklZgh\beb kdZam_fuf \ [_aebqguo ij_^eh`_gbyo fh]ml [ulv
[_aebqgu_]eZ]heu
91
FugZ^__fkyqlh\uohjhrhwlhihgyebb^Z`_kmf__l_gZclb[_aebqguc
]eZ]he\klbohl\hjghfl_dkl_gZ©]ehdhfªyaud_GZc^bl__]hb\uibrbl_
<ZjdZehkvOeb\db_rhjvdb
IujyebkvihgZ\_
BojxdhlZeba_exdb
DZdfxfabdb\fh\_
EDwjjheei_j>Hjeh\kdhc
:l_i_jvgZc^bl_[_aebqgu_]eZ]heu\ijbf_jZo
G_b^_lkybg__^_lky
Ihlhfmqlh]hehe_^bpZ
GhaZlh
HlebqghiZ^Z_lky
Ihq_fm`gbdlh
G_jZ^m_lky"
<Hjeh\
Fg_b^hgug_
Ohq_lky]jualv
@Zjdhcjy[bgu
=hjvdmxdbklv
FBP\_lZ_\Z
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk ?s_ h^gZ jZagh\b^ghklv kdZam_fh]h \ [_aebqguo ij_^eh`_gbyo ² wlh
keh\Zg_lbg_[uehGZijbf_j
GbdZdh]hg_lj_ahgZ
Mk_[y^_j`Zlv[bahgZ
;AZoh^_j
G_[ueh]\ha^y²
Ih^dh\ZijhiZeZ
G_[uehih^dh\u²
EhrZ^vaZojhfZeZ
KYFZjrZd
Ih^q_jdgbl_hkgh\u\ij_^eh`_gbyo
< ^h`^_\hc \h^_ g_l i_kdZ \ ihkeh\bpZo g_l e`b G_l ilbpu
dhlhjhc g_ gm`gu djuevy g_l q_eh\_dZ dhlhjhfm g_ gm`_g fbj Dhfmljm^ex[lhfmmij_dZg_lG_lj_dbq_j_adhlhjmxg_[ueh
[ui_j_ijZ\uG_[ueh
92
[u lj_lv_]h ^\h_ [u ihfbjbebkv =^_ g_l ^_j_\v_\ b iheugv
kqblZ_lky^_j_\hfG_[ueh[ukqZklvy^Zg_kqZklv_ihfh]eh
Ihkeh\bpu
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk Ijh^he`bf agZdhfkl\h k l_kghc dhfiZgb_c kdZam_fuo [_aebqgh]h
ij_^eh`_gbyK_cqZki_j_^\Zfbihy\blkyg_aZ\bkbfucbgnbgblb\
<u ihfgbl_ qlh lZdh_ bgnbgblb\" Wlh g_hij_^_e_ggZy nhjfZ ]eZ]heZ
LZd \hl hdZau\Z_lky bgnbgblb\ \ [_aebqghf ij_^eh`_gbb fh`_l [ulv
kdZam_fufGZijbf_jG_^h]gZlvl_[_[_r_ghcljhcdb G:G_djZkh\ G_
[jh^blvg_fylv\dmklZo[Z]jyguoE_[_^ubg_bkdZlvke_^Z K:?k_gbg
<uibrbl_baijbf_jZ[_aebqgmxqZklvij_^eh`_gby
1. B^hlhc]emohcjZaemdb
Qlh[u\Z_lgZ\hcg_
JZkkdZaZlv_s_h^jm]_
Dh_qlhmki_lv[ufg_
:LL\Zj^h\kdbc
Hk\bgkl\_
K\bgvbkdehggu_d[_kqbgkl\m
GZa_fe_dhg_qgh_klv
Ghm\_j_gyqlhk\bgkl\m
Q_eh\_q_kl\Zg_kt_klv
KYFZjrZd
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk Ih^q_jdgbl_kdZam_fu_\ijbf_jZo
1. B[ulvgZ^a_fe_caZdZlZf
B[ulvgZ^a_fe_cjZkk\_lZf
M^h[jblv__khe^ZlZf
H^h[jblv__ihwlZf
B;jh^kdbc
2. ;ulv[ugZrbfkljZggbdZfih^jh^ghxdjur_x
?keb[agZlvfh]ebhgbqlhl\hjbehkvk=jbr_x
G:G_djZkh\
3. Jh^blvky[ufg_ihaZdZam
Mkbg_]hfhjy\Djufm
:LL\Zj^h\kdbc
93
4. GZ\hcg_h^ghcfbgmldb
G_ijh`blv[_aijb[Zmldb
:LL\Zj^h\kdbc
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk Jhev kdZam_fuo \ [_aebqguo ij_^eh`_gbyo fh]ml b]jZlv keh\Z
h[hagZqZxsb_ khklhygb_ oheh^gh ljm^gh \_k_eh Ih^q_jdgbl_ kdZam_fu_ \
ij_^eh`_gbyo
1. G_kdmqgh_c
Mk_fb[h]Zluj_c
:KImrdbg
2. L_iehgZkhegurd_<_kgZ
;_j_lk\hbijZ\Z
::N_l
3. Iehohq_eh\_dmdh]^Zhgh^bg
<<FZydh\kdbc
4. Hq_gvoheh^gh^_\qhgd_
;v_l^_\qhgdm^jh`v
J;_jg_
5. GZr^hfmkgme
GZmebp_l_fgh
<ukhdZya\_a^Z]ey^bl\hdgh
<Hjeh\
6. <]hjgbp_fh_ck\_leh
Wlhhlghqghca\_a^u
GFJm[ph\
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk <uibrbl_[_aebqgmxqZklvij_^eh`_gbybaijbf_jZ
Bhllhc]ZjfhrdbklZjhc
QlhhklZeZkvkbjhlhc
DZdlh\^jm]l_ie__klZeh
GZ^hjh]_njhglh\hc
:LL\Zj^h\kdbc
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk Ijhqlbl_ klbohl\hj_gb_ B N :gg_gkdh]h JZkklZ\vl_ \ g_f agZdb
ij_ibgZgbyIh^q_jdgbl_[_aebqgu_qZklbkeh`guoij_^eh`_gbc
94
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y
1) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk<uibkZgughf_jZij_^eh`_gbc
1. 2, 3. II. 1, 2.
2) KfaZ^Zgb_gZkI_j\u_bapbnjh[hagZqZxl]jZnulZ[ebpu
²,,Fg_kh\_jr_ggh\k_jZ\gh]^_kh\_jr_gghh^bghdhc[ulv
² , WfZe_\uc dj_klbd \ i_lebp_ b k_jhc lm`mjdb kmdgh DZdb_
i_qZevgu_ebpZ Kg_]Zkg_]Zkg_]Z ,, Ijh^he]h\Zlucb l\_j^uch\Ze
q_jgh]hieZlvyjZkljm[uLhkdZihjh^bg_
3) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
<ZjdZehkv
G_b^_lkybg__^_lkyIZ^Z_lkyOhq_lky]jualv
4) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
G_lg_lG_lg_gm`gudjuevyg_lg_gm`_gfbjLjm^ex[g_l
G_l g_ [ueh [u G_ [ueh [u ^\h_ [u ihfbjbebkv G_l iheugv
kqblZ_lky^_j_\hfG_[ueh[ug_kqZklv_ihfh]eh
5) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
B^hlhc]emohcjZaemdbjZkkdZaZlv_s_h^jm]_dh_qlhmki_lv[ufg_
Qlhk\bgkl\mq_eh\_q_kl\Zg_kt_klv
6) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
;ulv aZdZlZf [ulv jZkk\_lZf M^h[jblv H^h[jblv ;ulv [u Jh^blvky[uG_ijh`blv
7) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk<uibkZgukdZam_fu_
1. G_kdmqghL_iehIehohOheh^ghL_fghK\_leh
***
Kj_^bfbjh\\f_jpZgbbk\_lbe
H^ghcA\_a^uyih\lhjyxbfy
G_ihlhfmqlh[y?_ex[be
:ihlhfmqlhylhfexkvk^jm]bfb
B_kebfg_khfg_gv_ly`_eh
95
YmG__h^ghcbsmhl\_lZ
G_ihlhfmqlhhlG__k\_leh
:ihlhfmqlhkG_cg_gZ^hk\_lZ
AZihfgbl_wlbkljhqdbbaZibrbl_ihiZfylbZihlhfijh\_jvl_k_[yih
dgb]_
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk GZibrbl_\hae_dZ`^h]hkeh\hkhq_lZgby\dZdh_ij_^eh`_gb_hghfh`_l
\hclb\^\mkhklZ\gh_bebh^ghkhklZ\gh_²[_aebqgh_
<hl lZd \h^h\hjhlhf aZdjm`beh ² [_aebqgh_ aZjuqZeh qm^h\bs_...
²^\mkhklZ\gh_
mg_kehl_q_gb_f
ihdZaZehkvkhhjm`_gb_
^_j_\haZdZqZehkv
\_ljhfih^gyeh\\ha^mo
^h`^_faZebeh
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk KdZam_fuf[_aebqgh]hij_^eh`_gbyfh`_l[ulvbebqguc]eZ]he_kebhg
b]jZ_ljhev[_aebqgh]hl_h^bg[_aih^e_`Zs_]h\ujZ`Z_l\_kvlhlkfuke
dhlhjuc^he`gZ\ujZablvhkgh\Zij_^eh`_gbyGZijbf_j
Am[Zklhcsmd_\mfijbreh
AZdhrZqv_ijbgylvkyj_f_keh
B:Djueh\
Ih^q_jdgbl_hkgh\u\ij_^eh`_gbyo
1. MjZ]Zghfih\Zebeh^_j_\h;_j_]ih^fu\Zeh\h^hc
AZ`]eh]jhahx^_j_\h
:[uehkheh\vbgh_
GZ^_j_\_]g_a^h
G:G_djZkh\
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk GZibrbl_\hae_dZ`^h]hkeh\hkhq_lZgby\dZdh_ij_^eh`_gb_hghfh`_l
\hclb\^\mkhklZ\gh_beb\h^ghkhklZ\gh_²[_aebqgh_
af_yg_[m^_l
ms_gdZg_[ueh
96
g_klZehgbdZdh]hl_ji_gvy
g_lf_klZ
g_evayljh]Zlv
j_qdZg_[ueZ
g_[u\Zeh^gy[_a
fZeurg_klZe[u
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby\hlj_adZoij_^eh`_gbc
ijb]j_abehkv qlh hgZ e_lbl \ukhdh\ukhdh d lhfm aZfdm dhlhjuc
fhlgme]heh\hcqlh[uk[jhkblvreyimghhgZbgl_j_kghb]jZlv
qlh y b ^mfZlv i_j_klZe ijh dZdb_lh lZf mjhdb Z hdZaZehkv qlh gbdZd
g_evay aZ[u\Zlv ijh k\hb ^_eZ ihlhfm qlh ihcf_rv qlh `bagv
ebrbeZkv[uh^ghcbak\hbom^b\bl_evguodjZkhd_keb[ug_[ueh
h kh[Zd_ qlh _fm klZeh dZaZlvky [m^lh m g_]h gZ ]eZ\gmx
]hjh^kdmx iehsZ^v dhlhjZy gZau\ZeZkv iehsZ^vx A\_a^u ijh_oZlv
hdZaZehkv [ueZ lZdZy gba_gvdZy qlh ex^yf ijboh^behkv
ijhkgmeZkvb_cihdZaZehkvqlhhgZ
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk <uibrbl_[_aebqgu_qZklbkeh`guoij_^eh`_gbc
GZr_k\ys_ggh_j_f_keh
Kms_kl\m_llukyqbe_l
Kgbfb[_ak\_lZfbjmk\_leh
Gh_s_gbh^bgg_kdZaZeihwl
Qlhfm^jhklbg_lbklZjhklbg_l
:fh`_lbkf_jlbg_l
:::ofZlh\Z
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk :l_i_jvijh\_jvl_k\hxiZfylvi_j_qbkebl_ \k_ agZdhfu_ \Zf kihkh[u
\ujZ`_gby kdZam_fuo \ [_aebqguo ij_^eh`_gbyo Z ihlhf ijhdhgljhebjmcl_
k_[yihdgb`d_ kfk I_j_c^_fd^jm]bfkdZam_fhklgufij_^eh`_gbyfGZqg_fkhij_^_e_ggh
ebqguo
97
IjbagZdbh i j _ ^ _ e _ g g h e b q g u o
ij_^eh`_gbclZdh\u
?klvkdZam_fh_
b
G_lih^e_`Zs_]h
b
<hdhgqZgbbkdZam_fh]h©`b\_lªhij_^_e_ggh_
ih^e_`Zs__
Ihijh[mcl_ ih^h[jZlv ih^e_`Zsb_ d ke_^mxsbf ij_^eh`_gbyf G_
i_qZevky 2) <uoh^bf\hldjulh_fhj_. 3) Ex[exwlmi_kgx4) Ohlbl_ihclb
\pbjd?
Fukh\_jr_gghm\_j_guqlh\uih^h[jZeblZddi_j\hfmij_^eh`_gbx
ludh\lhjhfm²fudlj_lv_fm²ybdq_l\_jlhfm²\u:qlh\Zfihfh]eh
gZclbhl\_lu"
Wlbhl\_luaZeh`_gu\kdZam_fh_²\_]hnhjfmb\uwlhihqm\kl\h\Zeb
< ke_^mxsbo ijbf_jZo ih^q_jdgbl_ hij_^_e_gghebqgu_ ij_^eh`_gby
bebhij_^_e_gghebqgu_qZklbkeh`guoij_^eh`_gbc
Qlh
hij_^_e_ggh]h
\hij_^_e_ggh
ebqguo
ij_^eh`_gbyo
AZihfgbfhckh\_l
@Ze_lvhlhfg_gZ^h
Q_]hm`[hevr_g_l
KYFZjrZd
L_kg_ckZ^bl_kvmh]gy
:ygZqgmjZkkdZa
Imklv\ug_agZ_l_f_gy
:yg_agZx\Zk
;ZeeZ^uhJh[bg=m^_i_jBB\Zgh\kdh]h
Fhebl_kvgZghqvqlh[u\Zf
<^jm]g_ijhkgmlvkyagZf_gbluf
:::ofZlh\Z
?kebyaZ[he_x
d\jZqZfh[jZsZlvkyg_klZgm
H[jZsZxkvd^jmavyf
g_khqlbl_qlhwlh\[j_^m ihkl_ebl_fg_kl_iv
aZgZ\_kvl_fg_hdgZlmfZghf
\ba]heh\v_ihklZ\vl_
ghqgmxa\_a^m
Y<Kf_eydh\
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk 98
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y
1) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
L_ie__klZeh
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
qlhhlG__k\_lehqlhkG_cg_gZ^hk\_lZ
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
;_aebqgu_ mg_keh l_q_gb_f \_ljhf ih^gyeh \ \ha^mo ^h`^_f aZebeh
HklZevgu_²^\mkhklZ\gu_
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
1. Ih\ZebehIh^fu\ZehAZ`]eh
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
>\mkhklZ\gu_ af_y g_ [m^_l j_qdZ g_ [ueZ fZeur g_ klZe [u.
HklZevgu_²[_aebqgu_
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
1. … ijb]j_abehkv qlh « aZfdm dhlhjuc « « ]heh\hc qlh[u reyimgh« «b]jZlvqlh«mjhdbZhdZaZehkvqlh«^_eZihlhfmqlh
« « ihcf_rv qlh « djZkhd _keb « « h kh[Zd_ qlh « dZaZlvky
[m^lh 6. …iehsZ^vdhlhjZy«A\_a^uijh_oZlv« 7. …gba_gvdZyqlh
«ijhkgmeZkvb_cihdZaZehkvqlh«
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
Kgbfb[_ak\_lZfbjmk\_lehqlhfm^jhklbg_lbklZjhklbg_lZfh`_l
bkf_jlbg_l
***
: l_i_jv ihijh[mcl_ ih^h[jZlv ih^e_`Zs__ d <g_hij_^_e_g
ij_^eh`_gbxGZmebp_ijh^Z\Zebfhjh`_gh_
ghebqguo
Ihemqbehkv" Kdhj__ \k_]h g_l <_^v \u g_ agZ_l_ dlh ij_^eh`_gbyo
ijh^Z\Zefhjh`_gh_B[he__lh]h\Zfg_[ueh\Z`ghdlh g_ba\_klghdlh
bf_ggh_]hijh^Z\Ze\Zf\Z`g__\k_]h[uekZfnZdllh]h ^_ckl\mxs__
qlh _]h ijh^Z\Zeb DZd \b^bl_ [u\Zxl ij_^eh`_gby ebph
dhlhju_ khh[sZxl qlh ^_ckl\b_ ijhbkoh^beh beb
ijhbkoh^bl gh g_ ykgh beb g_ \Z`gh dlh ^_ckl\mxs__
ebphGZijbf_j H[ty\beblj_\h]m
2) P_gu hiylv ih\ukbeb < lZdbo ij_^eh`_gbyo fh`gh h[hclbkv [_a
ih^e_`Zs_]h
Wlbij_^eh`_gbygZau\Zxlkyg _ h i j _ ^ _ e _ g g h e b q g u f b 99
BoijbagZdblZdh\u
1. ?klvkdZam_fh_
b
2. G_lih^e_`Zs_]h
b
< hdhgqZgbb kdZam_fh]h ©`b\_lª g_hij_^_e_ggh_ ih^e_`Zs__ l _
^_ckl\b_\uihegy_ldlhlh
Ijhqlbl_l_dklbhlf_lvl_agZdhfg_hij_^_e_gghebqgu_ij_^eh`_gby
Fu \k_ agZ_f qlh khegp_ `_elh_ Z ijb aZdZl_ hgh [u\Z_l djZkguf Gh
bgh]^Z \b^_eb khegp_ ^jm]bo p\_lh\ < k_gly[j_ ]h^Z gZ^
g_dhlhjufb kljZgZfb ?\jhiu k\_lbeh khegp_ ]hem[h]h p\_lZ Wlh
ijhbahreh baaZ h]jhfgh]h ih`ZjZ \ e_kZo DZgZ^u < =b[jZelZjkdhf
ijheb\_ ex[h\Zebkv yjdh]hem[uf aZdZlhf Kbg__ khegp_ gZ[ex^Zeb \
]h^mihke_ba\_j`_gby\medZgZDjZdZlZm:\ ]h^m m\b^_eb gZ
g_[_ a_e_gh_ khegp_ Wlh ijhbahreh ihke_ ba\_j`_gby \medZgZ \ Bg
^bckdhfhd_Zg_
IhGGKeZ^dh\m
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk GZc^bl_
ij_^eh`_gby
\
klbohl\hjghf
l_dkl_
g_hij_^_e_gghebqgmx
qZklv
>eyq_eh\_dZgZpbhgZevghklv
bg_aZkem]Z
bg_\bgZ
?keb\kljZg_ml\_j`^ZxlbgZq_
agZqbl
g_kqZklgZywlhkljZgZ
JBJh`^_kl\_gkdbc
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk GZibrbl_ \hae_ dZ`^h]h ij_^eh`_gby _]h \b^ ih gZebqbx ]eZ\guo
qe_gh\?kebij_^eh`_gb_keh`gh_gZibrbl_dZdh\u_]hqZklb
Hkf_ehfiZjg_[m^_lj_qv
Hga\ZekyJh[bg=m^
G_^ZjhfiZfylvkf_evqZdZ
<gZjh^_[_j_]ml
;ZeeZ^uhJh[bg=m^_i_jBB\Zgh\kdh]h
100
Fg_^ZebfhjkdmxjZdh\bgm
<g_cymkeurZejZkdZlu
FhjykhrdhevghcdZjlu
N=ZjkbyEhjdZ
?]haZjueb\rZja_fghc
:[uehgebrvkhe^Zl
<Hjeh\
G_^Z\Zcfg_gbq_]hgZiZfylv
AgZxydZdiZfylvdhjhldZ
:::ofZlh\Z
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk Ke_^mxsbfb
gZrbfb
agZdhfpZfb
[m^ml
Dh]^Z^_ckl\b_
h [ h [ s _ g g h e b q g u _ ij_^eh`_gby
hlghkblkydh
Dlh kh\_jrZ_l ^_ckl\b_ \ ij_^eh`_gbyo Ba i_kgb
\k_fex^yf
keh\Zg_\udbg_rvbKheh\vy[Zkgyfbg_dhjfyl"
\hh[s_
Wlh^_ckl\b_fh`_lhlghkblvkydex[hfmq_eh\_dm
gZk\_l_dh\k_fex^yf\hh[s_
=eZ]heu \ h[h[s_gghebqguo ij_^eh`_gbyo klhyl eb[h \h f ebp_
_^bgkl\_ggh]hqbkeZeb[h\febp_fgh`_kl\_ggh]hqbkeZ
GZah\_f^\ZijbagZdZh[h[s_gghebqguoij_^eh`_gbc
Wlh bo ^_ckl\b_ hlghkblky dh \k_f ex^yf \hh[s_ bo kdZam_fu_
fh]ml [ulv \ujZ`_gu ]eZ]heZfb ]h ebpZ _^bgkl\_ggh]h qbkeZ b ]h ebpZ
fgh`_kl\_ggh]hqbkeZ
AZibrbl_ ghf_j dZ`^h]h ij_^eh`_gby \ khhl\_lkl\mxsbc klhe[bd
lZ[ebpu
>\mkhklZ\gu_
;_aebqgu_
H[h[s_gghebqgu_
1
2
3
E[hfkl_gmg_ijhrb[_rvG_ljhau[_arbih\:ii_lblijboh^bl
\h\j_fy_^uE_`Zq_]hg_[vxl>he]ieZl_`hfdjZk_g>ufZ[_a
h]gyg_[u\Z_lKe_aZfb]hjxg_ihfh`_rv>\mfkf_jlyfg_[u\Zlv
Zh^ghcg_fbgh\ZlvIhke_^jZdbdmeZdZfbg_
101
fZrml RbeZ \ f_rd_ g_ mlZbrv Ih^ e_`Zqbc dZf_gv \h^Z g_
l_q_lIjheblmx\h^mg_kh[_j_rv
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk Kh[_jbl_jZkkdZa ba ij_^eh`_gbc dhlhju_ihl_jyeb^jm] ^jm]Z >he`gh
ihemqblvkyq_luj_keh`guoij_^eh`_gby\dZ`^hfbadhlhjuoih^\_qZklb
HgaZf_lbe
ghhl\_lZgZh[uqgh_©Zeehªg_[ueh
>bj_dpbbahhiZjdZijbrehkvaZieZlblvrljZn
LZcgmfheqZeb\uol_e_nhgguo\uah\h\m^ZehkvjZa]Z^Zlv
h^ghfmfZeurm
<l_q_gb_g_kdhevdbog_^_ev\^hfZoZg]ebckdh]h]hjh^Z
Q_kl_jjZa^Z\Zebkvl_e_nhggu_a\hgdb
qlhh]jhfgZy`bjZnZeb`_ll_e_nhggu_ijh\h^Z
Zl_e_nhggZyk_lv[ueZi_j_g_k_gZih^Zevr_hlaZ]hgZk
`bjZnZfb
dhlhjuc]meye\ahhiZjd_
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk 102
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y
1) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
AZihfgbfhckh\_lL_kg_ckZ^bl_kvmh]gyFhebl_kvgZghqvD
\jZqZfh[jZsZlvkyg_klZgmH[jZsZxkvd^jmavyfg_khqlbl_ihkl_ebl_fg_
kl_ivaZgZ\_kvl_fg_hdgZlmfZghf\ba]heh\v_ihklZ\vl_ghqgmxa\_a^m
2) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk<uibkZgug_hij_^_e_gghebqgu_ij_^eh`_gby
Gh bgh]^Z \b^_eb khegp_ ^jm]bo p\_lh\ < =b[jZelZjkdhf ijheb\_
ex[h\Zebkvyjdh]hem[ufaZdZlhfKbg__khegp_gZ[ex^Zeb\]h^mihke_
ba\_j`_gby\medZgZDjZdZlZm:\]h^mm\b^_ebgZg_[_a_e_gh_khegp_
3) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
?keb\kljZg_ml\_j`^ZxlbgZq_
4) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
G_hij_^_e_gghebqgu_ G_^Zjhf iZfylv kf_evqZdZ \ gZjh^_ [_j_]ml.
2. Fg_ ^Zeb fhjkdmx jZdh\bgm. 3. ?]h aZjueb \ rZj a_fghc Hij_^_e_ggh
ebqgu_G_^Z\Zcfg_gbq_]hgZiZfylvHklZevgu_^\mkhklZ\gu_
5) KfaZ^Zgb_gZkI_j\ZypbnjZkhhl\_lkl\m_l]jZn_lZ[ebpu
1 — 3, 5, 11. 2 — 2, 6, 8. 3 — 1, 4, 7, 9, 10, 12.
***
I_j_c^_fdih^e_`Zsgufij_^eh`_gbyf<hlijbf_ju ba
:_s__klv
klbohl\hj_gbyG:G_djZkh\ZKeZ\gZyhk_gvFhjhagu_ ghqb
gZau\gu_
Ykgu_lbob_^gb.
ij_^eh`_gby
HdZau\Z_lky b [_a kdZam_fh]h fh]ml ihemqblvky ij_^
eh`_gbyjbkmxsb_hlq_leb\mx\ujZabl_evgmxdZjlbgm
GZijbf_j @_eluc dZf_gv kbgyy l_gv `b\hibkgu_ lj_sbgu klZjuo
kl_g I_gb_ \^Zeb b _]h woh \ h\jZ]Zo Jugdb gZ k\Zyo ih^ l_glZfb b
h]jhfgufb ahglbdZfb ;e_kd hjm`by yjdh_ ieZlv_ ZjhfZl p\_lh\ b
a_e_gb K\bldb iZjmkh\ bo khg b djueZlh_ mljh a_e_gZy \h^Z kdZeu
^Zevhd_ZgZ :K=jbg
103
< wlbo ij_^eh`_gbyo \Z`gh g_ ^_ckl\b_ Z gZa\Zgb_ ij_^f_lZ K wlhc
jZ[hlhc ih^e_`Zs__ kijZ\ey_lky b [_a kdZam_fh]h =^_lh \gmljb lZdbo
ij_^eh`_gbc kdZam_fh_ \k_lZdb kdju\Z_lky b _]h fh`gh ba\e_qv Ijbf_jgh
lZd Klhbl keZ\gZy hk_gv Klhyl ykgu_ lbob_ ^gb Gh kdZam_fh_ ihgbfZ_l
qlhih^e_`Zs__kijZ\ey_lky[_ag_]hbg_\uoh^blgZi_j\ucieZg
LZdb_ij_^eh`_gbygZau\ZxlkygZau\gufbBoijbagZdblZdh\u
1. ?klvih^e_`Zs__
b
2. G_lkdZam_fh]h
Ih^q_jdgbl_hkgh\u\gZau\guoij_^eh`_gbyo
1.1. I_j_ijZ\Zi_j_ijZ\Z
;_j_]e_\uc[_j_]ijZ\uc
Kg_]r_jrZ\ucdjhfdZev^Z
Njhgl<hcgZ:\_q_j^b\guc
Ihiheyfimklufb^_l
:LL\Zj^h\kdbc
,,N_\jZev>hklZlvq_jgbebieZdZlv
IbkZlvhn_\jZe_gZ\aju^
IhdZ]jhohqmsZykeydhlv
<_kghxq_jghx]hjbl
;EIZkl_jgZd
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk L_i_jvhk\hb\rbkvkgZau\gufbij_^eh`_gbyfb\ukfh`_l_magZlvbo\
ij_^eh`_gbyogZg_kh\k_fihgylghfbeb^Z`_kh\k_fg_ihgylghfyaud_
Ih^q_jdgbl_hkgh\ugZau\guoij_^eh`_gbc\ke_^mxsboijbf_jZo
1. KbyxsZy\hevaZ
@_eZ_fuoj_kgbp
BeZkdh\Zy^hevaZ
EZkdZxsbo^_kgbp
<Oe_[gbdh\
Jha]j_gvXjadb_ohf_cdb
Ijhk\_jl_eb\_kvljZ\Zk
:cZcyxl[jukdmgq_cdb
Ih^kdhjyqbcjuqb`Zk
EDwjjhee:ebkZ\AZa_jdZev_i_j:S_j[Zdh\Z
104
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk AZihfgbl_ q_l\_jhklbrb_ b aZibrbl_ _]h ih iZfylb Ih^q_jdgbl_ \ g_f
gZau\gu_ij_^eh`_gby
G_^\b`gucdZfurG_lj_i_s_lhkhdZ
=em[hdZylbrv;_a]eZ]hevghklvihdhy
Em]Zm[_]Zxl^Ze_dh^Ze_dh
<h\k_fmlhfe_gv_²]emoh_g_fh_
D>;Zevfhgl
<gZau\guoij_^eh`_gbyodhlhju_gZqlhlhmdZau\Zxlg_j_^db_]hklb
²qZklbpuwlhb\hl<kihfgbl_dZd\[Zkg_Djueh\Z©>_fvygh\ZmoZªkhk_^
>_fvygm]hsZekhk_^Znhdm
<hl e_sbd ihljhoZ \hl kl_jey^b dmkhq_d : \hl kljhqdZ ba klboh\
FZydh\kdh]hWlh\ZggZWlhkZ^
<ke_^mxsboijbf_jZoih^q_jdgbl_gZau\gu_ij_^eh`_gby
<hlfhy^_j_\gy
<hlfhc^hfjh^ghc
<hldZqmkvy\kZgdZo
Ih]hj_djmlhc
BKmjbdh\
<hlf_evgbpZHgZm`jZa\ZebeZkv
:KImrdbg
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk GZau\gu_ij_^eh`_gbyfh]ml\oh^blvdZdqZklv\keh`gu_ij_^eh`_gby
I_j_^ \Zfb gZa\Zgby ]eZ\ ba dgb]b EvxbkZ DwjjheeZ ©:ebkZ \ KljZg_
qm^_kªdhlhjmxi_j_\_egZjmkkdbcyaudibkZl_ev;AZoh^_jIh^q_jdgbl_\
wlbogZa\ZgbyogZau\gu_qZklbJZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
1. =eZ\Z gbdZdZy ba dhlhjhc l_f g_ f_g__ fh`gh dh_qlh magZlv
=eZ\Z i_j\Zy \ dhlhjhc :ebkZ qmlv g_ ijh\ZebeZkv ih^ a_fex =eZ\Z \lhjZy \ dhlhjhc :ebkZ dmiZ_lky \ ke_aZo =eZ\Z k_^vfZy \
dhlhjhcivxlqZcdZdg_ghjfZevgu_
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk :l_i_jvihlj_gbjm_fkygZ\k_\f_kl_GZc^bl_]jZffZlbq_kdb_hkgh\u\
ke_^mxsboij_^eh`_gbyo
105
Khj\Z\r__ky keh\h g_ ^h]hgbrv gZ kdZdmg_ K^_eZggh_ mljhf
ijh\_jyc\_q_jhfKf_ehklv]hjh^Z[_j_l>jmavyihagZxlky\[_^_
G_[hjh]Zfbg_ijhldgmlvDebgdebghf\urb[ZxlK_e_^dZkhebg_
[hblky Khev_^yl\h\k_ffbj_ H]hgv fZkehf g_ aZeb\Zxl >\Z
f_^\_^y\h^ghc[_jeh]_g_m`b\mlky
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk L_i_jv gZc^bl_ h^ghkhklZ\gu_ ij_^eh`_gby \ khklZ\_ keh`guo b
h[tykgbl_ihklZgh\dmaZiyluo
;_j_]bkv\k_]hlh]hqlhg_h^h[jy_lkyl\h_xkh\_klvx EGLheklhc
?keb lu qlhgb[m^v ^_eZ_rv ^_eZc wlh ohjhrh E G Lheklhc K\h[h^guc ljm^ ² \hl lhqdZ hihju dhlhjmx lj_[h\Ze :jobf_^ qlh[u
i_j_\_jgmlvfbj F=hjvdbc IjZ\^Z²\ha^mo[_adhlhjh]h^urZlv
g_evay BKLmj]_g_\ Qlh[ugbkemqbehkvg_l_jyc[h^jhklb EG
Lheklhc
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk G_j_^dh[hevrb_gZmqgu_klZlvbaZdZgqb\Zxlkyj_axf_²dhjhl_gvdbf
g_ [hevr_ iheh\bgu kljZgbpu baeh`_gb_f jZkkdZaZggh]h Ihijh[mcl_
khklZ\blv j_axf_ \Zr_]h jZkkdZaZ h[ h^ghkhklZ\guo ij_^eh`_gbyo Z ihlhf
k\_jvl_kgZrbf dklZlbj_axf_²wlhij_djZkgZyriZj]ZedZ <hlgZr_j_axf_
<k_ij_^eh`_gby^_eylkygZ^\mkhklZ\gu_\dhlhjuo_klvih^e_`Zs__b
kdZam_fh_bh^ghkhklZ\gu_\dhlhjuolhevdhh^bg]eZ\gucqe_g
H^ghkhklZ\gu_ ^_eylky gZ kdZam_fhklgu_ \ dhlhjuo _klv lhevdh
kdZam_fu_bih^e_`Zsgu_\dhlhjuogZebphlhevdhih^e_`Zsb_
KdZam_fhklgu_
^_eylky
gZ
[_aebqgu_
hij_^_e_gghebqgu_,
g_hij_^_e_gghebqgu_ b h[h[s_gghebqgu_ < [_aebqguo ij_^eh`_gbyo
ih^e_`Zs_]h g_l b [ulv g_ fh`_l M hij_^_e_gghebqguo ij_^eh`_gbc \
nhjf_ kdZam_fh]h ©`b\_lª hij_^_e_ggh_ ih^e_`Zs__ M g_hij_^_e_gghebq
guo ²g_hij_^_e_ggh_ >_ckl\by h[h[s_gghebqguo ij_^eh`_gbc fh]ml
hlghkblvkydex[hfmq_eh\_dmdh\k_fex^yf\hh[s_
Ih^e_`Zsgu_ ij_^eh`_gby ² wlh gZau\gu_ \ dhlhjuo _klv lhevdh
ih^e_`Zs__
106
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y
1) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
< l_q_gb_ g_kdhevdbo g_^_ev \ ^hfZo Zg]ebckdh]h ]hjh^Z Q_kl_j
jZa^Z\Zebkvl_e_nhggu_a\hgdbghhl\_lZgZh[uqgh_ ©Zeehª g_ [ueh LZcgm
fheqZeb\uol_e_nhgguo\uah\h\m^ZehkvjZa]Z^Zlv h^ghfm fZeurm dhlhjuc
]meye \ ahhiZjd_ Hg aZf_lbe qlh h]jhfgZy `bjZnZ eb`_l l_e_nhggu_
ijh\h^Z >bj_dpbb ahhiZjdZ ijbrehkv aZieZlblv rljZn Z l_e_nhggZy k_lv
[ueZi_j_g_k_gZih^Zevr_hlaZ]hgZk`bjZnZfb
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
1.1.
I_j_ijZ\Zi_j_ijZ\ZDjhfdZev^Znjhgl<hcgZ,,N_\jZev
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
1. <hevaZb^hevaZJha]j_gv
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
1. <hlfhy^_j_\gy<hlfhc^hfjh^ghc<hlf_evgbpZ
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
1. =eZ\Z gbdZdZy =eZ\Z i_j\Zy =eZ\Z \lhjZy =eZ\Z
k_^vfZy
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
G_^h]hgbrvIjh\_jycKf_ehklv[_j_l>jmavyihagZxlkyG_
ijhldgmlv<urb[ZxlK_e_^dZg_[hblky?^ylG_aZeb\Zxl>\Z
f_^\_^yg_m`b\mlky
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
;_j_]bkv\k_]hlh]h>_eZcwlhohjhrhQlh[ui_j_\_jgmlvfbj
;_adhlhjh]h^urZlvg_evayG_l_jyc[h^jhklb
***
KbglZdkbq_kdb_©dZjebdbª
Qlh lZdh_ kbglZdkbq_kdbc ©dZjebdª" Wlh dhjhl_gvdh_ ij_^eh`_gb_
khklhys__ ba ^\molj_o keh\ KZfuf ©dZjebdh\ufª hdZau\Z_lky lZdh_
ij_^eh`_gb_ \ dhlhjhf wlb ^\Zljb keh\Z lh`_ dhjhl_gvdb_ GZijbf_j B y
lZf[uebf_^y
107
ibe :KImrdbg GZi_j\uc\a]ey^ljm^ghih\_jblvqlh©fZexldbªB
ylZf[uebf_^yibebf_xldZ`^Zyk\hxhkgh\my\eyxlkyij_^eh`_gbyfbb
khklZ\eyxl \^\h_f keh`gh_ ij_^eh`_gb_ Ibrmsbc g_j_^dh h[fZgu\Z_lky
fZe_gvdbfb jZaf_jZfb ©dZjebdh\ª b g_ klZ\bl agZd ij_ibgZgby \ keh`ghf
ij_^eh`_gbbkhklhys_fba^\moih^h[guo©dhjhlur_dªLZdZyhrb[dZqZklh
\hagbdZ_lgZijbf_j\ij_^eh`_gbb<k_klboehb\k_fheqZl
?keb ©dZjebdh\h_ª ij_^eh`_gb_ ©aZ`Zlhª kj_^b g_kdhevdbo [he__
djmiguo _]h e_]dh g_ aZf_lblv qlh g_ba[_`gh \_^_l d ihl_j_ h^ghc^\mo
aZiyluo
GZkljhcl_kvih`ZemcklZgZihbkdb©aZl_jygguodZjebdh\ª
< ke_^mxs_f ij_^eh`_gbb jZkklZ\vl_ agZdb ij_ibgZgby b ih^q_jdgbl_
©dZjebdh\h_ªij_^eh`_gb_
KZ^ lygmeky lZd ^Ze_dh qlh ^Z`_ kZ^h\gbd g_ agZe ]^_ hg dhgqZ_lky b aZ
kZ^hfijhklbjZekyij_djZkguce_kk\ukhdbfb^_j_\vyfb
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk ;hevrZyqZklvagZdhfuogZfrdhevgbdh\g_aZf_qZ_l©dZjebdZªg_\b^bl
]^_hgdhgqZ_lkybg_\u^_ey_l_]haZiylufb:\u"
E_]q_ \k_]h l_jyxlky kj_^b ©iheghf_ljZ`guoª ij_^eh`_gbc
h^ghkhklZ\gu_ b g_ihegu_ ©dZjebdbª GZijbf_j \ keh`ghf ij_^eh`_gbb
@ZevqlhfugZrebfZeh[_euo]jb[h\^\Zijhkluoij_^eh`_gbybi_j\h_ba
gbo²dhjhl_gvdh_\k_]hbah^gh]hkeh\Z²`Zev
< ke_^mxsbo ij_^eh`_gbyo gZc^bl_ b ih^q_jdgbl_ ©dZjebdh\ª AgZdb
ij_ibgZgbyg_jZkklZ\e_guqlh[uhgbg_[ueb^ey\Zkih^kdZadhcJZkklZ\vl_
bokZfbBf_cl_\\b^m©dZjebdbªfh]mlhdZaZlvkyb\gZqZe_b\k_j_^bg_b\
dhgp_keh`gh]hij_^eh`_gby
Ba\_klgh qlh mqZklgbdb i_j\uo emgguo wdki_^bpbc ih^\_j]Zebkv ih
\ha\jZs_gbb ba dhkfhkZ fgh]h^g_\ghfm dZjZglbgm qlh[u g_ aZg_klb gZ
A_fex©emggu_fbdjh[uªh^gZdhgZEmg_gbdZdbofbdjh[h\g_hdZaZehkv
Ex[hiulgh qlh \ ijhrehf \_d_ \h fgh]bo kljZgZo AZiZ^ghc ?\jhiu
gh\h]h^gbc >_^ Fhjha g_ [ue lZdbf \_k_euf ^h[jydhf dZdbf fu _]h
agZ_fl_i_jvKqblZ_lkyqlh\v_lgZfpuklZgh\ylkygZ]h^klZjr_\^_gv
Gh\h]h]h^ZZ^_gvbo^_ckl\bl_evgh]hjh`^_gbyg_
108
ijbgbfZ_lky \h \gbfZgb_ JZkkdZau\Zxl qlh \ klZjbgm _keb gZ Gh\uc
]h^gZmebp_ihy\eyekyljm[hqbklex^b[_`ZebaZgbfqlh[ubkiZqdZlvky
kZ`_clZddZdwlh^he`gh[uehijbg_klbkqZklv_<aZ^gbojy^Zoex^b
gZqZeb \klZ\Zlv qlh[u m\b^_lv qlh ijhbkoh^bl gZ kp_g_ D =
IZmklh\kdbc G_ba\_klgh qlh _s_ jZkkdZaZe [u =e_[ KdZf_cdbg ijh
fhj_gh\wlh\j_fydgZfih^hr_e<heh^y GGGhkh\ DZaZehkvqlh
gZ a_e_gv kuiexlky jZaghp\_lgu_ ehkdmldb X D He_rZ Qlh [ueh
^Zevr_kmqbl_e_flZgp_\g_ba\_klgh XDHe_rZ
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk JZ[hlZy kh ke_^mxsbfb ijbf_jZfb h[jZlbl_ \gbfZgb_ ]^_ bf_ggh
gZoh^ylky©dZjebdbªIh^q_jdgbl_bobjZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
Mf_gb_hjb_glbjh\Zlvkyihkemomih^kdZau\Z_ldblZfdm^Zieulv
Dh]^ZgZg_[_\b^gua\_a^ui_j_e_lgu_ilbpuohjhrhagZxldm^Ze_l_lv
Gbdlh\^_lkl\_g_agZ_llhqghd_fhg[m^_ldh]^Z\ujZkl_lG_lj_db
109
q_j_adhlhjmxg_[ueh[ui_j_ijZ\ug_liheh`_gbybadhlhjh]hg_[ueh
[u\uoh^Z
Ihkeh\bpZ
,,<hl[_^Z\h\k_cdhehgg_
AZ\Zeys_cg_l]Zjfhgb
:LL\Zj^h\kdbc
Eh`v\k_]^Zhi_j_^bl
Bklbgmg_fgh`dh
Ghg_[hcl_kvih[_^bl
IjZ\^Z[hkhgh`dZ
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk KYFZjrZd
Ijbmf_gbbij_^m]Z^u\Zlv\h[s_f\b^_kfukebkljmdlmjmij_^eh`_gby
fh`gh jZa]ey^_lv b ijZ\bevgh \u^_eblv ©dZjebdZª ^Z`_ \ ©hlj_ad_ª
ij_^eh`_gbyIhijh[mcl_k^_eZlvwlh\ke_^mxsboijbf_jZo
«^hklZlhqghagZdhfuk<hevdhcqlh[uagZlvqlh
«bgl_j_kghb]jZlvqlhyb^mfZlvaZ[ueijhk\hb^_eZZhdZaZehkvqlh
gbdZdg_evayaZ[u\Zlvihlhfmqlh«
«[uem`_\ukhdhgZ^a_fe_cdh]^Z^_\hqdZijhkgmeZkvb_cihdZaZehkv
qlhhgZ«
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk ©DZjebdª fh`_l ihl_jylvky g_ lhevdh kj_^b ©iheghf_ljZ`guoª
ij_^eh`_gbc ?keb keh`gh_ ij_^eh`_gb_ p_ebdhf khklZ\e_gh ba ©dZjebdh\ª
fh`gh g_qZyggh g_^h]ey^_lv dZdh]hgb[m^v ba gbo beb ijbgylv keh`gh_
ij_^eh`_gb_aZijhklh_
Mf__l_ eb \u h[jZsZlvky k iZjZfb ljhcdZfb b p_eufb lheiZfb
©dZjebdh\ª"G_imlZ_l_ebbokh^ghjh^gufbqe_gZfb"
JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
, Qlh k \haZ miZeh lh ijhiZeh Mk_j^guc q_eh\_d gZoh^bl e_gb\uc
l_jy_lQlhhlk_j^pZb^_llhk_j^p_g_aZ[m^_lDlhihl_jye^_gv]b
lhl gbq_]h g_ ihl_jye Dlh ihl_jye a^hjh\v_ lhl ihl_jye fgh]h_ Dlh
ihl_jyefm`_kl\hlhlihl_jye\k_DlhjZ[hlZ_llhldhjfblkyZdlhjmdb
keh`bllh]h]heh^]eh`_l
Ihkeh\bpu
110
,, Ghqv lmfZg b gb a]b g_ \b^Zlv JZkk\_eh b \k_ h`beh <u
^h\hevgubgZfohjhrh<ahreZemgZbk\hbffy]dbfnhknhjbq_kdbf
k\_lhfhaZjbeZe_kGZklmibeZ\]mklbihghqZfklZehoheh^ghLmfZg
gZqZe dem[blvky b ih^gbfZlvky d\_jom Mljh l_ieh_ b qmlvqmlv
fhjhkblIjbg_keb[md_lp\_lh\bihklZ\beb_]h\\ZamLbohbkbg_\Z
\bkbl f_`^m ^_j_\vyfb DZ`^uc ba gZk gZ k\h_f dhjZ[e_ dZiblZg b
\_^_ldhjZ[evk\hbfkh[kl\_ggufiml_f
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk >Z\Zcl_ aZihfgbf ijZ\beh ©ohjhr_]h imgdlmZpbhggh]h ih\_^_gbyª g_
ijhfhj]Zcl_kbglZdkbq_kdh]h©dZjebdZª
KbglZdkbq_kdb_©\_ebdZguª
KbglZdkbq_kdb_ ©\_ebdZguª ² wlh hq_gv jZkijhkljZg_ggu_ ijhklu_
ij_^eh`_gbyGZijbf_j=hlh\u_ojmklysb_ihgqbdbkdZlu\Zebkvih`_eh[m
\ ysbd ihgqbdhijb_fgbdZ k aZ\b^ghc jZ\ghf_jghklvx qZkh\h]h f_oZgbafZ.
Ijb\klj_q_kij_^eh`_gb_flZdhc^ebgu\hagbdZ_lihqlbg_ij_h^hebfh_`_
eZgb_©\kZ^blvªdm^Zgb[m^vaZiylmxqZs_\k_]hlm^Z]^_
111
ijb ql_gbb \hagbdZ_l iZmaZ <hl lmllh hl \Zk ihlj_[m_lky ki_pbZevgZy
]jZffZlbq_kdZy\u^_j`dZb^bkpbiebgbjh\ZgghklvHklZgh\bl_jmdmdhlhjZy
lyg_lky ihklZ\blv aZiylmx b kijhkbl_ k_[y ijhklh_ wlh ij_^eh`_gb_ beb
keh`gh_"Kdhevdh\g_fhkgh\"
?keb ]jZffZlbq_kdZy hkgh\Z h^gZ b ij_^eh`_gb_ ijhklh_ aZ^Zcl_ k_[_
\lhjhc \hijhk _klv eb a^_kv ki_pbZevgu_ ©ihdZaZgbyª d ihklZgh\d_ aZiylhc
\gmljb ij_^eh`_gby" Bf_xlky eb a^_kv h^ghjh^gu_ qe_gu k h[h[sZxsbfb
keh\Zfbbeb[_agbo h[hkh[e_ggu_\lhjhkl_i_ggu_qe_guij_^eh`_gby
keh\Z]jZffZlbq_kdbg_k\yaZggu_kij_^eh`_gb_f"?kebg_lgb\dh_f
kemqZ_ g_ klZ\vl_ aZiylmx ^Z`_ _keb hq_gv ohq_lky BgZq_ \u jbkdm_l_
jZaj_aZlv©\_ebdZgZªgZ^\_ZlhbgZljbqZklb
Lhevdh ]jZffZlbq_kdZy ^bkpbiebgbjh\Zgghklv ihfh`_l ba[_`Zlv kZfuo
jZkijhkljZg_gguo b kZfuo ©\t_^eb\uoª hrb[hd dhlhju_ gZau\Zxlky
ebrgbfbagZdZfb
BlZd _s_ h^gh ijZ\beh ©ohjhr_]h imgdlmZpbhggh]h ih\_^_gbyª g_
jZaj_aZcl_©\_ebdZgZª
:l_i_jvkgh\ZaZcf_fkykq_lhfij_^eh`_gbc\mf_;m^vl_\gbfZl_evgu
<Zf\klj_lylky©dZjebdbªb©\_ebdZguªAgZdbij_ibgZgbyjZkklZ\vl_kZfb
<hed g_ \hkihevah\Zeky hldju\r_cky i_j_^ gbf \hafh`ghklvx
\hgablvk\hbkf_jlhghkgu_deudb\[_aaZsblgh_]hjeh\jZ]ZKZ[ey_]h
\rbjhdbo[e_klysbogh`gZoe_`ZeZf_`^m_]hdhe_gyfbIbklhe_lhq_gv
fbjghlhjqZebaaZr_edh\h]hq_jgh]hrZjnZgZ_]h[hdm XDHe_rZ
DZdlhevdhihy\beZkv:kkhev\k_kfhedeb\k_khkljZohfhlhrebhlg__
b hgZ hklZeZkv h^gZ kj_^v imklhlu aghcgh]h i_kdZ : K =jbg H^bgZdh\u_ ^hfZ klhyeb \ kl_ib r_j_g]Zfb \ ljbq_luj_ ebgbb gZ
fZl_fZlbq_kdblhqghfjZkklhygbb^jm]hl^jm]Z D=IZmklh\kdbc
,,<_kgZ[u\Z_l]^_a_fey
<_kgZ[u\Z_l]^_ljZ\Z
<_kgumdZfgy[ulvg_fh`_l
K`Z^ghklvx\khkZgu
<ljZ\ubaeZdb
Ihke_^gb_dZi_evdb
Ihq\_gghc\eZ]b
112
<:Khehmobg
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
]^_hgdhgqZ_lky«
2) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk<uibkZguij_^eh`_gby©dZjebdbª
1. Ba\_klghAZiylu_i_j_^qlh, qlh[uh^gZdh
2Ex[hiulghAZiylu_i_j_^qlh dZdbf
3. KqblZ_lkyAZiylu_i_j_^qlhZ
4. JZkkdZau\ZxlAZiylu_i_j_^qlh _kebex^bqlh[ulZddZd
5. Qlh[um\b^_lvAZiylu_i_j_^qlh[uqlh
6. G_ba\_klghAZiylu_i_j_^qlh gh
7.DZaZehkvAZiylZyi_j_^qlh
8. G_ba\_klghAZiylZyi_j_^g_ba\_klgh
3) KfaZ^Zgb_gZkIj_^eh`_gby©dZjebdbª\u^_e_gudmjkb\hf
I Mf_gb_ hjb_glbjh\Zlvky ih kemom ih^kdZau\Z_l dblZf dm^Z ieulv
Dh]^ZgZg_[_\b^gua\_a^ui_j_e_lgu_ilbpuohjhrhagZxldm^Ze_l_lv
Gbdlh\^_lkl\_g_agZ_llhqghd_fhg[m^_ldh]^Z\ujZkl_l 4. G_lj_db
q_j_adhlhjmxg_[ueh[ui_j_ijZ\ug_liheh`_gbybadhlhjh]hg_[ueh[u
\uoh^Z Ihkeh\bpZ
II.1. <hl[_^Z\h\k_cdhehgg_
AZ\Zeys_cg_l]Zjfhgb
:LL\Zj^h\kdbc
Eh`v\k_]^Zhi_j_^bl
Bklbgmg_fgh`dh
Ghg_[hcl_kvih[_^bl
IjZ\^Z[hkhgh`dZ
KYFZjrZd
4) KfaZ^Zgb_gZkIj_^eh`_gby©dZjebdbª\u^_e_gudmjkb\hf
1. …^hklZlhqghagZdhfuk<hevdhcqlh[uagZlvqlh«
« bgl_j_kghb]jZlv qlh y b ^mfZlv aZ[ue ijh k\hb ^_eZ Z hdZaZehkv
qlhgbdZdg_evayaZ[u\Zlvihlhfmqlh ...
« [ue m`_ \ukhdh gZ^ a_fe_c dh]^Z ^_\hqdZ ijhkgmeZkv b _c
ihdZaZehkvqlhhgZ …
***
113
,,,DlhH[_avyg\b^Zel_agZxl
DZd`Z^gh\k_hgbi_j_gbfZxl
B:Djueh\
,9DhevklZjmrdZ[m^vgZffZlv
LZdbklZg_f\_ebqZlv
DhebdjZkgZy^_\bpZ
;m^vgZffbeZyk_kljbpZ
:KImrdbg
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk <u gZmqbebkv kqblZlv ij_^eh`_gby \ mf_ Gh qlh[u \_jgh jZkklZ\blv
agZdbij_ibgZgbyg_^hklZlhqghkhkqblZlvdhebq_kl\hijhkluoij_^eh`_gbc\
khklZ\_keh`gh]hgZ^hijZ\bevghhij_^_eblv]jZgbpujZa^_eyxsb_bo
©=jZgbpZªb©ih]jZgbqgbdbª\ij_^eh`_gbb
Y ih^hr_e d dZebld_ k jZ^hklguf eZ_f gZ\klj_qm
G_gZjmrZcl_
]jZgbpm fg_ \u[_`Ze ;Zj[hk ©Qlh aZ q_imoZª ² hq_\b^gh
ih^mfZeb \u BaaZ q_]h `_ ihemqbeZkv wlZ q_imoZ"
Wlhl k_dj_limgdlmZpbb jZkdjulv g_ljm^gh baaZ lh]h
qlhkeh\Zh^gh]h
114
ijhklh]h ij_^eh`_gby ©aZ_oZebª gZ ©l_jjblhjbxª ^jm]h]h ijhklh]h
ij_^eh`_gby
©L_jjblhjbbªijhkluoij_^eh`_gbc\keh`guohl^_eyxlky^jm]hl^jm]Z
]jZgbpZfb F_klh ]^_ gZoh^blky ]jZgbpZ ©gZagZqZ_lkyª kfukehf
aZdexq_gguf\ijhkluoij_^eh`_gbyo\oh^ysbo\khklZ\keh`gh]h<f_kl_kh
kfukehf ]jZgbp_c ©\_^Zxlª bglhgZpby b keh\Zhjb_glbju Mf_gb_ keurZlv
bglhgZpbxbmagZ\Zlvkeh\Zhjb_glbjuhq_gvihfh]Z_l\b^_lv]jZgbpmh^gZdh
wlbkimlgbdbkfukeZg_h[eZ^Zxlklhijhp_glghcgZ^_`ghklvxb\g_dhlhjuo
kemqZyofh]mlih^\_klbijbq_fbglhgZpbyih^\h^blqZklhZkeh\Zhjb_glbju
² lhevdh \ j_^dbo kemqZyo Hij_^_e_gb_ kfukeZ ijhkluo ij_^eh`_gbc \
keh`ghf²kZfucgZ^_`guckihkh[ijZ\bevghgZclb]jZgbpm
Jhev ©ih]jZgbqguo klhe[h\ª \ ij_^eh`_gbb \uihegyxl agZdb
ij_ibgZgby aZiylZy lhqdZ k aZiylhc ^\h_lhqb_ b lbj_ ?keb ©ih]jZgbqguc
klhe[ª hdZau\Z_lky g_ gZ f_kl_ b ©]jZgbpZª gZjmr_gZ fh`_l ihemqblvky
g_e_ihklvihoh`ZygZlmkdhlhjhcfugZqZebjZkkdZah©]jZgbpZoª
< ke_^mxsbo ijbf_jZo ihijh[mcl_ mkljZgblv lZdb_ g_e_ihklb
i_j_klZ\b\©ih]jZgbqgucklhe[ªgZf_klh
Dh]^Z khj_\gh\Zgby hdhgqbebkv hl mklZehklb y k ljm^hf ^_j`Zeky gZ
gh]Zo Klhyeh `Zjdh_ e_lh gZ ih^hdhggbd_ jZkp\_eb dZdlmku JZkimklbebkvebklvygZ^_j_\vyo\ljZ\_aZklj_dhlZebdmag_qbdbAZyp
aZ^jh`Ze hl kljZoZ ijyfh gZ g_]h r_e hohlgbd Fu aZf_jeb k
bkim]Zgguf \ujZ`_gb_f ebpZ khk_^dbgZ kZoZjgbpZ miZeZ gZ ihe KZoZjgbpZ jZae_l_eZkv gZ dmkdb k `Zeh[guf a\hghf khk_^dZ g_ fh]eZ
mkihdhblvkyp_euc\_q_jGZZj_gmpbjdZ\ur_e^j_kkbjh\sbd\ukhdh
ih^gy\oh[hlaZgbfg_lhjhieb\hr_ekehg
L_i_jv ihijh[mcl_ kZfhklhyl_evgh gZclb ]jZgbpu b h[hagZqblv bo
gm`gufb agZdZfb ;m^vl_ \gbfZl_evgu < ijbf_jZo k dhlhjufb \Zf k_cqZk
ijb^_lkyjZ[hlZlv ^_ckl\m_l lZbgkl\_ggZy kbeZ dhlhjZy [m^_l ©ih^klj_dZlvª
\Zkdhrb[dZf
GZijbf_j
KlZ^Zrmfylbkheh\_c
M`i_e\[_afhe\bbghq_c
:KImrdbg
115
< wlhf ij_^eh`_gbb \Zf fh`_l aZohl_lvky ihklZ\blv aZiylmx gZ dhgp_
i_j\hc kljhqdb ihke_ keh\Z kheh\_c Lh]^Z ihemqblky qlh kheh\_c rmfbl
\f_kl_khklZ^ZfbZdlhi_e\[_afhe\bbghq_cg_ba\_klgh<Zfm^Zklkyba[_
`Zlvhrb[hd lhevdh \ lhf kemqZ_ _keb \u gb gZh^gm fbgmlm g_ mimklbl_ ba
\gbfZgbykfukedZ`^h]hij_^eh`_gby\ijbf_jZo
1. ;hcpuihfbgZxlfbgm\rb_^gb
B[bl\u]^_\f_kl_jm[bebkvhgb
:KImrdbg
G_]gmlky\ukhdb_fZqlu
GZgbonex]_jZg_rmfyl
BfheqZ\hldjulu_exdb
Qm]mggu_imrdb]ey^yl
GhkiylmkZqb]j_gZ^_ju
<jZ\gbg_]^_Wev[Zrmfbl
FXE_jfhglh\
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk M^Zehkv eb \Zf kijZ\blvky k wlhc jZ[hlhc [_a hrb[hd" : _keb [ueb
hrb[db lh baaZ q_]h" KhagZ_fky qlh fu kha^Zeb \Zf ljm^gu_ mkeh\by
Ljm^ghklv i_j_^ dhlhjhc fu \Zk ihklZ\beb aZdexqZeZkv \ lhf qlh \Zf
ijbrehkv jZ[hlZlv g_ k ijhaZbq_kdbf l_dklhf Z kh klbohl\hjguf < wlhf
kemqZ_ bglhgZpby g_ ihfhsgbd Z \jZ`^_[gZy kbeZ dhlhjZy ©lhedZ_lª \Zk gZ
ihklZgh\dm agZdZ \ dhgp_ klbohl\hjghc kljhqdb \ lh \j_fy dZd ih kfukem
]jZgbpZgZoh^blky\gmljbkljhqdb
L_i_jvihijh[mcl_kijZ\blvkyk[he__ljm^gufbkemqZyfb
,Y\u]eygmel_fgZylmqZ\bk_eZ
GZ^gZrbfl_ZljhfdZdjZa
G:G_djZkh\
,,<^jm]k_j^blhih^djuevphf
I_kaZeZyeb^_\bpZ
<b^blgbsZyq_jgbpZ
Oh^blih^\hjm
Ij_^gbfrbjhdh
J_dZg_keZky[_^gucq_eg
Ihg_cklj_fbekyh^bghdh
116
E_kh\lZbgkl\_ggZyk_gv
Ki_qZevgufrmfhfh[gZ`ZeZkv
Eh`bekygZiheylmfZg
=mk_cdjbdeb\uodZjZ\Zg
Lygmekydx]mijb[eb`ZeZkv
>h\hevghkdmqgZyihjZ
Klhyeghy[jvm`m^\hjZ
Mfhjy\b^_e^m[a_e_guc
Ih^gbfkb^_ebdhlmq_guc
K\hbfg_kdZadb]h\hjbe
H^gmyihfgxkdZadmwlm
Ih\_^Zxl_i_jvyk\_lm
:KImrdbg
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk GZclb ]jZgbpm f_`^m ij_^eh`_gbyfb g_j_^dh ihfh]Zxl Keh\Z±
keh\Zhjb_glbjuhdhlhjuofum`_]h\hjbebIjbkmlkl\b_lZdbo ih]jZgbq
keh\ mdZau\Z_l beb ij_^kdZau\Z_l ]jZgbpm ihwlhfm fu fh`_f gbdb
gZa\Zlvbokeh\Zfb©ih]jZgbqgbdZfbªMf_gb_magZ\Zlvboijb
\klj_q_ hq_gv ihfh]Z_l \b^_lv [ehdb ba dhlhjuo khklZ\e_gu
keh`gu_ ij_^eh`_gby < keh`ghf ij_^eh`_gbb keh\Z ©ih]jZgbqgbdbª — wlhij_`^_\k_]hkhxaubkhxagu_keh\Z
Ih lhc jZ[hl_ dhlhjmx hgb \uihegyxl \ ij_^eh`_gbyo \k_o
©ih]jZgbqgbdh\ªm^h[ghjZa^_eblvgZljb]jmiiuDi_j\hc]jmii_fh`gh
hlg_klb khqbgbl_evgu_ khxau ²hgb kh_^bgyxl ijhklu_ ij_^eh`_gby \
keh`ghkhqbg_ggu_ Dh \lhjhc ² ih^qbgbl_evgu_ khxau d lj_lv_c ²
khxagu_keh\ZBih^qbgbl_evgu_khxaubkhxagu_keh\Zijbkh_^bgyxl
ijb^Zlhqgu_ij_^eh`_gby\keh`ghih^qbg_gghfij_^eh`_gbb
GZqg_f jZa]h\hj k k h q b g b l _ e v g u o k h x a h \ <u ^he`gu [ulv k
gbfbagZdhfuIhklZjZcl_kv\kihfgblvbo
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk L_i_jv gZah\bl_ i h ^ q b g b l _ e v g u _ k h x a u . Djhf_ khxah\
©]jZgbpuª f_`^m ij_^eh`_gbyfb fh]ml ©hojZgylvª k h x a g u _ k e h \ Z ,
dhlhju_ \ hlebqb_ hl khxah\ y\eyxlky qe_gZfb ij_^eh`_gby GZah\bl_
ba\_klgu_\Zfkhxagu_keh\Z
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk 117
L_i_jv \u agZ_l_ ^hklZlhqgh qlh[u magZ\Zlv ©ih]jZgbqgbdh\ª kj_^b
^jm]bo keh\ Z wlh ihfh`_l \b^_lv ©]jZgbpmª ² f_klh ]^_ g_h[oh^bfZ
ihklZgh\dZ agZdZ ij_ibgZgby JZkihagZ\Zlv khxau b khxagu_ keh\Z \h \j_fy
ibkvfZ²h^ghba\Z`g_crboijZ\be©ohjhr_]himgdlmZpbhggh]hih\_^_gbyª
<l_dkl_gZc^bl_khxaubkhxagu_keh\ZbjZkklZ\vl_ijhims_ggu_agZdb
ij_ibgZgby
G_h[oh^bfh agZlv fbj ^bdbo `b\hlguo lZd qlh[u g_ djbqZlv ©dZjZmeª
dh]^Z gZ imlb ih\klj_qZ_lky [_agh]Zy ys_jbpZ \_j_l_gbpZ qlh[u g_
rZjZoZlvky\klhjhgmm\b^_\\k\h_fkh[kl\_gghfh]hjh^_`Z[mGm`gh
ihfgblv h lhf qlh `bagv ^bdbo `b\hlguo \ ijbjh^_ g_e_]dZy hgb
kms_kl\mxl \ ihklhygghc [hjv[_ aZ k\h_ kms_kl\h\Zgb_ b jmdm ihfhsb
ijb g_h[oh^bfhklb bf fh`_l ijhlygmlv lhevdh q_eh\_d @b\hlgu_
kljZ^Zxl hl [he_ag_c klbobcguo [_^kl\bc dhlhju_ ij_^hl\jZlblv g_
fh]ml
IhBKhkgh\kdhfm
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk Mf_gb_magZ\Zlv©ih]jZgbqgbdh\ª\kh_^bg_gbbkmf_gb_fij_^m]Z^u\Zlv
\h[s_f\b^_kfukeij_^eh`_gbyb\hiehsZxsmxwlhlkfukekljmdlmjm^Z_l
\Zf\hafh`ghklvihklZ\blvagZdb^Z`_\©hlj_adZoªij_^eh`_gbc
Ihijh[mcl_k^_eZlvwlhgZke_^mxsboijbf_jZo
h[jZah\Zeky f_e dhlhjuf fu \k_ wlh ke_`b\Zehkv b fZkkZ fhjkdh_^ghih^gyehkvbkehbf_eZjZkkdZaZebfgh]h_balh]hqlh
agZxlmq_gu_
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk Lhl dlh hojZgy_l ]jZgbpm kh\k_f g_ h[yaZl_evgh ^he`_g gZoh^blvky
g_ihkj_^kl\_ggh\hae_g__Hgfh`_lg_klbkem`[m]^_lhg_ih^Ze_dmKeh\Z
©ih]jZgbqgbdbª lh`_ fh]ml klhylv g_ lhevdh gZ kZfhc ©]jZgbp_ª f_`^m
ij_^eh`_gbyfb
Ihijh[mcl_ hl\_lblv gZ \hijhk ]^_ fh]ml hdZaZlvky ©ih]jZgbqgbdbª
ijhqblZ\ke_^mxsb_ijbf_ju
Qlh[u ihqm\kl\h\Zlv h[Zygb_ Fhkd\u gZ^h ih[jh^blv ih __ klZjuf
i_j_medZf ;mev\Zju mdjZrZxl ]hjh^ fZe_gvdb_ a_e_gu_ ^\hjbdb
lZd`_ijb^Zxl_fmij_e_klv
118
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y
1) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
Qlhk\haZmiZehlhijhiZehMk_j^gucq_eh\_dgZoh^ble_gb\uc
l_jy_lQlhhlk_j^pZb^_llhk_j^p_g_aZ[m^_lDlhihl_jye^_gv]blhl
gbq_]h g_ ihl_jye Dlh ihl_jye a^hjh\v_ lhl ihl_jye fgh]h_ Dlh ihl_jye
fm`_kl\h lhl ihl_jye \k_ Dlh jZ[hlZ_l lhl dhjfblky Z dlh jmdb keh`bl
lh]h]heh^]eh`_l
Ihkeh\bpu
,, Ghqv lmfZg b gb a]b g_ \b^Zlv JZkk\_eh b \k_ h`beh <u
^h\hevgu b gZf ohjhrh <ahreZ emgZ b k\hbf fy]dbf nhknhjbq_kdbf
k\_lhfhaZjbeZe_kGZklmibeZ\]mklbihghqZfklZehoheh^ghLmfZggZ
qZe dem[blvky b ih^gbfZlvky d\_jom Mljh l_ieh_ b qmlvqmlv fhjhkbl Ijbg_keb[md_lp\_lh\bihklZ\beb_]h\\ZamLbohbkbg_\Z\bkblf_`^m
^_j_\vyfbDZ`^ucbagZkgZk\h_fdhjZ[e_dZiblZgb\_^_ldhjZ[evk\hbf
kh[kl\_ggufiml_f
2) KfaZ^Zgb_gZkMdZaZghdhebq_kl\hij_^eh`_gbc
I. 1) 1. 2) 1; 1. 3) 4. 4) 1. II. 1) 5. 2) 1. III. 3. IV. 3; 2.
***
<_k_eu_^_j_\yggu_kdmevilmjumdjZrZxl^_lkdmxiehsZ^dm\kd\_j_
hgb \klj_qZxlky lh`_ < gZqZe_ ijhki_dlZ klhbl [hevrh_ \ukhlgh_
a^Zgb_ m ih^gh`by dhlhjh]h ijbxlbeky aZl_ceb\uc fZe_gvdbc ^hfbd
K_cqZkilbpulZd`_hohlghihk_eyxlky\p_glj_]hjh^ZdZdhgb^_eZeb
wlhjZgvr_lhevdh\e_kZo
LZdbf h[jZahf ©ih]jZgbqgbdª fh`_l hdZaZlvky g_ lhevdh gZ ]jZgbp_
f_`^mijhklufbij_^eh`_gbyfb\oh^ysbfb\khklZ\keh`gh]hghb\gZqZe_
i_j\h]hij_^eh`_gbyb\gmljbh^gh]hbagbo b ^Z`_ hq_gv j_^dh gZ dhgp_
ij_^eh`_gby
F_klh ]jZgbpu b khhl\_lkl\mxs_]h agZdZ \ lZdbo ij_^eh`_gbyo
hij_^_ey_lkyihkfukem
Ihijh[mcl_ jZkklZ\blv agZdb \ ©hlj_adZoª ij_^eh`_gbc hibjZykv gZ
ij_^m]Z^u\Zgb_bokfukeZbkljmdlmju
119
Dh]^Z gZ ^g_ fhjy hdZau\Z_lky dhjZ[ev hg q_j_a g_dhlhjh_ \j_fy 2. …_a^beg_lhevdh\:njbdm\Bg^bbhglh`_«ij_djZkghdZlZeky
gZdhgvdZogZeu`ZohglZd`_
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk Dh]^Z ©]jZgbpZª b ©ih]jZgbqgbdª gZoh^ylky \ jZaguo f_klZo wlh fh`_l
ijb\_klb d ex[hiulghc hrb[d_ aZf_lb\ ©ih]jZgbqgbdZª khxa beb khxagh_
keh\h ibrmsbcki_rblihklZ\blvi_j_^gbfaZiylmxg_\^mfu\Zykv\kfuke
bg_h[jZsZy\gbfZgbygZ©]jZgbpmª
<lZdbokemqZyo\hagbdZ_lbkdZ`_gb_kfukeZbgh]^Zhq_gvaZ[Z\gh_<hl
g_kdhevdhlZdboijbf_jh\
M f_gy [ueb bgkljmf_glu ^ey \uibeb\Zgby ijb ihfhsb dhlhjuo y
k^_eZedjZkb\mxjZfhqdmYg_\umqbeijZ\behgZhkgh\Zgbbdhlhjh]h
j_rZeZkv aZ^ZqZ Fu ba^Ze_dZ m\b^_eb gZr ^hf gZ djur_ dhlhjh]h
\_jl_ekynex]_jFuoh^bebgZwdkdmjkbx\l_q_gb_dhlhjhcyfgh]h_
magZe
GZ^__fkyqlh\ufuke_gghbkijZ\bebhrb[dbbjZ[hlZykZfhklhyl_evgh
kmf__l_boba[_`Zlv
Ihijh[mcl_jZkklZ\blvagZdbij_ibgZgby\©hlj_adZoªij_^eh`_gbc
« khkm^ djurdZ dhlhjh]h « j_dZ ih h[_ klhjhgu dhlhjhc
jhkeb« … « h[hehqdZ ba ieZklfZkku gZagZq_gb_ dhlhjhc « \ukhdbf aZ[hjhf \^hev dhlhjh]h « [hevrb_ ^hfZ \ gb`gbo
wlZ`Zodhlhjuo «dZfg_fhldjulb_k\hckl\dhlhjh]h …
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk Ijhklu_ ij_^eh`_gby fh]ml kh_^bgylvky \ keh`gu_ ih
HiZkghklb
gZ]jZgbp_ jZaghfm eb[h bglhgZpb_c k ihfhsvx keh\Z
©ih]jZgbqgbdZªeb[hlhevdhbglhgZpb_c
Hij_^_ebl_ \ dZdhf ba ijbf_jh\ qZklb kh_^bg_gu bg
lhgZpb_c b ©ih]jZgbqgbdhfª \ dZdhf ² lhevdh bglhgZ
pb_c
,Imklv^h[juf[m^_lmfm\Zk
:k_j^p_mfguf[m^_l
KYFZjrZd
120
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y
1) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
;hcpuihfbgZxlfbgm\rb_^gb
B[bl\u]^_\f_kl_jm[bebkvhgb
:KImrdbg
G_]gmlky\ukhdb_fZqlu
GZgbonex]_jZg_rmfyl
BfheqZ\hldjulu_exdb
Qm]mggu_imrdb]ey^yl«
GhkiylmkZqb]j_gZ^_ju
<jZ\gbg_]^_Wev[Zrmfbl
FXE_jfhglh\
2) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
,Y\u]eygmel_fgZylmqZ\bk_eZ
GZ^gZrbfl_ZljhfdZdjZa
G:G_djZkh\
,,<^jm]k_j^blhih^djuevphf
I_kaZeZyeb^_\bpZ
<b^blgbsZyq_jgbpZ
Oh^blih^\hjm
Ij_^gbfrbjhdh
J_dZg_keZky[_^gucq_eg
Ihg_cklj_fbekyh^bghdh
3. E_kh\lZbgkl\_ggZyk_gv
Ki_qZevgufrmfhfh[gZ`ZeZkv
Eh`bekygZiheylmfZg
=mk_cdjbdeb\uodZjZ\Zg
Lygmekydx]mijb[eb`ZeZkv
>h\hevghkdmqgZyihjZ
Klhyeghy[jvm`m^\hjZ
Mfhjy\b^_e^m[a_e_guc
Ih^gbfkb^_ebdhlmq_guc
K\hbfg_kdZadb]h\hjbe
H^gmyihfgxkdZadmwlm
Ih\_^Zxl_i_jvyk\_lm
:KImrdbg
***
121
,,BylZf[uebf_^yibe
Mfhjy\b^_e^m[a_e_guc
Ih^gbfkb^_ebdhlmq_guc
K\hbfg_kdZadb]h\hjbe
DZlylkyy^jZk\bsmlimeb
GZ\bkeboeZ^gu_rludb
:KImrdbg
DZdb_ `_ hiZkghklb ^ey q_eh\_dZ jZkklZ\eyxs_]h agZdb ij_ibgZgby
fh]ml\hagbdZlvgZ]jZgbp_"BdZdb_]jZgbpuhiZkg__l_dhlhju_hojZgyxlky
khxaZfbbkhxagufbkeh\Zfbbebl_\hae_dhlhjuobog_l"JZa[_j_fkyihih
jy^dm
?klvljb©hiZkguoªkhxaZbbeb^Z \agZq_gbbb HgbhiZkguihlhfm
qlh i_j_^ gbfb g_ \k_]^Z klZ\blky aZiylZy <k_ hklZevgu_ khxau b khxagu_
keh\Z h[_ki_qb\Zxl ihegmx [_ahiZkghklv =^_ [u hgb gb klhyeb \ gZqZe_
keh`gh]h ij_^eh`_gby gZ ]jZgbp_ f_`^m ij_^eh`_gbyfb beb \gmljb gbo ²
kf_ehklZ\vl_aZiylmxgZ]jZgbp_ g_hrb[_l_kv
<hagbdZ_lebdZdZygb[m^vljm^ghklvkl_fbkeh`gufbij_^eh`_gbyfb\
dhlhjuo ijhklu_ kh_^bg_gu lhevdh ijb ihfhsb bglhgZpbb" ;_amkeh\gh <
wlboij_^eh`_gbyoklZ\blkybeb aZiylZy beb lhqdZ k aZiylhc beb^\h_lhqb_
beblbj_ihwlhfmhgbhiZkgu^eylh]hdlhg_agZ_limgdlmZpbhgguoijZ\beb
ijb\ud\kx^m[_a^mfghklZ\blvaZiylmx
<u\_^_fljbijZ\beZ©ohjhr_]himgdlmZpbhggh]hih\_^_gbyª
Ijb \klj_q_ k ex[uf ©ih]jZgbqgbdhfª djhf_ khxah\ b beb ^Z,
klZ\vl_aZiylmxkihdhcgh
Ijb\klj_q_kkhxaZfbbbeb^ZaZ^mfZcl_kvgm`gZeba^_kvaZiylZy
Ijb \klj_q_ kh keh`guf ij_^eh`_gb_f \ khklZ\_ dhlhjh]h ijhklu_
ij_^eh`_gby kh_^bg_gu lhevdh ijb ihfhsb bglhgZpbb \kihfgbl_ dZdhc
gm`ghklZ\blvagZdkh]eZkghimgdlmZpbhgghfmijZ\bem^\h_lhqb_lbj_lhqdm
kaZiylhcbebaZiylmx
BlZd\uohjhrhgZmqbebkvkqblZlvij_^eh`_gbyb[ulv[^bl_evgufbgZ
bo ©]jZgbpZoª Gh qlh[u hjb_glbjh\Zlvky \ `b\hf ihlhd_ ibkvf_gghc j_qb
gZ^hagZlvdZdjZkiheh`_gu\ij_^eh`_gbb_]hqZklb
122
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
Khqbgbl_evgu_khxau
Kh_^bgbl_evgu_
Ijhlb\bl_evgu_
JZa^_ebl_evgu_
b^Z \agZq_gbbb gbgbbbg_
lhevdhghbdZd
lZdblh`_lZd`_
Zgh^Z \
agZq_gbbgh aZlh
h^gZdh
bebeb[h
bebbeb
eb[heb[h
lhlhg_lh
g_lh
***
©=mkbªb©fZlj_rdbª
K_cqZk \u ijhql_l_ ^\Z ij_^eh`_gby dhlhju_ g_
hlebqZxlky^jm]hl^jm]Zihkfukemgh©mkljh_guªih
jZaghfm Ihijh[mcl_h[tykgblvwlbjZaebqby
Mkljh_guih
jZaghfm
Dh]^ZkZ^behkvkhegp_iZjlby]_heh]h\m`_ih^oh^beZdj_d_
2. IZjlby]_heh]h\dh]^ZkZ^behkvkhegp_m`_ih^oh^beZdj_d_
©Mkljhckl\hª wlbo keh`guo ij_^eh`_gbc jZaebqZ_lky jZkiheh`_gb_f
\oh^ysbo \ gbo ijhkluo < i_j\hf ijbf_j_ ijhklu_ ij_^eh`_gby ke_^mxl
h^gh aZ ^jm]bf dZd ]mkb gZ ijh]med_ <h \lhjhf ijbf_j_ h^gh ij_^eh`_gb_
hdZaZehkv\gmljb^jm]h]hdZdfZlj_rdZ\fZlj_rd_
AZihfgbl_ Lh ij_^eh`_gb_ dhlhjh_ jZkiheh`_gh \gmljb ^jm]h]h
\u^_ey_lkyaZiylufbk^\moklhjhg
<hl \Zf _s_ h^gh ijZ\beh ©ohjhr_]h imgdlmZpbhggh]h ih\_^_gbyª ijb
jZ[hl_ kh keh`guf ij_^eh`_gb_f \uykgycl_ dZd jZkiheh`_gu \oh^ysb_ \
g_]h ijhklu_ ² h^gh aZ ^jm]bf beb h^gh \gmljb ^jm]h]h JZ[hlZlv k
©fZlj_rdZfbªljm^g__q_fk©]mkyfbª
Qlh[um\b^_lvij_^eh`_gbyb^msb_h^ghaZ^jm]bf^hklZlhqghgZclbbo
]jZffZlbq_kdb_ hkgh\u b ]jZgbpu Djhf_ lh]h gZ^h ihfgblv qlh \
keh`ghkhqbg_gguoij_^
123
eh`_gbyo©]mkyoª qZklb g_ aZ\bkyl ^jm] hl ^jm]Z ]jZffZlbq_kdb b hl
h^ghcd^jm]hcg_evayihklZ\blv]jZffZlbq_kdbc\hijhk
Qlh[u m\b^_lv ©fZlj_rdbª gZ^h g_ lhevdh jZaebqZlv dZdZy ba gbo
©gZjm`gZyªZdZdZy©\gmlj_ggyyªghbfuke_ggh\hkkh_^bgblvjZajhag_ggu_
qZklbgZjm`gh]hij_^eh`_gby\_^bgh_kfukeh\h_b]jZffZlbq_kdh_p_eh_²
\_^bguc[ehdLZd\keh`ghfij_^eh`_gbbAgZgbydhlhju_g_ihihegyxlky
_`_^g_\gh m[u\Zxl k dZ`^uf ^g_f gZ^h m\b^_lv ^\Z ijhkluo AgZgby
m[u\ZxlkdZ`^uf^g_fbdhlhju_g_ihihegyxlky_`_^g_\gh.
124
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y
1) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
Ih^qbgbl_evgu_khxau
Dh]^Z ihdZ _^\Z ebrv ebrv lhevdh dZd lhevdh ihlhfm qlh lZd dZd
hllh]hqlhb[hqlh[u^eylh]hqlh[u_kebdhebdZ[u_keb[udZd[m^lh
dZd[m^lhkeh\ghlZdqlhqlh
Khxagu_keh\Z
Dlh qlh dZdhc q_c dhlhjuc kdhevdh dZd dh]^Z ]^_ dm^Z hldm^Z
hlq_]hihq_fmaZq_f
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk<uibkZgukhxaubkhxagu_keh\Zi_j_^dhlhjufbklZ\blky
aZiylZy
Qlh[udh]^Zqlh[u
QlhbDhlhju_
2) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
«h[jZah\Zekyf_edhlhjuffu«\k_wlhke_`b\ZehkvbfZkkZ
«fhjkdh_^ghih^gyehkvbkehbf_eZ«jZkkdZaZebfgh]h_balh]hqlh
agZxlmq_gu_
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
Dh]^Z gZ ^g_ fhjy hdZau\Z_lky dhjZ[ev hg q_j_a g_dhlhjh_ \j_fy
«_a^beg_lhevdh\:njbdm\Bg^bbhglh`_«ij_djZkghdZlZekygZ
dhgvdZogZeu`ZohglZd`_ ...
***
Ihijh[mcl_ \u^_eblv ij_^eh`_gby \ ke_^mxsbo ijbf_jZo jZkklZ\vl_ \
gboagZdbij_ibgZgby
L_f m dh]h iZjd_l ihdjul eZdhf ^hklZlhqgh ijhl_j_lv _]h qmlv \eZ`ghc
ljyidhc Ebghe_mf ke_^m_l fulv ke_]dZ \eZ`ghc ]m[dhc dhlhjmx
kfZqb\Zxl kdbib^Zjhf Z ihlhf kjZam ihdjulv ©KZfh[e_kdhfª GZ
dmohgghf ihem _keb hg ihdjul iheb\bgbeoehjb^gufb iebldZfb qZklh
ihy\eyxlky l_fgu_ iylgZ <hkihevamcl_kv dZjZg^Zrghc j_abgdhc qlh[u
mgbqlh`blvboZihlhflZd`_gZg_kbl_©KZfh[e_kdª
Ba]Za_l
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk 125
?keb \u k^_eZeb \k_ ijZ\bevgh qblZcl_ l_dkl ^Zevr_ kf aZ]heh\hd
©AZiylu_g_l_jycl_kvª ?keb m \Zk [ueb hrb[db b \Zf ohq_lky ihlj_gbjh\Zlvky _s_ fu
ij_^eZ]Z_f\Zf^jm]h_aZ^Zgb_gZjZkklZgh\dmagZdh\ij_ibgZgby
>_lbdhlhju_`b\mlgZh^ghfbafZe_gvdbohkljh\h\Yihgbbbgh]^Zoh^yl
\rdhemgZoh^meyoKhk_^gbchkljh\]^_gZoh^blkyrdheZhl^_ey_lkyhl
bohkljh\Zg_]em[hdbfijheb\hfWlhlijheb\dh]^Z^he]hg_b^ml^h`^b
kbevghf_e__lihwlhfmg_\hafh`ghihevah\Zlvkyeh^dZfbB^_lbqlh[um
gbog_ijhiZ^ZebaZgylbyi_j_ijZ\eyxlkyq_j_aijheb\gZoh^meyoJ_[ylZ
dhlhju_ i_j_^\b]Zxlky lZdbf kihkh[hf hq_gv eh\dh ihemqZxl hl wlh]h
aZgylbyh]jhfgh_m^h\hevkl\b_
Ba]Za_l
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk <klj_qZebkv eb m \Zk ljm^ghklb ijb \uiheg_gbb
AZiylu_g_
l_jycl_kv aZ^Zgbc" ?keb g_l lh h[jZsZ_f \Zr_ \gbfZgb_ gZ h^bg
dh\Zjguc kemqZc G_dhlhju_ keh`gu_ ij_^eh`_gby
gZqbgZxlky keh\Zfb lZf ]^_, lhl dlh l_
dhlhju_\k_qlhbl^
GZijbf_jLhldlh_oZegZeu`Zo\i_j_^b\k_omiZeLZflhll_\k_
—gZqZehi_j\h]hij_^eh`_gbywlhqZklv©gZjm`ghcfZlj_rdbª^Ze__kh
keh\ ]^_ dlh dhlhju_ qlh gZqbgZ_lky ©\gmlj_ggyy fZlj_rdZª GZ^h
hl^_eblvwlbkeh\Z^jm]hl^jm]ZaZiylufb
K_cqZk\uijhql_l_jy^ijbf_jh\kh^_j`Zsbowlmljm^ghklvIhijh[mcl_
jZkklZ\blv\gboijhims_ggu_agZdbij_ibgZgby
1. <_^vlhldlhgZlbjZeiZjd_l
Ex[bek\hxjZ[hlm
JK_n
2. <k_lhq_]hdhkg_lkyq_eh\_d
Ijbh[j_lZ_lg_qlhq_eh\_qv_
KYFZjrZd
L_dlhghqvxaZe_lZeb
DgZf\jZkdjulh_hdgh
Lj_i_lZebklj_dhlZeb
=^_lhkiyl^Z\guf^Z\gh
<>;_j_klh\
126
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y
1) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
khkm^djurdZdhlhjh]hj_dZihh[_klhjhgudhlhjhcjhkeb
« h[hehqdZ ba ieZklfZkku gZagZq_gb_ dhlhjhc « \ukhdbf aZ[hjhf
\^hevdhlhjh]h«[hevrb_^hfZ\gb`gbowlZ`Zodhlhjuo«dZfg_f
hldjulb_k\hckl\dhlhjh]h ...
2) KfaZ^Zgb_gZkIjb^Zlhqgu_ij_^eh`_gby\u^_e_gudmjkb\hf
L_f mdh]hiZjd_lihdjuleZdhf^hklZlhqghijhl_j_lv_]hqmlv\eZ`ghc
ljyidhcEbghe_mfke_^m_lfulvke_]dZ\eZ`ghc]m[dhcdhlhjmxkfZqb\Zxl
kdbib^ZjhfZihlhfkjZamihdjulv©KZfh[e_kdhfªGZdmohgghfihem_kebhg
ihdjul iheb\bgbeoehjb^gufb iebldZfb qZklh ihy\eyxlky l_fgu_ iylgZ
<hkihevamcl_kvdZjZg^Zrghcj_abgdhcqlh[umgbqlh`blvboZihlhflZd`_
gZg_kbl_©KZfh[e_kdª
Ba]Za_l
3) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
>_lb dhlhju_ `b\ml gZ h^ghf ba fZe_gvdbo hkljh\h\ Yihgbb bgh]^Z
oh^yl\rdhemgZoh^meyoKhk_^gbchkljh\]^_gZoh^blkyrdheZhl^_ey_lky
hlbohkljh\Zg_]em[hdbfijheb\hfWlhlijheb\dh]^Z^he]hg_b^ml^h`^b
kbevghf_e__lihwlhfmg_\hafh`ghihevah\Zlvkyeh^dZfbB^_lbqlh[umgbo
g_ ijhiZ^Zeb aZgylby i_j_ijZ\eyxlky q_j_a ijheb\ gZ oh^meyo J_[ylZ
dhlhju_ i_j_^\b]Zxlky lZdbf kihkh[hf hq_gv eh\dh ihemqZxl hl wlh]h aZ
gylbyh]jhfgh_m^h\hevkl\b_
Ba]Za_l
***
3. WlhdZ`_lky^Ze_dh²
LZf]^_xghklv`beZfhy
F:K\_leh\
4. Bljhidbqlhiheaml
Kd\have_khl^hfZd^hfm
L_[yg_ijb\_^ml
Dq_fmgb[m^vom^hfm
127
J=j_c\a
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk >ebgZ hlj_adh\ ©gZjm`ghc fZlj_rdbª [u\Z_l kZfZy jZagZy jZagufb ih
jZaf_jm fh]ml [ulv b ©\gmlj_ggb_ fZlj_rdbª Ihwlhfm ijb jZ[hl_ k gbfb
gZ^hhjb_glbjh\ZlvkygZ\^mfqb\h_jZa^_e_gb_boihkfukem
Ihijh[mcl_ijZ\bevghjZa^_eblvagZdZfbij_ibgZgby©fZlj_rdbª
AZh]jZ^hckZ^Z
=^_p\_l_lrbih\gbd
@be\a_e_ghfrZeZr_
>_^mrdZkZ^h\gbd
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk (HH>jba
H^gZklZjZyZg]ebckdZykdZadZgZqbgZ_lkylZdbfij_^eh`_gb_f
>Z\guf^Z\gh
Dh]^Zdmjuibeb\bgh
:mldb`_\ZeblZ[Zd
BijbwlhfdjydZeb©djydª
@beZ[ueZgZk\_l_k\bgvyklj_fy
ihjhkylZfb
<uibrbl_ ba wlh]h ij_^eh`_gby ]eZ\gmx qZklv ² ©gZjm`gmx
fZlj_rdmª
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk ?keb ©\gmlj_ggyy fZlj_rdZª \u^_e_gZ lhevdh k h^ghc klhjhgu beb
\u^_e_gZ k ^\mo klhjhg gh g_ijZ\bevgh kfuke ij_^eh`_gbc gZjmrZ_lky b
fh]ml\hagbdgmlvkf_rgu_bg_e_iu_hrb[db
Ij_^eZ]Z_f \Zf gZ[hj ij_^eh`_gbc k lZdbfb hrb[dZfb Ihijh[mcl_ bo
bkijZ\blv
, <Zky [_j_`gh iheh`be il_gqbdZ dhlhjuc miZe k ^_j_\Z h[jZlgh \
]g_a^hYgZdjue[Z[hqdmdhlhjZyhimklbeZkvgZp\_lhdeZ^hgyfbIh
\_q_jZfyjZa\e_dZek_klj_gdmdhlhjZy[he_eZql_gb_f\kemoK_klj_gdZ
kemrZeZ ijbdexq_gby LhfZ Khc_jZ dhlhju_ _c ihgjZ\bebkv k [hevrbf
bgl_j_khf Dh]^Z Lhf Khc_j aZ[em^beky \ i_s_j_ m k_klj_gdb ^Z`_
ke_au\uklmibebgZ]eZaZo<^hf_]^_y`b\m\h\lhjgbdkhklhblky
128
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y
1) KfaZ^ZgbygZk<uibkZguijb^Zlhqgu_ij_^eh`_gbydhlhju_\u^_eyxlky
aZiylufb
DlhgZlbjZeiZjd_l
Q_]hdhkg_lkyq_eh\_d
DlhghqvxaZe_lZebdgZf\jZkdjulh_hdghlj_i_lZebklj_dhlZeb
=^_xghklv`beZfhy
Qlhiheamlkd\have_khl^hfZd^hfm
2) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk<uibkZghijb^Zlhqgh_ij_^eh`_gb_
=^_p\_l_lrbih\gbd
3) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
>Z\guf^Z\gh`beZ[ueZgZk\_l_k\bgvyklj_fyihjhkylZfb
4) KfaZ^Zgb_gZkIhdZaZguhlj_adbij_^eh`_gbckhagZdZfbij_ibgZgby
,dhlhjucmiZek^_j_\ZdhlhjZyhimklbeZkvgZp\_lhd
dhlhjZy [he_eZ dhlhju_ _c ihgjZ\bebkv \ i_s_j_ m
k_klj_gdb]^_y`b\m]^_fuqZklheh\bebju[m ...
II. 1. …dhlhjuc\uimklbebajmdfZevqbd gZ[_j_]mdhlhjhcklhbl
^_j_\gy dhlhju_ ieZ\Zeb \ Zd\Zjbmf_ ih dhlhjhc ijhfqZeky
Z\lhfh[bev k dhlhjuf y \q_jZ ihkkhjbeky [ dhlhjZy [_`ZeZ ih
dZfgyfdm^ZfuqZklhoh^bebaZ]jb[Zfb ...
kh[jZgb_ `bevph\ M j_db ]^_ fuqZklh eh\beb ju[m gZ himrd_ e_kZ
]hj_edhkl_j
,,<ha^mrgucrZjdhlhjuc\uimklbebajmdfZevqbdq_j_afbgmlm[uem`_
gZ^ \_jomrdhc ^_j_\Z J_dZ gZ [_j_]m dhlhjhc klhbl ^_j_\gy \iZ^Z_l \
[hevrh_ ha_jh AZ ^\b`_gbyfb ju[hd dhlhju_ ieZ\Zeb \ Zd\Zjbmf_
`Z^gufb ]eZaZfb ke_^beZ dhrdZ Ih ^hjh]_ ih dhlhjhc ijhfqZeky
Z\lhfh[bev[hkbdhf[_`ZeFb
129
rdZ<ZkvdZkdhlhjufy\q_jZihkkhjbekyk\_k_eufebphf[_`Zefg_
gZ\klj_qm Ih ^gm j_qmrdb dhlhjZy[_`ZeZihdZfgyf aZ^hf gZi_j_^
^\b]ZekyjZd<e_kmdm^ZfuqZklhoh^bebaZ]jb[Zfbjhkeb\ukhdb_
[_j_au
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk Hrb[db \ ij_^eh`_gbyo©fZlj_rdZoª g_j_^dh ijhbkoh^yl baaZ ihl_jb
ih^e_`Zs_]h \gmljb ij_^eh`_gby b g_ijZ\bevgh]h h[t_^bg_gby kdZam_fh]h
\gmlj_gg_]h ij_^eh`_gby k ih^e_`Zsbf gZjm`gh]h ij_^eh`_gby \ h^gm
hkgh\m < ^Zgguo gb`_ ij_^eh`_gbyo hrb[hqgh h[t_^bg_ggu_ \
]jZffZlbq_kdmxhkgh\mih^e_`Zsb_bkdZam_fu_\u^_e_gudmjkb\hf
KlZjuc^m[qlhjhkgZdjZxjhsbrbjhdhjZkdbgmek\hb\_l\b>hf
dhlhjucklhyegZ[_j_]mfhjykem`behjb_glbjhf^eyju[Zqvboeh^hd
LZdZy ihl_jy ih^e_`Zs_]h ijb^Zlhqgh]h ij_^eh`_gby ijb\h^bl d
g_\hafh`ghklb m\b^_lv ^\Z [ehdZ b bo jZkiheh`_gb_ ^jm] \ ^jm]_ b
_kl_kl\_ggh h[hjZqb\Z_lky ihl_j_c agZdh\ ij_ibgZgby hl^_eyxsbo [ehdb
h^bghl ^jm]h]h Ihwlhfm ijb^_j`b\Zcl_kv ijZ\be ©DZ`^hfm kdZam_fhfm ²
k\h_ih^e_`Zs__ª©DZ`^hfmih^e_`Zs_fm²k\h_kdZam_fh_ª
Ihijh[mcl_ij_h^he_lvwlmljm^ghklv
< ke_^mxsbo ijbf_jZo gZc^bl_ ]jZffZlbq_kdb_ hkgh\u [_a ihl_jv b
jZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
K gZklmie_gb_f hk_ggbo oheh^h\ q_luj_ ]hjbeeu GvxChjdkdh]h
ahhiZjdZi_j_rebbaijhklhjghcde_ldb]^_hgbj_a\bebkve_lhf\l_kgh_
ihf_s_gb_ L_kghlZ dhlhjZy ihjh^beZ kdmdm ijb\_eZ d ^jZdZf f_`^m
`b\hlgufb H[kem`b\Zxsbc ]hjbee kem`bl_ev dhlhjuc [_a dhgpZ
mlbohfbjb\Ze `b\hlguo bkijh[h\Ze g_h[uqgh_ kj_^kl\h Hg mklZgh\be
i_j_^ de_ldhc ]^_ kb^_eb h[_avygu [hevrhc l_e_\bahj Lh]^Z kkhju
f_`^m]hjbeeZfbij_djZlbebkvihlhfmqlh`b\hlgu_qZkZfbg_hloh^beb
hlwdjZgZ
Ba]Za_l
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk JZ[hlZk©]mkyfbªb©fZlj_rdZfbªij_^ty\ey_lih\ur_ggu_lj_[h\Zgbyd
mf_gbxkqblZlv
130
Ihijh[mcl_ ihkqblZlv kdhevdh ij_^eh`_gbc \ dZ`^hf ba ke_^mxsbo
ijbf_jh\^\ZbebljbIhimlghjZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
< dbghl_Zlj_ dm^Z ijbr_e <hevdZ k OhllZ[uq_f gZqbgZeky \_q_jgbc
k_Zgk >_lb dhlhju_ g_ ^hklb]eb r_klgZ^pZlbe_lg_]h \hajZklZ gZ wlhl
k_Zgk g_ ^himkdZebkv Lh]^Z Ohl]Z[uq qlhlh ijhr_ilZe gZ^ \hehkdhf
dhlhjuc hg \uj\Ze ba k\h_c [hjh^u b \_kgmrqZlh_ ebph <hevdb
ihdjuehkv jhkdhrghc jmkhc [hjh^hc < nhc_ dbghl_ZljZ dm^Z OhllZ[uq
ijh\_e <hevdm \hdjm] gbo klheibeky gZjh^ :^fbgbkljZlhj djbdgme
qlh[u \k_ jZahrebkv ihlhfm qlh [hjh^Zluc j_[_ghd kfmsZ_lky Lml \k_
dlh [ue \ [mn_l_ lh`_ ih[_`Zeb kfhlj_lv [hjh^Zlh]h j_[_gdZ Gbdlh g_
agZeq_f[u\k_dhgqbehkvgh\wlmfbgmlmijha\_g_ea\hghd
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk IhEBEZ]bgm
Mki_o jZ[hlu k ij_^eh`_gbyfb gZa\Zggufb gZfb M]Z^Zcl_
©]mkyfbª b ©fZlj_rdZfbª \ [hevr_c kl_i_gb aZ\bkbl hl l_o ©]mk_cªb
mf_gbc h dhlhjuo ]h\hjbehkv \ gZqZe_ wlhc dgb]b mf_gbc ©fZlj_r_dª
ij_^m]Z^u\Zlv l_dkl b m^_j`b\Zlv _]h \ iZfylb AZibkZ\
gZqZeh ij_^eh`_gby \u \ jy^_ kemqZ_\ m`_ fh`_l_
ij_^\b^_lv qlh ihke_^m_l ©fZlj_rdZ \ fZlj_rd_ª HklZ_lky
ihklZ\blv aZiylmx \ gZqZe_ ©\gmlj_gg_c fZlj_rdbª b g_
aZ[ulvh\lhjhcaZiylhcdh]^Zwlhij_^eh`_gb_dhgqblky
Ijh\_jvl_gZkdhevdh\ukihkh[gudlZdhfmij_^m]Z^u\ZgbxHij_^_ebl_
ih ^Zgguf gZqZeZf dZd jZkiheh`_gu ij_^eh`_gby h^gh aZ ^jm]bf ©]mkbª
bebh^gh\gmljb^jm]h]h ©fZlj_rdbª Ijhbahreh lh Lh qlh ijhbahreh Dh]^Z gZqZehkv >_gv
dh]^ZgZqZehkv=^_dhgqZ_lkyLZf]^_dhgqZ_lky
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk <hhjm`b\rbkv wlbfb agZgbyfb ihijh[mcl_ jZkklZ\blv agZdb \
ke_^mxsboij_^eh`_gbyo
>ey lh]h qlh[u hlim]b\Zlv ilbp hl njmdlh\uo ^_j_\v_\ b ihk_\h\
Z\kljZebckdb_n_jf_jubkihevamxlieZklfZkkh
131
\uoyklj_[h\GZlhgdhce_kd_dhlhjZygZly]b\Z_lkyf_`^m^_j_\vyfbbeb
klhe[Zfb mdj_ieyxlky fZd_lu ilbp Dh]^Z ^m_l \_l_j wlb ieZklfZkkh\u_
©^\hcgbdbª \iheg_ ijZ\^hih^h[gh fZrml djuevyfb Fgh]b_ ilbpu
gbdh]^Zg_klZgmlbkdZlvibsmbebhl^uoZlvlZf]^_hgb\b^ylyklj_[Zba
aZ ijbjh^gh]h kljZoZ i_j_^ wlbf obsgbdhf H^gh]h ieZklfZkkh\h]h
yklj_[Z^hklZlhqghqlh[um[_j_qvmjh`Zchl\hjh[v_\kd\hjph\ihim]Z_\
gZiehsZ^b[he__h^gh]h]_dlZjZ
Ba]Za_l
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk IjhqblZcl_klbohl\hj_gb_<:E_\bgZ©>`h;beeªihkqblZcl_kdhevdh
\g_fijb^Zlhqguoij_^eh`_gbc
>`hgZlZg;bee >`hgZlZg;bee
dhlhjucm[be dhlhjuce_qbe
f_^\_^y yqf_gv
\Q_jghf[hjm gZe_\hf]eZam
>`hgZlZg;bee >`hgZlZg;bee
dhlhjucdmibe dhlhjucmqbe
\ijhrehf]h^m i_lvihghlZf
d_g]mjm dham
>`hgZlZg;bee >`hgZlZg;bee
dhlhjuckdhibe dhlhjucmieue
ijh[hd
\Bg^bx
^\Zkmg^mdZ dl_lmrd_Ljhl
>`hgZlZg;bee lZd\hl
dhlhjucdhjfbe wlhlkZfuc>`h;bee
nbgbdZfb
hq_gvex[be
[udZ
dhfihl
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk ?keb m \Zk g_ [ueh hrb[hd qblZcl_ l_dkl ih^ aZ]heh\dhf ©Kd_e_l
ij_^eh`_gbyª?kebm\Zk_klvihlj_[ghklvihlj_gbjh\Zlvky_s_jZkklZ\vl_\
l_dkl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
DlhlhkdZaZeqlh\j_fy_^bgkl\_ggh_qlh[_jmlg_\^he]ZgZ\k_]^Z
G_ gZ^h aZ[u\Zlv qlh lhevdh l_ agZgby dhlhju_ ^h[ulu ljm^hf ^_eZxl
q_eh\_dZ Q_eh\_dhf ]hlh\yl _]h d h[s_kl\_gghfm ljm^m khagZl_evghfm
\u[hjmijhn_kkbb
FKfbjgh\Z
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk 132
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y
1) KfaZ^Zgb_gZk<uibkZgu]jZffZlbq_kdb_hkgh\uij_^eh`_gbc
Q_luj_ ]hjbeeu i_j_reb hgb j_a\bebkv L_kghlZ ijb\_eZ dhlhjZy
ihjh^beZ Kem`bl_ev bkijh[h\Ze dhlhjuc mlbohfbjb\Ze Hg mklZgh\be
kb^_ebh[_avyguKkhjuij_djZlbebkv`b\hlgu_g_hloh^beb
KfaZ^Zgb_gZkIhke_dZ`^h]hkeh`gh]hij_^eh`_gby\kdh[dZomdZaZgh
dhebq_kl\hijhkluoij_^eh`_gbc\oh^ysbo\_]hkhklZ\
< dbghl_Zlj_ dm^Z ijbr_e <hevdZ kOhllZ[uq_f gZqbgZeky \_q_jgbc
k_Zgk >_lb dhlhju_ g_ ^hklb]eb r_klgZ^pZlbe_lg_]h \hajZklZ gZ wlhl
k_Zgkg_^himkdZebkv Lh]^ZOhllZ[uqqlhlhijhr_ilZegZ^\hehkdhfdh
lhjuc hg \uj\Ze ba k\h_c [hjh^u b \_kgmrqZlh_ ebph <hevdb ihdjuehkv
jhkdhrghc jmkhc [hjh^hc < nhc_ dbghl_ZljZ dm^Z OhllZ[uq ijh\_e
<hevdm \hdjm] gbo klheibeky gZjh^ :^fbgbkljZlhj djbdgme qlh[u \k_
jZahrebkv ihlhfm qlh [hjh^Zluc j_[_ghd kfmsZ_lky Lml \k_ dlh [ue \
[mn_l_lh`_ih[_`Zebkfhlj_lv[hjh^Zlh]hj_[_gdZ Gbdlhg_agZeq_f[u
\k_dhgqbehkvgh\wlmfbgmlmijha\_g_ea\hghd KfaZ^Zgb_gZkPbnjZmdZau\Z_lgZihjy^dh\ucghf_jij_^eh`_gby
©=mkbª²©FZlj_rdbª²
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
>ey lh]h qlh[u hlim]b\Zlv ilbp hl njmdlh\uo ^_j_\v_\ b ihk_\h\
Z\kljZebckdb_n_jf_jubkihevamxlieZklfZkkh\uoyklj_[h\GZlhgdhce_kd_
dhlhjZy gZly]b\Z_lky f_`^m ^_j_\vyfb beb klhe[Zfb mdj_ieyxlky fZd_lu
ilbpDh]^Z^m_l\_l_jwlbieZklfZkkh\u_©^\hcgbdbª\iheg_ijZ\^hih^h[gh
fZrmldjuevyfbFgh]b_ilbpugbdh]^Zg_klZgmlbkdZlvibsmbebhl^uoZlv
lZf ]^_ hgb \b^yl yklj_[Z baaZ ijbjh^gh]h kljZoZ i_j_^ wlbf obsgbdhf
H^gh]hieZklfZkkh\h]hyklj_[Z^hklZlhqghqlh[um[_j_qvmjh`Zchl\hjh[v_\
kd\hjph\ihim]Z_\gZiehsZ^b[he__h^gh]h]_dlZjZ Ba]Za_l
***
133
©Kd_e_lªij_^eh`_gby
KemqZehkv eb \Zf ^_j`Zlv \ jmdZo ^_lkdmx b]jmrdm dZe_c^hkdhi" E_]dh
\kljyob\Zy _]h \u gZ[ex^Z_l_ kf_gyxsb_ ^jm] ^jm]Z [_kdhg_qgh
jZaghh[jZagu_mahjuWlhkdZahqgh_jZaghh[jZab_kha^Z_lkyijbihfhsblj_o
ihehkhda_jdZeZb]hjklbjZaghp\_lguokl_deyr_dLh`_ijhbkoh^blb\yau
d_ Kdhevdh \ g_fij_^eh`_gbc" Fhjy ]Za_lguo klZl_c b p_eu_ hd_Zgu dgb]
Gh wlh [_kdhg_qgh_ fgh`_kl\h kljhblky ba h]jZgbq_ggh]h dhebq_kl\Z
we_f_glh\ \klmiZxsbo \ jZaebqgu_ dhf[bgZpbb AgZy wlb we_f_glu \u
[m^_l_ k\h[h^gh hjb_glbjh\Zlvky \ ex[hc ^j_fmq_c qZs_ keh`guo kbg
lZdkbq_kdbo dhgkljmdpbc b kfh`_l_ k^_eZlv mkeh\gh_ bah[jZ`_gb_ h^ghc ba
gbo
< i_j\mx hq_j_^v gZ^h \u^_eblv hkgh\ghc we_f_gl keh`guo
kbglZdkbq_kdbo dhgkljmdpbc Wlh ijhklh_ ij_^eh`_gb_ beb h^gZ qZklv
dhlhjZy \ keh`ghf ij_^eh`_gbb \uklmiZ_l \ dZq_kl\_ _]h qZklb Bah[jZabf
mkeh\ghqZklvij_^eh`_gby\\b^_ijyfhm]hevgbdZ<hllZd
Ba g_[hevrh]h qbkeZ dhf[bgZpbc lZdbo ©dbjibqbdh\ª fh`gh kha^Zlv
ko_fu kZfuo jZaguo ij_^eh`_gbc Ihkfhljbf dZd wlh ^_eZ_lky I_j_^ \Zfb
ij_^eh`_gb_
< AZiZ^ghc :njbd_ ijhn_kkbhgZevgu_ kdZahqgbdb ihevamxlky
nb]mjdZfbdZ`^Zynb]mjdZh[hagZqZ_lhij_^_e_ggmxkdZadmbi_j_[bjZy
ihh^ghcnb]mjd_jZkkdZaqbdg_[hblkyijhimklblvdZdmxeb[hbakdZahd
::E_hglv_\
KdhevdhqZkl_c\wlhfij_^eh`_gbb"LjbAgZqblgZko_f_^he`gh[ulv
ljbdbjibqbdZ:dZdbojZkiheh`blv">eywlh]h\hi_j\uogZ^hihgylvqlh
i_j_^gZfb©]mkbªbeb ©fZlj_rdbª <h\lhjuo \uykgblv dZdb_ a^_kv qZklb
lhevdh ]eZ\gu_ beb ]eZ\gu_ b ijb^Zlhqgu_ lh`_ <kihfgbf qlh ]eZ\gu_
qZklb g_ aZ\bkyl ^jm] hl ^jm]Z ]jZffZlbq_kdb b hl h^ghc d ^jm]hc g_evay
ihklZ\blv ]jZffZlbq_kdh]h \hijhkZ Z ijb^Zlhqgu_ qZklb aZ\bkyl hl ]eZ\guo
]jZffZlbq_kdbbhl]eZ\guodijb^Zlhqguffh`ghihklZ\blv\hijhk
<ij_^eh`_gbbhkdZahqgbdZoljbqZklbb\k_hgb]eZ\gu_bke_^mxl^jm]
aZ^jm]hfdZd©]mkbª<hllZd
134
GZ dZ`^hf ©dbjibqbd_ª \u klZ\bl_ ihjy^dh\uc ghf_j qZklb keh`gh]h
ij_^eh`_gbyQZkl_c©dbjibqbdh\ªbghf_jh\fh`_l[ulvkdhevdhm]h^gh
?keb ko_fZ keh`ghkhqbg_ggh]h ij_^eh`_gby jZkiheZ]Z_lky gZ h^ghc
ebgbb lh kh keh`ghih^qbg_ggufb ij_^eh`_gbyfb ^_eh h[klhbl bgZq_
]eZ\gu_qZklbgZoh^ylkygZ\_jomZijb^Zlhqgu_ih^gbfb<hllZd
QZklbij_^eh`_gbcfu\k_]^Zgmf_jm_fihihjy^dmGZijbf_j
?keb\_jblvmq_gufiylvfbgmlkf_oZkh\_jr_gghkgbfZxlmklZehklv
ihke_qZkZgZijy`_gghcjZ[hlu
3. Ex^b ohlyl agZlv gZkdhevdh [h]ZlZ bo A_fey bkdhiZ_fufb b
wg_j]_lbq_kdbfbj_kmjkZfb
KhklZ\vl_ko_fuij_^eh`_gbc
>hjh]h\h\j_fy\j_fy
<j_f_gbfgh]hbfZeh
>he]h_\j_fy²g_\j_fy
?kebhghfbgh\Zeh
KYFZjrZd
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk :dZd^he`gZ\u]ey^_lvgZko_f_©fZlj_rdZª"GZijbf_j
Jmkkdbc ]jZ`^Zgkdbc ZenZ\bl dhlhjuf fu ihevam_fky b \ gZklhys__
\j_fy[ue\\_^_gI_ljhf,Fuij_^eZ]Z_flZdhc\ZjbZgl
KhklZ\vl_ko_fukeh`guoij_^eh`_gbc
< dhgp_ ijhreh]h \_dZ jmdh\h^bl_eb fhkdh\kdbo l_Zljh\ bgh]^Z
ijb]eZrZeb ih`Zjguo gZ jheb klZlbklh\ H^gZ`^u \ h^ghf ba l_Zljh\
r_e ki_dlZdev ©Ob`bgZ ^y^b LhfZª \ dhlhjhf ih`Zjgu_ bah[jZ`Zeb
g_]jh\<
135
^jm]hfklZ\bebdhf_^bx]^_ih`Zjgu_bah[jZ`Zebq_jl_c<wlh\j_fy\
^jm]hfdhgp_Fhkd\ugZqZekykbevgucih`Zj:jlbkludhlhju_\ihiuoZo
g_ kgyeb ]jbfZ ihfqZebkv d f_klm ih`ZjZ <i_j_^b fqZeky djZkguc
^vy\he gZ djZkghf dhg_ aZ gbf gZ l_e_]_ g_kebkv djZkgu_ q_jlb k
ih`Zjgufb [Z]jZfb AZl_f ijhg_kky q_jguc ^vy\he gZ ahehlhf dhg_ hg
^_j`Ze \ jmdZo iueZxsbc nZd_e AZ gbf ijh]jhohlZeZ l_e_]Z \ dhlhjhc
kb^_eb q_jgu_ ^vy\heu \ f_^guo re_fZo Kdhjh q_jlb ihy\bebkv gZ
djur_ ]hjys_]h ^hfZ kj_^b yaudh\ ieZf_gb Dh]^Z lheiZ m\b^_eZ wlh
\hagbdeZ iZgbdZ =m[_jgZlhj dhlhjhfm lh`_ [ueh kljZrgh\Zlh aZij_lbe
ih`Zjguf\^Zevg_cr_fb]jZlv\l_Zlj_
Ba`mjgZeh\
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk I_j_c^_fd[he__ljm^gufkemqZyf<keh`ghih^qbg_gguoij_^eh`_gbyo
fh`_l [ulv fgh]h ijb^Zlhqguo qZkl_c b jZkiheh`_gu hgb [u\Zxl ih
jZaghfmHgbfh]mljZkiheZ]ZlvkylZd\lhjZyqZklvijbkh_^bgy_lkydi_j\hc
lj_lvydh\lhjhcq_l\_jlZydlj_lv_cbl^bhgblh`_b^mlh^gZaZ^jm]hc
dZd ©]mkbª lhevdh g_ ih ]hjbahglZeb Z ih \_jlbdZeb k\_jom \gba LZdh_
ih^qbg_gb_gZau\Z_lkyihke_^h\Zl_evguf<hldZdwlh\u]ey^bl
<hl^hf
Dhlhjucihkljhbe>`_d
:wlhir_gbpZ
DhlhjZy\l_fghfqmeZg_ojZgblky
<^hf_dhlhjucihkljhbe>`_d
:wlhkbgbpZ
DhlhjZyeh\dh\hjm_lir_gbpm
DhlhjZy\l_fghfqmeZg_ojZgblky
<^hf_dhlhjucihkljhbe>`_d
< klbohl\hj_gbb K Y FZjrZdZ ^_\ylv keh`guo ij_^eh`_gbc b dZ`^h_
gZh^gmijb^ZlhqgmxqZklv[hevr_ij_^u^ms_]h
IhkqblZcl_ dhebq_kl\h qZkl_c \ ihke_^g_f ij_^eh`_gbb KhklZ\vl_ _]h
ko_fm
<hl^\Zi_lmoZ
Dhlhju_[m^yllh]hiZklmoZ
Dhlhjuc[jZgblkykdhjh\gbp_ckljh]hx
136
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
ijb^Zlhqguo
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
DlhlhkdZaZeqlh\j_fy²_^bgkl\_ggh_qlh[_jmlg_\^he]ZgZ\k_]^Z
G_gZ^haZ[u\Zlvqlhlhevdhl_agZgby dhlhju_ ^h[ulu ljm^hf ^_eZxl
q_eh\_dZ Q_eh\_dhf ]hlh\yl _]h d h[s_kl\_gghfm ljm^m khagZl_evghfm
\u[hjmijhn_kkbb FKfbjgh\Z
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
?BR
[, _keb
B
Kf aZ^Zgb_ gZ k Pbnju h[hagZqZxl ihjy^dh\uc ghf_j ij_^eh`_gbc \ l_dkl_
L
@ >
I ]. 6, 7. >@@>I@ Kf aZ^Zgb_ gZ k qZkl_c Hgb jZkiheh`_gu ^jm] ih^ ^jm]hf
Kf aZ^Zgb_ gZ k rrl\\agbbb
2.
