The Russian language like other languages of the world has a lot of

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Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation
Ministry of General and Professional Education of
Sverdlovsk region
Gymnasium № 202 “Mentalitet”
Direction: Philology
Section: English
ANGLICISMS: HISTORY OF APPEARANCE AND THEIR ROLE IN
THE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE
Done by: Alekseeva Maria, 8 “C” form
Volchkov Daniil, 8 “C” form
Directed by:
Demeneva Tatyana Alexandrovna,
English teacher
Yekaterinburg, 2012
1
Contents
Introduction…………………………………………………………..…...4-5
Chapter 1. Anglicisms and borrowings………………………………….…..6
Chapter 2.History of anglicisms’ penetration into the Russian language7- 11
2.1. Start…………………………………………………….……………….7
2.2. Epoch of Peter I…………………………………………………..........8
2.3. After Peter. I…………………………………………………………….8
2.4. XVIII-XIX centuries……………………………………...............……9
2.5. XX century…………………………………...………………….…10-11
2.6. XX century, 90s……………………………………………….……….11
Chapter 3. Principal reasons of borrowings and their signs……………12-13
Chapter 4. Kinds and groups of borrowings…………………………...14-17
Chapter 5. Results of research……………………..……………………18-20
Conclusion………………………………………………………………21-22
List of used literature……….…………………………………….………..23
Appendix 1………………………………………………………….…..24-26
Appendix 2……………………………………………………….…..…27-34
2
Appendix 3……………………………………………………………..35-37
3
INTRODUCTION
The Russian language like other languages of the world has a lot of
foreign-language expressions and words, which are used without translation
keeping their script and orthography of the language-source. Many of these
words are international. The development of the Russian literary language
has always been connected with the main European languages, their culture
and civilization. Because of this fact there was replenishment of the lexicon
of the Russian language.
Borrowings are the natural and necessary process of language
development. The process of borrowing foreign words is associated with the
history of interaction between the peoples. Thus the process of borrowing
words by a language from another language has its own story which is
interesting to learn. I’m very fond of learning foreign languages. That’s why
I decided to know more about English, its history and connection with my
native language.
English is the most popular language in the world. It is an international
language, the language of business, tourism, and 80% of information on the
internet is in English. Now, the Russian language is characterized by
borrowing a large number of English and American words. The interest to
this theme is very high.
The problem of our report: we use Anglicisms in our daily life, but we
don’t know that they are anglicisms and most of all how and when they
appeared in the Russian language.
The purpose of our work is to learn when and how Anglicisms
penetrated into Russian, in what fields of people`s activity we use
4
Anglicisms in our Russian language, as well as to reveal the meaning of
these words.
The main tasks are:
1. To learn what the word «Anglicism» means;
2. To study the stages of penetration of Anglicisms into Russian;
3. To identify signs and ways of Anglicisms in the modern Russian
language;
4. To examine the kinds, the groups and the reasons of borrowings
Anglicisms.
5. To determine the basis of spheres of human activity in which there
are borrowings;
6. To explain the meaning of the most commonly used borrowings;
7. To carry out a survey on the use of social Anglicisms, their influence
on the Russian language.
The object of our study is Anglicisms in Russian.
The subjects are the English and Russian Languages.
The hypothesis: Anglicisms have started to penetrate into the Russian
language since the ancient times and they are commonly used nowadays.
5
CHAPTER 1. ANGLICISMS AND BORROWINGS
We have to distinguish two different definitions: anglicisms and
borrowings.
1.1. Anglicisms
Modern Dictionary of the Russian language gives the following
definition: “Anglicisms are words, expressions borrowed from the English
language or figures of speech built on the model, typical for the English
language”. Dictionaries of Ozhegov and Ushakov call anglicisms like
“speaking models of English”.
1.2. Borrowings
Borrowing as a process is typical for every speech and inalienable to
lexical structure of English in particular. This theme is always important and
actual; it has enough material for consideration and for study.
