Практичекая грамматика английского языка(презентация)

Практическая грамматика английского языка
Специальность: современные иностранные языки (1 курс )
Цель данного курса – объяснить ключевые морфологические и
синтаксические особенности грамматического строя
современного английского языка, обеспечить правильность их
понимания и научить студентов правильно применять
грамматические правила при переводе, а также в устной и
письменной английской речи.
Важнейшими задачами курса являются :
- формирование, развитие и совершенствование
грамматических навыков распознания, понимания
грамматических форм и конструкций в опоре на формальные
признаки членов предложения и частей речи;
- формирование и совершенствование навыков употребления
грамматических форм и конструкций в составе
предложения/фразы различных структурных типов, а
- овладение конструкциями, выражающими субъектнопредикатные отношения;
- грамматическими категориями, выражающими действие и
характер его протекания;
- средствами выражения определенности-неопределенности,
единичности-множественности предметов и явлений;
качества предметов, явлений; интенсивности качества;
порядка и количества предметов.
The Noun
• Semantic characteristics: proper, common( concrete,
abstract, material), collective(group, multitude, mass)
• Composition: simple, derived, compound
• Gender: masculine nouns, feminine nouns, neuter nouns,
feminine suffixes, political correctness
• Case: use(personal names, personal nouns, collective nouns,
higher animals, geographical names, newspapers and
institutional names, temporal or distance nouns, nouns of
special interest to human activity, set expressions), types of
the genitive
• Number: regular plurals, irregular plurals, singular
invariables, plural invariables
The Article
• Articles with variable concrete nouns: the indefinite article
(classifying, generic, numerical f-ns), the definite article
(specifying (the situation, the context, the meaning of the
noun, limiting attributes) and generic f-ns))
• Articles with abstract nouns
• Articles with material nouns
• Articles with proper nouns : personal names, geographical
names, calendar items, miscellaneous names
• Articles in some syntactic relations : the subject, an object,
an adverbial modifier, an attribute, a predicative, an apposition
• Articles with some semantic groups of nouns : seasons,
parts of the day, meals, parts of the body, specific periods,
media and communications…
• Leaving out articles: notes, notices, instructions, signs, labels,
double expressions, introductory phrases…
The Adjective
• Semantic Characteristics: qualitative (descriptive and
limiting), relative
• Composition: simple, derived, compound
• Degrees of Comparison: gradable and non-gradable
• Functions of Adjectives: an attribute, a predicative, a part of a
compound verbal predicate, an objective predicative, a
subjective predicative, an adverbial modifier)
• Order of Adjectives
The Numeral
Cardinal: indicate number
Ordinal: indicate order
Dates and Fractions: common, decimal
Functions: functions of nouns and adjectives
The Adverb
• Classification: of time, of frequency, of place and direction, of
manner, of degree, focusing adv., viewpoint adv., attitudinal
adv., conjunctive adverbs
• Forms: formed from other words, not formed from other
words, fixed phrases
• Degrees of Comparison: mostly adverbs of manner
• Syntactic Functions: modify single words, phrases, sentences
• Place of Adverbs: front, mid and final
• Adjectives and Adverbs Compared: coincidence in form,
difference in meaning
The Pronoun
Personal: singular, plural, structural meanings
Possessive: singular, plural, possessives or the definite article
Reflexive: singular, plural, reflexive and emphatic pronouns
Demonstrative: singular, plural, that or it, set expressions
with demonstratives
Indefinite: indefinite pronouns proper, distributive and
quantitative pronouns, compounds
Interrogative: variable and invariable, persons and things
Reciprocal: two persons, more than two persons
Conjunctive: the choice of a pronoun depending on the type
of the subordinate clause, persons and things
The Present Simple Tense
• Formation
• Meaning and Use
• recurrent actions
• general truth and facts, permanent characteristics
• series of actions
• more immediacy or dramatic effect in a past narrative(instead
of the Past Simple)
• a single action at the moment of speaking
• future actions
• exclamatory sentences
The Present Continuous Tense
• Formation
• Meaning and Use
• an action in progress at the moment of speaking or at present
• emotional coloring of someone’s typical actions or traits
(always, constantly)
• emotional coloring
• future actions
The Present Perfect Tense
Meaning and Use