, ]^_
= I 1.
4.
?BB
ohlv >R@,
dh]^Z
DhlhjZy ^hbl dhjh\m [_ajh]mx Ey]gm\rmx klZjh]h ikZ [_a o\hklZ
Dhlhjuc aZ rb\hjhl lj_ie_l dhlZ Dhlhjuc im]Z_l b eh\bl kbgbpm
DhlhjZyeh\dh\hjm_lir_gbpmDhlhjZy\l_fghfqmeZg_ojZgblky<^hf_
dhlhjucihkljhbe>`_d
137
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk KhklZ\vl_ ko_fu d ke_^mxsbf ij_^eh`_gbyf mdZ`bl_ gZ ko_fZo agZdb
ij_ibgZgby
<klZ_ldmi_pb^_ljZaghkqbd
GZ[bj`mlyg_lkyba\haqbd
Kdm\rbghfhol_gdZki_rbl
Ih^g_ckg_]mlj_ggbcojmklbl
:KImrdbg
LZf]^_dZimklgu_]jy^db
JmfyghcaZj_ciheb\Z_l\hkoh^
De_g_ghq_dfZe_gvdbcfZld_
A_e_gh_\ufykhk_l
K:?k_gbg
Bi_jvykljZmkZkdehg_ggu_
<fh_fdZqZxlkyfha]m
Bhqbkbgb_[_a^hggu_
P\_lmlgZ^Zevg_f[_j_]m
::;ehd
<hguc^_gvdh]^ZgZ^fbjhfgh\uf
;h]kdehgyeebphk\h_lh]^Z
Khegp_hklZgZ\eb\Zebkeh\hf
Keh\hfjZajmrZeb]hjh^Z
GK=mfbe_\
GZ^DZgZ^hcg_[hkbg_
F_`[_j_a^h`^bdhku_
Ohlvihoh`_gZJhkkbx
Lhevdh\k_`_g_Jhkkby
:=hjh^gbpdbc
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk D]eZ\ghcqZklbfh`_lhlghkblvkyg_h^gZijb^ZlhqgZyqZklvZ^\_b^Z`_
[hevr_hgbfh]mlhlghkblvkydjZagufkeh\Zf\]eZ\ghcqZklbbebdh^ghfmb
lhfm`_
GZijbf_j
Dh]^Zi_qZevke_ahcg_\hevghc
Ijhfqblkyih]eZaZfl\hbf
Fg_\b^_lvbihgylvg_[hevgh
Qlhlug_kqZkleb\Zk^jm]bf
FXE_jfhglh\
138
LZdh_ ih^qbg_gb_ gZau\Z_lky i Z j Z e e _ e v g u f : \hl dZd \u]ey^bl
ko_fZij_^eh`_gby\dhlhjhfijb^Zlhqgu_qZklbhlghkylky dh^ghfm b lhfm
`_keh\m\]eZ\ghc qZklb
B\k_fdZaZehkvqlhjZ^hklv[m^_l
Qlh\lbohc]Z\Zgb\k_dhjZ[eb
QlhgZqm`[bg_mklZeu_ex^b
K\_lemx`bagvk_[_h[j_eb
::;ehd
LZdh_ ih^qbg_gb_ gZau\Z_lky h ^ g h j h ^ g u f ;u\Zxl ij_^eh`_gby \
dhlhjuo g_kdhevdh ]eZ\guo qZkl_c b m dZ`^hc k\hy ijb^ZlhqgZy qZklv <
kZfhfijhklhf kemqZ_wlh\u]ey^bllZd
GZfg_^Zghij_^m]Z^Zlv
DZdkeh\hgZr_hlah\_lky
BgZfkhqm\kl\b_^Z_lky
DZdgZf^Z_lky[eZ]h^Zlv
NBLxlq_\
Bgh]^Z h^gZ ba ]eZ\guo qZkl_c bf__l ijb^Zlhqgh_ Z ^jm]b_ g_l
GZijbf_j
Bg_\hafh`gh_\hafh`gh
>hjh]Z^Zevgyye_]dZ
Dh]^Z[e_kg_l\^Zeb^hjh`ghc
F]gh\_gguc\a]ey^baih^ieZldZ
Dh]^Za\_gbllhkdhchkljh`ghc
=emoZyi_kgyyfsbdZ
::;ehd
< dhf[bgbjh\Zggh_ ij_^eh`_gb_ hohlgh \dexqZxlky ©fZlj_rdbª
gZijbf_jlZd
<^Ze_d_hl^hfZ\^h[jucqZk
<kihfgbfl_odlh\kihfbgZ_lgZk
:_s_dheb^hklZg_lkbe
IhaZ[m^_fl_odlhgZkaZ[ue
DY<Zgr_gdbg
;u\Z_l b lZdh_ ih^qbg_gb_ dh]^Z ijb^Zlhqgu_ qZklb bf_xl k\hb
ijb^Zlhqgu_ kh_^bg_ggu_ kihkh[hf h^ghjh^gh]h beb iZjZee_evgh]h
ih^qbg_gbyGZijbf_jlZd
139
M dh]h _klv ^\Z oe_[Z imklv
ijh^Zkl h^bg qlh[u dmiblv
p\_lhd gZjpbkkZ b[h oe_[ ²
ibsZ ^ey l_eZ Z gZjpbkk ²
ibsZ^ey^mrb Ihkeh\bpZ
M dh]h
=h]hev \ nZglZklbq_kdhc ih
\_klb ©Ihjlj_lª ihdZaZe qlh
ahehlh ^hklZ\r__ky p_ghc qm
`bokljZ^Zgbcg_^Z_ljZ^hklb
gb l_f dlh _]h dhibl gb l_f
dlh_]hgZke_^m_l
Fuij_^eh`beb\Zfh^bgba\ZjbZglh\ko_f
Gh jZagu_ Z\lhju ^Zxl jZagu_ \ZjbZglu JZ[hlZcl_ lZd dZd \Zf
ijb\uqg__ Ih^jm`bl_kv kh ko_fZfb Wlh \Z`guc b hq_gv ihe_aguc \b^
mijZ`g_gbc Hgb iha\heyl hl\e_dZykv hl keh\ b kfukeh\ kjZam m\b^_lv
©kd_e_lª ij_^eh`_gby ² _]h kljmdlmjm ² b jZkklZ\blv agZdb e_]dh b ijZ
\bevgh
Kl_q_gb_khxah\
IjhqblZcl_ rmleb\h_ q_l\_jhklbrb_ He_]Z =jb]hjv_\Z [_a agZdh\
ij_ibgZgby bkdZ`bl_qlh\jZkklZgh\d_agZdh\dZ`_lky\Zfljm^guf
GZkdZl_jlv\h\j_fyh[_^Z
<uihealZdhclZjZdZg
Qlh_kebklZdZghfgZdjulvlZjZdZgZ
Lhhgm\_a_lklZdZg
I_j\uc\hijhkdhlhjucgZ^hj_rblvqlh[ujZah[jZlvky\wlhfkdhevdh
qZkl_c\wlhfij_^eh`_gbb"<u[_a ljm^Z fh`_l_ khkqblZlv a^_kv ljbqZklb
<lhjhc \hijhk q_f hgb kh_^bg_gu" <hl lmllh \u b fh`_l_ [ulv haZ^Zq_gu
Qlh" ?keb" Z ihq_fm bo ^\Z" Fh`_l [ulv ihlhfm qlh ^\_ jZagu_ qZklb
dZ`^Zykhk\hbfkhxahfjZkiheh`bebkvlZdbfh[jZahfqlhkhxauhdZaZebkv
jy^urdhf"Wlhihoh`_gZijZ\^mL_i_jvijhqblZcl_hl^_evghdZ`^mxqZklv
IhemqZ_lky\hlqlhh^gZ qZklv ² gZ kdZl_jlv \h \j_fy h[_^Z \uihea lZdhc
lZjZdZg ^jm]Zy ² qlh hg m\_a_l klZdZg lj_lvy ² _keb klZdZghf gZdjulv
lZjZdZgZBdZd`_jZkiheh`_guwlbqZklb"<lhjZyblj_lvy²dZd©fZlj_rdZª
\©fZlj_rd_ªWlhjZa]ey^_lvg_lZdlhijhklhH[uq
140
gZy ^_j_\yggZy fZlj_rdZ h^bgZdh\Z kh \k_o klhjhg Z a^_kv ©fZlj_rdZª
kh\k_f ^jm]Zy h^gZ klhjhgZ ©gZjm`ghc fZlj_rdbª kh\k_f lhg_gvdZy ² ba
h^gh]h dhjhl_gvdh]h keh\Z qlh Z ^jm]Zy ² kheb^guo jZaf_jh\ ba q_luj_o
keh\ B d wlhc fZe_gvdhc ©lhg_gvdhcª kl_gd_ ©gZjm`ghc fZlj_rdbª
ijbkehgbeZkv ©\gmlj_ggyy fZlj_rdZª lh`_ gZqbgZxsZyky khxahf <hl b
ihemqbehkv^\ZkhxaZjy^hf:dZdijbdZ`_l_[ulvkhagZdZfb"
Wlh aZ\bkbl hl lh]h dZd gZqbgZ_lky \lhjZy qZklv ©gZjm`ghc fZlj_rdbª
?keb hgZ gZqbgZ_lky kh keh\ lh beb lZd aZiylZy f_`^m ^\mfy khxaZfb g_
klZ\blky Z klZ\blky lhevdh i_j_^ i_j\uf Bgufb keh\Zfb _keb \lhjhc khxa
bf__l \lhjmx qZklv gZijbf_j _keb ² lh lh aZiylhc i_j_^ gbf g_ gZ^h <hl
lZd
FukeurZebqlh_kebkjZkl_gbyfbeZkdh\hjZa]h\Zjb\Zlvlhhgbemqr_
jZklml
< hklZevguo kemqZyo aZiylZy klZ\blky b i_j_^ i_j\uf khxahf b i_j_^
\lhjuff_`^mkhxaZfb<hllZd
GbdZd g_evay ij_^klZ\blv qlh ihdZ g_ ihy\beky q_eh\_d h[_avygZ [ueZ
\_gphfl\hj_gby ::E_hglv_\
>Z\Zcl_ihlj_gbjm_fky
JZkklZ\vl_ agZdb ij_ibgZgby AZibrbl_ ghf_j dZ`^h]h ij_^eh`_gby \
khhl\_lkl\mxsbcklhe[bdlZ[ebpu
Ij_^eh`_gbykaZiylhci_j_^
Ij_^eh`_gbykaZiylhclhevdhi_j_^
i_j\ufkhxahfbf_`^mkhxaZfb i_j\ufkhxahf
1
2
, <k_ agZxl qlh dh]^Z \ :f_jbd_ ihe^_gv \h NjZgpbb khegp_ m`_
aZoh^bl FZe_gvdbc ijbgp aZkuiZe f_gy \hijhkZfb gh dh]^Z y
kijZrb\Ze h q_fgb[m^v hg keh\gh b g_ keurZe Qlh[u ^Zlv \Zf
ihgylb_hlhfdZd\_ebdZA_feykdZ`mebrvqlhihdZg_[uehbah[j_l_gh
we_dljbq_kl\h gZ \k_o r_klb dhglbg_glZo ijboh^behkv ^_j`Zlv p_emx
ZjfbxnhgZjsbdh\Kms_kl\mxlg_lhevdh[hevrb_ieZg_lughbkhlgb
lZdbo qlh _keb \u [m^_l_ jZa]ey^u\Zlv bo \ l_e_kdhi lh k ljm^hf
jZa]ey^bl_
:K_glWdaxi_jb
,, =_jg_l g_hijh\_j`bfh ^hdZaZe qlh _keb [u m^Zehkv jZklhiblv
e_^yghciZgpbjv=j_geZg^bblh\?\jhim
141
\_jgmeky [u km[ljhibq_kdbc debfZl b gZklmibe ahehlhc \_d D =
IZmklh\kdbc Kheg_qgu_ aZlf_gby [u\Zxl \kydbc jZa dh]^Z EmgZ
ijhoh^bllhqghf_`^mA_fe_cbKhegp_f<kydhfmihgylghqlh^eylh]h
qlh[u \b^_lv dZd Khegp_ ihkl_i_ggh aZdju\Z_lky Emghc gm`gh qlh[u \
wlhff_kl_[ueZykgZyih]h^Z D>hf[jh\kdbc
M B\ZgZ Gbdbnhjh\bqZ gZijhlb\ lh]h rZjh\Zju \ lZdbo rbjhdbo
kdeZ^dZoqlh_keb[ujZa^mlvbolh\gbofh`gh[ueh[uihf_klblv\_kv
^\hjkZf[ZjZfbbkljh_gbyfb G<=h]hev
,,,GZwd\Zlhj_abfhc
;uelZdhcm`Zkgucaghc
Qlhdh]^ZgZklZehe_lh
G_aZf_lgh[uehwlh
K\bgvygZdZ`^h]h]ey^bldZdgZ\jZ]Z
BlZdijh`hjeb\h__k\bgh_jueh
Qlh_keb[u_s_k\bgv_jh]Z
HgZ[u\k_o\k\h_f_gx\dexqbeZ
<:E_\bg
,9Mq_gu_^mfZxlqlh_kebgZA_fexijbe_lylbghieZg_lyg_lh\iheg_
\hafh`gh qlh fu g_ kmf__f gZclb k gbfb dhglZdl Ijb ih^]hlh\d_
=Z]ZjbgZdi_j\hfmdhkfbq_kdhfmihe_lm mq_gu__s_g_agZebdZddh]^Z
hghdZ`_lky\g_ijb\uqguomkeh\byohgkfh`_lijbkihkh[blvkydgbf
Bkke_^h\Zgby ihdZaZeb qlh _keb h[mqblv rbfiZga_ yaudm `_klh\ lh hgb
fh]mlh[sZlvkykex^vfb
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk IhjZ[hlZ_f kh ko_fZfb Ih^klZ\vl_ hdheh ghf_jZ dZ`^h]h ij_^eh`_gby
ghf_jkhhl\_lkl\mxs_c_fmko_fu
142
Fg_gjZ\blkyqlh\u[hevgug_fghc
Fg_gjZ\blkyqlhy[hevgZg_\Zfb
Qlhgbdh]^Zly`_eucrZja_fghc
G_mieu\_lih^gZrbfbgh]Zfb
FBP\_lZ_\Z
HlhfdZdohjhrZijbjh^Z
G_qZklh]h\hjblgZjh^
Ih^wlhckbgvxg_[hk\h^Z
GZ^wlhc[e_^ghckbgvx\h^
KYFZjrZd
@^bf_gyby\_jgmkv
Lhevdhhq_gv`^b
@^bdh]^ZgZ\h^yl]jmklv
@_elu_^h`^b
@^bdh]^Zkg_]Zf_lml
@^bdh]^Z`ZjZ
@^bdh]^Z^jm]bog_`^ml
IhaZ[u\\q_jZ
DFKbfhgh\
B]hehk[uekeZ^hdbemq[uelhghd
Blhevdh\ukhdhmpZjkdbo\jZl
IjbqZklguclZcgZfieZdZej_[_ghd
Hlhfqlhgbdlhg_ijb^_lgZaZ^
::;ehd
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk <uibrbl_bal_dklZhlj_adbij_^eh`_gbckhagZdZfbij_ibgZgby
R\_cpZjkdbcmq_guc@ZgIbZ`_\kx`bagvihk\ylbebamq_gbxlh]hdZd
^mfZxl h[ hdjm`Zxs_f fbj_ fZe_gvdb_ ^_lb Hg klZedb\Zeky k l_f qlh
g_dhlhju_ ^_lb ^mfZxl [m^lh EmgZ ijh\h`Z_l bo ihlhfm qlh ex[hfm
b^ms_fm q_eh\_dm dZ`_lky qlh EmgZ ^\b`_lky ih g_[m \ lm `_ klhjhgm
Bgh]^Z dZdhcgb[m^v j_[_ghd \h \j_fy \_q_jg_c ijh]medb ki_pbZevgh
gZ[ex^Z_lhklZgh\blkyebEmgZ_kebhghklZgh\blkyb^_lebEmgZ^Zevr_
_keb hg ihr_e ^Zevr_ Mq_guc kijhkbe h^gh]h ba j_[yl aZ d_f ba gbo
ihc^_lEmgZ_kebhgbh[Zihc^ml\jZagu_klhjhguFZevqbdhl\_lbeqlh
kgZqZeZEmgZijh\h^bl\ajhkeh]hZihlhfihc^_laZfeZ^rbf
143
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk ?keb m \Zk \k_ \ ihjy^d_ ijhimklbl_ ke_^mxs__ aZ^Zgb_ ?keb [ueb
hrb[db ihlj_gbjmcl_kv _s_ <uibrbl_ hlj_adb ij_^eh`_gbc kh agZdZfb
ij_ibgZgby
=hjvdbchq_gvex[bedgb]bbqj_a\uqZcgh^hjh`bek\h_c[b[ebhl_dhc
gh]hlh\[uehl^Zlvp_gg_crmxbadgb]_kebkqblZeqlhhgZdhfmgb[m^v
g_h[oh^bfZ^eyjZ[hlu KYFZjrZd ?keb[u\^jm]gZa_fe_dZdbf
gb[m^v qm^hf bkq_aeh \k_ khl\hj_ggh_ hl_q_kl\_gghc dmevlmjhc Z
hklZebkv [u lhevdh klbob kha^Zggu_ \_ebdbfb jmkkdbfb ebjbdZfb fu b
lh]^ZagZeb[uqlhgZjh^]_gbZe_gbqlhkdZahqgh[h]ZlgZryaudh[eZ^Z
xsbc [_kqbke_ggufb keh\_kgufb djZkdZfb ^ey bah[jZ`_gby
keh`g_crboblhgqZcrboq_eh\_q_kdboqm\kl\ DBQmdh\kdbc Dlh
g_mf__lihevah\ZlvkykqZklv_fdh]^Zhghijboh^blg_^he`_g`Zeh\Zlvky
dh]^Zhghijhoh^bl FK_j\Zgl_k JZamf^Zgq_eh\_dm^eylh]hqlh[u
hgjZamfgh`beZg_^eylh]hqlh[uhg\b^_eqlhhg`b\_lg_jZamfgh <
= ;_ebgkdbc G_dhlhju_ ]h\hjbeb gZf qlh keurZeb h ih^\h^ghf
]hjh^_^jm]b_]h\hjbebqlhwlh\ufuk_ebgbdZdh]h]hjh^Zg_lb\k_lZdb
fu gbq_]h hij_^_e_ggh]h g_ fh]eb magZlv ihdZ gZdhg_p \ Fma__
bah[jZabl_evguo bkdmkkl\ bf_gb ImrdbgZ fu g_ gZreb lhg_gvdmx dgb
`_qdm \ dhlhjhc [ueb hibkZgu jZa\Zebgu ^j_\g_]h ]j_q_kdh]h ]hjh^Z
himklb\r_]hky k\ur_ lukyqb e_l gZaZ^ gZ ^gh fhjy \ Djufm hdheh
;ZeZdeZ\u D>hf[jh\kdbc
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk ©Kh[jZeZkvdhfiZgbyagZdh\ij_ibgZgbyª
Ihijh[mcl_jZa^_eblvkeh`gh_ij_^eh`_gb_gZkhklZ\eyxsb__]h[ehdb
Hj_rgbd dhlhjuc \ g_dhlhjuo f_klZo gZau\Z_lky e_sbghc wlh
rbjhdhebklguc dmklZjgbd Hgb \u]ey^yl lZd 1) Hj_rgbd ² wlh
rbjhdhebklguc dmklZjgbd 2) Dhlhjuc \ g_dhlhjuo f_klZo gZau\Z_lky
e_sbghc
Wlb[ehdbjZkiheh`_gu\ij_^eh`_gbyodZd©fZlj_rdZ\fZlj_rd_ª
H^gZdh\©gZjm`ghcfZlj_rd_ªf_`^mih^e_`ZsbfbkdZam_fufklZ\blky
lbj_Qlh`_ijhbkoh^blkwlbfagZdhfij_ib
144
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y
KfaZ^Zgb_gZkI_j\ZypbnjZ²]jZnZlZ[ebpu
1 — I. 1, 2, 3. II. 2. III. 1, 2. IV. 2.
2 — I. 4. II. 1, 3. IV. 1, 3.
,,<kydhfmihgylghqlh^eylh]hqlh[u\b^_lvdZdKhegp_ihkl_i_ggh
aZdju\Z_lkyEmghcgm`ghqlh[u\wlhff_kl_[ueZykgZyih]h^Z
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
1— 3); 2 — 1); 3 — 2); 4 — 4).
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
R\_cpZjkdbclh]hdZdHgk l_f qlh ^mfZxl [m^lh bo ihlhfm
qlh dZ`_lky qlh Bgh]^Z gZ[ex^Z_l hklZgh\blky eb EmgZ _keb hg
hklZgh\blky b^_l eb EmgZ ^Zevr_ _keb Mq_guc ba j_[yl aZ d_f ba gbo
ihc^_lEmgZ_kebFZevqbdhl\_lbeqlh\ajhkeh]hZihlhf
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
[b[ebhl_dhcghdgb]_kebkqblZeqlh dmevlmjhc Z hklZebkv
[u lhevdh klbob kha^Zggu_ fu agZeb [u qlh yaud h[eZ^Zxsbc kqZklv_fdh]^Zhghijboh^blg_^he`_g`Zeh\Zlvkydh]^Zhghijhoh^bl
^eylh]hqlh[uZg_^eylh]hqlh[uhg\b^_eqlhgZfqlh]hjh^_
^jm]b_ ]h\hjbeb qlh g_l b \k_lZdb magZlv ihdZ gZdhg_p dgb`_qdm \
dhlhjhc]hjh^Zhimklb\r_]hky
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
, IlbqdZ dheb[jb dhlhjZy `b\_l \ X`ghc :f_jbd_ ² wlh kZfZy
fZe_gvdZy ilbqdZ gZ k\_l_ <_k __ ² g_kdhevdh ]jZffh\ H^gh ba
m^b\bl_evguo k\hckl\ wlhc djhr_qghc ilZrdb ^ebgZ dhlhjhc g_ ij_\urZ_l
^\Z^pZlb fbeebf_ljh\ ² hlf_gguc Zii_lbl KZf_p dheb[jb aZ dhlhjuf
gZ[ex^Zeb mq_gu_ aZ qZkh\ ibe \h^m jZaZ H[s__ dhebq_kl\h \h^u
dhlhjmxaZwlh\j_fy\uibeZlj_o]jZffh\ZyilbqdZ²]jZffh\
,,Hrb[dbdhlhju_g_bkijZ\eyxlky²\hlgZklhysb_hrb[dbLhldlh
ijZ\bevghmdZau\Z_lfhbhrb[db²fhcmqbl_evLhldlhijZ\bevghhlf_qZ_l
fhb\_jgu_ihklmidb² fhc^jm]Lhl dlh fg_ evklbl ² fhc \jZ] Ihkeh
\bpu
***
145
gZgby dh]^Z \ _]h ©`bag_gghf ijhkljZgkl\_ª ihy\ey_lky ©\gmlj_ggyy
fZlj_rdZª" AZiylZy b lbj_ hdZau\Zxlky jy^urdhf b gbqmlv g_ f_rZxl ^jm]
^jm]m<u]ey^blwlhlZdHj_rgbddhlhjuc\g_dhlhjuof_klZogZau\Z_lky
e_sbghc²rbjhdhebklgucdmklZjgbd
GZ^__fky qlh \u mki_rgh kijZ\bl_kv k ihklZgh\dhc ^\mo agZdh\
jy^urdhf
,IlbqdZdheb[jbdhlhjZy`b\_l\X`ghc:f_jbd_wlhkZfZyfZe_gvdZy
ilbqdZgZk\_l_<_k__g_kdhevdh]jZffh\H^ghbam^b\bl_evguok\hckl\
wlhc djhr_qghc ilZrdb ^ebgZ dhlhjhc g_ ij_\urZ_l ^\Z^pZlb
fbeebf_ljh\ hlf_gguc Zii_lbl KZf_p dheb[jb aZ dhlhjuf gZ[ex^Zeb
mq_gu_aZqZkh\ibe\h^mjZaZH[s__dhebq_kl\h\h^udhlhjmxaZ
wlh\j_fy\uibeZlj_o]jZffh\ZyilbqdZ]jZffh\
Ba`mjgZeh\
,, Hrb[db dhlhju_ g_ bkijZ\eyxlky \hl gZklhysb_ hrb[db Lhl dlh
ijZ\bevgh mdZau\Z_l gZ fhb hrb[db fhc mqbl_ev Lhl dlh ijZ\bevgh
hlf_qZ_lfhb\_jgu_ihklmidbfhc^jm]Lhldlhfg_evklblfhc\jZ]
Ihkeh\bpu
Ijh\_jvl_ k_[y kf hl\_l gZ k =eZ\Z VI
I_j_^©hiZkgufbªkhxaZfb
bebJZkkdZauhaZ]Z^hqghcaZiylhc
=jZffZlbdZgZ^\h_kdZaZeZ
Kj_^b\k_okhxah\bkhxaguokeh\fu\u^_ebebljbb, ^Z \agZq_gbbb),
beb ijb \klj_q_ k dhlhjufb gZ^h [ulv hq_gv \gbfZl_evgufb Hkh[_ggh
hiZkguhgblh]^Zdh]^Zihy\eyxlky\h^bghqdm
Ijbwlhfkhxau^Z\agZq_gbbbbbeb\klj_qZxlkyg_hq_gvqZklhZkhxa
b ihbklbg_ \_a^_kms ?keb \u ihijh[m_l_ gZclb \ ex[hf l_dkl_ gZmqghf
im[ebpbklbq_kdhfbebom^h`_kl\_gghf kljZgbqdmgZdhlhjhcg_lgbh^gh]h
khxaZ b \Zf ijb^_lky ihljZlblv g_fZeh \j_f_gb ijbq_f \Zrb ihbkdb fh]ml
lZdbg_m\_gqZlvkymki_ohf
D\klj_q_k©hiZkgufbªkhxaZfbijbibkvf_g_h[oh^bfhhlghkblvkydZdd
kb]gZem©Hklhjh`ghG_lhjhibl_kvJZa[_jbl_kv\ij_^eh`_gbbª
147
Ihq_fmkj_^b^hjh]\ihbkdZok_dj_lh\imgdlmZpbbh^bghqghfmkhxambk
_]hijbyl_eyfb^Z \agZq_gbbb bbeb\u^_e_gZki_pbZevgZy©i_jkhgZevgZyª
^hjh]Z lh]^Z dZd hklZevgu_ khxau b khxagu_ keh\Z ^h\hevkl\mxlky h^ghc
^hjh]hcgZ\k_o"
<k_hklZevgu_khxaubkhxagu_keh\Zb^Z`_wlb©hiZkgu_ªkhxaudh]^Z
hgbih\lhjyxlkyfh`ghij_^klZ\blvk_[_\\b^_q_eh\_qdh\g_kmsboieZdZlu
kgZ^ibkvx
©Lj_[m_faZiylmxªBlhevdhbkijbyl_eyfb^_j`Zlky\klhjhg_Mgbo\
©jmdZoªkh\k_f^jm]b_ieZdZlu©Fu²hiZkgu_khxauª
H[ wlbo khxaZo ©]jZffZlbdZ gZ^\h_ kdZaZeZª gm`gZ i_j_^ gbfb aZiylZy
bebg_l<h^gbokemqZyogm`gZ\^jm]bog_l
< wlhc ]eZ\_ fu ki_pbZevgh kh[jZeb \k_ kemqZb \f_kl_ qlh[u \u fh]eb
hdbgmlvbo_^bguf\a]ey^hf>Z\Zcl_bok]jmiibjm_f
I_j\Zy ]jmiiZ ² wlh keh`gu_ ij_^eh`_gby < wlhc ]jmii_ k\hb
ijh[e_fu©[ulvbebg_[ulvªaZiylhci_j_^b
<lhjZy ]jmiiZ ² wlh ij_^eh`_gby k h^ghjh^gufb qe_gZfb
ih^e_`Zsbfb
kdZam_fufb
^hiheg_gbyfb
hij_^_e_gbyfb
h[klhyl_evkl\Zfb A^_kvk\hb©[ulvbebg_[ulvª
Dh]^Zij_^eh`_gb_keh`gh_
IjZ\beh h ihklZgh\d_ aZiylhc \ keh`ghf ij_^eh`_gbb
H[sbcB\Zg
B\Zgh\bq hq_gv ijhklh_ aZiylZy g_ klZ\blky f_`^m ij_^eh`_gbyfb
kh_^bg_ggufbh^bghqguf©hiZkgufªkhxahf_kebhgbbf_xl
dZdb_lhh[sb_]jZffZlbq_kdb_bkfukeh\u_we_f_glu
Gbdh]h ih\b^bfhfm g_ aZljm^gbl aZ^ZqZ jZa^_eblv gZ ijhklu_ lZdh_
keh`gh_ ij_^eh`_gb_ Khegp_ aZdZlbehkv b ghqv ihke_^h\ZeZ aZ ^g_f ihqlb
[_aijhf_`mldZ<wlhfij_^eh`_gbb\udhg_qghihklZ\bl_aZiylmxi_j_^b
H^gZdhkeh`gh_ij_^eh`_gb_g_\k_]^Z^_eblkygZijhklu_©[_ahklZldZª
GZijbf_jMB\ZgZB\Zgh\bqZ[hevrb_\ujZabl_evgu_]eZaZlZ[Zqgh]hp\_lZ
bjhlg_kdhevdhihoh`gZ[md\mb`bpm G<=h]hev I_j\h_ij_^eh`_gb_M
B\ZgZ B\Zgh\bqZ [hevrb_ \ujZabl_evgu_ ]eZaZ lZ[Zqgh]h p\_lZ H^gZdh lh
qlh hklZg_lky g_ fh`_l m^h\e_l\hjblv \Zk dZd iheghp_ggh_ \lhjh_
ij_^eh`_gb_bjhlg_kdhevdhihoh`gZ[md\mb`bpmMdh]h">ZmB\ZgZB\Z
148
gh\bqZ dhg_qgh >hiheg_gb_ m B\ZgZ B\Zgh\bqZ hlghkblky dh \lhjhfm
ij_^eh`_gbx lZd `_ dZd b d i_j\hfm ² hgh y\ey_lky ^ey gbo h[sbf
IhklZ\b\aZiylmxi_j_^b\uhl^_ebeb[uB\ZgZB\Zgh\bqZhl_]hjlZbq_c
jhl[ueihoh`gZ[md\mb`bpmhklZehkv[ug_ba\_klguf
Ihfgbl_ AZiylZy g_ klZ\blky f_`^m ijhklufb ij_^eh`_gbyfb \
khklZ\_ keh`ghkhqbg_ggh]h ij_^eh`_gby kh_^bg_ggh]h h^bghqguf
©hiZkgufªkhxahf_kebwlbqZklbbf_xlh[sbc\lhjhkl_i_ggucqe_g
Gh [m^vl_ hklhjh`gu Bgh]^Z fh`gh ijbgylv aZ h[sbc lZdhc
\lhjhkl_i_ggucqe_gdhlhjuc\^_ckl\bl_evghklbh[sbfg_y\ey_lky
JZa[_j_f ij_^eh`_gb_ M ijbqZeZ km_lylky fZljhku b lhj`_kl\_ggh
hlieu\Zxl \ fhj_ dhjZ[eb ?keb \u j_rbl_ qlh m ijbqZeZ ² h[sbc
\lhjhkl_i_ggucqe_glhihemqblkyqlhdhjZ[ebhlieu\Zxl\fhj_mijbqZeZ
Z gZ kZfhf ^_e_ \k_ h[klhbl g_ lZd fZljhku km_lylky m ijbqZeZ Z dhjZ[eb
hlieu\Zxl\fhj_hlg_]hH[s_]h\lhjhkl_i_ggh]hqe_gZa^_kvg_lbaZiylZy
ihijZ\maZgbfZ_lk\h_f_klh
Ihijh[mcl_ k mq_lhf wlbo agZgbc jZkklZ\blv agZdb ij_ibgZgby \
ke_^mxsboijbf_jZo<ij_^eh`_gbyo]^__klvh[sb_\lhjhkl_i_ggu_qe_gu
ih^q_jdgbl_bo
149
JZghmljhfkhegp__s_g_iZebehlZd`Zjdhbkfhjy\_yehk\_`_klvx
Hgi_ebhldZ`^h]ha\mdZ_]h]hehkZ\_yehq_flhjh^gufIm]Zq_\
^ZeagZdbf_gylhlqZkjZa\yaZebbhklZ\beb :KImrdbg <q_jZ\h
\j_fy]jhau^h`^vrmf_eb\_l_j[mr_\Ze Kd\hav k_juc dZf_gv \h^Z
khqbeZkvb[ueh^mrgh\ms_ev_l_fghfbiZoeh]gbevx F=hjvdbc G_ r_\_eblky gb h^bg ebklhd \\_jom b lhevdh \gbam gZ g_keurbfhf
kd\hagyqd_ lj_i_s_l gZ iZmlbgd_ kmohc ebklbd F F Ijbr\bg Ihke_h[_^ZaZlygmehkvg_[hb[ue^h`^v FFIjbr\bg
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk H[sbf fh`_l [ulv m ijhkluo ij_^eh`_gbc \ khklZ\_
keh`gh]h g_ lhevdh qe_g ij_^eh`_gby gh b p_eh_ ij_^
eh`_gb_ GZijbf_j ?keb [u g_ \uiZ^Zeb ^h`^b ^Z\gh [u
\ukhoeZ a_e_gv b a_fey e_`ZeZ [u \ky \ lj_sbgZo b fhjsb
gZoWlhkeh`gh_ij_^eh`_gb_\dhlhjhf_klvh^gh
ijb^Zlhqgh__keb[ug_\uiZ^Zeb^h`^bijb^\mo]eZ\guoAZiylmxi_j_^bg_
klZ\bf ihlhfm qlh wlh ijb^Zlhqgh_ h^bgZdh\h hlghkblky d dZ`^hfm ba
]eZ\guoy\ey_lkyh[sbf^eygboIhklZ\b\aZiylmxi_j_^b\uhl^_ebeb[u
ijb^Zlhqgh_ ij_^eh`_gb_ hl \lhjh]h ]eZ\gh]h b [ueh [u g_ihgylgh ijb
dZdbomkeh\byoa_feye_`ZeZ[u\ky\lj_sbgZobfhjsbgZo
H[sb_^h`^b
Ihfgbl_ AZiylZy g_ klZ\blky f_`^m ]eZ\gufb ij_^eh`_gbyfb
kh_^bg_ggufb h^bghqguf ©hiZkgufª khxahf _keb ]eZ\gu_ ij_^eh`_gby
bf_xlh[s__ijb^Zlhqgh_
Ihijh[mcl_ ijbf_gblv wlb agZgby gZ ijZdlbd_ Wlh ljm^gh A^_kv gZ^h
k_jv_agh\gbdZlv\kfukedZ`^h]hij_^eh`_gby
JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby\ke_^mxsboijbf_jZo
<_l_j mlbo b ^h`^v i_j_klZe dh]^Z fu [ueb m`_ \ imlb Fhjhau
klZeb keZ[__ b gZqZe iZ^Zlv f_edbc kg_`hd dhlhjuc hohlgbdb gZau\Zxl
ihjhr_cDZdlhevdhkhegp_gZqbgZ_l]j_lvihe_lg_fmgZfg_kb^blky
gZ f_kl_ b fu hlijZ\ey_fky iml_r_kl\h\Zlv IhdZ kh[bjZebkv \
h[jZlguc imlv j_adh ihoheh^Zeh b ih^me kbevguc \_l_j Gh _^\Z
<eZ^bfbj\u_oZeaZhdhebpm\ihe_dZdih^gyeky\_l_jbk^_eZeZkvlZdZy
f_l_ev
150
qlh hg gbq_]h g_ \a\b^_e : K Imrdbg Dh]^Z gZqZeZkv ]jhaZ b]jZ
ij_djZlbeZkvb^_lbih[_`Zeb^hfhc
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk Ihijh[mcl_ jZah[jZlv ke_^mxs__ ij_^eh`_gb_ =Z\jbeZ =Z\jbeh\bq
ihkeZe ^_\qhgdm magZlv hl FZjvb =Z\jbeh\gu dZdh\h __ a^hjh\v_ b dZd hgZ
ihqb\ZeZ : K Imrdbg < wlhf keh`ghih^qbg_gghf ij_^eh`_gbb ^\Z
ijb^Zlhqguo hlghkylky d h^ghfm ]eZ\ghfm dhlhjh_ y\ey_lky bo h[sbf
]jZffZlbq_kdbf b kfukeh\uf we_f_glhf IhklZ\b\ aZiylmx i_j_^ b \u
hlhj\Zeb[u]eZ\gh_b\lhjh_ijb^Zlhqgh_ij_^eh`_gby^jm]hl^jm]Z
Ihfgbl_ AZiylZy g_ klZ\blky i_j_^ h^bghqguf ©hiZkgufª khxahf
f_`^m^\mfyijb^Zlhqgufbij_^eh`_gbyfb_keb]eZ\gh_ij_^eh`_gb_mgbo
h[s__.
Ihijh[mcl_jZkklZ\blvagZdbij_ibgZgby\ke_^mxsboijbf_jZo
Ihemqbebba\_klb_qlh<he]Z\klZeZbqlhq_j_ag__ihlygmebkvh[hau
Ohly[jbqdZ g_keZkv \h \_kv ^mo b ^_j_\gy ^Z\gh kdjueZkv ba \b^Z hg
\k_ _s_ [_kihdhcgh h]ey^u\Zeky DZd jZa \ lhl ^_gv dh]^Z ijh^Z\_p
^_lkdbo \ha^mrguo rZjh\ ijbe_l_e \h >\hj_p Lj_o Lheklydh\ b dh]^Z
]\Zj^_cpu bkdheheb dmdem gZke_^gbdZ Lmllb k l_lmrdhc =Zgbf_^
ijhbahreZ g_ijbylghklv X He_rZ Ih djur_ \ueh`beb `_klv B
^hf ]hlh\ b djurZ _klv < FZydh\kdbc >\hj B\ZgZ Gbdbnhjh\bqZ
ohly[ue\hae_^\hjZB\ZgZB\Zgh\bqZbfh`gh[uehi_j_e_alvbah^gh]h
\ ^jm]hc q_j_a ie_l_gv h^gZdh ` B\Zg B\Zgh\bq ihr_e mebp_x G <
=h]hev I_j_^jZkk\_lhfa\_a^u[_kke_^ghbkq_aZxlg_[hjZkqbsZ_lky
b f_^e_ggh \uieu\Z_l khegurdh DZd lhevdh gZklZeZ \_kgZ b khegp_
ijb]j_eha_fexeZklhqdZijhklbeZkvk>xcfh\hqdhc
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk BlZd _klv ljb \ZjbZglZ ©h[sghklbª dhlhju_ hlf_gyxl aZiylmx \
keh`ghf ij_^eh`_gbb i_j_^ h^bghqguf ©hiZkgufª khxahf gZebqb_ h[s_]h
\lhjhkl_i_ggh]h qe_gZ h[s_]h ijb^Zlhqgh]h ij_^eh`_gby beb h[s_]h
]eZ\gh]h?keb`_©hiZkgucªkhxaih\lhjy_lkyaZiylZyklZ\blkyh[yaZl_evghb
gbdZdZy©h[sghklvªhlwlh]hg_hk\h[h`^Z_l<hldZdwlh\u]ey^blFu\b^_eb
dZdihlbohgvdm]Zk\ieZg_lZjbbk\_lbdZddmihe_]h
151
152
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y
KfaZ^Zgb_gZkH[sb_\lhjhkl_i_ggu_qe_gu\u^_e_gudmjkb\hf
1. JZghmljhfkhegp__s_g_iZebehlZd`Zjdhbkfhjy\_yehk\_`_klvx
Hgi_ebhldZ`^h]ha\mdZ_]h]hehkZ\_yehq_flhjh^gufIm]Zq_\^Ze
agZd b f_gy lhlqZk jZa\yaZeb b hklZ\beb : K Imrdbg <q_jZ \h \j_fy
]jhau^h`^vrmf_eb\_l_j[mr_\ZeKd\havk_jucdZf_gv\h^ZkhqbeZkvb
[ueh^mrgh\ms_ev_l_fghfbiZoeh]gbevx F=hjvdbc G_r_\_eblky
gbh^bgebklhd\\_jomblhevdh\gbamgZg_keurbfhfkd\hagyqd_lj_i_s_lgZ
iZmlbgd_ kmohc ebklbd F F Ijbr\bg Ihke_ h[_^Z aZlygmehkv g_[h b
[ue^h`^v FFIjbr\bg
***
ij_\jZsZeky\ghqgh_g_[hbdZdaZ`b]ZebkvgZwlhfg_[_a\_a^ub
dZd\koh^beZEmgZ
Ihijh[mcl_ k mq_lhf wlh]h ijZ\beZ jZkklZ\blv agZdb ij_ibgZgby \
ke_^mxsboij_^eh`_gbyo
DZ`^uc agZ_l dZd e_]dh ih^gbfZlvky ih hkuiyf b dZd ljm^gh ih gbf
kimkdZlvky \gba Ihebp_cf_ckl_j ij_^eh`be ]hklyf hdhgqblv \bkl
ihke_ aZ\ljZdZ b \k_ ihreb \ lm dhfgZlm hldm^Z g_krbcky aZiZo ^Z\gh
gZqbgZeijbylgufh[jZahfs_dhlZlvgha^jb]hkl_cbdm^Zm`_Kh[Zd_\bq
^Z\gh aZ]ey^u\Ze \ ^\_jv G < =h]hev ;_^guc kfhljbl_ev g_
ihgbfZedZdbfh[jZahffh]hgkZfiha\heblvk\h_c>mg__oZlvk]mkZjhf
dZd gZreh gZ g_]h hke_ie_gb_ b qlh lh]^Z [ueh k _]h jZamfhf : K
Imrdbg A^_kv dh]^Zlh [ueZ lZc]Z b rmf_eb \_l\bklu_ ^_j_\vy b
\h^bebkvf_^\_^b
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk : l_i_jv k mq_lhf jZkkfhlj_gguo ijZ\be khklZ\bf dZjlm ^hjh] ih
dhlhjuffuiml_r_kl\m_f\ihbkdZok_dj_lh\imgdlmZpbb kfk Dh]^Zij_^eh`_gb_ijhklh_
Fu jZkkfhlj_eb k \Zfb jZagu_ kemqZb ihklZgh\db
aZiylhc i_j_^ ©hiZkgufbª khxaZfb \ keh`ghf
ij_^eh`_gbb Gh wlb khxau bkihevamxlky b \ ijhklhf
ij_^eh`_gbbk\yau\Zy^jm]k
153
©;ulv
beb
g_[ulvª
^jm]hf h^ghjh^gu_ qe_gu ©;ulv beb g_ [ulvª aZiylhc \ wlhf kemqZ_"
IjZ\beh dhlhjh_ gZ^h agZlv ^ey j_r_gby ihklZ\e_ggh]h \hijhkZ hq_gv
ijhklh_<hlhgh
AZiylZy f_`^m h^ghjh^gufb qe_gZfb g_ klZ\blky _keb hgb kh_^bg_gu
h^bghqguf©hiZkgufªkhxahf<hklZevguokemqZyohgZklZ\blkyGZijbf_j
<e_kmjhkebih^hkbgh\bdbbih^[_j_ah\bdb
<e_kmjhkebbih^hkbgh\bdbbih^[_j_ah\bdbbebkbqdbbkujh_`db
<e_kmjhkebih^hkbgh\bdbbih^[_j_ah\bdbbebkbqdbbkujh_`db
<e_kmjhkebih^hkbgh\bdbbih^[_j_ah\bdbebkbqdbbkujh_`db
IhdZ`_fwlbijZ\beZko_fZlbq_kdb AgZdhagZqZ_lh^ghjh^gucqe_g b
bbbb
bbbbb
Ljm^gh eb wlh" < lZdhf ©qbklhf \b^_ª dZd wlh ihdZaZgh \ ijb\_^_gguo
\ur_ ijbf_jZo b gZ ko_fZo ih\b^bfhfm g_l H^gZdh \ j_Zevguo l_dklZo
\klj_qZxlky©ih^\h^gu_dZfgbªg_kdhevdhhkeh`gyxsb_^_eh
BglhgZpbhggu_
b^jm]b_
©eh\mrdbª
Ih^mfZcl_klZ\blkyebaZiylZy\ij_^eh`_gbb
<_l_jihfhjx]mey_l
BdhjZ[ebdih^]hgy_l
:KImrdbg
Fgh]bf ba \Zk aZohq_lky ihklZ\blv aZiylmx i_j_^ b k i_j\h]h \a]ey^Z
fh`_l ihdZaZlvky qlh a^_kv ^\Z ij_^eh`_gby GZ^h k^_eZlv gZ^ kh[hc
g_dhlhjh_ mkbeb_ b h[^mfZlv lZd eb wlh ?keb kqblZlv kljhqdm b dhjZ[ebd
ih^]hgy_laZij_^eh`_gb_lhihemqblkyqlhdhjZ[ebdih^]hgy_l dh]hlh Gh
dhjZ[ebd gbdh]h g_ ih^]hgy_l Imrdbg jZkkdZau\Z_l kh\k_f h ^jm]hf \_l_j
]mey_l ih fhjx b ih^]hgy_l dhjZ[ebd Khxa b kh_^bgy_l g_ ijhklu_
ij_^eh`_gby\khklZ\_keh`gh]hZh^ghjh^gu_kdZam_fu_]mey_lbih^]hgy_l.
Qlh `_ ih^lZedb\Z_l \Zk d ihklZgh\d_ g_gm`ghc aZiylhc" Ij_`^_ \k_]h
bglhgZpby Bkke_^my ijbqbgu hrb[hd mq_gu_ mklZgh\beb qlh bglhgZpby
fh`_lg_lhev
154
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
<_l_jmlbob^h`^vi_j_klZedh]^Zfu[uebm`_\imlbFhjhau
klZebkeZ[__bgZqZeiZ^Zlvf_edbckg_`hddhlhjuchohlgbdbgZau\Zxl
ihjhr_cDZdlhevdhkhegp_gZqbgZ_l]j_lvihe_lg_fmgZfg_kb^blky
gZf_kl_bfuhlijZ\ey_fkyiml_r_kl\h\ZlvIhdZkh[bjZebkv\
h[jZlgucimlvj_adhihoheh^Zehbih^mekbevguc\_l_jGh_^\Z
<eZ^bfbj\u_oZeaZhdhebpm\ihe_dZdih^gyeky\_l_jbk^_eZeZkvlZdZy
f_l_evqlhhggbq_]hg_\a\b^_e :KImrdbg Dh]^ZgZqZeZkv]jhaZ
b]jZ ij_djZlbeZkvb^_lbih[_`Zeb^hfhc
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
Ihemqbebba\_klb_qlh<he]Z\klZeZbqlhq_j_ag__ihlygmebkvh[hau
Ohly[jbqdZ g_keZkv \h \_kv ^mo b ^_j_\gy ^Z\gh kdjueZkv ba \b^Z hg \k_
_s_ [_kihdhcgh h]ey^u\Zeky DZd jZa \ lhl ^_gv dh]^Z ijh^Z\_p ^_lkdbo
\ha^mrguo rZjh\ ijbe_l_e \h >\hj_p Lj_o Lheklydh\ b dh]^Z ]\Zj^_cpu
bkdheheb dmdem gZke_^gbdZ Lmllb k l_lmrdhc =Zgbf_^ ijhbahreZ
g_ijbylghklv X He_rZ Ih djur_ \ueh`beb `_klv B ^hf ]hlh\ b
djurZ _klv < FZydh\kdbc >\hj B\ZgZ Gbdbnhjh\bqZ ohly [ue \hae_
^\hjZ B\ZgZ B\Zgh\bqZ b fh`gh [ueh i_j_e_alv ba h^gh]h \ ^jm]hc q_j_a
ie_l_gv h^gZdh ` B\Zg B\Zgh\bq ihr_e mebp_x G < =h]hev I_j_^
jZkk\_lhf a\_a^u [_kke_^gh bkq_aZxl g_[h jZkqbsZ_lky b f_^e_ggh
\uieu\Z_l khegurdh DZd lhevdh gZklZeZ \_kgZ b khegp_ ijb]j_eh a_fex
eZklhqdZijhklbeZkvk>xcfh\hqdhc
***
dh ihfh]Zlv gh b ijh\hpbjh\Zlv hrb[db Qlh[u ijh\_jblv wlm fukev gZ
fZ]gblhnhg aZibkZeb ij_^eh`_gby kj_^b dhlhjuo [ueb ijhklu_ k
h^ghjh^gufb qe_gZfb b keh`gu_ :gZeba aZibkZgguo njZa ijb ihfhsb
ki_pbZevghc ZiiZjZlmju ihdZaZe qlh bglhgZpby ij_`^_ \k_]h iZmau b
eh]bq_kdb_m^Zj_gby b\l_ob\^jm]boij_^eh`_gbyoh^bgZdh\ZyIhgylgh
ihq_fmlZdohq_lkyihklZ\blvg_gm`gmxaZiylmxQlh[uij_h^he_lvwlh
155
_kl_kl\_ggh_ `_eZgb_ gm`gh ijb \klj_q_ k ©hiZkgufbª khxaZfb
hjb_glbjh\ZlvkygZkfukeh\hcbkbglZdkbq_kdbcZgZebaij_^eh`_gby
Bkdmr_gb_ihklZ\blvg_gm`gmxaZiylmxhkh[_ggh kbevgh \ l_o kemqZyo
dh]^Zh^ghjh^gu_qe_gukh_^bg_ggu_©hiZkgufªkhxahfg_klhyljy^urdhf
ZjZa^_e_gu^jm]bfbkeh\ZfbQ_f[hevr_wlbokeh\l_fkbevg__bkdmr_gb_
JZkklZ\vl_ ijhims_ggu_ agZdb ij_ibgZgby <Zf \klj_lylky ijhklu_
ij_^eh`_gbykh^ghjh^gufbqe_gZfbbkeh`ghkhqbg_ggu_
?^_lk]jZfhlhc]hg_p
Bijb_oZegZdhg_p
EmgZ\hf]e_i_j_[_]ZeZ
Balmqb\lmqmbdmj]Zg
F]gh\_gguf[e_kdhfhaZjyeZ
@_gbob_cihdehgbebkv
Ihlbohgvdmm^Zebebkv
Bkh]eZkgh\k_hiylv
KlZeb`blv^Zih`b\Zlv
:KImrdbg
<hlh[a_fexpZjvklmdgmeiZedhx
B^m[h\ucihegZiheq_l\_jlb
Hg`_e_agufijh[behdhg_qgbdhf
Bmf_j_lvfuh[_sZeb
Bdeyl\m\_jghklbk^_j`Zeb
Fu\;hjh^bgkdbc[hc
;ueb\k_]hlh\u
AZmljZ[hcaZl_ylvgh\uc
B^hdhgpZklhylv
FXE_jfhglh\
7. Hljy^g_aZf_lbe
Ihl_jb[hcpZ
B©Y[ehqdhªi_kgx
>hi_e^hdhgpZ
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk F:K\_leh\
BlZdh^gZbak_jv_aguoljm^ghkl_c\h[s_gbbk©hiZkgufbªkhxaZfbijb
h^ghjh^guoqe_gZo²wlh
156
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
DZ`^uc agZ_l dZd e_]dh ih^gbfZlvky ih hkuiyf b dZd ljm^gh ih gbf
kimkdZlvky \gba Ihebp_cf_ckl_j ij_^eh`be ]hklyf hdhgqblv \bkl ihke_
aZ\ljZdZ b \k_ ihreb \ lm dhfgZlm hldm^Z g_krbcky aZiZo ^Z\gh gZqbgZe
ijbylguf h[jZahf s_dhlZlv gha^jb ]hkl_c b dm^Z m`_ Kh[Zd_\bq ^Z\gh
aZ]ey^u\Ze \ ^\_jv G < =h]hev ;_^guc kfhljbl_ev g_ ihgbfZe dZdbf
h[jZahffh]hgkZfiha\heblvk\h_c>mg__oZlvk]mkZjhfdZdgZrehgZg_]h
hke_ie_gb_bqlhlh]^Z[uehk_]hjZamfhf :KImrdbg A^_kvdh]^Zlh
[ueZlZc]Zbrmf_eb\_l\bklu_^_j_\vyb\h^bebkvf_^\_^b
***
hiZkghklvijbgylvijhklh_ij_^eh`_gb_aZkeh`gh_bihklZ\blvebrgxx
aZiylmx
>jm]mx hiZkghklv ihijh[mcl_ h[gZjm`blv kZfhklhyl_evgh Ihq_fm \
ij_^eh`_gbbF_l_ev[mr_\ZeZghqvxbmljhfb^g_faZiylZyi_j_^i_j\ufb
klZ\blky Z \ ij_^eh`_gbb F_l_ev [mr_\ZeZ b ghqvx b mljhf b ^g_f wlhc
aZiylhc g_l" Ihlhfm qlh aZiylZy klZ\blky f_`^m h^ghjh^gufb qe_gZfb Z g_
i_j_^gbfb
Ihijh[mcl_kijZ\blvkykwlhcljm^ghklvxjZkklZ\b\agZdbij_ibgZgby\
ke_^mxsboij_^eh`_gbyo
<^jm]aZgbf
Klj_euf]gh\_ggh_`m``Zgv_
Dhevqm]ba\hgbdjbdbj`Zgv_
Blhihlihihex]emohc
:KImrdbg
HgkhojZgbeb[e_kdeZamjguo]eZa
Ba\hgdbc^_lkdbckf_obj_qv`b\mx
B\_jm]hj^mx\ex^_c
FXE_jfhglh\
E_i_qmli_kgxgh\mx
BebiZ[e_^ghebklZy
B[_eZy[_j_ahgvdZ
Ka_e_ghxdhkhc
G:G_djZkh\
157
>jh[blkybie_s_lb[jua`_l\hegZ
Fg_\hqbkhe_ghx\eZ]hc
:DLheklhc
Dhehdhevqbda\hgdhieZq_l
Bohohq_lb\ba`bl
I:<ya_fkdbc
,, Bg_c ih^he]m e_`Ze b gZ kdZlZo djur b m dheh^pZ b gZ i_jbeZo
[ZedhgZ b gZ ebkl\_ ;mjZg djmlbl r\ujy_l kg_]hf b \uk\bklu\Z_l b
aZeb\Z_lky`mldbf\h_f=em[hdh]em[hdhhljZ`Zebkv\ijm^mb[_j_]b
\_q_jg__g_[hbihehkdbh[eZdh\KeurZekyghqghcrmflZc]bbk\bkl
\_ljZ b lj_kd b kdjbi b ]jhohl iZ^Zxsbo ^_j_\v_\ >Ze_dh ihaZ^b
hklZebkv b fhj_ b kbg_xsb_ ]hju E_lqbd \h^be kZfhe_l b \_johf b
gbahf b gZ^ \_jrbgZfb ]hj b ihkj_^b ms_ebc Hg bkiulu\Ze `Zjm b
oheh^baghcb[mjb
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk JZkkfhljbf^\Zij_^eh`_gby Abfhcbe_lhf^g_fbghqvx
?s_h^gZ
ljm^ghklv \rlhjfbg_ih]h^m\uoh^yl\fhj_dhjZ[eb Jmkkdb_ibkZl_eb
b ihwlu ex[h\gh b [_j_`gh kh[bjZeb b aZibku\Zeb \ ^_j_\gyo b
k_eZogZjh^gu_i_kgbbkdZadb
GZ\_jgh_\uaZf_lbebqlh\lhfb^jm]hfijbf_j_khxabih\lhjy_lkygh
gbi_j_^h^gbfbakhxah\g_klZ\blkyaZiylZyAZf_lbebblhqlhwlhlkhxa\
dZ`^hf ba ijbf_jh\ kh_^bgy_l h^ghjh^gu_ qe_gu ihiZjgh h^gZdh \ i_j\hf
kemqZ_iZjuhl^_eyxlky^jm]hl^jm]ZaZiylufbZ\h\lhjhfg_lIhq_fm`_"
>_eh \ lhf qlh \ i_j\hf b \h \lhjhf ij_^eh`_gbyo iZju jZagu_ <
i_j\hfij_^eh`_gbb \k_ ljb iZju abfhc b e_lhf ^g_f b ghqvx \ rlhjf b
g_ih]h^m ²h[klhyl_evkl\Z\j_f_gbWlbiZjuh^ghjh^guihhlghr_gbx^jm]
d ^jm]m <h \lhjhf ij_^eh`_gbb dZjlbgZ bgZy I_j\Zy iZjZ ² ibkZl_eb b
ihwlu ² wlh ih^e_`Zsb_ <lhjZy ² ex[h\gh b [_j_`gh ² h[klhyl_evkl\Z
h[jZaZ^_ckl\byLj_lvy²kh[bjZebbaZibku\Zeb²kdZam_fu_q_l\_jlZy²\
^_j_\gyo b k_eZo ² h[klhyl_evkl\Z f_klZ iylZy ² i_kgb b kdZadb —
^hiheg_gby LZdbf h[jZahf \ i_j\hf ij_^eh`_gbb fu bf__f ^_eh k
h^ghjh^gufb iZjZfb b jZa^_ey_f bo aZiylufb dZd iheh`_gh jZa^_eylv
h^ghjh^gu_qe_gu<h\lhjhf
158
ij_^eh`_gbb iZju ih hlghr_gbx ^jm] d ^jm]m g_h^ghjh^gu bo lZd `_ g_
iheZ]Z_lkyjZa^_eylvaZiylufbdZdbex[u_^jm]b_g_h^ghjh^gu_qe_gu
Ihijh[mcl_ g_ i_j_imlZlv wlb kemqZb JZkklZ\vl_ agZdb ij_ibgZgby \
ke_^mxsboij_^eh`_gbyo
, <^hev [_j_]Z fhjy b iZjZee_evgh _fm lygmebkv jy^Zfb [hehlZ b
^ebggu_ ha_jdb k `_elufb dm\rbgdZfb b [_eufb qZr_qdZfb ebebc Ih\kx^mjZa^Z\Zekyklmdlhihjh\bfhehldh\\ba]ibebjm[Zgdh\eya]b
]jhohlFheh^_`vi_eZi_kgbh<he]_bKl_gvd_JZabg_h^bdhfBjlur_
b ]jhaghf ;ZcdZe_ Hnbp_ju b fZljhku [ueb gZ\_jom b `Z^gh
\kfZljb\Zebkv \ ]em[bgm aZeb\Z >jmavy kem`beb \ jZaguo ihedZo b
\klj_qZebkvj_^dhbkemqZcgh
,,KdZdhclhlZcghxhljZ^hc
=ey^_eygZeZamjvg_[_k
GZ^ZevlmfZggmxbe_k
K_]hijb\_leb\hcijhoeZ^hc
159
GZp_ivdmj]Zgh\bohefh\
GZ[e_kdbl_gv\hegbklhcgb\u
BKGbdblbg
Kfhljblkhegp_kg_[_k
B[e_klblb]hjbl
Ihiheyfbem]ZfjZaeb\Z_lky
K>>jh``bg
>_j_\yggu_ eh^hqdb b [mfZ`gu_ dhjZ[ebdb \ukdZevau\Zeb ba jmd
fZevqbr_db^_\qhghdbieuebkihdhcghb\_ebq_kl\_gghihih\_joghklb
[hevrboem`bfZe_gvdboj_q_d
,,, =jbg gZqZe ibkZlv b kha^Ze \ k\hbo dgb]Zo fbj \_k_euo b kf_euo
ex^_c b m^b\bl_evgu_ kh[ulby < dZgmg ljm^gh]h b \_ebdh]h
^\Z^pZlh]h \_dZ fg_ \klj_lbeky fbeuc qm^Zd b ihwl :g^_jk_g b gZmqbe
f_gy\_j_\ih[_^mkhegpZgZ^fjZdhfb^h[jh]hq_eh\_q_kdh]hk_j^pZgZ^
aehf
D=IZmklh\kdbc
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk ?keb m \Zk \k_ [ueh \_jgh agZqbl \u gZmqbebkv jZaebqZlv kZfu_
©dZ\_jagu_ª kemqZb imgdlmZpbb ijb h^ghjh^guo qe_gZo ij_^eh`_gby
kh_^bg_gguokhxahfbWlh^Z_l\ZfijZ\hijhimklblv^Zevg_crb_aZ^Zgbyb
i_j_clbkjZamdfZl_jbZemih^aZ]heh\dhf©JZaghjZ[hqb_khxauª
?keb `_ _klv ihlj_[ghklv ihjZ[hlZlv _s_ i_j_c^bl_ d ke_^mxsbf
ijbf_jZf
,Ijb^hjh]_jZkl_ljhfZrdZ
Ehimobdhehdhevqbdp\_l
BiheugvbdjZkgZydZrdZ
:ljZ\uaZih\_^ghcg_l
::Kmjdh\
,,MguehxghrZ]ey^_e
GZhimkl_emxjZ\gbgm
B]jmklblZcgmxijbqbgm
Bklhedh\Zlvk_[_g_kf_e
:KImrdbg
Ij_^gbfe_i_qml\hegub[_]ml
B\gh\vijboh^ylbhkdZeu[vxl
FXE_jfhglh\
160
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y
1) KfaZ^Zgb_gZkMdZaZgughf_jZij_^eh`_gbc
AZiylZy i_j_^ khxahf b g_ klZ\blky AZiylZy i_j_^ khxahf b
klZ\blky
KfaZ^Zgb_gZkMdZaZgughf_jZij_^eh`_gbc
,AZiylu_klZ\ylkyi_j_^\k_fbkhxaZfbbAZiylu_klZ\ylkyi_j_^
\k_fbkhxaZfbbdjhf_i_j\h]h
,,AZiylu_klZ\ylkyi_j_^\k_fbkhxaZfbbAZiylu_klZ\ylkyi_j_^
\k_fbkhxaZfbbdjhf_i_j\h]h
***
,,,<heo\ug_[hylkyfh]mqbo\eZ^ud
:dgy`_kdbc^Zjbfg_gm`_g
IjZ\^b\bk\h[h^_gbo\_sbcyaud
Bk\he_cg_[_kghx^jm`_g
<jZ`^mbie_gklZjbgguck\hc
Imklv\hegunbgkdb_aZ[m^ml
Bls_lghcaeh[hxg_[m^ml
Lj_\h`blv\_qguckhgI_ljZ
:KImrdbg
,9Dg_fmbilbpZg_e_lbl
Blb]jg_c^_lebrv\bohjvq_jguc
GZ^j_\hkf_jlbgZ[_`bl
Bfqblkyijhqvm`_le_l\hjguc
:KImrdbg
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk < h^ghf ij_^eh`_gbb fh`_l hdZaZlvky fgh`_kl\h
JZaghjZ[hqb_
JZaghjZ[hqb_ ©hiZkguoª khxah\ b m dZ`^h]h ba gbo ²
khxau
k\hy jZ[hlZ k\hb khxau aZ^Zqb ©;ulv beb g_ [ulvª
aZiylhc i_j_^ dZ`^uf ba gbo aZ\bkbl hl oZjZdl_jZ
\uihegy_fhcbfbjZ[hlu
K_cqZk fu ij_^eh`bf \Zf ijbf_ju \ dhlhjuo kh[jZebkv khxau b
\uihegyxsb_jZagmxjZ[hlmJZkklZ\vl_g_^hklZxsb_agZdb
>jh[ykvhfjZqgu_kdZeu
Rmfylbi_gylky\Zeu
161
BgZ^hfghcdjbqZlhjeu
Bjhis_l[hj
B[e_smlkj_^v\hegbklhcf]eu
<_jrbgulhj
Hllhevkhj\ZekyjZah[\Ze
Bkly`dbf]jhohlhfmiZe
B\kxl_kgbgmf_`^mkdZe
AZ]hjh^be
BL_j_dZfh]msbc\Ze
HklZgh\be…
B^he]hijhj\Zgguch[\Ze
G_lZehc]jm^hxe_`Ze
BL_j_daehcih^gbf[_`Ze
Biuevx\h^
Brmfghci_ghchjhrZe
E_^yguck\h^
Bimlvihg_frbjhdbcr_e
BdhgvkdZdZeb\e_dky\he
Bk\h_]h\_j[ex^Z\_e
Kl_ighcdmi_p
Bk_j^p_[v_lky\mih_gv_
B^eyg_]h\hkdj_keb\gh\v
B[h`_kl\hb\^hogh\_gv_
B`bagvbke_aubex[h\v
:KImrdbg
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk ?keb\u^himkdZebhrb[dbijh^he`bl_jZ[hlm
Bfgh]h^g_c
Ijhrehb^h[jZyjmdZ
I_qZevxljhgmeZkvp\_ldZ
B[uehg\kZ^i_j_g_k_g
Blhevdhqlha_fexjh^gmx
AZ\b^bl\hfjZd_ghqghf
Hiylv_]hk_j^p_lj_i_s_l
BhqbiueZxlh]g_f
<^jm]ihg_c
F_evdgmeZl_gvb^\moh]g_c
IjhfqZebkvbkdjubihlhf
DZdhclha\_jvh^gbfiju`dhf
162
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y
KfaZ^Zgb_gZkMdZaZgughf_jZij_^eh`_gbc
AZiyluog_l 4, 5.
Ih\kx^mjZa^Z\Zekyklmdlhihjh\bfhehldh\\ba]ibebjm[Zgdh\eya]
b]jhohlFheh^_`vi_eZi_kgbh<he]_bKl_gvd_JZabg_h^bdhfBjlur_b
]jhaghf;ZcdZe_
,,KdZdhclhlZcghxhljZ^hc
=ey^_eygZeZamjvg_[_k
GZ^ZevlmfZggmxbe_k
K_]hijb\_leb\hcijhoeZ^hc
GZp_ivdmj]Zgh\bohefh\
GZ[e_kdbl_gv\hegbklhcgb\u
BKGbdblbg
Kfhljblkhegp_kg_[_k
B[e_klblb]hjbl
Ihiheyfbem]ZfjZaeb\Z_lky
K>>jh``bg
3.AZiyluog_l
,,,AZiyluog_l
***
BaqZsb\ukdhqbebe_]
B]jZygZ\agbqvgZi_khd
FXE_jfhglh\
II.
FhdjZy
A_fey
B^Ze_dhhla_feb
Fhdgml
<fhj_
DhjZ[eb
<:E_\bg
Fhdgmlebklvy
Bp\_lu
Fhdgmlem`b
Bahglu
FhdgmliZjdb
Bihey
Fhdg_l
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk ©Ihki_rZcf_^e_gghª
>j_\gb_jbfeyg_kqblZebqlhki_rblvgm`ghf_^e_ggh<jmkkdhfyaud_
wlZ`_fukev\ujZ`_gZihkeh\bpZfbIhki_rbrv²ex^_cgZkf_rbrvLbr_
_^_rv²^Zevr_[m^_rv
163
< gZr_c k \Zfb ]jZffZlbq_kdhc ^_ckl\bl_evghklb _klv b lZdb_ kemqZb
dh]^Z fh`gh ^_ckl\h\Zlv [ukljh b [_a dhe_[Zgbc b lZdb_ dh]^Z g_h[oh^bfZ
fm^jZy g_lhjhieb\hklv aZ\_sZggZy ^j_\gbfb jbfeygZfb KlZedb\Zykv,
gZijbf_j k khxagufb keh\Zfb \u ij_^\b^bl_ ijb^Zlhqgh_ ij_^eh`_gb_ b
fh`_l_ k e_]dbf k_j^p_f klZ\blv aZiylmx Gh ijZ\beZ ©ohjhr_]h
imgdlmZpbhggh]h ih\_^_gbyª lj_[mxl qlh[u ijb \klj_q_ k h^bghqgufb
©hiZkgufbª khxaZfb \u g_ lhjhibebkv G_j_^dh jmdZ hdZau\Z_lky [uklj__
fukebb\uklZ\bl_agZdg_ih^mfZ\BeblZd`_g_ih^mfZ\g_klZ\bl__]h:
qlh agZqbl \ ^Zgghf kemqZ_ ih^mfZlv" Wlh agZqbl ihgylv dZd mkljh_gh \k_
ij_^eh`_gb_ Z g_ lhevdh lhl ©dmkhq_dª dhlhjuc \u \ ^Zggh_ \j_fy ibr_l_
>himklbf qlh \u aZibkZeb Kf_rZebkv \ dmqm dhgb ex^b b aZeiu lukyqb
hjm^bc GZ i_j\uc \a]ey^ a^_kv h^ghjh^gu_ qe_gu k h^bghqguf khxahf b:
dhgbex^bbaZeiu?keb\uih^^ZebkvwlhcbeexabbbhklZ\bebb[_aaZiylhc
\Zfijb^_lkyih`Ze_lvh[wlhf
Ij_^eh`_gb_\iheghf\b^_\u]ey^bllZd
Kf_rZebkv\dmqmdhgbex^b
BaZeiulukyqbhjm^bc
Kebebkv\ijhly`guc\hc
FXE_jfhglh\
?keb [u \u hklZ\beb wlh ij_^eh`_gb_ [_a aZiylhc ihemqbehkv [u qlh
aZeiu lukyqb hjm^bc kf_rZebkv \ dmqm k dhgyfb b ex^vfb AZiylZy
g_h[oh^bfZ[_ag__bkdZ`Z_lkykfuke
IjbqbgZ fgh]hqbke_gguo hrb[hd ijb \klj_q_ k ©hiZkgufbª khxaZfb
khklhbl\lhfqlhwlbkhxauij_^ty\eyxlhq_gv\ukhdb_lj_[h\Zgbyd\Zr_fm
\gbfZgbxbiZfylbKh^ghcklhjhguj_rblv\hijhkhihklZgh\d_agZdZkjZam
g_evay Z k ^jm]hc ² ^h[bjZykv ^h dhgpZ ij_^eh`_gby gm`gh g_ lhevdh
ihfgblv h[ hklZ\e_gghf ihaZ^b ©hiZkghfª khxa_ gh h^gh\j_f_ggh _s_ b
jZaj_rZlvl_ijh[e_fudhlhju_g_k_lb^ms__^Zevr_ij_^eh`_gb_
>himklbf qlh \u aZibku\Z_l_ imrdbgkdbc l_dkl < _]h qm^_kghc [hjh^_
lZblkykbeZjhdh\Zyb<ugZklhjZ`b\Z_l_kvbgZkljZb\Z_l_kvgZihemq_gb_
bgnhjfZpbb dhlhjZy ihfh`_l \Zf j_rblv \hijhk h aZiylhc i_j_^ b Gh
^Zevr_ke_^m_lb\k_ gZ k\_l_ij_abjZy>__ijbqZklguch[hjhlGmqlh`_
_]h²\aZiylu_b\k_gZk\_l_ij_abjZy:i_j_^b"Hiylvg_ykghHiylv
h`b^Zgb_B\k_gZk\_l_
164
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y
KfaZ^Zgb_gZkMdZaZgughf_jZij_^eh`_gbc
AZiylu_klZ\ylkyi_j_^\k_fbkhxaZfb,,,G_laZiyluoi_j_^b: II. 1;
,,,AZiylu_ihke_keh\e_lblg_c^_l: IV.
2)
Kf aZ^Zgb_ gZ k
MdZaZgu ghf_jZ l_dklh\
IAZiylu_i_j_^khxahfbklZ\ylky\h\k_okemqZyodjhf_^\mo
Rmfylbi_gylky\Zeu
BL_j_daehcih^gbf[_`Ze
Biuevx\h^
Brmfghci_ghchjhrZe
E_^yguck\h^
Bk_j^p_[v_lky\mih_gv_
B^eyg_]h\hkdj_keb\gh\v
B[h`_kl\hb\^hogh\_gv_
B`bagvbke_aubex[h\v
:KImrdbg
KfaZ^Zgb_gZkMdZaZgughf_jZij_^eh`_gbc
,AZiylu_klZ\ylkyi_j_^\k_fbkhxaZfbb.
AZiylZyi_j_^khxahfbg_klZ\blky
AZiylZyi_j_^bklZ\blkydjhf_h^gh]hkemqZy
BaqZsb\ukdhqbebe_]
,,AZiylu_klZ\ylkyi_j_^keh\Zfbfhdgml, fhdgmlfhdg_lZlZd`_i_j_^
ihke_^gbfkhxahfb.
***
ij_abjZy^hdhe_[hjh^Z<hll_[_bgZ²ijb^Zlhqgh_ij_^eh`_gb_G_
aZ[ulv [u aZdjulv _]h aZiylhc ... ^hdhe_ [hjh^Z p_eZ baf_ggbd ² wlh
ke_^m_lgh\h_]eZ\gh_ij_^eh`_gb_lhkZfh_dhlhjh_ijbkh_^bg_ghkhxahfb,
b ² gZdhg_plh ² k\b^_l_evkl\m_l h g_h[oh^bfhklb ihklZ\blv i_j_^ b
aZiylmxAZibr_f
<_]hqm^_kghc[hjh^_
LZblkykbeZjhdh\Zy
B\k_gZk\_l_ij_abjZy
>hdhe_[hjh^Zp_eZ
Baf_ggbdg_kljZrblkyaeZ
165
M ImrdbgZ ijb^Zlhqgh_ ij_^eh`_gb_ \u^_e_gh ^\mfy lbj_ Wlh
Z\lhjkdbcagZd
Ihkfhljbf gZ ijZdlbd_ \ dZdbo kemqZyo ijZ\beZ ©ohjhr_]h
imgdlmZpbhggh]hih\_^_gbyªiha\heyxlgZfkjZamklZ\blvaZiylmxi_j_^bZ\
dZdbo lj_[mxl \u^_j`db b l_ji_gby M^h[g__ \k_]h ijhke_^blv wlh gZ
©hlj_adZoªij_^eh`_gbc>Z\Zcl_ihijh[m_fHnbp_jih^gyeibklhe_lb
J_rZ_l_kveb\ua^_kvl\_j^hkdZaZlvgm`gZaZiylZybebg_l"WlhaZ\bkbl
hl lh]h dZdh_ ijh^he`_gb_ ij_^eh`_gby ijbreh \Zf \ ]heh\m ?keb \u
ih^mfZebijbf_jghlZdHnbp_jih^gyeibklhe_lb\uklj_ebe²lhkdZ`_l_
qlh aZiylhc g_ gm`gh ?keb `_ \u ih^mfZeb ijbf_jgh lZd Hnbp_j ih^gye
ibklhe_lbjZa^Zeky\uklj_e²lhkdZ`_l_qlhaZiylZyg_h[oh^bfZ<dZdhf
`_ba^\mokemqZ_\\u[m^_l_ijZ\u"Gb\lhfbgb\^jm]hf<u[m^_l_ijZ\u
_kebij_^mkfhljbl_ h[Z \ZjbZglZb \ha^_j`bl_kv hl[ukljh]h j_r_gby A^_kv
fh`_l [ulv lhevdh h^bg ijZ\bevguc hl\_l gZ^h ih^h`^Zlv >jm]hc ijbf_j
agZeb \k_ b f_evgbd b khe^Zl b A^_kv kh\_jr_ggh ykguc kemqZc h^
ghjh^gu_qe_gukh_^bgyxlkyih\lhjyxsbfkykhxahfbFh`ghkf_ehklZ\blv
aZiylmx
Ijh^mfZcl_\dZdboba^Zgguoij_^eh`_gbcgZ^hkjZamklZ\blvaZiylmx
Z\dZdboke_^m_lih^h`^Zlv
>hdlhj =ZkiZj b A^_kv a\_g_eb kZfu_ djZkb\u_ `mdb b b
\ajhkeu_b^_lbbFZevqbrdZkhj\Ze jhambIhcf_lb^hd_jb
Qlhlhs_edgmeha\ydgmehbHg_oZeihrbjhqZcrbfZknZevlh\uf
mebpZf b
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk : l_i_jv ihijh[m_f k^_eZlv lh `_ kZfh_ k ohjhrh agZdhfufb \Zf
l_dklZfb:KImrdbgZ?keb\ukmf__l_\kihfgblvbogZbamklv\ZrZjZ[hlZ
kbevghh[e_]qblky
I>\_jvlbohgvdhaZkdjbi_eZ
B ...
He_]mkf_ogmekyh^gZdhq_eh
B ...
Hlimklbehgju[dmahehlmx
B
166
Hdh\uly`db_iZ^ml
L_fgbpujmogmlb
Jhkkby\kijyg_lhlhkgZ
B ...
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk Fuk\Zfb\kihfgbeb\k_\hafh`gu_ljm^ghklbk\yaZggu_kihklZgh\dhc
aZiylhc i_j_^ ©hiZkgufbª khxaZfb B \k_ bo h^gm aZ ^jm]hc h^he_eb \
q_klghf[hxGh\`bagbhgb\klj_qZxlkyg_h^gZaZ^jm]hcZ\kZfuojZaguo
khq_lZgbyo Ihwlhfm fu kh[jZeb \f_kl_ jZaghh[jZagu_ kemqZb qlh[u \u
fh]ebihijh[h\Zlvk\hbkbeu©ijhlb\\k_okjZamª
Ih^mfZcl_gm`gubebg_lagZdbij_ibgZgbyi_j_^khxaZfbbhklZevgu_
agZdbij_ibgZgbyjZkklZ\e_gu
IEx^bmfgu_bwg_j]bqgu_[hjxlky^hdhgpZZex^bimklu_bgbdm^Z
g_ ]h^gu_ ih^qbgyxlky [_a fZe_cr_c [hjv[u \k_f f_edbf kemqZcghklyf
k\h_]h [_kkfuke_ggh]h kms_kl\h\Zgby > B IbkZj_\ Imlv ^h[e_klb
kZfhhl\_j`_gby b \ukhdhc [hjv[u k gbadbf b \j_^guf k [_^kl\byfb b
ihjhdZfbg_aZdjulgbdhfmbgbdh]^Z
G=Q_jgur_\kdbc
,,=j_f_eZZlZdZbimeba\_g_eb
Bjh\ghkljhqbeime_f_l
B^_\mrdZgZrZijhoh^bl\rbg_eb
=hjys_cDZoh\dhcb^_l
F:K\_leh\
Reb^\Zijbyl_ey\_q_jg_xihjhc
B^_evgucjZa]h\hj\_ebf_`^mkh[hc
B:Djueh\
Djhldhkhegp_ebklvyijb]j_\Z_l
B^hjh`dbfy]db_\kZ^m
B:;mgbg
M`emgZ
<\_jomkbyeZbh^gZ
EbrvlmqdZdjZeZkyaZg_c
FXE_jfhglh\
<hlm`kg_]ihke_^gbc\ihe_lZ_l
L_ieuciZj\hkoh^blhla_feb
167
Bdm\rbgqbdkbgbcjZkp\_lZ_l
Bah\ml^jm]^jm]Z`mjZ\eb
:DLheklhc
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk ?keb \uihegyy ij_^u^ms__ aZ^Zgb_ \u ^_eZeb hrb[db ijh^he`bl_
lj_gbjh\dm
<h^Zk[ueZbfhklh\Zy
HldjueZkvb?\]_gbcfhc
Ki_rbl^mrhxaZfbjZy
<gZ^_`^_kljZo_blhkd_
D_^\Zkfbjb\r_ckyj_d_
KqZkleb\ucimlvKebp_ckdh]hihjh]Z
LugZdhjZ[evi_j_rZ]gmermly
Bklhcihju\fhjyol\hy^hjh]Z
H\hegb[mjvex[bfh_^bly
Ijhfqblky]h^bk\Zfbkgh\Zy
BkihegblkyaZ\_lfhbof_qlZgbc
Ijhfqblky]h^byy\exkyd\Zf
:KImrdbg
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk ?kebjy^hfk©hiZkgufªkhxahfklhbl^jm]hckhxa
Qlh\ufh`_l_kdZaZlvhnjZ]f_gl_ij_^eh`_gbyKhk_^ijbde_be\Zlgmx
[hjh^m b" GZ\_jgh_ \Zr_ jZkkm`^_gb_ [m^_l lZdbf ©A^_kv ]jZffZlbdZ
gZ^\h_ kdZaZeZ ?keb wlh ij_^eh`_gb_ k h^ghjh^gufb qe_gZfb b h^bghqguf
khxahf b lh aZiylhc g_ gZ^h ?keb [m^_l jy^ h^ghjh^guo qe_gh\ k ih
\lhjyxsbfkykhxahfbaZiylZygm`gZi_j_^dZ`^ufkhxahf:fh`_l[ulv
a^_kv keh`ghkhqbg_ggh_ ij_^eh`_gb_ < lZdhf kemqZ_ aZiylZy gm`gZ _keb
lhevdhmij_^eh`_gbcg_ldZdh]heb[hh[s_]hwe_f_glZª
L_i_jvijh^he`bfgZqZlh_ij_^eh`_gb_Khk_^ijbde_be\Zlgmx[hjh^mb
dh]^Z Klhi Wlh g_h`b^Zgguc \ZjbZgl kjZam ihke_ khxaZ b,
ij_^kdZau\Zxs_]h lh eb h^ghjh^gu_ qe_gu lh eb gh\h_ ij_^eh`_gb_
ihy\beky_s_h^bghjb_glbjmxsbc
168
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y
KfaZ^Zgb_gZkPbnjZfbh[hagZq_gughf_jZij_^eh`_gbc
GZ^hih^h`^ZlvKlZ\bfaZiylmxkjZam
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
I>\_jvlbohgvdhaZkdjbi_eZ
B\k\_lebpm\oh^blpZjv
He_]mkf_ogmekyh^gZdhq_eh
B\ahjhfjZqbebky^mfhc
Hlimklbehgju[dmahehlmx
BkdZaZe_ceZkdh\h_keh\h
Hdh\uly`db_iZ^ml
L_fgbpujmogmlbk\h[h^Z
<Zkijbf_ljZ^hklghm\oh^Z
B[jZlvyf_q\Zfhl^Z^ml
Jhkkby\kijyg_lhlhkgZ
BgZh[ehfdZokZfh\eZklvy
GZibrmlgZrbbf_gZ
:KImrdbg
KfaZ^Zgb_gZkMdZaZgughf_jZl_dklh\
G_gm`gZaZiylZyi_j_^ b: I,,Gm`guaZiylu_i_j_^b:
II. 1, 4, 5.
***
agZdij_^kdZau\Zxsbcijb^Zlhqgh_ij_^eh`_gb_Ihoh`_gZlhqlhhgh
\oh^bl\ij_^u^ms__dZd©fZlj_rdZª\©fZlj_rdmª
?keb\ulZdih^mfZeblhhdZaZebkvijZ\u<hldZd\u]ey^blp_ebdhfwlh
ij_^eh`_gb_ Khk_^ ijbde_be \Zlgmx [hjh^m b dh]^Z ^_lb ijb[_`Zeb k
mebpuhgbm\b^_ebkh\k_fgZklhys_]h>_^ZFhjhaZ
L_i_jv jZa^_ebl_ wlh keh`gh_ ij_^eh`_gb_ gZ [ehdb ba dhlhjuo hgh
khklhbl
Khk_^ ijbde_be \Zlgmx [hjh^m ² i_j\uc [ehd dhlhjuc dZd [u
kijZrb\Z_lhlhfqlh[ueh^Zevr_
<lhjhc[ehd_fmhl\_qZ_lhgbm\b^_ebkh\k_fgZklhys_]h>_^ZFhjhaZ.
169
< k\hx hq_j_^v \lhjhc [ehd kijZrb\Z_l dh]^Z hgb m\b^_eb kh\k_f
gZklhys_]h>_^ZFhjhaZ"B_fmhl\_qZ_llj_lbc[ehddh]^Z^_lbijb[_`Zebk
mebpu
?s_jZaihkfhljbl_dZdjZkiheh`_glj_lbc[ehdbkq_]hhggZqbgZ_lky
DZd\b^bl_hgy\ey_lky©\gmlj_gg_cfZlj_rdhcªb^ms_ckjZam`_ihke_
khxaZ bb gZqbgZ_lky kh keh\Z dh]^Z <hlihq_fm b b dh]^Z hdZaZebkv jy^hf
H[jZlbl_\gbfZgb_gZlhqlh©\gmlj_ggxxfZlj_rdmªfh`ghi_j_klZ\blvgb
q_]hg_baf_gyy\h\k_fij_^eh`_gbbKhk_^ijbde_be\Zlgmx[hjh^mb^_lb
m\b^_eb kh\k_f gZklhys_]h >_^Z FhjhaZ dh]^Z hgb ijb[_`Zeb k mebpu.
Ij_^eh`_gb_hklZehkvihkljh_gguf]jZfhlghbkfuke_]hkhojZgbeky
< lZdbo keh`guo ij_^eh`_gbyo dZ`^Zy qZklv hl^_ey_lky hl ^jm]hc
aZiylufb<hlbihemqZ_lkyqlhf_`^mkhxaZfbdhlhju_klhyljy^hfgm`gZ
aZiylZy
Gh \k_]^Z eb lZd [u\Z_l" >Z\Zcl_ baf_gbf kh\k_f qmlvqmlv gZr_
ij_^eh`_gb_ ^Z\ \lhjhfm hjb_glbjmxs_fm agZdm ² dh]^Z ² ^h[Z\hqgmx
qZklvlh: Khk_^ijbde_be\Zlgmx[hjh^mbdh]^Z^_lbijb[_`Zebkmebpulh
hgbm\b^_ebkh\k_fgZklhys_]h>_^ZFhjhaZ.
170
Ihijh[mcl_ l_i_jv i_j_klZ\blv ©\gmlj_ggxx fZlj_rdmª DZd \b^bl_
wlh]hk^_eZlvg_evayf_rZ_lkeh\hlh.
Ke_^h\Zl_evgh_keb\lhjhcbakhxah\klhysbojy^hfbf__l^h[Z\hqgmx
qZklv \^ZgghfkemqZ_lh aZiylZyf_`^mgbfbg_klZ\blky
Ljm^ghklv ij_^eh`_gbc \ dhlhjuo khxau hdZaZebkv jy^hf g_ lhevdh \
ihklZgh\d_ aZiylhc f_`^m khxaZfb G_ lZdlh e_]dh j_rblv \hijhk h lhf
klZ\blvbebg_laZiylmxi_j_^i_j\ufbakhxah\klhysbojy^hf_kebi_j\uc
khxa b KjZ\gbl_ ij_^eh`_gby b ihijh[mcl_ h[tykgblv \ gbo agZdb ij_ibgZgbyi_j_^b.
>_lb ijb[_`Zeb k mebpu b lZd dZd khk_^ ijbde_be \Zlgmx [hjh^m
m\b^_ebkh\k_fgZklhys_]h>_^ZFhjhaZ
>_lbijb[_`ZebkmebpublZddZdkhk_^ijbde_be\Zlgmx[hjh^mhgb
m\b^_eb kh\k_f gZklhys_]h >_^Z FhjhaZ >_lb ijb[_`Zeb k mebpu b
lZddZdkhk_^ijbde_be\Zlgmx[hjh^mlhhgbm\b^_ebkh\k_fgZklhys_]h
>_^ZFhjhaZ
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk BlZd\uihagZdhfbebkvkhkeh`gufbij_^eh`_gbyfb\dh
171
lhjuo ©hiZkgucª khxa b klhbl jy^hf k ^jm]bfb khxaZfb ² ih^
qbgbl_evgufbWlhh[uqghkhxaudh]^ZdZdlhevdh_kebohlyihdZlZddZd
b ^j Gh khxa b fh`_l hdZaZlvky jy^hf k mdZaZl_evgufb keh\Zfb beb
qZklbpZfb ijb wlhf ihemqZxlky khq_lZgby dhlhju_ e_]dh kimlZlv k ^\mfy
khxaZfb gZijbf_j b lZd b lh]^Z b ihwlhfm b ihlhfm b lhevdh b ebrv
Wlbkhq_lZgbyaZiylhcg_jZa^_eyxlky
Ihijh[mcl_ ba ^Zgguo ijbf_jh\ \u[jZlv lhevdh l_ \ dhlhjuo khxa b
klhbl jy^hf k dZdbfeb[h ^jm]bf khxahf ;m^vl_ \gbfZl_evgu < g_dhlhjuo
kemqZyo\ke_^aZbb^_lg_khxa
E_sbgkdbcih[_`ZeaZgbfbbdh]^Z[uem`_[ebadhhlrhkk_mkeurZe
^jm]hc\uklj_e G:Hkljh\kdbc
KlZju_ ^_j_\vy ^Z\gh h[e_l_eb b lhevdh fheh^u_ hl^_evgu_ [_j_adb
khojZgyxl k\hb`_elh\Zlu_ ebklvy K L :dkZdh\ F_gy_lky ^_j_\gy
SbiZqb gh \ f_edhc j_qd_ lZd `_ f_kyp lhg_l b lZd `_ kbem _c ^Zxl
dexqb bivxl fZevqbrdb ba dh\rZ eZ^hg_c K I SbiZq_\ ?keb y
agZx qlh fh_ ml\_j`^_gb_ kijZ\_^eb\h y ij_ke_^mx _]h ^h ihke_^g_c
djZcghklbb_kebyg_kh[vxkvk^hjh]blhyq_klgucq_eh\_d NF>hk
lh_\kdbc
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk :l_i_jvjZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby\ke_^mxsboij_^eh`_gbyo
?]h[h]ZlZywg_j]byihklhygghbs_l\uoh^Zbdh]^Zg_l_cijbf_g_gby
\ ^_eZo hgZ jZajy`Z_lky ih imklydZf gh jZajy`Z_lky g_ij_f_ggh > :
NmjfZgh\
Om^h`gbd k bgl_j_khf jbkh\Ze ]heh\m klZjbdZ b dh]^Z dhgqbe lh _]h
ihjZabehkoh^kl\hwlhc]heh\ukq_flhagZdhfufHg^Z\ghkb^bllmlb
dZd lhevdh y \ghrm qZcgbd k ^h[juf djbdhf [jhkZ_lky dh fg_ F F
Ijbr\bg Y kb`m jy^hf k ju[heh\hf b ihdZ fu jZa]h\Zjb\Z_f _fm
ihiZ^Z_lky g_kdhevdh keZ\guo ju[bg F_qbd g_ h]ey^u\Zeky b g_
keurZe ih]hgb gh hg agZe qlh ]hgylky aZ gbf b dh]^Z h^bg aZ ^jm]bf
ijha\mqZeb ljb \uklj_eZ _fm ihdZaZehkv qlh wlh klj_eyxl \ g_]h : :
NZ^__\
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y kfhl\_lgZk 172
Ijh\_jvl_k_[y
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
<h^Zk[ueZbfhklh\Zy
HldjueZkvb?\]_gbcfhc
KqZkleb\ucimlv
Kebp_ckdh]hihjh]Z
LugZdhjZ[evi_j_rZ]gmermly
Bklhcihju\fhjyol\hy^hjh]Z
Ijhfqblky]h^bk\Zfbkgh\Zy
BkihegblkyaZ\_lfhbof_qlZgbc
Ijhfqblky]h^byy\exkyd\Zf
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
< i_j\hf ij_^eh`_gbb g_l aZiylhc i_j_^ khxahf b dhlhjuc kh_^bgy_l
h^ghjh^gu_ kdZam_fu_ ijb[_`Zeb b m\b^_eb < hklZevguo ij_^eh`_gbyo b
kh_^bgy_lijhklu_ij_^eh`_gby\khklZ\_keh`gh]h
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk<uibkZgulhevdhl_ij_^eh`_gby\dhlhjuokhxauklhyl
jy^hf
E_sbgkdbcih[_`ZeaZgbfbb, dh]^Z[uem`_[ebadhhlrhkk_mkeurZe
^jm]hc \uklj_e G : Hkljh\kdbc ?keb y agZx qlh fh_ ml\_j`^_gb_
kijZ\_^eb\h y ij_ke_^mx _]h ^h ihke_^g_c djZcghklb b _keb y g_ kh[vxkv k
^hjh]blhyq_klgucq_eh\_d NF>hklh_\kdbc
KfaZ^Zgb_gZk
?]h[h]ZlZywg_j]byihklhygghbs_l\uoh^Zb, dh]^Zg_l_cijbf_g_gby
\ ^_eZo hgZ jZajy`Z_lky ih imklydZf gh jZajy`Z_lky g_ij_f_ggh > :
NmjfZgh\ Om^h`gbdkbgl_j_khfjbkh\Ze]heh\mklZjbdZb dh]^Zdhgqbe
lh _]hihjZabeh koh^kl\h wlhc ]heh\u k q_flh agZdhfuf Hg ^Z\gh kb^bl
lml b, dZd lhevdh y \ghrm qZcgbd k ^h[juf djbdhf [jhkZ_lky dh fg_
FFIjbr\bg Ykb`mjy^hfkju[heh\hfb, ihdZfujZa]h\Zjb\Z_f_fm
ihiZ^Z_lky g_kdhevdh keZ\guo ju[bg F_qbd g_ h]ey^u\Zeky b g_ keurZe
ih]hgbghhgagZeqlh]hgylkyaZgbfb, dh]^Zh^bgaZ^jm]bfijha\mqZebljb
\uklj_eZ_fmihdZaZehkvqlhwlhklj_eyxl\g_]h ::NZ^__\
***
173
AZdjulZ ihke_^gyy kljZgbpZ dgb]b GZ^__fky qlh \u gZmqbebkv
g_dhlhjuf ijZ\beZf ©ohjhr_]h imgdlmZpbhggh]h ih\_^_gbyª b klZeb emqr_
ibkZlvkZfbbihgbfZlvgZibkZggh_^jm]bfb
Ohq_lkyqlh[uihbkdbk_dj_lh\imgdlmZpbbg_ijhreb^ey\Zk[_kke_^gh
qlh[ubkq_aeZ\ZrZg_m\_j_gghklvijb\klj_q_khagZdZfbij_ibgZgbyb\uk
m^h\hevkl\b_f [u klZ\beb aZiylu_ lbj_ lhqdb \hijhkbl_evgu_ b \hkdeb
pZl_evgu_agZdb^_eZyk\hxibkvf_ggmxj_qvykghcb\ujZabl_evghc
H]eZ\e_gb_
DqblZl_eyf«……………………………….... 3
Iho\Zevgh_keh\hagZdZfij_ibgZgby«………….... 4
=eZ\Z,Ohly©imlvb^Ze_db^heh]ª......…………. 10
IjZ\beh²kZfhbgkljmdpby²lj_gbjh\dZ«………....—
©Ij_^qm\kl\b_ªagZdZij_ibgZgby«……………...... 13
IZfylvb]jZfhlghklv«………………………. 15
;ehdb«……………………………………......... 16
=jZfhlghklvgZ©dhgqbd_i_jZª«………………....... 18
=eZ\Z,,KZfu_e_]db_agZdbij_ibgZgby………..... 21
Fukebqm\kl\ZbagZdb ...........…………………………...—
AgZdihegucaZ]Z^hd«……………………….......……24
;_kihdhcgucagZd«…………………………........... 28
IhklZ\bflhqdm«……………………………............ 35
=eZ\Z,,,GZq_f^_j`blkyij_^eh`_gb_...………..... 37
<ihbkdZo]jZffZlbq_kdhchkgh\u .....…………………...—
Fgh`_kl\hh[ebqbcih^e_`Zs_]h«………………....... 42
G_[hevrh_hlklmie_gb_\aZsblmriZj]Zehd«……..... 45
<fbj_kdZam_fuo«……………………………..... 47
FZe_gvdZyih\_klvhkh\k_ffZe_gvdhf]eZ]he_
[ulvdhlhjuc[u\Z_lg_ihoh`gZkZfh]hk_[y«…..... 60
©EmdZ\u_ªqe_guij_^eh`_gby«………………...... 66
GZg_ihgylghfyaud_«………………………....... 70
=eZ\Z,9Lbj_\gmljbij_^eh`_gby.....…………...... 72
F_`^mih^e_`ZsbfbkdZam_fuf ......……………….......—
:_kebkdZam_fh_ijhiZeh«…………………….... 79
=eZ\Z9©B]jZffZlbdZimklbeZkv
kZjbnf_lbdhcieykZlvª......………………………........ 83
KbglZdkbq_kdbckq_l ........……………………………....... —
?kebih^e_`Zs__bebkdZam_fh_g_hldebdgmehkv«…. 88
KbglZdkbq_kdb_©dZjebdbª«…………………….…107
KbglZdkbq_kdb_©\_ebdZguª«…………………......….111
©=jZgbpZªb©ih]jZgbqgbdbª\ij_^eh`_gbb«…….….114
©=mkbªb©fZlj_rdbª«………………………..….123
©Kd_e_lªij_^eh`_gby«………………………....….134
Kl_q_gb_khxah\«…………………………….....….140
©Kh[jZeZkvdhfiZgbyagZdh\ij_ibgZgbyª«………....…144
=eZ\Z9,I_j_^©hiZkgufbªkhxaZfbbeb
JZkkdZauhaZ]Z^hqghcaZiylhc«…………………147
=jZffZlbdZgZ^\h_kdZaZeZ .........………………………......—
Dh]^Zij_^eh`_gb_keh`gh_«…………………..…148
Dh]^Zij_^eh`_gb_ijhklh_«…………………….....….153
©Ihki_rZcf_^e_gghª«………………………….163
?kebjy^hfk©hiZkgufªkhxahf
klhbl^jm]hckhxa«…………………………..168
===jZgbdKF;hg^Zj_gdh
AG:DB
IJ?IBG:GBY
QZklv \lhjZy
Dgb]Z^eymqZsbokybihklmiZxsbo\\mau
Fhkd\Z
GIHH;J:AH<:GB?
1998
<\_^_gb_
<u hldjueb ijh^he`_gb_ m`_ agZdhfhc \Zf dgb]b AgZdb ij_ibgZgby Ijb
jZ[hl_ k i_j\hc qZklvx aZdeZ^u\Zeky lhl kbglZdkbq_kdbc nmg^Zf_gl [_a dhlhjh]h
g_\hafh`gh ihkljhblv a^Zgb_ imgdlmZpbhgghc ]jZfhlghklb < wlhc qZklb \Zf
ij_^eZ]Z_lky\_kvhklZevghcimgdlmZpbhggucdmjk
@_eZ_fmki_oZ
H]eyg_fkygZijhc^_ggucimlv
Ij_`^_ q_f hlijZ\blvky \ ^Zevg_cr__ ieZ\Zgv_ ih [mjguf \hegZf jmkkdhc
imgdlmZpbb h]eyg_fky gZ ijhc^_gguc imlv qlh \u m`_ agZ_l_ b mf__l_ ^_eZlv \
j_amevlZl_jZ[hlugZ^i_j\hcqZklvxwlhcdgb]b"
Ijh\_jycl_ k_[y ih oh^m \Zr_c jZ[hlu ^_ckl\bl_evgh eb \u \k_ wlh mf__l_
^_eZlv"
<hi_j\uo hij_^_eylv kdhevdh hkgh\ \ ij_^eh`_gbb b gZ hkgh\Zgbb wlh]h
j_rZlvijhklh_ij_^eh`_gb_bebkeh`gh_
GZdZjl_gZrbo^hjh]wlZi_j\Zy^hjh]Zkhk\hbfb^hjh`dZfb\u]ey^bllZd
GZijbf_j \ ij_^eh`_gbb B]jZxl \hegu \_l_j k\bs_l b fZqlZ ]g_lky b
kdjbibl F X E_jfhglh\ \u gZoh^bl_ ljb hkgh\u b ^_eZ_l_ ba wlh]h \u\h^ qlh
ij_^eh`_gb_keh`gh_khklhblbalj_oqZkl_c
<h\lhjuo hij_^_eylv q_f kh_^bg_gu qZklb keh`gh]h ij_^eh`_gby b \
aZ\bkbfhklbhlwlh]h\u[bjZlvh^gmbalj_o^hjh]
3
?keb fu ihc^_f i h i _ j \ h c ba lj_o ^hjh`_d lh gZf ihgZ^h[blky mf_gb_
hij_^_eblv dZd jZkiheh`_gu qZklb keh`gh]h ij_^eh`_gby — h^gZ aZ ^jm]hc dZd
]mkb bebh^gZ\gmljb^jm]hc dZdfZlj_rdb LZd_keb\ukjZ\gbl_\ur_ijb\_^_ggh_ij_^eh`_gb_baE_jfhglh\Zdhlhjuffu
gZqZebwlb\hkihfbgZgbybij_^eh`_gb_LZf]^_g_[hkoh^blkyka_fe_c]hjbahgl
jh^bekyfheh^hc F K\_leh\ lhdh
4
g_qgh kmf__l_ hij_^_eblv qlh \ i_j\hf kemqZ_ qZklb jZkiheh`_gu h^gZ aZ ^jm]hc
dZd]mkbZ\h\lhjhf —h^gZ\gmljb^jm]hcdZdfZlj_rdb
Bf_y^_ehk]mkyfb\uhl^_ey_l_qZklb^jm]hl^jm]ZaZiylufb<klj_lb\rbkvk
fZlj_rdZfb \u \u^_ey_l_ \gmlj_ggxx fZlj_rdm k ^\mo klhjhg Gh M
fZlj_r_d _klv kemqZceh\mrdZ Fh]ml \klj_lblvky jy^hf ^\Z khxaZ beb khxa b
khxagh_ keh\h H[jZlbl_ gZ gbo \gbfZgb_ qlh[u kjZam magZlv ijb \klj_q_ qlh
dh]^Zb_kebghohlybdh]^Zbohlyghdh]^Zqlh_kebdhlhjuc_kebbihdZb^j
GZijbf_j Y kb`m jy^hf k ju[heh\hf b ihdZ fu jZa]h\Zjb\Z_f _fm ihiZ^Z_lky
g_kdhevdhkeZ\guoju[bg
Kmf__l_ eb \u hij_^_eblv dh]^Z f_`^m ^\mfy khxaZfb gm`gZ aZiylZy Z dh]^Z
g_l"KjZ\gbl_^\Zijbf_jZKhk_^ijbde_be\Zlgmx[hjh^mbdh]^Z^_lbijb[_`Zeb
k mebpu hgb m\b^_eb kh\k_f gZklhys_]h >_^Z FhjhaZ b Khk_^ ijbde_be \Zlgmx
[hjh^m b dh]^Z ^_lb ijb[_`Zeb k mebpu lh hgb m\b^_eb kh\k_f gZklhys_]h >_^Z
FhjhaZ <ky obljhklv a^_kv khklhbl \ lhf qlh \h \lhjhf kemqZ_ keh\h dh]^Z bf__l
^h[Z\hqgmx qZklv lh : _keb \lhjhc ba klhysbo jy^hf khxah\ bf__l ^h[Z\hqgmx
qZklvlhf_`^mwlbfbklhysbfbjy^hfkhxaZfbklZ\blvaZiylmxg_gZ^h
GZdZjl_gZrbo^hjh]\k_wlh\u]ey^bllZd kfko_fmgZk 6).
<k_hklZevgu_agZdbklZ\ylkydZdh[uqgh:l_i_jv\_jgbl_kvd^hjh]_ IIbihc^bl_
ih __ \lhjhc kj_^g_c ^hjh`d_ qZklb kh_^bg_gu h^bghqguf hiZkguf khxahf b
^Z b beb IhklZgh\dZ agZdZ \ wlhf kemqZ_ aZ\bkbl hl lh]h _klv eb m qZkl_c
kh_^bg_gguolZdbfkhxahfdZdhceb[hh[sbcwe_f_gl?keb_klvlhf_`^mqZklyfb
keh`gh]hij_^eh`_gbyi_j_^hiZkgufkhxahfaZiylZyg_klZ\blky
H[sbfm^\moqZkl_ckeh`gh]hij_^eh`_gbyfh`_l[ulv\lhjhkl_i_ggucqe_gM
B\ZgZ B\Zgh\bqZ [hevrb_ \ujZabl_evgu_ ]eZaZ lZ[Zqgh]h p\_lZ b jhl g_kdhevdh
ihoh`gZ[md\mb`bpm G<=h]hev A^_kv^hiheg_gb_mB\ZgZB\Zgh\bqZy\ey_lky
h[sbf\lhjhkl_i_ggufqe_ghf^ey^\moqZkl_ckeh`gh]hij_^eh`_gbykh_^bg_gguo
khxahfbM^\mo]eZ\guoqZkl_cij_^eh`_gbyh[s_cfh`_l[ulvijb^ZlhqgZyqZklv
GZijbf_j?keb[ug_\uiZ^Zeb^h`^b^Z\gh[u\ukhoeZa_e_gvba_feye_`ZeZ[u
\ky\lj_sbgZobfhjsbgZo
5
B gZdhg_p m ^\mo ijb^Zlhqguo ij_^eh`_gbc fh`_l [ulv h^gZ gZ ^\hbo h[sZy
]eZ\gZy qZklv DZd lhevdh gZklZeZ \_kgZ b khegp_ ijb]j_eh a_fex eZklhqdZ
ijhklbeZkv k >xcfh\hqdhc B \ wlhf kemqZ_ aZiylhc i_j_^ h^bghqguf hiZkguf
khxahfklZ\blvg_gZ^h
GZdZjl_^hjh]gZrbjZkkm`^_gby\u]ey^yllZd kfko_fmgZk 7).
Hl \lhjhc ^hjh]b hloh^bl _s_ b lj_lvy ^hjh`dZ qZklb keh`gh]h ij_^eh`_gby
fh]ml[ulvkh_^bg_gubglhgZpb_cWlhlkemqZc[m^_ljZkkfZljb\Zlvky^Zevr_
Ijh^\b]ZykvihdZjl_^hjh]ijh\_jycl_k_[y\k_eb\umf__l_"
Fu gZ^__fky qlh \u mf__l_ \k_ h q_f a^_kv reZ j_qv Z k\_jo lh]h mf__l_
hljZ`Zlvkljmdlmjmij_^eh`_gbygZko_f_ —bah[jZ`Zlvkd_e_lij_^eh`_gby
?keb gZ dZdhflh mqZkld_ \u ihqm\kl\m_l_ k_[y g_m\_j_ggh \_jgbl_kv d i_j\hc
qZklbwlhcdgb]bbhk\_`bl_k\hbagZgby
>Z\Zcl_ijh[_`bfkyihg_dhlhjufbawlbomf_gbc
1. I_j_ibrbl_ klbohl\hjgu_ ijbf_ju \ l_ljZ^v jZkklZ\vl_ \ gbo agZdb b khklZ\vl_
ko_fu
6
Blhiheymoh^yl
Ghke_^boha_jguck\_l_e
Blhiheymoh^yl
GhgZfhklZ\eyxl\_l_j
:fbjk\_leydh\gZoeug_l
Bijhreh_\g_fihlhg_l
Bdjhohlgh_k_j^_qdh
JZkdjh_lkygZeZ^hgb
N_^_jbdh=ZjkbZEhjdZ
B\k_odh]hex[be
YjZaex[blvm`_g_\kbeZo
<KZfhceh\
LZf]^_`bagv_fmijb\hevgh
LZf]^_jZ^hklvhgbjZ^
LZf]^_[hev_fmb[hevgh
LZf]^_[bl\Zhg²khe^Zl
:L\Zj^h\kdbc
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_<\_^_gby
?s_jZah[ehdZo
<i_j\hcqZklbwlhcdgb]bfum`_]h\hjbebh[ehdZo;ehdb\ij_^eh`_gbb —wlh
lhqlhfu\u^_ey_fagZdZfbihijZ\beZf
7
GZ i_j\uc \a]ey^ fh`_l ihdZaZlvky qlh h[gZjm`blv [ehd ljm^gh Gh gZ kZfhf
^_e_ q_eh\_d ]h\hjysbc ihjmkkdb [_a ljm^Z \u^_ebl [ehd kj_^b ^jm]bo keh\
ij_^eh`_gby
2.I_j_^ \Zfb ij_^eh`_gby b hlj_adb ij_^eh`_gbc <uibrbl_ kgZqZeZ ghf_jZ l_o
dhlhju_ ij_^klZ\eyxl kh[hc h^bg [ehd ihlhf ghf_jZ l_o \ dhlhjuo ^\Z [ehdZ
aZl_f ghf_jZ l_o \ dhlhjuo _klv [ehd kh keh\Zfb ba ^jm]h]h [ehdZ b gZdhg_p
ghf_jZl_odhlhju_g_y\eyxlky[ehdZfb
1. <hjhg_ ]^_lh ;h] ihkeZe dmkhq_d kujm 2. Kuj \uiZe k gbf ... 3. ... \k_lZdb
dmjqhgdZ ... 4. ...lhevdh\habgug_ ... 5.JZdiylblkygZaZ^ZSmdZlyg_l\\h^m 6. ...
lZdo\ZlbeZboqlhlhevdh ... 7.Ba[Z\b;h]bgZkhlwlZdbokm^_c 8. ...aZ^mfZe`blv
lZdbfb `_ ... 9. ... km^ lZdhc fhc [_^guc ... 10. ... B gZ^h[gh ` [_^_ kemqblvky qlh
hdheh ... 11. EbkbpZ \b^bl kuj Ebkbpm kuj ie_gbe 12. LZeZglu bklbggu gZ
djblbdmg_aeylkyboih\j_^blv ... 13.Lu\bgh\Zlm`l_fqlhohq_lkyfg_dmrZlv 14.
...\_^vyhlgbo`bj_x ... 15....ohlvbijhklgh ...
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_<\_^_gby
K_dj_l \Zr_c ]jZfhlghklb aZ\bkbl hl lh]h mf__l_ eb \u fuke_ggh ko\Zlu\Zlv
[ehdbhllh]hfh`_l_eb\uij_^m]Z^u\Zlvb m^_j`b\Zlv_]h\iZfylb^h l_oihj
ihdZg_j_rbl_\hijhkhimgdlmZpbhgghfhnhjfe_gbbwlh]h[ehdZ
LZdbf h[jZahf f_oZgbafhf kZfhklhyl_evgh]h ]jZfhlgh]h ibkvfZ y\ey_lky
ij_^m]Z^u\Zgb_bm^_j`Zgb_\iZfylbkhhl\_lkl\mxsboijZ\beZf[ehdh\
Ij_^m]Z^u\Zlv[ehd"Wlhfh`_lhaZ^ZqblvGZkZfhf^_e_\uqZklhkZfblh]hg_
hkhagZ\Zy^_eZ_l_wlhGZijbf_j_keb keurbl_ lZdh_ gZqZeh ij_^eh`_gby Ihq_fm
`_ lu ... — \u m`_ ij_^qm\kl\m_l_ qlh ij_^eh`_gb_ \hijhkbl_evgh_ b ]hlh\u
ihklZ\blv\_]hdhgp_\hijhkbl_evgucagZd
<klj_lb\rbkvkgZqZehf?keb[u ... —\u^h]Z^u\Z_l_kvqlh]^_lh^Zevr_fh`_l
[ulvlhbij_^qm\kl\m_l_aZiylmxi_j_^gbf IjhqblZ\JZggbfkheg_qguf mljhf
dh]^Z ... — \u dhg_qgh agZ_l_ qlh ]^_lh \i_j_^b ijb^_lky aZdjulv aZiylhc
ijb^ZlhqgmxqZklvkeh`gh]hij_^eh`_gby
Ij_^m]Z^u\Zlv [ehdb ihfh]Zxl hjb_glbjmxsb_ agZdb agZdbih^kdZadb K
g_dhlhjufb ba gbo \u m`_ agZdhfu khxau khxagu_ keh\Z hl^_evgu_ keh\Z lbiZ
wlh\hlijbbf_gghfkhklZ\ghfkdZam_fhfbijbkmsZy[ehdZfbglhgZpby>Zevr_
\umagZ_l_bh^jm]bohjb_glbjmxsboagZdZo
Ihijh[m_f ihmijZ`gylvky \ ij_^m]Z^u\Zgbb [ehdZ k ihfhsvx ih^kdZahd LZdh_
ij_^m]Z^u\Zgb_ fh`_l [ulv ijb[ebabl_evguf \ h[sbo q_jlZo Z fh`_l [ulv
\ZjbZlb\guf —lhqlhgZau\Z_lky[Z[mrdZgZ^\h_kdZaZeZ
JZ[hlZ fh`_l \u]ey^_lv ijbf_jgh lZd gb`_ ^Zxlky hlj_adb ij_^eh`_gbc b
h[jZapujZkkm`^_gbc 8
<lhl]h^dh]^Z ...Wlhkeh`ghih^qbg_ggh_ij_^eh`_gb_\dhlhjhfijb^ZlhqgZy
qZklvjZkiheh`_gZ\gmljb]eZ\ghcFh`ghg_lhevdhihklZ\blvaZiylmxi_j_^dh]^Z
ghbkm\_j_gghklvx`^Zlvihy\e_gby\lhjhcaZiylhc\dhgp_ijb^ZlhqghcqZklb
>Z jZa\_ ... <_jhylgh \ dhgp_ ij_^eh`_gby gZ^h ihklZ\blv \hijhkbl_evguc agZd
beb\hijhkbl_evgucb\hkdebpZl_evguc
?keb [u ... Fh`gh kdZaZlv qlh ij_^eh`_gb_ keh`ghih^qbg_ggh_ b ijb^ZlhqgZy
qZklvklhbl\gZqZe_ —hgZ^he`gZ[ulvaZdjulZaZiylhc
L_i_jvkijZ\eycl_kvkZfb
3. Ij_^eZ]Z_f \Zf gZqZeZ ij_^eh`_gbc Ij_^m]Z^Zcl_ \k_ qlh kfh`_l_ b jZkklZ\vl_
agZdb
1.:\_q_jhf dh]^Z ... 2.Dh]^Zi_qZevke_ahcg_\hevghc ... 3.?keb l\hc ^jm] ... 4.
AZq_f\u ... 5.Om^h`gbdf_qlZegZjbkh\Zlvkhegp_lZd ... 6.=hj^hklvxkljhbl_ey[ue
fZyddhlhjuc ...
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_<\_^_gby
4. <u agZ_l_ qlh [ehdb fh]ml [ulv jZkiheh`_gu ihjZaghfm dZd ]mkb beb dZd
fZlj_rdb<hl\Zf[ehdbHij_^_ebl_dZdhgbjZkiheh`_gu
=hjgu_\_jrbgu
Kiyl\hlvf_ghqghc
Lbob_^hebgu
Iheguk\_`_cf]ehc
9
G_iuebl^hjh]Z
G_^jh`Zlebklu
Ih^h`^bg_fgh]h
Hl^hog_rvblu
FXE_jfhglh\
LZf]^_g_[hrlhjfZaZgZ\_kbeb
=^_[_kkbevguex[u_keh\Z
H[yaZl_evgh_klvg_ba\_klgu_
G_hldjulu_hkljh\Z
JJh`^_kl\_gkdbc
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_<\_^_gby
Hl\_lu
1. 1.AZiylu_klZ\ylkyi_j_^khxaZfbghbb 2.B\k_odh]hex[be ... 3.LZf]^_
`bagv_fmijb\hevghlZf]^_jZ^hklvhgbjZ^lZf]^_[hev_fmb[hevghlZf]^_
[bl\Zhg —khe^Zl
2.Ghf_jZijbf_jh\Z kh^_j`Zsboh^bg[ehd 1, 7, 14;[ kh^_j`Zsbo^\Z[ehdZ
5, 11, 13;\ \dhlhjuo_klv[ehdkhkeh\Zfbba^jm]h]h[ehdZ 2, 10;] g_y\eyxsboky
[ehdZfb 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 15.