Borrowing is copying of a word or a phrase from one language into
another. Borrowing is also the borrowed word. Borrowing in languages is
one of the most important factors in their development. Depending on the
language, from which the word was borrowed, such words are called
«Anglicisms», «Arabisms», «Germanisms» and others. In our project we are
interested in anglicisms.
6
CHAPTER 2. HISTORY OF ANGLICISMS’ PENETRATION INTO
THE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE
2.1. Start
The history of the study of contacts of different languages and
borrowings has deep roots.
The beginning of the direct approach of the British and Russian
languages was in the 16th century. According to one source it was in 1505,
according to others it was in 1553, when the first ships of the English King
Edward VI came into the port St. Nicolai in the mouth of the Northern
Dvina. This ship was sent from London in order to search for the northeastern way to India. The captain of the only survived ship expedition,
Richard Spenser, was graciously received by Ivan IV, the tsar of Muscovy.
Other sources say that after the death of people of that expedition in the
White sea, Richard Chancellor brought survivors to Moscow, where they
were received by Ivan the Terrible.
England’s interest in trade with Russia was great: English people looked
for markets. Since then Russia and England have had regular and strong
relationships - politic and diplomatic. At that time, in different reports, they
could find such words as SIR, LORD, MISTER and other words describing
activity of ambassadors.
7
2.2. Epoch of Peter I
The epoch of Peter I is the period of strong and effective relationships
with almost all European countries, the time of the spread of education,
culture, the development of sea and military affairs. The study of foreign
languages has a great importance, Russian people travel more abroad. The
famous visit of Peter the Great to London in 1698 opened a new chapter in
diplomatic, cultural and economic spheres.
He brought some mathematicians, engineers, craftsmen to Russia. Many
Russian ambassadors, who lived in England for a long time, knew English
well and they were very much interested in English literature. 3000 foreign
words penetrated into the Russian language at that time but there were only
5% of English words in it. Most of the words were related to the
development of marine, trade, the names, titles or posts, some British things
and regalia.
Everyday life vocabulary: for example, chocolate although this word is
of Spanish origin. In the notes to the satyrs by Cantemir: «Шоколадъ есть
составъ их орƀха, какао называемый, который растётъ въ Индияхъ
западныхъ…»
2.3. After Peter I
Commercial relations strengthened after the trade agreement in 1736,
Russia and Great Britain fought shoulder to shoulder almost during all the
Seven Years' War. However, during the American War of Independence the
former allies fought against each other: The Great Ekaterina led the policy of
armed neutrality. At that time the word “минитмен” (minute-man)
appeared.
8
2.4. XVIII-XIX centuries
The end of the XVIII century and the beginning of the XIX century in
Russia can be identified as the period of «Anglomania».
Throughout the XVIII century there could be observed the further
penetration of the words from English into Russian.
In the XIX century the newly formed, independent from England state
(the United States of America) came onto the stage of history. This is a new
influx of English words into the Russian language. It is known, for example,
that in Russia in the XIX century there were a lot of intelligent people who
knew written and spoken English language. Famous Russian writers, poets
and critics loved and knew English:
they were A.S. Pushkin, V.А.
Gukovskiy, М.Y. Lermontov, А.S. Griboyedov, I.S. Turgenev, L.N. Tolstoy.
By 1860-1870s in Russia there was introduced the teaching of German,
French and English, which replaced the ancient languages (Latin and Greek).
«Station» appeared in the eighteenth century. Some lady Jane Vo turned
her house on the bank of the River Thames near London into the place for
fun and built a pavilion called «Vauxhall» - the hall of Ms. Vo. Later other
places of entertainment with gardens were called so. In the end of the ХIХ
century «Vauxhall» meant the concert hall at the railway station. Such a hall
in Pavlovsk near St. Petersburg was called “вокзал”. When the railway from
St. Petersburg to Pavlovsk was built , the terminal station got the name
“Вокзал”. Later other railway stations of Russia were named so.