states started in the past and are still continuing in the present
an action happened in the past and may happen in the future
an accomplished action with relevance to the present
news broadcasts and reports to start a story, before moving
into past tenses
• in time clauses for future
• with superlatives
The Present Perfect Continuous Tense
• Formation
• Meaning and Use
• an ongoing action or state began in the past and is still going
on or has just finished
• -to focus on the duration
• -a temporary state or action(may change)
• -to explain a present result
• -emotional coloring
Simple or Continuous
Perfect Simple
Perfect Continuous
repeated actions
permanent situation
focus on present result
duration of action
temporary situation
focus on activity
The Past Simple Tense
Meaning and Use
a single completed action in the past
-an action which occupied a whole period of time and now is
-sequences of actions
-repeated actions or actions which took place at the same time
-states or actions at a given past moment
-future actions viewed from the past
Present Perfect or Past Simple
Present Perfect
unfinished action/state
unfinished time
present relevance
indefinite time
Past Simple
finished action/state
finished time
no present relevance
definite time
The Past Continuous Tense
Meaning and Use
an action going on at a given moment in the past
-an action going on at a given period in the past
-emotional coloring, someone’s typical traits(always,
• -future actions viewed from the past
• Clauses of time with as and while: Past Continuous or Past
The Past Perfect Tense
• Formation
• Meaning and Use
• an action completed before a given past moment and viewed
back from that past moment(a single point action, an action of
some duration and a recurrent action)
• -an action which began before a given past moment and
continued into it or up to it
• -clauses of time(when, before, after, as soon as, till/until,
scarcely…when, hardly…when…)
• -to express unfulfilled past intentions(hope, expect, want,
plan, wish…)
The Past Perfect Continuous Tense
• Formation
• Meaning and Use
• an action which began before a given past moment and
continued into it or up to it
• an action which was in progress just before a given past
moment and it somehow affects the past situation(usually no
time indications)
• Note: full negation – Past Perfect Simple instead of Past
Perfect Continuous
Future Tenses
guesswork, analysis, judgment – Future Simple
evidence in the present – to be going to + infinitive
a (temporary) action in progress at a given moment in the future – Future
an action we predict to be completed by a particular time in the future – Future
Perfect(soon, by then)
Decisions and Intentions
a decision at a time of speaking – Future Simple
an intention which has already been decided on – to be going to
an event( action) in the future which has already been arranged by the time of
speaking – Present Continuous
-an action(event) is a part(result) of an arrangement made in the past – Future
Other Future Meanings(timetables, routine events, smth inevitable, statements of
The Passive Voice
to be + past participle
generally only transitive verbs can be made passive
tenses used in the passive(8 tenses)
Use: reasons to use the Passive
Types of the Passive Constructions: the Direct Passive, the
Indirect Passive, the Prepositional Passive
Passive Patterns: passives with get, passive – ing forms, passive
infinitives, have/get + object + past participle
The Sequence of Tenses
• Definition: absolute and relative use of tense forms
• Meaning and Use : the relative use of tenses is mainly
observed in subordinate object clauses and sometimes in the
clauses of purpose, subjective and objective clauses
• Future- in- the- Past: the Future Simple-in-the-Past, the
Future Continuous-in-the-Past, the Future Perfect-in-the-Past,
the Past Continuous, to be to + infinitive, to be going to +
infinitive, the Past Simple
Reported Speech
• Time and Place Changes. Sequence of Tenses in Reported
• report verbs
• -change of tenses, pronouns, adverbs
• -cases when we do not change tenses
• -questions, commands, requests…
Вопросы к зачету
Основная литература
1. Крылова И. П. Сборник упражнений по грамматике
английского языка: Уч. Пособие для ин-тов и фак. ин.
яз. – 9-е изд.- М: КДУ, 2004. – 432с.
2. Крылова И.П. , Гордон Е. М. Грамматика
современного английского языка: Учебник для ин-тов и
фак. ин. яз.- 8-е изд. – М. : КДУ,2002
3. Morphology. A Selection of English Grammar Exercises;
сост. В. О. Французова. – 3-е изд. доп. и перераб.- Мн.:
«Лексис», 2005
4. Prodromou L. Grammar and Vocabulary for First
Certificate. – Longman, 2000
5. Thomson A.J., Martinet A. V. A Practical English
Grammar. – 3rd ed. – Oxford: «Oxford University Press»,
Выполнила:преп. Л.Н. Пышняк