3. 1.:\_q_jhfdh]^Z ... 5. ...lZd ... 6. ...fZyddhlhjuc ...
4. 1—]mkb 2 —fZlj_rdb
10
=eZ\Z I
H^ghjh^gu_qe_guij_^eh`_gby
HaZiyluoijbh^ghjh^guoqe_gZo
<Zf h gbo dh_qlh m`_ ba\_klgh GZihfgbl_ kZfb k_[_ qlh bf_ggh Z _keb g_
ihfgbl_h[jZlbl_kvdi_j\hcqZklbwlhcdgb]b
Ij_^eZ]Z_fkZfhklhyl_evgh jZa\_jgmlv \ h^bg jZkkdZa h[ h^ghjh^guo qe_gZo ljb
riZj]Zedb 1) riZj]Zedmdhgki_dl 2) riZj]ZedmlZ[ebpm b 3) riZj]Zedm
bgkljmdpbx
JZkkdZafh`ghgZqZlvlZd
Ijhklh_ ij_^eh`_gb_ beb qZklv qZklb keh`gh]h ij_^eh`_gby fh]ml [ulv
hkeh`g_gu h^ghjh^gufb qe_gZfb H^ghjh^gu_ qe_gu ij_^eh`_gby — wlh lZdb_
qe_gudhlhju_
>Zevr_ijh^he`bl_jZkkdZakZfbGhkgZqZeZbamqbl_riZj]Zedb
I.RiZj]ZedZdhgki_dl
H^ghjh^gu_qe_gu
1)hl\_qZxlgZh^bgblhl`_\hijhk
b
2)hlghkylkydh^ghfmblhfm`_qe_gmij_^eh`_gby hlg_]hbaZ^Z_lky\hijhk GZijbf_j
<l_q_gv_f_^e_gghfj_dZ
<[ebabie_l_gvbaljhklgbdZ
<heghxkhgghchfu\ZeZ
B\djm]g_]h_^\Z`mjqZeZ
Ijbe_]dhfrmf_\_l_jdZ
:Imrdbg
< wlhf ijbf_j_ kdZam_fu_ hfu\ZeZ `mjqZeZ hlghkylky d ih^e_`Zs_fm j_dZ b
hl\_qZxlgZihklZ\e_gguchlg_]h\hijhkq l h ^ _ e Z e Z "
II.RiZj]ZedZlZ[ebpZ
Khqbgbl_evgu_khxaukh_^bgyxsb_h^ghjh^gu_qe_gu
Kh_^bgbl_evgu_
JZa^_ebl_evgu_
Ijhlb\bl_evgu_
Z
ch_^bgbl_evgu_
ch_^bgbl_evgh
beb
gh
eb[h
khihklZ\bl_evgu_
^Z
lhlh
_kebg_lh
b
\agZq_gbbgh)
g_lhg_lh
g_lhevdhghb
^Z
h^gZdh
g_klhevdh
dZdlZdb
\agZq_gbbb
aZlh
kdhevdh
gbgblh`_
ohly ohlv
lZd`_
11
GZijbf_j 1. Dk\yluff_klZfkl_dZebkvg_lhevdhiZehfgbdbghbg_\_jmxsb_
lmjbklu DZd l_ lZd b ^jm]b_ m\habeb g_aZ[u\Z_fu_ \i_qZle_gby 2. Bev l_[_ g_
keZ^hd f_^ bev g_ keurbrv dZd ih_l ^_\Z m jmqvy" > KZfhceh\ 3. Fhkl k \b^m
ohlvbijhklghk\hckl\hqm^gh_bf__l B:Djueh\ III.Bgkljmdpby
Ijbf_qZgb_GZdZ`^hfwlZi_gZr_]himlbfu[m^_fijh^eylvdZjlm^hjh]<hldZd
hgZ\u]ey^blk_cqZk kfk 14-15).
1. I_j_ibrbl_ ijbf_ju jZkklZ\eyy agZdb ij_ibgZgby b ih^q_jdb\Zy h^ghjh^gu_
qe_gu<hllZd
KbeZ, k\_l, djZkhlZghqbklZebhkeZ[_\Zlv B;mgbg G_ mki_ejZkkdZaqbdijhbag_klbwlh ihke_^g__ keh\h dZd \^jm] h[_ kh[Zdb jZahf
ih^gyebkv k km^hjh`guf eZ_f dbgmebkv ijhqv hl h]gy b bkq_aeb \h fjZd_
BKLmj]_g_\ 1. Dhkfh]hgby wlh gZmdZ h ijhbkoh`^_gbb b jZa\blbb g_[_kguo l_e HgZ klZ\bl
i_j_^ kh[hc aZ^Zqm h[tykgblv \hagbdgh\_gb_ A_feb ieZg_l KhegpZ a\_a^
lmfZgghkl_cb]ZeZdlbd
Ex[exyiurgh_ijbjh^um\y^Zgv_
<[Z]j_pb\ahehlhh^_lu_e_kZ
<bok_gyo\_ljZrmfbk\_`__^uoZgv_
Bf]ehc\hegbklhxihdjulug_[_kZ
Bj_^dbckhegpZemqbi_j\u_fhjhau
Bhl^Ze_ggu_k_^hcabfum]jhau
:KImrdbg
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,
12
Khqbgbl_evgu_khxau
<u m`_ agZ_l_ qlh h^ghjh^gu_ qe_gu fh]ml kh_^bgylvky jZaebqgufb
khqbgbl_evgufb khxaZfb Bo h[yaZl_evgh gZ^h g_ lhevdh aZihfgblv gh b ijb
\klj_q_ f]gh\_ggh magZ\Zlv \ ebph Wlh h]jZ^bl \Zk hl fgh]bo imgdlmZpbhgguo
g_ijbylghkl_c Ihfgbl_ < ij_^eh`_gbb fh`_l [ulv g_kdhevdh jy^h\ h^ghjh^guo
qe_gh\ >Zevg_crZy lj_gbjh\dZ ihfh`_l \Zf kijZ\blvky kh \k_\hafh`gufb
ljm^ghklyfb
2. I_j_ibrbl_ ijbf_ju jZkklZ\eyy agZdb b \u^_eyy khxau f_`^m h^ghjh^gufb
qe_gZfb ijyfhm]hevgbqdZfb beb djm`hqdZfb IZjgu_ khxau qZklb dhlhjuo klhyl
g_jy^hf^jm]k^jm]hf\u^_eycl_^\mfyijyfhm]hevgbqdZfbbebdjm`hqdZfb
1.<klZjbgmjmkkdb_dgyavybf_ebdhgxrgbikZjgbkhdheh\^eyhohlu>he`ghklv
mijZ\eyxs_]h ijb wlbo kem`[Zo gZau\ZeZkv imlv ;hyj_ ijb dgy`_kdhf ^\hj_
klj_fbebkvihemqblveb[hdhgxrbcimlveb[hkhdhebguceb[heh\qbc:ex^_c[_a
imlbgZau\Zebg_iml_\ufb 2.:g^_jk_gk^_eZekdZadmbgl_j_kghc dZd^ey\ajhkeuo
lZd b ^ey ^_l_c KYFZjrZd 3. < kmf_jdZo \ m]em dhfgZlu kfmlgh [_e_eh g_ lh
lZbgkl\_ggh_ ijb\b^_gb_ g_ lh [_eh_ ieZlv_ 4. <_ebqZcrbc fZl_fZlbd b f_oZgbd
>j_\g_c =j_pbb :jobf_^ ijhkeZ\beky dZd hldjulb_f gZmqguo aZdhgh\ lZd b
\u^Zxsbfbky l_ogbq_kdbfb bah[j_l_gbyfb 5. DZd jZkkdZau\Z_l ^j_\g_]j_q_kdbc
fbn [h] e_kh\ b ihe_c IZg h[eZ^Ze g_ lhevdh kljZrghc \g_rghklvx gh b ^bdbf
h]emrZxsbf ]hehkhf Hg imkdZe \ oh^ dZd lh lZd b ^jm]h_ b \gmrZe ex^yf kljZo
dhlhjuc^hoh^be^hihl_jbjZkkm^dZHlbf_gbwlh]hkljZrgh]h[h`_kl\Zijhbahreb
keh\ZiZgbd_jbiZgbdZ 6.LmfZgu\Ehg^hg_[u\Zxl_kebg_dZ`^uc^_gvlhq_j_a
^_gvg_ij_f_ggh B:=hgqZjh\ Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,
H^ghjh^gufb fh]ml [ulv ex[u_ qe_gu ij_^eh`_gby dZd ]eZ\gu_ lZd b
\lhjhkl_i_ggu_
3. Hij_^_ebl_ dZdb_ qe_gu ij_^eh`_gby y\eyxlky h^ghjh^gufb b \g_kbl_ ghf_jZ
wlboijbf_jh\\khhl\_lkl\mxsb_dhehgdblZ[ebpuij_^\Zjbl_evghi_j_ibkZ\__\
l_ljZ^v ?keb h^ghjh^gufb hdZ`mlky ebrv qZklb khklZ\guo kdZam_fuo bf_ggu_
qZklbbebbgnbgblb\u\khklZ\guo]eZ]hevguokdZam_fuoh[hagZqvl_wlh\lZ[ebp_
\hllZdbfq l_bf_ggZyqZklv bebgn g_hij_^_e_ggZynhjfZ =eZ\gu_qe_guij_^eh`_gby
Ih^e_`Zsb_
kdZam_fu_
<lhjhkl_i_ggu_qe_guij_^eh`_gby
hij_^_e_gby
^hiheg_gby
h[klhyl_evkl\Z
?klv\jmkkdhcijbjh^_mklZeZyg_`ghklv
;_afhe\gZy[hevaZlZ_gghci_qZeb
13
;_a\uoh^ghklv]hjy[_a\eZklghklv[_a[j_`ghklv
Oheh^gZy\ukvmoh^ysb_^Zeb
D;Zevfhgl
>he`gZ[ulvdhgq_gZ\hcgZ
Ijblhf\hqlh[ulhgbklZeh
BafmqbeZkvfhykljZgZ
G_q_eh\_q_kdbmklZeZ
BK_\_jygbg
Fg_fZehgZ^h
DjZxrdmoe_[Z
BdZiexfhehdZ
>Zwlhg_[h
>Zwlbh[eZdZ
<Oe_[gbdh\
Ghyij_^mij_`^Zx\Zk
Qlhy`b\m\ihke_^gbcjZa
GbeZklhqdhcgbde_ghf
Gbljhklgbdhfbgba\_a^hc
Gbjh^gbdh\hx\h^hc
Gbdhehdhevgufa\hghf
G_[m^myex^_ckfmsZlv
Bkguqm`b_gZ\_sZlv
G_mlhe_ggufklhghf
::ofZlh\Z
GhhklZeky\eZ`gucke_^\fhjsbg_
KlZjh]hml_kZH^bghdh
HgklhblaZ^mfZeky]em[hdh
BlbohgvdhieZq_lhg\imklug_
Ybsmk\h[h^ubihdhy
Y[ohl_eaZ[ulvkybaZkgmlv
FE_jfhglh\
Om^hsZ\ucbgbadhjhkeuc
Kj_^vfZevqbr_d\k_]^Z]_jhc
QZklhqZklhkjZa[blufghkhf
Ijboh^beydk_[_^hfhc
K?k_gbg
: l_i_jv kgh\Z i_j_qblZcl_ wlb ijbf_ju b \uibrbl_ ba gbo ij_^eh`_gby \
dhlhjuog_lh^ghjh^guoqe_gh\
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,
4. AZ^ZqZ ih\ur_gghc ljm^ghklb Hij_^_ebl_ dZdb_ qe_gu ij_^eh`_gby y\eyxlky
h^ghjh^gufb\ke_^mxs_fijbf_j_JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
16
MiZkb\Zk;h]ihagZlvaZ[hlm
H[mr_^r_cxghklblm`blv
>_eZlvg_ex[bfmxjZ[hlm
Kg_ex[bfhc`_gsbghx`blv
D<Zgr_gdbg
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,
Jy^uh^ghjh^guoqe_gh\
Dh]^Z ijb \klj_q_ k ij_^eh`_gb_f \u jZaebqZ_l_ jy^ h^ghjh^guo qe_gh\ lh
jZ^hklghmeu[Z_l_kvwlhqlhlhagZdhfh_bihgylgh_L_fh[b^g___kebhrb[db\k_
lZdb[u\Zxl:\hagbdZxlhgbqZs_\k_]h\lZdbokemqZyo 1)_kebh^ghjh^gu_qe_gu
g_klhyljy^hfZhl^_e_gu^jm]bfbqe_gZfbij_^eh`_gbybeb_]hqZklyfb 2)_keb\
ij_^eh`_gbbg_h^bgjy^h^ghjh^guoqe_gh\Z^\Zbeb[hevr_
GZc^bl_ jy^ h^ghjh^guo qe_gh\ \ ijbf_j_ Hl\_l ^Zg gb`_ gh kgZqZeZ
ihijh[mcl_k^_eZlvaZ^Zgb_kZfbZihlhfm`_k\_jvl_kvkhl\_lhf
GhkiylmkZqb]j_gZ^_ju
<jZ\gbg_]^_Wev[Zrmfbl
Ih^kg_]hfoheh^ghcJhkkbb
Ih^aghcgufi_kdhfibjZfb^
FE_jfhglh\
A^_kv jy^ h^ghjh^guo qe_gh\ \ jZ\gbg_ ih^ kg_]hf ih^ i_kdhf — jZa^_e_g
ijb^Zlhqguf\gmljb]eZ\gh]h]^_Wev[Zrmfbl
JZ[hlZcl_lZd`_khke_^mxsbfijbf_jhf
Fheqbkdju\ZckyblZb
Bqm\kl\Zbf_qluk\hb
NLxlq_\
(A^_kv ^\Z jy^Z h^ghjh^guo qe_gh\ h^ghjh^gu_ kdZam_fu_ b h^ghjh^gu_
^hiheg_gby
5.<uibrbl_badZ`^h]hijbf_jZjy^uh^ghjh^guoqe_gh\bmdZ`bl_dZdb_wlhqe_gu
ij_^eh`_gbyJZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby<hllZd
E_\bgkhgih^eh`bekmohcljZ\ubo\hjhklmbjZa^meieZfy
>\Z jy^Z iheh`be b jZa^me — h^ghjh^gu_ kdZam_fu_ ljZ\u b o\hjhklm —
h^ghjh^gu_^hiheg_gby
1.Jmkkdbcyaud\ mf_euojmdZobhiulguomklZodjZkghj_qb\i_\mq\ujZabl_e_g
]b[hdeh\hdb\f_klbl_e_g :Dmijbg Fgh]h^mfy\lbrbg_ijh^mfZe
Fgh]hi_k_gijhk_[ykeh`be
BgZwlhcgZa_fe_m]jxfhc
KqZkleb\l_fqlhy^urZeb`be
K ?k_gbg
>hjh]h\h\j_fy\j_fy
<j_f_gbfgh]hbfZeh
17
>he]h_\j_fyg_\j_fy
?kebhghfbgh\Zeh
KYFZjrZd
4.Ex[h\vdjh^guf^_j_\vyfp\_lZfbljZ\Zfg_hl^_ebfZhlex[\bdjh^ghcj_qb
dgZjh^gufihkeh\bpZfbih]h\hjdZfdh\k_fmlhfmqlh\oh^bl\ihgylb_Jh^bgZ
;Lbfhn__\ 5. Mfkl\_ggZy kbeZ gbdh]^Z g_ mkihdhblky gbdh]^Z g_ hklZgh\blky gZ ihagZgghc
bklbg_gh\k_\j_fy[m^_lb^lb\i_j_^b^Zevr_dg_ihagZgghcbklbg_ >`;jmgh K_]h^gykgh\Zyihc^m
Lm^ZgZ`bagvgZlhj]gZjughd
B\hckdhi_k_gih\_^m
Kijb[h_fjugdZ\ih_^bghd
<Oe_[gbdh\
7. Jmkkdbc yaud hldju\Z_lky ^h dhgpZ \ k\hbo ihbklbg_ \her_[guo k\hckl\Zo b
[h]Zlkl\_ebrvlhfmdlhdjh\ghex[blbagZ_lk\hcgZjh^bqm\kl\m_lkhdjh\_ggmx
ij_e_klvgZr_ca_feb DIZmklh\kdbc FheqZgb_
Gbdh]^Zg_[ueh
Bg_[m^_l
Ahehlhf
Hgh
Eb[hklhdjZl^hjh`_
;_kp_ggh]hkebldZ
Eb[hg_klhbl
B]jhrZ
FLZgd
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,
Kd_e_lbdbh^ghjh^guoqe_gh\
<u \_jhylgh ihfgbl_ qlh fu kjZ\gb\Zeb ko_fu kh kd_e_lZfb ij_^eh`_gbc
Ko_fu h^ghjh^guo qe_gh\ fh`gh kjZ\gblv kh kd_e_lbdZfb Kha^Zxlky hgb lZd
KgZqZeZ bah[jZ`Z_lky h[sbc dhglmj ij_^eh`_gby \ dhlhjhf _klv h^ghjh^gu_
qe_gu
. Ihlhf\gmljbg_]h\kdh[dZoklZ\blkymkeh\gh_h[hagZq_gb_l_o
<hllZd
).
qe_gh\ij_^eh`_gbydhlhju_\^Zgghfij_^eh`_gbbh^ghjh^gu_<hllZd (
Wlh h[hagZqZ_l qlh \ ij_^eh`_gbb _klv h^ghjh^gu_ kdZam_fu_ : dZd ihdZaZlv bo
dhebq_kl\h" Lhgdbfb emqbdZfb dhlhju_ gZijZ\e_gu hl wlh]h agZqdZ \gba b i_j_^
dhlhjufbklZ\blkyaZiylZy_kebhgZ_klvbkhxa_kebhg_klvWlh\u]ey^bllZd
18
RZjuqm]mggu_ih\kx^m
F_`gbfbiju]ZxljZayl
IjZojhxlb\djh\brbiyl
:Imrdbg
:_keb\ij_^eh`_gbbg_h^bgjy^h^ghjh^guoqe_gh\wlhh[hagZqZ_lkylZd
R\_^jmkkdbcdhe_ljm[blj_`_l
: Imrdbg
6.IhklZ\vl_\hae_ghf_jZdZ`^h]hijbf_jZghf_jkhhl\_lkl\mxs_c_fmko_fu
1.Hfgh]hebgZ^ha_feb
>ey^hfZ^eyihey^eyem]Z
Qlh[ljZ\Zfbi_eZhdjm]Z
Bfhj_rmf_eh\^Zeb"
Hfgh]hebgZ^ha_feb
>eybklbgu\_jubijZ\Z
Qlh[aZk_dZbebaZklZ\Z
Ex^_cjZa^_eylvg_fh]eb"
>KZfhceh\
<lhfdjZx]^_`_elZydjZib\Z
Bkmohcie_l_gv
Ijbxlbebkvd\_j[Zfkbjhleb\h
Ba[u^_j_\_gv
K?k_gbg
>mohfk\h[h^gucohly[u\p_iyo[uebjmdb
Ygbdh]^ZhkiZk_gv_k\h_fg_fhex
<_jmx\jZamfgZ^_xkvgZkbemgZmdb
Bq_eh\_dZhldm^Z[hggb[ueex[ex
BB=hevpFbee_j
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,
7. :l_i_jvkZfhklhyl_evghkhklZ\vl_ko_fuij_^eh`_gbc
<hlbkhegp_\klZ_l
BaaZiZr_g[e_klbl
AZfhjyfbghqe_]k\hcihdbgmeh
19
GZiheygZem]ZgZfZdmrdbjZdbl
AhehlufbihlhdZfboeugmeh
BGbdblbg
Hl]emohce_kghchimrdb
>hg_\_^hfhcj_db
<klZeblZgdbdmogbimrdb
Ly]Zqb]jmah\bdb
:L\Zj^h\kdbc
3. G_ih\lhjbf fbj i_s_j Ih^ dZf_gguf g_[hf jZklml [_kp\_lgu_ fob b ljZ\u
[_krmfgh e_lZxl kljZggu_ i_j_ihgqZlhdjueu_ ilbpu dhlhju_ gZihfbgZxl
bkdhiZ_fuo il_jh^Zdlbe_c Ih^ dZf_gguf g_[hf fh`gh m\b^_lv ^\hjpu kdZahqghc
Zjobl_dlmju b `_fqm] ]bikh\u_ p\_lu b gZ\_db aZklu\rb_ \h^hiZ^u Z`mjgu_
aZgZ\_kb b ^jZibjh\db dhlhju_ khldZeZ ba lh]h `_ dZfgy bkdmkgbpZijbjh^Z ba
`mjgZeh\ 8.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby gZie_gd_ YagZx\_k_eu_kdZadblZbgkl\_gguokljZg
Ijhq_jgmx^_\mijhkljZklvfheh^h]h\h`^y
Ghlukebrdhf^he]h\^uoZeZly`_euclmfZg
Lu\_jblvg_ohq_rv\hqlhgb[m^vdjhf_^h`^y
G=mfbe_\
2. < h[s_kl\_ =_dm gZ^h [ueh _klv k lZj_edb ihevah\Zlvky gh`hf b \bedhc
mlbjZlvky kZen_ldhc iblv ba qZrdb gZ^h [ueh mqblv ih dgb`d_ mjhd oh^blv \
p_jdh\v gZ^h [ueh jZa]h\Zjb\Zlv lZd \_`eb\h qlh hg ihl_jye \dmk d jZa]h\hjZf
FL\_g Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,
<hlwlh^Z
HaZiylhci_j_^khxahf^Z)
DZdhckfukebf__lwlhlkhxa\\ujZ`_gbboe_[^Zkhev"
Hg\ujZ`Z_lkfukeh[t_^bg_gbykh\f_klghklb
DZdhfmkhxamhgkbghgbfbq_g"
Khxamb)
L_i_jvh[^mfZcl_kfukekhxaZ^Z\^jm]hfijbf_j_OhjhrZ^m^dZ^Zg_^m^bl
DZdhfmkhxamhga^_kvkbghgbfbq_g"
A^_kvkhxa^Z\ujZ`Z_lijhlb\hihklZ\e_gb_bkbghgbfbq_gkhxamgh
: l_i_jv \kihfgbl_ dZd klZ\ylky agZdb f_`^m h^ghjh^gufb qe_gZfb i_j_^
h^bghqgufkhxahfbbi_j_^khxahfgh<kihfgbeb"
;_amkeh\ghI_j_^baZiylZyg_klZ\blkyZi_j_^ghklZ\blky
GmZkm^v[ZaZiylhci_j_^^ZaZ\bkblhllh]hdZdhckfuke\ujZ`Z_lwlhlkhxa\
dZ`^hfkemqZ_
LZf]^_hgkbghgbfbq_gkhxamghaZiylZyf_`^mh^ghjh^gufbqe_gZfbklZ\blky
20
: lZf ]^_ hg kbghgbfbq_g khxam b aZiylZy klZ\blky lZd `_ dZd i_j_^ wlbf
khxahf i_j_^ h^bghqguf g_ klZ\blky Z i_j_^ ih\lhjyxsbfbky klZ\blky Gh
ihfgbl_aZiylu_klZ\ylkylhevdhf_`^mh^ghjh^gufbqe_gZfb
9. I_j_ibrbl_ ij_^eh`_gby jZkklZ\eyy g_^hklZxsb_ agZdb ij_ibgZgby AZl_f
aZibrbl_ghf_jdZ`^h]hijbf_jZ\khhl\_lkl\mxsbcklhe[bd\lZ[ebp_
^Z =b
^Z =gh
1. GZ _ev <hjhgZ \a]jhfha^ykv ihaZ\ljZdZlv [ueh kh\k_f m` kh[jZeZkv ^Z
ihaZ^mfZeZkv B:Djueh\ 2. IjhdZagbpZFZjlurdZ Hk_e Dha_e ^Z dhkheZiuc
FbrdZaZl_yebku]jZlvd\Zjl_l B:Djueh\ 3.H^gZ`^uE_[_^vJZd^ZSmdZ\_alb
kihdeZ`_c\ha\ayebkv B:Djueh\ 4. >_gv ^Z ghqv — kmldb ijhqv 5. KdZaZe [u
keh\_qdh^Z\hedg_^Ze_qdh 6.DmfZ^ZdmfgZklZ\ylgZmf 7.KdeZ^gh[Z_l^Z^_eZg_
agZ_l 8.OhjhrZdgb]Z^ZqblZl_eviehohc 9.Fhjhag_\_ebd^Zklhylvg_\_ebl 10.
Dhjhldh^Zykghhllh]hbij_djZkgh
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,
10.IhklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby\hlj_adZoij_^eh`_gbc
1. ...m`_ihqlbmki_\ZegZih_a^^Z 2. ...\_l_jaeblky^Zih_l3. ...hklZekyke_^
^ZgZih\_joghklb\h^u
11. : l_i_jv ihkljhcl_ p_eh_ ij_^eh`_gb_ gZ hkgh\_ dZ`^h]h hlj_adZ \ lj_o
\ZjbZglZo qlh[u h^gh ij_^eh`_gb_ [ueh ijhklh_ k aZiylhc i_j_^ ^Z ^jm]h_ [_a
aZiylhcZlj_lv_keh`gh_
1.K_eZ[u[Z[ZaZklhe^Z ... 2.K\ZjbeZ[u[Z[Zsb^Z ... 3.Lhevdh\_l_jaeblky^Z
...
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,
;Z[mrdZgZ^\h_kdZaZeZ
HaZiylhci_j_^khxahfbeb\ijhklhfij_^eh`_gbb
LZddZd`_ —aZiylZyi_j_^khxahfbebklZ\blkybebg_l"Bebbgh]^ZklZ\blkyZ
bgh]^Zg_l"
KjZ\gbl_^\Zijbf_jZh[jZsZy\gbfZgb_gZagZdbij_ibgZgby
1. Ih\k_fm\b^ghqlha^_kvih[u\ZeZZgZdhg^ZbebdZdZygb[m^v^jm]ZydjmigZy
af_y 2.:gZdhg^Zbeb]b]Zglkdbcm^Z\h[blZ_l\;jZabebbb=\bZg_
Ihijh[mcl_hl\_lblvqlhijbkh_^bgy_lkhxabeb\i_j\hfij_^eh`_gbb
>ey wlh]h hij_^_ebl_ dZdh_ dhebq_kl\h ^_ckl\mxsbo ebp mihfbgZ_lky \ i_j\hf
ij_^eh`_gbb
21
>\Z >\_ jZagu_ af_b Khxa beb kh_^bgy_l h^ghjh^gu_ qe_gu Wlh h^bghqguc
hiZkguckhxake_^h\Zl_evghaZiylZyi_j_^gbfg_klZ\blky
:kdhevdh^_ckl\mxsboebp\h\lhjhfij_^eh`_gbb"
>_ckl\mxs__ ebphlh h^gh Z gZa\Zgby m g_]h ^\Z hgh `_ ZgZdhg^Z hgh `_
]b]Zglkdbcm^Z\
Fh`_l [ulv \u aZf_qZeb qlh bgh]^Z h^bg ij_^f_l hg h[hagZqZ_lky
kms_kl\bl_evgufbebf_klhbf_gb_f oZjZdl_jbam_lkykihfhsvx ^jm]h]h ij_^f_lZ
kms_kl\bl_evgh]h LZdh_ hkh[h_ hij_^_e_gb_ \ujZ`_ggh_ kms_kl\bl_evguf
gZau\Z_lkyijbeh`_gb_f
GZijbf_j D_^j \eZ^udZ e_kh\ ih^ gZjhklZfb ev^Z gZ [jbeebZglh\uc aZfhd
ihoh` GAZ[hehpdbc <eZ^udZ e_kh\ — ijbeh`_gb_ Hgh hij_^_ey_l keh\h d_^j ^Z\Zy _fm \lhjh_
gZa\Zgb_
Dh]^Zijbeh`_gb_ijbkh_^bgy_lkykhxahfbebhgh\u^_ey_lkylZd
i_j\Zy aZiylZy klZ\blky i_j_^ khxahf beb Z \lhjZy — ihke_ \k_]h ijbeh`_gby
Bgufbkeh\Zfb\k_ijbeh`_gb_\u^_ey_lkyaZiylufb
Ihkfhljbl__s_jZadZdihklZ\e_guagZdb\h\lhjhfijbf_j_
:gZdhg^Zbeb]b]Zglkdbcm^Z\h[blZ_l\;jZabebb
Wlhloh^fuke_c\u]ey^bllZd
12.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
1.>Z\gh m`_ijhreb \j_f_gZ dh]^Z ex^b aZsbsZebkv beb gZiZ^Zeb k dhivyfb \
jmdZo Z fu ^h kbo ihj mihlj_[ey_f \ujZ`_gb_ ehfZlv dhivy 2. Kj_^b kZfuo
agZf_gbluoiZfylgbdh\Zglbqghklbbebk_fbqm^_kk\_lZ[uedhehkkJh^hkkdbcbeb
h]jhfgZy [jhgah\Zy nb]mjZ ^j_\g_]j_q_kdh]h [h]Z KhegpZ =_ebhkZ 3. <ujZ`_gb_
dhehkkgZ]ebgyguogh]Zomihlj_[ey_lky^eyoZjZdl_jbklbdbex^_cbebij_^f_lh\
\_ebq_kl\_gguok\b^mbkeZ[uoihkms_kl\m 4.QbkehZeeb
22
]Zlhjh\bebdjhdh^beh\`b\msbo\[hehlZoNehjb^uj_adhkhdjZlbehkvihwlhfmbo
ijboh^blky jZa\h^blv gZ ki_pbZevguo n_jfZo H[_avygdZ bah \k_o kbe ^hgbfZeZ
ikZ Beb hgZ ^_j]ZeZ _]h aZ [jh\b b mku b lml `_ hlkdZdb\ZeZ gZ [_ahiZkgh_
jZkklhygb_bebkh\_jrZeZfhegb_ghkgucgZkdhdgZ_]ho\hklDjhr_qgZyh[_avygdZ
ex[beZkiZlvih^ih^mrdhc\fZfbghcihkl_ebbebhgZaZ[bjZeZkvihgh`d_djh\Zlb
dhfg_ih^h^_yeh<i_j\u_`_ih]h`b_\_k_ggb_^gbh[_avygdZ\uoh^beZ\kZ^]^_
hgZ ex[beZ kb^_lv gZ aZ[hj_ beb [jh^beZ \aZ^ b \i_j_^ b \ueZ\eb\ZeZ iZmdh\ beb
^jm]b_ ih^h[gu_ eZdhfkl\Z >>Zjj_ee =j_q_kdh_ keh\h f_lZfhjnhaZ beb
ij_\jZs_gb_mihlj_[ey_lkyb\[bheh]bbb\obfbbb\]mfZgblZjguogZmdZo<u
fh]eb keurZlv qlh b]jZlv fh`gh g_ lhevdh gZ fmaudZevguo bgkljmf_glZo gh b gZ
g_j\Zo G_j\u fh]ml [ulv gZlygmlufb ^Z`_ jZkkljh_ggufb Wlb \ujZ`_gby
\hagbdeb ihlhfm qlh gZ yaud_ ^j_\gbo jbfeyg beb gZ eZlugb keh\h g_j\mk
h[hagZqZeh kljmgm Dh]^Z f_^bdb hldjueb \ q_eh\_q_kdhf hj]Zgbaf_ ihoh`b_ gZ
kljmgu g_j\u d gbf klZeb ijbf_gylv ijb\uqgu_ \ujZ`_gby ba fmaudZevgh]h
h[boh^Z
I_j_qblZcl_ ij_^eh`_gby ijbf_jZ b hl\_lvl_ qlh ijbkh_^bgy_l \ ^Zgguo
ij_^eh`_gbyokhxabebH[tykgbl_ihq_fm\h^gbokemqZyoaZiylZyi_j_^bebklZ\blkyZ\
^jm]bog_l
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,
13.IhklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby\hlj_adZoij_^eh`_gbc
1. ...bjZafureyedmiblveb_fml_ggbkgmxjZd_ldmbebnml[hevguc ... 2.<de_ld_
ihohayckdbjZkiheh`beky]jbaebbeb ... 3. ...qlhyihfbjxkvk[jZlbrdhcbebhl_p
... 4. ...gh[hevr_\k_]h^_lyfihgjZ\bekybeexabhgbklbebihijhklm ...
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,
>\mebdh_keh\hh^gZdh
Ihq_fm ^\mebdh_" >Z ihlhfm qlh \ h^gbo ij_^eh`_gbyo hgh \uklmiZ_l \ jheb
khxaZZ\^jm]bo —\jheb\\h^gh]hkeh\Z
G_imlZcl_\\h^gu_keh\ZgbkdZdbfb^jm]bfb<\h^gu_ —wlhkeh\Zdhlhju_g_
y\eyxlky qe_gZfb ij_^eh`_gby b g_ \klmiZxl gb \ h^bg \b^ k\yab k qe_gZfb
ij_^eh`_gbyDgbfg_evayaZ^Zlv\hijhk<\h^gu_keh\Z\u^_eyxlkyaZiylufb
< ^Zevg_cr_f fu [m^_f ]h\hjblv h gbo [he__ ih^jh[gh KjZ\gbl_ ijbf_ju b
ihijh[mcl_ kZfb hij_^_eblv f_klh \ ij_^eh`_gbb agZq_gb_ b imgdlmZpbhggh_
ih\_^_gb_h^gZdh —khqbgbl_evgh]hkhxaZbh^gZdh\\h^gh]hkeh\Z
1. >h`^vh^gZdhg_ij_djZsZekyihqlbg_^_ex 2. >Z\ghihjZ[uij_djZlblvky
^h`^xhgh^gZdh ijh^he`Z_lky ihqlb g_^_ex 3. H^gZdh ^h`^v g_ ij_djZsZeky
ihqlb g_^_ex 4. >Z\gh ihjZ [u ij_djZlblvky ^h`^x h^gZdh hg ijh^he`Z_lky
ihqlbg_^_ex
23
GZ^__fkyqlhkjZ\g_gb_\Zfm^Zehkvbqlh\uhl\_lbebijbf_jghlZd
< i_j\hf kemqZ_ h^gZdh gZoh^blky \gmljb ijhklh]h ij_^eh`_gby b y\ey_lky
\\h^gufkeh\hf hghkbghgbfbqghkeh\Zfl_fg_f_g__ Hghijbly]b\Z_ld k_[_
aZiylu_dhlhju_\u^_eyxl_]hk^\moklhjhgIh\lhjbf_s_jZa^eyijhqghklb_keb
h^gZdh — \\h^gh_ keh\h klhbl \gmljb ijhklh]h ij_^eh`_gby beb \gmljb qZklb
keh`gh]hij_^eh`_gby hgh\u^_ey_lkyaZiylufb
< lj_lv_f b q_l\_jlhf ij_^eh`_gbyo h^gZdh aZgbfZ_l i_j_^h\u_ ihabpbb \
lj_lv_f — hldju\Z_l ijhklh_ ij_^eh`_gb_ Z \ q_l\_jlhf — \lhjmx qZklv
keh`gh]h ij_^eh`_gby Wlh keh\hi_j\hhldju\Zl_ev — khqbgbl_evguc
ijhlb\bl_evguckhxabihkfukemkbghgbfbqghkhxamgh ZlZd`_^jm]bfkhxaZf\
agZq_gbb gh Hgh `b\_l ghjfZevghc khxaghc `bagvx aZiylZy klZ\blky lhevdh
i_j_^gbfghgbdZdg_ihke_g_]h _kebwlh]hg_lj_[mxl^jm]b_ijZ\beZ ohjhr_]h
imgdlmZpbhggh]hih\_^_gby :\hl\Zfbbgkljmdpby
14. HibjZykv gZ wlm riZj]Zedm h[tykgbl_ jZkklZgh\dm agZdh\ ij_ibgZgby \
ke_^mxsboij_^eh`_gbyo
1. Jh^bl_eb FbljhnZgmrdb \ayeb _fm \ mqbl_ey bklhjbb dmq_jZ <jZevfZgZ
FbljhnZg h^gZdh g_fgh]hfm m g_]h gZmqbeky 2. He_] mkf_ogmeky h^gZdh q_eh b
\ahjhfjZqbeky^mfhc
24
?keb wlh h[tykg_gb_ \Zk g_ aZljm^gbeh agZqbl \u khaj_eb ^ey lh]h qlh[u
kZfhklhyl_evgh jZkklZ\eylv agZdb ij_ibgZgby ijb wlhf ^\mebdhf keh\_ I_j_^
\Zfbl_dklu
3.AgZf_gblucf_oZgbdnbabdbZkljhghf=Zebe_h=Zebe_c[ueijb\e_q_gdkm^m
bgd\babpbb aZ lh qlh jZa^_eye mq_gb_ Dhi_jgbdZ h ^\b`_gbb A_feb ?]h aZklZ\beb
ihdeyklvkyqlhhghlj_dZ_lkyhl_j_kbbhlimklbebh^gZdhm`_\^\_jyohgijhbag_k
: \k_lZdb hgZ \_jlblky Keh\Z wlb h^gZdh ijbibku\Z_l =Zebe_h e_]_g^Z Z
^hdmf_glZevgh]h ih^l\_j`^_gby m gbo g_l 4. K\ys_gghkem`bl_eb >j_\g_]h JbfZ
dhlhjuogZau\ZebZ\]mjZfbij_^kdZau\Zeb[m^ms__ihihe_lmbdjbdmilbp:\]mju
h^gZdh [_kkh\_klgh h[fZgu\Zeb ex^_c dhlhju_ \_jbeb bo ij_^kdZaZgbyf Dh]^Z
Z\]mju \klj_qZebkv ^jm] k ^jm]hf hgb _^\Z m^_j`b\Zebkv hl kf_oZ K_cqZk Z\]mjh\
gbdlh g_ ihfgbl h^gZdh khojZgbehkv \ujZ`_gb_ meu[dZ Z\]mjh\ 5. >bh]_g [ue
ba\_klgufnbehkhnhf>j_\g_c=j_pbbh^gZdh`behgg_\^hf_Z\imklhc[hqd_lZd
dZd kqblZe ^hf baebrg_c jhkdhrvx 6. Fu ]h\hjbf gZ e[m gZibkZgh h ex^yo h
dhlhjuo fh`gh fgh]h_ magZlv ih \ujZ`_gbx ebpZ ;ueb h^gZdh \ klZjbgm ex^b m
dhlhjuo gZ e[m [ueh h[hagZq_gh dlh hgb lZdb_ Ijb pZj_ :e_dk__ FboZceh\bq_
[mglh\sbdZf \u`b]Zeb gZ e[m agZd [mdb beb [md\m [ b bo ijhreh_ gZ\k_]^Z
hdZau\Zehkv gZibkZgguf gZ e[m ih E L =jb]hjyg 7. E_lhf 1612 ]h^Z jmkkdb_
\hckdZ ih^ dhfZg^h\Zgb_f FbgbgZ b Ih`Zjkdh]h g_ lhevdh hklZgh\beb gZr_kl\b_
iheydh\ gh b jZa[beb bo gZ]heh\m <h ]eZ\_ iheydh\ klhye Kljmk dhlhjuc h^gZdh
^mfZeg_klhevdhhkiZk_gbbZjfbbkdhevdhhkh[kl\_gghfkiZk_gbbHl_]hnZfbebb
h[jZah\Zehkvkeh\hljmk
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,
15.IhklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby\hlj_adZoij_^eh`_gbc
I...[ueb\hiZkghklbh^gZdhlh\Zjbsbg_ ... 2. ...m`_g_h`b^Zeh^gZdh\kdhj_ ... 3.
KlZjrb_jZahrebkvih^hfZffheh^_`vh^gZdhg_ ...
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,
Ijh\_jvl_ k\hx iZfylv \kihfgbl_ \k_ agZdhfu_ \Zf khqbgbl_evgu_ khxau Z
ihlhfijh\_jvl_k_[yihdgb`d_
Khxau — wlh hjb_glbjmxsb_ agZdb <u ^he`gu bo f]gh\_ggh \b^_lv b kjZam
hij_^_eylv dZdhc i_j_^ \Zfb khxa — khqbgbl_evguc beb ih^qbgbl_evguc beb
khxagh_ keh\h Ihq_fm wlh \Z`gh" Ihlhfm qlh fu \u^_ey_f gZ ibkvf_ [ehdb
Khxaubebkhxagu_keh\Z —kb]gZelh]hqlh^Zevr_ihc^_l[ehdIh^qbgbl_evguc
khxa beb khxagh_ keh\h ih^kdZau\Zxl qlh ihc^_l ijb^ZlhqgZy qZklv keh`gh]h
ij_^eh`_gby Khqbgbl_evguc khxa kb]gZebabjm_l qlh ihke_^m_l h^gh ba ^\mo
h^ghjh^gu_ qe_gu beb ke_^mxsZy qZklv keh`gh]h ij_^eh`_gby b l_ b ^jm]b_
k\yaZgukhqbgbl_evguf\b^hfk\yab L_i_jvihkljhcl_\l_ljZ^bgZ\kxkljZgbpmlZ[ebpmWlhclZ[ebp_c\u[m^_l_
qZklhihevah\Zlvky
25
Khqbgbl_evgu_khxau
Kh_^bgbl_evgu_b
kh_^bgbl_evgh
khihklZ\bl_evgu_
JZa^_ebl_evgu_
Ijhlb\bl_evgu_
GZklZeh\j_fyihlj_gbjh\ZlvkygZ\k_khxaukjZam
16.I_j_ibrbl_ij_^eh`_gbyfuke_ggha^hjh\ZykvkkhxaZfbbhij_^_eyyqlhhgb
ij_^kdZau\ZxlJZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby<uibrbl_khxau\klhe[bdblZ[ebpu
1.<^j_\gb_\j_f_gZhdheh]j_q_kdh]h]hjh^ZNb\uihk_ebehkvqm^h\bs_kebphf
`_gsbgu lmeh\bs_f ev\Z b djuevyfb ilbpu Wlh [ue knbgdk Hg ih^kl_j_]Ze
ijhoh`bo b aZ^Z\Ze bf ljm^gu_ aZ]Z^db IhcfZgguc bf q_eh\_d ^he`_g [ue eb[h
hl]Z^Zlv aZ]Z^dm eb[h mf_j_lv 2. <ujZ`_gb_ i_j_clb Jm[bdhg h[hagZqZ_l —
k^_eZlv [_kih\hjhlguc j_rbl_evguc rZ] beb kh\_jrblv ihklmihd \ dhjg_
f_gyxsbc iheh`_gb_ ^_e 3. ;ueZ dh]^Zlh gug_ aZ[ulZy ohly bgl_j_kgZy b]jZ \
[bjxevdb<g__b]jZebg_lhevdh^_lbghb\ajhkeu_4.<ujZ`_gb_yl_[_ihdZ`m
]^_jZdbabfmxlfh`ghmkeurZlvqZklhh^gZdhfZehdlhagZ_l]^_`_hgbabfmxlgZ
kZfhf ^_e_ : abfmxl hgb dZd \ ghjZo lZd b \ ]em[hdbo yfZo gZ ^g_ \h^h_fh\ 5.
;hjh^ZrbjhdZ^Z^mrZfheh^Z>Ze;h]deZ^^Zg_mf_eb\aylv 6.<h`^vZg]ebckdhc
[mj`mZaghc j_\hexpbb XVII \_dZ Heb\_j Djhf\_ev [ue g_ lhevdh kmjh\uf gh b
\_kvfZ gZ[h`guf q_eh\_dhf Hg h[eZ^Ze dZd j_^dhklguf djZkghj_qb_f lZd b
]jm[h\Zluf hkljhmfb_f Dh]^Z _]h \hckdZ ]hlh\bebkv d i_j_ijZ\_ q_j_a j_dm hg
ihkh\_lh\Ze k\hbf khe^ZlZf ^_j`Zlv ihjho kmobf Kdhjh fm^juc kh\_l h[e_l_e g_
lhevdh\kx:g]ebxghb\_kvfbj ihEL=jb]hjyg Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u
17. AZ^Zgb_ k meu[dhc I_j_^ \Zfb hlju\hd ba klbohl\hj_gby G AZ[hehpdh]h
Hij_^_ebl_kdhevdh\g_fjy^h\h^ghjh^guoqe_gh\
GZ[_kkbevgu_nb]mjdbkms_kl\bl_evguo
Db^ZxlkyehrZ^bijbeZ]Zl_evguo
DhkfZlu_\kZ^gbdb
Ij_ke_^mxldhggbpm]eZ]heh\
BkgZjy^uf_`^hf_lbc
J\mlkygZ^]heh\Zfb
DZdkb]gZevgu_jZd_lu
;bl\Zkeh\AgZq_gbc[hc
<[Zrg_KbglZdkbk²jZa[hc
?\jhiZkhagZgby
<ih`Zj_\hkklZgby
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,
26
;hevrh_ dhebq_kl\h lj_gbjh\hd g_h[oh^bfh >j_\gb_ jbfeyg_ ]h\hjbeb DZiey
dZf_gv ^he[bl g_ kbehc gh qZkluf iZ^_gv_f Ijbf_gyy d k_[_ wlm fm^jhklv \u
kfh`_l_^h[blvky\ukhdhc]jZfhlghklb
Hdb^u\Zy hp_gb\Zxsbf \a]ey^hf \k_ qlh fu agZ_f h[ h^ghjh^guo qe_gZo fu
fh`_faZf_lblvqlhq_fibhghfihljm^ghklb\wlhcl_f_y\ey_lkykhxabdhlhjuc
kh_^bgy_l lh g_ih\lhjyxsb_ky h^ghjh^gu_ qe_gu lh iZjgu_ lh ih\lhjyxsb_ky Z
lh b \h\k_ g_ h^ghjh^gu_ qe_gu Z qZklb keh`gh]h ij_^eh`_gby \ dhlhjuo fgh]h
ljm^ghkl_c
Ihq_fm khxa b kh_^bgy_l b lh b ^jm]h_" Ihlhfm qlh wlh khqbgbl_evguc khxa Z
\b^k\yabf_`^mh^ghjh^gufbqe_gZfbbqZklyfbkeh`gh]hij_^eh`_gbyh^bgblhl
`_ —khqbgbl_evguc
JZkkdZ`bl_ k_[_ \k_ qlh \Zf ba\_klgh ih wlhfm \hijhkm < kemqZ_ aZljm^g_gby
h[jZlbl_kvdi_j\hcqZklbwlhcdgb]b
: l_i_jv ihijh[m_f jbkdh\Zggmx b]jm ih^ gZa\Zgb_f ;Z[mrdZ gZ^\h_ kdZaZeZ
\ZjbZlb\gh_ijh]ghabjh\Zgb_ Ijb \klj_q_ k khxahf b g_evay h^ghagZqgh ijh]ghabjh\Zlv ijbkh_^bgy_l eb hg
h^ghjh^gu_qe_gubebqZklbkeh`gh]hij_^eh`_gby
18.Ij_^eZ]Z_f\Zfhlj_adbij_^eh`_gbckkhxahfb:\uihklZjZcl_kvijb^mfZlvd
dZ`^hfmbagboih^\Zij_^eh`_gbyh^ghkkhxahfblj_[mxsbfaZiylhcZ^jm]h_
²kkhxahfb[_aaZiylhc
1. E_\ hklZgh\beky \hae_ imklujy b ... 2. LhlqZk dlhlh imklbeky [_`Zlv b ... 3. <
lhffbj__klvrd\ZeubrlbebaZlf_gbyb ... 4.FjZfhj[ue[_eb ... 5.IZjmkZ\ayeb
\_l_jb ... 6.FZljhkohjhrhieZ\Zeghihl_jyekhagZgb_b ... 7.Eh^dZijh^\bgmeZkvd
kdZe_ b ... 8..G_ba\_klguc meu[gmeky b ... 9. Khegp_ f_rZehkv k jhah\uf hl[e_kdhf
]hem[hc\h^ukj_^bg_`guoiZevfiZihjhlgbdh\b ...
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,
H[h[sZxsb_keh\Z
ijbh^ghjh^guoqe_gZo
DZ`^h_ keh\h y\ey_lky h[sbf gZa\Zgb_f ^ey p_eh]h jy^Z ij_^f_lh\ GZijbf_j
keh\h p\_lu y\ey_lky h[sbf gZa\Zgb_f \k_o p\_lh\ [m^v lh h^m\Zgqbd beb jhaZ
Keh\h ^_j_\vy — h[s__ ^ey \k_o ^_j_\v_\ [m^v lh jy[bgZ beb iZevfZ : ^ey keh\
klhe klme rdZn djh\Zlv dj_keh — h[sbf y\ey_lky keh\h f_[_ev Hgh h[h[sZ_l
\k_ij_^f_lu^hfZrg_ch[klZgh\dbDh]^ZijblZdhfkeh\__klvh^ghjh^gu_qe_gu
dhlhju_ ij_^klZ\eyxl kh[hc i_j_q_gv ij_^f_lh\ h[h[s_gguo wlbf keh\hf hgh
gZau\Z_lky h[h[sZxsbf DZ`_lky qlh wlh e_]dh b ihgylgh h^gZdh wlh ihgbfZgb_
^Z_lky g_ \k_]^Z b g_ \k_f Mq_gucikboheh] EK<u]hlkdbc h[gZjm`be qlh _klv
^_lb dhlhju_ fh]ml gZa\Zlv kdhevdh m]h^gh lZdbo ij_^f_lh\ dZd rZidZ \Zj_`db
iZevlhghg_fh]mlgZa\Zlvh[h[sZxs_]hkeh\Zh^_`^Z
27
=hjvdbc hiul ihdZau\Z_l qlh bgh]^Z b \ \Zrbo l_ljZ^yo h[h[sZxs__ keh\h g_
\u^_e_ghlh_klv\ukjZamg_ko\Zlbeb_]hkfukeh\h]hk\h_h[jZaby
19.Ihwlhfm^Z\Zcl_gZ\kydbckemqZcihlj_gbjm_fkyIh^[_jbl_djy^Zfh^ghjh^guo
qe_gh\h[h[sZxsb_keh\Z
1. FZjk <_g_jZ Xibl_j F_jdmjbc KZlmjg Iemlhg — ... . 2. :njbdZ K_\_jgZy
:f_jbdZX`gZy:f_jbdZ:\kljZeby:glZjdlb^Z?\jZaby — ... . 3.E_\lb]jy]mZj
iZgl_jZe_hiZj^ — ... . 4.NbabdZobfby[bheh]by — ... .
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,
: ]^_ f_klh h[h[sZxs_]h keh\Z — i_j_^ h^ghjh^gufb qe_gZfb beb ihke_ gbo"
>Z\Zcl_ihkfhljbf
<^Zgguoijbf_jZoih^q_jdgbl_h[h[sZxsb_keh\Z
1. Fm^jhklv ijbghkbl ke_^mxsb_ ljb ieh^Z ^Zj ohjhrh fukeblv ohjhrh
]h\hjblv b ohjhrh ihklmiZlv >_fhdjbl 2. Bkdj_gghklv \ hlghr_gbyo ijZ\^Z \
h[s_gbb —\hl^jm`[Z :<Km\hjh\ ?keb\ukhjb_glbjh\ZebkvijZ\bevghlhh[gZjm`bebh[h[sZxsb_keh\Zbi_j_^
h^ghjh^gufbqe_gZfb ljbieh^Z bihke_gbo \hl^jm`[Z ?s_ jZa ijhkfhljbl_ ijbf_ju b aZihfgbl_ dZd klZ\ylky agZdb ij_ibgZgby 1)
dh]^Z h[h[sZxsb_ keh\Z klhyl i_j_^ h^ghjh^gufb qe_gZfb b ij_^eh`_gb_ wlbfb
h^ghjh^gufb qe_gZfb aZdZgqb\Z_lky 2) dh]^Z h[h[sZxsb_ keh\Z klhyl ihke_
h^ghjh^guoqe_gh\
?keb h[h[sZxsb_ keh\Z klhyl i_j_^ h^ghjh^gufb qe_gZfb lh i_j_^ wlbfb
h^ghjh^gufb qe_gZfb klZ\blky ^\h_lhqb_ ?keb h[h[sZxsb_ keh\Z klhyl ihke_
h^ghjh^guoqe_gh\lhihke_wlboh^ghjh^guoqe_gh\klZ\blkylbj_
: dZd [u \u h[tykgbeb kemqZc dh]^Z \ h^ghf b lhf `_ ij_^eh`_gbb _klv b
^\h_lhqb_blbj_"GZijbf_j\lZdhfP\_lu^he`gu[ulv\_a^_\kZ^ZobiZjdZo
gZ ]ZahgZo nZ[jbqguo b aZ\h^kdbo ^\hjh\ gZ ijbrdhevguo mqZkldZo — \kx^m ]^_
_klvq_eh\_d
GZ\_jgh_ykghqlh^\h_lhqb_klhbli_j_^h^ghjh^gufbqe_gZfbZlbj_ —ihke_
gbo lZd dZd ij_^eh`_gb_ h^ghjh^gufb qe_gZfb g_ aZdZgqb\Z_lky Ijb\_^_f _s_
ijbf_j<k_pbjdh\u_kms_kl\Z`_gsbgubfm`qbguehrZ^bbkh[ZdbmgbnhjfZ
b dhgxob dehmgu b fmaudZglu — lhqgh klZjZebkv i_j_s_]heylv h^bg ^jm]h]h
:Dmijbg 20. L_i_jv \u agZ_l_ \k_ kZfh_ ]eZ\gh_ h[ h[h[sZxsbo keh\Zo KhklZ\vl_ kZfb
bgkljmdpbxihwlhcl_f_
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,
GZh[s_cdZjl_^hjh]bgkljmdpby[m^_l\u]ey^_lvlZd k 30-31).
Ijbf_qZgb_Ihke_h[h[sZxsbokeh\fh]mlklhylvmlhqgyxsb_keh\ZdZdlhbeb
Z bf_ggh beb gZijbf_j < wlhf kemqZ_ i_j_^ gbfb klZ\blky aZiylZy Z i_j_^
h^ghjh^gufb qe_gZfb dZd \k_]^Z ^\h_lhqb_ <hl lZd < ihoh^_ g_h[oh^bfu kZfu_
jZaghh[jZagu_ \_sb dZdlh iZeZldZ kiZevguc f_rhd h^_`^Z gZ ex[mx ih]h^m
f_lZeebq_kdbcljhkdhl_edbjZaguojZaf_jh\bfZavhldhfZjh\
28
H[h[sZxsb_ keh\Z fh]ml klhylv g_ kjZam i_j_^ h^ghjh^gufb qe_gZfb Z aZ
g_kdhevdh keh\ ^h gbo gh ^\h_lhqb_ klZ\blky g_ihkj_^kl\_ggh i_j_^ h^ghjh^gufb
qe_gZfb<hllZdLj_o\_s_cg_fh`_l[ulvj_r_ldb^eyfhjye_klgbpu^hg_[Z
be_dZjkl\Zhlex[\b bg^bckdZyihkeh\bpZ 21.<ke_^mxsboij_^eh`_gbyojZkklZ\vl_agZdbkZfb
1. Fu k^_eZeb \ kihjlb\ghf fZ]Zabg_ fZkkm ihdmihd Z bf_ggh l_ggbkgu_ fyqb
jZd_ldblj_gbjh\hqgu_dhklxfudjhkkh\dbm^hqdbbnml[hevgucfyq
2.Ljb\_sbg_evaykdjulvh]hgvex[h\vbdZr_ev bg^bckdZyihkeh\bpZ Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,
22.I_j_ibrbl_jZkklZ\eyyagZdbij_ibgZgby
1. < dhgp_ o ]h^h\ ijhreh]h \_dZ ihy\eyxlky \ i_qZlb K_\_jgu_ jZkkdZau
>`_dZEhg^hgZ;_eh_[_afhe\b_<_jZ\q_eh\_dZFm`_kl\h`_gsbguEx[h\v
d `bagb b ^jm]b_ =_jhb Ehg^hgZ g_baf_ggh ijb\e_dZxl gZk k\h_c \he_c b
fm`_kl\hfex[h\vxd`bagbbkbehc\ukhdboq_eh\_q_kdboqm\kl\ =Dhjgbeh\Z 2.
Km\hjh\ij_djZkghagZefZl_fZlbdm]_h]jZnbxnbehkhnbxbklhjbx;hevrZyqZklv
_]h k\h[h^gh]h \j_f_gb moh^beZ gZ ql_gb_ Hg agZe fgh`_kl\h yaudh\ g_f_pdbc
njZgpmakdbc blZevygkdbc ihevkdbc nbgkdbc lmj_pdbc ZjZ[kdbc i_jkb^kdbc ibkZe
klbob b ^Z`_ i_qZlZe bo :E_hglv_\ 3. Jhyev fh] i_lv h[h \k_f h ihju\_
q_eh\_q_kdh]h ^moZ d \_ebdhfm b h ex[\b ;_eu_ b q_jgu_ deZ\brb m[_]Zy baih^
dj_idboiZevp_\=jb]Zlhkdh\Zebkf_yebkv]j_f_eb DIZmklh\kdbc <k_q_ffh`_lihjZ^h\ZlvkugZ
Iha^g_chk_gvxjh^bgZfZlv
A_e_g_xs_chabfb]eZ^v
Ih^hev^hfahehlZy^hebgZ
Ihkj_^bhk\_s_gguoem]h\
<_ebqZ\h_\hckdhklh]h\
<k_^hklmigh^h\hevghfm\ahjm
G:G_djZkh\
Kh\_klv[eZ]hjh^kl\hb^hklhbgkl\h
\hlhghk\ylh_gZr_\hbgkl\h
Ijhlygb_fmk\hxeZ^hgv
aZg_]hg_kljZrghb\h]hgv
;Hdm^`Z\Z
6. <k_ \_ebdb_ khhjm`_gby ^j_\ghklb b kj_^gbo \_dh\ _]bi_lkdb_ ibjZfb^u b
y\ZgkdbcojZf;hjh;m^mjIZjn_ghgbDheba_c<_ebdZy dblZckdZykl_gZ b jbfkdb_
Zd\_^mdb^\hjpubfhgZklujbjupZjkdb_aZfdbb]hjh^kdb_kl_gu\k_kljhbehkv[_a
q_jl_`_c :E_hglv_\ Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,
29
23. : l_i_jv \Zf ij_^eZ]Z_lky jZ[hlZ ihkeh`g__ g_ lhevdh jZkklZ\blv agZdb
ij_ibgZgbyghbkhklZ\blvko_fmdZ`^h]hij_^eh`_gby
1. < yaud_ bg^_cp_\ ohib _klv keh\h dhlhjh_ ijbf_gbfh d ex[hfm e_lZxs_fm
ij_^f_lmdjhf_ilbpbdgZk_dhfufbdkZfhe_lmbde_lqbdmbde_lmq_cfurb :
E_hglv_\ 2. < ZnjbdZgkdhf yaud_ kmZobeb h^gbf b l_f `_ keh\hf gZau\Zxlky
iZjh\ha ih_a^ Z\lhfh[bev \Z]hg l_e_]Z dZj_lZ lZqdZ b dheykdZ Z lZd`_ \_ehkbi_^ b
g_dhlhju_^jm]b_ij_^f_lu :E_hglv_\ 3.Ijbjh^ZhdZaZeZp_ggmx mkem]m ju[Zf
lZd dZd gZ^_ebeZ bo ihdjh\bl_evkl\_gghc hdjZkdhc djZkghc imjimjghc ]hem[hc
a_e_ghcnbhe_lh\hc`_elhckbg_cfZebgh\hcb^Z`_q_jghc :AZ]hjygkdbc 4.<k_
dlh gZ[ex^Ze ahehluo ju[hd \hkobsZeky bo jZaghh[jZaghc hdjZkdhc djZkgh\Zlh
ahehlhc b fhehqghk_j_[jbklhc fZebgh\hc beb a_e_gh\Zlhkbg_c eZahj_\hc b ^Z`_
q_jghc :Z]hjygkdbc 5.Bkke_^h\Zl_ebih^kqblZebqlhba\k_okh[kl\_gguobf_g
]h]he_\kdbo i_jkhgZ`_c ih f_gvr_c f_j_ h^bggZ^pZlv klZeb gZjbpZl_evgufb
FZgbeh\ Dhjh[hqdZ Gha^j_\ Iexrdbg Kh[Zd_\bq Oe_klZdh\ Qbqbdh\ F_g__
ba\_klgu>_j`bfhj^ZG_m\Z`ZcDhjulhIhijbsbgbLjyibqdbg E:<\_^_gkdZyG
IDhe_kgbdh\ Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,
24. : l_i_jv ki_pbZevgh ^ey ex[bl_e_c hkljuo hsms_gbc aZ^Zgb_ ih\ur_gghc
ljm^ghklbJZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
<;_j]_g_\k_[uehihklZjhfm<k_qlhfh]ehijb]emrblva\mdbdh\juihjlv_jub
fy]dmx f_[_ev =jb] ^Z\gh m[jZe ba ^hfZ HklZeky lhevdh klZjuc ^b\Zg GZ g_f
fh]eh jZaf_klblvky ^h ^_kyldZ ]hkl_c b =jb] g_ j_rbeky _]h \u[jhkblv >jmavy
]h\hjbeb qlh ^hf dhfihablhjZ ihoh` gZ `bebs_ ^jh\hk_dZ ?]h mdjZrZe lhevdh
jhyev?kebq_eh\_d[uegZ^_e_g\hh[jZ`_gb_flhhgfh]mkeurZlvkj_^bwlbokl_g
\her_[gu_ \_sb hl jhdhlZ k_\_jgh]h hd_ZgZ qlh dZlbe \hegu ba f]eu b \_ljZ qlh
\uk\bklu\Ze gZ^ gbfb ^bdmx kZ]m ^h i_kgb ^_\hqdb [ZxdZxs_c ljyibqgmx dmdem
DIZmklh\kdbc Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,
25.JZkklZ\vl_agZdb\hlj_adZoij_^eh`_gbc
1. ... kh[jZebkv \k_ b j_[ylZ b ... 2. ... nml[he b l_ggbk \k_ wlh ... 3. ... kZfuo
m^b\bl_evguo hdjZkhd ]hem[h\Zlha_e_gu_ ... 4. ... j_[ylZ gZr_]h ^\hjZ imoeu_
fZeurbg_mdex`b_ih^jhkldbbxgpukimrdhfgZ\_jog_c]m[_\k_dZdh^bg ... 5.
<_kv f_klguc nehl gZ^m\gu_ eh^db [Zc^Zjdb q_luj_o\_k_evgu_ rexidb yolu k
jZaghp\_lgufb iZjmkZfb \ wlhl kheg_qguc ^_gv ... 6. ... [ueb ihoh`b gZ kZfuo
jZaguo `b\hlguo \_j[ex^Z ... 7. ... b imrbklu_ _ehqgu_ eZiu \k_ ihdjulh ... 8. ...
qm^_kZ ^hfZrg_c dmogb kZeZlu b aZeb\gu_ [ex^Z jmfygu_ ibjh]b b g_`gu_
njmdlh\u_`_e_\k_wlh ...
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,
32
Hl\_lu
1.1.Dhkfh]hgby —wlhgZmdZhijhbkoh`^_gbbbjZa\blbb ...HgZ -A_febieZg_l
KhegpZ a\_a^ lmfZgghkl_c b ]ZeZdlbd 2. ... m\y^Zgv_ \ [Z]j_p b \ ahehlh h^_lu_
e_kZ ...rmfbk\_`__^uoZgv_b ... g_[_kZb«emqb ...fhjhaub ...m]jhau
2. 1. ...dhgxrgbikZjgbkhdheh\ ... . ...eb[h... ,eb[h... ,eb[h... . 2. ...dZd... ,lZdb... .
3. .. g_lh... , g_lh... . 4. ..dZd... , lZdb... . 5. ...,[h]e_kh\bihe_c ... g_lhevdh... ,
ghb... . ...dZd... ,lZdb ...b ...kljZodhlhjuc ... . ... iZgbd_jbiZgbdZ 6. ..._kebg_ ... ,lh
... .
3. 1. ...g_`ghklv ...i_qZeb ...]hjy[_a\eZklghklv[_a[j_`ghklv ... \ukv ...^Zeb
2. ...\hcgZ ... .BafmqbeZkvfhykljZgZ ... 3. ...fhehdZ...g_[h ... ! 4. ...\Zkqlh ... .Gb
eZklhqdhc gb de_ghf gb ljhklgbdhf b gb a\_a^hc gb ... \h^hc ... 5. ... klhbl ...
]em[hdhb ... 7. ...gbadhjhkeuc ...]_jhc ...qZklh ...
=eZ\gu_qe_guij_^eh`_gby
Ih^e_`Zsb_
kdZam_fu_
1
2, 4gn 5, 6
gn
<lhjhkl_i_ggu_qe_guij_^eh`_gby
hij_^_e_gby
^hiheg_gby
H[klhyl_evkl\Z
7
3, 4, 6
7
H^ghjh^guo qe_gh\ g_l \ ijbf_jZo 2, 4 i_j\hf ij_^eh`_gbb 5 i_j\hf
ij_^eh`_gbb 4. A^_kv \k_ h^ghjh^gu_ qe_gu lm`blv ^_eZlv `blv — hl\_qZxl gZ \hijhk
dZdmx aZ[hlm" Ke_^h\Zl_evgh y\eyxlky h^ghjh^gufb g_kh]eZkh\Zggufb
hij_^_e_gbyfbF_`^mh^ghjh^gufbqe_gZfbklhyl^\_aZiylu_
5. 1. 1)\jmdZobmklZo —^hiheg_gby 2) djZkghj_qb\i_\mq\ujZabl_e_g]b[hd
eh\hd b \f_klbl_e_g — kdZam_fu_ 2. 1) ijh^mfZe keh`be kqZkleb\ 2) ^urZe b
`be H^ghjh^gu_ kdZam_fu_ \ dZ`^hc ba ^\mo qZkl_c keh`gh]h ij_^eh`_gby 3.
fgh]hbfZeh —kdZam_fu_4. 1) ^_j_\vyfp\_lZfbljZ\Zf 2) dj_qbdihkeh\bpZf
bih]h\hjdZfdh\k_fmlhfm ... —^\Zjy^Zh^ghjh^guo^hiheg_gbc hij_^_e_gbb 5.
1)g_mkihdhblkyg_hklZgh\blkygh[m^_lb^lb —kdZam_fu_ 2) \i_j_^b^Zevr_
—h[klhyl_evkl\Zf_klZ 6. 1) ihc^mbih\_^m —kdZam_fu_ 2) gZ`bagvgZlhj]gZ
jughd — h[klhyl_evkl\Z f_klZ 7. 1) \ k\hckl\Zo b [h]Zlkl\_ 2) ex[bl b agZ_l b
qm\kl\m_l 8 1) g_ [ueh b g_ [m^_l ahehlhf — h^ghjh^gufb y\eyxlky k\yadb
bf_ggh]h khklZ\gh]h kdZam_fh]h 2) eb[h ^hjh`_ eb[h g_ klhbl b ]jhrZ —
kdZam_fu_ H^ghjh^gu_ k\yadb \ h^ghc qZklb b h^ghjh^gu_ kdZam_fu_ \ ^jm]hc
qZklbkeh`gh]hij_^eh`_gby
6. 1 - 3); 4); 2 - 1); 3 - 2).
33
7.
.
8. 1. ... ^_\m ... , gh ... , lu ... . k lZj_edb ihevah\Zlvky gh`hf b \bedhc
mlbjZlvky kZen_ldhc iblv ba qZrdb gZ^h [ueh mqblv ih dgb`d_ mjhd oh^blv \
p_jdh\vgZ^h[uehjZa]h\Zjb\ZlvlZd\_`eb\hqlh ... .
9.<ij_^eh`_gbyo 1, 5, 7, 8, 9aZiylu_i_j_^^Z 2. ...FZjlurdZHk_eDha_e ... . 3.
...E_[_^vJZd ... . 10. ...ykghhllh]h ... .
^Z =b
^Z gh
2, 3, 4, 6, 10
1, 5, 7, 8, 9
10.AZiylZyi_j_^^Z\ijbf_jZo 1, 3.
11. 1.K_eZ[u[Z[ZaZklhe^ZklheaZ\hjhlZmr_e DQmdh\kdbc K_eZ[u[Z[ZaZ
klhe ^Z ihibeZ [u qZcdm 2. K\ZjbeZ [u [Z[Z sb ^Z dZkljxeb ihc^b ihbsb D
Qmdh\kdbc K\ZjbeZ[u[Z[Zsb^ZgZdhjfbeZ[uj_[ylbr_d 3.Lhevdh\_l_jaeblky
^Zklmqbl\hdgh<_l_jaeblky^Zkg_]\Zebloehivyfb Hl\_lu^Zguijbf_jgu_
12. 1. ... ,dh]^Zex^baZsbsZebkvbebgZiZ^Zeb ... ,Z ... 2. ... ,bebk_fbqm^_kk\_lZ
... ,bebh]jhfgZy ... 3. ... ,\_ebq_kl\_gguo ...4. ... ,beb djhdh^beh\ ...Nehjb^u ... ,
ihwlhfm ... 5.BebhgZ^_j]ZeZ_]haZ[jh\bbmkublml`_ ... ,beb ... .Djhr_qgZy ... ,
beb ... .<i_j\u_ ... ,]^_ ...gZaZ[hj_beb[jh^beZ ... 6. ... ,bebij_\jZs_gb_ ... b ... ,b
... ,b ... 7. ... ,qlh ... ,gh ... .G_j\u ... ,^Z`_ ... .Wlb ...ihlhfmqlh ... ,bebgZeZlugb
... .Dh]^Z ... ,dgbf ... .
13. 1. ... ,dmiblv ... 2. ... ,beb ... 3. ... ,qlh ... 4. ... ,beb ...
14. 3. ...f_oZgbdnbabdb ... ,qlh ... .?]h ... ,qlh ..._j_kbbhlimklbebh^gZdh ... .
Keh\Z wlb h^gZdh ijbibku\Z_l ... , Z .... 4. K\ys_gghkem`bl_eb ... , dhlhjuo ...
Z\]mjZfb ... .:\]mjuh^gZdh[_kkh\_klgh ... ,dhlhju_ ... .Dh]^Z ... ,hgb ... .K_cqZk ...
,h^gZdh ... .5. ... ,h^gZdh ... ,Z ... ,lZddZd ... . 6. ... ,hdhlhjuo ... .;uebh^gZdh ... ,m
dhlhjuo ... , dlh ... . Ijb pZj_ ... , beb [md\m [ b ... . 7. ... , gh b ... . <h ]eZ\_ ... ,
dhlhjuch^gZdh ... ,kdhevdh ... .
15. 1. ... ,h^gZdh ... 2. ... ,h^gZdh ... 3. ... ,fheh^_`vh^gZdh ...
34
16. 1. ...`_gsbgulmeh\bs_f ... .IhcfZgguc ...aZ]Z^dm ... . 2. ...rZ]beb ... . 3. ... ,
ohly ... .<g__ ... ,ghb ... . 4. ... ,]^_jZdbabfmxlfh`gh ... ,h^gZdh ... ,]^_`_ ... .:
abfmxl ... ,lZdb^Z >Ze;h]deZ^^Z ... . 6.<h`^v ... ,ghb ... .Hgh[eZ^Ze
... ,lZdb ... .Dh]^Z ...q_j_aj_dm ... .Kdhjh ... ,ghb ... .
Khqbgbl_evgu_khxau
Kh_^bgbl_evgu_b
kh_^bgbl_evgh
khihklZ\bl_evgu_
1 —bb
3 —g_lhevdhghb
4 —dZdlZdb
6 —g_lhevdhghbdZdlZdb
g_lhevdhghb
JZa^_ebl_evgu_
Ijhlb\bl_evgu_
1 —eb[heb[h
3 —ohly
4 —h^gZdhZ
5 —^Z^Z
17.Gbh^gh]hjy^Zh^ghjh^guoqe_gh\
18.Hl\_lufh]ml[ulvijbf_jghlZdbfb
1. E_\ hklZgh\beky \hae_ imklujy b klZe ijbkemrb\Zlvky E_\ hklZgh\beky \hae_
imklujy b \ky _]h nb]mjZ \ujZ`ZeZ gZijy`_ggh_ \gbfZgb_ 2. LhlqZk dlhlh
imklbeky [_`Zlv b m\e_d aZ kh[hc mebqguo kh[Zd LhlqZk dlhlh imklbeky [_`Zlv b
mebqgu_ kh[Zdb dbgmebkv aZ gbf 3. < lhf fbj_ _klv rd\Zeu b rlbeb aZlf_gby b
a_fe_ljyk_gby4. FjZfhj [ue [_e b ]h^beky ^ey h[ebph\hqguo jZ[hl FjZfhj [ue
[_e b _]h hohlgh bkihevah\Zeb ^ey h[ebph\hqguo jZ[hl 5. IZjmkZ \ayeb \_l_j b
mijm]h gZ^mebkv IZjmkZ \ayeb \_l_j b dhjZ[ev klj_fbl_evgh ihg_kky \i_j_^ 6.
FZljhk ohjhrh ieZ\Ze gh ihl_jye khagZgb_ b g_ kfh] kiZklbkv FZljhk ohjhrh
ieZ\Zeghihl_jyekhagZgb_b_]hg_kfh]ebkiZklb 7.Eh^dZijh^\bgmeZkvdkdZe_b
keZ[h m^ZjbeZkv h[ g__ [hjlhf Eh^dZ ijh^\bgmeZkv d kdZe_ b __ keZ[h m^Zjbeh h[
kdZem [hjlhf 8. G_ba\_klguc meu[gmeky b ijhlygme fg_ jmdm G_ba\_klguc
meu[gmeky b y meu[gmeky _fm \ hl\_l 9. Khegp_ f_rZehkv k jhah\uf hl[e_kdhf
]hem[hc\h^ukj_^bg_`guoiZevfiZihjhlgbdh\b^jm]boqm^_kguojZkl_gbc
Lhevdhihh^ghfmij_^eh`_gbxfh`ghijb^mfZlvdijbf_jZf 3 b 9.
19. 1.IeZg_luKheg_qghckbkl_fu 2.FZl_jbdb 3.Obsgbdbk_f_ckl\ZdhrZqvbo
4.?kl_kl\_ggu_gZmdb
35
20.Bgkljmdpby
21. 1. ... ihdmihd Z bf_ggh l_ggbkgu_ fyqb jZd_ldb lj_gbjh\hqgu_ dhklxfu
djhkkh\dbm^hqdbb ... . 2. ...kdjulvh]hgvex[h\vbdZr_ev
22. 1. ...Ehg^hgZ;_eh_[_afhe\b_<_jZ\q_eh\_dZFm`_kl\h`_gsbgu ... .
=_jhb ...fm`_kl\hf ... . 2. ...fZl_fZlbdm]_h]jZnbxnbehkhnbx ... .Hg ...yaudh\
g_f_pdbc njZgpmakdbc blZevygkdbc ihevkdbc nbgkdbc lmj_pdbc ZjZ[kdbc
i_jkb^kdbc ... . 3. ...h[h\k_fhihju\_ ... .;_eu_ ...lhkdh\Zebkf_yebkv ... . 4.<k_
q_f ... jh^bgZfZlv ... ]eZ^v ... ^hebgZ ... klh]h\ — \k_ ... . 5. ... [eZ]hjh^kl\h b
^hklhbgkl\h —\hl ... .Ijhlygb ...eZ^hgv ... . 6. ...\_dh\ ...;hjh;m^mj ...Dheba_c ...
Zd\_^mdb ...fhgZklujb ... — \k_ ... .
23. 1. ... , dhlhjh_ ... , djhf_ ilbp b ... , b ... , b ... , b ... . 2. ... iZjh\ha ih_a^
Z\lhfh[bev \Z]hg l_e_]Z dZj_lZ lZqdZ ... , Z .... 3. ... , lZd dZd ... hdjZkdhc ... ,
]hem[hc a_e_ghc nbhe_lh\hc `_elhc kbg_c fZebgh\hc ... . 4. ... , dlh ... ju[hd ...
hdjZkdhc ... , fZebgh\hc ..., eZahj_\hc ... . 5. ... , qlh ... gZjbpZl_evgufb ... ,
Dhjh[hqdZ Gha^j_\ Iexrdbg Kh[Zd_\bq Oe_klZdh\ ... . F_g__ ... , G_m\Z`Zc
DhjulhIhijbsbg ... .
36
24.<k_qlh ...a\mdb ... ,ihjlv_ju ...f_[_ev — ... .GZg_f ... ,b ... . >jmavy ... ,qlh
... .?keb ... ,lh ...\_sbhl ... ,qlh ... ,b\_ljZ ... , qlh ... ,^h ...^_\hqdb ...
25. 1. ...\k_b ... ,b ... 2. ... —\k_wlh ... 3. ...hdjZkhd ... 4. ...^\hjZ ...fZeurb ... —
\k_ ... 5. ... nehl.... eh^db [Zc^Zjdb ... rexidb ... — \ wlhl ... 6. ... `b\hlguo
\_j[ex^Z ... 7. ... —\k_ ... 8. ...dmogb ...[ex^Z ....`_e_ —\k_ ...
37
=eZ\Z II
H[hkh[e_ggu_qe_guij_^eh`_gby
Ijh^he`Z_fgZr_iml_r_kl\b_ihkljZg_imgdlmZpbb
Qlh agZqbl h[hkh[blv \ imgdlmZpbb" Lh `_ qlh b \ ih\k_^g_\ghc `bagb
\u^_eblv ihklZ\blv \ hkh[h_ iheh`_gb_ Lhevdh \ `bagb wlh ^_eZ_lky k\hbfb
kj_^kl\ZfbZ\imgdlmZpbb —agZdZfbij_ibgZgby
AZq_fgZfh[hjhlu"
H[hkh[e_ggu_qe_guij_^eh`_gby:KImrdbggZa\Zeh[hjhlZfbHgibkZeQ_f
[h]Zq_yaudh[hjhlh\b\ujZ`_gbcl_femqr_^eybkdmkgh]hibkZl_eyAgZdhfkl\hk
aZibkgufbdgb`dZfb EGLheklh]hihdZaZehqlh[he__^\Z^pZlbe_lhg ki_pbZevgh
mijZ`gyeky \ bkihevah\Zgbb jZaebqguo yaudh\uo kj_^kl\ b \ lhf qbke_ h[hjhlh\
<hl h^gZ ba aZibk_c \ _]h dgb`d_ JZkkfhlj_\rb dm\rbg g_ [jhkbe Dm\rbg g_
[jhkbejZkkfhlj_\rb
?keb \ZrZ kh[kl\_ggZy ibkvf_ggZy j_qv ebr_gZ h[hjhlh\ hgZ [_^gZ b
g_\ujZabl_evgZIhwlhfm\Zfbf__lkfukeohjhrhkgbfbhk\hblvky
Iha^hjh\Z_fkyk^__ijbqZklbyfb
Kj_^b h[hjhlh\ [hevrhc ihimeyjghklvx ihevamxlky ^__ijbqZklgu_ >ey lh]h
qlh[u m\Zk[uebkgbfb ohjhrb_ \aZbfhhlghr_gby g_h[oh^bfh \ i_j\mx hq_j_^v
[ukljhb[_ahrb[hqghmagZ\Zlvbokj_^b^jm]bokeh\Mf__l_eb\uwlh">eyfgh]bo
ba\ZkwlhhdZau\Z_lkyg_e_]dbf^_ehf>Z\Zcl_h[km^bfijbqbgu\Zrboljm^ghkl_c
DZd\uagZ_l_^__ijbqZklb_khklhbl\jh^kl\_gguohlghr_gbyobk]eZ]hehfbk
gZj_qb_f Wlh dZd [u ]b[jb^ ]eZ]heZ b gZj_qby dZd ]j_cinjml — ]b[jb^ ebfhgZ b
Zi_evkbgZ
?kl_kl\_ggh qlh ^__ijbqZklb_ bf__l koh^kl\h k ]eZ]hehf h[hagZqZ_l
^__ijbqZklb_ dZd b ]eZ]he ^_ckl\b_ gh lhevdh ^h[Z\hqgh_ : k gZj_qb_f hgh
koh^gh l_f qlh aZklueh l_ g_ bf__l hdhgqZgby g_ baf_gy_lky >__ijbqZklby \
ij_^eh`_gbb fh]ml hl\_qZlv gZ l_ `_ \hijhku qlh b gZj_qby — gZ \hijhku
h[klhyl_evkl\Ghlhevdh^__ijbqZklbyhl\_qZxlgZ\hijhkuq l h ^ _ e Z y " q l h
k ^ _ e Z \ " q l h k ^ _ e Z \ r b " Bf_ggh ih wlbf \hijhkZf fu fh`_f
m\_j_gghhlebqZlv^__ijbqZklbyhlex[uo^jm]bokeh\
<hl\Zfbgkljmdpby kfko_fmgZk 39).
1.<uibrbl_^__ijbqZklbybake_^mxs_]hjy^Zkeh\
Ih^gylv ih^gy\ \ukhdh gZ\_jo meu[qb\h \_k_eh meu[Zykv meu[Z_lky
meu[gmekymeu[gm\rbkvijb\_leb\hijb\_lkl\m_lijb\_lkl\my
Hl\_lvl_kdZdbfbqZklyfbj_qb\ug_i_j_imlZeb^__ijbqZklby
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
38
>__ijbqZklby qZklh imlZxl k ijbqZklbyfb Wlh ihgylgh b l_ b ^jm]b_ bf_xl
]eZ]hevgmxhkgh\m ]meyy]meyxsbc bhl\_qZxlgZihoh`b_]eZ]hevgu_\hijhku>Z
bg_dhlhju_kmnnbdkumgboihoh`bm^__ijbqZklbyrb\rb ijbg_krbgZqZ\rb Z
m ijbqZklby_klvkmnnbdk\r gZiZ\rbc Dh]^Z d g_fm ijb[Z\ey_lky hdhgqZgb_ bc
wlh fh`_l k[blv \Zk k lhedm G_j_^dh ijbqZklby b ^__ijbqZklby b hdZgqb\Zxlky
ihoh`_gZi_\ZygZi_\Z\rZyLhevdhwlhym^__ijbqZklbykmnnbdkZmijbqZklby —
o\hklbdhdhgqZgbyZy
G_ imlZcl_ bo Ihfgbl_ qlh ^__ijbqZklby — wlh g_baf_gy_fZy nhjfZ ]eZ]heZ Z
ijbqZklbybaf_gyxlky kdehgyxlky B\hijhkumgbobf_xlg_lhevdhkoh^kl\hgh
b jZaebqb_ m ^__ijbqZklby \hijhku h[klhyl_evkl\ b \hijhku q l h ^ _ e Z y "
qlh k^_eZ\" qlh k^_eZ\rb" Z m ijbqZklby qlh
^_eZxsbc"qlh^_eZ\rbc"qlhk^_eZ\rbc"
2.?s_h^bggZ[hjkeh\DZdb_bagbo²^__ijbqZklbybkq_f\ubog_i_j_imlZeb"
KdZaZlv kdZaZ\ kdZaZ\rbc j_rblvky j_rb\rbkv j_rb\rbcky kf_ykv
kf_xsbckykf__lkyaZ^mfZ\rbckyaZ^mfZ\rbkvaZ^mfZekykbyykbyxsbckbylv
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
:l_i_jv^Z\Zcl_\ueZ\eb\Zlv^__ijbqZklbybaihlhdZkZfuojZaguo keh\
39
3.AZibrbl_dZ`^h_keh\h\khhl\_lkl\mxsbcklhe[bdlZ[ebpu
Kms_kl\bl_evgu_
IjbeZ]Zl_evgu_ =eZ]heu IjbqZklby GZj_qby >__ijbqZklby
E_lZy ^hdjZkgZ kbyxsZy mfqZeZkv \_k_eZy f_evgbpZ gZdZgmg_ ihijhklm
r_e_kl_eZ gZjbkh\Z\ ijhkljZgkl\h [_aex^gZy gbdh]^Z jZa\_k_eb\rbkv
hklhjh`_gi_j_\h^klj_fbl_evghmiZ\fZeurbih^fb]gm\rbih^gy\rbgZ^_xkv
gZ^_`gh kfhljysbc kfhljbl_ev g_ ]ey^y ih^jm`_kdb k\ys_ggZy k\_lysZyky
hk\_lbl_evhk\_s_gb_k\_leh
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
4. I_j_^ \Zfb i_j_imlZggu_ ihkeh\bpu JZkimlZcl_ bo i_j_ibrbl_ b ih^q_jdgbl_
^__ijbqZklby
1.G_^Z\rbkeh\Zg_kmcky\\h^m 2.Kgy\rb]heh\mdj_ibkvZ^Z\rb^_j`bkv
3.G_agZy[jh^mih\hehkZfg_ieZqmlIjh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u II.
H[hkh[e_ggh_h[klhyl_evkl\h
\ujZ`_ggh_^__ijbqZklgufh[hjhlhf
>__ijbqZklby \klj_q_ggu_ \Zfb \ l_dkl_ fh]ml [ulv eb[h h^bghqgufb
g_jZkijhkljZg_ggufb eb[h jZkijhkljZg_ggufb lh _klv bf_xsbfb ijb k_[_
ihykgbl_evgu_ keh\Z >__ijbqZklby k ihykgbl_evgufb keh\Zfb gZau\Zxlky
^__ijbqZklgufh[hjhlhf
< ij_^eh`_gbb h^bghqgu_ ^__ijbqZklby b ^__ijbqZklgu_ h[hjhlu [u\Zxl
jZaebqgufbh[klhyl_evkl\Zfb lhqg__^h[Z\hqgufbkdZam_fufbh[klhyl_evkl\Zfb 5.Ih^q_jdgbl_^__ijbqZklgu_h[hjhlubh^bghqgu_^__ijbqZklby\ijbf_jZo
GZdjZkguoeZidZo]mkvly`_euc
AZ^mfZ\ieulvihehgm\h^
KlmiZ_l[_j_`ghgZe_^
KdhevablbiZ^Z_l<_k_euc
F_evdZ_l\v_lkyi_j\uckg_]
A\_a^ZfbiZ^ZygZ[j_]
:KImrdbg
X`gucDj_kllZfkby_l\^Zeb
Ki_j\uf\_ljhfijhkg_lkydhfiZk
;h]ojZgydhjZ[eb
>Zihfbem_lgZk
:=jbg
IeZq_l]^_lhb\he]Zkohjhgykv\^mieh
Lhevdhfg_g_ieZq_lky²gZ^mr_k\_leh
K?k_gbg
40
Hl]h\hjbeZjhsZahehlZy
;_j_ah\uf\_k_eufyaudhf
B`mjZ\ebi_qZevghijhe_lZy
M`g_`Ze_xl[hevr_gbhdhf
K?k_gbg
>_j`Zdm\rbggZ^]heh\hc
=jmabgdZmadhxljhihc
Koh^beZd[_j_]mIhjhc
HgZkdhevabeZkj_^vdZfg_c
Kf_ykvg_eh\dhklbk\h_c
FXE_jfhglh\
DlhkdZq_ldlhfqblkyih^oeZ^ghxf]ehc"
?a^hdaZiha^Zeuckgbfkugfheh^hc
Dhlpm\_kvba^jh]gm\fZexldZijbgbd
H[gy\_]h^_j`blb]j__lklZjbd
<:@mdh\kdbc
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
>h[Z\hqgu_kdZam_fu_ —h[klhyl_evkl\Z
\ujZ`_ggu_^__ijbqZklbyfb
b^__ijbqZklgufbh[hjhlZfb
kaZiylufbb[_agbo
Ijhkfhljbl_l_dkluij_^u^ms_]haZ^Zgbybhl\_lvl_gZ\hijhku
1.AZ\bkbleb\u^_e_gb_^__ijbqZklgh]hh[hjhlZhl_]hf_klZ\ij_^eh`_gbb"
2.<u^_eyxlkyebh^bghqgu_^__ijbqZklby"
?keb\u[ueb\gbfZl_evgulh[_amkeh\ghaZf_lbebqlh^__ijbqZklgu_h[hjhlu
\u^_eyxlky aZiylufb g_aZ\bkbfh hl bo f_klZ \ ij_^eh`_gbb <u^_eyxlky b
h^bghqgu_^__ijbqZklby
: \k_]^Z eb wlh ijhbkoh^bl" JZkkfhljbf ijbf_ju g_ i_j_\h^y ^uoZgby g_
ihdeZ^Zyjmdkehfy]heh\mkimklyjmdZ\Z
<k_wlhdhg_qgh^__ijbqZklgu_h[hjhluGhg_ijhklu_
Ihfgbl_ eb \u qlh lZdh_ b^bhfu gZijbf_j kt_klv kh[Zdm dhl gZieZdZe
\lbjZlvhqdb "
Wlhmklhcqb\u_]hlh\u_khq_lZgbykeh\dhlhju_\ug_kljhbl_ih^[bjZykeh\ZZ
\kihfbgZ_l_ \ gm`guc fhf_gl p_ebdhf Wlb khq_lZgby keh\ h[hagZqZxl kh\k_f g_
lh qlh \oh^ysb_ \ gbo keh\Z GZijbf_j kt_klv kh[Zdm h[hagZqZ_l [ulv fZkl_jhf
k\h_]h ^_eZ dhl gZieZdZe — agZqbl kh\k_f g_fgh]h q_]hlh \lbjZlv hqdb —
h[fZgu\Zlv
Kj_^bb^bhffgh]b_y\eyxlky^__ijbqZklgufbh[hjhlZfbAZjm[bl_k_[_gZghkm
>__ijbqZklgu_h[hjhlub^bhfug_h[hkh[eyxlky
41
:\hl\Zfbgkljmdpby
42
6. <klZ\vl_ ih^oh^ysb_ ih kfukem ^__ijbqZklgu_ h[hjhlu AZibrbl_ ihemq_ggu_
ij_^eh`_gbykhagZdZfb
1. ... y ... imklbeky \ jbkdh\Zggh_ iml_r_kl\b_ 2. ... y ... aZgbfZeky g_ex[bfuf
^_ehf 3. ...y ...jZkkdZaZej_[ylZfh[h\k_fkemqb\r_fky 4.FhyfZlvg_fh]eZ`blv
...^Zbhl_pg_ex[bekb^_lv 5. ...j_[ylZe_l_eb ...
H[hjhlu ^ey \klZ\db g_ \a\_kb\ \k_o \hafh`guo ljm^ghkl_c hq_jly ]heh\m
ij_h^he_\Zyg_hohlmkdj_iyk_j^p_[m^mqbkh\_jr_gghbkdj_ggbfiheh`ZjmdmgZ
k_j^p_g_jZ[hlZykeh`Zjmdblhjhiykvdih_a^mkehfy]heh\m
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
<hijhkgZkhh[jZabl_evghklvihq_fmb^bhfug_h[hkh[eyxlky"
Qlh[u e_]q_ gZclb hl\_l ihklZ\vl_ \hijhku d ke_^mxsbf b^bhfZf kh]eZkbeky
kdj_iyk_j^p_kemrZ_laZlZb\^uoZgb_<um\b^bl_qlh\k_hgbhl\_qZxlgZ\hijhk
dZd" — l_ gZ \hijhk gZj_qby : gZj_qby fu [_a hkh[uo ijbqbg aZiylufb g_
\u^_ey_f
H^bghqgu_^__ijbqZklby[_aaZiyluo
7. Ba ^Zgguo ^__ijbqZklbc \uibrbl_ l_ dhlhju_ g_ h[hagZqZxl ^hihegbl_evgh]h
^_ckl\by
KlhyjZafZob\Zye_`Zih\_jgm\rbkvfheqZdZlZykvkb^yiju]Zyg_ki_rZ
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
Hl\_qZxleb\uibkZggu_\Zfb^__ijbqZklbygZ\hijhkuq l h ^ _ e Z y " q l h
k^_eZ\"
Dhg_qghg_lHgbhl\_qZxllhevdhgZ\hijhkud Z d " d Z d b f h [ j Z a h f "
— l_ \_^ml k_[y dZd gZj_qby : gZj_qbyf dZd \u m`_ agZ_l_ [_a hkh[uo ijbqbg
aZiyluog_iheZ]Z_lky
8.Ihijh[mcl_khklZ\blvbgkljmdpbxkZfb
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
L_i_jv\uagZ_l_^hklZlhqgh^eylh]hqlh[uijbklmiblvdlj_gbjh\d_
9. JZkklZ\vl_ agZdb ij_ibgZgby Ih^q_jdgbl_ ^h[Z\hqgu_ kdZam_fu_h[klhyl_evkl\Z
.
<hllZd
< 1959]h^mg_[hevrh_km^gh\uc^yba dhemf[bckdh]hihjlZihl_ji_eh Z\Zjbx\
hldjulhf fhj_ HdZaZ\rbkv \ \h^_ ex^b ih^\_j]ebkv gZiZ^_gbx Zdme Ihfhsv
ijbreZ g_h`b^Zggh >_evnbgu \klmib\ \ [hc k obsgbdZfb kiZkeb ex^_c Hlh]gZ\
Zdme^Ze_dh\fhj_hgb\f_kl_kex^vfb\klj_lbebkiZkZl_evgh_km^gh
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
10.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby\l_dkl_Hl]Z^Zcl_dlhZ\lhjwlboklboh\bbadZdh]h
ijhba\_^_gbyhgb\aylu
43
AbfZDj_klvygbglhj`_kl\my
GZ^jh\gyoh[gh\ey_limlv
?]hehrZ^dZkg_]ihqmy
Ie_l_lkyjukvxdZdgb[m^v
;jZa^uimrbklu_\aju\Zy
E_lbldb[bldZm^ZeZy
Yfsbdkb^blgZh[emqd_
<lmemi_\djZkghfdmrZd_
<hl[_]Z_l^\hjh\ucfZevqbd
<kZeZadb`mqdmihkZ^b\
K_[y\dhgyij_h[jZab\
RZemgm`aZfhjhabeiZevqbd
?fmb[hevghbkf_rgh
:fZlv]jhabl_fm\hdgh
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
11. JZkklZ\vl_ agZdb ij_ibgZgby JZkkdZ`bl_ dZdb_ ijZ\beZ \Zf ihgZ^h[behkv ^ey
wlh]h\kihfgblv
>Z\Zcl_ihgbfZlv^jm]^jm]Zkihemkeh\Z
Qlh[hrb[b\rbkvjZag_hrb[blvkykgh\Z
>Z\Zcl_`blv\h\k_f^jm]^jm]mihlZdZy
L_f[he__qlh`bagvdhjhldZylZdZy
;Hdm^`Z\Z
Bdh]^ZaZdem[blkyaZdZl
ihm]eZfaZe_lZy
imklvhiylvbhiylvij_^hfghxieu\mlgZy\m
kbgbc[mc\he
b[_euchj_e
bnhj_evahehlZy
:bgZq_aZq_f
gZa_fe_wlhc\_qghc`b\m"
;Hdm^`Z\Z
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
Kfhljbf\i_j_^
Keh\h ijh]gha \u dhg_qgh keurZeb g_h^ghdjZlgh Qlh hgh h[hagZqZ_l" Ijh ih
]j_q_kdb agZqbl ij_^\Zjyxsbc ]gha — agZgb_ AgZgb_ lh]h qlh ^he`gh
ijhbahclb²lZdh\kfukekeh\Zijh]ghaJZamf__lkybf_gghh[hkgh\Zggh_agZgb_Z
g_^h]Z^dZbg_\ufuk_e
<u agZdhfu k ijh]ghahf ih]h^u k iheblbq_kdbfb ijh]ghaZfb Gh \Zf
g_h[oh^bfh \eZ^_lv imgdlmZpbhgguf ijh]ghahf — ij_^m]Z^u\Zlv [ehd ih kZfuf
i_j\uf _]h keh\Zf Wlh \Zf ihfh`_l jZkklZ\eylv agZdb kjZam ih oh^m ibkvfZ g_
^h`b^Zykv ihdZ [m^_l aZibkZgh \k_ ij_^eh`_gb_ Lhevdh lZdZy jZkklZgh\dZ agZdh\
h[_ki_qb\Z_lgZklhysmximgd
44
lmZpbhggmx ]jZfhlghklv : imgdlmZpby dZd \u agZ_l_ ihfh]Z_l \ujZ`Zlv fukev
GZmqblvky lZdhfm ijh]ghabjh\Zgbx ihfh]Z_l jZ[hlZ k hlj_adZfb ij_^eh`_gbc
dhlhjmxfu\j_fyhl\j_f_gbij_^eZ]Z_f\Zf
12.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby\hlj_adZoij_^eh`_gbc
1. Emqb k\_lZ ihiZ^Zy gZ ... 2. ... hdZaZ\rbkv gZ kl_g_ beb ^jm]hc iehkdhc
ih\_joghklbkhojZgyxl ... 3.H[\_^ywlml_gvdZjZg^Zrhfbebm]e_ffh`ghihemqblv
... 4. ... aZ^he]h ^h bah[j_l_gby nhlh]jZnbb gZmqbebkv ihemqZlv bah[jZ`_gb_
q_eh\_dZg_ljZlyijbwlhf ...
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\uII.
AgZ_l_eb\udlhlZdhcDhavfZIjmldh\"
@be[ue \ ijhrehf \_d_ ibkZl_ev dhlhjh]h gbdh]^Z g_ [ueh ;bh]jZnby [ueZ
dgb]b [ueb ^Z`_ ihjlj_l [ue Z _]h kZfh]h gbdh]^Z g_ [ueh A\Zeb _]h DhavfZ
Ijmldh\ Ih^ wlbf bf_g_f ibkZeb xfhjbklbq_kdb_ ijhba\_^_gby kjZam ljb Z\lhjZ
:e_dk_c DhgklZglbgh\bq Lheklhc b [jZlvy @_fqm`gbdh\u Z bgh]^Z d gbf
ijbkh_^bgyekyb?jrh\Z\lhjkdZadbDhg_d]hj[mghd
13. Dhavf_ Ijmldh\m ijbgZ^e_`bl fgh]h ]em[hdhfuke_gguo baj_q_gbc Fu ohl_eb
ihagZdhfblv \Zk k g_dhlhjufb ba gbo ^Z \hl [_^Z hgb jZkkuiZebkv Kh[_jbl_ bo b
aZibrbl_jZkklZ\eyyagZdbij_ibgZgby
DhiZy^jm]hfmyfm ...
...g_evayg_m^b\eylvky
=ey^ygZfbj ...
...g_baebrg_ijb^_j`b\ZlvdZjlmak\hcaZdhauj_d
?^bgh`^ukhe]Z\rb ...
...kh[_jbkvk^mohf
IjbgbfZykvaZ^_eh ...
...dlhl_[_ih\_jbl"
<abjZygZ\ukhdboex^_cb\ukhdb_ij_^f_lu ...
...ihl_jy\rbieZq_f
Qlhbf__fg_ojZgbf ...
...kZf\g__ihiZ^_rv
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
Ijh^bdlmcl_^jm]^jm]mZihlhfijh\_jvl_k_[yihdgb`d_
YdZ`^uc^_gv\hkklZ\hlkgZ
;eZ]h^Zjxk_j^_qgh;h]Z
AZlhqlh\gZrb\j_f_gZ
<her_[gbdh\g_lZdm`_fgh]h
:KImrdbg
14. Qlh[u g_ aZ[ulv ijhc^_ggh_ jZkklZ\vl_ agZdb ij_ibgZgby \ hlj_adZo
ij_^eh`_gbc
1. Hl_p fheqZ gZ[ex^Ze aZ ... 2. ... jZkdjbqZ\rbkv i_j_ihehrbeZ Ih mebp_
kehfy]heh\m ... 4. ...gZgZkk_j^bebkvlZddZdfuhq_gvex[bebqblZlve_`Z 5.=mkv
r_e\hbgkl\_gghoehiZy ... 6. ...mijZ`g_gby\uihegyxlkyklhy
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\uII.
45
Ki_pbZevgucjZa]h\hj
hljm^guokemqZyo
< klbohl\hj_gbb Klbob h kh\_lkdhf iZkihjl_ <FZydh\kdbc hibku\Z_l
qbgh\gbdh\ ijh\_jyxsbo gZ ]jZgbp_ iZkihjlZ m iZkkZ`bjh\ < kljhqdZo dhlhju_
\uk_cqZkijhql_l_aZdexq_gZi_j\Zyljm^ghklvdhlhjZy\Zffh`_l\klj_lblvkyijb
jZ[hl_k^__ijbqZklgufbh[hjhlZfbIhijh[mcl_hij_^_eblv\q_fhgZaZdexqZ_lky
Bg_ih\_jgm\
]heh\udhqZg
bqm\kl\
gbdZdbo
g_ba\_^Z\
[_jml
g_fhj]gm\
iZkihjlZ^ZlqZg
bjZaguo
ijhqbo
r\_^h\
<FZydh\kdbc
<uijZ\u_kebm\b^_ebljm^ghklv\lhfqlha^_kvg_h^gh^h[Z\hqgh_kdZam_fh_
h[klhyl_evkl\hZp_euoljbB^\Zbagbo —h^ghjh^gu_qe_guBihklmiZlvkgbfb
gZ^hlZd`_dZdbkex[ufb^jm]bfbh^ghjh^gufbqe_gZfb
<lhjZyljm^ghklv<q_fhgZ"JZkkfhljbfijbf_j Fh]mqbc ihlhd \h^u fqZeky d
kdZebkluf ihjh]Zf b gZihegyy hdj_klghklv rmfhf b [jua]Zfb klj_fbl_evgh
gba\_j]Zeky\gba
<hllZdkh[ulb_AZiylZyihke_bJZa\_lZd[u\Z_l">Z\Zcl_aZihfgbf?kebgZr_
^h[Z\hqgh_ kdZam_fh_h[klhyl_evkl\h gZr ^__ijbqZklguc h[hjhl jZkiheZ]Z_lky
ihke_ khxaZ beb khxagh]h keh\Z hg \u^_ey_lky k ^\mo klhjhg aZiylufb i_j\Zy ba
dhlhjuohdZau\Z_lkyihke_khxaZ bebkhxagh]hkeh\Z Bkdexq_gb_khklZ\ey_llhevdhkhxaZHgijbebiZ_ld^__ijbqZklghfmh[hjhlm
bg_hl^_ey_lkyhlg_]haZiylhc
?s_ijbf_jDehmg\ur_egZZj_gmgZjmdZo[helZy\\ha^mo_gh]Zfbb^jm`gh
Zieh^bjmyajbl_ebijb\_lkl\h\Zeb_]h
DZdih\Zr_fmkdhevdha^_kv^__ijbqZklguoh[hjhlh\" <uijZ\u_kebhl\_lbeb
qlhbo^\Z
Hlghkylkyebhgbdh^ghfmkdZam_fhfmbebdjZaguf"
<u ijZ\u _keb hl\_lbeb qlh hgb hlghkylky d jZaguf kdZam_fuf \oh^ysbf \
jZagu_ qZklb keh`gh]h ij_^eh`_gby Ihwlhfm hgb g_ y\eyxlky h^ghjh^gufb
qe_gZfb
:qlhkh_^bgy_lkhxab"
<u ijZ\u _keb hl\_lbeb qlh hg kh_^bgy_l g_ ^__ijbqZklgu_ h[hjhlu Z qZklb
keh`gh]h ij_^eh`_gby : lZd dZd h[Z h[hjhlZ ^h[jhkh\_klgh \u^_e_gu khxa b
hdZaZeky hdjm`_g k ^\mo klhjhg aZiylufb dhlhju_ d g_fm kZfhfm g_ bf_xl
hlghr_gby
46
< dZq_kl\_ iml_\h^bl_ey ih wlbf ljm^guf kemqZyf ij_^eZ]Z_f \Zf bgkljmdpbx
kfk8).
:l_i_jv —lj_gbjh\dZ
15. JZkklZ\vl_ agZdb ij_ibgZgby GZibrbl_ ghf_j dZ`^h]h ij_^eh`_gby \
khhl\_lkl\mxsbcklhe[bdlZ[ebpu
H^ghjh^gu_qe_gukh_^bg_gu
h^bghqgufhiZkgufkhxahf
H^ghjh^gu_qe_gukh_^bg_gubglhgZpb_c
beb[_ahiZkgufbkhxaZfbbeb
ih\lhjyxsbfbkyhiZkgufbkhxaZfb
1. H^gZ`^u :g^_jk_g \b^_e dZd >xfZ ibkZe k\hc hq_j_^ghc jhfZg lh ]jhfdh
i_j_jm]b\Zykvk_]h]_jhyfblhihdZlu\ZykvhlohohlZ DIZmklh\kdbc 2.<^Ze_dhc
\ukhdh]hjghckljZg_Lb[_lfgh]hfhgZkluj_cK\ys_gghkem`bl_ebeZfudhlhju_\
gbo `b\ml ijh\h^yl `bagv g_ lhevdh l\hjy fhebl\u g_ lhevdh bkp_eyy [hevguo g_
lhevdh kh[bjZy e_q_[gu_ ljZ\u Hgb _s_ jbkdmy `bagvx kh\_jrZxl ihe_lu gZ
h]jhfguo \ha^mrguo af_yo ^_j`Zkv jmdZfb aZ \_j_\db b mibjZykv gh]Zfb \
ki_pbZevgu_ijbkihkh[e_gby 3.Klj_fbl_evghkdhevayihkg_]mb\_k_ehjZafZob\Zy
iZedZfbfbfhf_gyijhg_keZkvjZajmfygb\rZykyeu`gbpZ
Ihl_kh\ufdjh\_evdZfb]jZxqb
Lmqdbk_ju_jZa]hgyxqb
AZjyZeZyih^ufZ_lky
FXE_jfhglh\
Kf_ykvhg^_jadhij_abjZe
A_febqm`hcyaudbgjZ\u
FXE_jfhglh\
6.<ukhdh\]hju\iheam`be_]lZf\kujhfms_ev_k\_jgm\rbkv\ma_eb]ey^y\
fhj_ F=hjvdbc Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
16.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
Dm\rbgua\mqZgZebebky\h^hx
B]hj^hdb\ZyfZojh\hc]eZ\hx
Ijb\_lkl\mxliZevfug_`^Zgguo]hkl_c
Bs_^jhihblboklm^_gucjmq_c
FXE_jfhglh\
Bykgukiysb_]jhfZ^u
Imklugguomebpbk\_leZ
:^fbjZel_ckdZyb]eZ
Bg_imkdZylvfmghqgmx
GZahehlu_g_[_kZ
H^gZaZjykf_gblv^jm]mx
Ki_rbl^Z\ghqbiheqZkZ
:KImrdbg
47
48
3.=jhammg_keh[_ake_^ZbZjdhci_j_dbgm\rbkvq_j_a\kxFhkd\mklhyeZ\g_[_
jZaghp\_lgZy jZ^m]Z ibeZ \h^m ba Fhkd\uj_db F;me]Zdh\ 4. Ex^b hq_gv
ex[hiulgu hgb ohlyl kjZ\gb\Zlv ihagZ\Zlv b ]ehlgm\ k\_`_]h \_ljZ qm`[bgu
ihkdhj__ \_jgmlvky ^hfhc : =hnf_ckl_j 5. < h]jhfghf Zd\Zjbmf_ \h Nehjb^_
^_evnbguiju]Zxlkd\havh[jmqihxl^mwlhfb\ukhdh\uiju]b\Zyba\h^ueh\dh
o\ZlZxl ba jmd ihk_lbl_e_c k\_`mx ju[m GKeZ^dh\ 6. GZrb iml_r_kl\_ggbdb
\klmibeb\djZc]^_bo\klj_lbebnZglZklbq_kdb_\b^_gbyijbqm^eb\hi_j_ie_lZykvk
j_ZevghklvxIhg_[mreZ]jhfZ^gZyilbpZklmiZydjmigufbrZ]ZfbG_agZyqlhwlh
aZ ilbpZ hohlgbdb fh]eb [u aZ[_kihdhblvky =^_lh gZ iehkdh]hjv_ r_e kljZmk b
fbjZ` hljZabe _]h m\_ebqb\ \ klh jZa ih FZcg Jb^m 7. <ukhdh gZ^ Zj_ghc \bk_e
dZgZl qmlv ih^jZ]b\Zy b eh\dh fZg_\jbjmy r_klhf ih g_fm r_e q_eh\_d \ yjdhc
h^_`^_ 8.=bfgZkl^_j`ZegZ]heh\_r_klkh[ex^ZyjZ\gh\_kb_b\kdZjZ[dZ\rbkvih
wlhfmr_klmgZ\_jogZg_f\h\_kvjhkl\klZefZevqbde_l\hkvfb
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
17. Kh[_jbl_ jZkkuiZggu_ ij_^eh`_gby b aZibrbl_ bo jZkklZ\eyy agZdb
ij_ibgZgby
1.Hl[jZku\Zyfhj_fdjbdbdjm`Zlky]eZ^dmxl_gbbj_adb_\h^ugZba^Zxl
gZ^ih\_joghklvqZcdb 2.H[oh^yiheyr_eZck[_j]bdhjZ[evbe_]dhlhjhkub
h^he_\Zye_^ygu_
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
18. JZkklZ\vl_ agZdb ij_ibgZgby \ hlj_adZo ij_^eh`_gbc KhklZ\vl_ ko_fu
ij_^eh`_gbcbfuke_gghboijh^he`b\
1. <_ebdbc fZkl_j ^j_\ghklb >_^Ze `b\y \ g_\he_ m ... 2. Hg ^he]h ^mfZe dZd
[_`ZlvkDjblZbg_bf_y\hafh`ghklb ... 3.GZ[jZ\i_jv_\hg ... 4.Mk_j^ghjZ[hlZyk
mljZ ^h \_q_jZ >_^Ze ... 5. GZ djuevyo [ueb mdj_ie_gu i_leb b ijh^_\ \ gbo ... 6.
Dh]^Zdjuevy[ueb]hlh\uhg\afZob\Zy ... 7.Hl_pkkughfgZ^_\djuevye_]dh ... 8.
L_dlh\b^_eboihe_lm^b\eyebkv^mfZy ... 9.GhfZevqbdaZ[u\ ... 10.<hkddhlhjuc
kdj_ieyedjuevyjZklZyebhklZ\rbkv[_a ... 11.H[_jgm\rbkv>_^Zeg_ ...
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
Ghk\ulZsbrv —o\hklm\ya
KZfZy jZkijhkljZg_ggZy hrb[dZ ihjh`^Z_fZy ^__ijbqZklgufb h[hjhlZfb— wlh
ihl_jyh^ghcbaaZiyluo?klvi_j\Zybg_l\lhjhcbeb_klv\lhjZybg_li_j\hcDZd
\ihkeh\bp_Ghk\ulZsbrv²o\hklm\yaO\hkl\ulZsbrv —ghkm\yaAZihfgbl_
ohjhr_gvdh qlh m ^__ijbqZklgh]h h[hjhlZ _keb hg klhbl g_ \ gZqZe_ b g_ \ dhgp_
ij_^eh`_gbyh[yaZl_evgh^he`gu[ulv^\_aZiylu_gZghkmbgZo\hkl_
49
19.IhjZ[hlZcl_dhjj_dlhjhfBkijZ\vl_imgdlmZpbhggu_hrb[db
1. Emqb khegpZ ijhoh^y kd\hav gZkus_gguc iZjZfb \ha^mo iZ^Zeb lZf b lml
kghiZfb FIjbr\bg 2. Khegp_ h[gbfZeh l_fguc o\hcguc e_k b l_iehf k\hbf
jZkdju\Zeh gZ _eyo iZkfmjgu_ lZcgbdb hk\h[h`^Zy ihke_^gb_ k_f_gZ hl rbr_d
FIjbr\bg 3. QZklh eb \u \b^bl_ q_eh\_dZ dhlhjuc ih^gy\ ]heh\m kfhljbl gZ
a\_a^u" XHe_rZ 4. FZevqbd \_e gZ ih\h^d_ kh[Zdm fZoZy o\hklhf hgZ
h[gxob\ZeZljhlmZj
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
Ihq_fm l_jy_lky lh ghk lh o\hkl" Wlb ihl_jb aZ\bkyl hl lh]h dZd jZ[hlZ_l
\ZrZiZfylvbgZkdhevdh\umf__l_ijh]ghabjh\Zlv
<h\j_fyibkvfZ\ubf__l_^_ehg_kh\k_fij_^eh`_gb_fp_ebdhfZlhevdhkl_f
hlj_adhfdhlhjucaZibku\Z_l_\^Zggucfhf_glIjbwlhf\ug_kh\k_fhlq_leb\h
ihfgbl_aZibkZggh_bg_kh\k_fykghijh]ghabjm_l_lhqlh_s_ij_^klhblaZibkZlv
G_ ij_^\b^y ih i_j\uf keh\Zf qlh \u ibr_l_ h[hjhl fh`_l_ ihl_jylv aZiylmx \
_]h gZqZe_ — gZ ghkm G_ aZihfgb\ qlh \u ibr_l_ h[hjhl jbkdm_l_ ihl_jylv
o\hklh\mxaZiylmx
Wlbljm^ghklbk\yaZgukhkh[_gghklyfbjmkkdh]hkbglZdkbkZ
50
< g_dhlhjuo yaudZo ihjy^hd keh\ \ ij_^eh`_gbyo l\_j^h mklZgh\e_g jZa b
gZ\k_]^Z b dZ`^uc qe_g ij_^eh`_gby g_ fh`_l f_gylv k\h_ f_klh gb ijb dZdbo
mkeh\byo:\jmkkdhfyaud_ihjy^hdkeh\k\h[h^gucbex[hcqe_gij_^eh`_gby\
lhf qbke_ b ex[hc h[hjhl fh`_l hdZaZlvky lh \ gZqZe_ lh \ k_j_^bg_ lh \ dhgp_
ij_^eh`_gby<lZdbomkeh\byomke_^blvaZgbfb]hjZa^hljm^g__q_f\kemqZ__keb
[u hgb aZgbfZeb ihklhyggu_ f_klZ \ ij_^eh`_gbyo b ihwlhfm ljm^g__ klZ\blv
agZdb
20. >Z\Zcl_ ihijh[m_f ihcfZlv h[hjhl \ ex[hf f_kl_ ij_^eh`_gbc JZkklZ\vl_
agZdbij_ibgZgby
1. Kf_rgh i_j_\Zeb\Zykv f_^\_`hghd r_e ih Zj_g_ gZ aZ^gbo eZiZo 2.
F_^\_`hghd kf_rgh i_j_\Zeb\Zykv r_e ih Zj_g_ gZ aZ^gbo eZiZo 3. F_^\_`hghd
r_eihZj_g_gZaZ^gboeZiZokf_rghi_j_\Zeb\Zykv
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
Eh\ey h[hjhlh\ mkeh`gy_lky _keb \ ij_^eh`_gbb [hevr_ h^gh]h h[hjhlZ b
ke_^h\Zl_evgh \hajZklZ_l dhebq_kl\h ghkh\ b o\hklh\ <hajZklZ_l b gZ]jmadZ gZ
iZfylvbh[t_fjZ[hluihijh]ghamGhg_k^Z\Zcl_kv
21.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
1. GZijZ\eyykv d ^j_kkbjh\sbdm f_^\_`hghd r_e ih Zj_g_ gZ aZ^gbo eZiZo
kf_rghi_j_\Zeb\Zykv 2.Kf_rghi_j_\Zeb\Zykvf_^\_`hghdr_eihZj_g_gZaZ^gbo
eZiZogZijZ\eyykvd^j_kkbjh\sbdm
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
<udhg_qghihfgbl_qlhij_^eh`_gbyfh]ml[ulvjZkiheh`_gudZdfZlj_rdZ
\fZlj_rd_
I_j_^\Zfbkeh`gh_ij_^eh`_gb_\dhlhjhfg_kdhevdhfZlj_r_d
22. <uibrbl_ ]eZ\gmx qZklv ij_^eh`_gby ² gZjm`gmx fZlj_rdm gh g_
aZ[u\Zcl_h^__ijbqZklguoh[hjhlZob^__ijbqZklbyo
51
khkqblZcl_ kdhevdh \ g_c ijyq_lky ijb^Zlhqguo qZkl_c jZkklZ\vl_ agZdb
ij_ibgZgby
LZf]^_fhj_\_qghie_s_l
GZimkluggu_kdZeu
=^_emgZl_ie__[e_s_l
<keZ^dbcqZk\her_[ghcf]eu
=^_\]Zj_fZogZkeZ`^Zykv
>gbijh\h^blfmkmevfZg
LZf\her_[gbpZeZkdZykv
Fg_\jmqbeZlZebkfZg
:KImrdbg
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
23.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby\hlj_adZoij_^eh`_gbc
1.JZaaZ^Z\dZdhcgb[m^v\hijhkFZe_gvdbcijbgp ... 2. ...rbrdZmiZeZbf_evdZy
o\hklhf[_edZ ... 3. ...]hlh\u[uebaZdjbqZlvhlm^h\hevkl\bym\b^_\ ... 4. ...^Z`_g_
h[jZlb\\gbfZgbyijh[_`ZefbfhbklZ\i_j_^ljb[mghcgZqZe ... 5. ...ihfqZekybg_
jZa[bjZy^hjh]b ...