9
2.5. XX century
The XX century is characterized by different ways of anglicisms’
penetration into Russian. It was due to deep relationships between Russia
and England, Russia and America. A lot of contacts in different areas of life
were established (in art, edition of English, American and Australian
literature).
The greatest number of borrowed words is presented in following
thematic groups - science and technology, politics, the state system, history,
literature, art, religion, and sports. The household vocabularies, marine and
military affairs, posts, institutions, finance, engineering units, commercial
nomenclature have a lot of anglicisms, too.
In 1933 The Roosevelt government established diplomatic relations with
the USSR. Then there began the exchange of workers between the two
countries. For example, between Ford`s American car factory and Nizhny
Novgorod’s car factory. As a result, in Russian language there were British
borrowings.
One of the most important stages of Anglicisms’ penetration into the
Russian language in the 20th century were the years of formation of the
anti-Hitler coalition - the union of the USSR, the USA, Great Britain,
France, China, Yugoslavia, Poland, Czechoslovakia and other countries
which were united during the 2nd World War against the aggressive bloc of
Germany, Italy and Japan. The key figures of the coalition were Joseph
Vissarionovich Stalin (1878 - 1953), the Supreme Commander of the Armed
Forces of the USSR, Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill (1874 - 1965), the
British Prime Minister, Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882 - 1945), the 32nd
President of the United States.
10
After 1945, the end of the war, in the schools of the USSR the most
popular language to learn was English.
At the same time in the USSR there emerged young subculture –
«Hipsters», which was pervasive in large Soviet cities from the late forties to
the early sixties. Hipsters proclaimed American and European way of life as
a standard. As a result of their communication new Anglicisms appeared in
the Russian language.
After hipsters, the British band “The Beatles” had a big influence on
penetration of English words into the Russian language. While listening to
the songs of the group, Russian speakers fell in love with English and used
Anglicisms.
2.6. XX century, 90s
The influx of borrowings into the Russian language from English (or
American English) particularly increased in 1990s (before that it was a
minor). It is due to changes in political, economic, cultural and moral
orientation of society. There is an unprecedented borrowing of foreign
vocabulary in all areas. It took the leading position in the political life of the
country having new concepts: image, public relations, etc. Foreign language
terms became dominant in the most advanced fields of science and
technology: the display, file, player, scanner, etc. In the financial and
commercial activity there are words- business, auditor, etc. In the cultural
sphere we can find the words bestsellers, thrillers, hits, pop and others. This
led to the fight with borrowing. In newspapers and magazines there were
published discussions about the use of foreign words.
Contemporary historical situation is favorable for the development of
contacts with foreign countries, and linguistically it has caused the
increasing of borrowed words.
11
CHAPTER 3. PRINCIPAL REASONS OF BORROWINGS AND
THEIR SIGNS
The principal causes of borrowings are:
1. English is in fashion.
Fashion for English is one of the main reasons for appearance of
anglicisms in Russian speech. For example, even with Russian
equivalents we use recycling, bodybuilding, trend, spray.
People including these words in their speech demonstrate their
prestige and high status.
2. The appearance of new concepts.
The appearance of anglicisms in the Russian language is largely due to
the emergence of new concepts, goods, services, analogues of which we
have not. However, they have become part of daily life: badge, laptop, tuner.
3. Loss words.
Sometimes there is the Loss of Russian words. Some of the words that
came from English are easier to pronounce. Their etymology is more
transparent: price list, image, top model.
4. The effect of speech or phrases
Many film directors and writers use English words to name their films
or books in order to make them more expressive (“Богиня прайм-тайма”).
5. Advertisement built on the use of English words
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Many people believe that foreign technology is more prestigious,
progressive and qualitative. And advertisement built on the use of English
words is to create a positive attitude to the goods.
6. Historical contacts of peoples.
7. When the word - borrowing replaces the whole descriptive expression
(e.g. “a motel” instead of “a hotel for tourists travelling by car”;
“freestyle” is “a figure skating on skis”).
8. When it is necessary to work out in details some idea(e.g.” jam”- a
kind of a special sweet preserves “varenie”).