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\uII.
?keb \ ij_^u^msbo iylb aZ^Zgbyo m \Zk g_ [ueh hrb[hd \u fh`_l_ ijhimklblv
ljbke_^mxsbobi_j_clbdaZ^Zgbx 28.?kebhrb[db[uebijh^he`Zcl_\uihegylv
\k_ih^jy^
24. Baeh`_gb_fbgbZlxjZ I_j_qblZcl_ l_dkl g_kdhevdh jZa Z ihlhf aZdjhcl_ _]h b
gZibrbl_ihg_fmbaeh`_gb_
Qlh[u^h_oZlv^hIZjb`Z
NjZgkmZ JZ[e_ ba\_klguc njZgpmakdbc ibkZl_ev hqmlbeky \ ^_g_`ghf
aZljm^g_gbb?fmg_q_f[uehaZieZlblvaZijh_a^baEbhgZ\IZjb`Lh]^ZgZkuiZ\
\ljb[mfZ`guoiZd_lbdZkZoZjguci_khdhggZh^ghfgZibkZeY^^eydhjheygZ
^jm]hf — Y^ ^ey dhjhe_\u gZ lj_lv_f — Y^ ^ey i_j\h]h fbgbkljZ HklZ\b\
iZd_lbdbgZ\b^ghff_kl_hgklZe`^ZlvKem`ZgdZm[bjZydhfgZlmijhqeZgZ^ibkb
bih[_`ZeZdohaybgmLhl\kihehrb\rbkv\ua\ZekljZ`mIbkZl_eyko\Zlbebbih^
dhg\h_fgZijZ\beb\IZjb`Ij_^klZ\i_j_^ijhdmjhjhfIZjb`ZJZ[e_ijbagZeky\
aehfmfuke_b\ih^l\_j`^_gb_ijh]ehlbe\k_kh^_j`bfh_iZd_lh\ ba`mjgZeh\ 25. Ih^q_jdgbl_ ^h[Z\hqgu_ kdZam_fu_h[klhyl_evkl\Z
^__ijbqZklgu_h[hjhlu bjZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
^__ijbqZklby
b
1. Kehg gbdh]^Z g_ iheZ]Z_lky lhevdh gZ k\hb ]eZaZ @_eZy ihemqblv ykgh_
ij_^klZ\e_gb_hijhbkoh^ys_fhg\k_]^Zih^gbfZ_loh[hl?keb`_hgi_j_^\b]Z_lky
ghqvx lh kimkdZ_l oh[hl ^h kZfhc a_feb dZd [u bkke_^my __ Gh ijb wlhf hg g_
ie_l_lky g_m\_j_ggh gZsmiu\Zy ihq\m ih^ gh]Zfb Z eh\dh b [ukljh h[oh^bl \k_
ij_iylkl\bym\_j_gghfbgmybogZk\h_fimlb W;Zmwj 2. 2400e_lgZaZ^hibku\Zy
dZd^he`_g^_j`Zlvky\_`eb\ucb\hkiblZggucq_eh\_d
52
:jbklhl_ev hkh[_ggh ih^q_jdgme qlh hg [m^_l hkl_j_]Zlvky h]hjqZlv ex^_c 3.
Dh]^Zlh jmdZ\Z h^_`^u m dblZcp_\ [ueb gZ f_lj ^ebgg__ q_f gm`gh b `_eZy
ih`Zlvdhfmgb[m^vjmdmhgblj_fyeh\dbfb^\b`_gbyfbhl[jZku\ZebjmdZ\lZdqlh
hg kZf eh`beky djZkb\ufb kdeZ^dZfb gZ aZiyklv_ b ij_^ie_qv_ ba `mjgZeh\ 4.
=jZgbpu fbjZ \ dhlhjhf fu `b\_f klj_fbl_evgh jZa^\b]Zxlky hldju\Zy b
g_baf_jbfu_ ijhklhju dhkfhkZ b lZcgu fbdjhfbjZ ba `mjgZeh\ 5. Ghqvx ih
^_j_\g_klhyelZdhcaZiZol_ieh]hoe_[Zkjmfyghcdhjdhckijb]hj_\rbfbd^hgpm
dZimklgufb ebklvyfb qlh ^Z`_ ebkbpu \ue_aeb ba ghj kb^_eb gZ kg_]m ^jh`Zeb b
lbohgvdhkdmebebkhh[jZ`ZydZd[ukeh\qblvkyklZsblvmex^_cohlvdmkhq_dwlh]h
qm^_kgh]hoe_[Z DIZmklh\kdbc Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
26. IhjZ[hlZcl_ dhjj_dlhjhf I_j_ibrbl_ ij_^eh`_gby bkijZ\eyy imgdlmZpbhggu_
hrb[db
1.E_^hdheijh^Z\eb\Z_le_^k\hbf\_khf <aehfZ\ e_^ dhjZ[ev hloh^bl gZaZ^ b
aZl_f kgh\Z mklj_fey_lky \i_j_^ qlh[u jZah]gZ\rbkv kbevg__ m^Zjblv ev^bgm D
>hf[jh\kdbc 2. AZf_lb\ gZk ]b]Zglkdbc ys_j hklZgh\beky \ulygm\ r_x b g_
ki_rZ aZljmkbe \ ^jm]mx klhjhgm Ihke_^h\Z\ aZ gbf y m\b^_e dZd hg kdjueky \
jhs_LZfhge_]ih^[hevrbf^_j_\hfaeh[ghih]ey^u\ZygZf_gy J;ehf[_j] 3.
Kheg_qgh_ mljh qmlv fhjhabl b kh\_jr_ggh lboh Kihdhcgh [u\Z_l gZ ^mr_ dh]^Z
\_kghc ih^ \_q_j gZ dj_fh\hf g_[_ ]hem[hc ^uf gZ[_]Zy ba ljm[ klhe[Zfb
ih^gbfZ_lky \\_jo gZ\_jom hg jZkoh^blky h[jZamy ih^ g_[_kguf k\h^hf dhehggu
FIjbr\bg Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\uII.
27.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
Ih ^hjh]_ qZklh ihiZ^Zxlky dZjebdh\u_ kh\u <ulygm\rbkv \h njmgl dZd
aZijZ\kdb_ qZkh\u_ hgb kb^yl gZ imqdZo ljZ\u \hae_ k\hbo ghjhd g_ k\h^y k \Zk
iheguo m^b\e_gby b e_^ygh]h ij_aj_gby ]eZa 2. Q_jghi_]b_ dmebdb kgmxl \hdjm]
lZykv\ljZ\_ih^]ey^u\Zy db\Zy ]heh\dZfb Z ihlhf \^jm] \afu\Zxl \ \ha^mo djbqZ
L_jhl_jh3.Lhqlh\uijbgyeb[uehaZ[hevrhcimqhd\ukhor_chlkhegpZljZ\u
\g_aZighih^gbfZ_lkygZ^ebgguodj_idbogh]Zobg_k_lkyihjZ\gbg_\ulygm\r_x
gujyy b eZ\bjmy kj_^b dhexq_d 4. G_ mki_\Ze y ih^hclb ih[eb`_ d k_j_[jbklh
a_e_guf gZk_dhfuf dZd kju\Zykv k f_klZ hgb mghkbebkv ihk\_jdb\Zy ijhajZqgufb
iehkdhklyfb djuev_\ 5. <j_f_gZfb dZdhcgb[m^v fhsguc kmd ih^eZfu\Zeky b
\uju\Zy dehd ba a_e_gh]h iheh]Z e_l_e \gba hldju\Zy ^hklmi ahehluf klj_eZf
kheg_qguoemq_c 6.Ilbpuklj_fbl_evgh\ue_lZxlbae_kZbaZ[Z\ghgujyygZe_lm
jZkkZ`b\Zxlky gZ ^_j_\vyo \hklhj`_ggh i_j_debdZykv 7. AZdmku\Zy ih^ ^_j_\hf y
m\b^_e dZd ^\b]Zykv f_^e_ggh b \_ebqZ\h ih dhj_ ihiheaeZ ]b]ZglkdZy mebldZ
jZaf_jhf k y[ehdh H e_kghc a_fe_jhcd_ ba\_klgh qlh ijh]heh^Z\rbkv hgZ
kihkh[gZkehiZlvbkh[kl\_ggh]hjh^bqZ 9.L_gbm`_klZgh\ylky^ebgg__
53
dh]^Z hklhjh`gh i_j_klmiZy kljhcgufb gh`dZfbdZjZg^ZrbdZfb g_[hevrb_
Zglbehiu b^ml gZ \h^hihc lh b ^_eh hklZgZ\eb\Zykv b h]ey^u\Zy \k_ \hdjm]
]jhfZ^gufb\eZ`gufb]eZaZfb ih>`>Zjj_eem Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
28. : l_i_jv fu ij_^eZ]Z_f \Zf aZ^Zgb_ ih\ur_gghc ljm^ghklb JZkklZ\vl_ agZdb
ij_ibgZgby
KebrdhfkmfjZqgZykebrdhfdh\ZjgZy
H^bqZeZyklZeZa_fey
Bkdehgb\rbkvgZsblemq_aZjguc
H]eygmehgimklu_ihey
KlZlmbdhehggunhgZjb
LZyeb\ijhklhjZoghqbkbg_c
Bg_ki_rgh^h]hgyybo
D=hkih^mg_kebk\hcqbklucbg_c
IjbajZdb^_j_\v_\g_`b\uo
Bi_j_^wlbfkhegp_fhlklmiZy
Ihgy\qlhkgbfkhi_jgbqZlvg_evay
JZklZyeZlhkdZfhyke_iZy
<kykbg_\hc\_k_gg_xkd\hay
<eGZ[hdh\
Ke_auk_j^p_fg_l_kgyl
Bdjm`Zkv\kZ^mm]jxfhf
Ebklvy`_elu_e_lyl
K]jmklgufrmfhf
<a\_\Zye_]db_]Zj^bgu
BjZa^m\Zyk\_laZjgbpu
GhqgZy[ebabeZkv]jhaZ
Lukdmqgh\ihf_jdr__g_[h\a]eygmeZ
Blboh\a^hogm\rbhiylvhimklbeZ]eZaZ
HgZ\afZogmeZe_]dhc]jb\hc
Bgha^jbd\_ljmh[jZlb\
Klhkdhxg_`ghcbkqZkleb\hc
DhfmlhkljZklgucre_lijbau\
B;mgbg
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\uI
<kZfhfh[s_f\b^_
<jhfZg_FboZbeZ;me]Zdh\ZFZkl_jbFZj]ZjblZ_klvklZ\rZydjueZlhcnjZaZ
Jmdhibkb g_ ]hjyl Gh gZ kZfhf ^_e_ jmdhibkb b ex[u_ ^jm]b_ ibkvf_ggu_
^hdmf_glub]hjyl b ]b[gml hl ^jm]bo ijbqbg b g_ihijZ\bfh ihjlylky hl iehoh]h
ojZg_gby
Bkke_^h\Zl_eyf dhlhju_ iulZxlky \hkklZgh\blv dZjlbgu ijhreh]h ih lZdbf
ihkljZ^Z\rbfl_dklZfbgh]^Zijboh^blkybf_lv^_ehk
54
h[ju\dZfb njZa ba dhlhjuo g_evay ihemqblv gbdZdhc dhgdj_lghc bgnhjfZpbb Gh
mq_gu_klZjZxlkyba\e_qvbawlboh[ju\dh\kfukeohly[u\kZfhfh[s_f\b^_DZd
wlh ijhbkoh^bl" Ijbf_jgh lZd ijbf_ju [_j_f kZfu_ ijhklu_ ?keb [u g_
ih^^_j`dZ^jma_cfu[u<kZfhfh[s_f\b^_fh`ghkdZaZlvfu[ug_^h[bebkv
q_]hlhbebfug_kfh]eb[uba[_`ZlvdZdbolhljm^ghkl_c>jm]hcijbf_jDh]^Z
\ ]hjh^ ihkljZ^Z\rbc hl < h[s_f \b^_ fh`gh kdZaZlv Dh]^Z \ ]hjh^
ihkljZ^Z\rbc hl dZdh]hlh [_^kl\by ijb[ue dlhlh beb ijb[ueh qlhlh \ g_f
klZehijhbkoh^blvqlhlhq_]h^hwlh]hg_[uehBebQlhlhklZehijhbkoh^blv
kl_fbdlhijb[uebebkl_fqlhijb[ueh
<j_fyhl\j_f_gb\u[m^_l_ mijZ`gylvky\lZdhcjZ[hl_ <hafh`gh \Zfgbdh]^Z
g_ ijb^_lky bamqZlv ihkljZ^Z\rb_ l_dklu gh mf_gb_ meZ\eb\Zlv ih g_kdhevdbf
keh\Zfh[sbckfukeihfh`_l\Zfqm\kl\h\Zlv k_[y m\_j_gg__ \ \Zr_c kh[kl\_gghc
ibkvf_gghcj_qbb\__hnhjfe_gbbagZdZfbij_ibgZgby
29.Hij_^_ebl_\kZfhfh[s_f\b^_kfuke hlj_adh\ij_^eh`_gbcjZkklZ\vl_\gbo
agZdbij_ibgZgby
1. ... qlh[u k^_eZ\ ... 2. ?keb \u ihemqb\ ... 3. ... \ ^hf_ ]^_ ... 4. Gh wlh fh`_l
ijhbahclblhevdhlh]^Z ... 5.Dh]^Zhgbg_jZah[jZ\rbkvlhedhf ... 6.H[tykgbl_fg_
^eyq_]h ... 7.Q_ffh`ghh[tykgblvqlh ... 8.Dh]^Zfuj_rb\rbkv ...
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
Ljb\b^Zhij_^_e_gbc
DZdb_ hgb [u\Zxl" ?klv ljb \b^Z hij_^_e_gbc g_jZkijhkljZg_ggu_
jZkijhkljZg_ggu_bg_kdhevdhhij_^_e_gbcdh^ghfmkeh\m
Ihlj_gbjm_fky\mf_gbbjZaebqZlvbo
30.I_j_^\Zfbij_^eh`_gbyI_j_^ij_^eh`_gb_fkh^bghqgufg_jZkijhkljZg_gguf
hij_^_e_gb_f ihklZ\vl_ agZqhd ² k jZkijhkljZg_ggufb ² agZqhd k
g_kdhevdbfbg_jZkijhkljZg_ggufbhij_^_e_gbyfbdh^ghfmkeh\m²agZqhd ²² G_[_kgh_ l_eh dhlhjh_ hldju\Zxl mq_gu_ ihemqZ_l bfy IeZg_lZ MjZg gZa\ZgZ
lZd \ q_klv [h`_kl\Z hebp_l\hjyxs_]h g_[h LZbgkl\_ggZy djZkgZy ieZg_lZ FZjk
gZa\ZgZ\q_klv[h]Z\hcgu
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
:l_i_jvgZihbkdbhij_^_ey_fh]hkeh\Z
Q_]hkq_fg_gZ^himlZlv"Hij_^_ey_fh]hkeh\Zhldhlhjh]haZ\bkblhij_^_e_gb_
k l_f keh\hf dhlhjh_ kZfh aZ\bkbl hl hij_^_e_gby ihykgbl_evgh_ keh\h LZd \
ij_^eh`_gbbJbf —]hjh^ ihkljh_gguc gZ k_fb ohefZo hij_^_e_gb_ ihkljh_gguc
hlghkblkydkeh\m]hjh^lh_klvhij_^_ey_l_]hKeh\ZgZk_fbohefZokZfbhlghkylky
dkeh\mihkljh_ggucaZ\bkylhlg_]hihykgyxl_]h
Hij_^_e_gby [_a ihykgbl_evguo keh\ gZau\Zxlky g_jZkijhkljZg_ggufb beb
h^bghqgufb
55
Hij_^_e_gb_dhlhjh_bf__laZ\bkbfu_keh\Z`b\_lkgbfb\f_kl_h^ghck_fv_c
HghgZau\Z_lkyjZkijhkljZg_ggufhij_^_e_gb_fIh^q_jdb\ZlvjZkijhkljZg_ggh_
hij_^_e_gb_gZ^hp_ebdhf<hllZdihklh_ggucgZk_fbohefZo
Hij_^_e_gbyfh]mlklhylvdZdi_j_^hij_^_ey_fufbkeh\ZfblZdbihke_gbo
31.Ih^q_jdgbl_hij_^_e_gbyMdZ`bl_hij_^_ey_fh_keh\h<hllZd
5
Jbf —wlh]hjh^ihkljh_ggucgZk_fbohefZo.
H[jZlbl_\gbfZgb_\dZdboij_^eh`_gbyohij_^_e_gby\u^_e_guagZdZfbij_ibgZgbyZ
\dZdbog_lJZkklZ\vl_ba\_klgu_\ZfagZdb
<_g_pby wlh ]hjh^ ihkljh_gguc gZ fhj_ LZf \f_klh mebp dZgZeu ijhoh^ysb_
q_j_a\_kv]hjh^Z\f_klhZ\lh[mkh\]hg^heu=hg^heuwlhihdjulu_q_jgufeZdhf
eh^dbkmadbf\ukhdhih^gylufghkhf=hg^heukdhevaylih\hegZfhlijhoh^ysbo
fbfhdZl_jh\<k_]hg^hev_juihxlb]hjh^ihehga\mdh\hljZ`Zxsbokyhlfmlguo
\h^dZgZeh\ ba`mjgZeh\ Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\uII.
32. L_i_jv ijhqblZcl_ ij_^eh`_gby \ dhlhjuo hij_^_e_gby hlghkylky d jZaguf
keh\Zf<uibrbl_hij_^_e_gby\f_kl_khij_^_ey_fufbkeh\Zfb
J_\_lmjZ]Zg
Ih_lhd_Zg
Djm`blkykg_]
Fqblkyf]gh\_gguc\_d
Kgblky[eZ`_gguc[j_]
:;ehd
Ih^q_jdgbl_hij_^_e_gby\hegbklhcebgb_c<hllZd
f]gh\_gguc\_d[eZ`_gguc[j_]
Iha^g_chk_gvxba]Z\Zgb
HlaZf_l_gghckg_]hfa_feb
<ij_^gZagZq_ggh_ieZ\Zgv_
B^mlly`_eu_dhjZ[eb
:;ehd
Dm^jy\uckmfjZdaZ]hjhc
JmdhxfZr_l[_ehkg_`ghc
K?k_gbg
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\uII.
DZdb_qZklbj_qbfh]ml[ulvhij_^_ey_fufbkeh\Zfb"
33. <uibrbl_ baij_^eh`_gbc hij_^_ey_fu_ keh\Z b j_rbl_ dZdhc qZklvx j_qb hgb
\ujZ`_gu
1. FbjZ\hklhj][_kij_^_evguc
K_j^pmi_\mq_fm^Zg
56
<imlvjhdh\hcb[_kp_evguc
Rmfgucah\_lhd_Zg
:;ehd
M\y^Zgvyahehlhfho\Zq_gguc
Yg_[m^m[hevr_fheh^uf
K?k_gbg
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
<Zf m`_ ykgh hij_^_ey_fh_ keh\h fh`_l [ulv \ujZ`_gh dZd kms_kl\bl_evguf
lZdbf_klhbf_gb_f
Dh]^Zhij_^_e_gbyh[hkh[eyxlky
GZqg_fkkZfh]hijhklh]hkemqZy
34. < ke_^mxsbo ij_^eh`_gbyo ih^q_jdgbl_ hij_^_e_gby mdZ`bl_ hij_^_ey_fu_
keh\ZbkdZ`bl_q_fhgb\ujZ`_gu
1. <hjh[ur_d hay[ b ijh]heh^Zeky 2. <at_jhr_gguc hg ijhba\h^be dhfbqgh_
\i_qZle_gb_ 3.?fmmklZehfmbhay[r_fmohl_ehkvhl^hogmlvbkh]j_lvky
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
L_i_jvijhkfhlj_\_s_jZaij_^u^ms__aZ^Zgb_hl\_lvl_gZ\hijhku
AZ\bkbl eb h[hkh[e_gb_ hij_^_e_gby hlghkys_]hky d ebqghfm f_klhbf_gbx hl
lh]h 1) ]^_ hgh klhbl — i_j_^ hij_^_ey_fuf keh\hf beb ihke_ g_]h 2)
jZkijhkljZg_ggh_hij_^_e_gb_bebg_jZkijhkljZg_ggh_"
<ufh]ebaZf_lblvqlhg_aZ\bkblgbhllh]hgbhl^jm]h]h
BlZd fu fh`_f k^_eZlv \u\h^ qlh hij_^_e_gb_ hlghkys__ky d ebqghfm
f_klhbf_gbx h[hkh[ey_lky \k_]^Z Wlhl \u\h^ ^Z_l gZf \hafh`ghklv ijbklmiblv d
khklZ\e_gbxbgkljmdpbb
:qlhijhbkoh^bldh]^Zhij_^_ey_fh_keh\h\ujZ`_ghkms_kl\bl_evguf"GZwlhl
\hijhk\ufh`_l_hl\_lblvkZfb>eywlh]h\_jgbl_kvdaZ^Zgbx 31.
<u hq_\b^gh k^_eZeb lZdhc \u\h^ jZkijhkljZg_ggu_ hij_^_e_gby d bf_gb
kms_kl\bl_evghfm h[hkh[eyxlky _keb klhyl ihke_ g_]h b g_ h[hkh[eyxlky _keb
klhyli_j_^gbf
I_j\Zyiheh\bgZwlh]h\u\h^Z\_jgZ:kh\lhjhc —^Z\Zcl_jZa[bjZlvky^Zevr_
KjZ\gbl_lZdb_iZjuij_^eh`_gbc
1. Klhy\rbc\\_jogh]ZfbdehmgaZdZgqb\Zelj_gbjh\dm<u]ey^_\rbckf_rgufb
g_e_iuf pbjdh\hc ljxd lj_[h\Ze eh\dhklb b lhqghklb ^\b`_gbc 2. G_ bf_\rbc
ijb k_[_ iZljhgh\ [Zjhg Fxgo]Zma_g \k_lZdb \uklj_ebe \ he_gy aZjy^b\ jm`v_
\brg_\hc dhklhqdhc Q_j_a ]h^ ij_djZkgh jZajhkr__ky ^_j_\h a_e_g_eh f_`^m
jh]Zfbhe_gy
L_i_jvhl\_lvl_
1.Q_f\ujZ`_gu\wlboij_^eh`_gbyohij_^_ey_fu_keh\Z"
Bf_gZfbkms_kl\bl_evgufb
57
=^_klhbljZkijhkljZg_ggh_hij_^_e_gb_²i_j_^gbfbebihke_g_]h"
I_j_^gbf
Fh`_l_eb\uhl\_lblvdh]^Zhgbh[hkh[eyxlkyi_j_^kms_kl\bl_evgufbZdh]^Z
g_l"
?keb \u hl\_qZeb q_klgh \u ^he`gu [ueb hl\_lblv ijbf_jgh lZd ihdZ _s_
g_ihgylghA^_kv^he`gu[ulvdZdb_lh^hihegbl_evgu_ijZ\beZ
>Z\Zcl_jZkkfhljbfwlbijZ\beZ
Hij_^_e_gbyk^h[Z\hqgufb
agZq_gbyfb
Ijhqlbl_ ij_^eh`_gby ihklZ\vl_ \hijhku hl ]eZ\ghc qZklb ij_^eh`_gby d
ijb^Zlhqghcbhl\_lvl_dZdhcwlh\b^ijb^Zlhqgh]hij_^eh`_gby
1. ?keb\gbfZl_evghbamqblviZfylgbdbk_^hcklZjbguhgbfgh]h jZkkdZ`mlh
^Ze_dhfijhrehf
I j b d Z d h f m k e h \ b b " ²ijb^Zlhqgh_mkeh\gh_
2. Ohly ex^b magZeb h[ ZlhfZo _s_ hl ^j_\g_]j_q_kdh]h nbehkhnZ >_fhdjblZ
hgbhldjuebZlhfgmxwg_j]bxlhevdh\ XX\_d_
G _ k f h l j y g Z q l h " ²ijb^Zlhqgh_mklmibl_evgh_
58
3. LZddZdj_[ylZ[uebhlebqghwdbibjh\Zgu^eyihoh^Zhgbg_[hyebkvgb^h`^y
gb\_ljZ
I h q _ f m " —ijb^Zlhqgh_ijbqbgu
L_i_jv ij_h[jZamcl_ wlb ij_^eh`_gby aZf_gb\ ijb^Zlhqgu_ qZklb
jZkijhkljZg_ggufb hij_^_e_gbyfb Ihkljhcl_ ij_^eh`_gby lZd qlh[u
jZkijhkljZg_ggu_ hij_^_e_gby klhyeb i_j_^ hij_^_ey_fuf keh\hf dZd b
ijb^Zlhqgu_ij_^eh`_gby
<hl qlh m \Zk ^he`gh ihemqblvky 1. <gbfZl_evgh bamq_ggu_ iZfylgbdb k_^hc
klZjbgu fgh]h jZkkdZ`ml h ^Ze_dhf ijhrehf 1. MagZ\rb_ h[ ZlhfZo _s_ hl
^j_\g_]j_q_kdh]h nbehkhnZ >_fhdjblZ ex^b hldjueb Zlhfgmx wg_j]bx lhevdh \
XX \_d_ 3. Hlebqgh wdbibjh\Zggu_ ^ey ihoh^Z j_[ylZ g_ [hyebkv gb ^h`^y gb
\_ljZ
JZkijhkljZg_ggu_ hij_^_e_gby \ wlbo ij_^eh`_gbyo hl\_qZxl gZ \hijhku
d Z d b _ " BflZdbiheZ]Z_lkyH^gZdhdwlbff_klhbf_gbyffh`ghaZ^Zlvb^jm]b_
\hijhku — \hijhku h[klhyl_evkl\ Ihijh[mcl_ kZfb wlh k^_eZlv KjZ\gbl_
h[klhyl_evkl\_ggu_ \hijhku k l_fb dhlhju_ \u aZ^Z\Zeb d kbghgbfbqguf
ijb^ZlhqgufHgb^he`gukh\iZklv
BlZd\ZrbjZkijhkljZg_ggu_hij_^_e_gbyklhyli_j_^hij_^_ey_fufbkeh\Zfbb
hl\_qZxl g_ lhevdh gZ \hijhku hij_^_e_gbc gh b gZ h^bg ba \hijhkh\ i j b
d Z d h f m k e h \ b b " beb g _ k f h l j y g Z q l h " beb i h q _ f m "
DZdb_\u\h^uhihklZgh\d_aZiylhcijbjZkijhkljZg_gguohij_^_e_gbyofh`ghba
wlh]hk^_eZlv"
G_gZ^h[ulvR_jehdZfbOhefkZfb^eylh]hqlh[ugZ[ex^Zl_evghklvih^kdZaZeZ
\Zfwlb\u\h^u<hlhgb
?klv jZkijhkljZg_ggu_ hij_^_e_gby dhlhju_ bf_xl g_ lhevdh hij_^_ebl_evgh_
agZq_gb_ gh b ^h[Z\hqgu_ h[klhyl_evkl\_ggu_ ijbqbggh_ beb mkeh\gh_ beb
mklmibl_evgh_LZdb_jZkijhkljZg_ggu_hij_^_e_gbykbghgbfbqguijb^Zlhqguf
ij_^eh`_gbyfijbqbgubebmkeh\gufbebmklmibl_evguf
Hij_^_e_gbyk^h[Z\hqgufbh[klhyl_evkl\_ggufbagZq_gbyfbh[hkh[eyxlky
\k_]^Z
FujZkkdZaZeb\Zfh[h\k_ohij_^_e_gbyodjhf_h^bghqguog_jZkijhkljZg_gguo
Wlhg_kemqZcghG_jZkijhkljZg_ggu_h^bghqgu_hij_^_e_gbyg_h[hkh[eyxlky
gb i_j_^ hij_^_ey_fuf keh\hf gb ihke_ g_]h djhf_ l_o kemqZ_\ dh]^Z
hij_^_ey_fh_keh\h —ebqgh_f_klhbf_gb_ L_i_jv fu fh`_f k\_klb \ bgkljmdpbx \k_ qlh magZeb h[ h[hkh[e_gbb
hij_^_e_gbc kfk 60).
Wlh ljm^guc fZl_jbZe ihwlhfm ij_^eZ]Z_f \Zf ih^kdZadm ?keb hij_^_e_gb_
klhbl i_j_^ hij_^_ey_fuf keh\hf gh hl^_e_gh hl g_]h ^jm]bfb keh\Zfb kh
kdZam_fuf m g_]h \k_]^Z _klv dZdh_eb[h ba h[klhyl_evkl\_gguo agZq_gbc
GZijbf_j <ukljh_gguc gZ [hehl_ fgh]h e_l f_^e_ggh jZajmrZeky [Zjkdbc ^hf
H\_yggu_i_j\hchll_i_evxohjhrh iZogml\brg_\u_kZ^u
Hkbeb\lZdhc[hevrhcbkeh`gucl_hj_lbq_kdbc fZl_jbZe\uq_klghaZjZ[hlZeb
ijZ\hi_j_clbdlj_gbjh\d_Lj_gbjh\dZ[m^_l[hevrhcbjZaghh[jZaghc
59
60
Hij_^_ey_fh_keh\h
agZck\h_f_klh
KlxZj^_kkZ h[ty\beZ E_lysbc kZfhe_l kj_^b iehlgh]h kdhie_gby h[eZdh\
mijZ\ey_lky hiulguf ibehlhf M g_dhlhjuo iZkkZ`bjh\ \hagbdeh g_^hmf_gb_ Z
qlh [m^_l dh]^Z kZfhe_l \uc^_l ba iehlgh]h kdhie_gby h[eZdh\" Rlmj\Ze \havf_l
g_hiulgucibehl"KljZrgh\Zlh
DZd\u^mfZ_l_\q_fhrb[dZklxZj^_kku"
< __ ij_^eh`_gbb _klv jZkijhkljZg_ggh_ hij_^_e_gb_ e_lysbc kj_^b iehlgh]h
kdhie_gby h[eZdh\ HgZ jZahj\ZeZ wlhl h[hjhl gZ ^\_ qZklb \klZ\b\ \ g_]h
hij_^_ey_fh_keh\hIhemqbeZkv[_kkfukebpZ
;_j_]bl_jZkijhkljZg_ggu_hij_^_e_gbyImklvhgbm\Zk\k_]^Z[m^ml\p_ehklbb
khojZgghklb
35. IhijZ\vl_ klxZj^_kkm ihkljhb\ ij_^eh`_gb_ \ ^\mo \ZjbZglZo \ h^ghf aZiylu_
gm`guZ\^jm]hfg_l
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
36. IhjZ[hlZcl_ j_^Zdlhjhf Hij_^_ebl_ dZdb_ ba wlbo ij_^eh`_gbc ihkljh_gu
g_ijZ\bevghbkijZ\vl_bobaZibrbl_JZkklZ\vl_agZdb
1. <ha^mrguc rZjbd \uims_gguc :e_gdhc e_l_e \k_ \ur_ b \ur_ 2.
Ijbg_k_gguc s_ghd \ ^hf [ukljh ijb\ud d gh\uf ohay_\Zf 3. Ihkljh_gguc ^hf
lZeZgleb\ufZjobl_dlhjhfohjhrh\ibkZeky\ZgkZf[eviehsZ^b 4.Hlijbg_k_gguo
dhgn_l fZfhc kdhjh gbq_]h g_ hklZehkv 5. ;Zjhg Fxgo]Zma_g ba\_klguc k\hbfb
\u^mfdZfb gZau\Ze k_[y kZfuf ijZ\^b\uf q_eh\_dhf gZ a_fe_ 6. AZgyluc hl_p
kjhqghcjZ[hlhckh\k_fg_h[jZsZe\gbfZgbygZFbrdm
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
37.H[tykgbl_ibkvf_gghagZq_gb_keh\bkihevamyjZkijhkljZg_ggu_hij_^_e_gbyg_
aZ[m^vl_hagZdZo<hllZd
WdkdZ\Zlhj —wlhfZrbgZ\ugbfZxsZy]jmgl
1.Iheb]ehlwlhq_eh\_d ... . 2.Ahheh]bywlhgZmdZ ... . 3.:kljhghfbywlhgZmdZ ... .
4.GmfbafZlwlhq_eh\_d ... . 5.>bjb`_jwlhq_eh\_d ... .
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
38. JZkklZ\vl_ agZdb ij_ibgZgby GZc^bl_ g_jZkijhkljZg_ggu_ hij_^_e_gby dhlhju_
\u^_eyxlkyaZiylufbbh[tykgbl_ihq_fm
Yihi_j\hfmkg_]m[j_^m
<k_j^p_eZg^urb\kiuogm\rbokbe
<_q_jkbg_xk\_qdhca\_a^m
GZ^^hjh]hcfh_caZk\_lbe
K?k_gbg
:hgfyl_`gucijhkbl[mjb
DZd[m^lh\[mjyo_klvihdhc
FXE_jfhglh\
61
G_agZx]^_ijbxlk\h_c]hj^ug_
LufbeZylug_`gZygZreZ
Ydj_idhkiexfg_kgblkyieZsl\hckbgbc
<dhlhjhflu\kujmxghqvmreZ
:;ehd
BaZfudZxy\de_ldmoheh^gmx
E_]dmx^h[jmxilbpmk\h[h^gmx
Ilbpmohl_\rmxkf_jlvmg_klb
Ilbpme_l_\rmx^mrmkiZklb
(:;ehd
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
39. I_j_kljhcl_ ij_^eh`_gby lZd qlh[u g_h[hkh[e_ggu_ hij_^_e_gby klZeb
h[hkh[e_ggufbJZkklZ\vl_\gboagZdbij_ibgZgby
1. H[jZsZxsb_ky \hdjm] FZjkZ kimlgbdb gZa\Zgu ih bf_gb ^\mo kugh\_c
]j_q_kdh]h [h]Z \hcgu Nh[hk b >_cfhk 2. ;eb`ZcrZy d Khegpm ieZg_lZ ghkbl bfy
^j_\g_jbfkdh]h[h]Zlhj]h\ebF_jdmjby
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
AZcf_fky ijh]ghahf >Z\Zcl_ \kihfgbf qlh lZdh_ ijh]gha Wlh h[hkgh\Zggh_
ij_^kdZaZgb_lh]hqlh^he`ghijhbahclb
40. JZkklZ\vl_ agZdb ij_ibgZgby \ hlj_adZo ij_^eh`_gbc <uibrbl_ ghf_j
ij_^eh`_gbyhdhlhjhffug_fh`_fkdZaZlvm\_j_gghgm`_geb\g_fagZd
1.Fg_gb_hlhfqlhkms_kl\m_l ... 2. ...ij_^jZkkm^hd\ua\ZggucgZrbf ... 3.=jm[h
\uj_aZggZy ba ^_j_\Z nb]mjZ [ueZ ... 4. ... q_j_i i_j\h[ulgh]h q_eh\_dZ ^Zxsbc
hkgh\Zgby ... 5. Ex^b `b\rb_ fgh]h ... 6. ... aZhklj_gghc lj_m]hevghc ljhklgbdh\hc
iZehqdhc\u^Z\eb\Zeb ...
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
41.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgbyAZg_kbl_ghf_jdZ`^h]hijbf_jZ\khhl\_lkl\mxsbc
klhe[bdlZ[ebpubh[tykgbl_k_[_ihq_fm\h^gbokemqZyoaZiylZygm`gZZ\^jm]bo
g_lGhf_jZijbf_jh\\dhlhjuo_klvh[ZkemqZyaZibrbl_\h[Zklhe[bdZ
JZkijhkljZg_ggh_hij_^_e_gb_beb
g_kdhevdhhij_^_e_gbcihke_
hij_^_ey_fh]hkeh\Z
JZkijhkljZg_ggh_hij_^_e_gb_beb
g_kdhevdhhij_^_e_gbci_j_^
hij_^_ey_fufkeh\hf
1. < >j_\g_f Jbf_ `bjZn b]jZe g_ ihke_^gxx jhev \ iurguo aj_ebsZo ]hjh^Z
ijb\udr_]h d jhkdhrb 2. Hohlgbdb aZex[h\Zebkv gZ^_e_gguf \_ebdhe_ighc
hkZgdhc `b\hlguf 3. =heh\m `bjZnZ \_gqZ_l iZjZ g_[hevrbo dhklyguo ihjbkluo
rbr_d=eZaZ`bjZnZ [hevrb_ g_`gu_ b djhldb_ g_h[udgh\_ggh ohjhrb ih FZcg
Jb^m 4.M^ebgghgh]h]hZbklZlZdmkljh_gh]hjehqlhhgg_bf__l]hehkZ
62
< hlebqb_ hl ^jm]bo ilbp ihxsbo ibsZsbo beb djbqZsbo Zbkl kh\_jr_ggh g_f
Hlkmlkl\mxsbc m wlh]h ilbqv_]h ]b]ZglZ ]hehk aZf_gy_l ihs_edb\Zgb_ dex\Z ba
`mjgZeh\ 5. GZ [_j_]m y ih^h[jZe iZgpbjv gZ j_^dhklv djmighc q_j_iZob m[blhc
g_kdhevdh e_l gZaZ^ Wlhl iZgpbjv y ih^Zjbe h^ghc ghj\_`d_ i_j_k_eb\r_cky gZ
=ZeZiZ]hk IhemqbeZkv djZkb\Zy b g_h[uqgZy djh\ZldZ ^ey feZ^r_]h qe_gZ k_fvb
J;ehf[_j] 6.JhfZgu@xey<_jgZgZibkZggu_m\e_dZl_evghhkljhmfghk[hevrhc
nZglZab_c kjZam ijb\e_deb d k_[_ \gbfZgb_ qblZl_e_c E : <\_^_gkdZy G B
Dhe_kgbdh\ 7. H ke_ihf ^h`^_ b^ms_f ijb khegp_ \ gZjh^_ ]h\hjyl PZj_\gZ
ieZq_lK\_jdZxsb_gZkhegp_dZiebwlh]h^h`^yihoh`bgZdjmigu_ke_au:dhfm
`_ ieZdZlv lZdbfb kdZahqgufb ke_aZfb ]hjy b jZ^hklb dZd g_ kdZahqghc djZkZ\bp_
pZj_\g_ DIZmklh\kdbc
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
?s_jZahlhfqlh
ghk\ulZsbrv —o\hklm\ya
Ba\_klgh qlh h[hjhlu ex[yl l_jylv lh ghkh\mx lh o\hklh\mx aZiylmx
Ihwlhfm [m^vl_ [^bl_evgu H[hjhl ^he`_g [ulv \u^_e_g aZiylufb k ^\mo klhjhg
Djhf_ l_o kemqZ_\ dh]^Z jhev h^ghc ba ^\mo klhjhg b]jZ_l gZqZeh beb dhg_p
ij_^eh`_gby
42. I_j_ibrbl_ l_dkl jZkklZ\eyy agZdb ij_ibgZgby Ih^kqblZcl_ kdhevdh \ wlhf
l_dkl_jZkijhkljZg_gguohij_^_e_gbc
63
LvfZ ijbr_^rZy kh Kj_^ba_fgh]h fhjy gZdjueZ g_gZ\b^bfuc ijhdmjZlhjhf
]hjh^ Bkq_aeb \bkyqb_ fhklu kh_^bgyxsb_ ojZf kh kljZrghc :glhgb_\hc [Zrg_c
himklbeZkv k g_[Z [_a^gZ b aZebeZ djueZluo [h]h\ gZ^ ]biih^jhfhf IjhiZe
?jrZeZbf — \_ebdbc ]hjh^ dZd [m^lh g_ kms_kl\h\Ze \h\k_ <k_ ih`jZeZ lvfZ
gZim]Z\rZy\k_`b\h_\?jrZeZbf_b_]hhdj_klghklyoLj_i_lgu_f_jpZgby\ua\Zeb
ba [_a^gu ijhlb\hklhysbc ojZfm gZ aZiZ^ghf ohef_ ^\hj_p Bjh^Z <_ebdh]h b
kljZrgu_[_a]eZau_ahehlu_klZlmb\ae_lZebdq_jghfmg_[mijhklbjZydg_fmjmdb
<f_kl_ k \h^yghx iuevx b ]jZ^hf gZ [Zedhg ih^ dhehggu g_keh khj\Zggu_ jhau
ebklvyfZ]ghebcfZe_gvdb_kmqvybi_khd ihF;me]Zdh\m Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
43.IhjZ[hlZcl_dhjj_dlhjhfGZc^bl_bbkijZ\vl_hrb[db\agZdZoij_ibgZgby
Dh]^Z dhjZ[eb ijb[ebabebkv d [_j_]m Dhemf[ khr_e \ eh^dm \f_kl_ kh k\hbfb
ihfhsgbdZfb H^bg ba gbo g_k [h]Zlh jZkrbluc neZ] k bgbpbZeZfb dhjhey b
dhjhe_\uGZ[_j_]mDhemf[Z\klj_lbeZlheiZl_fghdh`boex^_ckjZkdjZr_ggufb
ebpZfbbkq_jgufbijyfufb\hehkZfbkiZ^ZxsbfbgZr_xkdhivyfbbemdZfb\
jmdZo G_ \udZau\Zy gb \jZ`^u gb ^jm`_ex[by hgb kihdhcgh k ex[hiulkl\hf
kfhlj_ebdZdkljZggh_[e_^ghebp__kms_kl\haZdmlZggh_\djZkgmxfZl_jbxkoh^bl
gZ[_j_] ba`mjgZeh\ Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\uII.
44.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby\hlj_adZoij_^eh`_gbc
1. FZrbgZ iheb\ZxsZy mebpu 2. JZkklbeZxsZyky \hdjm] jZ\gbgZ 3.
H[jZ^h\Zggu_ ^h[jhc \klj_q_c fu [ueb 4. JZkd\Zjlbjh\ZggZy \ ]hjh^_ ^b\baby
gZoh^beZkv 5.M_oZ\rb_^Ze_dhhljh^guof_klj_[ylZl_fg_f_g__
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
45.IhjZ[hlZcl_j_^ZdlhjhfBkijZ\vl_ij_^eh`_gby
1. M de_ldb ]^_ jZkoZ`b\Zeb iZ\ebgu lheibebkv a_\Zdb jZkimklb\rb_ k\hb
iurgu_o\hklu 2.GZdZjlbg_J_ibgZbah[jZ`_gaZihjh`_pdhlhjuchi_jkyjmdhch
[hqhghdobljhmofueyxsbcky\mku
46. JZkklZ\vl_ agZdb ij_ibgZgby \ hlj_adZo ij_^eh`_gbc AZibrbl_ ghf_j dZ`^h]h
ijbf_jZ\khhl\_lkl\mxsbcklhe[bdlZ[ebpu
H[hkh[ey_lky_kebhlghkblky
debqguf
f_klhbf_gbyf
\k_]^Z
dkms_kl\bl_evguf
ihke_
hij_^_ey_fh]h
keh\Z
Bf__l^h[Z\hqgh_
agZq_gb_
G_h[hkh[ey_lky_keb
hlghkblky
dkms_kl\bl_evguf
i_j_^hij_^_ey_fuf
keh\hf
64
1. ...ghgZr^jm]aZgbfZ\rbcky ... 2. ...kljZklghm\e_q_gguchg ... 3. ...kZ^bekyaZ
ih^]hlh\e_ggu_ k \_q_jZ ... 4. >Z`_ b bag_fh]Zxsbc hl mklZehklb fZevqbd l_f g_
f_g__ ... 5. Ihemqb\rbc \k_ g_h[oh^bfh_ <heh^y fh] [u ... 6. ... b kdhjh fu fh]eb
m\b^_lvk^_eZggh__]hjmdZfb ... 7. ...baysguchjgZf_glmdjZrZ\rbc ... 8. ...hp_ibeb
b kgZ[`_ggh_ m^h[gufb ... 9. <hkiblZgguc \ kljh]bo ijZ\beZo xghrZ g_ ... 10. ...
f_^ebl_evguc b g_mdex`bc [jZlbrdZ \k_ `_ ... 11. ... gZ^_e_gguc hlebqguf
a^hjh\v_fygbdh]^Z ...
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
47.IjhqblZcl_l_dklg_kdhevdhjZaZihlhfaZdjhcl__]hbbaeh`bl_ihiZfylb
Omeb]Zghf gZau\Zxl q_eh\_dZ gZjmrZxs_]h h[s_kl\_gguc ihjy^hd Wlh keh\h
ijbreh d gZf ba Zg]ebckdhc klhebpu [eba dhlhjhc \ XVIII \_d_ gZoh^beky
ihklhyeuc ^\hj ijbgZ^e_`Z\rbc bjeZg^pm Omeb]wgm ^h\hevgh kdZg^Zevghfm
q_eh\_dmijbqbgy\r_fmg_ijbylghklbg_lhevdhihklhyevpZfghbkhk_^yfIh_]h
bf_gb omeb]ZgZfb klZeb gZau\Zlv hahjgbdh\ gZjmrZxsbo ghjfu h[s_kl\_ggh]h
ih\_^_gby E:<\_^_gkdZyGIDhe_kgbdh\ 48.Kh[_jbl_jZkkuiZggu_ij_^eh`_gbybjZkklZ\vl_\gboagZdbij_ibgZgby
1. E_^gbd ]hj k wlh kiheaZxsZy dZd [u f_^e_ggh h]jhfgZy hq_gv j_dZ 2.
Kha^Zgb_ lukyq_e_lb_ ibkvf_gghklb qj_a\uqZcgh h^gh keh`guc g_ aZgy\rbc
ijhp_kk
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
49. Hij_^_ebl_ d dZdhc klj_ed_ gZr_c bgkljmdpbb kf k hlghkylky ke_^mxsb_
ij_^eh`_gbyJZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
<q_jZmlhfe_ggucoh^v[hcih[hehlm
AZ[j_ey\kZjZcbaZkgme]em[hdh
B_cebih^kheg_qgufagh_fjh`^_gghc
B\nZjlmd_kihey^hfhcijbg_k_gghc
;hylvkykfbj_gghcehrZ^dbk\h_c"
G:G_djZkh\
3. Dh]^Z khegp_ bajZkoh^h\Z\ ^g_\ghc aZiZk aghy m`_ dZkZehkv djZ_f ]hjbahglZ
aZ]hj_eu_bbajy^ghijh]heh^Z\rb_ky fug_hohlghihdbgmeb[_j_] 4. >h`^Z\rbkv
\_q_jZ fu bag_fh]Zxsb_ hl g_l_ji_gby \dexqbeb _ehqgu_ eZfihqdb 5. AZ]Z^hqgh
f_jpZxsb_ jZaghp\_lgufb h]gyfb hgb kha^Z\Zeb Zlfhkn_jm lZbgkl\_gghc kdZadb
dhlhjZyijbreZhldm^Zlhba^Ze_dh]h^_lkl\Z
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\uII.
50.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgbyHij_^_ebl_dZdb_ijZ\beZh[hkh[e_gbyhij_^_e_gbc
^_ckl\mxl\wlboij_^eh`_gbyo
;Zjhg Fxgo]Zma_g jZkkdZau\Ze dZd h^gZ`^u mlhfe_gguc _a^hc hg khkdhqbe k
dhgybijb\yaZe_]hddZdhfmlhih^h[bxhkljhdhg_qgh
65
]h [j_\gZ lhjqZ\r_]h baih^ kg_]Z Mkgm\rbc dj_idh b gZ^he]h hg hldjue ]eZaZ
lhevdhlh]^Zdh]^Z[uehkh\k_fk\_lehDhgygb]^_g_[ueh\b^ghlhevdhkeurZehkv
^hghkb\r__kyhldm^Zlhk\_jomj`Zgb_ ihWJZki_ Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
51. IhjZ[hlZcl_ dhjj_dlhjhf GZc^bl_ ijhimkdb aZiyluo gZ ghkm b gZ o\hkl_ b
ihklZ\vl_agZdbgZf_klhM[_jbl_ebrgb_aZiylu_
1. G_]h\hjysb_ `b\hlgu_ g_kihkh[gu_ ih^jZ`Zlv a\mdZf q_eh\_q_kdhc j_qb
ihjhc ^h\hevgh lhqgh \hkijhba\h^yl q_eh\_q_kdmx bglhgZpbx 2. Kms_kl\m_l
hilbq_kdbc ijb[hj ik_\^hkdhi \g_rg_ gZihfbgZxsbc [bghdev Gh [bghdev
ijb[eb`Z_l ij_^f_lu m^Ze_ggu_ hl gZk Z _keb ihkfhlj_lv k ^jm]hc klhjhgu
hl^Zey_l ij_^f_lu gZoh^ysb_ky [ebadh Ik_\^hkdhi ^_eZ_l kjZam b lh b ^jm]h_
[ebadh_ hl^Zey_l Z ^Ze_dh_ ijb[eb`Z_l Fbj jZkkfZljb\Z_fuc \ ik_\^hkdhi
dZ`_lky\u\_jgmlufgZbagZgdm ih::E_hglv_\m Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
:l_i_jv\kihfgbl_dZdb_^h[Z\hqgu_h[klhyl_evkl\_ggu_agZq_gbyfh]mlbf_lv
jZkijhkljZg_ggu_hij_^_e_gbybgZdZdb_\hijhkuhgbhl\_qZxl
52.I_j_ibrbl_ij_^eh`_gbyjZkklZ\eyyagZdbij_ibgZgby?keb\ij_^eh`_gbb_klv
hij_^_e_gb_ k ^h[Z\hqguf h[klhyl_evkl\_gguf agZq_gb_f gZibrbl_ \ kdh[dZo k
dZdbfbf_ggh<hllZd
H]emr_ggucly`dbf]mehfL_jdbggbdg_l]heh\hc
L_jdbggbdg_l]heh\hc i h q _ f m " —ijbqbggh_agZq_gb_
1. Ihkljh_ggu_ \ XVI \_d_ [_ehdZf_ggu_ iZeZlu klZeb f_klhf om^h`_kl\_gguo
\uklZ\hd 2. Ohjhrh gZlj_gbjh\Zgguc b wdbibjh\Zgguc Zevibgbkl g_ [hyeky
ljm^ghkl_cij_^klhys_]h\hkoh`^_gby3.Mfulucijbq_kZggucbijbebqghh^_luc
[_kijbahjgbd \u]ey^_e [u iZcfZevqbdhf ba ijbebqgh]h k_f_ckl\Z 4. Hdjm`_ggZy
[_j_agydhf iheygdZ [ueZ ex[bfuf f_klhf ^_lkdbo b]j 5. Bafmq_ggu_ `Zjhc b
`Z`^hc bkke_^h\Zl_eb \k_ `_ ijh^he`Zeb imlv 6. GZmq_gguc ]hjvdbf hiulhf
fZeur m`_ g_ iulZeky ^hljhgmlvky ^h h]gy 7. K\yaZggh_ ^ey Zdjh[ZlZ kh
kf_jl_evghchiZkghklvx^\hcgh_kZevlhh[uqghg_\uau\Zehh\Zpbc
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
53. Ij_^eZ]Z_f \Zf g_kdhevdh klbohl\hjguo hlju\dh\ JZkklZ\vl_ \ gbo agZdb
ij_ibgZgby <uibrbl_ h[hjhlu bf_xsb_ ^h[Z\hqgh_ h[klhyl_evkl\_ggh_
agZq_gb_
=hgbfu\_rgbfbemqZfb
Khdj_klguo]hjm`_kg_]Z
K[_`Zebfmlgufbjmqvyfb
GZihlhie_ggu_em]Z
:KImrdbg
66
Bkgbekyfg_kbyxsbch]gyfb
<_q_jgbcibj\jh^bfhcklhjhg_
F_`xguo`_gm\_gqZgguop\_lZfb
R_ejZa]h\hj\_k_euch[hfg_
FXE_jfhglh\
<_jv\\_ebdmxkbemex[\b
K\ylh\_jv\__dj_klih[_`^Zxsbc
<__k\_lemq_aZjghkiZkZxsbc
Fbjih]jyarbc\]jyabb\djh\b
<_jv\\_ebdmxkbemex[\b
KGZ^khg
Hk\h[h`^_ggh_hllmq
<k_g_[hjhah\hba\_a^gh
Ym\b^Zea_e_gucemq
Bsbblu?s_g_iha^gh
EFZjlugh\
Fg_dZ`_lkyihjhxqlhkhe^Zlu
Kdjh\Z\uog_ijbr_^rb_ihe_c
G_\a_fexgZrmihe_]ebdh]^Zlh
:ij_\jZlbebkv\[_euo`mjZ\e_c
J=ZfaZlh\
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
54.Ijhqlbl_klbohl\hj_gb_:;ehdZJZkklZ\vl_\g_fagZdbij_ibgZgbyHij_^_ebl_
kdhevdhhkgh\\dZ`^hfq_l\_jhklbrbb<uibrbl_jZkijhkljZg_ggh_hij_^_e_gb_k
^h[Z\hqgufagZq_gb_f
>_\mrdZi_eZ\p_jdh\ghfohj_
H\k_omklZeuo\qm`hfdjZx
H\k_odhjZ[eyomr_^rbo\fhj_
H\k_oaZ[u\rbojZ^hklvk\hx
LZdi_e__]hehke_l_\rbc\dmihe
BemqkbyegZ[_ehfie_q_
BdZ`^ucbafjZdZkfhlj_ebkemrZe
DZd[_eh_ieZlv_i_eh\emq_
B\k_fdZaZehkvqlhjZ^hklv[m^_l
Qlh\lbohcaZ\h^b\k_dhjZ[eb
QlhgZqm`[bg_mklZeu_ex^b
K\_lemx`bagvk_[_h[j_eb
B]hehk[uekeZ^hdbemq[uelhghd
Blhevdh\ukhdhmpZjkdbo\jZl
IjbqZklguclZcgZfieZdZej_[_ghd
Hlhfqlhgbdlhg_ijb^_lgZaZ^
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
67
55.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
1. ;jhr_gguc kebrdhf kbevguf \afZohf jmdb k_j_[jyguc lhihjbd [ZjhgZ
Fxgo]Zma_gZ ijh^he`Ze ih^gbfZlvky \\_jo ihdZ g_ miZe gZ Emgm 2. Bafmq_gguc
[ukljuf[_]hf[ZjhgFxgo]Zma_gaZdhlhjuf]gZeZkv[_r_gZykh[ZdZk[jhkbekk_[y
rm[m Iha`_ ih^h[jZ\rbc rm[m kem]Z \uqbklb\ ih\_kbe __ \ rdZn BkdmkZggZy
[_r_ghckh[Zdhcrm[Z\a[_kbeZkvbklZeZl_jaZlvkxjlmdb[ZjhgZ ihWJZki_ Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
Lhevdh \ mq_[guo aZ^Zgbyo [u\Zxl l_dklu ki_pbZevgh ih^h[jZggu_ gZ
hij_^_e_ggu_ ijZ\beZ : \ j_Zevguo mkeh\byo ihlhd ibkvf_gghc j_qb g_k_l
jZaghh[jZagu_khq_lZgbykZfuojZaguoijZ\beBgZfg_h[oh^bfhlj_gbjh\ZlvkygZ
lZdbol_dklZogZkus_gguo\k_fgZk\_l_Ihwlhfmke_^mxs__aZ^Zgb_
56.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
;bheh]bfZjbgbklubkihevamyfZ]gblhnhgijbrebd\u\h^mqlhju[u\k_o\b^h\
jZa]h\Zjb\Zxl Hgb bkihevah\Zeb ki_pbZevguc nhgh]jZn \hkijhba\h^b\rbc a\mdb
fhjy \ dhlhjhf ijbkmlkl\mxl ]hehkZ ju[ jZa]h\Zjb\Zxsbo ^jm] k ^jm]hf b ^Z`_
a\mdb h[s_gby hfZjh\ b djZ[h\ ?keb \u j_rbl_ qlh \ wlh ljm^gh ih\_jblv
\kihfgbl_ qlh kms_kl\mxl ie_gdb k aZibkvx jZa]h\hjh\ ^_evnbgh\ >_evnbgu
]h\hjyl\hfgh]hfgh]hjZa[uklj__q_fex^blZdqlhdh]^Zboj_qv[ueZaZibkZgZgZ
ie_gdm hgZ hdZaZeZkv kh\_jr_ggh g_jZa[hjqb\hc ^ey q_eh\_dZ K_cqZk mq_gu_
klZjZxlky ^_rbnjh\Zlv aZibkb b dh]^Z fh`gh [m^_l ]h\hjblv h[ wlhf dZd h[
hkms_kl\b\r_fky nZdl_ fh`gh [m^_l khklZ\blv Zdlb\guc keh\Zjv lZd qlh mq_gu_
kfh]mlh[sZlvkyk^_evnbgZfbgZboyaud_ Eh[kZg]JZfiZ Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\uII.
QlhlZdh_ijbeh`_gb_
Dh]^Z nhg\babgkdbc FbljhnZgmrdZ gZa\Ze keh\h ^\_jv ijbeZ]Zl_evguf hg
ihgbfZe qlh ijbeZ]Zl_evgh_ — lh qlh d q_fmlh ijbeZ]Z_lky < hlebqb_ hl
FbljhnZgmrdbfuk\ZfblhqghagZ_fdq_fmbf_gghdkms_kl\bl_evghfmbebd
f_klhbf_gbxB\ij_^eh`_gbbhghdZdijZ\beh[u\Z_lhij_^_e_gb_f
:\hl\Zf_s_h^ghkeh\h —ijbeh`_gb_Ykghqlhhghh[hagZqZ_lqlhlhihoh`__
gZijbeZ]Zl_evgh_ghg_kh\k_flZdh_`_
>Z\Zcl_jZa[_j_fky<ij_^eh`_gbbGZrkhk_^dhg^bl_jkha^Z\Zem^b\bl_evgu_
ihdjZkhl_lhjlu dih^e_`Zs_fmkhk_^ijbeh`_ghkeh\hdhg^bl_jDZdmx jhev
hgh b]jZ_l" ;_kkihjgh hij_^_ey_l keh\h khk_^ Gh wlh hij_^_e_gb_ —
kms_kl\bl_evgh_Hghhij_^_ey_l]eZ\gh_keh\h^Z\Zy_fm\lhjh_gZa\Zgb_
BlZdijbeh`_gb_ —wlhhij_^_e_gb_dhlhjh_\ujZ`_ghkms_kl\bl_evgufb^Z_l
hij_^_ey_fhfmkeh\m\lhjh_gZa\Zgb_
Ijbeh`_gb_ihoh`_bg_ihoh`_gZ^jm]b_hij_^_e_gbybjZa^_ey_lbokm^v[m\h
fgh]hfghg_\h\k_f
68
I_j\uckemqZc
Hgh ihoh`_ \ lhf qlh fh`_l [ulv h^bghqguf beb jZkijhkljZg_gguf beb
khklhylvbap_ehcp_ihqdbijbeh`_gbc
Hgh fh`_l klhylv \i_j_^b beb ihaZ^b hij_^_ey_fh]h keh\Z DZd b \k_
hij_^_e_gby hgh \k_]^Z \u^_ey_lky aZiylufb _keb hlghkblky d ebqghfm
f_klhbf_gbx
57. GZc^bl_ ijbeh`_gby ihkfhljbl_ ]^_ hgb klhyl b q_f \ujZ`_gh hij_^_ey_fh_
keh\h
K\h[h^uk_yl_evimklugguc
Y\ur_ejZgh^ha\_a^u
EbrvylZbgkl\_gguci_\_p
GZ[_j_]\u[jhr_g]jhahx
:KImrdbg
<lhjhckemqZc
DZd b \k_ hij_^_e_gby ijbeh`_gb_ h[hkh[ey_lky _keb klhbl ihaZ^b
hij_^_ey_fh]hkeh\ZGh\hlebqb_hlhklZevguohij_^_e_gbchgh\h^gbokemqZyo
\u^_ey_lky aZiylufb Z \ ^jm]bo — lbj_ AZiylufb — _keb ijbeh`_gb_ gbq_f g_
hkeh`g_ghlbj_ —_kebhkeh`g_ghdZdbfeb[hh[hjhlhfbebh^ghjh^gufbqe_gZfb
Lj_lbckemqZc
DZd b \k_ hij_^_e_gby ijbeh`_gby h[hkh[eyxlky i_j_^ hij_^_ey_fuf keh\hf
_kebbf_xl^h[Z\hqgh_agZq_gb_ijbqbgumkeh\bybebmklmidb
?keb \Zf g_ ykgh _klv lZdh_ agZq_gb_ beb g_l \Zf fh`_l ihfhqv lZdhc kihkh[
ihijh[mcl_ fuke_ggh aZf_gblv ijbeh`_gb_ h[hjhlhf kh keh\hf [m^mqb GZijbf_j
\u khfg_\Z_l_kv _klv eb lZdh_ agZq_gb_ \ ke_^mxs_f ijbf_j_ ;hevrhc ex[bl_ev
i_gby G_jhg qZklh \uklmiZe i_j_^ im[ebdhc b \hh[jZ`Ze k_[y \_ebdbf Zdl_jhf
Ijhba\_^bl_ lZdh_ fuke_ggh_ ij_h[jZah\Zgb_ ;m^mqb [hevrbf ex[bl_e_f i_gby
G_jhg IhemqZ_lky" AgZqbl \k_ \ ihjy^d_ ^h[Z\hqgh_ agZq_gb_ _klv b \u fh`_l_
kihdhcghklZ\blvaZiylmx
>ey jZkklZgh\db agZdh\ ij_ibgZgby g_[_ajZaebqgh \ujZ`_gh eb hij_^_ey_fh_
keh\hgZjbpZl_evgufbebkh[kl\_ggufbf_g_f
<k_kemqZbjZkklZgh\dbagZdh\fuh[t_^bgbeb\bgkljmdpbb kfk 70).
L_i_jv\ufh`_l_ihlj_gbjh\ZlvkygZ\k_wlbkemqZb
58.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby\hlju\dZobaijhba\_^_gbc:KImrdbgZghkgZqZeZ
\^mfqb\hijhqlbl_wlbl_dklu
HkdhevdhgZfhldjulbcqm^guo
=hlh\ylijhk\_s_gvy^mo
Bhiulkughrb[hdljm^guo
B]_gbciZjZ^hdkh\^jm]
LhZdZ^_fbdlh]_jhc
Lhfhj_ieZ\Zl_evlhiehlgbd
Hg\k_h[t_fexs_c^mrhc
GZljhg_\_qguc[uejZ[hlgbd
69
70
<her_[gucdjZcLZf\klZju]h^u
KZlbjukf_ehc\eZkl_ebg
;ebklZeNhg\babg^jm]k\h[h^u
Bi_j_bfqb\ucDgy`gbg
JbnfZa\mqgZyih^jm]Z
<^hogh\_ggh]h^hkm]Z
<^hogh\_ggh]hljm^Z
LumfhedeZhg_f_eZ
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
L_i_jvi_j_c^_fd[he__ljm^ghfmkemqZx
H[yaZl_evgh_lbj_
Ijbeh`_gby dZd fu m`_ ]h\hjbeb fh]ml \u^_eylvky g_ lhevdh aZiylufb gh b
lbj_Bgh]^Zwlhh[yaZl_evghZbgh]^Zg_lGZqg_fkh[yaZl_evguokemqZ_\
I _ j \ u c k e m q Z c — dh]^Z jZkijhkljZg_ggh_ ijbeh`_gb_ bf__l \gmljb
k\hbaZiylu_Lml\he_cg_\he_cgZ^h\u^_eylv_]hlbj_k^\moklhjhgbgZq_hghg_
[m^_l \u]ey^_lv hlq_leb\h \u^_e_gguf GZc^bl_ \ ke_^mxsbo ijbf_jZo lZdh_
ijbeh`_gb_ :dlbgbb — fhjkdb_ `b\hlgu_ [hevr_ ihoh`b_ gZ p\_lu q_f gZ
`b\hlguo²ihr_\_eb\Zebk\hbfbsmiZevpZfbaZo\Zlu\Zyf_edmx^h[uqm
< l h j h c k e m q Z c . Ijbeh`_gb_ hlghkblky d h^ghfm keh\m beb g_dhlhjhc
qZklbkeh\bajy^Zh^ghjh^guoqe_gh\<lZdbokemqZyohghlh`_lj_[m_llbj_qlh[u
g_aZl_jylvky\ jy^mh^ghjh^guo qe_gh\ <hl dZd wlh \u]ey^bl < ]em[hdbo i_s_jZo
h[blZxl]b[db_ijhl_b — \h^hieZ\Zxsb_kms_kl\Z[_a]eZa[_krmfghijhe_lZxl
djueZlu_k_ju_kha^Zgby —e_lmqb_furb`b\_lk\ur_^\Z^pZlbjZagh\b^ghkl_c
[_euo[_a]eZauoju[
59.L_i_jvihijh[mcl_kZfbjZkklZ\blvagZdbij_ibgZgby\ijbf_jZokl_fbb^jm]bfb
ijbeh`_gbyfbg_imlZyboklZdbfbkemqZyfb]^_lbj_g_gm`gh
1.P_jdh\vIhdjh\ZgZj_d_G_jebhdheh<eZ^bfbjZa^Zgb_bamfeyxs__e_]dhklvx
b ]Zjfhgbqghklvx hlebqZ_lky ijhklhc b baysghc Zjobl_dlmjhc 2. Fhg_lu
f_lZeebq_kdb_^_g_`gu_agZdbihemqbebk\h_gZa\Zgb_hlijha\bsZ^j_\g_jbfkdhc
[h]bgb Xghgu dhlhjmx bgh]^Z gZau\Zeb Fhg_lhc Jbfeyg_ k\hb fhg_lu q_dZgbeb
gZ DZiblhebckdhf ohef_ \ Jbf_ ]^_ \ ojZf_ [h]bgb Xghgu gZoh^beky fhg_lguc
^\hj E:<\_^_gkdZy GIDhe_kgbdh\ 3. <h \j_f_gZ I_ljZ I iZjhf kj_^kl\h
i_j_ijZ\u oh^b\r__ ihi_j_d j_db ih ljhkm gZau\Zeb kZfhe_lhf < XIX \_d_
kZfhe_lhf gZau\Zeb q_eghd ^_lZev ldZpdh]h klZgdZ B lhevdh gZ jm[_`_ \_dh\ wlh
gZa\Zgb_ ijbk\hbeb ZwjhieZgm ZiiZjZlm kh\_jrZ\r_fm \ha^mrgu_ ihe_lu 4.
=h\hjyl qlh kZfuc agZf_gbluc `bl_ev ImwjlhJbdh Zf_jbdZgkdh]h hkljh\Z \
DZjb[kdhf fhj_ ^j_\_kgZy ey]mrdZ dhdb Wlb g_[hevrb_ d\Zdmrdb djbqZl ]jhfq_
q_frmfbl]jhohqmsbcjy^hfk\Zfbih_a^f_ljhihebl_gZ ba`mjgZeh\ 5.<i_j\u_
[hevrhc\ha^mrgucrZjZwjhklZl
71
gZiheg_gguc gZ]j_luf \ha^mohf ih^gyeky \ g_[h 5 bxey 1783 ]h^Z 6. DZjbZlb^m
klZlmx `_gsbgu ih^^_j`b\Zxsmx dZdmxeb[h \uklmiZxsmx qZklv a^Zgby fh`gh
\b^_lv \h fgh]bo klZjuo ]hjh^Zo Wlh gZa\Zgb_ ijhbahreh hl ^j_\g_]j_q_kdh]h
]hjh^Z DZjby ]^_ ijhbkoh^beb ijZa^gbdb \ q_klv :jl_fb^u [h]bgb hohlu Bgh]^Z
\uklmiZxsmx qZklv a^Zgby ih^^_j`b\Zxl ZleZglu fm`kdb_ nb]mju gZa\Zggu_ ih
bf_gblblZgZ:leZglZ^_j`Z\r_]hgZ]heh\_bjmdZog_[_kguck\h^
<uibrbl_keh`gu_ij_^eh`_gby
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
Lbj_g_h[yaZl_evgh
gh\u]ey^blohjhrh
Ijbeh`_gby\dhgp_ ij_^eh`_gby bf_xl j_^dh_ \ gZr_c imgdlmZpbb ijZ\h [ulv
\u^_e_ggufbagZdhfih\Zr_fm\u[hjmeb[haZiylhceb[hlbj_
Ijbeh`_gby \ k_j_^bg_ ij_^eh`_gby fh]ml [ulv \u^_e_gu lbj_ k ^\mo klhjhg
_keb\ukqblZ_l_qlhwlh\u]ey^blemqr_q_faZiylu_k^\moklhjhg
GZijbf_j_kebohlbl_ijb^Zlv\Zr_fmijbeh`_gbx[hevr_agZqbl_evghklb
<hl lZd AZ fgh]h lukyq_e_lbc \ a_fe_ gZdhibehkv h]jhfgh_ dhebq_kl\h
hdZf_g_ehc kfheu — yglZjy >\_ lukyqb e_l gZaZ^ \ >j_\g_f Jbf_ —
fh]ms_kl\_gghf b [h]Zlhf ]hkm^Zjkl\_ — aZ dmkhq_d yglZjy ieZlbeb [hevrb_
^_gv]b
<hldZdb_ijbf_juklbj_fugZoh^bfm?k_gbgZ
Lboh\qZs_fh``_\_eyihh[ju\m
Hk_gv²ju`Zydh[ueZ²q_r_l]jb\m
Jmdbfbehc²iZjZe_[_^_c²
<ahehl_\hehkfhbogujyxl
?keb\ij_^eh`_gbb[hevr_h^gh]hijbeh`_gbybhlghkylkyhgbdjZagufkeh\Zf
emqr_\u^_eylvbojZagufbkihkh[ZfbgZijbf_jlZdGZrb^Ze_db_ij_^db`bl_eb
^j_\g_]hGh\]hjh^ZibkZebgZ[_j_kl_ —\_jog_fkeh_[_j_ah\hcdhju
P_e_khh[jZaghlZd`_\u^_eylvkihfhsvxlbj_ijbeh`_gby\l_oij_^eh`_gbyo\
dhlhjuom`__klvaZiylu_
<hl lZd EZjbkZ ih]j_q_kdb agZqbl qZcdZ — kbevgZy kf_eZy [ukljZy obsgZy
ilbpZ E<Zkbev_\Z <u[hj agZdZ — \Zr_ ijZ\h Z \ZrZ k\ylZy h[yaZgghklv — g_ ijh]ey^_lv
ijbeh`_gb_h[yaZl_evgh\u^_eblv_]h
60.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby\ke_^mxsboij_^eh`_gbyo
?klvhkljh\gZlhfhd_Zg_
ImkluggucbfjZqguc]jZgbl
72
GZhkljh\_lhf_klvfh]beZ
:\g_cbfi_jZlhjaZjul
FXE_jfhglh\
Lh[_j_]lhfhj_lhkhegp_lh\vx]Z
lhZg]_eulh\hjhgv_
>\_\_qguo^hjh]bex[h\vbjZaemdZ
ijhoh^ylkd\havk_j^p_fh_
;Hdm^`Z\Z
Jh`^_ggu_\]h^Z]emob_
Imlbg_ihfgylk\h_]h
Fu^_lbkljZrguoe_lJhkkbb
AZ[ulvg_\kbeZogbq_]h
:;ehd
4. Ba \k_o Zg]ebckdbo ibkZl_e_c lhevdh h^bg J_^bZj^ Dbiebg] ihemqZe
e_]_g^Zjguc ]hghjZj rbeebg] aZ keh\h <_k_euc b qm\kl\bl_evguc >bdd_gk h[sbc
^jm] q_eh\_q_kl\Z g_ ihemqZe b ^_kylhc ^heb wlbo ^_g_] D IZmklh\kdbc 5. =jbg
ex[beN_h^hkbxaghcguc]hjh^ma_e_gh]hfmlgh\Zlh]hfhjyihkljh_ggucgZ[_ehf
dZf_gbklhf i_kd_ Hk_gvx 1930 ]h^Z =jbg i_j__oZe ba N_h^hkbb \ KlZjuc Djuf
]hjh^p\_lh\lbrbgubjZa\Zebg DIZmklh\kdbc H^ghbawlboij_^eh`_gbckeh`gh_\uibrbl__]hghf_j
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
73
?keb m \Zk g_ [ueh hrb[hd ijhimklbl_ ke_^mxs__ aZ^Zgb_ ?keb [ueb
\uihegycl_\k_ih^jy^
61.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
1.<dhfgZlZokkmjh\hcijhklhch[klZgh\dhcklhyeZ]em[hdZylbrbgZbe_`ZegZ
f_eh\hc kl_g_ j_adbc emq khegpZ Hg iZ^Ze gZ _^bgkl\_ggmx ]jZ\xjm gZ kl_g_
ihjlj_lW^]ZjZIh DIZmklh\kdbc 2.Hdheh_edbe_`ZeZlheklZy dgb]Zih^Zjhdhl
fZfu Wlh [ueb kdZadb OjbklbZgZ :g^_jk_gZ DIZmklh\kdbc 3. H^gZ`^u =jb]
\klj_lbe \ e_km fZe_gvdmx ^_\hqdm k ^\mfy dhkbqdZfb ^hqv e_kgbdZ
DIZmklh\kdbc 4. E_hgZj^h ^Z <bgqb [ue [hevrbf agZlhdhf \h_ggh]h bkdmkkl\Z
ki_pbZebklhf ih ihkljhcd_ dj_ihkl_c imr_d lZjZgh\ b fZrbg gZihfbgZxsbo
kh\j_f_ggu_ lZgdb : =hnf_ckl_j 5. Bg^_cpu bah[j_eb fgh]h \_s_c GZijbf_j
]ZfZd \bkyq__ eh`_ ba \_j_\hd Bah[j_eb hdZjbgm ]ebgygmx ^m^hqdm M fZcy
aZf_qZl_evgh]h bg^_ckdh]h gZjh^Z P_gljZevghc :f_jbdb _s_ \ gZqZe_ i_j\h]h
lukyq_e_lby[ue[he__lhqgucdZe_g^Zjvq_fgZr
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
62.IhjZ[hlZcl_dhjj_dlhjhfGZc^bl_bbkijZ\vl_imgdlmZpbhggu_hrb[db
1. < gZmd_ h yaud_ yaudhagZgbb — \u^_ey_lky hkh[uc jZa^_e — hghfZklbdZ
aZgbfZxsZykybamq_gb_fkh[kl\_gguobf_gAgZf_gblh]hkusbdZR_jehdZOhefkZ
]_jhy ih\_kl_c b jZkkdZah\ Zg]ebckdh]h ibkZl_ey :DhgZg >hceZ \u ij_djZkgh
agZ_l_ Bfy R_jehd Ohefk klZeh l_i_jv gZjbpZl_evguf lZd dZd bf gZau\Zxl
gZoh^qb\h]h kusbdZ E : <\_^_gkdZy G I Dhe_kgbdh\ 2. Ih bf_gb DZkkZg^ju
^hq_jb pZjy IjbZfZ gZa\Zg DZkkZg^jhc \_qgha_e_guc dmklZjgbd k_f_ckl\Z
\_j_kdh\uo E:<\_^_gkdZyGIDhe_kgbdh\ GZc^bl_kj_^bwlboij_^eh`_gbckeh`gh_b\uibrbl__]h
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
Kkh[kl\_ggufbf_g_f
DZdh\u \aZbfhhlghr_gby f_`^m ijbeh`_gb_f b bf_g_f kh[kl\_gguf" Hgb
aZ\bkyl hl lh]h dlh i_j\uc _keb ijbeh`_gb_ klhbl i_j_^ kh[kl\_gguf bf_g_f
hgh g_ \u^_ey_lky aZiylufb Z ihke_ g_]h — \u^_ey_lky <hl lZd Ba\_klguc
dhfihablhj;hjh^bgZ\lhjhi_juDgyavB]hjv[ueg_lhevdhdhfihablhjhfghb
ijhn_kkhjhfobfbdhf
63.Ih^q_jdgbl_h[hkh[e_ggu_ijbeh`_gbybjZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
=j_q_kdbc ibkZl_ev =_jh^hl hl_p bklhjbb klZjZeky \ k\hbo khqbg_gbyo ^Zlv
h[tykg_gby gZa\Zgbyf kljZg ]hjh^h\ fhj_c b j_d <_ebqZcrbc jbfkdbc mq_guc
FZjd L_j_gpbc <Zjjhg `b\rbc _s_ ^h gZr_c wju ihk\ylbe h[tykg_gbx
]_h]jZnbq_kdbo bf_g [hevrh_ khqbg_gb_ Ba\_klguc ]_h]jZn XVI klhe_lby
F_jdZlhjkhklZ\bl_ev
74
agZf_gbluo ZleZkh\ klj_fbeky h[tykgblv \k_ ]_h]jZnbq_kdb_ bf_gZ dhlhju_ hg
gZghkbe gZ k\hb dZjlu 2. JbfkdbcDhjkZdh\ ijhn_kkhj I_l_j[mj]kdhc
dhgk_j\Zlhjbb dhfihablhj b ^bjb`_j [ue fhjkdbf hnbp_jhf 3. GZ^\hjguc km^vy
B\Zg B\Zgh\bq Imsbg ebp_ckdbc lh\Zjbs ImrdbgZ ihdbgme [e_klysmx \h_ggmx
dZjv_jm b ihklmibe fZe_gvdbf qbgh\gbdhf \ m]heh\guc ^_iZjlZf_gl Fhkdh\kdh]h
gZ^\hjgh]hkm^Zqlh[u^hdZaZlvijbf_jhfqlhfh`ghijbghkblvihevamhl_q_kl\mb\
kZfhckdjhfghc^he`ghklb >fF_j_`dh\kdbc Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\uII.
?keb m \Zk g_ [ueh hrb[hd ijhimklbl_ ke_^mxs__ aZ^Zgb_ ?keb [ueb —
\uihegycl_\k_ih^jy^
64.I_j_ibrbl_ij_^eh`_gbyjZkklZ\eyyagZdbij_ibgZgby
1. H^gZ`^u ^\_gZ^pZlbe_lgbc @xev <_jg djZkb\uc klZlguc b kbevguc fZevqbd
g_ y\beky d m`bgm <f_klh g_]h iha\hgbe klZjuc fhjyd FZjbmk agZdhfuc hlpZ
mjh`_g_pLmehgZHgkhh[sbeqlh@xevgZgyekyxg]hcgZromgmDhjZebdhlhjZy
\hl\hl kgbf_lky k ydhjy :=hnf_ckl_j 2. ;bl\Z f_`^m kughf A_\kZ =_jZdehf b
kughfA_feb:gl__fdZdjZkkdZau\Zeb^j_\gb_]j_db[ueZ^he]hcbly`_ehcKbeZq
=_jZdeg_jZa[jhkZek\h_]hijhlb\gbdZ:gl_ygZa_fexghijbdhkgh\_gb_dfZl_jb
a_fe_^Z\Zeh:gl_xgh\u_kbeuLhevdhhlhj\Z\\jZ]Zhla_febbih^gy\_]h\\ha^mo
=_jZde kfh] h^_j`Zlv ih[_^m 3. AZf_qZl_evguc jmkkdbc djblbd <bkkZjbhg
;_ebgkdbc [ue i_j\uf i_j_\h^qbdhf jhfZgh\ :e_dkZg^jZ >xfZ Z ibkZl_ev
^_fhdjZl =_jp_g i_j\uf bo qblZl_e_f 4. :jlmj DhgZg >hce \h_gguc \jZq
bklhjbq_kdbcb[ulh\hcjhfZgbklk^_eZekyagZf_gblufklZ\h^
75
gbf ba kha^Zl_e_c ^_l_dlb\gh]h `ZgjZ R_jehdZ OhefkZ gZ[ex^Zl_evgh]h b
gZoh^qb\h]h ]_jhy _]h jZkkdZah\ agZxl b ex[yl fbeebhgu qblZl_e_c 5. < k_\_jghc
qZklb Ohgkx ]eZ\gh]h hkljh\Z Yihgbb jZkiheh`_gh g_kdhevdh ^_j_\_gv `bl_eb
dhlhjuo k ^Z\gbo ihj aZgbfZxlky ba]hlh\e_gb_f dhob — ^_j_\ygguo dmdhe
gZihfbgZxsbo gZrbo fZlj_r_d 6. < EZ]hk_ klhebp_ Gb]_jbb \g_aZigh jmogme
Z\lhfh[bevguc fhkl Ihke_ lsZl_evgh]h bkke_^h\Zgby fhklZ h[gZjm`behkv qlh
\bgh\gbdb dZlZkljhnu f_klgu_ ljhibq_kdb_ mebldb dhlhju_ ijhlhqbeb
[_kqbke_ggu_lj_sbgu\_]h[_lhgguohihjZo ba`mjgZeh\ GZc^bl_kj_^bwlboijbf_jh\ij_^eh`_gbyk^__ijbqZklgufh[hjhlhf
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
65.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby\wlboij_^eh`_gbyobjZkkdZ`bl_dZdbfbijZ\beZfb
hgbh[tykgyxlkyKhklZ\vl_ko_fmi_j\h]hij_^eh`_gby
;_cd_jkljbl ]^_ klhbl ^hf ghf_j ^_\ylv lboZy mehqdZ \ p_glj_ Ehg^hgZ Gh lml
`bebmwlh]hkZfh]hhdgZb]jZegZkdjbid_k\hb]jmklgu_f_eh^bb^hdlhjm<Zlkhgm
\_ebqZcrbc ^_l_dlb\ R_jehd Ohefk dhlhjh]h ijb^mfZe DhgZg >hce hl_p \k_o
^_l_dlb\guodgb`_dbnbevfh\ :=hnf_ckl_j Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\uI
66. <klZ\vl_ \ ij_^eh`_gby ih^oh^ysb_ ih kfukem ijbeh`_gby IhklZ\vl_ gm`gu_
agZdb
1. KdZadm h klhcdhf heh\ygghf khe^Zlbd_ khqbgbe =Zgk OjbklbZg :g^_jk_g 2.
:\lhjhfEmgghckhgZlu[ueEx^\b]\Zg ;_loh\_g . 3. L_hjbx hlghkbl_evghklb
kha^Ze :ev[_jl Wcgrl_cg 4. FZjkbZgkdb_ ojhgbdb ijbgZ^e_`Zl i_jm J_y
;jw^[_jb
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\uII.
Ijbeh`_gby
k^h[Z\hqgufbagZq_gbyfb
<u \b^bl_ qlh _klv kemqZc dh]^Z ijbeh`_gby \u^_eyxlky aZiylufb i_j_^
kh[kl\_ggufbf_g_fWlhijbeh`_gbyk^h[Z\hqgufh[klhyl_evkl\_ggufagZq_gb_f
dhlhju_ fh]ml hl\_qZlv gZ \hijhku h[klhyl_evkl\ beb [ulv fuke_ggh
ij_h[jZah\Zggufb\h[hjhlkhkeh\hf[m^mqb
67.KjZ\gbl_^\Zijbf_jZGZc^bl_\gboijbeh`_gbyHij_^_ebl_dZdh_bagbobf__l
^h[Z\hqgh_agZq_gb_b\u^_ebl__]haZiylhc
1. >j_\g_]j_q_kdbc ihwl =hf_j kha^Ze m\e_dZl_evgmx bklhjbx h kljZgkl\byo
obljhmfgh]h H^bkk_y 2. G_mlhfbfuc b ex[hagZl_evguc iml_r_kl\_ggbd
DjZr_gbggbdh\ g_ lhevdh bkke_^h\Ze b ih^jh[gh hibkZe DZfqZldm gh b aZibkZe
fgh]hgZjh^guokdZahdwlh]hdjZy
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
76
68. < ke_^mxsbo ijbf_jZo \u gZc^_l_ hij_^_e_gby \ lhf qbke_ b ijbeh`_gby k
^h[Z\hqgufagZq_gb_fb[_ag_]hJZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgbyMdZ`bl_ijbf_ju
]^_ ijbeh`_gby b ^jm]b_ hij_^_e_gby bf_xl ^h[Z\hqgh_ agZq_gb_ Ijb
g_h[oh^bfhklbh[jZsZcl_kvdbgkljmdpbb
L_ZljZaehcaZdhgh^Zl_ev
G_ihklhygguch[h`Zl_ev
HqZjh\Zl_evguoZdljbk
Ihq_lguc]jZ`^Zgbgdmebk
Hg_]bgihe_l_edl_Zljm
:KImrdbg
2. Ex[bl_ev rmlhd b fbklbnbdZpbc :jlmj DhgZg >hbe ba]hlh\be g_kdhevdh
nhlh]jZnbc ijbajZdh\ b ^moh\ gZ h^ghc ba dhlhjuo [ue mqbl_ev n_olh\Zgby k
r_klvxjmdZfb ihD:g^j__\m 3.Dh]^Zmf_jkdmevilhjLhj\Zev^k_gkug[_^gydZb
^jm] :g^_jk_gZ :g^_jk_g gZibkZe dZglZlm gZ _]h kf_jlv ih DIZmklh\kdhfm 4.
Q_eh\_d ih]jm`_gguc \ khklhygb_ emgZlbq_kdh]h kgZ fh`_l kihdhcgh b^lb ih
madhfm dZjgbam beb [Zedhgguf i_jbeZf H^gZdh jZa[m`_gguc hdjbdhf lZdhc
emghoh^_pjbkdm_lkhj\Zlvkybihe_l_lv\gba
Hlklmigbd[mjguogZkeZ`^_gbc
Hg_]bg^hfZaZi_jky
QmlvhljhdHev]hxie_g_gguc
K_j^_qguofmd_s_g_agZ\
Hg[uek\b^_l_evmfbe_gguc
?_feZ^_gq_kdboaZ[Z\
:KImrdbg
7. <k_]^Z [_agZ^_`gh fheqZ\rbc l_e_nhg \^jm] aZa\hgbe 8. Mf_xsb_ baf_gylv
k\hc\b^gZq_eh\_q_kdbcwlbkms_kl\ZgZkZfhf^_e_[uebdjukZfb ih:=jbgm 9.
<k_]^Z k^_j`Zggu_ b k_jv_agu_ Zg]ebqZg_ jZa \ ]h^m k [_am^_j`guf \_k_ev_f
ijZa^gmxl ^_gv K\ylh]h <Ze_glbgZ ^_gv \k_o \ex[e_gguo 10. G_ lhevdh \_ebdbc
hjZlhjghb\u^ZxsbckyibkZl_evbxjbkl>j_\g_]hJbfZFZjdLmeebcPbp_jhg^h
kboihjbgl_j_k_gqblZl_ex
<uibrbl_ghf_jZijbf_jh\\dhlhjuo_klvijbqZklgu_b^__ijbqZklgu_h[hjhlu
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
Kihfhsvx^jm]bokeh\
Bgh]^Z ijbeh`_gby ijbeZ]Zxlky d hij_^_ey_fuf keh\Zf k ihfhsvx ^jm]bo
keh\ khxah\ beb b lh _klv Z lZd`_ keh\ ih bf_gb ih nZfbebb ih debqd_ ih^
gZa\Zgb_f lZd gZau\Z_fh_ b l^ Ljm^ghklv \Zr_c jZ[hlu khklhbl \ lhf qlh \u \
wlbo kemqZyo bgh]^Z g_ magZ_l_ ijbeh`_gbc b g_ \u^_ey_l_ bo Fh[bebamcl_ \Zr_
\gbfZgb_bihklZjZcl_kvbog_mimklblv
77
69.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
1. < ;bjf_ `b\_l ie_fy iZ^Zmg]b lh _klv ^ebgghr_b_ @_gsbgu wlh]h ie_f_gb
ghkyl gZ r__ dZjdZk ba lhekluo f_^guo kibjZe_c GKeZ^dh\ 2. ;hevrbgkl\h
kh\j_f_gguo ZenZ\blh\ \ lhf qbke_ b jmkkdbc y\eyxlky nhg_lbq_kdbfb 3. Ex^b
agZxsb_ fgh]h yaudh\ lZd gZau\Z_fu_ iheb]ehlu mk\hbeb wlb yaudb [hevr_c
qZklvx g_ k ihfhsvx mqbl_ey Z kZfhklhyl_evgh 4. =h^ aZ ]h^hf kh[bjZebkv
a\_jheh\ub[hjlgbdbe_kgu_ex^b^h[u\Zxsb_f_^b\hkd^bdboiq_e]^_eb[hgZ
[_j_]m km^hoh^ghc j_db qlh[u lhj]h\Zlv k\h_c ^h[uq_c lh _klv ^ey ]hklv[u dZd
]h\hjbeb \ klZjbgm 5. Q_j_a g_kdhevdh ^g_c ihke_ lh]h dZd y jZkkdZaZe kdZadm h
lZ[Zd_fhckughg`_djZkghdh`bc[jZl\kihfgbehk\hbobg^_ckdbogZdehgghklyob
y\beky dh fg_ \uykgblv y\ey_lky eb dmj_gb_ _^bgkl\_gguf q_fm fu gZmqbebkv hl
bg^_cp_\ : =hnf_ckl_j 6. Dh]^Z fg_ [ueh r_klv e_l \ dgb]_ ih^ gZa\Zgb_f
IjZ\^b\u_ bklhjbb ]^_ jZkkdZau\Zehkv ijh ^_\kl\_ggu_ e_kZ y h^gZ`^u m\b^_e
m^b\bl_evgmxdZjlbgdm :K_glWdaxi_jb Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
70. JZkklZ\vl_ agZdb ij_ibgZgby Hij_^_ebl_ kdhevdh ijbeh`_gbc \ dZ`^hf
ij_^eh`_gbb
1. ?s_ =_jh^hl :jbklhl_ev >bh^hj b Iebgbc [he__ beb f_g__ \_jgh hibkZeb
[_]_fhlZbeb]biihihlZfZbebqlhlh`_kZfh_j_qgmxehrZ^vbeb\h^ygmxdhjh\m
dhlhjZy \h^blky \ ]heeZg^kdhc X`ghc :njbd_ FZcg Jb^ 2. Dhee_`kdbc Zk_kkhj
<bev]_evf DZjeh\bq Dxo_ev[_d_j beb ihijhklm Dxoey jmkkdbc g_f_p ba^Zl_ev
`mjgZeZ Fg_fhabgZ fheh^hc q_eh\_d [_eh[jukuc imq_]eZauc ^he]h\yauc b
g_mdex`bcg_[ue^Z`_qe_ghfLZcgh]hh[s_kl\Z >fF_j_`dh\kdbc Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\uII.
71.IhjZ[hlZcl_dhjj_dlhjhfBkijZ\vl_imgdlmZpbhggu_hrb[db
<DZebnhjgbckdhfZd\Zjbmf_hkvfbgh`boZihdebqd_F_nbklZkie_eZbak\hbo
\hkvfb smiZe_p ih^h[b_ dhjabgdb b hleh`beZ \ g__ ycpZ 2. < k_j_^bg_ ijhreh]h
\_dZdZebnhjgbckdb_ahehlhbkdZl_ebghkbeb[jxdbbaijhqghcoehiqZlh[mfZ`ghc
ldZgb gZau\Z_fhc ^`bg HgZ \ujZ[Zlu\ZeZkv i_j\hgZqZevgh \ ]hjh^_ =_gm_ hl
dhlhjh]h b ihemqbeZ k\h_ gZa\Zgb_ K^_eZggu_ ba g__ [jxdb [ueb gZa\Zgu ^`bgk
beb^`bgku E:<\_^_gkdZyGIDhe_kgbdh\ =_j^ZklZjZyghj\_`dZ
JZkkdZaZeZfg_hlhf
DZdkb^_e\gmljbhj_rdZ
Q_jlkjh]Zfbbko\hklhf
KYFZjrZd
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\uII.
?klv _s_ h^gh keh\h k ihfhsvx dhlhjh]h g_j_^dh ijbkh_^bgyxlky ijbeh`_gby
WlhkhxadZdJZa]h\hjhg_fihc^_l\dhgp_dgb]b
78
H^bghqgu_ijbeh`_gby
ij_h^he_\rb_h^bghq_kl\h
H^bghqgu_ ijbeh`_gby \ujZ`_ggu_ gZjbpZl_evgufb kms_kl\bl_evgufb
ijbeZ]Zxlky d hkgh\guf keh\Zf lh`_ gZjbpZl_evguf kms_kl\bl_evguf ijb
ihfhsb ^_nbkZ gZijbf_j l_e_nhgZ\lhfZl dZn_fhjh`_gh_ IZju
kms_kl\bl_evguo kh_^bg_ggu_ ^_nbkhf hq_gv jZkijhkljZg_gu b dZ`^uc ba \Zk
agZ_lbo\_ebdh_fgh`_kl\h
72. Fgh]b_ \her_[gu_ ij_^f_lu \ kdZadZo gZa\Zgu lZdbfb ^\hcgufb gZa\Zgbyfb
GZijy]bl_iZfylvb\kihfgbl_dZdfh`gh[hevr_lZdbogZa\Zgbc
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
73.<klZ\vl_ihiZfylbijhims_ggu_keh\Z\ohjhrhagZdhfu_\Zfkljhqdb
«Hk_eDha_e^ZdhkheZiucFbrdZ
aZl_yebku]jZlvd\Zjl_l
e_lhdjZkgh_ijhi_eZ
<_^vlu[ueZ[mgZk
B:Djueh\
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\uII.
74.JZkklZ\vl_agZdb\ke_^mxsboklbohl\hjguohlju\dZoG_aZ[m^vl_hagZdZodhgpZ
ij_^eh`_gby
Kfbemcky]hkm^Zjugyju[dZ
<uhljhdb^jm]b\havfbl_dhgy
79
;e_kgmefhjhabjZ^ufu
IjhdZaZffZlmrdbabfu
:KImrdbg
<v_lkymebpZaf_y
^hfZ\^hevaf_b
KZfhjZkdbgm\emqrZ]b
rZ]Z_lkhegp_\ihe_
<FZydh\kdbc
DlhpZjvdhehdheih^gbf_l
DlhpZjvimrdmih\_jg_l
N=ebgdZ
Fhjha\h_\h^Z^hahjhf
H[oh^bl\eZ^_gvyk\hb
G:G_djZkh\
H[jZlbl_\uk\hc\ahj
DfZlmrd_i_ohl_
:L\Zj^h\kdbc
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
75.<u^_ebl_keh\Zkijbeh`_gbyfbbaimrdbgkdhcKdZadbhf_^\_^bo_i_j_ibrbl_
l_dklihklZ\b\gm`gu_agZdb
<lmihjma\_jbkh[bjZebky
Dhlhfmebf_^\_^xd[hevrhfm[hyjbgm
Ijboh^beba\_jb[hevrb_
Ijb[_]Zeblmla\_jbrdbf_gvrb_
Ijb[_]Zelml\hed^\hjygbg
Ijboh^belml[h[jlhj]h\uc]hklv
Ijboh^beZeZklhqdZ^\hjyghqdZ
Ijboh^beZ[_ehqdZdgy]bg_qdZ
Ijboh^beZebkbpZih^vyqboZ
Ih^vyqboZdZagZq_boZ
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\uII.
Ih\lhjbf\k_ba\_klgu_\ZfkemqZb
76. IhklZ\vl_gm`gu_agZdb
1. Lukyqm k ebrgbf e_l gZaZ^ \ ^Ze_dhc :e_dkZg^jbb `beZ b jZ[hlZeZ \_ebdZy
=biZlby i_j\Zy \ fbj_ `_gsbgZ fZl_fZlbd 2. DZd jZkkdZau\Z_l ^j_\g_]j_q_kdbc
fbn \ h^ghf ]mklhf l_fghf e_km `be \_ebdZg jZa[hcgbd ih ijha\bsm K]b[Zl_ev
Khk_gHgijb]b[Zeda_fe_\_jomrdb^\moklhysbojy^hfkhk_gijb\yau\ZedgbfaZ
jmdbbaZgh]bk\hx`_jl\mbhlimkdZe\_jomrdbdhlhju_jZkijyfeyykv jZaju\Zeb
__Hl\Z`gucxghrZL_a_ckugpZjyW]_yih[_^bek\bj_ih]h\_ebdZgZbjZkijZ\beky
kgbfl_f`_kihkh[hf
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\uII.
80
AZdZ\uq_ggu_ijbeh`_gby
Ijbeh`_gby h[hagZqZxsb_ gZa\Zgby aZdexqZxlky \ dZ\uqdb `mjgZe H]hg_d
dbghl_Zlj Jhkkby jhfZg Ljb fmrd_l_jZ Lj_gbjmykv gZ wlh ijZ\beh fu
h^gh\j_f_ggh[m^_fhljZ[Zlu\Zlvb\_kvijhc^_ggucfZl_jbZe
77.JZkklZ\vl_ijhims_ggu_agZdb
1. Ba\_klguc Zf_jbdZgkdbc ibkZl_ev WO_fbg]mwc [hevrhc ex[bl_ev hohlu
gZibkZe h g_c dgb]m A_e_gu_ ohefu :njbdb E:<\_^_gkdZy GIDhe_kgbdh\ 2.
Dgb]ZNjZ_jfZgZ>bdZykh[ZdZ>bg]hbebIh\_klvhi_j\hcex[\bwlhihegZyk\_lZ
ijhajZqgZy ihwfZ h ex[\b f_`^m ^_\hqdhc b fZevqbdhf DIZmklh\kdbc 3.
NjZgpmakdh]h ibkZl_ey nZglZklZ Z\lhjZ agZf_gbluo jhfZgh\ >_lb dZiblZgZ =jZglZ
LZbgkl\_gguchkljh\ 80lukyqdbehf_ljh\ih^\h^hca\Zeb@xe_fZnZfbebymg_]h
[ueZh^ghkeh`gZy<_jg E:<\_^_gkdZyGIDhe_kgbdh\ 4.Dgb]baZf_qZl_evgh]h
nZglZklZ@xey<_jgZkuiZebkvdZdbajh]Zbah[bebyAZq_luj_]h^Zhghim[ebdh\Ze
q_luj_i_j\hdeZkkguojhfZgZIylvg_^_evgZ\ha^mrghfrZj_Iml_r_kl\b_dp_gljm
A_feb Iml_r_kl\by b ijbdexq_gby dZiblZgZ =Zll_jZkZ b K A_feb gZ Emgm 5.
NjZgpmakdbcibkZl_evbe_lqbd:glmZg K_glWdaxi_jbgZibkZedgb]bA_feyex^_c
Ghqghcihe_lFZe_gvdbcijbgpkdZadmhj_[_gd_bghieZg_lygbg_b<h_gguce_lqbd
jZkkdZah[h_\uoihe_lZo
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
78.IhjZ[hlZcl_dhjj_dlhjhfGZc^bl_bbkijZ\vl_imgdlmZpbhggu_hrb[db
Ehg]j_gfZljhkHjbhgZdj_idh]hlj_okhllhggh]h[jb]ZgZdhlhjhfhgijhkem`be
^_kylv e_l b d dhlhjhfm [ue ijb\yaZg kbevg__ q_f bghc kug d jh^ghc fZl_jb
^he`_g [ue gZdhg_p ihdbgmlv wlm kem`[m < h^gh ba _]h j_^dbo \ha\jZs_gbc
^hfhc hg g_ m\b^_e gZ ihjh]_ k\hx `_gm F_jb <f_klh g__ m ^_lkdhc djh\Zldb
gh\h]h ij_^f_lZ \ fZe_gvdhf ^hf_ Ehg]j_gZ — klhyeZ \a\hegh\ZggZy khk_^dZ E
=jbg Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
79.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby\hlj_adZoij_^eh`_gbc
1. GZ ijhlb\hiheh`ghf [_j_]m Fhkd\Z j_db gZoh^blky agZf_gblZy dhg^bl_jkdZy
nZ[jbdZ ih^ gZa\Zgb_f DjZkguc ... <_l_j k lh]h [_j_]Z ^hghkbl aZiZo rhdheZ^Z
;hevrb_ex[bl_ebdhgn_lfZevqbrdbb^_\qhgdb ... .<ureZijb\_leb\Zy`_gsbgZ
gZrZ ]hkl_ijbbfgZy ... 2. ... _klv mxlgh_ ^_lkdh_ dZn_ ih^ gZa\Zgb_f ... 3. ...
ih^]hlh\be dhgki_dl lh _klv djZldmx ... 4. ... meu[Zxs__ky ebph Xjby =Z]ZjbgZ
i_j\h]h\fbj_ ... 5. ...jZ^hklghaZeZyegZrq_l\_jhgh]bcex[bf_pihdebqd_ 6. ...
ijboh^bebkjZaguonZdmevl_lh\kemrZlve_dpbbLbfbjya_\ZaZf_qZl_evgh]h ... 7. ...
klhblkeh\haZjyh^ghbaij_djZkg_crbo ...
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
81
:[he__lhqgh"
JZa]h\hjh[mlhqgyxsboh[klhyl_evkl\Zo
<u^_e_gb_mlhqgyxsboh[klhyl_evkl\ —hiZkgh_aZgylb_DZdb_`_hiZkghklb\Zk
ih^dZjZmeb\Zxl"QlhwlhlZdh_ —mlhqgyxsb_h[klhyl_evkl\Z"
?keb \ ij_^eh`_gbb aZ h^gbf h[klhyl_evkl\hf f_klZ hl\_qZxsbf gZ \hijhk
] ^ _ " beb d m ^ Z " beb h l d m ^ Z " , ke_^m_l \lhjh_ h[klhyl_evkl\h ^Zxs__
[he__ lhqgmx [he__ dhgdj_lgmx bgnhjfZpbx \ hl\_l gZ wlb `_ \hijhku lh wlh
\lhjh_ —mlhqgyxs__h[klhyl_evkl\hhgh\u^_ey_lkyaZiylufb _keb_klvblj_lv_
hghlh`_\u^_ey_lky 80. GZc^bl_ mlhqgyxs__ h[klhyl_evkl\h f_klZ \ ke_^mxsbo ijbf_jZo b \u^_ebl_ bo
aZiylufb
>\Z^pZlv rZjh\ [ukljh ihe_l_eb d\_jom \ kbyxs__ kheg_qgh_ g_[h : ih\ZjylZ
klhyeb\gbamgZljZ\_kj_^b^mrbklh]h]hjhrdZjZabgm\jlubaZ^jZ\]heh\u\[_euo
dheiZdZo XHe_rZ Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
LZd `_ h[klhbl ^_eh b k h[klhyl_evkl\Zfb \j_f_gb hl\_qZxsbfb gZ \hijhk
d h ] ^ Z " <lhjh_h[klhyl_evkl\h^Z_lgZwlhl\hijhk_s_h^bghl\_l[he__lhqguc
b\u^_ey_lkyaZiylufb
81.GZc^bl_b\u^_ebl_aZiylufbmlhqgyxs__h[klhyl_evkl\h\j_f_gb
?s_\^j_\ghklbg_kdhevdhlukyqe_lgZaZ^ex^bmf_ebij_^kdZau\Zlvkheg_qgu_
aZlf_gby
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
82. < ke_^mxs_f hlju\d_ ba jZkkdZaZ :g^j_y IeZlhgh\Z kgZqZeZ gZah\bl_
h[klhyl_evkl\Zdhlhju_h[hkh[eyxlkyihlhfjZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby\l_dkl_
AZihegbl_lZ[ebpm
Mlhqgyxsb_h[klhyl_evkl\Z \j_f_gb
Mlhqgyxsb_h[klhyl_evkl\Z f_klZ
KlZjuc fmaudZgl ex[be b]jZlv m ih^gh`by iZfylgbdZ Imrdbgm Wlhl iZfylgbd
klhye \ Fhkd\_ \ gZqZe_ L\_jkdh]h [mev\ZjZ gZ g_f gZibkZgu klbob b kh \k_o
q_luj_o klhjhg d g_fm ih^ufZebkv fjZfhjgu_ klmi_gb Ih^gy\rbkv ih wlbf
klmi_gyf d kZfhfm iv_^_klZem klZjuc fmaudZgl h[jZsZeky ebphf gZ [mev\Zj d
^Zevgbf Gbdblkdbf <hjhlZf b ljh]Ze kfuqdhf kljmgu gZ kdjbid_ H[udgh\_ggh
klZjbd \uoh^be b]jZlv ih^ \_q_j ih i_j\hfm kmfjZdm Moh^be hg ^hfhc iha^gh
bgh]^Z ^Z`_ \ iheghqv dh]^Z gZjh^ klZgh\beky j_^dbf b ebrv dZdhcgb[m^v
kemqZcguch^bghdbcq_eh\_dkemrZe_]hfmaudm
MdZ`bl_ij_^eh`_gbykhhl\_lkl\mxsb_lZdbfko_fZf
2)
82
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
83. FZe_gvdZy b]jh\Zy jZafbgdZ <klZ\vl_ ih iZfylb ijhims_ggu_ h[klhyl_evkl\Z \
kljhdbbaihimeyjguoi_k_g
<iheyo
E_`Zl\a_fe_kujhc
K_j_`dZkFZehc;jhgghc
B<blvdZkFhoh\hc
DZd[m^lh\gh\vy\f_kl_kgbfb
KlhxgZh]g_gghcq_jl_
3A^_kv
>jm]Zijbdjh_l^jm]
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\uII.
:l_i_jv —h[hiZkghklyo
I_j\Zy hiZkghklv jh`^ZxsZy gZb[hevr__ dhebq_kl\h hrb[hd² wlh mihjgh_
klj_fe_gb_ fgh]bo ba \Zk \u^_eblv ex[h_ h[klhyl_evkl\h f_klZ beb \j_f_gb
GZijbf_j \ ij_^eh`_gbb M kZfh]h djZy fhjy klhyeZ \ukhdZy kdZeZ dhlhjZy ih
\_q_jZf hl[jZku\ZeZ gZ \h^m ^ebggmx l_gv m g_dhlhjuo ijyfhlZdb jmdb q_rmlky
\u^_eblvaZiylhcmkZfh]hdjZyfhjyZwlh]hlhdZdjZag_ke_^m_l^_eZlvIhfgbl_
bkdmkkl\hjZkklZgh\dbagZdh\ij_ibgZgbykhklhblg_lhevdh\mf_gbbihklZ\blvagZd
lZf]^_gZ^hghb\\_ebdhfmf_gbbg_klZ\blv_]hlZf]^_g_gZ^h^Z`__kebhq_gv
ohq_lky
84. < ke_^mxsbo ijbf_jZo ihklZ\vl_ gm`gu_ agZdb aZl_f \uibrbl_ ghf_jZ
ij_^eh`_gbc[_ah[hkh[e_gguomlhqgyxsboh[klhyl_evkl\
<^ZebgZ^iuevxi_j_mehqghc
GZ^kdmdhcaZ]hjh^guo^Zq
Qmlvahehlblkydj_g^_ev[mehqghc
BjZa^Z_lky^_lkdbcieZq
:;ehd
?klvmih_gb_\[hx
B[_a^gufjZqghcgZdjZx
B\jZatyj_gghfhd_Zg_
Kj_^v]jhaguo\hegb[mjghclvfu
B\ZjZ\bckdhfmjZ]Zg_
B\^mgh\_gbbQmfu
:KImrdbg
MQ_jgh]hfhjyqbgZjZklhblfheh^Zy
Kg_cr_iq_lky\_l_ja_e_gu_ebklvyeZkdZy
FXE_jfhglh\
LZf\iheyoaZkbg_c]ms_ceh]Z
<a_e_gbha_j
Ijhe_]eZi_kqZgZy^hjh]Z
>hkb[bjkdbo]hj
K?k_gbg
83
BlZf\i_jgZlhciZfylbfh_c
<k_kdZadbgZqbgZxlkykh^gZ`^u
B\wlhfh^ghdjZlghklv[ulby
Bfgh]hdjZlghklvmlhe_gvy`Z`^u
>KZfhceh\
<^ZebaZ]jZgvx]hem[hc
=m^yl\lmfZg_l_ieh\hau
HfZjlZij_evdZdb_ke_au
Hq_fluieZq_rv"Qlhklh[hc"
>KZfhceh\
GZk_\_j_^bdhfklhblh^bghdh
GZ]hehc\_jrbg_khkgZ
B^j_fe_ldZqZykvbkg_]hfkuimqbf
H^_lZdZdjbahchgZ
FXE_jfhglh\
Kj_^bfbjh\\f_jpZgbbk\_lbe
H^ghcA\_a^uyih\lhjyxbfy
G_ihlhfmqlh[y?_ex[be
:ihlhfmqlhylhfexkvk^jm]bfb
B:gg_gkdbc
Ghq_\ZeZlmqdZahehlZy
GZ]jm^bml_kZ\_ebdZgZ
Mljhf\imlvhgZmfqZeZkvjZgh
IheZamjb\_k_ehb]jZy
FXE_jfhglh\
<i_kqZguokl_iyoZjZ\bckdhca_feb
Ljb]hj^u_iZevfu\ukhdhjhkeb
FXE_jfhglh\
AZihfgbl_h^bgbaklbohl\hjguohlju\dh\ ih\u[hjm baZibrbl_ihiZfylb
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
<lhjZy hiZkghklv — wlh ijbgylv aZ mlhqgyxs__ \lhjh_ h[klhyl_evkl\h dhlhjh_
\h\k_g_mlhqgy_li_j\h_
KjZ\gbl_ ljb ijbf_jZ Hij_^_ebl_ dZdb_ h[klhyl_evkl\Z f_klZ beb \j_f_gb \
dZ`^hfbagbo 1. Jh\ghaZ^_\ylv\_dh\lh_klv\1044]h^mdgyavYjhkeZ\ih\_e_e
gZqZlv kljhbl_evkl\h h[hjhgbl_evguo khhjm`_gbc dj_fey dhlhjuc \ ^j_\g_f
Gh\]hjh^_ gZau\Zeky ^_lbgp_f 2. Ih [_j_]Zf K_\_jghc >\bgu ih^ dhjgyfb
^_j_\v_\ lZylky p_eu_ deZ^[bsZ qm^h\bsguo a\_j_c — ^bghaZ\jh\ 3. < ^Ze_db_
\j_f_gZ ?dZl_jbgu II gZ ieh^hjh^gu_ a_feb Ih\he`vy ijb_oZeh fgh]h g_fp_\
dhlhjuopZjbpZijb]eZkbeZ^eyhk\h_gbyimklmxsboa_f_ev
DZd\u^mfZ_l_ihq_fm\i_j\uo^\moijbf_jZoaZgylu_klhylZ\lj_lv_fg_l"
?keb\uijZ\bevghhij_^_ebebdZdb_h[klhyl_evkl\Z\wlboij_^eh`_gbyolh\Zf
^he`gh klZlv ykgh ke_^mxs__ < i_j\hf ij_^eh`_gbb ke_^mxl h^gh aZ ^jm]bf ^\Z
h[klhyl_evkl\Z\j_f_gbb\lhjh_
84
mlhqgy_l i_j\h_ <h \lhjhf ij_^eh`_gbb ^\Z h[klhyl_evkl\Z f_klZ b \lhjh_ lZd`_
mlhqgy_li_j\h_ <lj_lv_f ij_^eh`_gbb i_j\uf b^_l h[klhyl_evkl\h \j_f_gb — <
^Ze_db_ \j_f_gZ ?dZl_jbgu II, Z aZ gbf h[klhyl_evkl\h f_klZ — gZ ieh^hjh^gu_
a_febIh\he`vyHghg_mlhqgy_li_j\h_h[klhyl_evkl\hHgh —h^jm]hf
?keb ijb \klj_q_ k ^\mfy b^msbfb ^jm] aZ ^jm]hf h[klhyl_evkl\Zfb \u
khfg_\Z_l_kv gZ^h eb \u^_eylv \lhjh_ klZ\vl_ d g_fm \hijhk lZdbf h[jZahf ?keb
i_j\h_h[klhyl_evkl\hhl\_qZ_lgZ\hijhkd h ] ^ Z " —klZ\vl_\hijhkZ d h ] ^ Z
[ h e _ _ l h q g h " ?keb i_j\h_ h[klhyl_evkl\h hl\_qZ_l gZ \hijhk ] ^ _ " —
klZ\vl_\hijhk Z ] ^ _ [ h e _ _ l h q g h " Hldebdg_lky\lhjh_h[klhyl_evkl\h
gZ lZdhc \hijhk — agZqbl hgh mlhqgyxs__ b lj_[m_l aZiyluo G_ hldebdg_lky —
agZqblhghg_h^ghjh^gh_ki_j\ufg_mlhqgy_l_]hbaZiyluo_fmg_iheh`_gh
<hl\Zfbgkljmdpby^eylZdhcjZ[hlu
85.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
1.<IZjb`_\Fma__Q_eh\_dZfh`gh\b^_lvdhibbjbkmgdh\k^_eZgguogZkdZeZo
i_j\h[ulgufb ex^vfb 2. <_q_jhf 9 fZy gZ mebpu b iehsZ^b ]hjh^Z \ukuiZeb
lheiujZ^hklghh`b\e_gguoex^_c3.<hq_gv^j_\gb_\j_f_gZ\FZehc:abb[ueh
g_[hevrh_ ]hkm^Zjkl\h DZjby dhlhjuf ijZ\be pZjv FZ\ahe < k\h_c klhebp_ hg
gZqZekljhblvojZfmkuiZevgbpmdhlhjuc[uegZa\Zgih_]hbf_gbfZ\ah
85
e__f E:<\_^_gkdZy GIDhe_kgbdh\ 4. < GbdZjZ]mZ g_^Ze_dh hl __ klhebpu
FZgZ]mZ jZkiheh`beky ]hjh^ =jZgZ^Z < DZjb[kdhf fhj_ \[ebab <_g_kmweu
Ojbklhnhj Dhemf[ hldjue hkljh\ dhlhjuc [ue gZa\Zg =j_gZ^hc Z [ebae_`Zsb_
hkljh\Z ihemqbeb gZa\Zgb_ =j_gZ^bgu E : <\_^_gkdZy G I Dhe_kgbdh\ 5.
:g^_jk_gjh^beky\ 1805]h^m\klZjhf^Zlkdhf]hjh^_H^_ga_Fgh]b_k\hb kdZadb
:g^_jk_g ibkZe kj_^b abfu \ jZa]Zj ^_lkdbo _ehqguo ijZa^gbdh\ b ijb^Z\Ze bf
gZjy^gmxnhjfmk\hckl\_ggmx_ehqgufmdjZr_gbyf DIZmklh\kdbc 6.< 1493]h^m
\ iylgbpm lj_lv_]h Z\]mklZ ba bkiZgkdh]h ]hjh^Z IZehkZ \gba ih j_d_ ieueb ljb
dZjZ\_eeuKZglZFZjbyGbgvybIbglZWlh[ueZwdki_^bpbyDhemf[Z
<uibrbl_ghf_jij_^eh`_gbykhhl\_lkl\mxs_]hlZdhcko_f_
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
Ih\lhjbl_dZdb_^\_hiZkghklbgZ^hij_^\b^_lv
L_i_jv \u kfh`_l_ bo mqblu\Zlv b ba[_]Zlv : \ q_f aZdexqZ_lky lj_lvy
hiZkghklv" IjhklhgZijhklh \ \Zr_c g_\gbfZl_evghklb <u fh`_l_ ijhoehiZlv b
g_ \u^_eblv mlhqgyxs__ h[klhyl_evkl\h beb aZ[ulv h^gm ba aZiyluo beb ijbgylv
^\Zmlhqgyxsboh[klhyl_evkl\ZaZh[uqgu_h^ghjh^gu_qe_gubg_aZdjulv\lhjh_
h[klhyl_evkl\haZiylhc
< ^Zevg_cr_c jZ[hl_ \Zf fh`_l \klj_lblvky ex[Zy ba wlbo hiZkghkl_c ;m^vl_
[^bl_evgu
86. JZkklZ\vl_ agZdb ij_ibgZgby Hij_^_ebl_ kdhevdh mlhqgyxsbo h[klhyl_evkl\ \
dZ`^hfijbf_j_JZ[hlZcl_kie_gdhc
;_e__liZjmkh^bghdbc
<lmfZg_fhjy]hem[hf
Qlhbs_lhg\kljZg_^Ze_dhc
Qlhdbgmehg\djZxjh^ghf
FXE_jfhglh\
B\qZk_]h]jmklghcdhgqbgu
<iheghqvdZdk\_jrZ_lky]h^
D\ukhdhfm[_j_]mlboh
<ha^mrgucdhjZ[evijbklZ_l
FXE_jfhglh\
BlZfgZih^mrd_bayjdboi_kdh\
Ih^l_gvx]mkluoljhklgbdh\
Kibl\blyav^h[uqZj_\gb\hc\hegu
Kibl\blyavqm`hcklhjhgu
FXE_jfhglh\
86
GZmlj_gg_caZj_iZklmo
G_]hgblm`dhjh\baoe_\Z
:KImrdbg
5. Dlh mf__l qblZlv dZjlu lhl b ^hfZ aZ k\hbf klhehf m\b^bl g_fZeh 6. GZ ^g_
L_fau\p_glj_ Ehg^hgZhldhiZeb hlebqgh khojZgb\rbcky dhjZ[ev ihkljh_gguc \h
\j_f_gZ>j_\g_]hJbfZ 1800e_lgZaZ^ 7.<h^ghfnjZgpmakdhf]hjh^d_ihgZa\Zgbx
Fhglbgvyd\p_glj_NjZgpbb\h[eZklbI_jb]hj]^_]hlh\ylhlebqgu_iZrl_lu`beb
q_luj_ fZevqbdZ Hgb qZkl_gvdh [jh^beb ih hdj_klghklyf \f_kl_ kh k\hbf
g_jZaemqguf ^jm]hf fZe_gvdbf ju`bf i_kbdhf : =hnf_ckl_j 8. >_j_\vy k
ijyfhm]hevgufbkl\heZfbjZklmllhevdh\IZgZf_\g_kdhevdbodbehf_ljZodk_\_jm
hl IZgZfkdh]h dZgZeZ G KeZ^dh\ 9. < Gbpp_ gZ x]_ NjZgpbb m ih^gh`vy
iZfylgbdZ ba\_klghfm jmkkdhfm ibkZl_ex b ^_fhdjZlm =_jp_gm jZklml djZkgu_
]\ha^bdb 10. ;he__ ^\mo klhe_lbc \ I_l_j[mj]_ gZ [_j_]m G_\u \ukblky a^Zgb_
WjfblZ`Zfma_ybah[jZabl_evguobkdmkkl\
<uibrbl_ghf_jZij_^eh`_gbckijb^Zlhqguf\gmljb]eZ\gh]h
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
87.IhjZ[hlZcl_dhjj_dlhjhfGZc^bl_bbkijZ\vl_imgdlmZpbhggu_hrb[db
LZfe_kb^he\b^_gbcihegu
LZfhaZj_ijboeugml\hegu
GZ[j_]i_kqZgucbimklhc
:KImrdbg
LZfaZ^Zevxg_ih]h^u
?klv[eZ`_ggZykljZgZ
GYaudh\
?klv\^bdhcjhs_mh\jZ]Z
A_e_gucohefLZf\_qghl_gv
<hdjm]²jmqvy`b\Zy\eZ]Z
@mjqZgv_fgZ]hgy_le_gv
P\_lubljZ\uihdju\Zxl
A_e_gucohefbgbdh]^Z
Kx^Zemqbg_ijhgbdZxl
EbrvlbohdZlblky\h^Z
:;ehd
4. Y jh^beky 19 n_\jZey dZd jZa \ lhl ^_gv \ dhlhjuc ijZa^gh\Zehkv \ pZjkdhc
Jhkkbb hk\h[h`^_gb_ dj_klvyg X He_rZ 5. LZf \ iZjd_ [Z[mrdZ qblZeZ gZf
kdZadm h ^jZdhg_ b ijbgp_ ^h[u\Zxs_f `b\mx b f_jl\mx \h^m X He_rZ 6. <
Q_obb \ K_\_jhq_rkdhc h[eZklb jhk gZ [hehl_ klhe_lgbc dbiZjbk GZ wlhf [hehl_
j_r_gh [ueh gZqZlv jZajZ[hldb [mjh]h m]ey >_j_\h \ukhlhc ^\Z^pZlv f_ljh\ b
\_khf r_klgZ^pZlv lhgg i_j_\_aeb gZ \hk_fgZ^pZlv dbehf_ljh\ K_cqZk dbiZjbk
klhbl\]hjh^_Fhkli_j_^^\hjphfdmevlmju ba
87
`mjgZeh\ 7.Qlh[um\b^_lv^bdboq_j_iZobdjhdh^beh\gZ^hhlijZ\blvkygZx]\
l_ieu_djZy J;eZc[_j] <uibrbl_ghf_jij_^eh`_gbykhhl\_lkl\mxs_]hlZdhcko_f_
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
88. L_i_jv ij_^eZ]Z_f \Zf ij_^eh`_gby ^ey hldjh\_ggh]h jZa]h\hjZ <Zf gZ^h g_
lhevdh jZkklZ\blv \ gbo agZdb gh b [_a mlZcdb h[tykgblv dZ`^uc ba gbo \
ij_^eh`_gbb
1. < Am]^b^b \ =jmabb _klv fma_c k ^\mfy j_ebd\byfb ihkf_jlghc fZkdhc
GZihe_hgZ aZ\_a_gghc d_flh \ lZdmx ^Zev b ^bZ^_fhc pZjbpu LZfZju >bZ^_fZ
e_`bl \ p_glj_ aZeZ gZ [ZjoZl_ aZ iehlguf keh_f kl_deZ E <Zkbev_\Z 2. Hq_gv
^Ze_dhaZN_h^hkb_ckbahckl_ghcklhyehfhj_BgZ^\k_fgZ^^hfhf=jbgZgZ^_]h
fh]behc b gZ^ KlZjuf Djufhf klhyeh [_afhe\b_ [_ah[eZqgh]h e_lg_]h ^gy D
IZmklh\kdbc 3.GZaZdZl_khegpZ\ukhdhgZ^]hjh^hfgZdZf_gghcl_jjZk_h^gh]hba
kZfuo djZkb\uo a^Zgbc \ Fhkd\_ a^Zgby ihkljh_ggh]h hdheh ihemlhjZklZ e_l gZaZ^
gZoh^bebkv^\h_<heZg^b:aZa_eeh F;me]Zdh\ 4.@xev<_jg`begZdjZx]hjh^Z
gZ m]em mebpu RZjey >x[mZ b [mev\ZjZ Ehg]_\bev GZ^ djur_c \ha\urZeZkv
djm]eZy dZf_ggZy [Zrgy b \ wlhc [Zrg_ gZ lj_lv_f wlZ`_ ibkZl_ev mkljhbe k_[_
dZ[bg_l H[klZgh\dZ [ueZ hq_gv kdjhfgZy madZy `_e_agZy djh\Zlv ibkvf_gguc klhe
dh`Zgh_ [xjh k \u^\b`gufb ysbdZfb ]^_ \k_]^Z [ueZ ih^ jmdhc ih^kh[gZy
dZjlhl_dZlukyqbkZfh^_evguol_ljZ^hdk\uibkdZfbBak\h_]hdZ[bg_lZ@xev<_jg
hg\k_]^ZkZ^bekyaZjZ[hlm\iylv mljZgZ[ex^Ze\hkoh^khegpZIZjh\hagu_]m^db
^hghkb\rb_kyk\hdaZeZijh\h`Zeb_]h]_jh_\\^Zevgb_kljZgkl\by D:g^j__\ Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
:l_i_jv —aZ^Zgbyih\ur_gghcljm^ghklb
89. JZkklZ\vl_ ijhims_ggu_ agZdb KhklZ\vl_ ko_fm i_j\h]h ij_^eh`_gby h[hagZqb\
gZg_ch^ghjh^gu_qe_gu
Km^hjh`gh a_\gm\ ijhdmjZlhj jZkkl_]gme b k[jhkbe ieZs kgye hihyku\Zxsbc
jm[Zomj_f_gvkrbjhdbfklZevgufgh`hf\gh`gZoiheh`be_]h\dj_kehmeh`Zb
\ulygmeky ;Zg]Z lhlqZk ih^gyeky d g_fm gZ ihkl_ev b e_] jy^hf ]heh\Z d ]heh\_ b
ijhdmjZlhjiheh`b\jmdmkh[Zd_gZr_xaZdjuegZdhg_p]eZaZLhevdhlh]^ZaZkgmeb
i_k F;me]Zdh\ Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\uII.
90.JZkklZ\vl_ijhims_ggu_agZdb
;Zg]Z\ukmgm\yaudbqZklh^urZme_]kymgh]ohaybgZijbq_fjZ^hklv\]eZaZoikZ
hagZqZeZ qlh dhgqbeZkv ]jhaZ _^bgkl\_ggh_ \ fbj_ q_]h [hyeky [_kkljZrguc i_k Z
lZd`_blhqlhhghiylvlmljy^hfkl_fq_eh\_dhfdhlhjh]hex[bem\Z`ZebkqblZe
kZfuffh]mqbf\
88
fbj_ ih\_ebl_e_f \k_o ex^_c [eZ]h^Zjy dhlhjhfm b kZfh]h k_[y i_k kqblZe
kms_kl\hf ijb\be_]bjh\Zgguf \ukrbf b hkh[_gguf LZd h[Z hgb b i_k b q_eh\_d
ex[ysb_^jm]^jm]Z\klj_lbebijZa^gbqgmxghqvgZ[Zedhg_ F;me]Zdh\ Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\uII.
91.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby\hlj_adZoij_^eh`_gbc
1.JZggbfmljhfgZ[_j_]mj_dbihy\bebkv 2.<\_q_jgbcqZkg_aZ^he]h^haZoh^Z
khegpZ gZ em`Zcd_ 3. Lm^Z \ ]hju d kg_`guf 4. ... b \ wlhl qZk \ \_q_j_xs_f
]hjh^_ijhbahreh 5.<lhl`_fhf_gl\m]emdhfgZlu 6. ...bl_i_jv\wlhfklZjhf
^hf_ 7. < l_ lj_\h`gu_ ^gb dh]^Z k jZgg_]h mljZ ^h iha^g_]h \_q_jZ gZ mebpZo
]hjh^Z 8.<wlhlgZ\k_]^ZiZfylguc^he]h`^Zgguc^_gvih[_^uex^b
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\uII.
Fulh`_ohlbfh[hkh[eylvky
H[hkh[e_ggu_\lhjhkl_i_ggu_qe_gukij_^eh]Zfb
Ij_^eh]b djhf_ aZ bkdexq_gb_f \dexqZy ihfbfh bkdexqZy \f_klh g_kfhljy
gZ kh]eZkgh \ke_^kl\b_ [eZ]h^Zjy aZ g_bf_gb_f k\_jo gZjy^m k — \f_kl_ kh
k\hbfbkms_kl\bl_evgufblZd`_ij_l_g^mxlgZ\u^_e_gb_aZiylufb_kebfuohlbf
ih^q_jdgmlvjhev^Zgguokms_kl\bl_evguo\ij_^eh`_gbb Wlh g_ljm^gh b lj_[m_l
lhevdh\gbfZgby
92.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgbyIh^q_jdgbl_h[hkh[e_gby
Kh]eZkgh ^j_\g_]j_q_kdhfm ij_^Zgbx fhjkdZy [h]bgy N_lb^Z mkeurZeZ hl
ijhjbpZl_ey qlh __ kug ih bf_gb :obee ih]b[g_l \ kjZ`_gbb ih^ kl_gZfb Ljhb
<hij_db wlhfm kljZrghfm ijhjhq_kl\m hgZ j_rbeZ k^_eZlv _]h l_eh g_mya\bfuf
=em[hdhcghqvxmlZb\wlhhl\k_oN_lb^ZhdmgmeZfZevqbdZ\k\ys_ggu_\h^uj_db
Klbdk Ijb wlhf hgZ ^_j`ZeZ _]h aZ iyldm b \k_ _]h l_eh klZeh g_mya\bfuf djhf_
wlhciyldbDh]^Z:obeeklZexghr_chgijhkeZ\bekydZdg_ih[_^bfuc]_jhcGh\h
\j_fy Ljhygkdhc \hcgu klj_eZ ihiZeZ _fm \ iyldm \ke_^kl\b_ q_]h hg ih]b[ WlZ
e_]_g^Zjh^beZkhojZgb\r__ky^hgZr_]h\j_f_gb\ujZ`_gb_Zobee_kh\ZiylZqlh
hagZqZ_lmya\bfh_f_klh
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\uII.
93.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgbyMdZ`bl_ij_^eh`_gby\dhlhjuo_klvh[hkh[e_gbyk
ij_^eh]Zfb
Ba\_klguc njZgpmakdbc nbehkhn @Zg ;mjb^Zg kqblZe qlh m q_eh\_dZ g_ fh`_l
[ulv k\h[h^u \heb <f_klh eh]bq_kdbo ^hdZaZl_evkl\ hg jZkkdZau\Ze bklhjbx h[
hke_dhlhjucgZoh^bekygZjZ\ghfjZkklhygbbf_`^m^\mfyh^bgZdh\ufbhoZidZfb
k_gZ ?keb [u m g_]h [ueZ k\h[h^Z \heb hg g_ kfh] [u \u[jZlv hoZidm \ke_^kl\b_
q_]hhklZeky[ugZf_kl_bmf_jhl]heh^Z;eZ]h^Zjywlhcbklhjbb\gZr
89
h[boh^ \hreh \ujZ`_gb_ [mjb^Zgh\ hk_e Bf gZau\Zxl ex^_c dhe_[exsboky \
\u[hj_f_`^m^\mfyjZ\gufb\hafh`ghklyfb
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
94.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
Kh]eZkgh ^j_\g_]j_q_kdhc e_]_g^_ lblZg Ijhf_l_c ih^Zjbe ex^yf bkdmkkl\Z
j_f_keZmf_gb_qblZlvbibkZlvgZmqbebo\jZq_\ZgbxZk\_jolh]hih^Zjbebfh]hgv
ihobs_gguc m [h]h\ < gZdZaZgb_ hg [ue ijbdh\Zg d kdZe_ ?]h iZebeh khegp_
oe_klZe ^h`^v l_jaZeb [mjb b ihfbfh \k_]h wlh]h dZ`^uc ^_gv ijbe_lZe hj_e b
de_\Ze _]h i_q_gv Fmq_gby Ijhf_l_y ^ebebkv ^h l_o ihj ihdZ _]h g_ hk\h[h^be
\hij_db\he_[h]h\agZf_gbluc]_jhc=_jZde
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\uII.
95.IhjZ[hlZcl_dhjj_dlhjhfGZc^bl_bbkijZ\vl_imgdlmZpbhggu_hrb[db
Y g_ ohl_e qlh[u dlhgb[m^v djhf_ f_gy jZaj_rZe \hijhku fghx g_
jZaj_r_ggu_ N F >hklh_\kdbc 2. >m[jh\kdbc \b^_e qlh l_i_jv ihevah\Zebkv
khk_^b ijhbkr_^rbf jZaju\hf b j_rbeky \hij_db \k_f ihgylbyf h ijZ\_ \hcgu
ijhmqblvk\hboie_ggbdh\ijmlvyfb :KImrdbg 3.<hij_dbh`b^Zgbyfohaybg
\klj_lbe gZk ohly b g_ hq_gv ex[_agh gh \k_ `_ jZkihjy^beky ihdhjfblv gZk b
iha\hebeghq_\Zlvmk_[ygZnZga_ <::jk_gv_\ 4.Bgbq_]hg_[ueh\b^ghdjhf_
dhevpZh[klmiZxsbo^_j_\v_\bgbq_]hg_[uehkeur
90
gh djhf_ `mjqZgby jmqvy F Ijbr\bg 5. < ^h\hevgh h[rbjghc [b[ebhl_d_
jZah[jZgu \k_ dgb]b djhf_ iylb h]jhfguo jhkdhrgh ba^Zgguo lhfh\ h \dmkghc b
a^hjh\hc ibs_ ; Ihe_\hc 6. B hl_p k kughf \f_klh ijb\_lkl\by ihke_ ^Z\g_c
hlemqdb klZeb gZkZ`b\Zlv ^jm] ^jm]m lmfZdb b \ [hdZ b \ ihykgbpm b \ ]jm^v lh
hlklmiZybh]ey^u\Zykvlh\gh\vgZklmiZy G<=h]hev Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,
96. I_j_ibrbl_ \klZ\eyy ih kfukem ijhims_ggu_ ij_^eh]b b jZkklZ\eyy agZdb
ij_ibgZgby
1. ... gZ iehomx ih]h^m fu [_a dhe_[Zgbc hlijZ\bebkv \ ihoh^ 2. ... ]_jhbq_kdbf
mkbebyf gZr_]h ih\ZjZ m^Zehkv jZa`_qv dhkl_j \ kujmx ih]h^m 3. ... \kydh]h
h`b^Zgby gZkljh_gb_ m gZk [ueh ij_djZkgh_ 4. ... dhfnhjlZ[_evgh]h ghqe_]Z fu
mkljhbebkv \ g_[hevrhf rZeZr_ 5. <_q_jhf ^h[jhc lmjbklkdhc ljZ^bpbb fu
kh[jZebkv m dhkljZ b ^h ]em[hdhc ghqb i_eb i_kgb 6. ... k lmjbklkdbfb fu
\kihfbgZeb b i_kgb r_klb^_kyluo ]h^h\ b i_kgb \h_gguo e_l 7. < @b]meyo
\uiZ^Z_l [hevr_ kg_]Z q_f ]^_eb[h \ kljZg_ lj_o f_kl gZ >Zevg_f K_\_j_ 8. Y
ihqlb g_ fh] gZa\Zlv gb h^ghc ilbpu \hjh[vy b eZklhqdb D IZmklh\kdbc 9. G_
ijhreh b k_fb fbgml dZd ihqlb \k_ iZjmkZ ^\molj_o [ueb m[jZgu D F
KlZgxdh\bq 10. AZ dhjfhc gbq_]h g_ [ueh \b^gh ieZ\gh \a^ufZxsboky b
himkdZxsboky \heg D F KlZgxdh\bq 11. <k_ e_lh dhg_qgh g_ih]h`b_ ^gb y
ijh`be \ kZ^m l_ieufb ghqZfb ^Z`_ kiZe lZf gZ dhrf_ ih^Zj_gghc [Z[mrdhc F
=hjvdbc Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\uII.
Hl\_lu
1. Ih^gy\ meu[Zykv meu[gm\rbkv ijb\_lkl\my A^_kv ^__ijbqZklby fh`gh
i_j_imlZlvkgZj_qbyfbbk]eZ]heZfb
2. KdZaZ\ j_rb\rbkv kf_ykv aZ^mfZ\rbkv kbyy A^_kv ^__ijbqZklby fh`gh
i_j_imlZlvk]eZ]heZfbbkijbqZklbyfb
3.
Kms_kl\bl_ev IjbeZ]Zl_ev =eZ]heu IjbqZklby
GZj_qby
>__ijbqZklby
gu_
gu_
e_lZy
^hdjZkgZ
mfqZeZkv kbyxsZy
\_k_eZy
f_evgbpZ
gZjbkh\Z\
gZdZgmg_
kfhljysbc
r_e_kl_eZ
[_aex^gZy
ijhkljZgkl\h
ihijhklm jZa\_k_eb\rbkv
gZ^_xkv k\_lysZyky
hklhjh`_g
i_j_\h^
miZ\
gbdh]^Z
hk\_lblv
k\ys_ggZy
fZeurb
klj_fbl_evgh ih^fb]gm\rb
kfhljbl_ev
ih^gy\rb
gZ^_`gh
hk\_lbl_ev
g_]ey^y
ih^jm`_kdb
hk\_s_gb_
k\_leh
4. 1.G_^Z\rbkeh\Zdj_ibkvZ^Z\rb^_j`bkv 2.Kgy\rb]heh\mih\hehkZfg_
ieZqml 3.G_agZy[jh^mg_kmcky\\h^m
91
5. 1. AZ^mfZ\ ieulv ih ehgm \h^ a\_a^Zfb iZ^Zy gZ [j_] 2. OjZgy dhjZ[eb 3.
Kohjhgykv \ ^mieh 4. I_qZevgh ijhe_lZy 5. >_j`Z dm\rbg gZ^ ]heh\hc kf_ykv
g_eh\dhklbk\h_c 6.<_kvba^jh]gm\h[gy\
6. 1. G_ \a\_kb\ \k_o \hafh`guo ljm^ghkl_c y hq_jly ]heh\m imklbeky \
jbkdh\Zggh_ iml_r_kl\b_ 2. Ij_h^he_\Zy g_hohlm y kdj_iy k_j^p_ aZgbfZeky
g_ex[bfuf ^_ehf 3. ;m^mqb kh\_jr_ggh bkdj_ggbf y iheh`Z jmdm gZ k_j^p_
jZkkdZaZej_[ylZfh[h\k_fkemqb\r_fky 4.FhyfZlvg_fh]eZ`blvg_jZ[hlZy^Zb
hl_pg_ex[bekb^_lvkeh`Zjmdb 5.Lhjhiykvdih_a^mj_[ylZe_l_ebkehfy]heh\m
7.Klhye_`ZfheqZkb^yg_ki_rZ
8.
9. 1.< 1959]h^m ... ,\uc^ybadhemf[bckdh]hihjlZ ... . 2.HdZaZ\rbkv\\h^_ ... .
>_evnbgu\klmib\\[hckobsgbdZfb ... .Hlh]gZ\Zdme^Ze_dh\fhj_ ... .
10. AbfZ ... , lhj`_kl\my ... . ?]h ehrZ^dZ kg_] ihqmy ... . ;jZa^u imrbklu_
\aju\Zy ... .Yfsbd ...\lmemi_ ... .<hl[_]Z_l ... ,\kZeZadb`mqdmihkZ^b\ ... .?fmb
[hevghbkf_rgh ... .
Wlhhlju\hdba?\]_gbyHg_]bgZ:KImrdbgZ
11. 1. ... ,qlh[hrb[b\rbkvjZa ... .>Z\Zcl_`blv\h\k_f^jm]^jm]mihlZdZy ... .
2. ... ,ihm]eZfaZe_lZy ...[mc\heb[_euchj_eb ... .
12. 1. ... ,ihiZ^Zy ... 2. ...ih\_joghklb ... 3. ...m]e_f ... 4. ... ,g_ljZly ...
92
13. 1. DhiZy ^jm]hfm yfm kZf \ g__ ihiZ^_rv 2. =ey^y gZ fbj g_evay g_
m^b\eylvky 3. ?^bgh`^u khe]Z\rb dlh l_[_ ih\_jbl" 4. IjbgbfZykv aZ ^_eh
kh[_jbkv k ^mohf 5. <abjZy gZ \ukhdbo ex^_c b \ukhdb_ ij_^f_lu g_ baebrg_
ijb^_j`b\ZlvdZjlmak\hcaZdhauj_d 5.Qlhbf__fg_ojZgbfihl_jy\rbieZq_f
14. 2. ...jZkdjbqZ\rbkv ... 4. ...k_j^bebkvlZddZd ... 5. ... ,\hbgkl\_gghoehiZy ...
15.
H^ghjh^gu_qe_gukh_^bg_gu
h^bghqgufhiZkgufkhxahf
2, 3, 5, 6
H^ghjh^gu_qe_gukh_^bg_gubglhgZpb_c
beb[_ahiZkgufbkhxaZfbbeb
ih\lhjyxsbfbkyhiZkgufbkhxaZfb
1, 2, 4
1. ... ,dZd ... ,lh ... ,lh . 2. K\ys_gghkem`bl_ebeZfu dhlhju_ ... `b\ml ... , g_
lhevdh ... , g_ lhevdh ... , g_ lhevdh . Hgb _s_ jbkdmy `bagvx kh\_jrZxl ... ,
^_j`Zkv ... . 3. ...iZedZfb ... . 4. ...b]jZxqb ... jZa]hgyxqb ... . 5.Kf_ykv ... . 6. ... ,
k\_jgm\rbkv ... .
16. 1. ... ,a\mqZ ... ,b ...]eZ\hx ... ,b . 2.B ... ,bk\_leZ ... ,bg_imkdZy ...g_[_kZ
... ,^Z\ ... . 3. ... ,b ...Fhkd\m ...jZ^m]Z ... . 4. ...ex[hiulgu ...kjZ\gb\Zlv ...b ...
qm`[bgu ... . 5. ... h[jmq ... b ... \h^u ... . 6. ... djZc ... \b^_gby ... . Ih g_[m ... ,
klmiZy .G_agZyqlh ...ilbpZ ... .=^_lh ... ,b ,m\_ebqb\ ... . 7. ... ,qmlv ... ,b ...
r_klhf ... . 8.=bfgZkl ...r_kl ... ,b ...gZ\_jo ... .
17. 1.QZcdbdjm`ZlkygZ^fhj_fhl[jZku\Zyl_gbgZ]eZ^dmxih\_joghklv\h^ub
ba^Zxl j_adb_ djbdb 2. DhjZ[ev r_e h[oh^y Zck[_j]b b lhjhku b e_]dh h^he_\Zy
e_^ygu_ihey
18. 1. ... ,`b\y ... . 2. ... ,dZd ... ,b ... . 3. ...i_jv_\ ... . 4. ...^h\_q_jZ ... . 5. ... ,b ... .
6. ... ,hg ... . 7. ... ,gZ^_\djuevy ... . 8.L_dlh ... ihe_lm^b\eyebkv^mfZy ... . 9. ... ,
aZ[u\ ... . 10. ... ,dhlhjuc ...djuevy ... ,b ... . 11.H[_jgm\rbkv ... .
19. 1. ... , ijhoh^y \ha^mo ... . 2. ... , hk\h[h`^Zy ... . 3. ... q_eh\_dZ dhlhjuc
ih^gy\]heh\mkfhljblgZa\_a^u" 4. ...kh[ZdmfZoZyo\hklhf ... .
20. 1. ....f_^\_`hghd ... . 2. ... ,kf_rghi_j_\Zeb\Zykv ... . 3. ...eZiZo ... .
21. 1. ... ,f_^\_`hghdeZiZo ... . 2. ...i_j_\Zeb\Zykv ... ,gZijZ\eyykv ... .
93
22.LZf ...ie_s_lkdZeu ...f]eu]^_\]Zj_fZogZkeZ`^Zykv ... fmkmevfZglZf
,eZkdZykv... .
=eZ\gZy qZklv ij_^eh`_gby — LZf lZf \her_[gbpZ eZkdZykv fg_ \jmqbeZ
lZebkfZg<gmljbg_]hljbijb^Zlhqgu_qZklb
23. 1.JZa\hijhk ... 2. ... ,bf_evdZyo\hklhf ... 3. ... ,m\b^_\ ... 4. ...\gbfZgby ...
bklZ\i_j_^ljb[mghc ... 5. ...bg_ ...
25. 1.@_eZyihemqblvykgh_ij_^klZ\e_gb_hijhbkoh^ys_f ... . ?keb ,lh ,dZd
[ubkke_^my__Gh ,g_m\_j_gghgZsmiu\Zyihq\mih^gh]Zfb ... ,m\_j_gghfbgmy
bogZk\h_fimlb 2. ... ,hibku\ZydZd ,:jbklhl_ev ,qlh ... . 3. ... ,q_f ,b`_eZy
ih`Zlv dhfmgb[m^v jmdm ... , qlh ... . 4. ... , \ , klj_fbl_evgh jZa^\b]Zxlky
hldju\Zybg_ajbfu_ijhklhjudhkfhkZblZcgufbdjhfbjZ 5. ...dhjdhc... ,qlh ,
kb^_eb ,^jh`Zeb ,khh[jZ`Zy ... .
26. 1. ...e_^k\hbf\_khf<aehfZ\e_^ ... ,qlh[ujZah]gZ\rbkv ... . 2. ...gZk ... ,
\ulygm\r_xb ... .Ihke_^h\Z\aZgbfym\b^_e ... .LZfhge_]^_j_\hf ... . 3. ... ,
qmlv ,b ....Kihdhcgh ,dh]^Z ,gZ[_]Zy ,klhe[Zfb\\_jo ,h[jZamy ... .
27. 1.<ulygm\rbkv ,dZd ,hgb ,g_k\h^y ... . 2. ... ,lZykv , ih^]ey^u\Zydb\Zy
]heh\dZfbZ ,djbqZL_jhl_jh 3.Lh ...ljZ\u ... ,\ulygm\r_xgujyy ... . 4. ... ,
dZdkju\Zykv ,hgb ,ihk\_jdb\Zy ... . 5. ...b\uju\Zy ...iheh]Z ... ,hldju\Zy ... . 6.
... b ... , jZkkZ`b\Zxlky gZ ^_j_\vyo ... . 7. ... , y , dZd ... , ih dhj_ ... . 8. ... , qlh
ijh]heh^Z\rbkv ... . 9. ... ,dh]^Z ... ,g_[hevrb_ ,lhb^_eh ... .
28. 1. ... ,kebrdhf ,b ...emq_aZjguc ... . 2.KlZlmbdhehggunhgZjb ,b ...bo
... . 3. ...hlklmiZyihgy\qlhg_evay ...ke_iZy ... . 4. ...l_kgylb ...m]jxfhf ...! 5.
...aZjgbpu ... . 6. ...blboh , hiylv ... . 7. ...b ...h[jZlb\ ... .
29. 1. ...qlh[uk^_eZ\ ... 2.?keb\uihemqb\ ... 3. ...\^hf_]^_ ... 4. ...lh]^Z ... 5. ...
hgb ...lhedhf ... 6. ...fg_ ... 7. ... ,qlh ... 8. ... ,j_rb\rbkv ...
30. -+- -.
31.<_g_pby —wlh]hjh^ihkljh_ggucgZfhj_LZf ...dZgZeuijhoh^ysb_q_j_a
\_kv ]hjh^ Z ... . =hg^heu — wlh ihdjulu_ q_jguf eZdhf eh^db ... . =hg^heu ... hl
ijhoh^ysbo fbfh dZl_jh\ <k_ ]hg^hev_ju ihxl b ]hjh^ ihehg a\mdh\
hljZ`Zxsbokyhlfmlguo\h^dZgZeZ
32. 1. Iha^g_c hk_gvx aZf_l_gghc kg_]hf a_feb \ ij_^gZagZq_ggh_ ieZ\Zgv_
ly`_eu_dhjZ[eb 2.Dm^jy\uckmfjZdjmdhx[_ehkg_`ghc
33. 1. <hklhj]k_j^pmimlvhd_Zg —kms_kl\bl_evgu_ 2. Y —f_klhbf_gb_
34. 2. <at_jhr_gguchg 3. ?fmmklZehfmbhay[r_fm —ebqgu_f_klhbf_gby
94
35. 1. E_lysbc kj_^b iehlgh]h kdhie_gby h[eZdh\ kZfhe_l mijZ\ey_lky hiulguf
ibehlhf 2. KZfhe_l e_lysbc kj_^b iehlgh]h kdhie_gby h[eZdh\ mijZ\ey_lky
hiulgufibehlhf
36. 1. ... , \uims_gguc :e_gdhc ... . 2. S_ghd ijbg_k_gguc \ ^hf ... . 3. >hf
ihkljh_gguclZeZgleb\ufZjobl_dlhjhf ... . 4.Hlijbg_k_gguofZfhcdhgn_l . 5.
... ,ba\_klguck\hbfb\u^mfdZfb ... . 6.Hl_paZgyluckjhqghcjZ[hlhc ... .
37. 1.Iheb]ehl —wlhq_eh\_dagZxsbc fgh]hyaudh\2.Ahheh]by — wlh gZmdZ
bamqZxsZy`b\hlgucfbj 3.:kljhghfby — wlhgZmdZbamqZxsZyg_[_kgu_l_eZ 4.
GmfbafZl — wlh q_eh\_d dhee_dpbhgbjmxsbc fhg_lu 5. >bjb`_j — wlh q_eh\_d
mijZ\eyxsbchjd_kljhf
38. 1. ... [j_^m ... . 2. ... hg fyl_`guc ... , dZd [m^lh 3. ... , ]^_ , fbeZy lu
g_`gZy ... . Y dj_idh kiex ... , \ dhlhjhf ... . 4. ... e_]dmx ^h[jmx k\h[h^gmx
ilbpmohl_\rmx ,ilbpme_l_\rmx ... .
G_jZkijhkljZg_ggu_hij_^_e_gbyfyl_`gucfbeZyg_`gZyhlghkylkydebqguf
f_klhbf_gbyf
39. 1. Kimlgbdb h[jZsZxsb_ky \hdjm] FZjkZ ... \hcgu Nh[hk b >_cfhk 2.
IeZg_lZ[eb`ZcrZydKhegpm ... .
40. 1. ...hlhfqlh ... 2. ... ,\ua\Zgguc ... 4. ... ,^Zxsbc ... 5. ... ,`b\rb_ ...
G_ykghgm`_gebagZd\ijbf_j_ 3.
41. 1. ... ,ijb\udr_]h ... . 3. ... ,[hevrb_g_`gu_b djhldb_ ... . 4. ... , qlh ... . <
hlebqb_hl^jm]boilbpihxsboibsZsbobebdjbqZsbo ... . 5. ... ,m[blhc ... .Wlhl
lZgphj ... ,i_j_k_eb\r_cky ... . 6. ... ,gZibkZggu_m\e_dZl_evghhkljhmfghk[hevrhc
nZglZab_c ... . 7. ... ,b^ms_fijbkhegp_ ... .:dhfm`_ ... ,dZd ... .
JZkijhkljZg_ggh_hij_^_e_gb_beb
JZkijhkljZg_ggh_hij_^_e_gb_beb
g_kdhevdhhij_^_e_gbcihke_
g_kdhevdhhij_^_e_gbci_j_^
hij_^_ey_fh]hkeh\Z
hij_^_ey_fufkeh\hf
1, 3 =eZaZ`bjZnZ[hevrb_g_`gu_b
2, 3 =heh\miZjZg_[hevrbodhklyguo
ihjbkluorbr_d 4 Hlkmlkl\mxsbcm djhldb_ 4 <hlebqb_hl^jm]boilbp
ihxsboibsZsbobebdjbqZsbo 5 GZ
wlh]hilbqv_]h]b]ZglZ]hehk 5
[_j_]mq_j_iZobm[blhcg_kdhevdhe_l
IhemqbeZkvdjZkb\Zybg_h[uqgZy
gZaZ^WlhliZgpbjvghj\_`d_
djh\ZldZ 7 K\_jdZxsb_gZkhegp_
i_j_k_eb\r_ckygZ=ZeZiZ]hk H
dZiebwlh]h^h`^y
ke_ihf^h`^_b^ms_fijbkhegp_ 42.LvfZijbr_^rZy ...fhjy ... .Bkq_aeb ... ,kh_^bgyxsb_ ...[Zrg_c ... .IjhiZe
... ,dZd[m^lh ... .<k_ ,gZim]Z\rZy ... .Lj_i_lgu_ ... , b ... ,ijhklbjZy ... .<f_kl_ ... ,
ebklvy ... ,fZe_gvdb_ ... .
95
43. Dh]^Z d [_j_]m ... . H^bg ba gbo g_k [h]Zlh jZkrbluc neZ] k bgbpbZeZfb
dhjhey ... .GZ[_j_]mDhemf[Z\klj_lbeZlheiZl_fghdh`bo ,kiZ^ZxsbfbgZr_x
... . G_ \udZau\Zy gb \jZ`^u gb ^jm`_ex[by ... kihdhcgh ... , dZd , aZdmlZggh_
fZl_jbx ... .
44. 1. ... ,iheb\ZxsZy ... 3. ... ,fu[ueb ... 5. ... ,j_[ylZ ...
45. 1. M de_ldb ]^_ jZkoZ`b\Zeb iZ\ebgu jZkimklb\rb_ k\hb iurgu_ o\hklu
lheibebkv a_\Zdb 2. GZ dZjlbg_ J_ibgZ bah[jZ`_g obljh mofueyxsbcky \ mku
aZihjh`_pdhlhjuchi_jkyjmdhch[hqhghd
46. 1. ... , gh gZr ^jm] aZgbfZ\rbcky ... 2. ... m\e_q_gguc hg ... 4. ... mklZehklb
fZevqbd ... 5. ...g_h[oh^bfh_<heh^yfh][u ... 7. ... ,mdjZrZ\rbc ... 9. ... ,xghrZg_
... 10. ...g_mdex`bc[jZlbrdZ\k_`_ ... 11. ...a^hjh\v_fy ...
H[hkh[ey_lky_kebhlghkblky
debqguf
f_klhbf_gbyf
\k_]^Z
2, 11
dkms_kl\bl_evguf
ihke_
hij_^_ey_fh]h
keh\Z
1, 7
bf__l
^h[Z\hqgh_
agZq_gb_
4, 5, 9, 10
G_h[hkh[ey_lky_keb
hlghkblky
dkms_kl\bl_evguf
i_j_^hij_^_ey_fufkeh\hf
3, 6, 8
48. 1. E_^gbd ² wlh dZd [u h]jhfgZy j_dZ hq_gv f_^e_ggh kiheaZxsZy k ]hj 2.
Kha^Zgb_ ibkvf_gghklb — qj_a\uqZcgh keh`guc ijhp_kk aZgy\rbc g_ h^gh
lukyq_e_lb_
49. 1.<q_jZmlhfe_ggucoh^v[hcih[hehlm ... . 2. ... ,ih^ijbg_k_gghc ...? 3. ... ,
bajZkoh^h\Z\aghy ...]hjbahglZ ... ,fu ... . 4. ... ,fu...g_l_ji_gby ... . 5. ... ,hgb ,
dhlhjZy ... .
<k_wlbijbf_juhlghkylkydi_j\hcklj_ed_bgkljmdpbb
50.;Zjhg ,dZdh^gZ`^u ... ,hg ,lhjqZ\r_]h ... .Mkgm\rbc , hg ,dh]^Z ... .
Dhgy ,lhevdh ... .
51. 1. ...`b\hlgu_ ... j_qb ... . 2. ... , \g_rg_ ... . Gh , m^Ze_ggu_ hl gZk Z _keb
ihkfhlj_lv k ^jm]hc klhjhgu hl^Zey_l ij_^f_lu gZoh^ysb_ky [ebadh Ik_\^hkdhi
^_eZ_lkjZamblhb^jm]h_[ebadh_hl^Zey_lZ ... .FbjjZkkfZljb\Z_fuc ,dZ`_lky
\u\_jgmlufgZbagZgdm
52. 2. ... , Zevibgbkl ... . 3. ... , ijbq_kZgguc b ijbebqgh h^_luc ... . 5. ... ,
bkke_^h\Zl_eb ... . 6. ... ,fZeur ... . 7. ...hiZkghklvx ... .
AgZq_gbyijbqbgu — 2, 6;mkeh\by — 3;mklmibl_evgh_ — 5, 7.
96
53. 1. ... emqZfb ... . 2. F_` xguo `_g m\_gqZgguo p\_lZfb ... . 3. ... ex[\b ...
ih[_`^Zxsbc ...k\_l ...fbj ... . 4. ...lmq ... . 5. ... ,qlhkhe^Zlu ...ihe_c ...dh]^Z
lh ...
H[hjhlu bf_xsb_ ^h[Z\hqgh_ h[klhyl_evkl\_ggh_ agZq_gb_ fgbfu \_rgbfb
emqZfbhk\h[h`^_ggh_hllmq
54.>_\mrdZ ...djZxh\k_o ... ,mr_^rbo\fhj_h\k_oaZ[u\rbo ... .LZd ...]hehk
...dmiheb ...ie_q_b ...kemrZe ... .B\k_fdZaZehkvqlh ...[m^_lqlh ...dhjZ[ebqlh
... .B ...keZ^hdb ...lhghdb...\ukhdh ...\jZl ...lZcgZf ...hlhfqlh ... .
< i_j\hf q_l\_jhklbrbb 1 hkgh\Z \h \lhjhf lj_lv_f b q_l\_jlhf — ih 4.
Hij_^_e_gb_k^h[Z\hqgufagZq_gb_f — ijbqZklguclZcgZf
55. 1. ...jmdb ...\\_joihdZ ... . 2. ...[_]hf ... ,aZdhlhjufkh[ZdZ ... .Iha`_ ,
\uqbklb\ ... .BkdmkZggZykh[Zdhc ... .
56. ... , bkihevamy fZ]gblhnhg ... , qlh ... . Hgb ... , \hkijhba\h^b\rbc , \
dhlhjhf , jZa]h\Zjb\Zxsbo , b ^Z`_ ... . ?keb , qlh , \kihfgbl_ qlh ... .
>_evnbgu ,q_fex^blZdqlhdh]^Z ,hgZ ... . K_cqZk ,bdh]^ZnZdl_fh`gh ,
lZdqlh ... .
57. Ijbeh`_gby k\h[h^u k_yl_ev imklugguc b lZbgkl\_gguc i_\_p
Hij_^_ey_fh_keh\h —ebqgh_f_klhbf_gb_y
58. 1. ...hiulkughrb[hd ljm^guob ]_gbciZjZ^hdkh\^jm]2. ... ,lh ]_jhclh
fhj_ieZ\Zl_evlhiehlgbd ... . 3. ... ,kZlbjukf_ehc\eZkl_ebg ... ,^jm]k\h[h^u ... .
4. ... ,a\mqgZyih^jm]Z^hkm]Z...ljm^Z ... ,hg_f_eZ ... .
59. 1. ... — a^Zgb_ ... ]Zjfhgbqghklvx — ... . 2. Fhg_lu ... agZdb ... Xghgu
dhlhjmx ... .Jbfeyg_ ,]^_ ... . 3.<h\j_f_gZ —kj_^kl\h , oh^b\r__ihljhkm
— .... < XIX \_d_ — ^_lZev ... . B lhevdh — ZiiZjZlm kh\_jrZ\r_fm ... . 4.
=h\hjyl qlh ImwjlhJbdh ... fhj_ — ... . Wlb , q_f ... . 5. <i_j\u_ ... rZj —
ZwjhklZl gZiheg_gguc \ha^mohf — ... . 6. DZjbZlb^m — klZlmx ... ,
ih^^_j`b\Zxsmxa^Zgby — ... .Wlh ,]^_:jl_fb^u[h]bgbhohluBgh]^Z —
fm`kdb_ ,gZa\Zggu_ ,^_j`Z\r_]h ... .
Keh`gu_ij_^eh`_gby\ijbf_jZo 2 h[Z 4 h[Z 6 (WlhgZa\Zgb_...).
60. 1. ... hd_Zg_ ... . GZ hkljh\_ , Z .... 2. ... , lh fhj_ lh khegp_ lh \vx]Z lh
Zg]_eu lh \hjhgv_ >\_ \_qguo ^hjh]b — ex[h\v b jZaemdZ — (beb ex[h\v b
jZaemdZ —). 3. Fu ^_lb kljZrguo e_l Jhkkbb ... . 4. Ba \k_o — rbeebg] ... .
<_k_euc ,h[sbc^jm]q_eh\_q_kl\Z ... . 5.=jbg —aghcguc ,ihkljh_gguc ... .
Hk_gvx —]hjh^p\_lh\ ... .
Keh`gh_ij_^eh`_gb_GZhkljh\_lhf_klvfh]beZZ ....
97
61. 1.HgiZ^Ze —ihjlj_l ... . 2. ... —ih^Zjhd ... . 3. ... —^hqv ... . 4. bkdmkkl\Z —
... dj_ihkl_c imr_d lZjZgh\ b fZrbg ... . 5. GZijbf_j ]ZfZd — ... . Bah[j_eb
hdZjbgm — ....MfZcyaZf_qZl_evgh]h:f_jbdb ... ,q_f ... .
62. 1. ... ,yaudhagZgbb ... —hghfZklbdZ ... .AgZf_gblh]h ,]_jhy ,\u ... .Bfy ,
lZddZd ... . 2. ... ,^hq_jbpZjyIjbZfZ ... .
Keh`gh_ij_^eh`_gb_BfyR_jehdOhefkklZeh ... .
63. 1. ... , hl_p bklhjbb ... kljZg ]hjh^h\ fhj_c ... . <_ebqZcrbc , `b\rbc
wju ... .Ba\_klguc ,khklZ\bl_evagZf_gbluoZleZkh\ ...bf_gZdhlhju_ ... . 2. ... ,
ijhn_kkhj I_l_j[mj]kdhc dhgk_j\Zlhjbb dhfihablhj b ^bjb`_j ... . 3. ... ,
ebp_ckdbclh\ZjbsImrdbgZ ...km^Zqlh[u ,qlh ... .
64. 1. ... ,djZkb\ucklZlgucbkbevgucfZevqbd ... .<f_klh ,agZdhfuchlpZ ... .
Hg ,qlh ,dhlhjZy ... . 2. ... ,dZd]j_db ... .KbeZq ,gh ... .Lhevdh ...\ha^mo ... . 3.
... ,Z .... 4. ... ,\h_gguc\jZq ... jhfZgbkl ... ,klZ\ ... .R_jehdZ ,gZ[ex^Zl_evgh]h
jZkkdZah\ ... . 5. ... , ]eZ\gh]h hkljh\Z Yihgbb ... ^_j_\_gv ... — ^_j_\ygguo dmdhe
gZihfbgZxsbo ... . 6. ... ,klhebp_Gb]_jbb ... .Ihke_ ,qlh —f_klgu_ ,dhlhju_
... .
Ij_^eh`_gby k ^__ijbqZklgufb h[hjhlZfb Lhevdh hlhj\Z\ \jZ]Z ... . :jlmj
DhgZg>hce ... .
65.;_cd_jkljbl]^_ ,—lboZy ... . Ghlml ,dhlhjh]h ,hl_p ... .
Ko_fZi_j\h]hij_^eh`_gby
66. 1. ...^ZlkdbcibkZl_evkdZahqgbd ... 2. ... ,aZf_qZl_evgucg_f_pdbcdhfihablhj
3. ...\u^Zxsbckymq_gucnbabd ... 4. ...Zf_jbdZgkdh]hibkZl_eynZglZklZ ...
67. >h[Z\hqgh_ agZq_gb_ bf__l ijbeh`_gb_ \h \lhjhf ijbf_j_ AgZdb klZ\ylky
lZd ... iml_r_kl\_ggbd ... ,ghb ... .
68. 1. ...aZdhgh^Zl_ev ...Zdljbk ...dmebk ... . 2. ... ,:jlmj ,gZh^ghc ... . 3. ... ,kug
[_^gydZ b ^jm] :g^_jk_gZ ... . 4. Q_eh\_d ... kgZ ... . H^gZdh ... , lZdhc ... . 5. ...
gZkeZ`^_gbc ... . 6. ... ,Hev]hxie_g_gguc...g_agZ\ ... . 7. ...fheqZ\rbc ... . 8. ... ,
wlbkms_kl\Z ... . 9. ... ,Zg]ebqZg_<Ze_glbgZ — ... . 10. ... ,ghb ,FZjd ... .
Ghf_jZ ijbf_jh\ \ dhlhjuo hij_^_e_gby b ijbeh`_gby bf_xl ^h[Z\hqgh_
agZq_gb_ 1, 2, 4 H^gZdhjZa[m`_ggucdjbdhf ...), 5, 7, 8, 9, 10.
Ghf_jZijbf_jh\kijbqZklgufbb^__ijbqZklgufbh[hjhlZfb 4, 6, 7, 8.
98
69. 1. ... ,lh_klv ... . 2. ... ,\lhfqbke_bjmkkdbc ... . 3. ... ,agZxsb_fgh]hyaudh\
lZdgZau\Z_fu_iheb]ehlu ... ,Z .... 4. ... —e_kgu_ex^b ...iq_e — ... ,qlh[u ,lh
_klv ,dZd ... . 5. ... ,dZd ...hlZ[Zd_fhckughg`_djZkghdh`bc[jZl ...\uykgblv ...
,q_fm ... . 6. ...e_l\dgb]_ih^gZa\Zgb_fIjZ\^b\u_bklhjbb]^_ ,y ....
70. 1. ?s_ =_jh^hl :jbklhl_ev ... [_]_fhlZ beb ]biihihlZfZ beb qlh lh `_
kZfh_j_qgmxehrZ^vbeb ,dhlhjZy (3ijbeh`_gby 2. ... ,bebDxoeyjmkkdbc
g_f_p ba^Zl_ev , fheh^hc q_eh\_d [_eh[jukuc imq_]eZauc ^he]h\yauc b
g_mdex`bc ... (5ijbeh`_gbc 71. 1. ... ,ihdebqd_F_nbklZ ... . 2. ...ldZgb ... .HgZ ... ,hldhlhjh]h ... .K^_eZggu_
... ,beb^`bgku 3. ... ,klZjZyghj\_`dZ ...hlhf ... .
72. KdZl_jlvkZfh[jZgdZ kZih]bkdhjhoh^u rZidZg_\b^bfdZ dh\_jkZfhe_l
]mkebkZfh]m^uf_qdeZ^_g_p`ZjilbpZdhg_d]hj[mghd
73. 1.IjhdZagbpZFZjlurdZ 2.Ihiju]mgvyKlj_dhaZ 3.PZjvilbpZ
74. 1. ... ,]hkm^Zjugyju[dZ 2. ... ,hljhdb^jm]b ...! 3. ... ,bfZlmrdbabfu 4. ...
mebpZaf_y ... . 5.KZfhjZkdbgm\emqrZ]b ... . 6.DlhpZjvdhehdheih^gbf_l"Dlh
pZjvimrdmih\_jg_l" 7.Fhjha\h_\h^Z ... . 8. ...dfZlmrd_i_ohl_
75. ... f_^\_^x d [hevrhfm [hyjbgm ... [hevrb_ ... f_gvrb_ ... \hed^\hjygbg
Ijboh^be lml [h[j lhj]h\uc ]hklv Ijboh^beZ eZklhqdZ^\hjyghqdZ Ijboh^beZ
[_ehqdZdgy]bg_qdZIjboh^beZebkbpZih^vyqboZih^vyqboZdZagZq_boZ
76. 1. ... —i_j\Zy\fbj_`_gsbgZfZl_fZlbd 2. ...fbn ...\_ebdZgjZa[hcgbd ... .
Hg ... ,ijb\yau\Ze ... ,dhlhju_jZkijyfeyykv ...Hl\Z`guc ... ,kugpZjyW]_y ... .
77. 1. ... , [hevrhc ex[bl_ev hohlu ... — A_e_gu_ ohefu :njbdb 2. ... >bdZy
kh[ZdZ>bg]hbebIh\_klvhi_j\hc ex[\b —wlhihegZyk\_lZ ... . 3. ... ibkZl_ey
nZglZklZ Z\lhjZ agZf_gbluo jhfZgh\ >_lb dZiblZgZ =jZglZ LZbgkl\_gguc
hkljh\ "80lukyqdbehf_ljh\ih^\h^hc ,Z —<_jg 4.AZq_luj_]h^ZjhfZgZ
Iylv g_^_ev gZ \ha^mrghf rZj_ Iml_r_kl\b_ d p_gljm A_feb Iml_r_kl\by b
ijbdexq_gby dZiblZgZ =Zll_jZkZbK A_feb gZ Emgm 5. ... dgb]b A_fey ex^_c
Ghqghcihe_lFZe_gvdbcijbgp — kdZadmhj_[_gd_bghieZg_lygbg_b<h_gguc
e_lqbd —jZkkdZah[h_\uoihe_lZo
78.Ehg]j_gfZljhkHjbhgZ ...[jb]ZgZdhlhjhf ,q_f ,^he`_g[uegZdhg_p
... . < h^gh ba _]h j_^dbo \ha\jZs_gbc ^hfhc hg g_ m\b^_e ... . <f_klh g__ —
gh\h]hEhg]j_gZ — ... .
79. 1. ... Fhkd\Zj_db , ih^ gZa\Zgb_f DjZkguc ..." . ;hevrb_ dhgn_l ... .
<ureZ —gZrZ]hkl_ijbbfgZy ... 2. ... ,ih^gZa\Zgb_f ...
99
3. ... ,lh_klv ... 4. ... —i_j\h]h ... 5. ... ,ihdebqd_ ... 6. ... —aZf_qZl_evgh]h ... 7. ...
—h^gh ...
80. ... ,\kbyxs__ ... .:ih\ZjylZ ,kj_^b^mrbklh]h]hjhrdZ ... .
81. ... . ,g_kdhevdhlukyqe_lgZaZ^ ... .
82. Wlhl iZfylgbd , \ gZqZe_ , gZ g_f , b .... Ih^gy\rbkv iv_^_klZem
klZjuc , d ^Zevgbf Gbdblkdbf <hjhlZf ... . H[udgh\_ggh , ih i_j\hfm ... .
Moh^be ,bgh]^Z^Z`_\iheghqv ... .
WlhliZfylgbd ... . 2)Moh^behg ... .
Mlhqgyxsb_h[klhyl_evkl\Zf_klZ
Mlhqgyxsb_h[klhyl_evkl\Z\j_f_gb
\gZqZe_L\_jkdh]h[mev\ZjZd^Zevgbf
Gbdblkdbf<hjhlZf
ihi_j\hfmkmfjZdmbgh]^Z^Z`_\
iheghqv
83. 1. ... , ih^ <bkehc khgghc ... . 2. ... , m g_agZdhfh]h ihk_edZ gZ [_aufygghc
\ukhl_ 3. ... ,mkZfhcdjhfdb[hjlh\ ... .
84. 1. ... ,gZ^iuevxi_j_mehqghcgZ^kdmdhcaZ]hjh^guo^Zq ... . 2. ... ,b ,b ,
kj_^vlvfub ,b .... 3. ... ,a_e_gu_ ... . 4. ... ,aZkbg_c]ms_ceh]Z\a_e_gbha_j ... .
5. ... ,\i_jgZlhciZfylbfh_c ... , b\wlhf ... . 6. ... ,aZ]jZgvx]hem[hc ... .HfZjl
Zij_evdZdb_7. ...b^j_fe_ldZqZykvbkg_]hf ... . 8. ... ,\f_jpZgbbk\_lbe ... .G_
ihlhfmqlh[ex[beZihlhfmqlh ... . 9.MljhfjZgh ... .
Ij_^eh`_gby[_ah[hkh[e_gguomlhqgyxsboh[klhyl_evkl\ 3, 7, 9, 10.
85. 1. ... ,\Fma__Q_eh\_dZ ...jbkmgdh\ ... . 3. ... ,dhlhjuf ... .<k\h_c ,dhlhjuc
... . 4. ... ,g_^Ze_dhhl__klhebpuFZgZ]mZ ... .<DZjb[kdhf ,\[ebab<_g_kmweu ...
hkljh\ dhlhjuc , Z .... 5. Fgh]b_ , \ jZa]Zj ^_lkdbo _ehqguo ijZa^gbdh\ b ,
k\hckl\_ggmx ... . 6. ... ,\iylgbpmlj_lv_]hZ\]mklZ ...ljbdZjZ\_eeuKZglZFZjby
Gbgvy ... .
Ko_fZkhhl\_lkl\m_lij_^eh`_gbx 4 (<DZjb[kdhffhj_).
86. 1.Qlhbs_l^Ze_dhc"Qlhjh^ghf" 2. ...dhgqbgu ... ,dZd]h^ ... . 3.BlZf
...i_kdh\ ...ljhklgbdh\kibl ,^h[uqZ\hegu ... . 5. ... ,lhl ,aZk\hbfklhehf ...
: 6. ... , \ p_glj_ Ehg^hgZ ... dhjZ[ev ihkljh_gguc JbfZ ... . 7. ... , ih gZa\Zgbx
Fhglbgvyd\p_glj_NjZgpbb\h[eZklbI_jb]hj ...iZrl_lu ... .Hgb^jm]hf — ...
. 8. ...\IZgZf_ ... . 9. ... ,gZx]_NjZgpbb ...=_jp_gm ... . 10. ... ,gZ[_j_]mG_\u ...
WjfblZ`Z — ... .
Ij_^eh`_gbykijb^Zlhqgufb\gmljb]eZ\gh]h — 2,7.
87. 1.LZfe_kb^he\b^_gbcihegulZfhaZj_ ... . 2.LZf ...g_ih]h^u ... . 3. ... ,m
h\jZ]Z ... .LZf\_qghl_gv<hdjm] -jmqvye_gvp\_lu ,bgbdh]^ZijhgbdZxl ...
. 4. ... ,dZdjZa\lhl^_gv ... .
100
5.LZf\iZjd_[Z[mrdZkdZadm h ^jZdhg_ b ijbgp_ ... `b\mx b f_jl\mx ... . 6. <
Q_obb ... h[eZklb ... gZ [hehl_ klhe_lgbc ... . GZ wlhf gZqZlv jZajZ[hldb ... .
>_j_\hlhggi_j_\_aeb ... .K_cqZkdbiZjbkFhkl ... . 7. ...q_j_iZobdjhdh^beh\
gZ^hgZx] ... .
Ko_f_khhl\_lkl\m_lij_^eh`_gb_ 3 (<hdjm] —jmqvy).
88. 1. ... , \ =jmabb ... j_ebd\byfb ihkf_jlghc , aZ\_a_gghc ... , b ^bZ^_fhc ... .
>bZ^_fZ ,gZ[ZjoZl_ ... . 2. ... ,aZN_h^hkb_c ... .BgZ^\k_fgZ^^hfhf=jbgZ ... —
klhyeh ... . 3. ... ]hjh^hf gZ \ Fhkd\_ — a^Zgby ihkljh_ggh]h ... gZaZ^ ... ^\h_
<heZg^b:aZa_eeh4. ... ,gZm]em ... .GZ^djur_c ,b\wlhc[Zrg_ ... .H[klZgh\dZ ...
kdjhfgZy ...djh\Zlv ...klhe ...ysbdZfb ...dZjlhl_dZlukyqb ... .Bak\h_]h —hg
\k_]^ZkZ^bekyaZjZ[hlm\iylv mljZ —gZ[ex^Ze ... IZjh\hagu_ ,^hghkb\rb_kyk
\hdaZeZijh\h`Zeb ...
H[tykg_gb_ 1. <=jmabb —mlhqgyxs__h[klhyl_evkl\hf_klZ^\mfyj_ebd\byfb —
h[h[sZxs__ keh\h ijb h^ghjh^guo qe_gZo aZ\_a_gghc d_flh \ lZdmx ^Zev —
jZkijhkljZg_ggh_hij_^_e_gb_klhys__ihke_hij_^_ey_fh]hkeh\Z
89. Km^hjh`gh a_\gm\ ijhdmjZlhj , kgye , iheh`be ... . ;Zg]Z ... , ]heh\Z d
]heh\_bijhdmjZlhjiheh`b\r_xaZdjuegZdhg_p ... .
90.;Zg]Z ...^urZme_]ky ... ,ijbq_f ... ,qlh]jhaZ_^bgkl\_ggh_... ,q_]h ... ,Z
lZd`_blhqlh ...lmljy^hf ... ,dhlhjh]h ... ,m\Z`Zeex^_c[eZ]h^Zjy ... ,\ukrbf ... .
LZdh[Zhgbbi_kbq_eh\_d^jm]Z ... .
91. 2. ... ,g_aZ^he]h^haZoh^ZkhegpZ ... 3.Lm^Z\]hju ... 7. ... ,dh]^Z ...
92. Kh]eZkgh ... ij_^Zgbx ... hl ijhjbpZl_ey qlh ... , ih bf_gb :obee ... .
<hij_dbijhjhq_kl\m ... .=em[hdhc ,mlZb\wlhhl\k_o ... .Ijbwlhf ... ,b\k_ ,
djhf_ ... .Dh]^Z ,hg ... .Gh\h\j_fy ... ,\ke_^kl\b_q_]h ... .WlZ ,qlh ... .
93.Ba\_klguc ... ,qlh ... .<f_klh ... ,hg ... ,dhlhjuc ... .?keb[umg_]h ... ,hg ,
\ke_^kl\b_q_]h ... .;eZ]h^Zjywlhcbklhjbb ...\ujZ`_gb_[mjb^Zgh\hk_eBf ... ,
dhe_[exsboky ... .
Djhf_i_j\h]hbihke_^g_]hij_^eh`_gbc\h\k_o_klvh[hkh[e_gbykij_^eh]Zfb
94. Kh]eZkgh ... e_]_g^_ lblZg ... bkdmkkl\Z j_f_keZ mf_gb_ ... , gZmqbe ... , Z ... ,
ih^Zjbe ... ,ihobs_gguc ... .?]h ...khegp_ ...^h`^v
101
...[mjbbihfbfh\k_]hwlh]hdZ`^uc ... .Fmq_gby ... ,ihdZ ... ,\hij_db\he_[h]h\
... .
95. 1. Y g_ ohl_e qlh[u ... , djhf_ f_gy ... \hijhku ... . 2. ... , qlh ... khk_^b
ijhbkr_^rbfjZaju\hfb ... ,\hij_db ...\hcguijhmqblv ... . 3.<hij_db ... ,ohaybg
... , gh ... jZkihjy^beky ihdhjfblv gZk b ... . 4. B ... , djhf_ dhevpZ ... ^_j_\v_\ b
gbq_]h ... ,djhf_ ... . 5.<^h\hevgh ... ,djhf_ ...lhfh\h\dmkghc ... . 6.Bhl_pkkughf
\f_klh ...hlemqdb ...b\[hdZb\ihykgbpmb\]jm^vlhhlklmiZybh]ey^u\Zykv ... .
96. 1.G_kfhljy ...ih]h^m ... . 2.;eZ]h^Zjy ...ih\ZjZ ... . 3.K\_jo ... h`b^Zgby ... .
4. AZ g_bf_gb_f ghqe_]Z ... . 5. <_q_jhf kh]eZkgh ljZ^bpbb ... . 6. GZjy^m k
lmjbklkdbfb ... ]h^h\ b ... . 7. < @b]meyo ... , q_f ... , aZ bkdexq_gb_f ... . 8. Y ... ,
djhf_ \hjh[vy ... . 9. G_ ijhreh ... , dZd ... , djhf_ ^\molj_o ... . 10. AZ dhjfhc ,
djhf_ieZ\gh ... . 11.<k_e_lhbkdexqZydhg_qgh ... ,y ... ,l_ieufbghqZfb^Z`_ ... ,
ih^Zj_gghc ... .
102
=eZ\Z III
H^\h_lhqbyoblbj_[_kkhxaguo
ij_^eh`_gbyobijyfhcj_qb
AZq_fbah[j_eb^\h_lhqb_"
JZa\_ fZeh h^ghc lhqdb" AZq_f p_euo ^\_" LhqdZ — hq_gv gm`guc b \_kvfZ
m\Z`Z_fuc agZd Gh hgZ kihkh[gZ khh[sblv h dhgp_ ij_^eh`_gby Gb d q_fm qlh
ijhbkoh^bl \gmljb ij_^eh`_gby lhqdZ hlghr_gby g_ bf__l : f_`^m l_f \gmljb
ij_^eh`_gbyfgh]hkfukeh\b\Z`guokhh[s_gbclj_[mxsbok\hboagZdh\
DZdb_`_kfukeuihfh]Z_l\ujZablvlZdhckbevgucagZddZd^\h_lhqb_"H^bgba
gbo \u m`_ agZ_l_ Wlh ^\h_lhqb_ ihke_ h[h[sZxs_]h keh\Z aZ dhlhjuf ke_^mxl
h^ghjh^gu_qe_gu
1. < ke_^mxsbo ijbf_jZo gZc^bl_ h[h[sZxsb_ keh\Z b aZ^Zcl_ hl gbo \hijhk d
ijh^he`_gbxij_^eh`_gbyaZibrbl_ij_^eh`_gbyjZkklZ\eyygm`gu_agZdb
1.>_j_\hfbjZijbghkbl^\ZkeZ^dboieh^Zihwabxb^jm`[m bg^bckdZygZjh^gZy
fm^jhklv 2. Dgb]Z _klv `bagv gZr_]h \j_f_gb < g_c \k_ gm`^Zxlky klZju_ b
fheh^u_ <=;_ebgkdbc 3. K i_j\uo rZ]h\ k\h_c mfkl\_gghc ^_yl_evghklb y
ihklZ\be k_[_ ^\_ iZjZee_evgu_ aZ^Zqb jZ[hlZlv ^ey gZmdb b ibkZlv ^ey gZjh^Z
D:Lbfbjya_\ Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
<lhcqZklbij_^eh`_gbydhlhjZyb^_l^h^\h_lhqbyijyq_lky\hijhk?]hfh`gh
fuke_ggh ihklZ\blv d ijh^he`_gbx ij_^eh`_gby lZd dZd ijh^he`_gb_ jZkdju\Z_l
kfukeij_^u^ms_cqZklb
<hijhk h[yaZl_evgh \hagbdZ_l ihke_ h[h[sZxs_]h keh\Z i_j_^ h^ghjh^gufb
qe_gZfbH[h[sZxs__keh\hdZd\uihfgbl_²wlhh[s__`bebs_\k_oh^ghjh^guo
qe_gh\
<_jgbl_kvdaZ^Zgbx 1b\kihfgbl_dZdb_\hijhku\uihklZ\beb
M \Zk ^he`gu ihemqblvky \hijhku q l h b f _ g g h " d l h b f _ g g h " b
d Z d b _ b f _ g g h " )Bgh]^Zwlb\hijhkufh]mlklhylv\^jm]boiZ^_`ZoFh]ml
aZ^Z\Zlvkyb^jm]b_\hijhku
>\h_lhqb_ klZ\blky g_ lhevdh ihke_ h[h[sZxs_]h keh\Z gh b f_`^m qZklyfb
keh`gh]h ij_^eh`_gby kh_^bg_ggufb bglhgZpb_c LZdb_ ij_^eh`_gby gZau\Zxlky
keh`gufb[_kkhxagufbij_^eh`_gbyfbGhklZ\blky\gbo^\h_lhqb_g_\k_]^ZZ
lhevdhijbhij_^_e_gguomkeh\byo
>Z\Zcl_ \kihfgbf <ZrZ i_j\Zy aZih\_^v ijb klhedgh\_gbb k ij_^eh`_gb_f —
\uykgblv ijhklh_ hgh beb keh`gh_ <lhjZy aZih\_^v _keb hgh keh`gh_ —
\uykgblvq_fkh_^bg_gu_]hqZklb1)[_ahiZkgufbkhxaZfbbebih\lhjyxsbfbky
hiZkgufb khxaZfb beb khxagufb keh\Zfb beb 2) h^bghqgufb hiZkgufb
khxaZfbbeb 3)lhevdhbglhgZpb_c
103
>\h_lhqb_\[_kkhxaghfkeh`ghf
ij_^eh`_gbb
DZd\uihfgbl__kebqZklbkeh`gh]hij_^eh`_gbykh_^bg_gulhevdhbglhgZpb_c
f_`^mgbfbfh`_lklhylvh^bgbaq_luj_oagZdh\bebaZiylZybeblhqdZkaZiylhc
beb ^\h_lhqb_ beb lbj_ Ijb hlkmlkl\bb khxah\ wlb agZdb kb]gZebabjmxl h
kfukeh\uo hlghr_gbyo f_`^m qZklyfb ij_^eh`_gby H^gbf ba kb]gZeh\ p_ehc
]jmiiu kfukeh\ y\ey_lky ^\h_lhqb_ < lZdbo [_kkhxaguo ij_^eh`_gbyo \lhjZy Z
bgh]^Zbihke_^mxsb_qZklbkeh`gh]hij_^eh`_gbyjZkdju\Zxlkh^_j`Zgb_i_j\hc
Hlg__lhbklZ\blkyh^bgbake_^mxsbo\hijhkh\ 1) i h q _ f m " i h d Z d h c
i j b q b g _ " beb 2) h^bg ba \hijhkh\ iZ^_`_c beb 3) d Z d " d Z d b f
h[jZahf"
<lhjZy qZklv [_kkhxagh]h keh`gh]h ij_^eh`_gby fh`_l hl\_qZlv b gZ \hijhk Z
dZdhc bf_ggh" b hij_^_eylv dZq_kl\Z ijbagZdb k\hckl\Z lh]h h q_f b^_l j_qv \
i_j\hcqZklbjZkdju\Zyklhys__\i_j\hcqZklbhij_^_e_gb_
BlZd^\h_lhqb_klZ\blky 1)i_j_^h^ghjh^gufbqe_gZfb_kebh[h[sZxs__keh\h
klhbl i_j_^ gbfb bgh]^Z g_ jy^hf k gbfb Z g_kdhevdh jZgvr_ 2) f_`^m qZklyfb
[_kkhxagh]h keh`gh]h ij_^eh`_gby _keb \ i_j\hc qZklb ijyq_lky \hijhk gZ
dhlhjuchl\_qZ_lihke_^mxsZyqZklvij_^eh`_gby
>Z`_ _keb \u _s_ g_ agZ_l_ dZdb_ \hijhku fh]ml ijylZlvky \u m`_ fh`_l_
jZaebqblvqlhi_j_^\Zfbbebh^ghjh^gu_qe_gukh[h[sZxsbfkeh\hfbeb\lhjZy
qZklvkeh`gh]hij_^eh`_gby
GZko_f_[_kkhxagu_keh`gu_ij_^eh`_gbyk^\h_lhqb_fh[hagZqZxlkylZd
:
.
2. JZkklZ\vl_ agZdb ij_ibgZgby AZg_kbl_ ghf_j dZ`^h]h ij_^eh`_gby \
khhl\_lkl\mxsbcklhe[bdlZ[ebpu
Ij_^eh`_gbykh[h[sZxsbfbkeh\Zfb
ihke_dhlhjuoklhbl^\h_lhqb_
;_kkhxagu_keh`gu_ij_^eh`_gbyk
^\h_lhqb_f
1. IbkZl_ev Bevy Bevn jZkkdZau\Ze qlh \ fZe_gvdhf ]hjh^d_ ]^_ jh^beky FZjd
L\_g _klv iZfylgbd _]h agZf_gbluf ]_jhyf Lhfm Khc_jm b =_ddev[_jjb Nbggm <
wlhf iZfylgbd_ oZjZdl_j fZevqbdh\ \hiehs_g \_kvfZ \ujZabl_evgh h^bg ba gbo
^_j`bl aZ o\hkl ^hoemx dhrdm 2. < Bg^bb ijboh^blky keurZlv bkdmkkl\h lZgpZ
`b\hibkbldZq_kl\Zx\_ebjgh_bkdmkkl\h\k_wlh_jmg^ZihkjZ\g_gbxkbkdmkkl\hf
moh^Z aZ kehghf 3. Km\hjh\ agZe fgh`_kl\h yaudh\ g_f_pdbc njZgpmakdbc
blZevygkdbc ihevkdbc nbgkdbc lmj_pdbc ZjZ[kdbc i_jkb^kdbc ibkZe klbob gZ wlbo
yaudZo b ^Z`_ i_qZlZe bo 4. Dh]^Z Zf_jbdZgpu k[jhkbeb Zlhfgmx [hf[m gZ
Objhkbfm\]hjh^_\h^ghf]gh\_gb_ih]b[eh\k_ij_djZkgu_`beu_a^Zgby^\hjpu
iZjdbex^bQ_f\gbfZl_evg_c\_ebkvihbkdbl_f[hevr_i_qZevguokljZgguol_g_c
gZoh^bebgZdZfgyol_gbljZ\bp\_lh\l_gb^_lkdbojmdb`_gkdbo
104
ijhnbe_c ^jZfZlbq_kdb_ l_gb fm`kdbo nb]mj Gb ex^_c gb ljZ\ g_ [ueh hgb
k]bgmeb bkiZjbebkv jZkiZebkv gZ Zlhfu hklZ\b\ ihke_ k_[y lhevdh l_gb 5. < k\h_c
kdZad_ FZe_gvdbc ijbgp njZgpmakdbc ibkZl_ev b e_lqbd :glmZg K_glWdaxi_jb
ijhklh b ijhgbdgh\_ggh ]h\hjbl h kZfhf ]eZ\ghf h ^he]_ b \_jghklb h ^jm`[_ b
ex[\b d `bagb b d ex^yf b h lhf dZdbf ^he`_g [ulv q_eh\_d gZ wlhc ih^qZk
g_^h[jhc gh ex[bfhc b _^bgkl\_gghc gZr_c ieZg_l_ A_fey G=Zev 6. < Lhdbh b
^jm]bo djmiguo ]hjh^Zo Yihgbb kms_kl\m_l ijZ\beh _keb gZ f_kl_ [m^ms_]h
g_[hkdj_[Z klhbl ojZf lh ojZf i_j_ghkyl gZ djurm wlh]h ^hfZ Ijb wlhf ojZf
ijh^he`Z_l ^_ckl\h\Zlv \ ex[hc qZk kdhjhklghc ebnl ^hklZ\bl \Zk d _]h
jZkiZogmluf^\_jyf ba`mjgZeh\ Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
3. Ijh^he`bl_ dZ`^h_ ij_^eh`_gb_ \ ^\mo \ZjbZglZo h^bg k ^\h_lhqb_f ^jm]hc k
aZiylhcIj_^eh`_gby\aylubafbnh\>j_\g_c=j_pbb
1.F_^maZ=hj]hgZ[ueZkljZrgufqm^h\bs_f ... . 2.GZg__g_evay[uehkfhlj_lv
... . 3.GhI_jk_cih[_^be__ ... .
>Z\Zcl_ hklZgh\bfky ih^jh[g__ gZ kfukeZo h dhlhjuo khh[sZ_l ^\h_lhqb_ \
[_kkhxaghfkeh`ghfij_^eh`_gbbA^_kvfh`gh]h\hjblvhg_kdhevdbokemqZyo
K e m q Z c i _ j \ u c . <lhjZy qZklv beb g_kdhevdh qZkl_c keh`gh]h
ij_^eh`_gbyjZkdju\Z_lijbqbgmijhbkoh^ys_]h\i_j\hcMeh\b\ijbqbggmxk\yav
bgZc^yf_klh]^_\hagbdZ_l\hijhkihq_fm"\u[_aljm^ZihklZ\bl_^\h_lhqb_gZ
gm`gh_f_klh
Wlhfh`_l\u]ey^_lvlZd
1. K\_lbevgbdb gZ^h [_j_qv i h q _ f m " : ihju\ \_ljZ fh`_l ih]Zkblv bo
:K_glWdaxi_jb 2. :jobl_dlmjZlh`_e_lhibkvfbjZi h q _ f m " : hgZ]h\hjbl
lh]^Zdh]^ZfheqZlbi_kgbbij_^Zgby =;_evkdZy L_i_jv fuke_ggh ij_\jZlbl_ wlb ij_^eh`_gby \ ij_^eh`_gby k khxahf M \Zk
_kl_kl\_ggh\hagbdg_lkhxaihlhfmqlhZi_j_^gbf\klZg_laZiylZyKfukeblh]h
b^jm]h]hij_^eh`_gby[m^_lh^bgblhl`_ZagZdbjZagu_
4.Ihevamykvih^klZgh\dhc\hijhkZi h q _ f m " bfuke_ggufij_\jZs_gb_f^Zggh]h
ij_^eh`_gby\ij_^eh`_gb_kkhxahfihlhfmqlhihklZ\vl_g_^hklZxsb_agZdb\
ke_^mxsboijbf_jZo
1.KdhevdhgZieZg_l_A_fey]_h]jZnbq_kdboh[t_dlh\b]_h]jZnbq_kdbogZa\Zgbc"
Boqbkehg_ih^^Z_lky mq_lm\_^vgZgZr_cieZg_l_h]jhfgh_ dhebq_kl\h ]hjh^h\ Z
_s_[hevr_k_eb^_j_\_gvbf_xsbogZa\Zgby E:<\_^_gkdZyGIDhe_kgbdh\ 2.Kihjvkq_eh\_dhfmfg__l_[yhgl_[yih[_^blGhbakZfh]hl\h_]hihjZ`_gbylu
fh`_rv ba\e_qv ihevam ^ey k_[y Kihjv k q_eh\_dhf mfZ jZ\gh]h aZ d_f [u gb
hklZeZkv ih[_^Z lu bkiulZ_rv m^h\hevkl\b_ [hjv[u Kihjv k q_eh\_dhf mfZ
keZ[_cr_]h kihjv g_ ba `_eZgby ih[_^u gh lu fh`_rv [ulv _fm ihe_aguf
BKLmj]_g_\ 105
H^bgkhe^ZlgZk\_l_`be
DjZkb\ucbhl\Z`guc
Ghhgb]jmrdhc^_lkdhc[ue
\_^v[uekhe^Zl[mfZ`guc
Hgi_j_^_eZlvfbjohl_e
qlh[[uekqZkleb\ufdZ`^uc
ZkZfgZgblhqd_\bk_e
\_^v[uekhe^Zl[mfZ`guc
Hg[ue[ujZ^²\h]hgvb\^uf
aZ\Zkih]b[gmlv^\Z`^u
ghihl_rZebkv\k_gZ^gbf
\_^v[uekhe^Zl[mfZ`guc
<h]hgv"Gmqlh`b^bB^_rv"
BhgrZ]gmeh^gZ`^u
blZfk]hj_ehggbaZ]jhr
\_^v[uekhe^Zl[mfZ`guc
;Hdm^`Z\Z
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
K e m q Z c \ l h j h c .<lhjZyqZklv [_kkhxagh]hkeh`gh]h ij_^eh`_gby fh`_l
\h \k_o iZ^_`Zo b qbkeZo hl\_qZlv gZ \hijhku Z d Z d h c b f _ g g h " Z
d Z d Z y b f _ g g h " b^jm]b_hij_^_eyyijbagZdbk\hckl\ZdZq_kl\Zlh]hhq_f
b^_lj_qv\i_j\hcqZklb<lhjZyqZklvhlghkblkydhij_^_e_gbxklhys_fm\i_j\hc
qZklb
<hldZdwlhfh`_l\u]ey^_lv
106
<hg\b^brvebq_j_aj_dmlhlfhkl"
Hgk\b^mohlvbijhkl
:k\hckl\hqm^gh_bf__l ZdZdh_bf_ggh" E`_pgbh^bgmgZkihg_fijhclbg_kf__l
B:Djueh\
5.GZc^bl_\ke_^mxsboijbf_jZof_klh]^_fh`ghihklZ\blv\hijhkhij_^_e_gbyb
ihklZ\vl_^\h_lhqb_JZkklZ\vl_g_^hklZxsb_agZdb
HgbojZgbeb\`bagbfbjghc
Ijb\uqdbfbehcklZjbgu
MgbogZfZke_gbp_`bjghc
<h^bebkvjmkkdb_[ebgu
:KImrdbg
2. < ^j_\g_f ?]bil_ kms_kl\h\Ze ex[hiulguc h[uqZc gZ ih^f_ldZo kZg^Zebc
jbkh\Zeb bah[jZ`_gb_ \jZ]Z qlh[u _]h ^hklhbgkl\h dZ`^uc ^_gv ihibjZehkv ba
`mjgZeh\ ?klvb]jZhklhjh`gh\hclb
Qlh[\gbfZgv_ex^_cmkuiblv
B]eZaZfb^h[uqmgZclb
BaZg_cg_aZf_lghke_^blv
:;ehd
Qbklh_k_j^p_\^hjh]m]hlh\v
>j_\gyyfm^jhklv]h^blkyb\gh\v
g_ihdmiZxlkyg_ihdmiZxlky
^h[jh_bfylZeZglbex[h\v
;Hdm^`Z\Z
KhklZ\vl_ko_fmij_^eh`_gby
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
6. Kh ke_^mxsbfb ijbf_jZfb ijh^_eZcl_ lZdmx jZ[hlm jZkklZ\vl_ g_^hklZxsb_
agZdb aZibrbl_ghf_jdZ`^h]hijbf_jZ\khhl\_lkl\mxsbcklhe[bdlZ[ebpu
Keh`gu_[_kkhxagu_ij_^eh`_gby
AgZq_gb_ijbqbgu
Hij_^_ebl_evgh_agZq_gb_
1. KljZmk [_]Z_l k bamfbl_evghc [ukljhlhc aZ qZk hg fh`_l ijh[_`Zlv 180 \_jkl
ba `mjgZeh\ 2. Fgh]b_ fZkl_jZ iju`dZ k r_klhf fh]ml ihaZ\b^h\Zlv dmag_qbdm
\ukhlZ _]h iju`dZ \ ^_kylv jZa [hevr_ _]h kh[kl\_ggh]h jhklZ 3. < G_iZe_
kms_kl\m_lbgl_j_kguch[jy^^_\hq_d\\hajZkl_ 8-12e_lh[jmqZxlk^_j_\hfWlhl
h[jy^ k\yaZg k `_klhdbf j_eb]bhaguf h[uqZ_f g_kdhevdh \_dh\ lhfm gZaZ^ dh]^Z
mfbjZefm`gZdhklj_k`b]Zeb_]h\^h\mQlh[uh[hclbwlhl m`Zkguch[uqZc[ueh
\u^mfZghh[jmq_gb_k^_j_\hf\kemqZ_kf_jlbfm`Z\^h
107
\mg_k`b]ZxlihlhfmqlhhgZh^gh\j_f_gghy\ey_lky`_ghc^_j_\Z ba`mjgZeh\ 4.
Fbgbkl_jkl\h k_evkdh]h ohayckl\Z Yihgbb h[jZlbehkv d `bl_eyf jZchgh\
ih^\_j`_gguo a_fe_ljyk_gbyf k ijbau\hf jZa\h^blv \ Zd\ZjbmfZo [_emx ju[dm aZ
g_kdhevdh qZkh\ ^h a_fe_ljyk_gby hgZ gZqbgZ_l [_kihdhcgh f_lZlvky ih Zd\Zjbmfm
>ey yihgp_\ wlh ihbklbg_ ahehlZy ju[dZ \_^v m gbo _`_^g_\gh \ jZaguo f_klZo
kljZguijhbkoh^blhllj_o^hiylba_fe_ljyk_gbc GKeZ^dh\ KhklZ\vl_ko_fuij_^eh`_gbcbaijbf_jZ Wlhlh[jy^Qlh[uh[hclb ...).
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
BlZd \u magZeb ^\Z agZq_gby dh]^Z \ [_kkhxaguo ij_^eh`_gbyo klZ\blky
^\h_lhqb_ijbqbggh_bebhij_^_ebl_evgh_
JZkkfhljbfl j _ l b c k e m q Z c <lhjZyqZklvjZkdju\Z_lkh^_j`Zgb_i_j\hc
hl\_qZygZ\hijhkuiZ^_`_cWlhfh`_l\u]ey^_lvlZd
Y^he`_gihfgblv (q l h " bebh q _ f " : i_qZevijhc^_l
Bkgh\ZjZ^hklvijb^_l
=:iheebg_j
7. IhklZ\vl_ \hijhku iZ^_`_c f_`^m qZklyfb ij_^eh`_gby b agZdb ij_ibgZgby \
hlju\dZobakdZahd:KImrdbgZ
=hklb\b^yl\h^\hjp_
PZjvkb^bl\k\h_f\_gp_
<wlh\j_fygZdjuevp_
I_kaZeZyeb^_\bpZ
<b^blgbsZyq_jgbpZ
Oh^blih^\hjm
KemrZch[h\k_fh[wlhf
IhjZa^mfZcluiml_f
G_jZkdZylvky[ihlhf
G_\b^Zlvfbeh]h^jm]Z
Lhevdh\b^bl\v_lky\vx]Z
Kg_]eh`blkygZihey
<ky[_e_r_gvdZa_fey
<uibrbl_ghf_jij_^eh`_gbykhhl\_lkl\mxs_]hko_f_
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\ dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
GZ^__fky qlh wlZ jZ[hlZg_[ueZ ^ey \Zk hkh[_ggh ljm^ghc Bgh]^Z hgZ ljm^g__
Wlh [u\Z_l lh]^Z dh]^Z keh\Z lbiZ m\b^_e beb mkeurZe ijhims_gu b lhevdh
ih^jZamf_\Zxlky GZijbf_j Y ijbkemrZeky hldm^Zlh ^hghkbebkv ij_djZkgu_ b
i_qZevgu_a\mdbkdjbidbLh]^Zb\hijhk\b^hbaf_gy_lkyIjbf_jghlZd
108
YijbkemrZeky (b q l h y m k e u r Z e " ): hldm^Zlh^hghkbebkvij_djZkgu_
bi_qZevgu_a\mdbkdjbidb?keb\lhjZyqZklvkeh`gh]hij_^eh`_gbyfh`_lhl\_lblv
gZ \hijhku b q l h y m \ b ^ _ e " b q l h y m k e u r Z e " — fh`_l_
kihdhcghklZ\blvi_j_^g_c^\h_lhqb_
8.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
Nehlm`dhkljh\mih^oh^bl
Dgyav=\b^hgljm[mgZ\h^bl
PZjvgZiZem[_klhbl
B\ljm[mgZgbo]ey^bl
=ey^vhiylvi_j_^gbfa_feygdZ
GZihjh]_kb^bl_]hklZjmoZ
:ij_^g_xjZa[blh_dhjulh
:KImrdbg
Ijhkgmeky\rbjhdb_s_ebkZjZy
=ey^ylky\_k_eh]hkhegpZemqb
Y\u]eygmel_fgZylmqZ\bk_eZ
GZ^gZrbfl_ZljhfdZdjZa
G:G_djZkh\
Kfhljbldhjrmg\fhj_lhg_l
Bg_ilbqvbfdjbdhfklhg_l
:KImrdbg
109
Bdbgme\ahjuydjm]hf
LhldjZcdZaZekyfg_agZdhf
FXE_jfhglh\
Fg_gjZ\bebkv_]hq_jlu
F_qlZfg_\hevgZyij_^Zgghklv
G_ih^jZ`Zl_evgZykljZgghklv
Bj_adbchoeZ`^_ggucmf
:KImrdbg
<uibrbl_ghf_jij_^eh`_gbyg_hlghkys_]hkydlj_lv_fmkemqZxihklZgh\db^\h_lhqby
\[_kkhxaghfij_^eh`_gbb
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
9. I_j_^ \Zfb hlj_adb ij_^eh`_gbc dhlhju_ \aylu ba fbnh\ >j_\g_c =j_pbb
JZkklZ\vl_ agZdb ij_ibgZgby lZf ]^_ \u m\_j_ggh fh`_l_ wlh k^_eZlv AZibrbl_
ghf_jdZ`^h]hijbf_jZ\khhl\_lkl\mxsbcklhe[bdlZ[ebpu
M\_j_gghklZ\exaZiylmx
M\_j_gghklZ\ex^\h_lhqb_
G_ykghqlhihklZ\blv
1. ... bkq_aeh \k_ b ]hju ... 2. ... \ ex^yo bgh]^Z h[gZjm`b\Zxlky q_jlu jZaguo
`b\hlguo ev\bgZy ... 3. Dh]^Z ihy\beky A_\k b hklZevgu_ [h]b Ijhf_l_c ... 4. ...
ijbr_e gZ a_fex ]heh^ ihey b ^_j_\vy m`_ g_ ... 5. ... \u ihfgbl_ qlh ex^b _s_
gbq_]hg_ ... 6. ...g_kljZ^Zehl]heh^Zboheh^Z ... 7. ...g_mf_eb\_^vboba[Zeh\ZeZ ...
8. ...hklZ\Zeky_^bgkl\_ggucimlvgZ^h[ueh ... 9.Bhgihgyegm`gh\_jgmlv ... 10. ...
ihdeyeky\_ebdhcbg_jmrbfhcdeyl\hc ...
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
Q _ l \ _ j l u c k e m q Z c ?keb f_`^m qZklyfb keh`gh]h [_kkhxagh]h
ij_^eh`_gbyklZ\ylky\hijhkuZ d Z d b f _ g g h " Z d Z d b f h [ j Z a h f "
— \u \ijZ\_ ihklZ\blv ^\h_lhqb_ <hl lZd <_jlbl hqdZfb lZd b kyd Z d Z d
b f _ g g h " : lhd l_fxboijb`f_llhbogZo\hklgZgb`_llhboihgxoZ_l
lhboiheb`_l B:Djueh\ 10.JZkklZ\vl_agZdb\ke_^mxsboij_^eh`_gbyo
1. <hl dZd [Zjhg Fxgo]Zma_g ijh^_fhgkljbjh\Ze k\h_ bkdmkkl\h gZ_a^gbdZ hg
aZklZ\be dhgy \kdhqblv gZ qZcguc klhe b ijb wlhf g_ jZa[blv gb h^ghc qZrdb 2.
;Zjhg Fxgo]Zma_g \kdhqbe \_johf gZ imr_qgh_ y^jh dhlhjh_ e_l_eh \ klhjhgm
g_ijbyl_eyZh[jZlgh^h[jZekylZd^h`^Zeky\klj_qgh]hy^jZe_l_\r_]hbadj_ihklb
ijhlb\gbdZ i_j_kdhqbe gZ g_]h b g_\j_^bfuf \_jgmeky d k\hbf 3. ;Zjhg
Fxgo]Zma_g ih ]hjeh ijh\Zebeky \ [hehlh \f_kl_ kh k\hbf dhg_f b fh] [u
ih]b[gmlv_keb[ug_\ur_ebawlh]hhiZkgh]hiheh`_gbylZdhgmo\Zlbek_[yaZdhkm
b\ulZsbeba[hehlZg_lhevdhk_[yghbdhgydhlhjh]hdj_idhaZ`Zef_`^mdhe_g ih
WJZki_ Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
110
: l_i_jv ihjZ[hlZ_f kh \k_fb kemqZyfb dh]^Z kfuke i_j\h]h ij_^eh`_gby
jZkdju\Z_lkyihke_^mxsbfb
11.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgbyJZ[hlZcl_kie_gdhc
1.<BkiZgbb_klvh[uqZci_j_^[h_f[udh\dh]^Z[udm`_\uims_gdZdZygb[m^v
agZf_gblZy i_\bpZ \uoh^bl gZ Zj_gm b ih_l bkiZgkdmx i_kgx \ lh \j_fy dZd
jZatyj_gguc [ud \g_ k_[y hl [_r_gkl\Z f_q_lky \hdjm] g__ :=hnf_ckl_j 2.
GZau\ZebwlmiehsZ^viehsZ^vxA\_a^uihke_^mxs_cijbqbg_hgZ[ueZhdjm`_gZ
h]jhfgufbh^bgZdh\hc\ukhlubnhjfu^hfZfbbihdjulZkl_deyggufdmihehfqlh
^_eZeh__ihoh`_cgZdhehkkZevgucpbjd XHe_rZ 3.Lb[meg_\_jbek\hbfmrZf
dZimklgZy]heh\Z\u^Z\ZeZk_[yaZq_eh\_q_kdmx XHe_rZ
Qlhlhkeurblkyjh^gh_
<^he]boi_kgyoyfsbdZ
LhjZa]mev_m^Zeh_
Lhk_j^_qgZylhkdZ
:KImrdbg
H^gh ba ke_^mxsbo ij_^eh`_gbc kljhdb ;Hdm^`Z\u ih \u[hjm aZihfgbl_ b
aZibrbl_ihiZfylb
:o\hcgZqlh`luk^_eZeZih^eZy
KlZeblbobfbgZrb^\hju
GZrbfZevqbdb]heh\uih^gyeb²
Ih\ajhke_ebhgb^hihju
Kd\hav\j_fyqlhfghxg_ijhc^_gh
Kd\havkf_ogZrdhjhldbcbieZq
Ykeurm\u\h^blf_eh^bx
DZdhclh]jy^msbcljm[Zq
Ijhklbl_i_ohl_
QlhlZdg_jZamfgZ[u\Z_lhgZ
<k_]^Zfumoh^bf
Dh]^ZgZ^a_fe_x[mrm_l\_kgZ
GZk\j_fymqbeh
@b\bihihoh^ghfm^\_jvhl\hjy
Lh\Zjbsfm`qbgZ
:\k_`_aZfZgqb\Z^heyl\hy
<_kv\_dlu\ihoh^_
Blhevdhh^ghhlju\Z_lhlkgZ
Q_]h`fumoh^bf
Dh]^ZgZ^a_fe_x[mrm_l\_kgZ"
<beZfb]emihibkZlvih\h^_
>jm]^hjh]hcihagZ_lky\[_^_
Bijbf_qZl_evghlhaZf_qZl_evgh
Qlh[_aex[\bg_lm`bagbgb]^_
111
11.K\hckl\hfm^jh]hq_eh\_dZkhklhbl\lj_o\_sZoi_j\h_ -^_eZlvkZfhfmlhqlh
hgkh\_lm_l^_eZlv^jm]bf\lhjh_ —gbdh]^Zg_ihklmiZlvijhlb\kijZ\_^eb\hklbb
lj_lv_ — l_ji_eb\h kghkblv keZ[hklb ex^_c hdjm`Zxsbo _]h E GLheklhc 12.
Fukeblv ihke_^h\Zl_evgh km^blv ^hdZaZl_evgh hijh\_j]Zlv g_ijZ\bevgu_ \u\h^u
^he`_g mf_lv \kydbc nbabd b ihwl ljZdlhjbkl b obfbd Hkh[_ggh \ gZr_ \j_fy
ijbghkys__ fgh`_kl\h hldjulbc b bah[j_l_gbc \ jZaghh[jZaguo h[eZklyo \
]_h]jZnbb \ iheblbd_ \ h[s_kl\_gghc `bagb WDhevfZg HAbo 13. :\lhfh[bev
[uebah[j_l_gljm^hffgh]boex^_cdZ`^ucbadhlhjuo\g_kk\hxg_[hevrmx^hex
h^bgk^_eZe[_gabgh\uc^\b]Zl_ev^jm]hcihklZ\bewlhl^\b]Zl_evgZdhe_kZlj_lbc
ijb^mfZe j_abgh\u_ lbgu gZ^mlu_ \ha^mohf D>hf[jh\kdbc 14. < dbgh gZ^
dZ`^ufnbevfhfjZ[hlZxlfgh]b_ex^bjZaguoki_pbZevghkl_cj_`bkk_jjmdh\h^bl
kt_fdhc hi_jZlhj kgbfZ_l Z ^bj_dlhj nbevfZ hj]Zgbam_l kt_fdm b aZgbfZ_lky
\hh[s_ \k_fb Z^fbgbkljZlb\gufb \hijhkZfb k\yaZggufb k ijhba\h^kl\hf nbevfZ
D>hf[jh\kdbc 15. < dhgp_ dhgph\ ihemqbehkv lZd hr_ehfe_gguc hl kljZoZ
Fxgo]Zma_ge_`ZegZa_fe_ihaZ^bg_]h ]hlh\bekydiju`dme_\Z \i_j_^bjZabgme
iZklvdjhdh^beB\hldZdwlhdhgqbehkve_\jbgmekydg_fmghkjZa[_]mi_j_kdhqbe
_]h b ihiZe ijyfh \ iZklv djhdh^beZ b ]heh\Z h^gh]h aZkljyeZ \ ]ehld_ ^jm]h]h ih
WJZki_ Kj_^bwlboij_^eh`_gbc_klv^\Zdhlhju_khhl\_lkl\mxlko_f_
<uibrbl_ghf_jZwlboij_^eh`_gbc
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
?keb m \Zk g_ [ueh hrb[hd ijhimklbl_ ke_^mxs__ aZ^Zgb_ _keb [ueb
\uihegycl_\k_ih^jy^
12. JZkklZ\vl_ agZdb AZibrbl_ ghf_j dZ`^h]h ijbf_jZ \ khhl\_lkl\mxsbc klhe[bd
lZ[ebpu
Ij_^eh`_gb_
kh[h[sZxsbfb AgZq_gb_
keh\Zfb
ijbqbgu
;_kkhxagh_keh`gh_ij_^eh`_gb_
>hihegbl_evgh_ Hij_^_ebl_evgh_ Hl\_lgZ \hijhku
agZq_gb_
agZq_gb_
dZd
bf_ggh"
dZdbf
h[jZahf?
1. IZmklh\kdbc kqblZe \iheg_ \hafh`guf klZ\blv iZfylgbdb ebl_jZlmjguf
]_jhyf >hg Dbohlm beb =meeb\_jm LZjZkm ;mev[_ Iv_jm ;_amoh\m e_jfhglh\kdhfm
FZdkbfm FZdkbfuqm beb ;we_ 2. ;Zjhg Fxgo]Zma_g h[_jgmeky \k_c aZ^g_c qZklb
_]h [_^gh]h dhgy dZd g_ [u\Zeh 3. Fxgo]Zma_g gZklhjh`beky kh klhjhgu ^hjh]b
ihkeurZeZkv
112
ihklmiv obsgbdZ ih WJZki_ 4. GZ hkljh\_ [ue jZkiheh`_g klZjuc nhjl < wlhf
nhjl_ \k_ [ueh jhfZglbqgh b ihemjZajmr_ggu_ ih^t_fgu_ fhklu b dZa_fZlu b
ihjhoh\u_ ih]j_[Z b klZjbggu_ imrdb DIZmklh\kdbc 5. E_\blZg hklZ\be hdheh
klZ hk_ggbo dZjlbg g_ kqblZy wlx^h\ GZ gbo [ueb bah[jZ`_gu agZdhfu_ k ^_lkl\Z
\_sb klh]Z k_gZ ihq_jg_eu_ hl kujhklb fZe_gvdb_ j_db djm`Zsb_ \ \h^h\hjhlZo
iZemx ebkl\m h^bghdb_ ahehlu_ [_j_au _s_ g_ h[[blu_ \_ljhf g_[h ihoh`__ gZ
lhgdbce_^ DIZmklh\kdbc Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
13.I_j_^\Zfbhlj_adbij_^eh`_gbcJZkklZ\vl_\gboagZdb]^_kfh`_l_AZibrbl_
ghf_jdZ`^h]hhlj_adZ\khhl\_lkl\mxsbcklhe[bdlZ[ebpu
M\_j_gghklZ\exaZiylmx M\_j_gghklZ\ex^\h_lhqb_
G_ykghqlhihklZ\blv
1.Yjmdh\h^kl\h\ZekyijZ\behfg_e_av ... 2.<Bg^bbjZkl_lm^b\bl_evgh_^_j_\h
... 3.>hdlhjih^gye]eZaZbh[hfe_ewlh[ueZ ... 4.<_l_jkjZamklZeoheh^gufihlhfm
qlh ... 5.<klj_qZe_lys_]hkZfhe_lZkilbpZfbfh`_ldhgqblvkyieZq_\gh ... 6.Ghb
gZa_fe_ilbpu^hkZ`^ZxlZ\bZlhjZf ... 7.Ih\ZjZkm_lbebkv\h\kxhgb]hlh\beb ... 8.
Ih\ZjylZ[eZ`_gkl\h\Zebihlhfmqlh ...
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
14. Ijh^he`bl_ dZ`^h_ ij_^eh`_gb_ \ ^\mo \ZjbZglZo h^bg \ZjbZgl k ^\h_lhqb_f
^jm]hckaZiylhc
1. Bklhjbq_kdZy [b[ebhl_dZ \ Fhkd\_ — h^gh ba djmig_crbo \ fbj_
dgb]hojZgbebs ... 2. Gbdh]^Z g_ klu^bkv kijZrb\Zlv ... 3. FZevqbd dbgmeky gZ
`Zeh[gh_fymdZgv_ ...
15. AZ^Zgb_ k meu[dhc H^bg q_eh\_d gZibkZe h k_[_ <k_o iZevp_\ m f_gy ^\Z^pZlv
iylv gZ h^ghc jmd_ klhevdh `_ gZ ^jm]hc jmd_ ^Z gZ h[_bo gh]Zo ^_kylv DZd \u
k_[_ ij_^klZ\ey_l_ wlh]h q_eh\_dZ" Qlh[u hg \u]ey^_e ghjfZevgh ^hklZlhqgh
ihklZ\blv_s_h^bgagZdij_ibgZgbyHij_^_ebl_dZdhcagZdb\dZdhff_kl_
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
16. JZkkdZ`bl_ h[ wlbo ij_^eh`_gbyo \k_ qlh agZ_l_ H[tykgbl_ jZkklZgh\dm agZdh\
ij_ibgZgby
Gbdh]^Zg_aZ[m^m hg[uebebg_[ue
Wlhl\_q_j ih`ZjhfaZjb
Kh``_ghbjZa^\bgmlh[e_^gh_g_[h
BgZ`_elhcaZj_nhgZjb
:;ehd
113
?kebyaZ[he_x
d\jZqZfh[jZsZlvkyg_klZgm
H[jZsZxkvd^jmavyf
g_khqlbl_qlhwlh\[j_^m ihkl_ebl_fg_kl_iv
aZgZ\_kvl_fg_hdgZlmfZghf
\ba]heh\v_ihklZ\vl_
ghqgmxa\_a^m
YKf_eydh\
BlZd fu h[km^beb ^\Z kemqZy ihklZgh\db ^\h_lhqby khh[sZxs_]h h \hijhk_ b
ij_^klhys_fhl\_l_h[h[sZxsb_keh\Zi_j_^h^ghjh^gufbqe_gZfbb[_kkhxagu_
keh`gu_ij_^eh`_gby
IjyfZyj_qvk^\h_lhqb_f
QlhlZdh_ijyfZyj_qv"
IhgZ[ex^Zcl_dZdh^gbex^bjZkkdZau\Zxlh^jm]bo
JZkkdZaqbd aZqZklmx ih\lhjy_l `_klu fbfbdm bglhgZpbb lh]h h dhf ]h\hjbl
h^gbf keh\hf i_j_^jZagb\Z_l _]h B dhg_qgh dZd fh`gh [he__ lhqgh ih\lhjy_l
_]h keh\Z LZeZgleb\u_ jZkkdZaqbdb [md\Zevgh i_j_\hiehsZxlky \ k\hbo
i_jkhgZ`_ci_j_^Z\Zyboj_qv
: _keb jZkkdZaqbd khh[sZ_l h dhflh g_ mklgh Z ibkvf_ggh" DZd i_j_^Zlv gZ
[mfZ]__]h]hehk_]hbglhgZpbx"Wlh]h\ugbdZdg_kmf__l_Ghfh`ghihdjZcg_c
f_j_\h[s_fihlhd_j_qbjZkkdZaqbdZ\u^_eblvj_qvlh]hhdhfjZkkdZau\Zxl>ey
wlh]hkms_kl\m_lki_pbZevgucgZ[hjagZdh\ij_ibgZgby
<]jZffZlbd_keh\ZjZkkdZaqbdZgZau\Zxlkykeh\ZfbZ\lhjZZkeh\Zlh]hhdhf
jZkkdZau\Zxlbf_xl^\_jZagh\b^ghklbijyfmxbdhk\_ggmxj_qv
IjyfZy j_qv — wlh lhqgZy i_j_^ZqZ qm`hc j_qb khojZgyxsZy __ kh^_j`Zgb_ b
nhjfmGZijbf_jFZevqbdkdZaZeMf_gyk_]h^gym^Zqguc^_gv
L_`_keh\ZfZevqbdZ\dhk\_gghcj_qb\u]ey^yllZdFZevqbdkdZaZeqlhmg_]h
k_]h^gym^Zqguc^_gv
<Z`gh_ mkeh\b_ ijZ\bevgh]h \u^_e_gby ijyfhc j_qb gZ ibkvf_ wlh mf_gb_
hlebqblv__hlkeh\Z\lhjZ
>ey wlh]h \Z`gh h[eZ^Zlv \gmlj_ggbf kemohf qblZy dgb]b beb aZibku\Zy k\hc
l_dkl gm`gh qm\kl\h\Zlv jZaebqb_ \ bglhgZpbb Z\lhjZ b _]h i_jkhgZ`Z beb
i_jkhgZ`_c DZ`_lky qlh wlh ljm^gh gh gZ kZfhf ^_e_ _keb \u ihklZ\bl_ i_j_^
kh[hc lZdmx aZ^Zqm lh ij_djZkgh k g_c kijZ\bl_kv Ihlhfm qlh bglhgZpby \k_]^Z
a\mqbl \gmljb gZk ^Z`_ _keb fu g_ hkhagZ_f wlh]h Gh d kh`Ze_gbx g_ \k_
ijbkemrb\Zxlky d g_c BglhgZpbhggZy ]emohlZ qZklh \b^gZ \ \Zrbo ibkvf_gguo
jZ[hlZo ijyfZy j_qv b keh\Z Z\lhjZ kf_rb\Zxlky Z lZdb_ \ujZabl_eb `b\hc
bglhgZpbbdZd\hijhkbl_evgu_b\hkdebpZl_evgu_agZdb\hh[s_g_ihy\eyxlky
114
Mf_gb_ bglhgZpbhggh \u^_eylv ijyfmx j_qv jZa\b\Z_lky ijb ql_gbb _keb \u
klZjZ_l_kvfuke_gghkeurZlvZ\_jg__\hh[jZ`ZlvjZagu_]hehkZ
<u^_eylv ijyfmx j_qv ihfh]Zxl b ki_pbZevgu_ keh\Zkb]gZeu — ]eZ]heu
]h\hj_gbyHgbij_^mij_`^Zxlqlhk_cqZkijha\mqZlbebm`_ijha\mqZebqvblh
keh\Z QZs_ \k_]h mihlj_[eyxlky keh\Z kdZaZe kijhkbe hl\_lbe Gh _keb \u
h]jZgbqb\Z_l_kv wlbfb keh\Zfb \ZrZ j_qv hdZau\Z_lky h[_^g_gghc ihlhfm qlh gZ
kZfhf^_e_]eZ]heh\]h\hj_gbykms_kl\m_l[_kqbke_ggh_fgh`_kl\h
Q_f [hevr_ \u bo agZ_l_ b mf__l_ magZ\Zlv ijb \klj_q_ l_f m\_j_gg__ [m^_l_
\u^_eylvijyfmxj_qvijbibkvf_
>Z\Zcl_ ih]jmabfky \ fbj ]eZ]heh\ ]h\hj_gby b gZmqbfky ihevah\Zlvky \k_f
fgh]hh[jZab_fwlbokeh\>eylZdh]hih]jm`_gbyg_h[oh^bfhdh_qlh\kihfgblv
>ey\Zk^Z\ghm`_g_k_dj_ldZd\u^_ey_lkyijyfZyj_qv_kebkeh\ZZ\lhjZklhyl
i_j_^g_cihke_gboklZ\blky^\h_lhqb_aZl_fke_^m_lijyfZyj_qv\dZ\uqdZob
k [hevrhc [md\u H[hagZqbf keh\Z Z\lhjZ [md\hc : Z ijyfmx j_qv [md\hc I
aZdexqb\__\dZ\uqdb
DZ\uqdZfb ijyfZy j_qv dZd [u hl]hjZ`b\Z_lky hl hklZevgh]h l_dklZ <hl qlh
ihemqblky : I LhqdZ klZ\blky aZ dZ\uqdZfb lZd dZd hgZ aZ\_jrZ_l \k_
ij_^eh`_gb_
: l_i_jv j_rbl_ kZfb dZdb_ _s_ ^\Z ijZ\beZ g_h[oh^bfh \kihfgblv qlh[u
m\_j_gghh[jZsZlvkykijyfhcj_qvx
<uijZ\u_kebjZkkm`^ZeblZd
Ihkdhevdm ijyfZy j_qv i_j_^Z_l bglhgZpbx `b\hc j_qb hq_gv \Z`gh ihfgblv h
agZdZo dhgpZ ij_^eh`_gbc <hl ko_fZ ijyfhc j_qb k \hijhkbl_evguf
ij_^eh`_gb_f:I"A^_kv\hijhkbl_evgucagZdhlghkblkylhevdhdijyfhcj_qb
bdZ\uqdbklZ\ylkyihke_g_]h
Ihke_dZ\uq_dlhqdZ\wlhfkemqZ_g_klZ\blky
IjyfZyj_qvk\hkdebpZl_evgufagZdhfgZko_f_h[hagZqZ_lkylZd
: I <hkdebpZl_evguc agZd klZ\blky \gmljb dZ\uq_d lhqdZ ihke_ g_]h g_
klZ\blky : ihkdhevdm ijyfZy j_qv d dhfmlh h[jZs_gZ g_iehoh ihfgblv b h[
h[jZs_gbyo
L_i_jv fu fh`_f gZqZlv gZrm bgkljmdpbx ^ey ijyfhc j_qb dhlhjZy g_
jZaju\Z_lkykeh\ZfbZ\lhjZ kfk 116).
Kh[_j_f\k_ko_fu\f_kl_ kfk 117).
<hhjm`b\rbkvwlbfbagZgbyfbijbklmiZ_fdlj_gbjh\d_
17. <uibrbl_ ]eZ]heu ]h\hj_gby IhklZjZcl_kv m]Z^Zlv Z\lhjZ dZ`^h]h ijbf_jZ
JZkklZ\vl_agZdb\ke_^mxsboij_^eh`_gbyo
IkZjbdjbqZl:olbj_[ylZ\hj
Imklbekyfhcoblj_p\i_j_]h\hjubgZqZelZd
>jmavyDq_fm\_kvwlhlrmf
IjbieueZdg_fmju[dZkijhkbeZ
Q_]hl_[_gZ^h[ghklZjq_
115
DgyavlbohgZq_j_idhgygZklmibe
Bfhe\beKib^jm]h^bghdbc
Bfhe\behgk\_jdgm\hqZfb
J_[ylZg_Fhkd\ZevaZgZfb
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
18.L_i_jvfuij_^eZ]Z_f\Zfg_kdhevdhbaj_q_gbc\u^Zxsbokyex^_cAZibrbl_bo
dZd ijyfmx j_qv ihke_ keh\ Z\lhjZ ^h[Z\b\ hl k_[y keh\Z Z\lhjZ B jZamf__lky
jZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
1. FZl_fZlbdZ _^bgkl\_gguc kh\_jr_gguc f_lh^ iha\heyxsbc ijh\_klb kZfh]h
k_[y aZ ghk :Wcgrl_cg 2. >ebggZy j_qv lZd `_ g_ ih^\b]Z_l ^_eZ dZd ^ebggh_
ieZlv_g_ihfh]Z_l\oh^v[_ LZe_cjZg 3.Q_eh\_dmk\hckl\_gghhrb[ZlvkyZ]emipm
gZklZb\Zlv gZ k\h_c hrb[d_ Pbp_jhg 4. DZd fu fh`_f lj_[h\Zlv qlh[u dlhlh
khojZgbe gZrm lZcgm _keb fu kZfb g_ mf__f __ khojZgblv EZjhrnmdh 5. G_evay
[ulvfZl_fZlbdhfg_[m^mqb\lh`_\j_fybihwlhf\^mr_ KhnvyDh\Ze_\kdZy 6.
HklZlvky[_a^jma_ckZfh_]hjr__ihke_gbs_lug_kqZklv_ >Zgbwev>_nh 7.>mjZdb
[hevr_\k_]h]h\hjylhfm^jhklbZg_]h^ybh^h[jh^_l_eb IZmevWjgkl Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
: l_i_jv \uibrbl_ ba \Zrbo ij_^eh`_gbc ]eZ]heu ]h\hj_gby b ihkfhljbl_
^hklZlhqgh eb hgb jZaghh[jZagu DZd fu m`_ ]h\hjbeb h^ghh[jZab_ ]eZ]heh\
]h\hj_gby =h]hev kdZaZe Lheklhc gZibkZe — h^bg ba kZfuo m^jmqZxsbo
g_^hklZldh\rdhevguokhqbg_gbc
116
Fgh]hh[jZab_keh\kb]gZeh\
bbof_klh
Kdhevdh`_keh\kb]gZeh\ijyfhcj_qbfh`_l[ulv\yaud_"
<keh\Zj_kbghgbfh\dkeh\mkdZaZlv^Z_lky 29kbghgbfbqguo]eZ]heh\Zdkeh\m
]h\hjblv — 24]eZ]heZdkeh\mkijhkblv — 6kbghgbfh\Zdkeh\mhl\_lblv — 9.
Ijb^mfZcl_kZfbdZdfh`gh[hevr_kbghgbfh\dwlbf]eZ]heZf
Kdhevdhm\Zkihemqbehkv"
;h]Zlkl\h kbghgbfbq_kdbo jy^h\ — wlh [h]Zlkl\h \Zr_c kh[kl\_gghc mklghc b
ibkvf_gghcj_qbWlh[h]Zlkl\h^hklmighm`_kZfuffeZ^rbfrdhevgbdZfZ\Zfb
ih^Z\gh
IhagZdhfvl_kv \gbfZl_evgh kh kibkdhf keh\kb]gZeh\ ijyfhc j_qb ba ^_lkdhc
dgb]b GGhkh\Z Ijbdexq_gby G_agZcdb kdZaZe hl\_lbe jZkkdZau\Ze b ^Z\Zc
djbqZlv ]h\hjbeb klZe ijhkblv kh]eZkbeky kijhkbe ij_^eh`be h[tykgbe
[hjfhlZe ijh k_[y djbqbl \h \k_ ]hjeh ijh\hjqZe ijbdjbdgme h[ty\be
i_j_^jZagbeijh^he`Ze\hjqZlvaZ\hibeih^o\ZlbehijZ\^u\Zekyj_\_eZ\lhjbeZ
_c [mjdgme k_[_ ih^ ghk ih^l\_j^be ihijhkbe ihdeyeky aZ]h\hjbeb \klZ\beZ
^h[Z\beZZogmeZijhlygmeZij_^mij_^beZihdeyeky\hkdebdgmeZ
117
aZrbi_e aZr_ilZe \hajZabe aZy\be \afhebeZkv kdhfZg^h\Ze hdebdgme ijb]eZkbe
ijb\_lkl\h\Ze \ukdZaZe ij_^iheh`_gb_ ijhi_eZ \hafmlbeZkv m]h\Zjb\Ze
khkljbeZijbagZekyih\lhjbeZaZhjZe\koebiu\Zekihjbeih^kdZaZeaZ\ue
19.:l_i_jvij_^eZ]Z_f\Zfkibkhdij_^eh`_gbcdZ`^h_badhlhjuo²ijyfZyj_qv
g_bf_xsZykeh\Z\lhjZ<ZfgZ^hk^_eZlv\hlqlh gZclbih^oh^ysb_ihkfukem
keh\Zkb]gZeu ^hibkZlv d gbf hl k_[y keh\Z Z\lhjZ ihf_klb\ bo i_j_^ ijyfhc
j_qvx
1.Wc\uKe_aZcl_k_cqZk`_ 2.Fh`_l[ulvbawlh]hqlhgb[m^vbihemqblky 3.