9. There are borrowing words which are fixed in the language and they
are similar by the structure (e.g. “gentleman”, “policeman”,
“sportsman”, “businessman”).
The signs of borrowings:
 The final combinations ING, MEN, ER (meeting, briefing, supermen,
timer)
 The presence of combinations TCH, DG (match, joker)
 Soft sign (security)
 Letters Э/E (realtor, poster)
 Consonants and vowels which can’t be checked (second- hand)
So the word is assimilated:
- In a graphic way
- In a phonetic way
- In a grammar way
- In a lexical way
13
CHAPTER 4. KINDS AND GROUPS OF BORROWINGS
2.1. Direct loans
Words that are formed in this way are similar to native Russian words ,
and many of them are very difficult to distinguish from the words of our
language. Some are so accustomed to borrowing language that only a careful
study can establish that they once were borrowed from English. (For
example: cake, stand, club, sports, etc.).
2.2. Hybrids
A borrowed word is rarely cultivated by the Russian language in the
form in which it existed in the source language. The differences in the sound
system between Russian and a foreign language led to the modification of
the word, its adaptation to the Russian phonetic rules; some sounds which
are not typical to Russian language disappeared.( For example: spinning,
pudding, shilling, a hacker, a bank, etc.).
2.3. Tracing
Tracing can be considered as a way of borrowing, and as a way of word
derivation. There are different ways of tracing: vocabulary, word formation,
phrasal, semantic, and others.
Lexical tracing results from literal Russian translation of foreign words
in parts. For example (sky-scraper in the Russian language is tracing of a
skyscraper).
14
Semantic calques are the terms, which are also inhereted in the Russian
lexical system of values, get new values under the influence of another
language. For example (picture is a painting, a show, under the influence of
English was also used in the meaning of the movie). So,the English word
picture has a lot of meanings: painting, drawing, portrait, shooting frame).
Now Russian can observe the formation of new words using the new
method, as in English: shopping + centre, post + card. These words are built
by the addition of two roots in which one is the main and the second is the
quality of the first (for example: Express Cafe (quick cafe), Business
Woman, a yacht club, and a reality TV show).
But not by the addition of two different words, such as sofa beds, a schoolboarding apartment museum, restaurant car.
2.4. Exotic words
Besides lexical borrowings in fiction, newspapers and other texts (as
well as in speech) there are words that have something strange and exotic in
their meaning which is not Russian, not peculiar to Russian life. These are
exotic words (ekzotizmy). They are used to give local colour in the
description of other customs and traditions to the speech. For example (sir,
Mr., Lord, lunch, etc.). And exotic words also call currencies (pound, pence,
and sterling). Exotic words are used frequently in the literature.
2.5. Foreign-language expressions
In recent years, the influx of the foreign words into the Russian
language increased , especially English words. Turning on radio and
television, we hear, for example “summit between the two countries”, “to
15
connect the Internet you need to contact your provider” or “the rush to a
briefing”. In politics, we have become accustomed to new concepts - the
parliament, the inauguration, the consensus summit speaker. Foreignlanguage terms are dominant in the most advanced fields of science and
technology - a computer screen, the player, as well as financial - business barter, sponsor holding. In the cultural sphere invade westerns, thrillers,
hits, etc. In our daily life we use the words Snickers, Twix, hamburger,
Sprite, Bombaster, skitlz, toaster, blender, laminating. It’s interesting that in
the development of any modern language purism occurs periodically (from
the Latin Purus - clean) when all start to struggle with foreign language
vocabulary, replacing it with the native language vocabulary.
2.6. Composites
In addition, the Russian language is full of words (the British
composites) from the end of the century. For example (mini - shops, cafes shops, sex - shops, print - shops (print shops), calling stores selling ordinary
goods).