Ijhrm dklhem 4. Dh]^Z`_\imlv" 5.Gm dhg_qgh`_ 6. : y k wlbf g_ kh]eZk_g 7.
>h[jh_mljh 8.Gm\hl_s_ 9.AZ\ljZ\^\_gZ^pZlvqZkh\hldju\Z_lkyke_llmjbklh\
10. Kl_deh jZa[be y 11. <_qgh \u ihiZ^Z_l_ \ dZdb_lh ]emiu_ bklhjbb 12. Jmdb
\\_jo13.Ghy`_g_fh]ihklmiblvbgZq_ 14.Gmih`ZemcklZih^h`^bg_fgh`dh
15.>Zg_m`_eb" 16.Gb\dh_fkemqZ_ 17.Hklhjh`ghLZfkehfZgZklmi_gvdZ
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
Fgh]b_ g_ \u^_eyxl ijyfhc j_qb \ ijbf_jZo lZdh]h lbiZ m gbo ihemqZ_lky lZd
Lhgy kfhlj_eZ gZ ahehlu_ emqb b ijh]h\hjbeZ k ]em[hdhc ]jmklvx G_m`_eb gZrZ
^jm`[Zm]Zkg_ldZdm]ZkZ_lk_cqZkkhegp_" GHkljh\kdbc
BkijZ\vl_hrb[dmbihijh[mcl___h[tykgblv
<u ijZ\u _keb ^mfZ_l_ lZd <hafh`gh l_ dlh hrb[ky g_ m\b^_eb kb]gZevgh]h
keh\Z\\h^ys_]hijyfmxj_qv:hgh_klvghklhblg_i_j_^gZqZehfijyfhcj_qbZ
g_kdhevdhjZgvr_Wlhkeh\hijh]h\hjbeZ
20. >Z\Zcl_ ihjZ[hlZ_f k ijbf_jZfb \ dhlhjuo kb]gZevgu_ keh\Z klhyl g_ i_j_^
ijyfhcj_qvxJZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgbybih^q_jdgbl_kb]gZevgu_keh\Z
1. Dh]^Z jbfkdbc bfi_jZlhj <_kiZkbZg g_ mki_\Ze k^_eZlv aZ ^_gv gb h^gh]h
^h[jh]h^_eZhg]h\hjbek]hj_qvx>jmavyyihl_jye^_gv2.Hl_p]_hf_ljbb?\deb^
ijhbaghkbedh]^ZaZdZgqb\ZedZ`^uck\hcfZl_fZlbq_kdbc\u\h^Qlhblj_[h\Zehkv
^hdZaZlv 3. Xebc P_aZjv lZd khh[sbe \ Jbf h [ukljhf ih[_^hghkghf kjZ`_gbb
Ijbr_em\b^_eih[_^be 4.Ex^bfgh]hjZafureyxlh[mf_b]emihklb<hlqlhh[
wlhf kdZaZe ^Z]_klZgkdbc ihwl JZkme =ZfaZlh\ Ihe_a_g b y^ af_b _keb hg \ mf_euo
jmdZo<j_^_gbiq_ebgucf_^_kebhg\jmdZo^mjZdZ 5.KijhkbebmEmdbZgZMdh]h
lumqbeky\_`eb\hklbHghl\_lbeMg_\_`^Y\ha^_j`b\Zxkvhlj_q_cbihklmidh\
dhlhju_fg_\gbog_ijbylgu
Ki_j\uo^g_c]h^bgu]hjvdhc
FbjkeuoZekd\hav]jhaguc]jhf
Ih\lhjye<ZkbebcL_jdbg
I_j_l_jibf²i_j_lj_f
:L\Zj^h\kdbc
118
ImklvqblZl_ev\_jhylguc
KdZ`_lkdgb`dhx\jmd_
<hlklbobZ\k_ihgylgh
<k_gZjmkkdhfyaud_
:L\Zj^h\kdbc
<uibrbl_ ghf_jZ ijbf_jh\ \ dhlhjuo keh\Z Z\lhjZ ij_^klZ\eyxl kh[hc keh`gh_
ij_^eh`_gb_
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
Keh\Zkb]gZeu ijb ijyfhc j_qb fh]ml khhl\_lkl\h\Zlv g_ lhevdh ]eZ]heZf
]h\hj_gby gh b keh\Zf kh agZq_gbyfb mkeurZe jZa^Zehkv beb ijha\mqZeh
ih^mfZebbokbghgbfZf
<m`_mihfygmlhcgZfb^_lkdhcdgb`d_Ijbdexq_gbyG_agZcdbfugZreblZdb_
keh\hkhq_lZgby k kb]gZevgufb ]eZ]heZfb jZa^Zeky ]hehk AgZcdb fh`gh [ueh
keurZlv mkeurZe G_agZcdZ r_ihl ihkeurZeky r_ihl jZa^Zehkv k_j^blh_
rbi_gb_ihkeurZebkvkh\k_oklhjhg\ha]eZku^he_lZeb]hehkZ
21.Ih^q_jdgbl_keh\Zkb]gZeub\u^_ebl_ijyfmxj_qv\ke_^mxsboijbf_jZo
Lh]^Zlhk\ur_\^hogh\_gguc
JZa^Zekya\mqguc]eZkI_ljZ
AZ^_ehk;h]hf
>Ze_q_]jygmehMjZ
Ihedbm\b^_ebI_ljZ
Fh]mqbcHe_]]heh\hxihgbd
B^mfZ_lQlh`_]Z^Zgv_
B^mfZehg
Hlk_ev]jhablvfu[m^_fr\_^m
:KImrdbg
Bkeurmkihdhcg_crbc]hehkhdk_dj_lZjy
HgbgZ^\moaZk_^ZgbyokjZam
<FZydh\kdbc
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
Fgh]b_ agZdhfu_ gZf rdhevgbdb g_ kmf_eb \u^_eblv ijyfmx j_qv \
ij_^eh`_gbb GZ [jhg_ lZgdZ [ueh gZpZjZiZgh Kf_jlv g_f_pdbf aZo\ZlqbdZf
<uykgbehkvqlhhgbg_gZreb\g_fkb]gZevgh]hkeh\ZIhijh[mcl_wlhk^_eZlv\u
<u ijZ\u _keb \u^_ebeb keh\hkhq_lZgb_ [ueh gZpZjZiZgh Qlh agZqbl
gZpZjZiZgh" GZibkZgh g_djZkb\uf g_jh\guf ihq_jdhf beb gZibkZgh q_flh
hkljuf gZ l\_j^hc ih\_joghklb LZdbf h[jZahf keh\h gZpZjZiZlv kbghgbfbqgh
keh\m gZibkZlv : kbghgbfh\ m wlh]h keh\Z h^bggZ^pZlv ihijh[mcl_ \kihfgblv
kdhevdhkfh`_l_ b\k_hgbfh]ml[ulvkb]gZevgufbkeh\Zfb
119
LZdbf `_ kb]gZevguf fh`_l [ulv b keh\h ijhqblZlv B ijyfZy j_qv
hnhjfe_ggZywlbfbkeh\Zfb\u]ey^bllZd jZkklZ\vl_agZdb NjZgpmakdbc ibkZl_ev b mq_guc ;e_a IZkdZev ibkZe Q_f q_eh\_d mfg__ b ^h[j__
l_f[hevr_hgaZf_qZ_l^h[jZ\ex^yo
<u dhg_qgh ihfgbl_ dZd gZau\Z_lky ij_^eh`_gb_ beb keh\hkhq_lZgb_
gZibkZggh_ beb ijhbag_k_ggh_ h^gbf q_eh\_dhf b bkihevah\Zggh_ ^jm]bf²
pblZlZ<ibkvf_gghfl_dkl_pblZlZhnhjfey_lkydZdijyfZyj_qv
22. Ij_^eZ]Z_f \Zf g_kdhevdh bgl_j_kguo \ukdZau\Zgbc AZibrbl_ bo dZd pblZlu
^hihegb\hlk_[ykeh\ZfbZ\lhjZJZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
1. < q_eh\_d_ \k_ ^he`gh [ulv ij_djZkgh b ebph b h^_`^Z b ^mrZ b fukeb
:IQ_oh\ 2.Rmfgbq_]hg_^hdZau\Z_ldmjbpZdhlhjZykg_keZycphqZklhd\hoq_l
lZddZd[m^lhkg_keZ[hevrmxieZg_lm FL\_g 3.KZfh_g_ihgylgh_\wlhffbj_lh
qlh hg ihgyl_g :Wcgrl_cg 4. Emqrb_ nbehkhnu gZ k\_l_ fZevqbrdb m dhlhjuo
ijh[b\Z_lky [hjh^Z IeZlhg 5. FZgby \_ebqby wlh dh]^Z furv \hh[jZabeZ k_[y
dhrdhcbkZfZk_[ykt_eZ FK\_leh\ GZc^bl_ kj_^b wlbo pblZl ijhklh_ ij_^eh`_gb_ k h[h[sZxsbf keh\hf b h^ghjh^gufb
qe_gZfb
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
Ihijh[mcl_ hij_^_eblv q_f ijbkh_^bgy_lky ijyfZy j_qv \ lZdhf ijbf_j_ Ih
mebpZf h^gh]h ihjlm]Zevkdh]h ]hjh^dZ ih ijbdZam ]hjh^kdbo \eZkl_c ijh\_eb
\_j_gbpm hkeh\ b \_j[ex^h\ gZ qvbo r_yo [helZebkv lZ[ebqdb Lhevdh fu g_
qblZ_fdgb] ba`mjgZeh\ Ij_^eZ]Z_f \Zf \u[jZlv lhl hl\_l dhlhjuc \u kqblZ_l_ ijZ\bevguf 1) g_
ijbkh_^bgy_lky gbq_f 2) ijbkh_^bgy_lky ih kfukem ijbkh_^bgy_lky
ijhims_ggufbkeh\Zfbdhlhju_fh`gh\hkklZgh\blv
<u ijZ\u _keb kqblZ_l_ qlh lml kijZ\_^eb\u ^\Z hl\_lZ b \lhjhc b lj_lbc
IjyfZy j_qv a^_kv m]Z^u\Z_lky ih kfukem b djhf_ lh]h fh`gh fuke_ggh
ih^klZ\blv keh\Z lbiZ [ueh gZibkZgh beb bo kbghgbfu : djhf_ lh]h g_
aZ[u\Zcl_ \Zr\gmlj_ggbckemo\k_]^Z\Zfih^kdZ`_l]^_ijyfZyj_qvihlhfmqlh
hgZbf__l^jm]mxbglhgZpbxg_`_ebkeh\ZZ\lhjZBlZd_klvljbkihkh[ZhihagZlv
ijyfmxj_qv 1)ijhgbdgh\_gb_\fukev 2)fuke_ggZyih^klZgh\dZkb]gZevguokeh\
3) fuke_ggh_ keurZgb_ bglhgZpbb <hhjm`b\rbkv wlbfb kihkh[Zfb i_j_oh^bf d
lj_gbjh\d_
23.JZkklZ\vl_agZdb\ijbf_jZo
Koh^m^\bgme\^\_jv]jZgZlhc
Kiju]gme\gbaijhiZe\^ufm
Hnbp_jubkhe^Zlu
<uoh^bihh^ghfm
120
AZ^Ze_db_ijb]hjdb
Moh^bekjZ`_gvy`Zj
GZkg_]m<ZkbebcL_jdbg
G_ih^h[jZgguce_`Ze
Kg_]ih^gbfgZ[jydrbdjh\vx
<ayeky]jm^hce_^yghc
Kf_jlvkdehgbeZkvdba]heh\vx
Gmkhe^Zlihc^_fkhfghc
>jh]gmeL_jdbgaZf_jaZy
GZihkl_ebkg_]h\hc
Yg_a\Zel_[yDhkZy
Ykhe^Zl_s_`b\hc
:L\Zj^h\kdbc
<uibrbl_ghf_jZijbf_jh\kh[hkh[e_ggufbh[klhyl_evkl\Zfb
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
I_j_^ \Zfb keh\Z dhlhju_ kZfb ih k_[_ g_ y\eyxlky kb]gZeZfb ijyfhc j_qb gh
fh]ml [ulv bfb ^hiheg_gu fuke_ggh jZkk_j^beky h[b^_eky m^b\beky
aZbgl_j_kh\Zeky \kdbi_e ijb]jhabe bkim]Zeky aZkf_yeky aZ[_kihdhbebkv
h[jZ^h\Zekyh^h[jbeZ
24.Gb`_^Zguij_^eh`_gbydZ`^h_badhlhjuofh`_lklZlvijyfhcj_qvxIh^[_jbl_
d dZ`^hfm ij_^eh`_gbx ih^oh^ys__ ih kfukem keh\h ^h[Z\vl_ hl k_[y keh\Z
Z\lhjZihf_klb\boi_j_^ijyfhcj_qvx
121
1.MjZAZ\ljZ\pbjd 2.AZf_qZl_evgh 3.Hcg_fh]mIjhklhmfhjZ 4.DZd[ug_
ihemqbehkvom`_ 5.QlhaZ[_ah[jZab_ 6.:hggZgZkg_gZiZ^_l" 7.G_m`_eb\k_wlh
ijZ\^Z" 8. Q_jl agZ_l qlh wlh lZdh_ 9. <hl y \Zk khj\Zgpu 10. Ihq_fm lu gZ f_gy
djbqbrv" 11.KdZ`bl_ih`ZemcklZZdZd\k_wlhijhbahreh"
BglhgZpbydhgpZij_^eh`_gby
\ijyfhcj_qb
Wlhkh\k_fg_ljm^ghghh[wlhfqZklhaZ[u\Zxl:f_`^ml_fijyfZyj_qvl_kgh
k\yaZgZk`b\hcq_eh\_q_kdhcj_qvxbbgh]^ZijyfhlZdbmfhey_lh\hijhkbl_evghf
beb\hkdebpZl_evghfagZd_
25.>Z\Zcl_jZkklZ\bfagZdbihfgyhagZdZodhgpZij_^eh`_gby
IhcfZebilbqdm]hehkbklm
Bgmk`bfZlv__jmdhc
Ibsbl[_^gy`dZ\f_klhk\bklm
:_cl\_j^ylIhcilbqdZihc
=J>_j`Z\bg
F_`^mi_qZevxbgbq_f
Fu\u[jZebi_qZev
Bkijhkbldlhgb[m^vAZq_f
:dlhlhkdZ`_l@Zev
;Qbqb[Z[bg
BkdZaZeb^\ZlZgdbklZ
=ZjfhgbklmAgZ_rv^jm]
G_agZdhfuevfuklh[hx
G_l_[yebwlh[jZl
Qlhlhihfgblkyba[hy
>hklZ\eyebfu\kZg[Zl
:L\Zj^h\kdbc
4. G_f_pdbc _kl_kl\hbkiulZl_ev :e_dkZg^j =mf[hev^l lZd ]h\hjbe h ihy\e_gbb
gh\uo bklbg KgZqZeZ ]h\hjyl DZdZy qmrv Ihlhf aZf_qZxl < wlhf qlhlh _klv <
dhgp_ dhgph\ ]h\hjyl k Ziehf[hf Dlh `_ wlh]h g_ agZ_l 5. :ev[_jl Wcgrl_cg
ih^hc^ydk\h_fm ^hfm kijhkbe =^_`b\_l]hkih^bg Wcgrl_cg R\_cpZj m^b\e_ggh
\hkdebdgmeGh\u`_b_klv]hkih^bgWcgrl_cgWcgrl_cgmeu[gmekyWlhyagZxgh
yaZ[ue]^_y`b\m
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
26.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby\hlj_adZoij_^eh`_gbc\lhfqbke_bagZdbdhgpZ
ij_^eh`_gbyihke_fgh]hlhqby
1. ... g_^hmf_\Zy kijZrb\Zeb AZq_f ... 2. <a\hegh\Zgguc \k_f ijhbkoh^ysbf hg
m`_g_k^_j`b\ZykvdjbdgmeI_j_klZgvl_ ... 3.KdZaZe[uy<hi_j\uog_ ... 4. ...lZd
keZ^dh qmlv ^urZ =hem[mrdZ dZd ... 5. ... k mij_dhf Ihq_fm lu gbdh]^Z ... 6. ...
bgl_j_kh\ZebkvDlhwlh ...
122
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
L_i_jv \Zf agZdhfu ljb kemqZy mihlj_[e_gby ^\h_lhqby 1) ihke_ h[h[sZxsbo
keh\i_j_^h^ghjh^gufbqe_gZfb 2)\[_kkhxaguokeh`guoij_^eh`_gbyo 3)i_j_^
ijyfhcj_qvxklhys_cihke_keh\Z\lhjZ
IhmijZ`gy_fky\jZaebq_gbbwlbokemqZ_\
27.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgbyAZg_kbl_ghf_jdZ`^h]hijbf_jZ\khhl\_lkl\mxsbc
klhe[bdlZ[ebpuJZ[hlZcl_kie_gdhc
IjyfZyj_qv
;_kkhxagu_ij_^eh`_gby
H[h[sZxsb_keh\Zijb
h^ghjh^guoqe_gZo
1. ;u\Z_l lZd =hklv m`_ h^_eky ihijhsZeky gh \k_ _s_ klhbl m ^\_j_c b
ijh^he`Z_l jZa]h\Zjb\Zlv k ohaybghf Bf_ggh d wlhfm kemqZx hlghkblky jmkkdZy
ihkeh\bpZG_[hcky]hklykb^yq_]hZ[hckyklhyq_]h:g]ebqZg_\ih^h[guokemqZyo
]h\hjyllZdMoh^ymoh^b:gZ<hklhd_wlZfukev\ujZ`Z_lky\keh\Zo=hklvih^h[_g
\^uoZ_fhfm \ha^mom ?keb hg \oh^bl b ^he]h g_ \uoh^bl ohaybg aZ^uoZ_lky ba
`mjgZeh\ Eh`v\k_]^Zhi_j_^bl
Bklbgmg_fgh`dh
Ghg_[hcl_kvih[_^bl
IjZ\^Z[hkhgh`dZ
KYFZjrZd
3. Yaud gZjh^Z y\ey_lky g_bkkydZ_fuf bklhqgbdhf djueZluo keh\ ihkeh\bp
ih]h\hjhd 4. Fgh]b_ djueZlu_ keh\Z ijboh^yl \ gZr yaud ba ebl_jZlmju f_ldb_
\ujZ`_gbyZnhjbafuibkZl_e_cmq_guobklhjbq_kdbobh[s_kl\_gguo^_yl_e_c
<klZgvl_kwlh]h^b\ZgZ
:g_lhlZf[m^_lyfZ
G_oh^bl_ihdh\jm
<uijhlj_l_\g_f^ujm
Bg_ljh]Zcl_djh\Zlv
Ijhklugvfh`_l_ihfylv
Bg_gZ^hrdZnfhcljh]Zlv
M\Zkkebrdhfhkljucgh]hlv
Bg_gZ^hdgb]b[jZlv
Bo\ufh`_l_ihj\Zlv
Bg_klhcl_gZimlb
:og_emqr_ev\Zfmclb
H=jb]hjv_\
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
?keb m \Zk \k_ [ueh \_jgh i_j_oh^bl_ d ke_^mxs_c l_f_ _keb [ueb hrb[db
\uihegycl_\k_ih^jy^
123
28.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
1. FZjdm L\_gm ijbgZ^e_`bl h^gZ ba kZfuo kf_rguo njZa ijha\mqZ\rbo dh]^Z
eb[hDh]^Zij_kkZklZeZjZkijhkljZgylvg_\_jgu_ba\_klbyqlhhgmf_jhgkhh[sbe
\ij_kk_`_Kemobhfh_ckf_jlbg_kdhevdhij_m\_ebq_gu XHe_rZ @fmjmdb^mjZdZfh[_bfbjmdZfb
DZdfgh]bf\kmsghklbh[yaZgufubf
<_^v_keb[g_[ueb^jm]b_^mjZdZfb
Lh^mjZdZfb[ulvijbrehkv[ugZfkZfbf
KYFZjrZd
3.<X`ghc:f_jbd_yih^f_lbeh^gm\_svdhlhjZykgZqZeZhq_gvm^b\beZf_gy\
gZk_e_gguo jZchgZo af_c ]hjZa^h [hevr_ q_f \ g_hk\h_gguo < gZk_e_gguo
f_klghklyo bklj_[e_gu beb ba]gZgu ae_crb_ \jZ]b af_c ilbpu b djmigu_
fe_dhiblZxsb_ J;ehf[_j] 4. H k\hbo kh]jZ`^ZgZo ]j_q_kdbc nbehkhn KhdjZl
]h\hjbe>Zyfm^j__boihlhfmqlhyagZxqlhgbq_]hg_agZxZhgbgbq_]hg_agZy
^mfZxlqlh\k_agZxl
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
29.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby\hlj_adZoij_^eh`_gbc
1. ...q_eh\_q_kdbf]hehkhfHlimklbf_gy ... 2. ...aZf_jhlg_h`b^ZgghklbijyfhgZ
g_]h ... 3. ...gZqZelZd>jmavydq_fm ... 4. ...ljb\_ebdb_^h[jh^_l_ebfm^jhklv ... 5. ...
ex[be ih\lhjylv Gbdh]^Z g_ ... 6. ... meu[gbl_kv \_^v meu[dZ ... 7. ... a\hgdbf hl
\hklhj]Z]hehkhf>Za^jZ\kl\m_l ... 8. ...b\b`mkb^yl ... 9. ...]hehkhfhlpZ=^_fhb ...
10. ..._e_meh\bfu_a\mdbdlhlhhklhjh`gufbrZ]Zfb ... 11. ...bajZaguo]hjh^h\ba
^j_\g_]hIkdh\Zb ...
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
G_kdhevdhbklhjbc
ba`bagblbj_
I_j\Zybklhjby —ihklZgh\dZlbj_f_`^mih^e_`ZsbfbkdZam_fufWlZbklhjby
\Zf ^Z\gh agZdhfZ jZkkdZ`bl_ __ k_[_ kZfb Gh ijb wlhf mqlbl_ qlh \ g_c _klv
q_luj_wibah^Zdh]^Zlbj_f_`^mih^e_`ZsbfbkdZam_fufklZ\blkyljbwibah^Z —
dh]^Z g_ klZ\blky Ba\_klgu \Zf b ^\Z wibah^Z dh]^Z klZ\blky lbj_ \ g_iheghf
ij_^eh`_gbb ?keb \u g_ kfh`_l_ \kihfgblv \k_ wlh h[jZlbl_kv d i_j\hc qZklb
dgb]bAgZdbij_ibgZgbybih\lhjbl_]eZ\mLbj_\gmljbij_^eh`_gby
<lhjmx bklhjbx ba `bagb lbj_ \u g_^Z\gh ih\lhjyeb HgZ ih\_kl\m_l h
ihklZgh\d_lbj_ihke_h^ghjh^guoqe_gh\<g_c^\Zwibah^Z<kihfgbl_bokZfb<
kemqZ_aZljm^g_gbyihkfhljbl_]eZ\m I^Zgghcdgb]b
124
Lj_lvy bklhjby — lbj_ k ijbeh`_gbyfb ?_ \u lh`_ fh`_l_ \kihfgblv kZfb Z
_kebg_ihemqblky —\_jgbl_kvd]eZ\_ II.
Lbj_\[_kkhxaguoij_^eh`_gbyo
Q_l\_jlZy bklhjby ba `bagb lbj_ ih`Zemc kZfZy keh`gZy lbj_ \ [_kkhxaghf
keh`ghf ij_^eh`_gbb IhklZgh\dZ wlh]h agZdZ aZ\bkbl hl kfukeh\uo hlghr_gbc
dhlhjufb h[t_^bg_gu qZklb keh`gh]h ij_^eh`_gby JZkkfhljbf g_kdhevdh kemqZ_\
lZdbo kfukeh\uo hlghr_gbc Qlh[u hgb [ueb gZf ykg__ \havf_f kgZqZeZ
ij_^eh`_gby k khxahf Hij_^_ebl_ dZdbf kfukehf h[t_^bg_gu qZklb keh`gh]h
ij_^eh`_gby \ ke_^mxsbo ijbf_jZo 1. ?keb g_ [m^_l_ iheb\Zlv jZkl_gb_ hgh g_
kfh`_ljZa\b\ZlvkyghjfZevgh 2.Dh]^Z]hkih^Z^_jmlkymkem]e[ulj_sZl
?keb\u\^mfZebkvbkfukeuwlboij_^eh`_gbc \Zf ykgh qlh \ i_j\hf ijbf_j_
i_j\Zy qZklv h[hagZqZ_l mkeh\b_ ^_ckl\by ijhbkoh^ys_]h \h \lhjhc qZklb Z \h
\lhjhfijbf_j_ —\j_fy
: qlh ihemqblky _keb fu ijhimklbf khxau" <hl qlh 1. G_ [m^_l_ iheb\Zlv
jZkl_gb_ — hgh g_ kfh`_l jZa\b\Zlvky ghjfZevgh 2. =hkih^Z ^_jmlky — m kem]
e[ulj_sZl
Kfukeh\u_ hlghr_gby \ wlbo ij_^eh`_gbyo khojZgyxlky lhevdh bo kb]gZeZfb
y\eyxlky m`_ g_ khxau Z lbj_ Lbj_ dZd [u \hiehsZ_l h`b^Zgb_ gm b qlh [m^_l"
Qlh^Zevr_"
30.Ij_^eZ]Z_f\Zfg_kdhevdhij_^eh`_gbcJZkklZ\vl_\gboagZdbZihlhf\uibrbl_
ghf_jZ ij_^eh`_gbc \ dhlhjuo lbj_ h[hagZqZ_l kfukeh\u_ hlghr_gby \j_f_gb b
mkeh\byJZ[hlZcl_kie_gdhc
Meu[Zebkvljbkf_eu_^_\bpu
GZkibg_m[_g]Zevkdhclb]jbpu
L_i_jv`_\k_ljb
Mlb]jbpu\gmljb
:meu[dZgZfhj^_lb]jbpu
KYFZjrZd
2.GZa\Zeky]jma^_fihe_aZc\dmah\ 3.Keh\hg_\hjh[_c\ue_lblg_ihcfZ_rv 4.
AZ ^\mfy aZcpZfb ih]hgbrvky gb h^gh]h g_ ihcfZ_rv 5. G_ iexc \ dheh^_p
ijb]h^blky \h^u gZiblvky 6. :jlmj DhgZg >hce ihk\ylbe R_jehdm Ohefkm ^_\ylv
dgb] q_luj_ jhfZgZ b iylv k[hjgbdh\ jZkkdZah\ \k_]h iylv^_kyl r_klv jZkkdZah\
D:g^j__\ 7.=eZ\gh_ qlh ijb\e_dZ_l qblZl_e_c \ R_jehd_ Ohefk_ aZf_qZl_evgZy
kbeZ _]h fukeb R_jehd Ohefk qmlv g_ _^bgkl\_gguc i_jkhgZ` ^_lkdhc fbjh\hc
ebl_jZlmju]eZ\gh_aZgylb_dhlhjh]hfure_gb_eh]bdZJZkkdZauhR_jehd_Ohefk_
gZau\Zxlky ^_l_dlb\gufb lZd dZd ^_l_dlb\ ihZg]ebckdb kusbd DQmdh\kdbc 8.
JZ^mxlky ex^b \hagbdZ_l \_k_eZy i_kgy AZ^mfu\Zxlky ]jmklyl gZ mf ijboh^bl
f_eh^by i_qZevgZy g_lhjhieb\Zy : ]hj_ gZ\Zebehkv gbqlh g_ \ujZabl _]h lZd dZd
fmaudZi_kgy ihGDhehkh\hc Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
125
< wlhf aZ^Zgbb \u g_ lhevdh jZ[hlZeb k gh\uf fZl_jbZehf gh b ^he`gu [ueb
\kihfgblvfgh]hm`_ba\_klgh]hJZkkdZ`bl_k_[_qlh\Zfm^Zehkv\kihfgblv
Ke_^mxsbcwibah^ba`bagblbj_ihk\ysZ_lky\aZbfhhlghr_gbyf^_ckl\byb_]h
j_amevlZlZ<kydh_^_ckl\b_bf__ldZdhceb[hj_amevlZlM^ZjbrvjZd_ldhcihfyqm
—b q l h [ m ^ _ l " —hg\ae_lbl m^ZjbrvihklZdZgm —b q l h [ m ^ _ l " —
hg jZae_lblky \^j_[_a]b ?keb qZklb [_kkhxagh]h ij_^eh`_gby hlghkylky ^jm] d
^jm]mihkfukemdZd^_ckl\b_b_]hj_amevlZllhf_`^mgbfbklZ\blkylbj_
31. JZkklZ\vl_ agZdb ij_ibgZgby <uibrbl_ ghf_jZ ij_^eh`_gbc kh kfukeh\uf
hlghr_gb_f^_ckl\b_²j_amevlZl
Luk\bklgbl_[yg_aZklZ\exy`^Zlv
G_lmg_]hg_e`b\uc\a]ey^
?]h]eZaZg_e]ml
HgbijZ\^b\h]h\hjyl
Qlhbo\eZ^_e_pieml
J;_jgki_jKYFZjrZdZ
G_[ueh]\ha^y
Ih^dh\Z
IjhiZeZ
G_[uehih^dh\u
126
EhrZ^v
AZojhfZeZ
EhrZ^vaZojhfZeZ
DhfZg^bj
M[bl
DhggbpZjZa[blZ
:jfby
;_`bl
<jZ]\klmiZ_l
<]hjh^
Ie_gguog_sZ^y
Hllh]hqlh\dmagbp_
G_[ueh
=\ha^y
:g]ebckdZyi_k_gdZi_jKYFZjrZdZ
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
Mq_gu_ — hq_gv k_jv_aguc gZjh^ H^gZdh JZkkdZau\Zxl qlh h^gZ`^u d
ZdZ^_fbdmIZ\eh\mijbr_emq_gbdbm\b^_eqlhB\ZgI_ljh\bqimkdZ_ldhjZ[ebdb\
lZam k \h^hc < hl\_l gZ m^b\e_gguc \a]ey^ k\h_]h ]hkly IZ\eh\ kdZaZe AZ_f m
^_lkl\Z
<gZr_cdgb]_lh`_[m^_l\j_fyhl\j_f_gb\klj_qZlvkyaZ_fm^_lkl\Zhlju\db
ba^_lkdboklboh\kdZahd\_k_euobklhjbcWlhiha\heblgZfbgh]^Zmeu[gmlvky\h
\j_fykZfhck_jv_aghcjZ[hluIhfgbl_meu[dZ —^jm]q_eh\_dZ
32.Kh[_jbl_jZkkuiZggu_ij_^eh`_gbybaohjhrhagZdhfhc\ZfkdZadbihklZ\vl_\
gbogm`gu_agZdbbh[tykgbl_bo
1. ;hyjkdZy klj_eZ imklbe ^hqv miZeZ kug ^\hj b klZjrbc __ [hyjkdbc
ih^gyeZgZklj_em 2.?_miZeZdmi_q_kdbcklj_em^hqvkj_^gbcih^gyeZkugb
dmi_q_kdZy gZ klj_eZ ^\hj imklbe 3. ;hehlh \ imklbe ey]mrdZ kug miZeZ
feZ^rbcbklj_em__klj_eZih^gyeZ
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
<hafh`gh\uihfgbl_\_k_eu_^_lkdb_klbobihwlZJhfZgZK_nZ
GZk\_l_\k_gZ\k_ihoh`_af_y —gZj_f_rhdbadh`bemgZ —gZdjm]euc]eZa
h]jhfguc`mjZ\ev —gZlhsbcdjZgih^t_fgucdhlihehkZluc —gZib`Zfmy²gZ
l_[yZlu —gZfZfm
JZa]h\hj h ihoh`_f bf__l k\h_ \ujZ`_gb_ \ imgdlmZpbb Hlghr_gby koh^kl\Z
f_`^mqZklyfbkeh`gh]hij_^eh`_gby \ujZ`Zxlky agZdhf lbj_ b g_ lhevdh \
ij_^eh`_gbyo[_akhxah\gh^Z`_baj_^dZb\ij_^eh`_gbyokkhxaZfb_kebwlh
ih^kdZau\Z_lbglhgZpby
33.I_j_ibrbl_jZkklZ\eyyagZdbij_ibgZgby
1. BojZa\_ke_ihcg_aZf_lbl
:ajyqbchgbo]h\hjbl
127
Ijhc^_lkeh\ghkhegp_hk\_lbl
Ihkfhljbljm[e_fih^Zjbl
G:G_djZkh\
GZk\ylhcJmkbgZr_cfZlmrd_
G_gZclbg_kukdZlvlZdhcdjZkZ\bpu
Oh^blieZ\gh[m^lhe_[_^mrdZ
KfhljblkeZ^dhdZd]hem[mrdZ
Fhe\blkeh\hkheh\_cih_l
FXE_jfhglh\
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
34.IjhqblZcl_i_j_kdZa^j_\g__]bi_lkdh]hfbnZJZkklZ\vl_agZdb
DZ`^uc^_gvieu\_lkheg_qguc[h]JZihg_[_kghfmGbemZ\_q_jhfi_j_oh^bl\
ghqgmx eZ^vx gZ dhlhjhc ieu\_l ih ih^a_fghfm Gbem Dh]^Z eZ^vy JZ ^hklb]Z_l
ih^a_fguo\hjhlgZg_]hgZiZ^Z_l_]hkljZrguc\jZ]af_c:ohiJZih[_`^Z_l\jZ]Z
b[h]bkeZ\yl_]hlZdhci_kg_c
Kbe_gJZkeZ[u\jZ]b
<ukhdJZgbadb\jZ]b
@b\JZf_jl\u\jZ]b
KulJZ]heh^gu\jZ]b
GZih_gJZ`Z`^ml\jZ]b
<hag_kkyJZiZeb\jZ]b
>hieu\_lJZ^hih^a_fguo]hjhldjhxlkyi_j_^gbf\hjhlZ]hjbahglZI_j_ky^_l
JZbaghqghceZ^vb\^g_\gmxhaZjbla_fexk\hbfkbygb_f
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
: l_i_jv ihijh[mcl_ hij_^_eblv kZfb dZdb_ kfukeh\u_ hlghr_gby k\yau\Zxl
qZklbij_^eh`_gbc\i_kg_dhlhjZykeZ\blJZ
<u ijZ\u _keb ^mfZ_l_ qlh a^_kv hlghr_gby ijhlb\hihklZ\e_gby
ijhlb\hiheh`ghklb B \u \_jhylgh m`_ ^h]Z^Zebkv qlh ijb lZdbo kfukeh\uo
hlghr_gbyof_`^mqZklyfbij_^eh`_gbcklZ\blkylbj_
BlZd _keb f_`^m qZklyfb ij_^eh`_gbc kms_kl\mxl hlghr_gby
ijhlb\hihklZ\e_gbyijhlb\hiheh`ghklblhf_`^mgbfbklZ\blkylbj_
?keb\ukhfg_\Z_l_kvgZ^hebihklZ\blvwlhlagZdih^klZ\vl_ fuke_gghgZwlhf
f_kl_ghbebZ?kebwlhihemqblkykf_ehklZ\vl_lbj_
35. Ihijh[mcl_ fuke_ggh ih^klZ\blv f_`^m qZklyfb ij_^eh`_gby khxau gh beb Z b
jZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
H[_avygd_[uehhq_gviehoh
Q_eh\_dm[uehfgh]hom`_
:=Zebq
128
Ljb`^u]jhfdbcdebqihdebdZeb
Gbh^bg[h_pg_ljhgmeky
FXE_jfhglh\
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yghhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
BlZd \u ihagZdhfbebkv kh ke_^mxsbfb lbiZfb kfukeh\uo hlghr_gbc f_`^m
qZklyfb keh`gh]h ij_^eh`_gby 1) hlghr_gby \j_f_gb beb mkeh\by 2) hlghr_gby
f_`^m ^_ckl\b_f b j_amevlZlhf 3) hlghr_gby \hagbdZxsb_ ijb kjZ\g_gbb
koh^kl\Zijhlb\hiheh`ghklbijhlb\hihklZ\e_gby
>h[Z\bf d wlhfm _s_ h^bg lbi hlghr_gbc — dh]^Z \lhjZy qZklv y\ey_lky
ke_^kl\b_flh]hqlhijhbahreh\i_j\hcGZijbf_jJZa^Zeky]jhf — klZjmob\
m`Zk_aZdj_klbebkv
36. L_i_jv ihjZ[hlZ_f k wlbfb kfukeh\ufb hlghr_gbyfb JZkklZ\vl_ agZdb \
ijbf_jZo AZibrbl_ ghf_j dZ`^h]h ijbf_jZ \ khhl\_lkl\mxsbc klhe[bd lZ[ebpu
JZ[hlZcl_kie_gdhc
Ihc^_lgZijZ\hi_kgvaZ\h^bl
GZe_\hkdZadb]h\hjbl
:KImrdbg
JZafZogmekylh]^ZDbjb[__\bq
Bm^Zjbe\i_j\hcdmipZDZeZrgbdh\Z
Bm^Zjbe_]hihk_j_^v]jm^b
AZlj_sZeZ]jm^vfheh^_pdZy
FXE_jfhglh\
AZ^mfZxj_db[hevrb_
GZ^he]hmijyqmih^e_^
Ihkljhxfhklue_^ygu_
DZdbog_ihkljhblgZjh^
G:G_djZkh\
Yhl\hjbebf`blgbpuyaeZlh
JZkkuiZebfybfkukdZejZ[hlu
Hgb`f_gy[_kgmykvijhdebgZeb
Y^hqvfhxfgbehkqZkleb\blv[jZdhf
DZd[mjykf_jlvmghkbl`_gboZ
AZfghc]gZebkvy^mohfg_kfmlbeky
B^_jahklvxg_\hebba[_`Ze
:KImrdbg
G_]h\hjbl_fg_Hgmf_jHg`b\_l
Imklv`_jl\_ggbdjZa[blh]hgv_s_iueZ_l
ImklvjhaZkhj\ZgZhgZ_s_p\_l_l
IMKLV ZjnZkehfZgZZddhj^_s_ju^Z_l
KYIZ^khg
HgagZdih^Zklb\k_oehihqml
Hgiv_l\k_ivxlb\k_djbqZl
129
HgaZkf__lky\k_ohohqml
GZofmjbl[jh\b\k_fheqZl
:KImrdbg
Ex^fbeZrZidhcaZ\_jl_eZ
GZ[jh\bijyfhgZ[_dj_gv
BaZ^hfgZi_j_^gZ^_eZ
Bqlh`"hqm^hklZjuo^g_c
Ex^fbeZ\a_jdZe_ijhiZeZ
I_j_\_jgmeZi_j_^g_c
Ex^fbeZij_`gyyij_^klZeZ
GZaZ^gZ^_eZkgh\Zg_l
KgyeZb\a_jdZe_
:KImrdbg
Fu\k_\hcgurZevgu_^_lb
B]_g_jZebjy^h\hc
Hiylv\_kgZgZ[_ehfk\_l_
;_jbrbg_evihreb^hfhc
;Hdm^`Z\Z
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
Fu k \Zfb lZd m\e_debkv ihklZgh\dhc lbj_ qlh \hagbdeZ hiZkghklv ihaZ[ulv h
^jm]boagZdZoZ\_^vkms_kl\mxl_s_baZiylZyb^\h_lhqb_blhqdZkaZiylhc
37. Ke_^mxs__ aZ^Zgb_ gZ jZkklZgh\dm agZdh\ fu ij_^eZ]Z_f \Zf ih^ ^_\bahf
DZ`^hcihkeh\bp_²k\hcagZdJZ[hlZcl_kie_gdhc
1.=^_ dlhjh^bekylZfbijb]h^beky 2. >_eh g_ f_^\_^v \ e_k g_ mc^_l 3. AZdhg
qlh ^ureh dm^Z ih\_jgme lm^Z b \ureh 4. Dhrd_ b]jmrdb furd_ ke_adb 5. Hl
emggh]hk\_lZbkg_][_e__lhlfm^jh]hkeh\ZbjZamfgucmfg__l 6.GZihkme_qlhgZ
klme_ ihkb^brv ^Z \klZg_rv 7. Ex[h\v aeZ ihex[brv b dhaeZ 8. ;_amf_p ebdm_l
fm^j_p\u`b^Z_l 9.Fbeu_[jZgylkylhevdhl_rZlky 10.KdZaZghmaehfaZ\yaZgh 11.
Dm^Zdhgvkdhiulhflm^ZbjZdkde_rg_c 12.DhgvmagZ_lkyijb]hj_^jm]ijb[_^_
13.<k_fbg_lkyh^gZijZ\^ZhklZg_lky14.Mq_gv_k\_lg_mq_gv_lvfZ 15.G_ex[hg_
kemrZc Z \jZlv g_ f_rZc 16. Khegp_ \ahc^_l h`b\_l ijbjh^Z Dgb]m ijhql_rv
ijhk\_le__lkymf 17.Keh\hg_\hjh[_c\ue_lblg_ihcfZ_rv
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
38.I_j_ibrbl_l_dklbjZkklZ\vl_\g_fagZdb
IjhnbeZdlbdZjZa\h^h\
GZ h^ghf ba =_[jb^kdbo hkljh\h\ kms_kl\m_l lZdhc h[uqZc i_j_^ \klmie_gb_f \
[jZd `_gbo ^he`_g ijhklhylv p_emx ghqv gZ h^ghc gh]_ gZ kl_g_ \ex[e_gguo
jZkiheh`_gghc gZ^ kdZebkluf [_j_]hf :leZglbq_kdh]h hd_ZgZ Klhbl k^_eZlv h^gh
g_\_jgh_^\b`_gb_[m^msbcfm`fh`_ljZa[blvkyhdZfgbG_m^b\bl_evghihwlhfm
qlhgZhkljh
130
\Zo lZd j_^db jZa\h^u hohlgbdh\ ijhclb q_j_a lZdh_ bkiulZgb_ \lhjhc jZa hq_gv
fZeh ba`mjgZeh\ Ijh\_jvl_k_[yghhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
39. IhjZ[hlZcl_ dhjj_dlhjhf Ij_^eZ]Z_f \Zf g_kdhevdh Znhjbafh\ b ihkeh\bp
GZc^bl_bbkijZ\vl_\gboimgdlmZpbhggu_hrb[db
Ohq_rvk_[ybamqblvihkfhljbgZex^_cb^_eZbo
Ohq_rvex^_cbamqblv\k_j^p_dk_[_aZ]eygb
FFboZceh\
2.;helmgih^h[_gfZylgbdmlh]hb^jm]h]hgZ^hhklZgh\blv DhavfZIjmldh\ 3.
<kydZy \_sv — _klv nhjfZ ijhy\e_gby [_kij_^_evgh]h jZaghh[jZaby DhavfZ
Ijmldh\ 4. G_kh\k_fihgbfZx —ihq_fmfgh]b_gZau\Zxl km^v[m bg^_cdhx Z g_
dZdhxeb[h ^jm]hx [he__ gZ km^v[m ihoh`_x ilbp_x" DhavfZ Ijmldh\ 5. Ghk
\ulZsbe o\hkl m\ya 6. =jhf g_ ]jyg_l fm`bd g_ i_j_dj_klblky 7. AZklZ\v ^mjZdZ
;h]mfheblvkyhgbeh[jZkrb[_l
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
40.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby\hlj_adZoij_^eh`_gbc
1. ... \kydb_ iZdhklb lh hgb ih^[jZku\Zxl ... 2. ... g_ ihemqZ_lky ihlhfm qlh dhl
E_hihev^ ... 3. ...mkljhyl_fmeh\mrdmkZfb`_\g__ ... 4. ...]h\hjbebkhkljZohfih
ghqZf \ aZfd_ ... 5. ... ^mfZeb qlh wlh ijbajZd ... 6. ... ijhdjbqbl i_lmo ijbajZd
kdjh_lky ... 7.DZdgbklZjZebkvgbq_]h ... 8.Lhevdhihah\bylml`_ ...
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
BlZd\umagZebh[h\k_okemqZyoihklZgh\dblbj_\keh`guoij_^eh`_gbyo
Ke_^mxsZybklhjbyba`bagblbj_ —wlhlbj_\ijyfhcj_qb
<ke_^aZijyfhcj_qvx
Ihfgbl_ eb \u qlh ijhbkoh^bl _keb i_j_^ h^ghjh^gufb qe_gZfb klhbl
h[h[sZxs__ keh\h" Ihke_ g_]h klZ\blky ^\h_lhqb_ Z aZl_f ke_^mxl h^ghjh^gu_
qe_gu ?keb `_ h[h[sZxs__ keh\h f_gy_l ihabpbx b hdZau\Z_lky ihaZ^b lh i_j_^
gbfklZ\blkylbj_LZdb_`_ij_\jZs_gbyi_j_`b\Z_lbimgdlmZpbhggh_hnhjfe_gb_
ijyfhc j_qb keh\Z Z\lhjZ i_j_^ ijyfhc j_qvx aZ\_jrZxlky ^\h_lhqb_f Z ihke_
ijyfhc j_qb bf_xs_c l_ agZdb dhgpZ ij_^eh`_gby dhlhju_ _c iheZ]Zxlky i_j_^
keh\ZfbZ\lhjZklZ\blkylbj_Ko_fZlbq_kdbwlhbah[jZ`Z_lkylZd kfk 132).
L_i_jvfufh`_f^hihegblvm`_qZklbqghagZdhfmxgZfbgkljmdpbx^eyijyfhc
j_qbg_jZahj\Zgghckeh\ZfbZ\lhjZ kfk 133).
41.>Z\Zcl_baf_gbfihabpbxkeh\Z\lhjZihhlghr_gbxdijyfhcj_qbI_j_^_eZcl_
ke_^mxs__ij_^eh`_gb_baf_gb\f_klhkeh\Z\lhjZ
131
GZ njhglhg_ ]j_q_kdh]h ojZfZ :iheehgZ \ :nbgZo [ueZ lZdZy gZ^ibkv IhagZc
kZfh]hk_[y
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
Dh]^Z keh\Z Z\lhjZ klhyl ihaZ^b ijyfhc j_qb lZf `_ hdZau\Zxlky b keh\Z
kb]gZeu khh[sZxsb_ h ijyfhc j_qb dZd [u aZ^gbf qbkehf Ihwlhfm jZkihagZlv
ijyfmxj_qv\lZdhfiheh`_gbbljm^g__
42. >Z\Zcl_ jZkklZ\bf agZdb b \u^_ebf kb]gZevgu_ keh\Z \ ke_^mxsbo ijbf_jZo ba
[Zk_gDjueh\Z
IhkemrZcdZkhk_^lmlEh\qbci_j_j\Ze\hl\_l
>ZjZ[hlZeZevlue_lh]h\hjbl_cFmjZ\_c
Kl_iZgmrdZjh^ghcg_\u^Zcfbeuc
Baih^f_^\_^yhg\afhebeky[ZljZdm
:oluh[`hjZZoaeh^_clml<ZkvdmIh\Zjmdhjy_l
<hl^jm]Zyex[ex\kdjbqZe>_fvyg
G_emqr_evgZk_[ydmfZh[hjhlblvky_cFbrdZ
hl\_qZe
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
132
43.I_j_ibrbl_jZkklZ\eyygm`gu_agZdb
1.Q_]hg_agZ_lq_eh\_dQ_eh\_dg_agZ_lij_^_eZk\h_ckbeu]eZkblfhg]hevkdZy
gZjh^gZyfm^jhklv 2.Q_eh\_dmklZ_ldh]^Z_fmg_q_]h^_eZlv]h\hjblky\ma[_dkdhc
ihkeh\bp_ 3. Mfguc djZlhd \ keh\Zo gh ^_yl_e_g \ ihklmidZo ]h\hjyl \ Bg^bb 4.
Emqr_ \k_]h l\_j^hklv [_a ]g_\Z gZklhcqb\hklv [_a kihjZ \_`eb\hklv [_a
gZ^f_gghklb lZd kqblZxl \ BjeZg^bb 5. IhdZ q_eh\_d g_ k^Z_lky hg kbevg__ k\h_c
km^v[uibkZeg_f_pdbcibkZl_evZglbnZrbklJ_fZjd
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
44.Ij_^eZ]Z_f\Zfg_kdhevdhbaj_q_gbc\u^Zxsbokyex^_cBf_gZwlboex^_c^Z_f
\kdh[dZoihke_dZ`^h]hbaj_q_gby>hibrbl_hlk_[ykeh\ZZ\lhjZbihf_klbl_bo
ihke_ ijyfhc j_qb HdZaZ\rbkv \ jheb Z\lhjZ ihklZjZcl_kv qlh[u \Zrb keh\Z g_
[uebh^ghh[jZagufbJZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
1. Dlh jZa^m\Z_l ieZfy kkhju b \hjhqZ_l ]heh\gb lhl g_ ^he`_g `Zeh\Zlvky _keb
bkdju ihiZ^Zxl _fm \ ebph <NjZgdebg 2. ;_a \hh[jZ`_gby g_\hafh`gh
khklZ\e_gb_ gbdZdh]h km`^_gby :jbklhl_ev 3. < jZ[hl_ fukeb _klv jZ^hklv
aZo\Zlu\ZxsZy^mokbeZ]Zjfhgby <B<_jgZ^kdbc 4. OjZ[ju_ ihagZxlky \ [bl\_
k_fvyb^_lb\[_^_Z^jmavy\g_kqZklv_ bg^bckdZyihkeh\bpZ GZklZg_l^_gvbqZkijh[v_l
Dh]^Zmfmbq_klb
133
GZ\k_ca_fe_ijb^_lq_j_^
KlhylvgZi_j\hff_kl_
J;_jgk
6.H[jZsZckyk^jm]bfblZddZdluohl_e[uqlh[uh[jZsZebkvklh[hc <hevl_j 7.Ihegh\h^gZyj_dZkihdhcgZ mfgucq_eh\_dg_aZghkqb\ fhg]hevkdZyihkeh\bpZ 8.Fha]ohjhrhmkljh_ggucklhbl[hevr_q_ffha]ohjhrhgZiheg_gguc Fhgl_gv 9. ?keb \u ohlbl_ aZ[ulv qlhgb[m^v g_f_^e_ggh aZibrbl_ qlh \u ^he`gu wlh
aZihfgblv W^]Zj Ih 10. <_k_eu_ ex^b [uklj__ \ua^hjZ\eb\Zxl b ^hevr_ `b\ml
:f[jmZaIZj_ Kj_^b
wlbo
baj_q_gbc
_klv
^\Z
ij_^eh`_gby
khhl\_lkl\mxsb_^Zgghcko_f_<uibrbl_boghf_jZ
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
45.L_i_jvijhqblZcl_iZjuijbf_jh\kjZ\gbl_bobjZkkdZ`bl_hgbo\k_qlhfh`_l_
JZkklZ\vl_g_^hklZxsb_agZdbij_ibgZgby
1.H\dmkZog_kihjyl —]h\hjbeb^j_\gb_jbfeyg_Wlhcihkeh\bp_khhl\_lkl\m_l
jmkkdZyGZ\dmkgZp\_llh\ZjbsZg_l 2.Ki_rbf_^e_ggh —kh\_lh\ZeZeZlbgkdZy
fm^jhklv WlZ `_ fukev \ujZ`_gZ \ jmkkdhc ihkeh\bp_ Ihki_rbrv ex^_c
gZkf_rbrv
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
?keb \u h[^mfZggh kjZ\gbeb wlb ^\_ iZju ijbf_jh\ lh fh]eb aZf_lblv
ke_^mxs__
1) < dZ`^hc iZj_ ijbf_jh\ ^\_ ihkeh\bpu h^gZ ^j_\g_jbfkdZy ^jm]Zy
kh\j_f_ggZyjmkkdZyWlbihkeh\bpuihjZaghfm\ujZ`Zxlh^gmblm`_fukev
2)DZ`^Zyihkeh\bpZhnhjfe_gZ dZd ijyfZy j_qv ijb ihfhsb keh\ Z\lhjZ Keh\Z
Z\lhjZ \ dZ`^hf kemqZ_ nhjfmebjmxlky ihjZaghfm B \ h^ghf kemqZ_ hgb klhyl
i_j_^ijyfhcj_qvxZ\^jm]hf —ihke_
46.Ij_^eZ]Z_f\Zf_s_g_kdhevdhiZjlZdboihkeh\bp>hihegbl_ bo keh\Zfb Z\lhjZ
i_j_^ijyfhcj_qvxbihke_g__baZibrbl_
1. ?klv f_jZ \ \_sZo eZl <k_ ohjhrh \ f_jm jmkkd 2. ?keb `b\_rv \ Jbf_
`b\b \ kh]eZkbb k jbfkdbfb h[uqZyfb eZl K \hedZfb `blv — ih\heqvb \ulv
jmkkd 3. =g_\ \ex[e_gguo — \hah[gh\e_gb_ ex[\b eZl Fbeu_ [jZgylky —
lhevdhl_rZlky jmkkd 4.IjZ\^Zjh^blg_gZ\bklv eZl IjZ\^Z]eZaZdhe_l jmkkd Fuk\ZfbmagZeb^\ZkemqZy\aZbfgh]hjZkiheh`_gbyijyfhcj_qbbkeh\Z\lhjZ
i_j_^ijyfhcj_qvxbihke_g__
Dh]^Zkeh\ZZ\lhjZ\gmljbijyfhcj_qb
h^gh]hlbj_fZeh
:l_i_jvhij_^_ebl_]^_gZoh^ylkykeh\ZZ\lhjZ\ke_^mxsboij_^eh`_gbyo
134
Ijhrm\Zkijhqlbl_qlha^_kvgZibkZgh²ihijhkbeklhys_]hjy^hffm`qbgm
ibkZl_ev aZ[u\rbc ^hfZ hqdb Ba\bgbl_² hl\_lbe lhl gh y lZdhc `_
h[b`_gguckm^v[hcdZd\uylh`_g_mf_xqblZlv
<u ijZ\u _keb j_rbeb lZd < i_j\hf ij_^eh`_gbb keh\Z Z\lhjZ klhyl ihaZ^b
ijyfhcj_qbZ\h\lhjhf —\gmljbg__bjZaju\Zxl__gZ^\_qZklb
DZdjZkklZ\blvagZdb\wlhfkemqZ_"
WlhaZ\bkblhllh]hgZdZdhff_kl_\gmljbijyfhcj_qbhdZau\Zxlkykeh\ZZ\lhjZ
dhlhju_ __ jZaju\Zxl \ h^ghf ij_^eh`_gbb beb f_`^m ^\mfy ?keb \ h^ghf
ij_^eh`_gbblhgZf_kl_jZaju\Zfh][uklhylvex[hcagZdk_j_^bguij_^eh`_gby
beb \hh[s_ gbdZdh]h agZdZ ?keb f_`^m ^\mfy lh gZ f_kl_ jZaju\Z fh] [u klhylv
ex[hcagZddhgpZij_^eh`_gby
<k_\hafh`gu_\ZjbZgluagZdh\_kebijyfZyj_qvjZaju\Z_lkykeh\ZfbZ\lhjZfu
h[t_^bgbeb\bgkljmdpbbdhlhjhc\u[m^_l_ijbg_h[oh^bfhklbihevah\Zlvky
JZkklZ\vl_agZdb\ijbf_j_
Fg_ g_ gZ^h gbq_]h g_h[oh^bfh]h ex[be ]h\hjblv ihwl FboZbe K\_leh\ gh y g_
fh]m[_aebrg_]h BB]bg Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
135
48. IjhqblZcl_ ijbf_ju \uibrbl_ ghf_jZ l_o ijbf_jh\ dhlhju_ y\eyxlky
ijhklufbij_^eh`_gbyfb \uibrbl_ihf_jijbf_jZkhhl\_lkl\mxs_]hko_f_
Ihke_ wlh]h hnhjfbl_ wlb ij_^eh`_gby dZd ijyfmx j_qv ^h[Z\b\ hl k_[y keh\Z
Z\lhjZ\gmljbijyfhcj_qbbaZibrbl_ihemq_ggu_ij_^eh`_gbyjZkklZ\eyyagZdb
ij_ibgZgby<kemqZ_aZljm^g_gbyaZ]ey^u\Zcl_\bgkljmdpbx
1.OhjhrhihklZ\blv\hijhkagZqbl m`_gZiheh\bgmj_rblv_]h >BF_g^_e__\ 2.FZl_fZlbdZ_^bgkl\_gguckh\_jr_ggucf_lh^iha\heyxsbcijh\_klbkZfh]hk_[y
aZghk :Wcgrl_cg 3.Lhfmdlhg_ihklb]gZmdb^h[jZ\kydZybgZygZmdZijbg_k_l
ebrv \j_^ Fhgl_gv 4. JZ^hklv \b^_lv b ihgbfZlv _klv kZfuc ij_djZkguc ^Zj
ijbjh^u :Wcgrl_cg 5. <k_ `Zemxlky gZ k\hx gZfylv ih gbdlh g_ `Zem_lky gZ
k\hcmf EZjhrnmdh 6.=emi_pihjZ`Z_ldjbdhffm^j_pih]h\hjdhcijb\_^_gghcd
f_klm JZkme=ZfaZlh\ Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
Keh\Z Z\lhjZ fh]ml hdZaZlvky f_`^m dhgphf h^gh]h ij_^eh`_gby b gZqZehf
^jm]h]h
< wlbo kemqZyo imgdlmZpbhggh_ hnhjfe_gb_ keh\ Z\lhjZ aZ\bkbl hl lh]h f_`^m
dZdbfb ij_^eh`_gbyfb hgb klhyl Dh]^Z keh\Z Z\lhjZ klhyl ihke_ ij_^eh`_gby gZ
dhgp_dhlhjh]hlhqdZZihke_gbogZqbgZ_lkygh\h_ij_^eh`_gb_wlh\u]ey^bllZd
I²Z —I
49.JZkklZ\vl_agZdb\ke_^mxs_fijbf_j_kh\_lmykvkwlhcko_fhc
G_l gbq_]h jZ^hklg__ b ijbylg__ ^_eZgby ^h[jZ ibkZe Khdheh\Fbdblh\ >Z`_
kZfh_ fZe_gvdh_ ^h[jh hdZaZlv mkem]m mklmiblv f_klh ihfhqv \klZlv ijbylgh b
ohjhrh
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
?keb keh\Z Z\lhjZ klhyl ihke_ ij_^eh`_gby gZ dhgp_ dhlhjh]h klhbl
\hijhkbl_evguc beb \hkdebpZl_evguc agZd lh hgb hnhjfeyxlky agZdZfb
ij_ibgZgbylZdI" —Z —II —Z —I
:l_i_jvkh[_j_f\k_ko_fu^Zggu_\bgkljmdpbb\f_kl_ kfk 137).
50.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby\ke_^mxsboijbf_jZo
1. Lhevdh ^h[juc b lZeZgleb\uc gZjh^ fh`_l khojZgblv \_ebqZ\h_ kihdhckl\b_
^moZ b xfhj \ ex[uo kZfuo ljm^guo h[klhyl_evkl\Zo iheZ]Ze \_ebdbc agZlhd
jmkkdh]h keh\Z <eZ^bfbj >Zev Ihkeh\bpu ih]h\hjdb ijb[Zmldb jh`^Zykv \ g_^jZo
gZjh^guofZkk]h\hjylha^hjh\hffh]mq_fhj]Zgbaf_ 2.?klvlZdb_djZldb_
baj_q_gbybihkeh\bpudhlhju_\k_fbijbgylubmihlj_[eyxlkyaZf_lbejbfkdbc
hjZlhjD\bglbebZgLZdb_baj_q_gbyg_i_j_oh^beb[uba\_dZ\\_d_k
136
137
eb [u \k_f ex^yf g_ dZaZebkv bklbggufb 3. ?keb [u y g_ jZ[hlZe qlh [u y ^_eZe
a^_kv gZ a_fe_ ibkZe ba\_klguc om^h`gbd KZev\Z^hj >Zeb KdmqZe [u dZd mkljbpZ
Ihwlhfmyl_ji_lvg_fh]mmkljbp ba]Za_l 4.G_l_jyc]eZajmdmbl_f[he__]heh\m
ibkZeKZev\Z^hj>Zeb?kebluklZg_rvom^h`gbdhfhgbijb]h^ylkyl_[_ ba]Za_l 5. DhjZ[ev ih^hc^_l \_ebq_kl\_ggh d kZfhfm [_j_]m ih^ a\mdb ij_djZkghc fmaudb
AZq_f \u ijb_oZeb Dh]h \u bs_l_ kijhkyl ex^b gZ [_j_]m 6. Lh]^Z lu m\b^brv
ojZ[jh]h djZkb\h]h ijbgpZ hg [m^_l klhylv b ijhly]b\Zlv d l_[_ jmdb A^jZ\kl\mc
:kkhevkdZ`_lhg>Ze_dh^Ze_dhhlkx^Zym\b^_el_[y\hkg_bijb_oZeqlh[um\_alb
l_[ygZ\k_]^Z\k\h_pZjkl\h :=jbg Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
: l_i_jv ² \k_ \f_kl_ JZkklZ\vl_ agZdb ij_ibgZgby b aZibrbl_ ghf_j dZ`^h]h
ijbf_jZ\khhl\_lkl\mxsbcklhe[bdlZ[ebpuJZ[hlZcl_kie_gdhc
i_j_^ijyfhcj_qvx
Keh\ZZ\lhjZ
ihke_ijyfhcj_qb
\gmljbijyfhcj_qb
1. Ljm^gh eb [jhkblv dmjblv kijhkbeb agZf_gblh]h Zf_jbdZgkdh]h xfhjbklZ
FZjdZ L\_gZ FZjd L\_g hl\_lbe Kh\k_f g_ ljm^gh y jZa klh [jhkZe 2. H^gZ`^u
dh]^ZFZydh\kdbc[ue\:f_jbd__fmkdZaZebDZdhc\u\ukhdbcQlh\um^b\e_ggh
hl\_lbe <eZ^bfbj <eZ^bfbjh\bq Y kZfuc fZe_gvdbc g_[hkdj_[ 3. H^bg
\ukhdhiZjgucihf_sbdj_rbeihl_rblvkygZ^\_l_jbgZjhfbkijhkbe_]h<ub_klv
^hdlhj ^ey kdhlbgu >Z y kihdhcgh hl\_lbe lhl : qlh m \Zk [hebl" 4. M Oh^`b
GZkj_^^bgZ kijhkbeb Dh]^Z g_kml ihdhcgbdZ lh ]^_ ke_^m_l gZoh^blvky ihaZ^b beb
\i_j_^b ]jh[Z Lhevdh g_ \gmljb hl\_lbe Oh^`Z Z lZf ]^_ ohlbl_ 5. DZd kljhyl
\ukhdb_ [Zrgb kijhkbeb m Oh^`b GZkj_^^bgZ Hq_gv ijhklh hl\_lbe hg Jhxl
]em[hdb_ dheh^pu b \u\hjZqb\Zxl bo gZbagZgdm 6. <h \j_fy njZgpmakdhc
j_\hexpbb lheiZ ihlZsbeZ Z[[ZlZ Fhjb d nhgZjx qlh[u ih\_kblv KlZg_l eb \Zf
k\_le__ kijhkbe Z[[Zl _keb \u ih\_kbl_ f_gy gZ wlhf nhgZj_ RmldZ kiZkeZ _fm
`bagv 7.LhqlhfuagZ_fh]jZgbq_gghibkZenjZgpmakdbcZkljhghfEZieZkZlhq_]h
fu g_ agZ_f [_kdhg_qgh 8. M^b\bl_evgh g_ lh qlh a\_a^gh_ ihe_ lZd \_ebdh ibkZe
:gZlhevNjZgkZlhqlhq_eh\_d_]hbaf_jbe 9.Dh]^Zfui_j_klZ_f^_eZlv ]h\hjbe
;_jgZj^Rhmfui_j_klZ_f`blv 10.?kebm\Zk_klvy[ehdhb mf_gy_klvy[ehdhb
fuh[f_gy_fkywlbfby[ehdZfblhm\Zkbmf_gyhklZg_lkyihh^ghfmy[ehdmex[be
]h\hjblv;_jgZj^Rhm :_keb m \Zk_klvb^_yb m f_gy _klv b^_y b fu h[f_gy_fky
wlbfbb^_yfblhmdZ`^h]hbagZk[m^_lih^\_b^_b 11.Ba[_]Zcl_l_odlhklZjZ_lky
ih^hj\Zlv\Zrm\_jm\k_[yibkZeFZjdL\_gWlZq_jlZk\hckl\_ggZf_edbfex^yf
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
138
IjyfZyj_qv\hdjm`_gbb
Z\lhjkdbokeh\
<h \k_o jZkkfhlj_gguo ijbf_jZo ijyfZy j_qv k ^\mo klhjhg hdjm`Z_l keh\Z
Z\lhjZ Gh [u\Z_l b gZh[hjhl ohly b j_`_ dh]^Z keh\Z Z\lhjZ k ^\mo klhjhg
hdjm`Zxlijyfmxj_qv
<hldZdwlhfh`_l\u]ey^_lvgZko_f_
52.Jmdh\h^kl\mykvwlbfbko_fZfbjZkklZ\vl_agZdb\ke_^mxsbohlju\dZobaihwfu
:L\Zj^h\kdh]h<ZkbebcL_jdbg
Bkhimrdbhl^Ze_gghc
BaaZlukyqbdhe_k
BadhgpZ\dhg_pdhehggu
IhfZrbgZf^hg_kehkv
<hlm`_mdjZcg_coZlu
Ih^gyehgeZ^hgvdmkZf
139
Fheh^pu\i_j_^j_[ylZ
DjbdgmelZdfheh^p_\Zlh
Keh\gh[ueQZiZ_\kZf
Imklv\dZdhcgb[m^vdZil_jd_
Mdmohggh]hdjuevpZ
KdZ`ml\rmldmWcluL_jdbg
IjhdZdh]hlh[hcpZ
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
Ih^\_^_f blh]b \k_fm qlh fu magZeb h ijyfhc j_qb \ \b^_ bgkljmdpbb kf k
141).
LjZ]_^bb^bZeh]Z
Ihfgbl_ eb \u gZbamklv hlju\hd ba klbohl\hj_gby G_djZkh\Z Jmkkdb_ ^_lb
ba\_klguc ih^ gZa\Zgb_f Fm`bqhd k gh]hlhd" ?keb ihfgbl_ — aZibrbl_ ih
iZfylb ?keb g_ ihfgbl_ ihijhkbl_ dh]hgb[m^v ijh^bdlh\Zlv \Zf wlhl hlju\hd Z
ihlhf ijh\_jvl_ k_[y ih dgb`d_ ?keb m \Zk \k_ ihemqbehkv iha^jZ\ey_f \Zk Ih
gZrbfgZ[ex^_gbyfqZs_\k_]hhlhrb[hdhdZau\Zxlkyk\h[h^gufblhevdhi_j\u_
^\_ kljhqdb : ^Zevr_ pZjbl lZdZy g_jZa[_jboZ qlh g_\hafh`gh ihgylv dhfm ba
^_ckl\mxsbo ebp ijbgZ^e_`Zl l_ beb bgu_ keh\Z Bgh]^Z keh\Z ijhbag_k_ggu_
jZagufb ^_ckl\mxsbfb ebpZfb kde_b\Zxlky \ h^gm njZam gZijbf_j A^hjh\h
iZjgbs_ KlmiZc k_[_ fbfh Bgh]^Z keh\Z ijhbag_k_ggu_ h^gbf ^_ckl\mxsbf
ebphf jZaju\Zxlky lZdbf h[jZahf dZd [m^lh bo ijhbaghkbeb jZagu_ ex^b
gZijbf_jBae_km\_klbfh — Hl_pkeurbrvjm[blZyhl\h`m
I_j_qblZcl_ aZibkZgguc \Zfb hlju\hd jZa[_jbl_kv ]^_ qvb keh\Z b jZa^_ebl_
keh\Z^_ckl\mxsboebplZdqlh[uihemqbeZkvjZa[_jboZ
L_dkl wlh]h klhev ljm^gh]h g_djZkh\kdh]h hlju\dZ ij_^klZ\ey_l kh[hc jZa]h\hj
^\mo ^_ckl\mxsbo ebp J_qv dhlhjZy i_j_^Z_l jZa]h\hj ^\mo beb g_kdhevdbo ebp
gZau\Z_lky ^bZeh]hf hl ]j_q_kdh]h keh\Z ^bZeh]hk — jZa]h\hj ^\mo DZ`^Zy
ijhbag_k_ggZy h^gbf ba ^_ckl\mxsbo ebp njZaZ gZau\Z_lky j_iebdhc H^gZ
j_iebdZhl^jm]hc^he`gZ[ulvh[yaZl_evghhl^_e_gZlbj_:_keb_klv_s_bkeh\Z
Z\lhjZ hgb ^he`gu [ulv hl^_e_gu hl [eb`Zcr_c d gbf j_iebdb \ khhl\_lkl\bb k
m`_agZdhfufb\ZfijZ\beZfb
GZijbf_jDlhlZfklmqblky\iha^gbcqZk" —Dhg_qghyNbg^e_c —B^b
^hfhc\k_kiylmgZk —G_\k_ —kdZaZeNbg^e_c J;_jgk 53.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby<uibrbl_ghf_jZijbf_jh\\dhlhjuog_l^bZeh]Z
JZ[hlZcl_kie_gdhc
1. Kijhkbeb m EmdbZgZ M dh]h lu mqbeky \_`eb\hklb M g_\_`^ hl\_lbe hg Y
\ha^_j`b\Zxkv hl j_q_c b ihklmidh\ dhlhju_ fg_ \ gbo g_ijbylgu KZZ^b 2.
Pbjdh\hcZjlbkl:gZlhebc>mjh\keZ\bekyhkljhmfb_fbkf_ehklvx<hlh^bgba_]h
ghf_jh\<uoh^ygZpbjdh
140
141
\hc fZg_` hg ^he]h [jhkZe gZ dh\_j ih^gbfZe b kgh\Z [jhkZe ahehlmx fhg_lm
=Z^Z_l_ gZ hjeZ b j_rdm" kijZrb\Zeb _]h G_l hl\_qZe hg Y aZgyl f_g__ \Z`guf
^_ehf DZdbf `_" >Z ijhklh ^mjZdZ \Zeyx hl\_qZe Zjlbkl ihdZau\Zy ebp_\mx
klhjhgm fhg_lu k bah[jZ`_gguf gZ g_c pZjkdbf ijhnbe_f 3. H^gZ`^u d
:e_dkZg^jm >xfZ dhlhjuc ml\_j`^Ze qlh g_gZ\b^bl km^_ckdh_ khkeh\b_ ijbreb
ijhkblv gZ ihohjhgu km^_[gh]h bkihegbl_ey Gm`gh ljb^pZlv njZgdh\ fkv_ >xfZ
<k_]hebrvljb^pZlvnjZgdh\gZh^gh]hkm^_[gh]hbkihegbl_ey<hl\Zfr_klv^_kyl
ihohjhgbl_ ^\hbo Wlhl Zg_d^hl hg khqbgbe ijh k_[y kZf Z gZ kZfhf ^_e_ hg [ue
hq_gv^h[jb\k_]^Z]hlh\ih^_eblvkybihke_^gbfnjZgdhfbfbeebhghf_kebhg m
g_]h[ue ihD:g^j__\m Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
< kdZad_ :glmZgZ ^_ K_glWdaxi_jb FZe_gvdbc ijbgp jZkkdZau\Z_lky dZd \h
\j_fy iml_r_kl\by \ f_`a\_a^ghf ijhkljZgkl\_ FZe_gvdbc ijbgp ihk_sZ_l
djhr_qgmxieZg_lmgZdhlhjhc`b\_livygbpZ
54. I_j_ibrbl_ khklhy\rbcky f_`^m gbfb ^bZeh] klZ\y gm`gu_ agZdb Wlh [m^_l
e_]q_k^_eZlv_keb\ufuke_gghjZau]jZ_l_ihjheyfwlmkp_gdm
Qlh wlh lu ^_eZ_rv kijhkbe FZe_gvdbc ijbgp Ivx fjZqgh hl\_lbe ivygbpZ
AZq_f Qlh[u aZ[ulv H q_f aZ[ulv kijhkbe FZe_gvdbc ijbgp _fm klZeh `Zev
ivygbpmOhqmaZ[ulvqlhfg_kh\_klghijbagZekyivygbpZbih\_kbe]heh\mHlq_]h
`_ l_[_ kh\_klgh kijhkbe FZe_gvdbc ijbgp _fm hq_gv ohl_ehkv ihfhqv [_^gy]_
Kh\_klghiblvh[tykgbeivygbpZb[hevr_hlg_]hg_evay[ueh^h[blvkygbkeh\Z
B FZe_gvdbc ijbgp hlijZ\beky ^Zevr_ jZkl_jygguc b g_^hmf_\Zxsbc >Z [_a
khfg_gby\ajhkeu_hq_gvkljZggucgZjh^^mfZehgijh^he`Zyimlv
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
?keb m \Zk g_ [ueh hrb[hd ijhimklbl_ ke_^mxs__ aZ^Zgb_ ?keb [ueb
\uihegycl_\k_ih^jy^
55. < jhfZg_ F:;me]Zdh\Z FZkl_j b FZj]ZjblZ _klv ^bZeh] f_`^m Ihglb_f
IbeZlhfbZj_klh\ZggufOjbklhfI_j_ibrbl__]hjZkklZ\eyyagZdbij_ibgZgby
:l_i_jv kdZ`b fg_qlh wlhlu \k_ \j_fy mihlj_[ey_rv keh\Z ^h[ju_ ex^b Lu
\k_olZdqlhebgZau\Z_rv<k_ohl\_lbe Zj_klZgl aeuo ex^_c g_l gZ k\_l_ <i_j\u_
keurm h[ wlhf kdZaZe IbeZl mkf_ogm\rbkv gh fh`_l [ulv y fZeh agZx `bagv <
dZdhcgb[m^v ba ]j_q_kdbo dgb] lu ijhqblZe h[ wlhf G_l y k\hbf mfhf ^hr_e ^h
wlh]hBluijhih\_^m_rvwlh>Z
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
Kms_kl\m_lh[e_]q_gguckihkh[aZibkb^bZeh]Z
?keb dZ`^mx j_iebdm ^bZeh]Z gZqbgZlv k ih\hc kljhqdb lh hl^_eblv bo ^jm] hl
^jm]Zkh\k_fijhklhi_j_^dZ`^hcj_iebdhc\gZqZe_keh\ZklZ\blkylbj_<hllZd
142
²=^_lu[ueZk_]h^gydbkdZ"
²Mdhjhe_\umZg]ebckdhc
²Qlhlu\b^ZeZijb^\hj_"
²<b^ZeZfurdmgZdh\j_
:g]ebckdZyi_k_gdZ
?keb \u mf__l_ fuke_ggh hl^_eblv h^gm j_iebdm hl ^jm]hc mki_o lZdhc aZibkb
\Zfh[_ki_q_g
56.JZkklZ\vl_agZdb\ke_^mxsbol_dklZoJZ[hlZcl_kie_gdhc
:oluL_jdbgGmbfZeuc
B\dh]hlum^Zeky
LhevdhfZlvgZ\_jghagZeZ
Yhll_ldbjh^beky
L_jdbgl_ldbg_edbiZedb
Kuiv_s_gZaeh\jZ]m
G_fh]mLZeZglZ`Zedh
>h[hf[_`db[_j_]m
:L\Zj^h\kdbc
Wc]hj_phlq_]h
G_ghkbrvludbg`ZeZ
Dh]^Zghrm_]h
G_ba[_`ZlvkdZg^ZeZ
Wc]hj_phlq_]h
Dbg`Ze[_j_rv\^hjh]m
Dh]^Zy[_ag_]h
KdZg^Zeh\kebrdhffgh]h
=Zabf;_]<Z]^Zgh\
DZd_s_i_j_^Zlv
qm`mxj_qv
Ihijh[mcl_ih^h[jZlvZglhgbfdkeh\hkhq_lZgbxijyfZyj_qvQlh\Zfijboh^bl
\]heh\mdjb\Zyj_qv"DhkZyj_qv"Djm]eZyj_qv"G_ldhg_qghDhk\_ggZyj_qv
Q_f`_hlebqZ_lkydhk\_ggZyj_qvhlijyfhc"
Dh]^Z jZkkdZaqbd i_j_^Z_l j_qv ^jm]h]h q_eh\_dZ keh\Zfb kZfh]h wlh]h q_eh\_dZ
[_a baf_g_gbc — wlh ijyfZy j_qv Dh]^Z `_ hg i_j_^Z_l wlm j_qv k\hbfb keh\Zfb
g_fgh]hbaf_gyy__lhwlhdhk\_ggZyj_qv
57. GZ^__fky qlh \u [_a ljm^Z hlebqbl_ ijyfmx j_qv hl dhk\_gghc \ ke_^mxsbo
ijbf_jZo g_aZ[m^vl_jZkklZ\blv\gboagZdbij_ibgZgby 1. =j_q_kdhfm \jZqm =biihdjZlm ijbgZ^e_`Zl keh\Z @bagv dhjhldZ bkdmkkl\h
\_qgh 2.XebcP_aZjv]h\hjbeEmqr_[ulvi_j\uf\>_j_\g_q_f\lhjuf\Jbf_ 3.
H^bg fm^j_p kdZaZe qlh q_eh\_d ihemqZ_l agZgby ba eZ^hg_c ^jm]bo ex^_c 4.
>j_\gb_]j_dbml\_j`^Z
143
eb qlh fmaudZ bae_qb\Z_l [he_agb 5. Y fukex ke_^h\Zl_evgh y kms_kl\mx ibkZe
njZgpmakdbc nbehkhn J_g_ >_dZjl 6. >j_\gb_ jbfeyg_ ]h\hjbeb qlh dgb]b bf_xl
k\hxkm^v[m
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
58.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgbyAZg_kbl_ghf_jdZ`^h]hijbf_jZ\khhl\_lkl\mxsbc
klhe[bdlZ[ebpuJZ[hlZcl_kie_gdhc
Ijbf_jukijyfhcj_qvx Ijbf_jukdhk\_gghcj_qvx
Ijbf_jubklhcbk
^jm]hcj_qvx
1.H^gZ`^udZdjZkkdZau\Z_l^j_\g_]j_q_kdbcfbn\eZ^udZfbjZA_\k\ha\_klbe
[h]Zf qlh \ wlhl qZk gZ a_fe_ jh^blky \_ebqZcrbc ]_jhc Hg [m^_l fhbf ex[bfuf
kughfy^Zf _fm \eZklvgZ^\k_c =j_pb_cb^jm]b_ ]_jhb [m^ml kem`blv _fm kdZaZe
A_\k Kmijm]Z A_\kZ =_jZ h[b^_eZkv qlh lZdmx kbem b keZ\m A_\k ohq_l hl^Zlv kugm
kf_jlghc`_gsbgub mg__\hagbd dh\ZjgucieZg HgZkdZaZeZA_\km Ihdeygbkv`_
qlh lhl dlh i_j\uc jh^blky \ wlhl qZk ihemqbl \eZklv gZ^ \k_c =j_pb_c b ^jm]b_
]_jhb ^he`gu [m^ml kem`blv _fm < wlm fbgmlm [h]bgy h[fZgZ :lZ hl\e_deZ _]h
\gbfZgb_bA_\kg_aZf_lbeobljhklbHgkdZaZeDeygmkvLZdb[m^_l 2.LjbLheklydZ
kdZaZebfg_<ugvk_j^p_fZevqbdZbk^_eZc^eyg_]h`_e_agh_k_j^p_YkdZaZeqlh
g_evay ebrZlv q_eh\_dZ _]h q_eh\_q_kdh]h k_j^pZ Qlh gbdZdh_ k_j^p_ gb `_e_agh_
gb e_^ygh_ gb ahehlh_ g_ fh`_l [ulv ^Zgh q_eh\_dm \f_klh ijhklh]h gZklhys_]h
q_eh\_q_kdh]hk_j^pZ XHe_rZ 3.Gh\ke_^mxsbcfb]Ibl_jm`_klhyegZkdZe_
hg meu[Zeky Z ]^_lh \gmljb g_]h [be fZe_gvdbc [ZjZ[Zgqbd Hg \uklmdb\Ze lZdb_
keh\Z Qlh ` mf_j_lv wlh \_^v lh`_ [hevrh_ b bgl_j_kgh_ ijbdexq_gb_ IlbpZ
djbqZeZ Ibl_jm qlh ieu\_l d g_fm qlh[u \ujmqblv _]h ba [_^u Z hg kijZrb\Ze __
qlhhgZlZf^_eZ_lgh\ky[_^Z\lhfqlhhgbg_agZebyaudZ^jm]^jm]Z >`;Zjjb Reb[hcpuaZgZfbke_^hf
Ihdb^Zyie_ggucdjZc
Yh^gmihebl[_k_^m
Ih\lhjyeG_mgu\Zc
Yh^ghkdZ`mqlhgZf[u
IhmijZ\blvkyk\hcghc
Hlh^\bgmlvwlm^Zf[m
AZij_^_ea_febjh^ghc
B\h^bgij_djZkguc\_q_j
<^jm]kemqblkyjZa]h\hj
JZaj_rbl_\Zfijb\klj_q_
=heh\ghc\jmqblvm[hj
:L\Zj^h\kdbc
144
7.Dh]^Z:e_dkZg^jZ>xfZkijZrb\ZebdZdjh`^Zxlky_]hijhba\_^_gbyhg^_eZe
\b^ qlh wlh ijhbkoh^bl kZfh kh[hc Kijhkbl_ m keb\h\h]h ^_j_\Z dZd hgh ^_eZ_l
keb\u]h\hjbehg ihD:g^j__\m Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
59. IjyfZy b dhk\_ggZy j_qv bf_xl h^gb b l_ `_ khklZ\eyxsb_ keh\Z jZkkdZaqbdZ b
keh\Z lh]h h dhf b^_l jZkkdZa < dhk\_gghc j_qb keh\Z jZkkdZaqbdZ beb Z\lhjZ
[u\Zxl ]eZ\guf ij_^eh`_gb_f Z qm`b_ i_j_kdZau\Z_fu_ keh\Z ² ijb^Zlhqguf
GZc^bl_ijbf_julZdh]hihkljh_gby\m`_aZibkZgguo\Zfbij_^eh`_gbyo
60.Dhk\_ggmxj_qvfh`ghij_h[jZah\u\Zlv\ijyfmxbgZh[hjhl>Z\Zcl_ihijh[m_f
wlhk^_eZlvg_aZ[u\ZyjZkklZ\eylvkhhl\_lkl\mxsb_agZdbij_ibgZgbyKlZjZcl_kv
jZaghh[jZablvf_klhkeh\Z\lhjZ
1.H^gbfbbaihke_^gbokeh\^_yl_eynjZgpmakdhcj_\hexpbbFbjZ[h[uebkeh\Z
h lhf qlh khegp_ — _keb hgh g_ kZf ;h] lh \h \kydhf kemqZ_ _]h ^\hxjh^guc [jZl
X He_rZ 2. F =hjvdbc ml\_j`^Ze qlh qm^Zdb mdjZrZxl fbj 3. >j_\g_jbfkdbc
ihwlX\_gZekqblZeqlhdj_[_gdm^he`ghhlghkblvkyk\_ebqZcrbfm\Z`_gb_f
I_j_\_klb ijyfmx j_qv \ dhk\_ggmx aZqZklmx [u\Z_l ljm^g__ ihlhfm qlh gZ^h
aZf_gylv ebph f_klhbf_gbc k i_j\h]h gZ lj_lv_ Z bgh]^Z b baf_gylv dZdb_eb[h
keh\Zbebbof_klh\ij_^eh`_gbb
Ihijh[mcl_ ij_h[jZah\Zlv \ dhk\_ggmx j_qv ijbf_j Y m\Z`Zx ex[u_
m[_`^_gby b ij_`^_ \k_]h l_ dhlhju_ g_kh\f_klbfu k fhbfb² ibkZe
agZf_gblucom^h`gbdKZev\Z^hj>Zeb
KgZqZeZaZibrbl_k\hc\ZjbZglZihlhfkjZ\gbl__]hkgZrbf
AgZf_gblucom^h`gbdKZev\Z^hj>ZebibkZeqlhhgm\Z`Z_lex[u_m[_`^_gby
bij_`^_\k_]hl_dhlhju_g_kh\f_klbfuk_]hkh[kl\_ggufb
61. AZibrbl_ ke_^mxsb_ ijbf_ju dZd dhk\_ggmx j_qv G_ aZ[m^vl_ jZkklZ\blv agZdb
ij_ibgZgby
1. Nbehkhn K_g_dZ \hkiblZl_ev jbfkdh]h bfi_jZlhjZ G_jhgZ bf_e fm`_kl\h
kdZaZlv k\h_fm [u\r_fm mq_gbdm Kdhevdh [u lu gb m[b\Ze ex^_c lu gbdh]^Z g_
kmf__rv mkljZgblv k\h_]h ij__fgbdZ 2. GZ k\h_f \_dm y fgh]h \klj_qZe jZaguo
\ajhkeuo Dh]^Z y \klj_qZe \ajhkeh]h dhlhjuc fg_ dZaZeky jZamfg__ b ihgyleb\__
^jm]boyihdZau\Ze_fmk\hcjbkmghd‹²y_]hkhojZgbeb\k_]^Zghkbekkh[hx
:K_glWdaxi_jb Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
62.IhjZ[hlZcl_j_^ZdlhjhfGZc^bl_bbkijZ\vl_klbebklbq_kdb_hrb[db
1.Hl_pkdZaZeFbrd_qlhyg_ihc^mklh[hc\pbjdihlhfmqlh^hdhgpZg_^_eby
aZgylih]hjeh 2.>_\hqdZijb`ZeZdk_[_b]jmrdmbaZy\beZqlhygbdhfmg_hl^Zf
fhxdmdem 3.J_[ylZdeyebkv^jm]^jm]mqlhgbdZdZykbeZg_kfh`_lgZjmrblvgZrm
^jm`[m
145
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
:l_i_jv —^eyex[bl_e_chkljuohsms_gbc
63. AZ^Zgb_ ih\ur_gghc ljm^ghklb Ij_^eZ]Z_f \Zf g_kdhevdh l_dklh\ k dhlhjufb
gZ^hjZ[hlZlv\^\ZwlZiZI_j\uc²jZkklZ\blv\gboagZdbij_ibgZgby<lhjhc²
ij_h[jZah\Zlvijyfmxj_qv\dhk\_ggmx<uibkZlvghf_jZl_ol_dklh\kdhlhjufb
g_m^Zehkvwlhk^_eZlv
1.>j_\gb_]j_db]h\hjbebLuhk_e_keblug_\b^_e:nbgLuqmj[Zg_keb\b^_e
bo b g_ \hklhj]Zeky : _keb lu ih k\h_c hohl_ ihdbgme bo lh lu \_j[ex^ 2. :
ih\hjhlbkvdZkugWdhclukf_rghcdZdhcQlhwlhgZ\ZkaZihih\kdb_ih^jykgbdbB
wlZd oh^yl \k_ \ ZdZ^_fbb lZdbfb keh\Zfb \klj_lbe klZjuc ;mev[Z ^\mo kugh\_c
k\hbomqb\rboky\[mjk_bijb_oZ\rbodhlpm G<=h]hev Ke_^mxsbc hlju\hd \ayl ba jhfZgZ : NZ^__\Z Fheh^Zy ]\Zj^by WlZ kp_gdZ
ijhbkoh^bl \h \j_fy \hcgu dh]^Z gZk_e_gb_ DjZkgh^hgZ \dexqZy fbebpbx ihdb^Z_l
]hjh^ Z Ex[dZ R_\ph\Z hklZxsZyky \ ]hjh^_ ^ey iZjlbaZgkdhc [hjv[u dhff_glbjm_l
hlklmie_gb_fbebp_ckdbokh_^bg_gbckZfufg_e_klgufh[jZahf
3.<hgkdhevdh\ZkihgZeZabeh[exklbl_ebaZdjbqZeZEx[dZG_llh]hqlh[ugZjh^
mkihdhblv kZfb — nxblv — B q_]h a\hgbl ^mjZ h[b`_gguc wlhc y\ghc
g_kijZ\_^eb\hklvx h]juagmeky k ]jmah\bdZ fbebp_ckdbc gZqZevgbd k_j`Zgl Gh
\b^gh hg wlh k^_eZe gZ [_^m k_[_ : lh\Zjbs >jZidbg ijb\_lkl\h\ZeZ _]h Ex[dZ
Hldm^Z wlh lu \ubkdZeky djZkguc \blyav AZfheqbrv lu beb g_l \kiuebe \^jm]
djZkguc\blyav 4.HklZgh\bekyLZjZkb\kdjbdgmeKlhc\uiZeZexevdZklZ[Zdhfg_
ohqmqlh[ubexevdZ^hklZeZkv\jZ`vbfeyoZf
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
AZdZgqb\ZyjZa]h\hjhijyfhcj_qbg_aZ[u\Zcl_\k_hlghkysb_kydg_cijZ\beZ
ihfh]ml\Zflhevdhlh]^Zdh]^Z\ukmf__l_\mf_jZaebqZlvih\_kl\h\Zl_evgmxj_qv
Z\lhjZbj_iebdbhklZevguo^_ckl\mxsboebp
64. I_j_^ \Zfb hlj_adb ij_^eh`_gbc dhlhju_ fh`gh ijh^he`blv ke_^mxsbf
h[jZahf lhevdh ijyfhc j_qvx lhevdh dhk\_gghc j_qvx dZd ijyfhc lZd b
dhk\_gghc j_qvx AZibrbl_ ghf_j dZ`^h]h hlj_adZ \ khhl\_lkl\mxsbc klhe[bd
lZ[ebpuKhklZ\vl___
1. ...ijh]h\hjbekd\havam[u ... 2. ...ex[beih\lhjylv ... 3. ...jZatykgbeqlh ... 4. ...
bkhh[sbe ... 5. ...\gmrbl_evghijhbag_k ... 6. ...bjZkkdZaZehlhf ... 7. ...aZy\beijb
\k_o ... 8. ... kdZaZe j_rbl_evguf lhghf ... 9. ... b \hkdebdgme ... 10. ... gh \k_]^Z
ml\_j`^Zeqlh ...
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,,,
Hl\_lu
1. 1. ... ieh^Z ... ihwabx b ^jm`[m 2. ... \k_ gm`^Zxlky ... klZju_ ... 3. ^\_ ...
aZ^Zqb ... .
146
2.
Ij_^eh`_gbykh[h[sZxsbfbkeh\Zfb
ihke_dhlhjuoklhbl^\h_lhqb_
;_kkhxagu_keh`gu_ij_^eh`_gbyk
^\h_lhqb_f
1 IbkZl_ev ... ), 3, 4 Dh]^ZZf_jbdZgpu ... ;
Q_f\gbfZl_evg_c ... ), 5
1 <wlhfiZfylgbd_ ... ), 2, 4 Gb
ex^_c ... ), 6
1. ... ,qlh ... ,]^_ ... ,_klv ...]_jhyf ... .<wlhf ...\ujZabl_evgh ... . 2. ...keurZlv ...
lZgpZ `b\hibkb ldZq_kl\Z x\_ebjgh_ bkdmkkl\h — \k_ wlh ... . 3. ... yaudh\
g_f_pdbc njZgpmakdbc blZevygkdbc ihevkdbc nbgkdbc lmj_pdbc ZjZ[kdbc
i_jkb^kdbcibkZe ... . 4. ... ,\]hjh^_ ...\k_ ...a^Zgby^\hjpuiZjdb ... .Q_f ... ,l_f
... dZfgyo l_gb ljZ\ b p\_lh\ ... ijhnbe_c ... . Gb ex^_c gb ljZ\ g_ [ueh hgb
k]bgmebbkiZjbebkv ...gZZlhfuhklZ\b\ ... . 5. ...]eZ\ghf ... ,h^jm`[_ ... ,dZdbf ...
,ih ... . 6. ...ijZ\beh_keb ... ,lh ... .Ijbwlhf ...^_ckl\h\Zlv ... .
4. 1. Bo qbkeh ... : \_^v ... , Z ... , bf_xsbo ... . 2. Kihjv ... l_[y hg ... . Kihjv ...
jZ\gh]haZd_f[u ... ,lu ... .Kihjv ...keZ[_cr_]hkihjv ...ih[_^ugh ... . 3. ...`be
... hl\Z`guc ... [ue \_^v ... . Hg ... , qlh[ ... , Z ... \bk_e \_^v ... . Hg ... \ ^uf ...
^\Z`^ugh ... :\_^v ... .Bhg ... ,blZf ... :\_^v ... .
5. 1. ... klZjbgu ... . 2. ... h[uqZc gZ ... \jZ]Z qlh[u ... . 3. ?klv b]jZ ... , qlh[ ...
mkuiblv b ... gZclb b ... . 4. Qbklh_ ... ]hlh\v ^j_\gyy ... \gh\v g_ ihdmiZxlky g_
ihdmiZxlky ...bfy ... .
Ko_fZij_^eh`_gby 2:
6. 1. ...[ukljhlhc ... . 2 ...dmag_qbdm ... . 3. ...h[jy^ ... .Wlhl ... h[uqZ_f ... ,dh]^Z
... fm` ... . Qlh[u ... h[uqZc ... k ^_j_\hf ... , ihlhfm qlh ... . 4. ... jZchgh\ ...
a_fe_ljyk_gbyf ...ju[dm ... .>eyyihgp_\ ...ju[dZ ....
Keh`gu_[_kkhxagu_ij_^eh`_gby
AgZq_gb_ijbqbgu
Hij_^_ebl_evgh_agZq_gb_
2, 3 Qlh[uh[hclb ), 4
1, 3 <G_iZe_ ... ;Wlhlh[jy^ ... )
Ko_fuij_^eh`_gby 3.
147
7. 1. ...\b^yl ... . 2. ... ,b ...\b^bl ... . 3.KemrZc ...iml_f ... . 4. ...\b^bl ...\vx]Z
...ihey ... .
Ko_fZkhhl\_lkl\m_lij_^eh`_gbx 2.
8.1. ... ih^oh^bl ... gZ\h^bl ... . 2. =ey^v ... a_feygdZ ... klZjmoZ Z ... . 3.
Ijhkgmeky ... . 4. Y \u]eygme ... . 5.Kfhljbl ... . 6. ... djm]hf ... . 7. ... q_jlu ...
ij_^Zgghklv ...kljZgghklvbj_adbc ... .
<ij_^eh`_gbb 7 ^\h_lhqb_ klhbl ihke_ h[h[sZxs_]h keh\Z i_j_^ h^ghjh^gufb
qe_gZfb
9. 1. ...\k_b ... . 2. ...`b\hlguo ... . 3. ...[h]b ... . 4. ...]heh^ ... . 5. ... ,qlh ... . 6.
AgZdg_yk_g 7. ...g_mf_eb\_^v ... . 8. ...imlvgZ^h ... . 9. ...ihgyegm`gh ... . 10.AgZd
g_yk_g
M\_j_gghklZ\ex
M\_j_gghklZ\ex^\h_lhqb_
G_ykghqlhihklZ\blv
aZiylmx
3, 5
1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 9
6, 10
10. 1. ...gZ_a^gbdZ ... . 2. ... ,dhlhjh_ ... ,Z ...lZd ... ,e_l_\r_]h ... ijhlb\gbdZ ... . 3.
... ,_keb[u ...lZd ... ,ghbdhgy ... .
11. 1. ...h[uqZc ... ,dh]^Z ...\uims_g ...i_kgx\lh\j_fydZd ... . 2. ...ijbqbg_ ...
, qlh ... . 3. ... mrZf ... ! 4. ... yfsbdZ lh ... , lh ... . 5. :o \hcgZ qlh ... , ih^eZy ...
^\hju ...ih^gyeb —ih\ajhke_eb ... . 6. ... ,qlh ...ijhc^_gh ...keurm ... . 7. ...i_ohl_
...hgZ ...moh^bf ... . 8. ...mqbeh ...ihihoh^ghfm ... . 9. ...fm`qbgZZ ... :\_kv ...\
ihoh^_ ...hlkgZ ...moh^bf ... ? 10. ...Bijbf_qZl_evghlhaZf_qZl_evghqlh ... . 11.
...\_sZoi_j\h_ —^_eZlv ... ,qlh ...^jm]bf\lhjh_ —gbdh]^Z ...lj_lv_ —l_ji_eb\h
... ex^_c ... . 12. ... ihke_^h\Zl_evgh ... ^hdZaZl_evgh ... \kydbc ... b ihwl ... .
Hkh[_ggh ... ,ijbghkys__ ...h[eZklyo\]_h]jZnbb\iheblbd_\ ... . 13. ... ,dZ`^uc
...^hexh^bg ... , ^jm]hc ... ,lj_lbc ... ,gZ^mlu_ ... . 14. ...ki_pbZevghkl_cj_`bkk_j ...
, hi_jZlhj kgbfZ_l Z ... , k\yaZggufb ... . 15. ... lZd ... a_fe_ ... e_\ Z ... . B \hl ...
dhgqbehkve_\ ... ,gh ... ,b]heh\Zh^gh]h ... .
Ko_f_khhl\_lkl\mxlij_^eh`_gby 14, 15 <dhgp_dhgph\ ... ).
12. 1. ...]_jhyf ...=meeb\_jmLZjZkm ... ,Iv_jm;_amoh\m ... . 2. ...h[_jgmeky ... . 3.
...gZklhjh`beky ... . 4.<wlhf ...jhfZglbqghb... ,b ... ,b ... ,b ... . 5. ... ,g_kqblZy ... .
GZgbo ...\_sb ...k_gZ ...kujhklb ... ,djm`Zsb_ ...ebkl\m ...[_j_au_s_ ... ,g_[h ...
.
;_kkhxagh_keh`gh_ij_^eh`_gb_
Ij_^eh`_gb_
k
AgZq_gb_ >hihegbl_evgh_ Hij_^_ebl_evgh_ Hl\_lgZ\hijhku
h[h[sZxsbf ijbqbgu
agZq_gb_
agZq_gb_
dZdbf_ggh"
bkeh\Zfb
dZdbf
h[jZahf"
3
2
1, 4 <
g_l
g_l
wlhf 5 GZ
gbo ...)
148
13. 1. - :g_e_av ... . 2.G_ykghqlhihklZ\blv 3. ...h[hfe_e ... . 4. ... ,ihlhfmqlh ... .
5, 6.G_ykghqlhihklZ\blv 7. ...\h\kx ... . 8. — ,ihlhfmqlh ... .
14.
M\_j_gghklZ\ex^\h_lhqb_
M\_j_gghklZ\exaZiylmx
G_ykghqlhihklZ\blv
1, 3, 7
4, 8
2, 5, 6
15.GZ^hihklZ\blv^\h_lhqb_ihke_keh\Z^\Z^pZlv
17. 1.IkZjbdjbqZl:olbj_[ylZ\hj B:Djueh\ 2. ...lZd>jmavy ... ?" B
:Djueh\ 3. ...ju[dZkijhkbeZQ_]h ... ,klZjq_"4. ...bfhe\beKib ... !" :K
Imrdbg 5. ...hg ...hqZfbJ_[ylZ ... ?" FXE_jfhglh\ 18. 1. ... :FZl_fZlbdZ — ...f_lh^ ... ". 2. ... : " ... ,dZd ... ". 3. ... : "... ,Z]emipm — ...
". 4. ... : " ... ,qlh[u ... ,_keb ... ?" 5. ... : " ... ,g_[m^mqb ... ". 6. ... : " ... —kZfh_ ... ". 7.
... : " ... ,Z ... ".
19. 1. AZdjbqZe 2. <ukdZaZe ij_^iheh`_gb_ 3. Ijb]eZkbe 4. Kijhkbe 5.
Kh]eZkbeky 6.<hajZabe 7.Ijb\_lkl\h\Ze 8.Hl\_lbe 9.Khh[sbe 10.KhagZeky 11.
Ijh\hjqZe 12. KdhfZg^h\Ze 13. HijZ\^u\Zeky 14. Ihijhkbe 15. M^b\beky 16.
<hajZabe 17.Ij_^mij_^be
20. 1. ... ^_eZ ... k ]hj_qvx >jmavy ... ". 2. ... , dh]^Z ... \u\h^ Qlh ... ". 3. ... :
Ijbr_em\b^_e ... ". 4.<hl ...JZkme=ZfaZlh\ " ... , _keb ... .<j_^_g ... ,_keb ... ". 5.
... : " ... ?" Hg ... : M g_\_`^ Y ... , dhlhju_ ... ". 6. ... ]jhf ih\lhjye ... L_jdbg
I_j_l_jibf — ... ". 7. ...\jmd_<hl ... ,Z\k_ihgylgh ... ".
Kb]gZevgu_ keh\Z 1) ]h\hjbe 2) ijhbaghkbe 3) khh[sbe 4) kdZaZe 5) kijhkbeb
hl\_lbe 6) ih\lhjye 7)kdZ`_l
Keh\ZZ\lhjZij_^klZ\eyxlkh[hckeh`gh_ij_^eh`_gb_\ijbf_jZo 1, 2, 6.
21. 1. ... ,k\ur_\^hogh\_gguc ...I_ljZAZ^_ehk;h]hf2. ...]jygmehMjZ 3.
...b^mfZ_lQlh ... ?" 4. ...hgHlk_ev ... ". 5. ...k_dj_lZjyHgb ... ".
Keh\Zkb]gZeu 1) jZa^Zeky 2) ]jygmeh 3) ^mfZ_l 4) ^mfZe5) keurm
22. 1. ... : " ...ij_djZkghb ... ,b ... ,b ... ,b ... ". 2. ... : " ...g_^hdZau\Z_l ... ,dhlhjZy
...ycph ...lZd ... ". 3. ... : " ... —lhqlh ... ". 4. ... : " ...gZk\_l_ — ... ,mdhlhjuo ... ". 5.
... : " ... —wlhdh]^Z ... ".
Ijhklh_ij_^eh`_gb_kh[h[sZxsbfkeh\hfbh^ghjh^gufbqe_gZfb — 1.
23. 1. ... ]jZgZlhc ... \gba ijhiZe \ ^ufm Hnbp_ju b khe^Zlu ... !" 2. Kg_] ... ,
gZ[jydrbdjh\vx ... .Kf_jlv ...dba]heh\vxGmkhe^Zl ... !">jh]gme ... ,aZf_jaZy
...kg_]h\hc " ... ,DhkZy ... ".
149
Ij_^eh`_gby k h[hkh[e_ggufb h[klhyl_evkl\Zfb 2 Kg_] ih^ gbf ... ; >jh]gme
L_jdbg ... ).
25. 1.Ibsbl ... k\bklm Z _c l\_j^yl " ... , ilbqdZ ... !" 2. B kijhkbl dlhgb[m^v
AZq_f":dlhlhkdZ`_l@Zev 3. ...]Zjfhgbklm" ... ,^jm] ...klh[hx" ... ,[jZl ...
kZg[Zl" 4. ...bklbgKgZqZeZ]h\hjyl " ...qmlvIhlhfaZf_qZxl " ..._klv<dhgp_
dhgph\ ...kZiehf[hf " ...g_agZ_l" 5. ... ,ih^hc^y ...^hfmkijhkbe " ...Wcgrl_cg"
R\_cpZj ... \hkdebdgme " ... Wcgrl_cg Wcgrl_cg meu[gmeky " ... , ih ... , ]^_ ...
`b\m
26. 1. ... , g_^hmf_\Zy kijZrb\Zeb AZq_f ... ?" 2. ... , hg m`_ ... , djbdgme
I_j_klZgvl_ ... !" 3. ...y<hi_j\uo ... ". 4. ...keZ^dhqmlv^urZ=hem[mrdZdZd ...
!" 5. ...kmij_dhfIhq_fmlu ... ?" 6. ...bgl_j_kh\ZebkvDlhwlh ... ?"
27. 1. =hklv m`_ h^_eky ... , gh ... . Bf_ggh ... ihkeh\bpZ " ... , Z ... klhyq_]h
:g]ebqZg_ ... lZd " ... , moh^b : iZ <hklhd_ ... \ keh\Zo " ... \ha^mom ?keb ...
\uoh^bl ... ". 2. ... ,ghg_[hcl_kv ... . 3. ...keh\ihkeh\bpih]h\hjhd 4.Fgh]b_ ...
ebl_jZlmju ... \ujZ`_gby Znhjbafu ibkZl_e_c mq_guo ... . 5. ... ^b\ZgZ ... . G_
oh^bl_ihdh\jm ... .Bg_ljh]Zcl_djh\Zlv ... .Bg_gZ^h ...ljh]Zlv ... .Bg_gZ^h ...
[jZlv ... . :o ... ? ,
IjyfZyj_qv
;_kkhxagu_ij_^eh`_gby
H[h[sZxsb_keh\Zijb
h^ghjh^guoqe_gZo
4
2, 5 G_oh^bl_Bg_
1 Bf_gghdwlhfm ... ;
ljh]Zcl_Bg_gZ^hBg_
:g]ebqZg_ ... ;:gZ
gZ^h
<hklhd_ ... )
28. 1. ... ,ijha\mqZ\rbo ... .Dh]^Z ... ,qlh ... ,hg ...`_Kemob ... ". 2. ...jmdZfbDZd
...bf ...^mjZdZfb ... . 3. ... ,dhlhjZy ...f_gy ...[hevr_q_f ... .<gZk_e_gguo ...af_c
... . 4. ...]h\hjbe>Z ...boihlhfmqlh ... ,qlh ... ,Zhgbgbq_]hg_agZy^mfZxlqlh
... ".
29. 1. ... ]hehkhf Hlimklb ... ". 2. ... : ijyfh ... . 3. ... lZd >jmavy ... ?" 4. ...
^h[jh^_l_eb ... . 5. ...ih\lhjylvGbdh]^Z ... ". 6. ...meu[gbl_kv ... 7. ...]hehkhf>Z
a^jZ\kl\m_l ... !" 8. ...b\b`m ... 9. ...hlpZ=^_ ... ?" 10. ...a\mdb ... 11. ...]hjh^h\ ...
30. 1.L_i_jv ...ljb — ...\gmljbZ ... . 2. ...]jma^_f — ... . 3. ...\hjh[_c\ue_lbl —
... . 4. ...ih]hgbrvky — ... . 5. ... dheh^_p ... . 6. ...dgb] ... —\k_]h ... . 7. ... ,qlh ...
Ohefk_ — ... . R_jehd Ohefk — qmlv ... ebl_jZlmju ... — fure_gb_ eh]bdZ ... .
JZkkdZau ... ,lZddZd... —kusbd 8.JZ^mxlkyex^b —\hagbdZ_l ... .AZ^mfu\Zxlky
]jmklyl — ...i_qZevgZy ... .E]hj_gZ\Zebehkv — ...lZddZdfmaudZi_kgy
Ghf_jZij_^eh`_gbc\dhlhjuolbj_h[hagZqZ_lhlghr_gby\j_f_gbbebmkeh\by
2, 3, 4, 8.
150
31. 1.Luk\bklgb — ... . 2.G_l ...\a]ey^_]h ...Hgb ...]h\hjyl ... ! 3]\ha^y — ... .
G_[uehih^dh\u — ... . EhrZ^v aZojhfZeZ — ... . DhggbpZ jZa[blZ — ... . <jZ] ... ,
ie_gguog_sZ^y ... !
Ghf_jZ ij_^eh`_gbc kh kfukeh\uf hlghr_gb_f ^_ckl\b_ — j_amevlZl 1, 3 G_
[ueh]\ha^y ... ;G_[uehih^dh\u ... ;EhrZ^vaZojhfZeZ ... ;DhggbpZ ... ).
32. 1.Imklbeklj_emklZjrbckug —miZeZklj_eZgZ[hyjkdbc^\hjbih^gyeZ__
[hyjkdZy^hqv 2.Imklbeklj_emkj_^gbckug²miZeZklj_eZgZdmi_q_kdbc^\hjb
ih^gyeZ__dmi_q_kdZy^hqv3.Imklbeklj_emfeZ^rbckug —miZeZklj_eZ\[hehlh
bih^gyeZ__ey]mrdZ
33. 1. ...g_aZf_lbl ...]h\hjblijhc^_l — ... ,ihkfhljbl — ... . 2. —g_gZclb ...
djZkZ\bpu ...ieZ\gh —[m^lhe_[_^mrdZ ...keZ^dh — ...]hem[mrdZ ...keh\h — ... .
34.DZ`^uc ... ,Z ... ,gZdhlhjhc ... .Dh]^Z ...\hjhl ...\jZ] —af_c:dhiJZ ... ,b ....
Kbe_g JZ — ... . <ukhd JZ — ... . @b\ JZ — ... . Kul JZ — ... . GZih_g JZ — ... .
<hag_kkyJZ — ... .>hieu\_l ...]hj — ... . I_j_ky^_l ...\^g_\gmx —
35. 1. ...iehoh — ... . 2. ...ijhdebdZeb — ... .
36. 1. ...gZijZ\h — ...aZ\h^blgZe_\h — ... . 2. ...DZeZrgbdh\Z ... ]jm^b — ... . 3.
AZ^mfZx — ...e_^ ...e_^ygu_ dZdbo ... . 4. ...`blgbpuy ... ,y bf ... jZ[hlu — ... ,
[_kgmykv ... .Y ...[jZdhf —dZd[mjy ... . 5. ...]gZebkv — ... . 6. ...fg_Hgmf_j ...
Imklv ...jZa[bl — ...iueZ_l ...khj\ZgZ — ...p\_l_limklvZjnZkehfZgZ — ... . 7. ...
ih^Zkl — ... ; hgiv_l — ... ;hgaZkf__lky — ... ;gZofmjbl[jh\b — ... . 8. ...aZ\_jl_eZ
gZ [jh\b ijyfh ... . B qlh `" ... ^g_c ... ijhiZeZ i_j_\_jgmeZ — ... ij_^klZeZ ...
gZ^_eZ — ... ; kgyeZ — ... ! 9. ... ^_lb b ]_g_jZe b jy^h\hc Hiylv ... k\_l_ — ...
rbg_ev ... .
37. 1. ...jh^beky ... . 2. ...f_^\_^v ... . 3. ... :dm^Zih\_jgmelm^Z ... . 4.Dhrd_ —
b]jmrdbfurd_ —ke_adb 5. ...[_e__l ... . 6. ...gZklme_ ... . 7. ...aeZ ... . 8. ...ebdm_l
— ... . 9. ...[jZgylky — ... . 10.KdZaZgh — ... . 11. ...kdhiulhf ... . 12. ...]hj_^jm] —
... . 13. ...fbg_lky — ... . 14. ...k\_l — ... . 15.G_ex[h — ... ,Z ... . 16. ...\ahc^_l — ... .
Dgb]mijhql_rv — ... . 17. ...g_\hjh[_c\ue_lbl — ... .
38.GZh^ghf ...h[uqZc ... ,jZkiheh`_gghc ... .Klhbl ...^\b`_gb_ —[m^msbc ... .
G_m^b\bl_evgh ... ,qlh ...jZa\h^u ... .
39. 1. ...bamqblv — ... ;ohq_rvex^_cbamqblv — ... . 2. ...fZylgbdm ... . 3.<kydZy
\_sv_klv ... . 4. ...ihgbfZx ...bg^_cdhxZg_dZdhxeb[h^jm]hx ... . 5. ...\ulZsbe
— ... . 6. ...g_]jyg_l — ... . 7. ...fheblvky — ... .
40. 1. ...iZdhklb ... . 2. ... ,ihlhfmqlh ... . 3. ...eh\mrdm — ... . 4. ...khkljZohf ... .
5. ... ,qlh ... . 6. ...i_lmo — ... . 7. ... ,gbq_]h ... . 8. ...ihah\b — ... .
151
41. IhagZc kZfh]h k_[y — lZdZy gZ^ibkv [ueZ gZ njhglhg_ ]j_q_kdh]h ojZfZ
:iheehgZ\:nbgZo
42. 1.IhkemrZcdZkhk_^ —lmlEh\qbci_j_j\Ze ... . 2.>Z ... e_lh" —]h\hjbl
... . 3.Kl_iZgmrdZjh^ghcg_\u^Zcfbeuc — baih^ ...\afhebeky ... . 4.:olu
h[`hjZ :o aeh^_c — lml ... mdhjy_l 5. <hl ... ex[ex — \kdjbqZe ... . 6. G_
emqr_ ... ,dmfZh[hjhlblvky" —_cFbrdZhl\_qZe
43. 1.Q_]h ...q_eh\_d" ...kbeu —]eZkbl ... . 2.Q_eh\_d ... ,dh]^Z ...^_eZlv —
]h\hjblky ... . 3.Mfguc ... ,gh ...\ihklmidZo —]h\hjyl ... . 4.Emqr_ ...[_a]g_\Z
...[_akihjZ ...[_agZ^f_gghklb — lZd ... . 5.IhdZ ... ,hg ...km^v[u —ibkZe ... .
44. 1. " ... ,lhl ... ,_keb •...ebph — ... . 2.;_a ... ", — ... . 3. " ... ,aZo\Zlu\ZxsZy
^mokbeZ ... ", — ... . 4. " ...\[bl\_ ... —\[_^_Z ... —\g_kqZklv_ — ... . 5. " ... ,b ...
,dh]^Z ... ", — ... . 6. " ... ,dZd... ,qlh[u ... ", — ... . 7. " ... ,mfguc ... ", — ... . 8.Fha]
ohjhrhmkljh_gguc ... ,q_f ... ,ohjhrh ... ", — ... . 9. " ... ,aZibrbl_qlh ... ", — ... .
10.<_k_eu_ ...", — ... .
Ghf_jZij_^eh`_gbckhhl\_lkl\mxsboko_f_ 1b 9.
45. 1. H ... kihjyl — ... . Wlhc ... jmkkdZy GZ \dmk gZ ... g_l 2. Ki_rb
f_^e_ggh —kh\_lh\ZeZ ... .WlZ`_ ...ihkeh\bp_Ihki_rbrv — ... ".
47.Fg_ ...g_h[oh^bfh]h —ex[be ...K\_leh\ —gh ...ebrg_]h
48. 1) 1, 2, 4; 2) 3.
1. Ohjhrh ihklZ\blv \hijhk — ... > B F_g^_e__\ — agZqbl ... ". 2.
FZl_fZlbdZ — ... : Wcgrl_cg — _^bgkl\_gguc ... f_lh^ ... ". 3. Lhfm dlh ...
^h[jZ — ... Fhgl_gv — \kydZy ... ". 4. JZ^hklv ... , — ... Wcgrl_cg — _klv ...". 5.