2.7. Professionalism
Professionalism can be called as computer slang. Total computerization
has led to the fact that in the Russian language as well as with the
professional words
there is a kind of computer slang. In any textbook on computer you can find
the words: interface chip driver, animation, virtual, printer. Russian version
of the computer language was created on the basis of English. It is
interesting to discover the facts that it demonstrates its national identity. You
16
can often find a replacement of one word by another word, it rhymes with it,
or just it has the same sound.
Anglicisms are used in a variety of human activities in such as politics,
business, computer technology, everyday communication (communication
teens), sports and media.
In politics anglicisms are used to display the name of units of the British
money system. For example (penny, pounds, sterling, shilling).
In business anglicisms are used, in order to show the name of the
currency, for the name of the English form of communication between men
and women, different titles. For example (pound sterling, Miss Lady, my
lord, etc.)
In computer technology anglicisms are used for program names,
computer terms, and verbs to work. For example (ICQ, GoldEd, Doom,
display, modem chip, program, etc.).
In adolescent communication anglicisms are used for easy
communication. For example, «Inet» or «Net» instead of “the Internet”, and
a «Comp» instead of “a computer”.
In sports anglicisms are used for game names. For example: soccerfootball, basketball, tennis-tennis, hockey, etc.
The media anglicisms are used to make reading easier for those who do
not speak English, for easy communication for politicians and businessmen
(TV). For example: a showman, business, policeman, TV shows, moto show,
show-business, etc.
17
CHAPTER 5. THE RESULTS OF RESEARCH
We decided to conduct a survey on the topic: "How Anglicisms are used
in the Russian language." For our interview, we interviewed 62 people.
Respondents were mostly teenagers, but we asked some adults to answer my
questions who were happy to share their opinions. You can see the
questionnaire in the appendix.
The first question was about frequency of using anglicisms (Appendix 3,
Figure 1):
a) 26 people – 42% (often)
b) 7 people – 11% (seldom)
c) 27 people – 44% (sometimes)
Other: 2 people – 3%
The second question was about the attitude of respondents to a big quantity
of borrowed words in the Russian language (Appendix 3, Figure 2):
a) 46 people – 74% (indifferently)
b) 9 people – 15% (don’t like it)
c) 4 people – 6% (it annoys them)
Other: 3 people – 5%
The third question is about influence of anglicisms on Russian (Appendix,
Figure 3):
a) 16 people – 26% (they enrich it)
b) 23 people – 37% (they make it better)
c) 17 people – 27% (they impoverish our language)
Other: 6 people – 10%
18
The fourth question (to remember 5 anglicisms):
Football- 23 people – 96%
Okay- 23 people – 96%
Computer- 20 people – 83%
Business- 20 people – 83%
Basketball- 17 people – 71%
Respect- 14 people – 58%
Sport- 7 people – 29%
Hockey- 7 people – 29%
Volleyball- 5 people – 21%
Hamburger- 5 people – 21%
Killer- 5 people – 21%
President- 4 people – 17%
Spicer- 3 people – 13%
OMG- 3 people – 13%
Telephone- 3 people – 13%
Snowboard- 3 people – 13%
Plane-table- 2 people – 8%
Printer- 2 people – 8%
Party- 2 people – 8%
Xerox- 2 people – 8%
19
Skateboard- 2 people – 8%
Internet- 2 people – 8%
Parliament- 2 people – 8%
Lunch- 2 people – 8%
20
CONCLUSION
Languages are not isolated from each other. Borrowing does not mean
poverty of language. If the borrowed words and elements absorbed by their
language standards are converted to the needs of "taker" of the language, it
testifies to the strength of the creative activity of the language. Borrowing in
different languages affect the enrichment of vocabulary.
A small part of the English words entered the Russian language at the
time of Peter I. A significantly greater number of British borrowings fall to
the XIX century. But the most intense infiltration of English words was in
the XX century.
During the 20th century influx of Anglicisms was very high. This shows
the increasing need to give names to new phenomena, objects, discoveries,
the development of relations and cooperation between Russia, Britain,
America, and the prestige of the English language.