<k_ ... , — ...EZjhrnmdh —gh ... ". 6.=emi_p ...", — ...JZkme=ZfaZlh\ —fm^j_p
—ih]h\hjdhcijb\_^_gghc ... "
49.G_l ...^h[jZ —ibkZeKhdheh\Fbdblh\ —>Z`_ ...^h[jh ... mkem]m ...f_klh
...\klZlv — ...ohjhrh
50. 1.Lhevdh ... , —iheZ]Ze ...>Zev —Ihkeh\bpuih]h\hjdbijb[Zmldb ...fZkk
]h\hjyl ... ,fh]mq_fhj]Zgbaf_ 2.?klv ... ,dhlhju_...mihlj_[eyxlky —aZf_lbe ...
D\bglbeebZg —LZdb_ ... ,_keb[u ... bklbggufb 3.?keb[u ... ,qlh ... ,gZa_fe_"
—ibkZe ...>Zeb — KdmqZe[udZd ... .Ihwlhfm ...mkljbp 4.G_l_jyc ... ,jmdm ...
]heh\m —ibkZeKZev\Z^hj>Zeb —?keb ... ,hgb ... ". 5.AZq_f\uijb_oZeb"Dh]h
\u bs_l_" — kijhkyl ... . 6. A^jZ\kl\mc :kkhev — ... hg — >Ze_dh^Ze_dh ... ,
qlh[u ...pZjkl\h
51. 1. Ljm^gh ... dmjblv" — kijhkbeb ... . FZjd L\_g hl\_lbe Kh\k_f ... , y ...
[jhkZe 2. H^gZ`^u dh]^Z ... \ :f_jbd_ ... kdZaZeb DZdhc \u \ukhdbc — Qlh
\u" — m^b\e_ggh ... <eZ^bfbjh\bq — Y ... ". 3. ... b kijhkbe _]h <u ... ^ey
kdhlbgu"²>Zy — ...lhl —
152
:qlh -[hebl" 4. ...kijhkbebDh]^Z ... ,lh]^_ ...gZoh^blvky ...]jh[Z" —Lhevdh
g_ \gmljb — hl\_lbe Oh^`Z — Z ... ". 5. DZd ... [Zrgb" — kijhkbeb m Oh^`b
GZkj_^^bgZ —Hq_gvijhklh —hl\_lbehg —Jhxl ...gZbagZgdm 6. ... ,qlh[u ... .
KlZg_l ... k\_le__ — kijhkbe Z[[Zl — _keb ... nhgZj_" RmldZ ... . 7. Lh qlh ... ,
h]jZgbq_ggh —ibkZe ...EZieZk —Zlh ...g_agZ_f[_kdhg_qgh 8.M^b\bl_evgh ...
,qlh ...\_ebdh —ibkZe:gZlhevNjZgk —Zlhqlh ...baf_jbe9.Dh]^Z ...^_eZlv
—]h\hjbe;_jgZj^Rhm —fu ... `blv 10. ?keb ... , b m f_gy ... , b fu ... , lh ...
y[ehdm — ex[be ]h\hjblv ;_jgZj^ Rhm — : _keb .... b m f_gy ... , b fu ... , lh ...
b^_b 11.Ba[_]Zcl_l_odlh ...\k_[y —ibkZeFZjdL\_g —WlZ ...ex^yf
i_j_^ijyfhcj_qvx
1 FZjdL\_g ... ),
2 H^gZ`^u ... )
3 H^bg ... )
4 MOh^`b ... )
Keh\ZZ\lhjZ
ihke_ijyfhcj_qb
1 Ljm^gheb ... ),
5 DZdkljhyl ... )
\gmljbijyfhcj_qb
2 Qlh\u ... ),
3 >Zy ... ),
4 Lhevdh ... ),
5 Hq_gvijhklh ... ),
6 KlZg_leb ... ),
7, 8, 9,10, 11
52. 1. ... dhehggu Ih fZrbgZf — ^hg_kehkv 2. ... d mkZf Fheh^pu <i_j_^
j_[ylZ — djbdgme lZd fheh^p_\Zlh ... . 3. ... \ rmldm Wc lu L_jdbg — ijh
dZdh]hlh[hcpZ
53. 1. ... :Mdh]h ...\_`eb\hklb" —Mg_\_`^ —hl\_lbehg — Y ... ,dhlhju_ ...
g_ijbylgu 2. <uoh^y ... fZg_` ... dh\_j ... . =Z^Z_l_ gZ hjeZ b j_rdm" —....—
G_l —hl\_qZehg —Y ... ". —DZdbf`_" —>Z ...\Zeyx — ...Zjlbkl ... . 3. ... ,
dhlhjuc ... ,qlh ...khkeh\b_ ... .Gm`gh ... ,fkv_>xfZ —<k_]h ...bkihegbl_ey"
<hl\Zfr_klv^_kyl ... ".Wlhl ... ,Z ...ih^_eblvkyb ... ,bfbeebhghf_keb ... .
54.Qlh ...^_eZ_rv" —....—Ivx —....—AZq_f" —Qlh[uaZ[ulv —Hq_f
aZ[ulv" — ...ijbgp ... . —OhqmaZ[ulvqlh ... ", — ijbagZeky ... . —Hlq_]h`_
l_[_kh\_klgh" — ...ijbgp ... . —Kh\_klghiblv — ... ,b ... .B ...^Zevr_ ... .>Z
[_akhfg_gby\ajhkeu_ — ...gZjh^ —^mfZehg ... .
55. : l_i_jv ... , qlh ... ^h[ju_ ex^b" Lu \k_o lZd qlh eb ... ?" — <k_o —
hl\_lbe Zj_klZgl — aeuo ... ". — <i_j\u_ keurm h[ wlhf — kdZaZe IbeZl
mkf_ogm\rbkv —ghfh`_l[ulv ...`bagv ...<dZdhcgb[m^v ...h[wlhf" —G_l ...
^hwlh]h —Blu ...wlh" — >Z
56.
²:oluL_jdbgGmbfZeuc
B\dh]hlum^Zeky"
LhevdhfZlvgZ\_jghagZeZ
153
²Yhll_ldbjh^beky
²L_jdbgl_ldbg_edbiZedb
Kuiv_s_gZaeh\jZ]m
²G_fh]mLZeZglZ`Zedh
>h[hf[_`db[_j_]m
²Wc]hj_phlq_]h
G_ghkbrvludbg`ZeZ"
²Dh]^Zghrm_]h
G_ba[_`ZlvkdZg^ZeZ
²Wc]hj_phlq_]h
Dbg`Ze[_j_rv\^hjh]m"
²Dh]^Zy[_ag_]h
KdZg^Zeh\kebrdhffgh]h
57. 1. ...keh\Z@bagv ... ,bkdmkkl\h ... ". 2. ...]h\hjbeEmqr_ ... , q_f ... ". 3. ... ,
qlh ... . 4. ... ,qlh ... . 5.Y ... ,ke_^h\Zl_evgh ... ", — ... . 6. ... ,qlh ... .
58. 1. ... ,dZd ...fbn\eZ^udZ ... ,qlh ... .Hg ... ,y ... ,b ... _fm² ... .Kmijm]Z ... ,
qlh ...`_gsbgub ... .HgZ ... :Ihdeygbkv`_qlhlhldlh ...qZk ...=j_pb_c ... .<wlm
... ,b ... .Hg ... :DeygmkvLZdb[m^_l 2. ...fg_<ugv ...k_j^p_Y ... ,qlh ... .Qlh
...k_j^p_gb... ,gb ... ,gb ... —g_fh`_l ...ijhklh]h ... . 3. ... ,hg ... ,Z ....Hg ... : Qlh
` ... —wlh ... ".IlbpZ ... ,qlh ... ,qlh[u ... ,Z ... ,qlh ... ,gh ... , qlh .... 4. ... ,ihdb^Zy ...
.Y ...ih\lhjyeG_mgu\Zc 5. ... ,qlh ...k\hcghc ... . 6. ...jZa]h\hjJZaj_rbl_ ...
m[hj 7. ... ,dZd ... ,hg ... , qlh ... .Kijhkbl_ ... ,dZd ... ", — ... .
Ijbf_jukijyfhcj_qvx
1 Hg[m^_l ... ;HgZ
kdZaZeZA_\km ... ;Hg
kdZaZe ... ), 2 Ljb ... ), 3
Hg\uklmdb\Ze ... ), 4, 6
Ijbf_jukdhk\_gghc
j_qvx
1 H^gZ`^u ... ), 2 Y
kdZaZe ... ;QlhgbdZdh_ ...),
3 IlbpZ ... ), 5
Ijbf_jubklhcbk^jm]hc
j_qvx
7
61. 1.NbehkhnK_g_dZ\hkiblZl_evjbfkdh]hbfi_jZlhjZG_jhgZbf_efm`_kl\h
kdZaZlvk\h_fm[u\r_fmmq_gbdmqlhkdhevdh[uhggbm[b\Zeex^_chggbdh]^Zg_
kmf__l mkljZgblv k\h_]h ij__fgbdZ 2. :glmZg K_glWdaxi_jb ibkZe qlh gZ k\h_f
\_dm hg \klj_qZe fgh]h jZaguo \ajhkeuo Dh]^Z hg \klj_qZe \ajhkeh]h dhlhjuc
dZaZeky_fmjZamfg__bihgyleb\__^jm]bohgihdZau\Ze_fmk\hcjbkmghd‹Hg
\k_]^Zghkbe_]hkkh[hx
62. 1. Hl_p kdZaZe Fbrd_ qlh hg g_ ihc^_l k gbf \ pbjd ihlhfm qlh ^h dhgpZ
g_^_eb hg aZgyl ih ]hjeh 2. >_\hqdZ ijb`ZeZ d k_[_ b]jmrdm b aZy\beZ qlh hgZ
gbdhfm g_ hl^Zkl k\hx dmdem 3. J_[ylZ ihdeyebkv ^jm] ^jm]m qlh gbdZdZy kbeZ g_
kfh`_lgZjmrblvbo^jm`[m
154
63. 1. - ]h\hjbeb Lu hk_e ... . Lu qmj[Zg ... . : _keb ... bo ... ". >j_\gb_ ]j_db
kqblZeb hkehf q_eh\_dZ dhlhjuc g_ \b^_e :nbg qmj[Zghf lh]h dlh \b^_e bo b g_
\hklhj]Zekyb\_j[ex^hf lh]hdlhihk\h_c\he_ ihdbgme bo 2. " ... , kug Wdhc ...
dZdhc Qlh ... ih^jykgbdb" B ... \ ZdZ^_fbb"² lZdbfb ... k\hbo ... . 3. <hg ... ,
[exklbl_eb — ...Ex[dZ —G_llh]hqlh[u ... ,kZfb —nxblv —B ... ,^mjZ —
...g_kijZ\_^eb\hklvx ... ,k_j`ZglGh\b^gh ... .:lh\Zjbs>jZidbg — ...Ex[dZ
—Hldm^Z ... ,djZkguc\blyav" —AZfheqbrv...g_l" — ...djZkguc\blyav 4. ...
\kdjbdgmeKlhc ...klZ[Zdhf ... , qlh[u ... ".HklZgh\bekyLZjZkbaZdjbqZeqlh m
g_]h \uiZeZ exevdZ k lZ[Zdhf Hg g_ ohl_e qlh[u b exevdZ ^hklZeZkv \jZ`vbf
eyoZf
64.G_evayi_j_\_klb\dhk\_ggmxj_qvhlju\db 2b 3.
Ijbf_jukijyfhc
j_qvx
5, 9
Ijbf_jukdhk\_gghc
j_qvx
3, 6, 10
Ijbf_jubklhcbk^jm]hc
j_qvx
1, 2, 4, 7, 8
155
=eZ\Z IV
Keh\Z]jZffZlbq_kdb
g_k\yaZggu_kij_^eh`_gb_f
DZdb_wlhqe_guij_^eh`_gby"
< ke_^mxsbo ijbf_jZo hij_^_ebl_ dZdbfb qe_gZfb ij_^eh`_gby y\eyxlky
\u^_e_ggu_keh\Z
1. — Gmihr_e`_jZ^b;h]Z
G_[h_evgbdbi_khd²
G_\_k_eZy^hjh]Z
— WckZ^bkvdhfg_^jm`hd
G:G_djZkh\
Mklmibfg_kd\hj_pm]hehd
Ihk_ebf_gy\klZjhfkd\hj_rgbd_
Hl^Zxl_[_^mrm\aZeh]
AZl\hb]hem[u_ih^kg_`gbdb
GAZ[hehpdbc
3. Imrdbg ih _]h keh\Zf k dZ`^hc hk_gvx jZkp\_lZe \gh\v DZ`^mx hk_gv hg
fheh^_e Hq_\b^gh ijZ\ [ue =_l_ dh]^Z ml\_j`^Ze qlh m ]_gb_\ gZ ijhly`_gbb
`bagb[u\Z_lg_kdhevdh\ha\jZlh\xghklb DIZmklh\kdbc 5. G_lfug_om`_^jm]bob^Z\gh
<gZkgZebehkvbkhaj_eha_jgh
G:G_djZkh\
M^Zehkv\Zfhij_^_eblvdZdb_wlhqe_guij_^eh`_gby"
<u ijZ\u _keb g_ m^Zehkv Wlh gbdZdb_ qe_gu ij_^eh`_gby Hgb gZau\Zxlky
lZdkeh\Z]jZffZlbq_kdbg_k\yaZggu_kij_^eh`_gb_fLZdb_keh\Zg_\klmiZxl
k^jm]bfbkeh\Zfbij_^eh`_gbygb\dZdhc\b^]jZffZlbq_kdhck\yabbkem`Zl^ey
ijb\e_q_gby \gbfZgby b ^ey \ujZ`_gby jZaebqguo wfhpbc H[jZlbl_ \gbfZgb_ gZ
agZdbihke_wlbokeh\\hkdebpZl_evgucagZdbebaZiylZy
H[jZs_gby
AgZdhfkl\h kh keh\Zfb ]jZffZlbq_kdb g_ k\yaZggufb k ij_^eh`_gbyfb fu
gZqg_fkh[jZs_gbcH[jZs_gbyfbgZau\Zxlkykeh\Zdhlhju_gZau\Zxllhdq_fm
h[jZs_gZj_qv
:j_qvfh`_l[ulvh[jZs_gZdq_fmm]h^ghdex^yf`b\hlgufkbeZfijbjh^ub
^Z`_ d ij_^f_lZf ^hfZrg_]h h[boh^Z \kihfgbl_ agZf_gblh_ q_oh\kdh_ >hjh]hc
fgh]hm\Z`Z_fucrdZn DZd \u^_eyxlky h[jZs_gby" AZiylufb Z _keb lj_[m_l bglhgZpby —
\hkdebpZl_evgufagZdhf
156
1.<u^_ebl_h[jZs_gbykihfhsvxagZdh\ij_ibgZgby
?klvfgh]h_gZk\_l_^jm]=hjZpbc
Qlhbg_kgbehkvgZrbffm^j_pZf
<R_dkibj
Aebkv\_l_j>mcihdZg_ehigmls_db
<R_dkibj
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
Ij_`^_\k_]hgZ^hm\b^_lvh[jZs_gb_kj_^b^jm]bokeh\
2.GZc^bl_h[jZs_gby\ke_^mxsboijbf_jZoJZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
Lub\hkg_g_h[uqZcgZ
L\h_ch^_`^ug_dhkgmkv
>j_fexbaZ^j_fhlhclZcgZ
B\lZcg_luihqb_rvJmkv
..................................................
>j_fexbaZ^j_fhlhclZcgZ
B\lZcg_ihqb\Z_lJmkv
HgZb\kgZog_h[uqZcgZ
?_h^_`^ug_dhkgmkv
:;ehd
<klZgmy\mljhlmfZggh_
Khegp_m^Zjbl\ebph
Luebih^jm]Z`_eZggZy
<oh^brvdhfg_gZdjuevph
...................................................
Kgbfbb\mljhlmfZggh_
Khegp_b\_l_j\ebph
Kgbfbih^jm]Z`_eZggZy
<koh^bldhfg_gZdjuevph
:;ehd
;m^v`_kqZkleb\ZF_jb
Khegp_`bagbfh_c
Gblhkdbgbihl_jb
Gbg_gZkleb\uo^g_c
Imklvg_\_^Z_lF_jb
:KImrdbg
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
DZdb_[u\Zxlh[jZs_gby"Ij_`^_\k_]hg_jZkijhkljZg_ggu_bah^gh]hkeh\Z
M[_^bl_kv\wlhfkZfb
3.I_j_ibrbl_jZkklZ\eyyg_^hklZxsb_agZdb
157
M\Z`Zcl_fZeyjh\²
a\hgdbodjZkhdfZkl_jh\
E_cl_kvdjZkdb
ihcl_dbklb
DjZkvfZeyj
b[m^va^hjh\
;Hdm^`Z\Z
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
;u\Zxlbh[jZs_gbyba^\mob[he__keh\ —jZkijhkljZg_ggu_
4.GZc^bl_h[jZs_gb_ih^q_jdgbl__]hbihklZ\vl_gm`gu_agZdb
Fhckugex[h\vkhxak_j^_p
D[eZ`_gkl\mi_j\ucrZ]
<Dmjhqdbg
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
B gZdhg_p \klj_qZxlky p_ihqdb klhysbo jy^urdhf h[jZs_gbc LZdb_ kemqZb
hiZkgu m\b^bl_ h^gh h[jZs_gb_ jZ^hklgh \u^_ebl_ _]h aZgylufb Z hklZevgu_
fh`_l_ ijhoehiZlv Ihwlhfm kfhljbl_ \gbfZl_evgh kdhevdh h[jZs_gbc i_j_^
\Zfb"
5.Ih^q_jdgbl_\ijbf_j_lZdmxp_ihqdmIhklZ\vl_gm`gu_agZdb
>_\bpudjZkZ\bpu
>mr_gvdbih^jm`_gvdb
JZau]jZcl_kv^_\bpu
JZa]meycl_kvfbeu_
:KImrdbg
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yghhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
?s_ h^bg fZe_gvdbc k_dj_l h[jZs_gbc hgb bgh]^Z h[t_^bgyxlky \ ^jm`_kdbc
khxakf_`^hf_lb_fhH<he]Zdheu[_evfhy G:G_djZkh\ :kmlvwlh]hk_dj_lZ\lhfqlhf_`^mhbh[jZs_gb_faZgylZyg_klZ\blky
6.GZc^bl_h[jZs_gbyIhklZ\vl_gm`gu_agZdb
>Zcdhjufg_h[_j_aZ
@_elhc^Zcdhju[_j_aZ
=Ehg]n_eeh
7.L_i_jvdjZldhjZkkdZ`bl_k_[_h[h[jZs_gbbbihlj_gbjmcl_kvjZkklZ\vl_agZdbb
aZibrbl_ghf_jdZ`^h]hijbf_jZ\gm`gucklhe[bdlZ[ebpuJZ[hlZcl_kie_gdhc
G_jZkijhkljZg_ggu_
h[jZs_gby
JZkijhkljZg_ggu_h[jZs_gby
P_ihqdbh[jZs_gbc
158
IjhsZcg_fulZyJhkkby
KljZgZjZ[h\kljZgZ]hkih^
B\ufmg^bju]hem[u_
BluihkemrgucbfgZjh^
FXE_jfhglh\
KibfeZ^_g_pfhcij_djZkguc
;Zxrdb[Zx
Lbohk\_lblf_kypykguc
<dheu[_evl\hx
FXE_jfhglh\
IjbgbfZxl_[yg_m^ZqZ
Bm^ZqZl_[_fhcijb\_l
<aZdhe^h\Zgghch[eZklbieZqZ
<lZcg_kf_oZ²ihahjgh]hg_l
:;ehd
KdZ`bfg_\_ldZIZe_klbgu
=^_lujhkeZ]^_lup\_eZ
DZdboohefh\dZdhc^hebgu
LumdjZr_gb_f[ueZ"
FXE_jfhglh\
Ghex[exl_[yjh^bgZdjhldZy
:aZqlh²jZkkdZaZlvg_fh]m
159
<_k_eZl\hyjZ^hklvdhjhldZy
K]jhfdhci_kg_c\_kghcgZem]m
K?k_gbg
>mo[jh^y`bcLu\k_j_`_j_`_
JZkr_\_eb\Z_rvieZf_gvmkl
HfhymljZq_ggZyk\_`_klv
;mckl\h]eZabiheh\h^v_qm\kl\
Yl_i_jvkdmi__klZe\`_eZgvyo
@bagvfhybevluijbkgbeZkvfg_"
Keh\ghy\_k_gg_c]medhcjZgvx
IjhkdZdZegZjhah\hfdhg_
K?k_gbg
Fbeu_[_j_ah\u_qZsb
Lua_feyB\ujZ\gbgi_kdb
I_j_^wlbfkhgfhfmoh^ysbo
Yg_\kbeZokdjulvfh_clhkdb
K?k_gbg
<havf_fkyaZjmdb^jmavy
Qlh[g_ijhiZklvihh^bghqd_
;Hdm^`Z\Z
>hk\b^ZgbyfZevqbdb
FZevqbdb
IhklZjZcl_kv\_jgmlvkygZaZ^
;Hdm^`Z\Z
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
Ih]h\hjbfhf_klhbf_gbyolub\u
K ^_lkl\Z \u keurZeb bo b \ h[boh^ghc j_qb b \ kdZadZo GZijbf_j Lu q_jg__
ljm[hqbklZIhex[mckygZk_[y DQmdh\kdbc Beb
:\uagZ_l_qlhm
:\uagZ_l_qlhiZ
:\uagZ_l_qlhiu
QlhmiZiufh_]h
;uehkhjhdkugh\_c
>OZjfk
Ihijh[mcl_ hij_^_eblv dZdbfb qe_gZfb ij_^eh`_gby y\eyxlky \ wlbo ijbf_jZo
f_klhbf_gbylub\uIjZ\bevgh_keb\uj_rbebqlhb\lhfb\^jm]hfkemqZ_wlh
ih^e_`Zsb_ Ih lh]^Z ijb q_f `_ lml h[jZs_gby" Gb ijb q_f Lu b \u aZ j_^dbf
bkdexq_gb_f Wc lu B^b kx^Z gbdh]^Z g_ [u\Zxl h[jZs_gbyfb Z lhevdh
ih^e_`Zsbfb
G_\a^mfZcl_\u^_eylvboaZiylufb
Bgh]^Z \ ij_^eh`_gbyo k h[jZs_gbyfb ih^e_`Zs__ khojZgy_lky Z bgh]^Z
bkq_aZ_llZddZdklZgh\blkyg_gm`gufM[_^bl_kv\wlhf
160
8.Ih^q_jdgbl_bijbf_jZohkgh\ubjZkklZ\vl_agZdb
Dm^ZlZddmfmrdZ[_`brvlu[_ah]ey^db"
Ijbey]dZ[jZlbhl^hogb
Khk_^dZkeurZeZevlu^h[jmxfhe\m"
B:Djueh\
Rbjhdhlukl_iv
IhjZkdbgmeZkv
DfhjxQ_jghfm
IhgZ^\bgmeZkv
:Dhevph\
Ex[exl_[yI_ljZl\hj_gv_
Ex[exl\hckljh]bckljhcguc\b^
G_\u^_j`Z\gh_l_q_gv_
;_j_]h\hc__]jZgbl
:KImrdbg
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
:l_i_jvih]h\hjbfhibkvfZoIbkvfZ —wlhlhl\b^ibkvf_gghcj_qb\dhlhjhf
h[yaZl_evgh\klj_qZxlkyh[jZs_gby
9. Ij_^eZ]Z_f \Zf g_kdhevdh hlju\dh\ ba agZdhfuo \Zf ibk_f gZibkZgguo
ba\_klgufbebl_jZlmjgufbi_jkhgZ`Zfb<ZrZaZ^ZqZ²g_lhevdhi_j_ibkZlvwlb
hlju\dbjZkklZ\eyyagZdbij_ibgZgbyghbhl\_lblvdlhwlhibkZebdhfm
1.Ijb_a`ZcludgZfkhdhebdfhcykgucful_[_behrZ^_c\ure_fiZI_khqgh_
2.B\wlhkZfh_f]gh\_gv_g_luebfbeh_\b^_gv_\ijhajZqghcl_fghl_f_evdgme"
3.Ki_rmm\_^hfblvl_[y^mrZLjyibqdbgdZdb_khfghcqm^_kZ 4.Ijb_a`Zcfbeuc
^_^mrdZOjbklhf;h]hfl_[yfhex\havfbf_gyhlk_^Z
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
10.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby\hlj_adZoij_^eh`_gbc
1.:gh\_q_jZfy\k_qZs_\kihfbgZxhl_[_fhc ... 2.KdZ`bfg_^h[juc ... 3.:
\um\Z`Z_fuc ... 4. ...wlhlhevdhl_[_fhcfbeucihlhfmqlhlhevdhlu ... 5.Gh_keb
\ukgh\Zihijh[m_l_ ... 6. ...\Zf^hjh]b_fhb^jmavykkZfuf^h[juf ...
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
<\h^gu_keh\Z
<\h^gu_ keh\Z - wlh lh`_ keh\Z ]jZffZlbq_kdb g_ k\yaZggu_ k ij_^eh`_gb_f
>eyq_]h`_lh]^Zbokha^ZeyaudbaZq_fhgbihiZ^Zxl\ij_^eh`_gby"
161
<\h^gu_keh\Zi_j_^Zxl[hevrh_dhebq_kl\hkfukeh\bkfukeh\uohll_gdh\[_a
dhlhjuoyaudg_kfh][u[ulviheghp_ggufkj_^kl\hfh[s_gbyf_`^mex^vfb
<ij_^eh`_gbyofuhihagZ_f\\h^gu_keh\Zihkfukemb\u^_ey_faZiylufb
Mkeh\ghfh`ghjZa^_eblv\k_\\h^gu_keh\ZgZg_kdhevdh]jmii
M\_j_gghklvbg_m\_j_gghklv
<i_j\mxhq_j_^vwlhkeh\Z \ujZ`Zxsb_hsms_gb_ m\_j_gghklb^hklh\_jghklb
khh[s_gby dhg_qgh ^_ckl\bl_evgh [_kkihjgh \ kZfhf ^_e_ [_a khfg_gby
jZamf__lky
11.<ke_^mxsboijbf_jZogZc^bl_lZdb_keh\ZJZkklZ\vl_agZdb
1.;_kkihjghrZofZluZjZ[kdh_keh\hlZddZdZjZ[uijb\_aebwlmb]jmbaBg^bb\
I_jkbx 2. D ibjZfb^Zf b aZ]Z^hqghfm knbgdkm fu jZamf__lky hlijZ\bebkv gZ
\_j[ex^Zo
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
: l_i_jv ijhqlbl_ lZdb_ keh\Z b hij_^_ebl_ kZfb dZdb_ kfukeu b kfukeh\u_
hll_gdbhgb\ujZ`ZxlgZ\_jgh_dZ`_lkyih\b^bfhfmfh`_l[ulv\_jhylgh
<u ijZ\u _keb hl\_lbeb lZd \ wlbo keh\Zo \ujZ`Z_lky g_m\_j_gghklv
ij_^iheh`_gb_
162
12.GZc^bl_\ijbf_jZolZdb_keh\ZbjZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
Y\Zkex[beex[h\v_s_[ulvfh`_l
<^mr_fh_cm]ZkeZg_kh\k_f
:KImrdbg
Ijbjh^Z²knbgdkBl_fhgZ\_jg_c
K\hbfbkdmkhf]m[blq_eh\_dZ
Qlhfh`_lklZlvkygbdZdhcmg_c
AZ]Z^dbg_lbg_[uehhl\_dZ
NLxlq_\
3. Dh]^Z fu hk\hbf dhkfhk lh gZ\_jgh_ h[gZjm`bf agZqbl_evgh [hevr_ nhjf
`bagbq_fh`b^Z_f
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
13. JZa^_ebl_ keh\Z gZ ^\_ ]jmiiu \ujZ`Zxsb_ m\_j_gghklv \ujZ`Zxsb_
g_m\_j_gghklvIhklZjZcl_kvaZihfgblvwlbkeh\ZbmagZ\Zlvboijb\klj_q_
Dhg_qgh \_jgh \_jhylgh \hafh`gh fh`_l [ulv ^he`gh [ulv ijZ\^Z
[_amkeh\gh jZamf__lky ^_ckl\bl_evgh ih\b^bfhfm \b^bfh [_kkihjgh
g_khfg_ggh ih`Zemc gZ\_jgh_ \ kZfhf ^_e_ dZ`_lky [_a khfg_gby ih \k_c
\_jhylghklbkZfhkh[hcjZamf__lky
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
BlZd \u ihagZdhfbebkv k \\h^gufb keh\Zfb \ujZ`Zxsbfb m\_j_gghklv b
g_m\_j_gghklv b l_i_jv [m^_l_ magZ\Zlv bo \ ebph b [_ah \kydhc g_m\_j_gghklb
\u^_eylvaZiylufb
G_jZ\gh^mrgu_keh\Z
I_j_oh^bf d keh\Zf dhlhjufb g_ ihevamxlky jZ\gh^mrgu_ ex^b Wlh keh\Z
\ujZ`Zxsb_qm\kl\ZdkqZklvxdkh`Ze_gbxdgZr_fmm^b\e_gbx
14.JZkklZ\vl_agZdb\ijbf_jZo
1.Fubag_fh]Zebhl`Z`^ughdkqZklvx\kdhj_ mkeurZeb`mjqZgb_jmq_cdZ 2.
@mqdZ ih^gyeZkv gZ aZ^gb_ eZiu b d \_ebqZcr_fm m^h\hevkl\bx kh[jZ\rboky
bkihegbeZ kh[Zqbc \Zevk 3. @hg]e_j d m^b\e_gbx im[ebdb k^_eZe g_\_jgh_
^\b`_gb_ b [e_klysb_ rZjbdb ihkuiZebkv gZ Zj_gm 4. D g_kqZklvx eh^dZ
gZdehgbeZkvaZq_jigmeZ\h^ubihreZdh^gm
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
BlZd\uagZ_l_h[jZs_gbybljb]jmiiu\\h^guokeh\
15. JZkklZ\vl_ agZdb ij_ibgZgby b aZibrbl_ ghf_j dZ`^h]h ijbf_jZ \
khhl\_lkl\mxsbcklhe[bdlZ[ebpuJZ[hlZcl_kie_gdhc
1. >_evnbgu \ mfkl\_gghf hlghr_gbb klhyl ih\b^bfhfm gZ agZqbl_evgh [he__
\ukhdhfmjh\g_q_ffukqblZeb^hkboihjNZd
163
ludZdfg_dZ`_lky^hdZau\Zxlkms_kl\h\Zgb_m^_evnbgh\ijbfblb\gh]hyaudZ >
Ebeeb 2.>_ckl\bl_evghabfgbc\_q_j\ihke_^gbc^_gv^_\ylgZ^pZlh]h\_dZg_[ue
ihoh`gZ\k_hklZevgu_ DIZmklh\kdbc 3.Q_j_iZobg_khfg_gghhlghkylkydkZfuf
^he]h\_qguf `b\hlguf G_dhlhju_ kqblZxl qlh hgb `b\ml ^h iylbkhl e_l gh wlh
kdhj__\k_]hij_m\_ebq_gb_ J;ehf[_j] HiZfylvk_j^pZlukbevg_c
JZkkm^dZiZfylbi_qZevghc
D;Zlxrdh\
5. Fh`_l [ulv ;ehd bkdZe lbrbgm b [ebahklv fhjy ihlhfm qlh hgZ \ha\jZsZ_l
kfyl_gghfm q_eh\_q_kdhfm k_j^pm kihdhckl\b_ D IZmklh\kdbc 6. >h ijboh^Z
bg^_cp_\\:f_jbdmex^_clZf\_jhylghgh[ueh
=hjh^qm^guc]hjh^^j_\gbc
Lu\f_klbe\k\hbdhgpu
BihkZ^ub^_j_\gb
BiZeZlub^\hjpu
N=ebgdZ
Ihjhchiylv]Zjfhgb_cmivxkv
GZ^\ufukehfke_aZfbh[hevxkv
Bfh`_l[ulvgZfhcaZdZli_qZevguc
;e_kg_lex[h\vmeu[dhxijhsZevghc
:KImrdbg
H[jZs_gby
m\_j_gghklv
<\h^gu_keh\Z
g_m\_j_gghklv
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
16.:l_i_jvijhqlbl_ij_^eh`_gbyJZkklZ\vl_agZdbb\uibrbl_ghf_jZijbf_jh\\
dhlhjuo_klv\\h^gu_keh\Z
1. D kqZklvx \k_ g_h[oh^bfh_ hdZaZehkv ih^ jmdhc 2. D kqZklvx klj_fblky
dZ`^uc q_eh\_d 3. Hg fh`_l [ulv fhbf ^jm]hf 4. Fh`_l [ulv fu klZg_f
^jmavyfb 5. >_ckl\bl_evgh aZ\ljZ hldju\Z_lky fheh^_`guc n_klb\Zev 6.
Ijb]eZr_gb_^_ckl\bl_evghgZ\kxg_^_ex7.>_j_\h\oehivyokg_]ZdZ`_lky>_^hf
Fhjhahf 8.DZ`_lkybKg_]mjhqdZjy^hf
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
L_i_jv\uagZ_l_g_lhevdhh[jZs_gbyghbke_^mxsb_\\h^gu_keh\Z ih\lhjbl_
bokZfb ... .
164
BklhqgbdbgnhjfZpbb
IhagZdhfvl_kv_s_kh^ghc]jmiihc\\h^guokeh\<k_]^Zeb\u]h\hjbl_lhqlh
ijb^mfZeb kZfb" Beb fh`_l [ulv i_j_^Z_l_ qlhlh kh keh\ ^jm]bo ex^_c beb lh
qlh keurZeb ih jZ^bh kfhlj_eb ih l_e_\b^_gbx" Beb kkueZ_l_kv gZ h[uqZb" <
lZdbokemqZyofu]h\hjbfihkeh\ZflZdh]hlhihkhh[s_gbyf]Za_lihkemoZfb
l^
17.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
1.OjbklhnhjDhemf[ ^he`_g[ueih^ bkiZgkdbf neZ]hf ieulv gZ aZiZ^ ihdZ g_
^hklb]g_l kdZahqguo kljZg ]^_ ih kemoZf gZoh^bebkv [_kqbke_ggu_ deZ^u b
khdjh\bsZ 2. Ih keh\Zf fhjydh\ ;ZcdZem ohq_lky gZau\Zlvky fhj_f _keb `_ _]h
gZah\mlha_jhfhglhlqZkgZqbgZ_l[mr_\ZlvGhihij_^Zgbxgbh^bgjmkkdbc\g_f
g_mlhgme 3.<kkued_:e_dkZg^j=jbgfgh]hibkZeqblZehohlbekybih_]hkeh\Zf
hl^hogmehlijhrehcdZlhj`ghc`bagb DIZmklh\kdbc Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
IhkemrZcl_
?s_ h^gZ ]jmiiZ \\h^guo keh\ kms_kl\m_l ^ey lh]h qlh[u ijb\e_qv \gbfZgb_
kh[_k_^gbdZ KdZ`_f \u ]h\hjbl_ b ohlbl_ hl kh[_k_^gbdZ [he__ Zdlb\gh]h [he__
\gbfZl_evgh]hkemrZgbyBlh]^Z\u_fm]h\hjbl_ihkemrZcl_bebihgbfZ_l_beb
ij_^klZ\vl_k_[_bebba\bgbl_ih`ZemcklZij_^iheh`bfbfgh]h^jm]bokeh\
18.JZkklZ\vl_\ij_^eh`_gbyoagZdbij_ibgZgby
1. ?keb \_jgh qlh ljmkhklv kZfuc ly`_euc ihjhd lh ih`Zemc kh[ZdZ \ g_f g_
\bgh\ZlZ F;me]Zdh\ Ih`ZemcklZ]hem[qbdg_eb`bkv
IhcfbkhfghcohlvkZfh_ijhklh_
<_^vlug_agZ_rvqlhlZdh_`bagv
G_agZ_rvluqlh`blvgZk\_l_klhbl
K?k_gbg
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
BlZd\ul_i_jvagZ_l_h[jZs_gbybjZaghh[jZagu_\\h^gu_keh\Z
19. JZkklZ\vl_ \ ijbf_jZo agZdb ij_ibgZgby b aZibrbl_ ghf_j dZ`^h]h ijbf_jZ \
khhl\_lkl\mxsbcklhe[bdlZ[ebpu
H[jZs_gby
<\h^gu_keh\Z
m\_j_gghklv g_m\_j_gghklv g_jZ\gh^mrgu_ bklhqgbdbgnhjfZpbb
keh\Z
165
1. M hf_eu hq_gv iehlgu_ ebklhqdb heb\dh\h]h p\_lZ Hf_eZ ih gZjh^guf
ih\_jvyf ijbghkbl kqZklv_ `b\uf b ^he]mx iZfylv mf_jrbf 2. GZ k\_l_ g_l
ih`Zemc`b\hlgh]h[he__kljhcgh]hk[he__djZkb\hcb ]hj^hchkZgdhcq_f`bjZn
Wlh]h\hjylkZfh_\ukhdh_q_l\_jhgh]h_gZa_fe_ FZcgJb^ HkqZklv_fu\k_]^Zebrv\kihfbgZ_f
:kqZklv_\kx^mFh`_l[ulvhgh
<hlwlhlkZ^hk_ggbcaZkZjZ_f
Bqbkluc\ha^moevxsbcky\hdgh
B;mgbg
4. Ba^Z\Zlv a\mdb `b\h_ kms_kl\h fh`_l kZfufb jZaebqgufb kihkh[Zfb <u
dhg_qgh agZ_l_ qlh dmag_qbdb b pbdZ^u ba^Zxl a\mdb gh]Zfb 5. Fhc ^jm] gbdh]^Z
fg_ gbq_]h g_ h[tykgye Fh`_l [ulv hg ^mfZe qlh y lZdhc `_ dZd hg Gh y d
kh`Ze_gbxg_mf_x\b^_lv[ZjZrdZkd\havkl_gdbysbdZ 6.Fh`_l[ulvyg_fgh`dh
ihoh` gZ \ajhkeuo 7. GZ\_jgh_ y klZj_x : K_glWdaxi_jb 8. Dh]^Z y [ue
fZe_gvdbf fZevqbdhfy `be \ klZjhfij_klZjhf ^hf_ < g_f dZd jZkkdZau\Zeb [ue
aZijylZgdeZ^JZamf__lkygbdlh_]hlZdbg_hldjueZfh`_l[ulvgbdlhgbdh]^Zbg_
bkdZeGhbaaZg_]h^hf[uekeh\ghaZdhe^h\Zg ih:K_glWdaxi_jb IjhsZcl_jh^gu_
IjhsZcl_^jmavy
=j_gZ^Z=j_gZ^Z
=j_gZ^Zfhy
FK\_leh\
<Zfhl^mrb`_eZxy
>jmavy\k_]hohjhr_]h
:\k_ohjhr__^jmavy
>Z_lkygZfg_^_r_\h
KYFZjrZd
11.FZfZijZ\^Z^hfh\uog_lZ_klvlhevdhmijZ\^hfu" JZa]h\hjgZmebp_
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
20. I_j_ibrbl_ ij_^eh`_gby jZkklZ\eyy agZdb ij_ibgZgby <uibrbl_ ghf_jZ
ij_^eh`_gbc\dhlhjuo_klv\\h^gu_keh\Z
1. <_jhylgh fu kmf__f ih_oZlv \ wdki_^bpbx 2. LZdh_ jZa\blb_ kh[ulbc \iheg_
\_jhylgh 3. Ihfh_fm \k_ b^_l ohjhrh 4. <k_ b^_l ih fh_fm ieZgm 5. D jZ^hklb
j_[yl \ ^hf_ ihy\beZkv imrbklZy _ehqdZ 6. D jZ^hklb j_[yl ijb[Z\beZkv
haZ[hq_gghklv 7. >himklbf \ ]hjh^ ijb_^ml lmjbklu 8. Fu bo ^himklbf gZ
l_jjblhjbxfhgZklujy
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
21.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby\hlj_adZoij_^eh`_gbc
1. G_hihagZgguc e_lZxsbc h[t_dl g_h`b^Zggh ihy\b\rbcky gZ^ ]hjh^hf ih
fg_gbx ... 2.F_jpZxsbclZbgkl\_gguf]hem[ufk\_lhf
166
hg dh \k_h[s_c jZ^hklb ... 3. Ih m\_j_gbyf g_dhlhjuo hq_\b^p_\ ba lZbgkl\_ggh]h
dhjZ[ey\ureb ... 4.Ghkgbfbd[hevrhfmh]hjq_gbxg_ m^Zehkv ... 5.Fh`_l[ulv
dh]^Zgb[m^vfukfh`_f ... 6.LZbgkl\_ggu_e_lZxsb_h[t_dluihkhh[s_gbyf ... 7.
GhihdZex^bA_febdkh`Ze_gbx ...
<hi_j\uogZdhg_pb^jm]b_
Dh]^Z \u qlhlh ^_eZ_l_ beb ]h\hjbl_ \u ij_djZkgh ihgbfZ_l_ qlh \hi_j\uo Z
qlh\h\lhjuoqlhgZdhg_pqlhke_^h\Zl_evghZqlhblZdbeblZdbfh[jZahfGh^ey
lh]hqlh[u\ZkihgbfZeb^jm]b_gm`guki_pbZevgu_\\h^gu_keh\Z mdZau\Zxsb_
gZ k\yav fuke_c b ihke_^h\Zl_evghklv baeh`_gby <hl wlb keh\Z blZd
ke_^h\Zl_evgh agZqbl gZh[hjhl gZdhg_p f_`^m ijhqbf klZeh [ulv gZijbf_j
lZdbfh[jZahf\hi_j\uo\h\lhjuokh^ghcklhjhguk^jm]hcklhjhgubfgh]b_
^jm]b_I_j_qblZcl_wlhlkibkhdihlhfaZdjhcl__]hbihijh[mcl_ih\lhjblvklhevdh
keh\kdhevdhkfh`_l_
22.:l_i_jvijbf_juJZkklZ\vl_\gboagZdb
²>_evgucqlhb]h\hjblv
;ueklZjbdlhlkZfuc
Qlhijb^mfZekmi\Zjblv
GZdhe_kZoijyfh
Kmi²\hi_j\uo<h\lhjuo
DZrm\ghjf_ijhqghc
G_lklZjbdhg[ueklZjbd
Qmldbc²wlhlhqgh
:L\Zj^h\kdbc
2.BlZd\yaud_q_eh\_dZkij_kkh\Zgh[s_kl\_gguchiulq_eh\_q_kdh]hdhee_dlb\Z
: E_hglv_\ 3. ;ulv kdjhfguf g_ agZqbl [ulv ebr_gguf qm\kl\Z kh[kl\_ggh]h
^hklhbgkl\ZGZh[hjhlkdjhfghklv\ujZ`_gb_m\_j_gghklb\k_[_
>eyq_eh\_dZ
gZpbhgZevghklv
bg_aZkem]Zbg_\bgZ
?keb\kljZg_
ml\_j`^ZxlbgZq_
agZqbl
g_kqZklgZywlhkljZgZ
JJh`^_kl\_gkdbc
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
GZdhg_p —wlhkeh\h\uau\Zxs__[hevrb_kihjuihlhfmqlhbgh]^Zhghlj_[m_l
aZiylhc Z bgh]^Z g_ lj_[m_l Qlh[u \Zf g_ ijboh^behkv \klmiZlv \ wlb kihju
aZihfgbl_keh\hgZdhg_pg_\u^_ey_lky_keb_]hfh`ghaZf_gblvkeh\hkhq_lZgb_f\
dhgp_dhgph\Z\h\k_o
167
hklZevguo kemqZyo \u^_ey_lky <hhjm`b\rbkv wlbf agZgb_f \uihegbl_
mijZ`g_gby
23.IhklZ\vl_agZdb\ke_^mxsboijbf_jZo
1.Ijhf_l_cg_lhevdhih^Zjbeex^yfh]hgvghbgZmqbebobkdmkkl\Zfbj_f_keZf
ql_gbxbibkvfmihagZdhfbeke_dZjkl\ZfbbgZdhg_pih^Zjbebf iZfylv 2. >he]h
ieueb fhj_ieZ\Zl_eb \ ihbkdZo ahehlh]h jmgZ b gZdhg_p ijbieueb \ Dheob^m 3.
@bl_ev ^j_\g_]h ]hjh^Z Wn_kZ =_jhkljZl g_ h[eZ^Ze gbdZdbfb lZeZglZfb h^gZdh
ohl_e ijhkeZ\blvky b khojZgblv \ ihlhfkl\_ iZfylv h k_[_ GZdhg_p hg k`_]
agZf_gbluc ojZf [h]bgb :jl_fb^u dhlhjuc kqblZeky qm^hf bkdmkkl\Z b _]h bfy
[uehaZij_s_ghijhbaghkblv\]hjh^Zobk_eZoFZehc:abb 4.<[b[e_ckdhffbn_h
\k_fbjghf ihlhi_ jZkkdZaZgh dZd ^he]b_ ^gb b ghqb dh\q_] Ghy ghkbeky gh
[mrmxsbf \hegZf b gZdhg_p ]hem[dZ ijbg_keZ heb\dh\mx \_l\v dhlhjZy [ueZ
\_klvxh[mfbjhl\hj_gbbkljZrghcklbobb 5.Fgh]hg_^_evhkZ`^Zeb]j_dbLjhxb
j_rbeb gZdhg_p ijb[_]gmlv d \h_gghc obljhklb 6. MqZklgbdb khj_\gh\Zgbc \
fZjZnhgkdhf[_]_ihevamxlky[hevrhcihimeyjghklvxh^gZdhg_\k_agZxlqlhwlhl
[_] gZ h]jhfgmx ^bklZgpbx ihemqbe gZa\Zgb_ \ iZfylv ^j_\g_]j_q_kdh]h \hbgZ
dhlhjucijh[_`Zeh]jhfgh_jZkklhygb_baf_kl_qdZFZjZnhg\:nbguqlh[u
khh[sblv ]j_dZf h ih[_^_ b gZdhg_p iZe f_jl\uf ijb
ihke_^g_fkeh\_
<uibrbl_ ghf_jZ ij_^eh`_gbc dhlhju_ khhl\_lkl\mxl
ke_^mxsbfko_fZf
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
24.L_i_jv\k_\f_kl_JZkklZ\vl_ijhims_ggu_agZdbJZ[hlZcl_kie_gdhc
1. ?keb [u iheyjgu_ ev^u jZklZyeb lh ih ih^kq_lZf mq_guo mjh\_gv hd_ZgZ
ih^gyeky [u gZ 40-50 f_ljh\ 2. H[sbc jZamf q_eh\_q_kl\Z kh[bjZ_lky ljm^Zfb
ihdhe_gbc ke_^h\Zl_evgh [_a ex^_c bklhjbq_kdh]h \q_jZ g_ [ueh [u ex^_c
bklhjbq_kdh]hk_]h^gy 3.BlZdij_^klZ\bfk_[_qlh\:dZ^_fbxgZmdbaImedh\kdhc
h[k_j\Zlhjbbijbrehba\_klb_qlh\Kb[bjbkh[bjZ_lkyijba_feblvkyf_`ieZg_lguc
dhjZ[evK_cqZkhgb\uc^ml\ijhq_fdhg_qghg_\uc^ml:\^jm]khijbdhkgh\_gb_k
A_fe_c\qZklghklbkZlfhkn_jhc\j_^gh^eygboLh]^Zhgb\_jhylg__\k_]hgZc^ml
kihkh[k\yaZlvkykgZfbbgZq_IhjZ^bhgZijbf_j?kebfug_kfh`_fbom\b^_lvlh
[_amkeh\ghkfh`_fmkeurZlvD\_ebqZcr_fmkh`Ze_gbxwlZ\klj_qZ_^\Zebkdhjh
hkms_kl\blky ihE:E_hglv_\m KemrZcfhb^jm]lbrbgm
ihegZhgZrmfhf\heg
ihegZhgZwohf]hj
168
LbrbgZ
kdehgbeZk\h_ebph
da_fe_
N=EhjdZ
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
:l_i_jvihijh[m_f\uykgblvdZdb_\\h^gu_keh\Zmihlj_[eyxldblZcpu
DblZcpu g_ \ukdZau\Zxl [_aZi_eeypbhgguo km`^_gbc Hgb ]h\hjyl Y iheZ]Zx
qlhwlhlZdbeb\hafh`ghbeb\_jhylghZlhbih-\b^bfhfm ba`mjgZeh\ Hij_^_ebl_ddZdhc]jmii_\\h^guokeh\hlghkylkywlbkeh\Z
<uijZ\u_kebj_rbebqlhhgb\ujZ`Zxlg_m\_j_gghklv
25.IhjZ[hlZcl_dhjj_dlhjhfBkijZ\vl_imgdlmZpbhggu_hrb[db
1. <_jhylgh wlh b [ueZ i_j\Zy ex[h\v Fg_ [ueh y ^mfZx iylv e_l >_\hqdZ
ih`Zemc [ueZ klZjr_ gh g_ kebrdhf Ihfgx kmf_jdb gZ mebp_ i_j_^ h]jZ^hc
dZdh]hlhkZ^bdZ<_jhylghih[ebahklb\ajhkeu_ghfukgbfbg_h[sZ_fky 2.HlpZ
yfh`ghkdZaZlvihfgxkh\k_ffheh^ufIh`Zemc_fmg_l_s_bljb^pZlbe_ldh]^Z
y m`_ agZx qlh wlh fhc hl_p I_j_^h fghc dZd \kihfbgZx y l_i_jv klhbl fheh^hc
q_eh\_dy\b`mdZdfheh^hih\hjZqb\Z_lky_]hie_qh<^_lkl\_fg_]h\hjbebqlhy
ihoh` gZ hlpZ F_`^m l_f dh]^Z y m`_ gZmqbeky ihgbfZlv qlh a_jdZeh hljZ`Z_l
bf_gghf_gyygZh[hjhlm\b^_ekoh^kl\hkfZl_jvx XHe_rZ Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
26.<klZ\vl_ijhims_ggu_\\h^gu_keh\Z<kemqZ_aZljm^g_gbyih^kfhljbl_\hl\_l
1. ...aZ\ljZ[m^_lykgZykheg_qgZyih]h^Z 2.?kebfuihlhjhibfkylh ...mki__f\
l_Zlj 3. DZkiZjh\ eb^bjm_l ... m g_]h _klv rZgku \ub]jZlv q_fibhgZl 4. Fu
ijb]hlh\beb d hlimkdm \hi_j\uo [j_a_glh\mx iZeZldm ... [Zc^Zjdm b ... gZ^m\ghc
fZljZk 5.Gh\hjh`^_ggZy`bjZnZ ...kZfh_hqZjh\Zl_evgh_`b\h_kms_kl\hgZa_fe_
6. K h^ghc klhjhgu wlh ehofZlh_ kms_kl\h ^hklZ\eyeh \k_f fgh]h jZ^hklb ...
kha^Z\Zeh \ ^hf_ fZkkm [_kihdhckl\Z 7. Iml_r_kl\b_ ih madhc dZf_gbklhc ]hjghc
ljhi_ ... aZdhgqbehkv [eZ]hihemqgh 8. Lmjbklu ^he]h h[km`^Zeb \hafh`guc
fZjrjml b ... \u[jZeb imlv d jZajmr_gghfm aZfdm 9. Ohly fu h`b^Zeb kZfh]h
om^r_]h\k_ ...aZdhgqbehkv[eZ]hihemqgh 10.Ihimlbdde_ld_iZ\ebgZfuh`b^Zeb
m\b^_lv ij_djZkgmx ilbpm b ... ilbpZ hdZaZeZkv \_ebdhe_ighc 11. Y \Zk hq_gv
ijhrm ^Zcl_ fg_ ... gZ g_kdhevdh ^g_c wgpbdehi_^bq_kdbc keh\Zjv 12. < lmfZg_
h[jbkh\Zehkvqlhlhg_ykgh_ ...wlh[uefm`qbgZ\ukhdh]hjhklZ 13.Kkh`Ze_gb_f
jZkklZ\Zebkv fu k ^j_\gbf ]hjh^hf ... fu dh]^Zgb[m^v _s_ \_jg_fky kx^Z 14. <
kZ^mjhkebj_^db_ij_djZkgu_p\_lu ...q_jgu_lxeviZgu
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
169
Ihijhklm]h\hjy
DZdfuh[km`^Z_fdZdfu]h\hjbf"<ugZ\_jgh_^Z`_g_aZ^mfu\Zebkvh[wlhf
GhgZr yaud kha^Ze hij_^_e_gguc djm] \\h^guo keh\ dhlhju_ khh[sZxl bf_ggh h
lhf dZd fu ]h\hjbf <kemrZcl_kv dhjhq_ ]h\hjy bgZq_ ]h\hjy h^gbf keh\hf
kh[kl\_ggh ]h\hjy ihijhklm ]h\hjy fy]dh \ujZ`Zykv lZd kdZaZlv lhqg__
kdZaZlv<kihfgbl_bebijb^mfZcl_kh[kl\_ggu_ijbf_jukwlbfbkeh\Zfb
Fu k \Zfb ijhreb [hevrhc imlv q_j_a aZjhkeb \\h^guo keh\ >Z\Zcl_ ih^\_^_f
blh]gZr_fmiml_r_kl\bx
Hl\_lvl_gZ\hijhkugZau\ZydZdfh`gh[hevr_keh\
1.DZdb_\\h^gu_keh\Zkem`Zl^ey\ujZ`_gbym\_j_gghklb"
2.DZdb_\\h^gu_keh\Z\ujZ`Zxlg_m\_j_gghklvkhfg_gb_"
3.DZdb_\\h^gu_keh\ZmdZau\ZxlgZbklhqgbdbgnhjfZpbb"
4.DZdb_\\h^gu_keh\Z\ujZ`ZxljZ^hklvh]hjq_gb_m^b\e_gb_bl^"
5. DZdb_ \\h^gu_ keh\Z mdZau\Zxl gZ k\yav fuke_c ihke_^h\Zl_evghklv
baeh`_gby"
6.DZdb_\\h^gu_keh\Zkhh[sZxlhlhfdZdex^b]h\hjyl"
27. L_i_jv gZc^bl_ \\h^gu_ keh\Z \ jZkkuiZgguo ij_^eh`_gbyo Ihlhf kh[_jbl_ b
aZibrbl_wlbij_^eh`_gby
1.Fhjkdb_bkq_agm\rmx[_afhe\gu_kdju\Zxl:leZglb^m\hegufh`_l[ulv
2. Dh]^Zlh \hafh`gh kimlgbdhf [ue F_jdmjbc <_g_ju 3. DjZcg_ ih
ihemq_gguf ^Zgguf Zlfhkn_jhc FZjk h[eZ^Z_l jZaj_`_gghc 4. DeZ^ gZclb
fhg_lijZ\^ZklZjbgguobgl_j_kgh" 5.M_klv`_eZgb_dZ`^h]h^_lkl\_lZdh_\
gZ\_jgh_ 6. Kdmihc ih`Zemc hlghkylky jupZjv imrdbgkdbc lj_i_lhf _s_ q_f
fhg_lZf[hevrbfkklZjbggufki_pbZebklugmfbafZlud
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
28.L_i_jvihklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby\hlj_adZoij_^eh`_gbc
1.IjZ\^Z_s_bl_i_jv_klvf_klZ]^_ ... 2.M`_klhlukyqe_lgZaZ^\wlboi_s_jZo
\_jhylghh[blZeb ... 3.Fh`_l[ulvq_eh\_q_kl\h^he`gh[m^_lk\udgmlvkykfukevx
qlh ... 4.H^gbf keh\hf ^_evnbgZ kbevgh ih^haj_\Zxl \ lhf qlh ... 5. GZrZ kbkl_fZ
bkqbke_gby\hagbdeZih\b^bfhfm\^j_\g_cBg^bbhldm^Z ... 6.Kq_ljZa\b\Z_lkydZd
ijZ\behhlij_^f_lh\d ...
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
Ijb]eZrZ_f \Zk d hldjh\_gghfm jZa]h\hjm M Zg]ebqZg _klv deyl\Z dhlhjmx hgb
ijhbaghkyl\km^_hgbdeygmlky]h\hjblv\kxijZ\^mlhevdhijZ\^mbgbq_]hdjhf_
ijZ\^uFuh`b^Z_fqlh \u lZd `_ [m^_l_ jZkkdZau\Zlv gZf h dZ`^hf aZibkZgghf
ijbf_j_ KgZqZeZ \u q_klgh hl\_lbl_ kdhevdh \ ij_^eh`_gbb qZkl_c ijhklh_ hgh
beb keh`gh_ Ihlhf \u lZd `_ hldjh\_ggh khh[sbl_ q_f hkeh`g_gu qZklb b ^Z`_
_kebhgbhkeh`g_gug_h^bgjZabdZ`^ucjZaq_flh^jm]bf\uwlh]hg_kdjh_l_B
ijbwlhfgbq_]hg_aZ[m^_l_bgbq_]hg_
170
i_j_imlZ_l_bkmf__l_kh\f_klblvwlhkijZ\bevghcjZkklZgh\dhcagZdh\<wlhf\Zf
ihfh`_l bgkljmdpby k dhlhjhc \u m`_ agZdhfu b dhlhjmx \ ^Zevg_cr_f [m^_l_
^hihegylv kfk 172).
<u\h^u[m^_l_^h[Z\eylvihoh^m^Zevg_cr_]hijh^\b`_gbyq_j_afZl_jbZe
29.:l_i_jvi_j_oh^bl_d\Zr_chldjh\_gghclj_gbjh\d_
GZ\_jgh_kZfmxemqrmx
gZwlhca_fghcklhjhg_
oh`mybi_k_gdmkemrZx
HgZr_\_evgmeZkv\hfg_
;Hdm^`Z\Z
EZklhqdZa\hgdZyilbpZ
Zg]_eih^djh\e_cfh_c
qlh`_l_[_g_e_lblky
Ie_gl_[_qlhebfbe_c
;Hdm^`Z\Z
<Zr_[eZ]hjh^b_]hkih`Zih[_^Z
agZqblfhyi_k_gdZ^hdhgpZg_ki_lZ
I_j_klZgvl_q_jlb
deyklvkygZdjh\b
G_\_a_lfg_\kf_jlb
ih\_a_l\ex[\b
;Hdm^`Z\Z
;ulvfh`_lwlbwe_dljhgu
Fbju]^_iylvfZl_jbdh\
Bkdmkkl\ZagZgvy\hcguljhgu
BiZfylvkhjhdZ\_dh\
?s_[ulvfh`_ldZ`^ucZlhf
<k_e_ggZy]^_klhieZg_l
LZf\k_qlha^_kv\h[t_f_k`Zlhf
GhlZd`_lhq_]ha^_kvg_l
<;jxkh\
:fulZdb_abfuagZeb
<`bebkv\lZdb_oheh^Z
Qlh^Z`_g_[uehi_qZeb
Ghlhevdh]hj^hklvb[_^Z
BWj_g[mj]
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
Bgl_j_kghohjhrheb\uihfgbl_keh\Zjh^gh]hyaudZ"Mq_gu_ih^kqblZebqlh\
gZr_fyaud_ 30keh\^eyh[hagZq_gbym\_j_gghklbbg_m\_j_gghklbIhklZjZcl_kvbo
\kihfgblv
30. L_i_jv \u agZ_l_ h^ghjh^gu_ qe_gu ij_^eh`_gby h[jZs_gby b \\h^gu_ keh\Z
>Z\Zcl_aZcf_fky\k_fwlbfh^gh\j_f_gghJZkklZ\vl_agZ
171
172
db ij_ibgZgby \ ijbf_jZo b aZg_kbl_ ghf_j dZ`^h]h ijbf_jZ \ khhl\_lkl\mxsbc
klhe[bd lZ[ebpu Ijbf_ju \ dhlhjuo [he__ h^gh]h ijZ\beZ aZibrbl_
khhl\_lkl\_ggh\^\Zbebljbklhe[bdZJZ[hlZcl_kie_gdhc
H^ghjh^gu_qe_gu
H[jZs_gby
<\h^gu_keh\Z
1.>j_\gb_]j_dbbah[jZ`Zeb[h]bgxGhqbGbdlmk^\mfyfeZ^_gpZfb[ebag_pZfb
gZjmdZoLZgZlhkhf kf_jlv b=bighkhf khg Hl_]hbf_gbijhbahrehkeh\h]bigha
dhlhjh_ h[hagZqZ_l [ebadh_ dh kgm khklhygb_ q_eh\_dZ Hl ]bighaZ h[jZah\Zebkv
^jm]b_ keh\Z ]bighlbaf ]bighlbq_kdbc ]bighlbabjh\Zlv ]bighlba_j E :
<\_^_gkdZyG : Dhe_kgbdh\ 2.Hq_\b^gh;_euc]mkvkqblZeqlh\k_\wlhffbj_
kms_kl\m_llhevdh^eyg_]hh^gh]hbgZ\_jgh_hq_gv[um^b\beky_keb[umagZeqlh
kZflhhgijbgZ^e_`bl^_j_\_gkdhfmfZevqbrd_Kl_id_ ?Ghkh\ JhkkbygbsZyJhkkby
Fg_ba[uk_ju_l\hb
L\hbfg_i_kgb\_ljh\u_²
DZdke_aui_j\u_ex[\b
:;ehd
4. Fg_ dZ`_lky qlh _keb [u y ihiZe gZ K_\_jguc ihexk beb kdZ`_f gZ ihexk
FZ]gblguc lh b lZf h[yaZl_evgh [u kb^_e b rfu]Ze ghkhf fZevqbrdZ k m^hqdhc
dZjZmebe [u m ijhjm[b lj_kdm Z gZ FZ]gblghf ihexk_ \udh\ujb\Ze [u ba a_feb
kehfZggufgh`hfdmkhq_dfZ]gblZ D IZmklh\kdbc 5.<Lb[_l__klvex^bdhlhju_
ohjhrh \eZ^_xl bkdmkkl\hf g_\b^bfhd D kqZklvx lZdbo ex^_c hq_gv fZeh
Eh[[kZg] JZfiZ 6. Y \Zk ex[ex fhb ^h`^b < ?]hjh\ 7. DZd ba\_klgh [mfZ]Z
dgb]hi_qZlZgb_ b dhfiZk [ueb bah[j_l_gu \ DblZ_ =j_[gh_ dhe_kh ihy\behkv gZ
AZiZ^_kbah[j_l_gb_fiZjhoh^Z<DblZ_dZdk\b^_l_evkl\m_le_lhibkvaZljbgZ^pZlv
\_dh\ ^h wlh]h [ue ihkljh_g [hevrhc dhjZ[ev k ]j_[gufb dhe_kZfb DklZlb k_cqZk
^_eZxlky hiulu ih \hajh`^_gbx ]j_[guo dhe_k gZ kh\j_f_gguo l_iehoh^Zo ba
`mjgZeh\ <uibrbl_ij_^eh`_gbydhlhju_khhl\_lkl\mxlko_f_
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
?keb m \Zk g_ [ueh hrb[hd i_j_oh^bl_ d ke_^mxs_c l_f_ ?keb [ueb
ijh^he`Zcl_lj_gbjh\dm
31.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
1. BlZd k_^vfZy ieZg_lZ dhlhjmx ihk_lbe FZe_gvdbc ijbgp [ueZ A_fey A_fey
ieZg_lZ g_ ijhklZy GZ i_c gZkqblu\Z_lky klh h^bggZ^pZlv dhjhe_c \ lhf qbke_
jZamf__lky b g_]jblygkdbo k_fv lukyq ]_h]jZnh\ ^_\ylvkhl lukyq ^_evph\ k_fv k
iheh\bghcfbeebhgh\ivygbp
173
ljbklZ h^bggZ^pZlv fbeebhgh\ q_klhex[b\p_\ blh]h hdheh ^\mo fbeebZj^h\
\ajhkeuo : K_glWdaxi_jb 2.Ihfbehklb=hkih^g_cfu\:f_jbd_ihemqbebljb
g_hp_gbfuo^ZjZk\h[h^mkeh\Zk\h[h^mkh\_klbb[eZ]hjZamfb_dhlhjh_m^_j`b\Z_l
gZkhllh]hqlh[ubfbihevah\Zlvky FZjdL\_g <hlhiylvhdgh
=^_hiylvg_kiyl
Fh`_livxl\bgh
Fh`_llZdkb^yl
Bebijhklhjmd
G_jZagbfml^\h_
<dZ`^hf^hf_^jm]
?klvhdghlZdh_
FP\_lZ_\Z
B^ml\_dZrmfbl\hcgZ
<klZ_lfyl_`]hjyl^_j_\gb
:lu\k_lZ`fhykljZgZ
<djZk_aZieZdZgghcb^j_\g_c
:;ehd
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
?s_h^gZg_[hevrZyijh[e_fZ
aZiylZyijbkeh\_h^gZdh
Fu m`_ ]h\hjbebh ^\hcghc ijbjh^_ keh\Z h^gZdh lh wlh ijhlb\bl_evguc khxa
lh\\h^gh_keh\hh^gZdhkijhlb\bl_evgufagZq_gb_f<kihfgbl_qlh\Zfba\_klgh
hagZdZoij_ibgZgbyijbwlhfkeh\_bjZkkdZ`bl_k_[_H^gZdh_keb\uqlhgb[m^v
aZ[ueb\_jgbl_kvd]eZ\_ I,i_j_qblZcl_khhl\_lkl\mxsb_Z[aZpubihke_wlh]h_s_
g_fgh]h ihlj_gbjmcl_kv Z i_j_^ wlbf i_j_qblZcl_ \_kv Z[aZp gZc^bl_ \ g_f keh\h
h^gZdhbh[tykgbl_agZdbij_ibgZgbyijbg_f
32.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
1.;h]b^j_\g_c=j_pbblZbebh]hgvhlex^_ch^gZdhIjhf_l_cihoblbe_]hkg_[Z
ih^Zjbe ex^yf b gZmqbe bf ihevah\Zlvky 2. Ih [b[e_ckdhfm ij_^Zgbx `bl_eb
^j_\g_]h<Z\behgZklZebkljhblv[Zrgx\ukhlhc^hg_[Z;h]h^gZdhjZa]g_\Zekyb
kf_rZe bo yaudb Hgb i_j_klZeb ihgbfZlv ^jm] ^jm]Z b kljhcdZ ij_djZlbeZkv 3.
Kl_gu ^j_\g_]h iZe_klbgkdh]h ]hjh^Z B_jbohgZ kh]eZkgh ij_^Zgbx kqblZebkv
g_khdjmrbfufb h^gZdh aZ\h_\Zl_eb dhlhju_ hkZ`^Zeb ]hjh^ h^gh\j_f_ggh ]jhfdh
aZljm[beb \ k\ys_ggu_ ljm[u b kl_gu jmogmeb <ujZ`_gb_ b_jbohgkdZy ljm[Z
h^gZdhk_]h^gymihlj_[ey_lky\^jm]hfkfuke_HghZ^j_km_lkyq_eh\_dmkhkebrdhf
]jhfdbf ]hehkhf 4. Fu g_ mihlj_[ey_f keh\h ZeZ[hj dhlhjh_ m k_\_jguo gZjh^h\
h[hagZqZ_l ihjy^hd h^gZdh rbjhdh ihevam_fky keh\hf [_aZeZ[_jguc agZq_gb_
dhlhjh]h\Zfohjhrhba\_klgh
174
GZ\hcg_k_[yaZ[m^v
Ihfgbq_klvh^gZdh
L_fh^gZdh^hjh`b
QlhkemqZehkv\jZe^eykf_om
Gbdh]^Zg_e]Ze^eye`b
: L\Zj^h\kdbc
<uibrbl_ghf_jij_^eh`_gby khhl\_lkl\mxs_]h lZdhc
ko_f_
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
33.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby\hlj_adZoij_^eh`_gbc
1. ... \h\lhjuo l_ m dh]h d g_kqZklvx g_ hdZaZehkv ... 2. ... gh wlh ih`Zemc klZg_l
ba\_klguf lhevdh lh]^Z dh]^Z ... 3. ... gh _keb [m^_l gm`gh lh fu dhg_qgh ... 4. ...
kljZrgZy bklhjby ih kemoZf ... 5. Ih]h^Z aZ\ljZ ih khh[s_gbyf ... 6. BaaZ iehohc
ih]h^unml[hevgucfZlqg_khklhyekydgZr_fm\_ebdhfm ...
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
<\h^gu_ij_^eh`_gby
Ijhqlbl_ ^\Z ijbf_jZ b kjZ\gbl_ bo 1. GZ hkljh\_ >`_jk__ \ EZfZgr_ ]^_
<bdlhj =x]h `be \ ba]gZgbb _fm khhjm`_g iZfylgbd 2. H^gZ`^u wlh [ueh \h
\lhjgbdihke_ihem^gyfuh[gZjm`beb\e_kmi_s_jm
Qlhh[s_]hf_`^mwlbfb^\mfyij_^eh`_gbyfb"
?keb \u ijhy\beb gZ[ex^Zl_evghklv lh aZf_lbeb qlh dZ`^h_ ba wlbo
ij_^eh`_gbcmkljh_ghihijbgpbimfZlj_rdZ\fZlj_rd_ — h^gh\^jm]hf
: l_i_jv ihijh[mcl_ hl\_lblv q_f wlb ij_^eh`_gby jZaebqZxlky Ykgh eb \Zf
wlh"
?kebihdZ_s_g_lihijh[mcl_bkdZlvhl\_llZdihklZ\vl_\hijhkhlgZjm`ghc
qZklbij_^eh`_gbyd\gmlj_gg_c<i_j\hfkemqZ_\hijhkklZ\blkye_]dhgZhkljh\_
>`_jk__ — gZdZdhf"— ]^_<bdlhj=x]h`be\ba]gZgbb
: dZd h[klhbl ^_eh kh \lhjuf ij_^eh`_gb_f" GbdZd <hijhk g_ klZ\blky
khhl\_lkl\_ggh b hl\_lZ [ulv g_ fh`_l <gmlj_ggyy qZklv ij_^eh`_gby
]jZffZlbq_kdb g_ k\yaZgZ k \g_rg_c Hgb k\yaZgu lhevdh ih kfukem LZdb_
ij_^eh`_gbygZau\Zxlky\\h^gufb
<\h^gu_ ij_^eh`_gby \u^_eyxlky k ^\mo klhjhg
ijbq_f \ jZaguo kemqZyo hgb fh]ml \u^_eylvky ih
jZaghfm G_[hevrb_ ih h[t_fm \\h^gu_ ij_^eh`_gby
qZs_
\k_]h
\u^_eyxlky
aZiylufb
[he__
jZkijhkljZg_ggu_ —kdh[dZfbbeblbj_k^\moklhjhg
GZ ko_f_ \\h^gu_ ij_^eh`_gby h[hagZqZxlky lZd `_
dZdijb^Zlhqgu_\gmljb]eZ\guo
175
34. Ij_^eZ]Z_f \Zf ljb ijbf_jZ [_a agZdh\ dZ`^hf ba gbo gZc^bl_ \\h^gh_
ij_^eh`_gb_ b \u^_ebl_ _]h aZiylufb beb kdh[dZfb beb lbj_ G_ aZ[m^vl_
jZkklZ\blvbhklZevgu_agZdb
E_lZdkmjh\hcijha_dehgyl
E_lZrZemgvxjbnfm]hgyl
Bykh\a^hohfijbagZxkv
AZg_ce_gb\_c\hehqmkv
:KImrdbg
Ih\_jvl_kh\_klv\lhfihjmdhc
Kmijm`_kl\hgZf[m^_lfmdhc
:KImrdbg
3. Nbemf_gby lZd gZau\Zxl kh[bjZgb_ kibq_qguo wlbd_lhd g_ f_g__ bgl_j_kgZ
q_fkh[bjZgb_fZjhd
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
<dZdbokemqZyomihlj_[eyxlkydZdb_agZdb"LhqguoijZ\beihwlhfm\hijhkmg_
kms_kl\m_l Q_f [he__ kbevgh \u ohlbl_ \u^_eblv \\h^gh_ ij_^eh`_gb_ l_f [he__
kbevgu_agZdbgm`guKZfufkeZ[uf\u^_e_gb_fy\eyxlkyaZiylu_kZfufkbevguf
—kdh[db
35.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby\ij_^eh`_gbyoJZ[hlZcl_kie_gdhc
1. >j_\g_]j_q_kdb_ [h]b ih ij_^Zgbx h[blZeb gZ ]hj_ Hebfi Wlb [h]b bo
gZau\ZebhebfibcpZfb[_amqZklghhlghkbebkvdkljZ^Zgbyfb\heg_gbyfex^_c<hl
ihq_fm h q_eh\_d_ dhlhjuc khojZgy_l g_\hafmlbfh_ kihdhckl\b_ i_j_^ ebphf
a_fguo\heg_gbc]h\hjylqlhmg_]hhebfibckdh_kihdhckl\b_ E:<\_^_gkdZyG
I Dhe_kgbdh\ 2. DZdlh jZa dh]^Z y ^hklZe ba ysbdZ ]Z^xdm qlh[u ihdhjfblv __
kZfZ hgZ hldZau\ZeZkv _klv kemqbeky dhgnma <k_ iylv af_c dhlhju_ `beb \ wlhf
ysbd_\uj\ZebkvgZ\hex J;ehf[_j] 3.<^_[jyoX`ghc:f_jbdbyihijbf_jm
bg^_cp_\k m^h\hevkl\b_f_e djhdh^bebc o\hklWlhgZklhys__eZdhfkl\h <ijhq_f
dh]^Zfg_\i_j\ucjZaij_^eh`bebhl\_^Zlvdjhdh^bev_]hfykZwlh[ueh\Wd\Z^hj_
yg_hsmlbehkh[h]h\hh^mr_\e_gby J;ehf[_j] 4.LuihkfhljbrvghqvxgZg_[h
Z\_^vlZf[m^_llZdZya\_a^Z]^_y`b\m]^_ykf_xkvblumkeurbrvqlh\k_a\_a^u
kf_xlky B dh]^Z lu ml_rbrvky \ dhgp_ dhgph\ \k_]^Z ml_rZ_rvky lu [m^_rv jZ^
qlhagZef_gydh]^Zlh :K_glWdaxi_jb 5.Qlhb]h\hjblv^hfZmfbkl_jZEhg]eb
[ueh bgl_j_kgh Hg kh[jZe aZf_qZl_evgmx dhee_dpbx Z\kljZebckdbo ys_jbp J
;ehf[_j] 6. Kj_^b h[blZl_e_c i_j\hjh^guo \h^ Z dheu[_ev `bagb hd_Zg [ueb
f_^mau dhlhju_ gZihfbgZeb ahglbd beb reyidm ]jb[Z k hims_ggufb smiZevpZfb
Wlb klm^_gbklhijhajZqgu_ `b\hlgu_ dhlhju_ _^\Z aZf_lgu \ ijhajZqghc \h^_
dZ`mlky kh\_jr_ggh [_ah[b^gufb Ih hgb \_jhylbb i_j\u_ fhjkdb_ obsgbdb :
AZ]hjygkdbc 7. Mq_guf \ gZklhys__ \j_fy ba\_klgh hdheh 30 lukyq fbg_jZeh\
klhevdh kh^_j`blky \ f_`^mgZjh^ghf dZlZeh]_ dhee_dpby dhlhjuo ijh^he`Z_l
_`_]h^ghihihegylvky E:<\_^_gkdZyGIDhe_kgbdh\ 176
<uibrbl_ghf_jij_^eh`_gbykhhl\_lkl\mxs_]hlZdhcko_f_
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
36.DZ`^u_^\Zij_^eh`_gbykh_^bgbl_\h^ghlZdqlh[uh^ghbagboklZeh\\h^guf
<hllZd
A^Zgb_>\hjpZkt_a^h\bf__l\ukhlm\k_]hljb^pZlviylvf_ljh\?]hajbl_evguc
aZe\f_sZ_lhdhehr_klblukyqq_eh\_d —A^Zgb_>\hjpZkt_a^h\ —_]hajbl_evguc
aZe\f_sZ_lhdhehr_klblukyqq_eh\_d —bf__l\ukhlm\k_]hljb^pZlviylvf_ljh\
1. >_evnbgu kiZkZeb ihkljZ^Z\rbo \ fhj_ ex^_c b ^hklZ\eyeb bo \ [_ahiZkgh_
f_klh LZdb_ kemqZb [ueb fgh]hdjZlgh 2. < ^Ze_db_ ]h^u ih \k_c __ l_jjblhjbb
[jh^bebklZ^Z[bahgh\Lh]^ZK_\_jgZy:f_jbdZ_s_lhevdhaZk_eyeZkv 3.<h\j_fy
g_f_pdhc hddmiZpbb njZgpmakdZy i_\bpZ W^bl IbZn ihfh]eZ hdZaZlvky gZ k\h[h^_
klZ ^\Z^pZlb ie_gguf HgZ \uklmiZeZ k dhgp_jlZfb \ g_f_pdbo eZ]_jyo ^ey
\h_gghie_gguo 4. Q_eh\_q_kdbc fha] kZfh_ keh`gh_ \ __ ij_^_eZo mkljhckl\h Fu
kjZ\gb\Z_f_]hkba\_klghcgZf<k_e_gghc 5.Kihkh[ghklbq_eh\_dZ\agZqbl_evghc
qZklbjZkljZqb\Zxlky\imklmxWlh\iheg_\_jhylgh
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
37. I_j_ibrbl_ lZ[ebpm \ l_ljZ^v AZibrbl_ ghf_j dZ`^h]h ij_^eh`_gby \
khhl\_lkl\mxsbc klhe[bd lZ[ebpu JZkklZ\vl_ agZdb ij_ibgZgby JZ[hlZcl_ k
ie_gdhc
Ijbf_juk\\h^gufb
keh\Zfb
Ijbf_juk\\h^gufb
ij_^eh`_gbyfb
Ijbf_ju[_a\\h^guokeh\b
ij_^eh`_gbc
1. Dhg_qgh ex[bl_eb ij_kfudZxsboky \klj_qZxlky j_^dh : \ijhq_f y
ihagZdhfbeky k h[Zyl_evghc ih`behc e_^b dhlhjZy ^_j`ZeZ \ k\hbo
ZjbklhdjZlbq_kdbo ihdhyo k ihe^x`bgu af_c Dhg_qgh af_b [ueb g_ hiZkgu_ gh
fgh]b_ ij_^klZ\bl_eb f_klgh]h h[s_kl\Z hldZau\Zebkv ijboh^blv \ ]hklb d wlhc
e_^b J ;ehf[_j] 2. <hh[jZ`_gb_ dZd y m`_ ]h\hjbe g_ fh`_l `blv [_a
^_ckl\bl_evghklb Hgh iblZ_lky _x K ^jm]hc klhjhgu \hh[jZ`_gb_ hq_gv qZklh \
dZdhclh f_j_ \eby_l gZ l_q_gb_ gZr_c `bagb gZ gZrb ^_eZ b fukeb gZ gZr_
hlghr_gb_dex^yf DIZmklh\kdbc Bm`_dZaZehkv^_^m
KZfohl_elh]hbevg_l
I_j_^\k_fbaZih[_^m
Ebqguchg^_j`Zehl\_l
:L\Zj^h\kdbc
4.E_kZ;jZabebbdbrZly^h\blufbaf_yfbbobsgufb`b\hlgufb Gh\^hf]^_
`b\_lijbjmq_ggucm^Z\g_aZihea_lgbh^gZaf_y5.IZfylv_klvdeZ^h\ZymfZgh\
wlhcdeZ^h\hcfgh]hi_j_]hjh^hdbihlhfmgZ^h[ghkdhj__mdeZ^u\Zlvdm^Zke_^m_l
:<Km\hjh\ 6.G_
177
dhlhju_ gZa\Zgby \hagbdeb baaZ g_^hjZamf_gbc MkeurZ\ keh\h hjZg]mlZg] lZd
gZau\Zeb e_kguo `bl_e_c gZ hkljh\_ ;hjg_h _\jhi_cpu ijbgyeb wlh keh\h aZ
gZa\Zgb_ q_eh\_dhh[jZaghc h[_avygu < hl\_l gZ \hijhk h gZa\Zgbb `b\hlgh]h
Z\kljZebckdb_ `bl_eb kdZaZeb d_g]mjm lh _klv fu \Zk g_ ihgbfZ_f b wlh keh\h
ijbklZeh d `b\hlghfm \ dZq_kl\_ _]h gZa\Zgby ;_eu_ kijhkbeb bg^_cp_\ h
gZa\Zgbb f_klghklb mkeurZeb hl\_l DZgZ^Z wlh keh\h h[hagZqZ_l ob`bgZ b bf
gZau\Zehkv [eb`Zcr__ g_[hevrh_ k_e_gb_ Z iha`_ wlh keh\h klZeh gZa\Zgb_f
h]jhfghckljZgu ih<H^bgph\m Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
?keb hrb[hd g_ [ueh i_j_oh^bl_ d aZ^Zgbx 39, _keb [ueb — \uihegycl_ \k_
ih^jy^
38.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
1. Fgh]b_ a\_a^u kha\_a^by fZeu_ ieZg_lu b kimlgbdb [hevrbo ieZg_l ghkyl
bf_gZ ]_jh_\ jZaebqguo fbnh\ :fmj :g^jhf_^Z IZeeZ^Z P_j_jZ G_j_b^Z Hjbhg
Ie_y^ub^jm]b_ E:<\_^_gkdZyGIDhe_kgbdh\ Hfbeu_iemluDlhqZklhbo\b^_e
Lhl\_jxyex[bldj_klvygkdbo^_l_c
G:G_djZkh\
3. Ijhreh wlh e_lh \ ]me_ khkgh\uo e_kh\ `mjZ\ebguo djbdZo b [_euo ]jhfZ^Zo
dmq_\uo h[eZdh\ \ g_ijheZaguo iZomqbo aZjhkeyo lZ\he]b \ \hbgkl\_gguo
i_lmrbguo \hieyo b i_kgyo ^_\mr_d kj_^b \_q_j_xsbo em]h\ dh]^Z aZdZl ahehlbl
^_\bqvb ]eZaZ b i_j\uc lmfZg hklhjh`gh dmjblky gZ^ hfmlZfb D IZmklh\kdbc 4.
<havf_f gZijbf_j <_g_jm Wlh kZfZy yjdZy b djZkb\Zy ieZg_lZ gZ g_[_ <b^bfh aZ
wlh b gZa\Zeb __ ih bf_gb ^j_\g_jbfkdhc [h]bgb djZkhlu b ex[\b <_g_jhc E:
<\_^_gkdZyGIDhe_kgbdh\ <uibrbl_ ghf_j ijbf_jZ khhl\_lkl\mxs_]h
lZdhcko_f_
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
39. >ey ex[bl_e_c hkljuo hsms_gbc ² aZ^Zqb ih\ur_gghc ljm^ghklb GZc^bl_ \
l_dkl_\\h^gh_ij_^eh`_gb_JZkklZ\vl_agZdb
<k_e_gkdbchiul]h\hjbl
Qlhih]b[ZxlpZjkl\Z
G_hllh]hqlhly`_d[ul
BebkljZrgufulZjkl\Z
:ih]b[Zxlhllh]h
Bl_f[hevg_cq_f^hevr_
Qlhex^bpZjkl\Zk\h_]h
G_m\Z`Zxl[hevr_
;Hdm^`Z\Z
KhklZ\vl_ko_fmi_j\h]hij_^eh`_gby
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
178
40.<uibrbl_bal_dklZ\k_\\h^gu_ij_^eh`_gby
<:glbevkdhf:glbevkdhffhj_
DZjb[kdbfah\ml_]hlZd`_
bkoe_klZgZaeufb\ZeZfb
be_]dhxi_ghcmdjZr_gZ
ih^khegp_fhgh__]hgbl
Z\_l_jgZaZ^hl]hgy_l
Zke_au`b\mllhevdh\i_kg_
dZqZ_lkyDm[ZgZdZjl_
A_e_gZy^ebggZyys_jbpZ
k]eZaZfbdZd\eZ`gu_dZfgb
G=bev_g
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
41.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby\hlj_adZoij_^eh`_gbc
1. < ^Z\gb_^Z\gb_ \j_f_gZ dZd jZkkdZau\Z_lky \ klZjhc ... 2. Hq_j_^v m dZkku
l_ZljZZwlhll_Zlj[ue ... 3. ...<h`^vdjZkghdh`bolZda\Zeb ... 4. ...gbdh]^Z\wlhfy
l\_j^h m\_j_g g_ j_rblky gZ ... 5. Wlhl fZevqbrdZ y `_ _]h gZkd\hav \b`m aZ^mfZe
qlhlh baaZ q_]h ... 6. — lhevdh kfhlj_e gZ gZk Z ]eZaZ m g_]h [ueb ykgu_ykgu_ b
^_eZe\b^qlh ... 7. <k_ kgZjy`_gb_ fu wlh ohjhrh ijh\_jbeb [ueh \ ihjy^d_ b fu
fh]eb ...
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
:obbhob
JZa]h\hjhf_`^hf_lbyo
Hc :c Wo Mn o Hchchc Qlh \k_ wlh aZ keh\Z" <u dhg_qgh agZ_l_ Wlh
f_`^hf_lbyGmZqlhhgbh[hagZqZxl"BebqlhgZau\Zxl"Jh\gufkq_lhfgbq_]h
Fh`_lebwlh[ulv"<_^vihwlJZkme=ZfaZlh\kdZaZeG_lijhklh]hkeh\ZHgheb[h
ijhdeylv_eb[hiha^jZ\e_gb_eb[h[heveb[hp\_lhdeb[heh`veb[hijZ\^Zeb[h
k\_l eb[h lvfZ LZd dZdmx `_ jZ[hlm \uihegyxl wlb keh\Z dhlhju_ gbq_]h g_
h[hagZqZxlbg_gZau\Zxl"
Hgb\ujZ`Zxlfgh`_kl\hq_eh\_q_kdboqm\kl\bhll_gdh\qm\kl\DZdgZijbf_j
\uijhy\bl_qm\kl\hbkim]Zbebj_ZdpbxgZg_h`b^Zgghklv"
Kdhj__\k_]h\hkdebpZgbyfbhcZc
:dZdh_f_`^hf_lb_\uijhbag_k_l_k`Zeh[guf\ujZ`_gb_f"
Kdhj__\k_]hho
DZdbff_`^hf_lb_f\u\ujZabl_qm\kl\hkh`Ze_gby"
<_jhylghm\u
DZd\uijhy\bl_qm\kl\h[j_a]eb\hklb"
GZ\_jgh_kdZ`_l_nmbeb^Z`_nb
GmZqm\kl\h[hevrhcjZ^hklb"
179
Dhg_qghaZdjbqbl_mjZ
B\k_wlbf_`^hf_lby\u^_eyxlkygZibkvf_eb[haZiylhceb[h\hkdebpZl_evguf
agZdhf —\aZ\bkbfhklbhlkbeuqm\kl\bhlbglhgZpbb\ujZ`Zxs_cqm\kl\Z
42.IhklZ\vl_gm`gu_agZdb
MjZfuehfbf]gmlkyr\_^u
:KImrdbg
:o:j[Zlfhc:j[Zl
lufh_hl_q_kl\h
gbdh]^Z^hdhgpZg_ijhclbl_[y
;Hdm^`Z\Z
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
?kebZoklhbljy^hfklubeb\ulhhgb\u^_eyxlkyaZiylhc\^\h_f
<hllZd
:oluh[`hjZ:oaeh^_c
Lml<ZkvdmIh\Zjmdhjy_l
B:Djueh\
43.Ijh^he`bflj_gbjh\dmJZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgbyJZ[hlZcl_kie_gdhc
:oiheyfhb[hjha^ufbeu_
Ohjhrb\u\i_qZebk\h_c
180
Yex[exwlbob`bguobeu_
Kih^`b^Zgv_fk_^uofZl_j_c
K?k_gbg
Woih[_eufiheyfihrbjhdbf
GZrbke_aukg_`dhfaZf_eh
GZjh^gZyi_kgy
Mn`Zjdh>hihe^gy]jb[ukh[bjZeb
G:G_djZkh\
:odZdoheh^gh\^hjh]_
Mh[t_a^Z]^_gb[m^v
DZdijho\Zlu\Z_l\_l_j
DZdemgZl_iehf[_^gZ
:odZdljm^gh\k_gZk\_l_
Kem`[Z`bagvabfZ\hcgZ
:L\Zj^h\kdbc
H\_jx\_jxkqZklv__klv
K?k_gbg
Wcyfsbdg_kb\h\kxQZcjh`^_gg_keZ[uf
>mrm\uljyklbg_`ZevihlZdbfmoZ[Zf
K?k_gbg
M\uLZlvygZm\y^Z_l
;e_^g__l]Zkg_lbfheqbl
:KImrdbg
:olukl_ivfhy
Kl_ivijb\hevgZy
Rbjhdhlukl_iv
IhjZkdbgmeZkv
DfhjxQ_jghfm
IhgZ^\bgmeZkv
:Dhevph\
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
?keb hrb[hd g_ [ueh i_j_oh^bl_ d ke_^mxs_fm jZa^_em ?keb [ueb \uihegbl_
ZgZeh]bqgh_aZ^Zgb_
44.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
M\uhgkqZklbyg_bs_l
Bg_hlkqZklby[_`bl
FXE_jfhglh\
HdZdgZkdehg_gZrboe_l
G_`g_cfuex[bfbkm_\_jg_c
KbyckbycijhsZevguck\_l
Ex[\bihke_^g_caZjb\_q_jg_c
NLxlq_\
181
:o\j_fy>Zcfm^juokh\_lh\
Bg_lhjhieb\uo^g_c
KSbiZq_\
Lhevdhaf_bk[jZku\Zxldh`m
Qlh[^mrZklZj_eZbjhkeZ
Fum\ukhaf_yfbg_koh`b
Fuf_gy_f^mrbg_l_eZ
G=mfbe_\
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
>Zbg_l
Wlh ^\Z fZe_gvdbo gh kh\k_f g_ h^ghagZqguo keh\Z Bgh]^Z hgb \u^_eyxlky
aZiylhcbeb^Z`_\hkdebpZl_evgufagZdhfZbgh]^Zg_lWlhaZ\bkblhlboagZq_gby
?keb hgb kh^_j`Zl hlq_leb\h \ujZ`_gguc ml\_j^bl_evguc beb hljbpZl_evguc
kfukelh]^Z[_kkihjghklZ\blkyaZiylZy<hllZd 1. >ZiZfylvhjh^ghfk_e_ —wlh
^hjh]b_gZ \kx `bagv \hkihfbgZgby 2. AZ\beZkv iha_fdZ \ ihe_ G_l l_[y m` g_
gZc^ml :L\Zj^h\kdbc Gh ^Z b g_l fh]ml b]jZlv \ ij_^eh`_gbyo kh\k_f ^jm]b_ jheb G_l qZkl_gvdh
hdZau\Z_lkykdZam_fufblh]^Zdhg_qghaZiylhcg_\u^_ey_lky<hllZdG_lj_db
q_j_adhlhjmxg_[ueh[ui_j_ijZ\ug_lljm^gh]hiheh`_gbybadhlhjh]hg_[ueh
[u\uoh^Z \hklhqgZyihkeh\bpZ 45.K^_eZcl_]jZnbq_kdbcjZa[hjij_^eh`_gbcJZkklZ\vl_agZdb
< wlhf f_kl_ q_j_a j_qdm g_l fhklZ b g_l gb iZjhfZ gb eh^db ^ey i_j_ijZ\u
Ijb^_lkyi_j_ijZ\eylvky\[jh^mgZkg_l^jm]h]h\uoh^Z
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
>Zfh`_lhdZaZlvky\agZdhfhc\ZfjhebkhxaZblh]^ZagZdklZ\blkyi_j_^gbfih
m`_ba\_klguf\ZfijZ\beZf<hllZd 1. Ghqvx\_l_jaeblky^Zklmqbl\hdgh :
N_l 2. Ie_s_lh[hjl\hegZ^ZqZcdbkdjbdhfghkylky\hdjm]dhjZ[ey
46.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby\ke_^mxsboij_^eh`_gbyoJZ[hlZcl_kie_gdhc
Ex^_cg_bgl_j_kguo\fbj_g_l
Bokm^v[udZdbklhjbbieZg_l
??\lmr_gdh
:]Zjfhgvah\_ldm^Zlh
>Ze_dhe_]dh\_^_l
G_ldZdhc\u\k_j_[ylZ
M^b\bl_evguciZjh^
:L\Zj^h\kdbc
182
3.G_l^eyf_gykqZkleb\_cfbgmlq_fl_dhlhju_i_j_`b\Zxydh]^Z\\hkdj_k_gv_
mljhf\oh`m\dhg^bl_jkdmxihdmiZlvlhjl XHe_rZ G_lfbeucqblZl_evfhcdjblbdke_ihc
IhdjZcghklb_klvmihwlZ
Bjhkublmqdbb\_dahehlhc
L_[_`g_^hklmigh\k_wlh
:;ehd
Khegp_j_`_kf__lky
G_l\p\_lZo[eZ]h\hgvy
Kdhjhhk_gvijhkg_lky
BaZieZq_lkijhkhgvy
D;Zevfhgl
>ZyagZxy\Zfg_iZjZ
Yijbr_eba^jm]hckljZgu
Bfg_gjZ\blkyg_]blZjZ
:^bdZjkdbcgZi_\amjgu
G=mfbe_\
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
?kebm\Zkg_[uehhrb[hdi_j_oh^bl_daZ^Zgbx 48,_keb[ueb — \uihegycl_\k_
ih^jy^
47.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
>Z[m^_lgZjh^]hkm^Zj_f
<k_]^ZgZ\k_]^Za^_kvblZf
<Oe_[gbdh\
G_lbijhk\_lZ\g_[_ghqghf
A\_a^ukdjuebkvg_`^bbo\ha\jZlZ
<Kheh\v_\
G_l\ZfgZkdmqbebgb\u[_kieh^gu_²
Qm`^u\ZfkljZklbbqm`^ukljZ^Zgby
<_qghoheh^gu_\_qghk\h[h^gu_
G_lm\Zkjh^bgug_l\Zfba]gZgby
FXE_jfhglh\
>Z\_^ZxlihlhfdbijZ\hkeZ\guo
A_febjh^ghcfbgm\rmxkm^v[m
:KImrdbg
5.Fg_dZ`_lkyqlhg_lgZk\_l_^jm]h]hbkdmkkl\Zdhlhjh_[ulZdjh^gbehex^_c
dZdfmaudZ XRZihjbg Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
48.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby\hlj_adZoij_^eh`_gbc
183
1. ...m`_g_l ... 2.G_lbg_ ... 3.G_lfug_ ... 4.>Z[m^_lfbjgZ ... 5.>Z^jmavyfu
kgh\Z ... 6. ...ijb]j_\Z_lkhegurdh^Z\_k_ggb_jmq_cdb ...
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
49. : l_i_jv ^Z\Zcl_ ih\lhjbf \f_kl_ \\h^gu_ keh\Z f_`^hf_lby b keh\Z ^Z b g_l
JZkklZ\vl_ agZdb AZibrbl_ ghf_j dZ`^h]h ijbf_jZ \ khhl\_lkl\mxsbc klhe[bd
lZ[ebpuJZ[hlZcl_kie_gdhc
<\h^gu_keh\Zbij_^eh`_gby
F_`^hf_lby
Keh\Z^Zbg_l
Qlh`_s_"B\k_ih`Zemc
Keh\hfdgb]Zijh[hcpZ
;_agZqZeZ[_adhgpZ
:L\Zj^h\kdbc
Q_f^hevr_`b\_fful_f]h^udhjhq_
L_fkeZs_^jma_c]hehkZ
:olhevdh[g_kfhedih^^m]hcdhehdhevqbd
=eZaZ[u]ey^_eb\]eZaZ
;Hdm^`Z\Z
>ZyfhjydBkdZl_evhkljh\h\
KdblZe_p^_jadbc\g_h]ey^ghffhj_
<;jxkh\
4. DZ`^uc jZkkdZa h R_jehd_ Ohefk_ _klv lZd kdZaZlv gZ]ey^guc mjhd h
fh]ms_kl\_q_eh\_q_kdh]hjZamfZ DQmdh\kdbc 5.G_limkdZcihkem`blhg\Zjfbb
^Zihlyg_leyfdm^ZihgxoZ_lihjhom^Z[m^_lkhe^ZlZg_rZfZlhg :KImrdbg G_lih\_klbi_qZevg__gZk\_l_
Q_fih\_klvhJhf_hb>`mev_ll_
<R_dkibj
<havfb\_keheZ^vxhlqZev
Bimklv\eZ^v_gZk[m^_l^\h_
:o[_aukoh^ghklvbi_qZev
Khijh\h`^Zxl\k_a_fgh_
F<hehrbg
8.DZd[ulhgb[ueh\^`mg]eyog_lZdfgh]hy^h\bluoaf_cbijhqboqm^h\bs:
l_dhlhju__klvijbijb[eb`_gbbq_eh\_dZklZjZxlkymclb J;ehf[_j] Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
?keb hrb[hd g_ [ueh i_j_oh^bl_ d ke_^mxs_c ]eZ\_ ?keb [ueb ijh^he`Zcl_
jZ[hlmgZ^wlbfaZ^Zgb_f
50.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
184
G_lg_ihreZFhkd\Zfhy
Dg_fmkih\bgghc]heh\hx
:KImrdbg
G_lmak\yl__lh\Zjbs_kl\Z
G<=h]hev
HgluJmkvfhyjh^bgZdjhldZy
Ebrvdl_[_yex[h\v[_j_]m
K?k_gbg
Wo\ukZgb:dhgbdhgb
<b^ghq_jlbogZa_fexijbg_k
<aZebo\Zlkdhfkl_ighfjZa]hg_
Dhehdhevqbdohohq_l^hke_a
K?k_gbg
5.H^gZ`^uwlh[uehiZkZfhf\hklhd_DblZygZrbfmaudZglu^Z\Zebdhgp_jlijb
[eZ]h]h\_cghclbrbg_dhlhjZypZjbeZ\im[ebd_<^jm]g_ihgylghqlh_fm\a[j_eh\
]heh\m]jhfdhaZklj_dhlZek\_jqhdbgbdZdg_m^Z\Zehkvmgylv_]h ba`mjgZeh\ 6.M
DZdZy k\_jdZxsZy qm^gZy g_agZdhfZy fbjm ^Zev Jmkv 7. Wo ljhcdZ IlbpZ ljhcdZ
dlhl_[y\u^mfZe" 8.WodhgbdhgbqlhaZdhgb G<=h]hev
G_lg_aZ[ulvgb]hehkh\gbebp
:odZd^Z\gh\k_wlhkgZfb[ueh
:GFbog_\bq
M`_dhgqZ_lkyfhy^hjh]Z
H]h\hjbkhfghx]h\hjb
=B\Zgh\
>ZjmdZkm^v[u
F_gy\_eZbgufiml_f
FXE_jfhglh\
G_l[_ah[jZavy\ijbjh^_
G:G_djZkh\
>Zkdbnufu^ZZabZlufu
KjZkdhkufbb`Z^gufbhqZfb
:;ehd
H_keb[[uey
lbobcdZd]jhf
<FZydh\kdbc
<uibrbl_ ghf_j ij_^eh`_gby khhl\_lkl\mxs_]h lZdhc
ko_f_
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
51.:l_i_jvfuijb]eZrZ_f\Zkdhldjh\_gghfmjZa]h\hjm
KgZqZeZ\uijyfhkdZ`_l_hdZ`^hfijbf_j_kdhevdh
qZkl_c \ ij_^eh`_gbb ijhklh_ hgh beb keh`gh_ : ihlhf [_a mlZcdb i_j_qbkebl_ \k_
q_fhkeh`g_ghdZ`^h_ij_^eh`_gb_BjZamf__lkyjZkklZ\bl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
185
G_lg_e_]dh\ihjy^hdijb\_klb
Ghqgh_g_aZiheg_ggh_\j_fy
G_h[dZlZlv_]hg_mljyklb
KimklhlZfbb\iZ^bgZfb\k_fb
HdZdl_i_jvgbqlh`_gdZd^Ze_d
Imklhcghqgh]h\j_f_gbdhfhd
KYFZjrZd
G_l^jmavyex[h\v`_gu
KhlgxjZaijh\_jvl_
GZ\hcg_kbevg_c\hcgu
B[ulvfh`_lkf_jlb
:L\Zj^h\kdbc
:o[jZlpuDZdy[ue^h\he_g
Dh]^Zp_jd\_cbdhehdhe_g
KZ^h\q_jlh]h\ihemdjm]
Hldjuekyij_^hfghx\^jm]
DZdqZklh\]hj_klghcjZaemd_
<fh_c[em`^Zxs_ckm^v[_
Fhkd\Zy^mfZehl_[_
:KImrdbg
:y\Zf]h\hjxqlhg_l
gZijZkghijh`bluofghce_l
g_gm`ghijhc^_gguoiml_c
\imklmxkeurZgguo\_kl_c
G_lg_\hkijbgyluofbjh\
g_lfbfhjha^Zgguo^Zjh\
ex[\bgZijZkghclh`_g_l
ex[\bh[fZgmlhc[hevghc
__g_le_gghqbkluck\_l
\k_]^Z\hfg_
\k_]^Zkhfghc
H;_j]]hevp
GZr_k\ys_ggh_j_f_keh
Kms_kl\m_llukyqbe_l
Kgbfb[_ak\_lZfbjmk\_leh
Gh_s_gbh^bgg_kdZaZeihwl
Qlhfm^jhklbg_lbklZjhklbg_l
:fh`_lbkf_jlbg_l
::ofZlh\Z
KhklZ\vl_ko_fmij_^eh`_gby :y\Zf]h\hjx)
<uibrbl_ghf_jij_^eh`_gbykhhl\_lkl\mxs_]hko_f_
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u,9
186
Hl\_lu
1. 1. ... ,^jm]=hjZpbc ... . 2. ... ,\_l_j>mc ... !
2. 1.>j_fexb ... ,b ... ,Jmkv>j_fexb ...lZcgZb\lZcg_HgZ ...g_h[uqZcgZ
... . 2. ...lmfZggh_ ... .Luebih^jm]Z`_eZggZy ... ? Kgbfb ...lmfZggh_ ...ebphK
gbfbih^jm]Z`_eZggZy ... . 3. ... ,F_jb ... !Gblhkdbgb ... ,gb ...imklv ... .
3. ...E_cl_kvdjZkdb ... ,dbklb ... ,fZeyj ... !
4.Fhckugex[h\v —khxak_j^_pd ... .H[jZs_gb_ — fhckug
5.
>_\bpu
djZkZ\bpu
JZau]jZcl_kv^_\bpujZa]meycl_kvfbeu_
^mr_gvdb
ih^jm`_gvdb
6. ... ,h[_j_aZ ... ,[_j_aZ
7. 1. ... , g_fulZy Jhkkby kljZgZ jZ[h\ kljZgZ ]hkih^ b \u fmg^bju ]hem[u_ b
lu ihkemrguc bf gZjh^ 2. ... , feZ^_g_p fhc ij_djZkguc ... . 3. ... , g_m^ZqZ b
m^ZqZ ... !<aZdhe^h\Zgghch[eZklbieZqZ ...kf_oZ — ... . 4. ... ,\_ldZIZe_klbgu]^_
lujhkeZ ...p\_eZ" ... , dZdhc ... ? 5. ... , jh^bgZ djhldZy 6. >mo [jh^y`bc ... H fhy
mljZq_ggZyk\_`_klv[mckl\h]eZa b iheh\h^v_ qm\kl\ ... @bagv fhy ... ? 7. Fbeu_
[_j_ah\u_qZsbLua_fey B\ujZ\gbgi_kdb 8. ... , ^jmavy ... . 9. ... , fZevqbdb
FZevqbdb ... .
G_jZkijhkljZg_ggu_
h[jZs_gby
3, 7, 8, 9
JZkijhkljZg_ggu_
h[jZs_gby
1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7
P_ihqdbh[jZs_gbc
6
8. 1. ... , dmfmrdZ ... ? 2. Ijbey]dZ [jZl ... . 3. Khk_^dZ keurZeZ ev lu ... ? 4.
Rbjhdh lu kl_iv ihjZkdbgmeZkv ... . 5. Ex[ex l_[y I_ljZ l\hj_gv_ ex[ex ... ,
kljhcguc\b^ ...l_q_gv_ ... .
9. 1. ... , khdhebd fhc ykguc ... ba ibkvfZ gygb ?]hjh\gu <eZ^bfbjm
>m[jh\kdhfm 2. ... ,fbeh_\b^_gv_ ... ? BaibkvfZLZlvygudHg_]bgm 3. ... ,^mrZ
Ljyibqdbg ... baibkvfZOe_klZdh\Z 4. ... ,fbeuc^_^mrdZ ...fhex ... baibkvfZ
<Zgvdb@mdh\Z 10. 1. ... ,fhc ... 2. ... ,^h[juc ... 3. ... ,m\Z`Z_fuc ... 4. ... ,fhcfbeucihlhfmqlh
... 6. ... ,^hjh]b_fhb^jmavy ...
11. 1.;_kkihjgh ... ,lZddZd ... . 2. ... ,jZamf__lky ... .
12. 1. ... ,[ulvfh`_l ... . 2. ... —knbgdkBl_f ...q_eh\_dZqlhfh`_lklZlvky ... .
3. ... ,lhgZ\_jgh_ ... ,q_f ... .
13. 1. Dhg_qgh \_jgh ijZ\^Z [_amkeh\gh jZamf__lky ^_ckl\bl_evgh [_kkihjgh
g_khfg_ggh\kZfhf^_e_[_akhfg_gbykZfhkh[hcjZamf__lky
187
2.<_jhylgh\hafh`ghfh`_l[ulv^he`gh[ulvih\b^bfhfm\b^bfhih`Zemc
gZ\_jgh_dZ`_lkyih\k_c\_jhylghklb
14. 1. ... ,ghdkqZklvx ... . 2. ...bd\_ebqZcr_fmm^h\hevkl\bxkh[jZ\rboky ... .
3. ... ,dm^b\e_gbxim[ebdb ... ,b .... 4.Dg_kqZklvx ...gZdehgbeZkv ... .
15. 1. ... ,ih\b^bfhfm ... ,q_f ... .NZdludZdfg_dZ`_lky ... . 2.>_ckl\bl_evgh ...
. 3. Q_j_iZob g_khfg_ggh ... . G_dhlhju_ ... , qlh ... , gh wlh kdhj__ \k_]h ... . 4. ...
k_j^pZ ... . 5.Fh`_l[ulv;ehd ... ,ihlhfmqlh ... . 6. ... ,\_jhylgh ... . 7. ...qm^guc ...
^j_\gbc b ihkZ^u b ^_j_\gb b iZeZlu b ^\hjpu 8. ... mivxkv ... h[hevxkv b
fh`_l[ulv ... .
H[jZs_gb_
4, 7
<\h^gu_keh\Z
m\_j_gghklv
2, 3 Q_j_iZob ...)
g_m\_j_gghklv
1, 3 G_dhlhju_ 5, 6, 8
16. 1.DkqZklvx ... . 4.Fh`_l[ulv ... . 5.>_ckl\bl_evgh ... . 8.DZ`_lky ... .
17. 1. ... ,ihdZ ... ,]^_ihkemoZf ... . 2.Ihkeh\Zffhjydh\ ... ;_keb`_ ... ,hg ... .
Ghihij_^Zgbx ... . 3. ... ,qblZehohlbekybih_]hkeh\Zf ... .
18. 1. ... ,qlh ... —kZfuc ... ,lhih`Zemc ... . 2.Ih`ZemcklZ]hem[qbdg_eb`bkv
ihcfb ... .<_^v ... ,qlh ... ,g_agZ_rvluqlh ... .
19. 1.Hf_eZihgZjh^gufih\_jvyf ... . 2. ... ,ih`Zemc ...kljhcgh]hk[he__ ... ,
q_f ... .Wlh]h\hjyl ... . 3. ...\kihfbgZ_f ... .Fh`_l[ulv ...bqbkluc\ha^mo ... . 4.
<udhg_qghagZ_l_qlh ... . 5.Fh`_l[ulvhg ... ,qlh ... ,dZd ... .Ghydkh`Ze_gbx
... . 6.Fh`_l[ulv ... . 7.GZ\_jgh_ ... . 8. ... ,y`be ... .<g_fdZdjZkkdZau\Zeb ... .
JZamf__lky gbdlh ... , Z fh`_l [ulv ... . 9. ... , jh^gu_ ... , ^jmavy =j_gZ^Z ...,
=j_gZ^Z ... . 10. ... ,^jmavy ... ,Z ... ,^jmavy ... ! 11.FZfZijZ\^Z^hfh\uo ... ,Z ... ?
H[jZs_gby
9, 10, 11
<\h^gu_keh\Z
m\_j_gghklv g_m\_j_gghklv g_jZ\gh^mrgu_
keh\Z
5 Ghy ... )
2 GZk\_l_ ... ),
4 <u
3, 5 Fh`_l
dhg_qgh ...),
8 JZamf__lky [ulv ... ), 6, 7, 8
... )
JZamf__lky ... ),
11
bklhqgbd
bgnhjfZpbb
1 Hf_eZ ...), 2
Wlh]h\hjyl ... ),
8 <g_f ... )
188
20. 1.<_jhylgh ... . 3.Ihfh_fm ... . 5.DjZ^hklbj_[yl ... . 7.>himklbf ... .
21. 1. ... ,g_h`b^Zggh ... ,ihfg_gbx ... . 2. ... ,hg ... . 3. ...hq_\b^p_\ ... . 4. ... ,d ... ,
g_ ... . 5. ...[ulv ... . 6. ... ,ghkhh[s_gbyf ... . 7. ... ,dkh`Ze_gbx ... .
22. 1. ... ,qlhb]h\hjblv[ue ... ,qlh ... .<h\lhjuo ... .G_lklZjbdhg ... . 2.BlZd
... . 3. ... -g_agZqbl ... .GZh[hjhlkdjhfghklv — ... . 4. ... —bg_aZkem]Zbg_\bgZ
?keb ... ,agZqbl ... .
23. 1. ... ,gh ...j_f_keZf ...ibkvfmihagZdhfbe ...bgZdhg_p ... . 3. ... ,h^gZdh ... .
GZdhg_p ... ,dhlhjuc ... ,b .... 4. ... ,dZd ...bgZdhg_p]hem[dZ ... ,dhlhjZy ... . 5. ... ,
gZdhg_p ... . 6. ... ,h^gZdh ... ,qlh ... , dhlhjuc ... ,qlh[u ... ,b ....
Ko_fu 1) 4; 2) 6.
24. 1. ... ,lhihih^kq_lZfmq_guo ... . 2. ... ,ke_^h\Zl_evgh ... . 3.BlZdij_^klZ\bf
... ,qlh ... ,qlh ... .K_cqZk ... ,\ijhq_fdhg_qgh ... . :\^jm] ... ,\qZklghklb ... .Lh]^Z
... , \_jhylg__ \k_]h ... . Ih jZ^bh gZijbf_j ?keb fu ... , lh [_amkeh\gh ... . D
\_ebqZcr_fmkh`Ze_gbx ... . 4. ... ,fhc^jm]lbrbgmihegZ ... ,ihegZ ... .
25. 1.<_jhylgh ... .Fg_ ... ,y^mfZx ... .>_\hqdZih`Zemc ... , gh ... .Ihfgx ...
h]jZ^hc dZdh]hlh ... . <_jhylgh ... , gh fu k gbfb ... . 2. ... , fh`gh kdZaZlv ... .
Ih`Zemc ... ,dh]^Z ... ,qlhwlh ... .I_j_^h ... , dZd\kihfbgZxyl_i_jv ...q_eh\_dy
\b`m ... .<^_lkl\_fg_]h\hjbebqlh ... .F_`^ml_f ... ,qlh ...hljZ`Z_lbf_ggh ... ,
ygZh[hjhl ... .
26. 1.<hafh`gh \_jhylgh ... . 2. ... ,gZ\_jgh_ ... . 3. ... ,ke_^h\Zl_evgh ... . 4. ... ,
\h\lhjuo ...b\lj_lvbo ... . 5. ... ,ih`Zemc ... . 6. ... ,k^jm]hcklhjhgu ... . 7. ... ,d
kqZklvx ... . 8. ...bgZdhg_p ... . 9. ... ,dkqZklvx ... . 10. ... ,b^_ckl\bl_evgh ... . 11.
... ,ih`ZemcklZ ... . 12.<hafh`gh ... . 13.Fh`_l[ulv ... . 14. ... ,gZijbf_j ... .
27. 1.;_afhe\gu_fhjkdb_\hegufh`_l[ulvkdju\Zxlbkq_agm\rmx:leZglb^m
2.F_jdmjbc\hafh`ghdh]^Zlh[uekimlgbdhf<_g_ju 3.Ihihemq_gguf^Zgguf
FZjkh[eZ^Z_ldjZcg_jZaj_`_gghcZlfhkn_jhc 4.Bgl_j_kghgZclbdeZ^klZjbgguo
fhg_lijZ\^Z" 5.GZ\_jgh_mdZ`^h]h\^_lkl\__klvlZdh_`_eZgb_ 6.Ki_pbZebklu
gmfbafZluhlghkylkydklZjbgguffhg_lZfih`Zemck_s_[hevrbflj_i_lhfq_f
imrdbgkdbckdmihcjupZjv
28. 1.IjZ\^Z_s_ ... ,]^_ ... 2. ... ,\_jhylgh ... 3.Fh`_l[ulv ... , qlh ... 4.H^gbf
keh\hf^_evnbgZ ... ,qlh ... 5. ... ,ih\b^bfhfm ... , hldm^Z ... 6. ... ,dZdijZ\beh ...