Also in our work, we studied different sources on Anglicisms, learnt
about signs and ways of formation of Anglicisms, we learnt that in fact the
Russian language has a lot of Anglicisms in its vocabulary that we constantly
use in different spheres of our activity and in everyday life. The use of
Anglicisms in Russian helps to make our language brighter, better and
richer.
Borrowed words help us to learn English. Even if you've never met this
word in the English language before, you can easily work with it; one can
only wonder how many words you know!
But trying to copy other people's designs, we lose our identity, native
language and culture. Scientists think that if vocabulary borrows more than
21
2-3%, there is a possibility of early death of a language. Number of loans in
the Russian language is more than 10%! There is reason to think, isn’t there?
We think that our research project can be useful for pupils and
students who are fond of linguistics especially for those who study deeply
the influence of foreign languages on the Russian language.
Our further research can be connected with deep study of anglicisms’
use in our language and we’d like to find out the possibility of using Russian
equivalents instead of foreign words-borrowings. We’re planning to
interrogate people of different ages from little children to old people to find
out if they understand the meaning of borrowings.
22
LIST OF USED LITERATURE
1. Бабкин А.М., Шедецов В.В. Словарь иноязычных выражений и
слов, употребляющихся в русском я зыке без перевода – 2-е изд.,
исправленное. СПБ.: «КВОТАМ», 1994. – В 3-х томах.
2. Дьяков А. И. Причины интенсивного заимствования
англицизмов в современном русском языке- Новосибирск, 2003.
3. Ковалевская Е.Г. История русского литературного языка: Учеб.
для студентов пед. ун-тов и ин-тов по спец. «Рус. яз. и лит.» - 2-е
изд., перераб. – М.: Просвещение, 1992. – 303с.
4. Новая иллюстрированная энциклопедия. М.: Большая российская
энциклопедия, ООО ТД «Издательство Мир книги» 2007.
5. Одинцов В.В. Лингвистические парадоксы: Кн. для учащихся ст.
классов. – 3-е изд., испр. – М.: Просвещение, 1998. – 172 с.
6. Современный словарь иностранных слов: Ок. 20000 слов. – М.:
Рус. яз., 1992. – 740с.
7. Энциклопедический словарь юного филолога (языкознание) /
Сост. М.В. Панов. – М.: Педагогика, 1984.-352 с., ил.
8. http://www.philology.ru/linguistics2/dyakov-03.htm
9. http://nsportal.ru/ap/drugoe/library/zaimstvovaniya-i..
10. http://study-english.info/article006.php ( История русско–
английских отношений. А. В. Пузаков, А. В. Кермас)
11.
http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C0%ED%E3%EB%E8%F6%E8%E7%EC
12. http://nsportal.ru/ap/drugoe/library/zaimstvovaniya-izangliichkogo-yazyka-sovremennym-russkim-yazykom
23
Appendix 1
Period of time
Borrowed words
XVI century
sir
Meaning
honorary naming of men in
the English speaking world
lord
hereditary, title of nobility
in England
mister
word, join the family at the
British politeness
Epoch of Peter I
chocolate
confection, obtained by
processing cocoa beans
After Peter I
minute-man
soldier of national militia,
North
America
with
England for independence
(1775-1783)
XVIII-XIX centuries
station
is a railway facility
where trains regularly stop
to load or
unload passengers or freight
XX century, 90s
file
piece of information on a
storage device
player
conventional portable audio
and / or video playback
device
24
heath
something widespread, that
like it a lot
business
entrepreneurial
economic
activity, generating revenue,
profit
auditor
it is person, engaged audit
and consulting activities
bestseller
popular
book
or
any
replicated edition, ranked in
the list of best-selling
thriller
genre of literature and film,
which aims to cause the
viewer or reader a sense of
suspense, excitement, fear
public relations
technology development and
implementation for the
socio-economic and political
systems, competitive image
of the object in the value
range of social groups
image
artificially formed in the
community or the individual
consciousness
display
a display device is an output
device for presentation
of information
25
bodybuilding
building process and the
development
muscles
through physical exercises
with
weights
and
high-
energetic power
badge
element
uniforms,
accoutrements as an icon,
labels, cards, designed to
provide information about
its bearer
notebook
portable personal computer
(Pocket PC)
scanner
device that performs the
conversion of images in
digital format
trend
general
tendency
for
multidirectional movement
tuner
26
indecisiveness radio receiver
Appendix 2
ANGLICISMS IN DIFFERENT SPHERES OF PEOPLE’S LIFE
Business and Law
Words
Meaning
аутсорсинг — outsourcing
передача части неосновных операций
сторонней организации,
специализирующейся в этой сфере
бестселлер — bestseller
хорошо продающаяся книга
бизнес — business
занятие, дело
бизнесмен — businessman
предприниматель
биллинг — billing
счёт, билет, система ведения счёта
брокер — broker
восходит к старофранцузскому
«торговец вином»
дефолт — default
Невыполнение обязательств,
несоблюдение правил
дилер — dealer
торговец от deal — заключать сделки
дистрибьютор — distributor
оптовый агент, перепродающий
товар через собственную сеть
покупателей
доллар — dollar
денежная единица США
инсайдер — insider
человек, имеющий доступ к
конфиденциальной информации
27
офис — office
место для работы
пресс-релиз — press-release
представление в прессу инфосообщения компанией о себе
риелтор — realtor
Продает недвижимость
Sport
автоспорт — autosport
бадминтон — badminton
баскетбол — basketball (basket + ball = дословно: корзиночный мяч)
бейсбол — baseball (base + ball)
бейсджампинг — base jumping — прыжки с устойчивого основания
бокс — boxing
виндсёрфинг — windsurfing
волейбол — volleyball
гандбол — handball — ручной мяч
гейм — game — игра
28
геймплей — gameplay
гол — goal — цель
голкипер — goalkeeper — вратарь (хранитель «ворот»)
дайвинг — diving
джогинг — jogging — от jog — бегать трусцой
дрегрейсинг — drag racing — drag — тащить, волочить
дриблинг — dribbling — от dribble — капать, просачиваться
дрифтрейсинг — drift racing
зорбинг — zorb — прозрачная сфера, в которой катится зорбонавт
кайтинг — kiting — kite — воздушный змей
кайтсёрфинг — kite surfing
кикбоксинг — kick boxing — kick — пинать, бить ногами
клинч — clinch (бокс)
кросс — cross — пересекать, бег по пересеченной местности
фристайл — freestyle — свободный стиль
футбол — football — ножной мяч
хавбек — half-back — полузащитник
29
Computer and Web
Words
Meaning
Интернет — internet
Межсеть. Интернет соединяет собою
множество локальных сетей.
интерфейс — interface
поверхность раздела, стык, способы
взаимодействия чего-либо с человеком.
То, что помогает соединять между
собой лицевые панели разных приборов
(изначально).
клик — click
щелчок, подражание звуку, который
издает мышка при нажатии клавиши
логин — login
имя
пользователя
Предоставляя
в
системе.