29. 1 GZ\_jgh_ ... . Ijhklh_ ij_^eh`_gb_ hkeh`g_ggh_ \\h^guf keh\hf b
h^ghjh^gufb qe_gZfb k g_ih\lhjyxsbfky khxahf b 2. EZklhqdZ a\hgdZy ilbpZ
Zg]_eih^djh\e_cfh_cqlh ...? Ie_g ...?>\Zijhkluo\hijhkbl_evguoij_^eh`_gby
I_j\h_hkeh`g_ghp_ihqdhc
189
h[jZs_gbc 3. <Zr_[eZ]hjh^b_]hkih`Zih[_^ZagZqbl ...g_ki_lZI_j_klZgvl_
q_jlb ...G_ ...\kf_jlb — ... .A^_kvljbij_^eh`_gbyI_j\h_ijhklh_hkeh`g_ggh_
h[jZs_gb_f b \\h^guf keh\hf <lhjh_ — ijhklh_ g_hkeh`g_ggh_ h[jZs_gb_f
Lj_lv_² keh`gh_ [_kkhxagh_ ba ^\mo qZkl_c dhlhju_ ih kfukem
ijhlb\hihklZ\e_gu ^jm] ^jm]m 4. ;ulv fh`_l wlb we_dljhgu — fbju ]^_ iylv
fZl_jbdh\bkdmkkl\ZagZgvy\hcgu ljhgu ... . ?s_ [ulv fh`_l dZ`^uc Zlhf
—\k_e_ggZy]^_klhieZg_llZf\k_qlha^_kv\h[t_f_k`Zlhfih lZd`_ lh
q_]h a^_kv g_l I_j\h_ ij_^eh`_gb_²keh`gh_ qZklb _]h k\yaZggu_ khxaguf
keh\hf ]^_ jZa^_e_gu aZiylhc =eZ\gh_ ij_^eh`_gb_ hkeh`g_gh \\h^guf keh\hf
ijb^Zlhqgh_ — h^ghjh^gufb qe_gZfb < ]eZ\ghf ih^e_`Zs__ b kdZam_fh_
\ujZ`_gukms_kl\bl_evgufb\bf_gbl_evghfiZ^_`_k\yadZijhims_gZ klZ\bf gZ
__f_kl_lbj_<lhjh_ij_^eh`_gb_keh`gh_k[_kkhxaghcbih^qbgbl_evghck\yavx
GZ f_kl_ [_kkhxaghc k\yab ij_^eh`_gb_ jZkiZ^Z_lky gZ 2 qZklb \lhjZy ihykgy_l
i_j\mx jZa^_ey_f bo ^\h_lhqb_f I_j\Zy qZklv [_kkhxagh]h ij_^eh`_gby \ k\hx
hq_j_^v jZkiZ^Z_lky gZ 2 qZklb ]eZ\gZy²hkeh`g_gZ \\h^guf keh\hf \ g_c klhbl
lbj_f_`^mih^e_`ZsbfbkdZam_fuf kf\ur_ ijb^ZlhqgZyke_^m_laZ]eZ\ghcb
hl^_e_gZ aZiylhc <lhjZy qZklv [_kkhxagh]h ij_^eh`_gby² keh`ghih^qbg_ggh_ k
^\mfy ijb^Zlhqgufb i_j\h_ ijb^Zlhqgh_ \ k_j_^bg_ ]eZ\gh]h k ^\mo klhjhg
\u^_e_gh aZiylufb \lhjh_ \ dhgp_ ]eZ\gh]h hl^_e_gh hl g_]h aZiylhc =eZ\gh_
hkeh`g_ghh^ghjh^gufbqe_gZfbkh_^bg_ggufbkhxahfghi_j_^ dhlhjufklZ\bf
aZiylmx 5. ... agZeb ... oheh^Z ... i_qZeb ... . Ij_^eh`_gb_ keh`gh_ =eZ\gZy qZklv
hl^_e_gZhlijb^ZlhqguoaZiylhcijb^Zlhqgu_jZa^_e_guaZiylhc=eZ\gZyb\lhjZy
ijb^ZlhqgZyqZklbhkeh`g_guh^ghjh^gufbqe_gZfb
30. 1. ...gZjmdZo ... .Hl_]h ... ,dhlhjh_ ... .Hl ...keh\Z ..., ..., ... , .... 2.Hq_\b^gh
;_euc ... , qlh ... h^gh]h b gZ\_jgh_ hq_gv ... , _keb [u ... , qlh ... . 3. ... , gbsZy
Jhkkby ...l\hbl\hb ...\_ljh\u_ — ... . A^_kvlbj_ —Z\lhjkdbcagZd^ey\Zkhgg_
h[yaZl_e_g 4. ... , qlh ... , kdZ`_f gZ ihexk ... , lh ... , dZjZmebe ... , Z ... . 5. ... ,
dhlhju_ ... . D kqZklvx ... . 6. ... , fhb ^h`^b 7. ... , [mfZ]Z ... . < DblZ_ dZd ...
e_lhibkv ... .DklZlb ....
H^ghjh^gu_qe_gu
>j_\gb_Hl]bighaZ 3, 4
H[jZs_gby
3, 6
<\h^gu_keh\Z
DkqZklvx Ko_f_khhl\_lkl\m_lij_^eh`_gb_ 2.
31. 1. BlZd ... , dhlhjmx ... , [ueZ ... . A_fey — ... ! GZ g_c ... , \ lhf qbke_
jZamf__lkybg_]jblygkdbok_fv ... ,^_\ylvkhl ... ,k_fv ... ,ljbklZ ... --blh]h ... . 2. ...
^ZjZ ...keh\Zk\h[h^m ... ,dhlhjh_ ... ,qlh[u ... . 3. ... ,]^_ ... .Fh`_l ...\bghfh`_l
lZdkb^yl ... .<dZ`^hf ... , ^jm] ... . 4. ...\_dZ ...\hcgZ ...fyl_` ...^_j_\gbZlu ... ,
fhykljZgZ\djZk_ ... .
190
32. 1. ... ,h^gZdh ... ,ih^Zjbe ... . 2. ...ij_^Zgbx ... .;h]h^gZdh ... . Hgb ... ,b .... 3.
... ,kh]eZkghij_^ZgbxkqblZebkv ... ,h^gZdh ... ,dhlhju_ ...]hjh^ ...aZljm[beb ... ,b
... .<ujZ`_gb_ ... ,h^gZdh ... . 4.Fu ... ,dhlhjh_ ... ,h^gZdhrbjhdh ... ,agZq_gb_ ... .
5. ...aZ[m^vihfgbq_klvh^gZdh 6. ... ,h^gZdh^hjh`bqlhkemqZehkv ...^eykf_om
gbdh]^Z ... .
Ko_f_khhl\_lkl\m_lij_^eh`_gb_ 3 Kl_gu ... ).
33. 1. ... ,\h\lhjuo ,l_mdh]hdg_kqZklvx ... 2. ... ,ghwlh ,ih`ZemcklZg_l ... ,
dh]^Z ... 3. ... ,lhfudhg_qgh ... 4. ...kljZrgZybklhjby ... 5. ... ,ihkhh[s_gbyf ... 6.
... ,dgZr_fm ...
34. 1. ... dehgyl ... ]hgyl b y kh \a^hohf ijbagZxkv ... . 2. ... , kh\_klv \ lhf
ihjmdhc ... . 3. ... —lZdgZau\Zxlkh[bjZgb_kibq_qguowlbd_lhd — ... ,q_f ... .
35. 1. ... ,ihij_^Zgbx ... .Wlb ... bogZau\ZebhebfibcpZfb ... . <hl ... ,dhlhjuc
...\heg_gbc]h\hjylqlh ... . 2. ... ,dh]^Z ... ,qlh[u... kZfZhgZhldZau\ZeZkv_klv ... .
<k_ ... ,dhlhju_ ...ysbd_ ... . 3. ... ihijbf_jmbg^_cp_\ ... .<ijhq_fdh]^Z ... —wlh
[ueh\Wd\Z^hj_ — ... . 4. ... ,Z ... ,]^_ ... ,]^_ ... ,b ... ,qlh ... .B ... \dhgp_dhgph\
\k_]^Z ml_rZ_rvky —lu ... , qlh ... . 5. ...]h\hjblv ... . 6. ... Z dheu[_ev`bagb —
hd_Zg [ueb ... ,dhlhju_ ... .Wlb ... ,dhlhju_ ... ,dZ`mlky ... .Ghhgb\_jhylgh ... . 7.
... klhevdhkh^_j`blky\f_`^mgZjh^ghfdZlZeh]_ ... .
Ko_f_khhl\_lkl\m_lij_^eh`_gb_ 1 <hlihq_fm ... ).
36. 1. >_evnbgu — lZdb_ kemqZ_ [ueb fgh]hdjZlgh — kiZkZeb ihkljZ^Z\rbo \
fhj_ex^_cb^hklZ\eyebbo\[_ahiZkgh_f_klh 2.<^Ze_db_]h^u —lh]^ZK_\_jgZy
:f_jbdZ_s_lhevdh aZk_eyeZkv — ih \k_c __ l_jjblhjbb [jh^beb klZ^Z [bahgh\ 3.
<h \j_fy g_f_pdhc hddmiZpbb njZgpmakdZy i_\bpZ W^bl IbZn — hgZ \uklmiZeZ k
dhgp_jlZfb\g_f_pdboeZ]_jyo^ey\h_gghie_gguo —ihfh]eZhdZaZlvkygZk\h[h^_
klZ^\Z^pZlbie_gguf 4. Q_eh\_q_kdbc fha] — fu kjZ\gb\Z_f _]h k ba\_klghc gZf
<k_e_gghc — kZfh_ keh`gh_ \ __ ij_^_eZo mkljhckl\h 5. Kihkh[ghklb q_eh\_dZ —
wlh\iheg_\_jhylgh —\agZqbl_evghcqZklbjZkljZqb\Zxlky\imklmx
?keb\u\u^_ebeb\\h^gu_ij_^eh`_gbyg_lbj_Zkdh[dZfb\ulh`_ijZ\u
37. 1.Dhg_qgh ... .:\ijhq_fy ... ,dhlhjZy ... .Dhg_qghaf_b ... , gh ... . 2. ... ,dZdy
m`_]h\hjbe ... .K^jm]hcklhjhgu ...`bagb ... fukeb ... . 3. ...^_^mkZfohl_elh]h
bevg_l ... . 4.Gh ... ,]^_`b\_lijbjmq_ggucm^Z\ ... . 5. ... ,gh ... ,b ... ,dm^Z ... . 6.
MkeurZ\ ... lZd...;hjg_h ... .<hl\_l ... lh_klvfu\Zkg_ihgbfZ_f b ... .;_eu_
...f_klghklb ...DZgZ^Z wlh ... ,b ...k_e_gb_ Z ... .
191
Ijbf_juk\\h^gufb
keh\Zfb
1, 2
K^jm]hcklhjhgu ... )
Ijbf_juk\\h^gufb
Ijbf_ju[_a\\h^guokeh\b
ij_^eh`_gbyfb
ij_^eh`_gbc
2 <hh[jZ`_gb_ ... ), 3, 6 2 Hgh ... ), 4, 5, 6 G_dhlhju_ ... )
MkeurZ\ ... ;<hl\_l ... ;
;_eu_kijhkbeb ... )
38. 1. ... , kha\_a^by fZeu_ ieZg_lu b ... fbnh\ :fmj :g^jhf_^Z IZeeZ^Z
P_j_jZG_j_b^ZHjbhgIe_y^u ... . 2. ...\b^_elhl\_jxy ... . 3. ...e_kh\ ...djbdZo
...h[eZdh\ ...lZ\he]b ...em]h\dh]^Z ... . 4. ... ,gZijbf_j ... .<b^bfh ... .
Ko_f_khhl\_lkl\m_lij_^eh`_gb_ 3.
39. 1. ...]h\hjblqlh ... ,qlh ... .:ih]b[Zxlhllh]h bl_f
[hevg_cq_f^hevr_ qlh ... .
Kdh[dZfb\u^_e_gh\\h^gh_ij_^eh`_gb_
Ko_fZi_j\h]hij_^eh`_gby
40. < :glbevkdhf ... — DZjb[kdbf ah\ml _]h lZd`_ — bkoe_klZgZ ... — hgh __
]hgblZ\_l_jgZaZ^hl]hgy_lZke_au`b\mllhevdh\i_kg_ — ....
41. 1. ... ,dZd ... 2. ... —Zwlhl ... 3. ... lZda\Zeb ... 4. ... —\wlhf ... m\_j_g — ... 5. ...
—y`_ ...\b`m — ... ,baaZq_]h ... 6. ... —Z]eZaZ ... ykgu_ykgu_ — ... ,qlh ... 7. ... —
fu ...ijh\_jbeb — ... ,bfu ...
42. 1.MjZ ... . 2.:o:j[Zlfhc:j[Zllufh_hl_q_kl\h ... .
43. 1.:oiheyfhb ... ! 2.Wo ... ! 3.Mn ... ! 4.:odZd ...]^_gb[m^v ...\_l_jdZd ...
!:o ...gZk\_l_kem`[Z`bagvabfZ ... . 5.H\_jx\_jx ... ! 6.Wcyfsbd ... !QZc
... . 7.M\u ...m\y^Z_l[e_^g__l ... . 8.:olukl_ivfhy ...ijb\hevgZyRbjhdh ... ,
kl_ivihjZkdbgmeZkv ... !
44. 1.M\u ... . 2.H ... .Kbyc ... ,ijhsZevguck\_lex[\bihke_^g_caZjb ... . 3.
:o ... ! 4. ...dh`m ... .Fum\u ...g_koh`b ...g_l_eZ
45.<wlhff_kl_q_j_aj_qdmg_lfhklZbg_lgbiZjhfZgbeh^dbaeyi_j_ijZ\u
Ijb^_lkyi_j_ijZ\eylvky\[jh^mgZkg_l^jm]h]h\uoh^Z
A^_kvg_l —kdZam_fh_
46. 2. ... dm^Zlh ^Ze_dh ... . G_l dZdhc ... , j_[ylZ ... ! 3. ... , q_f l_ dhlhju_ ... ,
dh]^Z ... . 4.G_l ...qblZl_ev ... !IhdjZcghklb_klv ... , blmqdbb\_dahehlhc ... . 5.
...kf__lky ... . 6.>Z ...agZx ...iZjZ ... kljZgu ...]blZjZZ ...
192
47. 1. ... ,gZ\k_]^Z ... ! 2. ...ghqghf ...kdjuebkv -- ... . 3.G_l ... . <_qghoheh^gu_ ...
k\h[h^gu_ ...jh^bgu ... .5.Fg_dZ`_lkyqlh ... , dhlhjh_ ... ,dZd ... .
48. 3.G_lfug_ ...>Z^jmavy ... 6. ...khegurdh^Z\_k_ggb_ ...
49. 1.B\k_ih`Zemckeh\hfdgb]Z ...[_agZqZeZ ... . 2. ... .l_f ... dhjhq_ ... .:o ...
dhehdhevqbd ... . 3.>Z ... ! ...hkljh\h\ ... . 4. ... ,lZdkdZaZlv ... . 5.G_l ... ,^Z ... ,^Z ...
,^Z ... ,Z ... . 6. ... ,q_f ... . 7. ...g_keh ...hlqZev ... .:o ... . 8. ... ,\^`mg]eyo ... .:l_
dhlhju__klv ... .
<\h^gu_keh\Zbij_^eh`_gby
F_`^hf_lby
Keh\Z^Zbg_l
1, 4, 8
2, 7
3, 5, 6
50. 1.G_l ... . 3.HcluJmkvfhy ...djhldZy ... . 4.Wo\u ... ! ... , dhgb<b^gh ... ,\
aZebo\Zlkdhf ... . 5. ... —wlh ...DblZy — ...lbrbg_dhlhjZy ... .<^jm] g_ihgylghqlh
...\]heh\m ... ,b ... . 6.M ...k\_jdZxsZyqm^gZy ...^ZevJmkv 7.WoljhcdZ ... ,dlh
... ? 8. Wo dhgb dhgb ... ! 9. G_l g_ ... , gb ebp :o ... ! 10. ... , h ]h\hjb kh fghx
]h\hjb 11.>Z ... . 13.>Zkdbnu ... ,^ZZabZlu ... ! 14.H ... .
Ko_f_khhl\_lkl\m_lij_^eh`_gb_ 5 H^gZ`^u ... ).
51. 1. G_l ...Ijhklh_ij_^eh`_gb_hkeh`g_ggh_hljbpZl_evgufkeh\hfg_lG_
..._]h ... .Ijhklh_ij_^eh`_gb_kh^ghjh^gufbqe_gZfbHdZd ... ,dZd ... !Ijhklh_
ij_^eh`_gb_ k f_`^hf_lb_f b h^ghjh^gufb qe_gZfb 2. G_l ^jmavy ... — khlgx
jZa ijh\_jvl_ — ... b [ulv fh`_l ... . Wlh ijhklh_ ij_^eh`_gb_ k \\h^guf
ij_^eh`_gb_f \\h^guf keh\hf h[jZs_gb_f keh\hf g_l 3. :o ... ! ... , dh]^Z ... ,
kZ^h\ q_jlh]h\ ... ! A^_kv keh`ghih^qbg_ggh_ ij_^eh`_gb_ khklhys__ ba ^\mo
qZkl_cIjb^ZlhqgZyqZklvhkeh`g_gZh^ghjh^gufbqe_gZfb=eZ\ghcij_^r_kl\m_l
h[jZs_gb_ k f_`^hf_lb_f 4. jZaemd_ ... km^v[_ Fhkd\Z ... ! Wlh ijhklh_
ij_^eh`_gb_kh^ghjh^gufbqe_gZfbbh[jZs_gb_f\hkdebpZl_evgh_ 5. ... , qlh ...
e_l ... iml_c ... . Wlh keh`ghih^qbg_ggh_ ij_^eh`_gb_ ijb^ZlhqgZy qZklv k
h^ghjh^gufb qe_gZfb G_l ... fbjh\ ... ^Zjh\ ... g_l ... h[fZgmlhc [hevghc ... \h
fg_ ... . Wlh keh`gh_ ij_^eh`_gb_ ba q_luj_o qZkl_c lj_lvy b q_l\_jlZy qZklb
hkeh`g_guh^ghjh^gufbqe_gZfb 6. GZr_ ...Ijhklh_ij_^eh`_gb_Kgbf ... ,gh ...
ihwl qlh ... g_l b klZjhklb ... , Z fh`_l ... . Wlh keh`gh_ ij_^eh`_gb_ k
khqbg_gb_f b ih^qbg_gb_f >\_ qZklb ]eZ\gu_ dh \lhjhc ]eZ\ghc qZklb hlghkylky
ljbijb^ZlhqguoIhke_^gyyijb^ZlhqgZyqZklvhkeh`g_gZ\\h^gufkeh\hf
Ko_fZij_^eh`_gby 5 (: y\Zf]h\hjx ... ):
>Zgghc ko_f_ khhl\_lkl\m_l ij_^eh`_gb_ 6 K gbf b
[_ak\_lZ 193
=eZ\Z V
AZiylZyi_j_^khxahfdZd
GZrimlvkd\havaZjhkebijh[e_fjmkkdhcimgdlmZpbbaZ\_jrZ_lkyh^ghcbakZfuo
keh`guol_f —ihklZgh\dhcaZiylhci_j_^khxahfdZd
?kebgZf^hklZlhqghljm^ghkl_c^hklZ\eye^\mebdbc^\m\ZjbZglguckhxablh
k khxahf dZd \k_ h[klhbl _s_ keh`g__ hg ihbklbg_ fgh]hebd b g_ lhevdh
ijbkh_^bgy_l jZaghh[jZag_crb_ kbglZdkbq_kdb_ dhgkljmdpbb gh \ h^gbo kemqZyo
lj_[m_laZiylhci_j_^gbfbZ\^jm]bodZl_]hjbq_kdb__aZij_sZ_l
I_j\uf\ZrbfagZdhfkl\hfkkhxahfdZd[uekemqZcdh]^Z wlhlkhxakh_^bgy_l
qZklbkeh`gh]hij_^eh`_gbybg_ij_f_gghlj_[m_laZiylhc<udwlhfmijb\udebb
wlZ ijb\uqdZ fh`_l \Zk ih^lhedgmlv d ihklZgh\d_ agZdZ lZf ]^_ hg g_ gm`_g
Ihwlhfm h^gZ ba \Zrbo aZ^Zq — gZmqblvky fm^jhfm \ha^_j`Zgbx hl ihklZgh\db
g_gm`gh]hagZdZ
<Zf agZdhf kemqZc dh]^Z aZiylhc i_j_^ dZd g_ lj_[m_lky Wlh kemqZc dh]^Z
h^ghjh^gu_qe_gukh_^bgyxlkykeh`gufkhxahfdZd ... ,lZdb ... .AZiylZyklZ\blky
g_i_j_^dZdZi_j_^lZdbb[h__aZdhggh_f_klh —g_i_j_^h^ghjh^gufbqe_gZfb
Zf_`^mgbfb
>jm]hckemqZcdh]^ZaZiylhci_j_^dZdg_gZ^hfuk_cqZkjZkkfhljbf
HkdZam_fuokkhxahfdZd
1.GZc^bl_hkgh\u\ke_^mxsboij_^eh`_gbyo
1. Y ^he]h gZ[ex^Ze dZd hlqZeb\Z_l iZjhoh^ 2. <^hogh\_gb_ [ueh dZd i_j\Zy
ex[h\v
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u9
L_i_jvhl\_lvl_qlhijbkh_^bgy_lkhxadZd\dZ`^hfbawlboij_^eh`_gbc
?keb \u jZkkm`^Zeb ijZ\bevgh \Zf klZeh ykgh qlh \ i_j\hf ijbf_j_ khxa dZd
ijbkh_^bgy_l \lhjmx qZklv keh`gh]h ij_^eh`_gby Z ih \lhjhf - bf_ggmx qZklv
khklZ\gh]hbf_ggh]hkdZam_fh]h<ugZ\_jgh_aZf_lbeblZd`_qlh\i_j\hfkemqZ_
aZiylZyklhblZ\h\lhjhfg_l
:dZd\Zf[_ahrb[hqghhij_^_eblvqlh\h\lhjhf kemqZ_ khxa dZd ijbkh_^bgy_l
bf_gghqZklvkhklZ\gh]hkdZam_fh]h"Hq_gvijhklh<uihfgbl_qlhkdZam_fh_g_k_l
^\_gZ]jmadbkfukeh\mxb]jZffZlbq_kdmxZ]eZ]hevgZyk\yadZ[ue [ueZ[ueh —
lhevdh]jZffZlbq_kdmx?keb[uebeb[ueZ[uehg_k_l\ij_^eh`_gbbh[_gZ]jmadb
YlZf[ue lhwlhkZfhklhyl_evgh_kdZam_fh_;_ebkfukeh\hcgZ]jmadbmg_]hg_l
lh wlh lhevdh ]eZ]hevgZy k\yadZ ijbkh_^bgyxsZy bf_ggmx qZklv KdZaZlv ijhklh
\^hogh\_gb_[uehg_^hklZlhqghWlh_s_g_kdZam_fh_:[uehdZdi_j\Zyex[h\v —
wlhm`_kdZam_fh_iheghklvx\u
194
jZ`Zxs__ kfuke Bf_ggh ih kfukeh\hc gZ]jmad_ \u b [m^_l_ magZ\Zlv kdZam_fh_ k
khxahf dZd =eZ]hevgZy k\yadZ fh`_l b hlkmlkl\h\Zlv G_[h dZd dhehdhe Gh dZd
dhehdheg_k_l kfukeh\mx gZ]jmadm kdZam_fh]h Bsbl_ kfukeh\mx gZ]jmadm — b \u
[_ahrb[hqghhlebqbl_kdZam_fh_hl\k_]hhklZevgh]hqlhijbkh_^bgy_lkhxadZd
AZihfgbl_ hq_gv \Z`gh_ ijZ\beh ohjhr_]h imgdlmZpbhggh]h ih\_^_gby _keb
khxadZdijbkh_^bgy_lbf_ggmxqZklvkhklZ\gh]hkdZam_fh]haZiylZyi_j_^gbf
g_klZ\blky
Ij_^eZ]Z_f\Zf_s_h^bgaZ_fm^_lkl\ZwlhaZ^Zgb_khklZ\e_ggh_ihex[bfuf
\k_fb kdZadZf :g^_jk_gZ >xcfh\hqdZ Kg_`gZy dhjhe_\Z JmkZehqdZ b
H]gb\h
2. JZkklZ\vl_ agZdb ij_ibgZgby b aZibrbl_ ghf_j dZ`^h]h ij_^eh`_gby \
khhl\_lkl\mxsbcklhe[bdlZ[ebpu
Keh`gu_ij_^eh`_gbykkhxahf
dZd
Bf_ggZyqZklvkdZam_fh]hkkhxahfdZd
1.>xcfh\hqdZjZ^h\ZeZkvqlhdjm]hflZddjZkb\hZ\h^ZgZkhegp_dZdq_j\hggh_
ahehlh 2.DZ`^Zykg_`bgdZ[ueZ^ey>xcfh\hqdbdZdp_eZyehiZlZkg_]Z^eygZk 3.
>xcfh\hqdZ\k_^_eZeZlZddZdijbdZau\ZeZ^h[jZyklZjZyfurv 4.IlbpZjZkkdZaZeZ
>xcfh\hqd_ dZd hgZ ihjZgbeZ k_[_ djueh 5. =eZaZ m Kg_`ghc dhjhe_\u [ueb dZd
a\_a^u 6. : qlh `_ [ueh k fZe_gvdhc =_j^hc ihke_ lh]h dZd bkq_a D_c" 7. Dh`Z m
jmkZehqdb [ueZ dZd e_i_kldb jhau Z ]eZaZ dZd kbg__ fhj_ 8. < hldjulu_ yglZjgu_
hdgZ\ieu\Zebju[dbdZd\gZrbhdgZbghcjZa\e_lZxleZklhqdb 9.M\lhjhckh[Zdb
]eZaZdZdf_evgbqgu_dhe_kZghlug_im]Zcky 10.Mlj_lv_ckh[ZdbqlhlZfkb^blgZ
kmg^md_dZ`^uc]eZadZddjm]eZy[Zrgy 11.Khe^ZldZdb]h\hjbeZ\_^vfZhqmlbeky\
[hevrhfijhoh^_]^_]hj_ebeZfiu
<uibrbl_ ghf_j ij_^eh`_gby khhl\_lkl\mxs_]h lZdhc
ko_f_
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u V.
KhxadZdbh^ghjh^gu_qe_gu
Ihijh[mcl_ hij_^_eblv dZdmx jhev b]jZ_l khxa dZd \ ke_^mxs_f ij_^eh`_gbb
Dj_klvygkdbc fZevqbd dZd lhevdh jh^blky lZd b gZqbgZ_l kljZklgh f_qlZlv
ijhdZlblvky\_johfgZehrZ^b <Khehmobg ?keb\Zfwlhg_m^ZehkvkjZamk^_eZcl_]jZnbq_kdbcjZa[hjwlh]hij_^eh`_gby
L_i_jvkdZ`bl_q_fhkeh`g_ghwlhij_^eh`_gb_
<u ijZ\u _keb hl\_lbeb lZd hgh hkeh`g_gh ^\mfy h^ghjh^gufb kdZam_fufb
jh^blkybgZqbgZ_lf_qlZlv
195
:qlhklhbli_j_^dZ`^ufbawlbokdZam_fuo"I_j_^i_j\ufdZdi_j_^\lhjuf —
lZd b Wlh ^\hcghc khxa dZd lZd b ..., jZaemq_gguc ^jm]bfb keh\Zfb gh
\uihegyxsbc _^bgmx jhev — kh_^bgyxsbc h^ghjh^gu_ qe_gu Lj_[m_l eb hg
aZiylhci_j_^dZd"<kihfgbfahehlh_ijZ\behh^ghjh^guoqe_gh\aZiylZyklZ\blky
lhevdhf_`^mh^ghjh^gufbqe_gZfbghgbdZdg_i_j_^gbfbIhwlhfm\klj_qZykvk
h^ghjh^gufb qe_gZfb kh_^bg_ggufb ^\hcguf khxahf dZd , lZd b ,
\ha^_j`bl_kvhlihklZgh\dbaZiylhci_j_^dZdZklZ\vl___lhevdhi_j_^lZd
3. L_i_jvjZkklZ\vl_agZdb\ke_^mxsboij_^eh`_gbyoIhke_wlh]h\uibrbl_ghf_jZ
ij_^eh`_gbck^\hcgufkhxahfdZdlZdb
1. G_dhlhju_ `b\hlgu_ b gZk_dhfu_ dZd m^Zehkv mklZgh\blv mq_guf aZf_qZxl
lhevdh ^\b`msb_ky ij_^f_lu 2. Lj_[h\Zgby jZaguo jZkl_gbc dZd d k\_lm lZd b d
^jm]bf nZdlhjZf `bagb g_h^bgZdh\u 3. Ex^b klZjZxlky ihgylv dZd \hagbdZxl
a_fe_ljyk_gby qlh[u aZjZg__ ij_^mij_`^Zlv k\yaZggu_ k gbfb [_^kl\by 4. Ba
beexfbgZlhjZ dhkfbq_kdhc jZd_lu EmgZ [ueZ \b^gZ lZd dZd hgZ [u\Z_l \b^gZ \
l_e_kdhi k A_feb b ^Z`_ emqr_ HgZ [ueZ dZd h]jhfguc k\_jdZxsbc djm] ih G
Ghkh\m 5. Dhkfbq_kdbc dhjZ[ev ij_^klZ\eye kh[hc dZd [u k\h_h[jZagh_ a^Zgb_
h[hjm^h\Zggh_ \k_f qlh g_h[oh^bfh dZd ^ey gZmqguo bkke_^h\Zgbc lZd b ^ey
ghjfZevghc`bagb 6.GZdZgmg_[ue\_l_jbgZi_kd_ dZd\k_]^Z[u\Z_lihke_ \_ljZ
e_`ZeZ\hegbklZyjy[v DIZmklh\kdbc 7.Ij_djZkgZykdZadZgm`gZdZd^_lyflZdb
\ajhkeuf 8. H[jZsZcky k ^jm]bfb lZd dZd lu ohl_e [u qlh[u h[jZsZebkv k lh[hc
<hevl_j 9. >\_ k ebrgbf lukyqb e_l gZaZ^ hibku\Zy dZd ^he`_g ^_j`Zlvky
\_`eb\uc b \hkiblZgguc q_eh\_d :jbklhl_ev hkh[_ggh ih^q_jdgme qlh hg [m^_l
hkl_j_]Zlvkyh]hjqZlvex^_c 10.DjZfhevgbdh\]hjyqhbkljZklgh[ueij_^Zgk\h_c
kljZg_bhlebqghagZedZdijhr_^r__lZdbgZklhys____ KS_^jbg 11.Mebp\
ihk_ed_ g_ [ueh ^hfbrdb dZd \klZeb lZd b klhyeb
nZkZ^Zfb\jZagu_klhjhgu 12.GZq_fibhgZl_fbjZgZrb
nb]mjbklubf_eb[hevrhcmki_odZd\h^bghqghflZdb\
iZjghfdZlZgbb 13.Bf_ggh[eZ]h^ZjyyaudmdZdiheZ]Zxl
mq_gu_ dZ`^h_ ihdhe_gb_ fh`_l gZdZieb\Zlv agZgby b
i_j_^Z\Zlvbo^jm]bfihdhe_gbyf
<uibrbl_ghf_jij_^eh`_gbykhhl\_lkl\mxs_]hko_f_
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u9
?keb m \Zk g_ [ueh hrb[hd i_j_oh^bl_ d ke_^mxs_fm jZa^_em ?keb gZ^h
ihlj_gbjh\Zlvky_s_k^_eZcl_ke_^mxs__aZ^Zgb_
4.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
1.Mki_oh[_avygu\bkdmkkl\_h[jZs_gbykbgkljmf_glZfbaZ\bkbldZdhlmf_gby
h[_avygujZkkm`^ZlvlZdbhl__kihkh[ghklbhldZaZlvkyhlijb\uqgh]hih\_^_gby 2.
I_j_^Z\Zlvkb]gZeu^jm] ^jm]m fh]ml dZd ex^b lZd b `b\hlgu_ 3. Mq_guf ohq_lky
magZlvdZdbaq_]hlhqlh_s_g_[uehyaudhf\hagbdyaud 4.<l_^gbdZdihjZ^bh
lZd
196
bihl_e_\b^_gbxi_j_^Z\Zebkvgh\hklbhdhkfhgZ\lZo 5.Eh\blvex[h_`b\hlgh_gZ
ijbjh^_^h\hevghhiZkghdZd^ey`b\hlgh]hlZdb^eyeh\pZ
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u9
GZjbkm_f\h[s_f\b^_dZjlm^hjh]gZdhlhjuo\klj_qZ_lkykhxadZd
=ey^y gZ ljb i_j\u_ klj_edb \u fh`_l_ kjZam ko\Zlblv ljb ijZ\beZ ohjhr_]h
imgdlmZpbhggh]h ih\_^_gby ijb \klj_q_ k khxahf dZd 1) h qZklyo keh`gh]h
ij_^eh`_gby \\h^guo ij_^eh`_gbyo \\h^guo keh\Zo 2) h[ bf_gghc qZklb
khklZ\gh]hkdZam_fh]h 3)h[h^ghjh^guoqe_gZokhkeh`gufkhxahfdZd ... ,lZdb ...
.Lhqlh\u\b^bl_gZ^\moihke_^gboklj_edZogm`^Z_lky\h[klhyl_evghfjZa[hj_b
^Zevg_cr_fijhq_jqb\ZgbbdZjluihoh^mjZ[hlu
H^gh\j_f_ggh k wlbf \Zf klhbl bf_lv \ \b^m qlh dZd fh`_l ijbkmlkl\h\Zlv \
ij_^eh`_gbb g_ ijbkh_^bgyy j_rbl_evgh gbdZdh]h k_fZglbdhkbglZdkbq_kdh]h
[ehdZ Z lhevdh y\eyykv kj_^kl\hf \ujZabl_evghklb j_qb Fu dZd ke_^m_l
ihljm^bebkvYklZjZekydZdfh`gh
197
^hevr_ g_ jZkklZ\Zlvky k ^jmavyfb Ly`_klv ihdeZ`b dZd [m^lh mf_gvrbeZkv Y
dZdjZakh[bjZekyhlijZ\blvkygZdZlhdbli
LZdb_ \klj_qb k dZd fh]ml klZlv ^ey \Zk eh\mrdhc ijh\hpbjmxs_c gZ
g_hijZ\^ZggmxihklZgh\dmaZgylhcLZdqlh[m^vl_[^bl_evgu
>h[Z\bf_s_h^gm^hjh`dmdgZr_cdZjl_
G_dhlhju_keh`ghklb
khkeh`gufij_^eh`_gb_f
<k_ qlh gZibkZgh gZ i_j\hc ^hjh`d_ gZr_c dZjlu \u m`_ ohjhrh agZ_l_
IhklZgh\dm aZiylhc i_j_^ [_ahiZkgufb khxaZfb b khxagufb keh\Zfb f_`^m
qZklyfb keh`gh]hij_^eh`_gby\u_kebg_\khkZeb k fhehdhf fZl_jb lh \h \kydhf
kemqZ_ agZ_l_ k l_o ihj dZd gZmqbebkv hlebqZlv keh`gh_ ij_^eh`_gb_ hl ijhklh]h
H^gZdh khxa dZd fh`_l kh_^bgylv qZklb keh`gh]h ij_^eh`_gby \ khklZ\_ keh`guo
khxah\ k l_o ihj dZd ih f_j_ lh]h dZd \ lh \j_fy dZd lZd dZd < lZdbo kemqZyo
aZiylZy klZ\blky eb[h i_j_^ dZd eb[h i_j_^ \k_f keh`guf khxahf Ijb\_^_f
ijbf_juBa[_]Zcimkluoj_q_clZddZdbkoh^bo —jZkdZygb_ ZjZ[kdZyihkeh\bpZ ?keb keh`guc khxa klhbl \ gZqZe_ ij_^eh`_gby hg lZd`_ g_ jZaj_aZ_lky aZiylhc
i_j_^ dZd \ wlhf kemqZ_ aZiylZy klhbl lhevdh gZ ]jZgbp_ f_`^m qZklyfb
ij_^eh`_gbyGZijbf_j
Kl_oihjdZd\_qguckm^by
Fg_^Ze\k_\_^_gv_ijhjhdZ
<hqZoex^_cqblZxy
KljZgbpuaeh[ubihjhdZ
FXE_jfhglh\
198
?keb keh`gu_ khxau klhyl \ k_j_^bg_ ij_^eh`_gby \hafh`gZ jZaebqgZy
ihklZgh\dZ agZdh\ Fu [em`^Zeb ih e_km k l_o ihj dZd gZqZeZkv ]jhaZ Fu
[em`^Zebihe_kmkl_oihjdZdgZqZeZkv]jhaZ
5. I_j_ibrbl_ lZ[ebpm \ l_ljZ^v JZkklZ\vl_ agZdb ij_ibgZgby \ ij_^eh`_gbyo
ihevamykv ie_gdhc AZibrbl_ ghf_j dZ`^h]h ij_^eh`_gby \ khhl\_lkl\mxsbc
klhe[bdlZ[ebpu
Keh`gu_
ij_^eh`_gbyqZklb
dhlhjuokh_^bg_gu
khxahfdZd
Ij_^eh`_gbykh
keh`gufkhxahf
\dexqZxsbfdZd\
keh`ghfij_^eh`_gbb
Ij_^eh`_gby\dhlhjuodZd —
lhevdhkj_^kl\h\ujZabl_evghklb
j_qb
Ihql_ggucaZfhd[ueihkljh_g
DZdaZfdbkljhblvky^he`gu
BE_gkdbc`fmjye_\uc]eZa
KlZelh`_p_eblvghdZdjZa
Hg_]bg\uklj_ebe
IjhfqZehkvfgh]hfgh]h^g_c
Kl_oihjdZdxgZyLZlvygZ
Bkg_cHg_]bg\kfmlghfkg_
Y\bebky\i_j\u_fg_
:KImrdbg
Hljyogmehijylghjmdb
BdZd^he]\_ebl\^hfm
IhdehgbekybklZjmo_
Bkhe^ZlmkZfhfm
:L\Zj^h\kdbc
KZfu_ij_djZkgu_dm\rbgu
>_eZxlkybah[uqghc]ebgu
LZd`_dZdij_djZkgucklbo
Kha^Zxlbakeh\ijhkluo
J=ZfaZlh\
6. Fgh]b_ jmkkdb_ keh\Z kZfb ih k_[_ baemqZxl ihwabx ih^h[gh lhfm dZd
^jZ]hp_ggu_dZfgbbaemqZxllZbgkl\_gguck\_l DIZmklh\kdbc 7.Ihg_[mdZdjZa
\ wlhl fhf_gl \^jm] aZiheuoZeb aZlj_sZeb h]g_ggu_ af_b \ha^mo aZk\_jdZe b
jZkdZebeky 8.Ih^h[ghlhfmdZdfbdjhkdhikem`blq_eh\_dmhdghf\g_\b^bfucfbj
fbdjh[h\ lZd b l_e_kdhi fh`gh ih ijZ\m gZa\Zlv hdghf \h <k_e_ggmx D
>hf[jh\kdbc 9. K l_o ihj dZd wdki_^bpby ihdbgmeZ jh^gu_ djZy ijhreb ^he]b_
f_kypu 10.Ihf_j_lh]hdZdimlgbdbm]em[eyebkv\e_^ygmximklugxijh^\b`_gb_
klZgh\behkv \k_ ljm^g__ 11. B ex^b b _a^h\u_ kh[Zdb [ueb bklhs_gu lZd dZd
ijbiZkuih^oh^bebddhgpm
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u9
199
BlZd gZ ^Zgghf hlj_ad_ gZr_]h imlb fu l\_j^h agZ_f q_luj_ ijZ\beZ ohjhr_]h
imgdlmZpbhggh]hih\_^_gby
1. ?keb khxa dZd kh_^bgy_l qZklb keh`gh]h ij_^eh`_gby i_j_^ gbf klZ\blky
aZiylZy
2.?kebdZd\oh^bl\khklZ\keh`gh]hkhxaZ ih^h[ghlhfmdZdihf_j_lh]hdZdk
l_oihjdZdbl^ aZgylZyklZ\blkyeb[hi_j_^\k_fkhxahfeb[hi_j_^dZd
3. ?keb khxa dZd ijbkh_^bgy_l bf_ggmx qZklv khklZ\gh]h kdZam_fh]h aZiylZy
i_j_^gbfg_klZ\blky
4. Bgh]^Z dZd qZs_ \k_]h \ khq_lZgbyo dZd [u dZd jZa dZd ke_^m_l dZd fh`gh
[hevr_ b lg g_ ijbkh_^bgy_l j_rbl_evgh gbdZdbo [ehdh\ b hl aZgylhc \ wlbo
kemqZyogZ^h\ha^_j`Zlvky
Ijbeh`_gb_gZ^\h_kdZaZeh
Fuk\Zfbh[km^bebkemqZbdh]^ZaZgylZyi_j_^dZdlhqghklZ\blkybeblhqghg_
klZ\blky GZihfgbl_ wlb kemqZb kZfb k_[_ Z _keb wlh \Zk aZljm^gy_l ijhkfhljbl_
fZl_jbZe _s_ jZa L_i_jv fu i_j_oh^bf d [he__ dZijbaghfm kemqZx — d
ijbeh`_gbx k khxahf dZd ?]h dZijbau aZ\bkyl hl ^hihegbl_evguo kfukeh\uo
agZq_gbbdhlhjufbhghfh`_l[ulvgZ]jm`_gh
1. ?keb ijbeh`_gb_ k khxahf dZd bf__l agZq_gb_ ijbqbgghklb hgh \u^_ey_lky
aZiylufb DZd bklbgguc njZgpma \ dZjfZg_ Ljbd_ ijb\_a dmie_l LZlvyg_ : K
Imrdbg Ihq_fmhgijb\_admie_lLZlvyg_" — dZdbklbggucnjZgpma
2.?keb ijbeh`_gb_ k khxahf dZd bf__l kfukeh\h_ agZq_gb_ \ dZq_kl\_ lh hgh
g_\u^_ey_lkyaZiylufb;h]Zlohjhrkh[hxE_gkdbc\_a^_[ueijbgyldZd`_gbo
:KImrdbg ;ueijbgyl\dZdhfdZq_kl\_" — dZd`_gbo
3. ?keb ^hihegbl_evguo agZq_gbc m ijbeh`_gby g_l hgh \u^_ey_lky aZiylhc
LZdhcbgkljmf_gldZdhl\_jldZ\k_]^Zijb]h^blky\ ohayckl\_ A^_kv gb lh]h gb
^jm]h]h\hijhkZihklZ\blvg_evay
Ljm^ghklb \ \Zr_c jZ[hl_ k ijbeh`_gbyfb bf_xl ^\hydbc oZjZdl_j \hi_j\uo
gZ^h hlebqZlv ijbeh`_gby hl \k_o m`_ agZdhfuo \Zf kemqZ_\ \h\lhjuo —
jZaebqZlv^h\hevghlhgdb_kfukeh\u_hll_gdbijbeh`_gbc
L_i_jvwlhlmqZklhdgZdZjl_gZrbo^hjh][m^_l\u]ey^_lvlZd kfk 199).
6. JZkklZ\vl_ agZdb ij_ibgZgby AZibrbl_ ghf_j dZ`^h]h ij_^eh`_gby \
khhl\_lkl\mxsbcklhe[bdlZ[ebpu
Ijbeh`_gbykhagZq_gb_f\dZq_kl\_
Ijbeh`_gbykhagZq_gb_fijbqbgu
1.Mq_gu_oZjZdl_jbamxl`bjZnmkZfdmdZdiehomxfZlvdhlhjZyihdb^Z_lk\h_]h
l_e_gdZ q_j_a f_kyp ihke_ jh`^_gby 2. < ihke_^g__ \j_fy g_dhlhju_ ahheh]b
\ukdZau\Zxlij_^iheh`_gb_qlhihehkdbgZ
200
dh`_ a_[j ihy\bebkv dZd kj_^kl\h ij_^hojZgyxs__ hl mdmkh\ fmob p_p_ Mq_gu_
ij_^iheZ]Zxl qlh ba^Zeb fmoZ p_p_ \b^bl a_[jm ebrv dZd k\_lehk_jh_ iylgh 3.
=_jZkbfmdZdhlebqghfmjZ[hlgbdmlml`_^Zebdhkm\jmdb BKLmj]_g_\ 4.DZd
bklbggh ^h[juc ]_jhc kdZadb Wfbev gbdh]^Z g_ ohq_l gbdh]h h[b^_lv gZh[hjhl hg
kljZklgh `_eZ_l qlh[u \k_f [ueh dZd fh`gh emqr_ K FboZedh\ 5. QblZxsZy
im[ebdZ mki_eZ ijb\udgmlv d Q_oh\m dZd xfhjbklm D N_^bg 6. DZd q_eh\_d
aZf_qZl_evgh]h mfZ ;ZaZjh\ g_ \klj_qZe jZ\gh]h k_[_ > IbkZj_\ 7. H
kljhbl_evkl\_dbghl_ZljZ]h\hjbebdZdh^_e_j_r_gghf8.DZdbklbggucom^h`gbd
Imrdbg g_ gm`^Zeky \ \u[hj_ ihwlbq_kdbo ij_^f_lh\ ^ey k\hbo ijhba\_^_gbc gh
^eyg_]h\k_ij_^f_lu[uebjZ\ghbkiheg_guihwab_c <=;_ebgkdbc 9.RdZlmedZ
k ibkvfZfb i_j_oh^beZ ba jh^Z \ jh^ dZd \_ebqZcrZy ^jZ]hp_gghklv 10. DZd
hiulguce_dlhj:e_dk_cijb[_j_]kZfh_bgl_j_kgh_khh[s_gb_gZdhg_pe_dpbb 11.
Keh\Zjv MrZdh\Z dZd deZkkbq_kdbc k\h^ jmkkdhc e_dkbdb i_j_ba^Z_lky \ DblZ_ b
KR:\hNjZgpbbbYihgbb
<uibrbl_ ghf_j
ke_^mxs_cko_f_
ij_^eh`_gby
khhl\_lkl\mxs_]h
201
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u9
?keb m \Zk g_ [ueh hrb[hd ijhimklbl_ ke_^mxs__ aZ^Zgb_ ?keb [ueb —
\uihegycl_\k_ih^jy^
7.JZkklZ\vl_ijhims_ggu_agZdb\ij_^eh`_gbyo
1. DZd ihwl gh\h]h \j_f_gb ;Zlxrdh\ g_ fh] \ k\hx hq_j_^v g_ aZieZlblv ^Zgb
jhfZglbafm < = ;_ebgkdbc 2. DZd ebl_jZlhj =ZjbgFboZceh\kdbc jZ[hlZe \
kh\_jr_ggh g_ih^oh^ysbo mkeh\byo b m^b\bl_evgh qlh hg fh] ijb _]h
g_ihk_^eb\hklbgZibkZlvlZdb_\_sbdZd>_lkl\hLzfu=bfgZabkluKlm^_glu
3. Ihqlb \ dZ`^hf jZkkdZa_ h ijbdexq_gbyo R_jehdZ OhefkZ _]h fukebl_evgZy
jZ[hlZ ^_fhgkljbjm_lky dZd hkgh\ghc _]h ih^\b] D Qmdh\kdbc 4. M^b\bl_evghc
dZaZeZkvex[h\vNjZ_jfZgZd>Zevg_fm<hklhdm_]hkihkh[ghklvhsmsZlvwlhldjZc
dZd k\hx jh^bgm <_kv djZc \ jZkkdZaZo NjZ_jfZgZ dZd [u ihy\ey_lky ba mlj_gg_]h
lmfZgZ b lhj`_kl\_ggh jZkp\_lZ_l ih^ khegp_f =eZ\gh_ \ dgb]Zo NjZ_jfZgZ wlh
ex^b Ih`Zemc gbdlh ba gZrbo ibkZl_e_c _s_ g_ ]h\hjbe h ex^yo jZaguo
gZjh^ghkl_c >Zevg_]h <hklhdZ h lmg]mkZo ]beydZo gZgZcpZo dhj_cpZo k lZdhc
^jm`_kdhc l_iehlhc dZd NjZ_jfZg D IZmklh\kdbc 5. Y agZe qlh djhf_ lZdbo
[hevrbo ieZg_l dZd A_fey Xibl_j FZjk <_g_jZ kms_kl\mxl _s_ khlgb ^jm]bo b
kj_^b gbo lZdb_ fZe_gvdb_ qlh bo ^Z`_ \ l_e_kdhi ljm^gh jZa]ey^_lv : K_gl
Wdaxi_jb 6. >Z`_ dh]^Z fu g_ fh`_f ihfhqv q_eh\_dm gbqlh g_ fh`_l [ulv _fm
lZd^hjh]hdZdg_kdhevdhh[h^jyxsbokeh\keh\mqZklby
L_i_jvhl\_lvl_\dZdhfijbf_j_kh\k_fg_lijbeh`_gby
<uibrbl_ghf_jij_^eh`_gbykhhl\_lkl\mxs_]hlZdhcko_f_
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u9
AZh^gh k ijbeh`_gbyfb h[jZlbf \gbfZgb_ gZ keh\hkhq_lZgby g_ dlh bghc dZd b
g_qlhbgh_dZdA^_kvgbdZdboij_fm^jhkl_cg_lm\b^_eblZdh_keh\hkhq_lZgb_ —
kf_ehklZ\vl_aZiylmxi_j_^dZdHk\_`bl_\iZfylbijZ\hibkZgb_wlboh[hjhlh\
>Z\Zcl_g_fgh]hihlj_gbjm_fky
8.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby\ke_^mxsboijbf_jZo
1.JZkl_gbydhlhju_fum\b^_ebgZkdehg_]hju[uebg_qlhbgh_dZdfZl_jbZe^ey
ijb]hlh\e_gby e_dZjkl\ 2. Wlb qm^_kgu_ p\_lu [ueb g_ qlh bgh_ dZd lxeviZgu 3.
I_j_^g_c[ueg_dlhbghcdZdiml_r_kl\mxsbci_rdhfW]evba\_klguckh[bjZl_ev
i_k_ge_]_g^ij_^ZgbcbkdZahd :=jbg 4.AgZc`_[eZ]hkeh\_gg_crbcbahljhdh\
qlhyg_dlhbghcdZdfh]mqbcbijhkeZ\e_gguc\h\k_oq_luj_okljZgZok\_lZ^`bgg
=ZkkZg:[^mjjZofZgb[gOhllZ[lh _klv kug OhllZ[Z 5. : wlhl hljhd b _klv g_ dlh
bghcdZdl\hc^jm]@_gy" EEZ]bg Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u9
202
KjZ\gbl_evgu_h[hjhlu
L_i_jv fu i_j_oh^bf d \Z`g_cr_c jZ[hl_ khxaZ dZd — d \u^_e_gbx kjZ\g_gby
Wlm`_jZ[hlm\uihegyxlbkbghgbfukhxaZdZd[m^lhkeh\ghdZd[m^lh lhqgh
jh\gh dZd b ^jm]b_ KjZ\g_gb_ lh _klv \uy\e_gb_ koh^kl\Z b jZaebqby f_`^m
ij_^f_lZfb y\e_gbyfb kh[ulbyfb — h^gZ ba \Z`g_crbo klhjhg jZ[hlu gZr_c
fukebIhfg_gbxnjZgpmakdh]hnbehkhnZ=_ev\_pby\_kvgZrmf\lhfbkhklhbl
qlh[u aZf_qZlv koh^kl\Z b jZaebqby : kjZ\gbl_evgu_ h[hjhlu \ gZr_f yaud_ g_
lhevdh i_j_^Zxl koh^kl\h beb jZaebqb_ gh b ijb^Zxl yaudm djZkhlm b
\ujZabl_evghklv
ImgdlmZpbhggh_ ijZ\beh h kjZ\gbl_evghf h[hjhl_ g_ lZd m` keh`gh hg \k_]^Z
\u^_ey_lkyaZiylufbk^\moklhjhg<hllZd:gqZjdZd]jhagucqZkh\hcklhblh^bg
\h\k_c\k_e_gghc :KImrdbg <q_f`_aZdexqZxlky\Zrbljm^ghklbbhldm^Z[_jmlky\Zrbhrb[db"
I_j\Zy ljm^ghklv — g_^hklZlhqgh \^mfqb\h_ hlghr_gb_ d l_dklm ?keb \u g_
ihgyeb qlh \ ij_^eh`_gbb qlhlh k q_flh kjZ\gb\Z_lky \u b g_ aZf_lbl_
kjZ\gbl_evgh]hh[hjhlZHlkx^Zg_obljuc\u\h^\k_]^ZklZjZcl_kvihgbfZlvl_dkl
dhlhjuc\uaZibku\Z_l_
<lhjZyljm^ghklvkhklhbl\lhfqlhkj_^bkjZ\g_gbc\klj_qZxlkykbglZdkbq_kdb_
dZjebdb b kbglZdkbq_kdb_ \_ebdZgu <hl dZd fh]ml \u]ey^_lv kjZ\g_gby dZjebdb bo fh`gh kemqZcgh b g_ aZf_lblv Y kZf dZd a\_jv [ue qm`^ ex^_c b
iheabijylZekydZdaf_c FXE_jfhglh\ :\hldZdfh]ml\u]ey^_lvkjZ\g_gby
“\_ebdZgu I_j_^ gbfb dZd hdZf_g_\rb_ \h \j_fy rlhjfZ hd_Zgkdb_ \hegu
jZkklbeZebkv ]hjgu_ oj_[lu DZdbo [_^ fh`gh gZl\hjblv k lZdbf ij_^eh`_gb_f"
<hi_j\uo ijhklh aZ[ulv aZdjulv h[hjhl aZiylhc WlZ [_^Z kemqZ_lky kh \k_fb
jZkijhkljZg_ggufb h[hjhlZfb meh\b\ _]h gZqZeh fgh]b_ g_ m^_j`b\Zxl _]h \
iZfylb ^h dhgpZ — b lh]^Z ijhsZc \lhjZy aZiylZy <h\lhjuo g_ \^mfZ\rbkv \
kfuke h[hjhlZ jZaj_aZlv \_ebdZgZ ihlhjhib\rbkv ihklZ\blv aZiylmx jZgvr_
\j_f_gbgZijbf_jihke_keh\ZhdZf_g_\rb_bl_fkZfufij_\jZlblvij_^eh`_gb_\
ihegmx[_kkfukebpm
GZf ijboh^behkv aZf_qZlv qlh kjZ\g_gby mimkdZxlky ba \b^m qZs_ \ gZqZe_ b
k_j_^bg_ij_^eh`_gbyq_f\dhgp_bg_ijZ\bevgh\u^_eyxlkyqZs_\klbohl\hjghf
l_dkl_q_f\ijhaZbq_kdhf
BgZdhg_pk_jv_agZyhiZkghklvkhklhbl\\hafh`ghklbi_j_imlZlvkjZ\gbl_evguc
h[hjhlk^jm]bfbkemqZyfbmihlj_[e_gbykhxaZdZdkhkdZam_fufijbkh_^bgy_fuf
wlbf khxahf k ijbeh`_gb_f bf_xsbf agZq_gb_ \ dZq_kl\_ b k
njZa_heh]bq_kdbfbh[hjhlZfbhdhlhjuoj_qvihc^_l^Zevr_
Qlh[u qm\kl\h\Zlv k_[y m\_j_gg__ ijb \klj_q_ k khxahf dZd aZ^Z\Zcl_ k_[_
\hijhk kjZ\gb\Z_lky eb a^_kv qlhlh k q_flh" <hl lZd JZklj_iZgguc \hjh[_c
\e_l_e \ ajbl_evguc aZe dZd jZa \ fhf_gl hdhgqZgby ki_dlZdey KjZ\gb\Z_lky eb
a^_kv qlhlh k q_flh" G_l B \u^_eylv aZiylufb g_q_]h FZfZ ih^mfZeZ qlh \hl
lZd `_ dZd kg_] kuiexlky gZ ex^_c kqZkleb\u_ kgu b kdZadb D IZmklh\kdbc A^_kv
203
kqZkleb\u_ kgu b kdZadb kjZ\gb\Zxlky k kuiexsbfky gZ ex^_c kg_]hf — b fu
kf_eh\u^_ey_faZiylufbkjZ\gbl_evguch[hjhldZdkg_]
DZd \b^bl_ ljm^ghkl_c fgh]h gh rZ] aZ rZ]hf fu bo ij_h^he__f DZd ]h\hjbl
ihkeh\bpZ]eZaZ[hylkyZjmdb^_eZxl
9.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgbybih^q_jdgbl_kjZ\g_gby\ijbf_jZobaijhba\_^_gbc
: K ImrdbgZ H^bg ba ijbf_jh\ ih \u[hjm aZihfgbl_ gZbamklv b aZibrbl_ ih
iZfylb
<^jm]rZl_j
JZkiZogmekyb^_\bpZ
R_fZoZgkdZypZjbpZ
<kykbyydZdaZjy
Lboh\klj_lbeZpZjy
A^jZ\kl\mcdgyavlufhcij_djZkguc
Qlh`lulbodZd^_gvg_gZklguc"
Ibjm_lk^jm`bghx\_sbcHe_]
Ijba\hg_\_k_ehfklZdZgZ
Bdm^jbbo[_eudZdmlj_ggbckg_]
GZ^keZ\ghc]eZ\hxdmj]ZgZ
>bdZi_qZevgZfheqZeb\Z
DZdeZgve_kgZy[hyaeb\Z
HgZ\k_fv_k\h_cjh^ghc
DZaZeZkv^_\hqdhcqm`hc.
Mqbl_kv\eZkl\h\Zlvkh[hx
G_\kydbc\ZkdZdyihcf_l
Gh\hlm`[ebadhI_j_^gbfb
M`[_ehdZf_gghcFhkd\u
DZd`Zjdj_klZfbahehlufb
=hjylklZjbggu_]eZ\u
Hg\ha\jZlbekybihiZe
DZdQZpdbckdhjZ[eygZ[Ze
HgZdZdk^Z\gbfb^jmavyfb
Kk\hbfbjhsZfb^m]Zfb
?s_[_k_^h\Zlvki_rbl
Djm]eZdjZkgZebphfhgZ
DZdwlZ]emiZyemgZ
GZwlhf]emihfg_[hkdehg_
G_\Zf_lZeZkvdZd[hevghc
<k\h_cihkl_eb[_kihdhcghc
;_amfguoe_lm]Zkr__\_k_ev_
Fg_ly`_ehdZdkfmlgh_ihof_ev_
GhdZd\bghi_qZevfbgm\rbo^g_c
<fh_c^mr_q_fklZj_l_fkbevg_c
204
;_`blbkeurblaZkh[hc
DZd[m^lh]jhfZ]jhohlZgv_
Ly`_eha\hgdh_kdZdZgv_
Ihihljyk_gghcfhklh\hc
GZdjuevp_
Kih^tylhceZihcdZd`b\u_
Klhyebev\uklhjh`_\u_
LZlvygZ^he]h\d_ev_fh^ghc
DZdhqZjh\ZgZklhbl
DZdmkljmfyguo[_ameu[db
;_a]jZffZlbq_kdhchrb[db
Yjmkkdhcj_qbg_ex[ex
L_i_jv \uibrbl_ ghf_jZ ijbf_jh\ \ dhlhjuo kjZ\g_gby gZoh^ylky \ k_j_^bg_
ij_^eh`_gby ghf_jZij_^eh`_gbckjZkijhkljZg_ggufbkjZ\g_gbyfb\_ebdZgZfb
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u9
>Z\Zcl_ g_ mimklbf ba \b^m qlh kjZ\gbl_evguc h[hjhl fh`_l gZqbgZlvky g_
lhevdh khxahf dZd beb _]h kbghgbfZfb keh\gh [m^lh dZd [m^lh lhqgh gh b
khq_lZgbyfblZd`_dZdjZ\ghdZdb^j
10.JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby\ij_^eh`_gbyo
1. DmevlmjZ jZ\gh dZd b [_kdmevlmjv_ fh]ml ijhy\eylvky ihjZaghfm 2. >j_\gb_
jbfeyg_]h\hjbebqlhdgb]blZd`_dZdbex^bbf_xlk\hxkm^v[m
E_^g_hdj_irbcgZj_qd_klm^_ghc
Keh\ghdZdlZxsbckZoZje_`bl
Hdhehe_kZdZd\fy]dhcihkl_eb
<ukiZlvkyfh`ghIhdhcbijhklhj
Ebklvyih[e_dgmlv_s_g_mki_eb
@_elubk\_`be_`ZldZddh\_j
G:G_djZkh\
4. E_\blZg lZd `_ dZd Imrdbg b Lxlq_\ b fgh]b_ ^jm]b_ `^Ze hk_gb dZd kZfh]h
^hjh]h]hbfbfhe_lgh]h\j_f_gb]h^Z DIZmklh\kdbc < q_l\_jlhf ijbf_j_ _klv eh\mrdZ dhlhjZy fh`_l kijh\hpbjh\Zlv \Zk gZ hrb[dm
M^Zehkveb\Zfh[gZjm`blvwlmeh\mrdmbg_hrb[blvky"
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u9
: l_i_jv ^Z\Zcl_ mqblvky g_ imlZlv kjZ\g_gby k ^jm]bfb kemqZyfb mihlj_[e_gby
khxaZdZd
<hl\Zfijbf_judZdjZkkm`^Zlv\jZaguokemqZyo
1.YohqmieZ\ZlvdZdfh`gh[uklj__?klveba^_kvkjZ\g_gb_"G_lY\ey_lkyeb
wlhij_^eh`_gb_keh`guf"G_lAgZqblbaZiylhcg_gZ^h
205
2. J_dZ dZd ]hem[Zy e_glZ A^_kv gZ^h j_rblv kdZam_fh_ wlh beb kjZ\gbl_evguc
h[hjhlDZdb_keh\Z\wlhfij_^eh`_gbbg_kmlkfukeh\mxgZ]jmadmkdZam_fh]h"DZd
]hem[Zye_glZGbdZdh]h^jm]h]hkdZam_fh]ha^_kvg_lAgZqblaZgylhcg_gZ^h
3. HgZmkdhevag_ldZdaf_y\kihjog_lbmfqblkydZdilbqdZ FXE_jfhglh\ A^_kvhgZkjZ\gb\Z_lkybkhaf__cbkilbqdhcGZ^hklZ\blvaZiylu_
11. JZkklZ\vl_ agZdb ij_ibgZgby <uibrbl_ ghf_jZ ij_^eh`_gbc kh kjZ\g_gbyfb
JZ[hlZcl_kie_gdhc
1. IeZg_lZ FZe_gvdh]h ijbgpZ klhyeZ dZd jZa gZ^ gZfb 2. GZ jZkk\_l_ i_khd
klZgh\bekyahehlhcdZdf_^ 3.Dh]^Zlu^Zefg_gZiblvkylZ\h^Z[ueZdZdfmaudZ 4.
Wlh[uehdZdkZfucij_djZkgucibj 5.By[hxkvklZlvlZdbfdZd\ajhkeu_dhlhjuf
gbq_]hg_bgl_j_kghdjhf_pbnj 6.Lu^eyf_gyihdZ\k_]hebrvfZe_gvdbcfZevqbd
lZdhc `_ dZd klh lukyq ^jm]bo fZevqbdh\ 7. Y ih^[_`Ze d kl_g_ dZd jZa \h\j_fy
qlh[uih^o\Zlblvfh_]hFZe_gvdh]hijbgpZ :K_glWdaxi_jb Hgij_djZk_g
Hg\_kvdZd;h`by]jhaZ
BhgihfqZekyij_^ihedZfb
Fh]msbjZ^hkl_gdZd[hc
DZdiZoZjv[bl\Zhl^uoZ_l
:KImrdbg
11.YdZdfZljhkjh`^_ggucb\ujhkrbcgZiZem[_jZa[hcgbqv_]h[jb]Z
Ih^gbfDZa[_ddZd]jZgvZefZaZ
Kg_]Zfb\_qgufbkbye
FXE_jfhglh\
:l_i_jvhl\_lvl__s_jZaijhkfhlj_\ij_^eh`_gbydZdmxjhevb]jZ_lkhxadZd\
hklZevguoij_^eh`_gbyo
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u9
12.K_cqZk\ukgh\ZjZkklZ\bl_agZdb\uibr_l_ghf_jZij_^eh`_gbckhkjZ\g_gbyfb
bhij_^_ebl_dZdmxjhevb]jZ_lkhxadZd\hklZevguoijbf_jZo
1.H[_avyguba\_klgudZd\_kvfZbkdmkgu_ih^jZ`Zl_eb 2.>_evnbgudZdbex^b
ihklhyggh h[sZxlky ^jm] k ^jm]hf 3. =hehkh\u_ mijZ`g_gby q_eh\_dhh[jZaguo
h[_avygrbfiZga_\u]ey^yldZdgZ[hj\hie_cb\ha]eZkh\ 4.Ij_^Zgb_jZkkdZau\Z_l
qlhi_j]Zf_gldZdfZl_jbZe^eyibkvfZbah[j_eb\fZehZabckdhf]hjh^_I_j]Zf_]^_
[ueZ aZf_qZl_evgZy [b[ebhl_dZ 5. Kms_kl\mxl ijhba\_^_gby bkdmkkl\Z
fgh]h]jZggu_ dZd fbj b dZd hg g_bkq_jiZ_fu_ 6. Ihe_kv_ khojZgbehkv m f_gy \
iZfylbdZdi_qZevgZyghg_fgh]haZ]Z^hqgZykljZgZ DIZmklh\kdbc 7.?keb\j_fy
fh`_l ih]Zkblv ex[h\v b \k_ ^jm]b_ q_eh\_q_kdb_ qm\kl\Z dZd b kZfmx iZfylv h
q_eh\_d_ lh ^ey ih^ebgghc ebl_jZlmju hgh kha^Z_l [_kkf_jlb_ D IZmklh\kdbc 8.
Hldgb]iZoehl_faZiZohfdhlhjuchklZeky\fhbo\hkihfbgZgbyodZdh^bg
206
baijbylg_crbo aZiZoh\ dZdhc m^Zehkv fg_ keurZlv ohly gh ijZ\^_ ]h\hjy wlh [ue
aZiZo g_kdhevdh aZloeuc X Ke_rZ 9. Kj_^b om^h`_kl\_gguo ijhba\_^_gbc
\hkvfb^_kyluo ]h^h\ ih ijhba\_^_gghfm gZ h[s_kl\h \i_qZle_gbx i_j\h_ f_klh
\_jhylgh aZgye [u nbevf L:[meZ^a_ IhdZygb_ Hg \hkijbgbfZeky dZd nbevf h
KlZebg_ h ^bdlZlhj_ \hh[s_ h l_jjhj_ h ^h[j_ b ae_ h ;h]_ b h ^vy\he_ h ^hjh]_
dhlhjZy g_ \_^_l d OjZfm ;Dhqm[_c 10. GZ[ex^Zl_evghklv R_jehdZ OhefkZ
dZ`_lky ihqlb k\_jot_kl_kl\_gghc Hg \ujZ[hlZe __ \ k_[_ ^he]bfb ]h^Zfb
lj_gbjh\db b[h gZ[ex^Zl_evghklv dZd b \kydmx ^jm]mx kihkh[ghklv mfZ fh`gh
bahsjylv b kh\_jr_gkl\h\Zlv Hg ih^f_qZ_l \ hdjm`Zxs_f fbj_ lZdb_ y\e_gby
fbfhdhlhjuofuh[uqghijhoh^bfdZdke_iu_ DQmdh\kdbc <uibrbl_ghf_jij_^eh`_gbykhhl\_lkl\mxs_]hlZdhcko_f_
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u9
13. IhjZ[hlZcl_ dhjj_dlhjhf GZc^bl_ b bkijZ\vl_ imgdlmZpbhggu_
hrb[db
1. Hkgh\ghc hkljh\ Yihgkdh]h Zjobi_eZ]Z Ohgkx g_ himkdZ_lky dZd ml\_j`^Zeb
mq_gu_jZgvr_Zihkl_i_gghih^gbfZ_lkygZ^mjh\g_fLboh]hhd_ZgZ 2.RbfiZga_
<bdb fh]eZ mki_rgh khi_jgbqZlv kh k\hbfb k\_jklgbdZfb^_lvfb b \ mf_gbb
jZah[jZlvky dZd hldju\Z_lky ysbd b \ kihkh[ghklb jZkkhjlbjh\Zlv ij_^f_lu ih
lZdbf h[sbf ijbagZdZf dZd p\_l nhjfZ b jZaf_j 3. Fhy fZe_gvdZy ijbyl_evgbpZ
ihqlbgbdh]^Zg_[_]ZeZbkf_yeZkvhq_gvj_^dhdh]^Z`_kf_yeZkvlhkf_o__a\mqZe
dZd kZfuc fZe_gvdbc dhehdhevqbd <=Dhjhe_gdh 4. GZ q_jghf dZd m]hev g_[_
k\_jdZeb ebrv a\_a^u gh Emgu g_ [ueh JmdZ ih^gyeZkv dZd [u kZfZ kh[hc HgZ
[ueZ e_]dZy dZd imrbgdZ ?_ ^Z`_ dZd [m^lh ih^lZedb\Zeh qlhlh kgbam H]g_ggh
djZkgu_ ]hju dZd [u \a^ufZebkv kh ^gZ hdZf_g_\r_]h fhjy b lygmebkv k\hbfb
aZhklj_ggufb\_jomrdZfbdg_[mGZ^\k_fwlbfijbqm^eb\uffbjhfdZd[_a^hggZy
ijhiZklvabyehq_jgh_g_[hkfbjbZ^Zfbdjmiguobf_edboa\_a^ ihGGhkh\m <uibrbl_ghf_jZij_^eh`_gbckhhl\_lkl\mxsbolZdhcko_f_
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u9
Kh_^bgbfgh\u_agZgbykij_`gbfb
14. < ke_^mxsbo ijbf_jZo jZkklZ\vl_ agZdb ij_ibgZgby
<kihfgbl_ dZdb_ ijZ\beZ \Zf ihgZ^h[bebkv hoZjZdl_jbamcl_
i_j\u_ljbijbf_jZ Ih^gZkuivx\hj\mg_dhr_ghf
E_`blbkfhljbldZd`b\Zy
<p\_lghfieZld_gZdhku[jhr_gghf
DjZkb\Zybfheh^Zy
:;ehd
207
G_fgh]he_llhfmgZaZ^
LZf]^_keb\Zykyrmfyl
H[gy\rbkv[m^lh^\_k_klju
Kljmb:jZ]\ubDmju
;uefhgZklujv
FXE_jfhglh\
3. :g^_jk_g ex[be ijb^mfu\Zlv k\hb kdZadb \ e_kZo Hg fh] jZkkfZljb\Zlv
dmkhd dhju beb klZjmx rbrdm b m\b^_lv gZ gbo dZd kd\hav m\_ebqbl_evgmx ebgam
lZdb_ ih^jh[ghklb ba dhlhjuo e_]dh fh`gh khklZ\blv kdZadm <hh[s_ \k_ \ e_km
dZ`^uc aZfr_euc i_gv b dZ`^uc fmjZ\_cjZa[hcgbd dhlhjuc lZsbl dZd
ihobs_ggmx ij_e_klgmx ijbgp_kkm fZe_gvdmx fhrdm k ijhajZqgufb a_e_gufb
djueurdZfb\k_wlhfh`_lh[_jgmlvkykdZadhc DIZmklh\kdbc 4.Ex^_ch^bghdbo
ihgZlmj_dhlhju_dZdjZdhlr_evgbdbebmebldZklZjZxlkymclb\k\hxkdhjemimgZ
wlhf k\_l_ g_fZeh : I Q_oh\ 5. IZmklh\kdbc ibkZe h <bdlhj_ =x]h FmaudZ _]h
dgb][ueZlZdhc`_fh]mq_cdZd]jhfhd_Zgkdboijb[h_\Hg\hj\Zeky\deZkkbq_kdbc
kdmqgh\Zluc\_ddZdmjZ]Zgguc\_l_jdZd\bojvqlhg_k_lihlhdb^h`^yebklvylmqb
e_i_kldbp\_lh\ihjhoh\hc^ufbkhj\Zggu_khreyidhdZj^uWlhl\_l_j[uegZa\Zg
JhfZglbdhc
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u9
15.KhklZ\vl_ko_fuijbf_jh\JZkklZ\vl_agZdbij_ibgZgby
1.FZydh\kdbcagZedZdfgh]hjZ^hklb^hklZ\ey_lq_eh\_dmaZkem`_ggZyiho\ZeZb
klZjZeky^hklZ\blvex^yfwlmjZ^hklv 2.?keb\uohlvjZa\`bagboh^bebgZoh^meyo
lh \Zf g_ gZ^h h[tykgylv dZd \Z`gh ijb wlhf g_ ihl_jylv jZ\gh\_kb_ 3. GZ^_lv
jZ^bhhr_cgbdgZ`bjZnm^h\hevghijhklh_keb\uagZ_l_dZddhgkljmbjh\ZlvlZdb_
hr_cgbdbbdZdbogZ^_\Zlv`bjZn_gZr_x
DZde_lZlvka_feb^ha\_a^
DZdihcfZlvebkmaZo\hkl
DZdbadZfgyk^_eZlviZj
AgZ_l^hdlhjgZr=ZkiZj
XHe_rZ
G_agZxydZdr_kl\mxl[h]bgb
GhfbeZyklmiZ_liha_fe_
<R_dkibj
L\hcklbodZd;h`bc^moghkbekygZ^lheihc
Bhlau\fuke_c[eZ]hjh^guo
A\mqZedZddhehdhegZ[Zrg_\_q_\hc
<h^gblhj`_kl\b[_^gZjh^guo
FXE_jfhglh\
By[uekljZr_g\wlhlfb]
DZd[Zjkimkluggucaheb^bd
YieZf_g_e\ba`ZedZdhg
208
DZd[m^lhkZfy[uejh`^_g
<k_f_ckl\_[Zjkh\b\hedh\
Ih^k\_`bfiheh]hfe_kh\
FXE_jfhglh\
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u9
16. : l_i_jv ² aZ^Zgb_ ih\ur_gghc ljm^ghklb ^ey ex[bl_e_c hkljuo hsms_gbc
JZkklZ\vl_ agZdb ij_ibgZgby \ klbohl\hj_gbb FZjbgu P\_lZ_\hc khklhys_f ba
h^gh]hkeh`gh]hij_^eh`_gbybkhklZ\vl_ko_fmwlh]hij_^eh`_gby
FhbfklboZfgZibkZgguflZdjZgh
Qlhbg_agZeZyqlhyihwl
Khj\Z\rbfkydZd[jua]bbanhglZg"
DZdbkdjubajZd_l
<hj\Z\rbfkydZdfZe_gvdb_q_jlb
<k\ylbebs_]^_khgbnbfbZf
FhbfklboZfhxghklbbkf_jlb
G_qblZggufklboZf
JZa[jhkZgguf\iuebihfZ]ZabgZf
=^_bogbdlhg_[jZebg_[_j_l
FhbfklboZfdZd^jZ]hp_gguf\bgZf
GZklZg_lk\hcq_j_^
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u9
KhxadZdbmeu[dbyaudZ
JZa]h\hjhnjZa_heh]bq_kdboh[hjhlZo
Fu \uykgbeb p_euc jy^ kemqZ_\ dh]^Z i_j_^ khxahf dZd g_ klZ\blky aZiylZy
GZihfgbl_k_[_wlbkemqZbIjbaZljm^g_gbbijhkfhljbl_fZl_jbZekgh\Z
: l_i_jv fu ih^hreb d kZfhfm bgl_j_kghfm kemqZx — d njZa_heh]bq_kdbf
h[hjhlZfDh_qlh\um`_magZebhgbobai_j\hcqZklbwlhcdgb]bNjZa_heh]bafZfb
ijhgbdgmlZ gZrZ j_qv Wlh mklhcqb\u_ keh\hkhq_lZgby hdjZr_ggu_ bjhgb_c
oblj_phc emdZ\kl\hf GZijbf_j gm`_g dZd kh[Zd_ iylZy gh]Z ihfh`_l dZd
f_jl\hfm ijbiZjdZ NjZa_heh]bafu \ghkyl \ gZrm j_qv g_ lhevdh h[jZaghklv gh b
hahjkl\hmeu[dmBqlhhq_gv\Z`gh^ey\Zk —hgbg_lj_[mxlaZiylhci_j_^khxahf
dZd
Kljh]bo]jZffZlbq_kdboijZ\beihfh]ZxsbohlebqblvnjZa_heh]bafhlh[uqgh]h
kjZ\gbl_evgh]h h[hjhlZ g_ kms_kl\m_l GZ^h ijhklh mf_lv magZ\Zlv ijb \klj_q_
dZd fh`gh [hevr_ njZa_heh]bafh\ Kh[kl\_ggh ]h\hjy \u bo ohjhrh agZ_l_ gZrZ
j_qvijhgbaZgZbfb
17.Ij_^eZ]Z_fg_kdhevdh\hijhkh\Ih^[_jbl_dgbfhl\_lemqr_ihiZfylbZ_kebg_
kfh`_l_ ² gZc^bl_ \ hl\_lZo ihf_s_gguo ih^ \hijhkZfb Wlb hl\_lu ^Zgu \
jZa[b\dmbih^oh^ysbcgZ^hjZaukdZlv
209
1. DZd ]h\hjyl h kbevghf ^h`^_" 2. H q_eh\_d_ `b\ms_f \ fZl_jbZevghf
^hklZld_" 3. H q_eh\_d_ ihy\b\r_fky g_h`b^Zggh" 4. H [_kke_^gh ijhiZ\r_f
q_eh\_d_bebij_^f_l_" 5.H q_eh\_d_ lmih mklZ\b\r_fkygZ qlhlh" 6. H q_eh\_d_
]emohf dh \k_f ^h\h^Zf" 7. H g_^jm`guo ihklhyggh kkhjysboky ex^yo" 8. H
q_eh\_d_hldhlhjh]hg_evay^h[blvkygbkeh\Z" 9.H[hq_gv[_^ghfg_bfms_f" 10.
?kebq_eh\_dq_]hlhhq_gvg_ex[bl"
Hl\_luEx[bldZdkh[ZdZiZedmg_fdZdju[ZfheqbldZd\jhl\h^ugZ[jZedZd
\\h^mdZgmedZdkd\hava_fexijh\ZebekydZddhjh\ZyaudhfkebagmeZ_fm\k_dZd
h[kl_gdm]hjhodZdkuj\fZke_dZlZ_lky]hedZdkhdheev_ldZdba\_^jZkfhljbl
dZd[ZjZggZgh\u_\hjhlZ`b\mldZddhrdZkkh[Zdhck\ZebekydZdkg_]gZ]heh\m
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u9
18.IhklZjZcl_kvaZdhgqblvij_^eh`_gbyih^oh^ysbfbihkfukemnjZa_heh]bafZfb
1.HgijbgyelZ[e_ldmbkdhjh[hevdZd ... 2.K\_jrbgu]hjuihk_ehd[ue\b^_g
dZd ... 3.DgZqZemwdaZf_gh\yagZe\k_[be_ludZd ... 4.?]hbm]h\Zjb\Zebbklu^beb
Z_fm\k_dZd ... 5.Ihqm\kl\h\Z\gZk_[_\gbfZl_evguc\a]ey^ij_ih^Z\Zl_eyklm^_gl
ihdjZkg_edZd ... 6.;ebag_pu[uebihoh`bdZd ... 7.Gh\bqhdmklZ\bekygZdhfivxl_j
dZd ... 8.FyqbkdZebih\k_faZdhmedZf^\hjZghhgdZd ... 9.=mfZgblZjgu_ij_^f_lu
_fm^Z\Zebkve_]dhgh\fZl_fZlbd_hgjZa[bjZekydZd ...
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u9
19.JZkimlZcl_i_j_imlZggu_njZa_heh]bafu
1.>h`^vebedZdkg_]gZ]heh\m 2.<ijh^he`_gb_\k_]hk_ZgkZfZevqbrdZ_jaZe
gZklme_h[hjZqb\Zekyh^gbfkeh\hfkb^_edZdgZeZ^hgb 3.Kdhjh^_ehgZeZ^behkv
b ihreh dZd kb\uc f_jbg 4. =hklb k\Zebebkv \ ^hf dZd ba \_^jZ 5. FZevqbrdZ
fheqZedZdju[Zh[e_^ 6. Kdhehdhevgb ]hjh^[ue\b^_gdZdgZb]hedZo 7.Y agZe
Zj[Zlkdb_i_j_medbdZdju[Z\\h^_ 8.Hg[bekygZ^ljm^ghcaZ^Zq_cdZd\jhl\h^u
gZ[jZe 9.Wlhlq_eh\_d\k_]^Z\j_ldZdihfZkem10.Mk_[y\h^\hj_FbrdZ[uedZd
k\hbiylviZevp_\
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u9
Kj_^b mklhcqb\uo keh\hkhq_lZgbc g_ \u^_ey_fuo aZiylufb _klv b dZjebdb
jZ[hlZ_ldZd\he bebdZdehrZ^v mklZebeb]heh^_gdZdkh[ZdZ]emidZdijh[dZ
[_e dZd emgv dZd [_r_guc dZd hrZe_euc dZd \dhiZgguc b li G_ klZ\blky aZiylZy
i_j_^ dZd \ khq_lZgbyo g_l dZd g_l b lml dZd lml G_ \u^_ey_lky aZiylufb b
keh\hkhq_lZgb_\gmrbl_evguojZaf_jh\dZdgb\q_fg_[u\Zeh
L_i_jv ijb \klj_q_ k khxahf dZd ijbkh_^bgyxsbf lhl beb bghc h[hjhl fu
fh`_f^hihegblvgZrmdZjlm^hjh]lZdbfbljhibgdZfb
210
20. IhjZ[hlZcl_ dhjj_dlhjhf GZc^bl_ b bkijZ\vl_ imgdlmZpbhggu_ hrb[db
JZ[hlZcl_kie_gdhc
1.Ih^gy\rbkvih\ur_hgbkgh\Zm\b^_ebkhegp_dhlhjh_dZdgb\q_fg_[u\Zeh
dZkZehkv k\hbf [Z]jh\uf djZ_f q_jghc ebgbb ^Ze_dh]h ]hjbahglZ 2. OhllZ[uq
s_edgme iZevpZfb b \f_klh h^gh]h [hevrh]h Kb^hj_eeb ih gba_gvdhfm [Zjv_jm
fZg_`Z ih[_`Zeb h^bg aZ ^jm]bf k_fv^_kyl ^\Z fZe_gvdbo Kb^hj_eeb ihoh`bo gZ
agZf_gblh]h nhdmkgbdZ dZd ^\_ dZieb \h^u Ijh[_`Z\ g_kdhevdh djm]h\ hgb
kebebkv\h^gh]h[hevrh]hKb^hj_eeb dZdkeb\Z_lky\h^gm[hevrmxdZiex fgh]h
fZe_gvdbo dZi_e_d jlmlb E EZ]bg 3. Hl_p ihr_e gZ dmogx qlh[u ml_rblv
khk_^dm dhlhjZykb^_eZdZd\\h^mhims_ggZy 4. Wfbev kfhlj_e k_klj_gd_ \ ]hjeh
kemrZe k_j^p_ b \uklmdb\Ze __ lhqv\lhqv dZd aZijZ\kdbc ^hdlhj Wfbev kb^_e \
aZi_jlhf kZjZ_ aehc dZd kh[ZdZ Hg [ue h^bg dZd i_jkl B \^jm] i_lmo miZe dZd
ih^dhr_gguc Klhbeh _fm qmlvqmlv ih^gylvky dZd hg lml `_ \Zebeky ]heh\hc
\i_j_^G_dhlhjh_\j_fyhg[_kkbevghdZqZeky\aZ^\i_j_^Zihlhf\^jm]hlqZyggh
aZfZoZedjuevyfbaZdmdZj_dZebdZdihehmfgucdbgmekydklZcd_dmjWfbevagZe
qlh hl kljZoZ fh`gh mf_j_lv Z lml hg k\hbfb ]eZaZfb m\b^_e dZd dmju klZeb
iZ^Zlvh^gZaZ^jm]hc :Ebg^]j_g <uibrbl_ghf_jij_^eh`_gbykhhl\_lkl\mxs_]hlZdhcko_f_
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u V.
211
L_i_jvdZjlZgZrbo^hjh]\u]ey^bllZd kfk 213).
21.L_i_jv\ugZklhevdhohjhrhhjb_glbjm_l_kv\h\k_o\ZjbZglZomihlj_[e_gbykhxaZ
dZd qlh kfh`_l_ ihklZ\blv agZdb ^Z`_ \ g_aZdhgq_gguo ij_^eh`_gbyo <hae_ l_o
ijbf_jh\]^_\ug_agZ_l_gm`gZebaZiylZyihklZ\vl_agZd\hijhkZ
1.:g]ebckdbcibkZl_ev:jlmjDhgZg>hceijbh[j_ef_`^mgZjh^gmxba\_klghklv
ihke_lh]hdZd ... 2.R_jehdOhefk[_ahrb[hqghjZkdju\ZelZcguij_klmie_gbclZd
dZd ... 3. Fhj_ [ueh dZd ... 4. Gb]^_ ijb \aZbfghc \klj_q_ g_ jZkdeZgb\Zxlky lZd
[eZ]hjh^ghbg_ijbgm`^_gghdZd ... 5. <k_ijbkmlkl\mxsb_^_j`Zebk_[yaZklhehf
qbgghbkihdhcghh^bglhevdhI_lykb^_edZd ... 6.IhdbgmlZyh[_avygdZ\a^uoZeZ\
m]em de_ldb dZd ... 7. G_kfhljy gZ \k_ klZjZgby ih]hgsbdZ hkebd klhye dZd ... 8.
FZevqbdi_j_iju]gmeq_j_aaZ]hjh^dmlZd`_e_]dhdZd ... 9.FZfZklZjZeZkv^h[blvky
hlGZlZrdbohly[uh^gh]hkeh\ZghhgZdZd ...
LhdZda\_jvhgZaZ\h_l
LhaZieZq_ldZd
Kihcfg_i_kgxdZd
Yihfgxqm^gh_f]gh\_gv_
I_j_^hfghcy\beZkvlu
DZd
Ex[h\vb^jm`_kl\h^h\Zk
>hc^mlkd\havfjZqgu_aZl\hju
DZd
AZg_\_klhxk\h_c
Dhjhe_\bq?ebk_c
F_`^ml_fihk\_lmkdZq_l
G_ldZd
B\ibekydhfZjdZdjZa
:KImrdbg
Ijbe_]\a^j_fgmlvymeZn_lZ
Bkeurgh[ueh^hjZkk\_lZ
DZd
Qmlvmljhhk\_lbehimrdb
Be_kZkbgb_\_jomrdb
NjZgpmaulmldZd
Mfj_fl_`_ih^Fhkd\hc
DZd
FXE_jfhglh\
Fhcklboljm^hf]jhfZ^me_lijhj\_l
by\blky\_khfh]jm[hajbfh
dZd
<FZydh\kdbc
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u9
212
213
ImgdlmZpbygZdhgqbd_i_jZ
<uijhrebg_e_]dbcimlvkd\hav]mklu_aZjhkebagZdh\ij_ibgZgbyDdhgpmwlh]h
imlbagZdbm`_^he`guijbjZklbddhgqbdm\Zr_]hi_jZIhy\behkvebm\Zkqm\kl\h
imgdlmZpbhgghcm\_j_gghklb"BkiulZcl_k_[y
22. Ij_^eZ]Z_f \Zf aZ^Zgb_ \k_]h ba lj_o ij_^eh`_gbc Hgh ih\ur_gghc ljm^ghklb
AgZdb \ l_dklZo jZkklZ\e_gu Ijh^_eZcl_ k wlbfb ij_^eh`_gbyfb ke_^mxsmx
jZ[hlm jZkkdZ`bl_dZdb_imgdlmZpbhggu_ijZ\beZ\gbokijylZebkv ^eywlh]h
khkqblZcl_ kdhevdh qZkl_c \ dZ`^hf ij_^eh`_gbb b hij_^_ebl_ q_f hgb
kh_^bg_gu hij_^_ebl_ hkeh`g_gu eb qZklb b _keb ^Z lh dZd ihijhkbl_
ijh^bdlh\Zlv\Zfwlbij_^eh`_gbyaZibrbl_bobijh\_jvl_k_[yihdgb`d_
G_fgh]bffh`_l[ulvba\_klgh
Qlh^mo_]hg_mdjhlbf
QlhjZ^bq_klghb[_kq_klgh
<j_^blvhgg_^jm]Zfk\hbf
Qlhgb_^bghchgh[b^u
Kl_oihjdZd`b\g_aZ[u\Ze
Qlh^Ze_dhij_klmigu\b^u
KlZjbdgZ^f_ggucijhklbjZe
Qlhhgg_\_^Z_lk\ylugb
Qlhhgg_ihfgbl[eZ]hklugb
Qlhhgg_ex[blgbq_]h
Qlhdjh\v]hlh\hgeblvdZd\h^m
Qlhij_abjZ_lhgk\h[h^m
Qlhg_lhlqbagu^eyg_]h
:KImrdbg
Dh]^Z\hegm_lky`_el_xsZygb\Z
Bk\_`bce_krmfblijba\md_\_l_jdZ
Bijyq_lky\kZ^mfZebgh\Zykeb\Z
Ih^l_gvxkeZ^hklghca_e_gh]hebkldZ
Dh]^Zjhkhch[jua]Zgguc^mrbklhc
Jmfyguf\_q_jhfbevmljZ\qZkaeZlhc
Baih^dmklZfg_eZg^urk_j_[jbkluc
Ijb\_leb\hdb\Z_l]heh\hc
Dh]^Zklm^_gucdexqb]jZ_lihh\jZ]m
Bih]jm`Zyfukev\dZdhclhqm^guckhg
E_i_q_lfg_lZbgkl\_ggmxkZ]m
IjhfbjgucdjZchldm^Zfqblkyhg²
Lh]^Zkfbjy_lky^mrbfh_clj_\h]Z
Lh]^ZjZkoh^ylkyfhjsbgugZq_e_
BkqZklv_yfh]mihklb]gmlvgZa_fe_
B\g_[_kZoy\b`m;h]Z
FXE_jfhglh\
214
H_keblukihdh_gg_jZkl_jyg
Dh]^Zl_jyxl]heh\u\hdjm]
B_kebluk_[_hklZeky\_j_g
Dh]^Z\l_[yg_\_jblemqrbc^jm]
B_keb`^Zlvmf__rv[_a\heg_gvy
G_klZg_rveh`vxhl\_qZlvgZeh`v
G_[m^_rvaeh[_gklZ\^ey\k_ofbr_gvx
Ghbk\ylufk_[yg_gZah\_rv
B_kebluk\h_c\eZ^__rvkljZklvx
:g_lh[hx\eZkl\m_lhgZ
B[m^_rvl\_j^\m^Zq_b\g_kqZklv_
Dhlhjuf\kmsghklbp_gZh^gZ
B_keblu]hlh\dlhfmqlhkeh\h
L\h_\eh\mrdmij_\jZsZ_lieml
Bihl_ji_\djmr_gv_fh`_rvkgh\Z
;_aij_`gbokbe\hah[gh\blvk\hcljm^
B_keblukihkh[_g\k_qlhklZeh
L_[_ijb\uqguf\ueh`blvgZklhe
<k_ijhb]jZlvb\gh\vgZqZlvkgZqZeZ
G_ih`Ze_\lh]hqlhijbh[j_e
B_kebfh`_rvk_j^p_g_j\u`beu
LZdaZ\_klbqlh[u\i_j_^g_klbkv
Dh]^Zk]h^Zfbbaf_gyxlkbeu
Blhevdh\hey]h\hjbl^_j`bkv
B_keb[m^_rvf_jblvjZkklhygv_
K_dmg^ZfbimkdZykv\^Zevgbc[_]
A_fey²l\h_fhcfZevqbd^hklhygv_
B[he__lh]hlu²q_eh\_d
JDbiebg]i_jKYFZjrZdZ
Ijh\_jvl_k_[yihhl\_lZf\dhgp_]eZ\u9
?keb \u [eZ]hihemqgh kijZ\bebkv k wlbf aZ^Zgb_f \u fh`_l_ iha^jZ\blv k_[y
\Zrb mkbeby g_ ijhiZeb ^Zjhf ?keb _s_ g_ \k_ ohjhrh hij_^_ebl_ dZdb_
imgdlmZpbhggu_l_fu\ug_^hlygmebbijhjZ[hlZcl_bokgh\Z
@_eZ_fmki_oZ
Hl\_lu
1. 1.YgZ[ex^ZehlqZeb\Z_liZjhoh^ 2.<^hogh\_gb_[uehdZdi_j\Zyex[h\v
2. 1. ...,qlh ...,Z ... . 3. ...,dZd ... . 4. ...,dZd ... . 6. ...,ihke_ ...? 7. ..., Z ... . 8. ...,dZd ... .
9. ...dZd ...,gh ... . 10. ....qlh ...,dZ`^uc ... . 11. ..., dZd ...\_^vfZhqmlbeky ...,]^_ ... .
215
Keh`gu_ij_^eh`_gbykkhxahf
dZd
3, 4, 6, 8
Bf_ggZyqZklvkdZam_fh]hkkhxahfdZd
1, 2, 5, 7, 9, 10
Ko_f_khhl\_lkl\m_lij_^eh`_gb_ 1.
3. 1. ....dZd ...mq_guf ... . 2. ...,lZdb ... . 3. ...,dZd ...,qlh[u ... . 4. ...,dZd ...kA_feb
... . 5. ...,h[hjm^h\Zggh_\k_fqlh ...,lZdb ... . 6. ...,b ...,dZd ...\_ljZ ... . 7. ...,lZdb ... .
8. ...lZd ...,qlh[u ... . 9. ..., hibku\ZydZd ...q_eh\_d:jbklhl_ev ...,qlh ... . 10. ...,lZd
b ... . 11. ... g_[ueh^hfbrdblZdb ... . 12. ...,lZdb ... .13. ...,dZd ...mq_gu_ ... .
Ij_^eh`_gbyk^\hcgufkhxahfdZd ...lZdb 2, 5, 7, 10, 11, 12.
Ko_f_khhl\_lkl\m_lij_^eh`_gb_ 8.
4. 1. ...,lZdb ... . 2. ...,lZdb ... . 3. ...,dZd ...,qlh ...yaudhf ... . 4. ...,lZdb ... . 5. ...,
lZdb ... .
5. 1. ...,dZd ... . 2. ...,`fmjy ...]eZaklZe ...,gh ... . 3. ...^g_c ... , 4. ...,dZd^he]\_ebl
\^hfm ...bklZjmo_b ... . 5. ...]ebgu ... . 6. ...ihwabx ... . 7. ...,aZlj_sZeb ...af_b ... .
8. ...,lZd ... . 9. ...djZy ... 10. ...imklugx ... . 11. ...,b_a^h\u_ ...,lZddZd ... .
Keh`gu_
ij_^eh`_gbyqZklb
dhlhjuokh_^bg_gu
khxahfdZd
1, 4
Ij_^eh`_gbykhkeh`guf
khxahf\dexqZxsbfdZd\
keh`ghfij_^eh`_gbb
Ij_^eh`_gby\dhlhjuo
dZdlhevdhkj_^kl\h
\ujZabl_evghklbj_qb
3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11
2, 7
6. 1. ...,dhlhjZy ... . 2. ...,qlh ...,ij_^hojZgyxs__ ... .Mq_gu_ .... qlh ... . 3. ...,dZd ...,
lml`_ ... . 4. ...,Wfbev ...,gZh[hjhlhgqlh[u ... . 6. ...mfZ ... . 8. ...,Imrdbg ....gh ...
. 10. ...e_dlhj ... . 11. ... ,\hNjZgpbb ... .
Ijbeh`_gbykhagZq_gb_f\
dZq_kl\_
1,2,5,7,9,11
Ijbeh`_gbykhagZq_gb_fijbqbgu
3,4,6,8,10
Ij_^eh`_gb_khhl\_lkl\mxs__ko_f_ 4.
7. 1. ...\j_f_gb ... . 2. ...,b ...,qlh ...,dZd ...>_lkl\hLzfu=bfgZabklu ... . 4. ...,
_]h ... . =eZ\gh_ ... — wlh ... . Ih`Zemc gbdlh ... <hklhdZ h lmg]mkZo ]beydZo
gZgZcpZo ...l_iehlhcdZd ... . 5. ....qlhdjhf_ ...,dZdA_feyXibl_jFZjk<_g_jZ
kms_kl\mxl ....qlh ... . 6. ...,gbqlh ...,dZd ...keh\ —keh\ ... .
G_lijbeh`_gbc\ij_^eh`_gbb 4 (<_kvdjZc ... ; =eZ\gh_ ...).
Ko_f_khhl\_lkl\m_lij_^eh`_gb_ 2.
216
8. 1. ..., dhlhju_ fu m\b^_eb .... [ueb ... , dZd ... . 2. ..., dZd ... . 3. ..., dZd ... W]ev
ba\_klguc ...,e_]_g^ij_^Zgbc ... . 4.AgZc`_[eZ]hkeh\_gg_crbc ...,qlh ...,dZd ...,lh
_klv ... . 5. ...,dZd ...?
9. 1. ...,b^_\bpZr_fZoZgkdZypZjbpZ\ky ...,dZdaZjy ... . 2. ...,dgyav ...! ...,dZd ...?
3. ...,b ...,dZd ... . 4. ...,i_qZevgZfheqZeb\ZdZd ...[hyaeb\Z ... . 5. ...,dZdy ... . 6. ...,
dZd`Zj ... . 7. ...,dZdQZpdbc ... . 8. ...,dZd ...^jmavyfbkk\hbfb ...,em]Zfb ... . 9. ....
djZkgZ ..., dZd ... . 10. ...,dZd ... . 11. ...,dZd ... . 12.GhdZd\bgh ...,q_fklZj_l_f ... .
13. ...,dZd[m^lh ...]jhohlZgv_ ... . 14. ...,dZd`b\u_ ... . 15. ..., dZdhqZjh\ZgZ ... . 16.
...meu[db ... .
Ijbf_ju\dhlhjuokjZ\g_gb_gZoh^blky\k_j_^bg_ij_^eh`_gby1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,
12, 13, 14, 15.
Ijbf_jukhkjZ\g_gbyfb\_ebdZgZfb 3, 9, 10, 16.
10. 1. ...,jZ\gh ...[_kdmevlmjv_ ... . 2. ....qlh ....lZd`_dZd ...,bf_xl ... . 3. ...,keh\gh
dZd ...e_`blHdheh ...,dZd\fy]dhcihkl_eb ... . @_elu ...,dZddh\_j 4. ...,lZd`_dZd
ImrdbgbLxlq_\bfgh]b_^jm]b_`^Ze ... .
11. 2. ...,dZdf_^ ... . 3.Dh]^Z ...,lZ ... . 5. ....dZd ...,dhlhjuf ...,djhf_ ... . 6. ...,lZdhc
`_dZd ... . 7. ...,qlh[u ... . 8. ...ij_djZk_ghg ... . 9. ...,dZd[hc 10.DZdiZoZjv ... . 11.
....jh`^_gguc ... . 12. ...,dZd]jZgvZefZaZ ... .
< ij_^eh`_gbyo 2, 5, 6, 9, 10, 12 khxa dZd ijbkh_^bgy_l kjZ\g_gb_ <
ij_^eh`_gbyo 3, 4, 8, 11khxadZdijbkh_^bgy_lkdZam_fh_<ij_^eh`_gbyo 1, 7khxa
dZdg_b]jZ_lgbdZdhc]jZffZlbq_kdhcjheb
12. 2. ...,dZdbex^b ... . 3. ....dZd ... . 4. ...,qlh ...,]^_ ... . 5. ...,fgh]h]jZggu_dZd
fbjbdZdhg ... . 6. ...,gh ... . 7. ...,dZd ...,lh ... . 8. ...,dhlhjuc ...,dZdhc ...,ohlyih
ijZ\^_]h\hjy ... . 9. ...,\_jhylgh ... . Hg ... h ..., h ..., h ..., h ..., h ... h ^vy\he_ h ...,
dhlhjZy ... . 10.Hg ..., b[h ...,dZd ...mfZ ... .Hg ...y\e_gbyfbfh ...,dZd ... .
Ghf_jZij_^eh`_gbckhkjZ\g_gbyfb 2, 5, 7, 10.
< ij_^eh`_gbyo 1, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9 Hg \hkijbgbfZeky ...) khxa dZd ijbkh_^bgy_l
ijbeh`_gb_khagZq_gb_f\dZq_kl\_
Ko_f_khhl\_lkl\m_lij_^eh`_gb_ 8.
13. 1. ...,dZdZ ... . 2. ...,dZdhldju\Z_lkyysbdb ... ,dZd ... . 3. ...,dh]^Z ....lh ...,dZd
... . 4. ..., dZd m]hev ..., gh ... . HgZ .... dZd imrbgdZ ?_ eZ`_ dZd [m^lh ... . H]g_ggh
djZkgu_ ... kh ^gZ hdZf_g_\r_]h fhjy b lygmebkv ... . GZ^ \k_f ..., dZd [_a^hggZy
ijhiZklv ...g_[hkfbjbZ^Zfb ... .
Ko_f_khhl\_lkl\mxlij_^eh`_gby 1, 2.
14. 1. ...,\hj\mg_dhr_ghfe_`bldZd`b\Zy\p\_lghf ....gZdhku[jhr_gghf
... . A^_kv \u^_eyxlky mlhqgyxs__ h[klhyl_evkl\h f_klZ kjZ\g_gb_ b
jZkijhkljZg_ggh_ hij_^_e_gb_ ihaZ^b hij_^_ey_fh]h keh\Z 2. ..., ]^_ keb\Zeky
rmfylh[gy\rbkv[m^lh^\_k_klju ...Dm
217
ju, ... . <u^_eyxlky ijb^Zlhqgh_ ij_^eh`_gb_ \gmljb ]eZ\gh]h h^bghqgu_
^__ijbqZklby h^ghjh^gu_ qe_gu b kjZ\g_gb_ 3. Hg ..., dZd ... ebgam lZdb_ ..., ba
dhlhjuo ... . <u^_eyxlky kjZ\g_gb_ b ijb^ZlhqgZy qZklv keh`gh]h ij_^eh`_gby
<hh[s_ \k_ \ e_km dZ`^uc ..., dhlhjuc ..., dZd ... ijbgp_kkm fZe_gvdmx ...
djueurdZfb²\k_wlh ...<wlhfijbf_j_h^ghjh^gu_qe_gukh[h[sZxsbfkeh\hf
ijb^Zlhqgh_\gmljb]eZ\gh]hbkjZ\g_gb_ 4. ..., dhlhju_dZd ...mebldZ ...kdhjemim
... . 5. ... =x]hFmaudZ ...,dZd ... .Hg ...,dZd ....dZd ...,qlh ...^h`^yebklvylmqb
e_i_kldbp\_lh\ ...".
15. 1. ...,dZd ...iho\ZeZb ... . 2. ...,lh ...,dZd ... . 3. ...,_kebdZd ... . 4. ...a\_a^ ...
o\hkl ...iZj ... . 5. ...,dZd ...,gh ... . 6. ...,dZd;h`bc^moghkbekybdZd ...\_q_\hc
... . 7. ...fb]dZdaheb^bdy\ba`ZedZdhgdZd[m^lh ....
16. ...klboZf ...jZghqlh ...,qlhyihwlkhj\Z\rbfkydZd ..., dZd ...,\hj\Z\rbfky
dZd ..., ...]^_ ...bnbfbZf ...kf_jlb ...klboZfjZa[jhkZgguf]^_ ...g_[_j_lfhbf
...,dZd ...\bgZf ... .
MZ\lhjZqZklvij_^eh`_gby]^_bogbdlhg_[jZebg_[_j_l\u^_e_gZkdh[dZfb
gh^ey\ZklZdh_\u^_e_gb_g_h[yaZl_evgh
Ko_fZ
17. 1. Ev_l dZd ba \_^jZ 2. DZd kuj \ fZke_
dZlZ_lky 3. K\Zebeky dZd kg_] gZ ]heh\m 4. DZd \
\h^m dZgme dZd kd\hav a_fex ijh\Zebeky dZd
dhjh\Z yaudhf kebagmeZ 5. Kfhljbl dZd [ZjZg gZ
gh\u_ \hjhlZ 6. ?fm \k_ dZd h[ kl_gdm ]hjho 7.
@b\ml dZd dhrdZ k kh[Zdhc 8. G_f dZd ju[Z
10.Ex[bldZdkh[ZdZiZedm
fheqbldZd\jhl\h^ugZ[jZe9.=hedZdkhdhe
18. 1.DZdjmdhckgyeh 2.DZdgZeZ^hgb 3.DZdk\hbiylviZevp_\ 4.DZdh[kl_gdm
]hjho 5.DZdjZd 6.DZd^\_dZieb\h^u 7.DZd[ZjZggZgh\u_\hjhlZ 8.DZd\\h^m
dZgmedZdkd\hava_fexijh\Zebeky 9.DZdk\bgvy\Zi_evkbgZo
19. 1. >h`^v ebe dZd ba \_^jZ 2. ... fZevqbrdZ ... kb^_e dZd gZ b]hedZo 3. Kdhjh
^_eh ...bihrehdZdihfZkem 4.=hklbk\Zebebkv\^hf
218
dZd kg_] gZ ]heh\m 5. FZevqbrdZ fheqZe dZd \ jhl \h^u gZ[jZe 6. K dhehdhevgb
]hjh^[ue\b^_gdZdgZeZ^hgb 7.YagZeZj[Zlkdb_i_j_medbdZdk\hbiylviZevp_\
8. Hg [beky gZ^ ljm^ghc aZ^Zq_c dZd ju[Z h[ e_^ 9. Wlhl q_eh\_d \k_]^Z \j_l dZd
kb\ucf_jbg 10.Mk_[y\h^\hj_FbrdZ[uedZdju[Z\\h^_
20. 1. ...ih\ur_hgb ...,dhlhjh_ ... . 2. ...iZevpZfbb\f_klh ..., ih ... ,ihoh`bogZ
agZf_gblh]hnhdmkgbdZdZd ... .Ijh[_`Z\ ...djm]h\hgb ...,dZd ...dZiexfgh]h ... . 3.
...,qlh[u ..., dhlhjZy kb^_eZ dZd ... . 4. ... \ ]hjeh kemrZe ... b ... lhqv\lhqv dZd ... .
Wfbevkb^_e\aZi_jlhfkZjZ_aehcdZd ... .Hg[ueh^bgdZdi_jklB\^jm]i_lmomiZe
dZdih^dhr_ggucKlhbeh_fmqmlvqmlvih^gylvkydZdhglml`_\Zebeky]heh\hc ...
.G_dhlhjh_ ...,Z ...djuevyfbaZdmdZj_dZebdZdihehmfguc ... .WfbevagZeqlh ...,Z
...,dZd ... .
Ko_f_khhl\_lkl\m_lij_^eh`_gb_ 4 (WfbevagZe ... ).
21. 1. ...,ihke_lh]hdZd ... 2. ...,lZddZd ... 3.Fhj_[uehdZd ... 4. ...,dZd ... 5, 7, 9 —
g_gZ^haZiyluoi_j_^dZd 6. ... ,dZd ... 8. ...,dZd ... 10.LhdZda\_jvhgZ ...,lh ...,dZd
... 11. ...,dZd ... 12. ...,dZd ... 13. ...,dZd ... 14, 15, 17—g_laZiyluo 16. ...meZn_lZb ...,
dZd ... 18. ...,dZd ... 19. ...\_khfh]jm[hajbfhdZd ...
22. 1. 11qZkl_c 2. 10qZkl_c 3. 21qZklv
219
H]eZ\e_gb_
DqblZl_eyf«……………………………….... 3
Iho\Zevgh_keh\hagZdZfij_ibgZgby«………….... 4
=eZ\Z,Ohly©imlvb^Ze_db^heh]ª......…………. 10
IjZ\beh²kZfhbgkljmdpby²lj_gbjh\dZ«………....—
©Ij_^qm\kl\b_ªagZdZij_ibgZgby«……………...... 13
IZfylvb]jZfhlghklv«………………………. 15
;ehdb«……………………………………......... 16
=jZfhlghklvgZ©dhgqbd_i_jZª«………………....... 18
=eZ\Z,,KZfu_e_]db_agZdbij_ibgZgby………..... 21
Fukebqm\kl\ZbagZdb ...........…………………………...—
AgZdihegucaZ]Z^hd«……………………….......……24
;_kihdhcgucagZd«…………………………........... 28
IhklZ\bflhqdm«……………………………............ 35
=eZ\Z,,,GZq_f^_j`blkyij_^eh`_gb_...………..... 37
<ihbkdZo]jZffZlbq_kdhchkgh\u .....…………………...—
Fgh`_kl\hh[ebqbcih^e_`Zs_]h«………………....... 42
G_[hevrh_hlklmie_gb_\aZsblmriZj]Zehd«……..... 45
<fbj_kdZam_fuo«……………………………..... 47
FZe_gvdZyih\_klvhkh\k_ffZe_gvdhf]eZ]he_
[ulvdhlhjuc[u\Z_lg_ihoh`gZkZfh]hk_[y«…..... 60
©EmdZ\u_ªqe_guij_^eh`_gby«………………...... 66
GZg_ihgylghfyaud_«………………………....... 70
=eZ\Z,9Lbj_\gmljbij_^eh`_gby.....…………...... 72
F_`^mih^e_`ZsbfbkdZam_fuf ......……………….......—
:_kebkdZam_fh_ijhiZeh«…………………….... 79
=eZ\Z9©B]jZffZlbdZimklbeZkv
kZjbnf_lbdhcieykZlvª......………………………........ 83
KbglZdkbq_kdbckq_l ........……………………………....... —
?kebih^e_`Zs__bebkdZam_fh_g_hldebdgmehkv«…. 88
KbglZdkbq_kdb_©dZjebdbª«…………………….…107
KbglZdkbq_kdb_©\_ebdZguª«…………………......….111
©=jZgbpZªb©ih]jZgbqgbdbª\ij_^eh`_gbb«…….….114
©=mkbªb©fZlj_rdbª«………………………..….123
©Kd_e_lªij_^eh`_gby«………………………....….134
Kl_q_gb_khxah\«…………………………….....….140
©Kh[jZeZkvdhfiZgbyagZdh\ij_ibgZgbyª«………....…144
=eZ\Z9,I_j_^©hiZkgufbªkhxaZfbbeb
JZkkdZauhaZ]Z^hqghcaZiylhc«…………………147
=jZffZlbdZgZ^\h_kdZaZeZ .........………………………......—
Dh]^Zij_^eh`_gb_keh`gh_«…………………..…148
Dh]^Zij_^eh`_gb_ijhklh_«…………………….....….153
©Ihki_rZcf_^e_gghª«………………………….163
?kebjy^hfk©hiZkgufªkhxahf
klhbl^jm]hckhxa«…………………………..168
H]eZ\e_gb_
<\_^_gb_««««««
H]eyg_fkygZijhc^_ggucimlv«««««««
?s_jZah[ehdZo««««««
Hl\_lu......................................................................................................……………..10
=eZ\Z,H^ghjh^gu_qe_guij_^eh`_gby«««««««««
HaZiyluoijbh^ghjh^guoqe_gZo«««««««
JZkkdZafh`ghgZqZlvlZd«««««««
Khqbgbl_evgu_khxau««««««
Jy^uh^ghjh^guoqe_gh\«««««««
Kd_e_lbdbh^ghjh^guoqe_gh\«««««««
<hlwlh^Z HaZiylhci_j_^khxahf^Z ....................................…………………….20
;Z[mrdZgZ^\h_kdZaZeZ
HaZiylhci_j_^khxahfbeb\ijhklhfij_^eh`_gbb ««««««««««
>\mebdh_keh\hh^gZdh....................................................................………………...23
H[h[sZxsb_keh\Zijbh^ghjh^guoqe_gZo««««««««
Hl\_lu......................................................................................................……………...33
=eZ\Z,,H[hkh[e_ggu_qe_guij_^eh`_gby«««««««««
AZq_fgZfh[hjhlu"««««««
Iha^hjh\Z_fkyk^__ijbqZklbyfb«««««««
H[hkh[e_ggh_h[klhyl_evkl\h
\ujZ`_ggh_^__ijbqZklguf
h[hjhlhf««««««««««««««««««««
>h[Z\hqgu_kdZam_fu_²h[klhyl_evkl\Z
\ujZ`_ggu_^__ijbqZklbyfbb^__ijbqZklgufbh[hjhlZfb
kaZiylufbb[_agbo««««««
H^bghqgu_^__ijbqZklby[_aaZiyluo««««««««
Kfhljbf\i_j_^««««««
Ki_pbZevgucjZa]h\hjhljm^guokemqZyo««««««««
Ghk\ulZsbrv²o\hklm\ya«««««««
<kZfhfh[s_f\b^_««««««
Ljb\b^Zhij_^_e_gbc««««««
Dh]^Zhij_^_e_gbyh[hkh[eyxlky«««««««
Hij_^_e_gbyk^h[Z\hqgufbagZq_gbyfb««««««««
Hij_^_eyfh_keh\hagZck\h_f_klh«««««««
?s_jZahlhfqlhghk\ulZsbrvo\hklm\ya««««««««
QlhlZdh_ijbeh`_gb_"«««««««
H[yaZl_evgh_lbj_««««««
Lbj_g_h[yaZl_evghgh\u]ey^blohjhrh««««««««
Kkh[kl\_ggufbf_g_f««««««
Ijbeh`_gbyk^h[Z\hqgufbagZq_gbyfb««««««««
Kihfhsvx^jm]bokeh\««««««
H^bghqgu_ijbeh`_gbyij_h^he_\rb_h^bghq_kl\h«««««««««
AZdZ\uq_ggu_ijbeh`_gby«««««««
:[he__lhqgh"
JZa]h\hjh[mlhqgyxsboh[klhyl_evkl\Zo ««««««««
Fulh`_ohlbfh[hkh[eylvky
H[hkh[e_ggu_\lhjhkl_i_ggu_qe_gukij_^eh]Zfb ««««««««
Hl\_lu....................................................................................................……………....91
220
=eZ\Z,,,H^\h_lhqbyolbj_[_kkhxaguoij_^eh`_gbyo
bijyfhcj_qb«««««««
AZq_fbah[j_eb^\h_lhqb_"««««««««
>\h_lhqb_\[_kkhxaghfkeh`ghfij_^eh`_gbb««««««««
IjyfZyj_qvk^\h_lhqb_f«««««««
Fgh]hh[jZab_keh\kb]gZeh\bbof_klh««««««««
BglhgZpbydhgpZij_^eh`_gby\ijyfhcj_qb«««««««««
G_kdhevdhbklhjbcba`bagblbj_««««««««
Lbj_\[_kkhxaguoij_^eh`_gbyo«««««««
<ke_^aZijyfhcj_qvx««««««««
Dh]^Zkeh\ZZ\lhjZ\gmljbijyfhcj_qb
h^gh]hlbj_fZeh«««««««
IjyfZyj_qv\hdjm`_gbbZ\lhjkdbokeh\««««««««
LjZ]_^bb^bZeh]Z««««««
DZd_s_i_j_^Zlvqm`mxj_qv«««««««
Hl\_lu..............................................................................................………………….146
=eZ\Z,9Keh\Z]jZffZlbq_kdbg_k\yaZggu_kij_^eh`_gb_f««««««««««
DZdb_wlhqe_guij_^eh`_gby"«««««««
H[jZs_gby«««««««
Ih]h\hjbfhf_klhbf_gbyolub\u...........................................……………………160
<\h^gu_keh\Z«««««««««««««««««««
M\_j_gghklvbg_m\_j_gghklv«««««««
G_jZ\gh^mrgu_keh\Z«««««««
BklhqgbdbgnhjfZpbb«««««««
IhkemrZcl_««««««
<hi_j\uogZdhg_pb^jm]b_«««««««
Ihijhklm]h\hjy«««««««
?s_h^gZg_[hevrZyijh[e_fZ
aZiylZyijbkeh\_h^gZdh.................................................................…………………174
<\h^gu_ij_^eh`_gby««««««««««««
:obbhob JZa]h\hjhf_`^hf_lbyo «««««««««
>Zbg_l....………………..................…........................................................................182
Hl\_lu..........................……………….........................................................................187
=eZ\Z9AZiylZyi_j_^khxahfdZd ..…………………….......................................................194
HkdZam_fuokkhxahfdZd«««««««
KhxadZdbh^ghjh^gu_qe_gu««««««««««
G_dhlhju_keh`ghklbkhkeh`gufij_^eh`_gb_f«««««««««
Ijbeh`_gb_gZ^\h_kdZaZeh«««««««
KjZ\gbl_evgu_h[hjhlu«««««««
KhxadZdbmeu[dbyaudZ
JZa]h\hjhnjZa_heh]bq_kdboh[hjhlZo ««««««««
ImgdlmZpbygZdhiqbd_i_jZ«««««««
Hl\_lu...........................................................................................………………......215
221
Скачать