и
пароль,
его
пользователь
получает
доступ
некоторому
сервису,
например,
компьютерной программе
онлайн — online, on-line
на линии, на связи
офлайн — offline, off-line
В реале. В отключенном от
компьютерной сети состоянии
(изначально)
пиксел — pixel (сокр. от picture
минимальная адресуемая единица
element)
изображения на экране
скриншот — screenshot
снимок экрана
30
к
трафик — traffic
объём информации, принимаемой и
отправляемой в компьютерной сети;
дорожное движение
файл — file
именованное место в памяти
компьютера
Transport
трамвай — tram, tram way
означает дословно «путь трэма», то есть путь
трамвая от tram (брус, полоз, шотл.) и way
(путь), также существует версия что слово
tramway произошло от названия первой
лондонской ж.д., названной по фамилии
английского изобретателя О’Трама
рельс — rails
мн. ч. от rail (англ.), от лат. regula — прямая
палка
хайвэй — highway
основные дороги, предназначенные для
общественного автосообщения
автокар — от car (тележка)
транспортное средство с ДВС для перевозки
грузов на территории промышленных
предприятий
парковка — parking
автостоянка
троллейбус — от trolley и bus
тележка, катящаяся по проводам и омнибус и
автобус
фривэй — freeway
тип хайвеэв (преимущественно платных),
предназначенных для безопасного
автосообщения без пересечения иных дорог
31
Physics
адмиттанс — admittance
полная проводимость
электроцепи для гармонических
тока и напряжения
импеданс электрический — impedance
полное сопротивление
электроцепи для гармонических
тока и напряжения
конфайнмент — confinement
удержание, заключение
кварк — quark
лазер — laser (сокр. от Light
усиление света с помощью
Amplification by Stimulated Emission of
вынужденного излучения
Radiation )
мазер — maser (сокр. от Microwave
усиление микроволн с помощью
Amplification by Stimulated Emission of
вынужденного излучения
Radiation)
радар — radar (сокр. от Radio Detecting
радио обнаружение и
and Ranging)
определение диапазона
спин — spin
вращение
спиннинг — spinning, от гл. spin
вращаться
Other
32
бэби — baby
младенец; «малыш»
бойфренд — boyfriend
мужчина-партнёр во
внебрачных сексуальных
отношениях (любовник)
аутсайдер — outsider
досл. «стоящий в стороне»
бакс — bucks
доллары США (the buck)- от
имени Бака (Бенджамина)
Франклина, изображенного на
100 долларовой купюре
бойкот — boycott )
прекращение отношений с кемлибо в знак протеста против
чего-либо (в честь Чарльза К.
Бойкотта
брифинг — briefing
короткий инструктаж
Бумеранг - boomerang
изогнутая деревянная
метательная палица
серповидной формы (в
английский язык это слово
пришло из языка австралийских
аборигенов)
виджей — VJ (сокр. от video jockey)
видео-жокей
вейвлет — wavelet
маленькая волна
гаджет — gadget
техническое устройство (как
правило, электронное и
небольших размеров),
приспособленное для особых
практических целей и функций
гёрлфренд — girlfriend
женщина-партнёр во
33
внебрачных сексуальных
отношениях (любовница)
диджей — DJ (сокр. от disc jockey)
диск-жокей
джинсы — jeans
имидж — image
искусственно создаваемый
(иногда естестественно
складывающийся) образ
человека (иногда любой реалии)
в сознании целевой аудитории
кастинг — casting
подбор актёров из народа
кекс — cakes
пирожное
клозет — closet ; ватерклозет — water
запирающаяся комната; туалет
closet
клоун — clown
колумнист — columnist
ведущий колонку в газете
кроссворд — crossword
крестословица
лобби — lobby
группа людей, пытающихся
повлиять на законодателей или
др. официальных лиц в чьихлибо интересах
лоббист — lobbyist
член лобби
лидер — leader
ведущий
лузер — looser
неудачник
мейкап — make-up
результат применения
косметики на лице
мейнстрим — mainstream
главное течение
34
Appendix 3
QUESTIONNAIRE
1. Do you use Anglicisms in everyday speech?
a) often
b) hardly ever / very seldom
c) sometimes
2. How do you feel about people who are constantly using English words?
And the abundance (a lot of) of English words in the Russian language?
a) indifferently
b) I do not like it
c) It’s annoying
3. Anglicisms:
a) enrich our language
b) make it richer and better
c) impoverish the Russian language
4. Name the first five Anglicisms that came to your mind:
35
Do you use Anglicisms in everday speech?
( Figure 1)
3%
42%
44%
often
hardly ever/very seldom
sometimes
11%
other
How do you feel about people who are
constantly using English words? And the
abundance (a lot of) of English words in the
Russian language?
( Figure 2)
6%
5%
indifferently
15%
I do not like it
74%
It’s annoying
Other
36
Anglicisms
( Figure 3)
10%
make it richer and better
27%
63%
impoverish the Russian
language
other
37
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